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B 1 .088.365 



or THI 




I . 





Under Qovemmejht Orders. 




4 as 


— — *i 


Chapter IV.— Agricaltare. fass 

BoBbandmeii ; SeasonB ; Soils ; Arable haod ; Holdings ; 

Stock ; Ploagh of Land -, Orop Area 1-7 

Field Tools; Hand Tools; Ploughing; Sowing; Mannte . S-11 
laaiajiTiOK : , 

MoUsthal ; P^tasthal ; Qovemment Water Works ; Beser- 

Toirs 12-28 

Weeding; Watching; Beaping; Thrashing; Winnowing; 
Storing ; Mixed Sowings ; Wood-ash Tillage ; Botation ; 

Fallows; Gardening . . . . ' 39-33 

Crop Details 84-63 

Coffee; Senna; Cochineal; Silk 63-75 

Experimental Gardens ; Botanical Gardens 76-79 

Blights; LocoBt and Bat Flagnes; Famines 80-96 

Chapter V. — Capital 

Capitalists ; Saving Classes ; Banking ; Bxobange Bills ; 

CnrrenE^; losorance 97-105 

Uooejlendera.; Interest ; Borrowers ; Hosbandmen ; Deccui 
Biote ; Deocan Biots ' Commission ; Deooan Agrionltorista' 
Belief Act; Slaves 106-133 

Wages ; Frioes i Weights and Meoaores 134-140 

Chapter YL— Trade. 


Bontee (b. a 100 • a. d. 1884) ; Passes ; Bridges ; Ferries ; 

Best-hooses; ToUs ; Bailwa; ; Post audTelegraph Offioea. UM62 
Tbadi : 
Changes ; Coarse ; Centres ; Marlrat Towns ; Fairs ; Til- 

hige Shopkeepers ; Peddlers 163-166 

Importa; Exporte; Railway Traffic 167-172 

Ckaftb : 
Brass Work; Silk Weaving; Gold and Silver Thread; 

Cotton Goods ; Glass Bangles ; Combs ; Clay Figaros ; 

Paper; Iron Pots; Tape-weaving; Polt ; Wood-toming. 173-210 



ChtplerVII -Hiatory. 

Eablt HiSOD! (o-c. 100-*. 0.1295) : 

}{ait» PiLxs InBOi-ipttons (b.c- 90< A.D. 30) ; JaBiiar, Kiria, 
BbAja and Bedsa Cftve Insctiptiosfl (a.d. ISO) ; Earl; 
»Dcl Wtatcrn Cbnlukyiu (d£0 . ?60) ; [UabtnkatM 

(760-973); Dev^nYdUUva (1190-1296) 

McaALMAita_^1296-1720) : 
Delhi GoTeroon (1316- 1347) ; BalimBsu (1347- 1490); 
Nii&m ShSha (1490 • 1G36) ; Adil Sh^is luid the 
Mt^fauls (163G - 1 S80) ; SkiTsji'a risu and ware with tho 
AdU Skikia ftud the Uogfaala '(1643- IGSO) ; CoadiUon 
(1673); Siunbhiii(16ft0.1ti8J>): lUjintm (1690-1700); 
TAr&Ui (1700-1706); 8b&hu's Bostorotioa (1708); 

^liji Visbiraoith Peahw* (17H ■ 1720) 

lUHiiHita (1 720-1617): 

Iroparial OnintH (1719); B&jiiiv BalUl, Second PesbwA 
(1720. 1740) ilUUjtlUjirAv, Third Prabii-a(1740-1761): 
.Shnba's death (174d); BMhman Bupromacj (1749- 
1M17); B<« of Udgir {176\J) , Battle of PAuipnt 
(1761) ; OondJtiaa (1714 - 1760) ; MildbavrAv Ballil. 
roorth Pfubwft (1761-1772);Nir»jr»nriv,Fitth Peahwa 
GnngitbiU's Urgency (177-1); M^luivrjiv Narli^aa, 
Scvpnti Pwhwn (1774-1795) ; Treaty of S«ral (1776) ; 
Treatjr of PurandhaT (1776); Nina Kwliuivia (1701- 
1800) ; l!;»g1i6hK:(peditioD (1778) iCotivmtioDot'Vadgaou 
(1779); Goddftni'8 Uiucb (1779); Treaty of S«lbAi 
(1782); Sindia in Poona (1792); Battlo of Kbiirda 
(1795); Chiranilji MAdhavriT, Eighth Poshwa (I7it6); 
B&jtrlv Raghuii&tb,NiDth Pcshwa (179€-18I7) ; Poona 
plondored (1797) ; tbo Widows' War (17!>7) ; YMUant- 
riT Holkw'* iiiTOrion (1802) ; Holkar'a victory (1802) ; 
Poonn plandorwl (1802) ; Trenty of Daasein (1802) ; 
Bijirfiv rcHtorod (1803); Condition (1803-1808); Mr. 
Uouutstuort Elpbinstone (1611 - 1818); Trimbakji 
Dedglis (1815); GnngAdbar Shistri (1»K^) ; BAjirAv's 
disloyalty to tho Britislj (1816) ; Treaty of Poona 
(1617); Battlo of Kirkee (IS17); Poona earrondood 

to the British (1817) 

Thi Buitish (1817-1884): 

Battle r>f KoivK^D (181^) ; S&Um Prmiknintlon (1818); 
BftjirAv's FligbtB ; Sottlemcnlof th« country ; Rdmoahi 
Rising (18-27) ; Kol! Risings(18S9Al846) ; tli« Muticiea 
(1867) ; Hooya (1873) ; Gaiig Kobberics (1879) . . . 







Chapter TUL— Ilu Land. mob 

Aoqaisition ; Staff; Alienated Tillages 310-312 


Eari^ Bindo Thai or Jatha syfitom ; Ualik Ambar's STstem 
(1606 - 1626); Didiji Koodadev'B STBtem (1630) ; the 
MoghalB7stein(1664) ; the Har&tha Bystem (1669-1817). 313-340 
British HANAaKuiNT (1817-1884) : 

Management (1817 • 1820) ; Condition (1821) ; Slaver; 
(1831) ; Tenures (1821) ; Landholdera (1821) ; Village 
CommanitieB (1820) ; Hereditai-7 Officers (1820) ; Absobs- 
meot (1820-21) ; Cessea ^1820-21); Bevenne sjatem 
(1820-21); Seasons (1820-1828); Bevenae Bysteni 
(1828-29); Mr. PringWsSarvey Settlement(1829-1836); 
Sarrey and Seasons (1836>1867); Beviaion Sarvey, 
(1867-1884); Surrey Besnlta (1836-1880); Bevenne 
Statistics (1837-1884) ; AgricultaralBankB (1884) . .341-613 

UTDEZ 515-525 





According to tlio 188) censas. agrionllnrc snpports nboat 500,000 
poople or ^6 per cent of tbe popola'^oii. The d<^U nra : 
PoaxA AaiaemnitAi. PopriAjtoir, 1881. 







ZtOtxTtnmm ... 
On* PlllMtl ... 

T>tol ... 








'Knnbis and MSUb, though the chief, are by no moans tho only 
hnsWtitlmen. Men of all clas»os, BrAhmanii, Gnjnr Mitrivitr and 
LingAynt Viois, Dhnngars, Nh&vis, KoliH, RAmoiihi!!, Mhilrs, 
Ch&inbfailrs, &q*\ Musalmuis own Iiuid. About four-fifths of tho 
landholders till with their own handN. Thu rent rent the land to 
loiifLiits «nrl luld to thoir ront:* by the practiBO of some cntSt or 
cttlling, Kiinbia drppnd almoat entirely on the prodnco of their 
fields. Thoy work mora stoodily, nnd hav? greater bodily strcn^h 
than other hunbaodmtti, »nd tbcy show high skill both in dry -crop 
tillage and in cultivating the walt>red limds in which cereals are 
^own. At the some tiEoe, especially at a distance from trado 
centres, they aroslowto adopt iinprovemcnts, and, especially in tho 
east, are not carefol to keep their fioKU cloar of weeds. Mati'a or 

fnrdL'Ut^rs cultivate a \ai^e area of garden and wutored land, 
ome of them depend entirely on the produce of tboir fiolda, and 
manage their garden hindci with great care and skill. Thoagb, like 
Kunbie, Milia are slow to cbango tlioir iiindos of tillngo, thoy aro 
ready to grow any now crop that seems likoly to pay. They are 
most itkilful ID mixtug and varying erop«, ana aro uio most ivfifnlar 
and thorough plonghers and tbe clcanoitt wcedrrs to tho district. 
Where there is a con^laut dmin on the Innd thoy am careful to 
use every available particle of manure nnd ia the neighbourhood of 
Poena hare rooipletely orercooie their diahko to thonsoof pondrctto. 
Mdlis aro of four kinds, Phol or Bower MAlis, Ilaldya or tnnnerio 
M^is, l.iiDg&yat or ^t»yweoring Mabs generally of Boothom or 
Kami^tak origin, and Jireor cuniin-Doed Mfilis. BnLhniAn.1 geuentlly 
hare their lands tilled by hired Isboai-, theni.selreti superintending 

Chapt«r IT, 

• D«t4Ua iboat FteM-toab, AfriCBHaial PnweiM*, ftod Oropa mv cliivRr takni Inm 
Mr. W. Fkloh«r** Deccan Asrimltar*. 
■From nul«riab MippUed by Mean. J.Q.Moor*, C.a. muI A. R«jKr, C.8. 

s laer— I 



and directiiti^ tbe trorkmen, but, iu part^ of Khixl, and occaaiono 
elsewliert* in the west, UnitiniHiii) hflve for generations workitl ibt 
6«ldH nrithoat th« liolp of hired Uboor. Vints avo perhaps tl 
011I7 cUsa who never till with their owu tiaada. Tbey let tbeir T 
to tenants wbo pay thorn oitbor in money or in kind. A 
section ot the landholders are DbaDgnra ur ebopherds \>y 
MoH nbnnpkrH, besides tilling their lands, rear sheon and wfai ^ 
bl&nkots, but Home have ciren ap rettriug sheep ajid live entirely 
on tlie prodnce of their lands. JEicept the Haldjra or 
M&lis, DO hufllxuidmcn grow only one crop. 

Tbo anccrtain rainhl) over a great part of the district,'' 
poverty of mnch of thw soil, the want of variety in the cr 
^owi), and a carelessness in their denlings with monerlondrni,^ 
bnve, sinco the bo^uning of Britinb rtdv, combinud to krop thi 
bnllc of tbe Poona landholders poor nnd in debt. Between 1B9S 
and ISyS they siiffcrod Ironi this int.KMluction of revised nitea o( 
BWeasnient based on very hiRb produce priecs which wore wron^tlj 
believed to have risen to a permanent l«vttl. To their loss from the 
fall in produce prices waa udJed the suffering' and ruin of thi 
1876-77 famine. In spite of thei^e recent cnuaes of depresaion, tbe 
rooorda of foraior years HOetn toslivw thut wxct'pt during ibo tvti yi-an 
of unusual prosperity oiidinjf sboul 1870, when ureat public worf 
and tUo very high price of cotton and other field products thrt 
muck weulih into the district, the muHs of tbe laudbulding- claaaea, 
tbougb ]>oi>r and larf^ly iu debt, aro probably at present lesi 
harusseil, and bettor fed, butter clothed, and bettor housed than they 
bnve been at any time since the beginning of the present century. 
In ibe west, n' here famines are uukiiown and ucarcity ia unuauwi 
the huebandmeti ure fiiirly oft. But in Indii^ur and Bhiuitbadi anil 
in parts of Sinir and Purandhar they Lave nut recorered tbe distre^^ 
and indebtednets caused by tbe ]876>77 {nmine. In Id76-7J^| 
a Inrg-e area of land waa tlirown out of tillngo and the low pri(^^ 
of grain during the two years ending I882-S3 has made it 
diflicult for tbe Jandbcilders to recover what they lost in thi» 
year of distreea.* At the same time the Huthu cauuls and other 
wat<ir-work«, by introducing a variety of crops and fostering '^ 
careful tillage, have done unuch to enrich tbe landbulden*. 
class the landhuldcm are hardworking, frugal, and orderly. Bt 
except near Poena, whose market qiiickena tneir 0Dorgie«, they 
Blower Btid les*) iutelii;,rtint than the Inail holders of most other p 
of the Prcntdeiicy. Their tillage la airelesi*, at times oven nlovenlj 
and they fail to strouii^'hen the land by Jcop ploughing, by cbanf^ 
of crops, or by tbe sufficient nsc of mauuro. Thin is due to povcr^ 
forcing tbum to taku all they cun fruni the lanil, ratber than 
laziness or to i^rnorance of tbe value of suitable pluugbtng, of plentif^ 
manure, of clean weeding, of fallows, and of elmnges of cro[ 
Their greatest want, and this with tho spread of irrigation is moi 

* In tndipnrjiidrjaolil at aeveaty-iii poundi in lBSl-32 niM at uxlT-twu uiiiDJa 

WM tkirtf Mirao panndi. 







id more foh, is muiure. As there nro almoBb no lcaf-;ioMing 
Its urass is soaroe, aud as most of the straw-giving 
ips am milloU irbose stallea are raluabln f^MJder, there is a great 
tarcily of stable-Iitwr, and Irom Iho want of other foci most of tUo 
ii-tlung id lost to tlie litiid. In. IttS? Cutonel Svkes thouglit tho 
mixing of aeroml gmios oud pulMid iu odo field wot) one of the chief 
muthfiit iu the Poona tillage.' More recent writers, inclnditi^ 
long tboin the rvvciiuc uud aurve^' officers of the dialrict, do uul 
iharc Colouet Sykes' opinion. Overinottt of thu di^^lrict the chief 
laiigvr ngaiiist which the hushaadman hnn to guard in » failure of 
in. Millet may perish in a year in which tho hardior and less 
inty palfie will turive or at worat will yield a fair crop. If the 
millet succeeds it siuolbers iho pulse aud ta)[e« no hunu, Tfao 
TOixlug of crops has also the advaolage of lesseuing the dniu on the 
luud hy tuking dilVuruQl elomcnts out of iti. 

Id Pooua all arable laud comes under ooe or other of three gre& 
"beoAs, jirayal or ^^UJHOp laud, ^"■^ffj^ti '"• water&d land, and (i ran or 
rice la nd. Dry<crop lauds are diviJi-d iiit<j M-i n'/ 'or early and rah! o r 
latd. Tb« early crops are brought to maturity ^y tue raius of the south- 
west monaoon j the late crops de|)eud ou dewa, ou watering, und on 
the partial fair-weather Hbowcrs which occasionally fall between 
KoTomber and March. Early or kbarif crajfa are sown in Jimo and 
July and are reaped iu ^epteuibera-ud October orNovember. In the 
AI&tbI or wet and hilly west, whose staple is rico and whosa other 
crops are the coarse or varfcat grains varit mica, ndclmi, and khurd^ti 
tho chii?I harvoBl is (be early hai-veat. The eipoaure to tho cold damp 
«f the aouth-weiit raiuH severely tries the hasb&ndoien of the west. 
But they are a hardy cheerful raeu and their labour ta seldom made 
useless by a failure ^£ crops or uuproHtable from the want of a 

In the Dcah o r eastern plain, where the soutb-west rain is light 
and ouccnain, tho early or kharif harvest is losw important than 
in tho wtNtt. Thecbief early crops am spiked millet or t)<i^ mixed 
with the hardy (ur aud early ludian millet oT jvdri. TtieiH} are 
sown in late Mar or in J une on the 6rat etifiicierit niufoll. In 
good vean they ripen in late Septe mber and October; in bad years 
not till Novemb er. When the early crops arc reaped in September 
and whoro tho land permits, a second or Jusot<t crop is raised. Aa, 
after OcIoIxt, rain rsrvly fnlU in t he h illy wes tj oxcopt a little 
wheat grown on the ea-stern frin^/ tlie late or rabi dry-crop 
harvest i» of comparatively little importance. In tho oast of the 
district which iswitbinthe range of the uorth-east r aios, tho Into or 
mbi hftFTost is more importflul than tho oarly bnrpost. There the 
late cropa aro sown in October and November and ripen in Fvhniary 
an d March . They are clIiofly^K/ni/i<_a_ud other cold-weatUcr InSiaa 
milleiaand gram, lontils, aud other pulses. j i, ^ ' -^ 

• The soil of tho district is lighter in the w est than in the oaat. It 

< BAport British AMOeEttion 0837). 3M. 

> Mr. A. K*y*«r, C.8L. ud C>pt»ia U. KobeitMn tItfSli In Ewt ladU i-iMrt. 
IV. SW, 6S6. 

Chapter IT. 




, Agricoltart. 



bcloDga to three classes, black or kali, nid or Idmhdi, and coorao gmj 
or h^rad. In sotne pUoea aach olasa of soil blends tvith the olhst 
ID T&rying pruiKtrtions and iii turnu Tnodififd by soud, grnrel. 
lime-salts, and otbor ingredieoU. The M'' xoil is ^^tiemllj black 
orooarly black, and has somotiinQsa gray or n. hliiish tiu^. It b 
ooramonly fontid in \ayen Reveral feet deep. It beloiig^s to the plats 
ea&t rather than to ths hilly west, and covers wide areas near nrers 
and large streams. In such places it is of gre&t and aoifunn 
depth. It is Monivtinii.4 injured by being mixed with lime nodales ; 
and, occasionully, from tno action vi water or the proseace <rf 
mineral salts, it hecomca stiff and clayey, which, oxcopt in years ot 
heavy rainfall, much Icksouh itH richnesa. Excellent blaoK eoiJ of 
small aud varying' depth, with its aarfaoe covered with black basaK 
stones, ia fauna on f>bleUMids. Black soils are richer ihsa 
either red or coarse ffray soils. 
Mirfaoe but cracks and cnunhles 
moisture longer than other Muils 
for lata or rtibi crops. They 

Deooaa in abuodanoo and am specialty suited for the growth 
of wbost, gram, and etugarcane. Towards the wosi as tho level 

The suu does not harden their 
it, and oa they keep their 
they are the faToarite land 
yield all the produce of tlis 
specialty suited for 
Towards the we«t 

rises the black soil shullows till iu the waTieg slopes that akiit 

the hills it changes to red or gray. The black soil is of two 

ktnda, the giipiiig blai;k soil known as ttotal/t and hevaJdhiia and 

the giony black called kkadkal or dhondal. 'ITioogh bettor tliao 

the etony black flio g>^i"g black soil is very thirsty and 

requires plontiful and constant watering to bring out il.s powen 

and keep them in action. If it is not continually dronchcd while 

the crop is growing lh« people say that the crops pine and wither. 

Tbe stonoe^in the stony black are said to m&ko it firmer and 

better able to hold water. This is the inoct valued land for tlto 

ordinal^ dry-cropa whoito supply of water doixtndu on the local 

rainfall. This stony black is not so stroug and as a mle is sbal- 

lower than tho gaping black. Being lighter tlio gaping bhick is more 

easily worked, but bos to be pIougboiTofteuer than tbe atony blaok 

and wanta more manure, tlie best block soil yields y^enr after 

year apparently without Huffering though its powers might have 

become exhausted if it were not for the relief giyen by sowing a 

mixed crop. Other and poorer black eoilti occur mixed with sand 

and clay. Tho reddiah or copper-coloured soils called td-mbat or 

fdmbdi are always elifillower and coarser than the block. They 

are probably tbe ruins of the iron-bearing rocks without (bo 

decayed Tegctnblo element which deepens the colour of tho black 

soils. They are often injured by a mixture of grareJ, but whee 

watered by frequent sliowerB are generally well suited for the kkarif 

or early crops. The rod soil is commoner and richer in the west than 

in the e!i8f^ Tl has many vanetice, for it includes lands nn tho 

skirts of bills and other mo((t barren Boila. Red soil ia geneml! 

rough and Etiff and requires deep ploughing. The best red soils 

foijpd near Pitbal, midway between Khed and Sinir, where also 

ploughing is very deep, The red Boil of Pibal itself is very powerA«,, 

hut requires great Ifthonr. IL is a tnixture of sand vritb a smaller 

quantity of clay. There sre three varieties of red soil, pure red or 


the ■ 



'iHTSuU tambdij upland or mAijamia, aod Bondr or vatadri jamin. The 

■o red or nirmal tdmbiU iit lighter nod richer tinn the others and 

porbape • larger proportion of wod. Tlio upluod or mdl jnmin 

is a roddish soil tliick-spread over rock. Aooordtogloits depth Bud 

qiiMntity of KAni) iinu frinWo utoncs it id of two riirietic* mrai rnurud 

it IS plain rod Innd and tambdi mahi that is hill red land. Handy 

vaUiiri jamin wlitfii deep etiougli ^-iold.t fnir cn>p8Y^'t!<^*''^P 

Vho alopea or oorcriiig the to[xs of tbo lower uplands ui the eaatcra 
plmn is the coarHc lyray or barttd. Il varies la colour From a liglit 
rvdditih browD to gT»y,t»cX^» coarHC gravcllr or looev friable ttixturo, 
and is greatly wantiug tn ooheBion. It is ai>conipoHed basalt with a 
mixture of iruu ore. tt does not yield whijat, pi.-a», or any latv or 
coId-wi>ather cropH ; but in seasons of heavy rainfuU apiked millet 
and the oarly pulses give a good returu. When wiuito it bears 
nnthiug tut KOiuty spear-grasa. It does uol occur iu the billy irodt/ 
Qaeidtar jfdadhari or white village soil is much like the coarse gn^r 
in colour, but b finer oud i& oft«u of ^reat depth. It is only fuuud 
oloBo to vtllagea or on deserted village sitoe. Ita special appearance 
is probably due to the manure which gathera on village sites nod 
vivas the soil a chalky (.-baraetor. It is a clean Ugbt aoil and ou a 
basia of black mould yields excellent crops, especially of tobacco. 
There are also patobes of stiff clayey soil called shedvat that ib white 
clayey or chopan that ia clayey or loamy and of chiieni or pore clay in 
wbjch nothing grows. Clayey paicbea, black brown or white id 
colour, are generally found on the bonks of rivers. A rare swampy 
or undi-ained soil of a clayey textare is termed ihembat that ie stony 
and upal that is aoddeo. A rich stiiirial «)oil called dheli or kevtal 
that is soil left by tbe overflowing ofrTverB, ranges in colour from 
pale yellow to dark brown. It covers n limited aroa, but, paKly 
trom the vegetable m^ter it holds and partly becatue it is regularly 
strengthened by fresh deposit*, it is the ricuest soil in the diatrict. 
Near somo of Iho Inrser rivcnt within flood limits is a narrow Ixilt of 
land of no groat value known as mafni or vcgetublti land. In tho 
hilly wc8t is IL barren blackish floH tilled muirmdd that is crumbly 
rock. It is very etiff and bard uud is found loostly at the foota of hflU 
wherever wator lodges. Here and there in blaok and other rich 
soils spots yield wrotcbod crops oompiire<l with tbo surrounding 
fields. These spots are called ciiunkhadi or lime-laden because 
limestone is always found near the surface. 

Of ao area of 5347 square miles 5198 square miles or 3,327,283 
acres or 97'21 per cent have beou sarreyed in detail. Of these 467^884 
acrw or t4'06 per cent arc tbe lands of tilicuutod villages. The reet 
oontaias, according to the revenue survey, i>,) 13,231 acres or 6iJ'51 
per cent of arable land ; 272,271 acres or 8' IS per cent of unarablo ; 
21,107 acres or 06.? per cent of grass or kuran ; 263,797 ocrea 
or 7-92 per cent of forest; and 189,003 acres or 5-68 per cent of 
rillnge titos, rDad.i, and river beds.' Iu 1861-82 of tbe 2,11.^.221 
acrc« of arable land in GoTornmftnt villages, of which 193.22-1 or 
9'Ji ppr cent .ire alienated, 1,786,065 acres or 84"ol p«r cent wore 
bold for tilUgo. Of this 44,&0S or 2-50 per cent were garden land. 




IBombAj QusUm. 




IT, 27,674 aerosprl'&i p«r cent wero rice land, snd 1,718,888 acresorl 
96*96 p«r ooQt vore diy-orop load. 

Thongh largp lioldingsnrefoond inniMj villiiK^s the b(»!dinssiK» 
riilo nrv Kuiiill. Thi-vurv alsoKO dirided amoDg moiuWra of differtol 
familiRH that the ctitnt'H in llio GoToroQiont bouka ure uot a comfltUi ■ 
guide to tho nrora^ eizo of a holding. In the hilly we«t, wbero tke 
chief grains aro rice, ndyti, and oth«r coone graiDB, wliicli reqoira 
crest attention nnd lal>our, thehuldiii^'^aroRODeranysiimlltjr thiia in 
Me twitt. I» 1SA:J-.S3, iiu^luiliiij; alieuuted lands, the total numberof 
holdings wns 2:^7,^71 with an avurage area of about nine acres. Of 
tlio wholft umuber, Slj,l!)3 were lioldioga of not more than five acivs; 
48,698 wore of six to ton ucrc-a ; 4^,359 of eloTen to twenty acres; 
30,ti77 of twenty.oue toBftjracre^; 11^40 of thirty-one to forty 
at-'res ; 7575 of forty-ooo to fifty acres ; 2739 of fifty-one to cra« 
hundred acres jBOTenty-six of 101 to 200 aerca; thiptoon of 201 to 
3S0 avrca ; and one uboro 800 acres. More than 100 acres of drf* 
crop land is considered a large liolding, fifty to 100 acroa is cooo' 
derad a middlti-siittid holdiug, aod leu than twenty-five acres is 
oousidcrcd u auial) holding : 

poor A Oouuitw, ISMSS. 


ToUl . 






wi Tat 




;s ' IS 





As in othfT fniniuo districla fiirm st. 1 1; i ■ u idem lily (i«<rcii34)d in 
I87G-77, and has not yet reached its !■ i i. ■ n ' rl. In lS7o-7G, the 
year before thufnuaiuo, tho atook incluii(^d2l ,:s67 cjirt!<,<J3j6'J9 ploughs, 
833,769 hullocka, 160,097 cows, 12,107 hc-buffaloes, +.J,7U5 she- 
boffialoea, 12,7% hones inclndiog mnrog and foals, 49-J2 assm, and 
842,081 fibccp and gnats.^ According to the ltfS2-8:3 returns tho 
ferni stock included 21,044 cart«. 52,630 ploughs, 227.619 bntlocfca, 
144,949 cows, I2,0Bthc-buIfaloM,40,(i46Bhc-baff»loe8, 11,163 honei 
inoludiag luares and foaU, 6745 amos, ood 28^,688 shocp and goats. 
The dotaila oro : 9 

1 HoiHi and UK*, tbovgh olmoat nevai cm<1 (of fidd purpoaia, a» nni&Uy olai*«4 
with iplcnlttm] it«ak. 



PvwA AmcvbTtnuu Snat, ISSSSS, 

With four oxen ik Ktmbi will lill somo aixLy acres of ligUt soil. 

ibctjr acres of aiiallowiiih black soil rorjaire six oroigbtoxea. Eight 

XPD can till aouo fifly itcrc^ oF tleop Llaclc Hoil, piviTidtHl that in 

BCBoional yean -wLcn ploughin;; ia nccwsftry the landholder ia 

Fable to hiro two mora pairs of bullocka Wilh oiphi pairs of oxen, 

Fsud the power vrliuro nocessarT of raakio^ u^e of two ]>airs more, an 

acre or two of the sixty mignt bo kept under iBo ligbt^r garden 

cropx. Many has band mdn hitTo much i«)<« titan the proper number 

-of cattle, aDuharu to join with their neifjlibours liofora their fields 

con bu ploughed. 

In 1^61-8^, on,786,065 aoros, the whoto arcn held for tillago, 
209,447 acres or It '72 percont wero fallow nr imiJer graas. Of the 
rouaining l,&7i5,6IS acres, 18,740 were tirico cropped. Of the 
1,506,358 acruti under tillage, grain vropa occupied 1,374,702 acres 
or 86- 1 6 per cent, of wlSich 5SS/i02 were under Indian millet, jvdri, 
Sorghum mlgare ; 5.*)7,807 under spiked uiiUet, h^jri, I'enicitlaria 
8pirata ; K0,&2-1 uudi-r wheat, g«/in, Tiiticiim ic«tivuiii ; fi2,3tJ5 andcr 
rayi or H'ii-hni, Eleusine coroosna ; 47,885 undi-r rico, hhal, 
satiTai3^,:j42 under j'ara8Ddtrai{,FaiiicuRi milinoeum and miliart;; 
S844 nnder maize, makka, Zea mays; 10S4 under rdia or kdng, 
P»nicoD)ilalicuni;3D7underftmfraor Aan'i.Paapalum fnimcnUcoiim; 
141 nndprbarluy.jffr. Hordoum bpxnslii'hou ; and 29,ftl 1 iinderother 
f^i-ainit of which details are not gii-eu. Pulees occupied SSjOlS ainva 
or 6'38 per cent, of wliicli 28.879 were under gram, /larWiani, Cicer 
ariotinunt ; ltJ,0(]5 nnder^u^'M or X'u/Mi, Dolic-hoi; bilUiruH; 12,851 
under /ur, Cnianati indicns ; 3{K>0 under mug, I'hnseolnB oiungo; 
1519 under u(iuf,,PI)a»eoluiirad>utU8;88U undor peas, valana, Pisum 
eMivom; 68t> under maiur, Enrum lens; and 24,C33 under other 
pulses. OiUoods occupied 1U2,786 acrea or 6'-t4 p(>r cent, of which 
29,4+9 wcro under gioirclly seed, til, S(«»aniuni indicura ; I '59 under 
linseed, af«Ai, Linum iisitatisHimum ; and 73,176 nndurothfroilHeeda. 
Fibro* occ«pic«i SyH2 acres or 0'.'2 per c«ut, of which 4.'(>S wero 
under cotton^ kapui, Crossypinm herbaceum ; 1375 under ilombay 
kemn, »atior lay, Crolulnria jniiritA ; 18 under brown hemp, amhadi, 
llibtHOua cannnbinoa ; and 2424 under other fibreti. Miaccllauvoua 
oropa oocupiod 23,569 acres or 1'47 percent of which 8089 were 
Quder diilties, mirchi, Capsicum fruteacens; 5$03 nndor aagwoonOi 

Chapter IV. 


Pucoa I 



iKptei IT. 


tw, Sacolianiin ofBciaamm ; 817 aader t<)baooo, tambdJeku, Ntootjsii] 
tAbkOum ; and the remaining 9161 andci* mrioafl Trgotablo* 

Tbo field tools are, the plough, ndngar ; tbs seod><IriI]s, 
And mo^/iod; thelioes, kulav, kutpe or joti, taiApftarat; tba beun" 
harrow, maind ; the dredge or scoop, pel'iri ; ami the cart, giMia. 

The plough, ndngar or wlicti small JiAtujri, is iisanlljr of halktlt 
Acacia arabica wood. It cout«iu» livu distiuot pitrcos, the poM 
hal(u, the Bbaro or coulter mi)ii;'ir, thu yoVeju or ghUvat, the tail| 
nnmOM, nad the handto muOnja. Tho*« five parte are kept togothir] 
hy a lonthpr rope, ivfhan, which posses back from the yoco beUa!] 
the plough Inil, and f<irwnrd ngain to the joke. To the ahanu 
mareable iron shoe or phai ia fixed by a ring called rii.tu. A largs] 
plough for stiff Hoil whirli worlcH nine iticlii.<M dts'p ro(|iiir^s evfCBj 
t^ ten yoke of oxen. lu the light caatcm DvahBuilti Iho plangkl 
recjttjrea only two yoke. lu the west, where it is fit only frtj 
stirring Hoodod noe htnd and for breaking the eurfavo after it lual 
been aof tcncd by rain, the ploagh ia light enough to bo carripd oa 1 1 
man's ahouldcr and one yoko of oxen aro enough lo dmw it. Tbtl 
large plough is aneflincnt. implement passing under the hard oroityj 
turuiog the soil in gr<j»l Iiinipn, and exposing n largo surfaco to thsl 
weather. It oau hu made to cut a dut^p or a shallow furrow by 
ohangingtheangleof the share orcoulter. The Rnnhia itiautkgt: th*| 
plough with coneidt^rablo skill. One man can work a plough withj 
two yoke of oxen earning thecn at the end of the furrow by voice ' 
alone. With a team of six or aeren pair a boy ia usually seated on 
the yoke uf tho third pnir and fausttea them along with whip and 
roice. Kach ox knows his ntitno and obeys the boy's voice. Tbp 
furrows arenovor8trai{>htRud the fi^ld is usually ploughed croaswifta 
as well as lengthwise. Id the ])!ain east, the plough is often \vtt in 
the field when not ia nao, the iron shoo the ropes and the yokes bain^] 
tnken home. In the oiut, a plough with four separate yokes van< 
in ralno from I6«. to £1 (Hs. S-IO). With yearly repaira 00Btani__ 
abonl ."Itf. (lU. 1i), a plaugh la^tfl for iiva jeatB. In the west a 
complete plough costs 4«. to 5s. (Rs. 2-2^).' 

The a "cd-dril l, pnhhar, ia a model of simplicity and ingenuity 
and is cheap end eSoctire. It consists of two to four wooden iron- 
ahod shares or coulters called phana, fed with deod through bamboo 
tobea from a wooden bowl or cAdUo into which the seed is droppi-d by 
hand. The whole i» held together by ropca straiucd in diffurent 
du^ct-ions. It iH drawn by twooxen. Gram and wheat are sown by 
a larger drill calleil laeyAarf drawn by four oxen. It« tabes are larger^ 
and the slinri'H or coulters strongerao aa to pass deeper into the eoihfl 
It sowa four to six inches deep to suit some of tho cold-weathor^ 

> Mr. SliMnur, th« ■gricultunil imtrwAot iu th« Pkuiu College ot SdAncd. has to 
thxt. t>y nuiiK Miirdn Uiara inatvail of the heavy wood Mock, tho aalivc plo. 
beconiu ui pxnUnQt (utwnlcir. pwiiim Dirough th« nuMtcakDil and lurtlcned inrfa, 
wul outtiojt tli« roots of >>u«hM wliich bad fonacrly to Iw dng ant bj- tlie batchotT 
Theae adapted plmicliB hai-obooniiindoM tlia wnrluLopa o( tbo OoU«g« ot Si:iriieo at 
a coat at £1 tt*. (ft*. 12i). TLey have alao boeu succowfuUy copiod h\ villiitO 
blackmhlia Mr. SiMKv to Cotkctoi ot Vtttau, lOS, Hth July ISff. 





ipji. Botli the itmatl and the ]ar^ need-drill are ofton ascd as 
rrowa hy rnniovin)^ ibo micldlo flbarrs, thv bumboo tuboi;, and the 
lonl. A drill cohI^ nhout 5>«. (Rs. 2|) and with care lasts four or 
ive yeara. 

The hoe, kulav, ia nsed for breaking the clods thr&wn np by the 

ilough, for loosi-uiog the surfucu whuD tbo plough is not used, for 

movitif; iTtieda, for lilling crarkH or (isaures, and for corering the 

Thfl hoo is two tthnros or coultora JMtnod by a level nrosH iron 

ilfflde or phiiii set oblit^uely in a woodpn beam. A pole unites it to 

yoki^ anil it ik gui(lHl by aii ii|>rieht hnndlo. vVli<?n ho ivtslivs 

orlt tbc hoe deep the drivor Htanus on the wooden beam or lajis 

'y Btonea upon it. It requires only one yoke of oxen, ooiU« 

,bout 7». (K».3|), and lasts four or tiro years. The huim also 

led the joti is a weeding hoe. ft ia two iron bladeo or yolia like 

niaooD'B square with ibcir inward ends alz iucht'ti ftpart ee4 in a 

ioco of wood tfl which the yoke is joined by a pole and ropes. It 

Iwo handles the rumaitc niid the vt^ki, the r^tl-i )>eing u leoae 

forked aticlc which is held oa the top. It ia drawn by two oxen 

and ia drireu HO thiitthorowof younfi^ plants passeathroagli the npnco 

bebweoD thu blades. Tbo kut^ is often worked double, that is two 

Jeulp^n are dt^wn by one pnir of oxen. It requires much care in 

working, coats about 41i'. (Km. 9), and Uiste Are years. The phardt is 

like the kulav, only its bl»de ia longer, three feet six inches in length, 

end its woodwork ia lighter. II. in atie<\ to follow the teed-dhll and 

covvr the seed and tsdnwn b; twu oxen. It costs aobut 48. (Rs. 2]. 

The beam-harrow, maind or t^ula, ia a large beam of wood fitted 
with a yoke and nprif^lit handle. It roqnirL-s funr oxen and two 
men to work it. It is used chiotly in high rillage to brenk clodsand 
level the surface. It j^ also naed after tho wheat and gram are in 
fcbe ^jouud to pres>ii the soil, aa pressed soil keepa ita moisture longer 
than looeo soil. It coats about 8«. (K8. 4) nod lasts mnny years. 

The scoop or dredge, petdri, \» used only in rice lands. The 
bottom lip is Formed ?)y a plmik three feet long to which tlio 
oxen are Immessad. A stout handle fixed into the middle of the 
plank sloping bitck form? a Hupport to » acriea of btimbou slips Inced 
together with string which rise one above the other ubont two 
feet six inches, presenting a curved sloping sarface against, which as 
the Bcoop paesoa through the gronnd tbv loose earth gathers. It ia 
drawn by two oxen and costa about Za. (fls. 1 \). 

Dp till 183fi the carts or gddd$, of which there were rcry few, 
were cnmbreuA vehicleH consisting of a large §trong frame of wood 
supported ou two solid wooden whet'la over which the aidee projected 
ciu props that rested ou the axle outride of the whcolit. The naves 
of the wheels were titled iuside with iron tubes in which tho axles 
worked. These and the wheel lirea wore tho only iron-work ns tho 
whole conBlmction waa held tegecbor br tightlv strainud ropon. The 
cart wfw used to carry crops, and with tlie addition of a large shallow 
L basket to cany inaDnre>. It coat about £1U (Hs. lUO) and was usually 
fethe joint properly of three or fonr landholders. Tho axles being 
Krooden often broke and new wheels and tiros were neodad at long 
KntOTvaU With these repairs the cart lasted from geaeration to 



Chapter IV. 

FllLD To 







ipter IT. 
I.II Tuouu 

gutieratiun. ColODOl Sylces Tnenttons a cart called Jan^ or 
UHi'il for onrrying mitniire. It M-as a conimoa cart wiili a 
of riirj/un'/i, Vilex trifolta. and /(ir, Csjantm indicns. ^r 
the top ai it. Id 16!ttt Licatcnant GaijiforJ, <iF tlie Ituv< 
pluuDinl li tiew cart with high light wheels aud a light bodr. 
neir carta wero firtt uado at Tombliumi 10 Sholi^pur and 
cmftsnieii of tlie villagpa round were traiitod to rcjMiir them.' 
Brat vary few landLoIders woald buy tlio new carta. Afterwards < 
upDuiiig uf ni'mls which diJ awny with iho m«i.T»!«ity of rery hc»Ty 
EDd oiasuve cartu, and tlto abolition of tmnaii dmieK trhich nuida 
IKWsible to carry local produce to disluiii inurk«Lx, incre^ised 
number of rartii in Indapiir from '291 in 18.35JJ0 to 1 165 or :)00 [ 
cent in l»C5-r>U, ill Bhimthndi fivm '.>73 iu 18U).41 to 1011 or^ 
percent, in IS70-71, in PAbaUrom 754 in IMO-41 to lit04 or 
per cent in IS70-7I, in Uavi-li from 1M6 in 1810-41 tu tiH 
90*80 per centia 187I-72, andin ruraudhar from 1!)1 in I64^'J to 57 
or 203 per cent in 1S73. In K[)it« of tile opening of tho null 
which greatly rednced ibe niiinbwp at c»rt« omplojwd in 
journoys, tlte latent returns shovra totalof 18,321 carts throe 
the district. Tho present curts coMt £C to £8 (Rs. 00- 80) am 
tea to twenty hnndredneigli(»« (]0*30 mann]. They are drawn 
ono pair of bullocks, and arc cbielly mudu of bdbkul and toak m: 
by local carpeiilenj, 

Bcnidua llio tools worked with the help of bullocks tliero are firi 
liand tool.4 : tho pick, kudai, routing la. (8 ai.) ; the hoe, kkore, coslinff 
\t. to \\9. (8-12 a*.); tho sickle, khurpe, u^ed for weeding aod 
grass-cuUing, coating Stl. to f<d. (2-4 as.] ; the billhook, koyata, usmI 
only iu the n-est and cnrrivd Ix^Itiud the l>ack in a wooden .sockvl, 
costing \g. to 2x. (lie. }- 1) ; «ud the rake, tidnt'iU-, made of wood 
with four or live broad t^-th, ii^ed to gather chaff in tlic 
thrasUng floor and in tho wuel togiitlior grass and tree lopping to 
burn 00 tho rico fieldH. These tooU ran all bo Cnaity bonght in any 
village, and ereiyKunbi owu» a fairly complete act worth about i^ 
(IU.20). A yoa'rly chnrgcof U". tot{^. (Rs. 3-4) keeps them iu giwid 
order. If frewti tooltt nre wnuted the Ku»bi, if nooesaary, buys a 
Ireo, Eflls it, slripx it, ami Imles it to the village. The cari>t'ut*,'r 
ftuthioiis tho tools, iind tho iron-work is bought from wandoring 
blocksmithB. The ropes are made either by the Kunbi liimaelf or 
by tho rillage Miing from Bbro grown in tho Kunbi'a field.' 

A field i« not plonglioil overy year. In dry-erop Inndn thoroogh 
ploughing is nirir. The usual prnctico both in the west and in tho 
east is lo plough tho sbnilower bUick and light soiIr every other 

J ear, on the altematu yoara going over tho land only witli tho 
oe or kulav. Many deep hetaTy RoiU are ploughed not oftener 
than once in fonr or llvo years. In the iu tcr>i»l thohuu or ]>fr)uipa 
tho harrow is used. Barly urftAan/luod ta ptuughod io Duccmbur, 
JaDoary, and February, and the hoe ia used to break tho nurfnco 
immodiatt^ly before aowlug. As the soil is lighter, the heavy oajitem 
plough with six or eight pairs of bullocks is out recjuired in tho 

> Bombay Qm-«niinrat ^Icotlcaa, CIJ. 33 7A. 




ligltiur plough with ono or tvro pain ot bullocks ia eoQugb in the 
F&<itei-ii plniR^, and on the !tt«o|) hill-sides wlioro a plongli caimot 
rork lliti HhalloTT soil U loosened bj tho luind mtli a bont pieoo of 
rind tipped with irun. 

Kunbi ia very cureful iu liis rii i ■ f »vvA. If his own 

Dp in good Iks pickn the larg ost and i. .1 b^ <U niiil Icceps 

Ir f^ios separate as soctJ tor iXm next jruar. TLe prodooo of 

:;ial bends U oftt>n sold act seed nnd fetclies bnJf a^ mucli ngnjn 

ordinary grwtt of the sonio kind. Vauis nli$o keop good seed 

sin tn Btoolc nbicb tbey adTance to Knnbifl, exacting' ^fty or a 

landred per oont more in kind at Uarvvst time-. Tho sofrin^ of tlio 

irly or kharif crojM begius iu May or in June after tlie sni( is well 

»oistPiie3 T)y rain. In the plain country thv kov^I i« nown by tho 

Irili aud covered by tho lotig-bladetl lioe or phauit which followa 

sloao behind the dntl. When a mixed crop ia to ho aown ono of 

'*ie drill tubea is stepped and a uiau follows tlic drill, holdiuu' a 

iru-tipped tubo fast^oBd by a rope from which he bows seed in 

e furrow left by theeiioppod tube. TUia proc^tus it cnllcd mmjUane, 

\ thtf vest b>r the early or khari/ cro\yA a mnalt plot is choHen, and, 

Bfarcb or April is covered a foot or so deep with cowdunj^, gnL:v<, 

IcAves, and branches, which are biinU. In this plot, after a good 

of rain in May or June, the surface is looscnetl by uu iron-iipp«Hl 

fwooden hou aud thu wmkI is sown broadcast aud thick. In the 

Iconrse of a month when the iMcE-sown seedlings are about n foot 

I lii^b they are planted id irrej^nlur rows in palcbc» of pivporud land. 

The p<K>p1o understand thr: value of manure, but litter and oowdung 
re scarce and mineral and uthtT rich uuuiuruB are too dear to be 
[lutcd iu the growtli of the ordinary crops. In the plain part of the 
idintrict cast of PAbal, ■«htTc the i-ainfall is acaiity or unctfrtain, dry- 
[cropland taseldom manured. This ia partly because manure iascarco 

null i^iarlly it ia naid because if tho rainfall is scanty, ninnure dooamoro 

linrcii thftu good to tho crop. In tho hilly weitt nn<l in the vrest^ra 
[frinf^of plain land where tbpmin in reg'ular and plentiful, manui-ois 

can-fully hoarctcd and used whenever po5j<iblb. The quantity used 
LfteuciB to be ref^nlated entirely by tho tupply, Bron licru munure i« 
[iicarc« and weak, merely wood-aahes and swe<>ping!i. In the case of 
Lwatered crops, hemp or Uig Crotalaria juncoii, matfti Trigouclla ftuanm- 
)cuni, or hhurajini Verbesina sativa are sown and wlien iibout 
I inches bi^h aro plongbed and tho laud i:* floo<lird and left for 

twenty days. 3>Ulis or gardeners and all othora who raise crops all 
I the year round aro very careful to savo every available panicle of 
|-.inaDare. Iu the land about Poena, which is watered all tho year 

round, poudrette, the dung of cattle sheep and goals, stable litter, 
! and refuse are used. The use uf pottdrettu as a nile w rostrictvd to 
IS range of ten miles to the east of Puona aloo^ the litis of tho Muthft 
t'CanalH. Pormorly there was a strong focliu^ agaioitt the import iut« 
Km village of out-^ide manure. This feeling' has paused uway, and 

jnaouro is eagerly sought and frefiu*'iitly brought from lung distances. 
; The sewage of tho oantonmont and city of Pooua, after being buried 

for thrLiu or four montlui, in bought by the husbaudmi-a of tho snr* 

rounding villages, nnd it hu3 become n recognized and allowed 

Chapter IV. 



rBotnt«7 ^1 






pra(^tio6 for Kunbis to cart and hnndlt* iTiis tnanupc, witicb noil 
yvun tt((o tbey held in horror. Tho mntmrn in mj1«1 in i liw treni 
ftboflt lliPW «irt« or one ton for 2*. (Rp. 1). In 1874-7^, the ; 
irhen the rizht b&olc Matba c&nai was opcnod, the tiuantjt^ of | 
tlivtt« turned out by the Poona ninoinmlitj WM 2220 cubic ; 
aud the valae realised wa« £76 I i». (K<. 76«) ; in 1881 .HS the iitun 
ttimed out vras J],760 cnbic j'ards and iw valuu i307r li. ' 
(Ra. 30.776). CowdaDg in tu«d oiily^ by tbofte who have siall'^ 
fed rattle or who are rich eooagh to buy it. Ab oowdm^i 
are the fuel of Poonft most of the eowdunp within tvaa^j 
mileB of th« city is carefully storvd, niniile into cakes^ andaeBtHi 
large cartloads to Poona where it is also Dsed for burning tki 
dead.' In dry land and in watvrod lauds in ontlyiag' town* ul 
vilUge)), cowdnn^, goat and Bbeep dua^, ittable-litter, iind nlbftj 
rofutio are the chief manures. The dimg and urine of abecp ana 
Valuable luaouro and owners of fluckit arc hired to gnzv thitf 
eheep in Holds for two or thrco nighta at a tiniA. DbaogHJ 
oaoally wander frooi villa^ to TilUifre in a regular yearly drcait) I 
in tlie plain!! daring the rainfi and cx>1d weather, aod in the W I 
during the hot months. Tbuy arc puid by the husbandmon to foU ' 
their sheep in their liehU. In some pWeH thoy get only their fooi 
111 other pWeii whore gnrilcns abound as much a« Is. or Ss. (Uc.^'Uj 
is |Miid fur one night of a hundred sheop. No chemical or importM 
manures nrt^ uwd, but the district ofHoiala are making expenmMM 
with bonu-dust. 

Watered land ia of two classoa, molofthnl or bag-watereii, anJ 
pijtanthal or clumn el -watered. Well or Img irrigatioa is of gnU 
iinporiauce lu Iui,1ii}iur nud other dxought-HtricVun ]>arts of the oait. 

\^''olls used for irrigation are circular, eight to t«a feet acroaaau) 
tneaty to fifty feet deep. They are sometimes pitched with bride or 
Btone and mortar, more uiiunJIy they are lined with dry Oat-stofi^ 
and frcqucnlly tbry are built only on the Hide OD which the bogii 
wcrkfi.]. All iiiipiU'ht-d «-,.ll coeta £10 to JESO (Rg. 100-200), a 
vroll lined with dry stone JtilS to JE^O (Re. 2&0-500). and will 
brick or stouo and mortar MO to £300 (Rg. 400 -2000J. Th< 
water i» riuHud in a leather- bag or mot, one half of which is two 
feet broad and is Htrotched open at the mouth by an iron ring, tbf 
other end i» much narrower and ia not stretched. A tbicV rope u 
fixed to the oentre of two stout bars, which, at right angles to eaok 
other, croM th* broad month of the bucket, and ia paesed over ft 
small wheel some four feet aboro the lip of the water-trougfa or 
thdrvle whore it is supported by a rough wooden frame. A s««oad 
thinner ropo is fastened to the small mouth of the backet and 
passed over a roller which norkg ou the lip of the troagh. Both 
those ropes are fastened to a yoke drawn by oxen. The length of the 
ropes is so adiust«d that the narrow half of the hncket douljlee al 
the broad half and in passing up or down the well the two montbe 

' Nolovoti cowdiin^ calcM «M!a|Ni »dult«v>ti<ni. Th«n> an twn kind* of cawdmul 
<*li«a Uin ianikea or uLiru c«]i« mmI Lho udi*hfa or nuxmi o»kc half Mrth maA haflj 
««w<1ang. Br. J.O, Sloorc, C.SL 

juf^tit oD iL lovc-1 with oach olhor. When thu full buckot roachea 
lo top of tbo well the narrow mouth follows it^ onn rope over th« 
>ller into tbo ti^ugH nnd altowB the water to escape wliilo the 
kroiul mouth is drawn up bjr its rope to the wheel four feet higher. 
r^Tlifi w.'itcr-bng or viol ib of two sixos, ono mcaaurinfi' about ton 
at fpiiu mouth to mouth and workml in deep wells and hy fonr 
a, the otlii'r Bru to titx feet and worl(t»l in amall wells a»d by 
oxen. 'Ilic bag and ite applisnctti cost about £1 tO«. (fia. 15).' 
le backet lasts ten or twelve iDonthn aod tbo wooden work ajid 
ring four or Stu yeans. Thu thicker rope lasts » year uud the 
iii«r rope nix months. A. six feet long bag on an arerage raises 
gallons nod 3 qiinrts of water cnch time it i" emptied. In this 
iy n man and a pair of bnllucks raise 2D3I gallons uf water in an 
}ar or '20,i>'i7 ffiilon» in a working day of ttevim boors. The same 
ftD with two backcbn and two pain of bullocks raises 41 ,034 galloQa 
water which ut eight pounds to the gallou is oqual to 3^8,27^ 
snndii Troy. 

lu 18812-86, of 18,651 wells obont 8208 wen stop-wells and 

J&,44S dip-wellH.* A well generally waters one to thirteen acres 

and tho d<.'[)th varies from twenty feel iu Hareli and Sinir to fifty 

feot in Juuoar and Bbimtbsdi. The cost of building Tarie« from 

£30 bo £600 (Rs. »00 . 5000) in the case of a Rt«p.woII, and from 

no to £200 (Rs. lllO . SOOO) in the case of a dip-welL There were 

888 pouds or reservoirs : 

Pao.iA Wblu Asa Poxns, IfHtSSS. 




wiui aw- 


D»tM<\ Cc»L 








Juinu n. 

>M N 









-*. .#< 







mm .^ 

■*• _, 








Ritril .- 

















■ ■h ■• 






40- loo 



<■■ V> 









Ttttal ... 















A class of people called P^£dis, that ia water-^owtiru, who are 
gciicrally Mar&tbis, Uhlirs or tiosfiris by caste, nre employed to 
point oot whore wat«r will bo found. Thoy examine tho soil and 
the adjoioing wells and sometimes lie down with one of their ears 
to tbo ground to ascertain the flow of wator below. The people Rtill 
cotuull tbcm though they are esdd to be kiut tru»t«<1 than thoy uKod 
to be. The wstor-sbowor ia paid a small fee in advance and a larger 
feo if woler is fomid. 

Chapter IT. 




> Tbp d«t«fU v« : Tho ImUwt part IS*, to £1 (Ri. 8 ■ 10], tbe iros nog Sa. lo 3*. 
(R», I ■ ])), tbo upper or tluck rop« I*. M. to 2». (R* ( ■ I), tho lowct rwtw aboot 
Bd: «iM.), Uiflw&MliacluilUuilUiraauLloU Sd. (13 u.), tbu reUm f roui M. tot*. 
(0-8 at.), aod the HMigh waodfreiuD 2i.{K«. t). 

*OftlMM SIOQwtn uae4 tu ien-8X tw dnnkiny tnA wadiing, and IS,-tS3(or 
wsuriac Ui« land. 



Chapter IT. 





PiUatlhal or rhuinel-wftU'ring from lliv (^nait MaWn^tifb 
fnr more protitablo th»ii woll-watcriog. AC the aaune tin 
much loss oommon u tbtt number of sites n-ith n miFHriant li 
WBUTOodootiuiiuidof lund is limited. Tliccliiefrliniiucl wittor 
ftre BCrun Lho Mins at ICunir, Vadaj, and NiirAyiuigsoiL 
w»tcr re«rpoctively twenty-five, iwYenty-eigbtjiuid 3t)7acresof 
land. Tue> N^Ajangaon work is of Hoiue miifniitode, tliu iir 
diBiinela lieiug two tniles in longtlt. NoniJ uf ibose liut tkra 
xea.r; tho eapplj- in nlmoftt all cases fail;! in Febmar; or 
Where sugarcano nntl other t wolTu-month crom arc {p*>:iim tbtl 
Hupply is eked out from wells. Except tho Gowrnoicot 
channel wator-works on k large acalo oro Imrdly known. Itwin 
of the dams or haiidkdrdo arc buill of mad, and nra renowoJ 
year after tho mini). A ina^nnry dun which cotniunndii 500 
acres and baa cost £300 io £400 (Eta. 3000-4000) is ootiaid««d 
*iv(irk. Tho cliannelH are not bridged, hedged, orotbenriMibl 
and lho villngo cattlo and cart» cauB» lonoh iojury nnil 
WLl'U the water in the river begins to fall bulow the IcTfil 
dam or tilinnticl head it ia usual, H l]iodui(ancv is not giveX 
the wnter lutu the cbatmcl by a largo wooden shovel or scoo 
by B ropo at tho proper level from a rough tripod ol sticks, Tl 
is swung to and fro by one or two men in such r why as at etc 
to scoop up and throw a smalt qaanti^ of water into the < 
This mvtbod iKics not rai>4' wiitur morv than n foot or e 
inchex, but is useful when perhaps only one watering is requ 
complctu ihf irri(j^lii)n i)f » crup. 'I'lio welU iiro tho prop 
indi^nduals, but tho cbanud water is shared by all who or 
built or who yearly rebuild the diLtn. Tho aharos are porti<] 
in time, hours ur duya, Thia system of division by titn< 
smoothly. The arrangement is nuporintcfldod and mgnli 
one or more meii caHeil jxHlcaris or chanud-kcupers who 
disputes and Iceop the canals in working oi-dor. Tlioy a 
sotnetimoa by grants of land and more often by small slu 
garden produce. 

* Tho chief water-works made or ropairod by the British i 
ment are tho Muthft and Nim c&naU, and Ihe K&i<urdt, 
Shirsiiphnl, nnd BhAdalvAdi reservoirs. Of theao tho MuB 
IS'im canals draw their supply from the llntha nnd Nira 
■which rise intbo SahjA dria and We a never failing tlovr of 

c\\ arc in atldition to and distinct fi-oin tlie Innd ratct, SK Bxocl 
lor the orders of Ciuvoruinuut vn a sualB which varies according to 
crop for which water ia required. 

ii'.ro th» bogiDning of itritish rule the scanty and aDcrHniu 
JK tiJl ID tlio cuiiritry to tlie of I'ouua had cuudcd frequent 
laro of crops much loss aud eaffci-ing. Id 186^-64, a aioro 
osually severs drought caused auoh diiitress that Uovornment 
►rininod (o find how fnr this tract could be protected from 
Sne hy water-woi4t«. XTie iuquirj^ ws^'onl rusted tO'Capttiiu, now 
ilouant-UiMieral, Fifo, K. K., who,as siunll rt>serroire vrem then in 
mr, Bpeat ihe season of 180:(-G-i in Burvoyinfr the di-strict to find 
»;* fur storage lakc<i. In a repcjrt tinted ihi' 25i.!i of t'ubruary 1864, 
jQe) Fife submitted the rv^ilt of his iuTeatigation . Thi« 
Ljiriaed detailed plans and estimates for sIe small reserroirs at 
ardi where lher« wa« an old work, n( Miltoba, Khafceka Burw, 
.nib^noD, Uh^j^aou, aud Chutorlkur, all in BhimtbodL Many* 
'^xicsr Btlos were exumiued and fouud uufuvourabk'. His expcrionco 
H^ t.his part of Poona satiitfied Colonel Fife tliat small rt'sorroirs 
^^X'o uuumiouuly t-o^Mv aud woru opuu to tho fatal ubji^clion that in 
!^ y ueaaou of auvere droaght they would bo ii.*«lesa us tlia«tr<.aiiii8 
^^a^t, feed ibum etitiruly fuil. He recomuiouded that watur Hhould be 

K^^<i £rom the Mutha riper by a high level canal Btartin); (rum abuvu 
Ocmn nnd cxluudin^ to near loddptir, a diatancu of nbuut u bundred 
KiIm. ITie Uumbay Government agreed with Colonel Fiftt tlmt 
^lall lakes ueni u^ek-sa and thnt the only ccrlaiu ineaus of urotui-tion 
Tf,m famine was the water of rivers whoso soureo in in the bahyadris. 
Vbe Muthji cauul works were sauctioned, aud the cxperieaco unco 
ined, which etabraccH both river aud lake worku, leaves no qiiBstton 
. Coloticil Fifij wu." rij^ht in Iioldiug that small .iton^gc \iiitvn woiibl 
til to guard east FoocaTrom famine' 

Of the waler*works which liavo been iniule nince ISS4 the chief 

ro L&ko Ftfo and the Mutha OonoU. The final plans and c^timnlcs 

jr the Matb» Canals scheme wore submitted in \SI>H and the work 

bP|^n tu Dcooniber o! that year. The Kcheine incladed ii largo 

Itorago reservoir or Inko at Kbaitakviela on the Afuiha river tvn miloM 

rest of I'oonn, which bns !«inoe been nnmod Lake Fife.- From 

«»ko Fife two canals atnrt, one on vacb bank of the river. The right 

ink canal was de.signed to be d'.)^ miles lon^, but the adual 

>iiiplet«d length is 6^) niil<-« ending in tbu villn^ of PiUaa. 

!'be discbarKe at the bead is 412 cubic feot a second and this can 

increafiea to S'i5 mbic feet. The canal passes through tho 

JBtutioQ of Poena. It VM dosignod tu cuinniand 2S0 squnre uiilv6 

] ur 117,200 acres of land. As tbe complete design bns not bceu 

^carried oat the actual area under commaud is 147 tiquaro mtlaa or 

*Col(HieL now Mkli>r Gcnonl, Straclicy, tben InRMet>r-a«iioral ot Irrimtion, 
[ecpT«aMdtfniilM»ninuia>wiUir«anltoGajM4ttKli*BMiti,audtlMDG0caii. M«Uui 
CaDila Viepart. l4Ui Fcliniary ISiff. 

• By plocinj; thn hMkdwi>ru ontbe Mutba riv«r aa Bntsalinc tappljof w»Ur me 

t(eur«d u the luurco ei ttio Mnttia in BKunig iba Sahsnldri dU1> wkere there ia n 

'ccriain nlfiU) M nhnat 200 indiM. TlieMiMHtioo to UMtheMotbariier water fur 

iirieakUta wu rocotileil by tkn HonoDrfcbloJfr. Ro*^m la ISSA. Mallm Canal* 

i:«j«irt. Nth FeLruaty 1879. 


WA-mt Viomi 

MiMa Ca 




ipter IV. 
grk uLtar«. 

ATXB \^'oitia. 

04,080 acres, tlie wbole of vrliich HuiTers front scantj and nnc 
ruiuf&U.' The left bank caaal ut eigbteou miles loog, 
a short distauco bejonil Kiricce. It cciminaDda an area of 
acres ootl tlto fall aup|)ly discharge at the bead is 38'5 cabtc 
tlie second. The un-n which the complete aoheme oomtnaoded 
bhuB 150,700 ncTcs which hy shDrtoniag bho ri};hi-hHak caual 
b&ea reduced to 97,.1S0 tuome. Besides providms: water for 
parched Ir^-t u[ cuuutry, thu work furaisbes ud ahuiidaut supply 
pur» drinking water to the citjr and oantniiiacnL of I'oooa, 
Powder Workn »t Kirkov, aud thtf aunerou* villages along tba 
of the canals.* 

'TLe (laUils of the rainfall nlais pla<«a ootbecuttldariDX tba tbr(«T«ana 



oiiiu. Lj.Am tint 

Fmci*. Mth Milk. 

Capu, a»in Ib^ | 








law. 1 











Juiuwr ._ 




























































11 u 









I^imdImt — 


























• n 





«>Ht .. 



t - 













Ka n-uil. t>rii Miu { 

KkfoMii, wrra 


I'A'tM, :oTu UnK f 











































•. ' 




















Jun4 -> 






























BB|il«IIil)al ... 






































II » 




11 -P* 





9 Viie ia formed by a ma8onr7 dam foanded on solid 

Tbe dam is of partly cooraed and partly anconrsed rubble 

ry and is ooe of tbe largest works of its kind in tbe 

Exclnsire of tbe waste weir wbich is 1393 feet long, the 

3687 feet long and rises ninety-nine feet above the river 

tbe greatest beigbt above the foundation level la 107 feet. 

rest of the waste weir is eleven feet below the top of the dam. 

ntenta of the reservoir are 49 II millions of cubic feet and tbe 

: tbe water surface ia 3535 acres or 5| square miles. To gain 

nt elevation to command the station of Poona and tbe country 

), tbe bed of tbe canals ia fixed at fifty-nine feet above tbe 

jed or bottom of the reaervoir. The volume of water stored 

the canal level is 3161 millions of cubic feet. At the site 

dam the river has a catchment area of 196 square milea. 

11 an average season it is calculated that the reservoir will 

teen timea Tbe canals are completely bridged aud regulated 

hoat. Tbe rigbt-bauk canal ia navigable iu tbe ten miles 

>na. In tbe tenth mile the water-supply for the city ia 

oS. To avoid interfering with the buildiuga and the 

-groand, the canal ia carried through the atation of Poona 

> tnnnela. On leaving the first tunnel in the centre of tbe 

ment, there is a drop in the canal bed. By means of an 

ihot wheel this fall is used to drive pumps for raising the water 

I anpply of the cantonment into the settling tanka, filter beds, 

Chapter IV. 


Watxb Wobks. 

Uuiha CmoIi. 

lit* of fmalyiM of the water modo by the Cbemiool AtulfBcr dnriiig tha 
78, 1879, uid 1880 : 

MuOia Canalt Voter, 1878-1890. 







in a. 





■ par 







tkm from tbftCDaJ near 





StdifftiU. to ffo*. 1 and 3, nniill 

mrki >t i r.K. llih 

In quantity ; contain rt^tabla 


dehr[B. panmada, unit Totlfera. 





In No. s, very acanty, onl]' 

ut'i Church, Poona, 10 
nb iaat isn. 

TCEClable debris ! nolnrnioila. 

Taken (ram dUpen** 





■oin tt 10 t.a. tXth June 

Sidijrunli, In Ho. 1 veseiable 

Tkkcn Irom tha ctntl 





MBd'trarkiiitAp.H. !Otli 

debris, paramacla. In No. i 


the aama but iiAntT. In No. S 

T>k«i trom tbe eui»l 





Bt Itmrfl Charch at B 

IM March 1H70. 

TUrn rron dijpnM 





vin at fl r.H. on lift 

iun>. ' 

StdimtnU. InKiM.l.l.*nd3;an 

lUca frnin tha anal 





^aarl-wiarka at A r-H' on 

Bcanly. chiefly vegetable debrie 

•noarj ISM. 

vlth Donhuorli, dUtoms, and 

Ikka from thfl canal 





paramada : a row rotlfen la 

L MwT'aChiuchatSlL.H. 





llMdbiitlea pipe In Poooa 
JL M th* Mlh Janvarj 

m— s 

Chapter T7. 



ftiid coTcreJ dispdn^o-rcsfTToirs of titc htg^Ik ftod nriUlt II 
fty»totu8. l-'roin I.Iju cnnal it«>I[ Ion bL-rvicc mnins Ktid b. 
let! tiff. For irriftutton bcyood Paoha thcro ia prc>vi«>JoD for tfimM 
dialribtttion. 'Ilie total CTtimated cost of tb« work-' "■.■'n<1iBf 
pM>na «atvr>snnply ftti4 indiroct charges, that is ' -aui 

ftb«t«a)eiit of land revenue learo and pmsion niioirana* 
interest on direct uul lay. in £937,436 (lU. 93,74..'560). Tlw v 
were partly openod in November 1873. EiKmgli of llio <)*ia 
wa«t« weir wm <x>iiiiilct«d to store the water of tho lake twdr* 
above tlio loTci of the cnnnl sluicus and tbocftoal WB«B««HjfiBl 
to Pcona. At first water vaa snpplied only for lioaae pi^poa 
Poona. In February 1874 it was tnado aTailablo for cropt. that 
under commoad up to Poooa being S(MO acres. Before Jane I 
the depth of stor«ge was inerMwd to fourteen feot wai 
distribtitioi) armngvineiitB in the Htation of Poona were begni 
with tho exception of the high gcrvioe distribution were cooi| 
during the two following yeitn. By 1B77-78 tho depth of sM 
was increased to twcDty>fivefeot Tbe right*biiuk caoal e«rthi 
were completed u fur as tbo tizty'fourth mile, "bat wat«r 
admitted only as far as tbe forty-fourtb mile. By the fifteea 
Jsnaary 1878 tbo oightoon mile* of the left-hank cnnal w^pe o| 
cotnnrnodiDg 3500 acres, and the bigli service dijiribuiiou for 
supply to tho station of Foonii was coinplotod. In IsTU-ljO the 
of too dam at Lake Fife and the earthwork on tho rc*r side 
dam were completed. Tho nnfioiehed parts of tbe wuto wsir 
raiwd by tomporary earthen banks so as to impound water op 
foil supply level, twenty-niue feet above the sill of the si 
TTie masoury works on tho right-bank canal were complctt-d 
water admitted aa far BB the fiixty-fifth mile. By 1882 the 
woir was (.'ompleted with tho exceptiou of StK) feet at tho wost 
which was onu foot below full supply level ; tbo masonrr 
the seventh portion to P&tas woro completed and tho wholo 
60^ milos of the right-bauk canal were made available for as«, 
practically completing tho if ork. The following stateroeat oou' 
the areas irrigat<sl utid a.tito«»ed, and the actuul reveouo, woi 
•zpenaes, and not reveuue during the niue years ending 18dl 
Ht-rnA Cawjils JlxcKim, 1S73-SSSS. 










































































[nv4 Uit 

MiU Kt 

cgj pn. I 


'— <O0tlO 


Cliapier IV. 












Watu Woiud 








tf ulU ComJ*. 












































































'be foltowi[i]{ statorucut gtreti a cumparisoa of tfae area watered 
the r&mfall during the same period : • 

MvTHA Cakju littLi-iArtos axd Rais^jli, lXJ3-l3a. 

1 Tu. 








AT PtTu. 


briy. 1 





















































• -M 










































^■~ -i 










1880-81 the area' watered was sixty-sii nor coot ^teftiet 
in 1879-80- Tbis was partly due ' to uliurt muif»ll but 
ostly to the extenaiou of distributing ohauucU. In ISSO-fil the 
x>p8 irrigntod under the canuls were cereals 8339 acres, pulses 9G7 
irw, logarcane 19G6 acres, and other j^rdeu produoo 92& acres. 
Eie irngntion mtos at present in force belong to fi7e classes with nn 
ire charge on the first cluss of £L to £2 \0e. (Rs.10-25), on tlte 
bond of &4. to 10(. (Rs.4-5),oathe third of 3ji. to 4<t. <Ks.l}.S). 
F the fourth of M. t« \t. (4-8 at,), aud on llic filth of M. (6 a*.), 
her the oponisg of the Mutha cauals the amonut u( veKetablca 
id greon fraita booked at the Poona station roAs from -l^T-l tons 
28,0ii4 iMa«j.)in 1871 to 7008 toos (196,230 mana) ia 187(3. The 
■st effect of the opening of the canal was that the people gave np 
eir wells and took to caoul water. Of uitiety-uiiia welts ob the 
Dda commanded by ttie canal liy the end of I87C sixtj'-fivo had 
aaed to lie used. Since it« oj>ouiiif^ the sowing of iMilihul Heed and 
^HntiDg of trees along the banlca of the canal have been steadily 
IHR on. In sono plaocH the; treen hiivc grown freeljr and the 
le of tho cannl is tnnrKed by a belt of green. Other plncea are loo 
for trees- Still year hy year as the sowing of hcJihul seed is 
rcrcd with the breaku in the line are gradually becoming fewer 
shorter. Thi- lifntha canahi project ia in ©very respect the moai 
ligiiig of the watcr-worka jrcl undertakeii in tlie Deccao. The 




ipter IV. 

Gorwi^ KK3T 

Mutitt CaimU. 


rapid spread of in-igatioB bas been satisfactoiT'.and there caa be lit 
doubt tbat it will ere long pay the intonnt on. its borronml capit 
So much of the c&oal parses throngh cnimhl; trap or murum th 
loHS from leakage is serioaa and tjomowliat iottirform with tho orieil 
cftiinulL^ of thu area which the canal can water, besides tlto dr~ 
rccAipl^ the cnaal confers niaoy indirect gains OB theooanlry ihr 
which it pttsaes. Villages ia which daring tho greater pert of tl 
ypnr them was formerly a great scarcity of wau>r have now 
nhuttdiLnt supply for driaking and for cattle. 

A. whit-o tnarhle (ablut with iho following itiiscnption cut m hk 
letters, and a conipaiiion MarA-thi tablet, have been lot into tb* 
bridge by which the right bank canal cro8k«« tfae Sholapur rOid 
about thirty-eight miles east of Poona : 

V a ET 1. 

BuppUod by Laka f Ifv ■ItObtiKl 10 mllo* iraM oC Fovaa. 

Exutid* to r»tu. tn ttte BbimtbwU Taloka. 

lU IOt«] 1«okUi >■ eot mi]«a. 

Tb* oarlhworka of Itila ■eoilon, exteadins from SO to BOt mil**, 

kObrded om-olojtaimX for th« poopl* durisc th« Fiuoino of 


On ta avoraco, 10.000 peopla of all rxm w*i« •mployod dallr 

for a p«rlod of fourtMn moalht. 

lbs hlilLaat Dumbor on any ono day belns 21.0OO. 

1*110 ox^e-aAHam warn Ba. 3.90,000 

on wafcaa and chwltable rwUef, 

ftod Um t*Iu» of Um work Dxecute4 wu B«- 3J7.0OO. 

Tlu nuaonrr vrorka wer« aabMqn«ntlr eomploud, 
aad waUi wu kdiBitted up to Uu 06th mil« 
Id B«pMiDt>ar 1870. • 
WlllUm Clarka, tl-InaVO-B., BzaoutiTO En^fiiMr t9i Irrlcatlon, Paoat- 
IL B. /orovr, C B', AariatADt BnjrUivar, In Lnuavdiato obarg* of U)o Wotk 

'The Mira Cauul ia deiigaeil to irrigate the left bank of the '. 
viilivy and n piirl ut the Riiima valley near the iue<;tiug ot the ' 
rivLTS, tu mippLy towns tiiid villngi-s aloug tho valloy with water I 
household piirposost whororer the wells are insaflScient or hracl" 
uad to iitilixB the water power that will be generated at tho 
works nnd noar tho tail of the caual at Indtipur. lu 1864, as], 
of hiH )n<tuivy into the best means of protecting Povnftftj 
famiuo Colonel Kifo, R. B.. organised surveys of the Nira rit 
Tbetto survuj's showed that by starting near Sbirral about thirty- 
miluH south of ToonB, a canal would reach the parUi of Bhimtbaili i 
iQddi>ur which chiefly ro4]uin?d water. JTotlung further nppeaifi 
huTu bd'u duno till January I S68,wl) consequence of albrcateaS 
failure uf crops, a committee consisting of Colonel Franci;*, Snrrt, , 
und SoltlempLt Commissioner Northern Division, Mr. .}. E, OUphntf"| 
C. S., CuUuctur of Poona, and tho liUe LiuiHonant Buckle, K. 
£xooutiva Kngineer for Irrif^tioo, were uppointcd to consider ' 
survey operations should be underLakeu for in-igalionat 

1 Contribotod br Ut. J. E. niiitioc, M.A., U.Ii>at.C.E„ EseoutiYc Xaidt 
Irrigation Nim OuaL 



oomaittee reported that the tract most deeerving ot attontioa 
tlie part of lodfipur whicU lies belweca the Bhiina and Iho Xira. 
tliU tract the auDual rainfall was so uncenain hud capricioos 
t the orous fre<)uetitly failed several ycant m succcssiou ; it might 
n^ason De toruiod udroueht'Stricken rpfnoQ' lu these opintooti 
A. F. BelU-iia, C. S. the Revenue Cotuuiiimiotier coucumtd 
Mr, J. \V. Uadow, C. S, Beveuue CummMsiuuer Snathcm 
Tisiou, in fonvnrditifi; Culonel Francia' report, npenkii of In«}ilpur 
baviu'' a WORM) ruiDfnIi than almost uuy iKirl of the tX-ccan or of 
A Qonibay EamAtak. In conseqaetice ui theKe ■xn'oinim-ndutiona 
liilOS thu aurvey^ of the Nirn project WL'n< rc8mu(!d hy LicutcuuQl 
ckto. At thu cXoae of 1863 the Mutha works reqaired Lieutenant 
icicle's whuleatteiitioii, and early in lS6d Mr. J. k. Wlnting, M.A. 
Jnst.CE., was appointed to Ihe surrey under Colonel Fife's 
era. Detailed surveys for the canal alignment, ihe choice of the 
for the r«(i«rvoir and the Bit« for the cuiiul hcudworks, togethef 
Lh the making of plaaa and eatimatea and writing the 6nal report, 
cupicd Mr. Whiting and hiseuiflfur twoaud ahutf years. During 
lis period, in couHequonce of a severe drought, fifty per cent 
lUiissiunawiTti granted in forty-threo dry-crou villager uud twenty- 
re per cent in thirteen f>ther villoma of ladapnr. The plana had 
eon revicwdl by thu Chinf EuginoQr, but furthur proj^reas iraa 
lopped by order of the (iovemmeat of India, llr, \\'iiiting waa 
jpoiutcd lOxocutire Fngii:ecr for Irn'gfttioii in Pooiia, and notliing 
lore was done until the failure of raiu in \S^6. Towards the close 
187C Mr. ^Vhiting, with four of the »Uff tlwt had formerly helped 
1 making the Nira snrvcys, waa sent to recover the old lino and to 
todify the plans so as to make the work suitable for famine relief. 
ftrly in 1877 earthworks wcro opened for RBDgs sent by the 
[olleotors of Shol&pur,* 8&tilra. and Poonn. The numbers rapidly 
DSO from IiOOO to 2i,t32 pursOus, who, with tliuir bick and childrcu, 
rei-e employed or received relief on the Mira canal. Towurda the 
ad of 1S77 as the famine waa over relief-works were closed ; but 
lebigU prtcv of grain caiiaed so mnch distress that for six months 
B lais rvliof-workii had to be re-opoued on the Kira canal and 
gain ou account of diimaf^c douo to the crops by rats iu 1879. The 
&li<'f.ivork!t wen) Hniilly cloned in March iHSO. DorinfT twenty-six 
B'juths Ihey had giron eraplovment to an average of 8090 persona 
[ all ages. Mr. Mnore. C. S. Collector of Poona, Mr. Richey, C. S. 
Bting Collector, and Mr. Hobcrtson, C Is. Kuvcuue Commis)»ioueT 
'f-ntral Division, urged the necessity of completing the works. 
icions from forty-six villages reprottenting over 60,000 acres oE 
iu ludSpur were raceived praying for the early conittruction 
cannl iiml primiiKing lo ]»ay ilie water rates. The matter 
strongly pressed by the CJovemiueul ol Bombay aud their riewa 
ere submitteil by the Government of India to the Secretary of 
tnto in August i»dO. Sanctiou to coniuldo the head-works and 
« first thirty-fivo mil&s of the cauaI irom ordinary fnnds was 
■anted by the Secretary of State in November X880. In I8S1 the 
overnineut of India aeeorde<l sanction to the lirsl two stages of 
lO Nin* canal projoot a« n prftcctivo work at an CBtimnted cost of 
'15,000 (Ra. 4U lakhs). Of this £80,000 (lis. 8 iakht) had beeti 

Chapter IV. 

Watks Wob 
JXira CVifl 





spoot. To oomplote ttio praieot fanda were piDrided 
grant for ProtcctiTO Pohlic WoHs* unJ tlie ozecution of i 
vu entrust^^d to Mr. Wtiitiuff, Kxecutive Ko^intjer lit Gi 
J. H. K. Hart botng Chisf KagioMr for Irrigatiuti. 

Tbc Nira caonl Hm along tlie left bank of t]i« Nin 
It has a loDgth of 103 mJlea exclusive of distributing 
aod coDttnAttdii 260,0(K) acres of arable land in niaotp 
io ttiD ParaudLur, BbimlliAdi, aod Inddpar eub-diriitioiiL 
works iritl furnisli nn nnfailiDfir supply of wat«r to U 
acrOH. Tbe Xira and ita tbreo large feedem rise iu llie Sabj 
and up to tbo canal h«ad have a cntchnierit arcs of cmr ^ 
■t^uare miles. During the aouth-west moitfioon, that ia from mtd Jm 
to mid*October, the Nira coutitiuoual^ discharges for aon vM 
tliao cftn be us«d in the canaL It has also in ordinary Mnt^oui] 

rndcrable Sow to tho end of December. Tn entiitrv ihd eai ' 
ing the real of tho dry season very extengivo stom^ works i 
nrquirvd. A rvserroir uioeteen milt-s long and witb au 
square iuiIm, or Dparl}? two square milus mora tliaii tho ares i^f 
Fife, is to be formed on theVelTaudi,afeederof tbo Kira, atBl ' 
DMT the town of Bhor hj n tnasonry dam over 8000 feet Ic 
OTer 100 feet hi^^b. This lake will hsTC a capacity of 4A4I 
oiibic fuet, wbich bj the nae of fulling shiuierB designed for 
weir can be increased to 5500 millions. This givea a ston^ i 
of £18 2r. (Rs. 181) per million cubic feet, a low rate conf 
with tho cost in other reservoirs. Twenty lai^o nndor-slnjeesi 
provided to carnr off the early BiU-Uden Boods. TIio beadworW ' 
the canal are at VirvdUli in Pursudhar, nineteen luilos fortlior dof 
the riror, whwo a weir of ooncrolo faced with nibblo 
forty-two feet hiffh and '2'AOi) feet long and backed by snbctidinry ' 
•bout balf its livi^bt \um bocii built across the Nira and tho Vir i 
tlicir meeting. This wilt mi-ie tho water to the fall supply Ic 
the canal, to which it n-ill be admitted by Inr^e Iron sluice 
The Huppl; basin above the weir will extend about cIim-uu mt 
Shirval, which is half-way botwoon Vir and Bhitghar. After UtavinH 
Vir the canal crosses tho old Sflt^ra road about two miles north of i 
Kim bridge and passes above all tho larger villogeii in the Taller^ 
These are, Vadgiion at the 2t>th tiiilc, Korbnlc at thw 29th toiic. 
Pandnr at the 3.Uh. M&lugaon at the 4(.)th, l^ramati at tho 4Stli« 
Bansar at the 64th, HAtunie at tlic 76th, Sholgaon at the Slat, 
Gotnndi at the S7tb, and Nimgiu>n at the 92nd. Near NimgaoB 
the canal ctohsps tlio vratcr-^hod above tho towu of Ind^pur into 
the Bbitna valley and cndn at Bijavdi at the 77th mile of the 
Foona and BhoUpur mad. The Miitlia rifrht bunk canal endl 
near the 40th tnile of tlint ro«d mid tho >Shiv8upbal and Blifidalvi^ 
reservoirs with their diNtrihutaries hnvo been constructed betweea 
the ends of the two chief irrigntinn canals. In addition to the Klra 
caoal two large roservolra have been designed, one just abovo the 
town of Ind&par and the other at Vad&pun near Nim^iton. These 
have little or oo nutnral catchments, but will bo filled from tlie 
cnnal during the soalb-wcst monsoon and wilt thnit inoniiue the 
eupply available during the dry weather m the end of the valley 
most diatotit from the main re£orvoir at Bb^tgbar. A bmoch cfrul. 



also bcca proposed, which frill Icare llio nuio c&uftl ac&r 

kndnr iLt ibo tbirty-fonrth mile, nod cross the river Mira at 

ilcsbvDr io order to irater tUe droaght-stm'koD eub-divisiou of 

Isiras in ShoUpnr ou tbo right bank of the vallej. These extra 

rks and iho nvcfsgnry widening of the cnnal will prubalily b« 

:iiken only if famine breaks out afresli and if mnplnymcnt is 

^ ruqHirc><l ft>r thu relief of upiglibourinc Bab-divisiDiiH or if tho 

id for watpr under tlie rantil exceeds iTie supply afiuluble from 

»t tiro sta^s, aamuly the BhiLtghar rosorvoir ncd the presout 

In many places the hilly nature of tho ground hnsmado tlio courao 
tbo CttQal winding. la several caseH, as at KorbAle, Mdlegaoa, 
id Nimgaon, rocky spurs havo hwn ciit through to avoid long 
sioiirs. At tboito placM tho cuttings aro thirty-fivo feet dcop at 
< centre and half a mile long. Many largo wat«rcour)teB had also 
bo crossed so th»l twenty aqticductti, niaoty-four culverts, aatf 
■ne oVPr-passagHt bad to bo cnnslructed. Of tho watercoursBI 
I largottt i.i iho Knrha, which dniinit 4-40 sqiiaro milv« and hua a 
Bp and gonerully rocky bed. Tbe canal crosses it at the forty- 
fth mile near B£rd.niati by an acguuduct of Uiirt«oa »pnns of thirty 
gt and twenty-lbree feet hcndway. This is probauly the mosb 
fcvonrahle crossing in lodiu of n largo and dangoroiu torrent by an 
^Qcduct. Tho OTur-paiisages are of soraowmit novel design and 
Lppear hke huge inverts over which thn ttrcnnis are pajisea while 
I caoal runs underui-atb, througli doublo gallcriue arcbt'd across. 
two of the OTcr-pasjiflgf-ii, one near vadgnnn and one at 
indar, tho inverts htivc a span of ninoty feet, Theroarc thirty- 
ren road and acootnLnodntion bridges and sovcml foot and calU& 
ridges. Moitt of tho sqncilucts and culverts have boon rnkde so a« to 
How carts or cattle to pass under them, so that on an avenge thero 
soma crosstDg provided nl abnut every hiilf milo of the canal, 
■'irttt cI»S8 btiiigidows havo been built at Bhntgbnr, at Virvfidi, and 
it Uaramati, and smaller bungalows at tho Nira bridge, Vadgaon, 
indar, Sansar, Utilurnc, (lotundt, and TuraugvAdi. The popula- 
tion oi Ibe valley lias gnwtly dccraiited of late years, but the soil 
generally good and cnpnblo of maintaining a muoh larger popula- 
tion than it now stipports. It ts expected that the firet fifty>two 
silea of thecanal will bi- opened bu ns to utilize the Nirn water in 
the moDSOOO of 1884. There can be littlo doubt that when tho 
valley is protected from drought cnnitnl will flow iuto it and enable 
the people to Qtilizc I bo water to tlie utmost. It is hoped that this 
canal, whose primary object is to protect the area under command 
from the effects of drought, will ultimately dcvclopo a uot revenue 
more than enough to corer the interest on the ontlay. 

A white marble tablet with the following inscription cut in black 
letters and a companion AInritthi tnblct havo boon set ab the canal 
tbcadworka twenty miles east of Bbncghar : 

I v. a ET I. 

I Tas NiBA 

m I>MistMd for tho lrTlK»UOn of thti luliU ot ftO vtltmcaak 

^^^^K On ttM l«ft bADk ot xUv Nm Ulver, 

^^^^^H OoaaprUUtg ■ «ultai«bl« Mr«« of 437 sqakr* mllaa. 

Chapter IT. 

Watui WoRXa 

[Bombay 1 



SapUr IV. 

la IM mi)** In lan(th. axeliulinK %ruieh«*. 

Ita rapply U r*ndar«<l poreanlal by & lUirM:* Uk* at ahat«har 

OB tb* Talwaadl rirtir, M wU»« vaat of (Ua plcoa. 


Tb« caaal iraa < io t nm #we>d far tb« employstant of ttta pvopls 

diirUis tiM Tamliie la 1S7&-7T. 

For tirentj-«Lx tnonttu an avenco of 8O06 ponoaa Of All kces wrrv enphiT 

tba hiKbov number inanr one day tMiog 24,133- 

Tlia BEiwuiluura wm Ba 1,54.878 Oo wmem tad cliaritabt* ff«Uif 

Th« ▼kloa of Ui« wovk •xanwd ww Ba- &.0030S. 

Od ih* ocaaation of Uio dlatroaa aauaad by tb* Pamina a«d anbaeqaaM 

partod of lilcb prtoMi, tb» works war* atiap*tid«d ia Karoh 1880 

Tbajr v«r« ranimed in JaaiuuT IBSl, 

kivd th« e»nal WM flrtl opMiad for iiricBtioa in 1884. 

J. ■• WhlUnc, M-A^. VUaMXiM; XsaontiTa BasiiMn, Vin OftBaL' 

At KAsurdi in Bhimlhadi, twenly-rourmilcs east of Poons, at II I 
of £118-2 8a (IU.n,U24) a reservoir was mode iu 1838 under thi 
^dvico of tlio KcYL-uiit? ComniiattoDor Mr. Williamsoii. Ia 18M,I 
wliolo of the eArlbon embftitkinent was wa&bed awav, bitL the ouuaD 
waa nnliurt. Ita restoration was beeua by ihe irrigation depart 
as a faDiine relief work in 1804> aud it was completed as an onlinsr 
work wheu the necessity for rulief c«a3od. It is a samll re^i 
depeodttut for ita supply ou tlio local rainfall over an area of sir »-p. 
milott. It waa finialied to test the value of reftervoirs which dopetiidel 
for their supply ou local rainfall. Tho restored reservoir holds "" 
niilliuns of cuhic feet of wat«r and i.t furuished wiLh two diMtribut 
chaDUota uoinitiitni!in<; 583 acres, Tho irork was tiui<ihcd in \i 
and the pond was fiJIpd for the first time in AupLit of Uiat yfl 
Tho total cost was £+7 tO 12*. (Ila. 47,49G), that is at tlio rate 
(R3.8O) on every acre under command. From lli69 to 18S3 tho aoj 
has been most uncertain. In Homo years tho ro«crroir has 
in others it has remained almoet dry. The irrippilion rates at 
in force are the »«tne a» tbo«c sanctioned fort)io Muthn, canal 
the oiglit mile ntdiii5 from Poodh, Bi'ihhul seed has been sown belli 
the embankment and has thriven fiiirlj*. A few innrn of other kifl 
haro also been planted. As this work depends for its snpply 
restricted ftrea in a tmct of very uncertain rainfall, tho rosull«i 
oarer bo suliofactory. 

In the village of Pinipiilpion In Bhiroth'idi, twenty-eight miles 1 
of Poona, near the railway station of VeTai, a reserroiroallcd MMc 
after a ncishbourlng temple of Mdt^bn or Mntakmal, was mndol 
1876-77. i'he resprvoins deaiffiied to store the snrplns wnteraj 
the rt{!;bt bank Muthn cnoal and ivntor the land between it and 
Mnthn-Muln river. At full supply level it has an area of 470 
nn<l a capncity of SSO millioug of cubic foot. The site was chosen! 
and fiutreyod by Colonel Fife, It. E.. in 1S63, when exaoiiuintf the 
best moanR for irri^ntinf^ the country east of Poona. As tho Mutha 
canal project was uadertaken the scheme for the M£t«ba roeerroir 

1 Mr. WhiliiiKii>niiti«nB tha naniM of Meoui. R. Belinnan. awfalim 1 
Henrfand BftiJiTriuitiak mb-cBifiDMn, KokmAii Nu-a^-kB, mip«rnii>r, ud 
Janinlan and Nlrtyu) Vi«hna ovtnMta. Th* «)u«f «ontraatar wu a NAgar I 
of ^r«t iiamail Mavtatur^tn Uttannlm, 

lid aside. Iii IS76-77, whon fiimlno mlicf works woro start**!, 
Ezecutire Engiiie«r for Poodh, Mr. Gierke, revisi^d tlie plana and 
mates and recomniended tlic project because as tlie Muthn rif^lit- 
k canal passes close alwre tbo site of the lake it tvouIJ form an 
Uiary to the canal, whose s(irplu.s watera might during the south* 
it moofiooQ he stored for uae iii thu dry aeasou. Tho work vviis 
un in IX''COR)ber 1876 and completed almost entiNly by famine 
jar in Augast [377. The reservoir is formed by an earlheu dam 
S Feet long and forty-eight foot in ^n^atoet hoi^ht. Tho full 
ply IvTol is oino foct bolow the top of the dam. The w&%be weir 
tho left flank of tho dam ig QOO feet long. The ontlet whose 
)l ia ten feet above tho bottom consists of a masonry culrert 
Icr the dam whero it abuts ou tho right Hank and three twolre* 
I iron alaice tbItos of the oivlinary pattern in uxo for wat«r- 
ply maing. These valves ore atuiobed to K-ii^'tbs of pipes set in 
Crete at tho inner end of the culvert and are worked by iron, 
9 Inid along the dam slope. The rnnin distributing channel ia 

milea long aud is capable oE dischargiug twenty-»ix cubic feet 

icond. It boa a main branch to the village of I'iinpalgaon which 

in divides into two branches of a total length of aix milea. Of 

•icf<>9 nndor cotnmaDd, 3600 acres are in Pimpalgann, £900 

^eUvdi. 5fty in Kbatbdi, aud 2000 in P^gaon. Tho catchment 

A in only ten H<\t)ar(3 miles and tho nTeroge rainfall under twenty 

he*, but tvith tbo aid of tho aiirplas water from the right bank 

Iha canal tho monsoon demand for water can be .■rnp^ied and the 

oir ain always bo left full in October when lue aouth-west 

MOOD cloflos. A regulating bridge is built across tbo Mulhu cunal 
49)lh mile from Poonn by which the wntor iu the canal can at 
ij tiuiL- be turned into tho reservoir. From iho fifth of Aarast 
8 water from the )[ntba canal began to be uvaihiblo. I'ha 
igation rates at present in force arc the a&me aa those saoctioned 
tho Motha cnuals beyond the eight mile radius from Poona. For 
□gth of four miles tho boondary of the land tnkcn for the reservoir 

need with aloe. The margin above tho water level has been 
with bdhhut seed, which at tho upper end has grown remarkably 



Chapt*t IT. 



I-A white marble tablet with the following inscription carved in 
:k Itvtlera and a compoaion MarfUlii tablet have been set at tbe 
> end of tho dam : 

V. R. BT L 


D«*i(ii«d tot ttorlox (urptna wAt«r from tho Mutba Owttl 

■ad Irrlgatlnv Um tract of Un<l Irinc b«iw««a 

tha Tank and tli« HuUib-MuIb Blver 

Saa an ar«a of 470 aotwa and « capaoitr ot 

82S mUliana ofonblo C»ot- 

Tlie eartbwoTka of th* dsm wan oonuaooMd f9r tiM 
■mployintnt of th* peoplv 
diutnft tba TamlDo of 
Wm alBbtMD moatli* Ulft KOordod enpl»m*a* «"'> 
aa an av«raK«, 81O0 p«<n>l« of »U agM. 
Uta blcbeat numbar on iDr oae dar iMlna B800. 






Tbs aspMidlturo ««■ lU. 1.BB.O00 

on witc** no'l oh&rltahU r«U*f. 

•nd Ui* valii* of ttia work oxoouMd waa Ba> 1,40.000 

«Dd opntiMl for Irrlcatioo In Oetobcr IBfft. 
WIUiMn Cl«Tkc. M.liM(~U.E-. EzncDtlTV EocUiMr tot IcrlgMloa, 1 

Ono an<l a half milm nbovc tho Bhiintliodi rilK;^ of Rm*DO£ 
fifty tniloH wwt oE Poona, on the Itolimnl, u Mti&]l f)^-<]rr, v 
Sliiriuiilml rust-nuir oiilled after Iba vUlsge of that Dame tk 
niilcH tiirtli!.'!- tip ilio utix-nitL The tv^ervair Vias tleaifraed to 
tha kmlsou the left bknk of tho Kotimiil. At full aupplj it I 
ftn Area of b'Si acres and a capacity of 367 millioua uE cubicj' 
lu Junuury 1677, wbeii it bacftmo necc^tary to provide work 
tbo dvslitiite people of East l'oi>n&, pluia imil ostimntfi 
^proparofi by Mr. Cleiko tlio Eix«cutivo Gngioeer Cor Irritf 
Wttrk was bejjuu iu Februni-y 1877 and finished in Uci 
1878. Tlo dfttn ia of earth, 2^00 leet long mid fifty-thi-ee 
in nn'iitt'itl height, 'fli© full supply leyel w eleven fert h 
tbo Lop of thu <Uni, and tlio otitlut levol it cluvcu ft-ct above i 
bottom of the ri>survoir. Tho waste weir clmtiocl, which is on 
rif^Iit llnnk of tlio dnm, iit 300 foot wido. The outlot, » 
«ulvi>rl tiiidcr thu duui where it abme on the Hf^bt llunk aodtl 
tn-olvo-iiK'h iiMii Hluice vnlveit,iiiof thoKatn(> pattern astliat doseri^ 
tur tlio Miitcibii ri'Morvoif. Tliv <-«iihJ Icatliiif^ from the 
is 1-) luiluH loDjf. with a fall of three feet a mile and a disckar 
capacity at ibe bead of thirty cubic feut a second. Of 4500 1 
nndur outnmuud 800 uro in Biiv&Dgnon, l&UU in Kliarki. and: 
in Cbinoholi. The catchmeat batiu bos an area of twenty<fl 
aaunrc otiles, i*ith an avtintKO raiufaU of eighteen to twenty >ocl 
I'Lu roiti't-voir lill*; only duriiif? yi^rs iii which tho ruinfaltj 
OOMsidoniblv abovo the nvfntj^, biit the additional storage i.-mj 
luliiiitH of t)io supply of favoiiritblo yoars being stor^l for tool 
yearn of aUttrt rAiiifnll and tbtis ensures a larpo nrorege siipl 
la 1880*81 the trrtgatod croLig were rcreals OQl actes, pohwa] 
(iPivfi, Hiigiircnoo i ncf09, ga>'(U<n prodiieo 4 ncres, and condiiD 
li mcn-a. Tho woter ratva at present in force are based en 
eksflillod lists Minotionod for tho Muthn cbiuiIb. Thpro are 
cliUHWN with nn aero cbarf^e on tho first cl«*s of £1 (Rs. Uf), on 
Mcond of 8». (Us. 4), oti the third of U. {Ur. 2), on the fourth of I 
(Ro.l), and on tho fifth of S*. (R^.l). The tnargin ul ibt; rcscrvi 
itbuvu the ItDO of fidl supply bas been fenced with nloe and nowa 
bahhid M'cd, hut owing to the stony soil the b'UJutl has not dd 
welt. Bahhul eoed sown below the dain has thrircD reuiarkal, 
well and now forms a belt of f*ood.sizod treoa. ^s tbo rainfalt i 
the cffltohmoiit is very nncortain the supply of water is procorio 
and in some yiiarn the in-igatinn bns t<i be nnich rostriotoil ; this is to ' 
b« rcgrt'ttod as the holdortt of f.hw land commanded by the rescrvoy 
have flbown tbenisolvcs anxious to obtain a nupply of water. 

A white loarblo tablet wilU the following iaitcTiptton cut in bL 
lotu>ni nnd a compimioQ Uardthi tablet have been set nt the 
end of tho dain : 



V. B. XT I. 


Detlcned for tlie irrigation of the landi lying 

on Uie "Lett Bank of tbs Botlmal Nala, 

Haa an ftiaa of S34 aorsa and a oorpaaitr of 

867 mlllloiu of oubio feet. 

Th« Mrthworka of the dam were oommenoed foi the 
•mploTment of the people 
during ths Famine of 
9qi dxtaen months they afforded smploTment tt>i, 
on an average, 3400 people of oU ogee. 
Hut highest number on any one day being 9000- ■ 
The expenditure iras Bb. 1,68,000 
on wages and ohari table relief, 
•nd the Tsloe of (he work exeouted was Ba. 1,4B,000. 

The Tank wan completed 
■qd opened for Irrigation In OotobeT;i878. * 

millun Gierke, O.II., Xxeoutire Engineer for Irrigation, Foona Blvioion. 

Id the Inddpiir village o£ Bhddslvddi, on a feeder of the Bhima, 
ibont siztj-foar miles east of Pooiia, the Bhitdalvsdi reservoir was 
^egnn as a relief work in the famine of 1876-77, and ficished and 
^ned for irrigation in May 1831. It was designed to water the 
lids of the villages of Daluj and Palaadev. At full supply it haa an 
I of 335 acres and a capacity of 222 millions of cubic feet It ia 
' by an earthen dam 2725 feet long and fifty-five feet at ita 
est height The drainage area above the dam is twenty-three 
^■qnare miles. During the five years ending 1882-83 the average 
ininfall has been 21*53 inches. The waste weir on the left fiank is 
' 400 feet long with a crest eleven feet below the top of the dam. 

A white marble tablet with the following inscription cut in black 
ktters and a companion Mardtbi tablet have been set at the north 
*nd of the dam : 

V. B. HT I. 


Designed for the irrigation of lands in the Tillages 

of DaluJ and Palaadev. 

Has an area of 33S aores and a oapaoity of 

323 milUona of onblo feet. 

Tb» earthworka of the dam were oommenoad for the 

emplojrment of the people 

during the Famine of 


Tor twalTfl months tbey afforded employment for, 

on an average, 1600 people of all ages, 

tha highest number on any one day being 61O0- 

Tha expenditure wa^ Bs. 64,000 

on wages and oharitable relief, 

tUtA tlie Tkloe of the work exeouted waa Ba. 48,000. 

The Tank waa oompleted 

and opened for Irrigation in Hay 168L 

WnUam Olorke, U-Inat.O X., Hxeouttve Engineer for Irrigation, Foona. 

The outlet, which is on the right dank of the dam, is of similar 
eoDstractioD to those described in the MfLtoba and Shirsuphal reaer- 
ruin. Its nil is tbirty-five feet below full snpply lovel. From it a 

Chapter IV. 



Watbs Wokkr. 





P finiiHNMRirr 
"ATim Woamt. 





CMinl or dUtrihutincf cbnatKrl, wltb, at tbc hotA a diBcb&rgJDg ca[ 
of Bfleen cabic ft-et the »)eoiid, is ted (i^^ miles along tbo ricfht baakj 
theBtrauoi. Tliu nrcn miHcr conimiind is )900»«ros. A aixtribntifl 
cbnnnel beadiD); from tbe 8atn« oatltit in the left bank of the str 
IB also prrijectci]. lU IcQgtb will be 3^ tnitejt and it will conii 
llOOacrea. Thy work was opont'd in J&81. Tbe irrigation 
are tbe SAine as those mentioned under the Shi»npliftl reserroir. 

Bwidofl those works dcsignod for irrigation, thero are two Ittgs] 
reservoirs at Kdtraj &ud P^hin dod two moni at P^tas and Sai 
Th« Pilau and >Supa reservoirs were made ai) relief works duriog I 
187U-77 f»niiiio. 

Id tho high land about two miles to the north of tho Kitraj | 
and about pix miles south of Poona is the Kitraj take, which 
bnitt in 1750 by Poeliwa B^fiji BlijirAo. It covers an area of I 
acros and has a dam of rubble masonry 1000 foot long' nad for^ I 
Tiigh. It holds water all the year round and has a grealtst deplkj 
forty foot. The water is used only fwr driiikitig. MnsoDry COB^ 
lend to Poena whoro there are dstoms or haudo indiSercat ports j 
tho town. 

In the Bhimthadi Tillage of Pdtas, aboat thirty-seven miles 
of Poona, a raaervoir was Wf^iin as a famine relief work in Jaoi 
1677 and Qniahed iu 1879. It is a small reservoir with a full sr 
area of forty -six acre*, a capacity of fifteen millions of cubic 
and a catcbioent urea of throo eqnaro uiile6, The earthen daaj 
2900 foot loDg and Lwcnty-niue feet in frr(>ategt height. I'ho 
weir is 170 feet long and is sewn feet below the top of the dam. 
total cost was £3400 (Ra. 34,000). The site is very unfavounl 
and tho ooat is out of proportion to the capacity of tho roeorroir. 
only us« is to provide water fur house paQxises and cattle in 
Tillage of Patss. It was carried oat only to alTord reliof which < 
urgently needed. 

Aboat one mile north-west of tho Bbirolhadi Tillage of Supa i 
thirty-fivo milos CASt of Poonn, tho Siipn reservoir was bopan 
(amine roliof work in Novumber lft7t} mid iluishod inlST". 
eartben dam inlaid across u gnpio an old enibnnkmciit tbrttwo 
from the excavation of » nmall jnnid many ycara old. The total) 
WAR £-220 (Its. ZiOO). This i» a triOiiig work uaeful only for cattl 
It was carried oat solely to relieve distress in tho immedir 
neigh bonrhood. 

On a Feeder of tlie Mula in the rillagu of PilthAn six mi< 
west of Pnona a reservoir was made in ]8ti7-C8 at a cost 
£1G,700 (Its. 1,67,000) to furnish wntor for tho sUtion of Kirl 
ai<d Government Houi^o, Gaiiesbkhind. It is formed by an earthd 
dnra 2750 foot in length with a greatest height of fi'fty-two fe 
Tho wast© weir is "tOO feet long and Its crest is ten feet bele 
the top of the dam. Tho full supply area of tho lake is 153 acres, 
avnil iiblf capacity is sevooty-tbrea millions of cubic feet, and 
catchment areo is sixteen square miles. The water is led from 
roBorvoir in a ten-inch cast-iron main which goes throiifjh ta 
Government Houso grounds, by the cantomnent of Kirkec> ou to ' 
Powder Works, The water is fully distributed in Qovenimc 


and in Rirkee barracks and cantoainent. 
sforo tho left Imnk Mutba canal waa mado. 

It was of great 

Outptor II 



ere are twn iTtndps of weeding, bj a sickle or t-ANr/ir whicl) is Wimixo. 

rally pmctisod in hill-laiide, and by a small hoo op kutpe. 
□ tbo crop 1!) six indies high, to cl(«r it of veed^, thesmall hos 
kulpe i» n^ualljr usod twice at intervals of ten to iwctvo dajrs, 
bon 18 drawn by tvo mnzzlecl ox<?n and is driren so that tbo 
of springing crop paseos tbrougb th<? B|]eico botwcon tho bladoi. 
ia ofU'u uscU doubit?, that ia uiie pair of oxen draw two boos. 
e uprooted weeda arc gatbored and are cither throim away or 
to fAL on tbv spot^ Bosidcs lessening the drain on tbo eoil, 
ding lixiseus Ibe noil and (-tinhlc!! it to tako in and liold mora 
istnre. The crop rootn hiivo free scopo and tlie pUiiLi grow 
roualy. If weeding is ncglcoted the surface grows bard and 
.t«d and tlie vrater fnilinjjf to aonk in wujbes nwaj the p«riicles 
Cold-wefltlior crops M-'Idom want woi-ding, aa tho ground is* 
th too carofullj cleaned and too dry to yield any largo supply of 
ids. Mitia ar« tbo clcuacsb wccdors ; KuDbis, especially ia tlie 
nro careleoH. 

from tbe time the grain forms, to drive off birds the crop is watched 
1 a wooden shed called mala generally set on a platform or in a 
about ten ff*t from thegrouud. Tlic walcber, who ia generally 
lOy, itbouts Aiid tbrows stones fi-om a sling callod ^<ypha». 
VLcn ripe the crop ia either reaped by tbe sickle or tfila or pnll- 
np by tho roots, and bound in sbeavea. It is carric<l in carts 
tbo tbrasbin^<6oor or K-hnfe and stored there till it is dry. Tho 
'finest and best fillod headfi are separated and tlioir grain K<>pt for 
In tho sowing simsoo tbis seed giaiu realizes half u» much 

in as ordinary grain. 

The crops or« talcvn in cart? to tbo Uira*l)irg. floor or kkah. Tho TniAnmra 
raahing-tluor is mado in tbe hardest part of ibo field or Boniotimcs 
r tbe village site, by wettingand beating the ground till it iu hard 
8mi.<iitb, and tben snoAriog it with cowdung. An upright post 
tirdn is act in tbe centre and a shvaf of (be crop ia tied to Cbo 
ip of tbe pijftt. Ih the case Sf ludian millet or yrart and spiked 
illet or ^"ij'ri tbu beadit of grain aro broken off by women and 
irown roHiid tbe central post five or aix inches deep ; of wheat and 
CO the whole plant ia tiiraslicd ; and of math, mug, and other pulses 
m«tini^s the whole plant and sometimes only thostalk«are thrashed. 
X, eight, or more ninuiled oxen are tied to the pole, half on one 
do half on tbo other, hcing opposite ways, and nriven ronnd and 
n>nd treading out the grain, Tur pods and barley hnuls are boatoa 
;ainst a log of wood ho that tho grain falls on tbe floor. 

Tbo grain is winnowed from tbo chuff with ibo help of tbo wind. Wtxvc 

chaff is filled into baskets which aro handed by one man to a 

maa who Htands on a high thrwe-loj^ged stool called vtlvdi, and 

:ea tho banket slowly witb a sbnl:ing motion. Tbo heavy grain 

lis. tbo light grain and cbnff are blown aside. A man at tbo foot 

the stool sweeps thn chaff from tbo eiigo of tlie grain with a 

all broom called haini. To cleanse it still further tbe grain is 

terwards passod tbroogh a ticro or ehdlan. 




Chapter IT. 




In the cost grain is oftan nUvrod in nDdcrj^roniid chsinfaera 
nmi. G-rftin is also ofton io the enst nnd altniyi iq tlio wast : 
ID large cylindrical Imaketa citllcd t,yitting$ or Jtiiii^u mwl* ' 
uifynidi or titr tvign and sii]<wre<l inside and out with eoirda 
Tbe surfncD of the grain is also tbick,ptiu*l«r(<>(1 nrilli cowduog and I 
batdcet is covered with a conical thntcti ronf. lit Lite west, the bd 
sUind at some little diBlAUCO in front tif the lioiis^^ fur tmictj 
fire, with a fevr loose stoneA andortbem to keep onb wbito ants, 
the east thoy psiiitJI/ stand in the voranilik of im houMi. 

In the lighter eastern <toils aa many as aix gnvinEi mnjr be 
growing ti>iri'lhi-r y«ir af ttrr year. . A. fi^U wilh on« crop iw mH 
Been. In tVe Mat* or June iwwings bajri, titr. ambu-fi, ^ngelly : 
rA!a, ntti-f, and tihdlu joAri uiay all or almost all Im neen tog<ft 
la the lutd crops, s&fflower Ib a]uio«t alvraya mixed with the sta 
crop grara or sKaluJcari. Linseed is sown in rotra with gr&m 
VlifMt. Tho praciiL-c of mixed sowings iiriscs chivfly from the porertj 
whii:h dares not risk the total failai-o of a single crop. It was (oeioiW ' 
by B cudtom which prevailed noder fornifr Uoveronicntii of attacking 
the Btapio crop until the aase^moiil was paid, in KUch a easd' 
Kunbi could etill make aouiethiog out of a mixed crop, 

Wood-uth, called <iatlti or Jcumri, ix conEinod to tfie hi 
fffut. Tbo word <lalhi is taken from the small hill-aido plotsi 
daih'iit whom nniip but hand tooU can bo used. Tho 
cuUiTOtLMl arc eftvn pstremoly steep. Operations aro begun id 
cold weather br felling the brushwood and amitll trcc» and Ic 
the hranche-s of the larger trees. At the end of iho hot weall 
the dry branches are hornl nnd the ground i» at onee cU-ared i 
tnanurpd. After rain hax riilli:<n tho Hoil \» loosened with tho hi 
bod or kiiii'il tiud tho crop is pluatL'd or sown at thr cuse inayl 
Kliurasni, ndifU, tdt-a, viiri, anil kolrit or horik are the cro! 
Tilhige is generally continued fur firevfars btigiiiuiiig with khut 
and ending with koJru. The snhaefjnont fallow lasw ten to fif 
years. This form of tillage w»s never practised except by Kc 
Thiikurs, and other half-wild tribe*. It is uow confined within 
narrow limits. 

Rotation of crops is not nnknown tboagh tho pmctieo of 
sowings robs it of half its ralue. In iho Tighter eoils jvdri and i 
mixed as above alternate, the plough being ased after jvdyi on 
bordei-9 of tho west, and after Utjri in the easC Hajri is ol 
grown three or four years running i^'rnn is seldom repeated' 
often a^ it takes moro out of the ground. lu the heavy deep 
cold-weather millet or titdlu jivirt is grviwn for sereral 
running, rolii^red Homotitnos Iiy a crop of gram or wheat, 
wheat is the atnplo lato crop it alternates with gram, bat is 
p«wn year by year. In the we.'«t tho rotation in early or ichan/k 
IS moro olabonte. Fallow land is ploughed and sown withXr^itrol 
the first year, with niigli the second year, and with vari, sdi-.i, 
hhdtlli, or hodrtt tho third and fourtli yowra. In the lifth y( 
ft/r.u«I«nt isftgainsownandtbelandisleft fallow for fonror fiveye 
the land is ploughed before each crop, bat, excvpt in tho nUi^li 
vari seed bods uo inauure ia used. This course of crops ia sometii 

Chapter IT. 



talmrt by sowlnp W ura-gni in tlio tLird year sncc^eded bv tte fallow, 
|Lm also occasiiiDally pri>loi>geci a yeup or two with simikr ciripSj 
i.v)jt boioff always tho laat. Under the mp«t favourable 
umstaopes the rotation in gwd eos la-ta thr ee yea rB. The course 
IB in July with («5 orbotiTp. TlTljisous sativiu, a crop wblcfa 
iroa wut«r tUxtat onco in fifteen days. In October, aft«r tho 
er plants hsvc been picked and set aside for ropo-iiinkii)$f, tlio 
ift plou^bttd into tbo ground fi» manure. The land is then 
and left for Iwirnty (lays, wlicn il is ploughed twice and 
d for sngnrranc. Wbon tbo ciuio l>rgin8 to Kprout i'<i/ ptilso 
The sugurcunu is cut in the following March, the Itiavca aro 
a«<l on tbo spot aod burnt as soon aft ther are dry, and tha Inrd 
looded. The Iiiod is ploutfbc^l wilb sbnllow Cuirowft nnd vtU 14 
rii as fodJcr. The vdl h takon up before .Tuly when the land 
to bo prepared for kamt/ti rice. Tlie rice ia sown in July and 
it) IJeceiiibtT. After two ur tbreo plougltiu^ whoat Lit feown- 
1 CqL in tbo end uf April. The laud is now p1on);bod and lies 
irnpped till July when perhaps earlUnute are plantef) and dug 
in October. This order ia Itablo to tnany ebanges according to 
varying qualities of soil, water-supply, aud the circorostances and 
nionxnf tlioliitflbaiidmfin. SmiR'titne* ffftfti, that is Greek gmss, 
Ichiiriisni ore plc>ughecl into tlie Koil instead of Iciy or bentp, and a 
r-yeiir up even n tive-year rotation is followed. In well-wMered 
d.s n three-rear rotation is not coininou, fur, in adiUtloti tu tho 
K-DSDof well irrigation, the watcr>sapp1y lacka the power supplied 
the Combination and co-operation which uro distinctive of en-nat 
torvd lands. 

[u tbo plain parU of tbo district land is DORiotimes left fwllow, but Fallow*. 

K a question now fnr husbandnien loftro plain land fallow simply 
to riwt it. Tbo fallww in womi-aidi or Jalhi laud is certainly 
riUi tho object of reotiug Ihu land and kstii ton to Micen 

rs. ^ 

Thtt tnnderftte clititat(> and fertile Boil of the Ponnn district offer Oatinsuro. 
ry inductnnent to ^rdvniiig. Yet the area nndcr gardens id not 
Of late near Poona tlio best p^i-den soil to a great extent 
given to the le*a troubleaoineand very profitable cultivation 
^(^rcane. This land will probably remain under suffarcane 
■il it is exhanated of soluble silicates when it will doubtU-ftit bo 
cit to garden crops until it^ is again fit to bear sugarcane. 
p best ^rdoii auil is u dark brown Iriiililo Inam lyiufj on loose 
m trap rock. lo such positions, if walls bnvc bi-vu biiiit to keep 
autl over three feet deep, and water ut available, it beai-s exoelleut 
ip« of cabbage, cauliflower, In-et, cucumber, radish, spinach of 
Bral kinds, and other nutritions vegetables, and custard apples, 
ncgratintcs, omuf^s, ^wvum, mangoes, plantains, and other 
l. Another very similar soil iii found ou river banks. This ia 
a dark-vrllow or brown loam but ita pnrticlea aro finer and 
;oDHequcDrc it is sometinifs apt to hold too much water and to 
ik in hard litiaps. Its situation makes it liable lo floods, and it 

I Ur. Q. M. Woodraw. SuptriiiUmlaDt Sotaniod QudM. Poena 




Chapter ly. 


contains a verj small proportioTi of limo. HiiU onthewLole it m\ 
admirable ttcijl, spectallj suited for ]>opai and plnntaia trece 
floworing shi-ubs, and if it is ftomo hciglii abuvo flund lertj Mj 
exctUeiit for orange and mango trees. The black soil overly iapopea] 
calcaruoiis marl is also a valuable garden aoil. With liberal matinnii 
and watering it bears flrst-rate vegotabloa aad flowcrB, but is 
suited to fnitE trees as they aro apt to ran to vood. 

In pr«paring tho soil Avon in market ganlons tho natiro ploas 
tto fav-ouritfl tool. When drawu by four paira of wtlUog 
and trhen the furrows cross and rccrwts and pass as deep as 
inchos below thu surfiico, the native plough ia remarkably eB 
Tboogb it is cosily to wnrkit can bo uaud dunug ruaoy days on wl 
Earopean and American plougbs tnaat romftin idle. A stout boi;. i 
pditrfe and a einnll wiMMliog-hook or khurpe almost complrtc ti 
list of niarket garden tools; wbile in omamenlal gronnds the pir 
*rako, Dutch hoc, pniniug shears, budding knife, watonag 
Bjringe, lawn-mowing machine, and oilier tools may be seen| 
Qse. Tba spade Is seldom employod. The soil is so sticky itl 
wet and 80 nan) when dry, that the spade cannot often ba 
witb advantngi>. In w»tci-iDg a garden plot tbo ground i<i laid i 
ID ridges about fifteen inches apart and ten iiichi»i high, nod 
hollow betweoQ is flooded. 'Hit! gronnd is also nrmnged in flat * 
about ten fuet by ten (e«t divided by one ridge or by a pur 
ridges. The pnir of ridges forms a water channel; and tbasinj 
ridge Sfj)antt<!S one lino of beds from the next lino. Tho 
of water given weekly averages in dry weather eighty tons 
to plantains; »ixty tons to c<ibbng<', cauliflower, and other qv 
growing garden crups ; and forty tons to rose tret's and similar crof 
According to the age of the plant and the □a.tore of the soil firs 
fifteen days pass between tbo wat«nngs. • 

The chief garden manure ih tho ashes of cowdung cakes mb 
with goat's dang and vegetable refuse. When kept in apiti 
that it may bo moi»t ond yet not have its solnble constituents nratli 
away by rBinftbiaiHan excelleut muniirv and is applied toallj^ 
crops. Poudrctte prepared by mixing fresh ntghtsoil with 
cowdung and wood-aabes has of late come into general use. 
IB specially snited for quick-grow in j? leaf or root crops such as 
bsg^ oaolifiower, potjLtoc«, planlains, and eugarcanp, and for 
and flcwenng plants whiirh require regular watering. Con 
misod with veguUiblo rcfiiw winch has boen kopt moist until ib] 
well decayed is perhaps the safost and most geDoriilly useful gar' 
mantire. If the cattle aro fed with oil-cake or grain it is i»rticnl 
rich ; in any case it is eafo and gentle and ctiu bo used without 
of ill eUccts. Dried fish and castor-oil cake are also used for gar 
crops of rapid growih and ara especially profituble when appli^ ] 
cabbage, caulillower, beet, and sugarcane. 

The best Hved-sowing season is about the end of June ; the hea^ 
rains with whicb the sonth-wost monsoon bnrata aro over, and 
air is cooled to a tempernto wnrmth. At this season green Hy 
other insect pests ubuund, and so much cnro is required to pre 
young cabbage and cauliSowcr plants that their sowing is gene 




till AagastoT September. Beana^beet, briajal8,caiTotB, celery, 
knol-kobl, lettaces, mustard, onions, parsley, peas, radishes, 
h, and tomatoes among vegetables; and asters, balsams, 
Iralus, nastnrtium, pinks, phlox, and many other flower seeds, 
he seeda of all local trees or trees belonging to districts 
I similar climate may be sown about the end of Jane and 
ed at intervals for anccession up to September. In the 
r of October good seed often fails. November and December 
be proper seasons for sowing lacerne And asparagus, for 
Qg potatoea, and most of the vegetables and Sowers in the 
ins list ; also for larkspur and mignonette. In February and 
I several kinds of melons are sown in river-beds where water 
r the surface. In April, early crops of beet, celery, encumbers, 
:ofal, lettuce, spinach, and tomato are sown. In sowing at 
eason great care must be taken to provide proper shade and 
ire. If complete shelter from the impending bnrat of the south- ' 
^ns is available the April sowings may be repeated in May 
nnoal flower seeds be sown in pots in moist shady places, 
-smelling flowers are grown to a large extent in market 
ns. Among the commonest kinds are roses, jessamines caX\edjdi 
ogra, the tuberose called gulehhabbu, chrysanthemnmsor aAeriw, 
tntnders or kaners. In rearing these flowers the chief rule is 
p the plant growing. With this object, as soon as one crop 
rers is gathered, the plants are pruned to within a few buda 
i old wood, manure is dug in between the plants, and if 
>ather ia dry the ground is watered. By this treatment three 
of flowers are raised in the year, but the plants soon grow 
Y and have to be replaced, and the flowers are small. Micaelia 
>ac8 gon chdpka, Flnmieria acuminata chdplia, Tagetes Marigold 
F, Canna indica * hardali, and Pandanus odorattssimus 

are also grown as market flowers. The list of vegetables 
es nearly all the chief kinds known in Europe. Several 
•inaches are raised from pohla Amaranthus, pdlak Chenopodiuui, 

Foenumgnecam, and ambddi Hibiscus cannabinns. A large 
radish or mitla ia grown for its roots, and the pods of the 
Hibiscus escnientus are a favourite crop. The chief fruit 
re the costard apple, pomegranate, fig, grape, maugo, jdmhhul, 
id oranget The betel-leaf pan Piper betel ia also grown in 

Dog the commonest ornamental plants are allamanda, alooasia, 
ontia, begonia, bignonia, boagainnillea, caladium, convolvulus, 
18^, ferns, geranium, gesnera, hibiscus, nehimbtum, nymphea, 

poivrea, quisqualis, rose, and taberucemontana. 

art of grafting by buds called handi, and grafting by 
ing or kalam are practised to a limited extent. The better 
of rose, orange, pomelo, and hot may be budded at any time 
' the rainy or cold season if the sap is flowing freely, 
ling or grafting by approach ia employed to propagate 
er kinds of mango, guava, and hor. The true graft, that 
ing a branch entirely removed from ita parent tree on to a 

Chapter IT. 




tBombftf 6u«tt 



Cliai»t«r IT. 


Beparate tree, is occasionally pmctisod daring November, to imp 
vxMiff> truca. 

The use of tlie pmning knife is well tindonitood. In pmnia^l 
rtii-_' followed in most cusea is to cut back the »hoct thai hw 
llnwiira or fruit to witbin a few bods from the huae, nnd to 
wcftkly ftud decaying branchea. Floworing iihrobs of all ki 
the vint>, and tlie fig tree sro rc-gnlitrly prnned by cutting back I 
bruiJchcB which liave fruited. Other ft-uit trees ore kept faw 
nnaound wood. 

The moring of small plants which can bo gruirded from 
wind and frum the ftun is carried on during the nuny smmo ' 
BDCCesg. To move large shrubs or trees tho best time of tba ; 
hetween Novembor and January. In spito of tbo drynosi uf I 
cold season large trees can be moved moro oaaily in Poods tl 
, Europe. 

The following are tho cbiof details ol tho loading local Beld 
garden crops.^ Of cereals tberc are tbirtoen : 

1 Tho (oUovrttu[ uiteratting atttlcmrDt wm prepand by Capbuu Rot 
int ColleoBor ol Pooiib in ll^I. It ulaiTwii tU chief pruducuof tWT 
propo rti ou nch bore to tho nholo oatiuni. uid the tinea of (owing ud 

PoosA Chops, issi. 




Alia .. ». 

.SUM ... .„ 



IU)ri _. ... 

ra „. .,. 

SMdU _ .- 

i'arf ,.. -. 

MvAmw _. 
Wbwt „ 
Onaa „ 

i-dUas .. „ 

VoMr .. 
fffllA . 
fl^Uga or KvUH 
Bu|[miuuio ^, 
SlRMPotlirtua — 
Oniuna Ukd QuUc 

iSS.iT' :: ;; 

£m«« ." 

naitar .. _ 
Tatacctt — „ 
Mm. JUU. CMiuu, 


Hut -June 

Do. „, , 


1». _ 


Da. _ 



St r : 
SS: I 

■opMulnr- Onobar 

Dd. . 


Jnno and Jidumj 
All thw |-rar 
Juiwn and Aufwt 
Julf.AutpM ... 
April 'Ifay ... 
OoMtar . Ir«*«aib«r 

OOuImi. Nurtvibor 
Jnue ^. ... 


Ahdm ■Sataflhr. 


Octgfear . Mft*«Bb«r . 

Srfitankc* - Ostoiar. 








At tM liRira moMta, 
Aflcv flw m^ilh^ 
Aiirfl tmi DcRDbcr. 
J« n<Mr> - ffobnuhrj- 
July - AiiffUM, 
Jul; ■ .Mlffuit. 
Jumar} - tt^nmiT- 
Mptombrt- Oc«ak«r, 
FMKviuy HmcIi. 
Ihmaittt' Dmxnbtt. 

Sa«t In*Lia V>.pen, IV nn. 










^ z z :: 

aUdU „ . _. 

SK. - ■- - 

WP mm tta |A4 

Jo4^ - ... .J 
JUWft* ^ 

SUM QtJm» - 'Z 

•mv „ 

s?. ■- * ■"■ 

hidtu oiiTm 

biiUui ee«> or hhIm _. 

fupkluui •noUnilBlain. 
nnlouin tiUtaoiD. 
Tnama mMrma. 
t^apBluin imiMnUcnini. 
SoiiliUMi ral|;u«- 


norddun linMUtfMni. 
"■nlonm iDlItknrui, 
Puilcuui inlUinL 

Airn', Spikufl Millet, Pcniciltaria Hptcala, in 1881-82 covered 
7 ~ '.^re«, lKj,:tO(! acres of tlieni in Sinip, 108,599 io Junnar, 
P I lihvi], H2.\oit in Bhimtliadi, Hl,2HS in liaveli, 82,840 

,'Driunihftr, 24,13ll in IniUpiir, and -ilMS in MAval. H'ijrivith 
ri is tiio Htaplv crop of tbo district. It is grown bU over the 
rict bat in small quaDtitie« iu the hill; vrest of Junoar, Kfaed, 
n], and Havi'Ii. It it a finer grain than jmri and requires 
VCBTvful l-ilU>r&. There ore three Tarietiea of bajri which can 
31v be ilistiuj^uiahod except by the initiated, ijnri ur early, an 
nor rariely nukturing in three and a half months ; had ur late, 
■er varioty takinjf LuuKor to tmiture; and sajgurt, a ijaickly 
iBrin^ rariety withafliuallur ^^in and ^rown chietly under water, 
n isMfWoin June or July naualiy iu shallow black ur light 
tbUt KMh mixed with nila a Ctjaree grain, math a puUo, amhddC 
tfi, til Heaamatn, and l«r a pulM>. Thcao grains art- minted in the 
Nrioff proportinni : hfijri Hi, yi-la 1, tnalk 4, amlniiti 2, til l,and 
4. In rich wills tiir is ctitnmonl; sown iu alt4)niutu nme mcli 
1 um3 it) poor ioiltf a Rinall lefpime called hulga or kuliih 
iekirt bilionw is always uown. A brown mould partly ol rod 
foirtly of binok soil in ooDsidorad boHt fur the growth of bajri. 
\ ' ! a half poandsof the mixed seed is bowh tn thw nc-re, 

t noil the leM the seed. Bajri 'a seldoui watered or 

uuviL It dapcnds loss on the soil oud nioro on tho nun than 
i. It o«ver yields ao Urge a crop ns jtari and mboru buth 
^row jvari ia alwayn chosen, iidjri wanU more ploughing, 
■ring', and wpeiliug' than jvari. Wliou tbo crop v& four or 
iaoBM high tho weeds and gnus nro oloared. A timely fall in 
at favonrs ihe pn-wtb o( f/tijri, but, especially in bIuiUow soila, 
■nch ruin ^Ithis at tho rodts and rots the stalks. Bajri is 
iwtod in October and ifovemWr, and from uiid-Octobor to mid- 
Vary tht' crops grown with it ripen, first the panic rdJa, tfaoii the 
• nuiM, then tbo bemp atahadi, then the siowninm iiV, and Inat 
poJae tur. 'Ilia averaffe yield of b'ijri on dilTerent unwatered 
m K^iod nod bod yoars is 300 to 400 pounda. Tlio grooo cars 
WODCd and c«t«n Duder the uamR of Jint''>if-orRiin&uf'. Tborim 
■ is aotoelime* parched and mado iaio Irihin. /fo/rt iR obioHy 
a* m hratd {ptnin, bcioi? kottided with salt into round caVos 
t fiv.-. incliMi aeroM and ludf an inch thick. It is not liked by 
■ S909, but U tliv faivonrite food oi the npper classes 
ui ihe people uf Poona. The stulks called Konrwd 

Cliapter l\ 

Btwr oaMtt 




are giren to cattlp, Lai tmlrss trodden ioto chaff are liel<I inferior] 
almost ail other fodder. 

2. Bdrti oommonl; harti,^ roBpalum acrobicaUtaiu or flavirli 
is growu almost entirely in tfao east of the district, DsoaJIv in Aeptij 
forrowa in fields of tuijri. Ii is sown in June aud Julj,iuid, nil 
wmter or manaKi, ripotis in October. The ^aiti, which ie whi<« 
rouod, is about ibesiice of 6<ijn, and grows ou crocked Enger-like aid 
sboois wbicb stand out at di^net tnlenrals from the fnain stem 
the ear. Ilie graiu ha§ Vy he pounded to Heparate tbc btialc, and < 
Qsaally b<jik«d and ealeu like rice. It is much esteemed bj iho] 
and is said to he most wbole-aome. 

3. Bhiidli, Pftnicum piloenm, ia grown almost eutirel^ in the««*l 
of the distrid; and uciiiallj in the same fietdA as bdjri-. It is s^nnia 
Jono, and. without water or maotire is reaped inOetobor or NoreTiiI.^. 

^Bhddli ia much like red 7*ita and ie sumettiuea confounded wi^li i: 
It is larger, gntivs w^ll iu punrpp soil, aod Ihe ripe ear ia reddi 
brown and briintlv, nhila thu ripo ralaiit smooth and of apali> yplll) 
The grain is cmbusked by pouudinpf. It is eatt^n br the pciur, ch' 
in the east. It ia aometimes boiled and eat«n whole, and 
raroly grouod to flour. The »trew in luwd a» foddor. 

■K BfvU,^ Hico, OryBasativn, iu ltJfil-82 twvcred 17, 
21. lot of them in Havoli, 14,990 ia Mival, &9SS in Kb :. 
Juiinsr, t Idd iu Purikudbar, 102 in Ind^pur, and 33 iu BbioitlB 
It ia the chief product of the west lands or MSvaU, and is st^itnetiti 
found in raoi«t plR(;es in the ca»terii ploiii. About eluvtrn kit ' 
rice are grown iu the Poona district. One kind, ioniorf, the be^t 
in thtt dixtriot wtis brought b^ [>r. (libiton from R»!ra in JSM. 
is irrown as a channel- watered crup. Four kinds, dmbemokar, i' 
nry/iii^, and rujaval, are miwd in lato Mky iu manured seod-l 
planted into wet fields in July-August, and reaped in lat« Oc 
Five poop sorts, eii\manwt,dii(tki!,kolambf,kothimbare,»nATnt 
uro gunerolly sown broadcast or by drill ia poor ricu-Si'ldH urJ 
high-lying gronnd in Juno and reaped in September.' Moefa 

E cuter part of the Poona rice is grown under the planting sytt 
March or April a plot ■» chnsun for the aeed-bed either in! 
rice field it»i4f or vn li)gh(.'r ground cloio to the Ri^ld and plou^ 
once and levelled. Cowdung, grass, and leaves are spread on 
gronnd, a Bocond laytT is added of brancbui and bruidinrood cord 
with grass, and fine earth is sprinkled over all. These layer* 
eowdnug, brushwood, and ;;'Tas8 are callc^l rab.' In cftrty May I 
brushwood is fired on the leeward side to ensare alow and thor 
burning and the ash«s remain guArdcd &om tho wind by the n| 

' Btfrii i» Skid by Colonel SykM to ba tlw Mine u hub-H or A«rAt PMiahna 1 
meatammn. Iii'iairy in lURbrvnt piirU ol the Doooan wtlflfled Mr. Pletchtr r 
two ar* (ltfffr*nt. 

*TlieMu«tbi uMnMof rice in itsrarioaa*lAB«*ST«tlio na*AtAai, the 
r»fi. Ill* plants dmn, th* plsnt«d ritabW, ttw hQibodwcd UitdHl, At itta 
or bidlf, luid the batk to wkidi tlia gtAxa clinits tatda. 

* Bom. Got. Hot. Rnx UN of IMS, ?9. 

*TIm ehittf diilMvnca boewocit rM aud ilalAl, tbo two fornw of woim1-w1i till 
tliAt indalhithe bnabe* ftre bamt whci« tbcjr giw Mtdinnl&tb«/a(v brongbt] 
•omeirlivrc «l9P. 



of e«jib. Aftor Aq Snt rain in Jnno the seed ir rowd 
cast and covered bj tW hnn^-tioc or kudiil. In July, Hhen 
Wv or six inclu-* bigli, llio Beefllings aro pnllcd up, tieil in small 
'" iiidlcH, ami taken and pliinted bj Imnd in tlio ricc-ficlil in Londlcs of 
If to six plants. Tbis planting is expensive. To plant aboat 110 
ea {Ibd biijhiis) is a day's work for 150 oi«n. Ilio pluntin^ of rice 
0* lon^for than the planting of tuiehtii and vttri as in tb(< cane of 
eso coaraer and hardier )|^raius it is encii^h to ihruw iW plunU oo 
e ground. l(ioo-li<?lds, wbicb are called khdthara in Maiiltbi, aro 
led b^ tbron-ing earthen buuka aoross tlio buds of wntor-uountcs or 
nes of drainage, bjr lioIdiuR- back tlie muddy deposit, and controlling 
the snpply of water which during the rainy niontlis comes from 
■e higher landp. The best rice suil is a bright yellow deepening 
I black oa tbo quality declines. At the came time thv yield of rioo 
lepends aa much on tlie plentiful and constnul supply of water tin 
lO the character of the soil. Once in two or three years, to pmven^ 
*i«ir BJltiag, rice-fields are three or four citoes ploughed in uppuaiUi 
liroctionB. The clods are broken with the kiilav and the petAri 
then uHed to clear the loose soil out of the bottom of the field, 
nd bi'ap it on the bank. In June and early July while the 
eedlin^H are gettinf/f ready for phmliti|7, the Q<K>di>d nci^-tiold 18 
ilou);bcd and troddt-u by oicu into a mass of soft slushy nimL 
?'iiteon days after planting', when the soedlinp^ have In-Koa to 
' uot, thi-ir dcnd tt-aTCS ore i)luckod off by the buDtl, As th^ planting 
Dsaally dono during pouring rain and in deep mud Ihf hc-ad ana 
ok of the planter are ulways ehndud by u watL-r-tif^ht bbell made 
f wicki>r-work and teak tearos oailed Vir/o or piin'/h'mijadi, and n 
or (ivds, whoee scat and bottom aro tTVopanilK-l ptiinksHi^ptiratixl 
ly ti fiingle leg of wood, innsedto nit on. After the planting itt ovor 
the wator i« kept slanding in Uiu Geld ot nccrtiiin depth till the crop 
ripcnH when itiH allowed to dry. Between September and XoTember 
planted rit^o i^i reaped with the btickle or vHa aud carried a.i out and 
aid on tho bank lust the riite grain should be injured by lying on 
ho wcl ground. In eiprht or nine days a man and hia wife can cut 
about four acres (5 iiyhdit) of rict'. Aa the whole crop ahonld bo 
cnrriod and stockod before the grain dries labonrem have to be hired 
:o carry tho sheaves to tlie thrashing-floor. To sepunite the buck 
[from the grain rice has to be pounded or ground. Except where it 
is grown rico is eaten by the poor on foast atty.1 only ; it enters into 
he daily food of nil the middle and upper cInHses, whether IlindnR 
r Miisvluinnfi. If iii most commonly .itmply boiled ; it ia aUo eaton 
arched as tiihix and jtohae and murmuru/i.^ Tbciie aro most naoEul 
as ready<cooke4l food for a journey and aro generally given along 
Tfich ddle or parched gram pnlsc aa rntiona to Hindu aoldicrs on a 


>To m^e poAtf* the htuked rim ia ■rak«diii oolA w»l«r for ihr»e •]»}-«, KrHliloJ, 
and left to ilraia dry in h> open b«*k«l. It 1« ih«a >Iiglit1f parobut U'l ponii<lnl iu 
a BtMM inurtar. The craahMl pal|> forau into flat iMKiiKe-elisiwl utisvaa uui llio hiuk 
ia wfpanXnA by » winoowlnu tan. Po/idM are wimetimde ktoud'I tu Hoar nnil dmiI 
in iwMtinokU. Fur mHnHUnlt Iho hmtkcit rico i> iwrtuily dried in Uie aun aflor a 
throo >I»j-h' sonkint; uid MAUing. It U tligbtly [ianili«d mmI tba bnak MpantM b« 
lintyinji in a mortar. SkltwatorisiMxt ikrowaoToritand thegT>iniaagBUipu^;li<il 
m hot ■and wbicli n\tke» it paffuul ewell. 

Chapter 17. 

Ckors. ' 



ChApUr IT. 




Wft vojuffo, Tbo floor u rIbo ami in variooB proponUHWi-Ju] 
straw or j'mSJiii is nsod u cattle ftidda^. 

K. OriAu, WhoAl, Triticom antinim, in 188US2 eatwtAH*' 
■cree 21,(177 of tlutm ia Juutur, 0637 in MAvul, .saSB in Bfcio' 
820r> ill Kh«9a, 40111 in Simr. 3o03 in Hareli, £983 in loaipor 
lOl'J ill PiirBodbar. Wbmt w a lnl« orrvld-oreatber (OoCober-M 
crop. It is gpovrn ovflr tha wholti district bnt ia sniall <]auit! 
thti wvHt Iliads oC Juddot, KJicd, aud UaTuU. Xl roqairaa % ii> 
climato tbim jrari and in thn eutero fringe of tha watt U 
geDomll; fi;n><rn m a Arj-crop, ^Xmnthere it is ffrown Ma< 
crop ouly in hvoured place*, bat onr tbu whole oaRtum pUta i 
largoljr ^rown as wntvn.-tl crop. Wboat vraotH black ur rich 
Tbo best Buil m the alliivinl Iftam known as gavkdli or the wheMi 
Wlittal also tbrivea in tbu lowlj-iog black or botttir brovm cJajr 
in \avr lands whore drainago gathers. Fuar kinda uf wheut are | 
•tuktlti, half, khtijili ttlsu ndlod jod, and i>ot« th»t is btg-l 
Jkiktbi rtM]iiire3 good block (mil. It is sowd ia Chrtobn' 
Norwnl>or, la usaally watorod and mimurod. nod is ritapcd in F* 
ary or March. This wheat is of the finost qaality, bnt aa it is 
it in nnt larg^y nown. Tho sUim is aometimes as much 
feot liigh, the graia is larger than tha gmin of otbor kind« of wl 
and thfi b«Ard, whoD ripe, is tipped with black. Kdtt wheat is ao^ 
guud black 9oil io October, ia nsiially watered bnt not tnanarod, i 
18 ro^wd in February. It ia shortor^stalked and stnaller-j — ~' 
thaa eithtTtlie/tajta^ or khapU, ia hardier tban the hakthi, 
the wheat oommuuly grown in dry lands. KAaptc or jod, 
whont, in sown in black soil in Norember, is always both 
aod mauared, and is reuped in March. KhapU is the wheat dsuiII; ' 
grown in gardens. It is very bardy. It owes its oamo to the ftel 
thai tbo grain cannot be Bcpuratod from tho hwskwitboat poundiog. b 
ia sown ss asecoad or dumla crop inJaouaT^'and February in irrignH^ 
laadsafler hdjri, mwA.; tol)«coo, ohilliea, or wheat with f^ood pc«bH«. 
Poi« or big-bolticd wheat ia less e8t«<enii>d than other rariaties. It 
ia sown in poor black koiIh in Kovembvr, is neither wntered bit 
manured, and in runpcd in Fcbrtiary. Other variottes knun-o in tlu 
district nro daudithani and kdlttJctutal. Two and a half to thwa sad 
a haH pounds of wheat are aowu to thu acre, tbo better the soil tb« 
loss the seed. Tho average acre yield from all kinds of wheat in 
QDwatered land is 500 to 600 pounds uitd in watered land 1 000 
to IlOO pounds. In garden knd wheat fellows rice and in dry*orD(i 
html it comes beat iifk-r h-'ijri, nauBO, tohsooo, or cbilliua After two 
or three ploagbings tho wheat ia sown and the land ia levelled with 
the harrow. When tho sood baa b<^iiD to siprout, to regulate the 
watering, ridges and small wator^couraCK arc mode with a large 
rake in the shape of sqnaree or vaphat. Wheat after it has come 
into ear is affected bf mildew called Iditthera and gtirva or khaira, 
Theae diseasee are said to he oomrooncr in tielda where mnstard U 
grown than elsewhere, Tdmitrra appears after uaeoaMitable and 

> In IMS Ur. Uilwun U lUi) to have intnxluwtl alMol ibirly-ainlit cliok« vaiuttiM 
of whwt. Bom. Gov. Rqt. K»c H1>3 of ISM. 7a 


dition of clarified butter or tup. The flonr is used largely in 
and aweetmeats. Wheat straw ia eatea aa fodder with or 
it a mixture of chaS. 

Bank or Kodru, Paapalam fmmentacDnm, ia 1881-82 covered 
res in Jnonar. It is erown almost entirely in the western 
leB and light soils. It is sown in June and reaped in October 
vember. The grain, which is round and flattish and of the^ 
t a mustard seed^ forms in double rows on one side of a flat 
and until ripe the ear remains enveloped in a sheath. New 
is said to be powerfully narcotic and is eaten only by the poor 
repare it in various ways, and from use are able to eat it with 
itj.^ The straw is hurtful to cattle. 

Jvdri, Indian Millet, Sorghum valgare, the most largely grown 
in Poona, in 1881-82 covered 588,502 acres, 226,152 of which 
n Haveli, 129,069 in IndApnr, 73,026 in Purandhar, 53,239 in 
54,877 in Bhimthadi, 28,782 in Khed, 16,438 in Jannar, and 
n M&val. It is grown over the whole district but in the hilly 
}f Jonnar, Khed, MAval, and Haveli only in small quantities, 
be staple grain of the eastern plain. There are many varieties 
liao mtUet some of which belong to the early and others to 
be harvest. The early varieties are found only in the belt which 
s the east of the western districts, and are sown thickly for 
r rather than grain. The late varieties are grown in the eastern 
yield grain plentifully, and their fodder though less abundant 
letter qnality than that of the early varieties. There are three 
early Tarieties argadi, kalbhondi, and nilca. Argadi, also called 
, is sown in June or July in shallow black or light soil, and, 
at the help of water or as a rule of manure, is grown and cut in 
nber. The stalk is sometimes ten feet high j the head is small. 
rarietyia also sown as a watered crop in April and matures in 
or 3iAy. When grown as a watered crop it is called Jchondi or 
.' Thia crop is sometimes sown broadcast and thick and cut 

(BonUf Oi 



Inrgo. Tbo fodtlor w prixoil for uiloli mttle. Then arc Hurt 
viiHoticii of IndifkU millet «A<t/ii, ihdh'Mtogm, and timMi. 
boflt of tbo Uta kinds is thAiu. It is soirii '\a l>Imck 
mul-Au^st to riii(I-Ofti))K-r ntid Imrvofttud frum inid- 
mUl-pL'lirunry, The xtalk in tlin^c tu fivr fiN?l long ami e 
null the grain white. DailffhtogTa it »jvru with *. 
mixed in the samo furrow or io Bepnrate farrows. The 
bard titatk ia {wur (odder and ibo scttUitrcd fentliur livad V 
laurit of boiiid too li^hC to giro birda a ftHJtli»1tL 
milky grain narcbee into i?xce1leDt lahif. A (Inrk-busked Tin-T;.; 
dudh-mo/jra [las & slem w-bich ii^suiiiotime!* luud ns a Heavvr'a 
nxl. T-imhiU, (but ta red, Marshull's Stirgbuai davil^ U 
gi.«i>emll>' in liglit soils id lute July and early Ani^iut, oad, 
either waU^r or tnaoure, ripens In early Jautiary to eftrljr Pcbm^' 
Tlic sicni 18 tbree to four f<wt Iiigb utid poor as fodder, nod thegiHl 
^a white and bard. Four to Gre pounds of Wtojriiri unt kowd to 
aoie, the beit^ir the soil the less the aeed. The t*arlir Indian mi 
take eight to ten ponud« of seed an acre. Unwatt-rtxl jnin 
kiuds of soil ifixKS un nvvrngi' jic-Ul of iW to 50(f fiounds Ibfr 
and wutorod Jedri yields lOOO Ui 1200 pounds. .VAti/u ig the 
prodactive variety ftoinetimea vielding as much aa 250U pouudii 
acru. Before the head forms tbo plant is callod hn/nJaml vki 
perfoot hiUitt.^ Jvnri ia the only oureal whoee straw or <( ix't* u 
UHcd as fodder iu xn nntaral 8kit«. Thti straw of all other oefOll 
»ai1 of nil soft Hiomiued pulsus is trodden to pieces, mixo«3 witli dnft' 
aud stnwL'd iu largo btuKcts, uud \a mlled bhmhU. Jitiri slulk* »rr 
fttni:k<vl iind thatobod in tho mtny weiit; in the drier CHst Hi- ■ '<" 
Ktowed in luu^g^rnro-liko ridges and corcrcd with clods of bin 
The grain is chiefly iiaod u a bread grnin, but is also eatf^n patx q 
hihi. Whou in soiuon tho parcbod noripc jniri litiitd^ form a 
it«m of food i^'ith tho labouring cbtsses and are called huinla. 

8. Uakkti, Indian Com, Zca mays, in 1881-82 covered 3844 •am, 
2-i3o of vbich were in Purnndbiir, 7'20 in RKimthadi, ttiJU in ludapor, 
fifty in Haveli, and nino in 8iriir. In \6A,i the American nmiiM*>ii 
naturalised at tho oxporiinontiJ gnrdoit al Hivra in Juniutr." It ii 
aovm in tho ttoatvru suVdivi!>iona in hlnck soil. When nnwai«redil 
it foirn in June and ripens in August; when wnt<<rj>d it wajr b« 
grown at any season. Tho heads or butas are UHually eaten [iorchtrtl 
or boiled while grocD and tho ripe grain ifi also parched and msJo 
into Uth!», and after grinding is used as 6our. The vtalk is a reiy 
ooarne fodder. 

9. NuglxQvNiichHi, Elensino oorocana, in IflSI-SS coTered S2.3M 
acree, I(i,3l0 of which were in Khed, 14,O30 in Maval, 13,o72 ia 
Haveli, 6983 in Jnnnar, aod S464 iu Purandlmr. It is growD onlf 
in the hilly woitt sometimes in n-ot lands by planting like rice or l^ 
sowiug with tho drill, and often tu high lauds. In planting ndr/mt 
the seedlings are simply thrown on the ground iu liule trenehe» at 
about cquaT distances apart and left to root as they can. iVdcAw 



Mlo(' irant a Jeop or n rtnh soil, bat in any but b moiat soil it 
bea. It is Bctwu in Juuu ami ripens in Orbobor or Nnveinber 
tbo stftlk It hftrxl, rwiiiugix ditTicult RU<I Mstly. It takf>8 four 
is eight lilies to cut about thrcv ocros (2 bi^hiU) of tiifcAiih Tlie 
nrig and atacking aro also exiwnaive. Ndchni should be 
_. rried as sooa cu poMibLo aftur tbo oroji » cut, and tbo Eboa%'e8 
t»oiiId bt» carried onlv in the morning when the boadH aro wot uitb 
-«»w. Later in the day the bent of tUo sun sbrivols tho husk 
ud loosens (be aevd. Under the naniu uF htirda the green beads are 
karch<^ and enten. Tho ripe graiu is enten in cakos by the west 
^ountry poor and the flour in mode into n cowling drink called 
\mbil. Tbo atraw, powdered and mixed iritb chaff, i« used as fodder. 

10. Mia, Paiiicum italionm. in lh81-82 covered 1084 acres. G81 
ijf which wcroin Puraodbar, 1.16 in Uhimthndi, 113 in Havell, eighty- 
vnu in indipiir, sixty-eight in Ninir, and ono in Jnnnar. It is 
ipronn chivfly in the east of the district in sbtdlo^ btnck ur light* 
toi1» usnuUy in the same fields as b<ijri. It in of two rorictic!), a red 
Itid a white, iwhich diHor only in colour. It is sown in Juno and 
■ipcns in October. The grain is aeparalod from tho huak by 
Miindin;? and i^; usually boiled and eatou irliolo. The atalk is asM 
or (oddtT nnd tbatcli. 

11. SiUu. or Jav, Barloy, Uordonm bexasticbon, in 18H1 -S2 covered 
i41 acre* fifly-one of which are in Bhimthadi, fifty in llaveli, 
fwcoty in Puratidhjir, fourteen in IndApiir, and six in Jiinniir. It 
frows only in bliick noil, is sonn in November, and, with the help 
jf water and tnannri;, is reaped in Febmary. Barley i« chiefly n*ed 
■ making the rcady-cnolted food called mluehe-pUk or biirli-y flour. 
^e grain is parohwl, gronnd, and mixed with n small proportion of 
^km and wbual-flonr uod fiavonrwl with seeds. Wbon catoa it is 
■Rially nmde into littlo'doii^b balls with water The grain la also 
used in the /•hra-ltlhit or tnind-rites for tbo dea<l and the Sour in tho 
thrdvani or Hhravan purification. 

Il!»ndl3. Sitvi, Punicum mitioceuui, and ran'.Panicum tniliaro, 
jiil«81-82covercd 82,312 acre*!, 1 1,1 tl3 of which were in Khed, 82S2 
in Haveli, 788^ iu MAral, 1317 in Junnar, and 689 in Puraudltai-. 
Tbey aro groim only in tho (rest of (ho di8(rict usually in b'ghi ted 
Boilii and oil bill-side:^. They nn^ not wntvrod or luauured, but the 
seedling are planted like rice'seodlia^s except that instead of 6xing 
tbem in the ground tbey are Kimply thrown ou (be sui-facc aod left (o 
root. >Vhen the plants are about a foot high tdva rtMjuircs wooding. 
This is done for each other by the villitgors at do expense except 
some liqnor for the weeders. In 1821, in these weeding partiee a 
drammer was at band who beat incessantly and at intcrrala titirrod on 
the wwdci-s calling out Hhalero Da4a, Hfialf Bfitin IMida, Well done 
brotbem, well doiio. Tbo weeders got as luucb spirit as tliey ooiild 
drink.' From the hardness of tlie alallu aud ibe need of prompt nnd 
farly-moming carrying, labour lias lo be hii-ed in lunrostin^ tava 
ind varioA well ua in harvestiug michni. 13otb W«4 and tun have 

Chapter IV. 




' Caittaiu U, ItobertMU ia CmI Xodu V^>u\ tV. STP. 





lobamhOBleed hv ])• - ''' ■ mostly raten bj tfas 

omntrj poor. Tb%-s , . i nixl urti ^omi-tiiawi^ 

to ilonr nnrl marl« into brewL 'Vho Mntv u not iu«4] a« fod-lff. 

Tbut«en paIsM are grown in Pooqa. Tho datails are : 




UM .. ._ 
MHtuf .,, 

Mmih Ml Mam .^ 


JV.<a , 

Jtiln. or ML* CAa^tf 


rti ■ ... ._ 

rOMM .» 


■ mimh. 
_ IrjiiaiiM bttMi 
_ EmAmouihc. 

•lay I 


Ptiufi Chavli, Dulichos miionais, Iiku liul larRDr (ban ran « ■*! 
cAnfft Dolichoa catJAng- (No. 22), u Q»ualljr crowu in gardens ft 
ihe edge of other crupa. It ie a ttlrong cIud ber, vriUi a {xxi w«* 
or sis iiiL*)i(!fl lon^f, am) a mtlinr dark seed. 

15. I/iirhham, Ontni, Cicvr itrivtiniim, tha moRt lured 
pabe in PuOiia, iu I8ai-«2 corerod 23,S;9 actvB, CwS of 
weru in Bhiuitliadi, S020 in Indlipiir, -1770 in Juniikr. 4SV1 
Khed, 2678 in Ma\-al, 28<30 iu Sirur. 1620 inPonuidhar, andU 
ID Havvli. It 18 growD iu tlio ciiRt of tbe distnct and verj nrojl 
in tbo w<.«st. It reqnin^H g^iod black bqiI. It is eovrn ia Not«A*1 
aod without either vratur or iiuinnrr in Imrveated in FctmiEtrj'. T^\ 
leavea are used as a rt^grtablu. The |;^miD is tmli'ii ^rnnn, if- bowl 
as a Tegelablo, and is parched when it i» c^WM W<i. When rirw iiai 
epliC into </<(' and outon b<^ilod in a viirioty of wuyi and in muKi^al 
Bwwt Pako cflllod puron-jmii. It h sbgliMy sodtod, ropohod in W 
sand, and called phutnitts, which »m )!ti>in«timea ftiivDnrvd wu| 
lui-mcric s»lt nnd cliilliea. It in aliW given to hor»o». Tht^ ''^^ 1 
pluntayipld aqiiftiitity of vinegar or oxniio acid culled rtrnfi wlun I 
gatberit on fchu plants nt night and sanV» cloths which are Iai.1 oTfT ! 
tbcm. The dry stalks are ginMl toddt-r. A light-colottriKl \aniXJ 
Dolled ktili is siddoin grown iu Poona. I 

16. Kullhi, Horee-^am, Dolichos bifloms, in I8SI-82 coTPrti] 
1 3,005 acres, 4056 of which woroin KhpJ, 2931 in BbiiolliaJi. 2220 !■] 
Jtmnar, 21.')8 in Piimndhar, 94S in Sirur, 645 in Indapur, and 1 10 ia 
Havvli. It iH grown tbi-ougbout tho district und is sovn geacrtSlj 
with hdjri in aopnrnte rows in eliallow lijjlit Hoil. It is soirn in JnMl 
and rifwnH in November without either wiit«r or manure. Tlitj 
pubo is boiled whole and ia givou to horsGii. It id aI:io ealea in iMWp 
and porridgo. Tht; li>iivoa and etalks are good fodder. 

17^ Laick, Luthyrufl satiras, in grown m snudl aunnlitics in tbo 
vest. It is sown in November or I)pn;^lb(^r in black soil on 
Becond crop after rice It grows without water or manare. 
seed ie like a mottled gmy pooi. It is not cnlcn n-blle greon. 
ripo pn1s« is builvd wh<ilu uud oaten, and when split ta cooked ia 
Tariou.1 wajB, The stalks aud leaves are oat«n by cattle. 

r, Leotfls, Ervam lens, in 1861-82 covered 836 acres, 
wWcl were iii Mirnl, 302 iu Khed, and ninetjr-fonr in Juoimr. 
gn>wa tbroQghoat the district. It lb soira in November or 
imber id black soil or as a aecond crop on rico lands, grows with- 
Irater or loanare, and ia harvested ia lobi-uary and March. The 
a pods are sometimes eat«a as a vegel'»l)I<>, and irhen ripe it 
It tba ntoBt delicAto split pnlg« in tho Doccau. Tho boiled 

Va1«o eatea whole. 
Uath or Maiki, Fhiisoolus acooitif olios, growji chiefly io the 
phain, is tiowii mixed with bnjri in Hhallow black or light 
frsoiU ia Janeor July aad is harvested in November. The 
i m »plit and eatca as 'hit id different way^. It ia ground to 
• and used with the (Iniir of other grains in making cakee. It is 
umitma |»rchad or bciilod irholo with condiments. Tho grain is 

!i to horsca and cattle and tho stalks arc good Eoddor. 
, Jf«(/, Onwn Oram, Phasoolus miingo, in lMl-82 covered ' 
aorrw, '^310 aciiK of which wvre in Khed, 687 iu Juuniir, 3.M in 
Dthndi, 2.iU in Purandliar, 22t) iu Ilavi^li, thirty-one in IntMpur, 
ta Sirur, and Iwcotjr-ono in Muvul. It is gvuvta chiiifly in tho 
of tlu! clistrict- It i.4 sown in Jaae by it5ulf in aliallew, black, 
tltt atoD^ aoilA. luid (>fU>n an a fir^t crt)|) on ric-h latitltt iu which 
paA callod duhotn or bivail crop is raised. It ia ouittiur watcr- 
or manured, and is harvested in September. The green poda 
jnteo sa a rogoiablu. The ripe gruvn-voloured pulso ia oatco 
id vboto, or is split and oacd as ilal. It is parched, gronnd to 
\, mijcad will) hutUrr and madu into spice balU. U !s al»o iiiade 

Etrridge. The leaves and stalkii araj^ood fodder. Mmji.^ 
r bluckitli variety, ia sown with hnjri or arijadi in June and 
K^orvmbcr. It in inclined to ct&tp and remains longer on 
d than mtttf, * 
iWofOlso called Sireot VAl, DoUchos labhU), ia sono some- 
■ IB Jono mixed with hajri and sometimoit in November on the 
IB of riven or in the wtmt aa a SL-cood crop after rice. Two 
|tiu8 difTLT uuly in Ihu colour of the grain, one l& (lalo yellow the 
blaioJc with It flue aoam. Itgrowa without water or manure, 
is F«brii(Lrr*3Iarah, and goes on bearing for about Itvo 
Tbe boiled greon sooda aro oatea as a vegetable aud th« 
b Split aad eBl4Mi in many ways. Tho leavca and atalka 
I6dd«r which ia eapoctally valued for milch cattle. 

iat\ ue Shet Chavli, Doliobos catjuog, is grown ohiofly in the 
lands. It is sown in June in ahallow light nolle and &s the tirst 
crop in ni-h soils. It grows without wat^r or matiiire, 
hnnrestM in St'pt«tnbor. Tho greeu puds which are about 
idin long and the leaves arc eaten as vegetables, and tho 
_ which is nnle yellow oval and dented on one side, is cooked in 
' way«, butJi aplit and whole. 

7^r, Cajaiiuit iiidicuH, iii I-SS1-S2 covered 12,851 acree, 
aerecof which were iu Su-ur, I57*J in Bhimthadi, 1899 in Khod, 
■ Jnnur, 680 in llaveli, 3o6 iu IndApiir, 237 iu Indiiinir, and 
I^-Gtd in MlLvuI. It ia grown chioSy in tJio oaKturn sub- 
•QOs mostly iu ahallow aud lioiiwtintc-a in deep black soila, 
ka mma Oetd with bdjri. ia the same or in separate 

Cb^ter IT. 



'!▼■ TurrowB. It in sown in Jaoe-Jiily, anil, wiilioul imtor on 
,f^ IS Uftrvvi8t«d in Jauuary and February. During; the o^ 
irKiiitlis Inr in on ihe ground, it is fluid to flnwor ftnd trttl (i^ 
tiniM, nil tbe pods roitttuaing r>n li» plant till harrcst. U» 
percanial pinnt, but is alvrays piillod out after thu iirwt t«v- 1 
grven p<Kln nn* cuti'ii ns h vvgrtablo, nad iJil' npi< pulse » fjUMt 
eatoo boik'd in h vurioly of wa)*x. 'I'tto yellow sp)it-ptilM:frril<if a 
coionioD ape bcinff made into porridge and mixedwith rcgotablt^i 
is little loiu mluabto than fruktn. The liMvca and pod stwlli I 
excellent (udder, nnd tlie etoni n In neo for w-attlioff boose walbl 
rc)of». And for inakiDi; biukclsaod broomii. Tur or doll-bndll 
is (7a/-biiHh ctinrctitil has long bmjo fainons for tnakitifr (nrnpovjei 
2-1. rjirf, Bliick (Jmiii, T'lmsecliis radiatos, in I,'-- i* 

IM9 acrc«, 1031 uf wl>i<.-li wcn> iu Kbrd, 330 in Ju: irti 

I'umndliar, forty-wven in Knveli, and tweatj-ooo in AfftTsl 11 
grovm almost catiruly in tha cast of tbe district. It it •> 
iD JniK frMfaentljr nith bdjri or arijadi or in rich suils wlia 
second rrop 19 to follow. It ia nvitbcr wnliTpd nor tDaoim^l 
ripens in Svpt^Dibcr. Tfac gnea pods aru rarulr used aa m TtpM 
The black npo pnlse is iiplil into 'W, and is a moet Lilienioelir 
It isparchiH) and (^und to mako diiTon-iit sorts oF Bpic« htMt f 
ia tbfl chief element in the thin vrafer-bisniits ral)^ pripaJt. ' 
stalks and Ivuvcs uru a guotl fo^ldur. UtUuH is □ sniAUer juid iaia 
rariety which does not ripen till Xovcmber. 

2.^. Viil, Didichos xpicatus, » chic6]' gn'^n in tlio e«at and C 
tre of tbe district, ottun ruuod or mixed with garden crops, espetn 
in the Knmroane fields where it is sown both aa fodder and 
aliodu. \\ hen grown with or in rows round h'ijri or earlr jt«i' 
is sown in July and without water or niaoDre ripens in four raoal 
and continnee hearing for some time lon^r. The seoda are ^i{|4 
bitter, smaller, and not so fliit as pdtta seeds, which is soisetii 
known as awoel vat. Tbe graen seeds aru oaten bailed, th« i 

I)ut8ti is used in manj wajs as dal or in itonp, and tlie atalks I 
eaves aru priced ns fodder for tnilcb Cattlu. 

26. Vdttina, ihc Pvu, rieum sativum, in 1881-82 cowred I 
acro», S29 of which were in .Tnnnar, :jS9 in Khed, I IX) in Hin 
»eTent}r>aix in MAval, and two in Indlipur. Peas are grown in ■ 
plaoea throughout the dislncL They are bowd in October or N««i 
bar or Inter ns a second crop after rtw», and, without water or maal 
are harvested iu four and a half montfaH after sowing. The see 
vAt«n green as a vegetable and wlion ripe i« boilwl whole or split 
eaten in various ways. The leaves and stalks arc good fodder. 
Seven oilseeds wo grown in Poona. The details are : 








^» : 



XMthnui ., 
OmWwJ ., 



fnUwU OUWlkblDUI. 

AimolM hypogaa. 
mriniU niioDiunta. 
IJniun iMtaUiBlnnun. 

VtrlinUn* iMlvt. 
CKrUatniu tliiitotlua. 
Se^nitiv) liniiouin, 



7. Ami/oAi, BrowD Romp, Uibiocns L-anDabioae, in 1861-82 cover* 

1375 acres, SoD of which were in IJhinitliadi, 520 id Sinir, nindtj-- 

iu loiliipur, ei^hty-nino in PurandhM-. nnd eov^n ia M&ral. 

I grown in small quantities in sbsllnw block soils cliiefty in 

mthftdt, Sirar, and Indttpar. It is sown in June nsually 

witb i-^jri, frnjvrii. witliout wnter or mnnnro, aud is harvested 

bor or January. The ynung Honr Iohvoh nie«nt<-nssa 

,bl». TH« «<-«d i* !M>mftim«:< fiivuii to c&Ule nnd in times of 

ty 19 mixed in lin-ju). It is chietiy uncd no oil-Hoed and, before 

I is Mctnctml, is always mixed with h'lrlf^ or liuMOod. The burlc 

s T»Ii»blo fibre which is bepurabcd from tho stalk by soaking. 

imdo into ropes for variuns field pnrpoHea cither by tatt 

dmon or \illaf^! Miln^. 

8, Shitimtig, flartbnut, Arachie hypoga«, ia grown both in 

rsxtem plains and in the eastern fnnge of thoweKt binds., 

\3 planted in Jano, and in the east with tho help oC water and 

Mid in the weatero plain with tho help of manure, ripem iu 

iher, but is often dug in Novombtyr and oftt«ti raw or ptirohed. 

rip« fr^h not is somctimoB boiled with condiments, and eaten 

vcgctftblo, hnt i» more frequently iiswd m an oilsoed. An 

:ih1o oil in priM^sud from tho nul« which are nsnally first mixod with 

[|i or rala soeds a-<* the pure eai'thnnt oil in xaid not to keep. 

a EaTourito food with wild pig, and along thu Mtitba caaals baa 

~ SO KTCruly £rotn tlioir mragcs, that tho people have given 

iag it. 

JPnin</i,Caator-Brad. Ricinu'lcomniuni'tjiagrowninsmallqnnn- 
chiefly in the black aoil» of the coMtcm phiin, iKiinotiincm ruuud 
crops and more often iu patches hy itself. It is sown either 
ur KuTcinWr, ^nd without water or manuro i^ harvested 
mber or February. Ita stem nnd flowers are red. The oil, 
ia used more for burning than as a medicine, is drawn by 
ibu bruised bean and ekimmiDg tho oil that rises to tho 
Tho proportion of oil to seed is as one to fonr. The loaf 
aa a gaineaworra poultice and the dried root as a febrifuge. 
T«r»ty of tho ca«tor-plant, probably R. viridis, is grown in 
round other crops. Its stem and flower are eroon. IJnth 
itku are perennial and wonld grow to » coosidemblo sir-e if they 
cot taken out of tbo ground at tbo end oF ilio firat year. 

'■"'-•nor AUihi, Linsred, Ijinnm nntatiimmum, in 1881' 

' 162 ■croH, sovnnty-HCven of thom io Ind^pur, aovcaty 

: I i. nine in Pnmndhar. and throe in Sirur. It ifl grown in 

■t. liiM lu^ilt'ly in rich black Koila in the caat either in gram 

''!■ l'. :i \'\y II' -"panite fiirrowB or less st'ldoin as a sepante crop. 

1- 11 ii: N ■, . luber and without water or manure is barrostod 

ixry. It does not grow more than two feet high. The eccd ia 

; ._ vaaking rehehea orrliatnU and the oil which is produced 

favm tho Mttfil in tbo proportion of four to one is used iu cookery. 

iioiue i» niadv of the fibre. 

31. Ktirle or Khuraxni, Nigorsoed, Verbeaina sutiva. errone- 
•»!» called idl« iU. i» grown in considerablo quantities in shallow . 
^lau and light soils chieHy in the weal fringe of the plains and in the 

Chapt«r IV. 





western bilU It ia ■on in Judo and without water or uuiidri; 
tuLrvest^ in N'oTeralwr. Tbe wied is Ctttea is reltsbca or ehah 
bat it is cliii'fly kuowii for its oil wlitcb ia produced from U in tl»_ 
proportiou of live tu bix, oud is ttnivorfally usod by the loner cl 
in (Holcing. Tliu uil-calce ta much, prized for mitcb cattle. 

82. KardaioT Kveumha, Safflower, Carthamus tinctorit», li" 
grown chiefly in the east Isada with late jmri or wheat uilfaor 
mtx«'d tir in eaparate furrows. Ik is «owo id October or NoTeuibuf, 
ani], without water or manure, is harvested ia If'ebruary or Morck 
Tho youn^; loaros are oetoii build! u a vojfetabid and the oil whiah 
i« |iitiilucvd from the seed is much eatoemed in cookiD^. KarJaiaai 
kiuHtnbn ktirdai are growri iudiscriminately. Karilai C. liocioriai 
luM much deep rod in thu 6ovrcr and olfiuwhoro is afted aa a dje. 
Kutumba kardai, probably C. porsicus, has a yeltoTr fluwH* aud 
more prickly than C. tinctoriun. 

'Xi. Til, Sesiimiim indiram, of two Itinds, gora or Aapmwhiw I 
and ktila black (.*/. coveml in 1881-82 29,449 acros, 12.381 of wki^ 
wnro in Khnd, nS(l6 in Juonar, &403 in M&?kI, and 4992 
Havcli. It i» griiwii llinxif^-hoat the ditttrict, but in considvr 

Suautities only ia Khod, Junnnr, Mtli'ul, nud Hareli. It is aownl 
tine usuidly with bajrl either luix&d in the Minio lino or in koe 
liu«), anil is cut in NovL-mber. It HpringH nnnowTi in fallow laajl 
Theseol ix osed in *AnidJ/ui or niind-riUta for the dead, 
part of miuiy swectineals, aud yields abundant oil which is 
Doth in cooking and us a medicine. The oil-cnke orp0ii<fA is gii 
to cattle, and in timet of scarcity is ent«Q by tho poor with salt, 

Three fibre plants aro grown in Poona. The details are : 
Pooka Fibub Plahtb. 

Ko. lUu'm. 

Km or T^ . 



Brovn Ha^ ^.' nibitruouinablMBL 
OVOan ... —, Caonitnni hertauMOdi, 
flonl«7 Htnrp .. Croufula ]aiia» 

84. Amhudi. Sou No. 27. 

85. Kiijiiii, Cotton, (tossypium herbaocnm, in 1SS)-S3 ooi 
46M acres in Indiipur. It is ^-owu in black soil chieSy in 
oast, to a small eztont in the western plain, and not at all in 
hitlr west. Several varieties are frown, moet of which huTO bu 
lately introdaced. It is sown in July, is grown without water i 
man urc, and bears in October or November. The crop, which ii 
woolly covering of tho seed, is feathered from the growing' phuilaj 
tliroo or four pickings as tho pods burst before Kovambor, wh^n & 
plant ceases to bear. The seed lb called sarki and is tnurh prized 
food for Diiloh cattla. Tho stemaare aa«d in cliAap baaket-work ai 
when the picking Is oror cattle are graeed on tlui K-avoR and tho 

In 1821, the average price of cotton was about £8 \0*. (Ra 
a /ihandi of 500 pounils or aboat id. (2] fi«.) tho pound. ' 
Collector, Captain Robertson, was told that thirty or forty ye 
beforo, in tho time of Peshwsi M«[dhavi-AT (1701-1772) a Ja 
(|iuuitily of seed bad beeo broagfat A-oai the S«r^rs, but pros 



re.' Id IS30-31, I>r. Liisli was snccestafo! in gTOvring cotton 
ha bolauical kb^ch »L D^uri, about six uiili>» west of Pootia.* 
1641, the ouly parts of the dintrict wlierc o<>tu>a wiut j^rawn in 

qnaiitil/ were m Bliinitliadi ao<! ludiSpur, where tlie soil was 
ter suited to ita growlb than in any i^ther pari of tho district, 
rbai year ono Inudltuldor in the illiiutluidi rillage of IkilvAdi ^rcw 
•:On, which in the Bombay market fetched a price c(|iinl to the 
t Uroftcli.'' Dr. (jibson, the superiutendent of the botAuica) 
deu at Ilivm, couetderod the cal.tivatiou of cotton uueuited to 
ma.' In lS-i2-43 the area under cxjttou was iuoreaiwd by not less 
n 2132acre8, chiefly in Jnnnar andlnditpur whor« thopttoplo were 
ious togrowcoitoa. 'Fhoplnnts tbrovo for a time, but most of them 
ed from waot of rain* In 184+, InrJapur waa the only part of 
oca n-here cotton was grown ; thoro cotton was found in email 
uiticies in every Tillaife mixed with f/djH and other crops. The 
nndfM* cotton was 4816 ocres ngfainst '!<>:{(> in the previous ycnr.* 
3 oat tarn was tn-onty tons (00 If^idti'ti'd) of which about Hixtocn ton:» 

khtindU) wore Bold in Poona and SiSt<ira for £507 2«. or Bt the rate 
t5 (lis. ^0} for » Surat kharuU of 744> pounds, that is about 1 }</. 

.} a pound.* In the next two years t)ie area under cotton declined. 

1847, Indopiir was ngitin tho only rotton-growiog piurt of 
district. The quantity produced was about thirty Cons (00 
tndi>) and tho area under cultiration wm 54^0 ncrvs against It 
indi uod 190 acrcM id the preriuux year.' From 1841 to 1801 
vornment frequently tried to increoite tho growth of cotton, but 
hout success. Both nti rognrils soil ami climate Poona wa« consi. 
«d nnsnited for foreign cotton and there seemed to be hltle 
ispect of any grwit iocruaM of tho ctiltiruiiou of tlio local vnriwty. 
e small quantity grown was almost entirely devoted to homo uw. 
e folhiwiug stat^itit;nt^liowK tti«> tittfd ttn^i unutT cultivation, the 
» under cotton, and tho urea eapublu ot pnxtucing cottoa duriug 
i twenty years ending 1860-Cl :' 

I-otisd Cqttqs, JS4li3Sl. 







UM,W laH 
i,tw,nt Mtd>u tan 













Eu( I»>1U r«pcn, IV. 500. 

CbipaiaD'N Caina«rc«, SI. tke aboTranMctiooBot th« Affri-Hortiontbaral Sodstr 

lombar.July IMS. 'Bmo. Rev. KK.lM4onMZ,71'72. 

Bom. K«r. Rm. 1 1.13 of 1843. 175-7. « Bom. lU-v. liM. i5& of 1844, 99. 

Bom. R*v. Rw. 17 at IWi. 75. • tioia. Rev. Km. 'J3 of 18I». 

UumI'* Cotton in thu Bomlity Vntldvavy, 67 ; l>r. T. Boyk^'i Caltai« of Cothm 

iudia, S8T. 



Ifioubky OutttMTi 



|pt«T TV. 

In 16f^'2 the nren under cotton i-ote t« 30,019 utres in IniUpai 
sud twRv pnjtits wen.' innJe 1>j the coltJrators. Id 1870-71 it 
at 17,072 acres. Siiicy theii, oxcepl iu 187"i-73, 187+-75, uid 
1«M'.!-Sd, when it utootl at 10,170, 3l,)27, and 23,375 ncres rea(ioo<l 
tiroly, it baa fluctuated bctweeu lOOucroa in 187 U72 and 45GS] 
acres in IB81-82. 

S6. Td;; or J?iim, Crotalaria jnncea, grows in small c^uaati' 
tiea chirfly in the block eastern plain. It in sown id Jul^-, is groi 
without vat^r or manure, and ripens in Oololier. It ia left standing 
for sbout a month ativr itia ripe that the leaves which are exeellen 
mannre may fall on the land. In ganlenx and occasionally in drT> 
liinds it i» gruirn solely for laanuro, Iho plaats hein^ ploughed inb 
tiie soil when ready to llower. After it is sonked the bark yieldH 
fibre which is considered the best uiaterial for ropes, ooarse c»nvuJ 
twine, and fishing not«. Almost thv whole stipplj is used loadly. 

■ Four dyo8 are grown in Poona. Tho dvtuls are : 
Poor A I>r** AXB Piatiticn. 




B*tai ... ... I TBmwrle ... 

RimMAa or KardmP 8»ni(>»Dr , . . 

SUndri 1 

^irwajt or ^'1 , . tnJtwi Mwtd* 

CarVianiw II octMl u. 

87. Uahi.l, Turmerie, Curcuma longa i-i grown iu good hlaek I 
cbiflfly in thu cviitrul iiud wt-atorn plain. ItisplHntc-d generally (i 
Jnne or July from layers and with mauura and » waK>nut{ L'v«ri_ 
eight or ten days mitture^ in ])er:eiuber or Jnuiiary. It ia gro« 
only hy tho class of int'u who aro knowQ as turmeric .^rdenen, 
Hnldya M&lia. The root or halkunA is hoiled before it tsi^ 
to markt't. Wlieu steeped iu a preparation of lime-juice. 
and Cftrhtinato of soda or jiapadkh-ir it ia called rara. This 
a hrilliant crimsou dye whieh is used in [ititiitin^ the Hiudn 
mark. Men paint, putting the dye on wet, robbing tho root 
water on a stone and uppljiug the ci-irneou with the finger ; 
powder, rnbbinif a email circle of wax ou tho brow and pi 
ri-dpowder on the wax. The redpowder ia called Irunkit or j ^ 
The root is in nnirersal use as a condimout, being the staple' 
curry jrawdcr. Amb« halad-, probably Curcnnui lodosria, a Tarittjj 
of C. longa and grown in the same way, is naed only as a dmg. 

SB. Kuavmbn. See Xo. .'12. 

39. .9A/?n</ri, Bixft orcllana. in a «hrub grown rarely and in bi 
quantities in garden landii, Tho powder aurrniindini; the ripe 
yieldit a deep red orange dye which i« tho oniottoof rouimoroo. 

40. Surtmj?! or Ai, Indian Madder, Morinda oilrifolia, ia aelc 
seen in the west, btit !a largely grown iu deep itoila in the cast. 
is sown in June, often in fiohU overgrown with gnuju and we* 
and without water or mnuiiro gron-a far two years. Iu the tl 
year the root* are dug from a depth of three feet. The roole yiell 
a rod dye. 

Three nnrcotios are found in Poona. The di3tails are : 

PooifA ifAxcoriat. 









Cbnabh mU*^ 
npfrarrhbrloi hiU 
NicoUBna toilatuni. 

ChaptCT IT. 


ija Hemp Cannbis satira is grovro to a araalloxLent ta 
black soil in the iiotitem Hub-<li visions. Il it f>owii in Juno or 
grown wilh watur and occuatoaally with mniiuru, antl is rcwlj 
in Dec^mhor. When about two foot hijirh the atem it 
lialf round, n few iacliOK aboTo the root. TUis cbcoks tlie 
f^riivtb and cauttes tbo plant to throw out aide tdioots. The 
hyieldin^ part is bruixed jiiitt btitom thv suimI bcf^ina to ripen. 
m cut in IM-cmbi^r the pfaols are at once tttackod aod lotuled 
weigllla, lie laitv<>i< fnll when dry uud ihe pods arc oBod attd 
|ni ttgdt^a. The inftuiou iDodo from the jicKis h call<?d Ht-inij. 
Ipoda or ^Nja are atao am(>kc4l with or without tobacco, aod 
Ural iatoxicoting driuka oud a sweetmeat called mdjum are 
|eL The fibtv of this bomp is never qenmI. 

. Kdffnt or Piin !tetel-luaf Pipor bctyl is an important garden 
especially in the ilavcli villages of Kondvi Budrak, Kondri 
nl, Undrij Muliammadvdidi, and Phorsan^. It ia grown in 
L rod fii^il and re(]nires mnch uianure and constAnt watoriDg. li 
rally lasta Bftwn or if well cared tor twenty years. It ia 
ra n a botci-vino garden or prin mala wbich genorallj 
n aboaV an arre of groiiad. The vines aro trained »p slottdor 
■, paagnra, gfifvri, and bakan trees plantod in rows one to 
(cet apart and having leaves only at the top. The vinea 
[ravn by lajera. They want water erer^ fifth or Hixth day. 
wbolo Qwden has to bo eholtcrod from wind nnd suu by hit{h 
or screeoa of grasa or mats. Vines begin to bear in the 
jrnar, aw at th«r bc«t from the fourth to the thirtoculh year, 
uidcr favourable circumatancos, go on yivldiug till the twentiotb 
Brory year in Warcb, April, and May, the upper half of the 
cnt and the Iwwcr half i« coilud iiway and buried above the 
freah red earth and nmnure. Portiona ut the gnrden are 
in rotation, so that thoao first cut are ready to bear 
the butt are cat. A Ixttel-leaf ^rdcn wants a considerable 
to mlart, and in weeding, watering, insect -kiMinj*, and leaf- 
j. wanla conataat labour and utU-ntioa tbrooKbout the year. 
it^ia a fareurite omp. The rctam-i from the sale of the loavea 
noolbly, and the profits are greater than fronj any other 
liuj betel- vine is almost a! way* grown from well water. 
lo aay ubannol'Watcr doeH not aoit the vine, lifr. Fioicber 
tlie probable reason ia that from tbo diviaion of ownership it is 
^ ._Jt toaecore a conxtautaapplyof channclwat«r Mtilisaadaome 
4»do caatea ituJiuUng Brahniiuis rear the b«tcl'Vinc, aemo with 
' nyn baiuU and some with hired labour. Tirgnl Brdhmans, who 
nia lb« betel-leaf as a specialty, are ooosidcrt'd iuforior toothor 
laam m tlwy kill the Qiea that live on the vine, llie bRt4fl-t(«f 
a«n»d bjr all dauea with bet^nut^ qaickUipo, cabuchu. and itome- 



ChkpUr IT. 

Ceo IV. 

timea with tobacco bdi] aeverel eptces. Serenil rarietiea are disii 

43. TambiikhK Tobacco Nicotinnti labncnin in 1&81-82 Corel 
6l7ucre», 275 of which are ia Junoar, 2^9 in Kbed, 181 io Bhiintba 
oigbty-foar in Sirnr, kixI Cbirty-cigbt m Icdapur. It is grown 
ooDiidomble extent in ricb soiU iu the westcra frin^ of tfao 
country aod to a sinall extent furtber cast. Tbo village of Gl 
in Kbed baa moro than SCO ncreA under iobacixx Low nnd iJlol 
bind is generally preferred. It is sown in seed-beds in August 
|i]auted in Sv)>tcii)l>er. It is Hcldom watontl but is gone 
mannred. The plant is not allowed to flower. All buds adJ br 
shoots arc nipped off m thej ivpponr, and onlv eight or ten lea^ 
are allowed to romain. Because the buds of uio plant baro to 
destroyed, KonVns seldom grow tobacco thomBelros, bnt atlow ilj 
be grown in tboir Innilx br Mhrirs, M&ngs, and otbcr low cas 
who give the landholder half the produce. The plants are cut 
Jansary or February iiboiit fotir iiitlios from tho ground, ftjireffldj 
the son till thoy aro tborongbly dry, sprinkled with water mir 
with aurad grtkxs or willi cow's urine, nnd whilo damp cloS 
naclced tu a pit or Ktuckcd under weights and cororcd for vight < 
anring which fermentation seta in. When taken from tba p^J 
utiivli; the leavea aro luado into bundles and are ready for 
Though tho etumpft left iu the ground shoot again the leaves j 
almoet valueleas and are used only by the poor. The qu 
ifl poor. The average acre>yield of tobacco ia about 300 
(2'375 titans), The wholesale price of cured tobacco ts 
id. A pound (lEs. 7 the man) nnd ttie retail price about 3(£. a ,_. 
(Rs. 10 a man). Tobacco is smoked and cbewed by all classesj 
is made into suuS. In 1S21, according to the ColUctor Cai: 
Kobortson, tobacco did not thi-ivo. It does not aptwar in tua 
crops.' Its cultivation was introduced before 1841. In lS4l 
emnient forwarded to tho Collector a box of Syrian tobacco 
to ascertain bow it suited the soil and climato of I'oona. The i 
wan diatriboted and sown in different paria of ibc district, 
aowinga suceecdod and others (ailod. At the Uafist Btig, abontl 
miles co4t of Juunor, Hr. Dickinson eowed it in good 50)l, i 
plantod it in th(; unual way. When the plants wcro yoang,! 
Dickinson thought tliey did not promiao so well as the local pi 
He thought they might thrive better in the richest alluvial BOiT'l 

Eight apices are grown in Poona. The details ore ; 
Poor J Sr/CM ^kd CoxniJtii.rN. 








a.iM4^im , 

KfAimUr ... 

o«* - 


Qlngar — ... 
il**«i FmiMl ... 


Owkadu „ ... 


QjlJIbM offldllwle. 

Oanimu Ioukk. 

fVpMfcwm uinuum. 
FlfWdtakJiwu «r UMnMUan 

AiwUiuai ion or cnnolw. 

Bwt IndU Paper*, IV. W, 'Bool R«T. Bm, IKStA ISO, 75-7a 



lie Gioget '/Anjiher oflicinnlfl is grona in good block soil, 
from laycra at any time uf tlie y<!«r, aan, vrith inanare 
Imter every ten or twelve cIajts, is roidy for ubo groon in firo 
latnrc m »ix moaths. Tho dry root called »iinth is e*t«a as a 
tDflDt nad ia a faroarit« cure ior colds. 

Baili*hfp Sweet Ponnel Anetbain freDicatam is soTm in 
pA at any time and on the edges of dry crops in July and 
nt. It matures iu two montW. The seed ia eaten iu corty 
Ind as a condimout and au inf usiou o£ it is taken aa a cooling 

Chapter IV; 



[ Ualad Tumeric Curcuma tonj^ ia m iiniversal use as a 
tment and forms the staple oE curry powder. DoCaile liave been 
f under No. 37. 

[ EothCmbir Coriander Cnriandnim sntirum is grown in small 
Dtie« in good black itoil with ur without WBt«r and inunuru in ' 
pat aod oontro of lUo district. Among garden crops it is sows 
y month and with bdjri or other dry crops in July and Aognst. 
[eav«3 are ready for oso in throo weeks and the »oc<l or dJmnc 
to months. The Imves and yoong shoots aro much used as a 
Lib iu carry and relishes hii<I xornvtimm ns n v^otnblo. The 
seed id one of the most pupalar condiments. 

i JfinrAi Chillies Cap&icum nnaaum iu 1S8I-82 covered 8089 
L 3708 acres of them in Khed, 1807 in Jnnnar, 1131 in Sirur, 
In Bbimthadi, 204 io Indfipur, 321 iu Huveli, 140 in Purandhar, 
thirty-four iu Miival. It is grown iu the western fringe of the 
i country. It ia sown in May in a manured seed plot and is 
fed after Sfteeo days or a month- It begins to hoar at the end 
[o montbB more, and, if oocasioually watered, goes on bearing 
ur six months. Tlie ^laut lusts two years but is almost always 
id up after about t«n months, 'llie first yield i» ranch the finost 
is usually sent to market, the rest being kept for borne use. 
lies aro eaten l>Dtb green and ripe by aU chisses and are as much 
oeesary of lifo to the people as salt. Accoi-ding to Colonel 
W the lenve« arc eaten as a pot-herb. The two oommoneot 
Ities aro pu/omi a long chilly and mofvi about two iuchos long 
idun frutcacens. Other occasional varieties urelavangi, C. mini- 
It C grOBSam, C. coraciformo, and C. purpiirouni. 

K Ova Ptycotijt ajowan or Lingnsticum agirten ia sown in 
sttsat ojiy timo of the year and with dry crops in July and 
BsL It matttres in throo nionth.<L The seed is used as a 

I. Skepu Fennel Ancthum sowa or graveolus is aown in 
lens in sny month and with Mjrt and other dry crops iu July and 
uSt. It is Gt for use as a vegetable in six weeks and tho t^eed 
as in two and a half months. The plant is eaten aa a pot-herb 
the seed is used as a stomacliic. See No. 45. 

\. V$ Sngaroane Ssccbarum officinarum in 1881-82 covered 
! acre-It, 2260 of which wore in Ilareli, 1022 in Pumudhar, 963 
tmnar, 428 in Khed, 378 in Sirnr. 1}1I in Blumthadi, 1 13 in 
ipar, and twonty.two in M&tbI. With the help of water and 

(Bomtiaj I 




manure RDgarrane ia grown in deep black soils all over tbs diat 
except iu the extreme west ; in the etuti it is one of the vt 
garden {iroducte. It is also laudi ifrowo in Janiifir, Kbed, 
Hnv^tli, when?, aince the opening of the Matha canalB the 
under Hngarouue has cuQsidenbl; incrMifled. In preparing 
for sugnrcaae the plough U driven aoro&s it Boven or eight time 
villnge nmuarv its tbrovrti oa at the mle of about six tons (20 
onrtM) to the acre; and the land ia once more plonghwl and flc 
When thu etirfaco is beginuiug to dry it ie levelled with the ' 
harrow and iu Doceinbcr or March tho Hogarcano is plnntcd. _ 
Uyera, which are pieces of matnre cane »bDut »ix inclwc ^t^ofti 
are set in deep furrows drawn hy the plough. Sagarcane thds 
planted is called ii'in^na BIS or plough-raao to diHlin^-iii.-ih It fn;a 

fMivltfa UK or trodden cane which is pressed on bj thu fnot oftcr 
and has been ploughed, broken fine, nbd flooded. The tr 
BvatiOui is usually followed with tho poorer cnnra or in poor 
Trodden cane or p/ivl</a iw is mnniirca ton or twelve days nftor 
In^ra are put down by foldiusf sheep on tho epot. Trodden 
&pront« n niontli tift^r planting; ploiigh-CAiie being deeper set 
a month and a half to show but »iiffert IcM from any cl 
stoppage of water and reachea greater perfection. SugarcaDe ' 
either ciiton raw or is made into niw xiignr or yul. 

Tho mw siif^r or gu! ia extracted on the spot gi'ttrmlly by 
huebandntun ihemBelres. A wooden press or giirhill worlii^ 
two or more paiitt of bullocks ia set up. The appliances n»ed| 
making iful are: chulvan a large Gre-place; fditlc, a 
instrament like a hoe for skimming or for drawing the Jn 
from tho boilor into its receptacle ; ehibl, a sticlc with a hanil 
bowl or banket for straining the lt(|n;d; kahU or kaiihai,\ 
boiling pan (or thickoning tho juice ; and yuirhdl or charah 
sugarcane-press. The press is made entirely of wood and i« wor 
by two pairs of oxen. Two upright solid cylinders, eip!it«ea-i 
twenty inohes across called naora-^invri or bnsoand and wife, wh^ 
up]>er parts work into each other with ohliijae cogs, are made 
ri'Viilvo by mcann of n horizontal beam fixed to the norm in 
centre and yoked to the oxen at its ends. Tho cane, stripped of j 
Uares and cut lato leiigtlii of tiro or three feet, ia thrice passed ' 
hand between the cylinders, and the jiitcc is caught in 
below, which from time to time is emptied into the kdhH a alialld 
circular iron boiling pan. When t-lic pan is full thafire boneatb 
is lighted and fed cliiefly with the pressed canes. After eight] 
twelve hours' boiling and akimtning, the juice is partially cooled 
earthen pots and finally pourt>d into round holes dug in the 
and liiiivi with cloth, whore, when it forma into Inmps called (iAfjw I 
dhiktiU it is fit for market. The pressing is done in the opon air| 
in a light temporary shed and goes on night and day till tho nt 
crop is pressed. A sugarcane press costs about fi IU«. (Ra. 2d)i 
lasts tlirweor four years. Tho boiling pan oithop belongs to tho ov 
if ho is well-to-do, or is hired cither at a daily or a monthly 
according to thu ticno for which it is wanted. The daily hire 
pan varies from 28. to ■In. (lis. 1 -2) and tho monthly hire from ll 
to £1 (Ra. 5 - 10). Each cauc-miil employs aboul twelve work^ 

rcmovo tbc cntm from Iho fioU mttl «trip tliotr leares; one 
le canes into pieces two feot loQff ; two nre nt tho mill, one 
the mill the otlier dnwing- out tno pressed ciwnes ; one miDdg 
anil another tb« boiliug pan. The last la the tpilvia or sngnr- 
Ue in Huppriiieil to know <>xitctly when tho juico fs Hnfficiontty 
ed nod tfaickentMl to funti hitnpiL As most aagnrcane-groweni 
-without this knowledge a. itugar<man is hired at UJ, (4> as.) a day 
£l (lis. 10) a moiitb. The two feel long pieces of cano are paARpd 
Bvocu the uprij^ht cylindurs two or thro© at a time. To stop any 
Es tho pan is smeared with lodan a, glazed prepuntloa of udid or 
Jhni flour. It is tbcii put ou tho liro-placo aud the hollow between 
pan and tho firp-placo is closc-d with mnd. About 000 pints 
g/i'^ra) of juice are poured into the pan and the fire is lighted, 
boiling l»5(a six or »o^'On hotir?) dnririg which the juicA la 
ntly skicnmod and limn-wntcraiid luU'hni floar are thrown ioto 
jnicc to keep it from being too much boiled. When the sngar- 
a tbiaks tho propor lime haa come the p»u ta taken oS the fire and 
juice, witii conslant stirring, is allowed to cool for abootnohoor. 
on C4)ol it is poured into u1oLli-lini*d holes in tbu groaud two feet 
*ja md a foot and a hnlf nprosa. It is left in tho holes for n coaple 
Saya until it hsut liunlonoil into Iiito[M <^r nodules wuif^hiug fifty to 
.ty pounds (25 - 30 then). When tlic lumps are formed they are 
koD aw»y. If the nugarcane ia of eighteen niontlia' growth it 
Eitds gut eqiinl to ono-fuarlb of the juico boiled ; in ether cases it 
)lds abont a sixth. If the juice is allowed to overhoil, it cannot 
ke the gul ; it remain* the boiled juice of sugarcane which i« 
lied hihtvi. The jieople beliovo that augarcaue fed with well 
nter yields on«-Gflh more jr"' than the sacne caoe fed by duutnal 
ater. The correclDess of this belief la doubtfal. 

Aa far hack as 183H-40 the growth of Mauritius cane spread 
nMitly in Junnar. The land was well suited to this cftno, tho 

ipply of water was obnmlant, and the people were anxiona to 
row it. Mr. Dickinson, a planter ut considerable experience in the 
Text Indies, was employed in making aujrar. But the produce did 

it find a ready market.' He tamed Ida refuse au^r and treacle 
account by raanufacturiiig rum.* In 1841, beaidas fifty^e7eo 
!r(!)t pluntfd by the people on their own ooooDnt, aboul 100 acres 
i-rt! plant<id in Jnunar under contract with Mr. Dicfcinaon, tho 
anajTcr of iIil' sugar factory at Hivra. The augar waa uaod 
ily by tho European inhnbitants of Poona and Ahinadoagar.' In 
K42-*(''3> tbu area under Mauritius sufrsr rot-o from 157 to SSSaoree. 
'lie cultivation spread from Jiinnar to Khed and Tftbal. Sagar-worka 
ere started at Hivra by a joint stock company, and wore afterwards 
onght by Mr. Dickiufien. In Bhimthadi a MnsalmAn planted some 
IDO in toe Chn.kar Biig with tho view of makinff sn^r and «Oin« 
Oiibandmen turned oat ^OBav equal in gmia to Mr. Dickinson 'a but 
ot free from fecoUncw. They alao mMO yul which was sold at a 
gher price than that produced from tho local cane. At Grab 

Cbapter IT. 



< Bom. Rot. H«- IMl o* >MI, 08. • Horn. Rev. R«e. S3 ot I»«, I4». 




CbApter IV- 


Mr. Dickinson was in itio hublt of contrncting with tlie liul 
to plant cano for him. He was aftenranls able to obtain a (tufficie 
supply at rII timi?:*, <:liiolIy from ibe gardeaa of Br&faiuaDB, lieadma 
aou well-to-do baiibanduMm. In 1842 Mr. DickinsoD inadu 87,C' 
pounds of sugar vrortli £1500 (Rii.l5,0(K)) more than tlie outiami 
UiB preTioua year. Mc»^^. i^uiidc uiiJ ^Vebbc alao plaiitetl abo< 
thrcoBcrcni of laud with ManritiQa cane In thoir garden &t Mundbv 
about fivo milca uurlh-oasi of Poom, and made about 2) tons 
{2826 shrrt) of gui, whicli waa sold at lij». {Hs. 8) iho palU of 
} 20 shet-v.* In 1844, tbe area nnder Mauritius cane rose from 3SS 
to 547 Bi^ros. Mr. Dickinson's fanning continued aucoMsful parity 
b««auHo lie was ablu to dispo§o oE bis rum nad sngnr by GoTorDmciit 
coutracts. Many bnsbaiidmpn were willing to make.sagar bat froni 
irant of capital and of local demand were obliged to conleotj 
themaelroa by producing yut,' 

III 1847 Mr. Dickinson's engar iiadagood year at Hirra. 
made about five Ions (.ISO manv) at Moscavado sugar and sold it { 
the families of tbe i>uldit^rH and otbar Europeans at Pooaa nn 
Ahmadnagar. Among the natives tbe doroana was trifling and I 
diaconmgod its moro «xtend(>d mauufactur^x Tho nativue ureal 
tbe immediate Dbighbourkood, prcFcrrcd tbe soft blanched suf 
8old by tiie sbopkeepers ; tbeir objection to Mr. Dikinson'a so 
was its colour^ but lo refine it would haro caused a »e 
loss in quantity. la 1817 a comniiltee wbicb mot in Poona 
distribute prizes for tbe best specimons of superior field produc 
awarded a prize of £30 (Ks. 300) to two persons. One of tbu 
epeoiineos was some grained Muscavado sugar, tho other was sug 
luade by evaporation. Before crystalli&atiou bad aei in this an 
had been poured into pots with holes in the bottoms through 
the treacle was allowod to pass. A prite of £20 (Its. 20Dj 
awarded to two other Qntives for the bc»t brown sugar : and a tt 
prize of £10 (Its. 100) to two others for tbe best specioiena of ni/M 
inferior Bugar. All tbe prize aiieciinens came from near Je 
and were due to tho exertions and influence of Dr. Qibsoa.* 

In 1881-82, in connection with sngarcano expeni 
Mr. Woodrow, tbe se periutcndt'nt of tbo botanical garden nb Gane 
Khiiid, nolicL'd that thohtoit of Poona had Tory little of tbe silica] 
combination with potash of soda and liuio in the form knownl 
soluble silicjktes. It was not diBicuIt to reproduce these Bolt 
silicates without which sugarcane cannot grow; bnt it would J 
expensire in Iiidin and could not bo dune in a short time. 

To grow Bugnrcano without wearing out the land it wna ne 

to manure witJi two tons «o aero of tjuicklime and ten loads an ^ 
of woodash, n.nd to sow and plough m a greon crop such as he 
or block mttstard. 

After a crop of migarcano the land should be manured for I 
years a» usual and »och cropa grown as tbo eoil and the ms 
sait, preference aa far as possible being given to pulses and 

' Baa. Kev. Em. 1K6 o( 1S«. 83-H. » Bom. Rev, Bet I? el 184(1 

» E8V. B«. 23 o( 1M9, IM-lBfi. 




ksff avoided. To no case should more lba« one com crop be grovm^ 
the uud of thu four vt-ars if the fCTUUod is trvalcd in iLo usual 
iu*-r fur . eoKArcane aa avera^j^e crop may ba expected. Poooa 
^arcuitu soil id ueiiully rich in Hiuit, in bodio cusks lime is present 
Bxct'^a. It woaldoEteB pu-y to make a kiln and bum the calcareous 
vtb oil or tionr tlio fli'ld where liiiio wus naated. 

Twelve bulb vegetables are gi-own in Poona. The details aro : 






Ata ... 
a»Ulm ... 

KaMld ... 



. nnu ■•■vtdCMMlim 

PoUtlu . . 

J c'lunt 
.lOiikin* - 


.~-._- . . Itulli-liwftas YiHi 
ir«B or asniitB.i OiminoB Ywn ... 

lAfMH . . . '(Wllc 

MiOa -.. . tttMth 

|til>IJ- ^t•.l•4Mmd CUtdln 
IhttiHn ■- • crt raUlMt ... 
Swrai . 

ftdMvm HibavoH^ 
DuioD* Mrrolk. 


DIuKonk bMmiUA^ 
„ butUlign 

BiphAniw ^hlHrain. 

CkltdiuDi MMitoiIiam. 
ABMplKi(itiBll«a Biiip«nnlMii 

Sa. .<4U Cnlladinoi fi^raudifulium or Amm carapanutatom with 
|b bolp of manure and abuudiiat water in grown in manhy hollotra 
jieflv in the billy west. Ic is generally pluutod in enrly June. The 
leaf in ready tucut in ibroo niuoths and ibo plant continues bcarincr 
for yunra. The loaf and elalk are eaten commonly as a vo^table, 
the root or bulb more !i«ldota and on fast dayn. Dr. Uirdwood gives 
throe specie* C. grandifolium, C. ovalain, and C. saptiFoIiuoi.* He 
wya that tliti atom leaf ttiid root of the first and third are edible, but 

Fly tlio leaf of the second. RajiUu, C. sag-it ifoliuiUj has narrow 
inttd leaves snd j^reeo iELsteod of purplish ntem and reius. 
53. Jialdia the Potat* Solanom taberosam ia grovrn in Khed and 
Jannar.* Except close to the billy west potatoes are generally 
^atered and manured. lliejKitato is cnl ioto small pieces oacli ^ritb 
bud or eye, is jiluntcd in June or July, and ia ready between lato 
eptember and November. The intrMuclion of the potato into 
la is ohieQy due to the cxerlious of tlio late Dr. Gibson who ia 
bronght pntatoos from the Nilgiris and distributed tlicm for 
Alwut 1811 potatoes and sugarcane wore the chief products 
the experiment^ garden at Hirra. Potatoes wvro already grown 
Sn Jiinnar, Khsd, and PAbal in snfficieut quantities to bo exported 
to Phalia, Auraiiptbad, and Bombay." They were sold at the rate 
of twenty ponnde {lOflAerji) of the first sort, and thirty to forty 
pounds (16-20 vhert) of the inferior quality to tho rupee. The 

fotatoctii were iarne and o(|linl to any then grown in any part of 
ndia.* In iStl the potatoes of uorth Pooua siipplioil a very largo 
portion of the Homl»y market.* In IH45 De. Gibaon obtained a 
supply of t^ood Irish potatoes. Since 1845 potato'growiug has spread 

tt Onluun laentions C. ovatum aui C. gfamll folium i awl belt! thM C M(ltif«lJBn 
iapf«bably tli« budo »• C. ov»tiun. 
> ThoM MO gwunltf kiioim u Taienaa potatoc* lieotiua thojr Uke rail M 
ilfMOn ctMHiii. ^ Bom. Rev. Boe. I4S3 ot IS43, 17^7, 

•BMl.fiaT, Km, l»4ollM3, 73. • Bom, R«v. Boo. 17 of 1«U^ 73. 


Chapter IT. 


r»pii11y nii<] tliero b at praMot a eotiaidorable area of gardoD m 
iLs dr>-.cro|) Uod undor potatoes. Tbo potaUo is not grown to 
east of n line drawn from Sbik^rpur to Yadgaon Pir. Tliou^l 
was at Srsl riowed wilh auspiciou the potato ia aow a fa.vuu 
food with BrihmuiB, and tbo Kunbis nlso tmt thu smatltir and 
saloabto roots. Of two varietiea one with a dinooth light bmwn 
ifi tha best, being mealy when cooked and fetching a higher p 
The other has a roagh dark skin and both in size and qoaUt; n^ 
inferior lo the gmootb-BkinDod Toriety. Two potnto crops are raised 
in the year. Ono is p1uiit«d in dry-crop lands in 3aly and dag a 
late September; the oClier ia planted in December and dug lo 
Febmary. The Sdoond cmp reciiiirM n vroukly wmterins. 

i>4. G4jar Carrot Daucus carrota with tbo help of water and 
manure is grown in Urge quantities in good black rail in the vast 
of the district. Thv carrot is sown in ^nrduu landa at any timo ol 
the year and in dry-crop lands in July or AuguKt^ It is ready for 
nse ID threo months. The root is eaten a« a vegutablu both raw 
and boilod. It is aUo iilit and dried in the nun wheQ it will keqi 
fire or niz monthfi. When »ua<dned it is called wmit and has Ui bsj 
boilLvl beforo it is eaten. 

.S5. Kanda Oiuon Alliam oepa of t-wo varieties, a red aOi 
mildor and more popular white, witli (be help of water and 
is grown in f^ood black soil. Onions are sown in seed-beds at 
time during the rains or cold weather, and planted when a 
month old. It is fit for ubo in two moatha after planting 
takes two montlis more to oome to maturity. It reciuiros 
black soil and shonld hare water every eight or twelve daya. 
onion is oaten by all except by a Eow of the very orthodox and 
certain saored days. It u aJmoet a necosasry of life to the ' 
olassos. The leaves are eaten as a pot-bocb. 

56. Tva/iyar Dio»corea fascirulsta ia a vam closely reaembling 
ftonorcommonyamand tbeX;i]r<iiuIjtorba]b*bcaringyam. Iti&fi 
in the hilly west. It« bulbs which form only below groand are li! 
sinnl) sweet iiotato in size and shape. The flesh in white and swi 

&7. KarKtnJa ia the bulb.l>eariug yam probably Dioscorea baltri- 
fera. Itlsmiichlike thecommonyamorA-trninappenranoeand habits, 
and like it found in the hilly we«t. The kardnJa diffoi-s from the lion Id 
having a roundiT Ie»f and inbeariug bulbs ou the Ktomsas well as on 
the root. Vutil it ia Ujilod the flesh of the bulbs is sligblly bitu>r. 

58. Kofior Goradu the Cummon Yam Dioscoroa iduta is grown 
in smalt quantities without water or manure in the billy west ronnd 
the edges of fiolds or in hoiise-yards. It is planted in June or July 
and by October tbc root is (it bo oat. If left till Uacember the rout 
frowa two feet long and eight iuohos across. The plant, which ijt a 
creeper with longi^b pointed leaves, boars two to five tubes or roots 
vrbich whon boiled make an excellent vegotabla 

£9. Lasun Garlic Allium Ecattvum according to Colonel Sykcs is 
of two Tsrieties a red and white. It is grown with the help of water 
Bad manure in good blade soil and ro(|ii!ro<i water once every ten ur 
twelve days. Segmonta of the bulb are planted in any month, and 
mature io foor or five months. All eloHKes use gariio in 
cookery. The leavee are eatea as a pot'herb. 



It'ulinh Raph&nas satimin acconlinf; to T)t. Birdwood 
rictivs, D. radicola and ablongn, and »ccur<ling to Colonel 
I of four TBrietie«, three of llictn the long, the Hhort, and ihc 
^ndiRh nhJL'h nro white nnd ono which is rod. Rndi^begare 
111 with the help of manure at any time of the year in ganJca 
i and somotimOfl iu dry -crop land during tho rnins. Tlio Ipiivca 
'i for nse id eix weeks, the root in two months, and the plnnt beai*9 
[or dintjri* in a fortuight more, and cootiones bearing for a 
iih and a halF. The leaves are eaten boiled as a pot-lterb and raw 
isalad. The root is eaten as a Yegetablu both raw and boUed. 

^ ifiiji'dfit ArrowlcflTedC^huIiutn Calodinmsag'itifoliiim, acrord- 
lo Dr. BirdwcKvd of tlirco variotieu, is grfuni with the help of 
rmnd manure. Tho leaves are narri.>wcr and moru pointed tJian 
I^TCS, and tho Bt«in loaves mid bulb are eaten in the 6auie way. 

L StUdlu Svneet Potatoes Convolvulus bnlalaR of two varieties 
lite and rod, of which tho r«d is tlio sninller and itweetwr^ are 
'ii in the caatern suh-divininns. It is raised from layers put 
t^ Ukj time in the rains or eold woAth«r, »ud with tho hvlp of 
t and manure comes to tnnturitj in six months. The yoiin^ 
U and »h(>ot« arc cntcn as a. pot-herb. Tho root is eaten boiled 
roaat^d. It k also dried, ground to flour, and mado into foet- 
rakes. The mature vino in oxcollcnt fo<lder. 

'File root 

i. Siiran AinophophaltQH cnmpanulatus ia grown 

le liillj west^ It takos three years to Tnaturc. 

IS to a large sise and tbon^h somewhat bitter ia much esteemed 

vegetable. From a greoD taperinj^ st«ia four or fivn iueltcin in 

eti*r at tho base and about three foot long, Iitu or six 

ated loavc« oigfatocn to twenty inches lon^ shoot upwards and 

ards, Erory year th(f leaves and stem die and (spring ngiiin. 

venty fruit rcgut&bivs are grown iu Poena. The details are : 

RPooirj Fkuir I'toiiTAiicja. 

Rd. Huulmi. 


K4rU ... 
KoHnll .. 

Kktnt, MkifQ 



TUnMa OblrfB.' 
Taiimt .. 

TMdlf „ 
r.»H» ... 


aiiMii-«en»r«4 Oncoiii- 
Tiwijiiiii While OmhI, 
WkKmotloD Z'. 

Ilntll* Oodtd. VOm 

IMrn«f>Uii ... 

TgoMd ot Lart-i>|l4» 


Lulh >fiitu«iib «r cucumti 
CnaiilklM Iran. 
Lnlla paUuidrw. 
Oiimrtilta cHnlhiK. 
HaiBOTilIm ttumutla. 
U^ntnnllim lit vim 
CvntrttU U(«narU. 

Vlwunll UtlOL 

CnMnbit* iilW 
TrlthMtnUM* uniTiint. 

Do . dlQloa or inioli- 
CHViirl>1(« tnid'.|Hpv. 
Ud. fpo. 

Quflamto BfilatlMinut or int' 

OmdnU IndhB, ll«n»r«iM 

LyatV*nl«n iwutcntiini. 

Chapter IT. 


Bulb VtgftttUu. 

Fr¥M rwdaWtfal 




((4. Dkemdtki «■ aenetiiDe^ ^tawd roimd tke edge of g&rdeiu 
bat gNcrmJlT id rtTvr-bvds. It Wfpaa to bear »bouL ibr "'u 

th*r it i* loVn. The fraic n ^boot th« Kite of the two i . d 

white both within mxJ witboat. It is e»t«D cooked u a vvgctat^lc. 

65. Dodlu the Bh*rp <i on»grcJ Cncnmber Luffa aoubiQ^utn or 
Cncamifl kcaUiifpihis is grown with the help of water uid m^mara 
in nch land in \hp cimlrv ttad Mk^^t of tbp tliBtnct roaixl the «dj 
of other crops, ll is giMwn in gardens at aiiy time. In drj-i 
Unde it is sown in Juno^Jnlv, grow* czcccdinnflv fast and tu a g 
sise. and beeioa to bear in two or two atMl a batf month;^, ami 
on bearin;; for one or one uid • half moDlhB. The fruit, wbiol 
dark ^reen and gix ioches to % foot long, is seamed with Hhi 
ridj^ti from end to end. 'i*be fruit \i ealen boded. No otliw 
of (he plant is as»>d. 

ti(3. Dadh-bhojila the LoD^ White Gourd Cucarbita Iod;, 
creeping plant, is asoaUj grown in garden lands rt^und the edge'^ 
the crops, li begins to bear in two or three months. The fruit-, 
ia eometiiDea thirty or thirtf'six incboft long, has soft whito flcRb 
ia a common and ^Tourite veffetahle. The skio and svcds are 
in efiaiai. It ia also made into a swootmoul called k,jlea. 

67. Ohofdlf LufTa peLandria is gr<iwn and used in the 
way as tho dodlet [Ko. 35), Tim fruit, the only pnrt eaten, in an 
the same aise as the doJke, and marked lengthwise with light 
If watered the pla<it bears fi^r two yenrs. 

6S. Knlingad Watermelon Cacnrhita dtmllns, a creeping pli 
sown in the C'jM and hot months in moist eandT spott in rivor 1 
aod mannrod when six weeks old. llic frnit u emouth and wild 
dark green n^ittled and striped with a lighter green. The fl«h] 
piuk and tbe s&edx black or white. It is eaten both raw as a 
and cooked iu different wayx. 

G9. KarU Uomordica clmrAntin aroiiller both in plant and 
is grown and niicd like the dodka and Iho ghoanh IS'os. 65 and 
The snrfaco of the fruit ia roughened with knob* and ea«h seed i 
the whole cross B«clion of the fniit. It is slightly bitter utd nifl 
be well boiled before it is eaten. 

70. Kartoli Momonlica dioica ia a wild but saleable goard 
kirU, The fruit is cat<.-ii lu a vogotiihle after two boilings. 

71. Kdahi-hht'f^a or KA^hi-phut that is thfl Bpnaroe Pnm 
Cucurbita litgeiiaris ia grown in ganh-ns aod soaietimes ou ri 
banks. KscepC that it is roandish and thick inxtcatl of long, 
fruit is like the iudh-lfiopla. It is only eaten oookcd.' 

72. Kharhuj Heloti CucumiK melo is sown in the cold and 
months in moist Mtndy Hpnts in rivc-r-hods, aotnetiiues with 
watormeloEi. The ])lftnt i« manured when aix weoks old and t' 
fmit ripens in the third or fourth month. The fruit te row - 
greon, or yellowiah, tho skin covered with a network of 
brown liaes. It is vatcn uncooked in n variety of wayti. 

' Tfaa naraM Jird«t(-Uo;)(ii uid Kii^i-f^l%n tAvt gixvi to ■ luge white gouil 
llat(«lHdslobuUrilM|M w tk cl<ii»Mt*<l*«tinnitil liiiM. 



rs. Khira or Khtra Kdidi Common Cucaiubcr Cncomia 
isof tn-o kindn, green and white fruited, ia sown in dry-crop lan'Is 
rul; and Au^iiat ruurnl iho cdf^e of uarty crups or in gitrdea lands 
oy lime. It begios lo buar m about Iwo monlliH. The fniit \» 
, to aixt«oa inches lung uud ia much eatua bi>tL run- fuid cooked. 
74. Kokdla Cucurbita alba ia grovrn round the edj^e of gardens 
DT iiine of the year. It b»i?iTi!i to bear in three or four months, 
fruit ia larger than the red puiiipkia and the ileah is white. It 
^>evereiiu*ii raw but U much esteemed (ts & vegetable aud is made 
bto a 8Wo«tmt>nt culled haU-a- 

■ffS. I'adval Snakegourd Tricbosnnthes asguina except thai tC 
^mever raised in dry-crop land, is grown in the same parts of the 
Ktrictand in tho same way as (he 4oiik6 (No. Qh). 'I1iu fmit, wbivli 
F about three feet long and two or threo iuchos thiclc, ia marked 
jrogthirava mith white lines, It is eaten boiled aa a vegetable. 
rho Mar^thds use the leaves, gtallt. and root modicinally. 

76. Panar Trichosautlies dioicA or cacnmcrina a grown early ia 
[he centre and east along the edges of beteUIe«f gardens. The mut 
B snmll and gr«H*ti and in highly valued by the people aa a medicJae. 

77. Tdmbila iihopla Ited I'umpkiQ Cucurbica melopepo or pepo 
e Dsually growu round (he edges of garden lands. It ia sowa at 
uijtimo of tho year and begins to bear in about three months. Tlie 
trait is roundi>h and 8ouiotiiQ(>8 very large, about eighteen inches 
o diameter with reddish Oeah. It is cooked as a vegetable, and the 
ihoots and young leaves ara used as a pot*berb. The seeds arc also 
(at«n. This pompkiii ia called iUngar in some parts of the Deccan, 

78. Titrbuj^ 18 gouerally aown with kkarbuj the melon in the cold 
ind hot months in tnoist aaiidy spots in river-beda. It ia manured 
vhen six weeks old. The fniit ia like the kharbiy io the colour of 
itK tlosh and needs, but is rather longer. It ia eaten as a fruit and 
XX aalad. 

79. Tdrkdiili Cucomis DsitaliBsimits or utilitssimua ia nfloally 
^wu in river-bed^ in the cold and hot weather. The seed is 
planted in tho moi«t sand nail the plant is maniired when about three 
^eks old. It riporis in about two and a half months. Tlio brail, 
ifhioh ia sruooth and about two feet longj ia much eaten both raw 
[mil cooked. 

80. Tondli Cocctnia iodica or Momordica mooedelphia is ^rown 
in the same parts of the district and in the same way aa tlie dodie. 
[No. 65). Tl)0 fruit is a little smaller thfto a hen's egg and wlieu ripe 
is rc-d. It is eaten aa a vcpt-talilo, but is never civen to ohildron aa 
it ia auppOKud to blunt the faculties. There ia a cutter Tariety which 
Lb uttoleos. The vine sometimes lasts for yean. 

81. F«/u* is grown daring ilie rains round Beld« of dry crop 
blid at other timt-s in garden lands. It bonrs in about three months, 
rhe fruit is eight or ten inches long ojid is yellowish marked length- 
wiae by tinec. It is sweet and ia ealeu raw and cooked. 

Chapter l\ 

> SHr G. BnvlvMd fAww tartmj iattmd of ibuJinffocf m ttie veraacaUr of CBCurtrita 
ilrBlluk the watcffnidon. Mr. Platchfff admits tbU tiuimj ts MawtiiDM aud for 
Mli^yad. H« thiaks lti» a miMakc aud tbit tks taH»^ U mot* aUiad to the Uartig. 


kptw IV. 

82. Vdngi or Jiaingan the Bg;g-plant Solaunm mtivagK-' 
grtyn witbthe h«1p of tnaoaro Aod water in conaideraliU i|D9iitt: 
ill rk'b Bvil ofuti on hvor-lmiik tuud iii tho coDtrc aiwl out tali 
f]pirdi>nH oTor tlia wliolo dUtriet I'xcopt the woat. IngndflBiiii 
eoH-n at aiij time of the fear. In dry Uod it is sown ia Jm* 
iu>ed-b4>il!<, planlvd during Jul/, be^iu to be«r in Septenber.i 
if ocmaioually watered gooa on beariitg (or four montlu. Itai 
ecff-like and slightly bhUT friiit is one o[ tfae commooest ud I 
4U iJeccan Tegetableo. It is boiled and Eried, nuwio into pidcfo.1 
BOmettines slit uud driod ia Ihv Hiin and kept in atore ander Uwj 
of ugri*. The liiavtw nro said to be good for oleoain^ po«rbt. 
hold it wrong Ui umi tlio aWoi ka fuel. Besides ube otsI* 
liaiR^tifi there is a aortoaUod fMoii/itfi with fruit somotimtys tttofotl 
long. Tbero ts aUo a wild variot'jr caUod dvrii cdn^ji with » »>Bj 
and nmriy roond fmit. 

83. Vel Tdfyi Tomato or IiOTeHtm>1o Lyoopermcon oscalt 
witli the help of inanore and good »oi] is grown in stnall qi 
fdl over iho uiBtrict nud chiotly Dt-ar lanTC markets in tbei 
eoeU It ia gmwii in gimlvna at any time. In t)ry-crop 
80WI1 in June or July and fniita in October. The Cmit is eaten 1 
raw and cooked, 't'bo touiato was brought to India from Brflofl 1 
the Purtugiieso. 

Fuur jKid vcgetabto!! are grown in Poona. Tbu details are : 
fooyd Pod r$»nA»iJa. 







MmU ... „ 
mtmda - 


btoUe BiMiBw ... 

84. id biti or Kh'tnamhli, n crcep<Dgr plant, is grown witboni 
tir nmntiro near bonses or on tJio edges of garaeti Uuda in all pirtS' 
of the diHtrict. It brging to boar in three monthH and in good mS 
goci on bearing t\iTvv or four ycnm. Tho pod when rcry yoong 
and t«uder is usud as a vegetable. 

85. Bhendi Eatable Hibittcas Hibiscus escelentus te of 
varietiea f/ari ov early ami hnl! or lute. Both are ^^own in gm 
in all parts of the district and all the year ronud. They are 
grown without wntor hutofton with miinurc. Aaadiy crop the early 
or giiri bhendt with large leaves and short thick pods la aowa in 
Juno, grows about two foet high, and bears from early August to 
December. The Uto or hati bhendi, with small leaves and thin 
prickly podsj is sown in Juno or July along tho edges of or among 
(rajri crops, grows seven foot high, hef^ins to ln-ar in late September, 
and goes ou bearing till iht> end of November. Both kinds art! 
grown in gnnlon lands nil iht> year round. Thu green pods ar« 
eaten boiled aa a vegetable or frieil. Tho rino seeds are used 
curry and ehatnt. The bark yieliii a. fibre which is soldom used. 







86. Ohm/da DolichoB lablab is of maoy Torieties, the chief being 
Hie black-seeded, the white-seeded, the &o£ or finger-like, pattdde or 
the hanumdn, and the white with carved white poda. It is grown 
with or withoat mannre and water. It is sown in Jane or July on 
the edges of diy crops, begins to bear in October, and goes on 
bearing till January. As a watered crop it is grown round gardens 
or in the yards and porches of hooses, where it goes on bearing 
two or th^e years. The pods are eaten boiled as a vegetable and 
the grain is used as a poise. 

87. Govdri Cyamopsis psoralioides ia grown in gfirdens at any 
time and daring the rains on the edges or in the comers of the early 
giain crops. It begins to bear within three months and if watered 
oecasionally goes on bearing for some months. The plant grows 
tboat three feet high with a single fibroas stem from which the 
pods grow in bonches. The pod is eaten green and ia mnch prized , 
as a vegetable. 

Twelve leaf vegetables are grown in Foona. The details are: 
PooxA Leaf VKasTABiMa. 

Chapter IT. 



Pod VtgOabUt. 







Ltpldlnm Mtlrutn. 




Ctwnopodloiii Tirids or ilbnm. 


CliaiidaDbatva ... 




BcmujibrodHa Ama- 

Amsimottim polfguniu. 



Bluldar Dodi, BUita 

Bmnei vedouliii. 



Amaimntlini farbti*. 



Oommoii Onek ana ,-, 


Mclnri or RH ... 


Sluiiii ncsmoM. 







HsDtbk MtivL 



Amuanthiu cuidldiu; 



lUkbla AmariBUi ... 

Am&rmnthuii olerifcceua. 

88. Alvi Cress Lepidiam sativam is grown in gardens as a 
poi-herb and for the seed which is esteenied good for women after 
diild-birth and is aaed in poultices for bmises. 

89. Chdkvat Goose Foot Chenopodium viride or albam is naaally 
nown in gardens, bat sometimes in comers of early grain fields. It 
a rsady to cnt a month after sowing. The plant ia much esteemed 
Ha pot-herb. 

90. Chandanhaiva Chenopodiam is grown in all garden lands at 
taj time of the year. The plant stands twelve to eighteen inches 
U^ and has the new leaves of the npper shoot red. The leaves and 
tbuk are eaten as a pot-herb. 

91. OhavU Hermaphrodite amaranth Amaranthns polygamus is 
grown ia gardens at any time of the year. It closely resembles 
Uxdulja but seldom grows more than six inches high and the leaves 
■d stem are nniformly green. The leaves are eaten as a pot-herb. 

91 ChuJca Bladder Dock Rnmez vesicarias is grown in gardens 
lt«Df time of the year and is ready for nse about a month after 
•nring. The plant is eaten aa a pot-herb and has a pleasant bitter 

Ltt^f VtgOabk* 

t«r IV. 



'At ViM. 

05. Ualh Amftnuithus triatU of two vari«tic>« rod «nd Ereet, 
pmim in ^nVn? at luiy lime of tbe jcor and ia fit for aw ^'■■ 
wrukjtftfttr KuH'in^.t The red rariety BtMnis tlircu to fire : 
wiibftlliick hU'iu niiclhiui nrmall cenlrft] plume as well asei(l»t 
and tUo Icbt«w mud wnvcMly ibe ttl«m ture » r«d tinge. Th' 
TsrictT i» HinftlWr. 1 be kaves and joaug shoots are csipn ' 
A «i1u BniaranU) callvd ftiitf-nuifh is much «nton br the luwer i 

M. i/c(iii Coniiiion Grrek grass TriifuiifHa tatuamgrwOM 
growu in gurdeiiB in nil pikrtii of lii(t district. It is sown at SM 
of the year, and with the bctp of water and rnauuru it^ &l toe 
about three weekt, oiid is mature ia two and ii half mooths. ^ 
jOUDg l)>o entire ]>Unl is cHton as n pot-liorb by all claasee. 
seed is fiiyen to rattle an a strengthfuier ani] is much uimI m 
CoodimeDt io curry. The mature stalks are an cxcelltrut fodoer. 

k So Mohari or Hai AluBtard SiDnpia racema<«A of two kintU, 
and blacic, is either grown at iinjr timo of the jrcar in gardeM 
diinnff Iho cold wiwott round ficMii of irb<pat or gratu, or 
wheat nud linseed*. Tho Iwivvtt and gn-tm piula are oat<'o as 
bio. The seed \» used in carrier uiul rflt-HlK-!!, s medicinal od 
oxtrscted from it, and it in puwdcriid sitil uji[>lic(l tw. a blister. 

06. PoJifa AniaranLhus of two kinds i^^en snd tvd, crowi . 
or two feet> high in gardens nt any time of the year. The leaf wliicki 
is eaten a» a pol-h«rb is ready for use tn six weeks. 

07. Pudi'im Mint Mentha sativu is crotvQ in garden lands, 
is a pcn^iiDiiLl and aeedn au occasional watering. I^o Iostoi 
lUied as a paruish. 

9ff. Itiijijim of two varieties red and green AtnaimDlto 
caodidus i» -grown in gardens at any time q( tbo yi^ar and aooiAtiiDH 
among watered wheat.* In tbe green variety the seed plaoH i* 
deep orimsoD and the atom and leaves ore tinged with crimson, 
otherwise the varieties do not difFer. The plant stands three 6> 
fire feet high and lias a heavy overhangiug contral e^ed pltuM- 
The seed in fxceedinglv small and is ueoally trodden out liy finmu 
feel or rubbed o<it by liatid. It is much eaten on fast days eit 
as liihi which it nnulv int'O balls or in cakct made from the flour i 
the psi-ched grain. Tlie leaves are commonly eaten aa a pot<berb. ' 

09. Tiintiu}j<i Eatable Amaranth Amaraothtis oK'rnceas ia 
in gardens at any time of tho year and i« tit for use five or 
weeks iifu^r sowing. The plant grows a toot high und has tbe at«l 
red near tho root. It hiu no seed uluuie, but flowers «c each i 
its side shoots. Only the learee and top shoot« are oaten as a 
pot-herb . 

Drdktha tho Vine Yitis vinifer* ia oocasionolly grown in the 
beat garden land on the east border of the western belt and near 

* SykM ncntionN three variatiM snd gtr** A. alat»o«ii« » thti bptsnicsl mow. 

' Sit O. itirdw>ODU mcntiuD* (vur vivHrtiw 8. nmOMt, B. gUuca, S. UKbi>toinSi OSit 
8. tftuiicu. 

'Sir ti. BinlnooJ naniei tliem A. tiioolor and i^. vindu. B^ui. Oov. Set. CXXIIL 
2(H givn A. iiolygiuiiiu or pendoliu. 


The vino is grotro from outtiu^a wliicli are ready for 

laatinji I'o six or eiglit moDths. It bfginH to bmr in the third 

BU<1 is in full fniit !n thw sixth or svvuuth. With utrc ft vino 

on bearinu: for sixty or even it is said for a hundred yeitr^. The 

is traiiicil m ono ottwo tvars. It ik t-itlivr !iu)>[>i)rU;(l on a stout 

^hl often a growing stttmp which is pniiicil to a polUrd* 

ohapc ahout tive fc«t high, or u Ktronjj- nytvn tr«lltH rtfot ia 

rowD urcr thi- vinoyiini ubvuL kJs fivt from the jrroand luid tho 

nes uro trnioir-d horizontally on it. The vine sapportod on liring 

illnrdM is said to pay beat; llio trollia-tntiDDd vino is the hetter 

fei-red by lh<> neh for its appearance and nhndo, nnr) is «nid to 

iDcoui-age gi-owlh to a greater age. The viiio yi<^-ld» sweet grapes 

Junuury Ftibniary and i^laroh. and HOur grapeii in August. 

he sour jj^rapoii are very nbnuilant, hut an> not cnounnigvd as 

are of Jiltlu value ; the Bweet grape ia tended in every poHsible 

ty, but ia apt to sufTer fr»ui diseoNO. After each crop bho vino ' 

pruned and tuilt, sheop^s ^uQ^i and dry fish are applied to each 

He a(l«r the sour crop is over. Vines are flooded once in five or 

It days, the earth buinj; previously loosened rt^und tlii.>ir roota. 

ligiil uttaoks ibt'in whf>n the buds first oppeur and is removed by 

if^iiig ihe brnm;hos by the timid uvit a cloth into which iht' blif;Kb 

falls and i« then cirricd to a di!tta.n(!e and destroyed. Thin npei-a- 

ioa ia performed thn-e times a day. till the buiU are nn inch it>ng. 

~ix varirties uro grown : kdli or blacic, a lonif fle-nby grape of two 

ds, alihi a large round white wntory ^'apo mid j'/iahli m long 

ifnewhat Ur-shy white grapo, tahif^i or Avrni a long white Bwoot 

pe, b-diina the secdlesB s Rmnll voiind Nwoet and while grapo, 

«i4/^nt or njvid a larye round bitter white grapo, and aakhri or 

iwe«t a small round while and very sweet grape. 

Coffee wast grown in 1839 by Messrs. Suiidt and Webhu in their 

gardvD at Mnndhre, iivo inilcK north-caet of Poona. The Uunibay 

Chamber of Coniinorr.A consirlered it excellent both in quality and 

cle.*tnue«s, and t>aid it would fetoh the .«nmo price ax the hc-'^t Mocha 

cotTee, or about 2tl. the pound {Re. l-t the Sorat man of U) pounds). 

(fTo enoaumgo tbo experiment. Govommont gmnted Me^sr^. Suodt 

ind Webbe ten ncro« of land close to their garden. Eod gravelly 

lit, Acootxling Lo Mr. Snndt, \% the bost suited for the coffee plant 

be plant when youog requires a great doal of shade. Wbeu ahont 

year <ihl it is planted in opnn ground where for at least four years, it 

iiist be wcrrvned from the oxtr^-me heat of tbo sun. To «ha<]o tho 

colfee hnshoH .Mr. Sundt gtL>w castor ■oilnUut^ round the young trees. 

It want* no mannro and wator only fiftoeo or twenty days during 

the dry seosou. Mr. Suodt thought that much of the Poooa soil was 

admirobty saited to the rfifToo phiut. He particularly rccommciided 

eome spots of red gntvi/lly t^icil belwoon Khandala and Kdrla.* In 

1H42-I''} Messrs. Sundt and Web)>e grew plants from seed furnished 

IthotB by Colonel Capon direct from Mocha. They bad 7000 seed* 

tlingit in their auniory ready for planting, and several berry-bearing 

[ir««s which wuro bur ajieoimona of fine ooffoo phiuta. A. sample of 

Chapter IT. 



>Boa. Kev.R«ixl241of 184i.7S 76. 

iptor IV. 



ooSllMftPlltiiBiitted to Uio CliiualMr of Commerce wbo eaa 
it oqnml to Kocbft coffoc* 

Id 18'I2-4^ tlic Scnnn pinat wu grown in the JaiuiBrsBb4:^^i«L 
by Mr. I>iekiD8oD Bud Dr. Gibsoa wbo BUjtpUed trees to tstf^^ 

About tho jtttr 1810 an nttempt wu made to iiitfx>dw4l 
cocIiiiiLwl in»cct into the Deooan. Tbo nttcmpt was 
Dot bccwise thv olimato wns onsuJt&d to the insect, hot bfwaauel 
odIj insect that ooulil bo procurvtl wm of the rerjr ""*'*** mI 
worst kind knoira H tJio CocbinaJ Silveater." 

*In Ootol)OF 1829, Si^or Haiti, % Dalire of Italy, oSrW b 
svrvicM to tliu Rombar Goverument as super* nlua^est oi 
establiiibment tliat tniKut bo Curinud for tho cuItimiioD of 
GovpmiUQni dooliopd li» o(T<n- but ffnro faiu to undontoai 
' liberal eoconrttgemont would be >{'ivun lo uiy one who might 
to grow 9tlk on bis own aocooiit. EnoourBj^ed by this 
ISignor Muiti rusutved to attempt lo grow silk. On hia a_ _ 
in April ISSO tho Collector of Pnon* waa directed to -maii 
him the Kotbrnd garden in the tuwo of Poona free of rent for 
yeua, on condition thiil tho ground should be »pp]ied only tn 
growth of tho mnllvrrv. To this is laSO, 1831, and 1332, 
plot« of land were added. Lord Clare, then Governor of 
took a strong intoroftt in the subject, nrged the doeirat: 
of supporting Signor Matti. and made him an adrance of 
(Ik. r)0<10). The Collector was at the same time attthori»od to 
the runt fur six ycura on laud cultivated with mulberry and lo 
adrancee for wefta. In eonaequenoe of eomo disagniempnt het 
Signor Mutti and htsportoer Sor&bji Patvl most of the tonda 
ed to Bi^nor Multi hud to be restuned ; but be w&g left in 
of the Kothmd and DIuitudhere gardens.' About tho same tino 
(1829) Mr. Oibeme's e.\p(iriuii<iil& in growing :fiilk in Khiade^ 
attractod tho attention of tho Roinbay QoTeruinent, and the Beo^ 
Oorcroment were a«kcd to send lo Bombay Evo convicts with thrir 
f nintlitMi who were skilled in the managament of ailk-worma and iotlie 
winding of eilk. These men broaght with them a quantity of ega 
and won) attached to the jail at Poono. Bui from want of car^l 
sapcrrision they appttar to have done tittle either in the way id 
producing etlk or of teaching. At tbo same time Mr. Owon, tha 
aiirgoon rI Hirur, btfeikii to manufacture ailk upon a liiuitod Bcala,^ 
The growth of bis mulberriea and t bti finooeas of the fibre ahowod 
the aoit and climato of that place were most favourable. Excellei 

t Bom.R«v. Roo. ISGSof IU4. *IU>r.BM>. ]fi«Sof IMt. * tUr. Itoe. 1241 of IHI, 71-7 
« Silk tn lodia, In Hr. UaOfdMatan, Under Socrvtarr U> tke Ouvemment vt ' 
(1872). 30.«, "o-i*— . 

• Wt. Jaonneimnot, Uw synkai Prtnth tsavdUr ana btrtwOrt, met Lord Clftrt 
tba Kotbnid g»nlm. 0( ncveral tuvcrtA iimeot oach pT« hia opiiuou. Air. MuH 
for Diullwrnr tr«ea, and In. Lush, ■ho Ikad * hotAnical ganun at lUpari, ' 
Duiltwny l»eagM. Kaob krnt to tha opinioa lie had brouf^t villi liim *nd la ! . 
ttrenJng tbajr left Kotbrou u tbty cumi. Dr. Lu«h to fgrow mulberry ahnih 
Mr. Muttl tA bUat tnea, tha Pini te set rid a( his inveataMut, aod tbe Uo 
totlilakoiwltall. Voj-ijiea, IIL 590. 




WHS rIro produce*] at the Poona jail.' As the cultaro of etlk 
abandoniAl n.t Ubutia Id Klutodesh, GovorDuieut dutormiued to 
ti* thfiir offorta on Signer Mutti's experiments. In 1837 lie wiis 
inted temporarily on amonthly salary of i;25 (R«. 260) with a 
vo Kiip<>r^-ix)r on £5 (Kh. ^0),aDd wa«a)Iciwodto spimd not more 
£10 (Ra. 100) a nnnth in ntarting mulberry pi an ration h. Oa 
2lftt of July IJfS^^, 8igiinr Mtitii niibmitled hh fintt n.^iM>rt as 
rinlondcut of ailk culture in ibo Drccan. According: to this 
t, heaidi's 507,081 slipa and 4252 trees planted by 
dmen tu tlie Dec<»n, Konlciui, and Bombay, tboro wore 
slips tD tbe QoTernment nurMtry at SUsvod. Signor Matti 
d also at Ivothrad eoreral persons whom be had inatruct««l in all 
i branrhpH of silk-making and had Bncceeded in making tbum 
art, intollig&ntr and octirc.' Uo hnd also rAooived the motit 
ia£act«ry reports of his Eilk from London, (ilasgovr, and 
mcheater, whcro it had boon valued as liig-h a» 2'iji. 26«. and 39#. 
>agli ruoled independently by natircii. Upwards of Iwvnty native 
ro reported to bo acquainted with the vrindin^ of silk, and 
} pouplo wi>rciuud to bo rotuly to Utko to Stlk^growm^. In ISUS^ 
lauiplo of silk producL-d by Si^nor ACulti wan aoot tor report to 
r. JoM<tph Kwart, a M;i[icho.'>i<:r Hilk-bmker, trho reported thid tho 
road vfua very good, boing- clcim and uvcn, and in CTury way Hhowcd 
c«lleut management on the pnrt oE tho gruirer; that the silkii irould 
vaye be saleable us they would commaad a decided prcfurcnco 
er the Beu)?a,l sUka then iuip'>rU>d, and come into close competi- 
m with Italian ailks. The ISttO report is not so fioarialiiug'. 
rougbt, the iucursioDs of cattlo, and neglect had much injured 
B mnlberry boahea Still the stiporinteadent was sanguine. The 
jlike of the natives to plant mulberry trees, rear worms, and 
nd silk had been ovorcotne. and eoTora) wore engaged in making 
opcr multforry narscrifs and transplanting and pnmiog the trees. 
be system of plautie^ the mulberry bushes without eertb had 
iict^eeiled w<dl and proved economical ; the quantity of e^cga pn^duc- 
L by tJie butterflies bad increased ; they w«>ro regtilarly batched 
id the voooons bad f^rown to the siza of the yellow and sulphur 
rietics. At Kolbrud tho cocoona were ao large tliat ItKK) would 
pld two pounds ( I »Krr) of ailk, aiid tho people bad ahown;h'ee able to wind »uporior eilk. The value of the utdburry 
Dbntatioa had been shown by (he sale of tho lonres.* 


UalMlnt'a Qovccamont of InilU, Ap]>«acti( A. 69. 
> Mr. Blutti IimJ collwtetl loauy covooui of » tilk-woim probaUy Dombox (Saturula) 
rtitta. Mid to htmd iritil dcm Pouim of wbkh b« got hMketfalt frum Uic diiiilnn 
a *eiy cluap nta. Tko gieea mucui of the aainul mad* It vary hard ta c\eaiL. 
ill Mr. Hate nOoA it. It wm n duar }-eUaw. but with littU kIom. BoiuoI 
Abnans w«r«Mid to make bMutifnl staff of H- JkoqniimKiet^ Vo/iibm, ni.JiSO-Sl. 
I lakT«B Iwvariil fur f««iliB|{ tho wornu *t \'ail£Ujia had bcm |iui«liucii fram tlie 
.liB«D at \ii. ({ a.) Uic pottoil ) llw ErwOnr ptrl wito tlw |<riinmi^ of initl- 
lUota nnJer ono year at a^o from the vilWni of Cbincliari, YadgsoD, NArAya*- 
, SAvKJ-ginij, GutiJMt-Afli. «h1 ^(Alv^iian. TVi |<«^*Ib •>* Slilmur and I'Abal 
>w««l orcrj- iuolioatiun Cq plan! Hie uiuIlxTry tl*«, Tlw plantations wore a*uaUy 
I in clisnn*). watered pWr«, Tho muItiDTry troc* Ricw amons pl&ii taioB aad 
roaae wliich diil tiiyt a^ipwu to injare Ibcm antl altnotl all kiuila of jtrodnce c«ulil 
■JB uadw th* trew wliioli wcm ■uHhlly t<n to twclro loot iqmrt. Tho {mo^ 
Itttst Aaiic^ U> pMKOB worau in ort«t t« ^rodoOT cqohm. All ditltka oB w 




C&ipter IT. 



Ill 1S31', the ad ranee ot i.GOO (Bs. 0000) gmntcd tn Sign.Pr JXfl 
was writt(>n oS is coDfidemtion of the benefit his (>xertiouH 
calcnlstc'd (o cuafor on the country luul of tliti Ws to irbicL lie 
gubjocU^ by inaffeotnal aU«mpt« to iDtruducv the buali «yatem 
growing mull>vrrto«, a gjttwo ftftorwanla alxMxlon&d by bim in favon^ 
of standards. 

lu 1810 Motors. Daniel and Co. started an eetabliBbmcnt t«pli 
mulberry litiHheD with th(> view of reariuggilk-woritia onalar^ 
In spite of tlie oppoeitiun of the euperiutoDdcDl: of silk calliint tl 
I)"jii[.'bt J33,aOO futtinjirs with which ihey planted tweiitr-6re 
{•f litnd noar Niiriiyan^aoo in Jimnar, bcsidm lt>| nrix-s ('22 f-ijl 
of land at SlUvad iu I'urandhar. They bad aLMoOU.UOOoiiLtin^l 
difior*otgnrdous under their RUuiagQmuiit. Mr. JatoOAou titcir-lx'l 
roared 25,000 TTonos at NAriysDgaon, nbicli gave thirtr>Gve p<>aa 
(1 7J tfifin) of cocAona Prom aome of thotr ejfgsi hu had ocarljl 
i<ikh of coDO(in.H in bin garden. All ibis waa douo in four montl 
Hr. James snolce bigbly of tfae bush syHtem, bat by do toe 
wished to discoum;^ ihe plaDtin|f of trceti. Ho stated that 
hedges were grciwii bvlvrceti the trees, it lighteood tbo ex)i>.)n« 
•<> ranch that tho pluntvr ooald afford to encourage their gr'Wth. 
Hodgps bo considered absolutely aeceasary to the aaoceas of nny 
person rearing Hilk-noruR and attributed Signor Mutti's railun>_tt;j 
the wntit of hv«lijrD!^* Mo^STA. Daniel & Co. also eetabUsbed thnrc i 
winding pluces or fiUturw, one nt Kothrud near Pcwna, n kwouC 
S&svadj and a third at Nantyan^aon. At N^ntyant^noii then? ' 
niuubcr of worms uud cocuona Tho cocoons were inferior to .Si( 
Uutti'a ooeoona both iu .ttwi and Koftnc»u<. This waa ftopiioMnl 
be due to the fact tlint busb loaves had not the same )itrvn;j:1h 
□onrishiugpoworostree liMTea. A iinmber of acre* wore (frown 
tho bush, btit it« appearance wiw not ]tuid(by.' In It^lO, Si| 
Mntti went to E^ypt on nick leave, and an honomriam of 
(Ha. £000} waa given hiro and £10 [Ra. 400) to Mr. Katnoa 
assistant. Au iucrease of Xo {R*. 60) to 8i;rnor Mnttt'a 
wam abso sasctiimed by Govcrunietit. In Jane IS-IO Si^H'T M< 
retamod to Indtn. 0*f his oiK-nitionii for thtt next iha-tr jc 
distinct accounta have not boon obtained. Tho Govemmonti 
to haTu hoeo snliMliud mtU his proceedings. In I84:i tsir O. 
then Governor of Bombay, recorded a minute strongly adrocalj 
pprsevoraoce in silk-grviwing. In thia year, according to Sif 
Alutti's report, in Tohus, Sonlbji I'atcl had Mteuaire plant 
of 80%"orf»l thousiLud imilU-rry treos two to ten years old and 
oBmall tpiaiitity of ailk. There were beaidM I'+OO nmlbrrry t( 
thmo to woven yp«ra old in tbo sUition of I'oonn. and o*),SWi 
otiu to fireyeora old bolouginjf to 317 iodiriduals in thirtj 
villageB. T&eco were also rauiborry hedge rows. In two vfll 

urt otthm DrflliBiuiit to tJKiiukiiH alailk waa overcome. Th«7 wannailytol-. 
tbvailk (mm tlMcacouaanhKboauTiloiUy lio<lo)ie by rcmnviiiu ttie«tioi>an*ui1<nif 
water, tfaut dvjiHvtiii; tl>« ipuh witbta tli« cucoon of llf«, U»ny Bt^limun >>_ 
lhu>uiuiJoy«i. Th<r w«r« aUo rMily to MijMn in naxiug wnnna anil in nt "^ 
•ilk iit Iketr uwn l».<itRa. Umd, Bvr. Ree. I5U at IKt3. 67. 

'lloia.Kuv. K«o. l24lof IHI. 75.7«L > Bum. Uov. Roe. 1314 o( ISOJ 



Bntfnnans bad reared wormn snd made good cocoons. One 
:-il G1,0(IU ^TOiiiiR with otmsidfrnblc suocestt luiO it pn>lilabIo 
lit Kiffu'T MuUi hiid mulberry plantatioiis »t KfiximMg 
idgaon, Cliinoboro, Cliiia, NAimri, Sankora, NarJiymijfiwn, HArri, 
Ftsr, Uud^pur, Dingxin)., Juniiar, Muuctor, mid Ausri.' Hi; aluo 
leutiniiod six lirceding places tuKter bis lutpermtendeiice. At one 
thcuo, S&vATgitOQ, tlierewcr« 3-7,000 worms. Iteeliofif watt corriod 
at Vttil^ftoB. It WHS aiuierted tliat womui could bo reared with 
IS risk aiid in a shorter ciiiie tbao in Europe and tbat the wornig 
fcrw as good as were reqiiireil for the higher qiialitios of Italinn 
Hilk. Tbv introduction oC the art of windiug, it was thonp^ht, waiitfd 
cttroful KU|icrrisioa nb tbe outevt, uud tbo Collector of Poooa wait 
ected to continuo tho office of siiperintoiidont for fivo yeiim 
iig«r, to i^rcct four building for rwiHng worms in tho Juunar or 
Sbal Bnh'division at n cost not (ixrwdiug £51X1 (Us. ■'iOOO) as public 
>per(y, and lo (xmdurt tbo brcwliiig of worius aud tho iiiiLkin^ of 
ou account of Hignor Mutti biinself or kduiv private individusl. 
tust)8 for revring worm.i wera accordingly built at Puoiiii and 
Bimbfig Vodgaon. Tho Collector wan also authorie<Hl to odrance 
}D (lU. SOOU) an A loou without int'erefit to Hiffoor Mutti to bo 
id by iudtulmcuts of XIO {lis. 100) a mootb and to placa £300 
1. SUO'u) at the diapoH&l of the supcrinteLdout to b« advancod by 
to rillagerft wlu> wero anxioua to grow sUk. Sig^uoi- Multi 
litablitihiNl iiormauent wiiidinj; places or tilatoreaitt J(itiHar,Diii;^m, 
jd Narayaugaon. He had 460,000 worms in tbuso places, and bud 
QD able to wind IGu to 200 pounds of silk nypar.- Sbortly after thin 
UsSigDor Mutti fell ill, and Mr. Ramos was aupointcd to act for him. 
[In 1^44.'* doubts of tiie siiocesa of the mlk-growiiif^ pxperiment 
itn to be raised. In 1847 a committco was appointed to report 
tho subject. Th« twe moiubera Dr. Gibson and Mr. BaridMQ 
^inod in (bo opinion tbat any fiirthor atterant by GoTernmcnt lo 
>vf tho mulberry with a vipw t*) the inakiug of itilk in the 
an watt not likely tonucceud. Dr. Gibson t>xpr*s»L>(l tho decided 
pinion (liat ucithor bush nor sUnJurd coidd bo j>roKtabiy grown 
the Deccon, and tlial tho results sbown by Signer Mutti hod 
an duo to nn nriificial tttimulntion, which dcceired both Qorem< 
it and himself. Mr. Darid^iu a^'ed with Dr. Gibsou, and 
arommr^nt ordorod that all silk opotationa shonid wase. 
Nofitrtbor attempt w»3 mado to ifrow silk till in September 
^75, a Nam of £2.'>0 (Ra. 2500) waa placed at tlie disposal of Major 
Couxsuiaker, tho suporiutendeat of the photozincograpbio ouca 
Pfioim, to carry out tasar silk experiments.' Major Couasmaker 
ttgatx the cxpenniuiita on the 1st of August 1875. Pictures show- 
the motha, cooooiis, and caterpillars were »ent to the Collectora 
Ernid forest officon and to tbeii- aatit-o subordinatofi. Dascriptive 
circulars wore al»o acntiu Kiigbrth, Mariitlu, Gujaitlti, and KAoaroso, 
odi'Hii^' to bay seed ooooons at !«. (8 M.) and buret cocoons at i'pl. 
: fni.) tliu hundred. Heaskt-d the uative officials to subniil fortnightly 
jrtfl ou facta which came tu their uotieo. lie also from time to 

Il«a.B«v. lUc. I.<U4 of 1IM2. OL * Sou. Rev. B«a. 1M»vf 1844,81.80. 

■ Utiv. Km. a<«d. DtjfL 97N. ISth Sept. 187& , 





ChAptBT 17. 



Utno wrot« and dlatribotetl fresb circnlars as he found oat uew faol 
or drew frosli conclusioDS. By tbeso nieiuis n geDcrul interest 
the collection of tasar cocoons was aroused i»nd at a cost of Elfi 
(K«. 164), Major CouMmaker recrared 62,216 cuooons by rail. 
cart, anil liendloitds. Must of th(.-au cocoons came from Uie Konk^ 
forestH. The trws on which they were chiefly found wore, in 
Kookan, bur ntid yuli /.ixvphus jujuba iind ^lopyra, ntn Tenntnti 
totnentosB, tcdnehan Bauhinia parviflonii /Mrtvincf Carissa carand 
■nd mdl bfingani Cclastms roontana; and in Poona, Siitara, Gujar 
and KtiAndovb, wt tliese trees and al:to on mindruk Ficos benjamti 
pimpH Ficus tjivla, dhi'iida. Conocarpus latifolia, and hndtya Lw 
stm-mia parviaora. In thePancli Mafadtb they were also founu 
Kaldn Chloroxylou awiutt^uia In the KoDKao the men w| 
oollocted them wore to g-:<me(-xteDt MusalmAns, Mhitr», and Martttl: 
bnt chiefly Otkarie, Kolis, KuDhii*, Viirlit*, and Tb&ktirs, 
who fixnn Febrnary to May were in the habit of cntting branel 
to bum on their land. Uajor Coussniaker attcmptccl to roar 
worms in his office building, in some of die rooms of his hotue, 
in tho veranda. Some of the cases and fowling tray« wcra 
from the Taftem of the rooniii, from hooks and tr&oa; otbi>rs 
fastened to upri^bltt drirca into tho gfrooud. £d this wuy 
wiri' and atnii;; netting and with bamboo chicks, Major CouasD 
Bucceeded in restraining the wmidcringa oE the caterpillars and 
guarding thcni from their oaemic& But tho food failed and 
after batch died from slamition. Betweeo the middle of Auf 
1875 and the end of Octolxr 1ft76 Major Cousamaker was 
ever without moths. The gathering of the cocoons from the 
and inuring them, ehntting them in the baskets and bags, 
Koaomlly disturbing Uieui bad the elfoct of repeatedly briu^in|; 
the moths during the months of FebruaryAnd March. Upwards] 
100 moths wore out ereiy night and whenever a freah batch 
Eo&d oocooDs arrived, whatever ibo temjwnituro or tho timo 
year, moths came out in large quantities. 'l*fae firet supplies 
the district oBirials arrived in Fobrunry and incladed both fnll 
empty cocoon» packed in baskets and bags. On arrinvl it was 
easy to tint! bow many of tlie cocoons were fnll and how many 
hurst. The ^baking had iio disturbed them that the consignr 
were found to coiitmn many moths more or Icsh dumagod. 
Cousiitnukor had all the cocoons moved to open travs and put 
a Bpore room. Tfae details fur the ei^it mouths oaAing Sopt 
show that on au average 529 females paired and 21,339 norms 
bulcbod erory mouth : 






Tttmutwtjt-mat ... 









iprt ... -. ... 





Jisr -. -. ... 





Mtf "! "! "; 









Anr^ ... 





SttUolM' lit- MMk .. 
TttW ... 











the Bapplioa from the dUtriots oamd in, Ihlajor Coass- 

>*« men hnd gatLorvd KOmu SOO oooooos noitr 1'oonn. Thcao 

]B nnd tbo tnothH that cnmo oat of them, nn wolt aa the cater- 

which wore hat«hod, were motttly sncrjlictHi in cxpi^riniRnta. 

result confinni-d Slajur Con.'uuaker's foniior cxpurion(» that 

mnlctt rotjniro moro liUtHy than Iho [cmnlcit, that the femalei) 

sly moved from their empty coooooa or from iho tniijs on to 

SliicD thuy crawled when th«irwmg!t wt>ro atifFening, while the nuilea 

■flew away as soon it» lli(.'ir wings wort- utiS euoiig'h. As during 

Hio rainy Beoson several nia)L> mutbs were gvnenilly flying about, 

^Bmnlot, when lied out, were sooup^red, thi-ir talc-like dinks shining 

^Uce htttu mooDa and dratring tlio male Uke lht< li^bt of the g)ow> 

j^frorni. In this Wfly Major Cooeamoker Bucoeeded m getting nearly 

^idl tbo females whicb came out during the monsoon of 187& paired, 

"' arrangements for rearing failed. Uis space vae limitod and bis 

vore badly nircit, and though he hatcned »ercral bundredn ho 

only Bfty cocoons. Ite af tomrardo tnovod into a larger hoiiso 

gave the ivoi-ms more room. He joiood chairs and tables together 

bamboos so as to niako thorn form a succession of benches. On 

benches he set bamboo mat trays and above tbe trays he hung 

iga on strings, entirely giving up the indoor cage Bjst«tn. In 

^omc places he put rows of small pots with twigs in them, tilling 

them with moist cnrth. Thi» did not answer, as the caterpillarj were 

ore ready to cr»vr] down the pots than up them aiid llu! freo 

Boretnent of the air vras hindered. Ke therefore determined to 

St to the strings alone. For a short time ovorything went wnll. 

ujor Couesmaker had plenty of good fresh leaves ; tbo worms 

not crowded, and they grew considerably. But long before 

toir fifty dnys of life wore otot, the leovos bec-aoio hard or diseased, 

id thoogh Major CouiAmakor had altundanco of Icaren all wuro 

»f i«f»>rii>r <iualily. During the whole m--hhou oateq>itIiir iiftvr eater- 

>illAr pined and withered. Though from time to time tho trees 

lushed and sent ont fresh ahoota, their efforts were apaamodie, and 

>viug to (tie great acaicity of raiu Hujor CoDssuiaker found it 

nixisaibio to ensaro a steady supply of suitable food. Ho found 

hat many young wormii crawled down the \9ff» of the chairs and 

'lies and disappoai-ed. He accordingly changed his trays. He 

»t(>ued rr>pes to the rafters and to hooks in tho oeilitig, and 

Misiug them through brokea bottle fairlcadcrs, so as to prorent 

lie enemies of the worms cUoibing down or the worms climbing up, 

le made a sucoession of swinging trays, over which as before he sob 

strings of twigs. This method greatly lessened the labour of tending ; 

Lrthe worms were much more eecare and the ventilation was good. 

^pul again as in tho year before food failed. Major Conssmaker 

"changed the place of the swinging traya. Some he tied to tho 

bougha of trees, some in one veraudsj some in another ; bat tho 

food was DO better. He let some loose on trees in the RtatioD, bat 

there wore no fresh leaves and they died or vrcrc takou by the birds, 

s<]uirrol8, and lizards. On a range of hilla a few miles ont of Poona 

lie found a grassy tract with many biiithcs and saplings of 

Tonriinalla, L^^rstrnDmiu, and Carissa. lloro ho tamed ont somo 

thousand worms and sol men to watch thow daring tho day. For 

Qiapt«r ! 








»Trter IT. 


BOToo five weeVi ttioy ilid woll. Tbcvn » rorj^ bot forlniglib 
ibo Mplinf^ uiil BDiall btisbM lost their IcArcs, and nlmott i 
wormn diM). M»jor Oomanwkor tliuuglit tlio f&ilitra wm 
doe to ibe uapre«(Mlenl«d drought. Alttiuagh Major 
fulod Id reariug, ho succeeded in broedln^ luid in nromnng ; 

S-g». Daring tho hot weather, whva no wild tnalos wetv 
ftjor CousHtnnkor foutiil it wos little u&c tyiug cmt the fii 
but iluriu;;^ the rmaa he ina sacoensful. From February tu 
lunuid ttll tho moths lu they eatno inlu » bud«u>ad shuded 
mosiiuita caHniiis. nod a fair proportion pain>d. Aft«r U>t . 
ringed the swingip^ traya as before, and ia the mat trays rpoti^i 
them ho Mt the cocoonfl, corerir^ the wbolo with bantbno '" 
biDtcnod like a poDt-hoaee about three fi-ct hifn^h. After then 
oat of Ibo corooDS iiie uootbi^ crnwIoJ np the chiakn and then 1 
while their wings wen? expanding. Mnjnr Coiissnuiker fnuiid 
I sovornl of the inoihti pniretl in th(?«c CAge.<i. Em-b uoming: l>fil 
at tliotn, and loaviag tho pairs insidu t^o oaffM undisturbed, 1 
the roRt of the moths into a large basket sua covered tbutn. Al 
four in tbv aftornooa ho tookedat them aad fouud tbat m 
tbum hatl paired. These were left undisturbtMl, and all tbo uot 
fcmnloH wore tethcrod to a stDall trellis- work. At dark, this 
woe hung to » tree, nod all the unpaired moles wero «ot fne 
it. In the morning most of tbo tethored fcmalefl wore pairod. 
frnmo was brouclit ludoors Mid huog out of tlio vray. Ct 
taken to iise no force in separating the piira. Tboy wont 
a]Iow«d to frco thi'iuiielrcv. Afuirihey were free the feniaU)s< 
put nndcr inverlod haskcts to lajr tht'ir eggs, and tbo tnalM, 
put into ft bavskot bo bo not free at auuaet. Ry Collowiii^ thisi 
most of the fumuloa pnirtid and Iboir eggs prorod fettib, biit~ 
average oatturu of e^ggs was less than* Xajor Coussmaker . 
formerly noticed, only 100 to each moth. Major CuaBamaka' 
not hnvo tbe eggs counted, only the number of wornifl batcb 
Major CoussiDiuKor's hc»d sitk-worm tender was a MnrAtha wide* 
who bail boon taught in the female normal school at Foona. It 
chietly from Wr tliftt lie received the figures quoted above, 
madn (-•very cfforLto keep the worms alivo,cl«aiagn-iiidow]a audi 
liuiigiu^ up wet cIoIIl'^, putting khaijekaa tattiea to tbo 
spriukling tho twigs and dipping them in water ; but all was of i 
avail. Death roturua kept by Major Coussmsker tthovrcd tluit 
tl)Q wonus that died two-thirds wera noder a week old. Of 170i( 
vronns liatclic<l between the 1st of April and the lUth of 8^pt«mt 
only 2G23 grow up and itpim coooous. This mortality in Mai 
CuusHmakor s opinion wan duo to the wniit of tiuilablo food. TJoc 
(he buiul toiidcr, iUjor Coussmakpr hiul tive l&ds, somo looli 
uftor tho worms in his garden and Hnuie tending tliom in tho bi 
binds on the hillfl near, aud ub udd timoct clwiniug tlio burst LX>e( 
and preparing Ihcni fur tho maDufKOturor. Mn»l oE tho cocoons sent 
to Major Conssmaker wero thoiic of Anthers>a paphia and belonged 
to the common variety of thot tiiutb. In Svptcmbur 1^7o, Major 
Howie, Deputy CoranitBsiouop at Sambalpur, n>ut him Honw coooonf 
livlon^tng to HQolhor variety called by the u«tivds of the Gent 
I'roviucos the Clibutlisgad cocoou. Theao were larger, bat mt 



ftr anil Kof ttr. The nwtlw, tLwigJielightly Jarker, paireil pcndil j- 

tJiR Rni&It hard cocoon iiioth. As fur us Major CtiuKitma);<:!i' 

juilgu thu (liffcrcnco between the two was oiio of cliiimie itnd 

g. The Chbattisgad moths waro uure dclicato snd limiier. 

remaining cocoons receired from tho Boiiilxiy Eoroais were of 

\a odnrardaii nod o( C'ricnla trifou^slratu. Kcvuiiil motha of 

tbese species came oat but oono mired. Attucua cdnanlHii 

icd to Ll- dislribntcd over the whole rresidcncy and was fuiiud 

in iJaisur ; Crioulfl trifonostnta camo from North KAnara only. 

le troe which Major Coossmsk^r used for indoor rearing wna 

ndniiruk Ficns bemaminft. Tho lonveg tmrol woll and lonff 

I EnoMh. 'Hie treo ha» coiibltint itiii^Ws of young lenves nod 

g plautftd for dbeltur id mouy places along the roadiiide was 

rorj way tbo boat suited for a large experiiuont. At tlio aamo 

t.ns thtfy weru neither pruned nor watered, the ndnJriiife* Eaited 

'ield ft trustworthy supply of snitable leaves. Major C<mk». 

ar triod the bor Zinjphiis jujuba, hut it quickly withered. Still 

, no the ain Teruiiuulia touicntoxa, tbo letuSvya LAgcrstnumia 

■flora, and the kari:an<l Carisaa carandas, a few caterpillan 

tu uiuttirity out of doors. Mr. Woodrow, the stiperiatt)ndL'ut 

Q (f imcehkhiDd IJotauical GardtinSf hod olso in tbo same yeiir 

6-77} a small sum placed at his disposal by the Collector of 

a to rnako oxpprimonts in tho growth of tasar Btlb. lie laid 

a ffreat maay cuttings o£ FJcus bunjaniltia, and built a-iiglib 

ly shod, with the Ridu.i and top of coir matting, a ohoap and 

(ive strnrtiiro. itr. Woodrow got a frw scvd cocoons and 

r CoiisRinaker from time to tame gave him fertile cggt*. Tho 

t of liM oxjxiriinents was the uuno as of Major CoDHHtnnker's. 

moths bred freely in cuuGucmoDt and prodnccil fertile cgga in 

idanoo and in due co^tso the caterpillars apjHtareil. But of tho 

.ber that vutcrod oii the worm slaj^e only about firo percent 

to fipin ooooons and these cocoons were decidedly tuforior to what 

t bo lathered all over the coantry. Every now and again tho 

^r{)illar!t thruvo well, btit when tho qiuility of tho li>avi« fell off, 

jvaterpillan slarvod and died. At the close of Lis Gxperiinonti 

pad 923 pood cocoons. Mr. Lyte, an American employed on Iho 

inHula rail^'ay, trieda sorics of cxponmeuts in reariDg silk>wrin(i:i 

lis houiio near Diipnri. As he nad no room or slied, ho with 

A ingenuity made o. set of hirgo pens or cages fixed on up< 

tadriven into the gniand under some good sbade-trcca The 

B and tops of his cages wore of bamboo chicks olosoly fastened 

rllier so that while siifficKnt air w»9 admitted no catorpillar 

d moope, and none uf the 8ilk*worms' enemies could como at 

) ; a cowting of mixed tar and castor-oil prevuntod any enemy 

bing the nprights. Inside his cages, Mr. Lyle utretched wires 

thways nud hung the twiga on (ho wires. A good dud of light 

fell at Pdpari iu the month of August whuu Mr. Lylu^s cagea 

B full, and the wind driving the moisture through the openings 

chicka kept the leaves freah and the worms throve as well as 

he trees. He gut some cocoodb from troos along the line, and 

r Conaamakcr provided bim with some fvrtilu cggH. From 

I, which he began to rear oa the 7th of August oud which spua 

CSiapter IT. 


[Bomlny at 



ipfor IT. 

by the SOtli of September, he gktliered 1500 cocoons, the majori^ 
of which woro us liii<; a* Miy foreai re&red Hpecimens in the iiL'igl| 
bourhood. He had a greater choice of food than Ttliijur Coc 
mnkcr, nodmanaf^d to secare a superior i]iiality oC leaf tbroaghc 
the forty*five days. Hu fod tho norms od Ficus boiijaniiiia ai 
Ficus tjieU cwigs eighteen inches long laid rery close togethe 
In his opinioD the worms seemed eqaully foud of botb kinds. On 
objectioQ to Ficua tjiolu wag tlint when it dried or fitded the U 
rolled op and, especially at mouUiuK time, hurt the caterpillar 
ing on it. Ho also i>otio(>d tliat, if thoy bad be^n to cat Ofl 
kiod of leaf tliu cnli^rpillikrM would uot pnm From mitidrtik to bar 
from bor to ndndruk. Mr. Lyle by accident found that th(> wor 
throTo well on lAj^ratra^mia indica, a leafy, oniainuutal, Oon-crii 
shrub found in most gurdona. iloth he and Mujor Cooasmi' 
put some caterpillar) on thc»e troea and foond that they grew en 
mousty and it]Miu wry lar^ oocoons, The chiuf experience gau 
by the year's pxperimetita was that seed ooooous should be inorf 
ua little as poaaible; that feeding wonna on twigH K'^lbfred fr 
nnpruued roadside treuti was a mistake, as eighteen iuch twigs b 
only three or four suitable leaves ; that plantations should lie nil 
of trees and shrubs and that the treea should be pollarded; 
when worms are fed ont of doors the trees shonld bo guat 
by cages or nctsand when ondirr shelter tbo worms should be kc 
either in coir-matting shndi or in portable pens or cagea ; t) 
only tho third, fourth, nnd 6fth luavcs from the end of the t^ 
should be axed, and thiit these twigs shonld be renewed throe or fo 
time^i a day ; tluit the Ayatem of cnges, baskets, and tethering i 
■ores a supply uf fertile cgga ; that the e^S of the bealthier m 
shonld alone be kept for distribntton or for homo-re&ring ; 
unce tho silk-mdl iu Uombay can work barst coooons there is 
need to kill a single chrysalis, all the mollis ehoald be allowed' 
oome out of the cocoons ; thnl after tho moths come out the 
should be carefully cleaned, all pieces of loaf or twig brushed oj 
and all cast likius and chrysales picked from the inside ; that t 
habits of the trees or shmbs used for feeding the worms shonld 
oarefnlly watched to find how best to ensure a steady supply 
eoitable food. 

As regards tho working of the tasar ooooons into fabrics 
OooMmaker carried on a corronpondcnce with >(esara 
Vamidds and Ca. secretaries and trmsnrwrs of the Allinnoo Spinmd 
and Weaving Company Limited, of Hombay, and placed the whu 
malter in their hands. Ua sent them 112 pounds of oocooi 
clonnixl as well as his labourers could clvnn thorn witJiout boilll 
tbom. MeHxrs. Tiipidits aud Comfiany found that the 
yielded about forty per cent of pure silk and about tlurly per ceuij 
noils and refuse. ITie remain iug thirty per cent, which was lost 
the boiling, in Mnjor Coosemaker's opinion was the natural oeme' 
the dirt, and foreign matter left by the olconers. Some of' 
forty-fire pound!) of silk that remained was woven into tasar cloli 
some into tasar popliu, and a cousidernble quantity was used 
experiments made with the view of blenching it. Messrs. 'VAj^^ 
and Company wore uot able to pat any value on the material ait 



iG form of oocoonsj of yarn^ or of piecej^Aoda, »s there was no 

tod for ttwar. They ootild not uso il iiuJesi! tt cuuld Ijf tsubplii'd 

liitc or ncdvrly as white aud as capablo of (akiog every ay 

iB. Diori »ilk.* 

lyfl as 

s 1877, the Bombay Goremment sanctioned tho payment to 

or C<3iisj:mnlcor of £50 (Ra, 500) aa an hnnoTariiim.' At CTaite.sli- 

4 th<: first oocflODS ioomod fertile, hoi only Ab'>iit Bvo per coat 

bo caturpillurs lived to fipin, Tbe socotid gooorntioQ did not 

to maturity. 

tbe ooane of bis inquiries Major CouHHtunker ^t a mmple 
re mueb ^iijiorlor to itny IriiliAii .ipeuimtMi lii^ biwl wieti, tbnn^h 
iop to ItaUnn silk. Ho fcwiud that, this fibre was produced by a 
id of tbe taaar matb with the yafoa-nuii or oak>fe&ding iiiutK 
anuo. The Bombay Gororumoat, ia coinmuuicatiuD with tho 
si) officials in Japan, procured aoms eggs of tbe oak-feeding 
ty. Boxes of tbtit seed wor« seal to various official and privato 
oriineotars. Thow kupt by Majur CousHuiakor awm to b&vo 
all killed by the dry heat of Pooaa, nor did tboso kept iu 
hay by experieacad and ii^ouorally Kucciossful ailk-groweni fare 
:r. It bas been suggeatod that tbe yama-nuxi breed shonid be 
duced in the cocoun atate, but it in extremely doubtful whether 
roo (saose of tboir failure ia not tbo abaonoe of any loaf of the 
hmily which is tbeir natural food. The only tree to which they 
led to show bhe slightest partiality wa^ the )ftndruJ: Kictia 
aniinia, and evoa on tbat they fed for not moro than f-jur il»y«. 
the ^nnrney is not the cause of failure seoins clear from tho 
AH with which this brcx)d of silk moth Iiim beou rairriod from 
obamu. across the United States to Ijiiglaud, a jouniey of moro 
forty dayn. , 

I87i>, Major Cnni^niaker resumed lii» rxporimcnts. Ho 
a>ude Hfty ooooontt of the 1878 crop for breeding. He also got 
otbors a good supplr of motlu, many of which he allowed to 
6 as he liad aot rood for many caterpillars tlo kept ^mo 
lO ogga hoping to find food For them in Poona. Bui he failed 
et moru than 500 good cocoons &um them of which he 
only a hundred. A.» before the great didifalty wiu to seeure 
nfoiling snpply of suitable food. To improve bis supply, with 
first promise of i-ain in June. Major Comamaker aot oeido 
one-eixth of an aero in hia garden with a southerly ospoct. 
is ho oloarod of trees and bashes and laid it out in ridgen 
foot wido with side gutt«rs. (Tn these ridgOfl be prantrtl 840 
of dluitfti liagorslrmmia itidica, :£70 feot of bor Zizyphun jujuba, 
y feet of karcand Cariasa carandas, 107 feot of (u'n Teruiintdia 
__ toaa, Rftcen feet of iir;un orixicIo'faTerininuliaarjuna, and forty- 
feet of niinilruk Plena be n jam iua. Hu found dha^yiiihe moat aaitoble 
it. With lilwrul water it ooasLautly throw out ehoota covered with 
which tbe worms ato greedily. The pinut could be easily 
from the root. Tbe hor wtu liked by the womu but tho 


■ lUjor CgoMOuker'a B«port to GonrnnMBt, 30tli Kovorabcr 187& 
« Bom. Qqt. Rc*. W7. 2Stid Fubrau? 1877 (Uunerftl D«paitm«llt). 


Chapter IT. 






Ctautflr IV. leaves ircrc small and tliiuly scattered and wre sood catcu. 
I — : karvand waa leafier but a alow growop. The am (Uid arJHn 

I *4n"*'"f re |ar(fer lc«7C« but were slow growers, Tbe n4nJriik was « failure : li i 
Siut. (lid not tlirive and wa« not outea. A dhnj/ti pUntatioa with hor and' 

tmrvand hedges would yield plenty uE food n{t«r ibo bogiuning 
of ita third nios. Mikjor Conssmaker bent all his aecA cocoona. 

Lung on a wall out of roach of rnU, So long iw ibej were luft 

nodisturhed the iDothn came nut only during the rt^gulur BtaeoOii 
Iatro uombors died when cold October enM winds Mt in. Bat I 
chief causes of death wvrc prcvuntiblc, shortoesisof food and 
of inse«Ui, binU, mice, and other enemies. 

In 1860-81, M*jr>r Ci>ii!MtnAlcur'» crop of ooooons fniltid. 

thon^ht tbiR failare was the fault of tbe cages, These were tar 

screens of split l»inl>oo. They kept out nUi^, mico, bir<ls, Ktuiirvbt 

and liiai-d.% but they wero too durk ; the plantii did not tbnvo and] 

■ the wum)3 wore alwuya trying to eocape. Ho made the cago« longer 

sod put uetting at tho (op and over^'thiDg Ibroro till some waoiij 

and other innccta punctanM and killed most of the silk-worms, nfl: 

had about 30,000 clean perfomiod cocoons vrc-igUin); about siltyf 

poondn. He tliought it beet to go on collecting atiCil be got at 

a huudrtHl weight. In L881, tbongfa the results were better, Ml 

Coussmaker £d not sucoucd in gathering u full season's croi' 

coooons of his own rearing. Ilia food supply wax perfect and thai 

kept out ail the larger eDeniies of tbe worm ; still there was 

8iclED«M&nd many deaths. Only 1000 cocoons were gnthercd, 

fint batch of worms hatched on tbe 2ud of May and the £rst 

vran spun on the Ctbof June. The last butch of worms hatched ini 

middle of Novomber, hot they gradually dwindled and 

nothing ; the last worm died ou the 8th uf December. Tho w| 

seasonal coUvciioQ amounted to 60,000 cocoons duublu of thu II 

colleobion. It WHS chiefly rocoivod from the Forest Department wt 

sent 58,000 oocoons. Major CousBmakep had all these ooooous eleas 

of extmncou.s matter. The outturn for the two years, 200 pool 

of cUiin cocoons, was nent to Mr, Thomas Wardle of Ij»ok 

England. This was sold to Messrs. Clayton Marsdons and Com[ 

of Halifax at I*. 3<i. the pound, llie spitmerii reported that 

fibre was eouiewhst coarser than most tasnr wai«te and the cocoons 1 

been opened, bnt this was not a serious drawback to its spismi 

qualities. Kt this time, in Major Coassiuaker's opinion, tho prosi 

of the tasar silk industry were proiuiaiug, every year showing! 

improTcraont. Major Cotissntaher laid out a sixth uf ad acre i 

dhaifti or gulm^mdhi plantation.- The land was laid out in ric 

iMTOn foot wide with s gutter of ono foot between. Tho dhai 

wore pot into a trench of good eoil mixed with manure in the mjc 

of each ridge one foot apart. Where the ground was not 

with tho cages, on each aide of the diitiyfU on the ri Jges vegetohl 

were grown. Care was taken to lay out the ground in the way 1 

suited for watering. Tho cages were tarred rectanguhkr pieces -*^ 

bamboo aoroen-work, a cheap light material neither liable to 

by the weather nor to bo gnawed by rats. In making ihecageel 

the screens together, maJking the sides three feet high and the) 

six feet wide. Tbecnge could be put upover the whole loogtbol 



and iras diriilcd into twelvo-feet sections. From side bo 

hed over tte top of the hedffe, piocw of rattan had their ends 

iCd to the soroeDS and the middle to & light ridge pole which 

on tri&Df^uiitr KcreenB. Over those hoo[:is coiirso opm cotton 

iiead. By ihis ari-angoment nothing tonched the shrubs which 

ifornily cut to u height of four feet and iiolbing tf'mpted the 

to leatve their food. There wpro (hreo scrooiia iindL-r the 

:Ies. The middle screen was fixed and the two ftmaller screens 

T 8)do were fitted with string hitigos, allowing boys to go in 

lao on both sides of the hodges without injarmg the shniba. 

hatching, tlio worms were put on the phint« near tho door, tind 

ftway steadily crawling to the next when the first twig was 

As ^t as tliey were eat«n the bare twigs were ont oS 

.fa onos grew. After a fow n-cittca tlio hettgo was us thickly 

with leaves as when the caterpillars were put in, and Ihig 

went on a» long as thu rearing of tlie worms was continued. 

fehe twigs in any section of the scroca were titripped the 

was talcen down and .tliifl^d along the hedge or to some new 

As a ntiv little wutvr watt required. la Jaly 1862, 

msnt held that the experiments condQcted by Major 

imakcr proved that ta^ar silk txiuKl be grown with succeeti in 

an. They proposi'd to contiiiue the exp«nu]ents. and hoped 

oald lead to iJio considerable growing oE tasar silk. In 1ft82 

Cousainaker increased hia Lagcratrfpmia plantation to 15(10 feet 

Ziayphus hedge to 300 feat. In February 1883. before retiring 

the nervice, Major Cous^^roaker in a final report, expressed hi» 

iD that tasar eilk-growing woald not pay. Larg« imports from 

had lowered the price of tasar waste in England, the Bombay 

e were small and yielded little ailk, and the gathering oi vn\i 

be or the rearing oftworms were both costly. 6<f. (1 tu.) n 

red was the cheapest rate at which forest cocoons could be 

[red and tliia wan too high to admit of profit. The people 

M find it pay them to leavo their regnlar work and gather 

bs. It was only by the pensonal cxcrtionsjof the foi-cst officers 

|o much biid been gathered. Mojor Couumakcr had nearly 

' year tried to incrca»o the size of the cocoons hy bringing 

ons Irotn ^mbidpur, Vamtara, Manbhum.and other places, 

DO sticcesa. The motha had paired readily with the small 

iety, the worms had hatoboo, hut thvro wnii no difForoDce 

coooona. Major Coussmaker believed that the stnalliiesR of 

lOCan cocoon was duo to the cliniato and perhaps in a lesM 

to the food. As fiar as outturn went the result of rearing 

ar silk-wonn woa satisfactory. Within six weeks Major 

.akur had been able io gather three cocoons trom each foot 

Ige. In 1882 the first worm batched on the 9th of May taxi. 

fst cocoon was gathered thirty-two ilays later. The worms of 

^flh noinbored 380 and 347 of them spaa coooons, begiuniag 

b 7th and ending on the 2ith of June. They consumed IlU 

I Lageratrtemia Of 1800 fo^t of Lagerstrseniia, oue-lmlf was 

pntly grown to yield a steady supply oE food. Kroni tboso 

leet between May and October Major Coussmaker gathered 

OOCOODS. Of tbeao only about half, which were almost all 

<%apt«r IT. 





CkApUr IV. 




miherail before the end of Jaly, wens mand and perfoctlj 1^ 
Laler in tbe toaaoa witliout imy apparent oanao be loat' 
litiuilixilH of vnrtnft in all itaffvii, iMmo buing tbe progeny irfi 
iif the prucfxlmg y«Kr. KtiU cnui^ oocooiu w«re spaa, totm I 
wliioh woro rory fine, but tbe najurit/ irere weak aoi) thin. TbMJ 
facl«, his uwu fonocr azperienoe, and the iofortafttion maivtsial 
kittora oad priutuJ niports «how«d thftt no r^liauco coald b« pbct^ M 
on uty iiut the liret crop of the mobod, tbo prufreny of th« auth 
which ri'Ht in tlieir cocoooa during the cold aud Lot- seMOMs^ 
wUitOtviuerxu L-arly in the moufiooa when Ihc first shoivervof nial 
'l'hniH}{lit;ul thv whnla monsoon and often at other tiraes, vb 
diMtiirUei], luotha contiuuo to tuipeorbat wtih aa aDaaiisfactoi7 ' 
Aiid laach luBs of life. Enough cocoons wen cpon to Atmnro ■ : 
of Bottd rocoous, but uot enough to call a crop. Msjur Can 
aiTKngemonts hnd auoceodod in ffiiiirdiQ^ the worms and 
stoidy Hd p\Aj oF food. Tbo labour bill vras reduced to a iiiiniiniua; ( 
wuiiuLU luid one boy ooald euily look after nt least au acre ol 
aiid keep the eudiMuros in rupiiir. At th(! nxiao time if ths 
wtrsi raiiu did not break early asd heavily the hedj^ee woo 
to be waterod and tbo uxponso ofcocluiuiig wunld be very 
Ho long as tasar oontinut'd cheap this system oould oot pay. 
sparrows, Miairrols, siid rats gather near dvrellingt and miul 
kept out. Majur Coassmalcer sncceeded in keeping the woma i 
fmm thiair eaomicH, but tho process was ooetJy. Alitjor Cos 
hating wonnd up hix «ones of axperiiuonts, handed his pluutatimj 
Lagerstramia snd Zisyphus husfafis, togethor with tbo 
Bcreeiis and iron rodtt which fae used for bis onolosuree, to 
Bupuriutoiidfat of the Coutml Jail at Yaravda. Ther« ia 
attuobed to the jail and the head jailor took ao icteiest ia 
experimouta. « 

Shortly before 1841 no experimental garden was started at Hii 
about tcDtnileBGast of Jiiuiinr. lu 1841 potatoes and sngarcsoei 
thu chief pnjduct^. The market for the potatoeeextendod to Dhc 
Aorangaliad, and Bombay, and the growth of stigarcaoe lii 
gr4>atly increased. Nameroos other products wer« alao tried. 
chief were, AmericAo maise, anotto dye forwhiuh tbiTo was a 
demand in Poonn, hemp, and oil-plants. A valuable rnHely of rice I 
kainodwM itilroi]ucediDtotb6diatrict,ai)dtb)rly-eight kinds ofebfl 
wheat won- received from Kdinburgh. Ur. Gibsoa, the Boperh 
of the garden, considered the cattivatioa of ootton, ranrmdn «r 
tspioca root, and coffee unsnited to Poona.' There was a sjioilir 
giu^lon nt Qovornmunt Jiouso at D^puri, about night miles north-i 
of Pooiift, for which Government did not incur any luldiiiul 
ox potid iliit-e, and whiiro soveriU trees, including among othcra 
India iiubber tree, were raised. In the nni-siery on tbo top of 
Sbivner fort by the help of four t'hiueao conrictfi upwards nf 200 
exotic trees won* grown and sconiod likely to bo usefal. Tho oliw 
and cedar llourished iu some pUoos in tho plains, hnt at D&puri tie 
soil was not good enough for the olire. 

1 Bgou Bev. R*c. HAS of I»43, ITU 7, 



[AboQt the same time (184)) Messrs. Sandt and Webbo, two 

lt«rprizing and rcepoctftble Aoglo-Indiaas, bkd a well cultivntod 

3en at Muudhve, about four miles east of Pooaa. Bvsidos 

ivring urau^t.-^, grapost and otbor fruit ttioy tumod tlioj retention 

tbe cnliivation of tho coffoo ploot. In 1847 thor boa abont a 

wired lieahliy trees from which ttiey realized affDodcrop, besides 

[tboasand ^DDDg plants ready for putting out. Ihi-y also gruw a 

" Je Mauritius siigarc-ano and made raw.sogar or gul from its juice. 

Tbe bntnulcnl gardun at Qoocsbkhisd vraa started in 1873, and 
aogvithchfillivi-af^rdcn, bas since been nndcrtboRnporiiitondeuco 
r, G> M. Wfiijilrow. The principal object o( tbyso gardens is to 
biy the Mudii-al Department with dmgH. In 1 872-73 the oiittnrB 
&c gardens inoluded 700 pounds of senna, 1300 poundiiof bonbano, 
ad lOlM pounds oE dandyltoo. Dnring the same jear tbe chief 
roducv ot tlie laboratory wafi 107 pounds of extract of colycinth 
Jtn^fjund, Qlt^-sis pouDOft of extract of bjoscyamutt, 1G21 puundu uf • 
ouiiiliiut-oil, 7190pon[id8of caator-oil, and eler^n pounds of crotoa 
Xu Ibat y^nr pxponmeota were made with variuua arti&aal 
wuree, nitro-phoephato, citrate, dissolved bones, Ditrat« of 
la, hop manure, ana siiperphoBpbate. Tbe income of tbe gardens 
iountodto£164(R&1040)aDd tbe expeoditure to £154 (R& 1540). 
lie lalwratory receipts were £431 (Its. 4310) and the expenditure 
tiU (lta.3)90). To 1873-74 experiments were made vitb Burop4uui 
Ktol mnuareE ; the reBolfc was not satiafoctory. It was proved that 
from ibo draios of Poona ci^ is a ralnable manare at leaeb 
lual for ono year's crop to dung from oil-«aIee fed cattle. Of tbd 
Drb trcoa that wore planted three years before, many bad died and 
I few iporo Btrng^ling for life. Ono, which had growo aix and a haJf 
leet high and four inches in circumfcrotice, appeared to be in perfect 
1th. All this Hhon'eik that the climate vas not un^iif^d to the 
-troo, tbo S(!<^r6tiiry of Stute mt* atikod to lannm for tbo 
atch of pcriodicul supplies of cork-troc acorns. Many now 
tmiuncDtal ]>taiita were tntrodnced, the most valuable of which waa 
kbu Kxogunium purga, tbo plant which yieldji tho drug jalap. 
!!.xperitnents were also made for tbo growth uf fibre for paper. 
Pbv income waa £322 (Rs. 3520) and the oxpetidituro £1222 
JBa. 12,220) besidtM lobH (Rs. 5aS0) spout on tbe laboratory 
luiUliug from a fund set apart for the purpose. lu I87t<75, tho 
icomt- was £842 (iU.8420) and the expeudiWre £12S7 (its. 12,o70). 
area under tillage was fifty-seren acrea, sevea of which wuro 
lercd. Ono fact waasecertainedlliat prickly -pear made aruluublo 
nannro if it was loft to rot in a cistern ihrough which the water of 
'an irrigation channel was led. Some now descriptioos of tree were 
addtd. A fuirly successful nttonipt was miule to grow vauilla. Flax 
was alHogron-n of fair quality but of usooHsiro doameas. Unsncceasful 
uteniptA were made to get paper from fan stalks and plantain fibre. 
Most cf tbo corlc acorns brought from England arrived dead. In 
LJ876-70, the income of tho garden amoontod to £600 (Its.tiCOO) 
feknd tho Dxpenditnr« to£l268 (Et«. 12,630). Tbo most important 
'now introdnctioufl wero Balsamocarpon brevifolium a plant yielding 
pfids useful in t^nmIlg and tho [jiberiaa rodeo. Cereal i-ropa were 
Ksuvd wilb a viuw to acloctiog tbo seed. 3000 half>Htandnrd roscH 

Cbapttr : 




. «l|tf; 


won mdjr for dintnbntioQ. A list of the nwdicmftl 
priDtod nod inJont* b«cMiM dmka liW)a(iBti. 

In t^G-77, tho iDComtt of tbe gwdaa Mnnttated to OH 
(Rs. 9&l9^ u)d thoupcoditarcto £l:>Sd (Rtt. 12,S50). Expda^ 
with tlie WantcA ipiata, a clicnbiiiff ihmh, a lutiTo of tlin K'^^ 
allowed tlut lU sMM-pods pontamedft higb propartioDt f''' 
ceot, of lADtiia arid. A saliiifactory featnre to iba workup ut 
gnrdfD w%s Uiv oxloat to wbicli i(« dnigx, cliiefljr 
oolocyntli, wrm in dcmaad- Experiments in tbe production of 
nlk wcTv cintinutH]. In 1BT7-7S, expenments wem cirned 
with mahogaay trros, tbe toed of which had been sent from * 
Ganlooa and planted iu 1874. I'be results aeemed to sUow 
tlio tree Could be acclimatised and established if wt^U 
dnriBff tbe first two years. Tbe blue gam tree, Eucal 
rlobtuu, was fonnd to thriTe well for four or five ye&rs und 
' die off. The snperintcodent was of opinioa that an exotic 
Itlcfl the f^n tree did not go to rest at uay time of the yvttt wta 
not to succeed. Cinchona, thoagh it gruw well in tbecoi 
died in the hot season if planted out. Taraxiaim was grown' 
socoMa. The tasar ailk ezperimente were not Batisfactorj. 
income of the garden waa t^l6 (I{«. 5160) and th? expei 
£,\2W (R«. 12,t>00). The Ganeshfchiad ganlvna, which 
orifriiially intondod nierolyns a nars^ry for the growth oflooaloMdii 

Elant^, under the supervision of n scicutilic gardener had assnnuKt: 
otauical charac-ter. In 187t)-79, a comiuittee was n;mr>iiiicd V 
consider how tho locality coald best bo developed for tho piirpM* 
of botanical experiments and instruction. The auf^gi'stionfi of lie 
oontmitt<>e wore considered by Oovtmioient and it was docided tluU 
thu gardens should be oonatitutod tbe reoognised chief bulaaiO 
ffnrd«nit of the Presidency and thai nrrnif^mentA should be inaidl 
for forouag in them aa complete a vultculion us posatblo of tbo lectl 
plaata of nestera India, a berbarium of which waa to be tivpt 
permanently o» tho nput, along with a aeteot library of dingramt 
botanical works of reference. The manufiuitiire of oil was disoontiii 
and tho siiptmnteadeut was instnicted to manage the gardcox iritl 
tbe Ttow of making thoui of purely bolanioal and BcietitiGc uliiity> 
B<itAnicnl lOAohing wa« boj^un nl tbe end of February 1870 by nteaol 
of lectures at thv gardens and at the College of Science an d *> 
the Deccan Collfgo in Fooua. with illustrationa of Mpocimeoa ce 
by tho supenut«ndeat. The average altendaace was fill 


Experiments with Xankio cotton ehnwed that it could not 
profitably grown in thoDeccao. I'hosaraplcKonlt^) the Bombay Chatsn 
borofOomoterce was OHtiinated to be worth £5 (Ks. 50) lesa than tba 
common eamplea of Dholora, Tho forage plant, Beana loxurie 
waa found to bo no better than BagarcHno when grows in rich 
and irrigntod, and worse than jvari nhen treated as a dry eroi 
Tho income of the gardon was £740 (Ra. 7400) besides Jtli 
(Ra. 1344) tho value of the oil on hand, and the expenditure £12S2 
(Be. 12,820), that i» a net cost of Jt408 (R*. 4080). In 1879-80, 
fcbe room lormerly occupied by tho oil-preasiug machinery 

lery w^fl 

Lally fitted as an herbarium and specimeos of about 1700 speciea 
arrangLMl nccording to tboir nutural orders. Some of thoio 
I ideuciBed and tho rest wero sent t« the Royal Herbariuni at Kew 
H^" cotiipurison. CoDsiderablo ndditionx were inmlo to the library 
Ui,.), ^^ Qsod by a largo uonibor of botanical and agricultural 
^|*><i''nui. Botanical teachin;^ was continued daring the year at the 

E~'(insand at thv iidjii'.-uiil 1\h>»» collvgi.'V. The uvurs^D allvndanco 
w gnnlcna fell from fifty-nino to nineteen aa tho studcnta 
ollovred to pfuts the examinations without nttendinif at tho 
cua. Six trainud native ^ardvnunt or m(i/i«Krcro scat out during 
^(Mr and the demand for ti^ined men oontinned much greater 
tho •apply. 

CiXperimont with the thomless opuntia or pridcly-pear^ which can 

■Km) easily skinned and is then a favourite food furcatth;, ahowed that 

Hn ^roTTB Jr«ely as a fence and ia not likely to prove troubleaome as it 

^x)oi<a not t^w from seed. The yield ot the forage graaa Kucbleinn ' 

]nxurieiiH Hoeeued nearly the same us that of guinea-grass. A crop 

aow'D in Xovember and cut in April gave sixteen tona the acre of 

jn furagoat ouocntting. Fifty nmngo tnwft of the tiDost varieties 

I plantud for stock from which grafts could be takon fordistribu- 

Tbe demand for import«d seeds had riaen from £(I9 (R«. 690) 

1S7» to £124 (Its. 1S40). Sxperimonts with laoem grnsa 

led to prop's tho French variety superior to the acclimatised 

iy. The plant was quite as vigoroas^ tho irtalk woH more 

lelicato, and the seed was only half the weight. The receipts of the 

■ garden amounted to £94€ (Rfl. 0460) nna tho charges to £1554 
^■(Ba. 15,5-10). In tH80-St, additions to tho horburiiim brought up 
^^ttie colloetiim to abont 2080 xpccies of which about I06U wera 
^BidHntiRcd. Botanical Ivaching wna coutinued at tho gardona. A 
1^ number of full ^ovrn spE^mens of AlhiKzia procera, one of the local 

trc«« which dunug the cold soaaon of 187S-7v had biicn tranaplnnted 

without soil on thu routs, ehowrd satiefactory rosnltB. EuclUoina 

inxuriens waa again grown for ictrage. It proved a vigorous gniB9 

when highly manurea aud watered, but uot saporior to sugarcane. 

Twenty mango treeaof the finest varieties were planted out for stock, 

nuaing to 102 the number of ireea whose grafts were suitable t<» 

diHtributioo. The demand for imported seeds was about the samu 

as in the previoas year. The garden receipts amounted to £340 

k(Ra340D} and ilie charges lu £768 (Rs. 7680). In 1881-82 the 

^M general condition of the garden waa improving and tbe number of 

H risiiora nas increasing, Ihe reoetpta, derived chicily from the sale 

H of fmit tre(«, vogetablo, and flower seeds, taraiiouUj and' eomo 

H timber, amounted to £337 (Rs, 6370) and the charts to £1046 

H (B«. 10,460). A tnangcwtoon plant from Singapore died from cold 

^M in Novi'nilior. The local koftam or wild mangosteen plants wore in 

H go«I roiidition, Potatoes received from the Secretarr of State grow 

H vorjinsingly well. In May 1882 the carob tree yielded a crop of 

H fully thirty poonda weight of pods, the greater part of whiob were 

H onuAl in size to the imported pod«. An attempt to propagato 

H this tree by layering failed, bat by grafting was very snccesaftil. 

H 447 mangoes were grafted with chnioe sorts at a cost of lOlrf. 

■ {^1 ("■) M"i^' ^^ U-rhurium building waa altered and repaired 







pUr IT. lind nanoron HMyriman wre ad<t«d. Tha anperintenddiit 
ricnltnrt. VVooilrofr leotnrcd on TMetoble fih^irAogy and fty.-ttvniittic 

nn<] g«ve cloren gardea dotoooMmLtDiii) in oy^ff mfitiL* au'l 
ftuicn botetij. Tbo KVsnip: nttondance wwi tvrolvc -_4. Ksp 

were iD*d« ia oolleciiu^ the Indttntbber-y: ,:^' milkj wpi 
CrTptostfgia graniliBorB, n biTstitiftil c^timtxrr. 't'b«awr«ge^el<l' 
(quqiI U) bstwenty mini Mid Utu acre jiuld twalTo potrada. i 
planta woo) J not b*ar tapping tnoro ilutn twice a year, tbe; 
acn> nnttnro woalil lie twent^'foor poanda at cnnatrhouo. Tli 
of tnlloctingwu 2*. (K«l 1) tha poand, whidi mi|;bfi periti{)« 
y«cluco4l lu I*. (8 M.). Tb» ralae of tbo India rubbor mj 
BStimnt«d fU 2x. (Ro. I) tlio poond. Thu resalt was tbemfoni 
eDConn^ing. lo 1883^ 2001 uango trees were crafted witli ckmtt^ 
■orU at a cost of KM. (0| <u.) oacb, imd in 18S4, 4000 nun* 
preporod at a OMt of OJ. (6 cm.) each. 

In tlio BiiQ<i Girdena, Ihe Soldiers' Q&rdens, and tbo 
GarUens in Vuona plaata and floweni are growa puroly for p)< 
and ornament. DBtaiis are grivcn iu tko accoonc of Poona Citj 
the cbiipt«r on Plooes of Intcreet. 

jaim. Tie district is not subject to bltgbts. As biu been noticed 

is oooasioDall/ affecti^d by a diseaae called tdmbera or wbea iki] 
ear turns ooppor-coloured and withers. It is al«o aobject to iuk 
diaeaao callod garva or kJiatra. These causes of Eoitiuie do not i 
occur on each a scale as to affect tho general harrcst. 

The animal plagues from which the Poonacropa are moetliabUI 
sufTcr nre worms, lociu^ts, and rai«. Tho damage ooiused by won 
contincd to aram and other pulses and is Boldum scrioas. Accur 
to Sui»krit bouks locufttn and rat« aro two of the six dtMitlly jiJu 
or Hit.' Of loss from locnsts beforo the bogianiog of British 
no instaooo has boon traood. Sinco iKlf}, fourTearB, 18^5, lS7S-i 
1S82, and 1683, bavo bocn matkod hy swarms of Iocaat&,d 
the 1835 locusts oxc4>pL n cnneral mfercnoe to the damam doal 

Ssrticulars have beeu tniceil,* In l87ft-70, coiwiderablo tinniagu wn* 
one bj locusts to the early or kharif crops in parts of UhimthMli 
and Parandlutr. ' la 1863, as in other purls of the Deocan,* locu>t<, 
probably the Acrydium pDriKrinum,'^ appeared in Poona, bat did 
comparatively little b&rm. During May, the locusts muvud oortk 
and north-east frou Ubdnvfir and Nurtb K.&Dara whero tbcf finl 
appeared. They did not stay long in Poona and by the begiootii([ 
of Juuc most of them bad pasWid north and were breeding cbieSy 
tu N^ik and IChAndosh. In tbo beginning of Octobor 1883, youtm 
BwaraiK camo from NiUilc and Ahmadiiagar. From Poona they 
crossed the SabyAdris and passed into tbo Konkau. Tbeinjury cac 

t Tbo «ix pJBgMM kro BimmIv* nin, Wui g( nla, tn«uti, lUt^ PvroU. anA . 
Invading fonw. 

> Botn. Oor. lUr. R«c TTS ai 1«37, S3-3I. * Ur. J. Q. Uoote, C.8. 

* Ia IS8:, lococU amiwkrad in DhArirAr, North K&Mn, IWImwd, 8St*E«, 
Alun»dM«H, Kteik, KbiwlMU, K«Ute, ThiM, Md Batnaoirl. 

*Iti>uiilto b*vo b««n )dMitiA«d in nomliay with PKbiBlat iDdicni, • 

Clur lo Iiidi*. Dr. Kiri>r ot tbt Brllith Mw«"ni ibvogbt it % ruwtyol 
diuw |«n0riauiD< Mr, J. DsvidMSi, C>8- 

tlie locoRts wiu ooDfincd to the west ot ehe district-. There were 
X) locusts in Khtnitli&ili rimI lnd<i)>iir, nml f.-vr in Siriir or Flnvoli, 
" , MAvnl nliout 160 aninare miles or ab»i)t thrttr-sovcntlis of tho sul>- 
riHioii su^oriL'd. Of 582 villngon in KIiim), rummlltiir, Junniti', nnil 
MuUhi potty diTision, 2lt8 viilrti^cs aiilTi-Tpd uwru or loss eovcrcly 
ia Ch«Bo 208 rillAf^g in nhont ono-tifth of tho lireu nttncked tbq 
, ' or early crops were onttrel jr dcstrojed. EUcwbura the ioj ary 
ftliL'ht. and no itpcnial lnoa'!nr(^s nf ruHef wera Fonnd naDcssnrj'. 
ie^y did little bnnn t'> tho n/ii^hai, ftri, nnd wiva crop?. And hont snd 
lore tln>y tom-hed a little rice, but the mi&i'bief caasftd vrta trifling. 
?licr M!iftiii.!4) to Iwuiiiil)l» U> eiit thi; mnturii ^rnin of rico aod bajri^ 
ind tlie}' [ortuoatdlj did nob arrive uutil close on the early harrwt. 
bVliitn tbtf crops were reaped, the loctuta disappotkrecl driftiog woab. 
'fothing tnoru wm 8ol*o of thum udUI Hay 18^3, whon, espocuUljr ia 
bo WMt of the duttrict, tbf^y ratnm<<d in awarm!) and through tha 
polo of May aad June, vrboruvur tboy nlif^kted, tho^' turut.'d Sclds, 
ives, Rnd hilUsidea pink. Aft«r resting thrpt; or fotir days 
' flow oust loKTin^ tho trees >ui green n-t when thcj cnmo. Hilary 
emed to do tham no harm. Towards the middle of Jane 
rore soon in pnint. A(t<-r pairing the ninioH diud, and after 
ing their e^a dnrtng tho end of Jnne and the beginnioi; of July 
feiiiiUes bImo diod. Thoy liiid thoir ug^M in all kinds of places^ 
im the dry slopoa of bare bills to swumpy tmbnihcs. Tho female 
jrk^ lii!r tail ahout two inchoit into the (rroiimi and Uy*one hundred 
150 egg*. She given out a glutinous fluid which in dry soil forma 
iiRt round the cgg% likn an oarthnat or hhttimttg. In damp 
ss the earth dues not stick to tho Huid and (he eggs, like yellow 
■s' heads, are left open to Ibo air but npparontly do not suRer. 
i soon as tho locusts wore known to be laying, orders were issued 
dentroy the egga »D<l*thu young locuBts whereTer tbey were 
onnd. The villagers wore told that they mnnt tak>> im sctivo ptiri 
n dcittroying the cgga and that if Ihi-y failed to cxurt tbeniNelvea 
kud their flro|vt sufft^rod, they would get no remuuiinns. Each 
inb-dirision wus divtdud iuto vircles of throe to six Tillages. 
)7er each circle an in!)p«i<tor was plauBd belonging to the 
toveanc, Police, Educ9Ui<mal, Forest, Vaccintiiion, or Public Works 
lepartnients, all branches of tlio a^Iminiintration zealously lending 
hoir nid. The inapuctor's duty was bo urgo the villagorM to destroy 
he eggs and yonne locuKts and to ri-port doily whether thoTillagers 
FOre doing tlit-ir duty. Th<i efforts to destrov the vg^s to a givat 
txtunt Euiliid. \Vhore tho grouud wai« dry thu holes were sometiinea 
'isiblo and »gg» vroro found, but in raont place? Ilio min hml washed 
.way oil traou of the hole und thu search was fruitless. Abont tho 
leginning of Augfittt nuinlierH of miwty hutched locusLq bcg&n to 
ippoar liko email graaohopp'.-rti. To spread n knowledge of what 
ne newly hatched locust wa.'i like the procantion had been tftken to 
lavooggsdugout of holes just afk-r the fumalu locust had laid, 
>nd kept in a frame enclntird by mosquito netting. When the 
)nmo locusts wcro hatched spociniens were sent to ciioh mitmlutddr 
md shown to the people. Variona mnans worr adopted to destroy 
iio yoang swaniiit. The Cypmn sOrecn, iatrodacea hy Lieutenant 

Ir, R.N., wan tried, but, as Lioutunout Dor admitted, it did not 

Chapter IT.^ 


Field I'uodbi. 

^^"■^ ^ ■■'''- ""^ .' ''-^'* -^ '^ ^ ^V"^ »i -»« =eit to o^W 

-J'- 1-' i;^ -_it; r~M» ia.1 r.-^^tfrrj^ - ^-^s^, ^ f_ 

-!,I''-L- .""i,'^ "^'^ -« i«E =^ ^^^, c/r«;«. wer 

... j.*-.T*o. _^^i^ *»,-•¥ him hop] 

-.= -. .... I. * -. T. «-!«. i» KT^fc.-^ .:.f -i^ f^^ri 
T.. .; ^ - '-'--' •^^^^r^-^iiS.^^.h^t.ei,], 
.:.> .. -I.-:- *^ :■ c ^-^ .ft:o:rT^e. r^e 1*« ,ppl 

-J.- i-v^ ,: ... '^^'^ v^.- **-Jd *ias.-i:;v 4nJprvV^ 
- c ^ .., --->--.. ..-i^--.- .e-.-r-r*. . .- »^. -> w..-rkeJ ^a 

;:■-.- ..■W>T:r- a=«^:--^ -*■ ~"*'i^=^ lO n^Cffh « 

, : : . - -.^- > * j.r i^T^iiw :l£--.-*. ::- s^^ea or eirfii w, 

- ■ .. ^-1*-* --- ;■#*=■ T-; »;*i>. Tie von) 

». :: ^ .. 1 : - -'*::■-. .1. Tw r-kis -.i;5 »f-^ SMrwIreve 

IK- - -, , .:^- -- t;^ .-f :•: sir=L r=c*caliV hea 

S. -o. :. . - ..: i - ..; :*^ *>*'^*i^ ^^7 * ^*?vne qoasntv o( i 

. ; -^ ; ..^.^ "...c :. U'i »- :-w -JT-.! ▼■.Ijtf^^f*. -sorTDoosli- red 

■: i :. .k^^ S .'(nTiTr^ * i* u- i:*:rs--^;a that in Noveia 

S.-.I.-- , . .. ,v -irv- : :.i i»rt3. I: N.-reaherdiettscff 

•. > - =T-;-.-- :^; .■^-v': ^. =: -rl-e Krskas wd Ahmaan 

*. - - N ...->. f :^-iZi .: ,,ci*.-i »^cr«> aws leaving the 

■;■•. t.. - '■ - .^ -.2-: '.y^L.-z-.-i^jzh^ nsnal dsb 

.- ■ : f r ,.- . :■;- ^ ■.:.■•■: Tii: is_=.;*?-cnn:er or sia 

.;*■ T. "s.-. ■"■■;■: '.-■.— ti; :>?e :'ccif«:a» (rwen ai 

*. .-: <v\v^ s.- » :-'.if .»* :: rT¥w. i: sied i:« skin, bee 

j:-.-. : ir.- i '.-- ■»■■ >.— .-ji iTCie-ar^ti ■= its back asd sides_ 

i. ,. t ^-*- 4 .. i- ■•: ;■;. :ts la-^f^r ifii. When full j 

y*.: « . ■. V > --■< '- ■■ •:■? r-""-:r. ■:£ :•:? eve dowswan 

• ■■■.;"« «-■'.■ -■..-. .■-»."■-"- -v, »>-.-T!- ti-? ■.:!;?- the onder win 

-=-s. ■'.-.■.; ^V, *■, .; ::.: :\:-^~ »t.c rrsy, Va: the red tin 

.-. x'-:v ■■.■■■' K ^ -.: --v-. ■:■..* /.i. vt\r- i!ieT began to 

V ■■s,--v 

■Vl,:. y\ ^ TT- :ie 'r:dv Wj aboat 

* ■ : , ■:'. , s . ■■ J -■- ; . ■-,;>, w'-:.'i had aeain torn 

s-.'v , !-.v. ■ ,-.»:;. ■.■ :.— '.;r l:; '.\:.":t?r asd ^oretobf 

l\*, \* ," < ■".• : ,■ ;'-. . iT" ''^" .isTs ViTTween the wjni 
i\s; .■->'. ■, .'v ' \,' ■.v.-.i>■.^^ ■■*.---.■ : :v..i I; i* not known 
t'-.,s,' ;«■■:;>. ,i-» ^^^■.■.!., .■ s'.-^.-'vc "" "." -r:a".::_v among the 
A'/. •;';.-,■ '.vtv.i.v-:.- ; v.-.; ,;■". vj '. .-us:* ;;i5: ivsi-ng ro matai 
A »i.-!"s,:'. «.■;:■ !s,- .i it ■ "i,i« .■.■.•.•, i'h:* worm is said i 
rt,--.' iJs." '..v:s;.» ",• :.,i; ■ N,- :^n.i-;s wi-rv jrivfii fortbedesi 
,•{ l.v,:*;.*. :!'.o .•;■.'_» i-\;v-.-.,'.::;;r\.' »:■,< . r. s.-iyi?:* and traps, 
jh* . \\\ ISrs i:vtK -ij'iva^v.; i:: sovrra' r'-.i-vs ard severeJv injn: 

»M>i ,".■ titio »'iv[\< >:i I'-'.o o:i>: o! ihi' »i;s:rii-t. Cr.-'ps which 

>Mr W. lUmMv. C.*- 



• yjeldeil a full or a tlircc-f|uartera h»rTe«t were redooed to 

jrtli or ovoii Ioii«. !□ nisDj^ pluces the people gatliot'od tlio 

care as tbe only nitons of dufence. even then, nhen the 

placed ill ft hciip. it vc&a difficult to keep tbo r»l« off by 

_BtAilt waUrbiog day and DiKht, In 1871> the rats again csuseii 

■oh dainnpo iu Iixliipur and BhiiuthadL A reward oii», (Ke. 1) 

enrery l]undr«>d dead ntCe was offered and about 350,000 rotewem 

royi>d. 'i'bo rats wore of thri>o kinds, tho Jorbon rat, t<b« Mule 

ftiid the Largo-cnruil tiuld luouso. The Jerboa Rat, Gt'rbiiluit 

3119, comes ijetwocn the Kaiigarotvlike jerboa siid the true rat 

Jaoawry to Iklarch lAlii iho Jerboa rats proved most widely 

IctivQ, and destroyed moru grain than all the oUier rots 

_^ hor. It in onlled the liaran or notc-iopc rat lis colouring is 

UcQ chat of the fvnutle aatolope, its cars are premiuent, and its eyes 

ka large and gaK^lle-Hko. It is fawn-coloured above and white 

^How* H has Iouk; bim-k wlii.tkcrs and a tuft of black or blackish 

^air9 at tbe end of its tail. Its hmd and body are about soren 

lOcbes lone nod it:t tail is uioro than t'lght incbos long. I(« forofooi 

* half an inch and its liindfuob two incliCH long. It neighs six tu 

roD ounces, ll burrows among thu routs of bnshos or in the 

ground luid furnis long gaJleries. These galleries hare 

kuches that and in chambers trhich &to xevoral iuchos wido 

^ arv carpvlv^l with drivd grass. They do not usually hoard 

ir foixl, wbiob consists of grain and roota, ospocislly of tho 

t'eetreots of I ho hari/^Jl gnuw CynodoQ dactyloo. Tho female 

[tringd forth eight to twulrv and sometimes sixtectn to twenty 

'youug. In thu dusk uf tlio ei'ouing these rats, which may be 

'recognised by their fine largo oyos. may bo seen l^apin^; about in 

pliMti-s whi-ro tht'ni are niany fre«h rat-hoK-s. In 1879 ibpy climbed 

tbv Indian niilli^l >lulks»iLnd cut off thu ears. Tho Mulu Itat, 

tf esokia indica. krUn umtir. aUo called koku oi- kck by tho Vodara, 

B«y be kuowa from tbe t'omiDoa Brown Rnl, Uus dL-cumauus, 

^y its ahurl^r body and shorter tail and alito by being stouter 

Bod bvnrier. AS'bon chased it grunts like the bandicoot. lo 

^lour it is like the common brown ml, but there are fawn-tinted 

urs mixed with (ho fur and it is lighter below. Its ears are small 

id ruuud; its tail naked nud short; its incisor tculb very large, 

^t in front, and orange yellow. Its eutiro length is about thirb>cu 

lies of which the tail in »is. iucbes. The )m1iu of its forefoot 

ueai-ly half an iueb lon^ and that of itd bludfoot an inch and a 

It lires alouo and forms estonsive burrows, sometimes 6Fteen 

twouty yards iu diameter. It stores large quantities of grain, 

bo Vadars dig the ground and oat both the rat and its storce. 

lie fomaJu brings forth eight or ten at a btrth and drives ber 

jiing from her borrow as noon as they can care for themselvea. 

liis rat is ustiuUy found near sagarcane fields. Ilie m.'ople say 

it ^reat numbora of thce«t rats are yoArly killed by the nrsl beary 

II of tbe south-west rain. Tho black soil swells with hesTy rain 

id the rats are cnuffht in tlio holes nod lissnres and smothered. 

great increase of thoev and o( tbe mrli/id rats in I87d is partly 

,ui]couutcd for by the absence of any sadden burnt of rain io 1878. 

Inder the influence of geullealiowers, the black soil swells gnvduaJly 
— - —^- ■ - — .. - - . _ . . - - - . 

CbaptST II 

PikLD Pugt 


upter IV. 

I PL4Ht1(S. 




ftod tbe FAt^s oecftpe stifTocation. The luge^^ared Field Ifoi 
Uoluuila niett&da, mettdd ol mctiangandv, was one of tlie chief 
It is a Mfl-fiirrod mouso with a ft^w Rtitcciiod and spiny baint among 
its fine close fur. Its colour is reddiish bro^vn mbh a mixt-oreof fawn 
boconiini? lighter below. Its whole leogtb is about t«u inches ol 
which the tail ib <(-3 inches. It iii dt«tiognisbed by its l&i^e eara 
which aw two-fifths of an inch in diameter. The female producea 
sir or eight young at a birth. This rat baa long been known ns a 
pla^ie. It lives entirely in cultivated fields in pairs or small 
societies of firo or six, making a pory slight and ruao hole in the 
root of a bush, or merely harbouring among the heaps of stones 
thrown together in the fields, in tbe deserted burrow of the kolr, or 
in deep cracks and fissares formed in the black soil during the hot 
months. Every year groat Dumbor» perish when these fissures fill at 
the beginniDg of the rains. In 1S79 those rata mined sonte fields 
witb thoir sharp incisors cutting cartloads of stalks every night at 
either eating the grain or dragging tbo beads into tboir Imrroi 
Into other fields an nrmy of rats eDddonly entered and in a few 
ate up the grain liko n flight of locusts. 

During the 1a.<it five hundred yeari<, there is oitber tmditional 
hUtonc monlion of nboiit Iwont.y-Rvr fn-minos. Tbe first ia the a* 
calamity known as the Burga Dan famine which waat«d Southi 
India at the close of the fourteenth century. Tbo twelve years ooc 
140S are said to have poasud withont rain. Districts were em[ 
of theirpeoplo and for forty ycant the country between tbo Godj&i 
ftnd the Krishna yielded little roToane. The hill-forts and st 

E laces, prpvioUBly conquered by the Mnhaminadnns., foil into 
amis of lund cbicfi; anil robl^cnt, and t-hv country was so uusafe t| 
Iho people who returned were driven from their rillnges. 
Narao and a Turkish ounuch of the Bedai* court were appointed 
resettle the land iLnd vail buck tfa» people. As tbe former vilL 
boundnrieit weru forgotten, D^dii Nar^o greatly extended the 
limits and throw two or three villngi^ into one. Laudfi were gin 
to all who would till them. For the first year no r^^nt was reqiiii 
and for tbe second a (cfcru or horso-bag full of giBiu for each oij 
was nil that was asked.' 

In 14:32, no rain fell and famine raged throughout (he 
multitudes of cattle dicid on the parched plains for want of 
King Ahmad Sh6k Vali nahmani []42S-1'13^>) increased the payj 
bin troops and opened public stores of grain for the poor. The a 
Te«r al«o tboro was no rain.' ' In 1-140 a failure of miu was folio 
by famine over the whole of Southern India. This hmino is kD< 
aa Dilm^ji-juiut'H fantino. DllmClji was the keeper of a large 
of grain at Mangalvedba, Iweko miles south of Paadharpur 

' Grant Diiffi HacAtbi*. S«. S?. S«o alao Bri(M«* PfriiAt». IL 9*»Ja Kl 
MAhniud SbAli IUiniaiii(l$TS-l39T|cnployD(] lO.MDbaUockaat hi* privnto rifw 

Sbg to aiul from Milwa and finiftrit mud Wii^ig pain vbich wua tli«tnlat«l 
1 noeplo at • olivap nta. Ho aUo nUlttiahrd Mvnn otpliaD aohoola. 
< BrJggB* Fciwhta, U. -MA-e. 

■ Rioopt wb«r« (pMlkl r«t«r«nc«* iu-« uiT«ii the 4otoU«of (MniaM hvm l4C0t*lf 
w« Ukeo from Lieat.-Col. Ethetidcc's Kcport or Faaiincs in tbe Doubay rraauh* 



il4pur. He osed mucli of the etore in feeiling BrAbmaas imd vros 
~ from punisliiuoat b; the Rod Vithoba whom bo wonihipped. 
biB woratipper Vitboba in the form of a Mh&r went to tho 
at Jledar stid piiid tbo value of tbo missing graiu. lu 1472 
1473 so severo a drought provBiIed ihrouglioat the Doccntt that 
ie wells (Iriixl. No graiu was soitu for two je*r» auil in the third 
ivben there was rain acarely any farmers remainod to UU tbo lands.' 

H In 1520, tlio DcccoQ was so nnseitlod that no crops were grown 
^Ld there was a fitinine. In lC29-^fO, no rain fell in the Dorcannnd 
^■■ae kikI pestil«Dce foUoived.' The yonr 17H7 in mentifined an 
P^^Bvtl liy n failure of min and hy famine. Tho jtjur 17i>l-0S, 
ttiough locally a rear of plenty, waa so terrible a ymr of famine In 
itir |Hkrt« of India tltal tho rup«a nrico of gntin roM to twelve 
junde (6 gher*). In the next year, 1 7d^-!)3t no rain foil till October, 
Dine people left the conntry and others died from want The 
'itriMs is said to Itavo been very great. Tht* I'uebwa'a^rerameut 
}Ught grain from the XisAm's conntrynDd dintrihulcd ilat I'ooua. 
rupwj price of grain stood at eigbt poonds (4 */«.-«) in Poooa for 
'four months and io the west of the district for twelve mouths. 

H In 1802 (be prospect of a good harvest mv destroyed by the 
Haragvis of Holur's ti-oops. From Jaly to September Iiict followers 
tbi! Pendh^ria so utterly mined the coonlry ihM tbu rupee price of 
grain rose to two pounds {1 sker). Tho I'cahwa'a goremment 
oncourogcd the import of grain nod distributed it frw of vbnrge. 
lArgp qaantitics of grain were brought by LamAns and Ch^rans. 
^ f^till tho distress was so severe thai numbers fled to the Konkan 
^Knd (iujarfU, nad thousands died of hunger and cholinu. The 
^pufff rings wore ao great that mothers are snid to \mvv enU>o their 
chiMn>n. Even ax Isto as 1838 ihe people of Bhinitbadi remembered 
H<'llcnr'» fatniop with hotAr.' In tho following year, 1803, the raids 
of SiiiJia'sani] Uolkar'B troope again caosed a great scarcity. The 
rupee pri?« of grdiu rose to half a pound {\ ehfir) and numbers died 
uf starvation. Many luft tbo country and clielaud lay waste. This 
famiuo affccte<l the Poona di-ttrict pnHicularly. Tho river at Poona 
wns coverod with iJfod nod rotting budit-^ The Peshwa cacounigod 
trader! to import grain dnty-fre*?, granted romiBsions of revenue, 
and aboli.shcd lutid customs. 'I*he private charity of the rich did 
much tu rt'lievo the distress. A subsrriptiou of X4000 (Ra. 40,000), 
collected in BamlMiy iindor tho patronage of Lady Mackiotoflh, was 
Bcnl tu Poona. Colonel Close, tho Itc»ident. who had already fed 
15.000 people, armngcd that Mich applicant for relief should receive 
bU, (i as.) tu t'nablc him bo got a irn-al. About 5000 of tho destitute 
were rolJeved in this way until the new crops were gftth«red.* At 
I'ooea the hnrsvii in Guncrul WoUusiuy's army were for aome time 
fed on Bombay Hoe. 

In 1819-20, 1823, 182 i, and 1825 Poono siillorod greatly from 
cholom nnd horn want of rain. So great waa the punic that largo 

■ Briggi' Fcri^U. II. 4934. 

' Urani DalTii llKtAlhu, 4U > ud Elphinttflnc'* Hitturr ot InJia, EOT. 

•Bo«B.Uov. :mL •VJeBllii^'iTrarek IL 123. !«• 

Chapter IT. 









fcpter IT. 

SI- /SIS. 




Qamtmni loft tlieir booiM. For manjr months parte of the < 
M-LTo iilninKt tlcwrUM].* Iq ia-^S tfao n)p<>e prion of (jtsin M 
t'ouuu nils nixtoco poamU (8 skrrg) and peuiilo dJml m tlia stM 
lor wMtb. In Ik24, k yow rorot'mliorwl im tlio yi-nr ttf hhttrpai 
distress, nua agnin faiird, osporiiilly tn tbc cuntitr^' wittiio 100 nitli 
of Puoiut. Tho returuB stiem Id «biiw aslight full uf prices, thenf 
price bviog twuutv tu Cvreoly-fuur (jouuds (10* 12 <A«r«). Hi 
had grnin was suld and stdcooM wu «o gvamil that large ttumt 
of poopiv \vh tbe oouDtn*. Thv Inss of rnUlo was very m 
Tbe dutreu CDUlinaed till Daxarn in OcUjIm't when a til 
fall of roio l>maf{bt much rolivf. Gori^rnmont - 
by opening works to improTo the K»rkamb ao<l 

la 1832 failnro of rniii wus followed bv mucb dtstnes. Tho rnpet 
pried ofjvdn rono from 1^0 t-o fnrty*itix pounds and gfrain roblMriet 
wore uumoruuB. Orders forbidding giula-dcalen andnly raiueg 
Ibcir priovs nre nid to hnvo dono much to rodnci* the distivK 
163'1 wtM A year of sMrcity in IndApiir, 1835 was a bad tit«aeaiill < 
over tbe district, and la 1838 Indipur again MoSorod from wanti 

Tbe next bad yeart wore I8-l-4-'la and 1845-40 whua rain Esili 
uad lb«n) was mucb distnms especially in the tisst.* 

Bclwcca 1802 and 1807 tUi-ro was n tiuccessioii of year* of' 
Rbort raiutall. la ihetwit. of tho dislrit^l during the fivt* vphtr endfa 
18Gl) tho averag.' full wa« only Rovcn iDcbvtt. lu tS(i-l ; 
price of hajri and Jtnri rose to abunt i«j^'Bntc?fn poniiiU ( - 
The liLD«lh<}lil(!n< wer« a't-ll off and wen> uotroJucud to d^strea8,wul 
thu domuud for labour and the liigb waives paid on public world ii 
tbu DecQia preTcutod the apread of dLtlreaa itniuD^ the labonnof 
classes. Still from want of faxing catlW luul lu bu sent away v 
sold. There waa snfKciont oiBtK-RS to make it advisable to opes 
relief-works in Sinir, Dhimlh^di, and ludiipur. About JCISif 
(Ra. 18,760) were spent on repaii-ing alxiut seven ty-tire miles rf 
road and digj^iiig thi< Piitikt rcwcrvoir luid two wcIIm in Snna. Grnin 
competuiiilion waa granted lo (lOTeruuieDt servants and in 1S0T 
£8000 (Its. 80,000) wort) roiiiiUcd In Dbimtliadi and Indiipurwd 
upwards of £6000 (Rs. 60,000) woru livid orur till lliv next 

Tho scanty and ill-timed rainfall of lh7H, 20'7G compared with an 
avurufiro of uhout tbii'by iucbca led to [uihire of crops, whidi, jvtoed 
to thi) bnd crops in a small area in thu previoua year, aproad dislrM 
amounting to famine over about half of the distnct.* Tbe east taii 

' CapUitt aniw' IMDeiaiy. VI. ' Bobl Qor. H«». Roc 772 i>( IS137. SMI- 

•Uoin. Gov. 8el. evil, 33-17. 707I,«niiHR 

* Til* oatiiBAto wai in tma -iSOO *>inaro niU«s of a total of 6H7. sari in poMlatMi 
318,000 out of 907,000. Within lU alTeal^d aru oame tte wlMb of Uto 1n>b|at 
and Bhitntbadt tvb-ilivu!ou*, twcntv.tlm* Tillacei of ranwdhar, «ix vilUgi* tf 
Haoali, and thirty- tlirc* vi1la,;ee of Sinir, when tho ovop* liad faitjnly •-' i |« 
•idditaoQ to th(M>, twi'iity villi^ca in Furantlhar, twMil; id Ilavrli, anil 
in 8trar vcro ucloiialy Hireiit«d. iii the Khod, Juoaar. auci MAvbI i^i . . :a 

DOtaide of Ibe (mudc am tbore waa diatrsM anwR^ UbourecB aad travaUkia^ 



jtii-ra-tt saffomil moat. Inlilire^aub-tlirisioii)!, IliiTcli, KIkmI, and 

innr, (bo earl; croftH wtiiuLtl jj^ood; in MAval nitd fmrtH of Sirur 

^d Fiirniiilliar ihny wnre fiiir; in Lbe rest of 8inir ivud Puraiidhar 

id in Bliinithadi and Indupur tbcro was no outtaro. Betides ibis 

ilare of ilni early hm*7pal, in Seiitember and October, only a few 

■g^lit flhowt^irn fell, nii(], vxcupt ia n small area of wut«ri:;d laud, no 

M(l.wi-a!lu>r crops were sown. Mdlol rtiao frtiiii Rfty-ono to niuotoeo 

9un<1i* iind Indinii millet froui itistj'-6vo to 2V^ pouiula (he nipee. 

lese liij^h prices and tb^ wsut uf field-wurk Ibran- into dutrrsa 

tfgv iiumtivn nf MliAm, MlLtiga, Ktlniufthia, iiiid tlie poorer laboiinQ)if 

unbi«. The nocd for Govummetit help bcj^iin ttboul the close of 

Bptember. (Jovtrnment offered to transport people to waste landB 

ibo C'eutml I'roviuci^, but no one took MlvaiitAgc of the oflur. At 

tho Kume tini(]|nr;fo Dtiinbcrs moved to the U»ii)tthadt or God^vari 

vjillfv. Tbe_y ftnind mucli distreas in Oangtha<fi and as the usual 

;arkul8 for tii'kl labour wore oversCockt^d, suiae wandtjred ncro«8 

ir to Siudia and Holknr'a lerritories, otUers crowded into 

juil<ay, and a few stnt^gludtu Uujarst. By th« close of IS76about 

IO,00t) poraona or 32'0I) per cent of the affected population Latl 

m thuir booiee. Uostof tlie people who went tielonged to tbo 

Bttor class o( Kunbia. To a great extent the tnoTeinetit waa 

ist-d by the ueed of pasture. As a rule vrliole families went, but 

many c&ae» some niember or members of a family were sent with 

[ie I'ltttte. The villages wLeuee fewest went were those oear the 

tntUa eoiial wnrks iu the north-west uf Bhimthadi, where wholo 

villages flocked to the works. There waa much dutrusa, but ({rain 

f rices weru kept down by Urge iniportatioua, chiefly from the 
'ciitnit Proviuces aiid to a leaa exiout Eroni GujardL The grain ytaa 
hroiiKht to Pooaa by rail and thcucc distribuuid throughout the 
Jist.ricl.' In the hot moAths of 1S77 prices ruled high and diatreas 
icrenaod. A good fall of raiu in early dune couiied temporary 
tliof. Many omtgranta Tetnrncd and sowing was actively pnsfacd 
„* But, except in lud^pur, in Jaty and August no rain fell, 
ricfm rose, distress grew beavier, and many wero again furct-d to 
tve their homes. A good rainfall in September and October 
amoved iiiuch auiioty au'I sufTcring, and cold-weather crupa were 
jwnovertbegn^aterpArtof BbimtliadL At tlio clit.'*e of November 
demand lor special Oovornmont help ceased. At the same time 
amo of the early cropa never recovered the long stretch of fair 
tttherinJuly aud August, and in Bhimthadi lliu culd-wuither 
>ps, which At first promised well, wore afterwards much injured 
diiiease. The rc;>ult was renewed distress in the hot seaaou of 
pf79. Ill the east of the district, at least oue-fuurtb of the peopln 

Chapter ' 

' The nufiiotpalitf of lodipur parchacMl grain uitl •oKI it at MnHctiitn^ orrr ooat 
VtM M M not tii intarfrtrc *ilh )ix-iil vlit'-rjiniHi ; Ml iliil IliH Ji>j<iri n>UDicj[KlIity bot 
lyin tbc fii'l to re-Mll at a Icai. It in proUiMe Uut tlioQvljr MliOBof <!ov*rn- 
lOl ta fiodioi; paid UlHiur t\>t a large pottiuo of t)ia iliatnaKd popnlatKin on Um 
Utha lauial aavcit ifTriin (rom rieiu^ to punk prices. 

* Mare «iekii«M, Mll«rfag, and morUlitj wtm tcaud Kmoag tli« rattiraod oaignNitB 
\b*x> itnottg tboMwhohftdaUrod «l bome md Ur«d eiUwt on ik«ii own rmvaem 
tn tha Ttli»f offttvd t)y GoremniMit. 


CbaptOT IT. 





lirci] on wild prainaor gna seeds, ftnd GoTcrnmetit bM 
provide labour for Ch« poorer clfcssM. Eren Ihrn the 1 
not oTor. Id lb* mio/ inuiitliH of lK7i^, Mid «giun in tbw 
direct rc'ltpf wru ooM more fuuod ooceauiy »t lud^par, 
and Uliankavdi near Poona.' 

The followia); details thow monfb bjr mantfa the phaaa 
vrtiicli Iho diAtrcsa p«s»«>d and tlio matsnrrs which vren 
rolifrf it. In tlio Onit two or thrvo dajrs of Soptembor 1 
ruin fell in tlie veat,iD Janaar ICbed and M^Tal.und great 
the withering crops. Baio again lield off and the ct-ops 
pcrUb. About tlio close of S^-ptember elij^ht abow«n 
few places. The oarly cropt eoomod well in Ma»al ; I 
witberinjf iu Juiin-ir, Klied, and Haveli, luid liad completely 
Rhimtbaiii and ludiipiir where for want of fodder larfite m 
cattlti wero dying. The price of ^raia waa mpidlr ri 
raia held off tho irmund could not be prepared for tbu coli 
crop. Kspecially in Inddpur and fibimtbadi the want of 
wator was beginning to bo folc FntrH were ontortaiuod 
poorer cWaM would bocomo disorderly, and. abont thoel 
montb, relief works were opened iu Itliimtbadi and IndAn 
tliatabout the middle of tho uiontb a slij^bt shower faU 
Octobor passed without rain. Even in the vrttt the carl/ 
witbfrin;^ and wore bviog cut for forafro, and iu the \ 
waa failing. Kxcept in a small area of watered land 
weather crops were sows. Orer the whole district, eapect 
east, th» want of wBt«r cauaed diatreas, and cattle 
for nalc at nomiual prices. In several plocoa the people 
io leave their homes. Extensire relief work* wct,> NtArtc 
the S2nd uf OL'tuber, incliidiu); those on the Muilia cai 
6000 people were ouiploved, Kor charitable relief a aum 
(R«. 25>(l00) WAS Bet at the Collector's di.-«po»al. An distre 
bosidesadditional saKittlauta, the Collectur was anthoriKed I 
relief duty the n)itiii1ald&raof tbe most aoTCreljr afloct^'d 6tib 
November passed with only a few iliglit showers. The o 
oontiniK'd to wither and the small area of IhU^ crops was 
want of moisture. The distress van great, but large im 
of ffrain kept down prices. In Poena the ttti>i;k of gnun 
nna tbo market was fallittg; in ootlying towns nricoa wai 
rising. In the first half ot the month Mgri roee trom .1 M i 

I, and 6401 were aged or feoble expected to do two^tfairds of a 
wort aud superiatendod hy fikmiue olficera.' 

Dpc<'Tnbor pa*scd wirhont rain. Crop proapecta remained 
lauged, people and cattle coDtinued to move went. During' the 
th l.h« itiiportation of grain was large and b>ijri fell from twenty 
Is ill tito hcjfiifnm^ to tweoty-tlirue p-iuud^ about the close at 
lODth, and joiri from 18^ pi:>iiud» tu tweuty-two puund-i. Tho 
aers on public works rose Ero'iw l-l,2o3 lo 23,4.98 and on civil 
from 6401 to 16,75'2. Thu tutnl mim spent on chariUbla 
ap to the close of the year was about i,-iO0 2a. {R*. 2U11). 

imnry pAse^d witboul rain. Grain k^pt pouring into the 
txict, and bajri fell from twenty-tbree pouuJii to 23J and jvdri 

»twouly-two to 25i pounds. Tbo numboi-H on public worka 
from 23,108 to 2d,7(jt, and on civil works from 16,7^2 to 
^69. As the civil worka seemed too popnlar, on tho ]\iih ot 
koary Government reduced tlie rates or p&y, and issued orders 
sufurce task and distanoa teats.' Tbi« caused a fre«b eiaigratioa 
conaiderable fall iu the uiiubent on the works. At the same 
charitable relief wa^ started and by tho end of tho month 
ributed to 1694 pcrsous. 

(boat tho middle of Febrnary sixtcon cents of rain fdl at Poona. 

cuntinuod to com v in htrgv qiiaulitiutt, h'ijri rose s1i|crbl1y to 

uly-tbreo pounds and _ji'n'ri lo twpnty-fonr ponnds. Tho nuni- 

Kaoii piiidic worlcH (ell froin 23,764 to £3,034, and on civil works 

~ 29,509 to 18,752. I'liis decrease was chipHy due to the lower- 

oi p*y on tlw civil works, tbo transfer of tho ablfbodied from 

: to public works, and the enforcement of tJi^k and distoQoe 

The numbor on charitable rpliof roao to 1766. During the 

th there was nligbt cholftra in llhiintliiidi and Pnrandhar. la 

boginning of March aboat twenty-aix cents of fain fell. Orain 

tinucd to pour in and Ibe supply was plentiful. Except in tbo 

finning of tho month, when there vu a small riiie, price* 

litiud at twenty-three pounds the rupee for biijri and twenty- 

' pounds for jmiri. There was slight cholera ia Bbimtbadi and 

J other Boh-diviblous. Tbo numbers on civil works coatiuu«d 

11, fi-ont about 12,213 in Ihu bej^iuuing of the month to 4676 

it tho close ; public works showed a small rise from 23,OS4 to 

0;!, and charitiblu relief from 1766 to 2290. About the middlo 

Vpril eighty centa of rain fell at IndfLpur. Grain was largely 

irted and tho supply continued plentiftil, 'vrilh bijri sligritly 

Br at 2IJ pounds and jvdri at 20j pounds. Thoro woro a few 

I of cboiera, and cattle -discoao was prevalent ia Siror and 

Etreli. The uumbera relieved rose on public works from SO.OOli 

Chapt«t IT. 




lOrigiul wucs war*, for a taxa 3il. (2<u.) & ^*f , for a iramall iid. (1) <t*-), 
■a boy or KirtcgixU* of irork i\<L {la.), .\bout th« iauL(ll« olNuvanlwr, 
—-Ma tow oTor Buttwn penada Utv rape«, a tlidiag vuAe wm iDUodnood ahiefa 
tbat Um iDotier rats shoalil vary with tba pries of tenia »iid lb»t • t^n 
L altraj-H rtiMvu the price of nme poatid of grain in ndditlmi to llrf. |l a.). 
': aew nUK vran : (or ■ maa tbe prlo* of oao ponnd of gntiu and %d. (i a) 
of Itti. (I a. I :farK WMIMR th« prie* of one puaad of grain aad get. (la) 
girl th* prioa of Koif a ponul of Enin ana |rf. 

I of (<f. (I o.) I Bad to* a hay or i 

I \ai-ii 


BomlMj Oi 


Cb*pt*r IT. 




U) 31,678, ftud on ffhuritable r«1><^( from SSiM to 4S0I ; oB 

works the nnmher* fpll from 4^76 to4G50. Tlic first- dayn of: 

brought slight showers in Pummllinr, Hud ahi^at tho clos* of_ 

TDootli gwd rain fell nil over tlif dialriot vxo«iit. in Junnar, 

and KIAvftt. Small Duiiibcra m^re cotnioif back. TIiq gnun i 

oontinaed ample, bat hajri ros»to Utf pnandx tho mpee wai 

to 19} pounds. Tlio kiffli prices caiisi.!!] niurh dLstPp^s. 11 

moatli tlier« was alight cbulom uwr iii<knt of tltu di^trint. 

number* relieved row on ntiblic worka from 3l,G~S to 4<),I7T, 

oD charitable relief from 4301 to 7o01 ; on ci^il wurka thoy fellfn 

•16^0 to 461'^. In JiiiieBii»Teragei>f C'7l^inclii>aof r»ia foil. iUaj 

landhoMoni CAtne bnck briogiBg their cattlo. Tho eowitiK tS 

early croDs was begun iu che vtost; in the vast eowiDf^ w«s 

bept hactc from want of bullocks. Cuttle-disenso wsa pt 

three egb-diTi9i"nBand afpw i-nsco of chwlvm oociured, IT 

of ffrain was fiufltei^'iic and Kith hdjri nnd t^ri <-ontiiiur>i1 stt 

lOj ponnda the rupee. The numbers on public works fell; 

40,177 to 3^,344-; th<*y row on civil work» frnm 4€1S to 46i 

on cHnritftble relief from 7a01 to 12,729, diiljr passed witL 

Xftin. an avcnige f»II of only 3-34 inches, and this almost soktjr] 

the «eat. Exci-|>t iu MAvaI r«in was ovcrywhet'e vr»iil«). 

OTDpB especially iu Bbimthudi and tho east were wiiheriujL', aad) 

many plncen field work was at a stand. Tho supply of 

waa sutScii-ut, but hajri rose to I4J pnnnds and jciri to 

poniids. This camod inneh difltreati and in tlie south and past 

were a^iii prcpniriiig to xlurt fur th<> DerArs. Tlin nunitirra 

public- workd E<dl frnoi .S5,S44 to 20,78ti. on cirii wnrks 

4625 to 3&52, and nn climrilablc ralief from 12,720 to n,i 

In dngnftt an averatro of four inches of rain fell, bnt it 

ehiefly (?onfine<l to I lie w(>»t. Rntu* wafi wnnlrd evj-rywhw 

partinilarly in ludiipitr, Bhtnitliadi, Sinir, and I'unt miliar. 

rioe crops in MAvnl wrre good, but tn the east the crops 

withering nnd iu Home placca they Imd perishcl. Id UbitntlM 

and Piirandlmr. witli Mmjeexeeptionn, the pulse was lost. The 

prices, ("ijrint I'-J and yV.f rial thiDeen iM>und», iiinaed «nuplnli*t 

Alnny Bbiinlhaili hmdholders wore preparin|r to IwTS their bun 

T)iroiivdi'>ut the nifrutfa cholera whh pri'valenL Tfae uutoti 

on relief works fell, on public works from 26,7fiG to 24.,S 

and ou ciril works from ySS 7 to 20()3; oii churilablo roKof 

roao from 12,420 to 21,6A0. In September an average of 

inches of rain fell. At first in iLo central Mib-diriaiooa, Jx 

Khitd and ETareli, tjjero wore only eli^ht Bhowor^j but, ' 

nloae of the month, there waa good rain, and tho early er 

except in luddpur hud suBered severely, were much beneiil 

About th(* middle nl the month tlio lute or rabi sowing 1 

begun, iho piwrer landholder* in Bhinithndi finding pvat dimoij 

in obtiiiiiing seod and cattle, fidjri fell from 121 to 14} 

nndj't'-irt from thirtt-en to 15| poundi!. The people wore i»upro» 

uiid cbolom and smalUpox weri; ou ibe decline. Tlie nambor 

piibli« works rose from 24,^14 to 24,087 and on charitable 

friiin 2I,(>50 to 21,174; on civil tvurks tho uumboi'fi fell from S 

to 719. In Octuber an average of ^'^2 inches of r&in fell. 




l>rr iMfwcu of tho Lotrlv crupH cootianed fsvooroble atid the Isto aoniDg 
^' I -. in prof^eKs. Tbo BhimCboxli cukivstom' aeed and cstlle 
<lillii.:a?tv (I iiiuppcarQcl. The monoylenders came forwai-d; tlio Wtt«r 
{il.i's.'i of Kuiilits hud ff«Deral)y stoclu of tliuir own; and u Inrge 
pr(j|iorti<jn of Uhimthudi, chieflj* along tlio Bbius, waft lillcd by the 
people of the west of tbe district luid of 8iit6m, wbu udvancml seed 
and lent bullocks on tbe crop'Sbaro oriatdiBy&Uim.^ About thueod 
of the month the eovring: in Bliioitbndi was greatly Iccpt buck br 
heavy abowora. JJfij'rtfellfpom HJ to 18J pf.unili, r»nd Mt«rt from 15'| 
to nineceea poonda, ' The numbers on puhUc vrorkb fell from S4,687 
to I5.4(;i, on civil works from 719 to 122, and on chariliiblo relief 
Irom '2l,i7\ to 8200. Tbo larac clecrans*' in tbo tiiitnb&i' oa tbfl 
relief works wag mainly cau*e<i by pwi])Iu having left fho works 
tempted by the better wages they could earn iu ibo fluids. Slight 
rail) full aboat the close of NovuiubiT. The bdjri lianvst was in 
pn.i^reHtt nnd the lato aowiDgs were fiuisbed. In four Kub-divinioos 
the J\'iri crops Were eli^hlTy damaged by blight. In »nme parts, 
owing Lo the want of bullocks, (he tillage liad been slori'uly, and 
iti ouuiy pUcoa the jo'tri crops were chokud with wceda. On tbo 
irholo tho oatlook wa^ promising. B.iiri fplt tn twenty-two pounds 
id jv<iri to 23^ pouH-ls. The numbers on public works fell from 
9S1 in the tirtil days of the month lo \78S about tho closo, on 
^rtl workx from 122 to fifly-tbrcu, nnd on chi^ritablo relief fmni 
i09 to ] h50. At the end of November nil reHef work* wore clueed. 
•c«mber pa«KO<l with n few slight showers. Jdijrl fell to 23^ 
winds and jrari to twenty-tivo poimds. Governmout continued to 
!er chnriLuble relief, hut on tho i'Zad of tho month the number 
bking relief had dwisdled to IttO. 

The following «t«toniont of nT«r»go monthly millei prices and 
Kamhcrs reosirmg relief, 'shows thai, during Iho Srst qnartor oE 
i877, gniiii k<i()t pretty aleudy at twcnty-thrw) pounds tho rupee or 
loro than twice tbo ordinary ratt*, that its ]mce nwo rapidly till it 
ched lil pounds in August, and that it then quioklv Fell to 23} 
suiids. As early iwiDecuniher I87(i tho numbers on relief works 
Bached +0,2^0, and in January 1877 rose to 53,838. In February, 
IfiH-ering wages nnd enfoi-cing la«k and distance tents, tlie total 
reduced (o-H,78lj, and in March it fell to S^.^US. From that it 
3fro to li,7dl> tu May, and then began groduully Ui fidl. From June 
> KeptombDr the decrooiie wa.s slow, it was rapid in October, and in 
fort-mbor the works werb closed. 'Yho nnmbora on charitable 
liefrosc! &u>udily from 1(i9i in Jniiaary to 12,729 in June; then 
ith a slight fall to 12,420 in July tlicy rose to 24,474 in September. 
Dctolwr thoy rapidly declined to IJ209, in November to 1550 and 
December to 18t> when almost all the relief-houses were closed : 


Chapter l\ 

P In 1 8;a-7Tt&« tilled area ia StumtliBdi ww 101.;30acr«*;in )9T7-7a. 372,W8 
[ in l((7fi-Tt), n6,3IV som. la Iailft|Kir (or tbt saiau jcara Uia arau wen MOO 

upter IV. 


bijr Gu«u«. 



PtOM^ ftMlMW, IfTV-TT. 

IvHMi DuuLT Xnoaa. 





CML j rMMW. j VtM. j 

GlHlV. 1 

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MruHT - 










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Kmjb ».«;4 











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<— — ' 




Wilbin tbo famiae aroa carts conid bardly be hired. When l^ 
took fodder and graiu tu tbc- relief works from other mrU 
district, tiiucbai'i^ea were suUlom iMgher tliuu tlie orainitTy 
Except tu Decoiubcr 1870, vrhtin » okvt coatS«. &/. (R^I j) Ant 
Jaauary 1S77, wh«a il coat 3i. (Rs. 1^) a daj, the daily rate 
cart wii» 2(1. OJ. {R8.)|}. 

A ip^cidl (.x'TiHUM, t*kca on, iho lOth of Maj 1877, Trhcn 
pretgnre was gcaeral and serere. shoved that of 48,(XjI wor 
42,304 on public and S747 on dvii works. 30,080 boltinged to 
Bub^vUionB where the norka vr^re carried od, 11,041 belonged 
otli«r lub-divisiona of tbe district, 4701 were from other districa,, 
and 1649 wera frocu ueij^hbonriiifr states. As regnrds 
occupation, SODO w«re manufnilururs or crafUmen, 24,2A6 
boldom or uD'lor-holders of land, and 21,070 were 1a.boaren. 

lu 1877 rclicf-houfies irere openrd ftr tbe infirm poor. 
(broe hotfoa ncr<> u]}ened and aiaintaini-d at a cont of 
(Rs. 2,28,380). Oftwelve houscB with a cost of £GV'iy (rta.fip.^ 
in Bliimthadi, two at B^nLnuurand Pnodnro wore opened in Ai 
tbn>o at Supa, PAcas, and Jnlgaon-Kbarepalhar, in Ma^ ; qe 
Piiupttlfiaon, in Juno; four, at Pfipgaon, Kbadki, Boribyhl, 
Sbiraupliul, in July; nud on© at Yevat, la August Of elcTea in 
Indiipur ala coatof fyaril (lU. 95,610), eight, at ImUpitr, Kalii, 
Niiub^aou-Ketlti, Varkntc-Budruk, Jiadiiuvidi, Lasuriu-, yhyipl 
IlaFcli, and Pnln^duv, were opvuvd in Jnly; two, at Bilrda 1 
Iliiiganf^on, ill AiigiiHt; and ono at Akola, iu September. Of mi 
with a cost of £26ii& (Ra. 28,050) iu Sirur, thoro wad uno onohj 
Ghcdnadi, RAnjaagBon-Gonpati, Talegaon, Xirvi, M&iidnv^ 
Kardo, and AlegaOD. Of two, with a cost ot £3Z12 (Rs. 22,]2(n 




kveli^ oDu was ul Dliankardt nnd (ho other ri Loiii'Knlbbar. Odo 

ith a coat of £1200 (Ua. 12,GOO) yrnn oponed ut Jciuri in Puraixlbnr 

[ccpt at }'atas in Bbimthadt, which )wd t(> be sept open till the 

28l!i fit Fflbrtiar^ 1878, all tho roli^-f-hout^f'S w«re closed on the •'iOth 

of Xorembcr ]tj77. As n rule tbo death rate in the Pgona rvlwt 

WES low. It was Iiighoftt in tlio relief cnmp nt Dhnoknvdi 

Poooa. Kxcept at Dhankavdi no cnmps woro built, the 

were ntmost deserted nod the people wero nblo to kouM 

sivoa and to live in rust-lioiisos. At Snpa and Jojuri largo 

'empty honscs were rented and a few cheap shed* were biiiU. The 

relicf-bouiw nt Dhuukiivdi wus reopeaed for a few weeks in Jul/ 1S78 

fciBQ the ruins bold off. 

Tho most marked features of tbo f&nitie id Foods were the efTorta 
of the landholders to help thonisolvoa, and tho steady flow of praia 
into the markets, so that, from about the end of Octob<>r IBTti to the 
Jose of the fninino iu Octobor 1S77, no g^roat ditliculiy wns found in 
irping the labourers supplied with grain at ratea very slightly ia 
[oe»3 of Poonii rates. As soon as ai(;rns of sctrcilj begfan tho 
Innbis left their huuaea in Inrge Dumbers to find fodder for their 
tie and food for thoiusetvcs. Id ooutr»»t to the Kuiibid, the Mhira 
age and Ililiiioshis, from indolence and perhaps from the fear 
It if they k-ft thi/ir villugoe they mi(;bt forfeit their heroditury 
jht8, wuuld licit leave their villages to go lo tho rPliet works. At 
ret Ihey were disiuclioi'd lo take direct ruUvf, and cltimoured for 
pployuient in their own rillagos. T^tpr they became demoralised, 
lid many cupnhle of n'orlc swtillod thu nuiuburs on olinrttable relief. 
. was cuHtutnary to send large drafts to the public works, feeding 
?m »t certitin villnges on tuc way. Tho tc>w-ai»to Inbourem scut 
istuQCM of forty to fifty mil<;s alartcd willingly, but after getting 
pfresbed at tho staging villages d!n[>erHed una made iheir way baoK 
thoir boinea. 

Karly in the famii'e, Bhimtliadi, Ptinuidbar, and Haveli were 
placed under the fuinino cb^rge of Mr. A. Kcyser, dvat assistnat 
collector; ludnpiir w»s plaotd und<rr Mv. W. M. Flelober, of the 
revenue unnrey, who had sole chargu of all relit-f operatious in tbsG 
ttnh-dtTision, nad Hubiwquontly of twctily'ntue villages iu the eaat 
of nhimibadi; nnd Sinir, Khe<I, Junasr, and Btaviil wero under 
Mr. K. C Ozttnnc,a»»i*l«nt collwctor, of thu (ir«t of which bt> iuu! iilso 
the revenue charge. Mr. Kcyscr was afifii.<'ti.-d by Mr. H. L. Holland 
of the povonuo xurvoy, who was Uoweri>r sick mid on privilege leave 
from Norcmber 1S76 to March 1677 and aguiu pi'rnianootly 
inralidod in July when bo went home no sick leave, and also from 
February 1877 by Mr. W. P, Syinond«, asxiiitnat collector, who, 
from it« oi>tabIishtnent in Aagnst 1S77, wtis plnoed in charge of the 
Dhaakavdi relief mmp, until October whon ho relieved Mr. Ozaone. 
Be«ide8 tbwo ollicers, .Mr. A, L, P. Lnrken, a.'tsi«t;int collector, was 
itititrusted nith the organiz»tion of the Mutba canal nud Nini canal 

tbour gaogs and with settling land comnouxation cases. In 
ctober 1876 tbs mamlaldars of Indiipur and tibimthadi, and, in 

toreiubcroud December, ihoeie of tiinir and Purandbur wora put 
faoitBe relief dnty; and in August 1877, tbo mAtolntdir of 

Chapter II 

Fax IKES, 








Uivnl wu pUcod uodor Mr. SymoodH ciu tbo DfaanloiTdi 

In lft77 Ike (nnime area wu divided into tlurty-senni n^ 
rirrtpt, onob andvr an tospei-tiir Twcire of those, FinjpdpM, 
Yerat, Pilrpfirtn, PitAn, Snpi», Miirti, P«nd*rp, •lalgmio-Khar«p>t 
Ukr&inali, lUv&Dgson, Shirsuphal, and Malad,^ ol actpq to fiN 
T^UagM, w(Mx- in llliitulluidi ; t(>n, IMvda, VitiUlpuH, Aimb^o 
Ketkt, Laounm, Knlnx, Bliiffvnti, Pnlnsd^T, Knlilmn, AgMCi, « 
HJnganpnon ,* 4if scvt'ti in ten villn^>n, wvn> in Indapitr; fjj 
MAmUvjfaon, Nirvi, Knriluj Kondhpuri, Maltliaii, Simr, PaUd, m 
Sliiknlpur, i>f fiTo to eleven vUlagw, w(tro in Sirur; fonr. lUja 
Jejiiri, V'alhii, and Gumli, of uinu to ibtrlMm villngra wun 
Purundtiar; two, I^ai-Kalltbar of elvveu and ABl)l4{iar, often 
vU)a«es, were In Huvoli ; aod one, L&kkangaou of BOTttu rilU^ 
was m Kiicu. 

lliu diflicullk'8 in the way of offi-clivo rcliuf wore lig-Uteucd bf 

I.- y.-.j- 

tlio trac1iibli\ and. in tfao case of tha rultinitor)), tfac «r 
cbaracter of Uio juvople. At first the nllft^ officers wori 
U) food n-avullora iu obvious need uf food. In ounKvqncncd uf 
crdfr inou wiuidurt'd fn>m rillii}^ to villagi^ living tu dratit 
trftTfllor!!, »n that it became necr«?nry to loodify tho order* airf 
limit the iiuiiil>or of Tillages wbcrc travellers migbt be relierpd ! 
a few on tbo tnaiu thuruudrli fares. These adult uitibnKoreni ki 
in biir condition, but Ibeir obildren -were often painfully rvdnc 
Tbo wandrrcra were unt cuufiuvd to tlie low cantos. Numbea 
floclcod into I'ooiin, whpre n pi-ivnte assodatiou dealt 8omfiirlial 
indiflcTiininnto clinrity, nnd iftniunivl towards Boinba>y from PoQt»> 
Sitira, and SboUpur. In August nil bt-Rgard irere tnrnLHJ oiitw 
Poona, a relief c4iRip v.-a» vBUtbltsliud at^tbe ^Hllagv ut Dbanknvil 
AboQt tbfee mites to the south of the city, urganiiMl private cha 
was stopped, and th'>8(? in need of ndicf were takun to the 
whence wheii fit for work they wcru drafted to ivlief works or sent 
to tlidir own homes. I'eoplo were aUo collected in Hombav tun) 
Tluina »ad sunt by rait to ihu nttup ucar Poona at (lovrrunioot 
cxix-nno. Aiiutbor difhailty wiui, that, Wforo the tusk or oBj 
other test was csublivbcd, people msb^ to the rcUof worka in sack 
niinibore tliAt it woA dilii<!utt to deal n-iih them, except at a gnat 
wn«te of public iiioaey. Wurka under civil ugonoy had t]fi«a no 
sapervising' establislitm^nt beyond one or more iuexpertL<ncL>d and 
temporarily employed clerks. In some ca«e« there wortt m9 many 
aa l&OO to 20Utl wurkt^m, and in one ewe for a t^hort tiiuu man 
tbitn 4(>0O workers on one civil agency work, lite reaultwiwa 
pretence of work, iimuflicient return for larjfe expenditure, and, 
very probably, aome amount of fraudulent gaias on the part ol tb« 
clerks. Willi tbo establishment of the difltiince and task teste sad 

* Tlio nUbnUtd^ it In^por vaa lU* Silwfc Vidmn VAsuder, of Bhimtbaffi 
MA'. Siltel><;MMlt BhiVT&v, olSlrur Kbui Salwb ShamMidin AliblUo, «( ruraadktf 
tUv SAhib SiUrim PMijI, uid of Mival Kiv Sibob Uakldev ruMlUk. 

■ liiv lut ihrae, c»ch of uoo vilUgoi, wtrc nndrr Mr. Plctcbcr, 

* ImlrilHii M MuiUi-d u it wu lUMugetl tiy the muiiii-limlx y. 



opeaiag of the Nira csiml, the Dhond-iranindd r&iln-ny 
RasineDt, ami other lar^o and wi-U tirnnnirxd wurk» luidur ibo 
sUic Worfcs DoparidiBut, Ihese JifHcullioA i)i:tti[i{>eared au4 Uio 
f^vil agency works were fntircly «Jt apart f«r Buch ncrwoa 06 were 
Ipoble of hard work. Tim difficulty then was !<> find work which 
weakly ooiili] do aud to proViile for thu oDoraioii» prt!|Kiiidvraiico 
_ womou. It waa necHsaary to employ a few nhlp-biHiipd iin*n on 
ciril ag«ncy work-t, while iilimmt the oiilv »iiitabU' (.■mji]'<viiipnt 
lliat ooutd be fuuud was cluariug hiU frum old ponds. And throwing 
rnivvl vn road.t and clearing atfineH from thum. Ni?xt it was Found 
difficult to oiifurcu the l«sta witbuut caiuini; iwrioiis anfTeriog and 
JDas of bfe. The uDwillinfrnefla of tli« h>w-cuHl<) people to loavo 
jihiit humcs lias booa uolicod. 'iliuro wua a nutnnil uDwilling'Deaar 
>n the part of all closaos, to tratnp loti^ di-ttanoM witli thoir wotaoii 
hud chilln^-u, iiud v,-«rk wiibuul much shelter at nij^bl or proviaioa 
Vir tho tir»t. f<>w davn, while in tho uaso of those unoocastotned to 
lutiQtinua work llioro ifnn thoor innbility to perform nvea tho 
lerate ttiak required. Pcona was Kinfpilarly favoured in hnnne 
largo mill tvoIUorgaiiim.>d works id progross, and in oJmoHt all 
ses the dififiriillipH wore sucwssfnUy oveixxinie by a judicious 
iltcinoEadviiiiws, wot-chfidiirs.* on tlit- jvirt of tho olli<;Drs iiichargo 
le works, tho aystem of crt'dit with the graiu-dealcr which soon 
. fig up, and tho wcarinff off of the fooling of etr»i)gOQ«i!s in tho 
jTvea of a popuUtion, w^io, if not well-to-do, bad no former 
Dorionco of the actual pinch of liun;;^. Tlie total coet of tho 
kmine wa« estimated at £100,611 (Rs. 16,06,110), of which 
U^MB {Rh. 13,75.9li0) woro spout ou {mblic aud civil works, 

and i23,ni5 (Rs. 2,3(>,150) ou charitiible rcliof. 

■ ISxcept tbab the rtou crop* KuETvi-ed from potty thc-ft« iu tho 

harvest of 1S77, and LhiU ainull stores of gnua wero taken ont of 

■esort«d hoanfs, there wita a striking freedom f roai crime. Compai-cd 

^ilb the foruior year th« criuiitial rctnroH showed n total incrc-ntiu 

of 1527 olTeiices, which iii tho Commissioner's opinion, woru due 

to the faininc, iK-mj^ chiefly thefts and other offences apaiost property 

and person.' There are no statistics of the numbers eilhyr of thu 

IHOD or of iha cattio wlio left the district and did not come hack. 

[L is beliered that fully a fourth of tho omigrnat pupulutioo uovor 

eturaed, and about four-Gfth^ of the cattle taken away were nerei 

^rottt;ht back. Among the pcoptu the et)tiiiiate<1 special mortality 

ts about S'iOO HouU, but compared with IS72 the 1881 conana 

abowft a fall of 20,732. Tlic addition of tho uormal yearly incrcuito 

^f one per cent during tho ruuiaiuinf^ B«ven years ^vea 8o,'i2S 

mt tbe loss of population cjuixod by death and niigratioa id 1876 

^nd 1877. Of c»ltle, he!«idos thotw that died, many tbouHands were 

sold at very low prices.' Though very great, the !o«8 of stock did 




> Tlie ddef Jctailt krv. an inomaM indcr mnr^dn of S; un^or allABpt OP 
Ptincnt of nScUo, e ; Htid«r roliticfy. l« : on.lw liirLkna liouia-lreapHiOTkMM- 
Mkins, i&t i lind<r mtMhief, 31 ; nndc' tii*ii ot «Mtlo, 163; oiidui oroliuuT theft, 
» land an<kr r«c«lriii| 4t«l<n fnporly, *S. . , - , 

) ■ Tlu, dcorawc of cattle Ibroggb «l«alH and ether owaaea aH«ing (rotn faauno hu 
tinttad tt near 110,000. 

Bomlwj Quettw- 



Chapter IT. 



not interfere with field work. The tilled area in 1877-78 fell short 
of tho lH7y-7(> area bv 7476 acres. Of a land rovenae of £116,0(9 
(Rs. 11,(30,0(0) for collection in 1876-77, £70,321 6». (Rs. 7,03,213) 
were recovered bj- the cIobo of the year. In 1877-78, of n land 
revenae of £117,013 (Rs. 11,70,130) £110,147 14*. (Rs. 11,01,477) 
were recovered. Of £114,891 18«. (Bb. 11,48,949), the realizable 
land revenne for ia78-79. £104,030 10». (Rs. 10,40,305), and of the 
balances, £12,0'.H 2«, (Ra. 1,20,911) were recovered. ' By the 1 fit 
of Janiinrv 1s80 the outstanding; balance rose to £46,488 of whidi 
in June l^^O about £42,981 (Ra. 4,29,810) were remitted. In die 
eoMC of tliu di.<!triot some villages were deserted aod others were 
half empty. The cnltiration was far below the average and the 
number of cattle enormously decreased. With ordinarj harvests it 
seemed probable that at least ten years wonld be required to 
rratorc the country to its former prosperity. 

In 1878-79, in Sirur, Porandhar, Bbimthadi and Indipnr tha 
iAan/ or early crops were almost entirely destroyed by too mod 
wet. In Ind&pur they were also choked by an extraordiu7 
growth of weeds. HiilF cropa were obtained in Simr and iu parti 
of Puronilhar and BLimthadi, but in places oonaideiBble dam*g« 
was done by locusts and other insects. The Tobt or late cropi 
promised well till as they began to ripen the rats committed fevhl 

The price of grain continued exceedingly high and at tlis 
beginning of tho bot weather the poorer classes of IndHpor shomd 
signs of safferiug. To relieve the distress at various places in 
Indapur work was opened on the Nirs Canal. Piece-work WM 
exacted from the able-bodied, and the weak and aickly received 
subsistence wages. During May, June, And July, nearly 10,000 
people Wfrre daily employed. Between 200 or 800 who ware oofit 
for work, were cared for in a relief-hoase in IndApnr. The totil 
cost was £C03 I2«. (Ra- 6036). 



In 1S73, according to the cenass, bflsitles>do IiantiiuiJtRen 

id profe^ioDAl ineu, 1^,038 persons held posiljoaa implying the 

possesaion of capital. OF theae 1404 were bankers, money* 

obaogers, ftud shopkeopere; 7608 wore nioKLnnta ami traders ; nud 

2966 dreiT their iaoomea from rent-3 of boiiaen and sliops, from 

funded v^^pcrty, shurvs, uDuuities, uud Clio liki.-. UuUlt the hvud 

of capitaliiits and traders, the 1880-81 license tax asseRnment papers 

show 2-iOO p«r8Qas M«e«sod on yearly incomvs of niorr; than £50 

(Ra. 600). Of these 1229 had £50 to £75 (Ra 500-750); 429 £75 

to£IOO(R«. 7oO-1000); 304 £100 to£l3& (Rs. )000-1250) ; 119 

jei2o to£150(Rii. 1250-1.500); I3S £150 to £200 (Rs. 1500- 2000); 

105 £200 to £300 {R.t. 2000-SOOO); sixi^ £300 io £400 

(B«. 3000. 4000); twnntj'..wr(!n £400 to £500 (lU. +lKM). 5000); 

twenty.four £500 to £750 (Us. 5000-7500) ; thirtoon £750 to £1000 

(Ba, 7500-lO.OW) ; and fourtflen over £1000 (Ua. 10,000). Besides 

the BO t ho 1 870 papers ^howod 12,976 persons MMuMd on ycArly 

incomes of £10 to £50 (R«. 100- 500). Of these 6402 had £10 to 

£10 (R«. 100-150) ; 3073 £lo to £25 (Rs. I.=t0.250) ; 1923 £25 to 

£35 (K«. 250-350); and 078 £35 to £50 (Us. 350-600).' 

H From 1750 to 1817 Poona was the capiUl of the Peshw^ and 

Ke resort of the vreat officers and feudatories of the state with 

Beir numerous followers. During this time foona was probably 

^ne richest city in Western Iticlln. In 17f>8 the exactions oi the last 

Peahwa lUjirAv II. 1802, of Yaahvantriv liollcar stripped 

the people of Poona of much of their wealth. Still in 1817, when 

it paii<^ed under British rulu, Poona waa n rich city where skilled 

craftamea centered aud lar^e suDts were spent. The capitalists of 

Poona suffered considerably by the change from Mar^tha to British 

rule. About one-tbird of the capital waa driven from the market. 

PcKjna ceaaed to be the seat of governmoDt and the i^tdenoe of it^s 

nutiicroiiH minutent and officers. The great porchaaea of jewels, 

shawls, ODtbroidcrcd clotJia, and other valuable articles camo 

to an oud aud trade declined. Under the Peshw^ much of th4 

reTconu from their widespread possossioDS crat«red in Poena. The 

bnone^ came either hj bills drawn from the districts Dpon the 

K»aa huuks, or if it was puid in caah it passed through* Ae 

^ 1 Tb« lars figuiM are givM bocBUM laconiM amlfr £S0 <Ka. S00> hava alnce Iwcn 
f re«il Irani the licanM buc. 

Chapter Vt^ 



B 1327-13 



Qupter T. 



hands of bAnkrm, vbo prrtfitcd br ihe eicTuuige of ootna befon 
GolliTtioo reacbed the public trcwmry, r'K)na bunkera bad 
Bfteots in tlw d'Hlricrs &i)<) tht.' riuuiG(!aiioa of tb» mi 
tredn in loniiB to tliv pvople and In tlie n-ntvrM of villajfea 
B wide circulation of tiwcie, wbicb rotiimt^ to tiia coffin 
(h* Poona bsakera witb a& nbvindaat acoumulation of iai 
L0MI8 of tbis tiatnro irerfl ttcunll; repaid in grain wbicb 
reo«Ti-d at a pric« much Ix-Iow tbu market ritte, and 
broHUhi gn-nl reluniB U) tho lemlpn- Under the Itriiisb rcfcmt 
system all tbceo advanUgCC to tbo dimtnliEts di^sppL-nivd. TW 
tnido id moufflcudiag woo Btill furiucr hindered by ihe lu^ 
ititulion ot suiu in courts insLi-ad of cho former prtvaLe mctbuds d 
danning dobtor*. Tbo merchants were forced to be mort) caalioo 
in their specidationii and co look moru lo indiridual charaoter mi 
colliiU'rul »i.'curity.* A fun* bMokora faded from bad debta coDtnoUJ 
by brrikpQ'dawn noblrH and officials. Abt^iil 1821 biuinow n 
very dull in Poonn. Hnny ric-b backers bsd fallen iiit-o pom^' 
Befure IK50 the period of Poona'B j;rrealiMt depn^aiiiuti hail paxtL 
It remainvd tbo rOBidonco of nuuijr of tlia peasiouud Mardtha aoU* 
and tlie bead-i^Harters of tho district of Poooa and a verf Urp 
military stutloii. AbontlSSSit became tbo resort of the Uoremorul 
Council of Hoiiibay between •Ftino and October and the bend-qasiMrt 
of the Hotiibiif army for part of the jvar. Sincfi Ihti opening olth 
southern branch of the PeninsuU milnay in laoH, Kouua btf 
eonlinuod to incfeaae to fiisse, trade and wealth. At prtMcnt (18iS) 
iu t!:e city and cuiituoment of Po»iia, besides ch« branch of 
Bombay liank. forty to fifty firinti hnve a capital of JCIO,< 
(Bs, 1,00,000) and npw»rd«,alKJUt eighty lirm» have £5000 to£lO, 
(R8.50,UOO-1,00,OUOJ, and ab.MU 2S0 havo £1000 to 
(Us. 10,000 -CO.OOO). In Junimr, the plie« of Doxt i mportanor, 
seat of MuRAlniAn governors iu tho times of tbo Babmanis (13 
li89) and of th« Moghids (10:17 • 1760). ooc Rrm has a capital of abool 
£10.000 <Its. 1,00,000), about Gvo have £i5(K)0 lo£10,000 (Ks. M.OOO- 
1,00,000). ami about foHy hnve £1000 to £MH>l>(Ks. 10,000-50,000], 
In the refit of th« district, in BArimati Indapur SAsvod and Sii 
kbout S4:ren 6rms havn n cftpitnl of about £10,(M)0 (Ra. l.OU.i 
about sovt-n have JtoOttO to £10,000 (Bs. ^0,OO0- I.W.OUO), nnd 
to 300 have £1000 to £5000 (Ra.lO.OOO-oO.OtlO). A lar^o pponnrti 
of these Rrnu lend money on mortK»j^ and do not tmde. Toe 
of capital arechiafly GiijarAt, Miirwir, and Linffdyat Vints. and 
BriVhtiinns. A fow Cliilmbbiinf, Kunbia, Milts, Marjtha.s, M 
SonArn, and Telis with small cnpitnl arc scattered over tho di; 
and in the city nod cantonment of Poona aro eevor&l rich Kuroj 
Jew, Mnaalman, and P&rsi firms. 

"Gujantt V^is, of whom there is a largo colony nt Supa 
Bbimthndi, ere eaid lo havo come to tho Uecoan about 250 ye\ 
ago when Sural was the chief centro of trade in Wfistern lo' 
{1608-1656}. They appeared as travelling dealers in foreii 

"■ Dsooui Riots CkDunlHion Rsport, An. €., STO. STI. 
> Omtajn H. 0. RobcrtMW. Collector (ISZI). Vm\ Ih'IU rkpem. IT. MS, fiOt 
» Mw Sklinb Jl«i*i tHKioksadr*, Htcrotay Pooas MMSioipslHy. 

spices and (fropprics, Tisitiijg the Decoan iu the fair si>a»oQ. After 

B time thoy setilrd as groccra in diffiTunt pnita of tliu district, and 

iking to moDPjIoiiding BOOH grew rich. Tbcj nre ulill ooniiidcred 

igncrs, and except in drfss kvcp all Gnjnn&t cuEt<)Dis und 

iiinnerg, and ri«t their nntive conntry every thi-oe or fonr ymvst to 

rform nian-iBg« and ot]vcr ccromoDivs, Tli«yb»roiiicrv«eed iindor 

ifi Britieh, thoogh of l»to years their number haa been stfltionnry. 

cept a few rich traders and lmnl«!r« in \hv city of Poohh, most 

tijardt Vinis are petty shopkpejHTS, traders, and roonejlendors. 

lie MArwir V&nis ramo lat«r tlinn tliu GujnrAtis, but wero mottled 

■D the district io large iinmb«rs before the beginning of British 

rulo. Xliey vero looked on nilJi disfavour hy the Msriiih^ as aliens 

-who took hoards of money to Ihoir native country, and as Jnin 

^Lurt-tics thoir t^mploe were oft«n turned to the drq of Urdih niatiio 

Kor loral )>:ik]8.' Many bare eettlcd in the district within the last 

Bforty years.* In Poona a^ in Kitsik and other pnrts of the I'retti- 

BdeDcy the great reductions in rent that vfcre made between 1>437 

P«nd 1850 left the landholder wiifa a mar^Rj of wbicli before long 

iho M^rwdrt gained the chief abare, They^ usually begin business 

at) cK'iks at:d Kcn'ants of established shopkeepers and lenders. 

While working at> i:U:rkaj generally* by huyiugold gold lace and 

cmbroideri'd ctolhiu^ or brokeu ghiM bati^les and by saving, 

|tbejr nut together a lit Ui; cupital. When the clerk has gathered 

lougn capil-ul, ho acrers bia oonnoction with bia nuuiU'r aud starts 

shopkeeper and moneylender. In thin way new >(bop!i aro 

BiDg Continually opened. Hicbsud loDg-cslablisticd ^I&rn&ri Qnns 

careful to do nothing to injure their good name. On the other 

iiand, as a cUm, the Einall MiirwAris are unscrupulous at to the 

they UU3 for making money. Htill though bursh and unseru- 

lons to hi» di'blom, evtru the petty and puitbiug U-nder itnd 

I abopkeeper us a rule deals stiaightly vrith bis own people und irilh 

Jother tradprs. The Udrndri leuder s chief character is tic* ure lovo 

l«f gain and earele^sue^s of local opinion. He hu» much eelf-reljuuce 

aud gi-t>4it industry. He has usually education enough to understand 

tliL- law aud proccduri; of ihe coiirla to which ho often resorts. Ho 

[is an excellent aceonntant and is generally qiiiolcwitted in all that 

7DCcma his badnoi^s. Koowiog lluit the peoplo look ou biu as a 

Btranger nnd a hardhearted usurer he holds aloof from them and 

jIiaH no sympathies with tlivm. Hv bitrflonB bituself with as few 

l}]Ormanpnt inrestmentN as popsible, imd like the Gnjaritt V^ni giiea 

]to his nalirc country for imirrioge and other cereiuonios. Ucsides 

fas a moneylender and general broker ho is employed ns a retail 

and wholesale dealer in groceries, grain, and cloth. Liugayat or 

, Karnitak Ytinis are chiefly ironmongera and grocers and are seldom 

I moneylenders. Brilhmau capitaltHts who belong to the district ar& 




I Decou Kiota ComBluinn llepert. 33. 

' Tha tuad-<|tiutcr« M ttMnlMy tVw&n lUrwiria it th« Iawu of Vivliori in th» 
Bihari nib-divinon o( Ahnuduagar, sboat fiftoon mite* north of Ahnu>dnuK>r c>tj>. 
It n iIki *«*i of ft Iv^ Miirwui c<i<ninuiiit] uiil Ja iW (Antra of the'tt ciuliaiiai: and 
tMtikiiig bosiBcBB. Tile proporfios ot Mtrwdria iu Poq«ia ii not lo laige u in Ahmtil- 
■Mgar. viharc in inmo pliiom tlivy hs're alneat a woDopaly ot UMnaytoadJng. Dtccsa 
Bigta C«RiliiiHi«D Report, '23. 





BKwUy KoskuiMtb Brihnwas in towns ttad DMliaMh Br^bmiii 
ia TilkeM. ISxcept » few in tW dtj vt Ptwoa, who arc piinssiv 
boukMUnt, BDct pabUsben o( i)«WB|iBpera, tlio tavm BrAhmaos «Im 
etigkg* in tml* mte bwilwrn uid montrjlvotlcrs, and Che nl^i 
Bnunmui wbo tagage ia tnoaeylendiii^ boloofr to Ihe vilhgi 
accoonUtnta' or JratU-amu' fatniliM. Koiibis and oUi«r sioanir 
tmpiulisU work in tbe fifldd and at tbeircrafta basides engRgiRgii 
noQOj lending. Parai and MuHalnuIn capitalista a<« ooatraOodb, 
IaDdboldore,and trmdoni,aiid tbcft-w Europcnii«»r»ageDts of 
firmR trading in Pooua,orare indvpt^ndcnt traders. 

AH** CUMM. W l«wnspeople, tnercbanta, tradeTa, aliopkeepers, 

l4ndora, doctors, oontmcton>, nnd big'hiy paid QoTemmBntnmaM! 
tod of oonntiT people, landlords, pelt; 8bo])keep«n, and mOHrp- 
lenders, and a few nca cultivuorv SKve money. 

Tnwlers spend macb of tbeir aavitigs in adding to tbcir Im-jiwa 
With m11 cUdHeii of natives, ozcept Mirwir aud Uujikr^t V&nit, til 
tarourite inrwtiucnt ia oniiunenta and jewelry. Noxt toDmaswiA 
KHne land and bouw prupurty and lending tnoDcr on mort 
Oorommcnt luiTiiig* baalu ana 6ov«rntneDt aecurititi* ar^ m 
to by thu bigbtT claitsoa of towospuopln wbo canuut Diake a 1 
hm of their tnooey and by others as a Kafogaard against loss 
because iboy oin lake oat tbo mcFnoy wliL-nVTur tbey want il. Fo 
morly con»ideniblo RottiB wero invested in privato nntire bftol 
cbi«6y by friendleea widows and olher*, wbo got six pur cent inl 
Bnt eaviii);^ banks and (.iovcmmont i>ecuritie$. tboiigh tliey pay 
8|, 4, and i\ per oont, haro greatly redtic*d ibis form of invest 
Joint 8to<:k conapotiim are not popular except with tbo«« wbo 
business connection wjtb Bombay. EuropoAn Qororumeut ol 
bare Kvncrally accounts with tbe Poona bnncb of tbe Bombsy 
or with Bombay firms. The twelve yean ending IS82 &buw n «oi 
dcrabiL' though not a con^taut incrvano in tlic adrantAge takes 
the twu funiiii cif investrn(7nt provided by Grtvornnioni ^nvinf** bu) 
and Qovcrnnient wwurities. In 1870-71 tbe dep<3«it8 in tho savini 
banks At Poona and other sub-divisional towosanvonntcd to £12,: 
(Bfl. l,2-2,78y)- Tbeyfoao to £38^1* (R«- S.SSf'WO) in 1873-7+, 
to £22,»:>2 (Ks. 2,33,530) io 1874-75 and remained with Ul 
diango till ihey rose to £37,368 (Ba. 3.72,6:^0) in 1879-80 audi 
Hibfibb (Its. e/iO,5&0) iu 1880^]. This great increue 
owing to the riw In tbo bigbest nmouul of a mnglo deposit fi 
£150 to £300 (Rs. I5O0.&0OO). Iu 1S8I-&2 as tbe amount of grral 
depoMt wa» again lowcn>d to £15(1 (Rs. 1500), the deposits feU 
£38,321 (Ra. 3.83,210); tbov roM to £41,468 (Rs. 4,ll,(t80) 
I882.S3. New savings banks have sIbo been potently cpenod 
connection with post oflSces. Tho dcpo»itor« are Uindn trader 
GovernmcDt Hervnnts, and landbnUiers. DiinnjK the thirteen ytmn 
ending 1Q82-S;i the inu-n-al pnid on UnvL-rnmoiit s<?curitiee ba« riwn 
from £5755 (Rs.&7,5oO) in 1870-71 to £7J>Ii(Rs. 75,120) in 1882-fl 

.(R8.9I.160) in 1878-79. It fell U> £t>SO^ (Us. 68,980) m 1879^ 



■e to Jesd05 (Tta. 88050) in 1&80-SI, aad agaia tell to £7l&U 
71.500) in 18S1-S2 an.] £7512 (Ks. 75,120) in 1«82.83. The 
■toils are: 

Poona SoWiy* Baiit « W Oortr»m^ StetiritU*, WO - ISSt. 















tm-n .. 














^m»■u.^ _ 











18T8« .. -, 



vm4»^ .. 






A branch of the old Bank of Bonibay was opeovd in Poona earl^ in 
|663. During tlio gpoculnlions whiefi ncoompuiied Iho Amoric&n 
rar it carried on b largo biisioCM iu locil advtinoce and in the 
archaso of bills on Bombay. With the dose of tlic war busiuogs 
alUpsed and in 1868 tho old B»n)c of Bombay wus placed in 
^nidation. The Poona Branch was talcen over by Uie new Uouk 
Bombay and ehorlly after tbu Gon-rntiii'iit local treasury vros 
bade over to its care. Deposits ai-e held by ibe Bank to a moderate 
ct^Dt; but there ia little or no protitablo employment for iti funds 
in Poona, us ihc requirenienla of local traders are for tbu most part 
Bopplied by local native moneyiendors, whoaffonl facilities agnmet 
vhich tbu Bunk cnUTiul compete. The branch has been of much use 
to Oijvopnmeiit in Bnauciu}jf for the heavy pe(|uireiiieutH of the local 
TreiiAury, <u w^-ll an to the Kuropean resideuta who une the branok 
freely top all purposes of ordinary bnukiug*. 

' No native finos confine them&elves to banking ; alt are also 
moDoylenderd and traders. Thn nbtcf bankers are fuiind in Poona 
and are generally GujiirAl iitid Miirwitr VAnis and local Br^bmaua. 
Sonui Pouiia bnukere liavo dealings with Bombay ; with Ahmadsbad, 
Baroda, Broach, and Somt in Gujiinit; wiih Ajniir, Jaypur, and 
TTdepur iu Rajputdiin; with Karitcni and Flaidaraliad in bind ; with 
Phar, Q-w&lior, and f ndar in Centml ItidJn; with AJtola, N jgpni-, and 
Uiurivati in Borilr; with Agra, Alhihabadt Benares, Calcutta, Delbi, 
Kanpur, and Lncknow iu Northern and ECftstern India; with Aiirang- 
kbad and Haidnnbnd in tbe Nizi^'s oonntry ; with Uelgunni, 
Dhirwir, and KArwar in Sonth Bonabay.and with Bellfiri in Madras ; 
and the main townu alon^ the highway leading to the sbriue of 
Kumeshvar in South Ludiii. Wbero thoro 'i» no agoncy a bill or 
hnndi m givoD on u banker in the oenrest large town and la cashed 
!>; the bankoni of the snalter places in the neighbonrbood. Local 
paymenttt aro made in ailver and beyond district limits in bills of 
exchange or hunJU. Tbu rati?3 of commission for a hundi range 
from a qanHer to four per cent, being high during the busy aFoaon 
October to May. When the firm issuing tbebitlbaaa large balance 
At the agency, as the; tend to adjaat accoonta without the cost of 


t Kiv SAbsb Vtno RAinchudra, SccnUiy Pootw UuoioiptLUiy. 

Chapter T. 



Bom BAT UtiiK. 


I Bombay Oautb 



-CkapUr T. "eo*^"]; Ijallioo, btib u* iasoAd ai par. Under ordioary ct 

• — stoDoM Um bigbeat ann Tor wiiid) » bill caa be caslied in J 

CapiUL witlicnil nottee may be laken at i.400 <R8.40l>0) aod after dc 

IU--KUU. M C2&00 (iU. 2d,0(>D), aod ta tbe otbor IjaQlciiig Cowas mt mhoat H 

SUik. [Ra. 1000). 

) The two DiMt urail forma of exclimnffo billg or kttndis are 
pajrablo at eigbl collvd darakftmi aad bilb wky able a&«r an int 
Beorrallr vf Icsa tbau nitie dara called nudati. Bills aro of 
Etaja, pwraooal or tihamijoy wliefi tbo grattteo is the per«ou to i 
tir to wboaa order tfac nymeiit is to be toads ; on trost or ihakiji 
wbro pajtBeat is tnnae to a nominee of tbo i^rantee known tad 
pavrr; oiid drvcriptivo or nUk^jog where m duscripticm of Ui« pii 
u umbodicd in tbp hill. It is not usual to drew hills jo kU. i. 
Intter of ndvicv to tbe u^ot ur banker^ stating tbu umonnl dn* 
tbs Quiuber of tlie bill, aiid ibu name at the [hl-i-suu to whtimur] 
wbotu) fttvour tho bill ba« bven gmiiled, is constdorod 
Bills before tboy riach tbc oorrespoDdenl of tbo drawer an' 
•oiDL- cwcs Mveral timCft aold, and tbe purchaser* endorse 
each time iritb tlieir eignaturca or btfkant. YTUisa tho ai 
of thu bill in ronitlvd in caab, bjr another bill, or in anj 
fomi, tlid bill lit wpicd by the payee, returned to tbo gi 
and &Im1 hh b Tuucbiv ur kkoJat. UqJesH tbu bill in b%in_ 
ibal is uiilotu it Tx^tinirvs no lottor of advice, it i» u»u&l for 
curre8)Kjndent of the grantor to send a letter of adrice, intii 
tbe payment of tbe iQooey to tbo payee. Mo days of graoo at] 
nllowL-d. Tbe bill, if demandud, must be oaabod on tbe opeciM 
day. Jf the payer dolayn, uiuutbly ioteresi is cbarj^ed TarT^^ 
from ono-balfper cviit if tbo dmwor in a banker to tbree^uartaf 
per cunt if the drawer in a merchant. If payment is asked b^oa 
tbe bill fatU due, discount at a Hiniitar imto is oliur^d. If Lbr biS { 
ie dishonoured and seut back uncaahed, the grantor tnnit taf 
inten^t at doable tbe nvto of cnm-nt iiiu>TCftt from the d»te wtua 
tbe bill was bought. He must also pay a nan>acoeptanoo puoaltj at 
tMtinti, which viu-irM in difft-retit pluce*. Carriage was also fonnM^ 
chiirgvvd aocordiDj; tu the distance the bill had travelled. 

If tlie bill is li>st or stolen a duplicate or pelh letter stating ti» 
amount of the bill and asking for payment is usually granted. U 
the duplicate letter is lost, » triplicate or jiaiTfe'^ moutiuning bo<k 
tbo bill and the dopticate is issui<d ; and, it tbe triplicate is vot 
furthcoming, an udvice orjdb mentioniug the bill, the duplicate, asl 
the triplicate, is sent to the same effect. The payer must sat^f 
himself as to tbe identity of thu l>onrur of tho bill nnd >n doub^ 
cases should demand oeoirity before payment is made. Jf he pin 
tbe wrong man he has to bear thu Inss, and pay a second time t*> 4t 
bolder of tho duplicate and tho triplicata The payee in tbe cased 
an advice letter or;d6 passes a separate T««-ipt, whilo tbo bill, tin 
dnplicate, and the triplicnto are simply endorsed. After paynifolth* 
bauker debits tbe drawer with the amount paid. If a drawer otip- 
draws his account, and tlto bill is lost or disbonoored, he alono i> 

' 8t»«I«'i Hindu Lswi sui Cmtonn in the DeoBsa. 



_ >n«ible. It is usaal after endorsing them to Bell bills to bill* 

>kers or daldU, yvho aro paid brokontgo at tbo rate of |<i (^ a.) 

wery £ll> (Rs. lOO) hill. As Ireasnre is seldom sent, bills are 

aenillj ndjusted by debits and credits und exchnngo bilU or 

Hi huiidijf, whose rates rarj according to tho ounditions of the 

3tion. Tbe drawer p»ye commission or fi<^ah4i to tho 

espondent who disburses cash to the payee, and botb drawer 

purchaser pay a brokora^ or dnlali for iho enle of hadU 

mdii. The intercbaage of billa baa been greatly simpliGod by the 

Uruduction of a uniform coiuaf^c. Formerly tho dincront nipcos 

id ihe different rates of eichange made the aystemmoatooaipticated, 

id wiis the soiiroe of nu amsll profit to local bankers. 

Where there is au agent or Tnunftn, the clerk or (jnmdfta acts 
ader tbe ftigont. As a rulo there is no agont, and the clerk, who is 
lerally a Bmhuiaii, is subordinate to hit; master alone and ia 
ited by outaJdere with much respect. Ho keeps tho accounts, 
ces and recovers advances to husbnndaion, soperinteads his 
lastor's ofttablisbment, louks after bis lands nud eert'auts, and ffoca 
abroad to buy and aell goods according to bia master's ordera. 
Ex<.-liisivu of t>od and otlier chargoa and travelling allowauce the 
clerk's yearly pay varies from i-j to fnO (Its. 60-300). AtD.V*i/.'in 
October- NoveiucK-r hu is givun u turbuu or some other article of 
lotbiiig and ainall prcseutA on weddings. 

fiankers aa well as traders and well-t^-do tnoneylendera k^ep 
iree books, a roogh and » fair journal or rojmel luid a lt?dger or 
'/itepnhC. Some traders keep only one jouriial. Where two 
lumiJ.s ar« kept ibo tranHkctiona of the day are ont«rod in the 
>uglt juurnul as they take phtce. At the end of the day thev 
corrected, bulancud, and oatered at leisure in tho fair journal 

general summary of each man's dealings is posted in tho ledger 
ador its proper bead and the pages of tho journal which refer to 
He douils are noted. Many village lenders tniat to tbe evideuoe 

bonds and keep no hooka. 

In Shivaji's time (1074-1080) tbe foUowiug gold coins were 
lovmin the district: Godam; Ilhramix; ifoftart; Puialjji; Sailimit; 
tuiu of fourteen kinds FAJuhihi, Sangari, Afhyutriii, Devnii, 
VimrKiwimmi , G"/i, Dhnrvt'ull, fihirrul, KiivrrijitiJ:, Pml'ikhati, 
FfiW-A'fiiK, .-frfnruni, j(7(/nui/i, and Ti'ulpntri: and Fluilam* of twelve 
pads AJriiji, Tritmilan, TrtMhuii, Chandacarl, Bildhari, Dla/ittri, 
'(uhaminad»hdi. Vf^turi, Katarat.D^vJavli, Itdmndlhpuri.anii Eungnti.^ 
"le chief rupees tlutt were current during the Peshwa'a rulo were 
Halhtirshdi or Hd^tia'a rupee, which was c<]util to &ftoon annaa of 
he preeent Iinpflvinl rupee ; the AnkuahiufQinn* kinds, Kom nirmal 
khapi or tr«-sli from tho mint and bconng u ck-itr stamp. Mailhyank 
Jiiipi or with a half-woni stamp, ai>d Kartiyan rhhiipi ; Jti-ldpuri and 
if/((io*riooiinl to fourteen anna*; Bodt/i surti enaa] to 14| nnnru; 
fanpatki,Koidhl, Mirty'i, PHora Chdndvadi, and PkuUhahari; Shikka 
tftiirce kinds, Aa/ft, thrt, and vdi; and TembhHmi. Tbo Peshwa's 




1 Sblvtfll'a Bakhu by Kdsbnajl Anaat SabbAud. 

[BaoolMij (haittHr' 




govemmoiii o«m1 to iidd two p*r cent to all it« ooIleoliooB to bfuf 
tbem to ihe tfalharth'ii Rt&aAan\. TorMHtheooinB to UteAnkmi 
Btand&rd tho lutt Peahwa B&jiMr took an additional peroMitlfl 
irbioh nuried aooording (o tlio pluasuro of tho niAuilnCtli&r. la tw 
b«^nmiig of BriLiflh rule tho porcemftge was fixed aocordin^ lu At 
mtrinsic Talae o( the coins.' Of the coins io circa!»tioa in. 1831 
aboat fortjr-mne per cent were A'drdyan chhapi, tweD ty -nine per oeot 
K</r(^ nmitai, nnu 7^ per cent. VwdAyamofcAa^i anfrtMAw. fir»p»re«ol 
BtliipurU nnd Bfidttirit, and lj| per oeut Haiti ghikha*. Tbr 
proportion of tba otber rupee* raried fxom ODO-nintb to iwo*ulrtki 
per cent. 

Tbtt ahiUka rupees were the mort popular with banker*, m'io 
gonitrnllf preferred tfaein to other coins. lli« other rapocs oootuorf 
legll Wnuer till nbout 1827, whi-n thvy were suptfrsnlrd by *b 
Companr'B coin, but tlie thikht rupee remained current till alwnt 
1857. Till about 1H3i<3o when it km finally cIoi!«d, the fhili» 
rupees were made in the t'oona mint by the old TAnknJ&lc or Sliot- 
master family of D(?alisalb Br&hmans under the eupervioion of BntiA 
officers, who allowt'd ten per cent ooppor alloy for retnnnomlM- 
Experta were appointed to examine the ooins as tbny iuaed fxM 
tlie mint, sad were paid (d. () a.) as oommiMion on every fanininJ 
rupees examined.' These rupees were generally exchanged fti> 
diaoounl of not more than \il. {\ a.). 

At preeoul, bvsiilea not^s which are »si-<1 only in ttie town tm 
oantonment of I'oona, the ciirrtQcy is partly HiU'vr pnrtly ooppBT. 
The ftilrer coins are tho Imperial rupro, hulf-rupfie adhrli, qimiM^ 
rupuo pdvli, and oiio^i^hth rupee rhtivli. Tho ordinary oopPtt 
comt) are a ha]f-aiiK<i pioco dAdtii, a quarter-anna piece paisa, ntwi 
un«twv]fth-<inn<i pit-co poi. Old copper "coine called chhatrap^i 
also called »hivmi% or tho coins of tUja Shivfiji, worth aboat i 
quarter of an anna, are also cnrrent, Thv chhatrapali contains lH 
grains truy (j tola) of pure copper, or 45 grains troy (J /o/<i) men 
than the current quart«r-an'ia piece. Still it wILs for loss as cat 
or two pieces have (o be added in every rupee. Thu coinage of tht 
chhatrfipati or rAivrfit wuo Rtoppcd immmlintt'ly Aft<T tho he^oniof 
of BriLish rule. Bnl ivbuut thirty years ago largo quantities of • 
coi)nt«rfoit coin with an alloy of zinc wore !it»cretly coined sai 
circulated in the mnrkou near Junnar and Ahniadoagar. Thcngli 
gradually dtsappearing thoee faUo thivriiii aro still in use, and an 
so close a copy «f the rc«l thivnii that only »u oxiwrt Cam tell tlw» 
from each other Knvtlit or cowrio-«hc1ls from the Mslah&r ousft 
nro in use in making email porcbasea of groceries, vegotaliloe, brt«l 
leavoB, and oil. Four kavdiM, eqaal to ono-twenty-fiflh of a Mtcrw 
that is about one-aovontieth oE a penny, is the araallcst unit. 

'GaptalDH.D. Bob«ctMii,C»I1actor,l]iEMtIii'U»Papen.IV.161,SM. Pornwr 
IM Kara MtrmaJ Mttpi AntiitiiU trero dviuuidtd KN'i .VurfAjenn cSruipi jl»»t»>if, 

MtfFwnf, iToWAta, Mill TtmbJiumia, and 10$ trirajit. Ditto. 

'oimUy M«r» Avguat 1SS2 tb« Pooua loUit itm ctoketl Tot totas time QwiD(M 
Iht diMomyiif ffsudi. An tbc WADt nf currvucy ciiDeil inconvoiAfenoe Uie miul «» 
nopwiMl. Hr. Cbaplin'i ttet/M, SOth August IK.'i (ISTI Kdltlon), M. The mini 
•Bcma to harg b««n AuaUy dosed sbntit th« j-ht I8:M 35. 



auraooe or uima vm known before the time of the British, 
uable articles, jewels, bullion, coin, preciooB atones, cloth, colton, 
>, and shawls, and sometimes cattle grata and metal vessels, wLUo 
carried to and from Poona, were insured at Poooa Aifuiist 
robbery, plunder by troops, fire or water, the carrier'a 
:«, bis bviug curried off by a tij^r, drowned in fording a 
W, or dying from epidemic disease. The work of insuranw 
iDOd part of the business of one or loore baokera acting &i 
rtners. As iDeamoce agents they nodertook to send goods from 
place to another on receipt of transit cost and insurance fees, 
■Ting from one to ten per cent on the value nf the goods, 
cordiug to the diataaco, the danger of robbers, and the time 
owed for the journey.^ Instiranco was not underl&kon for a 
iger distance than 200 miles (lOO ko») unless on property of a 
eater value than £1 UO (K«. I OOO). Witiiin that distance the value 
goods whose safe carriage was insured variod from £ 10 to £10,000 
B. 100-1,00,000). The agents employed armed escnrtn and 
ie!s to convey the articles, and every year bad to pay blauktnwl 
the heads of the robber gangs who infested the countrv. The 
rance agontfl' escortawere Arabs, Robillas, Path^ns, or Kajpntc 
the csmol-mea who were Atubammadans were called sdnant* 
eir wages were from fifteen to twenty per oont above those of 
innry messengers, and, in additi^u to ttieir wages, they were paid 
ards for each successful trip. They were noted for bravery and 
their stAuach regard for their employer's intereats. They carried 
locks, Bwnrds, daggers, and sbii'Ida. Tboy made very rapid 
lys on trained catnols, and if attacked by robbers made good 
B of their armn. IDxciasive of the escort's wages the principal 
us dofraye^l by the insurer were on acconnt of loss and dnmasa 
the property injured I&terest from ) to ) per cuut was also paid 
tbs owner if the goodn insured did not reach their destination 
ihin the appotiUud time. 

TJnder British rale order and peace have made insurance against 
risks of the road onaeecsBaij. Insurance agnimit lire 1»8 not 

StMlo's Hinda Iawi uid CiutoaiB in the Daccan, 314-321. 
roona tituratiftt Ptntatafi, Itlt. 

n* chUf d«t«IU M* I 



OuUi, •III] 






A nuts. 







PMimi *j3l Oalli ... 

SU>7 1 N4 

Ahimikdiun' uid 


S41in . 

ll»l (to 11 
IM3 lloS 

Janur uM Ajuir ., 



1 OUrxir tfxt llcbU 




1WI1U1 . 

UIA* II to 4 


MAtiiiat,n4aamt ..■ 


4 to ( 


■ K« 




1 ta* 










Indiiruid ClUa 


, AuMnnWd, VMb, 










MlinL Sbottpvr, whI 




Cbaptet Tr 


i »97-U 

[Bomb«T QueUMT. 




beao iatrodaoad. In Pwiiui m bmoeb of the Botaba/ Ofinbl 
OoTcminvnt Svcariiy Lifo ABsaraoce CompsDy Liinit^d, liu hea 
open niuct! IV7'1. A low polioies lutve boeo effected on liie Vtvfd 
EuropAOiu, KurMMDB, Uioduii, mi<1 IMnm, bat the biuia««k iaut 
his been small. 

Uucb of tbe moneylcnding lb ia t^ fannda of Mdrwir nri 

Guj«r6t VAni». A. coD»id«mb[u iiii>n((«<r of locul BilUimana and 

few ChAmbhirs. UbitDRHrs, Gosiris.Kuol'is, MAlis, MAtig^. Mariiiiik 

Mbin, Uiiulmini, Bhiiopi*, Sonkn, Telis, LmirHyat nnd Viiik 

Vinu, nnd otbon baviDg cnpital iil«v ecgaffo ta inoDejleDt^n^- 

The bosiDdsa done by Toeal leodera, most of whom hAvs odher 

•ourovs of iricomo and ftr* not hflrwliuiry moEtcjrlciiders, is lees t^ 

tbot done by oatiidere from Mirrir and Gnjartit. K xcont of ■ fe« 

.town firms inotnyliiiidinf^ U not tbe lender's ttalo parauit. Alxxil 

'liity per cent arc tmdi^r!) incladtnff g^occn and clotbselltfni, ihnj 

jMf ceat ftro husbciodmAn, kod ton per cent nru pleaden nd 

others.^ Besides lending money M&rvrfa^ dool in grain, grooeriNi 

dotb, and oil, some baring' sUopg in nllnges and others in coastif 

towns nnd market places. Except in some Juaaar rilla^H, «b(n 

tbey have dealings witb hnsbandmcn, Gajarfit VtUiis are cbiifl/ 

oloth-dralors wbo aro settled in tbe larger totma and wbo baf 

money to weavers and other craftsmen and seldom to basbaadnita. 

Lingdyat monoyleiiclvrt nro cbiefly ironmongers and gnxtrt 

The BrAhman moneylender is generally a land proprietor, a «■»• 

dealer, and in tho city of Poona a pensioned Ooremtnent sems^ 

pleader, or contractor, and a cultivator in Kbod and Jaouar. VfM 

generally found in towns and 8<>ldom lends except to the b<'^^| 

class of Undbt^lders. Tho Mardtba or Kunbi moneylender is • 

Imsbandinan. U6 is foond in villages and towns. As a rule h* 

does not lend cxci.>pt topcoplc who b^ong to bia viltnoe or witb 

whom he is coDuected, Tbe others are chiefly foond ia Piiona mi 

in large towns. UF nil lenders the MdrwAri hua the worst dssc 

He is a byeword for greed and for tbe sbamoleBS and pitilM 

trontment of his debtor. Some say BrAlimans are as hard H 

H&rwAriB, otbors suy tbcy are less hard. Almost all agree tlill 

compnr4>d with Miirwilr nod Brihman creditors, Mardtbas, Kiinhi^ 

and GujKrflt Yitiiis are mild and Itiiidlj. A MiirwAri will press \ 

debtor when pressure means ruin. Tbe saying runs that he will 

attach and sell his debtor's cooking and drinking ressels oyen wbes 

the fsTuily are iu the midst of a meal. Br&huiftDa, whose -positiot 

ia society lends to make them popular, are shrewd and cautious is 

their dealings, and as a class iiTuid extreme measures f'T the recovery 

of their debts. A OujarAl Viini, a Mar&tlui, or a Kunbi creditor 

wilt geMoru ruto liis di'bLor. It is uol eui»y to make moncyleudiiQ 

pay. Want of cxperieneo often leads to loss of capital. KxoepI 

when their imincdial^ iiitrrcsu clash tnoitey tenders as a class art 

friendly to each other, avoid competition, and deal toneetly amoag 





Th« BCconnt* nf tho rates of interest »t the bcpinrinp of Brifish 
e vaiy. In 1821, according to the Collector Captaia Rubt-rtaon, 

e nsanl rnt« of interest was tnrelre p«r coiit oxcf-pt in tlie MSrnIs 
'liere it waa from tirenty to twenty-four per cent. A i anna per 
rup«c a moDth or about eifrht&en por cent vtm ah iimi&I rate. Wlien 
the interost was paid ia grain the usual mootlily r^to wax a Aher tho 
roiwK) or 9ovonty-tiv© per cent. H prain was borrowed for seed, 
the <It'bt\ras cancelled by repaying double tho quantity borrowed 
■ny timo within a year ; if tho grain was borrowed for food one 
quarter to threo- quarters moro wore paid ia rotiim.* About tho 
same time Dr. Coats (29tb February 1820) described the village 
uhopkw'fHjr a» lunding a fuw ruptwst to the Tillagcra withont security 
and cbar^^ng \ anna interest a month or thirty-seven per cent. A 
gO'-^d deal of their traffic with the \-ilIager9 was by bartering grain 
and other field produce for groceries. Tho ueiial yearly rate of 
Jaterei4t was twooty^four per cent. Loans of grain and ntravr were 
repaid at fifty per ceot, and often at soTenty-D\'Q p«r cent.* 

At present (1 883) tho rate of iDlvrrst variva with the credit and 
(he need of the borrower, the habits of the claas to which he 
1)c;li)itg)i, Ihv rt»k of the inihivlry in which ho ih engNged, mid tho 
duarnedB of munov- The interest charged is always higher in the 
country ihan in the city and pM^8go8 more on poor than on well-to- 
do landholders. In amall transactiona where an article is giron in 
pawn tho yearly ralo of interest rnriea from nineteen to thirty-seven 
per ocnt. In petty field advances on personal secnntr the usual 
yearly rate is 37i per cent. (J a. tho rnpce a inooth). \VTien there 
19 a lion on tho crops the payment ia generally in grain and 
the intereat varies from twenty-five to flfty per cent. In large 
tranxactiona with a mortgaeo on movable property, nine bo twelve 
per cent are charged, aaoin mortgages of immovable property the 
rftte varies from six to twelve per cent. Whoro loans are secured 
by mortgages on laud, the averago luto in tho Harvli aub-divinioo, 
where the conditions of landed property are specially favourable, 
varies from thirteen to ninutcon por cent.' In less favoured 
•nb-divisiona the rate not ancotnmonly rises to twenty-four per 
cent. Money invested in buying land is expected to yield a clear 
profit of nine to twelve par cent. Interest is now calcnlated 
Accorxling to the Eni^lisU culendnr yenr in all transactions which 
do not Uike the sbspo of book-acooants. Book-acoouots and 
merchants' acconntii are generally rof^ulatod by the tnnivat year 
which begins at Divdii ia October -Novom bur ;Br&Uiaans and 
Other non-professional lenders generally keep their ficcounU by 
tho »liak year which bt^ins on the first of Chaitra in March-April. 
If payment is made within three years the extra or intorciuary 
month is charged ; if tho oeoount runs for more than three years 
tbe extra month is excluded. The Imperial rnpee is the standard 
in all tranaootiona. Shopkeopora not nnoommooly have deuliuga 

Chapter T. 



> CwtlndiA PkMFt, IV. SSO. ■ Bom. Ut. 9o^ Triu. lU. 7». 

■Dccnn Rmu ComtniMtoa Kapon, 60-67- -' ■ " 







ia thikka rnpeM. In loch caws, if tbe setUumeat u priTtte, ili 
mftde accorain^ to tbo uiftrket vulue of th« coin. In dispoted ' 
whea the puliee come to court, tho a^ikka rupee is turned iau> 
Imperial ropMt at a Mdactioa of beariy two per cent.' AtsMdl 
moDej* leaders vnullj advaooo ^mo fur vood mai for tlie noiat 
of the landholder. Adraneet of seed and of f»od grain are 
fix tnoQtbs after in kind or in tlieir moaej valuv at tbo rate of 13 
per cont or Mt-di, of 150 por cant or 4idhi, or of 200 per c«nl oridl 
dupai of tbe gn<Q adraDood. Contractors, who of late yean »n\ 
growing olaM, pay twelve to twonty-fonr per ocnf. intoreetandal)' 
tim« of Wrrowing allow a diaooont ormnnu/t «<f three to fin | 
cent. Their (le«lii3gs are all io cash. Thej hare fair credit and < 
woll-to-do. ThoT borrow utonej to help them to c«n7 oot 
ooDtracle and rcpav tbo loan as soon as the coatntct i:* fit 
MooeyleDden hare good credit and borrow at six to twelreperc 
■ jreer. Traders and nierchaala whoso credit varies with ti 
peraooal position borrow at oioe to eighteen per cent. KhUUi 
amidl loans pnjrable by daily or wookly instalments of a few 
are occasieniUl; made in some parts of the district. 

Tho chief borrowers of the district are land-owning Knnl 
CoQtrac^tora of rsriona kinds, who are a growing clatn. nlso 
Enterprising mooeyloadvnt borrow nt low Jntere-tt nnd lead «l 
bigh enough to cover losses and leave a CDnsiderablo margia < 
profit. Tnidvn and merchants rarely borrow except when 
make large narohasea of the articles in which they deal. The fei 
oraft«aiBu who are free from debt aot as moneyleadirrs. Tb 
most craftsmen are in debt they are not so deeply jurolred 
landholders, partly becAnse tliey have no aecarity to offer, 
because tboy bare no monuy rents to pay. lu ordinary years, ati 
class, craftsmen are better off than husbatfdinen. Still, of late , 
competitiua hoa closed many of the old callings, and crafunSB 
who haTo not safft>red from competition, are genemlly afflicted 
n craving for some form of viciuuM indulj^ence. Except for 
intemperate habits craflsmen are generally intelligent, able 
eare for their iotrrostii, and guard thembelres from boiog 
raaohed by fulso claims. Craftsmen borrow at twelve to twen^ij 
four per cent. Bceidea the iut«rost, they have to accept a five [ 
cent deduct-ioQ from the amount of the nominal loan. Tbeyi 
honest debtors and do their best to pay their debts repaying ii 
small instalments. They dislike borrowing aad do not borrow ezcep' 
nnder coDsidorable pressure. They reckon indehtednefts a banii 
and try to shake it off as soon as they cnu. Of tho lower or 
domestic serraots and labourers am the only classes who 
eomparutivvly free from dubt. Hnuse HorvantJi if forced to borroi 
repay the lonn by monthly ioBtalmentg. Tbey are generallj rej, 
in their paympnu and e»reful to pay what thoy owe. Except dm 
the few years before and after the close of the American war, wt 

' Qor. Xss. SSUl Jsoout IMS, Ulow« « d«<ttutlMi tt one npM mi fife««i 
for vrwy 100 n^M*. 



PoniDSula railway aDd other local public works were id progress 

ad when the wages of UDskiiled norkineo in Bombay were 

^ceptiixittlly hiffb, Inboui-vra were never bettor oS than tlie; now 

FifLy years &go a labourer could hardly euro wages eaough Co 

ep himiteU and bis family and could sare nothing. A Ubauror 

^ was hadly fed aod cUd ; the chetipucsa of the articles of daily 

'nae &tone Icept him frooi sitarviog. The first marked improverntrnt 

(be labourer's conditiou waa oaased by the demand for lahoar 

0ODQplet« the great public vorka which w^re in hand both 

ktiy and iu Bombay between 1862 and IS71. The Occcaa Riota 

aiasion estimated that 42J0.0O0 to £300.000 (Rs. 25-30 tdkhn) 

Itbo whole amount spent in making the Peninsula rnilway withia 

lioiits remaiaod id the diiitrict in payinenb ol local liibour. 

ist beyood the west limits of the district wore the great Sabyidri 

rfca where on a distance of Eourteeo miles 40,000 labourers wercal 

le tjme employed by one cootractor. At the same time theforeahoro 

cUnialiou and oilii-r works in band in Bombay caused so grenAa 

aaod for labour that in 1$63 t^e monthly wages of aoakilled 

enrosoirom \^9.G'i. (Rs.?]) to£l 7r. (lU. l^J). Great public 

in the Poona district eouiinued to give the labourers highly 

kid euiploymeiit till thi! year 1871. At present (168A) a Ubourt-rcan 

DnuuMDd not only the necessaries of lif« for himself aud his familv, 

ttt ordinary coinforta and even a few luxuries. He apendit his 

tins OD clothes, food, aud liquor more than on orasmenta 

ftbonrers work in the fields from August to March ; at othi^'r tiinos 

are employed ou housc-buildiug nud other public vi pri\-aCe 

rksi On his personal aecunty a moneylender generally advances 

a labourer up Co £10 (Ka. 100}. Sometimes the aecurity of a £ellow- 

^bonrer is taken. 

■ Since before the begionAig of British rule the greatest borrowers 
Mn the district have been tbe landholders. The ordinary Kuubi is a 
Hmple well-diRposed peasant content with tbe scnotiest clothing 
Bod the hardc?st fare. Though unschoolod and with a narrow 
^hoge of intelligence he is not without manly qualitiea and luaets 
Kith a stubborn onduranco the unkindly caprices of his climate and 
Hie hereditary burdeo of his debta, troubles which would drive a 
Kore imaginativo race to despair or 8t)iniilnt« oqo more intelligent 
^fc new resources. The apparent recklessness with which he will 
Hour ohligfttions that carry the seeds of ruin has Grained for the Poona 
Kndholder a character for extravagance and improvidence. The 
^Bpareat recklessness ia often nccesxity, Uis extravagance is limited 
K an occasional marriage feetivnl, and bis improrideace is no 
K-ester than that of all races low in the Kaleof intelligence who live 
K the present.' The want of forethoughC, which prevents the land- 
B>ldor oreroomiDg the temptation to which the uncertainty ol 
He saAMoa and the varying value of his produce give rise, ia caused 
^b a want of power to realize foture troubles rather than by a spirit 
H extravagance or waste. Ia I87o, in tbe opinion of Che members 
H the Decoan Kiota Commisaion, the expenditare on marriage and 

■ ' Saessa EwU CmuaUaion K«t>oft. 22. 




rBomUy OmsittM 


other festivals fru leu the oftiiM of the Iin.ib«nd[naD'ft iadebtedoM 
tban was cornmonly aoppoa o d. Compared with his mniD* di 
(ixpeoditure mu eztnngADl, but the occasions seldom occnnci 
In a catin« of jemn the tttUd sum nptfnfc w»s probabljr not Urjtv 
than a loadbolder wm jniitifii-d is spendinfj^ on special and bt^ 
bleatares. The cxp^ndtttiiyt oo funily plo««ar«s formed 
itaportsDt item on the ilubit side uf many accotints bot tt was nr^ 
th« nations of » debt. Eron at tvonty.fonr por c«nt inieretf tl* 
£& to X7 10». (lU. d0>7o) spent br ui sv-prago laadhoHer od a 
inarmge, with ^roess on tiio lender's part atid without ill 
addition of other dobts, oonld be rapidir pni-'L In the ciptruMlf 
the CommisinoQ the balk of th« landholdi^r's debt tn.s dael«iitl 
the largo sama spent on ooromonieH tluin to coa:«ba.nt pett;^ borT0<n9|l 
for food and other aeoessories, to hu;- seed, to bnj- bullo<--kfl. ni m 
pay the Gov«mniODt assMSment Tbo Coinmitixioners held that to > 
district nitb so aocertain a climate us Poooa and with people wImi 
forothonght was so dull, the payment of a rernlar moaey r«ut«I,ra 
when the rental waa far bolow the slnndard of a fairaea«oD] raajtM 
to borrowinp. 

Wlica the country came under Briiitili rule, the balk of tin 
hasbandmen were in debt. In 1819 in the township uf Loni od ti* 

AbnindDagar road, nhoat ten tniW oa«t of Poona, 



found that of eightjr-fonr families of bnabandmen 
fifteen or sixteen wcro induhted to moneyed men 
Br&bmanB or shopkeopcrs. Tbu total priTut« debt was 
(Ba. U.530) sod thi-ro vns a further riling debt of O^ 
(Ka 3070). The earns owed generally vmrivd from £4 to £20 
(lU 40-2001, but some men owed ss mnoh as £200 (R& 2000^ 
The interest wa9 osoally twenty-Four per cent, bat wbon somI 
Sams were borrowed interest wait as hig'h as forty per cent. Tb 
cauite of debt wus gcncrnlly marriage cxponm^ or the purchMl 
of cattle and food. E^h debtor bad a rnnniug* account with la 
Creditor »nd pAid sums of money from time to time. According Is 
the accepted rule the interest of a debt could never be jaore thu 
the principal. In settling dtspntcs the jarics followed the rule Ji* 
dv»ar k-i»t ti$ar, that is doable tor money trohlu for grain. F«* 
debtors know how their accounts stood. Most of them beliered 
that tbey had paid all justt demands orer and over agaia. AboiA 
a fonrth of the poople were indebted to their neigliboiira for giiil 
and straw and borrowed to support thoraeeWcs and their cattle ifl 
next barrest. They repaid those advances in kind at fifty ts 
eerenty-five per cent iiitvrL>8t. In ordinary times tho vrhole ofa 
bosbaadinaa's produce was mortgaged before it was reaped. In bad 
seasons the evil was much incrooMod. If any of their cattle died 
they had no means of replacing them. If they failed to raiso W 
advance they left their UoIiIh nud tried to save some money ■■ 
BrAbmana' aervaiit« or {lerlinpa as soldiers.* 
' In 1622 according to Mr. Chaplin, owing to the opprossioa of 

I Trant Bom. lit. Soo. III. 226. 

8 Prem lbs Utccau Rioti Conuniiiiau Iteport {I870. 


BDue cuutraclors, tho landholders m tnaoy Yiltagca, though 
fragft] and provident, wero much in debt to biknlcora aod morchanla. 
iiiuiy of theory dubts wuro of loQg-stiuidiag. They were often luftdo 
ot CDtu|K>uQdiiitore-(taDd fresh occAsiooal ftids so mixed ftnd massed 
Lt tIJo Acc':>iniU wuro <;xcuDdiii>;ly cooiplicated. A. busbaudiuitn 
i'fao fell in debt could Huldom free himseU. Tho busbajdman's 
pbts wero uf two ktodit, villngo dobt« and private debts. The 
Jliige debt uftnally arose from ad vances or li>ans made by buulctjrfl 
iliu Mitriitha Uovornmcut nn llit? security of tbo revonues of 
rtaiDvillHges. TheprivaU) debts were the result of the revenue 
rming- system undrr wliicb the state dues wero c-ollBctod through 
'ttsTs or tiivb'ira who asuolly rcci-ivt:d in kind from the rillftj^cra 
iib*t the banlcors had pnid to the Gorcrnment in c*sh and drafts. 
aa mass of thu husbnadtnon had not intotimt or title enoagh in their 
jind to bo security for ft largo doht. A/i>d« or heredilnry holdings 
sro Bomptinios mortgiigod, but their selling value nas estimated 
> not mora tliau two or three years' parohase, and land yioidJog £20 
B. 200) of gross produce could seldom be mortgaged for more than 
10 (Rs. lOU). Tne ordinary dealings Ijetween the mooeyleuder 
ad the landholder were basod on the teaching of cxperionco rather 
bn on any power of ooiDpnlsion in the hands of the creditor. The 
cojfnized mode of recovering debt ittu for tho lender to uead a dun 
or moha*iil whose uutialenance had to be paid daily by the debtor. 
Another mode was to ptuco a servant in rofltraint or dkarna at the 
debtor's door, or ti> confino tho debtor to his bouse or olhervriso 
subject him to restraint. Against tho huuiblor debtors severer 
meniiure!! wore uned. The landbolder'B coustautly recurring neoessttj 
' could not be relieved unless he muQlained bis credit by good faith. 
On the other hand the Government in no way helped the lender to 
exact moru than u f»ir pro9t which considering his ri.sks would alao 
I a large proBt Honesty woA the borro'wer's best policy and enution 
. aueceftsity to the It-nder, There was a conaiderablo bnrdon of 
sbt and many landholders wero living in dependence on tho Itjndor, 
livcnug hiui their produce and dmwing upon him for necc>8saries. 
landholder's property did not offer sccarity for large amOBnts. 
!io debtor'* cattle and the yearly produce of his land were the 
nder'a only security. Am inimovoabte property v^t not liable to 
]o for debt, and as the hereditary or mir<i« title was of no value 
a nnn-Bgricultural landlord, the mortgage even of hereditary 
fitiVtU land gave the lAuder a hold on tho produce rather 
Ian on the land. Kates of ititerest were very high and much of 
debt consisted of aooomalatioas of ifltere^t Tho eAuses of 
[debtedness vrctx- chivfly the revenue ^«t«m and sometimes 
Mnditnro on marriagea or similar occasions. The amount of 
ividual debt vraa iisuiiJIy luoderato. Most monoylenders wero 
lof ^abstanco who had a Etufl* nf duns and clerks. Jn recovering 
tbts the leader had littlv or no help from tho state. At the samo 
36 be had great license in private methods of compulsion, nnder 
idsh maoagemont the lender's power of private oompnlsion waa 
"Jed and conrls presided over by the CoUoctora wore opoacd to 
At first thw lenders did not go to the courts. This and 



{VoabM OurttMt. 



iptar V. 

other rniMi ouiwd n conlmctioD to the moDeyloDdw'a 
Still tlie IradholcUr's MOftssitiM oompetlvcl him to keep od 
with bis iredStor. 

Tbcre are no records bearing oo the relations betweea 
hasbikndincn and ihoir cn-ditoni in tho ^rars immt_tiiat«l]r folic 
Mr. Cbaplia's report, Later tnformatioa (thown that the burden 
debt f(Tcvt lit-'iivior rathor than lighter befuro the introdnctifl 
the Civil Court. I'rucudure in l!?27. The first regolar 
Procedure was introdowd into the Bombay Prosidency by R*B 
tioDB n. Ill, IV. nod V. o( 1827. Ri-pjI»tion IV. prorideJ 
iirocedare and Reflation V. the limitatiooa for ciril saiu. 
Roeiilattoa I V. thtt aittlu nnd tooli tieoe«aary for the iupport of th 
igncaltuml dvhtor were declared exempt from seicnre on aooer 
of debt. RcgTiUtion V. limited ihujrearly rata of interest rtKiorenl 
in ft civil court to twulvo per oonl. When the new laws cams ii 
operation, exci-pl in h<-ro*IitAr^ or miVd* Innd, the basil 
had no title lo his holding, and oo account of the fall in the 
of prMluoo the revoiiui! demund left Hitle margin to tlie IsadboldKl 
Under these circuroHUtnoea the lender bad httte svcarity for debt 

An the courts gave the lenders the tneaua of xpeedilj raolis 
their claims the/ were soon resorted to. In 1832, whea Un| 
extreme cbenpueHS of grain was profiling- with terrible wei^t 
the agricultural clasaca, the rronch trardlor Jacquemont, a MO 
what unfriendly critic, described tlio cultiratorit nil over India 
owing instead of owning. They had almnst always to borruw 
fromtliu l>ankt>r and money to hire plough cattle. Evorr husband] 
man hnd n ruuiiiiig nccount with u letidur to whom daring all 
life ho paid the interest of his debt, which swelled in bad yetirs l 
whcti minily ccromonios came round. ^In no part of India lidj 
tndubteduess cause more misery than in the Deocan. FurmeHj 
the law or cusloin prevented nl(;n()i>r fmm more than tripling^ 
original loan by coinponnd interest; noithpr personal arresi 
seizure of itnmovnblo prtipcrty w«« nllowud. Tho Kngli-iK l»il 
removiDg all such rentmiiitR oatiscd much horror. To carry oat \U\ 
lawjudgex had toatripotd families of their ancestral homea,* 

The fir«t delnileJ record of the relations betwnen hnsban^ 
and their creditors is the result of an inquiry mode in IS43, ' 
Mr. loverarity, the Rovenoo Comtnisaioner of the Northern Uiriffli] 
Mr. Stewart, the Collector of Poona, nfier prvmiiiitig that it 
well known (hat all vnactraputa to fix a lower than tho mark, 
rate of interc«t had the effect of enhancing it, slated that moofjj 
was frequently borrowed on mere persoaul accurity ut thirty 
sixty per cent. Gmsidering tbiit the borroffer>i seldom ownod 
properly it seemed lo hitn ii tnaltor of surprise thni ihey had 
at all rather tlian that ihe rate of interest was so high. The 
of Maasra. Frere and Ro.v) kis aasIstimtA wore eotaowhal at vai 

> Jiwqii<mont'« y<ytfp9, III. 8W. 



ritJithcCoIl©etor*a »iewa. Mr.Prore staled that tKere were fow villages 
l^ler Ilia cliar)^ ill nhich tlieru vnaa odd landlioldur unburdened 
debt And scarcely n ainglo rilUgfo in -which three persons oonld 
>und not itivoWed for suots of over itlO (R«. 100). Thoao debta 
coucracted on marriage and other social oocaRions. The 
Iterost varied from lwont}->firo to sixty ])<«r coat according to the 
trcDinstitiicM of the borrower and the df»criptina of Beouritj given, 
fr. FrererecoTnmendv^somocneiisnron'sLrictid^intt-n-At. Mr. Rose 
■bscrved thuC iho uauriooa character of iho vilkgu Rionu^ltriider 
QoCoriouB. He thought the poverty of the Deocitn loiidboldor 
in great meaiiure due to the lender's grvud. Ho feared ib 
3u1d bo difficult to care the evil »» the people looked on the 
lonoylender tm a iiet^asi^. Their thoughtlessaewi niid iffnorvnco 
ronH frustrate any attempt to check or put a slup to tbo Innder'a 
Korbitnnt gaioa. la cases irhere landholders were concerned, tho 
jteresl was generally enormous and agit-omenls wore fraudulently 
Dared. I£e also recommended that something should be done to 
lit the nto of interest'. lu HutnmiuK this evidence tho Borenue 
jinmissioner aeetne to have shared the Collector's riews agaiust 
ryiog to lower inloreathy legul euoctuiem. Ho noticed tbut the 
loneylender was frequently part of the village community. The 
imiHe^ h»<l lived for f^riiorationn in the ttame village helping tho 
:>plt> from hither In son and enabling them to meet ttrgeut caato 

In thin correspond eoco t3ie attiintioii of the reportiug ofBoera 
^aa usually fixed on the question of usnry. It appears tbut as yet 
Be opi^ration of Iho Inn had nob aggravated ttio hurdf^n of debt 
I any dcgi-ce of severity. This waa natural. The husbaDdinoo 
td geaerally no title in his land except the title convoyed hy the 
l*;r«<litarj or mirii« tonuro and his Ktock and Geld tools were 
«afe from aeixure. Another notable point in this corre«poodeuoe 
ia llfat tbo moueylfodura are spoken of as the Tillage Bania, 
the Tillage banker, and onder similar terms which bHow that 
the old butikvr wag tho only tender with whom tho landhohU-rn 
had dcidmgs. It it also noteworthy that expenditure on morriajrcs, 
caste rtU's, and aimilnr oocnsiona i* generally aaejgned as the canM 
of indebtednef>3. One reason why social chrtrges are noticed as the 
chief cfluee of debt may bo foaed in the rapid sprmd of tillage which in 
different parts of the district followed tho lowering of tho rstos of 
Met^ment ill 183Cflnd the follonnng years. Tlie lowering of asaesa- 
lent gave the landholder a strong iiidiieement to add to his holding 
>d the lender was enconnigod to make advances by the enhanced 
Wurity and the ready machinery which was available for rocovpring 
sbta. Itwashopod that the permanent title and the light aasessment 

foaraoteed by the aurvey settlement would so increase tho land- 
older's profiia and stimulato hia indnstry that by degrece he would 
frue hims-df fn>m debt. The increaAod production and the stinrnlna 
to agricaltural enU^r;>ri&e did indeed follow, but debt instead of 
dimioishitig increased. The records belonging to the period 
between ISjO and 1858 briog to notice two marked f«i*ire3 in the 
B 1327—15 





rolntiotia between the lander aail tha hQ«baiidman which foDani 
tbo cboDgca IN ctio rcTfitiae and judicial srsteois. Theeo two kaiam 
are the ffrowtb of small monerlpiiiJors and the operation of Ihe Im 
to tlitt dibiadvtkaUge of tlir landholders. lit 18''>2, Cnptniu, ibc Ua 
Sir (i., WiagHbe, th«n Surrey ComtDissioiier. wrote th»t tbo fitniitMi 
for the recoverj of dobt offered b^ the civil court* had C'all?^ iott 
flXiaUQce an inferior class of mooerli-nders who tlealt at exnrbitui 
rate* of interest with the lower ■gricnltaral poor. As thu T«]g* at 
the landholder's titlo utider the survey aeltlomtmts oama to If 
reocignizod, hia eagemeaa to extend his holding' grew. A biA 
Htart waa Riron tu lh« moneylender id his coiupt'titioD vriUillf 
Uodholder fop the frriits of tho soil. Thy hollt of tho jkv>(i1(* mm 
very poor and the capital reqQiredforwidertillage could be obuioftl 
only on the credit of the land and it:i produce. £ven undent 
reduced rat«a of auesstneut exiatin^ debt left tho 1andholdt;r Intb 
margin of profit, lliifl marfriD of proht would Dot go for tom^ 
ooveringhi^tncrea&edneeda to pr>:>vide stock and sevd nnd to meet 
aMesiinient od tho additjons to hia holding. At the sxtne t 
tho Bratyenror two bin rotiirn id prodaee would bo nomiual. 
the most cautious could not wait till their proGta enablf'd theott 
take up fresh land btM^aase they feared that tho more wealthr 
more i«ckleS8 wuuld l>v before them. la ldit5 it had bocotiL 
known that the Regulation restricting tho rate of intoiv^t in Intln 
per ceot wns evaded by ttio moneylenders by de^lnctiug difcont, 
or OQore properly interest taken in advance from the omouDF 
to the dehlur, 'I'ho uatury law had the effect of placing the 
in u wome position by compcUins him to coM)per«te irt a, ficticub 
evade the law. The bond acknowledged the receipt of an & 
which bad not been rucuived. In I8C>& an Act was passed rati: 
th<> re<-tnction on intorent. Another reralt of the enhancea valia 
of ugriculturul inrustmcnts caused by the survey setcleoioDl «■ 
the sproad of the pmctioe of raising money on mortnago of taudsaJ 
of privnto sales of laud to monoylendors. FriTateaalos of land wet* 
donbtloss made in liqaidation of debt and not for tho pnrposad 
raising luonuy as no landhulder would jiart with hia land to rail' 
money. It must therefore be pit^utned that in snch cases ittf 
moneylender compelU-d iho tninsfcr by throats of imprtsonaMt 
or by other terrors. Although raoneylendt-ra were adding to ibeir 
land by private pnrdiftses tho sale of oocnpaacies under decne 
was rare. This was probably duo to eoreral causes. Th« 
people bad not aoquirod full confidcnoe in the title givon by llx 
survey settlement ; thoy probably bad hardly confidence in tin 
stability of the British rale. The only land sold wss b^reditaif 
or minis which as it was held by » recognized title WM 
reputed to be safe. It waa seldom a creditor's interest, to evW )m 
debtor out of his holding. Tho landholder's Htuck and field look 
nroro protccled from sale and tiie crodit/or was likely Co make moif 
by leaving hiro in posscaaton of bis hind than by lowering him to s 
tenant. Thu sale of immovablo property for debt waa opposed to 
oustoin and public opinion, and unlea-i tho land was directly mada 
security the conrtu wuuld ho relucEitnt to havo it sold if tho clotB 
could be satisfiad by other aionns more oonsonant with native DMgb 

jndiciiil returns show bow much more favoorablo tlte mode of 
idiaposiojT of business iu iba courta before 1859 whs to defendants 
tbfto the more strict procedure wbicb was introduced in 1859, 
Under the eai'lier syatem ikliout ono qnaiior of tbe cases decided 
vrcny ftjjiiflt^-d without jiidicml action ; in 1869 tbo proportion mottled 
witboat judicial action fell to about oue-seTontb.* At this time 
(l$5U-18d9) tho returns tthow tlia.tlho Jmpri^ionnioiit of thedi.-btorwA8 
B fayourile method of'pn>ct)i'in;f the settlement of a debt. Tbo aale 
of liiod wa.% mv aud ihu ealo of the debtor's Iiougs was aD ioDorutioo. 
Imprisonment would tberoEore be more often used. During the 
three year:) eodiiig I85U there was »u average of 530 civil prisoners 
is tbo I'oona Jail, oomporod with an e^verage of 204 in tbe three 
yearsending IHGH. 

In 1838, when Lord Elphin&toae was Govvruor oi Bomtiajr, 
lie recorded his oooviction that the labouring classes suffered 
eDormouH iitjtistico from the want of protection a^oinst the 
extortionate pi-actioes of money leoders. He believed that the rivil 
conrt« bad become hateful to tbe mass of the poople bocauiH! tboy 
■were made the in-struiucuLs of tbe almost iucredible rapacity of 
uBurioiiK cnpittUiats. Id Lord Eiphinatone's opinion nothing ooald' 
ho more calculated to fj^ive rise to widespread discontent and 
disnat infliction with British rule Chan tbe practical working of the 
exiiitiDg law. 

Shortly aftor this the rise in produce prices improrod the 
landholder's condiuon. N'otwiihstandiug the prMsnre of debt and 
of injnrlotis laws about 1860 tbe landholders vfere better off than thoj 
Itadbeenforyears. Theconditions of agriculture had been faTournble. 
For nntriy twenty years landholders bad enjoyed a fixed and 
tnodemto asecsament and.large tracts of amble waste had been 
lirougbt under tillage. Commnoications and moans of transport 
■wert! improved, the railway whoso coostraction hotl cnrichvd the 
district by about £500,000 (Rs. SO hiiJth») was within easy reach, 
and iu finite of a 8<-ri«s of good seasons produce prices hud risen. 
.AIlhou^D the lender might take bim to court, the landholder had a 
chaiict:: of boing able to borrow from a rival UmmKit and the oonrt 
•woidd givo time. If a decree was passed against the borrower, bia 
stock and field-toots wore tafr? and his land was not in danger. 
He might be imprisoDod untU he signed a now bond ; he waa not 
^ely to be made a panpor. 

P Id 1 So9 two enactments agfvravated eliciting evils. These were the 
iCii'il Pr*>cf?duro C'«l«» and the Stntulo of I-imitntions. Whatever 
iacili ties the law afforded tbe credit or in IS52 were greatly enhaiicod by 
tlie iutrodnctiun of tbe 1859 procedure, and by the punctual conduotof 
judirrio] duties which wat now exacted from the subordinate courts. 
At tbe same time (ho laudhiddor'M credit was cnbanocd by adding 
Lis land and hin stock and field tools (o tbo security which was 
liable for his debts. In I860 tbo introdectlon of compulsory 
regietratioa of deods dealing with immoTablo property prutected 

B> Tbe dvtailB wofQ I in 1850 of 8893 «WM33SEv«rD Mttled witibontjadicwl •ction ; 
■a I6SS of 10,M<I cMM 1669 w«r* i^tlsd witluint j«t4ioi*1 Mtion. 




tBembftT OnM^l' 



ObairtOT T. 
Hwrif n il liif 

the creditor from attempu to miud»t« crdiapoto a registered 
lu tlio meantime the landhotdera estate Iwd risea in. valoe Bad 
cuIiivutiDu uOt-rcd sDcunlies for oeir Kmos. His persoiuU 6oIi 
w«a ikAsiired hy the liirgv di>ii]au(l for laboar on llie iwlw^y I 
otber public wurktt, nnd in IStl.'j hi» tide in bis land was reoofniti 
and secured !>; au Aot which eonfiniiod tli<t rif^hta 7«ated ib hiu 
lliu mrtej settleoiMit. ikitweea 1^62 Aod ItiOd the Atni*ncaD 
while on the ono li&nd it poured nooejr into the oouutrjr lo 
iDv«ittui«m, on the other band raised to an exiravaftnnt pitch 
valuu uf agricuUnral secoriliits. To thfwe cent's t<>tit)it!{Lr tu aU 
oaptttil tu tlio biisiiMtas of af^ciiliiiral moiiovlendiiit,^ ii latj 
added tliat id tbo d4«rth of other todustriea, with a pnpalntion wi 
wants entbraced little but the mor«st necessaries, cspitAl, wlurh oi 
other cuuditiou9 would find oniplojmieDt ia trade ur uianufactm 
nktumlly turued to B^ricnltara] iiiTwtmcnfc. Almost tbu onlj cnoi 
open to thf cliTk or eervant vho bad mv^ a litt.l« mnar; 
Tillage mouevle odor's etnploymont, was to Mt up as a moot^V 

The most unicrnpulaua class of petty moneylondora ii 
considerably during the t«n years anding 187o. It becaiaa 
landholder's common practioa to borrow from ono lendsr 
pay another or to borrow from two or llirae ab a time, 
result of thia competition of low-claos lenders was that 
respectable lenders wore obliged to ri*«ort to ttip methodn of awvUil 
the debt nnd coercing the debtor which the potty lendoni h 
introduced.! In the process of twellinf? the acconnt tho louder «m 
greatly helped by tbe_Lin)itation Act of lft59. This Act was poMid 
with thtf object of helping the borrowMf b^ makiniLr it imposHiblAfo 
tho lender to bring forwftrd old claims which the borrower could ait 
disprove. The lender wrested the proTtsiona of the Act to hii o*v 
advniiliipe by forcing the debtor, unuer ihfeat of procL-ediDin, to paa 
& fresh bond for a earn equal to the amount of the original boid 

I Sir a. Wtnml« thm dMcrilwd th« Ouagt in tha rdation* twtwwn the l^K 
Mid tha UndLolilDr : TIm pnMMHty ol tto laiuUi<ild«r b ao longw nii tmtif * 
Out l>mq>«rii]r «t tJia leiiJo-. Tha nlUg* laodsr a**d» no longer to Uiut U IW 
tandrioldpr'i ^;ood Uiih or honaitT. Matiul ooofideuM am) guodwill hsn (ina 
way to mutual <lt»tnl*t nnd d!>liko. Tba •vsr^mulf cipeiltciil nt a anit fi** 
tbo latidar ciinnlttii coinmanit over the poraoci and pro|i«rty of tbo dabtor. 11 
bKOHica tb« londnr'* intwnit ttirviliicii iIih horrKwirr ti> no^lMi bulobtodiiMa tbrtte 
may ftp(>ro[irialo tho wlii.-'lv fruiit uf hia iDduftty beyond wliat la uvdiapciuabl* Whi* 
WLUtviico. TIlis the Ivndcr U itl>]« withont dilfidiltjr to do, So lou «■ a laadMto 
M Dpi deeply Lavulvcd tli« louder nadity affonta taim tho aicaua of indalgfng la HJ 
extravagiuic«. TIie aiinple and tliongbtlcn landhi^or ■» easily lunvT into 1W 
snara. H« bMomet aware of bin lolly euly when the tmli art fairly rouitd faiin tat 
tb«« it nv eMapo, Kran that day ha ii bia craditur'a baadtOMa. Tlta eritdiw 
takai c*jv that tbo dtbtor iball Mldom do more Uwut redaoe tiM intereat ol Ul 
d*1)t. Do wbal bn will Ibo UndboM'T cait nnrvr gat rid of tbo principal. Da bak 
tbat anolliiT may rcvt t b» ao«-B that another may rtap. Bapv hurra him mi 
despair aciic* hint. Th* vico* of a tUie inkr tlio plao* of a trT«*an'i virtues. Bl 
feeU biniMlf tha viotim of tajnitic« and trie* lo ravoage lumaolf by oheatin^ Ul 
uppTMaota. Ai hi* imaitioii cajiii'it bx made woraf, b« grewa rackloo. Mia^ntf 
aadaavonr ft to apwl hit Mamiaa thg taoaeyktidtn by oeaiisaal bormwlno. Wk« 
be liM horrovad all that ona Uadar will Mlvaoca^ It b a lriiin|ib to bim, if Uei arf 
(■Im pnuniaea can win •amethiiig vum from aaotiMr. The two orediton may Sjhfc 
and (Curiiig Uie fray the iJebtor nay aaaich a portkMi ol tlia apoil fran both. DoocM 
RiouConiiaiaaio«i Report, it-IS. 



_ Dgetfaer witli iDtcresl aud oltca a premiam.* His ivabilit; to pay 
on account of tbe unceHiiintjr of the seasoiia raade tbis practtciu of 

. pasHiDfr new bduila iit tbu viiJ uf orAry tvrg or three JTWS |>reeK 
speciJilJy hard an the Poorm huBhaiidman. 

: Tbougli tbc landholders' gains from the higb prices of pn>duc» 
. during the four yuara of the American war (1862- 1865) were to a 
igre^i extent cuDcelli-d by tbo budneaa of tbo»e seitaons, still tbo 
^■118 band men drew lar^e profits from (be htprh najT^s of tinakillcd 
B^^'^'"'' ^hich in Uombny ruse from I^v. 6(^(1U. 7)) to £1 7;. [Rs. 13 J) 
a UKuitb. Beeidu!! in Bouibay bi^b ivHg;o3 were paid to the workers 
the railwiiy especially on the ascent oE the Bor pa^is wbirh wag 
H compli>U.Hl till lat33. Following' on tbis after a short interval 
krae an increased ex|[ienditiire on loml public worlta, which in tJio 
?oona districl fklunc iti 18tiS-G9 roso to nboul £310,000 (Rs. 31 
kits). Duriog the 6ve years cndin;^ 1867, the caotonment of 
Doa w&s ibe itceno of extraorditmry actiTity iu priTate hoiise- 
"iing. The sums spent on ordinary Ubour in these works could 
bavo been tuucb, if at nil, less than thone spent by Govemraent 
the Dame area. Besides the advantage of high waj^es tbe 
jfricultural ])opuUtion drew a more questionable advantage from 
beir podiiion as laitdbalders. Through tbe immense stiinuliis given 
the production of cotton iind bccniise of the clieapness of money, 
ticid produce and land bad risen no high that the hiudbuldtn-'s power 
as a borrower was that of » cnpitulist nether Lbau of a labourer. 

The increato in the raluo of land ift illnntrated by the rise in the 

.number of anita connected with laud from «evonty-Gye in 1851 

282 in 18t>l and to Qi'l in 18()5.< At the name time the increase 

tho landholder's credit in shown by the fidl in tbo compulsory 

acesMs for the recovery t^ debt. Thua, though during this period 

extremely hi^h prices, the fauabandmao'a land may bare, on 

count of the badness of tbe eeasoDS, brought him hctle actual 

icome, it brought hito the fatal ^ft of anlimited ctvdith. 

In 1865 with the cloeo of the American wnr the inflow of capital 
Mod. Prices did not at once fall as I8t)6-67 wag » season of 
rere drought, 18t}7-(}8 of partial bilure, and 1870'71 of ieriona 

Chapter Vj 

I On tht 17th of Mm 1875. Mr. W. H. P. Ofhloa. the Simimm Jndfrn Af Thtu, 

>, 'labonitifoaatuHdiialdbondi trhldh iMriinMrlf raa tbo pcno<l of liraitatioa, 

impoaiiblo to cstiDiata what pn>|>aTticu of (ha Kinai'loraliim wna a«4iitd nuh 

irniciit. Tli« LionitatiMi l**, » ttAtuta of peft«s mkdp fit tlie protootioii of borrooron, 

t ui Mifiae of extortion in Um buicla of tlic luoilun, Wli«a ■ honil 1* n«*rly 

I f€VW old the crtditor by UmalMiing pnxMvdJngi prfoaea the d«btor to pw* a 

btwd for * *nm «nntt to •£• princiii*! aad lnt«r«M n( Ih« old boMl »nd •ntoadaMa 

tin ailitiliaiMl pi«miuja.' Acviramg to th« Jud^ of tlic SiaaU CkiiM Coitrt«( 

Itfakd, lat i^Dfrt«iaber l8;<'},tli«*boii l«nn which the Limltkllan Act iiiticJucvd 

pvtt hirdabip and famisbnl hiodnra with opportunities for chekling tboir 

t, Tbo dclilon «m buaMod ever>' turu fean t« pay lli» nxmej or to poM a 

bond. Civdilon ilwap laaro ■ nargia ofoaoywiai a n»«iimn>ofpr*Mnition. 

ItheUwniakM ibrmymra they alair* "i"^" it two, bMaiue they nay hsTofifio 

•Botlier plkM OF the dabU>r mky (o al*«whiir«. Two )'■•!»• i> iii-tn lon^onoaKh 

— I to give a hubaiidniMi to |wy money. Perhftpa it waa botrowrd far liia I'la'a 

la^, or for piiuitinA ■ogacouio, or niahtnu a |[»n)Mi, aniJ will taka him rizor 

I j«an to doar. 

> Tha datail* am ; !B«1. 382 auit. ; ISSS, m : ISS3. 090: IM4. MO: and 1S«S. MS. 

[Bomlwy OuetMt 




htlurp, unil the very largo mims -wIikIi were spoat on lo 
till Ifi7l fnrthi-r bvlped tokecii up produoe prict-a. After 
cxjwmlitam on imblic wurks ilpclineJ. tlie barvcdt-g w>r** good, 
the pncu of iiiillcl fi.'ll fnun furtv-fuur poundrtia lS71-<Stui 
fivn poundii in I &73-74. Krum 1^7 tbo svLlIemnate of land ra* 
mftdo tUirty yo*n brfore bepan to fall in, fuid tiao reriaton rwui 
jn a cou8Kli?r«b1e iacreoM ia Ibe Goremment demnnd.^ Alia 
cintiinBUtiroH i:oDtribut«d lo oontmiH ihu IniiJhoIiler's ma 
ninl<>rialty rrdnw-d tlio nmrfjin available lor the lender, 
posHiblo iWt the laud hold ITS did not (K>ntract iti eamo pro| 
tbe iDoro coelly mudo of living wliicb Ui|<U ■Koges had just 
D^t* incrMMod nnd the husbandmen bc;ra» to mortgag 
lands tnoro dvcply thuu W<jrc. In 1871 tbo fnilure of crof: 
lor Urge rotnissions. Other caiues prerenied tho renikl 
levied from nMvchiiik; tliu full luDount of the ri'visod rat4}S, 
1874, in conxcqacnce of th« fall in produce prioc«, the revised 
vero roducod. Still thu <'fT(.-ct vf thu nvw aetttumeot Tra» a I 
rotreachment from ibc Iiindhnldcr's profits. 

Tho c>ffiicl of ilio Dodduu full in jirudaoe prioes bettroon 
and 1873-74 aggravated by other circamstancra, was finst to : 
the IandhoId«T^s power of paying:, secondly to make credit 
by all Dieano >d tbvir jM^wcr to recover thoir debU or to oi 
their aocurity by turning personal debt into bind inorr^(r<%i 
lastly to check furtlicr advances to hosbaDdmen.* l>uriiig 
E&mo period there was a marked incrcaso in tlie dithcultf 
collecting the laud revenna. Not only in th« sub-dlvtitiuii* ml 
the enhanced aaseiwtDents pressed directly upon tbe inoD»yed cL 
who wen! nblv to orgaaizo and susIaiq rosistancv to the duranmlit 
GoYcrumcnt, bot in others, the period from I8W-69 to ls7a."t 
marteed by nn nnuftiiAl amonnt of renfissioaa and arrc^ra. 
husiDess of loudcrH wan alMt reduced to the last point. At tbo : 
time tho ari^u held for Ltllsgo considerably contracted. 

The pressure on tbe laDdholdor to pny what ho owed and 
luiwilliDgno«8 of the lond^ to nuko furtbor advances were gradt 
increaeing from 1869 to 1875. Aa order of Goveminont in 
Itevenne Dc^partment,* framed with the object of preventin| 
of landj direoUxI that process to recover land revenao 

> 1^6 (ollowiag t*1>I« ahowa Um rwolu ol tbo ravuiou : 












ti aw 




*TI»« lon-ior's dimruit in the lx>rTa«i!r wm vIiowii l.y the riM in tlio nnmbetrf 
xi*t«rtd d«4i)i> ill Blilnitliaill iLut) I>i<lit>ur froni T&2iQ iStitt t«1 ~ 

Wa m? ia 1971, 1874 in 187% »»i Ufi is 1873. 
-■SMolBtiooTaO, Sth Fcbniftry ISTS. 

Itr74ia 166». JlsOii 



Srst ftgainst Oxo moTablo property of tho occupant, and tbaC 

ke land sbould not be !>oId antil oftftr tho «nlo of tbp movable 

>prrty. This order the moDcylendt^ra turned to their own 

IvantAtrn at Iho oxpcmo of tho'lantlliuldors. In t'cbniHry nud 

iirch 1875 tho lendtfrs refused to pay tho second iuBtahncat o£ 

renoa nn land who»e produce they had received from their debtors. 

idholdvn* who found thoir tnovablo property atbachud, after tbey 

handt'd thoir creditors the produce of Uie land on the 

3er»taadiQg that thoy would pay tho rents, luitnmlly ft-lt that 

Bj were thu vicltms of dcUbomte firaad. The foeHng of ill will 

I strong and widt-spreat). 

In 1874 a b«Q(l of Koli ontlan-s, od the western hitU of Poona 
ad Ahmadnatfar, direcCed thf'ir robherii-K nlinoKt ontiroly ngninst 
le losdinjf claaa So great waa tho twrror that for many months a 
|ive tract of country enjoyt'J complete freodom from the exactioni* 
p MflrwjLricrediiorHand thuir iifjoola.' ThisfncL aud tbu atory that 
Enf^lishmau, who hml been ruined by n Miirwl^ri, had petitioned 
ie Etnpres:) and that ahc had HCDt orders that thu Miirw&ris were to 
Ive ap their bonds broaght mattem to a criiiL*. Even the tnoro 
lacat«d Tilla^rH believed thiit on n report from India orders hud 
>me from Eii}{lund that the MftrwiLria were to have their bonds taken 

im them. In Ktiine form or other this rqjort was circulated and 
[belief establialied that acting under orders from England, tho 

>TerDmeiit ofTicer* 'would coiiniro ni tho «xt*>rli(ni of the 
Iftrwilria* bonds. During 1874 the district offioera had boon called 
3D to furnifh information regarding- the people of the district 
kr tho compilation of tho Bombay Gazetteer. Among other 
ibjeots the hoBincwi of the money Icndor, tho loading chnractoriatici 
"'tis prof«gsioanl di-iling*, und hin relnlioiis to thu Inndholdiog 

assea had been iuquinxl inU). This lifavts room for supiMsing that 

JO GoTcrament, hearing of the ilUtreatment of the landboldera by 

ie londorjt, bad caused inquiry to be made and had now given an 

ler which woald redress their wronga. This resulted in the Duccao 

liotaof 1876.' 

The first sign of open boatility to the Mrtrwiiri monoylcndor 

song the orderly villagoDi of the Poona plain, was shown by tho 

>plo of Karde in Sirur. A deahmnkh, or district hcn-ditary 

leer, named Bib&a^bob, a tnaaof good family and gome inHnence, 

hoA made a fortune iu the serrice of ilis Highness Biudia, 

settled in the Tillage. He spent his fortune and fell into 

Dbt. Two of his creditors, Kfllur&m and BbagvilndlU, both of 

^eni M&nrrtlri!!. got from the Talegaon court decrees agsiost 

'ibis^heb. K&larto took out a warrant of arresL BjIblU&hob 




Belvan 1870 and 1974 maiMTlendcra BUflsTCid in mm ouw oi fnunlvr. wrmti of 
J> olghl at tniKtiW, iwocty-fvur li ihtitt, tw«ntf'ninai>( faurt, tnA eight of 
aitiM] force, or a total of Hvcnty-Mven vtficaec* ia live yean. Veccui Biol* Com- 
rioii Raprirt, 9. 

The iMliiig oi Uoitility IwtWMn th« Uoilholdon %aA bhdr cretlitm vbich foood 
pnwinn in the rioti bod been inemuing for lome lini«. unl hod it not bees to* a 
jiui«nt p«rtod of nroapmtj, tb* mmt wwJd bsvo h»m«ned lonji before. Bom. 
W. Sd. CLVU (K«w 8«riMk 2. 

tBemb&jr ' 


gare KAtardin persooBl ornaments aad thewarrftot was 

BJCCOiitTMj. \bout (oar moolUs later somo omnntoDta and 
bflimtciog to tUo U'lnplo of Vithubs at BAb&wUieb'a hooiw 
altoclieil, l)iit, »i thn lostAnM of iht) villa^rs, KlLIariai allowtd 
attached propcrtr to romnin in dopoait with a bhird pnriy for 
■nonthv. At the «ml of th« twu maniha, a« biib&«Abeb bkd 
pakl itie ralue, Kiilurim carrit-d uff Vitlioba's uraamcDls. Al 
axMulion wta imiiod on K&IurAm'a docn<«. and BltbAsAbrb't 
■nd lands were attached uid sold to KltlnrAm for the tnQing 
of £15 (Rs. IMf). In December 1874 Killuriim bogan to poll ' 
RiilMl^heb's house, and rt>fit>i('d to lintcn to bis entroattw Dot] 
rotntbe hotiite. Kiimgcd at Kiiliirtim'H condaet BiibAis&bofa nt 
tho Tillagm-a Bod persuaded ibom that ai tbo MtLra-ariK had hci^. 
to ruin tliem tliey mast ceoae to borrow from tbem and T«fiu« j 
work For th«ta or to hay from thom. Tho villui^rs agnrod aod • 
of tbem opened a ipocer'a shop at whirb all the ril]Rg« pnrcb 
were made. The MirwAru were put to the groat^st incr.nviiii 
for want uf servaotsi Besides refusing to mitv? tbcoi a^ 
earners, barbers, or hoaw-«erviuita, thn TiHagfra oniiAj-**) 
MdrwAria b; throwing dead do^ and other fillb inco their biwi 
Tbeao sigua of hat« so scared the Mitrwiris that they t^tn?ateii i 
Sirar fur polioe protection and represented to tbo Miig-istniti* tbnt 
were in bodily fear of the rillaKera. At the same time the TJlh 
safamilted a petit-ion to Goremment prating that na they had 
their ^niin to thu Miirw&ris, the MArw^ns should uut I>e 
toloare the village until the Government a<«e«ein'>nt Imd bouo^ 
The Magistratu reported to tbo Commissioaer tbo dau<remii] sp« 
shown by the people. The example of the poopio of Kan^e 
followed liy other villiigea. Bvforoany onthreakocoarr»l the Mitr 
moneyleuclerv had in tieverul nlaoes bees subjected to fiimihir : 
outluwry and fwtty aauoyance.' 

The 6rst (Hitbreak occnrrod at Uupa, a largct Bhtuithadi village, i 
the 12(h of May Ih76. The victims wereatargv oumberof Gniar 
Vani moneyleaders. Their housed and shops w<>re attacks bj i 

I Th» fnllmnH U tha aabttaim of a »am4patm at affnemeat exoeotAl br A* i 
pM^Uot K4IM in rn(U|iiiT. IVIilabclnoging toOujan wliioli najr hii*« beeu 
la Titligen thall nut l» tillAil . No iiuia nor woniftn Khali talu Mrvlc« unlli * On, 
Any ■'tto tilliitii s (injiir'a fii-M or vtirliiiig (or him wi>l b« (l<tu«i] tha Bm-rjtt* tl 
lillauB bnrlfor.MuiiinruMui.Ciirjierit'r. in>iimiiii|J>, *li»ciii>l[cr, kUil (•UieirviUa)ptacrTas>k 
Firl'In tii'lonffitig lo IcuiUr* oihcr thuii ' iajitn iIiaU not bo Inkrti on Iwe lijr ao/ om 
Fi<:1ilaalroaJ)< I(mkI iihUl In mvni ny. II lli« vtlla^ MhAn undcrUkt tc ' ' 
tb« villnvvraan b«|i*U (4 Iho Gu}»n tlioy ahall be refaav-l ttivir uaoal aliw 
bnnriki of graiu lUlka The nilBfcmliall abide bj thSM conditiuna. If Uh) h 
nail joint thc<>ii JAM ,ku<loUi(.'rli-u<)«n, liuberMlIlai7ri(;ht«fcaUcc«aaanilhiaautAi 
he i1i>rcgHr>!«il. If thr vtlli^n priaat ot Mooantant joiaa tha mweyiBoAtnn bit 
alinll not Ix- iiniil. Tlia villMOfi ahall ongage aar jmoat thny clioma, and tii« «laii 
ot thu horMlilary pn'Mt will ant ha rteogmaaH. If tha heathnao or tha paiMt 
vot to anr oxpeaaa on }tAtU ot tint vUlagera the villa£«ra ahall Mbaerib« t)>c • 
All lan(llioli1«n shall bahairv in acc«rdaiioa with th««« nilea ; aay naa actinic ^ 
fiontntywill nfitberSe allowed to oomc to caatc-dinocra. nor tomarTr wilh tb* 
of lilt Gnat*. Hd *h«U lie conaii^Mwl an ontracto. Hr vill aot be nllnwixl to } 
onnunnnitf trith-ciut their luiaainioua oonacnt, nnil mil hare to f»y tha Gno which 
vommiiaity may inSirtniihimaQil further willhava togiva aditinor toLha«Mnta«ai 
f Datad VaUluitA ShuJ-Ih 2nd Shatf 1791, that i* 71b May 1875. AfUrwu^ uuhr . 
induvnue aarl advico of the !4uperialBn<lent ot Ptiliec tbo TiUagcra agreed to r eW a W 
their aid retaCtonti with the money lend en. 



ah racroited from the liaa)1et«i mand Snpa wlio had met nominalty 
ifttteiititlie weekly uiorkvt.. Ono Giijor'n noiiHO wtt»hnrnl down, und 
9oat a dutvu ulber boaBeti and nht^ps were broken into and gutted, 
ouut |japera, bnnd», grain, aiid oonntry clotb woro bnrni in tho 
Nu pLTsonal Tiulenoe van oaed. Tlie chief coniitable of tbe 
ih-diTt&iou withhix or »OTon ooiutUkliloti iteourod ubout iift/ persons 
aod recovered sloku property worth £200 (Bji.2U00). The loss was 
^eptvaeoted by tb^ dtijnix &i £1&,000 [Un. 1^ lakks) ; it wu-t not 
«Mlly more tbuii JE2JW (Ka. 25,000). Wilhiu twenty-four hours of 
Hie Hut Hi 8upa. the leading MAm-&ri leuder of Kedgiion about 
PK^nrtetta miles to tlienorlh *>fSiip»lu>d Iii»Ettiu;lcsburtit J'jwn iiud his 
lionite 8«t on flrw. During the foltowiug days riola occurred in four 
ter villa^s of Bhimthadi, and were threatened iu Hoventtiea 
ara' Tlie coutapon spread to this neighbouring sub-dimions of 
kddpur and Paraiidbar. In Indapur a diaturbancej which from 
leniiinljers preeeor nould bare becu serions, was averted, as were 
10 riots threatened in the aereuteeo Supa villages, by the 
Mnptitude ot the police. A detocbmcut of Native Infantry arrived 
SupAj tile police were relieved audaraiiable for other duly, and 
li>rwas quickly reAtored. 

' Abuut the aame time riots occurred in Siror. The first &c6 of 

.TJolpnce was oonimitted at Navra, where a MArwdri, who had left the 
Tillage for safety, waa mobbed aiid prevented from moviug his 
iiifropercy. An uiicto uf tbisSJ^nrdri KOtue two years before had 
»D murdered by bis debtors. Other Simr villages foHoiPed the 
kuipio o£ Kavra.' In fiftveu Sirur aud three ilaveU villages 

I tlie vIlbKe or M<>rx»rn) a crowd ameniMcd, VAnia wi-ni threatentil ami iModa 

ded, violcBce vm pmTentod I7 th« timrly u-rivtti of Ifie nnlicR. At Dhond a 

VMWTvrely treat«(lbec»u*«li« would not {[iv« up hia tMiiil8.aiicl a Urn crowd 

■■aiitilul. Viiv rin^oadvn wtra paiii>l>"(l- J^t Ambakhurd two V^iia huuMs* 

tn fiTinbly enterad. their •Mioiiiit-booludMtrcvuil, aud tktiniln takou awny, ^ix «( 

.!• nn>.'l«a<laT« ««rD jynntabwl. In AliftnOQ aUiot two butidivd toeii from tba 

■rru<i<i'lii>KidlngCBoENar^noD. XandgioD, Andbalgaon, Kolitn<m, Ifolaf, aiid Vitdnon, 

iwniilcd, bevlod la noriK iiisUixi'-' l>y tlioir beuluian aod vtUaga pulico, add de- 

Ddod tiivir twoila froni t1>« VOnia tkrcAtcnitig if tijey rvfumd to trw»l tlirni ■• 

It* .Sai>a Viiiii bad l>M«t tc«at«d. 'l'\tt [lolicn [iat«l iif tlm village, nntb tfao awiatance 

fiibnoahii Ulmri and otticr vioU >liipc<»il [n-oplo, diB]wmd Uio ammublv who 

ftttned Uw Vtou with aiivthi-]' vuJt. 'fliciiibiibitaiiiH lirVadgaoaagalu collected 

amlwn and cutapcUcd <hh of tliu Viui* uf Uiclr TilJnxc to girc np bis bvnda. 

ut thii>u^'h ha buiuti, liroke oiicn Iho liack entMoce u( tiiu ii<;il bouM, illtrcatod 

fiMnalc V&ni owner, CDiit{ielled hw lo point oat whrcr the bnniU wrrc kqil, 

aku opiTii th>-liox, audtucik tlietinndi, biiriiiniinrDthBrwiaod«*Ut>yinKpa|i«n«ortll 

~~ L>£li.>lXl iKi. li»i).|'i.OiK)). A aimllar aMtmbly at Uandcam took poMoa- 

urbond* oIUm *alii« of £«lM)(ltj. G<KK)) and abont half oltlum w«ndwt««T«d. 

"liuaMdTWAnwkDhad been JTf-tnr'V Ibnatvaoil flvil to Plmlnoa, BAd WM 

lowcil bo n-inove liin pTt>(Mrty and family. A large atoek «( fciad<T beloagiw 

lUni waa doit rated. At I'uotMJ^Bon. the villasoTa took away bond* froia •mall 

rtoei'lendaT* ainun^ wJKiiii vaaaChinibhar wliolivfonly aa«boadfor£dlO«. lRa.35), 

1 polinu patd on bii way lo report tho mattei to tha Pollou Baparintaodaat 

I itnnad. 

At Dbirani tite hoaan of two Mirwtria wars nmultaucouvly att»ck«d, t>Mida 

nrih I't-JOOtKs. IS,O0O| wote forciUy takim. aud tbe unntn »«>« atotied. Onoold 

rarori bail hu los broken. Ho mai vouliiiei] in lii* hniiut and the bmue act oa 

He wu aareiT btil hn and tli* ollitr Mdrwarii' bousM wori hnrnl. Tlifl 

f ooaatabte wm alio thrMtMMl md waa cot alliiwvd to carrv on tlt« work at 

•tigktion. Tbiaabow* that ovcryiihani llio mrw influAiPC* hnd bninght t^s 

«n to tho >a>BB (aadiBea* to rcMirt to fuic*. gtilMoqu«nt biqniriaa Inva BO 

that tba rioton at Supa bad tb« ayiDpathy and ooontcnaDoaof aome influential 

1327-Hl ' 





tBomb«y QKxnm i 



pUv T- riou »Hhe<r broke out or were tlir«at«iied.* The regiment of FmiI 

^^ )la|fiatr>b) and poboe in restoriuf and uuuiitainin){ urdtv. " 

or 1«M stnoBa (Ukturbuusea tonk |&o» in five vill«|||^ of Bkin 
and lix villagM of Sirar. Tbrj were thrv^tonod bat arertcd 1 
amral uf t>io police in «evet)te«n villages of BhitntVwdi, in 1^ 
Kiror, in one of IndApur, and iu tbreo of UutvU. Of bh9 
arrc«t«d, 801 wore oonvicled and 2^8 discharged. Punitiw' 
poato mrs establukod in die dtstsTbed villagos at the 
upnwa. Tba riot at Supa was aingalar in Lbe wholflealeplnBdwi 
proporty and tbo Uanisre rtoi in Ibe mnrderous aawuiH on tbo metM^j 

placM ctaoka tif prodaoebeJot^Dg tomoneTtend^rs were bttrnL ill 
a rule tbe distarbaaces trere marlced bjr Ibeabsonoe of oerioiucnBA 
Id 9V»ty MM tlie objiict of tbo rioters wn« to obtain mai iaubv; lb I 
bonds mid decrees in tbo poesesnon of their creQitorti. When boitJi| 
iriTv pcuceftblj giren the mob did no fartbor nisckief. Wht^e d>l 
moD^londer rofnsed or shut his booM Tioleuco wu lued to fn|tMl 
him mto tmrrender or to mi pewe nri on of the papot*. In naij 
ptsOM tbe police interfered dorinjif the first stacfo of asaenblio)! i 
prevented violooce. From many vilUgea the MArw&ri monejlei 
ned on the first news of the ootbreak. In oUiar villuge* tboT oi 
nagoliaLioiuiritbtbeir debtors for a general reduction nf tbvircl 
and in aoine caa«s profnttat^d tbeir debtors byvusjr settlcniitota. 
almost every caeo inquired iulOi the riot began on bearing 
fiomo Doighbonring rillage bonds faatt been oxtortod ao 
GoTcnuaeat ^proved of tbe proceeding. AbnoBt the only 
vere MlinrAris and Uuinra. In moat ntlagu where Br&bm 
obhwr caatoa shared the leodinff boeineas with MArwdrts 
Him-^riH were alone molested. In WHlle villiiffpa where there i 
no MlirwAris, Br^mana were attacked, llio Ta«t o( tlie 
serka of otitbrvaks occurred at Mundhali io Bhimthadi on 
15lh of June- Aft^rwHrds two tsulnl«d cam** in Kionn mho** 
tlial thv Ion>; calalogae of conviotious and punisbmonta and, 
imposition of ponitive police posts had repruaaed not queurb«d i 
people's rago. On the 22nd of July svven men of luo riJlag*i< 
Nitobbat in Bhimtadi, besides robbing papers, oat off the bqmi 
a man whu wa^ onfurcing a civil decree which bad pub biiai 

psraoai of tbdr TiUifs. sod tba pnMnoc of tlwM Mcaooa nay ]f^»t» 
lh« fitM BOBanasiH of opoi tUuiea at Sups. Bot th» cuniutiiHi of tba i 
ttiriMgk Uw whoia afMm am wu meh tb>l emi IimI ifutn noi ukau tba iaitatm I 
MBS otbar ptaeea ««ald JonbtlMS 1mv« done m Tl* cunibnutiUa aluaaAt* <Mi| 
vrtrymhttt rwidy : dniita. nwUk*. or M<eidMt would k4«« SOTsljr mh 

asrk ia igaHe tbam. Tbe rio^Midora senonUy b«1«aK«d i» tho cultivkdaj 
«ir only objoct MnK tn awui* fnxa tti« IuwmIs oT tb« aiaite}-l(«i<lfv«, 
riot bwM all Ilia bad oCanMtan Ca tha rillaga took put in bo|>«" »f plnndar. 

> Wklla thaae dktorbaaaaa wora Saing oa in Vvim* ilwIUr outhniakn ootn 

tb« aaMAounng dUtnct at Ahusdna^r. Danag Ui«fMV>i||hlfoUawM^ Ui» %fn 
fli«rteaUw)3tb«JKUyTwla twh plscaia alavaaTUlsnaof St>rirMda,oix vIVu 
four of Nagw, and me ol Earjat sad bwidaa sctuM lioti^ toar* vrmi Mm* 
0«licriac> wtakh wera preTentod trcmooaaiag to ttolaa ae bj tba timi-ly trnm 4 
mopoUoooraiititary. Adatachisaaiof NativalsritutTr aaaraondioSbn^Mi^i 
puttaa of tka foona. Uoaw) wero actim in iwtr jUidii tbo villacw in Uia 
raaah of Uair bMit-^aartara at Stmr. 

o a a iif a^d I 



■sion of land beloD^Dgto one of the laen who atfacbcd him. 
tatlie2^tIiof July Iho villagurs uf KnrhAti in Bhimlbadtliruke into 
house of a SMrtrari money U-ndur and tuok & stora of grain. 
tbo U&rwfiri had ref lucd to oUvuuco gnuti except on terms to which 
Tiey eoald not agree.' 

The most remnrkablo feature of these disturbancefi wb« the BtnaJl 

lonnt of sorioos crime. A direct appeal to pliysiunl fnroo, ovopbi 

rgearea, vAsusnnlly reslminod within the limitf^ofndemnDBtratton. 

lie ivw i-asea which bear the vindictive spirit uaunlly iJiown io 

^rinn disturbances were probably due to the prc8enc(^ of otfaor 

>ter% bcsiides the ordioury Knnbi peamntry. Tain moder»tion is 

eomc meaaaro to bo attrihuti'd to the nature of the moTOmont. 

waB not BO much » rcrolc nf^inst the oppressor, aa an attempt 

acconi])li)ih a dofinito and practical object> the <Ii!>armiug of 

' enemy by taking his wenpoQS, his boiida and acenunta. For this 

a mere demonstration of force wan iisanlly enough. Another 

imstance vhich contribul'Od to the Dioderatinn of the peaiiautry 

I that iu many cnaea the movement was lod or Bbnrod hy the heudjt 

' iim Tillage. It was doubtless an af^grarBtiou of the breach of 

that thoso mho Klioiild Lave maintiiiuud order r<.iHtributed to 

torb it. Btill an asncnibly of rillngers acting under their nntyral 

ideni f^rn dc&nito object «a4 a lesti dan^erons body than a mob 

riotera with no responnibte head. The chief canto of the 

leratioa waa the natural law.abiding spirit of the Kunbi 

snntry. In so orderly and peacefnl n peoplo such a widespread 

irt to force proved the reality of iheirgriuvauees.* 

I That the riota ceased wag due not merely to the prompt action of 

policm and the military, bat to the aasnntDcu of the civil 

Ithuritii-a that complaints ehoald lie inquired into and proved 

riovaacea redreased. Accordingly in 187.1 the Bombay Oovemmont 

Bointed a comiDtssion to intiuiro into the causes nndoilying the 

^tbrralc The members of the commission wereMeBsrs. Kit'hyy and 

^oD of the Rovouiii! and Judicial branches o£ the Uombuy Civil 

rice, Mr. Colviu of the IJenga! Civil Service, and lUv BubiUlm- 

ambhupra-tiid LaxmiifU a diKtingiiishcKl QninrAti administrator. 

^bscquently Mr. Carpenter of the Bengal Civi! Service toolt the 

of Mr. Colvin whoso sorvicca wcro elsewhere reqaired. The 

immissionerfl held inquiries in diaturluMl pai1«, rvcordud the 

lt«>ment» of landholders and of tendors, and compiled other 

pdeoce obtained ou tho spot and in tbo records of Oovcrumcnl. 

leir report, which van submitted to Government in 1876, contained 

Idetailed hi.slory of the relations of tho Deccan landholders and 

pueyleuders sinoe the Iwginning of Briti-sh rule. 

Chaptw V. 



'^Bniile Ui«iM> two eu«> in Pmo>, nn tlw Sth of SaptMnbor in the villag* iit 
nr in tb« VllvaauK-iliviokpn of S4Un mora tlun IvO uUm (rain tlio tienrasb 
'WJ part of Potam. a rinUnu o«1r^* vui coumittfid in M traprrta wniilar to 
I pMiMt kiul AhtimliMcitr riutfc Aboot lt>0 or morn >tlUi;o>* altAckiNl, |iluiidur«d, 
1 burnt tbv home of alfiBdiDS Oit|«r IMneflSBiiur. gaUwrtfl all tlio l";*?"** ^"^ 
mhU wU«h iluy faoad ia um hmm, dntrortd tkem, and dimrMd. Hi* gmM 
idedand toba^liarafa prtKeedlnnef tbe (aoiK7l«n(Urag&JaBbhit dibton. 
' D«ccau Rlota Comminiun R«|>ort, 7. 




The riatilt of tlio commiMionorii* !nquirt(<s into the relationi bt- 
twaea nioiMy)(>aden nnd bnxtnudnipn in ihn DcoLmn w&s ihM tiu 
normal cooaiUoQ of tbo bulk nf Oio )an<Jbf>Mi>ra was one of d«bt 
Alwat ann^lbinl of tliD Inndbold^n wt'Tv [irr»«vd b/ ilobt, svL'nginf 
■boat i'i||^iUvn timt-i tbi-tr ^<iirljr ri'tital nnd siioiit hvu.thtnls of i 
pecnrod bj murtga^ of land. (K the two-thirrtfi wbo wore aH 
«mbuTBW«d •otue were wi> Bui imni(.-diat«ly ab»Te the 
emb&ms&ed was it clnaa wiLb Ittllu [iropertj tu fall back OQ whoM a 
neoauioa of ba4 jean or n fnll in produoo pricos would pluas-e ia 
debt.* The c»UU« of «a «r«mgT- Kunbi InDdholder, exclusivuof hJs 
Uod and ibi proiliioe, waa estiuukled to hM,v« a solo falne of liUli 
moivOiAn £2D(Il«.S00).i 

Tb« distrit*! Ictidora bdongdd to ihroo olaowfi. The SM cUm 
included eoiall tradL-rs Rod village moooylcndDrA, mostly it: 
nod Guj»rAt VAuiH ft&d a few LingAyikt aud Vaieb V&nis 
BnUitnuie cbicQy viUni^o accountants. Thutto advanced graiti Icr 
•wd and food and munej apon plodgv. taorigBf^, and ^od B«rai 
Ther were spt^cinllT batuful to tho people n»d on. them fsU 
bardeuof tbe ISfotroubles. Thes<>rond c\nss wero tiio rich ban 
or trader* of largfl lowos. Atoon^ tln->n>, IwhwIcm (iiijaMt, Linj^l 
Ui^wAr, and Taish Yinis, wem tnanir Yajurredi DetibfuHi Bniliua 
Tbo villaffe nocoantanls or kulkamu wbo rtani stnntl uiuat-vlt^wdi^ 
were gvoernlly closely connMlvd with thosit Brahinan ban! 
Thcr had niBn rolaliouii with pl«Mdor« oad to some ext^-ot with 
oCiciiiJs. They di,-alt uoch less in grain odTSDoos than tbe lower 
of traders. In tho some way ai kutkaritis ooK^d osi nj^^entato' 
plcailent »tid other money lending BrAhraaas «o vmoll vUla^ Vi 
were often the BRents of their rirh oiRipfi'Uows, Tb« BrJibi 
and Vitni Irudors who workod through firiihtnau and V^i 
agentji vera less unpopular than tbe MArwAr lenders. Tbote 
were Brdhmana derived eome adrantago Erom their caste and 
muuity of Louatiy and religion. Still as a body they w«b 

■ Id twnlvo vilUfM, of 1876 hol'lon nf UnJ. B2S who ptid ft tbtal yc-Ar)^ mtal < 
Ba. 10.dtiS. wtT* «Bi)HLma>«d witli Jfbt. The debt SMunuitoil to Ra. 1,!M.SI3; 
which lU- I,l8,009wor«onianoa«] MKHiritTmad Ba Tt.^SS on nor()CBga of taal. ' 
naoUirr Siii1t*|t"" tba nuiubM of oecDfaDcioa Wd bjr leadtnin the jeais ISS^t" 
and 1»74, Willi tkcir arc* mmI tha aaM-wment pftyftble at wch period, w«m : 






Ai— MBBBI ... 


,).,. 1. 

. — ^,_ J 

In notins Ihme flgnra* it tnnvl bo runambtined t ' ■ < 
Bwioil onirinujDil. Iharo wu UtU* onoccnnicd ' ^ ^Im 

baldlriR* JmpliM a cotifptiiuHpg il«ariiM>iiiai< lii<i i i ., >,• 1> I 

Wilt t'Oiibicrvetl Ibwt 1 ha incrcMB to Un ■ M<iwB«nt a gwUw Mifta U)« ii<vmir<i«uw 
■hiiwintt llitt th« better olnu of Und wMpWMing into ibc Icndera' hftniU, uid fiutt*] 
that the incr«a**iu tbe Dunihorol luilOioga ahowa u) incrwau in lti« ni * 
tonden. Drmaa Biota OommiMian Rapiirt, SS^ 

■ Th« dotftUa ar« t lir« atock ha. 135, tool* and *tuela Rk 20. bnnaa Ba. 
Cnia>dlaneoua Ba. SO : total Rs- 915. Tlwaa itama an >ub)«rt to d«|a«elati<ni 
Imply yMrljr ohargca tot maiotaniaca aad naowal. 




landlords and most intn^iin^ and luliotnii]^. Tlia third diua 
^DBJateil of liimbiiudaiea who had kept out of debt and wcrp nblo 
to ulnkt'theirneigbbourBiinuillndvhnroR in monc^ and grain. Thf-y 
wero oftfii gnutpiug and dishonest, but thi-ir ilcbtwra dealt with 
theo! much inorc! on an c()iinlily, and community of nee and 
residouco nnt only tended to kindly trcnLmcDi but brotight any 
□Dtiauid villainy under tbp l>nn of tbe public ciptntun of the cnsle 
and viUa^fO. Most of llicin wi-ro bu^bfindnMrii and vitlnublci Intid- 
holders. Htmbuuduit^Q IcndiM's wwro wimcLinips tlireatoncd during 
tbe 1875 riots bat in no ca«e -vram a lender of tbis cinss injured.' 

A noiiiblo feature of tlie moneylenders' dealing!) was tbo fyeiora 
o( retail businees wbicb reduced even iho ino.ii. trivial trsneactions 
to written coutrftctB. The invariable uno of bonds was probably 
pnrtly due to the precArious cbaract(>r of the landliuldtrr'a aseeta 
and pnrtly to the uncertaiaty of the cliinato. Tlio t«rm« on which 
tlio moneylendere denlt were that every debit was to be j>ro(<«t«(l 
by a bond giving: them aulimited powers of reooTory and that tho 
credit side waa to be left to their own honesty. Account ciin-ent 
iraa hardly kueiTu. 'I'ht-ra was ueiually a debt of ioag KtHudiu<^^ 

frobably iuhoriled, the interest of which made a yearly debit, 
lendest thiii dobit thcro were thi! give-and-tnke ot cUvghfv (loaling?, 
it) vrhieh thd debtor delivered his product*, or ax much produce aa hs 
Yras forced to deliver, to lii« creditor aud the creditor supplied tho 
debtor's upedK, clotliing, asseesmeot, seed, food, and cuah tor luiscel- 
laneoua expcnsr>!i. Every now und llicn a turner it«iii appeni-ed on 
eitbt-r sido, a stAndinff crop was prrhapa sold after a vniiiitlinn (.'itUcr 
to the creditor hiini't'lf or anolber, this creditor in tbe lattiT case 
grt-tliug tho price paid, or a pair of bullocks or a cow uiid cnlf ni-ro 
givoa to tho croflitor on^ account. Againat this the debtor drew 
OeciwrioDally a considerablu sum for a marrinf^e, for the purchase of 
'land or balloekti or a Btandin^- crop, or (or digging a wdl. Bonds 
were conliuutilly paKxed as the account went on. t^omotimes a bond 
'WM taken an n'depoBit aud tlio debtor drew agninst it, or a .imall 
trausaction wa« included iu a larger bond and tho debtor wus to 
draw against the balance. MfirwAri money loiidcra kept accounte, 
bot often only in the fonu of a memorandum book. Moncylcndora 
vrbo did not belong to tho trading chisses often kept no accoaata. 
With all the bona was the recognized record of llio tran^aciionB. 
Bonds were nerer or vcrj' rarely made for large amoontB. When a 
large debt waa to be reduced to paper, Boreml bonds were drawn. 
Thus a debt of £1" 10*. (Ra. 175) would be represented by one 
■bond of £10 (Ks. 100», another of Jt5 (Rs. 60), and a third of 
Jt2 10». (Ra. 25). Tho chief object of thia arrHngPtnont was that 
the moneylender might get a decree without much cost. A decree 
on the £2 \0s. (Its. 25) bond oBually gave him power enongh to 
force his debtor to meet demands on accoont of tbe entire debt 
«f £17 10*. (Ks. 1 75). Agniu, interest usoally ceased when a bond 
was turned into a decree, so that it was not to the bond-holder'a 






iptarT. ftdi'antiiffe to take • decree to luoet the whole debt. Wb»o 
koit4i <)cbt baa reaohed an amount to nteiet whicb the borrower's pentW 

Moarity wu ool sutBdeni, it ma ouinnidQljr oouTfrted into a\aai 
morttrngvv WbrfQ the ilc^tilor owuod A Wi'll or a uWrv in a well tit 
well or nboro UM^tli^r witU rbe waurtil laud witi? iirvfcrrcd at 
flfcaritjr. SometilBM the ioiot e^cnrity of anuLlior landholder wm 
added u> ibo poraouil bond. lu nicb coks tbejutut earvty ummU; 
luul k diroct inlvnst in the Ioad, or u « near rolAtion helped tbi 
debtor, or Iiim >«ciirity «hs obcnined by private arranffcuieDt. (Km 
before the mortgaffe of bis Uud tbo debtor's buuau, bulludcB, cnfa, 
•ad cortu, or <iluer tnundde jnopert^ wcro tuortff»g«d. Vfim 
bnlkclcB woru mortgaged, ibe debtor bad tu pay fur tui*ir hire ml 
became the iutereat of the loan. Wheo the tnort^go of laud m 
cumplelcd, tbe leader aliuoet alwa/9 began bj Itiaving the debta 
in oocapfttioti aa tcDitDt, aud a fann of im>rl(»age existed in wliiri 
tbe prutita ul the land were all that was mortgaged a;! the teout 
was loft in pudseeaiou witbuut any tmiiflfor uf afknowledgi Mji..! 
of the OMrtgagoe'ti right, ao long as the mortg^^r deliven*'^^^'^ 
produce yvany} If the debtor bilcd to duliver tho prodnt 
mortgagoo ttflnally touk poueesioD. Sometimes tUi» prodace of I 
land waa madu to roprcsont the iotereet of tbe loan ; more xist 
a apecifio rate of intereat vraa cited in tbe bo»d. Tbu debtor 
u tenant on every varioty of terms and couditioas.* Another 
of mortgage, which was uEn&Uy entered into only when the 
Lad come to a 6nal gettlement, wa« the transfer uE tfao land 
enjoyed for a Cfi-taiu number of yean in satisraction of thn 
When an agreement of this kiud wa» made it usoally happeacd 
before the period ended, the murtsa^eo had establiiihed eta 
giving him a farther lien on the land. A similar method of bo< 

ment by an inBtalmont bond was gladly ofeoepted by a debtor, 

here again tbo failare to pay one inatolmeat in a bad year u»uallr 

' Tbt right uf tiucufnooy wm not trMicrqnvd to the cT*<lil«T In t^ Qamunienl 
buolu u won {(Eii(tr«Jty tb«ciks« in the nctgliboufiDg Jutrict od AlUDBfttuwar. 

* ThMO «ora ofton nxluowl to vritinit. They tnn oithcT baiM, il<«ib of panttf* 
Mu. or tiiBida coDUaeto In vhiili a rent In luoney iru *tipuUtnl. It would oAa 
ba fmuid that tb« rate wni aiijttatod to onrar tlis into-Mt agrMd on in the mortaj* 
bond. Ai tho antount of tapitai iu Ui« mortsage bond wu unUly man UuntL 
valua o( tbe land at tmlvB per c«nl intar«it, aii>I at the rate af tnlarMb !■ Ui« I- 
wa* uanally lit lout ej^taea per Mnt, it (oUawrd that th« lanil woaU not ji«|d i 
re^Diml aum and thtu the ra«rti[agi.>a ounitAntly nwived the full aotaal («>t<|[] 
tud BAd ill adiliti«n aiaoted GomU for thr ymrlv dafldt. Tho tr-nt \rm» 
Mttlod iakind and tile ralea wmv tnainl}' determined by ihe powif of tlio ntort) 

tn grioA lit* tvnsnt. One mortgi^ee'a tenant in hie mlatemoat l« tli« Dcccau 

CuminiMioiiorsuwdtlioIuUowiiiK WDi^, * I till the UinI, bdt t bare i>v light to take 
for my ii»« any of tbe prodnoo.* OunbtltH iiad«r the barduel cODdiUoiM the tMtaol 
who wan bgnnd to hand over the entire praduue of a field to hb oraditur did lake 
Boraothinj!. Oa tbe otbor hand mach Land waelialdtiy niurt|{a{[ea^tciMUttii atlhouaal 
natal tormi. that ii. half of the irraae prodiiM li tlry end oM-tlilrd of w^tiMod lead, 
the mortfpvee pajring the aMwemeut. anil tbo lusnd and cxpcuiaiM betas ehared in tlM 
nrepcoiion at tbm reepeotive intereete in the eeop. ft'heii the teaumt paid in kud. 
aie payniMito taij;ht eteoed the auonnt of intereat etipuUtAil b the nMrt«we bond | 
bnt lie kept no acmmut of euah paynente itnd wae gencrellv found to have do cea- 
o*|>tton of bii r«epo»ibdily foracoaunl*. A» tbo rMp<iD*iUU(y<«id>l ii^l bv cnfoeovd 
by tho landholdor it prMrtiually did out eiliiL CoabUeM mott mon^-Bgeo [andlord* 
liad an aooonnt, but tbo landbotder vonld not get it without goiov to court Whiah •> 
him wae ont of the i|u«tti9n. Dcccau lUote Coumieeion Bepert, fiS. 



gAvtt the debt II tnA ddpartoro. ITio mortgajfee landlord osnftlty 
ollowed tho laodholderto tall the moi-tgaffod laad, and bo lonff as 
V the Iiolder wa.1 loft in thia reliUion to liiii holds lio mooepted bin fi»t« 
r without much bittemesa. It ofteo happened that owing lu drfaulb in 
'. paymeiit by tho tenant, or to bettor toriua being oflored by another, 
:, or to (lie tvnnnt's cattio and fteld-tooU b^^iag xoM in vxcciilioD of 
i, docTPo, it ceaaed to bo the interest of tho mort^gec to leavo the 
KiBultivatioii in the tonaut'e hands and the Und ntui i»ki»i) from liim. 
HBesidea thu secunty of tho tnndholder'x personal credit, stoclc, 
movablea, houso, land*, and tho joint eacurity of a "urety, the labonr 
of ibe borrofrcr wob also mortgaged to the lender. The terma of 
form of bond weru that the debtor mu to sur^o the creditor and 
hat bis vrag«e mtro to be credited nt the end of thu rear, or tbnt a 
rtniu sum was to bo worked out by Henrice to the lender for a 
in period. Sotnotimea the wife's labonr waa also included in 
bond The laliour waa ^7on ffither in house or field survice. 
e labourer f^tt his food and clothing', and a monthly deduction ot 
I. to 4»r. (ftii. I 'S) was made from tho debt. The labuaror's whol« 
le was at the londer'a diapoaaL* 

TIio obief complaints mado ngninst monoj-londera wore that bond* 
iually ran at exceasire interesti' that at every nUigo thu borrower 
defrnnded by tho lcnd«r aod eepocinlly by the petty usarerj 
at ttio loader often declioed to give accoaatJa, refused r&ceiptti, 
ifflitted to credit payment* or eivo interest on paiyments, and decline 
" corry out such stipulntiono in the bond as wvni in the borrower's 
>vour. Forgery was somolimeH practised nod the landholder from 
ignorance waa uoable to prevent his creditor from tiiking 
iTBntage of these uefurioua practices. Another way iu which Lhe 
idholdur suffered wad bf (bu reduction, under tho Act of IBoS, 
f tbe time during which money bonds were curront to the small 
iriod of tbrco years, A now bond must Iw entered into every 
yc*ra and the interest boiu^ added up aud a new account stnick 
unoODt of componnd interest was swelled evuntiially to a vi-ry 
rgc sum. In addition to tho oompfwnd int»?rt?s( the creditor usually 
ic the opportunity of rcnewinga bond to extort fresh and bunlen- 
some BtipuIiLtiouB andor threats of suing his debtor in ooort, all at 
which aaded to tbe total of the debt.* 

fiesides these aaual complaints of the culliyator against tho 
moneylender be had the following grievances. When the ctdtivator 
was sued in court, at the outset be wos met with fraad. From tho 
creditor's inflaenoc over the Btibordinatos of tho court no sommoos 

* Dr. Cuts {Tnaa. Boia. bit. Sml m. SH) bw Ike (oOawiag aoti«« of Ubour 
■kVlMM Bt Uol ia ISiO. Inratnratuf an odi-anco ofnMimy roraaunwo. ovrvanta 
•MiMiMMa bind thoBMlvM to auro tlit^ maiten Un a tnnn of ytmn lor cIoUim, 
hotrd. and lodging. About m jraan wvuU Im «aotv<l to cWar an arfiranoo of .£10 

■ la ottay oMci in wliicli Ilia [«m iatelli^Mt litubaii'lmen wan tlia borrawcn, tba 
{nt«i«« I'liarvvl WM *u «xci»iiv« at to ammial t^ intml aad opprraifm 

> Iq Uw budU of Mr. ^iLWDbhupraaSJ who ut on iJi* Conxnunan of 1975. a oaaa 
iaoU^in wliiAan aJraooe o( £1 {Ra. 10) w» made in 1863. Sum MMutJn|te 
<ll (fto. IIO)«w«pai<l frooatiiB* totiBM, sad, at tlHinndol teo jMn,fn<Ha,lW) 
•tai liBa. fkttnbay Govcnunent ^loctinn CLVII. 13. 

Chapter Y. 





Ml ProowTurv 


WM torrod aod tbo cooii Ixdnj^ lnl<l that tlio sommotis bad 
Bornxl gare a docrtio a^pkitutt tbe debtor in bia AbMtnce. Tbe d'ta 
Im had U) trarel to a aiurt prevuuU-d adufettdant atieodiu^;.* Tb 
defonco of n tinit t^vok longer tluia tbo dt^Fondatit ci^lj iip»iv, 
and the jad;;v bad n<jt timv tv go mtu tho right o£ the dL-fvDiiKnt't 
ciflo and maLo u)t to him far tlie waot of coudao). Tbe litgh caA 
of euits wasnnotliur roaxon tvliji tbi^ defcrudauut (lecliucd lu cuaittt 
th^ir ca»e9. It wna after Iho lender lind pMined his difcreA thnt Uii 
borrower Buffcrod most. He tniglit be arreKtod and iinpriv'^Del. 
CiTlJ iroprifloiiuietit was pKUliarly open to abuse and was uftea nuids 
DM of to imiKMO on pruMners more auvt-ru tcniiH thun could oihrrwaa 
be obuitipd. Tho nest bardabip to tbo luoJliolding' deblor va« tint 
m07al)W property of all IciruU A»d litnd<*oiild be sold witboui rt«erfe. 
Id apitv of the liarabDe&s and tbodisbouptttjrof nuinj of its iDembeili 
tbo clftss of money )cn dors was of the preotiMt scrrice to tbehad- 
holders. Tbey helped tbeon to mc«i tnvir special family expntM 
aiid loeularg^ tb«ir holdings and incniase their slock, they ti^ 
them OTor seaaons of scurcity mid uoablud tLeni to pay thmr renia. 

The ComTnisKioDors' chief recomiiioudnl iontt wi>ru, milt nnrdi 
the iiuslmndmpn's poverty, to improre agriculture by im'gatwor" 
to tihHlify the Land Improvcmeut Act so as to mako the help «k 
Govcrnuieiit wna rcadj' to giTc more HTmlablv to the husbattdmu! 
frith rpffurd to I ho reveniid nyslero^ tbcy ndviitod the adjuatiognf 
the Government demand to the husbaad men's caparity nnd wlKl . 
the nssoiexiiiont vriis euhaticod that the increase should be gradoil] 
with regard to the defec-ta of the taw thoy advised thnt a 
iboald be passed to prevent fraadg, and to protect bDabanduicni 
the first Btagps of debt before the creditor b«d gone to the 
court. Thi- chief proTuiuns uf tbo propo»ii>d Bill vreru the np; 
nMiit of public notaries and the enforoinf;* of tho delivery of 
and ncroimts by cn-ditors. Tu ueet hardHhipe incurred by the < 
through the exoessire poirero given to tho docre«-b older, the a.\ 
of all prelection to the inaolvent dehtor, and tho anv of decrees i 
tbrMtt, the Commiasionont advised tbo paasing of another Rill, thi 
chief proruioQS of frhich were the abolition of imprisonment f ' '' 
the exemption of neoeBaariea from aalo io elocution, the pruti 
the judgincnt-dubtor from thi^ wrong use of a dccnw, ninkiujif 
decree the uud of the miit, niid the limitation of dpcn.-e4. 
CommisHioiieni al.-co re^^onimcndcd certain changcf in tho conduct 
judicial business, the ^tablitthmuut oE village courts, and tho ; 
of an Inaulrency Act. 

Meann'hiln tbo rotation of the debtor and the creditor somewli 
improved Tho I87+-75 distarbanoos liad openi-J the eyea of I 
creditun to the daiigt^r uf treating their debtors too harshly, utid 
famine of lS7tl-77 turned the thoughts bolh of oroditora and debt 
intootlior channels. A new Civil l*rocedui-e Code <Act S. of 187? 
came into force in Octubor 1877. Sectioo 26t> of the Codo made I 

*lBth»tiu}orit]r(i(«aMSit wuklkuud Hut tbo rcwun «lij Ui« ddcudani did) 
aWfru- WM lliAt bp hwl no ilcfoiKa to nuikB, tli*l ho had so maaty to r»y 
p]<MdM ttinl 1"^ »" unwilling to low ths time involvcil in <)«rcoiUiiK ■ i 
iJbal ba WM >fr»<l ol tbe auUtqaent vwguaea of the cmlitor wbon he bad • 



iTnpnrtiint cIiADg«of fxoinpting from aUachmotit or siito id execution 
^f (iecreoe, tools, iupleiii(tnt8 of liusbAndrj-, Cftttle enough to enaltlo 
» indgmoDt-dobtor to com hia lirolthood as a liiiabftDdmaQ, and Uia 
ftteriats of luHues and other buildings belongingto aud occupied by 
riculturists. Under section 326 tho Colloctor of tfao diHtrict ia 
ipowcred to rupn>H«nt to tho coart thub tlio public Halo uf Inod wliiob 
bcoti atuichcd in execution of a decree is objixitionnbto and that 
lltnfaction wf tlimlci.Teo inny I>nEnMduby tho Lvrnponirj- nlicimtionor 
inagemeDt of lliu luud ; that, tlioivforu. tbo court may Authorize the 
>)1eotor to provide for the satis&ctioa of the docroo in tlio manner 
b'hioli ha recommoads. Section 320 enables thu local Governmeat, 
ith the sanction of the Governor Qcoeral in Coanoil, to doclftro that 
suy locaJ ai-ca the execution of decreen of any particulnr kind in 
rhicli thu salo of Iniid in inrolvod, sh&U bt) truuaferred to tho Collector, 
ad aectiona 321 to S2it iuveat the Collector with powera to luanaf^ 
to deal with the land »a if it were his own and to adopt cue or 
>re of sevemL modes of satiafyio^ the decree without selling th« 
id eitcept iu the last resort.' Ity eectioQ SS^, the local Govuru- 
il«nt may direct that overj^ judgmont-debtor brouf^ht before a court 
. arrest in excattioa of a decree for moDey shall be inforoied by 
itt oourl that ho may apply to bo declared iasolvODt. Section 3oS 
'lows spedal coneidemtiou to the dobtor if the debt is leaa thau 
BO (Rs. 20O). Thn3 in wTei-al respect"* the new code improved 
JO debtor's position. To pinco tho rulations of tho debtor aod the 
sditor on a better footing it was deemed necessary. To provide 
DO safof^iard sgninst thn luonvylcndcnt ooinmittiae frauds in 
•ir accounts and obtaining from igooruut peasants bonJa for larger 
Boaatq than were nctu&lly paid to or due from thorn ; As for iw 
gible to arrange dinputortby ooncilialjon, toiocroiwc tho number 
courts, and so bo simplify and cheapen justice that husbandmen 
Light defend suits; To iusist that in Boiten^ain^ landLoIdors the 
>Qrt shall in certain cases of its own motion mvastigate the entire 
3ry of the transactions betwocn the partict atid do substantial 
loo betwccu them ; and To rcslrict tho salo ol the debtors' 
id in cxocntion of a dorroo and to provide an inaolvonoy procc* 
ire more liberal to the debtor tbau that of the Codo of Cird Troce- 
To secuK those objects tho Deccnn Agriculturists' Beliof Aob 
st XYII. of 1879) waa passed by thoGovc^raor-Oeseml's Council. 
bo principal object of legislation waa to restore tbu dealings 
^tw&eo louder and Iwrrowcr to aii equitable basis. The aid uf the 
Dveroment is withheld in tbo cosu of demands mauifcHtly unfair 
extortionale, and i» rendered more apoedy and effective in tho 
avcry of just duea. As far as possible, credit is restricted within 
limits Bct by the proflpeota of th« cortaia recover)* of the value 
tho amount Ivnt. Tho (ir»i con-Hiderablo change introduced by 
the Act was tbo appointment of village registrars before whom ovory 
instramout to which a landholder is a party mast be regiaterod beforo 
it can bo used against bim as oridcDCO of bis indebtedness. At first 



■ Poowa mw ona of four distriote to whiob Uii* HwtiMi woa {uUBedtnUly spl>li*iL 
Th« oU«r dtotncta war* AIiaiMliuviir, Sli»lipur, umI SiUn. 

a 1337-17 

(Bombay QaMtm 



»pUr V. 

niflst of tho iwmonft ft]>|>oi»t«d m TiIUg:o Kgialmrs voro tho bonxlitBif 
TillsKo MCoHStAntH of tbo largor villM^es, but, u their M-ork was tut 
sa(ia£nctory. BpMiia] rt<|j|iBtrara have been snbstitutetl each beini^ii 
«hAri|^ of A circle of about tn-vnl; vi1W.f(». Tbo svcuml nolahlr 
point in the Act is the itpiioiutiutint of sixiy-twocwnctliatDr^ it<.-i. nf 
lufluenco before wliom toe creditor udsc briD^f bis vlaim ' 
cao file a suit iu tlie ragular courtn, ftud whose dnty it is Ui o.-vi'im m 
or bring Nbutit the compromise of money dispute*. To coiafti 
lih'^nintA to btTO i-econrse to these ooticiliators it is rnncted (bad 
claim for money against a la&dholdor is not. to lie ontertAincd hj lk« 
Civil L'niirla uutess aocoupaniod byaconciliutor's CLTtificaiu thiit bt 
iins attciiiptod to «ffeot a wmipromiw. Huch eouipromifeuorc Si 
in the records of tlie Civil Courts and hava the force of decrees. 
nest measure by increasing their number brought tbu ooorts di 
vrithiu reach of the people nnd made thoin !(.-«& tccInucnJ andttv 
ooetly. Tbo result is that only a few Tillages are moro than ten miln 
distaat from a civil court. Village musKiffit were also appoiBlad 
and iaraetoi with sumtnory powers cxtpndiag to suits for 
Meorery of ftinounta not oscocdinp £1 (Ua. 10). 
villsg? muoBiffa' appointmeuts wore mado, and tbo iadividuais 
ppoiKitinced fairly competent The office was jinnfly hoDorary. 
diKpottodof alarge number oFiuiU, butaa few of tht<«e vroru bi 
by or nguiuRt landholders their institution nITordpd 1itt4u or no 
to tho itiittiTiilinf; otaasea. A special Judgo ami iiaKistant jad 
spi'cial suhordiiiiuc judges Imvc boon appointed for tbu Poooa,! 
rahoUpur, and Ahiuudoatrar distncts to iitapoci nod ruviso tt>o 
of the Kubordinuta ostaUishmeutd inateikd of the- unliuary ri 
appeal which has been withdrawn. Frofeaaional legal advHsera 
been excluded froin the conria of the conciUatora aud villn^ tii 
and aUo from the courts of the Hubonlinate jiidf^es wlmn tho mi 
matter of a aait is loss than £ 10 (Ii», 100) in vabio, unless for s 
reasons profassional n».si»tanoc ttuims to tho suburdiiinl*; jud^ io 
fieoaaaary. Thta provision dofu* not soon to luive proved jtrijiulnr. Iq 
tJie altsence of tite agent or vakil frequent persona) atl^fandaoco 
required of tho parties, and the vaste of time and looDcy ia sai 
bo greater tlutn tlio cost of retaiuing ouuomI. A very im 
section makes it binding oti the court to inquire into tbo 
and merits of orory claim brought Ifefore it with a view to 
ita good faith. Tbia provision is unpopular vritb tbo . 
and is believed to have greatly inlluencou the tiuinlH.>r of 
instjtutcd since the Act canio into operation. Interest, too, is 
to be awarded to an amount exceeding that of the onpital 
as nscortaiued on taking the account. Tho person of 
agriculturist is oxomptod from arrest and iroprisonmout, nor can . 
land bo attached or aold DolesB it has been specially tnortgaged (or 
the repayment of the debt in queiition. If the court so direi^t 
tho land may bo made over for a period to the maaageinout of 
chief antbonty of tho district with a view to tho liquiilation of 
debt. Again tlio limitation io rexpovt of money suits has I 
extended, payment of amounts decreed may be ordoroit by in 
mente, and a landholder can DOW be declared insolvcut and lie 
charged summarily when hia debta do not exceed X5 (Ha, 50), 



I Qtfaer cases after a proeixlarc Bpudfieil in llic Aut. The iDsolvoacy 

kpter continuos wholly inoperative. Tlie iiidilFcraiice of tho 

sr cannot be alto^ther cx|iiaiuMl oii Lho eroiind of religioua 

sltw or lUc four of tha loss of cralit wdsooia] sUtitK. The 

oliof Aft hae conforrml so many other privileges and iinmunititis 

the indobted landliolder* that the uecossil; of having resort hi 

oxtppmo itii.>«u<nre of socking relief by insolvency hiM not made 

'f ito innch felt as might hiiTe been expected. Tlie debtor's 

lotn from •rroxt »nd impriBonmontf t<b« oxoniption of Lin ini- 

bblu unuiortgngod property from attachment and sale, lho lar^ 

_ jjlionfl ill the amount of his debt cffcoteil by conciliation and 

iprooedoro imdur thu Act. tho privit(;;^u of p«yiog tho balance by 

y instolDit'nts, and the confeiiuont ceHtintinn from tho porpottial 

irryiti]^ of bix cruditor^, hnvo ^iven tiuch rtnil nnd substantial relief 

tho huHlnndmen somctiniea dvclaru lliat iJiuy trant tia more. 

re^rd the rosorl io ituioli-eucy tie a step into tho unknown. 

pritvi.iiou of the Act is more TaJued by (he people than the 

Je which admit«i of a decree beiOf; paid by instaJmenta. Whu- 

• uluim is admitted or cout^iitcd tbo lundliolilur rarely fails 

I iu a ploa praying that tlie auiuiiuc fonud duo may Ik) mado 

lie by instalmeats. At the same time the circumatancee of the 

are inquired iiito, and instolmeDts sre not allowed india- 


~ Spociat Jadf^e botieres (1882>S3) that tbe Tteliot Act has 
le, and is doio^, a vasi amount of good, ft has anoceedod in 
liag many of its prinripal objects. It lias chock&il the dowDward 
18 of tho IniidlK'Idur^, and given tliem, what tlioy so Borely 
led, an interval of repoHo after a trying period of <b'6tre8S and 
ioe. 'J'be landholding claucs ba%'e never been no contontod 
liey arif at present (1 8tf24i3). They can reap tbo fruit of llicir 
ir; tboy are protected from tbo constant baruaHing to wbichtboy 
formurly mibjvet ; they Do longer live in cjoaseldsa terror of 
renting uriution aud iitipri^onment. When the worst oom«6 
J»n sure of obtaining a fair and patient hearing in tho court*, 
f, if Ihey have a good defence, tbey are in a better poBitioa (o 
ave it. They aro allowed to pay what is jn^tly due by them in 
Btalmcuta, and this privilege tliey eeom to viduu more highly tliaii 
y other graule<l by the Art. The courts are now moro aoceaaiblo, 
9rc absolute, leaa technical, Iisis alow, nod leas costly. The pre- 
noRH of Ihe Act have tended to auftun tlio extreme severity witb 
lieh tho W\v prt.-sM.'d on di<btors, and tho jndgeearc able to modify 
p cuntrocta in an p'|uitablc spirit. Tbe moBeylcndora complain 
I the Act, and middlemen leaden* bavo suffered and are likely to 
lar; uor una it bo denied tbat to eome oxtaiit tho Act hau chocKod 
old system of agricultural loans. The huflbandman's credit has 
en greatly curtailed. Still this ia a gain aa tbe ayetem under 
ch tho huabandmau need to obtain advances had no elementa of 
idneu. Tho hiubandnuin waa not an indopondont borrowor; 
awing was a aeceasily to him oriaing from the very fanlta of the 
jt«in. Tho cliange baa been wroogbt, not by the power giren to 
tbe coDrt« of going bolilnd the bond.or of graatiag inHtalmenta, but 
by tho proTifiiona which exempt the landholder's peraon from wrest. 







nod liis neoosaarieg and his itnmoTsblo jiropertj from 
The powoni which the creditor enjoyed under the old Uw were 
not to rwolixe his loan, bat to prolou^ indefioitwly a statAi of iad«bi- 
edcPttH which enabled him tn tarn hia debtor and his debtors' it- 
acendaots into his family «'rfs. A debt was a lasting and in the 
long run s eafo and paying inTcmiiieiil. The security nii which the 
greedy middleman nited to Irod n-aa the knowlodgr, that, with tlie 
■id of the rigid mechanism of the civil courts, ho could gain and 
keep an hereditary hold npon the labour of hin dvbtor and hit 
debtor's family and grind them at hia will. Ucuce it waa Qui 
the cnxJitofH used to ppy their debtor*' asaeaametit and help to Id 
them alive by doles OC food doriog timee oi dtstroee. They ' 
aeitiated by aelf-intereet not by bpnoTolencc. They coald not 
tbeir iavoetmenta to j>eri3h. The lU-lic-f Act baa catiscd a 
ohftago. By withdrawioK tho special facilities vhich at 
CDJoyod for putting all kinds of pressure on the dubtor 
made the debtors more independout and self-relinDiand the < 
leas ready to make advances. As the hutbaDdnaan can no toi 
depend on the moneylender be has fnr the necwBiOTes of 
adopted a new rule of oondnct, the conscqoenoe of which is tin ' 
only arc moueylenders more disiadiood to lend, but thnt the 
BMBMity for borrowing no longer exists. Formerly tho hunband' 
man when bis crops were rcapvd thrashed and garnered, carLod iheai 
in lump to bis creditor's honge or shop. The creditor took then 
over and ontarod in bis books Tery niHcb whnt vnlue hn plomatd, 
generally in eatisfactJoa of arrears of iR(erL-:«t. As ho had ported 
with all his crop, the hnsbandntm hiid to borrow )'rc«h fiunin iaeael 
or gmin to meet tho iastBlmenta of laud rcvL-nue, fur \i'\» ow* 
BOpport, and for seed. For each fresh advanre he had to exoeott 
a fresb bond. Kow the husbandman cawicH tho {>roducie of his BM 
to liis own houM, and, keeping what he thinkH sufficient for hi* 
household purpoaeflj sella the reat in tlio best market ho eai 
He baa learnt m b meoanre to be thrifty and prorident^ He 
longer besH by the ncceasity of borrowing at every turn, 
months beforehand tho hasbandrnftn now begins to make prc]^ 
tiona for the payment of the asae»smeut by selling ^aas, buti 
^ate and cows, and laat of all their grain. This seetus ' 
the chief reason why loans to the poorer classes of landholdi 
BO greatly diminished. This is the claw who were formerly ■ 
dependent on tbe money loDdors. Now they are obliged, and 
how manage, to shift for tlicinaBlvos. The solvent and indepeu' 
landholdera form a class by thciiiselvos ; the Act has imprrired ibrit 
oondition without in tho luast impairing their credit. MenoftI 
class, if they have a character for honesty, can borrow money I 
neoesaarv parposofl at roaaonablo interest, and their borrowii 
powers liavo not been iujarioualy affected. To this class, unfi 
tunately, bub a small proportion of tho people belong. Tho bulk 
tho landholders cousittts of men who have not, and who long ha** 
ceased to have, any credit in the true sonso of the word. 'I^oncb 
nominally perhaps ownera of their h^tid, they liave actually been tW 
rack-rented tenants of the rillagc mono; lender tu whom beloi 
the fruitfl of their toil. If the tnonoylondcr c&a no longer aqi 




Sm, be wilt no longi^r help thom. Houoo tlio dislocatiou of tlte 
retalioDs, and the fall in loans bo hnaboodnieD. The cliange is 
a cbange for tlio beit^tr. The ([UC!<t.iuit ttrista wlicthor tbo goncral 
IXKJy of biadbflldera can get on without boiruwing. Experience 
Beems to show that thoy can and do get on. Sinoo 1^79, tticro haTo 
been ao unusaal difficulties in rcoli^inf; tliu OovcrDtnvat laod 
revonno; there has btK-n no large or sudden throwing up of land; 
there liftve been ii') extiMinive trsosfora, cither hy n-vcnim, judicialj 
or primte sales. The landholders seem to W better off than they 
were before the Relief Act was passed. The de(;reii.«) in fresh lonoa 
baa ted toadimiuQtioD at iudubtuducss; old dubt^ioro boing gradually 
workod off, conipromisied, or barred by time ; a good beginning b«! 
bepn made towards clearing olT the load of debt; the people us a 
'», are etMiaible of the change, and in eonseqnence show a growing 
to pniotiso thrift and to combine for purposea of iiintiuil help. 
ay experienced revenue and judicial officers hold that, if tho 
B«nt conditioiiH remain unchanged, a fevr more years will see the 
landholders to a great extent free from debt and able to stand on 
tboir own legs. At the same time it ta to be I'emembcred that tho 
last Ihroo seasons linvo been seasons of nrerage prctsperity and that 
the Act has not jot stood the test of a failure of crops. Mattent 
are still iu a traoiiitioa atatc, and donog a tmusitioQ period it would 
b« nnrra-ionrLble to expect the Act to onduro a severe strain. Onoe 
freed from debt the landholder will be able to get on without 
borrowing iu ordinary years. In periods of scarcity or distress he 
will haTo to look to Government for help, uolcsa in the mentitimo the 
reklicina of the lending and the borrowing clasHea are placed on a 
more rational footing than that on which they rested in times paaL 
Tho Belief Act lia'^ done much to restore aolvency to t])c moBt ira* 
jrtaot class to tho district with the least possible disturbance o{ 
rulationa helweca capital and taboar. 

! Under the P««hwii^ Hbivviy wa.« an acknowledged institation. In 
lid in the town.>ihip of Loui in a population of 557 Dr. Coata 
lod eighti'cu slaves, eight men seven women and thrcegirls.' One 
of the familieH though not formally free had practioilly been set 
free by its mnster in reward for good conduct. Thi» faintly lived in 
n separate house and lilk-tl on their own account. The other elnvos 
livod in their mantfra' houses. All were well treated. They were 
clad and fed in the Kame way aa the membura of thoir masters' 
faoiilics ; almoKt the only difference was that they ato by theiujMdves. 
IS tliey bohttvwl well, they had pocket- money given tlioro on holiduys. 
Mid their masters paid £& to ZQ {Rs.bO-GO) to nie«t their wedding 
expenses. The men worked in the fields and the women helped their 
^liatresacs. Sumo of the girls were their master's conoubineis. All of 
le eigbleen slaves wera homo-born ; the mothers of nonio had boon 
ttgul front Hiiidusliin and the Karaitak. Slaves wuru soinotimos 
free as a religious act, sometimes ia reward for good oondnct, 
ftmctiuiov bocanse they were bordensome. A fi-eed sUiVo waa called 
iBhirda ; they were looked dowu on, and people did not marry with 

Chapter 7^ 



1 tnoK BtMbft? Lit Son. HI. 191, S39. t^M alu St«d«'B UiiiiJui Uw aad 

snluiy GueltNT- 



fcpUr V. 


thiia. TrafBc in slaToe was tboag'lit ilisropninblo an^ wma aaooro- 
muo. Uiijd vera ruvly brought to tnarket Sulcs of girU trare 
Ion ODconiraon. If Lcautifal tno; were bouglit lu tnUtrossc* or by 
ixNirtexaiiii, the price vaiying from £)U to £50 (Rn. I(K}> 500). 
Pbun giris were boogltt as sorruita in Brabmati bun^cs. 

In 1821, the ColU'otor CftpUiin Hol>nrtsoii, n^jkirted tbat th(> nuly 
form uf HUrery la Poons was d«tiiostit: nUvcrj. A pcrsuu bvcatme 
A aKve wbo wng sold in infAocy bj his |inrentar or who wu 
kidnapped by TAmAnn and tbwvcs. Pew slaTtw kucw tbrir 
ki»«[K''t[tle (IP wvrt! related to the pec^e of the inrromidiiijf cv>ant rr 
Cbililn-ii kiilnnppod in dist*nl provitiotw were bn»u;;bt t*) 1' 
mlo niid Pouna cbiMn'ii stolrii or )«r>M by tlieir {lorvQLs in ' 
fnniine wt>ro carried ta otiier parls of Indift.' A man also bcfninu a 
itlarc to hia crcditur wIiuq hu could aol pay liia debt, bat tbie lut{i- 
p«nc<I only when the debtor was a Kunbi or a Dhangar nnd tin 
rrcditoraBnibuiBU. Only ibreoinataDceacaineto Captain Rol> ' 
kitowI(Hlgi> iu vfhiob cn-di tors had chosen to ouelurc their .: 
Slavos vrcTO treiiti>d witb greet kiudneas. The ^nertil 
tbataoonoaboub] illaHoa slave. Cases sometimes happ' n < t| 
slaveM were seirprcly beaten by thL-tr lOfvsUrrs or had tbotr poweni 
work oTcrtnxod. fn such c&ncs tbo Ilmda law oflicors gum 
rMomtuo&ded tliat tho hIath shonM bo Mt froo. When tualo aUi 
grew to manhood their mactore often act thorn free, bat fci 
tdares were Roldom frood, and their cbililrpn wero aUo slaves. 
■lareSj cspodnily tbi- fminlus, wbon they lost tfu'ir frcvdutn in infauc 
baMnteutLiebt^ to tbt-ir mode of bfo and hud no ivish to bo fr 
Tboy were |]^-iuTalty foiiJ uf thoir um^tiTH family, or of some mcul 
of tbo family, and would havu fvlt mora puin in boing aepamttid (ron 
Ibciii than pleasure in gaining their liberty. IiiBtaim<w oot-urred i' 
which fcninle slaves complained of the crseUy of one momher of t\ 
family, but wlion ofFered thoir liberty refused to leavo the dtmS 
oitlxi'r bucRuso of tbcir luvc for other mumburs of it or bocKuao 
fonrod to bo sot adrift ia Lho world. 

Fifty yoara ago tho daily wajjes of adult male city labourom rai 
From iy. to 3<i. (1) -2 <]«.), of field labourers from I j^f. to i\ 
(1-1^ n».), and of the nrtiaiin clasaes from 4|<1. to 9d. (y.(lru| 
Tbo wng«»i rtf Wftm»»n Wfti-o twu-thirds and of eiiiMn.'n one-li 
of nitrnV waffcs. Ectwccu istii and IStf!>, owing to tbw AmchtM 
war and tbo tMuntrnction of tho railway and Upr« Goverrinieiit at" 
private build!ii:{« in I'ooua, wagt-s coasidi-rably rose, boii);^- balfi 
iriwcli again a^ at iwraont At present {18ftJ) tho daily w.-»ffoa of i 
and city labourers mnfre from Xl[it. to G't. (:J-4- a».) ; of field labonr 
from 'id. to i^d. [Z-^aa.); and of skilled iirtiAaiia from 9d. to la.: 
(6-10 ii/.) for bricklayer*, 1*. to 1«. 6d. (8-12 at.) foreArppafcor 
mMOQS, and 6d. to 1«. (i.Sae.) for tailors. Can-hii-u ia U 

I RMt Inilu pApm. IV. SSOM. Ina mnntrj- like ladUmbjMt to mvw*] 
tltnrtlid which vuaffordBd bytbe labkbtunUofa niiuhlioiuiiupfMtiloo pnr 
tli« ulillilran nf limiihed [Aronta, pwAUv oountoMaiKvd tko low of h 
o«ptoiiJl*a« tboktnte ofslariiry wka aootbcd by kind treaicDCtit aa<l r<i)t*rd. 

" tn I6SI imuiy drbtora lihiIcI not (tUoluu^ llivir obUntions but Uia ctcMi 
Alinori n«v«r iruiUd tonwkctbcirdtMoraikvm. BMtlndu P.iiwn, IV, M9-MI 




(14 at.) and cunel hire 1b. (8 as.) a day. Field labour is partly paid 
ia kind and partly in coin ; town laboarers are paid wholly in coin. 
In TillaffeSj irages are paid daily, and in towna by the week, fortnight, 
or month. Except field laboor which is chiefly rcq uired from Angust 
to March, labour, both skilled and unskilled, is in greatest demand 
daring the fair season,, that is from January to Juue. The demand 
for unskilled or cooly labour in Poena city ia greater than it used 

The oldest available produce prices are for twenty-nine years of 
scarcity which happened daring the forty-eight years ending 1610.' 
Daring these twenty-nine years of high prices the rupeo price of rice 
TEried from forty ponndain 1788 to five pounds in 1804, of biijri 
from fifty-siz in 1768 to nine in 1804, and oijidn from fifty-six in 
1788 to seven in 1804. The details are : 

Foona Produce /Vfcr* Pound the Rnptf, 1763 ■ 1810. 
















tlH - 































f£i ^ 













































































S 14 












9 SO 










7 U 




































■ 'Jt 









Doriog the twenty-nine years ending 1837 the prices oijvdri and 

bain are available only for Ind^pur. During this period, except a 

.' dufat rise in 1811 and 1816, prices gradually foil from 48 pounds of 

jmri and 59 ponnda of biijri in 1609 to 97 pounds of j'fiirt and 80 

|eandi of hajH in 1817. In 1818 there was a considerable and 

■ 1819 there was a still greater rise in produce prices to tbirty- 

fcw ponnda for jvari and thirty-one pounds for bdjrl, from an 

Mngeof fifty -six pounds for jviiri and fifty-five pounds for bdjri 

iaring the ten years ending 1817. In 182U the spread of tillage 

vUdi followed the establishment of order, again brought down 

|rioH till in 1824 jvdn was sold at 73| pounds the rupee and bdjri 

M forty-uz poands. In the famine year of 1824-25 yrtfi-t rose to 

tlRBt^'fire pounds. In 1826 and 13^7 prices fell to eighty-eight 

"■id IZSpoonda for yvart and sixty-eight and sixty-four pounds for 

^ri. "riiey rose slightly in 1826, and in 1829 again fell to 130 

Mods iov jvari and 186 for bdjri. In 1830 and 1631 prices rose 

lightly and in 1832 once more fell to 120 pounds for jVhW and 

> HTsa^ for bdjri. This terrible cheapness of grain reduced the 

Chapter 1? 


' IiMt.-CoL A. T. BUteiUgs's Bapcvt on FmI Fftmises (t8C8) Appendix D. 

tBamtaj Ou«tteer 



huslikndtttna to poverty kod eutaed Oorornmout vory Rr«&t Ion of 
rvvcntiu. Tlioagli tbeycar 1S33 in remembered as m year of •cartity 
jr<iridid Dot rise ftbore &3rt,v-siK poands. Tlie deteiU are : 













MH - 










MU. MUi 
































From 1838^9 U) 1S&3 prioee are available for eoveml pUces in tbt 

The fortr-MX yenrv ending 1&82 may be diridcd into foar peril 
Thv first period iucluiles iho twelve ye*» vudiug 1349-50. Tl 
was a time of low and stationary pricoa nithoat any more marl 
ohao^M than yr&ro dae totlie sacoossiou of coinparativoly good 
bad DBtrT'eats. The Average rupee price of jtvin'waa lOS pouiids,a]i 
the same OB in lb37.33. a price too low to allow of any incroaM a1 
TTooltlt ID ito laodholding ola«aea. Tlie aecood period, tlw eierea 
years ending 1860<61, expecinlly the lattor piu-tof the period, is ooa 
of advanoing prices probably due to the opeDing of roads and io tlii 
last years to the brg^DDing of cxpcnditDre on railwaya. Duriog tht 
ol«7eQ years eodiDg- ISCO-til tbeAT«rago rapos prioo of Jviiri wu 
sereo^oeigbt poaods sndduriagtlio tost fire years seventy paand& 
The third period is the ten years ending 1S70-71. The finit fin 
years of this peritid was n timoof oxtrfinoly bigh prices, yvtiri'uvcraK* 
ing thirty-six pounds the rupee. Thc-so high pricoft wore due paruy 
to the BDundance of money canned by tho iu^ow of ca-pital di 
the AoieHcan war, partly to a Bocoession of bad years. Wil 
iho clofto of tho American war in IS6& part of tho iaflow 
(apital ceased After 1865, though the inflow of capital conn* 
ed with tho Amoriain war ceased, ontU 1871 tho diatrict n. 
tiDUfd to bo enriched by tho coostructioB of great publif worL 
To thia increaMof wwdth wasaddedaBcarcity of gram caiisi>d h\ 
tho mjrvredroaghtof 18t>6-67,and(hepartial failures of ltKj7-tiSa ' 
of 1870.71. During the five years ending 1870-71 ytnfn' varied 
rupeo price from twenty-soveD to sixty-eight and avenged tbirty-8' 
pounds. Tho thirteen v«vr3 since 1S7I may be described as a time 
fftlling prices checked by the famine of 1876-77. The five 

ending 1670 were years of good harvests and this together wii 

great raduotioa in the local expenditnroon public works ccunbiijod 
cheapen gram. Daring the famine of 1876-77, that is from aboi 
Koveinber 1870 to tho close of 1877, jvdri varied from thirteen 

re and avem^oi] tffonty pooads. Since 1877 lurre mam 
Again been spent in or near the district in public wonea, and 
"^t increase in the trade and pros|>eniy of Bomb«y have drawn 
numbers of workers to Bombay and done mncb to replace tbo 
E capital caused bj the &inii>e. Tlie aeosoas havo been fair, 
pnce of jviiri liA« varied from eighteen to soventy-six Hud 
^d forty-two pounds. The details are : 





PotaiA Prodmet Prka 

in />0Hfi<{« fA/ Jhi/MT, ISSSSO to tSSiSS, 



> a. 


N 1 - 










iBi8«. tnMa 


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IMI-tA lHt-«l. 



till »h m 
M n IB 


n 1 in uo 




lU N 
TO «B 

ui ml 00 in U4 190 

H MOD 80 n M 




t ... 










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41 » 















1*4 IK 

ni IDS 




tM| 141 












i*j<Mi. |[ lau-M. 




n no ai 

T« M IW 

MM 04 




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104) H 

, 1S(«4«. 

iaS44fi. H MMC 

1 _. 

1 -- 


■n m rt 

1« TO 













iaM.«7. || im4«. 



1 - 

r ... 


U 4J 

tf M 1 M ' rt 

ID ft 1 W T4 


M 40 








IIM-W. _ ' 

arn-a. | 










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M 41 

U »« 


«o » 

a aa 


40 40 


IWM*. H ia»M. 

1044 «. 




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M its tt 
tsHio n 




to » 




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[ ... 

U M U 


M at n( 
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» 40 a 

M S »t 







tBontUjr QucttMT. 















i 1 

aifit ... 





im*n. I. 



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n «• u " n -■ 



41 ■• 
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a* A 

(0 H 

M U M 



IS m 




n n 

70 M 

mIm n 





M W « « 

n u u n 














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intkA 1 1811-Sl 

l«Mt 1 



14 M 
U H 



U , on M 

M U 1 R 






m M 

Artwles aro aold b^ Treigbt, I>y lucasurc, and hy Dambor. PeAili^ 
precionB stones, cotton, tobacco, raw and clarified butter, tA, 
spiow, fcroceries, firtrwood in Pooda citVj opiam, BweettoeAta, tat 
some Te^tsblt^B Hwi fniits are ttuld by weig'Iit. In ihe case of peuit 
ftnd prvciuDit stones tlie weif^flits usttd tittf fcrains of barley J'^^t lie* 
tdndul, -vrheat gahu, Rod rntt. Bati, onginhWy Uie iMted of dn 
Abrna prccntoriua, la now f^enl); a small pteco of copper or filnl 
weighing' 2| io 2{ grains. The price of peftrls in Dot 6xod ti m 
Qiiioh tlw rirfi Viut at flo much tht thav a mca«nr« or st^tadnrd obtais- 
od from a cak'ul»lioit bathed on tlie number and veie-lit of Ik* 
pearU, and diTided into 100 dok/idt or parts.' 'llie tabfa obacmd 
in the cave of gold is eight gunjt one mita; 2i guJija one vcU; six 
mdttis one lahamtitai two MAdfx4«id or IwwTe mdioM or foftj 
ixi^j oao ^u. Tlic yviy is red and about the ai>6 of a anukll pn it 
the seed of a wild creeper and the mf whiob is also r«d aad > 
Httto lsrg«r is tbe w>c(l of tbe chUhdri tree. The mdsa, tmkdmdt^ 
and tufa are square, ejgbt -cornered, or oblongs pieces of brass am 
toinetimc« of China or of delf. The lota weigha a little more tloB t^ 
ayen^ Imperial rupee in nse which is equal to 11^ mdsda. In 
wmg^hmg silver and fragrant oils and eeaences tbe Imperial rapeeii 
alwa;rauMKl. Bui a« owing to wear it u not always of aniform weigU 

* To ndoce rnlw Ut (Acin the aqnant o( th* nnmber at raMi li mnlUptiMl h| 
W and th* product diridtd by W liioM Um nanliOT of pcMli. Thai tf n 
MM-Ia (Tci^lns 34 ralit ijre U )w booght «l Ra 8 tlu c^kM. tlw prioe -Kotii tt, 






duoountftttheintdof eiglitper coQtiaallowod in wholuaate purcliafifu 
of *ilr«r. For cheaper metala and other urticJes sold by weight ibe 
■attuf weight in A f^K-r wuighiog' wvcnty-wx rap««9, with its fnwlioQS 
the »a*UUt or on(»-eigbtb, pdvwr or oiie>fourtb, and achker or ono- 
htil. For qoautitiea of over « tKar tlio t«ble for tnutAln and otbur 
■iticlas sold bj weiKbt is four thert one dK4xdi and sixteen therB one 
■a. In Lbe caae of oils, raw nnd clarified butur, tipiceit, raw vngar 
jrW, groceriM, and tobacco the table is forty eh^t ouis man, and 
thtto w^ama one jmHo, For firewood where tiold bj weight the 
tabitt tisod i» eighty pounds one fminand twenty mafM one khaniii. 
Sieept in the esse of firewood and simitar nearj sobstAnnes, 
whoro stoae weights are u»ed, all the woighta are made vi iron, 
pnenlly English-made avoirdupois wuigbt« with the pound unit 
•cooped out at the baok to bring them to ibe exact weight. Qrain 
is neasured by woudon cylinders with uarrow necks in the middle 
lo admit oE tbeir being bold in the hand with ease. The unit oC 
■nisnrnnifinf ia also a slter having the same fracUona as the weight 
Bait. The contents of a «A^ meaxnre, wfaicb is equal to 2} pints 
Kvigb aerenty-stx to oiuety-ei^bt rapees. The table obeerred is four 
iken one ftij/li, twolve juiylit one man, 2| man» one palla, and 
eight paJliU one khandi} Standard weights and mcasuree are 
kept in erery infiuilstdar's office, and, once a year, all weights and 
neaanrM are tested aod Gtamped by tho police. Bmsa and cupper 
pola leiTing as a quarter, a half, and a whole 7Q-nipee «A«r are 
Bsed for meacaring milk and small tjuautities of oiL Clarified btitter 
vb«a bcottght for sale in small quantities by the people of the 
VMtem hilU is also sold by those capacity meunretf. Leaf vegetables 
•resold by the bandle. grass andyrdn' stalks are sold by the poMuMt^ 
or five bundles, firewood ia sold by tbe bendlond or the cartload, 
sad oowdo ng-oakes by aombor. Mungoes are sold wbolHsate by a 
hmdrTdor«A«tda equal to 312. Betel leaves are sold by the hundred 
or the tbuusaad. In meanuritig clotb either tbe yaj or the yard is 
BMd. Id tbe ckm of the ^iij the tablu used is oight yovtr one anguli 
or thumb breadth ; two a»jrN/i« one ((Mu of I^ inches ; twelve tatu» 
I Udi or cubit of eighteen inches, and two halt vnvgnj of throe feet, 
dr-made clothes, waiatetothaor dAoldrx.aod scarfs or vpartui* are 
m pain ; other articles of clothing arc Rold singly exoept sboed 
■d aiookicgs which are sold by the pair. Bricks lind tiles are sold 
ij iLe tboos&nd, rafters and bamboos by tbe bundrocl, squared timber 
its onbic coi.tenbe, and iinitquared timbtn' by the piece. Heaps 
frarpl or fNurum, of road-metal or kJiadi, and of sand earth and 
I are meaaared by their cubic contents, tho usual unit of mea- 




> la USl tbve w«« thrM tabloi of mhi mounna Tha thtr wu th« muiw fn tU 
~ , lakiac tka snnua irf th« w&ot^ tha wdAU «f oae oiMuaFed il«i> ot ^H, 
' 1. Mri. Mid, mlUN^i, whMtt, ua OMUNr, wm OM-fonrtMntli of a 

>> maf Una XJ |M«mto avmnlopou. Tlia fint taUo wm four A^t onn r^yfi. 

|iit4« «M MOM, and twonty mant mm tJiaaJL Tbi« tiroS ur tw«Iv»p4|M 

- M tW oonmoo man uaA tlic otw id m« in the town ot Poem. Tba Mcond 

n* (oar Ju n cue pdpU, tlxttBB pdyUt cino nmi*. and twoatjr man* uii» 

k. TVla aofaft or ■liUMm'piyC nan waa tuod in the village group ol SmoAut in 

mM IO Um KMLhwanl. Thn Ikwl taltlo Wl« SJ fArr* ono pdyli. tortj-liio 

"M * twdn pd|rNf vDc min, Mi<! t<ir«atr bmm om Iftnifii. Thii waa ti»wl in tli* 

rBombo,; auett««r. 

ChftpUr V. 
Wuoan xsp 



GDroinoat being n haras of 100 cubic feet. Cat stoa« U sold by tfae 
sqnaie mi; oqnnl to oiglib equaro feei. Before tJie revenue sarttf 
the taiia measare was throe mtuhiis or fists one vit, two vii* one hdl, 
h^ hdtt ODS k^UU, ivnntj k-ithin one j.'<indf twantfpiiitds one bigha, 
and fire bwf&u ODD rNtl-in, eix rufrAvM one khmuli. Iwenty-four nuirtti 
OQC chdhur^ or falria; and two ehithurs or f<i/^« otic /xiX'in. Tha 
samsy motuaromoitto are a ohntii of thirty fe«t ona anna, sixtMO 
ann^it oDo fruntAo, and forty ^uuMd* ono acre of 4S40 sqniua yards. 
Thirty guntlids ikre equal tu one trigha or 1^ btghai aro equal to one 
sore.* Parian tu«uuiu{^ two or four bighd* is a word oftou used by 
Konbifl Hposking among theiD Bel vea. 'I'rrenty paridna taako aa% mJ. 
Tfae old tablo for meunriBg fcimo w risty vipals or winks onft p<f. 
rixty pab one gkadi of twonty-foar miautes, 2} ghadis one AiTnt, 
31 ghadig odo chtinghaiii, 71 jiwltiur oaojiraAAr, eight prahart una 
dirav or day, scvon tlivas ono lUAar'Ja or week, two lilA/irJiu one 
ftakt&a or fortnight, two/»iijiAai ono mia or month, twolra nid* ona 
varah or year. In (orioor times thv HinduM luul neither ivatcbM 
Qor DUDKliRls. Their time mcasuiv vras the wati*r<clook n copper pot 
&Ued with wat«r in which fluiito<l a bnws cup with a ataall bolB 
in the bottom which took an hour to Oil and eink. Tho water-clockt 
thoagh never referred to in ordinary life, is still nsed at numriAgeaad 
thread ceremonica. Bosidosby tho wutor-olock time was catculattd 
by the length of shadows. To tell the time of day from a ahndowoM 
plaD is, in an open sunlit spot, to ineasnni in feet tho length of oao's 
shadow, to add wx to the number of feel, and divide 121 by tho stua. 
The qnotient gireathe time in ghaJia of tweuty'foar mioutos after 
Bnnrise if the snn hM not croasea the tncridiau, and before sansofc if 
tho enn has crossed the moridiao. Another plan is to hold npricht 
atbia rod eighteen dnglis or Soger- breadths long, bond tt so that 
its shadow will touch the other end of t'he rod on the ground and 
measareia dngiU the perpendicular height of the rod. This lika 
the other plan shows tho nuoibor of gkadit either alter sanriso or 
before nonset. 

* The arw ol lh« cAdAur ilapamM in niAny cuea on tha ijiutlitr of Ui« land. 

'The Uthi Kv« oubitalong bjr oce oibit broad i« uiil ia hava bean «am4 b 
BtdMln the UU Sbanvir Vtdik at Foodu. It wu huMt oo tiie tflnzth oS Ua haa4(t 
Peihwa Mldharrav II. (in4.n96). Afur a tiiiio tha bnctb o< Uia Paohwa-a bi^ 
baouna axscgmaim) and the haoA wai takon tn moan tte lenfftli of a tamaU uu 
iMia tha albow to tho tip of tiu middU liai^er with an addJUonal upma. Uooos 
•ona vtrialiobi in Uts oiae ol a bigJka. Mr. J. PoJUo. C. S. 





The history oF Cheul, Kah'^n, Sup&rs, and Th^na in the Konkan, 
antl of Jmiiiar, Niliik, tiud Paithan iii the D«ccau mIiows that fivui 
early times several importnut trade routes pasatnl through the 
Poods di-strict. From at leant ba far bactc as the first century 
before Christ, Junnar, about a huiidrod milus west of Paithan sixty 
south of h'flnik and tifty uortli of Poona, hod two tnoiu rouUs to the 
coast through the M:ilMoj and through the Nina passea. In tlic 

|K4na paw, inwnplioik*, sU,^[>^, rock-cut rcst-hovue6, and ciatcmn 
show that 8.S far fjack as the lirat ceiiturj- Ix-fore Christ much was 

fdono to mak<L' tht; rotito vasy an<i HAt<\ TIk; ilne BuddKUt citVi-» at 
Bedsa. niuija, aiid KdHii. the lur^c hut plain cavf h of doubtful date on 
Lohogml hill, th<j rock-hewn Shiv teniphi at iJLilmburda aiul the 
small Ganas]]k]uiid cavca of unct-i-tAiu date near Poona, and the 
^otips of Buddhist cavea at Amhivli, J&nihmg, and Kood/me in 
Thina make it probable that the Bor pans was a highway of tratlc 
between B.C. 100 aiid a.d. GOO. Of Poona tradi' routo-s and trade 
centres under the Hindu djTiasties which tlourUlu-d between A.D, 700 
and A.D. 1300 few Iraces rarnain. Two great rock-hewn reservoirs 
on the top of Shi\-ner show that thi; hill was held an a fort by the 
Devgiri T^lavs and make it probable that Junnoi' wax a place of 
irodu. Under the fiahtiianis in the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centnries Jonnar and Chiikan wore fitcong niilitary po^ and 
probably local trade ceiUres. In IWi), aftor a J>ricf stay at Jurmar, 
Malik Ahmad, the foiuid-.-r uf thu Niziiui ShAhi d^-naety, moved his 
capital from Jnnnar to Ahmndnagar. During the sixtoeoth century, 
when Uic wealth of tin; BumWy Ucccan was divided betwvcn the 
mlers of Ahmatinagar and Bijitpur, proIn>>]y no main line of traffic 
pMnoc! through tlx^ Poona diitlnct. About 1038, whoa it wan mado 
part of BiJfLpur, Poomi probably roee in importAnoo as a centre of 
trad«, and at the name tune Junnar gain&d in eonHefincnce a^ the 
southmosi poot of Moghftl power. Shivuji'a disturbances soon 
followed, and little trade can nave ccnti-ed in Poona till 1750. when 
it became the canital of the MarAtha empire. Afu-r the comitry 
passed to the British, trace^t of pavement, steps, and wat«r-cii4ti?rnK 
allowed that thu Pej<hw&i Imd attempted to impiMve the Mlina, 

' M^lsej, BhimiUhankar, and Kuriur poaeee.* 

> lIoB.Kcv. Kw. 144 oi I8IP. 3317. 

ClupUr TI, 


a.c. 100-4 MM 

rSoiibij Ou«IMr. 



1779 'IStS. 


The first rood made by th« British was th e Pqona-Pa mvil rowi, from 

PsnvclinThAnathroQgn the Bor pftsa to Pooiu. In the cloeeof 1778 

the le«d«ra of the unfortuaate eip^ltUon that ended in the Va<JL{(aoD 

CoDTontioD spent four woeks (23r(l NovcRibor-S^th IX-cember) is 

makipg a pacli fit for Artillery tip tlie Bor pass.' Is 160+, tieoenl 

WeUeuBV coii»tructe>l h eood military road from the hew! of the bat 

poas to Poona. Tliv iuakuvc tttODO ramps or pavings, which in ISU 

were %-isibIe in plncen for the oDtire dii^tance a utile to the aoath of the 

line which i» uow thv old po«t rood,' and tTHOos of which m«y still 

bo seen at tltu eaatcm foot of tlw Is&pnr hills, belong to Genonl 

Wcllealo/a rood. After tha fall of the Peabmla in 1817, owin^to 

its import«nco ia joiain^' Botulii/ and Poena, ono of tht; first caiM 

of the Bombay Govi-mtnont w«/t to improve the road (rotn 

Poona to Panvcl in TKiiiia. In 1819 it wkm proposed Uiat tfa« 

Nitna an<l Knsur pnaies sliould be repaired.' In 1825, thoogfa 

still st*i?p. Bishop Heber cotiHidcred that the Bor pasa road 

waa probably sufficient for the iiiturcourw that either waa or was 

likely to be between the Konkan and the Deocait.* In 1826, 

aecmding to Captain Cluncs, the chief lines of oofamnnicatJon io 

PtMHw lay throngb Poona and Junnar.* Th« Bow bat- Aamn m ail 

road of 148 inite^ from Fttnwl through Clmak, RhAlitpur, aad 

Kliopivli ID ThAna aNceoded the Bor pasH and entered Poona n«ir 

KhandAla, and stretching through Lonitvla, K^la^ Khadklla. 

Vadgaon. Kuvla,Tathavade Aund/Poonu.'^ V^hoU.Lom, Kotegaoi. 

Oanpati'a lUnjangBon, and Kai^alviUti, left it uear Sinir and 

continued its course to Alimodnagor through Uingni, Kadn 

lUi^oDgnon, Sirole, Akuln^r, and Kedgaon. Besidu tha abuM 

bridge over the Indntysni between K^la and KhadkAla, whidi ha4 

seTi?nto€n archos and a total ktigth of about 400 ft;et, there were m 

this road two (lying bridges one acroas tlie Mula near Pooaa, tl« 

other across th« Bliima near Korcgaon. From this road a new 

excellent military road bi-anchod to the right near Vadgaon and 

pafwed by the villages of HheWrvAdi, Kinai, Cliinchuli, Nign, AkunU. 

Chinchvafl, Dhosri, and DJtpari. This waa the abortost road tO 

Poonn if tho tmvoUer had no wheel carriages. It oontinaed from 

near Bhosri, pa»dog Kalax, and crot^ing the Kizfcae liridM^ 

making a diflerenco of about two miles between Bhoeri and ua 

Sangam. The KAtTiK-ACRAKOARAP rowl of 185 miles, paasing 

through lUhAtA, MurUd, Tmbarpdda, the TaloH paaa, a»l 

Knmlwlpiida in TliAna, and ascending the Mitlyijim* cmtareid tta 

district Dear Karanj£le, and stretching through Knipalgartn ami 

Junuar left it near Otur and continued its couroe througk 

BrtUiman vft^lo, the Sdvarchur pat^, Sangamner, RihAta, B&inangaat, 

Bhoi^aoi), and Tiagoon. This road had two brandies from Jannar, 

> Aceonnt of Borate^, 176-7. ' D«<cca& Scmm (I8S4), 330. 

* Mr. Uamott, 2Sth ScpWoitMr l£lt^ Oo*. B«v. Rml 144 «( 1SI0. SU7. 

•H«bn-'tXuTatlvo,lL 900. •Ittacrajy, IE). 46. 

' FWim th« tMr«lkn' buDf(klaw mmt iKa ratnuic* ol Ui« ruUmuMmt io th* ekaiA 
WM 14 milea and tlie coiitinii»tioii a( Uh rout to xht mioa af Sinilio'* r«Ue« nir 
nluch U)« oMtonaowU endttd «h 1 i nilM /lutkr. Clnaaa' IttMnry, 1^ 

nxiy-four miloft tliroush Oj1iiir,PinipaIran<ii, aiuI Ikihe, loaviug 
itrict near Alkuti. ana continuing' its coume through Timer, 
sod Keclgaoa to Ahmaclnagar; the other hratich forty>five 

thrQUgh N^^'aiigaun, BivTa, the Utti pass, Ptirgnon, and 
lur to Sirtir. "Hio PooyA^SURAT road of 264 miles Uirough 
n, NiSrayangaon, ami Hivi-a, leaving Ute district near Otur 
Qcd itscouree through the VAshera pass. Devthdn, th« 
r paiw, N&isik, Diiidoti, the Bahud pass, UmbAtth&na, the 
I past, the V^b pasa. Uaudevi, aud Navaftri. In the fair 
Uiis wa8 a good c«rt road throughout except st the 
ra and Sinnar passes in Ahmadnngar aud N;iAik. The 
[ paw in NSsik offiiroiJ oo ob«t<u^lo« to carta. Aiiotlicr road 

miles, the usual line of march for trwm f roui Foona to Sorat, 
trough lUvot. Vad^aon, Kiirla, and Knnud^a on tW district 
■, and KliopivU, Chauk, Punvcl, Amhagaund, KaJyin, Titvila, 
TyrtbAi, Ariin, Bntna, Daii»ar, MahagiSon, TAnlpur, Baunta, 
■Burdi, Umhargftoti, Oaniti, Pnu^-iidu, Pinjera, Rola, 
ivi. Navsiri, Uinclipnr, (uid Sachin. From Panvt) in 
t there was another r'Mul to Surat \>y 8ca and land of about 
niles. The Pqosa-Kai.t Ak road of scventy-tive milea 
;h Riiv«t aiid Vaflgaon, hy the Kusur pass, oontinuiil 
mrsc through Ncnu, BodJApur, Bcluli, aud Kansa. The 
^-^CHjyn>^i.A . roAil of forty niilcR pai^sed through Banent, 
tai, Dhaman Khind, and Lonivla. llie PooyA-JussAR road of 
lilcs passed through Chiikau, Peth, N&rAyan]gaon,atid K hAn&pur. 
0«d, tliouch in placctt difficult for carta, van a fair rood for 
Mttle. The PooyA-DHUU A road of 201 miles through Chikan, 

Nirdyangiion, Piropalvandi, and Ale left the tlistrict near 
ind oootiuuod its course through tlie Abora pass, Kikangaon. 
im, Kopargaon, Ycoia, SAvargaon, ManmAd, UJ&lcgaoa, the 
;aon pafis, Arri, and Laling. Die Pooka- A uaANOAB An road 
I iniliw, tlirough Ijoni. Koregaon. and tianpatiTTSSjaM^on, left 
strict near Sirur and continued its ooutkq throu),^ NArAyan- 

Supo, AluDadnagar, ImAmpur, Ke^TO, 1'oko, Dahigaon, 
alnoD. From AhtmidiiMgnr tuiothcr road went through the 
a^hera paas, VAmliori, and Kevra. From Aurangabad 
nch led forty miles to JAliio, and a Une of lOA 

vent direct from Ahmadnagar through Paithan. The 
rSholApur road of 157 miles, through Hadapnar, Loni, 
Yevat, Patas, Cttichuli, and IndApur, loft the dintrict 
TemUiumi, and continut-d its course throngh SavaJf«hvar 
Iraidi. Another road of 157 miles to SholApur, through Urali, 
)iva pass, Belsor, and Jejuri, aud leaving the district near 
at, continued ita ooursR through Baneya, ISAtaputs, TallApur, 
larpur, Debgson, BAbhulguoii, aud Singoli, E-Vom PAtas 
I oi 136 milee branched towarda MominAbad or AniK^jc^Ai, 
ig through Pc-dgaou, PimpalvAdi, Kliurdit, Beh, aod S&vai^aon. 

the Diva pSM the ro«*i branched five or tax milea to 

d, and, from ChindboU, a bmnch led (o SholApor through 

;>ur, nmking the whole distance from Poons 343 miles. 

SholApur the road waa ooatinued to SikaiKiambod by 

Cbapter TI. 

[Botabiy OutttMr. 



N«lilure. n dudauce ot 182 miles. The PoosA-BKLOA tm roai] ot 
S41 miltts, through Jejuri. left the disirict near Mimbat and 
continuiHl ibs courso througb I^liimatpur, Paseaavtj, T^agaoa, aud 
Kdur whpro was a Hyiu;; briilge uid boot scroM the Krishna. 
Ghotgiri, Murvhal, Axhti, and KAnbor^ From Edtu a road led 
to DMrwir thn>u;;h Fiid»h^pur, Nesarci. 8hi<ltipur, and Uadag. 
Another road of 2l3iiiilf« thnjugh ihu KAtrnj pasn coatinued its 
conriu! throiiKh Kik>i. Shin-ai, Khaiidata, .Suml. Bhuiiij, SAUn, 
Mirni, KonLd/litUmpiir, Iclialkaranji, Sondalgi, Chikodi, Uokcri, and 
YamKAainardl. From Kor&d a braitch waut to U&lvan throii>;h 
lUkdpur, tho AJiaekum peas, and Kh&replitan. and another throuj[fa 
B&ui»-flbir4la, KolhApur, thu PhoDda wm, and Jaiiavti. The Pookx- 
DjLpou rood of ninety-seven nules went through Vai1<;aou, 
KhadalcvjEala, Khttndpar, tlic Panba pom, aji<l Tonia-piitii, luft tlio 
district hy the Dhoiii pans and the ShwLi pa^, and continaed it« 
coiirae through Uah^, Pllli, and M&hluuga. A liranch from BLrvadi, 
saventeen miles from tlit; Shcvuti pass, went to Batnilgiri ihroujjh 
the Qhogra pans, Chiplun, and Uikhjan. Th e PooMA-G ^Moj ^ og raid, 
eixty-aix miles throogh Khadakv^rslo, Qorha, and the Kxuva paas, 
conUuuftJ it» eonme through the Kumbha pass. Another road 
fifty-flovon miles branched from Kumn and went by Uio Devi pow. 
The Popm^-Nm'A mi road o£ 211 milea. throii{;b Loni.'tho Klior pasN. 
Morgaon (Cliii>chvad), and Gulanohe, left the district mvat the 
Nira and contiDued its course throogb TAni^roon, Kahimatpur, 
Hiugongikon, and Edur-MAnjri. The P oowa-NAootbha rood oE 
sixty-fuur niilu» Uirouj^b Chaiide-Nande and Aketa, left the district 
by the Sai pas^ and conttuuod its course through VAsunda, 
JlUibulpiUla, Ilahubj^aoa, aiul Cliikni. 

SiDce 1820 all of these loading routea have been taken up and 
made into fair or good rowla. In IS3S the Poona-Pftnvel road 
was great!)' improved and was opcaod in state by Sir John 
Haloolm, the Ouvvnior of Bombay. At that time the mail cart to 
Poena on this roa-l was tht only mail cart itt India. Some years pa^sei] 
before the road was generally used for carriages. In IS^JO hardly 
aaitiglc cart was met betweoa Khandiila and Poona, and lens 
droves of pack-bullock8 liad posscaaion of the road-* In spjto m 
the improvomcntH the Bor pasH, though it did credit to the time in 
which it wa'* built, waa far from cosy ot ascent. The gro'lit.-nb* 
were steep and the curves sharp and numerous. In 1 S.t2 
M. Ja«|iicmoiit dl^scri1x■d the maA a* mnkailamisotl aii<] ki^pt by 
Pioneers in such order as would have l»ccn considered good in 
France.* In 1836 Uie opening of roads ami the improving of 
traosit were among the poiute wuicli received most attention m}ca 
Uie early survey officero.* A marked change in the number of 

' DtOMD ScenOB, S3. ■ Vm«M, 111. S%S. 

* Amoas the ImprovQinenbi plaimed by tb« nrcune wrrt; oSi««rm Um "i ^t ng of 
a Mw Ugat <ait wu one ol the gnataat impoituiee. In I80S. Is ■ lUMoh In on* id 
iho daUtM CO the tiiirvey BUI, SirBartIo FYert, then aovcnur of BduImij-, tiM 
Mm (am ta 1BS6 were miwljr Man bojond Tuoaa. lu fiic mnntlui he reaMUnMnd 
■eelnji only tlirM carti in tlie coontry ottweeti Poonk and 8hoUpiir, ud Uhb» «w« 
brougtit from nonie Madru (Utioo. At that time the only 1m»I cut nbaeb wo* 

ids took place tu woine parts of tlie ditftricl during Uiu tlkirlv yvant 
of the aret Hun-cy (Id35tli(i6).i In lH:t(t wh<<n Ibn niirvey wfu 
■^inKluo^ tliorv W)u nut utile of Toati iti Imliipur. Thi- roi)»truclion 
^t the liii{H>rutl lino nf rnail from Poorm tA SlioUpiir policing by 
t(i.* tiiwii of lixliipiir wiw thi* firitji^i'i-nt iii»|)rovori»'tit> By IHWl, fiv« 
lirii-H of mmfi- nwil pB-wwd throiigti tlieilistrirt, The chief roads were 
tlm otd Poniiu-Pnrivc-I niml tlinHi^li tliv Bor ptus nlmiit wiviinty 
iiUm, Ihti Pootia-AhtnAdin^ou* i'immI aho nhout nevnity inilet, ihu 
^ooiui-Juniini- rottd alioiit tifty mik-^, the Poona-IiutiipurroAiI iiintty 
piles, antl the Pooiia-S^t^ra road .scventy-Mx miles. Thf Pf><>NA- 
fAXVKi. roiwl, thw ehiof irwid-work nf thf-*Boml^y Oovommont. wa* 
fvW nicUilh-'l tlinjujfhout. It h»d many lon^ and some fairly st««p 
iopesdnwn whinh tni- supprflnon.'* surfao! wnti*r woidd havp nished 
Kth d«stnictive violence hut Fora aimplvcontriviuiCR which broke 
)s force and made it conipai-atively liarndesM. At abcwit otic 
kundtL-d fi>rl apart ndgt-s of vartb, thrt-^- to I'oiii' iiiohi'-s high 
Hid nboat a foot wide, were dmnn !«lAQtinj; across the ro^. 
The ridgee were formed by loosening tlm titones and cnrth with 
pickaxe. Their object wax, before it ojained forw or volume, to 
irn thd iiurfacd water into one of the side dit«hcft. Thi» the ridg«» 
|id very effectually wlten they were properly watched, so as to 
epair the bruachi^s made in them by cart wheels. Ulxiii they 
rei-e kept in order no more water could rush down any portion cm 
'to-slope than fidl botwocn two of t))o little rirl^us. 'When tittip 
un fell, the spar ea between the ridges were kept comparatively dry 
ad finii. for the xinall iguantity of wntt-r which wa.i then to l^e 
of MakiHl (juiutly into tlie ditch, along the loo-<o tttones and 
rtll of whieli the ridges wore made, Towards the close of the rainy 
iflOD the ridgea were allowed to be worn by the trafTic to the lev«l 
the ruoil. In tliLt way ^hc road escape<I the petiU of the rainy 
!>n with comparatively liUJe damage.* Within Fuona limits the 
was well bridged. The gr«at obstacle to Iratlic waa the Bor 





t of Btoov, and CVta war* Ibt^ tBmlwrinE cootrirBncM whlob nidAinad M liearlooRii 

IknuUe* lor gonenitioa*. Lteabfuant StSaiarA apjilied hioiMlI M improrv tli* 

Dtitry oarlandtk* vrduiary DtvEaji c*rt ^•■s t^ nwnlt «r Ma Inlioan. Tlienaw 

rt waa to bo M Ugbt and olicop ai pocoiblc, awl ysK ttrotig vnongli tu b« atoil in a 

njr DOBiilry wbererOMb wen almoatuuknuvn, ao'l whtiD wnr1kiii*aBfalabor*ialr 

QDMt irimEto tth««lnil vcUiute wcmoftMi not to Iwfonni) within filtf milM. lie 

: np a lactaiT foe these carta at rembhiimi ia ^holipur. and iiut only nuda carU 

il tnUNMl wnriuMK from tb« villigra raond to repair Xhma. At Arnt it wu dJIBonlt 

I tiiul anr oae who would bn; Iha carta ovea at cMt price, bnt in tunc tbctr nniabcr 

i>is»!fr*Mf incTMiMHt. la ladipar alo«i« tboy nne (rum 301 in ISSH to 1 IS'i m 1854. 

be c%t\a *i\ui\\ r«pLK.-oil tbe OM atonwboci carta aud tbe ViuijAri liiillniik* luve 

thuir iBTn he]i)«l to iiaprov* otd niada aoid op«n taw linu of oomiuunication. 

vn. Oov. S*L CU. 3.1-34. 

I* LieaitMiaat* Wingate and Oaiiford apolied thomwIvM to inercaM tha facilttiua 
^twurft ia tbo Dwcan. At fint thoy lud vvry amill i&«aiia at tlioir ju|>(Hal. 
neat gate raaU mmj often as low at Ra. i a mile tor the unprovenivat ol 
Liulc coulil be dona for aiich aa unouot bevcnul raiiiarint tbo noit lerteua 
itncDta to whaeled traffic atong ulatlng Uaciu. %r Bartu (Vorc. Gov, Set 

> MagIuj'* U'Mtani lodti. 379. Mr. Micluy vLU : F'>r about liaK ita mxirw tho 
MUM lliraii)[h Ana of (b« •roltmt dialri^t* of Woalorn ladU. Tbo onantitv oJ 
whidk falU Juriug the touUi-wcat moiwoon bciwocn Panvol alul thoSahylaris, 
I, for nhtHit lw»tv« niitiw to tli« viaat of Kkuidfla at tko topol Ui« Bnr pajta, » 
uut SO percent moro than th« avorajpt (all at Bombay. 

■ 1327—19 - _ 

[BoDtbuj OtatiUcr. 


Chftpter VI. 

rise ] 


ffm. where tlic asc'Mit from the low lan<] to the high laaJ. was a rbe 
of 2U0U fvrt l>v ft KigMg an^l frt^tlcnU^ precipitous course of about 
foot inilL-fL 'I'his vna one of two nointf^ at wliich tliw Saliy4«lris 
ooiil'l Iv a*c<'ndo(J or dMCt^iuleil by wh(wle<l vohides with utivtliio^ 
like saftty nlong a cour»j <»f about 500 miles. Still so iliflicull <a 
ftseent or deMCfiit was the Bor pas.-^ that no one thought of drixHog 
up or down it in a ciu-riagi', riisjst-ugcrs travelliiifj by the public 
conveyances weiv carrii>d np antl down in palanquins, therv being 
(]it{*erent sett of coarhv?* fur the hi^li and low portions of the rood 
Pri vat* caiTiagm were pullrd up or let down by nuroeroas bodies of 
worknteu, ur tiny wcn> earriud up and down swtuig from a number 
of poles whirh rcnttnl on men's shotildera. Empty carriages 
had Im-^u pulled lip by hor«c-«. but thi^ was g4<n«3ra]ty consider^ 
A good day's work for the animals. A mati who haid any rv^^ 
For hia horac would not even ride him ap or down the paas, prof^ r- 
ring to have him led, and betaking himself either to a pony or & 
palanquiu. bi the Konkan the road croaaed a rich rice ouuiitr\' ; 
but its chief traffic came from above the SahyMria. It was priiici- 
pully owiuK to the traffic of districts beyond Poona tuminu lu thi^ 
route, becauw therw was no other iiienns of eaay communicatioii wili 
the coast. The conntni' from the SahyMria to Poona w&a ^cii<.'rall)r 
of a poor, thin, Hght&oil. which of itaelf could ausiain no great traffic. 
The Po ONii-AHMADMAGAii road started almost at right au^lw to the 
Poona^anvol road from which it differed simply in not Iwing metal- 
led. It was bridged and fairly ditched, the surface being co%'ttrtd ao4 
will) broktoi stone but in soiuc plaeiM with Ioo»e round atonw or 
coarse gmvol, and in others with amall fragm«nt.s of hardeuml clay- 
Occasionatlytliegravel and clay were combined and there the road 
was goneraily in the beat condition. During the dry aeaaon it wao 
practicable enough and could be driven over without difficulty, 
during th^ i-aina it was indifferent throughout and at many points 
bad. It was dosigued att a militaty road as Ahinadu^ar waa the 
hcAd-qiiartcrs of the Bombay artiller}'. Like the raona-Pannt 
rood it had proved of advantage to the gcut.'ru] troSic. Ah 
though it crossed a comi>arstiv^ poor country it waa the c^ief 
feeder of the Poona roud. Wltli Ha continuation through 
the Nizim's territory to Aurangahod^ it rlrew to Puooa toacfa 
of the traSic of Uerar out of what would liave Vieon its natunl 
course had coinmiuiicstionH been oprn iN-twcen that importaAt 
valley and the coast. To gain this cirvuit>iiiN lino of tmidu nwL 
iQOch of that traffic turned south to AJaiita from which it caM 
reach Bombay only by the made road, which it sought by traversing 
nearly tbi'ee-quart*:r3 of t-hc circumference of uu enormoua cireU; 
The ni;xt of the made road.4 was the PnoSA-^fy ss.^R road. It 
was designed either to proceed by the Ale past) across sevord 
atreama and several .Hpurs of thf Ssliywlris, to Sinnar aiid - 
with the view of uniting Poena with ^fAlvgHon the great in' 
sLaiioQ in the north Deccan; or to take the more direct roaw 
from the Ale pass to Mfilegaoii, avoiding N^tik and flanktiij 
the spurs of the hilla. The Pooh a-Ixd Apur road li-d aoutb-eaii 
from Poooa to Indipur about hajf -way to BhoUpur. Of all iheraadt 
that conrer^edoii Foouu Uiia fnddpur road was most iu the diivct 

*tho Poona<Panvel motallcit ronJ, so that traffic dircctoct hy Okiptti VL 
on the I'oona-Panvel road with h \-it'w to reaching Uonib«y Vnia- 

searoety fnr at least a? the distiict between PooBa 
luUpar was concerned, to have heen taken out of its coiirae, as B»"». 

at have been from other districts by any of the roarLs leading '***■ 

gh Poona. The i-oad was by no means (u perfect a rood as (hat 
)g to AhmadDaear. Kven the Pooua end of it, after a little 
was little inoi-e than passable for a carriage. It eroased a very 
[cable line of country, aa ugarly its whole courw to Indtipur 
■ig thu right hank' of Uie Bhima. If Iho traSic was not at 
|Rat it wan because the country was ]x>or. At Iiidiipiir the 
crossed the Bhuua aud ptoceedt-d thi-ough a rivher country 
it in ft straight line to ShoUpur. Th e Puoxa-SAtX ha root! 
he he^ specimen of a made road in the iWcaii. li was not 
ed tliroughout, the only completed bridges bail been hiiilt by 
B chiefs. Tht! road Huruiounted two paesf^s, one of ttiein, tlic 
ey pA.<» nliout eight miles soutli of Poona, being one of the 
) spcciiut.-u» of a' pas» in Weateni In<Iia. Ita angles and 
auu Were frightful, its ^liai-p tutus being in bouiu plaoeii tlaiikcd 
w wallx whioli a(ForJed hiit a alight }iulwark againfct the preci- 
which tJiey crowned. The road in tJie steepest part* was coa- 
ly rough, t>eitig coveiW to -''onie depth with loose round atones. 
!»> some extent .served to chL-ek the iutputu.i of a descending load, 
reutly increasi.-d t)ie toil uf dntgiring a toad up. Deyond the 
of tlie psAs the roai.1 etitcre<l u broud plain botuidt-d ou the »outli 
e Sillpa range and watered by many »trcamft. The first stream 
tt the vill^ru of Hivru past which it brawled over a somewhat 
and rocky channel ; it was unbridgcd. llie next was beyond 
m3, a narrower but deeper streAiii with a fierce current during the 
J it was also unbridge^ TheJX! was no other sln^nm of conse- 
:s until the Nirawasreached, oneof tholargiritt tributaries of tJio 
la. The iSira bridge waaa well-known point on the road. Tlie 
d wbich wat a long wcMxlen one, resting on atone piunt R])ringing 
ne height froio the rocky channel of the river, had been built 
a PwhwiA. I'liere were several bridges M-ithin. Sdtiira limits. 
G8 the.-*-* main routes, as in the rent of the country, were several 
reather roads practicable for carts, freiineutiid tracks, and 
I tracks. The (air-weather louds were nuturni trucks, merely 
Ag the course token by an irre^lar trafBc over the open 
« of the country. The ixwt of them wcr« practicable during 
At weather fur carts, <uinply l>e(»uHe at that time carts eoolu 
over mHcb of the surface of the country. The fre<|Uented 
* were numen>iLs in every thickly peopled part of the country 
irere a grade lower than the fair-weather cart-tracks. The 
laid down as post tracks were no liettvr, the mail K'ing 
illy carried by foot-runners. All tliCiW roa<lit were ii»cful am 
ng tho natural Iinc« of traffic. Of the roads the Poous'Pnnvel 
ie Poona- Ahmad no^r mads wer« alone thorooghly bridged 
v»!lab1o for traffic throughout the year. On the other roods, 
f the greater part of the rainy season, traffic was stopped liy 
breams which eroased them, Tlie suddenness with wUiaK Orv, 
w stopped tratlic was sometimes .•startling. \ sttiiaivv "wWu^x 
jgfie less tlian a quarter of a luile diKtuiit, waa Vu(iv>'U W W 

CliaptOT VI. 


5 n 

prActtcable, 1>y the lim« i-Mpiired to reach itu l>ank», b»alni; n 
ruaniiof; ami impassable turrciit and ivniftiiicd iiDpwwaUIu for dayj 
To Kucli inU-rriiptioriH even mmt o! tlm inatle roads w«re liublu. 

Siuoc 1863 wlieii local fundx wei'a a'ealwl the work of nneiii: 
ruwU has l>een steadily pressed on and tiie district is tiuw well p 
vided wiUi liiict of coiiiriiiiiiication. At pi'enent (I8d4> in the 
Poona ainl Kirkce cantonnicnU and ill tlif civil limit>i of tliu two 
islattous, forty>twrj iiiileK of Ituporial roadn and twenty-eight niilfw of 
provincial roads, all mf^talled and bridged, arc kept in repair at a 
yearly cost of £1700 <R». l7,UlH))to ImDerial and X17O0 (Rn. 17.000) 
to nrovincial fund<t. Of dihitrieb roada tlmre arc scvonty miles 
bridal aitd metalled, 104 milcK pai'tly bi<idged and metallMl, and 
493 milus iiartly briJgL-*! and mvruMMd. The ol d Po^ yA-j'AMY. ~ 
road, t!iit«nng tlm tJintritt at KhamUla and pasainff soQlh-east I 
LondvU, Talpgaoii. Kirkuo, Poena, Piitas. and iDufiptir, is a Wi 
made road nielallKd as Far as P&taa and tlien murumeJ. The cross- 
ing of Uitf Bliinm oi Hiii^anKaou. where u ferry-boat is worked 
during thesoutli-weAt rains, and the croa&ing of tboDalaj arc aerious 
ohataoles to trafBc during; tJiv Tatii& This rood wa» of immense 
atlvant^o to the diHtrict till th« opeiun^ of the railway in 1862. 
It broug^it Poona, which i^ the ^reat ^ain in> of this part of 
the Deocan. within vusy rvacli of grain and hrouglit iiiUHt vUlageM 
in the neiuhlioiirhood of Poona in din!ct commiinicafjon wttb 
Indapur which is midway between Poona and ShoUpur. Dealara 
exporting produce toPuiinik and ShuUlpur natumlly tried Ihe half- 
way market of Iiidfipur. Mwiy airtltuwU of merchunrlise intended 
for Poona or Sholapur wonr often ili^iixiwnl of in transit at Indiptir 
and the return i-arL'* wvxv Iwleu with pnxlucR wliiuh would commaDd 
a better price in the reflpectivc mnrkeU. The openinp of thi" railway 
iu 1862 dix>v<' the cariincn from tins rotH aud consideraltly affected 
ibe iiDfKirtaiien of tliQ Indapur market Though tlm number of 
rorts making u-te of i\w. rood has JttniniB})t-d tlios^e that have been 
driven off the line are prohablv xuch as mme from lime dlKtaocea 
and the toivJ trnllir by the roiLi] in still consi durable. The road is 
atill of tiN:al iniportanco in supplyinj; the Ind&pur market with the 
product' of Uie Nub-<liviMon. The Poos A- AP1|Lf H0A bad road la 
motallH forty-one miles oa far &t ijirur and, except at Roregaon on 
the Bhima and two or three nnimportant streaiDx, is hridged.and 
drained throughout. The old Powu-SatAra road, ihirty-ninn milej* 
as far as the Nira. through ihi> Uivn pasK, SAsvad, and .lejuri. in 
a fnir reiwl partly briil^ luid drained. It is at present ki-pt at a 
local fund road. The new road of thirty mtli*, 
pacsing Lhrtmgh the Kiitraj pass and Shirval^ ts u lirsi clax* metalled 
and bridged road kept in f:!Oo<l order. The POOS A-NA SIH road, 
ftixty-two miles ihixiugn Khed, Monchar. N^rayaogaon, ajid Atnbe- 
ghargaon, in a mur-uiaed unbridged road. As the principal rivuni 
mn> ttnbridg.-'d Hying bridges are vorked in the monsoon at Noahi 
on tile Indr&yani, at Khed on the Bhima. at Kalamb nn the Ghod. 
and Dt Pimpalvandi on tlHv Kukdi. and at Arobeghnrgaon on the 
Mula;an ordinary ferry-boat plies at V'tikioa the Bhiuna. A branch 
from this road goos from NArAyangaou to Junnar. The local fund 
ronds besides the already mentioned old S^ttlra road are, th« 
SiEUB-SATiaA road fifty-four miles as far a:^ the Miia bridge. 





pH-stiitif; Llirough tlic railway stAtion of Kcd^on and cros<tinK the 
Bhimii ut Pai^aon by a Hying bridge. The twonly-eight milos of 
this roa'l fioin i^iruT Vo KiHl^'oon nru kujit as a mail jtony cart rovi 
Tlic P< io\A-Si.MiuAP rojui t'xt-^iuls over tw.-lve link's; the POOSA- 
/ t-LAKO l roftil iif tliirU-on milcn ruiia purnllvl and close t:) the NiWk 
roa'l . Uie SAs v a u-JxhAp lr roail of lifty-four miles euet and wust 
passes througli I^iiiikiiiuli, litUtiTnu, awl NiiiiWaon ; the TaDOaoh- 
SlUKKAnrK roai) uf thirtv-thref* inilea tliroumj ChAkan joins the 
BoiiiI-ay-A)inia<liiAf^r roail ni.Sliiknlmir ; tin- Khed -BhimAshaxkab 
roiul tliirty-oiic miles joins the NAmU road nit Klicfl'; the Khkd- 
SlKUU roa<l thwHigli I'ilial vxtt^^niis over thirty-two miles; the 
I'i ViSA-l'At 'n roail cxt*fnlH over tweiity'Onc miles; ond tlic Uiksal- 
B aIluiat i roa<l over scv<-nt«en miltw. All ihma local fiiml rrvadii 
aro muranif^l and (UK moteorles^ bridged, crowing some of the rivets 
by llyiny l>ridg*>a. Ihirin^f tiie rains when tJio gronml is wot many 
of tfio rfuiiU arc ilidit'ult for wheels. Yearly n-pairs arc iiimlu mid 

iniprxn' ute boiny mwlii ally intro» hicw( . 

' \s I . -sb of the Deccan the local bill passes or ghate belong 

Ut twu icatiing systems, thoso that cross ihe Sahyrtilris and those 
lliat rriDM tliu spurs that stretch east and south-cast from tho 
' SahyAdris. Down the MiUacj paaa ab out sixty-wx miles north of 
Poona.a line for a cart road ha* Wn surveyed, and it is cxp«;ted 
that III a few yt-ar^ the rooil will Iki l-ej^ii. At present the only 
road down the Foona SahyAdris 6t for wheals is tho Bor pus. 
Except this and the MAtsej and >iAna passes tho ret^t of the openings 
in tl)<> I'oona SaliyAdris are foot-patJis and havu no conaidurable 
traffic' The M^sej and Nil»n niu«ivi have considerable V'ai^iLri 
traffic ojirried ou ijack-bnl locks. Of tho SuhyAdri passes, becinning 
from the north, the first i» NiSMor th« Ijndoer, a itteep and difficult 
h'Ute froui Tilumiichi in Junnar to DivupAnda in the MulliAii fnih- 
divisiiMi of TbAna ; ittx im]in>«siil>l<' fur ciUtle and U liiLla U-ted by foot 
travellers. J^a^ukj at thr head of thi^ Madncr valley, 2062 feet 
shove the leveHinrif! sea, is the straight route between Abmadnafiar 
utd Kalvnu. It descends about five miles from Ktiubi in Juonar 
to Thidbi in MurhAd. In 1826 it was^ pas.'able by camcU and 
ekphany>, but was steop and In some plaow narrow with a precipice 
on one ajd(^* The de!>oent, in M'hich tht<re is an e-xruvation 
eoot^iniii}; cnrvciJ ttniii^c.i of the Hindu gods OiuH'-hIi iiiid HhiiutiiAii 
and a cint*?ni nf tine wnti^r, is paved with largit Ntonr_s_ In lS.iO, 
wheu tJie enfjineer:* of the JVninHuk Railway i-ame to India, the 
llAlnej {Nuis tintt mgai^fd their attention. On examination the route 
prMeiUvdauch formidable •litlieulties that it hail to bealjondoncd.and 
irttti it t)ir general system of line of which it wan a feature. In 1882 
in connt.-etion with the proposal to op«>:n a cart road down the pajw, 
toll-bata ¥r«re cetablished for six mouths bo a»cortain tho traffic The 

' Ur. John Mcl«od Cwnptwa. C.». 

* Th«a« luot-intlia an irafy intrinata. Il U trlUi the oreakat (Uabully tiut pM>pl> 
xrant alang tham wbaa loaaad with the produoe of Uimt field* for tho local Dunola. 
tV'hoM Ui« rAck u vtrj "ttp Uov niwi ■ Bninl* ^uaboo Ifl ddcf w ith Uh help o( wbwh 

tlHij'<sn tf*vdby thDmostdiniirt TooUs. Til' ' '' ^ ■ • ■ ■ .-•i.-_i--- 



1 llHla<: 
^its Vranfhri» wiUi awtull cluitiji *t<Wi;h joint i>r <!n 

uiih 0A3A> in Traiu, Been, Gcog. So«, I 

.t« of a mibatantul bambao 
11 on to bo luad M a «tt p. 

Chapter ' 





it i«- 


Chapter 11. 



rcbunw iiliowed a conajderablc VaiijAri Luilock traffic outw 
in wheat, intUan millet, tur, gram, tnyrobalariit, batter, oil, raw x\\ 
chillit!«, bet«l leaves, coriander seed, pulse. turiDuric, plantains^ 
cattle iucliidins sheep, aiid covntiy blank^itn ; and inwards in rice, 
suit, N«iy/i, vart, eocoaiititu, date8, aenamuui, metal, clotb, banslcx, 
betel, fiiih, rags, papi-r. and ttuibor. The exi>ort and import tnidn is 
with Juonar and otlK-r large village!* in tiio JuniiAr sub-ilivisio: 
Besides th« goodH traflic there ia a targe piiASHnger traffic chie~ 
husbandmen froiu Junnar and the neighbonring part^ of UiodiKln 
on their way to and from tlic great labour uarkot uf Bombav. t 
Six mik'.t M>utli-west of the Mtibti'j paxH nt tint biMtd of tlx' KuktftaH 
valley are two passes MAkgar-daiia and BlioitAKPl CHA-P ARA 4^^ 
RiTHVACHA-BARA from Anjanvpl in .IimiKjtto BhorJtndc in Mtirbdd^ i 
Tliceearestocp anddiiBcuU, aiidarcuGodonly by KoHs. AUiubuin"" 
further south at the head nf thn samo •vallftv.'is ^n ^.\kx pass 
miles in descent from Ghilt^ar to VnisSgrc and Dhasal in Murbi 
Next to the Bor pass thw ix the most used route between 1 
Doccan and thv Konkim wiiliin Poona liioits.' At tiivr iop tho 
road runs through a narrow gc)rg« between two steep rocks, J]ie 
rock on Uiu noHh buing known us N&ia's Augtlia or tnuinU 
entrance to the pasa in liy a_»taii-case cut deep thro ugh 
rock and descending tifty to a hundred^ foeFrtom~The l& 
of the plateau to a narrow terrace. Flanking the artificii 
staircase, in tJie precipitous rock wliich falls from the Deccan level 
to the terrace, aro rock-cut caves which appai-cntly were originally 
made, and which still servo, as travellers' i-ost-liouses. The walU 
of the chief cave are covered with a famous inHcription of the thitd 
AndlirAbhiitya king Vedishri 8hdtakami, whose probable dat« is 
B,a 90. From the terrace a stair, partly built partly rock-hewn, 
descends through heaWly wooded slopSs into tne Konkan. The 
lower portion ia eatiy and runs along i-ounded hills. At 
Hcveral places in the pass are rock-hewn cistema with excellent 
water wnose PAh iuaeriptiona show that they wpte cut about a 
hundred Ye«i-8 before Christ In 1675 _ the English phj-sician 
!Fr>'er, who had been asked to Junnar by the Moghal governor, 
rehiriied by the NJtna pass and found it shorter and uasier than the 
Avipa track up which he had been taken liy mistake. At th« 
top he was kept waiting by 300 oxen Inxlen with salt, then so 
precious that the saying was whose salt ivc cat, not whose bread 
we eat. After standing for an hour he persua>le<l the hullocV- 
men to stop and let him paiis. Once psKt the sidt bullocks, the road 
was feasible, supplied at distances with charitable ciste-rns of good 
water, aad towards the bottom adorned with buaiitiful wooda.' In 

1 Near the Nina pua th« ?ooo* bviiaiUrjr.rnKB far Ento the KonliaB. The ttotj 
is thai in a <liBiitiU- betwMn tlic □«lglib«untt){ ThUiis and Poona rillaget the Hlor 
of the f (toRii villiiKii )miiitt<d out frnm tlw top cf the SaliyUriB a lloe a long v^ 
w«at of the liUM uf tliv cLiir. The Thiiia TiUngvra ieerad at bin telliaj him ta n 
Onir th« precipK'v atiil tbow th* ItBs, TliA Poona Uhir tied wumowug tant nitdv 
hii amu anil to hja Icfo^ and throtring himaoU ovn- Lho diff floatud dowD snliart. 
On rCMliing the cronoa k« twgan to run we»t to what he oallcd the Poooa bonnilafy. 
The KonkiaD. vil]ag«« M>rii>g their land* nnaftinu awa; mcbbnl him to death, and 
iff. W.TJ, Unlock, aS.&iIIietOTcCrhiM 

lix«<l tha bQU&dajrv where hja bod* lay. iff. W. B, Mnlock, Ok^, ^ 
U882). ' Frjer'i East iodia and rcrwn, 128- 






l^JLihe pass was frg gaeiited by Va njAii.s iii the di-)- season. Init in 
tlie rains tli g gtepa iat o' which tlm rock Yisui l)e«u cub were in placov 
dan j i reroas f or cattle. ThougFTthi? rqqjft.»Yy^jtgi(ai4?raibk<Urt*"''-** 
in going from Ahinadnftg&r to K&lyAli. C«oplc J^ith bnfgod^ and 
followei-a pr^ brrc dto go round by the Bor paiss.* At present (1884) 
the pa^ is moeni^ed iu tlie fair weather ny inarki-t gardcnera aod 
oilmen from January These men loading tbuir bullocks wiih packs 
of chillies, ouiuns, and garlic, uuu'ch fram Jonnar to titUtgax at the 
top of the ftoBH. Here they stop a night and next day tbeit own 
pack-bullocka eo down the pass unloaded and the pocks are carnad 
don-Q the pa£al>y H pecial paaa buflaloes belonging to the GhAtgar 

■ villagcm. The builiuoes arepud ^d. (8 as.) a trip, liesidcs this there 
h A considei-able Vanjfirt tnuEo in grain from Junaar to Murhad and , 
Kalyiiu. t^till the ptuts can never b« more than a foot and cattle path^^ 
About ttfU miles ttoutli-wcjit at the ]i«ad of thu Miua valley is 
AJtpCLl a »uuill ru^^dpasa loading from Ajiibuli toPalu, nota trade 

■ roata Tiiu thoiurli onfy a footuatli iii much lued as it Is the most 
direct rotitt: from Junuar to Ealyao. ICi;TK-nAp^^i^'y|[|ni?'t.nAKA. 
(ootpathH leailiiiz from HatviJ in Juimar to Soiulvle iu Murlud are 
uaril only by Kou8, and are m stcvp tluit in plaoes hU-pm an' <:iit in th« 
rock. - dorEL t. also a footpath, leaua from Khodto Uhrulv in Murbeld. 
It Lt -ilti-p Aiid little iiw;<L AviPB, a deaoeni of four miles from 
Aviipt: iu KIuhI bo Khopivli in .\liirb^, IspaiiKabli! only for men, 
hut in tL4ed to carry headloadii of clarified butter into the Deccau 
uid myrobalaiw from the Deccan cooativards. Iu H i75 t he E^ltsh 
phyaiciaJi Fyor on his way to Junnar bt-iiiy inisguiiied had to 
elimk the Sahyddns apparently by this path. Tliu ascent was v«ry 
ditGcalt. 'ilierc was no path and the V>nwthlBs.s bearers threaded 
their way atiiid hanmng tre«s, the roots of which W(>ru Imd bare by 
the falling eartli. To lodk down made tiie braiii turn, and over- 
hand peiiduloiu rocioi threatiL'iie^l to entomb the tTavvllur. lutetute 
labour dn^w teaj-s of annui»h from the .servant*)" eyes and with 
much dilEciilty th«y carried their load to Ili« top bj a narrow 
eave ni cut thr ough rock.* Fryur relunitxl by the NAnapaas. SlltiKiAD 
deacendmtfti-omKoiidam-alin Khedto Js' impassable for cattle. 
boi ia moch used by foot-paattcngere. Tlin* patlia, UtUJt. Umbb a. and 
. QggAH It-ad from the Shidgad fort About one mile west of the 

■ trtnple of Bliiiiiufthnukar are twoiMWMMOueto the village of Balhiiier 

■ a|t>''l Itiv^Hii. and thf other to the village of KhAiidaa (.•alletJ BhimA- 
^^Ka Iq ld2tj the fihi ni4.shaiiknr patli.< ha<l much traflic iu 
^^^1. t. ^.)i (tud raw-sugar (rumtho Deccaiito Panvel and a return of 

aalt from Panvel to the Doccaii. Along much of their length old 

CQi'hiag and in uiariy places old paving reinaiii. Thr |mths are 

novF out of repair anil ari> us.^! oidv hy a fnw laden bullocks, horsM, 

aod travellers who aru carritnlin llttt^m from Khjindaa. Two other 

1^ footpatliH close to the Bhiraitehnnknr pa%s are called HATKARVATand 

HsXKkaRjiKi. AuBANALi two luilf-^soutb of BhimlUhanicaris uot p«uis- 

^able for cattle . ' VjUAS Tra a mile further is pa&table for unloaded 


' CIum' XiitMnfy. lis. 

• Pry«r'« Gut India Mid Parata, 128 - IS9. 


C4tt}u; NiSNi, wltirli LI iliflicult f\'>-ii for tn<>i>, » Dm ooiitiniiation of 
ViJjLNTH.i. At tile lieaJ of the Bhiiiia valley it Kolam b also calle«l 
BuATl, two iTiilea NouUi of Kotelj^ail, now out of repair nii<l tit oiilv 
for fool puseoucR uud uiiUulcu cattle. It had f!Q^rj.i\!;rly_ tiiuctt 
traffic iu rice and salt from Kalyfin. Clcnw io Kolaiub U a st«€'p foot- 
path by which Btli;tiw.'hiiiviitof the Itli R*-i;iiiieiit cliiu)>eiJ to Lii}flB<i 
in Fohninry l**I8 ati'l Mir^iriiwii a party of Kolis.' About rtv.i 
milva uoutn-wcst, at thu hcail of th« AiniliravAllfiy, three jpassoH 
Phe mXiikvi. A-PKI, aiiii S\ VLE lead from Savly the iirst to Mwegaim 
aniVtlii; l«At two to Piiiijiulpdda. Silvte pawt, which is navi-d hut U 
in bad rvixiir. n'a« foruiisrly UHcd for drocffing wood. In 1S24) the 
yuarlv value of the timber dra^gAd up tnu pawt was estiinat<Hl at 
£5(M)6(R5. l>O.UOa).' FuuriiiiK^N further HOutli. and ulso at tlie h>ttul 
of the iciJhra valley, U I'^isy n :il4!t fwt aW>vo the &«a, ft winding 
path itiadinji 2) iDiIe« from the villa^v of Kusnrgaon to Bhivpuri, 
and in Kood repair. The do(«c«nt is at Hrst Huy posdu^ amler 
fine sltiiidy trcoe. After wme distance it is a steep Kigza^; down 
the hill-.sida Most of it is roughly paved with large atonw which 
are stud to havo bven laid hy oue of the PeshwA^. At Bhtvpuri 
thers is a tine ntone reHer\-oir built at a cost of £7500 (Rs. 7r>,00il) 
by FArvatibiti widow of Sadiwhiv OiSuitiiiji of tJio Pc^Iiwa'h ftnuily. 
TTie road u paiuahlt; for mounted hoi-scineu or ladcu bulkicks, but 
not for carts. It w a great line of traffic f rom Talcgaon to Kai-jafc, 
MOTa l. Kalyfai. aud Fttnv el. The yearly toll reveuuc of aboat S&O 
(I». 200) i» spont on r^imi'^'iK *-^^ paiM. Calde vic ha IUsta leading 
from Junihatli to DiVk m Kur jut and VALVAJJDlJDi^Rt^M'*- MA"- leading 
frwi Vftlvandi U) Khadviii aitj iLHed T.y f(xit-pa.saen^t!ra and unloadeu 
aniinaU. Nine miles .■wuth-we^'t <<f Kuf<ur, wiiidiii*; elo»e under the 
ati^pesof liijmilchi, isthe fmtpatli of R.i JMXcHt known iu ThAna a)t 
thtt Konkiui DAnraja or KonUou Gate, TeoAingntiout five niile'^ to the 
village of Kharvandi on the UlhiU river in Kai-jat. It vran formerly 
vnsMablo by loilen cuttle, l»it i.s now out of n-piur and i.4 u.'wtd only 
Ijy foot travellers. Hisi>ol and Mir iia, l«tli of them footpaths, 
lead from NAni^jjaon and Kuiie in Mival to Kodilnno in Karjat. Kight 
miles south of Konkati J)ai-\&ja, at the tup uf the IndrAyaui va3loy 
about 2000 feet above the Icrel of the sea is ^JjeBoRM^, a winding 
made road from Lomivlaeight miles to KhopivlT^sTOi^ose of 1779 
the leaders of the unfortunate expei.iitton which ended in the Vod- 
gaon Convcnliou sptnl four weekn (23ril Novcmbcr-23rd Diwember) 
m making a y>»ih hi for artillery np the Bor pass. The traek watt 
inipn)ved in 180i by Geiieml \\\-llesley. From it.-s inijKtrtancc in 
joining Bombay and Puoim the improvement of tlie Bor jhihh road 
wa** one- of tlie first eare.i of the Bombay Goveriiincnt after 
fall uf the Pashwo. In IdiH, according to Bishop IIclKrwho|>a;«soiL 
through it, the road throngh the Bor paas though Itroad and good 
st«vp that a loaded carriage ur pfuanquin could with difliculty 
iken up. Every one either walked or rode riml nil merclinndino 
wa« conveye*! on bullocks «)r horse-s. To li«ve can*ir-l « irwl over 
tlieHC hills at all wa». Bishop IJeber thought, bii^hly rreditahle to 


■oad , 


1 Cldtics' Itinerary, HG. 

' Clonn' ItliMtary. IM. 




Boimb«y Oov^rnmont. niiil llie roiwl as it stood WA8 ptobkbl^ 

icleot for the iiitercoiinw thut citliur waa or waa Hkely to 

be l»etwe«o thf IJtccan and Konkftn.' A few yc-ars Inter the pom 

(nad WBs greatly improved, and in 1830 it was opened in ^tatu by 
Sir John Malcolm, the Governor of Bombay. In ItWOthepaaR 
road wna motalU-d tlii?oughont and ooinplctcd witJi t)ridgn8 an<l 
drains w as to be pa»tablo For cartH ilurtne the rains. In tuis year 
th« traffic yicl.lwl a toll revenue of £277* (R« 27,7+0)* In spita 
of th« improvement, in IKoO it was so dillicult uf a-tcent and descent 
that no ono «vc<r thought of driving up or ilown in a Cftrriago. 
PaBsengcn travflling by tliK public conveyoncL-a were carried up 
and down in pa]an<|uttu, there ueing different «ets of eoiKhcs for the 
high and low porUou.-* of the roatl. Privato carriages wvru pull«d 
up or let liowm by numeroUH bodiwi of workmen or elue they were 
carriwl op and down .swung from a niimVier of poU-s retting i>n mcn'i) 
sliuuldera* At present (lts84) it i» a tirMtclawf mt-talle^laiid curbed 
roftd tw«nty-two ft-^t wide with ma-wnry briflgi'-f, culverts, drainit, 
dry stuuR retaining walU, and an cany gradient. It Itan con-siderable 
eart traffic from Poona to Panvol and Pen. Wheat, raw sugar, 
<d], darilied butter, uiillct. and cotton pass wcKtwanls, and salt 
DMMS inland. In I8H1 the Bor na^i toll yiel<l(M) £7»0 (Rs. 7900)l 
In 1860 the Peuiu^uls Railway lino to Pofjua vras taken acrotn 
the SohyidriH at the Bor paiw/ South of Kliand&la Naopiiax i or 
Colca'a HocxI b-iuliiij4 fnini Ktirvanda in M&val to ChAvri in Karjat 
' ia used by foot iiia.<uK<ngerH and unlt»ukHl animals. Two mileti Hoath, 
H at the head of thu Indriyani river, KoBONP l pa^tsable for laden cnttl«, 
, oIm) leads west to Chavri in IV-u. l-'urther south are Kevni five milca 
Imtween Yekoli and PiioliAimr, DerTA foor niile»« between Ohiilka 
and Nenavli. Avu five miles btTweeiTPimpri and Alvane um-d by 
foot pBsaenfferH carrying no loads, and Pr«PRi hx milo« between 
Piiupri and Potntu used by pack-bulli>ckit carrying myrobolaai 
^salt and coats. Furtbiir douth in tlm MuUhi petty divinion are 
M Ni HSi Ajibon h four inilea from M».biAt« to Itf itngnon ; Ambavke or 
H g^j-tMBVA five nnles from Ambavne to Kalamb ; VABASD iB four 
f Bulea from SHltar to Kon<Igaon ; Temieja Sav akni four inileH from 
Telbcla to Dhondse ; NiVEor Bavaty a four inik-;* from Nive to 
Patnoa ; Ta mki or SXTafjC rm three imlea fr-omTamni to Vile,allusfd 
ly foot paaseogera who oftau carry beail-Ioads of uiyrobahuw, butter, 
(oala. salt, and rice; GapLtrr on the direct road from Poona to 
NAgothna leading into tlitTPaDt Sachiv's slate of Bhor ; Lenpb or 
Lwji^Ni.HNt, aiiiT Tamhasa, in the extreme HDuth and fit only for 
men. Ivoil into KoUho. South of these connecting the Bhor state 
and K.olAba are several pamea PEV^ KL'mbuf. 'FHiimuiiE, Ivavlta. 
SHEVTr.1, Madhta A-MBOTaLj Oopy a, Yaraxdha. and Shevta, all 
of w'Kcli ore useful for Pooaa traffic 

Of the paasea over tiie spars that nin east from the SahyAdri* 
tfa» chief arc in the Sinhgad-Bholeshvar range. Four cart road* 

' Raber'* Tnvdi, MM. * UMtttnv'* W^tma India, 879. 

■ Tmrf* Itawxu, lM0-4t, 390-81. 

• Datalb of th« Bgr pMi railwajr m jItot btkw pp. IW>I*I. 

a 1377-90 


tBombftj GuettMr. 

Ch&ptvr TI. 




rrosa tlie Sinhi'a'l-P'i"'*"**!"*'*'' rwigoat tlie KjJtrni. BAbdey, Di vft, and 
Bor p aawca. Tlic K^traj j»m< is on the new o&ULtb roa^i, a fine 
piiMX of modem i-i.^-wict-nn^', crossinf; the cre^t of the rango in a 
tunnel. The Babpry. o}>nnt ton uiilea from Sds^-nfl aiid Wtwec 
Bluviiri ami Komlliv«.^ Budrukh. is on the old Sitata ro«J tlir 
liavfli nnil PuriuiilhiLr. In 1H03 Holk&r brought hit plumlcrini 
Ixiiids lip t)ii» jxiKH. It wa.s ptit in ordtjT attiul tliv year iHi4, aitd 
{or ycAm afterwanlii was in a prosporotis coivlition. Until 18S3 it 
WOK \uicA for wlMM'led carriagva, hut since tliv opening of the Diva 
aiitl fior ]m&ai:Ji m the aomc mnge of hills, it tiafi beui alnndoued. 
lu 1853, it was one of the wont iipeciiiK-it» of a |ia!« in Wi-sl«t 
Intlis. Itaaii;>lcsaii(l ^'ntdiuiite were frightful to coutcinpliLt^, it 
sharp turna heing in hodw p\aoes ftnnkol hy tow waIIh whicli atTurd? 
but u xlij-ht hiilwaik agaitut th« prccipiixia whicb tliey cro»nt< 
The roairiu tliu stt^epesKi piirtd woh constantly rou^fh, being cov«r< 
with loose roaitd Atones. Thin to sonic oxtunt Mirved to check t} 
iinpetiu of a dviHM-iMliufr loul but ^roatly increased the toil of draw- 
ing u loAil up. At present it is unpracticable for l&di-n carts imd 
is u»od by pnck-bnllockH nnd toot, pu&s<^^ii;y^r8 carrying; headloads 
of inHngo«», figs, and veget&blea to I'oona from Supa and the ncigh- 
lK)uriiiK villaifeA. Tlic outwatd ti-atBc i^ taliuialed to be worth 
nbnut £200 (Rn. 2000) a year. Tiw Di^^jass, between Diva and 
Vadki, sevfiii miles further east and sffinuwt north of Sitsvnd was 
mod*! in \iio3 at a coc^t of £8500 (lis. S^j.OOO) from Iiiipenal furid« 
to <iU]K'i'HuiI«> thu Uabilttv pass. Thu pawt is kept in good ordt^ 
bj- j-eaily rppain*. and wlioclcd carrias«t can easily go over it. 
Considcrabli? traffic, couidsting of gntinuf every sort, fruit, C^ecially 
maii};oc» and figs, vt^utablcs, taw migar, tircwood, bnttt:?, oUj cloth 
and othci' articles of foroipn nianiifActur<v, niotal work, timly^r, jmgar* 
and epioe^ pai»sc8 hv Hw* route. The int^rd ti-alTic U woilh about 
£20.000 (Re. 2.00,0011) and the outward alwHl £10,OUO (Rs, 1.00,000). 
The Bon or SiXDAVXEp tisn, iiint' miles furthcT ea^t, lacar tli« end of 
the spnrTbotween Viighnpur luid Sin(la\nie, is the oldest route acrocis 
the Sin1i;,'iid-tih<jlt'»Iiv(ur ranyc. It wiu; erot«wd by the Duke of 
VV ^fH l p^f^tii in his famnufi foired march ii i IfiOij ,' and by Pcalivra 
Biiiiriiv whonlio tied from Poona in lftl7. Tlwugh wupcrsn-deii hy tlie 
Biiodttv paw for traffic witli Pooua, tht- roaiJ is Btill kopt in repair 
as it is A lioi- of communication Uitwcen the Urali railway ttlatioa 
and )%i>i?ad, Jt:juri, lunl ntlu-r pliice^ou the oM .Siitiira roml. It was 
nmrlr in IH<t2 at a cost of about £100 (Rs. 1000) from locai funds. 
At privsi'iit<^ ro»>l IS in good order and fit for wheulod carriages. 
The pa!w in cliiflly o.'sed by pilgrims from the Urali railway station 
to Jejnrj. Tlie IraBic chictiy in ooni and oUier articles of daily 

UM is worth aliout X2.i00 [Its. 25,000) ft j-tjur, 

6eRidoi3 four large hi-iilgi>.t ami one dam fa dharaa and several 
minor bridges in the tuwu and cujitonment of Poona and Kirkee, 
the (IiBtrict has forty-two briLlgtaofuot luss than fifty foct long. 
C^ (be Pootut and Kirkee hridges, the Wsu^aLET Brid^ 

1 Tb* Dnka'a fuwxaB tnftrch ot aiity mtlca in tbirtr-t«ro ba«n wu fmn BtriBM lJ 
^ PoQML . P B Vtv mh tMJ eOtk al AjgU 1803. Orwit ip^ri yiritb**. b ^ "* 




,n«il aHcr Uie Marqais of WullealHy over the Mutb* river 

at the Siui^ni, 4D8 feet long, of stoirn and lime masonry 

titroiiffliout, with einht 524 fwt sian sagnifjitaJ urches ami cnt- 

stont- parspet walls, mduding « roadway iH^ fiwi widt; and 

forty-tive te«b above (he fouiidat.i<Mi or river-bcd, wan built in 

1674 at a co«t of Jeil.0d3 6«. (VU. 1, 10,933). The ortgiual hridgo 

wUch wu cittireJy of wood .was built in 1H2^ and wa» removod iu 

1^839. A 3ton« bridge was then built which continued in use till it was 

■ciiujved ill 187-*. The aew bri'Ip.- keeps the Dame of the forn»:r 

oridge, thi* people chani;;!!!}:; thu wunl Wollesler into Vasii. Not far 

from this brid)^ to the west is the railway b«Pidj{e ovor the Mtitha. 

The [jkK»in;L oa the Alutha river at tliu north-west end of 

city wa« built in 1847. at a cost of I2m7 lOi-. (Its, 20.075). 

iioagh of stone it 18 called tJte t/aiuU Put or Wooden Bridge, becauao 

, is on the site of a -wooden hrid<Ai \vliich vtas built by one of the 

i-aliwis and gave way in the iTooHs of 18*0. The present bntln[o 

: 323 foot Ion*;, with nine forty-oi<;ht feet span BociiKiital arohea 

stone and lime and parapet.^ of coursipd stone ana time ntasniiry 

Binding ft roadway 181 feet wide and 3+i feet above the foundation 

rivcr-bu<l. The h'trrxiERALn Bridge over iltc Hula-Mutha river 

»w the Bnnd Gaitlnns, 1 0O2 feet long, of stone and time masonry 

ut, with thii-teoii sixty fcctspon somi-cltiptieal ai'div^ and 

.litpt^t walU, ineluditig a roadway 26) feet wtdr and 47t feet 

«jv«> llw! foundation or rivor-lx--!, was built in I8G9, at a cost of 

!4,l>'i>') is, (Ba. 2.41,5:11). Holkar's Bndgu uvlt the Mula river 

at Kirkoe, 548 feet long, is btiilt of stone and lime maiunry 

iliroQ^hout. with ninct^^n ai-vciitwii-ffet SL-gm^-iital arches, and a 

jwrapt't of cut teak wood rniUiig. including a roadway Gftccn feet 

■ridi.' aii'l tweuty-t'ifjlit ftet alwvu tin; Fuiiudutiun or rivor-Uxl. The 

kDCIiy-iB Vks or Pottfts^ Gate JIuuan or causeway is the oldest 

ising over tho Mntlia river near Kasha P«tli to the north of Poona. 

r oUl causeway gtivc way in the beginning of British nilc, and the 

icot maaeway wa« bndt between 1835 and 18M-at a co$t of 

jt £3000 (Re. 30.000). paid partly by Qovernuiciil -nud' partly 

by the people. It i» built of solid ittone masonry, and is 2iii ynrda 

long and aevcn yards broail. It ha« twelve nine-feet wide iJuicea. 

Xhiring tlie monsoon floods it is under wat«r and iinpiwlable. 

^Bie other brtdgoa iu the town of Poona are: the }1a1Xi.kuok 

K^Sweepere" bridge over the M&nik Nila sixty-eight yards 

^k^ a ma-'siw Rtnictma of cut-«iono masonry with throe 

Hhre<feet broad vents or waterways leatling to the HaUlkhor 

qiurt«t« in Mangal^'ir Puth ; it was built between 1835 and 

^040. Tlic JakAt or Toll Bridge, connecting the Mat^alvttr and 

^panvitr Petbs, with tliroe twelve-leet vents, was built Iwtween 183fl 

^Kd 18*0. Here tbc tolls were levied in thu PvvibwAs' Hmu. 

HmAtipuka Bridge on the Miinik strfiun was built in 1870 at a coot 

^ £300 (IU. 8000). It i:< a <]oub1e bridge at a point whcro the 

main road branches. Thf arches are sniglc of twenty-two feet 

«psD. The DABLTiiji or Fireworkers' Bridge on the Nigzari stream, 

joining the Ravivir with the Nyaliil, Bistiii, and Somv4r Petlw, wa« 

birilt ui 1670 nt a cost of S.I-jQU <Ha. 15.000). It U lifty-eight yards 

and baa four twelve-feet bide vcnt^s. The BtiaTTi oc Bridts-. 






Cbaptrt TI. 

Kiln Gale Bridge on the MAntk iitrcam joining Riuitia's Petti with 
the Civil Lines was liuilt in ISi-V It is a small culv'ert 
two acv«n-fMt v«nto. The Pirsi biidgo or cauwway on tt 
N&gjhari stroaiu joining Gani'sli Peth with R£stia'& Peth was bui 
in 1 830 l>y a Poona Parai. It has ihrtiv f ive-foct wide venta, and 
is occasionally under water durinK the rain.-t wlicn it beooiues 
impAasahlc. The GANi:sn Peth Bria^e, joiiung the GanesL and 
Nana';* Pctlis, was built in 1835. It is a cut-sumt bridse with three 
sixtvcn-feet arches. The BuBL'Dor Gaaket-umlceiV Bridge nvarthe 
BnniUo' ouartei's, joining bin; Ravivdi- oad Blmvdai PeUu), was bailt 
between 1J^40 aud 1845 of KoUd cut-Htoue masonry. It hni; foui 
nino-fcct- arches. The GuA^iiicri Bridgo, joiikhi}; G&nj and Vet&] 
1'etli with fihavftni PetU, was built in 1845 at a cost of £180 
(K«. 1800). It is of solid cui-stoae laasonry and has three 
eighteen>feot arches. 

Of the forty-two other liridRCfi In Uic district, twcnty-thrcs arc on 
the Poona-ShoUpur road, six on thePoniin-Alimadnagar ixiad, three 
on the Poona-Nfaik rood, six on the Poona-Fuuvcl road, and four 
on the Poona-Sfit6ra road. Tlie bridgen on Uie Poona-Sholiiptir 
road were boitt about the year IS36>37. Motst arc of cournvd, 0D« 
isofuncoorsed. and four are of partly coursed rubble masonry. They 
ar« fifty to 17B feet long, with one to fire ten to fifty Fettt »egtiiontaJ 
arches aud eighteen to twenty ft-et wide roadway from nine to 
twi-^iity-one feet above tho foundation or river-bed. The bridge* on 
the new SAtdi-a road which Were built in 1856 are nint-tv to 162 
f«el long, of coursed rabble with thi-ee or four twenty to forty feet 
span segmental arches and twenty-four feet wide roadway from 
twelve to twenty-one fef>t at>ove the fonndation or river-bed. Of 
the threo bridges on the Foona-NAaik i-otu], whidi were built iK-twoea 
I8.'>4 and 1856, two are nxty-five feet, and one over the Hina at 
N&r^yungaOQ is 320 f«ei long of Hone and mortar niasonrv. Thvy 
have from one tu nine, lifteeii to tiftv feet «pau segmental ai-ehex, 
aud a roulway twenty to twenty-Hvo feet broad and 10} to twenty- 
five feet above the fouudatiou or river-bed. TJio sLx bridges on 
the Ponna-Ahttiadnagar road, with the exception of the Ghod bridge, 
were built in 1542-43. Four ai-e lifty-five to nixty-three feet long, 
one on tho Vel river is lifty-two feet long, and one on the Ohod, 
which was built in 18C.S, is 800 feet lontf. They are built of stone 
aud mortar maiwnry with two to Rixteen cif[lit to fifty feet span 
segiuentai or semicircular arohca aud a romiway sixtopn to twenty 
feet wide and 7J to ;17| feet above the foundation or river-lted. The 
Vol bridge cost £2205 (R». 22,050) aud the Ghod l.ridg««10.359 16a. 
(Ra. 1,03,5&S). Of the six bridgeH on the Pooiia-Panvd rood, th« 
Inrtrirani bridge which is Wut of atone and lime masonrj-. has 
sevcnteiii twcnty-fvft Mpiui two-ocntrc art-bo* and a r.^ndwuy fourteen 
feet wide aud fourteen feel above the fouudatiun or river-bed. 
The D^puri bridge, which wm built in 1842 at a eost of £G8S8 
(Rs. 68,580), is 994 feet long, partly wooden and partly of aton« 
and time masonry, with thirteen thirty -five feet span arches and a 
roadway twenty feet wide and tweuty-sLt feet above thi? foundation 
or river-bed. Tlic other bridges are "fifty -seven to oighty-four fe*t 
long, of stone, or stone aud brick and fiuic masonry, with two to 




five tvato Iwenij-tvo feet npui segmental arctics taid a roa<lway 17A 
feet wide and nmu to 18) fo«t *&ve the foundation or river-bed. 

Of thirteen public ferries, one U a secoud cla&a, one is a third 
class, and eleven fourtb clnsa ferries.' Two, one acro.'ot the Ohixl 
at Kidiuiib ftiid Uip otber across the Kukdi at Pimpalvaudi on the 
Pocin«-X4sik road, am in Junnar ; two, one acro&a tlie Dhiina at Khed 
and lite other across tiic BhAiua at "V&ki ou the Poona-N^Mk road, 
are in Kbed; one, acroiiH the IndrAj-ani at Induri on the Talegaou 
Station rood, is in M&vaI ; one, acroas the Bhiuia at Kofogaon ou 
Uie Ponna-Ahmadnagar rond, is iu Sirur : two. one acroM the 
IndrtiTaDi at Afwihi on the Poona-Nfisik road, and the other across 
the Siutlia Inko at Sangrua are in Uavt<Ii : one acisis^ tho i^ira at 
Pimpri Khurd on th..- Poons-^tttra road U in Purandhar; two 
acrofw the Rhima, <Hie a third cla&s ferry at Khitnot« and the 
other at Pargaon on the Sirur-Sit^a road are in lihimtbadi; and 
tho rBmaioiog two, also acroaa the Uhima, one a s«coml class ferry at 
HhfieikBgwiD on the Poona-ShoUpur road and the other at Chandj^'aon 
on tho rcttd to tho PomaUitiii rnihTny station, are in Tndi(pur, 
Except the Sanf^run and Indurt ferries, which were establi^Jifra ia 
Id77-7H, at a OMt of £116 (Ks. 1 160) and £350 (R«. 3500), all those 
Cerriea were Mtabli.^hed before 1875. The two ferries at Saiijn^n in 
Haveti an<l Chan<lgaon in loditpur work throughout tho year, a^ tlio 
Wftter there i.4 always niifonlable; the rest work during the rniny 
•Maonooly. In 1881-32, the thirteen public furrit.-H yiuldcd a revL-nu* 
of about 1388 (TU. 3fi80) affainst £W7 (Ra 4;170) in l«7+-76. 
During the current year (1884.86) they have been farmed for £555 
(B& 6000). Rales framod under the Ferry Act (II. of 187&) fix the 
urvs tm paasengers, animals, carriages, and eradle.s.* B&iideit these 
ihere im one furry ut Netva in Junnar across the Puxlipiivnti. It U 
maintained by local fund.s aiid passengers are carried free of charge. 
Th*rp are stvi-nd privati' fi-mcs, whicli, i^xci-pt thi- ferry oenKis the 
Bf ulu-Mntha below the Sangam bridge near Foona, work during the 
rains only. Th« ferry Ixwtj* are gwicroliy buill in BoniliaT or in 
Thtos, Init somo ha'vo been made by men bi-ougbt from Bombay 
in the public works workxhopa in Ponna. They are built on the 
lines of ordinary boat«, of wood brought from KaUkat, and at a cost 
varying from £100 (R». 1000) fur a small boat to carry atuut fifty 
paaseogeRt to £3S0 (Rt. 3300) for a largo ferry boat to carry hones 
and cattle as well a& paawngers. Tim most Buocessful foiTU of ferry 

Cliapt*r 7t- 

I Thsni *K foer duM* of public farie* : 1. those that da not nrnks tntm thui aix 
I trip* in ■ dftjr of foart«cn ^ovn t II- thoM tlwt <lo not m»k« mora than t«n trip*: IU. 
Uma* tint <l<i not nukn more than fiftccu trip* ; IV. aai tliOM tbtt la&ke mar« thkn 
flflocn trit>. 

■Th* uxictloiuu) chMfMant: Fat^iagatt oiclnxlro of children id onn* {d. (} a.) in 
wiiiiiil »a<1 IJ. 'I.) in third koil fourth clas* fcrrii-B i foiir-whcclot cAiriagai, Ia 
CS (ultn »«-'^i'I, iB'l'V. (Su*.) iBlWt.|«.n<lfoiirthi-tnjuif«Tir« ; tiro-whcrlpd oarriuc*, 
M. (Gcui}io«cDoad, (W. l-tfu.) in third, uid 4J<i. (3a«.)iii fourth dUjb fen-iM; liulwit 
eatOtt, b«ni«(l cattle, «iid mtilus, 3ii. ('2 a*. I in M«otid, And lid. U a.] m third md 
Isurtb cUm fonics ; iinl«d«si poniw, homed mttle, wkI male*, ami ubm, 114^(1 a.) in 
•Kund. uid ill. [ia.)inthinlw)dfi»irthcUaiforTles;CMncls.4U.|8a<-)inawxuKliuuI 
U tSiu.) intlilril an<lfn(irthdaaif«mi«:iheep»iidKnita, 4^(:t<u.) in •ootinil and 
Hd. na-)ii> tliirdao't fu«rtliol>nfMrtM;pa]Mn«i<i withb««nnl(. (So«.)i)iKCoad 
SM t&inl ud id, (4 1*.) in Iwrih dnt* tetrid ; and lilUn or jkIAhM witk bnrtn. 
U. (i nj.] iu Hcond uid third and &/. (3 at.) in fourth «Um fanic*. 

[Bomlwr SuettMT. 



M Ivo boAte, »ch twenty-two feet to thirty-seven feet 

W ^ to lea fwt brOH>l joined together t^ a top fratne. tba 
(^A«eB in Kuiia by csslv. Ferrj- bontft luu in matiy CMes worked 
Iff AyOtt boiscs. A wire rape Is buiig from bank to ImhIc above 
inlor fevd vrtli a pully ffoi'kin« on ib to wblcb ihv boat i$ 
al^ilirifl ud, b<^ kept at on on^To t<j tlic nin of the utreom, gam 
t^tm br A« pn»sur» oi the stream water a^'diD^t tbu Ixiat, the 
MJBfj iJiding dong tJic iraa rope and so briugiiig the boat ^tmi|;ht 
Ao river. 

I five Kuropean travollcrs" bungalows, ten district rereniu 

_»■ bongalowi, and nine public works bungaiows, tbuno 
\S6 rmt-boases or dfiarmKhd UU, for tlie ate of oatiro 
Ull 'iB 'T*' tnd ^vo for tbo use of troopa. Of thi* five Eoropeon 
^gfJIvs' buni^alowa, four, at Lonikaiid, Koiidbapuri, Sirur or 
^^1^ «u>l IXumd. are on tho Foona-Abmndnikgar rood, aod 
)il IpM n''*'* )" on the PoonA>rAiivcl romt. Of tlic tvn discrid 
cfficprs' bungalows, one is at iMnr in Juimar. one at 
f^lr^ ! ■'""-' fci S/iflvnd ill Purnnilhar, one at I^iii KnlbhAr 

tafc*'-^'. - ■ ■"*' I^™"*!"*"" Siipa and Yoval in Bhinithaiii, aiu] 
K at iDiUpiir K«mbhi4rf,'aon rihI Loni in ludApur. Of tbfl 
pnU^ works btiUfCslow^, two at Knrla and Vadgnum are uu tJie 
^SoMbay road ; one near th<t Xjra 1<rid|*c in on the old Pootta> 
f^ ; one at P4r([fton on the Sirur-Xira briiij,f road ; one at 
^ on tbfl huWpur-Niaitiiftt roa<l ; one at Vir on tli« Nira 
^^ hoaii '"**'* I''*'; i>n«al NArAyanfTtton on the Poona-NAMk 
■■T. ^ |«u »| I'Atas and Itbiyvan on the Poona-ShoUpur uwi. 
JJ^i^ IB( p<«(-hou.-Me or dUarmafuiL'M for the ose of natira 
~ ^ff^ all of which are not Bit^iat«d on hi^h road*. 
EZ^iB jnauif. '*»"■■ "* Khubi. Dingora, lUjuri, and 
\1 III* lUl»<i-Ana pnaa road, and three at Kalamb, 
y^taA Jonnar on the Poona.NA«ik roml ; thirty nrv \n 
. isn a«v hifibnvid ; t-ku-fii art.- in Miival, five at Tal^^yaon, 
KUhlk"*^*- VaUvIiiin. and Khnnditla on tlie Poona- 
V^. (tichln*)! "»' i" f^irur. four at Korcgaon. SbikrSpiir, 
mA t3anp*ti» HinjaiiKaon on Uie Poona-AJiniiwinagaf 
*" -^ *w-4Ct «• *" Hawli, two at Vofiboli and Lonikhund on 
^ '"*\1W»«1"'P"" "**'• ""*" ** S'l'Y^pur on the new PotHia- 
*t lUHwri on the I'oona-NAhik rooi], ono at Cajmri 
t,\A r«nl- wd ono at Urali Konchon on the I'ooua- 
,.„(..'« nrt- in Purandhar, two at .Siisvwl and 
111 Kikvi on the new Pooiiu-Siitara road; 
, li. live of them at Vcvat, Kedgoon, Pafcaa, 
ti the Poona-Slioldpiip road; and thirteen 
, r llhiji^'an. Pnij. Loni.and Indapnr. ou 
I tltrcL- at Nlmbgaon-Kutlci, I^L-suma, 
lUninmli road. Thtre aru also 
, urw n»""l by native travellers as 
no other n-sting plawK Of the fi* 
>op)i, two, at V'adsaon and KhandiUj^ 
1, ouu at Lonikana la on the Poon^ 
^.wUtiApuri and Sirar (Qhodnodi) arc on 

T^-' r^ !■— 


' ' '*!*?-' ~ 


kl - li"~. 



The district roftds hsv* ci^TV-^i vll-'-tr-. iim-^i :■ 
provincial naif ha-i 'is :r. ".:■:-*! ^-^zii r *>. ■; *..:. 

Sroi'inda] toU-bu^. six &: K'r^ii^s •*-.-.':. k '^■--:-^ 
Apiiri, HsdApsar, Y-:v&;. Kuii' ':.irj-i:-. s.-_ 1 Ir/ii^ir 
Foona-Sholapor MiA-i : iw:-. iT Si:ri,; i:_: Rik-r: u-t c -.'-t itt 
Stlt&ra road; two, &l L:-:-:kai: *■.:':. & j-i-:.-.. u Vij':L L: ir.! 
Ranjangaon, are on ih-: Pvla-^l.-tt r:^i in: -.'j^:. i: S-::ril:, 
Peth, anii XSreranacc, ir; •=. -.:.- P- r.i-Ni.?:i t:h,. ■ -f :!-: ?ii 
local fund toU-tATS or.^i-a:ii-.- N:r& rr:'.-^ - 'JLt ;.: >k-_ir4 t-:*.:, 
one at Hingne-Ehuri c>i x:.~ t' •::.%-': .-':.s\'. :i>l. :r.r i: rJiTLji..- 
OB the Poona-PaU'l r:<i.j. iht i*. :*:.-:: "r.A^-_-si:.r .r. -Jir Ljj-!.:_-k;i- 
Ebinoti road, one at KJial-iHi-^ :. '.':.- Vi;^-i.-.>:.:jLri: -r r ;kl i^i 
ooeat Aimd \riih a --li";.-'...'^ a: LiL^ri ■, -.:.-: A--_ :-"^>.TlAr.iL: r:*!. 
All the toU-baRi, t»th o:. jr:-.-J:;;:*l iL : l.-i-il :i:.: r.o.1- irr -;'. i 
every Tear by auction lo c::.:ra.,:r-. Ir. Irii-S' :>.-; i-i'.: - '::L- 
am(rantedto"£7430iR-. 74.:j:v : r :■ „- :. t.- --lii.Lil ro,:- ir.- 
£i3«(Ra.23,+tO, for loll, ^l'-..^*: :- : t^:.,":.- i.-TTi r.^. /TT*-.'. 
in all 

Daring the last qsartvr i :' a c-:"-^- ::r.---;rjr rs liT-» l^^a ELkt;.VAT. 

greatly improved Loi c!;> V.y Trjik-:::^ tv;-. - -: i",-:- •- -zkz:'^ 
the Great IniJian;'--y.a Rai'.T^y wL;.":. ::r '.-■'■ rzl'.-'-:'^^-^ 
through the district fr-.m ■^ir. :■: v-^t. 1: i-r-r? :'-- Ii^-.ric: a: 
Khand^la near the crtii ci :Le S/r^vilHs wL:.;. i^ i'--:;: "^v^j 
feet above the Ievc-1 cf ib; t^a. i"' :■ i-. u: -.tvl-tt :;.■::..■■ :be 
tine rans throogh a ron/a ai.1 },:'.'.t ■ ■■.■..■.-■.: 1: -ci*. i.i*ies 
Uiroiigh the fertile pkin ]}->._■ ''..i-tw.v.;!. -:.._. iLirl-.-i--: a-.l l'ij:;a 
rirers twenty-one rail-;s s"*-,: :;:--&;» : > 1' -...i i\- in lV-:-a i:3 
conne is east alcins the vii'.kj* .: :;.-> M-^'i-M .::;» &-_■! Bbii:i3, 
forty-eight miles to Dti'.in'l^ii!;*i -.■. :. , . .:-;::-;:.?:, -vT-.T.:v.r. :i;ik-* to 
IMlra&l, where it enters Sli:lapHr. 1: La^ •.-'.L'LMvr. s-a::.:i= : Khnr.'la'ia 
■renty-seven iniks from Boii^^.iy, L.t.^.vIj TJj ::,:'.-.■-, K;i;'.a ?+\ 
fflfleB, KhadkAla h[<^ mi]-:--^, V:,.i"_-;i.r. !.:::■.-:■.-■■. ix u-'.'.-.s, T;i'iL'a':ii'- 
Dttihide ninety-eight railtR, :?Ko'::'.':-v;i.ii li.>r:j-.::t-. C!ii:;chv:i.l 1"!) 
■iltt, Kirkee U5i miles, p...>ii.i 1 1;- i-i'..^. L..:.i liI!-,! .iSic, l'r-.iU 137 
■nJw.YeTOt l-15miles, KcdL-aoii l.>2i i:.;'.-.-^. IVit^^ f.'.'.' iiiiks. Dhoiid 
IKl miles, Boribyal 172t mil. s, an.! Dik^ai \^-y) \:v.\i:S. T!ie Uuo 
mbegan in ISoG imd tho ^tt-ti'.ii h-r-m K;i;i:i.lii'.;i to lVuii:i was 
fened tor traffic on tholkU of June l>-'tr :uid iruui IViiia to Dikssil 
*ftie 15th December o£ the samoviiir. Fr-nn lJ!i..ii'l. whit'li isontho 
™* frontier, runs the Dliond and Mamniil Stati- Hallway. tbei'UorJ 
■W which joins thfi north-east and suiuh-casi scotionTi of the Oi-eat 
^fiwi Penmsala Railway. This linu fmni Dhi.nd to Ahmadua^r 
»iiiopened on the ItJtb March 1S7S. Dhoud is tho only .-tatiou on 
fteline within Poona limits. Thronghuut tbo district tho IVninsiiln 
iflway line was easily mado. KhaudiilM, which is provided with n 
•fety Hiding, is the fourth and Londvla is the fifth station on tl'o "^J 
PM> incline.' Besides ordinary buildings costing £'250 to * 

'HlB Bor incliiw bc«ini at Karjat aUtion near tlio villngB of ''"J"^' '('tUo'wuoil m 
" ■ d 206 fact iibovo mcuii son level. As tho cruKi. 

■fid from Bombaj ua 

Chapter TI- 


^Bombay 6autt««r. 

(Rst. 2300 - 1 iS.OOO) with qoajrlera tor a station-master and a Ijookiag 
office ntid n-niting' rooniH, «A Kliandiil», KliadkdU, Tnleg«>n, Kirkm, 
Poutu, Drali, Kedgnon, PaLaii, and Dhuud, and rafreAnmeut-rooms 

ttl7 iMt, lb* Iw^t of tbp iiinlln* t* 1831 (ect nad tbv dUtMieo fiftcea niiloB, or n 
•veia^ p«di«Dt ataaic in (art;r'"''- At Thftkurvldk tb* fint •tAtiAa, about Mir 
mUm frvm tb> bottwii. Uifuly aiding* mm proTidod, into wliivh aaj^ tr>iii can b* 
hinwd antd atoppoj. Tbr ntxt Italian ii *i Ui« B&tt«>>- hill wtil the ibml i« ■! ilw 
nvenriag (Utiou ftl tbe clernih mila, whvra, by dmwm oJ b (idiiiSi tin tmn Imtm 
Um lUHoii in the oppMito itinotico to whicfa it entered. Tbi* ouag* i* rcry t>l 
vutagBOU it thli plirticuUr puioL It kllowi thcbneto bnlAJd ia Uic beat dirwtiw 
urt^tnla cndimtaand work*, and niisNiUlvrnl alUiattMMiiCntt of Uia |cmI* 
ploe. The foartb ttatlan ii U KbuwUU at Hit tfalrtrnDth mile, wbcn alio ■ mtUj 
Riding i*pmvti)#H.uiflth«tifth iatt LonftvUoa tba otmL KtaMiilllAaDd X.oairla if* 
wiUtiu rootiit liniiU. Ud liHving I>«IaKUtkri or KujattbcluM kMl* toCba VMtan 
flank of tbo Knwt ^micin«|nir. In thuflnl hrur iniUaare v^tyheatrj worka, wbieb • 
■aoond avrvajr •bavoil to bo ne^raiury to ralnco tho gndieala that ira« firat laid out. 
Sou* beavy ainbaukntoala Lrii^ tliv Ud« tiiTouijb ttie flfst mUc. It then keep* mnnd 
tlwSoiigin hill, jiwinng oo ita CKMIM throngb ms tooDeb of $fl, 133. 1^1,99. 136; ami 
143 yarrln. rh«ii bnidiiu; nortli wllb vary hoavf woriu th> liiw oliniha roand Uw 
ilAhukinaUi and Kbanii bilU to tbo ^tatioo at ThAkiarvaila, (Ij mile*. In tbo Iwt 
two milM then arr ciubt luuadH vt 2S6, Sill, 262, 49, 1*0. SO, 437, and lUS yarOi. 
And livt vuducts w-hick thoDgh not rcry long are vrjy lofty AlluicepttbetaalM* 
of Diwuury. Willi llftytect archut, aiu) vinduct haviiw cigbt. one aiv, and twofoar 
OMuiugi. Tbo fifth viftdaot. originally of Mi;bt litty-lMt aniha*, vra* njilaood 1^- iva 
Wamn girdenol WJ fort 1 pan. Thelcoat u«a|[hto(pkr ia Mveuty-ieven feet. t«» 
KM ninaty-MJC'it. on* 139. and i>n« U3. LMvinft tliu wetian of laanolt. fior two 
milt^iberaoidtlie Kliami bill, the liiie raam aloes n nateral (smce or oaM in tberatk, 
nitlitiut any obataclw, a» faraiUamlibimitli wbirre tb« t«mM--o i' uet by two ebfM 
rocky mvinea. CniMing thcM raviiii« by two amall viaducts, one «itb nx fovtyfict 
and tbe other with four ttiiit}--(m.'t orchus, witb pien turiy-vl^t and ai^ty-n^l 
foot hid), tbe Mae keopa aliuig tho aatti« ueaa far two mllia to tb^bold oataunjuig 
rock euUd Kfttbii^ha Iti'ogar. In tb? [ut t<rr<< mile* arc hrary woiLv, niat tuantli 
of ai, 198, N, <i9, 120, ;!>, 71, SaO, and 121 j'tirds. Bayond tbli tbu railway anlm 
aa tM ktag and (airlv level nook that formi the link hotwion tbe Saojpri (par anl 
tiu main rmgn of the Sahyidri*. At Uie end of tUi* ncdt, 1 Ii inUea from tbe loot, ii 
tbo Tei-ening •tation. wbich wac i>nn«idort<d tb« iie«t aTranfJMMnt for ■nrmoantini 
tbelaatgraatdilfiaully on tbe incline, the aaceut of tbe aearp tt tbe Sabytdri Eaei^ 
By mimiu of tbo rov«r«ing ttbatMn the lino i« Uk»n up tb* rmainiocfl** ni-i>- i-' 
■mdienta of one in tbiity-aaveo, one u> forty, and one in fifty, witb two tn ■■ 
SUand of alxly-twoyanla, and with a viaJuat of one atsty-fool and eleven fi-:'. 
arch**. The lino leavoa tbe nTeraing atation by a curve of fifteen ebaina on • eiaditat 
of one in eavaaty'llve, jnema Slphinatone Pnint by a long tvanel of 346 yardi^ 
koeps alioic tho «lge of the great Klutndilla ravine, roacbca tbo boUuw wbetell 
Xhui.lala italion, and then, fe4lffwiiig thv ouurec of ttia KbatidAbi ravine, creeta tbe 
tiahyldrie Hi the vilUife ol LouAvliu fheidce the leailins viaducts tbe iaclinc he* 
twenty-two bridRci of icTcn to tbiitv-frrt ipaii i aiij eiKbt}''oneculr«rta kwd to ill 
feet wide. The t'Ftal mltiiiK, ubierfy tlimiiKh mck, ij two millione of cnbtc yirdi ; 
•nd the itreatett diTplh U, on tbe ceiicml liue, aeveuly-eix leet, and, ou tbe boa of 
the tannol Ihroiiuh Elpliiiutonv Point. IMfeet. TboKiibio motenu of the embufc' 
menu ar«2h miliums of yarda, tbe nvatoit heifbt of bank on ibe eeatral line bc^ 
MTTCBty-flTe fevt. thanffh many of tbe outer alopoi an l&M Br>d aoaie nf them atoH 
mncb a«30()[>-*t. Thprearain all twenty -mx nt»Ul Ifrnittbof 3996 yank 
or taorr than 2i inilu, aix c( Ibem being more or leaa lined with maaonry for a totel 
teciittb of 312 yarila, Thvr« are elgbt viailueta. Tho lenutb iif tlw tiK^iae ia fiftltf 
mile* end Bixcv'rightchaiiia, of which five mile* and tbiilyfour ebaina arsstrai^btMil 
ten ntitaa andUitrly-fourcbaiiu ourvoil. Tlia»h*r|i0iti;urreaarean«ot llfleen obsim 
radina f'>r a len^ of twaoty-two chatni, and aubtbcr of twenty chain* ndiai tl* 
Went j-aigbt cbaina. Between a radius of twenty nud ul tbirlyubaiaa there atv curttf 
«f a total length of one mile and forty^eiiibl chains, and tbe cetl hare a radia* o( br 
tween thtrtythree and dghty cbnina The eteepeet gntdienU an one in tbirty-ene* 
for one mile and tblrty-dgtit chains, and one in forty for etjtbt tallei and (oar cKilnfc 
thnreimuuilvrbeiugbetaeeii uuc in f »ny> two and r)ne in ti^venty-Bve. Ute only eiciip* 
boae are one in 3.t4J for twenly'thnw uhaumand a level of one nil* ^d fifteen rblne. 
The Una ie double tbrongbont. It eoet £e^7M <Ba. 6,87.SDe) a naie or abevl 





ftt Pootia ftnJ nhnnd, ft Inric^ stAiion hns htcn built nt T»n£vla ttt a 
coet of lUO/HM) (Rb. 3,00,<K>0) with largu waiting and r«frceliuient 
roomi. Workfihopg aIm h«oQ consiractod nt ]ion4vta> aa well 
a« » cbarch, a scbool, a library, and quartvre for tlio eogiiie^rivers 
uid other gorrnnta of the company. As tho wnlor of tbo Indr&yant, 
wbicli runs ootsido ttio LodAvIa station-yard, was insiifticiont daring 
the hot weather, a roservoir wns bnilt at a consideraljlo cost at 
BUiuhi about two milos to tlio south uf Lonitvia from which an 
abtmdact supply of fresh water Ls nnw available. Tho water a 
oarriod bjcost-ii-onpipos to IfOQitrla, Khaud&In.and to tho ravcrsiog 
attttinn. The company has lately a-^rood to aiipply (be Tillage of 
LnniivlA with water, tho cost of tfao oonaoction oeinff borao by 
Municipal and Local Funds. 

Since it waa opoaod largo qnnntitien of goods bavo bcon drawn to 
the milway. Much tnflin wbtoh tuted to go down tho rough tracka 
I of th<* S&hyiidri« fruin Juiinar and Xhcd now lindx ita wny by the 
NlUik hif^broad to tbo Talvgion railway station. Much of the oxport 
trade which u^ to go to Bombay niongf tbo old RAtilra, 81i(>U]>ur, 
tmd .Ahinadua^^ roads tbruugh I'uoua is now attracted to the luiarpst 
nilway station. At tbo same time the ordinary roads ato by no 
uoana BbandoDod. Bitriimati and Indiipnr, tfaolarj^o oiHrkftain (bo 
east of the district, tbongh only Reventeon and twelve miles front 
the nutway, buve a direct rond tntdo with Bombay and Iceep up tbo 
Klatively biffli position they enjoyed before Uie railway. Tbo 
nulway has inorM»o<l coinpotition by throwinjf open Iho local trndo 
M it were to tho whole of India and huA uliuuat defeated combi« 
nations to lce<^p up tho price of gntia or other artiolea of general 

,100,000 (Ra. l,IO,fla,OOI>) in >"• Thctniuela were the mart difficult |art nf tho 
<*Mk. Kmrljr all were oE vmy IiatI trap. Tito at«ttp tovmsof tholiilla |>revciit«<t 
•balta tieiBg aunk, and, ^ tbc dnlLs luul t<> bo miMlo miitiy from tlic onda, muck skill 
Bad emn went nqnin^l in utttinn out the work an the xltu'uIy-curToit injelinai, ao as 
(oeaann purtaoti* tru« jiin'.'tiuii*. Tin tiadDctnxrop«ri1;uf ilockinowuna nutaoory. 
M i}iiuiitai>oa aTailniinibU! biiil<Iiii)f «t<>no waa cviir^wliorn at lianil. Bot Ittg niuumry 
v>«k waiHAt good, and then hnv<! bven mm* lailuna.chiaflvtlicMfiliiiknnalUt-iaduot 
vhiefa h»d ta tw rvbailL AD»tlMir ojuw of ^latiftBr U»i tmnlilv i* thn altppinc; of rain* 
Inwul tualdera. To «Baiire ita aafety all buiildeni lioJ ti< Im tnovol fn-m tLu hill 
Mm itlmiv Itiit ILocL Tlia lasd *Uyt war* laartioiilu'Iy truu1'1«*i'iii<' in tlio l>m'cr )iuB 
•(iba locUuc. Abortly after tbu flnt c^iiio (»a«Ml, on tho SOtb Mnrch 18(13, ttio 
vkdla of ouc of Uie m)ob eutlinj^ ow tLo foot ul the liu:llii«, itm (tllnl imil luul to 
Irtnlirr^iit by a liuuiAl «j anibed mmtonrj. 

Tlug iiMUoe touk mtmi yaan mi<1 a tjoiu-lvr to comulct*^ It waa carrivd out entirely 
if tontncL TIm csontnet wm 6nt let to Mr. FnvicI] in Ui4i an tamn of )8AS, oud tlio 
*Mb «rcn bcf^n on blieMth JanuvyiaM. lu June IflM, two iiulw at the np|ior part 
(t Ika umUbo. Iroin Khaadlla to LoudTla wen opmed (or trolBc. InMsnib I859l 
Xi. f ai-iall gttv* up hU uoiitrsct; ami, for a thort tiiiw, thic Comiwuy'a uoDioetn 
«nu4 Oft Uw workii. In ll)i» bdio j«ar the w>ntr««t wm rolet (o Mr. TndWfttT But 
ilAad viliiiD (ift««a dayi of luiJiitK ui Inilu, and tlio work waa60iiiplct*d lij Maavk 
Jibuon and Cla^rao-, mmtgar for the oontiaettv lira. l^cdwolL lIviBa jtontloniaR 
■died «a Um work witL tia givtttost mal Mid ahility. Their tnod and Iffaanl 
MaagcMTDt ooUact«d and kept an the vrork a fono of 2S,O0O lava dariaj; two naaaoa, 
mi ta IMl of mora Uian 43,000 men. 

n» nUa VKd on tbo iacUiM) woigh ai^ty-fira ponodii to the yard, aitd vara maila 
iflk apasUl <aro ao aa (0 leonn hardueaa and floxibility. Uiulei tbo fiah-jaint* & 
(Hi-iron chair, vpfkcd to longitadUia] timber boarcra, in lixed as aa to auppgrt Uui 
Wttom of tha rail aad to si<r« additional attrngili imd aecurily to tho jtNal. The 
iooliiM li worked hf pSra ot doublMank oEiaiiirs of neat atrength and puwor. 
TUm Slati«tica1 Acouuat, Bombay Quollvcr, XIII. 32U-9. 

■ 1527-21 

Chapter W 

rBns^aj Oftsettetr 


ChipUr VI. 


locnl luo. Tb« nierchaiit^ complnin tliat tboujjii tmdi: lina greailv 
incroased, profits havo groat 1/ faircn. 

The tnakiDg of the Weslom l^ocsn neetion of the Soui 

MarAtha railway wiu> iMt]ctiunt*d iti Dcci'iiiKt 18^^, kiitl tho '• 

woLfi licgaii it) ftfarob 1884. Of the whole Icti^h of 24S miles, 

miteslie within Foonn liottta. Th«liDe»t*rt« from PooBtv, 110} miles 

from Bombay, and for about tea mtleit mtu almost piu^lel to 

Peninsnla raitwny ut a dtstiuict! of aWut throo miloH to the txM 

Nenr Iinni. ton miles oast of PooDa,tho linotumit tnaroto tho ttou 

and skirts t lio Sitihgad'Bhnleahvarrange,ming witit A rnllbg gradii 

of ono in a. hmuIrtHl till it croala the lihwr incline alwut Iwcoty-o 

miles sonth-CAst of and abont Ii75 fcot above tho Poena railr 

station. From the top of the (toss the Iidc turns south, nn>l, ]«ar 

SiUtwI about (ng'ht milos to the west, ^«Etes Klmoaifltniifjht 

Jcjuri thirty. two niilea sonih-caAt of Poon*. At Joiiiri it c 

the Pnnmdhnr hills, snd nms jir^uerally nouthwanU till near Nitnbol, 

4o{ iniliv-« from Pooirn, it crosse-t tho Nira rivL-r nliuut thrcit miles 

WL-sb uf thu rooon-Ttogaon ruad and onlors SAblra. Tho cumury 

over whicli tho line poBAea is a aeries of pornllol hills, ninninj^ cast 

and west, aod divided hy luoro or less wJdo T»l1oys whicli slope 

from w«8t to oast. TLiti eocttan of the line will bo difficiil. 

costly. The great length of hill lino inrolvos binry 

many cnrvoe and ttiiinuls. nml uiiieh bridging nnd valliii^. 

counting tho toruiiniisat Pouaa there vritl he fuiir thin) cIh«m statioiBi 

Phursangi ten miles from Po(m», V'Aghpur twenty-four milai, 

Jeiati ^1 mile*, and Vula forty-ono niiluH. Thu ruling gradioal 

will bo one in a hundred thronghout and tho sharpest curvo will be 

abot-e 500 foot mdiiis. As good stone is plentiful, all tho bridgm 

are intended to bo arched. I'he important bridges will bo tbe 

KaritB bridge, twenty-nino miles from Poonn, with five t!fty-foat 

ar«bee and on estimated coat of £7300 (Rs. 79.000), and the Nire 

bridg«, 4Gt miles from Poona, with eight fiflv-footarchps, atao 

estimated cost of JC87U0 (Ra »7,000). Thcro will b« two tunnels >a 

tho Dbor incline, one 500 Coet long estimated to cost £11,400 

(Its. 1,14,000) and tho othrr COO feet long »»timatod to oo«t £1.1,700 

(Ra. 1,37,000). Thcro will be about 63,8.12 cubic feet of retaining 

wall on the Bhor pas«, co#tin^ about £2820 (Rs. 28,200). Tlw 

pornianent way will cost about XI 890 (Rs. 18,900] a milo. Tho 

estimated cost of the wholo Western, Deoosn aoctioa is jESMO 

(Rs. 83,000) a milo. 

Tho district of Poona forms a part of tlie Poona postal diviska. 
Bcaides the chief rccriving and disbursing office at Poona, tho 
district contains thirty sub-officea, two of them in Poona, asd 
tweoty-four vijlugo post offices. Tho chief disbursing ofBoe »* 
Poona is in charge of a post-nuwler, who dniwH a yearly salarr o^ 
£300 (R*. 3000} rising to £3C0 (Bs. 3600). The two Poona snb- 
offioes, one in the city and another in the Now BA^sir, and thtf 
tweatv-eishl sub-offices, at Dhond, Biininiati, ChAkau, Uhinchrad, 
DiksAl, Ohmla, Indiipm-, Jejuri. Jnniiar, Kodgaon. KbadkAla, 
Khaod&U, Khcd, Kiikee, Lomivula, MahdJuoga, MftDChar, NfU^yan- 
gaon, Pitae, Puraadhar, Sfiavftd, Sinir, Supn, Talogaon-DAbhUde, 

sgaoQ-I>amdbera,Otiir, V&dgaon,&nd Kirkee Baz&r, are in cbarg^ 
sub-postuasUtrs drawing yearly Bolanes varjiug from £18 
Rs. 180) to £72 (Rs. 720). Ttio twonty-foiii- villiijro post offiron, 
.t Ale, Alaodi, Alegaon, Avsari, Av.iai-i Dudrulcb, Bollio, C'lil^^ 
3(ivdi, Kadud, Kulamb, Kik»i, Maltlian, Moi-ffaou, Nanuu^iir, 
■Jiiabmon, Pibnl, Pannctia, Paud, Petb, Piiu|Mdvandi, lUjuri, 
Tada. Vaiha, and S'liphf^ou arc iu charge of village 8L-lioolifiuatera 
rlio receive yearly allowaoces vnrying from £3 (Ka. 30) to £6 
Bfl. 60). Thore am fifty-nix postmea fur duliverv of comwpon- 
iecoG. Of tlieso, one receives JtI8 (lis. 180) a year, elevoD roceiva 
'A-i 8f. [Ks. 14i) a year, aud tbo reiiiainder CO IZu. (Rs. 06) a year. 
rratuities to runners for delivering letters at some of tlia vilfa^ea 
mry from £1 tm. tn £2 8s, (Rs. 12-24') ayear. Scvoaty-ono villafifa 
ptmeu dolivor luttera at small vilk^;[<«. Of Llio»e tn-Hiity-four, 
l»C(.-ivinf;f yi^^rly aalartca of £10 l€t*. (Ra. 108) oacb and tbirteea of 
pl2 (It«. 120), are mid from Imiiurial, and uiglit«iMi reoiiring 
irly Balaries of £1^ (Ra. 120^ and »ixt«ou of £10 16«. (Ra. 108) 
paid from pruviucial fuoda. At the rillajfc posti offices only 
itey-ordera are issued sad at the othor post offices both money 
ler »nd aaviugit' bauk basinesa ia carried on. Maila for tho 
istrict of Poena to and from Bombay are ean-ied by tho Peuiiiaula 
ailvay. A pouycnrt posl rnU8 between Sirur lutd Kcdgnou and 
notbor from J'ooua to SAtAra, KolhApur, mid tiflKauui. ThodiB- 
umin^poBt office and tbetovn sub-offices are directly Bubordinaloto 
digbureing postmaster of Pouaa. The siib-otBce at Uhuud uad 
I Tillage poet office at Narsingpuraro under ilte Buperrision of the 
sriuton^ul of post offices Ahmadoagar diTision, and llto Ttllogo 
office at Kikri is under tho enperintendent of the Deocaa 
lioQ. The remaining offices arc saporrised by the superiiitcndeDb 
ottt oQicofl Poona divisiun whoso head-qunrtem aro at Foonar 
who ia paid a yearly aaliiry of £iSO (Ba. 4800) rising to £000 
GOOD) ID five years. Ho is helpod in tho Poona districl by an 
ctor whose bead-quartora are at Poona and wlioso yearly salary 
(Ks. 1200) paid from provincial fuud». 

the Peninsula railway telegraph oIGcoa thoire ia ooq 
imont tclcgritph ofBoo at Poena. 


|0{ lato years, except the derelopmont caused by cheap and rapid 

there ban been no marked change in trnd(>. Amon^ the 

I thoTD 18 a growtog fondnusTt fur furoicii urticlou of drosu and 

. Hnshandmen also ahow more intelligence in meeting the 

for pnrticular prodiioo. Of lato yea,r« tho groit incrcaso in 

id for oilseeds and ran BOgar has led to a large incrcn-tc in 

luclion and ozport . This increoae Uaa boon niodo posaiblo 

opening of conab and otbcr wuter-worke. The oilaeeds go 

to Bombay and the ravr iinguT to Bombay and Gujantt. 

paMea from ajid to the Slrur sub-diviaiou by Iho Pooua- 

asgar road to Poona or to Kedgaon imd bo by rail to 

shay ; it pasMs from and to Ibc ludapnr su1>diTiaion by the 

v-ShoInpnr road to Poona or by rail from CtiHixIgnon or 

to Bombay i it piassea from uud to llio Ubimtbadi sub- 

Chapter VI. 

Post Orncfi 


Thadi CcniRaa. 

[Bombay Onultsflx. 

Chitptar TX- 




dirUion by the BAnlmnti-Nir* briilgc 0« the Jojiiri road to Poena, 
bj t!ie SlioWpur roaJ to Puonti, or by rail to Bombay from Dbimij 
or Pfttaa ; it ptwscH from aiid t^ the Piimiidluu- Biib^lirixion by tlio 
old S&t6ra r\>ad to P<xina nud thcacu by rail to Bombay, or by tlie 
new ^Ura rond to Poomi nnd thenec by mii to Bombfty ; it pasiei 
from and to tbu Hiwdi Hub-ilivieioti by tbu Poooa-SIiolipur road, 
by tho Ponn:b-Ahniu(lnngarrond, by tne now SiU&ra road toPooiM, 
by tbe Poona-P'irivfl roatl wnd by tliu Paod rond to Poonft, aod 
tbonoo by rail to Bombay ; it psssiw from and to ihe M&val sub- 
dirinon by mil nt Talognon, LoiiAvIa, or KhimdAt* to Bombay; it 
Musoa from and to tbo Kbi-d and Junnar sub^Wisioiis \rf tfa« 
Fcona-NAeik n>tui to Poona or by tlie bnuich from tbo N&»ik road to 
TalegaoD and thi-uco by rail to Bumbay. 

The obiof agtiicioa fur dprenditig imports and gathering exporta ar* 
trade oentroa, matk«tflf tain, Tillagu uiop8,aDd peddler's packs. Tka 
cbiof tmdo ceotres are : Juniiar, Ndr&yangaoTi, nod Ale in jDtinar; 
Kb«d, Mancbar, Qboda, Ambegiiou, Avxnri, VAphgaon, Pimpalgaotij 
and Mah&liiiiga iu Khed ; Birur and Talegaon-BliamdWre in 
Sinir; K b ail ilftla mill Tal(>gaon-I)dbbiidoin Miirnl ; Poonn, Cbitrholi- 
Budmk, Pliulf{iK)n, Paud, Vdefaoli, aud Loni KAlbhar id Haveli; 
S^vad and J«iuri in Purandhar; Suj>a, Bi'inliiiati, and P&t«R IB 
Bhimthadi ; and Icd^pur. Of t^ifiso Kbaudtiln, TaI^aon>I>A^badCi 
Poona, T^oni KAIbhar, and Piitaii aro on tbe Peningnla railway. 

The loading mcrcliunts arc M&rwilr Vdkaia, QujuM YtUiii, Bubor<i» 
Piirain. and Briibmatiii, with capitals of £100 to £15.000 (Ra. 1000- 
l,c»O,000). Except Junnar, Ai»bogaoii,TnJ(^aoa-1HbKido, Poona, 
ChArbuh-Budruk, Snsvad, BAnUnati, and ladipnr, wbidi trade 
direct n^th Bombay and other lar^e marketa, the Lrado of the otbor 
centres ia motttiy local, uot passing- to iitaccit outside of the district. 
Tbo morc^nta that deftl direct wita* Bombay and othvr largw 
mftrkcts aro ^'uuerihily MArwi&r Yiiuia and Bohnr&a. They oxpMt 
grain and other prodnco, principally garden croj)!*, nod import hard- 
ware, country uod £uropt-au piooo-gooda, hubvrduhory, slationory, 
dried fiitb, Halt, rice, aud cocoouute. The aaine merolinJits deal 
both ill imiiortH mul oxiioi-ta. Though e%'ory branch of trade is 
Djwn to all ulaa8c-8, BoliorAs bavo pmcticaJly a monopoly of tlw 
ha nl ware trade, and most of the larger grain-dealcrt .are either 
Miirw4r or Gnjanlt Vfinia. Id tho difTcrcut local tmde centrce, 
tbongb thoy do basiness only on a small ocale, the traders ai« 
independent. Begnlor trading is not generally carried on throng 
flgciits, but largo tnwierfl occaflionally make nse of the serrioee of 
agents n-br>n thoy are iinnble tbouiselres to make parchasOB eitlter 
ill tbo villagTK or in Poona and Bombay. Field produce posM 
through Bnvcml bands before it leaves the district. It goes to 
mikrket generally through the village ithopkooper, who passes it on 
to a dealer in Kome birgu town, who sends it direct to Bombay or tfi 
some expert merchant in Poona. Some rich laudholders, but thcae 
aT« exceptiona, themjelrea bring tht>ir produce to the largo maiket* 
of Poona and Juanar. Tirgul Briibmoas and MdliSi who geoerally 
grow lietol Icavea vogetabloA and fruit, sond the prodnco of their 
gardens to Poena or to Bombay. The TiUago ahopKeeper generally 
gathers nrtioles of export in cxchango for money advanced oi lent. 

X)cc«ut ) 



[lake exporta, imported artklea pasa through nerrrnl Iwnds, tho 

Fwhiili-jMile iiiercliftnt i» Boniljay, tlio importer in Prtoim or other loctil 

Iceotrt), tbe d«altir who buvii from the importer, nnd the petty 

[TPtiiilor who hay» from the denier and »e1l8 nt bis villngo shop or ai 

fsomo fair ormukct. In Fooiia itself imported articles sametimeB 

I pass through two ban^ only, the wholenali:) niorchaiil ia Bombay 

and tho importor if he ia also a rotail merchant. Tho ooneanier, 

f. rmrcly huyt from the importer. OccaEtiondly another middleman tbo 

fcliaiiifiiiiiil pcddlur, coiuea bclvrucu tho cuusuajor and tho importor. 

B The brol£<>r» »ro mostly Lia^vAta but a fevr Qujardt nnd 

B llArwdr Villi!*, MarAth&8, KfLchuia, luid Muhamuiad&ns. Tbcir 

numbin- to email, perhaps aboat s htmdred. 'i'liey are usually paid 

Ilhrco per cent. {{ o^) in bill transactioDs and l^d. to Stt. (I-Zas) od 
tbn palla of 320 aherg in corn tmnsactionfi. In ctoth purchases their 
lirokorago is as muoh as two per cent, and in dealiogB in gold and silver 
omamenta it ia a quarter per cent. Aa a role brokers carry on no 
other basiness, but there la no rule or custom to prevent their engag> 
ing in othor businues, nor are thoir tmnaoctiotu limited to any one 
bmncli of trade. 

Next to the chief trade centres in tho spreading and gathering 
of goods come the markot towns, where a market is hold on a fixed 
I dar-iirthe w«ek. Of forty-fofir vitla^M ^herc ircokly markets are 
lield, six, ^e, Anne, Jounar, Madli, N&rdvangaou, and Otur, are in 
Junnar ; nine, Ahirc, Amhrgnon, ChiUcan, <fhodo,Kbod, Mah&luoge, 
Manchar, Vftde, and V^phgaon, are in Kbed; ton, AmbegaoQ, 
Chaudkhcd, Kdrla, NAna. Nilshi, Shivane, Tdkri-Iindrukh, Talo- 

givrm-Odbh4de, Umbre, and Vadgaon, are in MAvalfBro, Bhilmbarda, 
borkas, Ghotavde, MtilBhi, and Paad are in Hareli ; six, Gbodnadi, 
Kavthe, Kendnr, Malthftn, P&bal, and Talcgaon^DhnrndfaorD are in 
Sirur; four, Kikvi, Parincbe, Sfisvad, and Valhe are in Porandhar; 
five, Birimati and Dbctnd. and PiitaR.Karkamh and Yprat on tho 
l^)ODa-SboIllpnr road, an; iti BhimthaUi ; and four, Bbigvan, Indapur, 
Nimbgaon-Ki'tkl.and fttlasdev are in Ind^nr. Of these the most 
tnporta&t aro B^nlmnti, BbAmbtirdo, Dhond, Ghodnadi, Ghotarde, 
Jonnar. MnncUar, Sfiarodj and Talegaon-Dbamdhere, with an 
Kteodance of 150 to 700 sollors and SOO to 2S00 buyors. Id tho 
ittt tba attendance varies from twenty-Gvc to 1 50 seltent and from 
lorty lo 200 biivora. All Ihonn markitla aro diiitribiiting contrON, nnd 
■bout one-Histli, Burdmuti, Ghodnudi, Indjipur, Junnar, Khed, 
6fand, and Talegnon-Dhamdbcre are also gathering centres. Tho 
<hsC ortiulea brought lor sale aro graiu of all sortft, cloth, vogo- 
Mb and fmit, grooeries, spioes, and other artfclea of daily use. 
Bandcs tbeso articles, «ho«8, ropea, brooms, baskets, and blnnkots 
■re offered for Kale at Bdr&mati and Sdarad, and cotton at Ind&par. 
•ollursnro VAais, Hilis, Uomina, Kiohhia, Td.mhats, TilmWIis, 
_. Bctioneni, M&ngs, Kolis, and otherB, some of them prodiicorBand 
rihers aither deiilors or dealeio* agents, belonging to the market town 
K to soma neighbouring Tillage. The bnyere are people of all coatee 
il the market town ana in tho neighbouring rill^^s. There ir no 
Wter vxoept that small landholders and others, including Artiiirs, 
Xii^ CfaAoibhars, lUinuuhis, Kolis, and MusnUniUiB, who have no 

Chapter VI. 
Trade. I 


Mahskt TuWNt 

IBi>m1n7 Quettocr. 

Cliaptfli TI. 






moiKiy, receive oil, tobacco, vegetaliles, clilUiee, and fish in oxcliaiigs 
for grain. Cattlo markuts are neldat Gbodmtdi. Mannliar, IiicUpnr, 
BitM»i&ti> and Junnar once a woekj and at Bb^mbardo near I'oona 
a half-iTCckly caltli! marlcet is licld on Wedneada/s aad Sundays. 
Horaea, ponies, cows, bofihloes, sheep, and goata are broufrbt for mIa 
by Kutibis and others. Tbo chivt biiyera ara I^uubi aod other 
liiudUolders, and bntcbera at tho Bb£mbarde markot. 

Of aixty-Sre yearly tain, seroo, at Ale, Otur, Nlmdnri, Ojbar, and 
Nilr&yaiigaoD, Belbc and ilivre, are held in Jannar; otf^ht, at 
N)cubxaon<Retki (tirice), Kbarpadi. Kelgaon, Chtikan, KadadlK*, 
DbamQO, and Jthorargiri (Ubiin^baakar) in Kbcd ; two at Vcbcr^aoa 
and Vadgaon in M^val; eigbtoen at Biiiinibnrde (twice), Pash&n, 
Par%'ati (tvrico), Higne Kburd, Kondliaupur, Vadi, Bolliai, Dchn, 
CbiDcbrad, Uiivet, Faud, CihotaTde, Sbora, Tamaobi-Budrak, 
Vadgaon, Aksai, and NjvainHaveli; eleven, at Sbimsgaon, Vadgnon. 
MandaTgan, K^njangoon, Maltban, Mukhai, PimplD, Jambat, 
Kartbe, Talojjnou-Dbaiudbcrc, and Kanhur iu Sirur; ten, at Sisvad 
(twice), Jejuri (four times), Pur, Vir, Mdlabiras, nod Uivn in 
Purandhar; eiglit, at Valki, PArj^son, Niiiigaon, Varvand, Snpa, 
Dhond, and Morgaon (twice) in BLiintbadi ; and ono at Nar«in^pcr 
in liidftpnr. All of these, except, tbose at Bellie and Hirrc m 
Junnccr wbiob ar« chiefly attendea by Muealmins, aro Hindn Uan 
bold in hononr of some local dei^. The alton^nco Tari«8 front 
200 to 25,000. IjBTgo dcalors do not attend and there is not mncb 
trade, tbo oetimatcd valae of articlea sold genemlly varying horn 
£1 to je-lO (Rs. 10-100). At Dbond, Moi^pion. .Tojuri, Vir, 
M&Ubinis, Nimbgnon-Kvtki, Ubovargiri, Vohargaon, Kundbanpor, 
VadgaoQ, luid Ak.sai, tlie traDsactiouB amonnt to not Ic^is tWi 
£100 (Rs. 1000). and Homotimes to a9 mnch as £2500 (R«. 25,000). 
The nsuftl salesmea are Bweotraeat-niak^rs, gardeners, and grain- 
parchcrs, bnt coppersmiths, weavers, tailors, grocers, tosicl-niaken, 
and betel-teaf growers goDorolly attend some of Ibo larger fairs 
with stocks of metal vcaselo, cloth, bangles, blankets, groooriee. oil, 
and claritied butter and spices. The buyei« are conanmors, villagef* 
from tbo neigbbonrhood, and pilgrims. Oceogionally MbAm, Kolis, 
and auuio Kiinbis exobango groin and fuel tor oil, Bait, and obilliea. 
Otherwise there la no barter. 

Exoepl small groups of hut« in the hills every villago has ita 
fibopkoepor. Tho village sbopkeopcr in nsunlly a Oujanit ot a 
MirwirvAni, but somelimos a LUigAyat Vim, a Teli,ttnd oct-asionaUy 
& Koabi or Musulmr&u. Kxcept gmiii which he buys from locu 
owners, the village shopkeopor ifraws his «tock in trade from thclars* 
townn with which he has bu-iineRs relationn, and where probably tW 
moneylender. on whom bo jaoftcn dependent, livi^t. Hi« stock in trad« 
geni^rally incluiK'3 grain, groceries, raw and refined xugar.salt.oil, and 
clai'iBcd butter t\tp, spiees, cocoanutA, and all other artid«it rM{nirefl 
for daily uw by the people. Thetigb every Khopkt:upcr dom no*' 
keep a store of cloth, it is not necessary to go to the Mib-divisional 
centre to bay clotb. In each sub-division ton or twelve villages have 
cloth shops. Except in the western hills cloth can be bought iu 
one village out of uvcry ton. Cloth can also be boDght at all 

T mfttTect*. Bt'siiL^s roU-M or Itujjas, wnistolollw or iIAo/ar*, 
rnu tlongri clotli wuvcu tti iliu <lb)trict at BurtimaLi, Juntuir, 
I, KAvtho. and In<l(lr>»r, thn vloth-ni<^rchant-*« hnve Rtock» o^ 
vy andEuropwui clotli which Hwy gouiTiilly buy inBoiul«y. 
is boaght by people of ull casttid frnm Um> villHge in which 
rp is ttH vriitll oa f roitt viUagvs ucar whic)) have no aJio]). Shop- 
saometimes «\chai)g8 their waiwi for grain to KmibU and 
xior peopl<i who have no teaAy uioiioy. 'Die villneo »lM>p- 
s ha\-o tLiually monoylcn<lnig dcAliuipt with ^xniplu of all 
except BrdhmanA. in the village aa well as id the neighhoar- 

Thcy Imvc uo comioction with large trading firiiia. "Tlioy 
(Ivtis or soniotimus thuir agents or rulations go to fairs aiul 
t towtw, 

»w the viltago shopkoopom como the travelling pcddleni, 
vd geDerally (iajanit MArwtSr or Lin^ityat VriLnis, Kliiinpis, 

BAgyias. Kasdrs, Kon&rs, SaD;^s. TAmbolifl, Telia, AUin. 
;i>t and Kotntia They have their head-quarters at Poona 
le other larfri; town where thoy buy or prepare the contontfi 
Ir packa They carry their gooda on horse or bullock back 
metiiues on their own slioulilers. They no from village to 
) and visit Uiu innrkob towns and faira within their circuit, 
B tnown to thflir cuHtomers. VAnis take groceries and spices ; 
as cloth and ready onidc elothos ; M&lia fruit and vegetables ; 
us groceries, npicoa, and vi^tables; K&sArs, Bair^fris, and 
is metal vessels nnd dishes, niKl the other Kfts£rsbanf*lc»;Soiuir3 
oruanii.-ntA ; Saii^ara blankets ; Tdmboliu betel leaves and aut« ; 
ulis oil Cloth iH also hawked about by MusalniAn pi>ddiers 
^ leto haw Ix't-n hawking pcrfumea and pearls. Alt these 
b thH last sell their goodn on credit or for canh to Kiinbta, 
miUM. MIiHrs, MiingR, liiid ethers. The Halo of perfumer and 

ta reatrictcd to tlie higher clatweH and to cn^li payinents 

MtUiB, Biigvdns. and fwnmtiiuai Vinis Iwu-ter their goods -with 
k and otliers for (cruiit Buirdgis and Kointia aomctimcH 
Bse their uooda for old elothiis, face lx>rders of turbans, and 
cTotbea. Except iWi^ and Hiigvins, who travul throughout 
Bar, the pcdiUers s&i out on their totir at the end of September 
t begiiiQing of October, and return Wfore the rains. 

ercaae in cost both of making and of carrying, and a lai^r 
to of earnInj»H iLiiiong lh« bulk of the lower classeit, have of 
'ears led to a grfat i'uorease in the amount of imports. The 
rter* are c)utdly Cliijardt and MinvAr VAdib. The chief 
ts are. grain includiii;^ nce.b'jjri.jv^iri. wheat, pulses including 
titr hui^a malh uittd and ^nug, oilseeds including earthnuba 
Aurdimi. cotton sc&da, vioha Basaia latifolift (lowers, siUt, fi;sh, 
a, raw and refined angar, tobacco, timber, hardware, indigo, 
, piece-goods and silk, matches, kerosine oil, haberdashery, 
lam, and Euroneaii liquor. Kic«, wliich h u^d in small 
otiea only by tno upper classes of llindas, is brought from 
idnigar and 'Thiina. IStijri is brought from Ahmndnagar and 
Ipnr, and f'vtin, hvUfa, math, udul, Mhq, tur, aurl graiu are 
pt from ShoUpur. Wheat, especially the excellent bakshioT 
ID wbcat, comes from the Ni»im's country, Shoi&^ttt , K\\&.i\'i.ft^ 

Chapter 17- 







a»'I Onjarzii. Oibeeds atvli rought Into Pamn<]h&r aD<! the 
^(uMivist'jiH I>y Tdis ami the ORoal import biuicn, frots Alunai- ' 
tiAgar and Shot^nr, sod bj* llar^bis, Umahiiiiui, tuid laagini 
Vjbus from PhalUn *n<l SAttm. CoUdo ««ds wMdb are osedi 
fe«Jii^ milch-eows ktb broogbt from Ahmadnagu. EhAodttah, 
SboUpiir. IfffAa Oowen come &aai nCoa. Batntgiri. Gujar^ , 
Jabatpnr. and are sold to Kqiior emfermetora. Salt, w-hich 
formerly broQ^t bj padc-hallock^ bow cones moatiy bj niil. 
■ little by the Nina and Mils^ paases tiom Th^a. Dry &A I 
Itroo^t from Bofnljay iui<] Thtam hy rail, and 1^ the Nana PasI 
Unsunubu, Kmms, and batcfaeis. Uader imporhnl metabed] 
goU, ulver. copper, brass, iron, lead. dnc. and tin. Dnrit^ ,^ 
American war Iai;gQ qaantities of gold and jdlrer found their w^ 
into the diatrict. lliMt of the md and Kilrer were tukde ' 
omamentei the rest ma boardea During the 1876-77 famti 
lar^ qnantity of gold and diver ornamenta left the district 
to Bombay. Since the famine Tear better harvests havo 
started the import of iilver and gold. Copper and bimn 
formerly Imported in blocks and worked £rst into sheet* and 
into veasehL Of late years ready made abeeta have been 
imported tiora Bodthav and oonaidersUy lowered the pnce -^ 
brassware. Copper and brass ready-inado c<x>ktng and drinkl^ 
etipfi. of which tVrc is a pvwinc manufacture in t)i« city of I^xll^ 
Me aim brought from N&sik. They arc lued by all but the poorai 
duBOS. The import of iron has of late greatly increaaed aiul ittc 
made in considerable cjoantitics tnto water p^b and bottvr and 
cans. Iron is also mocli a^ed for cart tires and axltf«. All 
eones from Bombav, btooght chiefly by Iluhora Mom 
Imported crroooriee, cliir^fly dates cocoanuta and spjce^ are 
used by all claaeee. They Ar« brongbt*bv rail ax vrvU as on ^ 
boUocka by the Nina and M^sej passes, from Boialay. and by 
&om ShoUpur. IWtin«d sui^ comes from Bombay, umI raw 
of which siiKe the opentnc of the Mutha CooiUa a large qt 
is pruduwd ill Uaveii, is hroti^t into Poona from PhaJtan, . 
Koihiptir, and the Bombay KHrniltak. In Pooiia city then 
Urge trade in raw sogar. During 1875-76 nearly S750 tans (i 
kh4tndi9) va1uo<] at £4S.!3e (Rs. 4,92,360) were importod. A ' 
proportion of the iiui>orta are exported chiefly to Jumia<ialwl. 
ana coffee which are URi^i only by & few eUtsHes are brou^^bt „ 
Bombay in snioll i)uantitie«. ToMkoco ia l^roaglit by Ling(i>'n( \i 
and Ttoabolis from Siitjira, Shol&pnr. Uiny, StogU. and KM\ 
MnlabAr teak couics From RatuitfHri and Thfina. Other b 
also comes from Bhor, NaUik. aiuT Th&aa. Indigo and silk 
imported from Bombay by rail. £ngli»)i sod Bombay eottoa t> 
isbrought by Boliur^ and Uujarftt V&tiis and distrilAiced orerl 
district to handloom weavers. Of Uto the uuUtun of tho 
fiu^tones haa to a great cxt«nt taken the place of Enj^liah yam. 
goods urn of two chief kiiidii, hand-made and steam- tnsdo. 
hand-uiudc ifoods, waiintctoihH, lur)«ns, and wonieu's robost ~ 
arc prepared in cou&iduntblL> quanLitiai in the district at S 
are also brought from Uurii&iiiiiir, Vvoln, Ahtnadnagar, P 
Ahmadaliad, ukI N&gpur. Too machine- mode pioce-gowt 



tntMy coarse ntrong cloth, cliiei); for waisbclotluf, sheebi, aud 
towels from Bomlifty, anH European finer fnlirics and pruitd 
brought by Boltortto and Oujartit \'6ms from Bombay- Of late 
years, except during tho lH7i!-77 famine, the import <rf steam-mado 
pMee-gOf>d<i biw rapidly incn-jiMcd. thu cheapneHs iMrth of Manchester 
and ot Bonthay goods .•stimulating the trade. Silks, like piece- 
Lj. are of two kinds, niacKinv and hand raada There ia little 
I dt'DUUid for Ht«ani-mado Earopean ailka, but the produce of 
Bombay »ilk milU h gmdunlly taking the place of band- 
it silkd. Hand-ioade silks, chicHy turliuiid, scarfs, and bodice- 
otoths, from Ktirluinpur, Yeola, iind Puitiiaii, and brocades from 
Surst ami Abinadabad, arc brouylit into tht; diHtrict by Marwii- 
" (Jiyiu-Mt ViiniM, BohonU, and tailors. The chiL*f dealers in silks 
£t and OuJaMt V^im, Hol)Oi-n.s, Momins, and Patvcg&s, 
of morchanbi deslH exclusively in silks, but almost all 
tuerchaQia keep nilk fabrttst iti slock. Carpets or »atrat\fis 
brought from A^ta., Ahnindnagiir. and Khtotiea]). Qtaasware 
By Umna bangles ar« broti^bt by Kfi^rs and other glass articles 
Bohonb and othvr Mu^aluitbut. KuropeftU liquor comes from 
Dibay. Of lato the import of matches and of ktntuiue oil bas 
ly increased ; they are now found even in small villages. Well- 
Mo-salmAas and Pisnin have taken to use EoglixC furniture 
Cliina ware. The u«e of tea, coffee, and European liijuor by 
thy riindiu bas also becorao common. 

Of Exfjoru the chief are. of vegetable proiluoto, grain, cotton, 

raw sugar, vegetables, betel leaves, myrobalans, and roots and barks 

lyr dyeing ; of aiumal products, honey, hides, and horns ; and of 

naoafoctured artJclcs, clarified butter, brassware. shoos, silk cloth, 

pun eotton cloitb, ivory and wooden toys, and perfumes. 

grain, heKides bd^ri and jmri, come wheat and gram. 

the opening of the railway the export of pttrisliabiu protluce 

greatly increased. Among the chief branches of this trade are 

export of Iietcl leaves, vegetables, and frvsh fruit From the 

veli and Puraiidhar aub-divisions, and of potatoes from Junnar 

' Kbed. Tho trodo is rapidly growing on account of the 

given to market-gardeuing by icrigation from Lake JBlfc. 

OS are sent from Ale, Otur, and Junnnr to Bombay by 

ab»o from Valha in Purandhnr by tltu old SAtira road 

'ooDa. Crapct are sent from Wlgann, Kanddli, R&juri in 

, and from Piliitl and ICcndur in Sinir. Figs are ttent from 

. Parincha, ^onilvri, Qurholi. Mahor in Purandhar, and from 

GiKalvtLdi and Aland i>Clionicbi in HavclJ. PoRK'gi-anoleA ore sent 

Wi Sops, Devalgoon, Ga(\ag. Vadgaon in Bhimthadi, and from 

^niti-Cbonichiand Urali-KSichnn m HnvcdL Mangoct an> grown 

ly at IChcd ShiviLpur in Havcli, ulnoat S&svad, Chitmbli, 

' (ird, Bhivri, and Bapgaon in rurandhar, and Auitari-Kbuni 

I Kaiitu in Khed. In onlinary years small i|tiantitie.t find their 

, ^1} to Bombay. Oraoges and guavas are grown at Kothrud, 

' mtndavnn, Mundhva, Porbnti, Bidi, and Mumeri, and sent for 

■le to Poona. Umca arc grown at Kuiti, Patbati, YerBiida-\'na, 

Vioavdi. and Mnudhva. Potatoes are largely grown in th« Khed 

wbJlviMon, and from Khed as .from Junnar they ate ijij^V V>n 

u Tikgaofi. They arc aJsosentftvm Talegaon-DhamdiiCTC anA Va\«\. 

Chapter T 




IBomli«y Oa*ette«F 






Ouions arc sent from thv Talcgaon-Dlibhide atstton. Chilliee 
sent liy the same route from E^alia, OnUni, Viphgaon, Ci _._ 
Blios in Kiktd, and from KltO(]»<i, Nlln&7«ng«on, Mid Arvi in jaiuur. 
Cabbages and other fre-th ve^Ublen, as green chilli«^gi«Ri<i Dolidioi 
lahlab anil govari Cyiuiiopsix pM>rs)ioiie« poil^, &ti>l the yanng shoots 
of coriander or kothimbir go m cotisidi^rBbtL- i|aautilit» to Bombajr. 
In th<^ villagi' of GhArholi-Bintmkh nn th(> Indrdyftni, opTranLt 
£4000 (Rs. 40.000) arc said to be invwrttil in j^'ntwinn bet«l Icai 
Betel loAV&t are libto produced, princip&ltT by Mar&th^ and Mi 
inBcllie in Junuar, Pikrlnoba Mahur andbiva lu Purojidhar, / ' 
and Uoiidi in Khed. Uahamadv^i and Vdnavdi in Hsveli, NimI ^ 
Ketki and Viliali in riid.-tptir, and Vapanda in BhimlhadL The tnwk 
in bet*l leaver is rapidly growing on account, of tht? impetus pvpji to 
market-gardening )'}' ii-rigation from Lake Life. From the nortli of 
Ui« district there ia a ooi^tderaUe export of myrobalam to Bomhajr. 

Colouring roots are prepared bv Afhflra, Mtogs, OhAtnbAra, and 
MiuahnlUu, and sold to P&rsifi. Dhors, and Musalm&ns who aeaA 
them by rail to Bombay, Poooa, Ahmadnngsr, and other plaooL 
S4/ri is sent from tiavcli. Purandhar, Khed, and JoDBar 
by cart to Poena by Udrw&r and Oujarit Vinis and cuHiraton. 
Jvdri in sent from Ind&ptu-, Bhimthadi, and Simr by rail antf 
cart to Poona. Nearly three-fourths of the cotton grown i* 
sent by rail from the east«m sub-divisions to Bombay bj 
hh&ti&» and MiVrwir and OujanU V&nis. Raw sugar, vrhica 
is imported iu Uirgc qnantitic-A, ia also exported to Ahniadabai 
Junnar liand-mado pancr wn*t fonnorly Urgoly exported, but of l«l* 
the trade hoK much fallen. In Haveli mctal-trarc Is mude in lais^ 
quantities in tlie city of Poona by ooppirsmiths and otliere wl 
send the artldca by rail to Bombay and SJiolllpur, aud by rood 
SdtAra, Kolh&pur, and other places. In Junnar the metal- 
auffioca only for locnl u»e. IndApur, Simr, ^fllvnl, Bhim 
Puroodhor, and Hnreli export hides, lionu, and bnn<^ eliictly to 
Bombay and Poona, and Junnar. and Kb^d export hidoN and hornd 
only. The dealers arc generally Miings, Hhan. Musolnitoi!, and 
butchers. About 200 cariloatU, each containingtwenty hides, g9 
«very yMrfrom Juimar, and tOO varlloods from Khed each contain- 
ing tweuty-fivu to thirty hides. Indfipur tjendit about M)0 nsiu 
of these articles, Purandhar a1>otit T.OO to 1000 hidea and 200 to 2O0 
horns, and Haveli five t*> seven Uiousand liidcs. A Pilnd bos »(«rt«d 
a bone store at Bh&aibunlo nviir Poona. In Junnar, the ojcportoi^ 
hides and horim is on the increa.%-. ^ 

A comparison of the Peniiutula railway traflic returns, dating 
eight years ending 18S0.* Hhuwo a rise iu tlit.' number of poateni^ 
from 767,186 in 157!! to 1,140,136 in ISSO.and in goo<U from 60; 
torn in 1H73 to 112.682 tons in 1880 against 125,245 in 1878. The 
chief pasmnger station la Poona with an increase from 462,145 ill 
1673 to 593,897 in 1880 agMust 608,039 in lS7a. Other important 

Eassenger station)* with a comparatively small goods traflic ard 
'hoDdj the junction of the Peninsula railway and the Dhond- 
Hanmid State railway, witli an increase from 24.ti73 in 1873 to 


I DebOed traffic rctuRu an uot avaiUbJe (run 1^81 lo ISSS. 

135.699 i 



135.699 ill 1880 ; Tttl«^aon with an incteaM from 63.071 in )S73 to 
98.085 in 19S0 «^ust 1087S1 in I(>7S ; Lotiiivlu witii Hii increase 
ntrom 44,8.17 in IB7:1 to 57,209 in 1880 ^lut 66.**1 in 1878; 
inchvad with a .Irtsrefts.: fniin i*,017 in 1873 to SMS" in 1880 ; 
^ee with kn iiici-cAsc fnim 110,224 in 1873 to 4),308 in llfSO 
si 42.730 in lS7d ; Khandilu with an increaHe from 13,115 in 
}73 to Z$jdU iu ISM isndKliodk^la with an iavxtmc from 19,127 
1S73 to 26,921 in 1880 agaiust 2&,935 iu 1878. Iu ISSO the 
[Musenger traiGc at the reniainins staLionH varieJ from 5115 
faaamgfivs at Borihy^ to 2S,I38 at biksfU. Pooita in alM the chief 
goods station showing an increase from 47,226 tons in 1873 to 
54,845 toils in 1880. Other imi*ortant ^;ooda stations l>ut with a 
t|)aratii-ely small traffic are Talegaon with an i»craas« from 
toas in 187S to 10.732 tons in 1880 ; Dhotvd with au incroase 
4590 tons in 1873 to 4738 iu 1880 againat 25.976 in 1878 ; 
with au incr«ai>« from 1532 tona in 1^73 to 40^2 tons in 
against 4283 in 1878; Kirkee with a doci^ose from '1152 
in IS73 to 3il4 tons in 18^ ; and Lonavla with a decreasij 
lo30 tons in 1873 to 1262 in 18S0. The t;oods traffic at tho 

Kimainiag statians in 1880 varied from 330 totH at Loai to 78H 
ns at Urali. There waa no goods traffic al K^rla, Vadgaoa, 
h«l&rvil<li. Vevat. and Boribj&l. 

Tlie following statement tihows for each station the changM in 
traffic daring Uiv oight years ending 1860 : 
fiooMu PvanctA RAtLw^r, PjMKitatii ^kdOoom Tiurne. iS?S. 1978, ISSO. 




«. 1 


Ten* at 












isr I :: 









12^ - - - 








^-" " - 








***»rf .« ... _ 








ft»- ... ... ... 






• MO! 


£f. - ... - 

S£ = " - 

^ r E E 
S" - E E 
























































T»W ... 



1,101 .IM 




In Uio goods rvturus the chief changes ar«, andvr exports, an 
KniasutninjitHand vogtitalilea from 87GU tons in 1873 to 13,736 tons 
lJS80iigain»t7l8f}tonsin I87S; in migar both raw and rttfiiicd f rom 
■^usm la73 to 2080 tons in 1878 and to 3595 tons in 1880; in 
ifrom lOIO tons in 1873 to 7514 tons in 1878 and to 1797 tonain 
I; in metal from 678 in 1873 to 1573 inIS78nndto 1419 tons in 
1*80 ; in fii-ewood from 101 tons in 1S73 to 770 ton* in 1878 and 
^ 1172 tons in 1880; in oil from 213 tons in 1873 to 728 tons in 
IS78 and to 630 tone in 1880; in hides and horOB from 259 in 
1873 to 506 tou^ iu 1878 and to 587 tons iu VSSO ■, m WwitfWi 




[Bonibiy Gonttoir 



Chapter VI. 




from etshti>en ton» in 1878 to fifty-two tons in 1878 and 227 tom 
in 1880 ; iu lirMenl atid svaamom oilseeds fi-oni eighty-two toua 
in \87'i to ISG tuus in 1878 and to 104 in 1880; in cotton au 
inenwM from \&&2 U>n» iti 1873 to Sfi84 lon» in lt{78 and 
ft docrease to 704 lu 1S8U; u dvcrcase ia salt from 322 toiu 
in 187S lo Hevu[itT-»ix toiui in 1878 and to twenty-seven tonii in 
18a0;andin timber from 22& tona in 1873 to 100 tona iu 1876 
and to Uiirty-thre« tons in 1880. The other exports beuideii 
8UiidTi<.-», wliicli aiuouotvd to 8304 louis, variiMl in 1860 fioiu two 
t*MLs yf Eui-upe twiat to hevtuty-aix tous ot country pieoe-gootU- 
Uiiiler iiii]>orb4 thert> was an incrvasu in grain from 18,077 ionn in 
187;3 tu 41,856 Ldqh in 1S7S. and to 47,m torn in IS»0 ; in iik-uI 
from 19U2 tons in 1873 to 3774 tons in 1878, and a decrease 
to 3276 torn in 1880; iu sugar IjoUi raw and rctined an increaw 
Erom l\iG in 1873 to 1406 tons in 1878, and a decrooee to 1224 
toufi iu 1880 probably due to tho large production of raW'Sugu 
in the district conaeqnent on the increased cultivation of gagai- 
caau along the KliK^lakvflala canals ; an ioorease in firewood from 
128 tons ill lS73to734 u>n8inl878.antIadecroa8otoG4-lin 1830: 
in moha tiowen from nothing in 1873 to 214 tons in 1S78 ui<l 
to 560 tons in 1880. Than was only a slight increase in tbo 
imports of Europe piece-goods from 685 tons in 1873 to 743 in 
18/6 and to 774 tons in 1880 ; and in country piece-goods then 
was an increase from 721 tons in 1873 to 8t>3 lorn iu 1S78 but 
aftervrsrd»a decrvasc to 67ti V^Qs in 1880. In Europe twist Uter* 
vna a decrca.«e from Stil tons in 1873 to 332 ton^ in 1876 and to 
108 tons in 1860. In country twist there was an iucreaso toM 
234 tons iu 1S73 to 342 in 1878 but afterwards a decrooso to 244 
toim in 1880. Othor iniports bemdes sundrieo, which atnountod to 
l!l,410 tons, con«tst«d of cotton eleven tAns and of wool tm tons* 
Thero was a docreaso in fruita and vegetables from 1204 tons irt 
1873 to 1090 in 1878 and to 78t) in ISSO ; in oilseeds from 109* 
in 1873 to tiSO in 18^8. but afU<rwarda an increase to 7.50 tons il* 
1880 ; in oil there was a decrea.<ie from 994 tons in 1873 to 80$ 
iu 1878, but a slight incrense to 910 in 1880. The details are : 
foaKA Pkximsvla Bailwat Gmps rMArrn 187S, 1878, iStO, 
























hult _ 







Fitawood... „ , 







CmId _ 







HI<lM ud llMn .„ 







OOMNd „ 







Haul ,, 






■.-t« 1 

JMaPlnm „_„.„, 




6M \ 

on ,, 






m» \ 

ncn COMlt, bum 

„ 0»wAj .- 











HI* 1 

aut ... _ 







Sucu. B&a »aA Rafload 







tl(Ul<lTl>* , _ 





"*a; I 

Tlnitiar .,. , , 





titJSrF*-:: ::: ::: ::; 

"" 1 









It* f 


TdUI . 













At I>lion<1, the only station of thu Phoml otid UAiunfLd railway 

itlii» Pooiia limitA, the traffic connUtvi) of 2!t.S64 in and 31,977 out 

angers, aoii 610 toiis of exports and 130 tons of imports in 1879 

Fiigunitt 64,406 in and 61,410 out passengers and 4780 tons of exports 

and 112 tons of impurts in 1880. 

ThvrofLre no tradea-nniona or ma Afyan« in tlie diittrict, nor i» thero 
any Nsganhet or recof^ized head in matters of trvlc DayAntm 
Abiiiniiii, n V&ui, who diixl Bftoea yean ago end was the 
krcc^oised head of the baaking business, was the Last Nitgarahet 
Hof Poond. Difiputea betwuon traJL-rs ore froqaently referrtyl to 
Hibtt whole body of traders in any one branch of trade. Hit; chief 
Ptu^mUirs fonu a committee or jianeh, and thoii- di.<cisious are alwavs 
•oci-pU-d. Foi-merly a fow n--cognizcd head traders formed the 
uanrA in each trade, hot here as ehtewhere the levelling tenduncy 
>f British rule has had it« cHcvt, and, except that petty dealers are 
fnot consulted and do not expect to he Bfikcd to join a tratic.-» m*^^tiiig, 
-all the. uitimhers of a trade havo, and oxcrciAc. an c^jual right to 
appear at a meeting of a track's /kiim-A. l(c^lar strikes arc 
ntumovn, but a failing market or scarcity of labour from time to 
time caoaes changes in wages. Wlien any change has to be made the 
elijtif uembcre of the trade meet the arti«Uk8 and after discus&ion 
fix a revised rate. In this manner iu 1881 a claim by the silk 
, wtavvrs for a rise in wage-H wba settlwl in their favour after the 
; iiiutLi^r was dutcassL-tl witli the rtilk mercluuits. Thv dccistomi of 
IhcfK committees have hitherto been accepted as linal. At tlie same 
Ume there is no rccoffnized meani* of enfoi-cing them except that if an 
uliaa rafotXH to work at the rate sottled bo reocivos no employment 
So Ubo traders will cease to deal with any member of their 
btJe who refuse* to alHtle by the decision of a trade committee or 


Sxcoptcottonbaad-loom wearinff which to a smaU extent is carried 
to in thirty-aeven towns and villages and some small metal work, 
tilk weario^, and paper making at Jnnnar the indostrios of the 
ditrict ceotro in the city of Poena. For Poonn city details of 
ttrdre craftB have boon coUcclcd. Tliese arc, in order of impor- 
tMt, the making of copper and bra^a vcnscls, the weaving of silk 
■kl ootton cloth, the making of gold and silver thread, glass bauglea, 
R«y comhrt, clay figareB, iron pot», felt and paper, tape weaving and 
•ted turning. Of these the making of copper and brass vessels 
■■d the weavug of silk and cotton cloth with or without gold and 
<Blnr thread aro the most importantand Sourishing. Glass boaglos, 
miy oombs, felt and tApe aro in good Uxvtl demand. Poooa clay 
igtneB are admired and are bought chieSy by Europeans. On 
vteoaot of their cheapness iron |>otd are taking tho phico of the largo 
hw and copper vessels nsed for Htoring water aud grain. Papur 

Cihaptor VT. 

Trad*. | 

RAiLWAr ' 


* Pimn outcnab n|<rlic<l by Mr. B. A. Gupl«, Utod CleA Sir i. J. Svliiwl «i Art 

IBombajr 0«zet4««r. 


Cliaptor VX. 

Bs*m Work. 

makine ts declining and none of tbtt wooflturners' work has man 
than a local sale. 

The Poena braas industry sapports (18S3) about aarenty dealers 
and S320 worlEon. This namber iaclodea dlO Tubals or inalcen 
of large articleR, 500 Jiii^rt or makers of small articioa, 50 Otam 
or ca«t«rei, and J>(JO KA»ilra or brasiers. The hereditary copper 
brssH and beltmelal workers of Poona, the Timbata, Jingan, 
Otdris, and Kda^bv are qaiet esajr-gY>ing people. Alt Bpe«k iacorreot 
Mar^thi und live in one.4U>re70d booses of which seven belong lo 
the Tambala, fifty or fiijrty to tho Jtogaffl, and thirty to the OtanL 
They generally lire on vegetable food, bat are allowed to eat 
mutton and liehas well as to drink liquor which tboy take on holtdaji 
and special feasts. The K£s^j« and T&aibat8 dress h'ke BnUiinatis 
and the Jingars and Otiris like MardtlUis. As tbe demvid 
for braaa ware is brisk and growing, no T&mbaU, Jingare, OtHns, 
or Kisirs have of late given up their hereditary craft. Williin 
the last fifteen years their numhora have btMin iiiora than donbled 
by local Mnr^tha Kunbis whom the high profile of bnua working 
have drawn from the fields and the labonr market bat who so for 
oonBlw themsolveB to tbe rough parts of the work. The hereditary 
ooppersmith classea work from seven to ten or eleven and again 
from two to six. In the busy seoson, that is between November ani 
May, they work extra honrs oven til! midnight. Like other 
local Hindu craftsmon, KiU&ni etop work on the no-moon day or 
aninwva at the ond of every lunar month, on kar tho day a^ 
the iiahiuankranl iu Janunry, for lire days at JToli or Shinty is 
March- April, for two during Divtiliin October -November, and on 
the day nftor an eclipse either of tho sun or of tho moon. Theyabs 
rest on Qanpati't Fourth in August and ox^Qaun't Day about tho aamt 
time, and tor ten days at Da.*ara iu October. All rest on any day 
on which one of the community die^ They have no trade guil')* 
but join iu paying a half-yearly tai to the (goddess If &Iika fur whum 
they have built a temple in Kasba ward which costs ll«. to 16/. 
(Rs.7.8) a mouth to keep up. The Kits&r's JUli differs from 
other local KAIii) in having camel supporters on each side of 
instead of elephant aupportors. Aliw instead of offering her aj 
or baffalo, on tho eighth day of the Navraira that istvod^f' 
Dasara, they offer bor tho false calabash gourd ilwAofa Cue 
lagenaria, which perhaps from its dark colour, is beliovod to 
tnuutormod giant. Four pegs are driven into tbe fruit torepr 
legs and arms and it is out with a sword, and thrown into thosaor 
fire. A little brass and bellmetal is smelted by the Jingars and 
ris but tho bulk of the copper and brass comes in ahoets about 
feet by four by rail through llombay chiefly From England and 
tralia Tho^ ore bronglit from Bcmbay by MiirwAr and Ouj 
V&nis and given to bo worked by Timbats. Tho »boots or 
are of throo kinds, thick middle find thin, which differ little in pric 
as thoy ore aold by weight. Tho copper coats £4 8s. to £i ID*. 
(Ks. 44-45), and tbo brass ti So, 1e £3 10^ (IU. 3-1.3.1) the hondrod- 
weight, with two shillings extra one for brokerage and one for 
carnage. A oopporsmitb has flEtoon chief tools and apptiancoa. 

BtoQO or <7/i4;ni] aboat throo foot above antl two feet nndcr 
>aiid oa whicu the copper and brass plates mndo by melting old 
iken pot8 arc boaten. As it haa to stand very roti^b nsagu this 
le is chosen of flawless black basalt very carefullj smootlied. 
I of tliose BtoQea is said sometimes to cost as much aa £10 
. 100). Binco ibe import of mutal shoots hae ^rown so oommoa 
atone has almost fallen into disn»o : Fire haaimors or ghaiu 
■th 8#. (Rs. 4) each : A pair of bellows or AArti<b worth 12s.( 
iron hooks or orapnia each north (id. (4 as.) : Pour pairs of 
^ or aandsi worth \0s. (Ra,5): An anvil called M)t/f A<m or m^icA, 
ong upright iron bar polished at one end on which the pot ia 
ced and beaten, north about ic (Ks. 3) : Twenty to twenfy. 
ial anvils or kharvait, thick iron bars beot and smoothed at 
id, together worth £12 to £16 (Rs. 120-160) ; Four ordi- 
anvils or airana together worth £2 (Kb. SO] : About fifty 
ammera or hathodtU with which the pot is beaten when it 
ilaoed on tho bar anvil together worth about £10 (Hs. 100) : 
pairs of scissors for cutting the copper or l^rass sheets each 
is. (It<. 2) : A wooden stand or stool ndled khodw for sup- 
ing (he bar anvil. This is a block ef wood with two legs about 
apart, and, in tho angle between the legs, a solid block of 
ith a pole in the middle. Tbroagh the nolo in the block the 
.vil is passed slanting'till its one end rests on the ground and 
end romains Kt^nding oat about a foot from tho liole. The 
..__it1) sits on tho low end of the bar anvil puts the pot at 
ho is working on the top end of the bar anvil, and, holding 
pot in his left hand, beats iC into shape with a hammer held in 
right luuid : Two files worth 2«. (Re. 1 ) each which last for only 
:r : Two pairs of oompaeees or kaivart together worth Aa. (Re. 2) : 
hollow gtouGS or uiillals each worth Si. (Rs. 4] on the top 
h tho sheet is laid and roanded hj faammoring : Gight 
or c/iAofiu for cutting tho metal together worth about 'it. 


Jingnrs or bmss-cAsters have sixteen chiuf ti^ol.-) and appliances: 

uril or aira» worth 10«, (Rs. 5) : Four bar anvils nrkharvaiit 

ilhar worth 16t. (Rs. 8) : Fonr hnmmerfl or kathoddt togetbor 

8«. (lU. 4) : A pairof tongs or santlsi worth l». (8 at.) : Two 

'•otssDrstogetherworth 2a. (Re. 1) : Five yearly'renewed filai 

each worth 3ii. to 9d. (2-G eu.) : A vice or ehagJa worth 

4) : A pair of bellows or bhdtdt worth 1$. (8 an.) : A saw or 

urth U.(8(W.): Aniron baror«iinJ/utnwithoneond smoothed 

aa an anvil worth about 4-i!. (Ra. 2): AthU iron rasper or 

six inchea by half an inch with one end bent and sharpened 

scraping and polishing pots, worth la, (S aa.) : A Dorar 

worth l^d, (1 an.): A twenty •four inch foot mie or gaj 

9J, (2 w.) : A square iron tray or fci« worth Gd. (4 as.) : A 

leaf taa or hadpaaa used in fanning the fire worth )d. (^ a.) : 

two or three crucible catchera or ehydJts. Thec^yii^ in an iron 

about three feet roand with two long iron ban listened at equal 

m ^larL Over the ends of these bars a socond ring about 

_ iDOhea across is passed and moved op and down the bars 

to increase or reduce the apace above tho base ring. In wotkia^ 

Chapter 71. 

Brus Wore. 

iink&r Ou«tU*f. 

Sk&ptar Vt. 



Iho ckijtik tlic bftso nvg is lowered into the fornace bo aa to surronnd 
thd crucible, and the woTable ring U forced down the bars till tbe 
cniciblu is tigbtljr prened between tbe bare and cao bo drftira ODt of 
the furnace. 

In making' bnus, bellmetAl orkiitr, and white taet»\ or paiu-haraii, 
the alloy is fuuelt«d in a pit about tbreu fcot rotrad and four or fins 
foet diwp. At the bottom of the pit a bellofrs' tube is firuilr Sud, 
and o7er the bellows' tabe aro Uud threo or four flat-bottomet) dome- 
topped cntctbles or pi>t«, abont eightoea inchos high and a foot roand. 
The crnciblo, which is called nut, is made by tfao brass workeri 
themselves of powdered broken Cbina, flint, and aabes. After puttiog 
some borax or gardgi into the cnicibtos to Borvo na a Bux, if bnus m 
to be mado, they are filled with broken pieces of copper and zinc aai 
dosed by an air-tight plug. Charcoal, dried cowdnng-cikos, and wood 
are heaped over the crudbles. The 6ro is lighted, and, with the help 
of the hollows, ia blown to a white heat, llie men know the time, gent- 
rally (our to five koora, which the alloy takes to form. When the metal 
is ready each crucible is grasped io the chydic aud lifted out of tho 
Furnace. On taking it out the tide of the crucible ia bored by tho 
point of a oail. and the molten metal dows into shallow clay trooghj 
whoro it 18 loft to oooL Whon cool tho solid maea ia draj^ffcd (roia 
the trongh by a pair of tonga or sdndai, tud on the stone or Ja^ai, 
andlieat«>n to tbo niquired thinnosii. Tn form motol shoots, whether 
local ur imported, into the retjuirod shapes, tho sheet is laid on the 
floor and the workman traces on it with a pair of ooinpasses, the piecei 
roquiTod for tho nppor nad tho undor parts of the Teasel to be 
andcutsonlthotwo pieces with actsaore or with a chisel. Theme 
is then softened in the firo and hammorod, and again Boftooed i 
again hnmmored, the alternate hami^oring and beating beia 
ropouted throo or four timos till it is beaten into abapo. The U 
pieces are then soltlered with bmss, borax or »avdgi, and chloride i 
ammonia calloil tiavay<i')ar. Tbo men work in bands of firo or : 
dividing the labour. Homo msko tho rough . oatline of the shi 
others shape the nock, a third set form IbeloVqr piece, a foarthsold 
tho shaped pioooa, and a fifth polish 4ho wBdIu. All the polishi 
which tho Tfimbats give is a rongh Bctnbbiag with a mixtnre 
pnwHerod charcoal and tamarind pulp, followed by boating wit 
sninll bummer till tbo whole sarfacv is covered with hammor 
or facets. 

Fooaa copper and brass articles may be arranged under foil 
gronps, llioae used in tho kitchen, those usod In onting 
driukin;:;, Ihosu nsod in storing and carrying water, nrticli 
used in serving botol, miisioal insti-umont-i, measures, larapa. diab 
and vessels uaod in wursbip, images, peasant jewelry, toilet recall 
sites, appliances usod in the dining hall bnt not for eating or drinl 
in^, misccllaneoua ware aud toys. Twenty pota are used in 
kitchen. The;xi/«/«(l)ac^lindncalcopperorbras9 pot, with slight: 
ronaded bottom, varying in size from two inches round to toar i 
Sve feet across aua two or throe feet high. The tapele (2}_ 
somewhat conical pot, with round bottom and narrow 
TapetM Tory from tbreo inches to four foot across tho bowl. 

Emm ^>Bg DseJ fur boilinff rice nud lioliling tnilb and tlie 
\ ODOB for 8torin(5 waU-r. Tne knhit^itnr (3) » c^lindricAl pot 
the ptitele (I) only with a more bulging bowl and soldoTn more 
n toot in dmmeter. 'Die htrantia or Modate pAtnt (1) n stuwMlisIi 
^king modakt, sheiigds, uid ouo or bwo olner native d^intieK.^ 
Ifcaron^ tB mode of three piecoe ; anderttentk a oylioder witli 
|ide handles ; in the middle a metal siove with two hook hnndlos ; 
U the top fitting the rim of the cylinder a domo with a cap* 
■d baadlv. Water is bailed in the cylinder, tlie »ieve is lot 
B place, the daint toa aro pluccd oithor on the siers or on a 
I of plantain leaf laid over it, and the lid is Awtesed dowu. 
) in applied to the lower part, and the steam gatheriug in the 
rat«nr« tho daintioB. Thi? purmi* (5) is another sieve or per- 
bd di»h nsod to carry off the enrplus greane when kanuiji* 
\ifias lira fried in clanfiod batt«r.^ Tho rotati (6) i» a cjlinder 
b nijiu iuchcD across and nine to twelve inohcA high, with a 
[ftt the bbttoni, usod for washing rico before it itt boued. It is 
ishnpcil liko the tapole (2). Tho jk4ra (7) is a long- 
|xieve tuwd for frying the gram flour pasta re(|airod for 
■ In making hunithis gram flour mixed with wat«r ia 
|d into thin sieve which ia bud over a frying pan with boiUng 
led batter and ahakcn. Tbv gram flour paate falU iiil'O the 
B drops which become solid us »oon as thuy touch the boiling 
ud butter. The dmptt ar« then tak»n out iu another niere 
li(patn«(8) which diffvra from the jhdra (7] chiefly iu not 
kg a rim. Tbo ekahdddni or kitii the English kettlu is now in 
i oae particularly nmong Englieth-speukiug natives. The 
Bt (10) or frying pan is a hemispherioal [lun six inches to six 
Kiroas and one inch to two feet deep ; it baa two handles opposite 
[Other and ia used fur fi^-iug. Tbepanii (11) ia a Ivge dish 
five feet in diameter with a rim two to four inches high. It 
aa a cover fur ajxUnU (1) or other large pot when anything 
f cooked in it. It also aervM for carrying cooked rice 
kbies from the kitchea to the dining ball. A email fxirdt 
\ a foot in diameter and made of brass, caJlod pitali is used ia 
I way as the paral, and in addition among Kunbisttnd other 
Ian Hindus serves ae a dining di»h. Tho pa/> (12) is a 
I with a rounded body and a long liaudlo. It is uaod na a 
Idk md or ladle while vegetables or pulse; are being cooked and 
distributing «poon in the dining hnll. The dofta (13) is a 
Idrical box with a top for storing daiatii». Tbo v«Int (14) 
I saacer^sbapcd dish-like pot, naually one or two feet in 
■ and somcitimcs polished in which enough rice for two or 
■te is toten from the pardt or tray, and poured into the 

I aaA lim^ arc made of i1«n flour and oontein oocoa-fccmel, inpr, ou-da- 

^lld», •»d wflkni. Hietr duty dilbraiKN ia Ut ah*^ JtfMtaJb an ibapoi) 

rUe B flkt-boCtonwd lota* bnit kiid tKenj/cm m MBUoirculMr- 

fb lik« ihatgOt are MinicircuUr and made of flonr. couoa-kflrael, angac, 

._ f, almoadl^ sad aaflron. JTaranjit differ from lAai^ in beinj made of 

[totir iaataad of rioa and in twioji Inod inatnd of being Bt«wed. AiuirmU an 

1 riM Hear, raw ausar, uid pfyppy ae«d. They ar« Mund take* nboiit aa big 

. of tfce kaad. 

Chftpt«r 71. 

Bstia WOKX. 


Chftptn- 71. 

Bkjuw Wobk. 

plato, Tliia disli atso scrrcs as a oorcr to a pot in wbtcL vege 

or pulno ans bulled. The ehatnelta (15) or spooa iiindo ol tn 

aseu for pouring liquid butter on rico. Tlie kdi^n { 16) or jAu 

ft tooth-edged circular plate fitted in a clefi lundle ix nsed 

catljng iho nutcbcvl borden of kamnjia. 'llu) jri«ni {17) or CX9 

kerne) nticer ia « nhoet of braaa about six inches by four on foar 

inch E)g;li foot. Tbo BurEaoa of the sWcot ia broken by aewral i 

of Ion;; narrow boUorr ridges with raiaod sharp-ougvd openi: 

agaitist which tlie konid is rubbod and cat into lun^alices: 

idtatu! (18), n slightly tapering brass rolling-pin a foot tu eigfa 

incboH long used for Baitonmg poiie, a Tsriety of knranjvi 

<inaraiD : Tho ehalaa (19) ia & brass sierO: llifi jtancJulmrU i 

(20) is a aet of aevea brsiu cups, aix cupa ranj^ ruiiud n ceutra) 

witJi abandlo; it ia used for carrying koshtmhirs tlwt is pi«k. 

fruit and Tegetables from the kitcfaon bo the dining hall. Fifl 

eating and drinking -paUt are made: The alrmdy described 

Iray (II) and the tvlni (14) oomo again in tbia gronp as thoy 

usod to aerring ric« and regetablea, and so does tao cgralr. 

mu'UiU rtc« Indlo (21) ; tho velni is nited for tbo aooond nnil \ 

conniBH and the ogralo for the first course only : The ttU (I 

a polKthod brass dining dish with bnlging rim six incbes ' 

tn-o foot aoroaa: 'i'he vtiH (23) a roaDd^ttomml cytindji 

brass cup otM to four inches acroaa is oscd to bold eaeb 

share of curry uud broth : Tbo gadea (24) a polished o: 

nocked copper or brass dinner pot, nsod to bold oach tORB^ 

supply of dnnking irnter, rariea from the siae of a pcnr when it is 

catlod apkam to the sixe of a full grown pomngcio ; a spont^mootbri 

gudva ia called jhdri: Tho tvt/ydr^iA tambifa (25) &)so made ti 

oo)^>er or brass, is flatter than the gadva and bke it is used as a 

water cap. The /oft (26) is a par-shaped pot liko 2b and 20 in 

tue Bute and material : Tbo haai <37) is a ring with a baodlu for (hs 

gadva, tumbya and Mi: Tbd manaiamika (28) ts a small brasi 

drinkingciip: The cAa«6K (2f») is a small miter jar: Tbo paswAp-if" 

(SO) is n cyliiidneal water cop with a rim : The^amb or pydia (3l ) ii 

a drinking cup act on a round stand : Tho rAmpAtra (32) >s a jamb 

(3))(vitboutastand: 'Pha phttlpdtm (5^) JsacyiiiidricaJcnp likothd 

yuncljMilTi with n Uiickor and broader rim. The fteven chief ressell 

fur storing and carrying water are: Tbo pdtele (1) and t<iptlM (8l 

alrvndy described : 'Vhi>hinda (34)ashort-necbadoylindricalpo4owd 

b(>th lor carryiug and storing water : The ffhtgar longer-oecbsd 

oJid with a more sborply sloping lower part tban the hania ; wbw 

sinidl the 'jhayar is cabled Imtan: Tbo gkangiH or ^ngalaua (36) 

a oOMOT jur t*ii tfl foortooii iuches aeroas, and four to nine deepj il 

used for holding hut bathing water and for steeping olothes : Tb< 

yanckyritra (37) is a large copper cylinder two to three foot ncrosi 

and three to four feet deep with a rounded rim and two haodle* ; 

some panthpairds now have a stop-cork at the bottom and an iroi 

stand : Tbc »unit (S8) is a glohular pot with a long narrow neoll 

aged by travellers for carrying water. The fiftwn arliL-les used « 

serving betel or ;)tin oKpfiri are: llie lahnk (:jg) a round dub nl 

inches to two feci across, with a rim half wn inch U> two inches bigl 

the whole embossed witb lotus Uowera and other designs ; it is otei 

!}no^ tlie fourteen Bmallor nrticlos bcilongin^ to the Bet of 
at dishcB: Tho chauphttla flO) is a box with sti or eight 
rimcDta and throo or fuur lugs; Utah cotupartment has a 
t« top or lid shaped Uko the pohil of a lotus or like a mangD 
mctimps oniaincDt«d with apcucock which scircs as afa&ndle; 
lids cloae inwards whero a srruw Dhapod likv a lotus bud, 
urood iuto the centml holo, keep;) the Itdit tightly hgtoDed ; 
mphula is aaod for holdiuf;^ the cm-daniutntc, c1ovc<i, niituKjgs, 
uuTroQ, and perfuniud cat«chu pills which are eaten with betel : 
ofri (41) is a cylindrical box for the olidced liinOf aU«chu, 
tier spices which are oatco with bctol : The wlkita (42) ia the 
tier for slicing the bet«lDut; it ia of three or four differenb 
: The jtatuiud (43) is a squ&rc box for keeping tbc Iwitil 
! The tanbakwhi tluhi (4-4) or tohaoco liox, is a cylindricttl 
ih a sniall hole at the top and a lid movinff round ao axiSi 
umilor holu, thruui^h which, when the two hulee aro brougbL 
(T Uio other, tobacco is poured to be chewed with the betel 
loea: The fhuntil (4tj) isaboxfor keeping the slaked lime 
i« 0At«n with betel: rbo^'^4idMi (46) and tho latt (47) are 
<B»: The alar Mni (48) isanniallcap fixed in the ccnlre >)f a 
tab for holding the atar or perfumed oil which ia served after 
llo gutdlf-diim (49) or rosv-water bottle, it a bottle with a 
UTOvr nock perforated at the cud and Rxod to tlie body with 
Vf fn)iu wli icL rosevriitcr h jipnukluil nrov iho gtieata af lior tho 
leil oil ban been served : llie mar (50) is a peaoock*shaned 
the lUiia (ol ) is a square box, luid the fxiiuieha jfonj (52) m a 
ylindricol box with oompurlinODtH n»ed for holding tho 
Jeata trbicb aro oatou with li(<t«l : The Ithal-l'oUa (53) is a 
mos murtur and piHtou for pounding betel for the aged or 
M. The twelve mibbcal iastrumcuta aro : Tho bell 'jhaiUa 
lither plaiD or deooratod with figures, has a baudlo cither 
r fliiaped lilto U&nili the monkey (rod, or ^arud Viahna'a 
! charger: The jhdnj (55) a Oat and tbe tal (56) a rounded 
, both used aa-no acconipauiincnt by reciters uf psalmii or 
<y liyina-aiiiging heggam, and by »cniion-aDd-floiig or Icirl'iH 
tn : 'Hie rh'tl (£7) a row of little bella worn round tboankles 
oinggirle; Tho ghungura (-W) arc bigger bolla worn round 
'uf nocks aud i-uimd tbu wiust of bouio low daaa begging 
Ml of Kitii : The rhiphjan (59) aro two fiah-aliapod flat bars 
o Rcvon inches long and one and half inches broad osob 
ad with a ring; the ring of tho up]Mir bar is passed over tlie 
M)d the ring of the lower bar ia parsed over tho socond oiid 
loeert ami the performer claabos the bars together by tbe 
M the tlimnb and fingora : The karl-il (00) is another pair 
il aoHtanulH which aro Miunded by shaking the baod iuaload 
buviDg the fiugors : Tho Uitha (61 ) or kettle drum ia a hollow 
hetical ooiipcr pot with a thick rim and ti small ccntml hole ; 
\a corcreu with gcat'a skin and bouten with n pair of rattan 
Jong with the dhol or wooden drum : Tho iJirtM (Gi) ia * 
[lot-ghaped dnini covored with gnat's skiD ; Tho 
. ■) is a child's rattle: The hirua (64) is the large bi-asa 
uttijtut: Aud the Mng (6o) is the brass bom. The threu 

Chapter VI- 



measares are: The tuihuli (66) and the sher (67) copper cytindi 
uced in tneaetiring gmin : The pavghcr (6K) is a smtll globi 
brass pot ased for nicafiunn^ milk or a cjlindiT with a small book- 
shapoa bandlo for mcesnring oil. The eight lamna are : Tbtf 
vamot (69) and the handil or lumandiva (70) both Bat saucer-liki 
broil plates with hollowH iu tlio lip fur niclcB; the tamai ie Uid 
OD a high bnua stand and the ilanifiV on a shorter stand and 
bas a braaa cbsin bj which it is haiig from the ceiling or (mm 
adoor lintel : The tftra lante- (71) is oi twi> varieties, a smallw an 
inch or two inch broad fist'bottoiaed aaucer witfa a wick*hoUow 
the lip and a Ur^r with a long flat hook-like handle : tbt 

niTdit.jan'(^2) is a small cup set on a long or a short stand, for 
bonung Oftrifisd batt«r bofurc the goda -. I'fac pfmehdrti (73) is a 
crMC6at-ah^wd pot on a stAnd with five wick-openiogs which is 
som»tiine» fixed in the hand of a female figure : The divti (74) ia 
u hollow conical braxs bundle in which a roll of oiled ragK U fitt«d 
and bomt aa a torch, being fed with oil from a spoutra oil flask; 
it is much nscd hy llio devtil«e.'i of Kili or BharaDi : Tlie miuU/ 

(75) is a bruss cvlindcr through which a roll of oitod ra^ is pMwi 
and burnt ah a torch ; the torch baa to a great extent given way 
to the InnlerH, bul i* Blill uned by the gentry in native «l»tv« aad 
it is burnt before ShankArfichirya, tne Smfirt Pontiff, wh?n h« 
tra^vela during the day time as well as at night : The chimnu-k-t diro 

(76) is the English binp with a glae* chimney. Tweuly-siK 
worship vosaela and applianc«s are made : ThetUikwIiekapiilr-i (TV), 
a DBrrow-Derked copper or brass pot is, somewbat like the jr^'lM 
(24) except tlint its bottom tapers to & point, stands on a tripod 
with a ring at the top, and has a hole in the bottom through wbich 
water dripH on the object of worship : The eampusht (78) a holkm 
cylinder two to six inches iktosb and one to two high is ns^-d (or 
washing images : The ehauki (79) a low four-footm stool, roaal) 
sqnare, or nix or eight-conierod, fs u»od as an image stand nrsl 
a support for ua image stand : The ddni (Sd) is a stand on wtucfc 
the oonoh or aftanlch h placed ; it is goncrolly toHoise-shapod, sad 
is about half an inch in diniuetcr: Tbo ghanta {bi) is the al 
described long handled boll : The fh'trtt or halfciirli (HI ), is a t 
four incht?9 long fish-shRped pot for bunnDg cuuiphur bofurs' 
gods: Th« jtanrhnrti (7(1) is the already descriLed five-vie 
utrnp for burning clarified htitter before the gods : The dhofdiH 
(82), a stund with homisphorical top aud bottom, is used fur biinuoff 
inccn.w: The nirdnj an (72) is tho already described !r" 
burning cturifiod butter before the gods: The arght/a {'•■ 
narrow cup hall an inch to three inches long and a qQartproI** 
inch to an inch brond, with a flat handle and long flat auoal f< 
which sacriticial water is poured. The panthpdie (84) is a 
■with chambers for tho variuus powders, turmeric guUtt, ohifi 
kttnktt, with which during the worship iJie god and the woi "" 
are from time to time marked: Tho iamal (85) is a round 
shaped plate, sometimes fixed on the back of a metal bull, od ' 
the gods are placed, llio tdmhan (86) is a shallow batb, exc 
its Bligfatly bulging rim not unlike tbo tdi or dining dish 
which images are wsshed : The simvatan, litomlly Inm thioBtj 



r-footed low stool with plntea on tiro aidea mid a Joooitttocl ai\.'hc'l 

Jt ill front of wbtch the gods are kept : The tabakdi {BR) is a Btnall 

plate an inch or two l>road for holding the brow-iiiKrkiii|^ flniidiklwoot) 

M6le and red tonnerio : The kot:ho^ (89), a platv with three oval 

ATudosii for k««ping the wliito and red saadaln-ood paatos and the 

iDoiBtoued rice with which the brows of the goda arc miirkud : The 

tandhei-hifiaii (90) is a Bin&ll ladle-shapod spoon for pouring oat the 

Mi^rificinl wator: Tlie vati (23) !s the slreadj aeecrtbed small 

ejliodrical brass cup with rousdod bottom froui half au inch to an iuch 

acroM in which su^ar or naivedya is olTDrod to the ^da : The luUi- 

vnmMean (91) is the omantented square pot in which the holy Iu/«i 

Obtdou) sanctum, tho wife of Vishna ia grown : The devkdra (92) or 

god thrinc, is a dome with a stand on which the gods are arranged 

■od vonliippod : Tho ptijefha-daba (9S) or worship box, is a round 

W with a tapuring lid baring a hole iu tbo centra in which the 

gidsare placed at night and the lid faateued; while worship ia 

gtug on tlifi lid is nsM as a sivTO fi-oin which mter is sllowcd to 

drop over the Rod-i : The gangajali (94) ia a aniall gadva (24) or 

Mepotwitha iidomainunU-d with the buatof awoman to rcprawnt 

Ihetiaogcs, whose water ia ki'^pt in it and ia wortthifiped alouff with 

tlu Itoase gode : Tbi* t/hitnijuli fiela (95) is a handleleM gSangal 

ibqted (36) cup iu which suf^iir or naittedva is oETcrcd to the goda 

It iecloae of the worship; The lahak (39) the dif(!Uw»e (71) and 

IhtJirti (74) are aim) used in worshipping tho gods. Twenty 

Ndisg brass images are made : Qanpati (96), tlic god of kuowl^ge 

laj lord of the spirits, a fat four-haoded man with the head of an 

itohant; Shankar or Shiv (97), the desirojer who has a trident 

k nia luCnd aad a necklace made of homan skulls round his neck, 

tilb bis wife PArvati and bin mm Gtanpati on his lap. M&rati (98) 

the monkey god : It^m thb doitiod king of Ondh snpposod to bo tho 

•neclh incamatioD of Vieboa, with bia wifo Slta, his two brottwra 

BWftt and Shutntghna, and his general M&ruti (5$) : Vithoba (100) 

«iUi bis vrife Rakbmiii, aapposcd in some places to ho Bsudhya or 

Bodha the ninth incarnation of ViHhnu: B^lkriafana (101) or babv 

Krishna, the eighth iacarDution of Viithou cmwiing like a child with 

■ bailor butter in one hand ; Harlidhiu-(102) ortheflatiog Krishna: 

&Uhn-KnHhan (108) or Krishna and his beloved Hidha: BbaWini 

I^ ( |U4) ar Kiili, an cigbt-hnndcd femalij li^ro slaying tbu buQulo 

jeaat MnhiiihAsar: Datt^itraya or Trimurti (105), ia tho Hindu 

niaity with three boads and six bands guarded by four dogd which 

Dean the Vede and a oow which means the earth: Kbandoba (106) 

tlegtiardhin of tho Doccan ta shawn on horseback : F^rvali (107), a 

MUed female figure the wife of 8hiv the destroyer is wurahipjicd by 

U)$ bride when tne bridegn:>om is brought to the marriage bower and 

i* given to tbe bri'Iugroom who tAkea it hoine and puts it with hia 

Khaute gods: Gatiri, the head of a woman is the goddess BharAni 
ikich is wonshipped d&riug the &aQpa.ti foatival in August : Sbesbasb&i, 
or Vishnu (109) the protector sleeping on the coils of the thouHand- 
hiaded soako with his wife Lassbmi shampooing his legs and 
(tWTid Blanding io frout with folded bnoda. Other brass 
figures cast in Poona are : A^ cow and u calf (100) : A woman 
(110) holding ud-battis oi* iucenso sticks: A GosAvi or religious 

Chapter TT- 


Ch»pt«r TI. 

Br AM Woke. 

hvftfptT (111) IioMing u fly-nliUk or chauri; Riildlii luiil SiJIilil 
(112) Oanpati's female fly-whisk beftrers: ThaNamli (lia)or Sliir'a 
bull : A pair ot nunpiuit uitolopoa (11-i) cooli holding an vd-baUi 
or iaceoae stick: A pair of gandu (116) or BttoDdantii of ShJv, 
one blowing n concb iOi«tl aoa tbo otlier a horn, to be placed oa 
GAcb side of 8hiv. Tliirtoen Mticlca of peasnat jowolry arc mado: 
The eiuindraicor (116), tbe Aafofc (117). aad the pA«M118) for th« 
head ; Ikusit (11?), sari* (120), vajratikt (121), aod ptttlU (122) for 
the neck; imI^m (123), gott(l24). aai bdngdj/dt (12^) for Clie anna 
jtnllijan ()2t>) for tbe wrisU ; ehtialt^ or tallet (127) for tbeCagerft 
and tadet (128), vales (128), and ;M»i<;'ati< (129) for the ankl 
Five toilvt articles are made: Tbo kara-nda (l^tO), a dotoo-sha 
bnn box for keepioR red turmeric powder kunku or iunAutn: 
menaJui karanda, Blicfatlj different from tho karnnda is ns«d for 
keeping' beeawax which women mb on their brows before tliejr pat 
on the red brow louk ; Tho am (131) a bnraishcd- brass mirror 
with a lid, is either round, Hqiuiruj oval, or hoart-shaped : The ^aif* 
(132)a mango-shapod phial for keeping the dafpan or tooth-powdor' 
wUich streogthons tliuugli it blaolceiu tno teeth, nad i» nscd hy lying- 
in women : Tbu pliani (133), a braas cumb which has now alninsl 
cntirtOy ^vou way to ivory and sandal or blookwood ooralw : 'Ilw . 
ehank\fa'S (134), little round studs or apaaglesapplicd to the brow bclu'^H 
thcnnl mark: The ^(imf/i'id/iidaM (135), a cylindrical brasa box witfl^ 
a looking glass fixed to tho lid in wluch high class Hindu nicu 



roll pierced with loitvett, flowers, niitmols and other designs in dotted 
lines ; it U fillod with powdered culcspar or rdngali and passed ever 
partsof the floor wbicn have been markodawith rodpowdor ; before a 
dinner the scat of each guest is uutrkcd oS with thi-so linos, aod on 
groat days tiie rdnaoH is sprinkled on in front of the door sto] 
The tid-haUuhfjha4i (137), a treo-«Kn|K)d hmsa stand on wtiii 
incense sticks are burnt; th» jhtid is generally placed near t 
jAaio of the bndrgroom or other distinguisli&d guest: Thvj'fmlt/ 
(138), drcular pieces of brafiB, shaped like a flower with n hok> io the 
centre which arc nailed along tbo edges of the low Hindu dining 

Fifteen misccllaneoaa brass and copper articles are made : T! 
rAarrn (139), kojiundi (HO), and gnnJi (141) globalar uiilk pots' 
'ITic fci« (142) an oval brass milh pot: Tho bomlle (113) h spojii 
<rilh ft fliiC handle oud a lung snout used in giving milk to children : 
l^e vajri ( 14i) is a metal plate with roughonod surface and a bandlo 
used as a foot scraper : The daut (14&) an ink bottle t-ilher n>»m 
square, six-sidod, or eight-eidod : The sqaare or »ix<mdod box ( 1 ■ 
containing two ink bottles, one for red and tbu other fur black ti 
aeandbox, and a square gam bottle is aUu called <(auf: Abddgirdch 
Jcalas (147) a bod-shapeo oniautent fixed at the top of the al 

I TIm tngra^Dt* «l Ui« tnoth pow^ar or Mtaan are : flanta koA Me _^ 
myrnbidatu. galli Qiiorco* iuToolori*, Mt^t iMrk Acaciea anlncut, wad wpperM or 
gNeii vitrh>l. 





Biato wodaing- nmbrella: The kniup (148) or jMulIocfc, tho 

uyr* {140) or hiiigtt, tho tany'i*(lM>) or scales, tlie y«i/ft biir (151) 

vniHlon rail, the Mat (1J}2) the English bolt, arid iho Jiadi (XoS) 

rinf^-abapcd hnndlc Kxcopt the vessels and &p|ili&i)cea used iu 

vorship the inu^oa of tho gods aad the uisoollaueous irare uU uf tboBO 

1irBHartic)D8Rn)DiadoHRin.I)atitoy8 forchildroa. la additiou to ttiase 

poto eight special tojrs are made ; The khitrehi (15+) a small chair; 

Ihtfolang (155) & sofa; tho vaina (154J) n cradle; tho Rnglish couch 

(15^) which has boon adopted into Slantthi amlvr that naino thongh 

mnouQoed moro like coach thiiD coach ; tho mangdla a sitiglo 

m-placo (150) ttod the cAui u double fireplace ; thu tahlo (IGU) ; 

udiho Mn/: or boaofa (161). 

Tbo Juigars mostly do tho finortiada of brass work, nukiDi; falso 
jevdry, f>ildiiiK cloclcH, turning metal, casting and polishing 
001, making lock«, and shorpiiiiing KwonN and knives. Tho 
iBoiiis, who bavB lately taken to hraSH work, ore of two classes 
QMdiiArB or beatcra ami Oliii^rs or cAAters. Ot tho bnatent about 
wit faondrod »ro cmploynd id Iwoaty-Gvo cetebluhmouts and of 
tk Alston about four bandred are employed tn twenty establish- 
moIh. The first ouUiidurs or uon-hereaitary workers who started a 
ln«i beating cetabliHhraent in Poona were Kliaiidu a SdtAra Mali 
w AbduUa uilla an Alimodnagar Mnaalm^n. The present workers 
Bteill Pooaa Kuabis. Xhoy spoak iucorroct Mar&lhi, live in one- 
tbtiTod hired quarters^ eat coarne foodchieSy vegetable food, dre§a 
Qa cap or coarse MairAtba turban, a kerchief bonod round the 
waj, a facketaod somolimes a scarf round tho shonlder. They are 
UxNinra being paid by the outturn and earning 4Jd. to 7^4. 
9'iiu,) ft day. They soldom suflttr from want of work. Thoy 
■wit from sunrise to aouset with only rest enough at noon to tako 
I ttwJ. Thoy stop work on tho last or no-moon day of cncb lunar 
Ooitfa, on tho day aftor Sanknint in Janaarv, for fivo days nt Shim'ja 
mMarch-April, and 0(1 tho day after an oo'lipso. They keen these 
■Jnas days of rest from rcligioQBmotivos not from a lore of idleness. 

Tie materials which these Kunbi ooppersmitha work up into 

<Mgk pots arc odd pieces of br&zicnt loft over by Uic Tuiubata iu 

nUiag oat veasoh) ; the remains of copper sheets punched at tho 

aiut or the cartridge factory ; and broken pota. Thcae materials 

to an arer&ge cost b^d. to lid. a ponnd (iU.7|-10 the man of 

SEIbs.). The material is supplied by the owner of the establish. 

■MDtwho id fithcr a Kasilr or a V&uia, and sometimoa a Kunbi^ and 

ttaro oftoo by a dealer. The Kimbi copjwramith'B tools and 

upUances differ slightly from those uaed by tho Tfimbats although 

tne? sometimoa go by the same namos. iQnteod of a flint and 

pbinawara crucible tho Kunbi brasa-smith uses iron cnpa oiuo 

'w across and three to four iochos deep. An establisluoent of 

workmen use 1(H) to 125 iron cups in the year as tho cups burn 

iff and break by conetaot heating. It ia said that about every 

iBsdred poundaof braes smelted wear out an irou cap ('i cnps in 

no then). Two or tliree large tongs or tdndasU about Chroo feet 

Ido^ and eiglit lot«npoaods in woigliteaoh worth 3».to4«. (Rfl.l )-2). 

ax bellows a year each (B«.ll-2l). CircoW 



Bbjuh WnaiT. 




Espter VI. 

Bham \VoM(. 

wooden moaUfl or gaetuit with a hati<ll«.> cadi ivortb ili/ 
(Z'ias.y. Pour to six iron Imrs, Ibrec to live fe«t luug nail au iiic^ 
ruuod, culled sedagiu, together worth 2*. io i». (Iia.1 -2). A lur{,tt 
Strang an^-il dxeaiBAD eqnally ttrong bdbhul hUtck irortli 
tS 10«. (Ua.10-35). 8ix strong bammeTS with wooden handlesi 
worth &r. to 3«. Four psirs of strong sciuon each worth ts. tn 
(R8.I>li). Fonr or five four-inch nqiuure MtviLs cAch worths. 
6«. (Rs.2>d). A seooDtl »ot of Iwooty to twunty-livu hammers 
Aa/AoiM* to match tlie geonnd anvil each worth 6d. to la. (4 ■ 8 cii 
Half a doxon bont bar anviU or khare-tu five to six feet long, t* 
inchee sqnaro at one end, and four inches sqnare at the otlie 
UDlilce LliA TAttibata the Kunbia have no khadva or triiu^li 
wouduD Htaiid fur thoir bar auvil, a small block is placvd bolow 
bar anvil and the workmen sita on the Iwr with hw legs on eti 
side of it. Four to five hammera to match the bar auTit or khar 
each Worth 1*. to la. 3J. (8- 10 a».). Four to six small aovils 
iDchOHby three to four feet long called /loAiirat each worth 29. to 3t, 
(Its. 1 - 1|) which are fixed in suuiU bdhhul blocks buried tii the grout " 
eight to twelve amall hammers to match the paJidrm anvil tog 
worth Gt. to \2a. (Rs. 3-6). A pair of casks four feet high and 
feet in diiunot«r for holding tamarind pulp mixed with 
eacb worth 4s. to 6«. (Bs.2-3). A boUow etoue or uh/iat 
Z$. (Re. 1). The sinsH piooes of braziers arc gatborod tog 
and sbapx] into cjliitdricnl lumps. A few ptecos of copf 
and xinc are aUo put in the iron cup or tmy and a small quanti 
of borax is added. The iron ctip is sot in the fumooo which is a 
pit throe foot roaud uad two feet deep with the aides raised two 
foot above tlie floor. Driud cowdung citkos cbaroool and wood 
are hoapud above nod around the cup. Two hollows are placed 
one on each aide of the opening in the kanked sides and workwL 
till the alloy is molted and the parts thorongUy ataalgama t ajB 
The ccp is then lifted up with the large tongs and the liqniP 
contents poured into a circular hollow atrack willi a wooden mould 
on a bed of clay. When aolidifiud the rounded cakes of brass vm 
taken to the large auvil or fci*M<Ia when one tnau holds tho oaki 
firmly with pincers while five or six labourers hanmur it in orderw 
fiucceasion. When it is beat«n to a (pven thinness the cake ia pifl 
aside and aa^tber cake hammered in tho same way. The cakes MM 
afterwards taken in heaps of ton or fiftoOD and again hammered 
When thin enough th^ are cat by scissors into circular pieces <H 
the required size and taken to tho sooocd anvil and tho holloa 
stone or ukhal to bo shaped, and are passed Erom hand to hand aiH 
from anvil to anvil till tbey are completed. Bach pot is stiapdl 
in two separate pieces an upper and a lower. \V'1ion tho two poffl 
are ready ihoy are dovetailed and beaten together at the joiniD^ 
They are then again takes to tho furnace and a ootnpoaition 3 
bmsa dnst and borax is thrown ever tho joint, tho pot is boated, anl 
the joint is once more hammered. The next proooss ia polishinil 
To polish tJiem, a number of poLt are steeped two to four day* il 
a solution of tamarind pulp, rubbed with powdered charcoal anfl 
bricks, and hammered again till the whole surface is covered wilfl 
hammer marks, I 



fiMUA bni(t.i making orif^JTially cikme From Altiundaamr, all of 

^]H.-rHrtiitb» hiivo qow moved Vo Pix>na, Pun and B«Tduida 

wUioh iispil t^ iQiilcc ixinsidorable qiuinlitios of briusware, 

U-mircty without work ; Cb^dor is Jecliuing, and though 

tprmctice of pilghnu bringiDgawayN4.silcbnutsware will probably 

Tvtokftrrp up tho Homiuid nt iuaiit for thu hitfbor clasH of artioleft 

wlcot N^&'sik, UDlcs»theychaQKctheirs/8teiii,uiewholeof tho NisJk 

' ' in ortlinury i^uokiti^ iiiitl driiikiiig V6M6la nill ptna to Pooaa. 

I'uuuu coppL-n-mitlutarv ablv to uudersoU Chcir rivalM br adopting 

»ink>a of romhinntinn amnng tho workers aud separation among 

auticlvsiniidewliicb >.< tlx^svorctof vbenp production. Tli« cook tag' 

] mtt-r Teasels made are all of one sixe and of ouo shave. And in 

it each ve»w\ is paftscd througli a aucceaaion of grviipa of 

wbosu whole at loutioii is given to perforutiag one stage oC 

tWDik. (Quickly and thorough!}'. 

: wravinff in Poonacity :b at prosonb (1883) flourishing, and lit 
t ext«uC boa Qclipsed the silk weaving of V^ola in Nfksik. Of 
1 600 loonu, neftn; twi>-thirdsaro owned by Mumin and Jnlfiha 
ina who have settled at Mominpiira in the Jnna-Oanj ward. 
I Hindu Bilk workers are fonud in K.^bi-ili and near Someslivar. 
lUiuwlinaa silk workers belong to two aoctions, Momicia proper 
. JnUhAs, and tbe Ilindn worknRi to three sections, khnLria 
and SilliB. According to thdr own aceoont most of tbe 
(tMloidns ramo about thn>e generations ago from Haidarabad> 
DMrwiir, Xariyan Pcch, and Qnlmntk&l to tho Ni&iim'a country, 
ud ihii Hindn workcrSj according to tbcir own account, came from 
htthaa aud YmtU three or four geiinrations ago. As a cla^n both 
NaMbnins Hnd fIiDdusareniild,hitnlwoi*king,and itol>or,tho Hindus 
tfiiw harderworking and thriftier than thi! ^ftisalim'ma, Tbe home 
Ipeadi of the MusalnuUu ia HiudiiKUtni and of the Hmdiu Mar^hi. 
Uinj- Uto in their own honscs aud thu rest in hired qaurters. The 
H<i<|i», though tho/ cat mutton and tish on hohdaya, generally li«o 
i^etablc toed ; the Masalmdna am auimal food oUnust dailj. 
iiAfi Uindunand MusalmiiiiB wear a Ihret'-cornerwl turlian, bot the 
Xualmiiu tnrbnn difTurH :>ltf^litly in tthnpo from tho Mardtha turban. 
Bdh classea wear long wbilo coatti reaching tho knees. Itound 
IW loius thd Hindus wear the dliofi or waiatcloth, and thu 
ICaialin^ns wear trousers. Tbe demand for Poena silk is growing 
nd tbe workerR arc we1Uto-du. Tbeir busiest season is the Hiada 
Bvnage time between Noromber aud May. Tbe Musalnuln workent 
M (mm the 6th to the 1 dth of Mukarram, on the Samzdn and 
Salar^idt, nod on Sdbfin and Wa/ldn. Hindu silk workers rest 
do tlio taunthlv uo-mouu day, on tho day after tho winter Sattkranl 
" ' ia callod Kar in Junnary, for two or thruo days during the 
holidays in March-April, during two days ab Dimli in 
r- November, and on the day aftur all oclipscs. Poona ailk 
i work from seven to ten in the moraing and from one to 
Their women and thcjr childron ov«r ten help the men 
K, roeling, and sizing. Since tho 1876-77 famine, about 
cimiil^hi K oahti faniitiea have come from KafAyao-Peth in 
Hnlni'H country and settled at Poona. They own aboat 100 


Ba^sa Woi 

Srut Waavnra 





siilc Io('m.-< fui<l Arc liivdco-workin^r »»(] ucire sucoesaful tlian eitlie^ 
thn Muaaliaiu Khiitna ortho tocni Ktalitis. Tiie onlj eilk uneU u 
China silk. It is of four Tarioti4>« dtt^ni or eecoad quality, Win 
third quolit;, lunkin a variety of the aecoud quality, and «An<dl 
giat. All of it comes to Poona from Boiubuy ha personal lug 
The duem in baught at Kw. GJ. a pound {lis. \Q{ s aher), tho si\ 
16*. a poDud (Its. IG a titer), the {<irijl-iti at lu«. tid. a poDDci (Ks. 
a sA«r}, and the theval or .riul at 13«. 6d~ to I4«. r (Mund (Itt*. 1 
to Ba. 14 a aAcr). The Poona silk wesTors either borrow mnnsy 
from Shimpi and Mim-ir V&ni mlk donUrs and buy aillc yarn and 
gold thread, or they work as hkboaren recoiviug tho iDatcritJn fi 
Shimpi and Mftrvdr Vtioi dealera and being paid by tho pii 
Wbon money is advanced the silk dealers do not cLar^ intorvat 
get 1^ per cent od the eoIo proceeds of the fabrics. 

Five tools and appliances are oHcd in a Foooa silk worker's 
rahaikari'it, litcraUy wlieulniftn's, factory. TbMO are three 
cages caUcd phalhde and onu nmuU cage called phdlki, each 
3d. to 6d. (2-4 (u.); and fifteen or sixte^)u reoU or nsdri» each 
3d. to d^ (2<4 (w.);' a siiiall wheel for winding the silk from 
reds to the bobbins wortb Im. (Rs. 3) ; about 500 bobbins or 
togothci- worth about 7^d. {^ a«.) ; and tho Urge tb 
machine or raA^if worth about £3 G*. (Its. 3U) incln[ling£:2 IOa. 
for tho big driving wlmeU, An, (Ua. i) for Ibe upright woodou fi 
or tat on whoite pe^s tlie bobbius turn, and 8«. (lis. 4) for the ' 
or dMol roond which tho twisted thread from oacli bobbin is 
To start a silk re<<ling and throwing establiahmoiit roquiree 
£4(Rk. 30.4t>). On getting to Poouft, tho raw silk is n: 
to the reolur or raUalkari under whoso care it i» tx-c-lctl, Hurl 
twialcd. It next goes to tho dyer or rangdri to be coloured, 
when received from iiiui is sent to tho ■itoftvor or magv/tUi. by w 
it is warpod, mKed, and worcn. At the rooler's or mhiUhari^ii 
first thii^ dono U sorting the silk. To sort it the silk is tl 
round & (nroe feet bamboo cage or phdlka, with n central baadlo 
two feet long, fn front of this oago tho »ortor,'wlio is gener 
woman, iiitn, and, fiutu-ning tho end of the bank to a reel or < 
fixes the central rixl n[ tbo cage agaitiHt her k>ft fuol, and 
spinning rapidly by t\M»tiug tno end of tho tod bolween _. 
her tooa The qnaiity of tho fibres in the sk«iu is nneTen, rai 
through five or six gradations. It is the sorter's chief 
watch tboso gradations and to wind all of oach variety hhim 
separate reol. With tbia object, before she begins to wind, 
gwthera near her 6ve or siic r«els or aadrifi. On Boding the 
of tho skein she knot-*i it to oue of the reelit, and placing the 
agaiust her loft foot, spins it round between two of ber toua. 

■ To aiKke a ro«l or otAri. a pieoa oi slick m paueil thraui^b a lialluW 
&XDd IB th« d«n end ol a pi«os m Iwmtmo. 

■ Tbc Uirdwing madiias cr raJuU ii in Uiiwe Mrtu In the mitro u tb»| 
frame or Mt witE m otntnl and twa M« nfci^M. on oa* Mo of Um 
Itritc HhBri or nthat, »\x ta elj-lit Id in diucoter, which givet iU uu 
nuM'hina, and in Innt of th« Idt, lupport^d by twa usrigbu, ii Um InUM I 
KtHHit two (e«t la tl!An>«t«r and ux to eight foot iu l«agth. 



' passos throupch bor fingers, aud as soon as ita qoftlity ohnngcs, 
bo breaks the eUk, picks up b seooii<l reel, knots tlio enu Uj it, nod 
_ inds till tlie quality of the silk again cbaupfoit, whua oiLber a third 
w! <ir th<f first reol i« taken up. If tho new quslity is tho smno 
Bs Uiat on the 6r8t reel the ftortcr pat« the ends of tlio silk iuto her 
notith and knots thorn with her tooffuo with grfat neatness and 
tpeed. Id Lhis way otsd a young worker, without bitch or tnistake, 
«n1l aort a hank over fvn or six reels. 

Thp Br.Tt*Hi silk is rc-ndy for twisting. To twist it, with the help 
plainnnll wheel, the silk i« wound from the rwsia on hoDow njcd 

ibbins or ^arnlxs. These bobbins are then arranged on the 
OS nuu'hine or fiiJ, aud, bv nie(U3.t oFn wbiwl and nxle, the 
ni each bobbin are twiBtea togotbor and gnidod through a 
(hat or molol ring round tlirt dram or dhol, and thnn rcelod on the 
ubUgt cago or ptdlki. This Iwo-tbrciid or ilontur yarn is used 
tamaking soma fabrics, bat most of lliu jam is again vround on 
k T&gl and from the reel to the boldiins, and a ai>coud time ptit 
Ihn^igh the throwing machiuo so hh to make the regular or ehdrtdt 
I4*t i» four-tbrond yum. Tlio rrtkatkari or wheel man, wTio takes 
la Qune from the largo wheel that drives the throwing machioa, 
Iw (low completed hi.-" work. Silk yarn ja called sheria. In sorting 
aJinLilmg it the mw nilk loaea about elevun nnd a quarter per 
W ID woiffht. To make good this loas a corresponding dodiiction 
owdo in iho standard weight, that is, the »fu!T for wt-igbing nilk 
vIm handed over to the worker is rcduood in weight by eleven and 
tqnwlar nor cent, and la attllcalledas^r for weigiitng tbo ^Aorta or 
ltst«d Eilk. The rnAufJtarirecaiTMl&d. to 16d. (10-I0| aa.) for 
jadipciund of mik that passes through his bands. His monthly incomo 
■ mU to rango from 8jt. ts 10«. (Rs. 4-5). When the raitdtkari 

ijili)y« Ubouren* bo pays them &s. to lOs. (Rs. 4-5) a montli. 

Alter the nlk is twisted it is bleached and dyed. In bloaching 

the raw silk is steeped !n a botling solution of coantry soap, 

in an alkaliuo ley cal\ei ukkdr prepared by boiling togetlu>r 

lUtvd lime and pt'ijwdkKdr or impure onrbonato of soda. 

While steeping in the boiling liquid the silk hiu to bo carefully 

Mrho-J as it spoils if kept in it too long. All the Poona silk dyers 

19, whoso foivfothers are said to have como from Paithaa 

ir ganorntionn ago. Tu compete with foreign silks they 

ire givfu np their old processes and taken to the utio of aniline 

Tbo ease and speed with which aniline dyea can bo osed 

than make up for their fleelingn<;88. llieAe cheap dyes, 

r with the inferior silk used, give the f^ilks of Pooua a gnalb 

itage in competition with the hjgb class fabrics matte in 

A sUk dyer is said to make 12*!. to 14*. (Rs. 6-7) a mouth. 

laaving the dyer, eilk goes to the weaver or ni^tiia who 

ifomw tSr«e prootssea, «zing warping and weaving. For a sitk 

brer's oetablahmeut twelvo appliances are wanted. They are: 

pmpara tho wurp the tantola or npnghts witli rings worth 1 0». to 

«a«. (Ks. S-0) ; 20O reed bobbins or Ukhadia for winding the weft 

Ic^hcr worth about lit. (8 as.) ; n small wheel or rahai worih 6*. 

to 8*. (Ha- 3-4) ; a Urge cago or phdlka worth Od. (log.), and fire 

Chapter VI. 


Silk Wuvimi. 


rBMBb«7 &< 




lU. 00 aL]. For the loot 
or torvB worA 1U^ (B& 1}) ; the ned Cbmd» or fihat 
Jhitoa. aid «■ • teM«D or lay. vocth 7«. to 8*1 ( lis. 
tUtovdAMwaWddk* wrtfa 1(W.I»1S#. (B&5-6); 
faifMi. IV& kad flkft beMces A* th»d> ct ibe mwp to keep 
fawnnlngb^ wMtk U. to ItU. (S-IS w.) : the wmn> 
itu wtwlb X& to Si. (B& l-li>; thna ■hallira warth U to 
(8-12 W-) ; — d a piiee of pu&Atd sgata wa j fi, aaed to nibl 
gflid bovdera, wntb 6«. to £S (Bs. S-^. 

SQfciKRMd tiidoan,thewpdkmftdtSeFeot vmi-Erom the 
rBc ne wmrpnik knad oa ibo I— ffa, « pairfirqpriglil 
bMsaboot eigbt faetbi^i, wMjafffwoCghMormcUlringsl 
rrh hmr thmagb wlncb tbe jmm bpUMO, drawn tigbl. anu stil 
by btOBhing into ii « ilreaimgut gam. la Enio^ U>c vuft, tbe 
[liamfl OB • cago woaad on reeb, &ad wlul« on the rtel it is moii 
withsba. TbesBer,wboni theoace of tfa« weftTaniualwsjsawoii 
■tawitb tbe red cm bar left side, her right, s small w^ 
whoaaaxlo is BnnljrSttod apMoo of re«<l bobbin called fVI^Aaj*. 
picla the md (rf the bank ban Ifae ivei, Gsea il to the bobbto, ; 
hj working; ih« wlieel witb &er ri^lit harnl makec the bobbin i 
qoicklj ruuod wiodJog tbe silk toqikI tiartf. Aa tbe wheel ta 
Ibe worker damp* the jrare on the reel with siw, and pasaea 
thread tbroogb her kft &ugen so that the siie is eyeol; 
ewr th« wlmle line. The wmrp U next made ready. Wa 
ioolndaa tliror pmcno-xin, hfJiUf-BUiog, joiaing, aad amojiing. 
beddlr-SIIer, acoonlini; to the patt^Tn of tbe borders, panes thi 
throogb the loope in the oords of tbr diJTcrvat hcddlps and 
the teeth of (he reed or phami. M'ben this has been done, 
joiner or nandhnar, ooonects the euds of tho warp threads with 
beddles, by tying the oofrespoDdiDg uironds of the warp to tt 
pa«!wd ibroDgh the heddlea and reed by the hoddlo-fiuor. 
threads aro fiaally arranged, through the whole length of tbo 
in accordance with tb^ posiiioii tbo juioer bns giTcn them, 
silk loom is three to fonr and a half feet broad nml i^i^^t to fit 
feet long. At one end sits tfie wearer with his fiwt in n large ; 
and immediately in front of hbn is the square cloth beam or h 
which sai^nrts tbe warp and round which as it is woren, the SI 
is rolled. In the wearer's pit arc two or fonr treddlcsor foot bo« 
by working which the woaTOr raisee oad lowers tbo warp thrc 
The two or four treddlea are joined by strings with tbe hec" 
two or four fraiuen which hang from the roof acro«etbe 
of the warp each nitb » set of tnreiuls, the sot of thrtvids of tho< 
heddle holding in their loops the lower, nnd the set of threada in 
other heddle holding iu their loops tbe upper thretwls of the' 
As the treddles are worked tbo hcddlos mora the threads of ^ 
warp in turn up and dowu, wliilc, hctwoea each moTemonli, 
shuttle loadod with the woft yam ia pasHkl across the warp: 
front of the beddles and like them hung from the roof, is tbo : 
or phatii. between whoso thin dips of bamboo iho warp thr 
have been passed. The reed ia set in a hi>uvy (rainoj the shni 
beam, which the wearer works to force home the threads of the 
after the shuttle has passed. Behind the bcddh-s honaonlal rods 



telong and two inches round, is fastened in the middle to n rope^ 
ilaek ii kept tight by being passed round s post or pulley and 
falBwd dcwe to the weaver's siae to a peg or to one of the uprights 
rtieh mpport the cloth-beam. The weaver from time to timt> loosens 
ttsropeuthe cloth is wonod ronnd the doth beam. To woavo 
dk «ith gold bordera, besides the asuat large beddles, two sets of 
■darheadlea are ased. The first or large set of heddles governs 
"IhnDOtion of the whole of the warp. The second act of four heddlos 
wyUiik the gold thread in the border, and the third, which consists 
rftaro heddlee^ controls certain gold threads which form a tooth or 
WKHSmpeA edging to the inner side of the border. The border- 
dlpng or third set of heddles are not connected with any treddles. 
Vaf lie simply worked by the weaver's hand and kept in their 
fhoB W amall sand bags hung as a balance. Aftur two movementn 
rfAenrrtormain heddles, the second or border hcdiUes arc put 
n notion t^ the weaver pressing the left trcddlo. The set of the 
• rods that support the edging heddlus, is lifted by the weaver's 
, and, at every movement of the tir»t or main heddles, one of 
4ha nda which support the edging heddles h lowered. When all 
fine are lowered, they are again raised by the hand and again 
■■■ed down one after the other. In the Kam&thi's loom even tho 
Wdfea of the second net which control the gold border tbreadH have 
■straddles. These heddles are supported by »inaU Irngs the work- 
Wnliftine all of them, and pressing thorn one after the other, in the 
' *CT the Sam or Momin wearer moves his third or tooth edging set 
■IwddleB. When any silk design is to bo worked into the body 
tf the fabric the K&toSA&\ weaver takes a greater number of tho 
kge heddles and interposes them between the first or main sot and 

■ tti noond or border set. The oumber of these extra heddles 
d^endi on the design. Like tho second or border set of hoddlns 

'wy are supported by sand bags and moved np and down by tlio 
vwrer'a hand. The loom for weaving brocade, that is a silk fabric 
■idi sold flowers or other ornament woven into tho botly of tho 

■ wA, IB veiy elaborate, the arrangement of heddles beitig very in- 

tute and the work of weaving very tedious. Tho brocade loom, 

is addition to the three sets of heddles used in weaving a bordered 

A &brio, namely the main hediilee, tho border licddlea, aud the 

Midlea for the border etlging, has a fourth set of heddles, tor tho 

MBament that is woven in tho body of tho web. The lirnt or main 

«t of heddles consisting of two heddles and two tniddloa comes 

cloM on the other side of the reed or j>hiini. Then comes 

ihe second set of four heddles for tho border. ThcRo border 

keddlea are supported and balanced by bags of sand and for 

(he heddle frames iron rods ai-e used instead of tho wooden 

mdl used in the Soli's loom. This sot of heddles controls the gold 

ttnad in the border and is worked by the weaver's hand. Then 

Itdlows the third or border-cdgiiig-hoddlea which are also fastened 

to izDD rods supported by sand bags and iiro worked by tho woavor*8 

bud. Behind, that is further from tho weaver than tho edging 


Silk Wuv»o. 

fBombft^ Quctt«er. 

1)ID ■ 

hedd\es,ivn) tho brocade liodJIcA Tliwe arc a (ring© o[ loops uf whi 
t]iread which ore passed roond fibres in the web and me about 
iocbee abuve it. Hie topa of tbe loops are Ustened to u bell 
white eorde, whioh, aouordiu^ to the patlern, vary from twanty 
forty. Thesa cords are closely strung at each end to a irooilen bar 
■bout a foot and a half louu' which aro fastened in a posiUoo lorel 
witli the web bo two opright polee at the sides. Frotn the loiddlo 
of this belt of cords, or ttie heddle back, riaes aboro the oontm of 
the web a bunch of whito strings one for each heddle which aro held 
upright by being' fastened to a piece of cauo which haiign from 
oroM bar. On the wcavur'a rij|;ht of tho bunch of aprighc strii 
a cord slaats from the upright threads or nakthat to a cord 
OMMs from side to side, a few iachca abovg the belt of cords 
oeddle bock. On this slanting string are stmn^ a numhor of Ic 
IcDoUod loops or pagid» which are mstsaed to the upright threadit 
These loops are most difficult to arrange only one or two of the 
cleverest workers being able to prepare tbem. Wht-n a brooadod 
lignre bogtos to bo woven tho wmror drawn certain of tho looM 
loops orpa(ft(U down the alaDtine string, and, by drawing the loop* 
down, draws np Mino of the nprignt thrviKlt or HokthAt, wliirh in tnm 
rnisG thu cordB of the cord bolt to which they arc fhstoncd, and ng»U^ 
tho movement of the corda raises \ho loopn which Imtig frotn ^§fl 
conlK and with tho loops rikisvs oortain of tho librut of tlio wob, 1^^ 
keep the belt cords raised the weaTer inserts between them and 
tho remaiaing cords of the belt tiro wooden wodgo-Hhnncd hnoka 
which hang Tnm (ho roof each about cightoun inches to too side of 
the central threads or nakahda. After the required set of fibres Iisa 
been raised from the rcKt of the web, with the help of one urtwo 
lK)ys,the weaver arranges ucms."! the brottdth of tho web a number of 
boubius full of gold thread. TIio nninber\)f bobbins depends on tho 
Dumber of Hewers in the breadth of the web. Tlion the weaver and 
tho boyit, at each of the brocade flowcra, pass the bobbin of gold 
threads under the threads of tbe warns wfaicli have been nticied abora 
the rent. The wooden books are tnod drawn out nod tho brocade 
troOiJtcHiirciillowcd to fall to the general level. The main and border 
lieiklles are then worked and one fibre of wvft is added to tho fabric. 
Then again certain of the brocade pattern loops are drawn down and 
certain cords in tho brocade treddle drawn up and kept np by tho 
wodgc-Kliaped hook. Tticn under oach of thu rairicd libres in tho 
brocailo pnttem gold lhrea«l in pamod, and then again the main aod 
border 1i«.>dd)o8 are worked (>ud a second fibre twlilod to tho woft. 
Brocade weaving is rei^ slow, a man and two bo}'» in a day of nino 
boon weave only nbout nino inches of fabric oraboutonc-lhird of tbe 
amount of plain silk which one man can weave. While the bmc 
boddles are being worked, tho first or main licddlcs are slackenc 
by nnfa^uning them from an iron hook with which they 
coonectod while in motion. When htbourDrAareemploj'edas wearera 
they arc paid l».fco 2*.C</. <R*. \-\{) a yard of uie fabric woven, 
which work he performs in a day. The owners of the looms M-ate 
that tJioir monthly ooniiug averngo £1 10«. to tt 10«. (He. 15 -25). 
rUdmbarg and jmithanU that is men';) and wunion's robee aro 
the only articles woven. Khana or bodice pieces are cnt out of 

f a«^ 



flkiobeR. TTnliko tlio Tcota 

silks tlte Poona silka 

women i 
brocaded a« well as gold bordered. W'bon ready fur aalo 
U« iilkft «t« t«keii to tho local doiUors and Bold hj the weAvere od 
fcir own mocoanl, or, in rare rases when toer ure made for 
k 4«ler, aro taken »u<l paid fur by him. Thu denlers sell them 
kcally or aood tliom bo Botnbar, randharpnr, R&lAra, Sholilpur, 
■ad biher tmde oentroit. The demand, ospooinlly Uir tho li^^htor 
mi cheaper varieties, in etcadUy oa tho iucrcora. The value of tho 
jMtlyoatluru of Bilks in Poona is eaid to nveraue about £25,000 

Mi and silver threa<1 mnkiu^ iii a proaperoas indiiKtry in Poena 

^- It is a loDg estal)lishuii craft, whea or by ivhom i(lnrF«d ia 

OOtkuvn. The forabthers of the present workers are said to have 

MM from the Nix&in's couulry nud (hu fact that their family deity 

ii fihsrini of Tuljnpur in the Nizam's country to sonic extent 

■ipparts this lietief. Most of them are settled in the ShokraTiir and 

AaATir wards of Poona city. Gold and silver thread inakiu)^ 

npfortaaboui 250 fmnilies or 800 p«opIe. LAd<Hon^rs, Kokni-Sooitre, 

Kwidosli-SoniLrii, Adhpr-Sonirs and Vaisliya-SonSre, Ldds proper, 

Huitiiin, and Ptirdfehis. About twenty •five families aru Pivtckni-is 

trW-nnkerK, soventy-cight are Tdrkaslis or thread- drawers, and 

I HTMly to cngbty families oro Oh^padjiU or wiro-boatorB. Thero 

W alto about 200 Valnitrs or thread-twietere motttly women. All 

ikol'ilvti'kariaorlMirmnliers aro Sonilr*. Of the thread mabors OP 

<MmiI«, thv thnvul-buiitvre or ChilpttdyAs and tho thrcad-twitttom 

I (r Vi)n:lrB most aro I^dn. Tho name TJid seeou to point to a South 

I wjarAt origin. But jic-cort! ing to thi'ir own accounts tlioy miiiu to- 

rmna from Aumngftbud, Paithan, and Karanje in the I^ie^w'a 

(ointry. Tim lAdi nay their forcfitthurs worshipped Pdman^th ami 

8*Iiii and afterwards, thc^ do not know how Iook ago, they forsook 

I Ku Jiin faith for tho worship of the goddcM of Taljlpur. The rest 

I veJEunbis nud other cUusQs, including a fuw DcHhasth Unlibmaufl, 

Itlaiook to thread nrnkmg because it waa flaiiriahiug. Thoy are 

U amtentvil and hnrdworking class. Tlio Pardeshis speak 

ISiwlflstiDi at borne and the rest M&rithi. Th^ hro cenerally in 

1 cDp.storeyed houito!<,Home their own, others hired. The Lftoa, Fardoshia, 

I Mil Brflhmans live solely on vegetables, the rest may eot flesh. All 

jtRept the Brdhmnns are allowed to drink liquor hut all ftro 

[moderate in ittt use. The dilTerent divisions of workers dress like 

[otliar men of their own caeto, the IlrAhmans in the broad flat- 

ned PrdhmaQ turban ; the Manith^ in a three-cornered torben ; 

I the Pardosbia in a cap. Tho shape of coat also djffcrs slightlv. 

Aa a class thoy are weU-to-do. Their bu^ time is the HinJu 

BCuoa between November and ilay. Their rest days are 

> nontlilT no-mooD days or amdvimaji, tho day aft«r tho uiid- 

aler SitHXTiinl or tmpic in January, five days at Shimga or UoU 

March-April, two days nt Divaii in October- November, and the 

day afbftr every eclipse. The day after Ndgpanchmi in Ao^ast 

^wh'ich is called Shinilihel'c Day, is kept as a holiday and called Kar. 

iccpt in twiating, gold and iiilrer thrend makers get no bulp from 

womea uor from their children till they are over twelve. Moat 



SlLTKU T.lWfti, 

(Bombty On 




LB tXD SiLvax 

of tho gold Add silver nscd iu niukin^ tlie tliraad ia broufflit ta 
PooDo. d; M&fw&f V^ui and SUiuipi dL-aJori who btijr it in Bomt 
otthvr from Eumpciui 6nn8 or fi-otii TlHrv&r T&nis near Ktt^c 
Knva iu MumMdevi ward. Tbo meUJ must bo perfectly pi 
Sharnhhantaatbri that U 100 per cent. Kvea tbo best met 
according to the tliread tiiak«rs, in the beating antt piirifyii 
tbrougli which it has to pasa, b«fore it is Gt for thoir wor 
losra a twelfth. When rcsdj for oae tlie gold ia worth 
4«. lo £2 G*. (R8.22-2S)A/o/a. Jlcsides iiiiport«d f;old, di 
tb« last thirtj-Bro years, a cortAin quantity aas boon prodac 
locally by oxtmctiDg with oilrio iu>id tbo gold from left 
gold'«nibroiclorvd cloib. This haa beon practiced auccc^ully nil 
Bilver M veU as with gold tinno. Tlie metal obtained fi-ora 
embroidcryis celled ;;of«i<A» or ball-ahftncd. Tliv dikq who started tLu 
idea irae a Gujiirilt Viini whose fauiilr made a fortune and , 
Dp thu industry. At present (ltJ81J] throe rich Bohor&a follow 
craft. Four kinds of silver arc iuihI patachi or bar silver whic 
comes from EUirupe and pitacht which cornea from China, gSvi 
or local, and i/oliichi or b&ll-shaped made in Poena from sili 
embroidery. Local or gtirthi silver is already mixed with a se 
proporttou of alloy and ia ueed without any oluuige. Pure Euglii 
silver ban to be mixed either with ten to fifuiuit-foriietlis of 
ailver or local silrer orwrththree-fortietha of copper. Thesilver: 
brought in ingots or balls and banded to the bar-maker or pdvU 
Trho is also ttto gilder. A bai'-maker neos twenty tools : Crnciblj 
or tmuhia of which each establi«bmenthas about ton, together wor 
Ediout Ss. (IU. 't) ; a ciny fin>4roiifj;h or gh^di coeting I ^J. lo 
(1 -2 a4.)t an iron HioTo vrjharci tn-o to three inches in dianiot«r wit 
an iron handle costing Ijd, (1 <i.) ; three anrils oriitran«, oae wor' 
*2 Ifc. (Ka. 27), a second worth £2 8^. <R«. 24). and a third 
\i». (Bs. 7) i three bammerii or luiiotLlg together worth about 
(Ra. 2} ; one iron bar or oUmi hollowed on one sido to iscrre as^ 
mould worth aboat S«. (Ra. 4) ; ton^a or ehimtaa worth Gd. (4 a«.) 
a Btooo water trough or ^MTiiit for cooling tbo heated bar worth 
(4 <t4.)i apairof WllowK or hlinia worth 4*. {Its. 2) ; n pair of lileai 
ftdncw worth la. (Has.); a wtnoh or /oilolways of AdAAiW wood wc 
14*. (7<M.)i about fifteen draw plates or janlars each aaid to 
worth 10a to £5 (K6.&-5U); bliroo nippera or tvjjbu costing 
(Ha. 2), 2», (lie. 1 ), and U. (8 at.) ; a obain or *iiAal% worth 2». 
(Us. li) i two scales with weights iiiia and vajan worth £1 to 
£1 10<. (Bs. 10- 15); two nails or bluiruj for cleaning draw-plate 
holes worth 3d. (2 as.) ; a pair of iron pincers or karlit worth 9d. 
(4<u.}] two small cagOB or phtilku for wiudiug the wire togotber 
worth \e. (S a*.) ; and a poir of smaller reels or aadrU each wor^ki 
6d. (4 as.) Under the rar maker's bands the metal passes thron^| 
two main proccasos. Tlio gold ia puriiiod by boiling it with U^H 
jnioe in a pip^in ^^^d ia then beatod several tiiuea and beaten iofl 
gold foil. Tlio silver is melted in a crucible, poured into a movlfl 
and bsmmored into a tthort rough bar Gftcco to eighteen inohfl 
long and one and a half round. It ia then worked into a mofl 
perToct ahape and the surface roughenud with a file. Next g^J 
loil ia carefully wound round the silver bar so as to complelafl 


'it. Tho bar is wottod mid rolled by tlie workman i)|> ani3 

I Ilia Lliigli tiU the gold foil clinf^a to tbo Biiv&r. Tbcn » lliick 

mr in wound tightly round the Inr and it is Inid. with tho 

lot tbo gold {oil undomeatb, in tha clny trough fiUcid with 

1 charcoal which is hiined into a white heat. It is Doxt 

ont And hnmineivd on a hii^hly poljithcd f^r inch steel 

Dader this healing and hammering which is repeated three 

,the bar frmdiinlty ]on|:rthoD8 but n-ithotit disturbing the 

I o( ibo gold or exposing the silror which iiovt'r sgttin shows 

rer fine thread tho motal niny be drawn, 'rho gilding 

jitetod wben tho ingvt has been boaben cighifon inches long^. 

tbe gilding the bar-maker or pdcUkart turns the bar into 

"T ^'^f^'^S '^ time after time through gradually bmallor holes 

the drawplato. For this the bar is agaio beatod and pointed. 

I point is poshed through tli« Inrgoiit bole in tlie drawplate which 

' igiuQst two wooden nprightfl bxod in thu ground. When it 

I uroagh tho drmwplnte tho point is caught in a pair of strong 

who«u bimdios arc joined bj a chain and ring to one of tbo 

of a winch. This winch has n drum, a Coot in diameter and 

f«ot loDg, fixed ia»ido sockvt^. At nght anglai to tJio drnm 

IS thrpe arms, each two and a half feefc long, which work in a 

, about six feet by thrtf, and three deep, when tbeeiid of tho 

Is firmly grasped by the pincers, a workuiau, laying all his 

;ht on ODO of tb^ arniH of the winch, draws it down and drags 

point of the bar through tho hole in the drawplato. As it 

Ihroagh the drawplates both the bar and ths hole of ths 

are smcnrod with a oomposilion of bceawax and other 

1CC8. Wheo the bar has been drawn through tbe plat«, 

hint is agsm hammers], and, in the same way, is dragged 

a smuler hole. T&ia dragging is repeated about iwonty 

Tbo bar. which has now become a wire about six yarda long 

b tola, of metal, ia cut iutu lengths of fifty yards and made 

the thread-maker or larlnut. Tho iMvUkarii or bar-makera 

I tbetr bar-making and wire-drawiug are paid 4#. (Rs. 2) for every 

or one pound (40 loUi*) silver bar. Of the 4«. (Rs. 2) 1«. 

I.) is paid to two labonr«nt at 6(1. (4 as.) a jiAata or one pound 

bar, Od. (4 tw.) goes in coal, and %s. 6d. (Rs. 1|) are lefb 

I bar tnaher'fl >>samiiigji for two da,ya. AUcMviug for breaks lu 

ark and For buliduys the bar mnker's average monlbly income 

fr»m£l 44. to£l U«. (Rs.lS-l?). . 

i the bar maker the wire goes to the thread maker the tana^a 

iWrliu who uses fourteen tools, lliesa'aro -. Tho pofdt.a wooden 

kpedreel^rortb49.(R9.2) ;ihe^f«If a smaller drnm alsomada 

worth 1*. (8 an.) ; tho Jt/iodsa a stool on which the drams are 

I worth 2«, fid. (Ite. 1 1) ; a doxen drawplatoa or iantars varying 

loe from I«. to 10». (Rs. 1-&) ; the tAe«iii a small sharp pointed 

"»er naed for stopping old drawpbto holes worth tid. (4a«.);a 

1 aaril or niraA worth 3d. (2 iw.) ; a pair of piaccm or t4ndn 

h ildL (3 as.) ; a file or Mna^ worth 9d. (6 as.) ; a small hammer 

4t0da worth Gd. (4 an.) ; a ttail or chauraai for CDlargiog tbe 

>l»te holes worth 6d.{4M.);o shiu-poning slono or hiUpalhri 

uSd. (2 a«,) ; » crank or pi4io<ln to turn the drums worth l^d. 

► ISST-Cl 

Chapter TI. 



Cliapler VI. 



(1 a.) : a reel axis or bhon^H wortb l^J. (1 a.) ; and a small bobbii 
or ekairktir. To draw tlie wire into a thread the palda tbat is iba 
larger reel or drnm seveu or eigbt ioches ia dinineter, »nd titt 
smaller thftd inch rc6l or />«/(/» fei-« eupportod horizonUtllj na tin 
upright piYots about twenty inch«a apart. Between the big dma 
and tbe little dnim u small drairplato ia fixed to two uprignl iroc 
rods. Tbia stosll drawplate is a piece of an old sword blad« 
piei^ied with holes of aiffen>Dt siKeH. Tbs wire ia wound roaiH 
the amall reel or paldi and its point ie Bharpennd by two bitso 
China, till it ia fine enough to paA8 tfaroiigli the largest of tha 
dntwplnto holofi. When it «howa on tho otber aido of the plnt^, tin 
point of tbo vrirc is caogbt in small pinoera aod ptillt-d ihrKUgb. 
The end of the wire ia then fi tod on the lai^r reel or paUa which ii 
turned by a. inutal liuadlo, and drags the wire through the bola 
then the whole ia wound off the aoinli reel. Tbo wire ia then truniif 
bacV on the amiill rcol, oiid drawn through tbv next largest bole 
Tbia drawing and winding ta re))eated till the wire has b«en dniwt 
to tho rM|uirO(l ftnonoiu. To dmw a tola uf lautal 250 ^anlM, ih* 
wire bas to vas-i through at loaat sixty boles. Elaborato as this ti 
80 great ia tlie worlciiiai)'.i .«kitl atid dvlicacy, tliut he i.s said to bi 
iiblo to make 90O yards of thread frotn one tota of luotul. A threw 
maker lahaj/a or tarkan ia paid £2 10*. (Rs. *26) for every 100 tMit 
of metal be draws. Hia avemgo monthly incoiao rangw from 
£2 to£2I0c. (Hs.20-25). Some of the thread niakers empio; 
lads as apprentices, who at Srat wirk For nothing and are then pau 
2r. tol2«. (Bs. l-6)amoDtb,acconlingtotbt>irwork. Tbetbreadll 
now baaded to the flatt«Qeror ch'ipadt/a who uses aerea toola Thi 
maaipati a small board about a Cool square, with too upright naib U 
servo as bobbin axles; the anvil or aiVaa about two locliea squan 
and the hammer or hdtoda two incbca »quaro kept highly poliabei 
by otaory, together worth about Ills. (Rs- 5) ; honoa or oponig ol ll 
and emery powder worth £2 to £7 CR". 10-70)'; Iho fcAodfv, 
buriod block of biibhul wood, nn which the anvil is Gxod worl 
4». (Ba. 2) ; the chippa a piece of leather wjth small alibs for th 
thread to psas through ; the ghodi or ranaikdms a hook fixed in tb 
ground to ^de tho flattened thread, worth &d. (4 ocj; and tb 
atdri a small reel, worth 3<J. (2 as.). Ia llattening the thread, t« 
full bobbins are set oa ths m&tepati or board, and tbo threads w 
gathered together and passed through the bHIs of a piece of lea>tlw 
or chippa which is placed in front of tie stand atid drawn acroM : 
highly polished 8i^>el wnvil, fised in a block of babkni wood ver 
little raised above tho level of tho ground. In fiatteniag the threa 
the workman Einnly graaps his hammer handle bet^^een tho thua 
and tho forefinger, and, with hia left hand, draws the tbrsftd 
over the polished steely aud begins to bent. The threads are paae* 
steadily over the anvil and the hammer strokes fall at the rafi 
of sixty to a hundred in tbo minnt«j and with such iH^gnlarity tfa. 
no particle of the thread is left unbeaten. Ae they aro fiat 
the threads arc drawn away by tho flatt«nor's Itift 1iuk1» 

' The vorlccn lay pciub mnA cotiJ aie tnix^A wiUi Uie txatty but tba >■ dMbifuI. 


[tin etrotcfaud tu anus ItiDgtb.urD caught uoder some ooDvemently 
Wmd article aacii as a broken oqji knndlo or » brasB hook fixed to 
pktmaod, and n fresh gn\i is taken closo to the anril. Wbon all 
LtiULreads have been QKtt«Ded, they are ou-ofnlly Beparatad, wound 
Itond a reel and sent totlietwuterorra/«tdr. l*ho thread Sattmer or 
\AipaJya is paid £1 IOf. Uj £2 (Ra. 15-20) for beatiog 1(H> fofa^ of 
U during tliB bogj- seaaon be vcnploys a laboaror be paja him 
llSi. to £1 ItJjt. (Ka. 14-18) tbo LOO totaM. The twister or vo/ndr, 
I gtmcrally a woman, ia the latit of tbe work people ihrougb 
bands tbe tbreAd paaa«9. Slio umm three toola. A hook or 
< callod dtriufa of a DOtuinal \'alu6; two suindleB orrhAtwwortb 
Ifj. to &:t. (l-la«.)f sometimes made br fiung a round piece of 
'^~ken Chinato a uoiU and s wooden cylinder or g<y with naiU 
', ml given distajices worth 6d. (4 ae.). Contrary to the prectice 
toCber biADchee of gold-thread making tbo twi8t«r or valndrhM 
Tido part of tbe material ahe works up. What abe has to 
: the Mlk-tbrend which is twisted with the flattened gold-thread. 
Ik QMd in making gold-thread ia twietod and dyed by a 
> Mt of workers catlea dkurewiUlii, of whom there are twooty 
ily-6re establishments at Poona, including sixty bo eighty 
Thvy arc i-Jtber Mar&lbaa from Paithaa and Barb^pur 
ara I^irdeahis from Delhi and Agra. They are believed 
ive ooojo to Poona three to four' genorationa ago. They 
Mar^hi or UindastADi and live in one-titore;ed houHos 
' which five per cent an> thuir own oiid the rost arc hired. They 
~ arally lire on Tegctoblo food though they are allowed to eat 
land Gi<b and to dnnk liquor. They dress in a three-cornered 
, a I'JDg c<Mt rtiaching to the kuuusj a scarf round the 
aud a second Ecarf round the shoulders. As a olata they are 
ty oS. Their busy aeason, workiiig hours, and holidays are the 
as those of the bar makers and othera omploydd in making 
tlm«d. They use nilk of three kinds, aitn, lanJtiit, and bdnak, 
•re broQgbt from Bombay, at aud about \t. to KM. the onnce 
ia* the rupeo). The silk iu the property not of the tbread- 
but uf Miirwiraud JShimpt dealers who pay them by tbo 
, A iMun-m/a or twister and dyer of the silk which ia used 
dag gold and silver thread vraote throe toola for the twisting 
I looUi for the dyeing. The appliances for twisting the silk 
) half a dozen buiiiboo oagea or fhdlkdi each worth IjJ. to ^d. 
r.) } about thirty xniall reels nr aiarit each worth Zd. to 6(f. 
I.); and two or tbre« !(i)indlest»tch worth \\ii. ia'id. (I -Sof.). 
I silk (winter places a skum of silk on uaob of tire different cages 
I fik&tkcM, and from them winds tbe silk ou fifteen different reals 
\ttiri». These Sfteeu reels are then arranged ia a semicircle all 
Of* the same way. The twister drawa a thread from each reel, and 
ng faciei^' the point of tbe reels, fastens the threads to a spindle, 
rolling ibe spindle sharply along his thigh, twists a yard or ao, 
~ I the twisted thread round the bar oi tbo spindle, gives the 
Is another smart roll along hia thigh, and twists another yard 
Ithrcad. The silk m eometimes twisted out of doora. In out of 
twisting, two ccaploe ol uprights arc drirea into the ground. 



Gold ANn bavu 

iBoiabaiy GftsoU 



Cbftptor VI 

Cvm» Guow. 

ttifl ooaples twonty-Sveto thirty feet npuri, and llio npngliU 
couple tuar io six feet lii^h aod ten feet apart. A bonzoat«] bamba< 
18 [n^UiDud across betveeneaohpairof iifn-i^htB andon tlie upper nd^ 
of iMUib ot ihe b&mboo& pairs of pegs are ^toacd doau together at tbt 
bamboo and gndunlly separatiog id a Vabape. In oat of door silk 
twiatiug tlia lifteeQ fibroa from the 6fte«o rcola pM9 tliron^h. tlia 
bollow eA tbo foot of the V. When the ailk twiater is ua macb at 
twooty.Gve to thirty f&H fron the r&ela ho can twist n ronch Inogwr 
piece of ttir^ad at a time tbat bo con twist wbon bo stumls clo«o to 
the reoU. Tho twister is paid i^d. (1 a.) tor each Ud of ailh 
twist tbat U equal to 7i<f- ao ounce (8 lolu» tbs ntpao). Whi.ii tlitt 
ti'jUi tliraad twister or ra^mir geta a sapply of tba proper twisted 
tfilk he wintU it off tbo r<.>«l on to u Kpinate. Ono end of tlie silk 
thread ia then ptwaed tliruiigh a banglu or steel riog Cascencd t<o lli^ 
ceiling of her bouso', drawn down, ai^ tied to a aeoood apindlo. Tl 
flattoiied gold thread is tboa unwound from the reel or atari i 
dropped in a looM heap on the ground aeor the twister, 
tmtiter sits on u Uigb stool ur chair, mid, (a«t«iiiug tho enc 
tho gold and tho silk thread togolfaor. rolls th« spindle 
along bor thigh and givea it so rapid a whirl that it tv 
together two or three foot of the guM thread and lite silk n1« 
kucpiiig tho gold on the surface. When the spindle stops the workiBia 
winds the finished guld thread round the rod of the Bpiudle, drs** 
down a freeh yard or two of the silk thread, and gires tho spindlfl 
another whiri by ebarpty rolling it again along her thigh. 1^ 
drawing down tho silk, whirliug thu spindle, and twisting togetb^ 
the gold and the silk are repeat^ till the whole ((Dautity ia complet** 
The tinirihed gold thread is then wound into hanks and akoina t> 
passing it round two noils 6sed to a rod or gnj. The ra/iidrortwisb^ 
is paid Is. an onnce (a lotde the rapee). *PooQAgold thread is ohiedl 
used locally in ornamenting torbao ends and tbo bordon aiP 
friugOB of robes and djning clothca. 

Cotton weairiug is cairied on in thlrty-soron towns in tho district- 
Jasvad, Kavtha, Ptibal, BArilmnti, Indfipnr, KmpalrAdi, Junnu 
and Dtar.aro known for ItujdUor women's robes; BitHtmati, Knvtbn 
and Jasrad for silk-bMrderud dhutit or tnun's woistt-'loths, ant 
upamut or silk -bordered shnnlderclotha ; and r»dA]>nr, PalasdeV 
Iiasurna, Mimbgurketki, and Kalas are known for khddi or coarn 
cloth. Of those the only important centre of ootion cloth haiid 
loom weaving is Poona city. Poena city baa -WO to 000 cottoi 
hand-looms, of which abont -150 boloug to ilinduB, 300 of Ihett 
Kosbtis and 150 Sdlis, and the remaining fifty Uusatnuhts. Mo^ 
Uindus weave women's robes or mdit and most MasalmAos wear 
tiirbnn:<. Cotton hand-loom wearers are chieBy found in tbo Bomviti 
Vetal, BhavAni, Rdste, and Sliukrar&r ward». Besides in thea 
wards one or two cotton looms arc fonnd in almost ovory part a 
tbo city. Except two families who hare come from Hadrae, thi 
Hinda weavers are said to have come nboiil throe gonrratiom 
ago from PaithaOj Yeola, ShoUptir, ludiipnr, and NarSyon PoU 
io the Ni^m's conutry. The weavers cimo to Poont 
only fonr or five years ago from Milognoii in NAeik where tbej 



iMm ■ larve colooy.' Except the two Madras farailicf^, whoso 

kme speech is Telogn, the Hindu weavors of cotton goods spoak 

Kirithi, and the Musalm&n weavers speak Hiridiistfiui. All 

fin in one or two-storeyed houses, fifteen to twenty of which 

Wong to the oocnpants, and the rest are hired. Thu Hindus oat 

laih Mid drink liquor and are a temperate class. The Musalnidns 

rtdom eat fieah except on holidays. Many of them drink liqnor 

hit eeldoni to excess. Those Hindu weavers who belong to the 

Koiliti and S&li castes wear either the Deccau Brahman or the 

lfctee>comered Mar&tha turban, a jacket, a long coat, a scarf round 

the loiQH and aootber over the shoulders. The Musalmans wear a 

cqi except a few who have taken to the Manltha tiirbriu, a jacket, a 

lamg CMiat, and tronsers. The robes woven by the Hindus und tho 

tadbens woven by the Musalmans are generally coarse and cheap. 

The Hindna work from seven to eleven and again from ono to 

■Ruet ; the Uasalm&ns work almost the whole day except a short 

tJBW for their meals which they generally cook in the name shod or 

nam in which they weave. The chief demand for their wares is 

tuing the marriage season that is between November and May. The 

vticlea they weave are intended for overy-Jay use although they are 

iNd as marriage presents by Kunbis nud other middle and low 

diflB Hindus. Hindu cotton weavers stop work on tho last or 

■D-moon day of every lunar month, on Nd(fpanchmi Day in September, 

fin Auara Day in October, on the day after the grent Sankrdiit in 

ihiUHUry, daring three days of iSAiVi^a, during fourdaysat Mukarram 

6me, and on the day after every ecHpse. The Musalmdns stop work 

mly on time Uuharran days in Ramzdn and on tho Bakar-id. Both 

ffiodn and Musalm^n cotton weavers get great help from their 

women, in reeling, dyeing, warping, and sizing. Some Hindu 

women even weave. With all this help cotton- weavers barely make 

\ living. The articles they tarn out are very inferior and are worn 

only by the poorer classes. The average daily earnings of a cotton 

weaver's family are said to range from Qd. to 7i't (4-5 aa.), and 

daring the rains they are often short of work. All the yarn used in 

the Poona hnndlooms is steam-made partly from iho Bombay mills 

ud partly from Europe. Tho yarns generally used are twenties and 

tbir^ea. To buy the yarn most woavers have to borrow at two por 

cent a month. Tho tools and appliances of a Hindu cotton weaver 

resemble those of the local silk wearers of which anaccount has alreiuly 

been given. The Musalm&n weaver is satisfied with cheaper and 

Bmplcr appliances. Hehasasmallerloora andhasnotmorothansovon 

tools. The shuttle-beam hatyn, in which tho reed or yhani is fitted 

worth Gd. (4 as.), two bars or afhiiijda to keep the warp stretched 

worth tid. {Ian.), a beam or iitr round which tho woven fabric is 

wonod worth 1«. (Ban.), a pair of shuttles ordholda worth la. (8 <(«.), 

■ large bamboo cage or jihdlkn worth GiK (4 as.), a reed or phiilki 

worth Sd. (2 as.) and a small wheel or Tahdt fur sizing tho weft yarn 

worth 8». (Hs. 4). Tho foi-oign and Bombay yarn nndcrgoea 

eigfat processes in being tiiruud into robes or sddh. It is Bteo]K!d 

Chapter VI 

Cotton Oooi 

' Conpuo the Hiiak tiUlintival A<:uounl, iJombay liiucttcL-i', XVI. 1(>7. 




Clmptflr Vt 

ID wntdr anil ])lnce<1 on the btunboo cage or jifuilka. It U cliaat 
from this nago to the i-eel or ludri by a woman of the wearer's : 
who hoKIs the end of the conl-ntl rod of llio cftgo in her boma, 
with her right hand, drawing off the yara from ibo skeio, windt^ 
on ttc smiillur n.«1, wliich nhe holds in her loft liand and wbii 
roQtid in & small cup oE iiinooth cocoauut bhell. To tnuku the ske 
of A couvcnteut luzo, the yarn is next woun<l off the roe) or at4r%, 
to a smnll conical reul ciUlud chnrki. The yarn i» tbcu traasfet 
to tiie rakdi or wheel to bo twisted aud v;ouud i-ound bobbin* 
kAn^*, It U next worked by winding it^ two thresda at a time, 
and out among the rows of bauiboo rods about four feet apart. 
is then opened on two bamboos, stretched tight between two 
and sised by a larfo brush dipped in ri(% paste. If ii 
colouring it is dyed before it is sized. The weAVcrs tbemseli 
dyo the yam either with Ciitrman aniline dyes, or tbey hare 
yam stcepc^l 6rst in the indigo vats of the IochI indigo dyers 
then in salBower dye to make thorn greon, a colour which quick 
fadoft. llio f*onoral practice is to buy dyed yam. Afcor iho yc 
is dyed and sized or sised without dy»ing, it goos to Ibo heddle<titl^ 
and joiner who is always the aame man an the weaver. 1 le joins 
warp threads with thu threads of an old used warp which he pn 
keepA to save the trouble of pasaing^ thread.^ id c^-h cane throng 
the loops of iho bcddlc, then throngh the bamboo slipR of the 
or phaifi, finally tying thorn to ibu ivrai or warp bvaui. Af| 
joining the warp threada, the weaver has to stretch the whole of 
warp and tx> seo if any of the strnndit of the witrp aro wrongly joind 
or are outaii>;led. VVliuu all is ready the warp in stretched and 
rope tied toite farthest eud, [u»sed round :u) uj>right, and brougl 
back to the ])lace where the weaver Hits, It ia thero tied either 
a peg liicd m the floor to tho ri^ht of tlfe wearer or to one ot tl 
uprights which support the cloth beam or turai. When tbo weai 
has provided himaelf with a pair of ahattlea and a small basket fu 
of loaded bobbim<, hu i<it« buhiud Iho duth beau, puts bis loga, 
the pit below the loom aud with one foot un inch of the treddli 
Itegins to weave. He pa^isoa the shuttle with the loaded hobb 
iietwceti tho two «ot8 of Ihe wirn threads which are by this ( 
B«parat4xt by hmUllvs worked by tito tretldivs under the neaver'a I 
For Ihu boraor a seporatB set of hcdilica banging from the roof 
balanced by Band bags and ore worked l)y thoTiond. The Hosali 
turban loom, except tliatit is not morcthaneigbteon inches broad 
has uo hcddlc». in tlie same ae tho robe loom. Tho Poona eott 
weaverH take their roboa and turbims to the local Shimpi dealers oC 
whom about fiftv have shops in nudhavtU* wnnl. The robes fetch 
4«. to JEI (Rs. 2-1(1) und the turb«nB 3«. to lOx. (K«.l J-S). The local 
demand e(?i>ccially during the marriogo season will probably keep 
up hand-loom cotton weaving for momo tiino. otill it soot — ' 
probable that, in a city where the prico of groin and the cost 
living is high compftrod with most parts of the Deccan, the 
loom weavers of rubes will be driven out of a living by Bt«am-i 
fabrics. Hand-loom tnrlwn weaving will probacy lest longer, as, i 
far, it has been free from uiacbine compelition, 
GIms bangles are made in the village of Shir^pur on the 



t seven inilea soutli ut Pooiut hja iicUleineat of Liafifiy ftt.s 
wu callwl KAch&rjg o r jfiaas makera. Al prusent (iBS^tbur 
kbliahmenta employ twenty -tiro to thirty roea. Tk«j say tlwt 
came to this district Erom Tillages near 8holiii)ur tiro or nix 
aeratioiu ago, that they uB«d to marry withother Liog&yata, but 
.sinoe bbey have takes Ui baaglo-mftkiiig they fona a soparata 
e marrjring amoa^ thenisolvefl only, TI107 sp^k Martthi ai 
'ictatj live ia their owu uae-slorevcd bouaes, and novor touch auimal 
faod. They say that they (In-sa like BniliDiaai!, but when at work 
I they -wen only a dirty it-aintcloth and a rag roand the bead. They 
rk From nine io the morniiifif to niue at night, and it| yp wfirk on 
Moada j r8 f on the great ii^ankrdtU in January, on Mahagfiivrtllra 
iFebrBaiy, for four dnya ilnriaj^ •iltimtfa in blarch-April, on 
i^Afflt in Auguat, on D'liMta in Octohor, and during 6to days 
f^iti in October- November. Their women and children help 
eortiQg broken pifioea of Chiney g l MP bmg lca which the mou 
<U luid work into new baDgloal^ Ther bny theso broken bangles 
IB the Kdneli bdngdi pAutanevdlut that is gUu» b«ui £l9 oo Uwlora. 
Minrir Vants of whom there aro tiftcon to twonty abops in tha 
.r4tm and VeUi wards in Poona. They gather the glass beagles by 
£n>ni bonao to houHo »olling parched gram in oxchungo for its 
t in broken banglttf) which thci children of the Imuao cnrofnily 
and Veep. KA«jtrg or dealers in hanglt-s, also ask foraod gnthor 
L. banglca at aoj haiuca thvy may visit to pat now oaoa roond 
voBen's wristd. They sell the broken piecas to K&ch&tin. Thn 
cBiTMit price of tbo raw matorinU is 1)'J. (1 a.) tho pound. Though 
ItUie money is wanted the Kdchilris generally burrow it in Poona 
omm to two per cent a motilh. Tho glass ia EtoinattmitH supplied 
Kfaira or bnoglu dealcra who pay tho Krichiiraa S^rf. to 3rf. a 
pMltd (S-ia^. a ther) t« work it up. Kouud balls of country 
Bida ^laaa used to be rficvirod at Poona from Gutur in th e 
.^^conntry, bnt fortbelaat eight ot ten yean no glasa baa 
IW^B^usDwroui GnC^ir aa broken bangles fumish'as much maturiiU 
tlie trade requires. A K&cliAri's appliances are simple and cheap. 
'ladoxen bamboo baekols smeared with cowdang serve to store the 
~ piece* of gla^s ; six thin two feet loBg iron bars pointed at one 
[at f(/. (1 a.) each ; alx home-made clay cracibtes at a uoioinal cost. 
' mould called mdtra or miclm an Iron bar with a oouical clay bop, 
aboat 3d. (2 a«.). One end of this iron bar in supported by 
. upright peg aeau" the fire>place or kiln, the peg having a looped 
ce of iron 00 the top to lot the bar uovo round its own axis and 
to<beread rest on a slightly grooved stone, llalf a dozen six taeh 
> fl^lJTOi paper-ciitl^^'f »ha^ blades call ed pattda each worth 
ik Sd. (2rt«.)T Tho dK'tdi, a wooden bandied i ron r od slightly 
9Dt lit the point worth about dd. {ia*.). Six to eight six inch nails 
T^KaiM with handles each worth about \\d. (I a.). Six hamoMra 
orth dd. (6 OK.) each. Six flowerpot-shaped earthen pote or lamdia 
worth {d. (\ a.}. A scalb with weights oretonee and bamboo 
>l pans worth 8il. (2tu.]. Half a dozen long handled h«mi< 
ical iron spoons or jiaiis cnch worth 2.\d. (Ij a.). A Kachilri's 
\ar firu-plnceiiialBO kept id a sep^ratubniMing or in a small wing 
of tbc bailding in which the workmen hve. A sepai-ata bangle- furnace 

Chapter TI. 



UMn ltjm«,j 




Cli»pteT TI- 

consists of a alieil, ftWiit twenty foet by twonty-five luid ton h\gh, 
witli brick wallH with Lwo doors ou tliB suulb and ou the wrat, aod six 
windowH, two uticli on tbo north, tlie sodUi, and llie woat. The oast 
wall has neither door nur itidiIow. Tho ruoC is tilixl, tho coatxal 
boBDi bclnj; ahuul twenty faet from the floor. Nearly in thfi cvnlro 
of tho buildiuK ia the furuuco, & round pit, throo to Eour Ceot deep, with 
» dome^hnpoa cUy top and &rcUed windows each ahont four inches 
by eix aad a hole at the top of the dome pi-OTided with a clay 
ltd. lostde tha dome is a raised platform on which rest tho cnidihlea 
or olfcy nmttlling pota «ach opposite its own window. Id the sjmco 
betwoen ench pnir of wiudowa and a Utile way from the kila art) six 
aprightft wlticli to^^ther with the cross stick form a six-cornerod 
bowtiF over which two to three fe«t of Erceh cut brenclie» aro heaped 
to dry. In front of each of the kiln windows a pair of thick rag 
screcua aro hunff ou tho cross eticks of ihe bower to abado tlio 
workmen from Ihe fire. In front of thi^e itfaadoB sit the half do»>n 
workmoa oucb with hie tools and a basket of hrokeii banjos near 
him. Wh(!n the cmeiblos filled with ^loss are sot on the plntforra 
inrtidc the tlomo of the kilo, the fire ia kindled by brineinc;' fn«l into 
thtJ pit through au under-groiiud pn.>«safje. At the ead of about an 
hour the glass melts and each of tho workiapa sittt oppottite onu of 
the windows. Ue stii-s the half fluid gloaa with the bt^nt poinlei) 
iron rod or akadi to sec if it is uniformly melted. When it is 
properly melted the vvorknian passes into tho multcn gUma a accoatl 
sharp point«d iron rod and with it picks out a drop of fiuid gl: 
Ou taking the drop of gflaxs out of tbo kiln with u jerk ho mu 
tho rod spin roand and the spinning motion turuK the glaaa 
into a globe. A ithiirp blow to tliu iron rod from the patia or i 
blade shivers the globe and turus it into a ring cm the point 
iho bar. Itppcatiid blowv with the blade nn the ah&kiug il 
widen the ring into n long loop. Aa aoon as the ring ia big eoough, 
it ia dropped otct tho conical olay point of the mould or Marha am) 
fitted into it with tho help of the bhido, the left hand all the timu 
keeping the mould .'(pinning in thn ;(roovcd stone. All this ia dooo 
with surprising cloveruc-^n tuid sp(.-tti), ivan lliau half a minute eorvia;^ 
to turn the glass drap into a fmisbod bangle. If from any delay iho 
gla«ti cooIh uitd hardoQs out of shape, the mould or weha is held in 
tho kilo flames tilt the glass is itoftencd and can be worked into tho 
proper shape. Tho formed bangle is dropped on tho floor, the 
sharp end of the iron bar is heated and hammered atr&ighc, aod a 
aecond glass drop is hronght out at the bar point, whirled into a 

globe, struck into a ring, widened by Tibration, and ftuishvd off on 
le tnmiug mould poiut. Tie Shivapur KAcluLns make three kinds 
of htmgles &(i)i<7'/t, gitl, and liaul or karla, the bdtigdi \& slightly 
conical, the ffot globuiar, and the kdrla conical with a notched siirfaco. 
Finger rings arc made in tho same way as bangleet. The bangles 
are m great demand sioong the poorer classes of Hindu women, and 
the rings are boaght by girls as toys who sometimes wear thom 
round their own luigora and sometimes put them round their dolln' 
wrigta. Tho Kichiirte carry their bangles and rings to Poona. If 
tho ghua is supplied by a K&s^r dealer the K^h&ri is paid 6g. ( Rs. 3] 
for thirty-two pounds. If the gfaiss is the Kik'tiAn's own ho gets 



ibcKit lOff. (Rs. 5) for ttie man of tliii'tj-two poundtf. In a da/ of 
ibout twelve hoars' work a good banxle-makor can ttmi oat four to 
Ire poanfU of glnaa bangleo. Deduolmg thu cost of tb« gloss and 
fael, this price repre)u>ntg a doily wiige of 6d. to 7\d. (4- jax.}, 
tE^b&ri^' iiKluNtrj- i.sdbcUpiogDDdertlie i-ompelitionof Chitteso 
8afii MddhiivriT Po«liwa <]790- 1705) the tender-licnrtcd soositive 
iih, whom NiLnu Fadnov-is' restnunts drovQ to iiuicidci, liad 
nples about BrAhauin ironiea tuting uet^l hiur combs. It was 
uiut the socrod books ; hur oombe fthould bo of ivoiy not of 
To supply the oftw deraand for irory eombs one Andnt.rav 
Ikar came from X(wik and opened tho first ivory comb 
fiieiory in Poona city. His nxainplo wits followed by Ab&ji Ava of tha 
nrpMiMr casto. Tbofamilrof Aiidutrilo cnnaol(18B3) betrucedand 
it aid to have died oat. Tlio original carpenters hare also left Poootti 
and agnin (aWod to wood-cutting- Tbo prcsont ivory comb makera 
an: thu d«icendants of tho Knnbi servants of tbo original workers. 
Tluy ourohcr about Gfteen and k«ep Bvo nrorbshops opposite the 
Imatplt of Qanpali in Kaabn ward. They are a qniet people, speak 
MahU-lii, livo in their owd one-Btrf>royed bouses, occaaionally fat flosb, 
and drOKs Uke ordinary ]i>cal Kuubi ManitbAs. Cotnb making is 
cmMr to learn. &Tauy Kanbia noald haro talion to tho craft if it 
baa offered a fair chauc« of making a living, bob for many years, 
owing' to tho ooinpetitton of cfaoap foreign bono combs, the induatry 
tuu bwn d«>prea.sod. Within thelaat ten years fourahopahare bwo 
cloaed and those who ate left thnngli abore want are poor. Ilia 
pr««oDt small ivory-comb indnafry will probably long continue. 
Bf^man and other high caat« tliudu woman think bone combs 
impuro, and three irory cotyba alwaya form part of the vayan or 
[bride'a outfit. 

Comb-makers work from seven to eleven and from two to aunaet. 
stop Work on Kar that is the day fullowing Hahdaankrdnl 
liB Jaaoary, and on Xnifpanchmi in August. Their women and 
Iduldren give them no help. During the marnago season, 
I Votweoa Octoht.^ and Mny, the demand is brisk, and somotimea a 
^ismut or two are employed to help in doing the rougher porta 
'ulh© work. Tlio ai*rviiiit ia i>aid 8*. to lt«. (lU.4-7) a month 
>rdingto tho nature and quality of his work. The average monthly 
ae of a coinb-imLkor varies from £1 to £1 IO0. (118.10-15). 
irory itt very coslJy ranging from about $». to about 11«. 
[ft» jxiund (Rs. 150-SOO tbo ^S lbs. matt) the money required for 
"""png it has to be borrowed. The nstml rate of intcrent paid ts 
tjttr cent a mouth. The advances are generally made by a 
Bnyleiuler namod Jipa UiirwAri in whoso hands the whole 
itry practically is. In addition to interest', he ohiirgos 1} to 1^ 
cent a« commission on tho ivory ho brings from Bombay. Tkd 
■irkmuu hare to sell the articles they make on tboir own nccooot 
(j to pay th« standing balance inclding interest and commission 
tthoat&rw&n moneylender. What they arc able to keep back 
-^lut safficiont to maintain themseWos and their families. Alt are 
dpbtod to the Mirwiri. The nppliaoees of a comI>.ntaker ar« 






Hiiiiilar to tbosa uf an urjiiiary ciiriHtuter only a lilUe Biter. 
shop requireo Hre to six sairs of different aixesi ivortli Qd. to 
(0-8(«.) ; hiiKii dozen Ules wortli iV(. to "i'/. (4-5ti».) ; four ur : 
bororii worlb ^'f. (2 eix.) each; Italf aJo^cn viccn enuli wcrilt ' 
to £1 I0«. (R«. 5-15); u i"ijt(ui or udae worth i», (Re. 1]. 
i'A<i/air(i« worth l^J. (I a.) ; tkDtl a compass worth 6d. (4ajr.). 

When tho ivory is broii^trht froia the M&rwfiri's shop, aft«r he 
b»a weighed it mikI eutercd thu price in hi« account book, it is 
steeped id wnt«r for two or Ihrea ilayn. It is thuD cut iuto ptecen 
of thu rff|utriHl xiKouiid sawn throuKo, keeping it vertical by holdinf; 
it in the vtcu. It ia then filed, rubucd Boa polittbcd. SometimeA the 
ODcli and itidwi are deconitotl with mrvingii and the pUia Mirfncu i« 
brokon br (racing on it n few curroil nud straight lines. Ctiaibs for 
th«aMoi wdmcnarerootnngubkr andhareadoablAsctof teeth, while 
dmq'b c<)ii)b» itrtf cruMmot-Bluiped auJ buvo ontjr ono Mt of teeth. 
The imall pieces of ivory loft over in catting out pieo«!* for combs 
are used in mitkin^ dice. 'VUe prico of a cotnt) rrnigon from RU. to 
2t. (Rg. j -2) according to the sues thickness and workmannhip of 
Mtch. Tho combs and dico are sold in tho workshops by tlio 
workers on their own acconnt Their only cngtomern are high class 
Hiodas. Other classes une cithvr wood cOmbs or foreign bom 

AuQung Earopeua rcsideuts and trarellero a fnvountc prodm^t of 
Poona arc clay ligDres six to ciphtcon inches high, witb in their 
appenmuco colour and dre«s, all ibat is cbaracteristie of tho 
dilfereut castes and classes of Western India. Ttiexe figunss are 
known as Poonn fi^n-s and are made nowhere but in Poona. At 
present (188+) there are only eight figure -uiakem in Poona city. 
The moHt famous makors of Poona figur^ bave been lUpu Supokar 
a Jingar and KAIurdm Cjavandi a bricklayer. These two men were 
contemporaries and lived about forty years affo. The pronont 
workers belong to the (Jold^inith, Jingar, and Maratha castes. 
They speak Marithi, and genemlly live on vegetable food, but they 
eat fieah ou holidays and special feast day^, The goldsmiths 
dress like Hnihrnani;, in a rounded turbnn. jacket, long coat, 
waistclotb, and s boulder-scarf ; the rest di-ess like Kunbis witb a 
three<comrred tarban, long coat, and waiiit and shoulderclotb. 
Bvsidva the eight workers who make the highly Sniahed Pfx>na 
figaros, twenty to twenty-five Jingarg, and about two hnDdre<l 
KumbliArs make rough baked clay figures costing about -i^d. 
(3<i«.) the doaeu. Tho Jingars ui>d K.timbbilrs mould or shape 
these rongh figures a little before the Oaapati bolidiLys in 
August and the Pivali holidays in Ociober-Noveiuber, when, 
eRpecially at DivdU, they are in great demand. ShllIivA.han, the 
legendary founder of the i^Aufi: cm, wbose initial date is ji.d.TS, isspid 
to hare led an army of clay figures from the Deccan north acroM 
the Narbada and defeated Vikram^itya the chief of M^wa. In 
honoar of this triumph for the Deocan during Dicdli the children 
of lower class Iliadua build small clay castles in front of their 
bonsM, and round Iheiu arraugo an army of day Bgurca footmeu 
horsemen and gunners. It is the opinion of many well informed 
people in Poona that (bis ptaolice wiis introduced by ShivAji 

{JGil- 1680) with ttio object of foalorinj; a warliko spirit ainot^ 
An children. 

Tlw Poona figure-iuakers an* pci-hnps thn only «rork«rs in Pi>oiia 
ahow artistic skill. The materials uwkI hy (lie Poona figum- 
ken are : Wliit« clay or thd^lv g<>n«ralljr bought from Jlibirs at 
W. »hifa(i-load (8 for ite. I) ; Qombay khadu, a chalky ctay wfbicJi 
II bon^t from Poona Kohorau nt etxt^eu ponnds tdo ihtlliDg ; torn 
(Oaotrjr paper cftlled ^Kii'iri't'i^tij costing about 2)d a pound 
{10 lbs, tbf ra])©**) ; finely j^iuriod cuftou worth aKbilliup tho pound ; 
orfitinoDt or hartdl, ilie j-ellow aulpbido of anenic wortb a shilling tho 
poond; ochre omoii ypi-u, jtiir, worth l)'f. (1 a.) the pooud; ciunabar 
or hitufsl red iodi<£) of luerourj worth two shdlings the pound j 
wrdigriaorj«Mj/4I gfeen arsoniato of copper worth ita own wei^t 
in copper coin ; white itinc or imphrAa oxiau of iyac worth a shiUio^ 
ths pound; iudigo or n^ wurlh it's own weight iu copper coin; 
*^"' ' carminD worth its own weig^ht in ailvor; lamp black 
at home; gomulra pevdi a j'cllow pigment obtained by 
<t«eptn^ the powdered flowers of the Butea frondosa palat id 
«iw'« arine, worth itx own weight in silver; gloo or «>«*, 
worth 6<l. tha pound ; ininglasis worth a shilling a pnckci bought 
from E!orap«ian nbopH ; luc bought (rum Bfthoms Hb QJ. to lit. 
(6-»a»,) the pound; copal varnish worth Sir. to 4«. tho pound; 
blue Vitriol, Kii][))iat« of cappor, and rice fluur. TIiobo uiateriaU 
an so cheap^Hud in most cases arc rrquircd in such email quantitiua 
thai, no leas oQQ cnBtoinor want^ a large number of fignre«, wtwn 
iBome adranco in rpqaircd, cvun the poorest workers buy thorn on 
lUwir own account. A Rg^rf^-^ukor'n tools and appliances ar« 
Flew and simple. Thoro arc lire scooptMV or gougvs, niiincly 
'hymne which is flat and sltAiting af. the end, tiakkurde nail •shaped, 
Imrmi spear-bend Khu|H<d, kfmi.-he korm- flat and ridged ou one side 
aibing bnir-ltko lines in the clay, and dolj/ncht kan\« grooved 
en one rida. Boitidw tho gouges, thpy reouire a pair of pinoem 
vf chimt/u worth a shilling ; n drill or $mnta worth 6rf. (4a«.) ; 
halFs dozen files orAnintut worth togothor 2m. (Ro. 1) ; and » pair of 
leiMora worth a shilling. The brushes arc made of tho tails of tho 
Indian eqiiirrel which cost alKiut \<{. [{n.) tho pioe« nod are bought 
IfrtMD the wnndi-riog druggista called Vaidas or Baiduft. The 
ldbd<fN or white c-tiiy, the khadu or ch.<ilk-y clay, and tho torn paper 
I we ieparat«ly sUtipod in cold wator for one day, apparently ])a«sod 
I ibrough a sieve though this tho workmen deny, and pounded together 
l<rith the ginned cotton. The proportion of each ot these articles is 
tri\ uniform, each workman using his own discretion on each occasion. 
When the clay is ho thoroughlr mixod as to loito all grit or grain it is 
mdy f or Qso. Thn workman shapes the bend puttinu in u small 
^^■g to prop the nock. Tho arms are next eliapod and propped on 
r~g8 at the shoulder joiots. The truuk and legs ar« liwl shaped 
I tJi two |wg9 passing through tho soles if the figure is standing 
I f oae we pivtsing below the end of tho bnckbune if the figure ia 
1 ug. liDeiBe separalo piooe^ arc joined and the figure is left to 
I two to six day* in the enn. When dry the clay is painted a 
I I o(dour and the eyebrows and nioustacbc, and, if the figure in a 
I du, the brow marks arc painted- The colours are made by 

Chapter VI. 
Crtftr j 

Clat Fio trail! 

[BomliA7 Qucti««r- 



Chapter TI 


wwtliiug tlic laiueral pigiaenU 80V0r«l timeB over anii mutag 
thoroiiglily with gkeit-faste for a dark and vfith iaingliisii for ~ 
light-tuii. When the paint drie* tho worlcmAn dresses tne Spire by 
gioing on pie<:('s of diftereuC fabrics, rinally ttiu fi(,'iiru is fixed 
into a atAnd brooglit from the local lunior either with the kelp of 
the peg pEussiog bolow the feet, or, if aitting, by the p«g wKich 
puses bolov the back. Of the Poena figures, vrbicli include 
atmoet all CMtva and cIsBsea, perhaps the moat tnterestiug aud 
cbariictomtiti we: A fully equipped elephant with a nativi- print-w 
and his attendants in the car or hatida ; groups showing how Fliudus 
cook And dine; a scene ut a public well ; a danciug party ; a Umdu 
spianeTj wuavvr, and guldeiuiith at work ; a Burupcan goutlfuati 
carried in a pahmquin; a Koli, or otJier highwsymiu) i\-uyIayiDg 
and extorting money from a Mdrwiri trader ;u tigor-shooting scone ; 
a prince or princv&s attuckod by u li^cr ; a Dative fniileellL-r'a sbup . 
anatlTowoiimn carrying water ;aiiiilkuiaid; aOiirodi or juggler with 
tamemoukeT3,8Duk(Mi,gOAtj and hiou^oomm i a Duru't'xhi wilb a t»iiiu 
bear ; a Oos&vi or Hindu ascetic ; a Fakir or Muaalindn beggar ; a 
Br&hmaa woman worshipping the !tat-r«.<^ lulii plnnt Ocymutn 
auuutum; an astrologer telling fortunes; a Vuidn or wuDdering ([uack ; 
a Pirsi nuw aad womiin ; n waterman with his bulKiok ; a camd 
driver ; a loessenger ; and the cholera oTJarimari wurshippor. Thu 
pricvsof those figures range from I8». (Rs. VJ) n. dozen tn 10*. (Rs. h) 
each according to size and moke. Among the Sgun-srctniirt-d for the 
Idbut or Muhnrram bier festival the most common arc a dancinp girl ; 
a MarAtha horsoman ; a chief on an olephunt; a pair of Biilhman 
Maritha officers on horseback ; a pair of gymnasts ; a prince on an 
elephant attockixl by a tigor j a Mardlhu officer on horseback helping 
a oamitel to monnt bis liorse; and n prkice oil foot struggling wiili 
a tiger. The Ggnrea required for the Muhumtm biers are the largest 
made in Poona ranging from two to tJiree feet high and costing £2 to 
£50 (Rs. 20-500). The iignres intended for sale among European sud 
P&rsi customers ordinarily rauge from six inches to eighteen inchoa 
in height and from l».(8(ix.)to £1 (Its. 10) in price. The average 
Qtontbly income of the Poona figure>makt>r8 is said to vary from tZ 
to j£2 10^. (Rs. 20-25). Thu figures art; t'itber made to order or ai« 
sold at till' wtirkuiim'* house. The larger figareertxjuirud fvrMuborratn 
biers are bought by Hindus. The demand for Muhttrram figures is 
not great us one figure lasts for years. The chief demand is from 
Europeans and from the PArsi ownorsof Bombay curiosity ahop«. 

Paper-making is eaid to have been brought to Poena from Jnniur 
four or fire gonemtiona ago. The leader of the movAmeat is 
romom'bercd an AlUbb&i, a Mosaliuiln, as arc alt tho workers in Poena. 
At present (1883) Ktigdipnmor the papermen't qaarter a port of 
the Kasba ward has wvon work.placea or pitpor factorioa. Acoordiiw 
to the (lapcr-workera the site on which they built their houses ana I 
factories was given free of charge by tho Pefthn-a to oncoorage the 
craft. Of forty factories only eight remain, seven in Poena and 
onoiitRluimbiirdainitacroaetbo Mutha from RHgdipuru. Thepapor- 
makcrs know MarAthl but apeak Hiudualjuii at borne. They cm 
afford to eat 6esb only on holidays, and drink lifguor hut not to eiceiu 




lire iu oDo-storvyod houses of tboir ovra. llic mca dress like 

lUsia a throe-coruorEMJ tTirbac, nlong coat, a scarf ronnd tliR 

', and ono rousd tbo alioaldcrs. T)icir women wear s robe and 

lica like Knnbi vramon. Th^ir pnper is strong «Dd ktlinK bni 

W DO special peculiarity or eicollouce. They earn barolv enough 

~^live oa aad nre coDatantly borrowing. They work from seveii 

twcUf and from one to saOBet. Thoy stop work on Fridays, 

BaioT'ldn, fire days ot Muharram, one of tHuibiiMT<U, and throe days 

«a tbo dtfsth of a member of the community. Their women and tboir 

cluldrea over eight help ia sorliog waste pnper. Ualike the practice 

at Ni«ik und .Iiiuiinr whori> mcrs aro ii»ei3, at Poona paper is made 

tiMv from wasto paper bought from GroTernmeot offices at £1 to £2 

tpu/d of 240 lbs. As tbo wai^te papitr is goDeralty bought at 

aocttoQ Bales itB price varies considembly. The£2 to£5(Ra. SO-SU) 

reqnirfld for bujitig tho raw matLTinl hiiK to be borrowed ^m 

Marw^ mooeylendera at twoor three per cent a mootb. The Poona 

paper-makers hare stopped UMinc ropes aud guonybagi aa they require 

SKirclimeBodUboartopoundana bleach. Six chief tiiols and njipliancee 

are aited : The dhi^i or great hammer, a long heavy bc^tu poised 

00 a central fulcrum worked in a long pit iwo or three feet deep. 

The bead >if the hammer in a heavy block of wood fixed at rigut 

utglM to ouo end of the main beam, with its face strengthened by 

fear thick polished steel plates. On the upper surface of the other 

nd of tho main beam two or thret> Hlep>i are cut, aud the hammer 

is worked by tbreo or four men together forcing down tho beam and 

letting it rise by alternately stepping on the beam and on the edga 

cf the hole. The cost of the dlifgi including the coat of the pared 

[Mt or hole in which it is worked, is calculated at JCd to £6 

(Re. 50-60), Though every one of tho Poona paper fuotorlea has a 

d/ityi, they have not been iu use for tea or twclto years as waste 

paper does not re^uiriT heavy b&mmortng. A roctargidar teakwood 

frame or xicAu two and a half feet by two. with vight cross bars; 

it ooHls fit. (Rs. 3) and u used in fi.>>hing out filinB of paper from the 

cbtern, A screen or fhhapri inado of Uio stalkx of the white conicnl 

hifaded amaniDtb Ainaranthua globulus, on which the film of 

paper retits, when the fmiiie ix brought out of tho cistern and the 

T«Ier alluwed to pass through it, cost^ Zs. to -ia. (Ha. 1-2). A soft 

itt^ palm brush or kun<ha, costing I ^H. to ^ti. (1 -2 aa.), ts u»ed in 

IINTAdiug thuith(x-ts a;^ainst tho oomuntc^ walls of the room. This 

bmsh ia not alwaya n.-<iuired an tfao nipper is geucmlly jtprtMid iu the 

tan nu old carves or i%gs. The polisliing stoucs a piece oE agate 

wotth is. to is. (Us. ]-2y. Tjirgo shellii Cyproift tigri:), which ara 

in DHe iustead ot polttiliing stones, cost \». to l«.o<I. (8-12 n*.} a 

douD ; Hmooth teakwood bonrdii each about two feet by three, 

coaling 2*. to 2«. C</. (Hs. l-lij.are ntuiiirod to lay tho paper on 

ttltilo it is being rubbed with the pouNhing stone or shell. The 

prooeft» of milking pitjior fn^m waste pn|>er is not so elaborate as 

Ike process of making it from tracking. Tn Toona tho paper is torn 

to piaoes, sorted according U^ colour, moistened with water, and 

taken lo tho rivor and pounded with stones and washed for three 

days. It ia then tnkon to the cistont A paper-maker's cistern is 

« cement-lined tank about seen feet by four and four deep half 





ChapWr VI. Q]]od with «ratar. The paper pulp is thrown into this cistern. 
Crafts- When it i< thoironglily disRolved the worhman sitting at the side of 

p thfi pit, leaning oviT thu wnter, takes in both lutnds (he square framo 

which holila tlic acroGD which serves as a siere, passes it under the 
vratersnd drnws it slowly Hiiil ewuly to ihc surface, working it a<> tliat 
as the wntor passes through, n uniform film of pulp is l«(t on the 
screen. The scroen is thvo 1ift«il up and tnruoa over, and the film 
of paper ie spread on a rag cushion. When layent bsTB been 
heaped on ihis cushion ntno to fourteen incheH high a rag is 
spread over them, ajid on the nig is hiid a pUutk weightt-d with 
beary stones. Whon this proMture has druiued the piiper of some of 
ite moisture the stones are taken away, iind tw<i men oae standing 
at efteh end of the plank, eees«w over the bandlo of paper. Wlien 
it is well pressed the paper is poeled off, layer af(«T layer, and spread 
to dry otlher on the comeotod wn.ll.i of the building or on rags 
laid in the sua, Whon dry ench sheet is hiid on tho polishwl 
wooden board and nibhed with a shell till it nhines. The paper 
made by this process though rotig'h find of a diuf^- yellow is strong 
and lasting. The makers sell it to Marwari Vdni. Bnhoi-a, and Gujarit 
Vioi dealers. The price for each ^W'^'i of 2M (sheets mngos frum 
8«. to I0«. (fU. 4-5^. The cheapor varietiee are generally bought 
by QoTernment officials for enTclopcs, a.nd th«bett«r kinds oommand 
a sale among native merclinntH who one them for account honks for 
which their toughness and durability make them specially suitable. 
The retail price .varies from 8«. to £.'i (Ka.4-2U) thereamoften 
quires. Tho papor-niakorR almost never eniph>y ontsido labour. The 
men and women of the family work together, the men doing the 
b«svierand the women the lighter parts of the work. From themncb 
greater cheapness of macbiRe>made imposed paper the demand for 
the local paper is small and declining. The makers are bttdly off, 
barely earning a living. ITjey have no trade guild. 

Xaoir Tm, Poona city hastwonty-soven iron pot f actorios, four of which belong 

to Telia or oilmen, three to Bobor&s, ten to Kunbis, and ton Co Milta. 
The industry employs 150 to 200 workmen BrUhmans, Kunbin nod 
Musalmino. All the iron pot factories In Poona city are in the Aditvar 
ward. 1'he whole of the iron used in brought in sheets throngh 
Bombay from Eun:>pc, \V'hcn at work iron pot makers wear nothing 
but a wai.gtcloth tied round the hipa. On hnfidays the Brthmans wear 
their own dre^, and tho rest the three-cornered torban, a long ooat, 
and all the MoEalmfios a waist and Hhoulderclolb. They epeak 
Marfithi, and live in one-storeyed hired quarters. Thoir evory-day 
food is 6ajVi or millet cakes nndduf or pnUe with afew ground chillies 
and some simple vegetables. Except the iJrdhmaus both Hindus 
and Masalmins occaaionnlly eat Aeah and drink liquor tboDgb not 
to ezoMS. The workers inako little more than a living most of tha 
NofitB going to the dealers. They work even on no-moon days. 
Their only hotidayn arc ifur that is the duy following Mahdauttkrant 
in January, five days during Shimga in March-April, Ganpati's 
Day in August, and the d»y »fter nil eclipses. Their busy seuon 
begins in lihddrapad or July-Augnst aud laxts till Ckaitra or 
M«rt:h- April. I'he women and ubildreo do not help the men ia 
their work. They work from sasrise to suaset witb half an honr'a 



mtHt midilay. The iron tibituU are bou^lit in Bombay uear tbo 

Qunac Bridgo nt 1 la. (Rs. 5 j) the cwt. to which cart-iAge to Poona 

>dJa \t. &d. tbo cwt, Tho di'ulvro ]iay tlio iron sbooU with Ibuir 

own Apiial. Tho iron pot maker nsm nioo nppliaDcee. Twenty to 

lirco[y-£ve cbiseU or ehhani each wortb lid. (la.); tvrolvo to 

ifteeo bammen of tlilTerfiit si»ts) eacb worth 6<i. [itts.); half a 

lloani piticors or tantJait (?ach wortb 3ri, (2 a*.}; two or thrtM 

httry iron cjlinilora each wortb 4«. to i)«. (R«. 2 -SI); haJf a dosen 

uapiusra each worth 64. (4 as.); eix to eigbt l&rge DngUah aiiriU 

Mch worth JCl to £1 10«. (R& lU-U) ; half a dosten thick rounded 

unU ftlioui six iuche« across fixed in biihhul bloctca and half 

boned in the earth &t&h worth 6«. to 8«. (It«. 3-4) ; about a doz^a 

ibick puiiitod iiails for puncbinf; faolea togetbor worth i{ii. (3 cu.); 

Wlf a dozen yearly renewed files at Is. 6(1. (12 aj*.) cacli. Tiintnkiag 

tlie iron vessels the iron «beet ie laid ou tbe iluur and the ahapo 

required for tlie pot ia traced with compaBses on the nheet and 

eat oot with a cbtsel. Tbe piooe of iron thus separated is tben 

batnmered on a solid iron anvil or btinffJi, and roughly tihapod into a 

beaiispbere. It ia next biiuimered on the lar^n and small anvils, 

till the shuting ia completed. Tbe piece«i formiu)^ parts o£ a jiut are 

thea nailea toK«tbur and tbe joint tilled up with putty. Ita brim 

is filed, and the handles, made of iron rods flattened at the ends 

are riTelled ou. Tbe articlua made arc : Tbe tava a grid-Uo for 

bskiiig tiatire dainties; the ^d(<?/« a cylindrical |xit with a »li^btly 

niondcd bottom varying from a (L>ot to throo foot across and two 

lo three feet deep; Atiaffdra or large drum pot; tanks or kavdt 

for aloriii^ water and grain ; n pnhora or uyliiidriunl uraitfT'd rawing 

pot nine luchos to a foot across and Hcren Co fourteen inches high ; 

m duve or chatan used by gmin parobora or hhatibunjds ; n k^iihai or 

fryiD^ pan, a bomiaphorical pot one foot to six feot across and two 

inebea tx> two feet d€«p with two opposite bandies ;the fccitior largo 

flat-botloDiMl!>ugar-l>niling pan. Of theee articles tbo pdtelo or 

round pot, tho n-udtira or orum, the tank or hand, and luo frying 

pwi or kadhai used to be made of copper, bnt among' tho poor iron is 

iakiDg tho placo of copper. The lata or griddle is used by all classea 

eepecnaily by tbe poor for cooking their millet cakea. The domaad 

for iron ware is Bteadilj* on tbe increase. Tbe yearly import of 

iron sheeta into Foona ranges from H,44U cwt. to S!4,908 cwt. 

Tape ia woven in Poona city by one hundred to one 
httudred and fifty Rivals, who have come from Mohol and 
ShnUpnr. Tbey ara not pormanontly settled in Poona and visit 
their homes every year generally during the rains. In Poona they 
hve io apart of tbe Ganj ward which is Known as tho LtAval quarter. 
They look like UngAyats and worship ShiT but do not wear the 
flat;, Tb^ir borne tongue is MarAthi. A.t Poona they lire in 
hired oue>storeyed quarters, eat no fleeh, but drink liquor. The 
mon dress in a rumdl or headscarf, a short' coat reachmg to tba 
waiat, and a ucarf round the middle. Tape weaving reoniroa Httld 
skill. Most of the wearers are in debt to tbe tape dealers, and 
tbey keep hardly any holidays. They nae maehine-msde yarn for 
tbe woof and band-spun yarn for the warpi Tape is almost, the only 

iclfi in which hand-Bpun yarn is still used. Tbo maobine-mada 


laoK Pa 


Tatk Wajtvixa, 







yam wfaicli it< slmoflt always twonticK, is brotiglit from noiitbHj hj 
tbe tape de&lere. It is sold or ratbor given to tlie iveavere on 
credit at lOt. to Vit. (Ra. S-G) tbo pound. The coarse haud- 
epun yam ootneit from Sholilpur into which it is broaght from 
tbe Niz&m's oouutry. It is sold oA Poena at 7\d, [5 as.) the pound, 
T)io lupe wt^sver's appliiiDcesareBimple. A bamboo cai;;;^ or j>hdlka, 
or large reel, worth 6d. (4o<.); fkcoadn or email reel worth 3d, 
(2<u.) ; a apindlo or phiraki of nominal valne ; a bamboo HhuLlle or 
kdnde; and a 3at wedge>shapi>d piece of wood with which tho 
woof is driven home^ worth Hd, {2 tu.) The tape loom is of 
primitive make. Betwaen two uprights, from a foot to one foot and 
nino inches higli, are placed tno hori£onta) hars one joiniu^; the topa 
and the other the costroa of the uprif^htB. To the central horisonta] 
bar are tied a row of loops, each loop ti^o incheH long. Id arrang- 
ing the warp, one thread is paesed through a loop and the other 
over tho upper horizontal har, at a apot junt above the Hpnce betwoea 
two loops. The weaver sits in front of tiio uprights, aud balding in 
his right hand n buudle of woof yarn, paasea it acrosa through tho 
warp into bis left baud aud forces the woof home by u blow from 
th<) fiat u-edg&>shaped hatt/a. Aa he weaves, be slaoKeas the wnrp 
which bo keeps tivd to a peg or beam on the other aide of tbe 
□pright fram& Tbe broadest and thickest tape woven, called 
padam, is six to nine inches broad and twelve feet loug. It ie sold 
at 9^. to mid. (6-7 as.) the pioce. It is wliite with black aud red 
bands. A smaller variety called I't^/ia, two to fitx inohea broad 
and seven to fifteen feet long, rurics in price from I H . to la. (l-8tu.). 
Tbe narrow tape which is lesa than half an inch broad, is wovea 
by poor Mnaalm&a women. It in believed that at present (1862) 
in Poona city aa many as 150 Muaalm&n women weave narrow tapo 
in their leisure hours carniug a shilling or two a month. 

Felt or bumu» in made at Poona by PinjAria who are settled 
near the Naiosnk police Btaticn uod near the tcmpio of SuraesbTar, 
Kightor ten shnps or rather finiiliea are (1883) engaged in making 
felt. They camo to Pwna thrive op four gcnorations ago from 
Ch4kaD, Khed, and Mancbar in Jminar. They have bern working 
in felt for generations and say they do not Wliovo their forefathers 
ever did any other work. They speak UinduslAni at home and 
MoriVthi out flf donrs. They live in one-ntor^iyed hired houses and 
eat flesh tliougfa they gtMiemllv live on a vegetable diet. Tho mrn 
wear a three •cornered turl>An, a ahort coat r^^tacliing tho waiot, 
and a Kcarf for the loimt. Tbey are poor. Their working boarn 
are from seven to eleven ajid from one to sunset. They stop 
work on Fridays, Bakar-Id, and two days in Ilaimdn. The wool is 
brought from the shepherds orDhangnraof the Tillages near Poona iu 
Ashddh or Juno-July and Shn'ivan or July-Augast. Goat's hair costs 
IJrf. to24(i. theponnd(IO-14Ihs. the rapee) and sheep wool 3d. to+rf. 
the pound (6-8 lb)>. the rupee). Tbe tamarind seeds reouired for sizing 
are bonght in Poona at l^ri. to 2\tl. (l-ljrt. asftfr of two !bs.). 
They generally borrow what money ia wanted at twelve to twen^- 
foor per cent a year. Iliey work the raw material on their own 
acconnt and pay their ereditors out of the proceeds of the felt. 
The demand for £elt is said to be on the decline on account of the 




inporutioa ot ckoap £uropi-au UuikuU. Tbe odIj instramont 

they require is the teaser vhich coDmu of tliree parts, the bow or 

fefl w an which U fanog from thv ceiling, the harp-shaped t«aaer or 

Lrfaild, nod the donibbell -shaped Htrik^r or muth with which the 

Hwrorker etrihee the thoDg or leather siring. The whole teaser cost* 

Wt0. to lUi. (Ha. 4-5). fieaidM tbe dumbl^ll striker the worker has ft 

W liick about two ^ards long. Tba wool is &ret disentangled hy the 

women of the house and Icttsed ou the dcuta bj tbe iik^b. lien or 

Koimea then spread it on pUnks or mats aod the tamnnnd seed peste ia 

ifn««d over it, Another Isjer of wool is spread on the paste a&d 

a Uyer of paeto on Uio wool till it is half an inch to an inch thic^. 

It vt bkstly laid in the aun and dried. It is sold in the -workmen's 

bonies at &d. to 4». (Ba. J-S) the piece, tbe price depending oo the 

MS* of the article. The whole j-eexlj outturn in not worth more 

Ihaii £200 (R.O. 2000). 

Bic Kit&ris or hereditary Wood-Turners, ton Kunbis, and 
too Brahnan earn their living at Poooa by turning wood. 
Thaj Uv8 in Aditv&r ward near Snbhuaha'B mosque and the 
Gajri market. Tbe; speak Mar&thi, live in onc-etoroyed hired 
(raattem, and except the Brribman wbo live« gololy oo vegetable food, 
' thej occiwioaollj- cat fleeb. The Br&biu&D wears a rounded (urban, 
a long coat reaching to the kneet, a jacket, a watttcloth, and a 
thoDldereloth. The Kdt&ria and Konbis wear a tbree-cornered 
isrbati, a long coat, and waist and shoutderclotha. Thej work from 
■ereii to elerea in the nooroing and from one to auoRCt. They reat 

koB all no-tuooa days, on the day after tbe chief or wintor San^rxint in 
January, for two days of Shimga in March -April, and for two days 
after an eclipse. Tbe women and children do not help thi^ men. 
Their average monthly earningB range from 10#. to £1 (Ea.S-lO). 
titB only kinda of wood th'ey use are tbe kuda Wrightia tinotoria, 
•od Chs ranu Heteropbragma rozboi^hii, which they buy &om 
UhAr women who bring it from tbe forest lands near Pouna. A. 
head-lead of sticks one to two inches ia diameter costs them 2s, to 
3r. (Ha. l-H). A wood-turner has two tooU, the lathe and the 
chisel The latbe or Ihadge, consifta of two upn'ght blocks of wood 
■boat two feet long six inches broad and six ini^es high, and two 
i»et apart with a abort iron peg or spike on the toner face of each. 
Of the two btockti of wood one is kept in its place by a heavy stone, 
ib« other is movable. The pioco of wood to be turned is drilled at 
each end, tbe movable part of the lathe, always the left block, ii 
taken &wiiy, tbe wood to bo tumi-d ia slipped cv^r tbe two iron 
■pikes uiid the Tuorable part of .the lathe is pnt back in its place. 
The workman sits on a board opposite the lathe, and, with his left 
(mi, koepK the movable block in its place. Be takes his bow or 
kmmdn, a bamboo about three feet long with a loose string, and 
paasing s loop of the atrisg round tbe ri^t end of the wood to be 
tamed, tightens bis bow, and, by moving it sharply at right angle* 
to the lathe, makes the wood spin quickly on the two iron apikea. 
As it turns, the wood ia worked into shape by the doable<poiBted 
ehiael or t^ka* held in the left band. When tbe wood has been 
shaped and smoothed, a piece of eealiog wax is held close to it, and, 
by the friction, melted and spread over its aurfaoe. The final 
a 1327-27 

Chapter Tl- 


(BombRy Gautteer. 



Chapte VL 


polish IB given by robbing it with a leaf of the kevda Pandanns 
odoratiaBimtia. The chief articles tamed are : The Idtne or rolling 
pin used in kneading wheat bread, a plain wooden bar one to two 
feet long and two or three inches ronnd ; it costs Id. (^ a.) and is 
not lacquered. The gudgudi or kukka the hubble-bubble. This is 
of three parts, the bowl, the handle, and the pipe. The bowl is 
made of a cocoannt shell with a hole at the top, polished and 
smoothed on Uie lathe. The handle which is eight to twelve inches 
long and three to foor inches roond, is hollowed, and the outside 
carved and covered with lac. The pipe is a hollow round stick, 
nine to twelve inches long and one inch round, smoothed and 
lacquered. A habble-bnbble costs i^d. to 9d. (3-6 aa.). Clothes- 
pegs or kkuntia, four to six inches long and two to three round, 
cost 2s. (Be. 1) a score or hodi. Children's rattles or khulkhulds 
a lacquered stick two to four inches long and half an inch ronnd, 
with, at each end, a hollow lacquered ball three to five inches 
round with a few pieces of stone inside, cost 1 \d. (1 a.) ; kathadda 
or balusters upright sticks six inches to three feet long, and half 
an inch to six mi^es ronnd, lacquered, and varying in price from 
l^d. to 6(2. (I '4 as.) a stick. Bulers or dkkanis, one to two feet long 
and one to two inches round, are not coloured and cost 1 ^d. to i^d. 
(1-3 08.), Walking sticks or kdthia are generally supplied rough 
by the customer and turned for Sd to Gd. (2-4 as.). All of these 
articles are sold in the turner's shops. They have no special merit 
and are not in much demand. The women do not help the men. 




Is probiatoric timeii, liko tlie rest of the Doccan, Poona is snid 
lave formc^l p^rt of tlio Uaadak&nuiya or Daodaka iorast, 
wbich the EUtnAyaa rcprveeota u infested b; Bikshasas or wild 
mea n-bn diiitnrbctl the religious ritas of BrAhman sages. A high 
and ancivnt bolincss uUac^Ps to Bbiitntekankar the soarce of me 
Bbtmn, fort7-&vo uiiltui north-weat of i'oona, the Shi?ling of wlioM 
tempio Lit oiiu of tho twelve great tinff9 of iDdiiiJ 

Prom vory carl; ttmo a tr*da route s must have ctosfiod the Poooa 
dbtrici ilown the Isaliyildri posses lo the Koakan seaports of Sopara 
Kal^Anqni^ ^Jl^oiil. UoL'lc-cut ttiiuplos, rvst-cbatnbers, and inacrintions 
■liov that aa far back as the first centuries bofora and after Cbrixt 
tmie went to uud from the coast bjr the N Aiia and the Bur pa sses. 
'I\e ricbuosa of the rock-cot temples both above the paaa at heJ i.a 

I Bhijsnud KA rli. and Iwlovr the pass at Koudii uc and Atab ivli luulfo 
it probable tkaTin tho first coatunea after Christ a great traffic movfU 
Snug the Bor pass route. Tho early history of too district ceutrt-s 
in jjpinar, on tho yAnanaas ronto, fifty miles north of I'ootia, a city 
"trongiy pla<;ed, in a ricn country, with a good cliiaat«,aiid fadJitica 
for trade. Two considomblc groups of cavos one near KiUamb obuut 
tweJTD milrs south of Junttar, tho other round TalcKSon 'aTio'n t thirty 
Diileis^iulh-west of KiilamV, now on the main hne of traJfic Fnum 
Jikaiiu- to the roilway, apparctally mark thi> old trado roiito frout 
Jnnr. ;)r t n t bo Bor |bss. Of tho founders of Junnor notbing is known. 
Er L ly tiATni? hiL.« porinhed, if, aa is generally supposed, the 

fn,vv uv UL.UIU Junuar menus Old City.' The town is probably as old as 
the largo inscription on the walln of the rock-cul chamber at tha head 

'brflan AntLqouy, II. I.tnuilnoto I. ThodaroBotbngnatNM^i 
Mr Uljkiu 1 < iaut&Biwibvw uiikniiim; KMlAraahvu- m Out tiiin: 

l ore t Ai»n«li%*ar 
TiiiUUrM; linlithil 
BUjjaui; MUlikiijmon the Sbmluul bill ia T«liiigw>tt) OrakAr in Uw Nmibailii i 
^VMhr^r uu BAiMthw iskad Mar Cm Coinoiia ; SoivnlivM- in SaUBBitlt-Fitui 
aCUhUwtr; THarinknhrarktTriiahak in Kiaik; Vudruith al Darwin tba 
mhil diatrict Of Bengal ; an<t THiireahvar at Bcuarea. 

'hadit BJia^TUlilftirM Jamariti oiri muno by edMitifying It with the Tasini 
"PtctMny (A.O. ISO)aiiil ol tJha Periplua (*.d, 247). The argnmcnt* id niitftott ol 
'telrimtifleali^inam tlwi aotiqitilj' of JuBiuraappovvd by it« numetuui «avM ami 
tanptiooa. lUpMitfonat tli« bead ol aliiirhvay of oanuMVoa, and it* ctnnfuiratiro 
to Shobrr^i wliich Pmfcaaor IlhladiTku- flmU lobe tka only naOMi 

"KiiKted with tiiv Konkaa StUMfH. vha call Tagara th«ir oHginal alt* iBoubay 
<!»>etu*r. XIII. 433i; PratMKr BhlaAirkar'a Deocan Rail/ Hiit«vy) ; andatilli 

n» footiaii (if the city betircen tho tluve hilla or trigiri ot Lenitlri, Uiomoda, and 
^mcr, Ir^iin which it might tiaTo bcon cnllnl Trigiri cdfruptod iota Toffora. Tlw 
•Wanpiinoot a^DAIhu idoitilicatiDn is that tha poaitiaa «( Junaar, lOOnuloa 
•wt ofpalthtn, dofi not ictm wilii Ptokmy of iritfc tla aotboToftka Purtpliia 
M^ << whom placa Taipin t«a daracMtct Putttan. A niaot objooUon ii that* 
ytaiit centuiy eoppetplatc reoordinc a graat to as ioluibitaat o( Ti^ua hai Im«d 
Hiiidiu th« Nijutini Haiilarabad which agroM iriili the pooiliou ol Ptolemy'* and Uia 
IWjilua' r»t^ra (lATW^are Bambay GaMtlSor, XUL 423). 

Chapter VU. 

Eaklt UuTtiKV. 


|C3ifcl>t«r VZI. 




(BomlCf Quftttcer' 

of the ii&a& pass vliicli was engrared by a Doccui Icia^ ooo ol 
whose capitals wua probably at Junnaraad wboto datvprobablj 
liaa between B.c . ai>a , A.l>. 30. Next to Aahok's (b.o. 250) ediata 
at GirD&r In E^tiiiwdr und Sopim near Baew-in ia Tbdon, the 
y&aa pag8 inacri ption is the oldest writing in Wtistcin India. It 
IB believed to be tEeearlieat LiBtorical record in the Daccui, and 
lias the 8peciul intereet of beiiig the oldeat known BrKhma nJcal 

ff[ Jadia. In th» beginning salatationa 

i nscn 

'fiDred tol 

ic and I'ur&nik gods, to Dharma and to ludra, to 
Chandra the moon, Sur^n the iiun, A ^i fire, aud Marat wind, to 
Irbe four Tegion-giiardiaDS or lokapdti who provide over the four 
quarters of the universe, Tama, Taruna, Kubora, aud Visart, 
and to Sankarahana Kriithnti'a brother aud Vdsadevaor KrishiLa. 
It moationa a pious kiiu of Oakshiaipotha or the Deccao, a 
atauncli supporter of the Vediu roligtOQ and strictly Br^manieal 
in his beliefs. It gives u lon^ account of Vedic aacrificea from 
the first ceremony of fire-placinp or a^nyddhdn to the^roat bono 
or athvamwiha aud other socrifloes. Mention is nnde of gifta of 
villogea, elepbaots, horses, chariots, and of thoosatida and ten 
tboDsaoda of cows and kiirghdpan coins. This inscription has tb« 
high value of showing tliat about b.c . 90 Buddhigm bad not 
TOt triumphed o^ f'y ^h^lij^^tn and that the sacrifices of iho 
Vadic age were still in o»&. The inscription was cngrarod by king- 
V a^j g l(ri. who, as ^if\ g of ^Wfll>fniLpa>.>ia probably impn^vvd the 
N&na ptMs, cot the rent-chamber for the u^e of trareUere, and, in this 
large inscription, recorded the power and the piety of hia family. 
Veo ishri belonged to the gi-cut Andhra.brity.a or ShitaUnrni dyuaaly.' 
^ereral inscriptions, over what once wore atatuea in the HaaA pass 
obamber, are supposed to give Vedisbri's pedigree mentioning 
Sim uka dhiltaTlUiana his grandfather,' Snri Shatdtarni and qoeen 
Na/amka his mreut«, and his two sons l^nnoe jjafcaafari «nd J ETJOoa 
S bAtttT&ha DBi'linter in dato than tho Kieat N&oa pass inscription are 


probably _ _ , -^ . 

These rock temples contain Berenty-five inscriptions also of the first 
and second centuries after Christ The KArle aud Jnnnar inscriptions 
give the nanieit of kings I'ulum^vi and NahapAna , an inscription over 

' TLa ShSMlumii, who mr* better known by tluilr l^rtUiili nunc ol Andhrabbritfas, 
wn« * powarful Dounu dynutir whicb ia tnppoaKl to Iuts tloundMd is lli« twa 
canttirlM Wore ca^ltliv three ceomnM a(Mr toe ChtiobiMi <rw, TbcirorigiBBl wai 
wwAndhni or T«1«at[«a «n<l tli sir capital Dliarnilccitiit Uw montbof tba SriUuia. 
Attbohcigbt oCtbairr)o«r«r(A.n. 10-14uT|t)l«y ■ppovtoharsbeU Uic wfaolabreadtl) 
of the DoooHi from so]Hkn In Thu* to DhMuket nnr the month of the Kriahaa. 
Their Inic rioiipn i mi ;! wm» have bMn (onnd at K^nilMiri llfl BdBir* in ^^^ Konkui, 
at Jn nnirrKMDitd , Kolntp af- w iri y^ Bi^ '" the nwiMW »*BaptirM'n Kortb Klnan. 
■ttKT'XSBaS >''t<» >a MS AMBaSaUwl, and in etbar_parta ot tka " 
Prstulmm. SeUiI^ am givtnfn Bmi lyTflt^ttay. lUI. 408 1 XV 
^ AMerding to Iho i*u[teilt li«(a Simuka. SitidliukB, or 8ip»fcA 
til* AndhMbkrltn dynMty. Scnll'* Byniatiea ot &aiith*m India, 5. 

* The Qttih Khind mi Bbimblinnla cbvob hmt Pood* h>v« no tiuorlptlona. Til* 

I« app«ar» to bo a ^rtbggMUs' work of afajyt ^ ^' ft!??*' 

[ hina cava* ar« plain ocllt wbOM 'ffUlBTlff W f '"- t^* 

whicb are mentjooed by Mr. £lptiln>t«ii« ta 1$19 (Cotcbvookeli 

, 383] havt n ol ytt (Ma? ifelj b otn cramiaed. 

kft WM tbe iMiadaF of 





toe of the NAnigli^t oBfaenu eiTOe tho Dame of Cfaatarpana Sfa&takaroi 
•oaof VA yhtb i, and a QsfiaLmscriptioa mentions » SJ&bdbhoja's 
^Ugliter aiid a Ma litiratlii' Bwife.' Anioiig places, a Bed8a i nncri prion 
maatioos NAsik , two J ununr iDscriptionit. mcDtion B roncli p '"^ jiilTftTn 
ud the K^le ioscriptious mealitin Abulama perhaps Qbollah at tha 
hmA of tlio PcKUD gvli,* D li«pn lcAk»t or U)in.mikot nt tbc moutb 
dtte Krishoaj Sop&m ia Thioa, un<l Vai|ayanti or Bunavfa ' >n 
North Kilnara. Among donors tho Junaar i nscriptions mentioQ 

of b ampo^makera. coppgnimitha. yjid _ ym de alera ; the K^rlu 

it jjp oarpeiite nif two Yj^^yi M. «n d two 

irorkmansliip tit luan^ot thu caresj 

the Ganesh Lena group at Jannar tlie 

nuonpitons mf-ntiou ik 
Pwwy ig or Pdr tliiong.' 
M^edallf of the chapel in 

ngoifioent cntliodrol at Kdrlc au<l iho temple l-hvc- ut Budxii* havo 
lb* ipwial iDtei-eat of showing in tliu aiiimai .cajiita ls of tlieir 
pillant a alrone fnroign, probii-bly PArtSlau. elemeD t. Of the 
UiUbboja loeutioned ta the Bddaa cavra DoUiing 18 knowu except 
UaTinttcnpt ions iu the K udn cfl|Vg y j p KfJAlm abow that about the 
BMu tiiuu a g[yaMty fff pl^ q il^l was ruling in the Koiikao.* The 
Pu loni^ vi roentiopej in the jimn ar and KArlo inacriptiona seems to 
bfllti! Piilumavi VAHisht hipi it ra of tLc bifeilt itiscriptioas whoso 
iti lies between A.o. 10 ami a-D. 150;* Ch a tar g ana ia known to bo 
tho father of a later A.u<11irDbbrit;a kini; VaTnaBbn Shitakaroi 
one of whose silver c-uius baa been found iu SopSm;^ and Nabapfaa , 
""koae name occora iit on iuBcription of hia m ipiater at Juon ar aaid 
of his Bon'in-lHff Usbapd6 t at K Arle," is supposed to be a I'ltrtfaian 
n S halt viceroy vboae 3ato probably lies between ii.c. 4-0 and &.n. 
ISA.* In trofeseor Bbinddrkar's opinion KabapAn'e minister*!! and 
ctbor inscriptions at Junpur favour the ticw that Junnnr iraa 
X«l m)Ao'6 cap ital" Sot the li OO years oodiPR early tH tha' tony toent h 

Chapter YO. 

Eazly Hwtoar.i 

'Qieal tbe NAna jmu aUiLtio limci-IiiUam (d. r. 00) aUo mBntiou m. JfaM - 
•■iMtnHitu • vthiob may mean oitlicr a laiidor ut Laru* chkrfoC flftitan or, as unotc 
inUble. ■' leafier nf UkrlihAn. lii the latt^ Moao UoMtbAa wotiM Btciti to tnsaa 
OnMt ItaltM, or Kfldii, aftflrBariB (760 073) ttic RatU and hiahlrakitla kiogi of 
da Deoc«n and Kariuluk. Sm Pio«t'« KinacuM Dyaartie*, 31-38, 79-$3. Til* 
B>te bwchpttoa •ccnw to ihow that ttie MabtM wjM nawrtod with tlic MahArathw. 
, DtSu G4tIv liutoiY, IU * Compu* BooEa yci3gREtT.''?n It ITI'nSlv'S. 

'BentMTArobMtrarjiMlSiirray R«parl, IT. 89114; Separ*t« Ho. X. 2S-W. 

' Tha Bbojwaad MaUblioiM nnpou- to tw » rery old Dwoui djnuty, m atong 
■lit th« P^fiphpa or nd«n of Valthan on tlw doHIi-mM border of Ahnftdaaoar, 
BbeJM appear tnoDaDeecankinn in Ui«tkirtMiith of Aaliok'a rock Klicta (B.C. SSO>. 
hd. Aat.Xr«7S. 

^ * O-MMMt Eartr tlUtorr. 90 : BmuU* Oucltotf. XVI. 623. 

■ ' Bombav <>*MtbMFr. XlV. 268. 313. 


' tTiiia<rdlt*ppoarB to hare bwn lbs OujarU and Koekaa vimtot of Nahaiiima. 

k4rlo aiid NiiHk is<Kn|rtii>ni ia«i(ionsilta tnaila ■! Somulllt Pattan ia Klthi; 

at Broacb, a« wcU oa at Sopdra in Tliiicia and M (joraidhan ixar Ninik, 9«« 

ir Plaeva, K&'to. > UccoaQ Earlf U»tor«, 37 i B.>mUy Cau-tUcr, XVI. CIO. 

■■ pecoao Early llut«ry, ii. U -inaDai vm i^« «aiMtal «( MahApaaa, (b« aaoB* 

Janaar may bcabt the Ditldlj'.wliicb, where Uiarai«n« aeir city, ia nnmcMiiagi bat 
Iha Yamta' city. Ia Miiport of this lUggMtion it may b« noticid tlial at tbe heed 
rfPtolemy'i (i.a ISO) NuMeiuialwIiich Bpiiu-eutly J> the Nina pan ihoof^ Ptolemy 
■aba ■( X rirvri. t« the tonth of Nlaik and to tb« Mut of Sopiis ii • town caLba 
Onaoann (b«rtiua' I'tM«my 17t and Aai« Map X.). wUeh, u tho Yaraai wan 
alMoaUed Uiaa lArvluvologicRl Survey ot India Roport, II. 49. M) may be Hiaagaia 
Of Yavanagw* Ittat n JuBBar. 

CliapUr Til. 

r^lKLT UlfftOHT. 


century with tho Mnsnlniiln oTBrthrow of tlio Dovgiri YAdavs no 
hiatorical infomiatJo o rvirnrtliiig Poena is available, jjjo^a^^go 
stone or copperplate iiis cri ntioii haa been found iaTl^ ^Eoaa 

district belongin;^ t>^ tliu 

f ayoaatieeot t'halnkya^ 11550-760).' 
RfahlraltotM( 7H0-!)73),'iui dDeTRiriY6da vs(Jli)U-lAlJ>].' Still, aa 

ioscribodatoBMitiid copperplates bavebeen found in tli« D&ighlmnring 

districts of Mimad n^gar SlioUpur and SAUJra , it is probabla tliaC 
tho ^rly anlrWesler^TESIfflWi I!?!'l l!u^ Foona dirtrict from 
about 550 to 700 ; tlie iUsbtrakuivs to 'JJii ; the Wmtero CfaillakyM 
to US'!: and Ibo Oevgiri Yidavs till tho MasalniAa oonqneit of the 
Dcci^nn aboDt 1300/ 

Uader the Dergiri Yddavs mach of tbe country is said to ttavu boon 

* The name Cbtlukjni ii tefvtd by traditjon (Km -*jt|T'i ffer H *^ L^ rtwhu tn. a 
*tlfTy*i fn><i> vhicb tiuir anoMtor » mu>1 to hkra q*unf. 115 tmMB U h* a 
Uu BtnTy. M, though dUi/ata or diuluba a watorpot may lu Ike orifin <^f tfa« fatter 
foimi Chiliilt/s ia Um Dmou and (^aalukvft in (Jajortt, it cMiaot be tlia nriftn at 
tho larly Dune whidi b written Clullcja, Chalikvi, *ai Ctulnkjm. Tliay <hum to 
Moag to Uia SM»-vMiak or lanar nen and Aoatwo ■ nioocanom of fiftjr-uinc kjna^ 
ruled ol Ayodhya, andaH^r tbvm uiteea mun wfau niod oriirtbo rvgiem of Uia 
MonUi. Tho nanioa ol ■even mrlj Chalukya kion bar* beeu fo>atid wko tcjyd (ron 
about UU to 910' la 910 tbc Ch&lakya dooiuiivQs were <livi>i«d into aa «Mtttni 
Unborn wliCM bcad-^narton wcm Venfl la tha dolta of th» Ktiahan kod tko Oo* 
dAvari, and • wntem kin^lom hIiom lUMd-quartera are belicvud to have braa at 
Bddintl Id lUjipur. Of Uui vctteru braocii called the WMtarn CiitlnkyH the aaiBM 
ol fix kinjp hara beea foaoJ trho rnlad frain SIO la 760 abont urbioli time Uu^ wan 
ov«rtbniwB by the Rltknakalai. Sorvral attempts vera madu by Lliu dfntuty la 
rq|[uB it* i>air«T but nniuooMafnlly nntil 973 vbea Taila H. dMbojrdd t1i« 
It&«btraVntaa, and, DoHiir tbo Btisbllj chaiij^ aant« oi (Wenteni) CliiliakTM^ np to 
aboat IIM, tbirtMMi <if hia (OOoeMiin mlod over tbo mpuntar part o( Ui* Daooan and 
tJiB Kamltak. DvtiiiU orvgiwn in Hfol'tt Kinareai! I>yii««tio«, 17 'M, W'K. 

* It it out cortam wbctlior tlie Itiabtrak utaa w«ro Dortberuen ora (udl^oi Rattaa 
or Kcddi* tbo widMpruad Iribv n( KAiiarVM bni^ailDica who were formeily tbc 
atrongcat dgbting «Um in the Kamltak and Maiauc. Mr. Flett •eow to uuliaa 
to a aorthoru vri^bi and to trace tbo notno to Kuhltaknta or fUshtnt|nti, a title 
nioatutiB a diftricC bead who la atibgnlinalo to aijiuc overlord. Uut it sccnia avl 
improbable that tbe Kaihtrdtutaa ««rc BatUa or R nldia, and tbat the taaio broncti 
when ther nne bo auirano power SaoacritiMd tbelr oniDe^ trblle the aide btaach ut 
Kattaa wliu nded as nndrrlords at SauadattJ and Balgsauin and «laia»d a oown 
on^tt with the KAihtnkiitaa kept th«lr ongiaa] name. Tbe namM of aboattw« 
Kijilitnkntalungi barebooD foand, th« aovoatb of whoni UaslivannA II. nvertbp 
the WMtiini (^lialukyu ah>>ul "SO. His tiftuon tuci-pBioni won- poworfiil Hxrercii 
who ruled till U73 vrli«ii tbv Lut. at llieir [u:«. Kkkka III., wu ilcruiilwl aivl aliilil 
tlut revivod Wcitem Uhalukyaa, b*tl«r kitQwo uiiilHr tbe idigbtljr ohanfed uaino 
Woalttra CLlliikju Dctoila are mven ia noot'a KAnareae DytiaaUaa, Si-aH. 

■ The Dei-pii ViJaT* (lISO-1310} wereadj-tuuity ol hin powerful kjo^ who, beforv 
tha Moaafaaia ooaqatet (139fi} bold alaioat tbo wholo of tbe l>ecaui, lliv Kmikau. and 
tlw Botnbay Karnitak. Their canltal «m originnlly at a plave callvd Tcnevalwe, 
tlran at Vijarpur or Bijtpor, miA lartly at DcvKJri tbo uiodom DaulaU)*d in iba 
Kiaha'a temfariaa Tbsir grcalnl. kiuu wai the ninth. Iliitichaudn or Ettndrv 
(1Z71- ISOSI, vhaae mliiiater waa nemAdn or IlonUdput tli* niiiaied builder vi tba 
wideKprood Hvmldnanti tsmplea ol the Daeean. 

* Th« o«iIy T«iHV(ied tracea of tbeu oarhr Hiadn dytuatim are the Shal^rtfee rack 
t mpltt at BliAwbbu rriiL twomilM west of Poona, And acatterod UemldiiauUrMaatna 
vafyil3~fRE&rTlie~faiith lotim thirtecath eanlury. Tl>e vbK-f HcfuJMl|>aiitiT«siaina 
ar« Ui» Kukdeahvar teiD|iU at P mto n mil«« aorth-weat of Junnar, [MniU at Bob)* 
twcn^-cuie milra □orth-coat of Junnar, and at JI^^mI twenty-five diiIm uortL-eul of 
Fmim, traoafomiod iWfHBnt at, Em|)M»^3 "■■•'•" -"'' ''^■^ad, an<1 Um Gaiiffa aud 
JaimiaNiek-out rcacrvaanan the topotaii. imar. Tbe hrokvu llanpati 
at tba foot of tho diimantlo'I roek^at UkI'I' ktle of tho caat or Jonaar 
face of tbe ghivser eoarp appeon ■!*« to beleng tu the tiino of th« Devviri V*dav*, 
and tu ebow that SbJvMC n-ta naml by then ai % fort. Acceriting to Fonshta ( Brigca 
Ediiion, IL 4K) ChiklP ■• «isU M SbivDCr wu an caily Hiadn fort. 9« mam 

riiiuca, JuBuar ui 

taotft I 



dirided amoD^ MaraUia or Koli hill chiersor ;}iifi(/aM;) oxoept to Cbaptei TU. 
MfcKAikfche KoU chief of Siohgwl no roformica to anv Poona local HirtorT. 

Co first Mnsalm^n invasion of the Deccan took plaoc in 1201. 
bat Xhp power of tlio i)i.>\'f;fin Y&dara was not onisbed till ^]^; 
Fiwit 1318 Mah&nlsbtra bcgna to be ruled by goreraors appoint 
ftwD Dolbi Mid gtfttioDod at Dcvgi ri. At fire t tbo conquegt of the 
(cmtiT ws» imperfect. In 13H) Ibo Delhi euineror Mnhamma d 
iIMlut (1325>1U51) whn.inlSSS, had made Devf^iri hisotpttat and 
An|lFd its name to I>niil»j^Jm||^ or the City of Wealth, Toarched 
ifaiiuit thn fort of KonmiSimlne luodern l^mj|gg|j abont teu miles 
■ooUi of PooBfi. N<g , N'Aik^ the Koli chicfum, opposed him with 
enai Iravory, but wiis furcvd to take rofueo witliin the walls of the 
tffti. As the only way to the hill top was oy a narrow pASi«»g« cut 
ttlhe nwk, Miihuinmnd, after fniitlcM attompitt on thu worktf, 
Uodaidvd the fort. At the end of eight months, ai their ntom 
Eul»d tbem, tho garrison left the fort, and Muhamuad returned bo 
Dnolalnbad. Thrvo years late r (13411 MuBolmAn oxaclioua caused 
* p tteral reTolt t o the Deccan, which, according to Ferishtn, was ao 
iiUQessfuI that in 1344 MuhauiDiad hod do part of biB Doocno torri* 
Uffiw left him eiwpt Daulatabad.* In 1 8-ltt tbers waa widefipread 
^iwrder, and the lielhi ofRoera plundered nod wastod the coQUtry.* 
Thm oniuUiou led to tbo revolt of thii Decoaa nobles under the able 
Jndershipof an Afghan soldier of fortune, named Haaan Gaiijip i. The 
noMcs wore successful, and freed Iho Deocau from depetiaecce od 
Northern India. Uaaan* founded a dynasty, which, in honour of hia 
patjtin a Itr^hman, he called I3afamani, and nfaich held oommatid 
<4 Iho Doocaa for nearly loO yeors. The Bahmani capital was 6ist 

I3<H-I7U0. ,| 
131S. 1347. 


1 ■ Elrlgn' Fcnihta, I. %1. Ju 1394 Rimdor th« ruling kins of D«vgftJ nji 

latprlicU^ in hi* i^niiiul 1>y AU'iiil-'liii Ktiilji the nopheir af tno Delhi nnparar 

Jftlilnd-diB Khilii. iikI Imgbi) t« [njr trilnito. In IStf?. BAmdev s&v«>lM)lt«r t« 

1 iUi K-1I3II I li« rMugM kins of Gvjiintt. uid D«^l«cl«d to ^j tribute Toi three yaan 

l4[>itl'>. L 3(l.t). la IMAMatik KdfurAld-nd^io'aKViMirKl nducwl the ^-rater put 

\wl Umh*T*ah(ri>, ilbtributMl it ftnong bla oltictm, knd oonBraod BAmder tn fail 

lantgtiMW jKeta, I. 3G9). In laiO lUmasr wwraoMc^ca bj- biawnSlMakank^wlM 

WM not w«ll »ffN;t«<l to the Muraliu&n* (Ditto, 1. 373), Iii 1313 Malik KAfor 

luntnl a tliiril tiniti into the Dcgcau, iciicd and put S)iaiik«r<lcv to (lonthi 

traitfi), and Ii(«d his n^idcnco kt IMr^ (Ditto, I. 379), itbere Imi 

mil. I ' MA'iid'diu ID his lutilhinHonkrod him to Delhi. Ihiring Uidik KAfnr*! 

b1'» I i, IIirpildcvtlieaunui-lnwoIKiiiLilcv BTfrrvtibe UcMuitounK, drove 

(Mrtciiuiy .iiiii.-ilDi^ffarrvK>iu,a(id, with thsaidof tfa*otliorUMioM)i)li»r«, nooven^ 

ItablMutn. In ISIS UnbArik Khiiji, AU-ud-<lia^ ho and moocMor, marclicd fa> 

tfa« DaocMt tocbMliie BarplMpv who llod at tha niippttuh of the UoMlmiiut, 4ud 

*tu [>D»Mi<l, leiied, and flayed aUi-«. Mnbirik appoiiitod Malik Bog Lnki, one of kis 

iitlicr'* alavisi, to ccmmaiHl in tho IVoBSa, and rctnnti>d to Delhi (Ditto, I. 3$0). 

■ Rricgi' Puriahta, 1. 4S6- <27. Thia attiteiiiMit MieitiB uxa^nntw). In I31C Ukts 
w«*« Uuntmin nvernoT* ntHdicbur, MmlkiJ, Kulburga, EtedAT, BijApur, Oanjauti, 
RAiMc.Uilhari,Hukcri, aodBcRir. Ditto, 437. 

• Bngga- r<Ti»liii^ 1. 433-«3. 

* Brinp'FeriakU,!!. 3IM-S0I. IImui Omtiu, iksGist BtUuaaaikiag, whm AfehAa 
of Um loimtrMik And AiiAtirnof \MX\\. He runDodaamall ptotof MndbdcoHjliigtO 
aBralmiB AxtnilogM'.nAintidUiinjii. uhowasinfavtinrwitlitbGkingDtDelU. uAving 
aoaid«nuI]y found ■ tnuaro in faia field, Uaaiuhad the houMty to giv* ootinof El to 
Ui lAadlonl. IVastrologtrivMRoatTQiik. with liia tnt«|[rit)' lliat ha «sect«l hii 
iaflstaea At<x>tirt to AdvAn«a Haami'h (ortunM. HuAnthntroM toamAtibtiaBhitlM 
DMfiAa, wh«re hii mtfit matfctd lum onl naiong hii eqaAli lo b« U«ir leader ia their 

Chtptm TH. 



fixod at Ktilbarga about 225 miles Bouth-oast of Poooftj aod i n 1426 
was moved to HeJa r or Alttnadabad-Bedar about lOO mites farther 
ea»t. ]iy \'A'-i \ AlA-ud-dJu Iia«iti Gaugu Babmaoi, by treftting 
tbe local c1ii«ts and autliarities ia a liberal and frit^ndljr spirifc, 
had bmught under his power every part of the Deocan 
which had previously bc«n subject to the throne of Delhi.' 
In 1357. Aljt-nd-dia divided bis Kingdom into fonr ni-oyin oes or 
tan^t, over eaoli of which ho eot a provincial governor or lira/dar. 
PooBB formed part of the proyiuce of Mahdrishtra, of which 
Panlatabad w as the centre ana which incTade d the ooQotiT b etween 
Junaar, DautatabacI) Bid, and Paithan on t he nor th, a nd Foona and 
Ubeul oa the aoa tJi. This was lhg~ ybief prpyi nce of the 
kiaffdom, and waa^placed uikW timnharya of the king'* napha w.' 
Id tbe later part of thu fourteenth centuir, under the exccUunt rute 
o( ^{gJiunm^ gb&h fiahraani (1368- 1^&). the banditti which for 
ageaEo^Mraascd (bo trade of the' beccan were broken and 
Boattered, and tho people enjoyed peace and good goverDmeot.* 
Tfaia pt'riod of proMpcntj- wuk fallowed by the awfut calamity of the 
DuTtf^Dev^amini?, when twelve ra Jalesa vearti (1390-1407^ are 
saJ^oTSv^wasTod the country to a desert. In the first years of 
tho famine ISUhmud Kb&h Jjnbmoai (1378<1397) id said to have 
kept ten thousand bullocks to bring groin from Gujar&t to theDeccan, 
and to have founded an orphan school in each of the seven leading 
towns of bifi dominions.* No efforts of any rclers conld preserve order 
or life through so long a serieaof fata] yeara. Whole dittricta wero 
left without people, and tho Btronff placos fell from the MnaalmAna 
into tho hands of local chiefs.^ Before the country could recover it 
was again wasted by two rainless years in 1*21 and 1422 . Mnlti- 
fcodee of cattle died and the people broke into rcrolt." In li29 the 
leading Bahmani noble, whose title was always Malik-nl-'rnj^ r, that 
is Chief of the Merchants, went through the ])eccan ri'.^toring ordto-. 

rtvolt. Beaunmail tltc name otOangn in gmlituiJe to hi> l«it*fM*or, aoA trtaa m 
aiMiiUr mntit'e nddwl that of B*hBiiLni »r BrAlmisni by whiub his dynaatjr n« 
a(t«nrarda duti(i{;ui«had. Qphuialooe'i lliitory of lodia, OStS. Tlie Bahnami djUMty 
oonrfaUd of Ui« (oUvartng eiglitweQ king*, who wer« xuprooiB lor swuiy 190 ytm 
|l9i7'H90) and coatinaM to bald pow«r for about thirty ]■«•» mora: 

Tk* AiAmanti, at,} - ISM. 




1 AIL-n]>dla Bmm 

11 Hnmtyun 


Bmiu ,,. 


H MAm 


■ Mnhamnul 1 


II Uii|i>Tiiniu1 ■■ 




U lUbnud II- 


4WuJ .. 




ftmlnal Jtin^. 

« OhAU^ud-diD , 


7 SABU-ud-dln 


U Ahmu) n. 


• Flni ... . 


U AUud^Uilll. 


tAlnuMl 1. 


II T»ll ... 


10 Ut-od-dliilL 


u luiim „ 


■ Brigg*' Ptrill]ll4^ II. SOI-SK i Onot DnlTi UiuaUiA*. 3S. 

* Mg8^ Fsriahta, IL 3911. > Brigga' Fmuhl^ IL 32S - 32S. 

* Qdfflp' FdTuhta, U. 349-3C0, Thm* mvw towni were Cbonl, DAbliol, Eltohpttr, 
DaBlatZhMl, Bwdu, KnlUrn. aod KAodhar, 

* Grant DutTt Unrithit, 26. ■ Brigg*' FBtutita. II, 405 - 406. 

entirely had the conntry fallen waste tbat the old villages tiad 

Fdisappearcd and fresh onea bad to be formed gonernlly iacliiditig 

; the buds of two ort)ir«« uM viiliij:;es. Land was given to all who would 

[till it free of ri>iit for Ibe Hrst year ami for s horM-bMf of gnun tor 

flhe second jEAr. Tliissettletiieut was uutrnstodto D&duNanaEAle 

an experienced UMhD)an,aDd to a Turkish eunuc-h of the court.' In 

14^ the Malik-uKTujAr, who was ordered to ruducc Iho seocoaai or 

Konkan forts, fixed his headqaartem At C]|^J|ymK n. eauill forteigbteon 

mil«s north oE Fo&nii, uud secured Shivntfr t hu famoua hill fort of 

Junnar.* From Jimnar he Bereral times sent detaobmonts into tbo 

Konkan. An expoiliiitui which Ik* couiiuaudvd in pentou ended in 

dunater. His Deccran aud Ah)'(>!>iutnn troops refused to adTOOce 

intothe woody cotinh-y, and tin- MHlilc-iil-TajAr with SOO MoghalawHs 

■nrroun dcd and sl ain.' The Tc»t of the Ktogbals retired. Contrary 

td t&e atiivico of iho Dnccan offiwrn, who tried to poraoade them to 

vitlidraw tothuir cstatc.4, the MoghatHfpU back onCfallKan. TheDecc&n 

oGcem AODt fahe wonl to the king that tho disvsler was due to tbe 

Malik-ul-Tuj&r'a rashness and to the turbulence and disobedience 

rf the if oghalB, who, they said, were now in rorolt The king ordered 

ib Moghnts to be put to doatli, and tbo Doccaii nobles nttackvil 

Chtlcan. After thn siege had lasted for two monthit, the Deccan 

dEoers forged a letter from the king and persuaded some of tlie 

Mofthala to leare tht; fort. They gnve an entertainment to the rest 

B the fort, and wbJIo ilio fun-tt was going on, attacktnl them 

nd pot them to death. At the xnme rime one parly of Moghals 

GSbiuo of the fort wore nttaclcod and «vory male waa put to death. 

Aoolbcr party who wont moro on their guard made good their 

enpe. The aorrirors guocooded in conrieting tho Doccan nobica 

of their trc<acliory and proctyvd their punishment.' From this time 

CUk an and Junnar onntinoe d military pe ats. In 1472 and \'^7S a 

ma re uf m m so w.-vstud thy oouniry that in 1174 when rain fell 

acaroely any one was left to till the land.*^ The power and t urbulenoe 

of Ibeir provincial gorvnior» wan a isoarcu of weaknosn and danger 

to Bahmani rule. To remove this evil M&hmnd Q&wA n. the 

very learned and able minister of M ^iljan'm ad Sh&h Bahmani II. 

(14^3-1462), framed a schomo unOix wuioh the ttirritories 

were divided into eight inatead of into four prorinoea ; in each 

prOTinco only giiy fort was 1(^1 in tho Uovomor's tuinds ; all others 

were entrusted to captains and garrisioaH appointed and paid from 

headquarterfi ; tho pay of tho captiuuH was greatly increased and 

they were forced to keep their garnsons at full strength.* This 

scheme for reducing their power brought on SIAhnaud GAw&n the 

hatred of tho leading noblea. They brought false charges of 

disloyalty agaiaab him. The king waa weak enough to believe them 

and foolirih enough to order the ministtir'a execution. Jiohmani power 

DOTor recovered the murder of MAhmud Gawfiu. 

Chapter TU. 



' Or«ut DuiT. Marithis. 36. 

» Milik-til-TaiU'* (ort b prnWUr the prcMtit fort of ClillcM. AeeopdiMto* 
IbomI alvrr Lb* original tor% was bailt by an AliVMlnlaa » IS06. Gnat Duffs 

■ Brtgg*' K*ri*hU, 11. 436 «!». • EriggB'P«Ul.ta,Tl. 440 447. 

■ Brifip' Fcriihta. II. 4S3, 493, 4»1. * Crisp' Feriahta, 11. W3, 0Q4. 
■ 13Z1-W 

ISonbaf Gazetteer. 


Cba.pt0r VII. 


Uader ihe Babmanis, to oootrol tbo Kolis and oilier wild )iil} (ribi 
their chiefs were given the rank of noblos or Marddra and Komti 
Ibem were called manaabfidrs or honoiirnblcs. Ono of tho headmen 
of each mticai or w&al«rD ralley vcaa made a cuptaio or m'tih, imil, over 
the whole west, a tract which was known an tho Fifty-two Vnlloy H 
or , Bdvan-Mdva ls, a head captain or tarnaik was named vrbosc 
hmidquartors were at Junuar.< 

Of the tttnt* of the I'oona Decr-an, at tho tirm; of tho ducajr of 
Babmani power, thu Uii8»iaDfravollt>r A.llii»DiittiiiH N3|^Li{l46H-1471i) 
has left some particulars.* Atiianasin?, who waa aniitMinic IrndisK 
in horses, aftor a voyage through a soaewamung with pirat«A reached 
Cheol ia Kol&ba about thirty mites sooth of Bouiboy. Aflvr a ircck's 
stayot Ch«nl ho started uith a valuable stnllion and wont by land eight 
daye to Pili to the Indian niouutain, apparently Piilu .SoMaIn iu Thrioa 
near the foot of tbo Ndna pass. Kpoiu I'uIh he woni "In teii'davH to 
Umri, probably for his horse's sake avoidiiiy iho Xiir» d ob*, and 
aaoeodiD^ to the Deccan by some otlier ruiito. From umri, which has 
p otheQBideDtifi wentin8ixdaTstoJoo^ee^.tbati8 Jll^lll^^ ,b^^Hg■■ 
iDg his horse nafely, but at acostof abuut £lft{100 roubles). On the 
way, as was the custom for forcigu travellers^ Alhftniisius eCoppcd at 
inns where the landlady cooked tho food, made the" bed. and slept 
with the etrati^'r Juiinar ittood on a stony island, no human hands 
had built it, God made the town ; a narrow road which it took a day 
to olimb. broad onotigh for only ono mau at a time, led up the hill. 
At Jnnnar lived Asat Kh&n a tributary of Ualiktiicbsr that ia 
Ualik-ul-Tiij^r the gorenior of Dauhlabad. Asat K him held hcvch of 
Malik-ul-Tuj^r'a Iwetity-aevon tmi» that ia Ihina* or posts. Ho bad 
beccD fighting the Kfifars. that is theinHdelsop Hindna, for twenty years. 
beiDf^BOmetusM beaten, but mostly beatitig them. Asat KhAn rode on 
moD, thoQgh he had many good elephants and horses. Among' his 
attendnntft wore many KhoraaaniaDs, eome of whom cnise from tho 
countries o£ Khorasao, Oroban, Sarkeniskj aod Cheyotan. All came 
by sea in idvdn or Indinti BhipR. The winter beifan from IVinitj 
0Sy ia Jane, and Atbanasina n-intered at Junaar living tberv fur two 
months. For four months day and night there was nothing but min 
and dirt. The [H>oplu wort' tilling the ground, sowing grain, fii/«f 
regan, pvrhaps tur and ratfi, peasnnd alfsortd of TegotabiCfi.* Wino 
waa kept in large Indian goat skins. Horses were not bom in tho 
country, but oxen and boffaloea were, and wore used for rtdtQg, 
carrying goods, and every other purpose, Tho horscut were fed 
on peax, aUo ou khicf'iri boiled with sugar and oil. In the 
early morning they got nfiuhenivtC!). In tbo winter tbo common 
people put on a /aia or shoulder cloak, somutiiticA wearing it 
round the waist, sometimes od the shoulders, and aomctimea ou 
the head. The prinoea and nobles wore trooscrs, a shirt, and 

* OipUiD Macltiototh in .Toar. Bom. Com. Soc. I. 23S. Tbi* amuiRUfiMt wu 
MUlR»«d by the AhmnAaneat Idogi uil l>y Iha Mt^als. TW last h«ad cai>t&ui wiu 
HullMninAd I^iir aboul. 1670. 

' Mkjor'a IndiA id the Fiftcenlli Coalnrr. At1iBn>aia»NtUlin. ft-)3. 

* Pram the fraaalktion Atliaaanua Beemi to luve u*id the RtUKNi whMt in 
g«n?nl aeoae olptua. Th«'gi-«in mnst hnve bt«ii miUeC, 





long' coat, Bsd thrco ocarfii, oco on Ihe ithoiililer, onother round the 
waist M a b«lt, nntl ft tltinl round tlio bend. While he wsa at Junnur 
Aa»t Kb&D tcN)k Atlianasian' horse, and, hearJue; hti naa no 
Uabatnma^lnn >>at A Kuesinn, snid ho would t^We litm back the horsu 
wid a thousiind ijicces of gold, if he would embrace ilie Mubammadan 
faith; if bi; rcru^^&d to embrace tbo Muhatnmadiu) bith he wonid 
keep the lior^oniid fine Athnno^iimathousaod pieces of gold. During 
the four dayn which Aiuit Kbda gave him to conHider hie offer, a 
maa nuniLHl tkho;(n locha Mahmet camo from Kbor£san aud took pity 
uu AthttoaaiaH, went tn the K hiin, pmyed him not to insist on Atha- 
na^itts' r<jnviT«ion and bronchi hini ha^-k his horse. Clirintiaa 
brethren nf Uassin, eaya Athaiiasiii!=i, whoerer of jou wisbot to go 
to the Indinn country maj Icaro his fitith in UuHsia, confess Muham- 
tnuil, and thun proi-ccd to the taad of llindu&ltin. Those MumlnuLn 
dngi bare )i«d to me, stLying I should tind hero plontj of our goods ; 
tLerc is nothing for our coantry; the goods are for the land of 
Mu£alin4ns, as peppor and colours aud thcso are cheap. 

Tn l-t"" MAhiniid G&wilii was succeeded in the office of minister 

About 1-185, Bid and other districts 

by NijZllty-Ml-Miilk Hlmlri.' 

including Poona were adi.1e«l to the estates of Niwlin.ul-Mulk. and 
the tnanngemcnt of part of it was made orer to tho miniator'a («oii, 
Mulik Ahmad, ih c founder o l t he NiasAm Shilhi d ynasty (M9Q-1C361. 
Mnlik Ahmad mode juunar hie hoadquart^ra. In J-lflfl Zain-nd - 
din,wbohadcommaDdofQ|iJjg^ went into revo lt, aadNizAm^unTuIk 
ordered his sou MiiUk. Ahmad to reduce . Chdk an. Zain-ud-din 
applkM for help to V usuf Adil Kh<(n oi'fej& par, who ijent 600O 
bone which be ordered to encamp near tlie fort of Indfipur, 
which belonged to Tuaof Adil Khdn, and watch Malik Ahinad'a 
utovementa. Besides the Uusalmttn cominaadaut of Ch&kaii, other 
chi*-f<t, fl«i7eral of whom were Uiudas, held places of strength iu 
Malik Abmad's new estates. Some of these chiefs, on the plea that 
the kin^ was a boy and that sncb chan^cB should not he taade till 
be came of age, refused to give up their forts. Among them was 
the MariVMm mminandant of Sliiv^j>r, tho liilt fort of Jnunar. Uatik 
Ahmad attacked the fort, ao Jatter a long si^[e the garrison sorren- 
dero't. The cftpturo of Shivner wns of tho greatest importance to 
Afnlik Abmfttl, na Gva years' rerciiue of Mahilrilsbtra waa stored in 
the f'lrt-, This t:-c»3Hi"e enabled Ahmad to make rich presenta to his 
offi(!cn and troops, and holpod him to secure all tho places of tho 
greatest strength in west and aoiitb-wcst Toona, Among the forta 
which foil into Ahtnad's liands, in conscqnonco of his sdoooss at 
Jannar, are mentioned Ch^lvand and Jivdhao within t«n milee weat 


I Njgtia-BlMnlk Bbjuriwa»»\'iUyam^Mr Rahman ftowPttri wboae vrigtnal namo 
WMTijuipp*, thvMnurbluini, In Fus IAlia8yleV&takcnjiriMD«rby tbaUub«tain»diui 
Minr ol Ahuiiul^liitb lUbDiMitt tltJ;.'-l43S). On IwcomuiB a MoadmAn he rccvirwt 
Ibe naiDD of lluaii, ami wia iirdiiKht ii|) m nii« of tbe rojai alarn. The kins wia »o 
ilTUck witli hif alillitii'B thnt 1il> mii'k- hiui awr to hU eldest koi Prinoa MntiuniDad 
a> a eompMiioD, with nhron h<i wu udnoatnl andbacain* mi «xcelleDt Atabio and 
Perriaa ichoUr. Knnn hit father'* nikne Uuui wu («II<d Bbaim tail tfaia tlia priaca 
duuieed t<> BKairL, tbu Faloon, or, noooHin]{ t» loino Account*. tli« fakeacr an Mo* 
wliiclt he i* (aid to hATeticld. Wliui MuhuDiiuul BtK^ceHlnd to (lie ^TODr )■• nad* 
ITiiaii a cuntnaiKlf-r (it > tltonnni) It^i^u. Briggn* Poiiihla. 111. I8!l-190. 

Chapter VH 

Klstoiy. ■ 


[Sombay QoKttoor. 



Ckaptor VIL 


of Junnar, Lohoj^aJ about thirty miles north-wostof Poom, 
aboat fire miles To tbe Houth-wersl of Lubogad, Kondh^a. tho moil era' 
8 inhj^ atx)ut ui^^lit uilos south, and Fumndtutr about eight«ea 
miles aoDtb-eaat o£ Pooaa; Miibu li iu 'i'b&na, and VAW in Hlior 
about twiilve miles »oulh KoUba. In 14?0 Nizim- al-Malk. 
thfi Babamni minister, was aBaassiaalo d at tho Bodar court. On 
hearingof his Eathei-'a assassination Malik Ahioad, wbowaa besie^D^ 
lUjdpurin Janjira, r«taroed to Junnar, asstimod tli« litlo of Abmud 
Nis^m-ul-MiilL Bbntri, and »et himself to improve tbo Ktato of ifao 
conntiy. Aa Malik Ahmad, thongh ho coatiTniodto resA tlie{>nhlic 
prajen iu his master's narae, bad practiccdly throwo off his ulk'^^iance, 
JC&Iimtid Sh&h Bahniuu 11. (1^2-1518) ordorod YuaaE Ad il Kh/iu of 
B i)tporandZaio-'id-dinofCbAkantottttack hin i. But Yuaui, who soon 
after followed Mulik Ahmad's example and assumed independence, 
iDBtead of advancing sgainHt Mulik Ahmad, withdrew hia t roopa 
from Iud< lpur which was part of the Bijiipor territory. Malik Abroad, 
or as ha waa now styled Ahmnd Nixilm, appointed Ziirif-ul-Mulk 
Af^fhan his commnndor-io-chief or Amir-ul-Omra, and Naelr-al' 
Mulk (lujanitij minisi^r of hQanoo or Mir Jumia. Ahmad tried 
but ^lea to win to bis side Zatu-nd-dia tbo commandant of 
ChAkan. As tbo Babmaiii army was advancing tgaimt him, Ahmad 
lofb hia btmily in Sbivnor and mnrchcd to moot thu Bahinani force. 
During tho night bo middonly turned on Cbakao, whh himstilf tbe 
lirst to Mcalu tbo waliii, and hud livlpud sovcntocu of hit loou to gtuu 
a footing before the garrison took alarm. yiHtn-ud-din and bis men 
fonght with great bravory, but tb«ir lender was Icillud and tbe reat 
Gurrvndured. From Ch&kan Ahmad marched agaio&l and duftiultid 
the Bahmiuii army. Ho returned to Junnar and bnsied himself 
with improviog tho internal munagemen^of bis t«rritory.' On tbo 
2 8th of Mity l'ti)U . at BAgb or tho garden, now tbe site of 
AhoiadnsgRr, Ahmad gaipod a compl ete victory ovor tbo Babmani 
fovceg.* Aflflv bis return to Julmar, wTlhout a rival or an enemy, 
on ibe advice of Yusuf Adil >Sh&b, Alimnd assumed tbe p«JHittou of 
kisg, had tbe public prayers ruad in hia own name, and had tbe 
white canopy of sluto borne over hi:i bend. But tbJH a8aumptioa of 
kingly power was so dialoDtcful to some of bis leading 6np|>orter8 
that Ahmad etopped tbo reading of prayen in his name, and allowed 
bis noble* to use u e»n"py which difTt-rvd from his own state canopy 
only in not being lioed nHlb scarlet.' Shortly after, at Lbe reqaest 
of bis offloers, AbmiKl again aMttuned tbe rank of king nud bud i ' 
prayers read in bis name.* 

In 1493 Ahmad'a Bister, wlw was the wife of one of 
Dnul&taba4 family uf Anbi-afit, cumo to Junoar t-omplaining of the 
murder of her sou and of bcrhti&band Uy hor bunband's brother Malil' 
Asbraf. Ahmad marohod Against Malik Ashraf, and, after bosiegiaf 

* Brigga- FcrUhU, III. 190-19S. * Brigga' Pehshto, IU. 107. 

* Brigip* FotiahU, UI. IfiS. 

* Cr'Sgi'Pcr^alitA. III. 19t, Alxmt (be Mmg time out oT tbo niiB««r tli« B*hniuil 
kingdom row tlic Adil Sh<tbi drnMtjr of Bijilpur, tho KutbtflUthidyiiutToftiolkDiidk 
Mven nikv wett of UaiduabiMl, «id the liniLd SliAhi dvuiutjof Blktinur in East 




Duilatsbad for two months without success, returned to Junnar.' 
In 1494 Ahmiul moved liia capital from JoDnar to BiLgh, tho site 
of his groat viotorj over the Bahmani troops in I+'JO, where, about 
hftlf.n; betwoen JutioAr aud Dnalat&badj he bftd fuiindod tho now 
city of AbmadDi^r.' Kxcopt pcrhapa Ind^pu r, which boi»ugod to 
Bi j^twir . the territory of HooriA renmiced subject to tho Ahmodiuigar 

Under tho Ahinndiuig-ar kings, thongh perhaps leu reguliu-ly 
tlt&a afterwards under the MoghalB, the country was divided into 
districtit or tarktirn. The dintriot \ira» duitribatod among sub* 
dirigious which wcro geiwrally known by FcraJan uameB, pargana , 
kar yM. tatnmal, mahai, and tiVtJ !a, an«l sometime« by tbo niadn 
DMBM ot prant apd (Jn L T £o hilly woat, which was generally 
managed by Hindu officers, continaed to be arranged _^j^™ngj» 
with their Uiudii iiamcj! ol kfiora, jn^ ff ^f f, ^dtmtua J. Th^>u!wtioi 



of (be revBDUt] was generally entrusted to formorfl, 
sooiotimes inclodirig only one villnKO. Wber» the rorcniiu waft 
noC farmed, its collection was generally entruHt«d to Hindu offioors^ 
Orer the reronne fanner* wus a Oovuniment agent or amil, who, 
besides colli^cting tho ruronao, managed tho police and settled ciril 
BOtte. Civil suibi relating to land were generally referred to juries 
or paHchii>iatjt.' Though the chief power in the ooantr}' was 
Mnhnmn]adn.Ti. large numbsra of Hindus wero employed in tho 
wrrico of the Btut«. Thu garriauus of hilltorla seoui generally to 
have be«o Uiudua, Manitli^ Kolin and "DKangora, a few plaooa 
of special sti-»tigth being referred for Musidni^u cominaadants or 
HHM/irt. Bwiiiles the hill forts same ports of th«< opeo country 
were left under loyal &lar&tha and Briibmiin oflicers with the titio 
o( estftteholdt'f or ydgiriir, and of district head or dethmtikh. 
Esiates were generally granted on miiitai-y tenure, the raluo of tho 
grunt being in proportion to the number of troops which tho grant* 
bolder maintained. Family feuds or personal hate, and in tho case 
of those whosv buids Uy uoar the borders of two kingdoms on 
intelligent rogurd for the chances of war, often divided Uaritha 
families aud led tnetnbera of one family to take aenrioe under rivul 
HasatmAii utatos.* Hiuilus of distinguished sernoe ware rewarded 

Chapter ' 



■ Bngp' ForialiU, III. !200. 

■ Brl0«k> Porwlib. III. SOi. AX. AbaudiMgM- tha NiMLm Ahltii <lyitMt7 lonndcd bjr 
Afciwl ooetirtaed tbroagh ten wieeiMtoni to ttsun, wbcot AhiDMlnagar wan Ukon bv 
AUmt tlic Moglud ««ap«rar, Oim hmiw kioK a(ti-rww<U rnifpiTBl at I>auUUI>t»l, lill 
lB30wh«i b* warn d^toaod aod p«t to dMtlh. Two idotv tnfut kin^ were nami- 
UAiod juid lu 1630 tha ktBgttoa wh d«ln>ytU by ^Uiki Jfthia, TIm nuan aud iUt«a 
of UieNiEiia Shihi kinga m : 

SiMm SUM Kii<9: ltB9HM. 




1 Ctot*. 



DstUa II. 




Iliittlilm ... 


BokId ... 



...1 ItM 



IMUdur ... 

- U« 

mi*!! BuMn ... 


MBItaM ... 





> Onnt DuU'b MArUUiM, iiti, 3t<. 

• Gnat Dor* Mvithte, 36, 381 

rBooibAj Guettser. 


Cbapter TIL 


MU^ ALU ASS, ft 




ivilli the Iliudu titles of rdja, ndiJc, ami rdv. Nambers of Hind 
were employed in the Ahtnadoagar armie«. 

In lo29 Bnrhilu Xiziim (I508- 1.35:3), th« socond of the Ahmada^ar 
kiugB, WHS delealeii by the troops of Bahddur Shiih of GujArtlt 
(152^-1535). This dofeat lod to on importaut chaugo in 
m&Daf^ineiit of the Ahinadi)a«;sr state. Borh&a, vrho bad ret) 
to JuDuur, believed that his railuro vras duo to the unpupulnrit; 
of liis Diioister or pethwa} ShaJkh J^far was deprivoa of 
office, aud it waa giTCn to a Brihniao whom Ferishta chIU 
Kivar Son." Krom the time of Kivar Sen's appoiotment to 
bu minister, Hiodua gHincd great inftaence iu the Ahnmduagar 
go7ernujont,* Under iho Ahmadoftgar kings few references 
to pinoea within Poooa limite hare been traced, thoogli in ordinary 
times both Siuhgsid and PuraudUmr in South Poona were in 
their bauds.* Iu 1^62 UoBaJo KiE^m ShAh the third kiag of 
Abmadnagur (155U-156j), ptirauod by RAin Kfija of Vijayanagar 
and AH Adil Shih of Uijripur, retired to the Jannar hills, and, 
employiiijf his owu troops to lay vwta the districts of Jnnnar 
aud rurandbikr, prevented tho uoemy's advance.' In 1564, on 
the acoeasiou of MurtAi^ Niz&ni 8hiih, one of his brotbera Borh&n 
Ki»im with hia sons, was placed io confiiioment on Lobogad bill 
about eight utiles south-east of EhsndAhi, and a secODd brother, 
Shiih Kasim, was confined on Shivner iienr Junnar. In IS76, 
that his brother was butod at Ahmaduagar, Burban won ovei 
cuniQianditnt of Lobogad, and tidvauocd from Lohogad to 
Ahmsdnagnr at the head of GOOO borsc, but was not b 
BurhiLu'a two aons Ibrihim and IsmiWl continued ia Lobogad 
1588 when thoy wore carried to Ahmaduogar and IsmAel wan pi 
on tho tbi'ODC. ■ 

Uc-tween 1564 and 1589 SaUfet^ j^h au. the leading mnn at 
Ahiuitdiiugar, according to Fertsbta, made the country mort!_ 
pi'osperona than ithad lioen ainco Mihm^d Bahmani's time (1378/ 
1397)> Iu 1 5(f9 court factious forced bim to retii« to Barhiupur, an ' 
from Burhfinpur ho wont to TiilogaoD, twenty milon north-east of 
Poona, and died there before tho close of the year.' In 1594 
Boh^nr tho iniiKDt son of Burhin Niz^ut II. waskept in coMnemeiit 
for over a year at Ch^vaud, and wo^ then raised to tbo Abmadoagar 

thr oneL* ■ .' 

ff^^i /adir. The rtsb ot tbo AlaMlUuU may be trocod to thd Uoghal attack on 
Ahmndnagajr m 159S. In 1595 king BahAdor Kizim 11. (1595< 
] Q05) onnoolod a Mnrfttkin, named MrtlojiBbonala . with t he title of rtja 
and ouricbed him with tho estates or j<igif« of £m)|| 
nud tho cliargo of the forts and distrJctB ot S hiTn<^ 

' The P*r»ian litt* of P**li g« wm Wvuglit iiito umi in di« I>uoc«ii in 1397 I 
rihailS'fla-an UUnni^flSDri. Ii wu ■do^tcal ttoni tlie Bahnonia hy UuR 
Ahmaduogtrkiiigs, uiil (iwii Uio AtuBaduagkrlcingilivFinvitii, 'Kriggs' Fcrivhta, II. 
SIiS. * ttrigxa' ForitliM, H. 3n. ■ \JiKui OiitTB UuAlht*, 34 will ((^, 

• Klilll Khin ut Klliot Aiiil Dovauut VII. STS, 
■ l.nuiin. IV. 21-t. 0/ t)kc Aluiudongkr generals kt lbi» tiiiM osa inn 

AtMruuil:^r- "<f ~ n^ccAH McmIiiuIii, and ODO a KoU. UMa, 

• Bri^ ^, III. Kl. 3«. 
» Brigj. I I-, iil. -X-l, T,\). • Brigjs' Fohsht*, UL SW, atM"., Wt, 




Tbe 1^p?u^<l^M.r^<T* <^f t^i^ Mdloji I3hons1a, who is said to hnvc held 
flercrat ■putiUhipt, were at V,S£aL»or Idlku^ near AnrangsbAd. 
M&loji'a faihtir itribji mioa& lft vraK descended from Btiosdjij n-ho is 
Boid to have teen the firsl o£ the foimily to sottle in the Deccart. 
Bhos&ji claimed descent from a younger or from as iUegitiuialn xun 
of the roya! fiimily of Udepur in RajputAua.' Mdloji married Dipfibiii 
the eiulcrof JivgpAlr&r Niik XiinbiUkar the tje^h muh hyt I'lmlta ii. 
Th*" tlory told of his rise to power in tho Xbinidnngnfctuirt is, tfcat, 
' Id lo^d^ at the time of the UoH festival in Murch-Apri), M^loj! tonk 
his »n ShihAji, a boy of fivo, to pay hia respecta to Lukhji 
J idhaTrfT, Mfi lti ii'a patron and the chief ManJtlia Jn tho Ahnindiiay ni' 
Btete. liasltji J&dhav rftr, pleased with ite boy, seated fehihiiji neiir 
JjjJ Ijia dangliter a child of three or four. The children )>cg»ri to play, 
and Lukliji jukiiig said to the girl. How would vou like liiui for a 
hoahand? TJiognefitalanghod, bnt MAlojt rose and Boiomnly accepted 
Lakhji'a offer of marriage. Lukbji and his wife were furioai<, but 
Miloji etuck to his point and carried it, when, i n 1639 . his KucreHaful 
services wore rewarded with the title of i^ i y .' In 1600 tho city uf 
Ahmadnajfar was Uiken by the Moahals. "Kirtly from tho digordore 
oaased liy the rebellion of JahAagir's son Khuaru, which followed 
JabflDgir's accession on the deatli of Akbar iu lti05, Muabal 
power in the Decoon declined. Their generata in Ahmad nagarliad 
ateo to deal with tbo Abys&iniau slavo Sd^ijcAm^r, a man of the 
highest talent both in military and in cBwanarS. Though tho 
Mogbalg 9lill li«ld Ahmadnagor in ItJOS, Malik Atnbar rai«c-d 
Murlaza N iz5m II. to the thruue, and encceeded in recovering 
Jmrar and making it tbe head-auarte rs of a Ktiitc whiclt 
iDClnaScl the greater part of tho fanner posstmsioas of AJuuadoagar. 
yrom Junnar, he tnored^in the same Tear t o ^^t'W Tfej^ftiWLifiilP'^' 
a place which was afterwards named AnnuipaJi aj Dy rnnec 
AurangZieb). Malik Ambar'H power reinaiaed unshaken till his 
death in IGltS when he was eiioceeded by hiH son Fateh Khf Jo. 
Great as wa8~hia auccesa as a general, Jilniik Amber is beet known 
by his excellent l and ar stom. Ue sto pped reTCDue-f a rmin g. and, 
under MusaJmiUi supervision, entruflted tho oo'llGotion of tLe rovonoca 
to IWhmau ageuta. Ho renewed tbe broken villftKe_e3;Bteui, and, 
when BOveral ^eara of eit'periments bad enabled bim to aaoetlain 
the arerage yield of a Held, took aboot two-fiftha of the outturn 
in kind, nnd afterwards (ICH) commuted the grain puyracnt to 
a cawh payment representing aboat one-third of the yield. 
Cnlike Todar Mai) Akbar's famous minister by whom tho lauds of 
North India wore settled, Mahk Ambar did not makohis aettlemeut 
permanent, bat allowed tbo demand to vary in accordance witk tbo 
harvest. This syatora was so auccessfiil that, in spile of his heavy 
WBj- charges, hia Bnances prospered and his oountTy throve and 
grew rich.'* 

In AlaY]627.i n Shim er fortnearJunnar, JijibdiSbAhitji'swifogBTO 
birth to Sbiriii. the fonnder of the Mar^lha emuire.* In 1629 tbe 



> Grant Dair« MuAUft^ 41 1 Soott'a DtCdOn. 11. 4 : Shlviljt's lUkhnr If UalharriT 
KAm Chltiiia (1811). * Gmit Dura MaMtlida, 4l. 

• Umit Dnri Uultbfts, U. * iiita\ Duff's ^Iftrtlhu, £». 


EUlfcptor TIL 




ntius failed and a second failare in 1630 caused grieroas snfFering. 
Thoufiands left the IX'Ccui and nambora pArifthod in their homes; 
whole districts wei-e emptied of people. The famine was accompanied 
by an almost complete loss of cattlitaod was followed by a peetilcnccJ 
la 1S29 Sfa&h&ji, who had snccocded his fathor Miloii in Vf^^$t and 
S oma, proka his eoniiocnon with the NJ afan Sfefl ii goTern nieot lie 
re iired . ^ y^ .ffft ftnflJ,^jtfla an. o WeT^S^MrnpWLtg t EoM oKbaJ 

r. WM oonflrmBa m bia J 

TipMttO tho Mogb 

red ttaa command 

empaiOT, wu oonarniBd m tia laM B. ana receiTed tha command of 
5000 how©, s drees of bonoorTand £20,000 (Rb. 2 taH») in coeh.* 
lu 1032. iti apiteof these and other gifts, Shabiiji left the Moghal 
aervice and a ided with Bijap ur ftgainat tho MofffaalB. At tbi« time 
Shirtiji and EI^lR91!lRR^aa Boveral narrow escapes ofbving caught 
by the Moghals. On one occasion Jijili'Li wag taken prisoner, but 
was released and coDvejed t» the fort of KondhAna or Sinh gsd.' 
In 1C31 Murtftza Nizaiu II. was thrown into prison an d stiynp led by 
order orFstelTlvhsn the son of Malik Atnlwr, and titc infant sod 
of Mortals was r&ised to the throne. In 16JU Shdh Jah&n c aptured 
D aiilatabad and took prieoncr the young NiKilm KliAhi prince. Tho 
Moghals supposed tliat witli tht: fall of naiilatabad and the capture of 

the prince tho war with AhmOrdnagikr WAS at an unA.jJ But ilillAMj 
who bad the support of Bij^parj PTgllffT*' ^. "^^^1^"' fipc o ^^^^ 
to the Nisilin Shihi kingdom, and, with tho help of tho local 

Br&hman oflico rs, suococdiid in overrunning n great port of tho 
Bonthgri;t ^hpi^dpagar _tpn3l^""Bg and seizing most of the plncos of 
s^engtV Al Q»tt | rAp ar ou the ludrdynni he weighed htinsolf 
agai nat mone y and ohuiffcd tho name of the town to Tul^pn r, the 
Weighing Town. In ^Jj^ut Moghal arm y of 20,000 horso tok tho 
fit-Id u^^uct Shi'thdii. and hu was forced to retire into B ijApur 
territory in ti; ith of the Nirn. According to HarMha 

truditi^'ii \\n: U-.n -i Poona was dcalroyod Igr tho Moghala aa^_ 
an ass-drawu plough drawn over the site.* In ld 36 A luhamma^B 
of Bijitpgr :i»ed for pta re jind concliidod » treaty with (be MoghiJs, 
under wbicli t-itc Almmdnagar territory . WJM diT Jded between 
Bijiipur niid tho Moj^hnlH, Pi i jiy ^f securtog the Mnntrr lietw oen 
the Bliiinu nnd the Nim aa far north na CtflEMi.* In jM,?. »s 
ShiihtCji declined to ejHer-jJijapQC-Berrice and refused to give 
Juuniir luid other fortreaaes to the MogbtUs, Muhammad of Bijdpur 
hL-lpod liflBdftula_ Kb to tp ^^ oVBrcomo ShAhfSji. They blockaded 
^Fmmgg and |)orsued~ShihAj' from Lohogad to Sinhgad, and from 
Sinhgftdto^J w Kon^^ft'^ ""bMeSliiJh^iia ^rt'tfJ toeulorBJKpiy ggrv ice 
and gJTO op the forts <.'i Junnar, Jivdhao, Ch&vand, IJarshira, and 
KonJl^ilin a ni- :^in1( i/ad. Of these Sitihgiad seems to have pittsed to 
Bi jdpii r uiid the rust to the MoghaU." Muhammad Ali treated Bh^hltii 
with honour, ''-qaPf^^ biJBl Jli llJa f'l^tf*^'' io Poona and Siipn, ana, 
wttb the Bijd^pnr nriaigter MnrArpim t. employeJ "Era in settling tho 

* RIpbtaMoM/s Hwtonr, SOT ; BiLdihilh Vimn in Ktllot ud Dair«on. VII. •!* 
•Il4>1*bili}finu.l»Kllii>tu>cI Howw-ii, VII. lo. Tho a«UJIs of ShAhAii'a w 

SidliAji'a tvnuiiiuiil 
or maminh vnn tram lUMO to 10,000 liarac. Ditto *iul foutnot*. 
* Otaat DvTi UutXiiAt, OH. 
<8Mvnji> Bfikhar by UatlUnaT JUm CbitnU (16)1). 

■ Cmni UuSr% Kiarlthis, fiS. 

■ liiulali&h Niflut in Elliot and Dowaou, VU. dS9 ; Oranl DatTa lUtUhit, 63. 





1^ gainod territory between tbo Nir aand thft Bhiauu' So slrOrg 
ienaBhip spmu^ up betnLytD Huf^rp^orBnc^Boaji, that, it) the 
,ine yeAT, vrhea the settlement waa oomplotod, Otey led ft joint 
~ ~ ^' .tioaint^ lLq Karn^ LAr ivhoro tho districts of Kolliir. Ba ng a lnr, 
ifti ^l'i'l^P"''r *"^* Rtirx were afterwards made orer to Snfttiiiji. 




When SliAU^jt atnrted vrUh MurArpaut for thu Kanuiluk, lie arranged 
that Sbivfiii and bis inotlier JijJb&i eiiould live in Poooa, and that his 
e atatea in Podii b, wbicli, in addition to Puona agd Su^l^qow included 
Ind^pmr^nd Birfmat i in the east and t he H'^valai n'tSeweat . stiould 
1>e managaoDy a ^rilkman named Djtdiji ^ndadev . Dtldiji 
maiuged Sbfihflji's estates with gi-eat succwm, ooatinning the 
ty^m introdnoed by Malik Ani bar. He waa partioalarly successful 
in tie Rivals or hiUj weot, wfcere the people bad fallen into groftt 
mieery. He remitted rents, foand employineiit for the people as 
guards and mees«DgorB, and extirpated the wolves that iiu«ated the 

t country.* 
North or Mo^lial Poona was also about this time (1636) improved 
by the introdiictioD of K£ja Todnr Mai's rereuue ayatem, which 
consisted in ascertaining by experiment« lasting through a long 
wriea of years the outturn of tiie land, tixing a share of the grain 
as tho government share, eommnting the grain share into a moaey 
payment estimated at one-fourtb of the produce, and enforcing this 
oau-fourtb us a permaneot rent. Krom the silver coin in which it 
vas collected this eetllement was known as ihojmkha. After twenty 
yeara of labonr it was ititroduoed into the Deccan by an able officer 
named M arshed KuU K htio.' Murshed's system differed from 
Ualik AmW's, chteBy in being a penPMiMit settl ement while Malik 
Ambar'e varied from ycAT to year!" Another change about this 
time (1687) introduced in the Moghal parts oE Poona was tfaa 
introduction of the Faaliyo&r. The Fash year which was started 
by Akbar (1550 -liJO^) was a solar year, whoso era or initial date 
was tho Hijm. Tho Ftuti year began from tho mrt^ or opening of 
the south-west monsoon early in June.' As no Attempt was mode 
to reooDcilo tho FiwU or solar Mosalm&n year with the lunar, the 
Patti differed from the regular lonar Musolmilii year more than 
three yeam every century. 

j^t^jjoDH l>AdAji built (or Jijib^li and her son Sbiv&ji a large 
maoaio^^ned Rang Mahiil. lie taught Shiv&ji, as a Mar&tha chief 
ought, tobc » good arohor, shot, spearsman, and rider, and, as a . 
UarAtha ought, to be i guoraot of all clerksh ip orcn oE the mystery 
of writing his own name. 'Ho taught him the rules of hi« caste I 
and raised in him alove (or old Hindu religious and warlilct< stories. 
From about his t^ixteortth year 1*1643) Shiv&ji took great delight in 
the stirriojT ftiUowebip of freebooters, and, in their society, ainyod 
away f rom nis home for days, nursiug the hope of one day becoming 
iodepoodont. Uis kindly obliging temper made him popular 
with the Marfitha gentry round Poona, and ho was prouably 
none the worse liked when reports got abroad, that, yotmg as he 

' Gr»nt Dna"> Mu«thia, M, U, • Eut India Paptn, IV. 430, 

■Grant DuUk MMmiAa, ST. 

-•GrMit Lhirs MaT*UiM.IK,57 :and £li^artoti«'a Hiatorjrof Indi*, 6)4. 
Ih* LntrodDoilou ol the (ili'cr liuiJUa a copper (anJtAn wu is g<nmJ um. 
' Cinnt DafTs Martthlo. 56. 

B 1327— 3d 




jsjs.iet — 





SAitdjft gitt, 
, I64S.K47. 

was, he h&d a sbare in some large gang robberies in tlio Konkan. 
To wean him from thcso dnngeroos porsuits, Dddiui entruste^^ 
Shivaji with the maosgemeDt of lii« fntWBMtatns. U!« favoaril^^ 
pagtime waa huntipg in tho western h illa with his frienda the M^ralt^' 
to whom his akiU wad aucoees as u Innitcr «ii JMirvit him. lie gained 
atborongh knowledge nf those wild diHtricta. Hv Inorned how easily, 
under the preBent carwlcHs laBnagotiK-nl, llie hill furfs iitight be sctiea, 
and, if onre ftcized how easily they might bo huld uf^inst uU oomera 
ITie hill forta wore oaey to aoiso, becnnse as the country reuud thorn 
was generally nnh^-althy, the MasalmAn garrisons w«ro often with* 
drawn and the forte left in clinr^ of an amildar or oilier local 
agotit. Besides this, tho Bij Apiir R ovfrnmont wg«_atDgiioe with the 
Moghals, and the bolk of tne regnlar BijiSimr tnmpa dm beeo sent 
to tho KuroMa k.' In 1646, when ho wiw niiioteenytarB old, Sbiv&ji 
tcwk i\m hill fort of 'L'orna. in Bhor territory about twenty mitea 
Bonth-woMt of Poena, and in 1647 ho took tho sinivU inncceasibU peak 
of migad about three mi)«a BOatb-eoat of Torou aud began to 
strongcnon it with the view of making it his headquarters . Shfih^iii 
wroto aad blannMl ShJvitji for this lawless oonduet, and DiJrijT JiJ all 
that oJ rice could do to tarn him from his purposo.but ShivAji, tJiongh 
ha made many proinisctt, ciontiniutd uamoved. Soon after D4dAji fell 
ill. On his deathbed ( 1 647] he Bciit for Shiviiji, adviswl him topreea 
ouhis plans of itidepeudeuce.toprot«ct BrdhuianHcattleandcultiTators, 
bo guard Hindu temples, aud to follow tho fortQUe which lay beforo 
bim.' On DUda ii's deat h Shiv&ji took complete charge of hie father's 
estatea. Soon ait«r a mesaeagor come from his father asking ior 
the payment oi arrears. Shivflji evaded imyment, and at laat told 
his &ther that the expense of itiani\^iiig biy Dvocan estates had 
become so great that m future be had belter trost to his KamAtak 
revennes. Before his authority could te supicrae in his fatber^s 
estates, ShivAji had either to win oror or to overpower two officers, 
PhirangAji tiars&la who was in charge of ChAkan and B^Ji MohitA 
tbe lunnager of Supa. PLiraugAji be won urcr without macb 
trouble. But, aslBSi refoaed to listen to any proposals, Snpft was 
aurprised, he was made priaoner, aadaent to Sh^tli&ji in the Kamtftak. 
SLivdji'fj next acqnisitioo was^ondMoa bill. This he gained by a 
large bribe to the Musjhtollin comtnandaut, took possesaiou of it 
and Dsmed it Siiihff uJrtSr the Tiioo's Den. j 

III 1047, about tliu tiiiii; of Piidfiji'a death, the commandant o' 
Puramlh;tr dieJ. As the faniilios wore friendly, Shi vfiji wa« a^kedto 
settle some potota id dispute among the comuiandant's thrco voas. 
He went to tbe fort, peraoadcd the yonoger brothers at nigbt to 
make their elder brother priaoner, and during tbe disturbance 
secretly filled the fort with his own M^ralis, and took it for himself. 


> or tbece jttn of SUvdji'a lifci, Kliili KUilii tli« MuHklmin hIatoriAn givoa tb« 
fuIUnriiig uwunt. lUklv&li becunn mannKnr nf tiio two uautra of TooDa and Sum. 
which at thia titnc bclnnjieil to Li* fjl)i«r HhiUAjL llv vuvtully after Ua 
rtith«r'> ftOktra. H« itm diatingiiuilipd in liiii tri>i« (or onoragi- uiA iDtstfisHieo. 1b 
that ooaatrjr whan all the hills t(*p I'l the iky aucl tli« lonwta am f«ll of trom and 
biuhM, bit Imi4 Ml Uiaeo<M(ib)n ahi»lr>. Ukw atber local ohiifa, ka tft abaot building 
fortt on th« hills uii In tli» bloimi inuj (orto cMlUil^ihttk UanUkbut lnb«bi 
BUiotaodDaixon. VII. 2K GT. 

'Qraiil DuTa UlrathAi, CO ; Wilki* dootb of Indi*. I. TS-T*. 







kvojiiii^ the brotbors w»ll diaposciL to bJiu by tlio gntnt of lands 
and village*. Thns Sbi7^i without bloo dabcd Bocured tha te rntwy 
botwAOQ Cb iilitin and the MJr a. It ia ja^r land, and Sh^hi^ji tlie 
hoI3er of the land U in my power; if Shltfa^i does not objocl to 
let bis Hori biko bis lunds, what matters it to mo. Thus perliapa 
Uubumtnod Adi) Shiih reasoned aod devoted bis thoughts to his two 
chief intorMts, hid Knta^tak coQ<{ueBts and bis BijApur buildinga.' 

Meanwhile Shirliii busied himsolf in gathcnog Mfiralis and 
LoreemeiL His next exploit, hia first opon brotwb of peace with 
Bijiipar, was in 16 ts , when he was twenty -one yearn old, the plunder 
of a rich cantvim iiringjag treaaure from KalyAo to Bijipur. Tho 
apoii waa carritHl to RA jpd which waa now Sbiifiiii'a h cfta-uuarte ra. 
Tbia succosM vr»» followod bv tbo centum of Bhurap aii^^BnK<!ri 

\ty tbo capture 

ia KolAba. of Tung and Tikpnai n Bbor. of SWf' '" """tb-'yw* Fooaa. 
and of Lohogad about six milu« to thoaontn-eaat and mimtobi 
about ten anted to tlo north-woat of KhandAla. In the same year tb« 
KoWba fortaof Tah Oho^Itt.opdK^ ri tho modern RAvKftd weretaken 
and Biryiiil i uitil ^jyj^a were built. In TliAiii*, Kalvin and all 
the foi-t« ill the neighbonrkood woru taken and several ncn toims 
were plunderfd.,y In 1610, when tor ShivAji'a ravi^fea Sb4biji waft 

impriwmod by Muhatnntad Adil ShAh of Bijipur, Shiv4ji ent«red into 
a corre§po»deuco with the Mog faal omper or Shih Jah&n who a^fpeed 
to admit Shiviji into the iinpcnal servico aniJ to give 

Five him the 

-- ._- r service anJ to „. 

rank of comiuandaotof 5000 horse. Shab4ji watireloaAsa and Shiv&ji 
contrived to evado his promises by preferring ccrloiu claims oa 
the roveunes of Junnor and Ahmadnngnr. In 1653, after an 
onBQccc&iful HtUttnpt ou the part of Bijapur to Ktiiso bim, Sbiviji 
began tu deviHo schemes for poaftosaing himseU of the whole of the 
Gb^mAcba or hilly west E^ccan and of the Konkan. In 1665 he 
caused tho Hindu lUja of JAvlj i n .SAtAra to be mnrdorod, took 
B ojb irahia fort, and built Pratflpgad . ShivAji'a principal miniator 
at tins time woa ShainrAjpaut whom bo now dij^uilieil with tho UUa 
of p« til ifa ftuJ nlri/j gave him a high miliUiry comniBad. 

In tho north of the Poona diatrict, Rince 1636 Hoghal power 
had remained nnchallenged, In 1650 Prinoe ^jm|m^b waa 
appoinlwd viceroy. Ho mndo Aurangahod bi^nemntiuarterB 
»ud manaj^d Iiis chargo with vigoor and aticcoas. About 1657 
Anrangaeb, who was planning the overthrow of his eJdw 
brother Dira Sheltkob, wnt to ask ShirAji if he wotild enter his 
wnrioo. Shivaji pretended to be horror-struck at tho proposed 
rebellion, treated the mcssongor with indignity, and orderod the 
letter to be tied to the tail of a dog. At tho time Aumngaeb took 
DO notice of this inittilt but it apparently lay at tbe root of hia 
nDoeasing bst.i-ed <.>t Shiviiji.' At this time, apparcnlly stirred by 
BhirAji'a snccesH agninst Bijipur, the KoUa of porth.weat Poona 
r ose la rebe llion. Kbent, tho Sar NAik and many leading Koli 
obieti agreed to try and shake off MusalmAn rule, and traaefor their 
altegittncetosomo Hindu princo, probably Shivfiji. A Moghalanor 
was sent into tho hilbi, tbe lull forts wci-e strengthened andgarruoned. 

■ SooU'a Dcccw. 11. 7 i Wwiofi's Uartthis, «S ; Gwat Duffa MuUhie. Ts. 





tbe people irero haoteddown and either mudu prtboucrs or slaughtered, 
the Sat Niik and hi« clnn wcro destroyed, and tbe prisoners were 
taken to JaQnaraDdlheirhoadscutoflaudpiJodiDtoftpyrftCDid and a 
plfttform built orer th«m which is still knoini hs the Black Platform 
or Kdlu Chabulra} 

In 1657, ly ith no furtlior rc*Hon thiui that the state was weakened 
bf the death of king Muhumniad AdU SfafLh and that his snccesaor 
AH A <iii StiiLh Tra« a child, Aurangyeb dedarfl d war agaicat Bijipar. 
Shiv&ji took advantago of llita wur to increaae hia re^Qorces bj^H 
plnnder. In May 1657 he committed bi a firat act uf hoslilitv ogaiiif^| 
t he Mogha uli*. In n ni^ht. attjick he surprised and plaDderodJuonaT^^ 
and carried off aboutjElIOO ["Alnkhsoipagodai) in cash, 2lHTOrrei^ 
valuable cloth, nod other nrticlus. Ho escorbed his booty as ^ 
as Poena, and then banded it to a parly to be takes to li&j^ad. 
From Foona SbiT^ji inurclied b;v' iinirec[uented roads and surpns«d 
and parttHlly pluodured Alunadnagar. He made great elTorta 
to strengthen nia cavalry. He bought horaos from alt qoarH>r3, 
engaged horsemen whom he cuuld trust, began to emploj" 
Maritha shilediira or aeU-mounted troopers, and appointed n ne1i_ 
maater of horue, Keldji P&lkar, a man of vigour and infltiencfl but 
crael and unprincipled. Th e riwid aac o Baa of AuranRteb'i ad vance 
on Biji pur m wrea S hiviiii'f jlwia. Be aent one iae680DgeF~vft«r 
another praynig for forgivoneaa, promising amendment, and offering 
to hcrlp Aurnn^zeb tritb a body of bortte. AumDgxob, who WAS 
suddonly called to Delhi by the nens of his father's serero iUsoss~ 
agreed to pardon .'5hiV4ji, to enquire into his hereditary clliims, an( 
to rvcoive a body of 50D of hia horse, bi 16&9 Shiv&ji soot a lari ' 
force under Shftmrdjpnnt Foshwa against the_ Si di of Janjir a in tl 
Central Kon ksn, but the Sidi defeated th^ Peshwa'a army with groat 
sl&nghter. SbtlmrAjpant wa^ recalled and More Tritnal Pingle was 
named Peehwa in his place. A treaty was made with the Silvatit« of 
YAdi in the SoQlh Konkan, under which ShivAji obtained oiii'-taUof 
the revenue oE that state. In tbe same year, near PratJipgad Shiv&ji 
assassinated Afzul Kiiin tbe Bij4pur general, 'who was sent to rcduco 
him, and destroyed his army. !Soon after this Panh^ and Pdvaogsd 
in Kolh^pur fell to his officers, and Vasantgad in Si&t^ra was taken 
by Sbiv&ji himself who levied contri'bution« along the bonkn of th^H 
Krishna, and left a ikdna- or garrison with a reveuuc collector in tk^| 
mud fort of l iattia Shir&l a. On Shivitji's arrival at Panhila the 
forts In the neTghbonriood, both bolow and ubure the Sahy^ria. 
submitted, and Ittiogna and Viah^lgad were taken by Hurprise. In 
the next month ( Deoembor "T639r ~SbivAj i plundered as far aa 
Bij[ipur, levied centributicns from market towns, and spread terror 
over tite' whole country. In lOGO ShivAji wm engaged with the 
" ' jur troops, who retook tho forts near PmihiiU exo^ HAngna 

and Visb^lgad. In January 1061 Shiv&ji took and plundered RAjftpur 
io Ratudgiri and attacked the po»RC««ioaB of a lucal Mar&tba cbief, 
tbe DaJvi of Shriugttrpur. During tbe raiiia he built a temple to 
the goddo^ Bhavdni in the f ort of PraUlpgad, and from this time 
bia religious observances WcAmo exlrcmuly strict. He chose tho 
celebrated RAmdiin jSvitmi as his spiritual guide, and aspired to 



hi(fh charuct«r for sanctity. Ife in eren said to have offered all liia 
territorios to lUtnHit^ Srtimi. Tho SvAmi bod no need of lands but 
oskod Shiv^ji to use the colour of faia clnthcH in the Dhngva Jhenda 
or S affron B anne r. In the saoM year 1661 ho mad« a rapid march 
across the conntry, and to aroDge hie father's wrongH, who, at tha 
iDStancc of tho Rnimir gnvermnent had boen trcachoroiiply poized by 
Bdji OhorpiMlc of Aluiiliol in 1649, aiirprisod nnd killed Ghorpode 
with most of his relationa aad followers, and plundered and burnt 
Miidhot. Tho SAyiint^ of Vi di. who contniry to thoir engn^gements 
had token an active part against him, Kbiviiji attacked and pursued. 
and aftc-rwnrdt* recoirod as raaaali!. ShivAji next built the forts 
of R&iri and Siadhndu rg or M &lran. both on the Ratnigiri ooast. 
and tilted onit a navy. He .itrengthened KoIAba and VijaTa durg 
in Rutnagiri, and prepared vostm ut all those ptacee' KoUba 
being his chief navid centre. On condition of being supplied 
with guDS aud witrliko store* ShiTfiji did no hnnn t" \hv ForUifueaO* 
ShlTiji's power was now so great that the BijApu:- Tiiui]>-!pr putored 
iatoasecrct oompnct with him, which wiw probably broiiglit about by 
(be intervention of liis father SbfihAji, who iit this time risited ShivAii 
with tho nppruvul of ibo Bijipiir government. Shirdji treated hm 
father with the greatest distinction. On hearing of his approach he 
went 80Tcral miles to meet him, dismonuted, and saluted him with 
the obeisance due by a sorraot to his sovcniigD. Ho iasiated oa 
walking by the side of hia father's palajiquin, and would not sit in 
hie fatbcr'n prvsunoo until repeatedly cominnnded. After somo weeks 

S spent in pleasure and in vtsiting the temple at Jejuri and other 
acea in Shiviji's territory, Shiiluiji, highly gratified, re tamed to 
iiipur, the bearer of prosonts from Shiraji to the king. From 
this time until ShAhAji's death in 166 4 Shiv&ji nevor uttac kod 
Bij^iBUf. nor, when hoistuitioB wore renewed, was £^ivii]i tho 
aggressor. Soon after Sh&h&ji's death, ShivAji "toflgftd ^yg tppiMl 
froin Rdii gad to the inland Rairi iu the Central Kunkan, which he 
gTdaUy sirongthencd and cnilod RAygad . Shivilji now held the whole 
Konkan fro m BTalyit n to Go», iind Uio Kookiin Oli^tiDatlin or liilly 
west Deccsn from theBhinia tojhe Vima. His anny of 50,000 foot 
and 7000 horse was muoVi largcr^tlwiu^ia territory, which at tt« 
greatest breadth from 8apa to Janjiru did not exceed 100 miles, 
either roquin-d or could aupport. His power waRforniidabloand tho 
truce with BijApur gare hini tho opportunity of turning it ngaiuBt 
the MogliaU. lu 1G62, as Auntngaeb was longer and more 
busily employed in Northern India than was expected, Mora 
Trimal Pingle, Shiv&ji's minister or peshwa posseBsea himsf^lf of 
several strongholds north of Junna r. In tho same year Net&ji 
PAlkar, ShivAji's master of the horse, who had swept the 
MoghaJ territory close to Aurangabad, returned safe to Poona. To 
puDuh this daring rwd, QMjg^^JKJ}^, the new Hoghal goveroor, 
marched from Aorangabad with a great fore© toward Poona 
and ChAkan. SkivAji, who was in Supa, retired to Sinhgad; 
Qgjjt^wns taken, and, in spite of mnch annoyance from Shiv&ji'a 
horse, tho MusaliDtos pressed on and took Fooaa .' From Poooa 
Shiiste Kh:ia marched north to C hAkftP . llio fort was held by 

Cbapt«r V] 

SJiMji'i Sit 


1 Elliot Aod DowiOD, VXl. SCl-2«2. 

iimb»7 OatettMr. 



Clupt^ VII. 

S61 ■ 166i. 

SbivAji's old ally Pliitaiigilji Nars^ and, in spite of a most skilful 
and vi^roas attoclc, was defended with such oonru^ that it did 
not fall till two inoDtlis had passed and 900 of tbo besiegers were 
sJaiu. When Phiranf^ji aurroDdorcd the Mogha) general treated 
him vrith great rospcot and sent him in safety to SbiT&ji by whom 
be was praised and rewarded. Sb&iste Kh&n placed uxbelc KhAn 
in charffo of CliAkun, cnllud JiUur Rlian from Milwa to bis 
aid, ntta marched after Shir&jt.' In 1663, under Anran^sob's 
ordore, KAja J iisvnntsJ^ y tlio Uajpat princv of Jodbpur arrirea with 
a targo rcinforcoiuf^at. The uur eeasoa waa far adrancod an* 
tbfi wnolo army Uy idle noar Poo&a. Sbiiste Khiln, after takin 
aoTonil forta and strong plaom bad gono to Pooaa and wgus livin_ 
in Iho Uaog Mabiil which Didiji Kondadcv had built for 
Sbivi&ji and his laothi-r. In fipite of the precautions which had 
been taken to prevent arnied MariUbis eatering Poona ShivAji 
dc^orminod to surprise the Uoghnls. Ha aunt twu BrAhinann in 
adrance to make preparationa. One OToning in April a little before 
aansot Shir&ji set oat from Sinfagad with a oonaiderablo body of foot 
w^dien. Theee he posted in amal) parties along the road, and touk 
with him to Poona oaly Yas&jiKank, T^Q&ji Milnsro, and twonfcy-fire 
M&ralia.' The Brdhmaas had won orer some of the MarAtbAa i 
Shfiiato Khiln's employ. They arranged that two parties of MarAth; 
abould untur thti town OQO aa if a woddtng party the othor aa 
bringiug prijsonera, and that Shir^ji and bia twenty-five should pi.-_ 
in with them. SliivAji's party paaoed in safety, put on Uieir 
armour, and, at tbo deed of night, by eocret ways reached the 
Khin'a house. They entered through the cookhonse, killed the 
cuoka, and, a.a they won) cutting through u built-up window, the 
alarm waa raised. Three of the M&v^lis forced themaolTes into 
ShAittte Khiii'a room, but two M\ into a cistern of water and the 
third, though he oat o3 Sh&iste KhAn'a thumb, was killed by hia 
MM>ar. Two sUvo girls dragged Sliflislo Rhiin to a place of safety.' 
The Maratli&a killed many of hia followent, oat to pieces some of 
tho woinon, and cut ofT tlio homi nf an '>lil iiiiin wlicim Lhey took for 
ShAifito Kh^n. The kuttlu-druma bt^ ivu ulurm und tbu MarfilbAa 
retired, lighting torches and burnins bonfires as ihey went opStnhgad 
bill in deriaioa of the Mogbals.* JSext morning a body of Mogn^ 
hone gallopped towards the fort. They were thrown into confiuion 
by an unexpected fire of musketry and retired in disorder. A party 
of Sbivftji'shoree foil on them and they took to flight, Uie iirst limo 
that Moghal cnvalry had been ohaaed by Muriilbna. Th« Hurprise 
in Poena and other small rereraee filled Sh&ista Kbitn with the 
enspiotoD that Jssvantaing waa in league with Sbiv£ji. The disaea- 
stoDs of their leadora crippled the Moghal army, and both_Sh|listo 
KhAn and JaaTtotBing were reeallad . Jaavants ing waa aiterwarda 


are \ 
I i n I 


t UnataklMbii-l-Lutab in fjlivt «i>d Dowton, VII. 263 ■ 263. 

*Xa<MnllDS to Kfaifl Ktua, $luvaji, bcat«a kail (Utplritod, had retirod into 
monoteliii duaoolt of acwM. u*d was caiitinaally dundos hia uoaitlon. Rlliol 
Dcnnun. VII. 2S9. Bee ytuiagu Ms>Ailila. 74, 7fi. 

*Thii itKUtI KltiD'a account iu Elliot and Dowioa. VII. 270-1. Accofdini; 
Orant DuS (Multhte, 68) Shaiate Khin'i fingers vtn cnt off as he vtu kttlag hiiUEcli 
out of a window. 

* KluUi Khin ia ElJk-t tod I>ow»w., VII, !?;0.271. 


i nto I 






allowi^d to remain as second in oomma nd to Prince SuU&n Muazr.mi i 
who was sppoint«d TiMTOj! ^asvantsin^ mado a feeble ntt^fflpTTo 
inrwt Sinfigiul, but did oot press the siege. Strong dotocbments 
were left at CMkan and Jnnnw and the main body of the army 
retirad to Aunmgabad, Aboab this timo Sbiv^jt tront to Poonit to 
hear aiojJliaorsoitg-scrmoii by (he Viini Mint TukiSrdm and narrowly 
escaped being madu jmsonttr by tliu garrison of CWWan,' IniGfl4, 
after hia return from aacking Surat, SbirAji heard of th e death of 
his f ather ShAliA j i * Uo CHine to Siiiligftd and spent eomu days in 

Sjrfvruiiug his Other's funorul ritoa. Ho thou took tlie title of 
i!Ja, struck ooinn io his name, and spent some months at RAyprad 
hill ia KvUba arranging bis goTcmmont. Uis flovt scoured tbo 
coast and enrnged ttie Mnsnlmiing by seizing some holy Meeca 
pilgrims la Aiigvet SbivAj! enrpmed niid plundered tho tovm of 
Abmadnagar and Rwept Hcrosa the eotmtry east to Aurangnbad. 
1q October the Bijitpnr troopH broko tho truce aud mado a vigorooB 
eftbrl to regain the Konkan. Sliivfiji seemed to be CTcrrwberG aod 
ready at all pointK. Ue met the BiJ&pur armj^ and defeated tbom 
with grcut Insa lie burnt Vongurlu m Hatnfigiri, aod hastened to 
Sinligad to wntoh tho Moghals who had sent a strong reinforcement 
to a camp at Junuar. Finding the Mogbals did not iiitvnd to act 
on the offensivo, ho rotarnod to the coaatj embarked from MHIvan 
with 4000 men, plaadorcd tho rich town of Barcelor about 130 
mHoB Bonth of Goo, sailed back to Ookam in North Kinare, 
soonml tho oonntry, ro-embarkod, aod roturaed to his onpital. 

In February lt)r>i>,Jftfinmtainga&dSultJLn Muaxzam werorocnlled, 
and Mirza H&ja Javpi nir anothor Bajput prinoo and Dilor Kh&n 
were sent to condnot tJio war against ShirAji. TheT reached the 
Deocan early is April 16€£iaail(lTost aotimoiaboginaingopcrutioas, 
Jayaiog went to Poona, arranged its affairs, and spread abroad hia 
Forces ravRgiag the country and attacking Shiv&ji's lorta. He himself 
went to attack Purandha r. about twenty miles south-east of Puoua, 
ono of tho iRO«t uotod fortrossos in the Deccaii. Diler KhAn, who waa 
seot io oommand of the odTBoced force, begao (he siege and invested 
both Purandhar and the neighbonring fort of Vnjragad or Rndra 
Mah£l. Javain<,' left Diler Khlia to prooecuto the siege of Purandhar 
and blockaded Sinhgad.^ The oommandant of Pumudhnr was B&ji 
Pmbhu, tb« tlfithpandui of MahAd in KoHbn, and the fort was 
itroDgly garrisuned by MiTelis and Efetkuri^ that in Ratn^giri 
MarAthAa, The Jrvknandia maintained hia ]>09t with bravei-y and 
ability. He dispnteu erery point of tho approaches, bnt his out* 
postawere di-ivea in, and Diler Kh&Q began to mine a rock under 
one of tbo towers of tho tower fort. The garrison made freqnoub 
sallies, and repeatedly drove off the miners, but they were at lasfc 
firmly lodged uudtjr cover. After aumcrooa failures they sooooeded 

■ Onul DuSTs Muith^, 89. Aocordinit Ia tho M*rAthl< Shirtji Moapad by the Iwlp 
«f Um )wd Vilhobft i)i Pjittflh4T]>ar. 

*SbLii}i li*d oontinQwl foitlifol to BiUsnr sad liaJ ^^|< |a aB. -ej) Uia 

Mt«t«> ill tliiBKM]i41*k Mid tho fort of Awwii. ' Po rtn- JMo»o^. aai ■ ..lorj' ot 

•ttaiuM^ Onnl DaVVUaiAth«a, 60 - ». 

■Uiut D>S^ Muithiii, » ; ud ElUot and Dowwn, Vtl. 3T3. 




ion My Huei 




bum; Jtitt, 



■o sbatteriag the rock so as to enable tliem to attempt an assauli 
Theassnilniiti gainpd the lower fort, and, while Cho garrison wa 
retirioff to tho "pper fort, began to plonder caroloes or ig^ootitnt of 
tbeir danger. The Iletlcari TDBrlcsmen from above opeoed so 
destmctivo a firv tbnt many of the iivMulaDtc sought shelter in evce^ 
comer and others ran onlfiidn for corer. Tho MAralia beaded by 
thoir commnncW sullied oat, attaclccd thn KoghiUs sword in h&nd, 
killM] all that opposed thorn, aud drovu them down tho bill. Diler 
Khan, who was KAatod on hia elephant noar tho hill foot, seeing 
the Sight ol hia moDj bvnt bin bow, called on a body of Palhdoia 
about him to adrance, and rallying the fagitires pasbed bis elephant 
fon^'ard. Tho garrison, like all MarAtbtls daring in ancoesB, 
closed with bia mea and the powerful Afghans recoiled trom tbSH 
swords of the Sfivalie. Dilor Khin, marking tbo conspicuous oondnd^H 
of tbeir leader, with his own band pierced bira with uu arrow, 
and killed him on the fipot. On the losa of their leader the garrison 
fled Dor stopped until tbcy reached tho upper forL The Moghala 
again took possoBsion of the lowei* fort, bat the fire from abovo 
once more forced tlieni to leave it, After this failure Diler Khin, 
considering the uorthem face impregnable, determined on attempting 
to osoalade the Riiiall detached fort of Vitjragiul or Rudra Hahdl, on 
the DortL-east corner of Fumudhur whicb commands a great part of 
the main works. The attempt succeeded and guns were broaght to 
breacfa the upper fort. The setting in of the rains greatly retarded 
operations. Tho MoghatartiUei7wasbad,aad,aJthoughthey continued 
firing for weeks, thej made little impression on the defences. Tbo 
garrison bocnme diiipirited and scat notice that they could hold out 
no longer. ITiey would bare left the fort, but Shiviji, who, after 
his successes at sea, had at last returned to Riygad, asked them 
hold on until be should send tbom vdtd to retire.' Shiv&ji sc: 

1 Khaa Khto't MCQunt l^uDtakhbn-l-LubAbia BtUot and Dowaon, Yil. 2T2), whilo 
in the mkia ■gi^eiog with the Mardtha vcniou. g^vM aome iatftrastiiij additionAl 
d«Uil«. Tbo yarnNn iif runuidbar mniii- > vit:nn>iii doTniMaiid jHiinganlveil with 
bia lOD KMuiring. Aittr a tiMtiuu liul Wn bluwo up on oncadvA nuJc nii*ci 
the ijafeodeniifthc foot of the hill. Tho bcariocvra attsek^d tium nad MiaMeded 
in nwktaj th«tr wajr to tho t«p of th« UU Than tbe dtfcndoti uUad forqnutat- 
wliieb vru gruttcd thta hf the R*j> itnA Dilot Kliin, Th« tw« MnuBUidutta 
vkttwd upon DiUr KhAii. and war* tamt to the £Aja irho diiarmcd tfa« f^mtoa and 
toi^poaaMaioDof thr furta. Eighty meD, boraauaD, iiifsnlrjr.andiappan wore to«t in 
the naga M>d nu>ro t)>ui a liundnil wan woanilad. Aftar thoooniDeat «1 th« tvo-'nrta 
Klja Jayaing aont Daud EtuUi vith 7000 botae to pluader ajtil Uj VMto th* eountiy 
whioh SiiivAji Iim) <Koa by foroaand riolenoa Ciwt cffartaworo madaon bolhaidaa, 
and for fivo tnontha the iiDMrial foroet never nated from IiaraaaiiiK and ftghtiDg 
Um aamy. At SbivUpar whioh wh bnilt bv Shiviji and at tht forta of KoodluUM or 
Siahnd aijuht miloa aouth ot Foaua. andKanvari pvuArijiKitanetnou otmltiratiou 
vaa Mt, aail uumbera of oittla wora takan. On th« otbor hand, the Mart^h^' anddm 
attaoki, thair tciUiant auooMwa, thetr night aaaaulta, their lanure of ttie teada and 
psMiH, and the Itriiig of the fontt, aavanly triad th* imperial feaetB, and mao and 
bcaato p«riihad in numbon. The Marith&a had alao niS«r«d hoavy leaaea and no 
lottBW had ha*rt to faco the imHrial troojia. Tlie ttrrt of Sijiptd about thm ni!W 
aonth-eBrtofTorua and about fifteen Mulk-ireat of Poomft. which Shiviti himialf bcM, 
and tho foHoif Kondhtea or Sinl^adln which woic hit vife and hiamotliaT^ raUtivna 
w«re both invaatad and baid preaaed. Tho roada on all aidea war* htoekaded and 
Skivtji kaaw that he oould not raaona hia [aimlv aod that U Siahaad **■ taken th*y 
wooJd be Uable to anffer tbo «aa>e(iD«ncaa ol Us aril daad& Amndiagty he sent 
aoia« istedlgoat mea to Biia JayaiDs, btg^^ tarcivMitea, proolaiBK th« nrrender of 
torcral loriavbic)) beatiU aald, aaapropotiag to rfstt tbe nlja. Tho BAja doubting 




RaghuiiAthpantSbd«btritoJa>jrtiiiig, who sgrecdtoShivAji'n pmpoml 
to enlflr th« Moglial eerrice Andgivo.uppnrL of bis lerrilory. At the 
»Aine timo dnvHing placed no tniKt lu Stiiviiji'a ninocrity until the 
Briihmnn confinced birn that Shiviiji did not intoad to dpccive 
bim. JnVHing thvii deaired hiui to lutsurv SbirAji on the honoar of 
II Ksjpnt that be night roly Dot only on the emp^i-or'9 pnrdoa but 
oa hia favour and protectiou. While thin iirgotintlun w«» pvoding, 
SbivKJi, with a Blunder retinae, to the month of Julr, proceeded 
fr om Prftt^pg"*! 'o Sdiirs to Jayeing's cam p beforo SinbgiKl, nrbore 
he aonounced biinficU as tjfaiviiji KAja. Jaysing' nent his soa 
Kimt«iii(; io load him to bia preeence with all the hoiiourH(]u« to his 
rank. Tbti wfaole camp pressed forward ro ten tbia colubrnted hero 
and on hi^ nppi-osL'b Jayaing advanced from bis t«nt, met, and 
embracfd Inm.' Juysing seat«d Shlrliji on bis right bund, treated 
bim with reepe(.'(: nnd kindness, and repeated the asaiirancee sent 
by RaguiiAl hnant. After some txinveraalion in tbe buniblost strua 
on the part of Sbiviji. be waa allowed to retire to teuta near those 
of Jnysing. Kext day Sbiviiji went to ^-iait Diler Kbdn, who was 
still beforu Piirandbar and n-an ezceodingly uiurttf^cd that be vros 
not iiijuie privy to the negotiation, tie threatened to persevere in 
reduciii^ Faraadhar and putting every man to thn sword. This vaa 
bat a ibreat. and ho wag^oothetl and grntilied by 8biv^i'a presenting 
the keys of the gate with biit own liitnd, telling bim that all hia 
forta and country were bis, that he merely sought pardon, that 


lees. , 

UtiiiiMriijr. ordeiwllbattlia attack»htM!clht pmaodirith twnevad viitoor. At last 
twooenfiilDntiBl Br^nuuisonie from SliivAji and vithtliB oiMt biniliiif; lAthaconiiniiad 
bw DSprcMiooi of aubmiaaion utd ri^nteDca. The Rdja promiud him Mcurity of life 
«nJ lionouroucntiilitiimtkat be «wit«d on the «n>peror and Rmed taratcf his Benico. 
Ha alfO proraiaa*! blai liigh atatioo or muMnb ia tli* iRi|isri^ aarvioa and ui4de pro- 
Mralion (iirnc«ititigbiaiHtieoMn«faMnnk, 8bivijiapprMcli«daritb|[rM(buinuitr. 
Tha RAJK wDt Iiiaag«nb or nuinaU to hmcI him and he alau nnt Mined RAJputa to i;iiard 
kfniiut tncwbary. The mniufci oirriod m metjugc bi (aj* that iT ishirlji iiibmiltwl 
fruibljr. gAva up hii fofia, and agrwd to obey, iha Mopcror would gnat bia pctilkn 
tor lonhvcnstt. U b* dul not •cccpt Uioac tttrmi h« had bvtUr raturn ui-1 r«ii«w the 
war, Whan EjhtvAjirMt^Te'l tha niMi^lw Mid with {neat bvmillt; that h« kaaw bia 
lifo and honour wwv a^e ir lia m*d« hia aubRiiaainR. "fh* Kttjn thtii a«i>t • p«r*oa of 
hij^ raak to briaf bim in wilb hnnotir. Wbcn .'^hiviji cutcrod tba 1U}« loaa, 
•inbraoed bim, and natod ktiu naar hiiiuMlf, Shivljl tlixii with ■ thouaand ^ga» of 
abaiiM cIiMfnil hla band and uid * I have come lu a g»illy ilavc to aeek forgivaueaa, 
aud it ia for you eitlicr to paixluii or to kill iiin at juur plvaaarv. I will make cnrtr 
my great toria wtih the conutry ol the KoukMi M tbo •mpanir'a ottoota, and I wUl 
■andaiT aoa tu ctttar tbt imfitud Mtvica, Aa for wyttiUt 1 hopa that afUr tha 
interrat of one year, whoo I have |iaid my rmprct to the cmiMrvr, 1 nuiy b« allowod, 
lika other ■enranta of Dm ante who ei«rci*t< auiluxrity iu tbeir uwd provincea, to lira 
with my wife aad family in a ■mall fort or two. Wbuncror and wbartver my 
a«rviM> ars rMuired, 1 will, un PMsiiiiiii ■inldia. diiuliaige my duly I'jynlly.' Tha 
lUjt cbeertd bim ud Mut bin to Dtlrr KhiJi. Afur lh« (ieji« wai atom>id, 7000 
peraooa, ni«a wixnau and oihiMraii. came out of SinbgMl fort. All tbat tlvoy eould 
not CAtry beeanta the property of Ibe govamment aad th« forces took poaaweiow 
of tbe fott Dilei Kh4n tn«««nted Sbivajl with n iword. Ho took bim back to tba 
Raja who prtaonted bim with a rol:«. uid imewoil h'a aiaurmcea of tsfHy and 
boiM>rahl« traatmant. Sbivifi, wtib n-aiW laot. bouiMl on tha aword in an iiuitaKb. 
aod prMnUod to randcr taitbtal acrcira. Wb<n tbe ()u««tiqa about thn time SblvAji 
waa to remaia andcr parol«i aad of hia rtturn h«m«. cam* uixhi e««ai<leration, Kaia 
Jayiiag wnno to tbe emp«r«T. aakint (or^renoa* for ShivAti and tbo grM)t of a rnba 
t« btm, awl awaited inttrucUona. A nKO-boarcr arrlvrd with tb«/armd«aad a 
coba, tad ShivAii wu ovariuyad ai iflc«d«iiiff roreivaoaai and bonoor. 

' ScoWl Dron. D. II. 


tBombaj Oasettcer 



ChiptMr Ylt. 


experiflooe bad satisfied him lliat it was foil; to resist aacb soldis! 
u Auran^^b conld bonst of, aad thM now his one hope waa to ba 
enrolled among the scnraDts of the empire. Ad Armistice took 
pl*e« fts soon as Shiritji camo into cunp. After sovoral ^'onfereuces, 
Bnbject to Cbe emperor's approral, it was agreed that Sbiv»ji should 
give Dp whatever forts or territory bo bad taken from tbe Moj^hals. 
Of thirty-two fort s takes or bailt by bim in ibe tcrrilory which 
had b«)oDgod (o the Niz&m Shtiii government, he gave up twenty to 
f .t\ Ja^sing, among which wi>ro Parandhar aad Sinbgiul with all their 
1 ^ / dependent districta. Ac4!nrding to Kh&G Khiia Sbiv&ji gave twenty- 
throe out of thirtv'fivd forts with a yearly reveuuo amoiialiDg to 
iAOOfiOO {\0 idkha oi hunt or 40 Idkka of nipcee).' The territory 
beloDgitig to the remaining t welve fort s,' of which Koari and IgvAdi 
wore m f oooit, ostimatod to yi«l<i a yenrly rovoauo of about £tO,OOQj 
(Pagodas 100, QOfi) and all the rest of his acquisitions, were to form ht^H 
•state which ho wnit to hold from the emperor, and Lia tK>a Sambli4jij 
then ID his eighth year, was to receire the raok of a commander of 
6000 horse. The rooat remarkabl« pnH of the ^reemenl wiMRLtt-AjiV 

Sroposal to be allowed assign tot; ntn on Bijupnr, eatiinutud at about 
termed by htm tlie cheiuth and sardtakmukhi. of certain diatricl^ abovD^^ 
the Sahytidris, the charge of ooUectiug which he took npon bimselF,^H 
So eager was Shivllji to obtain the imperial authority for ihis^^ 
urangsmeat, that it was oofidiiioQ he efforod to pay a 
tribtitoor/>«A'tiM/>of abont £1,400,000 {Pagoda* 4.000,T]00) by yearly 
insLnlmonts of about £110,000 (foQotUU 300,0U0), and ta k<'rp au 
additional bodv of troops. ShiviQi'apropoeftls, according to custom, 
were sent to tlio emperor in the form of a petition. On Jayeing's 
floggestion Shivaii intimated his desire^to kiss tho royal threshold. 
AnrttDgx«b agreed to Shiv&ji'e proposal on condition that he and bia 
troops went with R^ja Jaysing against Rij^pur and that hepnid the first 
iiuttalmont of tho promised tributo. According to thin ngrvomont, 
Sbiviji CD-opemted with Jayxiog, and the combined army, including 
2000 horKO and 8000 infantry belonging to ShivAji, ninrchea 

X'ast Bijiipur aboat the month of Novumbor. In the opemtiuna ^ 
hfollowod, Phaltan was redu»-d, Qiofort of Titthavad t>3CaladeJ,^H 
and all the fortiSbd places on their'-foqte were token possession ^^ 
of by SbivAji and hut MAvalis. In oonsequence of these Berrioes 
Anraogzeb tuvited Shivdji to oonH, promised to ooufor on him 

nt rank and honours, and to allow him to return to the Deccan. 
866 Sbivflji, after visiling alt bin forts and holding a coimcil of 
bis ministers at Itity^ad, went to D<*lbi with his ituo >Sambbjtji. At 
Aurangneb's con rt hewas treated with indignity aiid wan watched as 
a prisoner. In the Deooan Jaysing had not tlie means to garrison 
many of the forts eitrreudered oy ShiVifijL He placed strong 
garriaonsio Lvhogad, Siobgad, and Purandbar ; a few men were 
left in such of tho others asliad supplies of provisions ; and, of the 
rest, be ordered that the gates should be burnt, and such part of 

* BUiot and Donoo. VII. ST6. 

. Tt.. ._-._ <..^^,g„ , [iiij^_ Ton,^ rUygaiU Linffuw, MahadgJul. Migad, 
Bhof^ Keiri, ud IMedurg 




Uie (lefCDces deatn^ed as could )>e hastilj^ thrown down. After 
Shiviji'a eac&pe from Delhi, iu Di^ccmhor IRMI), ha lost no timo in 
rej<aiuiu(^ hia forta. Morupaat Fushwa repaired them, rephwred 
tbe garrisona, and drofe out the Moghaltt. 

1q 1667, by tho roprescntatioua ol the new viceroy Siiltiln Moiaani, 
who waa accotopanied and mach awayed by Jasvautaiug a BtauQch 
Hindu, Shiviji obtnined froiu A-urangzeb tbe title of RAja, a 
conSrmatioD of Samhhftji's rank, and luud in Beritr. The distrioto 
of PoooiL, Chilknii, and Supa were aliio restored to Slii?)iji, but tha 
commnndin^ forts of 8ti>bgnd and Purandhar wei-e kept by the 
Uoghala. Thnn^'h Anraugzeb at 6n)t agreed to Sultiii\ Mnazsam's 
proposals in fnvoiirof Shivif ji, ho ftfterxrards showed marked hostility 
U} Shirdji. AccordiDf^ly Shivilji determined as hooq as possible to 
min the Btrongly gairisonod fort;* of Siuhgad and Purftndhnr which 
ulockod his coiiimuiiicitlion with Poona and Ch&kan. Sinhgad, 
Shivdji jnstly oonsiderod one of the gtrongeigt forts io the conntry, 
and, *» tnc commandant, Ude Biin, wa» » celebrated soldior and bad a 
choice Rajput ^rrison it vaa suppnaed impregnable; Security had 
made thtt 8iiiligiLd garriaon Kouii^wlint noglif^ont, and Shiviji laid 
a phiQ for tukiugtbo pliKe by sarprise. T&niiji MAlusre, whom be 
ooDsnlted, offcriKl to Biir{)ri!>e Sinhgnd if ho wa« allowod to take his 
younger bn)iher Snr^-&ji and 100i> picked Milvalis. Accordingly, in 
Fehriiaiy 1C70, one thousand Mrtralia niidcr TitnAji and Sury4ji 
Htitrted troti) Kllygad in Kol&bn, aiid,,Uiking difFi.-rcnt iMiUia, met nenr 
Siubjfad. TAnfiji divided hiii nwri into two [artieii. One party under 
bia brother Surydji ho left at n littlodiHtanco with ordors loadrance t£ 
necessary; tbe other party nodor his own oommand lodged tbemselrea 
nndisoovered at the foot of Siuhgad rock. When it grew dark, 
cbooainff tbe sheerest par^of the ro<:k as the least likely to be 
guarded, one of the Mdvalis cHmbod tho rook and uad» fast a ladder 
of ropc« np which the rest crept one by 009. Eachashegmti»dtli6 
top lay down. In spile of thoir oaro before 300 of them had reached 
the top, tsonio movement drew the attention of tho garrlaon to the 
Mi&vaha. One of the ^rrison drew near and was ailcntly slain by 
an arrow. Still tbe alarm spread, and tho noise of votcea and of a 
running to arms showed ..Tilu^ji that a ruah forward iraa hia only 
chance of a snrpriw. Tbe Ititralia plied their oitowb in the direction 
of the voices, tdl a blweof bluelightsandtorohoohowed the Rajputa 
armed or arming, and distirnvorod their assailants. In the desperate 
fight thiit followed Tftitiiji fell. The Miiralia lost heart and wor* 
running to the ladder, when SuryAj'i, TAnfiji'a brother, met (hem 
with the reaerve. . He'ralticid them, aaked them if they would leave 
their leader's body to bo tossed into a pit by Ubdrs, told them tha 
ropes were hroki.-u nud there was no retreat ; now was the time to 
proTO themselves Sliivdji'f! M&valis. They tamed with spirit, and, 
ghontiu;:; ihoir war cry Bar Har jVaAutlep, dashed on the garrison, 
and, after a de§peraLo fight in which 800 MAvalia and 500 Rajputa 
were sisia or disabled, gained the fort. A thatched house turned 
into a bonfire Saahed the news to ShivAii. Besides those who 
were slain or woonded in the fort, many Bajputa who venlored over 
the crest of the rock were dashed to pieces. Contrary to his custom, 
Shivaji gave every man of the asaailaats a silver bracelet and 




3iapter VIL 




hoDoared their leaders with rich rcwttrJs. lie gricvoiJ overTAtulii: 
Sinbgad tho liou'n boaae i» taken, but the lion U shiia : I bav« 
guinvd a fort aud loal T&udji. iSury&ji, TdUi^^ji's brotlit-r, -nan taada 
oomm&DditTit of Sinh^pid, auil vrilliiu a munlh (Mnrcb lti70)ng;niQ 
distiDgaiehod himaeKbyeacaWdin^Puraodhar.* MiihuUand ICnniBU 
in the Konkan were also taken, and the whole proviooo of Kalj&u 
was rocovtTvd by the end of June, lu July (1670) Lohogtul was 
surprisod and taken, but an attempt on Shivaer failed.' Next year 
(1671) Dilor Kh^ who waa at Jiiunar with a considerable Moghal 
force, retook Lohogad atid cnptnr«d ChAkan.' In 1674, after great 
snooosacs in Soalli Giijarnt, Khdndcsh, Golkonda, S&tAra, the 
Bombay Karu&tak, and ^ortb K&oara, Shiv^ji was crowned with 
groat pomp al R;iyi^ in KolAbft- At the time of his crowning 
tibiv&ji is dc'Wiibtd aa forty-eeven years of age, of a handaoma 
and inteVligent countenance, and for n Mar^tha fair in skia. His 
eyo wofl keen, bis nose long aqailiae and somewhat drooping, his 
beard trim and peiik«d, and his monstncbe slight Wa expression 
wtts rapid mid resolote, bard and felins.* 

In 167o Sliiv&ji m^Ae atwther nuBQecessfnl attempt on Shiroor his! 
birth-place, which was never destinud to fall into his hand^.^ About 
this titno tbo services of Pryor, tiie Eiigiiisb physician and trorellor, 
were sooght by thu M<iglinl governor of Joneah that is Junnar. 
Fryer ntnrted from Bombay on St. Georce's Day, 23rd Apri] 
167^, and piLised tlirongh Kalydu and Jlurbdd which was nil wastod 
by ShiTAji and thw Rlo^hals, up the terribly Btwp Aviipa pass or' 
Oppagaot.* At the top of the pass was a bad starvling tona ' 
woicb he calls Oppagaot. There waa a fort or oastle on a bill 
top, and near the bead of the pass a aiti'heilar or enstomer^ blown 
up with the conBdence of nali a d^nwu hiltmeu. From the 
top of the pasM Kryer entered a deep valluv wlioro he met a 
caravan of oxen laden with proTisiona which liad hardly eacaped the 
Moghal army which was not. far off. Fear of thif villainy of Shiv^ji'a 
lueu made Frj'or's guide nse great baate, and by ten at night he 
had travelled twenty miles [10 kot) to Auabegaou. In AmbegnoaJ 
there was no one bnt n single /aJtrr ; the rest bad tied from a part^ 
of Moghal horflo. An thoy could gvt nothing to eat but a few greea 
figa, Fryer's people pressed on through throe or four wretched 
Yillageo, to Beetaeer or Bilear tbr<»e niilos eouth-west of Jnnnar. 
Here h^ people rested aa they found some provii>ioD8 in a wretched 
hamlet which was liable to conlinnal pillaging at the b:ijids both of 
the Uoghak aud of the Marntbiis, and bore the pillaging welU 
beeaose U was in the condition of having Little or nothing to loeeJ 

) Grant ihtttf MinitliA*, M. 3 Orant Dofi Muitkfl*, IM, 110. 

* Or«iit Duir. MiLTMhM, IIOl 

*Mr. Dou^liu (ram th< VlgtMlteiu Orma'a Hiitonoal t'ngmenta. Soott Wa. 
(M*r«th^, ST - SS) givw th« IvUawing detail* : Shivili wm vhort and darit vitL. 
fcri^t pdercing ey««, ui BotiT* body. Mil *oU-KOv«nivd t«En|icr. Ho wsa rall^M*' 
above bis oauatiriiMit He wm s Mod Eolbor to a bftd Ma. Thougb bo iiumwmJ 
high taloola u a aoldMr, be mti fonder of cunniRit thm counge and ol dianmtilatiaa 
thsawladom. • Gfant Da(r« Martthi*. 119, 

"Flyer's p*itj ioolud»d tour itoiv puons. a Purtuguvs*, bis etm sopvmnte, a 
BnUiDua liogtiwt, a hoimikwpar. «igbt p«luii|iu«.bearant, » datta /nivUi* that i 
lunbv or bs^ga^-cwrJen, ud a TiitUsb bone. Eui India and Fefwa, 133. 




Next daj', the last of Apr!), be went on to Junnar the froaiier town 

of the Moffhals, for many yeiirg tbe seat of war. There was a castle 

at Junnar nnd eome pal&ces with gardens, and the f^veruor wna ia 

command of 17,000 horse and 3000 foot. The governor of the citjr 

and district waa different from Iho commandant of Shiruer fort who 

never left tbe hill top. Juooar city and the fort in the [>laiu were 

ill-prepared to etand a ei«f;o. The Mo(!:hnls vroro OQcamped thero 

rather than wttled, and, when ShivAji c-ume in force, they retired 

speodilytothamiLinamtynnder llahdiliir Kli^iiwhobadahostof 40,000 

horsoat Pvdf^ion thrcudays' journey off in AhmadDagarontheBhima. 

Frver, in English interesta, tried to piirsaade the govenior of the 

value of opening a tradu with Boiiihny through which the Deccan 

mi^ht lie Kiijipliod with Arab and Purainn horses. To do this it 

was niJceHKflrj'that thti Kr>nlcau shnnid be cleared of ShirAji'e troops. 

Thu governor uiaJo li^ht of Sbivuji, but Hcvnied little inclined to 

drive him out of the Konkau, oithfr beL-au»! he knew it was more 

dilltcult to do tlian bu protended, or, because, if Sbiviji wns driven 

out, tbe excuse for keeping np a Inrge army and therefore faia 

cmplormviit aiul tlic iHouro« of bi» reveiiuv would cvase.* When 

thu ruins b(.-gnn to fall cotton waa planted in the fiplds about 

Jonnur. Tho land also yielded wheat in abimdanco and ottior grain, 

though the hiu bond men's crojw wore often burned by tboae 

iDouDtain-foxea the Uardth^. It waa not safe to move about 

Junuar iu Siinull parties: troopci*!! were often scut homo disrobod 

nnd dismounted. Except Shtrner most of the hill forla wore in 

Sliiv£ji't< Iia»d8. In » Htill night many of hiif garrisons might ho 

heard by roice and more by trutnp»t. The goveniment of 

Junnar wita like the guvcmnuiat of itlt Mogbid cttiv«. Tliu wnlta 

were broken but tfae gates remaiued. Ui-wrdcr had scared trade, 

though the town waa well^laced and fumiahed with coarae caliooea, 

' 30 lawns, and plenty of cotton laud. Tbe ploughmeu and weATcra 

!td followed the iradora. A Heh craftsman or landholder waa not 

to be heard of in seven or eight days' journey. The marketa had 

little but promions which tbe rulers coupollad tho country -ptwple 

, bring in, and aouetimea took them by force by roaaon of tho 

aDerarporerty reigning among tli«m. Fryer returnt>d to Bombay 

by the K&na pass, a far shorter and easier way than he came. 

Between Juunar and ibe head of tbe pnas he went by three of ShivAji's 

caallee. It was doubtful if the Uoghals could pass by that way. 

' Fr7«r expUina whj th.« guvtrtioir w«i ao tUriedinei] (a reduoe hU anoy. Bo 
k«ptoalj hair the Dominal miutar <rf omh aad drcir thtpay «f (btratt, divUiBg bia 
prafita irith tho notarica wtiA were unl b; Aaraiuicb to ■ee thai no fnuda irero 

laOietninrclyj^t mora than iharaoaef tbs wantry wbUh wtnflary andiaetUmfime, 

lint Tcryjbahiiig probably boOHiue tie oflioenjiiacliBdtbeif borsM'lwUicatoputiDto 

raiair nwB. Tlivr« Mm aatiy Hiailia in Lb« Miighk] nniiy anil uiaiiy Moaalmin* iu 

thivlji'a Kimy, u lh«y tbvaght act of tfaoir coantry but wtioac ult tboy at«. Ilio 

if oahal army wa* cbi«llj> lia([bal cavnlry an<t Oantoo iufwniry with nial«hloek 

riwurta ^nkcir [ia;f «-•• foorteaa monUu behind luunL StUI tMf atayod, lor they 

'ware aare oT tomettuag with Ma«, whU« SbkAji* ruk was Ui« (nobootar'f rule, No 

p9ami<r ao pay. Fryer's £an India aud Pertu, 139, 111. 



[Bombftj OasettMT. 



Ehaptsr VII. 

Paring the lost four yean of his life Clfi??- 1680) ihe 
bis famouti czp«ditioo to tbe Madnu Knrnitak grMttiy 
Sfaiv&ji's power. 

On STiivilji'B Jea-th on tlic Stli of April 1680, Smiiljhfii i bia son 
aod SQCoessor showed Home of his fatner'a vigour and skill in war.' 
He ihcD fell into a life of pleaanre luiil vico, wiwting lo difsipntion 
the wealth which hiii father had atnassed. Kaliuha, hin friend aad 
councillor, raised the land rent by levying many freeh cphmw. Still 
the receipts fell abort of the funncr runtal. Tbo raaDSRCrB of 
districta were removed, the revenue wfta fanned, many landholders 
fled, and spuody ruin tbrcatcufd S&tnlih&ji's territories.* 

Ib 1062 to ravage tbe Koukan a body of T^foglial liorse oudor 
Husan All Kbiin a dviuicod from Ahuiadnajfur by the route of 
JnonftT and deacended the Sahy£dria. In ItrSi, Aurangzeb iasaed 
orHers to levy a poll tax orjixia on all aou-Muliammadau subjects.* 
In 1685 A uran^tzeh ordered Kh&ii Jab^n to place postfl or Ikanas 
in tbo country between Jaimar and tji nbgad. Kb&ii Jubun took 

round, and appointed KhAkar Kh^ as 

tbe same year (168o) n body of troops 

at Juouar was directed to mova 

npport^iuity aud 


connlry betw e e D_ 
Foona and the country 
gOToruor or foitjd'ir.* lu 
stationed under GbfaJ-ud-Di u 
towards Ahniadnaear. "i'tm Mnp^tlj^ seised tWm 
made a rapid maroh northwards and pluudi. 'red BRiacl i! Aurau^Mb's 
rebel BOQ SnltAo Akb itr, whotu SainKtiji treated with thegnataab 
reapect, mstigatiD? if not leading the enterpriao. Be was 
intercepted near t^liAkfln and defeated by the Slogbal forcee.^ 
In ISSti Bijapur [e\l and the Adil Shabi dyoaety came to an end. 
In 1689 AurangRob'8 cninp morod up tbe Bhtma from Ak iuj in 
SboUpur and cantoned at Tulap ur at the meeting of the ludrAyaui 
and llie Bbima^ stxtoen mHo* norlbx^st of Poona. Wbila 
AumngiebwafioninpedatTuIApur, Takarrih K.bdn, who had surprised 
Sambh^ji and biR favoiirita Kalusba at SangumeKhvar iu Ratnllf^ri, 
arrived with bin pri aonerg. The Marilth^ made no effort to rescns 
Sambbiji. KaluWa's oppression and ijambbitji's misconduct had 
iiiitde them hateful to the bulk of tbo people, and even bad bis army 
been disposed to undertake any cntrrpiiae in hts faronr, its loose 
and disordered state would probably have prevented the attempt. 
Wbeu the pn!wner» were l»i-ougbt doao to tbe imperial camp they 
wer« bound and Bet upon cnmols. Uis turban wau taken o9 
Bambbiiji's liead, drums a<id other noisy music aonnded before bim, 
and thoiisauda fli^cked from all nidos to seo his entry into the 
oatnp. Tbo pmonnra wero shown to Anrangzeb and ordered into 
conUDement till their nontenco wan decermiued. Homo of the 
Moghal noblea Hiigg&tted that Sainbbiji'ii life should be spared oa 
a DHUU18 of inducing bis troops to surreoder the forts; Auraugxeb 

> At tbo &mt id kit dntb, Shirtji beltl tim KooJtan from Ouidcvi jn Sunt to 
Ptioada la Kolbipor. except tho «mall poMeuMas of Chn Ptntaautafc tlic Bnriitli, 
aad Ibe Sidi. H« had potto in Klnan ud greit poHMnoau io tli* M>dna Kaindtak 
aiul in 'nui jar. He hela th« WmI Doocui trim th» IlintsynJwiIii m BtJnan to tk« 
ludnljrKDi ta Pboa*. b«Md«i atroog poiati in Ahnuutiuvw, Nsoik, ulRUMlMb. 
Xu SifgmA h«ba<t aornral ouIImim oil cub oendaav«]ual>Ie«KiiiUi. 

• Onat Dufl*. Mftritliia, Ul. » Gnuit DoffBiliuHihW. US. 

■ OranI JhtiTa M>rath&i, US, *8ooU'kDMaw, II 70. 







himself seemed inclined to this ooarse. Bat Sanibh&jij ronwd 
to & AonsQ of hi» disf^ntcv nnd stDDcr with shame and remorS8) 
expected aad wiAbvd for nothing but aenth, aud made ui>e of everjr 
epitbet o£ abuna to itidnuo itutxio r»sb aoldier to kill bitii. In ihiii 
fraiDv of iniud wbi-D Auranfir^cb sent bim a iiie»^«ge oOariag life 
on oonditioa of his becoming a Masnlmin. SambhAji anaiverect : 
Not i£ you Kivc utc your daugblur io marriage, and ended by 
corsinff tha Aopbet. Tbe enraged emperor ordentd a rod-hot ii»n 
to be druwn acr<oii<i bis eyes, hi» tongue to be cut out, and bis head (0 
beaevor^ from bis budy. These orders were pablicly cnrriod out in 
the camp at TuUpar abont the begiuniug of Angiut 1680.' After 
Sambliiiji'a execution R 6jjiritu i, tSauibblji'a younger brother, was 
declared regent during tlie minority of Sanibbiji'o son ^bir^jj, 
afterwards Itnowa as SMhu. In 1 09O R^ygad foi l to the Ihloghabi 
and young ShivAji and hia mother SoyrdbAi were taken priitonors, 
li^jflr^m who was raoriog from plaoe to plac« escaped to Ginji in 
the Karniitiik Hud from Oiajt managed bitt Deccan a&irs. RAj&itfm 
remained in Ginji till 160 8, when he was forced to flee to Vit<bjilgad 
in KolU^tpur. From Vislialgad iti 1699, RdiArtlm, juiuimI by PantAji 
Bbonsla, Uaibatr&v NimbAlkar, Nimiji Smdia, Athavie, Sainshur 
BahAdur, and otber MarAlba commanders, proceeded with a 
gTOAter £orc« thau Shirltji ever commanded, and paseed throogli 
Gangthadi, Ntiader, BeMr, and Khiindesh claiming chauth and 
tartieihrnukhi. When ho had completed his tour, lUj&rdm left 
Kbanderiiv JXbli^de in Bi^Sn or North Nflsik, XemAji Siudia with 
the titlo of Sariavhknr iu Khilndesh, Parsjiji Bhonsia with the title 
ot SenaMhsh Subhe in BerSlr, and Itaibatrdv Nimbdikarin Oangthadi 
to collect, iks was said, the outstanding balauces due to the Kjlja. 

In February 1700, It^jdrAm took Bheltcr in ginfagad, and 
died one month later from inflammation of tha luogn hrooght 
oa by violent exertion. VTheu K&j^r&ai di«d leaving only widows 
and infaute, the powor of the Mardth^a soomud at an end. 
But T^rtliAi, the efder widow, with the aid of Bdmchandrapant 
Am A(ya,'5han kraj i NixAvba, and Ubitittiji Jitdbav Senftpati aeaamed 
the goveruineiit, seated her aon Shivaji a boy of ton on tha cushion 
ai Btttte, and placed BAjash&i the younger widow in couQueinunt. 
TArib£i did not Bx her residence in any one fort but moved from 
place to pluco as seemed adrisable,' Between L700 and 1703, 
Aorangseli besieged Sinhgod. Aiter a three and a half months 

Cbapt«r TQ 





' Grwl Dvff^ Mu«U^ IGO-M ; mmI Orme'* HUtorieal Pn^Monta, 164 
■ A<xorAai^ to Khltl Khin Tlrib4i van tho be>rt of her offioen uid took vigoron* 
mewsn* (or nT«|piig tba inp«ri4l t<imt<>r}-. I» *pitc of aU AonngBtb'* stniKlMi 
and Klieawa, ounpalgM, And •iogat. Hm power of th« UankUU* wwtcd iuMd «I 
vaaio^ They penetrated iDtotba oM itniieniU tcmMric^ nhuidnii^ Hid ikirtnTiiis 
Whenvcr tlwy wul. In imiMtion of tho nniporor, who, with hi* unj and 
entomriiiiif ooMu wm Kt«>iui[ in th« Ueccaa nioBBtkins. tMiM'% «>m«uu*d«n 
cut tha ADohar of penaaaenoe whvrovor thvjr iMMtnXad.miid bftvinjt kppointad 
luBOMMiir* or NrvoBBs eollMton, p*Mwd tho tuna to their utlif*ctloa with their 
wJTM ftnd childron. m»A tents, aiwl •l«phftnt«t 11)«ir duing wtnt bojond all bouiMlA. 
Tho^ divided mil th* dittricta or pirjaiidi kmoog themMlraa, and, foUoving th« 
nrnctfco of tha imperial rula, appotuMd Uialr tittAfddn or praviooUl pntmott, 
«Bmft(a'l(Alra or revraoo cullefUin. and raKMan or toll aolk«toi^ KUft RhAn 
MuDtakhha-ILuMb in Elliot and ttomon, VII. 373-97&. 




bouffbtfrom the com niandaQt 


chsng^i) to BakaLindabfttiili or CrcxI's Gift. The ann^' Imlted for 
A month at FouDH aud the npighbnuritiz villages. At Poena 
prinoo Altiliiul-Mulk tlic> sod of Knm Dakab, llie sod of Aunuigseb, 
died and AuranTy^b rbanged the namo uf Puona to Mubiabad. 
From Poona the Moghal army marched against RAjgad in Blior, and 
bj 17U5 Panuidbar was taken.' In MOb, after bslthif; 7^ months 
Dear Jnonar, tho oniperor qnitted the nciglibuurhood of Pcwna and 
marcbcd tovrardu Bijdpur.^ A» Boon ns tlie Muglia.1 troops witbdrow 
Sbaokriji ^^rAjran Sachiv, the chief inaDu^^er of tiie country 
round, retook tJinhgad and »omo other ])1aoe&.' The loss of 
Siohgttd and of Panhfila in Kotbdpur was a ^eat grief to 
Anrsngseb. It inoreaned the iUndss from which lie vras suffering; 
and from irkich bo rocorflrcd very slowly. ICulfikdr Kbdu was aeot, 
to retake Sinhga*!, ami, before bis departure tho emperor cominitlf>d 
Somblulji's sou Shi&bu to bis charge and ZatGk&r tried to bring tW 
MaritbiUi to bis side by sending Wttors from SliAtiu »& their lafrfiil 
prince. From wjint of suppliea Sinhgnd yielded to ZulSkir, bnt, an 
aooQ 08 he rotired, frum tlia same cause, it was speetlily retaken by_ 
_^ Shaokrdii KAMyan. 

jHU^., In 1 707 on the occasion of ShAIiu'a mari-iage ■witli tlie daaghtcrs ol 

jhMrariaiv the J&dhav of Siodkhed and oC i^iudb the j>dtH of Kinnnrkhodj 

J707. AuraiiB7.^b oouferrod on him Indilpiir and Supn in Poona with 

other uintnct*,* TitrilbAi and bor niiitinttTe took adrantago of tlie 
abaenoe of the main body of the Magbnl anny. Dhaaiiji JAdhar 
defeated Lodikbitn tho oominandant of Poona, and retook Chikan, 
and tho Marilthiis rapidly occupied aa well tu plundered the country. 
In the same yunr (17<)() Aorantneb died , and steps were taken to 
r eletM S ^hu. On his arrival in roona mvaus wcro succcMfolly 
ennpioyeoKi detach DlianAJi from the cause of Tiiriibai Au action 
too* p]ft«e ut the villnuv of Khod twenty-two miles north of Poono 
iu which the Fratintdlii was not supported by Dhan^ii and was 
obliged to fly to SAtiira. Dhonttji joined Sliiihu ai)<1 proovi^cd towardi 
Chandan-Waadaa in Siit&ra. SoAbu sailed the mmilies of all tl 
men of rank who were acting against him; and summoned SbnnkrAji 
I4£rtiyan the Pant Sachir to delirer Piinindhar ^hit^h he had taken 
shortly before; but Sbankr^ji did not obey. In 17)1, as be ittill 
adbored to ihe cause of T&rdbdi, Shihu determined to reduce 
Sbankritji N&rfiyan's territory, which, as it indudt'd Kajt^ad ShirAji's 
fir«t capital, was considered ibo centre of Mar^tlia rule. An army 
was sent townrde Puona and took liiljgad. Shihu was spared the 
{Trent labour of besieging the Pant Sacbir'a other forts by the nowa 
that ShonkrAji had dron'ned himself, it -km said, onb of remorse 


> Khl£ Kbiii .\{uiit>l(Ubu-l-LuUb Id Elliot u,A Dovioii. VIK 373i »i>.l Or 
D>a'•MarltU^ 1T7. ' Qruit DnlTit UaiitlUa, ITS; EUliot>titt Do<*-«od. VII. STt 

■Gnnt DuB'i &Uritbi«. IM. 

* Onnt Dnfl^* Uanktba), )$4. On tlil« ommiod Aorangteb Mnong other jireMnifi 
to Shlbu mvB bim. a nrord b« had biowcU fraqnwitly worn, woid m>4<ir*d t«' 
Rwordi whiati 8bAlia'* a(t«nilMit* )in4 alwaya tirgM t^iutbo to roooror. On« of tba 
wa* Shivtii'v funoM HuvUii, Mid tbe obhwr ltt« tvunl o( JUtol Sbin tbc uBrdcr 
g«Mr>J of Sijlpur ■U el wbiefa wae Ukea at Ravgkd iu ISW. Th«c ivonb 
were in the poasMUon of tbe fUj» of StUn ia 1626, Uttio, 




t>ocnii«c ho hail Sonnd hitnseH by oath to T&rAh&i to Ught ngaiiiBt 
bis lawful prince.' Shiiha with charncterigtic conciliation sent robos 
t>f inrostituro to Sbftnkrftji'H son K&ro Shnnkitr n child of two jeara 
old and confirmed bia niuf<i/i% or deputjr in thnt post llie Pant 
SacLiv's part.^ novvrngAin xwvrrcd from tboir ullu^inncoto Bh&ba.* 

In Marcb 1708 Sh&hn was wtablished at S^t&ra, nnd in 1710 
TirAb&i with ber son Shirtlji * went to Kolblipur and cstabUshcd 
berseH there. Chsodrasen J&dhar, who had been appointed fienapati 
or commander-in-chief on bia father Dhaniji'a death, was sent from 
SfiUira with ft cousiderablowmy to levy the chauih, Bardenhmukhi, 
and gha^dfina from the Uoghal diatncts. On thia ocoadion 
Chandrasen was Attended by his father's a^ent or karhun fidllii 
ViahvanAtb/ the founder of the Peehwas of Poona who was now 
charged with collecliti^ the lUtja'a share of the reTenue, a position of 
control Tory frnlHng to Chandrasen. A dispute about a deer which 
bad been run down by one of BtiAji's horsemen forced B^lttji to See 
for his lifo. He fled first to SAsvad, where the Sachiv's a^nt 
in Pni-andhar did not tliink it prodent to protect him. Hia 
pnrfiaera were in »^ht hot the commander of the fort woidd not 
allow him to onter. With a few followers, among whom wore his 
Ronn lUjir^T and Chimnriji, HCiiaji VishvanAth attempted to croBs to 
Ptodngad fort in tho opposite valley, but the J&dh%T'0 horenion wore 
OQ hia track and searching for bim in every qaarter. Bdlaji mauarcd 
lo hide hiingolf for a few days. Th(vn two ManLth^ Piliiji Jfidbav 
and Dhiimal, two of his eelf-boreed Irooperfi, undertook to carry him to 
a placo of Bflfety, 'J'lioy (fathered a snmil troopof hnrse, and, thnngh 
Utey were attacked on the way and n man on each aido of him hud 
to hold on BfUllji vhn could not ride, they carried him and hia aona 
out of danger. After thi| ChandnuMTii, Bi&ldii's riral, left tho 
Mar&thto and took ei-rrico with the Niziim, and, with the Nizim'a 
help, drove back ShAhn'a forces from the Godivari to the Bhima. 
To wipport hts local troops Shilhu eent 3&Uji whom he di^nilied 
witb the title of nena kurt or army agent. Bdl^ji joined Hailjjttriiv 
Nimbilkar, and they together fell back on Purandhar, A battle 
was fought which the ManUhia claim as a victory, bnt which seems 
to have been a defeat aa they afterwards retreated lo the SAlpa 

Sou». Poona was overrun by a detachment of Ufanlthds in toe 
Iiz4m*8 service under Ram6h6ji NimbAIkar. An agrecraont waa 
made, and, aa was their custom, the Moghal troops retired for the 
rains to Anrangabod. As soon aa thoy were gone, under different 



* AliAnkrlji pMfoTDMd tliB ^lomnuiiM or irst*r-bniri«I by iltdnn tied to * wowUa 
raft which doaiteJ on •mpW jftra piaroad with hob*. A* tlie jam iUIih] th* nft laok 
and th* ptnoa t«ftt«4 «ti tb« nit \n» droKii«d. Uindti il«voc««a wmo rUkcr pwtul 
tothw form of death. Gnuil DalTa Uaritli^ ISO loot. 

' Grwit Dufl". Mtnithi*. 180. 

* In Jnuuary 171'.! Stiivaji, the toa of Tintbil. who WH of weak mind, di«d of 
anull'iHix. l>u Ilia daath T.irabii wu maor**! frxwa tbe Mlmiiu*tnti«D, aad 
Sunliliiji th« MO ol fUiutdl tho yonnRn widow of RljArlm vu nnpoiatMd tn her 
ateMl Tiidbdiaad Bb^viiuMi hor sun'n widow, wliau MtitobAvabMnpnanaatBt 
UiatiRiA of h*r hiaabaiul'ailcatb, irvn pat into c<>ii£Deinmit. 

* B&Uji ViiOivanUb wm Uu> tulhtmi ih- rflluc Docouetant of ShriTftrdhan in 
Jaailrs, » tilla^ than claitncd by tl^s Sidi [ram wliicb in oaa»viiuejic« ci ibmo intriga^ 
rMinedted witb t}i« Sidi'i onraiv Angrin be had ded taSiavad in Foona. U'd wai 
recMnmitDdad to I>h»n*)i J.tilhnv by Abaji Pumnd liars aitd P*r«BtinrAm Trimtak. 

a 1.137-31 




Cl)Bpt«r 711- 

i>irW /Vtthra, 

' '714 -ITO. 

luadon, ibc llariilUlU spretKl vluudoritig over tbc cotiiitry. All tlio 
leading Uiutlu de»hmukks auu lUahfxindiiU iu the Hugltal uarls of 
the Muiiitha oouotr; fortiCeil tbeir villages od pretence o£ deleDdtng' 
them, but often joiiif.'xl und bvtped their <%iimti-yiaea. As Nia^tin-ul- 
Mtilk {iivoutvd tae Kolh&pur part/, Sh^bu's iuflueooe coutiaued to 
dccliuu. Ill (be pi-eviiiljaK onaroby Dauiilji Tliorat, who waa 
atlAL-hetl to tlie cause of KoUulpur, strengliieiied a luuil fort in tbo 
Tillago of Hin^i or Uiogaogaoa, near F&t&s, about forty miles 
eaet of Poona and Icviod oontribationg about thirty miles round. 
B&JAji Viahvandtb, who 8«t oat to rodoce DamAji, was s^duood to 
a ouufcrouoe, ti-cnchcron^ly soizod. and throwu into coofinometit, 
togstber wicb bis frirod Abftji l*uraDdliare, B&l&ji'a two aona 
BjijirAv and ChiiiinAji, and HoveraL of their itumediate retaioen. 
Tbunlt tb^(^a[ouod tbctn witb torture and doutb tf they did not f^y 
a large ransom. Tho mosoni w&h pnid, and (he Sachir waa seati 
agninst DBtnAji. But Iiu ttuh dofootod and biinsoif uud biN cbie^^ 
agettl toade priaoaon. ^H 

Aboat the eaino time Babiropant, Sbihu's minSstor or pe*hvraf 
nndertook an expndiUon into the KoDkan to repel the pirate chief 
Anuria u( Kotiiba. Baliiropnnt nan dc:^feiki<>d and mnclu priiioui^r. 
Angm advanced and took ibt- forta of KiLimichi and Lohogau in ireat- 
Poooa. Angria ioteuded to inarch od S&tAra, but ho was met and 
defeated bj BAliiji. Aft«r the defeat, Itt^lAji, by thsgraDt of ten forta 
end sisteen fortitied placea in tho Konkan, persuaded Angria to 
fonsukt* the cauie of Kolh&pur uud beoome tnbutnrv to Sh&ha.* la 
couaequL'uce oC thta valuable cervice, in 1714, Balaji VishvanAth 
waa appointed Peshwa in place of Bahiropant IHit^le irbo waa 
remoTea. fi&lAji'a friend Abjiji I'urandhare was oonliriQed as bis 
deputy or muta^lik and U^auijipaot ^bilnu the ancestor of the 
celebrated N&ua Paduans aa lua eocntary or fonlitarn*. After 
Obaadraaen JjUlbav deserted to tbe Moghata in 1710, M&n&ji Uoro 
had been appointed Sb&ha's commaoder-in-cliief or aendpati. Siooo 
then he hod porformcd no aervico of distinction. BJil&ji Peehwa 
noiT amvnged that MAntiji, the commandcT^in-chief «Hth IlaibatrAr 
NimbiUkar should reduce Dain&ji ThorAt. Before hostilities began 
Bdliiji BucGuodod in procuring the rcleoso of Damiji's prisoner tbo 
Pant Sachir, and, iu ffratitude for thin senrice, the Pluab Soclur's 
mother presented JtilAji with all tbo Pant Suohiv'a righta ia 
Poraadhar nnd gavo him tho fort aa a place of safety for his fatally 
ivfaofle head-qnarters had hitherto been at S&svad. Tbis traaiiEer 
was confit-DiL-d by SliAbo, Tho force sfsomblvd in the Poooa 
district under Mauuji waa too powerful for Thordt. He waa drivea 
ba«k, Uingaugam hia fort wax Miorniod and dotitroyed, and himself 
made prisoner. In 1715 Bilitit Peshwa induced the Moghal agent 
toT tho Poona district, a Mar^tha named Bi,ji Kodam, to make over 
the superior aathonQ' to bim on tho promiau that KambhAji 
MimbalifAr's estates eboiilil bo roap«cted. Aa »oon as he acquired 
this authority D^l&ji turned bis attentioQ to putting down the ' ~ 


t Tha t«n foTts iFtr<^ KliAnilcii. KolAbk, SavaradurK, Vilayadns, i'jrmii DOTdiirg, 

Kafilkdaru, Fatouail, Auctiitfiid, and ' 

Ikbirojiftd. Kotia, Veakatipd, MAnikaid, aimtd. t 
Khorapttw, lUmiarg, Kajitpur, AulMr.SJitavli, lOmtv, 

vnnUiai^aiMr Mj - 




booters with whom the conotry swarmed, ho stopped reventie" 
farming, and encouraged tillage hy granting leosoa at loiv ratoa. 
NegotiatiouB between ohiUin and the court of Delhi were set on 
foot, ID coneoqiieiioc of which in 1718 Bdldiji, in command of a ?Argo 
contiDgeut, was sent to Delhi to assist tho S&jads. This wan tho 
heginnine of Marilthfi inHiicnro at Delhi with which till 1803 they 
wore BO closely connected. 'Iliu hntUo of Shilhiipur dustroycd tJio 
power of the Sayndn, and established Muhammadiihfib anon the 
throne of tho decajnng umpire. B^dji succeeded in obtaining from 
tho imporia] court thruu gruits odo for the oHanth or one-fourth of 
the whole revenue of the atx *uh}ta4 of the Deccitn, including tho 
UaidarBlMtd and Biiripur ttirritories, the Kuru^tAk, uaid the tributary 
states of Tanjor, Trirhinopoli, and Maisur, and a second for tho 
tardttukmuhki or additivmu one-tenlh of the Deccan revenue. The 
third ^aut was for (be Hvardj or home-rule by the MarlithtU of 
sixteen districts, which they stated Shiriiji held at the time of his 
death.* Under this arronr^meut almost the whole <^ Poons, Snpa, 
B&r&mati, Ind^pnr, and Junuar hecaoie part of bho Murdtlia home- 
rale. In reward for bis aerTicea on the occasion BiiUji VishinuiMh 
r«eei7cd seveml d)9trict4 near Pooob in peraoiud grant or jiUfir 
including the fort of Lohogad. 

Not longafter (1720) Chiukulicb Kh4n, better known as tho Niz^m- 
nl-Malk, who, after tho ninrder of the einneror Ferokahir, had been 
appointed fforemor of Miilwn, revolted, nnd cro4(--<infr thoN&rbadaand 
defcatine the imperial forcua at Bnrh^npur and BdUpur, mndu hiuiM;lf 
tndoponaeDt in the Dorian. U^ji's health had 9.ulTei-ecl considerably 
from the futigue of the jonmoy to and from Delhi nml ihu lubour he 
bestowed on the management of affairs after his return. Ho was 
allowed to retire for reat tojiis family aeat at S^vod, where be died 
inafewdftTsin April 172). He lefb two sous, B&jirAr and Ohiinniji^ 
and two ilatighlors Bhiub^ married to Abdji Naik tho brother 
of B^nji HiSak, a rich banker of It^iimati, and AnnnbtU, the 
wife of NArAyanwlv Uhorpado of Ichnlkaranji in the Bombay 
Kam<ltak, For oeai4j seren montbsaftor his father's dcnth Billiiji'a 
eldest SOQ IMjir^T was not formally invoeted with the dignity of 
Peshwa. At lost Bajirttv receirod his robes, bis brotbor Chimniiii 
received the command of an army ander the Peshwa and the district 
of Supa in gmut or J<igir, and Abajinanb Pnraiidluire, thi' 
futhcr a head a^'out, was rcinTGetod by Sh^n.' Soon alter his 
appciiutment lUjir&v Peshwa set oat with au army for Kh&ndeah, 
but, till 1724, he was forced every yeur tu return to fjiltiiru. 
UdjirAv's great design was to extend Jdarstha power in ^ortb 
India.' In a debate before Sh^u he mid| Now is oar time to 
flrivestraDgOTsfrom the la-ud of tho Hindus and to gain undying 

* Tho urarti} or hotne-riile iliatriota wcra P<xwa, Hops {noludiiis BlrlnwiU, ladtaWt 
VAi, Uie MivaU, SiUni, lUrliAil, Kb>Uv, Mdo, PlialUu, MnllOpar. TUl*, FMUb, 
Air*, Jiuutv, aiid KoUiApui ; Utv parjnnilii at Knpul, l>adj«, llaljlU. aad ail tha lorta 
wnioh wore cu»tur*il bj ShivjUi to Uio uurUiutLheTuiubliAiIra, miiI RimiuKu ia tka 
Koiilun indnJing Outilvri, JawbAr, dwul, BhimgMC Hbitruili, K*l]rin, (Uipnh, 
Dibhol. JivU, RsjApnr, rtiODda. AkoU, sad Kadi). Themi nhlid* of the Ueocwi wera 
Annm^bad, Bodkr. Benlr, Hijitpur, HaidM«,liiid, onil KhAndcah, yidding ut Mtiinil«d 
vevenneof Rt-I8,<K.I7.%(^ Ih* MrrfMJtmiwUt on whiah wu lU. 1,80,^1,730, and Um 
ekaaih Uid othet- H^hU (U. 11.75,16,763. Oraat DaflTa KurAtkU, 900. 

■■I Una% VaS't MwithAa. 2Ua * Gnat DudPi ManUlida, SIC, 



Srttmd PnSn 

rSombay CwEattetr. 






la* A'dmOMtAfb, 
"hird />«*««■, 

renown. B; tumiiig our efforts to HmdtiDlio llie Mariitliii flag 
eiialX fly fruin tlio Krisliutt to the Attok. Let ub strike at the trunk 
of Iho Trithi'riug tree and the branches must fall of llieiitselve!]. 
Sli&bti for the tnomont rouUHl to somelUiag of his frrsadfalhcr's sptnt 
repliw]. You shall p)aat my flag oa the Himfilayiia. Yoa are a 
nolilo HOn of n worthy fftthor. At this time &«Tera] Maratha ofBoere, 
who nFt«rwunl8 bccatnc iadependeat leaders or fonnders of states, 
row to distinction. The ohiof of tbeso were MalhArji Holkar, the 
ancastor of thu Rolknniof Indar tbea ckau^ula or s&aistant hoadmao 
of tbo villacc of Hoi on the Nira, Rrinoji "Siudia the ancestor of the 
Sindiia of Qwdlior. thu Pvshwa's slipper-bearor, Uil&ii Pov£r the 
aDcoabor of tho Puv^ns of Dh^r an enterprising wamor of M&lws, 
and Ptl&ji GAilcwdr the son of Dam^ji U^ttwAr too aQ««ator of the 
Btirodu Giiikwttm.' la 17m BajiMv remainecl at Poocii nttd 
employed himself in the intemal management of Alar&tha affaire. 
His Tiotory over hi* rival TrimbakrAT DdbhAde tbo Mnrdtha 
comuiaiidei'-in-chief or Semipati like the isEme of erery cirtt war 
left uufrieudly fooliogH in mBny minds. BAjirAv took every meana 
to rfgniii guodwill, among others contiociag DAbb&de's practice of 
feeding some thousand Bnihtnans for i-ov«ra1 dayn. Thia charitable 
practicu Bttjtrjiv continned at I'oona and gave sumii of money at 
the flame timo to the ajwembled ShAstris and Vaidika. This festival 
waa coDliaued by bia aucceesors and mus known by the aame of 
Vakehina or mouBy gifta.' In 1734 HH&ji wan must eacaousfut in 
the Dorth gaining MAtwn and tho U-rritory between the Chamb«l 
and the Nuri>ada, aad, in 1789, bis brother Chimn&ji drove tbo 
Portuguese from alinoKL nil tboir iMiding poBsaasions in the N'ortb 
Koukau. MjirAv died in 1740. He loft three aons, B*14ji tbo 
eldetit who succeeded biin a» Pewbwa, RrtghanitbrtlT tbo second 
afterwards eo well known to the GngtiEti, and Jantirdao Bdvu who 
died in eurly youth. He lott on© illegitimate son by a Muhamroadau 
niolber whom he bred as a Aliualmlln and named ^amsbcr-BubAdur. 
Bajir&v was ambitiouB, a thorough soldior, hardy, self-denying, 
p«]-aeveritig, and patriotic. Mnrittba pictures rcpr^-»ent biiii <«ting 
fried Jvdri ears or hurda an he riilejs at the brad of a troop of 
Uai-iitha Botdiere. He waa no unworthy rival of Niaam-al-Mnlk, 
and wielded the mighty arm of Maratha power with ineomparablo 
energy. While the main body of his army remained encampea on tho 
Sbivgauga, Itaghuji Bhunala the Sena Saheb Svbha or commandor-in- 
chief rutii rued to Sittara, and ende&ToUTed to prevent BAl&ji ^j^^'<^ 
eucceaaion aa Pealiwa by proposing for the TucauL office Bitpujt 
N4ik, a Brfibman banker of Bir^ali, a conoection bur, an enemy 
of the lat« Pesbwa who waa B^pnji'a debtor for a largo sum. 
Chiefly by the help ol his uncle Chimnilji, Bfiliiji's claims prevailed, 
and he waa inveatod in Axigaat 1740. The disappointed Bipajt 
Nilik at Brflt pressed BiSlaji hard to pay bis father's debts. BiiKji 
waa roticTod from thia annoyanco by the influence and credit of his 
agent or dira'ii, Mabddlijipant Purandbai-e. lu 1741, on the death 
Ofhia ancle Chimniji, BAIAji Posbwa roturaed from the northern 

• Oruit Ttoffm Manltliis. 2(5. . , ,_ 

' GtKiit Mi.t*l!i»», 205. TUiB dattMnn fond li o"* «■" '•^ ^"^ _5 

rern*cuUr IiUraliirc *u>l (wovtdiiig I«U«vi»hij* in ibe two «t» n'UtS«* '•» '^0» ' 






dntriofet Uiid W40t nearly u year in !inproving tho civil iidm in let ration 
of PoonftUd Bil^ra From thin till 174o, a tiino of compnrauve 
quiet iu tlie Deocson, BillAjl ODcoamgcd ugriculturo, protoctod the 
TillugierB ttnd ffrain moruliantSj and caused a inurlccd improvement 
iu the BtaLo of the cotuitry. 

Sh&ba died io 1740 and was sttcoeeded by R&m Rdja, tlia 
po&thuinoii* 8011 of tbe second Sbivtiii whose birth in 1712 wu kept 
^ B secret. Before Ms donth lU14ji obtAiued a deed from Shdfau R^ja 
""wipowering liim to manage tbe Mar^tba empire, on condition of 
p&^tuaiing the R&jn'a name and Iceepioj; np the dij^uity of the 
nouBoof Sbir&ji through thograadsonof THr^b&iandbisdoaceDdauta. 
BiWji left the RAja in Raghuji'achargpanrl went to I'oona, and from 
thistimo IV>riualjocaino the CftpiUl o f tbo Mnrittba empire. TArabSi, 
vrhom BaiajnuKnumoSr ovcTtookod, ollhoogh soveatjr years of age, 
ihowfld him how dangerous it was to alight n woman of bor spirit. 
Oo protenco of paying ner doTotions at ber hnsband tt^jdrjm's tomb 
in the fort of tSmhgad, nhe endenvourod to perenade the Pant Sachiv 
.to declare for her as ihv head vf the Mardtba umpire. After mucb 
uaaion BAIiji induced TarJth^i to come to Poona, and, flattering 
br ninbitioii wilb the hope of a largo ahare in thu administration, 
]>L-rsaadt)d her to uaa bor infiuunce with B&m lUlja lu confirm bia 
achemes. The Mardtba cbtefa were snbiteTTicnt to the Peahwa'» 
views and were nob likely to cnuso opposition. BilUji owed much 
of bia success to bis miuiater or dirin, Mah^dajipant, who, except 
BnddMbivriiv bin cousin bud nnjrv intbionco tbiiii iiiiy ouo orvr Btifiji. 
Tbrough SadoKbivrdva influence, Kam Riija tbe new SitHra cbief 
a^oud to renounce tbu entiro power, itnd Iv lend hia sanction to 
whatever measures the Pcshwa migbt pursue. Alter BilAji'ii scheme 
had 80 far proHpored, it wja nearly ruined by u quarrel between him 
and bia coasin Saddahirr&r. ^ad^abivr^v applied to B&Uji for the 
Hiimo share of authority a» bad l>con enjoyed by Sad&shivniv's father 
Cliimniiji Appn. To tbisBt&blji wonld not i^roe na bo wna anxions 
that tho aeoond place should be held not by Sad&Hbivriv but by 
MahtUldjipant Purandbare to whom BtU&ji waenndordoepobligiUiona. 
^BadiishiTriLT in anger accepted the poaition of Peshwa to the chief 
of Eotbftpnr. Aa ibiu qaarrrl wan likuly Konotiuly to weaken the 
power o£ tJie Peshwa, Ma.hMajipnnt gave np bia poat and 
SadAabivriv came to l^oona m tho Pcshwa's minister or divdn.^ 

In 1750 Biil&ji Peshwa arranged that the Pant Sachiv nhoald 
give biui Siubgad in nxvlmnge for 'tunfg and Tikonu in Wo)(t4-n) 
Poona." He then marched with au army towardti Aurangabad. 
Id 1751 as DamAji GiLikwir did not comply with B^l^ji's commands, 
tho Pesbwa, sent prirato orders to aeuw aome of the GAikwdr and 
Dabbado Families, who were living at Talegaon, and imprison them 
in tbe bilUfort of Lobogad. Ha also treacherously surrouDded, 
ittackod, and plundered Dninaji'a camp which was near faitn at 
~ ' %, and kept him iu uotifiaemeot in the city of Poooa.' During 





> Grant XtafTw Martlhi*, "TI.STZ. ' Gmot DolTs UantthU 27l-27'i. 

*In oooMqucDue at tlii« treach«ry Dunaii ii nid eit-r afur to litre r«fiiMd to 

'ilntliaPwkwaexoeirt with his l«fth*B<i CraalDurs hUntbU.Tii. 





tli<} same yoar (1 7-'>l ) llw tfoghn.1s, juipportocl hj tlie Prencli, aclTanced 
towardfl Poona, totally deetroying every village in tbcir routo. 
BAUji, atlhrmed at tbeir progrms, ondunTourod to negotiate, and at 
the saane time to aronM susptcioD and jealousy of the Frent-ti araoof 
Salibat Jh[i^« officers. Mouaieur Buttfij^} tlit; French gviivr»l,ftHthe 
best meoaa of oonntcrooting sucfa Bobomea itml aucuriD^ mfluetico with 
Ike NiiAm, exerted htnuielf with JDdgmeDt and mtergy. He planned 
an oUack on tbu MnMtlia cnmp at KAjuptir on tbu Ultod livur on tbo 
night of the 22iid of Nuvombcr, ut the mumeDt of an oclipso of tlia 
mooo when the Uindae were at prayer. Tho Mordtlia urmy flwl 
befoiQ him, and though only one man of couseqaunoo was wounded, 
some mlnablo booty vhm taken particularly aomo guld vuMti'ls 
bclout^ng to the Poshwa. This sacceBS added greatly to Busay'a 
reputation. J n spito of the surprise, next day the MuriLthlis wore 
as active as ever. Still the Moghala pressed ou, plundered KAujau- 
ffBon, and totally destroyed '^loi^aon DAbhodc. At last on tho 
27tL of NoTomber tbey were attacked by the Uar&tbis with the 
ffroatost detormination, and nothing bnt too French artiltary &avod 
tesm from totAl defeats The Jkfar^lhAa were led by MahidAjipatit 
Pomodhare, the lat«f >Hvnn, supported by the two »ons of Iwiioji 
Biodn, DattAji, and Alahddji, and by Konher Trimbak Ekbote who«o 
feata of valoor gained him the title of Phiikde or the hero. 6tiU tbe 
MogrhnU pTOMed on to Eorognon on the Bhima. Negotiations wore 
opoaod but woro atoppod by tbo oc-vrs that tbo Mar^tblLa bad taken 
tbo Moghal fort of Tninbak in N&stk. SaUbat Jung demandod that 
tho restoration of Trimbak should fonu part of aity sottluinunl. Thia 
Biliji refnaed and the Mogbals moved tuwards Junnar continually 
baniaaod by the Uardih^ At la.-4t an itrmisiioo waa concluded . 
and tboMoghuls rcturni'd to llaidarabadtt752). Durbg the next.^H 
year kho aruii^tice was turned iuto a (l^acc. Buluji returned to S 
Poona and Boou after propaixid a largo ftircu for on uxpudition into 
the Karn&tak which turned out to be the uioitt proBtublo in whicb he 
was ever engaged.* Dcforc bo loft for tbo Kuruitiik B&\&\\ endea- 
voured to arrange a coin promise with TArAluU against whom » (ores 
bad been sent in tho previous year. La Jnne 175'! BAUji returned 
to Poona from the Knruilt^ak. DomAji Giikwtlr, who had been 
imprisonod at Ponna since l7ol, was anxious to procure his release, 
and IMIiij i no tcrod into terms, when, among other puintK it was arranged 
that Damdji ahanld pay a Hum of £150,000 (Rh. 1.5,00,UOO), khonld 
set apu-t for the Pe»hwa half of tho territory conquered by him in 
Gajarat, and should pay a large sum oh deputy comniAndei-- in-chief. 

In \7h\, with the object of guiniug poHsettsion of Snrat then the 
chief centre of trade in Western India, RaghunAthr£v, BAliii'a 
brother, bad been acntto Gujarfit, but was recailod witbout offcctong 
bis object Notbiug more was done till at the close of the rains o! 
17&4, to spread MardiLha power iu Gujardt and to carry oat tbe 
Rottlement made with Dam^ji, Koghuufitfiriiv atariod on a Bocond 
expoditioa to Gujantt. Shortly after a second expedition which 
B^fiji ocoompanied for some diataoce in poraoo proceeded to tbe 

> Uiuit I>nirB UMAtlid^ 360. 



Koniutak. Bul^ji, wlio ntu nalnrally iadolent, left ^he burden 
of military aSairs to liia brother I{ag;]iuiifltbrdv atid tho oivU 
adiuiuutntioQ to his cuuiiiii Sudlitiliivnlv. For more than the life 
of a mail pluiiiler and violeuce lud beea RDueraL Au improTOiDOnt 
waa bttfi^uQ at this time by RAtnchaudra B&ba Sbeuvi tUo £rieud and 
advitier of tSadiialiir and altar hiti d«atli was carried on by SadiUbiT 

In March 1753, Itaghnji Bhonela tho Sena Saheh Sttbha diod. 
Before his death be coaneellod his son to proeervo unioa in the 
ManUha empire. Soon after, with the object of bt'ing confirmed 
in hie father's office, Roghuii's eoo JduQJi came to Poona. Encouraged 
by Jinoji's approach, and, on tho Poshwa's aesaranco of safety, 
TitrAb^ii^ tlio ngod head of the S&tAra state, came to Poona. Sho 
va« recsired with greab attention and agreed to the Peshwa'a former 
: propoula IlAUji professed mucKHiixiHiy fdrtfaoreleaaeof RdmRttja^ 
the S&t&ra chief, who was thoD in ccmtinumeitt id 8^ra fort. Bo 
preModtlio point, being aaxions that H»m RAja ahould be kept ill 
ooafinemeat and judging tluit to profoes tho opposite view was 
the tikelieat meanii to bring Tiinib&i to take the course ha wished. 
This oiilculntiou wtm corrvut and tho chief roiaaiuinl a priisonor. 
Jiboji Bhousla agreed to the temiB snbscribed by his Father. He 
nndertook to furniith 10,000 horse for the aerrioe of the xtate and 
to pay £90,000 (Rs. 9 IdAlvi) a. year to meet tho cost of the 
eetaolishment of the 6&t4ra chief. Jdnoji was forru^y inveatecl 
SB 8ma H'jhei; Subha, aitd BiUAii approved of the treaty J/lnoit 
lisd made in 17i>I with Alivardi Kh&n of Uaidarabadj under whica 
the ilar&tb&s were to receive a share of the reTenuea of Orissik. 
Jinoji then loft for Berfir. 

In July 1756 R^Uji Peehwa returned from an expedition into the 
EarnitaK, Shortly uflor BitUii'ii retam Uosafiar Khan, who had b«ea 
difitnisaod from the Ni7jtni» service appeared at Fooua, made 
humble apologies to the Peshwa and promwefl of good conduct, and 
watt u^a L-utortaiuod contnuy to t>adilahivriv'» advice. In April 
ITSO the capture of Angria's stronghold of Gheria or Vijaydnrg in 
Ratn^ri and the destmotion of Angri&'s powur at seft was tho 
first schiovenient which raided the English to importance ns a 

Klitind power in Western India. A land force Mftbo Pcahwa's 
d uctcd with the English fleet. They bad givon little aid and by 
intrigceB with Angria had tried to Beotit« QhertafortheniRelvoa. This 
attempt was discovered attd prevented by the Englinh, and thoEngUab 
wore it] tho strong position of holding Gheria of which B&litji wm 
moat aaxions to gain pOBCeasioD. In Octuber 1 7^C, Mr. John Spencer 
and Mr. Thomas Byfield, memberfl of ilie Bombay Council, came to 
Poona and had a long interview with BAl&ji Pcahwa at which 
RaglmnfitJirAv the Peahwa's brother and Sadishivrfiv the Peahwa'a 
ooQUD were preisentL Aa news had reached him that M. Bussy had 
been restored to power at Uaidambod BJUdjl wa8 aiixious to obtain 
tho sorviceB of a body of English troops. To this Mr. Spencer waa 
instructed not to agree, though, at the tfomt: time, he was to let the 
Peahwft know that Salilbat Kh^n bad been asking the Madrae 
j GoTemment to sopply him with i^nglisb troops to aid liim in 



(BoDtUiy OutfkoJ 


driving ont Ihe French. Biilfiji cxTir(<saed strong (It sapproTtl of 
alliance between tbeEnglisli ftnii tboNixfim. Undern trentjr 
oatlie iZihdit October 1756 B&lw Mpreed to allow the Dsl 
BO sltAr« in the tr^e of tbo MorAliin a<Mniotons, and tl»o 
■greed to ced« Gberia to BAl&ji recciring id ctcban^ ton 
inelnfUug tUnkot in tho Centnl Konkon and tho soverei^^ 
B^nkot riven BdUJi engsgod to ^to qo toiritoiy to Aogmnd 
settle with tho Sidi of Janjim regnrdinff his costoms dues in 
Bdnkot liver. He also agreed to waivo nJl otftinis on the Enj 
company aud to levy on GRglinh morchandiso no additional ~ 
datioe.' Shortly after (17&6) IlaK^ninithrdT, with S4UEhantm Bim 
u hia agent or Jitdn started for HindtLst&o. Tboy weru joined q 
KalhiriT Holkar, and together ftdnuiccd to Belbi And broke tk 
power o{ Ahmad Abdalli who wm forced to rotiro to AfjgbaoiitMk 
ThiB, thongh ono of tho most Bocoogsfiil of 31arAtiw caznpaigH^ 
■WBB costly, and wrs not renmrdcd wilh any larg« share of btwl?. 
At the doM of 17->(1 BAliji led an army south to tho Kamitu. 
and crosKed the KriMhoa io February 1757. Mfanwhiln newa bad 
coma that tho Kngliah wore in trnublo in Calcutta, and that war liad 
broken out in Kuronobo4vruen Eiiglnodnud France. This CMtsei 
a change in B&Ujis attitude to tho English. He wrote to the 
Madras Ooremmont, forwnrdinga letter to tbo king of Eoghuid, 
writtvii with much less (rictidlincKS than he tad rHowq ia tk» 
negotiations with Mr. Spencer, and. in Bpile of tho prorifiioD ia 
the 1756 treaty afrrceiug to waive all claims on the English 
Coinpanjr, B«kiDg for the trtiAHure and stores which the Engliih 
had carried off &om Gheria. This reijnest was probably mada 
not iu the hope of getting the Uheria spoils, btit preparntoty to 
demands for a share in tho revenues of the Moghal provincea of 
tbo caatem or FAyin Ghlt that is lowland Kamlltak in whicli tba 
English had now a direct interest. About May 1767 BilAji 
returned from the Karo&lok with the greater part of his anoy 
fiuocesxftil to Poena. 

During the next two years BAUji took a considerable part ia 
BnidKrAhiid afFairs where a plot was on foot to canso a revolation 
and drive out the French. In March ITfii' BAliSji succeeded for a 
time in kcoping the English from takinR Siirnt castle, bnt through 
tbo abilJIj of .Mr. Spencer and tho military talents of Admiral \Vat«oa 
tbo castle and with it tho post of Moghal admirAl passed to the 
English intbe same year. At I'oona the civil administration continued 
under Ihe managomontof •SudfUhivi-fLv. IJikl&ji's cousin. Sad&shivrtlv 
was Tiolcnt nnd grasping but active and vigorons, nnd though proad 
and unbending, bad a large shn rt* of ii^oS nat ure and good sense. He 
was open to bribes hot not nuder circumatnnofts to which Mahitha 
ideas ultiu:bfi] shame. Slkta^hivrfiT hnd a bitter cnoiny in BAI&ji'a 
wife Gopikdbiii, who foarod that SadAshivriir would prevent her sons 
&om goiniDK their proper position and power In the stato. To 
remore her kstb SadishivrtLv was urgent in rcoommouding to Biliiji 

) Onmt PnfTa «arttlri>, 398; 






tlie early employment ot liis eldest eon VishvfarAv m war and in 
civil nffairs. In apiie of Sml&Uiivriy'B goodwill in tlitH matUirj 
Gopilc^biii nnraed nbittor dislike of Sad&aaivt&v and did what 8Le 
ctinid to arouse uiifrit>Ddly feelings between him and her bnHbond 
IJhUji. This ill fonlbig did not tarn to opeo discoartesy till tbe 
returnof Itugimtltbnlvfmm NurthIndJaiuI7u9. SadAshivrtlT blaoseil 
an arrangomeotof R&giiii&thr&v's which bad cixnsodaloss tothestAte, 
and Kagiiti^tliri&v left bini iu anger telling him he lia<l betttn* take 
command of tbe nest expedition. Ilio qaarrol between [Ugonithniv 
and Sadd8hi7r&v upread to other members of the family, and tho ill 
feoliiiR became still stronffer after an attempt on SadAshivriv'a life 
by MusafTar Khilu whoni,ct»tHrary to SadilahiTriv'sadviceiBiliji h;nj 
ren-ired back tu favour. I'hore was no proof that either Baliiji or 
IlA^uniithr^T wa.1 a pnrty to the plot. In 1 7G0 tho arrangetneut which 
had been suggeslud by Ragunlithrdv iu anger, tliat fUgbuD^tbnlT 
HhouldtakoSa(Uahivr^7*aplaceattboheadofcivilaffairaia theDoccan 
and that Saduhivrilv should take Bagon&tbr&T'B place at tho head of 
tho Uar^tha Army in North India was carried out. Before Sad^birr&v 
left with hia army for North India, news came of the success of sn 
intrigue for the snrrender of the atronp fort of Ahmadnagiir, which 
for a sum of money wtui betrayed into the hands of a Br/ihmaa 
agent of Sad&ihivrAv's by K&ri Jnng the Mughal commandant. 
This act of trcuchery brought on a war with tne Ntziim. Biiliiji 
marched with a laivo army to Ahmadnsgar, and SadiishivrJiT moved 
eastnardx. The Moghal army under Sahlbat Jang and Niiifim AH 
met BdlAji's army at Udgir on tho bunks of the Mlinjra atwnt 
one hundred miles cast of AJimadaagar, and chiefly by the brilliant 
couragu of Sad^ahirrfiv ended in a soToro defeat to the Nizdm. 
Under the terms of n treaty concluded nfter this important rictory, 
Shivner in Pooua> Daulatabad, Asirgad, BijAnur, and the provtoco 
of Anraog&bad were made over to the Mar^tliia. These territorie.i 
yielded an estimated yirarly revenue of over £C20,000 (Rs. G2 
lakhe). Of the whole territory portions yielding an estimated 
yearly revenue of £410,000 (Rs. 11 Idkkg] were according t-o tlie 
Peahwa's practice granted as military ostat«s or jdqir a. Towards 
the cio«e of 17l>0 Sud&thtvriiT marched to North Incjia in comnund 
of Lbu richest army which tho Mar&tb&i over assembled. In the 
middle of January 1761 news of tho ruin of the MarMh^ at 
Pduipat reached Po»hwa BAlnjir&v in the God^vari v^ley. The 
measage ran : Two pearla have been dissolved, twenty-seveo gold 
mo/iarv have been lust, of tho ttilver and onppcr the total cannot 
be caal up. B^liji imderatood that the two leadera his cousin 
BadilsUivf&v and his eldest tton TitthvlUrlv were slain, nnmbcrs 
of his nobles lost, and tbo mas» of the proudest army the Mar^lh^ 
ever put in the field deidroyed. BAliji retired slowly to Poona. 
The blow crusbud him, his mind gave way, and he diud in the end 
of June in the temple he had bailt on Parrati hill cloita to tho south 
of Poena. 

. Thoogh under BalAji tho Mnrlitha power waa at ita highest, 
and though tbe Mardlhils pmiso tho time of Ins rule, BiUji owed 
more to his fathc^r and ^andfnther and to his brother Kagbnuithrtiv 
and his cousin SndilshivrAv tban he owed to himwlf. He was 








ChAptor VII. 


FovriA /'uAm, 

mi- ml. 

la^y sensual and dbsipAted, but kind geseroiia aact cliAritable. He 
loved intrigue nii<l hftted violence. Ho had great address, polished 
mauDera, aod considerftblo politico) aogacity, tempered bj a ounning 
which pnssed for wisdom. Though perbaps less welUonlered tfaan 
it becaino about thirty years later under N&ua PadnaviA, under 
BAlAji IWjintv the administriition of the coimtrv round Poons waa 
greatly improved. Biliji VisLvanAth the first Peshwa (1714-1720) 
bad done good bv Btoppiiig rerenue-&rming, by grtititiQK land on 
cheap le-iKM, iLnd by enconraging villagers to protect thetuaelra^J 
froDi the cxaciious <j£ petty chiefs. Still, tit) about ]7&0. the oount^H 
round Poona was full of turbaleuce and disorder. B&Uji BAjir^^ 
appointed mo'tnlaliiiin and aubheddr* to the difierent districts and 
orer them in the more distAnt pnrts placed a narsubhedar or 
provincial governor. Foona and the other lands between the 
uod&van and the Krishna, though the beat protected terri lories 
Qodor M«rAtha rule, bad no governor. Instead of being under a 
governor th«j wore under the Pesbwa'a favourites and oonrtiers, 
who hod absolute police, revenne, and iadicial power. They alayoil 
at court, governed by deputy, allowed their districts to fall into 
disorder, pojd to the state bnt a small share of their revenues, and 
fnraiahed no ncoonnU. IWU^ji B&jir&v waa too indolent to refo 
thoBO abuses. Bnt Sad^ahivriv, acting ou a policy which was Rta 
by Bdrochandm BHba Shenvi, appointed a governor or garavbhed.- 
and, in spite of opposition which in one case bad to be met hy for 
oonipell<«d the ninnagera of the districts to produce their aoeoun' 
and to pay tho atate its shore of the revenue. A respectable 
ShSsf ri wo-s plapod at the head of juRiice and the police was greatly 
improved. Thcso rcforma and the Pbshwa's aiiccasa in war, which 
enriched the'Dcccanwith the spoils of great part of India, improved 
the atate of tho people. The Manitlta peasantry have ever since 
blessed the days nf Bil&ji BAjinlv, or oa ho was commonly called 
NAna Saheb Pcshwa.^ m 

Thongh power liad so entirely passed from tho SAtira chief tiJi 
he bad to get leave from the Peshwa to appoint an agent to collecf 
bis dni»« K* hereditary iitahraukh of Indiipur, BiUji's second son 
Mfidhavriv, then in his seventeenth year, in Sontember 1761 werut 
to SAlara to receive investiture. The yonng Mitdhavr&v and his 
nnole Ragliuiiitthi-Av who was appointed regent had to faee the 
difficulttea which the ruin of Panipat had bronght Hpon tho heads of 
the Mfinitha empire. Tlie fimt difTiculty was in the Konkan whor^ 
the English sided with the Sidl of Jaoiira, saved his state fn^H 
destraceioQ by tho Marith&s, and forced tho Mar&thike to restoff 
part of tho Hidi's hinds which they had taken." Baghun&tfariT 
agreed to theiie terms because he know that N'isilin Ali was collecting 
a large force in the hope of winning hack the tcrntoriei^ which had 
been lost to Boidarabad by the defeat of Udgir in 1760. The 
Pcshwa's finances were low and the Mar&tba nobles held b 
from coming to the Pesfawa's help. Kaghun^tfar^v, in the h< 

t, and 


* anat DuITi U«r<lhi*. M7. ' i\tt.«K. Dura Uudtfaia, M0-3S. 

' Grant DvtfTt, MutthAs, 324. 




of securing iko services oC Buglisli Lroops, uffcred Uio Boinl]»y 

y60T6miQE>at largG ressioDS of territory near Jambusnr in Gujarit. 

'^hat iho BijinWy Oovcmment M,-BDteu was the i»lim'l of S^sottc but 

^this JtHglmD&tlir&v was iDoat unn-illiDg to give. While oegotiationit 

' Went on, the Moghnl Htmy li&d admuced olo»e to Ahmudnngnr- At 

Toka about fortv-five mileii oast of Abmadaugar tlio MtiuUmtoa 

E:deetro3'ed somo itinilu tompteH, and most of the Maratli^ in thvir 

lanny desorted to iho i'vshwu curryiuff with thtui Mtr Uoghal 

NiziiD-ul-Mulk'a youngestt boq. The MogliaU, though opposed with 

spirit, coalitiued to stdvanco- At liuit ia 176^, williiti (ourteoo mites 

• of Poumi, Degotiationfl were opened and on the cession of laad in 

Aurnngabftd *ud Bodur yioldiug £270,000 (Rs. 27 hikka) ■ year the 

Mogbulurmy retired. \N'hen the danger from the Moghals was at 

an end Rai^lmnithrir's anxiety for Englifth soldier* ceiucd, ojid 

tho oegotiutiuQs about ceding Sdlaette to tbo English wore rudely 

broken off.' 

When the treaty with the Nizam nas coacIudi>d, MadUavrar the 
yonng Pe»Kvru, attoudod by THmbakr^v Mdma tha uiatiiTnal uuctv 
of the late Sadtohirriv, was sent Houth to collect the rerenue, and 
NiKim All retamied towards Bodar.- Shordy after M^dharrtlT 
retamed to Poona, bis anxiety to share in the ud ministration 
brought on disputes bolweeu him and his uncle Haghtiu&thriiy. 
RaghuudibrfLv, Sakhdrtiin BbagavaDt Bokil better knovrn as 
SakhAram Bapu, and seroral other ministers resigned. U^havrdv 
prwsptiy iwkud Trioibakrdy M4ina to act as minister or d<vdn, 
and next under TrimbHkrAv appointed Gupdir&v Goviud Patvardhan. 
J^girdltr of Miruj. At the snmo time Miitlltiivrftv chose as hiu 

etrBonal agents, or kdrkutu, Haripant Phadke and BaUji Jan^rdao 
binuj afterwards the fai&ous Nana Fadnaris. The failure of his 
plao to force MidharrfLv to keep him in power and the mutusl 
hati*edof i.nandib&iBaghmiathr(Lv'8wifeaod Cropik&b^i MlldbavrlLv'a 
motiier 80 enraged llaghimathriiT that he retired from Ndsik to 
Anrangabad, and on promise of ceding Daulatabad, Asirgadj 
Ahtoaoiiagar, Shivuer, and territory yielding £310,000 (Be. H 
Idklu), he was assisted by a Moghal army, with which half<way 
between Poona and Ahinadciagar ha met and defeated Hildhavr&v. 
M^dhavrdv saw that a war between him and his uncle mast cause a 
complete Hplit in the Mariihn statA. He accordingly threw himself 
into ftnghuuiithrdr's power. who pluced him iocontioement but treated 
him with respect. RaghaodLthriT, being now in uucontroUed power, 
appointed SakhtU'&m Bapu and Nilkaalbrfir Purandharo his principal 
ministers, bestowing on Sukhir&m an estate worth £90,000 
(Ra. laltha] and giving Kilkaothrir the command of Paraadhar 
fort, Ho raised his own infant son Bfadskarriiv to the office of 
PratJnidbi or deputy, and made K^ro Shaokar his deputy. These 
and other changes gave much offence, and, wheu, to gratify 
personal hatred, Uaghun£thr&v took the fort of Mimj from. GopJilrtlr 

Clwpler V| 


''Giaat Duri MankUiSt, 328. 

■ Odooel Willu Aota not raeutioo thb eipeditiou uito tba KaniAlak. 

iLpter Til. 


I'ntTArdbnD, Gop&lr<iT and mnny Mtr^tha nobles went over to Uie 

Id tlic war whicli follovrcil tliP M»rAtb» tmops ravnged tfai 
KixtLm's €0011117, and Niz^m Ali advanced nnd plundered Poons, 
talcing mncli property und dubtroying and baminif nil liotieea which 
were not rtmsomed. Shortly after, in 1763, the violence of theraiiu 
forced the MogbaU to nnttidraw to AnrttogaWd . In tbo namv yoar 
JAnoji Bhonsia, who had been won to the Ntzlim's side hy tbe promise 
of the Si(4m regency, found tho Niaim's promuw deoioptivo. 
aad returned to the resbwa. In the battle which foUuvTod ab 
lUhiabon or TindQJja, in gront measure owing to the courage imd 
military tnlent of Jtl^harr^r, tbe Mar^thAs gaiDcd a coinploto 
victory. After peace was conclDded with the Niiiiini.oii the death 
of itaghDD^thr^v's son BhisUarr&v, Bhav^nrtlv was rostort^ to his 
r»nk of I'nttiniiihi, Miraj was given back to Oopilriv PatTftrdhan, 
aud on ikiliji JauilrJao BbAmi aftvrwtirds known as NlluA Fadnavis 
was beetowed the ^oilice of Fa^lnaris. In 1764 a large army was 
ouembling at I'oona to act a<>sin8t Ilaidar Ali who had n«on to 
power on tbe ruins of tbe Uinda Btste of Maisnr. Midbavrfir 
insisted on his right to comiuand this army whilo his uncle 
remaiDed at Poona to conduct tbe g^orornnient. Sakbdrittn B&pa 
joined in siipporlinff MSdhavrAv. Raglnin^thr^v yielded bat retired 
in angor tu A'oimdvt.-li near Ndeik. 'Hiesediecuesions delayed the 
Pcahwa'a advance, nnd, before be could reach the KaniAUk, 
GopAlriv Patvnnlhun wa» di-foatcd by Uaidar's gonoral I-'axal- 
nllaKhan with great loss. M&dbaTr&v was more Buccessfot. In the 
month of May he entered tho Knmfitdk with an army of 30,001) 
horse and aboat the same number of infantry and near Anni.vatti 
infliotod a severe defeat on Haidar Ali. 'Thia led to a IrcAty nnder 
wbicb naidar engaged to restore all placoa wreeted from Muriimtv 
Ghorpodo, to relinquish all claims on tho Naw&b of Saranur, and to 
pay £320,000 (R& 32 ItikU) to tbe Peshwa. After this treaty waa 
concluded MfidhavrAv leftthe Kamfitak and recrossed tlie Krisbaa by 
tho end of February 1765. Tho ill ft-oliDg between Midhavitlv ana 
Ragbunitbr&T contmued to be fo)ih;rod by the hatred of Gc^kAblEi 
and AnaadibiLi. A-t MitdhavniT know tliat KaghundithHiv ooold bt 
tliiit tirao gaiu the aid either of KiaJim Ali or of J&noji Bhonsls, he, 
in 17fi6, concluded a secret alliance with NizArn .Ali who honed to 
pentuade M&dhaTnlv to join bJm in attacking Haidar Ali. Uuring 
the same year Nizlm All entered into na nllianco with the English 
with tbe object tifoTOrtbrowing Haidar and rostraicitig tho Spread 
of the Manithit!!. In 1 7(37 M^barrtlT, who probably felt that tho 
ooml»natiott of the Engliiili and Ni7.nin must bo partly dirooted 
against him, advnncod by bimaelf into tho Kantittak, levied 
4800,000 (Ra. 30 IdJiht) from Haidar and £170,000 (Its. 17 M***) 
from other powers in the Kam&tak, and retamed to the Doocaa 
before the Niziini had taken the fiold. Tho Englidh and tho Niutm 
sent envoys to claim part of the MarAtha plander, but they were 
treated with broad and nadingnisod ridicule.' , 


litsBt DoTe ManlUii*, 8XT. 



la 1768 Mr. MostjD came to Pootm as earoy from the Bombay 
QoTomment to try miH secure aa ussunuico that the PciJiwa wuuU 
uot join iu alliiLDou with Hnidar aod the Niz4m. M&dhavrAv refased 
to give an}- promise luu] toM thv uiivo/tbntbo wutiltl be giiii]od 
bj circuiii3Uiuc«s. In April of the same year, with the hi'ln of 
I^miji Q£ikwilr onit GsDg^dh&r YtwhTant the Jixfin of Holkar, 
Bofrhuuitbr&v coUiicted a Inrge army at N&oik oud marched about 
fift^.Sre milea north to tbo noighbouruood of the hill fort of Dhodftp. 
Aa ho was wuiliug ul Dhodap in the bono of bciog joinod bj Janoii 
Bhonsla of Ilenir, M(id liJivrAv siirprisea Rnghuniithrdv'a army, took 
him prisonur, and carrivd him to Poona whcru bo coufiiwd bim in 
the PoHhwii's pnlaRo. In 1 769 to punish Jfinoji for the support 
be bad givea to Rvg'baiu&tbr^v, the I'cshwa ndrauocd tow&rdx BorAr, 
and J&noji wheeled to the west and began to plmider the coontry 
on the way to Poona. After Pooim was doatroyed hy Niziin Ali in 
1703, MddhamiTb&dpropOBedtOBurToatid itwitbawa]]. ThisdcM'^ 
WAA afterwards abajidoDed on the ground that do fort)fio<l pliuti city 
could bo as safe as Sinbgact aud Purandhar. On Jiinoji'a approach tbo 
people of Poona eent OB their property. Midbarrdr ordered Oo^lriiv 
Patvardban aad Itdmcbandra Gajieab to move against Jiiooji with 
30,000 horse, bat GopdlrAv was in league with Jinoji and took dq 
Ktcps to stop his plnnaering. MddbiTrtLv shortly after wsa forced to 
make a tro»ty with Jiinuji. He nest ordered Vi^ji Krituhnn Bini**!ile, 
accompanied by Rdiucliaiidm Oanesh, Tokoji Holkar, and Maliji'lji 
Sindift the illegitimate sou of HAnoji Sindia aud the successor in 
the family cAtate:^ of bi» nupbew Jankoji, to start at onco with an 
army to MAIwa. In spite of these argont orders MiidhaTrav, two or 
three days after, when riding Ui hia favourite village of Thour tbirtxon 
miloBooatof Poona, founil^ahAdji's camu without a sign of moviag. 
He instantly sent word to Mahidji, that « on hia potiirn from Thcur 
bo funudatcnt atandiog or bia troops in ai^ht be wouM plnmlor 
the camp and take biB estates. This oxpoditton to Northern India 
WB8 extremely sucoessful, and a heavy tribntw was im|HMt«-«l on 
the JfUa. Though so constantly pressed by wars and rebaltions, 
a&Ah&VT&v did mnch to improro the civil government of his country. 
His efforts were greatlv aided by the celebrated R^m Sb^tri, an 
upright and pnro jadgo in almost nnirersal corruption. One of 
M^dhavrfLTs iirat actii waa to stop tbo practice of forcing rillagora 
to carry baggage without pay. 'f^e practice was bo common, that 
tbo order putting a stop to it occasioned much discontent and many 
of the leading tnon di8rc«arded the order. MMhavrftv, who had an 
excellent sjstemofspiesjcamvd that some vol oable articles bctougiug 
to Ihesabhediiroi Bassein were beingcairied by forced labonr. Ha 
aeizod aad confiscated tbo property, and levied a heavy fine to repay 
the people for beiup taken from their fields. He isaoed fresh ordurs, 
which none who knew his ejrsl«m of spies dared to disobey. In 
the fair season of 1770, Alddbavr^v hud luiauro to lam hia attention 
to the Kamitak, where llaidar Ali, having mado peaoo with the 
English, not only evaded the Jlar&tho demands but levied 
contributjous on the Poshwa'a vaesnla. To punish tbia insult, ia 
Novoinber, Midbavriv sent forward a Urge body of bors« under 
Gopjilrfiv PatvardhoD and Malh&mlv R^tio, bim&elf followiog afc 

Chapter VI] 



IBomboLy Gjiicit«er. 


Cliapt«r Til. 


■ "1817. 


tlio head of S0,000 tioree and 15,000 foot. Hia progress wi 
miecessful and he reduced several places of strength. In Jane an 
attack of the disease which was wasting him, a coiisumption which 
he bolieved was hronglit on 1)^ the cursoof the mother of the Kolh&pur 
chief, forced Miidliavriiv to retuni to I'ouua, U-aviug Trimbaltr&r 
Mima to CAiry oo the war. In 1771, as soon as the seaaoo allowed, 
Mfbdharnir marched (rem Poona intending to join TVimhaliriT 
Mtlma. He was again talcea ill, and made over the command to 
Apa Balvftut who defeiit«d Uaidnr and forced him to oome to 
terms. Dtirinjir tiiQ rainy season Miidharr^v's health ao frraotly 
improved that ha seemed to hnvp shaken ofT bit) diaeaao. But in March 
1772 hi^ 5!ckuciis rulurtiud. Thia uttacb vas pronounced iucurahle, 
and on the moming^of thu I Sth of Kiivemb er be died at TTieurin the 
28th year of hia ago. He left uo children, and his widow Xtam&lMU. 
who had a grcAt lore for him, burnt herself with his body. Thi 
death of MtldhavniT, eays Oraut Duff, occasioucd no immediai 
oommotion. Like his own diiwasu it was at Brat scarcely perceptible, 
but the root which ooiimhod the fur-flpreudintf trcie wait cut from the 
stem. The plainii of P^nipat wero not more futal to the Marttha 
empire than the early end of this oxcellent prince, Uraro, prudeut, 
fund of his people, firm, and BucceuBful. Midhavrdv, who is known 
aa Thorale or Great MiidhavrAv, ia entitled to special pmiso 
for hia support of the weak against the oppressive, of thg-j 
poor a.gainst the rich, and, so £ar aa the constitution of Bociet 
admitted, for hicj justness. JU^baTt^v atarlud aothiug new. Ho 
improved the L'xtHliu? nystem, tried to cure deftM'tn without chanKing 
forms, and restrniiieil a corruption which hccouhl tiut njmovo- Tb 
efficiency of bin early Kovernment was clogved rather than aided 
by the abilitieii of Sakhintm Bipn. 1^10 old minister'a influonoa 
was too grout for his young maaier'a talents. All aaefnl acta were 
aetdowatoSaklulrdiiu mpimtid all tliat wasunplcAKanttoAUdhavrdv, 
an allotment of pmisc and blame, which MAdhavniv's irritable 
and ungovemed tompcr itvemcd to juatify. When, tthortjy after 
Bagbunithrtlv's coafioomont ( 1766), tuidhayniv removed Sak hdnlto, 
be allowed Moroba his saccesetor io do nothing wiltioai hia orders, 
and Mtabliahed a aystem of inteUigonce which gave him prompt aod 
exact information regarding both domeetic and foreign er&nt«. 

For some time before Miidharniv's death RoghuniiUirftv's 
contineiueut had been much relaxed. As his nephew'ahMlthdeditwd, 
ItaghtmAthniv opoued intrignes with Haidar Ali and tbe Niz&m to 
obtain his freedom and secoi'O bis succession as Peahwa. During 
Mi^havrATs lastdlnees the ministers intercepted thecorrospoudtnoc. 
Nineteen poraous were sout to hill forts, and Raghunithr^T's 
confincuientwouldhavebecomeatrictei- thauevcr, had not MidbaTT&v, 
feeling that death waa near, interposed, observinff that it 
waa nataral for his nncle to desira hia lihei-ty. Hia sound 
discrimination showed him that his brother would fail to condoct tbe 
administration i£ BoghuoAthriv were neither effcotuidly reatmioed 
nor conciliated. Jodging conciliation bolter than restraint, bo 
appointed RaghtmithraT'a frjewd S afehitr Am B^pg minJafaw^. and 
eummoucd Haghuu^itbritv to Theur audHicre solemnly placed hie 
youngurbrotherNiirtljanrav under RaghuDftthnWs charge. Shortly 










before M(S(lIia\T(lv'a dcatli Mr. Tfaomu Mostyn, of the Bombay C'iril 
Service, eamo to live Bt Poodb as an euvoy of the British 
Governinent.' In Deoombor 1772 KAriyior iv. tho tbird of BiUji 
BijirAv's BOns. then seventeen ynnrs old wont lo SAtAra aad wot 
invested ae Pesbwa. HakhiiriJiii Ha[m i-ocoivcil ihv robus of primo 
mioistor nnder tho nam^^P TtiTiXin '. Baj&bs Puraadbare was 
appointed minister or diiyin , and HAua. FadaftTiB \tM oppointod 
recorder or fadnavu ^ JSiriyuiT&v aad BagbuniUbnir for some time 
coQttnued in Appftrcnt friendship. But tho oM botrod bolwcpn 
NdrAyanrAv'fl mother GopikiibAi and BashuniithrtlT's wife AnandibAi, 
and ilie jenlonsy of the Brdbman mroistari sooa produood digoord, 
and, on tbe 1 1 th of April 1778, R»Kbuoi tb H t v ir»a confin ed in a rooDi 
in the palace I'n ivbicb Kiiriiyatir&viiHuiilly Iifednban atPoona. Nfiaa 
Padnaris etixxi high in N'ai'ii.yaiirAv'» fiivour, bat BajdbttPuraDdbaro 
nod Haripant Phadkc tvero bis cbiuf confidiuilH. The conduct of tbe 
loading affaira of Htute nominally continued with Kukbiir&m BApn, 
hut the hvoQrites were opposed to his poiror. Mariyaanlr, Trbo had 
a loQ^np^ for military fame, looked forward with oii[rcrDosa to tho 
next aeason's campaign iu thv Kamntnk. Trocps wi^ro told to be 
in reiidiBess, and ordent were de.tpatobed to recall tho armies fi-onj 
North India. On tliv morning uf tho -lOtb of Au^ist a commoliou 
broke out among the Pesbwa's regular infantry in Poooa. Towards 
noon tbu (lixturbnnce so greatly inorcosud that NiirAyaarAv, bofore 
going to dino, told Haripaot Pbadko bo restore oraer. Haripant 
neglected thoso ini^truclions and wont to dino with a friend. In 
tbe afternoon, Ndrdyanrdr, who bad retired to rest, was wakened 
by a tumult in the palace, whpro a largo body of infantry, led by 
two men named Sumersing and Mnhamniad Yusaf, wore demanding 
arrears of pny. Kharakaing who commanded tbe pa!a<'G gnnrd 
joined the riotent. lustotfl of entoi'ing thu opon mmn gato, 
they mado their way through »u unfiniidicd door on the east nide, 
which, together wibb tbe wall roond tbe palaco, had .tbortly beforo 
been pulled down to make an entrance distinct from the oatranco to 
Roghan&thrdT's quarter. On starting from steep NSr&yanr&r, closely 
pucmod by Samenung, ran to hia uncle's room. Uo throw bimMU 
into his uncle's arms, and called on him ta save bim. Raghun&thrtfT 
begged Suuict^ing to nparo hi3 life. I have not gone thus fur to 
enauro my own deatniction replied 8umersiog; let tiim go, or you 
shall die with him. Raghnn&tbrdv disengaged himself and got out 
on the terrace. Nirfiyanrfv attempted to fullow bim, but TraJia PoTir 
an armed Mar£tha servant of BaghunMbi-^v'a, sei7.ed him by thv 1^, 
and pulled him down. As NAr^yannLv fell, Ch&pdiji Tilukar, one 
of his own 6errantB, came in, and thongh nnanned ru3bsd to bis 
master, i^&r&yaur&v clasped hia anna round Ch^pAji's neck, and 
fSBmorsingaudTraliaulow tbom both with their swords. Meanwhile 

Chapter W.' 




30lh AnQiM I77i 

iBilnictMiu fron thoConit of Direeton. Tb« objeot of tbe KppoitiUn«i]l noniiiMUjF 
•ru to ke<>p th« diOitrvKl PrMl4M>olM infoniMd o( Ui« looTaaeuU «iid intentKHH of 
tlw ^tlrtl^^. Tbe nti i>b'mtit »T the liMJon wm to obtaio tlw mwloa «l 841wtt> ainl 
Um iiUnili of tho BomlMf nvbonr. 

* The Brai objec t of the ntw adnuaistnitMn iru the rri ncHen af TtArauA in KoUba 
H7731 which ra hald b¥ the Moghrii . Grwt Duff's f 

[Bombay Oati 

Chaptor VII. 



Si>fA /V«Aira, 

J77J- ITT* 



tbc conspiratora secured the whole of the outer wall of the paloo 
The tumult passed lu the city, armod moo thronged the streets, t( 
iihui)s were shat, and the townsmen ran to and fro in constertiatioi 
SakMr&m Bflpu won t to the police mag^ietrate's office and there hcai 
tlitkt Ragliun&tbrAT bad sent asaumnces to the people that all vn 
quiet. SakhArflm U&pu directed Ilaripant PhsdJce tu writua nnt« I 
KaghuiiAtliMv. Raghun&thrATauBn-cred telling him that some sold ie 
had murdurvd his nephew . Uaripant declared ibat HughuufLtbniv 
iba murderer and fled to B&r&matt. Sakb&rtlm B&pa told tho pooj 
to go to thuir homes and thai no one wonld barm thein. On u 
night BajAba Poratidliare and Milloii Ohorpade had an interview wil 
lUufbiiiiAUir&v, and Tnraliukr&y IfiUna bore off X&i^ynrinlv*M bod 
and burnt it. Visitors were reoeired at the palace. Mr. Hostyi 
tbe Knffliifh envoy and rlio different agents paid thoir roapect 
but Rag^inn&thr^v remaiiied in couGncusent, dotainiMl, tut was sak 
by tbi> coiispimtors att a security for the payment of their arrean 
ItaghunAthr&rwassuBpootodfbattherQwas no proof. Ho woaknowi 
to have ]urc<l bia nephew, and the ministers decided that, nnti 
the contrarr was pruTvd, RaKhuudthrdv tthould bii bold innocent nni 
be aocopted as the new Peahwa. Itdm Shistri approved of thi 
deciaioa. At the same timo ho made close inquiries. Mtor abou 
flix weeks he found a paper from Ra^DDflthr&v to Suineraing, givi ., 
him antbority to alay KinlyanrAv. RAm Sh^tri showed this paper t 
Ragbu tiAtbrflv, who admitted that he had given an order, but p<<rsi8t«i 
tbat biH order was to aeiae N^Lnlyanr^v, not to nlny him. Rxaminatio: 
of tho paper couSrmcd RagbnnAtbntv'u stortcnient, Bbowing that tbi 
word (JAoniM seise liad been changed to m'iriiri: kill. This cbang« i 
woa generally bt-licvcd was tho work uF AnaDdibiLi Raghun&thrdr' 
wife ; it was also beliered that it waa nndor her order* tbat th 
seryant Tralia Pov&r had taken part in N(h'(iyanr&v's marder, ^Vbei 
Raghnnithrftv confessed his share in NjinlyanrilT's murder, ho aako 
BAm ShA&tri what atoDument ho could make. Tho sacrifice of yoa 
life, replied theSh-lstri, ia the only atonement. The SbiUtri refuse 
iostay longer in Poona with llaghunitbrtiv at the bc-ad of itffairs, lef 
the Olty, and ipout tbe rest of hia life in retirement near V^. Meaa 
whilothonrroiiraof pay werodUcharged, Raghanikth nlr wa* r^^loaaed 
and his adopted eon Amritr^v, nttondod by Buj&ba Purandharc 
waa sent to oAt^is to bring tbe robes of office. R aghnMUlin tT wai 
proclnlnied Peshwa. Sakhdr&m B&pn woB confirmed aa pnmo niiniato 
or klijihiiri ; and Cbinto Vithal ana SadtUhir RAmchaodni the son o 
RAincliaiidra Bilbe Slionvi wore tho most confidontial of Ragbiinith 
lAr's advisers. N&rAyanr&v was Dinnlered in hia eighteenth yeai 
Bis follies, which were the follies of a hoy, have boon blackoncd iaU 
crimes by the feelings and interosts of his livaU. He wasafTectionab 
to his relations, kind to his serrants, and loved by all hut hii 
enemies. Dy the end of tho rainy aeefion (Kovuiuber 1773) tb4 
Posdiwa'aarmy in North India onderVisdji Krishna returned to Pooua 
Tboy bod defeated an attempt of the omperor Sbih Alum II. to fret 
himself from HanUha control, and liad greatly ntrengthonet 
IfanUfaa power at the Delhi conH.* Haidnr A.H of Maisu 

> Orut Doffi UuittbAi. 963, 





outt NiiuUii AU of Hoidtinibftd lost liltlo limo iu tuking atlraulago 
of the disorders at Poons. Bacrban&tbrAv reaolred to oppose Niulni 
AU and cripple his power. It wms ifheii tto army bud marched 
and Raffhuuiithrdx- was lea\-mg Poodo, VbUi Rftm Sh&tri produced the 
proof of Uaglian&tbMT'a kitnwledge of thu plot ugainst N&r4j*ar<l7 
aad Btat«d that so lou^ as Kof^huu^thr^v remniued at ths he&d of 
aSairs he would never return to Poona. Though the othor miniftters 
did not opeuly withdraw from Haghuniithniv's support the; sood 
becsme Mtranged from his counciU. nnd Sad^stiv BAmohaodrB, 
ChiDto VitbaJ, A'bAji MahfUler, and Sakh&r&tu Hurt, the peraoaa 
of whom ho made choice, wore ill qualified to supply th«ir placo. 
Sakluiram Bipu aud Nrtna FadaaviaoD different pretences withdrew 
from the army nod retiirnod to Poooa. They woro soon followed 
by GanpatrAv matia,, BitbAjt Nait B4r4matikar,i and several other 
parsons of oonseqnence. Except BajAbA Purftndhare, Moroba 
V*diiaTi» was tbo lait of ItsghaD&tbraT'a minixtcr to quit his camp. 
All bat Ragbaoatbrtiv and bis dependeots saw there was some 
sohomo on foot.* 

The leadiug members of the Poona miDistry were SalthAnim 
B)(pa, TriinbakniT Mintu, Nitna and Moroba Fndnavis, Baidba 
Parandbare, Anaodrir JiT&ji, and Haripant Phadke. All tneae 
roeo bad been jwsed by the Pe»h wB'a family and h ad do 
oo nnectiop wit h Shivfiji'.i .-imT ^IilTIim's oitght mm i ster ar The 
lottddrs of the ministry ..ri- Niii- 1 I' n, i -i ami Efaripant Phml ke, 
Itwasfoaad IbatGuiigab^JNarA'- i-iiir'i w idow was prcpa aat. and it 
wss determined tliat she stioul .1 1>l- i ik.ti for safe^ to Pumiidbar, 
and, according to some aocounU), that other pr«gnaatBrAbn)un womea 
shoald be sent with her that the risk of mishap might be avoided 
and the chance of Oang&tCii's obild proTing a girl be amended. 
On the morning' of the 30th of iTamiaTy 1774, N&na Fadnavia and 
Haripant Pha^lUe carried Oangibii from Poona to Piirandhar. She 
was accompanied by Pfirratibjii, the widow of SadfishirrAv, a lady 
held in high nispect, and the reason of h?r romoval was publicly 
annonnced. The ininiBtcra formed a regency under GangAbii and 
be gan to goTera in hor uam c. All the adheronts of Rnghanlithriv, 
who, by this time had advanced beyond Balliri, wore thrown into 
cooBnemont. Negotiations were opened with Niffim Ali and 
Sib^ji Bhunsla, both of whom agreed to support OiinglibAi and a wide- 
spread iotrigoe in BaghaortthniT's camp waa organiaed by KrishttariT 
Bolrant. When Raghan&thr&rhfard of t ho revolt in Poona, with the 
Pant IVatinidhi and At ur^r^v Qborpade> he began to march ton-nrds 
the city. Haripant Pbadko camo from Poona to meet him at the 
head of a division, while Trimabkrdv Milma aad Sdbiiji Tlhon.iln 
were advancing from Piirinda.. On the 4th of March 177-t Ragb u- 
nAtbrAv met and^ dofcat^d t ho minister 's troops under Haripant 
PhndlsB uo ftr~Pandharpa r lin ShoUipor. Tho news of this defeat 
fiUod Poona with alaria. The people packed their proper^ and 

I > TIm nephaw or gruiJjhin ot B«{)«ji Xtik IMrSBuUkkr, who waa nftrriod to tb* 

■ ftoat ot BsUji BijirSr >nd who cndMVaurtd with the fupport «( JUgliuJi BbotwU to 

■ mrelMM tli« offioael PMh«« in IT40i 

■ • Oraac DoR-a UarStJil*, 36S. 

I siar n 

Chapter Tt! 


1730 1917. 


SOCh Janvan 


IBoutbny Gsaft(< 



Cluptor VIL 

17in- 1817. 
[StmtmA fuiim, 

fled for Bsfety to retirod villi^s aud hill forla. IiiBt««tl 
mBrahing od Hoona RAgfaunAthr&r oaued noHli to receive the ait 
of Holkar, Siadia, QlLikvilr, and tha Barlisli, On the lath of 
April 1774, a son wis bom to Oangibii, NarAjratiraVa wiJow. Ii 
OrSlin9Sff*a OfHoiOD, iiotwithst«ndiag the easpicivus circuiaatancai 
which formed part of thu rninistor's scheme, there ia Uttio doubt thai 
the child waa the bod of the miirdeTotl K&rliyaiinLv. Tho ohild wai 
named Mi|^ha7|^]^l^^|m), nfterwards Icnown uSaT&i M4dhsvi1&r 
QaDg^btusenfBaKMnrml^pM nnd Ni&nii FntlnnTis to receive heroos'i 
rohes of iovestiture, which tlte R^ja sent from S&Uira in c-har^ of Nil' 
lnothr£v Purandhare. The infant MA'llmvr&T was formallv installed 
Peshvra when he was forty ihtys old .' Jealouey soon apraoK' up aiauDtf 
tbemioitton. Niloft Fadnavio wo-ttoo cautiooa totakethe lead and 
supported SakhAr&m B6pa ae tbv head of th« gt>Ternnietit. Thtf 
condnot was as much duo to timidity an to deniRn. SalcbfLMiu Bapu 
mts ao old, cautioua, tinie-s«nriDg courtier, hut h« waa a tnaa of mach 
mora courage than Nina, and, in bin humble and asitidiious colicafinM 
and adherent, ho did not wo n fiiniro rival and a poworfol foe. 
80 great was SakhirAm Bapu'ii influence that his seces^ioD would 
have mined tho ministc'r's causi*. Nina'a position wa« greatlj 
•brengtheoBd by Gangitbdi's passion for him. Heconid thorougblj 
truBt her and teach hor the host means of governing iha old 
miniBtcra. Ndina'a couain Morobu, who lad been MAdhavri^'a 
oatensible prime ininiater, was disaatisCted to tind that littlo dofi»reDC8 
was paid to bitt counsel. If he oould have done it with safety anc 
made sure of a future rise to power, he wonld readily have gone bad 
to RaehunAthnlv. Such of ifae other miuistera as would not sabmU 
to SMhAr&m and N&na woro soon united in common diboontenb 
This apUt among the miaiiiters became generally known by the 
diBOorery of a corrcxpondonco on tbo part of Uoroba, Baj&ba, an4 
BablLii N'&ik with Raghan&thr&r. Letters intercepted by Uaripaot 
DMr Durhiopur showed that those three had formed a plan to aecar« 
Sakh&r^m BApu, M&oa, Qong&bAi, and thL> iiifaut IHadhnvniv, all of 
whom, during the rains, to escape the chill damps of Purandhar, had 
come to live in SAavad. They heard of this conapirac y 00 the 30th of 
Jane, and with undisaemhtcd panic Sod to tht> fort. I'ho discovery ol 
their plotdefcatcd the deaigna of the feeble trinmvirate. The miniAten 
BOntagontsthrongb the country to blacken the crimes of Kaghnnithr&Y 
and liold forth on the justice of the ministers' cause. At tht- moia 
time thoy breathed nothing bnt union and concord. Thoy dotor- 
mined Ut giiiti Rftghondthrav's ahaolnte Biibmiaaion; and their rwtiv' 
and judiciouH preparations for war showed that they understood the 
beat means of ensuring peace.' When KaghnnAthrAv pastwd north 
iDBt«ad of marching on Vonns he sent an a^eut tn the British 
resident with hurried und vague applicationK for aid iu men and 
money. The British woro willing to help htm, bnt before any 
agreement conld be made be had retired too far for communication 
from Poona. Negotiations were next opeood with Mr. Gambior the 
Eoghah chief or civil governor of SnraL In the latter part of 177 

■ OtMl DuC* MkrtthOii, 36.4. 

= finwl IKiCj M»ritliAs .rO. 

B the ministers won both Sindia aod Holkar to tlieir side and Beat an 
army of 30,000 mon niidor BaripaoCPIiadke to pursue Raghun^tbritv. 
In tbebt^giQnmgot 1776 SakhAram aod Nflna retarned toPui'&iidhar 
auj from it traoitaotod all iLffairs Oti tho 6t)i of March 1775 
Bughnn^thriv vntcrod into n treaty with the English, which is known 

■ as the treaty of Sural.' With their help he went to Cambaj in 
I GajanU, and on tho plain of Aria about ten milea east of 
I jlnand in Kaira, defeated Haripant Phadke and his adherent 

Fatehsiuff G&ikwir. This sews caused the miniscerial party gnut 
alarm. Niz&m Ali pressed them hard, professed sympathy niUi 
Raoliundthr^v, and doubU of the legitimacy of the young MidhavrAr, 
and, to remain <!«>«(. receiveda gram ol laud worth £180,000 (1U.18 
tdkha) a year. The MarAtha ooblea had no dislike to R&gbuQ^thi4v, 
^ and, if the next campaign proved aa ancoossful as the laiit, woatd 

■ probably have made no objection to his being named regent of the 
young M&dhavriv. RaghuotithrAv n-as disliked by many Foons 
Brdhmans, even by those who did not believe he was a party to the 
morder of NiirAvuiirriv. Tho bulk o£ the p^^ple seemed to bare 
no stronger feoling against him than that he was unlucky.* The 

■ anccesH which haa attended the efforts of the English Co help 
* KaghunAthtiv and the advantages th« English had gained by their 

alliance were loat by the action of the lately arrived membera of the 
Bengal Council, who, contrary to tho opinion of the Resident, Mr. 
ilaetiugs, declared the Bomlia,y treaty with Itagnnathrdv impolitic, 
daogeroiis, unauthoriead, and unjust, and sent C-oIooel Upton to 
Poena to conclude a treaty hetneen the miniatera and the Bombay 
Gorerument.* Thia ill-judged int«rfci-ence slrengtbened the haada 
of tho miniatora at Purandhar and ultimately cementod thototlenng 
HarAtha confederacy under the admiuistration of KilnaFadDavis. In 
December J 776 SakhiSritra uipu received a letter from the Governor 
Oeoeral stating that tho BtHobsj Ooveramflnt had uctcd beyond 

Chapter VII. 

EUtory | 

liARirHis. I 
Trtaif Hf Sural, i 

' Uad«r tli« Irnnty <A Sur>t lh« Bamlwf O#r«nunont acifac«ilalMM« to MiidSOO 
BoropoMi and 1000 Natiro troop* vntb • due proportaon of uiillory to h«lp 
Bocmaatkii*. Thoy pkd^ tAcOMilrM to aink* a\t thn nunlm t» TOO or MO 
Bnrapeatw knci I'M nepoya. with gun-Uscttra, ortificen, aai pUwecn, tlia irlial* 
MD'miitiag t« 9100 m»u. RaghtinAlhrilv engagad on »cooiint o( S200 laen to p*/ 
£190^000 fRa. 1} Uiht) » mnnth with a {Moportioaatc fnercthM or d«oreH« 
Moordiag t« tli* nnnlwr Of onen •applied. A* ■ wcaritj (or tb« p«]rn><HBl h* tMdc 
OTor Umpnmnly tbodJatrioU o( A mod, Htiunt, B»l*Ai, *Bd part eC AitklMvar 
_in CVnlrd Oujarlt, and Mded in peiMtiiity BMwin witli ita ikpcndeiidM, t&a 
KjbUikI of SaliMtt*. uid tbt otbsr iilutiU : thn diitriota of Jamhuar Mid Otpad ia 
VCidtnl (iuJarAt : ind an ajuKninont of Ki. 73.000 aimnally Qjiao AnklMvar ia 
Bnuch, iJia whole unonntm^ to £192.500 (R<. 10,33.000) a n»r. Ha Mgagad l» 
proeorc the cMMut of tin; Odikwu'* khtirc of tUe rercna* oi llr«*eh, *nd to {Uky alt 
•xptnasi th« Compunjr might idcot in oblaioiDf; poaacanon of tbe apaoiKud osmiod*^ 
wliieb WOK til hi) ciintltl***') t» b<>l<insin|[ to th«in from tbo dat« of tha ti*»tf. 
Aa ftacliuaUJtrtv was iloatitDta of otb«r funds, h« dcpa«ti«d jawek valatd at 
Ufwardb of £60,000 ttU.a IdiAt) Matatcantj tor t>i* ['rotJiitad MvuMa, fJedgUM 
bnnMlf to ndacm tbvm. Th» protaction of tha Couifunj '• pcMiariowa ia B«n«t MM 
ttlOM of their ally tbcNkwAb of Arkol wna alioprovided tori aodsU Critiih (hipaor 
Tcueb wiling umlor th« protection of the Sritiih flag wliich mioht hats tiM 
mialortaue tn be wrecked on tha Manitha coart were to be givea to Ibe owiMn. 
(Jtant [luET* IterAlbla, 377. In 1S03 Ibe J«««la »«r« reetiirad lo Bajlriv at ■ fm g^i 
from tlM f'nmpany. Ditto. 

> Grant Dnrs .MarllliA*, 387. ■CmtDaTi Muilh&i. 390,301. 




er Vn. 




t-lifir powers in goiug to vr«r widiout tbe badcUod of Uie 
GoTernnient, tliat they liad liven ordered to i^ithdn 
troops, and tliat an envoy bad be«ti sent to cooolude p«aoft 
Colonel Upton urriTed al Pnmudhiu- on tlie S8lh of Deoembor 177$ 
The minist«rM took full advantage of the power which ibe tmstak«ft 
policj of the Bongnl Goremmcut. liftd placed lu tkuir liand». Thtj 
aasutned a high lone of demand and menace, which Colonel Uptoe 
judKiMl to be firm nnd sincere. Colont-1 Upton though oprif^ht aiui 
moderate was Jll-qnaliGed to oouduul a negoUalion with Mar^tha 
firdhuians. The miniaterK fpreatljr extolled the just and honouraV 
motives which bad deUjrmioed the t^rreat Quvernor of Calcutta 
order peace to be concluded. But when Colonel Uptou pro 
that the BiigliHhshoutd kitTp Sthlscllo and ibe Ltlnnda in tlie BO' 
harbour, the cession t>{ BuHaein which they had obtained io 
late war togethur with the revenue of Broach, the ministers 
astonished that a Ooveroment which bad so jnstj; condemned 
war could be ho ready to koep the fruits of it. Colonel Uploi 
arguud that S^tiolte was taken posseesioa of as a procautionary 
measui<e loujf deemed necessary to the safety of Bombay, and the 
prosperity of its commerce. But the ministers wo»la listen to 
nothing. They had beea put to immense expense by keeping armies 
idle at the wish of the Ueogal Qovenimeni. wliirh, if they bad no( 
been int«rferf>d mlh, would have long aince settled thowholo matter. 
They demanded the inimediato suireuder nf Kaghunalbr&T and tiio 
entire restoration of the territory occnpiod by tho Bombay Gorem-- 
nientninco tlio be^nning of the war. If RaghunitthrAv was given 
np and all the territory rastorod, tho raiiitgtorg as a favour to th9 
Governor General would nay £150,000 (Us. IS liiftk») to reimbarse 
the East India Company for the expenxes incurred by the Bombay 
Qovernmcnt. They seconded their arguiuimtK with threats, and 
mistook the mild remonHtraDcca of the envoy for timidity. As 
Colonel Upton conld not agree to these proposals on the 17th of 
Fehroary he wrute to the (iovemor General that ho snppoeed 
nogotintiotiB were at an end. But- almost immedtntely after they 
bad earned their meant^cs to the liigbcet pitch tho iiiioiiiteTS ngreed 
to the greater part of Colonel Upton's original demands. Before 
accounts hnd time to reach CaloutUi that the nesotialion)* were 
broken off the treaty of Furan dhar was settled and signed on tha 
Istof March 1//I). i'ho cbiet provisions were that SilseMe or a 
territory yicliTin^ £30,000 (Ra. 8,00,000), and Broach and territory 
worth £3u.000 [U».3,00,000)moreKhouldbDleft with the English nnd 
£120,000 (Rs. 12 takhii) paid to them on account of war expenisce ; 
that the trraty with Raghmiiltbniv was annulled : that the EagliahJ 
were to return to f^urrisoii nutl UitghtinAthrdv's army be disbanded V 
witbin a month ; and that RaghuuAtbr&v was to get an establishment 
and live at Kopar^aoa on the QudiLvari.' The Bombay Govern 

' Gmut Duff's ManUbta, 301 

* Onat DatTi UarSUiia, 39S-SM. 1!1i« Peahirs'K ntune wu not mmtiaital in th< ' 
traatv. Th« mfaiilHv Ntoa u>d SitUilrSai probably kft ont the lunie. that ui oi 
tb« child Hltthjivniv thould die GugitMi might wlcTt annUiar ton. 

moubslil) cluDg to ItaghuDatlirar's omse and received liim witli 200 
followers at Sarat, wlit-ra he Appealed to tbe Directors and to tlie 
I KJDjT. The ministers threatened wnr if KaghiinAlhrAv'a anoy whs 
not diabaudod. To this the Bainbay Govenimoiit Jiaid no atten- 
tion, and their position vims Btroiigtbt^ued by the arrival at Botubiiy 
lOD the 2(itlt of August 1776 and again iu Nov«nibcr 1777, of 
Ideapatclies from the Court of Directore approring the BoDabay 
.'treaty uf Suntt with RHghuii&tbrAv, and conHnrin;^ the freat ana 
nnDGCessary sacrifice of the Bengal treaty of Pumndhar with the 
minigl^rs. Though hostilities bad ceased, pence was not catAb* 
liebod.' la October 177t3 a man cUiming to boSaddshiv Cliimtil^i, 
tho leader of the Mar^thflt) at PSiiijKit, vrith the support of the 
Bombay Oorerumont putwesscd hiutsolf of the greater part of 
the Konkau Bud seised the Bor pasa and R&jmfiohi furt. Near 
Riimichi ho wa« AttBuk«d and doicntcd by a minifttorial force, Hod 
tu kolabi] was given Dp by Angria, and wasdraffgtid to duath at an 
l«leph»nt'8footinPoona. On the 1 1th of November nAglmnAthr&r waa 
allowfil to livv in ftombay and aoaltowaoce of £11)00 (IN. 10,000} n 
mouth waH settled on him," Id November Colonel Upton wai* recalled 
pfrom Poonu und Mr, Mostyu was SL<ut a^ envoy in hi» uIilcc. Tlio 
Poona minisbors noxb showed their dislike to the English by trying 
to establish their CDomic^ tJu French in a position of power in 
"Westom India. At Poona an agent of France was received with dia- 
tinotion and Mr. Mostyn was troated with studied coldness. In the 
middle of Maroh 1777 several Frfnchmon, whi- UndeJ nt Chvul in 
KoUba went to Poorlft, and, enrly in May 1777, one of them fft. 
Lu ^in wini rt'Cdivcd in Poona as an ambassador from FmnCf. The port 
of Chcul was promised to (he French and anagreoniect made for tlio 
introduction of troops and warlike SDpulics,* Though the Iroaty of 
Purandhurund thoauppresliian of Sud^niv's rising had strengthened 
fho miniHt^Ts' government iu the Deccan, in the Bombay ICarndtak 
they bod suffered Bovend reveraes from Uuidar and ttie Eolhitpur 
chief. Id September 1777, Oang^bai ibo infant Poshwn'e mother 
died from a draf^ taken to oonoeat tho efFects of her intimacy with 
Nina FadnaviM. In October 1777. Mr. Hornby tho Governor of 
Bombay reviewed tho position of the Poona miniaters, and showed 
how their difBoultics were increased by 8iudia's and Uolkar's want 
of sapport, by the defHctiou of other Manttha nobles, by Uaidar's 
victories, and hy Qaugiibili'a death.* Tho effect of Mr. Hornby's 
minnte must have been greatly increased at Calcutta by tho length 
which N&na's hate of the Kngliah carried hinn in bis dealings with 
St. Lnbinand by tho Directors' despatch received in November 1777 
strongly oonsoring the Calcutta treaty of Pnrandbar, and, under 


■ (Jraai SoIPb UutUiiL Me. > Oaatl DolTi HartthM 3t». 

*AM0unt ofBamlwylirSl). St. Lubin Wlbwn ia India bafora. Tltoagh 1i« was 
not Ml unbMMUtw, 8t. LqUb hid aitthority from Iba FrMtd) Is find what •dvantoM 
(viiilrl be Kaiuod fnun ui bllUnoo iritli tho Maritliia. Ho «ff«r*d Kilns to bring !ISOO 
Eiirujirajis uid lOjOIKI ili>c9|iliii«l n^y*, u>d AbnnilMoo ol <mt storw- 

' Umnt DiiB*« MarlUiA*. 401. 

Chapter VII. 


il-S}- 18W. 

fBoinlmjr OalMt 



CbApUr Til. 


suitttblo circnmslancee Approving ao altiaucc with Ra^huii^thra 
Meanwhile (1778) st Poona dieaePAiona ainoDg the muterial par 
increased. NAna Kadoavis despised tbu abilities of his couai 
Morob a Faduavis, but, with a Brdliman'ti 4.<autioD, he was at moi 
pains to conc«i>l faift coatempt than bin eaniitr. Moroba wi 
rtapport«d b; a]l Begbunalhrav'tt partisauH, particularly by Bajil 
Purandbare, 8akhdr^ Uari, Chiuto Yitbal, Vishnu Xarhar, an 
lately by Tokoji Holkar. Still Nina was confiiient, a spirit whicbM 
Moatyn beIi<!T(!d wa» due to assurance o£ fluppcirt from Fmoce. Aftt 
tho dt.'ath of GaiiK'^bd)> Sukh£r£m bt^o to be jralous of J>&aa, an 
cxpreeaed a qaa1i6ed approval of apian to restore RagbuD&Uirav, art 
Moroba wrote to (he Huinbay QoTerutneut propoaiof^ the rcatoratioi 
of Baghun^thriv. Tbe Bombay Government, who from K&na'a deal 
iugtwilli the French were anttafied that their safety dc[>eudeJ on 
rluanfTcof DiiniHtry at Poona, agreed to reatore Kagimfilhriv, provide 
SulchitMm Biipu, thetrliief authority in Pooua,expressed his approval c 
the scbeme in writing, ThedectBJon of thH Bumbay GovemtneDt wi 
approved bv the Governor (loiteral. To help their plans and t 
coimteract Freucb dcsigiiH in Wcstoni India, a force ander Colow 
I^nlie waa ordered to cross the oontinent, and place tliemselveauadf 
Ibc ordcrB of th« Govcrninoiit of Bombay.* Sakbdntin Bipu refused t 
record in writingiis approval of tbe plan to restore BaghnnAthrAv ao< 
further nctiuu was stopped. At Poona Kitua attempted but failed t 
e«ize Moroba. In Hpite of this failuri>, with the beJp uf Sakhar£i 
Bipo and with tbe offer of a position in tlie ministry, NAn 
80oceed«d in inducing Moroba to joiu his party. The effect < 
this changt! was at 6rst a loss Ut Kdna. Moroba, with the help ti 
Holkar's troopn, was more powerful than Nina, who retired t 
Pura&dhar and agreet] to the plan for ^bringing RaghoDitbrav fc 
Poona providud do barm should come to himautf or nis property 
But Nanij, by reminding Sakhiirim B&pu of the evil refiulta c 
ItaghuDiltlir6T'ii former term of rule- at P<K.>ua, persuaded SatbArAi 
B&pu and tbroogli Sakbdr&m Oiipu pf>rsuaded Moroba to give np tbi 
idea of bringiog RaghanAiliriv l>ack. The oiijoynient of powe 
under the existing arraoRenient and N&oa'a persiiasiou led Morrtbi 
atill further to adopt Nina's views and tavour St. Lubin and i 
Frencb alliance. 

Tbe Bombay Oorerninent remonstrated with Ihoministoraforkeep 
ing St. Lubin in favour in Poona. N4na saw that the Knglish woub 
Dotstand farther frieudship between the French and llio Mar^th^s. Hi 
accordingly dismissed St. Lubin tu July.and gmnted passports for thi 
Bengal troona through Mar^tha territory on ihf'ir way across India ti 
ooonteracl French influence in Western India. \Vhile disniisAinf 
Si Lnbio, Kina assured him that if St. Lubin conld bring a Frcnc) 
oorpe to India ho would graot the Fronch au ontablishtnent it 
MarAtha territories ; and, while granting i»aasporta to tlio Brittal 
for safe conduct through Mnnttha territory, N&ua was sending secre 
orders to the Mar^tha officers and to tbe Bundelkhand chief to d< 

1 <Innl ]>ofr« Mtnibia. 40«. 

I T1i« toKM coniiBbtd o[ ui ViattaUoas ot Mjiny«, |inip«rtian4tc wltltciy. Mid i 






what they could to stop tbe Englisli.' N&iia allowed Uoroba to re* 
inaio in power for nbout a year. On the Stli of June 177S UaripaQt 
Phadke and Uak^ji Sindia jotued N^aa at Porandliar and a bribe 
of £90,000 (Rs, 9 Idk/u) reniorod the suurco of Moroba's etrength by 
tho transfer of Hollcar from Moroba'a interests to the interests of 
Nflna.* On tb« I Itb of July 1778. Moroba ^aa seized by ft party of 
Sinditt's horeo, nuidc over to Naoa, aod plocod in ooDtinetnoat. '1^ 
whuleof Moroba'a party nere arrested except Sakharf^m Bspn.wbo.for 
tho sake of the FuraDdhsr tre«ty, had to bo loft at liberty.' In spite 
of NAna's triumpb, tlio Bombay Goverutnent resolved to conlinao 
their effortatonlaceRagiiDiitbnir in the regency, and directed Coloael 
Leslie to marcli Od Junuar. At Pooua, Nitna Fadnavis on the ploa 
of age, rt- moved Sakhirfim BApa from the administration, and placed 
a body of Sindia'a troopn over bis person and houaa. Belf-mouiiU^ 
boraoiDcn or ahilcdara were recruited ail orer the country and ordered 
toacsenible at tho Dnaara fetitivul in October. Id tho different ports 
TeMeld woro rclittod, forts wore prorisioned aud ropoirod, fresh 
tnstrnotion!) were denpiitchcd to harass Lostlio's march, and an agent 
was sent to Buinbiiy to amuse the Governmout by malciag overlures 
to RafirhunAthniv. This last deception failed, ns the Boinlwy Govern- 
ment knew from Mr. Lowis what was going on iu Poonu. 

On the 22nd of NoTOinber 177A, under i^reemont with Raglia> 
nAtbrAv, an advanced party of British troop under Captain James 
Stewart, consisting of sir coRipanies of native grenadiers from dif- 
ferent corps with u small detail of artilk-ry, morcd frum the port of 
Apti in Koldba, took possesaiou of t he Bor pass without opposition, 
and encamped a t KbandAla. The main torco landed at Panrol in 
Thinaon ttioS&thNoTember, but from delay in makiuga road for tha 
guns np the Bor pass, thev did not reach the top of the paas till the 
2drd of December 1778. The force was uoderlbeoCHniaaud of Colonel 
Bgerton and Mr. Carnae. It incIndedSdl Enroi>eao»,2276yatiw In- 
fant rTandSOOgnn laacar s. They were accompanied by KagbunithrAv, 
hifl adopted son Amritntr, and a few horso. Some fiklrmisbing had 
taken place between Captain Stewart and small parties of the eovmy, 
in which the British sepoys showed groat zeal. At KhandiJa 
Colonel Egerton, the commanding officer, reserving the advance a« 
a- separate corps under Captain titewart, divided the main body 
of his forco into two brigades, one commanded by Lieutenant 
Colonel Cay and the other by Lientenanl Colonel Cockburn. 
Through foirly level, thongh in places somowhat marshy land, theso 
three divisions advanced at the rate of about three-tjuarters of a 

< Orsat Dan^ Marttliia, «0B .«10. * Gnuit DuCTs MarSU^ 40H. 

* Otut Dafr* MatithAa. 401. Aai^ng tba lwU«r typ* of UsMtUds who Avn/uA 
tiMU live* to Um kttnnpt to pUcu at the b«ad of tlic ri«t« tb« gonoTMii MldMr 
Ri^tianAthriv, ia«t«a>i of Nitui Om nliemiag amd cuwanlly conTtl«r, wiu it Klyuitlik 
Pratibu DRinail SaUiirlMi Hari. iiiakbirim, who had ipoat bia life to Ragbui^lliriT'ii 
•crrioe and n«ver woTered from bU mutfv'i intorMt, vaa amaWJ with oUi«n of 
UonU'* party, He was chainMl la iroa* m hMry that, tbous^ ft tout «[ oatunal 
atreogtb we coald hardly li/t tboa. HiaaUonnuKM of toodaad waWr wa* »low aUrva- 
tleo. StitI ai tli« «ad ol fourtaoa nMatlw whn too woak to ri»«, hia apoitand hia 
lova tor hisBDaatoT nunabwd aoohakan. Hy atraoctt i* Co**! ^f ^^ '* BOing, wheo 
voice and t>r«sth ful my benei aball about Ran^anAAntt, BagkwMhrdr. 






[Bombaj Oazettepr 

iptor m 


1730- 1817. 


mill! a day, orr division alwnya ocuupjing tlie grouDd irbich tlie 
other luul quitted. Tu this wnyc^lcTOii (!«./« p«8«od bi^foro tlivy raached 
K^lu a Tillage eight mik-n from tho grooad which OapUin Steimrt 
bod owiipicd nboub six wc«k« before. Tho extraordinary bIowqch 
of this march eDCOumgcd thu oucmy'a BdTMicc guard, whir^ 
under Bhivritr Ynshrant Pinse brought infantTy, rookoLs and gum 
to haroM them, but on orvry occiuion wuro iLttnckcd iind driven 
bftclc with the greatest Hpirit. During the march from Khaadtia 
the army lost LiciitODiint. Colonel Cay an oxcolleni otTScor, who 
waa mortally wounded by a roc-kol on the 31 st of December. A still 
more M^riotifl loos waa at Karla , on the ^ibof Jaonary 1779, llie 
death of Ouptain Stewart t ht; iL-nJcr of tho adntnoe, a true Koldier 
active gallant aitd iadicious, whoae distinguished coarage M 
impressed tho MunltMs tKul for years bo woe rememberod as 
Stewart PhSlcde or Hero Stewart. This erecmng advance of the 
Bombay nnny gnrc Nitaa Kadn»vis and Mnhilfiji f>i)idia ample tioM} 
to gather their forc^it. A» the chief Bigner of the Parandhar treatr 
Satchlirdiii Ftiipii could not well be lonf^rr kept under r«»tTaiiit, ana, 
afteraformalreconciliutiun.he uomiiiulty returned to hisoffico of minis- 
ter. Kdnft'it iiiililary loaders were Mah&dji Sindta, Haripant Phadke, 
and Tukoii Ilulkar. But, a8 la spite of his bribe of £90,000 
(Bs. 9 lAkks), X&na mistrusted Uolkar, he was kept in a poaittoD 
from which it was almost iiupoesiblefor him to join KftghuoAtbrtv. 
As tho English drew near, the MaxAtha armr advancod to Taleg aou 
about twenty miloH oast of Khand&la and m^hteen miles wemt of 
Poona. On the 6th of January 1779, ill hntlth furced CoIoduI 
Kgerton to rciaign the command to Colonel Cookburn. Coloael 
Rgerbon started for Boniba.y, bob as the Marfth&s had cut off 
communications he was foi-c«d to return to the army where be 
coQtinued a member of tbe committee.' On the 9tb Jof Janu&iy 
1779, when tho Bombay army reached Talegaoo . the Marilhia 
retired. The village was found to be banit, and it was said that 
if the Bombay army advanced further Cbiucbwad aad Poosa 
would aUo be burnt. Though thc^y wore within eighteen milea 
of Pooaa and bad storea and provisions for eighteen days the 
Comniittoo, that is apparently Mr. Oamac. scMed by tbe nnton and 
tho determination of the Mard.tb&a proposed a retreat. In vain 
Ragbundthr^v, who hod onco lod 50,000 of bia couDtrymen fivim the 
Narbada to tliy Attok, pluadod for an action, one success woald bring 
forward numberB of his partisans! in vaiu Mr. Roid.XIr. Moslyn'a 
OBStBlaat Ktntdd that a jiarly of horse in Moroba's interost were 
on their way from the Konkan ; in vniii Colonel Cockburn engaged 
to take tho army to Poona and Captain Hartley and Mr. Holmes 
argued that if an advance wa.i impossible negotiations ahould at 
leaet be began before a retreat wtts onlcred. The committee had 
determined to retreat und did not delay one day. At eleven on the 
night of tite Uth of January the heavy gnns wore thrown intoa 

end, stwn-s were bomt, «.nd 2(iOO British troops b egM i t o rstre st 
tore 5(1,000 Mfirrtthfis.' Tho Cominittoe imagined tb«r rotroiit 

1 Crut Duff* Mwitixb. (IS. Mr. Uwii luUoutod tho UmrtUlu fMot at SS.IHMi 
lh« M»itti»a at lOA.OOn ; QnVaA Tockbum .il ISO.OOA ; Gniil Duff ■! fAOOO. 



would remuia uaknowa. By two oext morning, vitbia three 
boara oE tliar start, h party of Mar&th&a fired od the adranood guard ; 
■hortly after tlio nwr also wm attacked and the ba^jrag© plnnderod; 
at (layl)rpak ike army vraa anrrounded and large bodic-a of borso 
were cotntng tu tbe Htlock. Tbe weigbt of tbe assault fell on tbe 
rear, corapMed of tiero Stewart's six compftnioa of grenadiers and 
two gons DOW under tbe command of Captain Hartiey a distiDeuished 
officer and well known to the m»n. Shortly after Bimriso the rear 
was agva attacked by tbe main body of the MarHth^, horse foot 
and gaoa. The sepoys fought with oBtbuBiasm, the red wall, as 
Sindia said, bBildiDg ttAclf tip ag^oi'n as soon as It whs thrown 
down.' Five companies of Ruropeans and two corapanie? of sepoys 
wore sent to sapport Captain liartley, who, inspit«of coostantiittaclra, 
continued till noon to keep tbe Mar&tbs lorco at bay. Daring 
the whole of tfao morning tbo main body of tbe array wore engogod 
ia retarning the firo of the Mardlha artillery and stiffBTod little loss. 
Aboat noon Major Fredoriek wn.t sent to take the command in the 
rear. A.boBt an bonr nftcT ^fajor Frederick wa« ordorod to retire 
on tbe main body and the whole force moved to the village of V^dmon 
whore tbe lulvanee guard wa« posted. Crowds of followers pressed 
in and the entmnco into Yadgaon waa a ftcene of f»nfu8ton and 
lone. At last the troops cleared tbemaelren, drove off tbe Maratha 
hor»o, got guns into position, and by four in the afternoon tbo army 
had some respite. Early next morning {13th January 1779) tho 
ODODiy's guns opened on tbe villagu and a body of infantry advanced 
to attack it. They were repuUeil, but a fettling spread ainouK soma 
of rhe oiBcors thai tbe men were dispirited and were ready to desert. 
The commaudur's example enoouraged this feeling. A fortber 
retreat was deemed impr^ oticabloj and Mr. Farmer the secretary 
of the oommittee was sent to negotiate with tbe ministers.* Tba 
miniaiers demanded Raghanithritv, bnt the oommibteo wore saved 
the disgrace of surrcndt-ring him, by Itaghunat brer's agreeing to 
give himself ap to Sindia. Tlit> ininiKtern, that is X&na and Siodia 
who between them h<-ld tbo real puwer, insisted that tbe oommittee 
sbonid agree to surrender all tbe territory which the Ikimhsj 
GDVcmmont had oix^nirod since tho doiktb of M£dhavT/lvBallAl {1773), 
together with the Company's revenue in Broach and Snrat which the 
Uar&tb^ bad uevor pos>es«oil. When tlieau t«rnis were Inid before 
tbe oommittt-o Captain Hartley pleaded that one more effort might 
be made to nttreat but bia proposal wa« rojected. A message was 
sent to tbe miuistera Ibat the commitu-u had no power to enter into 
any treaty without the sanction of the Bombay Government. Still 
Mr. Camao immediately after )»ent Mr. Bolmes to Siudia with fall 
power to coQolado a treaty. Siudia, tbouc'h highly flattered by this 
direct negotiation, gave in nothing from tlie Mar&thn demands, and 
Mr. Holmes had to agree that ovorythiog should bo restored to the 
Mar&lfaiU as ia 1773 and that a mess^fe should be sent to stop the 

Chapter VII., 


1 OisBt DsfPa Mariltfau, t2S. 

i^Ming. W Ut* kilUd sad wonaiUd &lU»a wm Eiuvpeaa oSo«n. 
Ua^i>, 417. 

ft 1387-31 

r evaded^ I Aft 
Otut Dnr* 

[!htpUr VII. 



advance of the Bcngnl troops. Sindia's favour was purrlwRed b; ■ 
private promise to bontow on him the Engltab sluire of Broaali iaA 
bythoKiftof £4100 (Rs. 'll.OOU] to bis Krvwit& The Bombaj 
artnj.nflcr Leaving fifrPiirmcr aoiICotonv] Stcmirt aa bost&gcs, wera 
n.llowed to withdraw. 

Mr. Carnac's liritt act on reacbing thi> Konkan vriut tn iiiispMid 
bis order stopping the advance of the Bengal troops.* Whoi 
newB of t)io di»gmce at Vadgaon reacbod Bombaj Mr. Bombf 
diBarowt-d 3Jr. Carni^-'n puwor tu mako n Ironty. Ou tbe 19M 
of Fobritnry he proposed to the council that their object abonld 
be to Bccuru peace so us to exclude the French frr>ui the MiinLtha 
doininions and to prevent the cession of Koglisb territory. He 
tLought the £t1l>0 (Rst. 41,000) Rp«at lu preaeuts to Sindia'a 9orvanl> 
aboufd be paid and thu promise uf the groat o\ Broacb to Stndi| 
co&6rm«d.' m 

Tho posilioD o£ tbo English which was altoost ntioed 1^ tn 
disaster at A'^^adgnon wa.1 retrieved by the sucoms ot QUmK£^ 
march. On hvarin^ that the Bombay army bad suffered a defeat n 
Vodgaon. Goddard preHsed on with speed fmwf RAjoyad in Buadel- 
kband and rejiched Surat on tba 25th of Febraary 1779 .' Wben 
nown of Vadgnon reached ilio soprenne UovemmenC they ordered 
Goddard, whom they had already appointed tbeir ploiiipot«ntiafy, 
to conclude a treaty with tho ftUriitti^. The new treaty was to be 
OQ tho ba.'^i.s of tho Piiraiidhar Iroftty with an additionnJ article 
excloditig the Prt-ncb from any vstsblisbtnont in MarfLthn t<»rritory. 
Qoddard wax alito, if ht* gained thB opportunity, to mine to a Heparan 
anrangemeiit with Siudia.* Siiidin who coiitiiuiod to keep 
Raghuuithr&v in bis power arranged that lands worth £1,200,000 
(Rs. 1,20.00^000) a year ebould be Bottled on Rnt^iunAtbrir in 
Buiidi'Ikhaod. On his way to Bnoddkhaod Ragbuu&thrav oscapcd 
from hin guard and reached Surat where he prayed General (ioddatd 
to give him shelter. Goddard agreed to shutter him (12ih Jane 
I77V1) and gave hiiu an allowance of £5000 (Ra. 50,000) a month. 
Thi.t cxi'iino <if R aif h u Dittb r^ v caused some ooldnoas between NiLna 
and Sindia. This passed off and Holkar and Sindia with 16,0i 
horse agrg et^.t o qpi'PSP, Qod dard in Oaiaj ^t.* 

When the rainn of 177^ vere over, *a tho Mnritbte refosed 
Come to terms, troops woro seat from Bombay and oTorran North 
TluLnn and scunred the revenue. On the 1st of January 1780 
Goddard marched HOuth fniin Siirat to act with the Bombay troope. 
In Dfceirilier 1780 ho captured Ba^eein, while Bartley defeated the 
Mar&tli&s with heavy loss at the battle of Uugad about twenty mil«a 
north of TliAiiJu After tboeo snccesseH iaTbe Konkao, in the hope 
that a display of vigour wonid bring Nrina to terras, Goddard 
advanced and took thn Bor paa» o n the Ist of February 1781. 
Qoddard kept his ho(vd'quart«r& at 'Rhopivli or Kfioftppli i at tbe foot 
of tho pasa and sant proposals to N&nn. Nfina who wm buy 

I Onnl DufT* HarithAt, 41B. * Gnnt Ihiff's \UTttbto, 430. ■ 

widBD^hLlnpiir. After re'iMKnt^TUMrnj^mrffiASpiu^^SaaSelFTO^^^ 
tlto 0th of Vebraofy. uwl, in twenty A»,y», rettAteA Satat ■ distance «l 300 mtlMk 
• Orsint Pur. MarikUiA*, 421. • Grant thiBT. M«i.thi,». 43). 






co1tectin|^ troopB nc^tiat^cl for a t.iino, and, whon his prcpanUoms 
wore read;, returuedOudfliird'ii proposals on the groand tbat soleniis 
could be considered which did uot provide for the SHfety of llie 
Muritliiis' ally Httida r of Maisur. On tbo ISlh of April Goddard 
begfan to r etreat on'^mba v. Prom the first he was sorely presaed 
bj tha Mnr&th&s. Only bis skill aa a general and the courage of 
hia tnxtps miablod him on the iSM of April to bring them safely to 
P an vo l. The Har&tbfe oonBidere>d this retreat of Goddard's one of 
tboir f^roatest guceesaas over tbo English. Id Se plotnbor 1 781 Lord 
Macartney, Sir Eyre Coote, Sir Kdward UuRhpfl, and Mr. McPberaoD 
addresaed a joint letter to the Pi««h«ra Htating their wi»h f or penc», 
the modenittoa of the Compnoy'tt vicvs, tho dosire of the British 
iiation to conrlade a firm and lasting trenly which no semiDt of the 
Company should have power to bronV, and ftamringf the pMhwa 
that EUtisfection should be gircn id a ainciTi' and irrorooablo treaty. 
Gen«ml Goddard, who tttill con^iderod hiuiseU the accredited agent 
on the part of the Mopromo Govoroment, alao openvd a negotiation, 
acd assamed, what wan privatoly agreed, that Sindia should use his 
codearotir to obUiin a oe«*ntion of botitibtiott botwoen the Peshwa 
and the KngliKh until thu terms of a gouetal pcaco could be adjusted. 
In Jaauary 1782 the Bombay Goveruinent eeob Captain 
Wttthcnttouo to Poouit. but »liortly after his iirrivul ofhcial iutelligeDoe 
was received that Mr, David Anderson had been deputed to 
.Mahddji Siadia'd camp, as Agem of the Governor General 
with full powers to negotiate and conclude a treaty with the 
MaTi£tb£s. On this Captain Watliorstone was recalled. At laat on 
the I7th of Muy the treaty ot Salba i was concluded uud ratified by 
the Peshwa on the ^Uth of December 1782.' Its chief provisions 
irere that BaghunMfar^r should have £2500 (Ha. 25,000} a month 
and live where ho chose ; Aat all territory should remnin n9 bcfor* 
the t roatj of FiiritTiilh arj that all Europcao a pxoept the Porlusfuese 
abould b<} eicdiide d from the Mariitha dominiomi ; tuat Ilaidsr ^onld 
be conipolleu to rolinquiith hi« conqtiotits from the Engb'sh ; and 
that Broach should be givea to Sindia for his humauity to the 
English nfk'r the oonreotion of Viidgaou. Raglinn^thrd v accepted 
the terms of the treaty and fixed biit residence al Koparirao D on 
tbe God&rari in Ahmndnngar. He aurvive^l only a few montha. 
His widow Auundibiii shortly nfler gavo birth to a sou Chimu&ji 
Apa. The infant CbimnAji together with BAjirtr. who at the 
time of bis father's death wm nine years old, remaiDed at 
Kopargaoa till 1793 wheo Kana FadnsrU removed tbain bo 

Chapter TU- 

1720- 18 

Trrttig nfSul 

In 1784, a conspiracy formed with the object of deposing 
M&dhavrar N4r^yaa and raising B^jir4v, the son of the late 
FCagbiin&thrAv waa discovered and ornehed bj N&na. In thesame year 
MudAji Bhonsla the chief of Berir visited Poena. He ahowed a 
eincero desire to connect himself with the bead of the state, and, in 
the name of his sod Knghuji, entered on a new agreement pledging 
binaelfaeverto aaaist the English against the P»Bnw«'« Oovrrnmenli 
and promising to co-operate in the expected war with Tipu. One 

t Glut DatTi MarltlijU, 452. 

1 Orut DiiR'« MaiatbU, U?, 530. 


in I'ontta, 

bScot of the tf«aty of S&lboi wa« greatly to favour Siodiu's donit 
to farm an iadopondent MarilUia daniiliOD. Id 1784 be took 
Ow'alior from tho UAiia of GoliatI vlio had forfeited his olnim to 
British protection ; be obtained supreme autborit; at Dellii ; he wu 
appointod oommandcr-ia-cUief of the Mogbat foroes and tnaoogm- of 
toe provinces of Delbi aud A^ra ; and made a claim on the Britiab 
for ehaulh for their Ben^l prorincea which fras diaaTOved by 
Mr. McPbcraon. In 1785 the newa of Sindia'fl BQCocBa in Nortbcn) 
India wail receired at Poona with anrpriRo and joy. A Hinalt body 
of the Peahwa's troops was sent to join bim as a meaaaiv of policy 
to preserve the appearance of toe Peshwa's co-operation and 
Bupremacy. In tbe same year at N^nn'a desire Ur. Cburlca Malet 
WM cboscn to be Urititib r^ident at Poona. 

In December 178!), on hoaring of Tipn's moTCiooDta. Ifim 

Fadnavis mado spociBc propowts to the Governor General in tbe nama 

both of hie tnastor and of Niztim Ali. These propovOit with alifffab 

inodifieationH wore accepted. A preliminnry ngreemeut waa settled 

on tho 2dth of Mnn-h 1790, and, on tho Ist of Juno, for tbe ftupprea- 

Bion of Tipa an otTuniiivf! i^nd defenaire treaty waa concluucd at 

Poona liutwooii Mr. Unlet on tho part nf the Company and Nilna 

Fadauvis on tbt- part of the Pevthwa nod ^'i&&m Ati.' In 1 792 Sindiai 

who wag auprome at the Oehli Coart, marcb«i from tbe north 

towurdu Poona bearing from the Emperor of Delhi to the Fesbwa 

tbe duedt) aud robee oC the hureditary ofBi'O of Vakil.t-itutlak 

or Chief Minister, whose hereditai-y deputy in North India was 

to be Sindia Nttna Fadnaris applied to tbe Eagtisb for the 

permanent vorvtcos of Captain Little's Delaobment which had 

acted with Parastini'&ia Ohfiu iu the wat in the Korndtak in 1790 

and 1791. This proposal was notap-dod to. Sindia, afraid that NAua 

might enter into some soch arrangomedt with the Enj^liab, and to 

allay Ntioa's wolt-foiinded jealoii«y of lim regular infaolry, brought 

with bim only a small party andcran EnglisbiRati named B[ese<iag; 

and a couplole battalion cnmmandcd by Michael Kiluse a 

Neapolitan. Sindia roached Poona on the 11th of June and 

pitched his camp near the Sangam or meeting of the Metba and 

&1ula rivorn, the place aligned by tho Posbwa for tho residence of 

tbe Bt'itiah envoy and bia suito. N6na, who waa jealous of iSindis, 

did all he could to prevent tha Peahwa'fi accepting tho titlc« and 

insignia brought from the emperor. Ho roprcaooted ibc impt\>priety 

of adapting some of Ihe tillea, eapooisUy tbut of JfaAdra; Adhr>tj, the 

greateHt of groat rdjia, which waa iueousistont wilh the constitatioa 

of the MnMthii empire. iStill Siudia peraisted and tbe lUja of Sdtint 

gnvo the IVshwa leavo to accept the honouni. Nine days after bia 

arriral, N&na rieiled Sindia who received him in the moat cordial 

manner, refuiicd to eit on bia state ctiahion in the minister's presence 

and trcHtt-d him with tho greatest reepect. Next day Sindia paid 

his restiects to tho Peshwiv, carrj'ing with him numberless rantics 

from Nurlh India. Thi- following morning waa 6xed for the c(.Tcoiony 

of investing tbe young Peshwa with tbe title and dignity of Vahil-i- 




Mutlak. Sioiim spared no pains to make tlie investituro imposinc-. 

Pooiui hod never man so grand a display. The investitnre of Sindia 

as (he Pealiwa's d«pnty Ja tbe office of VaHl-i-SIuliaii filled llio 

next day. Id spite of (he oiitirard soccefis of these ceremooiea the 

Msrith&s and Bnlhrnaoa of Pooan luicl the Decc&n romAined 

uoErioQdljr to Siadia. Siadia hopi'd by tbo mitgoiGccaco o( bis 

{iroeonts to gain tho f^dmll of tiio Peshwa. He al>)o, iu contrast 

to N&oa's 8trictiic»« iind docoriiin, took pains to pleaaa the Peshwa, 

makioR hoDtitiff and water parties for his amnMmeot. These efforts 

of Siouiu's liaa f) mQcli sucoea*! that Nilaa in an interriew with tlie 

Pcabwa, after reminding him wltat services lie bad rendered, n-arood 

liim of the danger he ran if he put himxaelf in Sindia's hands, and 

asked leave lo retire to Jieaaree. Midhavrfiv was much affected 

and promised that Qotfaio^ wontd p«rsuade him to detiert Nina 

fur Siudia. So bitter was the feeling between Ktoa and Sindn 

that disputes nearly eoded in au uutbreak. TbiH danger was 

removed by tJie deato of Mahildji Sindia of fever after a few days' 

illoese at Vilnardi aboat two miles east of Poooa on the 12lh of 

Febmainr 170't.' Mab&dii Sindia's career had been most erentfnl. 

He was'lho chief Maritiia leader for ahoiit thirtj^-five years, he 

mediated between tho Peshffa and the Kiiglisb, and he ruled the 

poppet emperor of Delhi with a rod of iron. He was succeeded 

by his gmnd nephew Daulotr&r Sindia, then in his fifteenth year. 

VAam Fadnavia waq now the only Mnrlitha statesman. The 

UarAtba confederacy still maintained the nominal gupremacy of 

the Poshwa; bat the people wore losioj; their adrentaroas spirit 

•nd each chieftain wa^ gniduBlIy becoming independent of any 

oontrnl authority, Betw<!«ii Sindia'a death in February 1794 and the 

close of the year the|proKre&i of events wsn iu Xana'a favour. 

Bat the diapntea between him and Niz4in Alt regarding; arrears of 

tribute (frcw more and more complicated. Sir Juhn Shore would 

not interfere and war was begun in 179t. For the last time all 

the great MarAtha chiefs serTod together under the Peshwa'a 

banner. Daulatrtv Sindia Mah^ji'a successor, and Tokoji Holksr 

were already at Pooiin, and the R^ja of IJerAr had set out to 

join; GoTindtdv Ot^ikwiir sunt A detacbtnent of hia troops; the 

groat southern vassals the Briihman families of PatTardbao 

and JUstia, the BrAhmao holden of MAlegaon and Yinchor, the 

Pratinidhi.tbe Pant8aohiv.theUanltbaMdnkurui,Nimbitlkar,ObAtge, 

Cbavhiin, DaRe, PovAi-, Thordt, and P4tankar with many others 

attended the Kummona, The Peshwa left Poena in Jannarr 1795, 

and the great Mar&tha army marched at the same time, but by 

different rontoa for the ooaronieooe of forage. The army innlndod 

upwards of 130,000 horse and foot, oxclosivo of 10.000 Peodbnris.* 

> Ontat ihilTa U.-tMUhla, EOS. 

* Of tkit foroc npvanU of ome-liaU WW* «ltb*r Mid by thm FMhwa'a troMory, or 
Wtn troofM "f Twnal* vndmt lili direct contra). LMabAKv Sindia'* Iorc« wm toon 
nmiuirttiiB aixl more offl-iicot tlian tliat vt aoy otl)«r «hi«ftftiti. kltboni^ Um gT«at«r 
nartotbfttartn^mttaiiie'linXoith [iidia nml MiIhx JivltftlMda BabaEloomjundod 
{iiiaMdiaitaly nndsr DaaUtrav juil hui l»t«lv joiaed klm with a itashireMtitnt. The 
wholu coi»ut«d of 20,000 nitD. o( wtiom lO.OOO w«m ngalir iatuiUy imdw Da 
Brnnj;'* (Kmnd-ia-ooiniDBiid M. Pottdo. Buhall BlMnnla iBDK«r»d 18^000 hotw toA 
foot. Tukoji Haiur had only Ifl^OOOi bvt nf thuo 9000 wcrv ragulan ludM- 
Dndrenaa uid mott of tke PendUiii w«n foUowera ol UoUur. PafMhutiu BUa 
had 7000 ncn. Gnab DnffailarttU*, 614. 






in F«ona, 


!b»pt«r Vn. 


U** Triumph, 



Ndoa Fatliiavis consulted tbe cliief ofBcors wparntcly, and 8«cib| 
to have adopted the pluiia of Jivba Dilda Boluhi the 8hen' ' 
cotmuoDder of Studift'a troops, and of TuWoji Holkar. He app(.)in 
ParaliurAm Hhau to act as commander-iD ■chief. The war (^ded 
the I llh of March hj- tho lUifwit of tho Mogltals at Kharda . in ili« 
Jimlihod 8ub<division of Ahmaduntfar, a defvul due more to Moghal 
panic than to Mar^tha brnvory. Nizdm Ali vaa obliged Co treat and 
eurrendei-an obnoxious mtniator Ma«hir-ul-Mulk, who had resisted tht 
HJaratba daims. Aft«rtho battle the Peabva returned to Poona; Nftn^ 
Fadnarie wa« otnpWyod iu diittribatiug the actjuiBitions and id »&tt)iti|^| 
affairt with the dineretit chiefs ; Panthurdm Bhiu aud Eaghuji Bfaoiul^^ 
remained nuur Pooiin; Rolkarunt^miped at Jejuri about twcnty-flre 
miles aoiith-east of Poona ; and Siudiu at JfimgaoD in AhmadoAgar. 
By the nii<l(llv of Scpt«inb«r 179'^ DaulatrAv Sindia had taken leav« of 
thePeshwaand gone toJim^aonon his way to HindustAu ; Parashurim 
Bhiiu hndrc-turnod to TAiiffaoniii Sit^ra;nolkar remained at Poona; 
and Bag-hu}) Bhonslu left Pooua at the middle of October beiojf 
dismisaed with groat honoar. N&na Fadnavij was at tho h(^iff bt of bk 
proepcHty. Witbont callinf^ the help of any foi-eign pon-ei- he bad 
gained every object of bis ambiliuu. Daiilatr^v Sindia was -wrell 
uiaijioaed towards him and Siodia's miQiators and officers were more 
iDteut ou forwat-diiig their own views in the gorernineut of iheiryoonti 
master than in achomcs for controlling tbo I^oona Coort. Tukoji 
Holkar had become imbecile both in mind and body and bis officers 
wore in Nitnn's btinde. Raghnji Bhonela was cotnplctoly eeeur«d in 
his intoroet«, and thoBrdhman estate-holderswero of hie party. Tht 
fair prospect that the Pesliwa's Goveminoot would regaia the toM 
and vigour of tho first Mddhavniv's time (1761 - 177£) waa ruined 
by Nuia'H fundneoA fur power. Bis iinwillingneHK to let even fail 
muter nliaro with him thu control of th\> stoki bruug'fat on N&naa 
catastrophu which undermined bis authority, nwrtaroed tlie laboar 
of his life, and rlnndcd bin last days with trouble and misery.' 

Though MAdhavriiv was npvy (il79&j f,\yeif ty years old, NdM 
loosened none of the restraints under which he bad boon reared. 
At the same time he beeaine muro tbuii vvor wiLtchful of all the 
state prisoners whoso liberty might endanger hia own power, la 
1794, before the beginning of the war with NisiAm Ali, Bijir&T and 
Chimniiji Apa, the bops o f R^bunAUirfi v. with their adopted 
brother AmritrAT were taken from N^k to the gadhi or mud fort 
of Jannar ond were kept there i n closo ca&tod y. The bulk of 
the people tbonght the inipriHonment of theso Vnuths hnrsh, cruel, 
and uniiocdcd. The old partisans of RaghuuiUhriiv and all who 
disliked NAna strove to atrengtheti aud embitter this feeling, 
praising tho jouths and overdrawing tbe hartthnoaa of their 
oocGaeinent, Tho knowledge bow widely this feeling was 
spTMd made Nftna tttiU warier and more careful. He felt tW 
BAji r^r. the elder bn>tho r, though a youth of only nincleen, was a 
rival whom ho had reason to fear. Gmcefut and handsome, with a 
mild persuasive manner, BdjirAr was famed for skill as a boraetnan, 


archer, and svrordsman, and for a knowled^ of tbo Mcrod books 
greater than xay Msrilcba Br^tnaa of his ago Wl ever been known 
to poitsesa. MddbftvnLv heard with delight tbcso aooonnta of Ma 
cooHin's skill, and prayed tbat he might no eet two And become his 
friend. la vain Nina wamect bioi that Bc!iir&v was no friood to 
hitn but a rivitl. Tho moro NKna warned and Wtured the ati*oiigor 

Srew M&dhavriiT's longing to know bis couiiiu. Bijirav hcurd that 
[lidbavri(r loved him and WKH anxioQS that B^jir47 should be set 
froo. Through bia kctipor BuLvitnLrfir, wboui after long penuasioB he 
at laat won over, B&jir&T seut Madbuvmv a messago of respoct and 
sympathy : ^^''(< ard both prisonem, you at Poona and I at Juanar, 
«tiU oar miudii and atrei'tiuna are free aud should be devoted to 
each other ; the time will come when we two together will rival 
the doods of our forefathers. When NAna heard of Ihia 
correspondence which bad lasted for somo timo be showed an 
altogether aansaal rage. He upbraided MAdhavrAv, doubled the 
oloaenoss of B&jirdv's conSuomont, and threw BalTantntv into a 
fort loaded with iroaB. ifjidhavrav galled by restraint and 
ovorwbolinod with anger and griof for day^^ refused to leavo his 
room. A-t tho Danara on the 23n(l of October, bo Appeared among 
his troops and is the evening received hia chiefs and the ambassadors. 
But hia spirit waa wouiidud to doapair, a molancboly eeizud him, 
and, on tho morning of th e 25tb of October ITgS . ho threw himself 
from a terrace in bin patnco, brokn two of hia IinHw' mid died after two 
days, having particularly dc&imd i hat Bfjj Jriv should aacoecd him. 
When he heard that MAdhavrfvIiad thrown hTmBellffroni tho terrace 
and wru dyinf^, Xllnft sammouwd Pamahurdm BhAii, roc<itlod Baghaji 
BhODsIa and Daalatr&v Sindia, aud called in Tukoji Uolkarwhowaa 
in Pooaa. He bid from thgm M&dbavr^v'a dying wiah that B^jir^T 
sbould succeed him, and warned them ihivt ItiijinLv'a snccessioD would 
be certain ruin to any one who had sided against RaghuQathr^v. 
He enlarged on (be family connection between B^jirtLv and the 
Engliflh; hie accoaaion wonld end in tho Engliah aaemK^ftn cv : why 
not continae the presporons government which the Deccan had for 
years eojoyod. Ho proposed that ^tAdhavriiT'a widow YashqdA bfU 
sho uld adop t a son and that Kiiun should conduct the government 
till the son came of age. Holkar gave this scheme bis support, and 
by January (1796) the lending nobler had agreed to itaod withdrawn 
, from Poena. This dociflion waa told to "hit. Mallet. The English 
could nuae no objection imd nothing remtkiuod but to chooae the 
child. Bdjirdv wail informud of these moMorOB. He knew that Baloba 
T^lya one of Sindia'a ofGoem waa well dispoaed to him ; he heard 
thaconbisdvath-bod JivbaDiida Baknbi, Sindia'a prime miniater, told 
bis master that he wag ashamed that bo bad agreed to keep BdjiNiv 
from bii* rights, and he promised Sindia territory worth £k),00O 
(Ba. 4 laklui) if he would bolp him to become Peahwa. Sindia 
promised and a formal agreot oent was drawn up. When Nina heard 
of the agreement botwecD BijirAv and Sindia, ho sent in haato for 
Parashurd-m Bh&a who marebed from T&agaon in Sitira to Poena, 
120 miles ui forty-eight hours. Ndaa a ud Paraghtiriia B bitu agreed 
that their only chance was tobff before aiod ia and at once offer the 
PesbwBship to Bijir&v> Pkrasharim BhAn sitarted for .Jnnnar and 







bapt«r VU. 

17W- 1817. 

imnilji Mililh avrd t; 

made the offer. When PmrsKburim Bb&o had held » cow bv the U i 
an d ftworaby thoGodATari .BiiiriTwaKaatiafiCTinad wo at with bimto 
FooDa AssooDOS IIJjir4vreacDed Poena he had a meeting with Stim. 
BAiirAx, usHurod of the ■aoocnioo, a^rood to kiwp NAdh at; the he»i 
oCbut admitiiatratioD, and both promised to bary former ennsitj. 
WbOB BiWobft TiUyft iind hig magtor Siiidia h oard that Bftjiriiv hoi 
deeerbed them in (avonr of Nina tboy innrii ))y j ofi Poonn with a 
krge force. The timid N&na was dismayed and told IVmshonlm 
Bhiit that as it wu ngainitt him that Sindift was oomin^ lie had 
better retire. N&na accordingly withdrew to Purandhur and ch«D to 
S^Jim. When SiiidiareochMl Poena ho had a friendly meeting whfc 
Bi&jir&T. But bits miniatur Balota Tiitya ouuld ool forgive Bijirir*) 
deaertion. Ho proposed that M&dhavriv'a widow should adopt 
B ijirJv'gyoungcrbrotbtfrCbimnjiii i. acdthat Paraa1iDr4ca BbAn «booH 
be prime miDiater, I'araahurjim Bh&n cousnlted NAru, and H&aa mid 
the schomo n-nx ^rxMl, prortilod PuniHliantin Bh&u got Biiir&T into hi* 
baoda. Parashurim lihiu overlooked this condition and told BAlobt 
thni hia scliAmo had NAoa'a approval BtUoba expressed bimmlf 
plmaud Ui ho feared that H&aa might orsanize a ooflibinatioo 
agaiDst hia master. K^na obtained the robe of invMtitore from 
tbo 34itAm chief and was on his way with ic to Poona nbei) be beard 
that FarashDMlm Bbda had not sectirod possossion of BAjirA?. B« 
Buspected treachery, seal on the robe, aiid halted at V&i in S&tira. 
Daring all this time BdjirfiT knew nothing of the plot to pass him over 
in bis brother's favour. To settle some diepnt«, regardios certain 
arrears of pay he had promised to inako good to Sindia, fiAiirATweot 
to Sindia'a cainp. Towards evening confused newe came UnI 
Paraehnr&ni Bb&u had seized Chimmtji and carried him tA 
BAjirdT was keen for pursuit ; bnt no on? know where the boy bad 
been taken and till morning pursuit was tuelosa. Bijiritv etay 
the night iu Sindia's camp. Next morning- bo saw the snnre ini 
which he had fallen when he wae advised to n^main with Sindia 
no place OQtside of tbo camp was safe for him. Parajihanlm B 
had taken Chimndji to Poona, and on the 2(jt^o^Mavl7W 
contrary to his wish, Chirnn&ji waa odoptotTc^uieTanflrof 
Cbi mpAii JUAJUtTriv and formally invested aa Peshwa. The day 
oRcT thu new rcabwa was inatallod Parashunim Bh4u propoi 
that N&na Fadnavia ahould come to Poonn, be reconciled to Sindi: 
minister Bdlobo, and nesumo the civil MlminiMtration, while 
command of the troops should remain with Famsliur&m Bbfiu. Ib 
reply Ndaa Fiidnavin requested that Parai^h untni Bhdn'a eldest bob 
Haripant, might be sent to Y&i to turtle preliniinariefl. Instead 
of coming as an envoy, Haripant crossed the Niraat the head of 4000 
to&OOOchueen horse. Ndun'sausptciuua wereatrengtbened by a letter 
from Bab^iiv Phadke advising him to lose no time in putting himself 
in a place of safety, and N&ua retired to MahSd close to Riygad ' 
ID Kol&bft. Nitna's fortunes now soomed de-aperate. Bnt 
forced him oat of his timid and half-hearced moaaurox. Hooxi 
himself witbavigonrofjadgmetit, a richness of resource anda 
of oombining men, which from his European contemporaries ) 
him the name of t he M^ f^h^ Maff^jjfty"'- N^na'a bwo chief oi 
were P araah a An Bh^ who waa acting as miniator at Poena and 

bad ' 








B Aloba. Siuditt'ti roipigler. Bis chief hope U; in persuudiiig' B£iirfiv. 
like himself a cliief Io«er under llic pro^ont Armngemont, to throir 
in his tot with him. In these extremities N'&d&'b wraltb, which be 
bad be«a la>-ing hy for yAan Mid bad phwwd with traity banters 
^1 oTcr the country, was of the greatest sorvicc. Money could hay 
some leading m&n m the Pcahwk's ftrniy to coantenwt Para^hurftm 
Bhiu ; monoy could buy a party in Sindift's camp to oppose Nana's 
other chief enemy Riloba ; if only Biijirdv wore on bis side 
promiflos of territory wonld win Sindia and tbu Misiim. Niloa's 
negotiations with B.4iiriiv were made easy by the arriral of a trusty 
dvpL'tiilvnt Dovr in Bitiiriiv'E Mrrvii'e bringiDg friondly assuraooea 
from B&jirAv who urgnl Nana to exert himself m their cauM was 
the satnc. NiVan's Hrhf>m?« 8acoe«ded. Hv bitd Tukoji Holkar 
ready at a signal to help him with all his power. He wou urer 
BilblGniv Phadke who was to cotnoiand of too Poshwa'a honsobold 
troops as a make-weight to Parasliiir&m Bh^ii, and gained SakhflrUm 
GblUgo, whose daagnter Sindia was most anxious to marry, an 
enemy of B^loba Sindia's minister. He offered Sindiii 
Parasharlint Rhiu's eetates in the Bombay KarniiUk, the fort of 
Ahn:adnagar, and territory worth £100,000 (Its, 10 lakli*) oo 
condition tint he would place B^Ioba in con6uem«Qt, establish 
b&jirdv as Peahwa, and withdraw to North ludia. To these terma 
Sindia agreed. When BAjirtlv and Bdbiriiv Phadko, the command- 
ant of the Peahwa'a Koaacnold troops know that Sindia'a alliance 
was secured, thuy bejfnn openly to ix)Ilnct troops with fuuda placed 
at their disprtiuil by Nitna. Biilobn Tiitya, Sindia 'h inini.<4ter, found 
out that B^iiriv and Biibai^r were raising troops, Uu seized and 
imprisoned BAbJlnLT in Cbftkan, snrronnocd BdjirAv'a encampment, 
and dtabanded h\n ttpops.* R&loba thought BAjiritv wits the root 
of the whole conspiracy, and arrangftd that- he should be sent to 
North India under the cliargo of S»kl)t(rflin Gbitge. On the way 
BAjir^v used every endeavour to'win over Ghitge.and, on thepromiaa 
that B^jiriLv when he Came to power would get him appointed Sindia's 
minister, Qh&tgc allnn-ed BijirAv to halt on the plon of ill-health. 
Maahir-ul-MuIk, the KizAm's minister, whom ho had lately freed 
from couSnument in Puona was allowed by Parn.shunijn Bb^u to 
collect troops to be used against N'llnn. But Nana bad already 
ffiiiiiod the Nisdm and bis micr, promising, if the Niiatm helped 
Udjiriv to bo Peuhwa and N4na to be minister, that the lands won by 
the M;tnithiiM after the battle of Khardu {179J) should he restorod 
to the Niz&m and outstuuding claims caucelied. Oa Da»am which 
fell on the lltb of October the regular battalions in the Fesbwa's 
aerTioci under Mr. Boyd marched to the Nira bridge and a brigade 
of Sindia's regulars started towards RAygad both apparently with the 
object of cnMhing Nina. Nina's plans were now complete. On tho 
27th of October biiidin arrested his niini»t4.T B&loba and sent a body 
of troops, accompanied by some of the Nisutm'a to seize ParnshuNiui 
Bhiin. ParashuAm BhAa was warned and (lc<l. taking Chimndji Apa, 
hot was purauedand cnptnred. B&jiriir was brought back and camped 
at Koregaon on the Bhimo. NAnn loft MahAd, met the troopa 
which be h*d i.-ollefted at thr; .SfUpapass in Sfilrira and w«3 joined 
by the Peshwa's iiifjuid-y under Mr. Boyd. Bpfnre advancing Nina 

Chapter VII 

Jfaiia.'4 T'iumfi 


B lSt7. 


Ik and but 



required a fjuurfintce from Btljir^v tliot no treacfaor; waa intendetlt 
una tliftl if be ever wished lie mig^ht reai^ bis poet as u)!tust«r in 
the coruiiiity that bis person and property wonld he rvupecUiA. 
NAna FiKlitavIs reaiinietl tbe dulit^fl ot priiuo miiitHt«r oo tLe S&tli 
of Novomber and Btyi rAv wiia iuato ll cd Pt- »bwa on tlie ij^^jijiLQfiQ^^ 
1796. The Sb^Btria qeclared <;iiimmiii'« >do|>tion tueS^ na^fter 
a nomiiwl penronce UbiiODftji wiifl app oint.^'l yn^'^rninr nf OuJMr^t^' 
The EiijiUsh and Rftgliuji Bnonsia of Ki^ur approved of BAjirf&r's 
acceeeioD. At tbe time of liis uc4.'cseioii Mr. Tuuv, vtho wus thvtx in 
Pooim, dft^cribpd Bdjir^v om nror middle size, fsir, and graceful, n-itb 
a tiiaa)y sensible unil nmj<*ytic 1*00 Bud itnprcssiTc nuinnvnt. 

During those irregnlftrities the army bad fallen into dwopdeo". 

In 1797 a dosperat*) affn^y took p\i\e« in tho iitroota of Pooiu 

between a body of Arabs aud a party of Mr. Boyd't sepovu, in which 

upwards of 100 persons were killed and many shopM und vriiruhoaMi 

were plundered. Tlio treatiea with Sindia and Riighnji niiauslawem 

fulfilled, BJ)d Itaghnji loft fur Nnpcpur. But as B^iir/iv, iinloss A 

WM greatly modified, refused to ratify the treaty of M&h^ with 

KixJtm All, Mashir-ul-ranlk quitted Poona without takinf> leave of 

tho P<.-ahwa aud returned big'bly iacoDsed to Uatdarabad (I3tli 

Jnly 1797). Thie dispute with the NiWlmaod the doaih of Tukoji 

Holknr in August 1707 coiisidt^raldy we.\k«ned N&na'a power. Od 

Holkar's death (13th July 1797) Malbsrriv quarivlled with bis 

brother Kisbiriv, who was imbecile in mind and body, and, with 

bia two illegitimate brothera YashfantrAv and Vilhoji, remoTed 

to nhiiinburda, about two mil«s iiortb-west ot Poona city. Kink 

favoured MalhilrrAv, and Ki^Jthir^r applied for belp to Hiadia. Sindia 

proiaimMl help with tlie greatest rcaditivss, Httnt a strong; furoe to 

Bhimbarda, and, lu MulbdniT nifufcd to yield, biu camp iru 

iiurrciidcr«^d and he was killed. His half-brothers YitahrnntrAv aad 

Vithfiii oscapfd. This bucco&s gars Sindta power over tho whole 

of Holknr's resources and was a dpathblow to the schemea nf NAna 

Fadnavis^ Bnjiritv aocrtntly oticuuragod Sindia, who, in tranfsferrin^ 

A.ngria'8 eatatea in KoUIn from MAoiji to bis own relation 

Bibur&v and in other mntterH, bcgaa to exercise a more arbitmry 

power than the Peshwa had ever rlaiuiod.* Hitherto Bijir&v whose 

appearance nod midforlnDcs always won aympatby was boli^vod to 

have an excellent natural diBpOBitiOD. This belief was thp reaalt oi 

his talent for cajoling' and deceiring. From the beginning bi* 

conduct was governed by two principles to ti-iist no one and to _ 

deceive every one. Hie grent object wna to free himself from thafl 

control of Sindia and of N&na. Bindia he regarded aa a tesa evil" 

than NAdu. At the worst he thonght thut nt any timu ho could get 

ridof Sindia by persuading bim logo to N'orth India To free himself 

from NAna's control BijirAv entered into a plot with Ohij^t*, whose 

daughter waa not yet married to Sindia, nna persuiided oiia that >o 

long BS NAna remained in power Gb&tge'a hope of becominpr Bindia'i 

minister twnld never be realised. Thvy agreed that Nina should be 

placed in confinement. On the 9lrt of December I7&7j HA^ irbile 

I r:r*ut PulTfl M*rft1iJ>K. Si7-S29. 

■ Omnt V^tTt M.rllWt, SOI. 








roturuinga formal visit to Sindia, waa seized with all bis retinue; 
his ^aroa n-cre uttiLckvit uad dUpcnHiU ; unci uudvr ObiLtgo's ordtra 
Nina'a bouHe aiid the hoiiftes of his a^lbercnis were pluudi^rud. 
Man^ rceiHUict J firii)^ went on for a niglit uiul ditv ; llii^ whole oiij 
was in an uproar ; all went amied and in banda. \Vli«;n Nina waa 
seizod ID Siodiik'scump, Biijird.v, as if on bu3iiieflci,tteutfortbe loadiiiff 
members of Nina's pnrtjr and pat tboni in couSnomeut.* N&ua 
was HoDt to Abiuiuiuagitr furt. BiLjir&r appointed his owa tuUf- 
brother Amritnir prime uiiuistvr uud niisutl tbv uouxpericncod 
BiilAjipniit Fatvanlluin to the command of Ibo array. When M he 
supposed bo biid got rid of N'niiu's contrul, Bnjiriiv bc^un to deviso 
Rioans for dismisHlog Sindia. Bat he had first to cany out the 
prutnieBS bo bad inndo. Hintliu vrut niarrind to Ghifcge'g daaK btar, 
and money difficaltiea cauaed by marriage uxpcnses attd the coit of 
his oroij at I'oonu pressed bard on Stndi», ko that ho urmd BijirAv 
to give him the £i.UOO,00(> (Ra.'ilcrorii) he had promiaM. BAjirAv 
aaid he bud not the money. If Sindin would innko Gh^tgu liis 
niiniater, IMjirAv would give Ghdtge leare to recover from the rich 
people of Poona as loucb aa wa« roquinKl. 8iudia ngrood and 
tib&Cge waa made minister and empowered to lery the amoaut 
required from the poopio of Poona. Crbat^o's first step was to roiae 
money from ibe members of Hinh'a party who were confined in 
BijirAv's palace. I'beee men of hif*)i poNiliou and i-bputatioii wero 
drag(fed out and sconrged till they guve up their property. One of 
them, a reUtioQ of Nana'^, watt l ied to aheated u uu, and as he would 
not |nrt with his properly, remained tied to toe gan till ho died. 
Tltesc crudities wurc not coiifiocd Co N&ua'a friends. Merchants, 
bankera, and all in the city who were supposed to have wealth, 
were seized and tortut-ei^nitb such cruelly that Bereral of tliera 
died. 'JTiOHgb tbo pUia of levyinjf money by force from the people 
of Poona was BAjinir'a, Uajir&v never supposed that the money 
would bo collected with eocb cruelly. Ilo remonstratod with 
Sindia but bia compbuuta were of no effect. Amritritr, B&jiriv'a 
brother, who did aot know that Uijiriv bad any share in the 
matter proposed to seize Sindia. To this Gdjiriv willingly 
ugi-eud. Before Ibia B&jirur and AmritrAv, to make the PcHhwa'a 
infantry more uemly a inabcli for Sindia's, had agreed lo engng» 
Bncifih oQicvnt and Mr. Tone was chosen tu ODratnaad tho 
Rtat brigade. l*heir relations with tbo Nixdm were put forward as 
the renooD for tbia iucreaao of their truopu and Sindia was naked to 
ioiu iu an expedition to recover tJie arrears due under the treaty oE 
Kharda (1795). Sindia ntadity agreed. About thitt time there was 
much ill-feelinjir among Sindia's officem and Sindia became very 
unpopular. RAjtriv fu«i(!red the fooling of dulikc to Sindia, ao that 
if DO seised Sindia he mi^bt bare lesa difBcnlty iu preventing an 
onlbreak among Siiidi.-fc'n followem. BjijirAv arranged with Amrit- 
T&r that Siodia should be invited to his palace and should be seised by 
Aba Kflle who commanded one of the Pechwa'a roguUir baltalioDs. 
Sindia was aakcd to como but excused himself. B&jin&tr ordered 



A'rtwa Srfjerf, 



■ S«e Mr. IbtoA'* D.»i<«tcli(i. 

[Bombcjr OaMttcsr 



CUpter TIL 



hini to alUmd. At their meeting lie upbraided Siudiu fur hu 
disobedience, aad for all the sufferings wbicb be had caused in 
PooDU. fie ordered 8tiidia to witlidrnw from Poona tu -IlUngmht 
iu Abiiiiidoa^r. Sindia expressed the greatest williDgnesa to move, 
bttt n-grL-tlud that until tbe ]>re!sent arrcurs of pay weru inado gooi 
bif( army ootild not leave PooDa. Wbea tbe time came to ^ive tbd 
aixu&l fur oci-Ainff bim, IMjirfiv'a oourago failed aud Bindia mm 
allowed to leave. Bajir&v bad afterwards the ineannoaa aod uroalC' 
ues8 to tfU SiuOiu wbat Aiiiritnlv bad iuCt-ndud and to advise hio 
to be un bta i^n^ard. Fresb difficulties anBe from tbe arroar* o 
BM due lo tbe Pealiwa'a array. Tlivy wero ordunsl to niarcli U 
□AtAra t(j put down a rising'. iDsteud of startiDg tbey raided a rio4 
ID Pooua and kicked about tbe Htreot the tarlmn of out* of BAjiniT'j 
hvouritos who tried to iDtvrfvru. Govindrdv Pintle, one of tlu 
mitiiiters who was in conGneineut, Hont word to BajiMt thai the onlj 
man vrbo could bring- the (roous tu order was Niirnpant Cbakrader, 
till) former cotntuander who had been impnsone<l wt n friond of Nnna's, 
JMjirdv rBstorud butb I'iuglo niid Karopant to libertjr, andNnropaitl 
qnollcd tbo tamult in a day. But as B&jirAv could not tntst 
K^rop&nt at a di^laucv hu bad to rclc-aso P&rasburdim BbiSu to 
restore order at SAtaru. Bitsoi-ders increased at Pooua. Daulatrii 
Sindia's undo Mitbidji on hitt death in 1795 had left th ree widow s 
1)nuUitriir promised to make ample provision for thrm nnd ihe] 
coiitincii-d to livo lu his cnmp. No provision was made and ema 
their comforts were scrimped. The ToungL>3t of tbe three widowi 
was a Ixmntiful wotaan and the othors cither discovered or inventet 
a cnminal intimacy betwren her and Sindia. The ladies upen^ 
accused Sindia of the crime and Ghat^ who was tent to quiet ibea 
oomplaiots being refused aa etttraoce forced bis way loLo tbcti 
trots and seized and flogged them (1798). Tbe Shenvi finLbma ps, c 
wbom mioba wns tbe head and who before Gb^flfe's rise to powsi 
wt>re tbe etrongeitt party iu Sindiu's army, took the side of tbe widows 
After luQok discussion it was arranged that the widows aboiild Im 
taken to BurbAnpiir and shcald be kept there in a elate oE auitabll 
comfort. On their way to BartiAupur tbeir friends learned tbnt tbi 
widows were being taken not to HurhAnpuv hut to Abmadiiajn^r fori 
Under tbe influence of the Shenvi brdhmans a Pathin named Musinffai 
KMn, who was in command of a choice body of onvnlry, aesailcd tht 
escort, rescued the widows, and carried thpm back close to Sindia'j 
camp. Gbi.tgo pei-snaded Siudiii to Ivl bim attuvk Mozalhr 
IJnmffar Iiad waniiug aud retired with tbe widows punmod In 
Gb&tge. lie left tbe ladies in the camp of Amrifnlr, Biijiriri 
brother who was oenr the Bhima, turned on Ghiitge. defeated bint 
and put bim to Higbt. QiLjinlv approved of Wis lirothcr's kindacss U 
tJie widows, andasked OoloDel Palmer, the British Resident, to mediate 
betvTutiu tbuui aud Siudia. BiuJiit refused, nnd, un tlio uij;ht of tlu 
7lh June, sent Gbiltge with five buttuliuns of rognlar infantry tindei 
Bn Prat, a Frenchman, to anrpriso Amritr&r'acamp and seize tiu 
ladies. Gbatgv'a uttcuipt failed and ho bad to retire with loss 
Sindia then pmniised to armnge for n suitable esitnbtisbmcnt ff>r t\u 
ladies, and Amritrdv came into Poods and camped cloee to Sindil 
It was the Mnharram time, and Gbiitgo, under pi-etcnco uf koepin 




order, brouf^ht iwo brigades of ioEuitry and twcoU'five sgaas close 
to Amritrtlv's catnp, suddenly opened fire oa it, ctuu-^;^ and 
dispersed Aturitriiv's troops, and pillu^ed bis caiup. This outragu 
was not}iiag less tliau war with the Pealiwa. Holkar came and 
aided nitk the Pe^hwa, tbeotlier lUftr&tlia nobles joiaed his stondardj 
aud the Peshwa negotia.todau olliiuice with ^isani Ali.' Sindia 
ularuod by the Ireitty between the Feshvra nad the Xi&iim triwl lu 
arrange a settlemont, but the demands of the ladtca bc«nine so 
cxtravAffnot that Dothing could be settled. To intituiduto BdjirSv 
Siudio SL'Ul au enroy to Tipu, but Bijirfiv bad doue the samp. A 
more powerful TDeans of influencing BfLjiniv and nliW> ti m<.-aDS of 
raisiupf money was to set Nina Fa-fnaviii free. Sindia bpought 
Nina from Ahmadiiagar and received £100,000 (Rh. 10 liikhg) as 
the price of hia liberty. The release oE NAua waa shortly followed 
by (he reTocation of the treaty between the Peshwa aud Ni&iin Ali. 
These cveuts furoed Biijirav U> begiu uej^oliatious with N^na 
Fadnam, and Sindia, who did not know that the treaty betweeo 
tbo Pushwii aud the NiiMlm hud bve-u rt^vokedj wus anxtouii tu como 
to temift, inMHtiug only Nana should be placed at the bond of 
Bijinlv'i} nlliiirs. MeAuwhile OhAtge ha<l been acting wilb such 
reoklesa cruelty that t:>iudia felt that Ubit^^V difgrnoeful acta 
wore aliciuUiiig the minda of all hiK anpporters. He iiccurdinglj 
nve onlera for Gbllt^'s arrest which wu tuiccessfully effected. 
GhAtge's arrest helped to reooncilo Sindta and BAjtritr. llie need 

I of reconciliation was also preased ou them by thr change of policy 
on the part of tho Knghsh. The timid DCiitrnlity which had 
marked the English policy under Sir John Hhore was reveraod by 
the Marquis of Wcllealey's arrival in India on the 2tlth of April 

'1798. Soon nftor hi» arrival the Mar<:|uis of WcllMlcy, then Lord 
MomingtOD, directed the Political AcoutK at Poouii and Hnidarabad to 
socnra thcalliiLiiceof thoiieatatesao that at lea^t their rcNt>ur(x*s might 
not be applied against the British Uurerumeut. With the object of 
rumoring Sindia from the Beccan who was known to bo always 
aoxioas to obstruct British influciu'e, the Brilieh agent at Poona 
set fortb the reported do?iignit on India of Zatnto Shah kiog^ oE 
K&bul, tlie granaKon of Ahioad SU4b AbdiUt terrible to Manitbiis. 
The Britiah agent also offered the Poshwa n body of the Company's 
troops to protect his territory und roTi%-o tho authority of hia 
Ifovfrnnieut . Biijirav had not long l»efore asked for the help of 
British troops and hta oflfer Iwd bc-en refused. Hu could explain 

this sadden ohange in the view of the English only by an under- 
standing vrith Nana, and bis suspicion waa conRmied when tho 

LEiiglish agent spoke strongly in farour of N&na's restoration. 

Chapter VII 





VoAve tha tcvat^ Iba PvohHs cmirirniod Uiq •rticlM of Um bwtty ti Mahid 

I which waa paawd betwvoit Niiut CwliiKvi* utd tbo Nixim in I7H i MariUbi daiou 

ItM B«br w«« mnittwl >wl a tnut o( Urmtory Tlolillng £90.000 (Ba. S,0<\OIW> of 

|r«v»ua« inu oedad to Kixiin Ali. NiUUn AH it^7e«il to aupporb the Paafawa aMidNt 

ly «ucrMtcblMnt of Nana Padnavii, bat tu o>m) Vtam waa aal tt*» bjr Sindia it 

t» igraed that BAiit&v woald aUow Um ■ ycailjr pcanon of £10,000 (Ra. 1,00,000). 

{■dniji Bhonaia ofntepur, if hevliuHi, waa to ba oonridcred a J>Miy to thii trtaiy, 

[aii-r «ru trt rrceire llie wliolo of Dark Slaudla (rotn Bljintv. Grant Daffs 

[ Mariitbia, fiSU. 

raoaUjr Or] 



17MI. 1817, 

Kdiut MmUrr. 




object of l^jir&v's alronffost hsl^ an 
wisli lu prerent an uadersrtandiDg' between N&oa and tho El 
t>vercain« all otbor considenttioDK. Siiidia wus ready to leav 
NorOi India but iJAjir&v at a private meeting p«reunded li 
stay to prorttnl Nans from briDgiug ISn^iab troops into I 
SVbilo tnc^H pnrat« negotiations witn Siadia were on foot E 
was secretly prayiug N&du nhu wua then ia Siodia's can 
return k> Fooon and take his post a& nitDister. Nana at first n 
uoleas andcr a ^iiamrit«e fruin the i3ritish Goveramont thi 

Einon and propt>rly shuuld be Hafe. To orercome NAna'a 
ijir&T wont alone at niglit (o Nina's liouto, and asing 
utmost bis oxtrnordinnry powers of persuaaion and dec 
indaced (loth October 179K) the old man to rv«nnio hia po 
minister without any ffuarantee. Within a few months 
Nitna was told by Yaslivnntriiv Ghorpade and by Kindu 
nfijirAr was agniii trying t^i pnrniindo Sjndia to pnt him in 
Bnement. Nina went to Bijiniv, charged htm witli this treM 
nud implored him to let him fpve up hia poiSt as mintatui 
withdraw to privAto life. Biljiriv deaiod any knowledge i 
proposals, asked who had dared to make nee oE his aam 
told Sindia to arrost thoin. Sindia nnt^stod Bdjiniv's m 
GovindHk7, and Shirr^m another of Bijir&v's agents, who 
the loss of thoir pr(i|>orty and their liborty M'iihout impM 
their master's trulhfuIneBs. After this satisfaction N^nih n» 
bis duties. As far as possible Nitoa avoided public business, 
for aoRie months affairs hod been ui progress which no o 
Poona but N&im oould prerent from Berioaaly affecting feha 
of the Peshwa. Un the firet of S«pt«iiihcr 1798 a new troa 
concluded betwcea Nizim Ali and nlhe Euglish under 
Nintm Ali agreed tu diiband his French troops and replace 
with English Iruoffe, »Dd under which the Euglitih undorto 
nedinto between the Nizdm aud the Pe&bwa and to do thoir b 
bring the P««hwa to a friendly seCtleraentJ Tho MnrAth^a Y 
this treaty with much jealousy and tlm Critisb agent argt 
Peahwa to conclude It etiinilartntatv. He evaded thu subjeot 
a»iuratice that bu would fuithfuUy uxecuto the ounditiona of es 
engagemuntA, and, in the event of a war with Tinn, proiuia 
alTora his aid. In these ropliott U&jir&r fciUowcd KtlDa's a 
Nana prcs-sed him. after Ki^'ing these promisea, to lako can 
his promises were fullilled ; any instanoo o( bad faith wonli 
gr«>Atly to tho power of the Knglisb id their fnture dealing wj 
Marfilh^. In thia matt«r Bjljirilv followed his own ioclin 
ThonRh, with the help of Parashnrain Bhau, Ndna arruiijiw 
as in 1790 a Blar&tha contiogenl i^Iiould be ready, in 1700, wh^ 
fourth Iklaisor war broke oot, the Engliiih instead of Manii ha si 
found that Tipu's envoys wore publicly rwcfived io Foona, an< 
Tipu'a ag«ut had paid Biijirav £190,000 (Us. 13 UOtfu). 
Governor Geoerul noticed tbo conduct of the court of Poo' 
coontermanding the detachment which was in readiness to ao 

I UiuDt Duro Mtrttbti, MS: 




imsliQrain BhAu, •!) actioD wbicb SAna tWasvis who Jid not 
low that Bttjirir had reoeirect the £1^,00(1 (Ks. 18 ltU-h4) could 
Dot naderstand. 

■ When be heard thai ( tth Uay 1790) Seringapatam had hlten, that 
Vpa vraa sIkio, and that his power wasat ao en'J, Bitjiriiv»freoted tlie 
attnoat jo^, triud to pursundo Colonel raliutirthut tLolmL-kwardQess 
of the Murittlia contingent was dae to N^aa, and eieui urgent 
ordoFH to the govvniur of tho Mariitha Kiiru^tuk to )uIv»Doe into 
Tipa'a oountry. Sindia aiao, while seci'etl^ titriirinj^ to enooarage 
nsistaocc amon^ TiDu'a partbans, sent nbuudanb congrntnlatiotis 
to Cotnuel Pbliner. Fhough the Peshwa. had failed in hJH promise oE 
help, ia the hope of inakiag' him a^reu tu a trcittj liku iho treaty 
ho l)«d coacludtd wilh the NizAm, the (Jovernor Genaral sob apart 
a portion ol Tipn'a coiKjtioreJ coimlry for the MarAlhds. 'ITiia 
tract of (erriUiry, which included Mie great^T part of Ihc 8unda 
lands now in north Kitnikni, yielding ati ostiixated rvvcniM of 
£26,300 (Rs. 2,*13,(K>0), was rejected by the Feahwa. The Poom 
GoTemmcnb rugn-tttxl dial the diHorder in tho Mai-fltba conntty 
had pre?ented them from aending the promised contingent to act 
ftgainat Tipti ; in the nuc of tlio French landing in Indin the 
Pesbwa iindprtook to join with Ihp l^ogliHh in lijfhtiiig them, at the 
same time tho P^ishwa would not agreo to exclude J.<^rctichnieD from 
bia Ewrvjce. He rofna«d the Company's offered mediation in bis 
existing dispDt«s with tho Xisim, &od treated as absurd the 
proposal to include Raghuji Bhonsla of Nigpur as a principal in the 
m(«iided allisni^. Sindia's affairs contiuned in oanfui^ion. After 
Ghatgc's attaclc on AmritrtLr'a catiip in 1703 the ladies sought 
refuge with the Kolhiipur chief. In Kolliapu r they were joined by 
tlie leading Bhcnvi Brdh&iana in Sindia's service. Nunobera oE 
horacmca tlockod to their standard, aod they marched north 
(Febroary I7U9) burning all Sindiu's villnges between the Krishna 
and the uod^Tari. Siadia's horse fled before them, and, though they 
ffne way to hia regular battalions, as soon as tho regular troops 
tantcd to gu bnck to Poooa the isdiea' troops followed thciu and 
continncd their work of ruio. The country swarmed with horsemen, 
and though plunder was not indiscriniiuate the deraatatioii wnn 
great.* In addition to bis troubled with the widows Sindia's power 
was threiitcnod by a revolt in North India and by the eacnpe ntid 
rapid success of Yaahvantr&v Holksr in Mslwa. Id these straita 
Sindiu's headmen advised him to aet B^loba T&tya Free and appoint 
him miniater. lUlotn promptly made a sebllemcul with tho ladies. 
But after all wow arranged the mnrder of onn of their followers 
enraged the ladies and they withdrew and again marched through 
the oonntry plundering.' In Auginst 1799, with the approval of 
their chiuffl, UiUoba and Niiua deliberated on mftaeuros to couotorHCt 
the close alliance between the NirAm and the KiigliRli. For eoma 
time SMre and Kolhipur had fallen ioto complete disorder nnd 
P^rasbarim Bh&u Uie P(fKhwn'» commaudcr bad lately been killed. 

■ combined force of the Peshwa and Bindia marched towards 

ChapUr VII. 

1790- 1817. 


I nrant DaSTt MiiritliA^ r>45. 

9 RniBt [>ur> Mamilii*, tH& 

IBoBlbftr Quett 



Cbaptor m. 



Kollutpiir, defeated the chief, forced bim to seek safety in Fi 
bcsiegod KolMpur, uid bad nearly takeu it vfaon (1800) eve 
Poona forrad a prompt settleiiioat and saved the oxistenoe or 
liMBt tbti iudopeodeuce of the Kolbfipur state. 

Nittin's health, which had lone heen declining, failud rapidly 
tho beginning of 1800. and he jied at PoQaaQaTthe 13lh of Maw 
Thifi event nealed the ruin of the Peshwa's guvemmti 
In figure NiiaiL wa» liill and thin, dark in oomplexioD ti 
gTATO in manners, with a quick searching and intallin 
exproaaion. In private life be was truthful, frngal, aud chnritab 
a moat orderly and painstaking worker. He re»pect«d the moctT 
and vigour of the Bnfrtish, but, &a politim) cuomieaj locked i 
thcQi with the keeneHt j^otisy and alarm. Ah a politician hia ea 
life was di)ifigi<r<>d b; timiditv and nmltifiun, Diiriiig his h 
years ho acted with the courage and aincerity of a pntriut, regardlo 
of coa8Ci]iiunct<)i to hitnsielf, counselling Hiijirjiv to do what 1 
believed wa.t for the good of tho staCo. In hi.4 early liCa he derot^ 
his eaergiea to maintain tho improved civil mana^meat which In 
beeu established by Mt^dharriiT BalUt (1761-1772). In lat«r yn 
home intriguoa and foreign tronblea nn filled his time and bia tboogh 
that in practice almost oU check on ubuaoa diasppeared. Eriii i 
Poona city so ainck was tho control iliat GhAsirAm we head of tW a 
police waa able withont check to commit a series of murders, anil i 
last, when his guilt was prarod, waa puniahod not by tho law but br 
rising of the towoamen who stooed him to death. With Hii 
paaaed away all that was wise and moderate in tJie 

K&na died loaving a yonng widow ant^no children. Tho 

seize liia wealth, which in spite of all be had latterly beea 

part, with was said to be still imnsi^nse, soon set Sin dJa ai^d. Blm 
qiiarrcllme. When the inanrrection in J^orth ludta was craiw 
Sindift. under the influence of GhAtgo det^nniued t^i deatroy fitUob 
Ue wiu st-ir.^Kl and thron-n into Ahmadnagar, dontb freeing hi 
from the tortures which HhAtge had planned for him and whicb I 
carried out in the case of two of Bmoba's stipportera blowinii oc 
from a gun and mangling the other by tying round him and settin 
firo to a belt of rockets. While Sindia rented bis hnte oQ ll 
Bhenvi t)riihmau!>, RitjinUr gratified hiu rorongo by seiaiug to 
Ihrowiiig into confinement tho former supportors of NAoaasdi 
Parashumni Bhiiu and other Patrurdhuus. Sindia wa» now il 

Eowerfol at Puona. tie hud B^jir&v so entirely in bis hands, tbi 
for some time kept a guard round Bftjinlv'a palace teat he tifaoal 
attempt to cscnpe. Before tho close of 1800, the mpl.' ,^ 

YashviHitr^^ Hylkar, who bad overrun almost the who!- , ^j^ 

compelled tiindiatoteave Poona Hnd march north. Before lio IfftHoos 
he forced BAjiriv to give bira bilU worth £470.000 (Ra. 17 iaiJ^J 
Sevoinl blo ody batlica wore fought Ix-tween Siiidia and Hnlkar i 
MAlwa. The iniamona Ghjitgc joined Sindia'a army and gaineJ 
completo victory over Holkar. YashvantrAv, though nearly niiwd 
by a skilful march arrived nnexpoctedly in the neighbourhood i 
Poona. When Sindia left Poona, inattad of Iryinp to m 

ith m 



tiie respect o£ his people, BAjirfiv gave hia attentioo to 

di Bti - oai ing and pillaging all who had opposed either himself or 

Ilia father. One of the first who saffered was Mddhanllv' lUstia, 

whom he invited to visit him, seized, and harried to prison. 

niia act, followed by others like it, caosed general discontent. 

Xiawlessness spread and the Deccan was filled with bands of 

rinndering horsemen. Among the prisoners takes in one affraj was 

V ltlioii the br o ther of Yaahvantrtly Bolk ar. According to Muitha 

pTMOce the jpamalunent to prisoners taken in a plundering raid 

■ma not always death. Something short of death might have 

aafficed in the case of a son of Tnkoji Holkar. Bat Takoji 

Eolkar had been N^a's friend and the Holkars were Sindia s 

enemieB. So to death B&jiriv added disgrace and sat by as Vithoji 

waa bonnd to an elephant's foot and dragged to death in the streets 

of Poona (April 1801). B&jir&T's cmelty brooght on him the hate 

of Vithoji's brother YashTantr&r, a hate which for years haanted 

B&ptAt'b coward mind. Shortly after Vithoji's death, the news 

of YasliTantr&T'B vow of vengeance and of hi s snccease a against 

Sindia's troops at Uiain (Jnne 1801 ) led B&jir&v to address him in 

friendly terms as tne heir of Takoji Holkar. Ah Sindia was fnlly 

oconpied with his fight against Holkar, who had more than onoe 

defeated his troops, fidjiriv thoaght the opportonity suitable for 

seizing Sindia's officer Qh^tge. Ghitge, whose plandering was causing 

mnoh miseiT in the Deccan, came into Poona and in his demands for 

money insulted the Poona Court. Bil&ji Kunjar, B&jir&v's favourite, 

asfced him to his house to receive some of the money he demanded. 

OhAtge came ; but noticing from a signal given by B&Uji Euniar 

that treachery was intended, he forced his way oat, leaped on his 

borse, escaped, and returned to Poona with a force threatening 

to sack the city. The British Resident was called in to effect some 

settlement of Qhiltge's claim, and Poona was saved farther loss by 

an ni^nt message from Sindia requiring Ghitge in Milwa. Early 

in 18 02 ShAh Ahmad Kh& n, an officer detached by Yashvantrdv 

Holkiur, carried his ravages into the Peshwa's territories between 

the God&vari and Poona, and cut off almost to a man a force of 

l&OO horse nnder Naraing Ehanderflv the chief of Vinchar, The 

consternation at Poona caused Bdjir&v to rene w nego tiatjooa with 

the English. He wished to have a force, bat he objected to its 

pTQsence m hia territory, and he atill refused to agree that the 

Bnglish should arbitrate between him and the Niz&m. YashvantrAv 

Holkar himself soon moved towards Poona. The Peshwa did all in 

his power to stop him. Yashvantr^r said, Yon cannot give me back 

Yitnoji but set my nephew Khander&v free. BAjir&v promised ; bat, 

instead of setting him free, had Ehander&v thrown into prison at 

Asirgad. Meanwhile Sindia's army joined the Peshwa's, and together 

they prepared to stop Holkar at the All Bela pwM m ^"Ttfa rMP* 

Yoshvantr&v, knowing their strength paased e aat by Ahm adn^ar, 

joined his general Fatesing Mine near JeT on i~marcbed 3own the 

l UivAri naa a. and on the 23 rd of O ctober"~TB52 encamped between 

Lo ni and Huda psar about~Sve. miles eaat of P oona. 

About eight days before Yaahvantrdv'a arrival the joint Sindia- 
Peahwa army had fallen back from Ali Bela and taken a poaiHoQ 
B 1327-36 

Chapte Tn. 





IBomlay Oi 



:bApt«r VII- 

r** rfatory, 





doM to Poona ncT the prewnt cantoomeDt. The Peohwa or_ 
YasbvaolrAv to retire. Ilo repUocI bo was willing to oboy ; bal 
Siodia, not he, was tho rebel aodhadrafusBd to gire npTasbTaotiii< 
Dephpvr KbanderllT whom B^jir&T bad order&d bim to cet free. Otf^ 
the morning of tb o 25th of Oc tolwr the armies met, and, sfbff j 
well contested Gaht, the battl* eacted in a compleio ricUifT 
Ya»byantr6v which was diiefly doe to his own oaergy ao(i 
Bajirar malciDg sure of victor; oitme nut to SM the battle hat 
firing fngbt«ti(^ him and bo tcirnod Houthward. Oo leamiiiglli^ 
&t« of th« batLlo h« fl»d to Sinhga d. Prom Sinhgad he sent m 
eago^omcut to ColoDol Cloeo biodiog hitneoU to aabsidise ml 
batulionsi of sepoys and to ucde £250,000 (Rs. 25 Ulclu) of ytuU 
reTonoe for their support. He bad nlnuidj ftj^roed to waive Ul 
objection to allow tbo troora to be stationMl in his territprj. Fir 
some days after bia victory Vashvaotriiv shownl great moderMioi 
at Poona. He placed goardg to prot«ct Ibe city, treated Bdjtrir^ 
dependents with EindDeee and mnde several att«iupU to persoab 
Biijiriiv to oomo buck. IMjirl^v, nft«r stajing Ifarec aay± in Sinhga^ 
fled to Rijijgad in Kolaba, and fi-om R&ygad retired Ui the ifilaDiltl 
SnTy n^ T f oO the Dorth cooet of Batu^f^L From SavaruddT^ 
atarmed by oewa of the approach oE one of Holkar's gODer«ls, to 
passed to BfiZduda. and from Bcrdands sailed in an English sbtp to 
Bassaju whk-h bercaoliGd on the 6th of December 1802. Meanwnito, 
at Poona, when Uolkor heard that Blijir^v bad ll»d from Sinhfid, 
he levied a coiitributiou from Ibe poojile of Pooua. Hm 
ooniribotioQ was arranged by two of BAjiriv'g officers and it wu 
carried oat iu od orderly manner. Whoa Yaahrantr^T found that 
B&jinlv would not return he nent a body of troopa t o AmntrAT wit& 
the offer o f the Peehw asbip. Amritriiv »t first rofufved ; but, whM 
Sajiritv tlirew bimseirinto the hands of the English, Amritrttr bdl 
that lio bud abdicacod uiid toolc his j>]aco. Aftor much heoitatiini 
he was oon firq ^ |y Peghw a by the Katiira chief. 

This settlsmeDt of affairs at Poona was followod by a plunder of 
tlie city as complete and as wickedly cruet as Kindis's plandnio 
17&8. Every periton of substance waa Rcised and torturod oat of thnr 
[ffoperty and ttoreral out of Choir ]if& The loss of property «u 
nntuoally severe as some time before the battle of tbuSSth oi October 
BAiirAT had set guards to keep people from leaving Poona and 
Eolkartook care that after the victory these gnnrd-i wero not vitb- 
drawn. These excesses were bepiin cvea before Colonel Close left 
Poona. Both Auritriv and Hulkar were a nooni , to Itfte p Colon*! 
Close in Poena. They wished hiin to mmliatein tboJrdiffereacos with 
Sindia and the Pexhwa, and his presence seemed to show that the 
British Government approved of tli»'iriwiirpi\tion of power. Findi 
that no persuasion coutd alter Colout-l Close's purpose he was alto 
to leave on the 20th of Novt^niber 1H02. 

On the Slst of IJeoembar 1302, at Basqej p in the North Kon 
BAjiWLv agreed to a treaty, ander wkicn Ike English undertook to 
restore BAj iritv to pow er in Poona and to maintain permanently ia 
the Pefihwa's dominions a Bubstdiary forco of 6000 regular infao 
with ibe nsual proportion of field artillvry and European artill 
men. In return for these troopa the l^eshwn agreed that di 

i ine 




Idiiig a jekriy revenue of £260,000 (Ra, S6 laUiti) shouM be 
igDed to tho EoglUh^ that he vrould keep a force of 3000 infantry 
~ 5000 home ; that ba would entertain no Europeaa of aiiy nstioD 
kostilo to Iho English ; luid that ho woald baro no dealings with any 
iwer vrithout cooealtinK the British Government, Tlie treaty of 
in made the Eoglish lorcreign in tJie Ueooan ; B&jirAr boagbt 
at the coat of iadepondence. la March ISOi) to re- 
lish Bijiriir nt Poena the stibsitliary forco at H aidarab ad 
:er Colonel Stereospn took a position at Fari pd» near ttie 
^eshwa's eastern frontier. General \Velle»ley iras detaoned from the 

army o f Mtnlm g which wao lussomblDd in the north of Mai »nr, 

1, with 0606 infantry ojid 17U0 cavalry, wieta directed to march 

>irard8 Poona to co-oporato with Oolond Stevenson. General 

feltesley le ft Harihar in Maisur on the 9th of March and oroBaect 

IS Tungbhadra on the i2th. On tho banks of th« Krishna he was 

by tliu P atvardb an and other Mariithaand Br&bmau KuruAtak 

itoholdera, all of whom, especially tho PatTBP*ihaii8, aliowod luucli 

7eDdlini.-ss to the Bntiab. On the 10th of April aa ho drew near 

Poona, General Wfillesley was warned tliat BAjirsiv'B brother Amrit^ 

tAt was Ukvly to burn tho city. Toprvvuat thin mislortuue General 

^Wellealey pressed on with the cavalry of his diriMou, and tho 

■laMUha troo|>s onder Apa&Ahob Qokhia and othera of the Peshwa'a 

Officers, naing anch apeedj that, though kept six hours in the LitUa 

Bor pMS, ho reached Poena on th e 2Qth p ^ Ap "l "■f^'' ^ march of 

aix ty milea in thirty-two hoo n;-' Iii the country soath of the Bbiraa 

stn^gling bodies of tIollcar'!i phmdeieTs were seen, who. ou being" 

ordered to doeiat, had rutirod. Boforu Ooneml Wrllosley reached 

Poooa idl hobble broopa had left. Holkar had gone to Ch^ndor in 

Niaik SOCIO days before, and Amritrdv had started that morning for 

Sangaraner in Ah madnagsr.* On th e 13th of May, egportedfrom 

Panvel hy 2300 infantry of whom l'.:ulj wf.rt'"P!uropoan8, Bijiriv 

flotered Poona, waa inatallcd aa Peahwa . and received presents from 

th* leading men of 

tOMMral Wellflil.y'B rcmte warn to — ,.^ 
ped ftt BArimati co tbc lAtli of Apn] UM at Uocwahvar «n 
hvanl Ifcftt AiBTitrtr mcut to 
Mbvir bi moved vttk iMia aatiTs hbttalionand Ui« wboU 

ting fur • 

i>U. Ha 


lew banra at 

cavalry, lliotiiftf 

Chapter Til- 

1720- 1817 

3I*t Jhennbtr 


JMJifxiv JteittraJ 

itotained sis "imini jfl thB ffffT IT" !>" unttrod Poona at tiro tm tbr 30th of Ann), 
a VUToti of tbitv mile* ia tJility>lwo liaiira. TIn iafantry J<ilii«d Ititn on tit* SZnd. 
OoLCkMtnWBlliDKton'aDMmtcliM, I. 166. DuriaotliM war(ico«nl WaUaala^imda 
IWH nmiil Hill ill thaa tU*. wbn angand 00 tfaa Oodlvari b« atarted on tlia mem- 
lafM BU 4lh At F »bjtiyy 1 HO* with th* Britiih cavaliy. tli« 74tk Rtglmml. the 6r«t 
battalion ol tlia Slh kcgimmt, £00 own livIon|[ia^ to ather native corps, ami th* 
Matnr and Marailtk cavairr Aftor a march of tnm^ milM on HtD 4Ui word 
WH brmigbt tliat tbe aiMinT wen tw«aK-.roar mfloa off. B« marclwd aMin od tha 
nU»t «4 tlwi 4l)t. tnt tJM rand waa bad and th«f did not raaeh tlia pLtM aanwA 
tiU nins aaxt taoraaaf. Tla iafaatnr arrived at the point ol attack alonor witb lb*- 
oavalry. Tits vMiay bad hcanl ol tn^ advanoo, war* tn nttraat, but atUl in iltlit. 
Tboy irvra ptmaed froa bncbt to bd|{bt till tlM wbote b»l; waa teatwnd. AU 
waa otar bj lwel*« on tbs Mb. Tba troopa bad Durobed '^_'*T.Mflff In tllirfr 
hoan. Qnmal Wan«tle7 thoatht tUa vaaiiafckor oron than Hartthaa Ha ottia 
moko of it a* the vr«at«t march b««v«r mado. Wrltioglui)'* DtapatehM, II, VJ, 

m, 100. 10! 1 lu. 44». 

> AflirttnLv fooght tad ^^yM fhp_m» Jhlifclur nl ''*'"^ U" aftarwarda 
•Btarad iala an aMypin t. «jft Gana pl Wa llaa la y. and ftnaUf Mtl fag tO BenffM <«t 

IBombajr tiurtlM 

Ch*pt«r TIL 






Id oonaequeiKH) of the nvmeos from wLich tbe conntr; bad f<i 
KHne yean suffered, and eapCTnallj- from the niin caused by HoUii 
and bU Peudliilri*, 1803 was a y&tur of scarcity id the Oecoi 
luid, iu coDSoqaenco of the t-omplcto failure of rain io tieptenbt 
and October 1^03, the hst moDtba of 1803 nad the first half t 
1804 'was a time of deadly fttmine. Mcanvrbile, secretly onctmTtgf 
by BfijirAv, Sindia a nd Raghuii Bhonela were premrinj; to ootttBi 
Brittsh aupremacy in the Ueccan. Yfae cwttire of AJtmadna |ptf fai 
on th e 12th of Au^u at 1808 and the fainoug victory ot JLsts. 
1 60 milee north-eoat oT T^oona, on tbe 23rd of September nw 
the BrJtJsb supromo in the DoccanJ For some time tho counti 
round Foonft continaed disturbed by inanriTents and freebooW 
When Ibey were ornshed, until BJijird? stirred war ia 181 G, U 
preaoncfl of British troops _at . Poonuj Sirur . and Ahmadnagi 
prw©".**' P^^<.'e- When it passed on3cr British soyeretgu 
Poona, liTce most of the Doccan, was little more than a dean 
In January 1808, writing from infonnation roccivod B~Uaua 
Genend Wellesley described tbe country roand Pootia as entire 
oxWisted.* It was in great confusion. Tbu Iiuida of viUagi 
and districts no longer obeyed tbe chiefs who bad ^oromed tb« 
each had assumed anpreme authority in hiji own district, and tfa 
wore CATiyiug on a petty but destructive war agaiaet each otk 
In April 1803, after bis innrch from Miraj through Bjirftmati K 
llie Little Bor pass. General Wt-Ilesley wrote:* In tbo countty 
the &0Dtb>«a8t of Puona Hulkar could not posaibty maintain an urn 
Tbey have not left a Hticlc standing wiuiio 150 miles of Pool 
lliey have oalen tbe forage and grain, have palled down hoDsea,K 
have used tbe material as firewood. Tbe people hare flod wi 
their cattla Belwoen Miraj and Poonaj except iu one viltage, o 
a human being bad been seen. General Wellealey'i rapid mar 
saved Poona from boming. The people showed the moat lin 
gratitndo and great namlH>ra retnmed to their hom©!.' The Pbo 
market was well tiupptied with grain/ but forage was so acarce tl 
General Wellcaloy dotcrmined to march west to the hilU. He w. 
no further than ^Dnavle, about fifteen miles te tbe west of the c 

* The Hon. M oan tofai yt Eiphiintece . who was on Ocnenl Wellctfoy'a staff ■! 
bud ot on* of Um Uanohw or tbv iBUUauwa f)»partii>ent md took part in all 
•BfigBaunta ia tbii war. diawtbM the HaiAtha castpoa an UMonblage ot •very 
of eovwing of <i7*rj Bhkjw ±aA oolow, •pnuUiut for mUa* on ftU i&df orer kiu 
daloiius«d*rfthUmts, flag*, tr«M, and biuldlnnjCoIobtiMke'sQnhiubiCM, I, ITA, 
137). Wben the Mar.ithis maraliad, a saa of Iiotm foot aad dua|[oaa> pound c 
th*c<MU^tTyfiJte«niniltw long by tWD or thrca Woad. Ilara and th«i« wtro a Tea- hi 
vitk • dog anil a <lruin, iiiiiod >rith a Ioom and ctiaggllug msh «I oamela, cl«p|M 
bullorlu, dancing Kutt, boggnra and buOUooa, tronpi and followen, lanMutn i 
matclilDcknivn, tradara, aadaganU QtmiU4a<Iit (Uittol. 01 bU Ulo in Um Kag 
camp Mr. El{jitDiU>&c i;i<rca tlio folkiwiu dotalla : T«dU sm atnck baton ll 
aod osrly bivakfoat is Ukeu about six. Then we mount and ride ooaralag a 1 
or two vat on the fiank, ranch the cunplug gniuDd bciwMO ten and twdva. : 
alt U tbe chain hive ootoe or lie oa tbe gnniiid. Wbcn tbe teata ar« iiit«b«l 
moT* Into thun and talk till bicakfaat. After breakfut w« work tend talk or «^ 
the t«nU till dark. Tli^n comes lomo ex«r«ii«, dreeiing for diuuft', dbiaw, 
tAlk till tune. (:o1«brAok(i'> fHi-hinsUnio. I. M-ItS. 

V W«lltngtaa'a SonplctnefittUT DwpoUbo, III. AS), &S9. 
■ WcUineton'a IhapatebM I. iti. • WvUington's 

* WoUJBitton'* I>oranbahc> I. H7. 

De*l>Btcba«, L M 

becau&e be fouiid tbat as soon as lie moredall Uie people of property 
loft Poona.* From PaDavle lie sent bia cattle further up tlie valley to 
gTBXid.' lu the country to tbe uortL-i-aat of Poona (I Sth Juuo 1 803) 
tie [wopie were itt tho villagea and tbey Lad grain in uoder^roand 
pita, but there waaDOgftvernmeiit, oriiidefd anything but tbiering.* 
The coanti'jr wiui %-ery poor. From tho Poshwa t;o tho lowest horw- 
IQ&n uo one bad a shilling.* Thu entiro MarHtba territory waa 
nnsottled and in rnina. Owing to Holkar'g plander and oxtortion 
whole district wore unpooplod and lb« towns destroyed. As the 
estAtoholdcnt for sereral yuars bad received no rent* thoy were 
forced to allow thoir troope to plunder th«ir own tcrritorios. Kvery 
man was a pluudvaT uod a thief; no miin wbo could seixe or steal 
would till.^ Tbe Peshwa's rosourcea wore amnll and tbv lund about 
Poooavras waato." lo 1803 tht* niafall in Judo July and »rlj 
August was sufficient, apparently abundant.' But the lat« rains ot 
Sovtembor uid October completely failed ; except in tho west tbo 
biillc ot the early harvest must hava perished and the lat« crops were 
probnlily never sot*D. Tbe failure of rain wss specially seirere ia 
the central and ea^tera porta of Poona and Abiuadoagar. By the 
eleventh of Octolwr there was every reason to espect a gmat scarcity 
of grain if not a luniine. Tbe troops in Poona could bo snppliod 
only from Bombay and Bombay oaly from Kdnara. lu Bombay tbe 
fear of famine was so strong that Gorornor OuQcan kept for the 
ase of tbe settlement grain wbich was meant to have gone to the 
army in thu Oct-cau/ Eveo in tbe billy west of Poonu, wluch 
depends little on the late rains, early in October, famine was raging. 
The Engliqli traveller L ord Yalentii t reached K1iandi£l» from Bombay 
on the 9tb of October. Close to the pond ruItureH and dogs were 
feeding on about a hnndrej dead bodies. Pamiue was in every face, 
BeTontl bouses were empty, and tho laet victimn liad never been 
removed from the plaocs where they perished. This terrible suffer- 
ing eeems not to have been due to a local failaro of rain as the hilts 
were greeo to tho top, thero wcro many poddy Bolds, and the barreet 
was Dearly npe. Kttrla was the 6rHt stage from Bombay where 
Lord Valuntia saw no fnmino corpses. Tho coantry near xalegaon 
was lerel and without tillage or trees, and a little beyond Cbinchrdd 
were signs of Holkar's devaKlations : tfae Tillage of Aondb on the 
Atutlia vraa nearly io ruios. Tbe streets of Poona showed no great 
sigait of snffering, but the sight of dead bodies on the river banka 
in every stage of decay waa distressiag. Colonel Close tho residont 
distributed chanty chiefly from a fund of £-(000 (Rs. 40,000) which 
Lady MaokiDtosh bad collected in Bombay. He at first gave tho 
people boiled rice But tho sight of tho food drovo the people 
Dearly frantic and nnmbers lost their share. Money (2 as.) was 

< WeUiagton'* DM^Uka. I. in:tlt.0l. nVollinctou • I>e«(«tcha. UI. SI. 

* W«I){ngtoo'liI>«i*^tcb<«. m. 1$3, 188. 'Wellii^ton'a Dai[at(J»ii, 111. IM. 
■ VVoUii^tcaili DetpuohM, I. 240, * WoUin^n'a DMp*t«bc«, 1. 333. 

* Wotlinsti>a'« Dmimlcbw, 1. S88 ud oiber Manmu. 
« WalUagtoo't I>MpMchM, I. 41 1 -447 . 

■Tnnla, JI. 112- 1S9. Ion] Toltstia n«lli»d tliat tfceIadrAy4ni or Bor paw valley 
bttwcBii KAtIb uitl TaloeuMi wm ttmrn with »R*tM, onyx, tuiiT camelka. UIim )>« 
ina in Poona h« midc ilusx coUectloo ol aratai whkh ««rc to be b«d ia {irofaHao. 
Ditto. U. 113. 

Chapter Tl 

1 730- 1817 


Clwpt«r TU- 

' 1790-1817. 




accordingly gitoQ insttud of gruitj. About 5000 people were reliei 
every day. The Pesliwn confined his charity to the relief 
Brihinans of whom bo fvd an»t onmbcnt.' In December 18 
GeDer*! Welloidey wrote :* The I'eshwa bM not io bis sorriof 
oummoD writer or citiI officer to wlioin lie can truat tbe max 
mont fit It single diatricl. Uis territorint art* all either in tbe hu 
of liiii uucmiQH or arc witliout mauftgera on bin |)nrt All tlie penH 
capable of arranging bis stale arc ei tber in tbo eervioe of faiH enemi 
or are tmimsoned arid oppresficd by bimaelf . Ridi di«lricL« are goi 
to ruin becaasu all tbe perdoiu &l to manage Uuud ant in prison 
oppncMd by tbe Pesbwa. Uolees the Pesbm. aets those pec^ 
tr09 and employ* cb«m io aeltling tbe coonti^ tbo Poona state n 
Dever rerive. Id January 1 SO-l tieut>ral \\ elleitley desoribed I 
Deccan OS a chaos. If a cailitta %<'aa Dot raised and goTorDmeot p 
in Kme regular train all must fall to pieces.* Tbo Puabwa'a goTfr 
ment wan only a name. The country along the Rbima Bve tml 
north of Pooua was unsettled, a dreary wasto overnin with tbier< 
Tbo Pcebfra fras unfit to manage tbe government himself. He ga' 
no trust or poit'or to any one and bad no person about bim 
condnct the common business of tbo oountiy.* Towards tbe a 
of Febroary {23rd) General WelWaley wrote * : Tbe Poebwa do 
nothing to improTe faia govornmeut. Uis only system of goverDmsa 
is that of a robber. He does not chooso to keep up aa ttnny ai 
his territories are overrun by ai-med men wbo are loaaj 
enltat with any ono wbo will lead them to plunder. Kxcept I 
British troops there is no power in tlie coantrr to support t 
government and proteot tbe titdui<trinui« cIsMixi of the poopi 
Conceive a country ia uvvry vilhtgu ul vrbicb twenty tv thirty hon 
men have been dismiiucd irom tho wrviee of the etato and 'havo i 
means of Uving except by plunder, Tbvre is no law, ao oi 
goverBinent, no army tu keep tbe plunderers in order ; do reveoi 
can be collecled; no iiibnbituiit will or c»n remaia to cultivate aala 
he is protected by an armed force xtationed in bis villnge. Habi 
of iodnstiy are out of the qiK^atioi) ; rne» muai nlundor or atari 
The state of the police was ulsu luiuuutublL'. Tbo Pcabwa'a ministe 
and {avouritfs wore tbe patrons and tbe abareraof the profits gaiai 
by the thieves in their plunder of tbofte wboao oooessities forea 
them to travel through tne country.' In March, General VVuHmIi 
wrote : Bijiriv'a great ohjoct is to gain mouey to meet the cspena 
of tbe pleasures of hia courL Ue makes no attempt to organuM A 
force, which, nnder tbe treaty of Paasein, be ia bound to supper 
and is anxieos tu employ Engliab troops in putting down robba 
and helping his reveaue-oolleotora. Geueral Wellesley refuasd 1 

' Lonl ValciiUa ww prcHst at Um DaMn on tbe IMfc at Octolio-. Tbon « 
a great roTwir In wbicli tit» Britteh troopt took ^»A Tba I^Mbwa, an an alufai 

._- J aioAS the lioe to a ipot where the hnooi of a tree bad boca atasfc . 
greaiuL He got off tbe «]e|>iuDt ui twrfona o d the eerHaoaiae. He plucked 
ean of wm, a aUtte wm fired, umI he weal off In a looklor-gUn alwiibeiil-a> 
Ponrnerlv whale lieldi of tarn ueed ts be wa4t<d, the Pcehw* leediiiK |^ 
TreTeb, U. l'23-l-». 

> WclUngtao'a Unpetclite, I. 547. * Welluigtoii'i Deipatchn, H. If, I7 

* WeUingUm'a De*ptttc)i«8, IL 42. * Wellincloti'a Deapatcbta, U. IM. Ifl, 

*tt-elLb.5ton'«Dwp«Uhe>, iMtS, 129, 167. ^^w 

liare aQything to do with the police of the conntrr or the little dirty 
aimiUiAri exftctions.' At ih« end of April (331x1) tbo nccoonts of 
the slate of the Oeccan were very dislrt;s»ing. Evun in tbe NisAm's 
cotintrv, which wu bttter off than tho wost, tbo suffering* were 

I eztrooK*. It was scarcely possible to get foisfre or grain ; a detaoh- 

jment was some dnys witoout food and lost 1(10 bontee id one day. 

JAt Poooa the British curolrr horse* had for some timo b««D fed on 
Bombay rice. Rioe was not wholeeooie fuod for horses, but it was the 

jonly ^Diin that could b« got. Qenem) Wellealey doubled if he could 

imoTe Jiis troops from Poona.* Iii May nistters were worBe, lo 
PooDa all but the fighting men suffered tnucb diAtresa. By eroat 
exortionii grain was procnred but it sold for five pounds (2J then) 
the rupee. Forage was very scarce oxoopt near tne Bor pns«, and 

.erea there it was dear aad bad.' !□ tbo begiDning of Jane, bo 
iQaoy cattle died and Oeaeral Wellealey reooived iiaob dreadful 
BOconntii of the want of forage that he dotermined to stay in Poooa 

las a oifia<;iire of prudence if rot of ueopssiity.* 

""Towards the end of Docombor 1805 Sir James Mackintoa b. the 

. Becordep or Chief Jnsl ice of Bombay (1804-1 811), came from Bombay 
io Tiait Colonel Close the R«sideat at Poono. Ho wtut pleased with 
Cbinchvad and tbi sacred family, in one of whom Ute god Ganesb 

.dwelt, wod whose siicredniMa bad wiTcd tbo village from ntiD in 
Holkar's ravages in 1802. Just before reaching Poena, Macktntoab 

' waa intereated to see a tbousand MiiMtha hi;r«e-, a hir vamplo of the 

'terrible cavalry who had wasted and won slmont the wholeof India. 

'Their nir was martial oTon fioroa and next to tho Bombay watermen, 

Jrobably the EoH fi8bcrtIl^'Q, thvy wore more robust than any 
ndiaQ8 MBclcinto»h had soeo. They had no nniforra and their 

idothes and arms were mqpt neglected. Tboir faorsoa varied j some 
-were very wild and oome very mean, none were showy. The English 
in Poonn moved with considerable state. In front went two scarlei- 

|ooat«il couritca or harkaras on caniela, thea an escort of sepoys, 

Ithen aovenU sonrlot mace-bearers, then Aomo of thn party on horeos 
and the rest on elephants. The Rcsidonoy at tbo Hangam, which 
Mackiato«b describes as a set of bungalows spread over the 
oaclosiire, was fitted conveniently and bixnrioasly. Poona city 
had its principal streets paved with stone and was reckoned 
one of the best built native iowoa in India. The Poshn-n'a 
Tesidence, the Satarday Palace or Shanvar Vdita, from its size well 

ideftorvod tho name of palace. A ^teway opened into a l«r;go rather 
handsome sqnare surrounded by buildings, whose walla were painted 

. with soeues from Hindu mythology. The staircase atone corner 

'was steep and narrow, an odd ooutroat to tho faandsomo square. 
The aodience ball was a long gallery sapported by two rows of 
niMnivo wooden pillars. Tho buU was carpeted and at onu end oo 
a white cloth were three pillows, the Peshwa'a state seat. B&jtrltv. 
who WON thou itbout thirty-four, was a fair man, very handsome, with 

^a perfect gentlemanlike air and manner, simply and neatly dressed 

1720 1 013 

J.ff eHiniftftii'» Dnitttcha. II. S5, M7. 197. 

^■'oUlaetan'i DomtilMa. II. 214. ' Wellington' ■ Deipatctiea. II. 33t-S25. 
rslUogtaa'a DMpttdNS, 11. 388. ' IiUckinto^'i Life. 1. 274 - -JSS. 

(iSombay ' 



Chapter Til. 



in white muslin. He had the easy bearing of one who bad & lot 
EliiniliKrity with a aoperior stslion. Though more elegant ik 
dtgniGcd ho was not i-fTciniuate. OE the three chiefs of luUiOOl 
whom UackiDtoah hati beeu presented, Georf>« Ilf., NafMleoa*! 
B&univ, MacktDtosli pru-ferred the Br^raan.' The etiqaetM 
Bi^ir&r'!i oourl was a whisper. When they movod Ui K&iirkv'a 01 
room, au uufuruiahed bare-vralled clowt with a white floor cloth m 
some snmll piUowtt, Bijxri.v spoke wariolj of bis happineea andt 
the British iiiUa.nce. Mackintosh's assurance that the Lnglidh wool 
atnajs protect hia securilj and comfort, brightened bis fac« wii 
appureutly genuine tlehg^ht. Mackinteah thought B&jiMv's Eeelinj 
natnm), uurhup^j reasouable, aud ohrionslj anaJSected. He had la 
independeDce but had gained rest for himself and his p«op]e, penoi 
enjojiuout and oomfort, and outward dignity. An ambitioua b 
might prefer the independence, a philoBopher'a choice might nr 
BijirAr was neither a hero nor a sage ; he was devoted to notlai 
but to women and to the gudt). On leaving the palaco a dianue 
crest was faatened in Mivckiutoeh's hat, a diamond neoklmoe 
thrown round hie neck, and M<^voral pieces of gold and silver doi 
and fine mosliii were laid before hia feet. Aocordiug I0 msto 
these presents wore gireo up and sold on aoconnt of tho HoQoaiita 
East India Company. 

Iq epiie of the unfeigned obviously natural joy and tliankfobi 
which carried copvict ion to such shrewd and practised obHt^rvers j 
Lord Vnlentia, Si r Jamea Maokinteabi and Colouel Cloae. since I 
reatoration " to power, B^irtiT had been atead ilj dialoya l to 1 
English.^ Uo wrote (1803) to the chiefs who wera ra lea^e agio 
the English explaining that hia wretclit!<T i^'r>Mti.ip.nce on bhe euu 
was due to the treachery of the Koutlu jlfjore; ho fail 

to giro Geneml Wellesley any help in his t-arapaign against Sim 
(1803), and did hia be«t to stop his itupnlicn; and incouductiog I 
ftfhira with the Eui^liuli Ile^ident, bo employed Sad&shir MAnke^' 
whose chief qualilication for the post wiu his open enmity to 
English. That the ^igliah rocommvoded it was enough to rm 
the failare of any plan for the good of his goTerumeut. Darii 

I Mr. BljililiiaUinn on fint mooting IMJfriv (April, 1802) fniuiil hia a 
niuiffootcd penoD, witb a good uid digtiiflvd faoii Uiouch tfaon WUKUne 
kbuut tli*in<iutii. C"1cWuijko'i EaiitiiiuUnic, I. 4$. 

• Colcbnrak*'* ElpkimtuHo, L 29). Lord Vatentm . mho had Uim iat«rH««A W 

Bijirtv uiOutcbwl803.w»irtfaaedth»tTBnSE» highly «jBodtl»Knitli«li.nk 
Mua VTM MiiMrety ddi^trd whan he btard tba omra that Bolkw'i fartAF CbtodM 
Kiiik h»d faUM to UieBiBlbh amy (T»veU. II. 130). ColonMOow^ 
ValMtta. bad iw doubt ^t tJi» P«>hwa wm tuiMn in bb gnOtadm t.> tlM^Rd 
H« hui Bonn- «Mn the PMhw> w •ridmtly t)lM«>d or kMiJ him nor* nnSl 
mUt dNlan hu wntinwota. Tho wajf ia vUe^ the Pnbwa aad bU bt«U)«r^&H 
liTWd luwihor wilhuut ipalonif jmR-wl bow eioalI»ut wm tbe P«hwa5l^ 
(Ditto. 1381. With Ij>nl vdootia',. Sir.lunm Mwkintadi't.and Colunel CloM^^ 
-"—no of BAjiMv ■ vvidiiit •iueority it ii intcrotiiiLT i" •.-nniMre U>'^ i>"'--if 11 
|^ci£,iiiionj^^i|Ojiwd Mr. B^ittHOut' 1.: nflur-iior. Ti 

— ,,JESi gn «h'> t»iHrtoJffiofaw[iiiKm orTUiiti,- ■■....:. "TSorii. . •: aSb 
tea, ijyo Grwt l>aB (Muitbto, S7S foot).^»d (1603) lowartrtLuanact »i**« 
Unritlu ohoraictcr ; buoplotou at KdjiriT'i fatara conifSCCvm nn«E«nc In )i 
1803, when FWjiriir wm Mtablbhed at I'fton*. Cobmol Clow (Wdlfwton** DwM^ 
I. llOIUescnbed the Peihwa'i dispontion u whoUr sstirfwtoty. Ibe DaluTiiti 
ttme turn tUtli Hay )8(t9) wroU <Ditto, 184) : 11, pwh^. »hlw*H m.cb <,ak-1n 



ettra b etween ISQ^a n d ^^ 11. undor Colonel Close and for a 
tiino aft«r under Mr. Rnsaol, aBaint went amoolhly at Poods. 
ijir^? £or a time seems to have bouesUyoouaia^reatJje EaglUb 
liftuco It piece of good fortuno nnd tho coaiitry f^roatly iinprovcH].' 
J On tbc lOtJi Iff Novomburl808, Sir James Mackiatosh paid a second 
I'Visit to the Beccan. He found KdrU a miserahle village of fifteen 
lor twtint; hutSAud about Hfty pt-oplo. It pud £100 (R«. 1000) a 
year to a inaa of ruck at I'ooDa, who had lately throatcnod tu raise 
tho rent to £120 (Ra. 1200), and the people had threntoncd to 
riearo. Miwkintonh thought iho stato of tho people wrotchod, 
iThey felt they were governed only when thny paid taxos, in every 
lother roHpect they were left to tliemnulveti, without polico or 
Ijnatice, exctijit such aa tho viUsge s;^stem supplied. It whs hard to 
ay why t&xes were paid, uuless to bribe the aovereiga to abHtoin from 
Imurdtir and robbetr. M Tale^noo the wood entirely oeaaed. The 
' id naa bare and little oaltirated ; there wore no Tillages ; the 


1720- ISU. 


l«Dd sbilUy 1 h« * f»p«wri partleitlM'ly lutxIoDR to porfiM-m th« ittpulitlona ol the trfsty 
kt tlko oiutUaife poMtblo Mponaa to himtcU. iMrly in Jud^i, whan h« faod to lo»v« 
pMWa to Kl agabwt Sindb mi<1 Ui« B«nlr cblef without any holp (lam BlJIrtT, tli« 
I>aktt('MbJaMi Ditto, I. I7P) felt that tbeFoiliwa lud tTOb«citli« treatj by not 
Itnmiihbif ui wniy and tiA<l brokcu hia word to tbe Duke by not wttUag wtin tli* 
Mvs ehiotm. StUl h« Ixdicvoil tho pMhwa wu not tnsuliarnu*. On UiaSthoi 
(Ditto, ni. 1«) ba tM^u to 4loubt U thePMhwawu only iucKpal'le. Stub' 
faate pravod tut KnDatbiBg boddos tha Pt«h«i** incaiKicitv im Uusiuou 
iniBd a Muithaumr hdplM tha EngUib- Oa the lIHh oi Junu llHtta, I. 
186-lSSt, when IivmbM mtnafappIiMud wa« woneolTthuilB an imsmy't rauiitiy, 
' b* owil'i no lupflw twig fnwtiii th*t w* P *l*''''7t IT W thwrnrtuu t him. On i ita'lQliio t itai» 
ba t»U aiyl tly P^ira iltjIlu J fth* '^ Will IT*''** " ^'^ founi} ootlliar t>t« 

at Poaaaknow nolbtng tl>l"^ ^I. 191). Ootlia 23rd af Juno (Ditto, III. 201) h* 
dMcrflM* BijirAv ■■ BDwiUiiig aa well aa incapable, a |irtn«o th« mily Iuiuvd prin- 
^le of wbgas eharaot^r li 1n«lDt)crity. Od tha iMth of Juno (Ditto, t. IMJ tbo 
Duka «U laltofietl that the PMbwa wiui aol tnu to tbo EnglUb vkuwi anil wag 

ritentUugtaJti oomlagto hJa anny. On tha <t$th of 8ept«inlMir ho wrotv (Ditto, 
410) : Tbo Peahwa ii linoen In hii foteotlon (o keop taour allbnco, bnt tbera 
la croakcdnaa In tus voUef. ,Qf_^|^_Bj^^Jgf2^Bi^; he^Ji oveTythln^bliDtelf and 
In Juiii 

STsrytliiuf ia litUa. In Jinouy 1801 Sa wSote (mtto. II- 87- SS): Tbo Poahwa'a 
oalrprin^Lotof coramamtuaKvaiiseanil joaloutyofmo. Ho nil) Iwgin again, ur 
nlBor will canttDoe for [ bclftre be haa nover itomMvl, hU intripiM with 
ftiailia. 1 crtrtaJatv liafa a bad npinicin n( hint; ho hjj oo public faeUn; and 
bia privato lUipmtl'in ■• tcrriblo. 1 hare no iicnitiva nruof that ho luui beca 
traakcburciua, l>ut I bav* a atrunjc avafitelMi o( (t, and I know thdt ainuc ho \tam 
aimed tbo tnnljr □( B^f Iti ho boa dono no ono thing that va> dcnml. In 
Fafanaty 1(MM (IKlt's HI. 'KiS), wh«ii ha tniisd that tUitrAr bad I'rMMhBMD 
hid for a laoath In Poooa, ho wrotv : I* nut thia abookbis T What it to bo 
doaa with thafvllow f l*iilil« oar good and faithXul ally I AudOfpla on tbnTlbof 
Uarob (Ditto, U. 138} : Tho Poalitn if oaUoaa to ararTtbing «x«*pt raanoy and 
vmnajf^ If be la aineere bow can we azpUia hia aercr teUtnc tbo Beald«iit lb«t 
tbe Kwidiiawi had ci>ni*i tn Toon^ Acoordiag to Mr. KltiTitDitnae. wbo^ aftar 
■bulftDg hia charwtw (or aevHral yaan(KonmurISIA]; BijirAT'i nitingpaaaSuni 
waraEBaraiulravanM. Hiapaal artwaa dJadmiiUtion. Uh wm habitually lanaMNw 
{olniagatalaBtfar uulmubantoaaatarallavoofaitiflcauul istiigna. UU araat of 
MUMga aad Ma lova olaaao thwaitad hlaoagtrasM (erpawaraiid bia (ondnaaa for 
dafaraoM. Ha waa proad and hughtjr bat la lam nla and* atoopad to any 
■eanoeaa. Cbancaabfa hnmoun hid flied daal^ia. R« *»«« able, hiuuuio wbon 
n«itb*r afraid nor vaogafnl. frugal, oourtaeaa, aad dlfialABd. Half htt Ufa waa 
apont in taaU, pvayara, aJiid plgrimagaa, and a lu^ ahara ot hia nrvnoa on magical 
aiaa M oaa. Ho waa moat atriot to (jnard agalaal oayaaaonlal laipBrlty, auil atinnal 
dailj' apant boon in dWwatiag debaacbcry in targa aaawihlin at women o( rank. 
lOoAbroolM-a ElphioaMiu, I. W7-188. 

1 Colcbrooka'a ElphiiKtoav, I. SW. 
a IS27-S7 

(Bombay Guettevr. 

Chapter VU. 
I HiflUry. 


1720- W17. 




ro«d iras lonely ; and the whole conotry seonied eniptr. At 
FaiU'vlo wuro the niinR of a large castle or vcida which had beta 
destroyed hy Uolkitr in 1802. It bnd both aqaareand round tow«n 
and was not unlike an Eofflttth feudal cftstlcoF themdost form. Sir 
Jaoifs waa met by Colonel Close oa the tDoroiog of the IStb o£ 
KoTember and tak^n on an olophaot to the Sangam. Ho deacribn 
Colonel Cleso aa mthout aoootnpliBbment orshow, plain, cantiens, 
and with a defrree of mildnoas that formed a Bioffnlar coDtraat witii 
the GnDoeaa and even sternness which ho biuj tihofra on trTpg 
occaaions. Ue bad a calm underatandioi;, wholly employed u 
practice, united to a strength of nerre which (jnalifitxl him oqiallj 
for a caiition» or a ri^rons policy. Ho was a Toiy saperior aaa 
who among common onMstrcrs midht easily have passed for a nrj 
common maxu* According to Colonel Close'n ioforroAtioo tlii 
population of the trity of Poona watt about a bnadr«d thoa&and. Tlu 
police was ontmstod to a mitiliu-y Pnihman of the family of Gokkli 
nbo liad a conGidemlilH establinhment and bis doty was eitliel 
so oaay or so tJcilfully perfoi-ined, that, notvritlistaudiog Ibi 
frequent mectinu' of armed men, instanoes of diHorder wcra f«m 
Goklila puuitthed all smaJl offences. Great crim^ were panisltff 
by the oSioorB vntrasted witb the districts and in rery aeriona caM 
hy the ^remment. Capital puui>«hmoDt was rare. Ciril dikpota 
were settled by arbitration under the sanction of the niiatBtws> 
There was not a court of judicature, nor a jadgo in the whak 
Martltba dominions; nor were thore nny regular forma itt triaL' 
Alnckintosh speaks less civilly of n^jinir than he spoke of him ia 
1806 : The Poshwa has just come back from Pnndhsrpnr. Ho >*a 
diii^sting mixlnre of superstition and diuolute manners, a combi> 
nation which was not nnnatural among Hindus, who^ in Mackiutotb'* 
opinion, badcspangod purity of mauuora from their catalogue <i 

During UiB six years ending 18 1 1 the biilk'of the reaidoncy wotk 
was ill tlio ImtiilH of u PAm natnod Kh iiwrHii, n man of jadgmml 
and great address, who had been won over to the Pesbwa's iDtere&lfc 
la 1 811 M r. Ruasel waa succeeded by the Honourable Monutatimi 
Elphinatone . Mr, Elphinstoae bod been at Toona in ]802 aa Coi 

■Mr. (n]ihiniiUin«(21it.H«pt:^ml<nrl8l2)dMeribMSu' 'Bury CleM Mi a i_ 
ktrODg Mid hardylrtnie.Aclear bund, uid Vigorons miA«nt»aJiit^ fixed »»■ 
nakhaltan oovrftj(<^ 4tii) a oniit*inpt for pomp uiJ [dBwnire, Bta utitire ffiimUM^ 
tha public wm'iov kii cxtrotiia modoitjr asd wmpUdty emntnm.xi to for^ mmI al 
dianwtcT la ona would eiiiMnt to meat inanctcal Rome rftthor Umh in otir mra ^1 
and DBtion. Coktwoake'cElpIuartciiio, 1.210. | 

* Nothing iiMm*d M ttranga t« tha B*conl«raslhatBa great a oon atry 
withoat a jud^. Twa cuTcitnutaiiot*dimau>b«d lui ironavr. TboBntwa 
•( theoffiomof lillagM vmHttr towndupt, who, Uuvncbovl India, pn 
of rapaUlcu MoitiOitiaD luidsr despotic ^nooM and loUlianl ihdf ant 
Hiidn«( tka rernlHtlaEu among their supenare. Tlie aecoiul wu thoi — 
the Rnkhni&n* and heads of cHtM vtio wvn • kind o( aatural aii 
dHputet. Kud wlio could piuiish .oITaiuai by eipiiUina fram «Mt», a n«nalt 
tcrril)]« than aay which th« law ooalrl infliot. Tliua two antlierltiiH, " 
imwalar jiiriadlctlon of the «iecittivD ofl)c«r«, wre auffioiatit to uaiatolB tM 
Stiir th« ahMfice of raiiuUr forma of crimioid JDitico kad the omul «ffeot la I 
aatioiuaoiinffrTtiui&tautobcdMtitutooftlut vroatacbovl of aorality. 
MMVUtmh'c Lir», T. 400 I. 





Cloae'a assiBtantj in 1803 bo wu on General Wcllueley's staff in 
' ths war ogata&t Sindia and tbe cbief of BerAr, and bebvraeu 1S03 
I aod 1807 he was lt«si<jciit at the IJenir okiof'H uourt at ff&gpiir.' 
Mr. UIphiustoLo wita well voraod iu Manitha politiiis and MiintUa 
state-craFt, and did all bosmeaa dirnct uot throagh Kbaar aii. 
This change was moat distasteful to Kliusniji who succeeded iu 
raiding in tbo Posbwa's mind a_diBliko of Mi-. Eliibimto ne. This 
dislike was to a gves^b extent retnoreir in 1812, when, na the 
Fatrunltimi itnd otber s^juthera estate holders rofuMd touokaow- 
Icdgo tbe Peshwa'a suprvinao;, Sir. Elpliinstone ossDmblod no 
army at Pandbarpur, tunrchcd t^iw&rds tno Kriahiui, and forced 
tbe estuteliolders to abide b; tboir orig-iuivl agroenicnl wilb tbu 
Poutta istaU>. B&jirAv was profuee in his sckDowledgmeata to 
Mr. Kljtliiiiatoae.