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Under &ovarmnent Orders. 

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As &r as possible the names of contribntors are sliown in the 
body of ihe book. Special acknowledgments are dne^ in Kaira to 
the Collector^ Mr. O. F. Sbeppardj C.S. ; in the Panob Mahals to the 
District Compiler, Mr. H. A. Acworth^ C.S., and Mr. W. B. Prescott, 
Superintendent of Police; and both in Eaira and in the Panch 
Mahals to Major W. P. LaTonche, Superintendent of Police, Mr. 
T. D. Little, Ezecntiye Engineer, Mr. N. B. Beyts, Superintendent 
of Survey, and Mr. Himatlffl Dhirajr&m, Overseer Public Works 

No District Compiler was appointed for Eaira. But Mr. Sheppard's 
advice, information, and corrections have, it is believed, ensured 
fuIhiesB and accuracy. In the Panch Mahdls, the contributions of 
the District Compiler, Mr. Acworth, were of the greatest value, 
supplying detuls for many subjects on which there was little or no 
available information. 

Since ihe Maps were prepared the official spelling of a few names 
has been altered. The changes are in no case so great as to cause 

June, 1879. 

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Chapter I. — Dencriptioii. taqe 

Podtioii and Area; Bonndaries; Afipeot ... ... 1-2 

Rivers... ... ... * ... ... ... S-4 

Drainage; Floods; Geology ... ... ... 5-12 

Climate ... ... ... ... ... 13-14 

Cbapter II.— Froduotion. 

Minerals; Trees... ... ••• ... ... 15 

Animals ... ••• ••• ... ... 16-24 

Cliapter III.— Population. 

Censns Details ... ... ... ... ... 25-28 

Division by Bace ... ... ... ... 29-37 

Dwellings; CommtmitieB ; Movements of the People ... 38-41 

Cliapter IV.— Agriciilture. 

Varieties of Soil ; Distribution of Soil ; Irrigation ; Size of 
Holdings; Stock; Crops; Tillage Details ; Peasants; 

Bad Seasons ... ^ ... ... ... ... 42-56 

Cliapter V.— Capital. 

Capitalists; Investments ... ... ... ... 57 

Money-lenders ... ... ... ... ... 58-59 

Borrowers ; Bates of Interest ... ... ... 60 

Cnrrency; Bankruptcy; Mortmge ... ... 61 

Wages ; Prices ; Weights and Measures ... ... 62-67 

Chapter VI.— Trade. 

Boads ; Best-houses ; Femes ; Bridges ... ... 68-69 

Post; Telegraph ... ... ... ... 70 

Trade ... ... ... ... ... ... 71-74 

Manufactures ... ... ... ... ... 75-76 

Chapter VII. --History ... ... ... 77 

Chapter vni.-*Land Administration. 

Acquisition; Administrative Changes ; Staff... ... 78-80 

Management (1802 -1878) ... ... ... 80-115 

Chapter IX.— Justice. 

Civil and Criminal ... ... ... ... 116-119 

Police; Jail ... ... ... ... ... 126-124 

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Chapter X.— Revenue and Finance. paob 

District Balance Sheet ... ... ... ... 125-129 

Local Funds ; MunicipalitieB ... ... ... 130-181 

Chapter XI.— Instruction. 

Schools; Population able to read and write; Race of 
Pnpils; Town and Village Education; Libraries; 
Newspapers ... ... ... ... „. 132-139 

Chapter XII.— Health. 

Diseases ; Hospitals ; Dispensaries ; Vaccination ; Births 

and Deaths ... ... ... ... ... 140-142 

Chapter XIII.— Sub-divisions... ... ...* 143-165 

Chapter XIV.— Places of Interest ... ... 166-180 

Chapter I.— Description. 

Position and Area ; Boundaries ; Aspect ... ... 188-184 

PavdgadHill ... ... ... 185-190 

Bivers ; Geology ; Climate ... ... ... 191-196 

Chapter II.— Production. 

Minerals ... ... ... ... ... 197 

Trees; Shrubs; Plants ... ... ... ,.. 198-207 

Forests ... ... ... ... ... 208 

Animals ... ... ... ... ... 209-212 

Chapter III.— Population. 

Census Details ... ... ... ... ... 213-215 

Division by Eace ... ... ... ... 216-226 

Dwellings ; Communities ; Movements of the People ... 227-229 

Chapter rv. —Agriculture. 

Varieties of Soil ; Distribution of Soil ; Irrigation ; Size of 
Holdings ; Stock ; Crops ; Tillage Details ; Peasants ; 

Bad Seasons ... ... ... ••• ... 230-235 

Chapter V.— Capital. 

Capitalists; Money-lenders; Borrowers; Rates of 

Interest; Currency; Mortgages; Prices; Wages; 

Weights and Measures ... ... ... 236-239 

Chapter VI.— Trade. 

Beads; Bridges; Best-houses; Ferries; Post; 

Telegraph ... 240-241 

Trade ... ... 242-248 

Manufactures ... ... ... ... ... 249-251 

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Cliapter VII. — History. paob 

Rajput; Musahnin; Mar&tha; and British Periods ... 252 

N^da Risings... ... ... ... ... 253-258 

Chapter VIII. — Land Administration. 

Acquisition; Administratiye Changes ; Staff... ... 269 

Management (1863-1878); Alienations; Waste Lands; 

Transit Dues; Seasons; Development (1855-1877) ... 260.269 

Chapter IX. •— Justice. 
Civil and Criminal ... ... ... ... 270-272 

Police; Jafl ... ... ... ... ... 273-276 

Chapter X. — -Bevenue and Finance. 

District Balance Sheet ... ... ... ... 277-281 

Local Funds ; Municipalities ... ... ... 282-283 

Chapter XI. — Instruction. 

Schools ; Poralation able to read and write ; Race of 
Pupils; Town and Village Education; Libraries; 
Newspapers ... ••• ... ... ... 284-289 

Chapter XII.'— Health. 

Diseases ; Hospitals ; Dispensaries ; Vaccination ; Births 

and Deaths ... ... ... ... ... 290-291 

Chapter XIIL — Sub-divisions ... ... 292-302 

ChapterXIV.— Places of Interest ... ... 303-317 

IN&EX 319-323 

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Chapter L 



■ I 



Thi diBtrict of Kaira.^ lying between 22"* 15' 25' and 23'' 10' north 
latitude, and 72'' 38' iOT and 73"" 27' east longitade, has a total area 
of 1600 square mile8> and a population of 782,733 sonis, or 489*20 to 
the square nule. The total r^disable land revenue, amounting to 
£192,907 (Rs. 19,29,070) was recovered before the close of the 
year ending the Slst July 1877. 

Separated from the head of the Gulf of Cambav by a narrow 
strip of territory, the district of Eaira, with a breadth varying from 
about twenty-five to forty miles, stretches towards the north-east 
for more than sixty miles along the right bank of the river Mahi. 
Towards the north, from the S4barmati to the Mahi, no natural 
boundary line divides Elaira from Ahmedabad, the Mahi Ontha, and 
BdUsinor. On the east, south-east, and sonlh, the river Mahi separates 
it from the Panch Mahfls, Baroda, and Broach. On the south-west 
Ues the Cambay territory, and to the west is the EMLbarmati with Ahmed- 
abad beyond. To the north and east the area included within these 
KmitB forms, except for an occasional M^i E&ntha village, a compact 
ivaet mder the charge of the Collector of Kaira. But from the west 
a broad belt of G^kw^ territory passes nearly into the centre of the 
district, and on the south the villages of the Borsad sub-division are 
interlaced with those of Baroda and Cambay. 

The area included in the district of Eaira is, for administrative Sub^yliioiM. 
purposes, distributed over seven sub-divisions. These, as shown in 
the following summary, have on an average, an area of 228 square 
mijes, eighty-four villages, and 111,819 inhabitants. 
Kaira AdmkUitrtUive deUOk, 1S7?. 




^S ™f.^ Oovernmeiit TillAgw. thlr^-two an In the bandi of large Undliolden, thirty tuhvdri m 
KMl. ma two tdiutdAri or lUjpnt. 

^ The correct speUing i« m^ed^ 

li 1671-1 

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[Bombay Oazetteer, 


Chapter L 



The Mahi. 

Except a small corner of hilly ground near its northern boundary^ 
and in the sonth-east and south; where along the Mahi the surface 
is roughened and furrowed into deep ravines^ the district of Kaira is 
one unbroken plain, sloping gently towards the south-west. Though 
almost all fit for cultivation, the land varies much in character. In 
the north and north-east, with patches of rich rice land, much lies 
open and untilled, covered in places with little but low brushwood. 
In the centre is the charotar or goodly land, a tract of most fertile 
and well tilled soil. The people, skilful cultivators and rich, live in 
large well built villages. Their fields, yielding the choicest crops, 
are sheltered by high hedges, and the whole country is clothed with 
rows and clusters of large shapely trees. Westwards this belt of rich 
vegetation passes into a bare though well cultivated tract of rice land. 
This towards the south grows barrener and more open, till as it nears 
the Gulf of Cambay, the fields are separated by unfruitful patches^ 
whitened by a saline deposit. 

The district has two chief rivers, the Mahi for nearly 100 miles 
its boundary to the east and south, and on the north-west the 
Sdbaimati, touching the district only for a few miles, but of great 
importance, as into it, along the channels of the Shedhi and Y&trak, 
the whole local drainage flows. 

The Mahi, with a course of from 300 to 850 miles, a drainage area 
estimated at from 15,000 to 17,000 sqaare miles, and a discharge 
during maximum flood of about one and three-quarter million cubic 
feet per second, is, after the Narbada and the T&pti, the largest of 
Oujar&t rivers. The main branch of the Mahi rises about 1850 feet 
above sea level in the M&lwa state of Amjhera, in north latitude 22^ 
32' and east longitude 75° 5', almost due east of the town of Cambaj, 
and distant from it in a straight line about 1 60 miles. The source 
of the river is in the Mehad lake, half way between the town of 
Amjhera and the village of Bhop&var, near the western extremity of 
the Yindhya mountains, where, taking a sharp bend almost at right 
angles to the line of their main range, they stretch northwards to 
meet the Ar&vali hills. For six or seven miles the stream flows 
westward, then bending round Bhop&var, it takes a northerly course, 
parallel with the line of the northern Yindhya hills. Sunk in a deep 
valley between banks in places more than 100 feet high, receivings 
as it passes, many tributaries from the east, but none of any size 
from the west, for 140 miles the Mahi flows to the north till the hills 
of B^ar suddenly turn its stream westward. After flowing twenty- 
five miles to the west the high mountains of Mejw&r bend its course 
to the south-west, and this direction nothing in the level Gujar£t 
plain alters till the river falls into the Gulf of Cambay, in north 
latitude 22^ 10', and east longitude 72° 30'. 

For the first part of its Gujar&t course, the Mahi passes through 
the lands of the Mahi K&ntha and Rewa E&ntha chiefs. It then enters 
British territory, separating the district of Kaira on the right fronoi 
the Panch Mahals and Baroda on the left. Further to the west and 
for the rest of its course, its right bank forms the southern boundary 
pi the state of Cambay, and its left the northern limit of the district 

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of Broacli. Abont 100 mfles from its 8onrce,at Bangra^ where it is 
crossed by the Baroda and Neemuch road, the bed is 400 yards wide, 
with a stream of 1 00 yards and a depth of one foot. Flowing between 
Idgh allaviat banks much cut by ravines, the hundred miles of 
its Eaira course may be divided into three sections, a stretch of forty 
miles over a rough rocky bed^ then about ten miles of sand the 
stream unaffected by the tides, and the last forty *five miles its course 
as a tidal river. At Ver&kh&ndi^ the limit of the flow of the tidal 
wave, the bed is in the dry season 500 yards wide, the stream 
120, and the average depth of water a foot and a half. Abont 
thirty miles nearer the sea, where not far from the village of DehvAn, 
it has reached the eastern limit of the Broach district, the river is 
already an estuary, five miles broad with at springs a total tidal 
variation of about twenty-two feet. Below Dehv&n the estuary 
broadens but little, the distance across its mouth from Cambay to 
E&yi being estimated at abont five miles.^ Here the extreme tidal 
variations are not less than thirty feet. This added to the funnel- 
like shape of the head of the gulf, forces the tidal waters into a wave. 
At neap tides the water ebbs and flows with no marked disturbance. 
Bat at springs, especially at the night spring tide, about five miles 
below Cambay soon after the flood has set in, two waves rise on 
the shallows on either side of the channel, and swollen by the quicken-* 
ing tide and narrowing space stretch outwards till they meet in 
nidchannel. At ten miles an hour, past sloping shallows in> a 
crescent-like carve, and through steep banks in a straight six feet 
high wall-like line, the bore, crested and raging, rushea for twenty 
miles till it is broken and spent on the Dehv&n sands.' 

Though during the rains it fills its broad bed from, bank to bank 
with, where the sides are high, a depth of over forty feet, in the 
fair season, within the limits of the Kaira district, the Mahi can be 
crossed in many places. Of these the chief ford^ ai^ at the mouth of 
ihe river between Cambay and E&vi, on account of the rush of water^ 
always a dangerous crossing, though at the lowest tides it can be 
passed on foot. Thirteen miles above Cambay is the Dehv&n ford, 
ayailable only at neap tides.' Five mites further at Qajna is anothQir 

Cfhapter I. 



^ FiTB miles u the Revenae Sixr^ey n^aasasOb Thornton gives three hot, or ^r and 
a half miles. Hov^ (1787) gives six iboiL or n^ nulee^ 

*E£hene7's Cambay Snryey 1837» J. R. Geog. Soo. 8, 196-202. The *l>ore' is thna 
deieribed by the author of the Peripkis (about Ao>. 160). 'Eroecially ia there risk when 
the new moon falls in conitinotipn with the night tide, tor then, when the sea is 
perfeeUy calm, yon shall hear in a moment a nuhinj|( sound like the tumult of 
nttle, and the water driving forward with the utmost mipetuosity covers the whole 
of the bare shoals in an instant. * — ^Vincent's Periplus, II. , 261 . 

' The foUowing were (1^) the details of this orossinff approached from the south. 
After descendinff the htik. at Kireli for the first three miles, Uie road leads over a hard 
BSt only covered at the highest tides. The i>rincipal stream is then crossed about a 
hiriong wide, and at the highest of the neap tides not more than three feet deep. The 
road next passes ove? a broad, sandy, and somewhat muddv island ; and beyond the 
Uand, throuffh a Vj^OK stream scarcely ankle deep, ascends the. steep bank at the 
^iHage of Dehvftn. In the fair season, except for six days before and after the new 
ttd ndlmoon, when the overflow of the roring tides leaves it muddy, the river bed is 
httd, and any desisripjtioA of cacriagjO caa be ti^en. aciioss without trouble.— Bonju €K>Tx 

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exetpi Al&eUdMtnriBgB and free from any 

daogenNit nrii of tide. Ten miles bcyood, aft the Khtnpor Tillage, 
in the hot wcether the fiver can be finked, and ai other aeaKms carta 
paea easilj cm poles laid aoeas two boata. Two anlea beyond, <doBe 
ne MmkL to the lailway bridge, ia the OaKta ford, tke beat of the Mabi 

cnMsings. The fiereeneai <rf the tidal watvesakestbeamdih of the 
Main dangnoaa &r an J bnt flat bottoned boata. And thoagbitia 
asid that, in former timea, the Tillage of Dehrin was a poit of acme 
coDseqaoice, the channel ia noi ai pieaent deep enoogh io admit 
▼eisels of any sise. The hi^ ragged banks of the Mahi prevent its 
waters being naed for irrigation, and ao deep ia ita bed that it draina 
rather than feeds the ^ringi near its banka. 

Four ]daeea <m the Mahi, Mingiad, Fazilpvir, Angad, and Yaspnr, 
aiehdd niecially saoed hj the Kolis, and Tisited by pilgrims on the 
15thoCChaifara(AprO). The KoKs think of the Msliiaa their mother. 
Th^ swear bj her, and thon^ they hare little fear in breaking their 
oath, thej believe that if it is given him to drink a goflty person will 
fail to swallow the water of the Mahi. This happens more particn- 
lariy if the water is given him at Vasna Kolna^ where on the night 
of the DMera festival (October), the Kolis nsed \o meet sndor^^anize 
their predatory forays. Though like other streams it is considered 
sacred, fear woald seem to be the prevailing feeling in the worship 
of the Mahi. The height of its banks snd the fierceness of its floods, 
the deep gullies ihrongh which the traveller has to pass on his way to 
the river, and perhms, above all, the bad name of the tribes on ita 
nortliembank,ezidamtheproverb^' When the Mahi is crossed, there 
is safety.' 
The SdiarmaiL A detailed description of the Sibarmati, the fonrth river in Onjar&t| 

will be found in the Ahmedabad Statistical Account. During the 
fourteen miles of its course along the western limit of the Elaira 
district its waters are largely used for irrigation. 

The Shedhi* The chief drainage line of the plain between the Mahi and the 

S&barmati is the river Shedhi. This stream, rising at the Damodi 
hill in the Mahi K^ntha, enters the north-east comer of the Kaira 
district within two miles of the Mahi. Passing west through the 
Th&sra sub-division it is joined from the right by the Saidak riyrer, 
and further on near the centre of the district about eight miles north 
of Nadiid, it receives the Mohar from the north. Then flowing w^;, 
on the ri^t just before entering the town of Kaira, it is joined by 
the Mul Kh&rL Beyond Kaira it meets the Y&trak from the north* 
west, and together they wind south-west into the Sibarmati, A 
narrow quick-flowing stream its banks steep, and in many parts it^ bed 
rather deep in mud, the Shedhi is at all times hard to cross. Sweet 
and good when it enters the district after meeting the Mohar its 
water is charged with soda, and being found hurtful to the cropsj is 
little used for watering. Except for a mile or two above its meeting 
with the Ydtrak during the hot season the bed of the Shedhi is dry. 
Its tributaries all join it from the right. The first is the Suidak in 
the Th^ra sub-division, flowing with an unfailing stream from Hath* 
w6ip in the B&l^nor territory. Next near the centre of the district, 

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000160 ihe Moiiar. This rtream, risiiig in ihe Virpar Bab-diviaion of the 
B4Iiksixu)r territory^ enters the Eaira district in the extreme north, 
and near the town of Kapadyanj, meeting the Yartei from Bariar in 
the Mahi E&ntha^ flows south for about twenty miles. Here from 
the east it is joined by the Loni^ and after passing five miles to the 
south-west^ falls into the Shedhi. So impregxiatra with soda is the 
Mohar^ that after it joins the Shedhi the waters of that riyer cannot 
be used for irrigation. The Mul Kh&ri, the next of the Shedhi's 
tributaries^ after draining the lowlying land between the town of 
Mahudha and the junction of the Mohar and Shedhi, falls into the main 
stream close to the east of Kaira. The Y&trak, with which the waters 
of the Shedhi unite at Kaira^ rises near the town of Satuman in Meyw&r, 
and flows through the lands of the Mahi Kfintha and the Parintij 
sub-division of Ahmedabad. Five miles above Eaira it receives the 
Meshvo^ a stream that a little to the west has throughout its whole 
course run almost parallel to the Y&trak. Then at Eaira, joining the 
Shedhi from the east with a winding course, they flow south filing 
into the S&barmati at Vautha, a place of great sanctity. During its 
forty nules course through the Elaira district, the V4trak, between 
alluvial banks about twenty feet high and with a shallow unfailing 
stream, flows over a bed of sand about 150 feet broad. By the help 
of lifts its water is much used in irrigation. 

The Kh&ri, rising in a cluster of hills about ten miles to the north- 
east of Ahmednagar in the Idar state, passes through a few villages 
in the extreme west of E[aira, and fws into the B&barmati to the 
north-west of the village of Badu, a little above the meeting of 
the S&barmati and Y&trak. The land here is very flat, and during 
the rains is subject to flooding. Here, for more than a century, 
rice fields have been watered by banks thrown across the river. 
At first the embankments were of earth and wanted constant repair. 
And it is only since 1850 that at a total cost of £6600 (Bs. 66,000) 
permanent masonry dams with sluice gates have been bu^t. lliese, 
seventeen in number, command an area of 1 1,000 acres in eleven 
villages. Formerly the right to the Eh&ri water was among 
the villagers on its banks tho source of constant quarrels. But in 
184S and again in 1874, the rights have been settled and the water 
more fairly distributed. The Kh&n stream generally fails at the end 
of the rice season (November). The water could be brought from 
the H&thmati river by the H^thmati canal and along the Bujva, a 
tributary of the Eh&ri. But much of the land that would gain by 
ibis increased supply is alienated, and at present there is no way dE 
recovering a watercess from the lands of the alienees.^ 

Thongh its average yearly rainfall is not more than thirty inches, 
tiiB district of Eaira has, since the earliest years of English manage- 
ment, been liable to suffer from floods. This has specially been the 
case in two lowlying tracts. In the west where, between the Shedhi 






1 Between 1860 and 1874 the irrigated area of Government land increased from 
S694 to 4737 acres and the land revenne from 4^2900 to j^i? (Ba. 29MK^ 
34,470).— Irrigation Revenne Report, 1876-77» 18-21 

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Chapter L i^^^ the S&bannatiy M&tar stretches an almost level plain, and in the 
Description. soath-west and south where the sonthem lands of Nadi6d,Petl&d, and 
j>rauiage. ^® north of Borsad are at times swamped by the flood waters from 

the raised tract along the right bank of the Mahi.^ Tbough with no 
marked courses the flood waters of the Kaira lowlands set along 
three chief lines^ west into the Y&trak, south-west into the Aiang 
canal^* and south by the Chor ravine into the Mahi. The floods that 
drain westwards, gathering head in Dumr&l, Keriivi, and A'khdol in 
southern Nadi&d^ througb PetUd and M&tar pass westwards into 
the V&trak about two miles above its meeting with the S&barmati. 
Of the waters that make their way to the Alang canal, two of small 
size pass through the southern villages of M&tar, entering the 
canal about ten or twelve miles to the north-west of Gambay. The 
third, a much larger body of water collecting in the southern 
villages of the Th&ra sub-division flows past Umreth, and then 
westwards to GhakUsi about six miles south-east of Nadi&d. From 
Ghakl&si, setting more to the south, it floods the lowlying lands 
of B&krol and Karamsad, and crossing Petlid and Gambay, after 
a course of more than forty miles, spreads over the Binpur flats 
and makes its way into the Alang canal about three and half 
miles to the north of Cambay. The flood waters that find their 
way into the Chor ravine set along three chief lines, one fronai 
Sandesar, about eight miles south-west of A'nand ; a second from 
Mogri, about four miles east of Sandesar ; and a third from Sltfsa» 
about eight miles east of Mogri. The Sandesar water, making head 
in the lowlying lands of that village, flows south-west for about 
eighteen miles, entering the Chor ravine at Karamsal, about two 
mUes from its mouth. The second, though called after the village 
of Mogri, makes head at Chikhodra about six miles further east, and 
keeping to the north of Borsad, passes south-west, falling into the 
Chor ravine at K&ndhreti about three miles above Karamsal ; the 
Sdrsa water, passing through A'r&s and to the south of Borsad^ joina 
the Mogri flood at Uneli, about six miles above E&idhreti, 

During the period of heavy rainfall between 1814 and 1823 
floods and standing water caused much damage." Flood remissions 
and sums for cutting or clearing drains were from time to time 
granted. But chiefly from the interlackig of Gambay and Baroda 
villages and the difficulty of getting their managers to work in concert, 
no systematic attempt would seem to have been made to improve the 
drainage before the early survey of the district between 1820 and 
1827. Captain Gruikshank^ in his N&p&d report (1826), describes 

1 A drunage map is given at the end of tliis chapter. 

9 This canal, aboot twenty-fiye miles lonfl^ was cnt to bring the water of the 84bar- 
mati to the Niuriyansar lake at Cambay. This lake is now (1876) dry. 

8 In 1819 several villages were entirely nnder water, one of them, the Oiikwir 
village of Vaso, yielding a yearly revenue of £4000 (Rs. 40,000). Captain Bobertaoo, 
the CoUector, had a drain dug to theV&trak rirer. He suggested that an officer 
should be sent to survey the chief natural drainage lines, and complained of the 
great difficulty he found in getting the Gaikv^ir and Gambay courts to agree to say 
scheme for theconmion good. — Bom. Qov. Rev. Bee., 149 of 1820, 491. In westeni 
Borsad, in 1824, drains were said to be wanted to carxy off the water that lodged and 
destroyed the land.— Bom. Qov. SeL, XI., 92. 

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fhe general drainage of the district. In that part of the country 

BeriouB loss from floods would seem to have been only occasional^ 

and Captain Cruikshank did not advise the undertaking of any 

large drainage scheme. He thought that enough would be done if ^ 

in times of floods care was taken to cut temporary channels from 

Tillage to village^ and to see that the passage of the flood waters 

was in no way checked or turned aside.^ In Mdtar, Captain 

Cruikshank would seem to have found the evils resulting from 

flooding more pressing.* With the help of the headmen of 

several villages he prepared a scheme for the drainage of most of its 

chief village^ According to his estimates^ at a total cost of £980 

(Rs. 9800), of which £320 (Rs. 3200) would be met by the villagers, 

land capable of yielding a yearly revenue of £1131 (Rs. 11,810) 

might be saved. These proposals were approved by Government 

in 1828. But on account of the inability of the people of several 

villages to pay their contributions, and the objections raised by 

the Baroda and Cambay authorities to let drains pass through 

their lands, nothing was done till in 1830 (October 15) Sir John 

Malcolm took the matter in hand, strongly supporting Captain 

Omikshank's scheme on the ground, not only of the increase of 

revenue, but because of the ffain to public healtn and the protection 

to cattle likely to ensue.' In 1831, a survey was carried out by 

Mr. Jordan. This showed that for an outlay by Government of 

£1212 (Bs. 12,120) 2528 acres (4304 bigMs) of land miffht be saved 

from flooding. Government approved Mr. Jordan's proposals, 

and ordered his scheme to be carried out without delay .« The 

work was earnestly taken up, and* during eleven years, continued 

to be vigorously pushed on. At the end of that time (1842), 

fourteen sets of drains had been completed, at a cost of about 

£4000 (Bs. 40^000). Of the fourteen works, one was in the north 

between Mehmadabad and Mahudha ; eight were in the west, draining 

into the V&trak ; four were in the south-west, draining into the Alang 

canal ; and one in the south, draining into the Chor ravine. The 

northern work, in two parts, one protecting the villages of Budan and 

Karoli, the other those of Bhumas and Ehutaj, was finished in 1837, 

at a cost of £296 (Bs. 2960). Of the eight western works, one 

Chapter L 



1 After Gaptaia Craikahank'g survey came several seasons of nnnsnally heavy 
nmlaU. In 1829 the villa^ of Karamsad and Bikrol were most seriously flooded, 
and owing to a bank raised bv the villagers of VaUaon to the west, the flood waters 
eoold not pass off. So much harm was done that from Karamsad and BAkrol, a com- 
psnv 500 strong went out to clear off the dam. ValAson resisted, and the strug* 
gle lasted for three days, with a loss of from twelve to fifteen men. Again, between 
1836 and 1838 much damage was done. In Sandesar near Karamsad, for four suooes- 
•ire years the rice crops were totally destroyed; and in one of those years a great part 
of the village of Kanmsad was swept away, with a loss estimated at £10,000 
(Bs. 1,00,000. )~KaSra Executive Engineer's drainage report, 234, 22nd October 1866, 

s Captain Ouikshank's report, prepared in 1827, nas not been traced. Mr. Jordan 
isfets to it in his letter to the Sab-Collector of Kaira, dated the 3rd March 1831. 
Tlie figures are taken from Sir John Malcolm's Minute, dated October 16th, 1830. 

s Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec, 319 of 1830, 242. 

^ 'i%e estimate was about £200 (Rs. 2000) higher than Captain Cruikshank's, 
Tlie difference was due to the failure of certain villages to pay their contributions 
ad to a rise in the rates of earthwork. -^ov., 1638, 28th April 1881. 

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[BomlMty Oaietteer. 



carried the flood waters of Badhyfinaj into t&e Y&trak aboat two 
miles below Eaira. The remaining seyen united in draining western 
NadiM and central M4tar into the Y&trak; abont twelve miles below 
Eaira. Of these, one finished in 1832 (March 8th) at a cost of 
£118 (Bs. 1180), relieTed Undhela and Mitar ; the second finished in 
1833 (January Slst) at a cost of £128 (Rs. 1280), relieved Heranj, 
M&chhial> and Tr&j ; the third finished in 1883 (January Slst) at a cost 
of £193 (B& 1930)> drained the western villages of Eh&ndli, Eathoda, 
Tr&nja> Mar&la, and Pun&j ; the fourth finished in 1841 (June 15th) 
at a cost of £699 (Bs. 6990), drained the PetUd villages of Pij and 
Yasoj and the M&tar villages of Mali&taj and Lav£l; the fifth 
finished in 1842 (April 14th) at a cost of £70 (Bs. 700), drained 
B4mnoli, Dant^li, and Davra^ the sixth finished in 1842 (March 
and April) at a cost of £56 (Bs. 560), drained Dumrdl^ Pipleta, and 
EeriitVi ) and the seventh finished in 1842 (April 30th) at a cost of 
£36 (Bs. 360), drained Mitr&l and A'khdoL 

Of the three that protected the 8ottth*west» one finished in 1837 
(June 12th) at a cost of £222 (Bs. 2220), brought the fiood waters of 
the south M&tar villages of Moraj and Chikhlia into the Alanjp^ canal, 
about twelve miles north-west of Cambay. The other two Arming 
together the great Earamsad drain, entered the Alang canal, about 
three and a half miles from Cambay. The chief of these two works 
finished in 1838 (November 18th) at a cost of £1092 (Bs. 10,920), 
starting from the village of Earamsad, four miles west of A'nand, 
passed through P41aj, A'mod, N&r, and Bhanderaj, a distance 
of aboat twenty miles. The other work, a feeder to this great drain, 
finished in 1839 (June 15th) at a cost of £253 (Bs. 2530), reUeved 
the villages of Narsanda, Yadt&l, B4h&vli, and Bindhni. The 
southern line was the Mogri drain, finished in 1840 (May 30th) at a 
cost of £81 (Bs. 810). This passing through N&h&pa, Santokpora^ 
Booh&aan, Uneli, Sahijpur, and Y&sna, entered the Ghor ravine at 
Earamsal. Two villages, Borillvi about five miles north of A'nand, 
and Sangesar about two miles south of E[aramsad, were left unpro- 
tected. Plans were prepared for draining Bori&vi south to B&krol, 
and Sangesar south to Earamsal, in the Uhor ravine. But in both 
cases the Baroda and Cambay authorities, through some of whose 
villages the flood waters would have to pass, raised objections and 
the question of making those drains was laid aside. In reviewing^ 
in 1843, the results of this drainage system, the Collector, Mr. 
Eirkland, showed that while the whole cost of the works was 
£4000 (Bs. 40,000), during the five years ending with 1841 about 
one-half of this amount had been saved by making remissions of land 
revenue unnecessary. Besides this saving to Government, there was 
the great gain to villagers, and a marked improvement in the pnbUo 
health. Government agreed that the result was satisfactory.^ They 
thanked Mr. Eirkland for the interest he had shown in planning 
and supervising the works, and Messrs. Jordan and Spry for their 

I OoUector, 2612, Aogurt UHib, ia43. 

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Enable services in constraoting them. So great relief did these 
Inals bring, that in 1842 several smaller cuts, already surveyed and 
knctioned, were found to be unnecessary. The rejected lines were, 
\, fche east, three feeders to the Karamsad grand drain from Chakl&si 
i the north, Chikhodra to the east, and A'nand to the south of 
Uramsad, and along this same drain about half wa;^ to the Alang 
inal at the village Silv&i^ a branch from the right bringing the flood 
laters of Balitva, Ghanga, Melav, and Pipla. In the south a cut 
^m Pandoli, Khadma, and Sh&hpur, in Borsad, to fall into the Mahi 
k the west of Gambay . In the west, in southern M&tar^ a cut passing 
^ugh Bantva, Pariaj, and Bamang&m, into the Alang canal. The 
iffangements for relieving Karamsal and B&krol failed. The 
riginal canal was about eight feet above the proper level, and the 
^nd drain, by way of Jol, through raised sanay ground, was very 
kon so filled with drifts that only in the very highest floods was the 
hkter able to pass off. With this exception all the lines worked well, 
br several years little care was taken of the drains, and nothing was 
vue in the way of repairs. And after about fourteen years, partly from 

e'r bad state of repair and partly from two or three seasons of 
snally heavy rainfall, complaints of loss from flooding again became 
iDmioii.^ Accordingly, in 1858, Mr. Spry, to whom along with Mr. 
irdan the success of the works finished between 1831 and 1842 was 
■e, was deputed to 'survey and determine the different lines of drainage.' 
bough Mr. Spry's report was useful as showing the position of the 
lids liable to flooding, and the lines of natural drainage, it contain- 
1 no details or estimates of works. In 1862 Golonel Prescott, in 
is survey report on M&tar, renewed complaints of the damage done 

Lthe bad state of the drains, and suggested that the whole subject 
uld be inquired into, and the canals made use of for irrigation.' 
Vm* several years no officer was available for special drainage duty, 
id it was not till the close of 1865 that the work was again taken up. 
ietween November of that year, and August of 1866, Lieutenant 
laldwin surveyed the greater part of the Kaira low lands. His 
lain drainage lines differed but Little from those laid down by Mr. 
ordan. He proposed to extend the feeders of the chief west line 
% Bariin and Piplaj, south of Nadi&d. Of the south-western line, 
B would continue that through Pariaj and Bamangdm across the 
Wid lands to Dehmol, six miles from Yadt&l. He would cut an 
Iditional channel crossing from Pariaj in south M&tar to 

S'itra, six miles north-west of PetlAd. The Karamsal line he 
not propose to change. But he added the cut from Pandoli and 

COiapter L 



^ Ib 1866 the Collector complamed that near Nadiid, to get to their fields, oaltiTatora 
Id, with theirploughs on their heads, to wade through mad and water hiffher than a 
Kn*8 breast. Aom other villages reports came that women were drownea, and that 
ke streets were dangerous from alligators crawling about.— Collector 158, 11th April 

'* In 1862 Colonel prescott wrote, ' the Mitor drains carried out between 1831 and 
MO, made the district healthier, raised the revenue, made remissicms less necessary^ 

e helped the cultivators to accumulate wealth.' Again he says ' the Mitar people 
unanimous in dating the time from which the district began to grow proeperoua 
fern its drainage by Mr. Jordan. '--Bom. Gov. Set, New Series, CXIV., 416, 421, 

[B 1671-2 

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[Bombay Gazetteer, 

Chapter I. Danteli into the Alaog canal, about a mile norili^west of Cambajj 
J)e8<niDtion. formerly surveyed, but rejected as unnecessary. His southern or I 
Chor ravine drainage lines are the Sandesar, the Mogri, and the 
I^''^^^ S&rsa, the same as Mr. Jordan's. For the three lines passing | 

through the MAtar sub-division, Mr. Baldwin was unable to prepare 
projects. Like Mr. Jordan, he thought the villages along the S^rsa 
branch of the Mogri drain wanted no special protection. For the 
improvement of the three remaining lines, he proposed for Karamsad, 
a canal about twenty-eight miles long with a drainage area of 
about 141 miles, and an estimated cost of £7855 (Bs. 78,550) ; for 
Sandesar, a canal about seventeen miles long with a drainage area of 
about fifty-four miles, and an estimated cost of £9237 (Bs. 92,370) ; 
and for Mogri, a canal about twenty miles long with a drainage area 
of about 150 miles, and an estimated cost of £7056 (Bs. 70,560). 
The four years before Mr. Baldwin's survey had been seasons of 
very evenly distributed rainfall. Little loss had been caused by 
floods, and the people showed small interest in the proposed drainage. 
After his survey was completed in August 1866, the district was 
visited by a very heavy flood. Mr. Baldwin took advantage of the 
« opportunity to test the accuracy of his measurements. Of the effect 

of this storm he has left the following details : — In twenty-fonr 
hours (August 3, 1866) from 4*50 to 5*50 inches of rain fell. At 
Chlkhodra, about two and a half miles east of A'nand, where the Mogri 
and Chor water first makes head, the flood was about four feet higher 
than was good for the land, and was destroying some hundred acres of 
rice. A'nand, though in the middle of a lake, was unhurt ; only waste 
lands were covered. Mogri looked flooded, but the people said the 
water was not too high. Instead of draining into the Mogri catting, 
a strong head of water was setting west for Karamsad. In Karam- 
sad though the flood was doing gi*eat harm, it was, the people said, 
only eighteen inches too high, A little of the flood was passing 
north to Bikrol, but just as much was rolling in from A'nand. At 
Sandesar the water stood four and a half feet too deep ; and at Bdkrol 
great damage was done. Jol was safe, the flood running off along the 
old cut. 

In forwarding his projects to Government, Mr. Baldwin complained 
that he found the old drains greatly in want of looking after. Hedges 
were planted across them in some places, and in others, to water a 
field, the channel had been blocked up. Compared with the former 
drains, Mr. Baldwin trusted that his canals would prove to have 
more even slopes, and fewer windings. Again, he thought it a 
great advance that instead of carrying them through he had cut 
his drains along the feeding sides of ponds and reservoirs. The 
proposal to make the drainage canals into irrigation channels was 
not approved. But, except the sluices and bridges, the Mogri scheme 
was sanctioned, and a sum of £4278 (Bs. 42,780) spent in cutting 
the canal. The drain has worked well. But since its construction 
no attempt has been made to carry out either the Karamsad or 
Singsi projects. It has, on the whole, been a time of rather short 
rainfall with no great damage from floods. The district officers, 
while admitting that the Mogri drain has done all that it was expected 

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to do^ doabt if the advantage gained is worth the sum spent.' In Chapter L 

Borsad, ia Colonel Prescott's opinion (1 867), the damage by floods was Description. 

80 slight, and the loss to the early crops was so generally followed by 

a better late harvest, that this liability formed no ground for reducing 

the survey rates. Again in 1868 Mr. Elliot the Collector wrote 

that both because they were unnecessary and on account of the large 

quantity of land they would occupy, the other schemes should not^ in 

his opinion, be carried out.* Mr. Little the Executive Engineer 

agreed with this view, doubting if the good done by such canals is 

eqoal to the cost of cutting them. On these grounds, while ordering 

thi&t care should be taken to keep all the channels clear and in order^ 

Oovemment have decided that for the present the other projects 

shoald not be carried out.' 

Besides the smaller floods mentioned under the head of drainage, Floodi. 

three specially severe storms visited Elaira, one in 18S7, a second in 

1868, and a third in 1871. In 1837 after two days (the 28th and 29th 

Angnst) of average rainfall, on the evening of the 30th, a storm burst 

with heavy thunder and wind. The flood continued to rise till nine 

in the evening of the 31 st. The waters kept at their extreme 

height for about an hour and then slowly fell. Near the town of 

Eaira^ the Shedhi and Y&trak nniting, rose till they covered the 

whole country for miles. From the 31st August to the 2nd 

I September, between the Collector's house and the town, a stream ran 

too deep to be crossed. At this time the water stood waist high on the 

steps 01 the rest-house near the library, and flowed over the Katanpur 

bridge. It rose to four of the town rates, the L61, the Ahmedabad, 

f the Para, and the Bil&pir, leaving at S^dpir gate only four feet of the 

I arch open, and flooding about thirty-five nouses inside. Opposite this 

\ gate, and at a small distance on the further bank of a water-course^ 

> itands the hamlet of Lakhmipura. In this village of 125 houses, only 

: thirty were left standing. Of the people, one hundred were saved in 

1 a boat, and the rest by climbing from tree to tree. This flood is said 

! to have been due to a very unusual rise in the rivers above the Kaira 

district rather than to the excess of the local rainfall. In the whole 

district the lands of eighty-six villages were flooded, twenty-one 

in Nadiiid, twenty-one in M&tar, fifteen in Mahudha, ten in Borsad, 

eight in ITifara, and five in Kapadvanj. No lives were lost. But 

besides hnts, 4(W houses in the town of Kaira were destroyed.* The 

ktdy .completed drains were most useful in relieving the district of 

Ihe flood waters. In M&tar they prevented immense loss, both in 

honses and lands, and in Mahudha were of eminent service.' 

Between the 9th and 13th August 1868, with much wind, 22*4 

inches of rain fell.* On the 12 th, the Vdtrak rose rapidly; and iu 

I the morning of the 13th, botih the V4trak and the Shedhi overflowed 

^ In the great flood of Angast 9, 1S68, the Mogri canal did mat service, very 
iiHpidly relieving the landB near Bonad of their flood waters^—Oollector, 875, Sept- 
ember 11, 1868. 

' Collector, 1166, November 28, 1868. • Gov. Rea. 263, January 29, 1869. 

* O^ector^s weather report, 2nd Septr. 1837. ■ CoUector 201, October 16th, 1831. 

* CoUector 816, Angnst 24, 1868, and Gov. Bes^ 1664, September 7, 1868. 

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DBombay GaietUer, 



OQapter L 


their banks. Near EAira^ except the town, the Collector's house 
and the camp, the conntry was flooded for miles. On the walls of 
the library in the low land south of the town, the water stood five 
feet two inches deep. In the town one child, a Pdrsi, was drowned, 
and 395 houses, nine of the first, seventy-two of the second, and 314 
of the third class, were destroyed. In the rest of the district 
the lives of three human beings and of thirteen cattle were lost; 
and 1960 houses, 104 two-storied, 736 one-storied, and 1220 huts 
destroyed. Bailwav traffic was stopped for more than a fortnight 
But the public worKs suffered but slightly. As far as an estimate 
could be framed, the total amount of damage done was calculated 
at £13,858 (Rs. 1,38,580). To help the destitute. Government 
sanctioned the expenditure of £1000 (Bs. 10,000), and a further 
advance of £1000 (Rs. 10,000) was made to the Kaira municipalitdea 
An additional sum of £511 (Rs. 5110) was raised in Bombay and 
forwarded to the Collector of Elaira. But the people were unwilling to 
take charity, and the money was spent in improving ponds and wells. 
Of five of the villages that suffered most, the sites were changed. 
Land reyenue to the amount of £752 (Rs. 7520) was remitted, free 
grants of limestone, of clay for bricks, and in some cases of wood 
were made, and at a total cost of £29,672 (Rs. 2,96, 720)^ relief works 
were kept open from the beginning of August to the end of May. 

On the 2nd August 1871, a storm broke over the district with a 
fierce south-west wind and rain, varying in twenty-four hours from 
3'50 inches in Th^ra to 11*41 inches in M&tar, and averaging 7'72 
inches over the whole district.' Round the town of KsivA the conn- 
try was flooded for miles. The water hid even the highest hedges, 
and at the town of Kaira stood from sixteen to eighteen inches 
higher than in 1868. The 3rd and 4th August were rough, wet days, 
followed on the 5th by a severe gale, and heavy rain from the south- 
west. The flood was felt most severely in the Mehmadabad and M4tar 
villages. For four days (2nd to 5th August) at Eaira the Collector's 
office was cut off from the town and the road between Mehmadabad 
and Kaira was impassable. A railway bridge was washed away and 
some telegraph "^res destroyed ; otherwise the damage to the public 
works of the district was small. Except the camp road, the Executive 
Engineer estimated that all loss might be covered by adding £250 
(Rs. 2500) to the repair estimates. Though in several villages the 
whole population lived for nearly two days and nights in trees, only 
five persons and 799 cattle were drowned and 4934 houses, 276 of them 
in the town of Kaira, destroyed. The loss of property was calculated 
at £25,031 (Rs. 2,50,310). The distress, considerable in some 
villages, was almost entirely relieved by private charity. The Kaira 

Cin fund committee, without giving general and ill-judged alms, 
ught most liberal help, distributing from £70 to £80 (Rs. 700-800) 
worth of grain. Cases of distress, unsuited for private relief, were 

^ The details are, Govemmeni, Ba. 70,356; villagers (in oaah and labour), Bb. 10,906; 
and Local Funds, Rs. 2 15,458. 

* The details are, Thisra, 3*50 ; A*nand, 975 ; Nadiid, 8*11 ; Boiaad, 7 : Mehmada- 
bad, 6-4 > Kapadvanj, 6*85 ; Mitar, 11*41 } and Kaira, 8*76. 

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met by Govemment advances, amounting altogether to a sam of 
£500 (Rs. 5000) .1 

The district contains no natural lakes^ bat according to the statis- 
tics of 1871-72, is supplied with 4079 ponds or reservoirs, covering 
a total area of 14,553 acres, or on an average of four acres to each 
reservoir. Of the total number, two only, the Gomti lake at Ddkor 
and the village reservoir of Belara in the M&tar sub-division, are of 
any great siza As most of them are dry or very low in the hot season, 
they are of little use for perennial crops ; but in October and Novem- 
ber, after the rains are over, they are very serviceable for watering 
rice. Except in parts of the Kapadvanj and Th&sra sub-divisions, 
where the land is impregnated with soda, the district is well supplied 
with wells, ponds, and rivers of sweet water. Besides the ponds 
mentioned above, 545 water-lifts or dhekuris, and the unbuilt wells 
in alluvial lands, there were 227 wells with, and 10,076 wells without 

Geologically the Kaira plain is, with the exception of the few sandy 
hills and rocks in Kapadvanj and Th&sra, a deep bed of flint and lime 
allavium, most of it the debris of the felspathic and limestone rocks 
of the Ar&vali hills. In the raised tract, along the banks of the 
Mahi, water is found only at a depth of from eighty to 1 10 feet. Away 
from the river, wells have their springs from forty to sixty feet deep, 
rising through strata of earth mixed with limestone nodules, alternat- 
ing with sand overlying sheet limestone. From this limestone, when 
tapped, water rises to within twenty-five feet of the surface. 
Formerly, in parts of the district, water was to be found higher even 
than this. Many old wells are said to have been made useless by 
the earthquake of 1819, which lowered all the springs from five to 
ten cubits.' In some cases deeper sinking has overcome the evil, in 
others, a fine stratum of quicksand makes further cutting dangerous. 
The hot springs of Lasundra, ten miles south-east of E[apadvanj, 
rise to the sur&ce in ten or twelve cisterns, the hottest standing at 
a temperature of 115"*. Like those at Tua in Godhra, twenty miles to 
the south-east, and at An&val, 1 50 miles south, the Lasundra springs 
are slightly sulphureous, and thought to be useful in skin diseases. 

To Europeans, though with some constitutions it agrees woll, the 
climate is trying. From November to March the air is pleasant and 
bracing. But even this long share of cool weather fails to make up 
for the severe heat of the rest of the year, dry and parching in 
March, April, and May ; moist and oppressive from June to October. 
To the people of the country, except in the eastern sub-divisions 
of Kapadvanj and Th&sra, and on the north-west, in the marshy 
rice-bearing lands near the Eh&ri river, the climate is not hurtful ; and 
the central tract, known as the cha/rotar, is considered healthy. 
Daring a long term of years the district has on the whole been free 

Chapter L 





1 CoUector 990, Angnst 18, 1871. 

* This change in tne water level is perhaps sufficiently explained by the dry 
yesn 1822, 1823, and 1824, which woula seem to have brought the district back to 
the state it was in, before the soaking or bda of the heavy rainy seasons 1814 to 
1822.--Bom. Gov. SeL, X., 5. 

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Chapter I. 


from outbreaks of cbolera or other epidemics.^ Malarious fever, the 
prevailing disease^ is commonest and most severe in the month of 
October. During the cold season, as the air becomes dryer, sick- 
ness gradually grows less, and in the hot weather months public 
health is at its best. From March to October the general direction 
of the wind is from the south-west, and from November to February 
from the north-east. From 1852 to 1861, the average rainfall was 
33*78 inches ; from 1862 to 1871, the corresponding returns give 
27-45 inches; and from 1872 to 1877, 28-10 inches.* Except an 
occasional shower in the cold season, the whole rain supply falls 
between June and October. Thermometrical readings registered 
during the ten years ending with 1861 vary from 104-1 in May to 
54-6 in January. They give for the whole period an average mean 
temperature of 79-6.* 

^ In 1876, Nadiiid suffered from a severe attack of obolera. ! 

* Sanitary Commissioner'B report of 1873, 45, 46. The 1872-1877 returns show | 
the average fall over the whole district. The available details for the town of KaiA 1 
are : — 

BainfaU at Kaira, 1868-77. . 






































































' Average thermometrical readings, Eaira, 1862-1862 : — 



69-9 . 

85-2 . 

64-6 . 

30-6 . 



104 1 




.. 84-7 .. 

.. 93-5 ,. 

.. 75-9 .. 

.. 17-6 .. 

71 1 

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.Smp^ €. 



Scale of Miles 

■T I I I 1 


Drains abmu^ earnsA outi 
Ol^m- wyHTtem^ natunil\ 
drauuwe hnsi. 

Om^fkattjuutfrw^ OfiktPhoruv 1879. 
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Soici large lieaps of iron slag show fchat at one time iron ore 
was worked in the neighbourhood of Kapadvanj. With this ezcep* 
tion the district is without minerals. In the bed of the M&jam river^ 
about fifteen miles from Kapadvanj, are found some varieties of 
agate and moss pebbles. These known as khdriyu, dgiya, and 
rdta^Uu, are, when polished^ among the most valued of Cambay stones. 
At Kapadvanj the business of collecting them is almost entirely in 
the hands of merchants of the class of Shia Bohor^. Labourers are 
employed by them to search the bed of the stream and quarry its 
banks. The best season for finding the stones is at the close of the 
rains^ when numbers are washed out of the mud and gravel of the 
banks and bed. When a supply of stones has been collected they 
are baked. And those that stand the fire, and develope bright 
colours^ are sent to Cambay to be polished.^ In the bed of the 
river Mahi are masses and boulders of trap, and in the east^ near 
where it enters the district^ rock is plentiful, including trap with 
occasional limestone, quartz, and granite. Though not suited for 
building purposes this rock is used for road metal. Limestone, 
hajJcar, in small nodules is found in and near most of the Kaira 
rivers. Its quality varies, but it usually contains from fifty to seventy- 
five per cent of carbonate of lime besides sand and sometimes clay 
and magnesia. Sand used for making mortar is found in the rivers 
Uahi^ Vatrak, and Meshvo, and in the smaller water-courses. In 
low broken ground nd^ar Kapadvanj^ Lasundra, Toma^ and other 
villages in the north-east of the district, a white crust of impure 
carbonate of soda forms on the surface of the ground. This earth is 
collected and much used in making glass and soap and as a mordant 
in dyeing cloth.* 

E[aira is generally spoken of as one of the best wooded parts of 
the Bombay Presidency. This in one sense is true. At the same 
time the district has no forests or forest land,^ the trees either 
standing singly or in small groves. Especially in the southern 

Chapter n. 



^ Mr. Forbes (Or. Mem. III., 68) makes Kapadyanj the site of Ptolemy's (150) 
moontain of agates. Bat it seems more likely that Ptolemy heard of the mine 
on tke RAjpipla hills, since known as Bdva Ohor, Details of the mining and manofac- 
tnre of Cambay stones are given in the Cambf^ statistical account. 

* Cootribntedby T. D. Little, Esi}., C.E., District Executive Engineer. 

* In the Borsad sab-diyision, dnnng the rains of 1867, 1266 acres of land were 
■own with bdbul. Acacia Arabica. The seed germinated, but after growing a few 
inchea high the plants withered. —Forest Report, 1867-68. 

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[Bombay Oaietteer, 



Chapter n. 



parts the timber is foand in the hedge rows with here and 
there in the fields a well grown solitary tree. In the norths the i 
mahuda, Bassia latifolia^ and in the souths the mango and the lirnhdo, \ 
Melia azadirachta^ are the commonest varieties. All over the | 
district the custard-apple^ shitdphal, Anona squamosa^ is abundant, ; 
in some places bearing good fruit, though apparently growingwild. 
Besides thescj the rayan, Mimusops indic^^ the kcmaj, UlmTia 
integrifolia^ the karanj or kaniji, Pongamia glabra^ and the aduso, 
Ailanthus excelsa, are freely distributed over almost the whole of j 
the district. The fruit of the mango is in considerable quantities i 
sent to Baroda^ Ahmedabad, and K&thi&war. During the hot season ! 
the fleshy corolla of the mahuda flower is eaten by the poor and by ! 
cattle^ and from it is distilled a farourite native liquor. Mixed I 
with whey the berries of the rdyan, Mimusops indica^ form during 
the hot season the staple food of a large section of the KoB 

The chief domestic animals of the district are oxen, cows^ buffa- 
loes^ sheep and goats^ horses, camels, and asses. Of oxen, the 
1876-77 returns show a total of 128,247 head. A few of the finest, 
worth from £15 to £30 (Rs. 150-300) the pair, owned by well-to-do 
Kanbi cultivators, are brought from Kathi^w&r and K^nkrej in 
northern Gujarat. But some of the largest are bred in the district, 
Bb^aj and other villages of the Nadidd sub-division being famous for 
their bullocks. The poorer cultivators have smaller, leaner, and less 
valuable cattle, worth from £3 to £10 (Rs. 30-100) a pair. But 
except in Th&sra and Kapadvanj, where they are small and in poor 
condition, the Kaira cattle are on the whole large and fine animals. 
Among cultivators the common practice is to buy and rear calves. 
Besides a full supply of grass and millet stalks, the rich man's 
ballocks have every day a pound or two of bruised oil seeds, and from 
four to six pounds of pulse.^ Except in the busy season (June- 
November), when they have a pound or two of oil seed and grain, millet 
stalks are the only fodder of the poor man's cattle, and sometimes 
they are turned out on the village grazing ground to shift for them- 
selves. Of male buffaloes, the 1876-77 returns show a total of 
10,315 head. Most male calves are kept from the mother's milk 
and allowed to die. Of cows the total is returned at 49,264 and 
of she-buffaloes at 180,223. Well-to-do cultivators own from three 
to ten milch cows and buffaloes. A cow varies in value from £2 
to £6 (Rs. 20-60) and a she-buffalo from £3 to £8 (Rs. 30-80). 
These animals are, except in the rainy season (July-October), 
almost all stall fed. Their fodder is grass and millet stalks with, 
when in- milk, every day a pound or two of oil seed cake and 
cotton seed, kapdsia. The townsman generally keeps only one 
cow or buffalo and uses all its milk in his own family. The culti- 
vator makes most of the milk into clarified butter, sending weekly 
supplies to market.^ Professional herdsmen, or Rab&ris, as well aa 

1 GeneraUy adad, PhaseolaB mango, or guvdr, OvamopBiB psoralioidee. 
' Clarified butter ia one of the most valuable of Kaira exports. Some acooont oi 
the trade is given below. 

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enltiyators^ rear nulch cattle both cows and she-bofEaloes. Though 
the Rab4ris are not a wandering tribe^ their cattle are not stall fed* 
They are supposed to graze them on the common pasture g^und. 
But finding scanty fodder there the Babdris hare little scruple in 
letting their animals stray into any unguarded field. Br&hmans and 
y&niiis generally make over their young calves to Eanbis and Kolifl 
to be reared. On handing it over the calf is Valued^ and the 
common agreement is that when the caU is full grown and again 
valued the owner pays the man who reared it one-half of the 
increased price. Milch buffaloes are sent from the district by rail in 
considerable numbers^ chiefly to Surat and Bombay. 

Sheep and goats, with a total strength of 53^880 head, are 
reared chiefly by professional herdsmen, Rab4ris and Bharv&ds* 
They are found in greatest numbers in the less highly cultivated 
districts of M4tar in the west, and Th&sra and Kapaavanj in the 
east. Sheep are bred for their milk, wool, and flesh. Goats for 
their milk and their flesh. The wool is generally cut twice a year, 
in November and March. The Rab&ris cut it themselves with a 
specially heavy pair of shearing scissors. The wool has little care 
given to it, and is usually very indifferently washed. Except what 
little they make into felt and weave into coarse blankets, the 
Babdris sell their wool to traders, chiefly Musalm&is, who export it 
to Bombay. The trade seems to be of growing importance, as the 
total sent by rail has risen from twenty-two tons in 1870 to forty- 
leven in 1877. The sheep's rutting season is in May. She carries 
for six months. A sheep is milked from November to June, and 
generally yields from one to two pounds a day. Of this the young 
are allowed to suck half and the rest is used to make butter. The 
mUk of twenty sheep would in four days yield about five pounds of 
batter worth about 3«. 3d. (Rs. I-IO). Sheep begin to bear when 
Qiiee years old and continue till they are about seven. A good 
ewe is worth 8«. (Rs. 4). A large number of sheep and goats are 
every year sent by rail to the Bombay market. 

Horses are returned at 2366, but by far' the greater number of them 
are mere ponies, unsuited for the purposes of cavalry. In value they 
my from £2 to £10 (Rs. 20-100). Most of them are bom and 
reared in the district. Some of the best come from Cutch and 
Kidu&w&r, and a few show signs of being the produce of the 
Ahmedabad stud horses. As a rule they are not well l^en care of. 
Many are aDowed to feed themselves as they best can, others have 
miDet stalks, and when in work a daily aUowance of gram. One of ^e 
Government stud horses is stationed at Eaira. In 187&-77 he 
served thirty-three mares. 

Few camels are bred in Eaira, but large numbers are brought 
during the fair season from M&rw&r and Efithifiw&r to grace in the 
district. A fee of one young camel for each hundred head is paid 
to Government. The animal is sold and the price credited to 
revenua The drivers are for the most part Rajputs and Rab&ris. 
A full-grown camel varies in price from £4 to £16 (Rs. 40-150). 
Asses retamed at 6325 are of two kinds, the common ass and the 
big white ass of H&l&r in E&thi&w&r. The females are kept only by 



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[Bombay GatMteer. 

Chapter n. potters or kumlhdrs, and the males bj rice hnskers or golds. They 
Prodactio]|> ^"^ need to carry bricks, earth, and rice. In value they vary from 6s. 
to 14«. (Rs. 8-7) for the common sort, to £1 or £1 4s. (Ra. 10-12) 
for the big H4I&r sort. Fifty years ago many charotar villages were 
infested with swarms of tame pig. These animals, ownerless and 
uncared for, lived on snch garbage as they conld pick up. Filthy and 
useless they did much harm to the crops. At last so great was the 
nuisance that the richer classes hired the Y&ghris to cart them oat of 
village limits and set them free. Though still plentiful they have 
since ceased to be a nuisance.^ 
Wild. Of wild animals, the Tiqee, vdgh, Felis tigris, was within the IifBt 

ten years (1867) always to be found in the bed or among the ravines 
of the Mahi.' But the spread of tillage and the efforts of European 
sportsmen in the rough country near the Mahi and in the Bewa 
Eintha and Panch Mah&l hills have so reduced their number that 
they are now only occasionally met with. Four tigers were killed in 
1 876. But in the four preceding years none had been shot. 

The Panther, cUpdo, Felis leopardus, is from the same causes as 
the tiger, becoming scarce. A few are still found on the banks 
of the Mahi. During the five years ending with 1877 nine panthers 
were killed, three in 1875, four in 1876, and two in 1877. 

The WoL7, vairti, Canis pallipes, though becoming rare, is still 
sometimes seen roving in packs of four or five. They carry off 
considerable numbers of sheep and goats. 

The HTiENA, ta/ras, HysBna striata; the Jackal, sidl, Oanis 
aureus ; and the Fox, lokri, Vulpes bengalensis, are common, and 
said to destroy much poultry. 

The Wild Boab, dukar, Sus indicus, abounds along the 
S&barmati from Yautha in the west, northwards to Chitr&sar, then 
east by the irrigation canal, past L&li along the banks of the 
Meshvo and Y^trak, in the grass meadows at Kanai and Mahej, 
round Kaira, in the Mahudha fields, round Dadusar, and on the broad 
waste lands and ravines in Kapadvanj and Thdsra. It does much 
damage to crops. 

Of the deer tribe, the Blub Bull, nilgai, Portax pictus, formerly in 
numbers over the whole district, has of late years become scarcer 
and mach more wary. They are still found chiefly in the Kapad- 
vanj, A'nand, and Mehmadabad sub-divisions, in herds of firom 
eight to ten. The Antelope, haliar, Antilope bezoartica, is found 
in large numbers over the whole district. The Ikblik Gazelle^ 
ehikara, Gazella benettii, is also common. 

^ In the town of ITmreth (1830) there were said to be between 6000 and 7000 pif 
who ate aU crops bat tobacco.— Sab-CoUector 11th June 1831, Bom. £ev. Bee. 406 
of 1832, 175; Bom. Gov. SeL, XI., 112. 

' In 1825 timers were namerous along the Kaira bank of the Mahi. Bishop Heber 
mentions that in the beginning of that year one was bold enough to carry off a maa 
fromanomeronsconyoyof artiUery.~Heb. Nar. II, 137. About the same time (1823| 
in the extreme north of the district, near Bohisa, six miles from Mehmadabad^ was a 
hill caUed Vdghtekro, or the timer's hill, from the number of tigers that formerly 
infested and were still found on it.— Bom, Qot. QeL, X., 130. 

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KAIELk. 19 

Of smaller animalsj the Habb, saala, Lepns rnficaudatuB^ is f onnd Chapter IL 
in all parts of the district. FrodnotiOB* 

Of wild birds^ the Ooosb^ gauze hadaJc, Anser cinerens, is found 
occasionally in some of the large ponds in M&tar and Kapadvanj. 
They appear in Norember and December, coming in flights^ generally 
of from seren to ten^ though sometimes of as many as twenty or 
thirty; they leave about the end of February when the water 
b^ins to dry, and generally before the smaller lands of wild fowl ; 
they have not been known to breed in Kaira ; they are very shy^ 
and hard to shoot. The Black-backed Goosb, nukta, Sarkidiomis 
melanonotus^ is found in all parts of the district, remaining through* 
out the year, and breeding in the months of July and August. 

Of DucKB and Tbals, many sorts are found, especially in Mdtar,. 
Kapadvanj, and Th&sra. Except the Whistlino, Dendroeygna 
arcuata^ and the Cotton Tsal, Nettapus coromandelacos, which stay 
aQ the year round and sometimes breed in the district, most varieties 
of duck come in October and go in the end of February, or in the less 
cultivated parts of the district, early in March. Svi^^, pdnickal, 
of three kinds, the common, Oallinago seolopacinus,. the Jack,. 
GUlina^ gallinula, and the Painted, Bhynchoea bengalensis, are 
in the cold season found all over the district, but chiefly in the M&tar, 
Kapadvanj, and Th&sra sub*divisioos% They come in very poor 
condition early in October, and except in especially well-watered 
places, leave by the end of February. Snipe are never known to have 
bred in the district. Bustabu, malduk, Eupodotis edwardsii,. though 
&ot common, are found in all parts of the district, but chiefly in 
Thisra and Kapadvanj. They frequent largp uncultivated plains,. 
generally in bands of from four to five. They stay in the district 
during iJie whole year, breeding from Obtober to March. Flokioan,. 
hadmohar, Sy^eotides auritus, are found in small numbers all over 
the district. They come in the month of June after the first fait 
of rain. Taking first to damp low lying land as the rain increases 
they gradually seek higher ground ;. they breed in the district, but 
leave it in August when the young birds are able to move.^ 

PABTBTDGESof two kiuds, the Painted, Fr&ncol'inus pictus^ and the 
Grey, Ortygomis pondiceriana,. are f ound aH over the district. They 
itay during the whole year y the grey breeding from February to 
May^ the painted from June to October. The grey lives near 
viUages^ the painted in the more open and lonelier parts. 

Of Quail, the two chief kinds are the Grey and the Bain. The 
Grey, lawi, Cotumix communis, is found in all parts of the districts. 
They come in October and November,. and almost all go in Maiolu 
A few stay, and from June to August breed in the district. . TiTliIike the 
Grey Qnaol, the Bain Quail, Cotumix coromandelica,. breeds in Guja^* 
r&t and remains throughout the year. Towards the end of June, soon 
after rain has fisJlen^ he is £bDnd in the Tcodra^ Paspalum scrobicu- 
'-■'--' ■,.-.-,--_ - - . , ^ _ 

^ norican woald seem not to go far M they are found in nombert during the hok 
in the islands of the NarbadiL 

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[Bombay Qaiettecri 


CSiapter II. latunij then in the rice^ next in October and Noyember, in millet 

^f^tactiaa^ fields, then they are in grass^ then aboat January in poise, in Febroary 

in irrigated wheat, and daring the hot months in tobacco and castor- 

^""*' oil. Keeping together in large flocks at the beginning of the rains, 

they pair m July and Angnst, and during the cold weather months aie 

f onna in small bands, often in company with the grey quail. 

Sand Gbousb, batUr, Pterocles exustus, are found in consider* 

able numbers in the open plains all oyer the district. They brsed | 

from December to May, and in the morning are generally to be found i 

near water. I 

Cbanb, halam or hulin, Grus cinerea, are found in all parts of the 
district, especially in the open lands of the M&tar, Kapadyanj, Mehma- 
dabad, and Th^sra sub-diyisions. They come about the end of October 
and leaye in February or March. In the early morning they feed in j 
fields of rice stubble, and about eight or nine, in flocks of two or three 
hundred, they rise and fly high in the air. During the heat of the day 
and at nights they settle in open bushy land or plains generally near 
the banks of riyers. 

Stonb PLoyEB, harairiy CEdicnemus crepitans, are found, though 
in small numbers, in lonely uncultiyated tracts all oyer the district. 

Sfoon Bill, ehamach ehar^ Platalea leucorodia, are found in pond 
and marshes two or three together. Though, as a rule, migratory, 
they are said occasionally to breed in the district. 

BiTTEEN, nari, Botaums stellaris, are found in ponds, generally 
solitary ; they breed in the district, and are not known to leaye it. 

Pea-fowl, mohar, Payo cristatus, abound all oyer the district, and 
being well treated by the people are found in numbers in and near 
the yillages. They breed &om April to October, and are in finest 
feather during the hot months (April- June). 

Orbbn Piqson, hcuridlj Crocopus chlorigaster, are found all oyer 
the district, especially in the open well-wooded parts. Some are said 
to stay all the year round. 

Skaxib. The two chief poi8on6us snakes ^re the Cobra, Naja tripndians and 

the Phursa, Echis carinata. Though Kaira was much infested with 
snakes, the first attempt in 1856, by the offer of rewards to induce 
the peonle to kill them failed. Of late years, though the 
rewax^ haye been lowered in the case of a cobra from Is. 6dL to 
6d, (12 as. — 4 as.), and for other snakes from le, to 8d. (8 as. — 2 as.) 
199 snakes Were killed in 1875, and 259 in 1876. In 1877 the number 
had again fallen to ten. Human deaths from snake-bites yary much 
from year to year. In 1856 there were forty-fiye, between 1866 
and 1870 on an ayerage about sixty-two, in 1876 twenty-five, and 
nineteen in 1877. 

Fmh. The riyers of the district, the Mahi, the Vfitrak, the Shedhi, tiie 

Meshyo, and the Mohar, are well stocked with fish. Of the follow- 
ing thirty-one kinds, twenty-two are found in fresh water, and nine 
in the riirer Mahi within tidal limits. The twenty-two fresh water 
fish are : — 

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EAIBA. 21 

(I). The Mihsir^ or Kvdndra, Barbns mosftl^ classed as a soft CSii^terlL 
finned fish^ in size^ strength, and activity, little inferior to the Prodootioit. 
salmon^ is found in the Maid, Y4trak, Meshyo, and S&barmati 
rivers. The rnahsir may readily be knovTn by a pecoliar salmon tint ^^^* 

on ihe belly and a deep goara or shade hanging over the month. 
It spawns daring the rains, going up the river when in flood, and 
generally coming back as soon as the force of the flood is spent. 
It eats anything, grain, shrimps, crabs, fish, and frogs. Especially 
of an evening as it works down stream its curious habit of taking, 
one after another, five or six heavy rolling porpoise-like leaps has 
given it its name of hudnaraf or the jumper. Especially by the 
natives it is much prized for food. It is generally caught in the 
coarse trawling net, or mahajdl, and sent in considerable numbers 
to Baroda. Fished with the rod and fly, or if larger fish are fished 
with the rod and artificial minow or spoon, the mdhsir gives very 
good sport. From dawn to sunrise, or even as late as nine, and in 
the afternoon from four to dark are the best times for fishing. 
Thongk the heavier fish are found in deep pools, from many a knee- 
deep rapid two or three good mdhsir may be drawn. In 1877 
towards the close of the season (March), with a rod and fly, in one day 
seventy pounds of fish were lajided, the largest two feet six: inches 
long and weighing thirty pounds. Still the stock of mdhsir is much 
less than it might be. Kolis dam the head of a small stream, leaving 
only four or five openings, and opposite each opening draw a cloth or 
plaice closely plaited deep bamboo-baskets, catching swarms of almost 
uselessly small fry. Large fish also are caught in numbers, poisoned by 
branches of the milk bush. (2). The carp, Debra, and Darai, Barilius 
Bakeri, a silver-scaled fish, about a foot long and a pound in weight, is 
foand in all the rivers and many of the ponds of the oiBtrict. like the 
mdhsir J the carp breeds during the rainy months, going up the river 
to spawn in times of heavy flood and soon returning to the deeper 
pools down the stream. It is much prized as food, especially by 
natives. By the natives it is generally killed by netting. Amone some 
of the wilder tribes, towards the close of the hot weather, it is a 
favoorite amusement for a party of men, women, and children to dash 
into one of the big pools, and with small triangular nets in their hands, 
wading np to the shoulders, to clear the whole place of carp. With 
the rod, either with flour or worm bait, or with the fly, they can be 
caught in considerable numbers. But the sport is much tamer than 
mdhsir fishing. Like the mdJisir fry, vast stores of young carp 
are destroyed by basket and cloth traps. (3). The Marel, also called 
Doreh, a handsome fish of the pike species, is sometimes found 
three feet long and from twenty to thirty pounds in weight. The 
mcKrd lives both in ponds and in rivers, generally in the bank. They 
breed twice a year, in December and tHmuary, and affain in June. 
They are known to hollow a place for the spawn,^ and until the fry 
aie £rom two to three inches long to watch by them in turns, 
proteoting them with the greatest fierceness. Though greedy, they 

> They are also said before ■pawninff to nibble blades of graas from the water's 
edge ana make them into a tray or nest for the eggs. 

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[BomlMj Guettaer, 

Chapter IL are very shy. They are killed in two ways, either by the rod and frog 
Prodnctioili ^*^*' ^^ ®^^* when they come to the surface. Though only stunned 
by the bullet, the viarel can generally be secured before he recoyerB. 
™^ The marel is a favourite fish, especially with Europeans. (4). The 

Podia, a large scaleless fish, sometimes from two to three feet long, 
and weighing as much as twenty pounds, is said to breed in the hot 
weather, the female depositing the eggs at any time during the rains 
when the river is heavily flooded. It is caught chiefly in the strong 
trawling net. It is eaten by Europeans and natives. (5). The 
Nagra, a large fish, sometimes two feet long and ten pounds in weighty 
like iiliepddia, lays its eggs when the rivers are deep in flood. It is 
caught chiefly by the strong trawling net, and is a favourite article of 
food with the natives. (6). The JBaw, up to three feet long and fifteen 
pounds in weight, lives both in rivers and ponds. It breeds during the 
rains. Generally caught in the coarse trawling net, it is much liked, 
especially by natives, and is sent in considerable quantities to Baroda. 
(7). The BauSj or Bavus, with large silvery scales, found up to three 
feet in length and weighing from thirty to forty pounds, lives in 
deep ponds and river pools. It breeds during the rains, the female 
depositing eggs and leaving the fry to take care of themselves. 
- Caught in the strong trawling net, it is eaten chiefly by natives and 
is sent to Baroda. (8). The Boi, or mullet, found up to two feet in 
length and weighing from eight to ninej)ounds, lives chiefly in rivers. 
It breeds during the hot season, the females laying e^s before the 
rains set in. In the first floods it makes for the sea and does not 
come back till November, when the water is clear. Generally caught 
in the coarse trawling net, it is sometimes shot. It is much prised by 
Europeans. (9) . The Singkro, or Katioj a scaleless barbed fish, fonnd 
from two to three feet in length and weighing about fifteen pounds, 
lives in rivers and ponds. It breeds in June ; the female hollowing 
a place in the river bank, and in turns with the male watching the 
young fish with the greatest care. Sometimes caught with a line 
and bait, it is generally taken in the coarse trawling net. It is a 
favourite food with the natives. (10). The Sa/rmdi, a rather uncom- 
mon scaleless fish, said to have barbs at the gills that wound as 
keenly as a scorpion's bite, is seldom found more than a foot long 
or a pound in weight. It lives chiefly in rivers, spawning during 
the floods of the rainy season. Caught both on baited lines and in 
nets, it is much prized as an article of food, especially by Europeans. 
(11). The Belja, or Karothi^ a common bright-scaled fish, seldom 
found more than a foot long or over three pounds in weight, 
lives both in rivers and ponds. It breeds during the rainy season, 
spawning when the rivers are in flood. It is caught on the long 
Une and in nets, and is eaten only by the natives. (12). The 
BdnOy or eel, up to three feet in length and a pound in weight, 
is found in ponds and rivers. It breeds in the rainy season vi^en 
the rivers are in flood. It is caught by the long line and in nets, 
and is chiefly eaten by Europeans. (13). The prawn, known aa 
the Zingo, Sondia, Roi, Alu, or Kolimbu, common both in rivers 
and ponds, and caught in nets, is a favourite article of food, both 
with Europeans and natives. (14). The Ghdluj or Mom, with dsA, 

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KAIBA. 23 

InstTons scales^ f onnd a foot long^ and half a pound in weight. Chapter ZL 
lives both in ponds and rivers. It breeds daring the rainy season, Frodnotion. 
and is caught both by the hook and the net ; it is eaten by Euro- 
peans. (15). The Bhagna or Kasoda, a bright-scaled fish, found ^^ 

about one foot long and two pounds in weight, lives both in ponds 
and rivers. It breeds in the rainy season. It is caught in nets, 
and eaten chiefly by natives. (16). The Marki, about six inches 
long and half a pound in weight, is chiefly a river fish. It spawns 
during the rainy season. It is caught in nets, and eaten chiefly by 
natives. (17). The Ray a, a bright-scaled fish, about six inches long 
and half a pound in weight, lives chiefly in rivers, where it breeds 
in the rainy season. It is netted and eaten chiefly by natives* 
(18) . TheOohari, a small,bright-6caled fish, about a foot long and three 
quarters of a pound in weight, is found chiefly in the rivers, where 
it breeds during the rainy season. It is netted, and eaten chiefly 
by natives. (19). The Chalj a small, delicate-scaled fish, seldom 
over half a foot in length or a quarter of a pound in weight, is 
chiefly a river fish, where it breeds in times of flood, fiiough 
generally netted, it gives good sport with a rod and line, and as 
an article of food is much liked by Europeans. (20). The Zarva, 
like the chcU, but smaller, not more than four inches long and some- 
thing under an ounce in weight, is almost entirely a river fish. It 
breeds in the rains, rushing up the rivers when in highest flood. It 
k caught in the small meshed net and eaten by the natives. 
(21). The Moela^ or Bhdty is another small fish, in appearance and 
habits very like the Z(vrva, (22). The Ohmgi, Shingi, or Kadva, is a 
dark-coloured scaleless fish, not unlike the eel. It is said to have 

Eoisonotifi barbs at the gills, which wound as severely as a scorpion's 
ite, and cause three days fever. It is about a foot long and two 
pounds in weight, and though living chiefly in ponds, is found in 
rivers and sometimes in wells. It is caught in the small meshed 
net, and is a favourite food with Europeans. 

Salt water fish are found only in the Mahi below the tidal limit. 
They belong to two classes, those found in the cold and hot weather, 
and those found in the rains. Of the cold weather fish there are 
nz chief sorts, the Fausta, the Zivja, the Zinja Ohola, the Bamvlo, 
file Biu, and the Kantia, Of rain fish there are three, the Palva, DocU, 
and Magra. Of these the dodi is the largest, growing to ten pounds 
in weight. The dodi and the pdlva are much esteemed, and are salted 
as well as eaten fresh. The rainy season fish come into the river 
about June, and after staying for about a monthpass out again into the 
ffulf . They would seem not to spawn in the nver, no f^ have been 
found in the Mahi, and on theur way back the old fish are often 
taken heavy with eggs. These fish are all caught in the goha, the 
k>ng pocket-shaped tidal stake net.^ 

Besides Musalm&ns, Kolis, and other fish-eating peasants, among 
the Kaira population are three professional fishmg tribes — Bhois^ 

1 Tlie Mahi tidal stake net does not differ from that in nie in the Narbada.— 
BentMiy Qaietteer, IL, 366. 

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[Bomhay OaiettMri 

Chapter IL M&chhis, and Khilry^, the last of whom trade in fish.^ FiBhii^ 

__. — tlim. chiefly with hand and drag-nets and with baited lines, they abo 

noaaovuni* j^^ large numbers, drawing them to the surface by the light of s 

^'^* torch^ and then cutting them to pieces with swords and in the smaller 

streams by soaking in the water the milk-bush and other poiaonoiu 


In a district where almost all the well-to-do and influential classes 
object to the destruction of life there is no public fish market. The 
fish is carried for sale from house to house, especially to the dwell- 
ings of Rajputs, Musalm&ns, and Kolis. The supply is generally 
greater than the demand, and the price not more than f d. (six pies) a 
pound in money or grain. The larger class of fish are to a small ! 
extent sent by rail to Baroda. There is little fish-salting in the 
district. The stock of fish in the Kaira rivers is said of late years to 
have considerably fallen off. In the Mahi, the common belief is that 
this decline is due to the river's wrath at losing cart-men's offeringa. 
For some years the floods have been irregular and the fish unable 
to work up to their proper spawning grounds. There would seem 
also to be a very reckless destruction of lifa For, though the 
netting of well-grown fish does little harm, the planting of fixed 
basket and cloth traps is said to destroy immense quantities of fry.' 

^ Accordinff to the Ceiums retams, these four dassea represent a total popolatioii 
of 13,639 soTiIs. Fishing is not their only means of living. Farther detaus of these 
classes are given below. 

' The nets in use do not differ from the Broach nets.— Bombay Ghoetteer, IL, 

* The aocoonts of wild animalH, game birds, and fish, have been oontribated by 
llajor W. F. LaTonQhe, District Superintendent of Fdioe. 

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AccoBDiNQ to the 1846 census^ the total population of the district 
was 566,513 souls, or 354*07 to the sqaare mile : Hindus numbered 
514^558, or 90*83 per cent, and Musalm&ns 51,938, or 9*16 per cent ; 
that is, at the rate of ten Hindus to one Musalmdn. There were 
besides, ten Christians and seyen P&rsis. The 1 872 census showed 
a startHng increase in population, the total returns amounting to 
no less than 782,733 souls, or 489*20 to the sauare mile, a pressure 
of population higher than in any other part of tne Bombay Presiden- 
cy.* Of thetot^ number, 711,619 were Hindus, 70,741 Musalm^s, 
305 Christians, and 68 P&rsis. Coikipared with Musalm&ns, while 
P&rsis had considerably and Christians had very greatly increased, 
the proportion of Hindus had remained nearly constant at ten to one. 
The percentage of males on the total population was 53*55 and of 
females 46*45. 

The following statement shows that in the twenty-six years 
(1846-1872) population advanced 38*16 per cent; houses increased 
from 150,628 to 218,596, or 4512 per cent; ploughs from 54,975 to 
56,916, or 3*53 per cent ; and carts from 20,864 to 29,110, or 39*52 
per cent. Under the head of agricultural lire stock, the statement 
shows, in the number of oxen, an increase from 136,076 to 137,962, or 
a rise of 1*38 per cent ; in that of buffaloes from 146,940 to 200,443, or 
of 36*41 per cent ; in that of sbeep and goats from 52,321 to 58,945 
or of 12*66 per cent ; in that of asses from 5935 to 6482, or of 9*21 
per cent ; and in that of camels from 76 to 175, or of 130*20 per 
cent. On the other hand, there is a fall in the number of cows 
from 69,179 to 52,158, or of 24*60 per cent; and in that of horses 
from 2913 to 2274, or of 2193 per cent. 

KairaPopulatkm, 1846 a$Kt 1S7$. 













iMretw per oeni 












^ The preasare of population per squftre mile variee considerably in the diflferent 
nb-divisions. It is greatest in Borwd with 749, and least in Kapadvanj with 311. 

B 167-4 




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[Bombaj Oftiettecr, 


Chapter PL 



Kaira Stodk, 1846 and 187g. 

















InoTMM per 















70 0986 
175 0482 

190-30 9-31 




The following tabular statement gives for the year 1872 details of 
the population of each snb-division according to religion, age, ieuid 

Kaira SulhdivUUm Population, 1S7X, 




From 13 to 80. 
























rhkv, 77 










MeliniadAbftd... ... 


















































Wtl .... 










SSi^''^ ::: 




































































Total ... 











53Sr^ ::: 


"' 8 



"' 1 

"' 1 












































Bonar ««• «.• •** 









Totel ... 










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y^i— ■ 
























¥iilmia<l«li«4l .^ ... 







































Wmmd ... .. ... 










Total ... 
















































































Total ... 










From the above statement it appears that the percentage of 
males on the total population was (1872) 53*55 and of femiJes 46*45* 
Hindu males numbered 382^140^ or 5370 per cent^ and Hindu femalea 
umbered 329^479, or 46*29 per cent of the total Hindu pomdatiom^ 
Musalm&n males numbered 36,789, ot 52 per eent» and Musalmia 
females 83,952, or 48 per cent of the total Musalm&n population ; 
?arsi males numbered 41, or 60*29 per cent, and Pdrsi females 27, or 
39*70 per cent of the total P&rsi population; Christian males 
numbered 172, or 56*39 per cent, and Christian females numbered 
183, or 43*60 per cent of tiie total Christian population. 

The total number of infirm persons was returned at 2967^ (maTes- 
1759, females 1208)> or thirty-eight per ten thousand of the total 
population. Of these 125 (malea 81, females. 44)*,. or two per ten 
thousand were insane ; 223 (males 170, females 58)., or three per ten 
thousand idiots; 529 (malea 825,. females 204), or seven per ten 
thousand deaf and dumb ; 1679 (males 870,^ females 80ft), or twenty. 
one per ten thousand blind ; and 411 (males 313,. females 98), or five 
per ten thousand lepers. 

The following tabular statement gives the number of the members 
of each religious class of the inhabitants according to sex at difPerent 
ages with, at each stage> the percentage on the total population of the 

Cfhapter IIL 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 

tflomlMiy d$ieite«r. 





same dex and religion. The colamns referring to the total popula- 
tion omit religious distinctions but show the <£Serenoe of sex : — 

Eaira PaptUaikm hy Age^ 1872, 



From 1 and 6 , 
6 Mid 12 . 
li Mid 30 , 
80 and SO , 
80 and 40 . 
40 and 60 , 
60 and 60 , 


Above 60 






3 -ST 















17. TBI 


































1 = 












Up to 1 year 



1 »00 



f IT 





27 120*30 









Do. 2 and 13 ... 













Do. 13 and 20 ... 




I (I'M 











4 e'7fi 







Do. 80 and 40 ... 





10 1 34*39 






14 IT 

Do. 40 and 50 . 








8' 70 



si,irT a-51 

Do. 60 and 60 . . 











1M5» Att 










9130 2«« 

Total .. 








... |3«3g5fil 1 -_ 


The Hindu population of the district beiongs^ according to tlie 
1872 censuB, to the following sects i — 

Kaira Hindu BedB, I87S. 























From this statement it would seem^ that of the total HindQ 
population^ the Yaishnavs numbered 49 7j292^ or 69*83 per ceutj th0 

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aasectarian cUaaes 167,009, or 2206 per cent i the Shaivs 47,175, CkV*«[ HL, 

or 6*62 per cent ; and the Shr&yak8> or Jains, 8984, or 1*26 per cent. Population* 

The Mnsalman population belongs to two sects, Sunni and Shia 3 the 

former numbered 68,527 souls, or 96*87 per cent of the total Musal* 

win population ; and the latter, including the Surat or D&udi trading 

BohoT^, the Momnte, and few Khoja families, numbered 2214 soulsj 

or 3'18 per cent. The P&rsis are divided into two classes, Shahan- 

fih&i and Kadmi ; the number of the former was fifty-five or 80*88 

per cent, and of the latter was thirteen or 19*12 per cent. In the 

total of 305 Christians, are included seventeen Catholics and 292 

Protestants, including 39 Episcopalians, 10 Presbyterians, and 243 

native Christians. 

According to occupation, the census returns for 1872 divide the Occupatioii. 
whole population into seven classes :«- 

L— Employed under Govenunent or municipal and other local authori* 
ties, nambering in all 5289 souls or 0*67 per cent of the entire 

IL— Professional persons 7012 or 0*89 per cent. 

HL — ^In servioe or performing personal offices 7864 or 0*94 per cent. 

TV. — ^Engaged in agricultoie and with animals 176,764 or 22*58 per oent. 

y.— Engaged in oommeroe and trade 7091 or 0*90 per cent. 

VI. — Employed in mechanical arts, manufactures, and engineering opera- 
tions, and engaged in the sale of articles mannfacturod or otnerwise 
prepared for consumption 53,455 or 6*82 per cent 

yn.— Miscellaneous persons not classed otherwise — (a) wives 229,857 and 
children 286,190, in all 516,047 or 65*93 per cent ; and (h) miBcellaneous 
persons 9711 or 1*24 per cenir— total 525,758 or 67*17 per cent.* 

The general chapter on the population of 6ujar£t includes such Baoe. 

mformation as is available regarding the origin and customs of the 
Kaira people. The following details show the strength of the 

i Afferent castes and races as far as it was ascertained by the census 

I tf 1872. 

Under Br^mans came, exclusive of sub-divisions, forty-nine Priests, 

fivisions, with a strength of 43,301 souls (males 21,887, females 
11,414), or 6*08 per cent of the total Hindu population. The service 
tf Government is the employment most coveted by BrlLhmans of all 
dasses. But except tftie N^gars andEheddvfls, who act as merchants, 
money-lenders, and pleaders, the majority of Brdhmans live on alms. 
Among Br^mans, tne N&gars numbering 1808 or 4*17 per cent of 
&e totol Br&hman population hold the first place. Next to the Niagara, 
the Ehed&v&l or town of Kaira (Kheda) Br^hmans, in number 9920 or 
22*90 percent of the whole Br&hman population, are the most pros- 
perous and influential class. Families of this caste are under the 
same name settled in Benares, Haidarabad, Sering&patam, and other 
parts of India. They are said, about a thousand years ago, to have 
been brought from the Deccan and settled in Gujar&t. Industrious, 

* Ifiiivto detftOs of each of these main eUasM will be found in the 1872 Gensna 
lUpovt, IL, 236-265. The remarkB in foot-note 1, at page 51 of the Suat Statistical 
! Account, apply to tha dgtailg of thia clasMfioation by ooonpatioiL 

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tBomliay Cteiettaer, 



OhapterllL frugal^ and intelligfent, most of them hold good positions as land- 
Popvlatioii- owners, money-lenders, traders, and GrOTemment servants. Among 
the remaining snb-divisions, the most noticeable are the YadiuiTa 
Br&hmans. These men, for the most part residents of Mehmadabadi 
travel all over Qujarit. By the pretended practice of magic and hf 
begging they occasionally amass considerable fortunes and settle in 
Kaira as money-lenders. A few Deccan Bdihmans, descendants of 
some who during the eighteenth century came from Poena with the 
Mar&tha armies, continue to hold respectable positions in the service 
of Goverriinent. 

Writen. Under the head of writers came three classes, Brahma EZshatris 

88, Parbhus 62, and E&yasths 8, with a total strength of 158 
souls (males 93, females 65), or 0*2 per cent of the total Hindu 
population. The Brahma Kshatris are the descendants of one family, 
who, as hereditary district officers, hold an estate in the village of 
Alina in the Nadi&d sub-division. The younger branches of the 
family have from time to time left Alina in search of a livelihood. 
But though settled in different parts of the district they still keep 
up their connection with those of their family who have remained at 
home. . The Parbhus belong to two classes, P&th^re and K&yasth. 
The K&yasth Parbhus settled in Gujar&t after its conquest by the 
Mar&th&s (1723-1757). The P&th&re Parbhus settled in Kaira in 
the beginning of the present centuiy. They do not consider Kaira 
' as their home, and keep family and marriage relations with members 

of their own caste settled in Bombay. 

Traders. Under the head of mercantile trading and shop-keeping classes 

came 22,532 V4ni&3 belonging to seventeen divisions ; 5852 Guja- 
rdti Shrdvaks of five divisions ; five M^rv^i Shrdvaks and 2928 
Bh&ti&s and Luv&nas giving a total strength of 31,317 souls (males 
16,440, females 14,877) or 4*40 per cent of the entire Hindu popu- 
lation. Of these classes the most influential are the Y6,m6s and 
Shravaks. The wealthiest of them act as money-lenders, making 
advances to petty village usurers, traders, merchants, and the better 
class of husbandmen. Those who have little capital, borrowing money 
on easy terms from the wealthier members of their caste employ it 
in usury or in dealing in cloth, grain, molasses, and oil, while soma 
moving from village to village hawk spices and condiments. . Fail* 
ing to recover their claims in cash the better class of money-lenders 
not unfrequently secure the land of their debtor which tibey iiiest 
allow him to cultivate at rack-rent. But they take little interest in 
these purchases. They never till their own land or even saperin* 
tend its cultivation, and seldom invest capital in agricultural improve^ 
ments. Besides engaging in trade they strive eagerly for employm^ii 
in Government service. In former times they supplied the greater 
I number of the chief district revenue officers, in 1873 the offices 
of district revenue superintendent or desdi and of district accountant i 
or majrmfddr, which for many years had existed only iin name, wers 
abolished. But in other branches of Government service many 
V&ui&s are still employed, some of them in highly-paid and reepoi^ 
sible posts. A large number of Y&nids 10,299 or 45'68 per cent 

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*• J 





of iheir total strength belong to the Khad&yata sab-^division. This 
class, an offshoot of the Ndgar Y&nia division^ is said to take its 
name from Khad&l a village near Par&ntij in the Ahmedabad 
district. The Shr&vaks mentioned above are almost all natives of 
Gujar&t. The M&rv4d Shr&vaks, so powerful south of the T&pti, 
hold no place of importance in Kaira. Bh&tifa and Luv&nte, 
fitrangers from Catch and Sind^ are spreading over the rural parts 
of the district^ and as village grocers or neati, by their superior 
strength and energy, are depriving the local Y&nia and Shr&vak 
traders of their former monopoly. 

Under the head of cultivators came five classes, with a total 

strength of 456,684 souls (males 248,884, females 208,250), or 58*88 

per cent of the whole Hindu population. 01 these 144,639 (males 

82,430, females 62,209) were Eanbis ; 28,508 (males 12,472, females 

11,036) Bajputs; 6259 (males 8311, females 2948) Eachhi&s; 976 

(males 493, females 483)M&lis; and 281,252 (males 149,678, females 

131,574) Kolis. Of the different classes of cultivators, the most 

important are the Leva and Kadva Kanbis. The best farmers 

in the district, sober, quiet, industrious, and except on such 

special occasions as marriages, thrifty, they number altogether 

144,639 souls or 20*32 per cent of the whole Hindu population^ 

The Leva Eanbis with a total strength of 131,781 souls are most 

Mameroas in the sub-divisions of A'nand, Nadi&d, and Borsad ; the 

f Kadva Kanbis number altogether 12,768 souls in Eapadvanj and 

Mehmadabad. Among the members of each of these castes, there 

ttdsts a subordinate division into pdtiddrs, originally village share* 

klders, men of considerable estates, and kanbis or simple cultivators. 

This distinction, though based on difference in wealth and social 

Bosition and not in variety of blood or race, is sufficiently marked to 

! inrm an obstacle to intermarriage. Again among the pdtiddrs or 

better class of Leva Eanbis, the landowners of some villages hold 

aaiong their caste fellows a position of special honour. This section 

; <rf the caste, probably the descendants of the leading men among the 

erig^al settlers in Gujardt, are known as men of family or hdia. 

'The rest as men of no family or ahdia. Formerly there was a keen 

eompetition among the lower families to marry their daughters into 

fte liigher houses, and great sums were paid to secure this honour. 

[Bat of late years this custom has to a great extent disappeared. 

The balk of the lower families agreed to marry only among persons 

, m their own social position, and among themselves to give or take in 

Biarriage without claiming any dowry. Under these circumstances 

fiiose of high family were forced to marry among their own houses. 

lb 1872 out of 4290 marriages, 3977 were arranged by an interchange 

0i clJldren. Cultivating Bajputs belong to two classes, thdkors, heads 

cC families, who still retain considerable landed estates, and ga/rdsids, 

descendants of the younger branches of Th&kor houses, who in many 

Ijdstances have sunk to the position of ordinary peasant proprietors. 

TbB landed genti^, though they have lon^ given up any turbulent 

I'jiractices, still in their dress and bearmg shew themselves the 

jiepresentatives of a military class. Careless and improvident their 

artates have for many years been deeply mortgaged and heavily 

(Chapter in 


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tBombay QaiettMr. 

Copter m. hardened with debt. So nnsatis&ctory was their condition that specud 
p^y»iJJi^ll0ii^ measures for freeing them from their indebtedness were considered 
tiecessary. An Act (14 of 1877) has accordingly been passed, 
providing for the advance by Government of funds sufficient to meet 
all legitimate claims upon their estates. It is also provided that 
until the loan shall have been repaid the property should be managed 
by a Government officer. The cultivating Eaj puts are less careful 
and hardworking than the Kanbis and inferior to them in skill 
E&chhi&s and M&lis grow vegetables^ fruity and flowers. A few 
Kichhi^ have become artisans. 

The Koli element in the population of the district is important. 
They form the largest tribe or caste with a total strength of 281,252 
or 35*98 per cent of the entire population. They are the most prolifio 
section of the people, increasing during twenty-six years (1846- 
1872) from 175,829 to 281,252, an advance of 59-96 per cent.* They 
are also the class whose character and position have improved most 
under British rule. Idle and turbulent in the early part of the 
present century, they are now as a body quiet and hard-workiDg. 
fiven in the most settled times of Gujarat history, the Kolis were 
only partially brought under order, and during the disturbances and 
misrule of the eighteenth century they threw oS every restraint, and 
for the most part lived on the proceeds of plunder and robbery. In 
1812, though they had then already begun to forsake their former 
habits, they are described as a lawless race, conspicuous as the 
perpetrators of g^ng robberies and other atrocities.' In 1825 
they were still one of the most turbulent predatory tribes in India. 
Begular troops, even the European cavalry, had continually to be called 
out against them. In no other part of In£a were the roads so insecure ; 
in none were gang robberies and organised plundering excursions 
more frequent, or a greater proportion of the gentry and landed 
proprietors addicted to acts of violence and bloodshed.' In 1826 
the Kolis were still further unsettled, by disturbances caused by 
a fanatic of the name of Govind&s ; and for several years after, the 
country would seem, to an unusual extent, to have suffered from their 
turbulence.^ In 1832 bands of Kolis, from fifty to two hundred strong 
infested the high roads. In 1833 they twice attacked the town 6t\ 
Mehmadabad, and on each occasion several lives were lost. Two years i 
later (1835) the Collector almost in despair writes 'some special I 
regulations should be made about the Kolis. No measures of 
ordinary severity seem to have any effect. We never hear of a 
reformed Koli, or of one whose mode of life places him beyond^ 
suspicion. AU seem alike, rich andpoor^ those whose necesaitidS 

1 This very great increase in numbers is perhaps parUy due to the imsetiled steto 
of the Kolia at the time of the 1846 census, which most haye made any complete: 
record of their numbers ^dmost impossible. 

■ Hamilton's Description of Hindustan, I., 692. 

s Heber*s Narrative, IL, 142. 

* GoYemment 500, March 2ad, 1831 ; Collector i, JTannaiy 24th| 1831, and sahsa- 
qoent oorrespondenoe. 

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aSord them an excuse for crime, and those whose condition Chapter IIL 

places them out of the reach of distress, are alike ready on the Popvlatioii- 

first opportunity of plunder.' The time of distress passed over, 

and after ten years of qniet (1844) the Kolis are spoken of as ' more 

peaceable and greatly subdued.' Most of them had settled down to 

the work of cultivating. Still, as a rule, they were ignorant and 

averse from work, and grew only the poorer and lighter crops. The 

tea nest years brought some further improvement. They (1855) are 

said to commit thefts and robberies only ' sometimes when impelled 

by want.' They were stiU very poor, subsisting on the fruit of 

mahuda trees or some wild growing vegetables. But they had now 

Bome credit They could raise loans, taough the unscrupulousness 

of the lender and their own ignorance and carelessness made this 

change seem bat a doubtful gain. A few years later (1857) at the 

time of the mutinies in Upper India, the unquiet conduct of the Eolis 

caused Government much uneasiness. But their attempted risings 

were promptly suppressed, and no general disturbance took place* 

After the mutiny troubles were over, the period of higher prices 

(1858-1864) and well paid field labour raised the Eolis to a posi^* 

iion of comfort. StiU careless and improvident in their time of 

posperity (1864-1870) they failed to tree themselves from their 

liabrnties. The fall in prices during the next five years left many of 

them poor and deep sunk in debt. Steady improvement however 

eontinues; the great demand for produce during the last two 

£876-1877) years has again lightened the money-lender's pressure. 
_ ore land is brought under the plough, their mode of tillage is less 
careless and rude, and fewer among them lead idle or vicious lives. 

Of manufacturers there were three classes with a total strength of Craftsmen. 
4030 souIb (males 2031, females 1999), or 0*56 per cent of the total 
fiindn population. Of these 3883 (males 1957, females 1926) were 
Bhavs^, calico-printers; 122 (males 63, females 59) Khatris, 
Veavers; and 25 (males 11, females 14) Gh&nchis, oil-pressers. 
Owing to the competition of European goods, the condition of the 
BhdvB^ or calico-printers is somewhat depressed. The number of 
Shatris or hand-loom weavers is very small. This is due not so 
liach to the decrease of the demand for hand- woven cloth as to the 
.lact that the great body of hand-loom weavers are Mnsalm&ns. For 
tie same reason the number of oil-pressers is small, the business being 
Ibnost entirely in the hands of Musalm&ns of the Qh&nchi class. 

Of artisans whose condition on the whole is said to be good, there 
were eight classes with a total strength of 30,447 souls (males 
^5,832, females 14,615), or 4*27 per cent of the total Hindu popula- 
tion. Of these 2740 (males 1432, females 1308) were Sonis, gold 
and silver-smiths ; 9566 (males 5021, females 453Q) Suth&rs, carpen- 
iers; 615 (males 263, females 252) Kansltr&s, copper-smiths ; 317 
^es 172, females 145) Kadiy^s or Chun&rds, bricklayers; 17 
les 8, females 9) SaUts, masons ; 5809 (males 3002, females 
7) Luh£rs, blacksmiths; 2458 (males 1281, females 1177) Darjis, 
iailors; and 9065 (males 4653, females 4382) Kumbh^rs, potters. 

Of bards and actors there were four classes with a total strength 
cf 8768 souk (males 4794, females 3974), or 1*23 per cent of 
B 167-6 

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[BomlMiy Oaiettaar, 



Chapter in. 





the whole Hinda population. Of these 7070 (males 3919^ females 
8151) wereBh^ts or Barots, bards; 810 (males 444, females 866) 
Ch^rans or Gh&dvis, genealogists; 103 Bhavdy^, strolling 
comedians, all men; 19 (males 14, females 6) Ohandliraps or 
songsters ; and 785 (males 328, females 457} Vy&sd^. The 
Bh&ts or B^rots, the Bajput barda and genealogists, have lost mach 
of the importance that formerly attached to them from the sanctity 
of their persons. Many of them, whose chances of earning a liveli* 
hood as sureties or guides have ceased, now engage in ordinary 
occupations, tilling the land and lending money. Some are stifi 
employed as bards or genealogists. From their head-quarters in the 
Kaira district the hards travel to the most distant parts of India. 
Their different stations are visited in order, generally after an 
interval of two or three years. At each station they resort to castes who 
claim a Bajput descent. Entertained at his patron's expense the bard 

Jenerally remains in one place for several months. During this time 
e notes down for each familv the births, marriages or deaths, that 
have happ)Bned since his last visit. These particulars are carried awajj 
and on his return to Gujar&t are entered in his records. The Bhav&y^ 
leading their women in northern Gujar&t, travel during the cold and 
hot seasons over the province, acting plays and returning to their 
homes for the rains. The Qandhraps, who teach dancing girls and 
accompany their dancing performances with music, go to great 
distances and are sometimes absent from their homes for avear or 
two at a time. Except a few families in Ahmedabad the Yy6sd&a 
are peculiar to Eaira. They claim to be of Brdhman descent of 
the same stock as the Bhav&yds. But for long they have given 
up acting and are now . as a rule well off, supporting themselves as 
cultivators and money-lenders. 

Of personal servants there were three classes with a total strength 
of 11,742 souls (males 6161, females 5581), or 165 per cent of ike 
whole Hindu population. Of these 10,647 (males 5600, females 6047) 
were Hajims, barbers; 1079 (males 553, females 526) Dhobhi8« 
washermen ; and 16 (males 8, females 8) Bhistis, water-drawers. 

Of herdsmen and shepherds there were two classes with a total 
strength of 7968 souls (males 4203, females 3765), or I'll per cent 
of the whole Hindu population. Of thede 1500 (males 798, female^ 
702) were Bharvdds, and 6468 (males 3405, females 3063) Rab&n& 
The Bharvdds are an inferior class of shepherds. They wander 
from place to place, living in the meanest huts and with no stock 
more valuable than sheep and goats. The Bab&ris are better 
off. They live in towns and villages in well built houses. Thef ■ 
own cows and buffaloes as well as sheep and goats and are a hardy 
and active set of men. 

Of fishers and sailors there were three classes with a total strengA^i 
of 18,639 fmales 7287, females 6352), or 1-91 per cent of the whole J 
Hindu population. Of these 12,291 (males 6644, females 6747J] 
were Bhois ; 61 (males 46, females 5) Kharvas, sailors ; and 1297 | 
(males 697, females 600) M&chhis. Besides their employment as ! 
fresh-water fishers, the Kaira Bhois are cultivators, palanquin 
bearers, and domestic servants. 

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Of laboarerB and miscellaneoua workers there wore fourteen classesi 
with a total strength of 19^302 souls (males 10,268, females 9034), 
or 2*71 per cent of the whole Hindu population. Of these 1129 
(males 530, females 599) were Gol&s, rioe-pounders ; 53 (males 38, 
females 15) Bh^bhnnj^, grain narohers ; 376 (males 198, females 
178) Mar6th&3 of several castes from the Deccan, employed chiefly 
in domestic service; 27 (males 19, females 8^ Pnrabi&s of several 
Wtes from Northern India, employed chiefly in domestic service ; 
¥35 (males 138, femaIes97)M&rv&dis, labourers; 140 (males 67,female8 
173) Eal&ls, liqaor-sellers ; 1081 (males 546, females 535) Ods, well 
diggers; 10,906 (males 5863, females 5043) Ydghris, fowlers, hunters 
and beggars; 4076 (males 2198, females 1878) B&vali^, cotton-tape* 
makers and beggars ; 71 (males 84, females 37) Bavchte and Pomks, 
wparently of Deccan origin, labourers; 24 (males 11, females 13) 
■vidis, jugglers ; 25 (males 14, females 11) Vanj&r&s, grain carriers ; 
1159 (males 612, females 547) Bdj4ni&s, acrobats. Except the Grol&s, 
Bhidbhunj^, Mar&th&s, Pnrabids, and Kal^, whose earnings suffice 
lor the ordinary expenses, these classes are poor, ill clad, and without 

Of workers in leather there were two classes, with a total strength 
of 13,706 souls (males 7197, females 6509), or 1*92 per cent of the 
whole Hindu population. Of these 2980 (males 1532, females 
1448) were Mochis, shoemakers in good condition ; and 10,726 
(males 5665, females 5061) Ch&madi&s, tanners, one of the depressed 
» unclean classes, in poor condition. 

; . Besides the Ch&madi^ there were five depressed castes with a total 
JMreogthof 61,834 souls (males 32,3 75, females 29,459), or 8*68 per 
leutof the whole Hindu population. Of these 1846 (males 946, females 
MO) were Oarudas or Dhed priests; 42,732 (males 22,384, females 
10,348) Dheds, weavers and carriers of dead animals; 1905(males 1003, 
iieioales 902) Sindhv^, a sub-division of Dheds ; 365 (males 191, 
jiBmales 174) Turis, another sub-division of Dheds; 14,986 (males 
|)851, females 7135) Bhangi&s, or sweepera The Dheds, distinguished 
•like for industry and for general good behaviour, were 'formerly 
J&pported in tolerable comfort by weaving coarse cotton cloth. But 
ilieestftblishment of steam weaving mills in Bombay and their spread 
ftiou^h the chief towns of Qujar&t has flooded the markets with 
ftpnl^ of a cloth, cheaper, but in other respects similar to the 
fmuoe of the Dhed hand-looms. Failing to compete with this 
|team-woven cloth, and from their degraded position unable to 
iroenre employment in the steam factories, many of the Dheds are 
lUing into great poverty. The Bhangito are also in a miserable 

Devotees and religious mendicants of various names, Brahma- 
Aiais, YnirigiB, Gos&is, S&dhus, and Jogis, numbered 8754 (males 
Sl74, females 3580), or 1 '23 per cent of the whole Hindu popula* 
pxm. The fame of D&kor and Yadtal attracts many religious 
|be^ar& At D&kor several resident devotees, S6dhus, Vairigis, and 
iOof^, some of them possessed of much wealth, support monasteries 
or maths, where large numbers of religious beggars are daily fed. 

Among the five British districts of Qujar&t, as regards the propor- 

Chapter in* 


Leather workon. 

Depreeaed ClB08es« 


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[BomlMiy Gaietfeaer, 




Chapter in. tion of MoBalm&i inhabitants, Kaira stands third with 70,741 souls 
FapulatiaiL. ^^ about nine per cent of the district population. Of their whole 
number 17,701 were in 1872 returned as settled in the sub-division 
Muinlmtos. of Nadi^, 11,808 in A'nand, 9836 in ThAsra, 8486 in Kapadvanj, 
and 7291 in Mehmadabad. Exclusive of 22,017 females and 26,8U 
children, in all 48,331 or 68*32 per cent of the whole, the male adult 
Musalmdn poprdation (22,410) were in 1872 employed as follows: 
in Government or other public service 1260; in professions 301; 
in personal service 459; in agriculture 13,552; in trade 526; 
in mechanical arts and manufactures 5557; and in miscellaneoufl 
callings 755. 

In addition to the four regular divisions, Syeds, Sheikhs, Path&ns^ 
and Moghals, numbering altogether 24,170 souls or about one-third 
of the whole, there are several classes almost all of them descend* 
ants of converted Hindus, cultivators, traders, oil-pressers, weavers, 
and bricklayers. Of these the chief are the Sipdhia 15,649, village 
servants and cultivators ; the Bohor&s 13,985, traders and oil-pressers ; 
the Molesal&ms 7066, land-owners and cultivators; the Maleks 
6761, land-owners and cultivators; the Tdis and Momn&s 668, weavers 
of cotton cloth ; and the Chunirits 400, bricklayers. There is 
besides a considerable miscellaneous population, chiefly of barbers, 
butchers, and beggars. 

The Sip^his are probably the descendants of the mercenary troops- 
who, in the reign of Ahmad I. (1412-1443), received allotments of 
land. They still, to a large e^^tent, act as village messengers, and 
watchmen, rdvanids. As cultivators, men of this as well as of other 
classes of Kaira Muhammadans hold a very low position. In 1875 
they are described as in more depressed circumstances than the Kolis 
or any other caste or tribe. Lazy, ignorant, and careless, they labour 
under the special disadvantage, that their women do not help them 
in field work. 

Of the two classes of Bohor&3, the more important both in number : 
and in wealth, are the Shia Bohords, the followers of the MuQa ! 
S&beb of Surat. In 1877, of 7733 the total strength of this class, 
4758 belonged to the D&ud, and 2975 to the Sulem&n sub-^vision. 
These Shia Bohor&s are townsmen and traders. In Kapadvanj, 
their head-quarters, their large, well built, and neatly kept dwellings 
ornament the town. And their capital and vigour maintain an 
important trade in glass, soap, and camelian stones. Unlike those of 
their class in Broach, the Sunni Bohor&s of E^aira are not cultivatcra. 
Some of them are cartmen and carriers. But most are oil-presserSy 
and so as a class they are known as Ghdnchi Bohor&s. Speaking : 
Gujar&ti in their homes, marrying only among their own class, in food, | 
dress, and mode of living unlike ordinary Musalm£ns, there seems i 
little reason to doubt that most, if not all, of these men are Hindnsi 
of the Ghinchi, or oil-presser caste, converted to IsUm under one of; 
the Musalm&n sovereigns of Ahmedabad. An active and thrifty! 
class, they have as carriers lost much from the competition of tbo! 
railway. But in pressing oil they still find st^uly and well paid 

MoleeaUms. The Molesaldms or slaves of IsMm, Rajputs half converted during 


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die reign of Mahmud Begada (1459-1611) are for the moflt part Chaptw UL 
ealtiyators in poor circumstances. The rest, representatives of old Fopolatioii* 
Bajput houses, still, as thdkora and tdlukddrs^ form a somewhat 
important class of landed gentry. 

Another class of Hindu converts to Isldm, the Maleks are settled Malekt. 

ehiefly in the Thfora sub-division. They h old twenty-five villages, the 
levelopment of twelve villages originally granted to them in reward 
ior signal services at the siege of Pdv&gad or Chdmpdner (1484-1486). 
Among these Maleks, some are superior and some are inferior holders. 
iBut all are thriftless, wanting in energy, and very generally addicted 
to the use of opium.^ 

Though the T&is and Momn&s are classed together in the census TAis. 

returns, they are in many respects distinct. Hindus of the Ehatri 
ca8te,^weavers by occupation, the T&is are said to have taken 
Iheirname from a class of Musalm&n weavers of that name in 
Benares. Sunnis in religion, their conversion is said to date from 
4ie reign of Mahmud Begada (1459-1511). They are at present all 
Weavers, and intermarry with the lower class of Sunni Musalm&ns. 
At their homes they speak Gujardti, and both men and women dress 
Eke Hindus. 

MomniLs or Momins, that is, believers, are Shi&s in religion. Ori- Momnia 

^ally of several different castes, carpenters, blacksmiths, and weavers, 
liiomn&s, at present, besides weaving, follow many callings, cckrpenters, 
locksmiths, bricklayers, calico-printers, and carriage drivers. They 
jfere converted about 300 years ago by a Musalm&n saint of the 
[lame of Kabir-ud-din, whose disciples they still are. They are a 
{fiiet people, very religious, moderately well off, and about the most 
indostrious of the converted classes. At their homes they speak 
fOajar&ti, and both men and women dress like Hindus, the men in 
iome cases shaving the beard. 

I Of the total P&rsi population of sixty-eight souls, seven were PtoU. 

^led in the Thdsra sub-division, forty in Mehmadabad, two in 
Sitar, fifteen in Nadi^, two in A'nand, and two in Borsad. Ezclu- 
live of fourteen women and thirty-one children, the adult male 
(opnlation were employed in 1872 chiefly as clerks in Grovemment 
Mi Railway offices. 

Of the three hundred and five Christians, all, except the European GhristianB. 

undents, are native converts. Kh&siv&di, or the beautiful village in 
,iie Borsad sub-division, begun in 1847, with two families, has now 
11877) thirty -one families of one hundred and twenty-one souls. 
Except a stamp vendor, a contractor, and the agents of the mission, 
the people are cultivators and weavers. In 1843, two Hindus of the 
Ksi&L or hquor-seUing class, told the Surat missionaries of the 
Iiondon Society, that many of the people of the Mahi K&ntha had 
^ strong wish to become Christians. In consequence of this two 
Vembers of the Surat mission, Messrs. Flower and Clarkson, came to 
Mahi E&ntha. At first they settled in Baroda, but meeting with 

1 Gov. Sel., CXIV., 811. 

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[fiomlyay QaMtteec, 






opposition, they moved into British territory and started settlements 
ati)ehv&n and Borsad. That at Dehv^ did not succeed, but m 
Borsadj besides Kh^v^, with its thirty-one families, the derotiQii 
of the Rev. J.Y.S. Taylor, who lived there for twenty-eight yean, has 
been rewarded by the steady growth of the Eh&siv&di village, and 
by the establishment of Christian communities in about sixty other 
villages of the Borsad and A'nand sub-divisions.^ Though iJie first 
Christians were P&tid&rs, Kolis, and Kal&ls, and a few Brahm&ns, 
Ydni&s, BhavB&rs, and Tal&vi&s, the mass of tibe converts has come 
from the Dhed caste. Since their conversion, though caste-feeling lias 
lingered in the minds of several, there has been some intermarriage 
of castes. Y&ni&B have married girls belonging to Patid&r and Eoli 
families ; P&tid&rs have married Eoli and Dhed girls ; Kolis have 
married Dhed and Tal&via ^Is ; and Dheds have married Eoli girk. 
The discipline in the Christian villages is ecclesiastic. Till thef 
show signs of repentance, those who openly lead immoral lives may 
not join in the cnurch communion. Sunday is pretty carefully kept 
as a day of rest and religious observance. The only ceremonial 
occasions are at baptism, communion, marriage, and death, when 
the rites are according to the rules of the Presbyterian CSLarclL. 
The expenses on sucm occasions are left entirely to the people's 
pleasure. Sometimes, both among the poor and the well-to-do, on 
a wedding nothing more than from IO9. to £1 (Bs. 5-10) for tka 
wedding dress is spent. Occasionally the friends of the bride and 
the bridegroom are asked to a social meal, and rarely the invitation 
is extended to the whole community. The use of animal food 
is allowed. But owing to its cost few people indulge in it«^ 
Intoxicating drinks are strongly discouraged,and drunkenness is mosl 
uncommon. Opium is forbidden, and from their cost few familiet 
use tea or cofEee. The monthly expenditure on food is estimated td 
vary from 89. (Rs. 4) a head in a well-to-do, to 80. (Rs. 1-8-0) a kadi 
in a poor family. Except for a slight improvement in cleanlineBS^ 
Christians dress as they used to do when they were Hindus, pooc 
families spending from lOa. to 12^. (Rs. 5-6), and the well-to-dfti 
from £1 to £1-10«. (Rs. 10-15) a year. All cluldren are taught t^ 
read and write. The amusements of the young are such as ar« 
common among Hindus, bat and ball and other simple games. Talk 
is the adults' one pastime, though some of it is light and some! 
scandalous, a good deal is rel^ous. No one has shown speeial| 
musical talent, but many are fond of music, and have learned severdt 
European airs.' 

Except in the Th&ra and Eapadvanj sub-divisions, where small 
hamlets are numerous, the people are collected in large towns an^ 
villages. In this district there is one village or town to about eved 

" ^ w! 

I The commtimties vary in strength from one to twelve famUies. In the year VBtf 
an off-shoot from Borsad migrated to Sh^h^yddi near Ahmedabad, others to Oo^ 
Boiat, and Rajkot Aocording to the latest mission censna (1878) the total popil^ 
of native ChxistianB in Gojar&t and K&thiAw^ numbers 847 or with 893 nnb^M 
adherents a total community of 1740 sonls. Of these 1166 were in Eaiia, 487 in ^ 
Borsad, and 679 in the A'nand snb^diyision. —Irish Pxesbytexiaa Mifl8io& BffpAj 
1878 7. I 

9 Contributed by the Rev. J. V. 8. Taylor. 

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three Banare miles of land, each villagd containing an average o£ 
1833 iimabitants, and about 872 hooses. Many viUageB were once 
vailed, but the fortifications of most are now in ruins. With the 
nception of the people of thirteen towns, numbering 137,297 souls or 
|7*54 per cent of the entire inhabitants, the population of the Kaira 
iifitrict^ according to the census returns of 1872, lived in 674 
tillages, with an average of 1124 souls per village. Five towns had 
jhore than 10,000, and eight more than 5000 iiSiabitants. Exclud- 
jbg the thirteen towns and 518 hamlets, there were 574 inhabited 
itote and alienated villages, giving an average of 0*36 villages to 
mk square mile, and 1338*44 inhabitants to each village. Of the 
whole number of villages, forty-eight had less than 200 inluibitants | 
one hundred and thirty-four from 200 to 500 ; one hundred and fifty* 
iwo from 500 to 1000 ; one hundred and fifty-one from 1000 to 
lOOOj fifty-nine from 2000 to 8000; and thirty from 8000 to 5000. As 
i^gards the number of houses, there was in 1872 a total of 218,596 
IT on an average 136*62 houses to the square mile, showing 
iompared with 150,628 in 1846 an increase of 45*12 per cent. Ctf 
ike total number, 65,685 houses lodging 208,583 persons, or 26*65 

Kcent of the entire population at the rate of 3*18 souls to each 
m were buildings with walls of fire-baked bricks and roofs of tile, 
the remaining 152,911 houses, accommodating 554,150 persons or 
fe*8o per cent with a population per house of 3'75 souls, included 
^ boildings covered with thatch or leaves or whose outer walls 
^re of mud or sun-dried brick. The mud and thatch huts are 
gond chiefly in the hamlets and small villages; towns and large 
Wages showing a great number of well-built and prosperous looking 
jlireUings. Besides the increase in the number of houses, there has, 
Poring the last thirty years, especially among the Eolis, been a 
iarked advance in the style of building, and now the cheapening of the 
■pplies of stone and timber by the opening of the railway to the Mahi 
jiul do much to help house-building. The Koli hamlets in the east 
It the district and luong the banks of the Mahi were in 1844 almost 
iWarely straw huts. In 1876 an inquiry made by the Collector 
|lK>wea that in thirty-four Koli villages, of a total of 6281 houses, 
R were of the first, 5043 of the second, and only 1146 of the third 
h Btraw-hut class. Another class had in 1844 already done much 
lo improve their houses. These were Br&hmans, Ydnias, and other 
Dndus of capital, who under the former Grovernment had from 
far of exaction been careful to give no sign of * their possession of 

' Under laud tenures some description wiU be found of the constitu- 
loEU of the two classes of villages, the simple or senja, and the 
llarehold or narvdddri. Village servants belong to two classes) 
ifcose useful to Government, and those useful to the village com- 
ity. Under the first head come the village headmen ; the revenue 
ughrdtdd/r, or collector; the police, nrnkhiy i>r chief; 
village accountant, taldii ; watchmen or messengers, rdvanids 
rahhas ; the tracker, pagi ; and sweepers and police of the Dhed 
1 Bhangia castes. Y^age headmen are as a rule hereditary. In 
Elapadvanj, and Mehmadabad, there are more Koli TiUages 

Chapter UL 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 

[Bombay Gasetteeri 



Oiapter IIL ^]^j^ Jq other parts of the district, and in these the headman is usaally 
PopulatLon. a Eoli* In others, the headmen are Mnsalm&ns, Rajputs, and occa- 
sionally Brdhmans and V&ni^, but the majority are Eanbis. The 
rdvanida, or village watchmen and messengers, wear belts and are paid 
sometimes in land and sometimes in money. The duties of pagis, 
rakhdSf and hhangids, vair considerably in different Tillages. Besides 
his regxdar work as a tracker, the pagi is in some villages a watchman. 
The raJchds do duty as police and watchmen. The Bhangids are 
sweepers, carriers of dead animals, and guides.^ Except the village 
accountant or taldti, who receives only money, village servants are 
paid either in cash or land or in both.' The servants useful to tiie 
village community are the village priest, ghamot or bhat ; the potter, 
humbhdr ; the barber, hajdm ; the blacksmith, luhdr ; the carpenter, 
authdr ; ilie tailor, darji ; and the water-^drawer, kosio. These men 
are paid by the villages in grain and cash. The potter, the barb^, 
and the blacksmith also enjoy Qovemment land on payment of one 
quarter to one-half of the full rent. Every village has its headman, 
its accountant, its messengers, its priest, its watchmen, and its 
sweepers. The extent to which any village supports the other 
members of the complete staff depends on its size and its distance 
from large villages or .country towns. Though some villages are called 
pdtiddri or sharehold, that is Eunbi, and others, dhdrdlcfi or armed, 
that is Koli, the whole of the people do not in any case belong to 
one caste. Besides cultivators of different castes, few villages are 
without a shopkeeper, either a Y&nia or a Br^man. ' 

Migration. Thirty-four years ago (1844) the Kaira people are described as most 

unwilling to leave their villages. They were said never to move 
unless forced by extreme poverty or inability to pay their debts. 
Eleven years later (1855) when the Panch Mahdls were transferred 
to the Bombay Government, the Eaira Collector complained that 
in spite of the most advantageous offers none but a few discontented 
individuals were willing to taJce land. Though this dislike to moving 
is still true of the bulk of the people, the increased pressure of popu* 
lation and the easier means of travelling have united to make consi* 
derable sections of the Eaira population willing to leave the distrid 
in search of work. Of the higher classes, some Bohor&s and Y4mafl 
go as traders as far as Bombay and Poena. These men generally 
leave their families behind them, returning to them when they can. 

1 Details of the position and duties of the different classes of village servants am 
given in the Broach Statistical Account.— Bombay Gazetteer, IL, 381-387. 

> Oapt. Crnikshank {20th December, 1826) in his Nadiid Survey Beport says:— "Tli^ 
blacksmith,ZuA^r,TeceiveB annually ftom each cultivator fifty poundsof grain perplongl^ 
and in return keeps all agricultural implements in repair. The carpenter, nrlAdr 
receives in like manner, and on the like conditions, sixty pounds ; the potter, hmbhdr 
forty pounds ; the twlor, darji, forty pounds ; and the barber, vdJand, forty ponndaJ 
At all village marriages the blacksmith brings a small iron lamp or IdmaiM&po^ 
receiving two shillings in return ; the carpenter brings a hdjat or wooden stool, and id, 
paid two shillings ; the potter supplies earthen pots for tiie marriage feast and geti 
three shillings. The tailor brings no offering, but receives upon the marriage of a bo« 
one shilling, and upon that of a girl two and half pence. The barber ispaidthMI 
shillings upon the marriage of a shareholder, pdHddr, and two shillings upon that ol 

s Dh&rila» an anned mtto.— E&thi^wdr Sel., Part I., 4. 

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bringing their savings to spend in their native town, and in their place 
of trade owning nothing but their office and its scanty necessary 
furniture. Others of the educated classes move to Bombay> Baroda, 
and Bdjkot, in search of Government or other employ* Like the 
merchant, they keep a house in their native town. But unlike him, 
Ihey generally take their families with them« Of artisans, carpen^ 
ters, sawyers, and brickmakers, go every fair season to the Baroda 
and Broach districts, offering their services to house builders^ By 
this meauB they generally earn a good sum of money, living on an 
allowance of grain, and taking back with them almost the whole of 
their money wages. Of personal servants^ many barbers leaving 
their families at home, go to Surat and Bombay ana stay there for one 
t)r two years at a time. Of carriers there are the Musalm&n Gh&nchis 
or oiluten, who in four^or-five-pair bullock wagons take large quanti- 
ties of tobacco to Batl&m, Indor, and M&lwa, bringing back wheat 
and mahuda flowers, and the Vanj&r&s on their pack bullocks, bring- 
ing wheat and Indian com from Malwa and taking back salt. Of 
the lower classes, besides tho professional wanderers, the religious 
beggars, the Ods or wandering diggers, and the shepherds, unskilled 
field laboar^rs to some extent, move about the district in search of 
Work. During the year these men find employment in three different 
|)laces ; in September and October, in the Matar rice lands ; in January, 
m the cotton districts south of the Mahi and west of Garabay ; and in 
)laapch> in the Ahmedabad wheat country. These labourers, Kolis, 
&hils, and Dheds, have of late years, by the use of steam gins, lost 
Iheir best paid employment, the hand ginning of cotton. In former 
; times, after about four months of cotton ginning, a man and his wife 
and one or two children used to come back with savings amounting 
to nearly £10 (Rs. 100).^ 

1 A'oand MimUtdiir's Report (1876)« 

Chapter m 


»ie7— 6 

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[Bombay Oaietteer, 

Chapter 17. 



Agbicultubs^ tlie most important industry of the district, snp- 
ports 529,334 persons or 67*62 per cent of the entire population.^ 

The soils of the district are of four chief kinds, light or gordi, 
medium or besar, black or Jcdli, and alluyial or hhdtha. For agri- 
cultural purposes each of these main classes includes several varietiea 
The light or gordt is the prevailing soil, varying in quality from Uie 
loose grained yellow sand of the fields near l£e Sdbarmati and the 
Mahi to a rich light-brown mould, common in the central sub-divisions, 
and found to perfection in the south-west comer of M&tar. The 
richer variety, known as gorddu besa/r, contains a large proportion of 
organic matter, and seems to a great extent to be artificial, the result 
of the careful tillage of the EAubi cultivators. Under medium or 
besar, come several soils, varying from heavy sands to light clays. 
Soils of this class are pretty generally distributed over the whole 
district, though nowhere over any large area. Under black or kdU, 
come a clayey sedimentary soil that collects in low lands and ponds ; 
the salt or knar* and the cotton land in the south-west of M4tar ; the 
rice land in the north near the Khdri river ; the waste and ill-dnuned 
mdl or upland, in Kapadvan j and Th^ra ; and a coarse, shallow, and 
dry soil, called mardi, found near the river Mahi. As a rule, the Kaira 
black soil is poor. It is scarcely ever deep, and is most of it mixed 
either with soda or limestone. Alluvial soil or bhdtha is chiefly 
found near the Vatrak river. This, without dressing or fallow, yields 
year after year rich crops of tobacco, safflower, and other garden 

^ This total (529,334) ia made np of the foUowing items :— 

(1) Adult males engaged in agriculture as per census of 1872 

(2) Wives of ditto calculated on the basis of the proportion the total 
adult female population of the district bears to the total adult 
nude population 

(3) Children of 1 and 2 calculated on a similar basis 





This calculation is necessary because the census returns, including many of the 
women under VII. (MisceUaneous), show a total of only 112 under the special head 
Adult Agricultural Females. 

* At the time of the last survey (1862) between Limb&si and Ohinor, in the west of 
Mdtar, was a ^nde tract of black soil, covered with a hoar frost or snow-like crosti 
called Uuir, This tract was supposed to have been once subject to flooding at spring 
tides. In 1862 the salt or khdr crust was said to be encroaehinff, and to appear bt 
iU-drained lands where rain-water stagnated.— Bom. Gov. Sel., CXIY., 417|441. 

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The state or Ichdlsa villages of the district contain 985^541 acres, 
of which 345,016 acres or 36*87 per cent are alienated, paying only 
a qoit-rent to the state, and 109,982 acres or 11'75 per cent are 
unarable waste. The total area of state arable land is therefore 
480,543 acres, of which 387,711 acres or 80'68 per cent are 
occupied; and 92,832 or 19*32 per cent are nnoccnpied. Of this 
92,832 acres of nnoccnpied arable land, 5665 acres inclnding grazing 
lands, homesteads, and burial places cannot be taken up for cnltiva- 
tion. The whole available area of onoccapied arable land is therefore 
reduced to 87,167 acres or 18*13 per cent of the total stete arable land. 
Most of the nnoccnpied arable land consists of the poor tracts in 
Matar in the west, and in Thdsra and Eapadvanj in the east of the 
district. Of the 387,711 occupied acres, 25,779 or 6*64 per cent 
consist of garden land ; 58,404 or 15*07 per cent of rice land ; 
803,528 or 78*29 per cent of dry crop land. Of the rice land, 18,658 
teres are irrigated, and 39,746 acres nnirrigated. 

In the Matar sub-division, except from the Eh&ri of which some 

account has been given above, irrigation is carried on chiefly from 

wells and ponds. After the close of the cold season almost none of 

the ponds hold any large supply of water. They can therefoire be 

used only for irrigating rice lands. The depth of the water-bearing 

Btiata varies much in different parts of the district. Averaging 

fliirty.five feet in the west or Mdtar sub-division, in some low-lying 

[ Imds in Nadiad it is only twenty-five feet from the surface. In the 

: Borth it averages about forty-five feet, and in the south, along the 

I Xahi, varies from 70 to 140 feet. In the parts of A'nand and Borsad 

: bordering on the Mahi, the heavy cost of wells and a certain brackish- 

tess in the water prevent any large amount of well-irrigation, and 

fliough in ordinary years the crops are but little less valuable than 

: &06e on irrigated lands in seasons of scanty or ill-timed rain, the 

fant of water is keenly felt. The chief irrigated crops are rice, 

I tobacco, wheat, sugarcane, and garden produce. In 1876-77, of the 

I total cultivated area, 42,585 acres or 12*47 per cent were irrigated. 

; Of the irrigated land, 17,758 acres were under rice. In that year 

: tbe returns showed 104 wells with steps, 9237 wells without steps,. 

581 water-lifts or dhekudis, and 4600 ponds. The wells most com- 

nonly in use in Kaira are rdmia or deep, the sundia or shallow 

l)eing found only in a part of the M&tar sub-division. The rdmhia 

wells yield at one time from two to eight kos or leather bags full 

rf water, and the sundia from two to four. Prom most Kaira wells 

four leather bags can be drawn at a time.* 

In light sandy fields the area one pair of bullocks can plough 
varies from nine acres for the common dry crops to six acres for 

Chapter IT. 

Arable area. 



^ The present (1877) estimatee for sinking wells, based on the cultivators' state- 
>eoti« are for a brick and mortar-bnilt well from thirty to sixty feet deep for 
«ne water bag £30 to £68 (Ks. 300-680) and for two water bags £40 to £80 
(Ba 400-800). A ninety-feet deep brick-built weU for one bag would cost £100 
(Ba. 1000), for two £150 (Re. 1500.) Kundal wells with wooden foundations 
ud sides of baked day rings, can only be sunk from thirty to fifty feet ; they 
Mst half as much as a brick and mortar weU. Water can be drawn from holes 
ong in nver beds at a cost of from 10«. to £1 109. (Bs. 5-15). 

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[Bombay Gasetteer, 



Chapter IV> 


garden or other high-class tillage. Id black soil the corresponding 
area is for wheat and cotton twenty-five acres^ for safflower and 
tobacco ten acres, and for rice five acres. 

The following statement shows^ in acres^ the average size of a 
holding ascertained at the time (1861-1867) of the introdaction of 
the existing survey leases : — 

Kaira IToldmga in Acres^ 186U18€7» 








Average acreage of 








This^ as was to. be expected in a district with so crowded aa 
agricultural population, shows a low average holding. A peasant's 
family cannot, it is estimated, be kept in comfort on less than three 
acres of garden, five of rice land, and eight of dry crops. Cultivators 
with smaller holdings eke out the profits of their fields by working 
as labourers on the lands of their richer neighbours. 

During the years (1861-1867) of the present settlement, 104,009 
distinct holdings or khdtas were recorded with an average area of 
7\l acres, and a rental of £1 15«. 6d. (Rs. 17-12-0). These holdings 
would represent, if divided in equal parts among the agricultural 
population, for each person an allotment of two acres, at a yearly 
rent of 9«. 8d. (Rs. 4-13-4). If distributed among the whole popu- 
lation of the district, the share per head would amount to 1^ acrea^ 
and the incidence of the land tax to 6^. 4^^. (Rs. 3-3-0). In 1 875-76 
the total number of holdings, including private or alienated villages 
and the estates of superior land-holders, was 107,918. Of the tbtid 
number, 62,501 or more than one-half were holdings of not more 
than five acres in area.^ 

Kaira Holding Details, 




















6 10 









10 20 









20 60 









60 100 









100 200 









200 800 









800 4'»0 









400 600 








6i'0 760 








760 1000 







1000 1600 





1600 iOOO 







Above aooo 
















1 Revenue Commissioner's 814, March 1st, 1877. Mostof theholdingB of 200 
and upwards are the estates of superior landholders. 

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EAIRA. 45 

Dnring the year 1877-78, 109,009 distinct holdings or khdtaa were Cliapter IV. 
recorded, with an average area of 6i acres, and rental of £1 15«. lOJd. A-»-,-Zru--n 
(Ra 17-15-0). These holdings, if divided in equal parts among the ^«"<^^i^«- 
agricultnral population, would represent an allotment of two acres 
and two guntds, at a yearly rent of 11«. lid. (Rs. 5-9-0) . If distributed 
tmongst the whole popcdation of the district, the share per head 
would amount to one acre and thirteen guntds, and the incidence of 
flie land tax to 7«. 5|d. (Rs. 3-11-10). 

According to the Collector's administration report for 1876-77, stock, 
the agricultural stock in Government or khdlsa villages amounted to 
66,467 ploughs, 28,791 carts, 128,247 bullocks, 49,264 cows, 190,538 
buffaloes, 2366 horses, 53,880 sheep and goats, and 6325 asses. 

As the details of agricultural processes, crops, and cost of cultiva- 
ition, given in the general chapter on the agriculture of Gujar&t 
i apply to Eaira, only a few points of local importance are noticed in 
I this place. 

Of 362,222 acres the total area of occupied land, 20,754 acres or Crope. 

8*73 per cent were in the year 1876-77 fallow or under grass. Of the 

841,468 acres^ under cultivation, grain crops occupied 301,709* or 

88'37 per cent, of which 123,223 acres were under bdjri, Penicillaria 

qncata; 58,898 under rice, ddngar, Oryza sativa; 38,845 under 

: kvdr, Sorghum vulgare ; 36,544 under kodra, Paspalum scrobicu- 

ihtniD ; 29,261 under bdvto, Panicum frumentaceum; 11,251 under 

I wheat, ghauy Triticum sBstivum ; 3231 under barley, jav, Hordeum 

I hexastichon ; and 456 under miscellaneous cereals, comprising maize, 

nakaiy 2iea mays, kdng, Panicum italicum, and rdjagro, Amaran- 

tns paniculatus. Pulses occupied 27,082 acres or 7'93 per cent, of 

which 8255 acres were under math, Phaseolus aconitif olius; 6825 under 

ferer, Cajanus indicus; 5148 under gram, chana, Cicer arietinum; 

8678 under mag, Phaseolus radiatus ; 1933 under guvdr, Cyamopsis 

K)ralioides ; and 2243 under miscellaneous pulses, comprising adad, 
aseoluB mungo, ehola, Vigna catiang and vdl, Dolichos lablab. 
Oil seeds occupied 3419 acres or one per cent, of which 980 acres 
were under gingelly oil-seed, tal, Sesamum indicum ; two acres under 
rape seed, sarsav, Brassica napus ; and 2437 under other oil seeds, 
details of which are not available. Fibres occupied 4239 or 1*24 
per cent, of which 4122 acres were under cotton, kapds, Gossypium 
ierbaceum; and 117 under Bombay hemp, uan, Crotalaria juncea. 
Miscellaneous crops occupied 19,620 acres or 5*74 per cent, of which 
10,161 acres were under tobacco, tambdku, Nicotiana tabacum ; 
3051 under safflower, kusumbo, Garthamus tinctorius; 2216 under 
Bugarcaae, serdi, Saccharum oflficinarum; 1305 under cummin seed, 
jtrw, Cuminum cyminum ; 536 under indigo, gali, Indigofera tinc- 
toria; 118 under poppy, khaskhas, Papaver somniferum j and 2233 
nnder miscellaneous vegetables and fruits. 

The following statement contrasts the area of Government 
assessed land under cultivation in 1859-60 and in 1876-77 : — 

] Of 341,468 acres, 14,601 acres were twice cropped. 

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[Bombay Gaiettaer, 

Oiaptar IT. 


Kaira CuUivatum, 1860 a$id 1877, 


Cropped Aorea. 





















Indian mmet,>«vdr ... 
Common „ Mjri ... 









^Coane grain 





Piilies» ... 





OU seeds 





vn.*— j Cotton 

FIbrw ... ... Hg^p 





iw Indigo 

"' 860 













iriannllmniiniu VewUbleS Mid Sllloeft... 













Total ... 









Total ... 





IMiMf—Twloa cropped land .. 




Total ... 





This statement shows that during the seventeen years ending 
with 1876-77^ no less than 116,010 acres of waste land were brought 
under cultivation. The most remarkable advance is in the breadth 
of rice and wheat tillage ; the rice increasing 24,976 acres or 73*63 
per cent, and the wheat 4151 acres or 58*46 per' cent. Other 
kinds of cereals and pulses have in the aggregate increased by 
87,820 acres or 51*46. The area under safflower has risen by 1973 
acres or 183 per cent, that under indigo by 176 acres or 48'89 per 
cent, and that under sugarcane by 429 acres or 24 per cent. On 
the other hand cotton is less by 1134 acres or 21*57 per cent^ and 
tobacco by 466 acres or 4*38 per cent. 

Among the district crops common millet, bdjri, Penicillaria spicata, 
holds the first place with in 1876-77, 123,223 acres or 3608 per cent 
of the whole tillage area. Compared with 1859-60 the returns for 
1876-77 show an increase of millet cultivation amounting to 21,017 
acres or 20*56 per cent. Millet is grown in all the lighter or 
gordt soils. It is sown in June and reaped in the latter part of 
September. With it are grown math, Phaseolus aconitLfolius ; 
mag, Phaseolus radiatus, and other pulses, which, taking longer to 
ripen, remain in the field a month after the millet crop has been 
• reaped. Their growth seems not to interfere with the growth of 
the millet, and the double crop has this advantage, that often when 
the millet fails the pulse yields freely. The parts of the district best 

1 In 1S69-60 pulsea seem to have been included in grains, and oil aeeda in vegotabte 
and spices. Poppy and hemp were not shown separately. 

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Baited for millet are the poorer soils, especially near the banks of 
the MahL The straw, tnough not so yalaable as Indian millet, 
juvar, straw, is generally ased as fodder for cattle. Millet is the 
people's staple grain and their principal article of food. 

Kodra, Paspalam scrobiculatum, and bdvtOy Panicum frumenta- 
OBum, hold the second place with in 1876-77, 65,805 acres or 19*27 
per cent of the whole tillage area. Grown chiefly by the poorer 
coltivators, kodra and bdvto along with common millet, bdjri, form 
the staple food of the lower classes. 

Bice, ddnga/r, Oryza sativa, holds the third place with in 1876-77, 
<8,898 acres or 17*24 per cent of the whole tillage area. Compared 
with 1859-60 the retnms for 1876-77 show an increase of rice cnlti- 
TatioQ amounting to 24,976 acres or 73 '63 per cent. The best rice 
p nosed in the Kh&ri villages of the M&tar snb-division. These 
knds are of black soil, the fields embanked, and most of them watered 
bom the Kh&ri canal. The yonng plants, sown about the middle of 
Jane in richly manured nurseries, are moved into the fields in July 
«d August. For about two months, until the ear begins to show, much 
VBter is wanted, and if the direct rainfall is scanty, supplies must be 
drawn from wells and ponds. In other parts of the district, rice of 
•n inferior quality is, without watering, grown in low-lying lands of 
Mack or medium, hesar, soil Thi3 unirrigated variety covering in 
1876, 37,767 acres or 64*12 per cent of the whole area under rice 
pitivation, is a coarse grain used chiefly for local consumption. 

I .'Indian millet, juvdr, Sorghum vulgare, holds the fourth place 
iith in 1876-77, 38,845 acres or 11-37 per cent of the whole tillage 
plea. In Kaira common millet, bdjri, takes the place of Indian 
Idlet, juvdr, which is less grown than in south Gujar&t, 

.Wheat, though still a crop of little importance, has spread from 
fWl acres in 1860 to 11,251 acres in 1876. It is sown from the 
pgmning of October to the end of November and reaped in March. 
Pree sorts are grown, Ddudkhdn or dudhia, a high class wheat, 
pBooth-grained and white ; dhola or kdiha, a low class wheat, hard 
M brown ; and a medium variety, dhdlia or vajia. The high class 
p dudhia, wheat grows only in black soil. For a good harvest the 
peH should be fallow both before and after its wheat crop. It 
fbuld be ploughed from three to ten times, and unless the soil is 
lithe best it should be manured. This sort of wheat requires forty 

Ends of seed to sow an acre. The middling, vajia, and the poor« 
kt, grow either in black or in sandy-black soil. For a good 
field, except in the best black soils, manure is wanted, but neither 
tafore nor after cropping is a fallow required. To sow an acre 
Skey both want sixty pounds of seed. The local wheat produce 
|l not enough for the local demand. Supplies are brought from 
Ihmedabad and Malwa and by rail from Bombay. 

Tobacco holds the sixth place with in 1876-77, 10,161 acres or 
J*97 per cent of the whole tiUage area. Compared with 1859-60 
iie returns for 1876-77 show a decrease of 466 acres or 4-38 
>er cent. Eaira tobacco is not only the most valuable article of 
ftoixu^ in the district, but is the finest tobacco grown in western 

Chapter IV. 

Kodra and 


Indian Millet. 



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[Bombay Oasetteer, 



Chapter IV. 


India.^ The central part of the Kaira district, the tract known as 
the charotar, is the head quarters of tobacco cultivation. The two 
chief varieties are the talahdi or local, and the Khdndeshi brought^ 
as its name shows, from Khdndesh. The talahdi or local pknt^ 
grows four feet high. Its leaf is large, juicy, and tapering, the 
ribs and veins heavy and coarse, the general texture loose, and the 
colour, when ripe, a somewhat dull yellow. It is hardy, growing 
even in poor soils, and wants but little manure. The Rh&ndesh 
tobacco grows about two feet high. Compared with the local variety, 
its leaf is shorter and narrower, closer grained in texture, and of a 
deeper and more brilliant colour. A more delicate plant, it requires 
richer soil and more manure, but on the other nand wants less 
water. Though its yield is not more than one-third of the yidd of 
the local plant, its higher quality and its smaller demand for water 
to a considerable extent make up for the small outturn. Tobacco ia 
grown either with or without water. The water need not be perfectly 
sweet. In fact a slight brackishness is said to improve the 
quality of the crop, yfhen irrigated the crop is called pi^ or watered, 
when not irrigated korat or dry. A watered field yields twice 
as large a crop as a dry field. At the same time the leaf of the 
irrigated planfc is coarser and not more than one-half as valuable^ 
Light or gorddu land is the soil best suited for the growth of the 
irrigated crop. Towards the end of May, some time before the rains 
set in, plots of ground are chosen somewhat shaded, well placed for 
watering, the soil rich and dry.* About six inches of brash wood, 
hay, or dressing, are laid over the plot. When thoroughly dry the 
whole is burnt and the ashes allowed to lie on the surface. About 
the beginning of July, as soon as the first rain has fallen, the ashes 
are ploughed into the ground, or, if there was no dry dressing, the 
ground is manured and then ploughed. The whole is well cleaned 
and the surface smoothed. The seed is then sown broadcast^ and if, 
after the young plants come up, there is no rain, they are watered. 
While the seedlings are growing in their nursery the cultivators are 
busy getting ready the field. According to the wants of the soil 
they give each acre from ten to eighteen tons (twenty to thirty-five 
cart-loads) of sheep droppings or cowdung, pond mud or dry silt, and 
sometimes wood ashes. When the manure is laid on, the field is 
ready for ploughing. With this great pains are taken, as on its 
depth and thoroughness the outturn greatly depends. PloughiQ§^ 
chas, and clod crushing, samdr, are repeated from eight to ten times* 
Each time the Hue of ploughing vanes. First it runs from north 
to south, next from east to west, then from north-east to sooth-wes^ 
and so on, starting in turn from every quarter of the compasa 
Between each ploughing the clods are crushed and the snrfaoe 
smoothed. Finally, the whole field is cleaned by the harrow of 
harabdi. The seedlings are generally ready for planting in Hm 

1 Bom. Gov. SeL, New Series, OXIV., 146. 

• Every tobacco-yielding viOag© haa ita one or more tobacco ntiweriea or vddds. u 
which almost all the chief men Okaxor 

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latter part of Aogast* A uursefy of one acre should yield plants 
sufficient to stock from twenty to forty acres. In moving them 
from their places in the nursery the young plants are taken up 
carefully with a knife or trowel^ as much eaxtii as possible being left 
about their roots. At the seed bed they are laid slanting in a 
basket and carried to the field. They are set in the ground in rows^ 
the rows and the plants in each row distant from each other about 
eighteen inches for an irrigated and two feet for a dry crop. In 
settiDg each plant in its place the lower leaves are pinched off^ and 
when the sun is strong, until the plant takes root, they have for 
eome days to be shaded with twigs or large leaves. During its growth 
the Eh^desh tobacco should be thrice watered. The Kaira variety 
wants more moisture, from five to twelve waterings, according as the 
well is perfectly sweet or more or less brackish. When nearly full 
ffrown tne plants begin to show signs of flowering. These tops or 
flower sten» are carefully picked off, and the whole of the plant's 
strength driven to its eight to twelve well grown and juicy leaves. 

A growing field of tobacco is apt to suffer from several causes. 
Perhaps its chief enemy is the caterpillar, whose attacks are so con- 
stant, that every night and morning, until the leaves begin to change 
colour^ they have to be searched and the insects picked off. Besides 
the caterpillar other insects hurt the tobacco. One worm attacks 
the root and withers the plant, bringing on the disease called chith ; 
Bnoiher worm, eating into the stem and joints, stops the growth and 
hrings on tlte disease called ganthw. Again, any extremes of 
drought, heat, or cold injure the crop. With too much dry weather 
the disease ^kanchdi appears, and the leaves covered with spots 
widier. Too much damp brings over the whole plant a white coating 
called di&ruy robbing the leaves of much of their pungency. Finally, 
there is the chance of frost, which^ when it comes, blights the whole 
field. The time a field of tobacco takes to ripen depends on 
whether it has been watered. A dry crop ripens in five and a watered 
trop in seven months. When the leaves turn yellow and droop the 
crop 18 cut. A few stalks, about forty to an acre, are allowed to 
Sower and their seed is gathered for the next yearns sowing, 
tobacco is prepared in two ways, a coarser sort for smoking, called 
^\io, and a finer^ both for smoking and for snuff, called jardo. To 
mke halio the stem is cut close to the root and well dried by often 
tening it in the son. If the stalks are very thick, to help the drying 
ftey are split down the middle. When the plants are well dried, 
generally after four or five days' sunning, they are housed or removed 
io the curing shed. Here they are sorted, the soiled lower and the 
ttnall upper leaves are placed in one heap, and the rich middle leaves 
I'inanother. Next, the leaves of each heap are made up in small bundles 
called padoLB, the largest and strongest leaves being used as wrap- 

Cor covers and the smaller ones placed in the middle. The 
lies, each of which weighs from one to three pounds, are then 
p3ed up and covered with matting for three days to ferment or 
'sweat. Then they are separated and again heaped for a second 
I sweating, and afterwards, at intervals of a week, the fermenting is 
ropeated from four to six times. Great care and attention are 

Ghaptor IV. 


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[Bombay Qaietteer, 

Chapter rr. 





required at the time of fermentation, as if it is either checked too soon 
or allowed to go on too long the tobacco is much injured. To nuiini- 
facture jardo tobacco^ the leaves are^ by means of a crooked knife 
called kariyu, taken off the stems along with the skin and a litdeof 
the wood. They are then ei^posed to the snn from ten to fifteen 
days. Each day^ in the early morning, while still damp with dew, 
they are taken to a shed. Here they are sorted into better and 
poorer kinds and made into bundles or padds. If, at the time of 
bundling, the leaves are found to be too dry and brittle, a small 
quantity of water is sprinkled over them. Fermentation or sweating 
is only once brought on. But if the first is imperfect, a second 
becomes necessary. The bundles or padds are ready for sale abont a 
fortnight after they have been made up. Kdlio is used for smoking 
only, and jardo for smoking as well as for chewing. Kdlio is so 
strong and full of flavour that it is seldom or never used for smoking 
without being mixed with molasses paste. In its simple state 
jardo tobacco is used only for smoking in cigarettes, hidiSy and in 
small pipes. Cigarettes are usually rolled in the leaves of theasitn* 
dra or jinji, Bauhinia speciosa, and sometimes in plantain leaves. 
In spite of its good qualities Eaira tobacco is still prepared only for 
native consumption. Attempts have been made to have it rolled in 
cigar form suited for the European market. But so far the results 
have been discouragfing. Snuff is prepared chiefly from jardo, thongk 
hdlio is occfusionally mixed with it in the proportion of one part to 
three. Snuff may either be made entirely of the leaf, or of uie leaf 
and mid-rib together. The bundles are first torn in pieces, and 
afterwards sprinkled with a solution of carbonate of soda dissolved 
by boiling in water. The tobacco is thrown into a heap to ferment, 
and then well dried in the sun and pounded in a mortar to the required 
fineness. The following are the estimates of the cost and profit of 
cultivating the local and the Khindesh tobacco.^ For an acre of local 
or talabdif watered from a brackish well, tillage including, £1 (Bs. 10); 
rent, £6 (Rs. 60) ; watering, £9 5s, (Rs. 92-8) ; value, £27 (Bs. 270) ; 
profit, £10 158. (Rs. 107-8). For an acre of local, watered from a 
sweet well, tillage including, £1 (Rs. 10) ; rent, £6 (Rs. 60) } wate^ 
ing,£4 178. 6d. (Rs. 48-12); value,£13 10«. (Rs.l36);profit,£l2 12*.6i 
(Rs. 126-4). For an acre of Khdndesh, watered from a biackisk 
well, tillage including, £1 (Rs. 10) ; rent, £6 (Rs. 60) ; wateriflgr 
£2 188. 6d. (Rs. 29-4) ; value, £18 (Rs. 180) ; profit, £9 U. 6i 
(Rs. 90-12). For an acre of Khdndesh, watered from a sweet we^ 
tillage including, £1 (Rs. 1 0) ; rent, £6 (Rs. 60) ; watering, £2 18«.6i 
(Rs. 29-4) ; value, £15 (Rs. 150) ; profit, £6 U 6d. (Rs. 60-12). 

Cotton, Jcapdsy Gk)S8ypium herbaceum, is cultivated only to aliinil«d 
extent, 3812 acres in 1872 compared with 5256 acres in 1859. Tkj| 
plant grown is chiefly the perennial variety, locally called rojl ^^^ 
in light, gordt and medium, besar soils it is sown in July, and picW 
from the middle of January till the end of March. It occupies eve^ 
seventh furrow in fields sown with millet, bdjri, and pulse, iwfl^ 

* CoUector, 1003, 18th July 1870. 

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Cotton of the yearly sort is grown to a small extent in the black soil 
viOages bordering on Cambay . Though its produce is inferior in value 
to the outturn of the yearly variety of cotton, the three years' plant 
lias this advantage, that as its roots draw moisture lErom below the 
lorface^ they do not interfere with the surface roots of the grain and 
false crops. The plant is allowed to grow till the end of May, 
then its branches are lopped about a foot from the grounds At the 
Old of the third year^ the roots are dug out. This cotton is not 
Torth more than one-half of the one year sort. The field is manured 
only once in three years. As a rule the field that has yielded cotton 
ioes not again bear the same crop till after three years are over. 

^ Though with little success, several attempts have been made to 
improTe Kaira cotton. In 1815, under the superintendence of the 
crnl Burgeon Mr. Gilders about 2400 acres were sown with Bour- 
bon seed. About one-half promised well, but, though the local 
nriety yielded a good crop, most of the Bourbon failed. The failure 
fas supposed to be due chiefly to want of moisture, but the saltnees 
rfthe land was also noticed as likely to harm a crop which does not 
ODme to perfection for two years. A bale of cotton, the produce of 
ftese experiments, consigned to London in 1816, realized 1«. bd, the 
pound, or 2d. the pound more than the best Surat. The staple was 
QDnsidered rather fine and generally saleable. Mr. Gilders was 
wthoriaed to make a further trial, if necessary, with the aid of irri- 
: ^tion. A place was chosen further east in light sandy loam. After 
ne first heavy rains, at the end of July, the seed was sown. Three 
fat were left between each plant, and between each row, like the 
filaDts three feet apart, millet, bdjri, was sown. The late rains were 
tantj, and until tfuly 1817 the plants remained dwarfed and sickly, 
ften without watering they shot out so freely that one-half of them 
fcd to be picked out. Even then they were too crowded, and 
Hr. Gilders considered that eight feet was the proper distance between 
jtBch shrob. The yield from about fourteen acres was 1760 pounds 
M clean cotton. The parcel was most favourably received in Bombay 
i^d yalued at 2«. 8d. the pound. The London brokers thought it the 
DSBt Bombay-Bourbon they had seen. It was fine, silky, with an even 
;ttr length staple of good bright colour, remarkably clean with a 
;i»all portion ot broken leaf and crushed seed and a few yellow spots." 
^Riih other Indian cotton at from 5}(2. to 14id, a pound it fetched 
^id. In spite of this high price so great was the cost of tillage 
^ the transaction showed a loss of twenty-eight per cent. In 
1889 Dr. Btim, then in charge of the (Jovemment garden at Elaira, 
tt«le some experiments in growing cotton. He tried Egyptian, two 
Bnds of Broach, and acclimated Bourbon. Some of this acclimated 
lonrbon, found in the hedgerows near where Mr. Gilders had g^wn 
pin 1816, was both by the Agricultural Society of Calcutta and 
lie Bombay Chamber of Commerce placed equal to the best New 
vrieans and valued at from £17 to £18 (Rs. 170-180), while the 
test Sarat was selling at £14 (Bs. 140).^ In 1842 some of the 
American cotton seed, sent out by the Court of Directors, was 

Ouster IT. 



! Boylo's Caltare of Cotton, 420-421. 

> Cassel's Cotton, 1213. 

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tBomlMiy GTaifitteer, 



Chapter IT. 



forwarded to the Collector of Kaira for trial in his district. Some d 
this seed was sown by Dr. Thatcher, then in charge of the Govern- 
ment experimental garden. The soil was light and rather sandj, 
and every care was given to the crop. The plants promised well, 
but when about a foot high most of them, thoagh at the time ib 
local variety was thriving, ' withered and died off as if blightecL' k 
few recovered, but the outturn was very small. Some J^yptian 
cotton tried in the same garden almost entirely perished. The 
American seed distributed by the Collector to some cultivators was 
sown in about six acres in d^orent parts of the district. Till abooi 
the middle of September the plants looked most promising, Tliey 
flowered and formed very large pods. But the heat of Octobea* 
seemed to bum the leaves and more tender branches. They con- 
tinued in a withered state till the cold weather partially revived them. 
In about one-third of the area the crop never arrived at matnrity. 
The rest yielded about 162 pounds of clean cotton valued at £1 1^. 
(Rs. 19), or a loss of sixty-seven per cent on the cost of tillage. 
Samples examined by the Bombay Chamberof Commerce were fonnd 
to be well cleaned and tolerably good, but far inferior to American 
cotton grown in Ratndgiri.^ For some years after 1842 attempts 
to grow exotic cotton in Kaira would seem to have been given up. 
In 1861 nothing but the local three-to-five year shrub was grown.' 
Again, in 1865 and 1866 Dh&rwdr and New Orleans seed was sown. 
The plants grew about a foot high, but died after the close of the 
rains.' Now (1878), as in 1861, the local shrub is the only cotton 
grown. Of this there would seem to be two varieties, one called 
roji said to have been brought from Khdndesh about one hundred 
years ago, the other called kdmni brought from Broach about twelve 
years back. Partly, it is said, because it is allowed to stay fonr years 
in the ground, partly because it is sown in fields with several other 
crops, and partly because the seed has degenerated, Kaira cotton 
was in 1877 If d. or 32 per cent a pound less in value than either 
Dholera or Broach cotton. It is sent to Dholera, Broach, Siirat,and 
Bombay, but it is said solely for the purpose of mixing with better 

The cultivation of Safflower, hvsumboy Carthamus tinctorins, it 
carried on in two sub-divisions, M&tar and Mehmadabad. Compared, 
with 1859 the returns for 1876-77 show an advance from 1078 to 
3051 acres. The crop is grown not so much for the dyeing power 
of its flowers as for the oil its seed yields.'^ About one-half of th»! 
produce is sent to Kdthiiwir, Baroda, . Broach, and Surat. Tto 
rest is used in the district. Safflower thrives in mixed or besar soil. 
Except in a naturally rich soil, or after a highly manured crop, the 
land is enriched in June at the rate of ten carts of good dreasiiigte 
the acre. During the rainy season it receives four ploughings ani 

1 CasBert Cotton, 80^1. » Casael's Cotton, 82. 

» CoUector, 2114, 2l8t Sept. 1878. * Cotton Dept. Ad. Rep. 1876-77, 3& 

* The averace outturn per acre Ib estimated at 280 pounds weight of flower* wwtt 
jei lU. 6rf. (Rs. 15-12) and 400 pounds weight of seed worth £1 10«. (Rs. 16)- TW 
cost of production is estimated at £1 15«. (Rs. 17-8) and the profit per acre at V i<< 
(Rs. 13-8)« 

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EAIBA. 53 

more in October or November. The seed, at the rate of seventeen - Chapter HT. 

Eiiisds to the acre^ is then sown with the drill ; and after five or six Agrionltare. 
js, without any waterings the plant springs up. Nothing farther 
is done till in January the flowering begins. Then, at intervals of a 
iB,j, each pod yields three flowers, and the whole is collected in 
iboat a month. The flowers are picked in the cool of the morning. 
Ifthe picking is stopped, and the first leaves left unplacked, the 
pod dries and yields no fiowers. 

In 1876 the total area under Indigo, gali, Indigofera tinctoria, was Indiga 
536 acres, 513 in Borsad and 23 in A'nand, and even this was consi- 
derably in excess of 860 the total in 1 859. In the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, indigo partly of local growth and partly brought 
from upper India was one of the chief exports from Gujar&t. During 
ihe greater part of the eighteenth century, the indigo of the West 
Indian islands gained an almost complete monopoly of the European 
markets. Towards the close of the century the East Indian produce 
i^n rose to &voar. But nearly the whole of it was grown in Bengal. 
£ Gajar&t in 1777 the cultivation chiefly for local use would seem to 
bye been on a very considerable scale. But in the early part of the 
present century it again fell off, and in 1827 had almost altogether 
eeased. At that time prices were high and the demand was strong, and 
Captain Cruikshankjthen engaged in surveying northern Guiar&t, was 
of opinion that by the help of a little special encouragement tne people 
ci Kaira might, especially in Petl4d, be induced to grow indigo. 
Hie attempt failed, and indigo has never again become a product of 
ttj importance. This is to be regretted, as, when grown in rotation 
with other crops, indigo has the merit of leaving the land richer than 
& found it The labour and capital required for its production, and 
tte comparatively small profit it yields, are perhaps the chief reasons 
why indigo is now grown only to so very limited an extent But 
ttother cause is at work. The preparation of the drug is accompani- 
ed hj much loss of insect life, a result most distasteful to the Eanbi, 
tnd since the spread of the Sv&mi N&r^yan sect to many of the 
Xoli cultivators of Kaira. The small quantity now produced is 

E»wn in light or gordt soil. At the first fall of rain (June) the 
d should be ploughed more than once, and if possible manured. 
Ae seed ia sown in drills from the tarpkan or drill plough. After 
tte plants have come up constant weeding is required. The crop 
inches maturity in September, and in gathering the leaves great 
9ue mast be taken that they are not exposed to wet. The dye is 
tttracted, sometimes from the green leaves and sometimes from the 
by. If green, the plants should be taken from the fields early in 
She morning, and laid in large wooden vats. The vat is then filled 
lith water, and to keep the plants down heavy weights are placed 
across the top. During the night fermentation sets in. In the 
homing the water is drawn off into a second vat, where it is well 
■worked with large sticks till it takes a deep blue oolour. In this 
rtate the liquor is allowed to stand perfectly quiet till the next day. 
the water is then drawn off into a third vat, and the sediment 
A the second vat is taken out It is then tied up tightly in bags 
ttd hung from the branches of trees. When dry, it is taken down. 

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[Bombay Ottetieor, 

Oiapter IT- 







spread on the floor of a hut^ and cat into cakes. The refuse indifio 
dregs^ and also the plants^ make very good manure.^ 

In 1876-77, 118 acres* were nnder Poppy, ajm, Papaver Bomni- 
fernm. That the poppy is grown to so small an extent is doe to 
the stringency of the rales regarding its production.* The ligkl or 
medium variety is its f avonrite soil, and a field that has during the 
rainy season borne a crop of Indian millet is generally chosen. In 
November or December, after the crop has been removed, the ground 
is manured several times and watered. The seed called khaskhas is 
then sown broadcast. After the plants come np, the land is kept 
well weeded, and watered every ten days. When the plant is mature, 
the outer skin of the flower capsule is lightly slit, and the jnioe 
allowed to exude. After a day and a night the stem is scraped witb 
a small knife, and the juice collected in earthen pots. The slitting 
may be repeated a second and a third time, in each case after aa ! 
interval of three days.* 

Bombay Hemp, san, Crotalaria jnncea, was cultivated in 1 17 acres. 
Its seeds are said to be used as food for cattle, its stalks for fael, and 
its fibres for ropes. 

Sugarcane, serdi, Saccharum officinarum, has spread from 1787 
acres in 1859-60 to 2216 acres in 1876-77. Kaira sugarcane is of 
two kinds, one black or dark-purple, the other white. Grown on 
rich light, gordt and medium, fte^ar soils, it wants free manure and 
good water, and takes so much from the land, that a second crop 
cannot he planted till after an interval of four or five years. Thou^ 
Kaira draws from Surat the greater part of its supply of molasses, 
no steps seem to have been taken to improve the local cultivation and 
manu&cture of sugar. 

Of spices. Cumin, jiru, Cuminum cyminum, with in 1876-77, 
1423 acres, is the chief variety grown in the district. 

In 1837, under Dr. Bum, the Civil Surgeon, a Government garden 
was established at Elaira. Besides in medicinal plants, sacli as 
senna and colocynth, experiments were made in the growth of mul- 
berry trees and in the rearing of silk worms. To meet the charges 
of his experiments, Government sanctioned a sum of £40 (Rs. 400)* 
and a monthly allowance that rose from £4 to £8 (Bs. 40-80), 
The mulberry trees grew well In 1838 in the Government plan* 
tation on the banks of the Shedhi, near the Kaira bridge, were 
' 800 trees of the St. Helena species all thriving uncommonly welL' 

^ The average onttum per acre is estimated at forty-nine pounds of the preput^ 
dye worth £7 8». (Rs. 74), and seed worth 7». (Ks. 3-8), £7 15«. (Ra. 77-8) in A 
The cost of production and mannfactnre, including 14«. (Rb. 7) of rent, is estinuM 
at £5 19a. (Bs. 59-8), being a profit of £1 l&s. (Rs. 18.) i 

> Of the whole area, 106 acres were in Nadi&d, 11 in Kapadvanj, and 1 in Thkn. 

> Under the Opium Act (No. 1 of 1878) the coltivation of the poppy has bett 
entirely prohibited. (See Roles published by the Government of Bombay on 30A 
March 1878.) 

* The outturn of twelve pounds per acre is, including the value of the seed, «ki- 
mated at £7 (Rs. 70) ; the cost of cultivation, including IO5. (Rs. 5) of rent,, at £3 1^* 
(Rs. 37) I and the peasant's profit at £3 6s. (Rs. 33). 

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KAIRA. 55 

Tbsff stood in rows aboat twelve feet apart with straight stems three Chapter IT. 

to fonr feet high. They were manured with dry cowdung, and in the Agrionitiire* 

liot season watered two or three times a week. In 1840 Dr. Bum 

reported his plantation flourishing. It had fed 60,000 worms and 

Bome silk had been reeled. On account of this success allowances 

of 309. (Rs. 15) a month each were granted to three Qujar&ti youths 

to go and learn reeling under Signer Mutti) then employed by Grovem- 

&ent in the Deccan in silk culture, ffhe Eaira experiments were 

oontinaed for some years. In 1844 Dr. Thatcher, then in charge of 

the garden, reported that the mulberry trees, when small, suffered 

from the hot wind. In other respects they did well, growing both in 

kedges and as trees from nine to ten feet high. They wanted water 

it least once every twenty days. The worms were less successful. 

In ordinary seasons, during the greater part of the year they kept 

furlj healthy. But in 1848, a year of great heat, almost all died. 

SUk was made and forwarded to the Bombay Chamber of Commerce, 

who reported the samples of very good quality, equal to Canton No. 2, 

Mid worth 10«. a pound (Bs. 10 the paka ser). But the people of 

llie district^ chiefly, it was said, from their dislike to destroy the 

wonns took no interest in the industry, and the garden was fuially 

dosed in 1847.^ 

Another Government attempt to improve cultivation was in 
1843 the introduction of the American plough. Two were given on 
trial to cultivators. The result was disappointing. The men com- 
IikiDed that the ploughs were clumsy, that the furrows were too 
vide^ and that the work of levelling was much heavier than after 
odinary ploughing. Besides they were too elaborate, costing more 
to mend than the Kaira plough to make. The Collector, Mr. Kirk- 
hud, was of opinion that their successful working implied both in 
irtisans and ploughmen more skill than was to be found in Kaira.^ 
hi 1875 another attempt wa^ made to introduce a better class of 
fovLgh, this time of English make. Three ploughs were tried, one 
tt Nadiid, one in Kaira, and one in Borsad. On the whole they gave 
nias&ction. The &ults found were that the share was too long 
mi made the work too heavy for one pair of bullocks, and that as 
fte plough could not be guided with one hand to plough and drive^ 
lb bullocks required two men instead of one. The Collector, 
lb. Sheppard, was of opinion that if the handles could be joined by 
•eroBs-piece the ploughs would become popular.® In December 
^78 Mr. Bobertson, the superintendent of the Madras Government 
Kum, visited Kadi&d. He thought that the soil, among the best 
le had ever seen, was suffering horn too shallow ploughing. Some 
rionghs were accordingly ordered from the Madras Grovemment 
larm and a skilled cultivator sent there to learn their use. Three 
hds belonging to large landowning pdtidd/r families have also gone 
fe Madras to be taught scientific farming under Mr. Robertson, 

^ Bom. Gov. BeT. Bee 180 of 1847, 39-98. 

* Collector to Govemment, 308, 23rd Dooember 1844. 

* Cottector 2445, 6th December 1875. 

* Kiira Agricnltaral Record (1879) published under the Collector's presidency by 
a committee of Nadi^ landowners. 

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Chapter IV. 



In the rural parts of the district not only the starictly agricol* 
tural classes^ Kanbis^ Kolis^ and Musalm&ns^ but the whole popa« 
lation including Br&hmans are engaged in cultiyation. Oij 
in large towns is there a regular class of artisans^ washermen, 
tailors^ blacksmiths^ and others entirely supported by their callings, 
and even in towns many artisans are forced to eke out their gains 
by cultiyation. Dheds and other weavers^ though engaged &j; 
their looms in the fair season^ during the rains devote their time to 
raising grain for the support of their families. The Y&nias arej 
perhaps^ the only class not directly engaged in the work of cultiva- 
tion* By far the greater part of the land is tilled by Kanbis, chiefly 
of the Leva tribe, the most skilful and thrifty cultivators in Gojariit. 
Except the talabda or local Kolis nearly if not quite as good as 
Kanbis, Kolis as a class are bad and thriftless cultivators. Bajpats 
and Musalm&ns hold a very small proportion of the land. Tlie 
Kajputs are careless, unskilful, and addicted to the use of opinm. 
The Musahn&ns want energy and perseverance, and labour under 
the special disadvantage that their women do not help in the fieli 

The years between 1738 and 1746 and the season of 1751 are 
referred to as times of distress when village communities were broken 
and villages deserted.^ The severest famine, of which details aie 
available, was in 1790-91. Throughout the year rain fell only once. 
The people were forced to migrate to Malwa, and there attacked by 
a pestilence died in great numbers. The G^ikw&r, except that ha 
took a fourth share of the grass, is said to have remitted the whole 
revenue demand, and to have taken steps for the suppression of crune. 
During the scarcity, twelve and a half pounds of millet, sixte^ of 
wheat, twenty-four of unhusked rice, and twenty of pulse, sold for two 
shillings. The next season of scarcity was 1813*14 Throughontthe 
year there were only two falls of rain, one in July, the other about the 
middle of September. The local scarcity, itself very serious^ was 
increased by the influx of starving people from Elathi&war. Especially 
among these immigrants many deaths are said to have occurred. Food 
grains would seem in several cases to have been dearer than in 1790. 
The prices were, for two shillings, seventeen pounds of millet, seven- 
teen and a quarter of Indian millet, ten of wheat, twenty of unhusked 
rice, and twenty-two and a half of pulse. 1824 was a year of distress) 
and in 1825 tiie later rains almost entirely failed. Much suffering^ 
was caused, and remissions of land revenue to the amount of £16,19^ 
(Rs. 1,61,980) were granted. In 1834 locusts ate up the crops, » 
great scarcity arose, and many cattle were lost. Remissions amount^ 
ing to £19,655 (Rs. 1,96,550) of land revenue were granted, fr 
1885 the rain was too heavy and the cold weather crops were spoikd 
by frost The last forty-two years (1886-1877), though the rainUl 
has at times been scanty and the crops have partly failed, ha^Q' 
passed without any season of famine or even of general scarcity. 

1 Bom. Gov. SeL, CXIV., 78, 615. 

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AccoBDiNa to the 1872 census returns, there were in that year, 
ksides well-to-do cultivators and professional men, 6885 persons in 
positions implying the possession of capital. Of these 2072 were 
bankers, money-changers, and shop-keepers ; 3343 were merchants 
Mid traders; and 1470 were supported by incomes derived from 
fended property, shcures, annuities, and the like. In 1869-70, under 
tie income tax returns, 3742 persons paid on yearly incomes of from 
150 to £100 (Rs. 600-1000) ; 414 persons on incomes of from 
«00 to £200 (Rs. 1000-2000); 144 persons on incomes of from 
1200 to £1000 (Rs. 2000-10,000) ; and five on incomes of from 
£1000 to £10,000 (Rs. 10,000-1,00,000). 

Spending freely on their chief &mily festivities, the higher class 
rfffindus practise in every-day life the extremest thrift, living more 
dieaply and saving more steadily than the corresponding c^ses in 
Smt and Broach. Besides in hoarding either ornaments or coin, 
a?ings are invested in Oovemment securities, in shares, in land, in 
knses, in trade, and in money-lending. Almost all in a position to 
Ave, invest part of their store in ornaments, plain solid bands of 
tfver and gold with little or no outlay on the work. The prac- 
fce of baying Government securities, and of patting money in 
•mgs banks, has during the last ten years spread considerably. 
1e interest on Government securities has risen from £51 (Rs. 510) 
tt 1865 to £255 (Rs. 2550) in 1877, and the deposits from £1612 
©8. 16,120) to £13,021 (Rs. 1,30,210). StiU in this respect Kaira is 
w behind Surat, wherein 1877, the deposits amounted to £84,043 
(is. 8,40,430) and the payment of interest on Government securities 
fo the considerable sum of £8644 (Rs. 86,440). The purchase of 
wes seems to find little favour with the Kaira monied classes. 
mi\j any of the district merchants are believed to have invested 
joaey in the Bombay, Surat, or Ahmedabad factories, and even the 
nadidd spinning company had no local shareholders. Prom the 
tommary of the registration returns for 1867 and for 1874, it appears 
■Bat though in the greater number of cases the purchasers of land 
*e either cultivators or money-lenders, in both yecurs in about one- 
Hth of the transfers, the buyers follow almost every calling, traders, 
Jrftemen of all classes, servants, and beggars. Over most of the 
pistrict the people take a pride in their houses and spend money in 
^proving them. But, except town money-lenders, many of whom 
W their debtors* dwellings, they do not invest their savings in house 
piroperty. Besides bankers, merchants, and shop-keepers, well-to-do 

» 167-8 

Chapter V. 



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IBombay Qaietteer, 



Chapter V. 


cultivators and pleaders invest their savings in trade. But it is in 
money-lending that the well-to-do in Kaira lay out almost all their 

Kaira money-lenders are of two classes, professional and non- 
professional. Among professional money-lenders, there is a marked 
difference between the banker or vanAvati^ who, with a capital of 
£10,000 and upwards, negotiates bills of exchange, makes advances 
to persons of credit, and engages in large mercantile transactions, 
and the usurer or tnnidty who, doling out from a scanty store often 
borrowed from one of the larger money Jenders, preys on the needs of 
the poorest t^lass of townsmen or the careless and unthrifty villager. 
Between these extremes the great body of professional money-lenders 
hold an ill-defined position. The banker, from smallness of capital, 
unsuccessful speculation, or changes in the course of trade, forced 
into petty deaitngs with low-class borrowers, has to resort to many 
of the usurer's practices ; while the usurer, whose wealth enables liim 
to enter into large dealings, gains by degrees a place among ike 
•district bankers. 

Bankers live almost entirely in towns. They trade, negotiate bilb 
t)f exchange, take deposits, and make advances. The banker's trade 
ventures are all wholesale^ he lays in a store of grain to be re-sold to 
small dealers ; he speculates in cotton, or he imports cloth from 
Bombay for local shop-keepers and retail traders. In his trading 
operations the Kaira banker is careful, risking in apeculative invest- 
ments only a small portion of his capital. The bills of exchange 
commonly negotiated are of eight kinds — payable at sight, ianUni 
hundi ; payable on the following day, dinvaltani hundi ; payaUe on 
the fourth day, bhomni hundi ; payable on the eighth day, thr 
iihdrddhdddrd hundi ; payable on the eleventh day, agiydmi hmM; 
payable on the twenty-first day, ekvisni hundi ; payable on the forty- 
fifth day, pistdlisni hundi; and payable on the sixty-first day, ehdni 
hundi. Bills for the longest periods are generally drawn in the conrae 
of the Central Indian trade in opium and tobacco : those for twenty- 
one days, in connection with the trade to Kadi and P&tan in northern 
Gujar&t, and those of eleven days sight on Bombay. As the 
stamp duty is higher on bills not payable at sight, the practice of 
granting bills payable at sight is said to be on the increase. The 
holder of a bill payable after a certain interval, may receive th« 
money on presentation before the lapse of the period fixed. In sndi 
cases a monthly discount of from a half to one per cent is 
allowed. The money left in the hands of bankers chiefly belongs to 
Government servants, and childless old men and widows. Deposte 
of the latter class, varying in amount from £50 to 1200 
(Rs. 500-2000) are, for tha most part, the proceeds of the aaleor 
mortgage of property set aside by the ov^^ners to meet their fimenl 
expenses. On such sums a small yearly interest of three or four per 
cent is paid. In advancing money high class bankers deal only 
with persons of credit, petty traders, retail shop-keepers, cultivators 

^ Kdndvati literally means money-changer. The tunidt is also called MdsfA^ 
pdr^ra-viUOt or man of instalments. 

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of substance, md usurers^ who borrow to re-lend at BigBer rates 
of interest. Bankers who refuse to advance money except to 
persons of credit, beyond filing a suit in the civil court,, seldom; 
take any special steps for the recovery of their ckimfi. Those, 
on the other hand,, whose clients belong to the poorer class of 
borrowers,, are forced to practise the usurer^& elaborate system of 
iniming. The people are said generally to deal with one capi- 
talist. But among the poorer class of cultivators, more than 
one creditor has frequently claims upon the same debtor. The 
crop of a poor cultivator is often the only property available for 
b'qnidatii^ a debt. And so, in the harvest season, the money-lender 
18 forced to pass some days in his debtor's fields, examining 
the crop and seeing that none of the produce is made away 
or handed over to a more favoured creditor. If a banker has 
I leveral sons, the sons help their father as clerks and in collecting 
i lis debts. They are said seldom to take to any other calling,, 
or to leave their native town to push business in distant places^ 
The account books kept by a high class money-lender are the hand 
hook, hath'Vahi, a rough, memorandum book; the- cash book,. 
itjmd ; the ledger, kh&tdvahi ; the monthly account book, avaro ; 

• flie interest book, viydjvahi;^ and the bill book, hundini nondh^ 
As a rale, the village shop-keeper keeps a cash book, rojmel, and 

: tt account current book, thdmkhdta. The latter is often carelessly 
I prepared, containing entries of transaction* extending over years^ 
' tti of dealings with several distinct persons. Some village shop- 
{ faepers are said to keep no record of their transactions except 
fends and promissoiy notes. 

Most usurers are men of small capital varying from jg200 to^ 

11000 (Rs. 2000-10,000). But among them are some rich men with 

r property, including claims of not less than £10,000 (Rs. 1,00,000). 

♦ Unlike the banker, the usurer confines himself to making money,, 
•dvancea, nevernegotiating bills of exchange or engaging m trade.. 

j Thongh, as a rule, he lives in a town, the usnrer, especially during- 

"le harvest season, spends much of his time in the villages gathering 

his debts. The son of a usurer generally succeeds to his father's 

'. Vosiness, though by enlarging his dealings and adding to his capital 
he may hope to rise to the position of a banker. In Kaira both 

J hinkers and usui;ers advance money oi> the security of gold and 

t drer ornaments. There is,, therefore,, no room for t& special class^ 

I <rf pawn-brokers, jcmsdu sdhukarsy found in Surat. 

Ainong non-professional money-lenders are traders and shop- 
fe^pers,. rich cultivators, pleaders, Gtevemment servants, well-to-do 
Ptisans, and religious beggars, chiefly Grosais of whom one is said 
to he worth about £10,000 (Rs. 1,00,000), Of the trading and shop- 
ke]Mng money-lenders, the chief are cloth-sellers,, grain-sellers, and 
peers. In some of the larger towns are shop-keepers whose 
hasiness makes them independent of money-lending. But, as a 
^i especially in village shops, dealings in grain or cloth are useful, 
**^% as a means of drawing the poorer class of i^llagers to borrow 
tooney. A poor village shop-keeper, his capital laid out in advances, 
f^^^^scs Ins time in dunning his debtors. If rich, leaving his shop in 

Chapter V* 


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[Bombay Gazetteer, 



Chapter V. charge of a clerk, he buys a town house, seldom visiting the village 
Capital except during the rainy months when the poor press for grain 

advances, and at harvest time when he recovers his outstanding debts. 
The son of a village shop-keeper generally succeeds his father^ and in 
many villages the shop has for generations been in the hands of iibe 
same family. If there are several sons and the family is poor^ the 
younger brothers sometimes try to start business in a fresh village. 
Next to the shop-keeper, the most important of non-professional 
money-lenders is the rich cultivator or pdtiddr, who lends money and 
grain to the poorer villagers. The number of Government servants, 
pleaders, and well-to-do artisans, who lend money is small, and iky 
generally deal only with a few men, and those of good credit. 

Borrowers. Borrowers are of four classes, landed gentry, small traders, 

artisans, and cultivators. Among landed gentry, the Musalmans, 
Kolis and Rajputs are in their ways so careless and unthrifty, thai 
many of them have allowed themselves to sink deep in debt. So 
unsatisfactory had their condition become, that in 1877 Government 
passed an Act (XIV. of 1877) for the settlement of the claims against 
them. In most parts of the district the artisans are, on the whole, 
better off than either the small traders or the mass of the cultivators. 
Unlike the trader, the artisan need keep no large stock of goods, 
while, compared with the cultivator, as he is generally a memlNf 
of a much smaller community he spends little on caste feasts. 
Cultivators form the largest and most important class of borrowei^ 
seeking loans either to pay the Government rent or to meet 
special family expenses. At the time of the introduction of Bridsk 
rule and for more than thirty years after, the whole land revenne of 
the district was generally collected from bankers or money-lenders, 
who recovered what they could from the cultivators.* In 1840 so 
widely was this system spread, that the Collector reported, that of » 
total revenue of £146,371 (Rs. 14,63,710), only £38,091 (Es. 3,80,910) 
or 26'2 per cent, were received direct from the cultivators. UptOi 

* the year 1856 little improvement would seem to have taken place. 

At that time ^ it was said to be a matter of notoriety, that, speaking 
generally, all the cultivators and holders of land in Gujai^t were in 
debt to such an extent that they had no means of extricating them* 
selves from their difficulties. A few years later (1857-1864) Aeveix 
high price of field produce and labour freed from debt almost thifc 
whole agricultural population. But the decline of prices that set k 
about 1870 crippled a large number of the careless and impro- 
vident. In 1874 the state of the district was said to bef&rfroi^ 
satisfactoiy ; the money-lenders, tired of waiting for more favonrabb 
times, had ceased to give credit and crowded the civil couite.^ 
Since then the high produce prices of the last two years havedoni 
much to improve the cultivators* credit. 

Interest. ^^ ^^^7 interest was limited by law to a yearly rate of twelve pen 

I Mr. Diggle's report of 1806, and the CJoUector'a report 309, 23rd Deoembtf 
1844. The practice was for each headman to cive a note for his village. V^ 
notes were convertible in July at Ahmedabad and Baroda» and had to be negoiiit«d 
by asents specially chosen by Government. 

Riifi MAla, 11. 248. 3 CoUector 1207, 13th July 1871 

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C5ent.* This provision was easily evaded, and in 1840, creditors 
vonld seem to have been in a position, by making deductions, 
manddmni, from the amount actually advanced, to recover from the 
most needy of their debtors from one to six per cent additional 
profit.* In 1856, according to Mr. Forbes, monthly interest was 
stipulated for at two per cent, or if the terms were unusually 
moderate, at one.* At present (1877), according to the returns 
nceired, in small transactions when an article is given in pawn, 
iHasans and well-to-do cultivators pay interest at yearly rates 
luying from six to nine per cent ; the charge in the case of the 
jooier cultivators rising to twelve per cent. In such transactions, 
3f personal security only is given, the corresponding yearly rates are 
said to vary from nine to twelve per cent for the richer, rising as 
Kgh as twenty per cent for the poorer class of borrowers. In large 
transactions, well-to-do cultivators who give jewels as security, pay 
joarly rates of from three to four and a half per cent. When cattle 
« other moveable property is pledged by the poorer cultivators 

Cfly interest is charged at from nine to eighteen per cent. When 
^ d is mortgaged the yearly rates are reported to vary from six to 
i^liteen per cent. Except in Umreth and Borsad, where interest 
|ai personal security is unusually high, there would seem to be but 
Ittle variety in the rates charged in different parts of the district. 
^!kese are the nominal rates of interest. But in almost all cases, 
•specially when the borrower is poor, by levying a premium or 
;*8m{amm, the lender adds from one to six per cent to his profits, 
fixper cent per annum is said to be generally considered a fair return 
;fcp money invested in buying land, the estimates varying from 
ftor and a half per cent in Mehmadabad to seven and a h^ per 
cent in Umreth; Besides what they make by interest and premiums, 
*K)ney-lenders are said to add to their gains by irregular and unfair 
9l|eans. Serious and wilful fraud is rare. But the cultivator's igno- 
Shnce and apathy give the money-lender much opportunity for sharp 

I Except occasionally for seed, only Musalmins, Kolis, and other 
^thrifty and unskilled cultivators borrow grain. The advance is 
l^erally made in the beginning of the rains and repaid after six 
\fOD&B at harvest time. For this the ordinary charge is one-quarter 
1*1 addition to the quantity received. The payment is almost always 
I* kind. If in money, from twenty-five to thirty-six per cent interest 
■generally recovered. But higher rates, half as much again, or 
p^ twice the original amount are said sometimes to be charged. 

In 1806, so scanty was the stock of money, that it was usual for 
Weavers and cultivators to barter their wares. At the same time there 
J^ in circulation no fewer than six varieties of coin, the Surat rupee, 
^ Sicca rupee, the Baroda rupee, the As&ai rupee at par with the 
jhioda, the Cambay rupee, and a rupee coined in Kaira and known 
y the name of jina or the small rupee. At present (1877), except in 
^ case of payments of the land assessment, the British currency is 

1 Regulation V. of 1827, chap. III. a Collector, 819, 8tli October 1840. 


Chapter V. 


Grain advances. 


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Chapter V. 






not in general asa The mediam in ordinary dlealings is tlie Baioda 
or bdbdshdi rupee^ varying in valae, bnt generally about {onrteeB 
per cent below the standard. These variations in value, the money- 
lender in his dealings with the poorer class of borrowers, genoaily 
turns to his own advantage* 

Among the bankers and traders of the Elaira district cases of bask* 
rnptcy are rare. Failure to meet trade engagements is consideTed 
disgraceful^ and is said to be visited with social penalties bat little 
less stringent than those enforced in the case of a breach of caste 
rules. The religious feeling that eonnects a man'^s condition in the 
next world with the dischai^ of all claims against him at the time 
of his deaths is strong in this district, and the duty of paying an 
ancestral debt is said to be evaded only in cases of extreme helpless- 
ness or hopeless poverty. In small cities and towns, the amoimtof 
property owned by a banker or merchant and the extent of his trade 
liabilities are pretty well known, and it is comparatively easy 
to decide how far in any case&ilureisduetofrand or carelessne%j 
and how far to bad fortune. When a trader finds that he cannot 
meet his liabilities, he calk his creditors, shows them how thingi 
stand, and leaves himself in their hands. After inquiry, the creditoiv 
in proportion to their claims, divide the assets. When such a parti* 
tion has been made, no further steps are ordinarily taken. Unless h 
has been shown to have acted unfairly, the discharged bankrapt^ 
probably find little difficulty in raising money enough to help hioil 
to make a fresh start. Among shop-keepers, except the risk of firt^l 
flood, or robbers, there is little chance of any very heavy loss^ an! 
bankruptcy is almost unknown. 

Mortgages are of two kinds, scm, when the land is pledged a^, 
security but the mortga^r remains in possession, and giro, whenihtj 
mortgagee takes possession of the land instead of interest. Acoordf^ 
ing to the registration returns, mortgages in excess of £10 (Ks. 100) 
have fallen from 30S6, of the value of £124,396 (Rs. 12,43,960) iftj 
1869-70, to 1707, of the value of £64,158 (Rs. e,41,680) in 1876-77.^ 

Under Maritha rule bricklayers,, carpenters, blacksmiths, and day| 
labourers were forced to work for the men in power receiviu 
some grain at harvest, bnt seldom any money payment. * Fif 
years ago (1828) a town labourer earned Sd, (2 annas) a day, 
a carpenter Qd. (4 annas). In 1844 a town labourer earned 
same wage as in 1828 ; a field labourer was, as formerly^ paid in I 
from three to five pounds of millet, bdjiri, a day ; a bricklayer ew 
from &d. to 9d. (4-6 annas) ; and a carpenter from 9c?. to 1«. (6- 
annas). Between 1858 and 1864, when the Bombay, Baroda, and Ceni 
India Railway line was under construction, and house-building i 
carried on to a large extent over the whole district, the demand fd 
labour increased and the rates rose by about one-half. At pr 

1 The details are, in 1869-70, 3035, Talue £124,396 ; in 1870-71, 2716, «»* 
£109.201 ; in 1871-72, 2626, value £95,576 ; in 1872-73. 2507, value £99,905 ;i^ 
1873-74, 2453, value £104,637 ; in 1874-75, 1789, value £75,785 ; in 1875-76, 188% 
value £72,906 ; in 1876-77, 1707, value £64^58. 

» Mr. Kirkland, 308, 23rd December 1844. 

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fl878) a labourer's daily wage varies from 3d. to Gd. (2-4 annas) Chapter V. 

according to the urgency of the work. Besides his ordinary wage of Capital. 

feom 3d. to 4id. (2-3 annas), which is paid in money, a field labourer 

gets two or three millet cakes at midday. Except in the rains, when **^' 

kbour is wanted for weeding and transplanting, the supply of labour 

bom among Kolis, Kdchhids, poor Kanbis, Vdghris and Dheds, 

ii in excess of the demand. Town labourers, except for an hour's 

MBt at midday, work from eight or nine in the morning to five or six 

k the evening ; field labourers go to work about six in the morning 

.«d remain tUl about six in the evening, taking at midday an hour's 

. »st. Thirty years ago a labourer had almost no credit ; now he 

rtould, without security, be trusted with an advance of from £1 10«. 

■fc 12 (Rs. 15-20), Except the Lnnd&s or hereditary servants in 

vfte households of well-to-do Rajputs, who like the Surat H£lis are 

and clothed by their masters, there are no hereditair labourers in 

district. In a few sub-divisions the practice of mortgaging 

inr prevails. The mortgagors, generally poor field labourers, for 

ey advances of from £2 to £2 10». (Rs. 20-25), pledge their 

IT for terms rising to one year. During their time of service 

are fed and clothed and well treated by their masters. Carpen- 

p's and bricklayer's wages vary in the different seasons, the demand 

igstrongest in the hot months, when the cultivators repair and 

id houses. At present a bricklayer's daily wage varies from 6d. to 

(4-6 annas) ; and a carpenter's from Is. to Is, 3d. (8-10 annas). 

y go to work at about nineinthemoming and return before sunset. 

IBBe-Biird of an ordinary day's wage is paid for extra work done in 

;fte morning from six to nine. In villages, besides two pounds of 

■ttllet, hdjri, and a quarter of a pound oi clarified butter, ghi, a day, 

Scupenter's monthly wage is £1 28. (Rs. 11), and a bricklayer's 12^. 
^ 6). For miscellaneous work, such as repairing field tools, 
fllage artisans are eveiy year, at harvest time, paid in grain. 

A statement of produce prices, reaching back as far as 1 790, is given Prices, 

iow. For the first thirty-four years the figures refer only to one 
ortion of the district, the Mfitar sub-division. Since 1824 they are 
Imposed to represent average prices over the whole district. Taking 
* staple grain, millet or bdjri, the average rupee price during the 
We period of eighty-eight years is fifty -one pounds, or excluding 
years of abnormally high and five years of abnormally low 
, an average of fifty pounds. The seven years of highest 
were fifteen pounds in 1812 and 1864; seventeen pounds in 
77; eighteen pounds in 1790; nineteen pounds in 1863; and 
Buiy pounds in 1813 and 1869. The years 1863, 1864, and 1869, 
kn the high value of millet was due to the cheapness of money 
fcejthan the want of grain, were the times of greatest agri- 
itarai prosperity. 1790, 1812, 1813, and 1877 were years of famine 
scarcity. The cheap years, of which there have been five, eighty- 
^ pounds in 1856, eighty-four in 1855, eighty-five in 1848, 100 in 
1^ and 120 in 1832, have been times of complaint and agricultural 
iresa. Excluding the years of special scarcity, the whole series 
T be roughly divided into eight periods. From 1791 to 1799, a 
' of cheap grain, with an average price of sixty-nine pounds ; from 

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[Bombay Gaietteer, 



Chapter V. 


1800 to 1811, a time of moderate and most steady prices scarcely 
varying from fifty-five pounds ; then, after the scarcity in 1812 and 
1813, five years (1814-1818) of moderate prices varying from forty- 
six to sixty-five and averaging fifty-nine pounds. Again, after the 
scarcity in 1819, follow seven dear years (1820-1826), prices vary- 
ing from thirty-eight to forty-five and averaging forty-one poands. 
Next, for six years (1827-1832), a rapid fall in prices ranging from 
fifty-eight in 1827 to 120 In 1832 and averaging eighty-two pounds. 
Then ten dear and changeable years (1833 to 1842), prices varying 
from thirty to sixty and averaging forty-six pounds. Then sixteen 
years (1843-1858) of low prices varying from fifty-two to eighty-five 
and averaging sixty-six pounds ; and lastly, eighteen years (1859- 
1876) of high prices varying from fifteen to fifty-two and averaging 
thirty pounds, 

Kaira produce prices, 1790-1877. 



Fixar PniOD (1791-1799.) 

Skjoto Prriod awo-lflU 

















i i 



































Wtumt ... 

















































) 61 



Skohd PmoD (1800-1811) 


Third Prriod 




















i 1 
















80 40 


















69 4 

t « 

Whe«b ... 
















40 4 

• * 

















51 i 

1 M 

















6S e 

a a 





Fifth Piriod (1827-1832.) 

Secih Prriod (183S.184S.) 















1 I 


Millet ... 

















68 6 

1 SI 

Indian do.... 


















9 n 

Wheat ... 

















36 6 



















38 3 

i n 


















82 i 

i ii 

Tobacco ... 

















27 i 

1 fl 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 





















lidiia do. ... 

Br. ::: 


%}mn ... 
































1 1 













.iDDflt ... 
Man do.... 



























Chapter ¥. 



ts prepared— i, from the OoUeobor'i Beport 48, 81gt Jannaiy 1855, coatalnlag 
for the yeva from 1790 to 1628 ; 11, from the OoUeotor*! tpedal retun containing flgnrei 

Ulr Ibe v«n from 1884 to 1863, prepared for the price committee of 1863 ; ill, from a cpecial return 
IMarediB the Bombay Secretariat for the yean from 1864 to 1874; It, from the Adminii 
1mi for 1875, 1876, and 1877. MiUet U bdjriy 

ear* from 1864 to 1874 ; It, from the Adminiitratioa 
' PeolciUaria ipioata ; Indian mmet,/ic«ar, a(»vham 


IMndiB the Bombay Secretariat for the 
Worti for 1875, 1876, and 1877. MiUet ' 
'^Mvin; nd pulae, tuver, Oajanna indieiu. 

Almost all articles are sold by weight. Ezoept for milk and 

tfkrified batter, no measures of capacity are used. The weights are 

I ft two sorts : one for gold^ silver, and drags ; the other for grain, 

^ iregetables, and the cheaper metals, copper, brass, iron, lead, and zinc. 

' fte former, square in shape are by village goldsmiths, made of lead 

'fuA sometimes of an alloy of brass and copper ,• the latter are made of 

by blacksmiths. Both are, under the Weights and Measures Act 

A. of 1872), yearly inspected and stamped by the police. Gold, 

Irer, and drugs are weighed according to the following scale : six 

' 06, grains of rice, one rati ; three ta/tisy one val ; sixteen v&Uy one 

\iino; two gadidnas, one tolo. Again, eight ratis mako one mdso ; 

twelve mdsds, one tolo. For metals other than gold and silver, 

j^ grain of aU sorts, the following table is current : two and half 

Mees, one adhol ; two adhoU, one navtdk ; two navtaks^ one paser ; 

WD posers, one achher ; two achhers, one ser ; forty s&rSy one man ; 

:|Krteeu man8y one kalsi ; two kalsis, one bediyu. In the Panoh 

ttkhils, the following table is also in use : twelve mans, one mani; 

f 100 mams, one mandsa ; 100 mandsas, one kandsa. As the ser in 

<Me is equal to forty tolas each of 1 80 Troy grains, the weight of a 

[Man is equal to 41f English pounds avoirdupois. 

; Cloth is measured either by the gaj or the hath. The gcg, made Moasurw. 
^ iron, brass, or wood, is of two kinds, the tailor's gaj 27^ inches, 
tod the ordinary gaj two feet longs Both are divided into twenty- 
fcur equal parts called tasits. The ordinary gaj is used in measuring 
^tton and silk goods. Turbans, waistcloths, dhotids, women's robes, 
Mis, and such other articles as are sold in pairs or singly, but 
sever in parts, are not measured by the gaj, but by the hdth. A 

B 167-9 

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Chapter V. 


[Bombay Oasetteer. 



hath, the distance from the elbow to the tip of the middle 
finger of a tall man^ varies from seventeen to nineteen and half inches. 
It is the measure commonly used by the poorer classes. The W^i 
table is twelve anglis, finger breadths^ one vehst; and two vefefe,one 
fidth. The gaj and the English yard, the latter generally used by 
cloth merchants^ are inspected and stamped by the police. 

In measuring land^ since the introduction of the revenue sarrey, 
an acre of 43^560 square feet has been substituted for the UgKa, 
The acre is divided into forty gunthds, and the gunthd into sixteen 
drmds. The bigha, equal to ^th part of an acre/ was formerly the 
unit of land measure^ and is still generally understood by the peopla 
It was divided into twenty vasda, and the vasa into twenty vini$is. 
A visvasi, also called a Jcdthl, equalling five hatha of from 18*33 to 
19 '67 inches each^ has a mean length of about ninety-six inches. 
Building sites are measured by the gaj^ and land used for agricoltnnl 
purposes^ by a chain thirty-three feet in length. 

Stones are sold by a superficial ^aj of twenty-four inches^ and not 
by a cubic gaj. The price per gaj varies according to the nature rf 
the work. 

In the case of timber, a gaj of twenty-seven inches is used. Thii 
gaj is divided into twenty equal parts called vasds, and each tRW 
into twenty equal parts called visvdsis. A piece of timber is meftp 
sured lengthwise. As it is seldom of uniform thickness, the circoni* 
ference at the middle of the length is taken. This measure it 
divided by four, and the quotient is squared. The result thus. 
obtained is multiplied by the length measure and the product divided 
by 400. This last quotient gives the cubic contents in gaj; the 
remainder in connection with this quotient, when multiplied by twenty 
and divided by 400, gives the measure in vasds ; and the remainder 
in this last case, multiplied by twenty and divided by 400, gives the 
measure in visvdsis. Thus the required measure is determiaed in 
gaj, vasa, and visvdsis, and the sale price is fixed at so much per 
gaj. The unit of measurement used in earth work and mud waDs is 
the hath. 

Milk, and sometimes clarified butter, are the only articles sold bf 
capacity measures. The capacity measures used are brass cups call^ 
dphkhords. The contents of a one ser dphkliora are equal to 2551 
cubic inches. Clarified butter as a rule sold by weight, is among 
the poorer classes weighed in special capacity measures made by thi 
wandering tribe of Thoris. 

Bricks, tiles, bamboos, rafters, poles, fruit, and betel leaves ait 
sold by the number. Bricks and tiles are sold by the thousM 
which, from the practice of putting aside one brick or tile to mdt 
each hundred, actually numbers 1010. Rafters and cocoanuts 
sold by the score, the score of rafters containing twenty-two. 

Grass is sold by the thousand, and millet straw, kadbi, by thft 
hundred bundles. In Kaira, a hundred bundles of hadbi mean 10^ 
one being added for each twenty bundles. In the case of grass, UT 

1 Two Kaira bighAs are equal to one acre and seven gwnihdB, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


KAIRA, 67 

bundles are given for every hundred. This is called a full or paha Chapter V. 

kundred, compared ^ith the small or hacha hundred of 105 only. Capital. 

A man generally contains forty sers. Sometimes^ though the practice 

is growing rare, in wholesale purchases grocers allow from two to MtMuwa. 

ijQ sen extra. In the case of molasses, gol, and sugar, from two 

to eight 06r5 are allowed for the weight of the coverings. 

As there are no regular shops for selling pearls and precious Prooiotui lioiiw. 
sfames, the weights are but little understood. All purclutses are 
Bade at Ahmedabad, Baroda, Surat, or Bombay. 

The table for measuring time is sixty vipals or winks, one pal ; 
\ Bitjpals, one ghddi of twenty-four minutes ; 2^ ghadis, one hora ; 
Jf ghadisj one choghdi; 7 J ghadis, one pokor; four p6hor$, one 
&ciu; seven divas , one athavddiya ; two athavddiyds, one paksh ; two 
foksk, one month ; twelve months, one year. In former times 
^fte Hindus had neither watches nor sun-dials. Their time measure 
I VIS the water clock, and this, thoagh in ordinary life never referred 
*^, is still used at marriage and thread ceremonies. Besides by the 
pater clock time was calculated by the length of shadows. One 
•|ilan was, in an open sunlit spot, to measure in feet the length of one's 
dow; to add six to the number and divide 121 by the sum. The 
rtiient gives the time in ghadis of twenty-four minutes, after 

I^se, if the sun has not crossed the meridian, and before sunset, 
Kthe son has crossed the meridian. Another plan is to hold upright 
iflun rod eighteen dnglis long, bend it so that its shadow will touch 
w other end of the rod on the ground, and measure in dnglis the 
fttpendicnlar height of the rod. This, like the other plan, shows the 
. iimber of ghadie either after sunrise or before sunset. 

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[Bombay Gazetteer, 

Ghapter VI. 






In 1844^ except from the aoatli gate of Kaira town to tie 
wooden bridge on the Shedhi river near Batanpar village, a 
distance of about a mile^ there were no made roads of any Idoi 
The district highways and crossways were principally formed trom 
cart tracks^ and though in some places uneven and narrow^ they 
were on the whole pretty good. The sandiness of the soil made 
them somewhat heavy for carts^ and in the rainy season they wen 
partially flooded. Bat a few days of fair weather again made them 
passable. The paths between villages were worse. Exeeedinglj 
narrow^ they were in some places so overhung with boshes m 
branches as to make it difBcult for carts and horsemen to pasB.^ 
Until 1863 little was done to improve the state of the roads. In 
that year the survey superintendent spoke of the roads as ordinary 
cart tracks execrable in the black soil^ and in the light^ thoagk 
on the whole tolerable, in places as bad as roads could be, ronniDg 
through a deep sandy soil trying to man and beast and destrnctire 
to wheeled vehicles of any kind. In 1863 the local fund cess 
wa8 first levied, and since then • steady progress has been made in 
clearing and metalling roads. 

There are at present (1878) six main lines of road extending wi A 
their branches over a total distance of 100 miles. Of these fifty-one " 
have been and twenty-one are (1878) being metalled with stone or 
nodular limestone. Except a few large rivers, watercourses are 
bridged throughout. Of the two parts into which the Bombay 
and Baroda Kailway divides the district, that to the north-east) 
the larger of the two, contains two principal roads. These from 
Kapadvanj in the north, start southwards, one running a Httfe 
to the west to meet the railway at Nadi&d, and the other a little te 
the east to reach the Pdli railway at Ddkor. The Nadi£d feeder, 
twenty-seven miles long, is an embanked, bridged, and unmetalW 
line. Besides the ordinary local trade, a good deal of traffic is 
carried by this route in connection vnth the S&ml&ji feir in the 
Mahi E&ntha. The Ddkor feeder, twenty miles long, is a stone 
metalled road. In the south-west of the <£strict towards the sont)^< 
a railway feeder, eleven miles long, connects Borsad with the Visad 
station. This road, bridged and metalled with nodular Umestone^' 
is passable all the year round. To the west, a line of seven nulee 
runs from the railway station at Mehmadabad to the district head- 

^ Collector 308, 23rd December 1844. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

KAIRA. 69 . 

qnarter station at Kaira. This is a bridged^ drained, and limestone Outpter TI. 
metalled road. Beyond Kaira it is continued twelve miles south- --7^ 

west to the Sabarmati^ and is partially bridged and metalled. ^^^ 

From Mdtar start two roads, one six miles to Kaira on the north, 
and the other thirteen to the Nadi&d station on the east. These 
lines are at present being metalled. 

Of six buildings for the accommodation of district officers, one at RMi-liouBes. 
Kaira and the other at L&li, on the country track between Kaira and 
Ahinedabad, are in the Mehmadabad sub-division ; one at Nadi&d, 
about two miles from the Nadi&d railway station, in the Nadi&d 
sab-division; one at Y^sad in the A'nand sub-division; one at 
Dehvan in the Borsad sub-division ; and one at Xapadvanj in the 
Kapadvanj sub-division. For the convenience of travellers, the 
district is provided with ten rest-houses or dharmshdlds built since 
! 1869 from local funds at a total cost of £6191 (Rs. 61,910). Of the 
len rest-houses, one at Lasundra, near the Ddkor and Kapadvanj 
wad, is in the Kapadvanj sub-division ; one at Th&ira, and the other 
it P4Ii, both on the Ddkor and Godhra road, in the Th&sra sub- 
iBvision ; one at N&ika, one at Shikoldi, and a third at Mehlaj, in the 
Katar sub-division ; one at Kanij, and the other at Samara on the 
Kaira and Ahmedabad country track, in the Mehmadabad sub- 
cBvision ; and one at A'nand near the A'nand railway station, and the 
«B»er at Vasad near the Vfead railway station, in the A'nand sub- 
jfivision. The rest-house at A'nand which for building purposes 
iiceived in addition to the local funds grant a contribution from a 
Bombay merchant, Mr. Premchand Bdichand, has an upper room 
fcr Europeans and separate quarters for Hindus, P&rsis, and Musal- 
loins. Those in the Thdsra sub-division, besides Quarters for all 
ordinary travellers, have separate accommodation tor Europeans. 
The remaining bouses are fitted only for ordinary native travellers. 
Besides the above, almost every large village has a rest-house with 
toom enough for about ten or twelve native travellers. 

Besides at many places during the rainy season and at times of Femes, 
iood, two ferries maintained from local funds ply across the Mahi. 
fK tliese one between R^laj of Borsad and K&vi of Jambusar 
atteBroachdistrict is permanent, and the other between Pdli of 
"lasra and Gotra of the Godhra sub-division of the Pauch Mdhils 
torkfl only during the rainy season. In the year 1876-77 these 
feries were farmed for £33 (Rs. 830) . Of this amount £1 5 (Es. 1 50), 
'«Q account of the ferry at P41i, were credited in equal proportions 
to the Eaira and Panch Mah&ls local funds. 

^ Near the town of Kaira between the cantonment and the church Bridget. 
fte river Vfitrak with banks about thirty feet high is crossed by a 
™dfiome wooden bridge 250 feet long supported by fourteen pairs 
^xroii pillars coupled with a screw clainp. 

Abont^ a mile and a quarter south of the Ydsad station the rail- 
CoBttibuted by H. B. Hargrove, Esq., Resident Engineer, Bombay and Baroda 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

[Bombay QasetlMr, 



Chapter YI 

Po0t offioea 


way passes over the river Mahi. At the crossing the river bsnks 
are from eighty to ninety feet high and the river bed about 4000 
feet broad. The bridge was opened for traffic on the 3rd Sep- 
tember 1862. Originally it had twenty-seven spans of ^Warren'^B 
girders 62' 6'', each supported on three vertical cohimns of Mitchell's 
screw piles 2' 6" outside diameter, the metal being 1'' thick. la 
addition to the above, two stout columns were attached one on the 
down side and one on the up side of each pier. For the reasons 
stated in the account of the Narbada bridge ^ these stout columns 
were afterwards removed and replaced by vertical columns con- 
nected by a heavy cross girder on the top similar to those in use 
at the Narbada bridge. The foundation of the bridge is at its 
deepest point sunk about fifty feet below ground and 127 below 
rail level. The rail is carried on the top instead of as in the 
Narbada and other viaducts at the bottom of the girders. On the 
8rd of August 1871 the river rose within twenty-four feet of rail 
level, sixty-two feet above the bed of the stream. One of the up 
stream columns was broken by drift timber, but the remauung* four 
columns of the pier were strong enough -to hold up the bridge and 
keep the line open. 

For postal purposes the Eaira district forms a part of the 
Gujar&t postal division, and contains thirteen post offices located at the 
following stations : Kaira, M&tar, Cambay, A'nand, Borsad, V&sad, 
Nadi&d, Mehmadabad, Mahudha, Kapadvanj, Th^ra, TJmretli, 
and Dakor. These offices are supervised by the inspector of post 
offices in the Gujar&t division, assisted by the sub-inspector of the 
Kaira district and the Rewa K&ntha states. Except at Kaira and 
Yasad, the officials in charge of post offices are styled deputy post- 
masters and are paid yearly salaries varying from £18 to £60 
(Rs. 180-600) and averaging £37 Us. 9d. (Rs. 376-6-0). The official 
at Ydsad, styled a post kdrkun, draws an annual salary of £14 (Bs. 140) * 
As the Kaira town station is the disbursing office of the district^ the 
officer in charge is styled postmaster and draws a yearly salary of £90 
rising to £114 (Rs. 900-1140). From the stations mentioned above 
letters are distributed by delivery peons or by post runners. For 
this additional work the latter are paid a trifiing gratuity. The 
correspondence for surrounding villages is delivered by rural mes* 
sengers who also bring into the stations letters posted in letter-boxea 
placed at most of the villages. The rural messengers carry with 
them a stock of postage stamps for sale at the villages they visit* 
In the Eaira district there are in all seventeen delivery peons axk 
yearly salaries ranging from £9 12«. to £12 (Rs. 96-120) and 
averaging £9 17«. 7^d. (Rs. 98-13-0). The pay of the mml 
messengers, of whom there are eighteen, varies from £9 12«. to £12 
(Rs. 96-120) a year and averages £11 (Rs. 110). This staff of mat 
is distributed according to requirements, letters being dehvered m 
some places daily, and in others only once a week. 

The only telegraph offices are those at the different railway stations. 

] Bombay Gazetteer, II. , 419. 

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KAIRA, 71 

Thongh in early times Kaira did not contain any very important Chapter VL 
centre of trade, many favourite lines of traffic passed through it.^ Trade. 

North and south, pretty much along the present main line of railway 

Sised the trade between Ahmedabad and Baroda, Broach, and I'M'd trade. 
rat; another line lay from the port of Tank&ri in Broach through 
Dehvan, Fetl^, and Kaira to Ahmedabad ; a third was from Gambay 
through Sojitra and Eaira to Ahmedabad. Lines also passed from the 
Gnjai^t ports north-east through D&kor and Kapadvanj to Malwa and 
Mew&r, and east through Dholka, E^aira, and Nadidd. Judging from 
the small revenue from transit dues £3630 (Rs. 36,300), the trade of 
Ihe district at the time of its transfer to the British (1803) must have 
been scanty.^ In 1821 the consumption of imported articles is said 
to liave been very small.^ In 1826 the manufactures of the district 
were valued at £166,326 (Rs. 16,63,260) and its trade at £443,594 
(Rs. 44,35,940). Of the total amount of trade, merchandise valued 
ai £95,000 (Rs. 9,50,000), was returned as imported for consumption 
in the district, and property worth £348,594 (Rs. 34,85,940) as in 
' imnsit from Cambay to Central India and other foreign territory.^ 
- In 1841 the chief articles of trade between Surat and Ahmedabad 
' were silk raw and manufactured, cotton piece goods, gold thread, 
eonntry paper, metal articles, wheat, and coriander seed ; through 
. Kaira to the Panch Mahals and M&lwa, and to Dongarpur and Mewar, 
[ enmin seed, cardamoms, bishopsweed, betelnut, brimstone, cam- 
j jbor, coffee, cocoanuts without shells, cotton, dry ginger, gum, iron, 
[ in£go,catechu,and lace; from Jauibusar andTank&ri, through Dehvdn 
'• to Ahmedabad, long pepper, perfumes, dammer, soft sugar, sago, salt- 
[ Jifltre, soap, cloves, cinnamon, and mace ; from Cambay, black pepper, 
^ Iiearls, horses, charcoal, alum, tea, assaf cetida, tobacco, sugarcandy, 
' and molasses ; and from Dholera , sandalwood, candles, tamarind, and 
; losewater.*^ In 1855, in consequence of the exorbitant customs 
duties levied by the Nawdb of Cambay and also by the Gdikwfir, the 
^strict trade, both in exports and imports, took, instead of the straight 
!:load to Cambay, a circuitous course either to Dholera in Ahmeda- 
' lad or Dehg&m in Broach. The chief articles of export were grain 
, to Baroda ; safflower to different Gujardt ports ; tobacco to MHwa ; 
cumin seed, aniseed, soap, and glass bangles to Bombay; and 
Arified butter to Surat. The chief articles of import were wheat, 
^rmda roots or sorangi, cotton, and cloth from Malwa ; and sugar, 
^^i^es, cocoanuts, metals, European piece goods,^ glassware, paper, 
jiwelleiy, and dates from Bombay. Shortly after 1855 the trade of 

I Eart India Papers, in., 686. 

M)f the whole amount NadiiLd yielded £2100, MAiar £630, Mahudha £600, Eaira 
«», and Nip4d £100.— Bom. Gov. Sel., XXXLX., 27. As there are no meana of 
™>Jg the percentage charge of transit dues, these returns are necessarily vague. 

• Uptain Robertson, 10th October 1819.— Bom. Gov. Kev. Rea 149 of 1820. 436. 
.J'fr- Williamson's report, 1826. Trade with the interior was at that time much 
jTOfined l^ transit dues. In 1825, a year of scarcity in Gujarat, wheat was selling 
« twenty-seven pounds the rupee in NUlwh and at nine in Baroda.— Heb. Nar., 

J Mr. Kirldand, 343, 3rd November 1841. 
European cloth was in more general use than formerly. It was worn by the 
*er claases including the vdtiddrs. Kanbis, Kolis, and the other working dassea 
wore ooarse country doth.— Collector 48- A, Slst January 1866. 

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[Bombay QaiettaN*, 

GhaptMr VL 

Railway traffic, 



the district would seem to have greatly increased. In 1861 at 
Kapadvanj^ during the whole fair season, immense caravans were said 
to halt regularly on their way between Ahmedabad and Central 
India. Large quantities of tobacco grown in Nadi&d, Fetl^d^ and 
Borsad^ came to the Kapadvanj merchants to be sent to Malwa and 
M&rw&r, and piece goods^ hardware, country manu&ctured cotton 
and silk robes^ turbans^ gls^s^ soap^ bangles^ and many otber 
articles were veiy largely exported from Kapadvanj to the Gaik- 
wdr^s territories^ the Mahi K&ntha^ the Panch Mah^ls^ the B41asinor 
country, and Central India. In 1861-62 the imports of the Kapad- 
van] sub-division were valued at £30,285 (Rs. 3,02,850) and die 
exports at £25,420 (Rs. 2,54,200) .^ 

Besides by improved roads, land traffic has been aided by the 
construction of a line of railway, that with a total length of forty 
miles runs through the whole breadth of the district north-east 
and south-west. This line iBbnishedin 1863 has, beginning with the 
south, six stations, Vdsad, Ndvli, A'nand, Boriavi, NadiW, and 
Mehmadabad. From the A'nand station a line locally known as the 
Dakor branch runs north-east for a distance of thirty-two mfles. 
This branch finished in 1874 has five stations, beginning from Ae 
west, Bhdlaj, Umreth, Dakor, Th^ra, and P&li. Traffic figorei: 
for the main line stations are available since 1868. From these 
returns it would seem that though compared with the earliest year, 
there is at present a considerable advance, the traffic was somewhai 
on the decline in passengers between 1871 and 1873, and in gooda 
during 1871 and 1872. Since its opening in 1874, the increase in 
traffic on the D&kor branch has been much more rapid than on the 
main line. In 1874 the D^kor branch had twenty-eight per cent 
of the total passenger and nineteen per cent of the total gooda traffic j 
in 1875, both in passengers and goods, its share rose to thirty-six, 
and in 1877 to fifty-two percent. On the main line in 1868 therd 
were four stations. The number was in 1870 increased to seven. 
Of these, Eh&mbli^ had so small and so declining a traffic that, aftef 
being kept open for three years, it was closed. Both in passeng 
and goods the most important stations on the main line ar4 
Nadi^d, A'nand, Mehmadabad, and Vdsad. The remaining t^ 
stations, Nivli and Bori&vi have no goods, and a very sma 
passenger traffic. The number of stations on the Ddkor branch ha 
since 1874 been increased from three to five. Of these, D6kor 
the first passenger traffic station and Pdli is the largest goo< 
station in the whole district. Umreth stands second both in passoi 
gers and goods. Of the rest Bhdlaj has no goods traffic, and Thiol 
shows but insignificant totals. The returns for all the stations in ill 
district show that 346,746 passengers were carried in 1868, compart 
with 966,022 in 1877 ; while the traffic in goods has risen durin 
the same period from 31,138 tons to 107,914 tons. The highei 
total of passengers and the largest quantity of goods carried dnrin 

1 Bom. Gov. SeL, CXIV., 690. 

> Khimbli had never any goods traffic, and its total of passengers fell from 
in 1870 to 836 in 1872. 

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Ifcis term of ten years were in 1877, and the corresponding lowest 
total and the smallest quantity, in 1868. The following statement 
ihows in tabular form the fluctuations in the chief articles of trade, 
famed from and to the different stations of the Kaira district. 

Kaira Mailway, OoodSy 1868'1877. 







1 ; 


























{ 1031 


( 1211 
1 41 









Qetk-in 1^ 

* U 










Chrfflftl bat(«r 











fill- tjnd need .., 











Ibbadi « 










Uihi .„ _ 






















tice tfiKidit Baropna tJld 












Nfii . ,. 






















Tlmbec .„ .,. 






















tfiit, Earop**! and country... 











Total ... 

13i,3€(7 18^1 









Cihapter YI. 


Bailway traffic. 

From the above table it will be seen that the principal articles of 
Alport are un pressed and half -pressed cotton, clarified butter, 
mhiida^ Bassia lati folia, grain, tobacco and since the opening of the 
J^li railway, timber. Glass and soap, though peculiar to the district, 
ire not manufactured in auch quantities as to contribute materially 
to its export trade. The principal articles of import are cotton- 

f?d, metal, molasses, sugar, piece goods, twist, and timber. 
The details for the Nadiiul station show an increase in the total 
lumber of passengers from 126,223 in 1868 to 175,367 in 1877, and in 
tbe qmDtitj of goods from 16,430 tons in 1868 to 24,087 in 1877. 
Ririt)^ the ten years ending 1877, the greatest total number of 
j»?ksengers waJ3 193,191 and of goods 27,240 tons, both in 1870; 
the lowest figULres were in 1868. The returns for A'nand show 
Siat passenger traffic has increased from 110,816 in 1868 to 151,722 
k lisTT, with the highest tobil of 1 72,387 passengers in 1870 and the 
lowest total of 79,370 in 1873. Goods traflSc shows an increase from 
lD,2ti3 tons in 1S68 to 13,670 in 1877 ; the highest total was 14,694 
tons in 1871 and the lowest 10,263 in 1868. At Vdsad, goods traffic 
taa mcreased from 3(^32 tons in 1868 to 12,910 tons in 1877; 
tie highest total was 14,403 tons in 1876. On the Ddkor branch, 
passenger traffic has increased from 182,421 in 1874 to 425,584 in 
1S77, and goods from 9161 tons in 1874 to 53,312 in 1877. The 
P^kor station retarns show that passenger traffic has increased from 
126,066 in 1874 to 284,330 in 1877; goods traffic shows an increase 
ifrom 5832 in 1874 to 9626 in 1877. Like Dikor, Umreth shows a 
^«GB£ide!^ble increase in goods traffic, the total for 1874 being 3329 
■^V^m against 11 ,1 48 in 1877. The following statement contrasts in 


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Chapter TL 

lUilway traffic* 


[Bombay QuettMr. 



tabular form the passenger and goods traffic at eacH of the staliatt 
of the Kaira district in 1868, 1870, 1872, 1874, and 1877. J 

JToira Railway^ PcMengera <tnd Oooda, 1868-1877. 





▲ nuid 

BoriiTt ... 











Oraod Total 

Main Line. 



A'nand ... 

NMliid ... 

Khdmbll ... 


Branch lint. 






PAli ... 

Oraad Total 


nr MiiiU 





























m^\ mm 
j*,m' wm 



1T1,SI5 E«4N 

11.7M hi* 

43,131 nm 
... . 1*^ 

1^.4fl iJM» 

6^3,951 »bW 

Goods iif Tom. 













ceil ii0 

IS, I TO U*** 







(a) Khimbli wat oloMd in January 1873L (6) HangAri wa« closed in ^^tuitrj l^" 

The Kaira or charotar trade in clarified butter, believed to U 
worth to the district about £80,000 (Rs. 8,00,000) a year, deserr^ 
special notice.^ The butter is made from the milk of cows, bufialw^ 
sheep, and goats. The makers are Kanbis, Kolis, Bajputs, Eabim 
and Bharvdds, as well as Chdmadids, Dheds, and others of ^^ 
depressed castes. The better class of ghi makers trade dim^t witl 
Y&nia,, Bhdtia, and Lohdna dealers; the lowcaste makers tradi 

* Clarified batter has for many years been one of the chief Kaira export* ! 
1824 the PetUd, now Borsad, cultivators exported large quantities of ghi In ^-^ . 
pwn carts and with their own bullocks they made every year four or five trip» '^ -J* 
bringing back cotton seed. They also took ghi east to Hilol and KaIoI and h^^ 
back raw sugar.— Bom. Gov. Sel., XI., 110. 

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tbongh Mnaalman brokers. The local dealers baying in small 
quantities collect a large stock. This they are said to adalterate 
nmetimes by mixing different sorts of ghi, sometimes by adding 
MBamnm, tal, poppy seed, khaskhas, or mahuda berry oil. The mixing 
ff^r, the dealers store the gki in large leather bottles.^ These bottles 
fltej either export at their own risk or store at the ghi markets 
lo meet the demands of foreign dealers. The chief markets are 
Anaad^ ITmreth^ Ndvli^ and Earamsad^ where buyers come from 
ftmt^ Baroda^ Broach, Jambasar, Cambay^ Bhivnagar, Gogha, 
|Kkdhw^, Limbdi, Dholera, and Bombay. 

Tobacco another of the chief exports is sent to G-njar&t, M&lwa, 
* the Deccan. Details of the tobacco trade have been already 


Uatil the opening of steam factories at Ahmedabad and Nadi&d 

^"'0-1876), the spinning and weaving of cotton was, next to 

Iture, the most important industry of the district. Almost 

the women, both in towns and villages, were formerly to 

me extent engaged in spinning cotton thread. But the 

Ktition of local steam factories has greatly reduced the demand 
ndspun yam. Formerly cloth woven by Dheds and Musal- 
tos was, besides meeting the local demand, sent to BatMm and 
ler parts of India. This cloth, coarse and very strong, served both 
r clothes and sacking. But of late years the demand for both 
nrposes has greatly fallen. For sacking, Bengal jute cloth has 
\ a large extent taken the place of the local manufacture, and the 
Itting cloth, which from its greater strength and cheapness had 
Ue to fear from the competition of European piece goods, has now 
ion to a great extent ousted by the produce of Bomliay and 
qar&t weaving mills. Fiue cloth for robes, sddis, waistcloths, aud 
Qtaloons are woven by Momna and T4i Musalm&ns, and a few 
indas of the Eliatri caste. Able to buy yam cheaper than 
rmerly, weavers of this class, though competition has reduced their 
nSts, find a market for their goods. Calico printing and dyeing are 
tried on to a considerable extent, chiefly in Nadidd, Eaira, D4kor, 
kneth, Mehmadabad, A'nand, Sast&pur, Kathl41» M&tar, and 
^advanj. Except for a few M&rv&di Musalmans, these industries 
Rin the bauds of Hindus of the Bhdvs&r caste, who number 3883 
^. Kaira water is thought specially useful for dyeing, and its 
innts have a good name. Besides a widespread home demand they 
^ exported to Siam and other places. Some of the printers 
le men of capital and prepare articles on their own account. They 
■7 their cloth and colours either from Ahmedabad or Bombay 
^^hants, and sell their prints in lots on the spot to Y&nia dealers, 
■ne of whom come from considerable distances. Their trade 
iB soSered from competition. Many of them are said to bo giving 
I printing and taking to other occupations. In 1876 (Aug. 17) 
ksteam apinuing mill with engines of fifty horse power and 9744 
(indies, 6584 of them mule and 3360 throstle,, was at a cost of 
^ . — _ 

. 'Rmm bottles or kundds, madQ by men of the Babgar caste, vaiy in price from 
^w5i.andin capacity from Goto 20O pounds (H to 5 mans.) 

Chaptar VL 



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[Bombay Guettmv 



Chapter TI. 




£48,500 (Rs. 4,85,000) started at Nadiad. Of the 400 £100 shsra 
only 239 bad been taken up. Tbe sbarebolders belonged chiefly to 
Bombay. Hardly any local residents bad any interest in the miL 
Forced to borrow to make up deficiencies and meet expenses, in spite 
of tbe local advantages of cheap cotton and labour and large local 
demand, from heavy interest, dull trade, and cheap yam Uie mill 
worked at a loss and after 2^ years (Dec. 1878) had to be closed. 
While at work the mill employed nearly 300 hands, two-thirds of 
them local, Hindus of the Ehedaval Br&hman, Khatri, Tapodhan, 
Kanbi, Koli, Y&ghri, and Bavalia castes and Musalmans in ftboat 
equal numbers. Monthly wage payments averaged about £260 
(ns. 2600) and the yearly consumption of cotton about 857 tons 
(1000 khandis). The cotton came from Ahmedabad, Yiramgwn, 
Wadhwan, Baroda, Broach, and sometimes from Surat. The yarn 
was sold chiefly in the Kaira, Baroda, and Ahmedabad districts and 
in smaller quantities in Kathi&wdr, Palanpar, and Pali. 

Glass-making has its headquarters at Kapadvanj. The worlen 
are Musalm&ns. The glass is made in large earthen furnaces in 
form like huge slipper baths, the floor sloping forwards to holes 
prepared to receive the melted glass. The furnace inside is baked 
as hard and looks as white and slippery as ice. The component 
parts of the • glass are alkali, vs, and impure carbonate of sodiy 
sajji khdr, and a dark coloured flinty sand from Jeypur. These 
are mixed together, placed in the furnaces, and thoroughly hoQel 
for hours. When ready the boiling mass is allowed to run into I 
trench where it remains till cool. It is then broken into small 
pieces, remelted, and in this liquid state made into banglcB, beadSf 
bottles, glasses, and fancy animals chiefly peacocks. The last are 
extremely thin and brittle, smashing to pieces when touched.' Tbe 
produce of the Kapadvanj glass factories goes chiefly to Bombay 
and Kathiaw&r. 

Soap is manufactured by Musalm&ns. It is made by mixiBg 
alkali, soda, and lime in water and allowing them to soak for some 
hours. The water is then drawn off and a quantity of mahuda oOf 
doliu, is added, and the whole boiled in large brick caldrons. 
When ready the mixture is run off into shallow brick troughs anl 
left to cool. It is then gathered into a large heap, pounded witk 
heavy wooden mallets, and cut into round cakes. According to tbi 
amount of mahuda oil it contains, soap varies in price from \^» ^ 
3(2. (1-2 annas) the cake.' It is sent to Ahmedabad, Sora^ 
Broach, K&thi&w&r, and Bombay. The soap trade is entirely in tbi 
hands of Musalmans of the D&udi Bohora sect. 

A district whose wealth and traffic are almost entirely agricul! 
has naturally little trade organization. The use of the 
mahdjan or great men is entirely social, applied to the ™^^^^. . 
the Vdnia, Shr&vak, and Soni castes. They have no gnilda ^'j 
trade purposes, and among none of the artisan dasses does t»; 
practice of apprenticeship prevail. 

* Bom. Gov. Sel., CXIV., 721. 

« Bom. Gov. SeL, CXIV., 722. 

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Ceossbd by so many of the cliief lines of traffic between upper Chapter VII. 
and central India and the coast^ the district contains settlements History, 

rf very great antiquity.^ Under its different Rajput dynasties 
(746-i290) the lands of Kaira were, except perhaps. Thdsra and 
Kapadvanj, included in the settled and directly-managed portions of 
|ke AnhiMda domain. At the end of the fourteenth century they 
|ttsed nnder the Musalm&n kings of Ahmedabad, and with the other 

iwn lands were in 1573 transferred to the Moghals.* From about 

lOto 1750 the district was the scene of almost unceasing con- 
between the Mardth&s and the Mosalmdn viceroys and nobles. 

:cept that the Kaira estate was for ten years left m the hands of 
Sbe Bdbi family, on the capture of Ahmedabad (1753) the districts 
jlere shared between the Peshwa and the Gaikwar, and remained 
Jiith them till made over to the British^ partly in 1803 and partly 
A 1817. 

I ^ See Kaira and Kapadvanj. 

' Except Kapadvani, the whole of the district was included in Xodar Mai's Snrvey 
ll»0).-Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec., n. of 1821, 672. 

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[Bombay Sawttarr 







Past of tHe lands of the district came into Britisli possession in 
1803, and the rest in 1817. Under the terms of the treaty oE 
Bassein (1802, December 31st) the Nap4d group of villages w» 
handed over by thePeshwa.* In 1803, for the maintenance of th»; 
troops supplied by the British Government, theGraikwdr ceded Nadiid^ 
Matar, and Mahudha.* In this year also, the Gaikw4r granted in 
perpetual gift the fort and town of Kaira, as a proof of his friendship 
and as a testimony of his sense of the benefit he received from hi* 
alliance with the Honourable Company^s Government.^ Under th^ 
treaty of the 6th November 1817, to provide for the regular payment 
of additional troops, the Gaikwdr ceded* Mehmadabad, Alina, Thasn^ 
Antroli, and half of the town and district of Petlad.* At the 8am0 
time Kapadvanj and Bh^laj* were received in exchange for tht 
district of Bijdpur in north Gujarat. 

The territories acquired in 1803, along with Dholka, Dhandinka, 
Rdnpur, and Gogha now part of the Ahmedabad district, remained 
from the date of their cession to the 14th May 1805, in charge of tk 
Resident at Baroda. During that time, a European assistant and nati^ci 
officers administered according to local usages the police andjuatioe 
of the country. In 1806 a Collector was appointed with jurisdictiaa 
over the ceded districts, both those to the north of the Mahi and 
those to the west of the Gulf of Cambay^ In the same year the tow* 
of Kaira was chosen to be a large military station. The increase in I 
British possessions, that followed the Gaikwdr treaty of 6th November, 
1817, called for fresh administrative arrangements.* Thai 
territory northof the Mahi was, from the 1st January 1818, divided 
into two districts. Of these, one, now the Kaira district, was caileJ; 

1 Aitchi8on*8 Treatiee, IV., 214—216. 

SNadiid was ceded on the condition that £10,000 (Re. 1,00,000) from the i 
ihonld be annually paid to Malhikrrdv G^wdr. When Malhiniv fled (1803J, th»{ 
•ntire revenne lapsed to the British Qoremment. 

* Aitchison's Treaties^ IV., 215 and 219. 

« Aitohison's Treaties, IV., 231, and R«f. III. ofl819. Sea I. 

* For the interests and convenience of both Governments, the right of the Britii^; 
Government to the town of PetUd was, in exchange for the town of Umreth, t^*^ 
ferred to the Gdikwir.— Reg. III. of 1819, Sec. I. 

* Aitohison's Treaties, IV., 232, and Beg. I. of 1817. Sec. XL 
'Reg. II. of 1805, Sec. V. 

* Aitchison*s Treaties, IV. ^ 226-231. 

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ihe Eastern^ and the other^ now the Ahmedabad district/ was called 
ihe Western Zilla. In 1830 Kapadvanj was included in Ahmedabad^ 
and Kaira reduced to a sub-collectorate under the Principal Collector 
el Ahmedabad. In 1833 Ahmedabad and Kaira were again sepa- 
nted. Since then^ more than once> villages have been moved 
bom one district to the other^ and the original irregular groups and 
collections of villages have been gradually consolidated into seven 
fttb-divisions. Of these^ under the Collector's charge^ three are 
generally entrusted to the covenanted first assistant, three to the 
mcovenanted district deputy collector, and one kept by the 
Collector under his own control. The supervision of the district 
I'inasnry is in the hands of another uncovenanted assistant styled 

head-quarter, huzur, deputy collector.* These officers are also 
its to the Collector as district magistrate, and those of them 

have revenue charge of portions of the district have, under the 

idency of the Collector, the chief management of the different 
itrative bodies, local fund and municipal committees, within 

limits of their revenue charge. 

Under the supervision of the Collector and his assistant or deputy, 

' ) revenue chajrge of each fiscal division of the district is placed in 

I hands of an officer styled mdmlatdd/r. These functionaries, who 

» also entrusted with magisterial powers, have yearly salaries vary- 

ffrom£180 to £300 (Rs. 1800-R8. 3000). One of the fiscal divisions, 

contains a petty division, peta mahdl, placed under the 

I of an officer styled mahdlkari on £72 (Rs. 720) a year. The 

' of this officer is to collect cesses from the Cambay State, and to 

". the money to the Borsad treasury. 

In revenue and police matters, the charge of the 525 Government 
"is entrusted to 573 headmen, of whom twenty-three are stipen- 
7 and 550 are hereditary. Thirty-one of the hereditary, but none 
the stipendiary, headmen perform revenue duties only ; forty -seven 
the former and three of the latter attend to matters of police only. 
Me twenty stipendiary and 472 hereditary headmen are entrusted 
"*^ both revenue and police duties. The headman's yearly pay 
inds on the revenue derived from his village. It varies from 
to £65 (Rs. 10-650) the average receipts amounting to £6 6«. 
63). Besides the headman, in many villages members ' of his 
ly receive Government grants amounting altogether to a yearly 
of £1673 (Rs. 16,730), of which £309 (Rs. 3090) are met by 
N?nments of land and £1364 (Rs. 13,640) are paid in cash. Of 
*4575 (Rs, 45,750), the total yearly charge on account of village 
keadmen, £658 (Rs. 6580) are met by assignments of land and £3917 
pis. 39,170) are paid in cash. 

^Reg. in. of 1819, Sec. III. 

Till the Burve;^ Bettlement is introdaoed a third nnoovenanted aMistant styled 
iganicfr Ib sanctioned for the Panch MahAls districts. This officer works under the 
vHlector of Eaira during the rainy season, and during the fair weather under the 
tt^ First Assistant Collector of the Panch MahAls. 

ITheae men called betha Ihdgia or sitting sharen, are without doing any work 
^"wlid toasfaare of the office perquisites. 

Chapter Tin. 




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[Bombay Qasetteir, 









The village accotintants^ ialdtis, who under the headmen keep 
the village accounts and draw up statistical and other Tetijui, 
number in all 325, or about one accountant for every two vill&ges, 
each charge containing on an average 23-^7 inhabitants and yielding 
an average yearly rental of £584 (Rs. 5840). Their yearly ealariea, 
paid in cash, averaging £19 (Rs. 190) vary from £12 to £24 
(Rs. 120-Rs. 240) and represent a total yearly charge of £6151 
(Rs. 61,510). Besides the stipendiary accountants, there isj m 
Ejipadvanj, an hereditary taldti to whom a yearly cash aHowanoed 
£24 (Rs. 240) is paid. 

Under the headmen and the village accountants are the vilkgeter- 
vants with a total strength of 2949. These men are Uable both fcr 
revenue and for police duties. They are either Musalmans or EiEdns 
of the Bhil, Koli, Dhed, and Bhangia castes. The total yearly grmi 
for the support of this establishment amounts to £6901 (R^, 09,^^^)), 
being £2 6». (Rs. 23) to each man, or a cost per village of £IB 
(Rs. 130); of this charge £3689 (Rs. 36,890) are met by ae^L"^ 
ments of land and £3211 (Rs. 32,110) are paid in cash. 

The yearly cost of village establishments may be thus smin^f^riAtii: 
headmen and their families £6248 (Rs. 62,480) ; account^iuts £617? 
(Rs. 61,750) ; servants £6901 (Rs. 69,010) ; total mn 
(Rs. 1,93,240). This represents a charge of £34 (Rs. 340) on edi 
village or ten per cent of the entire land revenue of the district. 

Section L—1803. 

The administrative history of the district includes two eectioni: *M 
condition at the time of transf er.and its progress under British manage* 
ment. The parts of north Gujarat, made over to the Briti.«li m \^^ 
(December 31st), formed three belts : one between the NarbfwlR ^ 
Mahi, a second between the Mahi and Sabarmati, and a third to tlie 
north and west of the Sabarmati. These territories varied KJcck ifl. 
condition and in the character of their people. The southern belt waa 
orderly and ready to receive a regular administration ; tEe central, 
with many villages of peaceful and well-to-do cultivators, contained a 
warlike and unruly class ; and of the northern, especially we^twar^' 
to Kathiawdr, a large part were Koli and Rajput states inclidi^ 
within the British territory and subject to a tribute, but in othef 
respects left to manage tbeir own affairs. The strength of tbii 

^ Materials for the Administrative History of Eaira are nnnsually complete. 1^ 
include Col. Walker's Reports 1804-1805 (Bom. Gov. Sel., New Series, XXXiX.): ^f 
Bowie's Reports 1814-1816 (Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec. 102 of 1815 and 1BI6 ; l'<- 
Robertson's Reports 1819-1820 (Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec. 149 of 1820) ; Hon. M, V^luj 
stone's Minute 1821 (East India Papers, III., 677-709) ; First Survey Reports M>li* 
(Bom. Gov. SeL XL); Mr. Williamson's Report 1826 (litho. Papers HUj ^i^ K'^l 
Malcolm's Minute 1830 (Litho. Papers 148, 1-62,); Mr. Elphinston*i ; Statnti *t 
reports, 1854 & 1865 (Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec. 52 of 1866 and 29 of 185S) ; R««^« 

Report (15th February 1865) and for the &ve ^eare ending 1877 mach ^^'^ 
information on the trade and state of the district m Mr. Sheppard's yearly Aon^'^'^ 
tration Reports. 

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disorderly class ; the number of half subdued Bajput and Koli chief- 
teins; the unsettled tributaries of Kdthidwdr ana Mahi Kdntha ; the 
eontdnual interlacing of British lands with those of the Gdikwdr, the 
Peshws, and the Nawdb of Cambay ; and the numerous and ill-defined 
ienures in almost every village combined to make the country 
beyond the Mahi harder to manage than any part of the Company's 

The lands of the central belt, the present district of Kaira, were 
cfetribufced over the sub-divisions of Nadidd, Mdtar, and Mahudha, 
the estate of Eaira, and the Ndpdd and Khdri village groups, tappds. 
The villages belonged to three classes, the quiet rdsti, the refractory 
mhvis or girds, and an intermediate class the rdsti-mehvds. The cen- 
iaI lands of Nadiad and Nap&d, and to a less degree those of Mdtar 
md Mahudha, were almost free from the turbulent classes. But in the 
aiitlTing tracts, both to the north and the south-east, was a large unruly 
population and many unsettled villages both of the Rajput or girds, and 
jf the KoU or mehvds, types. Of the claims put forward by the two 
inBiim of holders of unruly villages, those of the Rajputs, as the rulers 
)£ tke land at the time of the Musalm&n conquest, and as at once 
fte more warlike and more civilized race, were more respected than 
iose of the Kolis. Though they probably at one time held the 
floie country, the Kolis would seem to have been considered 
rebellious, or at least refractory villagers, who had from its weakness 
(tested or eluded the just claims of the former Government. Both 
fwd » tribute, and Grovemment might raise its amount. But it was not 
^^ to interfere with the inner management of their villages or to 
?mmine their revenues. Compared with the lands to the north of 
ie SSbarmati,^ the Kaira district had few unruly villages of the 
ii]put class. Its Koli or mehvds villages, chiefly to the east and 
<»uth, under chiefs, thdkors,^ were most of them wretched groups 
i tliatched beehive-like huts. Some of them included several 
fiitinot hamlets, vds, each with boundaries^ husbandmen, and a chief 
ȣitB own, responsible for a certain share of the whole Government 
IsniaTid on the village. Compared with the peaceful villages, the 
f veaae they yielded was small, the amount fixed more by the chiefs 
»wer of resisting than by his ability to pay. Rebellious and 
Riibordinate, many of the refractory villages especially those near 
leilahi, except under pressure of force, refused to pay their tribute.^ 

h 1821 after many fnehvd8 villages liad beoome quiet, there remained seventy-two. 
; Him. Dee. of Hindustdn, I., 622. 

The application of girds to Rajput and mehvds to Koli villages was first clearly 
|M^ by Mr. Elphinatone (1821). Colonel Walker (1804) did not bring out tlus 

^ In support of tiie distinction Mr. Elphinatone contended that mehvds was used 

1 iie sense of refractory, and that as all independence on the part of a Koli waa 

^«ned usurpation and was not in a Rajput, the term had come to be limited to 

i \iWsims (East India Papers, III., 708). This word was, apparently in the 

>e of forest, used m Gujar&t in the twelfth century (Ind. Ant. iV. 74 and 76). 

w ipng^n has recently (Major J. W. Watson, Ind. Aut. VI. 79) been traced to 

fdi'.rig j;j^^ £g ^{ahi dwelbngs. This would fairly well explain its Gujardt and 

^itnl India meaning. But the use of it by Minh4ju-s-Siraj (about 1250), to 

'^*^1>e wild and forest lands between the Qanges and Jamna, mi^es this local 

^¥uuti(m doubtful (Elliot's Hist. II. 862 and note.) Professor M. M. Kunte 

B 167-11 

Chapter TUl- 






'"> t, Ci K^-'^'^^ - 

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(Bombay 6a»ttair, 

Oiapter Till, In qniet or rasti villages, the lands were divided into two dasm, 

- — - those made over to private persons either free of rent, nakru, or oni 

Adin^Btratkm- qnitrent, salami, and Government or sarkdri lands let out for tiUaga 

The private or alienated lands claimed to be grants made either 

^^^" by Government or by village managers. Government grants wert 

Alienated landa. either religions, vazifa, political, vdnta and maliki, or to foster irrigt* 

tion, kuvetar. Village grants were to please dangerous neighboun, 

girds, pagia, hdria, koliapa, and dahdnia ; to rewsurd village Bervioes^ 

Sasdita, Mria, ramvatia, and pdlia; to rednce the pressure of 
overnment demand, vechdnia and girdnid. Of GoverDinest 
religious grants, vazifa, properly a Musalm&n religious grant, wri 
used to include all personal grants by MusalmiLn rulers, whether at 
charity, favour, or in return for service. The area of land beld 
under this tenure was smalL Of Government political grants the 
v^nta or share lands were originally allotted by king Ahmed L 
(141 1-1443) to the former Rajput proprietors, and either left in their 
hands or restored to them by the Emperor Akbar (1583). Under the 
Mar^h&s, by sale, mortgage, and encroachment, the share had ii 
most cases ceased to form any thing like the one-fourth part of the 
whole village area. Still, in Colonel Walker's (1804) opinioQ, thft 
right to the share * maintained bv arms and by an unconqneraUb 
sentiment was secured to the holders by imiversal consent, andvas,- 
when he wrote, ' unimpaired in its privileges.'^ The boundaries et 
the shore were marked off, and there was generally a distinct qnsrtdi 
of the village where the holder of vdnta lands and his dependenli 
lived.^ Lands of this class were, in some cases, held by the whoU 
family as joint property, in others, kept in separate shares, or managw 
for the owner by the village headman. Under the head of vtrnM 
comes sirjamin, land granted by a holder of vdnta for the nainti^ 
nance of his wife. Even if the rest of the share escheated U 
Government, this part remained in the hands of the woman's heitA 

Twi^uva The other chief political Government grant was to the dass a 

Musalm&ns called Maliks. These Maliks were descendants of soldieri 
who, for their special valour at the siege of P&v&gad (1483), were \ 
Mahmud Begada (1459-1513) presented with about ninety squaii 
miles of land on the banks of the Mahi to the north and north-easto 

) ^ « t (5th April, 1879, ) baa kindly offered the foUowing ezplaziation. ' I would dtfrre mm 

/)\J4^. /^'-^ ^ or mdivdsitom the Sanacrit meaa a sheep, a word still used in the Marithi madk 

s I ' vdda {mefojvdtah) * sheep-pen, and in the phrase- fntthd-pdtra aheepish used of 

M • A^ ^ />-*^»^ timpleton or milksop. The word mewl» is, I think, a relic of an old divaioa 

^ ' f J. the country into tmmiuyo-vdsa or gr&mjo. the men's quarters and meMi-vdM, t 

o.^^ww*>-<'^^C/" • sheep^nartersi the ontlying and nntiUed tracks.' 

^ ^ \ Bom. Got. SeL SXXiX., New Beries, 23. Later on (1821) this origin of «bi 

was disputed. Mr. Prendergast (29th June 1821) objected to the explanation giv 
in the text, hold»ff that v&nla lands were encroachments. But Mr. ElphiniM 

kept to Colonel Walker's view. In his opinion, under the old Hindu ''"^ 

the Bajputs divided the countrv amonff their chiefs relations, and the 

when they came kept three-fourths and left a one-fourth share to the Bajpnt 
(£ast India Papers, III., 708. Bee also Mr. Williamson's report in Bom. Got. ^ 
Papers, 149, 9). In some cases the original share had probibly been added 
by force. Thus, Mr. Diggle (15th August 1806) mentions GiriLri^ ploughing vilb( 
lands with a lighted matchlock on the plough to keep the villagen&om * ' *^^ 
with them. 
% Mr. Wmiamaon.— Bom. Oct. Litiio. Papers, 149, 9. 

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Thisra. At the time of the grant these lands were divided among 
twelve villages^ ; in 1817, when with the rest of Th&sra they came 
under British role, they numbered seventeen; and in 1864 had 
increased to twenty-seven. For more than two hundred years, taking 
lukU of the produce from the cultivators, the Maliks continued to 
hold these villages rentfree. About the beginning of the eighteenth 
oentaiy the Peshwa^s Government imposed a lump tribute, udhcufd 
jumdbandi on the maliki villages, the amount varying according to 
tiie BQccess of the Maliks in resisting the Mardtha demands. To 
IMet this tribute, the Maliks put a property cess, karam veroj on 
fteir tenants and reduced their own share of the produce, vaje^ 
jbm a half to a third. Fifty years later (1769) the Mardth&i 
pt forward another claim in the shape of support, ghdsddna, for 
the G&ikw&r's revenue collecting force. Some of the villages also 
became liable to a payment to the B&bi of B&l&sinor. These 
fxactions were met out of the property cess, karam vero, but in some 
pffs the Maliks were so hard pressed, that to meet the demand they 
kd to part with a considerable quantity of land. In 1817, when 
Jhfera came under British management, accountants were placed in 
I Ae Maliki villages and a field register of all the lands was prepared. 
M acreage rate was imposed on Government land s not tilled by 
;fte Uahks, and a quitrent on the alienated land. ^As the Maliks 
01 levied special cesses to meet their tribute to the GAikwir and 

feliih\ of ^^dsinor, the new assessment pressed the cultivators so 
I, that they began to desert their villages. To prevent this a new 
•Uement was made in 1819. The cesses on the cultivators of 
p^emment land, not in the Maliks' hands, were consolidated into one 
Iffeage rate varying considerably according to the cultivator's caste, 
fie Maliks Were to continue to hold the lands they tilled rentfree, 
kid from other unalienated land, instead of the produce bhare, were to 
iBCover a fixed money payment. As to the Gdikwdr'a tribute^ 
Povemment in some cases agreed to pay the whole, and in others only 
pe half. Two years later, &ilure of crops forced a reduction of 
ent, the loss of revenue being borne in somewhat larger 
►rtion by Government than by the Maliks. In 1824 
eminent accountants were withdrawn from the Maliks' villages, 
dthe privilege of self -management, granted to the Koli and Rajput 
■ ' in 1821, was extended to the Maliks. Soon after, the villages 
on pajring Government a lump sum leased to the Maliks, and 
were left free to alter the rates of assessmen t as they chose, 
leases lasted till 1837 when the arrangement sanctioned in 1 819 
1823 was again introduced. In 1843 and again in 1850 district 
jfficers complained that the Maliks had so adjusted the assessment, 
pt while tie Grovernment share had been reduced by one- half the 
plik's share was about one-fourth larger than in 1819 and the 
Wowing years. But Government were unwilling to interfere till 
I860, on the introduction of the revenue survey, the Maliks were 
if they would continue to manage their villages, paying 
emment a fixed rental. To this they would not agree, stating 
the number of sharers was too great to give them any chance 

I^MOla (1828) in his Jamdbandi report speaks of them as iAiebdrgdm or twelve 





i - 

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[Bomliay OasetiM 

Ouster VnL of managing their villages sncoeesfnlly. After a detailed inquiry mio 

j~l the state of the different villages^ Goyemment finally decided to 

AdinmistratiAii. adopt the proposal of Mr. Pedder^ the settlement officer^ that the 

1803* villages should be managed by Government officers under the ordinaiy 

survey rules, and that the Maliks should be allowed to hold Us 

lands cultivated by themselves in 1819 rentfree^ and for therosi 

receive a share varying from seven to nine sixteenths of the 

revenue. Village accountants chosen by the Maliks were appointed 

and paid by Government.^ 

The Government grants in favour of irrigation were kuvetar ot 
well lands given to the builder of a well. 'Die scale varied accord* 
ing to the cost of the well and the amount of land watered. Bat the 
rule was about three-quarters of an acre (1^ bighds) for each pair of 
bullocks that could be employed in drawing water. 

Of village grants to please dangerous neighbours the chief was 
girds, literally a moutMul. In Kaira at the beginning of British 
rule^^tro^ in almost all cases meant a sum paid to a powerful neig^bonr 
for protection and assistance or to an unruly villager as the price rf 
forbearance. Originally the words girds and girasia were applied 
to rightful hereditary Rajput claims. But during the eighteentb 
century misrule, the terms had been extended to the demands of aH 
who to the will added the power to annoy. The claim generaDf 
rested on prescriptive enjoyment. It was seldom supported IjJ 
written deeds, and its levy by force was the cause of much misery 
and uneasiness. Under the British Government an arrangemer^ 
was at an early date (1812) introduced, under which instesd 
of levying them by force the girdsids agreed to attend at tli| 
Gk>vemment offices and be paid their claims. They were at the &iA 
time made to furnish security for orderly behaviour. They weft 
bound to help in suppressing gang robberies, and warned that i 
caught in any disturbance, they should forfeit their allowanoea^ 
Under the same head come pagia, haria, and koliapa all of theA 
lands held by Kolis. These, the holders declared, were originally 
assigned to them in the same way as vdnta lands were assigned to tlfl 
Rajputs. Grants of this kind may have been made, but they weii 
probably much added to by the Kolis, as it was a common practica 
with men of this class to hire a field from the manager of a villaga. 
and after paying rent for a year or two, trusting to the timidity (f 
the other villagers, to declare that it was family, hdpUa land. SonH; 
of the grants of this class, especially those caUed pagia or trackeiip 
land, had another origin. They were given in reward for tractdfll 
thieves and to make the holder responsible for all thefts traced i^ 
the village. As a rule conditions of this kind were neglected 
denied. To this class may be added dabdnia, a general term 
lands acquired either by usurpation or encroachment and kept 
the threat of injuring the village manager. 

Of grants made in reward for village services besides thepojiftW 
tracker^s land, were pasdita, hdria, ranvatia, and pdlia. ragaSH^ 
originally religious grants to Br&hmans and Bh&ts, to temples and M 

1 Bom. Gov. Sel., CXIV., 311-406. 

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dittritable institutions^ came to be applied to grants by village 
managers to sub-division and village officers. Grants of this kind 
were generally marked by the name of the holder's office as desdi or 
saperintendenf s pasditay amin or assistant saperintendent's pcudita, 
Vkirdvania or watchman's pasdita. The holder would seem to have 
been allowed to dispose of the land as he pleased. When the first 
grant was disposed of^ the office either fell into disuse or was 
Inpported by fresh grants of land. Hdria the victim's field, ranvatia 
the warrior's field, and pdlia the tombstone field, were grants made 
hf village officers in return for loss of life in the cause of the 
village. Hdria was land granted to the family of a man slain in 
goarfing the village ; ranvatia land granted to the femily of a villager 
llain in an attack on some enemy ; and pdlia a field granted that the 
iamij of a religious man, a Brdhman or a Bh&t, who had killed 
liimself in the interest of the village, might set up a tomb in his 

Of grants made by village managers to relieve the pressure of 
Government demands, the chief were v echd'tii a land sold, and 
^ rm land mortgaged. Lands disposed of in this way were held 
wlier rentfree or subject to a qmtrent.^ The mortgaged lands 
iwre of three kinds : simple, where the property was to be held till 
ike debt was paid; valaiddnia, where after paying interest the 
|roduce of the land was to go to clear off the bond ; udera, where 
B a certain time the land was to go back to the mortgagor ; and sdn, 
lAere the land was pledged by the owner but not handed over 
Wess he failed to pay. During the time of Mardtha exactions, the 
Inctice of making these grants was carried so far, that in 1804 in 
iadiid of 34,436 acres only 10,183, and in Ndpdd of 7046 acres 
iriy 1942 paid Government assessment. A large number of these 
frwits were fraudulent. The sale or mortgage was nominal. The 
tillage managers paying a quitrent, tilled the land or transferred 
• to their own names with an entry that they had been received in 
techange for some valuable consideration. 

Cultivators of Government, (^talpat) lands in peaceful,^ra«<y 
fHDages, generally held them under one of three tenures. The 
Stemmonest was for the cultivator to have a certain area of land 
**"**'^d to him, some of it good, some of it middling, and some of it 
He paid only on the land under actual cultivation ; and so 
; as he paid, it was understood that he could not be turned out. 
g~- second was known as khdtdbandi or the holding system* 
pfeder it the cultivator held a perpetual lease of some very good soil 
lud with it a share of inferior but very lightly taxed land. A 
grttdn sum was fixed on the entire holding, and this had to be paid 
Hiether or not it was all tilled. A superior form of the khdta tenure 
W^ when the allotment of land was called vejita. On the allotted 
paid a very high assessment, in some cases six times as much as it 
^oold naturally pay, was charged. The amount of land allotted to 

*i cultivator, varying from half an acre to two acres, depended 

Chapter YUL 


.^^ ^/t i^M 

' /Ci^t^'^ ^i'^^t^i iT' 
Covemmeat Land, 

" ' L '* 

^ Qoitrents, Midmi, varied from a few pence an acre to the full 


put on, the oaitrent was generally kept and Bometimes raiaed.— Mr. 
Gov. litho. Papers, 149, 14. 






Goyonmeat land. 


^VM. CJ**^ 

cliiefly on the alienated land in liis hands^ which he conthnifid to 
hold either rentfree or subject to a quitrent. If his state improyed, 
he was forced to add to his share of vehia^ and if unlucky, he wae 
allowed io give some up. The holde r of vehia land wag pw^ 
owner of the village. \ He could mortgage the land, and um^ 
the Government raised the village payment, his rent could not be 
increased* In villages where the area of Qovemmentland was too 
small to supply a share for each cultivator, the quantity required was 
taken from the alienated land, and in return a quitrent was paid to 
the owner. In villages where, after the lots were distributeuj soma 
Government land remained over, a rate of payment was fixed, and 
the land, called khotia, was distributed among the v^Ui holdon. 
In villages inhabited only by shareholders the balance of (ha 
alienated land was assesse d and distributed in the same way as Ichotia 
land.^ The principle of vAta and khdta lands, the allotment of a 
certain area of greatly over-assessed land, was the same. Both 
were remnants of the perfect sharehold or narva village described 
below. Both in sharehold and in vekta viUa^es the body of owneia 
were liable for the whole Gt)vemment demand. They differed inthis^ 
that in a perfect sharehold or narva village each member paid 
according to his hereditary share ; in a vehta village the share vuied 
according to the member's power to pay. In a khdtdbandirSiBfi^ 
the management was in the hand of a contractor or GovemineaQi 
oflScer and the joint responsibility had ceased. The third practico 
was for the cultivator to take out a written lease, ganvatj engaging 
to till the land for one year. This land, lying in most cas6| 
beyond the enclosed parts of the village, was too poor to have fixed 
holders. It was generally tilled by uparvddids or workmen from a 
neighbouring village.' If a cultivator kept on tilling the sazn* 
field for severalyears, he would have to take out a running lease of 
ehMu ganvat Under this arrangement there was no regular cesi^ 
bighoti, for the different qualities of land; the rate varied with. 
the crop, or each field had its own rate. Unless he gave notice) a 
cultivator had to pay the cess on all the land he held.* 

Except (Government grants and hereditary shares, the lands veiv 
not the property of the holders ; they were let out to the cultivators by 
the village headmen. If the cultivator failed to pay his share, lua 
crops, and except his tools, his property were attached, Govenimeat 

1 A Tillage so held was caUed narva. It differed from the ordinaiy RarM^ 
beoanae the division was not as in the ordinaiy foim according to the regular ffip^ 
roles of division, bnt was acoordins to the holder's means. Captain Robertson pm 
this as an example of the details of a vehta holding. lUmdAs luiyardis of the TiUafr 
of Majtral holds altogether 56 acres of land, and pays a rent of £14 18*. (Bi. 149)^ 
Of the 66 acres one and a half of vehta land paid £10 4«. (Rs. 102); 16 acres of q«tt|{ 
rent land paid £4 14«. (Rs, 47); and 40 acres vera held rentfree. — Kaira Ootwin^ 
Eev. Book, 1821. . 

9 Mr. Williamson, Bom. Got. litho. Papers. > 149, 6. Leases were alsognntaT 
in certain special cases. In the small state of Eaira the land was (1804) leaied w 
tiie coltiyators for terms of from three to five years, the caltivators engaging to pi^ 
«ither half of the crop in kind or its money value. It was also the costam fiv 
revenue fanner when he found a village ruined or waste to lease it The ' 
might again parcel out the lands of the village in leases.— CoL Walker (1804) 
Gov. Sel.,XXXIX.,9, 26. 

8 Capt Robertion, Eaira Bey. Oatwwd Book, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

O^^^ ^^p^ ^^..^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^^ 

r -^/t >^.-.^ t^**,^:^^^ »*-»»«. ^^ ''-^*^^' -^ -^/("^Si 

h ''^"-^' ^ z^" A^A-u^-^.^ 7& >w_' d:^..^ ^..t:^^; 


[^--*rv^^^^^<^ 7^-^iL i:^;^ ^^.,?^*, -T A/.^- «~-i, ^ 

M^ UMMored by Xo«Ur MaL Though the syatem ia not oaraum^ uu>..^ __ 
■IMweincnt* are said to have been : five cnbita, measured by the arma of five difierent 
W*. ratm one niatxM ; tv^enty vtatnMt, one eoM ; and a square, measuring twenty 
Pn each way, one higha. Todar Mai's settlement ia said to have continued ia 
MHnnta the derth of the£mperor Annngieb (1707).-Boni. Gov. SeL, N«ir Series 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


[Bombay Guettoer, 

Otapter TIIL on shops, trades, honses, and hearths, on the non-landholdmi; 
T ^^ classes.* The object of the cesses on tillage was to draw a revenue 

JbtefaiistratioiL from rentfree land. To prevent the payment of cesses bearing too 
jgQ^ 1^*^ ^^ ^^^ tenant of revenue paying land, a reduction of the bod 

tax equal to the amount of the cess was often made. Besides the 
indirect cesses rentfree lands were made to contribute in two ways, 
by an acreage qnitreift or saldmi, and by a varying cess or svid 
on Government cultivators who tilled rentfree lands. 
Village organization. There were four forms of village government. The commonest 
known as the simple, seja, form, was for the village headman to 
engage annually for the payment of a certain sum to Qovemment 
The headman realized the amount of the demand according to the 
established rates and cjustoms of the village, the rights of the ownen 
of alienated lands and of cultivators of every sort remaining 
^ fs, unchanged. The profits of a good year went to the headman and he 

/* jv*'" had to bear any loss from failure of crops or short tillage. Another 

/ I form of management, common in the richer Kaira villages, was the 

"^ j narva or share system. Under this the headman's responsibility was 

] divided among the members of his family. In such cases the differ- 
ent branches of the family were traced back to their oommos 
ancestor, and the village divided into as many shares, bhag, as tint 
ancestor had sons. Each share was made over to the representatim 
of one son, and they divided it into as mftu y loft^ as there were men 
in their branch. The head ol^each branch whs caUeA bhagddr (X 
pateL He acted for the other shareholders, but interfered in no wiy 
with their management of their shares. Sometimes the headmanll 
yi /^ &mily tilled the whole village. In other cases there was only one 

^g^ ^v^ ^ shareholder in each branch, and again the shares were occasionally 

/^ yAA-*^ i^^u^ sold and outsiders brought in. When there was only one share- 
^K>v<^ '^ bolder in a branch, it was common for him to have under him d^ifMt 
JO^ ^-4^ r ^^ jjjgj^ ^^^ jj^ ^jjg actual work of tillage. Though the shareholder 

^ > might turn him out, the power was seldom used, and the sub-tffliani 

was as a rule well ofi. The sharer supplied him with a house^ catth^ 
and manure, and advanced him money. He generally paid in kind, 
and it suited the sharer to use him well as he then had time to take 

Srfc in village politics and stir up disputes, the chief pleasures of hie 
e.* Every year the Government demand, dnkdo, was divided 
equally among all the branches, and in every branch each share* 
holder had a lot, phdlay assigned to him. If he failed to pay, he 
forfeited his right to the land, and the other sharers might force his 
to give it up. But even though he gave up hh ?iharo and left th« 
village, a shareholder might come back and on paying compen^tiija 

^ The oliief ceBseB were the plough tuE, hvU or Midh veto ; the ddidi tii, ^H 
vero ; the water t&x, ptini vcro, gen&r&Wy on newcomera ; tbe arma ceaa, tlkdrtik r^H 
on tut-bulent aod warlike clads^ ; tbo cArc&se tajt, pot wro, pwd by Uaot^n 3- j 
de*d animalB ; tbe leave tax, rajfj irro, for right to cut cropa ■ the K*thi^ tn^'l 
kdthi pdl vtm, at first a contribution to buy off tlie Kdthis, afterwarda nml r^l j 
the Goverumeat reveoae ; a tail tax, puchhi i^eri*^ on btillocka aad bnffaloo ; - 'i^*' 
tax, koftah Vffro. (Mr. WOliamaou, Bom, Gov. Litho. Paper*, 149, 17.) InBonii p^*^ i 
each person paid hia own tax ; in others, tbe headman of a dam paid the whoit eJA*-l 
ftSBeBJunent and mottled how much each family ahoold ^vo, ^ 

* CfLptMJi EoWtson, Kaira Eev, Outward Badi, 1B2L 

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claim bis land. The responsibility for other sharers was not always 
enforoed.^ Sometimes the loss in lapsed, parela, shares was so 
heavy, that the solvent sharers were unable to meet it. In such cases 
(he Uipsed share was managed by Government.' When, as often 
happened, the shares did not include the whole village arable land, 
the balance called the undivided, majmun, land was managed fo r 
GoTemment by the headman, bhdgddr. Except when they bought 
one of the shares, strangers almost never cultivated in a sharehold 
liage. The whole village site was parcelled among the shareholders, 
and no new comer could find a house.' 

The two other forms of village management were only occasionally 
iworted to. The first called ijdra or farm, was to let the 
Tillage to any stranger willing to agree to higher terms than those 
offered by the village headman. The other called direct, literally 
detailed or kacha management, was to keep the management in the 
hands of Government of&cers ; the headman or some one else chosen 
by Government settling with the cultivators and collecting their rents 
irithoutany avowed profit or any responsibility for the amount. 
Farming and direct management could be introduced both in simple 
tad in sharehold villages. In a simple village managed by Grovem- 
aent direct, the settlement was with the cultivators. If it was farmed, 
flie farmer took the place of Government. In a sharehold village 
naoaged direct. Government set aside the bhagddr or headman and 
floUeoted from each pdtiddr or sharer, leaving him to settle with hia 
ph-tenants. If a joint village was farmed, the farmer might either 
Vttle with the headman or manage the village direct. In either 
flMe hia sole source of profit was the undivided or majmun land, the 
iBit being in effect already farmed to the sharers.^ 

Each year generally in January when the crops were well 
idyanced, the revenue farmers and the district revenue officers, from 
tte state of the crops and the amount paid in the former year, fixed 
Ihe season's demand. A provision was always made for reductions 
lathe event of disturbances, and when the prospects of the season 
Ided an allowance was given. The amount fixed, the headman was 
;Ud responsible for its payment and was called on to name a BhiLt as 
b secnrity. The headman then arranged with the villagers what 
iiehhad to pay and took security from them. The assessment, 
inaetimes in money, sometimes in kind, was paid by instalments, 
iie instalments being generally calculated to meet the cultivator's 


> Mr. WmiMnBon, Bom. Gov. Litbo. Papers, 149, 6. q^g,,^jw***^ ^^ ' 

*Mr. Williamaon, Bom. Gov. litho. Papers, 149, 2. ' 

' Further details of the sharehold village system are given in the Broach Statistical 
Aftcmnt (Bom. Gaz. II., 483). The shares of a village were for convenience kept as 
'^ it car parts of a rupee. Mr. Williamson gives the exaHiple of Sandesar in PetUd. 
I Tillage had seven branches, each with a twelve (Uiha share. To each dnna was ^ 
^hed 17 highds 18 vasds, 16*8 of the m Qm ef am wit land, and 2*10 leatf^ee, or 
bighds in alL Besides thid there were 403*5 bigkds of undivided land, or a 
d total of 1908*5 higJids, The Government demand on each of the seven branches 
^ Ba. 1060 or Bs. 90 on each one dnna share. 90 x 84 the number of one dnria 
Jgnt, dyes Bs. 7560, and this with Bs. 294 from the undivided land, gives a 
MdvOhige payment of Bs. 7854. -Bom. Gov. litho. Papers, 149, 8. 

Chapter YUL 



Village oigaiiintftOO« 

^/*^— '-^ -**%* ^iz 

kL ^ 

B 107-12 

Papers, III., 680^1. 

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Chapter YIIL 



fierenne staff. 



convenience and made to fall about the season of reaping.^ If the 
headman failed to pay his instalment^ the crop was usoally attached by 
the Government manager^ kamdv^isddr, or his agent, and one-half was 
kept and the other half returned. To reap and again to carry the 
crop home, the headman had to get the revenue farmer's leave.* 
On a village, backward in paying its contribution, a fine was levied, 
or a messenger billetted. The billet, mohsal, at the revenue farmer's 
discretion, represented a daily fine varying from 2«. to £10 (Ba. 1- 
Rs. 100). A trooper besides his horse's feed was paid one shilling 
a day, and a footman received his food and one shilling.^ 

The land revenue collecting staff were the manager, kamdvisddr, i 
the sub-division saperin tendon t, desdi, the aub-divii?ion accountant, 
majmnddrj the a^ssistant superintendent, am in paMj the viDag^ 
headman and accountant^ and their securities. Under the Marathis 
the kamdvisddr was aometimea simply a Government agent or 
manager, seeing that the revenue farmer was not misusiDg his powers 
and receiving from hira his yearly payment, and in other cases he 
was both Government agent and revenue farmer. His lease wa* 
generally for a term of from fi^e to seven years, and as a source of 
revenue rather than a means of justice, the civil and criminal 
management of the district was placed under his charge.* Of snb- 
division officers the superintendent or desdi guarded village interc >!?, 
kept open the channels of justice, saw that the cultivators were nol 
oppressed, looked after village improvements, and where necessary 
made advances for sowing- On behalf of Government, he Baperiii- j 
tended the village headmen, supplied all local details likely to help 
in fixing the revenue, and settled boundary and other village disputes- 
Under British management the denttu lost almost all their power 
and position.^ On the other hand, the majmnddrs or sub-divis^^om I 
accountants as registrars of district rural statistics, formed a mo^t ^ 
useful part of the British land revenue sysfcem* In 1821 &ovemmtTjt) i 
wrote that it was their anxious desire to establish or revive this office 
and maintain it in a state of efficiency,^ The amia pafel, thedesdiB 
assistantj inspected the different village accounts and settlements, 
Thongh in these offices the son generally succeeded the father, 
the practice was tolerated rather than admitted as a right. These 
sub - di visi on al office r s form ed a well -to-do class. Be si de s th eir villag© 
fees, daiitnvis^ most of them had, chiefly by taking land in mortgnge, 
acquired considerable estates. But though known as zumindd -. 
they had no claim to the exercise of separate jurisdiction/ 

The village headmenj pateh, the medium o£ intereoorse between 

1 Bom. Gov. Scl, XXXIX,, 10 

* Bom . Gov, Set XXXTX. ,7. * Bom. Got, Sel, XXXIX. , 27- 

* la ]803, at th© time of the transfer of the difltricts north of tb© Mahi, Gfuirtm 
maimg^rft, five^NAdiid, MAtnr, %4»huilh&, Dholka, and Gogha — were simplj agents 
of the Government, entruatcd with the nuperAnsion of the revenue fftrmer^ ancl fiVe^ 
Kiiira, Bijiiptir, Kadi, NipAd, and Dh and huka— were fanuera as well aa areata, ThA 
same man Mas manager of Mahudha and fartu^^r of Kaira-^Bom. Gov. Rev. Bee- 4S 
of 1805, 195^. 

" An allowance ia to be nrndo to the desdis aud thej are by degrees to be dcsie 
away.— Bom, Gov, letter, Rev. Dept., 1070 of 1821* 
« Bom. Gov. letter, Kev. Dvpt,, 1070 of 1821. ? Bom, Got, SeL, XXXCC. M, 

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ihe revenue &Tmer or manager^ kamdvisddr, and the cnltivators, 
were the great agents for fixing the villac^e payments. They govern* 
ed the ^Slage, managed its affairs, and settled its disputes* Each 
Tillage had generally a head family whose members were called 
faid. But among them were one or two of special capacity, the 
matiddra or signers, who alone had the right to sign the village 
agreements. The position was hereditary, and though SLspatels they 
Iield no land, most of them were well off, with in some cases estates 
hrge enough to raise the owner to the rank of landlord or zaminddr.^ 
The villagers made them presents of grain, and in return for their 
sendees, they received from the manager or revenue f&rmer a 
jmvlj allowance depending on the help they had given and amounting 
fa some cases to as much as £600 (Bs. 6000).^ Under the head- 
man was the village accountant^ taldti. This office had ceased to be 
cf any consequence. He was little more than the headman's clerk 
and was paid by a grain allowance from the villagers.' 

The realization of the revenue was protected by an elaborate 
i^m of sureties. Sureties were of two classes, the Bhit, and the 
money-lender, manotiddr. The position of the Bh&t was very import- 
tti In unsettled villages the chief, and in settled villages the 
kadman or manager,, from their feeling of a Bhdt's personal sanctity 
tere, by any threat of his to sit starving before them or to wound 
iMmself, in almost all cases forced to earrv out their agreements. For 
Im farther security of Government and to ensure the prompt pay- 
ittnt of the revenue, a certain class of usurers became, in return for 
p premium, manoti, of twenty-five per cent, sureties to the villagers 
pf the payment of their rent. This custom which had reached its 
peatest height in Dholka prevailed in all the ceded districts.. 

'. In Colonel Walker^s opinion, the Mar&tha system; had the merit 
if being simple and well calculated to ensure the recovery of the 
llTenne. On the other hand, the demand was uncertainf and the 
llfitem liable to abuse and burdensome to the cultivator^ who besidea 
laying high rates had to support his sureties. 

Section n.— 1803^1878. 

Since the district came under British rule, its land adminilBtrationt 
pVf bo roughly divided into three periods i the first from 1803 to 
i814, when the revenues of village groups and single villages were 
hrmed to men of capital and village headmen ; the second from 
MU to 1862, when details of village management were collected and 
lif degrees landholder's liabilities made »mpler, fairer^ and more* 
eertain ; the third since 1862^ when the revenue survey system was 

■f The first year's (1803) mans^ement was successful wii^ receipts 
iKghtly in advance of the estimates.^ By preserving the public 

Chapter TIIL 




*Boin. Gov. SeL, XXXIX, 4. 
•'•BonL Gov. Sel., XXXIX., 4. 

S Bom« Gov. SeL« XXXIX., 5. 

*The increase was in NadiAd from £22,500 to £23,19& ; in MAtar from. £13^000: to 
m,m ; and in Mahudha froia £11,000 to £11^600. 

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peace^ stopping illegal exactions, granting loans for the tiDage of 
arable waste, and recovering illegally sold Government land, Colonel 
Walker calculated that in four or five years the revenue miglit be 
doubled.^ Regarding the future management of the district, Colonel 
Walker (1805, 6th July) was of opinion that the tribute of the Bajpnt 
and Koli chiefs should not be increased ; that they should be called 
on to furnish securities for good behaviour ; be forced to give up 
criminals and engage never to shelter public enemies ; that much of 
the illegally alienated Oovemment land should, as was the practice 
under the Mardth^, be recovered by offering the holders two-thirJ* 
or three-fourths of what they had paid ; and except that the distriDk 
revenue maaager, kamdvisadry should cease to farm the reTenua 
and become entirely a Government agent, the Mar&tha system ol 
revenue management should, until the state of the country was weB 
known, be continued.* Mr. Diggle, appointed Collector in 1805, umA 
with considerable difficulties in his first year of office. A force ol 
two hundred men had to be sent against the Mahi Kolis, who refased 
to pay their tribute, and in the quieter villages distress was cansel 
by money-lenders* raking up old debts and trying to recover them 
under the strict provisions of the Enghsh law. Daring the uexk 
eleven years (1805-1815) Colonel Walker's counsel against changiBJ 
the form of revenue management was carefully followed.' Tk» 
district was distributed over new sub-divisions, each a snitabb 
charge for a manager, kamdvisddr} Villages continued to to 
farmed, some in groups, chiefly to the hereditary district office^ 
dssdis and aminpatelsy and others singly, as a rule to their headme*/ 
Except that the practice of requiring securities was gradually gii* 
up,® that the Government supervision was stricter, and that i»R| 
readiness was shown in hearing complaints and checking abuses, tin 
revenue management remained almost entirely unchanged. Ch 
of the first matters that pressed for settlement was the claims « 
the superior landholders, girdsids. Their way of levying th«« 
demands by force caused much uneasiness. In 1808 Mr. DiggWl 
described them as of barbarous spirit, referring right to the spetfl 

In proof of this he cites the case of Kadiid ^ 
and 10,000 acres of illegally alienated hoAm 

1 Bom. Gov. Sel. , XXXIX, 22. 
10,094 acres of waste arable land 
together at ordinary rates to yield a yearly revenue of £27, 128." 

* Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec., 48 of 1805, 1935—1959. j 

* Few innovations were made and actual possession was not disturbed. The n^ 
maxims and sound principles laid down by Colonel Walker were acted on ^J*M^ 
most marked effect. Sir John Malcolm's Minute of 15th October 1890.— Bom. M| 
litho. Papers, 148, 7. <J 

* Among the Mariltha managers some very excellent servants were fonnd. fl 
rise of revenue in 1805 was chiefly due to their good character and local koovl^ 
(Colonel Walker, July 6th, 1805} and in the next year Mr. Diggle won for ^ 
special exemption from the rule against Government servants engaging in tnde.'j 
Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec, 51 of 1806. J 

" During the first five years villages were chiefly farmed in groups to the dm 
then singly to headmen, and then, though this never became general, by !>■■ 
separate villages to the highest bidders.— East India Papers, III., 686. 

* Capitalist, manotiddr, security was soon given up. BhAt security wMjj 
tinned tiU in 1816 in consequence of the Bhit riot at Mdtar, the practice was ato|t' 
—Ham. Dee. of Hind., L, 692. 

' Consultations, 25th August 1813, "No, 33, quoted in Eiuit India Pfrpen, III« ^ 

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rather than to any deed. Most of their claims^ one of the chief of iShapter VIII* 

[ wiiich was bag moneyj kotldi girds^ were forma of blackmail* Tliej L^d 

I increas&d tkm demands in the moat unfair way. Sometimes village Administratiott. 

' headmea arranged with the girdma to raise his claim on the 1803-1814 

tillage, the headimin at first sharing the apoilj but in the end the 
ffma gaining the whole. Mr. Diggle thought that their claims G»«i« paymente. 
coold not be denied^ as they would join together and find easy shelter 

^,iE the woods and ravines near the Mahi, He anggested that instead 
d being allowed to levy their claims from the villagersj girdsidn 
ghouJd be paid from the Government treasuries. As Government 
peDdonerSj they wonld^ he thought, lose much of their importance. 
In 1811 Mr. Rowles began to act on this proposal p His first task was 
to get the non-resident gim^uis of Kapadvanj to agree that their 
claims should be jmid by (jovernmont and afterwards the principle 
was extended to the local claimants. In 1816 Captain Eobertson 
report^ that in Matar^ Mahudha, Nadiddj and NapAd, arrangements 
hA been made^ and that as settled in 1814-15^ the total yearly cost 
pmeto £2066 (lis, 20,660),^ All farther claims were subjected to 
the strictest scnitiny and very few were bronglit forward. At tho 
iWDe time that they agreed to be paid their claims fi-om the Goveni- 
nj'^nt treasuries, the glrnmis were made to furnish security for good 
bekvioiir, bound to help in Buppressing gang TDbberies, and warned 
fcbt any breach of the peace would entail a forfeiture of their 

Between 1805 and 1815, chiefly from the spread of tillage^ the land Kevenue. 

wrenue rose from £130,015 to £182,187 (Es. 13,O0J50-Ra. 18,21 ,870), 
tie advance on the original rentals amounting in Gdikwar lands to 
twentj-seven and in Peshwa lands^ where former supervision had 
Tj^nkxefj to ninety per cent.^ From 1812 to 1815 wajs a time of 
great prosperity. The Kathidwdr and north Gujarat famine of 1813 
aad 1814 raised produce prices nearly threefold, and as there waa 
no failure of crops in Kaira, mnch wealth peored into the district,^ 

The 6fty years from 1814 to 1863 began with the inquirj into 1814-1863. 

ttie details of village management and the discovery of much 
irreLfularity and fraud. In some of tbe following years especially in 
th settlement of 1810j the Government demand was greatly 
enhanced.* Helped by the unusually high value of field produce, the 
new rates were not at first found oppressive. But with the return of 
ordinary prices complaints of over- assessment became general, la 
1826 and 1827 the rates were lowered^ and in spite of a falling 
market, this relief sufficed till in 1831 and 1832 grain fell to less than. 
lialf of its average money value. Among the agricultural population 
distress was most keen and widespread- Great part of the revenue 
muii not be collectedj and complcants ceased only after Bome years 

' East India Pape^ra, III. , 726. " HauL Dea. of Hmd., L, 690. 

^ llUlet rupee pricta roHe from fifty- 6ve p&tmdfl in 1811 to Hfteeti pouiidB in 1S12. 

* \^ ithont BDy atlditi^jn of territory^ tlie laud revenue rose in 1819 from iJ 157 ,770 
^i 172,731, This iDtireaac IB traced to three aourctts, the leveHLng of asffeaamente, 
*tf- iljscoyery of hidden revenne, and the spreiwi of tillage.— Bom, Gov. Eec 14& of 
1^^ 374 

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Chairter TIIL 







of free remissions^ large rent reductions^ and liigLer grain prices. 
Prom 1838 to 1848 was a fairly prosperous time with moderate 
rates and steady prices. Then, after some years of cheap grain 
and general depression, came in 1857 a demand for produce, and tliis 
continuing for five years, raised the district to much comfort 
and wealth. During this time by fixing the rental as &r as 
possible according to the value of the land, by removing cesses, 
and by granting leases. Government tried to make the land tax fair, 
simple, and unchanging. Bad seasons, low prices, and the fear of 
sacrificing revenue prevented these aims from being fully carried 
out. StUl by the steadily growing knowledge of the district and 
by the constant inquiry and supervision of district officers single 
cases of over-pressure were corrected, rates were equalized, and the- 
grounds of assessment simplified. 

This period (1814-1863) may be conveniently divided into two 
sections, before and after 1831 and 1832, years of great agricultural 
depression. During the first section (1814-1830) the chief event was, ; 
in 1817, the addition to the district of the lands of Petlad, Thasra, 
Bhdlaj, and Kapadvanj. Of these territories Petldd, now Borsad, was 
at the time of acquisition, cultivated like a garden, the houses well 
built and handsome, and the stock of cattle large. But with all ihif 
show of wealth Borsad was rack-rented. Seven of its sharehold 
villages had broken down, and the want of waste land made distress 
all the keener,^ In Thasra the soil was poor and badly tilled, and I 
the cultivators lazy and unsettled.2 Kapadvanj was in a wretched ; 
disorderly state. Prom their retreats among the Mahi ravine% I 
Eolis were in the habit of sallying in large bodies and harassing | 
their quieter neighbours. The population was scanty, and tfi] 
cultivation slovenly. Except Kapadvanj, the villages were littift'j 
more than temporary hamlets of the most wretched huts. So I 
unsettled was the general feeling, that the Kolis used to cut their : 
crops before they were ripe, and earn a living by carting soap to 
Broach and cotton to Malwa. 

As regards produce prices between 1814 and 1830, the district; 
passed through three terms of about five years each. Prom 1814; 
to 1819 a time of cheap grain, then till 1825 high prices, and from; 
1825 to 1830 a rapid fall, ending with prices lower than they hadi 
been since the beginning of the century.' 

The chief administrative measures of this period were, in 1814, thjj 
establishment of a regular staff of paid village accountants, taJdM 
and between 1820 and 1826 the detailed survey of great part of thai 
district. Prom being hereditary village officers, the chief or head^l 
man^s clerks, the village accountants were made paid GovemmeffllJ 
servants and agents. The new accountants were appointed both w\ 

1 Mr. More*8 report of 1822. 

8 Collector's report, 4th June 1824. Of seventy-five villages, thirty were peaoefal^ 
thirteen uneasy, and thirty-two medium. 

9 MUlet, bdjri, prices were between 1814 and 1819, on an average fiftyfoKj 
pounds ; in 1819, twenty-nine pounds ; between 1820 and 1824, on an average fortj-<M| 

Sounds ; in 1828, eighty-one pounds ; in 1829, seventy pounds ; and in WO^ «fr 
nndred pounds. 

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settled^ rdsti, and to unsettled, mehvds, villages. In unsettled villages 
they collected the dues from the chiefs tenants^ and except an allow- 
ance of twenty per cent left to the chief, made over the revenue to 
Government. The wisdom of this change was doubtful ; the chief ^s 
independence in his own village, so carefully respected during the 
early years of British rule, was at an end, and he suffered at once 
from a loss of position and of revenue. Complaints were frequent, 
and it was not found possible to appoint accountants to all their 
ifllages.i To the settled villages the change would seem to have been 
tell suited. The farming system was attended by loss both to the 
9oyemment and to the bulk of the cultivators, and by many evils to 
the higher class of villagers. Government lost because its officers 
had no knowledge of village resources and little power to prevent the 
headman alienating or misappropriating them.* The bulk of the 
Insbandmen suffered because the headmen, unchecked in distributing 
Ike village rental, leaving themselves and their connections 
free, recovered almost the whole from the lower class of land- 
lolders,^ and though in some ways they profited by the system, the 
lich villagers suffered greatly by their keen unscrupulous rivalry for 
ieadship.* At first the change met with much opposition. It 
greatly reduced the power and position of the native sub-division 
jlpvenne officers, and to a less degree affected the authority of the 
JjBlage headmen. These two powerful bodies joining roused the reli- 
bus classes to opposition. But the mass of the vUlagers approved 
jje measure, and opposition gradually died away.^ A fresh set of 
jficulties arose from the failings of the new accountants. Equally 
iqwsed to temptation, they were not less dishonest than those whose 
lices they had taken. At the same time the post was unpopular, 
Bd the supply of men fit to do the work was so small that the 
vollector was forced to pass somewhat lightly over their misdemean- 
ours. In spite of these defects the accountants^ inquiries suppUed 

^ No accountants or police patela were introdQced into the mehvdsi viUageB. — 
.l»t India Papers, HI., 684. 

f (Headmen alienated lands either by sale or mortgage to members of the 
W%ioa8 classes. The receivers were entered as the owners, but the headman continued 
i^iold and tiU the land, paying only a smaU sum to the nominal grantee. Head- 
Mi also misappropriated revenues for lapsed or lease alienated lands. — Bom. Gov. 
Hct. Rec 149 of 1820, 393 and 398. 

' With this object the headmen prepared the most varied and elaborate accounts, 
fkvwiag only the total village contribution and carefully concealing the amounts 
id by the diflferent viUagers.— Bom. Gov. ilev. Reo. 149 of 1820, 380, 

* In the stru^es for the post of vUla^e manager, every village was fiUed with 
■^68, wasting their timeand money, hanging about those in power. In these rivalries 

7 moral principle and obligation were disregarded. Leagues formed one day 
cementea by the most sacred oaths were broken the next, and even assassins were 

iployed to murder rivals who could not otherwise be removed.— Bom. Gov. Rev. 

c. 149 of 1820, 382, 404. 

* Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec., 149 of 1820, 410, 411,— The opposition was keenest at 
fadiid. There, under the de&dis* influence, the headmen refused to coUect the 

nnes. An assistant collector. Captain Bamewall, was sent to arrange a settle- 
it direct with the cultivators. The result was most satisfactory, opposition was 

:eQ down, and much useful information collected, — East India Papers, III., 733. 
connection with their opposition to this measure, four of the Nadi&d Desiis 
*^in 1814 convicted of conspiracy and sentenced to five years* imprisonment and to a 

of £1000. In 1818 the fine was remitted and the prisoners released. — Kaira 
settlement report^ 16th February 1865. 

Chapter TIU. 


181 4- J 830, 


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Chapter Vui* materials for the effectual control of yillskge managers. In settling 

j^^ villages on the new system the village expenses were as a role greatbf 

AdxniiUBtratioil? reduced.^ The holders of quitrent or rentfree lands under GoYon- 

1814-l83a ment grants^ were first called on to prove their claims. Except 
Bhats who in some cases raised objections^ holders freely showed 

OliMgei. their title deeds. In the absence of written proof, abend witnessed 

by the heads of the villages was l^ken declaring the justice of tb 
holder's claim. The course generally followed in the case of ill^ally 
alienated lands was to continue to the nominal grantee the aUowance. 
he had been receiving and to recover full assessment from the 
actual holder.* The lands of Rajput orvanta shareholders wilKng 
to lease them were taken under the direct control of Govermnent 
The amount of the lease was paid from the Government treasmf 
and the share was managed like other village lands.' In 6ovenH| 
ment lands some progress was made in replacing the mauy oompler 
and unequal cesses by one general assessment. In each case thr 
amount of the new assessment was fixed by a committee of natnt' 
revenue officers and village headmen. The points taken int(? 
consideration were the rates formerly charged, the rates pjud by, 
similar land, the character of the soil, the situation of the vill&gS^: 
in respect of markets, and the caste and position of the landholder. 
Except in rare instances, the committee's rates were confirmed b^ 
the Collector and remained in force for terms of five or seven, jeant 
Every year in each village, about August when the early a 
were weU advanced, the accountant entered in the village book 
area of land under cultivation, showing the cauise of any rise or : 
and estimated the current year's outturn compared with the produfl 
of the year before. The sub-division manager, hamdvifd^ 
tested the accountants' returns and explanations. In Oetober 
November the'CoUector or his assistant came to the village, and 
the chief sub-division revenue officers and the village head 
and accountant examined the statements making any rei 
or changes that seemed called for. The village rental i 
the next question was, whether the headmaja should farm the 
or simply collect the cultivators' rents. In many cases even 
the cultivators' payments were fixed, the headman though he 
no chance of gain or risk of loss, to keep up his position noi 

^ The villagers had been charged what the manager spent in fighting his £ 
quarrels and the cost of feasts in which only some of them shared. Withoat 
tering with necessary charges the total NadiAd village expenses were reduced 
£2360 to £586.— Captain BamewaU, Ist August 1816. 

2 In 1819» of 431,674 acres of alienated land 158,418 were quitrent, 
75,646 rentfree. The rest was either held on service tenure or paid the fall or i 
the fuU assessment The details were : MAtar 71,564 acres, 29,317 quitroU 
13,059 rentfree; NadiAd 71,676 acres, 26,224 quitrent, and 14,733 rentW 
Mahudha 70,692 acres, 28,228 quitrent, and 10,478 rent-free ; Nipdld HliS ar^ 
6880 quitrent, and 2739 rentfree; Bh&laj 8431 acres, 245 quitreot^ 
1140 rentfree; Petl^ 112,070 acres, 39,994 quitrent, and 21,608 rentfree; 
Mehmadabad 13,978 acres, 3426 quitrent, and 2253 rentfree.— Bom. Gov. Bev. 
149 of 1820, 460-476. 

8 Bom. Gov. Bev. Bee., 149 of 1820, 394—400. 

4 Bom. Gov. Bev. B«c. 149 of 1820, 387 and 388. Between May 1816 and J 
4821, cultivators' liabilities were fixed in 370 out of 657 villBges.— East India Fl9« 
IIL, 685, 

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fiHrmed the village. Where the cultivators' payments were not all Cliapter YIII* 

fixed, the headman generally became surety for the village rental, 

either for one season or for a term of years. To cover his risk of 

loss, some reduction from the original rental was generally made. 

h return the headman signed a deed, engaging to collect 

Bothing more than the authorized or customary rates.^ K for any 

reason the headman was unwilling to become surety, the village 

VBs managed in detail or iacha by the Collector, the headman and 

WJonntant simply collecting the cultivators' rents.* 

. The management of the first six years (1814-1819) of this period, 
(bogh successful in bringing to light and putting an end to many 
lenses, would seem to have erred in unduly raising the Government 
d. Marked progress was made in Th&sra and Kapadvanj, 
poorer and less settled of the 1817 additions.* But tne plaii 
opted of leasing Borsad, Mehmadabad, and the other rich tracts 
the highest bidders caused much mischief. In the older lands 
iced rates were introduced. These at first lightened by the 
by high grain prices in 1819 and 1820, in a few years, proved 
jprdensome and had to be reduced.* 

h. June 1821, Mr. Elphinstone, then (Jovemor of Bombay, visited Mr. ElpbipBtcra^ 
■»». He recorded the following opinions on the state of the ^^^^* 

ict and the general results of British management.^ The 
ent of accountants to the villages of chiefs and other large 
lords should cease. Those who had been sent should be called 
and ten per cent should be added to the chiefs' share in the 
' of their estates. Blegal alienations of village lands, though 
Unned neither by the English nor by the Mar^tha Governments, 
id never been held as a reason for reducing village rentals ; some 
IS should be levied on these lands and the holders' title con- 
lied.^ In Government villages the accountants had gained too much 
*er. Care should be taken to keep them to their own duties and 
tkfc them take the place of the village headman. The inquiries 
fte survey then at work in the district should be limited to show- 
{ the real state of the land, preventing hidden cultivation, and 
pling boundaries. From the complications in the existing land 

Only a few members of the head family had the right to sign this deed. Those 
1/1. *^® "^^* ^^^ called matdddrs or signers. 

|0n the appointment of accountants, many villages, that their real resources 
ffik be ascertained, were for a time managed in detail by the Collector, the 
^"^QtsntB in sharehold villages taking the rental, not in a lump sum from the 
■^ra, but from the sharers.— Bom. Gov. SeL, CXIV,, 12. Within a few years 
I lyvtem of settling with the manager again became general. — Bom. Gov. I^tho. 
m, 149, 1—21, and East India Papers, III., 685. 

^Ai;ge grants of land were made, and eight new villages established. — More's 
•Jbandi Report of 1820-21. 

*Jhe CoUectcfr (Captain Robertson) in 1819 described the district as on the 
we prosperous. The landtax was high, estimated on a basis of one-half of the 
mice, but there was a very large area of auit and rentfree land. Though there 
IS no men of great wealth, there was no class of landless labourers. — Bom. Gov, 
\^^c.j 149 of 1821, 441. Mr. Elphinstone's account (see the text) bears this out. 
* in spite of a seeming prosperity, how much the district was overstrained, is 
l»n in several of the survey reports (1820-1826) quoted below. Compare also Bom. 
^ SeL, CXIV. , 342 ; the rates fixed in 1819 pressed so hardly on the maliki villages 
R the people began to desert. 

Bwfe India Papers, III., 690. « East India Papers, III., 693. 

B 167-13 

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[Bombay Oantteen 



C9iapter TUL 




Bettletnent^ tlie extreme difficulty of determining the actual Talne of 
land^ and the small chance of improving the coltiyator'B state, the 
survey should make no attempt to fix fresh rates of assessment 
The farming of villages to strangers^ and^ though to a much le» 
degree^ the leasing of them to village headmen, gave rise to many 
abuses.^ It was better to deal direct with the cultivators, renewmg 
their liabilities from year to year ; for, except in the case of rki 
sharehold villages, leases were ill-suited to their limited resonroesi 
The great increase of revenue under British management* irti 
chiefly the result not of over-assessment but of indirect oamea 
Under a steady and kindly rule, husbandmen were free to h(M 
after their fields, and their numbers were increased by strangertj 
soldiers, and others, who in the failure of their former employmeii 
had taken to tillage. Many classes paid who formerly e&capell 
payment. The cost of collection was low ; fees were few ; little oj 
nothing was spent on securities ; frauds were checked ; and m 
class of middlemen between the cultivator and Government ba^ 
disappeared. One or two sections of the district were fully assessm 
and half of Petldd might be over-burdened. But no cultivators ve«l 
leaving the country, or even moving from village to village. AdvaBoel 
were never and remissions rarely asked for ; there were no distninte^ 
and seldom a case of imprisonment. It was true that the resaIftB4 
the British rule were not unmixed good. The chiefs and laif^ 
landholders were weakened and depressed, the district officers 
among them the heads of villages were stripped of power 
influence, and the men of capital suffered both as traders and mon( 
lenders.^ But against these evils was to be set the rise of 
cultivators, the largest, hardest working, and most orderly section 
the community. Many of them were still burdened with debt, 
on some, the decrees of the civil courts pressed heavily. Baton 
whole their state was thriving, their houses handsome and well 
their dress neat, and their fields highly tilled. The British Gr0T< 
ment had freed the country from the dread of foreign foes and 
established order. It dealt even justice and had nearly rooted 
force and fraud. Considering the difficulties the success 
. surprising.* ' 

The second measure taken to gain greater knowledge of thi 
district was the survey. Its objects were to establish for 
village an authentic and permanent record of its lands, diri^ 
them into classes according to t^eir nature and quality, 
survey embraced every field, tree, and well, and supplied full di 
of area, soil, and cost of production. Prom their village menu 

^ Of the Bonad yillages the surveyor Captain Craikshank saya (1821) the i^ ^ 
of letting TiUages by auction to tiie hiffhest bidders has been found productif* < 
^reat oppression to the cultivators, of loss to the farmers, and of ultimate decr^ 
m the Government revenue. No single instance has yet been met of a fai 
expending money or encouraging agriculture. — Bom. Gov. SeL, XI-, 104. 

* From additions and transfers of land, no statement of this increase is av 
for the whole district The figures for the Mahudha sub-division give the foil 
results: 1804, £9374; 1806, £11,983; 1808, £12,145; 1809, £11,501 ; IS 
£12,809 ; 1814, £14,867 ; 1817, £17.004; 1819, £19,244 ; 1820, £22,230. 

> East India Papers, III., 694, « East India Papers, IH, 687. 

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Buopean officers drew np sab-division acconnts, describing the 
people and their mode of tillage. Maps were prepared^ one for each 
fi the largest villages, and for the smaller a group of two or 
ftree on the same sheet. They showed the village sites, boundaries, 
loads, ponds, and the different sorts of land, cultivated,, waste, open, 
pd encloRed.^ Of the practical usefulness of the survey. Sir John 
lUcolm wrote ' the Collectors, in preparing their yearly reports, 
ikald refer particularly to the survey records ; they should draw a 
IHnparison between the actual state of their districts and their 
Itate at the time of the survey ; they should show what progress has 
ItMn made in correcting errors ; they should account for any change 
the extent or state of cultivation ; and notice any increase or 
urease in the number of people, houses, and wells. From such 
as these more than the amount of revenue can correct opinions 
the real state of the country be formed.^* Beginning in 1820 in the 
villages in the north-west, the survey worked east, and taking 
the Eapadvsnj and Th&ra sub-divisions, passed through the 
itral districts of Nadi^d and Mahudha, ending in 1826 at Borsad 
the soath.^ The information recorded of the state and manage- 
it of the surveyed districts may be thus summarized. 

In the sixteen Dholka, now Mdtar, villages surveyed in 1820, of 
'69 arable acres, 28,217 or 67*35 per cent were under tillage, 
rental rose steadily from £61 29 (Rs. 61,290) in 1818-19 to £6967 
69,670) in 1823-24. Though aU were measured and treated as 
imment villages, from seven of them accountants were afterwards 
iwn and their management made over to the owners. Of 
remaining villages one was sharehold, and the others simple; 
lands of two of them divided on the holding, khatdbandiy 
Hie assessm^it was by crop division and cesses. The 
>y showed that former measurements had under^-estimated the 
area by 2302 and the arable area by 4868 acres.^ 

tThe eleven Mehmadabad villages surveyed in 1821 were part of' 
1817 acquisitions. Of 17,556 arable acres, 11,819 or 67*32 per 
were cultivated, and 5736 waste with among them, 1057 acres- 

Chapter VIIL 




iJWtbeBe survey xnapB Sir John Malcolm> aays (IStii October 1830),. 'they are- 

^^tdy wdl execntea and afford gratifying e^idenoe of the aptitude of natives- 

ctfefal instraotion to acquire scientifio* knowledge. Except the colouring most 

•e plans are the work of their hands.. Pesfeotiy afr home in the use of the 

>lite and other survey instruments,, natives on tziding salaries Uane of recent 

^performed aUthe measurements and other field work,fonnerly solely entrusted to 

Mn officers. By this means the^ yearly ooet of the survey was reduced from- 

£10,000 to less than £600.' '^The maps were very neai/ says Bishop Hebeo- 

»iaw them in 1825 (March 26), ' and said to be wonderftdly correct though the 

' ^ measurement, angles, andl drawings were? the wo^ of nati^rai amistaaiis.' — 

,^^ ML, 140. ^^ ^ 

* ICnnte of 15th October 1830,. para M. 

'The details are, in 1820, sixteen I^M)lki^ now ATdtar. viHaj^ y in 1821 eleven 
™»»dAbiid villages ; betweei* 1820'aikl 1823^ thirty-four Daskroi; now Mehmadabad » 
^; between 1821 and 182^ forty-five- NadiAd villages ; in 1824^ sixteen Umreth 
'^laj, now Kadi^, vilhiges; seventy-seven Mahudha villages, of which the 
to have been loet; in 1824 and J 825 eighty-eight PeUM» now Borsad^ 


> ; and in 1826, eighteen N&pdd, noiw Borsad 
- Gov. SeL,XL^ 61-55. 


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Chapter YIIL 




of valuable rice land. £3348 (Rs. 33,480), the rental in 1818-19, 
rose to £3617 (Rs. 86,170) in 1820-21, and was then reduced, 
faUing in 1823-24 to £2892 (Rs. 28,920). AH the eleven Yilkges 
were simple, the lands of three of them distributed among sepsnte 
holdings. Except from rice fields, where the produce was divided, 
the land revenue was raised by acre rates. During the first four 
years of British management (1818-1821) these villages were 
leased to the highest bidder. Though they strained the Tilhge 
resources to the utmost, every one of the farmers lost heavily. It 
1823 the villages were taken under the direct management cl ib 
Collector, and the rates lowered. Still over-assessed and recpuiiag , 
relief, they were (1826) slowly recovering. Mehmadabad was the j 
only first rate village. Of the I'est, five were second class, and fin 
extremely poor and wretched, one without a single tiled honse.^ The 
survey showed that former measurements had under-estimated the 
total area by 1905, and the arable by 3258 acres. 

In the thirty-three Daskroi, now Mehmadabad, villages surveyed 
between 1820 and 1823, of 49,898 arable acres, 31,154 or 62*48 
per cent were under tillage. The rental rising from £8151 
(Rs. 81,530) in 1818-19 to £9143 (Rs. 91,430) in 1822-28, was 
then lowered to £7486 (Rs. 74,860). A few of the villages too 
sharehold, the rest were simple, most of them held on leaae \fj 
their headmen. Rice fields paid in kind ; other lands by an aoe 
rate and cesses. Except on some rice lands, the assessment ym 
moderate and likely to promote prosperity ; the villages were well 
built and thriving, and the people happy and content^.* 

Of the forty-five Nadidd villages surveyed between 1821 and 182^ 
thirty-six were Government and nine ahenated. In the thirty-ait 
Government villages, of 88,083 arable acres, 78,962 or 89-W 
per cent were under tillage. The rental rising from £24,419 
(Rs. 2,44,190) in 1817-18 to £28,652 (Rs. 2,86,520) in 1820, 
was in 1822 lowered to £27,742 (Rs. 2,77,420). Of the thirty- 
six villages, sixteen were sharehold, the rest simple, the lands 
of several of them distributed into holdings. Except a httle crop- 
division, the assessment was levied by acre rates and cesses. Tlte 
very high rates on (Jovemment land were lightened by the large 
area held rentfree or on quitrents. The alienated villages, thongk 
of the turbulent or mehvasi class were quiet and tractable, ' steadDy 
practising agriculture.' In other parts the lands were rich, tiUeii 
with much care and skiU, and the villages large and fine, with M| 
and complete establishments. The survey showed that fonncti 
measurements had nnder-estimated the total area by 482, asi 
the arable by 11,027 acres.* 

The sixteen Umreth and Bhdlaj, now A'nand, villages surveyed 
in 1824, came under British management in 1817. Of 15,426 arable 
acres, 12,428 or 80*56 per cent were under tillage. The rental £6420 

1 Bom. Gov. SeL, XI., 67-65. > Bom. Got. 8el., XL, 129-14a 

s Bom. Got. Sd., XI., 65-81. 

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(Ba 64,200) in 1818 rising to £6624 (Rs. 65,240) in 1819, was in 
1823 lowered to £6828 (Rs. 68,280) .^ Though with high rates 
Umreth and Bhalaj were thriving towns, and except some poor and 
water-lacking hamlets, the villages were little inferior to those of 

The eighty-eight Petlad, now Borsad, villages surveyed in 1824, 
eame under British rule in 1817. Of the whole number, eleven 
were alienated. In the rest cultivation had nearly reached its utmost 
iimit. Of 132,897 arable acres, 101,637 or 76- 76 per cent were 
«ider tillage. The rental was reduced from £43,457 (Rs. 4,34,670) 

* 1819 to £38,530 (Rs. 3,85,300) in 1824. Of the Government 
fluiOageB, thirty-three were sharehold, and the rest simple, the lands 
<rf eleven of them divided into holdings. The demand from cesses 
md high acre-rates was both heavy and unequal. Complaints of 
Ike oppression practised by the speculators to whom the villages 

I lad been farmed in 1817 were very general. Under the strain, 
[ Viany of the sharehold villages had broken, and, though much had 
i ieen done by later (1823 and 1824) settlements, it was very difficult 
I |lo restore them. Still the viDages were large and well built, and 
; iipany of the people thriving and well-to-do.* 

The eighteen Ndpid, now Borsad, villages surveyed in 1826, came 
i l&der British rule in 1817. Of the whole number five and a half 
i %ere alienated. In the Government villages, of 16,647 arable acres, 
I M,999 or 90*10 per cent were under tillage. The rental had fallen 
^iteadily from £5328 (Rs. 53,280) in 1821 to £4875 (Rs. 48,760) in 
L 1826.* Seven villages were sharehold, and the rest simple, the lands 
I ^one of them distributed in separate holdings. Though, as in 
\ Jpetlad, they had suffered during the first years of British rule, the 
I jeople were on the whole weU-to-do. 

* The following statement contrasts the tillage area, resources, and 
wveiiue of the different parts of the district surveyed between 
M20 and 1826. 

Kaira Survey L 




AvsRAaa m 















nue in 

Mdtar (Dholka) ... 











67 32 







Do. (Da«kroi> ... 


















A'nand (Umreth and 



















Borsad (PetUd) ... 










Do. (Ndpdd) ... 









Chapter VUL 




1 BoiilGov. SeL, XL,81-( 
* Bom. Gov. SeL, XL, 108-115. 

• Bom. Gov. Sel., XL, 87-108. 
f This beoaiue tbe iowA population is indudtd. 

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[Bombay Gasetta^; 



Caapter YIIL 



During the years 1820-1826 when the survey was in progress, 
though in some special cases reductions were made^ the continued 
high value of grain prevented the rates from being generally burden- 
some.^ Of the general state of the district in J 825, Bishop Heber liaa 
left the following note. ' I asked the Collector Mr. Williamson if the 
Government were popular. He did not think it was particularly 
otherwise and ascribed the various tumults and risings of the 
Gujardtis to their famines which frequently reduced whole fexniKes 
and villages to the state of broken men, and to their long previous 
habits of misrule and anarchy, rather than to any political grievance. 
The valuation of the land was moderate. It was only from year to 
year. But where the crops were so precarious, a longer settlement 
was not desired by the people themselves. Even in the present 
system, Government had often to make great abatements and on 
most occasions had shown themselves indulgent masters/ * In 1826 
a fall of produce prices set in and rapidly increased till the collapse 
of 1831. In 1826 B[apadvanj is described as in a wretched stai^ 
the people badly housed, badly clothed, and badly fed. Mahudha, 
one of the richest parts of the district, showed signs of distress** 
To meet these difficulties rates were considerably lowered, and by 
postponing the dates of revenue instalments further relief waa 
given.* In the next year (1827) after a further reduction of rates all 
complaints ceased.* A good season followed, and, though 1828-29 
was a year of poor harvest and low prices, no further reductions 
were necessary.* During these years, besides by lowering his rents 
much was done to improve the cultivator's position by grantimg 
holdings at fixed rates and leases. Sharehold villages were increa.^ed 
by fifty-nine, many new holdings, kMtdSj were formed, and a 
large number of short-termed village leases granted.^ In 1830 
the district was visited by Sir John Malcolm, then Gt)vemor of 
Bombay. His route by Nadidd, Mdtar, and Dholka, led him 
through great part of the district 'for its extent one of the finest in 
India.' The beauty and fertility of the country, the size and 
prosperous appearance of the villages, the enclosed fields a 
succession of rich and varied tillage, the sleek cattle and wilw 
clothed people all seemed thriving and contented. More than aziy 
part of the Presidency, the revenue system showed the good jK>ii2t3 
of a direct settlement, with few of its defects. The rates generaDv 

^ Average millet prices in the aeven years ending 1826,. were 41 poonda : in 1827 
68 ; in 1^, 65 ; in 1829, 81 ; in 183^ 70; in 1831, 100. 

» Heb. Nar., 11., 145. 

> The oondition of sharehold Tillages would also seem to hare been much deprc—tsd^ 
In 1826, of eighty -seven villages tihfi sharers in eleven were- in good circumstances, in 
thirty-six middling, and in forty poor, with just means enough to keep up their tillkf?« 
—Bom. Gov. 8eL, CXIV., 156, Footnote. 

^ Formerly two-thirds had been taken at the beginning of the year aMd the rest 
before the grain was threshed. 

' These reductions were cMefly carried out by Mr. WHliamson. See his JanUlbtsuidi 
reports for 1826 and 1827. 

« Mr. Mills' Jam&bandi reports lor 1827-28 and 1828-29. Mr. Milla hoped %^^% 
few villages were now over-assessed. — Bom. Gov. Sel., CXIV., 159. 

^ Of 199 villages leased, 177 were on terms of from five to ei^t yvmk— Mrv Wil- 
liamson's Jamibandi report, 29th October 1827. 

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fixed on the bigha were well-known, the village account books Chapter Vin* 
ehowing in detail each holder s liabilities. Many villages were L^d 

held on leases of seven years and under. The ^^lage headmen AdminiBtratioii* 
through whom the settlements were almost always made^ were 1825 1830. 

bound to levy nothing beyond the established rates. Though seldom Cooditicn! 

wealthy, they generally possessed considerable credit and means, and 
were said, by remissions and advances, to help the cultivators. 
Compared with the Deccan, the Kaira system had the great advan- 
tage, that the village settlements were made by the Collector or his 
assistant in person. Many cultivators were present and any change 
in assessment was directly discussed. In Sir John Malcolm's opinion, 
as far as possible, things should be kept as they were. At the 
same time, much mischief had, he thought, been done by subjecting 
alienated land to assessment. Besides giving rise to misery and 
ill-feeling, the measure had added greatly to village payments. 
Prom the &J1 in the value of field produce, rents were hard to collect, 
and though not prepared to advise a general reduction. Sir John 
Malcolm felt that the rates were high, and ought in some cases to be 
lowered. The cultivator's condition should, .he wrote, never be 
kst sight of. For a time they may go on paying a high rent, but the 
strain must gradually impoverish them, and in the end will cause a 
sadden, large, and inevitable defalcation in the public revenue.^ 

The end was not far off. In the next year (1831) the cultivating 1830 1S54, 
^iasses were crushed by a further fall of thirty per cent in produce 
pices. Tobacco, the chief rent-paying crop, was a drug in the 
Market and the failure to pay the revenue was so general, that in 
1831 the Collector was inclined to question the wisdom of the 
revenue system, only a year before so highly praised. The crisis 
bad shown how little the bulk of the cultivators were removed 
from poverty. With the object of raising a class of well-to-do land- 
holders, the Collector proposed that the village shareholders should 
ke made more independent, village accountants withdrawn, the 
Goyemment demand lessened, and the sub-tenants left in the share- 
kolders' hands.^ Next year things were worse. The revenue fell 
from £193,407 to £176,404 (Rs. 19,34,070 - Rs. 17,64,040), and the 
year closed with an outstanding balance of £70,818 (Rs. 7,08,180), 
rf which £50,818 (Rs. 5,08,180) were for the past and £20,000 
(Bs. 2,00,000) on account of previous years. Distraints for debt 
were common, and in the Collector's opinion poverty was undermin- 
i^ the district resources. Remissions were freely granted, 
rents lowered by about £10,000 (Rs. 1,00,000), and though one of 

* Bom. Gov. litho. Papers, 148, 1. 

' JamAbandi Report of 1830-31. The reality of the distresB has been questioned. 
(Bom. Gov. SeL, CfXIV., 159). But the following extracts shew how severe it was. 
Poverty is present in every class of cultivators to an extent that tends to impair 
ibe efficiency of the revenue system of maaaffement and undermine extensively the 
iMoorces of the state. In spite of the steady reduction of burdens in the last ten 
yean, the bad state has grown worse.— Mr. Mills, 259, 24th Auffust 1832. Bom. Gov. 
Bev. Rec. 482 of 1833,79. AU cultivators are encumbered with debts, and the work- 
ing of the civil courts is attended with much hardship.— Bom. Gk>v. Bev. Bee. 482 of 
1833, 79. 93. 

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[BomlMty GavtteeTi 

diapter Vm. 





them (1833-34) was a year of much local scarcity, the fourfold rise of 
prices in 1834 and 1835 relieved the balk of the cultivators from 
their most pressing difficulties.^ The next seasons, with fair cropi 
and high prices, reduced the outstanding balances from £70,000 to 
£30,000. But the fact that of 308 villages whose leases then fell in, 
E hundred were stationary, 132 worse, and only seventy-six better, 
shows through how severe a trial the district had passed* Next 
year (1838-39) the crops were poor. But with rising prices ont- 
standings were smaller, billets, mohsals, were reduced from 4416 
in 1835 to 847, and the revenue realized without distraints or sales.* 
During these years (1830-1840) the district benefited much by the 
drainage of the lowlands in its southern and western villages. 
Between 1838 and 1844 measures were taken to remove the pkugk 
and other minor cesses,* to introduce acre rates and individual hold- 
ings in parts of the district where the old crop division system still 
prevailed, and to offer leases to individual landholders.* The Kaira 
plough, hal, cess was a tax on ploughs only in name. It was really 
a charge levied chiefly on rentfree and quitrent lands. The Col- 
lector did not abolish it, but in some cases transferred the amomit as 
a charge on rentfree lands, and in others added it to the assessment 
on full rent paying fields.® 1839 was a season of high prices. The 
revised acre rates, fixed by village committees on a consideration of 
the character of the soil and of the position of the holder, differed 
from the acre rates introduced in 1814-1819 by including the 
amounts due on minor cesses.^ The number of separate holdings 
was, as far as possible, increased. Of these some paid only when 
tilled, in others no provision was made for fallows. At the same time, 
leases for a term of years were granted to all substantial landholders 
who wished to have them. These measures do not seem to have been 
altogether successful. In most of the next fifteen years (1841-1855) 
large remissions had to be granted, and few seasons closed without 
a considerable balance of unrealized revenue.^ The leases, fixed at 
too high a rental, impoverished the holders, and by the need for 
remissions caused loss to Government.® When they fell in, they 

^ Millet, hdjrif prices rose from 120 pounds the rupee in 1832 to 30 in 18^ 
nnd 35 in 1835. 1834 was a season of 'extraordinary difficulty.' No rain feU till 
November, and though there was a good cold weather crop, there was a loss of 30,06(^ 
bullocks and a fall in the reyenne of £42,732. — Jam&bandi Report, 1833-34. 

' Jamdbandi Report, 1835-36. Another measure of relief was to restore alienated 
lands. In 1836 the Collector restored many lands under the provisiona of Act VI. of 
1833,— Bom. Gov. Sel., CXIV., 511. 

s Jam&bandi Report, 1839-40. 

« Government letter 1401, 12th April, 1838. 

» Bom, Gov. Sel., CXIV., 419,495^498. 

* The Collector threw on the alienated lands the portion of the cees not abeorbed 
by the new assessment of the Government lands in each holding. — Bom. Gov. Sel, 
CXIV., 112, 502. Of a total of JB1392 only £136 were remitted— Bom. Gov. Bev. 
Bee. 52 of 1856, 113. 

7 Bom. Gov. SeL, CXIV., 419, 420. 

8 The largest remission in any year between 1841 and 1851 was £75001 
For the five years ending 1853-54 the remissions were, 1849-50, £829 ; 1850-51, £4294; 
1851-52, £1399 ; 1852-53, £579 ; 1853-54, £2588. The outstanding balances were, in 
1849-50, £2825 ; in 1850-61, £3960 ; in 1851-52, £2408 ; in 1852-53, £2958 ; in 18d3-H 
£2517.— CoUector's 48a, 31st July, 1855. 

* Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec. 52 of 1856, 140. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 





were not renewed. The additions made on the abolition of the 
plough cess unduly raised the rates on many holdings.^ And 
fchoagh none of the sharehold villages broke under the strain^ their 
reatals in some cases were greater than they could well bear.^ The 
difficulty found in paying the rates was probably chiefly due to 
the &11 of produce prices from 46 4 pounds in the ten years 
Btiding 1842 to sixty-eight pounds in the thirteen years ending 

Of the state of the district in 1854 and 1855, the Collector, 
Mr. Blphinston, has left a detailed account.* In 1854 there were, 
besides five towns with a population of over ten thousand souls,* 
869 villages varying from 500 to 2000 inhabitants. There were 
abo, chiefly in Thasra and Kapadvanj, 446 hamlets with from 
twenty-five to a hundred houses and from 100 to 300 inhabitants.' 
Most of the houses were tiled. Only the poorest and lowest classes 
Kfed in thatched huts. Of the 574 villages and towns, twenty-seven 
irere wholly alienated, forty partly alienated, and 507 belonged 
to Government. The lands of the alienated villages, except in a 
fafw where produce division still prevailed, were, by their Rajput, 
Koli, and Mnsalmdn owners, let on money rents. The quiet 
rf many years had done much to better their state. But, though 
Wftong the owners some were improving their lands, they were as a 
diss indebted, and especially the kasbdtut, lazy and unthrifty. 
Such of them as were free from debt were said to treat their tenants 
*11, taking the revenue in kind, allowing delay and irregularity in 
fliB payment of rent, and needing no Government help to recover 
fiieir dues. The thirty-eight mehvdsi villages were held by Rajput 
Ifid EoU chiefs. Though as a rule moderate, in some cases the 
Govemment share nearly swallowed up the entire village revenue, 
ikeir lands rich and capable of improvement were in a declining 
ptaie. The holders were illiterate, lazy, fond of opium, careless, 
|itra?agant, and sunk in debt. The affairs of most of them were 
p the hands of Vdnia stewards more alive to their own than to 
fteir master^s interests. 

Of a total of 452,209 acres of Government land yielding a rental 
rf £144,431 (Rs. 14,44,310), 77,933 acres paying £40,537 
{88.4,05,370), or more than one-sixth of the areaand one-fourth of the 
i«ntal, were included in sharehold, narva, villages. Though some 
^ere overtaxed, no case had for years occurred of a sharehold 
tJommunity breaking under the weight of the Government demand. 
Many of the sharers did not work with their own hands. Others let 
wit part of their share, tilling the richest fields by the help of rela- 
tions and servants. TTieir position was better than that of other 
Baltivators. An alliance with their families was much sought after, 





^ Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec. 52 of 1856, 115—117. 

* Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec. 52 of 1856, 126. 

' Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec. 52 of 1856 and 29 of 1858. 

* The five towns were NadiAd, 20,782 souls; Umreth, 13,652; Kapadvanj 
1MS8; Kai^^ 12,091 ; and Mehmadabad, 10,516. 

' Except a few establiBhed by pdUddrs to redaiagt waste lands, these wero 
«««fty Koli hamlets. 

B m~14 

Digitized by 






Cluster Vm. 



Simple village!. 

and the competition for the estate of a childless shareholder was keen. 
Freer than other cultivators from the risk of an enhanced rental, 
they spent much capital and labour on their land.^ Still their 
condition was not eatisfactorj. Expensive in their style d 
livingj many had mortgaged or sold part of their shares, uid 
from the remainder were ill able to meet the heavy Govemment 
rent. The shareholders' lands were let to men of two classes, 
hereditary tenants and tenants- at-will. The hereditary teaanti, 
chiefly of the Bhart'hold or pdtiddr clasSj held securely and for tk? 
most part at fixed rates ; the ten ants -at-will had no rights. Al 
the landlord's pleasure their rents might be raised^ or ihk 
fields taken from them. Both paid at rates considerably aboTB 
the Government assessment. But complaints of rack-renting or 
harshness were rare. Frugal in their life^ some throve better and 
were further from want than the shareholders. But in 1854j chiefly 
from the fall in the value of rich cropsj on most their rents pressed 
hard. Less well-to-do than formerly, they had in many cases to 
borrow to meet the cost of tillage, and when court decrees wti^ 
executed against them, little property w^aa generally found,* 

In simple villages, though quit or rentfree lands had from twinjty 
to twenty-five per cent less waste, they were inferior to full rent 
lands in cultivation.^ The original share, t?dnia, and religious, 
pasdlla^ lands were, except those held by village servants, ae & rok 
minutely divided and Bold or mortgaged. Lands alienated by villaf:* 
managers paid rates varying from a few pence the acre to tke Ml 
Government assessment,* 

In the Government lands of Bimple, senja^ villages, the le^esrstett 
introdnced between 1838 and 1844 had been almost entirely giVot 
np** The lands were partly held from year to year by teuante 
paying on the area tilled, and partly distributed into allotments, 
khfitdSj the holder liable for the same rent, whether or no his whold 
allotment was cultivated.^ Except in a few villages TFhere the crop- 
rate, tulvdrif system was in force, lands were assessed at m' 
old village committee money rates depending on the conditioa and 

^ Mr. Mackay'fi statement {Western IndiA, 106) that from nucertainty about tisil 
rent thoy spent ntathmg in improvementa, though to some extent itmaybAve" 
true of the Broach sbftreliolders^ did not apply to the Kfiira narviiildr^, 

^ Mr. M&okfiy's etatement that Bhareholders fiomotimea charged 200—300 p| 
cent in exwss of Govcmmtsnt rates is aaid by the Collector not to apply to KairiL 

' Cultivators were said to get ^ultreat lauda at ipeclally low ratoa by thj^^t£ail|[ 
only to till Government fields, 

* Of mnia lands 55,434 acres, with an estimated rental of £21,826 paid a y 
aum to Ooveminent of £5ttt!0 at rcnt« varying from 6f/, to 10*. an acre. Of reh^LU 
^ajfdi^dj limdu, a total aiea of 66,795 acres yielded as estimatod yearly rev^nW 
£25,349, Of thiB 24,, ^7 acres were held ou aervic© tenure, and of the rest, ^H." 
Trere rentfree, and 7^58 paid aggregate quitrents of £16S5. Of lands aold by ^ 
managers, a total area of 173i7ti€ acres paid £31,743 oat of a total of £71,836— 
Gov. Rev. Rec, 62 of 1956, 95. 

* Leases are aaid to hare banned the lensees whose receipts fell shmi ol 
rental and forced Goveminent to grant large remisaioni, — Gov, Eev, Eec, 
1856, 140. 

* Of 200,332 acres of Goveratneiit lands in simple villages, 2492 were 
34,505 included ui holdingij 71} 246 held on running leaasfl^ and 02;, 089 let out to 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Chapter VIH. 

caste of the cnltivator as mucli as on the soil ; these rates varied much ^ 
and were further complicated by being expressed in a variable land 
measure, the dsra or estimated bigha. This estimate generally larger, 
hat in some cases smaller than the actual measurements, would seem 
to have been fixed with reference to the kind of soil as much as the 
size of field.^ Tenants with distinct holdings always paid the same 
rent. But the rents of cultivators who were charged only on the land 
tmder tillage varied from year to year. As soon as the rains were 
tver, the 'nllage officers drew up a return of the area cropped. This 
llatement, checked by the m&mlatd&r and native district revenue 
Iflfficers, fixed the amount cultivators of this class were liable to pay. 
'When remissions were claimed, the crop waa left standing and valued 
T)y the m^mlatd&r. The results were examined by the Collector 
W his assistant, and as a rule the produce was equally divided 
Jetween Grovemment and the cultivator. On the whole, the assess- 
^nt was moderate, averaging over the entire cultivated area an acre 
I'lafce of from bs, to 6«. (Rs. 2i-Rs. 3 a bigha). But in some villages the 
Srant of any abatement of rental on account of fallows, the levy of 
cesses in addition to the assessment,* and family rivalry for the 
' IWBsession of land, had unduly raised the Government share.* Added 
i) this, a double currency, their rents paid in Government and the 

ice of their produce realized in Baroda rupees, caused a loss to the 

* "vators of sixteen per cent.. 

The great body of the cultivators were in a depressed state. Coaditioa, 
eapness of grain left from ordinary dry crop tillage little 
Bargm of profit, and the demand for tobacco,, in former years the 
Aief rent-paying crop, had greatly fallen.* In most villages the 
Mddrs or leading members of the village community were men of 
nbstance. 0£ the K^bibis, a few of good credit and thrifty habits 
kd some store of money. But most of the Ejmbis and almost all 
Kolis and Musalm&ns were badly off. Their stock of field tools 
!*»8 scanty, and they had either no bullocks at all or only ^tia «- 



Simpk vUUgsi. 



^ In 1865 the sarvey offiodrs found in NadiAd^ soil nearly identical in value charffed 
•intes varying from £1 9«. bid. to U. 9(1— Bom. Gov. SeL, CXIV, 167. 

' The use of the actual measure was sanctioned, hut not generally carried out in 
JSa-Gov. Res, 1744, 2ath June 1853. 

r^' Besides the plough cess noticed above, Mr. E3p]iinston mentions a holding, 
ikf<a veto ; an arms^ dhdrdla vero ; a groundrent ob Kanbis who had built on Ehdnt 
Idis* land, khdnta vero ; a tree ce88,jhdd vero ; a personal charge, savddia, when 
■^ bat the owner tilled rentfree or quitrent land ; a charge for tilling in another 
y»Dage,j)or^ajia«it>ci</ia; for leave to cut crops, raja vero; to make up deficiencies^ 
'^dr vtro ; for tilling too little land, hhoH vero ; and on cold weather crops, rdvni 

/.-Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec., 52 of 1856, 119. 

* Rivalry in some cases raised rates to £3 16«. an acre (Rs. 19 a higha), 
' Mr. Mackay thua describes the effects of the very low prices of grain :. The 
^H Apnl (1851) is at hand, the day on which the last instalment is due. The cultiva- 
te at a loss to know how to meet the demand. Their crops have been abundant, 
they have no market, and the surplus left in the district makes prices unusually 
. (Mackay'sWestem India, 31). 

* Most of the Eanbis were reduced to poverty by the great sums of money they 
"^^ to marry their daughters into high families. Mr. Mackay (1850) goes even 

er ; * the mass of the cultivators are so poor that they hire not only bufiocks but 
' Western India, 120. The surplus of the Kolis' fields generally went to the mooey 
IT ; their store gone before the end of the cold season, during the hot season they^ 
on fniiti and wild vegetables. The Musalmdn cultivators were as a Gkuassunk uk 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Secood Saxregr. 

[BomlNiy GawtknTf 

Chapter TIIL In the Collector's opinion (1854) the state of the district called ht 

j ~ j^ early remedies. The extra cesses should^ he thought, be taken off, 

Aidmiikiftratiaii* the Baroda currency withdrawn, and export dues removed so as to 

1863-1867 encourage the growth of cotton^ and provide a market for the 

produce of the district. ^ 

During the next ten years (1855-1864) the marked rise of produce 

? rices greatly improved Ithe condition of the cultivating classes* 
'he two chief changes of this time were, the making of a railway 
to Bombay (1860-1864), and in 1862 the introduction of a fresh surrey. 
To this survey besides the remeasurement and reclassification of 
lands, was entrusted the work of fixing fresh rates of assessment 
During the five years (1863-1867) of survey operations,^ the great 
rise of prices due to the American War,* the opening of the line 
of railway to Bombay (1864), and, except 1864, a succession of good 
harvests • raised* the bulk of the Kaira peasantry to a very high 
level of wealth and prosperity. Except in the north and north-east> 
where there was a considerable area of poor untilled land, and itt 
a few villages in the rough tracts near the Mahi, the whole district 
was under cultivation. The country was rich and highly tilled and 
the villages well built with every sign of plenty and comfort,' th« 
land revenue was realized without difficulty, and remissions were 

The Maliki villages (1863) of the Thasra sub-division, formerly tht 
poorest and least settled part of the district,showed a marked advance 
in prosperity. By the establishment of fresh hamlets, their number 
had risen from seventeen in 1821 to twenty-seven; the population 
was 277 to the square mile; tillage had chiefly in the five years ending 
1863 spread thirty-four per cent, and the average remissions wert 
only half a per cent. Several of the villages were large with good 

1 CottoD had risen from Ra. 80 a hhdndi in 1846 to Us. 105 in 1851. 

« The average price of millet in the five years ending 1855 was 73 poiuda far 
ft rupee ; the average price of millet in the five years ending 1861 was 48 pooalli 
the rupee. 

> The dates were: Mahndha, now A'nand, surveyed in 1863> Mdtar, now Mehmadaba^ 
Kapadvanj, and Thdsra, in 1864; NadiAd in 1865; and Borsad in 1867.— Bom. CMl 
Bel., CXI v., 152, 255, 411, 591,666, 687. 

^ The price of millet, compared with forty-eight in the five years ending IMI 
was twenty-five pounds the rupee in the five years ending 1867. 

^ 1862, rainfall enough and timely, harvest good, iniUet jforty pounds the nipeef 
1863, early rain and harvest good, late rain and harvest short, millet nineteen 
pounds ; 1864, early rain enough, late fniled, harvest poor, millet fifteen pounds ; 18611' 
rain enough and timely, harvest good, millet twenty-three pounds ; 1866, early ntt 
good, late wanting, harvest on the whole good, millet thirty-two pounds ; 1867, eai^, 
rains good, late rains wanting, harvest on the whole poor, millet twenty-four pounds. ' 

• MAtar (1862) had a good deal of waste black soil (Bom. Gov. Sel., CXiV., 44I)| 
Mahudha (Dec. 1863) very rich in the south and west, was poorer in the north urn 
east, with vast plains of waste land (594); Kapadvanj (Nov. 1864) was rich and jtfu*-)^ 
throughout (700) ; ThAsra (Nov. 1864) poor in the north, in the south was rich am 
well wooded (668) ; Nadidd (Nov. 1865) and Borsad (Oct. 1867) except a few viSagsi 
near the Mahi were throughout extremely rich ; 143—258. 

7 The remissions in Thdsra and Kapadvanj are not given. In MAtar during 
23 years ending 1862, they averaged 1*66 per cent (Bom. Gov. Sel., CXIV, 421); in Mi 
dha during 23 years ending 1863 they averaged 1 '51 per cent (624) ; in NadiM during 
jears ending 1865, they were less than one percent (155) ; and in Borsad m SI jfwf1 
ending 1866 were not much over one per cent (267). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




markets ; the houses brick-built with tiled roofs. On the whole, they 
coald bear comparison with the best parts of Th&sra.^ 

In 1862 there were in all ninety sharehold, narva, villages. 
Their rents had remained unchanged for years, and with special 
opportunities for taking advantage of the great rise in produce prices, 
they would seem to have become the richest villages in the district.* 
The sharers were the most thriving class of cultivators, many of them 
fflUng their fields entirely by hired labour.* Both their permanent 
tenants and their tenants-at-will were well-to-do. 

The condition of the cultivators of simple villages, except a poor 

; unthrifty class in Thasra and Kapadvanj, was excellent. In Mdtar 

, P862) the people were generally extremely well off, comfortably 

l-dothed, and well-housed. The Kanbis were as a class very wealthy, 

[and many of the Kolis, nearly as skilful and hard working 

: 18 Kanbis, had good houses and large agricultural stock.* In 

Mahudha (1863) the Kanbis and Talabda Kolis were ' substantial 

fcrmers, fast gathering wealth/ But the Musalmans as a class were 

;«nthrifty, and the Chuvalia Kolis in the east were very poor and 

Liasettled.^ In Kapadvanj and Thdsra (1864), though there was 

i considerable class of very poor Kolis sunk in debt, who to till 

ftteir fields had to club their stock and in the hot weather had the 

iWest means of living,® the main body of the cultivators had large 

^ ►re of money and stock, good houses, and rich clothes and jewels.'^ 

Nadiad (1865) and Borsad (1867) population was beginning to 

S8 rather heavily on the land. But only a few were poor oi^ 

ihrifty, the rest were prosperous and well oft.® 

r The limited area of the original survey (1820-1825) and the changes 
need from time to time in the distribution of villages make 
►ssible any complete statement of the development of the district, 
m the materials available, it would seem that in Mdtar, in seventy 
ninety-seven villages, during the forty years ending 1 862, cultiva- 
had spread from 37,437 to 43,890 acres or 14*7 per cent ; popula- 
from 43,271 to 64,182 or about 40 per cent; ploughs from 
to 6649 or 26*5 per cent ; and wells from 913 to 1030 or 12*8 
cent.® In fifty-eight of the 103 Mahudha villages, during the 
years ending 1 863, cultivation had spread from 41,930 to 49,400 
icres or 17 per cent ; population from 39,551 to 59,061 or 49 per cent ; 
Boughs from 4749 to 6815 or 43 per cent; and working wells from 
ferenteen to 538 or 133 per cent.^^ In the seventy-six Kapcwivanj 

* Born, Gov. Sel., CXIV., .S67. 

L*jg 1865 the most flouriahins yillaces of Nadidd were sharehold.— Bom. Gov. SeL, 
5XIV., 151. ** " 

* Bom. Gov. SeL, CXIV., 1, 27, 30, 31. * Bom. Gov. Sel., CXIV., 418. 
I Bom, Gov. Sel, CXIV., 602. 

•Bom. Gov. Sel.. CXIV., 693, 709, 713. In KapadvAnj the Kanbis also are said 
I be more or less in the VdniiU' hands, 7, 13. 
If; Bom. Gov. SeL, CXIV., 664, 670. 
^ The people of Nadi4d are as a whole described as weU-fed, weU-cloihed, well* 
■"led, with all the necessaries of life, and daily growing in wealth. — Bom. Gov. SeL 
Y*» 148. In the north and north-east, the condition is noticed as inferior (156), and 
tillage is mentioned as beiog only a few huts ( 1 66). So too in Borsad some viJiagw 
Mr the Mahi were chiefly in the hands of poor Kolis (269). 

* Bom. Gov. SeL, CXIV., 420. w Bom. Gov. SoL, CXIV,, 624. 

Chapter TUf, 


ia^J3 1S67. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

[Bombay Quetteoi 

Admin intratiQn> 

Boooad Survey, 



Tillages^doring tlie twenty years ending 1864^tillage had spreadTl per 
€ent^ and in the ten years before 1864, population had risen 16 p^ 
cent.^ In the fifty-tnreeGrovemnientThisravillages,tillagehadiiithe 
twenty years ending 1864, spread 34 per cent. In five of fche villages, 
houses had, in the forty years ending 1864/ increased from 3428 to 
6115 or 78 per cent ; people from 13,231 to 16,152 or 22 percent; 
draught cattle from 3077 to 4643 or 51 per cent ; and ploughs from 
356 to 756 or 112 per cent.* In forty-seven of the seventy-tlireei| 
Government Nadidd villages, during the twenty years ending 186oj 
tiQage had spread from 83,599 to 87,868 acres or five per cent.' Li 
the forty years ending 1864, houses had increased trom 16,174 to 
26,316 or 62 per cent ; people from 62,829 to 81,638 or 29 per cent;! 
cattle from30,356 to 42,147 or 38 per cent ;ploughs from 5298to575fl 
or 7 per cent ; and wells from 380 to 51 8 or 73 per cent * In eighty-al 
Borsad villages, during the twenty-one years ending 1866, tillage 
had spread from 110,554 to 113,510 or an increase of two per cent.* In 
the forty years ending 1866, houses had risen from 20,373 to 35,89^ 
or 27 per cent ; people from 80,616 to 101.874 or 20 per cent; cattii 
from 42,750 to 69,740 or 62 per cent ; carts from 3764 to 6029 or 6(j 
per cent ; ploughs from 6843 to 6863 or 29 per cent ; and wells from 
1 125 to 1589 or 70 per cent.® 

The chief changes introduced by the second survey won 
the fixing of uniform cesses on alienated lands, and, froi 
Government lands the removal of uncertainty in the land meason 
of complexity in tenures, and of arbitrary and unfair variations 
rates. Thirty of the mehvdsi villages originally held by Koli i 
Bajput chiefs were left unsurveyed and no change was made i 
the amount of their yearly payment to Government. The cesse 
on alienated lands were of three classes, quit, or salami, renti 
occasional, or savadia, rents, and other cesses. The quitrents o 
alienated lands were of two kinds, fixed and variable. Of fixe 
quitrents, there were the vdhad saldmi or lump assessment on 
whole estate generally of vdnta land ; the kdyam saldmi or fix« 
assessment on a field ; and a charge for a written permit to cut croi 
or chitidman. Of changing quitrents, there were a cess or saUm 
the amount depending either on the area under tillage, the seaso 
or the crop ; of occasional cesses or savddia,^ there were two, a person 
cess or khedu savddia depending on the caste of the tiller and whetl 
he was a tenant or the holder of the alienated land, and a crop 
fndlidt rate on valuable produce. Of other cesses, the chief were 
plough cess, hal or sdnthi vera, varying from a few annas to thii 

1 Bom. Gov. Sel., CXIV., 692. • Bom. Gov. Sel., CXIV., 671. 

8 In 1865, ninety-Bixper cent of the total area was under cultivation. 

* Bom. Gov. SeL, CXIV,, 140—155. 

* In 1866, eighty-six per cent of the total arable area was under tillage.— Bom. G 
eol, CXIV., 266. 

* Bom. Gov. Sel., CXTV., 255-266. 
7 These, though not unknown to them, were little used by the Marithis. 

were in most cases introduced by British Collectors, either to raise a revenue 
alienated lands or to prevent alienated lands being let at less than Govenuuent i 
--Bom. Gov. Sel, CXiV., 49U 

Digitized by 







mpees^; a tax on the armed classes, dhdrdla vero^; a buffalo Chapter YIII. 
ihed tax, masvari vero^ ; house site, gharjaminy tax ; a watchman's 
cess, rakhopa 5 patel's allowance, svJcdi ; a watch cess, khdti pMva 
vero ; a fruit tree cess ; and a water, pidvo, cess. Under the arrange- 
ments adopted for settling these cesses, many of the smaller ones 
were given up. Of the more important, the fixed quitrent, udhad 
$aldmi, was distributed over the different fields of the estate in 
proportiou to the survey assessment of each. The field cess was 
ooDtinaed, calculated on the actual and not on the estimated area. 
%e amount of the reaping permit, chitidman, cess was laid as a 
(pitrent. The changing quitrents were fixed on the average of twelve 
years' payments. Among occasional cesses the personal, khedu 
madia, was imposed as a permanent quitrent, in proportion to the 
assessment on the field.'^ In the case of the crop, mdlidt, cess, the 
iiverage of twelve years' payment was put on the field, on the condition 
that if for any reason rich crops could not be grown, the charge 
|hould cease.* So much of the plough cess as was not absorbed 
m the new rates was thrown on the quitrent and rentfree fields 
cl the holding,® 

In the Grovernment lands, the chief points calling for change were 

file uncertainty of the land measure, the want of uniformity in the 

iBDiires, and the variety in rates. The land measure in use was, as 

policed above, the dsra or estimated bigha, which though generally 

|»ger than the regular bigha varied to some extent according to 

|k position and wealth of the landholder. For this the actual 

fceasorement was in every case substituted.^ 


.., As regards tenures the many varieties were reduced to two simple 

Ibnns, one of joint responsibility in sharehold, and one of personal 

pponsibUity in simple villages. The sharehold, narva, tenure® 

E carefully preserved, but the complications and peculiarities 
din almost every village were, as far as possible, removed. The 
demand from each village was fixed at the full amount of the 
purey assessment on its cultivated and waste sharehold lands, 
leather with a quitrent of one-quarter of the survey rate from all land 
ilienated by the village community.® According to the wish of 

ji ^ The plough tax generally rose in proportion to the amount of free and quitrent 
pMl-Bom, &OV. Sel., CXIV., 494. 

s Chiefly on Kolis, sepoys, and Sajputs, hecause they had much rentfree land.— 
lto.Gov. Sel., 503. . 

* The origin of this name is not known. According to one account masvddi 
leuis a pregnant woman. — Bom. Gov. Sel., CXIV., 551. It was a Municipal cess. 

* la Mehmadabad the cess was in proportion to what the land had paid in 
Ke past twelve years. But this was altered by Government. — Bom. Gov. SeL, CXIV., 
•2, 659, 564, 578. 

» Bom. Gov. Sel^ CXIV., 641. 
« Bom. Gov. Sel., CXIV., 602, 666. 

1 The estimated bigha would seem to have been, as a role, larger than the actual 
jtosuremen^-Bom. Gov. SeL, CXIV., 424, 614. 

* Bom, Gov. Sel. CXIV., 64. 

^land mortgaged or sold was, if the sharers thought they could redeem it, 
pedas part of the sharehold estate. In other cases on paying one quarter of the 
BLtarvey rent, the alienee's poaaeasion waa guaranteed—Bom. Gov. Sel, CXIV. , 67, 

Digitized by 




Second Sorvey. 

[Bombay Oaxetteer, 



the majority, the members were allowed either to keep their former 
share of responsibility^ or to put in its place the amount of the 
survey aesessment on the lands they held.^ The relations between 
shareholders and tenants were, as far as possible, unchanged. The 
rights of permanent tenants were carefully recorded and strictly 
upheld, but beyond what they could claim under their leases, tenants- 
at-will received few privileges.* As under former arrangements, 
sharehold villages were charged higher rents than simple villages, 
the new system in most cases reduced the amount^ they were called 
on to pay. In simple villages the chief object of the survey was to 
introduce one form of tenure and one set of rates. The difierent 
varieties of holdings^ were reduced to the guarantee of possession 
for thirty years, subject to the payment of rental. 

As to assessment rates, the object was, as far as possible, to fix 
them solely on the value of the land.^ But as former rates depended 
almost as much on the charcu^ter of the holder as on the character 
of the soil, the new system would have had the effect of greatly rais- 
ing the rents of Koli, Musalmdn, and other unthrifty husbandmen. 
It was in most cases possible on other grounds to lower the rates 
charged to men of this class. But to prevent hardship, the role 
was made that the rise should not in any case be more th&n fif ^ 
per cent.* 

The financial result of the survey was, as shown in the following 
tabular statement, an increase over the whole district of 11*25 per cent 
in the Government land revenue. 

Survey Financial Statement, 186S to 1867. 

Year of 
BcB-vmnoH. settle- 

XahndbA .. 






Ten yeeraT 



Bs. a. p. 

of the year 
before settle- 

Rb. a. p. 


Old SyBtem. 


Rate per 

Rb. a. p. Rb. a. p. 

1863-63. 1,70,364 8 1^1,910 1,{H),7S9 6 Sj 3 

186i-6d. l,74,0Sd IL 9 1,97,682 9 6 2,02,765 13 9, 3 

186.V66.; 2,15.017 14 1 - --. -— - 

1866-67. 8,19,100 4 

186:)-64. 64.742 8 9 

1868-64. 1,83,411 6 

Survey System. 


Rate per 


112,08,487 5 
8 10 2.41.071 6 


2,19,0:^8 14 lt2,lH,l32 13 4 2 1 2,.W.5I5 18 

3,23.469 1 413,19,455 I 2 4 li 4 3,28,913 1 

75.342 U 4 72,844 19 19 4 I,00,3.%3 

1,47,600 13 11 1,44,511 4 8 3 li! 3 l,6t>,&06 11 


6| 3 19 1 if 
t 11 If ' 



Total... 10,76,631 16 11,11,45,044 8 311,48,447 13 8 3 6 4{l3,71^47 6 S 8 3 4, U 


4 <i; ^ 

4 14 3! »JM 

1 8 0^ 

3 6S Ul 

The A'nand and If eh.imadal>ad sab-divisions were formed in 1869 and Mahndha absorbed. 

1 Bom. Gov. SeL, CXIV., 280, 306. 

• Bom. Gov. Sel., CXIV., 94, 97. » Bom. Gov. Sel., CXIV., 63. 

^ Details of the different forms of tennre have been already given. They 
thus summarised by Mr. Pedder: Old holdings with over assessed, o«Ato, land 
lands nominally quit or rentfree ; holdings including quit and rentfree lands Mse.. 
under Re^. XVII. of 1827 IV. 4 ; holdings first put together by British Collectoni 
which quit and rentfree lands paid indirectly by the special rates on the o^et iasfij 
and holdings made up by Collectors with no quit or rentfiree lands the total denuw 
being nominally levied according to the value of theestateu — ^Bom. Gov. Sd., CSlf^ 

^ On fields in almost every respect similar, rates varied in Mitar from Rs. 9-1^ 
to Rs. UIM, and in NadiAd from Rs. 14-11-7 to Es. 0-13-10.— Bom. Gov. SeL, CSVf^ 
493, 167. 

• Bom. Gov. Sel,, CXIV., 452. 

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Since the survey (1868-1877) the only fresh land administrative Cihapter Till 
measnre was in 1877 the passing of an act (Act XIY. of 1877) for 
the relief of indebted Th&kors. The class for whom this measure 
was most required were the superior landholders whose estates^ 
excluded from the revenue survey, were continued to them on the 
paymentof alump, mZAa<{, assessment. These men almost entirely 
wpresentatives of the unruly Rajput and Koli Mahi chief s/ partly from 
their careless and unthrifty management, and partly from the practice 
of subdividing &mily estates, had as a class become hopelessly 
indebted. Up to November 1878 the provisions of the Act had been 
Implied to thirty-three estates. A sum of £3471 (Rs. 34,710) had 
teen advanced by Government and debts amounting to £5446 
(Rs. 64,460) were compromised. 

The following are the chief details in the history of the last ten ^^"^^"^g'*^ 
flWtfons. In 1868 scanty rain in June and July was followed by a 
ie?6re flood in August and an almost complete fiailure of the late 
wins. The total fiJl was thirty-nine inches. Though the harvest 
t8B below the average, the rupee price of millet, bajrij the staple 
fhod of the people fell from twenty-four to twenty-nine pounds. The 
area under cultivation rose from 379,956 to 388,284 acres and the land 
wenue from £198,624 to £199,666 (Rs. 19,86,240-R8. 19,96,660), the 
year, closing with £809 (Rs. 8090) of remission and an outstanding 
Balance of £613 (Rs. 6130). In the central and southern villages the 
londition of the people was good. But in the poorer lands to the 
jorth the Kolis were depressed and embarrassed.* 

In 1869 the rains did not set in till the end of July, but from 1869. 

ben till October they were plentiful and timely with a total fall of 
kirty^three inches. The harvest especially the rice crop was splen- 
fid. This with millet prices as high as twenty pounds the rupee 
•fkde the season one of great agricultural prosperity.* The tillage 
irea rose from 388,284 to 391,817 acres and the land revenue from 
1199,666 to £208,1 76 (Rs.l9,96,660.Rs. 20,31,760). Remissions were 
ginmted to the extent of only £84 (Rs. 840) and at the close of the 

■*A statement supplied by Mr. A. Crawley-Boevejr, TilukdAri Settlement Officer, 
■nrt that, twenty-six estates are (1879) owned by mty-one thdkors, of whom sixteen 
■fr Rijputis, nineteen Kolis, and sixteen Molesal&ms. These estates comprise an esti- 
prted area of 53,866 acres yielding a yearly revenue of £13,707 (Rs. 1,37,070) of 
nieh d^4353 (Rs. 43,530) are paid to Government. The smallest estate is in A'nand, 

peof402 acres yielding £70 (Rs. 700), the largest, in Borsad. has 7155 acres and 

Pywrly rental of £1600 (Rs. 16,000). The details are :— 

i,. Kaira Thdkors, 1878, 








: 6 KoUfl 

; 2 Bajpnts 
ns Holemlims.. 

L 8 Koito 

- 9 Kolis 

1 Koll 

1 Bajput 


} 18,748 
I 9060 

I 24,608 



>Rev. Commr. 1282, 19th March 1869. 
B 167— 15 












8 Rev^ Gommr. 668, 8th August 1870. 

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Chapter VIII, 



Season reporta, 








year (Slat Jnly 1870) there was an oatstanding balance of £457 
(Rs. 4570). The conditioii of all the cultivating cla^s was good. 

In 1870 the rain was heavy in July^ moderate in August^ and sluut 
in September. On the whole it was sufficient with a total fall of thirtj- 
eight inches. The early harvest was good but the late crops wanted 
moisture.^ Millet prices fell to twenty-one poimds the rupee. The 
tillage area rose from 391,817 to 393 J94 acres and the landTeyenna 
from £203,176 to £203,765 (Rs. 20,31, 760-Rs. 20,37,650), the year 
closing with £107 (Rs. 1070) of remission and an outstanding balance 
of £529 (Rs. 6290). 

In 1871 the rainfall was ill distributed. Light early rainB were 
followed in August by heavv floods, and the floods by a long stretck 
of dry weather. The total fall was thirty-three inches. In the 
north and east the harvest was poor. But in spite of the local failare 
millet prices went down to twenty-three pounds the rupee. Tha 
tillage area fell from 393,794 to 390,458 acres and the land rerenoe 
from £203,765 to £200,006 (Rs. 20,37,650 - R& 20,00,060), the y« 
closing with £409 (Rs. 4090) of remission and an outstandiiif^ 
balance of £429 (Rs. 4290). The central districts were prosperous* 
But the Kolis of M^tar, Mehmadabad, and Th&sra showed signs cC 
poverty and were throwing up their lands.* 

In 1872 the rainfall was timely and sufficient, with a total fall ot 
fifty-eight inches. A frost in January harmed the cold weathef 
crops, but on the whole it was an average harvest. Millet prices wen 
down to thirty pounds the rupee. The tillage area fell from 890,45 
to 387,554 acres and the land revenue from £200,006 to £198,M 
(Rs. 20,00,060-Rs. 19,86,450). Remissions were granted to the eitea 
of £443 (Rs. 4430) and the year closed with an outstanding halanoi 
of £239 (Rs. 2390). The depressed state of the Kolis in TUisn 
and Mehmadabad continued to attract notice. 

In 1873 the rains began early but towards the end failed, with l 
total fall of twenty-three inches. The early harvest was fair, tb 
late crops poor. MQlet prices again fell to thirty-four pounds th 
rupee. The tillage area was reduced from 387,554 to 378,282 ac» 
and the land revenue from £198,645 to £195,750 (Rs. 19,86,45 
Rs. 1 9,57,500). Remissions were granted to the extent of £4O6(Rs.408 
and the year closed with an outstanding balance of £648 (Ks. 648( 
Poverty was spreading among the less thrifty peasantry. Mon^ 
lenders, partly because of the shortening of the time of limits^ 
in civil suits and partly because of the continued fall in grain nri« 
crowded the civil courts,* keen to recover their outstandling debts. 
In 1874 the rain at first fell freely and timely, but ceased ve 
early with a total fall of twenty-three inches. The early han< 
was good, but the late rice and the cold weather crops failed. T 
fall in prices continued, millet going down to forty-six pounds t 
rupee. The tillage area fell from 378,282 to 368,001 acres andtl 

^ Rev. Oommr. to Gov., 6708, 26th December 1870. ] 

3 Collector's adminiatration report. .J 

> Details are given nnder the head * Capital ' (p. 63-64). In this year 13,105 ciil 

suits were instituted, compared with an average of 1 1,350 in the three preceding yei& 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 





Season repottif 


land revenue from £195,750 to £193,299 (Rs.l9,57,500.Rs. 19,32,990), Cliaptfir THI. 
the year closing with £65 (Rs. 650) of remission and an outstanding 
balance of £5 (Bs. 50). The cheapness of grain and the &iluro of 
the kter crops added to the troubles of the poorer husbandmen, and 
even the well-to-do are said to have been scrimped. 

In 1875 the rain was free and timely with a total fall of thirty-six 
inches. The harvest was one of the best on record and millet 
prices fell to forty-eight pounds the rupee. The tillage area fell 
from 368,001 to 363,255 acres and the land revenue from £193,299 
to £192,434 (Rs. 19,32,990-Rs. 19,24,340), the year closing with £68 
(Bs. 680) of remission and an outstanding balance of £93 (Rs. 930). 
In spite of the slight fall in prices the state of the cultivating classes 
showed signs of improvement, and the pressure of the money-lenders 
had to a great extent ceased. 

^ In 1876 the rain was again favourable with a total fall of thirty 
ipiches, and while the loc^ harvest was good, millet prices in con- 
jeqaence of the failure in the Deccan and Southern Martha districts 
oose from forty-eight to forty pounds. The tUlage area fell from 
[163,255 to 362,222 acres and the land revenue rose from £192,434 
flo £193,802 (Rs. 19,24,340-Rs. 19,38,020), the year closing with £122 
(Bs. 1220) of remissions and no outstanding baJances. Before these 
^ge crops and high prices all signs of poverty disappeared, and 
|Bb people were said to have been exceptionally prosperous.^ 

In 1877 the rains began well, but they soon failed and'in spite of 
»yy September showers the total fall was twenty-six inches. The 
* weather harvest was fair, but except those tiiat were watered 
, early crops suffered. Exports to the famine districts had 
I^Buned tihe local stock of grain, and millet prices went up from forty 
lk> seventeen pounds. The tillage area rose from 362,222 to 377,438 
acres and the land revenue from £193,802 to £195,510 (Rs.19,38,020- 
,B». 19,55,100), the year closing with £64 (Rs. 640) of remission and an 
gntetanding balance of £554 (Rs. 5540). On the whole 1877 was a 
iood year for E^ira cultivators. The poorer classes lost much of 
pteir crops. But what they reaped was of very high value and 
pie rise in prices improved their credit. To the better class of 
bltivators whose wells ensured them a full harvest the season was 
ine of very great profit. 

: Daring the thirty years ending 1876 population has increased 
fcom 566,513 to 782,733 or 38-16 per cent; houses from 150,628 
b 218,596 or 45-12 per cent; cattle from 413,440 to 458,439 or 
10*88 per cent; ploughs from 54,975 to 56,916 or 3-53 per cent; 
carts from 20,864 to 29,110 or 39-52 per cent ; and wells from 6409 
fO 9237 or 44-12 per cent. In these years the land revenue has 

E'wn from £152,109 to £195,443 or 28'48 per cent. Five 
, Qiucipalities,six dispensaries, and 190 schools have been established, 
M 100 miles of road and seventy-two miles of rail have been opened. 



} Gov. B60. 4602, 28th Jane 1876. 

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Chapter EC. 



Judicial Staff, 

[Bombay GaMtter 



Thb ladicial administration of the lands acquired in 1 802 remained 
in the hands of the Resident at Baroda till in 1805 a Jadge and 
Magistrate was appointed for Eaira.^ In 1 81 8 the office and {unctions 
of magistrate were transferred from the Judge to the Collector.' In 
the same year, owing to the acquisition of territory under the treaty 
of the 6th November 1817, the jurisdiction of the Kaira Judge waa 
limited to the lands of the eastern division, and a new Judge waa 1 
appointed for the western division and stationed at Ahmedabad.' In 
1828 the office of District Judge of Kaira was abolished, and from | 
that time tiU 1856 the judicial administration of the district remained i 
in the hands of the Judge of Ahmedabad. In 1856 a senior assist- 
ant judge was sanctioned for Kaira. This appointment was abolished 
in 1869, and since that time, except from 18/2 to 1874 when a joint 
Judge was stationed at Kaira, the duties have been performed by the 
Judge and assistant judge of Ahmedabad. 

Of the strength of the stafiE appointed to decide civil cases in tie 
Kaira district no details have been obtained earlier than the year 
1830. In that year the district was furnished with eight judgei 
The total number of suits disposed of was 5949. Twenty yeai^ 
later in 1850 there were in all seven courts, and the cases dispose! 
of numbered 6189. In 1860 there were again eight courts and thfl| 
suits numbered 5313. In 1870 the number of oourts was reduced 
to six, while the number of decisions rose to 10,532. In 1874 then 
were five courts and 10,884 decisions. In 1877 the number of court 
was the same, while the total of suits fell to 8853. At present (1878 
the district is provided with five subordinate judges' courts with ai 
average jurisdiction over 320 square miles and 156,546 souls. 
these one is stationed at Kaira with jurisdiction over the Mehmadabat 
and Mdtar sub-divisions ; another at Nadidd with jurisdiction eve 
the Nadidd and some villages of the A'nand sub-divisions ; a third a 
Kapadvanj with jurisdiction over the Kapadvanj sub-division, an* 
over some villages of Thfarain Kaira and of Par&ntij in Ahmedabad 
a fourth at Umreth with jurisdiction over some villages of the Th&r* 
A'nand^ and Nadiid sub-divisions ; and a fifth at Borsad wA 

1 Reg. IL of 1805, sec. Y. s Beg. IlL of 18ia 

' Gov. order dated 9ih February 1818. 

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Ef^paru Bterm^ l87D-li7T. 

; jonsdiction over the Borsad sub-division and some villages of A'nand. 
Besides these there is a small cause court at Nadi&d. The business 
of this ooort is conducted by the judge of the small cause court at 
Abmedabad who visits Nadidd on the first and third Mondays in 
each month. 

The average distance of the Eaira court from its six furthest 
villages is seventeen miles ; of the Nadidd court, fifteen ; of the 
KajBdvanj courts forty-eight ; of the Umreth court, thirteen ; and of 
the Borsad conrtj f ourteeHi Exclusive of suits settled by the small 
caase conrt, the average number of cases decided during the eight 
yearg ending 1877 la 11,123. During the first four of those years 
tte totals TDse from 10,532 in 1870 to 13,105 in 1873 and then 
fell to 88j3 in 1877. Of the total number of cases decided during 

the eight years ending 1877, 
71*39 per cent have on an average 
been given against the defendant 
in his absence. The proportion 
of cases decided in this way would 
seem to have been on the increase 
during the first three years and on 
the decline during the next five 
years, the maximum percentage 
being 79*55 in 1872 compared with 
73*78 in 1870 and 59-56 in 1877. 
Of contested cases only 15*17 per 
t have, during this period of eight years, been on an average decided 
■ the defendant- The proportion of such cases decided id favour 
ithe defendant fell from 23 48 per cent in 1870 to 11*19 per cent 
1 1872, and then during the next five years rose to 17*30 in 1877. 
In 127 or r43 per cent of the whole number of suits decided in 
^1377, the decree has been executed by putting the plaintiff in the 
[pitesession of the immoveable property claimed. The number of 
jOHes of this kind does not vary much from year to year, except that 
ml873 the total was only 47 out of 13,105 suits, and in 1877 was 
lijout of 8853, In 1870 the total was 104 compared with 127 in 
M77. In 53' 38 per cent of the decisions passed in 1877, decrees for 
mmj due have been executed by the attachment or sale of property ; 
ft these 17-11 por cent have on an average been by the sale of 
Bw^eable and 36*27 per cent by the sale of immoveable property. 
Compared with 1870, the 1877 returns of attachments or sales of 
ttLoreable and immoveable property show a rise from 354 to 1515 in 
Uie former, and from 1185 to 3211 in the latter. 

Compared with 1870, the number of decrees executed by the arrest 
rf the debtor during the eight years ending 1877 has considerably 
E^Den, the total for 1870 being 1553 against 104 in 1877. As will 
te Been from the following table, the number of civil prisoners has 
raried but little during the eight years ending 1877, the total in 
4e latest year being 123 compared with 154 in 1870 and 212 in 





m ,. 




«!1 ... 




bpH ,„ 

lis 89 



BA K» 







Up -^ 

10.7 IS 



Bw -.. 




p ' 







71 '3 





Digitized by VjOOQIC 

[Bombay Gantteer, 



Kaira Cinl PrUonera, ISTO-IST?. 







At creditor's 





1B70 ,.. „. 






187fl ,^ ... 

mi ... ... 














Civil Courts, 
18704 S77. 

Small caoie court. 

Of the 123 prisoners in 1877, 111 were Hindus and twrfil 

The following statement shows in tabular form the workmg of 
the district civil courts during the eight years euding 1877 i— 

Kaira Civil Couria, 1879-1877, 






7 11 

e 15 

7771 lea 
10, »H e5L> 















143 ', 9a 
















From the following table it will be seen, that during the eiglit 
years ending 1877 the total number of suits decided by the Nadisi 
small cause court, which rose from 1454! in 1870 to 2118 in 1S"4 
has fallen to 1064 in 1877, or a decrease of 26*82 per, cent in eigiii 
years. Against a fall in suits of less than £20 (Bs- 200) th^rft 
is a slight rise in en its of higher Talue, Except in 1871 and ISTT 
whenit rOEoto £5 18s. 7d. (Rs. 59-4-8), and £5 3s. 9^rf. (Rs. h\'\^)i 
the average value of suits during the eight years has ranged betw^ 
£4 6d, (Rs- 40-4) and £4 16^. BA. Rg. 48-5-4), As regardi * 
execution of decrees, attachments of property have risen fpom 16 ^ 
1870 to 64 in 1877 1 and Bales from 4 to 32, There is a fall in thi 
number of debtors imprisoned from 16 in IS 70 to 11 in 1877. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




ya<ttW SmaU Oauie Court, 1870-77. 

















£5 to 

£20 10 







£ «. d 

£ f . ± 

mo ^, 





4 6 

e LI 




1S7I ^ 





6 18 7 





m „, 





i s e 

8 10 




m „. 





4 6 2 

a 10 




M* *^ 





4 B 7 

10 4 




liTJ H« 





1 10 6 

10 %i 




1U« ... 





4 U 3^ 

ft 3 »| 

10 4 




IfTT „„ 





i:^ 1 




Registration employs eight special sab-registrars^ one at each of 
tiie seven sub-division headquarters^ and the eighth at the town of 
Umreth. In addition to the Collector's supervision as district 
Begistrar, and to his assistant or deputy's supervision a special scrutiny 
18^ under the control of the Inspector General of registration and 
stamps, carried on by the inspector of registration for Gujar&t, 
According to the registration report for 1877-78 the receipts for that 
mr amounted to £1838 (Es, 18,380), and the charges to £1001 
(&. 10,010), leaving a balance of £8S7 (Ra. 8370). Of 6466, the 
tokl number of registrations, sixty-ono were wills, 121 were docu- 
ments affecting moveable, and 6284 documents affecting immoveable 
property. Of the last class, in addition to 1073 miscellanooua 
instramenta, thirty were deeds of gift, 2242 were deeds of sale, and 
2939 were mortgages. The registered value of the total immoveable 
property transferred was £219,388 (Rs. 21,93,880). 

At present (1878) eighteen^ officers share the administration of 
criminal justice. Of these five, one of them a mamlatdar, are magis- 
trates of the first, and thirteen ot the second and third classes. 
Of tte former two are covenanted European civilians and three are 
E^tu-es, With regard to the local jurisdiction and powers of these 
daiTi'^t rates, one of them, the District Magiatrate, ia placed in a 
tpeml position, invested with a general supervision over tlie whole 
district. Each of the four remaining first class magistrates haa an 
average charge of 400 square miles and a population of 105^683 souls, 
hi the year 1&76, the five first class magistrates decided 286 original 
»nd eighty- one appeal criminal cases. Of the five first class magis- 
trates three have as Colloctor, assistant collector, and deputy collector, 
Terenne charge of the parts of the district in which they exercise 
nsa^nsterial powers. Of subordinate magistrates there are fourteen, 
fill of them natives with an average charge of 114 square miles and 
a population of 60,210 seals. In 1876 they decided 1228 original 
(Brimmal cases. Besides their magisterial duties, these officers 

Chapter IZ. 



Criminal justice. 

The registry o^ce Iot the Melunadahad Btib-diyisiQii is held ^t Mehuiiadabad 
™ci the iecK»ad Monday to the following Soturday in eAch moatii, and during the r^ 
«hb^ time at Kainw ^ 

' Bsftidea nine honorary magiitrAte^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Chapter EL 



[Bombay taetoTi 



exercise reyenue powers as m&mlatd&rs or the bead clerb of 
m&mlatd&rs. Seventy of the village headmen^ of whom there are 600 
with an average annual pay of £4 12s. (Rs. 46), have been entrusted 
with powers of fining and imprisoning^ and the rest with the powers 
contemplated by the Bombay Village Police Act (VIII. of 1867). 

From the table of offences given below^ it will be seen that during 
the seven years ending 1877> 2250 offences or one offence for evei; 
347 of the population were on an average committed. Of these 
there were on an average ten murders and attempts to comimt 
murder ; five culpable homicides ; sixty-one cases of grievous hurt and 
hurt by dangerous weapons ; and twenty-six cases of dacoity aod 
robbery. 2146 or 95 per cent of the whole were minor offences. 

At the beginning of the century when Kaira came under Britbik 
management, the chief criminal classes were the Rajput Gir^iis or 
land revenue claimants, who to recover some alleged claim, or 
because of some other grievance would, by turning oatlawB, 
bdhdrvatids, burning, murdering, and robbing, try to foroe the 
authorities to grant their demands. The next class were the Kolis, 
inveterate robbers and highwaymen. A third were the BWta or 
BAhrots who when pressed to pay taxes committed trdga, that i% 
either mutilated themselves or killed one of their number.^ At tbe 
1811-12 circuit sessions the chief offences were g^g robberies, 
housebreaking, and theft, and the passing of base money. The gang 
robberies were seldom found out. In 1813 on account of the Bcareitj, 
crime was unusually general. At that time so disturbed was thi 
country that in the western districts long before sunset ploughs weB( 
unyoked and wells deserted.' 

In 1821 the district was orderly. There was no open violence^ 
murders were rare, and thefts much fewer than formerly. Bxcepl 
the Kolis the people were not given to affrays, drinking or othei 
forms of debauch.^ A few years later there was a serious distoA 
ance among the Kolis. On the night of the 17th March 18S 
Govindas Rdmdas with about 500 armed followers attacked th 
town of Thfera with the object of driving out the British officer ai 
establishing himself as ruler. His followers thought Govindis 
saint and believed him endowed with supernatural powers. In 182 
things were better, there were few cases of large plundering ganga 
The population was generally quiet and crimes were few.* Two yeai 
later (1830) the Kolis were again unsettled. Bands of disaSectai 
vagrants wandered about, orderly cultivators were not protected, fei 
travellers escaped without loss and in Sir John Malcolm's cad 
though at a distance from the wilder tracts and guarded by villag 

In the early years of British rule trdga cases were not uncommon. The foJknrll 
are examples. In 1816 the Mdtar Bh&ts to prevent Government officers from b 
snring their lands wonnded some of their number.— Ham. Des. I., 692. Id 1827 
refusal to pay a quitrent on their lands the Bhdts' crops were attached. At Mahad) 
an old woman threw herself into a well and at An&ra two women killed themadit 
And three men wounded themselves severely.— Collector, 15th December 1SZ7. 

Bam. Des., I., 693. > East India Papers, m., 690, 

* Ciwuit Judge, 20th Aprill828. 

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watchmen u well as bj soldiers^ many thefts were safely committed.^ 
Though they have to a great extent settled as regular cultivators^ 
the Kolis are still a troublesome class. Mauy are bom and brought 
up as thieves^ and the difficulty of tracing crime is increased by the 
ready shelter given to criminals in the tract of rough country along 
ike Mahi^ and in almost all the states that march with Kaira limits. 
Besides^ of late years small hamlets sometimes as many as twenty to 
a village have sprung np^ and in other parts the lower classes of 
tillagers have begun to live in small huts in the fields. These 
ehaages add much to the difficulty of keeping a watch on the criminal 
ehsses. Agrarian crimes, thefts from fields in harvest time, the 
bnrning of crops to pay off a private grudge, and the murder of 
oppressive money-lenders* have of late years been rather common. 
In 1872 several cases of poisoning occurred. Suspicions were aroused 
ttd on the trial of one of the cases it came out that the poisonings 
were the work of a gang of professional criminals. The leader was 
eonvicted and hanged, and one of his accomplices transported for 
hfe. Since then this form of crime is believed to have ceased.' 

In the year 1877 the total strength of the district or regular 
folice force was 754. Of these under the district Superintendent one 
was a subordinate officer, 142 inferior subordinate officers, thirty-five 

j Sir J. Maloolm*8 minata 15th October 1830 (Litho. Papen No. 148, 61.) 
Kolis and Babiris or wandering shepherds, are the classes most given to burning 
taSi Before burning the crop a warning is generally hung on some tree or near a 
M, stating that unless the owner of a certain field takes care his crop will be burnt, 
ne following are some of the more recent oases of attacks on money-lenders. In 1872 
ko Yiais brothers of the town of Kaira obtained an order of attachment against the 
pR>peH7 of a Koli of Parsitej, a village in the Mehmadabad sub-division, and while 
WVM busy with his wife's funeral sold all his property. The brothers were warned, 
m without effect. A few days after they paid another dunning visit to the tillage. 
Nag they were riding home some of the villaeers followed them, dragged them from 
pair horses, and killed them, throwing their bodies into the river. In 1873 a Brihman 
PKnr of Borsad brought to the village of Asodar in the Borsad sub-division a decree 
iiast three Koli brothers. On pretence of givin^^ him grass in satisfaction of his 
jn, the brothers took bim to their field and setting upon him killed him. In 1874 
Nctsee occurred. In the first in spite of his entreaties a Vinia sold the house and 
Iftsr property of a Koli of Dh^ora m the Mdtar sub-division. In revenge the Koli 
|Med ium dead. In the second a Vtoia of Nadiid bought a field from a woman of 
■ Tillage, to whom it had been mortgaged by the holder, a KolL The Koli refused 
fff^^ possession. Persisting in having the field planted with rice the Vdnia with a 
■uman friend went to the place to see that the work went on. While there the 
m. and some friends came up, attacked the strangers, and killed them both on the 

In one case at the village of Sui in the Thisra sub-division, as a band of nine- 
^ shepherds were sittine down to their evening meal, a man dressed as a Brdhmaa 
■ed them to bring their flocks next day to manure his fields. J?he shepherds agreed, 
n lisiog to go, the BhUiman offered them two sweetmeats sayine they were from 
M temple of Ranchhodji at D&kor, and as some children had touched his clothes he 
nlduot eat them. The shepherds took the sweetmeats, and after the Br&hman left 
^ed and ate them. In a short time all sickened. Six died and the rest only 
^▼ered after a long illness. Some months after a Musalm&n packman of Kaira was 
f* two servants going from D&kor to Kaira. Kear Umreth they were joined by 
^Hssalm&ns. After a meal cooked by the strangers, the two servants fell ill. One 
id during the night, and the other somewhat recovered went on with his master and 
f stiangezB to NadiAd. Next day after leaving Kadiid the^ ate some more of the 
KUgers' food. That nisht two policemen commg from Kaira to Nadi&d found one 
them dead and the other apparently mad and their eoods gjone. The strangers 
n disappeared. Followed on camels, one of them was found in Baroda with the 

jater part of the stolen proj 
bthd trial one of them ooi 
B W7-16 

Tiie other was afterwards taken in Ahmedabad. 
that he had poisoned the Sui shepherds. 

Chapter Ht 



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[Bombay Qaietbeer, 



J 877, 


•mounted police, and 575 constables. The cost of main taiBing this foroi 
was as follows. The one European oflScer,the district Superintendeoli 
received a total annual salary of £1080 (Rs. 10,800) ; the subcmEi. 
nate officer, a yearly salary of not less than £120 (Rs. 12(M))m4 
the inferior subordinate officers, yearly salaries of less thau il2) 
(Rs. 1200) each, or a total yearly cost of £3419 16^. {Rs. U; 
the pay of the mounted and foot police came to a total af £667( 
(Rs. 66,760). Besides the pay of the officers and men, there was i 
total annual sum of £366 (Rs. 3660) allowed for the horses mi 
travelling expenses of the superior officers, £205 2js\ (Rs. 'Ml 
annual pay and travelling allowance for their establish men ts^ aiK 
£393 (Rs. 3930) a year for contingencies and other espensei, 
making a total annual cost to Government for the district police <i 
£12,139 188. (Rs. 1,21,399). 

Taking 1600 square miles as the area of the district and 7S2JS3 

as its population, the strength of the police of the Kaim district 

one man to every 2*12 sqaare miles and 1038 souls. The cost 

maintenance is equal to £7 lis. 9d. (Rs. 75-14) per square njile, 

8Jd. (2 J as.) per head of the population. Of the total strength « 

754, inclusive of the Superintendent, twenty-eight officers 

twenty-four constables were in 1877 employed as guards at disi 

central, or subsidiary jails; 109 men, nineteen officers and mm 

constables, were engaged as guards over trecisuriesj lock^upsp or 

escorts to prisoners and treasure; 531 men, 110 officers and 

constables, were engaged on other duties ; and eightj-six meUj el< 

officers and seventy-five constables, were stationed in towns 

municipalities. Of the portion of the force on general police dutii 

137, twenty-four head constables and 118 constables were empb 

at twenty-seven police posts, thdnds, with on an average about tweli 

villages to each post. It is the duty of these men to be constani 

moving from one to another of the villages under their charge. 

the whole number, exclusive of the district Superintendent, 301 

provided with fire-arms and 452 with swords only, or with swoi 

and batons ; 405, ninety-seven officers and 308 constables, coM 

and write ; and 162, twenty-seven officers and 135 constable^j 

under instruction during the year. With the exception of 

European Superintendent, the members of the police force were 

natives of India. Of these, seventy-eight officers and 295 constabl 

were Musalmans, four officers and thirteen constables were Brakmi 

sixteen officers and forty-four constables were Rajputs, eight offi< 

and thirty-four cqpstables were Mar&thds, twenty-one officers and 

constables were Kolis, fourteen officers and forty-one constables 

Hindus of other castes, and two officers belonged to other reltgii 

Subordinate to the district police there is the village watch, 

under the names of rdvanids, rakhds, and pagis with a total strei>L 

of about five for each village and a cost of £13 (Rs. 130)^ besidea 

guides and messengers, act as village police. This force of 

police is paid chiefly by the grant of land. Besides what they 

from Government the village watch, nominally on the understanii 

that they will make good any losses by theft, recover from vill 

yearly sums varying from £5 to £30 (Rs. 50 -Rs. 300). 

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In 1877 of 261 persons accused of heinous crimes, 181 or 69*35 per 
cent were convicted. Of 3884, the total number of persons accused 
of crimes of all sorts, 2420 or 62*31 per cent were convicted. Of 
11677 (Rs. 16,770) alleged to have been stolen, £1189 (Rs. 11,890) 
or 70*86 per cent of the whole amount were recovered. 

The following table gives the chief crime and police details of the 
r leYen years ending 1877 : 

||, Kaira Crime and Police, 1871-1877. 



Murder and attempt 
to Murder. 




Offbigis and PtrmsHMWiTS. 

10 t 60 8 
15 40 IS 


7 IS 10 88*88 

30 Us 34 

8 90 I 6 

6 7 
12 86 18 87-14 




Qrievons hart and 

hurt by dangerons 

































Daooities and 























Oimrois AND FmsnBMMim— continued. 

Otber Oflbnoe*. 















£. t. 

S921 4 

8661 14 
1468 16 
1943 12 
1967 10 
1677 18 

£. », 

1818 U 
1084 10 
1878 12 
996 10 
1215 4 
1030 6 
1189 3 

81 'or 


CSiapter IX 

Crime andi 


Little information of the comparative amount of crime at 
.different periods since the introdaction of British rale has been 
collected. The following is a summary of such details as are ayail- 
*lle. The total number of offences committed during the five years 
Riding 1849 was 15,757, representing an annual average of 3151, 
trcm the basis of the census returns of 1846, one crime to every 
179 inhabitants. Corresponding returns for the five years ending 
1877 show a total of 11,250 offences giving a yearly average of 2250 
crimesj or on the basis of the 1872 census returns one- crime to every 
S47 iohabitants. A comparison of the returns would seem to show 
|reat improvement in the matter of murder and culpable homicide. 
i^liile population has increased since 1849, only ten cases of 
fiimder and attempts to commit murder were on an average returned 
^ year during the five years ending 1877 against twenty-four 



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[Bombay GiiBfctMr, 



Cautgtar IXr 

Crime and police, 

daring tiie five years ending 1849^ and five against seven of ctdpable 
homicide. Under the head of robberies including dacoities and 
thefts of cattle, there is a most marked falling off, the yearly 
averages for the two periods being 830 for the earlier and li^l for 
the later. Besides these, the crime of arson not now shown as a 
separate offence was very common. Daring the five years ending 
1849, 871 cases or on an average 174 per year were recorded wi^ 
an estimated average annual destruction of property worth 2626 
8s. (Bs. 6264). 

The following is a statement of crime and police daring the five 
years ending 1849 : — 

Kaira Grimes, 1845-1849. 












«. •« 






938 4 
























855 4 




' TbUl 





866 14 







8183 3 



Kiura Police, 1846-1849. 








£ B. 

£ f. 





4017 14 

1067 8 







8786 4 

633 6 



••• ••• ••• 




8762 14 

831 li 







411i 4 




Total ..." 




4587 16 

925 6 





20,366 12 

8619 IS 

17« ' 


Besides the accommodation provided for ander-trial pnaono^ 
at the headquarters of each sub-division, there is in the town 
Kaira^ a jail able to hold ninety-two male and eight female pi 

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Thi earliest year for which a copy of the balance sheet of the 
district is available is 1815-16. Since that time many changes have 
been made in the way of keeping accounts. But, as far as possible^ 
tie different items have been brought under their corresponding 
lieads of account according to the system at present in force. Exclusive 
j cf 177,654 (Rs. 7,76,540) the adjustment on account of alienated 
land, the total transactions that appear in the district balance sheet 
ifcr 1875-76 amount to receipts £291,117 (Rs. 29,11,170) against 
£194,251 (Es. 19,42,510) in 1815-16, and the charges to £286,154 
.(fa. 28,61,540) in 1875-76 against £165,067 (Rs. 16,50,670) in 
1815-16. Exclusive of departmental miscellaneous receipts and sums 
Received in return for services rendered, such as the receipts of the 
J08t and telegraph departments, the amount of revenue raised itt 
^1875-76 under all heads, imperial and provincial services, local funds 
indmuDicipal revenues, amounted to £260,547 (Rs. 26,05,470), or on 
« population of 782,733 an incidence per head of 6«. 8cL As nq 
'IBQSU8 details are available for 1815-16, corresponding information 
ia that year cannot be given. 

During the interval of sixty years, the following changes have taken 
flace under the chief heads of receipts and charges : 

land revenue receipts, forming 74*1 per cent of £260,547 
(Bb. 26,06,470) the entire revenue of the district, have risen from 
1156,844 (Rs. 15,63,440) in 1815-16 to £195,184 (Rs. 19,51,840) in 
1875-76. The increase is for the mo'st pwt due to receipts from 
|ie large additional area under cultivation. Another source of 
"ease has been the larger amounts recovered since 1863 £rom 
s^enated lands except service lands held by certc^n village and 
riot officers. The land revenue charges show an advance from 
112,696 to £25,398 (Rs. 1,26,960- Rs. 2,53,980). This, increased cost 
in collecting the land revenue is partly due to a rise in the number 
^d in the amount of both village and district officers' salaries, and is in 
tfni the result of the change from hereditary to stipendiary officers. 

The following statement ^ shows the land revenue collected in each 
rfthe forty-five years ending 1877 : 

Chapter X- 

Eevenne and 

Balftnce eb^et, 

Land reTenne* 

^FigOFee for the yean between 1833 and 1862 are taken from statement Ka IL iq 
m. B^'b excise report dated let October 1869. Figores for aubeeqaent years ar« 
fektt from the ann w x^portB*. 

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Beyenue and 

Land revenae. 


Transit dues. 

^Luossod taxf^ 

Bombay QaiettMT, 



Kaira Land Revenue^ 1833-1877. 


Land B«Tenae. 







1833-34 ... 


1848-49 ... 


1863-64 ... 


1834-35 ... 


1849-50 ... 


1864-65 ... 


183536 ... 


1850-51 ... 


1865-66 ... 


1836-37 ... 


1851-52 ... 


1866-67 ... 


1837-38 ... 


1862-53 ... 


1867-68 ... 


1838-39 ... 


1863-54 ... 


1868-69 ... 


183940 ... 


1854-55 ... 


186970 ... 


1840-41 ... 


1855-56 ... 


1870-71 ... 


1841-42 ... 


1866-57 ... 


1871*72 ... 


1842-43 ... 


185758 ... 


1872J3 ... 


1843.44 ... 


1858-59 ... 


1873-74 ... 


1844-45 ... 


1859-60 ... 


187M5 ... 


1845-46 ... 


1860-61 ... 


1875-76 ... 


1446-47 ... 


1861-62 ... 


1876-77 ... 


1847-48 ... 


1862-63 ... 


1877-78 ... 


There is no separate head of Tribute. The sum of £2547 10«. 7jl 
(Rs. 25,475-5-1) paid yearly as cash tribute by the Nawab of Camhf 
under the treaty of Bassein (1802) and the Imperial share of cerUia 
cesses are credited to Land Revenue. 

Stamp receipts have risen from £2296 to £20,471 (Rs. 22,060- 
Rs. 2,04,710); the expenditure of £574 (Rs. 5740) is a new charge. 

Unlike the southern districts of Oujar&t, liquor is little 
Excise receipts have risen from £1370 to £1790 (Rs. 15JOO-17,90fl)? 

Transit dues in 1815-16 yielded £18,880 (Rs. 1,88,800) ; they toe 
since been abolished. 

Law and Justice receipts, chiefly fines, have risen from £389 t* 
£1471 (Rs. 3890 - Rs. 14,710). The 1875-76 charges were £10,^ 
(Rs. 1,02,800) against £10,216 (Rs. 1,02,160) in 1815-1(3 

There are no regular forests. The item £285 (Rs, 2850) repres^a 
the rental of lands credited to the Forest Department. 

The following table shows, exclusive of official salaries, the amoiml 
realized from the diCFerent assessed taxes levied between 1800 ani 
1873. Owing to their variety of rates and incidencei it is difficult ta 
make any satisfactory comparison of the results. 

Kaira Assessed Taaces, 1860-1872. 


Income Tax^ 
1860-61 ... 
1861-62 ... 
1862-63 ... 
1863-64 ... 
1864-65 ... 

LicmM Tax^ 
1867-68 ... 

CerHficaU Tax. 
1868-69 ... . 

Income Tax^ 

1869-70 ... 
1870-71 ... 
1871-72 ... 
1872-73 ... 


Below £50. 





Above £50. 




















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Customs and Salt receipts have fallen from £7442 to £7067 
(Rs. 74,420-R8. 70,670). Under the existing system, revenue from the 
sale of opium and the amount of the bid for the right to sell the drug 
are credited to Customs, and the Government share in the Cambay salt 
revenue to Salt. In 1815-16 both were credited to Customs. 

Under allowances and assignments the fall in charges is due to the 
seUIement of cash alienations. 

Military charges in 1815-16 amounted to £52,379 (Rs. 5,23,790). 
Owing to the removal of the military force from Eaira, only £77 
(Rs. 770) on account of pensioners were in 1875-76 debited to this 

Registration and Education are new heads. 

Transfer receipts have risen from £6315 to £58,767 (Rs. 63,160- 

88.5,87,670), and charges from £72,707 to £209,644 (Rs. 7,27,070- 

Bs. 20,96,440). The increased receipts are due chiefly to receipts on 

account of local funds, to remittances from other treasuries, to the 

, amoont held as deposit on account of savings banks, and to the 

I nooveiy of loans made to landed proprietors, thdkora. The increased 

; d^es are due chiefly to a large surplus balance remitted to other 

I treasuries^ and to the expenditure on account of local funds. 

\ In the following balance sheets of 1815-16 and 1875-76, the 
figares shown in black type on both sides of the 1875-76 balance 
Aeet are book adjustments. On the receipt side the item £77,654 
$^ 7,76,540) represents the additional revenue the district would 
jield, had none of its land been given away. On the debit side the 
iem £4090 (Rs. 40,900) under land revenue is the rental of the lands 
Craoted to village headmen, except those engaged solely on police 
ioties and to the village watch. The item £71,143 (Rs. 7,11,430) 
tlader allowances and assignments represents the rental of the lands 
jianted to district hereditary officers, to girdsias, and other non-service 
claimants ; the item £2420 (Rs. 24,200) under police represents the 
Kental of the lands granted to village headmen employed solely on 
pob'ce duties. Cash allowances are, on the other hand, treated as 
jtctual charges and debited to the different heads of account according 
Ito the nature of the allowance. Thus cash grants to village headmen, 
^pt those engaged solely on police duties and the village watch, are 
^uded in £25,398 (Rs. 2,53,980), the total of land revenue charges ; 
pAi grants to non-service claimants are included in £8493 (Rs. 84,930), 
tte total of allowance and assignment charges; and cash grants 
w "paiels employed solely on police duties are included in £13,690 
(Ba. 1,36,900) the total of police charges. 

Chapter X 

Eevenne and 




Bal&iLce fih««tf 


^ The Kaira district treasary \ 
Mitt diitricta. 

I able in 1875-76 to send £183,100 (Bs. 18,31,000) to 

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ReveEne and 

BaLizioe sheet, 

[Bomlifty Sazetteer, 

Kmra Bdlam Skd 

€li4U OF BlfiTTCl, 

Imperial $erwi&* 


Btjunps , 

EkcIms ... 
Trail*! t du«« ... 
taw uDd jufltioe 

Profit and Losa... 
AeieBted taxes „. 
MiweLluitiaui ... 




C^atOQU ... 




PubHc work* 


Military ... 







A^nncial Eervia. 

Itomi of Ac- 



police .„ 

Medical .., 


^Ic^ of boaka 



DppTMdta and repaym^^nta of i^dvajioes adtI 

loanB , 

fill I a and CMh reinittjui«a .,. 

PeaHlon fund re<!«lp(a 

LcKsU tubdJi ,,t N., ^ 


Oittud Total 


159M^ B 

3iBe it 

I3T0 S 

1S,8S0 19 I 



190,494 9 4 

744a 10 

T44S 10 

im 10 

mi 19 

809 12 


ise^isi 1 1 

7!M 1 f 

^471 a T 

17!M 1 f 

31$ 13 I 

41 e I 

77 JH 1 » 

781 4 i 

11 U 4 

I0,a3i I ) 

S4I £ 1 

eet 6 1 

to 9 1 

S3M a 1 

59T« IS W 
K,4J0 1« I 

4iiir i 

S^»14 411 


lJM.aSl IS 4 

M,767 U I 

t»i,mit « 
7T.W 1 » 

B,Tn t • 

Digitized by VofOOQlC 




mt-lS ami WS-76. 








«- t. d 

£^ I. d. 



atop. ... « 

Fonrt .. 


Profit «ad km 

Law and JTutloe 

AUowBoosB and MiigmMiits 


13,606 10 

*«iV7 1ft 

j 10^15 19 

ll,7i»0 it 

3&,3Ii$ ft ft 

4090 9 d 


121 10 7 

111 10 

f 'a4J0 13 S 
4dt)tf 4 a 
B4}»3 ft a 

n.m 11 11 

1»7« Q U 
"U B I 


PoBiloBs to goTwnment Mrrantf 


Totid ... 







TUesraph » 

Total ... 






Cemeteries, office xcDta, ftc 



OmiribaUon to looU fonda 

PttbUework* - 

Totel ... 

Bint and eaah remfttanoes 

Local fundi 

fbtel ... 
Orud Total ... 

40 4 

ujsm ft Q 

*n,^>i 9 1 

7&234 OU 


j 2699 8 

ii,sh 19 

167 13 

C 1& 1 7 

t im 19 £ 

£7,220 i 

77 8 

40 1ft T 

131ft 17 10 

U,liS 1ft 

tft^28 l§ 2 








"s& e 


7ftl in 11 
lftD5 U 7 

l^.e^^ 15 a 

S130 OlO 

m6 15 A 

lOAH 9 a 

1010 IE ft 
9^ 12 


333 1 1 
9{^ 3 

iijo a ft 

335 6 

%m 10 

»i 4 
7»,ftT3 ft 

UPSa 13 ft 
17S.79ft 3 t 

Iftl 7 ft 

ts.sift ft in 

7a,7ofl 10 

lS9jft4« 6 11 


28fl,1.S4 a 1 
77,6fti 1 

16^067 IS 

S03,eO8 9 11 

Chapter X. 

B@^aiiiie and 

ISiSae— 1876 76. 

Digitized by 





Cb&pter 1. 

BeTeEua and 

LocaJ Fonds, 



Reventte other than Imperial. 

The district local funds collected since 1863 to promote rural 
education and supply roads, water, drains, rest-houses, dispensaries, 
and other useful objects amounted in the year 1877-78 to a total sum 
of £20,340 (Rs. 2,03,400) and the expenditure to £22,772 (Rs. 2,27,720). 
This revenue is drawn from three sources, a special cess of one-sixteenth 
in addition to the ordinary land-tax, the proceeds of certain subordi- 
nate local funds, and some miscellaneous items of revenue. The 
special land cess, of which two-thirds are set apart as a road fund and 
the rest as a school fund, yielded in 1877-78 a revenue of £16,498 
(Rs, 1,64,980). Smaller funds including a ferry fund, a toll fund, a 
cattle-pound fund, and a school fee-fund, yielded £1478 (Rs. 14,780). 
Government and private subscriptions amounted to £1629 (Rs. 16,290), 
and miscellaneous receipts including certain items of land revenue, to 
£735 (Rs. 7350), or a total sum of £20,340 (Rs. 2,03,400). This 
revenue is administered by committees composed partly of ofiScial and 
partly of private members. 

For administrative purposes the local funds of the district are divided 
into two main sections, one set apart for public works and the 
other for instruction. The receipts and disbursements during the 
year 1877-78 under those two heads were as follows : 
Kaira Local Funds, 1877-78, 



Balance. Ist April 1877 ... 
Two- thirds of the land ceMs 



Cattle pounds 

Travellera' rest houses . . . 



£. a. 

5082 11 

10,999 4 

165 10 

10 12 

569 18 

28 4 

624 2 

79 16 


New works 


Medical charges 


Balance, Ist April 1878... 

Total ... 

£. «. 

2599 4 
9681 8 
1608 18 
656 18 
37) 19 

Total .. 

17,559 17 

17.559 17 


Balance, 1st April 1877 ... 
Oae-third of the land cess. 

School fee fund 

Contribution (Government) 

Do. (private) 

£. 8. 

9908 2 

5499 12 

731 3 

997 14 

7 16 

627 3 

School charges 


School houses, new 

Do. repairs ... 


Balance 1st April 1878... 

Total ... 

£. «. 

5965 13 
213 13 
477 6 
256 18 
940 11 

2917 10 

Total ... 

10,771 10 

10.771 10 

Since 1863 the following local fund works have been carried out. 
To improve communication 100 miles of road have been made^ bridged, 
and for forty-four miles planted with trees. To improve the water 
supply 419 wells, 356 reservours and ponds, eight water courses and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




forty-seven troughs have been made or repaired. To help village 
instruction forty-two schools, and for the comfort of travellers eighty 
rest-houses and seventy^two village oflSces, chords, have been built. 
Besides these works six dispensaries and 190 cattle pounds have 
been constructed. 

In 1877-78 there were five municipalities, all of them established 
since 1857. The total municipal revenue in 1877-78 amounted to 
£5356 (Rs. 63,560). Of this sum £2703 (Rs. 27,030) were recovered 
from octroi dues, £431 (Rs. 4310) from a toll and wheel-tax, £464 
(8b. 46*0J from a house-tax, and £1758 (Rs. 17,580) from miscella- 
neoos sources. Under the provisions of the Bombay District 
Municipal Act VI. of 1873 all these municipalities are town 
municipalities administered by a body of commissioners with the 
Collector as president and the assistant or deputy collector in charge of 
the sub-division as vice president, the commissioners being chosen 
in the proportion of at least two non-official to each official member. 

The following statement gives for each municipality the receipts, 

darges, and the incidence of taxation during the year endmg 31st 

March 1878:— 

Kaira Municipal Detaih, 1878. 







Toll or 




£C&" ::: 



16th Feb. 1W7 ... 
7th Hay 1868 ... 
15th Aug. 1863 ... 
20th June 1864 ... 
16th May 1866 ... 

Total ... 












































|ita ... 

IMknr ... 
HidMd ... 

15th Feb. 1857 . 
7th May 1863 . 
16th Aog. 1868. 
iOth Jane 1864. 
16Ui May 1866^. 

Total ... 
































1 3 

6 1 

1 8 









At present (1878) an establishment in; connection with the- Cotton 
Frauds Act (Bombay Act IX. of 1 863) for preventing the adulteration 
of cotton is, under the control of the Collector, maintained at a total 
pearly cost of £180 (Rs. 1800). This charge is met from the cotton 
Mprovement fund framed under the provisions of the Act. The 
tttablishment consists of a sub-inspector drawing a monthly salary of 
Hi (Ba 120), and a messenger on 18#« (Bs. 9) a month. 

Chapter Z. 




Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Obaptar XT- 




FnTnU schciolu. 




In 1877-78 there were 190 Government schools, or on an averag 
one school for every three inhabited villages, alienated as well i 
Government, with 14,9^0 pnpils on the rolls and an average attendaiU 
of 10,308 or 2-24 per cent of 407,818, the entire pi^ulation of i 
more than twenty years of age; 

Excluding superintendence charges, the total expenditnre 
edacation on account of these 190 Government schools and of ti 
Cambay private schools inspected by education officers, amoiinted 
£7516 (Rs. 75,160). Of this £1492 (Rs. 14,920) were debited 
Government and £6024 (Ra. 60,240) to local and other funds. 

Under the Director of public instruction and the inspect 
northern division the schooling of the district was conducti 
by a local staff 430 strong ; of these one was a deputy inspecii 
with general charge over all the schools of the district, drawii 
yearly pay of £180 (Rs. 1800); two were assistant depo 
inspectors entrusted with the examination of the vernacular schoi 
in the Matar, Mehmadabad, A nand, and fiorsad sub-divisio] 
drawing together yearly pay of £180 (Rs. 1800) ; and the 
Were masters and assistant masters of schools with yearly salan 
ranging from £240 to £2 8«. (Rs. 2400 to Rs. 24). 

Of 190, the total number of Government schools, in 181 Guji 
only was taught, and in six Urdu and Gujardti. Two ^ 
Anglo-vernacular schools teaching English and Gujarati. Odo 
high school teaching English, Gujardti, and Sanskrit up to 
standard required for the University entrance test examination. 

In addition to the Government schools there were at Cambay 

private vernacular boys' schools supported by private individuals 

« 1 , .„^ school fees, and inspec 

Pnvau SchooU, 1876. ^^ education officers.^ 

average attendance of pn 
in these schools amoan 
to 171 out of a roll-call 
288 boys. Besides the 
in Cambay there were 
Kaira,^ as shown in 
margin, sixty-one prit 
schools teaching 2049 pa| 
Some account of 
teaching given in 
schools wiQ be found 
the Broach Statistical Account. (Bombay Gazetteer, II. 524.) 




Kapadvanj ... 


NadijW ... 





otal ... 



1 In 1821 Mr. Blphiitttoiie found mori aohools thantatlie i>M)osD, tetobbocl 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




The following fignres show the increased means for learning to 
read and write offered by Groyemment to the people during the last 
twenty-eight years. The first two (Jovernment vernacular schools 
were opened in 1826^ one of them at Kaira and the other at Nadi&d. 
Four years later three more yernacular schools were started at 
Hahndha, Eapadvanj^ and Umreth. During the next eighteen 
years only two more vernacular schools were opened, one at 
Mdtar in 1838 and the other at Mehmadabad in 1848. In 
pi850-51 there were seven Government schools with 472 names 
jOn the rolls or 01 4 per cent of 316,827, the total population 
jOf not more than twenty years of age. In 1855-56 there were 
seven Government schools and eighty-four private schools. At the 
Government schools were 829 pupils ; at Kaira 102, at Kapadvanj 
*'?Trixty-one, at Mahudha 103, at Mdtar ninety-five, at Mehmadabad 
'5Bty-eight, at Nadiad 299, and at Umreth 111. Of the eighty-four 
;**private schools with an esrtimated attendance of 6000 pupils, thirty, 
%en only during the rains, were taught by Brahman youths, 
diildren generally went first to a private school, learning to read 
i write Gujarati, and gaining some knowledge of accounts. They 
id a daily allowance i lb. of grain, a fee of |d. (three pies) on 
ilidays, and at the time of leaving from 4«. to 1 Os. (Rs. 2-R8. 5). The 
' ling at the Government schools, though little liked by the 
lie was said to be better than in the private schools, the children 
ling grammar, mathematics, geography, and history. Of 
total male population of 325,755 souls only 63,108 could read and 
Ite Gujardti. Brahmans and the poorer Vdnids, especially those 
►nght up in towns, looking for their living to Government service, 
were the best educated. Rich traders and money-lenders seldom 
it their children to Government schools. Rajput and Koli land- 
had shown themselves anxious to have their children taught. 
^Though few of their sons tried to enter Government service, the 
ihowledge that for the place of village manager men able to read 
"tod write were preferred, made shareholders and heads of villages 
^niions to teach their children. In some cases they had offered 
nfc) supply a room and school furniture if Government gave a 
^Baster. Tie Kolis, almost entirely illiterate, were doing little to 
teach their children. They were seldom seen at Government 
iools and, at private schools, numbered only forty-two out of the 
•tal of 6000 pupils. 

The first two Government English schools were started in 1856, 
jteeat Nadidd and the other at Kaira. In 1865-66 the number of 
Schools had risen to ninety-seven and the average attendance to 
€262 pupils out of a roll-call of 9635 names or 1*64 per cent of 
!I81,819, the total population of not more than twenty years of age. 
The figures for 1877-78 were, as shown above, 190 schools with a 

>u 1825 Biahop Heber found in most of the chief towns large schools where the 
c^uldren of Hindu traders learnt writing, reading, accounts, and such portion of the 
u,tantl religion as their caste was allow^ to receive. Kolis and Rajputs seldom sent 
wir children to schouL— Heh. Xar. 11. 145. In 1826 the Collector found that out of 
"ke hoots ike bldx'ks were teaching boys Enfl^ish and suggested to Goveiiuneht tlikkt 
AM^cKd might be opened.— €2, 8th Sept. 1820. 

Chapter XX. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Chapter XL 

QkW lebooli. 

Populftti&ti ible to 
read Aiid wntci, 


^llh ft frtwmtiLiiM 


total average attendance of 10^308 out of 14^930 names on the rolls or 
2*42 per cent of 425^147^ the total population of not more than twenty 
years of age. A comparison with the returns for 1850 gives 
therefore for 1877-78 an increase in the number of schools from seven 
to 190 ; while of 425^147^ the entire population of the district of not 
more than twenty years of age, 2'42 per cent were under instruction 
in 1877-78 against 014 per cent in 1850-51.^ 

Girls' schools have been introduced during the last twenty years. 
Rising from four in 1865-66 to thirteen in 1873-74, they have again 
(1877-78) fallen to ten. But the attendance has contined to 
increase, the total number on the rolls rising from 309 inl865 to 517 
in 1873 and 765 in 1878, and the average attendance from 162 in 
1865 to 281 in 1873 and 405 in 1878. 

The 1872 census returns give for each of the chief races of 
the district the proportion of persons able to read and write :— 

Of 143,485, the total Hindu male population not exceeding twelve 
years, 9132 or 6*36 per cent; of 62,493 above twelve and not 
exceeding twenty years, 7526 or 12*04 percent; and of 176,161 
exceeding twenty years, 20,928 or 11 87 per cent were able toreai 
and write or were being taught. Of 116,458, the total Hindi 
female population not exceeding twelve years, 104 or 0*08 per cent; 
of 48,184 above twelve and not exceeding twenty years, forty-siior 
0*09 per cent; and of 164,837 exceeding twenty years, seventy* 
six or 0*04 per cent were able to read and write or were " 

Of 14,363, the total Musalm&n male population not exceeding 
twelve years, 575 or 4 per cent ; of 5698 above twelve and nd 
exceeding twenty years, 422 or 7*40 per cent; and of 16,72$ 
exceeding twenty years, 1178 or 7*04 per cent, were able to red 
and write or were being taught Of 11,783, the total Musalmit 
female population not exceeding twelve years, three or 002 per 
cent ; of 5155 above twelve and not exceeding twenty years, sixteet 
or 0*31 per cent; and of 17,014 exceeding twenty years, thirty 
three or 0'19 per cent, were able to read and write or were beinf 

Of seventeen, the total Pdrsi male population not exceeding twel 
years, eight or 47*05 per cent ; of six above twelve and not exceed 
ing twenty years, six or cent per cent ; and of eighteen exceedini 
twenty years, seventeen or 94*44 per cent, were able to read anl 
write or were being taught. Of fifteen the total Pdrsi femalfli 
population not exceeding twelve years, six or 40 per cent ; and ol 
twelve exceeding twenty years, five or 41*66 per cent, were able to 
read and write or were being taught. 

1 In the cengns of 1846 the total population of the distriet was retozned il 
666,513 souls, and in that of 1872 at 782,733, of whom persons not exceeding twefl^ 
years of age numbered 407,818. On the basis of these figures, the totals of popoli^ 
tion not more than twenty years of aae for 1851, 1856, 1866, and 1876 hsTe oeei 
calculated. Details of priyate schooLi are available only for 1875-76 sod bftfi 
therefore been left out 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 












Hiodos .. 
Nab .. 
















Before the year 1865-66 there were no returns arranging ths 

in the margin shows that 
of the three chief races o£ 
the district, the Pdrsis hav© 
the largest proportion of 
their boys and girls under 
instruction. Since 1865 a 
considerable advance lias 
been madeby the Musalm^ns. 
Of 765 the total number of girls enrolled in 1877-78 in the ten girla' 
schools, 731 or 95*56 per cent were Hindus; thirty or 3'92 per cent 
were Musalm^ns ; and four or 0*52 per cent were Parsis. 

Of 13,168, the total number of pupils in Government schools at 
flieendof December 1877, 2976 or 22*60 per cent were Brdhmans 5 
8fty or 0*38 per cent writers, forty-two Kshatris, six Kayastha, 
Imd two Parbhusj 2747 or 20*86 per cent traders and shop- 
leepers, 1942 V&iias, 605 Shrdvaks, tlurty-nine Bhdtias, and 
fl61 Luhinas; 4698 or 35*67 per cent cultivators, 3763 Kanbis, 
J46 Rajputs, 140 Kdchhids, thirty-one Malis, and 518 Kolis ; 81 1 or 
1*16 per cent craftsmen, 134 Bhavsars, calicoprinters, twenty-one 
^hatris, weavers, fifteen Ghanchis, oil pressors, 141 Sonis, gold and 
Mver smiths, 212 Suthars, carpenters, thirty-four Kansarfa, coppor- 
fciiths, 105 Luhdrs, blacksmiths, seven Kadiyas, bricklayers, twa 
** ftts, masons, fifty-seven Darjis, tailors, and eighty-three Kumbhirg, 
otters; 190 or 1*44 per cent bards and genealogists, 183 Bhata 
idseven Chirans; 179 or 1*36 per cent servants, 162 Hajdme, 
bers, fifteen Dhobhis, washermen, and two Bhistis, water drawers ; 
iven or 0*8 per cent, Babaris, shepherds ; twenty-four or 0*18 per 
t Bhois and Mdchhis, fishers and labourers ; eighty- seven or 
per cent, labourers and miscellaneous workers, twenty-four 
, ricepounders, twenty-one Kalals, liquor sellers, thirty-four 
iyalias, cotton tapemakers, five Vdghris, fowlers and hunters, and 
M^rvadis ; forty-four or 0*33 per cent Mochis, shoemakers j 
hty-six or 0*65 per cent religious beggars, thirty Vairigia, 
►rtjr-seven Gosdis, and nine Sddhus; eighteen or 0*13 ner cent 
is; and 1245 or 9*45 per cent MusalmAns. No Dhed or 
boys attended the Government schools. 

, The following table, prepared from special returns furnished by the 
pdncation department, shows in detaU the number of schools and 
papils with tneir cost to Government. 

€liftpt«r XL 

1 The cenfTis of 1846 gives 514,558 Hindus, 51,938 Mnsalmins, and soven Pirsia. 
becenaas of 1872 gives 711,619 Hindus, 70,741 Musalmins, and sixty-eight P^rsi^, 
pi the basis of these figoresi the population and percentage figures for 1866 and 1S7S 
■Te been calculated. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



[Bombay (fcnHw 


Chapter XI 








25:88 r: 

•4000 ^ 





'99- 598 1 





29SS S 




Si S 






-SS'* "^ 

n, J 










: 2 

*" i : S 


:| i 



^ asm e<4 t«- « 

^ « C5 

a f 

p^ > X :^ 

it 3. 

ill 1 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 







* -s 

98-9991 *« : : : 




<t ! 






^im « 


<« : 

01 sssga 








^ iSS 



^ m 


Ot : :S 



» 167-18 

mi ? 








•« :8 

: :S 

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* :5S 

:§: : 

•I : 



^^11 I. 

w<3 f 


Cliapter XI. 


School a, 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

[BomlMiy QtaettBcri 

fSiapter ZI. 

Town education, 


•Village education. 



A comparison of the present (1877-78) provision for teaching tihe 
district town and country population gives the following results. 

In the town of Kapadvanj there were in 1877-78 three Government 
vernacular schools with^ out of 452 names on the roUs^ an average 
attendance of 366 pupils. Of these schools two were for boys 
and one for girls ; the yearly cost for each pupil in the boys' 
schools was lis. (Rs. 5^)^ and in the girls' school ISs. (Us. 6|). In 
the town of Kaira there were in 1877-78 four Government schools 
with^ out of 472 names on the roUs^ an average attendance of SSS 
pupils. Of these schools one was an Anglo- vernacular, one an Urdu, 
and two were Gnjarati schools, one for boys and the oth» far 
girls. The yearly cost for each pupil was £5 Is. (Rs. 50^) in the 
Anglo-vernacular, £2 2«. (Rs. 21) in the girls', and from 14». to Ife 
(Rs. 7-Rs. 8) in the other schools. In the town of Nadiad there were 
in 1877-78 eight Government schools with, out of 1481 names on the 
rolls, an average attendance of 1039 pupils. Of these schools one was a 
High school, one an Anglo-vernacular school, four were Gnjarati boys' 
schools, one a Gujardti girls' school and one an Urdu school. The 
yearly cost for each pupil in the high school was £9 lis. (Rs. 95 J); 
in the Anglo-vemaculor school, £3 4«. (Els. 32) ; in the girls' school, 
£1 4*. (Rs. 12) ; in the rest it varied from 4«. to 18s. (Rs. 2-Bs. 9). 
The number of pupils that passed their University entrance teskj 
examination from the Nadi&d high school was seven in 1873, three ji 
1874, four in 1875, five in 1876, and three in 1877. In the town 
of Mahudha there were in the year 1877-78 five Government achoob 
with, out of 626 names on the rolls, an average attendance of 431 
pupils. Of these one was an Urdu school, and four were Gujanfc 
schools, three for boys and one for girls. The yearly cost for etS 
pupil varied from lOs. to £1 13«. (Rs. 5-Rs. 16J). In the town (I 
Umreth there were in 1877-78 five Government schools with, out 4 
739 names on the rolls, an average attendance of 538 pupils. QE 
these schools four were Gujardti schools, three for boys and one f(* 
girls, and one was an Urdu school. The yearly cost for each pnp3 
was £1 7s. (Rs. 13|) in the girls', and 19*. (Rs. 9i) in the Urdu school} 
in the rest it varied from 6». to 13«. (Rs. 3-Rs. 6^). In the town ol 
Borsad there were in 1877-78 three vernacular schools, two for boyi^ 
and one for girls with, out of 385 names on the rolls, an aven^ 
attendance of 270 pupils. The yearly cost for each pupil amountej 
to 128. (Rs. 6). 

Exclusive of these six towns the district of Kaira was In 1877-78 
provided with 158 Government vernacular schools, or on an average 
one school for every 3*44 inhabited villages. The following state- 
ment shows the distribution of these schools by sub-divisions :— 

Kaira, Village Schools, 1877-78. 



































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In the Eaira district there is one library in tlie town of Kaira 
known as the "Hadow Institute/^ It "was establi.-bed in October 
1863 by Mr. Hadow, then Collector of Kaira. iSupported partly by 
private subscriptions and partly by a contribution from the Kaira 
municipality, this library contains 1552 Tolames and a reading 
room supplied with fonr English and seven vernacukr papers. 
There are at present (1877-78) forty-six anbscribers. The total 
amount realized during the year 1877-78 was £51 (Rs. 510) and the 
wpenditure £55 (Rs. 550). 

Besides the library in the town of Kairaj thoro are as shown 
bdow in different parts of the district twelve reading rooms :— 

Kaira Beading Booms, 1S^7'7S, 




fAPlRH. , 



















Mahudha ... 



Kathlil ... 






7 1 


Tbksn ... 

Thtoa ... 




A'nand „. 





•tidiid Z 








Nadiid ... 









ITadiad ... 


Moholel ... 





Viraad ... 




In 1874 the district supported four local Gujarati newspapers, the 

Niti Prakdsh or Moral Luminary, of eighteen years^ standing ; 

le Kaira Vartmin or News, of fourteen years ; the Nadiad Duniddad 

World Redresser^ of about three years^ standing ; and the 

aHudha ' Adal Insif ' or Pure Justice. Only two of these papers, 

ographed weeklies their articles chiefly borrowed, the Kaira 

artmdn with a circulation of 153 and the Niti Prakaah of 115 

tjtt)pie8 are still (1878) in existenca 




RaadiEig roomA^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

[Bombay OwttNTi 



Chapter TTL Thi prevailing disease is malarious fever. This form of sicknni 

Eeidih. generally makes its appearance soon after the beginning of the niiot 

(Jane- July). Fever cases increase in number and severity fronidN 
DiMaaea. latter part of September through October into the early days of 

November^ when as the climate grows drier and colder the disean 
gradually disappears. Early in this century Kaira was considered 
one of the healthiest places in Gujar&t, and partly for this reason « 
large body of European troops was stationed there. But sevenl 
seasons between 1820 and 1830 were marked by severe epidemio^ 
and the troops especially the European cavaliy suffered teriil^ 
So great was the mortality that Kaira ceased to be used as a luge 
miUtary station. Of late years^ apparently without any special caoM 
unless the drainage of the lands to the south and west of Eairabat 
changed the character of the prevailing breeze^ the climate has agsiiK 
improved and Kaira is not now considered so trying to Europeol 
constitutions as several other Gujarit stations. The different fontti 
of skin disease and ear-ache are^ especially among children^ vei^ 
common complaints. For many years no severe epidemic risitet 
Kaira. But in the month of April 1876 a serious outbreak otj 
cholera occurred. In the town of Nadiad alone 905 persons wMj 
attacked. The disease came to Nadi&d from Baroda. At first of ^ 
very mild type, it afterwards became more deadly. FromNadiii 
cholera gradually spread over almost the whole district^ working on 
the whole from north to south or against the prevailing wind, 
outbreaks were^ as a rule^ found to have followed some great 
feast or other occasion of unusual indulgence. The disease contini 
throughout the hot season (March- June) gradually disappearing 
the first fall of rain. Of 4973 persons attacked^ about one-1 
or 2'11 per thousand of the total population died. 

Hospitals. In the year 1877 there were in the district of Kaira^ besides ft^ 

civil and police hospitals^ six dispensaries all established since I86&i 
During the year 1877, 59,828 persons were treated in Hm^ 
hospitals and dispensaries, of whom 1429 were in-door and b1,S0\ 
out-door patients. All these institutions are provided with special ! 
buildings. The total amount spent in checking disease in 1877' 
was £2036 (Rs. 20,360) ; of this £1176 (Rs. 11,760) were paid from 
provincial revenues, £397 (Rs. 8970) from local and £463 (Rs. iSSOj 
from municipal funds. The following working details are takea 
from the 1877 hospital reports. 

The Kaira civil hospital has a building of its own, raised in 1871 
at a cost of £2948 (Rs. 29,480), met partly from Kaira municipJ w* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




partly from local funds. Of in-patienta the total treated numbered 474. Chapter XIL 
Of these 420 were cored^ twenty-three left, eleven died, and twenty Health* 

remained nader treatment at the end of the year. The total attendance 
of oat» patients was 6341, era falling off on the returns of the preceding 
year of nearly 8000. The average daily sick for in and out-patients 
was 14*3 and 54*6 respectively. The chief causes of sickness were 
ague, syphilis, bowel diseases, ulcers, akin affections and injuries. 
Ilie total number of patients treated in the police hospital was 153. 

The Mehmadabad dispensary was opened in 1871. The total Dispensmest 

Inated was 10,306, of whom 193 were in-patients, an increase on 

tte year before of twenty-four. The chief diseases were eye and 

ikm affections, ulcers, malarious fevers, rheumatism and diarrhoea. 

lEhe Nadi^ dispensary was opened in 1866. Including 133 

[ ift-patients the total treated numbered 14,241, an increase on the year 

r Wore of nearly 1 300. The principal causes of sickness were malarious 

^ fcvere, eye and skin diseases, rheumatism, and venereal affections. 

Ae Borsad dispensary was opened in 1867. The total treated was 

;W52 including^ 196 in-patients, an increase of nearly 1800 on the 

. ywr before. The prevailing maladies were fevers, eye and skin 

^•tfseases, and ulcers. The Mahudha dispensary in the Nadi^ 

j^wb-division was opened in 1 869. The total treated numbered 5551, of 

|thom forty-seven were in-patients. The chief diseases were fevers, 

N^e and skin affections, and ulcers. The Ddkor dispensary in the 

[JWara sub-division was opened in 1866. The total treated numbered 

"", ofwhom 145 were in-patients or more than 1300 less than in 

year before. The chief diseases were fevers, cholera, syphilis, and 

and skin affections. The Kapadvanj dispensary was opened in 

6. The total treated was 9011, of whom eighty-eight were 

patients, or 2100 more than in the year before. The principal 

were malarious fevers, eye and skin affections, and ulcers. 

In 1877-78 the work of vaccination was, under the supervision Vaccination. 
the deputy sanitary commissioner in eastern Gujar&t, carried on 
nine vaccinators, with yearly salaries varying from £16 16^. 
£28 16^. (Bs. 168- Rs. 288.) Of the operators eight were 
•ributed over the rural parts of the district, one for each 
nb-division. The duties of the ninth vaccinator were confined to the 
wn of Nadi&d. Exclusive of 614 re- vaccinations the total number 
H operations performed in the year amounted to 23,437^ 
iDttpured with 25,035 primary vaccinations in 1869-70. 

'^The following abstract shows the chief points of interest connected 
IqUi the age and the race of the persons vaccinated : — 

Kaira, Vaecinaiion Detaiis, 1869-70. 
















t^z ::: 











Digitized by CjOOQIC 

Chapter Xn* 

Vital statistics. 

[Bombay Gaiettier,, 



The total cost of these operations was in 1877-78 £523 2#. 
(Bs. 5231)^ or about b^d. (3§ as.) for each successfnl case. The 
entire charge was made up of the following items ; supervision and 
inspection £245 IBs. (Bs. 2459), establishment £252 (Bs. 2520); and 
contingencies £25 4*. (Bs. 252). Of these, the supervising and 
inspecting charges ajid 128. (Bs. 6) on account of contingencies were 
wholly met from Government provincial funds. Of the remainder, 
the expense of £250 (Bs. 2500) was borne by the local funds, while 
in Nadidd the municipality paid the sum of £26 Ss, (Bs. 264) for the 
services of the town vaccinator. 

The total number of deaths in the seven years ending 1878, as 
shown in the Sanitary Commissioner's annual reports is 139,542, or 
an average yearly mortality of 19,934, or assuming the figares of the 
census of 1872 as a basis, of 2*55 per cent of the total population. 
Of the average number of deaths 15,078 or 75*64 per cent were 
returned as due to fever; 2022 or 10*14 per cent to bowel 
complaints; 751 or 3*73 per cent to cholera; 492 or 2*47 per cent to 
small-pox ; and 1289 or 6*47 per cent to miscellaneous diseases. 
Deaths from violence or accidents averaged 302 or 1*52 percent 
of the average mortality of the district. During the same period 
the number of births is returned at 115,530 souls, of whom 62,739 
are entered as male and 52,791 as female children^ or an average 
yearly birth rate of 16,504 souls ; or, on the basis of the census 
figures, a birth rate of 2*11 per cent of the entire population of the 

1 The figures are incorrect, for while the population of the district is increaiiBf 
the returns show a hirth rate less by 3430 than the death rate. The explanstiot 
probably is that nearly all the deaths, and not nearly all of the birtiu iM 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




^ Eapadvanj Sub-division.— The Kapadvanj sub-division, an 
irregular oblong figure about fifteen miles from north to south and 
thirty from east to west, is bounded on the north by the Atarsumba 
Bub-division of Baroda territory and by portions of the Mahi 
Kanthaj on the east by the Baldsinor state; on the south and south- 
west by the Thasra, Nadiad, and Mehmadabad sub-divisions of the 
Kaira district ; and on the west by the Daskroi sub-division of 
Almiedabad. The total area is 279 square miles, and the population, 
according to the census of 1872, 86,742 souls, or an average density 
rf 31 0*90 to the square mile. In 1876-77 the realizable land revenue 
amounted to £14,621 (Rs. 1,46,210). 

Of the total area of 279 square miles, 11 are occupied by 
the lands of alienated and unsettled, mehvdsy villages. The 
remainder, according to the revenue survey returns, contains 128,178 
acres or 74*59 percent, of occupied land; 19,696 acres or 1146 per 
cent, of culturable waste; 15,059 acres or 876 per cent, of uncultur- 
rtle waste ; 3624 acres or 2*10 per cent, of grass lands; and 5276 
icres or 3*07 per cent, of roads, river beds, ponds and village sites, 
ftom 147,874 acres, 43,681 have to be taken on account of 
i alienated lands in Government villages. Of the balance of 104,193 
wres, the actual area of culturable Government land, 63,733 or 
^M7 per cent were in 1876-77 under tillage. 

For the miost part, especially towards the south and west, 

Kapadvanj is a rich, highly cultivated plain, well clothed with trees. 

I But towanis the north and east and to some extent in the south-east, 

are tracts of waste, mdl, land roughened by streams and water 

courses and covered with brushwood. 

The climate is generally healthy and in the hot season cooler 
I than in most of the surrounding districts, with a well distributed 
^^ainfall of about twenty-five inches. 

Except the Mohar, which flowing southwards to join the Shedhi 
passes almost through the centre of the sub-division, and the Vdtrak 
m the west, Kapadvanj is almost entirely without streams. Like 
several of the smaller Gujardt rivers the water of the Mohar is 
I charged with soda, and though useful for domestic purposes, is of 
110 service for irrigation except to a small extent in watering wheat. 
I The water supply is scanty. The storage in reservoirs is insufficient 
for irrigation, and the wells do not yield more than is wanted for 
use. The 1876 water-supply figures were 36 wells with 

Chapter Xin. 





Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Chapter Xm. 





[Bombay Gmtteer, 



steps, 1006 wells without steps, 36 water lifts, dhehudisj 570 ponda 
or reservoirs, and 96 rivers, streams, and springs. 

Varying in texture from sand to mould, the soil is over the greater 
part of the area, of the light, gardflUy class. It wants constant 
dressing, but when well tilled yields a good return. 

The following statement shows the arable area in Governmeit 
villages, and the rates fixed in 1 863-64 : — 

Kapadvanj Se 








TOTAk 1 














Dry aiwp „. 


Dry^frop ... 

Mm .., 


Dry crop „. 


QTaad IViUl . 



t 4 10 1 

a fi u 

3 10 i 


15 a 

1 14 3 
S 4 11 




3 ( i 

1 »n 



1 fl 9 




lot, 1 9. 

J I,40,O7t 

1 £ 1 




1 9 4 
S 7 ft 

» n 6 



Z , 


1 %%jm 

I S 1 

3 : i 

7U J 



] U 10 



I 7fl.060 



24,07 B 

1 i 

3 7 3 
a 10 7 




IS 9 

1 14 3 
3 4 11 

Ifi 11 


1 i.ei,w7 

3 9771 
1 »&,^^ 

3 411 f 



1 a 6 







AsBeiismtnit on GoTemment and ali^Bat^d I«iid >.. 
Deducl — Ali&aAtioiis .., ** 

Bi. a. p, 

2,16,129 15 
76^060 2 

21,612 19 11 
7606 d S 

Add — Quitronta 
ti — ^Grazing farms and river-bed tillage 

1M069 11 

39,373 15 2 

7124 10 2 

14.006 1<> 4| 
3937 7 ID 

712 a sj 

Total revcnno .., 

l,8d,56d 4 4 

18,656 16 6i 




he rates 

he 1872 

s in J 876- 
2 ploughs, 
horses, 7* 

of afia( 

77 su] 


eep ai 

it intrc 

with 1( 
id goatj 


! SOI 




in ] 
s lo 





)6 cow 
s, and 

»4 rei 

in 2 
rs, 17 


nain in ioTt9 

4,770 houief 
ds, and ownd 
,249 bTiffflloc« 

In 1863-64, the year of settlement, 13,383 holdings, kJi 

were recorded, with an average area of 9|§ acres, and a rent 
£1 13s* 10 id. (Rs, 11-15-0), Equally divided among the agricdti] 
population these holdings would, for each person, represent 
allotment of 2|^ acres at a yearly rent of 6^, 10|tf. (Rs. 3-6-111 
If distributed among the whole population of the sub -division, ill 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 





Blare per head would amount to If^ acres^ and the incidence of the 
land tax to 4*. 5\d. (Rs. 2-3-6). 

In 1876-77, of 63,733 acres, the total area of cultivated land, 
4718 or 7*40 per cent were fallow or under grass. Of the 
remaining 59,015 acres, 8826 were twice cropped. Of the 62,841 
acres under actual cultivation, grain crops occupied 55,650 
or 88'55 per cent, 27,779 of them under bdjri, Penicillaria 
spicata; 8513 under rice, ddngar, Oryza sativa,- 6656 under juvdr, 
Sorghum vulgare; 5794 under havta, Panicum frumentacenm ; 
4S65 under kodra, Paspalum scrobiculatnm ; 2128 under wheat, ghau, 
Triticmn sBstivum; and 515 under miscellaneous cereals compris- 

E\mg barlej, jav, Hordeum hexastichon ; maize, maJcdi, Zea mays ; 
^garo, Amarantus paniculatus; and kdng, Panicum italicum. 
[Piilses occupied 6111 ctcres or 9*72 per cent, 2000 of them under 
A, Phaseolus aconitifolius ; 2000 under gram, chana, Cicer arieti- 
1 ; 1000 under magy Phaseolus radiatus ; 400 under adad, Phaseo- 
mungo; 300 under turner, Gajanus indicus ; and 411 under miscel- 
weous pulses comprising guvdr, Cyamopsis psoralioides ; chola, 
Rgna cakiang ; and vdl, Dolichos lablab. Oil seeds occupied 471 
Msres or 0*75 per cent, 216 of them under tal, Sesamum indicum; 
id 255 under other oil seeds, details of which are not available. 
SBbres occupied 98 acres or 0-15 per cent, 93 of them under cotton, 
^, Gossypium herbaceum ; and 5 under Bombay hemp, san, 
Jrotalaria juncea. Miscellaneous crops occupied 511 acres or 0*81 
ler cent, 67 of them under tobacco, tamhdhu, Nicotiana tabacum ; 
id 444 under miscellaneous vegetables and fruits. 

The 1872 census returns show of a total population of 86,742 
wis, 78,250 or 9021 per cent, Hindus; 8485 or 978 per cent, 
Cnsahnans ; and seven under the head ^ Others.' Statistics specially 
lepared from the enumerators' forms give the following caste 
•tails: 5750 Brdhmans ; 7 Parbhus; 3557 Vanids; 489 Shravaks 
Bhatias; 7708Kanbi8; 1475 Rajputs; 270 Kachhids; 59 Malis 
^8 fihavs4rs, calicoprinters ; 392 Sonis, gold and silver smiths 
■"Sathfrs, carpenters ; 27 Kansiris, brass and copper smiths ; 791 
'>r8, blacksmiths ; 283 Darjis, tailors ; 3 SaUts, masons ; 256 
ans, bards and genealogists; 10 Gandhraps, songsters; 1054 
imbhirs, potters ; 1069 Hajdms, barbers ; 63 Dhobhis, washermen ; 
fihistis, water drawers ; 198 Bharvdds, herdsmen; 1028 Rabaris, 
herds; 882 Bhois, fishers and labourers ; 50 Golds, ricepounders; 
hddbhujas, grainparchers ; llMar&thds; 279 Vaghria, fowlers 
hunters; 1132 Rdvalias, cotton tapemakers; 41,869 Kolis; 405 
is, shoemakers; 1152 Chamadias, tanners; 232 Mdrvddis ; 36 
diggers ; 18 Bajdnias, acrobats; 24 Kaldls, liquor sellers; 26 
'tojaras, grain carriers ; 607 Sindhvds ; 52 Turis ; 3413 Dheds ; 274 
idSs; 1402 Bhangids and 202 religious beggars. As regards 
ipation the same return arranges the population under the seven 
wing classes : i. Employed under Government or municipal or 
local authorities, 373. ii. Professional persons, 452. iii. In 
or performing personal offices, 974. iv. Engaged in agricul- 
aad with animals, {a) cultivators 16,780 (6) labourers 595, total 
',375. V. Engaged in commerce and trade, 826. vi. Employed 
» 167-19 

Chapter XITI 





Digitized by CjOOQIC 

[Bombay Gaietteer, 










in mechanical arts, mannf actnres, and engineering operations, and 
engaged in the sale of articles manufactured or otherwise prepared 
for consumption, 7165. vii. Miscellaneous persons not classed 
otherwise, (a) women 24,298, and children 34,685, hi ail oc.i^oo; 
and (6) miscellaneous persons, 594 ; total 59,577. 

The total number of deaths registered in the five years endm| 
1874-75 was 8001, or an average yearly mortality of 1000, or oniiid 
basis of the 1872 census figures 1*84 per cent of 86^742, the tcial 
population of the sub-division. Of the average number ol deri! ^ 
1331 or 83" 18 per cent were returned as due to fevir ; 31 oi 1 ^ 
per cent, to diarrhoea and dysentery ; 34 or 2*12 per oenr, to small- 
pox ; 42 or 2*62 per cent, to cholera ; and 137 or 8 -50 per cmh w 
miscellaneous diseases. Deaths from accidents and violence aver i 
25 or 1*56 per cent of the average mortality of the sub-divi i : 
During the same period the births of 6898 children were regifiterei, 
3829 males and 3069 females, or an average yearly birth raie of 
1379 or r58 per cent of the popidation. 

Tha'sra Sub-division.— The Thasra sub-division is botmcL 
the north by Kapadvanj and the Baldsinor state, on tlie east l^T ' 
Panch Mahals, on the south by A'nand, and on the west bj Nii' : 
The total area is 255 square miles, and the population, accordir. 
the census of 1872, 85,601 souls, or an average density of 3S^ < " 
the square mile. In 1876-77 the realizable land revenue amounted 
to £18,334 (Rs. 1,83,340). 

Of the total area of 255 square miles, 29 are occupied by tb^ 
lands of alienated and unsettled, mehvds, villages. The remar 
according to the revenue survey returns, contains 106,36U acr 
73*32 per cent, of occupied land; 20,684 acres or 1426 ptr 
of culturable waste ; 8387 acres or 5*78 per cent, of iincultc 
waste ; 42 acres of grass ; and 9584 acres, or 6*60 per cent, of r 
ponds, river beds, and village sites. From 127,044 acres, ''- 
have to be taken on account of alienated lands in GoyerL' 
villages. Of the balance of 94,495 acres, the actual tirea of cl 
able Government land, 54,052 or 57' 20 per cent were in l^t' .- 
under cultivation. 

To the north and north-west the upland, mdl, is bare of ' 
and poorly tilled. Towards the south the plain, broken only h 
deep cut channel of the Shedhi, is rich and well woc/ded. 

Perhaps because of east winds borne across the forests ^ f - 
Panch Mahals, the climate, though it differs little in temperati;: 
rainfall, is much less healthy than that of the lands further west. 

Besides the Mahi skirting the east arid south-east bonndarv, ^«'' 
branches of the Shedhi, draining the lands to the north and H' '^^* 
east, join near the centre of the sub-division and pass so^tlj 
During this part of its course the waters of the Shedbi floirv 
a bed of mud between high steep banks. A troublesome cr* 
at all times, its muddy bottom and strong current make it tl 
the rainy weather almost impassable. The water supply is ^< 
Wells and pools do not yield more than is wanted for dompst^c - 
and for cattle ; and nothing has yet been done by bailding ^' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




to make use of the sweet wholesome water of the Shedhi. The 18 Chapter Xin. 

water-supply figures were 8 wells with steps, 357 wells without Sub-divisioiui- 
Bteps, 13 waterlifts, dhekiidis, 624 ponds and reservoirs, and 78 THA'SiUL 

riverSj streams, and springs. 

Compared with Nadiad the soil of Thfara is poor. To the north 
and north-west the upland, mdl, an inferior black, except where 
banked into rice fields, yields no valuable crop. Towards the south 
the light, gorat, lands are, especially near the Mahi, less fertile and 
more sandy thm the light soil of Nadi^ 

The foDowing statement shows the arable area in Government ^SJ^ 

Tillages^ and the rates fixed in 1863-64 : — 

Thdsra Rent-roll, 1S6S^186J^ 


Akabli Labs. 

Oftrdtt ... 
Ek« ... 


Dry orop 
Onrden ... 
RkB ... 


Diy crop 



Gnud Total.. 


















IU.a. p. 











1 11 8 

13 4 
8 3 8 

1 14 1 

3 6 4 
3 3 6 
8 18 4 

8 9 9 

1 14 10 
1 6 11 
8 6 4 

3 18 







acre rate 

Ri.a. p 








1 6 1 
9 4 
8 11 10 

1 6 9 












1 6 1 
S 4 
8 11 10 

16 9 








Ra. a.p. 

10 8 
1 8 8 
8 8 10 








1 11 6 

3 6 4 
8 3 6 
8 13 4 

3 9 

1 18 
17 6 

2 6 8 

1 16 10 

j^nnment on Government and alienated land... 
WKi— AHenationa 


•^<24— Orazmg farms and river-bed tillage 

Total revenue 

BS. 9k, p. 

2,63^06 6 
85,090 10 

1,68;215 11 

25,769 5 

3,123 12 11 

1,97, 10& 12 11 

26,330 12 74 
8,509 1 3 

16,821 11 4i 
2676 18 ■' 

312 7 


19,710 17 71 

The rates of assessment introduced in 1863-64 remain in force 

The 1872 population, 85,601 souls lodged in 20,582 houses, were 
ided wiiii 365 wells and 624 ponds, and owned 7558 ploughs, 
i carts, 17,572 oxen, 13,071 cows, 15,387 buffaloes, 238 horses^ 

n sheep and goats, and 286 asses. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Chapter Xin. 





In 1863-64, the year of settlement, 16,293 holdings, hhiJtag, 
were recorded, with an average area of 6| j^ acres, and rental of 
£1 0«. 2|d. (Rs. 10-1-7). Equally divided among the agricultoial 
population these holdings would, for each person, represent a 
allotment of 2^ acres at a yearly rent of Is. SJd. (Rs. 3-13-5). 
If distributed among the whole population of the sub-division, the 
share per head would amount to 1|J acres, and the incidence of the 
land tax to bs. Sfd. (Rs. 2-13-7). 

In 1876-77 of 54,052 acres, the total area of cultivated land, 34M 
or 6*29 per cent, were fallow or under grass. Of the remaining 
50,648 acres, 1584 were twice cropped. Of the 52,232 acres nnder 
actual cultivation, grain crops occupied 47,059 or 90*09 per cmt, 
17,979 of them under bdjri, Penicillaria spicata; 14,954 under rioe^ 
ddngar, Orjzasativaj 7350 under bdvta, Panicum frumentsceum; 
3150 under jumr, Sorghum vulgare; 3135 under kodra, Faspakm 
scrobiculatum ; 373 under wheat, ghau, Triticum SBstivum ; and 118 
under miscellaneous cereals comprising barley, jav, Hordeum hexas- 
tichon ; maize, makdi, Zea mays ; and rdjgara, Amaorantus panieo* 
latus. Pulses occupied 3783 acres or 7*24 per cent, 1441 of th( 
under gram, chaiia, Cicer arietinum ; 762 under math, Phaseoint 
aconitif olius ; 676 under mag, Phaseolus radiatus ; 504 under <tt»er, 
Cajanus indicus ; and 400 under miscellaneous pulses comprismg 
guvdr, Cyamopsis psoralioides ; chola, Vigna catiang ; adad, Phaseoltf 
mungo ; and vdl, Dolichos lablab. Oil seeds occupied 380 acres d 
0*72 per cent, 17 of them under tal, Sesamum indicom; and 36 
under other oil seeds. Fibres occupied 500 acres or 0*95 jm 
cent, 485 of them under cotton, kapds, Gossypium herbaoeum ; 
15 under Bombay hemp, san, Grotalaria ]uncea. Miscelhuw 
crops occupied 510 acres or 0*97 per cent, 247 of them under tobaooe 
tambaku, Nicotiana tabacum ; 85 acres under safflower, kasuniba^ 
Carthamus tinctorius; and 178 under miscellaneous vegetables 

The 1872 census returns show of a total population of 85,69 
souls, 76,256 or 8908 percent, Hindus; 9335 or 10*90 per ceffl 
Musalm^ns ; 7 Parsis ; and 3 Christians. Statistics specially prepari 
from the enumerators' forms give the following caste details : 466 
Brdhmans; 3 Brahma-Kshatris; 2917 Vanias; 198 Shravaks; 
Bh4ti4s; 10,241 Kanbis; 1921 Raiputs; 137 Kachhi&; 106Malil 
273Bhdv84rs, calicoprinters ; 197 Sonis, gold and silver smiths ; '" 
Luhars, blacksmiths ; 1040 Suthdrs, carpenters; 247 Darjis, tailoif 
735 Kumbhdrs, potters ; 916 Hajdms, barbers ; 76 Dhobhis, washtf 
men; 554 Rabaris, shepherds; 2151 Bhois, fishers and laboareis 
458 Mdchhis, fishermen ; 44 Golds, ricepounders ; 2 Bhidbhuj4 
grainparchers ; 41 Purabi&s and Mar4th&s ; 811 Vdghris, fowlers 
hunters; 839 Rdvalids, cotton tapemakers; 37,185 Kolis; 
Mochis, shoemakers ; 1429 Chamadids, tanners ; 40 Bajanias, 
bats; 26 Kalals, liquorsellers ; 127 Ods, diggers; 1068 Sindhvi 
115 Turis; 5012 Dheds and Bhangids; and 750 religiol 
beggars. As regards occupation the same return arranges T 
population under the seven following classes : i. Employed nw 
Government or municipal or other local authoritieSj 7d& ii^PrdBS^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 






donal persons, 1474. iii. In seryice, or performing personal offices. Chapter XIIL 
415. iy. Engaged in agriculture and with animals, (a) cultivators Sab-divisions* 
18,229 (b) labourers 607, total 18,836, v. Engaged in commerce Tha'sra. 

and trade, 930. vi. Employed in mechanical arts, manufactures, 
and engineering operations, and engaged in the sale of articles 
manufactured or otherwise prepared for consumption, 5149. vii. 
Miscellaneous persons not classed otherwise, (a) women 24,492, 
and children 32,888, in all 57,380 ; and (b) miscellaneous persons 
«W; total 57,999. 

The totaj number of deaths registered in the five years ending 

il874-75 was 9078, or an average yearly mortality of 1815, or on the 

tasisof the 1872 census figures 212 percent of 85,601, the total 

lopalation of the sab-division. Of the average number of deaths, 

1495 or 82'36 per cent were returned as due to fever ; 63 or 2-92 

cent, to diarrhoea and dysentery ; 39 or 2*14 per cent, to small- 

ias;104 or 5*73 per cent, to cholera; and 97 or 5*34 per cent, 

miscellaneous diseases. Deaths from accidents and violence 

fieraged 27 or 1*48 per cent of the average mortality of the sub- 

rrision. During the same period the births of 6083 children were 

^tered, 3297 males, and 2786 females, or an average yearly birth 

!a(e of 1216 or 1*42 per cent of the population. 

Hehmadabad Sub-division. — ^The Mehmadabad sub-division 
bounded on the north by Gdikw&r territory, on the north-east by 

[apadvanj, on the east by Nadiad, on the south and south-west by 
itar, and on the west and north-west by the Daskroi sub-division 

'the Ahmedabad district. The total area is 171 square miles, 

i the population, according to the census of 1872, 85,754 souls, or 

average density of 501'48 to the square mile. In 1876-77 the 

Bdizable land revenue amounted to £22,761 (Rs. 2,27,610). 

Of the total area of 171 square miles, 9 are occupied by the 
feds of alienated villages. The remainder, according to the revenue 
Mvey returns, contains 86,928 acres or 83*38 per cent, of occupied 
id; 6925 acres or 6*64 per cent, of cuHurable waste ; 3988 acres 
382 per cent, of unculturable waste; and 6405 acres or 6*14 per 
ttt, of roads, river beds, ponds, and villages sites. Prom 93,853 
35,757 have to be taken on account of alienated lands 
Government villagds. Of the balance of 58,096 acres, the actual 
of culturable Government land, 48,305 or 83' 14 per cent were 
1876-77 under cultivation. 

A rich level plain, it is except in the south somewhat open and 
aaly wooded. 

The climate of Mehmadabad is simikir to that of M4tar. 

Two rivers, the Meshvo and the Vitrak, pass through the subdivi- 
©n. Both of them running nearly south-west are shallow streams 
owing over sandy beds. Their banks are about twenty feet high 
Hd their beds about 150 broad. The 1876-77 water-supply figures 
^ere 16 wells with steps, 1429 weUs without steps, 109 waterlifts, 

lefettdw, 403 ponds or reservoirs, and 69 rivers, streams, and springs. 

T^ie greater part of the land is a rather poor and sandy sort of Soil. 





Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Chapter XIU 





light, gorddu, soil. The rest is mediam-black^ besar, of the sort 
known as kydrda or rice land. 

The foUowinsf statement made to take in the parts ofMatar, 
Mahudha, and Jetalpur, joined together in 1862-63, shows the arable 
area in the G-overnment villages of the present siib- division and ih 
rates fixed between 1859 and 1863 : 

Mehmadabad Rent-roll, 1S5B-186S. 


AaiBLi Land. 







acre rate 

Rl. a. p 





fta. Lp 




Dry crop 



Total ... 

Dry crop 



Total ... 

Dry crop ... 



Grand Total... 







9 13 11 
4 7 
6 4 8 




2 2 6 
4 4 4 

b 6 9 

i 1^ 3 


l^i«-^ !W f 

:b7& 4 4 1 

60,37(N* *I|J 



3 6 6 



i,«,ie«|s ii 


21 iJ 






8 18 
3 15 8 
6 7 11 

8 7 11 



1 I ( 

Hi 1 

J Ttl, 


l,M,Ofilji 711-^ 







216 4 
4 2 9 
6 6 9 



79 ■> 

2 2 5 
4 i 4 
t 6 9 


2 ji.ftss a U i; 


3 7 1 



2 13 ^ 


3.lS,6n > « » 

Assessment on Government and alienatec 
Da/ttct— Alienations 

I land... 

ge ... 
me ... 

Ea. a, p. 

3,1S,520 14 S 
1,25,061 4 8 


12,506 2 T- 


iitW— Quitrents 

yy — Grazing farms and river-bed tillaj 

1,93,495 10 

42J79 3 4 

7C68 12 7 

i9.a*5 1& i; 

4277 IS fi 
706 17 4 



2,43,907 9 n 

24,390 15 f} 

The rates of assessment introduced between 1858-59 and 18624S 
remain in force till 1891-92. 

The 1872 population, 85,754 souls lodged in 25,817 houses, w^ 
supplied with 1445 wells and 403 ponds and reservoirs, and o^neii 
6460 ploughs, 2839 carts, 14,972 oxen, 577S cows, 20,729 bufEaloes* 
815 horses, 7976 sheep and goats, 638 asaes, and 5 camels. 

During (1859 to 1863) the time of settlement 12,841 disriiics, 
holdings, khdtds, were recorded, with an average area of 7^ acn^ 
and a rental of £1 15«. 2Ji. (Rs. 17-9-5). Equally divided among 
the agricultural population these holdings would, for each penoh 
represent. an allotment of 2^ aores at a yearly rent of IC^. ^K' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 





(Rs. 5-3-0). If distributed among the whole population of the 
SQbdiyision, the share per head would amount to l-^^ acres, and the 
incidence of the land tax to 6«. id, (Bs. 3-0-4.) 

In 1876-77 of 48,305 acres, the total area under cultivation, 
2541 or 8'70 per cent were fallow or under grass. Of the 
remaining 45,764 acres, 1876 were twice cropped. Of the 
47,6*0 acres under actual cultivation, grain crops occupied 41,507 
or 87'12 per cent, 15,960 of them under bdjri, Penicillaria spicata; 
8671 under rice, ddngar, Oryza sativa; 6897 under juvdr, Sorghum 
Tulgare; 8613 under fcodra, Paspalum scrobiculatum ; 3531 under 
i^avta, Panicum framentaceum ; 1840 under barley, jav, Hordeum 
Itexastichon; 980 under wheat, ghau, Triticum eestivum; 15 under 
Biiscellaneous cereals comprising kdng, Panicum italicum ; and maize, 
nwfoii, Zea mays. Pulses occupied 3627 acres or 7*61 percent, 1324 
of them under math, Phaseolus aconitif olius ; 855 under tuver, 
CajaDUs indicus ; 540 under gram, chana, Cicer arietinum ; 533 under 
mag, Phaseolus radiatus; and 375 under miscellaneous crops com- 

Ksing guvdr, Cyamopsis psoralioides ; cAoZa, Vigna catiang; rd/, 
lichos lablab ; and adad, Phaseolus mungo. Oil seeds occupied 
450 acres or 0*94 per cent, 50 of them under tal, Sesamum indicum; 
Riid 40O under other oil seeds. Fibres occupied 631 acres, or 1*32 
percent, 581 of them under cotton, kapds, Gossypium herbaceam; 
md 50 under Bombay hemp, san, Crotalaria juncea. Miscellaneous 
crops occupied 1425 acres or 2*99 per cent, 217 of them under 
rcane, serdi, Saccharum officinarum; 698 under safflower, 
%mha, Carthamus tinctorius ; 360 under tobacco, iambdhi, 
Scotiana tabacum; and 150 under miscellaneous vegetables and fruits. 

The 1872 census returns show of a total population of 85,754 
lis, 78,395 or 91*41 per cent, Hindus; 7291 or 8*50 per cent, 
"mans; 40 Parsis; and 28 Christians. Statistics specially 
repared from the enumerators^ forms give the following caste 
etaas:5729 Brahmans; 10 Brahma-Kshatris ; 9 Parbhus; 2470 
Vanias; 2806 Shrdvaks; 338 Luvanas; 10,648 Kanbis; 2284 
^jpats; 1602 Kachhias; 139 Malis; 738 Bhavsars, calicoprinters ; 
48 Sonis, gold and silver smiths; 1299 Suthars, carpenters; 
10 Luhars, blacksmiths; 355 Darjis, tailors; 75 Chundrds, 
ricklayers; 33 Khatris, silk and cotton weavers; 19 Ghanchis, 
Ipressers; 430 Bhits; 245 Charans, bards and genealogists; 1 
aandrap, songster; 1163 Kumbhars, potters; 1355 Hajams, barbers ; 
4lDhobhis, washermen; 10 Bhistis, waterdrawers ; 1178 Rabaris, 
iepherds; 1754 Bhois, fishers and labourers; 47 Khdrvas, seamen; 
4 Oolas, ricepounders; 8 Bhddbhujas, grainparchers ; 213 Mara- 
lis; 674 Vaghris, fowlers and hunters ; 1 206 Kavalias, cotton tape- 
tokera; 31,775 Kolis;375 Mochis, shoemakers; 1342 Chdmadias, 
toners; 27 Bajanias, acrobats; 12 Kalals, liquor sellers; 270 Ods, 
iggers; 66 Bavchas, labourers; 4150 Dheds; 318 Garudas ; 
697 Bhangias ; and 322 religious beggars. As regards occupation 
le same return arranges the whole population under the seven 
flowing heads : i. Employed under Government or municipal 
^ other local authorities, 916. ii. Professional persons, 450. 
B* In service or performing personal offices, 969. iv. Engaged in 





Digitized by VjOOQIC 

[Bombfty Gazetteir, 












agriculture and with animals, (a) cultivators 16,718 (6) labourer 
585, total 17>303. v. Engaged in commerce and trade, 854 
yi. Employed in mechanical arts, manufactures, and engineering 
operations, and engaged in the sale of articles manufactured or 
otherwise prepared for consumption, 8950. vii. Misoellaneoas per- 
sons not classed otherwise, (a) women 24,502, and children 30,653, 
in all 55,155; and (6) miscellaneous persons, 1157; total 56,312. 

The total number of deaths registered in the six years ending 
1875-76 was 12,746, or an average yearly mortality of 2124, or 
on the basis of the 1872 census figures 2*47 per cent of 85,754, 
the total population of the sub-division. Of the average niunber of, 
deaths, 1788 or 84*18 per cent were returned as due to fever ; 119 
or 5*60 per cent, to diarrhoea and dysentery; 16 or 0*75 per cent, to . 
smallpox; 66 or 8*10 per cent, to cholera; and 99 or 4*66 per 
cent, to miscellaneous diseases. Deaths from accidents and violeno» 
averaged 36 or 1*69 per cent of the average mortality of the sab- 
division. During the same period the births of 11,420 childrefl " 
were registered, 6108 males and 5312 females, or an average yearl; 
birth rate of 1903 or 2*21 per cent of the population. 

Nadia'd Sub-division. — The Nadi^d sub-division, situated in 
the centre of the Kaira district, is bounded on the north by the 
Eapadvanj, and on the east by the Th4sra and A'nand sub-dirisions. 
On the south is Petlad, a Baroda sub-division, and to the sonth- 
west the M^tar and to the west the Mehmadabad sub-divisions. 
The total area is 223 square miles, and the population, according 
to the census of 1872, 151,483 souls, or an average density A 
679*29 to the square mile. In 1876-77 the realizable land revenae 
amounted to £34,863 (Bs. 3,48,630). 

Of the total area of 223 square miles, 7 are occupied by th» 
lands of alienated villages. The remainder, according to the reventtl 
survey returns, contains 121,359 acres or 87'78 per cent, of occupied 
land; 2675 acres or 1"93 per cent, of culturable waste; 7034 acres 
or 5'08 per cent, of unculturable waste; and 7183 acres, or519pe 
cent, of roads, river beds, ponds, and village sites. From 124,08^ 
acres, 66,791 have to be taken on account of alienated lands 
Government villages. Of the balance of 57,243 acres, the actual 
area of culturable Government land, 49,056 or 85'69 per cent 
in the year 1876-77 under cultivation. 

Its level surface broken by few undulations, its well grown groT( 
of fruit and timber trees, its hedge bound and highly tilled fieldt^ 
and its large strongly built villages, show Nadi&d to be one of tin 
richest parts of Gujar&t. 

The climate is healthy ; but except in the south and south- 
where sea breezes blow from the Gulf of Gambay, the heat duriB 
the months of March and April is excessive. 

The river Shedhi entering from the east passes through ill 
sub-division on its way to join the S&barmati. Near the centre of il 
course it is from the north joined by the Mohar, and the unitei 
stream passes westward, winding between steep banks to join ^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Vitrak. Except in nnnsnall j dry seasons when their water stands 
m pools, tlie streaiETS of the Shedhi and Mohar flow throiigliout 
the year. Still the supply is scanty. The water of the Shedhi and 
Mohar carrying in solution Borne iojurious salt is unfit for irrigation ; 
tile want of clay in the soil makes storage in reservoirs difficultj and 
the supply from wells^ though plentiful and near the surfaee, is 
bTackisL The lS7t> water-supply figures were 26 wells with steps^ 
2D62 wells without steps^ 918 ponds and reservoirs^ and 64; rivers, 
streams, and springs. 

Except some rice lands of medium-black, besar, the whole Bub- 

djvisiou is a light, goraif soil very rich and most carefully worked. 

Besides the ordinary grains and pulses, Nadi4d produces all the 

ler kinds of crops both early and late. The chief rainy season, 

^fif, crops are ricej tobacco^ Indian millet^ pulses, and several of 

coarser grains- The cold weather, rahij harvest is wheat and late 

dccQj and the hot weather, harij harvest late millet, pulse, and 

^m. In the best garden lands ginger, safflower, tobaccOj turmeric, 

and sugarcane are grown. 

The following statement shows the arable area in Grovernment 
jillages, and the rates fixed in 1865-66 ; 

Nadidd RejU-rdt, 1865-66. 

Chapter XIII. 


Nadia o. 



Biy crop 
&k» ... 



Diy Crop 
Bke ... 

Qrtnil Total 





















El. a. p 

9 7 6 
10 1 
« 4 5 

4 3 6 

a 9 S 
B 4 11 
S 4 2 

4 4 3 

3 i U 
8 13 4 
& 4 3 











men rate 





3 13 
10 4 

4 13 1 

a 7 7 

a 1 S 
ID 4 
4 13 I 

i I 7 










E£. a. p. 





a to A 

9 LO 1 
5 4 5 

9 4 11 
5 4 1 

4 4 3 

;?»46,040 a a s 

«5,«34^ B 13 11 


lS4,0ai 5, 21 ,§15 4 3 4 

(} 4 4 

xient on OoTemmeQt and alien j^ted land . . 
-Alienationa .,. 

Gmzmg fannB and riyar -bed tillage 

Total revenue 

Bb. a. 

2M339 15 


2.3ti,f»75 1 

1,32,099 8 

12,248 12 


3,81,323 5 


52,iSl 10 
28,483 19 10| 






1224 17 


38,132 6 Si 

1 1^-20 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


[BomliaT GatrttooT; 



Chapter Zin. 





The rates of assessment introdaced in 1862-63 remain in foroo 
tiU 1891-92. 

The 1872 population, 151,483 souls lodged in 46,608 houses, were 
in 1876-77 supplied with 2088 wells and 918 ponds, and owned 9774 
ploughs, 6661 carts, 22,009 oxen, 3938 cows, 30,925 buffaloes, 844 
horses, 9098 sheep and goats, 1450 asses, and 44 camels. 

In 1865-66, the year of settlement, 20,628 distinct holdisgij 
khdtds, were recorded, with an average area of 5 Jf acres, and a 
rental of £1 15a. Ifci. (Bs. 17-9-2). Equally divided among tb 
agricultural population these holdings would, for each peraoOf 
represent an allotment of lf4 &^res at a yearly rent of 9«. TJtL 
(Rs. 4-13-3). If distributed among the whole population of tbe 
Bub-division, the share per head would amount to 1^ acres, and 
the incidence of the land tax to 6«. 4^(2. (Bs. 3-2-10). 

In 1876-77, of 49,056 acres, the total area of cultivated land 
2985 or 6*08 per cent were fallow or under grass. Of the 
remaining 46,071 acres, 1661 were twice cropped. Of the 47,732 
acres under actual cultivation, grain crops occupied 38,022 
or 79*65 per cent, 14,440 of them under bdjriy Penicillaria spicsata; 
6814 under rice, ddngar, Oryza sativa; 5641 under bdvta, Pani- 
cum frumentaceum ; 5598 under juvdr, Sorghum vulgare; 6012 
under kodra, Paspalum scrobiculatum ; and 517 under misoella- 
neous cereals comprising wheat, ghau, Triticum sBstivum ; barley, 
jav, Hordeum hexastichon; maize, makdi, Zee, mays; kafy^ 
Panicum italicum; and rdjgai'a, Amarantus paniculatus. Pulsee 
occupied 4250 acres or 8*90 per cent, 1685 of them under tuver^ 
Cajanus indicus; 1158 under math, Phaseolus aconitif oliua ; and 
1407 under miscellaneous pulses comprising guvar, Oyamopsis 
psoralioides ; chola, Vigna catiang ; gram, cliana, Cicer arietinmnj 
mag, Phaseolus radiatus ; adady Phaseolus mungo ; and vdl, Doliclioi 
labiab. Oil seeds occupied 359 acres or 0*75 per cent, 40 of them 
under tal, Sesamum indicum ; and 319 under other oil seeds, details 
of which are not available. Fibres occupied 225 acres or 0'47 per 
cent, 199 of them under cotton, kapds, Gossypium herbaceomi 
and 26 under Bombay hemp, san, Crotalaria juncea. Miscellaneous 
crops occupied 4876 acres or 10*21 per cent, 267 of them undei 
surgarcane, serdi, Saccharum officinarum; 801 under safflower, 
kasumba, Carthamus tinctorius ; 3618 under tobacco, tamhdhi^ 
Nicotiana tabacum; and 690 under miscellaneous vegetables and 

The 1872 census returns show of a total population of 151,483 sonll 
133,767 or 8830 per cent, Hindus; 17,701 or 11-68 per cenl 
Musalm&ns; and 15 Parsis. Statistics specially prepared from tha 
enumerators* forms give the following caste details : 9391 Brflri 
mans ; 64 Brahma-Kshatris ; 8 Parbhus ; 7 K6yasths ; 5587 VaniilJ 
699 Shrdvaks; 200 Lav&nas; 31739 Kanbis; 2632 Bajputs;13QS 
K&chhi^; 241 M&lis; 718 Bhdvs&rs, calicoprinters; 624 Sonis, goldaul 
silver smiths ; 407 Kans&r&s, brass and copper smiths ; 1163 Laluiii» 
blacksmiths; 2065 Suthto, carpenters; 189 Eadi^ bricklajoi 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




10 Ssiiis, masons; 6 Gh&nchis^ oil pressera; 7 Ehatris, silk and 
cotton weavers; 1943 Bli4ts, bards; 90 Gh&rans, bards and 
genealogists; 8 Ghandhraps, songsters; 518 Darjis, tailors; 1687 
Aambhirs^ potters ; 2036 Hajams^ barbers ; 215 Dhobhis, washermen ; 
(03 Bhary^ and Rab^ris, herdsmen and shepherds ; 2071 Machhis, 
fishermen; 348Gol&s, ricepounders ; 18 Bh^bhajds^ grainparchers ; 
54 Marathis; 3363 Vdghris, fowlers and hunters ; 46,380 Kolis; 617 
Hochis, shoemakers; 1720 Ch&madi&s^ tanners ; 169 Bajanids, acro- 
bats; 36 Kalals, liauor sellers ; 110 Sindhvds; 90 Turis ;12,003 Dheds 
«nd Bhangias ; and 2612 religious beggars. As regards occupation 
the same return arranges the whole population under the seven 
following classes : i. Employed under Government or municipal or 
other local authorities, 981. ii. Profespional persons, 1084. iii. In 
tervice or performing personal offices, 981. iv. Engaged in agriculture 
ftnd with animals, (a) cultivators 32,125 (6) labourers 547, total 
82,672. V. Engaged in commerce and trade, 2057. vi. Employed 
in mechanical arts, manufactures, and engineering operations, and 
engaged in the sale of articles manufactured or otherwise prepared 
lor consumption, 10,002. vii. Miscellaneous persons not classed 
otherwise, (a) women 45,935, and children 54,638, in all 100,573; and 
(6) miscellaneous persons, 8133; total 103,706. 

The total number of deaths registered in the five years ending 
1874-75 was 19,315, or an average yearly mortality of 3863, or on the 
basis of the 1872 census figures 2*55 per cent of 151,483, the total 
population of the sub-division. Of the average number of deaths, 
2594 or 67*14 per cent were returned as due to fever; 597 or 15*45 
per cent, to diarrhoea and dysentery ; 99 or 2'5& per cent, to small- 
pox; 134 or 3-46 per cent, to cholera; and 385 or 9*96 per cent, to 
miscellaneous diseases. Deaths from accidents and violence averaged 
64 or 1'39 per cent of the average mortality of the sub-division. 
Daring the same period the births of 15,774 cluldren were registered, 
8401 males and 7373 females, or an average yearly birth rate of 
S155 or 2*08 per cent of the population. 

Ha'tar Sub-division. — The M&tar sub-division is bounded on 
file north by Daskroi and Mehmadabad, on the east by Nadi&d and 
tome Grdikw&ri villages, on the south by Cambay, and on the west by 
fte S4barmati river. Besides the main body of the sub-division are 
•ome isolated villages cut off from the rest by belts of Baroda and 
Cambay territory. The total area is 215 square miles, and the 
popnlation, according to the census of 1872, 78,673 souls, or an average 
density of 365*92 to the square mile. In 1876-77 the realizable 
knd revenue amounted to £26,772 (Ra. 2,67,720). 

Of the total area of 215 square miles, 14 are occupied by the lands 
tf alienated villages. The remainder, according to the revenue survey 
wtams, contains 99,888 acres or 77*57 per cent, of occupied land; 
14,352 acres or 11*14 per cent, of culturable waste; 8235 acres, or 6*39 
per cent, of unculturable waste ; and 6296 acres or 4*88 per cent, of 
*>ada, ponds, river beds, and village sites. Prom 114,240 acres, 
W,499 have to be taken on account of alienated lands in Govero- 
nteitt villages. Of the balance of 54,741 acres the actual area of 

Chapter ZIIL 





Digitized by VjOOQIC _ 

[Bombay Gaieiteer. 



Chapter Xin. 






colturable Government land, 37,901 or 
year 1876-77 under cultivation. 

)*23 per cent were in the 

Slightly undulating in the north-east comer, the country is for 
the most part leveL In many places closely hedgebound and wooded, 
it stretches southwards in la>rge open black-soil plains intersected 
near the Gulf of Cambay by tracts of salt marsh. 

Owing to its flatness and the want of natural drainage, the climate 
of Mdtar is oppressive in the hot season and feverish during the 
rains. The rainfall at the town of Kaira, nearly the centre of the 

snb-diYiaioQ, averaged during the five years ending 1877 tweitj- 
eight inches. 

There are two rivers in Matar, The Sabarmati skirts its western 
boundaryj and the Shedhi entering from the north-east, and receiving 
from the north the waters of the Vatrak, winds westward throngl 
the centre of the sub-division. The water supply is abmidant. 
Besides the rivers, which by the help of lever-lifts water the 
lands of several villages, there are many reservoirs ; some of them 
very large, particularly those at Bhalada, Traj, ajid Chaiior. Welkj 
both temporary and permanent, are also numerous and water a large 
area of garden land. The 1876 water-supply figures were G well|< 
with sttvps, 1152 woUs without steps, 3 masonry and 1 earthen riuT^ 
dam, 37^ water lifts, dkekudis, 456 ponds or reservoirs, 5 canalSj and 
68 rivers, etreamsj and springs. 

Most of the M4tar lands are of medium-light, gvrddu, oot j 
rich as in Borsad and Nadiddj but leas sandy than the soils to Asl 
north of the Sabarmati, Besides the light lands there are mediofflT 
black, black, and alluvial tracts. The medium-black, hcsaT^ of thai 
sort known as kydrda or rice land, though in small quactiti^ 
is pretty widespread. The black is found over a largo ar«a, 
especially in the villages along the north bank of the Shedhi and 
in a tract stretching from Radu southward to Chanor, ThoTigh 
not so rich as the Broach black aoO, much of it yields heaTj 
crops of uu watered wheat » The area of alluvial, bJidtlui^ ^n] is 
small J but particularly on the Yatrak to the south of Kaira it ii o£ 
veiy high quality. 

The following statement shows the arable area in (Joverar: : 
villages, and the rates fixed in 1862-6S : - 









41CTC rale. 

II B. a. p. 

Bh,m^ fl 1 3 
mm h 4 31 

lo^sfifl i,e;.9!!i) i 3 e 



Bs. a. p. 

3 4 « 

4 5 
6 It 1 

3 7 3 







li>,«34 ^ '■ ' 

3.1|,3ifll tJ5 * 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Mdtar Rent-rott, 186e-63— continued. 




WA«T». 1 







acre rate. 
Riua. p. 




Rs. a. p. 



acre rate 
Bt. a. p. 


Drjrcnrop ... 



TWad ... 

Dry crop ... 
Oardea ... 

Grand ToUl... 





8 6 7 
4 11 11 
6 18 9 







8 6 7 
4 11 11 
6 18 9 



4 14 




4 14 








8 4 1 
4 14 10 
6 12 1 





8 4 6 
4 3 6 
6 11 1 

8 7 2 







8 2 8 

4 14 4 
6 11 11 




4 1 9 





4 6 

^Mnment on Government and alienated land 


.» — Graang lanna and river-bed tillage ... 

Total revenue 

Bs. a. p. 
4,60,278 10 1 
2,42,887 9 9 

2,17,391 4 
73,372 4 6 
23,817 1 8 

3,14,580 6 6 

£. 8. d. 
46,027 17 3i 
24,288 15 2f 

21,739 2 04 
7337 4 6j 
2381 14 2i 


I The rates of assessment introduced in 1862-63 remain in force 
pl 1891-92. 

He 1872 population, 78,673 souls lodged in 25,752 houses, were 
1876-77 supplied with 1158 wells and 456 ponds, and owned 5996 

lis, 2742 carts, 14,760 oxen, 5789 cows, 19,391 buffaloes, 372 

I, 5370 sheep and goats, and 698 asses. 

In 1862-63, the year of settlement, 15,086 holdings, 'klAia.Sy 
twe recorded, with an average area of 6|^ acres, and a rental of 
^ 12*. (Rs. 16). Equally divided among the agricultural population 
pese holdings would, for each person, represent an allotment of 
Rf acres at a yearly rent of 11«. 9|d. (Rs. 5-14-7). If distri- 
Iptod among the whole population of the sub-division, the share per 
Nad would amount to IM acres, and the incidence of the land tax to 
!?«.9J(l(R8. 3-14-4). 

In 1876-77, of 37,901 acres, the total area of cultivated land, 
1951 or 5*14 per cent were fallow or under grass. Of the 
Naaimng 35,950 acres, 3584 were twice cropped. Of the 39,534 
Icres under actual cultivation, grain crops occupied 33,542 or S4'84 
^ cent, 10,634 of them under rice, dangar^ Oryza sativa; 7503 
fader wheat, ghaniy Triticum sBstivum ; 6484 under fto/ri, Penicillaria 
Jicata; 4744 under ^uvar. Sorghum vulgare; 1755 *under ItoAray 
raspalum scrobiculatum ; 1619 under bdvta, Panicum frumen- 
boeom ; 790 under barley, jav, Hordeum hexastichon; and 13 under 
(v'^^ Panicum italicum. Pulses occupied 1780 acres or 4*50 per 

Chapter XIIL 




Digitized by VjOOQIC 











cent^ 736 of them under gram^ chana, Cicer arietinnm ; 515 nnder 
mathy Phaseolus aconitif olins ; 358 xmdeTtuvery Cajanciaiiidicii8;aQd 
171 under miscellaneoaa pulses comprising guvdr, Gyamopsis 
psoralioides ; chola, Yigna catiang ; mag, Phaseolus radiatas ; anj 
culdd, Phaseolus mungo. Oil seeds occupied 841 acres or 2-12 p« 
cent^ 52 of them under tal, Sesamum indicum^ and 789 under other 
oil seeds^ details of which are not available. Fibres occupied 669 
acres or 1*69 per cent, 665 of them under cotton, kapas, Gossypimn 
herbaceum ; and 4 under Bombay hemp, san, Crotalaria janceA. 
Miscellaneous crops occupied 2702 acres or 683 per cent, 1559 of theni 
under safflower, kasumba, Carthamus tinctorius ; 600 under tobacco, 
tambdku, Nicotiana tabacum ; 362 under sugarcane, serdi, Sacchanim 
officinarum ; and 181 under miscellaneous vegetables and froita. 

The 1872 census returns show of a total population of 78,67$ 
Bouls, 70,779 or 89-96 per cent, Hindus; 7835 or 10*02 per cen^ 
Musalm&is ; 2 Parsis ; and 7 Christians. Statistics specially prepared 
from the enumerators' forms, give the following caste details: 
8105 Br^hmans; 3 Brahma- Kshatris; 1968 Vanifa; 20 Shravaksj 
930 Luvdnfa; 13,362 Kanbis; 5458 Rajputs; 679 Kachhi&; 4J 
Malis ; 36 Bh&vsirs, calicoprinters ; 1 65 Sonis, gold and silver 
smiths; 620 LuhArs, blacksmiths; 709 Suth^rs, carpenters; It 
Chundrds, bricklayers ; 188 Darjis, tailors ; 1134 Kumbhars, potters; 
1346 Hajdms, barbers; 150 Dhobhis, washermen; 161 Chdrans, bardii 
and genealogists ; 1052 Bhois, fishers |and labourers ; 1232 Bharvad|f 
herdsmen ; 1041 Bab&ris, shepherds ; 71 Golds, riceponnders ; 
2 Bh&dbhujds, grainparchers ; 19 Marathas ; 27,416 KoUs ; 15| 
Mochis, shoemakers; 1140 Chamadids, tanners; 217 Baj^n 
acrobats ; 9 Kal£ls,liquor sellers ; 20 Bhavdyds, actors ; 895 Vag" 
fowlers and hunters ; 111 Ods, diggers ; 5881 Dheds and Bhsngiasj| 
and 1421 religious beggars. As regards occupation the samereti 
arranges the whole population under the seven following c}asses|l 
i. Employed under Government or municipal or other lo 
authorities, 462. ii. Professional persons, 440. iii. In service < 
performing personal offices, 970. iv. Engaged in agriculture 
with animals, (a) cultivators 16,818 (b) labourers 2125, 
18,943. V. Engaged in commerce and trade, 944*-' vi. Employei 
in mechanical arts, manufactures, and engineering operations, 
engaged in the sale of articles manufactured or otherwise pr 
for consumption, 4097. vii. Miscellaneous persons not cU 
otherwise, (a) women 23,590, and children 28,173, in all 51,76 
and {b) miscellaneous persons 1054; total 52,817. 

The total number of deaths registered in the five years end 
1875 was 11,041, or an average yearly mortality of 2208, or on I 
basis of the 1872 census figures 2'80 per cent of 78,673, the 
population of the sub-division. Of the average number of deaths, 17 
or 80' 16 per cent were due to fever; 144 or 6-52 per cent, 
diarrhoea and dysentery; 38 or 1*72 per cent, to smallpox; 22 i 
0'99 per cent* to cholera ; and 207 or 9*37 per cent, to 
neons diseases. Deaths from accidents and violence averaged 
1"22 per cent of the average mortality of the sub-divisioa.] 


During the same period the births of 8503 cluldren were 

Digitized by 






4o73 males and 3930 females^ or an average 'yearly birth rate of 1700 
iff 2*16 per cent of the population. 

A'nand Sub-division. — The A nand sub-division is bouiided on 
flie north by Thasra^ on the east by the Mahi river, on the south by 
Boread, and on the west by Nadiad. A'nand is a new sub-division 
formed in 1867 of villages taken from the Nadidd, Mahndha, Thdsra, 
end Borsad sub-divisions. The total area is 241 square miles, and 
fte population, according to the census of 1872, 149,952 souls, or 
CD average density of 622*20 to the square mile. In 1876-77 the 
fealizable land revenue amounted to £37,858 (Bs. 3,78,580). 

Of the total area of 241 square miles, 1 7 are occupied by the 
lands of alienated and unsettled, mehvasij villages. The remainder, 

S lording to the revenue survey returns, contains 124,542 acres or 
68 per cent, of occupied land ; 2964 acres or 2*06 per cent, of 
Ifdturable waste ; 9796 acres or 6*81 per cent, of unculturable waste ; 
jind 6451 acres or 4*48 per cent, of roads, river beds, ponds, and village 
[rites. Prom 127,506 acres 56,043 have to be taken on account of 
llfienated lands in Government villages. Of the balance of 71,436 
icres, the actual area of culturable Government land, 60,140 or 84*15 
|6r cent were in 1876-77 under cultivation. 

Sxcept towards the east near the Mahi where the land is bare of 
fl, uneven, and seamed with deep ravines, the whole is a flat, rich 
of light soil, well tilled, and richly wooded. 

k. In almost all respects the climate of A'nand is like the climate of 

.The water supply is scanty. Wells are few, as they have to be 
' : to a great depth, and their supplies suffice only for domestic 

. The reservoirs are small, shallow and leaky. The 1876 water 
ply figures are, 8 wells with steps, 1317 wells without steps, 822 

' I and reservoirs, and 12 rivers, streams, and springs. 

r Except patches of black loam found in lowlying spots the soil 
iKght, rich towards the north, and poorer and more sandy in the 
^es near the Mahi. 

ijThe following statement made to take in the parts of Borsad, 
■^iad, Th&sra, and Mahudha, joined together in 1867, shows the 
of arable land m the Government villages of the present 
""ivision and the rates fixed between 1863 and 1867 : — 

A*nand Bent-roll, 2863-1867. 

Chapter ZUI. 









R8. ». p. 





acre rate 



acre rate. 
Ks. a. p. 

Diy crop ... 


5 8 10 
8 18 6 

6 7 7 



« 8 2 

36 2 11 

6 8 9 




8 8 6 
8 18 9 
5 7 7 




4 6 



2 8 10 



8 15 8 






Digitized by LjOOQIC 






A'fumd ReM^ToU, i^«^-i«^-«ontmaed. 










Bs. a. pi 





acre rate 
Ba. a. p. 






Dry erop 


Dtycrop ... 

Grand Total... 




8 9 11 
5 9U 






1 »U 
8 C • 



8 14 4 






lU 4 




8 9 4 

8 8 10 
6 6 10 




9 8 8 

86 3 11 
6 8 9 

B6iO 46,706 

8 811 

8 sa 

6 111- 



8 16 8 



9 8 10 



816 1 




ABseasment on Government and alienated lands. 
Deduct — Alienationa 


.^c2(i— Qaitrents, fto. 

„ — Gracing farms and riyer-bed tillage 

Total revenue ... 


•• P- 

6,02,769 10 11 
2,18,451 9 8 

2,84,908 1 3 

90,720 14 6 

6904 12 7 

3,81,933 12 4 



I. i': 


38,193 7 

The rates of assessment introdaced between 1863 and 18 
remain in force till 1891-92. 

The 1872 population, 149,952 souls lodged in 40,988 hi 
were in 1876-77 supplied with 1325 wells and 822 ponds, and a 
8851 ploughs, 5982 carts, 20,696 oxen, 2917 cows, 41,222 buffal( 
282 horses, 7205 sheep and goats, 1106 asses, and 5 camels. 

At the time (1863-1867) of settlement, 17,087 holdings. Ha 
were recorded, with an average area of 7^ acres, and a rental 
£2 Zs. \d. (Rs. 21-8-1). Equally divided among the agricultaii 
population these holdings would, for each person, represent 
allotment of If § acres at a yearly rent of 10s. 8(2. (Bs. 5-5-4). 
distributed among the whole population of the sub-division, 
share per head would amount to 1^^ acres, and the incidence of 
land tax to 6«, 8i(i. (Rs. 3-5-10). 

In 1876-77 of 60,140 acres, the total area of cultivated b 
8057 or 5*08 per cent were fallow or under grass. Of 
remaining 57,083 acres, 1 159 were twice cropped. Of the 58,242 aci 
under actual cultivation, grain crops occupied 48,689 or 83*59 
cent, 26,894 of them imder 6a/rt, Penicillariaspicata; 7160 n 
kodra, Paspalum scrobiculatum ; 6050 under ywvir, Sorghum|vulgai 
5724 under rice, ddngdr, Oryza sativa; 3315 under bdvta, Panii^ 
frumentaceum ; and 46 under miscellaneous cereals com^riflf 
wheat, ghau, Triticum ssstivum ; barley, jav, Hordeum hexasticlMi 
jnaizoj mahdi^ Zea mays; and rajgata, Amarantus pamcolfltv 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


KAIBA. 161 

Polfles occupied 4185 acres or 7*18 per cent^ 1661 of ikem nnder ChayterXIIIi 
km, Cajanos indicus ; 1470 under math, Phaseolos aconitifolias ; EhA^diTifliolli*' 
588 under gwfir, Gyamopsis psoralioides ; and 463 under miscella- 
neous pulses comprising ehola, Vigna catiang ; gram^ chanaj Cicer 
arietinam ; mag, Phaseolus radiatus ; adad, Phaseolus mnngo ; and 
vdl, Dolichos lablab. Oilseeds occupied 466 acres or 0*80 per cent, 
183 of them under ^aZ, Sesamum indicum ; and 283 under other oil- 
leeds^ of which details are not available. Fibres occupied 1726 
acres or 2*96 per cent, 1709 of them under cotton, hapd$, Gossypium 
herbaceam; and 17 under Bombay hemp^ san, Crotalaria juncea. 
Miscellaneous crops occupied 3176 acres or 5*45 per cent, 1011 of 
ihem under tobacco, tambdku, Nicotiana tabacum; 252 under 
hiumba, Garthamus tinctorius; and 1913 under miscellaneoua 
tegetables and fruits. 

The 1872 census returns show of a population of 149,952 souls, ^IS^*' 

188,088 or 92*08 per cent, Hindus ; 11,808 or 7-87 per cent, Musal- 

•fas; 2Parsis; and 54 Christians. Statistics specially prepared 

fern the enumerators' forms give the following caste details : 

|M8 Brahmans; 7 Brahma-Kshatris ; 4 Parbhus; 4490 VaniAs ; 

MDShrivaks; 255 Bh&tiAs; 89,070 Kanbis; 6738 Rajputs; 1354 

pohhias : 242 Malia ; 866 Bh4vsirs, calicoprinters ; 559 Sonis, gold 

ted silyer smiths; 81 Kansdr&s, brass and copper smiths; 1001 

Mdiars, blacksmiths; 2025 Suthars, carpenters; 4 Kadi^, brick- 

l^ers; 523Darjis, tailors; 1697 Eumbhars, potters ; 1936 Haj&ms^ 

irbera; 222 Dhobhis, washermen; 626 Bab&ris, shepherds; 4190 

Wihis, fishermen; 297 Golas, ricepounders ; 13 Bh^dbhujds, 

fcinparchers; 12 Mar^thds; 2565 Vdghris, fowlers and hunters; 

1^150 Kolis ; 693 Mochis, shoemakers ; 2046 Ch&madids, tanners ; 

l4Bajani^, acrobats; 19 Kalils, liquor sellers; 198 Ods, diggers; 11 

bdhvas; 12,844 Dheds and Bhangi&s; and 2529 religious beggars. 

B regards occupation the same return arranges the whole popula- 

Dn nnder the following seven classes : i Employed under Govem- 

lent or municipal or other local authorities, 922. ii. Professional ' 

*8on8, 1491. iii. In service or performing personal offices, 1416. 

* Engaged in agriculture and with animals, (a) cultivators 34,419 

labourers 356, total 35,775. v. Engaged in commerce and trade, 

47. vi Employed in mechanical arts, manufactures, and engi* 

ering operations, and engaged in the sale of articles manufac*- 

^ or otherwise prepared for consumption, 10,286. Miscellaneous 

fsons not classed otherwise, {a) women 43,687, and children 

!j310, in aU 95,997 ; and (b) miscellaneous persons, 1918 ; total 

The total number of deaths registered in the five years ending Health. 

7i-75 was 17,377, or an average yearly mortality of 3475, or 
'the basis of the 1872 census figures 2-31 per cent of 149,952, 
© total population of the sub-division. Of the average number 
deaths, 2355 or 67*76 per cent were returned as due to 
^; 422 or 12*14 per cent, to diarrhoea and dysentery ; 147 or 
K per cent, to smallpoz ; 64 or 1*84 per cent, to cholera; and 443 
'12*74 per cent, to miscellaneous diseases. Deaths from accidents 
pH violence averaged 44 or 1*26 per cent of the average mortality 

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IBombay Qim rt , 



Ch>pter gH 








of the sub-division. Daring the same period the births of 
children were registered, 7695 males and 6628 females, or an averago 
yearly birth rate of 2864 or 1*90 per cent of the popidation. 

Borsad Sub-division. — ^The Borsad sub-division, bounded on 
the north by A'nand, on the east and south by the Mahi river, aad 
on the west by the Cambay and Baroda states^ is owing to the 
intermixture of Baroda and other villages^ most broken and 
irregular in shape. The total area is 216 square miles, and ib^ 
population, according to the census of 1872, 144,528 souls, or tt 
average density of 669'11 to the square mile. In 1876-77 tliB 
realizable land revenue amounted to £37,698 (Bs. 3,76,980). 

. Of the total area of 216 square miles, 56 are occupied by tk 
lands of alienated and unsettled, mehoaSy villages. The remainil 
contains according to the revenue survey returns, 92,901 acres or 
90'33 percent, of occupied land; 2597 acres or 2*52 per cent, of 
culturable waste; 2953 acres or 2*87 per cent, of uncultunUe 
waste ; and 4389 acres or 4*26 per cent, of roads, river-beds, ponds, 
and village-sites. From 95,498 acres 40,698 have to be taken oi 
account of alienated lands in Government villages. Of the balanoo ; 
of 54,800 acres, the actual area of culturable Government hsi^l 
49,035 or 8947 per cent were in 1876-77 under cultivation. 

Except in the south near the Mahi where the ground is somewlffltj 
broken and wild, the whole is a highly cultivated plain sloping i 
westwards, intersected by rich hedgerows and adorned by groves ' 
magnificent trees. i\ 

Occasionally during the hot season the heat is extreme, 
thermometer standing as high as 105° in the shade. But such dftjij 
are imusual, and as a rule the heat is tempered by a cool bi^ 
from the Gulf of Cambay. 

The Mahi forming the southern boundary is throughout the wh 
distance a tidal river. The shallowness of its channel, its sh 
sandbanks, and the height and speed of its tidal wave, makef 
useless for boats. Except the Mahi, Borsad is without streams i 
water courses and the light unretentive soil is illsuited to ' 
fitorage of water in reservoirs. Still the supply is good, there are m^ 
wells yielding enough to water 11 per cent of the whole occnp* 
area. The water-supply figures are, 4 wells with steps, 1914 
without steps, 807 ponds, and 1 7 rivers, streams, and springs. 

About a tenth part of the culturable iirea is blackish rice-li 
The rest is a deep stratum of light soil occasionally sandy, huti 
the most part a fine rich mould. 

The following statement shows the arable area in Gov 
villages, and the rates fixed in 1866-67 : 

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BorMd HetU-roU, 1866'€7. 






^ . Dpj- crop ... 

Ei« . 






76,^ B 








1 .fta.^^tw 


,\I«J 41 



Ri A« p. 



4 4 4 

7 10 B 
i 1 T 

4 l.n S 

4 S 3 

a 1 

a e 

4 10 11 

t 4 g^ 

7 »9 a 

6 7 I 

4 13 3 











Rj. A. [J. 


< 4 

3 It 8 

4 i e 






35. 04^ 





4 3 3 

7 10 9 
fl 7 1 

4 13^ 

4 5 9 

t 1 Q 

e « 

4 10 a 



4 4 1 

7 1» fi 
3 3 4 

4 IS A 

^lament on OoTemment and alionated Iftnd... 

Remains ... ,., ... ,,. 

I, Graziiig formi and iiTer-b«d tillage 
A Total revenue „. 

Ri. a. p, 

i. 56,8(10 1 
1,90,667 9 10 






3,87pll8 10 1 

45,BS9 0| 
19,063 15 2} 

26^622 4 &| 
7603 3 44 
4486 9 li 

38,711 17 31 

The mte8 of assessment introduced in 1 806-67 inemain in forrft 

The 1872 population, 144,528 sonk lodged in 34,079 houses 
^ in 1876-77 supplied with 1918 wells and 807 ponda and owned 
ploughs, 5370 cartsj 17,668 oxen, 3275 cows, 45,635 buffaloes, 
iorses, 10,441 sheep and goats, 1610 aases, and 38 camels. 
1866-67j the year of settlement, 9191 holdings, Jchntds 
ce recorded, with an aTerage area of lOA acre?, and a rental of 
12i, 9^d. (Rs, 36-6-1). Equally dirided among the agricultural 
p*3ptilation these holdings would, for each person, represent aa 
■ Nment of HJ acres at a yearly rent of 10s, 2fti (Rg. 5- MO) 
i distnbnt^d among the whole population of the sub-division, tb^ 
ajaie per head would amount to 1^*^ acres, and the incidence of 
die land tax to 7^, 5d. {Rs, 3-11-4), 

In 1876-77 of 49,035 acres, the total area of cultivated land, 2093 
Zto^ P^^ ^^°^ ^^^^ ^^^1^^ <^^ ^ii^ei^ Rrass. Of the remainiuff 
^,Jd7 acres, 911 were twice cropped. Of the 47,848 acres unde^ 
actual cultivation, grain crops occupied 37,240 or 77^82 per cent 
|4,187 of them under hdjri, Penicillaria spicata; 11,504 under 
*^ra, Paspaltun scrobiculatom ; 5850 uxkdevjuvdr. Sorghum rulgare • 


Chapter^ xm 





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[BemkayOMli*, i 



Chafter XIIL 8588 under rice, dangoar, Oryia 8»tiv&; 2010 under havta^ Ptoiom 
tub-dMiionfr frum'entaceum ; and 101 under miscellaneous cereals compiiBin{|[ 
wheats ghaUf Triticnm aratiYum; barley, jav, Hordeum liezaatiohoB; 
^*^**^'** hdng, Panicam italicum ; and rdjgara, Amarantus panicolafcus. Pnlw 

occupied 8347 acres or 6*99 per cent^ 1460 of them mider Im^, 
Cajanus indicus; 1026 under ma^A^ Phaseolns aconitifolias; 612 uo^ 
guvar, Cyamopsis psoralioides; and 249 under miscellaneons pobto 
comprising chola, V igna catiang ; gram^ cha/na, Cicer arietinam ; ma}, 
Phaseolus radiatus ; adad, Phaseolus mungo ; and vdl, Dolichos labUb, 
Oilseeds occupied 452 acres or 0*94 per cent, 423 of them under Itt, 
Sesamum indicum ; and 29 under other oilseeds, of which detaib 
are not available. Fibres occupied 389 acres or 0*81 per cent, all 
of it under cotton, kapds, Gossypium herbaceum. MiscellaneoQi 
crops occupied 6420 acres or 18*41 per cent, 4259 of them nsder 
tobacco, tambdku, Nicotiana tabacum ; 731 under sugarcane, serdi, 
Saccharum officinarum; 513 under indigo, galij Indigofera tinctom; 
132 under safflower, kasumha, Carthamus tinctorius; and 785 under 
miscellaneous vegetables and fruits. 

^iSPo^ The 1872 census returns show of a total population of 144,528 

**'*• souls, 136,084 or 9415 per cent, Hindus; 8236 or 5*69 per cent, 

Masalm&ns; 2 Parsis ; and 206 Christians. Statistics speoally pre- 
pared from the enumerators' forms give the following caste details: 
5652 Br^hmans; 1 Brama-Eshatri ; 34 Parbhus; 1 Edyasth; 3151 
ydni&s;346Shrdvak8; 1127Bh&tiafl and Luv&nas; 31,871 Eanbui 
6825 Rajputs; 909 K&chhias; 141 Mdlis; 665 Bh&vs&rs, calico* 
printers ; 57 1 Sonis, gold and silver smiths ; 1351 Suthdrs, carpenten| 
964 Luhkrs, blacksmiths ; 38 Eadi£s, bricklayers ; 4 Saints, masona 
82 Khatris, silk and cotton weavers ; 344 Darjis, tailors; 155S 
£umbh&rs, potters; 1986 Haj&ms, barbers; 212 Dhobhis, wasIieN 
men; 913 Bhats, 27 Ch&rans, bards and genealogists; 913 Bhdfly 
fishers and labourers; 305 'Khdrv&s and M&chhis, seamen and fislier^ 
men ; 28 Bharv&ds, herdsmen; 1480 Bab&ris, shepherds; 21 Ehandi% 
turners ; 2338 Ydghris, fowlers and hunters; 879 R&valiaaj 
cotton tapemakers; 275 Gol&s, ricepounders ; 55,428 Kolis; 5^ 
Purabi&s and Mar&th&s; 472 Mochis, shoemakers; 1927 Chamadii 
tanners; 538 Baj&ni&s, acrobats; 155 Ods, diggers; 109 Sindhvis 
108 Toris ; 36 Garudds ; 8074 Dheds ; 3002 Bhangids ; and 90 
religious beggars. As regards occupation the same return arrangei 
the whole population under the following seven classes: 
Employed under Glovemment or municipal or other local authoritid 
777. ii. Professional persons^ 1553. iii. In service or performiq 
personal offices, 1887. iv. Engaged in agriculture and wii 
animals, (a) cultivators 34,091 (6) labourers 1486, total 35,57 
v. Engaged in commerce and trade, 469. vi. Employed fl 
mechanical arts, manufactures, and eng^eering operations, aa 
engaged in the sale of articles manufactured or otherwise prepare 
for consumption, 8172. vii. Miscellaneous persons not claase 
otherwise, (a) women 42,463, and children 52,516^ in all 94,979 
and (6) miscellaneous persons 1114, total 96,093. 
EoalilL rpiie ^q^j jjxtmber of deaths registered in the six yean 

1875 was 11,374, or an average yearly mortality 

yean endiiH 
of 1896, i^ 

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^ die basis of the 1872 census fignres 1*81 per cent of 144,528^ 
-jiihe total population of the sub-division. Of the average number of 
deaths, 1289 or 67*98 per cent were returned as due to fever ; 242 
.4^ 12'76 per cent, to diarrhoea and dysentery ; 61 or 3'22 per cent^ 
4o smallpox ; 35, or 1*84 per cent, to cholera ; and 246 or 12*97 per 
-fi^i, to miscellaneous diseases Deaths from accidents and violence 
^ayeraged 23 or 1*21 per cent of the average mortality of the 
pab-diyision. During the same period the births of 10,066 children 
.9r«re registered, 5468 males and 4598 females^ or an average yearly 
JbkHk rate of 1677 or 1*16 per cent of the population. 



Chapter nil 


I ■ - 


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[Bon&bsj GftiitlMm 



Chapter ZIV. A'nand, north lat. 22* 38' ; east lonflr. 73** 0', a station on ft« 
PlaAM c^IatArMt ^<^°^^*y Baroda and Central India Railway, had in 1872 28W 
ruoes oxmieresv- j^^^g^g ^j^^ ^ population of 8773 souls. Besides the ordinary sub- 
divisional revenue and police ofiSces the town is provided with A 
post office. 
A'BA'ft. A'ra's. The plain of A'r&s between A'nand and the Mahi has, 

in modem times^ been the scene of three important battles. At 
the first of these (1723) Rustam Ali the Imperial Governor of Sural 
was, through the treachery of PiUji Gdikwdr, defeated and slain bf 
Hdmid Khan the deputy of Nizdm-ul-Mulk. At the seconJ 
(1775, February) Raghundthr&v Peshwa was defeated by Patehsingk 
G4ik wdr. At the third, a few months later (1 775, May 18th), Fatet 
singh^s victorious army was, after a severe struggle, defeated by 9 
British detachment under the command of Colonel Keatinge. Of the 
third battle of A'rds Mr. Forbes who was present gives the followin| 
details. The enemies' cannon silenced and their cavalry disperse^ 
by the British artillery, a party was sent forward to take their gani^ 
While a strong force of cavalry opposed this party's advance, a bodf 
of Mardtha troops professing to be partisans of Raghun&thriv tha 
English ally, was allowed to pass between the advanced party sntt 
the main British line. Attacked both in front and rear the forward 
party resisted bravely till the grenadiers, facing to the right-aboul 
to change ground, by some mistake began to retreat. The re^; 
followed and at the same time a tumbril of shells blowing up addof ; 
to the confusion. The men retreated at first in order, but gel 
broken at a high hedge fled to the main line. The enemy foUo 
but were met by so steady a fire of grape shot and shell that th^ 
were driven off the ground. The British were left masters of tlj 
field and a gun that had fallen into the enemies' hand w^ retak^ 
The engagement lasted for four hours. Victory was dearly bong! ' 
Of fifteen British officers in the advanced division seven were ki" 
and four wounded. Eighty Europeans, a number of native offi< 
and 200 men were killed or missing.^ i 

BoBSAB. Borsad, north lat. 22° 24' j east long. 72** 56', a town twcH^ 

miles west of the V&sad railway station and twenty-four miles nort' 
east of the port of Cambay had in 1872 4092 houses and a popnlaiii 
of 12,214 souls. The town is protected by a double line of fo: " 


i Forbes' Or. M«m. a 07 wd 98 « 

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tie oater in disrepair^ the inner in fair preservation. Thonghj Chapter ZI7* 

according to tradition, Borsad dates back to a certain Rij a Nal pjaeeg rfLitereifc 

in the foarth century A.D., the fortifications are modem built 

by Rangoji, one of the Maratha leaders who in 1741 fixed his head- BoaaAn. 

quarters at Borsad. The fort of Borsad was pretty constantly the 

scene of fighting till in 1748, after a siege of five montbs, Khander^v 

Giikwdr took the town and made Rangoji prisoner. For the last 

thirty years a Presbyterian missionary has been settled at Borsad. 

He has succeeded in bringing together a Christian community of 1 1 66 

boqIs. Besides the ordinary sub-divisional revenue and police oflSces 

the town of Borsad is provided with a subordinate judge's court, a 

IK»t office, and a dispensary. There were in 1878 three Government 

adiools with an average attendance of 270 pupils. 

' Chakla'si, north lat. 22° 39' ; east long. 72'' 59', a town in the Chakla'sl 
Kadiad sub-division had in 1872 ld80 houses and a population of 
7081 souls. 

. Da'kor, north lat. 22** 45'; east long. 73° 11', a favourite place Da'ko*. 
%f Hindu pilgrimage in the Th^sra sub-division on the Pali branch 
0{ the Bombay Baroda and Central India Railway. It has a further 
interest as the spot where in 1732 PiMji Gaikwdr was assassinated 
ty the emissaries of Abhesingh viceroy of Gujardt.^ It had in 
1872, 2657 houses and a population of 7740 souls, and in 1878 a 
nmnicipal revenue of £1981 (Bs. 19,810). It is provided with a 
;^ost oflSce and a dispensary. 

;*■ The object of worship is an image of Krishna or Ranchodji 
(VoQght to Ddkor from Dw&rka in E^thidwar. About the year 
ijlob there lived in D&kor a certain Bamd^s othermse known as 
^9odh:mo, by caste a Kshatri. A strict devotee of Krishna, this 
.^dhSno allowed a plant of sweet basil to grow from the palm of 
^eof his hands. With this as his offering he used twice a year to 
fviake a pilgrimage from Ddkor to Krishna^s shrine at Dwarka. At 
neDgth Bodhano grew old and the god, seeing that he would not 
Jbng be able to pay his half-yearly visit, allowed his votary to 
&ke the Dwarka image and carry it with him to his home in 
WSkoT, Deliglited with this mark of Krishna's favour Bodhdno 
flbzed the image and made good his escape from Dwdrka. 
VWhen the news spread that the god was gone the priests in hot 
arsoit, overtaking Bodhdno as he reached Dikor^ slew him with 
arrow. With a last effort Bodhdno hurled the image into the 
br lake and the priests failing in their pursuit sat fasting by 
water side. Taking pity on the strangers, Bodhnno^s widow 
ayed the god to make known his hiding place. The god granted 
r prayer, telling her at the same time not to part with the image 
kot te offer the priests its weight in gold. The priests accepted the 
" r, and when the time for weighing came, the woman trusting to 
I god threw into the balance all the gold she had, a light nose-ring. 
\ by the favour of the god weighed down the scale. Disappointed 
their hopo of gain the priests refused to abide by their bargain; 

1 Waten'tHiiL of QajwA^ UO. 

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OhttpterHY'* nor would they leave until they had exacted from the god a promifli 
naoMtfLiteraft ^^^^ ^° their return to Dwarka they should find hid in a well as 
image the same as the one they had lost 

Da'kob, The chief objects of interest at Dikor are the lake and the tempb 

where the image of Erishna is enshrined. The lake is the largest 
in the Eaira district provided on three sides with a masonry waO 
and flights of stone steps. The temple was built in 1772 at a cost 
of about £10,000 (Els, 1,00,000), by Gopil Jagannith T4mbekar» 
native of Sdtara and banker to the Peshwa. The enclosure, entered 
by gateways on the north and west, is round, paved with stone an4 
girt with walls and outhouses. The temple with brick walls and 
stone pillars raised on a high plinth approached on all sides by a 
flight of twelve stone steps, measures 1 68 feet from east to west 
and 151 from north to south and has eight domes and twenty-four 
turrets, the highest of ninety feet. The inside is richly omamentedj 
the dome with plates of talc and the doors and gratings with a costly 
network of silver and glass. The idoFs throne, a beautiful piece of 
wood carving, has, at a cost of £1 2,500 (Rs. 1,25,000), lately been covered, 
with gold aad silver by H. H. the Gaikwar. The temple reveuaet 
are, besides pilgrim's presents, a yearly allowance of £340 (Rs. 3400) 
together with the rental of the two villages of Dakor and EanjrL Tin 
ceremonial duties are distributed among a body of priests belonging t*^ 
three classes, Ehed&v4l Bribmans, Shrigod Br^hmans, and Tapodhan^ 
Every full moon brings crowds of devotees to D&kor. But the chioE 
gatherings, with from fifty to a hundred thousand pilgrims, many o| 
them from the Deccan or from distant parts of K&thi^w&r are 
the October, A' so, and November, Kdrtik, full moons. At other ' 
moons the number of pilgrims varies from five to ten thoos 
chiefly from Kaira and otner parts of Qujardt. Besides the fuUmooil^ 
fairs special gatherings are on three occasions held at Dllkor, ia| 
Harch the Fdgan sud agidras ; in June the car-day, rath-jatraf 
and in*July-Augu8t, Erisnna^s birth-day or janm^shtami. TheH 
are local gatherings of little importance. On all of these occasionf i 
persons of every caste from the Br&hman to the Dhed attend, tha 
I)heds worshipping at a distance not being allowed to enter thai 
temple. The passenger traflGic of Ddkor has increased from 126,060 
in 1874 to 284,330 in 1877. 

T>eb7a'v. Dehva'n, with, in 1872, a population of 8401 souls lodged in 

honses on the Mahi in the Borsad sub-division, was once a 
and a place of consequence. Its trade is said to have been destro] 
by the competition of Cambay and the shoaling of the river. 
1824 vessels of some size might still approach it at spring tide.^ 
KiiBA. Kaira (Kheda), northlat.22°45'j eastloni?. 72^44', the h( 

quarter town of the district stands on rising ground near 
meeting of the Vitrak and Sedhi twenty miles south of Ahmedaf 
Surrounded by a brick wall, with streets uneven and narrow, 
with tile-roofed houses solid, lofty and with much well-carved 
work, Kaira had in 1872 a population of 12,681 souls lodged in 

1 Bom. Gov. BeL XL 108. 

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EAIBA. 169 

^oasefi. Kaira is a very ancient dty, according to one story as old ,Chapter XIV. 

ts the time of the Mahiblidrat (B.C. 1400) when it bore the name Plaoesof Intezeit 

of Chakravati Nagari and its king Mordhaj foaght and was defeated 

by the PandavB.^ The evidence of copperplate grants shows that 

under the name of Khaidra this town was in existence as early as the 

llfth centary A.D.* About a hundred years later it is spoken of 

18 a great city 'the birth-place of Shiladitya the conqueror of 

^alabhi/* In modern Gujarat history Kaira holds no prominent 

lace. Early in the eighteenth century the town passed into the 

ids of the Babi family with whom it remained till in 1 763 it was 

:en by the Marath^ under Damdii Gaikw&r. In 1775 it was a 

town fortified with a brick wall, the buildings almost entirely 

If by trees.* It was handed over to the British by A'nandr^v 

HkwiriulSOS (May3).« Under the British its position as a frontier 

tfcion made Eaira a place of some importance. For this reason, 

id as it was at that time considered one of the healthiest spots in 

itish Gujarat, a large body of troops, infantry, cavalry and artillery 

s collected^ and barracks, hospitals, and o6Scers' houses built. 

iier on (1830 ?) the transfer of the frontier station to Deesa and 

removal of troops to Poena reduced the importance of Eaira 

^ military station. The climate also seems to have changed for the 

yrseas iu 1825 the station, especially the camp, had a name for 

freme unhealthiness, the hot weather causing dreadful havoc among 

J European troops.* In 1838 the only corps stationed at Kaira 

b the Gujar&t provincial battalion with a strength of 400 men, 

e cantonment was in ruins, the timber and rafters taken to Deesa 

brnld European barracks.^ Since the troops have been withdrawn 

fjstaff of European officers stationed at Kaira has been reduced to 

^ the Collector and his assistant, the superintendent of police, the 

icative engineer, and the civil surgeon. The climate of the station 

nld seem of late years to have again improved. In 1860 and 

fi earthquake shocks, but too slight to cause loss of life or 

^rty, were felt® During the last fifty years the population 


J Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIH. 146. 

^380-385 S&ka (A.D. 45S— 463), acoording to Canningham Ancient Geography of 
^hLi316. The inscriptions are given in J. R. A. S. new series, I., 270-277. 
^Bime Khaira is said to come from Ketaka the Sanskrit form of Kevda the sweet 
* Pandanas, Cal. JL of Scienoe 1838. Sakhad, the oonfeotioners' and Ratanpnr 
^rs' qiiarters, each about two miles from Kaira, are according to local story 
of the ancient city. In digging drains near Kaira ( 1 832) many coins and marUe 
, w^ found.— Briggs' Cities of Gujardshtra, 195-196. 
BAa Mila, L, 20-24/ There were seeral kings of Valabhi named Shiliditya 
IB dates vary from 421-627. Hionen-Thsang (630-640) is thought (J. R. A. S. 
Kries 71 ., IL 272) to have referred to Kaira under the form Kietchi or Kita. 
the details, a kingdom of 600 miles (3000 U) and a town six miles (20 U) round, 
"^200 miles south of Vallabhi, do not agree with Kaira. He describes the people 
and well-to-do, under M&lwa without a separate ruler. There were twelve 
convents and many dozens of Brahman temples and a large number of 
~Jalien*s filfe of Hiouen-Thsang, 401-402. 
|..-.jes'Or. Mem. 11.77. 
•Aitchison's Treaties, VI. 316. 
"^HebcesTravels, 11.166. 

•Mr. VaupeU in Trans. Bom. Geo. Soo. VU. 108-109 (1838). 
•Bom. Geo. Soc. XVIL 296. 

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[BomlNty flttNMMr, V 

<SiB!fitttJI7. . remained nearly constant at 12,000. In 1838 it was 12,000; 
flaoMoflnttrMtt ^^ 1851, 12,091; and in 1872, 12,681, of whom, includiDg2BW 
Shrdvakfi, 11,078 were Hindus, 1548 Maealmans, forty Persia, and 
fifteen Christians. 

Eaira has two parts within and without the walls, or the tovn 
proper and the suburbs. The town proper may be roughly distri- 
buted among five divisions, the north, east, south, west, and oentnL 
The north division contains the Oirdsidvdd or the Girasiiis' qaarter, 
with Rajputs, chiefly cultivators, and a few superior land-holdera ; tliB 
Kdkustekra or the Kikus' hill with Brdhman beggars, Vania brokem 
and money lenders and Kanbi cultivators; the Ndni Voharvdd or 
little Bohora ward with Sunni Bohora cotton carders and o3 
sellers, and Undivdt, the low road, with Mochi shoemakers. Tht 
east division includes Parmdrvdd the Parm6r Rajput^s qiiart«^ 
chiefly cultivators ; Shethvdd the merchant's ward, Shrdvaks chieft 
Government servants, and money lenders ; Hajdmvdd tiie bMbU 
ward ; and Harkha pdrekh street with Vania bankers and monfi 
lenders. The south division includes Vdndarldburaj, the monkejl 
tower with E&chhia cultivators and brickmakers; SvkaJm 
or the priests' quarter with Br^man domestic priests 
Government servants ; Ldmbiseri^ the long street, with Shrin 
and V&nia cloth-sellers, dealers, and money-lenders, and a fe" 
Br&hman beggars ; Bhdvsdrvdd or the calicoprinters' quarter, 
Kdchkidvdd with K^chhia cultivators, bricklayers and vegetafa 
sellers. The west division includes Mdlivdd the gardenei 
ward with gardeners, tailors, some Brahman beggars and tradii 
y&ni^ ; Moti Voharvdd, or great Bohora ward, with Su 
Bohora oil-sellers, cotton carders, and coarse cloth dealers ; Vdc\ 
the well ward with Kanbi cultivators and Bhdvsar calicoprinten 
and Babdrivdd the shepherd's ward, with Rabaris, who ko 
cows, sheep and goats, and live by selling milk and wool, a 
Shr&vak brokers and money lenders. The central division inclui 
the town market and the Patelvddo where besides the families 
the headmen of the town are Shrdvak shopkeepers, money lend« 
and a few Government servants ; Kolivdd, the Kolis' ward ^ 
poor cultivators and labourers ; BhathivdJo, the brick-kiln ward w 
cultivators and Brdhmans ; Syedvdd, the Syed's ward with Musali 
cultivators and Government messengers ; Vaidvdd, the doctors' i 
with Brdhmans formerly medical practitioners now beggars, 
Jdrola tekro, the J4roWs hill with money lenders of the Jfe 
Vdnia caste. 

Outside of the town walls are seven suburbs three to the fioi 
two to the esst and one each to the north and west. The tl 
south suburbs are Amkdpura, called after Amkabai the si 
of Tikdji G6ikwfir, with Kdchhia cultivators and brickmakers, 
Momni Musalmfin weavers ; Vdghesvari the tiger god's quarter ^ 
Marvadi low class labourers, gamblers and prostitutes ; Dhedvai 
the Dheds' ward, most of them coarse cloth weavers. The two el 
suburbs are the Bdvchdvdd, the Bdvch&s' ward with Bivcha gn 
sellers and labourers, and Bhangidvdd, the Bhangiis ward wi 
Bhangia sweepers and Khflpa leather dressers. The north subii 
is Bhowdd, the Bhois' ward with fishermen, cdtivators and palanqi 

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KAIBA. 171 

kaarars. The west enbtorb Lakmanparsj is a small hamlet of Eoli Ouster XPT. 

kbonrers and cultivators. ^^^^ rffiitereit 

Kaiia is a place of little trade and, except the weaving, dyeing ^ 
snd printing of cotton cloth, of no manufactures. 

Though so old a town Kaira is wanting in remains. Large 

bricks about eighteen inches square and three inches thick, 

fonnd from time to time in the bed of the Vdtrak and in digging 

foundations in the town, are almost the only relics. Of objects of 

iftterest there are the town walls built of brick probably abont the 

ijear 1730 by Muhammad Eh&n Bibi then governor of the town, 

I llepairs were provided for by a special cess known as the mdsvari 

kero. This yielding about £160 (Rs. 1600) a year was continued 

in 1837 the town walls were rebuilt, the masvdri cess given 

and town duties levied in its stead.^ Near the centre of the 

wn is the court-house, a handsome building with Greek pillars, 

isrthe court is the old jail, in 1814 the scene of a riot in which 

ly-seven prisoners rose and tried to force their way out. Before 

} mutiny was suppressed nineteen were killed and twelve 

rounded. Not far frona the court house is a Jain temple with some 

eautiful dark wood carving. Outside of the east gate is the jail 

ith room for about 1 50 prisoners. Outside of the south gate are 

le reading-room and library with a well-proportioned clock tower 

bilt in 1868. A hundred yards beyond on the further bank of the 

^trak stands the Collector's house and office, and a mile and a 

lUto the south-east is the camp, formerly a large cantonment, now 

scupied only by the police and a few of the district officers. The 

hiTch, built abont 1825 at a cost of £8000 (Bs. 80,000) and 

ascribed by Bishop Heber (1825) as ' large and solid but clumsy,* 

tough in good repair is seldom used. 

£aira has since 1857 been a municipal town with an income in 
(78 of £756 (Bs. 7560). Besides keeping the streets in order^ 
;;liting, watering and cleaning them and providing public latrines, 
le mnnicipality has repaired breaches in the town wall and in part 
liilt a bridge at the north entrance to the town. There were in 
)78 four Government schools with an average attendance of 333 

Kapadvanj, north lat 23^ 1'; east long. 73^ 7', the chief 
nn of the snb-division of the same name stands on the east bank 
the Mohar river thirty-six miles north-east of Kaira. A fortified 
vn of considerable trade Kapadvanj had in 1872 a population 
13,982 souls, and in 1878 a municipal revenue of £667 (Bs. 6670). 
jKapadvanj would seem to be a settlement of great antiquity, 
present town contains buildings of from five to eight hnndred 
old and near the walls is the site of a stitl more ancient city. 
~ ng to a local history its original name was Eapatpura of 
town of deceit. But as in many other cases this name seems to 
little more than an attempt to form a Sanskrit word out of a 

1 Bom. Gov. SeL OXIT. 508. 

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Chapter XIY- Pr&krit name.^ In modem times Kapadyanj has been the seeiu 
Placet of Interest ^^ three somewhat important battles. In 1454 in a straggle between 
M^mud Khiiji king of M&lwa and Eutnb-ud-din king of Gujaiat 
KAPADVAKj. (1451.1459), though in the end victory rested with the Gujartt 
army at one time they were so hard pressed that the king's crown 
and jewelled girdle remained in the enemy's hands. In 1725 the 
Mar4th&s under Kant&ji and Pil&j} 64ikw&r were defeated b; tb 
Imperial troops commanded by Kh&nahz&d Ehan. Eleven yean 
later (1736) the tovm fell to a joint Mar&tha and Koli attack. 
From that time Kapadvani remained in the hands of the Maiithls 
till, in 1816-1817, in exchange for the neighbouring territory of 
Bijdpur, it was made over to tbe British. At that time Eapadysjij 
contained about 10,000 inhabitants; by 1857 the number bad 
risen to 13,000 ; in 1864 it is returned at 14,202 and in 1872 it had 
slightly faUen to 13,982 souls lodged in 5025 houses. 

On one of the main routes between Central India and the coasi, 
Kapadvanj has always been a place of considerable trade, la 
1816 it was a thriving well built town and in 1864 was famous for 
trade with enterprizing bankers and dealers, in wealth aod 
respectability second only to those of Nadiad. Its merchants sie 
Musalm&n Bohor&s of the Shia sect, ' the most enlightened and 
persevering people in the Kaira district, Kving in substantial houses 
models of cleanliness and order.' The iDusiness of coUectiDg agala 
and moss pebbles found in the bed of the Mdjam river, about fiftws 
miles of Kapadvanj, is almost entirely in the hands of merchants of 
this class. Its manufactures are soap, glass, and leather batter* 
jars. Iron ore used to be smelted in Kapadvanj and heaps of iroa. 
slag may still be seen in the outskirts of the town. The chief 
articles of trade are grain and opium from Central India, and tobacco 
from G-ujarat. Besides supplying a considerable local demand 
Kapadvanj goods are exported to the Panch Mahals^ the BaLasinor 
country and Central India, 

The chief objects of interest in the town are a fine reservoir and 
an arch in the Ch^lukya (1000-1300) style. Of the reserToir, 
according to local story the work of Siddhraj Jaisingh king or 
Anhilvdda (1094-1143), the following legend remains. The baniflf 
Siddhr£j, an old Eajput called Bhima, sick of many diseases caa« 
to Kapadvanj to bathe and worship in the Madnmati or Vitnk 
stream. Wandering near the river his foot slipped on the stem 
bank of a pool and he fell. Though sunk in deep water he struggle! 
safely to shore, and on reaching the bank found that his yoafll 
and strength were restored. On his return to his master so grefl^ 
was he changed that at first he was not known. When his stoqp 
was told, the king struck with the strangeness of his cure i 
messengers to Kapadvanj to find out the wonder-working pool. Bl 
at Kapadvanj no one had heard of such a pool and their inquiry ^ 
in vain, till one Someshvarbhat a N&gar Brdhman ' a two-ey( 
Bhiva in saintliness and knowledge ' showed the messengers tin 

1 Dr. BtLhIer. Other derivfttioiw are Kabir pdnch the five tombfi «id Ki^pad tmf 
the cloth town. 

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object of their eearcli and explained the source of its virtue. The Chapter TCWJ * 

king ordered the sides of the pool to be clothed with masonry and places of Intoreit* 

a temple to be built in honour of Vishnu. To the south of this pool 

is an underground temple dedicated to Mahidev. This^ a building 

of some interest^ has never been properly explored. Of Musalm^ 

remains there are^ besides the town fortifications^ the ruins of many 

fine mosques and tombs. Of modem buildings that of most note is 

a Jain place of worship. This temple bailt about twenty-five years 

ago at a cost of £15^000 (Rs. 1^50^000) is raised on a ten feet high 

stone plinth. The interior is richly ornamented with marble pillars^ 

and a marble pavement inlaid with much delicacy and taste. At 

one comer is a plain underground chamber with a black stone image. 

The Bohora^s quarter has some fine buildings among them a mosque 

of mnch beauty and many old dwellings very lofty and rich in wood 

carving. Near the east gate is a fine rest-house built at a cost of 

over £5000 (Rs. 50,000) by the widow of a rich merchant. Besides 

the ordinary sub-divisional revenue and police offices Eapadvanj is 

K)?ided with a sub- judge's court, a post office and a dispensary, 
ere were in 1878 three Government schools with an average 
attendance of 866 pupils. 

Hahudha^ north latitude 22° 49' ; east long. 72*' 69', a town 
-in the Nadidd sub-division is one of the head-quarters of the 
'Eheddval Br&hmans. Mahudha is said to have been founded by 
I « Hindn prince named Mandhat about two thousand years ago. It 
\ had in 1872 a population of 9884 souls lodged in 8319 houses. It 
: 18 provided with a post office and a dispensary. There were in 1878 
I £ve Government schools with an average attendance of 435 pupils. 

^ Ha'tar, north latitude 22* 42' j east longitude 72* 42', four 
{'Hales south-west of Eaira, the chief place in the sub-division of the 
I'Bamename had in 1872 a population of 4804 souls lodged in 1778 
' boQses. Besides the ordinary sub-division revenue and police offices 
I liatar is provided with a post office. The chief object of interest in 
hV^tar is a Shr^vak temple whose foundations were laid in 1797 
I by Laxmichand Dharamchand a rich Ahmedabad merchant. After- 
I'Wards subscriptions were collected and the building was completed 
t'tta cost of about £40,000 (Rs. 4,00,000). On the April, Cliaitra, full 
hiDoon and on the second and fifteenth of October, Kdrtik, large 
N^iunbers of worshippers attend. 

I Hehmadabad, north latitude 22'' 49'; east longitude 72 '^ 48', 
» station on the Bombay Baroda and Central India Railway 
[eighteen miles south of Ahmedabad, had in 1878 a municipal revenue 
m £344 (Rs. 8440). Mehmadabad takes its name from Mahmud 
^gadawho ruled in Gujarat from 1459 to 1513 and founded the 
icity about the year 1479, fortifying it and building noble palaces.^ 
The city was further improved during the reign of Mahmud III. 
(1636-1554) who built a deer park, an enclosure six miles' lone and 
^nearly as broad as a horse could run. At each comer of the park was 
t palace with gilded walls and roof. On the right hand side of the 


I Bud'a6ojartt|212. 

a Two/arMii^f. 

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[Bombay OmttMr, 

ObQftar ZIT* doors leading to each of the palaces was a market and in eaoli sluf a 
naoMitf&LtttMt ppn-faced damsel to provide eyerytliing that contributed to pleasure, 
baring the reign of this prince and of his predecessor Muzafir IL 
(1513-1526) Mehmadabad was every year, on the birth-day of 
the Prophet, the scene of a great festival when all the leai-ned mea 
of the kingdom rehearsed the traditions before the court.^ These 
buildings remained in repair till the close of the sixteenth centoiy; 
the author of the Ain-i-Akbari (1590) referring to its many gnad 
buildings surrounded with a wall ten miles square, its pleasure houses 
and its game enclosure.^ In 1638 it was a small town pleasant and 
fair with a handsome castle to the west. Its people were Eindu^ 
great spinners and traders in thread.' In 1666 it was of middling 
size spinning cotton thread for the most part of Gujardt and the 
neighbouring country.* By the end of the seventeenth century it 
had come to such decay that it was no more than a poor village.' 
Its population 4939 souls, in 1827, had in 1872 risen to 8065 soda 
lodged in 2974 houses. The town was prosperous^ the houses oa 
the whole well built and the people well-to-do with a considerable 
manufacture of coarse cotton cloth. Besides the gateways at the 
principal entrances and the remains of the line of city walls, a step 
well in the centre of the town said to be older than the time of 
Mahmud Begada, the Dhundia reservoir, and the Bhamaria* well on 
the way to Kaira are all objects of interest. The most beaatifol 
remains are two tombs about one and a half miles east of the town, 
built in 1484 in honour of Mubarak Syed one of Mahmud Begada's 
ministers. Exclusive of the porch the larger of these tombs is onlj 
ninety-four feet square and sixty feet high with fifty -two pillars and 4 
marble floor. Though small there is a simplicity of plan, and 1 
solidity and balance of parts rarely if ever surpassed in any Indian 
tomb. The details are graceful and suitable. Double verandahi 
and a screen of pierced stone- work of the very finest tracery gitf ; 
the seclusion and repose indispensable to a mausoleum. Hal 
it been built on a larger scale this tomb would rank among th9 
first of its class.^ There are three inscriptions, religious and moial 

Jrecepts with no reference to the founder or the date of buildiDg* ; 
n the tomb are two shrines, one of the prime minister the other ot 
Syed Mirin his son. To the south of the tomb are throe smaller 
shrines, one of the architect who built the tomb and the others of ; 
Saif-ud-din and Niz^-ud-din brothers of Mir4n Syed's mother. 
Besides the ordinary sub-division revenue and police offices tfaa 
town contains a post office and a dispensary. 

1 Bird's Gnjar&t, 269. 

* Gladwin's Ain-iAkbarl, II. 64. 

* Mandelslo, 73,74 

* Thevenot Voyag«i^ V. 97. 

" Baldens in ChnrchiU, III. 514. 

* This wen, now in ruins, is said to luvre 1>oen built by Mahmud Beigadaas a M 
waathfii retreat. Above ffroand it has two stone ardxes, said to have been wm 
to hang the king's swing from, and four stone trellis work windows. Hie well. 71 
foet by 2i, is e^ered bv {our winding stairs and has eight nndeigroiuid rhim^** 
four large and four BmaU.-- Mr. Burgess' notes, 1S78. 

' FergoMoa'u Hisi U Indiaaaad &0tern ArchttMtnta, UL OHL 

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Nadia'd/ norfh lat. 22'' 44' j east long. 73^ 0', a station on the Chaptw X17. 
Bombay Baroda and Genti-al India Bailwaj^ is the largest town in Places of Intireifc 

the district. ^ , 

At the beginning of the seventeenth century (1612) Nadiid was a 
large town where the people made indigo.* In 1638 its houses were 
good and it had some cotton and indigo manufactures.^ In 1666 
it was a place of middle size where much cotton was made.^ In 
1775 it was one of the prettiest cities in Gujarat, nearly three miles 
round with a slight wall flanked at irregular distances by round 
towers. It had nine strong gates and a dry ditch round the walls. 
The people about twelve thousand families^ were chiefly occupied in 
weaving fine cloth and other ootton maniifactures. They also cut 
and polished Kapadvanj stones. In revenge for its siding with 
Fatehsing Gdikwar, Raghunathrdv in that year (1775) levied from 
the town a fine of £6000 (Rs. 60,000).* In 1 803 it was handed over 
by the Gaikw&r to the British Government. In 1825 it was one of 
the largest towns in Gujarlit, with fifteen thousand inhabitants,* 
In 1838 it carried on a considerable trade with M&lwa and the interior 
. importing grain, drugs, gums and dye stuffs, and exporting cotton, 
coarse cloth, caJicoes, tobacco, and coarse sugar.^ In 1847 it was 
a most thriving little town.® 

Except gateways at the chief entrances no signs of its town walls 
remain. Its nine entrances are Dahlidni Bhdgal ; Pinjani Bhdgal ; 
[Vamrdlni Bhdgal; Kolivdd Bhdgal; Chakldsi Bhdgal; 8alun 
; Bhagal ; Marida Bhdgal ; BUodra Bhdgal ; and Ahmedabadi Bhdgal. 
iJle town has five divisions or pdtis, Kdkarkhdd Pdti; Kiliddr 
f»nd Haldd Pdti; Ldkhdvdd Pdti; Chakldsi Pdti, and Hirji 
Satanji's Pdti, Besides the main divisions there are wards known 
I by the names of particular caste or tribes. Of these the chief 
[wNdgarvdd, the Ndgar Brdhman^s ward; Ldkhdvdd and Kakar^ 
I Mad inhabited by rich Kanbi peasants; Santhni Pipli by 
I V^nids ; Bhdvsdrvdd by calicoprinters ; Mohoti Vohorvdd and Ndni 
\ Vohorvdd by Bohoris ; Desdi Vago by Desdis, or superior landed 
i proprietors ; Mohotu paru and Ndnu paru by Kanbi cultivators ; 
Jfavdgdm by Kheddvdl Brahmans; Qdzipura and Sakarkoi by 
; liusalmans ; Mohota Bhdtvdd and Ndhna Bhdtvdd by Bhdts or Rajput 
I genealogists ; Malharpura by Bdvalids, and Vdghrivdd by V^aghris. 
I The 1872 census returns show a total population of 24,551 souls 
lodged in 9088 houses, of these 21,542, or 87'74 per cent were 
Hindus; 2994, or 12*19 per cent Musalmdns; and 15 Pdrsis. The 
details are: 2697 Br&hmans; 21 writers, Brahma Ejshatris, and 
Siyasih Parbhas; 3150 V&nias and 282 Shrivaks, traders and 

1 Contributed by JaTeril&l UmiAahankar Y&Jiiik, EBooire. 
S Kerr's Voyages IX. 126. 
' Mandelslo's Voyages, 73. 

* Thevenot's Travels, V. 97. 

i ' • Forbes* Or. Mem. XL 88* To pay tbe tax housea were stripped of everythiog, the 
lltners of their clothes and neGessaries or toiiored oa the olianoa that they h*A 
^Qietod valuables. 
• • Heber*s Travels, EL 146. 
' Trans. Bom. Geo. Soo. VII. 107. 

* Biiggi' Cities of Q«J«i«8htra, 860, 

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.Chapter Xlx> meroliants ; 6478 Eanbis, cultivators ; 124 Rajputs^ coltivaton; 901 
naoaf oflntereit K&chhids, vegetable growers; 105 M&lis, gardeners ; 317 Bhaysan, ; 
^ , calicoprinters ; 6 Ghdnchis^ oil-pressers ; 336 Sonis, gold and silver . 

ADiAD. smiths; 424 Suthars, carpenters; 407 Kans&r&s, brass and copper . 

smiths; 189 Luh^rs^ blacksmiths; 260 Darjis, tailors ; 184 Eadiva% , 
bricklayers; 681 Barots or Bh&ts^ bards; 367 Kambhdrs, potters; 
855 Hajams^ barbers; 64 Dhobhis^ washermen; 257 Golas^ rice- 
pounders; 15 Bhddbhunjds, grainparchers ; 38 Marithds, labourers 1 
and servants; 37 M4rv4dis, labourers; 170 Bhois, fishers and servants; 
11 KaUls, liquor-sellers ; 30 Rabdris, herdsmen; 1016 Kolis^ culti- 
vators and labourers ; 680 Vaghris, fowlers, hunters and labourers; j 
5 Poml&s, labourers; 403 Mochis, shoemakers; 181 Chamadiat/ 
tanners ; 499 Dheds, weavers and labourers ; 60 Garudas, Dhed/ ^ 
priests ; 452 Bhangias, sweepers, and 484 religious beggars. > 

The Nadiad traders are chiefly Y^ni^ and Brahmans. Most of ^ 
the leading merchants are local capitalists. Goods sold to distant 
merchants, as tobacco to M41wa traders, are usually paid for in billi 
of exchange, the brokers or agents who act on behalf of the distank 
trader taking the risk. Bills are freely cashed up to £500 (Rs. 5000) 
and sometimes up to £1000 (Rs. 10,000). The ordinary currencf 
is the Babash&hi or Baroda rupee. The busy season lasts for aboii 
six months from the middle of November to the middle of May. For 
sugar, butter, and other articles of food the marriage months, January 
to May, are the busy time ; and for cotton and tobacco the harved 
months March to May. The chief exports are cotton, tohscco, 
cummin seed and mahuda grown in Nadidd and the country rouud, anli 
mustard, 77ie^%i,rape,9ar9ai;,andother oil-seeds chiefly from Kapad?8ii] 
and Mod&sa drawn to Nadiad as the local trade-centre. Cottoti 
and tobacco grown by rich cultivators pass from the producer directto 
the exporter, while cummin and other seeds raised in poorer districti 
go through the hands of the village trader before the exporter ba}l 
them. Tobacco, Nadi&d^s chief export, goes not only to Centnl 
India but through Bombay to the Persian Gulf, Aden, and Zanribat 
Cotton, almost entirely of the three year short-staple, rcji, sort goeli 
to Bombay, and cummin seed to Bombay, and to Ahmedabad and otbeC 
parts of Gujar&t. The manufactured articles exported from the to' 
are yam, snuff, and dyed cloth. The steam spinning and weavin| 
factory opened in 1876 had, chiefly from a want of capital, to bt 
closed in 1 878, Snuff is prepared and exported by Vdniis. The chirfi 
imports are sugar, molasses, spices, cotton seeds, and piece goods. 
Piece goods from Bombay, Surat, Broach, and Ahmedabad 
generally pass to the consumer direct from the importer. Thi 
imports that have increased most during the last twenty-five yeadl 
are piece goods, sugar, and sugarcandy. The consumption 
Manchester goods was formerly confined to the rich classes of toinife| 
people. But the railway has placed these goods within easy react, 
of all and their use has spread not only to all townspeople but evet 
to well-to-do villagers. The finer sorts of Manchester piece goodi 
are used by Br&hmans, Ydni&s, and other Hindus and upper clast 
Musalmdns. The coarse sorts of English piece goods, and the coarsa 
cloth woven in local hand-looms have to a great extent been super- 
seded by the produce of Ahmedabad and Bombay mills. Though 

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KAIRA. 177 

lilower prices^ there st31 continnes a fair sale for the finer produce of Chapter XIT. 
puid-Iooms. The consamptioii of molasses^ sugar, and sugarcandy places of^terestt 
Iprmerlj confined to towns has of late spread to the rural parts of , 

fee district, and the imports of these articles for which Nadiid is the Nadia d. 

local centre show a considerable increase. 

Except the bankers' union, mahdjan samast, which in the matter 
kf trade customs has considerable infiuence over the whole people 
jkre is no regular trade association. 

! The chief temples are the Santr&m temple with large grounds 
here, at every full moon, a fair is held ; the temples of Nar&yandev, 
K&iji or Yallabhikch&rya, Sv&min&r^yan, Bhairav, E£lka M&ta, 
id Jain temples. The water-supply, from many fresh water springs 
id pools, is fair. The chief ponds are TJndev&l and Ratna. Besides 
Rend rest-houses there are two sadavarts or charity places where 
lOr strangers visiting Nadi&d are supplied with baked gram or 
jor and uncooked grain. 

Kadiid, a municipal town had, in 1878, a revenue of £1608 

t 16,080). Besides the ordinary sub-division revenue and police 
« the town is provided with a subordinate judge's court, a 
It office, and a dispensary. Including the High School there were 
1877-78 eight Government schools with an average attendance 
1089 pupils. 

Ka'pa'd with a population of 5617 souls lies fourteen miles Na'pa'd, 

li of the Y&sad railway station in the A'nand sub-division. Till 

p9 Napdd was a Mlimlatddr's station. North of the village is a 

Hdsome pond said to have been built about 400 years ago by a 

ttin named Tazekh&n Narpdli, governor of Petl&d. The sides 

I of brick octagonal in shape about 500 yards round with in each 

^ a triangular flight of steps leading to the water. On the west 

an Idga, or place of Id prayers, with a flight of granite steps 

ling to the lake. Beyond the Idga along the bank are traces 

terraces and other buildings. At the end some steps lower than 

bank a twenty-four arch causeway, eighty-six yards long and one 

I a half broad with brick side walls, stretches to a solid piece of 

ionry about twenty feet square in the centre of the lake. In the 

idle of this, on four stone pillars, is a small dome with the remains 

I few broken marble figures. In the wall on the north-east 

fUer of the lake are three round openings, and from behind them 

catch the rain water two walled trenches stretch for 100 or 

yards in opposite directions with at the meeting point the 

of handsome stone trellis work. The well, vdv, to the east 

village, also the work of Tazekhan Narp&li was, in 1838, 

" by a Baroda merchant.^ 

I, north latitude 22^ 37' ; east longitude 73** 10', a town in the qd. 

id sub-division had, in 1872, a population of 8423 souls lodged 
12256 houses. 

taia'sra, north latitude 22^ 48' ; east longitude 73*' IS', the chief Tha'sei. 

] Bom. Qto. Soc. II, 52 and 53» 


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Cahnpter XTT. 







place in the Bab-division of that name^ fire milee north d Dftoq 
had in 1872, a population of 3499 souls lodged in 1047 hotin« 
Besides the ordinary sub-division revenue and polioe offices H^ 
town is provided with a post office. 

Sa'markha, north lat. 22^ 86'; east long. 73^ 2\ a townmfli 
A^nand sub-division had in 1872 a population of 5281 sods lodgi 
in 1415 houses. 

Sandalpur^ with, in 1872, a population of 2833 souls lodged i 
671 houses is situated in the A'nand sub-division. The bank (JtU 
Mahi near this village is said to have been the site of an andent dtf ' 
of which some traces may still (1871) be seen.^ 

Sa'rsa, north latitude 22° 83' > east longitude 73° 7', a town*' 
the A'nand sub-division had in 1872 a population of 5218 
lodged in 1516 houses. 

Sili, with, in 1872, a population of 2920 souls lodged in 7 
houses in the A'nand sub-division contains a splendid reservoir 1» 
between 1821 and 1824 by BaUib&i, widow of Malh&r N^rdyan, i 
officer in the Gdikwdr's service. The reservoir with a temple, lei 
house and well were estimated to cost £3000 (Rs. 30,000).* 

Umreth, north latitude 22'' 41' ; east longitude 73° 9', a fitati 
on the Bombay Baroda and Central India Bailway had in l\ 
a population of 11,823 souls lodged in 3080 houses. In li 
the number had risen to 13,954, many of them Khedikv&l Biflnoi 
lodged in 4997 houses. One of the largest and richest towns in 
Kaira district, Umreth is provided with a sub-judge^s court and 
post office. There were in 1878 five schools with an avefi 
attendance of 538 pupils. 

Vadtal* (Wartal), about one and a half miles west of the Bon 
station on the Bombay Baroda and Central India Railway had in II 
a population of 2826 souls lodged in 693 houses. The intereSi 
Vadtal is from its connection with the Gujarit Hindu refon 
Sahajanand Sv&mi. This mana Lucknow Bnihmau, bom abonti 
year 1780, came to Grujardt in the beginning of the present cenfca 
By his character for holiness, and by the display of supematt 
powers, he collected a large body of followers. An ascetic in lifei 
a fierce denouncer of immorality especially among the priesthfl 
Sahajdnand made many enemies and for a time was subjected 
persecution. But his sufferings, kindling enthusiasm among 
followers, added to his power. About 1810 he settled at Vadtfli 
from that time till his death in 1829 his influence fitei 
spread. Accepting the ordinary Hindu theology and nphoii 
the worship of Krishna, Sahajdnand contented himself with 
to mend men^s ways by preaching morality and holy living, 
the disorderly classes of Kdthiawdr he denounced riot and 
and among the rich traders of Ahmedabad and Kaira Inzor^ 
debauchery. For his followers he laid down rules for a life of 

1 Bom. Gov. Sel. XI., 79. 9 Bom. Gov. SeL XL 79L \ 

8 The name ia spelt Wartal in the map* j 

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EAmA« 179 

leetic rigour and self-denial. Dying childless Sahaj&nand was in Chi^ter XIV- 

129 succeeded in the post of A'cb&rjB or spiritual leader by his pi^^ crflntttiik. 
iphewi who in torn WBS^ in 1862j succeeded by his nephew the 

te6Qt spiritual head. VadtVl. 

Seen from the village of Vadtfl the monastery forms a long row 
bnfldin^ opening about the middle in a massive doorway 
{rroached by a flight of granite steps. This doorway leads into a 
todrangle with a large temple in the centre. This temple, with 
jHeof interest either in form or ornament, has for its chief object 
worship an image of Banchodji or Krishna. Built in 1824 at a 
rtof about £7500 (Rs. 75,000), it is approached by a flight of stone 
^ and surrounded by a stone corridor. It is entered by three 
tes to the north, east, and south. Supported by fifty-six pillars 
b roof rises in three small and one large central dome the 
tenors covered with gay but tasteless paintings from scenes in 
iishna's life. Bound the walls are shrines dedicated to Krishna 
iier different forms. Among these is one sacred to Sahaj&nand 
> founder of the sect This recess is furnished with a silvered 
flstead, srdchsupa, and pillows with a richly crested turban laid 
ftem, and by the bed a small stool with a pair of wooden pattens 
la table with a metal water jug. In a niche in one of the walla 

• picture of the saint and the rest of the wall is adorned with 
Jjisk of his foot marks. Of the buildings that enclose the quad- 
}gh those on the south side, plain two-storied houses, are resting 
iBea for pilgrims. At the south-west corner is Sahaj&oand's 

18 where in an upper room are kept and shown to pilgrims his 
\ liis drinking vessels and his clothes. Kear this are the build- 
allotted to Brahmaehdrisj the Br&hman inmates of the 
The west side of the quadrangle is filled by a large three- 
i building opening on the quadrangle, the groundfloor a hall 
) daily the members of the establishment meet for religious 
dug. The two upper stories are resting places for pilgrims at 
) time of the great half-yearly festivals. The whole of the north 
f is taken' up with buildings belonging to the palace of the 
A&rjBk or spiritual head. In one of these is a spacious hall or 
iBption room. Behind the palace are the quarters set apart for 
Fotees, sadhiLS, who are not Brdhmans. The buildings on the east 

* chiefly out-houses, stables, granaries and places for grinding 
ID. North-west of the centre quadrangle is a large garden and 
0r|roir and to the east beyond the main entrance some blocks of 
{rims' rest-houses. 

flke nominal head and manager of the Yadt&l monastery is the 
ii^a. But as great part of his time is spent in visiting the eleven 
^ churches tne practical management is in the hands of a 
N^i kothd/ri* Besides providing for pilgrims and arranging 
tters on the great half-yearly gatherings^ this steward has to feed 
I control from 600 to 1000 persons, ^e inmates belong to three 
IM, Brahmachd/ns, devotees of the Br&hman caste; Sddhug 
lotees of the V6m& and Bajput castes ; and Pdlds, devotees of the 
Kvating^ artisan, and labouring classes. No members of the Dhed, 
Wi&r, and other degraded classes, and no woman of any caste are 
bitted. For most of the inmates the ordinary daily routine is the 

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[Bombay Gautteff f \ 

Chftptar 2LiY> same. Rising at dawn they dress and^ except those who oook or 
Ilaoes of Intereft £?^^^^™ other necessary duties^ prepare themselves for early service. 
, This service held at six in the large western hall is condncied hj 

^^^ ^ the A'chirya or some other teacher. It generally lasts from six til 

eight. From eight to twelye the inmates are at work, stady in tb 
case of some and with others laboor for the common good. Aft 
noon all dine^ the Brdhman devotees sitting by themselves. Tki 
food of all is millet^ wheats and rice mixed in one dish, hi 
the amount there is no stint^ but except on special occasions, con& 
ments snch as sugar, molasses, and butter do not form part of Ai 
daily meal. After dinner there is another short lecture and tha 
rest for an hour and a half. At three all come together and r 
till sunset listening to religious teaching. The next hour is devote 
to the worship of the gods in the temple. After worship 111 
great hall again fills and religious teaching goes on till eigbt or haU 
past eight. The sick and weakly then leave for supper^ the 
remaining till eleven when, except a few of the more zealous 
continue to pray or study, all go to bed. The devotees do not at 
one time stay long at Yadt&l. The Brahmach&ris or Br&hm 
devotees are sent to officiate in some of the subordinate & 
N&rfiyan temples ; the Sddhus or Y&nia and Rajput devotees moi 
about the country collecting offerings of money and grain to I 
taken back to Yadtal. And the Pdlas or low caste devotei 
accompany their leader in his tours and visits to branch cborches. 

During the year two great religious gatherings are held onei 
Chaitra Sud I5th (April) and the other on Kdrtik 8vd \Hh (Nova 
ber). The first in honour of the birth of Sahajdnand lasts for eigk 
and the second in honour of his father for six days. On both< 
these occasions about 20,000 pilgrims chiefly from Gajartt 
K&thi&w&r attend. Minor fairs with from one thousand to tbi 
thousand visitors, are held in August, September and October. 

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Thi Panch Mabdla^ or five Bub-divisions^ lyiiig between 22"* 30' 
and 23*^ 10' north latitude, and 73° 35' and 74^ 10' east longitude, 
Lare a total area of 1595 square miles and a population of 240,743 
soulfl or 151 to the square mile. Of £26,859 (Rs. 2,68,590) the 
total realizable land revenue, £26,841 (Rs. 2,68,410] were recovered 
before the close of the year ending 31st July 1877. 

The five sub-divisions of the Pandi Mah&ls, lying in the extreme 
east of Grujar&t, form two groups separated by a hiUy and forest'Clad 
atrip of the B&riya state, varying in breadth from about nine miles 
in the noith to thirty in the sou&. The western group, the larger 
of the two, comprises the sub-divisions of G-odhra in the north and 
Ealol, including the petty division of Hdlol, in the south. Except 
the Eaira district beyond the Mahi to the north-west, this group 
is surrounded by native territory; Baroda lies to the south and 
west, Bariya to the east, and Lun^v&da and Sunth to the north. The 
eastern group is composed of the Dohad sub-division with, in the 
north, the petty division of Jh&lod. Biriya lies on the south-west 
and west, Lun4v&da and Sunth on the north-west, the Meywir state 
of Kush^gad on the north and north-east, and the Malwa state of 
Jambua on the east and south-east. 

The district is for administrative ptirposes distributed over three 
sab-divisions including two petty divisions. These as shewn in the 
following summary have on an average an area of 531 square miles, 
239 villages, and 80,248 inhabitants. 

Panch MahdU Administrative Sub-dimeiofu^ 1878, 




































OftlM63aQavBiaiMntflll8Sn^ie9axeia(b«lunds«f l8ii« linAolte^ «tfiiM«bv, and fongMriK 
■>« fanned. 

Chapter L 



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[Bombay GfloettMri 

Chapter I. The western diyision is a plain^ rising gradually to the east, little 

jj^][Iij^- cnt into by rivers, and except by some small hills in the north, and 
MMmcijmm. ^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^j^^^ ^^ Ch&mp6ner the great Pdvigad peak rises 2700 

-^P*^ feet high^ broken only by occasional granite-topped mounds. It 

forms three belts,a northern, a middle^ and a sonthem. In the nortlii 
abont twenty miles broad^ lies (xodhra^ in parts rich and well tilled 
bnt on the whole wild and rudely coltiyated^ much of it covered wifli 
brushwood and forest^ and in the north and east broken by bare 
patches of granite rock^ or rising into peaks of curiously piled 
granite boulders. South of Godhra the lands of K&lol form a 
central belt about ten miles broad^ highly tilled, with rich brick- 
built villages^ their lands laid out in hedged fields studded with 
mango and mahuda groves, and marked by rows of palmyra palms 
whose heads rise quaintly from a growth of banian and pipal that 
cHngs to and hides their stems. South of K41ol the country grows 
gradually wilder till, after about eight miles, near H&lol the plain 
breaks into the spurs and ridges that centre in the massive hill of 
Pav&gad. So far the villages are rich and well built, surronnded 
by carefully kept fields. But near the spurs of P4v&gad and south- 
east about fifteen miles more to the borders of Jdmbughoda, except 
in the western villages and in a few hamlets and forest clearings, 
the country is untilled and unpeopled, covered by a low growth of 
forest timber. 

Across the rough wooded belt of B4riya land and higher by 
seven or eight hundred feet than the Godhra plain, Jh&lod in the 
north and Dohad in the south form a compact block about forty 
miles from north to south and twenty from east to west. The 
sur&ce of the country is waving, broken by many water courses, and 
by a succession of low abrupt and rugged stony ridges, separated ' 
by rich moist valleys broad in the north and narrower to the sontk 
Ibccept on the sides of some of the higher hills, the nplands and | 
valleys are opener and less wooded than in the western diyision. 
Though somewhat bare and much of it waste, the country, well 
supplied with water both in streams and pools, is not wanting in 
beauty. In the cold season, on a back ground of soft well wooded 
hills, rich deep-green stretches of gram and wheat, unbroken by 
hedgerows, are studded with mounds and knolls, some clad with 
bamboo and brushwood, others bare and capped with masses of 
glistening snow-white quartz. Here and there are compact well 
built villages. But more striking are, on rising ground, each near 
its own plot of land, the scattered dwellings of Bhils enclosed by 
creeper-covered bamboo trellis-work. Later in bhe season the gold 
of the ripening wheat fields is, along the edges of streams, fringed 
by belts of bright white or white and red poppies, and in the 
hot months, though baked and bare, the land is in many places 
relieved by the bnlliant scarlet masses of the khdkhra or Bntea 
frondosa. During the rainy season the whole country is fresh i 
and green* | 

Hilla In Dohad are several low steep ridges and in Godhra some granite- i 

topped mounds and rocks. But the only hill is Piv&gad, the chief i 
natural feature, and one of the places of greatest interest, in eastern 

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PSvigad* about twenty-five miles sonth of Godlira and by road 
tweoty-niae miles east of Baroda caa^ over a lon^ distance^ be clearly 
Been from the Bombay and Baroda railway.* Nearer at hand with 
iia far stretching spars the hill^ aboat twenty-six miles round, rises 
with massive bat clear cut outline about 2500 feet above the plain.' 
Its base and lower slopes are thick covered with rather stunted 
timber. Bat its shoulders and centre crest are on the soath, west, 
and north, cliffs of bare trap, too steep for trees. Less inaccessible 
fte eastern heights are wooded and topped by massive masonry 
vails and bastiotis rising with narrowing fronts to the scarped rock 
that crowns the hill. According to the local story, in a bygone age 
a nalley ran where P&v&gad now stands. On the high ground 
•Teilooking the valley lived an ascetic VishvdmitraRishi. He owned 
acov, the famous Kamduha, gifted with speech and an unfailing store 
of milk. Grazing on the brink of the hollow she one day slipped and 
inable to cUmb the steep sides filled the valley with milk and so 
twam home. Learning what had happened the holy man, to prevent 
iDother mischance, prayed that the valley might be filled. His 
frayer was granted, the gods sending so large a hill that three 
^oarters of it filled the hollow. The rest standing out of the plain 
Nras called the quarter-hill, PdvdgddL 

The* first historic reference to P&vdgad is from the bard Chand, 
^ho, in the account of Bhim Dev I. of Anhilvada (1022-1072), 
toeaks of Rim Gaur the Tuir as Pava's lord.* The earliest authentic 
iocount is, about 1300, its acquisition by Ghoh&n Bajputs, f agitivea 
pn Kanthambhor (1299-1300) in Mew&r before the army of 
jiU-ad-din Khilji. The Choh&n chiefs, of whom the names only 
been preserved, continued to hold the hill till it was taken from 
by Salt&n Mahmud Begada in 1484. Before Mahmnd's 
Uie Musalm&n kings of Ahmedabad had more than once tried 
ad &iled to take the fort. Of the first of these attempts, in 1418 

^1 H.) daring the reign of Sult&n Ahmed I., no details except 

9 fact of its failure remain. About thirty years later 1450-1452 
^3-855 H.) Sult&n Ahmad's son Muhammad Shah so closely 
pvested the fortress that the garrison was only saved by a diversion 
Ittde in their favour by Mahmud Khilji of M&lwa.^ After about 
lurty years (1483, 17th March^) Mahmud Begada laid siege to the 
ki Refusing to accept any terms except a surrender and preventing 

^ A Bup of the Pilvilgad fort is given at the end of the chapter. This account 
P&T^igad is partly taken from Major V^^ataon's article (IncL Ant. LXIIL 1-9) 
' pirUy from papera kindly supplied by the Adjutant General of the Bombay 
Bat the greater part is from det^ls gathered on the spot by Mr. Aoworth. 
was in uld inscriptions Pd7akgad or the fire hiU.— Major Watson, Januaiy 
.... Mr. Forbes' form Favangad the castle of the winds {li&a M41a 285) is seldom used. 
M Before their fall (1819) PAv4gad though more than sixty miles off was visible 
M the minarets of the Ahmedabad Jima mosque.— Trans. Bom. Lit. Soc I. 1^. 
r ' Bom. lit Soc. I. 140. Captain Haig, Great Trig. Survey, 1874, gives 2727 feet 

fitHe height above mean sea level. 
* Ptolemy's (160) Uippocura and Tiagar have been supposed to be TMmSU 
f Aiiitic Researches, IX. 182-224. 
^ Bis Mala, 72. Tod's Translation of thepassage is different.— Annals of Rijasthio, 

f ' Aooordmg to one acoount the lower fort was taken before Mahmud Khilji arrived* 
I ' Briggs' Ferishta, IV. 66. 

Chapter I. 

» 167—24 

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C9iapter IV. the SulULn of M&lwa from helping the besieged, Mahmnd after a 

Deai^ntioiL ^^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^"^ ®^ ^*^ advanced his positions that they overlooked 

^^ the fortress. In the early dawn^ when according to their custom 

Fa'va'oad, the garrison left the walls to bathe, Kivim-ul-mnlk with a party of 

picked men scaled the fort, driving the Rajputs within the inner 

wall. Later in the same day Malik Aydz Sult&ni^ another of Mahmnd's 

captains^ passing through a breach in the western wall gained 

a position that commanded the great gate. An attempt to d»lodge 

Malik Ayaz failed and the besieged in despair^ burning their wives 

and children, divided into two parties, one retiring to the upper fort 

and the other under command of the chief and his minister remaining 

below. At dawn the Musalm&ns forced open the great gate ana 

cut down the defenders, their leaders falling wounded into the Sultfin** 

hands (1 7th Nov. 1484). The garrison of the upper fortress soon 

after surrendered.^ The bard's stories of Musalmdn attempts on 

Ch&mp&ner tell how Shri Jaysingh Dev the Patai R&val,^ once at the 

time of the nine night, navrdt, festival went to see the women of 

his capital dance and sing. Among the women was one of greA 

beauty, and the chief, overcome by the sight of her, caught hold cl 

her robe. But she, for it was the goddess K^i, turning in anger 

cursed him telling him that his kingdom would soon pass awaf 

Not long after Java Lovo, the son of a Ohdmpdner Brahman, saw 

Mahmud the Ahmedabad Sult&n ride past Pavdgad and^ as he rod^ 

look to the hill and clutch his moustache. Hastening to his chief Jivi 

warned him that the Sult&n would soon come against PavigaOi 

Sending the lad to Ahmedabad to watch the Sult&n, Jaysingh mk 

ready to defend his fort strengthening it by five barriers, watoj 

wood, stone, mud, and forest. At Ahmedabad Jdva kept watdl 

One day he saw the Sult4n at his window look across to Pavagal 

and clutch his moustache. Hastening to Pavagad he told the cbi| 

that the Sultdn was coming. All was made ready and though hackd 

by 500,000 men and resolute enough to keep up the blockade fi 

twelve years Mahmud was at last forced to make peace witlioi( 

taking the fort. Asking how the R&val was so ready to meet himll 

was told Jdva^s story and raised him to be his minister. This tdf 

may perhaps refer to the attempt and failure of the first Muhamntfj 

(1450). Another of the songs tells how in 1485 (1541 S.) the PM 

R&val gave up his life when Muhammad Sh4h the Great uxd 


On gaining possession of the hill Mahmud added to the defeiNi 
both of the upper and lower forts, and for the first time fortified fl| 
top plateau making it his citadel, Mauliya or Lord of the Hill.' J 
strong was it that according to the saying of Syed Jalti, if an c^ 

.^ __^_^_ -^ 

^ According to Mii8alin&ii historiiinB they Barrendered in three days. The Wm 
ehronides make out that they stood a blockade of twelve years.— RAa Mila, S87.^ 

< The title Pdtdi B&val is probably only a contraction for PivApati fUval, 
Rival lord of PAva.— Ind. Ant. LXIIL 2. 

* The use of the name Mauiiya is doubtful. In some passages it seea 
the central peak on whose pinnacle Keli M&ta*s temple now stands. In other 
it seems to include the whole of the hill top, also known as the Bdia or ^'' 
Beelnd. Ant. LXIIL 1-9. 

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woman were but to hnrl a stone f^om the top of the fort all the men Ciiapter Z 

m the world could not carry on the siege. In spite of its strength Descriptioiu 

before fifty years were over the hill was again taken. This time ( 1 535) 

ike besiegers were the Moghals under command of the Emperor Pata'oadw 

HamiLyaa (1531-1556). Incited by the hope of gaining Sult&n 

Bahadur Sh&h's (1526-1536) treasure stored in the fort, and helped 

by the desertion of Bumi Kh&n/ one of Bahadur's chief eneineersi 

Ham^jran pressed the siege, Rdja Narsingh Dev and Ikhtiy&r 

Zhan holding out gallantly on their sovereign's behalf. Surprised 

hj Homdyun's sudden approach the garrison had been forced to 

ipike and leave half way up the hill an immense gun known as 

fte Bahadur Sh&hi.' Repairing the gun Bumi Khin directed it 

Igamst the fortifications, breaking down a gateway with the first and 

: looting up a great tree close by with the second shot. But among 

lithe besieged a European engineer Faring Eh&n, a Musalmin 

j.ft^iivert, served his gun with such skill that the shot striking the- 

jiDannoo burstit in pieces. His chief siege gun disabled, Hum&yun's 

Ijriforts to storm the hill failed. Some time after a band of Kolis sent 

[jkwn by the besieged for supplies fell into the hands of the Musalm&ir 

I^Dtposts. To save his life one of them offered to point out a secret 

di np the hill. The path was tried and by the help of iron bars 

iven into it, the rock was scaled and the fortress entered.' The 

in taken by surprise were routed, some of them throwing 

•mselves over the walls. Others, among them the commander 

iliijar Khan, retired to the citadel or top plateau but on the offer 

honourable terms capitulated, August 1535 (7 Safar 942 B..} 

erj shortly afterwards (1535) on the recovery of his power by 

fliidarShdh, TardiBeg the officer in charge for Humiyun in spite 

[its strength and the abundance of munitions evacuated P&v&gad.^ 

light years later 1543 (950 H.) when Sultdn Mahmud II. threw oS 

wya Khan's control he moved against Piv^ad where Darya Khfo 

pjdleft his women and treasure. The young king pressed the siege 

ith vigour and courage, and the garrison making only a half-hearted 

efence the lower fort was taken. Patuji the commander retiring to 

lie citadel or top plateau was captured and sent prisoner to Sarat. 

lurty years later (1573) on the flight of Sh4h MirzA, who had held it 

^ a short time^ P4v&gad fell into the hands of the Kmperor Akbar. 

^ Unriyalled in his time in preparing fireworks. He was probably the Rnmi Khin 
riM cut the Milki Maiden of B^ipnr.— Bird, 240. 

L^Thia gtin had been left by the Porta^;iiese after their misnccessful attempt on 
"^ in XJ&l. It was the largest ever seen in Indiia and required a special machme ta 

:e it to Chimpdner.— Brig^s Ferishta, IV. 123. 
I * Ferishta gives the foUowine details. Humdynn when he Was shown the path 
"^ the hill made a number ox steel spikes and chose a body of 300 men to arrange 
» nirprise. During the ni^^t several false attacks were made on other parts of the 
^ ^The spikes were fixed and thirty-nine officers climbed up, HumiLyun himself 
fortieth. Before sunrise ^er whole detachment was within the walls 
. laying a preconcerted signal his troops attacked the c arrison from outside. On 
I the 300 foroed their way to one of the sates and let in the troops. Great wealth 
I foond the accumulation of years from Asia Mi^or, Tartary and Europe. — Bri^^ 
uhta, IL 79. From this Humilyun gave to his officers and soldiers, proportioning 
I TaluK to the rai^ and merit of each, as much gold and silver «8 Gonld be heaped 
h their ahielda.— Briggs? Ferishta, 11. Sa 
« Akbanima in BlEot's His. of India, VI. 17. 

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[Bombay OwMir, 

dtapttr IV* For abont 150 years the fort was held by an Imperial garrison till is 


1727 it was surprised by Krishndji the foster son of Kaniiji Kadam 
B&nde. Krishn&ji made P4vdgad his head qoarters and isanine fnn& 
PVYA'QAa it, caused great disorder in Oujar^t and made raids into Wuftrwar 
and as far as Jh^lor. He seems to have kept the fort till it was takea 
by Sindia, probably between 1761 and 1770.* Strongly garrisoning 
it Sindia held Pavigad till in 1803 (17th September) a small BritJak 
force commanded by Colonel Woodington breached the double wall 
near a tower at the east comer of the inner fort to the left of the 
Budhiya Oate and forced the garrison to capitulate.' Bestored toUm 
in 1804, Pav&gad continued with Sindia till in 1853 (August 1st) ii 
was made over to the British Qovemment. 

The following details show the present state of its fortificatioi& 
The chief objects of interest at the base of the hill are on the lower 
slopes of the north-east spur the ruins of Rajput Chimp^ner, and si 
the foot of the south cliff caves till lately the dwelling place d 
Hindu ascetics. About three and a half miles from H4Iol leaviog 
the cart road close to the south-west comer of the walls of Musalmia 
Ch4mp&ner, the hill-path strikes south across a rough wooded stoDe- 
strewn tract. The distance from the cart road to E41ka M&ta^s temple 
on the highest peak of the hill is about three miles, two of them up 
the hill side, the third along the flat hill top.' The path, creeping 
up the eastern spur though rough in places, is nowhere too mggel 
for a palanquin. After rather less them half a mile the first line of 
fortifications is entered by the Atak gate, once double but now will 
its outer gate in ruins. This line of fortification, the historic Lowtf 
Fort, is a massive stone wall with strong bastions stretching acrov 
the less precipitous parts of the eastern spur. The present wil 
veems to have been built by Sindia. In 1803 it was passed by tb 
English without opposition.^ Inside the Atak gate are the ruins d^ 
the Medi or Hinna Palace and the Medi or Hinna pond, a deif 
fiquare pond, its flights of stone steps in ruins but still holding water 
even in the driest seasons. It was here in 1803 that the Engloh 
•battery was placed.'^ About half a mile further the MohoU Qt 

I The date has not been traced. In 1780 Pay^igad was m Sindia*s hands (GmI 
Duff; 432). In 1815 a British force seems to have occupied Chtoip^cr and U M 
sent an advance party to the Medi pond. Some shots were fired ; but no extra 
measures seem to have been taken.— Captain Nixon's account of Chimpiner, 1819l 

a As. An. Re^. 1808, 3S. The spelling Budhiya has been giTen as it is iwvtf 
written in Gnjar&ti. The MuhAmmadan historiana write it Buna. Of th« vital 
of the hill top the opinions of military officers seem to differ, Oapi. Dunstorril 
(1824, 12th October) thought like Colonel Woodington that it commanded the bh| 
.fort. But Capt Nixon (1815) thought guns on the hill top would be usqIms tf di 
scarp was so steep that they could never be pointed low enough. 

'This is Mr. Acworth*s (1878) estimate after judain^ distances <" ^ 9^ 
Mr. Acworth walked from the bottom of the hill to Kilka MAti'a tempit in mp 
three minutes. Some of the early accounts, Trans. Bom. lik Soc 140-146 sadlMh 
Gov. Sel., XXIII., 33 give six miles. But Capt. Nixon (1815) says from the wiiM 
of the house we stayed in at Chimpiner the sound of a gun fired in the apper id 
was heard six seconds after seeing the flash, Uiat is a distance of abont 2300 yvk 
On their first day's firing several of the shot went over the town. 

^ When Capt. Nixon (1815) wrote it was completely in nuna—Oiptaia ifoM 
.account of Champ^ner, 12th October 1824. 

* The battery was placed close to a pond with brushwood to the left R «lj 
near enough to the fort to effect every objeck^CoL Ketmy, Kaiz», 2h ' *' 

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Great Gate gires entrance throagh the second line of defence. This Chapter £ 

gateway is a most formidable fortification the path winding in the Deictirtifflk 

lock through fonr gates each commanding the one below it. The 

lowest of the foar is called the Budhiya or Spear-but Gate and PAVA'tt-u^ 

the highest, about 150 feet above^ the Bhdldpul or Spear-head 

Gata Massive walls connect the gates and from the Bh&lapul 

Gate sweep up to the line of fortification that stretches across the 

crest of the spur. Beyond the Mohoti Gate the path, for about 200 

yards, lies over level ground with a high ridge on the left, crowned 

by a strong wall running back from the Mohoti Ghbte to the third 

Kne of defence. This third line of defence is passed through the 

Sadan Shah Gtkte,^ a winding passage cut through the solid rock 

erowned with towering walls and bastions and crossed by a double 

Hindu gateway, the lower nearly perfect, the upper in ruins. 

It was to the left of these strong gates that in 1803 the walls 

were breached. From the battery on the Medi pond the wall was 

broken down in two places. The breach in the outer wall in a 

lower to the left of the Budhiya Ghite was nearly complete and that 

in the inner wall to the left of the Bh&l&pul Gate was complete.' 

The breach in the outer wall has been repaired ; that in the inner 

imll is still easily seen.' 

The chief remains on the hill lie within the Sadan Sh&h gateway. 

^lom the gate a path leads off the main road 100 yards to the right, 
> iD the head of a ravine that ends in a cliff several hundred feet deep. 

Ifear the edge surrounded by a strong round stone wall with one 
I ttUTow opening is a small cruciform cut-stone chamber completely 
L^at in. Thi*ougb chinks in the wall a grave is seen where according 
|-%o local story a Rajput princess was buried alive. Beyond this 

Eb on the edge of the cliff are the remains of a Sit Mehel or 
m-storied Palace.* Of the seven stories four were above ground 
three cut one below the other in the face of the cliff. The four 
^'tpper stories are in ruins. But down the face of the cliff, command- 
I fag a wide view across a deep valley, runs a covered stone staircase 
^d inside of the staircase, one below the other, three chambers 
<Bch about twenty feet square, with three pillars on each side, the 
Wof domed, and the cornice slightly ornamented. The lowest 
Number hangs over the cliff at a point where two scarps meet at 
'light angles. Beyond the deep valley to the west of the Sat Mehel, 
spur stretches north falling to the plain in steep terraces just 
ve Shakar Kh&n's lake. Across this ridge runs an old wall and 
er remains of fortifications known as the Julan Budan gates, 
hove them on an outstanding point of the same spur are two more 
' hoildings, the Ndgar Haveli or Nagar Brdhman's Palace. It was along 

1 This 18 the same Sadan SMh whose shrine is on the spire of E41ka MAtd's temple. 

* As. An. Reg. 1808, 38 ; Col. Kenny, Kaira, 22nd March 1815. 

• Mr. Acworth, 2l8t March 1879. 

, * This building is also called the Chibnp&vati or Chimpa Rdnina and the Eayers 
Jshverina meheL It is said to have been the palace of a favourite queen. Major 

t Watflon thinks it was meant for the ladies of the zendna to see hunts from. — Ind. 

^lAnt LXIIL Mr. Acworth adds; it is said to have been built by two brothers-in-law 
^ one of the P&t^ Rivals, robbers who had an underground passage from the 
kdsn Shih sate to the Ehund river at Meddpur in HAlol. Both near the Sadan ShiUi 
pteand at Medipor the openingv of » pngiiige.m>y itill b« ssem 

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Chapter L. this spar (hat in 1803, when the walls were breached^ the balk of 

SasOT^tioiL *^® garrison escaped.^ 

. Returning to the main tracks about 100 yards above the Sadaosha 

rAYAQAiK ^^Q |g^ ^^ ^jjg lg£^^ ^^Q Mdchi Haveli or Terrace Palace, a woodea 
building where Sindia^s commandant used to live, and where a small 
police party is now posted. Close by, on the right, are the ruins of 
a fine stone building the old Mdclu Haveli. Further on is a pond 
with at one end the ruins of a brick mosque and near it the Psndi 
Kuva or Five wells, four of them ruined the fifth in good order 

S 'elding excellent water. About a quarter of a mile above the Machi 
aveli is the Makdi Kothdrka Da/rvdja, or the Maize Store Gate, wiA 
strong defences on either side overlooking the approach. Inside of 
the gate on the left are three large domes the Makdi Kothd/n or 
maize granaries and on the level top of the south-east spur, scarped 
by rocks at least 1000 feet high and joined to the bill only by a 
narrow neck, are a ruined gateway, old buildings, and a line of ynJi 
enclosing several covered reservoirs. These are the ruins of the 
palace of Jaysingh Dev the last of the Pat&i> Rdvals (1484). At As 
end of the spur is a small shrine of Bhadra or the propitious Efli. 

This plateau and the hill side as far down as the Budhiya Gate, 
* a pleasant place with springs, ponds and green trees ' formed the 
upper fort i^ken by Mahmud Begada in 1484.^ The top plateair, 
some 1500 feet higher, was at that time unfortified or protected only 
by a single gate. Except that gate the defences were originally 
built by Mahmud Begada^s engineers who, fortifying its approachol 
with the greatest skill, made the upper plateau their citadel oaminf 
it Mauliya or Lord of the hill. For a quarter of a mile above thl^ 
Mak&i Koth&rka Darv&ja the ascent is very steep, then cornea a 
moat or deep-cut cleft called from the moveable beams laid acroil 
it the Pdtidpul or Plank Gate. After about a quarter of a mile thl 
foot of the scarp of the upper plateau is reached. Along its fool 
for nearly 400 yards the path zigzags to the Tdra or Star Gata 
Then steps cut in the rock mount the scarp for about 100 yards ani 
lead to a square building on the edge of the cliff. This bnildinf 
with two gates, the Suraj or Sun Gate in front and the Nagdr Khdn$ 
or Drum Gate behind, originally built by Mahmud Begada'l 
engineers, was with all other works above the P&tia chasm destroyel; 
by the English in 1803 aud afterwards built by H. H. Sindia.* Tl» 
outer gate contains stones taken from Jain temples and the innef 
gate is in form a fine Musalmdn arch. On either side of the Nagfr 
Khdna entrance the edge of the upper plateau is topped by a fifteei 
feet wall, and on all other parts its natural defence, a sheer cliff oTer 
200 feet high, needs no artificial help. 

Within the Nag&r Ehdna Gtkte, is the Musalm&n citadel or ManEj% 
an irregular oblong plateau about a mile from north to south sndi 
quarter of a mile from east to west. Much of it is uneven withoot 

1 Capt. Kenny, I5th March 1815, 

2 The name P4tii Rival is probably a contraction from P&vi^ti Bival, that if tt* 
Bival who roles at P&va.— Ind. Ant. LXIIL 2. 

• Mirat-i-Ahmadi (1750) quoted in Ind. Ant. T.YTrT, t, 
« CoL Kenny, Kaira^ 22iid Maidi 1815» 

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^Skge, with but few trees and covered with large basalt boulders. Oiaptar L 
The chief object of interest is at the south rising from a cluster of Bescriptioiu 
Banian trees and prickly pear and carinda bushes a rocky peak about 
250 feet high. At its foot is a small reservoir and up its side runs Pa'va'oad. 

a flight of 226 steps said to have been built about a hundred years 
ago by MahadAji Sindia. At the top is the temple of E&Ika Mat& 
frith^ in its chief shrine, three images, Edlka Matd in the centre^ 
Miha £[ali on her right, and Bechara M4ta on her left. Except for its 
^ rich marble floor, presented about twenty years ago by the minister of 
Limbdiin Kathiaw&r, the'temple probably about 150 years old is small 
and plain. On its spire is the shrine of Sadan Pir a Musalm^n saint, 
itill held in respect.^ Ealka Mata's chief worshippers are Kolis and 
Bhila. But especially on the full moon of Chaitra, April, and at 
Ihsara, October, there are large meetings of Hindus of all classes. 
Coming down Kalka M&ta's peak and turning to the west of the 
plateau, the path skirting the edge passes along the brink of preci- 
pices scarped in many places right down to the plain. On the west 
ade of the hill are seven massive brick and mortar Musalmdn domes 
called the Nav Lakh Eotluira or Nine Lac G-ranaries each of them 
a room about twenty-one feet square. Along the north over rough 
vneven ground are remains of ponds and reservoirs, and on the east, 
when the circle of the plateau is completed, some small but finely 
«UTed Jain temples. 

: The railway has reduced its value as a sanitarium. But for 
flaropeans stationed in the Panch Mah&ls and Baroda, P&v&gad 
! Il during the hot season a most refreshing change from the plains. 
: the hill top is well supplied with water from a spring about half 
•ay down near the line of the lower fort. During the hot season of 
1839 with the temperature at 105° in Baroda, in the granaries on 
lAe top of P&v4gad the thermometer on the warmest day did 
fiot rise above 87^ and on other days was not more than 83 . In 
; the open air the readings somewhat less carefully taken, shewed an 
I titreme maximum of 97^ and an average maximum of 94°. During 
I Hie whole time a constant breeze blew &om the south-west.' 

Both the eastern and western divisions drain into the Mahi. In Riven, 

Ifiodhraand K&lol the streams flow west falling directly into it. 
IbJhalod and Dohad the slope is north-east, the water draining 
into the An&s one of the Mahi's tributaries. The district is well 
lopplied with water from ponds and streams. The Mahi the only 

^ KAliki's shrine is mentioned as a place of pilgrimage under the Anhilyida 
kinga, Ris M41a 189 ; her worship is referred to in an inscription dated 1469. The 
Ment temple would seem to be of later date built probably after the capture of the 
aD by KAntAji Kadam (1727). The author of the Mirat-i-Ahmadi (1746-1763) 
AttDtioiis the temple of K^a Bhavdni and the shrine of Sadan Sh&h on its top. The 
;ind of the temple spire seems to have been removed to make room for the shrine 
'probably to conciliate Muhammadan feeling and protect thereat of the templa— Ind* 
Ani LXm. 7. Mr. Acworth says that the Hindus claim Sadan as a Hindu 
^iflclaring that to save their temple, the Brdhmans gave out he was a Musalmin. 

* As a sanitarium the only drawback to Piv^gad is that in the hot weather the wind 
lifewB 80 fiercely that unless of very great strength nothing but a domed roof can 
ibtfid. Their domes repaired, their verandahs renewed and outhouses built, the nine 
he granaries would at a cost of about £570 form excellent quarters for two 
Jhr^ean families. 

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Chapter I. large rirer f orms^ for eigHteen milesi tlie west boundary of the Godn 
BMorintion. snb-division. During this part of its course the Mahi^ with in the 
hot season a stream two feet deep and about fifty yards wide flows 
BiTWB. between sloping alluvial banks seldom more than twenty feet high. 

On account of the broken grouud along Oh banks its water is seldom 
used for irrigation. In Gx)dhra the Panam on its way north to the 
Mahi^ passing through the east of the sub-division^ is a veiy consider^ 
able stream^ at times during the rains most difficult to cross. In 
E&lol the Karad passing west to the Mahi between banks irom forty 
to fifty feet high, at all times with a running stream and many d^ep 
wide pools, is unfordable during the rains. About two miles from 
E&lol it is spanned by a three-arched bridge, each arch seventy-six 
feet wide. Of minor streams that cease to flow in the hot weather the 
Kun through the centre of Godhra, the Mesri to the south of Godha 
town, and the Goma close by the town of Kalol rise in the highlands 
west of the Panam valley and after courses of not more than fifty miles 
fall into the Mahi. The Vishv^mitri taking its rise from Pavagad 
passes south by Baroda city to join the Dhddhar. The Devnadifrom 
the B^riya hills, also an affluent of the Dhadhar, passes twenty miles 
south through H6I0I. In the east the only river of any size is the An&. 
This rising in Malwa runs north over a rocky bed along the east of 
Dohad and Jh^lodand falls into the Mahi at the extreme north-east 
comer of the district. A considerable stream during the rains, in the 
bot season it ceases to flow, dwindling into a row of pools. Dohsd 
and Jh&lod are better supplied with streams which hold water 
throughout the year and are readily available for water-lift irrigation 
as in many places their banks overhang. Of minor streams, sH 
with rocky beds, are the Damaj on which Dohad stands, the Khan, 
Kali, Gang&ri^ Eanari^ Barod, and the Machan on which Jhflod ■ 

Pondg. '^® vrest is well supplied with ponds and reservoirs, five of them 

in Godhra and one in E[&lol of special size. Of the Godhia 
reservoirs that at the town of Gt}dhra has an area of seyenty acre& 
On the Dohad road about twelve miles east of Godhra is the Onr^ \ 
lake covering 110 acres and said never to have been dry and to have 
a pillar in the middle visible only in seasons of extreme dronght. I 
The third, 120 acres in area, is at Shera about twelve miles north of : 
Godhra, and the fourth, eighty-seven acres, is at KamUv. AtMalir 
about five miles east of K^lol, covering 133 acres, is an embankel | 
and masonry built reservoir provided with sluices, and watering a I 
large stretch of rice land. In the east the hills and valleys of Dohsd I 
and Jhdlod are well suited for storing water. They contain many | 
ponds, most of them natural but some of them banked and masoniy 
built. During the hot season the smaller ponds are dry but somt 
of the larger hold water throughout the year. The Chh4ba lak9 
at Dohad, one of the largest, luorS strong masonry walls, flights ol 
stone steps at two ends, and a masonry outlet for waste water. 

Otology. Except in its south-west comer, no detailed inquiry into the 

geology of the Panch Mahals has been made. In the eastern 
division though black and clay soils occur, the surface is chiefly asome* 
what shallow light-red soil much mixed with gravel. The roob w 

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inf, schist, limestone, millstone, grit and marble in small qnantitieB,^ Cimpter X. 

In the western division near Go^ira all the surface rocks are meta- Degeri^tioii* 

morphio, and in other places metamorphic rocks alternate with beds of ^ 

Quartzite sandstone. Tlie geological survey of the south-west of the Ooology. 

district shows two chief geological features, the great trap rock of 

VivigsA and a group of semi-metamorphic beds chiefly quartzite or 

qnartzite sandstone. P^v^igad is believed to be the remains of a range 

0^ trap that stretched south to the B&jpipla hills. It is not easy to 

understand how except by the force of the sea the whole large inter* 

Tening tract can have been cleared of trap. A very slight change of 

land and sea level would flood the plain counhy round Pavdgad, and 

it is possible that at one time the rdll was anidand. Unlike those to 

the south-east, the F&vigad traps lie perfectly flat. Their mineral 

character is in many parts peculiar. Of the numerous terraces below 

ihe upper flat of the nill, some are ordinary basaltic lava flows. Bat 

many are of a light purple clay rock rare in other places. Some« 

what cherty in appearance and generally with sniall crygtala of 

glassy felspar this rock is sometimes mottled purple and grey. It 

18 abnost alwayB distinctly marked by planes or lamination parallel 

to the stratification sometimes so finely as to be more like an ordinary 

shale than a volcanic rock. In spite of this these beds seem at 

times to pass into basaltic trap, and one form of basalt with crystals 

of glassy felspar has weathered edges much like this purpiii^h shaley 

lodL The formation of these beds is not easv to explain. They 

often look like volcanic ash. And, though their highly laminated 

stractare seems due to deposition in water it is in places irregnlar 

nd the beds containing pumice could hardly occur in undar-water 

formations. They may be flows of very thin volcanic mud or their 

inresent character may in part at least be due to changes after 

consolidation. Similar beds are very rare among traps and no other 

instance of their development on so large a scale has been observed 

in Western India.* 

The other chief feature of the geology of the south-west comer of 
fte district, the gfroup of quartzite sandstone beds, has been traced 
lor about twenty miles east of P&v&gad and for seven or eight miles 
south of Champ^ner. The other beds are mostly slates, conglome- 
rates and limestones, ferruginous bands occasionally occurring. 
8ome of the limestones are highly crystalline ; in one place near 
Xadvdl they were found to contain actinolite ; in other places, as 
sear Sorajpur they were quite unaltered. All the rocks susceptible 
^ cleav^e are highly cleaved, the planes in general striking about 
west 10 -20^ north. Some of the slate appears so fissile that 
it might probably be used for roofing. The conglomerates are 
perhaps the most distinctive beds in the group, ^ey are well 
teen about Jhabdn on the road between Surajpur and J4mbughoda, 
The matrix is in general a coarse gritty sandstone containing pebbles 
ind boulders often one and sometimes three feet in diameter of 

^ It it belieTed to be mainly composed of metamorphic rocks with a few trap 
•^h«n.-Mom. Geo. 8ur. VI. 8, 30. 
* Mr. Blandford. Mem. Geo. Sor. VI. 3> 18M82. 

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[BomlMj OaMktMT* 

Chapter L granite^ qnartzite, talcose slate^ and crystalline limestone. The 
Des^^tion. talcose slate^ of which some of the pebbles are composed, is scaiceif 
more metamorphosed than the Ghkmp&ner beds themselves. The 
^^' quarteite bonlders are the largest. The limestone pebbles are yeiy 

numerous and as they are dissolved on the surface by exposuie to 
the weather^ the hollows which contained them remain emptj, and 
give a peculiar vesicular appearance to the rock. Some of the 
limestones of the pebbles contain silicious laminas. Cleavsge is 
frequently apparent in these pebbles^ though it is bnt niAj 
distinguishable in the sandy matrix. At one place near A^nandpnr ^ 
matrix of the conglomerate appeared to be a perfect breccia^ a mix* 
ture of angular fragments of black slatey silicious rock and couse 
sandstone^ both containing pebbles. This was near the junction d 
conglomerate with slatey beds^ the latter apparently the newer. The 
rocks appear to have been much crushed. They look as if angular 
fragments of slate had become mixed with sandstone^ and then all 
reconsolidated. But the granite and quartzite pebbles show no signs 
of violence* Very little can be ascertained of the sequence of the beds« 
The slate^ limestones, and quartzites of Surajpur are evidently high in 
the series ; they appear to rest npon the conglomerates of Jhabdn and 
these again upon the quartzites of iT&rukot and Dfindiipanu 
Judging from the extent oi alteration the Surajpur beds are high in 
the group. But no base is seen, unless the quartzites of the southern 
patch rest upon granite about Manikpur. These quartzites mnch 
resemble those of N&rukot. It is often almost impossible to fix 
where the Ch&mp&ner beds pass into metamorphics. Within tha 
tract occupied by the metamorphic rocks, quartzites which hare in 
no way the appearance of outliers occur in several places, as netf 
Mirv^a, and again west of J&nbughoda. In the latter case a tnie* 
conglomerate containing large rolled pebbles of quartzite is founi 
amongst the metamorphic rocks. The same apparent passage oocma 
south of Sarajpur, the Gh&mp4ner beds being more crystaUine near 
the boundary. Faults may to a great extent account f or thes* 
passages, and when rocks do not differgreatly in mineral compositioQr 
apparent cases of transition are very likely to occur. Still belli 
along and across the line of strike there is, in places, an apparent: 
gradual change from Ch&mpdner beds into metamorphics. 

South of the belt of hills near Eadv&l, and around J4mbughoda 
nearly all the surface is composed of granite, passing occasionallj 
into granitoid gneiss. North-west and west of this plain, the bib > 
of Narukot and D&ndi^pura consist of the quartzite and conglome- 
rate of the Chdmpiner group. South-west of J&tnbughoda the rocb, | 
although somewhat similar in composition, are more highly meta- 1 
morphosed, the bedding, in places, as near Pepia being obliterated. I 
In m&s&b&T hill near Pepia, a spur running to the east consists o 
very quartzose gneiss, containing Ukrge rounded masses of quartz an 
-other rocks. It is evidently a metamorphosed conglomerate, and 
rock of precisely similar constitution though unaltered abounds 
the Ch£mp£ner beds. 

Some good exposures of the Ch&mpdner beds are seen on theroa 
from J&mbughoda to Surajpur. The range of hills north of th 

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road, at' the eoctremiiy of whioh is N&rakot^ is formed of a fine 
grantilar quartzite sandstone^ vertical or dipping at a very high angle 
to the sonthward. Similar rocks form the hills to the north near 
Dindi^pnra and indeed the latter have much the appearance of being 
composed of the same great bed^ which rolls over to the north of 
&e N&rakot range and then appears to turn up again. 

South of N&mkot granite and gneiss occor in the valley^ and in 
the hills to the south, but at A'nandpur slates and conglomerates 
oome in^ vertical or dipping souths and apparently resting upon the 
qoartzites of the N&rukot range. They are probably faulted against 
the gneiss. The slates are in places well cleaned and fine grained 
aod might yield good roofing slate.^ 

At Tuva^ about ten miles west of Godhra^ hot springs rise to 
the surface in two places, the one in a river-bed, the other in a 
marsh. The river-bed spring, unknown and never resorted to, 
m ioimA only by removing some of the surface sand. The other 
springs, varying in temperature and giving off gas, well up through 
Urge earthen jars let into the soil over about an acre of marshy 
forest-cleared land. The water is sacred to Mah&dev and the place 
itudded with palm trees, is adorned by a temple. On the morning 
rf Ph%an Sud 11 (March) especially since the opening of the 
IMkor railway this place is much frequented by pilgrims. 

Except that in the eastern division the rains are somewhat later of 
beginQingj the seasons are the same over the whole district ; cold 
bom November to February ; hot from March to the middle of 
Jime, and rainy from the middle of June to the end of September. 
The prevailing winds are in Godhra from October to March east 
Budnorth-eastj from April to June west,- and from July to September 
loath-west, and in Dohad from October to December east and soutb- 
wastj and from January to September south-west. Records of 
ttiiifall are available for two stations, Godhra in the west for twelve 
feam (1867-1873) and Dohad in the east for seventeen years (1862- 
1878). From the following table it will be seen that during the 
twelve years ending 1878, Godhra had the highest average with 
4i4o inches. The greatest fall in any one year was in Godhra 64*05 
inches in 187S and in Dohad 47*34 inches in 1878. 

Paneh MahdU Eaki/aO, 1862-1878. 















S "* - 








*•>* .« 









1^ "* 


















**W .„ 


































1878 ... 










1 Mem. Oea Sur. VL 3> 41, 178» 218. 

Cbapter I. 

Hot Spriiigik 


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[Bombay flaiettoer, 



duKptor 1 



Thermometer readings are registered at Qodlira and Dobad. A 
comparison of the returns during the eight years ending 1878 sliows 
an average temperature at Dohad on the whole slightly below that of 
Godhra, the figures being 80*57 and 7874 respectively. The Mowii^ 
statement would seem to show that^ though the tempentme ii 
slightly lower at Dohad at all times of the year, the difierenoe between 
the two stations is most marked during the hot months Apnl, Hay, 
and June. 

Paneh MahdU TempertUure, 1371-1877. 



January to 

April to Jnno. 














- 1 Dally wage ... 



91 « 

81 -1 














Mean ... ... 









••• Dally faage 










Mean .. ... 









*" Daily nuige 










MeaS ... ... 









•" Dally raaga ... 










••• Daily nagie 


















- Dally rasgv 


















Meai ^. 

••• Daily range 



















•iDiilyrania ... 


















In healthiness the climate varies greatly. The well tiOed peiti 
K&lol in the west and Dohad in tiie east^ would seem to be fne 
from any special form of sickness and to be healthy to newcomers 18 
well as to the people of the place. Godhra surrounded byhrfa 
areas of forest and waste^ though for residents fairly healthy is tbSm 
a trying climate for strangers. The hot and rainy seasons weaka 
Europeans^ and the cutting malariou&l winds and hot sun of the eoU 
months are^ to natives from other districts, apt to bring on ferei 
of a dangerous type. The commonest forms of sicknefis 811 
ague, dysentery^ diarroeah, bronchitis, asthma, guinea worm tti 

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£ -5 

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CoMPABED with otlier Gajar&t districts the Panch Mah&ls are rich 
in minerals. Its hills contain iron^ lead and talc^ and only the cost 
of carriage prevents the use of its stores of building stone. Iron ore 
of considerable richness is fonnd in the Gk)dhra village of P£lanpnr^ 
and near J&mbughoda and Sivr&jpur in N^mkot. Both in the Panch 
Uahflsand N&rakot, though unused for years^ traces of old iron- 
Bmelting works remain.^ Lead ore is found in N&rukot, near the 
iron ore^ and at the E3iandeUv lake two or three taiiles from Godhra. 
hi 1872 a specimen of the Narukot lead ore was examined by the 
6o7emment Chemical Analyser. It was reported to be a mass of 
nearly pure lead with a flinty covering. The lead was a definite 
chemical compound with 86*6 per cent of metal. It was poor in 
nlyer yielding only five ounces to the ton of lead. Two years later 
(April 1874) a larger collection of specimens gave an average of 
fiS^l per cent of metaUic lead and very nearly the former small 
proportion of silver. These results the Superintendent of the 
Geological Survey thought unpromising^ and no attempt has since 
ken made to work the Panch Mah&l lead mines.' Talc is found near 
some of the N&mkot hills. But the plates are too small to have 
any commercial value. Of stones^ sandstone, trap^ quartz^ coarse 
granite^ basalt^ limestone and Ume gravel, hanka/r, are found in many 
parte of the district. Mr. Little^ the District Executive Engiueer, 
with the view of starting by the lately opened (1876) P&li railway 
on export of building materials to Ahmedabad^ Baroda^ and Broach^ 
has made the following calculations of the cost of the chief 
Yarieties of stone. A very useful stone for paving and building 
from two to three feet square and from one to three inches thick quan- 
ried at B^rv&da, three miles from Jh&lod^ costs at the P&li railway 
atation^ aooording to thickness. from£l 108. to £8 (Bs. 16 -Bs. 30) 
per 100 superficial feet. The same stone would cost at Baroda from 
tl 129. to £3 88. (Rs. 16 - Bs. 84), at Ahmedabad from £1 14^. to £8 
I2s. (Bs. 17 - Bs. 86), and at Broach from £1 16^. to £8 16«. (Bs. 18- 
Rb. 38). Another useful sandstone has lately been found in the Mabi 
iwer, about two miles from the P&Urailway station. Limestone, with 
about ninety per cent of lime, is found at Dohad, and an iiierior 
Nrt near J^bnghoda. A better placed limestone is about four 
miles from the Pw railway station. This has been burnt and gives 
veiy good lime, not hydraulic, but well suited for ordinary building 

Chapter IL 


^ Bom. Gov. Sd. XXIIL 100-106 and 113,114. 
9 Bom. Got. Bea. S877, 8th July 1874. 

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[BomlMty QaMttMr, 

CSiapter IL purposes. Some specimens mixed wiih sand and pomided biidc and 
Produotioii* subjected to strain gave the following results. A sample of six 
parts, two of lime^ three of sand and one of pounded brick, broke at a 
strain of 52'15 pounds to the superficial inch ; a sample of three equal 
parts of lime, sand andpoundedbrick^ stood 60*93 pounds ; and asampla 
of four parts, two of Ume and one each of sand and pounded brick, 
stood 71 *34 pounds. The cost of wood fuel at the quarries is about 7f. 
(Bs. 8-8) a ton, and the cost of the lime about 149. 6d. (Bs. 7-4)aton. 
It could be delivered at Baroda at about £1 Is. (Bs. 10-8) and at 
Ahmedabad at about £1 2«. (Bs. 11) a ton« The quality of the hm 
is said to be strongly in its hvour. The common Qodhra granite^i 
found about nine miles from the P&li railway station, is a fine lastiof'' 
stone. At the same time it is costly to work and is not likelf i 
to be used to any large extent. Plenty of fine black dose-graindl' 
basalt is found near P&y&gad hilL But this, dear to work ud' 
&r to bring, is not for many years likely to be in demand. Stona' 
well suited for road metal is found within less than a mile of tbji 
P&li station. Lying in slabs and boulders it wants no blastiogj | 
The present cost of digging and breaking to pass through a ring^ 
2^ inches in diameter is is. 6d. (Bs. 2-4) or adding tools 5r/j 
(Bs. 2-8) the 100 cubic feet. At a mile rate of id. (6 p.) this would 
give a cost per ton of £1 Is. Sd. (Bs, 10-10-0) at Baroda, £1 5#. 94- 
(Bs. 12.14rO) at Ahmedabad, and £1 12s. 3d. (Bs. 16-2-0) at' 
Broach. Sand is found in nearly all the rivers.^ 

Field Treei. The east is rather bare of trees, but in other parts the Fi 

Mah&ls are well wooded.^ In the more highly tilled western districtSu^ 
are rich well-grown rows of field trees, and large tracts in the cenhoj 
are woodland and forest. The trees that give the cultivated koda 
in the west a rich park-like appearance are the mango, mahudi^ 
tamarind, r&yan, and banian. Of these the mahuda, Bassia latifolii\| 
with its strongly veined leaves and its heavy sickly smelling floweq 
is in every respect a noble tree, and of great value to the distriot^ 
For some months in the year its flower and fruit are meat and drink 
to many of the poorer classes, and its timber is of excellent quality^ 
The mango and tamarind do not differ from the same trees elaOii 
where. The rdyan or khimi, Mimusops indica, a poor scrobbfj 
tree in the Konkan and not known in the Deccan, grows here in im 
greatest beauty. For so large a tree the leaves are small. They ani 
of a deep green, and so close together, that for shade there is notna 
like the rdyan. In form it is compact and well rounded^ and Ta| 
often grows in remarkably pretty clusters. Neither flower nd 
fruit is at all conspicuous. The fruit is of the greatest valo^ 
forming for Kolis and other poor classes the chief article of fbo( 
during the hot weather months. Its tough wood serves aa 
cartwheels and oil mills. But from its importance as a frait^ 
bearing tree the timber is seldom used. The- vctd, Fico* 

1 Coniribnted by T. D. Little Esqnire, Executive Engineer. 

a These notes on the Panch Mahals trees, shrabs, and plants are by Mr. Kaini% J 
lately of the Bombay Civil Serrice. They are incomplete, as Mr. Nainie wu not ml 
the eastern parts of the district, and did not pass a ramy season in the Panch ]^^^^|H 
Mr. Naime*s notes on field and forest trees have been sonplemented by coiitnb«tua^ 
from Captain MiMaae, CoDaerrator of Forests, and Mr. WilaoD, C. 8, 

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Imgalensis^ does not differ from the same tree elsewhere. Other CSiaptw H 
«ommon membera of the fig family are the pipri, Ficas tsiela, the Produotioib 
itmior or gular, Ficas glomerata^ with clusters of red fig-like fruity 
ttten by Bhils and Kolis, and the pipal^ Ficas religiosa. In the 
Silol sab-division rows of palmyra trees^ Borassns fiabellif ormisj 
ouuiy of them encircled by a pipri at once attract notice. 

Except the mahuda none of those mentioned above can be called Forest Trees, 

igrest trees. Of the Panch Mah41 forest trees, besides the mahuda, 

•^ most abandant are the teak and the hhdkhra. Tesk, sag, Tectona 

idis^ remarkable nearly all the year for the grand size of its leaves, 

y&Tf plentifal, bat except in the sacred village groves or mdlvarif 

great size. Its wood is asod chiefly for rafters and small beams. 

Txhra, Batea frondosa, Uke the teak of no great size, is 

kable at the beginning of the hot weather for its gorgeoas 

of flowers. A waving well wooded coantry, set thick with 

jght scarlet-floweriag apple trees, gives some idea of many a 

h Mah&l landscape when the khdkhra is in bloom. In habit of 

proirth it is not unlike the apple tree, and the leaves dropping 

Pken the flowers come, the top and outer branches stand out sprays 

jif unbroken scarlet. In the bud the dark olive green velvet of the 

tplyz is scarcely less beautiful than the full flower. The gum of the 

ikhra is gathered by Naikd&s, its roots made into ropes, and its 

ood osed as fuel. Sisu, Dalbergia latif olia, neither plentiful nor large, 

lioand in H&lol, Dohad, and Jh&lod. The tanas, Ougeinia dalbergi- 

hiB, with its mach prized wood, is not common. The sddar or ay an, 

vminalia arjuna, is pretty plentiful, but as all the big trees were 

I before the forests were closed, it is of small size. The bibla, 

fcrocarpes marsupium, though less destroyed than the sddar, is 

f Chirans and other professional herdsmen often cut that cattle 

If feed on ita leaves. It yields very fine timber. The moka, 

Hrebera swietenioides, is a common and large growing tree. Its 

Kte close-grained wood is much used by turners and for cartwheels. 

mb iasumby Schleichera trijnga, with small white flowers in February 

A March, is very rare. Its fruit is eaten and made into oil. Ita 

ftil wood is so much prized for cart-axles and field tools that all 

BBS of any size have been cut. Bohen, Soymida febrif uga, a large 

i common tree, has timber too heavy for general use. Dhdvda, 

logeissas latifolia, is very plentiful. Though it does not rank as a 

Boer tree, it makes excellent fuel, and is used for ploughs. Charoli, 

lokanania latifolia, with broad oval leaves, small greenish white 

Wers, and a very hard nut, is not very common. Its fruit is 

ien, and the oily kernel of the nut is much used in sweetmeats. 

hida, Terminalia belerica^ is one of the commonest and largest 

ing of Panch Mah41 trees. Its small oblong egg-shaped n>uit 

beleric myrobolam is used in tanning. The gugal, Boswellia 

k^ is a common, and, though not very large, a very beautiful 

Its narrow pointed leaflets and drooping branches give it 

liaething the look of the English garden acacia. Its grey flakey 

n is noticeable. It yields a cheap resin, and, besides for fuel, 

kwood is used in making platters. With it grows the Canariom 

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Forest Trees. 


CShapterlL atriotum, also called gugal, rather stouter^ withont the pqpoty 

Prodaotiaa^ bark or the elegance of branch and leaf. The pasi, Dalbergia 

panicolatai is a well-grown and handBome tree with thick duk 

grey bark and dense foliaga The flowers are small, in laige 

clusters, white tinged with blae. Its wood is nsed only for fuaL 

The last three are bare in February and March. The graceful luii, 

Melia indica, is well known, and besides near villages is sometiiott 

found in the forests. It is seldom used as timber. Two ttees 

of the orange family^ and one of a family closely allied, may be 

noticed toge&er. The kwiUha or wood-apple, the bel and tilie hi^w. 

The hinger, Balanites roxbnrghii, is the commonest and the IbmI 

handsome. It grows everywhere, and is often little more tliaat 

thorny bush. It yields an oil, and its nut is hollowed and made 

into crackers. The bel, Aegle marmelos, is a better though b64 

very noticeable tree. Its wood is used for oil mills. The wood» 

apple, kauiha, Feronia elephantum, when well grown, with its croid 

of small leaflets and graceful drooping branches, is particularly beaa- 

tifuL The fruit is eaten raw, preserved, and used medicinally, bit 

is too common to have any sale value. The bd/val. Acacia wnkm, 

except where planted by roadsides, is seldom found. The commoDeik 

acacia seems to be the cm/or. Acacia tomentosa, known by its soft 

hairy -shaped pods. The bava. Cassia fistula, whose lovely labnnuoi- 

like flower clusters are well known in the Konkan and other forest 

is also not uncommon. The doli or white sa/ras, Albizzia lebbek^ 

and the shembar, Albizzia stipulata, are also fairly common. TIa 

first with large white flowers and many protruding stamens has u 

particular beauty ; the latter has flowers of the same size or larg^ 

and of a beautiful pink. The pods of both are large and ezceediBgl|| 

thin, and the leaves doubly sub-divided. The kali or black Mfti 

Albizzia odoratissima, is remarkable for its apricot-scented grett 

worsted-like flower-tassels. Its wood is used for cart wheels. Th 

hheTy Acacia catechu, is plentiful, but, from want of preservatioij 

does not grow large. Much of it is used in making charcoal. Hi 

other leguminous trees are the sam/ra, Prosopis spicigera, fvfl 

described as a mange-struck baval tree, and the karanj, rongaai 

glabra, found chiefly on the banks of streams. Though not so haul 

some as in the Konkan, the foliage of the kara/nj is thick and polisM 

and it bears clusters of half -open pale lilac flowers, and flat neai| 

oval pods. The seeds yield an oil useful in itch. Other Ml 

deserving mention are the bor, Zizyphus jujuba, known eiM 

where, but of no beauty, the fruit used as a pickle and consent; 

the aduso, Ailanthus excelsa, a large tree with very rectilisll 

branches rather sparingly clothed with very large much dxvM 

leaves; and the silk cotton trees shimal, or shimar, Bomfai 

malabaricum, and shamla, Eriodendron anfractuosum^ similar I 

appearance but differing in flower, those of the first a dull cruDidl 

and those of the second a dirty white. The leaves of about five ad 

Eointed leaflets palmately disposed fall when the flowers ooM 
besides being usal for firewood, the trunk is hollowed into canoll 
troughs, and water conduits. The kari, Sterculia urens, of the saa 
family, is, in the cold weather, one of the quaintest of trees witk il 

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FoRiiST Treis. 


smooth deadly pale bark picked ont with pink patcHes and its leaflesa Chapter IL 

branches with at the tips clusters of small yellowish brown flowers. Prodactiom- 

The unripe fruit is like a crimson velvet star-fish. Three of the 

ApocynacoB are much like each other. The kara, Wrightea tinctoriaj 

with handsome clusters of white jasmine-scented flowers and long 

thin seed vessels hanging down in pairs^ and often joining at the ends. 

A second^ name unknown, like the kara in fruit, is of a different 

habit of growth, the leaves only half as long, broader and downy, the 

flower more delicate than the kara blossom with a peculiar spicy scent 

but without the long tube to the corolla. The third, Wriglitea 

^lomentosa, has leaves as large as the first, but downy, and the double 

' seed vessels, instead of being smaller than a a uill, are as thick as a 

' walking cane, and dotted with roughish specks. The wood is uBsd 

^for turning. For these two last no more definite local name is 

known than dudhia, a word applied to all trees with milk-like juice. 

^The sareru, Streblus asper, is a very common tree in hedges and 

about villages. It is small and scraggy with a gnarled trunk not 

^unlike an English thorn tree. The andrak, a less common and 

larger growing tree, is in February covered with small round heads 

^rf yellowish flowers. It yields a fine white wood, and when cut 

^ttrows from the stool several straight saplings. The kadam, 

Btephegyne parvifolia, except when covered with round heads of 

^agrant flowers, is an unnoticeable tree. In the forests it grows 

^ a large size, and yields good timber. The kalam or nAiu, 

ijinthocephalus cadamba, grows to be a magnificent tree. Its 

llrge leaves are heart-shaped, and its sweet-scented balls of yellow 

lowers are as large as small oranges. The wood is light yellow, 

p is not the same as the kalam used in gun factories. The vdola^ 

iPhyllanthus emblica, . has oblong leaves arranged in pairs with 

P;h regularity and grace. Its fruit, growing among the leaves 
very like a slightly grooved green gooseberry, is sometimes 
IMen raw, but oftener pickled or taken as a medicine. The tamraj 
^Hmbumi, Diospyros melanoxylon, a common tree of little beauty. 

El leaves and young shoots more or less rusty or downy. Its flowers 
white and inconspicuous, and it bears a fruit about the size of a 
m. The timra, Diospyros montana, common only in the P&vagad 
^ooAb, is much like the tamiraj, except that its fruit is of the size of 
h apple. The wood is used for making carts. The netar dn^, 
Ipathodoea falcata, a rather uncommon tree, has pinnate leaves, white 
lid pretty flowers, and curved and twisted pods, about eighteen 
bches long, and not more than an inch broad. The aledi, Morinda 
iwerta, is a common tree, from whose bark and roots a yellow dye 
• made. Its pretty yellow wood is used only as fuel. The anidr, 
ttme unknown, is used sometimes for cart wheels, but generally 
br fuel The leaves of the asopala, Polyalthea longifolia, are used 
Sot covering marriage booths, and those of the asindri or asotri, 
lauhinia racemosa (?) for making cigarettes. The fibre of the 
ieri, Bauhinia speciosa (?) is made into ropes. The dried fruit o£ 
iie mendal is placed on the bridegroom's wrist, and a decoction 
if it is used medicinally. The kaledi is common. It yields a low- 
•alned gum^ and from its wood platters are made. The bamboOj 

tl67— fi6 

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[Bombay QmM», 





vds, Bambnsa anindinacea, is not large^ but is pretty plentiful in 
hilly ground in the north-east of Godhra. In seversJ parts of the 
district there are remains of old bamboo forests^ and in low lands 
along river banks it would probably grow well and yield a k^ 

The shrubs fall into the natural division of erect growers and 
climbers. Among the first perhaps the three commonest^ sometimea 
growing to the size of small trees, are the onkla, the sitdphal or wild 
custard apple, and the kdl-ambar. None of these are in any way 
remarkable in appearance. The onkla, Alangium lamarckii, lias 
willow-shaped leaves, and in the hot weather rather pretty whitial 
flowers, with very long stamens. The wild custard apple, Anosa 
squamosa, said to be a foreigner, grows wild all over the Panch 
Mah&ls. The fruit is scarcely worth eating. The kdl-ambar, Ficas 
asperrima, is the fig with large and exceedOingly rough leaves, often 
used as sand paper. Its greatest peculiarity is that, at least whea 
young, the branches are jointed and hollow. The kada, Holarrhena 
antidysenterica, a small tree, when not in blossom hard to tell from a 
shrubby Wrightea tinctoria, has larger but less handsome wliito 
flowers. Its wood is used for small ratters. Melanthesopsis patens ii 
another very common shrub, tall and spreading with small and thickly 
placed leaves. Neither flower nor fruit are at all remarkable. ^ 
madars, Galotropis gigantea and C. procera, are as common s&entj 
where else, and always in flower. The next two are commoner hew 
than in most places. Leonotis nepecefolia grows as much as ei^ 
feet high, and is seen everywhere near villages and hedgerows. U 
is easily recognized by its unbranched stems with velvety onAga 
coloured flowers in globular clusters clasping the upper part of tbi 
stem at intervals. Glerodendron phlomoides is a spreading hedgi | 
shrub, whose white flowers in December make it look at a distaDOtj 
like a hawthorn bush. Another very common hedge shrub is Barleiift I 
prionitis, whose buS flowers would be thought handsome, if thei^! 
were more of them. Like the .well known karanda, Carissa caranda^ 
also found in hedges it is very thorny. The gaudiest shmbifl 
perhaps the aval, Cassia auriculata, said to be common all over India 
Its very handsome bright yellow flowers and the size of the shrnl, 
make many a piece of waste look at a distance like an English gois0*i 
clad common. Two other Cassias, occidentalis and tora, like thereitl 
of the family, covered in the rains with yellow flowers, are TCff j 
common. They are chiefly remarkable for their exceedingly nartf j 
smell. The wild indigo, nil, Indigofera tinctoria, is a shrub, from ^ 
to three feet high with inconspicuous flowers. Two much largw 
leguminous shrubs are tolerably common and conspicuous inhed^ ' 
hachki, Caesalpina bonduc, and childri, Acacia intsia. The Ifl 
has spikes of yellow flowers and flat oval pods, covered with pric 
and the chilari round heads of white flowers and showy clusters t 
thin, dark-red pods, about six inches long by one broad. Both i 
these, especially the chilari, are to some extent climbers. Zizyphi 
nummularia is very common and thorny. Except that it is a to 
shrub, spreading close to the ground, this is exactly like the commflN 
bor, Zizyphus jujuba. The graceful tamarisk, Tamariz ericoiM 

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well knowD in Englisli flea-side places^ grows commonly in the beds 
of rivers and on river banks. The dhdvri, Woodfordia floribnnda^ is 
a small shrubs the flowers used as a red dye. The last to be mentioned 
are hichu akara, Martynia diandra^ an annual herb and a foreigner^ 
found often in and aboat cnltivated ground^ with a handsome foxglove 
shaped flower^ and a curious fruit like a beetle with two sharp 
horos; Cadaba indica with white flowers of little beauty^ and a scarlet 
frnit like a pod^ and Petalidium barlerioides^ a big straggling shrub, 
with handsome wide-mouthed white flowers and large green veined 

Of climbers, two or three, found in almost all districts, must first 
be mentioned. Gowitch, kavaj, Mucuna pruriens, has S shaped 
pods, closely covered with brown stinging hair. The flowers are a 
loffid purple, and though large are not striking. Another common 
le^ominous climber is gavria, Canavalia ensif ormis, with rather large 
]Rnk flowers and thick heavy pods. Cocculus villosus is exceedingly 
flommon, and spreads widely. The leaves are small, oval and downy, 
and, until the small rod berries come, nothing about it is very notice- 
able. Doemia extensa is also a hairy climber, of no beauty, though 
il bears white flowers nearly all the year round. Like all the 
Umlj, it is full of bitter milk, and the double seed vessels are covered 
<rith soft prickles. The beautiful Clitoria tematea, with blue shell* 
shaped flowers, is eommon in hedges, and so is the guraj, the smaller 
Abras precatorius. Its flower is inconspicuous, but after the pod has 
bunt, the bright red seeds shine out from every hedge. The tamanya, 
Vitiscamosa, with three distinct stalked, serrated leaflets and clusters 
cCsoft black-currant-like berries, is not so common as in the Konkan. 
Another pretty, though not very striking climber, is Boerhavia 
lOpaiida, with very small pink flowers on long stalks and smooth 
bsart-shaped leaves. Perhaps the largest of the climbers is the 
Uka, Yentilago madraspatana, with at the end of green far stretching 
blanches, clusters of small flowers and pea-shaped fruit with a long 
Hun wing attached to it. 

. Of the Convolvuli, the elephant creeper, Argyreia speciosa, and the 
immon but pretty Ipomaoa sepiaria with pale pink middle-sized 
Vpwers, and heart-shaped leaves, are the only climbers that can be 
l^cognized in the cold weather. Of Oucurbi tacesB, Lehneria garcini, 
|a in some places common in hedges, the leaves with their fl ve much 
iqxirated round and toothed lobes, are rather curious looking, and so 
R» the small deep-red horizontally egg-shaped berries. Mukia 
isahrella, also a small climber, very rough with minute yellow flowers 
ind small scarlet berries, is one of the very common Indian hedge 
ibints. The ram turcd, LafEa amara, climbs high, and has largish 
(isUow evening-blooming flowers, and oblong ribbed fruit, which, 
taring the greater part of the year, hangs in the hedges, dry and 
irown. The dilori, Cephalancha indica, perhaps the commonest 
[onkan hedge plant, grows in the Panch Mah&ls, but not freely. It 
OS handsonie white flowers and an oblong fruit, so beloved by birds 
md squirrels that it scarcely ever ripens to its proper scarlet. Of 
Sip^TB, Maema corenaria, the only climber has small green flowers,and 

Chapter XL 


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[Bomlmy Oantoin 



Chapter IL 



irregalar Rhaped in no way remarkable froit. The only climber tibl 
calls for mention is the very small bat exceedingly pretty balloon yine^ 
Cardiospermum alicacabnm. Its finely cnt leaves and tendiilfl, 
its small white flowers on long stalks^ and inflated three-lobed 
capsule enclosing three ronnd black white-spotted seeds^ makeneuij 
every part of it noticeable. 

To arrange plants and draw the line between them and shrubs is 
not easy. For grouping, as well as recognition, perhaps the 
simplest plan is to take them according to the locality they ihrire 
best in, water, marsh, and dry-land. 

Of water plants, found in or on ponds and river-bed pools, the 
three sorts of waterlilies are tolerably well known. First, the large 
Nelumbium speciosum, whose leaves and pink or white flowers grow 
on stalks, sometimes three or four feet long ; second, the ordioarf 
white or red Nymphoea lotus ; and third, the Nymphoea stellata, about 
the same size as the last but often blue as well as white or red, and 
distinguished from it by the petals and sepals being more pointed 
and the anthers having white appendages. Perhaps the next com- 
monest, found in any ditch, is the Convolvulus Ipomoea reptans, with 
long creeping and rooting stems, pretty rose-coloured flowers, aod 
arrow-shaped leaves. The water chesnut or shingodi, Trapa bispinose, 
is not very conspicuous, but the flowers are white, the leaves arranged 
in whorls, and the fruit long stalked, irregulaty angled, and with two 
sharp horns straight and barbed. Another plant, creeping under asd 
on the water to a long distance, is Irissida repens, with bright grea 
leaves, red stems, and primrose coloured flowers, opening like the rait 
of the family in the evening. Sagittariaobtusifolia, named from the 
arrow-shaped leaves of the germs, has long taperingpoints to the low» 
ends of the leaves, which rise out of the water on very long stalks. 
The flowers are white but make little shoW. Round the edges of A 
ponds and pools are seen patches of Hygrophila longifolia, a rigid 
plant, about two feet high, with narrow leaves and handsome blaa 
nnstalked flowers, each cluster surrounded by six long thorns, wilk 
small round lotus-like leaves and clusters of cup-shaped flowei% 
growing out of the leafstalk. Next are two species of Limnantheman 
or water buck bean. The larger, Linmanthemum indicam, has plak 
white flowers, bearded on the margin ; the smaller, Limnanthenwai 
aurantiacum, white flowers, the throat much bearded, and of a deep 
orange colour. Of the order Scrophulariacas two smaller plaaH^ 
almost always grow with the water buck beans ; of these one ki 
Limnophila gratioloides with pale purple flowers and leaves of thieii 
different sorts, those under water in hair-like masses, those juit aboiii 
the water divided into lobes and surrounding the stem, and thoeed 
the top simple lance-shaped. The other, Herpestes monnieria, kij 
also pale half -opened flowers, but is without the peculiarity of Uuee! 
different sets of leaves. Another very common plant that grows m^ 
masses in moist places is Ammania baccifera, the stems are sqvM^ 
and tinged with red, and its whole leaf arrangement is remarka^f ' 
regular. Neither flower nor fruit is noticeable. With this is oftai' 
seen a small plant of the Cruciferous or cabbage and water-crafli 

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bmij, Cardamine hirsnta^ with erect' pods. This to look at is a 
eommoQ plants and is only noticed because it grows in England. The 
beaatifnl little hooded milfoil, Utricularia stellaris, only two or three 
inches high, with bright yellow flowers, rising on very slender stems 
and hair-like leaves, is foand spreading over wet ground, and is 
properly an aquatic, though half an inch of water is enough for it. Two 
t)f^e goose-foot tribe. Polygonum rivulare and Polygonum elegans, 
inust be noticed. The first is a smooth straight plant with lance- 
thaped leaves and a head of flowers not unlike an ear of wheat. The 
'Second spreads flat on the ground, and is easily known by its very 
Bmall deep-red flowers and ragged white stipules. It has altogether 
Jomething the appearance of a heath. 

This seems to conclude the list of aquatic flowering plants, but it 
may be remarked that in the Pancn Mahals, as elsewhere, the 
commonest plant that grows in and near water is a non-flowering 
'pepper-wort, Marsilea quadrifolia, whose leaves are of the exact 
.^tre-foil shape. There are many non-flowering duckweeds and 

After water come marsh plants. In the Panch Mahfls besides 
on river banks and beds, during the cold weather, marsh plants 
elothe with green the empty rice-fields. They are all of small size. 
The largest and one of the commonest is perhaps Csesulia axillaris, 
Whose flowers of a pretty lilac and white, grow in close heads, 
Ij^hed to the dilated base of the leaves. With it is often found 
*Ofathocline stricta, a delicate plant, with pretty much divided hairy 
^d strong smelling leaves, and reddish purple small flower heads. 
'Another is Sphceranthus mollis, very common on rice fields, with a 
^tfcrong balsamic smell, but by no means beautiful. The flowers are 
t dull red heads, nearly as big as a marble, and the leaves below the 
liieeting with the stem run down it in wings. A fourth, of the same 
Wder (Composite), a very common weed everywhere, is Eclipta alba 
Hrith white flowers ; and a fifth, coming out rather late in the cold 
^Weather but in the same moist lands, is Gnaphalium indicum, a 
'Anall soft hairy plant of a light grey hue, and with small straw- 
keoloured heads of flowers. This is very like the English Gnaphalium. 
•Heliotropium ovalifolium is also very common on rice fields, with 
^Ivety much wrinkled leaves and small white flowers. Striga 
tephrasioides is another small plant, rough all over with rather pretty 
^hite flowers, the tube lone and very narrow. Lobelia trigona, 
inother very small plant, with the peculiarity of three cornered stems 
ind stamens protruding through a slit in the lower lip of the corolla, 
fe also common. Finally, of rice-field plants is Sutera glandalosa, 
^mentioned in any Bombay books, but given by Drnry as a Central 
Indian plant. It is very small with finely-cut leaves and pale flowers, 
taid is hairy and glutinous all over. Stemodia viscosa is another rice- 
teld plant, small, sticky, and with dark blue flowers. There is also 
iie small gentian, Exacum pumilum, known by its square stem with 
inooth opposite leaves, and very pretty starlike dark-blue flowers, 
9n%h. large yellow anthers. 

' Of dry-land plants, two small Convolvnli may first be mentioned, 
toih of them found creeping on the ground in grassy or sandy places. 

Chapter IL 





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[Bombay Qaiittoir, 



Chapto: IL 


EvoItuIos hirsatos has flowers of the loveliest blae^ small^^ bat raiker 
like those of the common English speedwell. This is not mach lib 
an English convolvulus, but Convolvulus microphyllus is very like 
the common Eaglish bindweed, and no one could mistake it for a 
member of any other family. Another beautiful English plant, f oand 
occasionally, is the common pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis, but instead 
of scarlet the Indian variety has flowers of a splendid dark-bla& 
Two stout plants of the nightshade order are very common heretf 
elsewhere, Solanum jacquini and Solanum indicum with flow«« 
much like those of the potatoe. The second i^ the larger, almost a 
shrub in size. Both are prickly with, especially the first, spiko* 
covered leaves. A third Solanum without prickles, and smooth 
all over, is Solanum nigrum. This, much rarer than theotherSi 
is found in England, and like the common nightshade has small 
flowers. Another plant, which about cultivated fields grows as 
much as five feet high, is the kalpa, Trichodesma amplexicaa^ 
rough all over, like most of its order, with rather pretty lilac* 
coloured flowers. Of Compositaj, which are not often remarliblefcr 
beauty, we have Echinops echinatus covered all over with prickleik 
and clearly of close kin to a thistle. It is all over of a grey nue, kbA 
the small whitish flowers are in large round heads. Another parpla 
thistle, more like the blue beetle thistle of England, is Tricholepis 
procumbens, which straggles over sandy ground. Perhaps tha 
commonest of Compositso is the Vicoa auriculata, with small yeflow 
camomile-like flowers on long stalks, and rather narrow much wrinklei 
leaves. The strong smelling and very hairy stout plant, with smdl 
yellow heads of flowers, is Blumea holosericea. Launea bellidifolil 
is common in sandy ground, with much resemblance in its ligtt 
yellow flowers and deeply gashed leaves to a milk thistle. Th^ 
with several already said to flourish in damp ground, make ap a 
tolerable list of CompositsB. Elephantopus scaber is nothing better 
than an impostor. At the beginning of the rains it puts f ordi doni 
to the ground a number of primrose-like leaves. For two or thrsa 
months it shows no flower, and then alongstifE stem shoots up, witb| 
at the top, a remarkably ugly head of purple flowers. Perhaps thk 
is the place to mention the yellow Merican thistle, though it is not 
a thistle but a poppy, Argemone Mezicana. It is as common hers 
as everywhere else, and not the least like a foreigner. 

Of Capers, Cleome viscosa, a weed in most districts, is found hem 
It is hairy and sticky all over with leaves of three or five leaflelil; 
yellow flowers, and a long erect pod-like fruit. Gynandropsis pe&l»; 
phylla is less common ; it has something of the same appearance, Ut; 
is altogether more agreeable, the white flowers being rather ipte^i 
Of Scrophulariacaa, Gelsia coromandeliana is a stout plant growingkj 
waste places, whose leaves and flowers are much like the Engwi 
mullein. Yerbascum Lindenbergia urticaf olia is a small downy plaulirl 
growing out of old walla and rocks; the small yellow flowers «•; 
something like snapdragons. Of the laige order of Acanthacs^, w| 
characteristics of which are generally well marked, the handscBnerfi 
is Daedalacanthus nervosus, with spikes of very pretty violet or bliiii 
flowers with darker stripes, much contracted in the throat fioflU* 

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eiegans is a small^ bnt in f avoarable sitaations very pretty plant with 
kight blue bell-shaped flowers marked with reddish stripes. 
Haplanthus verticillaris has flowers rather like the last^ but is a 
larger and coarser plants and the flowers are surrounded by short and 
ligidj bat not thorny, spines. Buellia dijecta is a lowly plants with 
n^er large solitary bell-shaped blue or lilac flowers. Lepidagathis 
f^ida is a strong hairy plants very prickly and with much smell, the 
lowers in spikes white with brown spots. Blepharis bserhaavifolia 
ii a creeping and straggling plant, with leaves in fours, and 
pale irregular flowers, surrounded by bristly bracts. Peristrophe 
bicalyculata, straggling, untidy looking, has rough hexagonal stems 
and small pink flowers at the end of long stalks. Justicia difiusais a 
very small and very common plant, with spikes of pale blue flowers. 
J^m the bracts crowded together all up the spike, flowers emerge^ 
vith white membranous edges. Nelsonia tomentosa, a low-growing 
my hairy plan^ with spikes of small lilac and purple flowers, may 
otmclade this order. 

Of the Labiatae or miut family, the chief are two common-looking 
riants, found in great quantities in tilled or &llow fields, Leucas 
tuifolia and Leucas cephalotes. They have both white flowers in 
globolar heads and clusters round the stem. Besides other smaller 
iifferences, the first is soft and downy, and the second smooth, 
beocasbiflora, distinguished among the species of this genus by having 
Ihly two flowers together in the axils of the leaves, is not so common 
kthe other two. Salvia plebeiais a rather pretty plant with small 
Dftc flowers, very much wrinkled leaves, and a strong mint-like smell. 
Repeta Bombaiensis is not common ; it is not much unlike the last. 
kVisorneles ovata is a tall straggling plant of little beauty, with large 
bavy heart-shaped leaves and purple flowers. 

Of Amaranths, Celosia argentia is so common in cultivated fields 
b to look sometimes as if it had been planted. Its spikes of shaggy 
tffcen twisted flowers are of a silvery white tinged with pink. Aerva 
haiata has also white spikes, but they are short, blunt and woolly, as 
kie the- leaves, and the whole plant is grey. Achgranthes aspera is 
kearlyas common, and entirely without beauty, the long unclothed 
^ikes seaming to bear little else on them beyond the bristly bracts. 

Of Euphorbias, the milk bush. Euphorbia neriif olia, and of Cactece 
ihe Opuntia dillenii or prickly pear are commonly used for hedges 
Bid roadside fencing. Baliospermum montarium is a strong coarse 
Ittd antidy-looking plant, with large-toothed leaves, and three-lobed 
Emit, the size of a small gooseberry. Crozophora plicata has a fruit 
H the same shape but smaller, but the whole plant is rough and hairy, 
ieeping close to the ground, and the leaves are dark and much 
Vrinlded. It is necessary to mention two or three leguminous plants, 
lioogh probably many more may be seen in tiie rains. The 
Kmunonest is perhaps Crotolaria filipes, very small and very hairy, 
Kostrate on the ground, with yellow and inflated oval legume. 
Eadigofera cordifolia is as common, as small, as hairy and as prostrate, 
Mat the flowers are dark-red. Indigof era hirsuta, much less common, 
» a stout erect plant, also hairy, the flowers small and pink, but in 
bose. racemes^ and the pods stiff and erect and rather four-angled. 

Chapter H. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

[BomlMky 6«Mttor» 



Chapter XL 


Of Mallows, there is the common bat handsome Urena sinnata wii]i 
dark pink flowers and rounded much-lobed leaves. Sida hamilis, & 
common looking little plant, with yellow flowers, and Abutfloa 
graveolens, a big shrabbj plant, clammy and hairy, with large 
orange-coloured flowers and roundish leaves. 

The Panch If ah&l forests lie chiefly in the centre of the disiiricfc. 
The west, though well wooded, has few forest trees, and the east, 
except fruit trees in fields and some stony hill lands in the remoter 
villages, is bare of timber. In the centre the Godhra woodkndB 
stretch over undulating plains, and the sides of small granite liillgi 
and those in Hdlol partly over plains, partly over rocky uplands, and , 
partly on the slopes of Pav4gad hill. TQl 1860 the produce of tlw , 
x^anch Mah&l forests was in little demand. Teak was preservei i 
But, with this exception, on paying an export duty of less than one i 
per cent, all kinds of timber might freely be cut. The forest revenue i 
was very small. In 1861 the construction of the Bombay Baroda j 
and Central India Railway raised the value of timber. The forests | 
were let to a contractor, who is said to have taken out of them 100,000 | 
sleepers. In 1863 the Conservator reported the forests well stocked i 
with useful timber, including several kinds not generally known, and 
as valuable as teak. In his opinion, if protected from sixteen to twenty 
years, the teak alone would be worth £200,000 (Rs. 20,00,000).* ^ 
At his suggestion, eight kinds of trees were protected, so far as tai 
forbid the cutting of such as were less than four feet in girth. Aj 
small establishment at a monthly cost of £9 Gs. (Rs. 93) was also i 
tioned. In 1870 Dr. Brandis,* the Conservator General for Ind 
examined the forests. He thought them poor, and was of opii 
that grass, fuel, and building timber were the only likely sources ( 
revenue. He recommended an increase of establishment, and < 
European officer, an inspector and four foresters were sanction 
Since 1871 the forest staff has been gradually increased, 
present (1878), besides the European officer, it includes seT 
permanent and seventy temporary men. In 1866 twenty-seven i 
varying in area from five to 200 acres, were set apart as sp 
Government reserves. But the system followed, chiefly from the fi 
size of the plots, was not approved, and the work of demarcation i 
little progress, tiU in 1873 forty-two square miles were taken api 
Imperial reserves. Since 1873 the work has made steady prog 
In 1878 in the Kalol sub-division a total of 170 square miles has I 
demarcated and sanctioned, and selections of more forest land 
being made. In former years the forest revenue was small, 
was included under the general head of miscellaneous or saf 
In 1877 the total receipts amounted to £2519 (Rs. 25,190) and I 
expenditure to £1394 (Rs. 13,940), leaving a net revenue of £1IS 
(Rs. 11,250). In 1877, 14,549 tons, 9857 of them timber.' and -^ 
firewood, passed out of the district by way of P41i. The bulk < 

1 Gov. SeL LXXVIL 12. 

' Dr. BrandiB' memo, dated 13th June 1870. 

' The Deputy CouBervator of Forests (Mr. Muller) estimated the timber tnd» I 
1870 at 23,543 cart-loads of the value of Kb. 3.53,146; of these the foreign (' * 
passing through the district represented 19,657 cart-loads of the valne of Bs. ^9 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




ftis supply is said to come from Lon^vida, Sonth^ B&riya, and 
IVdepur^ and other states bordering on the Panch Mahkls. It 
igoee to Baroda, Kaira, Ahmedabad^ and eastern E&thiibw&r. Except 
I* imall demand for babul hy the Public Works Department and the 
^way, this timber is entirely used by private house-holdera It 
JB for tlie most part small^ cniefly t^ rafters, in the dearUi of 
^liamboos much used for roofing. Bona, a village in the Godhra 
iib-division, was, before the opening of the VUi railway station, the 
ifUd timber mart. Since then the trade centres at (Jodhra, and is 
{ddefly in the hands of Sunni Bohor^. Except the flowers of the 
iMtftiiaa, Basaia latif olia, gathered in the hot months, April and May, 
^ exported in large quantities, the minor forest produce is at 
|neentof UtUe consequence. There is no export of honey, lac or 
nm^ and the only colouring material of any value is the yellow beurk 
■ihe aledi tree. Kolis and Bhils work as woodmen, but the only 
IDttl forest tribe are the I^&ikd^. These are very good workers 

Ei mnoh used in the forest. The men's daily wage varies from 3d. 
M, (2-4 as.) Women, when employed, but this is not often, 
n for the day about 2^d. (1 as. 8 p.) and children l^d. (1 as.) 

The domestic animals are oxen, cows, bufiEaloes, horses, sheep, goats, 
Dd asses. ^ Of oxen the 1876-77 returns show a total of 86,024 head, 
fttle care is taken in breeding oxen. Compared with the neighbouring 
ifaa and Baroda bullocks, most of them are poor, small, and weak, 
i the same time they are hardy and active, and can work on the 
Krestfare. Apidrof themcostsfrom£3 to£5 (Rs. 30- Bs. 50). In 

tof the larger towns is a better class of bullocks. Those 
iging to the Godhra Qh&nchis, apparently a cross between the 
{nl and the large Elaira cattle, are of fair size and good draught 
)Wer« Three or four pairs of them, at the rate of about twelve miles a 
^, wiQ draw a wagon-load of as much as one ton and 8| cwt. (40 
pi mcms). Avoir of these draught bullocks is worth from £5 to 
(Bs. 50 . Bs. 100). Of cows the total is returned at 90,928, and of 
'bufialoes at 81,762. Like the bullocks, the cows are poor, yielding 
two to five pints of milk a day, and costing from £1 to £2 (Rs.lO- 
0). Bufhloes are common, many of them of fair size and quality, 
herds are owned by professional herdsmen of the Gh&ran caste, 
men come chiefly from K&thx&w&r^ and many of their buffaloes 
of the well known N^odi breed. She-buffaloes, when in milk, 
from six to fifteen pints a day, and vary in value from 
to £6 (B8.^80 - Bs. 60). Male buffidoes (5911) are not used either in 
;ht or in tillage. They are either killed when young or sold in 
parts of Grujar&t. Horses, returned at 3488, are seldom more 
ponies in size. They are small and poor, stunted by bad keep 
careless breeding. Few of them are worth more than £2 (Bs. 20J. 
sheep and goats the 1876-77 returns show a total of 34,080 head, 
are fairly plentiful. In Jhfflod and H41ol they are generally 
', leggy, and bony with coarse wool. The western sheep show 
sicns of breeding, better built, fleshier, with fairly close fine 
The chief sheep and goat breeders are wandering herdsmen, 
ris, Bharvads, and E&malias. 

Chapter XL 




Digitized by VjOOQIC 

{Bomtey Gazetteefi 



Chapter n. 



Besides breeding, tliese men keep stores of clarified bntier^ and mab 
some profit from wool, either selling it, or working it into coane 
blankets or kdmlis. From tbe soath-west of tbe district there is 4 
small export of sheep to Baroda, and to Neemuch and Mhow from 
the north-west. Ck>ats are common. Bat most are the rongh MiA 
or red breed, of no great yalae as milkers. Their hair is mixed will 
sheep's wool in making blankets and in staffing pillows. Of camdf 
the 1876-77 retams show a total of 419. About the beginning of A| 
cold season, November, large herds of breeding camek are brongll 
from M&rw&r, kept in pasturage till June, and then taken bad % 
their own country. The breeders, M&rr&di Bab&ris, pay a gru3o| 
fee of two young camels. 

Asses, with a total strength of 1701, are bred 
district. As a rule all potters, kumhhdrs, and rice-huskers, golds, hd 
asses, the potters to carry earth and earthen pots, and the ne| 
buskers to carry CTain. They are treated with little care, and lefil 
pick up what fodder they can find. An average ass-load is abont 11 
pounds (4 mcms). Thev vary in price from 168. to £2 (Ba. I 
Bs. 20). The domestic fowls are hens and ducks. Hens are reaiq 
chiefly by Musalm&ns, Kolis, and Bhils, in all villages and Umti 
Ducks are also reared but only in small numbers. 1 

As late as the seventeenth century (1616 and 1645) the DoU 
forests were famous for their wild elephants.^ And twen^ years a 
though all traces of wild elephants had passed away, the Panch Ma 
and Bewa K&ntha districts were, besides of deer and other smal 
animals, a favourite resort of tigers, panthers, and bears. Fonni 
some extent over the whole district the lai^er sorts of game w< 
commonest in Godhra, in parts of H&lol, and along tihe westa 
borders of Dohad and Jh&loGL Their &vourite haunts were riyer4 
patches of bastard cypress, Tamarisk, and especially near Godhia 
caves and crevices of tne low boulder-covered granite hills. The iSk 
area was then small, and besides stray cattle a &ir stock of ntk 
small deer, and pig, and a chance spotted deer or stag fami^ 
plentiful supplies for the large beasts of prey. Their quiet was m 
disturbed, European sportsmen seldom visited the district, and fra 
the Bhils and Kolis, except on the rare occasion of some big hnntij 
party, the larger animals had little to fear. In 1860, when 1 
district came under British management, the forests were foil of] 
game, and during the next eight seasons from forty to seventy hi 
were yearly killed. In 1 865 the results of the year's shooting indnj 
twenty-two tigers, ten panthers, and thirfy-eight bears. Beai 
this destruction, two causes, the clearing of their former hanntas, I 
the shortening of their food supplies, have been at work to red) 
the number of big game. Tillage has steadily spread, and not 01 
the open glades, but many thick rich patches of wood on the hai 
of streams, where tigers used always to lie^ are now well gaasi 

^ In 1616 the emperor Jahin^^ (1605-1627) came to Gnjarit to hunt elephtfttH 
the Bohad forests and in 1645, seventy-three elephants were caoght in the Don 
and ChimpAner forests. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Ifd^ of tobacco and sugarcane. At the same time greater care in CShaptor H-* 
' _ cattle and the destruction of deer have cut down two of the Produetion* 
ief sources of their food supply. Tigers are gradually withdraw- asuuia. 
from their old haunts. Even in the thickest and safest covers a ip.^^ 

y animal is only occasionally found. Panthers wanting less food 
shelter give ground slower. But on them too the spread of 
j;e presses hard, and their numbers steadily drop ofE. Tha 
MgsA forests and the well-wooded country between P&v&gad and 
VB&riya still attract the largest game. But even when found, 
take shelter in caves and rocky fissures so deep that neither 
ike nor fireworks can drive them out. A sportsman willing to 
k will probably not leave altogether empty-handed. But blank 
will be the rule and success the exception. During the last 
years (1874-1877) not more than ten head of large game have 
an average been killed. Of Tigers^ vdgh, FeUs tigris, two wer& 
' in 1873, six in 1874, and three each in 1876 and 1877* The 
ither, dipdo, Felis leopardns, is still in considerable numbers* 
the shelter among the large granite rocks is so good, that once 
jg them panthers are very hard to dislodge. Two were shot ia 
6 and four in 1877. The Leopard, cJiita, Felis jubatus, less 
ion than the panther, is sometimes seen. The Black Bear, 
Ursus labiatus, is found in considerable numbers. Like 
AtherSfbears find suchgoodshelter among the granite rocks that they 
» not often killed. The Hyoena, ta^as, Hjoena striata ; the Jackal^ 
2, Canis aureus ; and the Fox, hkri, Yulpes bengalensis, are 
Bunon everywhere ; the Lynx, sidgosh, Felis caracal, and the Wild 
t, hdngad bilK, Felis chaus, are comparatively rare. The Wild Boar, 
fair, Sus indicus, is found everywhere in the forests. Of Deer 
ire are the sdmhar, Busa aristotelis, found only on the slopes o£ 
vi%ad hill; the Spotted Deer, chital, Axis maculatus, common in 
ftain parts of the district ; the four-homed Antelope, Tetraceros 
idrioomis, f onnd in most places, and the Gazelle, chikara, Gazella 
onetii^and Blue Bull, nilgai, Portax pictus^ common everywhere. 
le Antelope, Jcaliar, Antilope bezoartica, common over the rest of 
Qar&t is, perhaps because the country is not open enough, scarcely 
lar^ tovmd in the Panch Mah&ls» 

Of wfld birds there are of water birds the Black-backed Qoose, Birds. 

ba, Sarkidiomis melanonotus, the Cotton Teal, Nettapus coro- 
hndelicus ; the Widgeon, Mareca penelope ; the Pin Tailed Duck, 
ila acuta; the common Teal, Querquedula crecca; the Blue* 
IngedTeal, Querquedula circia; the Bed-Headed Pochard, Aythya 
ina; the White-eyed Duck, Aythya nyroca; the Tufted Duck, 
dignla cristata ; the Whistling Teal, Dendrocygna javanica (Horsf) ; 
B Shoveller, Spatula clypeata; and the Snake Bird^ Plotus 
Blanogaster. Of Cranes there are the sdraa crane, Grus antigone ; the 
mmon crane, Grus communis (Bechst) ; and the Demoiselle crane, 
itliropoides virgo. Of Snipe the Common Snipe, Gallinago 
JBolopacinus; the Pin Tailed Snipe, Gallinago sthenura; the Jack 

I Two, the first on reoord, were shot in 1878.^Mr. Aoworih. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

[BomlMky GaiittMri 



Chapter IL 




Snipe^ GuUinago galliniila ; and ike Painted Snipe^ Rhynchsa bengd- 
eosis. Of Storks the Adjutant Bird^ Leptoptiloa angala. Of Heroni 
the Parple Heron^ Ardeola porpnrea ; and the Pond Heron, Ardeok 
leacoptera. Of other water birds the Parple Coot, Vor^tsjw 
poIiocephalQs; the Bald Coot, Folica atra; and the Bittern, luui^ 
Botaoms stellaris* Of Plovers the Indian Courier Plover^ Cnisoriiis 
ooromandelicus ; and the Stone Plover^ .^dicnemus crepitans. 0( 
Partridges are the Painted PartridgeyFrracolinus pictus; andtheGrCT 
Partridge, Ortygomis ponticeriana. Of Quail are the Gi^Qoafl, 
Cotumiz oommunis ; the Bain Qnailj Cotumix Goromandelica; ilia 
Bock Bush Quail, Pmlicula argoonda ; both Button Quails, Tonucei 
Jondera and Dussumieri ; and the Bustard Quail, Turnix taigoox. Qt 
other birds there are the Common Sand Grouse, Pterocles exosbui 
and the Painted Sand Grouse, Pterocles fasciatus ; the PeacodE,FaYO 
cristatus ; the Bed Jungle Fowl, Gallus ferrugineus, a rare bird; tho 
Qrey Jungle Fowl, GaJlus sonneratii, common in Godhra; and Ad 
Bed Spur Fowl, Galloperdix spadiceus. 

Snakes are common in the Panch Mah£ls, especially in and netf 
Godhra. Four sorts are noticed as speciaUy dau^rons, theCotroi 
the Ohitla, the Kodya, and the T<m(ich Kot or Tyran, a ixee viper. 
The Chitla's bite, though not always fatal, causes rapid mortificalaoa 
in the part bitten^ and cases of men and animals crippled for lifolf 
a Ohitla bite are common. The Kodya, though very poisonous, is 
■aid to be not always fatal. The£b^ or Ta/nach is said to be vaj 
venomous. More than either snakes or vipers, the natives &ar As 
Otiera or biscobra. Any amount of evidence is forthcoming as to ite 
f earfuUy poisonous character. They admit it has no fangs, bnt 9f 
the poison Kes in the spittle. The number of deaths reported bm 
snake-bites was forty-three in 1872, forty-four in 1875, thirtj-nio^ 
in 1876, and sixty-four in 1877. In Gujar&t, Government rewaidi 
are granted for the destruction of the following animals : Tiger^ 
full grown, £2 88. (Bs. 24) ; half mown, £1 4«. ^. 12) ; cubs, IJ^ 
(Bs. 6) ; Leopards, Panthers, and Chit&s, full grown, £1 is. (Ba. 18)f 
half grown, 12*. (Bs. 6) ; cubs, 6«. (Bs. 3) ; Cobra de capello, 6i 
(4 annas) ; Phursa or Cobra Manilla, Zd. (2 annas) ; other specifll 
possessing a fang in the upper jaw, f d. (6 pies). 13ie animals ta 
identified and the rewards generally paid by the M&mlatd&r. 

The Mahi only touches a few of the western villages, and, as it li4 
no other river, the district is almost entirely without fish. A few all 
found in the larger ponds and reservoirs. But the supply is M 
small to support a separate claps of fishers* 

Digitized by 





SnrcK tlie faransfer to the Britdsh a oensns of the Panch Mah&Is 
Bas twice been taken. The first in 1855 showed a total population 
of 143^595 souls, the second in 1872 showed 240,743 soda or an 
increase in seventeen years of 67*65 per cent. Of tibe first census no 
details are available. At the time of tibie second census^ of the whole 
mimber of 240^743 sonls, 225 J75 or 93'78per cent, were Hindus, 
14,921 or 6*19 per cent, Musalm^iiiSy thirty Christians, and seventeen 

The following tabular statement ffives for the year 1872 details of 
{he population of each sub-division of the district according to religioUi 
age, and sex : 

Pamek MahdU SiUhdivMtm PopiOatkm, 187$. 

Chapter in* 


1866 and 1872. 



4 Sra-Mi 



12 yean. 

Above 12a&d 

not exceeding 


Above 80 years. 












••• ••• 

Totia .. 
••• ••• 

ToUl ... 
Total .. 

























WW ... 
Wnd ... 



























UM ... 
Doiad ^ 























gitized by 



[Bombay Gatttteer. 








Not ezoeedlDg 
IS yean. 

Above 18 and 


80 yean. 

Above 80 yean. 


























Ibtal ... 










Godhim ... ... 


Dohad ^ 














ToUl ... 










From the above statement it appears that the percentage of males 
on the total population was (1872) 52*46 and of females 47*53. 
Hindu males numbered 118^404 or 52*44 per cent^ and Hindu females 
numbered 1074371 or 47*55 peiicent of the total Hindu population ; 
Musalm&n males numbered 7866 or 52*72 per cent« and Musalmk 
females 7055 or 47*28 per cent of the total Musalm&ci population; 
P&rsi males numbered 12 or 70*56 per cent, and P&rsi females 5 or 
29*41 per cent of the total P&rsi population ; Christian males numbered 
22 or 73*88 per cent^ and Christian females 8 or 26*66 per cent 
of the total Cnristian population* 

The total number of infirm persons was returned at 996 (nudes 
558, females 438) or f orly-one per ten thousand of the total popuh^ 
tion. Of these 18 (males 14, females 4) or one per ten thousand were 
insanes ; 168 (males 88, females 70) or seven per ten tiionsand, idiots ; 
253 (males 164, females 89) or eleven per ten thousand, deaf and dmnb ; 
453 (males 205, females 248) or nineteen per ten thousand, blind; 
imd 114 (males 87, females 27) or five per ten thousand^ lepers. 

The following tabular statement gives the number of the members 
of eacb religious dass of the inhabitants according to sex at 
different ages, with, at each stage, the percentage on the total popi^ 
lation of the same sex and religion. The columns referring to the 
total population discard the distinction of religion^ but retain the 
difference of sex : 

1 Bom. QoY. SeL XXTTT, 859. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Paneh MahdU Populaiion by Age, 187f. 





Between 1 and 6 . 

J>o. 6 and 12 . 

Do. 12 and 20 . 

Do. 20 and 80 . 

Do. SO and 40 . 

Do. 40 and 80 . 

Do. 60 and 60 . 
Above 60 ... 






























Chapter nL 












Up to 1 jBsr.,. 
Between 1 and 6 ,. 
Do. 6 ^d 12 .. 
13 Mid lu „ 

aaiuidso .. 

m and W .. 
40 and Ml .. 



.Above 60 









75 W 







40 00 

















1 8 33 






12 49 




The Hjndn population of tlie district "belongs^ according to the 
1872 census, to the following sects :— 

Ptmck MaJi^ Emdu 8ecU, l^i. 




























Digitized by VjOOQIC _^- 

(Bombay Oaxettocr, 

Chapter nL 








From this statement it wonld aeem^ that of the total 'Smk 

gopolation, the Vaishnays nnmbered 11^205 or 4*96 per oent; i^ 
haiYS 6890 or 2*83 per cent ; the Shrfivaks 916 or 0*40 per cent; 
the nnsectarian classes 207^264 or 91*80 per cent. 

The Mnsalm&n population belonged to two sects, Smmi and Shia; 
the former nnmbered 11,631 sotds or 77*95 per cent of the total 
Mnaalm&n population ; and the latter including the Surat or Dindi 
trading Bohor4s 8290 souls or 22*05 per cent The seventeen Finis 

According to occupation the census returns for 1872 dmde HkB 
whole population into seven classes : 

L— 'Employed under QoTemment, or nranieipal, or other local anthoriiiMt 
numbering in all 3309 soula or 1*37 per oant of the entire popolAtkin. 
n.— Professional persons, 1049 or 0*48 per oeni 
IIL— In serrioe or performing personal offioe8> 1985 or 0'82 per cent. 
iy.--Engaged In agriculture and with animals^ 55,047^ or 22*86 percent 
V.^Engaged in oommeroe and trade, 2991 or 1*24 per cant. 
YI.— Employed in mechanioal aits, manufactures, and engineering opentiom^ 
and engaged in the sale of articles manufactured or otherwise ptqisrai 
for consumption, 12,523 or 5*20 per cent 
VII.— Misoellaneous persons not daaaed otherwise (a) wives 35,482, aad 
children 96,984^ in all 132,476 or 67*49 per cent; and (() misoeUsneois 
persons, 1363 or 0*56 per cent ; total 163,839 or 68^ per cent 

The general chapter on the population of Gujar&t includes sack ; 
information as is available regarding the origin and castoms of the ^ 
Panch Mahils people. The f ollowmg detaSs show the strengUi dtji 
the different castes and races as far as it was ascertained 1^ tbt^ 
1872 census. | 

Of Br^SunanSj exclusive of sub-divisions^ were thirty divisioxtf^ 
with a strength of 5957 souls (males 3194^ females 2768) or 2*6$ ] 
per cent of the total Hindu population. The chief classes am \ 
Shrigaud (1838), Audich (1264), Mev^ida (859), Modh (486), and I 
N^igar (218). Except the N^ars of whom many are holders d\ 
alienated land and recipients of cash allowances, the majorit7 of ^ 
Br&hmans live on alms. Some are peasants and a few are GoTem- , 
ment servants. The Deccan Br£hmans who, under H. H. Sindia'f , 
government held high positions numbered 222 souls. | 

Of Writers there were two classes, Brahma Eshatris (27), anl | 
Farbhus (89), with a strength of 66 souls (males 54, females 12) orfrll 
per cent of tihe total Hindu population. The Brahma Ejahatris are j 
employed in Government offices. New comers brought by fbsj 
British at the time of the trandFer of the district, they keep m 
houses in Broach and other parts of Gujar&t and are not yet regulai^^ 
settled in the district The Farbhus are all K&yasth Farbhus of; 
the Deccan districts chiefly in the service of Govemmotit. They ait . 
said to have come into the district during the government of H. H»^ 

Of Mercantile, Trading, and Shop-keeping classes, were 
V&ni&i belonging to sixteen divisions, 295 HirYidi Sbi&vska d two 

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divisions, 621 Gajar&ti Shrivaks of two divisions, and 59 Bh&tiiid, 
a total strength of 7663 souls (males 4124, females 3539) or 339 
per cent of the total Hindu population. In a district inhabited 
chiefly by the unsettled classes, the Y&ni&a have many chances of 
making money. A considerable number of Bhils, Kolis, Ndikdas^ 
and other poor classes are wholly dependent on their Y&nia and 
Slir^vak money lenders. 

Of Coltiyators, besides the Bhils and N&ikd^, were seven classes 
with a total strength of 102,925 souls (males 54,604, females 48,:321) 
(ff 45*58 per cent of the whole Hindu population. Of these 5112 
(males 28 19, females 2293) were Kanbis ; 5347 (males 2809, females 
.2538) Bajputs; 928 (males 533, females 395) E^chhiUs; 957 (males 
504, females 453) UOis; 1030 (males 535, females 495) B&vals; 
11,389 (males 5840, females 5549) Pateliy&s; and 78,162 (males 
41,564, females 36,598) KoUs. The Kanbis and K&ohbi&s found 
chiefly in the west are said to have come from Baroda and Eaira. They 
are skilled husbandmen. The Rajputs though as cultivators inferior 
to Kanbis are steadily applying themselves to agriculture. The 
Mflis and Bavals are superior to Koli cultivators. The Pateliy&s found 
in Dohad claim Rajput descent. Originally settled near P&v4gad 
tiiey are said to have moved from Gh&mp&ner. And as among 
Ihem were more men than women they intermarried with the Bhiia 
lif Gangdi. Hence they were called vatdliyds or the impure, a name 
^hich has been gradually corrupted into Pateliy&s. The Kolis are 
Ipand in the west. Of the whole number 75,738 were Talabdds, 
iinety-four Bariy&s, 655 Pdtanvddids, 1330 Lun&v6difc, eighty 
jEhint, and 207 were not classed. Strong and active in body, their 
iant of forethought and love of opium combine to give the money- 
lenders the benefit of most of their labour. 

Of Manufacturers there were three classes, with a total strength of 
7l8 souls (males 399 females 319) or 0*32 per cent of the total 
^nda population. Of these 590 (males 320, females 270) were 
Qbincliis, oilpressers ; 82 (males 53, females 29) Bh&vs&rs, calico 
|imters ; 46 (males 26, females 20) Chhip&s, calenders. 

Of Artisans there were nine classes, with a total strength of 6134 
pmls (males 3194, females 2940) or 2*71 per cent of the total Hindu 
population. Of these 608 (males 315, females 293) were Sonis, gold 
iKid silver smiths ; 1020 (males 534, females 486) Suth&rs, carpenters ; 
|i (males 4, females none) Kans&r&s, coppersmiths; 110 (males 58^ 
lemales 52) Kadiy^, bricklayers ; 29 (males 20, females 9) SaUts, 
iBiasons; 1650 (males 866, females 784) Luh^rs, blacksmiths^ 62 
hsales 32, females 30) Laldi&rds, makers of lac bangles; 757 (males 
^, females 369) Darjis, tailors ; and 1894 (males 977, females 917) 
Kambh&rs, potters. 

[ Of Bards there were two classes, with a total strength of 1091 
loiils, or 0*48 per cent of the whole EKndu population. Of 
Ihese 139 (males 73, females 66) were Bh&ts, bards ; and 952 (maloB 
515, females 437) Ch&rans, genealogists. The Bh&ts and Gbarans 
Ittye lost their former special position and maintain themselves 
chiefly as husbandmen, and cultivators. 

B 167— 28 

Chapter HL 




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[Bombay OttetlMr« 









Of Personal Servants there were twodasses, with a total streDgQi 
of 1885 souls or 0*88 per cent of the total Hindu population. Of 
these 1721 (males 902, females 819) were Haj&ms^ oarbeis; 164 
(males 79, females 85) Dhobhis, washermen. 

Of Herdsmen and Shepherds there were three classes, with a tolal 
strength of 2854 souls or 1*26 per cent of the total Hindu popula- 
tion. Of these 1736 (males 930, females 806) were BharF&ds; 1102 
(males 613» females 489) Rabins ; and 16 (males 15, and female 1) 
Ahirs. They support themselves by the aeJe of sheep, wool, and 
clarified butter ; the sheep they sell to Musalmin traders, the irool 
they sell to K&malite or blanket weavers, and the clarified butter, ghi^ 
to y&ni&s. The Bab&ris own cows and buffaloes and to a small 
extent cultivate. 

Of Fishers and Sailors there were two classes with a total strengik 
of 2228 souls (males 1190, females 1038) or 0*98 per cent of tha 
whole Hindu population. Of these 858 (males 468, females 390) 
were Bhois, and 1370 (males 722, females 648) M&chhis. Bhois $xA 
M&chhis are found chiefly in Godhra. Besides fishing they till land 
and act as ferrymen across the Mahi. The Bhois also grow shingodif 
Trapa bispinosa, in the beds of ponds. 

Of Labourers and Miscellaneous Workers there were eleven dasae^ 
with a total strength of 6842 souls (males 3832, females 3010) or 
3*03 per cent of the whole Hindu population. Of these 191 (males 
104, females 87) were GoUs, ricepounders ; 311 (males 206, femaki 
105) Ealdls, liquorseUers and labourers ; 286 (males 1 78, females 10^ 
Mar&thlM of several castes from the Deccan employed chiefly as 
servants ; 75 (males 40, females 35) Y&ghris, fowlers and hontecsj! 
1621 (males 850, females 771) R&valias, cotton-tapemakers ani 
labourers; 27 (males 18, females 9) Bh&dbhunjfe, grain pardienf 
191 (males 99, females 92) K&mali&s, makers of blankets, HmU^ 
1950 (males 1212, females 738) Vanjlo^; 1835 (males 929, fenaki 
906) Lub&n&s; 268 (males 144, females 124) Ods, d^gers-tt^ 
87 (males 52, females 35) B4vch&s apparently of Deccan origii^| 
labourers. The Yanjdr&s, whose carrying trade has suffered by tbi 
introduction of railways, are to a pretty large extent, eepedally iiaj 
the Marva quarter of the Godhra sub-division, beginning to settle i 
cultivators and day labourers. They live in separate huts not ' 
villages, and though poor and wanting in skill are quiet and or~ 
The Lub&n&s are found in Dohad. Formerly rulers of iimh 
about twenty miles from Dohad they are said to have been < 
and driven out by the B&thod Rajputs. Besides tilling the i 
they act as carriers taking grain from Dohad and bringing bade i 

Of Unsettled Tribes there were three, with a total Btrengik 
75,492 souls (males 38,388, females 37,104) or 33*43 per oenft 
the total Hindu population. Of these 69,222 (males 35,0 
females 34,136) were Bhils; 6118 (males 3186, femaleB 
Nihikd&s ; and 162 (males 116, females 36) Tal&vi&. 

The Bhils are generally very dark in colour, the men muscilinj 
well built, and of a medium height, the women well made bat wiW 
coarse irregular features. Among the men, except the top knol^ 

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the bair of ihe head thongh sometiineB cat short is as a rule worn 
bug. The monstache is worn by all, whiskers by some and in most 
cases the chin is shaved. The women fasten their hair in braids or 
plaits bronght low down over each temple. The Bhils have no 
village site or groap of houses. Each man lives in his field. The 
Bhil's hat is usoally built of bamboo wattled between supporting 
eolomns of wood and strongly plastered with grass ana mud. 
The roof is sometimes tiled but more commonly thatched. The 
lut divided inside into two rooms is surrounded by a catt1e-> 
ahed, a threshing floor, and a small yard for stacking grain and 
fodder. The whole enclosed by a strong high creeper-covered 
iBQce has a home-like and comfortable air. Of household goods the 
stock is small. Outside may be seen, if the family is well-to-do, a 
pair or two of bullocks, or a bullock and a buffalo, a cow, or two 
goats, and a number of fowls, a cart, and of field tools, a plough, a 
Heeder, kharpi, and a crowbar or ploughshare, koddli. But most Bhils 
lave no carts and some of them nave no catlle. In the hut besides 
Hie sleeping mat, the hand grindstone, and a roll of blanket or torn 
toverlet, there is nothing but some bamboo baskets and a few pots 
and cops most of them of clay. 

The BhiVs every day dress is a cloth wound round the loins and a 

bug strip twisted round the head. In the rains and cold weather 

*.%d carries a thick coarse gray blanket. The women commonly 

■*TBS in a large petticoat, ghagra, passed between the legs and 

;ked into the waist band before and behind. They also wear the 

lioe, and where they can afford it a large sddi wrapped round 

body and brought over the head. They tattoo their faces, and 

make room for their ornaments, pierce and slash their ears and 

till they are unpleasant to look at. Bracelets of tin or brass 

^over the arm from the wrist to the elbow and others of glass or lac 

sometimes worn between the elbow and the shoulder. On their 

women of good family wear just below the knees a ring with 

II bells or rattles. Their broad brass anklets worn in tiers from 

ankle to the knee weigh altogether about ten pounds and are so 

QQsy that the women at work in the fields have to stoop instead 

sitting down. In the hot season they bum the wearer's skin and 

ihs. If she can afford it she usually wears a silver chain on each 

le of the head, fastened round the ear and hooked into the braid 

the temple so as to hang over the cheek. 

The every day food of a well-to-do Bhil is rice, cooked with salt 

~ mixed in buttermilk, and of an ordinary Bhil, Indian com and 

termilk boiled with pepper pods and sometimes split peas mixed 

ith vegetables. Except the ass, horse, camel, rat, snake, monkey, and 

women the vntch-loved domestic fowl, the Bhils eat all animals. 

the hot weather months the poorer classes live chiefly on 

s, and on rayan, and mahuda berries. Most are peasants, some 

^ them tilling regularly, though roughly, the same fields ; others are 

Schangmg their houses and lands, and a few wander among the 
and Uve by wood-ash tillage. Fifty years ago there were 
daily complaints of their di^g aggressions.^ Though they 

' " I Bom. Gov. Sd. XXIIL 32L 

Chapter m. 





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[Bombay GfUEelte. 



Chapter UL 





are still poor and somewhat unsettled they are not as a class given 
to serious crime. Fift^ years ago the Bhils ne^er approachiBd a 
town except to attack it. Now the streets of Dohad are crowded 
with Bhils trafficking with grain dealers^ crowding round the money- 
lender's door^ mixing with the people^ making purchases, chatting 
with their friends and selling grain, vegetables, wood, and grass. 
Nine-tenths of the raw produce of Dohad is sown, tended, and reaped 
by Bhils. Many are sunk in debt. But they are no longer a tnbe 
of outcast robbers. Among Hindus, though not considered one of 
the classes whose touch defiles, the Bhil holds a very low place. 
He eats food cooked by a Musalm&n and no high caste Bindn inll 
take water from his hands. 

Except the female deities known as mdta or devi, Bhils do not 
worship the ordinary Br&hman gods. They reverence the moon and 
swear by it and believe in witches and in the evil eye. Their cliief 
objects of worship are spirits and ghosts. To these in the forests near 
an old tree, or often at some chance spot, they offer clay horses, im, 
and beehive-shaped vessels. In honour of the spirits in most oiwese 
spirit-yards they also raise beams of timber, sometimes as mnchaa 
twelve feet long poised on two uprights in the form of a rough 
seat. Here they offer a goat and a cock ; numbers of Bhils coming 
together to eat the sacrifice and drink. Br4hmans are not held in 
special respect. B&vals who originally belonged to the Bh£t class sci 
as their sacrificial priests. There is generally one B&val's family in 
every BIul settlement, who, though they eat and drink with the 
Bhils, marry only among themselves. Among the Bhils are devotee% 
bhagats, and exorcists, barvdsy who leaving ti^eir families give them* 
selves up to a religious life. These men are much resorted to for 
their power over ghosts and spirits. The animal they hold in moat 
veneration is the horse. Their chief observances are in honour of the 
dead. Their only regular Hindu festivals are Hoh (March), Dasera 
(September) and DivSli (October). They fast twice in the year oft 
Ph&gan sud 11 (March) and at the Holi (March). 

In the life of a Bhil are four chief ceremonies, naming, shavings 
marriage, and death. Five days after a birth the child and mother 
are bathed and the child is named. Between two and five years (M 
the child's head is shaved. The child's aunt takes the hair in her bp 
and wrapping it in her clothes receives a cow, buffialo, or other 
present rrom the child's father. A well-to-do Bhil generally geli: 
his son married at fourteen or fifteen and his daughter before she ii! 
twelve. But, as a rule, marriage seldom takes place before the hcfj ^ 
twenty and the girl fifteen. The choice is ma^ by the relations ofj 
the bride and bridegroom. In the morning of the marriage day di{ 
bride and bridegroom, each at their own homes, are rubbed wifti 
yellow turmeric powder. The bridegroom is bathed and has hil| 
eyes and cheeks marked with soot. He wears a turban, a loogeoil 
of country cloth, a waist cloth or dhotar, and a sword. The par^ 
starts with drums and cymbals to the bride's village. The women 
follow singing. On reaching the bride's house the bridegroom's 
friends are seated on one side of a mdndva or booth built in bimt 
of the door. The btide is then led in by her mother and seated 

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opposite the bridegrcK)m. Their hands are joined and the hems of 
their garments tied. Then while three women sing songs the bride 
and bridegroom walk together twelve times round a branch of the 
salyara tree placed in the middle of the booth. When this is over 
the bride and bridegroom feed each other with wheaten bread and 
molasses. Then the knot is unloosed and after the party has taken 
a meal the garments of the bride and bridegroom are again tied and 
the bridegroom taking the bride with him returns to his house. 
The marriage expenses vary in the case of the bridegroom from 
18 to £14 (Rs. 80- Rs. 140) and in the case of the bride from lOs. to 
£1 10«. (Rs. 5-Rs. 15). A man may marry a second or a third wife 
in the lifetime of the first. A woman marries again, not only if her 
husband dies but if she gets tired of him, and can bring another 
man to take her and pay her husband his marriage expenses. The 
children, if there are any, stay with the father. A Bhil youth and 
girl anxious to marry but unable to find the necessary £7 (Rs. 70) 
or so, not uncommonly arrange that he should carry her off on her 
way to or from some &ir or wedding feast. She then lives with him 
as his wife, and when her parents come in pursuit, an agreement is 
made for paying the dowry by instalments, or in some other way 
suited to the bridegroom's means. 

When life is gone, the relations, bathing the body, place a waist 
doth, dhota/r, over it, and laying it on a rough bamboo bier carry 
;it to the burning ground. The son or other nearest relation of 
^ihe deceased sets the pyre alight all round. When the body is half 
Jmmt the mourners bathe and returning to the deceased's house 
smoke tobacco for a short time, and after saluting each other 
go home. As soon as the deceased's family can raise enough money 
Sie anniversary day is held when much liquor is drunk. If the 
deceased was a man of importance, a year or two after his death his 
^relations go to a stone mason and make him cut on a stone slab the 
Jgore of a man on horseback with a spear in his hand. When his 
task is done the mason is paid by the gift of a cow or she-buffalo. 
The stone is washed, daubed with red powder, covered with a white 
^oth, and taken to the village spirit-yard or devasthdn. There a goat 
is killed, its blood sprinkled on the stone, and its flesh cooked and 
I eaten with as much liquor as the party can afford. 

When there is a great want of rain the women and girls go out 
Amcing and singing with bows and arrows and seizing a buffalo 
belonging to another village sacrifice it to the goddess Kj6ii. The 
headman of the village whose buffalo is taken seldom interferes. If 
he does the women abusing him and threatening to shoot him almost 
jlJways have their own way. 

' Among the Bhils are many tribes or clans, some of them claiming 
» Rajput descent and bearing such names as Makv&na, R&thod, and 
Parmar. Members of the different clans live in the same village 
and intermarry. Each clan has its own head or tdd/uddi distinct from 
the Government patel. In each clan disputes are settled by a 
fonehdyat or council of five Bhils. This council settles mandage 
disputes^ punishes breaches of caste rules, and when the offender is 
penitent fixes the amount of the atonement fine. The parties interested 

Chapter m. 



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Dombaj GuBtftnri 



in the dispute entertain the members of the pcmehdyai with liqaor. 
A man is put out of caste if he behaves improperly with the wife of a 
relation. But if a nephew has intercourse with his father's msteror a 
younger brother with his elder brother's wife, it is thought no hh 
A man who has intercourse with his younger brother's wife is put oat 
of caste. The other Bhils do not eat, drink, or smoke with hin. H 
he begs for pardon some of the leading Bhils of his village call two ^ 
or three men of a sect called Yasoya and cause him to give them 
a present of from 10«. to £1 (Rs. 5- Rs. 10). If the Vasoja alloirs 
him to drink or smoke with him the ofEender is let back into the 
caste. The Bhils have no games; drinking is their great amnaement. 
They sometimes play a bamboo luta But the chief musical instni- 
ment is the drum beaten at varying rates according as the occasum 
is sad or joyful. A string instrument of the siUir order made of 
half a gourd with a bamboo handle and a single wire string is alao 
sometimes used. Though still careless and poor, the Bhils have 
made a considerable advance under the British Government. At the 
end of 1877 twenty-six of their boys were attending school.^ 

ITa'ikda'8 numbering 5966 souls are found only in the wildest 
parts of the Panch Mahfils and Rewa E&ntha. Of their ori^ 
two stories are told. One that their ancestors were grooms to the 
M usalm&n nobles and merchants of Ch&mp4ner, who took to the woods 
on the decay of that city towards the close of the sixteenth centoiy. 
The other states that they are descended from an escort sent ^ 
the R&ia of B^l^ to the R&ja of Champ&ner. The N^d^ are 
generally small in stature, thin and wiry. They can endure a great 
deal of fatigue, are remarkablv active, and are not wanting in coarag& 
They are black in colour with dark eyes, square £aces, and iir^nlai 
features. Among both men and women Uie hair is worn rough and 
lon^. Their dwelling is a hut, the frame of rough timber, the walla of 
reeds and bamboo, generally plastered with co wdung and clay, the roof 
peaked and, except a few that are tiled, thatched with grass and 
dried teak or palm leaves. The house is divided into two partly 
one for the cattle, the other for the family. In front is a platfom 
where grass is stored and mahvda flowers and ears of Indian com 
are laid to dry. The property of a Niikda family is small. Of 
farm stock, sometimes a few cattle and generally a goat or two and 
some fowls. Of field tools, a few have a plough, tiie rest only as 
axe and a hoe. Of house furniture, there is a rough stone hand mil^ 
a long wooden pestle, and in the ground a small wood or stoM 
mortar, and some clay pots. Except the chiefs and a few othera ii 
ffood circumstances who dress like Rajputs or Eolis, the men wears 
few yards of dirty ragged cloth round the loins and a seoxid dotk 
round the brow showing at the crown the disordered ruffled hair. The 
women wear over the shoulders a robe or sddi of a dark blue or red 
colour, a petticoat, and sometimes a bodice. 

1 Mo«t of the materiala for the Bhil and N^kdA aeconnto h^ye heen cMtoti 
from W. B. Presoott, Esq. , Superintendent of Police, Panch Mahila, and Bio BiUte 
Nandahankar, Awigfamt rolitio«l Agent^ Bewa KinthSk 

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Except tin and brass earrings the men wear no ornaments. The 
women wear tin earrings, necklaces of beads or shells, and brass bangles 
and armlets in shape and make, except that they wear only one 
instead of many tiers, much like those worn by Bhil women. 

Their chief food is Indian com gmel ; the well-to-do sometimes 
using coarse rice or the poorer panics. Except the ass, crow, and 
snake, few forms of flesh are forbidden the Ndikda. They eat large 
black ants, squirrels, and even dead animals, and work such 
mischief among inonkeys, or as they call them tree sheep, that even 
in large towns the sight of a N&ikda is said to be enough to frighten 
off the monkeys. For months in each year, their stock of grain 
done, most of them live on wild fruits and roots. They are much 
given to mahuda spirits, and at their festivals drink to excess. 

The N&ikd&9 are labourers and wood-cutters. A few have bullocks 
and ploughs and till fixed fields. But with most theirs is only the 
roagh wandering hill-side tilla^e^ burning brushwood and among the 
ashes sowing the coarser pamcs. When the seed comes up, the 
Niikda raises in the middle of the clearing a rude platform on four 
poets and on this stays night and day watching the crop. Besides 
ealtivatin^ they gather the flower and berries of the mahuda tree, 
some medicinal roots and barks, gum, lac, honey, and wax. As wood- 
catters they are either hired by forest officers or by large landholders^ 
or ofibener themselves cut timber and bring it for sale to Qodhra and 
Dther markets. In almost every part of the work their women help 
(hem and they seldom leave the aistrict in search of employment. 

In 1818 when they first came under British authority, the N&ikdfti 

had the worst possible name for savage cruelty. In 1826 they were 

Baid^ ' to exceed the Bhils in their predatory and lawless habits, in 

. iheir cruelty, bloodthirstiness, and love of independence, and in the 

' total disregard of all the customs and usages of social life.' Their 

chiefis used to organize forays, and engage Sidis and Makr&nis to 

help them. Numbers of cattle were collected and kept in the hills 

; until ransomed. The proceeds of the raid were then distributed 

among aU who had taken a part in it. In 1838 their depredations 

became so daring that a force had to be sent against them. For 

; some years they were more orderly. But in 1854 they were still a 

, peculiarly savage and predatory class living in the most remote and 

impervious forests. In 1868 the N&ikd&s were stirred up to rebellion 

I hy one of their holy men or hhagaU. A force of over a thousand 

i (1066) foot and horse with nine European officers' was sent against 

I -them. At the beginning of the campaign their leader, whom it was 

believed no bullet could harm, was fortunately shot, and the rising 

Ciapter IIL 




, ^ BoDL. QoT. SeL XXIII. 189, 162. <May the NAikdis aeiteyoa' ustm a ommnon 
imprecatioa among buUock drivers. 

' The detaik were : of foot^ of the 26tii Beghnent N. L three Enropean offloen and 
SSOmen; of the 6th Begiment N. L three European officers and 900 men ; of the 
•ISfch Begiiment N. L three Buiopean officers and 191 men; of the Gojar4t Bhll corps 
• ; of the GkUkwir's Axabs 100 ; and of the LunAy^ida MakiAnis 25. Of horse thel« 
^tteef the Poona Horse one Bisildibr and ten troopers, of the Giikw&r's monnted 
police 100 ; and 31 of the Panch Mah^ Eair% and Ahmedabad mooated p^liee. 

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[Bombay Qajetter 






was at An end. Since then the tribe has remained qniet and doiiog 
the last two years (1875-1877) has been ahnost free from crime. lAzy, 
thriftless^ and fond of drink^ the N4ikd& are poor, most of them soii 
in debt. The yearly income of a Ndikda fiunily may beestimatedat 
from £6 to £10 (Bs. 60 -Bs. 100) and their monthly expenses at 
from 10^. to 149. (Rs. 5-Bs. 7). Though they eat carrion and 
rank among the very lowest classes^ their touch ihongh avoided ia 
not held to cause pollution. Except the Bariya N&U:d&s, they ea4 
with Musalm&ns but not with Dheds or Bhangids. Naikd& show 
no respect to Brdhmans/ and care little for Br^manic rites, bs^ 
or feasts. Beyond, if tiiey can afiford it, giving a dinner in thdr 
honour they perform no ancestral or ahrddh ceremonies. Excepl 
that they sometimes pour oil over B^numdn, and, though they are not 
allowed to enter her temple worship the mother or M^ta on Pavigad 
hill and at other local fairs, the objects of their worship are spirits and 
ghosts. They show no respect for the Muhanomadan religion and 
neither worship nor make offerings at Muhammadan shrmes. Ia 
honour of spirits whom they invoke by various &ntastic name^ 
they fix teak posts in the ground, roughly hacking them at the top 
into something like a human face. Over these posts they smear 
cow's milk or red lead, and round them set rows of small ch; 
horses. The ceremonies are conducted by Koli priests or pujirkt 
who while the worship is going on keep the Naikdiis at a dist&noa. 

Marriage and death are among Niikd&s the only occasions of cere- 
mony. The age for marriage, both among boys and girls, is froni 
eighteen to twenty. To arrange a marriage tiie boy*s jEeither goes to \k» 
father of the girl and asks him if he will give his daughter in marriagA 
If he agrees, the boy's father pays him from is, to 10«. (Es. 2-Bs.SJ 
and leaves. He then, with some friends, bringing a rupee's worth <{; 
molasses comes back. He places some mola^es in the girl's hant 
laying on it a rupee, and a hsif or a quarter anna coin. Of the rest ot 
the molasses half and sometimes the whole is given to the friends of tk: 
girl. The wedding day is fixed by the Ndikdfis after examining tb 
stars. On the appointed day a booth of fresh leaves is built in frooi 
of the bride's house. In the afternoon with horns, drums, and cymhal% 
the bridegroom, with his parents and a number of relations and friend^ 
comes to the bride's £gtther's house. The boy^^ father pays the gii{l^ 
father from £1 10s. to £5 (Rs. 15- Rs. 50), and the two fsLmilies dim 
together, the bride's father furnishing liquor and the bridegroom'l; 
party bringing their own food. After dinner the bride and hridftH 
groom are seated face to face in the square, or chori, in the centie Jt^ 
the booth, and by two old men, ooe from each family, called for tfa 
occasion priests or pujd/ris, have their hands joined and their akiil^ 
tied. Then a sheet is thrown over their heads, and the old n^ 
ive them some balls of flour and molasses. When each has twiftfi 
ed the other, the cloth is drawn away and the marriage is o^ 


^ The oommon belief, sayg Mr. Nandahankar, is that they hold the IdUing flit 
Br&hman to be an act of merit. Referring to the feast on the thirteenth day afitf 
death their proverb says, by the death of one Txlvan or tilu^ brow-maiky fnu&t i 
hundred are fed. 

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Then every one drinks as much liquor as he can, drums and cymbals Chaptor IK 

strike up, and all ends in a dance, the men and women dancing by Ponnlatim. 

themselyes. In many cases there is no ceremony of this kind. If a 

girl reaches the age of sixteen and her parents have not betrothed her^ NAikdis. 

she may go and live with any man she chooses, and if be agrees to 

pay her parents from £1 12s. to £5 (Rs. 16 -Bs. 50) no objection is 

raised. Again^ if a woman deserts her husband and goes to live with 

another man he pays the husband from £1 12«. to £6 (Rs. 16-Rs. 60). 

If the husband agrees to give up his wife, he is paid nothing. A 

iridow may marry again. On such occasions there is no ceremony. The 

husband presents her with a new petticoat, bodice^ and robe. He 

comes to ner house and takes her away with him. But this must be 

done at night, for it is the common belief that if a widow is married 

in the day time the village will be burnt down. A man may have at 

the same time more than one wife. The N&ikd& do not intermarry 

with any other caste. But if a Eoli woman lives with a N&ikda, or 

a Koli with a Niikda woman, they are admitted into the N&ikda caste. 

The N&ikd&s bum their dead usually at a place some distance from 

their village. The corpse, wrapped in cloth, is laid on a bamboo 

Ker and carried by men of the tribe, or in a cart, to the burning 

ground. When the pyre is ready, it is kindled by the deceased's 

nearest male relation. Nine days after the burning of the body 

the nearest relations go to the burning place and gathering the ashes 

into a heap, place on it an earthen jar full of water. On their 

^ letum home, the relations of the deceased shave their heads and 

'laces. On the same day, the person who lighted the funeral pyre 

'iDooksrice at his house. Placing this on a plate made of four leaves 

rftf the hhdkh/ra or Butea frondosa tree, he pours a little butter over 

:k and then sets fire to it. Some more of the grain, laid on five 

Mi plates, is sprinkled with butter and given to chUdren to eat. On 

iihe twelfth day, the family of the deceased make ready rice or panic, 

tira, and Indian-corn gruel, with, if they can afford it, a little 
tter, and call those who were at the funeral, or if they are rich 
['enough, they ask the whole village. The guests do not all meet at 
I me time. They come when they like, and taking their share of the 
Ibod either eat it on the spot or take it with them to their homes. 
Among the N4ikd6s authority and power is centred in four chiefs. 
^ these one lives at Sivr&jpur in H&lol ; a second at Gondola in the 
rirdepur state; ^ third at Sdgtdla in the B&riya state; and a fourth 
[at Dandi4pura under J^mbughoda. At a moment's notice these men 
iDOold between them raise the whole tribe of N&ikd£s. Except for eating 
;^th a Dhed, Cham&r, or Bhangi, a Naikda would not be put out of 
caste. In such a case he would not be re-admitted unless he gave 
ft dinner to his caste-men. During the last fifty years the N&ikd&i 
iave, as a class, made a great advance towards orderly habits. At 
^^mbughoda and at S&gt&la in B&riya a few of them have, since 
1869, sent their boys to school, and two sons of the saint, or bhagat, 
Ranged in 1868 enlisted in the Gujar&t Bhil corps in 1870 and are 
doing weU. 

Of workers in leather there were two classes, with a total strength Leather 
of 3097 souls (males 1643, females 1454) or 1*37 per cent of the Worken. 
B 167—29 

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total Hinda population. Of these 1160 (tnaleB 622, females 538) 
were Mochis^ shoemakers, and 1937 (males 1021, females 916) wen 
Eh&lplis, tanners. 

Besides the Kh&p&s there were three depressed classes, witL s 
total strength of 7882 souls (males 4151, females 3731) or 3*49 per 
cent of the whole Hindu population. Of these 575 (males 293, 
females 282) were GarudAs, pnests to the Dheds; 4422 (males 2348^ 
females 2074) Dheds, sweepers and carriers of dead animals; and 
. 2885 (males 1510, females 1375) Bhangi&i, scavengers. 

Devotees and religious mendicants of various names, Brahoa- 
ch&ris, Vair&gis, Gos&is, and S&dhus, numbered 941 (males 504, 
females 437) or 0*41 per cent of the entire Hindu population. 

In its Musalm&n inhabitants Panch Mah&Is stand the last of the 
British districts of Gujar&t, with 14,921 souls or 6*19 per cent of tk 
district population. Of their whole number 7213 were in 1872 
returned as settled in the towns of Grodhra, 4226 in Dohad, 166S 
in Eflol, nil in Jh&lod, and 708 in H&lol. Exclusive of 4537 females 
and 5325 children, in all 9862 or 66*09 per cent of the whole tta 
male adult Musalm&n population (5059) were in 1872 employed m 
follows : In Qovemment or other public service 512 ; in professkna 
213 ; in personal service 553 ; in agriculture 1027 ; in trade 1024; 
in mechanical arts and manufactures 1563; and in miscellaneooB 
callings 167. In addition to the four main divisions, Syeds, ShaiUa» 
Path&ns and Moghals, numbering altogether 4621 souls or about 
one- third of the whole, there are several classes almost all of then 
descendants of converted Hindus. Of these the Gh&nchis aal 
Bohor&s are the most important. The Gh&nchis or oilmen known ai 
Oh&nchi Bohords numbering 4461 souls and found chiefly in Hb 
Grodhra sub-division were originally Hindus, probably of the Ghindia 
caste. They claim to be the followers of a certain Mansur, and ai» 
said to abhor all other Musulm&ns and to be well inclined towardi 
Hindus. They had formerly the entire command of the carrying trade 
through the Panch Mahkls, travelling east as far as Ratl4m aal 
Indor and west to Ahmedabad, Broach, and Surat. Since ths 
opening of the P41i branch of the Bombay and Baroda railway thef 
go no further than between Central India and P&li. The change hM 
interfered greatly with their former occupation. Near Grodhra sereid 
of the Gh&nchis have begun to settle down as cultivators. Tlsi 
Shia Bohor&s number 3126 souls, 2343 of them of the D&udi aal 
783 of the Sulem&ni sects. They live in towns and carry on a laige 
trade in grain and other articles. Am a class they are well-to-da 

Of the total P&rsi population of seventeen souls, eight wM 
settled in the Godhra sub-division, two in Dohad, four in Eild, aal 
three in H41ol. Exclusive of five women and one child, the addl 
male population were employed in 1872 as clerks in OoTermneiit 
offices and engaged in liquor and other trades. 

Of the twenty-four Christians, six were European officers and most 
of the rest their servants. 

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With the exception of the people of two towns nambering 22,107 

soqIs or 9' 18 per cent of the entire inhabitants^ the population of the 

district, accoi^ing to the census returns of 1872, lived in 661 villages 

wiih an average of 329*76 souls per village. Only Yejalpur in the 

Godhra sub-division is walled. A Koli viflage generally consists of 

a single street or road between two rows of mad huts. Tlie line of 

booses is often broken by a yard for cattle or for grain or perhaps 

by a well. At one end of the village is in most cases an old 

tamarind or mango tree, its stem surrounded by a small stone and 

earA platform where the village council meets, matters of common 

interest; are talked over, and disputes settled by the headman. The 

poorer Kolis and almost all Bhils and N&ikd&s do not live in villages. 

Each has a separate dwelling and in many parts of the district they 

move from place to place. Of the whole number of villages 824 had 

less than 200 inhabitants ;i 220 from 200 to 500; eighty-five from 500 

to 1000 j twenty-four from 1000 to 2000 ; six from 2000 to 3000 ; and 

•jhro from 3000 to 5000. As regards the number of houses there 

vas in 1872 a total of 56,922, or on an average 32*88 houses to the 

aqnare mile. Of the total number, 7482 houses lodging 22,427 

I persons or 9*32 percent of the entire population at the rate of three 

•oqIb to each house, were buildings with walls of fire-baked bricks 

^d rodfa of tile. The re m aining 49,440 houses accommodating 

il8,316 persons or 90*68 per cent, with a population per house of 

4t4& souls, included all buildings with thatch or leaves or whose outer 

irallB were of mud. 

The village establishment generally includes the village headman, 
%tel', the village accountant, ialdti; the watchmen, rdvamo-s ; and 
ie messenger, havdlddr. The artisans, who are paid by the villagers 
i kind, Uve in towns and large villages. Most of the village head- 
pen are Kolis, Bhils, and If^d&s. The rest are generally Kanbis, 
sjpate, Pateliy&s, or Lub&n&s. The watchmen, rdvanidsj are chiefly 
18 and N&ikd&s. The headmen are held in much respect. At all 
-jige rdigious ceremonies and on betrothal, marriage, and death 

sdebrations, their presence is desired and they are given places of 

special honour. 

f At the time of transfer (1853) the district was in great want of 

Eple. Some account is given below of the efforts from time to 
e made by Government and the officers in charge of the district 
h) draw settlers from the crowded parts of centnJ Gujar&t. The 
|raat increase in the population shows that to some extent these 
Bfiorts have succeeded. But up to 1877 all attempts to coloniae on 
I large scale failed. In that year a movement took place among some 
rf the lower class cultivators of central Gujardt of special interest, 
lot only because it was spontaneous and widespread, but because 
b spite of very great difficulty both in the character of the settlers 
ind of their first seasons in the Panch Mah&ls, it has to some extent 

Chapter in. 




^ In different parts of the Doliad sab-diTifiion eztenrive fonndations mark the sites 
>f many lai^ vmages destroyed acoording to the local belief by shocks of earthquake* 
Dohad Survey Beport, 1877. 

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CShapter m. proyed a success. In March 1877 the Hdlol police reported ^ lihat over 
Popxiiatiim. ^ thousand Tal&yite, a low class tribe of central Qujar&t apparently 
the same as the Surat Dubl&s^ were encamped close to monni 
Migration. Pdv&gad. They had with them their wives, children, cattle, and somo 

store of grain, and said they were come to settle. After the fini 
detachment hundreds of families kept pouring in, each with a cart or 
rough bullock sledge piled high with grindstones, bunches of fowby 
clothes, cooking pots, and chUdren. Behind came the fatiier ol tb 
family loaded, and then the mother and elder children also canying' 
burdens and driving before them their small stock of goats and cows,. 
Their answers were always the same. Who are yon?— TaUvife, 
Where are you going?— To M&ta. What for?— To cultivate. Whem 
have you come from? — There ; with a long drawl and backward wiro 
of the hand. Why did you leave ? — There was no land, the peojid 
with money turned us out of our fields. A few more questions, and 
they would give the name of the district and village they came bom, 
ending with the refrain ' many more of us are on the way.' On 
reaching P&v&gad the first care of each family was to worship at ih 
hill-top shrine of the M&ta or mother. For days, in an almost unbroken 
stream, the worshippers kept passing up and down, returning wSi 
their brows smeared with the red m€urk of the goddess. Camps wero 
formed each with its headman or patel ; the people from the dmereot 
districts choosing to camp by themselves. When their camp was 
fixed, each family raised a rough hut and cattle shed and buried their 
supplies of grain in the ground. Some of the old wells, relics of 
Gh4mp£ner's greatness, were cleared out and yielded good water. 
This movement was due to a religious teacher or guru who had been 
ordered by the goddess E^&lka M^ta and a Musalm&n saint to tell tk 
people that if they went back to their old Ch&mp&ner home they wodJ 
find riches and plenty ; if they refused to go they would die. Asa 
token of her favour the goddess promised on the night of theMarck 
full moon to set fire to ti^eir ofEering of butter and rice and to send 
a Br&hman to tell them what they should do. On the 22nd, the 
night of the full moon, 7000 of the TaUvifa went up the hill, eadi 
carrying something to swell the general offering. All made ready 
and duly laid before the ' Mother,' the worshippers waited watching 
till dawn to see their offering take fire. But no fire came, no 
Br&hman and no voice from the goddess. At last tired out they set fin 
to theiroffering and left convinced that the work had not the mothei^« 
favour. Most of them went back to their old homes. Of 1867 famita 
only 685 with ten carts, fi%^-seven ploughs, 133 bullocks, and aboni 
250 • cows and goats remained. Except a few who chose sites a 
couple of miles off, they settled close to P&v&gad, forming twelfo 
hamlets, the houses built in square groups, not each by itself lib ; 
those of the Panch Mah&ls Bhils and N&ikdds. During the bol 
weather months they earned a living chiefly by selling firewood in tlifl 
villages near, and by some Government aid in the shape of roadmak* 
ing and pond clearing. With this and the help of money advanoesi 
they were able before the rainy season to finish their houses, to bny 

1 Contribated by W. R Prescott, Esq., Diatrict Superintendent of Police. 

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aboat 900 head of cattle, and to sow about 798 acres (1359 bighds) 
of land. Bat the failure of the rains (June-October 1877) pressed them 
hard. Many went to their old homes. The rest, without skill or 
liabits of st^y work, seem by degrees to be falling back to their 
former position of labourers. As a colony the morement has not been 
a great success. But it is not without good results. An area of 675 
acres (1150 bighds) has been cleared for cultivation and may tempt 
settlers from among the Kanbis, Bohor&s, and other high class Gujarat 
peasants of whose skilled and prudent labour the Panch Mah^s stand 
m much need. Another class of recent settlers are low caste 
Kirr^is, who leaving M&rv&d during the famine of 1869, have fised 
iibeir homes in the Panch Mahals. Chiefly day labourers, most of 
Aem are to be found in the east of the district. Besides these 
Dermanent settlers, road-making and other public works attract labour. 
The workers, chiefly Dheds from Eaira ana from M&rv&d, stay during 
fbe hot and cold seasons and go away in the rains. 

Of the people of the district three classes leave their villages in 
search of a living. A few Musalm&ns seek military service in 
satiYe states, Br^unans, leaving their families behind, go long 
J^ging tours remaining away two or three years at a time, and 
ioDoiig the labouring classes Bhils at the beginning of March find 
I irork in collecting poppy juice in the M&lwa opium fields. 



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[Bomliay GiMttNr. 



CSiapter IT. Agbicultube sapports 173^819 persons or 72*20 per cent of tk 

Agrtooitiire. ®^*"* popnlation.^ 

g^j]^ Within the limits of the district are great varieties of soil In 

the north-west of Gbdhra near the Mahi is some allavial, hha&a, 
land^ south of this a belt of dull blacky mdl, such as is found in 
Thdsra, and beyond that a very large tract of light, goradu, lani 
To the north and north-east of Gt>dhra a rich medium black, ieior, 
bears heavv crops of wheat and gram. E41ol except a few viBagn 
of dark clayey medium black, besa/r, well suited to rice, hodra, 
and other coarser grains, is throughout light, garddu. In tin 
south of H&lol are stretches of rich but badly tilled black soiL 
Except stony hill-ridges and patches of shallow gritty red and diy 
black, the soil of the eastern division, both light and blade, u^ 
perhaps from the abundance of water, of very high quality. Tha 
light, varving in shade from fawn to reddish brown yields twO| and 
if watered, three crops a year. 

Arable Ajm, The Government or hhdha villages of the district contiii 

514,052 acres, of which 56,589 acres or 11 per cent are alienaieii 
paying only a quitrent, and 38,805 acres or 6'57 per cent irt 
unarable waste. The totalareaof Government arable land is therefort 
423,658 acres, of which 151,194 acres or 85*68 per cent are occnpiei 
and 272,464 or 64*31 per cent are unoccupied. Of l^ese 272,46i 
acres of unoccupied arable land, 23,418 acres including grasng 
lands, forests, and homesteads cannot be taken up for cdtiyatkn. 
The whole available area of unoccupied arable land is thereCoA 
reduced to 249,046 acres. Of the occupied area 3064 acres or 
2'02 per cent are garden land, 8447 or 5*58 per cent unwatered m 
land, and 139,683 or 92*38 per cent dry crop land. 

IrrigaUoii. Fields are watered from rivers, ponds, and wells. From riven ik 

water is drawn by means of rough wooden lever-lifts, dhehidiSf 

1 ThlB total (173,819) is made np of the following items : 

(1) Adult males engaged in agriculture as per census of 1872 54^5$6 

(2) Wives of ditto oidculated on the bads of the proportion the 
totkl adult female population of the district bears to the total - 
adult male population 4%2S9 

(3) Children of land 2 calculated on ft similar basis 70,091 

Total ... 173,819 

This calonlation is necessary, because the census returns indnding many of tbt 
women under VII. (MiaceUaneotts) show a total of only 473 ondtf the special ks' 
adult agricultaral females. 

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costing only a few Bhillings (Rb. 3 • 4) to set ap. Except at the Mal&7 
rwenroir where are gravitation gates^ the system of watering from 
ponds is the same as from rivers. As springs are f oond close to the 
Borfaoe^ weUs have not to be sunk more than from fifteen to thirty 
feet A built, pakka, well with water enough for a single leather 
bag costs to make from £20 to £30 (Rs. 200 -Bs. 800). 

A plough of land varies greatly according to circumstances. 
When the pay of village headmen was reckoned in land a plough 
was generally taken at about 11| acres^ 20 bighds, supposed to be 
the largest area of medium soil that a pair of strong Charotar 
bollocks could properly plough. Under these conditions of soil and 
ploughing Kanbis with specially fine cattle are said to till fifteen 
iores ; Vanj&r&s with well-fed loo8l,pdl, cattle seven acres, and Eolis 
irith badly kept cattle five acres. But in most places as the soil is 
scratched and not ploughed a pair of bullocks can run over a much 
krger area. In the two assessed sub-divisions the survey returns 
shew for each pair of bullocks, in £41ol an average area of lOff 
acres and in Oodhra of 18^^^. 

Id Oodhra and Elalol, the settled parts of the district, the total 

tilled area is parcelled into 13,443 holdings, kjvdtds. These farms of 

wbich the largest is 116|^ acres, and the smcilest one acrp, contain 

> ?n an average 10} acres. It is believed that with a five-acre farm 

lb husbandman, though scrimped, will not want for food or clothing; 

-Aat a seven-acre light soil farm, even though unwatered, will keep 

iim in fair comfort, and that from a ten-acre light soil farm he will, 

if thrifty, be able to save. In. 1876-77, including alienated lands, 

jihe total number of holdings was 25,808 with an average area of 

Bight acres. Of the whole number, 18,878, or more than one-half 

;*ere holdings of not more than five acres ; 6355 of not more than ten 

;acre8; 8969 of not more than twenty acres ; 1451 of not more than 

;t% acres ; 110 of not more than 100 acres, and fifty above 100 acres. 

Ilost of the holdings of 100 acres and upwards are in the hands of 

fte class of superior landlords known as talukddrs. 

Daring the twenty years ending 1877 ploughs have increased 
horn 18,303 to 37,141 or 102-92 per cent; carts from 6129 to 8349 
or 36-22 per cent ; and live-stock from 178,859 to 254,262 or 46*24! 

Panch Mahdls Stock, 1867-1877. 













InottMO per 





















In the villages inhabited by the better class of cultivators,* 
^bis, Talabda Eolis, Pateliy&8, andGh&nchis, light soils are manured 

Chapter 17. 

Plough of Lud. 



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plonghed twice or thrioe^ sown througli a drills and a f ortni^t after 
cleaned with a weeder^ ka/rah, and smoothed by a log of wood^ 9aimv. 
In other parts of the district^ the system of hosbandry is of tbe 
roughest and most primitiye kind. Though they do not use dirngfor 
fuel the people seldom manure their lands ; fallows are kept only to 
a small extent^ and land is seldom watered. Few of the Dohad Bbib 
have any field tools except one plough and even this many haye 
to borrow. They merely run the plough once lightly througli the 
surface of the field and immediately afterwards sow the seed. They 
show neither care nor thrift and leave all to nature. In the Nlunkol 
state many of the Ndikdas sow their grain among wood ashes. Of 
this practice there are two forms^ one locally called bantio consistBof 
burning down a tract of brushwood and without any tillage sowing 
seed among the ashes; the other called vdlra is to cut down 
branches and brushwood and heaping them in one place to set fire to 
them and sow after loosening the surface with a pickaxe. Bcat&f 
Eleusine coracana^ growing during the rains^ is almost the o% 
grain raised by N^d&s. 

Of 151494 acres the total area of occupied land 40^52 acres or 
26*65 per cent were in the year 1877-78 &llow or under grass. Of 
the 1 1 1,042 acres^ under cultivation grain crops occupied 94,478 acres 
or 84*9 per cent, 36,629 of them under maize, makdi^ Zea maysj 
20,022 under bdjri, Penicillaria spicata; 15,052 under rice, dangar, 
Oryza sativa; 9566 under ndgli, Eleusine corocana; 6771 imd« 
hodra, Paspalum scrobiculatum; 2964 under juvar. Sorghum vd* 
gare ; 513 under wheat, ghau, Triticum asstivum; 314 under cheniia^ 
Panicum miliaceum; 1.38 under barley, ^at;, Hordeum hexastichoa}! 
and 2509 imder other cereals of which details are not availabktj 
Pulses occupied 27,752 acres or 24*9 per cent, 19,967 of them xmim] 
gram, chana, Cicer arietinum ; 2607 under adad, Phaseolus mango;! 
1935 under niag, Phaseolus radiatus ; 1440 under tuver, Cajanni: 
indicus ; 312 under peas, vatdna, Pisum sativum, and 1491 niidflt 
other pulses. Oil seeds occupied 4519 acres or 4'06 per oeoij 
3725 of them imder gingelly oilseed, tal, Sesamum indicnm; tfj 
under rape seed, sarsav, Brassica napus ; and 754 under mostai^J 
rdi, Sinapis racemosa, and other oilseeds. Fibres occupied 921- 
acres, 897 of them under Bombay hemp, san, Crotalaria junces, andi 
32 under cotton, kapds, Gossypium herbaceum. Miscellaneous cro{ft| 
occupied 530 acres, 148 of them under sugarcane, serdi, Si-i 
charum o£Scinarum ; 34 under tobacco, tambdku, Nicotianatabacumi 
4 imder poppy, khaskhas, Papaver somniferum ; and 849 mid*^ 
miscellaneous vegetables and fruits. 

Among the district crops Maize, maJcdi, Zea mays, the staple 
of the Panch Mah&ls people holds the first place, with, in 1877 
86,629 acres or 32*98 per cent of the whole tOlage area. Main 
one of the chief products of the Dohad sub-division forming, in 
rich lands that yield twice a year, the rainy season or early 
sown in June and reaped in September in time to make the 
ready for a cold season crop of wheat or gram. 

1 Of 111,042 aoKB 17,166 were twice cropped* 

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Millet^ hajri, Penicillaria spicata^ holds the second place^ with 
20^028 acres or 18*03 per cent. It is cnltivated chiefly in the western 
IRib-divisions of Godhra and KSLoh 

BioOj ddngar, Oryza sativa^ holds the third place^ with 15^052 
dcresor 13*55 per cent. It is cnltivated in all the snb-divisions. 
Yery little is watered and none bnt sdthi, sutarsdl, and other inferior 
^ coarse kinds are grown. In embanked fields the seed is sown in 
% nursery and the plants pnt ont. In open fields the seed is sown 
broadcast, a lazy careless tillage adopted by low class cnltivators. 
Bmbanked fields yield rice year after year. Bnt no second crop ia 
^er raised from them. JVo^Ztj Elensine coracana, kodra, Paspalnm 
Krobicnlatnm, and juvdr, Sorghnm vxdgare^ are grown in the 
^iiem sub-divisions. The ordinary Koli tillage of these grains ia 
faskilled and unthrifty. The ground is scraped once with the 
j^ough and after sowing is left unweeded and nncared for till harvest 
time, and then left waste generally for two or three years. Before 
•le introduction of the revenue survey, fields paid rent only when 
cropped. But now with a lower rate levied every year, some 
dlumge in the system of tillage will probably be required. 

' Wheat, ghau, Triticum eastivum, with, in 1876-77, 8553 acres is in 
fte eastern division a lelibding and increasing product. Five varieties 
ire grown, dAudkhdni white brown very clear and full; kdtJia malm, 
%ti^ 60 full as ddudkhdm^i, with a mixture of inferior reddish wheat ; 
lUka ddudiy thin hard and not full, a miztnre of white brown 
tad reddish grain ; vdjia the worst kind, dull brown with veiy 
risuJl but soft g^n, and gomadiay a low class dd/udkhdm,iy of duU 
iHiite brown with thin and shrivelled grain. Wheat is grown in 
llii& black loam and to a less extent in medium black, hesa/r, soil. 
P is Qsuallv sown as a second crop following rice or maize. The 
lowing is in November and December. Before sowing the land 
b ploughed^ and when levelled by the clod crusher, tne seed ia 
bwn at the rate of from forty to eighty pounds the acre in drills 
ibont one foot apart. Manure is seldom used. Panch Mahals 
lAeat is sent to central and western Gujar&t, Baroda, and the 
^orrounding native states. 

Sugarcane, gerdi, Saccharum officinamm, is grown in small 
[DUuititieB in Godhra and K41ol. It is neither so rich in juice nor 
i flo high a quality as Kaira sugarcane. Quantities of molasses 
rere at one time exported. But prices fell and as the former 
ioyemment refused to reduce the rates of assessment the culture 
C sugarcane ceased.^ After the transfer its cultivation again 
^ead, &voured by a local custom of allowing the hereditary 
mcers, desdis and patelsy 6i per cent of the revenue derived "from 
fagarcane. In 1864 on the ground that it might lead the officers 
i question to force sugarcane cultivation, this grant was stopped,' 
iia since then sugarcane has again declined. 

The Poppy, khaskhas, Papaver somnif erum, used to a small extent 
^ be grown in Dohad and Jh&lod by Malis, Bhils, and Eanbis. A 

Chapter ZV. 





^ Major Wallace 71, 12th September 1866, 
m 167—30 

9 Got. Bea 2728, 19th July 1864 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


[Bombay QttflttWi 



COiapter IT. 





cold weather crop wanting good soil and mnch water^ it was chiefly 
grown along the banks of streams many of wluch used to betgay 
with belts of its white or white and red flowers. In growing Hid 
poppy a field of black soil^ from which dming the rainy eeaaoa 
maize or hemp had been reaped^ was generally chosen. Soon after 
divdli, November- December^ the land was four or five times 
ploughed^ divided into squares^ manured^ and sown with poppy seedi 
khaskhas. After sowings the field was for three months watered 
once a fortnight. The plant was then fall grown^ watering iras 
stopped^ and after a fortnight the outer skin of the flower capsule 
was slit and next morning the juice that had oozed out was scraped 
with a knife into a brass pot. The slitting and juice-gathering, a 
slow and hard task^ were thrice repeated. After gathering it, Aa 
juice was mixed with oil at the rate of a quarter of a ponnd of 
oil to one pound of juice. In this state it was kept by the groirar 
till it hardened and was then sold in the market. The bnyen^ 
rolling it into balls, sold some of it locally and sent the rest to Buoda 
and Bombay. The poppy was never a favourite crop. The law 
(Act I. of 1878) forbidding its growth has caused little Wdship. 

Of Pulses, Gram, chcma, Gicer arietinum, a favourite second or 
cold weather crop in the well watered Dohad valleys, is exported 
in considerable quantities. 

Of Oil Seeds, tal, Sesamum indicum, is largely grown, the area 
10,044 acres m 1876-77 being greater than in Kalra. Iiargt 
quantities of oil are extracted and exported to M&lwa and to oentnl 
and western Gujar&t. Oil pressed from doli or mahtida seed is seoi 
in considerable quantities to Eapadvanj and there used in th» 
manufacture of soap. 

Bombay Hemp, scm, Crotalaria iuncea, with in 1877-78 ao 
area of 897 acres, is by all classes of husbandmen grown both in 
black and light, but chiefly in black soil. It is a rainy seasoiii 
hharify crop sown on the first fall of rain. At the end of three 
months the seed ripens and the heads are cut off. Then the planta 
are cut, tied in bundles, and for a week or so left to rot in some 
pond or river. When they are taken out the fibres are separated 
and made into coils. Some of it is used locally, either woven by 
Van j&rds into pack saddles or by cultivators made into ropes. Mo0t 
of the rest goes to Bombay. 

Besides chillies, onions, and other garden produce raised in riTe^ 
bank fields. Potatoes, batdta, have of late years been very successfaOy 

Kolis, Bhils, and N&ikd&s form the bulk of the agricnltonl 
population. Of the higher classes of cultivators the few Kanbis aie 
skilful and thrifty, and in most parts of the district there are locali 
talabda, KoHs, M&lis, and Bajputs below Kanbis in knowledge hot 
still a valuable peasantry. Li Dohad are Pateliy&s, Lub^Ln^, and 
Bdvals, all superior to the lazy and unthrifty mehvds Koli and BhiL 
Some Yanjards and Musalm&ns of the Gh&nchi class, thrown out of 
their former occupation of carrying have taken to tillage. As yet they 
have met with little success. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


The crops occasionally suffer from mildew and insects. In 1845 Cha|rtOT IT* 
most of the maize was eaten by locusts. Except a few villages on AgriciiLtiira- 
tiie Mahi the district is free from damage by floods. But the rain- ^^ ^ ^ 
M is uncertain and during the last twenty years the failure of cropa «^ 

from want of rain has on six occasions caused scarcity and distress. 
In 1853 no rain fell after July and all the chief crops failed. In 
1856 the western sub-divisions suffered seriously from the complete 
fauloreof the latter rain. In 1857 the rains were very late of 
b^iiming^ causing loss of crops in the eastern division. In 1861 
«nd agam in 1864 the rainfall was irregular and scanty. Finally 
in 1877 there were only 19*10 inches^ less than half of the average 
ram snpply. The crops failed and sickness and want were so wide^ 
q)read1hat towards the close of the season (April -June) special 
telief measures were found necessary. 

Digitized by 





Chapter ▼• Aoooedino to the 1872 oensus returns there were in thai; jw, 

Capital. besides well-to-do cultivators and professional men^ 1697 persons in 

positions implying the possession of capital. Of these 423 were 
bankers^ money ol^gers, and shopkeepers^ and 1274 weremerohanti 
and traders. Under the 1869-70 income-tax returns 450 penoos 
paid on yearly incomes of from £50 to £100 (Rs. 500 -Bs, 1000) ; and 
in 1872-73, 101 persons paid on incomes of from £100 to £200 
(Bs. 1000 - Bs. 2000) and fifteen on incomes of from £200 to £1000 
(Bs. 2000 -Bs. 10,000). Unlike other Gujarat districts thePaodi 
Mah41s are so poor and backward that there is little capital and few 
savings pressing for investment. Only by Qovemment seryanta 
are Goyemment securities bought or money laid up in Bsvingi 
banks. Except the holding of a poor debtor with iio other proneri^i 
land is seldom bought, the yearly return being only from 2i toS 
per cent instead of the 20 or 80 per cent the money might yield if 
lent at interest. 
Wwey-lendeii, The local money-lenders are V&nids, Brfihmans, and Bohorfa. Seven 

or eight of them are men of weeJth^ bankers who give bUls^ hmii$, 
on Baroda^ Bombay, Indor, and Batldm. Of village money-lendea 
y&ni&s are the chief, though well-to-do Kanbis also lend money sad 
advance grain. A few of these Kanbis who are rich are thought more 
liberal creditors than the Vinids. Of the whole body of money- 
lenders about ten per cent are supposed to deal with townspeopla 
only ; about sixty per cent with Kolis, Bhils, aud the poorer claBS d 
cultivators, and about thirty per cent both with the poor and tb 

Bankera^pdrakhs, keep the following account books, the cash bool^ 
rcjmel ; the ledger, hhdtdvahi ; the monthly account book, dvaro, and 
the interest book, vydjvahi. Those who deal with Kolis and low class 
borrowers keep an account current book,* thdmhhdta. Those who are 
shopkeepers as well as money-lenders keep in addition to the fint 
four books an account current book, thamJchdta. In this are enterei 
the amounts advanced, the sums recovered and the articles sold some* 
times with, sometimes without their value. The register book, wmd^ 
generally kept by petty grain, spice, and clotii dealers is in memo* 
randum form. As a rule it has only the debit, udhdr, side, receif^ 
being entered below the articles sold or the sums advanced. DemB 
are paid in grain or cattle, seldom in money. Creditors almost never 
write off claims as bad debts. However faint the chance of payment 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 




the aoooant is kept open and the bond renewed every third year in Cha^^r T. 

Ae hope that a day may come when the debtor will be able to pay, (^pitai 

The amount of grain advanced either for seed or food depends on the 

borrower'a position. It seldom goes beyond 480 pounds, one mani^ 

for seed, and 1440 pounds^ three vumie, for food. The grain m after 

six months repaid in kind sometimes a quarter^ but generally hall 

SB much again as the original amount advanced. 

In a district so poor and so entirelv agricultural the borrowers are Borrowen. 
ehiefly cultivators most of them belonging to the nngettled classea, 
low KoHs^ Bhils^ and N&ikd&s. As a rule most careless and ill 
informed^ they seldom know how the debt began^ when and what 
they have paid^ or how much is still due. Most of the poorer olaas of 
cultivators are almost entirely dependent on the money-lender. The 
peater part of their crops when ripe goes to pay ofl their debts. 
Left with too small a store of grain to last them throughout the 
fear they are from time to time forced to borrow. As a rule 
bonrowera deal with only one money-lender. When they borrow 
from more than one the creditor who has advanced money to pay 
their rent, or has advanced grain for seed or food has the preference 
•ad is considered to have the right to attach the crop. When a civil 
action is brought against a KoU or a man of the other poorer classes 
he generally admits the claim. The debtor's property is seldom sold 
except when he is thought to be likely to dispose of it privately. 
When, in consequence of a civil court decree, immovable property 
is sold it is generally bought by the creditor at a nominal price. 
Though still so poor and backward these tribes have made some 
advance under British management, seldom having recourse to the 
robbery and murder so common under the former Govemment. 

In the case of Bhils the civil courts do not enforce a higher rate of luterefffc. 
mterest than six per cent. Practically this limit haa little eSect, the 
actual rates being indefinitely increased by a system of premiums. 
K^d&s and other unsettled tribes have no credit beyond an 
advance on the security of their crops. Interest is cliaj*ged by the 
hmar month at rates corresponding to yearly rates of from nine to 
twelve per cent to an artisan with good credit ; twelve per cent to a 
ealtivator in middling circumstances, and from twelve to fifteen per 
cent to a poor cultivator. On a debt unpaid at the end of the 
year compound interest at the rate of twenty-five par cent on capital 
%&d interest is charged. In opening accounts with petty traders and 
artisans the banker makes besides interest two or three per cent 
profit as premium. 

At the time of their transfer, the Panch Mahils had a local cur* Carrenoy. 
rency both of silver and copper coins made in the Dohad mint* Besides 
Ihe regular mint«profits it was then the practice to farm the right of 
nlUng in and changing the copper currency twice a year. Except 
patting a fresh mark to it nothing was done to the coin. But the 
»e0 charged for stamping yield^ a yearly revenuo of about £110 
[Rs. 1100).^ In 1861 owing to the expected introduction of British 
3opper coins the value of the local pieces became greatly depreciated 

1 Major Buckle 606, 7th November 1861, 

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ChApter T. 



and their coinage was stopped. The Dohad rapee ceased to be legsl 
tender in 1 858 and soon after disappeared. The Baroda> bdhdshai, rapee 
was then the only coin in nse and only by degrees was the British 
rupee raised to be the standard. In 1861 all contracts for spirits and 
driLgs^ and in the year following the land revenae^ were dedaied 
myable in Imperial mpees with tiie provision that for three yean the 
JBaroda coin would be taken at the assay rate of exchange.^ Still the 
use of the British coin is almost entirely confined to the payment of 
Imperial dues^ the Baroda rupee being the ordinary medium in private 
deidings. The intrinsic and legal value of the Baroda rupee is about 
fourteen per cent below that of the Imperial coin. But from its won 
and injured state its trade value is from eighteen to twenty-two per 
cent less than the Imperial rupee. Its value varies considerably it 
different times of the year. It is unusually depressed when Imperial 
rupees are in demand for the payment of rents and abnormally higli 
at the harvest time^ Mdh (February) and Vaishdkh (May). Connterfeit 
Baroda coins are common and at the time of exchange each is 
carefully tested by a Y&nia assayer^ pdrakh. 

Except in the case of service holdings the practice of mori|;aging 
land is not common. According te the registration returns mortgages 
in excess of £10 (Us. 100) have risen from 93 of the vahie of i^479 
(Rs. 34,790) in 1869-70, te 151 of the value of £6074 (Rs. 60,740) in 

Carpenters and bricklayers are found in tewns and large villagcB. 
Not always employed, their daily wages are high, varying from h. to 
Is, Sd, (8 - 10 annas) and as a class they are well-to-do. The wages o( 
ordinary day labourers are (1878) for a man from 3|cZ. to 6Jd. (2J- 
34 annas) ; for a woman from 2id. to Sd. {H - 2 annas), and for ab^ 
or girl from Id. to l|d. (|-1 anna). Twenty-five years ago tbfl 
daily wage of unskilled labour was for a man Sji. (2i annas) ; iae 
a woman 8d. (2 ann^s), and for a boy or girl 2d. {l{ annas\ 
Except by cultivators who pay either wholly or partly in kind tibe» 
wages are paid daily in cash. The labouring classes are M&ridis, 
EoUs, and Bhils. Musalm&ns also of the G-h&ichi class, carriers by 
trade, in the rainy months when traffic is at a standstill, go in bands 
to the fields to work. These GUidnchis are not properly labourers 
being a superior class, many of them well-to-do and almost all wid 
good personal credit. Except for field work the only regolar isf i 
labourers are M&rv&dis, a frugal and hardworking set of meo. | 
In the fair season large pubHc works attract Dheds and other ! 
labourers from central Gujardt. Bhils and Kolis work in the fields I 
but they dislike and are unsuited to steady hard labour and are seldom ; 
employed in road making or other large undertakings. The actual work ; 
of cultivation does not give rise to any great demand for labour. Tltf | 
few rich cultivators employ workmen during the whole rains. But as» ! 
rule except at harvest time there is no general demand. Tie greater 
part of the work done by Bhils, Naikd^, and other unsettled tribes ift 
forest work; in the cold season, grass and firewood-cutting and in 
the hot months, timber-felling and maAu^Ia-gathering. Among the 

I Oov. Bm. 1485, 14th April 1862. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 





labouring classes women do as much work as men. The greater part 
of the unskilled labour in public works is generally done by women. 
Daring the la^t ten years the demand for and the wages ol unskilled 
labour hare considerably declined, and though at the same time the 
price of food and clothes has faUen, the state of the labouring classes 
^ probably on the whole not so good as it was during the prosperous 
jt'ars of the American war. The Ghfinchis, Marvadia, and Dheda are 
a tlmfty and frugal people, saving money when they find good 
employment. But the Bhils and Naikdas lay by nothing, spending 
fifi they make in liquor and other personal indolgence. Mortgage of 
labour is unknown in ihe Paiich Mahals. In some Musabodn houses 
ID Godhra and Dohad the descendants of household slaves still hold a 
poeition of dependence, choosing though in no way forced to do so to 
work for the family who formerly owned them. 

Field produce prices are available only for the sixteen years ending 
1878. During these years rice has yaried from ten pounds for 2^. 
(Ee. I) in 1865 to thirty in 1873 and averaged nineteen pounds ; wheat 
1ms Taried from eleven pounds in 1865 to twenty-eight in 1876 and 
a^emged eighteen pounds ; millet, hdjrij has varied from sixteen 
Pinnda in 1864 to fifty -four in 1875 and averaged thirty pounds ; gram 
Im varied from sixteen pounds in 1866 to fifty-eight pounds in 1876 
and averaged thirty-one pounds ; pulse, ddl, has varied from nine 
'pcunda in 1865 to thirty-eight pounds in 1876 and averaged eighteen 
poundn j and maize has varied from twenty-one pounds in 1865 to fifty- 
nine in 1876 and averaged thirty-nine. This period began with a moat 
marked rise- In 1 864* and 1 865 prices stood very high ; then during the 
next seven years (1866-1872) came a constant though moderate faU, 
followed by four years (1873-1876) of cheap but steady rates, ending by 
a moderate rise in 1877 and by extremely high prices in 1878, The 
following statement shows for the chief grains the price in pounda 
for two shillings during the sixteen yeara^ending 1878 ; 


Panch MaMU Produce Prk&f, 1S63-187S. 



1 ... 










^Bwik QOEDEUOQ ,4^ .1, 


































M#i, b6JH 


































fulw, t*wr Mi „, 







ti. 1 










M*Jie .„ „. ... 

















The details of weights and measures given at page 65 of the Eaira 

Statistical Account apply to the Panch Mahals, 

* The figaies for the ten years ending 1872, taken from the Godhra survey 
ttpori, refer to that sub-division only ; those for the six years ending 1878, taken from 
fbe yearly administration reports, represent the average prices of the district. 

Chapter V. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 




CJhEptOT VI. Drntmo the last twelve years (1867-1878) by the help of cheap 

Trade. stone metal^ and liberal public works grants^ aided by local fhnds^ tolb, 

special funds, and duties, much has been done towards supplying the 
^^^^ main lines of traffic with well made roads. The most important trade 

route lies east and west, connecting Gujarat with Central IiMitt 
and Rajputina. This line formerly ended westwards in Baroda, 
but since the opening in 1874 of the branch railway to Till, traffic 
has been turned to that station. Beginning at P^, bridged 
but so far only partially metalled, the road runs east siiteea 
miles to Gbdhra; from Qodhra, metalled and except the Pinam nTer 
bridged throughout, with an eight mile branch to the town of BSnj^ 
it runs east to Dohad forty-four miles, twenty-Kme of them in Biriji 
territory. Besides this main line thero is in the western diviflion a 
banked and bridged but unmetalled road from Qodhra south^^west 
twenty-one miles through E41ol to Ehikharia on the Baroda boundary. 
In the south a branch twenty-five miles long begins near Elfld aoi 
runs by H^ol to J&mbughoda. This is a fair Weather track and 
thero aro similar lines from Qodhra fourteen miles north by Seherato 
the Lun&vMa boundary. There is also from Eantdi a branch fifteen 
miles north-east to join the Qodhra and Lun&y&da road^ used chieflj 
by traffic between P&li and Lun&v^Uia and Sunth^. Another deaied 
track runs north thirty miles, twenty of them in British territory 
from S^a, twelve miles from Qodhra, on the Qodhra and Dohad road 
to Sunth. An unimproved track runs from Qodhra north-east to 
Limdi and Jhdlod. This formerly carried a large traffic, but since 
the Qodhra and Dohad road has been finished it has almost ceased 
to be used. In the eastern division a bridged and metalled road is 
under construction from Jh^od by Limdi to the B&riya boandaiy 
fourteen miles, and this is being continued eleven miles forthtf 
in B&riya to join the Qodhra and Dohad road east of the Harap riv^. 
The distance firom Qodhra to JhlUod along this route is fifty miles. 
A partially improved track also runs south from Limdi to Dobad 
fourteen miles, the total from Jhdlod to Dohad being twentvmil^ 
These, stretching over a total distance of 170 miles, are the only 
made or partially made roads and they include all the chief traffic 
routes. Other less important lines are provided with rough cart 
BridgM. The chief bridge is across the Earad river near Eflol on the 

Qodhra and Eh&kharia road. It has three seventy-six feet openix^ 

1 The tnde section is oontribated by T. B. little. Esquire. ExecntiTe iDoam 

Digitized by 





■panned by wrought iron girders carried on stone masonry piers. 
Oa the Ghnihra and Dohad rcMid over the Ghod^khal river near Dohad 
IB a bridge with three fifty feet arches^ and there are many other small 
bridges. The P&nam river on the Gk)dhra and Dohad road eleven 
miles east of Godhra is crossed by a low level or Irish bridge of 

There are no buildings for the accommodation of district ofilcers. 
Of rest-houses, dharmshdlds, suited for native travellers there are 
in all twenty-three. Of these ten are situated in the Godhra 
sub-division, seven in K&lol^ and six in Dohad. Of those in Godhra 
seven are at the town of Godhra ; one at the village of Sehera on the 
high road from Godhra to Lun&v&la ; one at Tua on the high road 
from Godhra to P&li ; and one at Urv^a on the high road from 
Godhra to Dohad. Of the K4lol rest-houses, one is at K&lol, three at 
Halol, one within the town and two on the road from K&lol to 
J&mbughoda, and one at each of the three villages of Cfadmp&neri 
Malav and Eanjri. Of the Dohad rest-houses, three are at Dohaxi, one 
outside the town near the lake, and two on the high road from 
Godhra to Dohad, two are at Jhdlod, and one at Garh^ru. Besides 
these the district is provided with a traveller's bungalow at Kdlol on 
the road from Godhra to Baroda. This last is the only building 
suited for European travellers. 

There are no permanent ferries in the Panch Mah&ls. During the 
rainy season a boat plies between Gotra and Pali on the Mahi. It 
is maintained from the Panch Mahals and Kaira local funds, the 
proceeds being divided equally between the two districts. The total 
yield of this temporary ferry amounted in 1875-76 to £24 (Bs. 240). 

For postal purposes the Panch Mahdls form part of the Gujardt 

Sostal division. They contain six post offices at Godhra, Edlol, H&Iol, 
dmbughoda, Dohad, and Jh&lod. These offices are supervised by 
the inspector of post offices in the Gujardt division, helped by the 
sub-inspector of the Kaira district. Except Jdmbughoda with a 
clerk on £6 (Bs. 60) a year the officials in charge of these offices are 
styled deputy postmasters with yearly salaries varying from £24 to 
£48 (Rs. 240- Bs. 480) and averaging £86 (Bs. 860). Payments in 
connection with these offices are made from the disbursing post office 
at Baroda. There are six postmen on £9 12s. (Bs. 96) and five rural 
tneasengers on £12 (Bs. 120) a year. 

The district has no Grovemment telegraph office. 

At the time of the transfer of the district (1855) there were two 
branches of trade, one local, the other a through traffic between the 
coast and Gujar&t in the west aod AUtlwa and Central India in the 
east. . The trading season lasted from October to June. Almost the 
whole traffic in lK)th its branches was in the hands of professional 
carriers, wagoners belonging to the class of Musalm&n Gh&nchis and 
pack bullock owners, most of them YanjarAs or Ch&rans. The 
bullock owners went in great troops divided into bands, each with its 
leader, ndih. The wagoners, most of them armed with swords and 
Bhields, forming large caravans joined purses to hire Bhils as advance 

Chapter ▼!• 






Digitized by CjOOQIC 



ChEptgr VI. and rear guards. At night they drew their wagons into a cirde, the 
Trado. cattle in the middle, each ox connected with its yokefellow and the 

wagon by an iron chain fastened to the cart wheel.^ Each wagon 
carried about 1| tons and was drawn by three or four pain of 
bullocks. They charged 9^ ton mileage rate of from 9(i. to h. (6-8 
annas). Of the through trade^ the imports from Gujarat were 
tobacco, salt, cocoanuts, and spices ; and from Mdlwa, opium, wheat, red 
dye, and Malwa cloth. Of the local trade the imports from Gajaiit 
were, besides those sent to Mdlwa, hardware and piecegoods; the exporti 
were honey, molasses, timber, mahvda berries, and gums from Godhia, 
Kdlol, and the neighbouring states, chiefly westwards to Gujar&t;azil 

Sam, oil, and maize from Dohad, chiefly eastwards to Malwa and 
ewir. Both the through and the local traffic to Malwa were larga 
than the trade west to Gujardt.* At the time of transfer the distriefc 
trade was stifled by the disordered state of the country, the want of 
roads,and therepeated levies of transit dues. Under British management 
order has been established, a bridged and metalled road runs 
through the whole breadth of the district, and transit dues have been 
simplified and to a great extent abolished. The result has been t 
marked increase of exports west to Gujardt. At the same time tbe 
opening from Khandva of a line of railway into the heart of Centnl 
India has greatly interfered with the former through trade from the 
sea coast and Gujar&t to M^lwa and Central India. 

ISSS'lser. The history of the Panch Mahils trade from the date of transfer 

up to 1867 is one of rapid development. Before the beginning of 
British management there were many routes from Gujardt and the 
Gulf of Cam bay to south Rajputdna and Central Inaia. Of iiheee 
one from Broach and Baroda went through Chhota XJdepur and Afi 
Bajpur ; a second from Cambay touched Nadi^, Kapadvanj, and 
Lundvdda, while others from Baroda, A'nand, and Nadiild passed 
through the Panch Mah^s and Bariya. Formerly the Panch Mahab 
lines had a bad name. The roads were rough, transit dues were 
heavy, and the country was lawless and disorderly. Under British 
management, with the establishment of order and the reduction of 
transit dues, the Panch Mah&ls route grew so popular that in spite 
of reductions in rates, transit and toll revenues rose from £'^682 
(Rs. 86,320) in 1858 to £7819 (Rs. 78,190) in 1861. During these 
years the trade increase was greatly fostered by a great and general 
rise in prices, encouraging production and enlarging the area from 
which supplies could with profit be forwarded. 

1S67'1876. Up to 1867 no trade details are available. The following tabH 

from figures gathered in B&riya, shows for the ten years ending 
1875-76, the approximate traffic between Gujardt and the conntiy 
east and north-east of Bariya, including the Dohad snb-division « 
the Panch Mah^s and the M&lwa and Mew^ territory beyond. 

1 Biflhop Heber's Narrative (1825) XL 109, ^ C6L Buckle, 469, 17th Ji4y l^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



PtuuA Mahdh Tknmgh Trqjflc, 1867-1876. 


































Wi«it .„ .„ ... 























KilM ... ... .. 












St* .. 












Other (rralnf 











iffU 4aia(Bu9utftt4fOlla)i 












^cKiniam ,.. 












Ofl .„ ,.. 












mi4m ... 












ClKrified batter .., 











Dfe*, r*^* ' 

live itflOk,.* 













































Total Cowuda 13-i^Ant,.. 












fobitqw , 












B«tt „ 











Piem sood* 












HftrdlwArfl „ 












Ccco»jia£ ,.^ 
























droferlea ^ 
























TMal toward! Milwa... 












L^ Gnuid Total ... 












This statement shows in regard to the trade from Gnjar&t to 
M41wa that, daring the ten years, Eaira tobacco supplied sixty and 
Khar&ghoda seJt twenty per cent of the whole trade. The great 
fall in the export of tobacco from 4000 tons in 1866-67 to 1800 tons 
in 1873-74 can at least partly be traced to the transfer of trade to 
the railway by Bombay and Khandva. This route though more 
than five times as long has besides cheap railway charges the 
advantage of freedom from transit dues. In 1875 by the abolition 
of the Panch Mah&ls transit dues trade taxation was much reduced. 
This and road improvements for a time drew back to the Panch 
Mah&ls route a larger amount of tobacco. But in the native states 
traDsit dues are still heavy,^ and as the railway has been continued 
from Eliandva to Indor and Ujain the Panch Mah&Is route is not 
likely to regain its position. 

Salt though under the * same conditions as tobacco shows less 
decline. The marked increase in 1875 is partly due to the fact that 
up to 1 874 most of the salt was carried by pack bullocks and as the 
rontes followed were often changed to avoid duties the returns are 
less complete than those for cart traffia The minor items of export 
from Gujarat depend greatly on the season. They are chiefly for local 
use round the Dohad sub-division of the Panch Mahdis and include 



Gnjarit to 


I On one of the main Panch MahiUs trade line8» within native limitf, the tonnage 
charges amoant to aboat 2d, (1^ aimas) a mile; 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


▼I. very little throngli trade. On the whole it may be sud of the 
H^^. throagh trade from G-njar&t to M&lwa that the Panch Mahils rootej 

though since 1867 much improved^ has had to meet severecompetition, 
and owing to the cheap railway carriage available on the other 
lines some of the trade has necessarily been lost^ while heavy tnmsit 
daties have prevented the opening of other outside markets to make 
np for the loss. But for the road and other improvements it ia 
probable that instead of being redaced the throagh trade to Mflwa 
would have entirely ceased. 

oSiirAt* As regards the trade from Mdlwa to Gnjar&t the quantity rec«7ed 

^ is small. The veJue was formerly large as it included a considerable 

supply of opium for consumption in fiaroda and the Bewa Kibtha 
states and for illicit trade in British territory. This opium traffic 
has now been closed and the total value of the trade from Mwa 
much reduced. The bulk of the M&lwa exports are foodgraiiis, 
wheat, gram, maize, and rice. These grain items amounting to ai 
much as 70 per cent of the whole are, with the exception of a little 
M^wa wheat, the produce of the eastern division of the Pandi 
Mah&ls and of the country round. Dohad has for many years been 
. looked on as a granary and much of its surplus store always findt 
its way to Malwa, Mewfir and Oujar&t. Originally the eastern 
markets had the preference as the transport charges indudiDgdotiea 
were lighter. But the branch line to P&Ii, the new Panch Mahals 
roads, and lowered transit dues have helped to draw Dohad grain 
west. At present it supplies either M&lwa, Mew&r, or Oujarft 
according to price and demand. A bad season and high prices it 
either direction is sufficient to turn to it the bulk of the expoii 
Under ordinary conditions Gujar&t is now preferred, for besides 
improved communications the Malwa market is now to some extent 
supplied by the new Indor railway. The table shows a most 
marked variation in the grain export to G-uiar&t. There were 50M 
tons in 1866-67, 4000 tons each in 1870-71 and 1871-72, and ia 
1869-70 and again in 1874-75 less than 500 tons. 

On the whole the returns seem to show that in spite of improvexDieat!^ 
so long as heavy transit dues are levied m the states ronoi 
the Panch Mah41s, the trade from Gujar&t to M&lwa is not likely to 
increase. On the other hand though the two last years bave bees 
nnfavourable, Dohad is almost certain to yield larger exports of 

The above table includes only the through traffic between Gnjarft 
and the country east of B&riya. The following table though for a 
shorter period is more complete including the two chief lines along 
which the bulk of the Panch Mah^s traffic, both local and throngl^ 
passes. The chief exports to Gujar&t are grain, makuda benie^ 
timber, and oil seeds ; the chief imports from Gujarkt are tobicoo^ 
saltj coooanuts^ hardware^ and piece goods. 

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Pamik MaMb Boad Trafe, lgH-U^». 




















































Total ... 












8r? ::: 


€iludoU««ds ... 

Ssr* ::: 












. 886 













Ibtal ... 














C^lMMlollMada ... 





























ToUl ... 














te::: l 





































l^itel ... 











Sr?. ::: 



23r;:: ::: 









"' 9 



















































IMaI ... 










Chapter Tit 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Bomtey ChMttfltfi 







In spite of stagnation and eyen decline in some items of tlie 
tliroQgn traffic the trade as a whole shows a marked advance from 
18,852 tons in 1873-74 to 21,363 in 1874-75, 25,486 in 1875-76, 
84,427 in 1876-77, and 45,694 in 1877-78. 

There can be no donbt that the new P&li railway branch, the 
opening of the Panch Mahdls roads, and the removal of transit dntiei 
have had a powerful influence for good on the commercial proeperi^ 
of the district both in developing old branches of trade and in startisf 
new ones. The effect is chiefly felt in the Panch Mah&ls itsdf 
and in those districts round where the benefits are not neutralized 
by excessive transit taxation. 

In spite of the large total increase the returns show a marked 
decline in traffic along the Oodhra and Baroda road. Fifteen yean 
ago it was proposed to provide a good road for the Panch Mahfls 
trade towaras baroda. But much of the distance is in native 
territory and as there were many difficulties the P&li line was adopted 
in its stead. The result has been not only a transfer of traffic mm 
one route to the other but a large additional trade, the Pali road 
alone carrying much more than the whole united former trade. 

Timber is the chief article of export, the quantity varying during 

the last five years from 547t 
PanchMahdlB J&cparts, Timber, 1873^1877. ^^ j^ jgyg ^ jj ygg ^^^ ^ 

1876. Most of this timber itf 
the produce of the B&rija» 
Sanjeli, and other forests snr* 
rounding the Panch Mahals; 
the rest comes from the Panek 
Mahals forests. The trade 
centres in Gbdhra^ where, with 
a certain number of Hinds 
and other timber merchantSi 
the chief dealers are Musalm&ns of the sect of Shia Bohor&s. TheA^ 
is little teak of any size. The produce is mainly small teak raftem'. 
and poles, beams of other forest trees and bamboos. At Godhra Hkm 
dealers buy timber from Bhils and Kolis, who bring it to market* 
But the sellers to secure higher prices often prefer to carry their 
timber to Pili and even to D&kor and Nadii&d. Most timber it 



Qodhrft and 


1878-74 ... 
1874.76 ... 
1876-76 ... 
1876-77 ... 
1877-78 ... 










s 9946 

I The following shows the area and (1872) population of the diatricta ol wUflk 
Godhra is the natural centre : i 

Godhra Trade Diitricta, 



ForuuLnov, im. 


LnnivAda ... 
FAndn Mehvis 





49.676 1 
62,813 1 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 








M73.74 ... 

1874.75 ... 

1875.76 ... 

1878-77 ... 
1877-78 ... 











brought to Godhrs by Kolis. But of late years Gh&ncliis and other 
Masfdm&ns have began to compete in this branch of the carrying 
trade. The Government Forest Department sells chiefly to dealers 
and disposes of mnch of its snpply wholesale in the forests. Of late 
7«ars the timber trade has been rapidly increasing^ the Pali railway 
a&d new roads opening out more distant areas of sapply. The 
Ming off in the last year is only apparent. It is because firewood has 
ken taken as a separate item. In reality there is a large increase. 

There is a considerable Ghrain^ trade from all parts of the Panch 
FmehMahdU Exports, Orain, 1873-1877. MaMls and from the neigh- 
bouring states. But the sup- 
plies chiefly come from tne 
Dohad sub-division. Gram^ by 
far the heaviest item, goes to 
Bombay and Gujardt ; maize is 
not usually exported in any 
quantities though in 1870-71 
owing to failure of crops in 
the west, the export rose to 
M29 tons. Grain exports vary much according to the harvests as 
wen as to the relative prices and demand from M&lwa, Mewar and 
Qnjar&t. Wheat and rice are exported from Dohad and rice from 
\miLo\. Under ordinary conditions the grain trade is growing and 
^ly to grow. 

Almost all of the dried flower and fruit of the maJmda, Bassia 

latifolia, the produce of Godhra 
and the surrounding native 
territory, goes west to Gujardt. 
The crop ripens in April. 
Gathered chiefly by Bhils and 
Kolis it is made over to Y^ni&s 
and other men of capital who 
either dispose of it to P&rsi 
contractors or export it at their 
own risk. Most of it finds its 
^ way to Surat and Bombay. 

mdhuda is one of the articles most affected by the opening of the 
Pdi railway. Before 1873 the trade set to Baroda and A'nand, 
jessing either by rail or by road to Broach and from Broach by sea 
to Bombay. Now the trade centres in Pali. The export has risen 
from 947 tons in 1873 to 9249 in 1877. The large increase in the 
last two years was owing to favourable seasons, to the new roads 
ind railways, and to the additional area tapped. The amount of 
mahuda available for export, depending on the grain as well as the 
^Mhuda crop, varies greatly from year to year. Of the amount all, 
Kcept three tons in 1873 and 149 in 1876, went westwards to F&d 
md Baroda. 

Jmg& lfahdl8 SxporU, Mahuda, 1878-1877. 


Godhra and 

Oodbra and 


J873.74 ... 
1874.75 ... 
JB75.76 ... 
i«6.77 ... 
i«7.78 ... 









Ghaptw V£ 





1 This is a trade of long standing, wheat and Parley 
lyiwa to Gujarit Gladwin's Ain-i-Akburi, IL 62. 

(1586) hronght from 

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[Bombay OawHiir, 



Ohftptir 71. 








Firewood is to a gpneat extent a new export. Before the opening 

of the Pdli railway yert littb 
PanckMahdUE,!p<^.Iinwood,1877. croBsed the Mahi. Thislnd^ 

almost confined to the Godhi 
and E&lol Bab-diviaoiM, 
employs KoliB^ MaBalm^ 
Ghindus, and others. It is 
rapidly developing^ the etdet 
buyers being the miUa it 
Ahmedabad and in other parts of Gnjan&t. The forest and waMe 
tracts yield a large annual growth of firewood now for the first tima 
made use of, and if the railway is taken on to Godhra a still laip 
area will be thrown open. 





1877-78 ... 




PofkA Mahdb ExpoHs, OiUeedi, 1S7S-1877. 





1873-74 ... 
1874-76 ... 
1875-76 ... 
1876-77 ... 
1877-78 ... 








Panch MahdU Imports, Tobacco, 1S7S-1877, 

Of oilseeds sesamtuni iaij ia 
mostly grown in Dohad a&d 
tThilod, and castor oil in 
Godhra and E&loL They aro 
all sent to Gnjaiit. So !m 
the quantities have vaiiad 
according to the character el 
the seasons. But a gradaal 
increase in the export of oil- 
seeds may be looked for. 

Of imports tobacco is tk 
chief. The marginal figum 
show the changes in tke 
trade during the last fifs 
years. There is little to add 
to what has already beeu sail 
under the head 'through tndft' 

Like tobacco, salt has been treated under the head ' through trada' 

Besides what goes to Milva 
Panch MahdU ImporU. SaU, 1S77. ^j,^^^ ^g ^ ^^^^ j^^ j^^^ 

in and near the Panch Mahals 
But from the former abQeqi 
connected with the canriif 
of salt on pack bullocks i 
accurate returns are ayailaUl* 
The figures for 1877-78 a« 
fadrly correct. At present the import of salt is increasing. 

Fifteen to twenty years am mile cartage rates varied from ^^ 
to Is. (5-8 annas) a ton. ISow the rates are much less. Cvt^ 
tates are usually quoted in the local markets at so much the 40 Ibi* 
man, for the journey, including as a rule transit duties and talk 
Between P41i and Dohad a distance of sixty-two miles the preseil 


Godhra and 

Godhra and 


1873-74 ... 

1874-76 ... 
1876-76 ... 

1876-77 ... 
1877-78 ... 





Godhra and 

Godhra and 


1877-78 ... 




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(5*7 annag) the ton and of this from 2^(2. to Sd. (1^-2 annas) is for 
toUs and duties. Excluding duties and tolls a mile rate varying 
according to season and demand from 2^(2. to 4^^. (1^-3 annas) a ton 
gives the present range of Panch Mah&ls cart hire. In old days the 
carrying trade was almost monopolized by Musalm&ns of the Gh&nchi 
class and on account of bad roads and want of protection was avoided 
by others. Now as the roads are safe and good^ competition among 
aU classes who have carts and bullocks is most eager and many 
persons come from great distances to carry on the Qodhra and P^ 

The only industry of special interest is in Dohad the making of 
lao bracelets.^ The lac is produced in small quantities in Dohad and 
largely in the forests of the neighbouring states of Ali B&jpur^ 
Udepur, and Devgad Biriya, The chief lac-yielding trees are the 
fiph, Ficus religiosa, the khdJchra, Butea frondosa^ the bordi, 
Zizyphus jujuba^ and the husamh, Schleichera trijuga. 

The lac is collected by Bhils and Niikdis who either for grain op 
cash sell it to the Bohora or V&nia grain-dealers at from let. to 1^^. a 
poimd (Bs. 1-8-Ils. 2 a man), who in turn sell it to town traders 
ahnost all Musalm^ns of the Shia or D^udi Bohora sect. When 
b comes to the traders the lac is in a raw state sticking to bark and 
tmgs. To separate the lac from the wood the whole is pounded 
with stones and winnowed. In this state the powdered lac, kanja, 
ia stored, its price in ordinary years varying from 10«. to 16«. fop»40 
toands (Rs. 5-Bs. 8 a man), the cheapest coming from the pipla, 
^kkdkhra and bordi, and the dearest from the hiaamb trees. Of the 
[.whole supply only a little is locally worked up into lac bracelets. 
Q( the rest in ordinary years about 5 tons (280 mans) go to 
^Ahmedabad and 7^ tons (400 mans) to BatUm. In Ahmedabad the 
lac is used for colouring leather, and in BatUm for making bracelets. 

Before being used the powdered lac, Jcanja, is placed in a bamboo 
basket, mixed with powdered alum, wskshed with water, and for 
a day set to dry in the sun. Then it is ground to powder, melted 
in a metal pan, and in the proportion of two ounces to the pound 
'{fire tolas to one ser) mixed with brick dust and old powdered lac 
bracelets. The mixture is melted, poured on the ground, and rolled 
into a round flat cake. The cake is cut into three or four pieces, each 
piece heated and between two stones rolled into a stick generally 6^ 
])onnds in weight. The stick ready, some dearer lac is mixed with 
yellow orpiment, or red earth, or both, and made into small cakes from 
five to six ounces in weight. Then these yellow or red cakes are laid 
M an outside coating, on the first lac stick, in such a way as to make 
it all red or all yellow, or one side red and the other yellow. The end 
of the stick is then heated, drawn out, and then the proper length fop 
p bracelet cut off. As they are formed, the bracelets are slipped over 
Ae oily conical head of a pestle-shaped tool known as the ' rice- 
poonder/ edmela. This has usually a head about ten inches long^ 
frying in size from two inches across the top to four inches across 
the foot^ and a handle about a foot and a half long. When the head 
bas been covered with rings they are carefully heated so that 

1 Checked and added to by Bamanji Modi, Eaqoire, District Deputy CoUeotor. 

Ghaptor VL. 




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[Bombay CkMHafff 

Chapter YL 


Eair Combs, 




without melting the rings may stick to each other. tbiB done, the 
set of rings is taken off, mbbed with brick powder, polished and 
either with copal varnish or with a mixture of gamarine, ehandrus, 
and linseed oil, coloured vermillion, blue, or yellow. 

When the cylinder of bracelets has been coloured the next step is 
to print a pattern on them. For this purpose about two ounces of tin$ 
katidr, are melted into a thin plate and rolled round a small ball of 
glue. The ball is then set on a stone and for a whole day hammered 
by two men, the particles mixing together till they form a dull-grflf 
metallic plate. Next day the plate is broken in pieces^ thrown into 
a copper vessel with a little water in it, and placed over a slow firo» 
The plate gradually melts leaving a sediment sometimes strained off 
through a coarse cloth. The water is now ready for use. Meanwhilo 
a little very fine cotton wool is tightly wound round a small bamboo 
chip and so wetted and pressed that it makes a pad or stamp haid 
enough to have a pattern graven on its face by a large iron needle. 
This cotton stamp is now taken, dipped in the tinwater, and being 
very lightly pressed on the cylinder or bracelets prints its pattern <ai 
their varnish. After printing the bracelet the cylinder is varnished 
once a day for three days, the varnish turning the white markings 
of the tin pattern into a beautiful gold. Then the pattern is 
completed by studding the bracelet vrith drops of tinwater coloured 
red with vermillion or white with chalk. A final coating of varnish 
finishes the work. When they are to be sold the bangles aro 
separated from each other by a knife-like tool. Each banele 9 
then cut, passed over the wearer's hand, and the ends melted anl 
joined. The bracelets are sold two for Id. (a pice) generally in 
sets of twenty-five for each hand. They are generally worn by tiie 
y^nia women of M^Iwa, and by Dohad women of the Bajpn^ 
Patelia, and B&valia castes. 

These lac bracelets are an imitation of the costly ivory BatUof 
bracelets, of which a woman generally gets one set at her marriage^ 
wearing them only on very great occasions. Besides bracelet^ 
yellow and red striped armlets, goUds, are worn between the elbo# 
and the shoulder. Except that they have neither varnish nor pattern 
these are made in the same way as the bracelets. Two of them ael 
for |(2. {a pice,) The manufacture of lac bracelets gives employmeip 
to a special class of craftsmen called l£kli&r6s. Of these at 
families are settled at Jh&lod and nine at Dohad. About haKoj^ 
them are Musalm&ns and half Hindus. 

Another industry is the manufacture in the villages of Jesvida 
and G&ngdi in Dohad of blaokwood hair combs. The makers aie 
Musalm&ns called from their occupation hdnskigars or comb makenu 
Their combs are bought wholesale by Dohad D&udi Bohorfo who 
polish and fimsh them and send tiliem to Malwa, Gujarat^ and even 
to Burh&npur. 

In former times paper, soap, and grass oil were made, and 
Chdmpiner was famous for its cloth-bleaching, calico-printing, silk- 
weaving, and sword blades. These industries have almost entirely 
disappeared. The grass oil made from the large long-bladed 

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aromatic grass known as roi^a, wliich nsed to grow over large stretches 
of waste land was, at the rate of 4«. (Bs. 2) a pound, bought in 
considerable quantities and used partly as a remedy for rheumatism, 
partly to mix with attar of roses. The oil was extracted by distillation. 
A roagh stone oven was built by the side of a stream and in it a 
large metal caldron was placed and filled with bundles of grass 
and water. When full, a wooden lid was put on and sealed with a 
plaster of ground pulse, adad. Through a hole in the lid one end of 
a hollow bamboo was thrust and the otiier end passed into a smaller 
netal vessel securely fixed under water in the bed of the stream. 
The oven was then heated and the vapour passing through the hollow 
hamboo was by the coldness of the smaller vessel precipitated as oil. 

S&ml4ji in the Mahi K&ntha and D&kor in Kaira are at the 
times of their great religious gatherings places of considerable traffic. 
Bnt few of the local &irs are of any trading importance. Except 
aome in the west who go as far as Baroda and Pali most well-to-do 
ealtirators generally bring their produce to Godhra, K&lol, Yejalpur, 
VohaA, Limdi, Oarbada, G&ngdi, and Jh^od, permanent marts with 
resident dealers in grain^ cloth, oil seeds, grocery, and hardware. 
Ifany of the smaller viUages and almost all of the Bhil settlements 
|«e without regular shops, the Bhils doing most of their buying and 
telling with one of their town money-lenders or large village dealers. 
There is also a class of village traders M&rvddi Y&ni&s in the east, and 
vnjar&t Yani&s, and a few Musalm&n Bohor&s and Gh&nchis in the 
)rest, some of whom live in villages during the whole and some 
pnring part of the yeitr. 

^ Though with so scanty and backward a population, each town has 
Jta merchant's guild, maAo; an, regulating trade. Last year (1877) 
with the object of lowering prices the mahajan of Jh^od agreed to 
atop the export of grain. This year (1878) too they did the same, 
fiat at the persuasion of the local authorities the agreement was 
ireacinded. Where members of a craft belong to the same caste, 
Ihe caste council, panch, sometimes hears and settles disputes on 
joints of trade. The councils of more than one caste have, to prevent 
l&Il in wages, been known to join in striking work and occasionally 
^0 castes have together appointed a special council to settle trade 
g^>ntes. The Y&ni& and Sonis, together spoken of as the mahdjan, 
mve been known to unite in stopping business as a protest against 
h distasteful sanitary order. But the combination was partly religious, 
partly social, and neither depended on, nor called forth any special 
trade oi^ganization. 

Chapter VI. 



Trade QnildB. ' \, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

IBomlMj OmttNb 



Chapter YII. The history of the Panch Mah&Is centres in the city of Ch&mpiner< 
History. ^ * copper plate inscription of Shildditya V. of Valabhi bearing dite 

404-441 Samvat^ a.d. 348-385^ referonce is made to the camp of yictoiy 
fixed at Godhrahaka and this may be the modem Godhra.^ No otto 
Bablt Hihdu. ^^^J mention of the district has been traced, Champiner is said to 
300-1300. ' have been foanded in the seventh centary (647) in the reign of 
Van B&j^ the first raler of Anhilvida. In the end of the thirteeatb 
centary (1297) the Ghohans retreating from Khichiv^da before thi 
Mfbalma'k Mnsalmdns under Al^-ud-din Khilji became lords of the coonti^ 
1300-173o/ Their sway lasted till the conquest of Ch&mp&ner by Mahmud BegA 
in 1484. Daring the next fifty years the neighbourhood of thecitf 
would seem to have been one of the richest parts of Gajarst. 
Barbosa (1514) describes it as full of well tilled fields and richi? 
all products. So too the author of the Mirat-i-Sikandri (1611) i 
eloquent in nraise of its fruits, its mangoes the best in the kingdon^ 
and its sanaalwood so plentiful as to be used in house building. 
Deserted by the court before the middle of the sixteenth century 
(1536), Cfa&mp&ner^ had by its close become ruined, and muchlji 
the country had fallen into wilds and forests. Under the Mo^ 
Emperors (1578-1727) Gt)dhra became the district head quart«l 
But, unlike the rest of Gujarat, the Panch Mah^s seem never to haw 
prospered under the Vicerovs or regained their lost cultivation Hr 
wealth. Occasionally an Emperor or a Viceroy in travelling from 
M&lwa to Gujarat passed through the district.* But its chief mentiOB 
in the seventeenth century is as a hunting ground for wild elephantt.* 
Maba^tha, In 1727 Erishn&ji, foster son of Kantaji Kadam Bdnde, attackoi 

1730-1863. Chdmpiner, levied a regular tribute, and seems to have held l4»i 

country till about the middle of the centary Champ&ner was seinij 
and the Panch Mahals annexed by Sindia.^ Though the citadel dt] 
Pivdgad was taken by the British in 1803 they made no attempi*»i 

1 Ind. Ant. LXIII, 16. 

9 At the time of Todar Mai's snrvey 1590 (984 H.) Chimp^er waa the oentnc; 
thirteen districte ; Haveli, Dilol, Udhadreh, Jalidreh, TimorBasneh, Chorfj; 
Ch4mp^er, Bohad, Sonkr^, Sanoli, Mohan, Jamnngdm, Walehbad^andGiiAoiitfB; 
Zaminddn. All traces of Todar Mai's survey had been lost, Mirat-i-Ahmadi in fifl» 
Gov. Rev. Rec. 45, Vol. II. of 1821, 673. 

8 Jah&ngir passed in 1617 when Sir T. Roe was with his camp, and Sfaih Jabii^ 
1619 when, at Dohad, Aurangzeb was bom. 

^ One of the events of interest recorded in 1645 is the capture of sevratf-tiiitf 
elephants in the foresto of Dohad and Ch4mp&ner. Watson's History of Goisrit^ 7i 

6 See GhimpAner. No details have been procured of Siiidi4*a oonguett ot Ike na» 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




occapy or administer the lands of the district. Even the citadel was 
restored to Sindia in the next year and remained in his hands tiU 
in 1853 the district was transferred to the British. Daring this 
time, as an outlying part of Sindi&'s domain^ the management of the 
Banch Mahtis was very loose and unsatisfactory.^ In 1825 the 
greater part of the eastern division was covered with forest,' and 
Qiougk some advance was afterwards made^ in 1858 when the 
Panch Mah&ls were transferred to Hie British they were still in a 
veiy backward state. 

Under British rule order was established and with two exceptions 
has been maintained. The exceptions are an inroad of mutineers in 
1858 and a N4ikda rising ten years later. 

In 1858/ after his defeat at Qw&lior, at the close of the mutinies 
ib Northern India, T&tia Topi moved rapidly towards the Deccan. 
The chiefs of Jamkhandi and Nargund haid been in treasonable 
iX)rrespondence with the rebel chiefs in the North- West and had 
inyoked their aid. It is more than probable that if T&tia Topi had 
tetered the Deccan in force, there woald have been a general insurrec- 
tion of the Mar&tha population. T&ti&'s march to the Deccan soon 
MBamed the character of a flight. He was closely pressed by two 
^lunns under Generals Somerset and Mitchell, and a very compact 
lod enterprizing little field force commanded by Colonel Park. 

Colonel Parkas own regiment, the 72nd Highlanders, many of the- 
%i6n mounted on camels, formed the main fighting power of this 
%rce. His indefatigable energy in the pursuit of the enemy allowed 
HbBm no rest^ and eventually brought them to bay at Chhota Udepur. 
^ Fearing to face the open country of Ber&r with such an 
pncompromising enemy in pursuit^ T&tia recrossed the Narbada at 
Uphikalda and marched towards Baroda. He had, by means of an 
M;ent named Gktnpatr&v, for some time been in communication with 
*tte Bh4u Saheb Povir, a brother-in-law of His Highness the Gdikwir, 

Ehd been led to expect aid from the Baroda Sard&rs and the 
rs of the Eaira and Bewa E&ntha districts. Immediately it 
e known that T&tia had crossed the Narbada, troops were put 
( in motion from Kaira, Ahmedabad^ and Deesa f or the protection 
.of the eastern frontier of Gujar&t. Captain Thatcher, who had 
^cceeded to the command of the irregular levies raised by Mr. 
^Xshbumer in Kaira, was ordered to hold Sankheda with the 
inregolars and two of the Q&ikw&r^s guns. He was afterwards 
TOnforced by Captain Collier's detachment of the 7th Begiment N. I., 
^Vhich fell back from Chhota Udepur on the approach of the enemy. 

Tdtia Topi at this time commanded a formidable force composed 
, cl fragments of many mutinous Bengal regiments. He had also been 
i joined by a mixed rabble of Yill&yatis, Bohill^, and Bajputs, who 
'followed his fortune in hopes of plunder. The Nawib of Kamona, 
^erozsha, and a Mar&tha Sard&r, who was known as the BAv S&heb^ 
held subordinate commands. Each fighting man was followed by 

Cbairtar VXt 


Tdlia TopV$ 

1 Bom. Qnar. Rev. III. 359. < Biahop Heber's Narrative, II. 103. 

^ Tina note on TAti* Topi'a raid and the next paragraph on the 1868 Niikda Biaing 
an oontrilrated by the HonourftUe L. R. Aahbumer, C.S.L 

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Tdiia TopVg 

Jl^dihda suing, 

one or more ponies laden mth plunder which greatly impeded dnr 
movements. It was ohiefly owing to this that Colonel Park nm 
enabled to overtake the rebels and to force them into action. 

On reaching Chhota Udepur the troops of the lUja fraternized 
with the enemy, and Captain Collier having evacuated the town, 
T&tia Topi was allowed to occapy it without opposition. He bad 
intended to halt at Chhota Udepur to recruit his men and to develop 
his intrigues with the Baroda Sard^rs^ but Park gave him no respita 
On the 1st December 1858, he fell upon T&tia's rebel force and 
defeated it with great slaughter, his own loss being trifling. Afler 
this defeat there was great confusion in the ranks of the insurgentB. 
T&tia Topi abandoned his army and did not rejoin it till it lul 
reached the forest lands of P&rona. Discipline, which had always beea 
lax, was now entirely thrown asida The muster roll of one of Tatii'i 
cavalry regiments was picked up and showed that out of a strengft 
of 300 sabres there were only sixteen present for duty. The rebd 
force separated into two bodies, one doubled back and plnnderel 
Parkas baggage, which had fallen &r to the rear, the other under 
Verossha entered the Panch Mahals and looted B4riya, Jh41od,LimJi 
and other villages; Gk>dhra being covered by ^uteir's force was not 
attacked. Park's force was so disabled by the plunder of its baggaoi 
and by long continued forced marches, that it was compelled to hu 
at Chhota (Jdepur, but General Somerset took up the pursnit and 
rapidly drove Tatia from the Paneh Mahfls. He fled in thedirectiot 
of Salumba. The Th&kor of that place was in arms, and T6tia i# 
doubt expected support from him, but the Th&kor was too cantioil 
to join what was then evidently a hopeless cause. On readxiit 
Nargad on the 20th February 1859, Ferozsha made overtores « 
surrender, and n week later 300 cavalry and a mixed force of 1501 
men under Zahur Ali and the Molvi Yazir Eh&n laid down thei^ 
arms to General Mitchell. They were admitted to the benefit of di 
amnesty. The remnant of T&ti&'s force fled to the north-east 

In October 1858, instigated by the intrigues of the Bh&a SAA 
Pov&r, the Sankheda N^ikd^,^ a very wild forest tribe, took if 
arms under Bupa and Eeval N&iks, and after having plundered in: 
outpost, thdnay at N&rukot, attacked a detachment of the Si 
Begiment N. I. under Captain Bates at J^bughoda. They weil 
repulsed with considerable loss after a desultory fight during 111 
greater part of two days. On the arrest of Ganpatr&v, the BUli 
S^eb's agent, this troublesome insurrection would probably kali 
collapsed, but the Naikd^ were joined by a number of Yill^yaiii^ 
matchlock men, the fragments of T&ti&'s broken force, who encoan^ 
them to hold out. They occupied the very strong country betweet 
Ch&mp&ner and N&rukot, and kept up a harassing warfare, plnnderiof 
tiie villages as far north as Godhra. 

A field force commanded by the Political Agent of the Belli 
K&ntha, Colonel Wallace, was employed against the N&ikd&dnniK 
the cold weather of 1858, and in one of the frequent skirmishes wA 
the insurgents Captain Hayward of the 1 7th Begiment N. I. ^ 

1 DetailB of the KdikdUs are given at page 222, 

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mwdy woanded by a matoUock ballet on January 28tli9 1859. 
The only snocess obtained by the N&ikd&s waa the sarprise of Hassan 
Ali's company of Hussein Kh&n'a levy. The Subhed^r had been 
ordered to protect the labourers who were employed in opening the 
pass near the village of Sivr^jpur, but the duty was very distasteful 
to Bim^ and his son deserted with twenty^four men on the march 
to Sivrajpur. They were suddenly attacked by a mixed force of 
Jy^iinis and N&ikdds. Seven men including the Subhed&r were 
killed and eleven wounded without any loss to the enemy. The 
pabheddr neglected to protect his camp by the most ordinary 
^recaations and his men appear to have behaved badly. They fled 
jirithont firing a shot directly they were attacked. But little 
DTOgress had been made in pacifying the Naikd^s till Captain Bichard 
Bonner was employed to raise and organize a corps composed 
fihiefly of Bhils with their head quarters at Dohad in the Panch 
fbhils. Captain Bonner's untiring energy and moral influence 
soon reduced the N&ikd^ to submission. Rupa N&ik laid down 
AJs arms and accepted the amnesty^ March lOth^ 1859^ and Keval 
fi&k followed his example soon aften 

■ After ten years of quiet and steady progress, in 1868, the Ndikd&i 
•gain rose in revolt. Towards the close of 1867, Joria, a Naikda of 
Ifae village of Yadek about 1^ miles north-west of J&mbughoda, 
i^egan to act as a Bhagat or inspired man. Giving out that he 
me Parameshvar, or the supreme lord, he claimed to have the power 
if working miracles, preached the purest morality, made converts, 
•ad for a man of his position showed a surprising knowledge of 
Binda mythology and ritual.^ So great was his success that to 
|e allowed to come near him was thought a high favour, and 
Ikninbers of worshippers, some of them men of good caste and 
position, followed him from place to place seeking his blessing. 
About the middle of January 1868 Joria gained a most useful 
adherent in Bupsingh Gobar, proprietor of Dandi&pur. A 
pardoned rebel and outlaw, Bupsingh, though a N&ikda and 
uneducated, from his natural ability., shrewdness, and tact had gained 
pttch power over the people of his tribe. Under his influence Joria, 
nving his scheme of moral reform, agreed to join in raising a 
lingdom of which Joria should be the spiritual and Bupsingh the 
tomporal head. Jori&'s birthplace, the village of Yadek, was chosen 
|B the royal seat. A joint court was established and revenue 
pdlected, partly from religious gifts and fines, partly by the levy of 
iraosit dues. Of these doings and of the accompanying local 
BXcitement, the native officials took no notice and sent no word to 
3ie Governor's Agent then in a distant part of the district. Before 
bng the new rulers took more open steps to advance their power, 
b the end of January Bupsingh revived an old claim to share in the 
"evenne of Bdjgad, a police station near N&rukot. His claim was 

^ He held Bpjritnal ooart, himself sapreme, and ander him many grades of lower 
Mb and ftttendanta, Rnpamgh hia chief aapporter giving ap his daughters to plaj the 
Vt of Gropis. So elaborate was his scheme that it seemed the work of some 
ttihmim or reUgious beggar. After his capture eveiy effort was made to trace 
it&hmaa help. Bat there was nothing to show that Joria had not himself worked out 
nthe details. 

Chapter Vlt 


Ndibda IHHng, 

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Chaptwr VII» rejected. A few days after (February 2nd) collecting a body rf 

Hiitory. N^ikd&s and bringing Joria Bbagat with him Bnpsingb came to 

Britiih. R4jgad. Leaving the NdikdAs and Joria ontside of Qie bamboo 

1803-1879. pallisade^ Bupsingh and hiB sons went into the station and inyitm;^ 

NiUkda Riaingt the Makr&ni garrison to go out and see the holy personage, seated 
1868. themselyes beside the commandant and some other officers of the 

post. After a time the talk ran on Jori&'s spiritual power and 
pretensions. One of the officials holding out his closed hand asked 
in jest if the divinity could tell what was in his hand. ' There is 
death in it/ shouted Oal&lia^ Bupsingh's eldest son, and drawing 
his sword cut the man down. The commandant escaped throagli i 
window and the Makr^i guard, outside of the stockade and 
unarmed, fled. The N&ikd&s swarmed in, broke open the treasnie 
chest and ransacked the place. 

Rupsingh lost no time in following up this success. J&mbagkoda 
about fourteen miles from R4jgad, though a place of no strength, wai 
the chief post in the neighbourhood with a guard of aboat thirty armed 
police. To the commandant of this post Rupsingh sent word : ' Make 
ready to fight^ for Rupsingh is on the way.' On February 4th about 
three in the afternoon, seeing bands of N4ikdas coming towards ^ 
station, the J&mbughoda commandant drew up his men opposite a& 
opening in the fence. From the advancing crowd three Bhagat- 
consecrated champions, their bare bodies smeared with red paini^ 
came forward, shot arrows, and grasping their swords rushed at the 
stockade. As they came the guard fired a volley, their bullets, so iihef 
said, dashing the paint off the champions' bodies but doing them j» 
harm. By this time the champions were within the enclosure, sod 
th<^ panic-struck police, leaving two of their number dead, took tn 
flight. The station was pillaged, the records torn, and the shops and 
houses sacked. After this the village of Jetpur, at the time the 
residence of the Chhota Udepur chief, was taken, the chief flymgfor 
his life. Though successful, this attack on Jetpur did much to shakt 
his followers' trust in Joria. Two of his wound-proof warriors weit 
shot dead. The Bhagat said they were not dead, and sent the bodies 
to Yadek, declaring that if British troops came against them tbef 
would rise and fight. But after a day or two at Yadek the boose 
where the bodies lay was burnt and^ in spite of his explanation that 
the men had died because they had disobeyed his orders, the tndk 
in Joriik*8 power was shaken. 

Hearing that the old outlaw Rupsingh was 'out ' and had sadcsl 
R4jgad, the Agent to the Governor and the Superintendent aii 
assistant superintendent of pohce,^ then about eighty miles oS it 
Dohad, sending an express to Baroda and Ahmedabad for militaiy 
aid, started with an escort of twenty- five of the Bhil corps and by 
cross-country tracks pushed straight for J&mbughoda. On the wtf 
they were met by news of the capture of J&mbughoda» and as wiVk 
their small body of Bhils it was useless to enter the disturbed coontift 
at Halol about twenty-five miles west of J&mbughoda they waited t^ 
arrival of the troops. On the evening of the llth^ 200 men of M 

I Mr. Propeit was Qovemor'B Agent, Captain S^giava Snperinteiideni^ m1 
lientb Wettmaoott aasiataat superintendent of police. 

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26ih Native Infantry^ tinder the command of two European officers^^ 

came from Baroda^ and on the same day the camp was joined by the 

Polke Commissioner.* Next day (February, 12ih), as 200 of the 6th 

Natife Infantry were due from Ahmedabad, it was settled to leave a 

imall garrison in H&lol and press on with the main body to Siyr&jpur, 

about eleven miles east^ on the way to J&mbughoda. Sivr&jpur 

was reached without annoyance. Next day^ the 18th^ one of the 

Alunedabad companies arrived at Sivr^jpur and the other marched 

to Bdjgad to join the Bewa K&ntha Political Agent* During these 

days the Niukd&s at Yadek were full of the wildest trust and zeaL 

Almost every soul, for about twenty miles rounds believed that the 

j^ritish Oovemment was at an end^ and that under Bupsingh and 

Jona a dharamrdj or religious rule had begun. In their former 

fights with trained troops the N&ikd&s carefully avoiding the open, 

bj sadden night attacks^ had wearied their opponents. But now, 

Itt ihey seemed to have given up their old tactics, every effort was 

laadetolose no time in letting them try the chance of an open fight* 

l«a¥ing fifty of the 6th Native Infantry and twenty-five of the 

Giikvir's Makr&nis at Sivrijpur, on the morning of the 15 th the 

lorce advanced safely and without hindrance to Jimbughoda. At 

•Yadek the news that the greater number of the troops had left, 

WiJx)ldened the insurgents to attack Sivr&ipur. News of their design 

Mched the garrison, and the position, notinng more than a bivouac 

^er some large trees, was strengthened by a cart barricade. 

M dosk with shouts of B&m, B&m, the N&ikd& poured out of the 

jforest and led by one of their wound-proof warriors, shooting arrows 

^d firing matchlocks charged the camp. Met by a steady fire 

tbey retired with loss, and before dawn after two more fruitless 

pfiorts, carrying their dead with them, they withdrew to Yadek.^ 

i Early on the same morning (Sunday, February 16th) starting from 
limbughoda the British troops marched against Yadek.^ On nearing 
khe village small parties of Naikd&s were seen scattered over the 
kiE sides and on the level ground. As the troops came closer one 
iaa in bright yellow and red was conspicuous moving about with 
}hsaid of followers, some dancing in religious frenzy, others armed 
Bfchbows and arrows. At first unconcerned, the leader and his 
iand suddenly made for the hill. To cut off their retreat the cavalry 
ad by Captain Macleod dashed forward. But two attempts to 
trike the man in red and yellow &iled and except the police 
napootor and a native officer of the Poena Horse, the troopers, 
Abeving that the NiLikda leader had a charmed life, fell back. 

Chapter Vtt. 


Ndikda Miting, 

t CftpUin Macleod and lienteoant Beay. > Mr. Roffers. 

^ The Political Agent was Major Bartoa ; the officers in charge of the oompaniea 
itptain Sibthorpe and Ideat Barnes. 

^ Of the garrison none were killed ; six MakrAnis and one of the 26tlL Native 
lintry were wounded. Of the N4ikcL&s twenty-eight were killed and wounded. 
f The foroe was under the command of Captain Macleod. It consisted of a detach* 
eat of H. M.'b 26th Native Infantry ; a few of the 6th Native Infantry ; fifW of the 
kjarit Bhil oorps ; eighty Arabs from Baroda ; and about thirty mounted toUoo. 
le European officers present were Captain Macleod, Lieut. Bumes, lieut. Aeay, 
Vtain Segrave, Lieut Westmacott, Mr. Rogers, and Mr. Propert. Agent, 167, 
Eh February 186a 
B 167—33 

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Chaptar TIL 



Against the three unaided horsemen the N&ikd&s plied their arrowi 
with such effect that the Bis£ld&r of the Poena Horse was killed and 
Captain Macleod twice narrowlj escaped. Emboldened by this 
success the N&ikd&s^ though the infantry were close upon them^ kept 
advancing, till as their foremost men reached the bank of a water- 
course, a shot from each of the three district officers laid low the 
leader in red and yellow and two of his chief supporters. With the 
loss of nine of their number the N&ikd& fled, and the rising was at 
an end. 

The slain leader was at first thought to be Joria. But Jom liad 
escaped, and this was a deputy whom in token of his trust Jonahad 
decked in his own clothes. Bupsingh's second son was among the 
killed and Bupsingh though he escaped was wounded. Order was 
soon restored. The people, on the assurance that their miscondiict 
would be forgiven, came in and settled in their villages. The foor 
chief criminals, Joria the Bhagat, Bupsingh, his eldest son Galaliai 
and his minister were still at large. But by unceasing parsoit ui 
less than a month all were secured and after trial, were with one d 
Jori&'s spiritual champions who had taken an active part in tb 
sack of cfdmbughoda, convicted and hanged.^ 

^ This account ia taken from Mr. Propert*8 Report, Bom. Gov. PoL Rec Ko. IWrf 
1868, and from "OurLittde War with the NiikcUU.*' ComhiU Magarinis ^^VHL 

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Thirs are two periods in the British management of the Panch Gbapter YILL 
Mahils; eight years (1853-1860) when they were held in charge for 
Eis Highness Sindia, and eighteen years (1861-1878) since they have 
formed one of the British districts of the Bombay Presidency. 

For years after order had been established in the Bewa and Mahi 
Eintha districts^ in the Panch Mahfls crime was nnpunished and 
wrongs nnredressed, and from the weakness of their ruler the Panch 
MahUs were a source of danger and annoyance to the neighbouring 
states. In 1852 the Bombay Goyemment pressed for some change ; 
their complaints were^ by the G-ovemor General's A^ent^ laid before 
His Highness Sindia, and an arrangement made that for ten years the 
territories should be placed nnder the charge of the Bewa K&ntha 
Political Agent who, with the surplus revenue, was to forward a 
yearly financial statement to the Governor General's Agent at 
Gwalior.^ This proposal was approved by the Government of India 
(3rd Jane 1853), and under orders from the Government of Bombay 
Major Fulljames (30th July 1853) took the district nnder hik 

Before the ten years were over. His Highness Sindia, in exchange 
tor lands near Jh&nsi, on the 19th March 1861,' handed over the 
Panch Mahals to the British Government. In the eighteen years 
that have since passed three changes have been made in the manage- 
ment of the district. For a little more than three years (March 
1861 -May 1864) the Panch Mah&ls continued part of the Bewa 
Kntha Political Agent's charge ; they were then transferred to Elaira 
ind placed nnder the management of an ofiicer styled the First 
tLBsistant Collector, and Agent to the Governor.' In 1877 a scheme 
iras sanctioned for making the Panch Mah&ls a separate coUectorship 
md giving the Collector political charge of the Bewa K&ntha states. 

Though placed under the charge of an Assistant Collector and 
bancially part of Elaira, from their backward state* and the 
X)verty and ignorance of the people, the judicial system in force in 
»ther British districts has not been introduced into the Panch Mah£ts. 
n criminal matters, courts up to the rank of District Magistrate's 
ioorts, are regularly constituted under the provisions of the Criminal 
Procedure Code. Butas Agenttothe Governor the powers of a Sessions 
^odge are vested in the District Magistrate and from his decisions and 


1 Ooy. Gen. Agent at Gwalior 444, 28th December 1852. Govermnent of India. 

560, aid Jnne 1853. 

S Bom. Gov. Letter 1190, 19th March 1861. 

' Bom. Gov. Bee. 1658, 30th April 1864. 

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IBombay GuBttiar, 





£H$trkt Ojlk€r9, 

ViUage Oficen, 

orders appeala and references lie to Ooyemment and not to theEBgii 
Court. Similarly^ in matters of civil justice^ an appeal lies from l^e 
monsifs decisions to the Agent to the Governor^ and from the Ag^ 
to Government. The present administrative staff consists of the 
Agent to the Governor and his assistant in revenue chai^ of the 
Godhra and Eilol sub^divisions^ who, in criminal matters, is a fini 
class magistrate and in civil matters has power to hear appeeb 
from the decisions of munsifs* There is also a deputy collector with 
revenue and magisterial charge of the Dohad subAlivision. 

Since its acquisition the limits of the district have not been 
changed. The lands are distributed over three sub-divisions^ two d 
them including petty divisions. These form two g^ups, Godhra and 
K&lol^ with its petty division of H&lol in the west, generally the 
charge of the covenanted assistant, and Dohad, with its petty iiimm 
of Jh41od in the east, the charge of the uncovenanted assistant. Theea 
officers are also assistants to the extra First Assistant Collector m 
District Magistrate, and have under his presidency the chief manage- 
ment of the different administrative bodies, local fund and mnmdpd 
committees, within the limits of their revenue charge. Under the 
supervision of the extra First Assistant Collector and his assistanl 
or deputy the revenue charge of each fiscal division of tha 
district is placed in the hands of an officer styled m&mlatdiir. Thoa 
fnnctionanes, who are also entrusted with magisterial powers, hsm 
yearly salaries varying from £150 to £210 (Rs. 1500-Rs. 2100). Two 
of the fiscal divisions, E&lol and Dohad, contain each a petty diviaioB, 
peta mahdl, placed under the charge of an officer styled mahaHna 
These mah41karis, except that they have no treasuries to superintenl, 
exercise the revenue and magisterial powers generally entrusted to 
a m&mlatd&r. The yearly pay of each of the mah&lkaris is £71 
(Rs. 720). 

In revenue and police matters the charge of the 638 Grovermneot 
villages is entrusted to 801 headmen, of whom ten vn 
stipendiary and 791 hereditary. S42 of the hereditary headjasffl 
perform revenue duties only, and eighty-one attend to matters of 
police only. Of the stipendiary j^ai^Z^ one attends to police duty only, 
while nine stipendiary and 368 hereditary headmen are entnuted 
with both revenue and police functions. As regards the emolnmoiti 
of these headmen and of other village servants, exoept aocoantaot^ 
and yearly or half-yearly messengers, as the whole district has boI 
been surveyed, details are not available. 

Village accountants, taldtis, who under the headmen keep tli 
village accounts and draw up statistical and other ietan% 
number in all 130 or about one accountant for every fiTCviUagea Mai| 
villages held on proprietary, tdlukdd/ri, leasehold, or similar teniM 
have no accountants. Their yearly series paid in cash, avengii| 
£14 68. (Rs. 143), vary from £1 16«. to £1 (Rs. 18 -Rs. 10), m 
represent a total yearly charge of £1867 (Rs. 18,670). Under th 
headmen and accountants are the village servants 766 in nnmberi 
rdvanidsj pagUj JcotvdU, edid Juwdlddre. They are liable both fa 
revenue and for police duties. The messengers, ha/vdiddrs, are moa^jf 
Musalm&ns, and the rdvanids and others generally Eolis and Bliili 

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{Izcept the messengers^ most of tliese servants are paid in land. Chapter YIII. 
Till the survey is finished the value of their holdings oannot be Jaaii 

ascertained. ▲dmiiuatrationu 

Thte messengers^ havdlddrs, are paid in cash at the monthlj rate of 
I0«. (Rs. 5) each. Of these, eleven are employed for the whole year^ 
and 118 for six months, from January to June. The total yearly 
chari^e on account of these messengers amounts to £425 (Bs. 4250). 
The yearly cost of the village establishment who are paid in cash is as 
follows : Village accountants £1867 (Bs. 18,670) and village servants 
£425 (Bs. 4250), total £2292 (Bs. 22,920.) This, exclusive of the 
heavier charges on account of the rent-free lands, represents a 
charge of £3 lis, lOd. (Bs. 35-15-0) on each village, or about 8} per 
cent of the entire land revenue of the district. 

When (1853) His Highness Sindia handed over the Panch Mah&ls 
to British management, the greatest disorder prevailed. For years 
the district had been in the hands of revenue contractors, who so 
lon^ as they paid the amount they had bid, were allowed to manage 
the district as they chose. Under them was a military forco, 
^Sfondi, distributed through the district in outposts, thdnds. The 
oontractors realized their revenue demands from the heads of single 
Tillages, from chiefs and large landowners who held several villages, 
and from speculators who contracted for the revenue of village 
groups. In the unsettled state of the district most of the 
larger landowners and sub-contractors had engaged mercenaries 
and in several instances had attacked and driven away the chief 
contractor's militia outposts. As the chiefs seldom willingly paid 
^eir tribute sureties were required. These in the absence of 
any body of rich merchants were generally men in a high position in 
the chief contractor's forces. In return for their service as suretieer 
these mercenaries exacted interest from the chiefs at from 24 to 
36 per cent, and if he could not pay billeted on him a certain number 
of men.^ This was the general state of things in all parts of the 

ViUag^ Qfieera. 

State of District, 

I The fonowiDg are examples. The Th4kor of Sonipar south-east of Fiv^igad a 
proprietor of forty villages chiefly waste was indebted to the leaders of two 
■aercenary gangs. One h^ a claim of £439 (Rs. 4S90) and until this was cleared the 
jHtate had, at a yearly cost of £54 (Rs. 540), to keep him and his men. The other 
creditor claimed £511 (Rs. 5110) and failing payment was entitled to support at a 
yearly coat of £52 (Rs, 520). Together the two charges came to £106 (Rs. 1060) on 
an eatate whose whole yearly revenue was not more than £160 (Rs. 1600). To help 
^o free him from debt this chief was, on the security of his land, granted a loan of 
MS3 (Ra. 830). 

The Thikor of Eanjeri was indebted to three different leaders of mercenaries whose 
^Uuns amounted to ;£790 (Rs. 7900), the cost of whose keep was £193 (Rs. 1930). He 
-wwmB granted a- loan of £330 (Rs. 3300) on security of his lands. 

The Thdkor of Bhimaria, a mere boy without male relatives, was deeply in debt 
One JamiUUr had a claim upon him for £298 (Rs. 2980) for which he was entitled to 
9c«oeive in wages £54 (Rs. 540) a year. 

Hie Thikkor of Mehlol, a man of extreme imbecility, was heavily in debt particularly 
fto two leaders of mercenaries who kept him almost a prisoner in his own house. To 
«aie he owed £586 (Rs. 5860) and to the other £50 (Rs. 500) and he was obliged to 
•pay them in wages £142 (Rs. 1420) a year. Government took charge of the estate and 
guaranteed the repayment of the loan at 6 per cent interest. 

The Zamindir of Tinda was indebted for loans of money and arrears of pay to the 
extant of £960(Rs. 9690) ; he was bound to pay £120 (Rs. 1200)ayear to theaa men. 
On the security of his lands he was granted a loan of £303 (Rs. 3030.) 

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[Bombay fitwtteer. 

Chapter YIIL 


State of District, 






district. In Dohad other causes made the disorder mora 
complete. A large number of the Tillages had been hnnei 
to some &milies of Vanj&r&s. In their exactions the &rmers 
encroached on the private lands of some Bajpnts^ who finding 
no redress and^ having one of their number ill-used by tiie 
Yanj&r&s' mercenaries^ went into outlawry^ and capturing the 
Yanj&ra killed him. To avenge his death the Yanjar^'s relations 
collected mercenary troops, and disorders were increased by the 
attacks of some village h&ftdmen who had joined the outlaws. So 
loud were the complaints that Sindi&'s Government sent a spedal 
agent to quiet the country. The agent allowed the outlaws to retam 
to their villages^ but left without making any settlement with the 
Yanj&r&s. They, intent on vengeance^ raised fresh troops and 
seized two of the outlaws. At this time the management of the 
district was made over to the British. At first the Yanjara became 
more insubordinate. He refused to give up his prisoners or to 
disband his followers, and would neither pay revenue nor let it he 
collected. He attacked a Government post and rescued a thief from 
the custody of the police. On news of these disorders the Political 
Agent, with a special escort of fifty men, advanced to Godhnk And 
the Yanj&r&s and other malcontents finding that the British 
Government had taken charge of the district, came in and except one 
Jam&dir who absconded, and a few who refused to give security, 
submitted their disputes to be settled by the Political Agent In 
their new agreements the larger land-holders engaged to empby 
no armed persons without the sanction of the Political Agent, and 
by making them advances on the security of their estates, help waa 
given to those who would take it, to compound the Jamidars' 

When the management of the district was made oyer to the BrituBh, 
the chief revenue contractor recovered the revenueby several different 
systems of settlement. Except those in the hands of the larger land* 
holders, who paid a lump sum fixed by a guess at their probable 
revenue, most villages were represented by their headman who was 
made responsible for an amount fixed on a rough calculation of 
what the village could pay, and what it had before paid. Other 
villages were let in groups to sub-contractors on five-year leases^ 
with yearly increasing rents. In other cases the division of crops 
and levy of a plough cess fixed by the district revenue superintendent 
or desdi, varied according to the caste of the cultivator from 4t. to 
£1 lOs. (Bs. 2-Bs. 15) a plough, or, at the rate of seven acres (15 
bighda) to a plough, a bigha rate of from dd. to 28. (2 annas-'Re. !)• 
When spice, sugarcane, and other rich crops were grown, an extra 
cess was levied. In villages where a division of crops was in force 
the Government share varied from a third to a hall 

Under British management the position of the large landlordfli 
Th4kors and T41ukd&rs, has as far as possible been left unchanged. 
These proprietors are chiefly Kolis, locally known as Th&kors and 
T41uk&rs. Their estates, varying in size from a share in one village 

I Pol. Agent to Gov. 2lBt Dec. 18^ 

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to a group of forty op fifty villages, are pretty generally distributed 
over the whole of the Panch Mahals, and are perhaps most nmneroua 
in the western sab-divisions. The steps taken in 1853 to free them 
from their bondage to the leaders of the mercenary troops were for 
the time snccessful. Bat their carelessness and want of thrifti 
together with their practice of dividing their lands equally amongst 
all the members of tne family, have led to many of them falling into 
a state of much poverty. The only villages of this class into which 
any change has as yet been introduced, are twenty-three Kdlol 
meJi/vdsi villages, whose lands were surveyed and their Government 
rental fixed in 1873.^ In other parts of the district the rental paid 
at the introduction of British rule has been continued. The 
landlord's relations to his tenants have in no way been changed. 
There is no fixed system of recovering rents. The mode of realizing 
them, and the amount realized, differ not only in the various estates, 
but even in different villages in the same property. In one respect 
the practice would seem to be the same over the whole district, 
the proprietor never turns out his tenant. 

One point that very early came to notice in the management of 
Oovemment, khdlsa, villages was the very large area of alienated 
land.^ An inquiry made in 1853-54 showed that the possession of 
much of this land was supported by no regular title deeds, and, 
w^here deeds were produced, they showed that the land had been 
bought or taken in mortgage from people who had paid the 
Government assessment or were bound to perform certain services. 
The results of this inquiry were laid before His Highness Sindi&'s 
G-ovemment. But as they did not approve of such a course no steps 
iprere taken to resume illegal alienations.' In 1865 claims to 
alienations were registered and classified. And in 1872 a set of 
roles was drawn up for the settlement of claims.^ These rules 
provided that lands alienated for religious or charitable purposes 
should be continued, either if their value was allowed for in the 
excbange of territory with Sindia, or if between 1853 and 1860, they 
-were recognized as rentfree; that personal grants free from a 
stipulation of service should on payment of one-eighth of the full 
rental be continued, either if their value was allowed for in the 
exchange with Sindia, or if between 1853 and 1860 they were 
recognized as rentfree and registered in 1865 ; that unless the claim 
seemed entirely unfounded, lands registered in 1865 should be 
continued on payment of a quitrent of one quarter to one hsii of the 
Bnnrey assessment ; that village officers' claims should be settled 
Emder the rules for village officers' emoluments ; and that, unless one 





1 As the holders refused the conditions offered by Govemment, the villages have 
joxk (1878) made khdlaa or Government. 

9 The f oUowinff details show how mnch of the Panch Mah&ls land is nominally 
JienJbted. In Kfiol (1856) a snrvey of 22 villages showed 29,206 bighds of rentpaying 
kod 15,203 of quit or rentfree land (Bdajor Wallace 71 A., 12th September 1856) ; 
n Oodhra (1860) of 52,127 bighd8 surveyed, 24^367 were quit or rentfree ; the survey 
^ the whole of E^ol (1871) shows of 80,651 acres, 19,047 quit or rentfree, and the 
ktdhim (1874) survey shows 25,389 out of 101,925. 

s Majcrr Buckle 811,6th December 1860. 

4 Ck>v. Res. 4666, 19th September 1872. 

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[Bombay Quette, 



CSiapter VUI. of them proved his riglit in a civil conrt, land claimed by several 
Land persons but not in the possession of any of them, shonld be folly 

AdministratioB. assessed. Under these rales^ since 1872^ the alienations are being 
gradually settled. 

For the collection of rents from Government lands, when tin 
headman was unwilling to become responsible, an aocountanfe was 
appointed and their rents recovered from the cultivators direct. In 
other respects the systems in force at the time of transfer were for 
some years continued unchanged. Between 1855 and 1858 some 
villages of Godhra and Kilol were roughly surveyed, and with the 
view of introducing a cash acre-rate, experienced headmen wen 
brought from Kaira, and fields classified according to the quality 
of their soil, their position, and the caste of their cultivators. But 
the change was limited in Godhra to the town and five viUages, sod 
in K&Lol to the town and fifteen villages. 

Snirey Systom. When, in 1861, they became a British district the Panch MaUb 

were thought too backward for the regular survey. Since then 
«s tillage has spread and the district become more settled, tb 
survey has been introduced, into K^lol in 1871 and into Godlm 
in 1874. Dohad has also been surveyed. But as the two laat 
seasons have been unfavourable, the new rates have not yet beea 
introduced. The result of the introduction of survey rates into Eflol 
was in the best dry crop lands a slight acre rise from 58. lli<L 
to 68. (Bs. 2-15-7— Ba. 8) ; in the best garden lands a &dl from £2 19f. 
S^d. to 18«. (Bs. 29-10-4— Bs. 9), and in the best rice lands a riss 
from lU. lOid. to £1 4a. (Bs. 5-15-8— Bs. 12). In Godhra all tb 
rates were lowered; the best dry crop from 5«. ll^d. to 38.61 
(Bs. 2-15-5— Bs. 1-12-0), the best garden from £1 14<. Oi^I. to &. 
(Bs. 17-0-8— Bs. 8), and the best rice from lOs. 4|^ to 78. 61 
(Bs. 5-3-1— Bs. 8-12-0.) The financial result was in E&lol anincieiia 
from £4608 IQs. 6}d. (Bs. 46,038^6) to £5484 28. (Bs. 54,841) 
or 19 per cent, and in Godhra from £8916 is. (Bs. 89,161) to £3927 
98. lOid. (Bs. 39,274-15) or 0*29 per cent The iollowiag two 
statements give the chief details : 

Paneh Mdhdla Survey RcOea, 187U187S. 

VoBim Acu Baim. 













Bs. a. p. 

3 16 7 

ai0 i 

B«.«. p. 
1 1 10 
1 1 10 

Bfca, p. 
30 10 4 
17 S 

Bs. •. pw 

8 8 4 


BSL ». p. 
6 16 8 
6 8 1 

3 S t 
8 81 




1 13 

1. 4 


6 4 


6 4 8! 







PaMth MahdU Land Reoenue, 1S71'WS, 


B& a. pw 

40,918 tlO 

of the 
yeir before 

Be. •• 1^ 
40^088 4 6 

Old Btbtim. 



Bo. «. p. 
46,088 4 6 

Be. a. IK 
18 8 
10 8 

BCi ft. p« 
80,374 16 

Bete per 


Be. a. p. 
1 If 7 

Chapter Yin* 




Since the distriot came nnder their control^ one of the chief arms 

of British officers has been to attract settlers to the Panch Mahfla 

waste lands. In 1862 the Political Agent was of opinion that, on 

acconnt of the wild N&ikda neiehbourhood, and because of its 

nnliealthy climate, there was little chance of Abetting strangers to settle 

in Hflol, and that Kfilol in the west^ and Dohad and tmfilod in the 

east^ offered settlers inducement enough without anj special help 

from Ooyemment. To (Jodhra, he thought^ some effort should be 

made to attract colonist& Accordingly an agent on £2 (Rs. 20) a 

month was for one year employed to collect colonists,^ and small 

settlers, on their promise to build good houses and not leave the 

district for ten years, 'were offered timber and land rentfree for two 

years, the rent rising to one-quarter in the third, one-half in the 

fifth, three-quarters in the seventh, and full rates in the ninth year. 

A setUer able to found a village was, if he wished it, to be made 

headman, and for every ten acres (twenty hwhas) brought under 

tillage, was to receive one acre rentfree.^ In 1864 hmds were 

offered at \s. a higha with, if they were covered with brushwood, 

remission for one year, and to encourage new villages. Government 

promised to help the founders by granting timber and by sinking a 

well. Theseterms failed to tempt colonists, andin 1866 to small settlers 

land was offered rentfree for three years and then for four more 

at half the regular assessment' In addition to these concessions, 

large settlers were, for every twenty highas brought under tillage 

within seven years,^ offered the gift of one higka of rentfree land. 

Under these teorms inthe three following years a considerable number 

of settlers took up land.' But they were all poor men, chiefly Bhils 

and Eolis. As yet the offer was not tempting enough to overcome 

the dislike of Eanbis of position and capiieJ to leave Kaira for the 

wild and unhealthy Mah41s. A new set of rules was accordingly 

drawn up' in 1870. With some slight changes they are still in 

force. These rules provide : 


1 Bom. Got. Heo. 1758, 2nd May 1862. 
9 Bom. Got. Res. 1758, 2nd May 1862. 
S Bom. Got. Km. 1891, 23rd Kay 1866. 
4 Bom. Got. Km. 2065, 2Ist May 1869. 

* Lea868 werefldren under the rales of 1866 for eolonianji; leTeral deiertad 
TiDa^ tnoh as Cnandan, Isanr^ Chabanpor, and Salisimli m the Godhra sub- 


• Bom. Got. Besolntions Noe. 5834, 26th November 1870 ; 3784, 3id Jnly 1873, 
and 4641 , 17th Angnit 1875. 

B 167— 34 

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[Bombay Gawttoer, 



CaM^tor TIIL 


Tnaiit Dbm. 

That colonists bringing large bodies of settlers sbonld reoeiYe 
from SO to 5000 acres of land ; that they should hold it rent- 
free for five yearSj and then pay 6d. (4 a«.) an acre till tibe 
tenth year, then Is. 6d. (12 as.), or if less^ the survey rate, till the 
twenty*fifth year when the land woidd be re-asaessed; that 
every fifth year an additional fourth of the whole area shooldbe 
brought under tUlage, and that security should be f nm isbed. 
Grants of rentfres land were also promised,^ the trees were with 
few exceptions handed over to the settler, and provision made iat 
Government aid in building village offices and wells. 

Small settlers were at the same time offered grants of land op to 
fifty acres rentfree for five years. 

Though even these inducements have not been enough to bring 
any large number of the better class of settlers into thePanch 
Mah&ls, steady but slow progress has been made. An account has 
already been given (page 227) of the arrival in 1877 of a large body 
of colonists to settle in the rich lands near P&v&gad. This, in spite 
of very great difficulties, has to some extent proved a success and 
has cleared of forest and brushwood a large tract of rich land. The 
opening of the railway to P41i has greatly lessened the distance 
between the western parts of the diBtrict and central Gujar&t, and 
with more prosperous seasons than the two last, a steadily increaong 
number of colonists nmy be looked for. 

Attention was early directed to the question of transit duties. 
Under His Highness Sindi&'s management the customs of each sab- 
division were separately &rmed. In different parts of the district 
the same goods were charged different rates. Merchuidiae paanng 
by one route paid more than by another. Some classes of camera 
were charged the full amount, while others were so favoured as to 
have practically a monopoly. Between 1855 and 1858 the dntiei 
were lowered and the mode of collecting them simplified. Instead 
of being annoyed by constant petty demands, the trader might, with 
one payment, pass through the whole of Panch Mah&Is and B4ri}a 
territory. Town dues were abolished, grain and salt freed, and 
niany petty taxes* repealed. Under the new system traffie 
increased so greatly that, in spite of the lower rates, the revenue rose 
from £3632 (Bs. 86,320) in 1858 to £7819 (Rs. 78,190) in 1861.^ 

With this large revenue as a local fund, roadmaking was rapidlj 
on. But under the orders of Government with the 

1 Ck>loni8t8 taking 500 acres were allowed a personal grant of twenty _ - 
taking from 600 to 700 acres, thirty acres ; those from 700 to 900 acrai, forty acM; 
those from 900 to 1000 acres, fifty acres, and 5 more for every additional 100acni> 
This grant was to be first made ten years after the land was tiJien np^ and vosU 
be in proportion to the land broueht under tillage. Farther grants wera promised A 
the same manner at the dose of the fifteenth and twentieth years. 

a Amonff those repealed were cesses on braziers, bntdiers, carpenten» on tbs 
■ale of molasses, on marriages, on foreign traders, on brokers, on nickmakeia^ « 
empty carts and nnladen bollocks, on raw cotton and on vegetable sellers. IDjv 
WaJlace, 71 A., 12th September 1856. 

s The details are, opinm Bs. 10,377, timber Bs. 16.183, and other artidesBs. 51,00; 
total Bs. 78,190. 

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Season BeportB, 

mtrodnetion of the revenue surrey ihe levy of transit dues ceases and Chapter Ym 
the ordinairy local fond oesa takes its place. This change haer for laaA 

the present caused a great loss of reyenne. MiaihiistratiMt 

The following are the chief details of the fourteen years ending 

In 1864 the rainfall, twenty-five inches> was scanty^ beginning late 
and ending early. Bice failed almost entirely and mais&e partially. 
The district suffered from cholera. The revenue for coOection 
amounted to£22,12& (Bs. 2^1,250)and lennflsions to £789 (Bs. 7890). 
The outstanding balance at the end of 81st July 1866 waa £1654 
(Bs. 16,540). Millet ^ rupee prices rose from twenty-six to sixteen 

In 1865 the rainfall, twenty-five inches, was unseasonable asid 
acBnty. But except rice, the crops were fair. Cholera of a &tal type 
was common, l^llage spread and the land revenue rose from 
£22,125 to £22,996 (Bs. 2,21,250-Bs. 2,29,960). £24 (Bs. 240) were 
romitted and £1713 (Bs. 17,130) left (31st July 1866) outstanding. 
MiUet rupee prices fell from sixteen to twenty pounds. 

In 1866 the rainfall, thirty inches, though too soon over was 
sufficient. The crops were good, and there was no epidemic disease. 
The land revenue rose from £22,996 to £23,457 (Rs. 2,29,960- 
Bs. 2,34,670). £30 (Bs. 300) were remitted and £266 (Bb« 2660) 
left (Slst July 1867) outstanding. Millet rupee prices fell from 
twenty to thirty-one pounds. 

In 1867 the rain&dl, tw«aty-nine inches, was heavy especially in the 
west. The crops and pubHo health were good. The land revenue 
£23,458 (Bs. 2,34,680) was recovered without remissions ov^ 
ciatstandings. Millet rupee prices rose from thirty-one to 
twenty-five pounds. 

In 1868 the rainfall^ thirty-five inches, began very eariy especially 
in the west and was at first very heavy. But the late rains failed 
and rice, millet, and some other g^rains were not more than half crops. 
Public health was good. The revenue rose from £23,458 to £24,767 
^. 2,34,580-Bs. 2,47,670). £91 (Bs. 910) were remitted and £1» 
(Bs. 190) left (3l8t July 1869) outstanding. Millet rupee prices fell 
from twenty-five to twenty-eight pounds. 

In 1869 the rainfall, forty-three inches, though heavy was 
unseasonable. Bxoept mLQet and maisse the crops were good. In the 
liot months there was a bad outbrei^ of chdlera. Land revenue 
xose from £24^767 to £26,636 (Bs. 2,47,670 -Bs. 2,66,360). £93 
<B8. 930) were remitted and £415 (Bs. 4150) left (31st July 1870) 
oatstanc^ng. Millet rupee prices rose from twenty-dght to twenty- 
-ftwo pounds. 

In 1870 the rainfall^ forty-one inches, was unseasonable, millet and 
maiseyieldingnotmore than half crops. Of £26,192 (Bs. 2,61,920) 

1 Millet U bdjri, Feniciflariii spioaU. 

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[BomlMqr Oanlteer* 



CShapte^Tin. the land revenue for collectdon, £161 (Rs. 1610) remained outeittid. 
Land ing at the end of the year. Millet rupee prices fell from twenij- 

Adminiftratioiip two to twenty-six pounds. 

^Tl^^S?''*' ^^ ^®^^ *^® rainfall, forty inches, was capricious. In the wert 

it did not begin till the close of Jidy, and throughout the district 
was too soon over. Except maize all the crops suffered. Public 
health was good. Of £27,048 (Bs. 2,70,430) the land revenue for 
collection, £11 (Bs. 110) were remitted and £470 (Bs. 4700) kh 
(31st July 1872) outstanding. Millet rupee prices fell from tweaty* 
six to twenty wseven pounds. 

In 1872 the rainfall, thirty-five inches, was seasonable andsufficieni 
Of £26,523 (Bs. 2,65,230) the land revenue for collection, £94 
(Bs. 940) were remitted and £214 (Bs. 2140) left (Slst July 1873) 
outstanding. Millet rupee prices fell from twenty-seven to thirty-two 

. In 18 73 the rainfall, twenty-eight inches, at first bivourable was 
too soon over and the orops, especially rice, suffered. Public health 
was good. Of £25,715 (Bs, 2,57,150) the land revenue fcv 
collection, £2671 (Bs. 26,710) were left (Slst July 1874) outstanding. 
Millet rupee prices fell from thirty ^two to forty pounds. 

In 1874 the rainfall, thirty-six inches, began rather late bat 
afterwards was seasonable and sufficient with a good harveet^ 
especially of rice. Public health was good. Of £26,109 (Bs. 2,61,090) 
the land revenue for collection, £197 (Bs. 1970) were remitted and 
£56 (Bs. 560) left (Slst July 1875) outstanding. Millet rupee prices 
fell from f orfy to forty-eight pounds. 

In 1875 the rain£EJl, thirty-eight inches, was seasonable and 
favourable. The crops were excellent and public health good. Of 
£26,497 (Bs. 2,64,970) the land revenue for collection, £48 (Bs. 480) 
were remitted and £82 (Bs. 820) left (Slst July 1876) outstanding. 
Millet rupee prices fell from forty-eight to fifty-four pounds. 

In 1876 the rainfall, forty-four inches, was very heavy. The 
harvest was fair and public health good. Of £26,924 
(Bs. 2,69,240) the land revenue for collection, £34 (Bs. 340) were 
remitted and £19 (Bs. 190) left (Slst July 1877) outstanding. 
Millet rupee prices rose from fifty-four to forty-six pounds. 

In 1877 the rainfall, nineteen inches, was short and unseasonabla 
Public health was good. But the scarcity was so severely felt 
among the poorer classes that towards the end of the season relief 
camps had to be opened. The rain harvest was scanty and the 
cold weather crops almost entirely failed. Of £26,052 (Bs. 2,60^20) 
the land revenue for collection, £27 (Bs. 270) were remitted and 
£4609 (Bs. 46,090) left (31st July 1878) outstanding* Millet rupee 
prices rose from forty-six to thirty-six pounds. 

PeTelopment, During the twenty-two years ending 1877 population has increased 

from 143,595 in 1855 to 240,743 in 1872, or an advance of 67-65 

Digitized by V^OOQlC 



per cent ; cattle from 173,859 in 1857, to 254,262 in 1877, or 46*24 Chapter VIII. 
per cent; ploughs from 18,803 in 1857, to 37,141 in 1877, or 10292 j^^ 

per cent ; and carts from 61 29 in 1857, to 8349 in 1877, or 36*22 per Administration' 
cent. The land revenue has risen from £21,410 (Rs. 2,14,100) in 
1864 to £26,025 (Rs. 2,60,250) in 1878, or 2155 per cent. Since 
1864 two municipalities, one dispensary and twenty-nine schools have 
been eatablisbed and 170 miles of road have heen opened. 

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[Bgmliaj GtMtkM, 

Chapter PL 

Fomw Syitm. 



(JM, Stfttiitios. 



In Sindii's time the settlement of civil dispates and the pmush- 
ment of crime, were in the hands of the farmers of revenue, or of the 
Agent sent from Ow&lior. At the introdaction of British mlei under 
the Political Superintendent and his assistant, mdmlatddrs settled 
civil suits. The police was in the hands of an ofi^r^ amalddr, who 
in big matters reported straight to the R)litical Superintendent 
and had power to imprison for fifteen days, l^e police amalddf 
was under the general control of a mdmlatddr who could im^risoa 
for one month and fine up to £2 10«. (Bs. 25.) The assistant 
superintendent could give twelve stripes, imprison for six monthii 
and fine up td£10(Rs. 100). Heavier cases went to the Superin- 
tendent. From time to time steps were taken to introduce the 
British system, and at present the working of, the courts is gdded 
by the criminal and civil laws in force in other British districts. 

For the disposal of civil suits there are at present two subordinate 
judges, styled munsifs, one at Qodhra and one at Dohad. The Godhi% 
mwisif tries all Qodhra, K£lol, md H&lol suits, and the Dohad micni^ 
those of Dohad and tThdlod. Appeals from their decisions lie t> 
the court of the Govemor^s i^ent, and are by bim genenSf 
transferred to his covmianted assistant who has power to hear iheii 
and whose decisions are subject to an appeal to Uovemment 

For the disposal of criminal cases there are officers of three 
grades : the Agent to the Grovemor ; the first class magistrates, anl 
the subordinate magistrates. The Agent has the powers of ^ 
Sessions Judge> sentences of death being submittod for the^' 
confirmation of Government. The covenanted assistant has die 
powers of an assistant sessions judge. Other first clasa magistnier-' 
and the subordinate magistrates have the powers ordinarily ▼^este^i 
in officers of those grades. The criminal codes and laws have noT 
been introduced into the district, but all inquiries are eondoctoaN 
in their spirit ; punishments are inflicted under the provisions of tw 
Penal Code, and all laws extended to the whole of British India ai^ 
held to apply to the Panch Mah&ls. 

In 1854 the district was furnished with seven judges, who decided 
375 suits.^ Six years later (1860) the number of courts remained tV| 

1 The nnmber and value of the raits diapoeed of between 1855 and 1860 a% 
in 1856, 568 valned at £2433; in 1856, 663 valued at £2516; in 1857, 885 tiM,! 
at £6020; in 1858, 967 valued at £5066 ; in 1859, 1022 valued at £3313 ; and K 
1860, 1848 valned at £4959. The average value of the suits decided dnnag tk 
eight yean ending 1877 was, except in 1876, on the increase, the figures rMgini 
between £5 14«. 9d. (Ra. 57-6) in ia70 and £6 16f. dd. (Rs. 68^) in 1877. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




flame^ while tlie number of suits rose to 1348. In 1870 the number 
of courts was redaced to foor^ while the number of suits rose to 1758. 
In 1877 there were four courts and 1353 decisions. Of the four 
courts^ two^ those of the Agent and of his assistant, exercise appellate 
powers and try suits of more than iE500 (Bs. 5000). 

Each of the two munsift^ courts has an average area of 797 square 
miles aod a population of 120^371 souls. The average distance of 
the Oodhra court from the six most distant villages of its jurisdiction 
is thirty miles^ and that of the Dohad court nineteen. The average 
lEomber of cases decided during the eight years ending 1877 was 
1706; the highest was 1854 in 1873 and the lowest IS53 in 1877. 

Of the total number of cases decided during the eight years ending 

». ^ n .o...o^ 1877, 33-29 per cent have 

JB^porte DUCTUS, 1870^1877. ^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

against the defendant in 
his absence. The propor- 
tion of cases decided in this 
way would seem to have, 
during the same period, 
varied between 37'26 in 
1872 and 29-68 in 1876. 
Of contested cases only 
19*35 per centhave, during 
the eight years ending 
1877, been on an average 
decided forthe defendant. 
Withtheexceptionof ] 870 
Bad 1871 when it was 25*35 and 22*80 per cent respectively, the 
mportion of cases decided in favour of the defendant varied during 
ke same period of eight years, between 10*15 per cent in 1872 
od 21*52 per cent in 1876. In only four cases, or 0*29 per cent 
f the whole number of suits decided in 1877, was the decree executed 
^putting the plaintiff in the possession of the immovable property 
laimed. Except in 1876, when it was twenty-four, the number of 
pBes of this kind during the eight years ending 1877 varied from 
9V0 in 1872 to nine in 1874. In 12*04 per cent of the decisions 
jwsed in 1877, decrees for money due were executed by the attach- 
^t or sale of property ; of these 5*54 per cent were, on an average, 
J the attachment or sale of movable and 650 per cent of immovable 
poperty. Compared with 1870, the 1877 returns of attachments 
r^ sales of movable and immovable property show a rise from 
lirty-one to seventy-five in the former and from thirty-five to 
ghty-eight in the latter. 

Compared with 1870, the number of decrees executed by the 
vest of the debtor has fallen from 303 in 1870 to 130 in 1877. The 
imber of civil prisoners has, except in 1872 and 1876 when it was 
xty-three and 215 respectively, risen from ninety-six in 1870 


Civil SUtistios. 







mi ... 



1875 ... 




61 i 







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[Bombay Oaietteer, 



Chapter JJL 


Panch Mahdls ChU Prisoner$, 1370-1877. 



































The following statement shows in tabular form the working of 
the district civU courts during the eight years ending 1877 : 
Panek MakdU Cml Cburte, 1870-1877. 

Five officers^ one at each of the sub-divisions, are entrusted iriA 
the work of registration. Except the sub-registrar of Godhra who 
is special, these o£Bicers are the m&mlatd&r^ or mah&lkaris^ hsd, 
clerks. Besides that of the First Assistant Collector as distnd 
registrar and of his assistant or deputy, a special scrutiny is, under; 
the control of the Inspector General of registration and stamps ^ 
carried on by the GujarAt registration inspector. The regiBtrBti«| 
returns for 1877-78 show receipts of £125 (fes. 1250) and charges rfj 
£160 (Rs. 1600), or a loss of £35 (Rs. 350). Of 444 the total onmber i 
of registrations four were wills, six were papers affecting movihh 
and 434 affecting immovable property. Of the last class, besite 
sixty-three miscellaneous instruments, six were deeds of gifti^^ 
were deeds of sale and 147 were mortgages. The registeiei 
value of the total immovable property transferred was £15/870 
(Rs. 1,58,760). 

Digitized by 






At present (1878) ten officers share the administration of criminal 
justice. Of these three are magistrates of the first class^ and seven 
of the second and third classes. Of the former two are covenanted 
European civilians and one an uncovenanted Native. With regard 
to the local jurisdiction and powers of these magistrates^ one of 
them, the Agent to the Governor, is placed in a special position. 
Tested with the general supervision of the district. Each of the 
other two first class magistrates has an average charge of 797 
square miles and a population of 120,371 souls. Li the year 1*876 
the three first class magistrates decided 179 original and ninety-six 
appeal cases. These officers have as First Assistant Collector, and his 
assistant and deputy, revenue charge of the parts of the district over 
which they exercise magisterial powers. Of subordinate magistratoB 
there are seven with an average charge of 228 square imles and 
a population of 34,391 souls. All are Natives* The total number of 
cnminal cases decided by them in 1876 was 678. Besides their 
magisterial duties, five of these officers exercise revenue powers as 
m^mlatd&rs and mah&lkaris and one is a sub-registrar of assurances. 
There are at present no regular village police ; the matter is now 
uider the consideration of Government. 

The table of offences given below shows that during the seven years 
ending 1877, 983 offences or one offence for every 244 of the 
population were on an average committed. Of these there were on 
an average six murders and attempts to murder ; three culpable 
homicides ; nineteen cases of grievous hurt and hurt by dangerous 
weapons; eighteen cases of dacoity and robbery; 936 or 95 per cent 
of the whole were minor offences. 

At the time of the transfer of the Panch Mah&ls (1853) there 
were many gang robberies and murders committed by large bands 
of Bhils belonging to different states and almost impossible to 
catch.* At first the number of offences reported was small. But 
gradually instead of taking the law into their own hands, the people 
Began to seek police help, and in spite of greater efficiency the 
Jinmher of recorded crimes steadily increased from 496 in 1854 to 1 186 
in 1860.^ The chief cause of the failure to put down crime was the 
«aBe with which bands of unsettled Bhils and Ndikdds could come, 
and carrying off cattle, pass out of the Panch Mahdls. Once over 
jlihe borders the robbers were safe, for there were no arrangementa 
for recovering criminals from the neighbouring states. An attempt 
"Was made to supply this want by the occasional meeting of the 
Kewa Kdntha Political Agent and an assistant of the Meywfir 
PoKtical Agent. But this system, never satisfactory, was given up 
in 1864 and since 1872 the recovery of offenders has been secured 
imder the Extradition Act (XI. of 1872). 

Under the management of His Highness Sindia, there was no 
regular police force. For the maintenance of order ike district 

Chapter IX. 

Criminal Justice. 




1 Major Wallace 145, ISth May 1856. 

3 The total number of offences was 496 in 1854 ; 839 in 1855 ; 1009 in 1856 : 980 in 
1857 ; 883 in 1858 ; 1031 in 1859 1 and 1186 in 1860. 

B 167—35 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

[BomlMy GaMMr; 



CShapter IX. 



was divided among officers styled jamdddrs, each of whom was 
paid a lamp sam from the Gw41ior treasury and was expected 
to keep a certain number of armed men, distributed oyer his 
share of the district. There was also a detachment of monnted 
militia, sibandi. After the transfer of the district, on accoimt d 
disorders and of the unruly character of so many of the people, it 
was thought advisable to raise an armed force of Bhils. With the 
Ehdudesh force as its model the Panch Mab&ls Bhil corps had in 
1858, exclusive of establishment, a sanctioned strength of ten 
9ubheddr8, ten jamdddrs^ fifty havdlddr8,Mty ndiks, one bogle major, 
ten buglers, and 800 privates, total 931. Its head quarters were fixed 
at Dohad, where lines for 600 men were built The Bhil corps [was 
a success. In 1860, though in H41ol and E41ol on the west cattle* 
lifting was still a common offence, in Dohad and Jh&lod, where thej 
had formerly been most rife, offences of this class had nearlj 
ceased.^ In 1861 it was found most useful in forest fighting and 
wonderfully cheap and effective for outpost duty.' In 1867, as the 
district was much more settled, the sanctioned strength of the corps 
was reduced from 931 to 429 men. But in the next year, with its 
reduced strength, the corps was unable to put down the N&ikda rising) 
and its numbers were raised to their present total of 500 men. At 
present (1877) two-thirds of the corps are Bhils and Kolis and Um 
rest Mar4th&s and Pardesis. The discipline is semi-military and 
the men are in appearance well drilled and soldier-like. The 
uniform is a forage cap with bugle ornament, a dark blue tanie 
with red facings, and brown, khdrki, coloured pantaloons. They are 
armed with Saffer^s carbines and sword bayonets. Almost half the 
corps is employed on outpost duty. They guard m&mlatdars' and 
mah&lkaris^ offices, furnish escorts to district officers, and ire 
scattered in a number of small posts, thdnds, in different parts of 
the district. 

In the year 1877 the total strength of the district or r^lar 
police force was, including the Bhil corps, 824. Of these, under the 
district and assistant district Superintendents of police, two were 
subordinate officers. 111 inferior subordinate officers, thirty-six 
mounted police, and 673 constables. Besides these, a force d 
six officers and thirty constables was employed as an escort to 
the Political Agent, Rewa E4ntha. The cost of maintaining the 
entire district police force was as follows: The two Europea 
officers, the Saperintendent and assistant superintendent recei^ 
a total yearly salary of £993 (Rs. 9930;; the subordinate oflScers 
yearly salary of not less than £120 (Rs. 1200) each, and the inferid 
subordinate officers a yearly salary of less than £120 (Rs. 1200) ead 
or a total yearly cost of £2652 4^. (Rs. 26,522) ; the pay of th 
mounted police and of the foot constables came to a total snin Q 

1 Pol. Agent 811, 6tli December 1860. 

> Pol. ^gent 212, 30th April 1861. ^ 

* The details are : 3 wbheddn, S jamdddrs, 18 havdlddn, 86 ndiks, and ^ P"^ 

Betidea these, 36 men employed under the Rewa Kintha Political Agent, rana p« 

of the Bhil corpa. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




27164 6a. (Bs. 71^648). Besides the pay of the officers and men, there 
was a total yearly sum of £497 lits. (Rs. 4977) allowed for the horses 
and travelling expenses of the superior officers ; £300 28. (Rs. 3001) 
yearly pay and travelling allowance for their establishments, 
and £554 16«. (Rs. 55 48) a year for contingencies and other 
expenses, making a total yearly cost of £12,162 2«. (Rs. 1,21^621).^ 
Taking 1595 square miles as the area of the district and 240,743 as 
its population, the strength of the Panch Mahals' police is one man 
to every 0*51 sqaare miles and 292 seals. The cost of maintenance 
is eqaal to £7 12^. 6d, (Rs. 76-4-0) a sqaare mile, or nearly la. (8 as.) 
a h^ of the population. 

Exclusive of the Superintendent, the assistant superintendent, and 
the force of thirty-six policemen under the Political Agent Bewa 
Kdntha, of the total strength of 822 police, 166, of whom twenty-one 
were officers and 145 constables, were in 1877 employed as guards at 
district, central, or subsidiary jails j 140, of whom fourteen were 
officers and 1 26 constables, were engaged as guards over lock-ups and 
treasuries, or as escorts to prisoners and treasure ; 486, of whom 
seventy-four were officers and 412 constables, were engaged on 
other duties ; and thirty, of whom four were officers and twenty-six 
ooQstables, were stationed in towns and municipalities. Of the 
whole number of 822, exclusive of the Superintendent and assistant 
ftnperintendent of police, 566 were provided with fire-arms, and 
256 with swords only, or with swords and batons; 196, of whom sixty- 
four were officers and 132 constables, could read and write ; and 
199, of whom twelve were officers and 187 constables, were under 
iDstruction. Except the two superior officers who were Europeans, 
the members of the police force for whom details were available 
were all natives of India. Of these, twenty-six officers and 186 
constables were Mnsalmans; one officer was a P&rsi; ten officers and 
fifty-five constables were Brdhmans ; five officers and thirty constables 
were Rajputs; forty officers and eighty-one constables were Mar6thfe; 
seventeen officers and 250 constables were Bhils ; three officers and 
forty-seven constables were Kolis ; and ten officers and fifty-three 
constables were Hindus of other castes. There were six vacancies 
and for the thirty-six men employed in the Bewa £[&ntha, the 
information was not given. 

In 1877 of 119 persons accused of heinous crimes, eighty-one or 
68*06 per cent were convicted. Of 2039 the total number of persons 
accused of crimes of all sorts, 1572 or 77*09 per cent were convicted. 
In the matter of the recovery of stolen property, of £1781 2$. 
(Rs. 17,811) alleged to have been stolen, £727 Sa. (Ra. 7274) or 40-8 
per cent were recovered. 

The following table gives the chief crimes and police details of the 
seven years ending 1877 : 

Chapter IX. 



Crime and Police,. 

1 Of tlifs Bum £385 (Re. 3850) on accoant of the police employed under the Political 
Agent, Rewa K^tha, were paid from local funds. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

[Bomlmy Owtteer, 



Ghaptor DL 

Crime and Police, 

PanehMahdU Crime and PoUee, 1871'1S77. 



OmHcn AKS PuHomauns. 

Murder and 
attempt to Murder. 






Orieroas hurt and 
burt by dungerous 














Offencbs akd FmsiBmitsm-'Continuid. 

Other Offenoea. 






















58 04 



























2881 14 
1877 18 
1728 16 
1704 12 
1781 3 

767 10 
1078 6 
590 18 
515 16 
553 14 
649 3 
737 8 




Jaili. Besides the accommodation provided for under-trial prisonets 

at the head-quarters of each sub-division^ there is in the town of 
Dohad a district jail able to hold 105 male and nine female prisonen. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




The gross revenue in 1852 amounted to £20,113 (Rs. 2,01,130), 
Of this £11,378 (Rs. 1,13,780) were spent on the management of the 
district, and £8735 (Rs. 87,350) were paid over to His Highness 
Sindia. The revenue for 1853 amounted to £21,313 (Rs. 2,13,130), 
and the expenditure to £7407 (Rs. 74,070), leaving a surpks of 
£13,906 (Rs. 1,39,060). According to the estimate sent from 
6w41ior to the Rewa KSntha Political Agent on the transfer of 
the district. His Highness Sindia expected to receive £13^028 
(Rs. 1,30,280) for 1854, and £13,764 (Rs. 1,37,640) for 1855, and for 
each succeeing year. The revenue for 1855 was estimated at 
£22,665 (Rs. 2,26,650) and the cost at £8901 (Rs. 89,010) leaving a 
surplus of £13,764 (Rs. 1,37,640). During the seven years ending 
1859 the British management resulted in the steady increase o£ 
revenue shown in the margin. The total amount remitted to His 

Pawh MaMU Revenw, 1863-1869. geven years (1853-1859) was 

£95,613 (Rs. 9,56,130) or a 
yearly average of £13,659 
(Rs. 1,36,590). At the end 
of the year ending June 
1860 there was a balance 
of £13,379 (Rs. 1,33,790) 
in favour of His Highness 
Sindia, This, added to the 
remittance, raises the total 
to £108,992 (Rs. 10,89,920) 
or a yearly average of 
£15,570 (Rs. 1,55,700), or 
£1806 (Rs. 18,060) more than the estimate. This increased surplas, 
in spite of an addition from £8021 (Rs. 80,210) in 1853-54 to £16,657 
(Rs. 1,66,570) in 1859-60 in the cost of administration, is a satis- 
factory proof of the success of the early English management. 

The earliest year for which complete figures are available is 1863-64. 
A comparison of specially prepared balance sheets for 1863-64 
and 1875-76 shows the following changes. Exclusive of £6662 
(Rs. 66,620) the adjustment on account of alienated land, the 
transactions that appear in the district balance sheet for 1875-76 
amount to receipts £46,232 (Rs. 4,62,320) against £35,281 
(Rs. 3,52,810) in 1863-64, and the charges to £37,656 (Rs. 3,7r>,560) 
in 1875-76 against £27,829 (Rs. 2,78,290) in 1863-64. Exclusive of 
departmental miscellaneous receipts and sums received in return for 












Chflptar X 

Eevenue and 



Balance Shei«t, 

Digitized by 





Outpter Z. 

Berenue and 

Balanoe Sheet, 






services rendered^ saoh as the receipts of the post department^ the 
amount of revenue raised in 1875-76 under all heads, Impenal, 
provincial, local, and municipal, amounted to £41,633 (Rs. 4,1 
or on a population of 240,743 an incidence per head of 3«. 5^d. 

Land revenue receipts forming 62*59 per cent of £41,633 
(Rs. 4,16,330), the entire revenue of the district, have risen from 
£21,411 (Bs, 2,14,110) in the year ending 31st July 1864, to £26,(^25 
(Rs. 2,60,250) in 1878. Details^ of the land revenue collected 

during the last fifteen yean 
are given in the margin. 
The rise in the land reyeniie 
in the seven years ending 
1870 was due chiefly to the 
spread of the tillage area, 
and the better state o! 
the people. Except 1865 
when on account of scarcitj 
caused by scanty rainfall 
remissions amounting to 
£789 (Rs. 7890) had to be 
given, these were yean of 
progress. The increase and 
large remissions in 1871 and 
1874 are nominal owing to 
the introduction of revised 
rates of assessment in Eflol 
and Godhra, as the diffe^ 
ence between the old and 
new rates in the first year 
of settlement has, according to the survey rules, to be remitted. 
Since then in 1875 and 1876 the revenue steadily increased, but 
the failure of crops and distress in 1877, have in 1878 brought the 
revenue lower than it has been since 1870. The increased cost in 
collecting the land revenue from £3677 (Rs. 36,770) in 1863-64, to 
£9848 (Rs. 98,480) in 1875-76, is due to a rise in the number and in 
the amount of revenue o£5cers' salaries. 

Stamps have risen from £1101 to £2626 (Rs. 1 1,010- Rs. 26,250). 
The 1876 charges were £64 (Rs. 640) or only £4 (Rs. 40) moie 
than those of 1864. 

From the fondness of its wild tribes for liquor the BEinch Mahals' 
excise receipts are considerable ; since 1863 they have risen from 
£1201 to £2089 (Rs. 12,010 - Rs. 20,890). 

Law and justice receipts, chiefly fines, have risen from £441 
to £565 (Rs. 4410 -Rs. 5650). The 1876 charges were £3561 
(Rs. 35,610) against £1436 (Rs. 14,360) in 1864 on account of the 
improved agency employed. 

Forest is a new head since 1863. But, though much has been 
done to set apart and keep forests, they are not yet a source of 

1 Extra First Aaaistant Ck>Il6ctor 2143, 4th October ISTS. 

PanchMahdlsLand Hevenve, 186^187S. 

Year endlDg 
Sltt Julj. 


balance on 
































































Digitized by VjOOQIC 




income. The 1876 receipts were £897 (Rs. 8970) and the cost of 
establishment was £984 (Rs. 9840.) 

The following table shows, exclasive of official salaries, the 
amoant realized from the different assessed taxes levied between 
1862 and 1873. Owing to their variety of rates and incidence, it is 
difficult to make any satisfactory comparison of the results : 

Panch MahdU Assessed Taxes, 18€g'187£^ 



Below £60. 

Above £60. 

Income Tax, 













Lkense Tax. 







CertificaU Tax. 







Income Tax. 










Transit duties levied on opium chests passing through the district, 
credited in 1863-64 to local funds, are now credited to customs and 
form part of the Imperial revenue. 

There is no telegraph office in the district. The post receipts have 
risen from £190 (Rs. 1900) in 1863, to £954 (Rs. 9540) in 1876. 

Police charges have risen from £10,816 to £12,326 (Rs. 1,08,160- 
Rs. 1,23,260). Jail charges amounting in 1876 to £1543 (Rs. 15,430) 
are a new item. 

In the following balance sheets of 1863-64 and 1875-76, the figures, 
shown in black type on both sides of the 1875-76 balance sheet, 
are book adjustments. On the receipt side the item £6^)62 
(Ks. 66,620) represents the additional revenue the district would 
yield, had none of its land been given away. On the debit side the 
item £1514 (Rs. 15,140) under land revenue is the rental of the 
land granted to village headmen; the item £5143 (Rs. 51,430) 
Tinder allowances and assignments represents the rental of the land 
granted to district hereditary officers and other non-service claimants; 
and the item £4 (Rs. 40) under police represents the rental of the 
land granted to village officers for police service. 

1 First Assistant OoUector 1657, 7tli September 1877. The Panch Mahiils were 
ceded to the British Government in March 1861. The income tax then levied in 
British India was not introduced into the Panch Mabils till August 1862. 

Chapter Z* 

Bevenne and 

Balance Sheet» 

Assessed Taxes, 




Digitized by VjOOQIC 

[Bombay Gaietteer, 



Chapter Z. 

Beyenne and 

Balance Sheet, 

Pamh Mdhah BaJme 






the Collector ...' 



Law and justioe 



Interest on advances 

Total ... 


Pnbllo works 


Post ..« 

T\)tal ... 




Medical services 

Jails ... 

Sale of books 


TWal ... 

BeposibB and repa^ent of advanoes and loan& 

Pension fond reoelpts 

Local fondg 

Total ... 

Grand Total ,. 

17,975 10 4 

1101 19 9 
1201 10 
441 4 S 

"U 8 
130 U 1 

906919 1 
<«5 6 8 
897 4 7 

8 9 4 

9 18 9 

30,865 18 1 

34.894 5 I 

R-Administered ( 

iss" 4 8 
19012 8 

1988 9 « 
194 If 1 
UU 8 
964 8 1 

875 17 4 

3489 18 « 


"*4*2 8 

110 8 9 
419 10 
814 « 

37818 ; 
14 i 
16 4U 

4 18 

618 lU 

Transfers and 
Items of Ao- 

4784 18 1 
930018 2 

809119 r 

34 19 9 

6404 1 4 

800 88 

14»035 11 8 

85^1 9 4 

IS Its 

Digitized by 




Shtet, 1863-64 and 1875.76. 



Chapter X* 

Bevenue and 

Balance Sheet, 



«r«>dJatloe {gSw 
lUonnoes and aaaignmento 

ntfloM to Ck>venimenfc asrvaato.. 


S677 11 
60 17 8 






Btributlon to locml funds 
i>lie works 


poalii ntqnied and advanoM and loans 
■1 funds 

ToUl ... 


148ft 14 10 
606 19 3 

4 3 9 
63 16 I 

6848 8 4 

186 3 


46 14 


171 18 




143 1 


10,968 17 

6108 18 10 
4741 9 7 

10^50 8 5 

37,833 6 11 


£. s. d. 

0848 18 


64 6 

984 6 

IIM 7 

3866 8 

867 16 

8148 15 

364 6 

36 18 

16,616 16 6 
MG8 18 S 

846 14 
66 1 3 
137 3 10 

688 18 

Ul 3 9 

12,836 7 10 

819 9 


1648 11 9 

313 6 5 

668 6 

301 14 4 

16,801 8 1 

819 9 

3366 6 10 

3988 16 2 

6199 1 

37.666 3 6 
I968U t 


Digitized by CjOOQIC 

[BomlMy GiiettMij 



ChApter Z. 

Berenne and 

Looftl Fundi. 

Revenue other than Imperiai. 

The local funds of the Panch Mah&ls are chieflj deriyed from tin 
transit duties levied on goods passing through the district. Thft 
regular local fund cess, of one-sixteenth in addition to the ordiBai) 
land-tax, levied iu other British districts has been jntrodnced intoi 
the sub-divisions of E^ilol and Godhra^ in the former from 1871-7i| 
and in the latter from 1875-76. Under the orders of GoTemmeiit 
transit duties are abolished on the introduction of revised rates of 
assessment, and the levy of tCe regular one-anna cess is introdacd. 
This measure has caused a great loss to the district local fontf 
revenue, as the transit duties greatly exceeded the amount of the (ni 
anna cess. The 1877-78 receipts were £6532 (Rs. 65,320) agaiiafc 
£9300 (Rs. 93,000) in 1863-64 when the transit duties wereleYiel 
throughout the district. 

For administratiye purposes the local funds of the district art 
divided into two main sections, one set apart for public works m 
the other for instruction. The receipts and disbursements diuiii| 
the year 1877-78 under those two heads were as follows: 

Panch Mahdb Local Funds, 1877-78. 




£. $. 

t u 

Balance, lit ApriU877 ... 
Two-thirds of tke laud cess... 

4603 4 


m 3 

691 8 

New works 

3824 i 

Cms other than the one-anna 


1205 7 

cess and transit duties . . . 

1696 15 

Medical chai^ges 

304 S 


2352 4 



Balance, Ist April 1878 ... 


Cattle pounds 

Travel era* rest-houses 

151 5 


269 5 


84 13 

Total ... 

Total ... 

9838 14 



Balance, Ist April 1877 ... 
One-third of the cess allot- 
ment from transit dafcies . 

School fee fund 

Contribution (Oovemment) . 

Do. (Private) ... 


2i4 14 

495 14 

118 4 

714 12 

33 12 

24 4 

School charge 


School-houses, now 
Do. repairs 


Balance, Ist April 1878 ... 

Total ... 

1130 H 

84 ii: 

333 8 

Total ... 


161 • 

With the funds obtained from the levy of transit datiee sif 
plemented by grants from Government^ many works of public utifilj 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




lye, since 1863-64, been carried out la the district. To open 
)mmnnication more than 150 miles of road hare been made. To 
l^rove the water-supply 128 wells, 57 reservoirs and ponds, 
Nrater-courses and 1 2 water-troughs haye been made or repaired, 
b help village instruction 12 schools, and for the comfort of 
lavellers 7 rest-houses have been built Besides these works, 29 
iOage offices, eJhords, 41 cattle->pounds, and one dispensary have been 

In 1876-77 two town municipalities were established. The 
lllowing statement gives for each municipality the receipts, charges 
|d inddenoe^of taxes for the first year of establishment. 

^ Paneh Mahdla Mumdpal DeiaiU, 1877. 





fSO 6 

isi e 

39g 14 

71 6 
A4 D 

lt)(& « 


881 19 


94 9 

17S fl 40 14 

£04 04 Iti 


90 19 

«1 10 

163 i 



88 18 


141 IS 

£ i. 



a «. 

80 ta 

£ «. 

8 N 

£ « 

189 18 888 8 

939 11 

fi9 13 1^ 10 m\ 19 


Chapter X. 

Revenue and 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

[Bombay QaxettMr 



Chapter XI. lu the year 1877-78 there were thirty-six Goyemtoent schools, a 

Instmotioii. on an ayerage, one school for eyery eighteen inhabited yiUagM, 

SchoolB alienated as weU as Groyemment, with 2689 pnpils on the rolls ui 

1S77-78.' t^ ayerage attendance of 1765 or 1*32 per cent of 133^539, tb 

entire population of not more than twenty years of age. 

Coit. Excluding superintendence charges, the total expenditure m 

education on account of these thirty *sizG-oyemment schools amonntd 
to £1219 (Rs. 12,190). Of this £715 (Rs. 7150) were debited fa 
Goyemment and £504 (Bs. 5040} to local and other funds. 

Staff. Under the Director of public instruction and the inspector, northen 

diyision, the schooling of the district was conducted by a loel 
stafE sixty *one strong ; of these one was an assistant deputy inspectoi 
with general charge oyer all the schools of the district, drawing a yearlj 
pay of £125 (Bs. 1250) ; and the rest were masters and assistaii 
masters of schools with yearly salaries ranging from 12s. to £48 
(Bs. 6-BS.480). 

Of thirty-six the total number of Goyemment schools, in thirtf 
fiye Gujar&ti only was taught, and in one Urdu and Gnjar&ti. 

The following figures show the increased means for learning to 
•-1878. pead and write, offered by Goyemment during the last twenty-fon 

years. The first school opened in this district was a Gujariti school 
at Godhra in 1854. Two years later, an Anglo-yemacular school ^ wii 
opened in the same town. No detailed information is ayailable fin 
any year before 1855. In 1855-66 there were seyen schools in th 
district with an ayerage attendance of 362 pupils or 0*27 per cent d 
the total population of not more than twenty years of age. In 1865-6f 
the number of schools had risen to twenty *f our, with a roU-call of ISfl 
names,and an ayerage attendance of 1 162 pupils or 0*87 per cent of til 
total population of not more than twenty years of age. The fignrti 
for 1877-78 were, as shown aboye, thirty-six schools with a rofi-cdl 
of 2689 names and an ayerage attendance of 1765, or l'S2 per ceij 
of 133,539, the total popalation of not more than twenty yean d 
age. A comparison with the returns for 1855-56 giyes therdbre te 
1877-78 an increase in the number of schools from seyen to thir^-flS^ 
while of 133,589, the entire population of the district of not moil 
than twenty years of age, 1*82 per cent were under instmctian ■ 
1877-78 against 0*27 per cent in 1855-56. 

1 aoied at the end of 1876-77. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Vemacnlar schools for girls would seem to have been established 
in the PanchMahils but lately. In 1877-78 there was one school ^ 
of this sort with a roll-call of seventy-five names and an average 
attendance of forty-seven pupils. 

The 1872 census returns give for each of the chief races of the 
district the proportion of persons able to read and write : 

Of 47,954^ the total Hindu male population not exceeding twelve 
years^ 1417 or 2*95 per cent; of 18,363 above twelve and not 
exceeding twenty years, 1454 or 7'91 per cent; and of 52,087 
exceeding twenty years, 3769 or 7*23 per cent were able to read and 
write or were being taUght. Of 43,682, the total Hindu female 
population not exceeding twelve years, sixty-seven or 0"15 per cent; 
of 15,834 above twelve and not exceeding twenty years, twenty-five 
or 0*06 per cent ; and of 47,855 exceeding twenty years, thirty-five 
or 0*07 per cent were able to read and write or were being taught. 

Of 2769, the total Musalm&n male population not exceeding 
twelve years, 331 or 11'95 per cent; of 1295 above twelve and 
not exceeding twenty years, 357 or 27 '56 per cent ; and of 3802 
exceeding twenty years, 888 or 23*35 per cent were able to read and 
write or were beiug taught. Of 2571, the total MusalmILn female 
population not exceeding twelve years, eighteen or 0*70 per cent ; of 
1059, above twelve and not exceeding twenty years, fourteen or 1*32 
per cent; and of 3425 exceeding twenty years, twenty-one or 0*61 per 
cent were able to read and write or were being taught. 

Of P&rsis there were but seventeen in the whole district, twelve 
males and five females. Ten of the former and two of the latter 
were able to read and write or were being taught. 

Before the year 1865-66 there were no returns arranging the pupils 

according to race and 
religion. The statement 
given in the margin shows 
that in 1877-78 of the two 
chief races of the district, 
the Musalm&ns have the 
largest proportion of their 
boys under instruction. 
All the seveniy-five girls 
enrolled in 1877-78 in the 
one g^ls' school were Hindus. Of 2354 the total number of pupils 
in Government schools at the end of December 1877, 411 or 17*45 
per cent were Br&hmans ; 6 or 0*25 per cent writers, 2 Eshatris and 
4 Parbhus; 611 or 25*95 per cent traders and shopkeepers, 490 
Y&Diia, 121 Shrfivaks; 238 or 10*11 per cent cultivators, 115 
Kanbis, 80 Bajputs, 25 K&chhiiis, 3 M&lis, 14 Luh&n^ and 1 Eoli ; 
232 or 9*85 per cent craftsmen ; 4 Bhiivs4rs, calico-printers ; 32 
Gh&nchis, oil-pressers ; 50 Sonis, gold and silver smiths, 44 Sutii&rs 

PupUi by Bace, 1866-66 and 1877-78. 




Hindns ... 
"MnHftlrnAnii * 

Total ... 







Chapter XI. 




Pupils bj Race. 

I In 1875-76 there were three such schoola with a roll-call of 119 names and aa 
average attendance of sixty-three pupils. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

[Bombay GaiettMr, 

Chapter XL carpenters ; 2 Eana&ris, coppersmiihs, 46 hvih&n, blacksmitlis ; 7 

jmgtmMak^ Kadifa, bricklayers; 36 Darjis, tailors; llKambhte, potters; 409 

or 17*37 percent, B&rots (404) and CMrans (5)^ bards and genealogists; 

26 or I'lO per cent Hajams^ barbers ; 68 or 2*88 per cent misoellaneona 
workers and labourers; 10 Ealals^ liquor-sellers ; 2 lUvali&s, cotton 
tapemakers ; 1 V&gliri^f owler and hunter; 1 Bh^bhunja, grainparcher ; 

27 Ods, well-diggers and labourers ; 1 Jat, 1 B4ychl, 3 KMnris, 
4 Pardeshi, and 18 Mar&th&s, serrants ; 13 or 0*55 per cent leatber- 
workers, 8 Mochis and 5 Dabgars; 27 or 1*14 per cent religiooB 
beggars^ 9 Vair^s^ 16 Gos&is and 2 S&dhus ; 86 or 1'52 per cent 
unsettled tribes, 3 Vanj&rfc, 27 Bhils, and 6 Ndikdis ; 5 or 0-21 per 
cent P4rsis ; 272 or 1155 per cent Musalmiins. No Dhed or BhangiA 
boys attended tbe Government schools in this district. 

Schools, The following table, prepared from special returns furnished by 

1S55-187& jjjjQ educational department, shows in detail the number of schook 
and pupils wil^ their cost to Grovemment : 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



































•009 , 






"8 : 











%i 2( s 

^ f-l « 

•tt "S 

^ T 


B a 

- i 


|5 ^ 

Chapter ZI. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


[Bombay Gkuettaer. 


Chapter XL 









a e 


















«8 ;ss 

« as 

^ «g 













"99-9981 qi 


:C- : 

r4 ao»« 

<rt :SS ': 







SS :S^ 

«« =SS : 

^ SS : : I 8 





Digitized by VjOOQIC 




A comparison of the present (1877-78) provision for teacliing the 
listrict town and coantry population gives the following results. 

In the town of Godhra there were in 1877-78, three Government 
rernacnlar schools with, out of 434 names on the rolls, an average 
tttendance of 285 pupils. Of these schools one was an Urdu school 
Bid two were Gujar&ti schools, one for boys, the other for girls ; 
he yearly cost for each pupil was £1 2«. (Rs. 11) in the Urdu, and 
nthe GujartLti 12«. (Rs. 6) in the boys' and £1 (Ks. 10) in the girls' 
ichool. In the town of Dohad there was one vernacular school with, 
mt of 273 names on the rolls, an average attendance of 158 pupils. 
Jhe yearly cost per pupil was 18^. (Bs. 6-8 as.). 

Exclusive of these four town schools, the district of Panch 
hhiia was in 1877-78 provided with thirty-two Government 
'eniacular schools, or on an average one school for every eighteen 
nliafaited villages. The following statement shows the distribution 
I these schools by sub-divisions : 

Panch McMU VtOagt Schools, 1877-78. 









Total ... 














In this district there are two libraries but no local newspaper, 
ke library at Godhra known as the ' Stewart Library,' was established 
1 1866-6/. The number of subscribers is returned at forty-three 
ttd the average annual collections at £24 (Rs. 240). A yearly grant 
I £20 is received from the Panch Mah&ls local funds unless the latter 
re on the decline. The library has a building of its own and is 
tovided with 188 English and 207 Gnjar^ti books and ten maps, 
he library at Dohad known as the ' Enti Library,' was established 
1 1869-70. The number of subscribers is returned at seventeen 
id the average annual collections at £12 (Rs. 120). The library 
w a building of its own and is provided with a total number of 
^ English and vernacular books. 

Chapter ZI. 

Town Education, 



• 167-37 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

[Bombay OuBttoflr, 

CSiapter ZU 




The chief disease, intermittent and remittent fever, becomes 
common after the setting in of the rains (July), and grows gradually 
severer and more widespread till towards the close of the year h 
again abates. In outlying parts so fierce are its attacks tliat 
whole outposts are at times unfit for duty. Next to fever th 
chief diseases are skin affections, bronchitis, rhenmatisni, wornui 
opthahnia and diarrhoea. Before the introduction of vaocinatioii 
small-pox was common among the Bhils and Niikdis ; bat dniinfl 
the last twenty years its outbreaks have become much less but 
The Superintendent of vaccination says, 'as a class the wild races ha,M 
taken to vaccination pretty freely, and it may be said that when oncj 
begun it is easier to carry on vaccination among them than among otha 
people.'i In five of the last fifteen years, in 1864, 1865, 1869, 187J 
and 1875 the district has been visited by cholera. Except in 187| 
when more than a thousand pec^le died in two months, no detaib i 
these attacks are available. The Kolis and Ndikd&s and to a lei 
extent the Bhils use many drugs, dividing them into three daall 
according as they cure the three chief forms of disease, those m 
to cold, to heat, and to wind. Arsenic in some of its forms and H 
impure mercury are much used. J 

At present (1878) there are in the district one civil hospital i 
Dohad and one dispensary at Godhra. During the year 1877, 10,9^ 
persons in all were treated, of whom 731 were in-door and 10,f 
out-door patients. These institutions are provided with 
buildings. The total amount expended in checking disease 
1877 was £1318 (Rs. 13,180). Of this £206 (Bs. 2060) werej 
from local funds. The following details are taken from 
1877 report. Of 403 in-patients treated in the civil hospital, ' 
were cured and 21 died. The out-patients numbered 4232. 
average daily sick for in-patients was 13-24 and for out-p 
42'5. The principal diseases were malarious fevers, rheun 
eye and lung affections, and bowel and skin diseases. The morl 
was chiefly due to diarrhoea and dysentery and to lung 
There were 12 major and 294 minor surgical operations. 
Godhra dispensary established in 1870 is provided with a bnilW 
63 feet long by 33 feet wide. Inclusive of 228 in-patienta, 621 
persons were treated. The chief diseases were malarious teif^ 
cholera, and skin affections. ^ 

1 Snperintendent^B Memo. 24th April 1875, 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 




In 1877-78 the work of vaccination was^ under tlie supervision 
)f the deputy sanitary commissioner in east Gujardt^ carried on 
)y five vaccinators, with yearly sahries varying from £16 16s. to 
£28 16^. (Rs. 168-Rs. 288.) All the operators were distributed 
)ver the rural parts of the district^ one for each sub-division.. 
Sxclusive of 1244 re-vaccinations there were 9841 vaccinations; 
ompared with 9476 in 1 869-70. 

The following abstract shows the sex^ religion^ and age of the^ 
lerscms vaccinated : 

Panch Muhdla Vaccination Details, 1869 and 1877^ 





Age. . 












M940 ... 

rn-78 ... 











The total cost of these operations was, in 1877-78, £423 18)r. 
k 4239) or about 9f d. (6^ as.) for each successful case. Tha 
liare charge was made up of the following items : supervision and 
ispection £268 4^. (Es. 2682), establishment £144 14«. (Rs. 1447), 
id contingencies £11 (Rs. 110). Of these the supervising and 
tspecting charges and 14«. (Rs. 7) on account of contingencies,, 
ere wholly met from Government provincial funds, while the 
q)enseof £155 (Rs. 1550) on account of rural vaccinators was borne 
f the district local funds. 

The total number of deaths shown in the Sanitary Commissioner's 
sports for the seven years ending 1878 is 41,629 or an average 
Barly mortality of 5947, or on the basis of the 1872 census, of 
47 per cent of the total population. Of the average number of 
saihs 4140 or 69*61 per cent were returned as due to fever; 
)5 or 6*81 percent, to bowel complaints ; 813 or 13*67 per cent, 
» cholera; 62, or 1*04 per cent, to smallpox; and 406 or 6*83 per 
Bit, to nuscellaneous diseases. Deaths from violence or accident 
leraged 121, or 2*03 per cent of the average mortality of the 
istrict. During the same period the number of births is returned 
29,161 souls^ of whom 15,269 are entered as male and 13,892 as 
male children, or an average yearly birth-rate of 4166 souls ; or 
i the basis of the 1872 census figures, a birth-rate of 1*73 per 
at of the entire population of the district.^ 

Chapter xn.. 


Births and Deaths^ 

^ These figures are incorrect, for while the population of the district is increasing 
B returns show a yearly birth-rate less by 1781 than the death-rate. In a diitrici 
Bhils and K^d&s the retuTBS are necessarily very imperfect. 

Digitized by 


[Bombay (hiettoer. 










Godhra Sub*divisi011. — The Godhra sub-diTifiion ia bounded 
on the north by Lun&v^a, on the east by B&riya, on the sonth bj 
Kalol, and on the west partly by Baroda territory and partly by ik 
riyer Mahi. Its area is 583 square miles ; its population in 18^ 
74^014 sonls^ or 127 to the square mile ; and ite realisable lad 
revenue in 1878, £5615 (Rs. 56,160). 

Of its 583 square miles, 203 are occupied by alienated^ proprietto; 
talukdari and udho^, villages. The rest, according to the leYenoi 
survey returns, contams 243,556 acres ; of these 103,222 acres oi 
42*38 per cent were arable land, 130,671 acres or 53*65 per co^ 
were forest lands, and 9663 or 3'96 per cent were unarable wasli 
occupied by ponds, river beds, and village sites. From the 103,22 
arable acres, 26,685, the area of alienated knds in Government viUageii 
has to be taken. Of the balance 76,537 aores^ 65,048 or 85 pa 
cent were in the year 1877-78 under tillage. 

Except in the west near the Mahi, where is a well tilled andwJ 
wooded tract of light soil, and in the north where the surhoe ii 
broken by patches and peaks of granite rock, Godhra is a plaa 
country of brushwood and forest with scanty rough tillage. 

During most of the year the Godhra climate is trying. In di 
cold weather, October to FebruaTy, fever is common and the natir^ 
suffer much from the cold winds ; in the hot months, March to Jmifl! 
the heat is sometimes very great ; and the rains, June to October, ai^ 
close and relaxing. The average rainfall at Godhra, during the fifi 
years ending 1877, was 45*73 inches. 

The water of the 311 wells and 134 ponds and reservoirs in Ai 
sub-division is used almost entirely for drinking, washing, and H 
cattle. Only one thirty-third part of the whole area of Qovemmed 
cultivated land is watered. The only rivers of any size are A 
Mahi on the west, and the P&nam on the east and north-east Qi 
other streams, such as the Mesri that flows past the town of Godlm^ 
are little more than local water-courses. 

Except occasional patches of black and, along the P&nam "V^ 
rich medium, hesar, soil, most of the sur&u^ of the district is wod 
lime and granite, rich when deep, and poor when thin. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




The following statement shows the arable area in Government 
villages and the rates fixed for thirty years in 1873-74 : 

Dry nop 
Bioe ... 



Bice ... 






Grand Toua.. 



A. g. 

1085 ^- 
8076 10 

04,805 80 48,076 10 

20,018 89 
1305 80 
S234 11 
2586 15 

85.880 18 34,800 
1305 80 

70,009 17 
1905 80 
4170 6 
0818 95 

90,986 8 
1905 80 

91^1 7 




Ba. a. 

8178 10 

16388 7 


50,661 14 

6790 8 
10,101 5 

67,381 11 


9 8 

1 10 8 

10 7 


1 5 
1 11 6 

15 4 

10 2 

1 10 
1 10 




A. g. 

^5 18 

11,640 21 


75 18 
288 36 

11,640 31 




B8. a. 

6107 13 
104 10 
896 7 

Be. a. p. 

8 7 

16 8 

17 4 

6588 18 

6107 19 

104 10 
886 7 

6 7 

1 6 
1 7 

6536 18 






A. g. 

70.695 7 
9011 8 
8800 86 

76,586 11 

K).618 82 
1806 80 
3384 11 
2586 15 

26.880 18 
1305 88 

01,848 80 
1805 89 

8 4945 ] 

4 6486 ] 

101.096 29 
1905 " 

108,931 28 



Be. a. 

40^978 8 
8278 4 

Be. a. p. 


1 10 1 
1 8 10 

0,614 7 

16^886 7 

8554 14 

4864 18 

34^06 1 


6688 2 

10,437 13 

78^0 8 

10 4 


1 9 5 
1 11 6 

16 4 



1 on 

Oil 7 

Aawacment on Government end alienated land 
Deduct— Alienations 

Bs. a. p. 

73,920 8 
24,906 1 

£. 9. d. 

7392 1 
2430 12 H 


^dd— QnitrentB 

^(i(i~Gxasing fees and lirer-bed tillage 

49,614 7 


10,683 9 4 

4961 8 10} 
139 2 
1,068 7 a 

Total rerenne 

61,689 4 

6168 18 Oi 

The 1872 population^ 74,014 sonls lodged in 18|271 honses, were, 
in 1877, provided with 478 wells and 209 ponds, and owned 10,876 
ploughs, 2232 carts, 27,343 oxen, 32,267 cows, 11,367 buffaloes, 1262 
norses, 8908 sheep and goats, 311 asses, and 400 camels. 

In 1873-74, the year of settlement, 6430 holdings, IcMt&B, 
were recorded with an average area of 14^^ acres, and a rental of 
]3«. 10(2. (Bs. 6-14-8). Equally divided among the agricultural 
population, these holdings would, for each person, represent an 
allotment of 8^ acres, at a yearly rent of 7*. 10 Ji. (Rs. 8-14-10). 
If distributed amon^ the whole population of the sub-division, the 
share to each would amount to 1-^ acres, and the incidence of the 
land tax to U. 8(2. (Bs. 0-13-4). 

In 1877-78 of 65,048 acres, the total area of cultivated land, 21,045 
or 32*35 per cent were fallow or under grass. Of the 44,003 acres 




Digitized by VjOOQIC 

[Bombay Oaaetteer, 



Chapter xm. 




under actual cultivation^ grain crops occupied 83^734 acres^ or 76'66 
per cent^ 13^425 of them under maize, ma%a{^ Zea mays ; 7431 under 
oajri, Penicillaria spicata ; 4704 under rice, ddngar, Oryza sativa ; 
4520 under rdgi, Eleusine corocana ; 848 under juvdr, Sorghnm 
vulgare ; 2050 under kodra, Paspalum scrobiculatum ; 86 under wheat, 
gJiau, Triticum BBstivum; 25 under barley,yav, Hordeum hexastiehon ; 
and 645 under miscellaneous cereals. Pulses occupied 9305 acres, 
or 21*14 percent, 8015 of them under gram, chana, Cicer arietinnm ; 
599 under adad, Phaseolas mungo ; 404 under mag, Phaseolus 
radiatus; 261 under ^uver, Cajanusindicus ; and 26 under miscellaneous 
pulses. Oil -seeds occupied 837 acres, or 1*90 per cent, 811 of them 
under tal, Sesamum indicum ; and 26 under other oil-seeds. Hemp, 
«an, occupied 60 acres. Miscellaneous crops occupied 67 acres, 41 
of them under sugarcane, serdi, Saccharum ofEicinarum ; 9 under 
tobacco, tambdku, Nicotiana tabacam ; and 17 under miscellaneous 
vegetables and fruits. 

The 1872 census returns show of a total population of 74,014 
souls, 66,787 or 90-23 per cent, Hindus ; 7213 or 9-74 per cent, 
Musalm&ns ; 8 P&rsis ; and 6 Christians. Statistics specially 
prepared from the enumerators* forms give the following caste 
details : 2017 Br&hmans ; 43 Brahma-Kshatris, K&yasths and 
Parbhus, writers ; 1418 V4ni4s and 553 Shr&vkks, traders and 
merchants; 2397 Eanbis; 2384 Rajputs; 390 Kdchhids, 8 Mdlis and 
39,776 Kolis, cultivators; 2 Bhfivsfirs, calicoprinters ; 102 Bonis, 
gold and silver smiths ; 326 Suth&rs, carpenters ; 321 Luhirs, 
blacksmiths ; 152 Darjis, tailors ; 3 Kadi&s, bricklayers ; 69 Bhits^ 
and 377 Ch&rans, bards and genealogists ; 555 Kumbhirs, potters ; 
576 Haj&ms, barbers ; 1 5 Dhobhis, washermen ; 878 Bharv&ds and 
Rab&ris, herdsmen and shepherds ; 28 Ohhip&s, calenders ; 64 Grolas, 
ricepounders ; 1369 M^hhis, fishermen ; 696 Bhois, labonrers and 
cultivators ; 80 Mardthds, servants and labourers; 21 V&ghris wid 783 
Ravalids, beggars and labourers ; 33 Eal&ls, liquor sellers ; 19 Ods, 
diggers ; 1766 Yanj^r&s, carriers and cultivators ; 38 B&vch^ 
labourers ; 25 Mirvddis, labourers ; 3495 Bhils and 1387 NAikdas, 
unsettled cultivators ; 83 Baj4ni&s, acrobats; 435 Mochis, shoemakers; 
638 Ch&madids, tanners; 2066 Dheds, 106 Garudds, and 224 
Sindhvds, 908 Bhangids, depressed classes; and 206 religious 
beggars. As regards occupation the same retnru arranges the 
whole population under the seven following heads : i. Employed 
under Qovernment or municipal or other loctd authorities^ 1 120. 
ii. Professional persons, 636. iii In service or performing personal 
offices, 983. iv. Engaged in agriculture and with animals, (a) 
cultivators 17,092 ; (6) labourers 144; total 17,236. v. Engaged 
in commerce and trade, 1610. vi. Employed in mechanical arts, 
manufactures and engineering operations, and engaged in the sale of 
articles manufactured or otherwise prepared for consumption^ 3612. 
vii. Miscellaneous persons not classed otherwise, (a) womea 
19,460 andchQdren 29,059, in all 48,519; and (&) miscellaneons 
persons 298 ; total 48,817. 

Kalol Sub-division. — K&lol is bounded on the north by 
Godhra ; on the east by B&riya ; on the south by the petty division 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




of H&lol ; and on the west by Baroda and the P&nda Mehv^s. 
Compact in form, abont twenty miles from east to west^ and ten from 
north to sonth^ it has an area of 145 sqaare miles^ a population in 1872 
of 40^505 fionls^ and in 1878 a realizable land revenae of £6644 
(B& 66,440). 

Of its 145 square miles, 19 are occupied by tdlvkd&ri and alienated 
villages. The rest, according to the revenue survey returns, contains 
80,652 acres; 74,107 acres, or 91*88 per cent of these were arable 
and 6545 or 8*11 per cent were unarable waste occupied by ponds, river 
beds, and village sites. From the 74,107 arable acres, 19,047 the 
area of alienated lands in Government villages has to be taken. Of 
the balance 55,060 acres, 27,505 or 49-95 per cent were in 1877-78 
under tillage. 

Open to the west and with some slightly rising ground and patches 
of brushwood to the east, K&lol is a rich, well wooded plain, its fields 
fenced by high hedges and rows of brab palms, and its villages as 
comfortable and weU built as those of Kaira. The eastern hSls of 
metamorphic rock do not rise more than a few hundred feet above 
the plain. About Ar&dra they are quaintly capped with grey granite 
boulders, that look as if about to slip down the smoo& hill side. 
The granite stones used for the embankment of the MaMv lake 
were taken from these hiUs. 

The average yearly rainfaU is returned at 41 inches. Both in 
climate and water E&lol is better than Godhra or H&lol. 

This sub-division is crossed from east to west by three rivers, the 
Mesri in the north, the Goma in the centre, and the Karad in the 
south. Rising in the Bdriya highlands and flowing to the Mahi 
ihey are alike in being dangerous torrents during the rains and in 
losing their flow of water soon after the cold season begins. In 
other points they are unlike. The Karad flows over a rocky bed 
between high steep banks, while the banks of the Mesri and Goma 
are low and their beds sandy. There are 102 reservoirs and ponds, 
and of 499 wells 249 are used for watering fields. The Mal&v 
reservoir, the largest in the sub-division, waters a large area of rice 
and sugarcane. The water of the other ponds is used only for 
watering rice and for domestic purposes. 

Light, goraduy is the most common soil all over the sub-division ; 
medium, hesar, is found in some low-lying villages ; pure black soil 
is unknown. The light soil varies much in qualifcy. Inferior towards 
the north-east, near E&lol it is very high class, chalky and sticky, 
though somewhat sandy. 

Chapter Xin. 




Digitized by 








[Bombay GaMtlaei; 



The following atatemont shows tho arable area in Govenunent 
villages aad the rates fixed for thirty years in 1870-71 : 

Kdlol Rent BoU, 1870-71. 




Dry orop 

Diy omQ 




Dry orop ,— 








QnadTV>taL 48,401 






B. «.!». 

1 6 1 
4 7 
8 11 6 







1 13 8 

9 10 
8 14 

9 8 10 

1 6 10 
4 7 
8 13 6 

1 U 














34,706 17,800 


u. a. Pl 

8 6 4 
8 10 4 

Oil 8 

10 11 
8 6 4 
3 10 4 

11 8 









Aa^. Af««. 










4 6U 
810 f 

1 6 8 

1 910 
4 7 9 
8 14 

8 810 

1 8U 

AaieBsment on GoTemmeiit and alienated land ... 

Ba. a. p. 

1,15^8 4 
42,633 10 

£. B. d. 

11^ 16 6 
4263 7 3 

Remaina ..• t.« ..• ••. «•• 

uldd— Quit-renta 

Adc^-Qnnjig f eea and river-bed tillage 

72,714 10 
8843 4 
1856 10 11 

7271 » 3 
884 6 6 
185 13 4 

Total revenue ... 

83,414 8 11 

8341 9 li 

The 1872 population^ 40^505 souls lodged in 9919 houBes^ were, in 
1877^ provided with 578 wells and 174 ponds^ and owned 5875 

E loughs, 1886 carts, 13,057 oxen, 9480 cows, 4015 bn&loes, 443 
orses, 3401 sheep and goats, and 359 asses. 
In 1870-71, the year of settlement, 7113 holdings, ftAa<a«, were 
recorded with an average area of 5|^ acres, and a rental of ISs. 
4(2. (Bs. 9-2-8). Equally divided among the agricultural popula- 
tion, these holdings would, for each person, represent an allotment 
of 2^^ acres at a yearly rent of 5«. S^d. (Rs. 2-10-2). If distributed 
among the whole population of the sub-division, ike share per head 
would amount to 1|4- acres, and the incidence of the land-tax to 
3*. Hid. (Rs. 1-15-8). 

In 1877-78 of 27,505 acres, the total area of cultivated land, 3884 
or 13"93 per cent were fallow or under grass. Of the 23,671 a(a«s 
under actual tillage, grain crops occupied 20^129 acres, or 
85*03 per cent, 9477 acres of them under bdjri, Penicfllaria 
epicata; 4075 under ragi, Eleusine corocana; 4037 under rio^ 
ddngar, Oryza sativa ; 1003 under kodra, Paspalnm scrabi- 
culatum; 720 under ^t^var. Sorghum vulgare; 308 under inaiM> 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


makdi, Zea mays ; 10 under wheat, ghou, Tritioum asstiTam ; and 499 Chapter xllL 

under miscellaneons grains. Palses occupied 2946 acres^ or 12*44 8ub-dmsi0Ai« 

per cent, 974 acres of them under mag, Phaseolus radiatus ; 706 ka'lol. 

under tuver, Cajanus indicus ; 254under gram, chana, Cicer arietinum; 

30 under adad^ Phaseolus mungo } and 982 under miscellaneous 

pulses. Oil seeds occupied 300 acres, or 1*26 per cent, 189 of them 

under tal, Sesamum indicumi and 111 under other oil seeds. 

Fibres occupied 187 acres, or 0*57 per cent, 81 of them under cotton, 

kapds, QoBsypium herbaceumj and 106 under Bombay hemp, san, 

Crotalaria juncea. Miscellaneous crops occupied 159 acres, or 0*67 

per cent^ 83 of them under sugarcane, serdi, Saccharum officinarum ; 

15 under tobacco, tambahi, Nicotiana tabacumj and 61 under 

miscellaneous regetables and fruits. 

The 1872 census returns show of a total population of 40,505 PeopU, 

souls, 88,835, or 95'87 percent Hiudus; 1668, or 4-10 per cent •'^^' 

Muscdm&ns; 4 P&rsis ; and 8 Christians. Statistics specially prepared 
from the enumerators^ forms give the following caste details : 2886 
Br&hmans; 6 Brahma-Eushatris, writers; 1717 Y&ni&s and 198 
Shr&vaks, traders and merchants; 1700 Kanbis, 1216 Rajputs, 336 
K&$hhi4s, 25 M&lis, and 24,069 Eolis, cultivators; 74 Bh&vsltrs, 
calicoprinters ; 146 Sonis, gold and silver smiths ; 368 Suth&rs, 
carpenters; 389 Luh4rs^ blacksmiths ; 246 Darjis, tailors ; 12 Sal&ts, 
masons; 102 Bh&ts and Gh&rans^ bards and genealogists; 310 
Kumbhirs, potters ; 463 Haj&ms, barbers ; 21 Dhobhis, washermen ; 
164 Bharv6ds and Bab^s, herdsmen and shepherds; 40 Go14b, 
rice-pounders; 116 Bhois, labourers and cultivators; 82 Purabi&a 
and Mar&th&s, servants ; 51 Y&ghris and 569 B&vali&s, beggars and 
labourers; 192 Ods, diggers; 40 Bhils and N&ikd&s, unsettled 
cultivators ; 840 Mochis, shoemakers ; 868 Ch4madids, tanners ; 1 498 
Dheds ; 145 Garud&s ; and 1184 Bhangids, depressed classes, and 231 
religious beggars. As regards occupation the same return arranges 
the whole population under the seven following heads : i. Employed 
under Government or municipal or other local authorities, 620. 
ii. Professional persons, 272. iii. In service or performing personal 
ofKces, 177. iv. Engaged in agriculture and with animals^ (a) 
cultivators 8784, (6) labourers 148, total 8877. v. Engaged in 
commerce and trade, 400. vi. Employed in mechanical arts, 
manufactures and engineering operations, and engaged in the sale 
of articles manufactured or otherwise prepared for consumption, 
2389. vii. Miscellaneous persons not classed otherwise, (a) women 
11,175 and children 16,294, in all 27,469 and (6) nuscellaneous 
persons 801, total 27,770. 

Halol Petty Division. The petty division of Hdlol under Ha lol. 

K&lol is bounded on Ihe north by Kalol, on the east by B&riya, 
J&mbughoda, and Chhota IJdepur ; and on the south and west by 
JSaroda. Its area is 261 square miles ; its population in 1872, 26,926 
souls, and its realizable land revenue in 1878, £2437 (Bs. 24,370.) 

Of its 261 square nules, 128 are occupied by alienated and tdbMoH 

yiUages, The rest according to the revenue survey returns 

contains 85,411 acres; of these, 82,987 acres or 97*16 per cent including 

filienated lands in G-ovemment villages and lands under the forest 

B 107-38 


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Rent Rod 





department of wUch details are not available^ were arable and 2424 
acres or 2*84 per cent were unarable waste occupied by ponds, 
river-beds, and village sites* 

H&lol is a well wooded and well tilled plain snrronnding tbe great 
hill of P&v&gad. To the east and south, low, isolated, scantily 
wooded hills, stand out from a rich black-soil plain^ most of it waste 
and covered with brushwood. 

Especially within four or five miles of the hills the water is said 
to be poisonous, and the climate very unhealthy. The average 
rainfall is 40*44 inches* 

Three rivers cross Halol from east to west. The Karad on the 
north, the Vishvimitri in the centre from P&v&gad, and on the 
south the Devnadi from the B&riya hills. The Devnadi flowing 
south-west is afterwards known in Broach as the Dh&dhar. There 
are 72 ponds and reservoirs, two of them the Vadu and Jflihariya 
of great size. Water is everywhere near the surface, and round 
H&Iol there are very many wells. With a richer and less nide 
peasantry, much of the sub-division might be watered. 

To the north the soil is light, gorddu, to the east it is sandy, and 
to the south and west it is black. 

As Halol has not yet been surveyed it is without the usual 
assessment and occupancy details. 

The 1872 population 25,926 souls, lodged in 6612 houses, were^ 
in 1877, provided with 852 wells and 114 ponds, and owned 3986 
ploughs, 1563 carts, 10,002 oxen, 15,859 cows, 6147 buffaloes, 868 
horses, 5854 sheep and goats, 168 asses, and 5 camels. 

In 1877-78 of 13,713 acres the total area of cultivated land, 1750 
or 12*76 per cent were fallow or under grass. Of the 11,963 acrei 
under actual cultivation, grain crops occupied 9789 acres, or 81*82 
per cent, 3086 acres of them under bdjri, Penicillaria spicata; 
2274 under kodra, Paspalum scrobiculatum ; 2167 under rice, 
ddngar, Oryza sativa; 1221 under juvdr, Sorghum vulgare; 598 
tmder rdgi, Eleusine corocana ; 262 under maize, makdi^ Zea mays; 
2 under wheat, ghau, Triticum sBstivum ;and 179 under miscellaneous 
grains. Pulses occupied 1515 acres, or 12*66 per cent, 513 acres 
of them under gram, chana^ Gicer arietinum; 352 under magj 
Phaseolus radiatus; 100 under tuver, Cajanus indicus; 100 under 
udady Phaseolus mungo ; and 450 under miscellaneous crops. Oil 
seeds occupied 632 acres, or 5*28 per cent, 117 of them under to/, 
Sesamum indicum j and 515 under other oil seeds. Fibres occupied 
10 acres, or 0*08 per cent, 2 of them under cotton, kapds, Gossypinm 
herbaceum ; and 8 under Bombay hemp, san, Crotalaria junoea. 
Miscellaneous crops occupied 17 acres, or 0*14 per cent, 7 of them 
under sugarcane, serdi, Saccharum oflScinarum ; 2 under tobacco, 
iambdku, Nicotiana tabacum ; and 8 under miscellaneous v^fetables 
and fruits. 

The 1872 census returns show of a total population of 25,926 
souls, 25,215 or 97*25 per cent, Hindus; 708 or 273 per oent^ 
Musalmins ; and 3 P^is. Statistics specially prepared from the 
enumerators' forms give the following ci^^te details : 314 BhkbinaDs; 

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4 BrahmarKshatris, writers ; 746 Y&mia, 33 BMti&s and 15 Shr&vaks, 
traders and merchants; 456 Kanbis, 75 Rajputs^ 199 E^cUu^s^ and 
14^055 Kolis, cnltivators; 6 Bh&vs&rSi calicoprinters ; 71 Sonis^ gold 
and silver smiths; 11 Snth&rs^ carpenters ; 225 Loh&rs, blacksmiths ; 
49 Darjis^ taQors ; 4 Ghnn&r&i, bricklayers; 14 Sal&ts, masons; 481 
Bh&ts and Ch^urans^ bards and genealogists ; 171 Haj&ms^ barbers ; 
824 Bhary&ds and Bab&ris^ herdsmen and shepherds ; 81 G^ol&s^ rice- 
pounders; 5 Bhois^ labourers ; 52 Mar&th^, labourers ; 129 B&yalijs, 
beggars and laboorers ; 41 M&rv&dis, labourers ; 57 Ods^ diggers ; 
21 Kal&ls, liquor sellers; 1838 Bhils^ and 4518 N&ikd&s^ unsettled 
cultivators; 23 Mochis^ shoemakers ; 99 Oh&madi^^ tanners^ 287 
Dheds and 286 Bhangi&s, depressed classes ; and 27 religious 
beggars. As regards occupation the same return arranges the 
whole population under the seven following heads : i. Employed 
under Government or municipal or other local authorities^ 292. 
iL Professional persons, 45. iii. In service or performing personal 
offices, 218. iv. Engaged in agriculture and with animals, {a) 
cultivators 5174, {b) labourers 414, total 5588. v. Engaged in 
commerce and trade, 93. vi. Employed in mechanical arts, 
manufactures and engineering operations, and engaged in the sale of 
articles manu&ctured or otherwise prepared for consumption, 
2445. vii. Miscellaneous persons not clajssed otherwise, (a) women 
6716 and children 10,457> in all 17,173; and (6) miscellaneous 
persons 72 ; total 17,246. 

Dohad Sub-division. Dohad, the two boundaries, has on the 
north the petty division of Jb&lod ; on the east J&mbua in Central 
India; on the south Ali Btipur in Central India; and on the west 
B&riya in Rewa R&ntha. It is a compact circular tract about 22 
miles in diameter, with Dohad, the chiei town, nearly in the centre. 
Its area is 337 square miles, its population in 1872, 63,513 souls, and 
its land revenue in 1878, £7066 (Rs. 70,660). 

Of its 339 square miles, 113 are occupied by alienated and 
tdluhddri villages. The rest according to the revenue survey returns 
contains 144,452 acres ; of these 130,860 acres or 90-59 per cent 
including alienated lands in Government villages and lands under the 
forest department of which details are not available were arable and 
13,592 acres or 9*40 per cent were unarable occupied by ponds, 
river-beds, and village sites. 

Unlike other parts of the Panch Mahdls, Dohad is pleasantly 
varied with hills, rich TOUeys, and waving sparsely- wooded plains, 
rising into high peaks crested with snow-white quartz. The land 
has a long-settlea look. The brick and mortar houses of the richer 
classes are grouped in villages, but by far the greater number have 
their wattle and daub homesteads dotted over the village lands or 
clustered round the village pond. On the whole there is no prettier or 
natorsJly richer country in Qujarit. Though hilly throughout, there 
are no specially marked peaks or ridges. The water-shed of the 
district is a tableland from four to six miles broad, the extension of 
the A'r&vali range from Rajputina southwards, between Dohad 
and B&riya. The rise of the land from Qodhra though gradual is 
yiell marked. 

Chapter JJIL 





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The climate is cooler than in the weetem division, less oppressivB 
during the hot weather, and with occasional frosts in the cdd. 
The average rainfall in the twelve years ending 1877 was 28*75 

The main river, the An&s flows thronghont the year alon? ^ 
eastern boundary. Many of its tributaries, of which the chiei'are 
the E[asba, the KhiLri, the K&li, the Gkmgri, the K^veri and the 
Barod, wandering across it, and generally flowing thronghont Ad 
year, water the whole of Dohad. The country is speciidly suited 
for storing water, and has some very large reservoirs holding water 
throughout the year. 

Reddish in trap and light fawn-coloured in quartz uplands, tin 
soil in the lower levels is black. 

As Dohad has not yet been surveyed it is without the iisiial 
assessment and occupancy details. 

The 1872 population 63,513 souls, lodged in 18,936 houses, were,m 
1877, provided with 598 wells and 15 ponds, and owned 10,009 ploagha, 
1839 carts, 22,151 oxen, 21,543 cows, 10,437 buffaloes, 868 horees, 
11,787 sheep and goats, 421 asses, and 14 camels. 

In 1877-78 of 38,836 acres, the total area of cultivated land, I 
or 22-10 per cent were fallow or under grass. Of the 30,253 aone 
under actual cultivation, grain crops occupied 18,833 acres, or 
62*26 per cent, 14,043 acres of tibem under maise, makHf Zea 
mays; 2429 under rice, ddngar, Oryza sativa; 878 under ibwH 
Paspalum scrobiculatum ; 239 under rdgri, Eleusine corocana;SB5 
under wheat, ghau, Triticum sBstivum ; 145 under juvwr^ Sor^nm 
vulgare; 13 under hajri, Penicillaria spicata; 88 under barley, 
jav, Hordeum hexastichon; and 773 under miscellaneous graiM. 
Pulses occupied 8574 acres, or 28*34 per cent, 6400 acres d 
them under gram, chana, Cicer arietinum ; 1307 under aiaif 
Phaseolus mungo ; 355 under tuver^ Cajanus indicus ; 298 under peas, 
vatdna, Pisum sativum ; 182 under mag, Phaseolus radiatus ; and 32 
under miscellaneous crops. Oil seeds occupied 2391 acres, or 7-90 
per cent, 2249 of them under tal, Sesamum indicum ; and 142 under 
other oil seeds. Fibres occupied 386 acres, or 1*27 per cent, all 
under Bombay hemp, scm, Grotalaria juncea. Miscellaneous crops 
occupied 69 acres, or 0*22 per cent, 3 of them under sngarcaae, 
serdi, Saccharum officinarum; 1 under tobacco, tambaku, Nicotiaoa 
tabacum ; 4 under opium, and 61 under miscellaneous vegetables and 

The 1872 census returns show of a total population of 68,61S 
souls, 59,264 or 9331 per cent, Hindus ; 4226 or 6'65 per cent 
Musalmdns; 2 Parsis ; and 21 Christians. Statistics spedaUy propared 
from the enumerators' forms give the following caste detaik: 
819 Brdhmans ; 5 Brahma-Kshatris, writers ; 827 V4ni4g, 1826 
Shrdvaks, and 22 Bhdtiis, traders and merchants ; 25 Eanbis, 181? 
Rajputs, 3 K4chhi&B, 219 Mdlis, 771 Rivals, 1551 Lab<nis and 
11,580 Kolis, cultivators; 197 Bonis, gold and silver gmitlis; 
3 Kansaras, brass and coppr smiths ; 141 Suth&«, carpenters ; 534 
Luhars, blacksmiths ; 95 Kadias, bricklayers ; 223 DarjiSi taikxi; 

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22 Cliipp&s, calenders ; 43 Bli&ts and Cliar&ns^ bardsand genealogists ; 
424 KnmbbdrSj potters ; 834 Haj&ms^ barbers ; 89 Dhobhis^ washer- 
men ; 772 Bbary&ds and Bab&ris, herdsmen and shepherds ; 7 Golds, 
ricepounders ; 25 Bh4dbhanj&s, grainparchers ; 42 Bhois, labourers 
»nd cultivators ; 805 M&rv&dis, labourers ; 145 Purabi&s and Mar&th&s, 
eervants ; 108 Yanj&rds, carriers ; 94 Ealils, liquor sellers j 283 
Rdvali^, beggars and labourers ; 144 K&mali&S; blanket-weavers, 
84,735 Bhils and 16 N&ikd^, unsettled cultivators; 108 
Mochisj shoemakers ; 701 Chdmadi^, tanners, 592 Dheds, 50 
Garud^, and 841 Bhangi&s, depressed classes ; and 274 religious 
beggars. As regards occupation the same return arranges the 
whole population under the seven following heads : i. Employed 
imder Government or municipal or other local authorities, 766. 
ii. Professional persons, 120. lii. In service or performing personal 
offices, 458. iv. Engaged in agriculture and with animals, {a) 
cultivators 18,511, {b) labourers 596, total 14,107. v. Engaged 
in commerce and trade, 642. vi. Employed in mechanical arts, 
manufactures and engineering operations, and engaged in the sale 
of articles manufactured or otherwise prepared for consumption, 
3136. vii. Ifiscellaneous persons not classed otherwise, (a) women 
17^500, and children 26,887, in all 43,887, and {b) miscellaneous 
persons 447, total 44,284. 

. Jhalod Petty Divi^on. The petty division of Jh£lod under 
Dohad is bounded on the north by the Chelkari state, and on the east 
by the Eushalgad state, both in Central India ; on the south by Dohad, 
and on the west by B&riya and Sunth in the Bewa K&ntha. The 
An&s river runs along its entire eastern face. Its area is 267 
square miles and its population in 1872, 36,785 souls or 188 to the 
Bquare mile, and its realizable land revenue in 1878, £3870 
(Bs. 38,700). 

As the Jh&lod survey is not finished, area and tillage detaOs 
cannot be given. 

Except that there are wider stretches of black soil, Jhflod ia 
much like Dohad. 

As in Dohad the climate is better than in the western division. 
The average rainfall is returned at about 28 inches. 

The Makan and El&li rivers on their way to the An&s cross the 
district from north to south. Water is in most places close to the 
surface and large areas are watered by lever-lifts, dhekudis^ from 
unbuilt wells. 

The Hght, goradu, soil is like that of Dohad. There is much fine 
alluvium in the Makan valley especially about Limbdi. The black 
0oil is a rich deposit of decayed vegetable mould. Most lands in the 
sub-division can yield two harvests, an early Tdicmf crop of maize^ 
and a late rahi crop of wheat or grain. 

As Jhdlod has not yet been surveyed there are no assessment or 
occupancy details. 

The 1872 population 36,785 souls, lodged in 8684 houses, were, in 
1877, provided with 881 wells and 43 ponds, and owned 6895 ploughs, 
879 carts, 13,471 oxen, 12,279 cows, 6706 bufEaloeSj 563 horses, 
4580 sheep and goats, and 442 asses. 








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[Bomlnj GaiBttoar. 

ChaptCT Xm. In 1877-78 of 23,259 acres, the total area of cnltivated land, 4940 

Bnb-divULons. o^ 21*28 per cent were &Ilow or under grass. Of tlie 18,319 acres 

Jha'lod binder actual cultivation, grain crops occupied 11,993 acres, or 65'46 

Produce. ^^ cenit^ 8591 acres of them nnder maize, mak&i, Zea mays ; 1716 

1877^ nnder rice, ddnga/r, Oryza sativa; 564 under kodra, Paspalam 

Bcrobiculatum ; 189 under wheat, ghau, Triticum SMtivum ; 31 under 

juvd/Tf Sorghum vulgare ; 134 under rdgi, Eleusine oorocaua ; 25 

under barley, ^'av, Hordeum hexastichon; 15 under bdjri, PenicillaTia 

spicata; and 728 under miscellaneous grains. Pulses occupied 

5410 acres, or 29*53 per cent, 4784 acres of them under gram, 

ehana, Cicer arietinum; 571 under adad, Phaseolus mungo; 23 

nnder mo^, Phaseolus radiatus ; 17 under luver, Cajanus indieos; 

and 15 under miscellaneous pulses. Oil seeds occupied 360 acres, 

or 1*96 per cent, all under tdl, Sesamum indicum. Fibres occupied 

337 acres, or 1*84 per cent, all under Bombay hemp, son, Crotakria 

jnncea. Miscellaneous crops occupied 219 acres, or 1*19 per cent, 

10 of them under sugarcane, serdi, Saccharum officinamm ; 7 under 

tobacco, iambdku, Nicotiana tabacum ; and 202 under miscellaneous 

vegetables and fruits. 

P«|J^ The 1872 census returns show of a total population of 36,785 

^*' souls, 35,674 or 96*98 per cent, Hindus; and 1111 or 3*02 per cent, 

Musalm&is. Statistics specially prepared from the enumerators' 
forms give the following caste details : 429 Br&hmans ; 7 Biahma- 
Kshatns and Parbhus, writers ; 518 Vani&s and 505 Shr&vaks, traders 
and merchants ; 542 Elanbis, 353 Rajputs, 705 Mdlis, 293 Labinie^ 
253 R&vals and 286 Kolis, cultivators; 106 Sonis, gold and silver 
smiths; 90 Suth&rs, carpenters ; 182 Luh&rs, blacksmiths; 11 K'adi48, 
bricklayers; 19 Darjis, tailors; 72 6h&nchis, oil-pr^ssers ; 19 Bh&ts 
and Ch&rans, bards and genealogists; 343 Kumbh&rs, potters; 177 
Haj&ms, barbers; 39 Dhobhis, washermen; 216 Bharvids and 
Bab&ris, herdsmen and shepherds ; 2 Bh^bhunj&s, gndnparchers; 
31 Marath&s, servants; 72 Yanj&rds, carriers ; 26 !l^41s, liquor sellerB ; 
39 Lakh&r&i, makers of lac bangles; 29,336 Bhils, unsettled cultiva- 
tors ; 50 K&maXi&a, blaiJset- weavers ; 122 Mochis, shoemakers; 
289 Ch&madi&s, tanners, 36 Dheds, 54 Garud^s, and 216 Bhangi^ 
depressed classes ; and 166 religious beggars. As regards occupa- 
tion the same return arranges the iraole population under the 
seven following heads: i. Employed under Government or municipal 
or other local authorites, 515. ii. Professional persons, 126. liL In 
service or performing personal offices, 134. iv. Engaged in agri* 
culture and with animals, (a) cultivators 8981, (6) Labourers 31, 
total 9012. y. Engaged in commerce and trade, 398. vi. Employed 
in mechanical arts, mauu&ctures and engineering operations^ and 
engaged in the sale of articles manufactured or otherwise prepared 
for consumption, 844. vii. Miscellaneous persons not classed otiiea> 
wise, (a) women 10,657, and children 14,825, in all 25,482 ; and 
{b) miscellaneous persons 274 ; total 25,756. 

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Bha' vka. About five miles Bouth- west of Dohad, at the village of Chapter^ XIV. 
Bli&vkaisa rained temple of Mahddev^ apparently of considerable Races of Interest 
age. It seems to have originally been an octagon, each side of 
eiglit feet with single-stone lintels supported on octagonal pillars^ five 
feet round at the base and four below the capital. At the entrance 
of the shrine is a figure of Gkknpati holding in his hands what seems 
to be a battle axe. On the outside are the remains of three belts of 
Bcnlptare^ the highest rude and somewhat indecent figures^ the second 
elephantS) and the third groups of very small figures of men and 
beasts. According to a local story this temple was built by courtezans 
at the time (746-1483) of the prosperity of Hindu Ch&mp&ner. 


Bhimkund. About five miles south of Dohad near where the 
village lands of Vij&pur , Brahmakhed, and Bamdungra meet^ is a large 
earthen basin formed by a waterfall about seventy feet high. Here four 
days before Holt (AprU) thousands of Bhils come, some of them from 
considerable distances. Those who have during the year lost friends, 
relations, or parents bring their ashes with them and throw them 
into the pool. Then they wash and going to Br&hmans, always 
there in g^eat numbers, have a red spot, chcundla, marked on the 
brow and in return give some small present in money or grain* 
Then drinking begins and, if money lasts so long, is kept up for about 
tt fortnight. 

Cliakki-no-a'ro. In the Esrad river between the villages of 
Medlipur and Marva in Hfilol is the Ohakki'-nO'dro or Grindstone 
Imnk, one of the most singular spots in the district. In the middle 
of the river where the channel is deepest is a large rock over which, 
in ordinary course, the stream would flow and fall in a cascade into 
tlie deep pool below. But above the rock a rectangular reservoir, 
hund^ has been built about fifteen feet square, and four to five 
feet deep, partly of brick and partly of rock, the large rock forming 
its lowest side. Into this pool the water of the river runs, and passes 
out of it, not over the large rock, but by a six or eight feet long 
cliannel cut from the deepest part of the reservoir right through 
tlie centre of the rock. Out of this, from the centre of the rock, 
fch.e water spouts and falls into a deep pool several feet below. The 
place is sacred, and at eclipses of the sun and at the Mahoda Pa/to 
0]a SomvaU Amds, when the last day of the month &rlls on a Monday, 
aod on other occasions is visited by Brdhmans, Kshatris, and 
'V&niis, who bathe and wash away their sins in the pooL The 
le^nd is that a certain B&ja Sulochan of Benares was troubled with 



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a growth of hair on the pakiui of his hands, aent him as a pmniih- 
ment for his fiins. As none of the Benares seers conld core him ho 
was advised to go to the famous Vishyamitra, who lived where 
P&v^igad now stands. Yishv&mitra told him that if he sacrificed at a 
spot in the river where a sacred grindstone lay, his sins should be 
destroyed as grain is ground to powder in a grindstone. The 
K&ia went to the spot, built a place of sacrifice, and in a grest 
rock cut a conduit through which to feed with butter the fire St his 
sacrifice. Thus was he freed from his sins and from the hair 
growth. The river became known as the Hand or Kar, since 
coirupted into Karad Ganga, and the place of sacrifice as the CkakH- 
no-dro or Qrindstone bank. Half the grindstone is still there, the 
other half was stolen by a GosAi, who, pursued, was forced to throw 
away the grindstone where it still lies between the villages of Viasia 
and Al&li in E&lol. 

In the bank of the Earod opposite to, but it is said in no way 
connected with the Grindstone shore, is an opening in the rock 
three to four feet high. This is said to be one end of the under- 
ground passage whose other end is at the M&chi HaveU half way 
up P&vdigad. Major Fulljames from the P&v^igad end and Mr. 
Acworth from the Med&pur end have both passed some little way 
up it. But even among the natives of the place there would seem 
to be no known case of any one passing through or even going any 
considerable distance along this tunnel.^ 

Cha'mpa'ner, north latitude 22^ 30' and east longitude 78^ 9V, 
lies nearly a mile to the north-east of the main body of P&v6gad hiH, 
about twenty-five miles east of Baroda and forty-two south of Gk)dlua. 
Though at present (1878), except for a few Bhil and N&ikda squatters, 
almost entirely deserted, Ch&mp&ner is a place of much historic 
interest and has many remains of its former greatness. 

The name is said to come from Ch&mpa, according to one 
account a Y&nia, and according to another a Kanbi, who founded 
the city during the reign of Van R4j of Anhilvdda (746-806)* 
In the eleventh century BAm Gaur the Tudr is styled Pdvi^s lord.* 
But he seems to have held under the Anhilvdda kings for, at 
least till the eleventh century, and probably until in 1297 ti^eir power 
was crushed by Al&-ud-din Khilji, Ch&mp&ner continued one of their 
chief eastern strongholds.^ About the same time as the fall of 
Anhilv4da, Ghoh&n Rajputs flying before Al&-ud-din Khilji settled 
at Ch&mp4ner. This family, though since 1484 deprived of its 
chief seat, is still represented by the rulers of the Chhota 
Udepur and Devgad Bdriya states. The names of the Ghohia 
chiefs of Ch&mp&ner, recorded in an inscription found at N^hid 
ITmarv&n near H^lol, are R&ja Shri R&madev, Shri Ch&ngdev, 
Shri Ch&chingdev, Shri Son&mdev, Shri P&Ihansingh, Shri Jitkano, 

1 Oontribnted bj Mr. H. Acwortii, C.S. 

< Chimpa is ftlflo oaUed a Bhil ; An. Bea IV. 187. He augr have got tina i 
from settliiiff in the Bbil ooontiT. 
siUsMi&,72. «IUBMila,]37. 

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Sliri Kempii B&yal, Shri Yiradhikva], Shri Savar&j, Shri B&ghaydev, 
Sliri Trimbak Bhap^ Shri Ganga B^jeshvar^ and Shri Jajasingh Dev. 
Raj pat Ghilmp&ner would seem to have lain at the foot of the north- 
east slopes of the hill just under the fortress of Pivigad. Though 
besieged and made to pay tribute^ in 1418 (821-822 H.)^ and again 
more hardly pressed about 1450 (853-854 H.)^ the strength of &eir 
hill enabled the Chdmp&ner chiefs to mainte^ their independence, 
fighting freely at times with their neighbour and rival the Bao of 
Idar. In 1483 (8^7 H.) during a season of scarcity Malik Asad, 
one of Sult&n Mahmud Begad&'s captains (1452-1511), raiding in 
Champ&ner territory was attacked, defeated, and slain by B&val 
Jayasmgh. In revenge Mahmud sent an army to Baroda, and refusing 
all means of settlement except 'the sword and the dagger/ 
attacked Ch&mp4ner. The siege had lasted about a year when the 
R&val again made overtures of peaceoffering to pay 360 pounds of gold. 
This the Sult&n refused, declaring that he would not leave till the 
fort was taken. Jayasingh now applied for help to 6hiy&-ud-din 
of M41wa. But Mahmud advanced to Dohad and, without striking 
a blow, the M&l waking retired. On his return to Chdmp&ner, to 
show ilie besieged that he would not leave till the fort was taken, 
Mahmud laid the foundations of a beautiful mosaue. Meanwhile 
the besiegers gradually pushing on their outworlcs took the fort 
in 1484. The wounded B&val falling into the Sult4n's hands was 
at first well treated, but after six months, refusing to embrace IsUm^ 
he was put to death. One of his sons, brought up as a Musalm&n, 
was in the next reign ennobled under the title of Niz&m-ul-mulk. 
On the fall of the fort Mahmud changed the name of the city to 
Mahmudabad Chdmp&ner. Pleased with the climate he made it 
liis capital, building a fort, a mosque, and a palace and bringing nobles 
and ministers to settle. Many great buildings were raised, and 
gardens laid out and, by the skill of a native of Khor^&n, well fitted 
with fountains and waterfalls.^ Its fruits, especially its mangoes, 
were fiftmous, and its sandal trees grew so freely that their timber was 
used in house building. Merchants and craftsmen thronged its streets, 
Ghamp&ner swordblades became noted for their sharpness, and 
Ch&mp&aer silks for their bright colours.' Though he by no means 
deserted Ahmedabad, Mahmud continued to the close of his reigpa 
(1511) to consider MsJimudabad Ch&mp4ner his capital. Mahmud's 
sncoessors following his example, Ch&mp^ner remained till the 
death of Babidur Shah (1536) the political capital of Gujar&t. 
During this time the close connection between Mdlwa and Gujar&t 
favoured the city's growth and the safety with which their treasures 
<^uld be stored in its hill fort gave it a special value in the Sult&ns' 
eyes. Though, even at its best (1514) a place neither of so great 
trade nor so large as Ahmedabad, like it Ch£mp&ner was 
^ embellished with good streets and squares and houses of stone and 

1 Bis Mila, 268. 

' This Khor^sini is said to ha^e introdnced into Gnjarit the knowledge of fonntaini 
flmd artificial waterfalls. The best garden was at fiilol. planned by a GhimpAner 
carpenter who, by working under him disgnised aa a laoonrer, had learned the 
secret of the stranger's art Ind. Ant. LXIL 5. 

* GhimpAner had a great export of silk and was the only place where raw dlk 
oonld be washed and prepared. Rev. Com. 1067, 7th May 1838. 
B 167— 89 

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Chapter ZIV* 


Google _ 

CBomlMiar QftiMeeri 





whitewasli. The country round was very fertile, full of abmidant 
provisions, wheat, barley, millet, rice, peas and other vegetables, and 
many cows, sheep, goats and plenty of froit Near it were himting 
ffrounds for deer and other animals and winged gama The king 
kept many wild animals, and trained hunting dogs, falcons and tame 
leopards/ * 

In 1526 at Ch&mp&aeT the yonng SoltfLn Sikandar Shih was 
murdered and his successor Bahadur Sh&h crowned.' Continuing 
through his reign (1526-1586) to be Bah^ur's capital and head- 

Juarters, the city was, in 1535, pillaged by the Emperor Humiymu 
iahddur^s death in the next year and the transfer of the court ami 
capital to Ahmedabad prevented Ch^mp&ner regaining its former 
position. Off the main lines of traffic, the loss of Gujarat ascendancy 
over M41wa, took away from Ch&mp&ner its chief claim to importance. 
Its fall was rapid. In 1554 its only points of interest were fine 
banian trees, large fruit-eating bats and thorny brushwood.' Like 
the rest of Gujarat it suffered during the oisorders of ihe next 
twenty years (1554-1574). But unlike Ahmedabad and Suratihe 
establishment of order under the Emperor Akbar (1573-1605) 
brought Ch&mpdner no return of prosperity. At the beginning of 
the seventeenth century ' its air was weakening, its water poisonous, 
and its orchards and gardens the lair of the tiger and lion. Its 
buildings had fallen in ruins, and its people had given their goods to 
the winds of destruction. Instead of flowers were thorns, and 
instead of gardens close-knotted brushwood, and of its sandal groves 
neither the name nor the trace was left. It showed the truth of 
the verse, ' All on earth fades and God does as he wills'.' * Though 
desolate, Ch&mp&ner continued in name the head of a district of 
nine sub-divisions, part at least settled and rich enough to le 
included in Raja Todar Mai's survey (1576).* Under the Moghals 
Ch&mp&ner was subordinate to Godhra, tillage declined and by the 
middle of the seventeenth centuiy so much of the country had 

1 Stanley's Barboea, 58. 

S Sikandar Sh&h, murdered by ImAd-ul-mnlk, was buried at HiJol. Bird's Gnjaiiti 
5231. Bah&dnr already crowned at Ahmedabad according to the Mirat-i-Ahaudi 
(Bird, 233), and at P&tan according to Ferishta (Briggs, IV. 133), wasa^ain erawnedit 
Ch&mpilner " because for several reigns it had been considered tiie capital." Ferishl%. 
IV. 106. 

5 Sidhi AU bin Husein. Bom. lit. Soc. Trans. 11. 8 (Reprint, 1877). 

4 Mintti-Sikandari (1611) in Ind. Ant LXIII. 7. Abul F4zal, writinff abnat tti 
same time (1586), thouffh he speaks of Chimpiner only as a fort on a higUhill, notictf 
its very fine fruits. Gladwin Ain-i-Akbari, II. 65. It was also famons for wood d 
aioes, ud or cigar, Bloehmann's Ain-i-Akbari, L 80. 

6 Under the later Ahmedabad kings Champiner had been the head-qnaitenol 
seven sub-divisions: Cfa Ampler, Savli, DAhi^, fi&lol, Taimurabamih, Bijodand 
Jh&lod with in all 423 villages yielding a yearly revenue of £70,000 (Ra. 7,00^000). 
Bird's Mirat-i-Ahmadi, 121. Abnl FiaaiX (1586) describee the Chimpiner distriet 
as containing nine sub-divisions measuring 800,337 bighds yielding a revenoe d 
Rs. 2,52,747 (10,109,884 ddms) and furnishing aforce of 550 cavalry and leOOinfintiy. 
The names of the eub-divisions were, Aravereh Chimp4ner, Chnndvareh, ChaoiBi 
Dhond, Dhanl, Dilawereh, Sovukhereh, and San vis. In the beginning of the efg^teeolk 
century ChiLtDpiner was (see p. 252) the head{of 18 districts. Bat its oommaodaa^ 
hUeddr, was under the governor. faujddK of Gk)dhra : Mixat-i-Ahmadiy lad. Aak 
LXIII. 7. »v -r-. 

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lapsed into forest, that it had become a hunting ground for wild Cbapter ZIT. 
•^P'**"*^-' IlaeetirflattrNt 

In 1803 when the town was taken by the British^ only 500 Giul'mfa'kib.- 
inhabitants were fonnd in it. Bat the regular population 
i»as larger^ for most had heard of the approach of the troops and 
fled. At that time about half of the walled enclosure or citadel 
was occupied by a settlement of silk and brocade weavers.^ A few 
years later (1812) there were about 400 houses^ half of them 
inhabited^ the people chiefly runaways from other Gujarat cities.' 
In 1829 silk weavers were still settled at Ch&mp&ner but their 
number had lately been terribly thinned by cholera.* When (1853, 
July 31st) it came under British management the place was almost 
deserted. A sum of £126 (Bs. 1260) was spent in an attempt 
to bring cultivators to settle and clear the forest. But the 
colony fidled. Three-fourths died and the rest fledi Since then 
but little progress has been made. Except the constables of the 
police post, its only inhabitants are a few families of poor and sickly 
jSiohs and N&ikd&s. 

Gonung ^ from Godhra the first sign of Ch&mpfiner's former Bemaim, 

greatness is, at H&lol, Sikandar Sh&h's (1536) tomb, a rather 
plain one-storied sandstone building in the Muhammadan or 
arched style. On the J&mbughoda road, about two and a half 
miles beyond Halol, stands a small brightly-plastered tomb, the 
shrine of Khon Pir, a saint revered by the Tiis or Musalm&n 
weavers. A few hundred yards to the north-east of Khon Fir's 
tomb rises from the brushwood a miuaret known as the Ek MinArka 
Ifayid, The One Minaret Mosque, and half a mile to the south 
close to Fav&gad another small mosque called from a group of 
trees the Pdnm Mahiiddka Masjid, The Five Mahuda Trees Mosque. 
About three quarters of a mile beyond Khon Pir^s tomb a bare 
lonely stone arch, once the west gate of Ch4mp&ner, comes in view. 
To the right before passing through the arch is a square pond, 
once surrounded by masonry steps, and filled from the hill above by 
a massive stone drain of which there are stiU traces. The pond is 
commonly known as the Kaabin taldv or Courtezan's pond. But 
the real builder was Sakar Khdn, a Path&n of Champ&ner, whose 
stone tomb, with finely cut windows and handsome dome, stands at 
one comer. At the ruined gateway the line of the old wall can be 
traced about 330 yards south to the foot of the north F&vagad spnr ; 
then turning west at right angles it crosses the mouth of a ravine 
to a ridge to the west up whose steep face it runs, till it reaches the 
scarp on the top of which stand the Julan Budan gate and wall. 
North of the ruined gateway the wall runs to the crest of a 

1 In 1645, 78 elephants were oaught in the Dohad and Chimpdbier foxestOk 
Wateon, 74. 

t Hamilton's HindnstAn, I. 681. > Bom. lit Soc Trans. 1. 151. 

4 Rev. Com. 1057, 7th May 1838. Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec. 180 of 1847. 

6 Betailsare, as far as possible, limited to remains on the ChimpAner plain, those on 
the hill have already been described (p. 189). As is the case with the account of 
the T&vimd remains, almost all the materials for this section hav&been snplied bj 
Mr. H. X Aoworth, C.a 

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[Bombay GaMltMr, 

Chtpter ZIY* detached ridge of liills on whose eastern slope stood the palace of 
Piiioas <tfLit«rest * brother-in-law of one of the P&t&i Ravals.^ Prom the crest ci 
this ridge the wall turns sharply back to the soath-^west and then 
Cka'mpa'kib. stretches east. 

Passing through the west gateway the road for about a mfle 
crosses an open plain once covered with the buildings of Ch&mp&ner. 
To the north the line of wall^ after coming back from the crest 
of the ridge, runs parallel to and close by the road. At first brick 
and cement^ the old wall is soon replaced by a massive line of free 
stone that^ after running east for about a mile, is crossed bj a 
second line of old wall that stretches south 220 yards to Payagad.* 
At the foot of the spur it crosses a stream, then turns west, and in 
a bending line runs along the spur, gradually rising till it meets the 
first, or atah, line of the hill fortification. 

The massive line of free stone is Mahmud Begada's wall, the 
Jahdnpandh or world shelter, surrounding the citadel or Bhaiar* 
of Mahmudabad Ch4mp&ner. Enclosing an area about three* 
quarters of a mile long and 280 yards broad, this wall, of great 
strength, and about thirty feet high, has at regular intervals bastions 
running north and east at right angles. Though much overgrown 
with creepers and clinging trees, the wall is in almost perfect repair. 
A few hundred yards from its western comer is the south or sonth- 
west gateway. At the entrance, the line of wall falls back about 
120 feet, and the road into the citadel lies between the two lines 
of wall through a rectangular building, probably a guard room, about 
150 feet long and 120 wide, with double gates, and in the south 
wall richly carved stone windows. On the inner gate is a Persian 
inscription of which the first figure of a date and the words Muza&r 
Sh^h,^ son of Mahmud Sh&h, can still be read. Inside of the citadel 
a little west of the gateway is the Shehrka Masjid or City Mosqne, 
a beautiful building in fair repair. About 200 yards east and near 
the centre of the citadel is the M^dvi or custom house. l%is 
probably used as a guard room, is highly finished, very simple, and well 
proportioned. ^ Nearly square, it is open at two ends, each open fMse 
having six bays and the two ends joined by five rows of arches, the 
whole forming a colonnaded chamber of five nearly equal aisles. 
The roof is flat and massive and though without ornament, is much 
relieved on the inside.' ^ From the Mandyi to the citadel's east gate 
stretches modem Ch&mp&ner, a single street of mean huts. The east 

Skte, built on the same plan as the south gate, equally massive, has 
e same inscription and the same guard room, only less mined 
About fifty yards east of the gate is the Jama ilfair;u2,or Public Mosque^ 
for massive grandeur and perfect finish inferior to no Musatmia 

t Pitii iUval is profoablj a general name contracted from FibBdaaii, thai t^ 
PivA-rolmg. Ind. Ant LZIII. 2. 

2 The east and west walls were probably boilt by the Bajpnto and lepaM bf 
HusalmAn engineers. 

8 Bhadar or propitiofaB, called after Bhadra K^ Both the GhiapAiisr lai 
Abnedabad citadels were Bhadars, taking their name fron the irriginal '^ ' 
Piktan. Maior J. W. Watson, ISth Febraary 1S79. 

4 Beigud from 1513-1626. 

ft Mr. Naime, 394, 28ih f ebnuuy 1S79. 

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building in Western India.^ Within the mosqtie were three oblong 
moral tablets, one over the pnlpit and one on either side. The 
aide tablets remain each engraved with a verse from the Korfo* 
Bat the central slab once adorned with the date-line ' Prayers and 
a Pulpit/ is gone.* The top of one of the two chief minarets has 
been shattered by a cannon shot wantonly fired at it by the 
tyrant Patankar, Sindi&'s Governor in 1812 ? About a third of a mile 
north of the citadel is another fine mosque, the Nagina Masjid or 
Jewel Mosque, built of very pure white stone. Close to it is a large 
brick well, spanned by a stone arch, nearly surrounded by a wall 
aad with stone conduits and other water-works. In front of the 
mosque is a colonnaded building like the M&ndvi but smaller. 
West of the Nagina Ma^jid, between it and the hill the minarets of a 
mosque stand out from the trees. This is called after B£va Man, a 
very popular saint in Baroda and a follower of Sadan Shah whose 
shrine stands on the roof of Maha Kali's temple on P&vagad top. 
Through the forest east of the citadel, runs the Shikari Kot or 
Hunter's Fort, a low ruined wall enclosiug the remains of many 
hundred houses. About a mile and a half east of the citadel, on the 
bank of the Great Lake or Bada Taldv, stand the ruins of the 
Sult&n's palace and of a mosque. South of the road near the foot 
of the hill the shattered foundations of houses and a few Jain 
temples show the site of Rajput Champ&ner, which besides covering 
the plain between the Musalm^n citadel and the hill foot, ran up the 
side of the spur to the line of the fijrst or outer fort wall. Besides 
these remains of the city proper the forest is for miles round strewn 
with massive wells, minarets, mouldering tombs, and solitary arches, 
all that is left of the suburbs, gardens, and palaces, that adorned the 
city of Mahmnd Begada.' 

Desar. At Desar near Sonipur in H41ol, is an old stone temple 
of Mahddev. Though only twenty feet square and not more than 
twenty feet high, it is a most striking building : its sides richly 
carved from base to roof with the beautifully broken outline of the 
old Gnjar&t Brahmanio and Jain buildings. Near the foot runs an 
elephant scroll, above the elephants two scrolls of human figures, 
the lower very small the upper somewhat larger, then two belts of 

Chapter Xnr. 

naeasof Intereib 



1 Its OQter oatU&e ia more effective than that of any of the Ahmedabad moe^nea. 
It 18 muToimded by a high stone wall with handtome bnttreesed coraen each ranag 
into a ehort minaret On the onteide the line of the waU is, on the sides, broken by rich 
windows with oyeribangine piUaried balconies. Along the back it is broken by a row 
«f sixteen nnarched windows, filled with finely cot stone traoeiy, and between each 
pair of windows a ronnded tower or dwarf minaret^ whose pinoacle ends a little below 
the upper edge of the wall. In fronts on each side of the gateway, stands a finely 

Sropoitioned minaret, and behind the minarets the centre of the mosque rises 
OQble-etoried and domed, bnilt entirely in the deep-eaved flat flindn style. 

9 Briggs' Ferishta IV. 70. The words yjj^ j aJia^ give the date 914H. 1606. 

S The most noticeable of these remains are at Jepnra, about two miles north by east 
«f Ch&mptosr a ruined mosque on the bank of a small pond ; at BAnipora, east of 
CbAmpiner a fine old step well with solid masonry arches ; atChatnrdi Viv sontii of 
Btoipura another fine step well probably Hindu repaired by Musalm&ns. Though 
imbedded in forest the water of both theea wells is dear and sweet. In the souui- 
east, a short way up the hillside near where the east city wall joini the hill loitiA' 
eatioiw, is a rained mosque probably once uied by the ganiMMi. 

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CBomliay QmUmm, 

(Rttptttr ZIT. stone tracory above that^ its chief feature a scroll of human figoree 

FlaoM ctfLiterest ^^^'''y '^® '^^®> ^^^ carved and life-like, and over all a rich deep-cat 

cornice partly in ruins. Its probable date is somewhat late in 

the time of Hindu Gh&mp&ner (1300-1484). Bat it contains no 

inscription and has not yet been critically examined. 

DbvEsda'b. Dev Keda'r. Near the village of Chos&la, about seven miles 

north of Dohad, a stream runs into a cave. In this spot an image of 
Mah4dev under the name of Ked&reshvar has been set up. Many 
Bhils visit the shrine, especially on Phdgan Sud 11th (March). 

In the villages of Nav£g&m, about seven miles north-east, Gingadia^ 
eleven miles south, and Nelsu, about nine miles south-west of I^had, 
every year on the day after Holi (April) a ceremony called the chd 
or hearth takes place. In a trench seven feet by three and aboat 
three feet deep, kher, Mimosa catechu, logs are carefully and closely 
packed till they stand in a heap about two feet above ground. The 
pile is then set on fire and allowed to bum to the level of the groond. 
The village Bhangia or sweeper breaks a cocoanut, kills a couple 
of fowls, and sprinkles a little liquor near the pile. Then, after 
washing their feet, the sweeper and the village headman walk 
barefoot hnrriedly across the fire. After this strangers come to 
fulfil vows, and giving one anna and a half cocoanut to the sweeper, 
and the other half cocoanut to the headman, wash their feet and 
turning to the left walk over the pile. The fire seems to cause none 
of them any pain. 

DoHAD. Dohad or D wahad/ a town in 1 872 of 1 1,472 inhabitants, stands 

in north latitude 22'' 50' and east longitude 70"* 18' on the border, 
dohad, of Gujar&t and Malwa, about forty-three miles east of Godhra. 
The town lies in a slight hollow ^irt by ridges of low hills at tbe 
entrance to the chief pass between Gujardt and Mdlwa. Of 1 1,472, tbe 
population in 1872, 7572 or 66 per cent were Hindus, 8877 or 83-79 
per cent Musalmdns, twenty-one Christians, and two others. Alaiige 
section of the people, especially the commanity of D^udi or Slua 
Bohor^s, are prosperous traders, living in well built brick houses. 
The chief town of a large sub-division and for long a place of 
importance, Dohad has a considerable population of craftsmen, and 
supplies a wide tract of country with earthen and brass ware, and to 
some extent with cloth. The only special local manu&ctures are 
those of blackwood, hair-combs, and lac bracelets. On the higH 
road between M&lwa and Gujarat it has always been, and thougli 
somewhat injured by the opening (1875) of Uie Batlam and Indor 
railway, is still a place of considerable trade. Its exports are of 
vegetables, gram, wheat, maize, rice, and castor-oil to M&lwa, and gram, 
wheat, maize, and sweet-oil to Gujardt, and of animal products, clarified 
bntter, to M£lwa and Gujarat, lac to Ahmedabad and Ratl&m, and 
hides and horns to Bombay. Its imports are of minerals, iron and 
copper from Bombay, and salt from Khar&ghoda on the Ban of Catch; 
of vegetables, cocoanuts and spices from Bombay, tobacco from 

1 Most of the materiala for the Dohad town haye been supplied by Mr. K. 8. Nanmii^ 
Civil Sorgeoa of Dohad. 

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NadiM, sugar and molasses from Bombay^ grain from Benares by Chapter XIV* 
Indor, and from Kajgad near Bbop^var. Of mannfactured articles places of Interest* 
European jaconets^ madarpalams^ mullmalls, chintzes^ and dhotara 
oome from Bombay by P6li; from Ahmedabad and Kaira come ^"^^* 

ehhidris or fine sdllas, dorida for petticoats^ dhotara for waist- 
cloths, and sacking, khdrki or dangri, for the use of Bhils ; from 
Indor andBarhdnpar,tarbans and head cloths ; from Part&bgad, black 
and indiffo robes or sdllds ; and from Batl&m chhidria and khdrvda for 
robes and dorida for petticoats, auai for the higher classes and nddra 
for the Bhils. Daring the last two years the exhaustion of grain 
stocks, from export to the Deccan and the failure of crops in Gujardt, 
have given rise to large imports of maize, millet, and wheat from Dhar^ 
Indor, Ujain, Batl&m, and other Central Indian grain marts. 

Dohad is an old town. In early times Dadhichi Bishi is said to StBtary, 

have lived there and in his honour the river was called Dadhimati, 
a temple on its banks was dedicated to Dudheshvar Mah&dev, 
and the town named Dudhipumagar. It is said to have been a 
settlement of B&hria Bajputs. Seven or eight families of this tribe 
still live in Dohad, and, as the remnants of the first settlers, perform 
ceremonies and offer sacrifices to propitiate the gods when the town 
is attacked with epidemic disease. It remained under a Une of 
Rajput chiefs till in the beginning of the fifteenth century (1419) 
Sultan Ahmad I. (1411-1443) defeated Dongar Bitja, destroyed his 
palace, and in its place raised a citadel.^ With the rest of the Panch 
Mahals, Dohad passed to the Emperor Akbar in the end of the 
sixteenth century (1573-1583), and about the middle of the eighteenth 
century fell into Sindid's hands (1750-1760). Under Sindia Dohad 
was the seat of a governor, and was in 1785 one of the best towns on 
the line of march between Gujar&t and M&l wa, with brick houses and 
well-to-do inhabitants, especially a number of Bohora Musalm&ns.' 
With the rest of the Panch Mah&ls Dohad passed under British 
management in 1853. 

The town is of two parts, the old town in the west and the 
new town, most of it built during the last century, close to the 
old town on the east. Coming from Godhra at the west end 
of the town are the traces of an old gateway and a line of walls 
running south to the river and about 500 yards beyond, another line 
of walls enclosing a square space about 500 yards each way. The 
only part of the old wall still standing is the eastern or Pani gate. 
From their foundations the walls seem to have been brick, and to have 
liad four gates, two in the west, and two in the east. The portions of 
the old town still remaining are the Des&iv&da, the Khad&et&v&da, and 
the Gh^nchiv&da. The places of interest connected with the old town 
are, on the left of the entrance gate coming from Godhra, a lake known 
as the Ohhdba Taldv or Basket Pond. Tbia lake said to have been 

^ Major Watson, 35. Bird (124-190) makes Ahmad's fort at Ddhmod and makes 
Ifoeaffar (1613-1526) the builder of Dohad fort (222). Of this early fort there would 
seem now to be no trace. 

* Forbes* Or. Mem, III. ldl.> 

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[Bombay GaiittMri 






dug by men of the Od caste^^ about the same time aa tbe Odv&dalake 
near Godliray about a mile and a half round, is one of the finest pieces 
of water in the Panch Mahals and is surrounded by a flight of stone 
steps with strong retaining end walls and a waste water sliiiee. 
From the ereat scarcity of wells in the town, its water is of special 
value, and is used throughout the year. In the lake are two islaads 
where, towards the close of the eighteenth century, pleasure honaes 
were built by B^pu Sdheb P4tankar, whose son A'pa Saheb wv 
married to Daulatr&7 Sindi&'s (1794-1820) daughter. According to 
one account the Panch Mah&ls were given by Sindia as his daughter's 
dowry. B&pu S&heb was made governor and asked to send his son 
to live at 6w41ior. Bapu refused, saying that Sindia^s daughter should 
come and live with her husband at Dohad. To this Sindia would 
not agree. A force was sent against Dohad with orders to bnng 
back the young A'pa Saheb but without harming a hair of his head. 
B&pu retired to P&v^Lgad, and knowing that the besiegers would not 
fire at him is said to have set his son in front of the fort After a 
time P^tankar surrendered, and with his son was taken to Gw^r. 
Another account states that the force was sent by Sindia to ponisii 
P&tankar who, recalled for oppression, had refused to leave the 
Panch Mdh&ls. This story states that after his capture on his way 
to Gwftlior, P^tankar committed suicide outside of the south Dohad 
gate at a spot marked by a banian tree since known as the BhidHoai 
or ghost's figtree. On the east bank of the Chh^ba lake a Bohora 
vegetable garden, known as the Dongarv&da or Dongar's garden, 
marks the site of the old Bajpnt chiefs palace. Another reUcof 
the old Rajput city is in the south the Ghanchiv^a Maejid or 
Oilman's mosque, said to have been built on the site and of the 
stones of the old chief's zen&na. Close to the mosque is a pond, the 
Chandan Tcddv or Sandal Lake. 

On the south bank of the river, nearly opposite the oilman's 
mosque and close to a banian tree is a small building with a 
tomb inside.* The story is that on the banks of the Dohad rirer 
one of Sh&h JaMn's wives was (1619) seized with the pains of 
childbirth. The court astrologer declared that if the child was 
bom before a certain hour he would bring bad luck, but if after 
a certain hoar he would become a mighty monarch. To aTcrt 
misfortune the astrologer counselled the Emperor to have the hidy 
hung head down from a branch of the banian tree. The device 
succeeded but at the cost of the mother's life. 

New Dohad though not walled has four gateways, on the west 
in the line of the old city wall on the way to the lake, the Pani 
or water gate ; to the east a double gateway, the Hanum&n ^e 
inside and the Eoliv&da gate outside; to the south the Dhola 

£ate; and to the south-west facing the Hanum&n gate, the 
nh£rv&da gate. The oldest quarter of the new town is on the 
west, the Gnjar&ti market built by Nima V&ni4s, refugees from 

1 The ftorv is that tlM Ods, under Jaamft Odin, wero on their way to tlie eoirt 
of Sidb lUj Jai Singh (1094-1146). So sreat was the axmj of diggers thai^ tofanh 
the ChhAba lake, each had only once to 111 his basket. 

a This tomb is said to have been (1619) raised over AJUBOgaeb'a after-buth. 

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Ch^piner in 1779 ; the next cmarter^ the four markets that meet Chapter XIV. 

at the police gaardhouse in tne centre of the town^ built in places oTLitereft. 

1782 ; the thirds to the north-east^ is the Daulatganj market^ built 

in 1806 ; the fourth, to the north-west, between the lake and the Dohad. 

citadel, is the Bohor&y&da> built in 1809 ; and the fifth, built in 

1850-1852, is in the 8outh-ea8t> the Ghuieshpur market. The chief 

object of interest in the new town is a caravanserai^ built in 1619' 

by the Emperor Sh£h Jah&n in honour of Aurangzeb's birth. It is a 

square ench)Bure about 450 feet each way, Surrounded by a brick wall 

sixteen feet seven inches high with bastions at each comer and two 

grand gateways, one at the middle of the north and the other at 

the middle of the south waJl. The Mar&th&s added three round 

towers twenty ''four feet high at the south-west comer and at the 

middle of the wdst and east walls. At the south-east comer P^tankar 

built for his son a three-storied house, called the hdrddvd/ri or 

twelve gates, now used as quarters for the jailors. Inside, the walls 

were surrounded by rows of arched rooms opening inwards,' and 

in the centre of the west half of the enclosure was a mosque. This 

caravanserai is now used for public buildings, the east half as a jail, 

and of the west, the south comer, where was tJie residence of Sindi&'s 

governor, as the m&mlatd&r's ofiBce, and the north as mounted 

?olice lines. The mosque is used as a magazine for the Bhil corps, 
o the north of the caravanserai lies the cantonment with police 
lines and a civil hospital. 

The town is supplied with two rest-houses, dhcmnshdlda. One, 
in the west on the south bank of the lake, able to hold about 200 
travellers, was built in 1828 by the govemor of the town, Ant&ji 
D&modar; the other, at the south-east comer of the town, with room 
for about 150 pilgrims, has been built out of local funds by the British 

On the south bank of the Dadhimati stream, every year in Biw&vwn, 
vad A'tham (August -September), a &ir is held. It lasts from 
Bnnrise to sunset, and is generally attended by about 7000 persons. 
Ebccept tovs and sweetmeats, little is bought or sold. Besides being 
ihe seat of the chief revenue and police officers of the sub-division, 
Dohad is the head-quarter station of the Bhil corns and of the 
issistant superintendent of police, and is provided with a sub- 
indge's court, a civil hospital, a dbtrict jail, a post office, and a 
remacnlar school. 

Godhra, a town in 1872 of 10,635 souls and 8259 houses, the Godbba. 

lead-qnarter station of the Panch Mah&ls district and of the Qodhra 
tab-division, lies in north latitude 22^ 46' and east longitude 73'' 40', 
ifty-two miles north-east of Baroda and seventeen miles east of the 
'fill railway station. Except for a stretch of rice land to the west 

1 Of the fort said to hare been bnilt in 1419 by Snltdii Ahmad I. (1411-1443) 
id aboot 1615 repaired by 3alt4n Mnaaffiur (1518-1526), no trace Beema to remain. 
lie c^aravanaerai la idao ctuled ghadi or fortress ; but this apparently because Sindii's 

yreamor lived in it. 

' EOliot's History, VIL 213. Elphinstone 591, note 1, gives October 1618. 
s The rooms vary in size from 39' 7 'X32' ff'xW 6* to IB' 7"XlO '6^' x 10' 5 ' • 
s 107-40 

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[Bomlny GtfvfelMrr 







Oodhra is almost entirely snrroanded by brushwood and forest. 
On a plot of groand slightly raised above the general lerel of the 
plain, with no walls or large baildings and muoh hid by trees, the town 
attracts little notice. About half a mile to the sonth is a gronp of four 
lately-built district officers' houses. Not more than 900 feet above 
the sea and surrounded bv rice and forest land, the climate of Godhia 
is especially towards the close of the rainy season feverish and relaxing. 

Godhra, or Godrahaka, that is the coVs lake, is a town of 
considerable antiquity, supposed to be mentioned as ' tbe camp of 
victory' in a brass plate grant of the fifth century.^ Probably 
because Ch&mp&ner was their chief settlement in this part ca 
Gujar&t, Godhra would seem to have been of littie consequence under 
the Bajput dynasties of Anhilvdda (746-1298). In the thirteenth 
century (1225) it is mentioned as subject to tiie chief of Dholka.' 
To the Musalm&n kings of Ahmedabad, before Ch&mp&ner was 
conquered, Gk)dhra was one of the centres of government in eastern 
Gujar&t. Mahmud Begada, when in 1480 he divided his dominions, 
chose Godhra as the head-quarters of one' of five provinces. Even 
after (1484) Ch&mp&ner became his capital, Godhra continued the 
head of a considerable district. At the time of its transfer to the 
Emperor Akbar (1573) it contained ten sub-divisions with 501 
villages, yielding a vearly revenue of £350,000 (7,200,000 changisiB)^ 
Under the Moghals the lands were surveyed and the number of 
dependent sub-divisions raised to twelve. In 1724 it was taken 
by Kant&ji Kadam Bande and probably kept by him till about 1760.* 
Since then Godhra has continued the headquarters of the Pandt 
Mah&ls, first under Sindia (1770-1858), and then under the Britiaih. 

Since its transfer (1858) the two chief events in the history of 
the town are a Musalm&n riot in 1855 and a fire in 1857. The riot 
was among Musalm&ns, Sunnis against Shi4s. The Shi^ of the 
D4udi Bohora community went on the 26th August to hold a £aaat 
at an idga or place of prayer outside of the town. The man in 
charge, a Sunni beggar, objected to their coming and a scoffle 
took place. Going into the town he complained to the pohoe 
and an inquiry was made. As the examination was not finished 

i The name Godnha oocun in Somethrar's Kirti Kaomndi, IV. 57, where it ii 
stated that the lords of Godraha and L4ta, the oountry between the Karbada and 
Tipti, betrayed their master the chief of Dholka. Godraha can only refer to Hm 
present Godhra. The other reference in a grant of ShiUditya V. of Valabbi aboct 
404 is not so certain. Dr. Btthler in Ind. Ant. LXIIL 16, 17. 

s Ind. Ant. LXUI. 16. During this period no other reference to Godhra baa beoi 
traced either in the RAs MiOa or in Tod's Annals of &ijasth4n. 

> Briggs' Ferishta, IV. 62. Hie fire divisions were Ahmedabad, Jaga^ Godkia» 
Soi^ad, and Thiaa. 

4 Bird's Gujarat, 124. The ten sab-divisions wereat tiie doseirf the IGUi eeirtny 
Godhra, Sehra, Miral, Samd&h or Kasirabad, Dodih, Ambibad, Jhidod, MorvA* 
Kaddhinih and D4hmod. Two other Gk>dhra sab-divisions were at that tune (157Q 
in the hands of the Sonth chief and of Chat&iil Kali According to the Ain-i-AklM0 
(Gladwin, II. 242) the area was 635,256 highds and the yearly reveane Ba. S5,4BS 
(34,18,324 ddm%). The names of the sub-divisions differ considerably froai thoaa 

E'ven in the Mirat-i-Ahmadi ; thev are Audha, Atladera, Bers» Jedna^^ar, JhOad, 
hamnnd. Sehra, Godhra, Kohanen, Miral, Mehdvida. 

6 Malcolm's Centnl India, L 78; the date of Sindt&*8 conquest has Mt bees 

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before nightfall, some Snnni Mnsalm^ns meeting at the E izsi's Chapter XIT. 

house determined to take the punishment of the Bohor&s into their pigoes of Interest 

own hands* Next morning (27th Angast) gathering in a large 

crowd they sarronnded the entrance to the Bohora quarter, seized wnmu. 

two Bohor&s, and setting them on asses dragged them through the 

town. When the police came the Bohora quarter was already 

broken into and plundered. The rioters were driven back and a 

gnard set over the Bohora quarter. No further acts of violence 

were committed. But for three days (29th-31 st) the houses and shops 

remained shut, the mob continuing to hold the market place. They 

then dispersed without doing further mischief. About sixty of the 

rioters were convicted and sentenced to terms of imprisonment 

varying from six months to three years and to from £5 to £10 fines. 

The fire of 1857 broke out on the 2nd April. A strong wind was Fire$, 

blowing from the north and a hut in the north outskirts of the ^^7. 

town catching fire, the flames spread rapidly. Except the Government 
offices and some small outlying parts to the east and west, nearljr 
the whole of Godhra, its well built Bohora, S&huk&r, and Gh&ncm 
quarters with many handsome three-storied houses, was completely 
burnt down. Very little property was saved and two persons and 
many cattle were killed.^ On the 5th March 1 873 a serious fire broke isrs. 

ont in the densely populated Ghdnchi quarter : 188 houses were burnt 
and property worth £4400 (Bs. 44,000) destroyed. 

Of 10,635, the total 1872 population, 4775 or 44*89 per cent were Peopfe. 

Hindus ; 5854 or 55*04 per cent Muhammadans, and six Others. The 
two classes of chief local importance are both Musalm&ns. The Shia 
Bohorfa are traders and . hardware dealers and the Gh&nchis are 
carriers, traders, and husbandmen. The Shia Bohor&s are a prosperous 
well-to-do community. But the Ghinchis though frugal and hard- 
working have of late years suffered from the break-up of their 
monopolyof the carrying trade and have some of them fallen into 

OQ-making is carried on to some extent in Godhra. In 1867 a Cfraftin 

steam mill was started by a company known as the Godhra oil 
company. It worked for about five months and then closed for want 
of fands. In 1870 the mill was sold to a P&rsi merchant of Bombay, 
-who worked it, with occasional stoppages, till July 1877. Two kinds 
of seed, tal, Sesamum indicum, and dolia, Bassia latifolia, were 
pressed in the miU. 

There are also several &milies of weavers, some of them Dheds 
who weave coarse sacking, gani, cloth; the rest, Khatris and 
Mnsatm&iis of the Momna class make the finer sorts of different 
coloured robes. There is also some pottery, brasswork, and wooden 
bracelet-making, the Godhra market supplying those articles to a 
considerable area of country. As a place of trade Godhra has of 
late years risen in importance. The opening of the railway to P£li 

1 Twenty years before (1837) Godhra was almost entirely destroyed by fire. 
Siodiia Gorenunent gave £3000 (Bs. 30,000) for the sufferers' relief. 

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Chapter XIT. bas increased the local exports, and the trade tends more tbin 
HacM jj/T^tflTflgt. forni^rly to centre in Grodhra. If, as has been proposed, the railway 
line is brought on seventeen miles from P41i, Gk>dhTa will become a 
Gk>DHRA. place of consequence,the trade centre for Jh41od and Dohad in the east, 

B^ya in the south, and Lnn&y&da and Sunth in the north. Its 
chief exports are timber, mahuda flower, maize, gram, and oil seeds; 
its chief imports tobacco^ molasses, and hardware. As the head-* 
quarters of the district, and the chief town of the sub-division, Godhra 
has, besides the offices of the Agent to the Governor, his assistant, 
the district superintendent of poUce, the forest officer, the m&mlatdir 
and the civil judge or munstf, a dispensary, a post office, and tbee 
yemacular schools, 

' The only objects of interest in the town of Godhra are the lake 
and the fort to the north-east of the town. The lake about seventy 
acres in extent is embanked, faced with stone, and on the west and 
south provided witJi flights of stone steps. The name of the town the 
' coVs lake' would seem to show that this reservoir is of great age. 
The fort is of mud, of little size or strength. At present it oontaiiis 
the offices of the m&mlatd6r and of the local judge or munsif. Every 
year on Ookal A'tham (August-September) a fair is held attended 
by about 1000 Bhils and Kolis. The gathering lasts only a few hoon 
and is of no trade importance. 

JU'ifih. Halol, in 1872 a town of 3147 inhabitants, the head-quarters 

of the petty division of the same name, lies on the high road to 
J&mbughoda, about seven nules south of E&lol and four north-west 
of P&v4gad hill. Besides well-to-do £[anbi cultivators, the largest 
class in the town, there are V&nia traders carrying on business in 
grain and forest produce with J&mbughoda, and in hfurdware, tobacco, 
and cloth with G-odhra and Baroda. At H&lol is said to have been 
(1484) the most beautiful of all the gardens for which Ch&mp&ner 
and its suburbs were famous.^ The chief remains of its former 
prosperity as a suburb of Gh&mp&ner, are to the north-east of the 
town, a reservoir of considerable size but without stone steps or other 
masonry. Within the limits of the present town is a mausoleDm 
described in 1785 as two large and five small domed structures, all of 
admirable workmanship, the two larger containing marble tombs 
adorned with excellent skill,' Since then some of the domes have 
fallen, but in other respects the buildings are in good repair. They 
were raised by Bah&dur Shih. (1526-1536) in honour of his brother 
Sikandar Sh&h murdered by Im6d-ul-mulk in 1526 (May 30th) after a 
reign of three months and seventeen days. The mausoleum contains 
two more tombs, one to Ndsir Kh4n, the other to Latif EhAa, boArf 
them brothers of Bah&dur Sh&h who died in the same year (1526). 
At the time of building the tombs a suitable establishment vtf 
endowed to say daily prayers for the princes' souls.* 

JuA'LOD. Jhalod is the chief town of the petty division of the same 

name, the northern half of the Dohad sub-division. Lying in north 

X MiiaM-Sikandari (1611) quoted in I&d. Ant. LXUI. 5. 
? Forbes' Or. Mem. Ill, 47«, 

a FeiiBhta, IV. IDS. 

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latitude 23'' 7' and east bngitude 74^ l(y, Jh&lod oontainB a 
population of 5170 souls. In 1825 Jh&lod is described^ as but littie 
deserving the name of a city ; still it had a market^ a mos(|ue, a small 
temple^ and some good solidly built two-story high bnck houses. 
There is a large and handsome pond. The people are chiefly 
husbandmen^ most of them Bhils and Kolis. Exoept a littie pottery 
and handloom weaving there are almost no manufactures. But 
there are several families of Y&nia traders^ and there is a 
considerable export of wheat and gram^ chiefly south to Dohad and 
south-west to Godhra. 

Kalol is the head-quarts town of the sub-division of the same 
name. It lies in north latitude 22^ 37' and east longitude 73"" 31'^ 
and contains a population of 3993 souls. The centre of the richest 
cultivation in the Panch Mahills^ and with a large proportion of 
well-to-do Sanbi inhabitants^ E&lol is a prosperous town^ tiiough its 
importance has to some extent been affected by the recent change in 
the course of trade to P41i instead of to Baroda. 

Lila'vati. The three villages, Lilva Pokar, Lilva Deva, and lilva 
ThiUcor in tiie Jh&lod sub-division, are said to stand on the site of 
an old town, Lil&vati by name, where according to the local story, 
the P&ndavs in their wanderings sta3red. The place is still marked 
by several Mah&dev temples with spirited and clear cut sculptures. 

Fa'va'gad. See pages 185-190. 

Shera, about twelve miles north of Oodhra^ is on Oohd A'tham 
(August^September) the scene of a fair in honour of Mah^ev. The 
gathering seldom numbers more than two or three hundred Bhils 
and Kolis and is of no trade importanca 

Tuva, about ten miles west of Godhra, is remarkable for its hot 
gprings of which some account has been gpiven in Chapter I. Here 
on the 11th of Phdgan (February-March) a few hun£^ Bhils and 
Kolis assemble to worship McJi&dev. Since the opening of the 
P&li railway, the number of visitors has much increased. 

Cliapter ZXV. 
Places of Intereit 





I Heb. Nar. IL 104. 

s Ferishta, IV. 108. 

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^boriglAal tillage : Panch MahdU, 232. 
Aboriginal tribes : Panch MahAls, 218, 225. 
Acqnisitioil of district: Kaira, 78; Panch 
Mahila, 259. 

Administrative sub-divisions : Kaira, l ; Panch 

Mahilfl, 183. 

Administrative changes : Kaira, 78; Panch 

Mah&ls, 2.^9. 
Advances of grain: Kaira, 61; t^ai^ch Mahdis, 

Agates: Kftira, 15. 
Age* popalation aocording to : Kaira, 28 ; Panch 

Mahils, 216. 

Agrarian crimes : Kaira, I2l. 

Agriculture: Kaira, 42-53; Panch Mahdls, 

Agricnltaral population: Kaira, 42$ Panch 

MahiOs, 230. 
Agricultural stock : Kaira, 26 ; Panch Mahils, 

Alienations : Kaira, 82- 85 ; Panch Mah&Is, 263. 
A'nandf «id>-di^isioii of Kaira : Boundary ; area ; 

aspect; climate; water; soil; rental; stock; 

holdings ; produce ; people ; health, 169-161. 
AlUind: town, 166. 

Animals: Kaira, 16 ; PanchMahAls, 209. 
A'ris: batUes at, 166. 

Area of district: Kaira, l ; Panch MahAls, 183. 
Area under cultivation: Kaira, 45; Panch 

Mah&ls, 232. 
Artisans* nnmber and condition of : Kaira, 33 ; 

Panch Mahils, 217. 
Aspect of district : Kaira, 2 \ Panch Mahdls, 184 
Assessed taxes : Kaira, 126 ; Poach Mahila, 27& 


Btilirvati&S^ ontlaws : Kaira, 120. 

Balance sheet : Kaira, 128 ; Panch Mahils, 280. 

Banbuptcy: Kaira, 62. 

Bards ft"*! actors: Kaira, 33; Panch Mahdlfl, 

Beggars: Ksira, 85 ; Panch Mahils, 220. 
Bh&gd&rs, flfaarors : Kairm 88, 
Bh&ts: Kiiira, 34, 91. 

Bhivka, place of interest, 303. 

Bhils : Features ; honso ; dress ; food ; oocut>atioii 

religion ; customs ; community, 218- 222. 
Bhimkxmd, plaoo of pilgrimage, 303. 
Birds: Kaira, 19; Panch Mahils, 211. 
Births and Deaths: Kaira, 142; Panch Mahdis, 

Blind : Kaira, 27 ; Plonch Mahils, 214 
Bore, in Gambay Gulf, 3. 
Borrowers* classes of : Kaira, 60 ; Panch Mahils, 

Borsad) sub-dlTision of Kaira : Details same as 

thoseof A'nand, 162-165. 

Borsad, town, 166. 

Boundaries : Kaira, l ; Panch Mahils, 183w 
Brahmans : Kaira, 29 ; Panch Mahils, 216. 
Bridges: Kaira, 69; Panch Mahils, 240. 


Calico-printing: Kiara, 75^ 

Capital: Kaira, 57-67 ; Panch Mahils, 236-239. 

Capitalists : Kaira, 57 ; Panch Mahils, 256. 

Cartage, rates of : Panch Mahils, 248. 

Castes : Kaira, 29-35 ; Panch Mahils, 216-226w 

Cattie : See Stock. 

Census: Se« Population. 

Chakki-no-iro, place of interest, 303. 

Chaklifii : town, 167. 

Chimpineri history and remainsy 304^ 

Charotar s Kaira, Z 

Christians : Kaira, 37 r Panch Mahils, 226. 

Climate : Kaira, 13 ; Panch Mahils, 195. 

Clothy manafaetftre of : Kaira, 75. 

Communications : See Boads and Railway. 

Condition of the district at different times : Kair% 

81, 93, 94, 10% 107» 109^ 120; Panch Mahib» 

261, 273. 
Cotton, cultivation €i : Kairai 50. 
CourtS) nnmher and working of : Kaira, 116, 1 18 1 

Panch Mahilsi 271. 
Craftsmen : Kaira, 33 ; Paneh Mahils, 217. 
Crimes : See Offences. 
Crops : Kaira, 45 ; Panch Mahik, 232, 
Crop burning : Kaira, 121. 
Currency : Kaira, 61 ; Panch Mahils, 237. 

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Day-labonren : See Labonring Claaaes. 

Dakor, town and place of pilgrimage, 167. 

Deaf and Dumb : Eaira, 27 ; Panch MahilB, 214. 

Debtors: Kaira, 117 ; Panch Mah&lB> 271^ 

Dehevilly an old sea port, 168. 

Deniity of population : Eaira, 25 ; Panch Mahals, 

Depressed Classes : Eaira, 35 ; Panch Hah&ls, 

Desar, place of interest, 309. 
Development of the district : Kaira, 116 ; Panch 

Dev Kedir, place of interest, 310. 
DharamshiUis : See Rest-houses. 
Diseases : Kaira, 140 ; Panch Mahils, 290. 
Dispensaries : Kaira» 141 ; Panch Mah&ls, 290. 
Distorbanoes: Kaira, 120; Panch Mah&la, 253, 

Dohady sub-diyision of the Panch Mahils : Boun- 

daiy ; area ; aspect ; climate ; water ; soil ; 

rental ; stock ; occupancy ; produce ; people, 

Dohad, town, 810. 
Domestic Animals: Kaira, 16; Panch Mahils, 


Drainage Works : Kaira, 6-10. 

Domb : Kaira, 27 ; Panch Mahils, 214.] 
Djreing: Kaira, 75. 

Barthqnakes : Kairs, 169. 

Education : See Instruction. 

Educational oess : Kaira, 130 ; Bmch Mahils, 

Ezcise, rerenue from : Kaira, 126 ; Panch Mahils, 

Expenditure : See Balance Sheet. 
Exports : See Imports. 


Factories, steam : Kaira, 75. 

Fallow lands : Kaira^ 45 ; Panch Mahils, 232. 

Famines: See Years of scarcity. 

Fairs : Panch Mahihi, 251. 

FemaleSy proportion of in population : Kainx, 27 ; 

Panch Mahils, 214 
Ferries : Kaira, 69 ; Panch Mahils, 241. 
FibreSi cnltiTation of s Kaira, 45 ; Panch Mahils, 

Fires : Panch Mahilsj 315. 
Fish : Kaira, 20 ; Ptoch Mahils, 212. 
Fishers: Kaira, 34 ; Paneh Mahils, 218. 
Floods : Kaira, 11. 
Forest: Panch Mahils, 206, 


(harden: Kaira, 54. 

Oeology : Kaira, 13 ; Panch Mahils, 192. 

Oirls' schools : Kaira, 134 ; Panch Mahils, 286. 

hi, or clarified butter, export of : Kaira^ 74, 

Glass, manufacture of : Kaira, 76. 

Godhra, sub-division of the Panch Mahils : DslfttU 

same as those of Dohad, 292-294. 
Qodhra, town, 313. 

Govind^ a fanatic : Kaira, 120. 

Grain, cultivation of : Kaira, 45 ; Buidi MsMb, 

Grass oil,>«rafs<^i« of : Fsndi Mahils, ^. 


Hilol, petty division of the Panch Mahils : Details 

same as those of Dohad, 297-298. 
Hilol, town, 316. 

Hair OOmbs, manufacture of : Panch Mahals, 2501 
Hemp, cultivation of : Kaira, 54 ; Panch Mah&If, 

Herdsmen : Kair% 34 ; Panch Mahils, 218L 
Hills : Panch Mahils, 184. 
History: Kaira» 77 ; Panch Mahils, 262 - 258. 
Holdings, size of : Kaira, 44 ; Panch Mahils, 231. 
Hospitals: Kaira, 140; Panch Mahils, 29a 
Hotspring : Kaira 13 ; Pa&oh Mahils, 195. 
Honses, number of : Kaira, 39 ; Panch Mahilf, 

HnndiS, bills of exchange : Kaira, 68. 
Husbandmen : Kaira, 31 ; Panch Mahibi 217. 

Idiots : Kaira, 27 ; Panch Mahils, 214. 
JjitAy or farming system: Kaira^ 89; Puich 

Mahils, 262. 
Immigration : See Migration. 
Imports and Exports, artides of: Kairs^ 74; 

Panch Mahils, 246, 24a 
Indigo, cultivation of : Kaira, 63. 
Insanes; Kaira, 27 : Panch Mahils, 214. 
Instruction : Kaira, 132-138; Panch Mahils^ 

Interest, ratesof ; Kaira, 60; Panch Mahils, 237. 
Inundations : See Floods, 
Investment, forms of : Kaixa, 57 ; IVmch Mshils, 

Iron: Kaiia, 15; Panch Mah&ls, 197. 
Irrigation : Kaira, 43; Ptoch Mahils, 230. 


Jails : Kaira, 124 ; Psnoh Mahils, $76L 
Jhilod, petty division of the Pukdi Mahili: 
Details same as those of Dohad, 301-302, 

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Jhilody town, 316. 

Justloey adminisirafcion of: Kair>s 116; PaBoh 


IT ^IaIj anb-divieion of the F^oh Mahila : Details 
same as those of Bohad, 296-296. 

KUd, town, 317. 

Kaira district: Desoription^ l; riven, 2-5; 
dvainags^ 5-10; floods, II, 12; geology, 13; 
climate, 14; miner