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STANFORD university libraries STANFORI 






STANFORD university libraries -STANFORI 





























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This Volume on the people of Gujardt inclades two parts: 
Part I. Ths MUSA.LMANS contributed by Ehdn Bahadur Fazdl- 
ullah LutfuUah Faridi, Assistant Collector of Customs, Bombay, 
and Part II. Thb Pinsis, the joint contribution of the late Mr. 
Kharsedji Nasarvanji Seervai, J.P., a former Collector of Income 
Tax, Bombay, and Khfin Bahddur Bamanji Behramji Patel also of 


Jtihj 1899. 



Chapter I.— Origin and Strength : 

FoaEltiNEKH — HjNDC CoHVEBTS ... .„ 

Chapter II.— Subdivisions : 


SseoiJK Oljs^es ... 

Sayada, 7; Shaikha, 8 ; Mnghafe, 9; Pathans, 10. 


Stdfa, 11; WahMbis, 12; Kabulis, 13; N.iiatifl, U; 
AgaruB and Others ; Araba, 15 ; BalQcliis, 17 \ Mak- 
rdnifl; MirdhiB, 18. 


I. — Bblioiou.i Coxxuxitibs ... ... ,., 

Beggara, 19 ; Abdiilia ; Nakahbanda ; Benawia, 20 i 
Efjdiis, 21; Haaaim Briilimans ; Kalandara ; Madt'c 
ris, 22 ; Hum. Sabigs ; Rafaie, 23 ; RaeukhuliiB, 24. 

II, — TsdDIKO OOVMUKITIB.I ... ... ... 

BohorXb : Diiidi ; Salaimini ; Alia ; Nilgoalii ; Ja.l..^., 

DoWalAs; KARiLiis, 35-30. 

KhojIb" : Origin and History ; Appearance ; Dress ; 
Cbaracter ; Calling' ; CnatomB ; Mairiage ; Death ; 
BoUgioo; Taies; Holidaja, 36-50. 
Mbmanbt History 1 Appearance; Cbai-acter; Drcaa ; 
Food ; Beliefs; Cailin(f, GO -57 

Behlima ; Boboraa, 66; Kdkilparii; Gioietia: Glier- 
mehdis, 62 ; Kasb&tia, 64; Kbokbara; >Iakwinia, 
65; Moliks; Matia I^anbia, 60; MokaaUme ; 
Vannara, 08 ; R^tborH ; Saniiis ; SbaikLdAs, 69 ; 
Solankia ; Sumrna ; Taaka, 70. 



Ohapter II— Subdivisions— con^twMcd. no k 

JSectiox II. — Hindu Converts — continued. 

IV. — Draftsmen ... ... ... ... 70-80 

BandLdr^B ; BMdbhnnjas ; Chhip^, 71 ; Chundadigi- 
ras ; Chundras ; Chudiwdlfe, 72 ; Ghinchis ; Kiigbzis, 
73 ; Kadids ; Kasais, 74 ; Kharddis ; Khatkis ; 
Labdrs ; Manidrs, 75 ; Momn^ 76 ; Mdltauis and 
Mdltdni Mochis, 77 ; Ndlbands ; Pdnjnigars ; Hir 
Pan jnig&rs, 78 ; Rangrez ; Saldts ; Sonis, 79 ; Tdis, 
V. — Sruvants ... ... ... ... 80-85 

Behrdpids ; Bhands, 80 ; Bhattis ; Bhawayyas ; Gan- 
dbraps, 81 ; Kamalids ; Madaris, 82 ; Mirs or Mirdsis ; 
Sipdbis, 83 ; Tdsbcbis; Turki Hajdms, 84. 

VI. — Labourers ... .... ... ..• 85-00 

Banjbdra's, 85 ; Chdtlas ; Cbbdrds ; Dbuldboyas, 80 ; 
Gorkbodias; Katbidras; Mdcbbis, 87 ; Mdlis ; Mapd- 
ras; NdgoriB; Nats, 88 ; Pakbdlis; Sbisbabgars, 89; 
Tboris, 90. 

Chapter III.— Style of Living : 

Section I. — Tub House: 

Ricb ; Middle Class ; Poor ... ... 91-95 

Servants ... ••• ... 96-97 

Animals ••• ... ••• 97 - 9j 

Section II. — Dress : 

Ricb Man ; ^fiddle Class Man ; Poor Mau ; Ricb 
Woman ; Middle Class Woman ; Poor' Woman ; 
Cbildren ... ... ... ...100-108 

Section III. — Food: 
Ricb ; Middle Class ; Poor ; Marketing ; CosI ; Stimu- 
lants ; Meals ; Feasts ; Public Dinners ; Feast Day 
Dinners ••• ... ••• ...103-115 

Chapter IV.— Daily Life : 

' Men ; Women ... ... ... ...116-117 

Chapter V.— Occupation : 

Census Details (1872) ; General condition of the differ- 
ent classes under Professions; Service; Land; Trade; 
Crafts; Women; Monopolies ... ... ...118-123 

Chapter VI— Condition : 

Tbrift ; Indebtedness ... ... ... 124 

Chapter VII.— Religion ; 

Siiania and Shiiilis ; Point* of Difference ; Belief ; Practice ; 
Vows; Shrine YowB ! Genii and Fairy Vows ; Beligioas 
BnUdings; Religions Officers, Tho Pi'ieBt, The El?gy 
Singer, The Pi-eacher, The Law Doctor, The Rcgiatrar ; 
Holy nays, Moharram, Tera or Tallin Tozi, Wufit, 
Mauliid, Jlamajiln I'd, Bakri I'd, I'di-ghadir; Early 
Beliefs, PoBBeasion, Magic, Omens ••• ... 125- 14C 

Chapter VIU.— Customs : 

Pregnancy ; Exorcist AiiUl ; Seyenth and Ninth Month 
Eitts; Behlim Vow; Earthen Dish Rite Kawlari ; Boat 
OHering Haoi; Sex DivinatioD by Milk ; Birth ; 
Hamlng; Saorifioo J Fortieth Day ; Salt Tasting ; Birth 
Day; Initiation ; Ctrcamcision ; First Ram azdn Fast; 
The Hiidya Present ; Bctrotlial ; Marriage ; Divorce ', 
Death; Mourning; Pilgrimage 

Chapter IX.— Amusements ■■ 

Field Sports ; Gyranastica ; Honse Games ; MuEic 
Reading ... ,.. ... 

Chapter X.— Oommimity : 

In Religion, Calling, Amuaemont m. 

Chapter XI —Prospects •*• 

..Hi -171 

GU jabAt fArsis. 

Introduction ... «. 

Section I.— Early History ; 

First Settlement in India (700) ; Settlement at Sanjjin 
(71(1) ; Fall of Sanjin and Flight of the Parsia (1315); 

Changa Asa's Religions Zeal ; European Ac 
(1500-1600): Empei-sr A kbar converted to the 
Faith (1578); Eni-opean Accounts (16uO-I700) 
giona Dispntes 




Section II-— Settlements ; 

(1600- 1800) ; (1700-1800) 
Prosperity ( 1 SOI)) , Pirai Sol 
PiirBts as Coluiiisl« and Me 

A Piirsi Martyr ; Parai 





Section III.— Appearance ... ... ••• 201 

Dress and Ornaments ... ... 301 - 20:3 

Speech ... ... ... ...203-204 

Section IV — House ... ... ... ...205-206 

Pood ... ... ... ...206-207 

Section V.— Daily life ... ... ... 208 - 21 

Section VI.— Religion : 

Sacred Books ; Leading Beliefs ; Temples ; Sacred Fires^ 
Atesh D&dghin, Aderan, Atesh Behrdm ; Objects of 
Veneration ; Bigh Fe$tival Day 8^ Jaaans ; Season Festi' 
valsy Gahambdrs, Gdihas, Muktad Holidays, Leading 
High Days ; Observances ; Early Beliefs ... ... 211 - 220 

Section VII.— The Priesthood : 

Genealogical Tree ; Distribution ; Higher and Lower 
Sacerdotal Orders ; Ordination, Herbad or Under Priest ; 
Mobed or Full Priest ... ... ... 221 - 22G 

Section VIII. --Customs : 

Pregnancy ; Birth ; Goths Vows ; Navzot Initiation; Betro- 
thal j Fore-marriage Observances ; Marriage ; Polygamy ; 

x^eatn ... •.. ••. ... ... ^-^/ — ^^o 

Section IX.— Community ... .*. ...244-245 

Appendix I.— Fire Temples ... ... ... 247 . 261 

Appendix II.— Towers of Silence ... ... 252 . 254 

MusalmXns ... .n. ... ... ...255-276 

PXbsis ... ... ... » ... ...277-288 










According to the latest tiguree (a.u. 1891), GujarAt MusalmAns Chapter ] 
mmber about 1,113,000 or lij07 per t-eut of the populatian. The orijrin"ftii 
lUowing statement gUjvs tbeir diatribution : Strengtli 



P*mii,Y FonKoli. 

Luo/ii, COBHrtTi. 










Almigdibkl .- 

aoot ... _ 






































Guj^^t Muealaidus may be divided into two mata sections, those 
who have a forei^ strain and tiioee who are almost entirely of local 
Bisdn dfboent, 

.From the middle of the seventh to the end of the eighteenth 
century foreign MtuiatmflUH continued to find their way into Gujarit.^ 

' Before the urivs) of Mnhamnuilaii Arabs in India Anib sattlemonti arc rocorded 
•t Cbnil Kalyla ami Supin. Abol-Fiila (a.d. 1273 - 131.31 ■peak* at tbc Arabs being 
atrUlrA in Saptn in very esrij liiaes. Reinaud's Abul-Fittn, II. cccl.-ixiiT, In tbe 
time uT AgotlurciileB b.q. 177-100(Vinc<]iit'B Puriplut, 154) there vcre so manj Antba 
on tbe Halabii cosat that the people liod adopted tha Arab relijiioa. Ptolemy'i 
BMP (f iTulia, A.n. 150, lias a trove of the Arabs in tho word Meliiigerit, tlie latter 
p&ft of thif name beiag the Arabic Jas\ra\ wa island (Ttiina Gaiett«er, XIII. 61 
Bote i}. Befure they adopted IiUm tiu Arabs were mostly Ssbiaiu. Sale (Prell- 
mlbaiv Ditconrso to tbe Kuntio, 10) uty> that though thtFre were idol-worshippen 
J«wn Miioans and Chrbtians among Iho Araba of the " times of ignorance, the 
KsUl^leligion hod overrun tho whole (Arab) nation. The flrtt eipedilioa of 
Vabanunadan Arabs to India, I..D, (130, was sent in the reign thDUKh not with tho 
■«D<>tioii of tJmar the ion of KhattAb, a.d. 634 - 613, the second Khaltfah. When 
be hvaid thitt Utbm&n-abh-'l'hakafi his |,'Dvemor of Bahrein had sent an eipedilioD 
wbicb relumed laccessf ul from Hind tho Khalff ah wrote to Uthmin : " Brother of 
Thaklf ! than hast placed the norm in the wood, bat b/ AlIAb 1 had anj of my men 
been IcMt I sltonld h«v« kilted an eqoal QainbeT from thy tril>a " (Al-KlAznri (i.o. 9Wi 
B 5211—1 

Chapter I. 
triKin and 



Tbe first to arrive wero AraVe, the BailoTE anil B<>l<liers nf 1 
BaghdM lle«te Buut iu the seventh cightii and niutL oenturici i 
plunder aad cmjuer the Oiijariit coasts. The next eomem, b 
mostly from tlie Pertiiiti Gulf, were daring tlic ninth and 
oeiiturieB eBtablished in considerable numbers in the cbittjP 
cities. Eneouragod to settle by tho HajpCit kings of Ats 
these merchants were treated with much uuneidemtioii Mid I 
manajje their aH^rs, to practise their religion, and to build 1 
Next from the north eame the Musalmdn invaders of the e)a 
twelftli centurie*,'' But eieept in & few of the coast townfi.t 
conquest by Alif Eh^n in a.d. 1"97, tliere would'seem to 1 
but a very small Musalm^n population in tJujarat.* From thoa 

In Elliot. I. 116). The prejmlicc of Uniar agiunft Indiii 6«'m« 
to aooounti he Ii&d beani from Arab tnvctlen of ttu: ililGcult]' of Uw ] 
of %a >Tmy to lodla tlirongh Einnfiii. ImmcJUtcl;; %t\at the biutlc ot E 
<H, 14rA.t), SSe) when lie nnt Utbsta bU first goienioT to Ilic newW fouulaJ Ban , 
Khollfikb Um&r said to Utbah : " 1 km Moiliiig tbeelothcUailof Al-HiDd(Iiu)l>}Mlri 
ernor. Bvnkember it ii a field of tbe AetAt of the enemy." About the miIds jicrlod tf 
Mklngaii Arab philnaouhtr hU opinion of ludia receiT«l the tviilT : " Itli k rttnoto k 
Kbellioni infidel* " (Al Mu>iuir. Hnruj, Anbic Tait. IIL 171- Oiini Edn.) llito il 
uoD prevailed till ni late m tbo reign of the Umayjiid Abdnl-Ualih (a.v. SaS ■ 70Q^ A 
Ibn-i-Kirijrjab gave the tullowiu); e|Hgraaiina)jc aiTiKiut of Al-Uind and KhwMl 
Hajjlj Ibo Min uf K&siif : " TheuiB of Al-Uindii peatli, its rooki are fuUm, >tati|— 
■wect-imelliiig aloe aiid its Icnvn perfmned, bal its ptop1i> are HIte a flock of hi 
pIgeDlu,>ndtbei*aytu it lies through Khuivltin whaai.'mleri^*ro anown and wboaepi 
tioti b an over-active incmy " (IbD-i-Kiri.vyab in Ibn-i-Kbalblitii, AnUc Text 1S8|. , 
A.D. 638 the Arab govema? of Bahtvin fitted out two dattt agtiixA tbe port* of tl 
of Cambay. In a.ii. 73U Broach wu atUokvd. In A.u. T&B and TTs II. ' 
•gaituttlio EitbiivittU coMt; and aboat l.n, S^tO Sindan, probably i 
taiieoand held for cuiue yean. EUiot'i History, I. 15, 415. 416, IM.Ul 
to oue acuoDiit in i, d. 734 the Arabi pasBcd inland ai.d conquered 17 jj^ (SI 
This nuty poanbly be tbe Jiiiiilgadh bill ot Cjj&nta or Oimlr. But uta 
the C'hAohn&mab (EUiut, 1. 167 -auS) mcntioii* the cot.iineft of Jaipni * 
Habammad buh of Kiiiui in the reign of the Uoiaijad Al-Walld (i.n. 
tbat Colonei Toil (Bajaitbii., 1. S07 [1S93] Calrutu Edition) natet from Hlnda « 
that Djjain wa^ an appan^a ot Chitor when ChiUir was attacked by Mubamnuid S 
It ia pmunble that tlie Arab conqoectir of Sindh might have carried bia raid t ' 
Interior as Ear as Uj jain. 

> Tho traveller tiulaimtfn U.S. 851) utb tliat tbo Bnlbira, that U tho V 
(A,D, 762-373) of Malkhet iu the Dakb'm, then soYereign of Uujarit. 
kings moat partial to Arabs; Al MAs'adi (A.u. 810) fonnd Islam ban 
protected. On all aides, he says, riie chapels and tpWndld moaquea where tht itSy t 
prayers can be prayed, Meinarrt's Prairies d'(.)r. I. 39'.'. At Sairaiir. pnilMibly (T- 
about thirty miles south of Bfltnbiiy, rtm lU.OOO Musatniliiis chiefly from th«> Pri 
Qulf : Ibn-i-Haakiil (A.D. 043) found moaques at AnahiU*t(la, Cambay, and Kndin -, 
AI-Idriu(A.D. 107'i-110U) lays Kahrwdla or AnahilavlijB was frequmtfll by large ontDbm 
of Muialinin traders, Elliot's HUtory. I. 6, 24, 27. 34, 38, 68, and Bcif'-"-*^- «*— i- ' 
fc'nr L'Indo, 220. 
■ Mahniiid Gbsznavi (i.n. 102S) and Kntb-ud-dln-Eibalc Ia.D' HSt). 
'In.apite of tbe injariea duDu them by Musalmln invaders, the Kajp^t kilfl y 
Anahilavdtla continued to treat MnaalmAu traders with mucb kindness, i' ' ~ ' 
06 (A.D. li;iI)te11show8idhrdj [a.d. 10l>4- 1143) inquired iutoan attack on K ..... 
nsia tradera in Camluy, pnnished tbe Uiudus, and gave tbe Maaalmins money to tl 
■ new mosque. Elliot'i Uiatory, II. 164. Some of the Hindu chiefs would a] 

have engaged Musslmia mercenaries. In a.d. 1264 tlje ruler of SomoAtb ia il 

had several Uasalm&n officers, among them a naval captain adiinda. (Forhev' Ui 110 
I. £70.) And one branch of tbe AhmeddbAdKasbAlis is deaceuded from Kbontsani ! '" 
of fortune who took senNce under the Vtghela kings of AuabilavAda (a.v. l:fli' 
How commonly Hindu chiefs used Unnnlm&n mercenaries ia shown by Alo 
cxDUBO tor (A.D. 1294) entvdnic tbe Dakhan, tbat he was on bis way to tnk, 
Willi tit rtfja of Rftjamandri. Elphinstoue's History of India (IfS? EditioD), 3. 


the end oE the seventeenth century, both by land and aea 

I Musaioian soldiers, traders, refugees, and slaves kept flocking 

■ ' ,' Most of them coming single wore absorbed into the 

A Mas&tmdn population. In modem times three eveute have, on 

what larger scale, aiided to the foreign element of the Mut^inan 

lation of the province. These are, towards the close of the eleventh 

_' the arrival from Yaman in Arabia with a band of followers 

e religious bead of the Shiah tiadin^ Bohorile ; about the middle 

) seventeenth century tho eat u Wish men t at Surat of the 

iojira Sidis as admirals of the Mughal fleet; and during the 

J it<!entb century tho influi: of Arab mercenaries and of several 

[fcands of Persian political refugees.* 

Of the lociJ converts some were persuaded and others were forced 
to adopt Isllim. From time to time Muhammadun missionnriea and 
mcQ ot learning, coining either of their own accord or in\4ted by 
tho rulers of GujurM,. succeeded iu winning to their faith large 
bodies of Hindus.^ As regards conversion by force, Alif KhAn 

Origin and 


IThoporU ofGujarlt being the "Ostosof Makknh" (Abwib-nl-Makbah) for the 
Uuslim pileninii of UeDtrnI Aun Pcrain nnd EliniAiAn many fureigu Mnwtniiii 
l>mili«s used to lettle in QajiirU on tbetr n^tiirn from th(< liol; iilaecs- Ab a notable 
•mniila of tliew tettlementii tho Mlrat-i-Abmhli (Pcnian 'I'eit, IL iB)rBCoanls thonu 
tiCSlwiUi Ahmad Kluittu of S»rkbei,ono of tho four bmoIIj fonndom of the oitj of Ahmed- 
Ibid. Tlie hnlk of theie were sdyBntureB in sesrei of teniae aa Mldiops. In A.D. 1531 
Bahidnr bail Tarfca sad Abyiilnians in his army (Bird'i QnjarAt, S72), and Habahis and 
AfghAiu WOB amoDg th<^ UujarAt troops that ojipoiced the etnpcror Akhar in a-U. 1B73 i 
EUioI,T. 3IMt, According to Batboia, who visited Ouiarit in i.e. 16W,lho cavalry were 
Turk* tUtnetttke* ArabB PereUna KhurlstniB and TurVi™ftn», Othen came from Dehli 
udaome belonged to Gnjarilt. Stanley's Barhoea, 55-68. Traden would Moia to have 
teen en«ouragi!d to settla. One of thorn, i.n. 1331, is said to have been preaentrf 
with lauds at NavalM noar Snrat, and to have received the title of Maiik-ut-tQ] jto or 
Cbl«f of the mcrchantB. Ris UiU, I. S87. 

• At tho beginning of the preeent centnry {4.D. 1 802) tho Amb lucrtpnanes were tha 
only obstafilt to the Eoajplrto ertnblishmont of British influence in UujarAt. Brave 
bat ontuly, they onmbered aboat 7000 men. A quarter of tham were nativee of 
Aialna. the rest were of Amb cxtraetion bom in Gujarit. With thar defeat at Baroila 
(1«02. Dnr. 20th) the power of the Arab mercenBries came to an end. Bis M41a, 
II. 33 and IS. Of the Persian refugvea to Oambay, James Forbes (f.ti.ITKl) wja : 

II retan from India t« Persia. Oriental Memoirs, lit. S3, 
a Camhaj »■ recruits for the N»w4h's Persian rcgimi 


* Of these missioniriel tho most important w»* Abdallih, who fonndfd the sect of the 
Bhlah Bohorils in Gnjarit (4. d. I0«7). Bis Mitla, I. 844. Other dl»ting:ui«h«l teachers 
l»o».iii*.D.1106,KhjljahMuln-ud-dfnChi>bli, who finally Mtlleil at Ajaitr, where he made 
Many convota and died in A.D. 1236. Burton's Sindh, 213, Traditions of M ah mild of 
Obauii U'D. 1025] conrertinf* the Hajpdti of north GBJarlt, now cnlli.'d Malilis, still linger 
la that couDtry, When Zafar Khitn one of the trasty nobles of Sultin FtiCz Shah 
(».!>, lasl.fJS^) of Dehli comjuoTed Gujarit Ia.d. 1371) some learned men who accom- 
panied hllk uaed argnmeata to make the people embrace the faith acroriliug to the da<!- 
trinea uf xurh as ravere the tradition of the Prophet (the Simnahwal-Jama-ftt). Hence 
it haplwatxl that some of tho Bohoris converted to Shiittsm in «.□. 1007 became t^unnii 
(Anatie Rewarchee, Til. 342). The next miKuonary vas tiayad Muhammad Jaunpnri who 
oaaietiiOuJBrACinA.i>.lfi09.claimingUibetha Imlm HebdKBird'sGujlrnt, 218); Shih 
tOmm, tUr ornament of Mabmlld Begnda's leiga U.S. 11G9 - 1613), ISnl SIS ; and ShAb 
■nUr the preoeptor of Munffar II. (l..i>. 1^13 - 1526). Bird, 329. Two of the Qniar&t 
Mvwdgas, UuttUIar i'l a.c, W95 oud MahmiSd Begada in a.u. 1471, are specially men- 
tloaad wbiringing InarnoJ meu into t>ujar,it to siircod thefoith. Briggn' Farishtab, IV. S, 
96. Anddoringtheroijjnof thoHcholarly nnd acomplinhed MoxaEfatll. («.D.l61S-!68(i) 
men ot letters fjom PiTsb Aluhiaand Turkey drt said tohave feund it wonb their while to 

Chapter I. 
Ori^ and 


(a.d.1297 -1317)introduc«d theMuhammadan faith from AnaluUT 

»ett!c \o Gnjarit. Briggs" Pariehtah, IV. 97, Itnim ShAh of PiriaX ilto tnwU 
conT*rti. HU la.thi>T Kar[m-ad-(lfn emno (mm tlip P«nUn IiU to AhmaUbtd. 1 
Inndn-nd-tlln, bin ■on. died at a. Tillage silakleil aboat vight miloi tonth uf Ahnci 
which proli»biyiliOM!liiQr;fof hisKMlnalianorigiulioeBllal Ji^jSXirBuitAaitnd 
ii DOW ralW Karamtliah, Iinim tthAli's dracendanta ccmlinue to enjoy Iha >^ 
headaliip of the Muraiia^ whom ha coDTerti-d, Tmilm ShU'a death anDiTBreH] 
attrsctB largo nniDbers of hisfuDowento hli ilifioaat Kanmthali, M irtt-i- AhmWt, 
81-82 Fenian Test. Tbo Karmatiajia dtUBne in this place a Aorl but apedal nal' 
Id the Hijcah yoar 278 (A.d. 8S1), [awards the end of the rMgn of the fli 
AbUai Al-Mo&tamul AUIlah, there sppnuvd at the iniiall village of Kahnin nea 
• poor and hauseleM wanderer who aUd he came from Khuiistin in Peraia near ll, 
Tbo rtrangor Kttled in Nalirein and led a life of rigid aniiterit; nnder the prMMtkn 
a woU-to-do greengrocer. Of religion the itranger, wbone uamo waa Ahmed, had pM)d 
notioni. which showed tlicmiplvoB in the pnctiu of ritei and ol»cmiice> of citnar 
nary aeverity. Instead of the Bve daily pnycrs ordaiucd by the law of laUm Aba 

S reached and r«dted fifty. He wid that Jcina had appeared to him in tiv bodj ■ 
eclared unto him ; Thou aft the ' Invitation ' i thou art the ' DenionatntUoa ' ; tk 
art tho 'Camol' i thou art tbo ' Bmt' ; thou nrtJohnthcaonof Zachariaa; tbMMtl 
Hoty Ghoat, Ahnwd never ate anv thing that wa* not earned by the labou If' 
baoda. After lome years of thia life Ahmed'a preechiDgt b^aa to draw pr — '-* 
ThoQgh Ahmed contiiiuci to lead tho aiune Becluded and umple life, hia 
adopted a political tone inviting hix foUowera to obey aeertain IniAm or lewicT of I 
Prophet'i family. The obedience of bii follow en to hia cunstant demand fur alnMt pn{ 
began to tell npon their babita and tamad an indtutrioua agricnltnral popnlatlon M 
band of moping idlera. Aa thia chauge lowtrcd the rcvcnueeof the di>ttirta, whickw 
pud in kind, the governor impriaoufd Ahmed and diecaaied the oeceiaity of poUiwI 
to death neib morning. These connacla betn^ ovcTbeard by one of the tni^lU oti 
governor (posalbly a secret follower of AhinMTt} alio ahatracted the keye-crf lbs nl 
from the sleeping governor's person and aet Abn'.od at liberty. Ahnwa 1 
to Syria where his myatflriooB escape from confinement so magnified him in the qw 
hia followers that bii name became invested nith supernatural greatne^ Ah 
this Urae one of Ahmed'* followera declared that hia master had received a dirin* fi 
lation. According to Ibni Aslr the message was in these worda : In the name of AI 
the Merciful, the Compusionate ; So aaitb Al-Faraj tbc son of Uthmita who b fa 
the village of Naalia (or Naiaretb] an inviter unto the Hcasiab, who ii JnBs, who it : 
Word, who is the gnlde, who ia Ahmed the eon of Muhammad the ann of Hauif 
and who ia Qahriel, Ahmed laid down to hia followers a ne» law abrogatinff that of' 
Prophet allowing them to drink wine, representing the prt4^epts of the KaiBta ia 
allegorical, latching thai prayers were a symbol of obedience to the Imim, &itiu 
type of silence and concealment of religious dogmai from strangers, and fomietttioD 
ain of infidelity. Thexo dnclrinea iprand cast to India and west to Africa and 9p 
It waa on the basts of kindred opinions that the atructnro of the Fatiniit« EbSt 
(i-B. 909- 1171) waa mised in Egypt and that the mater kingdoms of Multio {4.D.* 
and of Mansilrah were faunded in India. The sapling raised in the obscare villi^ 
Nabrein Hourishcd for nearly two centuries. Then the western branch wiihend 
Inanition and the eoatem arm waa loppod by the acymltar of the Ghamavi Halm 
(i.D. 1005-6) and was deatrojod never to ahoot forth ssaia by the deadly scythe of 
Ghori, Muhammad bin Sim (&.I1.I176], Of the name Sarmatian {k^^ifbtee i 
vationsare given. Ibni Aitr (Al-Eimil, Til. I4S) states that during hia dm.j% 
adversity at Kahrein Ahmed waeonco badly beaten by aome of the villagers on accoim 
aome dispute about a crop of dales he was set to guard. Left almost for dead he 
carried by a red-eyed i-illager, an owner tjf many bntlocks, to hia bouse and ticated i 
kiudnesi. He ever after during hia stay at that village remained nnder tbe 
□f his red-tyfed patron. Intho language of the Kabalesn Arabs, which was in v<^[ne: 
Nahrein, KarmalaA meana red-eyed and the patronised favorite of the pink-eyed loti 
the steers was nicknamed Karmalij/ah or the man belonging to the KarmataA, V 
aeema to be the moat senaible eiplnnation. Others aay that when Abmed rose to bi 
head of a turbulent and powerful eonapiracy the eorrcapondence of that bodj 
carried on in a cypher invented by him and that owing to its cloao lines and n 
ohnractera tbe cypher was called karnat or concealed. The third eiplanation U 
the name of the Karmatian prophet being Ahmed bin Muhammad consisted of or 
letters, Ahmed came to be called Karmal the crooked. (Ibni Ai<r, Til. 1*8 and 
Kurafcn Prebminary Discourse, I3]-132,| 



to Broach.^ But his successors seem not to have been very active in 
spreading their religion. And it was partly because Farhat-ul-mulk, 
mmself a converted Hindu, encouraged Hinduism, that in a.d. 1391 
Zafar Khdn, afterwards first king of Ahmeddbdd, was sent to govern 
Gujardt Of the Ahmedabdd kings three, Sultdn Ahmed (a.d. 
1411 - 1441), Mahmiid Begada (a.d. 1459 - 1513), and Mahmud II. 
(A^.D. 1536 - 1547), specially exerted themselves to sptead Isldm,^ and 
'of the Mughal emperors, Jahdngir in a.d. 1618 and Aurangzib in 
A.D. 1646, attempted by persecution to force the Hindus to 
become Muhammadans.^ 

Chapter I. 

Origin aiL( 


* Bird's Gujarat, 187. According to some accounts (Tod's Western India, 184, 191) 
more than one of the Anahilav^ja kings was converted to IsUm. And if it is true that 
he left only one temple standing in his dominions, Ajayapdla (a.d.1174- 1177) was by 
mach the most zealons of all the Musalmin rulers of Gujar&t. 

' Sultin Ahmed twice (A..D.1414- 1420) made fierce attempts to force the Hindus to 
adopt IsUm. The Bajpiits who submitted were called Molesal4ms and the Vdni&s 
and Brihmans joined the sect of Bohoris. Forbes' K4s Mila, I. 343. Mahmiid Begada 
probably did more to spread Islim than any of the Ahmed&b4d kings. But his 
efforts were among chiefs that had till then been independent rather than among his 
own subjects. Under MahmM II. the Muhammadan faith rose so superior that, at 
the end of his reign (a.d. 1547), no Hindu was allowed to ride on horseback and those on 
foot had to wear badges. They were prevented from worshipping publicly and from 
keeping the Holi or DevAli festivals. Forbes' Rrfs Mila, I. 387 ; Bird's Go jar At, 267. 

^ Jehingir (a.d. 1618) persecuted the Ahmed4b4d Jains, destroyed their temples, and 
exalted Islim. Elliot's History, VI. 450. Aurangzib by his severe treatment of the 
Hindus caused such discontent that, in A.d. 1646, he was removed from the post of 
▼iceroy. Watson's History, 74. Writing of Surat in a.d. 1689, Ovington says : 
Aurangzib, from an implacable detestation of idolatry, had forbid in great measure 
the pagodas, and commanded both a defacing of them and suppressing the solemnities of 
their public meetings. Voyage to b'urat, 293. 




Apter II. 



Section I«~Foreigni and Part-foreisrn Masalmn'nfl. 

Tnfi secUon of the Gujardt Musalmdn population that claims some 
strain of foreign blood may, somewhat roughly, be arraoged under 
two main groups ; the four chief or regular classes commonly knowB 
as Sayads, Shaikhs, Mughals, and Pathans, and 6e\'enteen spedal 
communities whose histories show them to be of partly foreign 

1 Tlio four i\>gular communities claim whc»l]y foreign descent. Of the«e the Sftjadi, 
tlie descendants of F4timali and AH, claim <le!icent fn>m forefathers, some of wham 
like the Eidrilsis (now Hcttled in Gujardt and the Konkan) came direct from Aisbki 
others like the Bukhtris from dcMcendants who came to Go j throogh Centrml ^m 
and Sindh ; or others like the Mashhadig through b'ayatlH who came from KUuris&Q. 
In north Gujarit Sayads of one class until very recently ahstained fsom intermarrisgt 
with Sayads of pther classes and most Sayads still (A.D. 1896) do not give tbeir daogbicn 
in marriage to non-Sayads, Acconling to tlie Minit-i-Ahmedi (Persian Text, IL16-8S 
P41anpur Edition) there are about ten chief Sayad families in Gnjarit : 

(1) The Bukhdrh whose first ancestor Sayad Burhiu-ud-din Eutbi Alam, dMeesA- 
ed from Sayad Jndfar Muthanna, a brother of Hasan Askari (bom AJ)w8ti| 
came and settled at Pattan in north Gujarit with his mother at the age of ies 
years in a.d. 1397. He removed from Pattan to Ahmedibid when that city Wf 

("2) The KddirUj whose 6rst ancestor who came to India was Sayad Jamdl PsUui 
the grandson of the great saint of saints of GiUn." i^yad Jamil came throogfc 
Ormuz to tho Dakhau and was with griMit honour invited f rom the Dakbaa to 
Gujarit by l^ultdn Bahddur about A.D. 1530. 

(3) The Ki/dU. The ancestor of the Rifdis who gained the glory of saintsbip, 
Havad Ahminl Kabir, was a nephew of tho great ;taint of saints Sayad Abdiu* 
K&dir, One of his descendants settled in Ahmed&b&d during the fonrteenUi 
centniy of the Christian era. Tho precise date is not given by the MiHl(4' 

(4) llic CAu)/(/£;f are the descendants of the great saint of Ajmfr Muin-ud-diB 
Chishti, who is calle<l the Prt)phct of India, ho being one of the first Hnaslnli 
missionaries to settle in India (A.D. 1165). 

(r>) The MashJiadis* Their ancestor Sayad Muhammad MurAd bli4h settled A 
Ahnied&bdd in a.d. 1637 ami became a pupil of Mehbub-i-Alam, a grandwnrf 
8hAh-i-Alam. In Akbar's days the Mashhildis of Dehli liad not a good name f» 
honesty and they were deemed inordinately proud of their birth* as is shown Iqf • 
Persian proverb quoted by Blochman (A'in-i-Akbari, 383 note 1): "Oh men « 
'Alashhad except your Im&m (Miisa liaza, the eighth Shi&h Im&ra from whom thtf 
claim descent) Allah's curse on you all*' Ahl-i-Mashhad bajoz Im&m shawi 
La&nat-ul-Uh bar tam&mi shumd.) 

(6) The ShlrdzU are descended from Sayad Ahmed son of Ja&far who lived the 
life of a hermit subsisting on leaves of trees and is said to have possessed pof* 
to perform miracles. He camu and settled in Gujarat in the days of Ham4;i> 
(A.D. 1635-1536). 

(7) The UrahiA are descended from Sayad Budha YaAkub who waa the »► 
phew of the famous ** Khing "-ridvr the commandant of cavalry who first plantoi 
the banner of Islim on the heights of Tarigaijh the hill citadel of Ajmfr (a.d.1(65). 
Sayad Budha lived in the days of Sultdn Ahmed of Gujarit (a.d. 1411 - 1443). 

Besides these families the Mir&t mentions the Eidrdsis, the Turmlzia, and ^ 
Bhukh&ris, without giving dates of their settlement. ^^ 

Among schismatic Sayads the Mir&t-i-Ahmedi gives the name of Sayad MuhammaOi 



The men of each of the four regular classes whoso home 
tongue is in all cases Hindustani, though their style of features 
shades off so that no well-marked line divides them, may still in 
most cases be known by some characteristic look, some special way 
of wearing the hair, or some peculiarity of dress. On the other 
hand the women of all the four classes, except the relations of lately 
come Pathans who are larger and fairer, and the poor whose fea- 
tures have been hardened by want and toil, differ little in appear- 
ance. In height they are somewhat under the middle size, the 
complexion, except among the Broach women who are unusually 
fair, is wheat coloured, the hair long and always black, the 
eyebrows arched and almost meeting, the eyes large and languishing, 
the nose straight and well cut, the mouth rather large and heavy, 
the teeth regular, the expression pleasing combining pertness 
with languor, the waist slim, and the limbs full and rounded. 

Sayads^ with a total strength of 35,744, are found in all parts 
of Gujardt. Claiming descent from Fatiuiah and Ali, the daughter 
and son-in-law of the Prophet, they are the representatives of the 
Sayads, who, during the period of Musalmdn rule in Gujardt, as 
• religious teachers soldiers and adventurers, flocked into the pro- 
vince from Turkey Arabia and Central Asia, 'i'hey are of middle 
Bize, most of them muscular and of spare habit. The head is often 
shaved, but, when allowed to grow, the hair has a natural curl. The 
beard is worn full by religious teachers and short by soldiers constables 
and messengers. 

Sayads mark their high birth by among men placing the title 
Say ad or Mir before, or Shah after, and among women the title 
" Begum after their names. Their sons take wives from any of the four 
chief Musalmdn classes and sometimes, though rarely, from among 
the higher of the local or irregular Muslim communities. As a rule 
a Sayad^s daughter marries only a Sayad, and among some exclusive 
classes (>f Sayads, family trees are examined and every care taken 
that the accepted suitor is a Sayad both on the fathcr'^s and mother's 
side. As a class Sayads are truthful and honest, sober, idle, fond of 
pleasure and thriftless, a quality which they misname resignation or 
tawakkul; as the proverb says ' If we have money we are lords; if we 
have no money we are beggars ; if we die we are saints, Daulat mile to 
mtr, nahin to Jakir, rnaren to PirJ Sayads follow all callings. The 

ex)r among them act as servants or as messengers and constables. 
ut most of them, as the degceudants of saints, hold towards a certain 
number of families the position of spiritual guides jdrs. Except 
'" — J 

more commonly styled Rijo F.hahid or R4jo the Martyr, who (a.d. 1C67) arrived in 

Gi]jar4t from Jaunpur in the North-West I'rovinces and obtaintd a position of dis- 

Uiiction and honour in the court of Aurangzib, then viceroy of Gujarat. When the 

bigoted prince heard of the Mahdavi opinions of the Sayad he dismissed him the 

Bfvicc and ordered him to leave the country forthwith. The Sayad counting on his 

lUowers who were numerous in the city as well as in Fdlanpur disregarded the ortlcrs 

id a skirmish ensuing, was killed. The rulers of Pilanpur, the milksellera oilpress- 

« and cotton-cleaners of Dholka and M&ndal, and the dyers and some of the wcaveis 

rV Ahmcdibid hold the Mahdavi faith. The chief quarters of Mahdavi Sayads in 

Injiurat arc Pdlanpur, A*timcd&bdd, Baroda^ and Dabhoi. 

Chapter I 




Chapter II : 




these FDligious teachers whi) as a clasa are well-to-do and eome of 
them rich, Sayade, from tlieir want o£ thrift aud fi'om their fondnen 
for roeignation tumiknut, are depressed and barJIy off,' In reli^on 
Sayads are both Sunnis and Shidhs, In Surat and Broach the majority 
are ynnnis. But in north Gujarat though all profess to be Sunnis, 
rooBt uf them are Sliidhs at heart. Tlio Sltiiih Sayails form a distinct 
commuTiity, their chief bond of union b?ing tlie secret celebration of 
Shiali religious rites. As a class Sayads are by their profeasiou obliged 
to show that they are reli^ioua and careful to observe all the rita 
enjoined hy the KtinUo. Almost all Sayatls, especially those who U™ 
in towns, show thomBelves ready to send their children to Govi'mment 
schools and universitieE where some of them have sneceeJeJ in grail uating 
(a.d. 18J3), some of them are now learning English, and a few haw 
risen to high positions in Government service. 

Shaikhs, numbering 88,006, are found in every part of the 
province. Meaning Elder, the title Shaikh tielongs strictly only M 
three bi'anches of the Kuraish family ; the Siddikie, who claim descent 
from Abd Bakar SidJik ; the FanSkis,^ who claim desceni from Umar 
Al Fari^k; and the Abhdsis from Abljas, one of the Prophet's nine unclM. 
The word Shaikh is a general term of courtesy corresponding to the 
English esquire, and in India includes the desceudante of local couverta 
as well as of foreigners.* The men have the title SAitiih or MtihamaU^r' 
placed before their names aud the women Blbi afi,er theirs. Infl 

' Though SBBi deBceDdant □( the Prophet it is thonght diahoaonrable for ti ^pd M 
beg, then \> in Oujarit one ohua of :Sayud bcggart beloaging to th« Bukhilri Etoct 
Tbi>se t,re aMoi after their villsse of Btttwn in the Daslcroi lab-division of AliiacdAUd. 
The pi<ge« of tUo Mir&t-i-Siluiiditri tiud other kistofieB of Qujuit ant replete wilb 
the Iionourable and diBtingiuiheil part thair uicestora took in the politica of G ujarit. 
The Ahmed&bid Snltina kod the whulr! of the Giijarlit nrmy were their ipiritual fallow- 
en. See Mirat-i-Silundari FGrsian Text, 303-61. Muny of them now wamler onr 
Qnj&r&tia bnnda of two or Ave chiefly during the month of KamuulD, atid an> fsmoai 
for their skill in inventing t»1ea of dintreitB. Moat of thiMn are well-to-do but thrifljcu. 

* Thf Filnikis include two brauches, the Chiahtia And the Farfilfa ; the fonoM 
dureudanti of auukix NiiiLm-ud-din Chiihti, the latter cf Shaikh FarCd-od-dln Shakir- 
ganj. Many of both tbiw: familiea, on'ing to their forefathers' niiBie for holinMi, 
are apiritnal gr^ea p'rzdiliihs, and Luve larj{e nambcri of fotlowerg. la R^hanpAra 
olaea of nnknown origin call thcmsclvoa "Teha" Shaikhs. They wet th«r *a/iri « 
ihroudlike shirt in oil, and drink quantities of oil, pretetidlng that thvir boweU U> 
proof BK^Bst its aperient action. They go about villages begging. 

■ Of the Shaikhs the HirAt-i-Ahmeili mentioag (I) the Siddikie, (S) the FltHkis. (3) ii» 
ChishtlB, (4) the Abbiaii, and (E) the Korsiahis. Of these the Siddlkis, tLtr Fdcul^li, 
the greatCT part of the CliishUs and the Abbiaia are generally of pure fon^ipii ilLir.^n;. 
being dearendant* of Arab Bottlers. Somfi of the CbiahtfB and the Kuraittii" Mik.:' 
they mav include tome deBOcndantB'of foreign Muialmins are mostly the uljil'!i< -. 
rerted ttindna. Chiaht being the name of the !^ll^i or myatic arliool founded 1> " 
Moln-nd-dln Cbiahti of Ajinero all t bo ^ followers of that achool, thoagb di 
of oonvsrted Hindus, call themeelr'ea Chisbtfa. Kuraiih ia the name of the nublo Ai 
tribe to which the Prophet belonged. On the strength of the Prophet's te«' 
ikadUli) that " all converta to my fwlh are of me and my tribe," the deBcendanta i 
Hindu and other converti to laUm enU themBclvea Kuruabie. Of Abbisis there 
in India. The Mirflt-i-Ahmedi (II. B5( notices the Kuraishis of Thiara in th 
district and the Jindarlina, vnlgorly oulled Jhadrina (a class of foreign Pathint) 
in the neighbonrhond of Pilanpiir and the G.iiknAr diatricta of ITnjba, to be two clftua 
of foreign aetllerB who were aasigned Unda by the Hnltina of Gnjorlt in militaiy tenai* 
in those diatricta. The Jindarins who believe IhemBelvea to be (Icsccndanta of senle" 
who came from Miziudania in Persia ace atill liandsomii and fair-skinned, robast *wl 

nublo ArfIB 

tha RWV 
nt) B«Utii 


l&rge a clans there is irnieh variety of ap|>earancp, and as a wliole 
■thoy ai'e hardly to bo (listinguiBlietl from Sayads. They are eobcr, 
feirly truthful and honest, and, though fond of show and pleasure, 
arc IcsB carelefcis in their money deatiogB than most MuBalmdns, 
According to a North Indiati Urdu i>roverh, ' The Sliaikh is as eJy as 
.& crow.' They follow all callings and arc foand in every grailcof llfi'. 
.3IftDy arc devout MusHinh. Except, by the tie o£ a ooinmon faith 
, Stiaikhs are in no way bound together as a community. Almost all 
are anxious to give their uhildreu enmo edueaticn, and of late years 
, the number of children learning English and attending Government 
-Bchools and univerBitios has much increased. Some of them have risen 
to high po^tH imder Qovcrnment. 

T'lugtaals numbering 34S8 include two distinct classes, the PorBiaa 
and the Indian orChughadda' Mughale, Except a few in AhmeiUibitd 
and llroaeh, Persian ilughals are found chJelly in C'ambay and Surat. 
They arc the descendants of I'ersLin political refugees and meicliants. 
Mughals always place the title Jlirsn, bom of a great man, before 
their names and add Se//, lord, as Jlirza Muhammad Beg ; the women 
add Ehiinam to their names as Ilusaini Khdnam. The distinctive 
features ijf the race arc middle size rather inclined to stoutness, li^ht 
skins, booked noses, and clear features ; sijme have blue or gray 
eyes, and most have a humorous and intellif^'ent expression. Their 
EashioQ of wearing the hair and beard varies. They have no gi'Cat name 
for temperance but are hardworking and liberal. Some of them are 
traders and the rest are in Government Bcrvice. As a class they are 
well-to-do. 'i'hey are mostly ShiAbs in religion, and Imve a name for 
Cftrefully keeping the rules of their faith. As they form a distinct 
cotmnunity, witli their own places of worship and as they generally 
marry among themselves, the Persian Mughals have adopted fewer 
Hindu customs tlian mi:'st Gujardt Musalmana. 

The second or Indian Mughals are found thinly scattered ovei- 
every part of the province. Liko the Persian Mughals, the men 
always place the title Mirza before their names and add Beg, and the 
women add Khiinam to tlioir names. They are the descendants of tbo 
Mughal conquerors of India, ilany north and south Gujardt Mughal 
families n-tain pedigrees and traditions tracing descent from the Mirzas 
orTimurian princes to whom Bahadur Sbd-h (a. d. 1526-1536) accorded 
an asylum first in Ahmediilmd and later in Broach and Surat when 
they were obliged to leave IClibul and Kandahdr and Hy south from 
Homdyun's vengeance, Iho sheltei- thus affoidcd by Bahadur Shdh 
(.iJ>. 1532) to Muhammad Zamau Mirza was the original ground of 
the quarrel that ted to Ilumdyi'm'a, invasion of Gujardt in A.ti, 1535." 

Chapter I 




woll-formcil, tftU and iiwry. Thfj ntv given t< 
Kul landhuldon, bat sonic hive entered tlie w 
%llA Baroda m taicdT» troopen and poliCL-iui! 
tikk^suv Bad iithCT Inreij^n Pntliilns of P.ittun. 
' The terin ehugliadda IB iervveditina Chaxiit: 

...T .Turtuli dialect wliioli UU fnUowpi 

. . is culled OiBghntiii or J!i;{liAt«i. U 
a Uii&t-i-Kbaadtici, Peniaa Tvxt, 255. 

piuui Thcyai 
ico of the nul 
They hitorraii 

gcuernUy euUivitora 
te states of Pillanpftr 
rywitU llie KliokliarB 





to U LAB 



After his conquest of the country HumAyun left Mughal governors 
in Gujardt, who, after Sher Khan Siir's successful revolt against 
Humayun, were expelled from their charges by the Gujardtis (ajd. 
1536)^^ The second group of Mirzas were sons of Sultiin Husein 
of Khurdsdn, who, owing to consanguinity, were entertained at the 
Mughal court by Bdber (a.d. 1526 - 1530) and after him by Humiylin 
(a.d. 1531 - 1566) . In a,d. 1571 they quarrelled with Jalaluddin Akbar, 
and entering Gujardt were received with open arms by Changizkh&i 
who happened at that time to be in need of powerful partisans to 
crush the power of Ptimdd Khan (a.d. 1554). After Changiz's 
assassination by the Kabashis (a.d. 15^8) the Mirzds moved south and 
took possession of Broach Baroda and Chdmpdner, while some of 
them settled at Surat.^ 

Except that Ihey are lairer in complexion Mughals do not differ in 
appearance from ordinary Muealmans.^ As a class they are poor, 
most of them earning their living as Government servants, messengers, 
and police. In religion they are Sunnis, differing in no way from the 
great body of the Sunni Musalman population. 

Fatha'ns^ 40,521, are found in all parts of the province. They aieof 
Afghan origin and their name probably means Highlanders.* The men 

^ Colonel Watson's GujarAt History, 'J 9, 50. 

* Colonel Watson's GujarAt History, 59. 

3 Opinions differ as to how far Mughal is the same as Mongol, Sir George Camp^^ 
(J, A. K B. XXXV. II. 99, 100) says : There is no ethnological trace of Mongol migrattoa 
into India. Even the leaders liad changed their l)lood in passing through the Fetfl*^^ 
and Afgh^in people. On the other hand Mr. Beames (Races of the N.-W. Provin<^» 
1. 184) says : As their name implies, Mughah are the descendants of the companioa^ ^ 
followers of the Tartar conquerors of India. Tliey arc less numer<.ug than the ^"^J!^ 
classes and in many cases preserve a markedly Turanian type of countenance. ^^ 
following extract from a MusalmAn writer of the eTid of the thirteenth century (a.d. 1 ^^^ 
supports Mr. Beames' view : Their faces set on their bovlies as if they had no i*-^^^ 
their eyes narrow and piercing, their noses stretching from cheek to cneek, and ^J^jj 
mouths from cheekbone to cheekbone, their checks like soft leathern bottles fni ^^^» ft 
wrinkles and knots, their mustaches verv long, their beards scanty. AmSr Khui^""^^ 
(a.d. 1--68- 3326) Kirdn-us-v^'aftdain in Elliot's History, III. 528-529. 

^Captain, afterwards SSir Richard, Burton derives Pathdn from the Ai 
Jhthdn victorious. Others trace the word to the Hindnstilni pethnuy to penet.^ ^^ 
Farishtah (I, 29, Persian Text) hays that though the origin of the name is not cert^^*" ^^^ 
yet he thinks that the first Afglidns who camo to India settled at Patna and i^^^ 
hence called PathJlns, These are all late Muslim explanations. Afghdn tradii 
derives the name from the title Batdn or Patau { '* rudder '* ) given by the PropI^ 
himself to their great ancestor Abdur-Rashid. It is however now generally agreed t^ 
the name Pathdn is the Indian form of t he name Pushtiin (plural Pushtdnali) uow fp^ 
to themselves by speakers of the Pashtu or Pakhtu language. Tliey inhabi*; the hoi 
hilly country from ^!wdt and Bajnur in the north to Siwi and Bhakar in the rou^ 
from Hasdn Abdsfl in the east to Kdbul and Eandahdr in the west. They are not 
any means a pure race, but include Tartar (Ghilzai) Arab (Durrdni) and Indian (^-w 
elements, as well as a probably Irdnian element, the original speakers of the 
langnase. Darmsteter has shown (Chants Po])n]aires des Afghans. Introd. 
clxxx.^ that the modern name Pushtun goes back to an earlier form Pa^t 
which is derived from the ancient Irdnian word VarsJitl "ahill". These ori, 
Pathdns are to bo identified with the iraKTv^i of Herodotus (IV. 44) as well as wi 
the irapovrjTav of Ptolemy (eh. xviii.) The name Afghan does not seem to occ^ 
before Vardha-Mihira (a.d. 550) who mentions the race under the name Avagdi>a ( 
Samhitd, ch. xiv). Further discussion of the subject will be found in Bcllew's 
of Afghdnistdn and in the work by Darmsteter already quoted. A, M. T, 
aon, I.C.B. 













add Khiiit to their namee and tlie women Khdtan or KhAtu. They 
came to Oujarilt chiefly as boldiers and mereliante, and are of two dasBcs 
old settlers and countrymen wii/'iith that iB newcomers fromAfgliauistdn, 
The descendants of old Pathan settlers, like the repreBentatives of 
other forei^ MusahniinE, have in most cases by intei'mixtiu'c with 
other classes lost tlieir peculiarities of feature and cbai-aeter. The 
new settlers ara tall and large-bonedj broad-clieateil, and well-limbed. 
Though must of them have lost their original Afghi5ii fairness, the skin 
bein^f of all shades from a ruddy olive to a decided black, their features 
are strongly marked, many of them with hooked noses, their eyes blue 
ffray and brown, and their hair long and flowing in most cases of a 
brown shade. They are less shrewd t turn the Shaikhs, but more thrifty, 
headstrong, and hot-tempered with a lad name for gre«l as the saying 
likens a merciless creditor to a PathAn {PathAn hi /■nrs). The 
Urdu proverb says 'There is no trust in a PathAn's word.' Except a 
few merchants and horse-dealers most Pathi'ms are soldiers. JMI are 
Sunnis in religion. The unlettered among them carry their religious 
fervour to fanaticism. But, except the newcomers wilditis, as a class 
they pay Httle attention to religious duties. Many send their children 
to schools and universities. Some have acquired a knowledge of 
English and are in the service of Goverament and of the railways aa 
denes guards and stationmasters : others have nscn high in native 

Besides the four main classes, Sayads Shaikhs Mughale and 
?ath£ns, the names of seventeen small communities show that they are 
pirtly of foreign descent. Of thcso threo SIdis, Wahhfibis, and 
Uijd&s come under religion ; two, Ki'ibulis and Naitiis, under trade ; 
nine, Agax&s. Balti.'Ss, HhutSs, C'hangis, Kasbfttis, Khitias, Khiljis, 
KuTushiB, and Kirdias, under land ; and four, Arabs, Baldchis, 
UakwAnAe, and Mirdhfls, under service.' 

Si'di's, literally Mafiter3,alsooalled Abyssinians/Zoftas/iis, are found 
in small numbers in all paits of Gujardt, They arc African negroes 
cf ilifferent tiibes chiefly from the Somdli coast, who have been brought 
to India as elave.s. They form t^vo classes, newcomers wtVdiiis and 
wnatryborns muto'dladi!. They speak a broken HiodustSni and some- 
tiinos among themselves an African dialect, probably the Som&li known 
•* JTaiaski or AbyBsinian.' They generally live like other low class 
"•usalmans. In north Gujarit they sometimes build round hovels 
»wmt ten feet in circumference, the wall of earth, the roof circular and 
''' grass. Thedreasbothof menand women is that of lower class Musal- 
■Wns. They Hve by house service and begging. Those who are servants 
ii^o sober and cleanly. Other Sidis as a class are fond of intoxicating 
pTigs, qnarrelsome, dirty, unthrifty, and pleasure-loving. That obstinacy 
" a leading trait is shown by the proverb : Babihi 1:1 midh Abyssinian 

., Pont claiK's Baliorila, Cliundadigic.iei KliojAUs, anil Tuis, tliongh perhaps iritli a 
^ttt ilmid of foreign blood, fiiul their proper plaec auiDng locsl commucmes. Two 
2''**«i Moliftni Mochk rind NilgoriB, ore not entered among foreign clasies, -n thej ara 
™ Hindu oripu aiut were probably conTcrted to I^Lim in Oujnr.'lt, 
^bii ilialwt U no^ Abytaiuiui hut ^oiuiili. 

Chapter I 












grip. SdbsJii led Idl hdnka As crooked as an Abyssinian's hair is 
another saying. Except professional players, Sidis are the only Gujarat 
Musalm^ns who are much given to dancing and singing. As a class they 
are poor. They are Sunnis in faitli but are not religious, few of them 
knowing the Kurgan or being careful to say their prayers. Their chief 
object of w^orship is B^ba Ghor, an Abyssinian saint and great 
merchant, whose tomb stands on a hill just above the Batanpur* 
carnelian mines in western Kdjpipla. A point worthy of notice about 
the Sidi is his talent for imitation. A band of young Sidfs taken from 
a slave ship and brought to Surat have shown themselves equally 
ready to pick up the ways of their Christian Musalmdn Hindu or 
Parsi masters. 

On marriage and other high days men and women together dance 
and sing in circles to the sound of the dnun ilfiol and a rough rattle 
jhunjhuna} In begging they go about in bands of ten to fifteen, 
playing the dnim and singing in praise of B^ba Ghor. They many 
chiefly among themselves, but the countryborn Sldis^ looking on the 
newcomers as their betters and fearing that their daughters will not 
rest contented in a countryborn Sidi's house, never ask them in 
mai'riage. They form a society jamdaf, but have no headman and but 
few rules. They do not teach their children either Gujar^ti or English, 
and of late none have risen above the pofcition of beggars and servants. 
Still Indian liistorj^ is not wanting in instances of Sidis raising them- 
selves to position and power. The favourite equcry of Sultanah Eaziah 
(a.d. 1239), for whom the Sultanah lost her crown, was a Sidf. Malik 
Ambar of Ahmednagar whose successful arms won from the Mughals 
the epithet ' Tlie Hateful ^ was a Sidi. So was Jhujhdr Kh^n the 
Gujai'dt noble who slew Changiz Khdn (a.d. 1568; the powerful 
leader who had nearly usurped the sultdnato of Gujarat, and who was 
in turn slain by Akbar on his conquest of Gujarat in a.d. 1573-74. 
The Sldis have given rulers to Zanjirah and Sachin, and, as lateas A.D. 
1820, Sidi Ismdil, a native of Cambay, was long ix)werful in north 
Gujardt as minister to the Bdbis of Radlianpur. The Sidi eunuch 
nobles of Dehli and Lakhnau up to as late as the 1857 mutinies are well 

Wahha'bis/ Dissenters, now oflicially known as Gheir muTcaUidf 
con-imitators or Alile hadithy peojjle of the tradition, though they do not 

* There would seem at one time to have been a considerablo colony of Fidl miners ftt 
Eatanpar. Trana, Bom. Gcog. Soc. II. Ifi* 

' Their fiddle made of a gourd with a stiff catgut string is surmounted at the fssi 
with a bunch of peacock feathers and ornamented with odd glass beads and shclli M 
charms to prevent the evil eye from bursting it. It is played with a bow or stick, on* 
erd of it laden with a cocoanut shell in which stones rattle. The Sidls hold their mnmcsl 
irstruments in great veneration never touching them unless they are ceremonially pii^** 
J?hey call i\\ejhuHJhuna or rattle the instrument of MAma or Mother Misrah, and th^ 
big drum that of a lea ling male saint. If he is careless in tonching the instrument* 
when sexuany impure Mother Misrah or Father Ghor is sure to punish the offender. 

'The Wahhdbi reform or schism dates from a.d. 1G91 (H. 1120) the birth ©J 
Abdul-Wahhdb, the son of a pitty chief of the pastoral tribe of Tamim in I^ 
and of the clan called Abdul- Wahhab in the EI Arid province of Arabia. Preaching 
with keen insight courage and eloquence against the mummeries of Turkish pilgiil^ 





et form a separate class, have made considerable progress in Gujardt. 

ho chief points of belief in which Wahhdbis differ from Sunnis is their 
denial of the ability of the Prophet to intercede for his people with Alldh 
and their rejection of the four Sunni Imams. ^J he sect was brought 
into India in a.d. 1821, afnd rose to importance from the part its leaders 
played in the 1857 mutinies. After the mutiny w as suppressed, Maulawi 
Liakat Ali, the chief lieutenant of the man known as the Maulawi, 
who had taken an important part in some of tho disturbances, found his 
way to Gujarat, and, under a false name, moved about the province 
as a Wahhdbi missionary. Ho met with much favour and was making 
many converts, when he was discovered and arrested at Sachin, and, 
for his share in the mutinies, was transported for life. After Liakat Ali^s 
arrest the progress of the Wahhdbi sect in Gujarat was crippled. 
Of late (a.d. 1875 - 1897) there has been a revival. Several preachers, 
each^vith a follower or two, have come to Gujarat, chiefly from Central 
India, and have spread their special beliefs with marked success. Their 
converts have been almost entirely from the Sunni Bohords, both the 
trading Bohords of north and south GujarSt and the peasant Bohords 
of the south. The latter, always a religious class, have received 
Wahhdbi teaching with i-eadiness, and, under the influence of tho 
preachers, have made marked changes in their religious and social 

Ea'bllliP, the chief of the two part-foreign trading communities, 
are found in all parts of the province, but chiefly in Ahmeddbtld. 
They are Afghdn settlers from Kabul.- New arrivals speak Pashtu. 
But as they generally marry Afghan women broiight up in Gujardt 

and the abuges ttat had crept into the Musalnidn religion, Abdul-Wahhab was driven 
<rat of his native \ lace. With the aid of his friend the chief of Demiah, he determined to 
spread his reforms at the edge of the sword, and after a life of peril and success died at 
l^eraiah in a.d. 1787. Abdul-WahhAb's work was with pushed on by his son 
Muhammad ; and Muhammad's Eon Abdul Azfz collecting an army greatly spread tho 
power of the Wahhabis. By the close of the century they wirc acknowledged by the head 
of the Makkah government as a separate nation, and allowed to perform their pilgrimage 
to the KaAba. Meanwhile tho growth of their po>Yer and their hostile spirit had 
alarmed the Porto, and in A.D. 17*J7 an expedition was sent against them. This expedi- 
tion was ill planned and badly carried out, and proved a failure, A peace was concluded 
for six years. But before the six years were over, ."'aiid, the son of Abdul Azfz, attacked 
and captured the town of Karbalain 1801 ; the shrine of AbbAs, the uncle of the Prophet, 
at TAif in 1S02 ; and the temple of Makkah in 1803. Horrorstruck with this last act of 

Chapter I 







.who was taken to Constantinople, and in a.d. 1^8 suffererl death as a heretic and rebel. 
Tbongh crippled by their defeat, the Wahl.dbis gradually recovered, and are now a 
separate nation with their seat of govemirent at RiAd in Arabia. The Wahhibis are tho 
straitcst sect of IsUm. Tliey denounce all belief in saints, and to some extent in Musalmdn 
traditions, all ceremonies and forms, and all luxury, and enforce the duty of waging 
religious war against infidels. Among the leaders of the sect it is said to be a disputed 
p<unt whether this last part of their duty is binding on Indian Wahhibis, 

1 Fee below pages 29-32, 

« According to Major H. VV. Belle v. Tounuil, II. 46- 52) the wonl Afghan has tlio 
mmo meaning as Pakhtun that is The Free. The punning Afghdn tradition regarding 
the origin of the t^rm j^ghdn is that the mother of the great ancestor of the Afghans 
gave him the name Afgh&na bocansc on passing throngh the pangs of delivery sho 
io^iiUy exclaimed Afg^na I am free. 


Kabul Is. 


tbej sooQ learn to talk Hiadustjini, tliough un^raminatically 
a, niavked aoccnt. 'i'hcy are a tall muscular well-mado raw. In (wm- 
plexion the newcomers are fair, the othci^ of a rmUly olive. The 17a 
arc blue or gray or brown, tlie nose is generally hix)ke(l, the hair is left to 
haiig loose in ringlets, and the beard is allowed to prow to great length. 
A K&buli wears a country ecarf ilupatia wound round the heal, a 
loose shirt of white cloth, a second scarf thrown round the ehoulden, 
a piur of striped or white cotton trousers very loose al-ove and ^tbereil 
at the instep, and native ehoe.s. The men wear no ornaments hut 
a silver ring. Except that the trousers are eomcwhat looser, the 
women's dress and ornaments do not differ from those worn by other 
Musalinfln women. They aie jiassionate but sober and hardworking 
and as crotlitors proverbially esai.'ting. The PereiaTi proverb notice"! ii 
the A'ln-i-Akban by Abnl FazI,' does not give the Afghan a liigh vaat 
for )m Bodei virtues. 

Amtr qiiaht-ur cy'ill u/tad an'n «A an* tam giri. 
Yakt Afyluin, dvynm Kambii, gij/um bail i4f KashnM. 

The Kambtis are an offshoot of the Afghan stock. M. Bloclmitii 
says that, in spite of the alwve couplet, during tLe reigns tt 
Akbar (a.d. 155i3- 1605) and JaliSngi'r (a.u. 16U5-1627) it wn 
a distinction to belong to the Kambi'i and Afgbdn tribes,' MosttJ 
them arc traders, dealing in borses, sheep from Mdrwdr, books, and 
fruit. Horse -dealing is their chief employment, taking K.-iihi^iMiJ 
horses to Sindb and the Dakhan and bringing Dakhan nmi f^imlli 
horses to Qujardt. Their chief markets are in the native sut,™, 
especially in Uaroda and Rrfjpipla. Their trade is said at piT>i nt h 
lie unprofitable and inany are in debt. They are Sun^it^ in roli^i'm. 
To u gi-eat extent they f(ii-m a distinct community, marrviin; onJf 
among themselves and asking only Ktibulis to their pubhc dioi 
They have one or two famiUes whom they respect and to wl 
they refer social disputes. Few of them teach their children to 1 
or write. 

Nalata'S, originally NaiaUtx, Shipmen," in former times | 
important class of Musalnuin merchants and ship captains. 

1 Blochmao'i Tmnslation of tLe A'lu-i-AibBri, 33». 

' Bloehmao'i Tianiliiliou of tlio ,A'JD-i'Akb»ri, 330. 

° On tho co&it ot Klnara ftiid tlic Koak&n, where they are still ToaQj, tlicv u 
NttvliatAs. Khin B&ldilui KM SliBhlb-mt-din. Ibn-i-B«tiiu (*.d, 131^ c 
meeting Niliut^KtHonilcar, Lce'il'nnBUtioii, 1<>5. t^oin &.D, I443t!icMi)hnL 
i<f KAI^stwcreoFtLcShAMiclioolRnd dreisvd like Arabs. Major'alodia in the SS_ 
Contury.l. H. 17. Grint DaJf reC.Ts (a.d, 171*) to lUi» same clase under th* a 
NewftveUih Nabob», S62.G3. Tbo NiUatiU (planl Nawdit) arc a people of Uie Sm. 
tribe who emigmtod from tlio holy city of Madliuh flying from tlie prneontiNll 
Baijii (A.D. 700) the aoti of Eiiaiif, tlie slrongmiiided pivenior of IrAk on MnUL 
Abdul MuUk, the fifth Umayyad {a.d. fl84 - TOfi) who killed fifty tliomond Sajmb ■ 
Irarned men unjustly and in cold blood. Tbo NttiatA marrhed from Modlnah to MM 
wbcie U^ing "hip they reached the nhorei of the Indian Oceaif'Bboat a.d. 896 (jj 
thnt U duiingtbereign of tho Abbttsi El MuAtuuid. The omi^ntnta bcloogedtl 




disappeared from GujarAt. In Randir near Surat and in Ghogha, the 
memory of a family or two of Naiatds remains. They are said to 
have spoken Arabic at home and to have kept to the Arab dress. They 
were famous for their skill as pilots, striking boldly across the ocean 
from Arabia to India. Except perhaps in the Ghogha lascars, no 
special marks of the old Ndiata settlers remain. The Naiatds are said 
to have been driven from Arabia to India in the eighth and ninth 
centuries.^ Garcia d'Orta, one of the earliest Portuguese writers 
(a.d. 1530), speaks of them as trading at Bassein, and describes them 
as foreign Moors who had man'ied with Hindus of the country.^ 

Of the nine land classes, eight, the Agaras, Baltias, Bhutas, 
Changiz, Kahtias, Khiuis, Kuraishis, and Kibdias are the descend- 
ants of mercenary soldiers, who are found as peasants chiefly in west 
Ahmeddbad Broach and Kdthidvdd. They keep their tribal names, 
but as they marry with other Musalmdns they have ceased to be 
separate communities, and their tribal names are no more than sur- 
names. The ninth, the Kasbatis or townholders, are partly descended 
from foreign tribes. Minds and Rehens^ who came froni Dehli at the 
close of the sixteenth century.^ But as the class have intermixed 
with converted Eajput and other Hindus, their detailed account is 
given below (page 64) under Hindu Converts. 

ArabS; the chief of the four service classes, found thinly scattered 
over the whole province, are like the Sidis of two divisions, 
newcomers vnlditis and country-borns muwallads.* Their home 
language is Hindustani, guttural in tone, and with some of the letters 
oddly changed.^ A newcomer may be known by his ruddy brov. :\ 
skin and thin oval face with its well-filled brows, deep-set eyes, shapely 

Chapter U 




Agaras an< 


fftmlliea : the sons of Siddik the first KhaKfah Aba Bakr, the sons of Zubeir, the sons 
of Omayyah to whom the bulk beloDgedi and the sons of Mughairah. All traced their 
descent from Nazr, son of Kindnah, one of the ancestors of the Prophet (on whom be 
peace). According to the Tdrikh-i-Tabari (Arabic Text Mfc?, Edition) this account has 
the support of all historical authorities. 

1 The Nafiatds claim to have proselytised one of the Zaraorins of Malabdr. At Zhafar 
(the southernmost city of Yaman in Turkish Arabia) lies buried one Abdur Rehmafn 
K^miri ( Abdur- Rehmdn the Zamorin) the name given to the Malabar prince after his 
eonversion to IsUm. The inscription on his tombstone states that he arrived at Zhafar 
in A.D. 872 (A.H. 212) and died there four years later. His tomb is regarded by the 
Arabs with much veneration. Indian Antiquary, XI. 116. 

' Colloquios de Simples, 212, 213. This reference was kindly supplied by Dr. Da 
Cunha of Bombay. Finch (a.d. 1610) speaks of the llandir Ndiatds as quite a different 
people speaking another language from the »^urat Moors, all of them seamen, going 
by the name of NAites, which he says may very well be derived from Nautaj or Navitoe 
•hipmen. Harris' Voyages, I, 84. The famii/ of Rdnder Njiiatds is now (a.d. 1897) 


: 3p,^Mala, New Edition, 2S0. 

■* The wildyati or foreign Arabs are chiefly from Hadramaut the southern province of 
^.rabJa the Biblical Hazarmavcth : Genesis, X. 2h*. The Hadnimi Arab is celebrated for 
riving hard bargains and for his u}>iquity. It is related that a man fled to China in 
read of a Hadrami. As he was about to pass the nig}it in a mined house he heard 
Dme one invoking the famous Hadramaut saint " YjI Tmadad-din." The fugitive 
Me and fled and is still flying seeking a comer of the world where there is no Hadrami. 
barton's Alf Loilah wa Leilah, page 136 note 1. 

* The chief pcculiarifles are sh instead of s ; the guttural ain for the Hiudust&ui 
i; b tor Pi and g iusteod of the Arabic k or qv. 




Cihapter II. 





nose, high cheekbones, slightly receding chin, and scanty uneven 
beard. But in a generation or two by intermaniago with Gujaiti 
Musalmans these 6i)ecial features disappear. In the shape and style 
of his house there is nothing peeuliai\ But in furnisliing it tlic Arab 
is careful to have the cloth ceiling inlaid witli small plates of burnished 
talc ,- to have no pictures except perhaps a drawing of the Prophet's 
shrine or an illuminated scroll from the Kui*aan ; and instead of brittle 
china and glass, generally to have his shelves filled with a trim and 
bright array of copper and brass plates and bowls. Except for one 
or two special holiday dishes of mutton and wheat called haiiiha and 
viuzhi and a fondness for the dates and honey of the country, the 
food of the Arab does not difEer from that of other Musalm^ 
The rich among them keep to the Arab dress, a turban much like 
the Indian headscarf dupatta of white silk and cotton wound round 
the head in broad folds ; a long embroidered or pain overcoit 
ah ayah of wool or silk -cotton, much like an English diessing gown; 
a woollen si Ik -embroidered waistcoat sadria ; a shirl; hanging to 
the knees ; and a waistcloth snrwal \vrapped round the loins and 
falling to the ankles. Except that like the Mardtha headdrees ^ 
the turban is three-cornered in the case of Arabs holding senice 
in native states, that the dirk jambia is stuck in a cloth wound 
round the waist, and that the trousers are shorter, the every -day drew 
of poor Arabs does not difEer from that of other Gujarat Musalm^na. 
The dress of the women and children has no peculiarities. Hot 
tempered, and when excited fierce, the Arab is at other times quiet 
hardworking thrifty and sober. Some Arabs are tittders, but moet 
are in the service either of chiefs as their bodyguard or of bankos 
as watchmen. As a class they are poor. Some thrifty families 
taking no part in the Indian custom of giving costly feasts are 
well-to-do. But most, adopting the ways of the country, giv© 
entertainments they can ill afford, ana of those employed at 
native courts the greater number are irregularly paid and sunk rn 
debt. In religion the newcomers from the southern and western 
provinces of Arabia are generally of the Shdfai school, and those bora 
Maskat and the eastern seaboard of the Hambali school. All new- 
comers are marked by zeal for their faith. But Arab families 
long settled in Gujardt differ from ordinary Sunni Musalm&ns only 
in being more careful and hearty in discharging their religiooB 
duties. Their family observances are in most cases peculiar' 
Considering them immodest they have no observances in honour dt 
pregnancy birth or puberty, and crowd into one the ceremonies 
on the seventh fifteenth and twenty-first days after birth and 
the three rites of naming, sacrifice, and circumcision. The personftl 
names are sii?iple, without the Indian addition of Mia, Shaikh, or Bhdi* 
As a rule no initiation bismilldh ceremony is observed, and marriage tf 
generally in the nikdh form, and is marked by only one dinner, which 
they call walimah, following the example of the Prophet who gate 
a dinner at the marriage of his daughter the Lady Fdtimah and Aii* 
In obedience to the order of the Prophet a death i^ followed by no sigttf 
of mourning, Arabs marry freely with other Sunni MusalmAi^ 



laveno special aoeia! or religions organization,' Most of their 
hildreti learn the Kuraftn, hat hardly any are taught to read and wiita 
kD Indian language. As a class they do not approve of weet«m 

Balil'chi'S, found in all parts of Gujariit, are as their name shows 
Ie«cended from Baluchi im mi grants. According to his own account 
the Bahichi is an immigrant from Halab or Aleppo and north Syria. 
As a Mnsalman he is anxious to derive his ancestry from the Ai-ahs of 
Al Bijaz. His language however is clearly of the Indo-Pcrsio stock 
and his appearance bears little resemblance to that of the sons of 
Ismail. He has the fnll blaok expressive Persian eye, the regular 
shariwmt Irdnian features, and the long lusti'ous thick and floiving 
heard.^ In the reign of Ahmed II. during the decadence of the 
Sultanate of Gujardt (a, d. 1654-1501) Badhanpur and S ami were 
p\en to Fateh Khan Baliich as jii'jtr or grant. The Tern-^i"a 
I and Biidhanpur Baluchis claim descent from the same stock as 
Tateli Kiidu Baliich. They arc of many clans, But the clan 
dbUnction is of little consequence as they inti>rniarry and together 
tuna one sabdivision of tlic PathtSns. They ai-e strong big dark 
men with marked features. Very few shave the. head, hut they 
Wlovf no fixed rule about wearing the beard. Their iivivea aro 
generally natives of flnjarflt, sometimes JhdU or Jddeja Rajputs from 
lUthiilvdda or Wdgad. They speak Hindiistftni much mixed with 
Gnjarati, and both men and women di'ess like ordinary Miisalmene. 
They are messengers and village watchmen, According to their 
wnwrs they are double-dealing and treaeherous, unruly, thriftless, 
ud given to opium. On the other Land they possess ail the nomadic 
firtues, being hospitable simple strong in their affections trusty and 
fcwe. Their fidelity and devotion to their employers has given 
(he Bahk'liiri the title of the Switzers of the East, As a elaes 
uoept certain landholding families of north Gujardt they arc poor. 
They are Sunnis in name, but few know the Kuraau or cai* for their 
trfigion. They have no peculiar customs, and are without either a 
union or a headman. They do not scud their children to school. The 
Imdholding Bah'ichis have begun (a.d. 1&88) to send their children 
lo BphonI under pressure of the Political officers. The JAth Baluehis 
d north (lujarilt who own the strip of laud from VArdlii in the 
Fllanpur Superintcudency to Bajdna in the K^thi^vada Agency 
ia not marry except among the Rajputs and themselves. They 
Be a fair and handsome race, brave and of predatory habits, 
jrhoM home tongue is Gujardti. TJiey believe in the saint who 
ibriuecl at Gotarka and whom they calletl Dddd Malidbali 
Bhrine, about eight miles west of Rdillianpur, they have richly 
red with lands and money. This saint Mahdbali is said origin- 
g have been a Pattau Shaikh who in a dream was given a 
turban by Jamman Jati, the Hindn-Musalnidn saint of northern 
. Mahdbali was dii'ected by Jamman Jati to proceed to Varahi 

Chapter II 


f Ow noH-oomors keep up tlie memory of oIi1 tribal fenils «nil have n 
9 witli people belonging to a rival clan. After a, geuumtioii or two i 
--* in tlie oil foudi fades, ' BnrtoQ'B Slndb R«vudt>Ml, II. \S&. 


Siapter IL 








and reclaim those Baltiehis who were &8t relapsing into Hindu modes 
of belief and customs. The Jdth Baluchis of Ydrdhi and Jatw^r are a 
distinct race from the Baluchis of Terwdra about fifteen miles north of 
Badhanpur, though in dress and customs they do not differ from one 
another. The original religion of the Baluchi is Shidhism and the 
Jdth Baluchis of north Ghijardt and other Baluch families scattered 
over Gujardt are only Sunnis in name. Colebrook observes r^ardin^ 
this clan : The Baluchis of Sindh are many of them devoted Shidhs 
and call themselves and are sometimes called by the Sunnis ^AK's 
friends.'^ SayadRdjo of Bukhara exerted liimself in the guidance of 
this tribe. His descendants remain among them. 

Makra'uis* found in small numbers over the whole province, an 
foreigners from the Makrdn coast. They formerly came and a fewstfll 
come as soldiers. They have no subdivisions. They are of average 
height, strong wiry and thin, wearing the hair very long tied in a knot 
at the top of the head, and parting the beard tying the ends behind 
the head. The women are chiefly of Gujarati descent. They speak 
mixed Hindustani and Gujardti The men wear a low tight-twisted 
Marv5di-like turban, a dark-blue indigo-dyed coat, and short tight 
trousers. The women wear the Musalman dress. The men are soldieiB 
and watchmen ; the women do house-work and spin. The men aie 
brave, given to opium and liquor, fond of amusement, and very 
watchful husbands. The women do not appear in public. Thqr 
are poor, many of them in debt. In religion they are Sunnis some (W 
them learning the Kuradn and sajnng their prayers. They have no 
peculiar customs. They marry Musalman women of the poorer class, 
and some keep Hindu women. They have no community or headman. 
They do not send their children to school and none have risen to any 
high position. 

Mirdha'89^ originally spies, found in the north in very smali 
numbers, are said to be of part-foreign part-Raipiit origin. Under 
the GujarSt Sultdns they served as spies and are now employed 
as messengers and constables. Under native rule the Miitlha wai 
an oflScial spy. Now a Mirdha can be either a Musalmdni Shaikhi 
a Pathdn, or a Brahmanic Hindu. The office exists in name in the 
Pdlanpur Superintendency, where the Mirdhas are Brdhmans of the 
Audich division. 

Section II.— Hindu Converts. 

The local Musalmdns, of ^ almost entirely Hindu descent, aie 
divided into seventy-eight communities or classes. Of these nine 
come under Eeligion; five under Trade; eighteen under Land; 
twenty-two under Crafts ; ten under Service ; and fourteen under 
Labour. Of the whole number sixty-five are Sunnis, nine Shiiliei 
and four, Husaini Brdhmans, Kamalias, Matia Kunbis, and Shaikh^ 
cannot be said to belong to either sect. 

» DdbisUni-MazAhib of Mulisin FAnf in Asiatic Researches, VIT. 344. 
' Mirdha is apparently derived from the Persian Mir^ lord ^master or chief and <W 
village. Mir Deh madter of the village or as commonly known village headman,* 




l.^Religious Communities. 

Under Religion come the different tribes or brotherhoods of 
FSldifi^ons beggars ya^m. Almost all of these begging communities 
[lead a roviDg life^ and include in their ranks men from all parts of 
fjbdia and of every variety of descent. But these are the exceptions. 
^13ie greater number of beggars of every class are of Gnjardt origin 
' wd seldom leave the province. 

Of begging communities the first is a nameless horde; in Surat, 
chiefly low Momna weavers ; in Ahmeddbdd, low Momnds, Dheds, 
ITighris^ and Marvadis, who by night and day move from house to 
howae gathering money grain and cooked food. The money they 
looop and the grain and broken food they sell to potters as provender 
*for their asses^ and to washermen to feed their bullocks. Others 
veciting praises of the generous and abuse of the stingy^ ask for 
» copper in the name of God ; a piece of bread in the name of the 
Prophet; or a rag of cloth in the name of Hasan^ all to be repaid 
tenfold in this world and a hundredfold at the day of judgment. 

Besides these non-descript idlers there are eleven brotherhoods of 
, Iwggars belonging to two main classes, those beyond the ordinary 
Muhammadan law Besharaa, and those under the law Basharaa, 
Those beyond the law have no wives no families and no homes. 
They drink intoxicating liquors and neither fast pray nor rule their 
passions.^ Those under the law have wives and homes and pray fast 
ftnd keep all Muhanunadan rules. 

Each brotherhood has generally three office-bearers. Of these one 
is superior, the head teacher sar-guroA, who controls the whole 
body and receives a share of all earnings, and two are subordinate, 
the summoner izni or nakib, who calls the members to all entrance 
marriage and death feasts, and the treasurer bhamldri, who sees that 
pipes and water ai'O ready at the beggars' meeting-place. Among the 
members are two orders, the teachers niarshidsj and the disciples 
khddims or chelae. Every newcomer joins as the disciple of some 
particular teacher. The teacher sees that the entrance ceremony is 

I)roperly performed ; that the disciple is shaved and bathed ; that he 
earns the names of the heads of the order ; that he promises to reverence 
them ; that he receives certain articles of dress ; that he gets a new 
name ; that he learns the new salutation ; that he swears not to steal, 
not to lie, not to commit adultery, to work hard as a beggar or in any 
other calling, and to eat things lawful ; and finally, that the entrance 
feast is duly given. At the close of each day the newcomer lays his 
earnings before the head teacher sar-yttroh. Taking out something for 
himself and a share to meet the treasurer's charges, the head teacher 
gives back the rest. This the beggar takes to his teacher, who giving 
him a little as pocket money, Loops the rest for himself. So long as 
his teacher lives a beggar continues to be his disciple. When a teacher 

Chapter II. 



^ Thongh man^ of thAi do not know what the term means, most hesharaa beggari 
profess to be iHfit or spiritual unitarians. Kh&n Bah^ur K^zi Sdhib ShalUlb-ud-diu, 




lapter II. 






dies the oldest disciple succeeds, or if the teacher has a son, the son aaid 
the senior disciple share the other disciples between them. 

Of the ten brotherhoods, two, the AbdAlis and the Nakshbands, belong 
to the lawful bdsharda gronp, and eight, the Benawds, the Hljdis, 
the Hnsaini BrAhmans, the Kalandars, the Maddris, the Mtisa Suhfigs, 
the Rafais, and the Easdlshdhis to the lawless bcsharaa group. 

Of the communities of lawful beggars, the Abdalis, also called 
Dafdiis or Faddlis, players on the tambourine daf, are found in smaU 
numbers all over Gujardt. They speak Hindustani, and b^ in the 
name of God, beating the one-end drum danka, and singing I'eligious 
songs. Their chief employment is to chant the wild spirit and genii 
hymns that are required by exorcists as an accompaniment to the 
practice of their rites. Belonging to the lawful hdsharaa order, they 
are married and a few of them are settled and well-to-do. They are 
not very religious and have little organisation. In norlh Gujardt 
Abddlis have a fixed due or tax upon the houses of Musalmdns in towm 
and villages. It is sometimes paid in kind and sometimes in mxfoej 
and varies from annas 8 to Rs. 2. 

Nakshbandl?, Mark-makers, are found in small numbers ov» 
the whole of Gujardt. Followers of a saint named Khajah Bahd^ud-din 
Nakshband, they speak Hindustani, keep the head bare, and wear the 
hair and beard long and well -combed. They dress in a long sleevel^s 
unsewn shu*t, a black or rod cotton waistcloth, and shoes. Holding 
in their hand a stout-wicked flaming unshaded brass lamp, whi(£ 
neither rain nor w ind can put out, they move about singly chanting 
their saint's praises. The Nakshband reverence for fire is said to fe 
a trace of the attempted revival of Magian element worship in Perria 
and Tartary about a.u. 94G (ii. 333) the period of Shiah ascendancy at 
the court of the Khalifahs of Baghddd during the supremacy of the 
Persian house of Buwaih or the Bowidcs. Children are fond of the 
Nakshband, and go out in numbers to give him money. In return 
as his name shows, he marks them on the brow with oil from his lamp. 
They are quiet well-behaved and sober, belonging to the law-abidii^ 
bdsharaa order of be^ars, having homes and famihes. They are Simnis 
in religion and have no special customs, and as they live only in ones and 
twos they have little organisation. They easily find disciples and are 
fairly prosperous. 

Of the seven lawless bes/iaraa classes, Bonawa^'s, The Penniless, 
also called Alifsh^is from wearing a black ^Alif-like hne down the 
brow and nose, are found in small numbers all over Gujardt. They are 
drawn from many classes of Muhammadans, and have nothing special 
in their appearance. Their language is Hindustani. They wear a 
tall Persian-like woollen hat, a rough sleeveless unsewn shirt, and round 
the neck long rosaries of beads selis. They neither play nor perforau 
but move about in bands of from five to ten begging in the name of 
God. They take money grain and clothes, or, if offerSi it, a meal of 

* Alif the first letter of the Arab alphabet, iu ghape a straight line, |i i« worn M* 
nark of the One God, 



Though noteobor they are ij^uiet and harailoss. They are Suimie 

in name but belong to the order of lawless beshuvna boggars. They 
bk^'e no peculiar cuetoms, and follow the niles oE fellowship usually 
Ec^ among tho larger bodies of beggars. In cacti town they have a 
fepaHmi^" cJlod treaeurer, b/cnnddrt, choEeii from among their number. 
%'o him fach of the community pays his earnings, and except what is 
nven bock for expenses, the treasurer forwards the amount to the 
tfunkid or spiritual liciid of the order. Out of the funds in the 
murMd'e hands, when a new member joins a dinner is given. Of 
hte ycara their number has fallen. 

Hi'jda'8 arc emasculated male votaries of the gcddees Bahuchara 

or Behechra, a sister of Kdli. They have taken the vow to saeriticc 

tiiifiir manliness, and not only emasculate themselves but ever after go 

in woman's dress. With this object they puli out tlie hair of their 

heards and moostachee, bore the ear and nose for female ornaments, and 

aSeet female speech and manners. The vows arc taken by mothers in 

ooneequence of their barrenness, or, in i^are cases, by thelwy himself on 

recovery from a dangerous illness. 'I'ha south Gujarat Hfjdas wear tho 

petticoat and scarf; those north of the Narbada dress like Musalmiin 

women. They feign themselves (vomen and some of them devof* their 

Iive§ to the pracLieo of sodomy and gain their hving by it. The 

initiation takes place at the temple of tlie g-iddess Behechra, about 

^ty miles north-eaat of AhniedAbdd in the village of Sankhanpur, 

^bere tho neophyte repairs under the guardianship or adoption of some 

fildcr member of the brotherhood. The lad is called the daughter of 

tiie old Hijdd his guardian. The emasculation takes place under Uie 

direction of the chief Hijdd priest of Behechra. The rites arc secret. 

It is feaid tliat the o|ieratiou and initiation are held iu a house with 

cloeed doors where all the Hijdiis meet hi holiday di-ess. The fire-place 

is cleaned and the fire is lighted to cook a special dish of tried pastry 

called talan. While the oil in which the pastry is to bo fried is boiling 

Bome of the fraternity, after having bathed the neophyte, dress him in 

red female attire, deck him with flower garlands, and seating him on a 

■tool in the middle of the room sing, to the accompaniment of a dhol or 

snail drum and small copi>cr c>-mbals. Others prepare the oirerating 

tDom. In the centre of this room soft ashes are spread on the floor and 

pled in a heap. When the time for tho operation approaches the 

DDOphyte is led to tho room and is made to lie on his back on the ash 

lap. The operator approaches chewing betel-leaf. The liande and legs 

of Uie neophyte are finnly held by some one of the f mtei-nity, and ^c 

operator eai'clessly standing near with an uneoneerued air, when he finds 

tte attention of his jiatient otherwisc'oceupied, with great dexterity 

Did with one stroke cuts off both penis and testes, He spits betelnnt 

md leaf juice on the wound and staunches the bleeding with a handful 

ofioiu/ Aoacia arabica ashes. The operation is dangerous and is not 

' niKommonly fatal. Some north Gujardt Ilijdas, though they hold 

ftdmselves devotees of Beheclira, neitiier suffer emasculation nor wear 

Women's dress. They only affect the mincing talk and manners of 

Wil women. They many aud beget children and are Hijdds only in 

'Uae. They also perform plays at the birt-h of sons among the poorer 






hapter II. 






Miisalm^ns. Hijd^s of the play-acting class are to be found in and 
about Ahmeddbad. As a class Gujarat Hijdas enjoying independent 
means of livelihood have not to engage in sodomy to any active exteni 
As votaries of Behechia they hold tields and lands and rights on lands 
awai'ded them from of old by native chiefs^ village commnnities, and 
I>rivate persons. They have rights on communities also^ reoeiviog 
yearly payments from them. Woe betide the wight who opposes the 
demands of a Hijda. The whole rank and file of the local fiatemily 
besiege his house with indecent clamour and gesture. 

Husaiui Bra'hmans call themselves followers of the Atharwa 
Veda. They take their title from Husain^ the grandson of the Proj^t^ 
in whose name they ask alms. They are not .converts to Isldm, but 
adopt such of its doctrines as are not contrary to the Hindu faith. 
Their head-quarters are at Ajmir^ and they are found in Baroda and 
Ahmeddbdd. Their high priest has always a natural stain or red maik 
round his neck^ and when he dies search is made^ and the post is givea 
to some one who has the proper sign.^ The Gujarat head-quarters ol 
the high priest are at Baroda and from there he visits the members of the 
brotherhood, receiving from them presents and contributions. Accord- 
ing to their own account, the Husaiai Brcihmans of Ahmed&bdd have 
been settled there for the last seven generations. Their home language 
is Hindustani. They are of the lawless besharaa group of beman. 
Except beef they eat secretly the ordinary kinds of animsd food. Tbey 
take opium aud bhang hemp-leaves^ but do not drink wine. Beside 
l>y begging they earn a living by practising astrology and palmisfarj. 
They are believed to have great skill in reading the stars^ and many 
among them are well-to-do. The men dress like Musalmdns tlie 
women Hke Hindus. They believe in the saint Khdjah Muin-ud-din 
Cliishti of Ajmir^ and consult both Muhammadan and Hiadu omem. 
Except that they wear the Hindu browmark tilay that they often 
give their children Hindu names^ that they do not circumcise^ that a 
priest of their own class marries them, and that their dead are buried 
sitting, their customs^ even to observmg the Ramazdn £a8tj aie 

Kalandars/ Monks, are found in small numbers all over Gujarit 
They speak Hindustani and dress like poor Musalmaus. They wandor 
over the country begging and are very sturdy and troublesome in 
their demands. They are Sunnis of the lawless besharaa order. They 
shave the whole body, the shearing of the eyebrows being one of the 
most important initiatory rites. 

Mada'ris take their name*^from Badi-ud-din Maddr Shdh, iiie 
celibate saint of Syria^ supposed to be still alive in his tomb at Makan- 
pur near Cawnpor.^ They are found in small numbers all over 
Gujardt. They speak Hindustdni and dress like poor Musalm^Lna 

^ This mark, of which only ono or two in a generation can boast, is a narrow nocklaeo 
of small roso-coloiircd warts in some places bright in other places faint. Xoall 
appearance the mark is natural* «• 

' An Arabic word meaning monk. ' K^ntn-i-IsUmi 241* 




Some^ to force people to give them alms^ go about dragging a chain 
or lashing their legs with a whip. Others are monkey and bear 
tndners and rope*dancers. They are quarrelsome and obstinate and of 
looee habits. They belong to the lawless hesharaa order of Sunnis 
and are without homes^ though some have wives and children. They 
b^ sometimes alone and sometimes in bands of two or three. They 
sre a well-managed body and are said not to be falling in numljers. 

Mu'sa Suha'gS, followers of Musa with the married woman's 
dress^ are to be found singly all over Gujardt. Their patron saint 
M^sa, who lived at the close of the fifteenth century, according to one 
aooonnt dressed in woman's clothes as a symbol that he was devoted 
to God as a wife to her husband. He was a famous singer and 
saint whose prayer for rain saved the country from famine. Accord- 
ing to another account, Miisa was so pressed and worried by the 
crowd that to hide himself he used to go about dressed as a woman. 
Bven through this disguise people found him out and at last he was 
80 weary of life that one day stamping on the groimd the earth opened 
and received him. In memory of their leader's disguise most of the 
beggars of this order, though tliey do not shave the beard, dress like 
married women in a red scarf dupatta a gown and trousers.^ They 
also put on bracelets bell-anklets and other ornamer^s. They go 
singly blessing the people without music or other s.iow. They are 
sober quiet and generally liked. They speak H ..dustdni. They are 
Sunnis in religion, and never marry. Thel ' head-quarters are at 
Ahmeddbad, where, a short way out of the Dehli or north gate, is 
the saint Mesa's tomb.^ Being a small body they have little 
organisation. As the dress and the vow of celibacy are disliked, the 
Mdsa Suhdgs gain few disciples, and as they have no children their 
numbers are falling. 

Safaris that is Exalted^ also called Faceslashers Munhphodds or 
MunAchirds, occur in considerable numbers over the whole of Gujardt. 
They are followers of Sayad Ahmad Kabir and speak Hindustani. 
Except that they wear the ditofi waistcloth, they dress like ordinary 
low class Musalmdns. Holding in the right hand a twelve-inch iron 
spike called gwz, sharp-pointed and having near the top many small 
iron chains, the beggar rattles the chains, and if people are slow in 
giving him money strikes at his cheek or eye with the sharp iron 
point and seems to cause no wound. They beg in the name of 






Rata Is. 

' Some dress like men except that they wear the smaU nosering or buldk, which is 
worn banging from a hole bored in the cartilage, and as no widow can wear tl.e huldk its 
use shows that tlio Musa SuhAg is the married wife of Allah. 

' Near the saint's tomb is a large oJiampa Michelia champaca tree. Its tranches are 
covered with hundreds of glass bangles, some of gr«at delicacy. 'Ihcsc bangles circle 
the branches above the forks and in other places where it is hard to see how they could 
have been put. People who have made vows throw their bangles into the tree, and if 
the bangles stay, they think their prayer is granted. In the mosque enclosure are four 
tombs and there is a fifth outside of the wall. The story is that when the king saw 
the ground close over M6sa he dug after him and the head of the saint came up 
somewhere else. This ovas done four times when the king said Let us otfer flowers. 
Hearing this the head of the saint again appeared, this time outside of the wall, and 
Myiog he wished no effenngs, fioally disappeared. 



_' ^ 




Ood, anil are very persiBtest and troublesome. Though Eond of into 
eating drugs, very few of them drink liquor. They are Snnnia ; 
religion, and, though most are of the lawless hcshnraa order of b^gai 
Bome are law-observing and have wives and children, Thrir boysf^o 
their fathers' calling and they maiTy tboir girls to beggars. Tb^ a 

RaSU'lBha'his, followers of the Prophet, also called Ma^tdnt 
Madmen, are found in small numhers all over Gujarat. They hi 
nothing epecial in their appearance, and speak Hinduet&ni. Tb 
object to clothes and wear only a shirt and \vait>telDth. They cmj 
large wooden club and beg for money to pay for drink. They ■ 
very diesipabed and troublesonii*. They are Stmnis of tha lawla 
heskaraa order, without wives or settled homes. They are a, very 
body with a religiuue head but no organised community. 

11.— Trading Communities. 

Of traders there nre live chief classes, Bohords, DiidwAlds, Karflil 
Khojas, and Menians.' 

Of these the trading Bohora'B, oiigiuallyall Shijihsof thoMurti 
lianbraach of the groat I^mnili sect, are the richest and most proepsm 
class of Musalnutns in Gujarfit. 'J'he origin of the name BohoiS' 
doubtful. It is generally traced to the class of Hindu Bohor^ n^ 
are still found in lUdrwtUl, Rajputdna, and the North • West Prorioo^ 
But as there is no certain record of Hindu BohortSs iu GujuAt^^ 
seems better to derive the word from the (^ujardti vohorvu to till 
the occupation fulloned by the iirst Hindu converts to Isltim. 
makes the origin of the word mori! doubtful is tliat oeiUiet 
present nor under the Musidmdn rulers of Gujartit is Its nse 
to ti-adera or to converts of the special Ismaili form of faith. Bmj 
the traders there is a larger and not less prosperous class of vitlli 
Sohoras, tillers of the soil and Sunnis by religion, The existeiiM, 
these two distinct classes is an illustratiou of the fact that in 
Shidhisni was spread by the persuasion of preachers and Sunniisml^, 
power of nilers. The early ShiAh pi-cachors (\.u. 1067}, beuig ' 

' Certsiii liistntiiiiil nnil other piirts nt tbu Boliora account na taken fr 
prvpnnd by Ur. Minn Alxlul Ilusnin nf Rangoon. 

' Mnlcolm'i (Ti'iitral India, II. HI ; Toil's KlJMlh^n, II, 491, Eilillon 183 
IUcOB.1, 44. The MirHt-i--Uiniedi (Pora. Text, 11. 87) confirmB thp Hinda 
of the nnnie Bhon. It u;a many Biuhnwti and Baniit traders b(>iiig called 
ret^nedtlie nsino iftor their oonve Mien. Msny B«iiuls and rren NAgM " *' 
tbia d>y bor Uie surtiainr BdIkitb. 

'There U now {a.d. 1891!) no trace of a Hindn Buhon cMto in Onji 
MiMge in the Eamiintpftlarharilra, 'There are pleuty of BoliorlU in ix~' 
Bicgong' (Viramgiin) (Tod's Western Indii, H9-157}, ww proUUy 
A.D. 1150 or some lime after the spread of the Ismftili fi^th among the '~ 

* Other explannliDnn are from Bohrinsh uid to t>G ■ town !n Yaman ia 
the birlh-plftce of the great Boliora uiisiioiiary AbdulIAIi i from hehi-Oh Uw 
way, h«CBO«! a« the !^hiAh Bohorfts »ttj, the way of their religion in tight ; Of 
many luttlu, twi^Huae according to tlio Snnni 'Cnboriis they weA.- e/nv^ttpi 
caatei. Of the tirst there wnuld Hcein to Iw no suji[wrt ; tlic two last tb* 
tbemsL'lres would probably admit to be puna. . 



_,_ f mncTi Kndnesa by the Hindu kings of AnahiUvdfls, settled and 
nude cunverts chiefly in the gi^at trading centres, while to the 
Ifuaalmun govemore it was of moi-e political vahie to bring over to 
' .jBieit religion the stui-dy and outlying ■\"il]agei' tlian the weak and 
: ,p«Beo-loving tradci'. Tlie nue of the eame namo to classes so nnlike 
SB the city and village Bchords, would ^cem to bo due to tho great 
division of the Gujarilt jiopulation into arraoLl dh'irnln and nnai-mcd. 
To distinguiBh converts from the armed Itajpiit nnd Koli castes the 
Jtliisalmdn governors coineil 8uch names as Molesalnm, Malik, and 
8ip£bi. For converts of the trailing class the word Hohora was in use, 
and thie they extended to converta from all tlie unarmed castes, 
Brdhmans husbandmen and craftsmen.^ 

An account of the Sunni village or cultivating Bohoriis is given 
below [pages 58-61] . Of trading Boliords there are several subdivisions, 
one of them Sunnis and the rest Shiahs. All can ha traced to converts 
made in the eleventh cenhiry by Shiiih, misfiionaries of tho Ismfltli sect. 
Thoiigh settled in many parts of the Bombay Presidency, and in 
Haidar&bdd in the Dakhan, in Benlr, Miilwa, Central India, and 
Bajputiina, and, as tmdei-s found over almost the whole of India, the 
high priest and liead-qnaTters of the sect arc in Hurat Some of them 
diaim to come from Egyptian- A mb and Yaman-Arab ancestors. Others 
icknowledge tbemaelves to be entirely of Hindu blooJ, the descendants 
of converts to the teaching of Ismdiliin missionaries. A certain special 
lodt and character snpporb tlie statements of Musalmdn historians that 
tiboy are partly tho descendants of refugees from Egypt and Arabia.* 

Chapter ] 



I Coiiivsrp IliU MSIft (Ntw Editiun, 'i6\) ; ' The Rajpiits forciUy cunvcrtcd l)j t-ulfcln 
Abnad I. (nbout A.d. 1420) formi:il a. iicparatc cnito mlled MolcsnUnii ; the Vuuili 
■dd tbo BrAhiUBOB oouwrted at Oic same tiuii: joined the «cct of tlie BoIioiAl' Tlio 
anbury liujariitl ntc of tlxi word BokDn very closely corrcBpondB witii fiindn 
ccxiTHrta From the unarmed FlasHa. Thus Bcvoral clasgeB who have a apucini luiiria 
froiD their craft cf ealling big apoken of as BoUor;V», auil lii Bomo caaes, as in 
GUncfai-SolioTA, the word Bohora is added to the cnift-namo. So, too. the Dliindhftri 
HMundi cull theoisi'lvea Uohoria, and the rlaas of Konkan MQaalmdnB who take «crvica 
irithEuropciWH are known in ODJaritBaRoDVaniBohorAs. On tho strength of this 
nucral meaning of Bohora, EhSn Bahddnr KAzi tJhaJidb-ud-din would derive the word 
Bohora from the Pcnian bahir, literally slriLgs of camele, and mora generally canip 
foUowen or miicellaneoui elMEes, or from battrdj, a wont meaniiig prudent or bu»ncjs- 

' like. An oljjeaUon, at leo»t to the firat of theao. acoms to be that the name IJohora 
ma not given by the Uiualmiin goTemora, but dates from Shidh CDnvenions in the 
etorenth ceatnty. This ii confirmed by tha Mirat-i-Ahmcdi Ten. Test, II. 87- 
Another explanation of the nic o( the word Bohora both to t^biiih trnden and to Stuini 
vilUaers, ii that M one time all were GhiAlis of the DAiidi fnrm of futh, and that the 
■ Snniu Tillage Bohoria were converted to the orthodox faith by some of the early Gujardt 
Uuf^ Bot tliere i« very little to support this llic»ry, and neither the DiliSdis nor the 
Tilli^ Sunni BohorAi hare any trace or tradition of audi a dooblc eonveruon- Elliot 
(Bacea of the North-Wcat Provinces, I. 41) aavs : Bohonis are monoylondera who came 
to the North. \V.-»t Provinfiea from Jaipur, origioaUy from Western India. Their chw* 

* name U probably from heohir trade. 

"Farishtjkli nnd the MirAt-i-Ahmwll oti tlio authority of Major J. W. Wataon, 
Utb January 1S74, and of Mr. Munshi Lotfullih Khin of t-ucat, 15th Angust 187*. 
One accoant givca as early a dale aa a.d. 87U, and another the cloae of the eleventh 
eantary, when ttiu Naiiriilu Ismitilii! biooining Hupreuia in Persia arc (apposed to have 
olut«d their rivals the Muitaili IsmifiUa. In later timea i.D. 15S8 the date given lot 
the arrival of the auprem^haad of the sect from Aden ao nearly agreet with the capture 
of Allen Ity the Torks that it seems probable that the High priest waa nccompankd to 
ludia by a baud of refugees, 







According to tlie received account ot their rise in Gnju^t, ia 
oourseof the eleventh century aUut a.d. lOti? (H. 160)' Abdullil,j 
miEsiunary <fiii, sent from llaraz in Yaman by the liigh priest id t*^ 
Xrustadli ImiAili eect, landed at Carabay. Abdullrth, who was a nun 
great learning, is sairl to have stayed some years at Camhay stadyi 
the people. Two stories are t«ld of liis first missionary suea 
According to one story he ^iued a cultlvalcir's heart by tilling ki 
dry well with wnter, Aceoriling to the other, hy dashing to tlie e 
an iiMn elepliant hung in mid-air in one of the Cambay temples, n 
over some of the priests. After ibis the misnionary is said to 1 
travelled towards Anahilavdda nr Pattln, at that time the captat i Tho story goes that the ruler of the city, i«idhrij Jai " 
(a.d. 1094-1143) anxious to see the stranger, sent a force of a 
men to hring him to liis capital. Finding the saint surrounded byJ 
wall of five the troops retired. Then the king himself came, and ^ 
oiedienco to the stranger's command the fire ojtened and let the k~ 
pats, Full oE wonder, the king~Bske<l for one sign more that the i 
belief was better than the old. His wish was granted; one of ^ 
holiest idols declaii'd that the Arab's was tho true religion. Hei ' 
these words the Hindus, king and subjects alike, struck with a 
ment, embraced the new laith.- For two ccutariesand ahalt (a.s.11^ 
1380), there was little in tho history of Gnjarit to check the j 

■ Klitn ItahMur Kifti .SliahAli-ud-dlii and Bri^ Cities of Gnjorishtni Appendix U 
The Diilidi pnyer-book give* a D. 1137 (U. HSi) as lli^date of tlit flrxt wiUiiiMjf 
deatli. Conotl^ (Journal Allslic leociety, Bengul, \l.-3; frS*) givet x.ti. 1137 U tlwJj 
of tho converaion, and call* tho miulanar)' Halianmind not AhdulUh. ColeV 
Mluellancoas Essays, II. ?28. The Minti-Ahmcdl (Fersisn Text, 11. S7] uths « 
Conollif ID stating that the name of the first Bolion miiMonary «m Mails Mnhaaa 
Ali. Heuij'stheghrinPof IhisPfrat Canibay, knotrnwtheshriueof tho P(r-i-B 
tbe EvoraJive Saiut, still yearly draws large crowds of Bolioria from all parts i "" 
When Mulla Mnhammad Ali landed in Cambnj the people of Guiann were ig 
IsliCin. A Hiiida saint was tlio object of general faith. The Mulla eonaidciinK « 
mpoeition to this saint danecriiui and imponiible joined tho number of hia dwdnj 
Hii lutc11i(nitre soon attraetcd the aaint'« notice. After vimstering tlit languap wfl 
ronntr.v, ho stadicd the Mint's ba1,r books and so worked upon his mind m to MOTMtll 
to Ills \icwB. Man; of ths taint's chief followers adopted the new faith. At la 

appeared in a corner and the Rifja hceamc a eonvert tlioagh be kept it secret i 
his death-bed be ordered his body toliebntiwl. With the cstablishmenl of Muha 
nower many Cambay BoborOs settled in the rapital (Patin}. When, in 
HunSar I, came fiotn Dehli to OujarAt as (governor he brtmght many pricaUof 
tinnni sect who were nctire in ttiniing tho people to this branch uf the futb. Hell 
the PatAn Shifib Bohorfia were converted to the Sniuii fi^th and tbeirei 
followed h; tbeir brethren in the otlier chief towns thongb llie BohorU of iba i 
tdwns and tho outlying parts romainid Shitlis. The Sunnis and the Sbiiha br"- 
of the same origin intermarried till in ad. 1633 Sa,vyad Jfkfar ^inlnp 
Iannis to keep apnrt from tho IJhi&lis. 

>Tbongh Sidhr^i (a.u, 1004-1133) would seem lo have died a Bindo, hit IohJbimW 
religious discnssiona and his toleranec might, wltbont givitip; up his own roU)(ioB,f~" 
led him to patronise the BoboramiBsionarj. R:U MAU, 172 and SI J. Bothof ^ial 
snceessora, EnmdnpMa (A.I). 1143-1174] and Ajayiipilln (l.s. 1174 ■ 1177} and 81 
preat J^n teacher Hemifcbdrya, at a time when there are no n'corded Uu 
invasions, are said lo liave been converted to IslAin, Tod's Western India, 184 And — 
Bis U41a, 1. 844. If the Khojiih history is correct the conversion of tho Hbdn K 
was abont *.». 1240 that is during Ibe reiirn of Ajayipila's'snccedMir B"-'- - " '■ 
1170-1242). Bee Below page 88. 




of fhe Ism&ili £aith. But with the establishment of Muzaffar Shdh's 
power (a.d, 1390-1413) the spread of Sunni doctrines was encouraged^ 
and the Bohora and other Shidh sect^ repressed. Since then^ probably 
with gradually lessening numbers, they have passed through several 
bitter persecutions, meeting with little favour or protection, till at the 
close of the eighteenth century tliey found shelter under British 
rule.^ The chief event in the modem history of the Bohords is 
the transfer in a.d. 1539 (H. 946) of the seat of the head priest of their 
faith from Yaman to Gujardt. Till then the Gujardt Ismdilis had 
been under the guidance of a high priest at Yaman, to whom pil- 
grimages were msAe, tithes paid, and disputes referred for settlement.^ 

Of schisms from the main body of Shidh Bohords there have been 
four, the JaAvabi, the SulaimIni, the Alia, and theNAGOSHi. Of the 
Jaa&ri or Patani schism in a.d. 1494, the most important both from its 
size and from the fact that the seceders became Sunnis, a separate 
account is given below (page 34). The origin of the Sulaimdni sect 
was during the sixteenth century when a Surat Bohora, sent as a 
missionary to Arabia, succeecled in making a considerable body of 
converts. These, besides by the regular name of Ismdil, from the 
priest's title of Bidzi the Fair, became known as Biazi Bohord?. 
For a time they would seem to have considered the Gujard!i 
high priest their head. But about the close of the sixteenth century 
(a.d. 1588) DMdbin Ajabsh^h the high priest of the Gujanlt Bohords 
died. Upon his death the Gujardt Bohoras chose as his successor 
one Ddiid bin Kutubshdh sending news of the appointment to Yaman. 
Meanwhile one of the Yaman priesthood, Sulaiman by name, on the 
strength of a letter said to l)e from the late high priest, was by the 
people of Yaman accepted as the successor. He came over to Guja- 
rat, but finding his claim rejected by all but a very small body, 
retired to Arabia. Such of the Gujarat Bohords as upheld his claims 
were called Sulaimdnis. The next schism was in a.d. 1633 (H. 1034), 
when one Ali claimed the succession to the office of high priest and 
separated with a small band of followers. The last is said to have 
been as late as a.d. 1789 (H. 1206), when a Bohora seceded, and, starting 
some novel doctrines, founded the sect of Ndgoshi or non-flesheating 

Chapter I] 



' The chief Bohora persecutions arc said to have been under Sultafn Ahmed I. (a.d. 
141 1 • 1443) and MahmM II. (A.d. 1536 • 1554), Of their troubles in bultdn Ahmed's 
reign the story is told that the chief Miilla, because he kept the beginning of the month 
of Kamaz&n at a different time from the ortho<lox reckoning and denied that he did so, 
was killed by cider of the king. Even under tlie more liberal of the Dchli emperors, 
the Qnjariit Bohorsfs are by a friendly writer described as ever involved in the difficulties 
of concealment and suffering much persecution at the hands of the wicked murderers 
(Sunni MuialmsCns) invested with public authority. Sayad KurulU\h quoted in Cole- 
brook's Miscellaneous Essays, II. 229. 

' According to the Bohora accounts there was at the time great want of zeal among 
the Yaman people and strong faith among the people of Gujar<it. Tliis tempted the 
Iiigh priest Yusuf'bin-Sulaimdn to come and settle at Sidhpur. Ehdn Bah^ur Kdzi 
SUhlib-ud-diii. As already noticed the success of the Turks (A.D. 3537) in Aden and other 
coMt towns had probably something to do with this movement. Journal Asiatic 
Sodety of Bengal, YL-f, 842. ' b'ce Below page 34, 

Chapter U- 


Da'll'dis,' tliu main body of Sliidli Bohoriifi are llie richest, I 
oi'ganizticl, and most widely epretul class of Giijarii-t Musalsd 
Besides eliance tratlere, eettlcments are fonivl within ihii provinea* 
Gujariit; in Kachh, at BhujftDdM^ndvijinKfitliiav^ Bbi^ntagi 
Limbdi, lUjkot, Sorath, and Wadliwdn j and in Gujarat proper, 4 
AhmodiSbml, Alimediiafcar, Bdlnsinor, Bhojva near Viraiuffam, Bioael 
Cambay, DcJiad. Godlira, Goglia, Lunavikla, NaveAri, Surat, and Voghr 
In other parts of tb<? Bom^y Presidency they are found in BaeMi 
Bclgaum, Bombay, Karachi, Khiindesb, Kolhiipiir, Miilegaon. Nisi 
Faniilai, Poona, ISatara, and Thdna. In other ]>art8 of Indii 
in Central India, at Indor, Rdnipur, Ratl^m, Sironj, and Vjpii 
in Rajputana, at Jaipur Jodlipur and Udepiir ; at Biirhiiupur in Betal 
at Haidavilbiid and Jiilmi in tlte Nizdm's dominioni 
in many places in Matb-as and Mysore; and at a few plac 
Bengal, Out oE India, westwardE in Aden, BasrAlt, Jaddah, Makk 
Maekat, and Zunzibilr ; and oaetwards in Cliina. Mulmain, Rangoon, u 
Siam. The total striaigth of the GujarAt community is estimated! 
about 130,000. 

Though active and well nia«U'. fow D<'i(idt Bobonis arc muscular < 
even robust. Their features are regidar and clear, the colour olivc.^ 
espi-ession gentle and shrewd. They shave the head, wear ton 
thin beards, and cut the hair on the upper Up dose. Many oft 
women are said to be beautiful and fair-skinned with delicate fcatcn 
Following the precept and to s<jme extent the example of the ProiJ* 
they arc careful to keep their ejelids iJencilledwithcoUyrium, theiiM 
blackened with mitsi an astringent powder, and the palms of their han 
and the soles of their feet reddened ivith henna. 'J'beir home tongoA 
Gujaiilti marked by some peculiarities of dialect," and the use of e 
Arab words well pronounced even by women who have not learned A 
Except a ft-w, who, having performed a pilgiiniage to Kai'taU 
returned fiom a voyago to China or some foreign country have {rf I 
years a<lop ted the Arab costume, aBiiudi wears at home a silk or wli 
cotton skullcap, a jacket of white cloth, a shirt falling below the ki 
and trousers of white or striped cotton cloth Icxise abu\'e and tight n 
the ankle. Out of doors be wears a small wliito turban,' a waistoo 
Hindu-shaped coat •inijarkhn, trousers the same as those worn h 
house, and long shoes called iijjainf. The Ddiidi woman wears a 
dark-blue or )ellow cotton or silk scarf otlna ; in north Gujai'dt a 
Inght-fitting silk bodice and in sonth GujarAt a silk joiekot dagli, 1 
petticoat, and shoes of wood in the north and of leather in the b 

' Tlic Rliidis are aUo ritlli.'d Lutlfts, a, name orclinniilj' derived from lota a w> 
bfungothvir turban U shit jicd like a fof<7, Faris (A.s. 1UG4) apcnkaof tlieHnMln 
Gtrjarit as Lanlcfts, partly BLnuif>crB partly native eonverte, Ker'ii Voyngea, Tt, 

^Thc cliicf peciiliaritioB arc tho irrcgolar nse of tlii> dental and palatal il aJid t 1 
H for 711. 

' There arc four fonna of the DiSiidi turlmii. The Ujjain wucli like the 
dress, the Rmallcit and mniit acntly ivoand ; the Alimeddbid worn hy the liigh 
•Dmewhat more raised and looser ; the Sniat, higlicraTMl fnller; and the E^* 
coniCHl ill ahapc, with aitrip of sold clotli srranf^ia thehollc:vof the cone, 
turban is of the biluj« sliipc ta the man's but of orangrj ochre or dark-brown 




holiday dress is very ricli, o£ emljroidercd silk aud U-ocadc. 
Obt of doore, over the dress they wear a lar^ dark-coloured silk voil- 
robe culled hiirka passing over the heail, 'J'his uovers the face leaving 
HuaU net ojieninge in front of the ojes, and dra]>es in loose folds to 
the ^roond tslirouding the whole fij^nro. Both Irlindii and Musatmiin 
ornaments ar<3 wora. 

Except tliat they are sjaring in what tlu^y eat, taking cai-e that 
nothing is wastod j that because of its cheapness many of them use lieef ; 
that with tlicm iish, hke other animals, raii^t, to he lawful fox1, die 
under a Jtlufalmdn's knife; and that they are EiKJcially seruinilous to 
uac no inioxicatJng drng or stimnbnt, in their food and way of 
eating D;iudis do nut diSer fiom onlinarj' Musalmiins. 

Diudi liohoriSs arc noted for thfir fondness for livinjj^in laigejind oiry 
hoa&es, and for their love of display in home ornaments and furniture.' 
The Gnjardli proverb says Vohordnd mal j'o(?M»inii_;'«'e The liolioriia' 
rain is mortal'. 

Ex(.'eiit the inbahitante of a fuw vill^es in Dholka in north Gujarat 
wLo are peasants, and some who have risen high in Governmout service, 
ihnoat all Ddudis live by trade. Somu are merchants having large 
(IcsUq^ with Arabia China Slam and Zanzibar ; others are local traders 
in hardware silks hides and horns and live cattle ; but moBb arc tuwn and 
rilkgu siiopkecpers, selling hardware elotli stationery books groceries 
idQ Kpifcs, and a few in Ahmedahiid Baroda and Surat are confectioners. 
'^ women do house work, sewing spinning and weaving cotton tarbans 
ud women's robes. 

Surat Daildis are shrewder more paehing and fonder of show and 
good living hut less contented and religious than those of north (iujarat. 
As a class, all are quiet clean tidy hardworking and Boiier. Especially 
Id Surat they are prosperonij, many of ihem rich aud the l,ulk well-to-do; 
Uu poor are tlirifty an<l free from debt, and the unfortunate are 
^Apbuned fiom a common fund. 

^^K Jolio Ualcolm (A.B. 1SS3) u.vs (Cvnlml India, II, 3) ' The BolioriU linvu bmiiglit 

■^nti MdU (1.63) speak* uf Uiv hcDWsoI tiidlitmr BohorAs ok 'hnIC EurojicnQ In 
^mwiUi bnlnsUred terrice* wid windowa ftiiced with vcnrtiun icret'ni.' In Kindir 
tt" Bobora liontci nrc am of the chkf objccU uf interest in tha town. In t nmC 
*tt)r of the hvit of the niHiUm Uunses twloiip to Ikihorrtn. The following give* somo 
™i «t » rioU Snnt Bohora'a honac. The hnuse is niiBfil on a plinth >ii or kvcq lent 
■e"! lh« luvfll of the ro»il. It ii three KtcrU* high, of brick fiMs»l with rioUly 
WFt4 timber, tnd U hnllt connd a rourt aliout eiglitern tixi eqnnre. Fuuing tbningh 
) ^k and untidy vntranco and up steep and narrow wooden ataire In tbo front 
PW at i\„i 6rA Qonr 'a a titling roum abost twi'lt-u fu«t square. The ceiliug is 
Ji*!; lump with European mutal lamps and glasn ch»n»k'lii;r«, and tlio window* 
MTt,iniuLc of their regular fronra, Kngli^li-iaadi! plate* of atoned (clai* doenrat«d with 
"tMot the Kunuin, The floor i* itcblj' enrpi.'tvd, euBbioui ani Bet rooad tbo wall?, 
■■1 in Ilii' iniddhs are l^ibtei corered with omamcnta Between the front and baolt 
t^aa this wtillg of Ihu ]Kisiingc are bright with graup* of brai* plate* aaueer* aud 
WnHii;! vosm!*. On the iceoiid Boor in the back part of the bouiie, a large room, 
■Mil lluri.t f(Ut by aixtecn, lias tbo walls euloured, tlio floor richly rarpeted, and 
^onjjtlii: w.-ill rows of closely paeketl «o fas and chair*. Abnra i« a third public room 
j^ ut Inmilure with a large Qermmi uTftan in the place of honour t aud let into the 
;lica and cahi^ti itocked with ChiiicM and Japanese cup*, English va*e*, 
aUntinopU inngg of plt-itrcakcd gla**. Along th* wall*, abqvo t^o cabiuoti, 

Chapter II 


Dddtlis ai'u Bhi.'ititi of tlie MiiBtaaliau ilivi&iou of lUc ^tat . 
Beet.' They lire attentive to their religious duties, many both men 
and women knowing the Kuradn. They are careful to say ihcir 
prayers, to ubserve Miihnn-nm as a season of mourning, and Vj go oti 
pilgrimage to Makkah and Kaibala. Tht-y strictly ahstiiin from mn^ 
and dancing and from using ov dealing in intoxicating drinks or 
drugs. Though fierce suctarinns, keenly hating and hated by the regular 
Sunnis and other Xlusahuftnii not of the Ddi'nli wci, their rcverenco 
for AE and for their high priest teems to be further removed 
from adoration than among the Khcijjlhs,- They would seem to 
accept the ordinary distinctions of right and wrong, [)uiiishiD^ 
drunkcDneEs,ndultery,and other act* generally held disgraceful. Of tlic 
state after death they hold tliat after passing a time of fi-eedom as had 
spirits, unbelievorE go to a place oE torment. Believers, bnt apijaitrntly 
only believers of the Ismaifi faith, after a term of tnuning enter a state 
of perfection. Among the faithful each disembodied spirit posses the 
term of training in communion with the boul of some good man. 
The disembodied spirit can suggest good or evil to the mnu, and may 
learn from his good deeds to love the right ; when the good man dies 
the spiritB in communion with his soul are, if they have gained by their 
training, attached to some more perfect man, or, if they have lost their 
opportunities, they arc sent back to loam ; spirits raised to a hi^MT J 
degree of knowledge aio placed in communion with the High Prmlj 
and on his death are w ith him united to the Imims, and when ti 
tbo Iniiims they have learnt what they still require to know, they i 
abeorbed in perfeetion. Of late the D^iidi^ have made few ooDverii 
and those chiefly servants and Hindu women taken in : 
They would seem to share all the ordinary Indian l>e1iefB in s 
possession and exorcism and in charms and omens. 

' 01 tho POBitiotJ of the Diiidi BohoriB Wiiong Hiulim icFUries. Ur. Him A! 

UuMin of IJonihay Iibb pnpaiEtl tlio followinft account. In 4.D, It" ■■■- ' 

of Jaifar tJAdik, Aci-onling to tho MiiAhl tbe-nitli ImAm, ndliputcnr 
tile sun of Jftftfiir'B cWcut ion, or MiSei K&ziin, JaAfar'a Bccoud son thonld racMcd. 1. _ 
tnajorily who supported HAai fonn tliv orthodox conimDnit; of ShiiAs, wbo frMB ^lifM 
number of thair Imiiini, tho lut of whom i« stilt tu cumi^, are Imovn as Ima-wtUr* 
or ' Twehers '. Tlie flupportcn of HAri'g nepheir startod >■ a dutjnft bedfj 
and under the namo of IimiUii, eaperuillj in Egypt, row to great power, Thty 
remained united till in A.n. 1094 on the donlh of Alinnstannr-faillth the guceesiioa kM 
diiputcd. Of the lute KlialifAh'ii two Eona, NaiAr the elder, at lirtt named tor Uie . 
•ncccisian,waa afterwards pasted over in favour of his jounger brother AiraDstwUi. 
A party of the iKnidilii, holding tliat an older sun could not tlins lie deprlvvd of lul 
right to succeed, dcchirod for him, and were called Baiilrlaiis. The other inrty, ciiU , 
from the yonn(;er son Mnatadlians, iimniled and established tluttiiJi as laoecanr ^ 
hU htbcr. The KaiAriatis arc at this day represcntnl in India hy tho Kliojih* H 
tho HustaAlians by tho llohorAs. Sir H. t. Colehrooiiv (Miscclinncoaa Essays, II, f 
and 237) and Mr, Conoily (Jonr. As. Soc. Benjtal, VI.-2, 847) hold that the BotaonU' 
true Shilihs, not, as represented , lamiiilis. Bnt tho aecuracy of the (u^oonul g: 
ctlwvc is bomo out by Ihe lialf-Ambir half-GuiarAt! praver-hook called SaHjli' ' " 
in use among the DAudi BohorAs, where in the list of ImiAn* (Chap. VII. no 
nune of MuBtalli and not of Nazir is entered, and by Uic foot tliat tlie co-icligh 
of the DAiidis in Yaman are there eallod Ism^lis. 

' In danger and difficulty the Diiiidis ue said, thnogh thU is at least I 
call on tho head MnUu for help, vowinp: him presents. Oriental ChrvdUn Sp( 
.(lH4g}IX. 14!. Former Mullds are praye*! to, and their tomU kissed and re 
" leof tbo eaiata j>lr4 of other UoaaUniui. 


Except for some i)eculiaritie8 in tlieir names' ; that tliey attach 
epeml importance to circumciBion ; that the sacrifice or aiiiah ceremony 
is belJ in the Mulla's house ; tliat at marriage the bride and bride- 
groom when not of ago are n>prcsentod by spoUBOi'G or ivalin ■ that at 
death aprajer for pity on hie soul nnd IhxIv it> laid in the dead m;m'B 
hands-; and that on certain occasions tlic Hiirh Priest feeds the whole 
commanity,^ DAudi cuetoms do not, so far as lias 1>een ascertained, 
differ from those of ordinary Mnsalm^ns. 

'JTie completeness oE their class arrangements, the envy of other 
Muhaniniadans, is tlie most marked feature of the DaCKJi Bohorfis. 
Their lea<ler, both in things religious and social, is the Iiead Midla of 
Surat.* The ruling WuUa niimes hie successor, generally but it is 
nid not always, from among the members of his own family. Short 

Dtadji ami lamifilji, or in AU »- Yusnf AU andSliaraf Ali. 
■*, bat amimg the lawi'r eUss baliorilB most are oAA\y changed 
r Khatali for Kliatljali, Fatiidi far F^imah, and iCaliu or 

' Bojs' tiamca rtid in ji ni 
A bw girls have Hiiulu nan 
Ihiilinin nauica, Iflmiu 
JCblifnr JC^roholj. 

' Tlic worda of this pray. 

I tn\ slwHoT with Uw Great God and with his excellent natnrc ngai 

Ohapter II 

Pudnn Uii Einii, he gracioua to him, and nise his loul with the aonli of the 
Pnil>be(«, aTid tlie truthful, the lna^ty^^ and tlie holy, for to bo «it1i tlicm ia good, 
TTiil i> Thy bounty. O tlod havit inercy on hia body thnt stays in the earth, and 
■bnr hiiu tby kiiidiiesa bo that he nmy be fre^^l from paia and that the phife of 
liii n-fup- may be goal. By your favourite aogeU ; by the serene angels j by your 
mwrninre the Prophetii tlic Wit of the created ; and by the Chosen Prophet tho 
dutce Amta Maliammad the brat of tboao wlio have walked on enitb and whom 
kNirtn ha* ovcrthadownl ; and by hia lucccssor All tlie Hcn of Abi Tdlib, the father 
1 atlbc noble Imimaanil tlic bearer of heavy burdena from oft the ahouhlen of your 

ebd ; and by oar loAij FAtiinah-i-KBhra, and by tbo Imdms bor offapring Hasan and 
b, dcwcudant* of your Prophet ; and by Ali, son of Uussin ; and hy MDhaminad 
ftlNnfAU : and JaAfar aon of Muhammad ) and lamdil son of Jadfar ; iitid Uabatnmad 
■iof Irmiil : and Abdulltili-Bl-inastiir ; and Ahniad-al-ninsti\r ; ami Kui<nin-al-maatdr ; 
llMr Lord Hahdi; and onr Lord Kdim ; and our LiirJ Hansur; and our Lord Maim ; 
i. one Laid Xnx; and onr Lord Hitkim ; and oor Lord ZElhir; and odf Lord 
r Lord MuBtaili j and our Lord imir ; and our Lord the ImAm-nl. 
b, Ahdl Kfaim AinJr-al-mominiu, and by their depulice and tlieir reprcsentativea ; 
^y the apoetlea ; and by tlie EAim-i-Akhir-al-zamdn [a) and liia roprescntative* ; 
Bt^ tha TdliKiODii IiD&uia of hia time, may the blesnjngi of Qod be npon tbcm, and by 
^ -TWtli idi (6) for tho time being our &iyad and Lord (o) 
A our Sayad the depnty of his Lordship {rf} 
A mr Sayod the ndgbbour of his Lordship ie) 

A ttw mmiders of law who are loamcd and just. Ood is the best rcprcsentatlro 
Iflia beat defrn'ler. There is no power nor virtue but in God. 
a TIlleDttheUihdrtbecomiDgln.llui. 
b TiUo at tbe High Fritst or Hulln ^Ulich. 
e Thl* blank k tor the name ot lbs Illilh PrlcaC. 
<l Blank lor Ibe ilCTHitt'e uine. 
r BUnk fur the iKighbour'B or ualiliuit'a name. 
c feasti paid for ont of tlie head Mullafs funds ore given on the first ten days 
._mtDt and on the tlurd day of RaBuiain, also on the occasion of any marriago 
jl In the HuUn's family. When a bigh priest dies hisauccessorfeasta the people 
M tkjra, and agmn on the tenth and fortieth days, and at the end of a year. 
I aeat oF the chief Uulla would aeem to have been sovcrnl times moved before it 
|[ftMd at Snist in the latter part of the eif^htconth century. The places where tho 
I UslU's WHt has been established are: Sitlbpur, AhincdiibAil, Nav&nagar, M&ndvi, 
I, and Bnrhinpur. Since tlieir settlement in Sorat tbo following high priesta 
«led: Kajm-od-dln, k.D. J786j Seif-ud-dln, A.». 1797 , Iii-nd-din, a.d.1817; 
Id-din, A.D. 1831 i Badr-nd-dfu, a.i>. 1B37; Najm-nd-din, A-s. 1642; Huiain-ud- 
>. IS82: Husdm^ld-din, A.n. If 03; and BurhAn-ud-dlu who succeeded to tbu0(fii> 
10 ana month after the death of Hnalm-ud-dlu in i.v. 1893, 

lapter II. 


of worsliip the hcarl Miilla is treated witli the greatest 
He iivee in mucli state' and entcrt^DB with tlie most 
libomlitv. On both religiouB aiid civil qneetions his authority 
final, bisoijilinc is enforced in religiona inattors by fine, aud in a 
of adultery dmnkcniicss and otlier offences by fine, Hogging,* i 
excommunication, Eveiy considerable settlement o£ Dili'idis has 
Mulla or deputy of the head Mulla, Ho is their leader in relif ' 
matterSj and when disputes arise ho calls a meeting of Iho <bi 
members and docidee the [>oint. From this decision an apjical lioi 
the head Mulla in Surat.^ 

Besides tho head Mulla or DiH, there are Mullaa of f»ar gradt 
Mfizun or literally tho ]xTmittod (to rule), Mukiisir or the eneut< 
M&shSikh or the elder, and Mulla or tbe guardian. 'ITjey do a 
depend for snjiport on their peo])!c, but cam their livelihood as echw 
maatere or by practising some craft. Any well-behaved youth with 
good knowledge of Ai-abio may Iw admitted into the lowest 
of Mulhls, and, as he shows htmsolf worthy, is raised in rank 
to the head Mulla. To train youths for the duties of Mnik 
college was in A.D. 1809 founded in Surat,and is still (a.d. 189T),thoQ{ 
on a greatly reduced stale, kept up at a yearly charge of 
Rs, 10,000.^ Besides the central college, every Daiidi settlement li 
its school, where, under the charge of the Mulla and generally by 
Sunni Musalmiin teacher, boye and girls ate tauf;ht to km the Ki ' 
Besides on education, the head Mulla siiends large suras ii 
and clothing strange and destitute IJ^ludis, and in helping tho 
among Ids people to meet the expenses of marriages and i 
costly ceremonies.'' The funds to meet this outlay and to to] 
the state of the head Mulla are raised from fines, from a 


e hsad Mulla rita on hii Ihnmc and iit totcen (f 
power hu tlic flyflspper rhauri liHil before hitu. A« the Boliorta rnt« Ihcy IB 
tbnw proBtratiiin!) talitmt, cloao tlit'ir handB, nnd gtnnil bvforc him. To m<-h Ar 
worthy he says Ite seated, to otlu-n Mand. (Oriental Cliriiitiitn SpectAi'ir i\^ 
IX. H2.) Once a year, on the eightccnlh flojiaS, every D.-Vitdi lays hii palm ii:> 
bead UalU'a liand and takei an oath to bo faithfai. The MulU addi, " From 
Uulmmmad, and from the feet of the Iniiinis Jama and Tirjab, and from t 
the Hulls tue that \oa do not snervo. The face of him that fortakea nill be hUckcnei'^ 
before God and he will goto hell." (BAoidM, VT. 27, 31 (I8lt»).) On this dftf 
he fpa to the mosque the Diddii arc said to kits the Malla's fooUteps, and to 
the duat he trcadii to their heads and eyci. (B&tndAd ditto.) 

* Flogging ii aeldom practised. Khdn Babidnr Kfiri fliahSb-uA-dln, 

* Next to Surat the chief Kttlement of DiUdis is in Bombay, and the thirl 
AlimcdibAd, Besides to AhmediVbAid MnlUs arc, in GaiarAt, appointed to B&lasuuai 
Bftroda, BhAvnagar, Bhojwa ninr Yinrngilni, Broach, Bbima, Cambay, C<ib*^ 
Godlira, Gogha, Limhili, I.nn&vA'Ja, Mdlidvi in Karhh, Moni, NavAnagar, PAUnpur, 
nttan, RAJkot, Sidlipnr, Tiinagnr. and Wndhwin ; in other parts of the Bombij 
Presidency, to Belgatini, jnnnnr, tlic Konkan, and Poana. In otlior port* of India la 
AnnngAhM, Burhinpur, Hyileribld, Mandeiiir, and Uijain ; and beyond Imlia in 
Arabia to Jaddah and Mokhii, and in the Ponian Gnlf to Moskat and Batnh. 

* At thi« school from ICO to 'iW boys are clothed fed and tanghi AiaUe, g«'i 
logle, and law, Tliey eomo from all pnrts of India and even from Anfaia, 1' 
them Btoy for abont three jearh. 

' For a Kick or dcrtitnle DiUldi, the Wnlla provides food and elothing, and if 
lodging. Poor Diiidis are daily enpplird with cooked food bv tlu' MuUs. and 

times with clothing and money. In retnm thev -*- ' *■ "-= — '-' ' 

Spec. IX. 142. 

re made to wurV, 



(rf a fifth part of their income called ^hums,^ and from the 
pealmiti alms zakdt. Tliougii they soora Httle inclined to 
r children Knglish or to take to other t!ian their lierodi- 
5 of tiadCj the Daudis for shrewdness and enterprise hold 
with any class of traders in western India, and of late 
growing nse of iron has been a sonroc of special gain to 

Ua'ni Boliora's* sidoc their rise at the elosc of the sixteenth 
>. 15!)1), have made little progress in Gujarat. InA.D. 1S18 
said to b;ive been iitty fumilies in Surat, 250 famihes 
1^ and more in liaidardhdd. At present (a.d. 1S96) there 
to be one or two resident families in Surat, two or three in 
ad ;ia mauy in C^mbay.' The seat of the head Mulla haa 
Bn in Yaman. ]nA.i>. 1872 Hasan bin Ismiiil, tho ruling 
aaptuied by the Turkish government, and some of his torri- 
ti firom him. Tlie preeant heail, Ahmad bin IsmAil, lives in 
I the Hejdz in Ai-abia. In look, belief, and customs the 
'b do not ditTer much from the Diilidi Uohoras, with whom 
oatc but do not intei-marry. During the last thirty years 
nfini Bohords have mado many changes and improvements. 
Mr. Tayyihji, who thoogh ho had settled in Bombay 
oGnjardt, was the first Sulaimfini to give his sons a liberal 
in English. Sulaimflnie are now barristers engineere and 
id one is a Judge of the Bomliiiy High Court. The 
B have almost given up the Gujarat Bohora ilress and 
rboir home language is both Gujirtltiand Hindustani and 
begun to intermaiTy with regular Musalm^tns. 
) in A.D. 1624 founded the sect of Alia Bohora's, was 
Ibrtthlm, one of the sons of Shaikh A'dam, the head JIulla, 
passing over his sons, named one Sliaikh Tuy\'ib as his 
and in spite of the efforts of his sons, who joined in 
[ All's claims, only a very small number refused to accept 
tyyib aa their head. Like the SuLiimiinis, the Alias do not 
f with the Daiidis, and do not difl'-;rf roni them iu appearance 

fihlP, NonfleshitOB, are, according to the iiceount generally 
s nitudis, a very recent schiBm, not earlier than x.u. 178!). 
: is said cither to have been excommunicated or to have 
D from the Alia scct,bouausQ he hold certain peculiar doctrines, 
prominent among which was that to oat animal food was 
ix tWa his followers were called Nagoshi non-llcsheating 
These NAgoshi Eohoris would seem to have nothing to do 
Ali-iUhiya sect mentioned by Farishtah, who believed in 

r jUutiM ifl tlie B&iuE as tlio KhiVllBhs mkA to i;ei {se^ ElUot'i HJslKny, 
M a Utb of thoir InuonieB, tliu IikaiI Hoik ia anid to have u ri^ht to too 
ftvfat'j inckding aoni, hnt not, it i» laid, dsashterB. Tliu tiftli cliild 
iiebta reideemcd nitb money or mndo tlm Ualla'* HTvaut, A boase- 
I aud »l all JuDiily aYeiits from n birth to a ikntb, to pay th« Mnlln 

Thrpropcrty of 'a iobh wilhoot Uairs goea to the Mulla. 
Adni ^Ud ShBbih-ud-dlD. 

His DO 


wpter n. 




metempliBychoBiB, and that AliwaBaninearration of God.' Atpres 
(a.d. 18y7) tlie etrengtli of the sect in GiijariSt is said to have faUl| 
to four honeeholdors, all settled in Baroda. They intermarry «il| 
Alia but not with Diiddi Bohorfis. 

Jaa'fari Bohora'S are descendants of the Ddfidi Boboi'fis who wi 
over to the orthodos faith on the advent of Muzaftor I, as governor i^ 
Gujardt in A.n. 1391. The DAMi Bohonia and the EohoriU whrfl 
were then converted to the orthodos faith kept up their marmg« 
relations until their conneetii>n was severed by Sayad Jailfar Shirdzi 
about A.D, l.')35.' From their bead-quarters tbey are known m 
PatiuiB ; from their omvcrtor as Jailfaris ; and because they t 
Bunnis, ae Badi Jimat the laige body, and Chiir Ydrt or believen 
the Prophet's four companions as-hahe. 

As told by the Ddddi Bohorns, the story of the Patani Bohoi 
conversion to the orthodox faith is that a certain Jaafar had, as 
then the custom, gone from GujarAt to Yamau to study for the _ 
hood. On bis return aliout a.d, 1494, Jadfar, without taking 
necessary license, began to practise as a priest. For this he was 
communicated, and in revenge, becoming a Sunni, drew from the SI 
community a large body of followers. The true story is that they 
called Jaftfaris from Hayad Ahmad Jafifar Shirdzi, one of 
ornaments of Hahmlid Eegada's reign. The proof of this is that tbey 
still consider him their pir, and still have bis deecendants as their 
spiritual guides." PatAni Boboras are found in considerable 

bers in all the towns and chief villages of Gujarat, In api 

they differ somewhat fi-om the DAiidis, resembliiig Menians and otl 
Smini Rlusulmilns. Tbey speak HinduatAni in towns and Goji 
in villages. In dreps a PatAni Bohora difEei-s from an ordii 
MusalmAu only by his round narrow-rimmed browu or black turl 
Except that their tronsera are a little looser and that out-of-t_ 
some of them wear the veil-cloak or lurda, their women dress like 
Muslim women of Surat. Their occupation is trade, and boidB" 
those who trade with Arabia follow many Arab customs. Some 
merchants but most keep hardware and glass shops, and some 
pedlars, and, in AhmedAbdd and Patau, silk weavers. Be 
house-work their women weave silk. Escept that tbey are etii 
and more given to tobacco and opium, thoy are much like the D ' 
As a class their condition is good, some being rich and only a f» 
debt. They ai'e Sunnis in faith, and ai-e rehgious, most of them 
the women knowing tbe KuiaSn and saying their pra}-erB. They . 
no special religious head : Jjut many fofiow spiritual guides. 

> Cokbrooke's Esaa.vB, II. 228. ' MirAt-i-AIiniali Ptrsiau Tc»t, ir, 87, 

'Sogreataroyereoeuispiud tothii8ay(MlAlim.-.lJaafartIiBt Hiniinsin Aim " 
will not Uku tlieit cle«d by the ttrtct that pasws through his tomb, tni they tL, 
the body would never nftctwards bam. TliiB Sayad Ahin«l, savs tbe Mirftt-i-Al 
{11.10-41), waa the «on of b SBjadJaifar who canitf from Sl«dh and u-Rled t 
t^yad Abmed in Ahmedtkbad and n-tnnicd to Bindii, Kayad Ahmed is snid I 
Lad tho power of norkiiig miracles. In a prayer of two gennBections [raJWa« 



namber of them are known as kahrim from being 
the tomb o£ Pir Muhammad iibdh at Ahiiiadilbid. Among 
have Buch ordinai-y names as Umar, UemAn, and Ali 
Uidn or followed by Bhdi ; girls' nacnea are like those borne 
romen. Except the Surat bunni Bohoras who intennarry 
!S, JadEaris marry only among themselves and eelebrato 
es without any processions. Each settlement has ita 
forms a fairly organized body, the rich members meeting 
and enbecribing to help the poor. On the whole their 
) good. Some o£ them enter Oovernmeiit service and 
their children Gujardti and Urdu and some o£ them 

is. See BoHOBAs. 

B'la'fl,' Milkmen, also called Gadits or cartmcn, and from 
( caetHBE Sdbali^ii and Gautis, ai'e fotmd in all parti- of the 
vpocially in Ahmediibad and Baroda. They are said tii be 
Hindus chiefly of the S&balta and Gauli cartes. The class 
I subdivisions. The men are tall fair well made and with good 
1 wear th ehair moderatel ylong and a scanty beard. The 
I handsome, often with gray eyes and rather cuvly hair. They 
Ufdti. Except that they wear a three-cornered Maritha-Iike 
~. in some cases a waistcloth, the men dre^s like MusaliUiins 
:and trousers. The women wear tho Hindu dress. They 
\ hire out carts. The wcmea milk and look after the cows 
a. They are ijuiet sober hardworking thrifty and tidy, but 
lame for mixing their milk with water. They aro Sunnis 
mt are not a religious class, only a few knowing the Kurailn 
trefnl to say their prayers. As among Hindus, the women 
(marriage procession, singing Gujardti songs, and at deaths 
i beating tiie breast. Like Pdrsis they ai\<S.jl to their names 
They marry only among themselves and form a separate 
■ with a htadmau. They teuch their children GujarAti and 




English. Though - 
ly high position. 
See DCdwAlAs, 
Sec DfjDwALAS. 

the whole fairly ofE, none have 

it-i-Alimrfi (PcriiatiTeit, 11. 4T) calls the Dfldwalis and Pinjirjfs oi 
n bjr Ibc gencml Utie of Man»Qri9. The writer toys both cUuuea were 
64fBd MuliDinmBd Jaunpoii otlisrwiac staled Bljo ^haliid, a MftlidaTi 
n wx killed at AhmedAbitd dariii^ the vioerajKlty of Aaraogxib (x.0. 
Tbew icctatiRns were called M»nsitria from being thu Bpiriteal foUowere 
^U Hiuun Iba vX Maasflr al U&U&j that is M&DBiir tho cotton -e leaner 
the rdgn of tba eighteenth AbbABi Al Maktadir (a.d. 908 - D32). Manaib 
an k ahiJgB.of beinii; a Silti and a frec-thinlceT ic a.ii, B22, The foUow- 
Haiub ore held ia high respect by Muslim myatid : 
AlUb hMtbiottn mui la the doop wai plnJouod itnd hu nlJ 
Bewm bewuv 1«t thou wctMt ttajwIL 
it ha b Buid to have repniteii on thu crois i 

. ta EhalU-Uiu'is WaOAt ul As^Oii. 

.il I ki 




Chapter II- 






Eara'lia's, Potters, 68, arc found in Ahmed^bdd city. They are 
doscondants of Hindus of the Kunibhar or potter caste, and are of 
middle stature and lair. The men sliave the head and wear the beard. 
The women are fair liandsome and strong. They speak GujaratL 
Thu men dross like poor Musalmiins, and the women like Hmdui, 
except that they wear silver bracelets of ^fusalman pattern. They 
sell but do not make pots. 'J'he men work as labourers messengen 
and house servants, the women mind the shop. The men are quiet 
honest and thrifty, but lazy and fond of opium. They are well-to-A^ 
some of them very prosixjrous. They are Sunnis in name, paying littfc 
attention to rcli^on ; only a few of them knowing the Kurain or 
caring to say their prayers. They marry among themselves and with 
the Kathiards or woodcutters. With the Kathi^rds they form one 
body javuuHy and have a hea^lman to settle disputes. Tliey have a 
olass-lod^e vddl in Ahmedabdd, where during the mango aeason ther 
hold feasts, enforcing attendance by fine. They have b^on to mid 
their children to Government schools, and, on the whole, are wdl- 

Khoja'hs,^ Honourable Conveits,^ are scattered all over Gujaiit 
in Kachh, Kdthi&vdda, in the Portuguese territories of Diu and 
Daman, Ahmedd])dd, ]3aroda, and Surat. Beyond Gujar&t Khoiihi 
are to be found within the Presidency in Shidh, 1 hdiia, Kh^boiedi, 
and Bombay, beyond the Presidency in Calcutta, the Panjfib, KaA- 
mir, Kalnil, l)dr<iistiin, Xagar Hunza,^ and in the Persian Galf>in 
Behreiu, Bandar- Abbas, Mina, Linga, and Kism. In Turkish Araln 
Khojdhs occur in Kaibala and Slwih Najaf, and, in Arabia proper, ia 
Maskat, Aden, and Shehor Alukalla. There is a flourishing colony 
of KhojiUis in Zanzi)>dr. Khojahs are of seven divisions*: FinA 
Khedwdya-j^Iomna Khojahs ; Second Gujar-Gupti Khoj^dis \ TKid 
Mult^ni Khojiihs; Fourth Atlai-Khur^sani Khojdhs; Fiflk 
Mochi-Momna Khojjths; Sixth Soni-LohJir Khojahs; Seventh KAlwH 
and Badakhshdni Kliojdhs. 

As noticed under B(ihoras (page 30) the Khojdhs are Isxndiliai 
of the Nazarian subdivision who, separated in a.d. 1094 from the 
Musta'51ian Ismdilians on a question regarding the succession to 

' The Turkish wonl Kliojah mucins tu l)c a title. In Penian pronounced l^ifok 
(written Ichmtjah) it means hard ti^icher and merchant, also like mania both serf vA 
master. l>urton't) Sinilh, 412. 

« Tlio Great Khojali Cas-o of ISGG paKii* :0- 12. 

^ Biddulph in his Tribes of the Hindu Kush (pap^' 118) sa^'s : The infloence ofdji 
Iskardo prinees introduccil ShialuBTn while the ti'nets of thcMaoldis have isAdfitklv 
way from the Uxns valley across the passes of the Hindu KuhIi. Except the popnlitiai 
of Na^arand two-tliirds of the people of Bultistdn the rest belong to the KibrBftkik 
frcct. llie Mir of Ilunm and the whole ])0])ulation of that place arc MauUUt. Qj ^ 
Ktir Laksli seet Khojdhs are meant. Farishtah (Persian Text, II. 645-46) calls iht Kaih- 
•iiiri Khoj&hs the followerB of Kiir Baksh. My the word Manl&i from NMvIa lord liA 
ma&tcr a title of Ali, arc meant the followers of Ali. His Highness Agha Khin hadaad 
still has (A.D. 1897) great influence over the outlying tribes of the Upper Indna vi^ 
His followers are called Maulais. A portion of the offerings mido to Agba KhA&l 
deputies, who are called Pfrs and are nmch re8i)octiHl, in turned into cash and wnt jctf^ 


to His llighnchs Agha KhAn in Bond)ay. liiddulph's Tribes of the Hindu Knsh, 
*The Khojdh VartAnt (page 255) 'by Mr. Sachetlma Ntojiani Asabtant B 
Commhfbiouer of Kochh. « 




e throDe of the F^timite Kliiypbat In Egypt which was founded iu 
».D. 910 (h. 2^} by ObeiduUali (i.D.872-D3J) a missionary (DAi) of 
Alxlullah Mainidn. The cause of Nazar, the elder sua of Al-Mustan- 
firLUlali {a.p. 1036-1095), one of the claimants to the Egyptian succos- 
«oii,was espoused and ouergetifally promoted, especi ally iu Persia whwe 
it subBetinently rosn to be supreme, by tlasan Saij^h an lem^ilian 
auMiouary who was bora at Rai, about tiftccn miles south of 
Tehenln now in ruins, in the beginning of the eleventh century. 
Hasan founded the order of the Fidawis or Fiddis or devotees known 
in £nrope probably from their leader's name as tho Assassins.' Hasan 
eoDcentrated liis power at Alani6t or the Falcon's Nest, an iuipreg- 
Bkble bill fort on the borders of the Pei-sian district of Dailem, 
i^ut SOO miles north of Kazwin, which, with a small se<.'tion of 
tlie surroanding country, he hai.1 aemui'od in the latter part of the 
eleronth century partly by stratagem partly by purchase from the 
commandant of the Saljuki emperor Malakshdh (A.n. 1072-1032). 
Aft«r gaining Alaraut, Hasan resolved to cease acting as ddt or 
nuGsionary and political emissary of tho PAtimitos, and, though he 
lid not yet arrogate to himself the title of Unn-cmlnl Iimun, he 
made himself knoivn by the eonvonient style of Lord, 
' er.aeconling to the crusader's, Old Man of the Mountain, a title which 
il two of his immediate guecessors continued to use. Before his death 
I at an advanced asc in a.d. 1124, Hasan had (he satisfaction of leaving 
Us order (lourishiug and bidding fair to undermine by his Fidawis' 
Boignnrd,'' as well as by the levelling force of his doctrines, the neigh- 
1 nmring monarchies of Isiilm. His sueceBsors becoming the terror 
of kings and the authors of revolutions, ruled from the confines of 
' Ehnr&ejn to the mountains of Syria and from the Caspian Sea to the 
'j Mediterranean/ Hasan (a.d. 1163, h. 559), the son of Muhammad 
the son of Buzurg-Umeid, the fourth ruler on the pontifical throne 
of Alamut, threw aside the mystery with which the son of Sabih 
' had deemed it politic to surround his doctrines. He declared himself 
tho Unrevealed ImAm and preachetl that no action of a believer 
in him could Ijo a sin.' He is called the "Ruler of the world 
I who loosened the bonds of the Law." No Khojdh mentions hia 
I BUBB without the words A'la Zikri-hia-Sahim Peace bo to his narnc.^ 

Chapter ] 

r Josepli Arnoold obwrvea : ll is likely onoiigli thnt tho 
^ ._._.. , y Silvoatro lie Sacy sliould bis convct anil tho origiu be tho 
: w«nl t>y which the IsinAilina of AUmut snd Mosakt wvru dosignutod in thu oaBtum 
I V»ip'»p'W- This nacoe is ITath-M-ihin, a word ilcnvcd from tho dsc of Hoshfah 
MJbay m lieuip-watL'T with which Haasii niid his succwisora sabduod the louU whilp the; 
flidblBMd the unvit^iea o( thu Fidawis whoiD thcy.oiniiloyiklaitbeic .... initrnmenta. 
i^Thn Qtont Khujih Coak of A.D. 1^G(S.} Againet tliia ilcrivatioD it is to be noted that not 
.flw «{ the Arub or Peniitii historinni of the time ile«ignat«a the hmiiliag by the title of 
I IJlMb-ahi-^fni. All cull thum Mn1ifhid4h or hcretiea. fElliot, II. 353 - 33T i Fariahtah 
l>ArwmnTeU.n.S45-e4t].) ' 

*TbB pfiniatypiMning of i^jiJjJt/iffi fnim the Arabic''** lie sftcriflci-d, is «capo- 
' (Mt, Thv IimAiiia Fidawie were the volnntcere of the ordtT courting death for its 
■ricn. Sir Jweph Amoiild ityles them the Bt'If-oBoring or devoted. Thti Great 
Soiih CMC of lt)G(I page 9. 

* Voii Hanmcr'a A«sa)»iiw by Lee. T7 - ES, 01-92. 
I 4 Jj^'% Trsnihltion o[*Von Hanmor's Assassins, 100. 
I • Ulc Kbood on the authority of Viisof Sbiih Eiitib (or thu bunhu) lelatus that over 

Chapter II. 




It is tiii'ou^h tliJB Hasan that HIe> Highoesa A^ha Kliati ti-^'.--^ t>>< 
deBcoutfrom Ali.' 7'he Indian KhojAlm fuiiiior believo that. 11. 
the first of thmr Im^ms to eend a missionary to India. Tiji 
this raifieionary was Nfir SabflKur." Inhis fourthe\p»^lition t.i *■ . m 
(A.D. 1005) Mahmml of GliaziiVtA.n. 1001 - 1030) ie said to hsTc i-xp.-Osd 
the Karmatians from Maltan." In a.d, 1175 Mahamma'l Ghori {x.d, 
ll52-li'Ui3) atjain delivered Multilu from Karinatian rule.* In tha 
begintUDg of the reign of Sultilnah Raziali (a.d. 1 237 - 1 2 tO) Min-h^j-ns- 
Sir^j the author of tlio Taliakttt-i-XfiEiri ' speaks as an eyo-witneeg i^ 
the Mnldhiiialt heretics of Iliudiu^ttin being seduced by a person with 
some prctensioiiB to learning: eallud " N6r the Turk" (probably Niir 
Sata^ir the misBJonarv of Hat^an Zikri-htB-Falum), "flocking to ijimin 
large numbers from ail i>arts of Hindustan such as Btndh, Gnjordt, tha 
environs of Dohli, and the banks of the Ganges and Jamna." 
Minhiij-ws-Bir.lj goes on to say that when Nilr preached the rabble 
gathered around iiini. Ho used to lall the learned Sunnis iViwiW* 
or enemies of All and usurpers of his )iatrinionv and their folluffen 
Marjis or hopefuls, ()n Friday the 6th of R^jab n, 634 (Jlarcb 
1237) his followers to the number of a thousand men inflamed by hit 
fulminations against the orthodox, and armod with swords slueUt 
aiTows and other weapims attacked the JAmil Mostjue of Dchli and 
slew many of the cungrc^ration assembled there till they were mated 
with ;freat loss by the officers of the empress Raziah. According ta 
the KhojAh accounts Nilruddin, or as they call him Xur-t>at^at 
came from Deilam to Fatilu in Gujarllt, when that country wi 

fjvernedbya Hindu prince apparently the Solanki Bhima li^ (iJ 
179 - 12 12). Ho made a number of converts by ordering the idcial| 
a Hindu temple to speak and Ijoar testimony to the truth of his min' 
He is said to h^ivo returned to Persia shortly after convert' 
Hindu mier of Patdn secretly to his faith.'' On his seeoud visit | 
GujarAt he married the daughter of Rija Siirchand, chief or g 

of NavsAri near Surat. Hia success as a proselvtizer and his n 

exciting the envy of hi.s followers ho was killea by ChAch one c^ h 
two leading disciples while he \vas absorbed in«a»«id/iit orcontempla" 
The name Nur-Satfigur Teacher of pure light which he took i 
addition to his own name Niir-ud-din or Nurshiib and the practice q 
the Hindn abstraction or siiivddii show the process by which the fill' 
Ism^lia preachers succeeded in converting Hindus.' The Isml^ 
preachers gained their chief eatccess amon^r the Afghdn tribe of Lofal 
nas. According to the tribe legends preserved by the Khoj^hs 

tliu door of tlie library of Alu-miit, Hasan liail caiued the folloiving couptwt Ul 
vDgrftviHl : Jtar-Altk'-lauqai'iluir-ei-ia-tdil-i-rKiill 

Witb U<o btlp ol God hg b>Ui uDdoDe ths collar c^ tfae Idw, 
Thu ruler ol (hs wDrid Hd of btcned niomor}', 

Vo> Hakmu'i AaiAitm—Woti, lOS'! 
■ The Greftt Klioj^ Cue of 186G p>t^ ^ puiignph 1. 

»ThoKhoi*liVntWiit. IfiS. ^^ Elliot, II. «1 -443. " EUiot,U.«89. 

•Elliot, ir.83B-336. . _^ 

" Tho Khniih hymn called Kamat iu the Eh»j&1i VraUiiti ISG. Cf. pi^ Km 
' Another lamiiUn mUiionary Sad r-ud-dln Adopted tlio Uintin ttamei M S^ 
■nd Haroband. Apart from ill popalsrity iritbHudosthu adoption of a fiiubiB 


LGnre descended from Lara, a sod of R£ma, who founded the tribe 
sC the R^thor.s to which tho Lohanas belong. According to anotlier 
Aorv of which tlicre seem to be several versions Raja Jaitiband of 
Kaiiauj to-ik Uy wife an Afglwln woman who was made captive after 
tbe drieat of Shahdl>-ud-diE Ghoi'i (a.d. 117S) and who in revenge 
eaneed Jaichand'g death. Jaichand's son to quiet his fathcr'ti angry 
Ipirit was advised to feed many Brahma- Kghatris. Tho Kshatris 
refused and fled t" Lahuragadli. The title Khwftjah meaning Lord 
which they received on their conversion to IslSm from their I'lr 
8»dr-ud-diQ seems a translation of the title Thakkar or Thiikur by 
which Loh^nas are addressed. In support of this it is to be noticed 
tilatin Halt'ir or north-east Kitthidviida KbojAhs are still addressed 
iy ttie Lohitna title of Thakkar and wear their waistcloths in 
LoMnn fashion. Further the language of the Khojdhs and of some 
of their Sindhi reltg;iouB hymns contains a liberal mixture of Panj&bi 

words which are also present in the language of tho KathiiivSila 


A. later element of strength in the KhojAli community is of Kashmir 

ajgin. Farishtah' mentions the Ohdla, originally a I'aco of sun-worship- 

ri, who failed themselves Baiislianias Tlie People of Light. During 
reign of Fateh-shah of Kashmir (a,u. 1 45S-59, H. Sti4) these ChAks 
I *ire converted to the Ismailia faith by a missionary from Irak. This waa 
I Ehftms-ud-din, the second Ismailia missionary to India who according to 
' tiu Khoj^ hymns was able to work miracles." Shams-ud-din settled at 
Odi in Babiiwalpnr about eighty miles south of Midtfin where his 
ihrine still exists.' 'I'he followers of yhams-ud-dJn number about 
7S,000 in the Panjtib and Kashmir, Many of his Bhoi (porter) Sondr 
jfoIdBmith) and Kasara (coppersmith) converts, though still Iielieving 
in him, hnvc gone hack to Hinduism, and many who never ceafisd to 
h Hindus continue to believe in him. According to the Khojdh 
WOtints Shams-ud-din is the disciple of Nur-Satiigiir whom Shams 
wved under the name of Chote. Farishtah gives s.n, 1496 as the date 
cJ Shims Chote's arrival in Kashmir,* 

Chapter £ 



with tUe Silfl it/igaic-iPiif) rule s« Uiil Jown l>y Saidi (i.D, 1258} : 
MbMijM ^r TTOil tMhl Svt/k hra i« khi' o 'Im ; 
Bd Xju^vuln. AOah AlUk; M JliinHiia'u B.lmlt-lm, 
BaUi, U tboa wtaboM aiitaii 
Live St peace with lowland high j 
mth the Uuallm aill on Allili. 
With thu Ulnda Blim RAm crv. 
'P«rianT«jt, II. G47. 

'F«ri5litBli notices tLat he mci with eldcra ot the Niir BsliBh order in BaiIakhBh*n. 
ElloODdtbry diflcred in nowny from tlic orthodbx citlirr in nppennince or ia oitrniibly 
Wlwinp tL« ralas of the Snniuih or tradition. Hh H»jg a son uf Niir BaliBh showed 
m Mi Baksli'K book, in wldch iii> found much to ndmira, Forixhtiih Pen. Text, 

*On»aF the moitfninaaH of Sh&ms Chote's miracles w>» the callincr to life of the 
WMlion uf s powerful noble of Ceh. The PIr said : In the name of Allah tboa that 
•Jt Joh) ariai. ! The rorme did not stir. Then Shams-nd-dln noiil ; In thn namu of 
A>tBi lliou that art dead arisv ! and the buy dnw up and stretehed ont his hands 
■i 'let, yawned, ineeied, and was one ot the living. Fnrislitah [Pew. Teit, II, B43) 
■EVilto think Ihal ni^eh of the ■uceei's of Shamn-ud-dln in converting the Ch«k 
■ 'ppcTB wan dun to the liappy aorident tliat the miasionary** name waa " Snn 
I,"" s^^.....i.M^ » a.i„, Biddulph'n Tribes of the Hindu Hash, 124. 

•*« Faith ^' Shami-ud-dia. 




Chapter II. 




Sixty years earlier (about a.d. 1430) Sadr-ud-din known as the tliiid 
Fir was appointed head of the Khojahs of Kashmir Sindh snd 
the FanjAb and Avas the first pir to found a khanah orKhojdh religious 
lodge. He coneeived the idea of taking all the Khojdhs of India 
to visit the Unrcvealed Imnm in Persia. The huge army of pilgrims 
travelled till they reached Gujardt in the Panjdb. At Gujardt to test 
the faith of his headmen the Pir betook himself to the house of a 
prostitute seemingly forgetful of the sacred errand on which he had 
persuaded his followers to start. Two of the headmen lost fiath in 
Sadr-ud-din. But Trikam the Sindh Mukhi, though vilely repulsed, 
satisfied the demands of the prostitute and took his Pir witn him 
to the camp of the pilgrims. At the next encampment the faith of 
the followers was still more rudely tested. The Sindh headman alone 
passed the ordeal unscathed. In the end the Pir went alone to 
Alamiit. lie saw the Imam incarnate, returned to tJch, died, and 
was buried at a villa <»;e called Jetpiir near tJch. 

As about A.D. 1200 Nur-Satdgur had converted Gujardt, so one of 
his successors Ili'imdo originally a Tuwar Rajput, sowed the seed of 
the Ismialia faith in Kaehh and KdthidvSda. About a.d. 1430, 
from the Ismailia lod<>;o {khanah) he had established at Kotda in 
Sindh, Pir Sadr-ud-din started the fust tythe-gathering wallet (jhoU\ 
on its rounds from the llimdlaysis to the Vindhya range. It ym 
Pir Sadr-ud-din who to impart everlasting vigour to the tree of ti» 
Ismailia faith engrafted into it the name of Ali, and also the name d 
Agha Islam Shdh, an ancestor of His Highness the Agha Khan, as 
Ali's incarnation, together with the nine Avatars of his Vishnu- 
worshipping followers. Up to Pir Sadr-ud-din's time Adam and the 
Prophet of Isldm were unknown in the Hindu Pantheon. Adam 
is now introduced as Vishnu and the Prophet of IsUm as Mahesh. 
Again as Ishim Shdh was the incarnation of Ali so Ntir-Satdgor vm 
the incarnation of the Prophet and Sadr-ud-dfu was the incarnation of 
Brahma. The last of the Imdms^ the coming Mahdi, was explained 
to be the Niklanki or stainless Avatdr, whose appearance was looked 
for by the Saktipanthis as the millenium. 

After Sadr-ud-dln came Kablr-ud-din who was succeeded by Im^Unr 
ud-din known in Gujarat as Imamshdh. Imdmshdh was not well 
received by the Sindh Khojdhs and had to witlidraw to Persia^ where^ 
after visiting the Im^m at Kekht, he returned to India in a.ix 1452. 
Disgusted with his Sindh followers he turned his footsteps towards 
Gujardt and was favourably received by Mahmvid Begada (a.d. 1459- 
1511). J mdm-ud-din founded anew sect in Gujardt with opinions 
differing in some minor poitfts from the doctrines of the Ismiilii 
faith. The Khojdhs possess to this day a hymn composed by ImiUn- 
shah called the Jancizah or Bier in which he describes his jouiDgr 
to the heavens through the power of the Imdm, and his meetiDg 
with Pralh^dha, Ilarishchandra, Yudhisthira, Sadr-ud-dIn, ajid otheo. 
Im^mshdh died in a.d. 1512. His disciples who belong to the cli» 
of Momucls arc to \ye found in AhmedaMd, Klieda, Cambay, Baroda 
Bhdvnagar, Surat, Khandesh, and Kachh. Owing to the deviations 
his teaching from the doctrines laid down by the older Khoj^ PfW* 



Ad owing to his denoonoing the Ehoj^h practice of levying dassondh 
or iythes^ ImAmsh^h was excommanieated by Abdas-saldm the son 
of Isl&nsh^, the unrevealed Khojdh Imdm of the time. In Gujardt 
the death of Pir Imdm-ud-din (a.d. 1512) active proselytizing 
L About A.D. 1594 Kaptira Lohdna and 8ome other Ehojdhs 
ovried the tythe wallet of the Indian Ismailias to Kekht in Persia the 
lendenoe of Agha Abd-os-Saldm the uni-evealed Imdm. To supply the 
wsnt of a missionary Agha Abd-us-SaUm wrote in Persian for the 
gaidance of his Indian followers a book called the Pandydd'i'Jaiadu' 
mardi that is the Maxims of Fortitude. This book transliterated and 
tnniBlated into Sindhi and Gujardti forms part of the scriptui'es of 
the Khoj^hs and is r^arded with a veneration which gives the book 
flie twenty-sixth place in the list of the Kliojdh Pirs or saints. The 
mystie strain in their faith the Khojahs trace to certain allegorical 
traditions of the Prophet and Ali.^ 

About the middle of the sixteenth century the backsliding of the 
Banj^b Khojahs to Sunniism showed the need of a vice-pontifiE in 
India. The Imdm summoned one Daud or Dddu, a descendant of a 
powerful family of Sindh Khojdhs, and invested him with the mantle 
of a Kr. The day of Dddu^s investiture is still celebrated by the 
Khojdhs as the Shah's Id, About a.d. 1549 (Samvat 1606) Pir Dddu, 
owing to the hostility of the Sumras, left Sindh and settled in JAmnagar. 
Here they were honourably received by the Jdm and at his request forty 
more &milies of Khojdhs were invited. A plot o£ land near the town 
was assigned to them and round it they raised a wall one of whose gates 
is still known as Dddu's Gate. After converting some Kdthidvdda 
Lohinas Dddu went to Bhuj the capital of Kachh in the reign of 
B&o Bh^rmal I. (a.d. 1585-1631). Here a rain-compelling miracle 
procured the Pir many converts. Pir DAdu died in a.d. 1594 and was 
SQoeaeded by his son Sddik after whom the title of Pirship became 
exUncity the deputy of the Imdm being henceforth styled Vakil, Owing 
to family dissensions Sddik^s grandson moved from Bhuj to Hdldr in 
ELdthiivida. In a.d. 1844 the Ehojdh Imam Agha Shdh Hasan Ali 
discontinuing the appointment of local Khojdhs as his Vaiils sent out 
his nephew to Kachh as his deputy. A year later (a.d. 1845) Agha 
Shih Hasan Ali better known as His Highness the Agha-Khdn^ himself 
came to India and was the first Ismdilia unrevealed Imdm to settle in 
this country. He was eighteenth in descent from Ruknuddm Khur 
ShAh during whose tenure of the Ism^ia pontiticate^ in A.D. 1255^ 
Haldku Khkn the Tartar massacred the Ismdilia population of Persia, 
and dismantled their forts. • 





I Ali being asked how be came to know AUab, replied : I came to know my Makor 
from the weakness of my own purpose. In jnntiilcation of their belief in incarnations 
the Khoj4h8pai forward the argument about Godhead in Man furnished by a tradition 
wkirli they attribute to the Prophet: I am the *3f/m '-less Muhammad. This is 
Akad the One and Unique Allah. (That is, without its three fns or mims Muhammad 
beoomea Ahad.) A scofier asked Ali : What is AlUh ? The Prince of the Faithful 
replied : Hast thou been at sea in a sinking ship ? Though the winds sang thy dirge 
aiid ibe waves threatened* to engulf thee, like the veritable black valley of Jehanna, 
eten then did no small benign voice whisper to thee ' Thou shalt be saved ! ' That 
f<oiee, oh thou of little ^lief, was AU&h ! The KhojAbs are fond of the Prophet *• 
laying: Think not on the being, think on the bounty of God. Khoj4h Vratafnt, 1 - 10. 




ChBptAT n. 





In a krge orowd of Masalmdns the Klioj^li can be reoognized hf 
his full arched head, his maesive square forehead, his heavy, Bome- 
tmies bushy, but ^uerally broadly peueilleJ and arched eyebrow* 
and long full lasJies fringing lai^e keen browa or bla<cit eyas, 
his large roundish and sometimee Eorwardbent ears, his Iimi ' 
moustachcB falling over his small full lips without regard to 
order and practice [xunitah) of the Prophet, his thick beard eif 
shared or cropped close to the ekin covering a full chin and 
cheeks. Ages of business habit have given his face a good-temi 
but keenly intelligent elirewdly confident and sometimes among 
lower orders a hard and sinister expression. Among Khojih woi 
large dark sometimes flashing eyes often adorn a face whidi 
pleasing and perfect in its oval outline. The other features thou^ 
finor and more delicate are as clearly marked as tJiose of the men. 
The complexion of the men varies from a yellowish or ruddyish fur to 
a rich olive or leonine brown, tliat of the women from a delicate hit 
to the groeiush hue so highly prized and so often sung by the Persiia 
and Ui"du poet as the sahzah or greon hue. The men arc generaUf 
of medium height and well built \vith a tendency to stoutness, tbe 
women are below the medium height and rather slightly thon^ 
symmetrically formed. The men shave their head or wear short 
close-cut hair in European style. The women wear their long blad: 
hair parted in the middle and drawn Imck hanging in a long pluL 
Khoj&h women are fond of i-eddening their palms and soles with 
henna. They also apply lampblack or collyrinm to the edges of their 
eyehds, but unlike other Muealroftn women they are not j urtial to tbi 
tnissi or black dentrifice.' 

Fifty years ago (a.d. 1840) the dress of the Khoj&h men was the^oM? 
or loosely wound white turban, the aagarkha (literally body-coverer) « 
c/iola made of white cotton stufE fastened in front high over the diettW 
a pair of cotton tics or Iniuia and Falling to the ankles. The coat hu 
sleeves of an extravagant length which were shortened by being ureeai 
up ae £ar as the elbows. The coat of poorer men was the bnndi vt 
jacket cut like a chola, but reaching only as far as the waist. 'Qu 
lower extremities were covered by the nulhthan or chena a piJf 
of trousers of thick whit^ cotton cloth looee above and tiglitened at 
the ankles by a pair of loops and buttons. Those wearing tiie ian^i 
had to wear over it fastened at the navel by a single knot a waist- 
cloth potio, while tho wearer of the longer coat used to tarry Jii* 
waistcloth over his arm or shoulder. The shoes worn both by the 
rich and poor were pointed and o£ red or black leather. The in- 
door dress of the early Ehoiah was a simple potio or wtuetclotb 

' The origin of tlia aae of niiHi [from miji, Arabic copper, beoiia»e copper fiL 
one of its cbief components) U the Arab ndmir&lion of tbe rich i-cd of tho iE__ 
etWuA in Arabic tuma. So in tUe Thousand and One NighU (Alf Leilsh-m L 
Arabic Text, Nisht 33E (Cairo Edition) : 

le nblt«aeiB in tbc wbEtcMee ol lip leproiy. 


in the present Hindu style, with-the rest of the body hare. The dress 
d the Kliojrth women of fifty years ago was a, etriped silk or cotton 
bodice, fastened tightly hehind in the middle of the back, a striped black 
green or red heavy petticoat with numerous folds reaching to the 
uikles and a scarf of green black or other sober cotton with borders and 
Btripes called j)^!;/!^^* or /jufflra. The drees of the modern rich KliojAh 
iiuloors is a skullcap of some soher hue of flowered or plain velvet 
or ttutin, a flannel or casluneTe waistcoat in the cold weather or a 
cotton or siJk waistcoat in the warm weather, the eoUar of the waist- 
coat being cut in the style of a EngUah sliirt, and below it a long 
fine white cotton shirt, Undci" the shirt a rich KhojAh wears a white 
cotton flannel or caehniere trousers cither whoUy in English style 
or cut in Englisli style but fastened by a trousers string. Some 
Khojfihs wear white silk trousers but these are fast disappearing. On 
his feet the Khoj&h wears white cotton or wool or silk stockings with 
a pair of velvet or leather slippers. Out of doors the riuh Khojih puts 
on a goldbordered arched turban which he calls a Mughldi p/ienta or 
Mughal scarf-turban, its shape being borrowed from the headdress 
tt the Mughals. The pecnliarity of the KhojAh turban is that it is 
nnaller and lays \xa-e a greater portion of the back of the head than 
the Meman or Kokani turban of the same shape. Another material 
used by Khojdhs for tlieir turbans is the Calcutta needlework 
caQcd iasAiilah. Old men or men with less taste for show wear silk 
embroidered tm-bans as also do the middle classes. The poor go out 
in their skullcaps. The rich ajid middle class Khujdh when going 
cmt of doors puts over Ids jacket ov waistcoat a longer coat, a 
compromise Ijetween the EngUsh coat and Indian, having the length 
of the angark/ia with the cut the buttons and the sleeves of a 
English coat. Some Khojdhs wear the elidyiik ladn'yah or Ai'ab 
tbort coat open at the breast with a large row of silk buttons on 
one dde and of loops on the other side. Uc changes his slippers for 
Kngliah boots, or, if he belongs to the middle classes, for country-made 
boots or shoes of English style. But for his arched gold or silk 
embroidered tnrban, the outdoor dress of the Khojih is so similar to 
that of the modern PAi-ni that it would he difficult to distinguish a 
Khojnh from a P^rsi. Except that it is made of cheaper materials, the 
drees of a midillo class Khojdh does not difEer from that of his rich 
rellow-tribosman. As has been obser\'ed the indoor dress o£ a middle 
class or rich Khoj4b is the outdoor dress of the poor Khoj^. It is 
also made of peoi'er materials. 

Tlic wardrohi; of KhojSh women is costly being made mostly 
of light coloured silks with silk or gold embroidery. A gi'eat part 
of a Khojdli married woman's wardrobe is a gift to her from her 
parents at the time of her maiTiage and if carefully kept the 
enduring materials of which it is composed last ten to twenty years. 
The indoor dress of a rich Khojah woman consists of a plain or 
embroidered scarf pachodi, a goldbordered or plain silk or brocade 
kdnclicri or bodice tightly laced at the back, a loose gown-like silk 
shirt orperakait reubhing to Ui.: knees, and a pair of loose silk trousers 
i^rg. Out of doors she puts on a waistcoat (without sleeves or a polka 









Chapter II. 






with sleeves) a pair of stockings and slippers or English shoes. The 
dress of the cliildreu is like that of their parents except that until 
she reaches mature age^ the E^hojdh girl like the Pdrsi girl wears an 
embroidered skullcap. The dress of middle class and poor EhojiUi 
women though of less costly materials is the same as that of the rich 



Some Kachh Kathidvada and north Gujarat Khojdh men vesr 
earriogn in the lobes of the cars and jewelled studs in the ear cartilsge. 
The practice is every day becoming less common. The other omi- 
ments worn by Khojdh men are rings and watch chains. The ornaments 
worn by the women though differing in name and slightly in some 
cases in appearance are the same as those worn by Suuni women. 

The Khojah enjoys a good business reputation. A P^i would 
rather trust a Khojdh than a Meman. A keen jealous spirit dt 
comi)etition is the chief trait in the Khojiih diaracter. The Khojih 
is a good hater Vedmoi Khojo, Dukhmen sqjo : For hate a Kho]^ 
for i^ain a boil. The Khojdh expresses liis contempt for an upstart 
rival by the term Trc penjyo A three-twenty-fiver that is a man who 
fancies himself wealthy because he owns three times twenty-five rupees. 
Though called Tuadas that is beliefless epicures the Ehojdhs have a 
great regard for their religion the tenets of which they observe faith- 
fully.- 'J'hey are neat, clean, sober, thrifty, ambitious, and in trade 
enterprising and cool and resourceful. They are great travellers 
by land and sea visiting and settling in distant countries for purposes o£ 
trade. They have business connections with the Panjdb, Sindh, Calcutta, 
Ceylon, Burma, Singdpur, China, and Japan; with ports of fte 
Persian Gulf Arabia and East Africa, and with England America and 
Australia. Khojah boys go as apprentices in foreign Khojdh firms on 
salaries of Rs. 200 to Rs. 2000 a year with board and lodging. 

On their first settlement in the towns of Gujardt the Khojdhs were 
parched-graiusellers, fuel-sellers, old-embroiderymen {saripurdnitji 
and bricklayers. They now enjoy assured and powerful positions in 
the ivory, horn, cotton, hide, mother-of-pearl, grain, spice, fidunaWi 
shark-fin, cotton, seed, furniture^ opium, and siik trades. They have 
also gained high places in the learned professions as doctors engineers and 
lawyers. A Khojah has lately (.i.D. Ib97) been elected a membtt of 
the Viceroy^s Legislative Council. 

Kliojiihs liave many observances and customs differing from 
thote of regular Musalrodns. The chhaUi or sixth day ceremony aftet 
birth differs from that performed by regular Grujardt Mussumina 
Near the bed of the mother is placed a hajot or wooden stool on iBriiiA 
after the child and mother have been bathed and dressed^ on th0 
evening of the sixth day are placed a roedpen an inkstand a blank 

1 The chief diQircucc is that none hut tlic rich wear either the UikU that U loekli-^ 
round the neck, a fashion adopted by Khojah women from PArsi womeo* or the IiQJi. 't 
Laskar, a gold or silver knob set in a capacious hole in the lobe of the ear, wludi tltt ■ 
rich and middle class arc gradually giving up. 

^ Mr. Udshambhii Niir Muhammad of Bomhav, 




)Ook a knife and a garland of flowers. The pen ink and m^r 
\ie intended for the Goddess of Fortune who is l>e1icved to write the 
leetiny of the newborn child. A chauwukh four-sided buttcr-fcd 
lough-lamp is also placed on the stool and lighted and close to the lam]) in 
set a box of Chinese crackers. As each of the female relatives of the 
Eamily comes in she strews a little rice near the stool^ hiys on the 
^ronnd her present of gold or silver wristlets and anklets for the child 
&nd bending over the mother and her newborn babe takes their baldyeii 
or ills upon herself by pabsing her hands over them and crackling 
her finger-joints against her temples. The little one is then laid on 
tlie gnmnd on the strewn rice and the mother rises and worships the 
oidldby bowing towards it and to the chaumnkh ot four-faced lamp 
on the stool. Crackers are then let off and the child is laid in its 
mother's lap. 

The Ehoj&h marriage keeps a relic of the marriage by purchase 
whidi they believe once obtained among them. Three or four days 
before the marriagp the father or male guardian of the marrying pair 
meet one evening at the Jama-at Khandh or assembly lodge with their 
friends and relatives and the Mukhi or other Jamd-at ofBcer. The 
officer registers the names of the bride and bridegroom in a register kept 
under the order of His Highness the Agha Khdn. The father of the 
bridegroom gives Re. 5 J to the father of the bride. The sum is received 
by the girl's &ther and handed to the Jam^-ut ofliecr as tlie marriage 
contribution to the funds. The bridegroom's friends place before the 
Jani&-itoflicer a copper or brass tray containing from five to ten aers of 
sugar. The Jamd-at officer^ after repeating the hallowed names of the 
Five or Pan j'tan that is Muhammad, Ali, Fatimah, Ilasan^ and Ilusein 

declares : I do hereby begin the wedding of Muhr Ali, son of Kurani Ali. with 
Bi^i&h, the fourth daughter of Padamsi Punja, to wed ati did wod Fiiftlmuli, the 
brislitfaced lady daughter of our Lord and Prophet Muhammad (on wliom be peace !) 
wiu the lord and the leader, the receiver of tlie testament oE tlio Cliosen and Pure, 
the lord Ali, the son of Abu Tdlib. The sugai* tray is then placed before 
the bride's &ther who in token of i-atifying the compact tastes a pinch 
of the sugar which is then distributed among those present. This is 
the verbal compact. 

trays full of dried fruit and sugar to the bride's house by 
groom's father and his friends accompanied by the Jam^-at officers. 
The Jam^t scribe begins the writing with the names of the five holy 
persons and the names of the four archangels in the four corners. 
Then are entered the names of the contraating parties with those of their 
fathers and grandfathers, the amount of the marriage portion, the 
names of the chief Jamfl-4t oflicers of the day, and the dates on which 
the chief marriage ceremonies are to be performed. Saffron water is 
sprinkled over the sheet of paper, which, together with the sugar and 
dried fruit, is laid before the bride<?room^s father. The bridegroom's 
father lays the sheet on the ground and on it places an iron nail and 
taar betelnuts and throws some rice over it. Then folding it he wraps 
it and the betelnuts i& an unused silk or cotton handkerchief and takes 
it away. Except that in Bombay the NikAh ceremony is i)erformed 

Chapter IL 









uplei II' I'y His HighueBs the A|>'hd KliSn himself and outsido Bombay by 1 _ 
iDb^TUioiis. officers the ceremonies tb-it follow possess no noteworthy peculiarity. 
„ A remarkable feature at a Khojdh'e death is the samarchkdntd < 

CoBVKBTs, Holy Drop. The Jaraa-it officer or the Miikhi asks the dying Khojfl 

Taidebs. if be wishes the sacred drop samarcihdula. If the dying peraat 

Khoja'hs. agre«H he or she bequeaths |{s. 5 to Rs. 500 or any larger amoud 
Cattoiiu. to the Khojdh Jamd-at, A Sindhi-knowing KhojSh is then called ii 

jjta'A. to road the Book of the Ten Incarnations Das-Jpatdr. K Jami-A 

officer dilutes a cake of KarbalA clay in wat«r, and, to saveti 
departing soul from the temptation of the Archfiend who ie iMlieml 
to bo present offering a cup of false neetai-, moistens the lipB 
sprinkles the rest of the water on the face the neck and the chest <_ 
the dying Khojtih. The touch of the Holy Drop is lielieved to relien 
the death agony as completely as among the Sunnis does the recital t' 
ft death-bed of the chapter of the Kurad-n known as the Surah-i-Yft-«fi 
If the dead is old and grayhaired the hair after death is dyed i 
henna. A garland of cakes of Karbala clay is tied round the i 
of the corpse. I£ the body is to he buried locally two Email i 
patches of silk cloth cut from the covering of Husain's ton 
called chaithinahv or spectacles, are laid over the eyes. If " 
body is to be buried in the saci'ed soil of KarbaU the vie 
removed before the body is liathcd, the hollow is filled with cami^ 
and the incision carefully sewn.' After it is bathed and shrouded, \ 
body is laid in a bier and taken to a mosque and the prayers for ; 
dead are repeatetl over it. It is then placed in an air-tight tin-lii 
coffin which is afterwards enveloped in tarred canvas. As long as ' 
cofiin lies at a mosqne awaiting shipment the services of aShitih Mnl 
are engaged at Rs, 5 to Rs. 50 to keep on reading the Kura^ over ' 
body. The coffins of dead I^ojAlis ai-e can-ied by the Persian Ste 
Navigation Company's steamers and transhipped at the month ^Bk 
the Euphrates into smaller river-steamers and by tliem are landed ^3 
Baghd^ ten or twelve days after leaving Bombay. At Bagbd^ pi^lB 
feesiona! coflin-carriers take charge of them and carry the coffins by nuOH 
or came! to KarbaKi. The steamer freights vary fromRs. 200toRs. 40HI 
the Baghdiid camelmen charge no less than Rs. 20 to Rs, 40 for eoA*' 
coffin; and the final interment charges at Karbald are heavy j-angia^ 
from Be. 100 for the deposit of the coffin in the vaults (Saijib) beloitf' 
Husain's shrine to Ra. 2000 to Rs. 5000 for a grave on the Karhal^ 

The leligion of the Khojahs is Shiah Ismdtlijiism. To the simple 
Sunni Kalliiinh or profession .of faith " There is no God but AlU^ 
and Muhammad is His Prophet" the Shiah adds "and Ali th^ 

'This in doubtful. SomosaythoShiSh in common with orthodox BeetionB belier9 
that it is Bacrilege amounting to s mutilation of tlie defunct to even bondle the hoAf^ 
roughly after ileatb. They aay tbnt the visceni ore not removed, but that x Mout^ 
cotton riliban ahout two iuches in breadth is wound tightly oud nlosolv rouad tha 
body of the corpse bejniuiiDg from the toea &ud ending at the throat. After tha b 
ia deposited in the coffiu the romauitng Bi>aco in Iho coiSu i^Slled with fiudy poai 
henna powder. The powdered henna abaorbs all the moiaturc which the body n 
and prevent* amell. • 



tonpanion of MuLammad is the Vicar of God." The elevation of Ali 
to an almost equal place with the Prophet is the distinctive tenet of the 
Biii^hs.' The whole religious life of Ihe Shiah is steepeil iii a current 
rf thoQghts beliefs traditions and observances having their source in 
Aii, the Lady Pdtimah, and their two sons Ilat-an iind Hiisain, four 
venerated names which with tliat of the apostle of God coin]josa the 
Pentad or Puiij-tan of the holy family oE Isldm, To revere Ali as 
the Vicar, still more ae the incarnation of Allfih, to go on pilgrimage 
to Shah Najaf the supposed place of Ali'a martyrdom 1 20 miles south- 
weBt of Baghddd. and at Earlidin to Ijow the forehead ou moulds of 
Karbjla day and to drink the holy clay dissolved in water are practices 
H meritorious in the eyes of the 8hiati as they are forbiddeu in the 
wtimation of the Sunni. The Siinni pi-ays with folded arms five times, 
Um Shidh with his arms straight by his side three times a day. The 
I Sii&h venerates Ali and F<-itimah and execrates the memory of the 
fint three Khalifahs. The Sunni reverences the first three Khalifihs 
tonally with Ali and the Lady Fiitimah. The Shidh laws oE marriage 
diToree and inheritance, though drawn from the samo source, are 
completely opposed to the Sunni laws. The Khojahs, like the Memans, 
(nlinw the Hindu law of inheritance.^ 

The Sunni considers it his duty, if he can affoi-d it, to make a 
pigrimage to Makkah and Madiniih. With the •Shi^h it is an act of 
oerit if he has visited the shrines of Ali and Hiisain.'' 

The IsmSilia Shiahs are divided into two classes, the Iinn-aiihan» 
»TwolvorB who believe in the twelve Imams, the descendants of Ali. 
To this branch of the Sliidh failh belong the regular classes of 
fie Persian and Indian Shiahs. The other branch is that of the 
Seveners or Sdbtint who are called Ismd,ilians because they reckon seven 
IminiE and make Ismdil, the son of Muhammad, the son of Jaafar Badik, 
Hw Uet of the revealed Imdms. The difference between the Twelvers 
i ud the Seveners starts from the seventh Imfim, The ]>ower of tlio 
.' Seveiters originated with the dynasty of the Piitimis in Egypt 
'(4.D.910-I1T1) founded by ObeiduUah (a.ii. 910) «ho through 

I'ltymologically Shiili meacii separatist Which is probnbly the oorrect durivntion. 
ftttODi wiu origiaally auplicil to tUoac pure-blooded inemliera nf Ali'a fMinily wbo 
MmtI; ricHin* to the hostilitj of tbo Snoni Umnyilyd Khalitilln of DamucDi 
^ 681 - 745). Fir Joseph .Arnoiild in the Great KhojUh Coae nt V 06. 
, JDntiugtbe tbsence of Hig HSghneBS the X»b& in CulcnttA in A.s. IS4e-4T and 1848 
1 Bfiption was curried on and ooncluded wbicli agsin divideii the Khujihs of Bombay 
MB tiro hostile partiei. It wu the trell-known ooBe a9 tu the rights of female 
[^•Eituice among the Khojihi, called t-'acjun Mir- AU'b case, in which t>iv Eiakine 
P>Hy in t-D. 1817 pronounced a learned jufTgrnent, tciuinlad mi the evidence of 
"talcMiMge and cmtom, ag]iiast the rigbts of Kbcij4)i Eeninlei tn inherit according to 
Ibenlet of Mithammatlan law. The Urcat Khojilh Cue of ISGIi. 
'Sir Jnaejih Arnould, on wbo«o jiiilgment in the Rreat Kbojih case of A.D. ISGC 
I' Ouch ot th? above contrast i> baaed, tliua sutiiB the difTereni'ea ; In a word, n^reeing 
j ^B Brcnsntiiig Muhammad ai the Prophet and the KuruAn aa the wonl of AWih, tbc 
IBtontt And Sliiitha agree in little elae except in hating each other with the bitterest 
Ig tttJ. (The Great KhojAh Ca»e,) Tlic Siiiiih ualls the Huniii a .Vriribi and m. KMrijI, 
H^Wgper and bd ontguer. Tlie Sanni retort« by <:a1ling tbe ShiAb a RdR:i or rejecter. 
KKchard Barton (Alt J^ailidi wa Lnilnh, 17. 44 note 1) .' : The Shiahs have no 
■nnd to feel offended at the wonl RAfiKi being ajiplted to them aa the name was 
Bin from their own aayiiig Iitaii Tafadhna kum Verilv vr« have Tcjccted or renounced 
thai ia the first tUrae Ehallfilhi. 

Chapter : 














Alnhammad HabH), the eon oi JaAfar Musaddik, who 'claiined deece 
from iBtudil, the seventli and according to the ]smi(!lias the last e 
the revealed Imams. Muhamnuiid, the son cif iRmilil and bis Boa Ju' 
Musaddik and his son Muhammad Habib ai*e called by the Ism&i 
their Mditnai or Concealed Im^msin coatradigtinetioa to Obeidnili 
tlio assertcr of the rights of the family of Isaulil to the KbiUphat, I 
Revealed Iniiim. On the establishment of the Fdtimitc dynftstjr I 
Africa (a.d. 910) the Ismdilia doctrines were firet publicly taugbttf 
Mahdia, a city founded by Obeidulldb afterwards snmamed Al Mabf' 
and after the conquest of Hgyyt, by the fourth Filtiinit* Al Mid 
(a.d, 953-975) at Cairo. Towai-da the close of the eleventh ( 
[a.d. 107S- 1092) the power of the Ism£iliAs wbe established at Ak 
in Persia by Hasan Sabfih. The doctrmea of the lemAilide of Pet 
remained without change till the year a.d. 1163 when th* f ou 
successor of Hasan 8abith, Alii-zikri-his-ealdm, abrogated tharnleH 
B«trecy and promulgated his doctrines and traufiferred the Im 
from the F6timit« to himself.' From AUzikri-his-saWm the Ebojl 
derive the succession aud dcGCcnt of their present Intiim Agba Sul 
IMoliammad Sh^b. In order to present the Ism^ilia ^ith in invili 
Eorra to the Sliakti-worshippiug Lohttnas the first Ismdiha missions 
made some modification in its docti-ines. The Mahdi or unreTca 
Intfbu of Alamtit was preached to the Shaktipantbis as their looki 
tenth incarnation the Niklanki or Stainless Avatsr. The five Pandsva 
were the first five famous Ismiiilia pontiffs. The first Ismailia miseios 
N6r Satgi'ir (a,d. 1163) was the incarnation of Brahma that appeal, 
on earth next after Uiiddbu. Among the Mfit^|)anthis each of we tat 
Yug^s or epochs has its preacher or hhakla. To the first epoch isai 
ed as bhalda Pralhddha, to the second Harischandra, and to the ti 
YudiebthiTa. Instead of the fourth Balibhadra, Pir Sadr-ud-dln 1 
third Khoj&h missionary addevl his own name. 'I'he four sacriSoee' of t| 
fourJK^HB were Cfiufirnied as were also confirmed the Gkut Pdti-Man 
or prayer and ritual of the Sbakti pan this. Instead of Shaktipi 
Sadr-iid-dSn adopted the name of Sti tpanth or True Doctrine for 1 
now faitli. The Khojahfi repeat the hymns of Sadr-ud-din withg 
devotion and never name Iiim but with extreme reverence. The r 
of Kbojiib prayer and ritu:il ore laid down in the Book of Paodyi 
Jawin Mardi by Agba Alxhis Salflm blidh one of the Khojah I 
The book is translated into old Hindu Sindbi. Before the time of P 
Dfidu (about A.u. ls5U) the foim of worship prescribed to the KbojdhfJ 
was daily attendanca at the khanah or prayer-lodge and the repetition 
on a rosary of 99 or 101 beads the names Pir-tihi'tb or Skiih Pir,' . 
Vit I)ddu ordere<l bis followers to pray three times a day lit 
SliiJihs repeating the above words in their prayer and also repeating til 
names of ail the Imttmsdown to the present Imam. The KhojlUiprni 
sitting mentally addressing his prayers to the Imam for the time, 
also makes prostrations at stated intervals. The newmoon, Mtd 

' Voa Hanrocr's AsHaaxina, 20- ]0!), 

"His Baliilbtfiu, tboflrat Yaga sacritici! Ix-ing tlie clL'|ililiTt, ibo second tba t 
tlie thinl ihe cow, the fourth the goal. KliojAh Vartoot, 19.5, 

*Sha/t, litcrallv King, aUcgtirieiillY mram Ood and PW llic Proplut, 
VntlDt, 2S9-1U. 


and Ramazdo prayers are repeated iu tlic Jamd-it Khdnah with the 
Pir as Leader. While the prayer reciters are assembling a man 
■Unds at the cliief catrance to the JainA-&t Kh^nnh. lie demands the 
Ebojih shibboleth or watoliword of every person seeking udmisBioE. 
The neivoomer says : Hai Zlndah Oh thou living one, and the 
Janitor answers Kdyampaga I have found him alive and true.' The 
KhojfLh's three daily prayers are : Morning prayer Sulo-ji ntmas 
between + and 5 a.m. ; evening prayer Mn^hrib or Samanji nimda at 
dosk ; and night prayer Jgdji nimaz between 8 and p.m. generally 
at \\nrae. Nest to prayer the most important act of devotion ie the 
ecmntiiig of the names of the j5tVs on a rosary of 101 beads made of 
Karbdl^ clay. Third in impnrtance is the Knnjrth saf rament the Ghat 
pMh or Heart -prayer. Except on holidays Saturdays and Mondays, 
when in Bombay the Imdm presides, the sacrament is held aft«r the 
naming prayei-s at the ehii'f Janui-it KhAnah by the Janiil-At officers. 
Kwbilltl clay is diesolveil in a lar^e bowl <A water, and as each of the 
eongregation rises to leave the lodge ho goes to the person presiding 
Ikffl before him from 2 annas to 2 rupees and kisses his hand. He 
nceives a small cup of the saeramenfal vrater \rlueh he drinks and 

Besidea the Daisondh or tithe and the Pttomlh, a smaller contribu- 
toB. the Khojdh has to pay his Imam about sixteen minor eontidbu- 
tions varying fj-om i-5 auuaa to Es. 1000.= These he pays as the 
:iiiiiil or purification ordered by the Kunian, Besides these when 
jowfied for money the Imilm sends round the jJioli or wallet 
demanding an extraordinary levy of the tenth or fifth part of the 
irhole of a Kbojiih's possessions. This ih called the Bakkan a 
Mmiption of bakhthish or voluntary gift. Though it once caused 
tie defection o£ a large number from the community the KhojShs have 
more than once cheerfully paid the BakkaB. The date of its last pay- 
ment was a,d. 1839-10.' The Dassonilli is levied on each newmoon 
dif of every month, each Khojdh dropping into a cloth Ijag kept in 
& Janui-ilt Ehiinah for the purpose as much as he is inclineil to pay 
jmerally the tenth part of his montldy earnings. The Kilnga is the 
Bontribution due for the initiation of a Khojiih child. It is paid by the 
ptrente at any time after the child has reached the age of four to 
itelve. This is the Khojiih substitatc for the BitmUlah ceremony o£ 
Kegnlar Musalmans. 

the Rnmazdn and the Bakr tilt, two hoUdays which thej- 

Cbapter IL 


bb nid Ifaftt Pir Kibir-ud-(Iin, the fourth Umililm iniBiioniLr.v (A,s. H4S) in one 
[•(Ul nsita to the Im&iu at Diibiin, was oddrcsaed liv tbo Imtfm m Hai zindah! 
I Oh liring onn In reply Ibe Fli' siud AVI^^fipu'jia 1 hnvu found him atiTo (meariing 
I UnHlf). Tbcie words ropmtcd in a Khoj&h'fl d«Totiona poascaB a merit eiiiial to the 
I fift of k horu in eh&ritj. Khojdh Vrat£iit, 212. 

T 'The Ehoiftb VartAnl at page 241 gives the nsmea of aome of Iho chief dues bb -. 

J J Banh&r, 2 Ltkho, 3 Chokho, 4 Chopdo, 5 Samar-ohhdnio, S Mamu-parnii, 

^ T CUiulrdH&-jrirdHii, S BAifti-bhiiti, Dai-ya B/ilat, 10 Ci&i/tt-tndndf,, II Oulful. 

ISPioda-pSodi, \3 Afi/ti/-ealamati, l4MoAur,\5Sadamaji,ia Kango. The Datteiidh 

ad Prfiidk though \A%e duea aro not rt^allirly piid. Many Khojihs do not pay 

bum al all. Mr. Eil^hiuibhdi Ndr Mahatninad. 

■Sir Jtiwpb ArDouidli Judgment in tho Great Khojih Case of 180G pftge Il> 







enjoy jointly with other Musalmins^ the Khoj^hs obserre mne other 
yearly holidays.^ 

Moman^y properly ^fnimins or Believers^ rnclnde fiye divisions of 
Kachhis from Sindh and Kachh^ HaUris from HiUr in north-east 
Kdthidvdda^ Dhokas belonging to Dholka in Ahmedib^ Dhor^ji 
Bhdvna^H from Bha^'na^r in south-east Edthiavdda, and Yerdvddas 
frr>m Verdval in srmth Kdthiavdda. Their descent from converts of 
two distinct Hindu- Sindh and Kacbh castes, the trading LchAnas and 
the market gardening K^chhids of K^thiavdda, is perpetuated by the 
two main dinf^ions of Kachhis and UdUis, &om the latter of which 
the Dhokas Bhdvnagiis and Yerdvadas are ofishoots. 

Mauldna Abdul Kddir Muhi-}nid-din Gilani the Saint of Saints 
died at Bugbdud in a.d. 1165 (h. 5G1). On his death-bed he ordered 
r/no of his s^^ns Tdj-ud-din to settle in India and display to its people 
the light i)i IsUm.^ In a.d. 1421 (h. 838) Sayad Eiisuf-ud-din Kddiri, 
fifth in descent from Tdj-ud-din, was in a miracnlous dream ordered to 
set sail for Sindh and guide its people into the right way of Isldm. 
When Suyatl Eusuf-ud-din reached Sindh, its capital was Nagar-Thatha 
and its niler was a chief of the Sanmia d}Tiasty (a.d. 1351-1521) 
with the title of Markab Khan' (probably Jam Rai Dto [a.d. 1454] ) 
who received Sayad Etisuf-ud-din with honour and entertained him as 
his guest. At this time Mdnekji, the head of the ei^ty-four nukhs 
or divisions (A the Lohaua community^ was in favour at the court of 

... 2lBt Bamazin. 

M. 2Snl ditto. 

... 18th Zir II:^ah. 

... 9th and lOUi Mnhvnun. 

... 2l8t of Safar, 

... aoth ditto. 

... 17th of the 1st BaU. 

I Tlic (Icdails arc : 

Kail AMHaNfiination of the Imdui AU - ... 

Z/tWit'uUKadr Niifbt of prc-ordainmcnt of Destinies m. 

/ ^•X'lwnutitT *.. ••• ••• ••• ••• .*. •». ... 

A$MtT(tn ••• •#• •■• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••. —* 

ChtfiiUuM ... ••• ... .M ••• ... .M ... 

JTatl-i f AiiiA«iinatioii of > Im&m Hasan ... 

I'd i Mauladlluw in*a UlrihdAy 

The Snnfuz or Vernal Eiiainox kept according to the P&rsi 

calculation ^ — ... 2l8t March. 

Ifirthday of JIIm llifrhnoriH Afcha Kh£n FiUgun Sad 0th. S6th Uar. 

* From an Unlu treatise named Nuzliab-ul-Akhbir by Sayad Amfr-ud-din Naahn*^ 
writt^'n iindi-r tlie palronat^<; of the Meman spiritual praidu Pir Buzure AU of Mambr^ 
hi Kwh\\ in A.l>. 1873 (n. 1'290). This acconnt, though unreliable as to date## 
is fiaid to 1n! dcriv«-<l from three respectable sour.'es : Firat the pedigree of th^ 
holy Hatful Uuxnr^ Ali. Korond, sanads or patents of the headship of the community^ 
ronfrrrrd on Manckji the tirst I^ohdna convert to IsUni in the possession of SetL^ 
HAhi'linn of lihuj, Mi^nckji'ri descendant in Bombay. Third, sanads or patents in th^ 
|K»siK;pt>iion of J(iMhi lihojiifji, a descendant of Joshi Ilansr&j, son of Ramini, the cattc? 
prii'Mt of th(; l^ih^lnns at the time of t1\^'ir conversion. 

' Furinhtiih (I't^rNiun Text, II. 015 -020) in his notice of the Sammas of Sindh does not> 
tnmtion any individual of the name of Markab Kh&n as having ruled over Sindh. Thi*' 
T4rfkh'i-MaAHumi, a.d. 1000 (Elliot, I. 231) mentions a fakir who was a man uf 
jiidf(tn4;nt and was considered a saint at Thatha, as in the habit of visiting the Sammiu 
TuWr JAm Hk'i Dan (A.d. 14r)4) and as much respected and favoured by that monarch., 
l1i(i nearness of this date (A,i>. 1421) given to ^^ayad Kiisufud-dfn with the dat^ 
(▲.II. \ir»i) of Jam Uili Dun favours the supposition that by Markab Khiu the author" 
of the treatise meant J<lm U&i Ddn himself. 

^ Aeconling to thi> Mennins the name Lohnfna is from Lohunpur in Multdn. Tlils 
dorivation is probably correct. The Khojdhs (Above page 39) a^' Lohdna is from IjUiuts^ 
gacjh, probably Ldhoro, but the Khojdhs an> sadly confused. According to Amir-nd-din*. 
(pftgo 13) in A. II. 1400 tlie Lohdnas were known in }>indh as Mota\ The names of sixty o0 




M[arkab Khan. Markab KMn became a follower of the Sayad and 
Kldnekji with two of his three sons and 700 Lohana families followed their 
ruler's example. Of the two sons of Mdnekji who became converts Kavji 
Bras called Ahmed and Bavji's sons Sundarji and Hansrdj were named 
Hdsjoa, and Taj Muhanmiad. On their conversion the saint changed 
Qie name of the community from Mota and Lohdna to Mudmin 
Mr Believers, and, investing Adam with a di-ess of honour, appointed 
bim hereditary head of the new conmiunity with his seat at Wdra 
near Thatha. The Hindu relatives of the converted Lohdnas called 
on their spiritual guides to pray to Darya Pir the Indus spirit to 
remove the saint.^ The Indus spiiit heai'd their prayer. The saint 
refused a grant of land and after receiving his followers' assurance 
tiiat they would continue to support his descendants as their religious 
heads E6suf-ud-din retired by sea to Irdk. Before leaving he blessed 
his people, a blessing to which the Memans trace their fruitfulness 
and their success in trade. Pir Buzurg Ali Kddiri of Mundra in 
Bouth E^achh who died nearly two years ago (a.d. 1896) was eighteenth 
in descent from Sayad E6suf-ud-din. The present (a.d. 1898) Pir is his 
eon Sayad Jaafar Shdh who lives partly in Bombay and partly in Mundra. 
According to this account at the invitation of the Jadeja Rdo Kheng^ 
(a.d. 1548-1584), under Kannawa a descendant of Adam Seth, the 
Memans moved from Thatha to Bhtij ; and, under the favour of Bdo 
Shengar who honoured Kannawa with the title of Seth, founded the 
Meman ward of that city. At an uncertain date the Lohdna or Kachhi 
Memans passed from Kachh south through K^thidvdda to Gujarat. 
They are said to have been strong and wealthy in Surat during the 
period of its prosperity (a.d. 1580 - 1680). As Surat sank the Kachhi 
t Memans moved to Bombay, the settlement receiving a large increase in 
consequence of the sufferings caused in north Gujarat and Kachh by the 
AB. 1813 famine. As Kdthi&vada did not suffer less than Kachh from 
the famine of A.d. 1813, many Kathidvdda Memans from HdUr and 
Bhdvnagar migrated to different parts of Gujardt, chiefly to the north 
Gujardt states and Ahmeddbdd and also to Surat and Bombay. Besides 
what may be considered their homes in Kachh and Kdthidvdda the 
Memans are scattered over the cities of north and south Gujardt. Beyond 
Gujarat Memans both of the Haldr and of the Kachhi classes are found 
in Bombay Thdna Ndsik and Khdndesh. Beyond the Presidency 
Memans, almost entirely of the Kachh division, have spread as traders 
Mid merchants and formed settlements in Calcutta, Madras, the 
MalabAr Coast, South Burma, Silm, SiugApur, and Java; in the 
ports of the Arabian peninsula except Maskat where they have been 

Chapter XL 



their eighty -f our iVtt^/^* or clans are : Aoddnl, Aiya, Amhiya^ Asakirahf A(ltIuikar,Bhatdi^ 
^TyOyQhakJuir, QluUa^ Ohadi/Oliadhtar, Q-anda^ G-ajan Mathya, G-ulbadnda, Chokha 
^^t Chandnani Chockak, Chideman Saliya^ Chide ^ A duputray Chandan^ Johan Putra^ 
^'f^W^y Karya, KhakhaVy Klvokliaryay Khodra, Kayathy Kcsarya, Katesra, Kotak, 
^^ra, Loriyat Ladak, Majitya^ Maanaky MedwaVy Naram^ I^drtcdni^ I^baryat 
-P^a, Pandhif Pdrkarya^ Padan, Phulbadnda, Popaty Rachy Eakunrayay Raichannih 

^^i Rdrya, Bokhana, RUpardy Sakrdni, Sabdgar, Senduwa^ Somiya^ Sondgila, 
ofmUaa-y TkaknU^ Thing, and Thaura. 

^ The Lobina priests who prayed to the Indus were Tekmil, AdhBDmal, Kaadmalt 



Martians . 

ousted by the Khojdhs ; in Moziimbique Zanzibtlr and the East Africaa 
Const. I'be Jaddah Memans are mostly Kachhis. The KacUl 
Memans are a fair jjeople, the men often with ruddy skins tliidO 
beards, profuse head and body-hair, large dark almond-shaped eywt^ 
with the full and arched eyebrows peculiar to Sindh, SomewDsh< 
above the middle height and inclined to fullneBS in youth and corpo" 
lence in middle age both men and women are remarkably well-forma$ 
and strong. The Kachh Meman'e faceie often round soinetiines ova^J 
with round eheeks, high forehead, a sti'aight or slightly hooked nofl4 
with large well-turned nostrilB, small full lips, round well marked datt 
generally dimpled in women, small ears, and an elongated neck set on 
square shoulders. The expression is keen, shrewd, self-reliant. Them 
wear the moustache short according to the siinnaA [tradition am 
practice) of the Prophet, and the beard about at the most six in-'—* 
long, often, when a plentiful growth of its thick hair spreads 
their cheeks divided by two shaven belts one on the cheek the otIi« 
on the neck. Eegardless of the law many of tlie younger men wea^ 
their hair short and i>arted in the middle, the moustache full, and thq 
beard cropped cloec. Most of them however shave the head. Menuu 
women who have often very long hair wear it parted doivn the middE 
in a plait of three braids ending in a ribbon. The elder.? both men ant 
women try to disguise gray hair by dyeing it with henna (Laweoa|i 
ineiTnis) and sometimes with henna and indigo.^ For a time th^ 
indigo dyB is eSbctivc, but if the application is not renewed withili 
eight days the roots of the hair turn a flaming purple. Both Memaa 
men and women blacken their cyehds with collyrium koil. From 
early girlhood Mcman women redden their palms fingers and fingQ 
nails and their soles and toes with henna.' Black dentrifice i 
also used by married woinen.^ The IlaUi Memans are darker i 
smaller than the Kachhi Memans with whom they never man^ 
The features of the Hald,i8 are not so marked as those of the KacUin 
neither are they so regular or pleasant. It ia difflcuH to give a tyjnei 
description of a HillAi Meman. 

In business both Kachhi and HaUi Memans are shrewd and energeti 
the Kachhis with perhaps the biitter name for fair dealing." Social] 
both commimities are jovial pleasure -loving and hot-tempered ; and ui 
regarded by other Uusalmfine as devout and chai'itable. A favouiitl 
form of Meman charity is to help poor pilgrims to Makkah, 
generosity which sometimes goes the length of chartering a Bhi{ 

' Tliia isal>oa«HiiHQ/iortr»clilJouftUvmBritoririiuait, Tlio Proplict uid : ChMge 
wlutenen of j-our hair, but not witL miythiiig blark. (Mi»bkil-u|.MiLiilbih, 360-31 
The fint Khalftah Ab(i Bakr [i.E. 63S-6S4) used to dje hii bcnnl red with beo 
AmoDg the Bogular MasntmAiis who sU iiae indigo dyes, the order i« honovred in 

' Tho practieo of applying honiia Tories greatly. Uaiij tin^^ only the fiiigor a 
ftnd toiii. SJoom male* a itriiM.' along tlia backs of Ihdr handt acroii the knvtU 
Tho itain Ii a light oMUigo, a deep scarlet, a dark ted, aod sonietimBs hj long' i 
frequent applicMion* a dark mooh- ad mired oHtc. 

■ Tho black dentriflcc mini (Abovo pa::u 42 note 1) together with the iokl and I 
henna are held in high rcp-nnct, bccaoec thuy ore lonctifted m a^oilet article by tho Li 
Fdteinah the Prophet'* daughter. So far is tliig respect carried Uiat when nnl 
Qnjantt MiiHaliii4u women consider it einfal ' 

'^fondnew for secret clutrit; is an bouuurablG t 

□II J; rich Meu&iu, 


Bpite oE the Sindh Btrain in the Kaulihi, and tlio KdtliUlvdtIa 
itmrn in the Hfilriii, the speeth o£ the Kachb and IlaUi Memans is 
tondamentally the eamc. Tha speech o£ the Kachii thoiig'h based 
Bjwn the Kachhi dialect has bo many Hdldi words that the two classes 
Diiderstand each other witli little difficulty.' Contact with Urdu speak- 
ing Musalmdns has given almost all McmanE a co]loi[uial knowledge o£ 
tJidu. Except a few who have a seholarly knowledge of Urdu the 
Meman accent and prooouDciation of Eoveral words is generally 

At present, except that the Kachhi outdoor dreas is richer, Kachh 
■ad Hilni MemaDB wear the mme kind of clothing. The original dress 
(f the men was the Kachh or KjUhiavAda/j/tM^p'ir- or loose turban, a shii't, 
ijicket, trousers loose and bulging above and tight and sometimea 
buttoned below the knoe, a white cotton siifc or gold-bordei-ed waist- 
eloth girt round the waist and hanging be)ow the knee, and country-made 
liippers. The indoor dress wasthc shirt and trousers. The women drees 
ink robe worn over the head, the lialfsleeved backless bodice and the black 
Of navy-blue petticoat worn in the Kfithi^v&ila style. The first changes 
m drws were effected after the mutinies (\.d. 1857) by their Sayads 
wd Alaulavis who objected to Musalnuin women leaving ex[Kised 
those parts of their person which the law ordered ehould be covered. 
L'nder their influence the well-to-do gave up Iho Hindu dress and tlie 
poor followed the example of the Hch. Among men the change 
of dress was more gradual. At first pilgrims from Makkoh tix>k 
lo wearing tlie dmm'imah or small arched Arab turban, the skd^dk or 
boa open overcoat, the long loose shirt, and tight sleeveless waistcoat. 
£uept that the buttons were removed, the old ankle-long trousers 
Wre continued. For some years pilgrims alone were allowed to wear 
flos Arab dress. But by degrees the new stylo came into almost 
mnversal use. Though Memaus are fond of cnetly clothes neither 
Ban nor women show taste or neatness in drest^. The men are 
fond of gold embroidery and the women of gay colours. The chief 
feral iarities in the present dress of the Meman is the shortness of their 
lurtana which consists of a few coils of some light silk or shawl 

) Itanaii ideal uE hiililoa gsnero^ty iras the meruliaQt li&ji ZtLkiriyysli |l,l>. 1S2.S-IS40) 

I **((HiQittrof tlieZ»k»riyyahmosque intho Btrcct cf tlmt !i«mc in Borabsj Citj-. A 

fsBl »iiil daTont Uaulavi from MilWB ludginc in the Zolinriyyali mosque wna 

■duDi during tbe nightthat abeiit oidinan muQledinadlrtysbcetwai sliampooiog 

I. Tbc HwtUri prayed the old maa to ceoBobathc nonM not. Tho Maalavl fell 

-_Mp aail in tbc morning found b tweuty-rnpeo note under liis bedding. At lie failed 

fatnM ttw givvr, next night, when the old sbampMier rctamcd, tho SanUvi feigned 

4mp and caugbt tha ol'l man a hand irliilo placing a paper undi>r his bedding. In tha 

Nnggle the old inaii'i iLect fell olF reiealinK the hononred features of Httji Zakariyyah 

«b> wvi ahaabed at b«ing caught in an act of secret goncTosity. Tba paper cncloaed a 

Ma lor a hnadrcd rapeos. On the wrapper were the. wordi : A tribute of respect tot 

'' ' Fray for the forgireneM of tbis hnmbls initruuient of Allnb'i mil. 

thediSerciitetin common voids bcticeen Kacbbi and HiUi may be noted : 

Bn-fiitk. KaiAU. n,ll.ii. 

lilnd. call. PiUhia. Sailkar. Wnnar. Drfiuk. 

Chapter I 









Chapter II. 

or goUl-ombroiderod mateiial wound over a cool airy and light i 
net- work cap, a recent imporlatioii from Jflva, ora white cotton-p 
Arab skullcap. In the dress of the women the leading pec " 
are tlie shortness of thelicxHce bleeves, the looseneee of the eilksi 
the tightness at the ankle anil looseness ahove the knees of the tr<w 
and die liberal use of goUl beads and gold or silk embroidery 

A rich Meman's Indoor di-css consists of a gold-embroidered | 
brocade skullcap, a long sliirt of thin flowered or plain muslin £ 
at the neck by tliree or four buttons kept together by a tin_ 
chain, a tightfitting sloeveK'ss waistcoat tadariah of broadcU 
velvet or cashmere in the cold and of whit« muslin or coloured s 
the hot weather, with, in front, a row of small silk buttons each i 
its corresponding loop, two long breast pocket* and two ; ' 
crescent- shaped waist pockets. From the long breast pocket c 
between the loojied fastenings peeps out a coloured silk handkw 
The ti-ousers are of a creamy lawn or longoloth, loose above and 
at the ankle, the edges braided. The elder and more religions i 
the shorter legal trousers which end an inch or two above the uj 
Out of doors a few of the richer and younger men wear broaddot 
tronsera of uniform looseness reaching the ground in English fi 
Lidoors except a few who wear English slippers and stockings the fi 
are hai-e. In going out a rich Meroan draws over his indoor i 
a 'tlitiyak mdariinh or over-waistcoat of the same material u 
waistcoat, but uidite it rather Iooeb and BJeeved but with the skiit) ll 
at the sides and often reaching lower than the knee. On the top of ■ 
upper waistcoat and of the same material the rich Meman diawB \ 
loose unbuttoned Arab gown or shdyak. He puts bis feet i 
English shoes or red pointed country slippere. Except for ita 
buttons and its collars, epaulettes, and gold or cmbroiderod < 
a rich Meman's ceremonial dress is the same as his usual c 
dress. The headdress is the old archeil Arab turban or a v 
Cashmere shawl ; a full embroidered or gold-edged Bau&ra« i 
dupatia, or, according to the latest fashion, a short scarf 1 
once or twice round a skiillcap of embroidered broadcloth oi 
or, latest novelty of all, of China or Jdva straw. The middled 
Meman's indoor and outdoor drees is less costly and is made of i 
lasting materials, lie dispenses with the gown thi'ujah both on C 
monial and common occasions and sometimes, like the men of the 1( 
middle and poor classes, goes out on xilcasure and business in a si 
with nothing over his waistcoat. On his feet he wears English i. 
or shoes and, as in the case of the very rich, stockings. A poor Mai 
wears a cotton or silk skullcap, a coarse longcloth or mnslin i' 
a broa<icloth silk or c^bmcre waistcoat and trousers of inj 
longcloth or common gray shirting. Only on fho I'd holidays i 
marriages and public dinners does a poor Mcman wear the t 
or the ovor-waistuuat ghiyah sadaryali. He generally wears c 
made rod shoea or pointed slippara. 

A rich Mcman woman wears the long lodfee half-sleeved i 
chemise called aba of gay coloured Chinese or Indian eilk £u 




by two small buttons^ on each side of the neck alx)ve the shoulders, 
embroidered at the breast and coloured with ^old lace iit the skirts and 
over the seams. The chemise is often of muslin or jj^auzo to show the 
rich materials' and profuse ornaments of the tio^ht backless bodice of 
silk or brocade. The trousers loose above the knees and ti^ht above 
the ankle are of silk of sol)erer hue than the chemise and richly brocaded 
and gold-laced down the sides and at the skirts. 'J he usual indoor 
headdress is the missar a triangle of flowered or plain silk \vith one 
side laced or ed^d with gold buttons. Over the chemise out of doors 
or on ceremonial occasions is worn the scarf a three-yard flowered 

3tiare piece of gauze odena or malaya or brown silk having gold lace 
ges and the seams hidden ^vith embroidered lace. In the house with few 
exceptions both Kachh and Haldi Memans keep the feet bare^ slippers 
beuag occasionally worn. On going out a rich Meman lady of 
either class draws over her dress the ilaMya- or Malacca brown silken 
sheet with gold lace seams or fringes. On their feet the TTdlai women 
whether ridi or poor never wear stockings and often not slippers, while 
out of doors the Kachhis always wear stockings and shoes of Afghan 
leather. On occasions of ceremony Meman ladies in addition to their 
indoor dress wear a scarf round the neck, the scarf chemise and 
trousers being more richly embroidered with seed-pearls and gold 
kce than is the practice among other Sunni ladies. Hulai Meman 
ladies are lavish of gold and silver ornaments and sparing of jewels. 
This is less notable among Kachh Memans many of whom have 
oomplete sets of valuable ]ewels. Neither Haldis nor Kachhis wear 
any sign of mourning. Except that she wears no nose-stud sith and 
does not attend marriages or other festive gatherings a widow is not 
expected to conform to mourning rules. 

Though great eaters and fond of good cheer, the Memans accord- 
ing to Musalmdn ideas are indifferent cooks and somewhat coarse 
feeders. The corpulence of most middle-aged Memans of the well-to-do 
ekes is due in great measure to the large quantity of clarified butter 
fib' thev accustom themselves to take from childhood. Four dishes^ 
criginally from north Gujarat, are much prized by Memans. These 
MB: A stew of rice and sheep-bones with ghi called had da pnldo or 
bone-stew by the Kachhis and mindrdja or royal dish by the Haldris. 
The second^ their favourite at the evening meal, is a blend of rice and 
Hack gram mung Phaseolus mungo known as mung H khichadi. 
The blend is taken in two forms. First, to the rice and pulse are 
idded as much ghi as the mess can bear without drippiu<>;, and with 
ftis is taken curds whey pulse-biscuits or mango pickle. When 
this is over some of the blend is mixed with a cup of milk and supped 
like milk-pudding or poiTidge. The third is a stew of fish and Indian 
horse radish sekta Moringa pterygospermum beans or fish and bhcndi 
flibiscuB esculentus. The fourth called miUhia or fist-cakes by the 


' The position of the buttons is one of tlie two main difporcnces between a Meman 
and a Khoj&h woman's dress. The chemise of the Khojdh lady has its buttons in the 
aiddle of the chest below t4ie neck, the Meman lady's chemise has a button over each 

*The word is Arabic shewing that the article of dress was borrowed by the Arabs 
from the coontrj which gave it its name. 





CSiapter n. 



Kachhiu and dolris or tliick-cakcs by the UfiUris^ is of palse with 
pieces of salted fish and lumps of rice and millet bread roasted or 
steamed with spices and ghL 

Memans^ both Kachhis and H^Mris, are Sannis of the Hanafi 
school to which most of the Indian and Turkish Musalm&ns belong. 
As a class Memans are religious, though some of them, especiallf 
theKachliis keep to early non-Muslim social usages. 1 "he most notable 
of these non-Islamic customs is their refusal, like their ancestors the 
Lohanas/ to allow their daughters and widows any inheritance.' So 
careful are tlie Memans to perform the pilgrimage to Makkah that 
about forty per cent of their number have the honourable prefix of 
Jltfj'i or pilgrim. As soon as he has laid by money enough a 
Menian takes his wife and sometimes very young children, and, 
undaunted by the dangers of the voyage, for He who car&s for him at 
home will guard him on the way to His House, starts for Makkah and, 
if he can aft'ord it, Madinah. If he has wealth and leisure, the 
Meman pilgrim visits Baghdiid to worship at the shrine of his patron 
saint MauWna Abdul Kildir Gilani. For those who have made or aw 
unable to make the great pilgrimage several Ifidian shrinesare usnallj 
visited, in Gujardt the shrine of Shdh Alam at Ahmeddbdd and the 
spirit-scaring tomb of Mirdn Sayad Ali Ddtdr at Unja about fifty-six 
miles north of Ahraedabad. Since the opening of the Bijpnttoa 
Kail way the Meinan from Gujarat and Bombay has become a constant 
visitor at the death-day fairs or uras of Khdjah Muin-ud-dln Chishti 
of Ajmer. Like other Suunis the Meman's belief in magic and sorcery 
centres in the traditional maxim " Magic is true, but he who practices 
magic is an infidel.'^^ To the practice of white magic, soothsaying/o' 
hholna, and tho procuring of luck-charms and amulets they have lilo 
other Musalmdns no objection. They also believe in astrology and 
consult astrologers, a practice condemned by the Prophet. Their 
advisers in soothsaying and witchcraft are poor Sayads.^ Thepreseat 

* See BorradaUe'8 Caste Rules, 903-904. 
' As has been noticed at page 47 note 1 in A.D. 1847 a caie occnrred wblch aho^ 

how firmly the Memans cling to their original tribal castoms. The widow of Hiji 5^ 
Muhammad of the Zakariyya family demanded a share of her deceased hnaband's pf^ 
perty. The jdmd-dt or community decided that a widow had no claiin tosbsreli^ 
iiusband's estate. Before the High Court, in spite of the ridicale of other Sannis, tl^ 
elders of the Kachhi Memans declared that their caste-mles denied the widow's claifl'' 
The matter caused and is still (a.d. 189G) causing agitation as the doctors of the SobO^ 
law at Makkah have decided that as the law* of inheritance is laid down by the Hoi^ 
Kuroan, a wilful departure from it is little short of apostacy. The Memans tie eof^^ 
templating a change. So far they have not foand themselves able to depart from 
tribal practice. * 

' Jddii bar hakk hai^ magar vska karn6 xcdla Kdfiu 

* A Meman's wife tho mother of several children dies. After a decent interral 
Meman marries again. Tho new wife sickens and her ailment does not yield to th< 
common home treatment employed by her mother or mother in-law. She is advisee 
to resort to ///«* chhtHd or spirit-treatmont. On going to bed the aack woman lays 
grains of rice and^ithor live coppers, or a two or four-anna silver piece with a ooppe^ 
under her pillow and in the morning by a servant or poor female relative sends the liee andf- 
money to some cunning Sayad or exorcist. The Sayad takes the grains of rice, bears th^ 
account of the illness, bnathes on the rice and blows a prayer on the copper or silver.^ 
Ho says : The spirit of a dead woman is in this coin. Had ftie lady's lord a former wils, 
and did the wife die ? " True words " replies the lady's emissary. Then the sicknefi 
is the haunting of the troubled spirit of the former wife. 3ut, objects the meMenger, 




religious he&d of the Kachhi Memans, the nineteenth in descent from 
Pir Eiisufuddln, lives at Mundra about forty miles oast of Mdndvi in 
Kachh. He pays his followers a yearly or two-yearly visit when a 
money sabscription called kheda from lis. 2 to Rs. 200 is gathered 
£ram every Meman family and paid to the Pir. Memans also honour 
the Bnkhdri Sayads of Ahmedddiid. Besides a high priest living 
iifiually at Sarhind in the Panjdb and visiting his Gujarat followers 
about once every five years the Hdldis have a provincial head or Mukhi 
who lives at Dhordji in Kdtliiiwdr. This man has power to hear and 
orders in petty marriage and divorce and sometimes in inheritance 

Except a small body of craftsmen Memans are traders merchants 
dealers or shopkeepers in any branch oi commerce except intoxicants 
and other traffic which is forbidden to the followers of Isldm. As 
shopkeepers and miscellaneons dealers next to the J^mnagar Bohords, 
the Memans are perhaps the most numerous and certainly the most 
SQCCessful among Musalmdns. They owe their success in business to 
their freedom from display and their close and personal attention to and 
keen interest in business. The richest Meman merchant does not 
diBdain to do what a Pdrsi merchant of his position would leave 
to his clerks. Their hojx) and courage are also excellent endowments. 
They engage without fear in any promising new branch of trade and 
are daring in their ventures, a trait partly inherited from their Lohdna 
ancestors and partly due to their faith in the luck wliich their saint^s 
&vour secures them. Except what they borrow for trade purposes, 
Memans with rare exceptions are free from debt. They are careful 
generally to conform to the Isldmio injunction against lending money 
at interest, though in the complicated accounts of large foreign firms 
interest on capital may not altogether be excluded. Though they have 
lately begun to teach their boys English, Memans as a class are averse 
from the higher education. Most Meman girls have a fair knowledge 
of Hindustani and are well grounded in religious matters. 

Sa^balia^s. See Dudwalas. 

mj mistress is very good to the cliildren of the deceased, * It is not the chihlren ' 
retarns the wise one (the Sii/dfia as the exorcist is called by women). ' Has your 
mistress chservcd the doatlwlay of the late wife ? Perhaps she does not even know it. 
TeU your mistress that when she possesses the love of the dead lady's lord and is 
mistress of aU that once was hers it is but a light tribute to feed five Sayads or poor 
men on curds rice and pulse- porridge on the former wife's death day.* The friend 
fcringt back the i^ayaJ's message. The bayod is called. The sick woman sits in 
front of him unveiled. The Say ad burns frankincense, cuts a lime or two, mumbles 
arer a mil and hammers it into the threshold. Either then or after the cure is completed. 
he is paid from Rs. 1^ to Ks. 5|. tk)metimcs the Sayad does not consider this 
•nom^h and while leaving asks his patient to send him a white china plate every 
mommg. On the plate the ifayad traces in saffron Ink either some squares with certain 
fignres or writes the most potent and effective of all spirit and magio cliarms, tho 
iJStb chapter of the Kuradn, tho Throne Verse, which runs: "Allah! there is no 
God Intt he, tho living, the self -subsisting ; neither slumber nor sleep seizeth him. To 
htm belongeth wlmtever is in heaven and on earth. Who is he that can intercetle 
with him excei>t by his will ? He knoweth their present and their ^Mist, and they 
encompass nothing of his knowledge except so far as he pleaseth. His throne is sprca^l 
over heaven and earth, and tho keeping of both burdens him not. He is tho high, 
the mighty.*' The paticet has to dissolve tho writing or figures in water or rosewatcr 
And drink it. bomotimes a charm is written ou paper to be dissolved and drunk or to 
be worn in a silver case j'ound the neck or arm. 

B 520'*3 

Chapter I] 








111.— Land. 

lJL Umlcr Lnnd come twenty-one clae^ic^ j Btlilims, Bohorfie, ChdvaHifat 

Chr»w(iii», (irfmetie, GhtrmehtiiB, Gtihcls, JrtiU, Kasl.filis, Khokhw^ 
Makwilnils, Malike, Mdtl^s, MolwulriniB, Parmire, Rjitliore, SonUiHj 
Shckbilus, Solunkif, SumrilB, and Tdnks. 

BehUmP, converted Raj[>iite of Uic Bcb'iin Irilie. arc found in 
north Gujarilt ami in Broach. The Behlims teem orifpiiftlly lo lijvi 
Iteen a 'I'urkish tribe, Farishtdh (Persian Text, I. (*7) menL'oni) i 
cerlaiti Mnliamniad Bi-blioi or Udhalim an IsliSojisciI Turi 
who held Lahor on bebalt of Sultiin AitaUii SlJith (a n. 1115-1118; 
QD the occcsnon cif Sultan Bahrftm Shiih to ihe tlirocfis of Gbazni an^ 
Hindnstitti. Babriim hhdh of Ghazni entered IntUa in a.u. lllS vrill 
the object of ebasti. i'.tg and qnelHng the dietinlAiiee canned by tbii 
Uchlitn. In theeontcst nhiLh followed Behllm was taken prisoner 
ButSnlliin Bahrnm Sliah sethini free and leetored him to his postion 
of commandei' of tic LiUor forcce. In epite of this Bcttlcmcnt, onJi* 
rctuni of Habrani Shdh to G[i:izui,Btih1ini built thefort of Xfigorin th< 
country of ^i\vSl:k in the neighbourhtod of Hera (Eliot, II. 279-80^ 
and having pated his f.imily anl proiiertj in the fort giithertd ^ 
numerous army of Arabs I'creiand Afglidns and Kliilji Tiirks sai 
endeavoiii-ed to regan hie in dtjien donee. Bahrli id Sbiih returned to iniln 
and engaging lielUim iu hattlo near Mult^n clew Itrhiim togetlin 
with Lis len eons. Faritlitf^h (Ditto) mentions that duriucr a shoili 
jicriod of his independence Behlim overthrew and subjugated nattj 
haughty Hindu chiefs. Thin is jrobahly the invRfiou by MnhMO- 
mad Uthlira of MrirwHr noticed by Elliott, 11. ISO, ard the'KrtsM^s 
I. 17&. Like the ChdvaiJABj Chowdns, GcbeU, Jetris, Makwdniiit' 
Udtlioni, Hdlaiikis and 'I'dnkfi, by inttrmarrying with otLcP Mueil'l 
mtins, the Ikhliins have ceased to form a sc] urate class, aud theiri 
trilial name has become little more than a surname. To all of thtte; 
clnssis ihe details given in the Rdthor aceouut (Below i«!^e OS) apflj'- 

Bohora's' arc a larj;c class numLoring in Ihe Brtach diBtricli 
alone over 3(J,(lt>0. Besides in Broach, peasaut Boliori'is are fotii*4 
south in the Ulprtd and Mandvi sub-divisions of the Sural distrirt,' 
cast in Baroda, and north iu Abmodiibiid and Kdthi,iw(lr. If tb« 
account of the Ddudi or trading Bohords ts correct (Aliovfi pag« 26),' 
these peasant Bohords arc chietly the descendants of Hindu convctts cf 
the unarmed castes, who adopted Isldm at the close of the fourteeotb; 
and during the lift«cnth centuries.' In addition to tliif, their look and 

< At Dholha in AbiaoUbiid tlieni are b few fuDilira ot DUndl pcaoknt Buborli. M 
■• B cloaB pcauiiit Bobariij aro SonnU. 

*B*adc»niidiT MDialfBT Sliih (i.D. 1390-11131 when l1iej berimi; n sepnnrto bote 
the tnntii Bofaorax pralmbly rvceired additions, balli frmn Hlnitnianil pvrliapa frmntM 
l»nki of tbB tblah Bohoris, dnring their tonTOrsion imil*r Snllllns Alinied I. (*■»■ Hlft 
1443), tlahraild Begada {a.i>, 14GI)-]ei3), uid Mabmild 11. (i.t>. 11331}- 1S54). Mnj 
peniant HtiTiorm litiow to what Hinito note their forefatliers belon^od. A large mmM 
■rtllrd in Sirnd in Broach, d&tm dcwent from Mamhirlm, a firihiiinD of MorrLJI 
Kuttildwir uho woa eonvottnl by Mahiniid Begoila. The preaent htatl of Ihe Cund 
h thlrtBtntb iu deKtent from the first convert. Some Boborils'in Dbniidbnka, Kixi, tm 
jBiiibmar arc ItAvaliUs, utne in Bharkodra arf Vin-.i,«, seme in Dwdi an B^ptij 




manner would^ at least in Broach, seem to show that they include some 
eonsiderahle foreign element.* The men have strong' burly muscular 
frames with fair complexions and high regular features, 'ihey shave 
the head and wear the beard long and full. The women are tall^ 
stout, and fa'r with good features. Except among the Ankleshvar 
Bohor^s who speak half-Hindustani half-Gujarati, their homo 
kngaage is Gujardti, with less peculiarity of dialect than among the 
Wndis. Their ordinary food is rice millet- bread and pulse. They 
ttt fish or flesh, never drink liquor, and, except in the K^vi sub- 
dimon of the Broach district and the north, seldom take opium. 
h north Gujardt a cultivating Bohora wears a large loose turban, 
a jacket bufK/i, a waistscarf pichodt, and trousers like a I^thi's^ 
koee above but tight under the knee and buttoned at the ankle. In 
oe&tral Gujarat he wears a full turban though less large and 
loose than in the north, a coat, and a waistcloth tied round the 
body without being passed between the le£fs. South of the Narbada 
be generally has on a patchwork padded skullcap, a long coat^ 
and loose trousers tammdn. Men wear silver necklaces \vristlets 
rings and sometimes anklets.^ Shoes are worn by all.' Except 
in and near some of the chef towns where they liavo lately 
adopted Musalmin fashions^ over the whole of Gujardt peasant 

Chapter IL 





tome in Tankaria are Bh&tl&s or Lohdnis, gomo ia KhAnpiir arc Dhcd-J, some in Achodi 
•re Chamdn, some in Mora are Khatris, and some in Akola arc Mad Obdncli's. The 
fiiiinction is still ( A.D. 1898) kept up. Those who rlaim hiy^h-easte descent rofuso to give 
tlieir daughters to lower class BohorAs. K. B. Fazl LutfuUah, 14th July 1878. 

'AU who have studied the Broach peasant B.)horas have dwelt on their peculiar 
ippearance and character. But what the nou-Gujanlt element is has not yet beca 
* KitUed. They liave been c illed Arabian Jews and some among the cultivators claim 
dweent from Ishmael the son of Abraham (Vaupel in Trans. Bom. Geog. Sac, (a.d. 1840)- 
VII. 46). Captain Ovans in one of the note books of the first Broach Survey (A..D, 1818;, 
gfveian acconnt which he had from the TankArla BjhorAs, and of the truth of which he 
»McDnfident. According to^this account the Emperor JahAngir (a.d. 1018) finding some 
Mirv4di prisoners of war enslaved by a Hindu chief gave them their freedom. To 
Aow their gratitude the Mirv^dis became Muhammadans, and in reward were settled 
^wastelands in Gujardt. Some of the Kaira cultivating Bohords give almost tho 
tttiie acconnt, and though these MArvAdi converts cannot have boon the original 
^hor&s, they may at one time have been a distinct class like or the same as tho 
»^kipuris mentioned below i)a:je 62. As fir as features and manners go, a Mafrvadi 
element wonld very well explain the Broach Bohora's special looks and ways. This 
^nridi strain may bo a traccof the spcciil Onrj jara settlement in Broach (a.d. 5S0 - 8;)8). 
Tho following are some of the village Bohora surnames : Abhu, Bidat, Bhabha, Bobat, 
J'Wej, Doha, Dokrat, Ghatu, Go<?a, Godaria. Hidat, H.vrif, Jeena, Mayalt, Mamsa, 
Hehtap, Oala, Faravia. Rangeda. Taravia, Tnrava, Tiniol, Vaona, Vawpa, Wankar. 

'The details are : Necklace tiUpla, Us, 150; wristlets pohonchis^ Rs, 100 to Rs. 120 ; 
and rings vedt and vinlii, Rs. 100 to Rs. 120. The a'lklet worth Rs, 40 to Rs. 80 is 
generally given up at the ago of twenty -five. 5>o:netimcs it is worn in consequence of a 
four and a ring added for every year. 

'A peasant Bohora in easy circumstances, with say a yearly income of Rs. 1000, 

wiU hive for every-day wear two turbans together worth Rs. 30, eight cotton jackets 

it annas IS each, eight coats at Rs. IJ each, and four waisicloths, two silkbordered at 

R#. 4 the pair and a pair of plain ones worth Rs. 1^ ; ho will also have eight pairs of 

trooiers at Re. 1 each, four scarfs at Rs. 2^ each, and four coloured handkerchiefs 

at Bi* Ik each. For ceremonial dress he will have one gold turban worth Rs. 100 and 

two plain turbans worth Rs, 30 each, one gold cloth or stla worth Rs. 70 to Rs. 100, one 

brocade jacket worth Bs. 70 to Rs, 100, and two ordinary jackets at Rs. 3 each, and two 

watatcloibs each worth Rl. 5. The shoes will either be the same as on workdays or ik 

j^Udn pair costing Rs. 1^ to Rs. 3. 

'^feaptsr II. 




Boliora women dress like Hindu women in an upper scarf bodi 
and petticoat.' They all wear shoes. Their oruameuts are pe<nil' 
very massive and heavy, in make partly llindu jiartly MnBatmA^ 
Thev are more paitiuular than the women of most lix^claseeaU 
avoid ornaments that ring or tinkle.' Almo§t nil are landholt 
and peasants, their women helpini? them in field work They 
independent and overbearing,* inclined to be turbulent, and at tii 
flommit most cruel crimes.' Thongh boneiit and straiffhtforwand iff 
AhmedabAd they have in Broach ul>arlDanie for deceit and iTafU They 
are most skilful and hardworking husbandmen, and, thimgh lil<eral and 
hospitable, are sober and thrifty. Though much poorer than at tie 
close of the American war (a.d. j8S5), cnltivatinR Bohoras as a cliv 1 
are well-ti>do. The Rdndir and Snrat Bohoi'As hive of late become ridn 
and prosperous in trading with Bnrma and Bast Africa. Prosperoon 
Bohoriis settled in south Ciujariit cities and in Bombay have adopt&l Urt ' 
Meman dress or the Amb coat and overcoiit with the gold-bordered <* 
silk-enibroiJered archftl turban. Their home language ^so is undergoing 
a change from Ciujarati to Urdu. Some of the SmatBohor^s fettled in 
Bombay have begun to intermarry with the regular classes. 

The cultivating Bohor^s are Sunnis in faith and religious, soiM 
knowing the Kuradn and many of them careful to fay tbc'.r prayers. 
Almost all have spiritual guides PlrmiddA'; whom they treat witli smi 
I'espect. Most peasant Bohuris still keep some Hindu practices. Some 
(if ttiem call their children by Hindu niuncs, Aku,ii or BttjV6^«t,aiidothe» 
have otldly changed Mnsalnian names, as, among boys Jhru tjr lUa 
for Ibr-Jjiim and hpn or Taap for Yusftf, and unioug girls Kinji for 

■ Tho diiMti ITU : In a wcll-todo fnuiily for cviry-ilfty wi.'ar, i,i» country 'm*ilc rad iiiJ 
w1itteiit(lMorrobM«tRi.8cac1i,e'g:1it bodiccsiit Ki. I|,Bml fuar ptrttii'oKtt nt Ks.Ii (i* 
rcreuionlkl ilrcaa, ladit ot thrue kinil>, tliu fult ^ih^i worth its. 100, asmKlltTfAi'i nelilT 
worki'd witb gold, Ra, CO, and Che scsif tnntor ivf-n, lis. 50; f<inr b<-itu!M xt ti*. Ittio 
M*. M) cKli, and two (rold-iMiihroldi..reJ silk pctticoatf W III. 10 to Il^SOcacb. 

> The dotulii aiv : Brow oriianietit AlTniii and tita. gold and pisoioui ■tonoi *oflli 
Ka. 8I>) nowriiit! lui'A, Urge, gold Ita. 30; Garringa for tile rim milJiU, gold tiii(> 
WDith tU. 200 ; for the lolic i/iirir, |^ld pundaiita tU. SO; nnd idlii of ^vvr, ltt.Mt 
nccklacei kantli. brnu pUtul wMh gi>1d dt lilvor. Ha, .10 tu Its. 100 ; hnlttri gold-iiUUi. , 
Ra. 20tuB«, 100) moiniui gIsHS beads, with gold Ull In thi^ middle. lU. 16; wriMlA 
tailAt, gold or silver, Ba. 7n ; WnglcF Uiliit; Wory plstnl with gold, worn by mwnKl 
woman whose huabands Are alivi?, Ra. SO tu Us. 100; finger riag«. ns. 10; sokUi 
Mnnti, diver-twisted, Its. SOtoBs. lOO; sdni^/Js silver cUins, lU. ISO; lanaan A\nt ' 
elikins, Es, SO ; toe-rings /' ifini*, Kb, fi. 

■ When a Bohora aiid u Uiudii meii m a Bn«rh road, llie Bubora's rart h&s seMm 
to force Ita wny oat uf the mt^. So spvtUl K position htva tlie Bohoris that Omj sn 
locally known aa tixljar-lok or soldiers, the cmiimon Ilindn eiprca»i'in for the roo^ 
cIbbs of Eato]i«aas. lu north GujarAt the Dhandbnlca Boluuis uu for the same rawH 
enllrd ilpMii or dfhi soHjart country soliliera. 

•In January 1810, at Bodhin near Snrat ono Abd-nl-Bchmin, clMming to V Ux 
Iinim blelidl, raised a strong fareo of t^unni Bohiir^s, took tlie fort aud bwii A 
Mindvi, defii'd the British Oovemmont, and was not bronght to order till hi- snd 
uiurs than 200 of his followers wera slain (ii'unit Oazettmr. II. 1C5). Uf late yiin 
one of their chief ofiences against public order was in 1397 (15th Uny), whpn, to ivsngc 
•n inaalt en their ruligion, 200 Bohoris from the villages ronnd, inarrbnl int'j Hn»fh, 
bnt Beianji tlie ofFonding Piirsi lo death, and at the altar of his firu-t«inplo \.^i^^tA. i\t 
Pirsi hiuli prieat. (t'nrat Ganstlcvr, II. 476-177.) Among theinselvc?. B.,lioris 
-Tudgca or addeal so £sr as to commit mnrdiera in soljic casoa of tht'it "»" near 

Hrry gnidgca oi 




Kliatija aiid Fatudi for Fdtima. Two or three days before marriage 
m honour of a special deity Wd^nudev they distribute dishes of two 
kiiids of pulse, lang and wdl, boiled together. At death their women 
beftt the breast and wail like Hindus. The practice of celebrating 
■nrriage pregnancy and deatb by large entertainments is carried to 
an extreme by Bohoras. At such times a rich man will feast his 
entefellows for several days^ and one day^s entertainment at least 
is oompolsory upon all. Among the Bohor^s^ when a caste-dinner 
is to be given the village barber is sent round to ask the guests. 
When the entertainment is to celebrate a marriage, the guests come 
together at about five in the evening, and when the feast is 
given on the occasion of a death they meet between ten and twelve 
m the morning. As a rule women sit down to dine after the men 
liave finished. Formerly, even when the host was a rich man, a 
eute-dinner consisted of rice pulse and clarified butter. But since 
the great cotton profits of a.d. 1863-64, it has become the practice to 
{irepare rich and costly food.^ 

Within the last seventeen years (1880-1897) among a large section 
of the peasant Bohoras, both in Broach and Suiat, but chiefly near Surat 
among those known as Biriavi Bohords,^ Gheir Mukallid or Wahhdbi 

S^aebershave spread their doctrines with much success. Many of these 
iri^vi Bohoras, who have always been a strongly religious class, 
giving up their old spiiitual guides, have transferred their reverence 
to Gbeir Mukallid teachers, who begin to hold among them the i)osition 
of leaders in religious and to some extent in secular matters. The 
growing fervour of their belief in Islam is shown in the change in their 
women's dress from the Hindu to the Musalman fashion ; in the disuse 
oftoddy and other intoxicating drinks; in giving up their huge public 
dinners and extravagant expenditure on marriages deaths and other 
ceremonies ; in stopping music at their festivals, and wailing and breast- 
beating at their funends ; in ceasing from Hindu practices and strictly 
following the details of the law. The converts are snid to make no 
Jittempt to hide their change of belief. Among them English learning 
is held dangerous to religion and morality and in its place the ue w-kindled 
*eal for Isldm^ botb in village mosques and in a college in the town of 
H^ndir, gathers bands of youths to be taught the religious literature 
rf their faith. Discussions between the orthodox and the reformers 
are conMnon. They are carried on with coolness and courtesy. As 
yet no ill-feeling has been stirred and between the old and new parties 
niarr.'age and other social relations are in no way strained. 

Except in the case of some rich men settled in Surat and Bombay 
Sunni village Bohoras seldom marry with any one not of their own 

Chapter 11. ' 





^ A first clasB casie'dinner is now either of sweetmeats pakvdn or of balls of sugar 
^^rified batter and wheat floor Iddu, and other preparations of clarified batter sugar 
•od floor called lan&dr. Only very few poor people now give dinners of rice and pulse. 
^ expense of a caste-dinner varies according to the quality of the food from 3 to 5 
^noit a gaeit, and the namber of guests from 200 to 4000. Hich Bohords are said to 
"Pcnd more than Bs. lOgO on marriage dinners and as much as Ks. 3000 on funoral 


' So called from their bead-quarters the village Biridv five miles north of Sarat. 

Ikpter II. 




62 cujahat population. 

cla9B. Each of their villages has its headman Atul (XimmDnity, i 
the different villages have, at times of pubUo excitement, Aii 
Ihcingelvee ready to jo'n togetlior (or a coinmuQ piirpoEe. At thesi 
time they have no heail and very littlg claee oj'^tiizatioQ. Ami 
the various cUssos aiid viUayw!, tln;ir difference of ui-i^fiii contiaues 
ground of social distinctioos. The \-iliagers north «f the Xarladii 
not marry with those t>> the south. In Dhandhuka some 
elaimin^r the t'tle of Oesiii, hold alotrf f;oni the eomtnoa 
villagers, and, in Eovenil imrts of Broat-h, houses of Brfihmao 
Rajpiit descent, though they allow their sons to marry with 
refuse to give their daughters to families whose forefalht^rs were K 
Iliivali»6 or Dheds. 

As a class their pro3pc;:t9 are good. Some of them have lately b 
to send their children to school, tcachiog them Gujartiti and in a < 
cases Ktiglish. 

Ka'ka'puriP, Sons of Slaves, avc a email class closely connc 
with the village Bohoviis. They are said to hiVe come from Mia 
during some groit famine, and, in return for n sub^i^cnce, to 1 
adopteii tho religion of the BohonU and entofekl their service, 
that they wear tight Koli tioueers ehelnAt, they can hardly bo hiO 
from the Bohoriis. The fact that there were many in i,(i. 1820, i 
only nine in a.d. lS7!i, seems to show that the Kilkitpurisare^iodiu 
merging into the Bohora community. 

Ga'metiF, Holders of a. village or gntii, except in tho size of U 
estates, do not <liffei' from Kasbdtis, with whom they Lat«nua 
(imge U). 

Ghermohdis,' Disbelievers in Melidi or the coming Imioij 
found in Bni;ill numbere in most parts of Gujarat, in Bombay, 
Sindh, in Upper Hindust.'in, and in the Makhan. They are codtotI 
Hindus and foreign' Mnsal mans, the followers of a certain Muliamq 
Mehdi, a descendant of Ilusain the grandson of tlie Prophet, bom 
AM. 14-13 (H, S17) in Jaunpur, a town near Baniiras. Muham 
at the age of forty began to aet as a saint Kali, and both at Jaan] 
and afterwards at Makka, drew around him a large body of follows 
On his return to India, at AbmodtibSd in a.d, 1497 {II, 1*03) and 
Pattan in a.d, HOS (H. 805), he openly laid claim to be thelooked- 
Mehdi. The Mirfit-i-Sikandari" notices tlie arrival in Ahmedab 
about the end of Sultdn Mabmud Begada's reign (A.n. 1459 -151 
of Sayad Muhammad Jaunpurt who claimed to be the Mchdi. 
Sayad it is stated "came and put up at the mosque of T^jkhfnS 
near the Jam^lpui- Gate Pj3ople in crowds used to go to heat 
clot|uent sermons. His fame as a preacher reached the ears of' 
Sultiin (Maiimiid Eegada) and the Sxdtdn expressed a desire to 
him. The ministers, afraid lest bis effective words should bring a' 
a change in the Sultdn's views and revolntionizo the affairs of 
kingdom, dissuaded Mahmtid from giving the Sayad an inte 



Tliu Jlirjit-i-^iknnJari relates a meeting between the yayaJ anil the 
giwulson of the taint Kiitlii A'lam Shiih Hliuildi Ji'va in which tho 
two Wy men carried on a convertation in q notations from the Knriwn. 
k miracle oE Sayad &JiUiamiiiad Jaunpuri ie also recorded l>y tho 
Hirat-i-Sikandari : A young man having passed the night with his 
WiFved and having quarrelled with her towards early morning, walked 
snay in anger towards the liver Saljarmati. 'I'lie Sheikh going to the 
mer with t-onie of hie foilowors, to perform Ids c: riy devotions, meeting 
lire young man said ' I can ehow the way to the Di\iue Love to him 
vU has come away in anger from hie Worldly Love.' The young 
Bun £<-rGumeJ and fell in a ewcon from which he roee a staunch 
follower of the paint and gave up his worldly life. The cause of 
Uw Sayad's moving from Alimeddbrid to Piittan was this. He 
iitecn-wl one Jay to one of his followers : ' I can show you Allah with 
Uiwe eyes of flesh.' This speech of his reached the eai-s of tlie learned 
men [UUmii) of Ahmedfibdd, who, on being satisfied of the truth of 
Uk report, drew up against Sayad Muhammad a charge of apostacy. 
flw charge shout was signed by all the law doctors of IslAm at 
Ahmeddhiid wiUi tlio eseeption of their head, Mauli'ma Muhammad 
Tij. On seeing the names cf the Slaulavis on the charge sheet the 
Usuldna asked the leader of the movemer.t 'Have you gained learn- 
ins only to pnt it to such uses as the killing ot a Sayod?' In the 
fcay canted by this disagreement Sayad Muhammad left Ahmeddbad 
•nd took up his residence in the vilhige o£ liarli near Pattan. His 
psblic career was throufjhout marked by the working of miraeles. Ho 
niwd tlie dead, gave sight to the bhnfl, and B)M;eeli to the dumb. 
He travelled much, accompanied by two companions, Sayad Khondmir 
iDilSayail Alnhammad. lu Fa rah, a city oil UhiirnsAn iuA.D. laOi 
plO H.), Muhammad Mehdi died of fever, maintaining to the last 
Hut be was the promised Mehdi. Aftor his death his disdplee 
liitperECil, part reluming to Gnjarilt untler Sayad Khondmir and 
Jbt remiuning at Farah with Sayad Miiliamroad. For a time his 
tullowers in Gujarrft are said to have remaine.l nnmolested, i>rofeBsing 
"IWr faith openly, and even eliallenging controversy as to its origin 
Ui! truth, j'hoy are said to have grown ill numbers and importance, 
mtil in A.D. 15-a (h. 930j tlicy attracted the attention of Sultrin 
Mnafrar 11. (A.n. I.il3 -152(j). Under his orders, eime of their 
bnmber tuffercd martyrdom at Ahmodiibiid, and against the rest, 
*lio had settleii near Pattan, tmojw were eent. As they offeie.l 
•wistanco Sayad Khondmir and his followers were defeateil and their 
■Wer killed. This sect was again persecuted at Ahmeddbtid when 
(i.D. 11)15] Aurangzib was governor, and several of them were put 
tu the sword for declaring tliat the Mehdi liad nppeai'od and was gone. 
The north Gujardt MeUdavis arc a peculiar race and differ from 
tbnr co-religionists in most points. The Fdlanpur and Dakhan 
£tidar£b!td Mebdavis are not converted Hindus but claim descent 
Irom Mir Khondmir and Sayad Muhammad the followers of the 
Melidi. They say that after the death of their Mehdi (a.d. 1504) at 
Farah these two followers returned to India and after many wanderings 
orer India settled si^e in north Gujardt and some in Haidarabdd 
(Pakhan). The Palanpur branch made the ruling Lohflui dynasty of 

Chapter H 



Chapter II. 




tliat Btate their followers ainl Ihiiro estaUiBheil their ddirah 
cncioBure or scttiement. The Pdlaiii>ur Melidavis call themEcK 
Sayads and PirzMihs. In Palanpur the Sayad Pirzadahs claim tlfl 
whole of the moveable property of their followere of rank aftej 
their death. They also mate it a rule for their followers living in t 
villages round about Palanpur to bring their dead in the first iustan 
to the house of the Sayad from where after the performance of soi 
secret ritca the coi-pse is tnken and buried. Thoup;h free to prcft 
tlieir opinions, the Mchdavis still practise caution fahigah, and a 
anxious to pnes as orthodox Muslims.' They speak HindustiSnib 
have nothing special in their appcarauco. Both men and women dn 
like north Gujiirdt Muealmiins. Thoy are peasants, the women hel|«n( 
in the field. They are clean, honest, hardworking, quiet, and thrifM 
They are in fair conditioTi, many o£ them able to Eave. They hoM 
that Muhammad their saint was the last Jmdm the expected Mehi 
and as he is come they neither repent for their sins nor pray for t 
Bouls of the dea'J. They aro said to bury the dead wilh the 
down. They marry only among themselves. They have no heat 
but form circles dchVa/i», governed by rules of their own. Proi 
in default of hetrs belongs to their Sayads who are descendanta 
Husain. Some of their children learn Gujar^ti and a few English. 

KaEba'tis, Ownurs of towns or liashAa, foimd in many parts of 
Qiijar^t, ai-e some of them descended from Bnl(ich or Pathan n 
nariesand others from Itajput converts,* The Sarai KasbfitiB, accordii 
to one tradition, are dest-endants of some Sayad tohliora of fort 
that followed Mahrafid the Ghaznavide into Gujartt (a.d. lOl'a- lOJ 
According to another version they are the duseendants of two S»3 
brothers who in the reign of Shams-nd-din Altamsh(A,D, 1211-1; 
came to India from Ghazni and eettlol at Makanpur near K£npiJr si 
oneof whom Azud-ud-din came and settled at Sami jwrlmpB as a retainer 
of the Hindu ruler of Pattan at Unjha. Mirtin i^ayad Ali (if Unjha, 
about eighteen miles west of Pattan, cla'ms descent from this KasbAti.' 
Their home language is ether llindustdni mixed with Gujardti 
Hindustani only. They are strongly made, about the middle hi * 
and of varying colour weaving the hair long and the heard of mo* 
BJzc. The women are rather delicate but fair and gooddooking. They 
hold large grants of land, and are quarrelsomu and litigious, g'ven ta 
opium and some of them to liquor, hoBpitable, thriftless, and fond ot 
amusement. Their women do not appear in public. Sunuiij in faib.Ki 
th^ are not a religious class ; only a few know the Kura&n or e^^ 
their pi-ayera. Occasionally, but of hia much seldomer than formeil^^ 

' By rfdirai U rncant a circle that ia a, circular oncloanro morlcwl off by a snint fca 
tlic aiercUe in solitude of his rsligious mcdibationi. In ita prcEoiit si^iSCBUan il ba* 
come to mean s qaort^sr iuhabitod by tlut MdnlaviB. 

' III Broach they are known as t^bboiyii from the town e( Dnhboi in Banxla. 

' Tlic Dhalkn Kosbilti* arc of three clsiees, MJnig and llchims who came Iron) I 
at the cloao of the Bixte«nth ccuturv, and conTorted Biijpiita, tbc dcaetndaoU of 
Mali Parmim. IUb Ui^la (Now Edition). 2S0, 401. At fdar thero uied to' 
honaca of K&abMid, NiUlw, and Bhltii, nrho had ebarge of the fdar gstea aud b 
BtaMihi, 152. ^ 

* MS. podigreos of Snyada in tbc jioisuMion of Maakvi Tlr Ali Silicb of Pattan. 

from Pj^fi 
attaa. ^| 





lliey marry Hindu wives, Rajputs aiul ponot'mcs Kolis. At such 

luariiaMOs ilio bri Ic'b i'nen Is ocoii>i;)na!ly call iu a Br/ihuiaii ; in «»thor 

t-as.'S tlie coreiU'Vuv is cnlrrlv Mu-sal Their cliiMron have 

Palhau naiuori, thi? boys .)iii*aLkii:'in or AFuJiwwarkli.'ui, the <jfirls 

LldililjiU or DiiL'ihibi. Some oh' tiiu Dholka KashjiLi wovnori of tlio 

better class havo curi:)u-{ na-aes, such as Ladliiu^hho instead of 

Lilllibibi or Lallibcl:. xVt death they havo no lliuthi customs. In tlieir 

anxirty to keep tlieir position asi lai'^o landliohh^rs, if their Kons fail 

tofiri'l any suitable mateh In their own ela-s, thev marrv into lamlown- 

m^ Hindu and Molesalaui fiimdios. 1 hey j^ivc their daughters only 

to Musalmiins. They havo no headman and do not f'»r;n a distinct 

community. Sinia who arc prospcH'ouri teaeh Ihcr cliildreu Crujaniti 

aiMl a few English. Most Ahmediil^dd Kasl)fitis are hunk in debt 

anJ weakencil lu mind and lx)dy by the excessive use of oj)ium.^ 

EhokharSy converted liujin'its of the Khokhiu* tribe, are found in 
small numbers i]i north ( I ujanit and In appearance they 
Jo not differ from Rajputs. In fCitthiaw Ir, ])«)th men and women 
ilri'ss like Uindus, l)ut like Musalmans in Ahnied.ilKul and north 
(iiijardt. Thi\v are peasants, laliom'ers, and messengers. They are 
m.ntinncl in the A'in-i-Akbari (Hlochman's Edn. pai^e !;")!) note 2) as 
"a tnl>e of some importance in Pind Djulan Khin" hi the Panjdb. 
Kudar the MuaKil is mentioned in the 1\*lrikh-i-Aiiii by Amir Khusrao 
as crossing the Satlaj and other PanjAb rivers and burnn^ the 
villajres of the Khokhars in the lx>^innin^- of Ala-ud-din's reii^n ab(»ut 
A.D. ll\)5. The Khokars are sad to deiive their nane from /rr>// 
nountain an«l //ir taker, because they once took an imprci^nable 
m-miifain fortress. They claim Afi;hf'in cxira«:liou and stat<' that they 
are still representeil in Afghanistan ])y a Kheyl (tril>e) of this lume.^ 
'iliey are hindholders in Pattan and also perform military service. 
The Pattan Khokhars are well off and are a handsome well-matle rac<.*. 
As far as possible they interiaarry among themselves l)ut do not object 
to matrimonial connections with the Babis, Loh!in"s, and other Pathtlns. 
Major Raverty in his translation of the Tabakjit-1-N:isiri'' refers to 
■ tliem a^ being invadovl by Kutb-ud-din Kibnk in or alx)ut the year 
A.R. oM (a.d. 1-02). Their ancient territory now forms the Kfiwal- 
plndi district.* As a class they are badly off.' 

Makwa^na'Sy converts from the Makwt^na tr;l)e'*' of Rajputs or 
Kolis, are found over many pai-ts of north Gujarat. The men are dark, 
tall,s[)are, and muscular. Tliey wear the ha'r long and the])t'ard pailed 
from the middle of the ehhi and tied behind the ears. The women 

' In A.D. 1827 tlufir Btatc wouM seora to liavolioi'n much thr saum. A fow wore ncm of 
inflauiire, Imt ino^t w«?ro i»(»ovainl bioUcn-down, (Mi'-vvjitnl l»y i'\<.'ts>ivi' u-i; <»f «»i)inin, nixl 
iocapaMc of any useful «.*xertioii. Some of tlioin (wivd jvs tom^iuk' fannor"* cf vUlajris, Imt 
for tliU they had iKithor rajiital nor capaiMiy. Molvill's rnranlij iu <Inv. Ucc. X. 10. 
Furtht/r details arc ^iflvea in tlio (Ja/Atti-or, IV, 117, 17SMS5. 

*Tlie lat«< Biiini'khdn Jainddar of I'lUaiijuir iu His jrijrhmss ihc Diwilu's s« rvic«\ 

'Vol- I. p^i^o S'2-l note * Vnl, I. ]isi^o r»37 iioti'. 

* Aircordiu}; to a Mi:siilnirfn ]i»ko tlu'y irot thtir uaine from Lhona to loso and Ihar 
an ass, bi;rauso thoy LkI flio kiMjr's a^srH. 

* Kt»r an at-coniil t.f ilu* Mahi K:0)tlia Mal.\v.iii:i'< m-i^ 15i»m. (n.v. S«.l. XII. IS. 

Chapter I 








Chapter II. 





hiive rc«j!;ukr fealiirus ami lary;e black eyes. To look at both men ami 
women in no waj dlfler from Makwanji Kolii. Their home lauj^jiiuirti 
is HiuJuBtiini. The men wear lar^e loosely- won ml turbans ph'ilia, 
jackets, ti^ht trousers, nnd eoinmon native shoes. The women a 
black robe sadi or J/iinii, a hK3sc l.)0<lice, a. petticoat, and slipixjrs. They 
eiu'u their living a> i)etty landlords, pca-^anta^ messengers^, anil eon- 
b tables. They are clean, blunt, idle, fcmd of opium and spirits, quarrel- 
some, hospitable, and extravagant. Except in poor families the women 
do not appear in public. Though many of them are in debt and none 
of them are rich, as a class they arc not badly off. They are Sunnls 
in faith ])ut as a rule care little for their religion. Tlieir sous marry 
titlicr into iMusalm:in', Makwiina, or Kt)li families ; their daughters 
into Musalman f imilies of the Makw.ina, Bdbi, or Dholka PatiiAn 
tribes. They employ a Brdhman priest at their wcildings. They arii 
Baid to form a distinct community, but have little organization and 
no hea<lman. They do not send their children to schrjol. 

Maliks, Lords, are converted Hindus and foimd all orer Gujarat. 
As a class th«.y are tall and fair with good features. 'J'lieir home 
tongue is Gujarati in the north and Hindustiini in the south. Of 
the men, some dress like Kathis with b'g turbans, tight jackets, 
trousers, and a waisteloth. Others wear the common ]\Iuhanimjulan 
dress. Tiio women dress in the north like Hindus and in the south 
like ordinary Aluhamma^lans. They are landlords and j-easauts, and 
are employed in Government service as messengers autl constables. 
The women spin but do not work in the Held. Though clean tidy 
and honest, they are idle thriftless and given to oi>ium. As a class 
es[»ecially those of north Guja"at, tlmy are a byeword for f-dly and 
Want oL' 6c;nse. The women do not appear in public. They are poor, 
many of them in dcl^t. Thoy are Suunis in name but are not religious, 
few of them knowing the Kuman or caring to pay their prayi rs. In 
their maniage and other customs they d.) not differ from other 
converted llajputs.^ 

Matia^ Kanbis, ]Jelievcrs, are found in Kaira and in twenty- 
two villages of nnrth Surat, between the Ambika and Tapti riven. 
]>v dcK^Mit Ilindu-^ of ihe Leva Kanbi caste, tliev are followers of 
Imam Shah, the f-aint of Pirana near Ahmedabdtl, who, alx)ut the 
middle of the firteenth century, meeting them on their way to Banjiras,' 
worked such wonders that they took liim to Ije their spiritual guide. 
Thej also ]jeliev(^ in Simlhsah, proljiibly Xiir JSatiigur, the lirst Isma'li 
missionary to India (a.d. l-i^7), whose shrine is at iNavsiii'i in Surat, 
and in a Pirx<i<ht, of ihnhjtnpur. In describing* the revolt of the 
Broach Matlas* in a.d. IG'Jl the Mirat-i-Ahmali says: The Momiu\a 




of Ahmed ibid and the KhojUis of Soratli are oSsliools of the main 
N»zamn stocA. Th> Matias aro a tribe who inhabit also the districls 
of KhinJesh and Basflaua and en^.ij^o thenisolve^ in agricultural 
pursuits. Those livinp: in thoSiiba of Ahme..hibad ((iujinit) are c tiled 
Mnnnids »nd ih >!=e who live in Su'iith aro o:il!ud Kh«>i ihs. Beiriir 
ci'knvorted bv Savad Tinrini-uil-din thov bi;l:»nir to a number uf Ilinuu 
clawos wh.) cnttTod undt'i* his guMaiuv. They h.ive sucli faith 
inlliL'T relij^riiuiH tear'liurtf Uiat ihoy i;- ve :i tc*r.h p.iv:; oO wluitever thc'ir 
rcarh' carnini;':? niav be to liioir siuriLiial iruide. They carrv this rule 
to 8n uxtrenie an extent, lliat if any of them has ten chil<hvn he is bound 
cilhei* to present one of his cliildreu to the Sayail or to lix and pay the 
SavaJ a money vahio or ransom for the cliild. Thfir larj^e revenuis 
ileriTe<l from tlieir fi.»llowers ena])le tlie savnts^to eni)V a h'trh deirrce 
of ease and tplen'lour. 8i) entirely do the saints 1 Mok upon their 
JAr'V.v (spiritual followers) as a source of revenue that the Sayatl.^ 
whnn raarryint^ tlnir dauu'hters give away a number of their followers 
to them as pan i»f their dower. S^nio Momn:is remaiTi mendjers of 
their ca«te being llin<lus in everythini^ but relii^i'^n. Wlien Sayail 
SLlliji on*.* of tlie de-e(Mi<lants of Imam-ud-din (a.d. 1'>01 ) succeeded liis 
father in the spiritual headship of the Matias so many thnusnnds of his 
f-illowers ]nvsont;'d themselves at his i^laoe of residence, Karanithahnear 
Ahmed iliMl. asking to l)o iulmitted to his in-csonce that he coiild lurdly 
■nda moTuent of nvivacvand sometimes used to stivtrh out his foot 
ro:n Ix'hind the curtiiin. The belief of his followers was so tincere that 
ihcv us(.h1 to rnm^ider even this act c»f their Pir a <j^reat condtseension 
au(I used to kiss the sa'nt^s foot, and place their oife rings of money near 
itand retiitj satislied and li:ippy.* In the days of 1 Fazrat Khubl Makani 
(Aurangzfb A. I). lO-lS-lTO?) much attention boi^an to be given to 
the Mulianiraadan I^aw and t) the moting out of dissent, ^lost men 
••lojitoil very strait religious views to become popular with the emperor 
mJ a<^:cascd the -Matias and their s])iritual guide of being Kilfizis 
(Shiil s). A few of tlw aceuj-ed were thrown into prison. Some one 
r^'l^orted to the cmiK'r".»r an account of Sayad Sluilij' and his religion 
wkI ways, Aurangzib ordered an enquiry to be lield and the sjjiritual 
piidc was ordered to present himself before the A^/?i at Ahmedalidd. 
Buiniy unwilling to attend Sayad Shahji took poison and died. This 
inflamed the anfjer of li:s followers and to revenge his death a large 
number of Matias crossed the Xarbada and took IJliariich killing the 
iJiujdar. They were destroyed by iMubi Hz liribi and Nazarali Khan 
the lieutenants of Shujaai Kliiin the v'ceroy of Guj.n-iit, but not until 
thev h:«l maile a most g-.dlant sbmd w'Uingly p.ererring death to defeat 
*nu captivity. Neither in food nor in dress do they differ from 
Hindus. All are cultivators, the siuitt in chavaeter and condition as 
otlior Leva Kanb's. They call Bn'dimans to all their chief ceremonies, 
*nd ewept thitthe Pirana s:iint is their s]>i ritual guide, that they 
*wi'l> to sujiport and go to visit his tomb, and that they bury their 







Mtliinl lK'l\f \\\ iIh- si.IriLu.ii L'ni»lo i;* imo of llu* iio-TSsarv r'tnuUl-iojis cf tlio .*<ufi 
J^j"..'!'-]!, u\;v. of the «l.- I: ■■. V i»f \\\\\ \\ U r'li'i iHii' I W/y nsf ii/',Afi'fi mi' f"is itsf Our 
»*i;'t is straw, w.:r 1.- iii-^f. i-. »-^-.- '. iiiin^. 

•liftUr '.f 1-Jtli Fcl. IsUo iiii;--!!!. Gov, IVl, Ucc. 45 of l^Oo. 




>ter II- 




(Icail, their customs are Iliudii. Thoir peeuUar views Iwivo so],ar:itccl 
them from utlior Kanhjjs, aiul at^ thcv mairv niilv amoiio^ thera>.elve3 
they form a distinct IjckIv. 

Molesala^ms^ found chiefly in IJroaeli and in iho llt'wa Kantlia, 
are half eunverb' to Islam, inade fnuu amoni^ I<a jjM'itiS, chieliy in I ho 
ie*i;n of ?ilahmnd lunadji (a.i». l4.').>-loroj. (if tlie nano scvoral 
intiMi»vetatiuns liavo been given. Accord ini;- to C'-hintd \\'a!ker"' (.v.n. 
1805), the word is a ccrniption of M ftfi-nl-h'-rm Sulj.n"ts've to the faith, 
apjdietl to the (Jiu'siiis in rejV' :\<'1«, ini|)'vinii' th^t thoy are mcicly 
pasrive iIusah^-^;^n^^ profcssinjj; the fjilli of lsl;Ini while pra'tisiii^ thf 
rites of their anecstnis. A?.:',in the word Mif'.i nu^m.- master as 
we.l :'s slave. 'Jjikinf* it to ivean mas":er ll)e icnderinir would he 
* i^a^teri• in Ishlm/ ]:ke Kh< j;'h or L< id,a <.ja^e viv thep:anl, to convei*ts 
of an hor.oniuMe t tie. 'J'he lli !*il e\]»!:i!i;ilir.n "s that, during* the t rst 
days of the M^ees^ c.f Ishim it was the diatom tli:\1 whcnan infi«lelwas 
converted t«» Isluu hv a ,M iira'. ii:';n that inlid< 1 was c:illed the Miin^ti 
of the ccnviitir.' A\'lu'n ]\I ::.::•. i;d Ec.adn c»nvertal tliepc ])eo]ile to 
Isu'm, hein<»' a s:nc(M*c a-id deVi-ted Musnhiuin, *n pjefuvnce to callini^ 
his e« nvuls Mai:i:is of Miilj;nji.l he caile<l them Manias r.f Islam. The 
CNi'.anal i(>Ti f.'i\cn hy Mr. Korhus- in llie IJ:'»s Mrdais that llajputs wlio 
were put w.l o? (a.-te in the t me of M: Ir.nnil Tn sr:i hi fenced a separate 
class called * .Mole^al.'i^n ' iM-canrrc tliev had lu^wed or ma»le xaf'tm to 
the mcht I «>r jalaee uf the SM!t:iM. 'J'he Molesalim Th;lkors of Amod 
and Kerv.ida in lin»ach cl. :m descent fr»nn Jiidav liajjuts who were 
conveitcd hv .Mali mud HeL-ad i in A.n. llJSo. Of the f air derivations 

ft »* 

the second, namely that it means Master^ in IsImu, seems the most 
likelv to he cnrre't. 

Mole.-alam ih.iikors and eliiefs, wh h* emnlovini** Kaz's Savads and 
llanlawis\ n'aintjMi the ih'seevdanl> of their uld l>raliMian family priests 
and snjiinirt ilieir llhats and C'haians, whom the rich en^j^as^e to wliile 
away ll.cir 'ei^u e hocrs hy uvilinir jioetry and the poor to serve as 
l)iie.-{s at ]';:.iriaL;e->'. A Moksa'ii'n will niarry his dang'hter to ;i ISayad 
a SlwiIJi a Mei^lial or a ]5tili, 1 nt net, as a rnle^ to a Mu^alman of 
the lov. cr •■.•lit r. The M-n nf a e-ii^f may ^t;el a IJajput i^irl in marri -^e. 
liul. (/iIm.t ^i■ K' :il MIS n&iiv ether a:\onir tlieir own ] cople or the 
poi-rer claf • ( f l';-.a!iiJ.*iiis. Inih». rs a 31- 'ealam wear^ a waistel«'th ; 
onL of dt crs a i'ii]i..-:i coat tronsi'rs. w ili. like a 11 a; put, a cL.»th 
woi.iui \K^vv^\ li:e v.aiot ov thiown over the shoulders. Wuuieii wear 
a role .«:*?//.(, a )>. (lice, au'l a pctticeat. iM<.lesahims dine with other 
JFusa-n'f'vt . ] : ; oieept that they sometimes take ilesh, they eat and 
drink like Jii::dn?:. 

PariiltVrs se J.'^i'prit ('"^nvcVts. Th-Te is no record of th.? ilate of 
ilieir con\erhii n to l..\i[ t'lev sn-e lelerred to a> l)avino 1 een alreadv 
If-iKmised in A.D. 1;J17 whin .sii hriiviiv JSlulli t.ri.ied his disreputahle 

J S.V.. n,„i I^-l'r.lii (WiiC'.i i,l.A:.y.'ii) 'r.::l :;7, v.I:.r.i!i t1,- l.-.-jrii.l.u«al 
^1.« Uli <r Al Isl-i! :'ii i, ll.i J'jMi;iu^ ]i..'/. <■■• '-'. i:v.'ri'i r. <■'< r :j; il 1 i-i liati. ti.i* ;!ntln«r 
NlVt, \\.l\\ Al l;liiii.;'li\"> 1 1. ■ :0!l•^^t■ 1 \\\ •■ 1 . . :i'; «■ .-i i i li\, .l I .• I.^.UUi WHS iiW ^IlliraU 

hOm. | 1. 1.1 in .-IS u <f AMulIali tun il' Aiii;...wi\:ilu 
■' M\- MAIa, I. oiy. ' • 




connection with a Parmer of the name of Hasan who was given ilie 
title of Khiisrao Kh(\n. Hasan's brother IIi*?:im-ii(l-din was niven the 
viceroyalty oF Uujarfit but the ParniMr ]\njpii1^ of that ])rovinec 
became eo turbulent that he lr.vl to bo removed. FarUhtah' i-alls tho?e 
Parmitrs a c!a«s of Gujar^it pohlarnis or athletes. The Parniars 
are to 1)0 found in north (iujarat. Tliey intoriuarry anmug the con- 
verted Haj:ut rhisecs and are either huulowner.s cultivalors <»r servants, 
that is me.sseugers or poHeemen. They are a handsome and wcU-l'ormed 

Ra'thors, converts from tlie "Rathor tribe of Ka jjnts, arc to l;o found 
in small numbers in different ))VLTt< of north Cliijarilt. The men arc 
stron^j and well made, fieroo in expression, and exc».'[)t that they do not 
shave the ehin, hardly to be known from I^ajputs. Except wives of 
Hindu biith, who when livinjLC at their father's house dress like 
Raj]»iits, the women wear the Musalnuln scarf j^own and trousers. The 
men earn their livinicr as landlords peasants and messen«j;;ers, and are 
idle and til rift! e.>s. They are Simnis in name, but are not reH«rioiis, 
neithei' learning the Kuralln nor saying their prayers. A few of them 
have Swaminarayan petures in their houses and reverence them. 
Their ceremonies are in many respects Hindu. At marriaf»es the 
lar^LTcr landlords keep to the Hajput custom of sending a swonl to the 
bride's house and bringing her back fr)r the ceremony to the bride- 
groom's village. When tlie ])ride is a Hindu, l>)th Brahman and 
Mnsalman ceremonies are i>i'rformed. At deaths the women wail and 
beat tlie breast. Exee])t that they marry only among IJajputs and 
Koiis, either Hindu or Musahmln, they do not form a sc]>arate eom- 
muTi'ity and have no headman. Tlmugh in fairly good condition few of 
them send their children to school. 

Sain&^S are found scattered over north Gujarat. According to 
Sir Henry Elliot^ they are a branch of the groat Vddava stock deriv- 
ing their ]x»digreo from Sitmba the son of Krishna "who himseU' is 
knowa ns Sydma or the Dark One." The Clnkdiiijlniah'* repre:senta 
the Sanii^s as living on the banks of the Lower Indus about a.d. 
712 and as coming out dancing with rymbals and trumpets to otfor 
their alleg'anco to Muhammad son of Kiisim, the Arab eiinqueror of 
Sizidh. Their pedigree in which descent from the sun and the moon 
is hopelesrsly mixed shows that tho Yddava story is a bardic or 
priestly invention to justify their place among Hindus. The Samas 
are probably a Turk tribe which entered India during the seventh 
zcntnTV A.D. 

SllSLikhda's or Shaikhs^ found chiefly in Broach and Alimed- 
Lbad, are one of the classes of devotees- who worship at tho shrine 
>f Bdla Sluhammad Shiih, one of the minor Pirana saints. In their 
iravs they differ little from tho Matia Kanbis. They bury their 
lead^ but except for this observance and for their name, their 
eastoins are Hindu. They are not circumcised, and do not cat ^vith 

* Persian Text I. 219-222. 

2 Sii' Hfiirv Elliot's IlUtorv of India, T. 101. 

' CluuliuAiimlMM KUiot, I. 101. 

Chapter n. 


j. as j) holders 



Shaikh da's. 





Chapter II. 


Him " 
CoN\ t:.:T<. 





l\rMs:i]ni;iii<, Iml \v('»r fnrrliontl ni.'irk< fU'i, and many of thorn belong 
In tin- c.iiKi.iiiili y nf tlip iS\v.'\min;irjiyans. At the time of nianirtfre 
l>-.t]i ;i Mti-MJi! .11 M!nl a Iliinlii |)!ii'st attcii'l. The Miisaliiian 
c< r-'iii' iiv i'i i»-if"'i-?iH'.l hv ii /'/A//* and th«.* Ilimla rite of c/tori or 
altai-w r.-liln hy n I>r;ilim;»ii. Lik«' tho ilatiii Kanbis of Siir-it, the 
J^h:iilv!:<l;i'-- f'Tiu a i]is:i'ict (•••ininujiitv. 

Solnnlii^', '"^iv r1< rp^sn thi' S<»l;iii\i trihr* of l?:ijpiit<, nve fcMiufl 

in sii.'-l'i ;i!i I. :;»■!-; i.i -Liifi-.'-it i»-ir. • ol" n-i'th (iiiianit. Tin*v iiitiT- 

I ff' ■ 

UKiny ^vip^ tli- U.irlirs .-ml oihci" coiiviM'tcd Uaj|iiits, au«l d'j not 
dilTtr frMiii tln-m in l<"k, raMin^', i>r cu>t' ins. 

SMllira'r, m Slu.M! tii'h-' m1" Uaji.ut uriijiu, Wi»ro partly convi-rt*'' J by 
^l;;iinju<l iu'L'-a«l;i iiT .^.M. I 17:i(a.I!. S7t)) (lurinLT his con<piostuf Sirnlh.^ 
Sir ll< iirv liili' I <mI!s tin* Sinnras 'a Innar vixco nniMii'stioTiaMv of 
tlic l';ji-:i!.iri:a -ic- k :■?» 1 n^'fos^arilv Aurnikiilas,' that is Iji'louLrins 
t(» th«* Miliir.i (Iiiri'iia nr Whil** Ili'iin hordes nt t lie la to iilth orcarlj 
sixih ccnl !n-y.' Tin* main part s<.'rni to have hec-omi* c«'iiverts to ahniit {\\c l)!'ui»Miinir of \hv cij^hth coutui-v of tho L'iiristian 
rra an«l In li:jvi* (:i!]»'.l ill nisolvcs dt'sci'iidanls of tho Arab tribes of 
'J'aniini and K.iriis!! and iliildivn of Tamini the Ansari. 

Ta'nkP, ( » \vh«im b^l-inLrc^d tlie family of th'? Saltans nf Gujarat 
(A.n. I '.().'!- 1:'''^!' 'i'"'* ^1"^^' i";»:tly hoard of. Tlio ^Iirat-i-Sikauiiari' 
t raci's llii'ir oiii'in It) llanii'lamdra and savs tha^ ihov were ex- 
c<»ninnmic-n(i'»l !jy tin* l\>harrias on acoi-nnt of one of thtir ancestors 
bi'InL'" addli-lcd to ^^ilu^ This is a plav on the scumd of the word 
/v/'i;//' or <l''L!ia»li'd. Tin' Tanks seem to rei)resenL the famous tribe 
ol Td\.di.ik>i wlio i/avi» its name tn llu* raniab or Takkadosh.* 
Tin? f-.milv of tin- (iMiarat Saltans was descended from two Tauk 
brotli< r< naiai'd Salin an«l Saharan. The a!ieo;?torji of these mea 
<<\i,'«tln'r with tli^? (Inrjjaiu-i app'.-ar to have been lonir St-ttled in the 
Paiijal) pliuns in tlu* I'li^hb-iurheod of Tlninesar in Siihind, IJavin^ 
trealoil Vivuz Tnuhlak (\.n. 1"'51 -l-'v^^) with j^jroat hos])itality in 
<'iio «'f his hnntin«_r e\i?i.'diii«'ns tho In'others were taken hv bim to 
Conrl and convcv.rd to Islam and raised to po^;iti^.>ns of trust 
abont lii.s jM'rson. Tin* ai;tlior of the Sikandari*'* rejects the cbargB 
tliat the 'Janks woiv Icmu's or wine mannfaetnrers and seller* 
lie .sjiyrf : Thr Tank riders nf (injarat were luon (»f kind and 
p'lieioi'.s nalnns who duiinLT the span of their power did incalcu- 
lable ;j(»oil tn tho eieaUires c>f Allah. 



Of crartsiruMi lher(* are twenty-lwo chissos : Eandharas, silk- 
foldors ; i^hadbhunjjis, «;'iain-parchors ; Chhipas, calieo-j^rilitcrBj 
Clu'indadiiiirils, silk printers H,nd dyers; Chunuras, linicburucrsj 

' Mlmt-i-Mlviinil..ri (MaliinUil I>r^'nilft) MS. pnirf 1^2. 
- •^ir Ilcr.rv Kllu't's llUtory of Indin, 1. A]»]'<1.\. VJ-^. 
•"' Mir;jl-i-> iUainlaii. IVr.^iaii T« \1 SnniL M?*. ]);i;i'' 3. 
'I'.IIintVTiilMsol ll.r N.-illi-Wi.vt ^^o^iIl.•c■^, I.^ln7- 100, 114. 
JN i>"i;in 'J\ \l Mf^, yn^r [K 



Dhiiflifrars or CluuliwalaS, brjirelrtiiiaki'i's ; (iliiimliis nilprr^ss^'s, Chap 

Kaj^hzi^, papiTiuiikcrs ; Kjidi.ns, l)iickm;ik.'r- ; Ka>;ils, Ijitoliris ; Subdi 
Klmrdiiis, luriiei-s ; Kl.atki^, taum.T.s ; Loliars, i>i H/k-^iiLlli^ ; Maiiiilrs, 

ivory-wuiki'is : jl'-iniiri:;, weavers; ^lultjlu. M'.'.lii-. ^ll■ (.M.akrrs ; ^^.^'^ 

Kdlbaii'ls, lior5.e-.<li(.K*rs J rjinjir-'ars, sfai-Llu.TS ; li:i!i,Lri"« z, 'Ivurs ; ^^^^^. 
SalatSj inasoiis; Soni.<, g(;lJ.siniilis; and Tills, \vi:i\iis. 

Bandha'ra'fy Silkfulders. found in (!«.iisi.l-.raMo liiini^'-rs over Banc 
the whole fif Gajauir, are cviiivi rts tnuii llio lllinlu rn-tv oF lli-? same 
name. The iiieu are slron^^ly inatl.-, rather slica-l^ and t'siir sli.-ivin^f 
the head and wearing th<; luartl. The womi-ii are inidiilr-.>i/..<l, railirr 
Bhort :h u fair wiili good i'eatnn s. ''i'hiur honir s[»ef;e]i is Hindu- 
stani. KNcept lliat tljiir tru'..sers :nv imuMially Ah<»it", and lliai snnie 
of them in north Gujiinlt wear tin' thi-ei'-eorni r<*d inrbm, thi? nu'ii 
dress hke ordinary ^Insahnans. AFosifc of thi> wonu-n wi.-ur the 
Hindu dross, verv oltun tlu? silk r<ih(»s sent them to elran. 'I1w>ir 
ornaments arc like those ot* ordinary Musalnnins. In north Giijarat 
the men beat wash and fold silk and silk r«.)lns, Ijoth new and «)hl, 
the wouien helping thcni in their Work. In tin' south, in i.diliti<ui 
to the washin*^ antl fohlin*/, they .sell silk and Ni'.k-e-»tlo!i eloth. 
The\* aro clean, honest, hardwurkinir, sobei-, quiet, ihrirtV; auil fund 
of ftiiui^scnient. The wc>nien appear in jinblie. As a ela-s tliev are 
iaii'lv otf, able to save, and few of them in <lebt. Tlu-v are Sum. is 
in faith, knowing the Kuraan, and lunst of thtni earelul tosay tluir 
-prayers. There is nothing peenliar in their euritoms. They marjy 
only au'.ong theuifrelves and have a well-manaL^*d union but no 
special headman. Some of tluun teach their ehil«Iren Gujarati and 
.a few English. N«.)ne have risen to any high po>ition. 

Bha'dbhunja^lP; Grain-parchers, literally p.irehers at the fire- Bha'tU 
placo LA'h/, are fnimd in all pnrts of the province. They marry with 
other Musalinaus and do not form a separate cla<s. 

Chhi'pa'P, Calico-printers, found in north and central Gujarat, Chi 

are Hindu et:>nverts, some of them of the (.iiij:irati and (fliers «>!' the 

Marviuli caste of the same name. The Maivadis are late arrivaU. 

MoBtof them came in thoyoar of the la<t M'krw;ir famine (a.i», 18'"^^ 

wd others still kt-ep conjing. Tlie (lujaraii- are stiong, well-made, 

tall, (laik with shaved head and full Ix-ard ; tlu! ^larviidis are 

stronger^ lighter in colonr, and have the head unshaved. Tlie women 

of both classes are well made and fairish with irregular features. 

At hmntt the Gujartitis speak Hindustani antl Gujar.ui; the 

Mtirvadis the dialect of their own country. MxeepI that tlio nuMi 

wear the wai.stcloth, the Gujaratis, both men and women, dress like 

Musalmaus of the lower order. The Mflrvadi men Jiave a small 

red or particoloured turban, a Hindu coat, and a w^aistcloth. Their 

women dress like Hindus in a red headscarf odiw, the long loose 

unbacked Marvadi bodice, and the long fidl low-waisted j)etticoat. 

They work as calico-printers, the Gujardtis being ciuiefc and 

the Marvadis quarrelsome. Neither has a good name for honesty, 

and both aro thrifty to stinginess. Their condition is good tlie 

Hdrvddis having in ? few years raised themselves from beggary to 

comfort. They arc Sunnis in religion, and though only a few eaii 




Chapter II. 






rojifl the Kuraitn, tlii^y arc caivfiil to say their prayers. They havo 
ijo special spiritual ^iiiJe and no ])eciiliar customs. At all their 
settloinents ouch class has a \vell-;nann.c^o<l iitiioii j-iun'i'tf, with a li'^a*!- 
in.'in chosen bv the members. Neither class semis their cliilJreD to 

CllU'ndadigira'P, Silk-knnt-Prinrers, are found over tlv^ wliole 
province. Thov liave no subdivisions. Thev claim to bo of Arab 
descent and to have com<^ into (nijarat fhron^h Sindh : but most 
of them are nrobablv of Jlindu oriL^in. Thev are of middle heitflit, 
fair, and well -featured, allowinyf the hair and beard to nrrow. The 
women are well made and have ^-"ood features. Their home toniruo 
is ilindustiini antt Gujarati in Kiitliidwar. Both men and women 
make patterns in elobh by p^atherini^ the silk in puckers and rosc-ttes 
and knottin*^ it. In Surat, but not iu Ahinedabad, they d^'c. Some 
are in Government service as messeni^i»rs and constables. Esj) "cially 
in north Gujjirat they are liarilworking, sober, thrifty, hospitablo, 
and rather (juick-t-Mupeivd. They arc in middling c»nditir>n with 
steady but low-])aid work. Sunnis in faith, they are zealous for their 
religi(ai, sonu^ both women and men, knowiu«|f the Kuraan. For 
three davs after a death the mourners are fed at the common cost, 
for six days more by their relations, and on the tenth day they <rive 
a dinner. Tiiey form a distinct community, marrying <>^ily amonfj 
t.hemselves. They have a union but no headman. Tho men iu 
Ahmedaba«l work together iu one room, whore, in the cveninij 
they ])lay chess and read. They S(»nd their chihlren to school, and 
some of them teach them En^dish. They are u pashinj;^ class, and 
some have risen to good positions: one is siip.»rintondent of the 
Lundvada state and anoth(?r, lately dead, was a gojd Hindustani poet. 

Chuna'ra'P, Limebnrners, found in small nunibers in nil parts 
of the province, are said to bo converts from low class Hindus. 
Their homo tongua is Gujarat i. The men w-ear a thrO'j-corncrinl 
turban, a coat puckered un.ler the arm, and a waisteloth; tho 
women dress hke Hindus. They make and burn Hmo and work as 
bricklayers; the women do house work. They are noisy idle and 
diss-ipated. As a class tlury arc well-to-do and able to save. They are 
Sunnis in name, but know little of their relijrion. At deaths the 
women beat the breast and wail. They marry only among them.selvcs 
and have a union but no headman. They do not teach their children 
or better their condition. 

Chu'di'waTa'F, Braceletmakei's, found in all parts of the pro: 
vince, are said to U* converted Hindus of the same class. They spcr'*- 
Uindiistani at home. Of m'lddle height and slightly }>uilt, they va«"" 
mucli in colour, and wear the hair and IxMird. The women are midJl ^ 
sized, fairish, and good-looking. Both men and women dress like tl '^ 
poorer Muhammadans of south Gujardt. They make and 
bracelets of glass and lae or tin, some of the tin ones omamcnteil wi 
borders of gold and brass leaf. They are sold in three-pair sets 
4 annas to t rupees the set. The women go about selling the bracele 
The men are honest, hardworking, rpiiet, sober, ard thrifty. They ar' 
Sunnis in religion, some knowing the Kuraan and saying their prayer^ 



^'■■PC-poor, Ei>mc of tliom in debt. They liave no peculiar cnstoms. 

f marry with other MuFalmiins. They form a well-orJeral body, 

no headman. A few teach their eliildreu CSujariiti but not 

None Imvvo lison to any high poBit;on. 

^'ncbiE, Oilmen, aro found in all parts of the province, osiw- 

(ha north. In some places they are known aa GliAnchiB and 
s Ghdnchi-Bohonis, the word Bohora being apparently nsed 

^ leral sense of un-armal Hindu converts. Tlicy are said to 
! descendants of Hindas of the Pinjilra and Ohanehi castes. 
he Miiflalmiin Pinjdriis tiicy call tliemselves Manmria or follow- 
' Maneiir. The men arc stronjf, bi^, welKmade, and fair. The 
1 wear the hair and keep the beard short. The old shave 

1 and let the beard grow. The women are handsome, fair, and 
i^eatured, in nppearanee mueh like Hindu Glulnchis, In their 

» thoy speak Gujarilti. The raon wear n Miisalm'in turban and 
•U-fkstening coat. In Ahmcdabdd they wear tlio waietirloth, 
the Panch Mahals sometimes a WiListcIoth sometimes 
. The Godhra women have lately taken to weariut>; the 
dn dress. But escept tliat young girls put on the Mubam- 
i s:aji, in other places they di-esa like Hindus, The men are 
ri¥ei-8 oilpressei's milkBellci-s and peasants, the women sell milk 
"■) bouse work. In oil tho Musalman Ghilnchi deals whole- 
j to a retail Hindu Gliiinchi. Their bouses arc tidy and 
Tho men are fairly honest, hardworking, solier, thrifty, 
I qiurrelBomc ; the women especially those of Godhra are fond of 
a and dresa. As a cLisa they ar-o welUto-do. Sunnis in reli- 
r call themselves followers of Mansur, but have no special 
Kxcept the Godhra women who as a class arc religious, 
b i^oraut of their faith. Like the Sunni Bohords, the Pinjdrds 
I Kardlidi:, they have curioTis forms o£ names, nsinja; Ilila for 
, Dosln or DoliLt for Dosa, Momda for Muhammad, Iiab for 
tsia fop l.''.i7.'vl, and Fatu. or Fnfali for Fiitimah. Thoy also 
Li names as Jivi, M^^nkor, and Dhanb-M, At roarriageB their 
1, Be among tho Hindus, go singing with tho bridegroom to tlie 
se, and at mhrriage feasts they generally have Hindu dishes. 
, like Hindus the women wear op to the shoulder rows 
i ivory rings. At deatlis tlie women wail and beat tlie breast. 
f marry only among themselves and the I'injSrds, They form a 
tatebodyjfi'icii, with its headman chosen by themcrabera. They 
iKgnn to teach tiieii- children GujanVti and a few English. 
igh some of tliem arc rich none havorisen to any high portion. 
A'ghzis, Papermakers, are found in considerable numbers in 
'l Gujar&t, They are saitl to lie converted Hindus. As a rule 
are big bral^^ly men, fair, and well-featiired. Some shave the 
n of tho head, sonic tho whole hemi, and a few young men let the 
grow. All wixir tho be.ird. The women are middle-sized, well- 
i, tair and with regular features. The men wear a largo loosely- 
Dond red or wlij/e tnrlan, either the common co;it or one pucker- 
idOT the arm, short trousers vhahiAs, and shoos. Tho women 
s dress in govw and tro\iser3 like other MusalmflnB, ont of doore 

Chapter IT. 


aiiter IL 








they put on the over-gown pishivdz. They make and sell the strong 
coarse country paper for wliich Ahmcdabdd has long been fivmous.^ 
The women help and do house work. The men are quiet honest hard- 
working and sober, but rather fond of pleasure. Formerly their craR 
was prosperous, l)ut of late years the demand has fallen off. Sumiis 
by rel'gion, many, both men and women, know the Kura^n and are 
careful to say their prayers. Th«y arc followers of the Chishtis of 
Alimcd^bdd and treat them with much respect. Their customs are those 
of ordinary MuhammaJans. They marry only among themselves and 
under their spiritual guide form a distinct body. Some of their boys 
learn Gujar«4ti and Arabic and a few English. None have risen to 
any high position. 

Kadia's^ Bricklayers, found in small numbers in all parts of, are converted from the Hindu caste of the same name. In 
the north their home tongue is Gujarati and in the south Hindustani. 
Tall strong and dark with r^ular features, they wear the hair in the 
north and in the south shave the head. All grow largo beards. The 
men in north Gujarat wear tlie Musalmdn turban, the young red or 
bronze-coloiured and the old white, a coat of Hindu shape, a waistcloth, 
and shoes. In south Gujarat tliey wear a broadfolded round turban, 
generally of coloured cloth, a coat of Hindu shape, loose short trousers, 
and shoes. The women in the north dress like Hindus and in the south 
like Musalmdns. They are bricklayers, and in Surat have a name 
for their taste in decorating the walls of ix)oms. The women do house 
work. They are (luiet, honest, soljcr, hardworking but rather thrift- 
less. The women are allowed to appear in public. They arc poor 
and not free from debt. Sunnis in religion, some know the Kur:ijin 
and almost all are careful to say their prayers. They are followers 
of a descendant of the Firana saint Imdmshdh and arc much devoted 
to him. There is notliing special in their customs. They marry 
only among themselves and form a separate body with their spiritual 
guide as head. They do not teach their children either Gujardti or 
English. None of them have risen to any high position. 

Kasa'is, Butchers, are found in large numbers in all parts of 
Gujardt. They are of two classes, beef -butchers Gdo Kassdb or Gdi 
Kaidi and mutton-butchers Bakkar Kasdi. Both of them !x4ievc 
themselves to be of Rajpub origin. Cow-killing butchers do not 
intermarry with goat and shcep-kilHng butchers. They are tall, strong, 
and of average fairness ; their women are handsome and well-featured. 
So well fed are they that according to a Hindustdni proverb Kasdi Li 
beti das haratmen bnchhajanii hai The butcher's daughter has a child 
when ten years old. In the cities their home tongue is Hindustani 
and Qxijar^ti in the country. The men wear ordinary turbans, some of 
them rich and gaudy, a coat, tight trousers, and shoes. In towns the 
women dress like Musalmdns and in country parts like Hindus. Like 
looks bhatidras they are fond of putting on ornaments. The eldei 

• Ndtber the Daol»t4b4d nor the Kashmir paper equals either in wluteneta or nnriiv 
iliat made at AhmedAbrfd, Bird's Mirit-i-Ahmedi, 105. *^ "^^ 



wumen help in tlie sa\o of tho lighter and smaller puts of blic antmale. 
Kxccpt for thrift, the bntcher has credit for few good qualities. The 
prorerb says Nd ikUt ho M^/ to dd-h rAldi, Na dekhA ho thag to 
dtlck Kaidi If you have uot BOeu a ti^^ci', look at a cat ; if you have not 
araa a th:fj or stnngloi-, lo jk at a butcher. The women aro famous for 
ttuar powcra o£ abase. They arc well off, most of thom saving money. 
Sonnis in religion, a few both amoni; men and women know the Kura^ln 
tad are carefal to Siiy their prayers. Thoy have no unusual custonis. 
Thoy marry only among thomsolvea, "ETiey have a headman and a 
wll-mana^red union, with a comfnon land spaufc on mosi[HeB, on feeding 
trawllers, and itii tliG p>jr. With few exyeptioni thoy aro illiterate. 
NoBJ have risen to any high position, 

Ktiara'dla, Turners, are found in siuill numbers over the wholo 
pwrince, and form a large body in Ahnieddbiid. The Ahmodfibiid 
KbarAdi^ ant sail to be oiiverts from the Hindu caste of the same 
iwne; inSurat and other places they seeai to ho a mixed class. They 
ue uf average height aid colour, with nothing special in tlicir 
^pearanco. Tho women are said fa) be goodlooking. Both women and 
men drv5s like Masalm4ns. They arc turners by craft, tlicir women 
giving them no help in their work. They are i^uiet and sober with 
ta very g-x>d mme for honesty or thrift. As a class thoy aro well-to-do. 
Eatmis in faith, they a^o reiigious, most of tbom knowing tho 
Knnun. Tbolr customs are those of ordinary Musalmdns. They marry 
oniy among themselves and have a union but no headman. Thoy do 
aotteiurh their children either Gujariiti or Knglish and none have risen 
to any high position. 

Eha'tkis, Tanners, found in considerable numbers all over the 
province, form two classtis, tanners proper, and felt-makoi's dh&laart 
hterally shiehl-makerj, They belong tu tlie ssmo class as hutAera 
nd intormarry with tbem. Though not so well off, they are like 
hit«liers in look, dress, speech, and character. They tan sheep and 
p»t skins, and in country jdacos sell mutton. Thoy go round 
Tini(jts buying skins, and wter tanning them soil to wholesale bide 
msreliants. The women help in tho work of tauidng. 

Luha'ra, Blacksmiths, found in west GujarAt. Gogba, and KAthiA- 
"ir are immigrant from Sindb. Tiie men are rather short weak 
»Dd dark, the hair of their head moderately long, the beard short and 
ntJKrfull. Tho women are dark. At home they speak Gujaidti. The 
Ben dress like Mcmans with a Musalm'in turban coat and tronsera. 
Thawomen dress like Hindus. They make knives, nutcrackers, iron 
t"*!*, spearheads, and daggers. Tho wo'men do houso work. They are 
|)aiat, hardworking, thrifty, and fairly off. They are Sunnis in relig on, 
Wfflc Oi them knowing the Km'a^n and boiug earofnl to say their 

Siyers. They have no special customs. Thoy marry with other 
aKalnrfns and liave no separate headman or union. They teach their 
Aildren Gujar^bi but not English, None of them have risen to any 
liigli position. 

_ Uaala'rs, Ivoi-y Bauglemakcrs, found chiolly in Ahmeddhdd and 
Killiiuwir and a t'ow in Surat and Broach, are converted Hindus, They 

Chapter IX 
Subdi vision! 





kpter II. 







are fair and goodlooking. The home tongue of some is Gujar^li and to 
others Kachbi. The men wear a large loose turban, a coat, and a waist- 
cloth, or very loose trousers of striped cotton cloth. 'J he women in 
north Gujarat and Kiith^uwdr dress like Hindus, generally wearinj^ 
a black robe to set off their fair skins. They make bi'aceiets and 
other ivory articles. The v.omcn do house work. The men are qiiict 
hardworking and thrifty. They are well-to-do and able to save. 
Sunnis in religioTi, some know the Kura^lu and are careful to say 
their prayers. liavc no spiritual guide, but reverence Shdh 
Alam the well-kiown Ahiacdabdd saint. Like the Ghdnchis, the 
women sins: weddine* sonos, and at deaths beat the breast and wail. 
They marry only aifiong themselves, and form a separate union 
with a headman. Few teach their children Gujardtiand none English. 
Some of the Gujarat Manidrs have risen to great wealth in the ivory 
trade in Bombay. 

Momna'Sf, projerly Momins Believers, are found in considerable 
numbers all over Gujardt. They are the descendants of Hindus 
of many castes, converted^ to the Shidli form of faith by different 
members of the family of Ismailia Sayads, of whom Imdmsh4b 
(A.D. liiO) of Pinlna- is the most distinguished. Though from their 
head-quarters known as Radhanpuri Dhdndhdri or Pdlanpuri, and from 
their more immediate religious guides known as Slashaikhshdhi 
Nurshdhi and Malmiiidshdh", all arc Imdmshdhi Musalmdns. With the 
Matids of Khdndosh, the Gujarat Jlomnds, about the close of the 
seventeenth century (a.d. 1601), rose in revolt, taking,and for sometime 
holding the city of Broach.^ The men are short, rather stout, fair, and 
well-featured. Most of them shave the head and wear the beard ; but 
the Ahmeddbdd sect spare the Hindu topknot, and shave the face except 
the upper lip. The women are well-made and fair with regular featiues. 
The men of the Alimeddbdd sect wear the Vdnia tiu'ban and in every 
part of their dress copy the Hindus. Other men wear a three-cornered 
JIuhammadan turban and coat, and either the Hindu waistcloth or 
trousers so Lxise as to give them the name of cfhdgharia or petticoated 
Bohords.* The women, except a few in Surat, dress like Hindus. 
Almost all cat llesh, but for fear of offending the Hindus, whose 
wishes their position as weavers forces them to humour, they do not 
use it at their public dinners. The men are silk and cotton weavers, 

' Of their conversion two stories arc told, one, tliat Imjlm Shili by bringing raiu 
nfter two BCEsons of scarcity, converted a large body of Hindu cultivators. The other 
that ft band ui pilgrims were passing Pirauft on their way to BanAras. Imdm Shdh 
offered to take them there. They agreed and in a trice were in the holy city. They 
paid their vowg, bathed in tho Ganges, and awoke to find themselves in Pihina. 

- Piidna is ten miles south-east of AhmedAbdtl. Details of the Pirana tombs Mc 
^ivcn in tho Ahmeddbld statistical Account under Pfrana. There arc five chief tombs : 
Imdmshdh's, worshipped it is said chiefly by Hindus ; Bula Muhammad's, worshipj^eil by 
the Shaikhs or hhaikhdds ; h'urahhai's, worshipped by llabdris and other Hindus ; Bdkar 
Ali*8, worshipped chiefly by Hindus ; and the tomb of NurshAh the direct head of the 
Niirshnfhi Momnds. Mashaikh, who gives his name to the MashliikhshAhi MomuAs is 
buried at AhmedafbAd, and i-ho tomb of the loader of the MahmiidshAhis is at BhadiAd 
near Dholora. ^ Watson's Gujarat History, 82. ^ 

^ For other cases of the general use of Bohora sec Above page 24, 



, rlotlk-dcalcr:;, ami liusl>iiiii.lmcu. In Kairaand bther i)&rtti oi nortlt 
l&juat many of the weavers are saiJ to have once bceii liual)anJnieu. 
Tke women weave and prppaie tlircwl. Not ovov-lioucdt or trutUfitl 
.fliey ave Imnlworking;, sober, tiJy, and ivlmost niggardly in their 
Ihnit. Tlie women appear In public. Tlie Monujds are Sliidlia in feuth. 
Eitq)t the AhmodaMd sect, thoy read Kutb-iul-iiiu's Giijaidti Knrafin, 
uJ as a]>raycr repeat their saint'a name. The AlicncdilbdJ sect, instead 
tftbcKuradn, K^ad Imdmslifih's book of iclig^oitsi-ulesandsomeof thcra 
oe«ft;d stealthily to worsliip Hindu gods. Many MomnAa who are 
Sl&b at iieort pofesa to bo Suuuis. But there would socra to be in 
6arat a uniall body of MoniiWiB who really bebn^; to the orthodox 
bitb. Those have lately sepaiatod though tliey 2ti!l intermarry with 
Shiah connections. All pra<:tisG circumcision and bury the dead. 
Jh other matters the customs of the AhmeJrtbdd sect differ eousider- 
ibly from those of re^ulai' Muslims. Hindu names are common in 
nartli GnjarAt though raie in the south, and while with ordinary 
MonmiiB marriages take place according to the Musalmdn niles, tho 
Ahmeddbdtl secl^ in addition to the Musalm^u marriage, call in a 
Brdhman and go tlirough tiie Hindn ceremony,' In north Gujardt, 
snoDg all Momule marriage takes place at a very early age, sometimes 
lehn the children ai'O weaned, and tliey follow the Hindu practice of 
ioHiiig a high festival when the bride comes o£ age and goes to live with 
her husband. At deaths, like llinduia, the women wail and beat the 
boat. Except the Ahmei.Ubdd sect, all MoTnnaa intormai'ry, tho Kftzi 
«f ordinary Musahniins performing the ceremony. Each settlement 
hu its luiion, lieadman, and code of rules which are gcnci'ally well 
Vfi. Among Pfllanpur Moninds serious disi)ute3 aie referred to the 
Writua] guide at Pitlanpuv, to whom every adult pays a ycaidy tax of 
BfclJ. They teach their children Gujardti and some iuSurat Knglith. 
Seno of them have r:sen to any high position. 

Mu'Ua'nis and Mu'lta'ni Mochis, Shoemakers from MulWn, 
we (oand in all the chief cities of Gujarlit. Escapiug from North India, 
.fnbibly on the occasion of one o£ tlie early Muhammadau invasionw, 
^they tctt'ed in GujarAt and were, according to their own account, eon- 
I Wrted to Islam durmgthe reign of Mahraud Begada{A.D. 145',) -1513). 
J'eoplo calling themeelveB Mi'iitinis sell dry fish and fuel and jjctty 
grocery in Ndsik. These according to General Briggs {Transac. 
My. Socy. Bombay. Vol. I. page 193) emigrated ti-oni Multdn in 
;*.£>. 1739 when Nfidir Shith invaded India and i.hey followed 
JUrd Jfili the Nizdm to the Dakhan, In the north of Gujurtlt there 
Mn Miiltini Pathrins or simply MilMnip who add the title Klnlu 
to titcir Damo^ and arc soldiers tailors or servants. Tho heaviness 
(rf their faces and bodies may be taken as a proof o£ their iiorthera 
arigic. Ah far as possible they marry among themselves. Thoy 
my thoy came originally from Miiltiin. The north GujanU MAltSnis 
tpeok Uindu&t^ni. Tho men dress like middle-class Musalmans, tho 

' AmciQi: Malii KJiiiilia aiul I'urAutij Uoinnds the pra^tixo tiutkLil by Mr. Mulvill id 
ISZ7 {Bom. Onv. Scl. X, 9) jf Imving a iwarmgc c enjiiiony ivffijriQiji by a BriLliui;iii U 
tU kept. Tlw AhmoiUlniii Bed iuCuniukrry with the Parantij UoiuniU, and wllcu aucli 
^ been tliu CBfUiin in ttie bridal family the Iliada tDArriai;<^ '9 pciforuinl. 


and Multa' 



# - 

GTJxuT KfrciAnas. 

a T 


md Mtf.^SarJ 




lu^ ^«s:isifl£ siiijr^nL TbCTa:cjc vxtgas is Uindu- 
& *a!rLiaz^ sfiifsrL. 1^ nfcffi a^ s^^zallj made, many 
m-rjL i. si:*r:.- iizi ar roilT-iiiT* ia coi^xir, bat wiA 
v.iiXiHt i^r "Wr^-ziiiiir Jiiii fisT. Their houses 
^fic-juL il-»»i^ Till m Tsiaia, where the men 
i v.c:*^ FJi ^:'i.*5r>r*sr *.* t rk. T:.-fa>^ icrs* is little fnmitore, 
^t^ '.^ *?.% h.rztz ziiwis i^i n>:.:f- iul s fex c:oV:ijr pots. There 
2* ^'.fjcr-z Fiei'Jil iz: tbsr f:oL Tiir 12 fa ire?* ii^e Musalmdns 

a r^ 2".Ti. c w.i -"dr.- sai irniia=C5- Ti-fj Lavi a^ .-p^.'.al omuments. 
I^ rrTr>t :f i^L^n. i^. ii::Ji;zi li= liiaer MissLinios ijj.r wi^L^wi break 
t]>ir Ar:2*^, "z^ "c/iifecz. ii^r c:--tiaQe 1.3 wear tie nad headscarf. 
TlfcrT ij^ barl»>ri±i^ iji iJirlfiT', lat Jaiie a jo>r name for honesty. 
SLtLT i tbinz. iz^ Tr:ri«:s 11 >atfy?. In maVng shoes, contrary to 
tlks xisr^aL p^^o:'^ tlrj se^ :ae Lf:&:zur w.-od^ ade out and then torn 
i^aUr &zi:r^ -a-irae:!. lirir shres are ia great request, and 

th'Xigh in p>:c c'I?P3zi*:aZf>es few c-f dksn are in debt. Sunnis in 
name, ther care liriie i>r reli^i>n aod have i>3 special customs or 
t^^iefs. They h:Id a i^w piisitiv:! am>n^ Mosalmans, forming a 
^'parate 'j»i7, narrrin^ :niy a!:i:ng themselves. They are without a 
lii^man or any ci^iss orjanizatioi. Haidiv any of them can read or 
write arid ver^- few send their cailiren tj* scLool. 


Halbands^ H.:.rseio3r«, are foand ia all J stricts. 'fhj men 
fchoe h'.rjcri aal tiie w:-men spin cott:.n. They intermarry with other 
3[u5a]min=, and ar j like them 'ml lor^k speech an 1 dress, and have no 
ifeparate uai^u or heaJiaan. They are thrifty and >Ycll-t'>do but bear 
iio very i^»J i^m^ f .r cleaaiiness h?aes:y or S'jberness. They arc fairly 
relisious. As a rule thev are i literate, but oae in the north has risen 
to be a clerk in Government service. 

Pa'njniga^rs^ Cjtton-threal Starohers, found in all parts of the 
province, are converts from the Hindu caste of the same name. They 
shave the head, but there is nothing special in their look. At home 
they speak a mxture of Hindustani and Gujarat i, aad both mcu and 
women wear the orJiuary Musalmdn dress. All are eui^gei in 
starch! 11'^ thrca/l. They are quiet thr'.fty fiirly sjlK?r and hoaest. 
Tlieir work though steady is poorly paid, and as tbolr crafc is easy to 
Icani there is much competition. Sunnis in name, they are not a 
religious class, few of them kaowin;;^ the Kura^u, Tiiey marry only 
amon;^ thcms^Ivci and have no s|)ecial customs. They have a well- 
managed union with a separate headman. They do not send their 
children to school. 

Hi'r Pa'njniga'rs, Silk Starchers, though they intermarry and 
in all respects resemble them, are a separate body from the Pdnjnigars 
or cotton starchers. Musalmdns have a monopoly of this craft as the 
starch is made of old leather boiled down with limejuico and Hindus 
will not touch it. 

' The p'uhwdz wtJi'u by theso women m in some poipbs unlike that of ordinary 

Ihe puhwas vnJvn by theso women in in some poipts unlike that of onlin 
Muhaininadttiu, It Imti not the usual number of fulda and plaits, and is mudo to sc 
tbo purpow of the bodice which thoy do not wear. 



BangrOZ, Dyci-B, found in all parta oE Giijavit, are of Hindu orijrin 
and sai'l til lie converts from the Khatri or Hindu weaver caslo. Tlioy 
hive n<i snbilivieionB. They are tall museular and fiiir ivoarinj; tlic hair 
■ml a full Ijeard. The womeu are of niiJdlc height fiiir and well- 
(eatUTf^d. Their homo tongue is Hiudnstani. Both mon and women 
dnsslikB Muhammadaus. Thy Rangroz -women of north UujarAt 
itoftr shirts and scarves of a dark piirplo or bronze. They dyo in all 
CDloars, and deal iu safflowQr ^(isufifa. Tho women knot cloth for 
olioo-printing. Tliey are quiet aobcr hardworking and thrifty, and 
are well-to-do and able to save. Tho women nppear in public. 
^yare Siiuuisby religion, teaching their childrou tho Kuraau and 
. king caruful to say their prnyers. Except tliat at marriagoa the 
Irriiu^rooiii walks instead of riding, thoy have no peculiar customs, 
In nor'li Gujarat Musalmdns of difTeront classes aro known as 
lUngTCz, but in Surat there is one distinct community who marry 
enly among themselves and havo a union and headman. Most of 
Ihem besides tho Kura^n, teach their children Gujarilti and some- 
^mes English. None of them have risen to any high position. 

Bala'ts, Masons, found all over tho province, are said to bo 

mostly converts from tho Ilinda caste of the same name. Except 

MAmniri Salfits, who come and go between Marwiir and Oiijarilt, they 

kave no subdivisions. They are strong brawny men, with nothing 

lurkcd in their appearance. Stone masons by craft somo of them 

ore skilled carvers, able to restore the most delicato of tho old 

nDaldingB and ti'acerles. They speak Hiudnstani, and both men 

. ud women dress like Mnhammadans. Tho women do not help tho 

Bicn in their work. They are t)uiet and hardworking but not parti- 

I takrly sober and eoraewbat thriftless. As a class they are rather 

badly off. Their customs arothosoof ordinary Musalmdns. Sunnis 

! innamo, they are not religious, £ow of lliem knowing the KuraSn. 

Thoy intormnriy with other Musalmans, but have a -separate union 

ind a hcadniftu of their own. They do not teach their children and 

I floae havo risen to any high position. 

\ SodIp, Goldsmiths, found in small nnmbers in Kachh K^thid- 
wir and AhmcddbSd, are converts from tho Hindu caste of tho 
Who name. The men aro fair and tho women handsome. They 
qxnk flindttStSndi. The men wear a threecornered tnrban, a coat 
pnckcrod under the arm, and short trousers. The women dress like 
Hindus. They all work in gold and silver, and have a bad name 
for adnltorating by mixing cheaper metals. Tho women help the 
men in their work, but, as they do not know whom their daughters 
RiBy marry, the men keep the craft sccrots hid from their wives. 
' Thsj aro hardworking and sober but not very thrifty. As a class 
tlt^ aro well-tu-do. tiunnis by religion, somo know tho Kuradn 
and are careful to say their prayers. They are disciples of Sayads 
descended from the I'iran Fir. Except that nt deaths tho women 
b^t tho breast and wail, they have no special customs. They have 
so separate onion or headman. They teach their children Gnjarfiti 
Imt not English, Nbuo of them havo rison to any high positioD. 

Chapter IC 




Chapter II. 







Tals, Silk Weavers, found in all parts of Gujardt, claim to 
take their name from Tdi, a city between Turkey and Arabia, and 
to have been taught weaving and sewing by the Prophet Idrls. 
They claim descent from Hatim o£ Ttii, the famous Arab hero who 
flourished immediately before the birth of tho Prophet and whoso 
name is proverbial in Arabia for generosity. In Gujarat they ara 
a mixed class some of them foreigners, who seem to have com^ 
from Sindli about a thousand years ago, and others converted 
Gujardt Hindus. Of middle size, weak, light-complexioned, 
and with fairly regular features, they wear the beard, shave the 
head, and can hardly be known from other Musalmdns of the 
lower order. The women aro goodlooking and well-made. At 
homo some of them speak Hindustdni and others Gujardti. 
Except that they wear tight trousers, there is nothing peculiar in 
the men's dress. The T^isi of Balsdr in tho south of Surat claim 
Arab descent, and wear a Kayasth-like turban, a coat puckered 
under the arm, and loose Momna-liko trousers and shoes. In large 
towns tho women dress like Musalmdns and in country places like 
Hindus. Except in Balsar where some families do business as 
bankers and moneylenders, all weave cotton robes and turbans. 
They are quiet honest hardworking and steady, but their work is 
badly paid and most of them are poor. They are Sunnis in faith, 
and, especially in Ahmcddbad and Surat, are a religious class, going 
to tho mosquo live times a day. Their customs are those of ordinary 
Musalmdns. They marry among themselves and form a separate 
union with a headman of their own. Some send their children to 
tho Mulla to learn the Kuradn, but as a class they are illiterate. 

v.— Service. 

Under Service come eleven classes, nine of them, Behrfipide, 
Bhands, Bhattis, Bhawayyds, Gandhraps, Kamdlids, Maddris, Mfrs 
or Mirdsis, and Tdschis, singers and players ; one of them, Sipdhis, 
soldiers and watchmen ; and ono Turki Hajdms, personal servants. 

Behra'pia'F, Men of many forms, one of the eight classes of 
actors and players, aro found in small numbers all over Gnjardt. 
They are a mixed class. At home they speak Hindustdni, and 
except when performing dress like ordinary Musalmdns. They arc 
ventriloquists and actors with a special skill of dressing one 
side of their face like a man and the other sido like a woman, and 
moving their head about so sharply that they seem to be two 
persons. Tho women nevei> act but do house work. The men ar(^ 
clean honest clever and religious, but rather idle, and some of 
them unthrifty. The women do not appear in public. Though poor, 
they aro generally free from debt. Sunnis in faith, a few know 
the Kuraan and are careful to say then' prayers and follow a rchgious 
guide. They do not form a distinct community and liave no headman. 

Bha^ndB^ Buffoons, belonging to all classes but cliiefly new- 
comers from the North- West, are found in all^Jarge Gujardt towns. 
They vary much in appearance and speak Hindustdni and dress like 
ordinary Musalmdns. They sing dance and act, going about in troops 





taifai of not less than ten members, each troop with its leader jamaddr 
m its clown. They do not act plays, bnt tell stories and satires on 
loraety as witty and quaint as they are immodest. Between the 
tiks tiie clown mimics, and the leader sings or dances, sometimes with ^^ 

gnat skill, the troop accompanying on the fiddle and tambourine. 
When he dances the leader holds over his head a scarf odna, puts 
over Ins man's dress a gown pishtodz, and wears bells at his ankles. 
They are paid from Hs. 15 to JRs. 100. Half of this goes to the 
leader and the rest is shared among the troop. They are idle and 
fond of amusement and neither honest nor sober. Some of tiiem are 
Snnnis and others Shi^hs. They are fairly religious and a few are able 
to read the Kura^n. They have no peculiar ciistSms, and except those 
rfthe same troop form no separate body. They teach their cliildren 
Hiodnstdni and a few are Persian and Arabic scholars. 

Bhatti's are a tribe of Rajputs converted to Isldm by Mahmdd of Bf 

Ghazni (a.i>. 1001 - 1030) durmg one of his invasions and removed 
toBhatinda a town lying between Dehli and the Satlaj.^ The Gujardt 
Bhattis have so mixed by intermarriage with the other Musalmdn 
classes that they retain no peculiarity of feature dress customs or 
character. They serve as messengers or village servants in north 

Bhawayya^B^ StroUinff Players, found all over Gujard-t arc eha 
converts from the Hindu class of the same name. The men are of 
average height and dark, shaving the face and wearing the hair. The 
women are handsome. They speak Hindustani. In pri\'ate the men 
dress like Muhammadans, and when they act, they dross oifcher 
like Mnhanmiadan men or women. The women wear the Musalmdn 
diess. The men dance and play before males ; the women sing before 
females. Both men and women lead dissipated lives. As a class they 
are poor, some of them in debt. They also come to a house where 
a son has been bom and demand gifts. Sunnis in religion, some 
know the Kuradn, and a few are careful to say their prayers and have 
a religious guide. They have no special customs. They marry 
among themselves and have a miion but no headman. Very few oE 
them teach their children and none have risen above the position of 
trolling dancers. 

Qandhrapp, Singers, found all over Gujardt, are said to be converts Gand 

trom the Hindu class of the same name. The men are middlesized 

strong fair and well featured; the women handsome. They speak 

Qnja^ti. The men wear a thi-ee-cornered turban, a coarse coat, 

«lnd short tight trousers ; the women d head-robe and petticoat. In 

tJic dry season they move about the country, and in the rainy months 

thoy go to their homes in north-west Gujardt and cultivate. They 

travel in bands of six to ten ; the girls singing and dancing and the 

taen accompanying them on the drum or tambourine. The wives do 

Hot perform in public. As a class they are fairly off, some of them 

nble to save. They are Sunnis in religion. A few read the Kuradn 

1 Tabakdt4.Niitiri by Major H. G. Ravorliy, 1. 10, 80 note 1. 
B 620—11 





and are careful to Bay tlieir prayers, and havo a spiritual guide. 
girls become protcisional dancers arad proBtitutes, the men neve 
iu their own class. They seek wives from among poor MnsahnA 
and sometimes Kolia, paying the fathers Re. 5 to Eb, 10. "n 
pai-ents live on their daughters' earnings. Tiiey have a union and 
lieadman, and during the rainy season generally meet together i 
marriages. They do not teach their cliildren and sliow no signs' 

Kama'lia's, The Perfect, are sprung from Kanoj Brilmiai 
worsliippers of Baiiucheraji, who were converted by the Musahal 
Emperor AU-ud-diE,(A.D. 1297J. Their name is derived from Jcau 
or perfect, the title given to their headman when converted to IsU] 
When they go to Bahuclieriji they beg in the name of the godde 
They do not cii-eumcise, and except that thoy brand a dead mal 
breast and bury him, tlioJr ceremonies are llindu. Some of t 
are Eaid to bo married and Iiave children, others are said to i 
a living as euouchs. Of the Kamiliiis the ^ankhor of the Mini 
Ahraeai'eayB : In the sub-district of Clinnval, forty miles to them 
of AhmediiMd in the village of Sankhanpur under Pattdn is a ten 
whei-ein k no idol but a window or niche in its western wall wh' 
is named after Bahiichra one of the names of the goddess Bhawi 
There are many stories told of this niche which owing to their 1 
we cannot mention here. The most wonderfid tact about this t ^ 
are its worshippers who are divided into two classes, the Paviijl 
and the KamAlias. The Pav^iyae (who are no other than the UijoJ 
are men who havo adopted female attire and manners. The Kauufi 
are men of the military profession ivho always Ijear the emblem 
Bahuchra which is a trident. Both classes are Musalraans in i 
but infidelity is better than their Isi^. The Rajpiits and KoUs 
those parts who are freebooters and highway robbers so respect tl 
men that if one of them is cngage<l as a convoy for a cm-avan, they 
not rob it. The cock and the peacock being the vehicles of the gooA 
are offered at her shrine and no one can barm these birds there. Tf 
sacrifice buffaloes at Bahuchra's shrine and make the forehead mi 
with the victim's blood. Many pilgrims perform vows at the tem 
and fast till they obtain their wish, Many blind persons are r^ior 
to have regained their sight at the temple by these vows. Othen ^ 

Stay or vow to obtain an object of desire or even a horse are giva 
ream to proceed to a particular person to secure it. The p 
whom the votary is directed also gets a dream wherein b 
identify the votary and is told what to give him. 

Mada'ri'S, that is Followers of saint Shiili Madar, also i 
Ba'zigars, Funmakers or Jugglers, are a wandering tribe of playi 
moving in liands of two or three families over the whole of Quji 
and IVUhva. They are converted Hindus of the Nat or tumbler tM 
The men are middle-sized, strongly made, dark, and well featm 
Tho women are handsome but very dark. They speak Hiodnst 

1 Perbiau Tsxt, 11. 98, 


r dialBut of the'r oi^n. Both men and women drees like 
men witu a ciotn wound round their head, a tight-iJtting 
iacket and waJetulotii, the women in n small headscaTf tight-fitting 
ai&e and Sowing ])etticoat. The men are enakeeharmertj tumblers 
nd trickciters. The womeo do not perform with the men but dance 
udang before women and uomelimes aut as prostitutets. They arc 
tidj- but idle dissipated and fond of thieving, Sunnis in name, the/ 
know little of iheir religion, worshipping Musalmila saints and 
Hindu gods and following Hindu customE. They marry only among 
Ihemsclve^ and form a separate eommunity with a headman. They do 
art t«ach their children and show no signs of bettering their position. 

Hi'rB Nobles or Mi'ra8i'S Landlords, also called Laughos or 
sngers, Dholis or drum-plityers, and Dome aftur the tribe of that 
ume, are found all over Gujarat, but chiefly in the large toivns of 
the north. Ihey were originally of two classes, one the descendants 
rf Qujanit Bhiits or bards, the other from northern India partlj' of 
Kbit deacont and parfly eonnectcd with the Doms.^ Mirs now by 
iatermarriage form a single community. The men are tall well-made 
Jither tawny in colour and of gooil features ; the women are well-made 
md handsome. The Kathidwir Mirasis wear a large loose-twisted 
lurkaD, a shoH jacket^ trouiiors loose above but tight at tlie ankles, 
ad oFor the trouserB a cloth Inngi, wound round the waist and 
huging to the knees. All others dress like poor MufialmAna. 
Bxoept iu AhiiiedAb^ and Surat where they dress hke Musalm^nn, 
Uiritsi women w(ar Hindu clothes. Some own laud, and in the 
tniy season many work as cultivators. In the fair season the men 
aove about oilber alone or in twos or threes, begging singing and 
telling tales, both Hindn and Musalnuiu, and playing on the dmm, 
1^ hddle, the guitar, and the tambourine. The women stay at 
kaow, and under the name of Domnis or Langliis, at marriage 
sd (Kiier feast^i attend at Muhammadan liouses and play and sing 
before the women. They arc thiifty but idle, and neither honest nor 
(oler. Many of the women arc of loose tharact«r. They are zealous 
Mowers of \)6A& Mian, an Ahmcdib^d Sayatl, paying him yearly Ee. 1 
Wt-moncy or forty pounds (one man) of wheat. Thoy mai-ry only 
ntong themselveSj and with the Sayad as their head, form a well 
naiuged commumty. None of them teach their children English or 

Sipa'hlP, Soldiers, the military class, found in considerablo 
cmmbers in all parts of Gujarat, soem to be of mixed origin, 
portly descendantB of immigrantB and -partly of Kajput converts 
M their Burnomes Cboh&n, lUthor, and Parmdr show. In 

'A aidcspiGad trilic in Bandolhliand, SAgKr, aad OudL, uuuk to tLa position of 
M nwlii 1 1 uid iwecpen. Tbcir own fAnciful cipUnation of the word mifiui, ntir 
■MabqiI Ati a linner, bocausc one oF tlicic anroatnrs sinned in cnting with a iwocpcr, 
|d^ jwints to the aanic coniicc:Uoi>. Barton's Sindh, 303 ; ElliDt'9 BaccB, N.W.P. 
vH. Tlie; axe probably called Mira ont of courtrsy as liorbors ate citlk'd Klinlif Lbs or 
tastens. nrtviwTs Mchlonl at cliiufs, and aer^-uut i;irU \Va!<ifiilH or nccoinplislicd. 
Mb fiiliiiiliir Kiii t^baliab-ud-diu. 






Chapter n. 





Kdtbiiwdr thoy speak Gtiianiti and in other parts Htadnstsiiig 
They murry with other MnaaluiAns, and have no peculiar appoariiEiotj 
bnt vary in thciv fashion of wearing the hnir and bearJ. Excejt 
in Kilthidwitr, whero they dress Iiko Hindus, both men and womes 
wear Husnlnidn clothes. They arc husbandmen and laboarers, aimI 
are Dmpioyod in Govornmcut service as soldirra, constables, and 
messongei-B. The women spin, and except the wives of jwor cnltt- ' 
valors who work ia the fields, they do not appoar in public. Tlie 
men are hardworking but rather thriftless and fond of nmosement 
and stimulants. As a chtss they are badly off, Snnuis in faith, 
some of them know J,hc Kuraun, say the ii- prayers, and pay respect 
to a spiritual guide. They havo no peculiar castoms. As they 
marry with other Musalmdns they form no very distinct commanity, 
though they havo a union and a headman. Some teai'b th«tr 
children Gujardti and a few English. None havo risen to any bij^ 

Ta'shChis, Kettledrum or Tdslia Beaters, and NakHi'chU lionet 
kettleili'um Beators, arc names not of sejiarato classes but of a naio^ 
among the different musical instniment i)laycrs. The objects of thq 
union are to equalise the profits of all the mombcra and t« gnud 
against the competition o£ outsiders. A newcomer jiays lis. 1} to tU 
common fund. At the end of each busy geas<:in tho mcmlters put theiB 
earnings into one purso and the amount is equally divided among "" 
A breach of the rules is punished by a fine of one or two rupees. 

Turki Haja'ms,' Barbers, a class of Personal Servants fonnj 
over the whole of Gujarat, are said to be partly the descendants ot 
immigrants and iiai-tly converted Hindu barbers. Tbere are two 
divisiona, joA-^am Icechmcn and /ify'iima liarbers. They arc t«ll aoS 
dark with thick lips and small eyes. In the south they Epeak Hindii< 
stftni, but in AhmedSbdd their home tongue is Gujar&ti. lluj men dre^j 
like I oor Muhanunadans, \he johh'iri women like Hindus, and, ffl 
in AlimedAbad where they dress like Hindus, tho iojdni women 
Musalmdns. The jokidn's keep leeches and tlie hafiimt ehave 
circumcise. Formerly the iftjdma had charge of the public baths, tw* ' 
or three of which, with their cold medium and Cei-cely hot rooms, were, 
under Mughal rule, to be found in every town. The present bath is a 
cistern let into the wall at some height from (he ground. In the 
cistern warm water is kept ready, and the bather standing under 
tho cistein, draws out a wooden or cloth ping and lets tho water &I] 
over him. For this he pays half an anna, Tlie women spin cotton 
and act as midwives and nurses. The men are quiet, rather idle, 
fond of talk, and not particularly honest sober or thrifty. They ai 
poor cii'cum stances, many of them in debt. The poor who come Uj 
their shop are charged half an aima for having the whole h 
jhaved. The baiber goes to the houses of his rich and middle cl 
customers generally on Mondays and Pi'idays, getting from Rs, 3 to Bs. 

■ Tnrki BeetUE here to mwin MuBaliiKUi, ISy Gujanlt HioJu. 
often culled TorKkdto or Little Turks, 


» year. They aro Suimia by rcligionj a fow of them knowing the 
Knradn and lieing eyeful to say their prayerg. They have a eaint 
SaUumdn Fdi-ae whose Jay thoy hallow, anJ who they say invented 
Bhaving with a strip of banihoo, Thoy have no special eustomF. Tho 
two divisions intemmrry but forna connet^tione with no othei- class. 
Thoy have a separate union under a headman. They Weep on a friendly 
footing with tneir Hinda castcfellowB and attend eash other's public 
feasts. Except the Kuradn they do not teacli their childi-cn cither 
Qojanitl or English. None oE them have risen to any high position. 

VI.— Labour. • 

OE Lahoui-era there arc fourteen chisses : Banjhdnts, carriers ; 
Chfitlds, woodcuttei's ; Chhavlts, wandering thieves ; Dhiildhoyds, 
ilostvrafihers ; Qorkhodida, gravediggers ; Katliidrfia, fuelsellers ; 
M^hhis, fishermen; MiSlie, gai\louer6 ; MaiKiritflj comwoigherB ; 
NAgoi'is, cartdrivers ; Nats, tamblers ; PaJdiSlis, watermen ; Shishgarg, 
glaBenmkei-s ; and Thoris, cattlestcalers, 

Baaj ha'ra'e, literally Traders, derived from two Hindustiiui 
words, Jiaiiaj trade, and /tdrd doer/ found in all parts of Gujardt, aro 
t-onvcrts from the Hindu caste of the same name. Accoi"ding to Genl. 
Briggs (Ti'ansactions of the Bombay Literary Society, Vol. I. page 174) 
the Banjhdrrfs come from four K^jput tribes, the Rdthore, Bui-te.ds, 
duihAas, and I'awrtrs. They are a wandering tribe, encamping dm-iiig 
the rainy season in places where they can find su65cipiit. pasture foi' 
their cattle, and in the fair season moving backwards and forwards 
between Mdrwftr and Gujaiilt. Of middle height, strong, spaie, and 
Bwarthy, the men wear the hdr long anil the beard of average length. 
Tlie women are also of middle height, a little stouter than the men, 
tWk, and wild-looking. Among themselves they speak a dialect not 
ondcFBtood by ordiuaiy Musahndns. The men wear a Marviidi-liko 
turban a coat and waistcloth. The women draw the sdii over the 
head and ra'se the robe into a higb-peaked headdress, by setting 
inside of it an upright stick about nine inches long which broadens 
on the head into a cup-like pedestal. Besides the robe they wear a 
looee unbacked t>odice, a long full petticoat, and peaked shoos. Their 
onjamcuts are peculiai'. Across each temple runs a small silver chain 
hooked in the middle to a braid of hair, and at tbo end to tho 
Yait over the car. They also weai' uoeerings and large tin and brass 
(vrings. On their arms from the wrist to the shoulder arc tiers 
of heavy Hat bands of copper or tin, they^have tin mgs on their fingers, 
and on their legs light chains of brass or tm. Besides bullocks, 
which they bring to sell, they carry from Mdrw^r wool aud coarse 
bliiukets, taking back gr^n salt cocoanuts and tobacco. The women 
drive the bnllocks. They have a good name for fair dealing, but are 
iffle dirty and thriftless. As a class tlicy are poor, some of them in 
isbt. They circnmcisc, bury the dead, and are married in the 

Chapter II. 




' tlenorftl EriggB iTrnusaotioua ot the lloinboy Literary Society, I. 172) oon«dotf 
'mw Wa» a forest auA Anra aa belougiiig to o-r comiuu frum the st<)\m\A« tw^. 

Chapter II. 


Musalniaii furm. Still thoy know little of their religion, and believj 
in Hindu goJs. They bcai' Hindu names and never eat beef. Thej 
tnaiTy out of their tribe and iorm a separate community. Each horj 
idiidij has a separate headman called Ndii, whose authority extends i 
Ear as t!io levy of fines fi'om Rs. 5 to 7 in oivil disputes. They are i 
[xwr condition. In the decay of their former carrying trade, they lial 
taken to no new industry, and are said to l>e dying out. As tarriar 
of grain for MnsalraAn armjjps the Banjlidras have figured in hist{H( 
from the days of Muhammad Tughhib (a.d.1340) to those of Auningrf 
(a.d. 1658-1707) and they supplied grain to tho British army vrni 
the Marquis of Cornwallis daring the siege of Seringanatam (aj 

CllE'tla's are a wandering tribe oeeasjonally found in north Gujarit 
Of their origin iiothing has been traced. The men are shof 
muscular and very dark with long hair. The women aio dark with 
iri-ogular and harsh features. The men wear a coarse white waistclotlra 
.^nd the women a robo drawn over the head ani] sometimofi a bodicejfl 
They eat animal food and carcasses. They ai'e woodcutters, brin^n^nfl 
in firewowl from the forests, and acting as carriers. They are dirt/Jfl 
untidy aiid dissipalfid. They are miserably poor with a few donkeyaj 
and nothing biit the barest nccessarie.'< of lite. They are Muhammadat) 
only in name and know nothing of their religion. They behove that fii 
dead become saints pir^. Every year on the anniversary of the Vid 
doatJi the family calls the triWe to the tomb, and gives a feast of win 
mutton and pork. They bury the dead standing, building a rajsed toni 
t^vo feet siiuare, and in the centre a square altar half a foot highq 
They are a wretched class anil show no signs of improvement. 

Ctllia'ra's, also calletl Gh^gliarifis or Petticoat PeoplCj are occa^oi 
ally found in small numbers all over Gnjaiiit. They are Eiupposed i 
lie convei-ted Hindus, but of their origin nothing certain is knows 
Besides IlindustAni they speak among themselves a dialect not undes 
utood by ordinai'y MusalmAns. The men are big, strong, and vers 
black with irregular- features, the hair and .beanl long and uutidj 
The women are better looking- but dark. The men wear a cloth rouoi 
the wiust, the women a headsearf odua, a ringed bodice, and a tatteroc 
petticoat. During the rains they meet in one place, holding theii 
maiTiago and other family ceremonies, and setthng their dispata 
At the beginning of the fair season they break into bands, movini 
about with Briujdri dogs and donkeys, begging stealing and possini 
counterfeit coin. They aie o£ bad character. They arc Musalmam 
on!v in name and know nothing of tluii- rehgpon. They have a u 
and a headman called ndiir. 

Dhu'ldhoya's, Dustwashevs, found in considerable numbers all 
over GujarAt but chiefly in Nadiiid and Mehmaddbdd, are said to bO 
converted Hindus oE the Khatri caste. They have a story that uncfl 
when their earnings as weavers were low, they were blessed by i 
beggar and told Uuit in future they would find gold in duet. Th«^^ 
men are of middle height, well-made, sallow,, and weU-featuredi 

■ Uuucral Briggg in TrauBaclioiu Bomlmy Lituraty Soiiuty, I. H 



Tliey grow tlio beard and wear tlio Iiair lathei' long. The women are 
teli-maJeEairaudhandsonic. At home they apeak Hinduefcini. Both 
mm and ivoinen dress like ordinary Jlusalmdns. The men buy dust 
iDil otlier ruhbish from the houses of goldsmitiis, wash and sift it and 
iMcfuIlypicbout theparticlesof goldor sUverfoundin the refuse. The 
women spin. They are quiet, honest, tnttbfnl, rather idle, sober, and 
cloritable. The women appear in publii;. Their condition is |>oor. 
Sunnia in faitli, they are aw a class religious, knowing the KuraSn and 
aying their prayers. They Iiave no special euHtoms, They marry 
only among themselves and form a sepamte body with a hcadinnn of 
their own. They teach their children HindustS^i and GujarAti and 
wmetiine!i Knglis-b. None have risen to any high posit'on. 

Gorkhodla's, Oravediggers, found in small numbers in all parts 
o! the province, are of mixed origin, partly foreign partly Hindu. 
b appearance they are small and dark. They speak II induetini. 'i'he 
WD wear a three-cornered turban, the common coat, and short trousers. 
The women dress like MusalmilTis. Thi; men dig graves and the 
nomen spin. They are quiet and sober, dirty unt-dy and thriftless. 
The women are well behaved. As a class they are poor, some of them 
mok in debt. Sunnis in religion, some of them ieam the Kuraiin, hut 
m nut regular in saying their prayers. They Iiave no special citstoms. 
Tlwy hold a very low position, marry among themselves, and have no 
nnion or headman. They do not t^ai'li their children and none have 
rimi to any high position. 

Eatbia'ra'8, Fuolsellers, arc richer than Kanilias or Pot-scllers 
(l«ij^ 3o) with whom they marry. 

Ua'chbis, Fishermen, found chiefly in Ahmcddbad, are said to be 
Hindu converts from the Ifhoi and Khdrva eastes, They are tall 
wll-made and very dark. ITiey foi-m two divisions, iidancf and coast 
Hfchhis. lioth speak }Iiudust^ni. lixcept that some wear a waist- 
tloth, the men of fwth divisions dress like ordinary MusalmSns. The 
dr«aB of the inland women is a coarse Hindu robe, a tight bodice, and 
apftticoat of red cloth. The coast or GoghaMilehhi women dress in 
Mosiilinan fashion, wearing the headscarf gown and trouHers. The 
inland Sl.^chhis are freshwater fishers ; the women are employed as 
extra servants at marriages and deaths. The coast Maehhis make long 
am voyages as far as England and China. Whon in Gogha they 
engage in sea-fishing. Wliile theit husbands are at home tJie women 
(ell fish, and when they are away spin cotton. The inland MUehhis are 
idle and quarrelsome and neither thrifty nor sober. The coast iliichhjs 
Mj qiiitt, thrifty, sober, religions, and well-to-do. Whon he starts on a 
long voyage a coast Mdchhi leaves money with his wife. This she is 
Bid to manage with gi'eat care and to conduct herself and her house 
with nuieh discretion. Unlike the inland Machhis who areMusalmfina 
oniv in name, the coast Mdehhis, Sunnis iu faith, are a religious class, 
houi men and women knowing the Kuradn and being carSul to say 
Wieir prayers. Neither class has any special customs. Eaeh division 
owrics only among it^ own members and bos a union and a headman. 
N*iHier class teaches their children either English or Gujardti, and 
tane of them have risan tc any high position. 

Chapter 11. 




Chapter n. 







Ma'lia, Gardeners, oE whom there is only one family in Abmedib 
aic i^aid i^ be converts from the Hindu ooste of tbe game 
Tliese people iiiteimariy with the Oorthodiiia oi- gravediggcrs (pi 
87), auJ oxcept that tlicy prepare the flower-Bhcets for the dead do 
differ from them in any rcBpect. 

Mapa'ra's, Comwoighcrs, are found in all pai-ts of north Gaj< 
They closely resemble the Maniirs or ivory-workers. 

Na'gorie, found in AlimedabAd, Viramgim, BhAvnagar, Ban) 
and Broach, come from Nd^jor in Malwa, The men are big, sta 
dark, and well- featured. They shave the head and wear a 
bt'ard ; the women Src haudsomo and fair. They speak a oiixetl' 
Gujuriiti and Hindustitni. The men wear an ill-shaped Musalnian 
turban, a short coat and waistcloth, putting on trousers only on 
high holidays The women dress like Muaalmdna iu a headscarf 
shirt and trousers. In Broach they are said to wear the boilioe 
and apron or jiairahitn in one piece. They are cnrt<lrtvers. Befora, 
railway time?} they brought goods and peoplo from Mdlwa 
Ahmcddbdd. Now they go only short disttmces. Thoy arc V~ 
working, thrifty, sober, quarrelsome.and fairly honest. Tbew< 
work as labourers and sell milk. They are Sunnia in name, V 
a class the men arc not religious, only a few of them knowin<^ 
Kura;jn or saying their prayers. Unlike the men, the women 
rule are careful to say their prayers and have generally some 
gious guide pir. They ha\'c no special customs. They nmrry 
among themselves and form a .separate community with a nnioa 
and a headman chosen by tlie people, Tlipy do not teach their 
children either English or Gujanlti and ou the whole are in a fall- 
ing state. In north Gujanit the Palanpilr section of the Ndgoris 
is the most numerous. Though thoy call themselves Khtins from 
having given up their originiU profession of eait<lriving and takaa 
to that of arms the Pdlanpiir NAgoris still belong to a nmnbur of 
classes, so that, though the whole form a single community, the 
surnames KAzi, Mughal, and Sheikh show that they oiico belonged 
to a number of classes. The Pdlanpfir Ndgoris aie verj- fond d 
giving public dinners on occasions of maiTiagc, circumcision, Mul 
death. So much importance do they attach to giving thesa 
dinners that a Ndgori will squander the earnings of a lifetime in 
a single dinner selling himself out of house and home if need bc 
If the man himself is not ready to give the dinners the castepeople 
assemble and force him to entertain them. Thns though a very 
hardworking thrifty race, few among them are rich or prosperous 
being always in the hands of the moneylender. 

NatP, Tumblers, a wandering tribe found in small amubore in t& 
parts of Gujardt, are couvettB from the Hindu tribe of the same name 
The men are tall, strongly made, dark, and well featured ; the iromct 
are dark but handsome, thoirlimbsowing to const^itexei'eifie being mos 
synimetrically formed. Besides spcakbig HinduBtdui and Gigarfl 
and understanding the dialect* of MArwar antf KAthiAwAr, they M 
among tltemselves a curious tongoe. They carry about the long loi 




flat-topped matting or rcod huts in which they live. The men wcav 
either a common Musalnutn turban or the hxy^o phdlia, the waistcoat, 
coat, and either a waisfccloth or oon^mon trousers. The women iUn\^s 
like Hindus. In the rainy season from iil'ly to a huntUvd i'lunilios 
meet tofyethcr in some central town, settle disputes, and hold marriage 
and death cercnionics. After the be.i»innin«^ of the fair weather tiny 
start in bands of eight to ten, with donkeys sheep jj^oats dogs and fowls, 
begging singing tumbling daneing, walking on the tight rojx*, and 
performing other acrobatic feats. Jn these the w«)meii take the chief 
part, andai'e called kahutru, machAlis, and l//nuihfiitis, Hying along the 
rope like pigeons, swimming down it like fish, never losing presenee of 
miad. The men play on the drum called d/wL They are hardworking 
but dissipatal and dishonest, and the womea are of loose characjter. 
Except that they circumcise their boys, bury their dead,^ and eat 
animal food^ they are Mnsalm.'ins only in name, knowing nothing of 
the rules of their religion, worshipping Ilindii gods, and a( their births 
and marriages performing Hindu eercmonieH. 

Pakhalis, Waterearricrs, from pakhnl or walerbag, also called 
Mnshki8 or AVaterbag-men and lihidis or cn-rectlv Bihishtis or The* 
Heavenly, are found in considerable numbers all over (Jujarat. They are 
paid to be the descendants of converts from the Hindu caste of Paklnilis. 
There are two divisions, one in north the other In south (Uijarat. 'J'he 
men are short strong and dark. Some of them fchave the head and 
others grow a crop of reddish weather-tanned hair. They wear the 
board short. The women arc short and dark. At home they speak 
Hindustdni. Kxcept that they wear the short trousers chnbia, the men 
dress like the poorer sort of ^lusalm^ns. North of the Mahi the women 
dress like Hindus and in the south like i?dui?almans. The men are 
watercarriers, and make the small reed and grass bo.its used on the 
fortieth day ceremonies.- 'Jo carry the water skin, n^rth of the Mahi 
they use oxen and in the south bullaloes. Tlie women help the men 
in driring the bullock. The men are qu' et, honest and, except in Surat 
sober hardworking thrifty and fond of amusement. Tiiey are well-to-do. 
Sunnis by religion, few know the Kuradn or are careful to say their 
prayers. They have no special customs. Except those of Surat they 
marry only among themselves, and have a union and a headman chosen 
by the people. In Ahmeda]>ad they have a mecLing- house cliawra, 
where they sit and talk, and have music. 'I'hey do not send their 
children to school, and none of them have risen to any high position. 

Shrshabgars^ Glassmakers, foun«l in Kapadvanj in the Kaira 
district and a few in the Panch iMaluil.^, are said to be converted 
Hindus. The men are tall strong dark and well-featured, wearing 
the hjdr model ately short and the beard long. The women are dark 
bot goodlooking. They speak HindiistiiTii. ^j'lie men wear a small 
three-cornered turban 1 i kc that wor a 1 )y th e Sum i i I Jol loras of Ah m edal > ;i d, 
* coat and loose trousers ; the women dross like ordinary llusalmjlns. 



When a Nat (lies, a si#aU spVu is InrMt. in his forcheail. 'J'his is caUcd di\gh 
*J* or branding. After tlic marking Uo !« buried, but witbout any pr.iycrs, 
.Sec Below page 157, , 

» 520—12 











Cbapter n. 




They are quiet hardworking and thrifty and, except a few who are 
p^iven to opium, sober. They make bottles rings and other glassware. 
The women help them in the work. As a class they are poor. They 
are Sunnis in religion, some of them knowing the Kuradn and l)eing 
careful to say their prayers. They have no special customs. They 
many only among themselves and form a separate body with a 
headman muhhi, and a carefully kept set of rules. Some of them teach 
their children Gujardti. None have risen to any high position. 

Thoris^ a wandering tribe, found chiefly in north Gujarat are said 
to be converted Hindus. Both men and women are tall strong and 
dark. They speak Cujaniti at home. Both men and women dress 
like Hindus. In the mins they make small grass or cane huts. They 
wander about the country iu bands of ten to fifty, and deal in bullocks 
and grain. They are said to commit highway robberies, to steal bullocks 
and horses, and the women to kidnap children. They are poor and of 
bad character. They are Muhammadans only in name, knowing nothing 
of their religion and worshipping Hindu gods. .Both men and women 
lead debauched lives. They circumcise their boys and bury their dead. 
At marriages the bridegroom pays the girl's father Rs. 200. They 
marry only among themselves and form a separate body with a headman. 
They do not educate their children and show no signs of settling to 
regular work. 


As reganlp oiiiditl'^n anil way of liv'ng tbo MiisatmJSii jvipulatiun Chapter III 
may be diriJed into three classes; the rleli with yeai'ly incoracB of styleoflai 
Ra. loOO anJ over ; the midcile with yearly incomes of from Ks. 1000 
(o Ife. 150 ; and the poor with less tlian R<. 150. 

Section I.— The Honse. * 

The style oE MiisahuAu ihve!iiiii<8 (Jiffei's preatly in nm'th and in Tanllou 
DKith QDJanit. Surat and Broach iiuuscs, which, on tho whtvlOj are 
tiie W^jt and most comfortable,' follow so little any uniform plan 
that pbthin^ more than a gvnural dosurlptioD of the ordinary arran^- 
tncnts can be attempted. 

The house of a rich Mufalmdn of Surat or Broach is generally two £i<A. 

1 or liree stories high, ihc wulls of brick and mortar, imd the roof of 
J tie. Rising from a plinth three to six feet above the level of the 
I ground, the oiiter walls arc covered witli a white yellow blue or rose 
I wisfa. Passing up a llight of thi-ee or four stone or cement steps, and 
mtdring by a massive wooilen door, is the mjuare dlldu, with in some 
I Wees & well or cistern for drinking water.^ Off this conrt, on oiio 
Rde, is a room for receiving chance visitors. On the other side is a 
I (toreroom, and in housoa where hired cooks are kept the (iookroom is 
'" i by.* From one of tho siile rooms rises the staircase, which in 
8 of recGut construct'on is generally made of wood and in old 
B of lime and bi-iek and in some casei of masonry. The staii" 
ll except iu the hmtses cf the very rich, often little better than a 
The upper storey ia divided into four or five rooms. The room 
[tho entrance door is the public room dCvdnlchdiiah, another is tho 

MOEvti of the aiiperlority of the Sorat and Broach hooies seoni to bo the low 
. . of nDod, tbc iiuprovpmontJ lUftgeatcd by fonign traders, and in :^arat till laloly 
tblttrof daiiisge by lluiids. In ncirtb GujarAt tha wliolB weiglit of the roof U laid 
« Willi often of roiiiuioii oiirtli, but nt Sumt a fraiiio oE wood boar* tho weight of th.! 
(Mf Md liinc ie us«d in baildtng walle. On the othor limid mftny of the lotvec middle 
MjBiDdjicmr houses of Snrrt and Broach mo coustruetcd of combustiblo materiftis, 
wall* And thin teak loollng, which when old form one of chici i-coiians for 


(icqlHDt ADd amoua Aces lo whii^h farat is Babjcct. 

lithe chief Gojard'. citius, alinoat all rich UoJalmin houses have wdU for the 

rlSfiil; of water foTbathiutliind other (loineitiepiirpoaQs and cisterns for driutcing water. 

■u eirtenis gcnerAlly form na uudertTouinl chainbci' with a «quaro or drcular 

lina aliont two Bict iii diameler s'lrnniiidcd hj > wall about two and a hilf feet 

^ with 4 tnouth rluwd by a wooden or eo|ipi?r lid. The nndorgronud chamber is 

l^lrith ooincnt and filled with nunwatcr hronght ia' pipes from tliL> rnvi'i of the 

■t lion] intfanls over the central court. Some houses have welli of « bleb tho 

bfltm diiul^ing. .Some have nattier well nor sigtern, And the dnuking water 

'~^' ' r « tralcrearricr bittieRIi, or, if a mosque is near, the hon>a geirants fetch 

L* cUtciu, lliu owner of the house inying the boadlo mnjitrar, a monthly 




Chapter III. 
Style of Living. 

The House. 

sittin«^-room baithal', in some cases used also iis a sleeping room. The 
two reiiiaiiiini»' rooms arc set apart for the ladies of the hoiisc, one for 
sleepin«:^ the other fa* sittin^;. If the house has three stories, the 
two rooms on the second iluor are both used as sitting rooms for the 
ladies and the sleeping room is in the top fctory. Some rich houses, 
have separate bath-rooms. But each has its water-room dbJdrhhunai, 
Avhere, en a stone or lime and biiirlc shelf or on a wooden platform stand 
two water jars their mouths covered with well-polished longhandlcd 
brass or copper cups called F.typfislics, a ladle dvnga, and several 
metal cups abkhurdiiy of different shapes. A house of this description 
would cost to bu'.ld about Ks. 2000 and to iciit alM)ut l?s. 5 a month. 

North of the ]\IaW, the houses arc much less large and roomy and 
are generally two .stories high. The walls ai'O of brick and mortar, 
plastered outside with a red blue or rose wash, and the roof is of 
tile. As a rule they are built on a jdinth raised three or four 
feet above the road, and are entered by a llight of three or four stone 
or cement steps. Prom the fear of l>eing robbed, the old Ahmedab^d 
houses which date from the time of the Peshwils (a.d. 1757-1817) 
have fewer windows than the houses of south Gujarat. But in new 
houses this peculiarity has been «>iven up. In front, supported on 
wooden pillars and enclosed by a brightly painted low iron railings, 
is a veianda about six feet wide. The house door is of massive wcod 
with brass bosses. AVithin it is the entrance-room deodi, about 
twelve feet square and ten high. From this a jassage leads to an 
open cement-lined courtyard about fifteen feet E<juaro witli a well and 
cistern, the mc^uths of both raised two or three feet above the level of 
the ground. On one side of the court is the cook-room about six feet 
square and ten high with an (<pen space above the ceiling for storing 
fuel. On the other j>ido is tlie water-i)laee with its stone shelf and 
earthen water-jars. Across the court, that is opposite the entrance 
l)assa«;e, with a suiall clunub«r on each j^ide of it, is the public room 
dhduh'hd)tah, ur:ed for sitting or dining, and, !f there is no bedroom 
near, for sleeping. From the lower to the upper storey aie generally 
two stairs, one near the entiance door leading to the two front rooms, 
the other a backstair Iciiding to the two rooms behind the court Of 
tiic front rooms, the largest, al>out fourteen feet square, is used as a 
l>ublic room and called diWinli/tdnah; the other front i*oom8 and the 
two back rooms are bedrooms. To build a house of this kind would 
cost about Ks. 1000 and to rent it from lis. 2 to Rs. 4 a month. 

Except that there is a larger su2)ply and that articles of European 
niauufacturc arc eonunoner, the furniture in south Gujardt does not 
ilifEcr from that in the noilli of the province. The men^s x)ub]ic room 
inardd/talfy has its walls coloured generally with a brown or chocolate 
Mash, with arabesqucJ scrolls fr(»m the Ivuraiin and dove-shaped 
monograms or wadds picked out in black and white as a border and 
cornice.^ The ilat surface of tlio wall is broken by niches and 
recesses. The chief of these, in the middle of the wall about five 

' Tho Sarat cement workers or kudias arc very skilful in*|)ickuig out these bcrdcrst 
But uiaiiy of tlieui are the work o£ frlcQ'U. 




feet sqiiarc^ is the iiaukhanaA or nine cliambeis. This as well as 
fte smaller niches arc filled with ornaments moi^t of them china 
plates and bowls. The blank spaces on the walls arc hung with 
pictures,' chiefly landscapes, though of late years Iho practice of 
ranging up family photographs has become common.- The floor is 
covered with a country-made carpet, and on the carpet opposite 
the middle of one of the walls is spread a Pcrs'an rug called 
ghalichah. On this again is laid a cushion or mattress and on the 
mattress near the wall a pillow. Ranged along the wall on either 
ride of the pillows are sofas chairs or easy-chairs. In the middle of 
the room is a table with clocks musical-boxes and other ornaments, 
and against one of the walls a glass-doored calgnct wdth articles of 
European glass or china waie and other nicknacks. From each corner 
of the ceiling hangs a glass lamp, from its middle a chandelier, and if 
space allows, a gaily cushioned cot jit ul a, swinging on bars of j^olished 
brass.^ The walls of the women's room, especially of the room set apart 
for the mistress of the house, are of plain white. Sometimes there arc 
niehes or recesses aiul sometimes none. But always about six feet 
from the ground a shelf nms round the room furnished with china, glass, 
and other ornaments. From the ceiling hangs a glass lamp and a 
swinging-cot jhiila. The floor is carpeted and on the carpet against the 
middle of one of the walls are set a mattress and cushion. A cot with 
I^ of green and gold, one or two stool-like seats phli, and if there is 
a child a cradle ^(iZna, of red and yellow or blue lactjuer-work, and in a 
comer of the room a brass ]sLmi)fUsoz complete the furniture. Except 
when their walls are filled with copper pots* and plates ranged on shelves 

Chapter U: 

Style of Livij 

Tub Uousk 

1 The prohibition by the Prophet of the possession by tlio Faithful of pictures ami 

S'aven images In stiU observed by the religious part of the Musaliudns of CJujarat. 

JSxceptto some of the rich and to those who have received a western education the 

presence of i)ictures of animated objicts in a room not only vitiates prayers performed 

in that ro(mi, but is believed to prevent the entrance of iMldh's angels of prare and 

ttierey if a death takes plae<* iu the room. Landscapes and pictures of still-life are 

tolerated, but except scrolls monograms and arabeftpies all pictures are looked ujwn 

more or less as lid-dad-sa^idh or evil innovations, Mr. Justice Amfr Ali (Life and 

Teachings of Muhammad, I. 570 - 573) observed : Tl.o religion of Isliini has been charged 

irith backwardness in painting and sculpture, but it umst be borne in mind that the 

prohibition ... is similar to the Lcvitical commandments ... Its significance rests 

0{)on the inveterate idolatry of the pre-IslAmite Arabs. To the early Moslims painting 

and statuary were odious and unlawful as emblematic of heathenism, and this deeply 

implanted iconoclasm saved them from relapsing into idolatry , , . To Muhammad's 

prohibition of graven images or paintings in mosques the world is indebted for the art of 

irabesqne . . and of ornamental writing, 

* Besides the landscapes, which are generally European coloured prints, thera are 
pictures of two kinds : pictures of Persian heroes and Indian celebrities painted in cliiiia 
and glass by Chinese artists ; and religious picture?*, viiws of Makkah Madfnah and tho 
Karbald bought from a pilgrim, or brought as relics by some friend or relative who lias 
lone the pilgrimage. Their price varies from 8 annas to Rs. 2. 

' At Ahmeddbdd in the houses of rich ^'unni trading IJohoras the shelves are orna- 
mented with rows of much-prized old china cups plates and spoons, made to stick to 
>ne another by a cement of cotton, black-carlb, and glue. The shelf ornaments in tho 
ikOTifies of thrifty middle class Musalmans, h'unni and Miidli Bohorus, consist of finely 
incd and polished copper and brass dishes pots and cups which can command a price, 
iowever old, instead of the brittle glassware favoured by the richer classes. 

* Among the rich some families have copper vessels enough to dine a party of two 
lundred. When they hate to givo a groat feast the i)oorer classes hire tho dishes from 
lindbi and Homua tinders or from cooks hhaiidras^ 


Shapter ni. most of the other rooms have little but a earpet or mat on the floor 
fie ofLiyine. *^^ against the wall on one side a cushion or mattress. The total coet 

of the furniture of a rich man^s house may be estimated at from 
IH* House. Rg qqq ^ jjg ^qqq^ 

\iukil€ Class, ^g jg ^j^^ ^^^ ^^ith the dwellings of the rich, the houses of middle 

class Musalnuins in south Gujarat differ from those in the north.* In 
Ahmed^Md the plan varies in different parts of the city. In the 
Khilnpur ShAhpiir and Jamiilpur quarters they are generally one 
storied, the walls of brick and mortar and the roof of tile. Entering 
from the street through a door in the centi'e of a wall about seven feet 
, high is an enclosed yard from twenty to forty feet square with a well 

or cistern and in one corner a shed for cooking. The side walls slope 
upwards towards the back of the enclosure where from a ^vall from 
thirty to forty feet high a roof slopes forwards over the yard. The sjjace 
covered by the roof is generally divided into three or five rooms with a 
centre hall (ZtiYmfe/iawa/i, having on either side one or two rooms serving 
as IxhI, sitting, and store rooms. To build a house of this kind would 
cost from Rs. 400 to Rs. GOO, and its monthly rent would run from Re. 1 
to Rs. 3, In the Kdlupur quai-tcr of Ahmeddbad the houses are built 
on a different and better plan, much like that described above as a rich 
Ahmeddb^l Musalmdn's house. To build a house of this class would 
cost from Rs. 1000 toRs. 2000, and its monthly rent would vary from 
Rs. li to Rs. 2. 

South of the Mahi the houses of middle class Musalmdns are lai^r 
and better built. They are seldom more than two stories high. The 
walls for about ten feet arc of brick and above that of wood. The 
roof is tiled. Each floor has generally fom* rooms. But unless the 
family is very large, the groundfloor rooms are seldom used. The 
stair is genemlly steep, little easier to mount than a ladder. The first 
room in the upper story is the men s room marddnah. Besides the 
mon^s room there aie three others, a kitchen and storeroom^ a ladies 
room, and a sitting room. The floors are of wood or cowdunged earth, 
and the ceiling of cloth or wood, and each room has at least two 
windows covered with green or red blinds of coloured bamboo. Most 
houses have a well. The more used rooms have the floor covered with 
mats and cai'pets, the less used with mats only. To build a house of 
this class would cost from Rs. 1000 to Rs. 2000, and its monthly rent 
would nm from Re. 1 to Rs. 4. 

In the houses of the middle class Muhammadans of Alimeddb&d and 
Kaira there is sometimes an inconvenient lack of fumitm*e. In the open 
hall there is nothing but a swinging cot or two, a cushion and a pillow, 
a bedstead, and a Toi tian rug (fiidlicikah. The total cost of the furniture 
of a house of this class may be estimated at from Rs. 200 to Rs. 500. 
In south Gujarat besides several chairs a table and a cupboard, the 
shelves are ornamented with small bright trays and other glass or clidna 
wai'e. The water-shelf too is bright with a well-polished pile of brass 
and copi)er pots, and in different parts of the house are handsome 
brass-bound boxes. The floor of the women's room is matted. Besides 

> Every iniddlo class Musalmdn is anxious to bare % boose of bifl own. To lire in a 
bircd bouse in one's birtbpUce is considered mean. 



ft awinging cot it contnuis a bedstead with a carpet laid down I)efore it, 
I cut, and a brass lamp/t'/sor. In tbe kitchen cooking vessels and jwts 
I IK arTaii<;etI, and on the limr i^ a small hamluiill worked by tlio 
I lutcheii mail!.' The total cost of the fui'uitiwe of a liuuse uf this class 

my be eet^mated at fn)ia Bs. -lUO to H.s. 5O0. 
[ The houses of the poor in Ahnieddbfid and Kaira are made o£ common 
(by and brick. The framework oE the roof is ol bamboo. If there 
(unpens to bo an iiitptr store)' there arc two rooms ; if not thero is only 
Bse with, up the middle, a wattle-and-daub partition. Each half of 
the rconi is about twelve feet long by seven wide. A corner is choECn 
for the fitii-place where the cooldng pota, most of Uiem earthen, arc 
kept. Tlie rust of the nxim servts fur dining fitting and sieeping. 
Unhke thoKein Ahmcdtibfid the walls of the houses of poor Musalmdna 
in Surat arc made of wood or wattle-and-daiib. Except that they 
hate ft loft iniiehluia, aljout thvce feet below the main roof, whei'e fuel 
mil limiber are etorod, tho inside of a poor iSnrat house is like that ol' 
1 pocr Ahmed.ibiid house. At the back is a yard hada, about ten 
I«rt square with in gome cases a well. The only furniture in houBcs 
oE tliie class is a cot, a grindstone, a coverlet or two, and a few copper 
,liid earthen pots. To bnild a house of this kind costs Rs. a^i to 
15U and to hire it about 8 annas a month. When new tho furniture 
Rs. 40 to Rs. 60.^ To own a house is a great object among poor 


swell aa of soutli Onjarit sgiiie old iiiiildlf tlass I 
TCMcli ciiuugh Id ilinc n pnrty of two Imiidri'd gnoats. Uiit this ft 
ot iiow iu nw i tvpD the welltO'do clioo»a ratlK'i- lu liirc tlic dinhcs 
of f arnitiui! kept by diffrreiit cUues of Uttaalinuiui ore : 

Cbkpter nT. 
Style of Living: 

Tut HoD«E, 










n. a. 


119. 1. 




% I 


BEbto '■■ ■" 




M Q 




i" B 





too « 







30 n 

4U U 

v\ a 

Ml a 


30 n 




1 ,-, .. 



12 1033 B 






Ihapter HI. 
.yie of Living. 


Musalmtlns. With many families thoir money troubles date from 
the time they borrow to build or to buy a house. 

The stafl' o£ servants kept by a Musalmdn with a yearly income of 
Rs. 2000 or upwards consists of a body servant or valet kJiidrnafgar 
on Rs. 5 a month with food as a rule ; a cook bdwarc/n on Rs. 8 or 
Rs. 10 a month ; a general servant to clean the house and go messages 
on Rs. 3 a month and food ; a lady^s maid mama or dii/aA on Rfi. 5 a 
month with food ; a washerman d/iohi on Rs. 2 a month ; a waterman 
lihishti on Rs. 4 a month ; and a groom saU on Rs. 5 a month. 
Except In north Gujarat, where he generally receives alx)nt Rs. G a 
year, the barber is pa d one to four annas when called in to shave. In 
houses of the very ricli or of landholders the barl>er is also the masidl 
tliat is the cleaner and lighter of, audtheshampooerof his master 
and his guests. After lighting the lamps the torchman generally 
kindles h's viashdl or torch made of rags rolled on an iron cylinder 
about a yard long and about two inches in diameter. AVhen the torch is 
alight the torchman presents liimself in the male di-awing room or dlvdn- 
hhdnali, makes a low salutation salum, and posts* himself near the door 
keeping his torch abght. After about an hour he withdi*aw3 and puts 
out and lays by his torch. If his master has to go out at night 
the barber who in his oliice of light-bearer is termed a 7nashdlchi, leads 
and lights the way. Except in Native States where the right to use 
the torch or mashdl is bestowed as a reward for good service the use of 
the torch has become obsolete. 

The Gujarat barber is notable for the elaborateness of his 
preparations. After leisurely and noisily whetting his razor on 
a hone luul a leather stroj) he i^roeeeds to rub water on the 
head and face of his subject, from time to time dipping liis 
light fingeis into a little copper or brass cup. On the wet 
head and face of his customer he rubs a well-worn piece of 
cheap Europe or Indian soap. The length of this part of the 
opei*ation, combined with the delicacy of touch of the manipulator are 
esteemed so jdeasant as to form one of the chief attractions of shaving. 
The customer with his shoulders and back covered by a ixsd cotton 
scarf with a slit in the middle for tlie head, sits patiently with his head 
bowed befoi'c the barber, enjoying with closed eyes a sweet half-doziug 
repose produced by the ra^nd motions of the artist's velvet fingers. The 
customer's sweet lethargy is hoothed by the ceaseless flow of scandal 
regarding the barber's other customers, which glides glibly through Lis 
mischievous-, lips. After the whetting comes the cli2)ping of the mous- 
tache and beard, that is shortening the cuds of the moustache, to the 
strict shini or legal shortness and reducing the beard to the minimum 
five-finger length ordained l)y the Prophet. He next takes a razor and 
gives it a finishing whet on the skin of his bare arm or leg. In what 
he calls h's iisbul, literally place of art or satchel, the l>arber carries a 
sheaf of razors large middlesized and small. He sometimes cuts the 
English razor in two and gets the pieces made into two small instruments 
with round lacquered handles. These he wields with a lightness of 
hand which sends his subject off into a second Soze. Kot satisfied 
with shaving the himl the barber runs bis blade over the forehead 



the obeeka anii the neck oE his eustomer, and even trims and gives aa Chapter IH 

nrti6c:jal cnrve to the eyebrows running down as far as tlio eyelids gtyla oTLirai 

and taking in turn the hairy growth ou the rims of the ears and the 

pile on the nose. In the ease of cnstomers wlio do not wish to ehave 

the hair o£ the head, the barber gives the hair ou the brow an ornamental 

arched outline. When the hair line is marked the barber produces 

bis tweezers and placks out the hairs from the nostrile. After this 

he hunts out his naileutter, a small piece of iron about four inches in 

length with a. broad end and an oblique edge. With this he pares the 

nails of the fingers and toes. Before leaving he shaves the armpits and 

gi*-eB a parting sliampoo to his customer's neck ^boulders and arms. 

Besides their pay and keep, these servants, who except the washerman 

w&terman and barl«r are Musalmdns, receive frequent presents. On the 

Itatnazdn Id they get from Be. 1 to Bs. S ; on marriages and other 

joyous occasions they are presented with new trarbans or entire suits of 

I'lnthee ; and, if they are old and trusted, the master meets the cost oE 

their wedding. A groom has a sjecial source of profit in the fee, 

generally Rs. 2 less 8 annas for the hire of the silver trappings, paid 

luiQ when he takes hia master's horse to a wedding proL'ession. Tlie 

groom knows that this privilege is distasteful to his master, and there- 

ture generally stipulates for the concession in advance. 

A rich &Iuhamniadan keeps a horse, scarcely ever more tbnn 
CM, or a pair of hiilJocks. Bullock carriages ai'e now going out of 
fishioii as horse carriages broughams and phaetons in the ease of the 
fich, and two-wheeled shigrama in the ease of the middle class are 
Kuning into vogue. Tn ordinary years, inchiding the groom's pay, the 
muuthly cost of keeping a horse is not more tiian Rs. £0 to Rs. 30. 
The riding hoi-se is also diBai>pearing from among the well-to-do. 
Ahant fifty years ago (A.n. 184 7-1S98) with liistraiued paces, his henua- 
rtaiaed crimson mane tail and fetlocks, and his gay qrminfc trappings 
riding horse formed one of the most picturesque featm-es of outdoor 
\\va6.a life in Gujarat. The tiappings, consisting of a white or 
i and yeliow-lxn-dered iioimla or felt (Re. 1 to Rs. 2), a kho'jif 
nddle of yellow and blue, or red aud green, or black and white 
led broailcloth (Us- 5 to lis. 2U), with the headstall and crupper 
of stout cotton Hit'iii' or braid covered and tightly sewn over 
stripe of green and red or other broadcloth matching the saddle 
taddle-cloth (lla. 5 to Rs. 10). Those set ofE more gracefully the 
IT and symmetry of a good horse thun the leather saddlery of the 
ipean style affected by the younger generation. The mai-tingale 
piece of stout country-made mas/irn'or striped red or purple silk 
Win the Ga«e of tlie very ridi a strong thick Kashmir shawl, tightly 
fflrtened at one end to the leather or cotton girth and at the other to 
Ike headstall, while the leather stirrup straps on which a pair of small 
'a etirmjis are hung are covered by a piece of ci'eascd coloured 
Or ma»hru. 'fbe reins were either of leather covered with broad- 
of braided silk and silver thread. Riding as a recreation and 
>uuhip as an accomplishment having I'ailon into desuetude, the 
ision of the cWiffi-sawiir oi- jockey aud horse-trainer has also 
ipwared. 'I'he Gujariit jockey was a clever horse-trainer. He not 
Ijr broke bis horse ibto easiness of pace hut tairght bim a u\uu\»t <A 

Chapter m. 
Style of Living. 


chdla litei'ally steps, wliich eombineJ c<Miifort an<i eoso with speed. ' 
among tbesc \\m (he ri'/ivAl correctly rafuri'ir or the roadster's _ 
Auraiigzib(A,i'. lt>5S-l(07)iiioneof hislcttcrstohisEonPrince Aa 
(Ruliiidt-i-A'lamglri, Persian Tcstj Letter 5 Cawnpore: 
thankfi Lim for Uie present of a tahtrur horse, the easiness of \r\ 
)iaxx^s " remind the old father of the tender eolidtude of his loi 
young son." The ra/twiir is a ]»ee which combines the eafio of 
amblo with the speed of the trot, the tiorse being tanght gracefwlly 
to avoid the jerky movements of both. It U the even nm of 
the Pegu pony combined with an elegance of motion. Another pace 
ii the Idniji in whicji the horse at eacli step drnpt on one of its forcl^a 
keeping the other etiff. A third jjaoe is the (nTi;/uri nscmbling the 
rocking sivooping and tossing run of the blackfaced monkey or 
lany^'ir. A fonith jiace is the Ihirak half 'rearing and phinging mcde 
of progression affected by rich young dandies during processions and 
fairs. The fifth xnA pei'haps most useful pace is the sAiiA-giii/i ro.>*aI-p8(* 
or brisk "alk. A pair of lavge bullm-ks, for squall bnllocks are licloiv 
a rit'h man's liigiiily, including tlwir driver's pay cE Rs. i to Ks. &, 
I'ost from Rs, 10 to 15 a month. Except the cow and tJie 
buffalo, cattle are seldom owned. One milch biiBalo cow is enough for 
a rich household, and, iiiileia there are children, a eow is rate. \Vheri; 
a horse or a hnlluck has to be fed, a cow does not cost more than Rs, 10 
a month, Uany middle class and moat poor Musalmiins own goats. 
A breed of south Gujarat goat callal paiirl la much esteemed owiug 
to the large quantity of milk (fi«m two to four pints) she yieleU* 
The price of a ;ia(i>i goat varies from Re. 10 to Rs. 15 and it* moutldf 
cost from four annas to a rujiee. 

Especiallv in south Gujarat some middle class families keep dwait 
bullocks called t;cju'd). Even in times of high grain prices thea« ^^nrolt 
do nut cost more than Uu. iV a month to keep. 

Some poor MusulmAns rear fowls aud eke out thelv income by tliA 
sale of chckens aud eggs. Rich and m!dd!e (;lass, sometimes nYiltj 
poor, Gujardt JIuaalraans keep gfime-coiks. The love of gamecodts 
has developeil two fine bi-ced of cueks the iulatiff or thoroughhnt 
(Anglo-Indian kullam) and the rezah. The i-ul'itiff is a haDdsonH 
muscular bird with a diminutive comb and sparse Ecatbei-s above tlig 
breast but with storit powerfid legs and spurs. The rezah U i 
smaller but more muscular and pluckier b'rd with white eyes. A 
few rich Barod:i and Broach iMiii^lmfinE have copied tlio north Indiatf 
fashion of keeping game partndgoe lilars and quails Imtei: Tte( 
fighting partridge and quail are imported from north India. Thoi^ 
sands of rupees ai-e sometimes w^er&l on these cock and quail 

South GujiiratMuBalmiiuB are fond of eats. White cats arsB 
prized as family pets : black eats are dreaded as spirit-homea in 
ance with the belief that ovW-gtmi* have a s|)eeinl liking to go 
making mischief in the form of block tom-cats. In the sam. --^,_ 
black dogs are foai'ed especially if they have black or tiu marks abo*ii 
the eyes. The cat seems to have been a pcuerakpet with the Arabs cj^ 
the Prophpt's day. One oE the dearest of the I'ropliet's companion^ 
who is a'so pno of the most i-eliablc narrators yf his traditions 



Uble-talk-, was frum his groat love for these animald niuk -named Chapter IIIi 
by tiic Prophet Abu-HurL-ii-ah or Father of Kittons, a pickname by style ofLivlai 
which he is more ^ncraily known to Isldm than by liia own namo. 
AmoD^ Gojivr^t Mui^alnians to kill a cat ie fescrilegi;. Wherever a WiHii*. 

drop of cat's blood iMs a L-uriie is sure to alight. 

Of birds parrots are kept, anil are generally taught to speak by 
lieteniiig to the women of Uio family. Tlie ]jantit most prized for its 
quickness in learning to speak is one a little b'gger than the green 
Kmntry parrot whioh has a red s[jot on tha winfj. They are called 
Mofaaapuris and are betieveil to eome from the I'dar hills in Mabi 
Kantha. They are caught by Wnghris when flftdgeltngs and sold at 
Re. J to Re. 1 the piece. Of country parrots and jmroquetB those 
batched in the nlm or Indian lilac tree are much priEed as reaily 
learners. Nim-hom parrots fetch prices almost equal to Molianpliris. 
Cockatoos and red Java parrots {blkd iriiririi* and niirU) are also 
cherished as pets, ilany north GujarAt Jlusalmiins have ca^s fnll 
of the red waxbill amadnvut Estrelda amanda\'a or sitrkli found roua<l 
Ahmvd^bdd. The cock is of a fine dark red with whitjsh spots and 
led bill and the hen of a grayish browii with orange bill. When 
[ercliiTig at noon and evening these birds settle to one another in 
lina, the males when they are settled giving out a long mu^cal note 
re«erabling the verse in the second chapter of the Kurai!in descriptive 
of the unreasoning uppositiou of the Arab inGdels to the Prophet's 
miwion: Summun balmun fimj/vii /ahum Id ^arjiiia DeaE dumb and 
hiinj they return not (unto wisdom) ! 
I It is the spirit not the music of the coek waxbill that 
makes him prizeti. When two cocks are let out before a cage of hens 
tifv fight with rare courage and skill. Pwr Gujarilt Musalmdns, 
generally falirt, are fond of rearing the chandul or Indian lark 
Galerita cretttata and the agon another lark. Larks are kept in small 
ogtw which are tightly wrapped round with white muslin. It is 
■id that to keep a partridj^ or a hirk is unlucky. The sayinw is 
jrohably true ; for the keeper of a partridge or lark has to spend his 
iBomings and evenings in the fields seeking the insects without which 
luB pet pinea and dies. The keeping of a monkey is also f^aid to bring 
ill-luck and this is why monkeys are kept only by the very rich who 
own a largo stud of horses and who keep the monkey chained at tha 
iUblo door to house jealous or unfriendly glances : Tabele ki bald 
iaadar par; The ill-luck of the stable falls on the monkey. Pome rich 
Gujarat MusalmAns keep geese and sometimes ducks and guineafowl, 
tmt more as curiosities than for food, ' Gujarfit Musalmans have a 
prejudice against turkeys on the ground that a turkey's glzzai'd 
KWiubles the liver of a pig. Peacocks as pets arc oonsidered unlucky. 
Of the m-inthly ex])enditiirc under the general head of House it is 
difiicnit to form an estimate. Ami>ug the rich and middle claeics the 
I«iU8e is giiierally handed down from father to son, and of the ezpendi- 
inreon furniture no estimate can well be mailc. Under establishment 
Uw monthly charget^ of the rich are estimated to vary from Ks, 30 to 
Ba. 14 and u£ the middle class from lU. 5 to Ks. 10. 


Chapter III. 
3tyle of Living. 

Sic\ Han. 


Section n.— Dress. 

Indoora n rich Miisalnidn wears a cap of velvet or embroidered 
ciotli, or if his tafilca are simple of plain cottOQ cloth. His upper 
body is coveted with a short shirt ^^jWi an of line muBliu and his lower 
is drajwd in cotton^ cotton and silk called ilaclia, or chintz tronsers.' 
In the cold season a waii^tcoat kabcha of velvet, brocade, or broadcloth 
is sometimes worn. Except in the cold season when the rich and well- 
toilo put on socksj in the house the feet are bare. When he goes ont 
the rich JIusalmSn changes his capfor a turlaii or scarf thipat/a wound 
loosely ronnd the liead^ and over his sliirt he draws a coat angarkka , 
tight round the cheat, nnd with rather full skirts hanging below UnJ 
knee, m;ide generally of muslin, embroidered broadolotb, or TelveliJ 
and costing Hs. 2 to Rs. 5U. Ilia shoes are of the finest leather^ 
embroidered nnd pointed ut the toes. Sometimes, if fond ot tha 
North India or Hiiidus/drii dress be puts on the light red leather or 
green shagi-oen shoes of Dehli known as cAadawwut or tdiwthaiu. 
The cerninouini dross differs from the onlinaryoutdoor dress only n| ■ 
being richer ; the turban of gold cloth, the coat richly embroiderej^j 
on the shoulders and back, tha shoulder- scarf bordered with siP 
and the trousers of brocade or Chinese silk-cottun.* A rich 

' TrouHTB arc varioui. Tlic cammoucgt is tbo nrictU or tiglit troQsvr liDcnni u 
j/inrli or Ic^al. Loose troUHers lamiMni or (ihardidt, (bongb etill vorn, ue fiat 
pusing out ot foshiou in favanr of tbc cat aud sljle o( tlie Encluli pantaloon. 

' Tbe tnrban U chiiitly worn in iiortb GnjatAt wlicre Ibe dvpiitla is tbrown as a 
ccarf oithet acrudt the Bhouldvr" or roand tiw uecic Tbo tarban ordinarily <Kaai 
in nortb and in suutli (iujarit diffore gntfiy, Tbe folds oE cloth miand round the 
edge of a highwallcd particoloured ikuUcap, tho whole, but for the thickneK of ha 
rim, nincb like a low-crowned Engllili hat, mtta irell tbo steady hardworking citiien 
of ^orat i ffhlle the idle woiild-bo soldier- like youth el north GnjaT&t wears hia tnrban 
jauntily on one side, its oater crdls twisted like cords. In tbe south llie aoaif J»faUa 
II the favourite beaddn'is. Bxe cpt among Sayltds, whose colour is fcrtea, turbans ue 
white or red, Suvaral Sayads wear pecnlisr turliaiis. Some Buthiri Sayada wew 
turbans of white or green nmilin of a dome or cupola shape. OtVr Ahmedilhld Sayads 
ircar white or green turbans varying in aixe, whoso iarb-bruad folds arc wouTliI ona apon 
another with two cross folds at tbe end. Of the dnpiilla two kinds are worn, tli« plun 
Dh&ka and the Bandnis with gold borders, 

' Among ritb Muaalm&ns tho faibion of dress is changing. The long full-dx^^ 
robe ^«<i and tbe loose trouscTi tamman of the Debll court have fallen into dlaqri^l 
Very gay articles of dress, goldon tarhans and brocado coats, arc not approred, i^H 
woollen coats bottoned to the neck and patent-leatber sLooi are coming into lilVS 
Tlio details in the text do not apply to all rich Musalm.'inB. Snysds wear iodoona^ 
round white cap, a long shirt, and loose trousers; outdoors Ihcy wear tarbaos citlwr 
green or white and woollen cloaks ^Mj/ah. Men ccf this class shun show or glitter. 
Eicept that tbc cloak kaba., formerly worn open halfwsy down lhehr«ast, is entirely given 
Dp aad that the tnrbau is white in-stcad of grcoD, Shi^h Mughnls dress llk« SavatU. 
The newcomer or teildj/ati I'atbin wiJara a loose cloth or scarf Ivngi, cwled round hii _ 
head, the loosest possible shirt, and a pur of trooaeri yen loosa above and light at tktj 
calves. The lost sixteen ycArs (a,.d. 18S3-18S^) have beeii marked by a further el«»| 
in the dress of Gnjardt MnsalmUns. Among the rich, tlte middle class, and otben *&9| 
linve imbibed the western taint the Indian turban nnd the angariha or toiuc ara d0<*l|'^ 
giving place to the Turkish or Persian cap and to English mder-clotliing and tbe frodl- 
cont. Men of thiii class whose taslL'S are not entirely vitiated hy western models adopt 
tho flowing skirled cost called tbe n/iirmSm or the nc\lui». Innovation in dicas has not 
sorii'iisly nflectcd tlie lower orders or tlie women, Btill even amou(' lower Hnsalmini 
the new taste sliowa itself in the yonth's unatarched collar-like shirt-flap and in fiw 
open-fronted silver-buttoned silk nnistcoat ; among women tie chief sign is tbe tigUj 
sleevird tight-waitted polka or jsckcl. As rnganls material the old cool mn " 
creainysilke(i7i]'«A[M and SIMM) are giving place to sober braadclotti l« loft c 


bas about fifteen cbaDges of dress oua or two of them very costly, tie 
whole representing Bs. 400 to Re. 700.' 

tlicb Musalindns own, aad, thoogb against the rules of their 
religion, wear No. 7 and chiefly Nos. 1 and 2 of the ornaments 
shown in the list given below. Their value varies from Rb, 5000 
to Be. 40,000.* 

Chapter in 
Style of Lirin 

»iiill4ifniijfli«nnelB. For theimiiiler-tlotliing tile niiii of tlio Hliciil jcboolwfar Engliih 
■hirU knd tranKn. Those inclinnl ta Arab fashialm adluTU to tlm ptrahan shirt ftnd 
paijama troDsers of nliiCe niiulin and vuttou eivept that tbu sliirt is lonitGr atul that the 

« tucbvd &t tU« aukkt, TliQ tradition 

r^ r* 




leitllada kanmaa fnhutca Ttiinhan ' He nho iinitatct a people belongs to that poople,' 
ii tipbinrd to faronr thv Bunpckn costumo since it Is thu at jle of dress followed by the 
Turks. Farther it it is &n iioitstion of Lhedinsof antwlievcts it isBtleasttbeimitatioii 
af * " People of tlic Book '' (meaQing the follon-cTs of the goipel of Jasoa), whereas tlic 
(dd a^farhhii and turban «m i eompramisc between tho dress of idoUtrcma Kajpiits 
and Chat^batm Tartan. Except among rich Engllsli-spcBkera the frenzy of Enropoan 
liriUlioa has not mibcd tlu tenitimh. Still the half-English half-Tarkieh chemise is In 
hmm and leading ladies lean towards Pcrjiim TnrkUh and Arab models and to the u^e 
c( EnglUli shoes or ilippen and nockinga. In tbc uiatler of ornaments Che pnmotiiici'd 
ItDdsgey Is to reject solid gold for pearls and othor preeiiraa stones. The wearing of 
bnvjr oTBament* in the nosa and ears is becoming leas common. The boring of thu 
HDtril and «artitige and of the ear-lobes oncu held iinpenttivu is looked on with 


Tbc details arc: jrvjalRHln Breu: mAUan. 


nn deUiU arc : 







ToTiL Vuim 1 




f reclous Stons 

and UuM, 
Suinw of 

I'blD Cold Esr 

Pftirl, or Gold 

Ti«l en tbs 








BtW rfn ... 

Wwn'ronnJ lb- 







GoW « SJ™. 

Preofcoa BUina 

or Cold. 
Oald or Bll'sr 








CtUO Mi 

TolaJ ... 

OitH King ... 
















Ohftpter III. 
Style of Living. 

Miditle Claaa 

Except that tho materials are of a cheaper qualily, tho dress*' 
oE a middb class mmi cIogs not diffei- from tUe dress of a rich 
MusalnidD, Indoors they are the same. Out of doors the coat is 
probably of white calico or muslin, and on great occasions the dresa 
is the same as tho rich man's but less costly. Most middle class 
mon havo from six to cigLit changes of rairaont, the whtlo ropte- 
Konting a cost of Rs, 200 to Rs, 400. Of ornatncnts a middle claai 
Mnsalmiii owns and wears No. 7 of the list, worth from Its. lOO % 
Rs. 200, A few men of this class aba own Nod. i and 5, woi 
from Rs. 500 to Rs. 1000. 

At home a has his head his ujjper hody and his fi 
bare and weiirs only a pair of trousers made of strong wi 
cloth. Out of doors ho puts on, besides his trouscrri, a turban j 
fine coloured cloth, sometimes a shirt of coarse muslin, a < 
cheap lonjjcloth, and a jiair of thieksoled leather ehncs. On i 
occasions he wears a fresh unit of clothes, and his hohday turban h 
gold front. Most poor men have at least twa.turbans and four si 
of clothes representing an original cost of Rs. 4Uto Rs. 6li.* The \o^ 

> Tbo dotAila I 

n Drtm ; KidAIS Clam Xtt. 




TOT.t. 1 




^^ j 



Fron,| To 





Rs. a. 

Rs.d.Ib*. ■ 


30 (1 

40 ( 

1 , GO u' BO ( 


70 M 

M I'l 

DuintUU ... .. 

3 1' 

SO u 



GS < 

IM 1 


11) (1 

W TO « 

M 1 


S 1 


,0 J to . 


U < 

» 1 

10 OW . 

18 1 

sock. WlUo) ._ 



* ' 

Bbot* (ditto) ... 



10 <^» 


IS ( 

M 1 

Bblrti ... ■~ 






Tntal ... 



'" " 


IW 0.280 


MM » 

■ Drta, PiKir Hat. 










"ifders of Musalm^E, especially liutdiers and cooks, are fond of wear- 
ing omauieiUs. Those they wear are Nos. :3, i, ami 5 df gold and 
No*. 8 and 9 of silver, costing togetiipr Ke. 16U0 to Hs. 1200, 

The indoor dress of a Muhammadan woman of rich family is a 

souf, a beadshawl oilni, a bodice angia, a gown pighifd:, a sliirt 

hudta, and a pair of trouBors izdr. South o£ the Slahi the woman's 

iwaddress in Gujardt is tho scarf nim&l ' ; north oE the Mahi it is the 

diavl dupntta or sheet odtti. The bodice anffi'u is almost always 

made of silk, brocade, or cloth of gf)!d, bordered with gold and 

filver laoe. As it is worn witli the sleeveless shirt hudii the end of 

Uw bodice sleeve is genai-ally mnch enibroiderod. Tho loose long- 

sbered shirt iiiflta o£ mushn or net is cnibroidcted on the neck and 

ihoidders with gold laoe and drapes down to the ankles in Cull loose 

1 bids. It3 colour varies ; red and light tints for maidens and 

narned women, dark-blue bronze or white for old ladies, and 

■ bronze or black Cor widows.* Of late a. new dress, the l-u/lli, like the 

kadia except that it is sleeveless, has been introduced and is fiist 

hking its place. The trousers izfir as a rule are of silk. Except 

th»t the trousers are tighter they are in shape the same as those 

^mm by men. Though they seldom leave tiie house, rich Musalmrin 

^Bnen are careful always to wear shois. Tliey arc of the s'jit known 

^^btir^cit curled in front, high-heeletl, and embroidered. As women 

^B*'tich Musalm&n families arc not allowed to ap]^>ear in public, 

^J" liave no speciat outdoor dress. The only peculiarity is that in the 

nby season in going about the open parts oE the house iustead of 

Wieir ordinary shoes they wear painted wooden sandals i/iaddtnda, 

yd to the foot by a peg o£ silver or wood slipped between tho gi-eat 

loj fore toe. Except that it is of costlier materials, the ceremonial dress 

does aot differ fi-om the dress worn at ordinary times. As the scarf 

nwil is not considered full dreas, the headgear would be the shatvl 

injatta of ganze with gold or silver laco borders, The bodice is, if 

ptsHibie, more riuhly ornamented tlian usual, The sleeved shirt kudla 

"oiilJ be o£ silver gauze t&nh, or o£ bnadmi a cloth of silk and gold 

nuulfl at Baniti-as, or of plain cloth covered with gold or silver lace. 

The trousers would be of brocade kauik/iid, or of the costliest silk, and 

in north Gil janit over tho trousers is worn tho gown pu/iwds wiili 

numerous folds of white gauze* A woman o£ rich family has 

eoiflially six to ten changes of raiment. Tliis at Surat would be 

wirth He. 50(J to Hi. IDUU, atid in tlie north, where the rich head- 

*3ireaodiii and the folded dress jtia/iu:d.: greatly increase the cost, 

'The mmal H a three -carnereil cloth about two tml a, lialf Feet from corner to 
Mlwi ul gold tiiceuil, cuttou or lilk fringed oti onu side witb n brood buidec of luce, 
nt uf*; U Ao oblong silk or muslin cloth aUint 31 feet b; 2 tuet, 

'Ttib rule abont colour appliM to all ulaaEci of namcn nnil to tlic headgear se well 

'Ukctlie Jama, to nhiub it coi'Tuspandg, the piihiaii is hccoming moru aiul more 
WwiBKin, in tliu touth tho pisAvi/t is worn by tlio bride .ndy on her niarriaga 
'•f. When the ceremoujis overit isgenEnilly conviTted to aoino olherdrea*. Home 
iiiAuidfm^ E&iniU(:» iiT uni-tb and iibutli Uujai-llt iircdcivo Uiv«e costly inarrUgo 
iNfcifttr two or three geueratiuns. 

Chapter IIX. 
Style of Liring. 

^lar III. 


it would vary from Rb. 1500 to Rs. SOOO.' Thon^li she wodfl 

list,'' a -tramau o£ rich family wonld have at least oue or tii^| 
epecimtios of eacli class of Jowehy, tUe whole varying; in valae fraiS 
Rs. 3000 to Rs. 10,000. ■ 

' The deUili are : MutolindR Drta. Rfe) ITwuan. ^H 



CtUMOtlAL. 1 

Toiu. ^1 




VBl..e. |_ 1 Tfttai. B 







BouTM. n-db 

EUiU.tKd'lcb mhI W- 


TVjlBl . 


Am. ft. 

W D 




4D n 




B*. a. III. ft. 
lOH B 11 KN 
IW 11 M D 

m IE ItO 

leo 1! ISO 1 
ion 1 to < 

)V ! !! 

1» B 



ITOO OR 1131 8 


< The jewelry detalU are ; M-i-alm-im Ormamriu, Womia, ^M 





'"■- 1 '- « 




lam lb 





TboPdMooli, t„fir 

■rin Thorn. Wnfn 

Di[l.> .nurki 

DitW (i4i.(H .. 

Kwkbca. d.l»(. 

Dltm l«tn^(i« 01 


Strins. of Parts 

CoMChil'iu witli 
cionnt read. 
uii> 01 Fsvla A 


PoirlandOoM ... 
aildopBilTOr .. 


Qold or Ombi ... 



B"id ,„ .. 

Bridal BCnM Ihc 


lUnin ilowa one 


HuoB from the l"r* 

h»d by IhR* 

bluk bntitt. 

In Ibe l.>b> 

Uitlo ... ._ 

In tb« onlir rim ... 

Worn In (bo mhldli 

Hiiii.d llie ncek '.'. 
Carriml over .. 















Rb. Bi. 
» IM 

W 1 

30 1 
U 1 

» 1 






S , 

n 1 







" In "uiBl ""lull* 'iH Wi.rn onlrTil nuitUn "t. ii n1c"ht«rt™Ul'lbirblr'iL'' S'lhc 1 
4T1* fcl'Ko Wkos lilt! iil™ "f 'Iw '«■"■ 1" fomninn >.w. 

nt%ld. KM 




In nortli Gajarnt miilille class Musalmiin women wear neither the 
flkeml nor the sleeveless ehirt kitdta and iurlti, Tlieir indoor garments 
we the siiawl ditpalta or odni bodioc and trousers, ami, to cover 
the body between the bodice and the troneers, an apwu of red or 
of white elolh about a foot square. With this exception, save that it 
is of less costly materials, the indoor and the ceremonial dress of 
middle elass women does not differ from that of the rich. In south 
Qajardt, as both rich and middle class women are kept always in 

i private, they have no special oittdiwr diess. But in north Gujarat the 
fraetice is a. little less strict, and women may pay visits at uiglit with 
their head and face hid in a sheet ehihlai; and their body mulSed in 
tlw loose fulds of the /'i^ltmh. In Ahmcdabitii the women of the 
L Svnni, and in Surat the women of the Shiiih Bohonls, wearing the long 
1 veilor Aiir^-ii are allowed to go out in the daytime. Middle class 
I IfuMJinin women living in Bohora localities follow their neighbours in 
I this ouHtom, and pu out during the day in the Bohora vod or sheet. A 
I wotoau of a middle class family would have from six to eight changes 
, of raiment. In Surat aod Broach this represents a coat of Its. 150 to 
Ri. 300, and in the north where the headdi-ess odiii and the gown 

Chapter III. 
Style of lavinj 

ilHuUnan Ormwi- 

r.. iru««r,.-CTMiinn 










Gold. 1 SU,„. 













Br.iOBht mur ., 








tieOoai StanM- 

RoDndUisiwck .. 


U>ild >ihI P«il«.. 



», D.110 m,Ha .. 




T^^_h,n« ,a .,„ 





ij«ir|* orUDd, oA.'-ji 

^nilS "* ""^ 

IV. hsuit below the 









njtd^-Mi.. v.d Gomi, 





nimJM*, MiuAwil .. PUtn flolil Biiid 

Uve' tlu) (llHW '..'. 




teSi'-fiS^.'' '^^^..o"'""": 

One on eub wrist. 








On tho nnrin ... 


uMd «i ailti. 

Thin silver ItAaas. 


HthUc, taitaaUru 

Tliw «Mh snUe... 




^pttU WAtHllh Z 

Uold and Silmr 

One on nth nnkle... 









r" *"^ -'- 

Tiridsd bHnd 






■&£■*•& ::; 


OnllieDiiadle toe.. 










Total ... 







I a tglalntnro mlmyou 



i&pter III. 
Jtyle of Living. 

pisfmds ntld considernbly to the cost from Rs. 300 to Rs. 600/ sho 
would generally have almost all the oraamcnta owned Iiy a rich woman 
but of cheaper niake. The value o£ tbe wh<ile 6et may Le CEtiiuated 
at Rs. 200U to Es. 4000. 

The indoor dress of a poor woman^ in soulh Gujai'^t is, over the 
head, a scai'f diipat/a of coaree cotton cloth, a shirt Irudla of cheap 
longcloth generally worn without a bodice, and a pair of trousers 
izdr of striped country eloth tailed siUi. In north Gujanlt a poor 
woman wears over her head and face n. large sheet-like shawl orlni 
of coarse cotton oloth, a bodice, and banging from it in front 
an apron-like flap of red cloth, and a pair of tronsers of striped 
country cloth. Wttbin doors, both in north and south Gujai-iit, the 
women of poor faniilica keep thoir feet bare. (Jut of doors, for Iho 
womon of jHwr families must go out 1" work, poor women in south 
Gujarilt wear a large theet /n'c/iO'l' of eoarfe cotton cloth covering 
the greater part of the body from the bead to the knees. In north 
Gujardfc they wear o^'er their heads and faces a Ecarf lUipallti of Goarf« 
cotton cloth. Even out of doors they generally walk barefoot. 
When tbey wear shoes they use the long-pointed leather shoe known 
BSinirziii. On great oee;iBionB a poor woman wears an embroidered 
or silver lace scnrf ihipalta, a new or at least fifthly dyed shirt, a 
pair of fiilk or chintz trousei's, and a pair of shcca. Most poor women 
have at least lour changes of raiment. This in Sm'at represents 

> The dcUib are ; 


o(«irt,. Dn™, Miidle Cliu. V<mwn. 




Total. V 




».Lj^- 1 

Fron, ■ To 



- 1 

«iuHt'hulHtt aTl-tdtU. 

Troor«n> Imtn) 

liowia. p*j*rifa 

Shnea ipgli» ... 
Bh«!»1« (ditto) 

Tot»l ._ 


n-. 0. 



iio Q 


11 * 


R.. n. 



ci a 






The datftiU are i 

JVunlmilii JJiTM, Pmif n'oornn. 





,».. Il 




v,„. II 






T. 1 

Uonddnifses. "dnU .. 
SmrviP, niindli 

TmoMM (lain.).- 
Oown, pt^inl* ... .„ 
ShOBi (piir.) ... 

R*. a. 


E.. «. 

n.. B, 





.. „ 1 %. « 





when new, a cost of Ks. 40 to Rs. 60 ; and in north Gujai*dt^ Trom 
thdr not wearing sheets piciodi, shirts kiuUay or shoes^ the cost is 
less, varying from Rs. 30 to Rs. 40. The ornaments owned by poor 
women are Nos. 20 23 26 21 and 38 of gold^ and Nos. lit 40 and 
46 of silver, costing altogether Rs. 100 to Rs. 200. Of these Nos. 14 
23 and 26 are in daily use ; the rest are worn on special occasions. In 
isonth Gnjardt the women of the bntcher and cook class, and in north 
Gajardt all the lower order of women wear in their ears numerous 
heavy silver rings and silver leaves pdnt^ by which the rim of the ear 
is almost dragged down and sometimes torn. The women of some of 
the lower classes wear constantly before marriage, but never as widows, 
the large nosering nath (No. 22)^ with false pearlf or rubies. South 
of the Mahi, after the birth of a child women cease to wear the small 
nosering buldk (No. 23). Except in the case of old or widowed women, 
hoDgles are seldom of silver, silver bangles being known as mdthi» or 
evil-ones. North of the Mahi bangles are of glass, to the south of wax 
and gold or silver tinsel. On great occasions even the poorest woman 
is carefol to appear with a go^ show of ornaments. If she has few 
of her own she will borrow or get her husband to borrow. If this fails 
she will stay at home rather than go in public with, as the saying is^ 
her limbs bare. 

Up to four years of age the children of rich and middle class parents, 

both boys and girls are dressed alike, in a round cap of simple or gold 

cloih and a loose shirt kudta reaching to the knee. During their first 

four yeai*s the children of the poor, except that the girls wear short 

drawers, are left entirely without clothes. After about four, that is 

the hismillah or initiation time, the boy is dressed Uke his &ther, and, 

except that till she is twelve yeai*s old she contin'aes to wear the cap, 

and until she is married has her gown cut in a narrow slit in front, the 

girl is dressed like her mother. As they grow up the cost of clothing 

a child comes by degrees to equal the charges for an adult. But for 

some years after the bismilldh, or say from about five to ten the cost 

is less. For a boy and a girl the expend ture is much the same. In a 

rich family Rs. 200 to lis. 300 ; in a middle class family Rs. 100 to 

Ks. 200 ; and in a poor family Ks. 20 to Rs. 30.^ The children of the 

' The details are : 

MtualmdnDress^ Chiiiiren, 




























Cap ... 



Troiuers (paira). 
Shoes (ditto). 
Turban ... ^ 

Rs. a. 
a U 

Rs. a. 

Rs. a. 







Rs. a. 







Rs. a. 







Rs. a. 

170 » 




, Total ... 










Chapter HI. 
Style of Liyio 



Chapter HI. 
Style of Living. 


l>oor wear no omamcnte save perhaps a votive collar or anklet of tliia 
silver wive costing from Ro. ] to Eb. 4. Tlie ornament* worn by tLe 
cbildreii o£ the rich and middle claseeB are, before bismilluh gulden 
bracelets /I o/(o jtf A fs worth lis. ^0 and silver anklete kadis worth lis. 5. 
These are generally presented by fiieiids on the sixth day after birth. 
Unices he is the subject of a vow a boy seldom weal's ornaments,' but 
girls of rich and middle cIe^s families have often a considerable storc.^ 

Seotion III.— Food. 

8outh GujuratSIusalmansarc fond of good cheer and good Hviug ; 
those of the uoi'lh^ro abstemious and frugtil almost to stinginetis. 
Among tho higher classes a ^lusalmdn's food consists of wheat 
bread, and among the lower classes of Indian millet y'uwurt bread in 
the north and of -spiked millet b<ijri bread in the south, with, for the 
rich, vegetables mutton fish curds and whey, and for the poor 
generally one of these articles. They drink tea and coffee. Tea 
forms the morning drink of the rich and th^ middle classes \ coffee 






llil>»L. CLiM. 1 


ToMl. 1 




™- 1 











R8. a. 





Bf. s. 



Total ., 














IM 8 




















Us. n 







Bi™rt» :;: :: 






ToUl ... 





' A mother often lunkcs a (jold or silver anklet for her boy, aud »t the ahrine of loina 
ramt v<™-. that if the boy lives to » etrtniii age slic nil! self the onumentiud ipeod tlio 
luoiicj 111 feeding bcggara or for tlie Rood of tho salut'a sbriAb. 

. T. . ..,-,. ^ Ko9.ia, 17, 21, 23, 26, 8J, 8S,36,39,«, MdiC. 



i% the beverage o£ women, ^ middle class luen, ami such of tho poorer 
onlere as can alTord it.* 

A rich MiLsalmdii takea three meals a day. A seven o'clock 
lireiikfaat of lea or coffee and sweets : a midday meal of unleaveued 
fcreod, Houp i-alia, inioced meat kima or /lofta. croain n-jldi, vegetables 
and sometimes rice, with for drink tea or sometimes sherbat sugared- 
water : and about scTeu, an evening meal of rice, rice and pulse 
khtchtU or rice and meat pii!.';-}, with claiificd butter and some kiml 
of me&t or fish, or /.■«(^r' a dish made of curds mangoes lemons or 
plantains, and in some families sugared-water sherbul. 

Middle class Musalmans in Surat auil Broaj;h live well. They 

Uk« three ineals a day. lu the early morning a cup of tea or coffee 

with or without a piece of a special kind of wafer-bread; about 

eleven o'clock a regular morning meal tfiihla cf nuleavened bread 

and mutton with or without vegetables or cream ; and about six. 

o'clock an evening meai iAi'ina of rice and clarified butter,' and 

muttou-soHp, or pulse, or rice and pulse khtckiU, and curds, or 

mutton-soup or kad'i, that is curds and wliey, gramflour, and 

turaicric. North of the Muhi the food of tho middle classes is, 

vamiMrcd with that of south Uujardt scanty and cheap almost to 

itin^iucNs. The morning meal is of ■vegetables or pulse with 

uccauonally a dish of mutton. The evening meal is still simpler, 

rin and pulse with no reli»h hut clarified butter, and a salad or 

hckimbur of onions dry-cbillics and tamarind-water. 

The poor Musalmdn takes twouicals a day. Breakfast generally 
itboat eleven, of millet^ cakes fish pulse and water. For dinner, 
iiboat seven in the evening, rice and pulse with a little elariBcd 
tatter, and as a relish onions and chilhes and water. Kxcept on 
futtivals and at public dinners, perhaps about twenty days iu the 
Tear, a poor Musalmdn seldom ho-s a good meal of any animal fooil 
Wfisb. In south Gujarit where he can easily obtain fresh fish 
the poor MusalmAn lives almost wholly ou fish &\iiljaiviiri bread or 
rico and pulse. He can get a pound of fresh bi'imliii Harpodon 
twboreus or Bombay-duek for a copp,:- rr two or as much of small 
% and prawn. These stewed into a thin soup form his daily con- 
liiinent. The north Oujai'iU poor Muslim sometimes has a diah of 
Jrj prawns cooked in the same way. 

' MoUmuiniliuu nliHtniit frirni siicU food as U forbidilon in tlu> Kiiroilu. Thow arc 
\h lilodil of Hit kiiiiiiiila. aud the flenli at tUe »lGphaut, tho au, tlio uiiilc, thu hog, 
uigitli that (at Bmh, Bud Nsluloaa fiab, and nuh birdi nf |iroy a* hnvL' loug talons kuI 
il'fdl bnks and anuntlai Except flsh, oa whom tlio iiume ot Allili ia Dot proiinuuceil 
■ta lUuglitamd. Usiliiii* of tbc Slidfal Bohool sueli >a the kidrils Siij^bU, many uf 
tW Aitlw, mud tba Nftwiite aro not forbidden thcuso of scaMvss flalt. UF rogntithtra 
HuwlmiiiBCftt all oiocpt j»ni«. Miulirooiua though not forbiiliUa are dliHkcd. 

'lliLj' drink \\ie mtlt of IIm cowliaffaloanJ gout; thu milk of ths mtuv and came] 
I'iiitlorliLii.lpn. Sugar »nd roilk wo tftkcn with lea aud eofteo ii ilfUuk hj itwlf, 

'TLt uiiildk' cUuvatabu great uaru not to wantc clnriflod butt«r. A eiuall rotlHT 
J«T"pinT pot sot ill Hw niiddlu ofahotdish of lieo, orriccond pulio, is kqittnoltod 
Vlblitat. Into thii pot the flngOM nni dipped before ewh uioutUtuI, and the wnstc 
"IlBuriiig ilie nbolo over the rice is norpd. 

' ItiUui BuUntjoKitn iu sottVh Onjurit ; apikod inillcl ba'Jri in nortli Gujacit, 

Chapter Ill- 
Style of Living 


bapter III. 
rle otLiv'mg. 



Ill all ilfli faiiulics some articles o£ food aie laid in by the yenr, 
others by the month, ftud a third sot from dny to day. The yearl 
euppliea arc, rice bought in October, wheat in March, millet an 
pulse in ]!)ecembei', and in some cases otl for lighting and couk 
iiig and iirewood in June. The monthly supplies arc clariGaJ 
butter, salt, tea, and coffee. The dally supplies are animal foo(( 
vegotabloa, fruit, spicfa, sugar, betel-leaf, and sometimes tobacco 
Where opium is eaten enough in kept to last for a fortnight.' Thi 
middle class Musalmrfn's yearly Bupplies are rice, wheat, pulse 
millet, oil, salt, and fuel.* The monthly supplies are clarilied buttei 
opium, tea, and sometimes coffee. The daily supplies are mntUa 
vegetables, fruit, tobacco, botel-leaf, and spices. Except groin, 
which all who can lay in a monthly store, the poor buy bU thet 
food daily. 

The daily cost of food in a rich Musalm^n family of five person] 
a man bis wifi! and child and two dependants, living in comfoi 
but not extravagance, would be on simple articles about Ks. 3 
The daily cost of food in a middle class family 'of three persons, tli 
husband wife and child, living in a style of moderate frugalna 
would be on simple articles about 13 aanas.* The daily cost of 
poor family of three persons, the husband wife and child, would i 
about 4 annas'* 

The only intoxicating drug in favour among Gujartit Moaalmio 
is opium. In the south it is not in general use. There the opini 
cater is a marked man, known as the dreamer or lotus-eater plnm 
or the bee akekedmakki, from his fondness for opium sweets. I 
the north opium is an ordinary luxury and is supplied even i 
funerals. It is eaten andalso taken dissolved in water, and enoug 
for a month's use is generally kept in store. To a rich man, wil 
many companions to share bis dosL- of opium, it costs about Rs. 1 
a luontli ; to the middle class man, Re. 1 to Rs^ 2^ ; and to the pool 
8 annas to Ee. 1. 

Gujarat Musalmdn.s,womenaswellaBmen, tobacco. Then 
Buulf smoke and sometimes chew, the women smoke and sometimi 

n (May 30— Juheffi) furiis booght in cait-loailir»rjiagia» 

' Tlia iktaiU sre ; Articles stored hy tlii) joir ; rice hnlf a cart-load cosUng &■• SO! 
Hx. SOipulsE, lOnuiHiof forty pounds ait«h. Its. 10 to Rs. 30; millvt, mciM, Rs. ID 
'V.n. -iS : wbeut, 18 mai,3, R». 3U to Rs. id ; oil, 3 mani. lU. 10 to Bi. SO ; 
dglit urt-loadi, Ra. 20 to Its. 40 ; tot»l f tnitj Rs. 100 to Ra. ISO. The vtidea laid 
tlui rnontli are : i^Iarificd battur. 1 man, Ra. IS; opium, Rs. 5; tobacco, Rs, i : tea, B 
tagu, Rs- 4 ; total Rs. 34 to Ra. 40, 

" Jnst before the i 
from Bs. 2 to Rs. 4, 

' Tbe details ore : Uraiii mid pulac, annas S ; milk oil aud butter, aanu 7 ; biv 
food, anuas 4 ; sugar and condiments, uuoas 5 ; total Re. IJ. Stimulants, nactotia, 
otbor ex])cnao9 aucb as bctel-Uaves flowers and toothpowdijT vtiait fut women w 
cost auolliDr eight aiinoa. 

' The (loti^ls aru i Grain and pulxc, nunas 3 ; milk oil aud cUrlficil butter, IJ ui 
animal food, anniu 3 ; eugnr couiViuieuts stimulant! and narcotii's, annas 4 ; 

' Tbc dt'taiU ore ; Oroiii and pnlsc, annus 2 ; oil, J anna -, clarified buUor, { ai 
animal food, A anna : augar and coudlmeuta, j aiiua ; atimulaKis nod uarcotius' | ai 



chew.' Neither men nor women chew tobacco by itself but as one 
of the components of the betel-leaf. The women of the rich and 
middle classes in ooi'th Gnjarttt sclrlom smoke, but in tliL' south a 
ntan-ied woman who doea not smoke is the exception, Jn ricii and 
middle class families tobacco leaves arc sometimes bought green and 
kid in for the year's supply. Before using they are pounded with 
molaee«s, and laid in the eun so tliat auy remainbg moisture may be 
dried, then they are ready for the lonfj-pij-e liuk/ai/i. In north Gujanit 
tobacco grown in Pt'tMd and in Balol in the iiadi division of H. H. the 
Uiikwiir's terntfiriea and in Yiraragiim and Sdnaad, and in south 
Gajariit tobac-eo of the brand called degdii produced in Kiithiawai- and 
in Kiinam near Bi-oaeh, are much prized by the Jover of the linkkah? 
ITie ri<h store a snpjdy sufficient for the year's (.'onsumjition when the 
liiif is ^reen at a cost varying from Kg. 20 to Ra. 40. The poor 
will many of the miildle elass buy their tobacco with their dail)- 
l>ron!noDs. The yearly cost of tobacco in a rich mail's family is about 
Ks. GO, among the middle classes alxiut Us. 80, and among the ]>oo!' 
f.dmit Rs. 6. Tobaccc used for chewing with pan or hetel-leaf is not the 
8 that used for smoking. Chewingf tobacco is cut a little broader 
i thicker than English shag or birdceye tobacco. This among all 
1 is always bought either every day or in quantities enough to 
lajt a month. Chewing tolwcco is known as Kiika dry or xarda 
jclluir, and that cut at Surat and fianiias is mut'li prized. KnufE is 
bonght either daily or monthly, snuff from VIramgim in the Ahraed- 
iUd district being in the greateet request. 
In a rich or middle class hnusthold, for the ordinary every-day meal, 
, t!ie whole family meet in one of the rooms of the ladies' apartments, and 
"li a lervant to bring the dishes and wait, men and women eat 
[etlier. In yxtv families where the woman has to wait, the men 
rally dine lirFt and the woman after the men have dined. As a 
le only veiy near relatives are allowed to dine with the family. But 
» II mark of sjJGoial trust well ti'ied friends arc sometimes allowed to 
share the privilege. The room is mads ready for dinner by laying a 
»hile colonrei-l or printed cloth called daslar-khdn over a part of 
the carpet and by setting a china or earthenware cup and plate with 
'■ne 'ir two spoons, a metal bowl or glass tumbler to tlriuk f I'om, and a 
nipkiii for each party. Fruit is laid beside the cups and plates. 
Wnen dinner is reaily the i arty sit down on cushions ranged round 
the cloth or on the carpeted ilooi'. The host first seats himself at the 
haul nf the cloth, the rest of the family taking their places accoi-ding 
tochniec. Before eating a brass or silver ewer with a basin is handed 
nmnd hy a servant, each person hold irfg hia hands over thobaeiu on 

' TIhi Urdu proTcrb u<rsi Tiibaccii is nnDked by the lover (Ihat ia by men) taten 

liJlWUloTed ithal Uli,v wonipn) aud staffed into the topyi nnatrils. 

'ThoAiijtitdA conneta <n three fiiirti ttllTliaehiVuniorFartluMi pipG-hrwI wliich cnutsins 

^u4 lobuooi ii.) tlH! stem (rilli tlie anake caKcil nalcha on wliich the pipe-head U 

^ {»d:«i3 (a) the pipo-bnwl wliii'hcoiitaini water. Pii>C'licadA for wliich KitliMwilr ta 

M coal from 1 anna to Hs. 5. Pipo-stems tor tlie inaniifaclnre i.f wljich Snrat aud 

Wmh an famDlis cob* from aiiiian 8 to Ra. 5. Pipc-lj.iwla for which Dchli aad 

n north auJ BUac in south Imlia aro fnnioiiB uust from Hs. B to Kb, 50, 

Chapter II 
Style of Li vi 




ttpier in. 
le of Living' 



whicU water ie poured and flows into the basin. After this Uio 
religiouB before eiicli in<iiithEul, und tlie le^is religiima before the ,._ 
mouthful, Bay the woiil HisuiUlah is In the Name of Go 
'Jlien the UiBhea are handed round by o. servant or passed ronndo 
giieet helping himself. A water -jar stands on the cloth and the giM 
till their cups from it ae they need. At the close the gprvant ag 
bi-ings round tlie ewer and liaBin and hands are washed. The chiyi 
are generally the first to leave; the elders both men and women 
they have no sjwcial business, git smoking or chewing bctel-lei 
Among many families meals, especially dinner, are merry with mm 
talk and laughter. 

InhonouroE a fr'iond's coming or going,or of any gi'eal domestic evantj 
private feast-i are given. At these enterta-nments, in which only neii 
join, .1 nimilier of dishes arc ranged iu onler on a white cloth spread ii 
tlie middle of the hall diimnbhdit<i, Tho guusta help themselves b 
any dish i^'ithin easy leach. Talk goes on diuing tlio whole tiiuft 
"When dinner is over the guests retire to some room where long-jiipfl 
and iKtel leaf ^w'»i are served. After about hart an hour's stay the 
guests leave, ea^'h as he goes being eerved with w/uV or rose essence aol 
flowers by ihe host. Tlie expeuEc of a private feast, where there art 
at least ten different dislte^i and as many guests, is not moi'c timt- 
Kb. 20. 

Gujarat Musalmdne are foiud of giving public dinners. Amon^tiW' 
rich almost every important family event from birth to death ig oa^ 
excnee for a public dinner. Though they are by no means re<iuin4 
to do so by law, the middle and even the poor classes shoW, cspedftllp 
at marria':o8 and deaths, a most keen and ill-judged rivalry in- 
giving large and coitly feasts. Kluhammadans ask to their puM* 
feasts the men women and cliildren of their relations friends ind.- 
Bcquaintances. \Vhen he has t-o give a public dinner, a MuealmdiV' 
aft«r consulting his family and friends, draws up a bat of gaeat*'' 
to be asked and fixes ihe day and the time of the day when tht" 
feast is to be given. When this is settled the head c* the Iwusii 
hires an inviter ij»i', to ask the men, and tho hires a wonaD, 
generally a liierwoman l-ahnmi, to ask the women guests. ?ibu^ 
while in the host's house supplies are being lanl in, a cook is hired, M^ 
ia some open sijot largo earthen jai's aro aii^nged for the cooking.' 
the day of the feast men bring Avater and iiU the jars aud the coob 
his asjistants make ready the d'nner In funeral feasts, eitlierbtfoi 
the dinner is served or after the giiojts are seated, a thanksgiving at 
prayer, that the moi-it of the feaet may jiass to the soul of (he deadu 
repeated, gonerolly by a priest. At tiie hour named for tho fenst^ tU 
guests begin to come, some of them bringing their boys of any age vA- 
their girls up to seven years old. But laking children of tender agS: 
and girls to public dinners is not considered good taste. As tho gua 
wrive they arc seated on cbairri or benches neat the entrance to t--=^— 
house. When a party of fifteen or twenty liave eome, they areadud 

1 The wliulu cooking: U dono bv iirofi'taioniil Slusalmfin cooka Ihatiorit ox iriirareUi- 



' The con of • biiydni dinner with tarda, tMMfidffhf ikola, or tdliedm milXdi for a 
NnpHlj of eighty men ii ; For tiirydni, mutton Ki. B. rice Bs. 5, aonp Ra. 6. lalTrou 
It. I. <a*riRiilliatter Rs. 6, ipices He 2 ; total R'>. 3*^. For tarda, liue Rh. 8, oUrifled 
Wlvr Ri. 2, Mffnm aanu Si lultinOi raituia &ad AlunuDtli Be, 1, eagai Rs. 1 1 total 
Rt !((, ^ur mu»4/ar lAcCo, rice Bh 2, clarified bntter Re. 3, >u>i:ar I)g, d, anffron 
ib, 1, Hiuei &ntia> 4, saltlna ntUiiu almouda toatiwuter and iiplcei Gi. ]]i total 
Ht, tS j. Far (icmfoi miMiJi Ri. 50, Fuel in all cawi Be. 1 «ad the cook'* murei in 
iU cakM umu 8, with a meftl. 


brthe host or some of Mb friends to walk in. Qiring hia shoes in Chapter III 

rfurge of his servant, or if he has no servant taking them himself umler stjle ofLivinH 

hi* left arm sole to sole, each guest seats himself placing his shoes hy his 

silk As BOon afi the guests are seated, a servant or fi'iend of the host 

btiogs iu a number of sweet dishes of eafFroned liee with ahuonda and 

wltiUia luisins :artla or m-uzadfar the same dish with a rifhcr sessiining 

ud with the addition of limejuicc cau^inj^ a delicious gub-at^iiUty of ta^te. 

After tho dishes are served, the guests wait the coming of the host or 

rf snrae one nu his paii to tell them to begin. This he does hy saying 

in * loud yoice Bimitiliih In the Name of God, the guests respimd Bi»- 

miiliiA, and begin. As soon as the course oC sweets is over, the priuelpal 

ihsU which lb generally paSroned rioe with mutton* hirifdni, and some 

mutton or mutton and vegetable soup, or curds, is served in a large eopper 

tray, one for every four guests. When emptied the tray is filled from 

sDpplies carried about hy friends of the ho^t. Iu most cases water m 

biided round in earthen i-ups hy boys, neighbours' sons, who go about 

iTving Pinl Pd/ti Water Water, After a guest has dined he rises 

irni washes his hands. -In some houses a person with a trny full of 

rally-made rolls of betel-leaf ptin, stands near the door and presents 

ft ml to each gutst ns he leaves. The women travelling in caixiages, 

come sooner than the men, and go at once to the women's quarters. 

They while away the time in talking with the hostess or their friends 

tilliiinner is served in the women's rooms. This is done hy the servants 

■ad friends of the host carrying trays of sweets and otlier food to the 

rtiJrrase, Here the trays are taken by the women of the family 

»t by servants, who plat'c them in order on a long pcce of cloth 

spread in the middle of tho room. After all the trayahave been set 

DDt t)ie hostess asks her guests to seat themselves, and saying 

Biimilluh, they begin to cat. During dinner the talk is chiefly of 

nturiagti and other domestic events. Ths dinner generally lasts 

froiD Iialf an hour to an hour. When it is Ruished the guesta riscj 

Fiih their hands, take a roll of betel-leaf, and smoke. This over, 

tbcy ask leave, send for their carriages, embrace the hostess, saluto 

ber, and go. 

There are three chief classes of Gujarat Musalmfin ptiblic dinners, 
iirifini, ddl bhdt and khalla, and piildo. Of these the first and best, 
eliOMn regardless of cost by all Musalm^u dinner-givers, is biryiim 
with wri/a. Sirydni ia the chief dish, saffroned rice with mutton, 
i^Q with curda or some mutton and vegetable soup.* It isaccom- 
puied hy zarJa or saSroned and sugared rice With siiltdna raisins and 
ttmonds. A richer sweet dish is mvsad/ar ''kola, saHronod rico slightly 
iddulsted with limejuice^ and having ifiore sugar sull&ua raisins 



Kpter UI. 
Strle of Living. 




smi almonds, and a sauce of clarified batter. IE not by one of th 
two dislies, btryi'ini is accompanied by satteani MilAdi tte se' 
sweets, specially ordered from a confectioner, generally in »oi 
Gujarit a Sbiali Bohoi-a, whose cookery ia famous for ita flavoB 
and delicacy. This being the beat and dearest of sweet dishes add 
lonch to the costly character of the dinner. The next kind d 
dinner is ddl hhdt and kliaUa,^ that ia pulso rice and tamarind soiUj 
This ia the next most costly dinner to birgdni. Though not dear ■'" 
itself it causes a very great outliiy and almost a waste of clarif 
butter, which frotii earthen jars called hadU is poured without stuno 
till the guest asks tlit^ pc-i-aon strvin^ to stop. The sweet duA 
aoconipanying it ii^ rice und sugar chobd, and a largo quantity of 
clarified butter. The last class of dinner is rice and mutton p*la«^ 
and some vegetable soup. IF there is no mutton the disb is called 
korma and is thought luean.^ Along with it saSroned rice tarda 

Almost every feast-day and holiday has its own dish, 
Thursdays there is gencrdUy something special for the eveni 
meal. This is a cheap dish of rice and pulse tnrry, not 
more than 8 annas for a family of a man and wife with on 
and a servant. Of holidays that have special dishes, the 
of JfitAflrrdm, the first moiith of the Musalmfin year is the I 
Tho dish for this day is rice und curda with milk, sugared-Wi 
gherbat, and fned bread and sugai' chnngda. It costs at least ei 
annas a head. The thirteenth or the second month Safar is 
Musalmian picnic-day, and has ils fried pastry talan, costing about 
one rupee a head. The ficst twelve days of tho third month Rahi— 
■ul-awital are hold sacred on account of tho death of the I'rophet^ 
sermons are preached and after the sermons several monthfnlh oC 
rice and meat birydni, or rice and milk pudding ihir, or parched an3 
sweetened rice pawv}d, are distributed among tho congregation - 
The expense to the person giving these sermon-dinners varies fronra 
Es. 20 to Rs. 50. Tho eliivcnth of the fourth month Baht-ul-Akiir 
has ils feast of pounded and sugared bread malicla, costing abouS' 
four annas a head. On the last Friday of the seventh monih Rajja6 
families who have made a vow to do so, give a dinner of rice curds 
and augur- served in earthen pots, and known as the pot-dinner 
kundds. The friends and relations that are asked to this family 
feast, eat from the pota, and after they have eaten, layers of fresh 
rice curds and augar are put into the pots and beggars and poor 
people ftre fed from tha same vessels. The dioner costs from 

' TliG ilttftiU for u dal bW and ihitla dinner for oiglity guoita nrc : Pulse Be. -, 
rico [U. G, clarified Iiulttr Rs. 10, tamariuJ and spicei Be. 1 ; toiaJ Ki. 18. Fui 
ehobdt, Tice Re. 1, sugar Rs, 2, clarified Ijutter Ra. !), AtoiondH Ra. 2 1 t^Ul Ki. 8, iriU 
KUDOS 8 for the cook and Bo. 1 for fuel. Total fur both B». 37}. 

* The detiili foe n pntilo diuner are : Clarified butter [is. S, rioe R*. G, mnttm 
Ra. 21, Eoup Ba. 6 ; total Rs. la^, with Rs. 1} for tlie cook and fael aud Rs, 91 foi 
iarda. Total B^ 29t, 

■ Tbe (letuU of a iorma dinner are : Kice Be. E, clarilifd bntttr Bi. 1|, gtwn-paUi 
annM 6, spic«< antiM 8, lonp Bi, S, Iu«l anoaa 8, gook anaw f- Total Ri. IC}. 




Bi. 5 to Rs. 10. On tho evening of Shab-bardt^ the night o£ the 
thirteenth day of the eighth month Shaahan, bread and sweets 
ehapdtu and Aalwa, costing about Rs. 4 are made and given to 
relations. During the ninth month Ramazdn or month of fasting, 
Hsboth meals are taken at night, leavened bread, because light and 
easy of digestion and a number of cooling dishes arc used. Tho 
first of the tenth month Shawwdl is the first of the t\yo great feasts 
of the year, and has its skir-kAurma (literally milk and dates)^ a dish 
of milk dates raisins and vermicelli, mutton-soup, and bread, cost- 
ing about eight annas a head. Ou the tenth of Zil Uajj the twelfth 
month, the Sakr /f, literally cow-feast, goats and cows are sacrificed 
tnd presents of their flesh made among friends^ and relations and 
dressed into several dishes and eaten. In the cold weather as 
tppetisera and tonics, certain dishes are very generally taken. Of 
these in north Gujarat, a dish chiefly of garlic, and in the south one 
made of f enngreek seed methi'ki'khichdi, are the chief. A favourite 
hot-weather dish is thin wheat or rice cakes with mango juice, and 
in north Gnjardt khirni Mimnsops hexandra berries and curds. 
The favourite cold-weather dish is in south Gujarat a stew of 
potatoes French-beans and mutton, eaten with wheat bread and 
▼ished down by unfermented palm juice nira. The cost in both 
cases is about one rupee a head. 

Chapter m. 
Style of Livin] 


Feast Day 


is jaotfl 

on a^ 



A MUHiMMADAN sbould bcgiQ the day by riaiag at the Tnornin_ 
call to prayer, washiiijir, and sajiny: his prayors, ether at home, or, and 
this has the hifjher approval of the Prophet, in the mosque with the 
congregation of hia brother- Moslims. Xerj few of the rich begin 
their day in tliis way. Itising about ^even, a rich man wash^ his fi 
hands and feet, takes his cup of tea or cofiee, and sits ^mokin^ i 
eating betel-lcaf, reudinp, or gossipping wntli his friends. Ab 
eleven lie orders break fa^^t, iinlcavennl wheat -bread, mutton ' 
vegetable and tnuttou soup and cream, ^vith iometimes a dish of nee 
with some pickle rt'liah or cheese, and a dessert of mangoes plaaiaiiu 
or any fnut that is in seaison. Wlien breakfast is over, he has his ppp 
for half an hour, and if tbore is businces to do be attends to it. If tT 
day is an idle one, he sleeps for an hour or two, aid later, when t 
heat ia passing, makes ready for a drive, a ride, or a walk, i 
his return from exercise, about seven, ho has his supper, a dish of riBji 
or ptUse and rice with mutton and vegetable eoup, or minced med 
pickle and wufer-biscuits, and fruit or sweets, and after smokingl 
jripe talks with friends or with the women of the family, till ' 
goes to rest about eleven. Where the bead of a rich or nnddle c' 
family takes opium, he eats it. or drinks it dissolved in water, i 
seven in the morning, wlien he has usually some frionAs with him. 

There is in many ways much sameness in the daily lives of middl 
class MusalmHus. He is up early to say bis niorning piuyers and { 
through his religious washing. He comes back to a cup of tea i 
cofiee, and smoking a pipe, reads, looks after his private af&irs, i 
pays or receives visits for two or three hours. By eleven o*c]oo 
breakfast ie ready. After breakfast he generally goes out, stopjria_ 
at business till five or six in the evening. In north Gujardt between J 
four o'clock and dinner time, those addicted to opium have a seoond 
dose of it, their friends coming in and smoking and talking for an 
hour. When evening prayers are over he takes his supper, passing 
the rest of his time in ehefcs backgammon or talk, till about eleven 
o'clock he retires to rest, 

A poor KusaltnAn rises early, goes thi'Ough bis religious washing, 
attends morning prayers, aud cveiy Friday bathes at the mosque or 
at home, After prayers be goes to market to buy provisions. He 
breakfasts at eleven, and after smoking a pipe, goes to his work, 
where he stays till evening. On his return he dines and spends the 
rest of the evenbg with friends or i moking by himself, and about I 



eWen after sayiorr his fifth or last pi-ayer goes to Mwt. Tliis 
routiiiL' is broken by tVidavri, holiday!!, and times of family joy or 
moornin^. Of holidays and ceremonial dsiys some account is given 
below. To almoist all Musalm^DS Friday is a day of rest. After 
kthiDg and attending the holiday prayer and sermon at the moaquej 
be takes his breakfast, generally somewhat better than the 
erery-day mi;al, and returns to the mosque to bear the noonday 
ptayera and a sermon. Most spend tht! afternoon in resting and 
the evening in dri\-ing or walking. At night they again attend 
payers in the mosque, and, if they can afford it, end the day with a 
wntewhat richer mail than usual. 

Even where there are no children, ae almost isvery family has its 
poor relatione and dependants, the rich Musalman womaa's life is 
leldom dull or lonely. The mornings are passed at the toilet and 
except in very rich families, in seeing that breakfast is properly 
prepared. After breakfast most women rest for an hour or two and then 
Kvr, embroider, talk, and amuse themselves with chess backgammon 
and other games till, .in the afternoon, visits are paid and received. 
Then supper has to be got ready and the time between supper and 
Ket passes in talk, or in hearing or reading tales and romances, chiefly 
Drdu religious and love Btories. If there are children, especially young 
childten, most of the day is passed in looking after then). Except 
th»t more of it is spent in houfiehold work, cooking needlework 
uhI embroidery, the life o£ a middle class woman dUfern but little 
bom that of a I'ioh woman. Some of them embroider and sew 
wticles for sale, disposing of them by the help of old women, who 
»fe [aid a small sura for the trouble of hawking them. In north 
Gajarat middle class and even rich women weave and spin cotton 
jam, work being brought to them by VAnilis, who cry about in the 
rtieet* offering work, the women notivlthstanding 3ena.7tah. or seelu- 
Bon rules, themselves making their bargains. In poor families the 
ffomen are at work by dawn gi-inding uorn, brmging water, and 
pnparing breakfast. Between meals they sew for home or for sale 
{•tchwork quilted caps of cotton and silk, or in north GujarAt tbey 
w«v«:^ A woman sups ivhen ber husband has finished his meal and 
Kon after, having washed iier pots and dishes and cooking utensils, 
goes to rest. 

Chapter IT. 
Daily Life- 

' The irtidcs wovtm by women aro turbuns and w^ateloUu dholit of Bilk, ildeha 
*Dd naiint, anil gold brocule. Tho.v Kre paid for the first fiota Ra, 2 to Bb. 4, Ihu 
libODruf st lM»t t«i dayf, and for ttie Beconil and third from Ba. 10 toBs, SO,tbc 
Uww of » month or six we«ks. ^ 




CShapter V. 






The following statement shows that while there are few 
engaged, their chief occupations are coltiyating, lab 

QujamAt Mui 








Class L^'FMie Semice, 
Government Servants 

Class IL-^ProJbsslom. 


Religion and Charity 

Edication and Literature 

\Jn^V ••• ■«« •«« •■■ ••• 

Medicine ... ... ... ••• 

Fine Arti, ohiefiy Planting and Mudc 



Class IIL'^Privats Service. 

««--f(ah^S*!?. ::: ::: 

Barbers ... ■•• ... ••• 

Washermen •• 




Totol ... 

Cl^s ir.^ Land. 

CnlUvatora {^^^ ^ 

Laboorers, Field 

Ditto Others 







Class r. '-'Trade. 


Conveyance of Persons and Goods 
General Shopkeepers 

Merchants and Traders 

Commercial Agents and Employ^ 

Total ... 





























• •■ 
. ■• 

• •• 

• •• 


• •• 

• •• 

• ■• 

• •• 
■ •f 

• ■• 

• • • 

• •• 


















• • • 





I a . 

• •t 

• •I 

• •• 


• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• •« 

• •• 

• «l 


No similar dt tails vt 



is tiio beverage of vpomeii,' middle clasa uicn, and such of the poorer 
orders n.5 can aflbrd it.* 

A Hell Masalniidi takes three meals a dn,y, A .sevea o'clock 
hfeakfost of tea or coffee and sweets : a midday meal of unleavened 
bread, soup Aalia, minced meat kiiaa or kof/a, cream piatdi, vegetables 
and sometimes rice, with for drink tea or sometimes sharbat sugarod- 
trater : and about seveu, an evening meal of rice, rice aud puleo 
Ikifhdi or rice and meat pii!':o, with clariBcd butter aud some kind 
uFmcat or fisb, or kmli a dish made of cunia mangoes lemoim or 
plantains, and in some families sugared-water nhcrbal. 

Middle class Musalmans in Surut and Broajjli live well. They 
lake three meals a day. In the early morning a cnp of tea or coffee 
with or without a piece of a Epecial kind of wafer-bread; about 
eleren o'clock a regular morning meal n'xahta of unleavened bread 
and mattou with or without vegetables or cream ; and about six 
o'clock an cveaiug meal khan» of rice and clarified butter,' and 
mutton-soup, or pulse, or rice and pulse khiclidi, and curds, or 
tDQtton-sou]) or kii(^, that is curds and wliey, gramflour, and 
turmeric. North of the Mahi the food of the middle classea is, 
cDEiipared with that of south Gujardt scanty and cheap almost to 
stingincbs. The morning meal is of vegetables or pulse with 
uccasionalJy a dish of mutton. The evening meal is still simpler, 
rice and pulso with no ralish but clarified butter, and a salad or 
iatkimiar of onions dry-chitliea and tamarind-water. 

The poor Musalmiin takes two meals a day. Breakfast generally 
about eleven, of millet ' cakes fish pulse and water, ll'or dinner, 
about seven in the evening, rice aud pulse with a little clarified 
butter, and as a relish onions and chillies and water. Jixcept on 
Ivstivals and at public dinners, perhaps about twenty days in the 
year, a poor MusalmSn seldom has a good meal of any animal foo<l 
m tiah. In south Gujarat where he can easily obtain fresh fish 
tlic poor Musalman lives almost wholly on fish and jawdri bread or 
rice and pulse. He cau get a pound of fresh bnmliis Harpodon 
Bsbcreus or Bombay-duck for a copper f-r two or as much of small 
ff)' and prawn. These stewed into a thin soup form his daily con- 
diineat. The north Gujaxiit pooi' Muslim sometimes has a dish of 
itj prawns cooked in the same way. 

' Muhnamaduw itliBtam from aiicb food m ia forUddau in iIjl- Kiira:)ii. Tticso arc 
tliF bluud uf >U BiiiiaBls, aud tbe flotli nf Ihc cla[iliaiit, tho asa, tiro mule, Che hog, 
»inili tlwt eat Beili, and walolce fiab, and mob birds r>f pray n* bnvu lung talana biuI 
'■mcd brkkt and uilmalb Ei«iiit Gih. ca nrhotu tbo iiBine of AlUb in »ot pronooaced 
*<wii1»nglilCTod, HnDliuis otlho Shifal leboolHaclv as tlia Eidriia Snyads, many oE 
>!» Anba, Knd tbe NftwiiU aro uub forbiddea tbeudo nf usHoaii fiib. Of vvgctublra 
Kmilmlnicat all oxwjpt yumt Mnaliroonia tbongb. uot forbidden arc dislikod. 

-TheydrinkChsmilK of tb« cow buffalo and goat i tlie intlk uf tbe mnTe and camel 
UMttnbiddGD. Sngar and milk an? lalicn ivith tea aud floffoe in dmnk hj ilself. 

' TIm middlv claaws lake grmtcaro nut to wasto cLicifiud bultur. A small mtbi'i- 
top copper pot «M in the middle of a hot dish of ricp, of riec and pulsp, ii Iiqit incited 
' "Ilhiiliait, Into tUi» iwt tho fingers arc dipped bofnro cacb muutlitnl, nud tha ivurtc 
ipinring the whol* uveitjioriwiseaved. . 

' luJUo millet ^awdrf in iDutb Oujarit ; splkod millet i"</>i" ia norlU Uajarit. 

Chapter IIT> 
Style of Living 

hi. I 


Cihapter T. 






OvJ4mJt Msui 








CVaw r/. —Crajti, 


Indigo Djura ... 



26' ... 


Vesrcwblo Oil Mttlrere and SelUra 




210 ... 


CotUmdowwre, i-pinopw, and WoawM ... 


120 ... 


Silk Spinnwi Hid Wottven 


640 ... 


Hemp and FIm Siiiniiora and Deslora ... 


98 ... 




124 ... 


h'tunemuoDt uid Brlckm&ker* 





34' ,.. 


Hou-epainters and Ducorotow 



Dealors ill Iron and H»ni»»ru' 




370' .,. 


. 83 


UoM and SilTOt Hmithi 


23 ,.. 


Jewcllefs »nd Dealori Id Ptedoiu Stonei... 




' M 


CaUndcn, ITulleri, aud Dyen 


..J ::; 


Tailun ... 


ei, ... 


EmbiDidcren, Oold-Ute Maker* and SoUen 
of Artificial Ploweri 





Miller., GrindBf*, aud Huiinr* of Ofaln.., 





38 ... 



87 ... 




101 ... 


Maker* Keiii™, and SeUwiolSngaf ... 

•■;« - 



IMl ... 


Boteb«. and M«.t bailor. 


30 .~ 




Provirion Detden 




BelUriof IntoDcatingDmgi 



J^clldi. of PBTlomei and Medicina 



Firetraod Sellon 





Total ... 
C/a.x rl/.-MUatUaiteet: 






m ... 1 



G9 ... 

zr ... 


Beggurs and Panpow. 




WivM and Mother* 







li'iu :.. 



... ,ll,7SO 





... 1 £2 

Total ... 







Final iuoIli. 


















































■" 8 
























































































. 4914 




























ChiLptOT ^ 






The following details g^ve 8ome idea of the general condition of these 

different classes. 

In Government service there we 5442, eliiefly soldiers, police- 
meseengers, jiostmen, aad some clerks and schoolmasters. Kxoept a 
few higher officers in the police, revenue, and judicial branches of the 
service, many Musalmiina in the lower grades o£ Govemnient eerviee 
are moi-e or less embarrassed, 

OE Professional men there are, under religion and charity, 1200, 
schoolmasters, mosque servants, and religious teachers. Of these the 
moBtpe servants are poor and the religious teachers and elegy-singers 
well-to-do, many of the spiritual guides junadd/it hving witli much 
Btate and show. Under medicine come B'l, chiefly doctors haiinui,' as 
a claes well-to-do and many of them rich, and a few midwives who are 
generally well-to-do. Unde-r fine arts come 433, eliiefly singera, 
painters, dancers, and actors. People of this class arc cai'eless and liv9 
expensively and as a rule arc badly olf. 

Under Service como 4195, chiefly domestic ajid other Kervanta £696, 
and barbers 1070, who have good and sleaily work and make mone7, 
but being thriftless are generally indebted, a;id washermen 337, wh» 
have constant employment and being steady workers and thrifty esm: 

Under Land eome 48,71 1. Of the landowners, 1 5,896, many of thesi 
large ])roprictors are, through extravagance, indebted and embarrssseil- 
and their lands are rapidly passing by unredeemed mortgage aad' 
Eale into the hands of moneylenders. Many of the small landholden^ 
Suuni Bohords and others, are well off. Tcnauts, 22,7J2, are on tbp 
whole well-to-do. labourers, 1952, from irregular work and halt 
wages are poor. Dealers i.n animals, 480, exce[it horBS-dealerSj are 
a rule in good condition. 

Under TmJc come 4968. Of these the chief are Bohords, chieflj 
Shiahs, having cutlery slmjis, oilman-stores, hardware, and Kin 
shops. They aro well-to-do and thrifty and save money. 

Under Cmfts come 90,711, chiefly oilmen, 2S84, who, well paid 
thrifty, save money ; cotton spinners and wKLvers, 8193, most 
aeeoiint cf decreasing work poor and in debt ; tanners, 438, well-h 
with steady work ; bricklayers, 471, well-to-do ; lime-burners and brit 

1 Tliu r.njar.'lt MasHlmilii pliysici 
or even rich family. Alter li'sriiiiii 
mlUd, and with him Btudic* llio f n 
knovn ft! Greclc Meilidnc Tiib'i-Yn 
Tib,Jiiiiifhaib,».aA Majacviiiet 

n or hiiHiH m&y be llii' Eon of any middla e 
B litLlo FerBian aniL Ambic ho ['hooae* > n 
T or flvo books on Arabian □ledioiae < 
dit. Hie iTcirkB generally studied a: 
I Tak tliQ papil 9to]ia, und bikini to It 

Biirgpry. In pnvctical sufKory Ihey aro tiiuplil tho art of drcsrin^ woonda,* 
joint-iwttiiiKiOndcotiabinB for tha i-ataract. Tlu'ir medicines are almost entinjy n 
blu. Tbc cU.iTgcs vary from Bo, i to Rs. 2 a Tiut according to proffagional r ~ ' 
Tho medicino if giroTi by llie doctor ii chafed scparatdv. If iiot it ii boo 
inaikcl according to tbe preBcriplion givon. A tif\> mail on rwojer.v, b«dde. ..._ , 
(iivc* biidortor a luit of clotliesor a ihaivl. A* a Glass pliynciaiu are Undhitlie^ 
ofton givint; tboin advii^o and medii>ine frcu of pbarge. Tbey seldom bavo any kuowkJ 
of or practice midtvifery, as to admit a male stranger at cbiM-birth woald bo ag«nK d 
spirit of Isliini, 


nUers, 186, well-to-do and thrifty, save money; masons, 193, witU 
wel! paid biit uncertin employment, well-to-do; house painters, 57, 
»ith uncertain work, badly oft; tinmen, 167, well-to-do; dealers 
in precious stones, 54, well-to-do; wooden brncclet and comb 
ntken, 1378, woU-to-do ; dyers and calico-printers and fullers, 566, 
well-to-do ; tailors, 276, work constant Ijut wages low as a class 
poor ; embroiderers, 446, in middling condition, with uncertain work 
»ad thrifty habits; paper-makers, 749, well-to-do but work falling 
off, ar« thrifty and saving ; millers, graingi-inders, and buskers, 817, 
poor and ill paid ; bakers and grainparchcvs, 753, have constant 
work, aru well-to-do and thrifty ; sellers of fruit and vegetables, 
535. poor but thrifty ; grocera, chiefly Shiih Bcihords, 531, well off; 
Imtcners, 751, well-to-do, almost rich ; fishermen, 86, poor ; provision 
dealers, 119^ well-to-do ; dealers in tobacco and drugs, 19, well-to- 
do ;perfame-sfllera, 158, chiefly Shi^h Bobords, well-to-do; fii-o- 
wood sellers, chieHy Kathiilr^, ^77, well-to-do, almost rich ;botdora 
oEhoDse property, 412, well-to-do; pensionera, 153, infair condi- 
tion; beggars and paupers, -4914, poor; prostitutes, 282, in fair 
eoadition but cxtravagaut and iudebted. 

Kscept in some casi!a iu north, rich women seldom add 
to tlifl family income by their work. Many women of middle class 
(woiliea like the rich, eai'n no money. But some o£ them, and 
iliDOst all the poor, by their labour put something into the family 
pwsc. In north GujarAt for some middle class and for many poor 
women, weaving of turbans, cotton-silk, and brocade is the regular 
occapntion. From this source it is not unusual for a clever worker 
to make as much as Ra. 3 to Ra. 4 a month. In south Gujardt, 
■bere middle class and some poor women embroider and work at 
timdadi or silk and calico knotting, a clever liaiiij earns as much 
u 8 annas or a rupee a day. Others sew £or wages, and some of 
the poor make patch-work caps of cotton or silk, eai-ning in this way 
horn Bs. 2 to Rs, 3 a month, Many friendless widows work as 
(Uy labourers. Women of the cultivating Sunni Bohoros ami a few 
othw classes work in the fields with their husbands. 

Besides tlio occupations followed by Hindus and Pursis as well as 
by Musalmflas, there are some classes of workmen almost uil of whom 
are MasalmSns. The chief of these are musicians and dancers, brass 
band and kettledrum players, 433 j barber-surgeons, 1070; horse 
breakers chdhuk taiodrt, 263 ; tinsmiths kaldigars, 1G7 ; bangle -sell era 
in north Gujarat, 1978 ; embroiderers and paper flower makers in 
soath GujarSt, 446 ; butchers, 751 ; attdr and perfume sellers, 158 j 
ftod fael-sellers kalAidrds, 377. * 

Except in so far as they stand in need of their capital, Mu'-!".l- 
mdns are, as craftsmen, in no way inferior to Hindus. Their 
special skill in embroidery gives them a monopoly of the art-, and 
the accrets of the lead and silver work known as bidrl and of tho 
manufacture of glue, rest with a few Musalmtin families and are by 
(hem strictly guarded. 

Chapter V. 


Chapter VI. 





On tho coiiditioti oE Gujarat Mastilmtins two general remarlql 
may be made. Thoao iiortli o£ tlie Mahi are more thrifty aaSl 
better off than those to the south, and the most prosperous, both 1 
io the north and in the south, are chiefly or altogether of Uindn 

Though less thrifty than t)ie Hindus, the MiiGalniftoa are in 
ordinary life neither wa.'iteful nor exti-avagant. OE classes who are 
able to add to their copital, the chief are, auion^ traders, Bohoris 
both Bhii'ihs andSunnis; amon^ cultivators, all classes of Sunni 
Bohorils j among craftsmen, oilmen, ceiuent-buruera and brick- ■ 
makers, firewood-sellers, and butchei-s; and among those engaged'| 
ill service, Arab soldiers and watchmen, bakers, barbers, vegetabtoJ 
and fcuit sellers, and carters. As they are not allowed to lei 
money, a rule which all MusalmAns except most classes of Him 
origin obey, their chief forms of investment are, for merchants ai 
shopkeepers, trade ; for cultivators, land and farm stock ; for mai 
of all classes, house property ; and for all, gold and silver ornamein 
Musalmins invest almost nothing in Government savings banks a 

;, amonv the middle claE 
niddie class borrow 

Cases of debt nmong the rich are van 
common, and among the poor usual. 

generally on the security of his house or land, can raise Ite. SOO^ 
Es. 600 at from nine to twelve percent a year. With much i 
some families clear themselves from heavy liabilities. But as a 
rule a large debt passes from father to son. A poor man who has 
ornaments or other security may raise Ks. lUO to Ra. 200 at from 
twelve to eighteen per cent a year. But with only personal 
eccurity, for the greater risk a bonus is charged, and tho rates rise 
as high as forty or fifty per cent. Many families, especially amonc 
weavers and other poor towpsmen, ore sunk in debt almost beyond 
hope. But of these a considerable number would seem to be a f 
match for the moneylenders, few of them failing to keep back fi 
him, or worm out of him, money enough lor their marriage or dei 
dinners, and for building a house or purchasing stock for agricolttu 




Both the leaJbg forms of the Musaliuiiii faitb, the Sunni aud the 
Shiat, are found in GnjarSt, According to the 1M73 cctiBUs of 993.324 
iht total Stufflbiijii population 507,440 wore ^unnis and 422,793 
ShiAhs. Of Snnnip, there are among the regular or i>art-fo reign classes, 
Shwkhs, Pathdns, and some of the Sayads, and about fife-sixths of the 
local 01' irregular commanitics. Of Shiilhs ihere are among the regular 
cl&sees, moflt of the Mughalu and some of tlie Sayads, and of local com- 
mnnities most trading Bohorfs, the Tiiis, and many o£ the Monin^s. 

In Gujarit Ihe Suuni faith was spread chiefly hy direction of llje 
rulers and tbo Shidh faith by the xiereuaijion of preacheri^. 'I'he most 
wakiuB Sunnis were, c^f the early governors, Alf KhSn (a.d. 1297- 
1317); of the Ahmediibdd kings, Muzafer Shfih I. (a.d. 1330-1411), 
Alimail I. (a.d. Ull- 1441), Mahmnd Begada (a.d. 1459 -1513), and 
Miuaffar II. (153ti - 1650), and of the Mughal emperors Jahdngt'r 
(a.d. Id05-1627) and Anrangzih (a,d. 1658- 1707). The spread of 
the Sliiih faith, except what it may owe to the NawSbs of Cambay 
ud the Persian refugees at his court, has been due to the snccess of 
three great missionaries, Abdullah (about a.d, 1130) the apostle of tho 
MoBtaih Ismdilian or Oaiidi Bohora faith; Eutb-ud-din (a,d. HOU) 
ami his descendants tlic Pirtlna saints j and Shiih Tdhir, the Ismdilian 
conrtier-misEionarj' in the early years of tho sixteenth century,' 

The original question in dispute between Sunnis and Shijihs, whether 
K the Sunnis hold, Abubakur, Umar, and Uthinilu were the lawfid 
toecessors of the Prophet, or were, as thu Sliiahs contend, nsnrpera, 
defnuding Ali of his right to the KhilJlfat, has given rise to several 
iiSorences in behef and practice. The clil^f of tbo difi'erences are that 
ihe Shi&hs leave out of the Kuradn certain passages which tbcy say 
Wore written by Uthmdn ; they aild a chapter in praise of Ali which 
they say UthmAn kept back ; and to other parts they give a different 
meiiBJiig from that accepted by tlie Sunnis. The Shiahs do not believe 
in fainta, and follow the precepts of tho twelve insteaul of the four 
ImiSmE.^ They claim for their head doctors in Persia, the mujiakuU 

' In ».i>. 1709 BttliSdiir Shflli (i.D. 1707 - 1712) emperor of Dclili iamed an ordiT 
wi in llw pnWu-' prajcri among tUo attriljuto! of thu K Lai if Ah AIL tlie SliUli opitliot 
■"t ot lirir »honW bu iiitrodnced. This ordiir mnBed great disG^jntont among tlia 
"WiolilBid Snonis. Tliey wBmed tho Ttulcr not to iiso the nord imtl and u ha 
^fiiwd, OQ the next oocaaion they dtaggid him from tlto imliiii and at»bbcd him to 
"Mil. Uontalihlb-ul-Lub»b in Elliot, Vll. 131. 

' The twelve Sluih Iiu&mg are ; (1) MoitMia Ali (rUtc of binh not known), died at 
»«», A.D, C0O ; (2) Imira Un>au, born A.D. 025 ; (3) Iniim Hnsaiii, A.D. 026 i (*) 
fiU-Dt-Abidln, A.i>. 653 -. (5) Mulutnmnd Blkir, l.n. 675 ; (G) Jafor Kddik, A.D, 698 i 
'')XliriKAum, A.i>, 7^i &) Uusi Sua, a.d, 770jM9) Xtki Aba itkiwr, A.D.eiO; 

Chapter VII. 



Chapter VU. 


or religious supeiior-i;, the power of altering the spiritual and i 
law ( tho Siinnis say that the time for change ceased with the I 
ImAnis Shifai, Ahu Hanifah, Mjilik, and Hanihal.' In practice a 
sects or Shifihs difEcr from Sunnis, chiefly by countiDg; the month b 
the fadinfj of the old moon and not ae the Sunnb do from the eIj' 
of the new moon. They pmy thrice inetead of five times a day, a 
praying hoUl their hands open by their sides instead o£ folding t 
hclow the breast,^ Jiscept theso and a few other particulars the b 
and customs of the rival Eects are the same. 

Belief in the unity of God ; in his angels ; in his books, the J 
Chiistian and Miihammadun soripturee ; in his prophota ; in his gove 
inent of the world ; hi good and evil as coming from Him ; and in tbe 
day of resurrection, are the chief aiticlea of a J^IusalmiiQ's faith. A 
Muslim should pra^' five or three times a day, give a part of hig gOLds 
to the poor,* fast m the mouth of Bamasan, and make a jnlgritnige 
to Itlakkah, and if a Shi^h, to Karbala and Shah Najaf if ho has nu 
debt and is rich enough. Muslim worship consists of anuinlier of tows 
and prostrations accompanied with prayers and verses from the Knra^.' 
Each of the five daily prayers has its separate form, and on Fridays 
and on tlie days of the Hamazdn and Bnkr fflstivalSj the reading oi 
prayers is accompanied by a BcrmoQ. The funeral prayer is simply 
repeating several times the words Alldh-o-Akhar God is great. 

Though aa a body not very zealous, Giujarjtt Musaliu&ns are on the 
whole careful to observe the cliief rules of their &ith. Few of them I 
go to the daily public prayers. Rut the Friday service is well attended; 
aud crowds join with fervour ia the long night prayers Umtvih of 
the Ramaz^n. Though among Sunnia it ia chicly a time of coiey 
merriment, to Shidhs both men and women, the Muiarram is a season 

(10) Alml HiBSD AKkarl, A.s, S29 i (11} Abu Muhaiumad Askui, a.v. S4S ; (U) 
Al-mci>di, A.D. 071. Tlic fuuc Suani luiimsftre; Sh.lfai A.D. 7CT-810, Abit HiBuk 
l.D.TW-733i MdUk(A.D.70B-T]3, diad a,». 735), knd Hamljal (born a.d, T^, ttiUtI 
dmtfi not kuown), 

1 The f oar Suniii Imitiii bare girco risa to tlic four bcIiqoIs the Uinafi, SliiftI, UUU 
and }Umbiili. Excc])t tlu) Arabs nho Wlang to the Shifu kIiuoI, Onjkctt Bm* 
HuiBlnilliu are Huutfia. 

3 Whoii praying with ajantaif of the Sunnia tho i^hiuh deport) liiutaolf aceoidljv^' 
the orthi>doi p»rt of tbe coinpnnjr in obtillenro to tho bluih doctrine of lat iff Ul. 
litorall; four orcantion. Wliero the Sliiihs are in a minority tliey ptacUee tibia dflcW"" 
mii while acting upon it tboy own vilify their dwn aucl if tlirft poraonal ufetf irqiia 
Blochman'a AIn-I-AIcbari, 33B note 2. 

* The Snnni prays five times, hefoce snnriso /ajr, at noon mlr, between fow ■ 
■unset atar, at sunset mt^irib, anA from S ta 12 F,u. uha, Somn very t " 
Sonnii say a siitli prayer laAiJJn'i at'inidnighi, and a uvonth called lahrik tn fi 
after the rooming prayers, 'file tl.Ub prajn three tamra ; before BQnriso/o/ar, aii 
when he lepaata both tho mhr asd the atar )ii'ayers, aud at eansot vbcn he laya | 
magkrili and iiia prayora. Some of them say a1m> the midnight tn/utj'Jud pr^an. 

' The poor tBX lakat, literally purification, ia2i percent on all incouieB over a h«i * 
mpeM a year, and from the poor aavuu and a quarter ponods of wheat a head to be p< 
tbe Xamaidit mrmth. 

' The body of Uic porwn praying as well ai tho piano of prayer must 1 
anything causing legal unchnnitess. The prayer mnst always be preceded b/ kblM 
inuii, unlets nothing that coiistitDtes legal defilanient baa tai^n plaw since the tim 
ablutions, Praying in company at a mosqoe isaonndered mmvmentotioutiiaa • 
praycra at home. 



b keenest griel and real self-denial. Almost all observe the month Chapter ■ 
; and attend sei-vices on the liainazdn n\i<i Balf Ll feasts.' Bfll^M 

u afford it ij^ve alms freely, and few, except those of Hindu girmti k 
1 money at int«i'est or drink spiiitB, They reverence the gaOBi 

I the Prophet and the Kuradn and accept the doctrinea of their FtbcUm 

The irregular classes of Shiahs and moat of the Snunis become 
'a or dificiples, the fonner to their mnlldi and the latter to some 
■ person called their pirsddah or murt/iiilr Among the 
b few, chiefly unmaiTied daughters o£ Sayada, some Shaikhs, 
y of the tj-ading HolionU, both Sunnis and Shiilhs, are well 
n the Kui'aiin and other religious books. Many ai-e pious, 
, thouo^h not allowed to apjiear at places of«pubIic worship, are 
fweful to repeat their daily prayers and to keep fasts and other religious 

The vowing of vows is older than Isldm and !a not opposed to the Vow* 

iBWof the Piopliet. The sacreil Kuraiin represents the prophet Zakariyah 
(Zsieltai-ias) vowing a vow nf alistinencc from speech for a certain 
nntobcr of dnys in letin-n for the promise of a ehu. The ^''irgin Mary 
frbea advised to Itetake hei-aelf to an lui frequented spot for the birth 
of her son is asked to give forth as a reason for her isolation from the 
society of lier people the fact tliat ' she had vowed to heaven a fast not 
to s})cak nnto men for the day' {KmaAn Chap. XVI,) In IsWmic 
times the Prophet ailvised Itis Jangbfcr the La<ly Futimah and 
her husband A!i to vow a fast of three days for the i-eeovery 
from illness o£ their sons Hasan and Husain. Vows to fast, to 
repeat a tertaiu number oE prayeiti, to give in charity a certain 
Bum of money, to feed a certain number (tf poor, or to found some 
reli^ons or ehai'itabio buililiug or institution are vows strictly in 

I Tlw Siinnla buld these sotviccs attiio /WjdA cr pMycf-pkeo and nt llio iiioaqnus ; the 
ShUtw in their own mosquo. 

> 'rhe pToteation cMed JHri iiuri'li ot spiritDBl InteUge is practiatil b; nnrtli anil 
toatti GiijAiAt Saj'sd* nutl a few SIibiLIib of the CliUhli and Farlili fnniilWs. Itiuj enll 
thnr followcn rnnridi. Among the lowrr claBnea each pU«b liaa its yir or mynliid bud 
M tti do the uncduoiitvd cImwb curry the uUk of the iieceanty of liavirig n plr tlwt 
ft»-j{f>tbatia;ifr'le»UatcTniof icorn. Thai (ho Bukhdris have tbeMcmans and GLIiipdi 
M tbeir nmrlOf, the Plr&OA Sayads have Ilia Uamn^ and Klikda, and there ara t*avad« 
who claim tEu ^Iclage of the Qandrnp or caortesan clais. The r'ayad, who is n ptr, jlrtl 
initUtAS hia diadples by bis incnlcaUng on Ida followft the Unnalniin tenets iif faith, hj 
eshorting Mm to etebew the ways of evil and to obey tlic lacrcil Uv of lal&m whick 
eoiutitQtes the itntighLeat way to virtue and heavenly apjiroral. Ho aipn a little lierlal 
or angarrd-water oat of a cup aod make* hia disciple drink of it. Tliig ia raid to he 
taking the lab or lip-fiiliva of the Plr, The ceremony "liich ia baaed on old Suti ritwt 
takes pUco either at the »fre of initmlion fonr jenia four months and four dsys or bofore 
nwrriageorat any time of UfL>. It often happens that the practise if the I'lr'a life id 
in direct coDtraverition to th,- nile-i and principles tit virtue lie inculmtoa. hut the novi- 
ciate ie taught from the ontsfl LliiitoeeoHilng to (ho Persian pro wrh hi» ITr is the nbiect 
at hia faith nf,t of his imimtion ; ■■ PIr-imi khni in -mil hat asl Out tnint 
to atnw, our bclitf ia him ia nil." The VU does not tnipcip on his di^i^iplcs n, regular tojt 
bat the income ho derives from them is Foniaiim - iriM^,iiM.. Tlii' iliai-ijiles alwiiys 

■opplj their Plr with funds enough, I'ithtr in (■iuh m -ij 1,1,1 niii'n him in doccilt 

comfortif not in luxury. Every four ytits the I'lr \i-l:s In- '■■.n^ii-n:;,, nilicu his follow- 
en are bonnd to raise bDbacriptiong to supply him uUli m.niL'y. 'I'lu' I'lr is aometimps 
invited by one of his peopla to bless the dying, the hriili' nnd bridtgroora, or n how 
boiiM. Tbli also I* on occlLaion for making handgoine presents ia cash or kind to the 



acoordanee with the letter and spirit of tlio law of Isldm. Such -v 
are ofEei-ed only by tlio strictly pious. On the other band Towsadnti 
ting the instrumentality of any person living or dead, whether prophi 
or aaint, are regarded by the religious as idolatrous. The \Vah " 
ai'fi bitter against such practices, denouncing the makers of such v 
as little better than heretics. The Hindu iustincts and nays of thou 
of the Indian Musalmin have brought into existence a nnmber 
beliefs among ^hich the eflicacy of vows offei-cd to dead ^ints ■ 
even to the Znrlii and Tm:iah» or the miniature shrines of 1 
raartyra of Karbala Iwtter known as /ddu/a, and to Lt-lahi \ 
in8iiirc<l by the martyrs hare the first place. Such vowa arc of th; 
tlasscs t \'ow3 made^o saints ; vows made to fdazidii, saris, or lai\ 
or other institutions of the Muharram ; and vows mado to genii 
fairies or spirits. 

Vows ai-e also made to visit shrines of note. At present the si: 
of Miran Sayail Ali at U'njah in north Gujarat is the most fan 
in the ])roviiice. This shrine has rii^en to S[>ccia1 importance owiog 
the grt'at faith reixKod in the saint by the lats G&ilcwdr Khandea 
who as a thank-offering prasenteda railing of solid silver. Since tl 
gift the shrine draws a larger number of votaries than any shrinei 
GujarAt. Tlic reputation that Ihis shrine enjoys as an exorcieer 
spirits is not equalled by any other in Gujarat. Even the Dakhann 
sometimes Itajput&ia and the north furnish it with spirit-possea 
votaries. As soon as a epirit-atHicted person arrives at the shi 
at U'njah tho imijdvar or warden allots him quarters befitting 
station iu life in one of the open rooms or outhouses of the shrine, 
the e\-cning the patient sits with other votaries near the r^ing of ' 
saint's grave, He is given a cup of water from the shi-ine well 
cistern, on drinliing which, if he is spirit-possessed, the unweloo 
tenant of his IxKly dotlarea itself liy the alHictod person beginning 
nod or see-saw Ins body backward and forward, or if a woman to i 
her liair and roll her eyes. If after one or two repetitions of 
draught none of these enects is proiluced the ailment is concluded to 
constitutional. In that ease the remedy is the internal or external: 
of the leaves of a ti*oo growing near the grave of the saint. Tho t 
is said by the shvine wardens to belong to no recognized family 
class of Indian plant:;. It Is said to have growu out of a v^ 
table toothbrush or iji'tlan which after using tbe saint thrust " 
the soft ground near liini. Aftci' a while it put out shoots and gt 
and gave forth leaves which liavo served for ^es as sure anUoo 
for all the ovds which oiUh'tr the hollies of votaries. Its lea 
have been known to cure the most obstinate and chi'onic dtseai 
leprosies defjing tbe treatment of the ablest physicians, hloa 
dropsies, and racking rheumatisms. In one case where hope] 
blindness was removwl, the patient espressod his gratitude iu aoi 
sometimes sung by Uie musicians and bards of tho shrine. Sometin 
oven the leaf remedy is dispensed with. The patient comes and 
sojouma at the shriuo under the protection of the saint. After a time 
he or one of his party tn- one of the wardens is warned in a dream 
that tho patient is well and should go. If tiie first 



^irdeil a secontl and clearer dream follows accompanied b^ 
til* threat of evil if the patient does not leave. Tho province of 
Onjuiil ubounds in instances of the niivaculoits curing powers of the 
Umln. It som'time^ happens that the person applying to the Mir&a 
v nferred by him to some other saint. Of late many direct' ons have 
Wn given to ap;Jy- to the Bhtine of the Kaw ShahUl or Nine 
I MirtyrB at Sural. 'Che sprit-es pel ling element at the Mirdn's shrine 
I ia more interesting than the medical. It often happens that a spii-it 
' is» obstinate that in spite oE frequent punishments and castings out 
' it do^ not leave or departs but a moment to at once return. Then 

Itlie pDnishmcnts inH.oted are sometimes as terrible as they are 
•%TBding. The man possessed by one of tlie^e* stubborn spirits is 
Ken being dragged unwillingly as if by an unseen agent to a post 
where without any visible coifl his hands aeem to be bound and he 
ID writhe and rave as if under severe corporal punishment. Home- 
, liaics tho possessed seems to be dragged towards the latrines of 
■ the shriue, all the while entreating and praying the Miran and 
' pRnuicing future obedience anil abject eubmission to his invisible 
mwters. His mode of progression has all the appearance of being 
breed and reluctant. Seeming to be cii-aggetl to the urinanes or 
I kriues he is immersed into the impurities and made to wallow in 

Itlian. At last when he gives a faithful promise of future good conduct 
and when the tit is exhausted he removes himself from the place 
I <ihea with a Bhi>e between his teeth as a sign of abject admission of 
I itefeat and runs from the shrine enf:losurc and di-ops as if dead. 
I About an hour after be wakes from his trance an entirely changed 
PaaiL He is now in his proper senses, the wild and fagged look in 
liisfice during the days of liis possession has disappeared, tbo dazed 
eipresEion with the snake-like hxedness of the eyeballs are gone. He 
wgains his usual spirits and after iho performance of his vow is sent 
Ini^k to his home. 

At Muharramtime the vows patd to the tomb or T-'iaziah of Husain 
or of Hasan are of two kinds. First, the distribution of milk and 
lier&at or dates or retined sugar to the people before a certain Tdaziah; 
or second, the performance of some act oE ijenance or self-torture 
lefore it. 

In the firrtt case the person vowing sends the thing vowed to the 
place where the Taaziah is made when the i)erson making the Utaiiak 
lays ^le/Alilui at tirst chapter of the Kuradn over it and breaks 
I cocoanut and distributes the juice with the sherbit or milk in small 
mps to those present. In tho second cose the person, who is generally 
.woman, vows to watch tho Tdmlah stfcnding for anight or more. 
fbe woman goes to the place where the TdaziaA is built and takes 
ler stand in a corner keeping her vigil the whole night going where 
be TdaziaA ia carried and standing where it stops till it is brought 
ack to its place. This class of vow is generally offered hy women of 
he lower or middle orders and is performed ou the night of the 
nartjrdom or tkahadat that is the ninth night of the month of 
Uubarram. Some ]>eople vow that if they gain a certain object or 
lenre they sliall on thd tenth of every Mnharram roll on the ground 
■ 510—17 


' I'm 





for a certain distance before tho Tu'tziiiA wliile it ie on its way ti» its 
final immeislon. Others vow that if they get a sou or U a sick lIiiM 
i-ccovcrij at eaih Muharraui the chihl »hall be mtvlti either dnrlng tlni 
wliule term of Va life or up to a certain "go to go about in tlic jjaitt 
(if a t'fjCT or a bear <ir a Hindu ascet'c or a Muiibal or a Buhora or a 
HnFaiiii Urnhman or a ccndi-haltoil fool or haiWquin <»llcil S'Hn 
Koivia Master Conch-shell. The tuoncy that is collected by these 
mummers is Pjient on the iM-clflh day of the Jliibanutn in uookini; 
food and repenting Ihe/u'liAa or opening chapter of the Kuraau over it 
in tho name o£ the martyre and ilistributing the fojil aming tie paop!e. 
Besides the peojjle who thus join the Muharrani on acwunt of vows 
maileby them or tl^e'r parents, others ttikeiiartin the eliow ontofa 
pure spirit of fun and merry ranking. 

Tiie vows mmle ti> jjenii or fairie.; ave oaHed Aarnift (literally 
Prerences). The genii who are generally made the reoijuentpS of suiJi 
vows are sujipnted to bear the nimee of ChAndkhrin, Nannu MiAn, 
and Sheikh .Saddo,' Tbe^e assembliee or h-i:ral» are generally helil 
by women. DinnerB are ttioked from which, certain kindd of lootl 
notably beef aie cxchideil and j^hathUts or spirit-musiei.ins are h'reJ 
to sing songs in praise of the particular givn whose vow is to be 
jierformed to tie aceompanitaent of tlw dram or tambourine and the 
guitar with catgut string?. On such ooaisions the lady who is 
posfeGBBed by the ginn is bel'eved to be completely under the influence 
of the spirit and is called the Asai'diiuni. She is addreii^ by the 
']>erscn who cunfiults her, who is direct^ to do or abstain from certain 
acts or to present certain difhes as a IhnnkofEering if she gains her 
objet-t Many other women also consultthis ^/wa-possesseil Aeardanni 
and receive rei'lies. 1 hen frankincense is bnrut and after the inspired 
one partakes of Ihn banquet the spirit gra'.lually leaves her body aoA)! 
awakening fiom her trance she reoa'na her usnal condition. Fai""^ 
i'izriilt are held in the same way. They aie called Paii-na-ke tabk 
bhiirna Pilling the faii-y dishes. These vows are generally regietei 
by women of the rich and middle dassea on occasions of any illnefia 
their daughters wh'cli is believed to be caused by spiritual agencyjM 
ijf children tiaving fearful dieams and starting from tlieir sleep.* 1^ 
fairy dishes or tabaks are also filled on occasions of marriage jf t]M 
bride has long remained unmarried and if bar mother has registeied % 
vow to fee the fairies if her daughter gets a husband. 

Kfuaalm^ns have three kinds of religious buildings ; moBijuea K 
manjidt ; naMvag&h or idijdhs where the id or festival prayers »ef 

' Mubiy.jud-dfn of Aniroha or F>inh)ul wag tlia son of » Sheikli of the taiut of 
Zingi by his wife Fitimi. Ou bis promoUon to the npiritual pantbron oE ludikQ women he wai nuned tjheilch SitJdo. DkliUUni &LiZ±hib, III. S34. 

* JAa tliiih lliv great Urdu poetoftheltekhlih ZsliAnur Women'ii LangnK^ i l|ii'nii m 
this '.ioi ill the following coupl-t; 

ParjfAx U labak aUmr&iiffl dlnfiu ha lie JMn. 



id; and, (or the ^ hi dhs private tnour did g: {.'Itapols Fiii'imlitidiiSjvherB the 
aiees of their early relijilousleaikTs or ymi'm^ave read anJ the'r elugiea 
op. Espec'ally in Alimedabiid and Surat, MuBaluidnsare wull siip- 
icd \vith niosqnus. Rutalmostallare old.andnow-a-Jays partly from 
Emt of means and partly from lack of zeai, fewnew mosqueBare bu!lt.'' 
I the ordinary mosque a small H'ght of stone tte]is leads through a 
oat gateway, l>earing in veriie the dat« of its buildinjj, into a paveil 
id cemeut-Lncd court from forty to fifty yavda long and about 
reaty wide. In the court is a jionJ about twenty feet sijuare its 
Itt lined with t^tone seat^. At one cod of the court aro two roomd,. 
le the liamiitAi* ot bath-room, generally known as a<ik''neah that is 
»ter-6tore; the other the room of the beadle jjc/Z^f. or mujdvxir. 
ppo&te the gate is the place of prayer, a cemeat-lined brick piveinenl 
laed about a foot above the level of the court. It is open to the eart 
td closeil on the other three sides esvered by a roof. About the- 
iddle of tlie west ov Makkah wall is an arehed niche melirab^ and 
ISO by a wooden or masonry pulpit vn'miar, raised four or live 
•ps from the ground jind against the wall near the pulpil, a wooden 
iff eta, whcb aaoording to old ouatom, the preacher holds in h:8 
nd or leans on. On ordinary days the floor is covered with^ 
■ttinfT nod on bi(;h day^ with carpctw. The walls are generally 
ick covered with whitewa.-h, fcometiffes ornamented with fcr' 
nring in golden letters the name oE the Prophet and the first 
or Ehalifuhs, or a chapter of the Kurarin. At night the building 
lighted by i^lass lamps set in iron wall-braflkets, or if there are 
di men in the congregation with chandeliers himg from the roof, loi 
.e month of linmaziiit the mosque is well lighted, every worBh.'pper* 
sngiog with htm a lamp which he htitigs up while he says ntBJ. 
ayers. To meet the cost of repairs lighting and the bftidle's pay,,' 
ost mosques have some small endowment, tlie rent of lands hotisci of 
ops. These fimde arc eiitmeted to some member of the cougregation, 
toer&lly of goo«l family and ]K>fcit;oii, known as the miitawalli or-| 
rard'an. If there is no endowment tha charges are met by 
ibeeription among the congregation. 



' Semal af tlic old musqaen uf wuod uiil of Mauo arc coni'DTtttl Hindu temple*, 
in oChera Bralliiiimn. uf atuuo teniliU-lnotqura tha boat ■peciaieiii nro at Pitttan 1 
inudibtd Mid Cnmboy. Ihii- of tlui bn«t nooitn ti?mp1c-inuik]uo« in >t rUnilir dm)' 1 
fat. The Srit tiiosiiuo doiiRneil ly the rruplitt (on wliain ba peai^e '.) •! Hndlaabi I 
A BO vtiminr at jialpit. Tlia Diet piiljilc built in Isl&ni nu ranilmctvil \iy_ Ami- \ 
isl-'tni tlic Uii»ltni car.i[ueror of Kg^pb in tlip nioiiqiu'a he foDndcd at Alvis'iilm (i.Oi I 
12-4:1}. Wlien Uuisr tho sNoud Kha:ifith luurd of ibis he wrote to Amr; " Was it not J 
lOugh fur thw lu ntand wUh lliy bach tmra-'dx Muslim* thtl thou *boii!d«t hIm- ' 
rate tb;n?lf over tbinr hands." Ibni KhaMHn, Yal. I. jagi 2'i6, Arab text Cairo Edn. 
'The beadle HKjduHir who lieepa the uioiK]ue clean and lights i-. at night i« gonerttlly 
'oomer, a tathfta or Hinduitlni f-um tho m>iib-«rnst. From tbe moaqao fond ha is 
:igbt annas to two rupees a month. In south (iujarift the beadle adds to this 
ice by taking fare of iho gmvejard attKchol to the mosque, reoeiving for Ilia 
ible from several families inontiily iM.vmontit of four to eight aniuis tach. In n, 
BJMil, where the mosque Is geiicralt; lieparuto from Uie graviynrd, the bcodlo e: 
^"irthingbv sewing or bj teaching;. , 

Aj the nirhe and the minarnt date so 1ntc a* the days of A1 WalCd the sixth Uiuui.vad A 
». 706'716) Sir Bicbard Burton (Ambiim Nighti., I. 186-61) thinks tbB niebo to b«- 
•jmbnl of Venus and, tbc minaret Ibe symlwl of Praipus, or tlit' llindu Li'.vji: —■ 






The I'SgaK also called Hamatgdh or prayer-plaL'c, used oDly Bj 
Sunnis, is generally built oateide of » town. It oonEistf' of a pavemenj 
of BtoTte or cement raised tliree or four feet above the level of the 
groQDd. AIoD^ the weet facing east is a wall with a gmall turret it 
each end. At the middle three to five steps rise from the pavement! 
and form the palpit, from which, on the Rnrndzan-id aod Jintr-ii 
festivals, after the prayers ar^over eermons are preaclied. 

ItH (imba)i''» or ^eJjCideTs' enclosures are osed only by Sh'titiB. There 
are but two in all Gojarat, one at Snrat and another, a grand one, is 
Camliay. Here, during the early dajs of the Muharram, the model «f 
the Karlala shrine is kept and some chapters of Bome book commemo' 
rating the heroic smfferings and noble courage of the martyrs of 
Karbala is rend, the congr^^tion Ixatiug the'.r breasts in re^^ponM 
to the saying of the prewher and some of them bruising themselves till 
blood flows. 

Besides the beadle Mvjdwdr, and the mosque guardian mulawaUii 
five oilicers, the priest taitlla, the preacher khnlili, among the Sh.Ab*- 
the singer of elegies mutsiaAklitin, the law prtjfessor and dnctar of 
divinity ■))iaHiiiri, aad the ci\'il judge (fa^i, are eutrustevi with rergloM 
duties. Of these the pneet or tnulh is the lowest. Any man 
can read the Kuta&n and knows his piayers may become a tiii 
He is generally a poor mans son. But there is no rule as to hU 
father's occupation or position. A man in search of a muUa's plat 
applies to the warden of the mosque. Most of the multat are younf 
and as the pay and gifts are not enough to keep a family in anythiD 
like comfort, they are most of them unmarried. A laulta bent a 
matrimony, as a rule, gives up his )K>fit and takes to weaving or i 
better-paid calling. The midta's duties as a servant of the mosqu 
Me, calling to prayers five limrs a day,' acting as (m^m or leader 1 
the prayer, and, where there is no beadle, keeping the mosque clea 
besides these duties the muUn acts as a schoolmaster and a dealer i 
charms. His scho.'*! or tiiailab is a shed in the mosque enclosuT 
where in the morning from seven to nine and again from twelve f 
four, ten to fifteen boys and two or three girls of j oor parents Codb 
to learn the Kumau. The wuHa often does not understand the KuraAi 
but he can read it and teach his pupils to spell through iL Aa 
dealer in (charms he writes verses of the Kuraiin, to be bound roul 
the arm, or himg on the neck, to ward off or cure diseases, or to wai 
oS evil spirits or theinfluenceof the evil eye and dreams. He interji 

I He cftlU from the liighcst plsire xit tho tnotqne, before sunriM, Ood i> prat God 
great (tliii foar tiDiei oTor) ; 1 Uvr witneu tliere is no God but one Ood (tbi* twioaj; 
be4r witneu that Muhiuanisd U liia prophet (thi« twice) ; come to pray (twke) ; coma 
■klTUion (twii'o)! praycraarcb.ttiTtbBn sleep (twice) i God i» great 'itwiwl i there it 
Ond but one (once). Kxoept thut tbe wurde ' prayers arc b«tt«r than sleep ' are left ■ 
the call to cacli of tho other four prayers in tlip wme. Tliis i* the t mmi form ; ^hi 
afler the wnrde ' come to a&lv&tinu,' add * came to an art ' (twice) ; they never Ma 
phrase > prayird ore better thnn sleep.' 

' III lome taoMjaes there is no miilla. In such casea a ninjdwar or any one of 
consre^tioii would call to prayera, and the mm of best podUon in the 
would aot at leader. ^ 



., B and cures fever, baJ eyes, anil rheumatism. For fever he gives 

aUack string witii ten or fifteen knots to be worn round tlie neok ; 
or Ue rtflils some verses from the Knradn, bieHthee them on a jar of 
vat«r and ^ivts the water to the patients to drink ; for bad eyea be 
»TM an amulet MawiJr, or a wick palita coirectly faiildh to be 
Diimt. The Gujarat miiUa tal^es no part in any birth marriage or 
death ceremony. In reward for his mosque duties the eongregation 
KTaoge !□ turns, morm'ug and PTening, to send the iuiilhi cooked food. 
Besdes his food, during the Ramazim he genemlly gets about 8 annas 
ffiDTHiey from ea«h house. For teaching he gets every Friday about 
} HUB from cauh pupil. Un the feast ot id days, he writes for each 
i the boys, in ornamental style, on a gilt and panted and illuminated 
4ect of paper a verse from the KuraSa, or some Hinilustdni or 
V^ui poetry, the boys payiTig bim '1 annas to one rupee aeoording 
to their parents' means. From a bay who passes the scripture test,' 
lie gets a suit of clothes or Rn.l to Hs. 50 in money. He makes little 
from his (hai-ms, from about a 4uarter to half an anna. 

The iinger of elegies mayn'h'ihkhiin, is found only among Shitihs. 

Ttgelher with some knowledge of Persian and Hindustdni, he must 

b««agood voice and. a musical ear. He is generally self-taught. 

At the Muliarram time, from the first to the fortieth day be sings 

I iltgies in honour of Hasan, Husaiu, and the other martyrs of Karbala. 

I Some^tnes a famous elegy singer m'lTiiiihkhaH is invited from Lakh- 

\ Uaor Uombay. The Siiiahs of Lakhnau have raised the composition 

nd ongiog or recital of elegies to an art. Some of the Lakhnau elegy 

cwnposera and reciters now take rank as poets of elcgauce and distiuc- 

Uniin tindust^ni literature. I^arge sums of money are contiibuted 

MmetimeE by the Shi^hii of the chief towns of Gujarat and sometimes 

bf one rich Shiah alone to he ])a'd to anelegy singer of note who is called 

lopuu the Muharram. He composes birt elegies for the occasion and 

ngs them or recites them at the Imambildas. His language voice 

' nd delivery are all so trained as to throw his congregation into truus- 

pOTta of grief for the wrongs of the illustrious sufferers of Karbala 

Ukl with lage and hatred towards the authors of their woe and their 


Except in cities and towns where the /irtiji or judge does the duty 
M Fridays and feast'duys the sermon jt7iufi«ft is read by the khiitih 
m preacher. The ciBce of preacher requires no epeeial training, and 
especially in north Gujarlit ii' generally hereditary. The holder of the 
office neither teaches nor deals in charms and generally follows some 
caJhng or profession. 

The law-doctor viaulavi is in many reS|tccts the most important aud 
prosperous of Musalm^n religious officers." These men are as a Iwxly 
inteltigent and well read, some of them with a good knowledge of 

Chapter V 

> fee page leS. 

1 Eivc|)t a few who Lave & nama for Imroing, the matilarit are the rcprawntativea 
" ' ^reat lireKhers aud holy tana who came to Gajartt duriag the fifteenth and 
intoi-iM. In hntiauT of most of thffic n!nls, th>^ repreBcntativus hold a 
f meeting ot vras. iTo this merting the dticiplci m«ridt come hriiigins e''^ 


ItetVII. Arabic. In aiUiition to their regTikr duties aa law-doctoi-s te&ckt 

ReUeioB ^""^ tn-ofesBOrs, some manlacis act as sjiritual giiides and aW Oi 

(liRcaecs with cliarms and amulets. As a doctor of Miibaminadan la 

^"sHUii^"" *''° mau/avi occasionally gives legal opinions.' As a religions tes 
_, * the viaulaii, on certnin otscasione, in private dwellrngB, preacbea 

lavVortur. sermon imdz on the text o£ a verse from the Kurailn.^ Ae a profess 
he teaches youths of fourteen to twenty Arabic law, logic, ethics, 
theology. Sometimes a mohlari possesses in addition to his oti 
religious accompliBhments that of knowing the whole of the Knrain I 
heart. This is a <]ualiti cation much in request during the Raraaz&n wh 
the leader or Imam of the long night prayers or lardwik is expected 
recite one of the thiirty chapters of the Kurattn each n'ght ec 
complete the whole by the last night of that sacred rannth- A _ 
who kpows the KuraSn by heart the title of Hdfiz placed befo 
his name. For th's service he is paid at the end of the month Rs. 5 
Rs. 50 by the people who follow him in the prayers or by some one rS 
member of the congregation. The H;ifiz is not always a man/a 
Many a man with no learning is a good Hatiz so^ long as he remembt 
the words. Asa rule the people treata HAliz with much consideratil 
believing that a man who is a Iliitiz frees twenty generations of 1 
aDcestors and descendantd from the fire of Jehannam or hell. Many of I 
maularis who are spiritual guide:* are the descendants of some of ( 
early missionaries. A mauiari who follows the profession of sptriti 
guide, spends several months of the year doing little beyond preacU 
an oocasioual sermon or reading prayers. He generally starts abc 
the beginning of Muharrsin, and for eight or nine months tmt 
through the districts and villages where his followers live.* On i 

to the abrine, AaaraU the rich among t1ii>tD are r.ntert^ncd b; the ittM*. In 
evening tlie ■hrinii, covered with tbe richest elotbi, i« brightly lighted, made pta]r«,,l 
lo tlte beatin); of one-linnd-ilrumB or daj"; tbe lota forming x circle with % *la<r qM 
movement cslled ratib, d&nu! roncd tbe slirine beaCirg tbeir bodiet with airordi I 
ringed dftgpcn, hot Ihroagb the power of tbe Miut doing tlicmiclve* no harm, 

1 fome nutulacii are deeply rend in temporal Biiir auiritnal law. »nd make 6 
knowledge of tbe intricAoiet aod con trail ictiona of tbe Uahaiamailan law a aottra 
gain in inlieritance rases. In sucb auita maalatii tupply luth lidea witb nn 
maialat, each oppoaed to tbe other, till one of tbe partiu*, aatiafjiiig tticir avarioe, H 
tliem to hia canao. 

^rivnta services are bt'ld botli at tinjea of joy and sorrow. The times of joy 
marriages and bonie-openiiiKs. Tlio aad occasions are on the day of deatb, tltc il 
and the fortieth daya after death, and tbe year afti'r dealli. Tbcsu icrvirtts an uf 
kinds, the wiidt or sermon a'ld the mauliul ur oativity bymti. Tlie wa{lt eonauLi i 
aermon hy Ihc maulaei accompanied by an assisunt called nukri who in i^riian 
Uindnatani, before and afrer the aermon, cbants tbe praise* of tbe PpophoU 
maulud hymns, in bonoar of tbe Proplu-t'a birth, ate chanted in Araliie and uiottl 
in Hindnstiiii by a band of fifteen to twenty eboristera. These chinislers also met 
pany the funerals of the rich cbsnting hymiiB in praise of the Prophet. 

' Same pirciidilht bavc fotlowvn only in a few vi11a(reii, some in all part* of Gtui 
and some not only In Gujar&t bnt in places far distant an the Mauritina and Katd 
Burma, aad id Sbgipnr. Wben a plrnUliih dtta hi* sons distribute among tliemM 

their fatlier'a people, assigning to each son a certain nnmber of honscholds. It «. 

times happens tbat fur a sum of money or other consideiadon, one pirtidah make* met 
to anotber tbe apiritnal charae and the income derived from a certain nnrahtt <d 
families. Moat of a piriadah » people are tbe children of folleweni and have to go 



jc, tlie nmnttivi Lakes up his qimrterd iu the mojqiie or with 
riehe.-t of Ids diMi)ili?.4. Here he preacher teaches and visits from 
tmisv io lioixse, pvescribinij for tho^e who arc sick. His followers, 
specially the Broach Snmii Bohortiri who have much re^tpect for their 
niritual guides, not onlj' look upon him oa their teacher and adviser in 
vtai world, but trudt that hia merit and that of hi* forefathers will 
aieure their welfare in the nest, Aetoiiling to the number of his 
MOple iu any vill^e »Tid the distance he has to go to visit his other 
falWers, the tminah-i't staj' in one place laats from a few days to 
iCTeral weeks. W hile be is with them the people make him giftd. 
Aianile, except when, one of thcra is nick tir is anxious that he should 
bt present at a marriage or other family evest, Ihe manlai-i does 
imt come back till a year U over. As a curer of diseases the 
vaulavi like the muUn, writes texts for eharms and amulets against 
Hcknes:^. For a sick patient he givci a knotted etrincf necklace or 
wiitea a charm in sacred characters on paper or a chapter of the 
Kura&n with saffron-water on a china plate. The ink or iatfron is 
washed oft and the water drank. The maui^wi does not claim the 
power of driving oul spirits, and-, as a rule, would refuse to treat a 
petson poisessed escep^ as be would treat other siok people. In most 
Vises the connection between the Mauluoi'g family and their people baa 
Iwled for sevi-ral generafone. But it eouaetimes happens that a 
flranger, an Arab, an Afgbiin, or a North Indian wandering through 
tluconntry, by some grace of manner, great Icaming, eloquence, a.4ceti- 
«Biii, or «)mo lucky cure, draws together a body of followers. Though 
few of tbem are rich, juaulavit (is a rule are by no meane badly off. As 
» doctor of laws, he rcceivee according to the nature of tlie case from 
IU. lO to Re, 100 ; as a preacher he gets a gift of Rji. 2 for preaching in 
a private bouse. For his services ae a master or profesEor he takes no 
fm. Those who are spiiitual guides pirziiildli*. arc [laid from each 
bouse of their followers its. 2 to Ub. lO a year. This ia given partly 
»heQ the guide visits bis peop'e and partly at the yearly festival in 
hcrnour of the guide-*' fortfathers. When a marriage tiikcs place in his 
bmily, the gii'de asks all bis followers, and tbey are expected to attend, 
bringing presents of He. 10 to Rb. 5(1. 

Under Muhammadiin rule the Kiizi was the civil and criminal 
jujge. Now except that he leads the public prayers on the days of 
the KamaiiJn and Bahr fea.sts, be is little more than a registrar of 
nurriages and divorces.' In spite of the loss of bis most important 
fimetions, the Kdii holds a high place in the Aliualmdn community.^ 

ts chifflj of repaating ■ prayer and rf<;aiviDg a table shajrah of tbe 
uintl; forefathcra, imparblag certAio mjaterSas hid makini; the pro^elytu ilrink 
touched by the guide'a lipa. Spiritual ^idoti aro looked ap to h9 falhoca. 
!pt when an e»It» fee ia paid, the tilzi dora not biniself attend marriagBB, He ia 
'ed by a deputy ndib, who ia paid by the kdii Rs. 5 to R9, 10 a month, fepoiate 
.. and diTorce Rgiitera are kept. 

oA(?e of iasi U elMtitre in tnrat nud Broach and hereditary nt AhmedibAd. 
a«* tbe pay of the liTEi'ii partly drawn from an ondowinent. He also receivea 
manugi^i from the rit h a »ha<r1 worth about It^. 40 or Ra, CO and R^ 6 iu 
from the middle rtais and poor ahiint Kb, ?1, and on Ihe id daya nheu he 
I thuMnghal tiirVan, I'Sirti-iWi/j- tbiit Ih nrobri'lla-likL' in south Gnjartt a>id 






Escepliiig the i^fforts of WaliliAbi and ortlnKlo\ maiilaris to aid 
the number of their paople, there is at present (a.d. 1897) iu Giijs 
little attempt to spread IslXin. Now and tigaiu a Hindu of the lot 
olass from worldly or othor motives changes his reli^jfion, and is: 
a time the Eubject of talk. But ot conversion from the preaohi 
or teacbinff of religious men are almost unknown.' 

Except the Muharram, the Ramazdn, and the Biikr fcstiva 
SunniB and Shi'ihs keep different holy days. In the beynniug oE \ 
year (?ome9 th'-! month of ^luliarram, sacrel to the men[iory of \ 
IminiB Hasan and Hnsain. All the world over man craves excitems 
the stirring of the nervci in grief, if nit in joy. The popularity 
the frantio lament for Adonis; ot the pitiful ta!e of the hero RnstAl^ 
sUiyiig his unknown SOD Sahr&b ; of tlie long-drawn sorrow of tht 
Christian Passion, sh aw the longing for the uncloying luxury of grirf 
So deep-seated a craving for f^rief conld not rest satislied with the hi 
demand of Islam for silent submission to the will of the Almighj 
enjoining even women to cease to rarjiu-n their dead. Among the Ju 
martyrs oE the Fa'. th the Pertian pasiion for grief found' at an e^trly di 
one martyrdom the picturesque pathos of whose surroundings set tin 
ling every cord of human pity. The children aiid women of tJie noblf 
houee on earth deceived deserted and tortured with thirst ; The chile 
arms stretched forth for the blessing of the Imam lopped nt the wrist 
the babe shot in its father's arms ; the noblest and bravest leader a 
IsUm trusting to no weapon but to the justness of his cause betraye^ 
and surmunded ; his choice of death to d'shonour ; his lonely Inst onee' 
his wounds, his death, h s mut'lation, all these miseries caused not 1 
an enemy of the Faith but by a kinsman a former friend and felhi 
champion. Oh the pity of it ! The piiy of it I 

The Sunni objects to the choice of Hasan and Husan as the marty 
most worthy to be mourned. What he asks, of Uniar, the compaoi 
of the Prophet who linn^red three days in his death agonies in flio led I 
the knife of the Magian assassin Abu-Lulu, called by the Persia; 
Babi-Firiiz. What of Uthmiin, the tliird Khalifah who died his hei 
bowed in prayer after the agonies of a three days thirst ? Wh 
still more of Ali the father of llusain? How was Hnsain gienh 
bow bis end more grievous than tlie end of the Lion of Qod 

i;«ffl&v: that i> dome-Ulie in the north, and the long rolK<^''i'ai'iA, he getib; Babicriptia 
pair of ombruidcred shiwlB worth about Ri. 60 and about B*. lOU iu raib. 

' When & Hindu agieea to embraeo Uliui a part^ of MoiulintiB are callnl tl^etl 
uid in tboir jirewncD he ropoals the OTeed. Tliou BUgared-waterit drunk and the codti 
is «et nn a horso and led in stite throBgh the town. On bis retnm be ii circumora 
and u Moialinan name, geTicral' j cither Ahdalltih ctealnro or alavo of AllLh, or I 
Muhammad lie who luia entered the Faith of Muhammad is given hiin. 1 
DipenseB are borne by the person under whose patroiisae tlio I'onvcrt cuten lalim. 

'Compare the flindostani: Ky& glian kai mail ki ki tabidt noAfa bkarti! H 
iweet ia grief that never clojs. 

'As earl; as tbe Boride Sultdna (A.n. S4d-1097) the people of Bashdid dreiMl, 
black sackcloth and threw dmt about th^r heads in the strueU. Oekl^a Hilton 
(be Saraceni, 11. 189. In H. 352 (A.n. 863) monrning for the death of Hu^n " 
openljr ob»erved by Muii-iud-danlah DeiUmi in Baffhdld and in H. 389 (A.0, 
Hagi were carried and elegies with loud Inmeotatiuni publiuty snng in wemor 
Husaiu'* raartynloiD. Elliot, VIII. -W 


Tnie, the Slitilh replies, the deaths o£ the first inartyre o! tho Faith 

may havp oaiii^ed eoier loss to Igl&m. Still the surroundingB of none 

(nmUned buch varied and complete pathos as the last day of Hueain. 

Once more tlie Imriiet-grained Arab urges : Even for Ali the Lion of 

God, such uobridle*! momning is wrong. Husain died in accordance 

ititli the Will of Allah. 'I'hat Will can do no wrong. To cry oat 

tgiuQst it is to blaspheme, The softer Persian falls back, perhaps 

mKODscioasly, on hi» ancient dogma of Dualitim. There are two 

powere. Evil and Good. Sometimes against the Will of the Almighty 

the Eril prevails. Such a time was the victory of the Ahriman 

Shunr. iJid not the whole of nature mourn the destruction of tho 

noUeUusaiii. Oo the bitter black tenth of MnlArram the beams of 

llw sun were dim and blood-reJ, so that at noonday the stars sbons 

nnivering in the blood-ied sky. Under each stone the earth sweated 

Elftid. When the head of the martyr i)assed within tho palace of 

Kufah, it^ wails wept tears of blood. This the Sunni rejects as unreal 

and overstrained. The Shidh in reply npbi-aids the Sunni. You turn 

ft a«son of moiiming inio a time of foolish shows and noisy revelry. 

This unseemliness the stricter Arab-swayed Sunni admits. Tlie 

thoughtful mourn, they say; only the thoughtless join in revelry. 

lliifi riot and noise iu the loeal or Indian clement in the Muhai-i^m. 

Ab the special features of the Persiim MnhaiTam find their origin in 

tiw laments and the beliefs of the earlier faith? so the Indian addi- 

IJnne have their root* iu the deep rich soil of Hiu:iu spirit-belief. The 

dfltthand mourning season for Hainan and Uusaiu, like all times of death 

and mourning draw on the mourners hosts of Rpirits. These spirits 

I m not all bad and not all unfriendly to man. Only all are unhoused, 

liow cold now hot, always nakci, driven shelterless through apace. 

■ Some we can please and coax into guardians, housing them in that [>et 

' Iwme of spirits, a handsome tomb. Others ne can lodge in bouse 

-of spirits the hoi-seehoe, or tempt into the great spirit-banut the 

jtgcr. letting them play in the bodies of our men and boys. For the 

■nst we cannot provide. Tliesc with shoutinga, drums, and buffetings 

:*e rlrive forth from our midst. The Indian element of neiTous 

'ttatement might have died sobered into grayness by the Puritanism 

1*1 Isliim. B'ortimately the revelry is kept alive by the Hindu belief 

fo the spirit-scaring power (if the rites of Jluharram. 

Among the Snnnis of north, the Jluharram is a season of 
■00-09, the women of the i>oorcr classes for ten days singing mourning 
KiiigB and beating their breasts. But in the south after the fo;irt!i 
ilay the mourning chiinges to merriment and masquerade.^ Some go 
kliont iu bands richly and curiously dressed, singing ivitli or without 
tbe ateompanimcnt of a drum or dhol- and guitar the story of Hasan 
■d UuBain's sufferings and <leath. Others in fulfilment of a vow 
ban their children in green like religions beggars, or, but this is done 
iriy by the lower cltmses, they paint themselvee as tigers or in some other 
notesqae guise, and beg from house to house. Others again make 
ntnselvej Oiflih that is bridegrooms^, X Shiah belief is current that 

Chapter 1 

I Hw ouly dburrnuiM! krjit 2p artei* the fourtli day in pluL-ing &t tlio roidslde [>Uin t 
^^d-«>tRr for tUc nse of chiliircn mid Iwvcllow. lliis b done till the tenth dxj. 



, _ , K. Ta^mAixM f'mM m fte tJi ■ W. rate ■ 

, mL Bc&n tie MSi ] . 
alaMore ol ike Mmr win ■■!» Oe ni «f (^ J^n« )w b 

tolefomea hndegTwas 

i« not vKovhcabd. lo Ugjsitft s bait if d«g abMt » {«* iH 
foot deep. In tbU hob ■ fiie » IciadM «d tke P^MJ 
vowed to b«eome a DkIs gate iMad tke fin mtrta t» w«^ ■ 
ihe man armayoHis frieoda DOtioa Ae WidegnoM-^Ut HM 
devotee Ukt nTe the nd wHh Ae Hfrtfcm op and dowaj 
face fiumii^ tun gentlv wliile ineeBsa » firady boiiL i 
loond luep ap a ciinrns' (J /><r?ii //-/« /W* If'U lo the I 
which the penoa wi^hin^ to be posicsMd ewvr^ at firet in | 
bf degrees in more xiol«nt ojcillabocs. AVbcn the fall pc 
breath or hit iilU the ilerottfe, that i^ when hm crvfanlld t 
become fixed in a stony etare and hie bodr grow? eoU be k i 
keeph'sfacebowedamon^ tbepeacoolc feaibers. Afiarht>£K^ 
for Fome time pressed In the feathers the spirit febea hioi andli. __ 
otit heedlefuoFw&tfroroEflrc. Ajs be sfcaite one of lus friends boU» Ma 
from liebind supporting and Hteadying him. He guides the Dfia'C 
uimlcxn impulee to the place or niitirfii* rf o(hef l*»/<i* and TadtiaU 
where frc^h intense ia bnrnt hefore hi^Faoe. On bis viay from plaw H 
\iW-e the iJufa is stopped by wives praying for the blessing of cliildna 
or the removal of a rival or the catting out of a yi« a orothiT evil tpiritJ 
To twciire a won the Difa generally directs a flower or two to be ^.cmfl 
from the jasmin garlands tbat deek his slioe-i«d. On retunung mm 
\m owit place or akhadd the Di'ln falls Eenselcfs and after remalningW 
•eniHiUwfl for an hour or two regaina consciomuess. Only those call 
become jUBMeHHcd who have vowed to be T)kI,is. Even to thetetliealHatAl 
iM fomutimcB denial. No woman can be possessed by the DHa e\arX. V 

Many proparo 'I'adzia/ia^ ov tabi'dx, bamboo nod tinsel models of tit 
■brine of the Imilm at Knrbala, some of tliem large and handaom 

' III Riirkt, whoia tlw pnictius of MuliAmm allows it carried fnrlhi.T tliKit in 
|Mrt* !■( (htJitrAt, ill] tliu oveiilng of tlie fifth, after ealiii{{ conn.'crateil sagar-imlcm 
fhHuf'fi, ulilMrsii nr* drcaaeil iti grccii nnil preienU tf cakra, and. ir '*~- - 

(ni.lliMuciiiiiiutBilby I«trutli«l, gtciii clollicsr" ...-.■ 



lOg not less than a liundr.;d nipeea. Thcae shrines are kept in 

ikixr houses for several days, nnd ou tlie night of the ninth nre taken 

nnnd the chief streets. As the td/ii'd» pass poor Hindu and Jtnsal- 

wia men and womon in ful6Imont of vows not unfrequently throw 

themselves in the roiidwny and roll in front of the shrine. On the 

tenth day^ with mnch show and noise, the ownera o£ the shrines 

foniiing n procession tnko them to n river or a lake and cast them 

hito the water.' Ou tho evening oE tho sarau day they prepare 

Bweet-hread nnd sugared- wntei- and distribute it among their 

friends.- Uuliko the Suniiis, the Shiah^ kcup the Mnharram for 

forty days. OE these the tirst ten are a time oE special mourning. 

During theso days in south Giijimt, a band of Shidhs dressed in 

bldck and with bare feet buaiiug drums and cymbals, take Hasan 

siul Husain'a stnidard'* fmm the IniiiinhAda and carry them iu 

procession to the bouse of some one wlio has made a vow. Here, 

after healing their breasts and singing dirges, they are served with 

fflignred-watcr iherba', and the standards are decked with garhvnds 

c( flowers. Again, iu the morning or evening, parties of twenty to 

fifty meet in some ImambAda or private house to hear the atory o£ 

llie massacre oE Karbahi. Tho room is laid wiih carpets and over a 

i cliair eet in a corner a white cloth is spro:id, When the guests arc 

coiuemidsugared-waters/icriti/, or in thenorth opium-water Xwiilwia, 

, ud the pipe have passed Fo;iud, one oE their nnmber standing near 

the chair begins to read. He tells of the virtues of their leaders 

Hnsan and Husaiu aud of Hnsain's bravery, dnshiug almost alono 

agaiost tho armies of the Ki'iti?. As he comes to their leader'u last 

moments nnd death, his mournful movements and tones raise among 

''his bearers the keenest sympathy and grief nnd the Ronorous tones 

' otlJio speaker's voice are drowned by the sobs and groaus of his 

ttDilienc?. Tlien moving forward aunjug them, telling of the suller- 

iogs of the luartyi-'a wife and litth) children, his hearers gather 

ronnd him moaning aloud and beating their breusts with so lierco a 

' Sorrow that they sometimes fall sonsolosa to the ground. Tho 

![ service lasts for about nn hour, and after some spiced-water and 

numming-sweuts haliva, tho guests tnkc their leave. Among Simnis 

fiicru^ura or tenth day oE the Muharr^im is held sacred in honour 

\ of the creation of Adam and Eve. Many observe a f:ist on this day 

jj after the example oE the Prophet. 

On the tenth uf Sa/ar the second month, Shiah^ repeat dirges 
and oSor prayers for the souls of Hasan and Husaiu. 

On the thirteenth of the same month come the Tera or Tala\i 
Te:i. Sunnis keep this day in honour of the Prophet's recovery 
tiovn a severe sickness. In the marning iu north Gujarat prayers 
■re offered for the Prophet nnd parched gram and molasses are 

Chapter VQ 


Hi'ly Dayi. 

sud bo?) ofton join iu bsoda calloil gm-oliM, and go about liDgin); tlic Mnbamni 
dirKO. dreiied like Hludii Itmiia or Hniaiai-Ilcatiiaan b«g^ri, 

' Ili*iii&lEinsDr(a4:>»'Vi3saidtodHto(roiatIie timoof .\mfr Timur (\.d. IJOO) "li" 
m hu return from a pilgrimage W EarbnLt biiilt n miDiatnie copy of Unuin'* tomb, 
wUch ba tbouabt vJded to the uourniuB cDremouioi of tha Rr^t ten dny» of MuhiiiTun< 
I *Iii AhmedaiWd some of thebsit rai^initf arc k«pt iatUcmowuc. 


Holy Dny^ 
THtl/ii Rahi- 




NintUenth ami 



On the hist Wednesday of the same montb, a day known as t 
A'khari-chdr-shavibdh, Sunni' townspeople fry flweetmoals end t 
tbeiu ill tti8 fields aud gurdene outside of tlic city in memory ol 
recovery of the Prophet from u dangerouB illness. 

The twelfth of Rall-nl-uvmil the third month, tho iKa/dt ord 
of the Prophet's death, is among Sunnis tho greatest day in t] 
yeur next to the idt. In the evening riue and milk khir, n dish 
which the Prophet ivas fond, is cooked and prayers arc offered ft 
tho Prophet's soul,' In tho evening private services aro held at til 
iiiosc|ues with sermona and chants. After tho service is over th 
stone -footprint, hair, or other relic of tho Prophet which may' 
treasured in the mosque is shown. 

On the seventeenth of the third moulh Gujarat Masnlni£us niaHc 
llic Maiih'id or birthday of tho Prophet by feasting and giving 

On the eleventh of llalA-ut-saai the fourth mouth, SnoDia oel»- 
hrate tho hirth of Sayad Abdnl-K^dir Jlldni, .uummonly known 
the Plrfln-Pir or Saint of Saints of Bagbdfld. On this day tho po« 
light eleven or twonty-two lamps, and, in the houses of tho rich and 
well-to-do, small leattess trees or green-bordered frames called 
Hi«/(rf/, are huQg with elevon lumps and covered with presents ^ 
fruit and sweets for children. At night powdered su^ared-bread or 
ntaU-dah is eaten. 

On the eleven first nighla of Jiajnb, the sixth or nativity moni 
iu honour of the Prophet's birth, among Sunnis sermons or iraAi 
ai'o preached and maulicdn chanted. Great numbers attet 
and on the eleventh many charitablo people in Ahiuediibdd m 
some in Surat and Broach, give a morsel of sucved food callt 
labarruk lo every one preseut. At Ahmcdfib&d the heads oF tlit 
Kafdts, followers of Sayad Ahmed Kahir n nephew of the Piiriu-l'iri 
march nhout carrying gi-c-eu bannors, playing kettlednim 
brandishing and beating their bodies with a chained mace i;urz, with 
a pointed handle. They are gonerally asked by more than uue person 
to share the sacred food or labarruk which is served to thorn in stDtl 

On the fourteenth evening of IShadbia the eighth montb, c 
tho night of record Sliab-i-iartil, On this night the fates of unbon 
souls aro registered iu heaven. Among Sunnis requiems are suuf 
sweets and sweet-bread are eaten audseut as presents to friends, aiv 
tireworka are let off or sent to relatives, especially to those t 
whom a son or daughter of the house is betrothed. 

The nineteenth and twenty-first days of the ninth month Rauiaiit 
termed liitUi Imam All and Hazrat All, are kept holy by Shi&hl 

■ Tbe fortivOL is couunou lioth to Shllhs nnd SuauU. IJhiiUis eny that a* Saitx 
the UDluckieirt of uioiitliB, its 1a>>t <lay ii pasacJ iji feasting out at the oity, tbili 
miiy reoiftin outikle and not find iti wny ioto tliiir houic!. 

" These cuitonis axa obaervud fruiii tliu lirtt to the tn-clf t^ cif lUbf-ul-awwk], 
twelfth day beiug held moit sncied. Ths Khidhs fix Uiie iMtivftl on the ifSth ■>! ' 
th« Mue loontii. 



the niDdtceiitli as the day od which Ati was wouiuled aud tbu 
Iweaty-firdt as the day on which he died. On both days they g'lvv 
beggars food and pray for All's soul aud luoui'a. 

At the end of ihe Riuiia^dii fast, thTt is on Ihe first day oE 
Siatrtedl the tenth mouth, conacs the fast- breaking featival Iit-al-Fi/r 
comtnouly known aa the Ramaz&it Id} This feast is oue of the two 

I greatest Musaluidn festivals. Snnuis and Shidhy of all n^cs aud of 
roth bexea bathe put on new clothes and perfume themBclves. 
They give alms in money or grain mostly wheat, this form of charity 
! beinir called 'Jilrah,' for without alms their fust is vnin, and tako a 
li^t meal of venuicelli milk clafiiied-butttT sugar and dates. 
Between eight aud twelvo the men form a procCfeioa and escort tlio 
fcisi or other Musalmdu of high po'ition to the fdyi't/i that is the 
plnt-e for the spfcial Id prayers most of theui rojieiitiug mcotally 
the frlorificatiou of the uame of AlUh in tho following words : 
• AllU-o-Aibar ! AUdh-o-Akbar ! Ld-lkiha illalldio Allah-o-Akhar ! 
aiAk-o-akbar wa Ullnhil lianid' Gi-eat is AllAli, great ia Alldh : 
Tliere be none as greaf an All&h : Great ts AUAh, uuto Htm bo all 
praise. The prayers at the Idgdh togethur witli an Arabic sermon, 
In an old stereotyped form in praise of the Iil, read by tho Knxi 
"hnding on the pulpit, wooden stati' iu bund in iuiitation of the 
Propbet (on whom be peace) last for about nu hour and a half, and 
when the prayers and sermon are over, the peupio go home and spend 
Ibe rest of ibe day in feasting, making presents aud paying and 
reoeiviug visits. 

On the tenth day of ZUhajj the twelfth month, the day after the 
cliii;f pilgrimage day at Mokkah, conies tho necoud great feast, tho 
ftttival of sacrifice Iil-iiz-zu/ia, also called the Uaf;r or Cow-Id 
incomniemoruliou of the offering of laniucl by Abraham.- Early 
iu tlio morning religioua beggars aud others crowd round the 
dwollings of Musalman!; begging for alma. On this Id as on the 
Bomnzsn Id all, except those who are mourning tho loss of a near 
nlstive, wneh put on thoir best clothes aud perfumo themselves 
acwi'ding to the behest and the practice of the Pi-ophet. 'I'lie wholo 
body of Samii Atusalmfins go riding or driving in procession to the 
Idg.lh and after prayers return home, and, if they can afford it, 
ncHfice goats and scud presents of the flesh to relations and friends. 
The rest of the day is spent in visiting. Alms^ are generally given 
kboat ths lima of the Jfair festival, eitbur iu cash in grain or in 

On tho oighteenth of Zilkojj the tpeltth month a great Sliidh 
holiday called tho lake holiday Id-i-ghidir is hold. On this day the 
Prophet seated by a lake pi-oclaimed in ft joyous moment that Ali 
was his own flesh and body. 

n keeping the Itain.i^iiu Id n day ■ 

' llaialroins hold tliat Ismaol, not Innac, wa» tlie ion oQerod by Almiliftm. 

* Alma (^ahAt or pnriticatiiuO ■honKl bu givun of lire tilings, iiiuiiey, cattle, urHiii. 
fnitt, and mctcbandiso. ., Tlia aiiioniit varien, tlioti;jli in geacrftl it in miil to be 
oia-twentieth of a jcu'i inoonio. AluiB should Iu given, to piigriuit, l^ggars, jebtori, 
rcligioiu cLampious, trarellerB, and iiroscljtcc. 

Chapter TI 

Holy Daj^ 
Firtt Skavit 



Chapter VII. 


Oil tlie twenty-eighth of Zilhajj comes tlio festiviil oE Bal 
Shujd-iid-diri Abii LiilA a fife-worahippiog cou^eit to Isla:u, whn, 
oil this day murdered the Kbalif'^h Uinar. On this account Sli-ihs 
hold the (lay saored and rejoice for three days. 

Besides tlioJr faith in the leading doctrinoi ol their reiigiju, a belief 
ill spirits, iu magic, -and in the power of tlie evil eye has a atroa:; 
hold aU the Mu^lmaa^ of Oujanit.' Evil spirits out of Iiatrel to 
mankiud, and spirits either good oi bad forced to do so by some magi' 
oian, cause men ^.ievoiu Imriii, making them nial or sicii, destroyinjf 
theii' houses, or taking away the r goods. When any one ii sndlenly 
struck dumb or appears mad, shaking his heal or miviog about rest- 
Icdsly or lying pi-osttate, hia frionl; fear thit he may hi pisaeisel by 
a devil. A religious man, a S-iyal or Mulla known to have power over 
spirits, is called in. He finds out tho nam? of tha jia'ieit, wliea 
and imder what cironmstances he wai seized, in'^nircs inlu the 
symptoms, deeides whether it is a case of possession or of simpU 
sickueBs, and, if it is a I'aso of pjaseesiin, by wha^ incaTitation <*^ 
spell the spirit can best be cast out. 

The Kura4n though foihidding its prautioc ^enjoins a belief in tli>< 
existence of magio, Tbongb forbidden magio is often resorted to 
csjiecially by women- The eliief a'ras are to win another's affecl-on^n 
to cause strife between i-ivals, and to get rid of a foe. To gahi the Gnt 
two ends love or liate potiuUJ are given, and to gain the third an ' 
oE the victim is made in dough and pricked to pieces with needless 
Almost all men, and Dheds and Xolis tn an cspeeial degree, have the 
power of the evil eye. So strong ii this belief that a Muhamma'lan 
will seldom eat a meal in the sight of a stranger, and before taking 
his infant into the street will blot hie face with coUyrium or lampblack. 
According to the Kurain the firat teachers of magic were Hiiriit sad 
MAri'it, two angels of high estate, who, prond of their purity, railed a*. 
the jiassions aud weaknesses of the sous of men. This buajttng oflendeil 
the Divine Kuler. lie cuminuTided them to show their excellence by 
Bojourniug for a time under equal cjuditions with ma i bom of woman 
and to prove their woilh by coming out scatldesd froai the allurements 
ijf Ijove and I'asdion. Hardi. and SIdrut were dropped from heaven 
into Babylon whore their great ktiowledge soon gjjncd them the posil ' 
of judges. They long administered the law righteously. At la'st 
their day of trial. While seated on the tribunal of justiee a wi 
entered the judgmeat-liall dowered with charmB so rara that her 

' Tiiijarikt Maulin^uB IwUpvo botli iu MnlinumuvUii, tliat lit Ar»b and Fcniaii, i 
In Hiadu apirito. Ot Hiii'ln povrcraS^he glicnl bhiU and the vrit^Ii rlikaii, nre the n 
coiniuon, UusiLliiiin spirit! bslong- ti two classes^ the eenii ffimu or good spirits and tbti ' 
dcvila tiailam ot bwl npirita. flic devils ftradescandoafraui the oiue boiu of Sattn who 
by Lrirth wiu one a[ tha yeuii, Tlio genit, who aru iiine-tputbe irarit and one tiath ileib 
sre divided into twelve troopi or •miioj, tbive of wliich are Slnsaluiiln, Bctidei th« 
gouini and tlie denion tbere arc the fiiiry pitri, whoie sfaadow tuakei people cm;, and, 
the £i yttbiln 1 ur j(boul. Togitin power over ipiHts > man ungtbtirn from loine eiorti>%J 
He mniit p&y the (frcittBt regard to I'luannrsi. he niu^t |>ui long tcrlliB h ' 

raeditatiun, ho must bo voTj careful an to wbit he oita, Itarn incaatatJ03H ai 

tiouB of mystic tiuuilxin aud tha inilaencea of tlio pkoet^, and apend moit ol Us tiiM il 
repeating IncButatiDUf. TIiok nLo go tbrougli this traiciog ore ditcOy ^yuT ' 
MulUa. When lite csorclat is Bntiffied (hat tlii^ case Ljonu in posuesioii. be e<u 
ibe spirits lij drawing inaglc squares and circles, by repeat iog iucantatioiu 
from theEurain, or by giviug the patient a oharm to cat or an amulet to w 



jrlaiicE' fuscbatetl and eiisla^'ed licv angel-jmlgee. Her enlt was iint 
juat. But trusting in her cliarms she aiUrcsBMl herself to the j\idges 
and they ligtenai to her words and inclined towards her with amorous 
desire. She won her cause to the immediate and eternal daninatiou of 
the judges, who hang head-down fettered with chains in the great well 
of Uabylon till "the Day of Striking, when men like moths shall \m 
Fcatb^ved abroad and tho mountains e\\ai\ become like carded wool." 
Even now any one approaching the well can hear the 'Ai''Ai'of 
the rallcn and tufferiny ant;eU. Further by hearing theii' voicea even 
thoTigh Lc eeee them not the hearer can learn magie. The study of 
magic tlioiigh somewhat blighted by Westera materialism is still pur- 
sued by Indian Mritalmitiis. It is not rare to Rtul men tike Muhammail 
Ali Jinni and Muhammad Chhail of Kfithi/iwrtr claiming occult powers 
and occasionally heartening the drooping faith of admirers by Kneces*ful 
displays of magic. 

Magic is of two kinds Riihuniand Shaitilni that ia divine and salanic. 
The practice of sitanic magic is striotl)' forbidden. Divine magic is of two 
kinds f'iavi high aud,.Sw// low. The practice of ufavi or high magic is 
t)ie commoner. High magio is at^ublime science stndietl only by good 
men for good ends." Perfection in High Magic consists in the knowledge 
»f tlie Ii»i' Ad-tiM or Gieat Name, a knowledge first pos^Cosed by tho 
Prophet Soleimiln and since Soleimfin transmitted to those only who are 
highly favoured by Providento. It was in riitue of engi-aving the great 
na!i:eon bis ring that Sok-inwSn possessed dominion over men and genii and 
over the winds and birds and beasts. By pronouncing the Great Name 
his minister a //»» of the name of Asaf in a trice transiwrted the throne 
of Bilkis the queen of Sbeba from Yenian to the court of iSoleimdn at 
Jeni^aleni. The ntteiingof Soleimdn's name casts out domou«, cures the 
sick, and raises the dead. Other names posseas special virtues. By tlio 
u&mes Ibtam-kara::hat and Ihtam-fazasbat, two madness-causing and 
m ad ncsE -curing genii, the tienda of madtiese are iiii-'tetl or snbilned. 
The na:nej of certain prophets and holy men h&vu alio a special charm. 
Vnrther ceilain verses of the Knrann and invocations nnd wor,l8 un- 
meaning or nnintelligible to the uninitiated ha\c a iwrtieular efficacy. 
The wonls J*<r Wa/li'ido make certain spirits or genii subservient for 
goo(t and the words I'd f/n'^Mro make them eubsciTleut for evil. Other 
woids command the winds and the waves or rule the souls of men and 
utber animals reptiles and insects. Ibni-Khaldiin (A.c. 1332-HO.')) 
(Prologomeua, Aiubli- Text, Vol. I. page 89) tnent'ous on the authority 
of Uu^limah a famous Arab writer on the occult sciences, that the 
words Tumiighnx, hudddii, ^'iswail, vai/hdd», nufnn, ghiulu* 
jnrticnlar powers. Pronounced with .toncentrntion of the mii 
state of ceremonial purity before sleep they induce dreams wherein 
the person pronouncing them is directed to follow a particular course 
to gwn the object for which he has pronounced the cbarmcd words. 
He adds that a person appears in a dream who shows the way how to 
gain the end. Ihni-Khaldiin himself speaks of having seen strange 
visions and obtained much successful direction in the affairs of his life 
from his knowledge and use of these words. A iJarticulav course of 

Chapter VI] 



3hapt«r VII- 





food and diet are necessary to obtaiu msBtery over the spirits wW 
are subjei't to these cIiarinL'd words. 

Pronounced by the ceremonially pure the conelnding worit 
the eighty-sixth chapter of the Kur&in entitled the Star, " Vei 
they are laying a plot and I am laying a plot ** ' deprive a eootpt 
ot the power of etiuging. Again written charms oE myatcria 
numerical combinations and diagrams have i»wer for good, 
magician who desirej to practice good magic must not only possess fi 
knowledge of the art. To secure efficacy he mnst in a given pen 
repeat the oharma a certain number of thousands of timea during whi 
he should abstain from animal and certain other food. The term t 
forty day;* called dilliii is a favourite wriod for aeqniring t 
virtue and power which are supposed to reside in a name a verse or i 
invocation. During the forty daya the name or verse must be repeat 
a certain number of times each day at the srtme hour and io a fixi 
lonely place free from impurities. Failure in the appointed tina 
requires the observance to be begun afresli. The performer of th 
rhillah mubt work witb incense and pcrfiimed .buming and be clea 
in body and clothe.J. The spirits who are the slaves of the vef« 
name try their beat to turn the magician from lud jiurposc W appa 
ing before him in the most terribly grotesque forms. Woe to t* 
man who allows fear to interrupt the repetition of the name. He 
once beeomes mad and reraaina insane for the rest of his days or a pals 
or tremor which no medicine can cure overtakes him. If theneophy 
is stmngniinded enough not to be troubled by appai'itions liia Epiril 
opponents re=ort to other means. An A'mil or esorcist tells how wb 
ho waj engaged in mastering a charm for curing the bite of ^'e□omAtu 
animald he saw his father led Iwnnd and pinioned to the place when 
he was sitting engaged in tm chillah by a man whom bo knew to I 
Iiis fathei-'s bitterest enemy. On coming l>e£ore bim the man mai 
his father kneel, and, di-awing liis sword, prepared to mt ( "" 
old man's head while the fa;her entreated the son by all the mosi 
ties of filial love to save him. His father assured him it ' 
illnsiou brit bare and bitter reality. 'iTiat the enemy had rushed in) 
the house and on the fatbei^'s crying lo tlie son for help had C 
him and bis son to save him and had dragged him to bi^ .son's prC^eni 
to kill bim. Tlie magician had nearly forgotten liimself and was aljoi 
to leave his charmed circle when he remembered and paid no heed I 
the wily spirit, who thua foiled vanished. The next spiritt* 
attempt to defeat the esorcist waa still more terrible. The exorci* 
fancied that the house he was sitting in swung to and fro as if abook, 
to fall on bim and to cruish him- When this temptation failed he wal 
allowed peacefully to finish his chilldh. This esorcist repeats tb 
invocation Icai-ned among buch horrors, and, blowing ou a piece of lot 
fiugar, gives it to eat to tho^e bitten by a mad dog or a cobra or stnng 1 
a Fcorpion. He is said to have effected numerous cures. lie died i 
Smat in Maroh 1898 after a long and green old age. 

The AsiaA or Names of God belong to tivo elasEe;^ the JaMli : 
terrible and the JamiUi or merciful. The Angry the Just the Aveog 

I T1.C wonb of tha K.imnii arc ; Iifinham yi-kUUinH k'u'an mci <:ki,l 


IVirth terrible app&ritiouj. At the sound of the Pitiful the Gentle 
Merciful ap[>ear ploaaiug visions of fair ami graceful angels. 
gh terrifying and hard to maatev, the fierce names are prompter 

tanic or black magic deijeods on the agency of genii and evil spirits, 
s of acquiring its knowledge are as unclean as the learning of 
*gic is pure. The profe^Bore and practitioners of black magic 
t for an hour remain with a clean body without the danger of 
; their power. They must never bathe, never use iwrf umes, 
^^ r pray, never love any action that is good or virtuous. The IndiaTi 
or Gujarat means for subduing evil fipirits is perhaps even weirder 
and more gruesome than the Arabian. At Diwfili time during the dark 
(joarter of KtUtli- (Sept ember- October) when all evil spirits are free to 
revisit their earthly liannts, especially on the night of the black four- 
teenth, the person anjions to subject evil spirits to his power, puts on 
the dirtiest of apparel and anoints himielf with evil-smeUing oil-t and 
providing himself nith a l\amper of the worst Eosd and with beef 
mutton and buffalo Hesli and entrails, a sharp knife and large quanti- 
ties of gngal incense J Balsamadendron arayrls agallocha) starts for 
Ms favoarito spirit-hauut which is oitTier the common burning ground 
or the lowca^te grnveyard or the burial-place of executed murderers. 
On reaching the place aud seating himself nnthin a charmed circle he 
keep: his tsharp knife ready and begins repeating hij invoeationa and 
Hpellj^ and throwing about him gia'ns of wiing Pha^eolus mungo. 
When he thinka his ghostly guests have presented themselves in 
obedience to Ins summons he asks them to demand the food they prefer. 
If llic Bpirita demand any particular flesh lie has brought he throws them 
clioice pieces out nf the charmed circle. Jf any of his guests who are more 
difficult to pleaje than the rest arc not satisfied with the food offeretl 
and <lcmand htmian tte^h, the sorcerer must either throw the spirit a 
I Tiie<>e of flesh cut from his own thigh or fall a victim to liis rashness. 
I If the spirit accepts the sorcerer's flesh the spirit becomes the sorcerer's 
1 flave for a year. Sometime > a sorcerer umviliing to cut off his own 
1 Hcsh persuades a pupil or a friend t} go with him. If the si^irit 
I nquirci human flojh the sorcerer offers hi.-i comjMuiion as a victim on 
I cmidition the spirit spares bis victim till he reaches liis home. The 
I ^rit ^rees and when the seance is over follows his victim and at the 
I fistim's house kills hira by eating his liver. Next morning the victim 
I u fonnd dead Itaving thrown up broken pieces of his eaten liver like 
I Ma of blood. 

Omens are drawn fro-n the cry of birds. The hooting of an owl 
pbelieved to threaten the lives of children. But its power for evil 
jBbe disarmed by the gift of grain in charity. The coohig of a dove 
Ittelle ruin, and the cawing of a crow the arrival of some member 
Kthe family or of a friend. A death follows the lonely midnight 
TWl o£ the dog, for the Jog's eye, undimmed by the film of passion, 
"" «ee hovering over the doomed house the awful form of Izrael the 
si of death. A cat crossing the path is a had omen. But it is 
iy to see a child at play or a woman fetching water or carrying 
ik or whey. Creeping feelings in the skin of the face are a favourite 
|irco of omens. They arc lucky if felt on the right corner of the 
Tit ej'elid, unluck/ if felt on the left comer ot t\\e \e?\i c^e\\i. N. 

Chapter Tli 

SirtiNis ASS 
haUsa, I 



Chapter VIL ' 

SruMs jiKD 


fiuddeii fit ofhiccup Ib a siojn of being aHectiouately romembei«d 
abwni friend8' ne tlie il<!liing of the right palm foretells gain of iiv> 
The same feeling in the sole of the right foot prognostioatea & jour 
KcuL'h day of the week is believed to be fitted for certain acts 
unsuitod foi- others,' Aud certain days of the montli, depending 
direet;on in which the traveller is going, are good for Btarting an i 

I The Uitlu povt cipresBcs lliis Malimi'Tit iJi the foUowing fouplct : 
Mi,' "en tarn ui iVoft Wi.w SU tkM Hiiil 

In I 

r disL, 9 

■ : Th; V 
- KanJB]! i« a ^uod da; for nBiniiig ft child, 
loariiiiig & niw lismn, boginuing tt'nico, and tilliug T«iid. It U u linil day to buy a borae~ 
or to set out on a jonrne;. Moudnj' is good for taking tlir tint bttli oftor Tcan-ery (knn 
illncsti, for Bonding a 'bride to tier linslKind'a home, for laying llic funcditlon of a 
lioow, for (^truiting anytbing tfl n imson. far baTtvring (ui auiiual. and fcr tntrelUag 
tftit. Tuenlay i> gLod for eating a uow dith, taking a recmtry liath, giviii|c any btul< _ 
DcH in ehiirge, and knrying an animal. It istu ill day for travelling' nortli ami forbPtia 
a row, Wt^radsy is good fur ncniVng ■ lirido to her hiuliaifil'* honw, Daming- an inbm 
putting on new clolbea, ihaviiig, eating a new diRh, lotnung ■ new lt«ou, tilling " 
ground, laying tho foundation of a boiue, aud clwaging a re«denee. It i« bad tar f 
ling uDith and for buyicg a covr. Thursday U good for the same worba as Wrd[ . . 
bat is bud for travelling aontb and for baying an ntcphant. Friday ii good for tbo n: 
worki a* Wednesday a^ bad for buying goats, h'atnnlay is giiod fnr tliis same irorki 
Wcduc«iUy and bad for travelling cast or fur bii>iiig a camel. 

' TravvUers ciiQinlting and following tlic guidance of tlio dingraai start ntiJ«T t 
sliotial protMtiou of tho I'roiiliets Ali aiul Khiir. 

North ' 





*Jv tlio rites aud cci-cmoniea obccrveil by (jujaoit Simni MuBalmfing Chapter VI] 
ihe uhief are prefrDauey, birth, namiiiff, safrifiee, initiation, betrothal. Customs, 

marriagv, aiiJ death. 

The Unlii proverb Marqac marditd, na ftHiha. iia tlar&d Hero 
]le« the wretch eterually datnued without the Fatihn or the Darittl^ 
sbowE the horror felt ^y the Gujarat Miisalmiiu at the proBpect of 
Icariag no issue to iierfovm these ceremonies on his behalf. His 
<l«ire for the immortatity {jiveQ by children, especially by male 
thildret), is much akin to the Hindu hankering after issnc to save liloi 
Iwm the hell of oblivion by performing his tkr&ddlia or mmd-feast. 
After a year or two of married life if their union is not blessed by issue, 
•one Gujarat ^riisaln:ian womeu resort to remetliei to obtain children. 
Saints, living or dea/J, arc appealed to, the former to bless by givinfj 
chamis or medicinej to the wife who yearns to be a , yi 
mother, Thelawdoctordor exorcists also give charms, 
'iftcu like the diagram, written on a pieue of paper to 
w»Bh in rosewater and drink. 

Some A'miU or exonnsts give their applicants cardamoms or clovea I'monjisci 
or]iieoea of candied sugar on which the mystic and powei-ful names of j^, Esorei* 
God having being blown are supposed to posstys the virtue of casting j.'mU, t 

mt the spirit of barrenness, since as a rule barrenness is due to spirit- 
possession. Others diirot strands of thread to be worn round the 
ibdomen or the neck ; others again simply write or trace some name or 
clatm of words with the tip of the finger over the womb of the woman 
(It the loins of the man. The exorcist or A'mil has also to help after 
WHception with the object that the issue may be male. He gives 
chirms to be washed and drunk every month or some written charm 
to Le washed in water for a montldy bath. Some dead saints have a 
Kjmtation as child-givers. To tie knots on bits of string or ribbon 
with one end attached to a poBt or pillar supporting a canopy over a 
"■iot's grare or to a trellis or balustrade around a shrine is considered 
>J barren women one of tlie surest means of obtaining issue. Bloch- 
(A'in-i-Akbari, 267 nrjte 1 para. 3) notices that the tomb 
of Sheikh Salim-i-L'liisbti at Fatehpur Sikhri, in whose house the 
Emper-i.r Jehamgir {a.d. 1605-ltii.'7) was born, is up to the present day 
risited by childless Hindu and MusalmiVn women. A tree iu the com- 

r- I - I 1 I M 

' Jdtiha is the opeaiug Aupter of the Ktirain in praiae □£ Cod i Darii th» otlUng 
' Imn of UeHing* oo tlie Prophet. 





pound of the saint Sh^ih A'lam of Alimedtibfid yields a pecidliir i 
like fruit which is sought after far and wide by issue^oc&trs and can 
away and given to their wives who eat the fniit and from the moiai 
the fruit ie eaten oonceive. If the birth of a child follows the cathig 
tlie acorn the man or womaa wliu took the acorn shoidd foi- a certi 
number of yeara come at every aimiverwiry of the saint and nonrielil 
tree with a supply of milk. The leaves of the tree near the | 
of the Mirdn S&heb of U'DJhd are also s^d to favour conception, 
addition to these jasmin and rose bushes at the shrines of certain eai 
are supposed to possess issue-giving properties. To draw virtue tu 
the saint's jasmin the woman who yearns for a child bathes and puril 
herself and goes to fhoshi-inti and seats herself under or near the jasa 
bush with her skirt spread out. As many flowers as fall into her lap 
many children will the have. In north Gujarat if after the birth a^ 
child no male issue follows, or lieing bom does not live, the first-bi 
child is believed to be the cause of the evil. The first-bom is looked oa 
as [Xieseescd by some malig^nont spirit who destroyti the yoang lives cT 
the new-born brothers and sietcrs. So at the mother's nert coafinemeDt 
molasses aud sesame seed are ])assed seven or nine times over the ne 
born infant from head to foot and the elder bby or ^t\ is given tin 
to eat. The molasses represent the life of the 3-oung one given to 1 
si)irit who possesses the first-born, Chidren born deformeil or wi 
one or two teeth are supposed to escrcioe a baneful influence over thl 
parents and near relatives, A child burn with teeth ia believed ' 
exercise so malignant an influence that the oarly death of one of 1 
parents is almost certain. 

If the treatment of the live ur the relics of the dead ea'nt reta 
in pregnancy the KTcatest cai'e is taken that no Iwncfal influen 
interfere with a safe delivery. The lady is made to wear a numbi 
of chai'ms and always to carry a knife or other piece of iron. M 
must not jjo out of dooi's especially on ucw-moons and 'nnirsdaj^ 
snd on all days at sunset must avoid groves and the sea aud rirti 
sides. Charmed silk threads called lliArdori, literally the spirit-ladeD; 
cord, are worn louud her waist and abdomen, and, espeoially if vaj 
portion of the period of her pregnancy falls on or about the daj-s i 
Viodli the Hindu New-year, which is considered an evil-spirit-tiiM. 
she requires the greatest oare. She is not allowed to go under d* 
mdniiiea or alcove built before a house on mani^e or other Eoetiv 
occasions. She must avoid marriage or death ceremonies, n" 
not pass tmder the city gates, aud must cross no river or ! 
Dnring eclipses of the sui^ and the moon particular care must 1 
taken that neither she nor hor husband, nor even the i-elativee of fa 
husband, eatordrink or smokeor cut or clip or break anything. Ifai 
of them eat a jidn or betel-leaf or oven fold a fin tiie child is sure to I 
bora with ears folded like a 'pan' leaf : if ihe relation cutslor clips ■ 
thing the child is sure to liave a deformed finger or a hare-lip. It 
aeseiied that an obstinate husband of a pregnant woman, with a fo 
hardy disregard for these customs folded a piece of cloth round his tm 
dui-iag an eclipse, and his child was born with a face-covering or cauL 
anj' member of the husband's family smokes fluring an eclip 
child born has a weak chest which gurgles like a '&uii:iiA' 




breatiics. Daring an ocHpsetlio kily lieiliasbAndandliisnearrelatives 
have to sit BtiU and ilo nothing but pray or read the Knraitu, the 

pKgnant hAy beiog sent to bed with a packet o^ wheat from 1 to a J 
seers lar pounds iii ([iiantity, which a£ter tliti eclipBe is ended, is added to 
ftWger (quantity and boile.l with sugar and oocoa-kernel and diatri- 
Imted aniotig friends. Tht- hhaidori ov weight that ia the spirit-laden 
cord, in tJio sense of the il!-!uck imprisoning cord, is regarded as a 
prewrvatiuQ of the child from conception to dehvery. It is a seveu- 
htaide-i piece of silk upon which the Mulla or cxorciet spends time and 
tioable, repeating over it verses of the Kiiradu or charms and t^Tng 
a knot at each repetition making the number of knots correspond with 
the unQih*r of pregnancy monthB and giving tRe silk to be wound 
iiMiid the womli. The braids are particoloured white, red, green, black, 
uid fine variations of tbeee leading culour?. This mik cord is a guard 
D^!>et misnarriage and all the evila, s]iintual as well as physical, that 
ause mificarriage. At the end or banning of the ninth month the 
braid is imwound and some incense is burned under it and togetlier with 
some flowers it is thrown into an unused well or if no well is at hand 
into a river or a lake or other water. During the period of pregnancy 
the woman may not wtto new clothes, jewels, even bangles the symbol 
cl married life which the married woman holds most sacred. All the 
OBual little adornments of the person otherwise considered insuperably 
necessary are dm^ng pregnancy laid aside and looked upon as forbidden. 
No eyelid is dai'keued with antimony, no iinger or toe-tip, no palm or 
*olt: is reddened with henna, no tooth is blaekeoed with vtis»i, and 
wrt^n kinds of food are foibiddeii. The pregnant lady is not to touch 
a eocoa-keruel, nor to taste any underground root except the exotic 
pjtate. The ban against ornaments lasts till the satmata or 
wvMtU- month celebration, but abstinence from forbiddea food some- 
femes lasts imtil after the ehdd is weaned, the notion being to keep 
both the mother and her nursling from unwholesome food and from milk 
deriT«l from euch food. 

The great event of the pregnancy is the eaimdsa or the nawmiUa 
tlie Mventh or ninth-month celebration. It is hold with different rites 
in different families, but usually it is the season for the fulfilment of all 
Tows for the preservation of the fcetus and the safety of the child and 
ib delivery. The rite generally begins with the pot or potter ceremony 
wtli which all joyous rites at births, betrathale, and marriages begin. 
It is called Birdl or Biradh-bharna literally pot-filling. A coraitlete or 
ytifect hifaiih consists of 125 pots, four large and the rest small. They 
wc bespoken at the jxitter's who paints them InmseH, lie is paid Rs. 5 
for the pots, an invariable fee. tiometiruea half the number of [wts is 
sent for and sometimes a quarter in which case it is called half a Oiralov 
) ii^arter lirat and the potter is paid proportionately less. In some 
places these pots are in the first instance taken to a well and a young 
nurrit.'d tvoman who bad never lost a husband, and in the case of a 
pngnancy- celebration a woman who has never lost a child even by mis- 
carriage, IS sent to a well. She draws water and pouvs a little of it into 
each of the pots and theu the woman and the potter with the pots are 
ttcorted with mneic t6 the house of joy and the women (if they observe 



and yintk 
ilanth BiUt 



ami yinth 
Mnlh Eilft. 


the parJah or veiliug) lake the pots to the setidnah auil armuge the( 
in lines with each of the four b^g pots surmounted by three small a 
the last pot top])cil with a tuirnai or eocoanut. The pote are urtaui 
in the principal room. Theu rice and curds and rhujialU or Indu 
baunockg and Aalwa or starched sweets are uooked aud the Fdiiha 
repeated over the pots in the iiames of the ileivi of the family the luic 
and ancestresses, chieily tlio zichiia that is the womou of the house wl 
liavc died iu child-birth. W hen the sjiirits of the family dead are pi 
the perfonnaucG of the vows follows. Theec are the liah-BeliUm-p 
or infant spirit-laying au old institution now almost forgotten, 
Kmiihiri or earthen dish rite, or the JVwoa or boat-oSering, 

The Jiehlhii or Snla-Bchlint-palti is vowed to l>e performed iu 
beginning o£ marriages, of sa/miisds or seventh -month pregnancies, i 
uf bitmilUika or initiation. The womauvow.i that ^vhen the event ts . 
]ilace she will crush one or two or two^nd-a-half seers of live coal 
She accordingly observes a fast and sends word to the Phadiili or spii 
musician. He cynics in the morniug with a pair oifienii, l.tcraliylaju: 
bamboo eticks each about a foot long and lialf an inch thick with shatp* 
eued points. These the I'liaddU lea'js against the wall on ground freali 
plastered with cowdung, uud goes awiiy, leaving strict orders that the 
phicc is not to be contamiuate<:l even by the sliadow of aa unclean 
persoa. Towai-ds nightfall a favoiuito epirit time the FkadiiU return^ 
Hia arrival is the signal for the table cloth of the newest and fim 
white lineu to be spread. On the cloth is served a grand repast eg 
sistiug of all kinds uf flesh (except beef) of all available kinds 
lish and grain and fruit and milk and eierlialf. There is rice-bw 
and pulse-breai and millet-bread all unleavened, and j}i/ao« and ^AinMl 
with their condiments of liadi or wbey-sauce and jjlnilatuii fried ga 
flour drops and whey. Of sweets there are ^n/it-aiof all kinds from 
eweet-smelling lar-halwa raisined and saffroned to the coarse malui 
or powdered sweetbread, There are also all fruits that the local marl 
can supply from the mango orange and sweetlime to the homely 
apple and sugarcane and eocoanut, even the despiseil woodapple 
the bitter kamrakk Averrhoa carambola. For relieb there are in 
plates and saucers fi-esh-gatlici'e<l mint leaver with slieeb of cheese 
gram-pulse soddened and fcalted. Next is a selection of thtrb^ 
i-ose-snerbat cream-sherbat almond-sherbat and sherbat with saflroM 
dropd of wheat-starch glinting like gold and silver fish. 

While the banquet is lieiug spreiid the Phaddli places a oenser fij 
of fi-ankincense before the two bamboo lances or netag, garlands 
with flowers and tops them wjth little i>ennon8 of new red muslin, 
makes a tour-faced or c/ianmuiA dough lampwith a wick in each i 
fed with ffAi or clariEic<l butter. Wlien all is ready the woman who 
registered the vow comes and stands on the clean square of floor with.; 
cup of therbat in her band. About this time the sun sets and the tim 
of breaking the fast is near. On her arrival the JPhaddIi opens cm 
of the three packets of flowers yi!i Jasminum auriculatum or nw^nl 
Jasminum zamboc or chambeli Jasnunum grandidomm prerioad 
placed before him and mttoached save by the person who haa gathi 
them with puriliod body. After holding the flowSrs for a time over 



frsgraot vapour of bnrninfj iui-ease tlie Pliaddli begins to eing the seven 
lutlas to the aooompaniment of biBcatgut gnitav and tambourine. These 
tdddt are hymnt; in pra-se of the bouIb of the prophetSj the angels, the 
genii, the ^rries, and the departetl souls of the relatives of the vower. 
While eai-h tdelu is suiifj the vower stands sherbat in hand, and at the 
end of each she gives tho einger a pice and he drops into her sherbat- 
cnp a flower from the packet before him. Tims when the seven ideld* 
are Eong and seven flowers are dropped into her cup the woman breaks 
her East with her sherbat having in the first instance swallowed the 
sevMi flowers. After this Fdiihai U repeated over the banquet and 
the fhaildli having eaten, the others including the vower come and 
paitake of it. No one is allowed to carry a morse l*ontside o£ the room 
in which the banquet ig spread. Even the crumbs are not given to a 
beggar hat are carefully gathered in a clean white cloth and along with 
I lie Eour-comered dough lamp arc bnviod in the outmost part of the 
e in which it was cooked. 
When dinner is over tlie PhaddU strikes up a new strain calculated 
entrance any of his' heaicrs who arc subject to spirit-possession. 
a rnle the lady who made the vow becomes possessed. If not 
proceeds to the business of the vow the crushing of live coals 
I naked hands and feet. The quantity of coal vowed to he 
eXtingnished is brought and set before the P/niihili who lights it and 
fiss it into a glowing flame. A round pit is liug in the floor and 
tbe burning coal is tilted into tho pit. Tho vower comes and keeping 
tune with the Phadiili's song prcceeds to take the glowing coals 
into her hands and rubbing them with force crusheB them into 
blukness. She then steps into the flaming pit and dancing with 
hae feet on the flames, seems without burning her soles to gradually 
ttimp out the lire till tho flaming Are is a heap of dead embers. 
Sometimes tho Pliaddli joins the vower in dancing on the coal, Lnt 
M % rule the vower refuses to allow any one to interfere with her vow. 
CaBcs liappen when women bum themselves gi'ievously in performing 
thew vows. But such eases are rare. A\ hen they oicur, they are 
Mcribed to the non-obi^ervance of the rulett of purity and cleanliness in 
cooking the feast or in plaatoving the floor. 

Sahnal: or Plli-l-'-SaAitiii-The Lady'h Karth Dish, commonly called 
liy lower class wouiun Kmul-'Ti,^ i.- a rite performed by women in the 
ln^nning of marriages and pregnancies or in consequence of vows for 
Kflnvery from illaes^. The rite coneists in offering to the Lady 
Patimah, tho Prophet's eldest daughter, milk and sweet gruel or rice 
mJ cords. It is called salmak or eartl\-dish, because, together with 
tlie milk and gruel or the rice and cnrds, abont half a pound of quick- 
lime slaked by a mixture of water is served. None hut women of 
iiii<iueKtioned chastity may partake of this diah, iiud as the rite begins 
■the women eating the lime none but chaste women usually presume 

— Ltng-fruit, cbIIkI in thi' Dakbtui 8iv»lin},'ft-liop»ti, the rod unenltirated htdgo 
brang holy anil scaring »ptly p*yc it* mrac to a rile iwriiirmed in tho beginning 
tUDciei. Though tie prnptice U now diHOuaiiiiucil it is l>elieveil thut fmit of all 
inolndiiig tlie kandiri were forinorlj' offereii and acrveil with tho earthen dish. 






Chapter VHI. 

The Earthen 
Dish mte 

The Boat 



to attend. The eyes of a male^ even though a boy^ may not fall on the 
food while it is being eooked still less after it is ready^ and the ladies^ 
who partake most eat only after eeremonially bathing and putting on 
clean i*aiment.^ The mixed milk and gruel are served in a separate 
plate ; but the chief viand the half-slak^ lime is set on a round black 
earthen platter. The ladies^ three five or seven in number^ sit round 
the platter. The eldest lady opens the feast by driving her right 
forefinger into the soft pile of lime, hooking a large lump of the lime 
on her bent finger^ and eating it. The other ladies follow her example. 
Lime does not bum the mouth of a chaste woman. If any woman's 
mouth is burned she is a pretender to purity and is driven from the 
feast. After the lithe the ladies eat the gruel and tnilk or in some 
eases the rice and curds. Before the banquet is over, the coUyrium 
and the black toothpowder missi pots are brought, and a vial of 
perfumed oil is set on the dinner cloth. The ladies tingle their eyelids, 
colour their teeth, and perfume themselves. Each of them receives a 
scarf of the value of Re. 1 to Rs. 5, a set of four to six pairs of glass 
bangles valued at Re. I to Rs. 2, and Re. \\*m cash. The platter, 
Avith the remains of the gruel rice and lime, is sent round to their 
houses and each of them takes her share oif as much as she likes. 
What now remains of the food and the lime are placed in the earthen 
platter which after dusk is laid at a cross-road as a spirit-ofPeiing. 

Ndos or boat-offerings are made to the great water-spirit Khwdjah 
Khizr, the prophet Elias. The officiating priest of this rite is not the 
potter but the Bhishti or Avater-carrier. Boat ofEerings are almost 
always made in fulfilment of vows. The naos or boats are generally 
two m number. They are bespoken at the Bhishtts who makes them 
of grass and bamboo chips about two feet long and a foot broad. 
When finished they look much like ancient gallevs. Instead of a mast 
they have a conical superstnicture of bamboo chips which is covered 
with new red muslin. In the afternoon the Bhishti brings to the 
Yower's house the boats and dresses them with garlands and red cloth 
and bur^s frankincense before them. When he has finished his rites 
the women send to the Bhishll to place near the boats unleavened 
broad and wheat halwa or sweetened starch flour and milk and wheat 
gruel or dud dalia cooked by a ceremonially clean and washed young 
woman, and carefully gniarded a^inst the shadow of any one cere- 
monially unclean. The Bhishti takes the bread, spreads on it a thiokish 
layer of sugai* and ghi, places some halwa on it, and lays it in the boat 
hid from sight by the folds of the new red muslin. He pours the 
milk and wheat gi-uel diul dalia into a clean copper or earthen vessel. 
He next makes a four-cornered lamp of dough, pours ghi into it, 
places within it some wicks made of new red cotton yarn, lights them 
and carrying one ndo in liis hand and giving the other to one of his 
assistants to carry he takes his position in the procession and with music 

1 The couplet runs : 

Jlun maile, gar se, tar nwjhe (Utonil zarur hai, 

Sahnak mein ahdwil ai lm:t ftoml zartlr hai, ( JVoi.ian'e Lommag? : Poet RArAt.) 

My Bickncss is ixut \ tntift bathe and irash my head. * 

To Jnin, dear sister mine, the pure lime-banquet Fpread ! 




starts for the river side. Near nightfall lie readies the river bank. 
He sets down his sacred burden and opens the dthl dtlia covers and 
pours some of tlie grael into each of tho boats. He then re]>eats the 
fdtiha to the soul of the prophet Elias and while the VhaMlh ch'^nt 
the praises of the water-spirit to an unearthly sieconipanimcat on 
their catgut guitars which they twa:io^ with pointed stones held 
between the linger and thumb to the hum of a round tambourine, 
the hhinUii launches into the stream his frail reil-i>ailod barks. As 
the boats are swept out of eight tlie Pha*hilis, the Bhishd, and the 
others spread the cloths and cat their share of the bau(iuet or divide it 
and take it home. Besides the meal the Fhaddlin ai-e paid in casli 
annas 8 to Re. 1 and the Bhisthi Re. IJ to Rs. ?i. The BhUHii is 
the priest as the object of the rite is the proj>itiation of the Bftiafhia 
patron the water-spirit. For the water-spirit as for other spirits the 
Phaddlia are tho sole musicians. Though their instninients are rudo 
and their voices often untraiTied and unmusical, in paying vows the 
Pliaddli's music alone can be lieard. 

At the beginning of the seventh or ninth month of a woman's 
pregnancy, a party both of the husband^s and the wife^s kindred are 
called to the husband's hoiise.^ The women come about midday and 
the men about sunset. When the men have din&l, the women dine by 
themselves in tho women's room. At night a new piece of cloth is 
taken and in it are wmpped a rupee, some parche<l rice, a.ul seven or 
nine kinds of fruit, one of them a cocoanut. This is toucliod by thi» 
vinie, thrown into the lap of the husband and by the husband returned 
in a similar manner seven or nine times according to the number of 
the months of pregnancy. Besides fi-uit and ])archeil rice, the packet 
o(mtains money, in the case of the ricli Rs. 1 1, in the case of the middk^ 
class Us. 5, and in the case of the poor Rs. 1^ to annus 5. This money is 
made over to the husband's sister or sisters. The wife's relations then 

E resent her and her husband with rich clothes. Next morning after 
reakfast tho guests return to their homes. A little supplementary 
rite is observed secretly by the women among themselves immediately 
the men have ititired aft-_»r the interchange of the fruit and grain 
packets. Some months before the satmdm, say aljout the tifth month, 
the mother sends to the house of her son-in-law a tiny silver cup with 
corresponding miniature silver spoon and cover. Tiiis is kept by the 
hosband's people and produced alter the S(t/mt('m ceremony has taken 
place. It is then handed to some aged female relative or t«) the mother 
of the wife who removing from the room any one she suspects of 
baring the " heavy " or evil eye proceeds to uncover the bosom of the 
wife and to squeeze out some drops of milt. This milk i< received in 
a spoon and turned and fingered and its thickness or thinness noted 
and discussed. From tho thickness or thinness of tho milk tho ladies 
conjecture the sex of the child, if it is thin they foretell and often with 
certainty that a boy is to be born. When the cup has served its purpose 

Chapter V! 


The Jfoat 

.Vr'.r Dirinati 
//// Milk, 

L J Tlic namlier of (piosts bn^n^^ht hy tlu^ wifir's parent^ U fixod 
[• .***fly Ml tlic ricliaeai of the pwsonts tlicy liave ^ivcn the vifi*. 

(I hi-f orohand. It deponds 

B r.30— 20 


gujaba:t population. 

the milk is burieil and the cup given as n gift to the eieter or sob 
other relative of the hujihancl. 'ITiese eeveiilh or ninth month ceremow 
are held only on the opcaaion of a lirst pregnancy, and li( 
immodest arc not observed in strict families. The whole cost lies 
the dinnoi-s. On these a rich man will spend Ha. 1000 cr Rs. 2000- 
middle ola^s man R>. 500 to Re. lO'JOj and a poor man, if at all, Ii&: 
to Rs. 10.' 

After the last pregnancy ceremony the wife goes to her fatha 
house and stays there till her confinement is over. Among the ti 
and middle classes the eervant who first brings hia master nows 
birth of a child gets anresent of Re. 1 to Rs. 2. fsoon I>andd of mns 
and the liated ktjildt or eunuchs- crowd round the house on the look 
for gifts. Some peculiar cuetoms are observed at the Hrth ot 
child. No sooner does the little stranger appear than the m-.dwifle 
ilnl announces its sex. If a lioy she ^ays, nomiimllv to Gave the mot 
n shock of liap|>y surprise, but at heart to deceive the evil sjiiritB 
jealousy, It is only a girl blind of one eye. If a girl ib horn, 
fact is stated since the birth of a girl can cause 'no jealousy. Boj 
girl, the uew-bom cliild is laid in a bamboo st'ipiln or winnowing- 
wliile the more pressing needs of its motlier are being ministered 
Then the midwife takes up the little piece of humanity and fiesb 
on it attentions against which the little one remonsti'ates by low 
The midwife pressed all its limbi, ojiens by her finger all the o 
of its Ijody, the eara, the eyes, the uostrilti, and gullet. She pra 
the head into Blmjie, straightens the nose, the arms, the th* 
bones, the fingers, and finally winding the navel or caudal string roii 
the neck and rubbing warraj-f* on its body gives the infant a iva 
bath. A piece of new reil cloth is wonnd rather tightly roimd 
little one's head and the young one is ready to hear the lakhl 
to prayer. Tliat its Creator's name may be the fii-st word it he 
the father, as booq as the child ia bathdl, repeats in its ear the cal 
prayer, au'm, beginning with the words Alliih-o-AUhar God is gre 
The infant ia consigned to the care of the niothei-. The mother is 
yet permitted to satisfy her maternal yearning to feed her new-h 
The old ladies of the house are busy preparing the infant's first (Irani 

1 Thv cart at tbo fcienil's presoiiU nf clntlici rin^ uiul money varies, nmnDg Iha 
ftoni Rf. 10 to R>. 50, Aiiinng the miildlc rlaas finni Its. 10 to Via. A, nnd iniDnp tho ; 
from Re. 1 to Ita, 2. 

■Tito ennuchabeat i drum and »\ns, whilo one of tlieir number, with the' 
of a. pad or pillow, notB the part of A wtMnan with cliilil, in clillii-biilli, and imw 
At Ahmeddbid not only the H{jdift hut wan of the PinKaggiti or Uindn iImI 
playerB uliiim prescnla oti the birth of a boy with n pertinkdly that is not antiiBi 
the whole of their demand isp&id. The person eUimiiiB tlio ^ft ia yenernllr tho 
Of fool of the troop. Hcdooa notddnco or sing-, hot by hii obstcepcroniealliMof c 
■base triei to make hii stay so Bnooying llmt to get rid oF bini no espente i« thi 
~ e people astiafy his domsnde atbiahnoif' 

(eniUiig him a present oE S 
' Occasionally at the til 
haniHcnpe. He cboosea ci 
begin. Tiie paper i> kept by the parents of th 
The BrAbman is paid Bb, S to Bi, 20. 

of birth n Br&hman it calleil BTid tolil to draw ' 

lettorn, with ono nf wliich the child's name d 

d nnd refej-i-e.l to on gtvat oeeai 


e(nsi;ti!ii^ of aiiidf ol. ray rolalaiu, dried red rose,;, senna, and the droppiugs 
I'f iiiiw ov ^oat^. Til's black broth is administered to tin; uew-bom 
hi4^::ui ijf tlie mother's milk to pmi^e the impurities that havL- ^thercd 
^.thoint'^mt's syn-tem during its fuutal eiiitenoc. For hours after birtli 
[iLysit; in the oaly diiuk which passes the little one's lips. As BOon 
le first bath la over pieces of black thread arc wound rather tightly 
d the child's wrists and ankle.-i oa its Sr^t arniuur aoainst the evil 
8 eyes or rather uyelidu are stained with soot made of ffhi and 
ick, its oyebro*Vo are peneilled with 80ot, dots of lampblack are 
a its little cheeks palms and soles, and a lock of its hair is 
■d or wasL'd so that any o;ie with an evil eye feeling them or 
sking; at Lhem may not meet an even gloa^y suitace. Every morning 
k1 eve:njg fi-aukiiicenae and the rdi-iapand, corruptly termed nii- 
:i"tni, thai is miuLard^ nnd henna sectt, is passed i-even or nine timed 
OTw the mother and the child from head to foot, and thrown into the 
fireplace arid burned, Often rod chilly seeds are thrown into the fire, 
tjpec^lly tu judge whether an ailment of the child is physical or 
BjBrit-cansed. If tlniburoiug of the chillies creates no pungent vapour 
sordy a spirit id the cauiie of the disease. ]f the burning chilly haa 
ia [iTVper pnngetit smell then the ailme>it in natui-al. Sometimes a 
piece of alum ".s burned with the mnstanl-seed, the burning abim 
swelling into fantastic forms which to the meo show the ses of 
tttt person who owns the evil eye. Duiin^ the five days before the 
thiiiUi or sixth-day celebration no fire or salt or water is to be given 
tflMV one from the house in which a woman is confined. To accmtom 
the child to noi^e a copper or brass dish is struck at his ear before the 
WnT reiieate to him the lakblr or call to prayer. To harden the 
chiij void water is sprinkled over him before \m bath. 

If the iravail of child-birth lasts luu^er than is natural charms 
and taliBuians are sent for and Kometimea an esorcist gives a piece of 
\ broken earthen vessel inscribed with some geometrical form or some 
nune or tjome numbers. This potsherd is laid on the womb. 
Little children, boys and girls, of not more than eight are given a 
winnowing -fan heaped with grains of wheat with eleven coppers in it 
ud art asked to stir the ivlieat and coppers with a wooden ladle and to 
jiray to God for a speedy delivery. They ladla the wheat and pray 
with fervour, Oh Deliverer, a speedy delivery ; Oh Deliverer, a 
Sjieeily delivery. These innocent prayers of pure-hearted children 
are accounted most acceptable to the Pure Author of Being. Ab 
BODii as danger is over the children are given a repast of milk and 
•mgarcd rico or sweet wheat gruel and the wheat and money are 
tlis'^ibuted in charity to beggars. TbG expenses connected with a 
Urthvary in the case of a lich man from Bs.SO to Bs. 250, in the ease 

'In lu» UpIu Dictioimry (Voco*^') Forbes anya the need of the lieniift plnut i* 
Wral at inarri«f?e» lo drive rwaj ovil spirits. Hpuna leed miscl with mnitsad laed 
!■ >lni bniiit after a cliild \» Irani pai-ticiilarly at the door to f^Bvent dtmoiu from 

lapter VIII. 



of a middle class man from Rs. 20 to Rs. 30, and in the case ot a po(» 
man from Re. 1 to Rs. 50.^ 

Early in the morning of the sixth day the child is named. The 
father grandfather or other male relative opens the Kuradn at a 
venture, and the first letter of the first word of the third line is the 
initial of the child's name.* Sometimes a name is chosen because it 

1 The details arc : 

Birth Charget, 

Item. ^ 






From To 







Eunuchs ■ 

Relations and Servants ... 
Dinner •• 

Total ... 

Rs. ' 


















• •• 

• ■ • 




• •• 

• • • 

Grain and some- 
times a milch. 
Cdir or milch buf- 
falo is also given. 

This only for a- 






In tlio case of a woman's first child the birth charges are borne by her father. lu the 
caso of a second or third child, the exi^cnses are not more than one-half, and in the case 
of a girl no presents arj given. On the day of a birth and the five following days 
among the well-to-do friends are wpectctl to send presents of sngarcandy and 
clariCed butter worth Re. 1 to Rs. 20. 

* The class of names recommended by the Prophet are the slave or servant of 
AU&h or servant of the Most Merciful, Abd-ulUh or Abd-ur-Bchman. Among 
SayadSi boys* names generally end in Alij as Ahtnad-ali Akbar'ali Mvmtifz-ali, 
or in JItisain as Amir^^ttsain or Fazl Hit sain, aud sometimes though 
rarely in Sk</h, as Muhammad Sht^h and Taj-shdh, Among Shaikhs, boys are 
called (Imar, Unnu/nj Muhammad^ Mahmud^ Jlusain^ Qhuli/fn-htuain, Qhulara'ali, 
Gult^m-ahmad. These names are common in all families. The following arc us^d 
almost solely in families of good position : SliaiM-ttd-din^ Moin-ud-din^ Saadulldh, 
Fazlullahf and the like. The names of .Shaikhs are preceded either by the word 
Muhammad or Shaikh as Muhammad Asadullah or Shaikh Q-hulam AIL Among 
Mughals, boys are called Amir, Muhammad, Hasan , Uvsain^ and Al'h the word Mirza 
always preceding and Beg f<^llowing the name. Path&n boys have the same names as 
Mughal boys, only there is no Mirza and Khan is added instead of Be^, The 
commonest names for women are, foi all classes and grades, taken irom the Kuradn, 
such as Fatimah, Khadijah, or A'iifhah, Among the higher Musalm&n families such 
Arabic phrases as Best ot women Khair-un-nisa, Noblest of women Amir-un-nisa, or 
Hoon of women Badr-un-nisa are commonly used. Among Sayads a woman's name is 
followed by Begam ; among Shaikhs by ^i^t ; among Mughals by Khanam ; and among 
Fath^ns by Khatu. Besides these par«nts who have lost children or whose children do 
not live give cnnous names showing deformity or the most abject humility. Saththu 
literally nose-bored is a name which accompanies the actual boring of the nose of the new- 
born child on the principle of deformhig the child and so making it less liable to spirit 
attacks. Another name is Pu \ju or Kachra that is refuse. (Sometimes when a child is 
born after the death of several children the child is thro>vn into a grain winnowing-fan 
siipda with a lot of dirt or refuse and the fan is dragged outside the door with the child in 
it and made over to some other member of the family as whose property the child re-enters 
the house. After his ride in the winnowing-fan the child is named Ghasita, that is The 
Dragged. If he is a I'athdn this becomes Ghasftkhdn, if a Sayad or Shaikh Mir or Sheikh 
Ghassn or Ghlsu, aames wliicli occur among all ranks of Muslim and Hindu society in 
Gujariit. These odd naming practices have their root in the belief that untimely births 




hail been bomo by one of the child's forefathcrij or because the giver 
thinks ifc lucky. In the eveniu<^ of the same day tlie husband's 
kindred, bringing gold or silver anklets or necklaces money or clothes, 
go to the wife's lather's house. Sweet cakes arc distributed, and, 
afkr sunset, the husband gives a dinner to the wife's relations. In 
the women's rooms the child and its mother are dressed in their best, 
and the midwife makes a six-cornered lamp of flour with a> ma!iy 
Tvicks as comers. This is lighted, fed Avith clarified butter^ and kept 
in a plate along with parched rice or millet Jmcari, and fnut. The 
presents brought by the husband's friends are now offered, and a few 
small silver coins are given to the midwife. The young mother is 
then led to a casement and made to count seveij stars. When this is 
oyer the husband's people return to their homes. The sixth-day 
ceremony includes another propitiation of the female relatives that 
have died in child-birth. Food untouched by unclean jx^rsons is cooked 
and the FdHha repeated for the souls of women who have thus died and 
the food is distributed to the poor. The value of the presents made by 
the husband's friends would, in the case of a rich family, vary from 
Rs. 20 to Rs. 50 and Ttrom Rs. 10 to Rs. I'O in the case of a middle 
class family. Among the poor, silver necklaces hansli, or anklets 
kadiajij and a pair or so of oraamented shirts worth Rs. 5 tolO^ are 
isoraetimes given. The dinner and other charges on this occasion 
among the rich vary from Rs. 20 to Rs.l20, among the middling 
from Rs. 10 to Rs. 20, and among the poor from Rs. 2\ to Rs. 10. 


or the death of the new-born arc duo to the anger or jealousy of uneasy f auiily ghosts, 
chiefly of women who have died in child-birth with the main object of life uufuliilled. 
To thu belief there attaches the further experience that the unfriendly ghost is easily out- 
fitted. The ghost or other spirit on the lookout for the soul or life of the newborn 
hears the child is defoi-mcd or worthless and so tums its mind to some more gainful 
miscViL-f. Farther the ill-will of the ghost is not towards the child but to tlic child's 
fither or mother. Tlie ghost's aim is to harm the child of tho father or of the mother, 
•gainst the aunt's child the ghost has no manner of grudge. This is similar with 
the Jewish custom according to which the infant Joseph was supposed to steal a » ash 
of one of his aunt's which being found on his person ht wa^ according to patriarchal 
law claimed by his aunt for a certain number of years. See Sale's Translation of tho 
Korain, Chapter XII. 196 Note (O). 

* Tho dtftails are > Sixth Duy Charyet, 









Rs. a. 






To : 





Total ... 

Rs. a. 


Rs. %. 
1 8 

1 8 

Rs. a. 




Rs. a. 


Kh. .1. 1 
5 1 

2" ' 



120 So 


2 8 

7 : 

The coil is paid by the father of the child. These figures are for a first child whether 
a boy or a girf. Similar rejoicings are made in honour of tho yountrer children, but at 
•boat half the cost. 






On the Bovcuth fourteenth or twenty-first day after birth 
the jmrely ]Muhaminadan and hy all daises carefully kept rSe 
sacM'ificc r//.i7fl. In th's rite there are two part^^ the'shaviiifjofr 
cliiUrs head and the killini^ of one or two j^oats. If the child is i 
one poat, and if the child is a boy two ^oats are bought. J^oiie 
are askcil and a barber is called. When all is ready the father 
the child, or some one sixieially named by him, at a given tjiy^i, u 
barber i>a.sscs the razor along the head of the cluld, draws a knife ac 
the gi^tt's throat saving, I sacrifice this animal or ai:imal8 for 
child uanunl irali\ blood for blood, skin for skin, flesh for flesh, hs'ti 
hair. When the sliaving is over, the child's liair and na'ls are laid 
a t!nt half-baked cake and carried away to be thrown into a river. 
'V\\c l)arber goes round among the men guests and each diojis and: 
eoin into his cup. Before they leave, the guests are enterta^ it 
dinner.^ The whole costs a rich man from Bs. 20 to Rs. 30; a nLdlb 
olas^ num nearlv the same amount; and a poor man fromRs. 3ti 
lis. 7A.^ 


On the fortieth day, in honour of the mother^s recovery, tkloi or 
irnuss U^atsi of the same kind as those made bv the water-carrier for 
the sovont h-month pregnaiuiy ceremonies, are with music taken 1» 
tho noai-cst water^ a lamp is lighted, and the boat set adiift is a 
thankofforing to Khiija Khizr or Klias.^ The father of the chitfi 
mother prt^sents her with clothes and the child with some small quitU 
and a onulle. Tlie ceremony costs a rich man Rs. 22 i to Rs. 15, a 

* In j»n'i\mnfr ibo >ro!»t for cookinp none of its hones may bo brokpu. The Ixmei 
tuit>i Iv M'tvti'Atixl fnnii tho tlosb and burlcil. The flesh And skin aiv divided in ikm 
^h.uv«. V^Mo shriis' i< pvou in charity, a second is distributed auici^r friends, andtk 
trM« (\ivvt \hii\ tho ohUi*s father and mother and their fathers and mothers ma v not 
join. In iMtrn bv n'Ut'tiin^. 

• Tho t»ot»iN .iro ; Sticiifice Chm.cA. 






I -l.ii 


IN. a. 

'• S 



To ■ 

Kti. n. 





Kk. a. 


i.i i» 




Hk. a. Rr. a. 

8 0' 20 

I o: 

7 M = 


Rs. a. 

s s 

8 I 10 

8 1 4 


10 8 


7 8 

1»*mabk . 


u uftrtli OiuarAi [ 
tl»c )«rbcr'i« fi-r* { 
is the wr*irht nI 
tho chiM'o | 
in silver. I 

In ln'KUujj ihiH »vninon\ thoro is no^difforcnc;? whether the child is a boy or a ;nil. a 
III .1 horn «iv n ,\«mnKor rhild, 

Mxh*,!"* Ktii. r \h tl»o wutoi' jrvnius. tho P.itriaroh Elias, skillul in divination wh- 
ill icoM'ivd and drank \\w >\rttcr of lifo. iH the Patriarch's success the Unlu j^ct mrj^s : 

KM:i' \- ri.'..' yi I- tibi-hitfut«> Khi.T to iliink tho wutir of Ufo 
Aiiil \\\c for oxer in liMii'liiii'sti. 
(Ml Muiiit;^.- 1 \\>>uM have none of this. 
With fUi-h vTAtcr 1 would \\u«h mv Iiuncltf. 




middle class man Rs. 9.^ to Rs. 22, and a i^oot class man Rs. 1^ to 
Us. 4.1 

When the child is four and a half months old and able to take food 
stronger than milk, comes the ceremony of mntton-snckinp^ hofan, or 
18 the Persians call it salt-tasting namak-chashi. Friends brin^ the 
elrild presents of clothes worth Re. 1 to Rs. 5. In the evening dressed 
in his best, the child is offered by his father's sister some rice and milk 
U»V, on a nipee^^ and after the rice and milk ho is given a piece of 
flesh to Slick. The only charge connected ^nth this ceremony is a 
ffinncr costing a rich man about Rs. 10 and a middle class man about 
Se. 5. Among the poor the ceremony passes without expense.^ 

The child's first birthday silgirdh is the next time for meriy- 
making.* As a rule only female relations are asked. These come and 
in the women's quarters pass the day in feasting and the night except 
in some strict higher class families in playing the dnim dholy and 
singing. Sometimes men also are asked, given a dinner, and afterwards 

Ioiterfcained by professional musicians. Before they leave each of the 
guests gives the child Re. 1 to Rs. 5. 'J'he cost of one of the larger 
entertainments would be about Rs. 30 for the musicians and Rs. 20 
for the dinner. This hi Ahday feast is given only by the rich and by 
some of the middle class. Poor famihes do not give it. 

When a child, whether a boy or a girl, has reached the age of four 
years four months and four days comes hismilldh The taking the 
Name o£ God, a ceremony no Muhammadan neglects. On this day a 
rich man will feast from a hundred to two hundred guests. In the 
evening after the dinner is over, the cliild, covered by a skilfully 
TToven flower-sheet called sehrOj is taken to the men's room where 
the priest mu/la, the guests, and a band of young children are wait- 
ing. The child is seated on a rich cushion or wasnad^ sweetmeats are 
laid l)efore it, and of the?e two covered with gold- paper are given to it, 
and, after the priest, the child repeats the opening chapter of the 

Chapter VI 


JSalt Tasth 

Birth Da 


i The details arc 

Fortieth Day Chartjrif. 




Total .- 










Rr. n. 


2 8 



R«. a. 





Rs. .1. 
1 fi 

9 3 

Rs. a. 






SS 8 




Rft. n. 



. 8 

1 8 


B?». a. 






This is paid l>y 
the father of 
the child's 
mother, and is 
the Kimc f.>r 
all children. 

* Though from thi<« time he takes other fiKMi besides milk, tho cLiM is not weaned till 
be 18 twenty-one mentis old. This id according to a precept from the Knrarfu : From 
bearing to weaning let thirty mouths pas', 

' No t«>etbing or car-h,)ring ceremony is ohsorvcd in 

■• The word saHgira'h or vearly-knot owes its origin anioi.g Indian Musa'.mrfns to the 
Mnglial practice of tho enjperor's mother keeping a silken string in the hnrem and 
adding a knot for each year of the emperor's life, Bloehman's A'fn-i-Akbari, 262 note I. 




hapter YIII. 



Eura^n. "When this is done, the priest chants some Hindustani versw 
in praise of the child's parents, invoking blessings on the child's head, 
nnd at every pause the young band of choristers shout a loud Amen. 
Wliilc the children are eating the sweetmeats a procession is formed 
and the child is taken to kiss the tomb or dargaJi of the family 
guardian saint. As soon as the procession returns, presents are made 
to the child, silver or gold coins rolled in paper with the name of tke 
giver written on it. As the child passes into the women's quarters the 
women guests crowd round it, each striving to be the first to take on 
herself the child's sorrows.^ After this is over and the child has put 
off its flower-robe, the wom3n guests amuse themselves listening to 
the women-players ov^lomma. This rite of bismUUih costs a rlchmai 
Rs. 300 .to Rs. 1000 or even more, and a middle class man Rs. lOO to 
Rs. 300. Among the poor it costs Rs. 10 to Rs. 20.- 

At the acfe of si.^ or seven comes circumcision or kli'itna? Friends 
send presents of sugareandy, clarified butter, and sweetmeats, and, 

'In this Borrow-takiiig bald-e'h-Iena, the womau passes her liimls over the child 
from head to foot and then setting her knucklea or fingcyrtips against he^ teinplea 
presses them till the joints crack. 

2 The details are : Initiation Cluirget. 

MuUa's Fee ... 
Dinner (a) ... 
Clothes (&) ... 
Proceasion (<?). 
Miscel Ian ecus . 

Total ... 






R", a. 




From j To 



Rs. a 



201 , 
SO 1 


Rs. a. 





Rs. n. 

10 u 


Rs. a. 




Ra. a. 


2 8 
2 8 



95G ! 


115 ' 2iO 



(a) Dinner for relatives only and very dear friends not uioro than 
a hundred among rich and middle cla^s and ten among^ poor. 

ib) In the cas8 of middle cla^^ and ix><>r men the gift« of cloth33 is 
optitmnl. {e) The cost is the same for sU children. 

' The hhatmh^ though it is an order of the Prophet, and not of the Kuraln. is a^ 
strictly kept as if it wore commanded by th3 latter. Boys born withont a foreskin 
are exempted from the rite. Among the ^hiah or Daddi BohorA?, tho ^'hiah Mui»lialf 
and both Sunni and Chilli Arabs circnmcision almost always takes place as e.irly as 
the sixth day after birth, fcjo much importance do these classes attach to thii rite 
that opei-ations arc performed on girls as well as on boys. On the day of tho 
operation the child is given an opiate. The simplest form of circumcision is mere 
amputation of the prepuce there being a difference between tho Muslim and tlie Jewish 
rites, the Muslim being the simpler and less painful. In tho aftoraoou of tho dav fixt-d 
for the ceremony a piece of new red cotton cloth about four feet square is spread in the 
middle of tho floor of the roam in which the child is to be laid up. A large co.iper 
tray full of soft ashes is set in front of the cloth The bay who is to undergo the 
operation is in some families drugged with a little bhang (Cannabis indica) confection 
called mndjun and brought to the room in the arms of a powerful male relative and 
seated on a wooden stool or chowki a fi>ot high over which a piece of red cloth is 
spread. The barber engages his little subject in cmversation whii^o is held drawer- 
less but with shirt on tightly by the strong relative. This is to prevent a nervous antl 
obstinate boy from burting himself by throwing up or about his hands and feet whei 
under the razor. The barber l>egins by introducing into the foreskiji a carefully smx)th- 
cd bamboo-chip probe to feel and ascertain if no i)ar« of the foreskin adheres to the 
gland as it does in some rare cases when tho oper.Uion becomes very painful. When 


thnii-rji tilts is commoner among tlie middle than among tbo higher 
duics, Ihc recovery oJ the child ti celebrated with great rejoicing, 
Among north Oujanlt Musalm^nu eirciimoision is neglected till nii 
iga bordering on puberty, when it is pei-formed with a pomp nrnX 
Krciimstance almost oqualliiig those at a marriage, ana all the 
ptdiminar}' rite;i like the lira/, or arranging the pots of clay, a 
nminuiit of the pot rites, are observed, fii north Gfnjarat cii-cnmciRion 
if styled a shaji or joy-time, a word applied in south (Jujai'dt only 
to marriage:!. The expenses on the occasion of circumcision vary fov 
ft tieb man from Ra. loO to Rs. -100, for a middle class man from 
Kfi. 120 to Us. 300, and for a iwor man from lis. 10 to R^. 20.' 

After eircumeision come rejoicings and a ilinnef in honour of a l>oy 
or girl keeping their first Jlamazdn fast. This is chiefly celebrated 
by people belonging to the upper and middle classes. It is said that 
tiic merit of a boy's or giil's first fast pajsos to their parents. At it* 
Hventb or eighth year, a child, if strong enough to bear the privation, 
l«made to fiist one day in the llama:an, and that day is marked by 
ftdniDor to wliieh a chbice party of friends and relations is callcti. 'i'be 


Taa FiBBl 

(Imgtlit down to Xkn middle of It ani. lioldiiig thoouiUnpoii, putatli^iu on Cl]o liglitly- 
^nwa-nni fanakin. Ho perforina this operation «o dcitra'oiisl; tluil tlic upplimtiUTi 1 1 
t* btmbao pintvn and tho polii ransnl bj the pnlUng out of llio forralcin u »liniiItiino- 
>■■ with it* bdog cat off by thi- iliarp raxor close Xa tlie pinc«n. Drawing oat tho 
Iron tlie tMrber calh to tlio xurprised boy, " Here, niaBtcr, tloa't yon sei! the galili'ii- 
•lamiw '■ and wlien he tnwooil* in t1iu« dUtractiig his att^jnliou tho ofierotioii 
UttlM out tlie piiioeri Btut apiti imt a ilaob of petit aaliva on tlii> Biidi of the foreskin 
uw dnnn up ahavc the gUiidf, Ha d.-iE iptinklos a *oft redpowiier on tlic wound In 
"Unnth tho blood, sweeps in tlw dobiched foccskiu into thu red cloth which he gathcr.i 
■puddepAFtsia tlic miilib of the itmbiimka and tuldmaU or «iii};ratolationi of thu 
tiv'i niUt^via. Tha nutnsof in whidi clrcuuii.'iiion lit )MrfDrincd ditrurs iii many Islitnir 
Hrotric*. In the provinen of Al Aslr aouth of the Uijax in Arabia ctroumcirion bv 
■to ii Miltd " talki " or ii^riBcUian in psrformixl. Bnrlnu (A1C LeiUh, 111, 90 to 
Rldowribea it in the fbllutiing terms : " Tito jaliciit uanally from ten to twelve years old 
tlfland uiwn nusedgTOVuil holding ill liii tight Iiand a spnii with iti point upwardii 
ud i'.i hn'l sujiportnl on his foot, so that Q\« point inay show every tremor of thi' 
Mrfn. \Vu tribo ittnd^ amund \am to pass judgment on his fortitude aud poweri cf 
aAnnncw, Tlic hkrber with a dagger sluirp ai a raior niahiw a sliallaw ciit severing the 
ikhlamitt tlwi belW imiDediately be'.an- the imrel. Ho also makes similar in eisiona 
4«»il «rh groin. He thou tears olf the oi>Uunnis from tlio cuts downwards and (!•}« 
totnticUaa'ul the penis, endiag wiCli amputation of the prejwce. Hconwhilc thu 
■fOTBiiKt iiut tnmiblc. When the ordeal i> over tho boy itXea Alhih-o-Akhar God i* 
pntand iitl«nipts to get upar.d walk homo uuhelped, eurtn falling from pain and 
Kmni Dtliaust4on. '1 he more Btcjis he tslicis the mora apjilaiise he gains." 
' Thp drbailt nre : Cittimcltiou Cl,ari/ri, 


AllDDNT. 1 








From 1 To 

Bsrbcr-s r.-o ... 

Ulnwr ,_ ... 

iS I 


Hf. a. 

it fl 


Rf ■ 




ua 8 




10 e 




Jhapter VIII. 




diuucr Lioits a riuli man Its. 20 to Its. 30 and a midtUu cW 

Soon after the first Ram/min fast, when its Kiiraflu les^^n^ ft 
an eud, the child's pai-cntJ give its teacher a present hiuhjn. 
party IB asked, and, before them, the child repeats tbe beuit 
Cliaptor LiV. from the holy book styloil Si'rnh Ji-lMimda tliK 
The Moat Comjiassionate being a description of the hoanties AlUh 
fihowered oa man. Esccpt the teiwhor's present of clothes and n 
worth Re. 1 to Ua. 50, a suit of chthei for the child, and pi 
i-ice almonds and walnuts distributed among children costing B».li 
Rs, 5 there are no expensBa. 

Musalmiln boys am raarrie<l between sixteen and twmtj--two 
girle at ten to eighteen. Except in the caie of a re-marr'agc net 
bride nor bridegroom has any oho'ee.' 

"NVhen their sons i-eaeh manhood, parents generally consult ] 
f&fsional matehmakerj or go-betweens, women free to enter 
liouBcs even of the strictest. Some girl likely to muke a i 
match is before long chosen, and the women of ihe lad's family JM 
visit at the girl's borne. After seeing her a-id talking together, 
guests are oEEeral a glass of sugared-water. This they drink if 1 
think well of the girl, but if they think she will not suit, tliey deo" 
After drinking, in sign that tijey ask her in maiTiage, tlioy urop ( 
Kugai'candy into the girl's mouth. Then they talk of omamenta 
fix the day for the betrothal. On the betrothal day, both at 
boy's and the girl's liouses, there is a meeting o£ k.ndred. In 
evening at the boy's house ornaments and sweetmeats are laid on 
neatly covered trays and are generally with music sent to the L 
bouse. With the preeentii go the women of the bridegroom'e Cat 
and a gay procession of children of their relations and friends. 
reaching the bride's house the men and children wlio formed 
procession sit in a booth outside of the house, or, if there is no 1 
in some part of the house pre^mrcd for their reception. Here ahef 
sugared-water is handed round, the person serving it, general 
relation or near friend of the wife's family, stating that it i» 
lionour of the betrothal, liioeb person on pntting down his cup dro 
for the gooil of the man who 1^ sor^'ed it, annas 2 to Kb. 2 in tli( 
saucer. Meanwhile the women gtiests going into the house deck tb( 
bride with ornaments, put the troth ring on liei- finger, and cover hei 
with a scai-f f/»;)ii/i«. Then after drinking sngared-water and t 
and getting flowers and rcEewater they leave, taking with them t 
filled with fresh presents, a handkerchief, a ring, a gold turfai 
tnanilil, and sweetmeats. A rich man's betrothal esponses vary o 
bridegroom's side from Ea. 2liO to Ks. 350 and on the bride's fron 
Rs. 50 to Us. 350 ; for a middle class man on the bridegroom's eidi 
from Ks. 100 to Rb. 300 mid on the bride's from Rs. bQ to Rs. SO : fiii 
a poor man on the brid^room's side fi-oni Rs. 50 to Rs. 90 and o 



hiide'a from Rs. 20 lo Bs. 50.' Except when tkinfrs aro and 
tkB betrothal and marriage take plaL-e at the same timej the betrothal 
l«ts for at leaflt a year. During this time on every holiday gifts lass 
lirtween the betrothed conjile.^ 

Some months before the marriage day the bride's female relati'tns 
meet at her house and make ready the smaller articles of dress. Every 
night when the'r work is over, for about a fortnight before the 
naniage day, the women sing to;^thcr to the accompaniment of the 
iiam or dkol. Eight ilays before the mai-riagc the bride keeps to one 
room and both she und tho bridegroom aivj made to wear yellow clothes. 
Two or three daja before the marriage both at the house of the brlde- 
gojitt and of the bride a store of eartlie:» pots is laifl in. Jf the women 
dwne the juirJah or veiling the pots are arranged in the inner 
ipKbnents, but if the women are not purdah they arc arranged in a 
temporaij- booth or alcove in fi^ont of the house. Tliat th9 object 
li arranging these pots is to houso and so please ancestral spirits is 
koDim and admitted. Food is laid on the pots and the ojiening 
d^iter of the Kurailii or FCdiha is re|)ealed. After the pots aro 
Biuged both at the bride's and at tho bridegroom's, the women of 
tiufunily, while female musicians sing i^nigs, lub the bride or the 
Ind^oom with gram Sour mixed with oil and perfumer culled 
•tafno. The chief iugrcdients in this cosmetic arc tho flour o£ n-ashcd 
wh(it and mung (Phasoleus munga) tui-meric and sesame oil. As 
t^ coametic has to ward off nil the evil influences which hover 
windthe bride and bridegroom every cure must be taken that no 
dement of evil enters into the guardian nhaliia. To atop the approach 
oforil the hand-mill iu which the grain is ground has its handle 
HMared \vitii sandal paint and a midlml Vanguciiia spinosa nut and 
■onie pixn or betel-Ieavea and beteluuts wi-a]>peu in a piece of new red 
clothare tied to it. Then seven suhiigans tl^t is married women who 
luTe never lost a hubband, sit to giind the grain and into the flOur iraur 

'Tho dctaila arc : Betrnihai Cha.'xia, 















F'm T.. 









Ri, lU. 




111. It". 





Cl3ll,e« ... 



30 an 
10 ai 
30, so 










Total ., 





im 3» 





(a) ^mc of tho p-iornt mra t>>rr.iw Juuttii tit nDinotiiiiof llir lirlili'ffMom'a 
fcint up rmc o[ her unuimcuL'. 
- Kach holiday bai ite art giiU. In ciioli of thu dl days tliu >niui eeuAg a HOiif o 
]<)Ir of Iwijjlea and tUti givl a tarli.'ui or cu&t. Uii tlic shahbiiriit tliey both eoin 
Arewoika, and if a holiday falls in tin- rainy seasuii tbu tti'ide);nKiiii Bonds woodviisLoc 
nith liWer pog* aiul silwr bi-lk. In Ramaxdn sonic canfully cooki^ dishc« an< 
dntt^i pBH bctwMU tbem. 





L-laritioJ butter or ei-sainc ov jasmin oil. When tiie I'lmtna 
lienua leavee arc ground in the Bume way. A Eqnarc iliapraD; 
on the floor vnWi rice and a )^tooI is set in the square. The 
bridegroom in a suit o£ bsr or his oldest flutlioj dyed yelli 
forth aud Heated on the stool. The vlalna, amidst the 
women either the relatioua o£ Lho family or hired female muEici 
rubbed all over the Ijody and henna is applied to the hands ai 
In nibbing on the ujEmutic eauh of the ^evon matron^ tolccs hi 
yho puts a piece of candied eugar into the bride or bridcgoom's 
throws a handful of rice over the bride or bridegroom's head, pa; 
mustard seed seven times over the biido or bridegroum's boi ^_ 
takes on beriielf the ill-luck or ha!aa o£ the briile or bridegrocm: 
cracking the joints of her fingers across her temples. Finally 
liasscB a pice or more ovor the bride or brid^i'oom, bands the 
to the nmsicians if hired or lays it at the foot of the Etool to be 
in charity and retii'es. When all seven matrons have performei 
task a knife dagger or other ;;harp iron instrument and a 
are handed to the bride or bridegroom which ahp or lie is to be i 
to keep till the bath on the marriage day. During these daya 
keep off the evil eye, a bi-acelet or a garland -of gold must also 
worn. Seven songs culled /tiiws or charms sung by ilontntg or hii 
female singers before the julwah or unveiling of the bride 
presence of the bridegroom which form a portion of the 
ceremony are suA. to ])os£css special anti-magic and sjiirit-power, 
the bride bo spirit-possesKeil to the slightest extent the sound o' 
toiMs makei the spirit instiiDtly declare itself. When the bride-^ 
eomed songs arc agaiu snug and hij height i-* measured by an 
number of red and white braids. These braids arc woven into a ) 
cord which is uecd by the bride as her trouser string. The bride 
bridegroom's houses are put in onler, pamted or whitewashed, 
outside of each house is built a booth or hall sometimes very sple 
>vith gilt pillars friezes acd cornices and hung with glass-Iamjra 
pictures. The first post of the booth is drl\-en into the ground 
the point has been mblcd with sandal oil and enveloped with a _ 
of new red muslin in which are wrapped betalnuts betol-Ieavra 
the Uieky wedding uiid/ial nut Vanguieria spinosa. A cocoanut 
broken and the kernel distributed among the workmen who built 
booth and the members of the family. As the whole house is giva 
over to the women thin liall is for the time the men's room. For so 
days before the marriage, musieians are lured to play in front of J 
hoirse. This is a time of great merry-making. One day, oat^e __ 
the house for men and insid& for women, earthen vessels are fiOd 
with the red and yellow colours used m dyeing cloth. In the eveoilrit 
the men among themselvei and the women among themselves e«w 
with a little jar full of culour, chasing and waj'Iaying, cover 
another with the dye. At snob timei from Rs. 5 to lis. 20 or at moal 
Rs. aO of colour is usetl. One amusement for the women during 1l 
days before a marriage is the twisiuig kiu/tting and tying of ailW 
rings mto silk and gold thread wrUthuiif iauffita. Of these one I 
given to the bride and the other to the bridcgroonj, and after marriajS 
each has to unravel the knots and twists ia the othei-'s bracelet. 

& ■ 



the evening o£ the marriage day, the bridegroom's i^irty seiid to the Chapter VI] 
bride's with a procession of children in carriages and on horseback Custcms. 

with music and led horses^ a band of hire<l women and servants carrying 
tt many as two hmidred or more eailhen \)oU i>ainted in gold and green Mabeugb. 

filled with sweetmeats and dried fiuit, and trays with dresses.* On 
mssi the children are seated in the marriage hall or shed . with the 
men and are treated with shcrbaf, each of the little guests dropping 
silver coins the smallest of which is a two-anna piece into the cnp or 
SMcer in acknowledgment of the trouble of the server who is often 
either a poor or juvenile relation of the bride. In her room the bride 
is bathea by the women of her family, clothed in new robes^ and decked 
in some of the jewels. Then with trays refilled Vith clothes for the 
brld^room, with henna vienhdi and with the wife's chattels y^^e'^r/ the 
company goes back to the bridegroom's. On their return the bride- 
groom is dressed in his wedding clothes, and the furniture of what 
in to be his room is set in order. At nightfall, an occasion of much 
merriment^ the sister of the bride comes to apply the henna to the 
bridegroom's hand. Orx one side of a screen or partition sits th>3 lady 
and on the other the bridegroom and some of his friends. Only the 
brid^room's hand should be passed under the screen. But instead of 
this many hands are thrust through, and the lady has to trust to her 
vnt to choose the hand she should punish by pinching and the hand 
she should adorn with henna. Her mistakes are greeted with much 
laughter, and when in the end she paints the bridegroom's little finger 
with henna she receives a present of Rs, 5 to Bs. 10. When this play 
is over, the bridegroom's guests sit listening to dancing girls and 
buffoons bhdnds or to a company of Arab Nativity hynm-singers 
called MauHdids. Mauitida that is Muhammad-mas carols are 
gradually displacing dancing girls and bufEoons. At the close of the 
'niaulud cofEee, warm sweet-milk in small cotiec cups, and sweets or 
SQgarcakes called batdsAds are distributed to singers and hearers. 

About ten, the time comes for the bridegroom to fetch the bride. 
The bridegroom is clothed in a se/ira or flower- sheet fastened round 
Iris head by a string which the father ties with thankful heart 
that to him has been granted the wish of every Indian Musalmdn ; 
Hay I live to tie my son's se/ira knot. Then the father or some 
other male rdation lifts the bridegroom on a horse, and vnth much 
music and followed by all his friends, he stai-ts for the bride's.^ 
As ho passes under her window the bride lets fall on the bridegroom 
some grains of rice. He is led before the door of the house, and is 
handed a cup of sugared-water by his brother-in-law to whom in 

' This proceision is called the bari or st^ehak that is tho present. 

^Jahez or paraphemalia includes clothes, jewels, furniture and ornaments for a 
lady's ntting room and bedroom and a set of cooking vessels. This continues to be 
the wife's property, and has to be returned to licr in case of divorce* 

' Both iu sonth and north Gujar&t, among the rich, before tho bridegroom's horso is 
carried a miniatarc garden hUdiy a three- sided frame-work of coloured paper with 
flofwers and loavet cut in tinsel or talc. Though some of these models are very 
elaborate, costing Ks. 50 to Ks. 300, they are made only tp amuse the crowd, one of 
whom, before the processionfeaches the bride's houscj generally manages to eeize the 
fraad, and the reit icrambling for bits of it tear the whole to shro/?. 





retitm he gives Its. 5 to Ue. 10. The women of Hic brldcgroo 
ramily and the wivca ot his chieE frionds follow the profession in i ' 
i-iirriajjea, Oi^he;r arrival at the bride' i* they reLire to the I 
■luartera, wliere, till the bridegroom is called in to see the bride, i 
are entertained by women singers domiiii. When the bridegrt 
comes, thocc who do not apiiear before him, retire. The men of 
bridogWKim's party when tliey arrive, seat themselves in the bri{^ 
lighted marriage hall, the bndegroom'tt i)arty ranged on one side 
the bride'e on the otlier. In the siiaoe between are three scats ; < 
front o£ his party for the bridegroom, one in front of the 1 
party for her agents, and tho third between the two for tiic regisl 
the KiUi or his doputj. '1 ht bridegroom if very young is earricd i 
;^ru^vn is led to his seat and the bride'e agents find their way to th 
Then the registrar, seating- himself, asks the bride's agents wh» 
she, witha certain portion or miAcr,^ aecepts so and so as her hush 
1£ told ahc will have him, he tabes tho declaration of two i 
witnes.:e6. He then, making the biidegroom repeat the creed, [ 
Iiim the same question. The proceedings are recorded, and tlio g 
raising their hands offer the marriage thank^ving. When the ( 
niouy is over, the registrar reci:ivcs a shawl dud Us. 5 his fee, 
leaves the house taking his shore n£ the marriage sugarcaudy, trayl 
of whieh are distributed among all present. The hired i 
who so far have been silent owing to the pi^esenee of the rejiroionta 
of tlio law of Isldm strike irii a loud discordant pcal.^ Tlien, till 
bridcE^roum ie called to receiyo his bride, the men pa£s their tita 
liatemng to hired dancers and singers. "VVhen the husband is c" 
a dancing girl stepping backwards singiugand keeping time by b 
iiim with ttoiver twigs, slowly leads the bridegroom into the 1 
(luartera. Here she hands him over to tho tlomnii or female musia 
who in the same way lead him to a seat. On h's wai 
the bridegroom ie jealously guarded by his sisters or other near relat 
from the onslaughts of the younger sistera or relatives of the bride 
liang about nnobserved, and if they get an opjiortunity dart on 
bridegroom and if Ms female relatives ai'e not on the alert wriD| 
ears immercifully, Soon the bride, veiled and arrayed in her wcc 
garment, is cariied in by one of her relations and seated beforo 
bridegroom, and a set ot ceremonies,* in which the rest of the i' 

' Tliongli tho ridi sonictiiiiQB givu more, tbf porlion or vitker is uonerftlly ft] 
Its. 17 LliB doMfcr ot FiLtimaJi the Prophet's favourite ditoglitcr, or at Bs. 760, (bai 
u[ the Prophet's irif a Aiahali, AmQiig the ricli ftnd Lhn muldlc clow the nU 
portion of a girl U 'nlint is legally tcrmi^ the mtheri mint or Lha portion of liei 
that is the girl'g grsailuiathcr ftonts and BiBtcra, 

* With the fer ia nt«i clutrgcil ii mobqucfec of Ita> 1), wLicVi govt to tUe |ieiM 
■trvosM tlie warden of the mosque In the atccct where the bride lives. 

' Id north (injari^t the Uiisliaiiil walk'i alone, and t!tU ut five or tix ia the at 
insteKduf about Ihn^i- ur fotir in vIk' Lifuriiooii, 

'' TLi'iic seem tu III; till.' tiuiiii'iiiii- -uviivul of tbi: euUu|; lugetlier farin of nuu 
The hrido, who sliouhl ii"i '.■liiiiiiiril, nuiiu uambclc, is liy one of the inuelciani 
"nhcrliniiil j inin- il Mi^..i..[iinli,«nnepuiiiulediiweet.liriail,«riiVliy«U4« 

lier hnlid ia > 
her hand is i 


r diffiTviit fiituis wUh much u 

uent g 



puses, arc begun. Afc tlawn t!ie bntlcgroom is for tlio first time Bhown 
OBwifa's face in n mirror^ and from n Kura'in placed Ijetwecn tliem 
ihecliapter of Peace is read. This is the sigii that the time lias come 
fiiT tlie Iride to leave ber father's house. 

The Cost of a weJding is, in tlic case of the rich, for the bride- 
gwom'B father Rs. 30liO to Ih. 400(^ and for the bride's father 
Hf. 1600 to Rs, 3000 ; in the case of a middle dass family for the 
IftdfWTOoni Its. i:'50 to lis. 2250, aud for the bride l!s, 700 to 
H», iL'od ; in the case of ft i>oor family for the bridegroom He. 400 to 
Bb, 8uO and for the bride Kb. 150 to Ks. 800.' After the marriajre 
the husband with liis wife and family jiass soma days In a yardcn- 
hoiife Bpending their time in amusements aud siuging. 

On each ofthe fiiTst four FriOayB or c/tdr jumiigig after marriage, the 
bride ami bridegroom are a^kod to dine at the bride'fi father's lionse, 
Oo the first and perhaps the eecond FHday some of the bridegroom's 
friende and relatioQB, both men and women, are askeil. The cost of 
Mdv of ihese feaste varies from Ks. 20 t<j Rs. 60 for a rich man ; 
Rg. 10 to Us. 20 for a middle o'asa man ; and from Rf. o to Rs, 10 
for a poor man. In north (hijarat the young couple stay from the 
ttnung of a Thnrsilay to the following evening. In the south they go 
Oft the Friday evening and generally leave next morning. Much is 
ttooght of these Friday dinner?, and if they are not given, a man 
ttldom ^■^sitn his Eat he r-in -law's house. So too, after marriage, the 
tditives of the hride-^i-ooin and the bride do not Wsit each other till 
skH party has once formally invited the other. 


llarfiagi CiargM. 

tlwpflKttnof DOTtliGnjUiji&t diffiTs frmn thia as, on th.' diy after iii^rr'uig.', thi 
htide'* fatW lina to Uaai tbt' bridi'tfoon nod bis family ti&d friends. 


: tbe optoa at the haelsnd. Of the tlire« { 

divorce, two we eaaily ncalM^tnt id tbe tliinl, wliich isoJle 
fereicr (tijn'a, wben tiw wocd <£rwce is repeated tliree ^veni i 
it Is final lUtil the «i& ka; murleJ aoA h afraiii free. AfUf di< 
» womaa cuioot nmrr Cor three moDt^s, called tlie iilJal or 
ilnrlng which the hn^bantl i-f boaDil to maiDtBin her.' 

"ttmi Aenih mar not attw^k him una\rans, or in a foreign ha 
tbe wiih of every Mnhammwlan. To one oo the poiut o( ilatl 
cba^itef of tbe KuRuui, telliDP o( death and the ^lorioiiK fnture c( 
trne believer, is read, tbe creea utd prayer for forgiveaees arc itfm 
and a few liewb ot honej- are dropped loto the month,' I 
death the eves and moath are closed, the IxmIj- is laid on a m 
platfann, carefnlly washed' and perfioaeil, atid ooverei! wit 
sceute'l shrnud of TChJt« cloth. For n wotnatk to dio iu tlie eva 
h n hojiefa! sign of her future forgiveness. She has lived witlLi 
veil and w'>ib*a the veil she goes to her Maker. It is well to ^ 
a TlmrsJay or a Friday or any day iix the month of KamMfii 
on any other holiday. Death oa a Wcdae.^y is imhicky. I 
deaths take plai-e in the family which loses one of its memlK;:? < 
Wednesday. If the death happens at night 'the Ixuly i^ not ti 
away till dawn. Otherwise, so soon as it i « shronded and the ffi 
bave taken their Inet look,* amon<^ the wail nf the women' i 
wlKiinstay Itehiud, the body is laid on the hier," lifted on the beai 
sbmildeis, and home away, the company of men raising fat 

I IKtum U noeh ku frcd; renortcd to hj tlie Indian Miualmin tlun hj Vu 
ytaiaa^U u») Lot-tpnipcred co-religionlit of tha Wili/iiali or tWo enMneth 
awl taith u be et.v1fs Aralia Pen<i> Tatiey nnd AigktnisUQ. The lepnffu 
diTMM to iIm ipirit of Uikm U provoil both b; Uu Kiuaiu and the fiadn 
Knnln l>y bcdgir.g it TuanA *tth mnuinemUe and cnmplicited diffieuHM* kM 
divoicc aa hani ot obtainuient ■■ it ia cuy i>f avoiilaoce or alirogatioii. Tbenul 
' ■ ■ Station Km no ii ' 
I oppottanity o 
-'-' - "WhM 
_ - „ . , Ainong the i 

ctassct of G njarit HoialniAna divorce i> roTo and both the pattiei to il are look* 
with oppTottriiim. A divorcci SaJs it hnrd to marry suitkblya second tinw ind a 
nncc divonad trios m far lu the can t > shnn nutrimony for ths i«st of hor lit* 
■rrouiid <if tUc liiirady xeoinah pnitprli: S^ biutalue is iaram ihtiin iadt 
chuigliift till- bod Fate ouinot be allcroL Tho lUiIike almost loathing with w. 
Indian MuHilnUn looki upon divorce 'i» so ftreiit tbnt ouo of the OiDngiMt of Ui 
li: HAJ>bc who li!i» given me tirtli be thrico divorced ormay my wife be dlron 

- The dentil agDnyis supposed to be tUvfinal temptation of the arcb-fienii,i*lu 

the thititj Boul M it Icavoa the bmly with tho lurinj{ light of a cup of hum 

tho *o"l ''ll' '"ito tbo snare the cii^ is dasbed away au.t the tempter (ti<ap)KBn. 

TUiinis unlikctheSliiahs uae «iinn wsterto «Mh Ihedaul. In ttds wi 

tiT iuiabc bavea aw boiled. 

Avhon tlic dwiaeed U the head of a family hn widow la bronahl in, drft«ed 
Viiost rob«, to Uto a Inat look at her lord. A husband U not allowed I« lool 

■^TThe'^'aUing of women U agiUurt the order of tbo Prophet. In R..r«l aa«1 
it i.pmrliicdMily smoiigtbo i*or. In nortb Oujarit it w ooinmoii among ^ 

"SXf *S««(-^JU arc u.e.1 onl, in sonlj. Guj^rtlt, in the norlU tbe Wyl 

t ItieuBUsuftltoln-y macolhn. , ^. T 

' ^."ii. 1 J.™I- flw never liircd wcu, alway. the neareg; ft,Ution« ami tMcoA 

^! ^TZrX fonernl of a inarrlod w,m«n, Uw.. nnW be «^ 

'^£i«^yX^'^"^ i< not xllowcd to join in earrjb.g the Uer. 


Iii Udia illalldk Tbere is no Gcd but AlUh, and trained singers 
ehMting eolemn hymua. Over the bier four bearers carry a piece o£ 
Ifftwade called the canopy shamidniih.^ Upon the bier is a ehawl, 
g«en or other dark colour for men and red for women. The grave is 
lilber whei-e the dead has asked to be buried or in the family burial 
pound. At the raosqnc the bier is set down in the outer court, the 
moomers waeh, and, standing in a row, repeat the funeral prayer 
i\lah-o-Akbar God is great. They move to the ready dug grave,* 
bjing the boily in it, the head to the north and leaning on tlio right 
flcosotliatthefaceturnBtowards Makkah. Theylayclods of cotiEecrat- 
a] earth^ cloao to the body, and the mourners fill the grave repeating 
lie verse of the Kuraan, Of earth We made you,* to earth We return 
yoD.and from earth will raise yon on Ihs resurrection day. They retire 
Jo the house of mouroin" and standing at the door repeat a prayer for 
tlie soul of the dead, and all but near relativea and friends who stay 
Iodine, goto their homes. The duty of helping at funerals and of 
praying for the souls of the dead is solemnly enjoined on all Musalmiins 
Mfl is carefully observed by them. Though a/arj that is a divine behest, 
It is also a fan-i-kifiigah or duty which if attended to by a sufficient 
Bumher of the Faitfifm diei not demand the prcieiicc of all. Among 
tlia rich the clothes of the dead are given in charity and grain is 
distriliutsil.* Till the third day no food is cool;&l in the house o£ 
mDumiog. At AhmediibAd !he fi'ienjs and relafciona of the deceased 
Wid rcady-eookoil dinnere. lu south Gujardt dinners called bhdlhi 
m cooketl at the house of mo'-iruinp at the expense of near relations. 
On tile morning of the third day after a death a feast called Zidrat is 
lidJ, A large company of relations fi'ieads and others meet in the 
tnesquc where each of them, reading from small books a chapter of tho 
Kuraan, finish it with a prayer that the merit of the act may pass to 
tte Boul of the deceased. A sermon viaaz is then preached by a Maulvi. 
After tlie eormon a tray full of flowere and a vessel with a sweet- 
Mnelling mixture and oil in a small metal or porcelain cup is passed 
iinong the guests. Each gnest as the tray passes picks a flower and 
drops it into the vessel and the whole is poured over the grave. Bweot- 
meate or liaf'isAan are distributed and the friends present shawls to the 

[son or sons of the deceasod, and before leaving the mosque and again 
on arrival before the house of tho deceased, prayers arc offered for hia 
aoTil. After this among the rich and some of the middle class a 
dinner is given on as grand asoiileas a wedding dinner. A man may 
without disgrace avoid this third dayfeast.^ But on the fortieth day, 

' A linriiil ot this kind tak«s place onlj ill tlrn ciae i>t tho I'lch and a f^'W of tlw 

mliMlc cla». 

' Tlic grivo mny bo ia one ot three fonn], Tlia moit cominon is n pit whews the body 

, li nlued luid earth thrown in. The othor is a hollow forracd by pl»iik« placod 

a4ant. Tho third H a hole ofioft yiohling mud into which tho body i» gently left to 

lliJ:. CofGai alw are niecl, but only by tlie wry ricli. 

I ' ThU cnitli ii ooni«crftto-l by rcaiUnB and breathing nver it sorao ot tbo Uat cliap- 

timotihc Koirtn. , , ., 

. * Norh o( tho Mahi tho grain is diatribalod at thj hoiiii o[ moaraing cind in tho 
K^itii ftl the woBqno. 

* At Al!™edlb.-ld tlie e"** diimoc is t'l^t 
null irainbjr of friends aJd Iwggnn only a 

Chapter Till 

n tho fortieth diy. On the lliird lUy a 


Bhaptw Tin- the Coiutli month, tbe siitti month, tlie ninth month, and the lafit lUj 
Cmtomi. of the ^^^ J''^'' he must give choice dinners,' Under ordinary circum* 

stances the expeuics conQccte<l with the death o£ a leading member of 
a family aro, among the rich from Es. 600 to lis. 1260, among the 
middle class from Rs, 300 to Re. 600, and among the poor from 
Rb. 150 to Es. 300/ 
UouKWtto. The only form of mourning laid down by Muhammadan law is, 

" in the case of the death of the head of a house, the strict seclnaon 

of hi3 widow. This last* for four montha and ten days and during 
that time the widow, unlees she is forced to do so, never loaves the 
house. Besides this strictly Muhammadan observance, other cuitomi 
have been adopted trom the Hindus. As soon as life is gone, the 
mother and the widow of the dead break their Ijangles. The mother 
may get new bangles but except when they are of gold or silver the 
widow, unless she marries, never again wears bracelets or a nosering. 
In south Gujardt the women of the poorer classes, and in the north all 
except those of Amb families or of families ontortainiag strait religious 
opinions wail in Hindu fashion. In the north, too, when a woman first 
visits the widow, on seating herself she bursts into a wail. 'J'he chief 
mourner joins in the cry keeping it up until she is soothed by her friend. 
This custom is known as the munh dhiinkna or face-hiding. The shortest 
term of mourning is six months. For the first forty days the rooms 
are stripped of their furniture, cots cushions and pillows are put out of 
eight, and all members of the household sleep on the bare ground and 
no food is cooked in the house. During the whole six months no 
holiday is observed, no gaieties attended, and no music heard. 
At the end comes the sog uthana lyt grief-lifting, when some friend 
aeks the family to visit him. For his nearest relations a man for 

'Xhiiia no modern railing:. Ovington (*,D. lOSQ) iiys tlio Mitglinls ftra very profoM 
In thair tunoral eipcnst'a, lavishing away st immoderate coat to their frioodt' memoty 
onongh to link s rich fortune, Voyaira to Snrat, B45. 1 


Abouxt, I 






Prom 1 To 

F««. 1 To 



Rs. ■. 

Ql^D iD Dh^rily .„ 








Toul ... 

Bsa 8 


K8 » 

Mi . 

"" ^ 

^ » 

Borne very rich familiei (or as long ai ten veari givn ysarly dinni'ii Mch dbiHC 
entmB »bout Its. G60, Kodc of these cipeniei except tbo.actaal burial cbarsei an 
umationcd by MahkiDinadaQ law. 



about a year wears a nbite turban.' IE young a widow wears Bome 
dark coloured dress, iE old she wears white but never either yellow or 
red. In Surat widows often marry agaiu ; in Broach remarriage is less 
common ; and north of the Mahi the practice is unusual, 

The pilgrinaage or kaj to Makkah and Madinah ia one of the five 
duties enjoined by Muslim law.' 

A pilgrimage to Makkah and Madinah if lie he a Sunni, and to Makkah 
Madinah and Xarbala in Ir&k if he be a Shiih, costs a well-to-do 
Uusalman about Hs. 2000.* But many go wko cannot spend as much 
as this and a host of poor men hazard their lives in the attempt. On 
tlieir return their friends travel as far as Bombay to welcome them, 
and the pilgrims distribute among thorn dried fruit from the holy 
place and water from Zam:am, the well of the Kaaba, sometimes even 
the dust of Makkah kept with care and believed to cure diseases. 


' In Sunt tliii rale u not ftlwkji k«pt. 

>The liTedalici are : (1) to belieTe in the principal Un«(i of tliB faJth, (2) to obierta 
tbe five (tuty pn^erg, (3) to keep the faits dnrin)* thu month oF Samatdn, (4) to nuka 
the pilgnin«Ke ti> ftUkkah, ind (5) to gice almi :akdl. Of tbvM the first tbm ue 
bindinK on mil, tbe fonrth and fifth only on the well-to-do. 

* Among the t^unni truling; Bohorii a man who hsg rEturntd from the iaj mm 
tiM Anb drc^i during the rciit of his life. Among the CbnndailigBTa » pilgTlm oa hit 
return ii fed at the cxpeaie of tbe eoDmunlt} for three d»;* »ud f or fire or rii dftjB 
man by hi* leUtioiu. 


FlUD t'FOltTS, 





.MtrsALM^N aiDuEesientG may be brouglit under the three heads 
outdoor cxerciEe, indoor games, and musie. Pew Mnsalmiine bav 
leisure or likinft for field Bporta. Those wha have, chase deereit! 
with dc^s or with the hunting paid. Horse exercise was once tbl 
favouiitf pastime.' But the love o£ riding has of late years growli 
less and tlie former practice of deer-hunting with speais has been ^vflt 
up. The only special horse esei'cise ia brant^ehing the bivloti 
bhvneli, a fivc-fect long wooden pole the cuds of leather stuffed w] 
wool, Bullock-i-acing in light carriages, and betting on figl 
between rams, cocks, quails, end the red wax bills or aMrkk . arc faTO«i 

The cveuiiig before dinner is the time for athletic exerciEe. 
place is the gymnaeium tcidlim,^ under a master uslad, generallj 
retired eoldier.' The eserci&ce are of two kinds the greater and the 1( 
Of the greater there are three, haithak, sitting on the ground and rw 
with aHpribg; dand, stretchingthebody face-down nearly paraUet to! 
ground, supporting its weight ou the hands and toes and altemab 
etroightening the arms and letting the chest drop between them j i 
third ia dashing the body on the soft dust of the arena. Clubs muijdt 
generally of blaokwood and weighing from half a pound to teu poon 
are also much used, and the luuscIcb strengthened by pulling chains i 
climbing polished poles malkham. Of contests of skill and streiij 
are the exercise with the jpata or long sword, with the lakadi or sir^ 
stick, and another kind of fencing called phangatka, the stick qui^^ 
with cotton covered with leather and the left hand protected by a Itl 
leather shield. The fa\'ourite trial of skill is wrestling, he winning * 
first makes his rival's back touch the ground. 

< A good linne cohts lis. TOO to Rs. 1000. The f&voaritc kind of horso If 
Cliottla or El^lliuwAr. Black and dun ore tlie pit rolours and to utcral point* a 
the He of the berae's hair much Height ia given. For a taddla horse tTolUog i* tho 
k bxd pace. The laTourite itcps arc the amfalo rihici/l, the eancol lamgitri "'" 
the monkof-etup, and tlie pironelte fhlrkdna. To teach a harae these paeei a jodnj^l 
chilvk lavdr is paid from Rb. 10 to Id- 50. Jk 

' QjmTiaaiiimi arc found only in Urgo Gujarat towns. TtierD U oae in Ahmedtbt^ 
ope in Broach, and many in liarodo. Till quite lately (a.d.1879-80) tlioro were sli la 
b*iirat, great rivals with yearly e Bin petition!. 

' TiiB muter ii paid by an entrance fee, or if his pupil ij rieh by a monthly prccent, 
■ad by Kifta when bis pupil leame the ase of a new weapon, and when bo gets morriad. 
The coarter also e»rni something hj selling tbe tight short-drawers aud wiasbbanda woB' 
by wrastUtf. •' 



nuloor games the chief arc chess sfiairavj,^ earda gatijifah'- lioih 
t and European gamea, and cAoffanr oryjrtp//Mi, the Iiuiia.i back- 
ion.* The favourite gamc3 o£ boys are kitofljmg,* marhlca, and 

Chatter IZ. 


^Pnarily plavcd thtsa diSnt frum tlie EumpcQii game only in out or two 
Rbeic are that onl; the panrs uf tbe king qoecn and caitlca ran ot itart- 
m tiro tqiiarci; Lliai tlie lint movo of tlio king, whon not nadcr check, may 
Mm& as a knight's more ; that only the king's and queen's pairna can beconis 
) ; and tliBt, if it jtoeg on till only lire pieces arc left, the gnmc ia dniwn. As 
a. \* naiBier tluui Lhc Knr(ip«aii game. Eftcli iilnjei lias KTcral frienda to back 
dcTiTymDve is the tnhject of stormy dinfuswun. Two olhir v»riaUc» ut the 
the Finiaa and the Hindu, differ mucli from tlie onljiiar^ chrsi. Tbu Fnaian 
a tailed nrrf/a, played with more tqusrca sud piecta. The xnrihdii or Hindu 
ltd the oniinary l>o:ird anil men, hot vitb the nile thnt no covered piece can be 

^MJTO game is played by IhrM playcri wilh ei^'lit suits of round cards, ttvelve 
H^Kh (oit tint is thirty'two cards t« citch player. Of the eight snita 
^■njor and four minor. The major are the ercnn laj, tbe while la/nl with 
^ppnEcnUug the n.oon, the elavu ^tii/i/m, i^ml the tword thamiher, Tlie 
H^we bell ehaag, the red i\:rkh with a mark repmsenling tlio ann, the 
^BOte Mrai, ncd IhC cake kumdth. In the major Baits the Tnlnes of the cards 
;ttg Grat, Tntir Hcond, ten third, nine fourth, and bo on ace Lcing lowest. In the 
■nitathe values aro,*liiTig, catiV, ace, two, tliree, and so on ten bwng lowest. 
tjor cards of a anit arc Immps. By day the ut of tbe sun arc the itupcrinr 
ly night tbMe of tiio moon. The pcrfon playing tlie son unay bo paid in eaids 
ler ntscciplioD, giving away the lowest ones. Before playing the cards are 
d and then dealt. Ue who liolds the sdd starti the game in the day and the 
of tbe moon leads at nigbt. The game of gaiijifah ia said to bare been incented 
elerer minister of an sncieot king. The king hail temporarily lost bis kingdom 
u living in concealment with his vaxSr atiA nsed tfi fall into reveries, white hi* 
mechanically anil tUonghtlcssly caught tho flies in which the wretched place of 
cfoge alMaoded. Catching the (ty -with onu hand the king nscd to plaek flrst ona 
IB other wing of the fly and throw it awaj ■ Tho thonghtlal easlr unwilling to see 
yal but mifoitnnate mastir falling into eo mean u habit guesseil that its canac 
iDt of occapatlon fur the brain and tho hands. He set to work to conttivo a 
nt employment for hand aud head and ganjifak rcqoiring the cards to be held in 
kud and manipnlated by Uio fingers, while the braiu haa also enough of occapa- 
u the reaalt. 

echi*f difference between o^autar and jiacMii is that in ela u to f tho scoring; is 
■t} throwing three hand dice and in pachisi by thToning six or aercn hoteri or 
a moneta shells, Chamar or the four-limbed, takes its name from tho oiosi- 
lape of tha boenl. FachUi or twenty-five is so called becanso throrring with six 
twenty-five igthe highest possible score. Chautar b played by men chiefly cf the 
cIac8es,aadpacA(Wby women and by tbe poor. The pame is played either by font 
s with fonr counters each, or by two pliyen with eight coantors each. In shape 
aid is like a cross of four rectangles, the narroTr sidel placed so aa to tnclosu a 
1 space square in shape. Eneh rectangle is marked liko a chesiboard eight 
a iODg and three broad. Starting one by oua from tha middle lino of his own 
gle and from the Eqoaro next the central ^paoo, the player sends his foai connters 
the outer row of squares till they work back to the starting point, Thodifliculty 
ias at bBckjnmman tbe [pieces may nnleai protected bo taken np by the other 
' and have to begin again. Tho game go(s on till three of the pbiyura aacceed in 
ig their meu round the board. 

beflying hankaicira or palling tidi/aa is not only a boy's game but men of all agei 
g in it with great ec^t. The kite of varying size and colour ii sqnare and tailless, 
^ring is the common English sewing thn«d doubled or tripled stceiigtlielied with 
. and lometimeBsiied witli powdered gluB^. ThisBbftrp thread is usid in kite 
, when each of two fliers tries to entangle and cut bis nval's string. Tlie price of a. 
kit« TOiic* from two annoa to eight nnnai and the thread from four annns to two 
I tho hiiudred yards. It often happens that a truaut kite tlie string of which has 
mnd by ita rival ia run after and scrambled for by a number of yoongsters when 
taAte the fortune to capture it is immediately pounced apon by other boys who 
W^ tnrnonhip aniKn their endeavour to dispoBSoas him of it a free fight eumoa 
HHe is torn to pieces. IhiH is kiteflyer's law. 


CliaptBt IZ. 




Among the well-to-do women only have leiBurc £or amu^ng tlusn 
selvefl. Thoee women who have leisure pay and receive visits, an 
except at Alimcdilbiid play at cards and backgaminoD and some in sout 
Gujariit arc clover at chess. GirU have their dolls to look afte^ 
sometimeg in ricli families marrying them with great pomp at the co 
of ten to a hundred rupees. They also play hunt the slipper dm 
tSichdvui, hliudmau'e buff andki-chuhi literally the blindmouse, ai 
pkudadi merry-roundere in which two girls clasp hands and staudinf 
faoc to face whirl round quickly till one of the whirlera ie tired. 

In spite of the Prophet's dJElike of music and the feeling of disgra 
which attaches to its practice, in alidades of Gujarat Mosalm^ns bo 
men, and, except in Ahmodabdd, women are to be found wiUi tM 
and skill in music' Among the middle and upper classee amate 
musicians learn the guitar, and though singing is held dishonourah! 
some men among the upper and middle classes have fiue and w 
trained voices and sing in privato or before one or two friends. Thi 
Bonga arc of three kinds, Hindi love songs, sentimental songs 
Uindustdni, and odes sometimes in Persian. Some of the higher an 
many of tlie lower classes play the guitar. The women of the liigher 
classes seldom learn cither to sing or to play. But among the middle 
and lower ordciG, on occasions of joy they ask some of their friends to 
come and together sing Uindust/ini and Hindi songs and sonnets, one 
of them generally accompanying on the drum dkoL 

Of the stage there is little to say. Though fond of seoing Hii 
plays, Gujar&t Musalmdns never themselves act. 

Both among men and women a oonsiderablc share of their leisi 
is passed in reading or heanng books i-cad. The books they re 
partly from choice and partly because Hindustani books of any ot! 
kind are very scarce, are love stories in jirose and verse. Alany 
ihese books arc not such ^s, according to Musalmsln ideas, women sboi 
read, and in most families are as far as poesible kept out of tl., 
women's quarters. Others they are allowed to have, either themseUiH 
reading them or hearing them read by some well educated 

> Beaidci the dsncin^ Wumen, t1ic bnffOonB hliditdi, anil the singing men who c(nH 
chieSy from Upptr India then are two ipccial clas«cs of trained Hui»laii'a muricUaii 
Theie am the dommi who piny the dhol, u kind of drum ■nd eymbali, well bi-luT«l 
women wlio are admitted into the Isdiei' qnarten. The other clui nn? the ditogbtra 
of poor famlliei placed by their parents in aomc neb haunhold. These ^A\ cAlled 
gi/gan or Hlngera nre t&uglit to sing; and to dikncc and aome of them to play tlie vioUn 
and otlien the tambourine. Tboy urc aupportcd b; the tnaBter of tlie Loum getting 
■mall presents ot clothes aiid inonej "besideB food. The; have naw as a class almort 
entirely disappeared in Qujardt. 

*BesidcB religious books, those generally read liy women are verta and prow 
romances such as the MatMnii-]dir-Haia»anA the O-nl-i-BakScli. Of modem books 
oneia found in almoat "oTcry city send *j*, the Jtfi>n(-ii/-fm* or Mirror of Brides, a 
taU in pure Dehli HindusUtni wliich, with moeh force and wit, traceu the lives of tiFo 
eiiten, one ot them edacated the otjior without vdiicatiDQ. Tranalations of KugUib 
standard novels have liecn niotie of late by Uusalmin nehalars and theic arc in great 
demand both in the zenlnah and among th'oae igtiorant oE Englith. 



O? the close brotherly sympathy among all tnie believers enjoinal 
by tlie Knra^Q atid the Prophet this at least remains, that othor thinprs 
beiDg equal, a ^lusalm^n prefers a broth er-Moe!im to a Ilinilu 
or to a Pilrsi. About a.d. 1889 iu south Gujarat Eomo Wahhfibi 
missionaries, hy slow and cautious preaching^ stirred up a keeu 
Mnsalmfin spirit. Many of the people gave up their favourite customs, 
even music at their weddings. But Maulaivi Li&kat Ali, the leader, 
one of the chief 18S7 rebels, was caught, and the movement came to 
an end. The WahliAbi doctrines fell into disfavour, and, though they 
show sigTis of revival, at present (a.d. 1S98) the preference for a 
fdlow-Musa1m&a is suiJ to ho too weak to hold its own when self- 
interest is even slightly at stake. 

At least among the more educated the difEcrence of faith between Stmnis 
uid Shidhs does not prevent friendship or even marriage coaneotionB. 
A Shiitli Buya an unprejudiced be-ladtsui jSunni is half a Shidhj and 
tix Snnni returns the compliment by saying that a Shiih without 
enmity, be-tabarra, against the three diaciplcB of the Prophet, is unless 
■ Bobora, no Shiah. On the other hand not only is there nothing in 
eommon between a Sunni MusaJmila and a. Shiih Bohora, but there is 
' imntual feeling of hatred which the rough lower class Sunni generally 
tikes little pains to hide. In north Gujardt cBpeoJally, the feeling is 
« strong that the Shiilh Bohorils are not looked U|K)n as Muhanimadans, 
la Ahmed^b^l a Sunni Musalmflii will not, if he cau help it, eat or 
4tink with a Shiah Bohora. 

A closer bond than religion, either sameness of descent or of calling, 
auitcB the members of many classes. These for the most part, though 
not in all cases, marry among themselves and form a union yawai with, 
M a mle, a headman mukhi or palel. Each union baa its rules, generally 
Boeial, but sometimes connected with thoir calling. The rules are 
enforced by fines, and from this and other eourees is formed a fund, 
chiefly spent in yearly public feasts, hut also at times used to help 
distressed and destitute members. 

Besides their religious and social unions, all classes of Kliisalmftns 
join for amusement. Among the rich and well-to-do, young men 
commonly agree to meet either in a hired room, or by turnj at 
their own houses, and spend the evening in talking smoking and reading, 
riie poor have their clubs with a president and rules enforced by finea. 
rbey meet on the evenings of certain daysj eaeh in turn entertaining 
the company with tea and playing the drum or ilhol and guitar. In 
iji. 1877 BO keen an interest was felt in the Turko-Russian war that 
ttveral Muharama'lans formed clubs and reading-rooms wb»ire Hindustani 
[)»pera were kept and*read to those who came to listen. 




The want of thrifiand of forethought, which, more than idleneES 
nnfituesa for work, depresses tho luajoi-ity of Hindustani -speak 
Musalmane, is probably in part the result of tboir not knowing how 
road or write either HinJustilni or Gujarnti- AVith most children tl 
book learning bogina with the hismillali ov initiation ceremony, tha 
at the sge of four yeavB four montliB and four daye, and ends i' 
seven with tho hadia or repeating a chapter irqpx tno Eora.^n. i 
this a few of the well-to-do send their childreii to the maiilvi t 
taught to read and write Persian. Bnt anioiig Musalmftna th 
own tcachinfT supplies no practical knowledge of either Hindnstiliu 
Gujardti.' Until lately there was very little special State proviR 
for teaching Hindnstiini. Put within the last ten years (a.d. 1887-1"" 
this branch of education lias made a marked advance The number 
primary nindustini schools has risen from six in a.d. 1806 to E'jrty-eig 
m A.D. 1837. Altogether in a.d. 1866 there wore 377 MusalmdnB i 
the rolla of the Government Urdu schools ol the fire Gujanit distrio 
as against 4102 in 1896-97. 

Though there is no Gujarat HindustAni newspaper,' those publish 
ia Bombay and Lakbnau, especially Bince the Turko-Ilussian fl 
(a.d. 1877), have many Gujardt subscribers. At their mosques a 
public dinners, famine and plague management, taxation, and other top 
are disoassed, and in country places the [wople espeot from their splrita 
guides something of politics us well as of religion. On the whole t 
Gujardt MusalmAn seems fa-rly prosiierous. The Gujarat! speakersi 
well-to-do, and the loug-depi'essed Hindustani speakers are now gainii 
by the introiluetion of steam, factories, and, in the matter of educatiot 
ehow a growing wish to liare their children taught to read and write. 

' Among tUa poor lioys go ti the Mnlla to ba taoglit. Among tbu ritli Imtli boyi 
giris hnvc a tutor akhuad at tllc'J lioiiu'?. All begin to l»rn from ft tpoUilig book < 
BjllaWtH of wools from tho Kurain. When this is done, they btgtn tl]eKnra«B,«p«l 
it Mill liiamiitg tlic n'onla by rote. With the Knrain the book-lenTuirK of ino«t i 
OtbuTK wlio nro sent to the Manivi.lH^a Poni&n, and in ncnnc ciuoa attain iwrfNllW 
it. A very fpwpauon to Arabir, MostgLrUlorini a part of thoKurain, ani un '" 
rlcli arc taught uoodla-work and lowinj;, A feir lulioa nro litCTary, hnvinp n In 
of Ilindiutiui nnil Persian. Amotiit tho dnnghtera of the poor a few lenrn 
Hiniluotinl roRiling nud Writing. But at n tuIl' at fonn a» they cnn li<> oi lu 
time is apciit in house rork. 




(L D. 1«98) 





This Account ol: the Pdrsis of Gnjardt was written by the late Mr. 
Kharshedji Nasarvanji Seervai^ J.F.^ Income Tax Collector^ Bombay^ 
assisted by Mit Bamanji Behramji Patel, J.P., Author of the " Pdrsi 
Prak&sh/' who greatly helped in furnishing materials for the Account. 
The Appendices relating to the Fire Temples and Towers of Silence 
are mainly the contributions of Mr. Patel. 

July 1899. JAMES M. CAMPBELL. 




Thk Piirsi population of Gnjanit is estimated according to tie cansna 
nlA-D.IS91to he 34,411. Of theae 12,757 are in the district of Surat, 
82*3 in Broach, S35 in Ahmeddhdd, 153 in Kaira, 108 in the Panch 
MAhals, I4,{105 in His Highness the Gaekwdr's territory, and 23S0in 
Uve Native States of KacliU (118), Pdlanpur (204), Malu Kdntha (S), 
KittifiwAr (908), Rewa Kantha(3S6), Cambay (137), and the Surat 
' Ae«ncy (^IS)- I'o this mimher are to be added 47,458 in Eonsbay City, 
;, SaSO in the district of Thdna, 2026 in Poona, 14u8 in Kardclil, 2007 
in other British districts, and 131 in the Native States of the Bombay 
PresideQcy. The total strength of Pirsis in the Bombay Presidency is 


There are three periodfi in the history of Gujarat Pfirsis, six hundred 
years uf prosperity from the beginning of the eighth to tho beg^inning 
1 uftbcErarteenthcentnry, acentury of depression (A.D. 1300-1400), and 
I. llout five hundred years of revival and steady progi'ess. According to a 

Etic aoconnt known ae the Kissah-i-SanjSn* after the Arab victories at 
lesia (A.r.i>38) and Nahivand (*.d.641) the kingdom of Persia passed 
' from Shah Yazdezard and the land became deBolato. The faithful and 
their priests, leaving their ganlene halls and palaces, hid themselves in tha 
hills Kir 8 hnndred years. At last as their life in the hills Vfas one of much 
hinlship, the Persians who kept to their old faith moved to the couet 
wd aettled in the city of Onnuz.* After they hail leeu in OrmuB for 
fifteen years the enemies of their faith again troubled the Parsig. A 
learned priett skilful in reading the stars advised them to leave Persia 
Mid seek safety in India.* Following his counsel they launched their 


vitipp of Iriin 

. meanB tlie pecijilB of Piirs or Flra, tbe Bouth-w 

<r Pcnia whoce c&piUI is now IShir^ 

'TUaaBcoiiatwaE written abuut A, D. IGOObyapncBtnamedBclimatiKekoWilS^njitm 
(f Klvtlri. It ii tniulatcd in tbe B. B. R, A. t>. Jour. I. 167 - 191, aoil U the b««u of 
Impittil in Perron's Bketch. Zend Avcata, I, crpxviil, -ccciiiii. 

'The port of OrniTii wai at this time an the mainlui'l. I" the tniddUi of the tenth 
WBtDj Iho Uankal (a.d, 960) [Onsclpy'B Oriental Geography, 1*2) call* It the flmpurium 
nd ehirf lesport of the mercliaoU of Kinaftn. It hwl iDOsquBB and marhet-plncoB tind 
themarhKaCs lived in the anborba. In i..d. 1303 tgeacape the Tartan BouioAritbiaiittlt'd 
Je tbe idand of Jeran about five miles from the mainlanil and called it New Oraiuz 
(Kaleoim's'Fenia. 1. 361 ; Serr's Voyages, VI. 1041, The island soon became a pUcu of 
gntl trade and ander Arab maDageinent grow so rich tliat the saying arose If the earth 
I* a ring Ommz is its jewel. The island was taken by the Portngneso in i.J>. 1503 and 
bsid by them till a,i>. 1632, In that year the PortngneBe were driven out hy the Persians 
tndEnglisK Trade passed to Gombrun OP Bandar Abaa and baa nHTOT rctntaed to OrmnJ. 
' WKlerjfaard layii (Zend Avesta, I. Ti) : It may very well have been the profits of trade 
lot perweution that hrouyht the Varsis to Weatern Indifc The Persian connection with 
od^ WM »eiy old, and for some centnries before the Arab oonquest of Peruait had pnwa 
tij eloM. In mythic timM there tvas the religious oonnection of Zoroaster (not Uler 




S6t!cn I. Ehips, put their wives and childien on l>card, tet eail and fcteerinj 

Vij>\t. Iniiia dropped anchor at the itiland cf Diu on the eonlh ci>a6t of KA 

wfLr. They landed and eettJi/d fornineteenjears. Thin an aged pi 

HiBTCir. reading the slare told them that they niii&t leave Dia and eeek ani 

J,.. ^ ' abode. They started gladly and set sail for Gujarfit. On the way 

tbaii 11.0. ](JDO ; Unug's Euajs. 299) with IndiA &nd tbe Bribnian Tchmgrigl 
whu niu aunt l»<:k tu convert bis cuuntryineii, and Firduoi'i itorj ut prince Imtw 
thd tun of Gnahlaip, who was an keen a be1i(<Ter in Zoroagler that he pi'tHM 
empuror of India to adopt fltv wonUIp (Etliut'a Hiatory. V. 5S8). The Hindu i 
of Uie introdDEtion of Rra-worahipgiing prieata from I'erua into Dwirka in KAl 
[Itcinand's Mimuir .-ur I'^nd^, Httl - 31)7) probabl; belong to the tlxth centoiy i 
■ne<r of the tirewor>liippin)[ MibirAa orOarjjarM and W1iit« Bikuat ICoropan 
dU B. The Gujnr). Tliar« wan also a veiy oarly political coniiratioD id tha 
vonqueulB of I«^<Tth India, which acoordjngtu Peraian writers have been repeaWd 
time tu time sin>e B,c, l'^9 (Troyer'i UajttlaraAgint, II, 411). lu historic tinri 
Panjdh funned pari of the t'orsinn dnminions from ila coDi|at(t by Darioa Hjtf 
about B. c. 6!U till the Utter daya (n.c. 350} of the Arhicnienean dynasty (Kawlli 
Ancient Uoiiaruhiea, IV. 1S3). About the bcginnini; of the Christian e» Kar 
tbe Indo-tjkythian 'rnlct of ibe I'anji'h, from the tire altar on suinc of hia coini, li 
have adopted the rvligiun of the Magi (Laewen in J. B. A.V'or, IX. 456 ; I*rinaep'a 
ou Hiatoric KestBrehoB from Baktrian L'nini, 106). Aa rcganla the aontfa of I 
Ptolemy'a (a.d. ISO) mention of BriCliinAni Magi has been thought to ahow a connl 
with Peiaia. bat the K.inarcse word mag or «on aeemi a idmple and aoS^iont eiplani 
Cloaer ralat ions between India axid Puniadate from the revival of Pvr>ian pom ^ 
the taiBunian kings (A.ti, 2^6 - 6fiO), In the Hfth century the aotnewhat m^is 
tbe Peraian prince BehrAm Goi' (a.d. 4S6j, probably to ask for help in his stm^le 
Ihu White Uun*(\Vilaon'aAriBnaAntiqua, iiH3),hi>niBrriBgi^ with a Uiodu prineen 
according C-) Uinduacconnts, his founding the dynasty of the O-irdhabinkingH, was a 
hundnf intlinNav{Wi1ford,AB. Res. IX. 211); Haaudi'« Prairies d'tir, II. Itll : Bda 
Memoir Snrl'Ind«, 11^1 Ellint'a History, 11, ICS;. lu iHter timet both N.,tlabii 
Just U.i>,6Sl- 5TB) and bis grandson Farvix (A.s. 591 -tiSS) were united bytreal 
by tlie intcrcbangB of rirh preaenta with the mien of India and ISindh (Maimdi'a 
d'Or, tl. 20t). Inconneclion with tbcae treaties it islntereiting to Dote that N*iuhir 
enibusyto Pulikoii II. thernk-raf Bsdilmi in the Southern Haritln Coontry, ij bri 
t-i he the subject of one of the Ajanta cave paiiitlngi), and another of the picloTM ll 

Soiled to be oopied from a portrait of i'arvix and the bpantiful Shirin. (Pergn 
inrgeas" Ajanta Note».92.) Acronlingtoone account, early in the seventh centory 
bndy of Persians landed in Weatvcn India, and from one of their leaden, whom V 
believed to have been a son of Khoani Parvii. the fatnilv of lldepur ia euppoied t< 
■praiig(Gladwiu'a Aiu-I-Atthari. II. SI ; Dr. Hunter iu As. Kea. VI, S; Wilford in ' 
IX. 333 ( I'rinsep in Jour. Bfn. Aa. Soc. IV. B84). Wilfoid held that the Ko 
Brfthmtns were of the same stock. But though their origin i« donbtfal, tlie Kol 
aaths are probably older Bcttlere than the Prirsis. BL»ides by treaties Western 
and Peraia were at this time very closely connected by traile. Kosmas Indikoplent? 
(A.I1. 64S) found the Penians among the chief traders in the Indian Ocean (Uignc's Patio> 
login Curans, Ixuviii. 446 i Yuie'a Cathay. I. cUivii. clxxix.). and hia statement thrt 
the Kalyln Christians (Tule's Cathay, I, cU(.l,) had a Persian Bishop points to cUne 
lulntions between Thina and the Persian Onlf. Shortly after the time ofKosmastbl 
leadership in trade patsod from the Romans to tbe Peruana, and fleeta from India and 
China visited the Persian Quif (Beinaud's Abulfeda, I.-II.— cccUxiiii.-iv.]. It «u 
tbia close connection between Westl^diaand Persiathatin a.d. 63S tH, lS)lcdtheKha)if 
Umar(A.D, 631 -643) to found the city of Basra partly forporposea of trade and putlr 
to prevent the Indian princes sending help to tlie Veraians (Troyer's BajittaraiigiiX 
II. 44D, and Chroniqnv de Tabari, III. 401), and in Itie same year (a.d. 638-63!') prompltd 
the despatch of a Ueet to ravage the ThAna coaBts (Elliot'a History, I. US i. BoUi 
Tabari (A, D.S33-921) and M!Mudi(A.D.90O-0riO) St ate that the district ronod Basra and tiM 
country under the king of Oman were considered by the Arabs to be part of India 
(Chronique ite Tabari, III. 401 i Prairies d'Or. IV. 236), and in the Mvcnlh centnn il 
i* noliced that Indians were aatlleil in the chief cities of Persia enjoying tbe fora 
exenise of their religion (Reinand's Abulfoda, I, - II. cccliiiiv.). It is worthy of nota 
that from the aixth century, wlion they began to tnke a leading part in the trade of 
tha Eaat, Persinu* not oiilj viaitcd ludi* hut aiiUd in Ihcir.owii ihipa as far aa China 



'ertaken by a tempest ; and the priests in fear of shipwreck 
id for help to the angel Behram. The storm fell and a genile 
e brought them safe to shore near SanjfLn. One of the priests 
as s'pokosman to Jadi Band, apparently a Y^tlav chief o£ smith 
Tat, and aeked permissior) to eettle in the land. The chief afraid of 
•ge a body o£ armed strangers calleJ on the prieet to explMin their 
on and customs. 1'ho prieet told him that they honoured tlie 
wattT, fins, the sun and moon, that they wore a sacred girdle, 
had strict rules about the ceremonial impurity of women. He 
isod tint they would do no liarm and would help the chief against 
lemies. The chief was still somewhat afraid, but on their agreeing 
.m the language of the country, to make their women dress like 
u women,' to ceaBe t*j wear arms, and to hold their marriages at 
> he alloweJ them to choose a spot for their settlement. A temple 
le holy fire of Behram* was begun and by tlie help of the Hindu 
was soon finithed, The settlement jiro&pered, the management 
ftffaiis was left in the hands of the faithful, and the desert and 
i grew as rich as Irdn, 
cording to this a(Jeonnt the Partis settled at Sanjdn in the year 

15. But among IJ'c Pdrsis the accepteil date for the settlement is 

16, and tliis though of donbtful autliority is supported by the 
t.D. 7^1 at which the first fire temple is said to have been finished.^ 
■ruth would seem to be, a^ Wilford has suggested, that the poetic 
nt has mixed the history of at least two bands of refngees, one 
Bed from Persia after the final defeat of "YazdeKard in a.d, 641,* 
he other who were driven away about a.d. 7aO by the increased 
i>us strictness that prevailed under the first Khalifs of the Abbasid 
y.' Two separate bodies of settlers are required not only to explain 

ad's AbultedB, I. -II. pcoliiEiii.). About tlui timo Trlieii they rsme to India 
wtte aetlleil ia China a> mianDDiirioa. tnden, and rchi^-ei. Anquetii du Perron 
i.Tp>ta, I. cccxiiTi.j spoalci of Persian* going to China in the wventli ceiitnr; 

ton of YanUiird. According to Wilford (Ai. IUb. IX, S35) kniithcr party of 
uveal to Chiiiflin ^.n. 760 wben tlie dynasty of the Ahl]:';sld Kbklifg began to m't. 
.TaStbe Arabaand I'ergiang were oo atrong in Canton that tbuy stirred Qp a riotnnd 
ledtbe city (iteinaud's Abulfidi, l.-II. coclxxxv.). In A. n. HIS Ibere is a mention 
ka/u« or Mubedd in Oanton (Yule's Cathay, 1. icvi.], and about aiity yean later 
i notif^G* thM there were msny Bre temploi in China. (I'nirios d'Or, IV. 86.| 
t Bncient FcrsUni irare moat ptrtiunlar not to let their women appear in pablif, 
iwn'i Ancient UmiarLby, IV. 190. Tbe correctncsa of this BtHti'ineiit is doubtfai. 
'* Trarclt, II. ITU. 

e fire of Bebrtdn, XfwA S(r/intin,U apeciallyholy i th« ordinary saored fire in village 
• i* has ucred lad in ealled the fire of fires AlesU adfrdii. Tbe ^anUM Are, 
nany wandering!. i> now (a.u. IBtIS) at Udv&di about fifteen milmiouth of Balalll. 
rban'a Pini Religion. S.IT ; Romer in J. R. A. Soc, IV. 360. Tlie anthority for 
bSA.P.Tle 19 a pamphlet written in J82S an theShenshabl and Kndmi date qui>i- 
ra broach huh priuit named Daatur Aspandi^ii KAmdinji. He gives the Hindu 
mvat 773 SbrivBD Hudh 9tb and the Ptfrai date Box Btibeman llaba Tir. Tbe 

fMT oorrespoods with 8G TeTdcgardi and with the L'hriiitian year A.D. TId. 
hanheilji Buttamji KAiua Las dUcovered that these Hmdn ntid Pifrsi dayi <Xa not 
£etli«T till the Cbriitiun year A.p. 936, He soggeataa simple change in the Ptfrti 
Dm B«« Baheman Maha Tir into Boz Tir Mahn Bcheman, wliieh gives the Hindo 
irtvan Budh 13th Samvst 772 or within four daya of Ihe accepted time, 
Klcy (Penia, II. 347) menliona that a Fir»i -NioXt in i.D. 618 wai followed by 


■^Beotion I- the two seU of Jates (a.d. 716 and a.d, 775), but to account for 

F&rsis. Tcry suddon increase which the poetic account dcficribes in the strei 

and importance of the original band of refugees. 

After they were firmly established at Saujan the Pireis eprea< 
settlers and merchants norlh to Navsfiri, VariAv, Broach, Antdeeh 
Vinkdnir, and Camhay,' and south to Tlulna and Chi-ul about twi 
miles Eoutli of JBomlmy. Of Pfirsis of the early part of the t) 
century there are eomo traces in Pehlvi WTitingB in one of the Ka" 
cavee in SAlsette near Bombay. 'ITiese writing:6 were long thought 
forgeries, bnt the latest opinion seems to show that they are genuine 
are the names of a paity of P6rsi pleasure-seekers who visited the KaJ 
caves early in the t««th century,^ About the same timcas tiiese P( 
writings at Kanheri (a.d. 916) Masudi noticee that there were man] 
temples in Sindh and in India,^ and about fifty years later £re-won 
pere and firo temples are mentioned at Cheul.* Towards the cloa 
the eleventh century Persia were one of the chief clatBes of trader 
Cambay.* The Navsilri settlement is said to date from a.d. 11 
There were Pdrais in Ankleshwarin a.d, 1S58, as a copy of the Visp 
was made there in tliat year,^ and they must have been settled at Bi 
before a.d. 1500, as there is a Tower of Silence near Deh^^aoD d 
A.D. 1309, and there is a still older tower near Vejalpur.* Thedat 
the settlement at Vankdnir and of the ill -fated col»ny at Vari^v an 
known." Sanjrtn though sometimes confounded with the place of 
barae name in Kachh is mentioned by most Arab travellers of the 
and eleventh centuries. No special reference to its P/^rsia has 

' According' to ttome trsditiuns the o'ttlcmeiita at Cambaj' and VariAv woe u « 
tlie SdnJAii BettleniQQt. Al Oamliiy, PAraia w^re aettlud perhaps al>aut a.d. 90O | 
GoTetniaoni 3eleotioll ^few Series XXVI.), eertainly by A.u. 1100 (Elliot, II. 
The Camba; Pdnia most hare hnd rektiuae with thu Panjiib I'ji'tia, ai in A.D. 
tfaey had eople* of tho Vandidiil which eorne lime between a.d, llSi Hid A.t>. 
Herhnd MihySr had brought from Yeid (SeUtin) in Pornia to Uceha or T " 
faiijib (Weatergaard'i Zond Arcita, I. 3, 11). 

' Compare Jour, B, B. R. A. Soc VI. 120 and Ind. Ant. III. i2\. Detail, of 
WritingH are given Id the acconot of the Eilnheri Mvei in tlie ThAiia Oaaetlaer, 
14<>, 187 and note 1. 

* fnuries d"Or. IV. 8S. * Mimar-bin-MuUftlliil. Elliot's llistoty, I. 97. 

* Sec tbe history of Siddhanlja of AnnliiUvit^a (l.s. 109:) - 1113J iu EUiut. II. 1( 

' The Bftiue of the village was bjr Fitai Butllers change*) from fJi^niandal or 
HnokcUnd to NAvsari or Now SAii, called after a lowu iu Persia, But ^BV>A^i WM 
linown by that name at leaat 600 years balore the Pdrais Htlled there. ^i« Bortiiu' 
Ptolemy (aj). 15o). in A.r, lill there ware twonty-sii Pini liou»c» mBalsir. Paul 
Prahntih, I. 4. 

' We«tocgaard"a Zciid Aveitii, I. 13 There Km no ramaiuB at Autdethwar alder 
than A,D. IBOO. " Pi«i Pr4lta»!i. I. 4. 

* According to one account the VariiT Settlement tiaa as old aa the tenicmeot at 
Kanjtn. (Lord (1620) in OburchiU'fi Voyagei, VI. ;i2g.] Theie lettlcra ennged the 
Kftjpnt ohief of Batanpur by refuaing to pay tribut* and defeating a body of troopa 
aont to enforce the order. When a frenh force arrived from Ralanpur tho Pi™ 
men were abieiit at a feast outside tho limiu of Variiv bnt the women donned the 
■rmonr of their hagbands and relations and opposed tho troop* vglUntly. Whea 
about to obtain a victoryi the helmet of one of tho femal-ywarriore dropped and 
eiposed her dishevelled hair. Oa thi« the RatsnpDr troopa rallied sad made a de*p«nt« 
asiault, ami the women preforrin.g dc.ith to dialionoor heroically leapt into the Taptl 
which rum through tho village of Varijir and drowned theinsclves. The rfay otttSt 
digautcrnhj 2Sth lUy of the first mouth Farvanliii) is still commemorated a.' ~ ' 
by spot'ial religiouo ceremonies. The jour is ankuown. 


traiced, bat iu the twelfth ceutary Iilrisi {a.d. 1163) speaks of its peojiie 
aa rich, warlike, hardworking, and clever.' 

After the Parsis had beeu settled nearly 600 years' in Sanjdu their 
Bajput ox-erlord was attacked hy the MuBalmina under Alp, the 
general of Muhammdd &Mb or Ala-ud-din Khilji (a.u.1295-1315).» 
AttordiDg to the poetic awount in answer to their chiefs appeal 
fur help, fourteen handred mad-clad F^rsi horsemen under the leailex- 
ihip oE one ArJeebir changed the fortune of the first fight and drove 
Wk the MusaltDiin army. Next day the fight was renewed and 
Alp Khiin prevailed. Ardeshir was bWd, and the I'Arsis were driven 
from Sanjan. Those who escaped tied, taking their sacred fire to the 
fiharut bills abont eisrht miles east of Sanjdn., For twelve years the 
J'drsia remained in hiding, preserving the tire, but apparently giving up 
most of their peculiar customs.* At last, probably w hen in the latter 
part of the century Muhammadan power deolined, tliey left tlwir 
billing place in the iiille and came to BAnsda bringing the eacrcd firo. 
The people of Bdneda received them kindly and led them into the city 
with much respect, llniler the weak and toSei-ant rule of the later 
MuealmAn gi:ivernorB*tbe Parsis again prospered, and from every clime 
the deecendants of ZijixMster came with abandanee of wealth to worship 
tlte «icred fire of Behram. Bansda was not less prosperons than Sanjan 
bad been. Then a I)dwar or religious layman named Changa A'ea 
»rme, who fihowe<l righteousness and wrought minwles. He renewed 
and spread the true faith and if any P^isi liad not a sacred shirt and girdle 
yC^apald for their cost and arranged the affairs of the faith. According 
to the Kiasiih-i- Sanjan this Ddwar flourished firarteen years after the 
caered fire had been brought to Bansda or about twenty-sii years 
mfter the fall of Sanj&n. But nearly a hundred years mnst have passed. 

Sectton 1 


Fill 0/&V 
and miffU I 

tin fiirti 

J.D. an 

another 700 year*. 

' Jaubcrt'a Iiirisi, 172. As the Arab trayellera «peak of the people of WestBrn 
India u ' inliileli' it is sekloiu jiiisaiblet') laj whether the; ir^re Hindu* or Hiirali. Tho 
tfuement in Ibn U»ukul (A.D, SSO) Ihnt between Gjtmbuy mid Cheat tlie MosliniB Hud 
Um inliJeli trore the same ilress and Itt their bcanla urow in the iBiine fuhian »ei>ini ta 
^iplj to PtriiH nut to Hindus. Elliot's UiHtarj, i. 39. 

" TheKiesirh.i.SBNiiainunBpHaiMigo roantiona EUO V6»i 
B.B.1LA. S. Jour. I. ISS. Aa^iuetil du Purroii li^end AvesUi, I. c 
tbM one AQtharitj givct from Silo to iiSti ycnrt, 

* Dr. J. Wilwn (J. B. B. H. A. Soc. I. IfiSj hsa suRrgcsUd that tho M&hmnd Bliih of 
the KiMtb-i-8aDJ«n ww Uahmad Begada, who reignml in GujiriLt from A. o. 1469 to lSt3, 
The mvntioa of Cbdrnp-^ner oa his capital mitlcea it probuhlo that the *ritet of the 
Siadb-i-S&njau thought the MaialmAn prince was Ihe well known MAhmud Bepda. But 
tbcoumpleteiieiuof A'tp Khin's conquest of Gnjunit leaves little donbt that Sanj4n fell 
to bi* arms. Theconqotfror might possibly, Ihungh miirh less likely, be Muhanimaid t^hib 
Taghlik, who ncoiiijucred Oajarit and the TbOna coMt in a.d, 134H. It cannot be M&bmad 
Bcgads. BJt authoriticB agn-e thut after long^ naudcringB the Saujiin tiro was brouglit to 
NaTdrieari} in the fifteenth centurj (a.o.1410).. Alp Khin majboUlugh Kblin broibur 
lo AU'Dd-dtn who ia lometimea by miatake called Alp Khftii, or he nuy be Alp Klun 
brother- in -Law to AU-ud-din. Ulngh Ebiu conquered Gujarat in a.d.1295- 1Z97 and Alp 
KhAn guvcmed Gujarat in A.D.13D0-I.120. The Alp Ehin of the t«xt woe probably Ulugb 
Kbin (Klliot, III. 1G7, 163). NdtberPariahtah northe FeroEablhi baa any reference to 
PAraia. But Amir Khusra'a (A,D.1300) phrMo " The ahorca of the Gujarit aea were flllod 
vritb the blood of the Gabros" (Elliot, III. 549) aimoat eertainly refera to or at leMt 
indnitca Pirafa, as he notices in another pasaag:e (BUiot, III. 641)) that among those who 
TatA become subject to Isl.lm were the tlaghs who delighted in tho worahip of fire, 

* In this time of dcpivsition ncrordiTiK tii> Witford aoinc I'drais bcoame Hindna and 
|k joinrd the cluis of MuaalmAin Nuvaiuta. Aa. Bcs. IX. lllj. 



tton I. 



Changi A'ta'i 


for it was this D^war who in a.d, 1419' built a magniiiceDt fire ti 
at Navedri aiid hod the sacreii fire brought from Baneda with great 
by three San jAn liigh prieats, N^gan RAm, Khoished Kdmdin. and ' 
Sahiar,' Tliisgreat increase uf Pdrsi power id south Gujarat was perb 
owing to an intliix of PAreis from the northern cities of Gnjarat can 
by the very keen Mnsalmdn spirit brought into the government of 
country by Muzaffar Khan (a-d. I -"91 - 14Ub) and bis grandson Sal 
Ahmad (a.d. 141^- 1443). At the same time ihe sudden ' 
numbers and reUgious zeal seem to point to the arrival nf Zorcasti 
refugees from the rigour of Tiraur's rule in Perisia (a.d. 13 
14U6)'' and Uppi-'r India.* Aooording to Ogilby" (a.d. 167(') in 
beginning of the (ifteeqfh century many strangers from Persia laaded 
(iujarilt and setthug quietly aJong the coast made known to the (Jajai 
Farsis their forgotten duBcent, instructed (hem in their religion, I 
taught them to sene God. Further it would seem from the ment: 
of the IJawar's iniracles, of his supplying sac red shirts and girdles, a 
of his not only renewing and couhrming but also extending s 
advancing the faith,^ thati part of the increase in the strength 

r of &HISII 

'5, tint is seib Jl 
hi« ilAte ti. II urged tl.M Cbu 
lo mo^e thiT fira to NbvkIiI 
^tU date<l A.D, 1478 and 10 
ho'D nne of tlie t'KDJfcn ptil 

' The ilite Iton Mah&reDhpand Mnha Shelicrc 
I'll!), IB geuuniUy tuceptvd. AruIueI tlm correit 
An, will) <s Biipyused to have persnid*d llie 
TefiiiTed to A3 the liod of Ihe cuTiiniDniC]' in t 

Slid that tlie iiBiDD Knrihed Kimdiii. who U mid ... , 

who brought tlie Hreio Navairi, aji)i«an in a. Rnn.'yetil'titA *.d. IS 11. But tbe^ 
ftCCDunt Aota not name the ]aym»n who prrniadcd the priest* tn move the Bre to 8ta\ 
and there maj have been more thau one priuat nf the uame of Rhorshed KdnuJia. 

'It ii rem iitk able that two of thcsu three names are Hindu. :imiUrlv Khu 
meotlona a Gabri chief named Sulaldev, wlio in npite of hii Hindu name oiuat have bi 
a flreworabipper aa hu ia liliened to the aiNiuru/i or aiii&a ou Mouiit Caucasus. Ell 

'After the flntMveritiea the fireworshippers seem to have been treated with mi 
eonbideratian bji their Arab eonquerora. In the middle nf the tenth eeatury Ibn llau 
WTUt« there wja acarcelj a town in Vara withoat Its Gic temple, and among the pe< 
of Pars the books and ciutamit of the (iuebres eontiaaed gTiiianued. The timnt of 
early Tartar inTaaiunB{L.D. 1253- lanO) f<;tl on the M n him mail ans. Bat Gabma 
HnaalnilLnB alike conttibated to llitiur'a ghastly pyramid of heads. Malcalia' 
of Persia, I, 4»)-470, 

* The flreworahippen of Upper India, tome perhapa local convorta bi 
foreigpi*ra, aocm np to Tiinur's (A.D.ia98) ronqucst to haTe been an importi 
In the mi'ldle of the tenth century. Al latahbirl notioed that parta of Hind and Kl 
bvlunged lo the Gabres and other parts lo KaSra and idolatora, (Ouneley' "* 
Ueiigr.Lphy, H6.) In a.d. 1079 IbrShim tboQbiinividenttacked a rolnny oil 
worshippers who liad long been Battled nt Dohra perliaps Ifcbra Dfin. Ir 
F&ni« were actthd atUeeha, probably Ueh in the I'anjih ( Wettergaard'i Zend AvM 
1.1 in Elliot's History), They nouM seem to have been in eommouicatinn witli i 
Cambay Pirals. In a.d. i323 there was in Cainbay a eopy of the Vandidid that % 
broaghtfromYdidtoUch in a.d.1184 [We*ter£aard, 1.3, II, ft 2'.'). Atthe Una 4^ 
Timar'a invasion (a.l). 1398) among the eaptivea there .wore Klsgiaus as well aa Hindmh^ 
and the people of THiiblikhpurare descpibcd as believers in the two principles of good ai "" 
evil and are said to luive acknowledged Yazdin and Ahrim.m, About a hundred year* 
later (I.'i04' A.D.) Bedanl mentions that tlie emperor Sikandar doslrnyed firpallira and in 
■'" ' dialoi-t of the Eibnl eooulry. The 

Abul Fail's time(A.D, 1590) Oabri is mentioned ai 

Bes. IX. 214) held that the infidels of Tngblikhpur were Manicbann ChriHians. Buftli 
foller infuruiation that has eiuoe become available shows that tliey were I'Ands, ~'-~ 
III. 78,471-491, 487,506. 

• ■''ee Atlas, V, 21 -a. Ogilby's acdonnt ii accnrate and detailed. 

• B. A R. A. S, Jour. I. 187-188. The eipression 'Every Irihe of believers 
wonld seem to imply that some distinction of cr '— ' "- 

PA'RSIS. 189 

the Pat-eia was due to the conversion of HindiiB.' Changa Asa 
CDDtinned the practice, which is known to be at least as old as the 
l)eginning of the fonrleentli century, of referring donbtfiil religious 
quKtions for the opinion of the learned prieats of Persia.' After 
nis deatii tlie practice was conlinued and the repHce of tLe Persian 
priests have been collected and form a work of authority known as the 
HaviyetB,' These replies show that there were Parsi settlements in 
Nsruari, Broach. Ankleshvar, Cnmbay, and Surat, It seems also that 
tUmt the middle of the fifteenth century some PSrsis, either from 
Upper India or from Gnjarat, were settled in the north of Giijardt at 
Cuadraulj apparently Chandrdvati near Mount Ahu.* In the sixteenth 

I wntory the Portugueee wi-iter Garcia d'Orta^A.n. 1535) notices a 
corious clasB of merchante and shoplteepera who were called Conris 

; that is Gaurs in Busscin, and Esparis that ia Fdrsis in Uamhay. The 
Portuguese called them Jews, hut they were no Jews, for they weie 

I trndrcumcised and ate pork. Heaides they came from Persia and hud 

I ti-uriims written character,stTange oaths, andmany foolish superstitions, 

' Daring their time ot prcmperity st Sanjiln (A.d. 700 ■ 1300) tlie PArua seetn to have 
(mtmei) ■ lar^ wction of llii> Uinda popalatiati it«kr TLAiut. In i,.DA323 wbon Fryei 
Odcriu wu ill Thliiit ]iv found tlint tliu rolen were MuialniAns and the people id»lat<jri, 
Mmt u( tbcin wunhipping treeg «nd Krpentt and love worabippin)i: tire. Tbnt llie 
EmriTibippcn trereeitlier PAni» or Ilinda converts to tbe Zonwatrian f>it1i teems 
liTiinilduabt, Mlbry did not bnr; tbcicdewl but carrk'd tbum with greU pomp to the 
tt\ii tod rut them to the beasts sod bird« to be devoaret. Tliia be repeats in another 
ftaufB toil notirea tbat the bodies were apeadilj debtroyed by the eii^easiic heat of the 
MM. A^n nlien he goes to Malabar he notii'et that the people there burued initead 
of apuiug thtrir iloafL lYulc'i Cathay, I. 6T, Stt, 70, and 79.) Jordanua, who wae in 
Thtta tcieral yean hefoiv Oderii? and who at a misuanary travelled from ThAau to 
Aoieh, ttill more clearly dencribei the P&rai*. There be, he lays, other pagan folk 
win wonhip fire; They bury not their dead, neither do they bum theui, but caat them 
islo the midst of a certain rooflesi tower and ibere etpoae them totally uncovereil to 
tbc fawla of bearen, Ttaeee believe in two tint priaciplea of evil and of good and of 
darkuMaanduf %Ut, Miralialia, 21, 

■ Btlwren A. II. I IS-t and 1 323 one Herbad Mahy&f travelled from India from tbe towu 
of Ucchah or Uch on the Indoi, itayed aii jeara with the Herbada of VesdatAn or Fleiilftn, 
WM taught l.y them in the Zoroaatrian faith, and returned to India, He brought with 
bin •oopy of the VandidAd whi-ih had bean matle in Ycniatilo or Soistftiiin a.d. 1184 by 
Aidnhir >o>i of Bthman. This is daubtlosn the origin of the tradition reporlcil by 
Anqoetil do Terron that the copy of tbe Tandid^ which the I'lLni* had brought to India 
ODlbarfinl arrival waa loat at the floae of the fonrteenU century and tliat a DasCur 
Ankshir who came fmm SeiaUn to Oujarftt gave the I'Arain a copy of the Tandidid with 
tha Fehelvi tnnslstioD. Ff oia the eopy which MahySr brought, other copies were made 
(ii Cainl»j in a.d. 13:i3 by Uerliads Kajiihoiru and Ruatam Meberban, strangera from 
Iran (Wettergaard'a Ztnd AreaU, I, 3, 11). Tbe oldeaC copies now extnnt are the 
U>inl«y copiei. The original of the^te and bIpo the eopies brought ti) India before 
thia Iiave apparently been loat. VVpBtergaard aaya: The P»r«ig did uot trouble 
Umnnlvca with the book« on which their faith wta based. Had it not been for the 
eommaDicatioii with Peraia in modem timea AnquiAil nonid probably uot have found a 
votige of a book. Zend Avesta, I. 33, 

* Uf tbne Bav^yeta a compilation waa made by Dastnr Barjor Kiimdin of Nuvtiri 
in A-n. 1630, and s complete collectjon by Daatur Dor&b Hormsidiir ot BaUir in a.d. 
1185. The earlieat letter, which ia dated the 22nd of An gust 1478, complaini bitterly 
of tbe miierablc itsto of tbc Greworshippcrs in Persia, Among the points dorided 
'Were that a dead body ghoald not be carried by bearers who were not Zoroaatriana ; 
tliat the bier ihoiild be of iron not of wood ; and that women when ceremonially unclean 
aboold wear glores. Another is dated the 17th of Janitary 151 1 and another the 17lh of 
Quinary 1&35. In the last they approve of bnilding Towers of Silence of atone instead of 

VizSiM. I 


A.D, isoo-xeoo. 



Section I. 



^kbar eonuertei 

la lit PArH 



taking their Jeail out by a speciul door and exposing their 1 
till they were destroyerl.' Though very few traces of their nuBBii 
efforts remain, the Parsis eeem, even as late aa the close of the sixtc 
century, to have been anxioiieto niaka coQverte.^ In a.d. 157d, i 
reqnest of tlie emperor Akbar, they sent leiirned priests both I 
Navsdri and from Kirinun in Persia to explain the Zoroastriaa fa 
They found Akijar a ready listener and a willinfj behever and taoj 
him their paeuUar terms, ordinances, ritcB, and ceremonice. 
ii^Bued orders that the sacred fire sh^tuld be made over to the cl 
Abul F:izl, and Ihat after the manner of the kings of Persia in \ 
temples blazed per|:etual fires Fazl should tak? care that the saci 
WBfineverallowcd tog* out either bynight orbyday, for that it w 
of the sign^ of God and one light from among tlie many lights of hie S 
ation.'* Akbar, aceordiog to Portuguese accounts, was invested withf 
eacredehiit and girdle, and ID return granted the Oiijartit priest Mehc 
Bdnaan estate at Ghelkbari near Navsari, and his descendants h 
since {a,t>. 1580- 1S9 8) been the chief prieste at Navedri, At the eloa 
the century Abul Fazl (a.d. 1590) in his account of Surat notieeB i| 
followers of Zerdu^t who practised the doctrine of the Zend and Paz 
and madensG of sepulchres ' Early in the seventcanth century (a. 
the Pdrsis of Surat are described as dressing like other people e; 
that they did not shave the head and that the men allowed the b 
to grow long. They were a hardworking peuple, living by all kin 
of husbandry, 6o\ving and setting herbe, planting vines and palm mm 
otlier fruit ti-eea.* The rivalry between the different European triMlia) 
companies was a great gain to the Pfii-sia. As early as a.i>, \(i±Q a P4re 
was the leading native servant of the English Company, knowing already 
' a morliocrity of the KngUsh tongue/' The Parsis attracted thenotJOBl 
of Mr. Lord, an English chaplain, who in *.n, 1620 d!rew up tlie first 
European account of their history and religion. A few years late^ 
(a.d. 1026) Sir Thomas Herbert also wrot« a sketch of their history and 
religion. He notices that on board of the ship that took him from Sur^ 
to Uombroon in the Persian fiulf there were (iOO slaves Fdrsis GentoOB 
Banians and others." In a.d.1638 Mandelslo describes the Surat P&rski 
as not partioularly tall but fairer than otJicr nativeaand thewomen mocK 
prettier. The men wore the beard full and round and either wore the 
iiair long or shaved the head eicept the topknot, Kxcopt that they 
wore a girdle of wool or camel's hairj both men and women dressed in tM 

■ CoUoquio* do* BlmplaB, 213. Supplied by Dr. Ocrion d»Cunha, » Elliot, T. 63 
' In A.i>. IGU7, after his return to Pertii, the Kinn&n priest Ardesbir Noah< 
wrote to DaatuT Ktlmdin P^am of BnHLCh: '■ I niota ion • MMr tl 

iBilljoDrooui. ItKlnBhsdm 

»l. If 

t Psndi, 1 i* 

' Xtiu letter U embodied in tU BaviyeU {Vi 
Pr&kARb, I. 10). 

* Elliot's History, V. SSO. Akbar adopted the Pirsi feMt« and hod a Sre tempk Ji 
hii karim or private Bpartmeat. Ditto, 210, 870. Accurding to the P4ni >cco 
Akbar wna invested with the aacced abirt and gii-dle. Dabist&n, III. US- M, 

' QUdwin'. A'ln-i-Akbiri, II. 65. ' Tcrry'i Travels, 337. 

' Lord (IBM) in Churehm'g Voyngei, TI. 828. 

* Ucib«rt't TnvcU, OG ■ 69 and 1U7. 



way as other people. Their houses were Bmallj dark and badly 

hfti. They eeldom ate animal food, though, except that of the 

V el(>phant camel and hare, fleeh was not forbidden them. They 

_ liquor but not to excese. They lived by growing tobacco, draw- 

■g pabn-ju!03, banking trading ehopkeeping, and the practice of crafts 

moept smith's work and other calbiujs in which fire is used. They 

were better tempore.! than the Musalauins, but they were the greediest 

Imsiest [teople m the world, using all their skill to cheat in tra'le 

tliough they objected to other forms of rr>bbery. They were found all 

(long the coast and were allowed by the Musalm^us to settle tJieir 

uirn disputes.' Pdrsis seem, but the meaning of the passage is rather 

doahtful, to have been settled in largo numbers in the Konkan, as 

Mandelslo says that in the Bijitpur territorieB craftsmen work for 

Mustlm^ns Hindus and I'^rsis who are there in greater number tlian 

ather Da'ihanisor Kanarins,' In a.t>. 1660Thevenot notices that they 

irecalledGaabresand Ateshperest.* Afew years later Ogilby (a. D. 1670) 

lummed up the available information regarding the Pdreis, According 

to him they came about a.d, G40 in a fleet of seven ^hips, some said as 

Di»ny as 18,0OU merf women and children. The people from five of 

ihs ships settled at S^njan, those from another at Variav near Surat, 

Mid those from the seventh at Camhay, Aftenvards they forgot 

ttioir origin their religion and oven their name. At length the name 

of Persians was made known to them by some men from Pei'sia who 

instructed them in their religion and taught them to sei-ve God, 

Afler this many Persians came and settled along the sea coast and 

Und qnietly among the natives. Their bodies were ahout the middle 

ti'ze. Their faces pale and generally fairer than the faces of Europeans, 

»]i«ially the women who excelled all other women of the country in 

Wuty, The men who were generally hooknosed wore great round 

Wds and on their heads either long black hair or xhort hair with a 

loelc on the crown. They dwelt in dark houses meanly furnished in 

I irard by themselves. They did not eat cows or pigs. Escept the 

wh they dressed like Hindus. They were very ingenious and for the 

most part maintained themselves with tilling, buying and selling fruit, 

lapping palm trees, and keeping taverns. Some ttaded and oihers pi-actis- 

ed all ci-afte but smitli's work, A few were servants, but those were 

accounted nnclean and unbelievers. Mostof them were covetous and hard, 

Teiy deceitful in their dealings, no way inclined to whoring or theft, and 

meek and com])assionate in their conversation. Their chief tire temple 

was at Navsiri, where they hail kept the firo burning for about 25U 

years.* Accoi-ding to Fryer (a.d. I674>) the rarsiswere found south of 

tlicTfipti about forty miles along the coast and alwut twentymiles inland. 

They had flud from Persia and been m^e free denizens by the Indians 

before the Moors were masters, They were somewhat whiter and ho 

thought nastier than the Gentoos. The whole family iivcd together and 

respi-cted the eldest brother if the father was dead. They ate (ish and 

fleeh and drank wine. 'I'hoy were husbandmen rather than merchants, 


' M«.ndcl»lo'« Travels. 187 : Har 

it KhorAsAiii VfnEalmtDg, 

A ocovnl; 


not eai-iiig lo go abroad. They supplied the marine with carts drnwn 
\,y oxen and the ships with wood and water. Tbey worsliipptxl the bt"^* 
and lud a fire temple nt Navaari, and espoeed their dead in round torn! 
that the vuHures and ravenous fowls might entomb them.' 

Ovington a few years later (a.d. lliOO) calls tlio Pdmis a very c© 
siderable sect. 'J'beir tnidltion was that they had ceme to Iad!a fleeinj 
tfom MuharamHil and that they were saved from being wrecked by th 
crowing of a couk, Ihey worshipiied fire, and, if their houses were 
fire, would be persuaded to pour oil to increase rather than water \ 
aGEuagie the flame. A I'riiei servant who is commanded to bring a hq 
eteel and warm with it a bowl of punch will plead his excuse, and tha 
ha dare not hasten thoicooInesB of the steel by a violent abatement oE 
the heat. At their solemn festivals they went, a liundi'cd OP tw»' 
together, to the suburbs, each bringing bis victuals and distributing thei 
efjually. 'J'hoy were hardworking and diligent, careful to train tli«;^ 
children to arts and labour. Tliey ware the chief men of the loo: 
all the country," They showed a firm atTection to all of thoir own fl 
ments in religion, helping tbo poor and providing /or the needy. Thfl 
left no man deetitnte, and did not suffer a beggar in all their triln 
After alwnt another twenty years {a.d, IVIU) ^hay are described i 
p5od carpenters and shipbuilders,' esquisite weavers and embroiderer! 
They maile silks, especially the fine Broach and Naveu'ri silks calle< 
lutntaa, worked in ivory and agate, and distilled strong waters.* 

Though strangers gave the Pareia so high a character for kindlinet 
and for the oiderly management of tho affairs of their communitj^ 
serious troubles were not unknown. At Navsfiri between the two bodii 
of priests, tho original priests and those who had come from Sanjan. 
longstanding rivalry prevailed regarding the right to perform certj 
ceremonies. Some disaffeeted members of the original Navsiiri priest 
hood increased the ill-feeling and aided the San jAn priests. In a.d. 1685 
the dispute parsed into a fight, in which the Navsiiri section killed i 
laymen who had taken the side of the Sanjdn priests. For this ontra^ 
twelve of tho Navsdri priests were taken to Surat and imprisonei 
Meanwhile the Navsiiri laymen began to employ the SanjiSn section i 
their household jmest^. As the Sanjiin priests had till then servcil oni 
in the temple, this led to a fresh disturbance, and in A.D. 17^33 the 6anj^ 
prieat«j taking thoir fire with them, went to Surat. After three yea 

' Fryer's New Aeconnt of East lodift and Peraa, Ml. Vrytr give* k dej 
account of tlic Btaio nnd niiatoniB of the Penisn Fa»U or Omhen. Ditto, 2C5-! 

' OvingLoc'i VojiffB. 370 - S73, 

* The United Biuit India Company'i dock, startid abaul 300 jean ago %t ^'ant, w 
matiaKeil \iy PAni cupent«n. In l.D. 1735 ft iliip uaincd Tbe Queen wa* built in t 
t'urut dockjsnl by I'ftni carpeuteri. Mr. Dudley wlio wiu) thea Uuter Attendant • 
Boiiibnj went to Sunit to tee Tho Queen. He liroueltl b»ok with bim to Bombay a ria 
named Laiiji Noaarvanji Vadia, wIid was forcniau in thu Surat dockyard, and nm' 
I^anji'i anpcrinti'ndence hnilt tbe Bombay dockyard. Laiiji naa the Ant PArsi VLaM 
BaitJer in Bombay, and the post rL>inaiucd 'till a.p. 1881 with tbo Vsdia famHj! 
Uudcr lliQ eharee of thii diitinguichnl family 3Sd »hipa wi^rc bnilt. 

• Unmil ton's New Aopount, 1. 181. Of their oriffin Hamilton's verrion it that in . 
•cveiiili teutiiry «00 to BtO families Fame by eon tnim Jri»|ncb in the TiTaiiui gnlf al 
ofl.r Inriitj d»y> landed in the riiiT iit NovB.lri. i 



I back to NavBiiri, But party feeling was to strong thut 
raU not romain. In a. D, 1741 the yanjan faction askod tbo 
a governor Sj let tiicm retire to Balsdr. They stayed in lia.hi>T 
iml then on the 2Sth tif October 1742 moved tb Uilvada, whcvo 
it oiii^nal SanjAn fire has eince remaiao.!.^ Besides tliese struggles 
kanng the pric^t^ ecveral religious difipulee rag&l at tliia time. Two 
of these were whether the legs o£ a corpse should be Btretehed or fuldeil, 
aw] whether tho face should or should not be covered wilh a cloth. 
'ITitse d is putt's have nut yet been settled i the factions into which tho 
outiDiiniity was then divided still {a.d,18J8) exist. Tho third dispute' as 

Section : 

■ llrtt I'nkuh, I. 3E ) Iq.1. Aat. I, ^13. Dn rurran givca A.d. IT5I i Zend Avcata, 

■rbo dispute Bi to ths reckoning of the year is giTiorally laM to1i»TBbBgnn wiih 

t)i«U,idiiiigi}f tlisferiian print Jnniugiwhoabuul &.c. 1720 did jsamiicli tubjcnaeu ibv 

Bwsii*kiiu«-leili!oo(lhcirKicred bjolc»lWe»li;rKMril'» Zciid Avtsta, 5j. L\>iiiompor*rj 

MciniBt« ahuw iliat tlie HgitatioQ wliich >pUt the cnminunii; into two tci'tn did nul ariib 

till 1,9., '"hoa a Zunnatri^n U^mnn or b'Ajnlin named Jinuhcd arrivml ill IJujarAt, 

fni^ii 1 ir-iik JjmJilicd «rein> to have bmoglit to llie iimico of thu Sur:il, ViirrXt Ihut tlieir 

' '-aliawaioiftni'nitlibchiudthL-reakoiiingaf thcP.TshiilCuriiaEtriaTia, The 

fii' Mnrorftl year*. It cndid on llie flili of Jane IT-IS liy iliccominu'ticy 

I luutfliSbetHhahis whokppl to tlie Indian rcckmiingand Kndiuia who 

1 .11 practice.Tlm Fdraid bntli Slietiahahls nnd K^ilmid liotd thnt in Ihe limu 

> :: :'i kiniji in Persia en ry l£<Jlli year was inaile a lear -it ihirUcu Dioritlii. 

llLi.nTt.|;i:„,i aCa mouth iB caUal Kabisl or inleri^TiUtijn. TliBSIitnsliahij .li^flnro Itist 

rt«l fjUu* Vie j-nar » wttlrf at llip la>t Kalnsi perruriniMj in tli« hiila of lioiMil^n lij 

UaOni tutcli of tho ZinuBtriaai tliat &.ii from MnUnininn.lan |»'r<triition mi'l nn: 

t™.- "w iii-iith behind the Ktdmi« who havt not takt-n inAe .if that Kiiitisii. And aa 

" ' ' ' ' :: tliL'lr I ear to hitve ttferi set lied aceoniing lu tlio old rujiii practire of 

tbcmio'vfs t.henshslii* miaoing rojrai, wLilo the other sucliua Btylea 

Ming a 

t eUimt Ihiit it 

obe perfornn-d fuc and alTioteit only the nvenne ^'onr of Penift 

_' t.i do Willi the ] e:it ai mkoocd for the pnrpoaeg of re'ii^oaa rite* ami 
^lui'ii'f'i. Ill A.D, lllia llii' U'Hiliiie: Kadiol lijDii^n of Sumt aoTit to I'onia a leameil 
M>rh |>ric«C K.ina. Imik with liiin hi* ao'i I'csbotan, uflrrwirda llio 
•W'kuuwii Muliii FiT"z. 'I'hi' fiiiliLT and Bou itajwl in I'lriia for twelve yeara and 
Wanwl tu boudiK nilh a cr.ui imm« tnr k'lrniitj;. Tlioy ho-aiiif the cliiwnpiona 
"flLi Kadmij., U»'dct ihe siii,..rvi-i„r, .it Kan.. <r'" h l-^t.-r l-"-v,i n. Mnlla Kttiia. 

»Wiai 4n--tcnip!« or Ai.sti liil.r iin i«m o^ML !■ i i'l I' ■1 i tli,-. aOlli uf 

"tpUmUa- '783. Thi* i^ i1il> ..;,lL'st il..-uin,.!,- „, !'. ■ . f, u:. W,'..ii.>! I.h.. 

■mWiiii Diiiluf or l.;./i ].ri.,b. li.- Writ -..■. ■■ ■ - . ■■■ lul.rnnry JM03 

Ti/Li* ..... il.e r,,iu..u, ih:l\v K, ,-..■. Tl.,' 1,1,-1, ],,!.. '. ■■■'.' nil 

J t.-V 

M ; tl 

liuiii^cs j..i.iU (l,e KiulTjii sect. Thia cau;^'J luui'li iil-ff.^li"t,-. But llie riTiliy gm- 
mOj diHl out an<lhu ndvcr ainou bcvn raviv<..d. At prvsunt (a.d. 1898) tlu're i« the 
h™ liarmoiij bttweeii.the t»o «ect«. Funncrij^ iDtcrmnrriago waa ahuniiedi it i« 
Jtw coiniDou. Conveni^Hii ftom onu acct to tbe other are auknown. Dillerencea of 
pn^of pntnouovini; uert^D wordt and oE Teckoaing the jrear are Dot now cnnaiderod 

Btgiiidiiigihu rMkuiiing of the jcar.whiuh woa the main cause of ili virion, it may bo 

MiIchI Ibat tlia rMkonin^ of ncithur si'i't is rornict, Tliough tho ymr adopted by both 
■Wt )• a aolitr y«cr, it ihwi not curreipoiid correctly with the moremcnta of the snn. 
Il Ptnia the error ivRiiiini-.l uin^orrL'et. il till nlxnit a.i>. 107S. JalU-ud-din Ualifc Slirfh 

t(JMuT4-10K), kill); ipf IVrsia, nnti ,i ,l.iy »lionW be added to the year wbenoTCi 
;<n* Dvcuaury In onlrr In niune Itii tiihv mmp TuI on the day the snn paised the aaniB 
' ' ' if the ecliptic, 11,. up I -nil I (il I' >'ti'-i,ini, lu aatronumer, to make a calBnctar, 
<] ycvr <■ c-uIIkI Hi,.- M:ilil>.liulii yViir. aii<l thin ie tttll the Pcritau n'veniie 
lauu-s of i1..- ■io;ilUs a i.l :\ij tl i.\ , of the Malik=Uhi ye;it ur^. the mime in 




Section I. 



A.D. 1700-1800. 

to the proper reckoning of the year ended in the division of the Pteu 
into Shenshahis and Kadmis. Though the community was torn by 
these disputes, jn the beginning of the eighteenth century there was 
a notable advance in the Pdrsi knowledge of their sacred books and 
languages. This was due to the efforts of a Persian priest named 
Jamasp who visited Gujarat about A.D. 1720. He left an accurate 
copy of a Zend-Pehlevi Vendiddd and established small centres of 
Zend and Pchlevi scholarship in Surat Navpdri and Broach.^ 

those of the Shensliabi and Kadmi years. In all of tbem the year begins with the dtj 
of Uonnazd and the month of Farvardin. In the Maliksh&hi years the day of Hormaat 
always falls on tlic 2l8t Maifth. In the Kadmi and bheusbahi years it falls on TtryiBg 
dates in August and September. 

* Westcr^^aard's ZimuI A vesta, I. 5. Jamasp also presented the Sarat P4nis withUie 
Farvardin Yashst and with a branch of the true ham Asclepias acida tree, Thbtne 
^owfl only in Persia. Several attempts have been made in years past to grow the tree in 
India but without succoss. Dried branches of the hotn tree imporlol from Perna 
are nsid by Pdrsi priests in their religions ccromonlt-s. 


Thb Pdrsis liad begun to settle in Bomljav under the PortiigiiCBe 
.P. 15lO-ltJ6(i). One of them, Dontbji Nnuiibliai, the founder of 
e Patel lamily, held a liigli place in the island before ite tranfifer to 
a BriliKli (a.d. 1666), and before the close of the seventeenth century 
reral more families, of whom the Modis, Pandes, Bannjis. Diidiseths, 
id Vadias were ainon|» the eaiheet settled in the island.^ In the 
gtiteenth century the movement greatly increased, To the GiijaiiSt 
itfflB, more than to any class o£ native tradeie, was due the develop- 
lent of the trade of _Bomhay, CEpecially of its great trade connection 
it)i China.' Early in the liffhteenth century Oujardt Psirsis were 
l8u sprc-ad along the MalaW Coast for poriKiKOS of tiade. In Mad I'as 
) A.n. 17S0 rru-s!s were lullucntial monliants and in a.D. 1790 built a 
over uf Silence which owing to some ill union has never been brought 
nlouEC.* Though many Pdrsis came to Bombay, almost all contiuncd 
* co;igidcr Surat or Navsflri (heir homo, and during the second half of 
la eighteenth century after its transfer to the Biitish (A.n. 1753) the 
iiaiat P^sis rose greatly in wealth and position. In a.d. I76i Niebuhr 
mtndlhcm a^ntlc iimetand industrious race, bcloveil by the Hindus, 
nultiplyiiig greatly, and engaged in all trades and catlings. 'Ihcy 
wre skillul merchants, hardworking craftsraon, and good ecrvants. 
Itey made common contrlbutimis for the aid o£ (heir ix«u', and suffered 
Kttie of their nimiher to ask alms from people of a difl'ercnt religion,' 
'a 4.D, 1774 according to tho Dutch traveller Stavorinufe there were 
iWt 100,0UU Pdrsis in and round iSurat. There were no beggare 
iftion^ them, and they much surjiassed all the other people in indns- 
'Y- Many were servante to Europeans. They inereated in numlier 

Section II' 

' Ur, Banuiiiti Bclirani ji Patel. 
iV first uiwlcrn I'irai who viiitod China was Uirji Jivanji Keadjinono)' who went 
•wbA-D 1756. Pir»i Pr*k»»li, I. 41. 

* Tbo I'lrsii attach great Importance to the first bod; which li laid in a new Tiiwcr 
' l^ilenpg. The; have an slmait iiisaiierahlu objection to use a uvw Tuwit of ( ilunce 
°>ccaT«thc ruipse of a yonog' person. If tho B»l inmate it a yoath many Jvutlis will 
jUwiunongtbcyoong of the community. To rfceiraintoanew tower thecorijieof an 
wpifniiin is cunudcTcd proper, becaiiM to the aged death hMlost its horror. Neit to 
'^ 1^ boil; it is liost to open a toi.'or to receive the corpao of au infant, bocanHi the 
*»iifan Infant ia not .o keenly felt as the loss . of a chllil. Tho Madnu TowiTot 
wiuerenuined nnDscil because for several joars no liesinible deaths took p'.arc. (P&rsl 
'!'*^, I. bSl.J As reffanla childnn a farbihGr belief prevails that the mother of tho 
jjjMfrhDSo body is lirat laid in the Towtr of filenco rciunina hirreu ever after. In Mny 
'Vn ID Illuittulion uf this biilief was fnmiihcd in tho case of a Tower uf Silence at 
*W<>U uar tinrat. To •.'■ea|ic the evil oinon tho people of AmreU bribed tho corpse- 
J**" to stcnltliily bring a child's body fromSarat and place it in the Ainroli tower. 
"»! puMiU of the child complftincd to the PftncbivaL at furot and ihe 
*w« ptoWifd. • ' I'inkerlon, X. 2Ifi-220, 




Section II. 

..D. 1700-1 «U0. 

from day to day and inliabitcd many entire wards.* Some leaving their 
wives behind them went to Cochin- but they were despised. t^evenJ 
were rich and might be counted among the chief merchants of Surat 
Their leading men were the EngUsh Portuguese and Dutch brokers.* 

' Several of the wards or }mrdt in Surat are named after Fsfrsig ; Rttstamport la 
uamed after Hustain Manik a leading English broker about A.i). IG.K) ; Nanpuraid named 
after NAnabhai Karsangji Pat el a wealthy landlord ; and Manchcrpura is named after 
Mancherji Khariiedji Seth a well-kuowu Dutch broker aud mercbaut between A.d. 17^0 
and A.D. I7'i4, 

^ A Pitrsi named Kuvasji Edulji held an excise farm in Cocbiu in A^D. 17s)6 payiag 
Ks. 400 a month to Government. Parsi Prakash, I. 880. 

^At Surat in the middled of the heventeentli centnry a Pdrsi named Rustam, titf 
son of a prio.<<t namtd Mdnek, hehl a high poHition as the United Ea^t India (Jonipany*i 
broker. An account dated a.d. 171 1 (Yeztlezardi 1080) written in Persian verse by apriist 
nimed .Tanieshed Kekobad records that in A.D, IG6J Rasiam went ^^ith the European 
he:id of the hurat factory to Delhi to aak the emperor Anrangzeb to remove the 
diflicuUieh under which the Company suffered. Jamshed makes Uustam addrcsithe 
emperor i.i the following IVi'sian verse : 

Kc in innnl uz bchard Sod^gari 
Ba Hind A'madaet nzr&he Kh&vari. 
Vuli iiakhal na d^hod inrd ba Bbchcr 
Aiuinii>«5 dur^hdu 1>dl& lia nicher. 
Ham in uiardc Anf^riJ niko tdrast • 

I'ur iiiiiido zcle shahi bar tnrasU 
<>u/.ar<id c'hnuin araz kaz lotafu Mhah 
I>ehiui Juasli der sht^hdrc Surat ]mniif}i. 
Kc kare tojarat daran anidaBh 
Ham auihdr Kliinu baran d.irariash. 
ThiM K'lropeaii (feiitlciiiati has CDiiie from his country to India to trade. Ti<e 
noblt'S of Nuur uioht ^racinUit court d(» not allow him to enter the city. This 
Kn^Hnh ^(Mitlcman i8hi}j:b1y honimrabk* ani is ma-«t anviou^ to l»e under tho 
royal uhad-.w. He prays that by th«' umc-e i-l your majont^ ho may l»e given a 
phu'e and iirot^ction in Surat, that ho may be^in his butiiues!< (f trade and 
Iiavo alHO Htureb an<( houses. 

According to the a<H'<>unt the emperor through his vazir Asadkh:^n replied: That the 
Englisih should be given places for lumses and stores v.\ the city <»f Sural ; that they might 
build himses in it ; that they should receive no \\\\'\\\ aiul l)e subjected to no prohibitioni ; 
that no taxes should be levied on their tnide, Farsi I'rukish, I. 15. 

IJruce (xVnnals of the East India Company, 111. 5115) has the following reference to this 
Uustam. While Sir Nicholas Waito was Prcbidont at Sural, Uustam. whom from hb 
first arrival he had employed as broker, ciuitinned from iiiterestol motives attachetlto 
his views. After Sir Nicholas Waito assumed the ofR^c of (ieneral at Bombay this 
cautious native, discovering that his object w is to inalie that island the centre of triwlr, 
explained to Mr. Bonnel and Mr. Troby, the English Company *s wn'ants at Surat, thit 
Sir Nicholas Waite promised to trive him fifty thousand rupees to use his influence with 
the governor of Surat to keep Sir .John Gayer confined which sum w.vs to be paid trt 
him by advances on the prices of the Company^s go«xIs, When Sir Nicholas Waite was 
informed of this conduct of Kustam he dismissed him from the English Company's 
employment notwithstanding that the united trade was- then indebte<l tf> him l,4O,UC0 
rupees and the separate conipiuies .5,50,000 rujKcs. Soon after Kustam's death on 
30th .July 1721 disputes arose in settling the accounts between the East India Company 
and Rustam's tljrec sons Framji, Bomanji, and Nowroji. Tho officers of the East Indi 
Company at Surat arranged that the eldest son Framji should be kept in custody by 
tho Surat Naw^ab and that the socofid son Bomanji should be confined to his houae at 
Bombay. The third brother Nowroji went to England to lay his grievances before the 
Court of Directors. Ho reached England about tho end of xVpril 1723. He and hia 
Pilrsi servant were the first Pdrsis, perhaps the first natives, of India who went to 
England. Nowroji was bo successful in England that in a despatch dated London the 
19th of August 1724 the Court of Directors ordered that his two brothers should be 
set free and the dispute settled by friendly agreement. In .January 1724 arbitratnra 
decided that the East India Company should pay the brothers £54,640 (Bs. 5,46,4410) 
in three yearly instalments. Nowroji made a good impression in England. ** Everybody 
here" writes Mr, Bonncl late chief of Surat, 26th March 1725, ** hath groat value and 
esteem for him." When he left for India the Court presented him with a dress of honour 
and a portrait of himself which his family still (A.D. 1808) possesses. On his return to 





The Muealmdn governor of Burnt feared their superior coumgc and let 
them live in their part of the city very much as they liked. ^ Several 
P^Lrsis enjoyed honour and influence at the court of Delhi and some of 
them received grants of land and other marks of distinction.^ Shortly 
after this, owing to the great development of the opiimi and cotton 
trade with China^ the Pdrsis rose greatly in wealth both at Surat 
and Bombay. In a.d. 1783 Forbes noticed that in Surat of late years 
the m'08t beautiful villas and gardens, at least those in the best order^ no 
longer belonged to Moghals or Hindus but to Parsis. They were 
active, robust, prudent, and persevering and formed a very valuable 
part of the Company^s subjects on the western shores o£ IliudustVin 
where they wore highly esteemed and encouragcti. They never inter- 
fered witli the Government or police but gradually and silently made 
money. They not only grew rich but knew how to enjoy the comforts 
and luxuries which money can bring. In their domestic economy 
and still more in their entertainments to their English friends in 

India Nowroji settled in B«iinbay« Between a.d. 1720 and 17.S0 bo bouglit the hill at 
Maiagaoii now knuwn as Nbwroji Hill. It did not then yield more than Uh. liOO a 
ycftr. But its quarries have since made his family one of the richest in Bonihay. Tlio 
family i« known as the Seth Kliduddn. VvCrsi L*rakiu>h, I. 26. In a.d. 17^1 n> PAfm 
named Mainar visited England as assistant to Uanmantniv who is described as a hi^h 
caste Itnihrnan, the ap^cnt of Ra^hnndtbrdv IVshwa. They found many dilHciUtics and 
enduKfi many Iianlships till Kurke took them to Beaconnfteld and gave tbeni a large 
in^iwi-hoaM! in whieh they might keep all the rules of their casto and religion. Burke's 
Life, III. 46. 

».Stavorinu8' Voyages, II. 492, 197, 508 ; III. 1, 2. 

' Of the Tdrsis who visitctl the Moghal court the names of eight remain. The fir^t 
Heherji R&na who (see Above page LUO) invested Akbar with thu sacred shirt and ginllo in 
AJ>. Vi60 and in reward became iiigh priest of Navsdri. The second was MeherjiV son 
Kekoba 1 who about a.d. 1o9^9J wont to Delhi to seek redress as the Naw&b of Surat hail 
tried to take away the emperor's grant of 200 acres. Kekobad was successful and in a 
paper dated the u?nth of Aspuidad in the fortieth year of Akbar's reign he received an 
additional grant of a hundred acres. The thiid was Mulla JdmAsp a priest of Navsnfri 
win about a.d. 1619 in return for a present of ]:ismin oil was ^'iven a piece of land named 
RiLtnijriri near Xavsliri by the emperor Jahangir. The fourth was llustam Mdiiek who 
««Qt with the head of the Surat factory to Delhi in 16(>0. The fifth was ISonlbji Knfvasji 
wlio was of great service t) the EngUsh in 17C0 when they obtiined command of ihe 
Sunt castle and the post of Moghal Admiral. He returned to Surat bringing dn.>sscs 
of honour and a horse ti the heads of the English Company at Sunit (I)csp:itch from 
tlieborat Chief in Council to the Bombay President audCtmncil 3rd May 1700 in Briggs' 
(^iesof Gujarjtstra). It is said that Sordbji K:^vasji, who had l>ecn taught watchniak- 
ing by a £un)i>can, first went to Delhi in 174-li to mi'ud a favourite clock of the emiuTor. 
The emperor, probably Muhammsid bhrfh (a.d. 1 719 - 1748), was so pleased with Sonifbji's 
BVilltliathc honoured him with the title of Nek SOtkhtifn that is Lord of the Lnc^ky 
Uunr, gave him a lien on the customs revenue in Surat and the rank of a chief of 
WO horse and 300 foot. Nek Satkhdn was an an'^csLor of the well known Anleshir 
Bah^lar Kotvol of Surat. The sixth was Kdvasji Knstamji, third son of the high 
priest of Udvflda, who is said to have gone to Delhi as Nek Sdtk ban's assistant. He 
viu given the title of Mirzan KlTosru Beg and lani'#near ^urat which his family, now 
known as the Mirz&n family, enjo>'ed for several years. Mirzin Khosru Bi>g*s skill as 
* watchmaker descended to his sou Kaioji who was watch -fepairer to Bdjin'iv Peshwa. 
After BAjiriv'g fall (a.d. 1^*18) Kaioji went to Bhsivnagar with a dock of lUjirdv's which 
^KiAvnftgar chief had bought. In Bhafvna^-ar he made entirely from local materials a 
Urge clock for which a tower was built and which is still (a.d. 1898) in onler. Kaioji's 
^descendants have a high name in Bhivnagar and in KithiAwdr generally for their skill as 
v&tchmakers and mechanics. The seventh was Kalabhai Sordbji the son-in-law of Nek 
f^Atkhiuu He is said to have gone to Delhi to meet his father-in-law and received an estate 
in Bftoder in Surat. The eighth was Mancherji Kharshedji Seth, a wealthy merchant 
indwell known Dutch broker who some time before a.d. 1784 visiti^l Delhi, it was said 
*Ulie cmi»eror*s request, whs had heanl of the lil>erality for which he was famous. 

Section II. 

A.D. 1700 -180t 


Bection U. Bombay anil Surat Asiatic splendour was ^rccnbly blenda 
V&niM Kiiriipoan taste artl comfort. They were subjpct to little ] 

tnflueucc and lialj!«> to few refitrictions in food, fasting, parifi( 
and religious mortificatiims. Tbey knew liow to appreciate an^ 
tiie bloesiiige by wliich tbey were Biirrounded,' 

Eirly in tlie eighteenth century a Broaeh Pitrsi named 
Uoiiuiji, B weaver, was convicted oF having called a Musal 
i'ij'ir or iulidel, Ahmad lieg, the NawAb of Broach, gavel 
the choiL'C of ombraciug Isliim or of baiag slain by the sword, 
refusetl to chanGre biu faitli and was killed. The Broaeh Pars 
recite hia name with other notables in all public reli^ous eeied 
III A.o. 1S57 there f^s a riot between the Parsis and Mnsala 

During the early part of the nineteenth century the Parsis coB 
to proaiwr. In the general depression of a.d. 1SJ.5 iu Surat the 
alone were well-to-do without a beggar among them, thriving 
even a Bohora could glean only a scanty maiutooanoe,* I 
as wailthy merchants Parsis ruse to high posts under tba 
India Company and in native states. The eiglitoenth and tbd 
years of tlie nineteenth century were tiie Umes of tha 
prosperity of Gujarat ospceiully of 3urat P&rsis.^ Aft( 
great lire of Surat in a.d. 1SJ7 Bombay became the head-qi 

■OrionUtlMQinDire, 111. 411,419. ■ P&ni Praks«h, I. !S. 

' Ou tim IStli iif Muy ]B57 Bnacti became the seeae of & aerioM 
Moalima and Pdraia. The Mfthoinndiuis of UroAcli, wlioie niimbBr* 
irHin:&4ed by the B»Uordi tit Bnrrouuding Till&gcB, veiv oieitcd hy ths 
two rifriiia JivrAj I'l.'shwitjl Kamalkhsuiiid Kerbid Karaaji I'opll, eneimt* of 
Slicritrji, Icaowii gcueral); as Beina Oituli or The Had, liul iiiread tliat 11«U 
dcfllcd the moiqites of the Mahomodani. Daatur AKleahir HnTiiuuji KkD 
tgeA prfcat of ninety jcart, who wiw in clisrgu r>f ono nf the drc-ttiuiplei, war^ 
SavemI ollior I'^rsU wcro woundod and mnch iicopuTt; duatrayed. Beton Ul 
WW killeil with cruelty. The military had to he called to aapiireu tiw riot. 
llio folluu'iug Auputand NovomberCherioten weie.tried,t<<'Dvrerohangol for (hi 
of Uustiir ArJcsbir and Bozon QAudi, vleven, among whom worv ths two Pin\ mi 
wdfi' p.)iiilmnii«l to transportation for lifa, one to penal servUudn for tea yi 
lueiily-IWc iilln-rs to siniillur tormii of iinpri«oamont, 

* lti:l>tT'9 Narrative, II. 17s> There mutt have been cntiaiilertlilo wealth »ii 
i-'nnt P]lniBin A.D. 1823as in that ytuT two Are tem pies were built. Bri^i' 
Gujari^htra, 117. 

* In the h«gian!ng of tho ninetiHjntb ceatnrj Kluraedji Jamshedj Modi, a 
Cambay, ton to great inflnenre iu tlie Peshwa's court at Pooiia. In the BiJtit 
he TOBC to the post of native agent to Culonei Close, tiip Bcsldent at Poona in 11 
A.D. IHIO Bijic&v Pesbwa appuinted him Sir SubhedArof the Earnitak. He vai 
to hold both appointments till A.D. 1813 when lie gave up the Peihwa'a aeTTic«, 
1814 Mr. Ulphtnstone, the British KosidcntiBUBpocting him of advising the Poahwl 
the British, rewarded him for bis pM services bat required him to retire to I 
As ho was about Ifl leave Foonn he died uf pinion whetlier taken by himself or : 
tfael'eabwa is unknown. Modi's deaoondauts enjoy laud in KAioj in Camhay W 
given to him by tlie Peahwa and r*>nfirined tn hU descendants by tho ^U^h. 
aha, son of Itarjoriv Behcremankhin and grandson of Nek SatkluiD, ead 
niuetevnth century hvhl the post of Native Af^nt under the East India Cmnpkt 
states of Sachia, Brinsda, M^<lri, and Dhanrnpor. In A.D. IttlO whena SohiL— 
fanatic calling himself Abdol Behmnn rwaed a rcroU in Mindvi, Dhaujisha wi 
tho force that was sunt to suppress t]ju outbreak. He was among the ' * 
thn river, and endeavoured to prevul on the /akir to surrender hlioivlf , * 
tho Bllja's agent and Bome others ho was killed in tho attempt. I 
Ohanjisha's lervlcoa his vidovr was given a yearly penslAu of Kb, 3U00, 

' Oiietteer.l 



rf the Pdrsis^ and since then has had as permanent settlers tlie largest 
and richest section of the community.- In Bombay the Pilrsis have 
showed themselves most enterprising and successful merchants. The 
bulk of the native foreign trade was in their hands and the very great 

[ Hberality of some of the leading Farsis made their name honourable. 

; Between a.d. 1857 and 1863 they secured a large fehare of the wealth 
that was poured into Western India by the American war and by the 
makiDg of railways. In a.d. 1 864 and 1865 many lately- made fortunes 
were lost and some old families were ruined. But most were able to keep a 
eom])etence and some remain among the richest families in Bombay island. 
Since a.d. 1865 the P^rsis have played a leading part in starting and 
developing the great f actoiy industry that has sprung up since a.d. 1854.^ 
Many of the largest and best managed mills belong to Pdrsis and besides 
tt owners and shareholders large numbere find highly paid employment 
as mechanical engineers and weaving carding and spinning masters. 
Broach ranks next to Bombay in the prosperity of its Pjirsis. 'i'he 
Pteis of Broach Ankles var and other towns in the Broach district are 
wealthier than the bull* of other natives of the place. ITiere is hardly a 
Pdrsi family that does not own a merchant, a trader, or a contractor. In 
ill Gujarat the P^rsis of Broach are remarkable for their enterprise and 
perseverance as merchants. ITiey deal largely in cotton, timber, fuel, 
and in the tiower of the vwnra Bassia latitolia, and own several cotton 
gins. They are also to be found in Bhdvnagar as prosperous cotton 

I^Unjisha's eldest son, became Prin-ipal Sadar Amin in a.d. 1825 and Native Jud^e of 

theSoiat coart in a.d. 1832 and was appointed Governor's 'Native Ag(nt for Dharainpjr 

^nsdaand Mdndvi. In a«d. 1S22 Government granted Phcrozslia the six villages of 

Umber, VelArva, Bhanodra, Gez, Khurvcl, and Udjvdda yielding ' R:». 1'2 ,000 a .year, 

Pherozsha also received the villaj^e of Vandervala worth Rs. 6000 a year from the Binsda 

ddef and a village named Kamlapur from the Mindvi chief. Pherozsha's heirs up till 

voeently enjoyed these villages. He died in a.d. 1843 and was honoure<l hy one of the 

Ittlgiest funerals ever seen In Surat (Piirsi Prakash, I. 417). Ardeshir, Dhanjisha's second 

■on, rose to be the most prominent man in Surat. As Jcotval or head of the police he 

fteed the city from robbers and pirates, remodelled the police, and according to the 

eommon saying enabled the people to sleep with open doors. In a.d. 1829 in reward 

fbr his services Sir John Mabolm, then Governor of Bombay (a.t». 1827- 1830), presentc-tl 

him with a gold medal, dresses of honour, and four villages woi th about lis. 3000 a year. 

Ardeshir died in a.d. 1856. 

' The first great migration from Gujarat to Bombay seems to have taken place 
in A>D. 1790. In that year owing to a severe famine in (lujardt a large number of 
Pifini families from the villages round Snrat crowded to Bombay where they were 
recelTed by the local Prfrsis with sympathy and liberality. 

> The following are the chief available details of the strength of the P^rsis at 
different times since the beginning of the century. In a.d. 1800 there were believed to 
be 18,000 Pdrsis in Surat and '6W^ in Broach (Hamilton's Description of Hindustan, 
I. 616). In A.D. 1816 the Parsi population including Bombay was n»turne<l at 16,000 
EamiUcs (Ditto, 615); in a.d. 1817 at 15,000» families, COOO of them in Bombay 
'J. B. A. Soc. I). In A.D. 1825 there were 10,000 PArsis in Surat (Calcutta Review, 
[X 103-187). In A.D. 1835 there were 10,000 in Surat and not more than 35,000 in 
ill India. (Oriental Christian Spectator, VI. 2o2.) In a.d. 1852 the adults of 
Oajar&t and the north Konkan were estimated at ?t),000 (Briggs' Prfrsis). The census 
reinmi of the Bombay Presidency give their total population, excluding Native States, 
tt 66,498 in 1872, 72,265 in 1881, and 73,9 A5 in 1891. Including Native States their 
total popilation was 91,861 according to the census of 1 89 1. 

* The first steam cotton-spinning factory was opened by Mr. Kivasji NdnAbhAi DAvar 
in A.D. 1854, and the first half-yearly dividend paid was Rs. 600 for a share of Rs. 5 000. 
The first attempt to start a spinning and weaving mill in Bombay was made as early 
as A.D. 1845 by FrAmji yKAvasji Banaji a wealthy and philanthropic gentleman of 
Bombay. But others did not join in the enterprise and the shares were not taken uj) . 

B 520—26 

Section '. 

Settle mk: 

Pdr^i Sua 

in Bomha 

A.D. 1790'. 




merchants. A wealtby P^im meroliant of Broacli has obtained, 
the usual tennB, a large extent of wastelaad iu the PancE MahdlH 
established on it a large and thriving settlement of labourers 
the Bupemfiion and control of a number of Pdrsis whom he has 
coiiragcd to take part in the operation. The settlement after the i 
of its founder's gi-andfather is called Rustampnra. Much wast; 
has been turned into a fertile tract yielding cotton wheat and t 
crops. The Pilrsis of Oandevi Bilimora and Bals£ir rank neit 
merchants. They carry on a. large trade in dried fish, csetor 
timber, fuel, grain, moxora flowers, and molasses. Bilimora Vi 
enjoy a good reputation as carpenters. Balsdr Piirsis were farmers 
villages in the neigltliouring states of Dharampor and Bsnsda 
also held liquor farms and shops. In Ahmeddbiid ai)d CamLay I 
families are very few and unimportant. In Surat and Navedri P4i 
figure as rich landlords, though after the crash that followed the *1 
mania of a.d. 186-i-(35 many of the best and richest, holdings in Si 
jiassud from their hands. In Navefiri the Desai family represents 
largest Prirsi landlords.' Many poor Pdrsi families in Surat atUl [i 
1893) support themselves by the old craft of weaving silk cloth, w 
those in the villages around Suratand in Naveari are chiefly oocm| 
as cultivators of small farms and as drawers and sellers of palm-ji 
On the whole in Gujarat as landlords merch.mts petty tia 
and Government and railway conti-actors, Pdrsis hold a resp 
and prosperous position, I'drsis enjoy almost a monojioly cl liq 
f'lrma and liquor shops. They fill prominent posts in cotton 
ginning factories. In the f«rvicc of Government and of native b» 
as well as in railway and municipal service they are gaining a 
creasing share of well-paid and honourable posts. As lawyers engi 
and physicians PArsis hold their own with any other natives of Indi 

■ Tbc olllue oIfI««ifioFNnTslri has been held bjFifrais since a.d, 14IOwIienC] 
A'm wtiobronght the Kanjita GratoNaTS&ri wasappniDtcd Jndj, The offloe rem 
in CliSDgx A'sh'b family till, nbont a.d. tB9S, Daotor Kekobud, the gon of I . 
Meherji lliinn, was mude desftii His family did not hold the office long. A few] 
later a Mobcd onniEd B{>hram Fcredim secured the office u re[iTtw»t«lire o 
Ktit% (wiiily of will. in no iinlc licir' were left. The dosiiship remained ii 
Parediin'a tamilv till !i!i"Ut i.p. 17(1 ")ipn a large share of the emolument n 
n wealthy Mubeil )V:riiilr. i;.i-(:Li,i|i Si rvni sinne called Desii. Id l.n. I720T«mnIj 
discern ing oo on Eh h> vr Oi.ii Mn''s iiovrcr wonlil dominate in Oojantt. 
aooonliiigly waited mi 1 ibtjiriiv i^iiiknar at Songid and indnoed him to e ' 
posts in the Surait Athavlsi and to \i\ve him the manneemeDt of the r 
of the newly aci^uired lands. Keen riTalty cootioned between the d 
Beheram Kuredau mid the reprcgentatiTes of Temnlji and the office of A 
held sometimes bj the one family w)metimes by the otlier. I'emnlji KaMBi 
family was the more anoccssfnl. Thij are now (a.d. 1895) known na the cliicf di 
to distiagniah them from Itchram Faredan's family who arc called I'oria detii 
A.D. ISOil and 1803 Mancherji Kharscdji the grandson of Temnlji RnBttuuji wt 
maoh value to the British in thcia dealinga with the G^ikwlr that in A.n. It 
Court of Directors granted him a moathly pension of Rs. SOO for three gener 
They also gBre a guarantee oc ha/ie dknri that hi« family estate should b« nnma 
The CftlkwArs continued to dispute the pormaneucy of this guarantee, bat, In 
1838, the Government of India di'cided Ihe point in the Desili's favour. 


Tas Pareis are one of the fairest, and, esi}ecially the villaa;e Pdrsis, 
raa of the most vi^rous classes iu Gujariit. Inmost Pa rsi faces thu 
Bje* are large, black, brown or occafeiijnally gi'ay, the nose is long 
^tai^ht and sometimes hooked, anil the mouSb and chin well cut. 
On the whitle they are better looking aud Beem bettei- fed and better off 
than the bulk of their Hindu and MusalmAn neiglibonrs. Most of the 
younger generation are free from the marks of small-pox by which 
iiiSDy I'f their elders are disfigured. On the other hand the complaint is 
general that especially in towns the young men and women are less 
Tobust than their fathers and mothers. 

Neither men nor women ever leave off cither the Bflcred shirt called 
mtra or the girdle called Aus/i. The men always cover the head with a 
dnillcap and the women with a white headcloth called mdthdbAna. 
Among the men the village Pdrsi generally shaves the whole head except 
tbe tripknot. wears a carelessly wound white headscarf, a short white 
oittoQ coat reaching to the thighs, loose cotton trousers dmwn up to the 
caireB, and native slices or sandals. At home he lays aside his short coat, 
vA instead of his hcailscarf wears a skullcap o£ coloured cotton or silk. 
On great occasions he puts on a ronghly folded cloth turban in shape 
Kke a tiombay PArsi's or a Sural VSnia's headdress and a long wliite 
euttoD coat. Town Pdnds wear in-doors a skullcap a waistcoat fine 
wttijn trousers and slippers without stockings. Out of doors they 

St on a wcll-fnided turban of dark Masulipatam or Bandri that is 
Mulibandri cloth spotted with white. They wholly or partly shave 
tbe bead, the older and poorer keeping a topknot and two ear-locks. 
Of face hair they keep whiskers and mustaches but shave the beard, 
He turban does not differ from that worn by Bombay Parsis. The 
old and those who dislike change, both among the rich and the poor, 
Bfloerally wear a white longeloth coat, and sometimes a broadcloth or 
otber woollen coat made in native fashion, and native-shaped longeloth 
Wsilk trousers. The well-to-do use light well-made native shoes with 
4T without stockings, and in a number of cases light English boots take 
the place of native shoes. The ponr use thick heavy native shoes 
wittmnt stockings. Jlost of the youngt-r men wear coats of cotton 
ailk or wool cut in European style, use silk or woollen trousers of 
Eampean make, and stockings and boots of English pattern. The hair 
U worn short in English fashion. Most have whiskers and mustaches 
battdmost all shave the chin. The priests may at once be known from 
other PiVrsis by being dressed wholly in wliite including the headdress, 
by wearing a full beard, and by not shaving the head. The dress and 
'^numents of a rich man arc worth Kb. 430 to Re. 2000 ; of a middle 
dmiun lis. 120 to.Ke. 270 ; and of a poor ma.n Re. 30 to Bs. 35. 

Section UT^ 


flection m. 

OU J ATI AT ropuLmoNT^^B 

VrtAs ,i«i/ Ornamtiiti; JU'n. ^^^f 











, 1 H 










Turbwii ... 

Shim Suii». 


SUk Troueoi. .. .. 

WilMcoUi .. 

OQitou CmU 

WooUuiiCwti ._ m .. 


St«king» (PiLlrm 


eilk HuHlkcrchU^h 



Ij>ng RoIkb JdDub 

jD«dlcd Blnipi ._ ... 

aeW Rlnn 


WMohmd Chita ... .„ 










10 tow 










All PArsi women wind b white piece of muslin round the be 
gather their hair ia a Grecian knot at the back o£ the head. 
t^aored ebirt and cord village women wear a ti^l'ifttting sit 
bodice. The troueeis are generally o£ coloured cotton. Over a 
wind a eilk rol« ov sdri round the 'body paesing the ekirt back 1 
the feet and drawing the upper end over the right shoulder and; 
doors over the right temple like the higher claes Hindu woi 
Gnjarfit. On great occationB village women wear IroueerB ot silk 
of cotton and silk robes. Slippers aie worn out o£ doore an 
sionally in the house. On high days their ornaments are a goli 
lace, gold or silver bracelets, and gold ean-ings, Wt except that ^ 
change them for gold ov silver their only every-day ornamer 
glass bangles chitala. The dress of women in cities and large 
does not differ from that of village women, except that in towi 
do not draw the skirt of the silk robe between the lege in 
fashion, but wear it hanging in loose folds so as to hide the fa 
Middle class and rich town ivomen always wear silk robes ai 
trousers, and b many cases use a sleeved polka instead of the 
They also wear slippers with stockings indoors as well as out o£ 
and in a few cases Englisii shoes. Their ornaments are cos 
diamonds and pearls as well as of gold- Diamond and pearl « 
have almost taken the place o£ gold earrings, and in very n 

also worn. A rich woman's wardrobe and ornaments are 
Us. ROOO to Rs. 10,500, a middle class woman's Rs. 620 to Rs# 
and of a poor woman's Rs. 110 to Rs. 200. ' 1 


w and OmaHienU : Wot 



Pou«. 1 

1 A„^„. ■ 



. u •■"'■ 1 



Frail To 




5^ « 


lZT^"^«-z :: :: 








ftilJ EOirlDga 



^fter they are eix'montIi8 old, children are clothed In a frock or 
joihldn of cotton if the parents are poor and of silk if the parents 
»rcwell-to-da Ae they grow old, cotton or silk trousers arc added, 
Sid between seven and nine, when the initiation or narjole ceremony 
I'M been performed, children are dressed like ^rown men and women. 
As Ui as they are able, parents are fond of decking their children with 
gold or silver linger rings, pearl earrings, gold bracelets, and silver 
ttlflets. The wararobe and ornaments of a child of rich parents are 
vorth Rs. 300 to Bs.400, of middle class parents Bs. 150 to Bs.250, 
■Ad of poor parents Bs. 60 to Bs. 70. 

Dreu and Omamenli : ChUdren. 




PO.)R, 1 


















sn.,^ ditto ,., - 






?«rlB»rrini. ... .- 






Onjariti is the home tongue of all Gujardt Pirsia. Most GujarSt 
naaa can speak Hindustani and a few in the south of the province 
fcww Mar&tbi. Large numbers of P&rei youths learn English not 
"nly in (JajarAt high sobools but in the collies at Ahmed4b(id 

Section HI. 




Section HI. 


Bombay and Poona. The Fdrsi Zarthosti Madreea in Surat and the 
Tdtd Madresa in Navsdri have been founded to teach Zend, the name 
in common use for the languaj^e of the Parsi holy books/ and Persian 
which most Pjirsi youths choose as one of their classical languages at 
the entrance and higher examinations of the Bombay University. In 
the cities and towns and even in some of the larger villages the local 
and Bombay Pdrsi Panchayat or council schools teach both boys and 
girls prayers in (jujardtl and Zend. The education of poor and middle, 
class Parsi women is limited to what they learn as girls in primaijr 
schools. Most of them can read and write Gujarati and work simple 
sums. Among the well-to-do and educated the higher education of 
women is encouraged.^ 

* The language of the holy books is properly Avesta of which Zead is the commeD' 
tary or translation. Sec Below page 211. 


ffoDSESof town PArsie are <fpiierally lavgf and ivdl built, one or two 
reys high, with walls of briclt am! mortar and tiled loofs. Village 
iBce have generally mud walla and tiled roofs csotpt in Icbhapur 
ir Surat and Elav near Broach, where are a £ew two-storeyed 
leee as good as those in BnmliAy. All have a front veranda, and 
ide o£ the veranda a large hall filling the whole breadth uf the 
ise. All have a separate ci.oking room and a t^ek or lying-in room, 
or houses have only oni? moi'e room or two more at tlie mnpt. In 
ti houses the number of rooms varies from six to ten according to 
<e, means, Mid rwiuirementp. 

rhe famitnre in a rich man's house varies in value from Bb. 2000 to 
. 8000 or even more. It includes sofas chairs tables clocks cabinets 
rrors pictures carpets and cnshions, and in bedroome bedsteads boxes 
1 wardrobes. In a jniddle claes house the furniture, including bed- 
ads a few chairB two or three wiJoden stools and a few U'xes and 
>boardji is worth Kb. 100 to Bs. 500. In a poor house the furniture 
luding one nr two bedsteads one or two boxes and one or two 
oden stools is worth Rs. 10 to Rb. 20. A rich man's house has tilver 
ter-vessels, copper and copperbrats cooking and water-ve«elB, eupa 
he« and trays, and silver and bras.^ goblets, worth altogether Rs. 1000 
Ke. 300j. in a middle class house the corresponding vetseis are 
jtth Re. 100 to Bs. 500 and Re. 20 to Be. 30 in a iwor house. 
ETbongli the knowledge of the original object with which they were 
pe has patsed away, tlie following P^si obEervanees on the occa- 
IDB of building a house and of digging a well are valuable exam- 
T of the widesprearl belief in the Place Spirit and the fear that 
[rill happen to the builder or digger unleGs the I'lace Spirit is 
r piciflbd or scared. The Freemason's practice of laying under 
mndation-stone grain oil wine and coins, fuur of the greattst spirit- 
rs, seems like thcKe Parsi obsen-arces to be handed down from 
! when the Place Spirit was one <f the most dreaded of fiends.' 
a the ftiundatinu of a PiSrsi house is to be laid, at the bottom of 
t p"t that is (lug a small copper box containing paneh-mian 
rally rive Jewels, is placed, but in practice the box holdsa small piece 
liewellcd metal made of gold and silver mixed with atoms of diamonds 
8 and pearls. Besides the piece of jewelle<l metal which costs about 
IJ, the copper box contains a Letelnutaiid betel-leaf, turniei'ic, fresh 
sn grass, redpowder, coriander seed, and raw sugar. After the 
: is laid in the ground the sides of tVe pit are built up and its 
"his closed with brick and moriar. Over the mouth of the pit aie 
n betelnut and betel-leaves dry dates and flowers, a cocoanut and 

Section IT- 

The Houbi. 


section IT- 

The Houii. 

an Ggg are brokoti on it, an urn with bui-uiag fi-ankinceDse is wad 
ovei' it, ami pi-ecus of tlic broken cocoanut aaJ some raw Bugar r 
handed to the workmen. At thi; fr'mc of tiling the tirst iloor tiie w 
' Help of Ahui-amazd' are written in re<l jiaiat on tlie door fiai 
is nailed at the top of the Ei-ame, agar andof tlowerBand two unhuslt 
cocoannts are liung from it along with a bilk bag containing betelJ 
and leaf, dry dates, turmeiio, freeh green grass, redpowder, i-avv b 
ftnd coriander seeds ; an urn with burning frankincense is waved n 
the bag; acoeoaout isbroken. and thapieoeaf'gether witbtherawsi 
are handedamong the workmen. The same ceremony ie performed w 
the topmott beam or viob/t is laid into which in addition the well-to< 
drive a silver nail. ^Vt1eD the honse is fioished the front gate is mar) 
with tuimeric and ralpowder, garlands of flowera and groen 1 
arc Imng on it,, in one of the rooms is let a goblet filled with ' 
witii a cocoanut marked with turmeric and redp.iwder in its n 
and a garland of tlowci-B over it. Pricste are asked to read pi-ayers i 
perform cerfmonies eBpeciallv in honour of the thirty- three Ya; 
angels, and friends and relations arc called to a feast. ^Vhon a 
to be ilug, at the centre of the ground marked for the well. Rowers 
strewn, a cocoanut is broken and its water sprinkled on the ground, ( 
priests lu-e engaged to recite prayers in honour of Avan Arduisur, ' 
watei'-spirit or angel who presides over water, and toporfoi'mceremoil 
in honour of Aapandirmad, t!ie eartli-spirit or angel who pre6i<le5 o 
the earth. 

With PrirsiB eating and drinking are religious duties, beia 
apparently, food and drink help to drive off the evil spirfta and visi 
whicli liaunt the fasting and weakly and whieh it is one of the ct 
objects of the Pitrsi religion to keep at a distanoe.' Itich and idd 
claims Parsis take three mcak a day, at morning noon and mght. Th 
morning meal or breakfast, which they take between six and dgbt, ( 
fflsts of tea. wheat or rice bread, eggs or minced mutton, and butt 
Their midday metil or dinner consists of eooked rice, split puke i 
fish or mutton, pickles, with especially among oldmen, aglassof fao»rii> 
Bassia latifolia liquor, Their evening meal or supper, which they taki 
between seven and nine, consists of wheat or riee bread, one to three* 
more dishes of mutton or fowl cooked with vegetablei o£ diffenSf 
kinds, fish, pickles, and mowra spirits or English liquor and i' " 
followed occasionally by froit. The poor before going to work b 
their fast with cold thick millet bread prepared the n<'ght before K 
chhds or curds. At noon they have cooked rice with split pulse 
curds and pickles, and in the evening millet bread with some vegetal 
cooked peas and pulse, and ocifdsionally mutton or fowl. Mowra s|Hii)l 
are generally taken with the m-dday and evening meals. Tn sea ■Wi 
villages fresh or dried fish forms the principal article of food ; in othe* 
places dried li^h, chiefly dried bumalo Ilarpodon nebereiis, is used u • 
relish at all meals, Giijai-fit Pirsis generally eat seated on a clod* 
from a copper or brass plate on whi(;h the whole dinner is piled. A fe^ 



ell-to^o {amilio3, in imitation of Bombay Persia, iiso chairs ami tables 
id eat ofi china platea. Most eat with their fingers. The well-to-do 
»c mutton almost every day especially at the evening meal. Tuilt or 
ilm-jnice is a favourite crink at almost all meals and esjiccially at 
astfi. The monthly coat of food in a rich family of six iwjreons is 
■dinarily estimated at Be, 85, in a middle class familyat Rs. 50, and 
1 a poor family at Es. !0 to Rs.20.' 

Feasts or rather large dinners are given on three chief occasions, on 
le fourth day after a death, on marriages, and at the religious national 
Btivals called Gahavtbarg. At all public dinners the guests are seated 
1 rows on long strips of cloth about half a ya»d wide, spread in the 
reete, in long verandas, or in public places specially built and set apart 
ir the purpose. On the ground in front of each guest is laid a lat^ 
lantain leaf or plates made of the banian or other leaves called 
itravals. In some cases when feasts are given by the tich, ehairswd 
ihles in English fashion are used. The first course is rice or wheat 
reaA, one or two vegetables, meat, fresh fish, and picklee. Mowra 
lirit is handed round'to all who wish it. The second course is rice 
id pulse washed down with tddi palm-juice instead of mowra, spirits,' 
A animal food Pfirsis eat, of quadrupeda, only the flesh of goats and 
loep. Of birds they generally eat only the domestic hen, but have 
rule or feeling against eating other birds. ITiey do not eat the 
ock after it has begun to crow, because from that time the bird is held 
wred, the belief Vjeing that its crowing has the effect of driving away 
vil spirits. P^sis do not emoke tobacco. 

Section 17. 

Monlhlsr Food Charffti for , 











jg."-... - 

&^ ;;; 



|S»- r 



'Ik eon of ■ fesit for Qfty persuns a : Rice V,t. 1| ; patae 8 annaa ; wbi^al 12 utitim ; 
tate Ri. 2| 1 meat Rs. i j Bpicea 18 nnnu ; vegeUblca R>. 2 ; loaf-plates B bdii&i j 
SjweBi. Cj mUccltaneoui Ei. 2; cook's wuea Ba,3ii toUl B«. 341 or bq aversge of 



Section V- The Partis of Giijai'At both luon ami women are early ritors. 

flZl-. religious, who make a point of reciting praj'era between three ivM 

morning and dawn £t which the P^rsi day begins, leave their W 
HI LiiK. between thi-eo and four, and most othere arc up a good while he 
sunrise. All, on rising, standing at the foot of their bod, loosen % 
Nicrcd cord iiixtr and reeito the kusti prayer.^ When the praTQi 
finished they take some coiv's urine uerang in the palm of the I 
hand, and while reciting a short prayer,' rub it on their face ha 
and feet and afterwards wash with water the parts rubbed. The del 
and those who have leisure bathe at once daily after the neraug pn 
The poor bathe once in three or four days. Evei^' time they take n I 
that is before they commence to wash the body with water, they niM 
urine thiee times over their whole person. After washing the body ■ 
clean the mouth and again recite the sacred-cord prayer. They area 
reaily either to recite further pi-ayers or to take a light hreakfost, a 
to work or visit friends or the fire-temple. At noon they dine, t 
short nap or go back to work, or, in the case of leisurely or ri 

Jieoplc, play chess or cards. Clerks shopkeepers and traders I 
uncheon sent to them at their shop or office. Of the well-to-do " 
that stay at home have tea between three and hvc, and in 

' In recitiiiB tlio pniyer the tbcIUt alwuys fac«s tho Bun, tlist is he I 
in tlio moriiiug till nuun and to the vrcit fiom noon to «uiidown. After bi 
raolter either Iacci b lump or the mooQ iF it ia viuble. The wcred tliieiid o 
- prajer runs : 

Let AharaiMud be king, and lot Ahriirdn, the WKked bnlder-aloot, be ■mitti 
broken. Hay AhrimAa, tbe Dcvu (devils), the DrajM (evil apiritd), tbe lurcerc 
evil KIkLi (wiHnlly blind) »nd Karapta (mlfull; deaf), the opprenaors, thecvil-i| 
tbe AsmrigB (pervertcra of truth), thi> nlckpd, the onemieB, tbe Paria (fanes) be iT 
■nd broken, Maj the cnouiiei he alBicted. May the cnemiei be far off. " 
I^rd 1 of all ftini I rep*nt. 

All tlic evil thoDglits, ovil words, evil deeds, wbicb I have thought, spoken, dd 

world, which are beoomo my nature — all thaae tins, thoughts, words. andS 
ily, B|iiritiuil, earthly, heavenly, O Lord, pBirdi ' " ' ' "' ~""' """" 
wurda (good tlionghti, good spci>ch, g:ood deeds). 

bodily. 8|iiritnat, earthly, heavenly, O Lord, pardon ; 1 repent of them with ibam 

Pieaacdhe Ahuraroazdjcontemptfiic AngTon>iiyiii(SBtsn), Come to my pnH 
O Ahnra 1 1 am a Uaztbtyaonian. Aa n ItUidayacman, a foUowcr of Zanthusti 
confusa myaclf. Qi a pnuaer, aa a follower. I piaise the well-thonght acntin . 
well-apokf a speech, the well-done de«d. I praiao tbe Maadafscnian Ikw which tl 
from doubt, which remorea atrk'e, which givca bannony, and is tratb. 1 
that are and all that will he, the law, that which is of Zarathnstra and Alini 
the gTcat«st, tbe best, and tbe bigheat, 1 believe tliat ft'om Aburanutd ■ 
coiDO. Such is tbe Mazdaj-aciiiitn low. which I praise. 

* Tho cow-urine or nrraiij) prajcr runs ; Broken broken be ^aUn. Almioin I 
deedi and worka are vile anil aecuned. May Ihdae vile and acouraed deed* audi 
never reach or inAuonce mo. The three and thirty AmttinipAuda kod Abarft 
giver Kt vit.-tDTiQDi and holy, , 


go to the market, the rivet Bide, or any other place where they can meet 
fcenJs and gossip. They return home about seren. Traders shop- 
keepers and clerks Etay at their offices or shops till about eevcn. Chi 
nluming home they wash their face bands and feet, recite tlie sacred* 
thread prayer, and sup either at once or after reciting the night prayers, 
beginning with a short prayer before the lamp. After supper they play 
chesa or cards or chat for an hour or two, or at once go to bed. After 
eveiy call of nature all Filrsis wash the face iiands and feet and recit« 
tbe facred-threail prayer. In places where palm iiquoi" is plentiful ae 
inNavtari and in the Ullages round Sumt, /(((fi or palm liquor parties 
of men and women are often arranged, those who join them going to 
the palm gardens about three and making merry ^ill after sansot. 

P^rsi women rise about four, go through the sacred-thread and cow- 
nrine prayers, wash, sweep the house and part of the street in front of 
the house, clean the vesBels to be used during the day, bring the day's 
Bipply of freshwaWr from the well, sjirinklo with water tbe whole 
faoQBe, the CDtrasco, and the street lu front of the house and drawlncky 
chalk-marks on and in -front of the threshold .' In families which have 
several women, while some sweep the house and make the ebalk-marks, 
others neatly dressed go out to fetch drinking water which is sometimes 
brought from a distance. By seven they have prepared tea and break- 
lutfor the house, and cooking and other house-work keeps theffl busy 
till about noon. AVbeu the family is not large or when there arc more 
Hon one woman, they find time, m priestly families, to spin wool and 
weavB sacred threads' or in lay families to weave cotton tape and 
cloth. After the male members of tbe family have dined, the 
voDieu dine, clean the dishes, rest or Imthe, and spin or weave till about 
tliree. At three the house is again swept and cleaned and sprinkled 
with water, andabout fi ve those who did not bring water in the morning 
M to fetch it. On returning home they light the lamps and carry over 
tile whole hoase a small metal urn of burning frankincense, and, 
«peeially on new-moon day, bang garlands of sweet flowers round the 
lamp. They ncit bake tbe bread and make ready the other aiiicles 
which have to be cooked for supper. They sup «heo the men have done, 
clean the diebes, look after the children, see that all in the house is right, 
I isd go to bed. In rich fomilies where servants are employed women 
do Dot fetch water or clean dishes. They pass their leisure in sewing, 
diittiog, reading, and visiting. 

'When about five years old PArsi boys are sent to primary schools kept 
by PArsi priests or Hindu masters. The Parsi priests teach their 
pupils the OujartLti alphabet and the {jprbions of the Zeud Avesta, 

Seotion y. 

Daily Lm. 

■ Tfac cbnlh-marks are not different from tliose nsdc b_v Ilindna, They arc mads 
at anir whit« ponder, cliolk bu'mg adoptad ai being convenitiut. In most fkinUiea 
ttc laeky or spirit'icatiug power ut tliene juittccQi ia for(n)tton. Tbe oommon belief 
iilh«liuf figure, line, or curve that ia grueofuJ or catcliia tlje fancy mny be intro- 
inoA, Ttiew marks ore made on boly days and otbet leative and joyoua occasions. 
Boma houe- motbers maku tlicie mnrka daily cxcvpt whim in mourning. 

' Tbe wool which Piwl women >pin generally pomoa fronx Ordinary wool 
NlU U lU. 1 to Hi. 6 tii« pound, and the beat quality nt Kb. B to IU. IS. Women of 
PNftly familiea earn ag Dihcb as Bi. 10 to lis, 25 a month by wosTing Bncniil thnadk 




which a child Ebould know by heart for tho eacred-thread ( 
wliich takes place when the coild is between Bevcn and nine, 
eeven a boy goes to the public Kbool to learn Gujardti andKngliek 
he is Ihe sou of a priest, tho boy continues to attend the priest*! 
both morning and evening to learn tho portions of the 2^nd Avi 
quired for tho Jlerbad or ordination' ceremony, tho rest of tho da; 
devoted to eecnlai- education in the ordinary sdiooli. The boy faq 
an nnder-priest or Herbad at twelve or sonietimea later. By th| 
he has gained a fair knowledge of Gujar^ti, arithmetic, and geog 
and is alile to read a little Entjlisb. He is then taken from the i 
school and placed almost wholly under a priest from whom he lea^ 
portions of the Zcnd^ Avesta required for the Maratab ceremi 
^ssing which an under-prieet or Herbad becomes a full priest or 
The compulsory education of Parsi chUdren in the Zend Avesta i 
only to the portion required for the sacred-thread ceremony, 
for the sons of priests who mean to enter the priesthood any fi 
knowledge of the Zend Avesta is optional. All that a layman re 
is to be able to recite or to read fluently from books printed in Gi 
character the portion of the Zend Avesta used in iiaily prayars. i 
girl when about six years old is sent to the gills' school whore 
tanght the Gujardti alphabet, the portions of ^e Zend Avesta re 
for the sacred-thread ceremony, and sometimes if she belongs 
priestly class to spin wool. After the tluvad ceremony, till she i< 
ten years old, a girl generally continues to attend school from ten 
She attends school to a later age if her patents desii-e her to pursoe '. 
studies. During the rest of the day she helps her mother in honee 
She is generally married between five and twelve and till she c( 
age she goes to her father-in-law's bouse occasionally and on ho 
After she comes of age she is a menal>er of her father-in-law's fami 
occasionally visits her parents' house. Marriages at a more advano 
are becoming less uncommon. 

vic<i and the maralnb ccrvmouy n 



id At: 





-OQ^ to 
a ten s^^ 



Thb religion of the P^rsis is known as the Mazdayacnian religion^ 
Muda meaning Omniscient the name of the Almighty. Thus Ahura- 
Biud means the Allknowing Lord. In his confession of faith the 
Vim declares : I am a Maz^yacnian, a Mazdayacnian through Zara- 
fhortta that is Zoroaster the Prophet, who according to one account 
fifed about b.cIOOO and according to other accounts even earlier. The 
lifie of Zoroaster is surrounded and overBhado\fed by the miraculous. 
He was bom at Bae in Media and flourished in Baktria. The sacred 
looks of the Zoroastrians are known as the Zend Avesta, literally the 
tantlation of the Avesta or sacred texts.^ According to tradition in 
ZoioaBter's time these books included twenty-one nv^kn or parts.^ Of 

'Ace^o^ng to Dr. Spiegel, the proper meaning of the word Zend or Zand is com- 
ntntuy or translation, that is the translation of the ancient texts whose ^^sanian name 
«■• Avesta or Apasta fWestergaard's Zend Avesta, I. 1). Thus strictly the 
lugnage of the ancient texts is Avesta. Zend is no language. But the word, meaning 
ttmoumtAry, indicated the Pehlcvi langoage, in which the original t«xts were explained 
udtmnslated daring the Sassanian period (a.d. 226 to 651) when the Zoroastrian writings 
voseoUected and.compiled. After Neriosangh (a.d. 720} confusion arose. The original 
Mnlng of the word Zend was forgotten, and Zend and Pehlevi being understood to be 
the oasies of two languages, Zend was applied to the language of the original texts and 
F^vi to the language of the Sassanian period. Westergaard says : This confusion 
Mdemmeoas use have now become too universal to be corrected ; to avoid it in some 
^Wgne, I shall apply the form Zend to the ancient language and 2^nd to the Pehlevi 

'Hie names and contents of the original twenty-one parts or nitsks of the Zend 
^VBiU were: 

(i) SeMtar or Setvd y&shtt from the Zend ^niti praise or worship, comprised 
^Iiirty-thiee chapters, containing the praise and worship of the yazata* or angels. 

(2) Setud^oTy twenty-two chapters, containing prayers and instructions to men rcgard- 
^^ good actions, chiefly those called jadangoi that is to bring men to help their fellow- 

(3) Vahigta Mathraj twenty-two chapters treating of abstinence, piety, religion, and 
^lie qualities of Zoroaster. 

(4) Bagha^ twenty-one chapters, containing an explanation of religious duties, the 
^^ers and commandments of God and the obedience of men, how to escape hell and gain 

(5) Ikkmddtt thirty- two chapters, containing the knowledge of this world and the next, 
^^le fatore life, the character of the people of the next world, the revelations of Gk)d con- 
^^ming heaven, earth, water, trees, fire, men, and beasts, the resurrection of the dead and 
'^\ie passing of the ehinaat or way to heaven« 

(6) Nd£tr, thirty-five chapters, of astronomy, geography, and astrology, translated into 
•^jabifi under the name yimlil and known to the Persians as Faw&nuizjan. 

(7) Pachamy twenty-two chapters, treating of lawful and unlawful food and of the 
Rew a rd to be reaped in the next world for keeping the six Gahamb&rs or gatherings and tho 
^Vtfvardagtfn or All-sonls feast. 

CB) Rattuhtai, fifty chapters, of which after tho time of Alexander the Great all but 
^liirteen were lost^ treating of the different ratus or %eads of creation, kings high-priests 
and miniitersi ^vins lists of Ahuramazd's or pnre and of Ahrimdn's or impure fishes, 
*nd tome account ofgeography. 

(9) Bwrutty sixty chapters, of which after the time of Alexander the Great only twelve 
^v^nleft, containing a code or laws for kings and governors, an account of crafts, and 
■^rietnres on the sin of lying. 

(10) KotJUuaruht sixty chapters, of which after the time of Alexander only fifteen were 
^1 treating of metaphyiics, natural philosophy, and divinity. 





ihcso ancient writings ther© remain little more than fragments, 
addition to these fragments, the sacred Ijooka of tbe present PSni 
jnclmlo more modern (200 to 500) commentaries cxplauationE a 
casaye.' The language of the early fragments in known ae Zend i 
tliat o£ the commentaiies ae Pelilevi.* Few Pareia are abio to n 
or iiud(?rBtand either the original Zend texts or the Fehlevi coounentari 
In addition to the Zend texti and the Pehlevi commentarieB the P^ 
have a collection of writings iu Persian called raenyets mcanisg ci 
which are accepted as authoritative. These are the result of refereiK 
by Indian Pirsis to Peraiao Zoroastrians on doubtful points chiefly 
ritual when in the fifteenth century a fondnesa for their reli^n « 
revived among the PdwiB.^ 

The leading beliefs which as a Zoroastrlan the ordinary Pdrsi hob 
are tlie existence of one God, Ahuramazd, the creator of the uoiven 
the giver of good, the hearer and answerer of prayer. Next 
Ahuramazd the name most familiar to a P&rsi is that of AhrimI 
Angronianyufi, or Satan, to whom he traces every evil and miaforta 
that happens to him, and e\ery evil thought and evil passion th 
rises in his mind. He thinks of AhuramazJ and Alirimiin as host 
powers and in his prayers he often roi)eats the words ' I 
and honour Ahuramazd; I smite Angromanyus.' Ho Iwlieves tl 
every man has an immortal soul which after death pa^^scs mti 
to a place of reward bchesht or of punishnient 'duzak. " 

(11) rMfafApiTuiilgrixtj cliapterB, of which after the Umo of Alexander only toi 
left, troting of the reign of king Qastasp, hia coiiveruun to Zoroaitor'i region, aot 
pmpagatiun by him tliroaghout the world. Of this part eight chapton remi^a. 

(12) Chidnttht, tnenty-two duptcrc, wu divided into lix jurto ; Fint on the ni 
ot thi> Divino Boing, the Zorosstrian futh, and the daUoi HDJmned by it ; Second oa 
i>1}0dii)ncc{tiieto the king ; Third on. the reward for good aotiona iuths iiait world and 
to bo «avad from hall ; Poocth on the atmotnre of tho world, agricultarc, and boH 
1^'if Ih on the fonr clasttes in a nation, rulen warrion huabandmeu and crattanont 
ootitents ot tho Sixth are not roeorded, 

(IS] Sajlind, tiity chapt^rB, outhe minules of Zoroaator and on the QatuinUi 

(14) ./anigAt, twenty-two chapters, troatiag medically ot births and deatlu and 
some are bom rich and othsrs poor. 

(16} Saglian Yeih, sevi^nteen chapters, containing tho pn>iBi> of God, of angalBi al 
good an gel -like men. 

(14) Kat/Antn, fitty-fonr chapters, with a codu of laws stating what ii allowsd 
what forblddoa. 

(17) Hutpantm, sirtj-fooc chapters, on pnnishmunt for ains, and knowlodge of 
IB lawfol and what is unlawful. 

(15) JTawdimjiJ, sixty- five chapters, on marriagii between near ralalivei called Ui 

(10) ffuiidniM, fifty-two chapters, ,troating of the civil and crimioal laws, c 
bonndArics of tho country, and of the roBum-ctiDD, 

(SO) Vaniliddd,tvieDtj-tvo chapters, on the removal of all nncleanliness, the n«gh 
which causes eviL This is the mSj nuak thn( has come dowii entire. 

(21) HAdokla, thirty chapters, oa<.he woadera of creatiun. Of this three ohi 

' The DHmea of the portiona preserved and collected are Taahca (Ixeshao), V 
ratn (Vispoiid), Vandidifd, Y^ta, Hadokbt, Vistosp Nosks, Afringan, Ni« 
Qebe, gome misceliaueons b^gments, rmd the Sirozab (thirtj days) or c^endor. 

* Ot the correct meaning of Zend tee note 1 page 211. 

' Detfuls arc given nnder History. The authoritative liaTliycts date from Ji.D. 
to A.D, IMS) nud number twenty-two lettiTs. 8cc page 189 uojo 3. 



nwwd or pnnishinent of the eoiil depends on its conduct during life. 
At the same time the due performance by its friends of eertain rites 
lu:l{is the gouI of the dead to reach the alntde of happiuese. He believes 
jn good angels, who carry out the wishes of God and who watch over 
fire water aud eartli. He venerates 6re and water and the sun moon 
aiul Etars which Ahuramaztl has made. He leheves in evil spirits who 
are in league with and obey Ahrimdn. He believes in Zoroaster or Zara- 
tfaustra as the'Prophet who brousht the true religion from Ahurnmazd. 
He believes that when the world fecomes overburdened with evil, Sosliios, 
theson of Zarathustra, will be bom and will destroy evil, purify the world, 
and make the Mazdayaenian religion supreme. He calls his religion 
MnZiiiiinhni JittnrMa2iUaf!hniZarllionlidin,J^iiB the religion of 
Manda the AUknowing, or tho religion oi Mazda through Zarthost 
Bis c-xle of morals is contained in two sets of three words, the one set 
Sttma/a, iuklita, hiierasia. Holy mind holy speech holy deeds to be 
prised and piiictJEed, pleasing to God, the path to heaven ; tho other 
«t, Dttshmata, iiu2\ikhttt, duzuvnrdn. Evil mind evil speech e\\\ deeds, 
to be blamed and shunned, hateful to God, the path to hell. 

Fire ia the chief object of Pdrsi veneration and tlte Fire Temple is 
tlte public pliice of Piirsi worship, Gnjardt fire t-emjiles in outward 
ippfeiranec do not differ from the better class of Piirsi dwellbgs. 
Imide they include an outer and an inner hall. In the centre of the 
inner hall is a small domed room, and in the centre of the room on a 
wlid stone stool stands an urn of copper-brass or of silver in which 
burns the sacred fire fed with sandal and other commoner woods. 
Siered fires are of three orders; the household fire called the Atesh 
DsdghAn or Proper-place Fire ;' the Aderdn, literally Fires, the pluml of 
Atfth Fire, because it is composed of several kinds of fire ; aud the Atesh 
Bcheram, the fire of Beherim, the angel of enccess, which is composed of 
wteen kinds of fire. Atesh DAdghan is the hearth fire which a Piirsi 
never allows to die out. If ha chang&j his place of residence in tho 
tune town or village he carries his fire with him to his new abode. 
If iiegoes beyond the town or village he gives his fire to his noighboura 
or relations who mix It with their own tire. Besides in houses the 
Ateali Dfulghiin or Proper-place Fire is kept in a fire temple known 
« tlie Agiiri or Fire-place,* and also called Daremeher, that is in 
nioilem Persian the Gate of Mercy, This fire temple ia set apart for 
ritea fr)r the souls of the dead. The A derdn, a fire of greater saci'edneBs, 
ia a I'lnra! word, because it is made of 'fii'C f-aken from the house of a 
tBanber uf each of the four classes of the old Persian community, of an 
Athoman or priest, of a Bathestar or warrior.of a Vasteriox or husband- 
"iw, and of a Hutox or craftsman.^ Ejich of these four fires i a thrice 
purified by holding sandalwood chips over it hi an iron sieve, tliis 
aeoond flame similarly creating a tliii'd, and the third a fourth flame. 

'OWaWn is the PehlcTi ddilhi fit nnd tlie Zend satu a place. 
' noin the Sanskrit agai fire aud dri place. 

llnlj lilt first description of Sre ia at prcBcnt prooored frooi the houM of a VktA 
Awnrnui. The renminioii; three kinds of fire are uow obtained from members of 
<*«' oomninnitics, na no liiTiaLoa of llie PSraia oorresiioudingto tbeolasaeaia Persia 
*"< 11 prcseot. 

Sectitm ' 




Sfetlon VI. 




Mnt Bihrdm. 

At each step in the process saored tests arc recited. On the next 1 
theee foiir }mrified fires are placed together in one urn wilh certi 
rites and ceremonies. On the third dav the fire is installeiL , 
memhers of the community flock to the fire temple to take part 
the ceremony of installation, that is of placing the eacred fire oi 
stone etool in the centre of the vaulted room wliich too has i 
meantime been purified for the reception of the eapred fire. 
l>roceBsion is formed headed by priests armed with sword and i 
After the weapon-bearing priests eomo two priests holding the s 
fire-urn and others carrying a silver canopy over it. Behind thei 
walks the high priest, other priests, and lajTnen, who solemnly c 
the tire from one part^f tbp building to another and finally enthn 
it on a maihle or stone stool in the sncred room, and amid praj 
followed by feasting and rejoicing declare it ready to receive 
homage of worshippers. In one corner of the room from a bright ch 
hangrf a brass bell which the priest rings at each watch or gefi^ 
he performs u ceremony near tlie fire. 

The Atesh Bebrim, that is the fire of the- Angel of Succe«, 
woi-shipped in four temples in Gujardt of whieh_two are in Surat i 
one each in Udwara and Navsari. The difficulty of collecting i 
purifying the fires is the reason why so few temples liave the Behi 
fires. Sixteen different fires are required and each of these has to 
purified by igniting sandalwood chips held over it thirty to a hund 
and forty-four times while priests recite prayers. Of the siztcea fi. 
the fire from striking flint or from rubbing wood has to be puri] 
144 times and unit«d with the fire from a Pdvei's house which is to 
first purified forty times, and all these three fires thus made into c 
fire from the burning pyre of a dead body in addition to a i _ 
cleansing has to bo pnrifie*! ninety-one times,* fire from lightn; 
ninety times, fire from a dyer's furnace eighty times, fire from 
brick-kiln seventy-five times, from a public bath seventy times, fit 
a potter's kiln, from a blspoksmith's furnace, from an armourer'Bjf 
a baker's, and from a distillery or an idol temple sixty-one times, i 
a goldsmith's sixty times, from a mint fifty-five times, from 
ascetic's or a coppersmith's fire-place fifty times, from a camp 
resting-place thirty-five times, and from a cattle-shed thirty tj 
The sixteen fires arc purified in the following ordor, (1) bun 
gi'ound fire, (2) dyer's, (3) public hath, (4) potter's, (5} bricbmakfl 
(6) ascetic's or coppersmith's, (7) goldsmith's, (S) mint, (9) bla 
smith's, (10) armourer's, (11} baker's, (12) distillery or idol ten^ 
(13) rest-place or camp, (It) cattle-shed (15) flame caused 
lightning, and (IC) Pdrsi house and flint and dry wood. As i 
fire is purified it is brought into the fire temple and with pr»j 

' The watch or ss/i the first of Vhioh begins at dami is one-fifth pwt oT 
twenty-fonr bonra. The five vtatchcs are : Udvangch from down to noon, Rm 
vangtk from noon to three, Ojirarangrh from three to snnset, EvetarutlutmmAi,^ 
CQDset to midnight, and Hotcngch from midnight to dawn. The relipons 
enjoined to ofEer prajerB at encb watch ; prayers oSered in the fifth or tnidnigk 
dawn watch are the moat officucioiis. 

an urn. Ou the first ot the five Gatlia i-i Hymn Days, 
s the five extra days at t!ie end of the year, tlie sixteen fires 
I out of the sixtcon unis and in the order in which tliey wero 
tte plaoed in the one urn whieli is to hold tha llehriim fire. 
Vbe tliirty days of the first following month daily prayers are 
net the um with the fires. At the cad of the thirty days the 
res have hecome a BehriSm fire. When the fire is ready the 
mtral lire room ia purified, and on some lucky day, generally 
eredto fire, with a procession of prieets holding maces and 
M urn with the sacreil tire under a silver canopy is brought 
ion and set on a stool in the second room, A sword and two 
hui^ on the walls, and at each corncs of the room from a 
lain hangs a bi'ass bell which the priest rings at each watch 
len he performs a ceremony near the fire." Amid prayers 
by fcaslmg and rejoicing the Behrjm fire is declared r^dy to 

igioufi PArsis visit the fire temple almost daily, and on four days 
month, the ?rd 9th 17th and 20th, which are eacred to fire, 
PArais go and offer prayers. Men and women come to the 
:t of the temple and worship the fire in the same way. On 
the fire temple the worshipper wasties his face liands and 
._ recites the kiisti or sacred-cord prayer. Then carrying a piece 
idalwood and some money for the oSiciating priest, he passes 
;h the outer hall- On entering the inner hall on which a carpet 
)ad be takes otf his shoes and gees to tlie threshold of the central 
am, kneels, and f^in staiiding begins to recite prayers. The 
ipper is not allowed to pass the threshold of the fire room ; the 
alone is allowed to enter. Soon after the worshipper reaches the 
old one of the priests brings the worshipper ashes from the urn 
ilver or copper-biass ladle. The worshipper takes a pinch of the 
und applies them to his forehead and eyelashes and hands the 
the money and sandalwood, 'When his prayers are over the 
;pper walks backwards to where he left his shoes and goes home.^ 
idee fire the objects of Zoroastrian veneration include six 
jtpdadt that is the Immortal Furtherers and twenty-three 
'i^ or Worshipfuls, Ahuiamazd ordered his name to he included 
; the AmshaspitndS] on which account in the Pdrsi scriptures 
re known as Ha/la AvtiAatpi'indi, that is the Seven Amshispands, 
toly Furtherers and the Worshipfuls are believed to preside over 
nt objects and parts of the universe. Seven of the thirty days 
h month are named after Almramazd and the six Immorbal 
erers, the remaining twenty days after the fi/st twenty Yazads or 
fafols, and the names of the eighth fifteenth and twenty-third 

heb watch, btaides ringing tlis lull, tlio priest cleans tbo room, wkslica tbe 
il, Brrangei tbo c'tndcri<, &nd puti f rtuh uadul or othei wood on tbe fire, ftll the 
citing tbe prsjer ia praiBS of tliu Bte. 

Pdrais Ij&ve (a,d. 18981 eight AUsh IkbrdiDs snil 133 AglArii, Details are givea 
indix I. page 247, 

~ il word ^aiad meang Hortby of ivonhip. In tba Ikttr Peblevi writing) tha 
m derived from ' yaiad ' ii applied to tbe Almighty. 

Sectiaa VL 


^^^A » tea br mlHi-^ I 

wfcJ^wwrlM >■■■■ fctt»faBL Itwr^ ti» Tiw^W 1 
4y— ■ — !■ mi l le r frinl a - id MMort m. TIk I 
i^M All SHiT^r vbwfi»4sn &Ik ol I 

MMdtMaialL A*»eMJo»igd«Ayiite« 

««H^ ai^tk w odU Bid Wmv » ynA te &» 
On AU Bod* Dt./ Fia»ntolkTa-(ra rfSaea 

dllE-reut lwiuU«, MfMaaHir & 
yvv, ffpfcad SHpeU uid bcid ( 
Uw Mrne <)b)« 
jwrfrrruuxl on Furardiii tJ 

I inii ortwkw of tbe mwauf i« — ■ ^ « 
A.'in urduD FewA wlucfa faUiMlUistkel 
wiVfnUi ni4iit)i. It 14 eqieaally pofsW it ~ 

Itlflinr or Mitlira, the •on of wm m^ .^ 

H"iii» 'if I.H« mi»t nuinonUe efoita in aaont 
vL-ljify irf Kanrdim <ivcr Zahak ud tfce TJrioiy 
>^frit«wl», uro l>i'li''vi>c! t/> liare t&k«n pboe on tfc« 9h> FbM 
fcMiHJi K''«'l- nvmtlily f-Ast ia the W«ttT Sfim Vwi 
AfiUiiiw Jaiax. TU few* whi<± till oo Ann tbe lOdi 4 
J ("t" ll'" "ilflil'i ""TitU, ix beta in honwir rf tie Wata- f 
I„u..l wit" liruii.U <iv..r witor. On Uti> day Pinw 
*r (h, a rk«r*l»»k ami pnty to the WateAagd. 
Iilirt »nft I'l' i'i*»" oiiiiimiiuta uugu and flowers. Scoie 

thm mtae Meet nl bIm oUed An«nlc« /mm « 

iwrf'rruud on Fwvaraiii tfa IMk ^ rf AAr A 
Utirl in iniiortwkw oftbemwtUr £eMliM4a J 

111! Mukor III Haft' H (land. 
lit M»ll.l'. "4 1UU>I. 1 j 1,'n 

l.,ii',ii *wii- r "*'"*i"' 

U KilunB|i(uiL 


tiioee who liave made a vow to do bo if their afEaiis prosper, make 
cwa:t-c»keB calleil pollit and eetid part of the potUt to friends and 
throw fcome into the water either of the sea or of a river. This ceremony 
ia performed hj women. The fifth in importaiife of the monthly 
{Baota is the Fire Feast AJar Jamii, whch falls on Adar the 9th day 
of A'dar tha ninth month. On this day almost ail FArsis go to the fire 
temple with offerings o£ sandalwood and pray hefoi-e the drc. The rich 
and weil-t«-do distribute money in charity to priests and to poor Pdrsis 
vho gather in the temple. The sixth or Animal Feast callinl Bahman 
Jasan aftor Bahman the animal guardian, Calls on Bahman the 2Dd day 
ot Bahman the eleventh month. During the whole month of Bahman 
ftll try to show kindness to animals, feeding street dogs with milk and 
attle with grass. The devout abstain from ainmal f<xxl during the 
whole mouth, and the others on at least the second twelfth fourteenth 
and twenty-tirst days, which are sacred to Bahman. The seventh 
feast, the Karth Fea^t or Aspandiid JuMan, falls on Aspandiid the 
6th day of Aspandiid the twelfth month. On this day every family 
brings from the priest, generally their family priest, dry svind whieh 
the priest haa purified V>y pronoimcing certain prayers over it, and a 
Jiiece of paper on w.hith a Pehlevi text is written. The sand is 
([irinkieil in every corner of the house, and the put-er is fixed on the 
main entrance door. The Pehlevi text on the paper rune: ' By the 
uma of the Creator AliuramHKd. on tlie day ARpfl.iid^ of the month Aspftndfid, I 
■Anta tho luoutlia of all liurtfnl animaU. evU apirit-B devs, perverting sjiiriU dari{j*, 
miOfTen. oItbs. oppre«sor», the wilfully blind, the wilfully deaf, evil doors, and 
nbb«n. 1 do this in tho nams of Ahnramanl. of tha VB^Iiant Farcdun. of th« 
T*tar star, of tbu GaUvea star, o{ tha Vanant star, and of the Haplairing itar.' ' 
The five remaining Jasane are : 

ArdibeAciht Jiuan, which fulls oti Ardibchesht the third day of Ardibehesht 
Ui« •WMiud mouth, in in honour of ArdibelieHht Amshaspiud who presides 
unt firn. ilauy go to the lire t«mples ou this day. 

Kkonlttd Jtuam, whieh tails on Khordnd the sixth da^ of Khordad the third 
nontb, ia in honour of Khordad AiushtiBp&ud who pn^sidcs ovi^r nnter. 

Amardad Jatan, which falU on Amardud the seventh Awy of Aiuardad the fifth 
■■onth, iB in honour of Anurdad Amshaapind who presides over vs^tatioii. 

Aonrdr Jcuan, which fulle uii Shariv&r tlio fourth day of Sharivar the sixth 
pUDtb, is in boQOur of Sharivnr Amshaspiud who presides over metals and 
U the lord of wealth. 

Dik Jasan, which fiJI» on Ahuramazd Roz the first day mid on the eighth 
nlwalh and twenty-third days of l>ch th« tenth month, ia in honour of 
Uanutuud ths Creator. 

Besides the monthly ji*an* or feasts other festivals called GahamMrs, 
uterally season-feasts, are held in great veneration among the Piirsis. 
These feasts which are commonly called Gahambiirs originally marked 
tto seasooB. ITicy are held six times a year, each lasting five days, 
wlwn tho whole commiuiity meet on terins of eqi»lity and offer prayers 
»iil thanks and join in a common feast The first Gaharabdr named 
il'dioiarem or mid-spring, lasts from, the Uth to the 15th of 
Afihbchesht the second month, when according to tradition heaven was 

'IVfifar ii tho etu Siriae. As B gaia/a or Kngcl Teahtftc pmidei oyer nun, 
**•»« i» tlio principal Btar of tho W«st, and Lt suppoBod hj Dr. Geiger to be the atar 
Z^f^ in the constellation of Lyra, VamtH/ the domiuaDt star of th« l-'outh it iilpntiflc^ 
T^h tbs itar Fowalhant in the constellntion of Pisces Australli. Hiplaii-ing or tli« 
'^m Hmti i> the Great^fiear, tho Iwding canstolUtion of the North. 

Section T. 

W'ffA ■ 

Section VL 

Bigl, L 




(.'reateil. The iecoud Gahatnbtlr named Mediaihem or oiii I -summer, lai 
from tlie 11th to the 15tli of Tiv the fourth month, when accoMitig; 
tradition water was createl. The thinl UahamlulT iidined Prtealivm 
the in-gathering, lasts frum the "6th to the 30lh of Shaiivar th 
month, wbeii accurdiuj; to tradition the earth was cffatM. I'he foul 
Guhambdr named Ydlhrem vr summer's fiirewell, lasts frnm the Si 
to the 30tli of Mehei' the seventh month, when ncci>rdinj^ to tradil 
trees were created. Tlio fifth Gahambir named Mt-diurem or o 
iviiiter, lasts from the 16th to the 2[)th of Dch the tenth mouth, w 
according to tradition aiiiniala were treated. Tlie sixth GaliUD 
named Uamasp»tlimtdem or winter's farewell, fallf during the last 
days of the year, whey airoirdiug to tradition man was crentwl. ' 
five days of this sixth Gahambiir are in addition to the twelve monl 
each of wbieh has thirty days, and oompletc a year of 3^g ilaja. Unii 
other days these five additional days are not named after tlie H< 
Immoitalsor the Worthipfuls, but after the names of the five ja/il 
or hymns, which ai'c attril^uted to Zoroaster himself and are the nx 
sacred of Zoroastrian writiiics. From being named after the hymi 
these live days have come to be called Gathits, thfl first day being nan 
JAuBwa^afterthefirtthymnjthesecond Vtivni Sifter the sit-ond hyr 
the third Spentomad after the thiid hymn, the fuurtli Vu!iukliKliall 
after the fourth hymn, and the fifth [Wif«f..n»< after the fifth hyi 
I'hcEe five extra hymn days together with the lost five d»y< 
Aspandad the last month, or ten days in all, are held sacred for 
M-aklad (Mukt-atmA = released soul) or ceremony in honour of the de 
In Gujarat the Muktad holidays generally latt eighteen days, the ^CK 
seven days of the fir^t month of iba new year being added to the 
regular ten days. To hold the Maktad, in each houi«, in a neat ami 
clean place is raised a brick and mortar platfurm or au iron of liraa 
stand. On the stand are ai'ranged piles of brass or silver or glaa 
vessels filled wilh water. Fruit is set near them and flowers aW 
laid on and near them. Close to the platform a lamp bums night aixl 
day and at night many lamps are light«il ; sandalwood and ineenw re 
bui-neil in an urn ; rich food ii cooked and placed near the platformi, 
and cen-moniea aie performed in honour of ancestors and diaJ 
relations, whose souls are believed to v:&it the homes of their family 
during tliete days. The last of the five hymn days waa foi 
called Pateti or Day of Penitence, and the tirst day cf the 
'Waoroz' or New Year Day, By some misunderstanding the 
have been reversed, and the last day is now called Naoroz and the 
day Piiteti. 

Besides tlie month-name days or Jaeans, the eeasou-feasta 
Gahambfirs, and the five Hj-ian days, the Parsis keep seven leai 
high days. The first of these is Naoroz the New Day, commonly 
known as Pritcti, a day of (Universal rejoicing. It is Hormazdtba 
tiret day of Farvardin the first month. On tbis day Pirsis both men 
and women rise earlier than usual, Ijathe, put on their best clothl^ 
and deck their children with omamentB. After offering prayari 
of repentance in their houses, they go to the fire-temple 
offenngs of sandalwood. In the streets and in the temple 
give alms to the poor. In the lire temple Ihc)' offer their pray* 




Inbie the sacred fire and then go visiting friends and relations 

tbe hosts offering the guests the choicest ^vines fruits and sweets. 

When two P^jrsi males meet they jierform the joining of hands 

Hamajar and while their hands aie interlocked bless one another 

in the words ** Let us give our strength to purity. May God guard 

you. May you live long and happily. After the visits are over they 

spend the rest of the day in feasting with their families or in 

attending garden parties. The eccond high day falls on Ardil^ehcbht, 

the third .day of Farvanlin the first month or two days after the New 

Dfty. On this day the Kapithavan or midday ceremony is |ierformed 

in the 6re temple. This originally marked the beginning of summer, 

bot by neglecting to add an extra day in leap ^ear^ the i^apithavan 

instead of in summer falls in September. The third high day is 

three days later the sixth day of the first month. It is called 

Khord^d Sdl and is believed to be the anniversary of the birthday of 

Zoroaster. It is kept with as much pomp and i-ejoicing as Pateti or 

Penitence Day now New Year's l)ay. The fourth liigh day the 

^merddd Sal &ll8 the next day after the Khord^d Sdl on the last of 

the Muktdd days. Holiday-makers keep it as a feast in continuation 

of the Khorddd S^l. The fifth high day Jamshedi Naovoz or Jamshed's 

^ew Day faDs on the 21st of March when the sun enters Aries. This 

day is believed to have been fixed as the New Year's Day by Jamshed 

the third king of the Peshdddian dynasty. It is kept with great honour 

by Ftfrsis, whose learned men hold that in early times the Pdrsis 

beean and ought now to begin their new year from this day. The 

&unre to keep to tbe old day^ is believed to be due to the neglect of 

leap year. TbQ sixth high day is Zarthostno Disc which falls on 

Khorshed the 11th day of Deh the tentli month and is held sacred 

la the anniversary of Zoroaster's death. The seventh high day 

Vahreapnnd Jcutan bih on Mahrespand the 29th day of Aspanddd 

the twelfth month. This is called Din behe Mazdidsni Jasan, that is 

Ute feast of the holy Mazdyacnian religion, because it is believed that 

on this day Zoroaster proclaimed his religion in the court of king 

Gost^p. As among Pdrsis eating and drinking are considered reli- 

poos acts and fasting and penance are forbidden, all holidays are spent 

m feastixig, rejoicing, and prayer. 

Besides the leading rites and ceremonies and the keeping of feast 
days the P^Lrsis have many minor practices and observances to which 
more or less of a religious sanction is supposed to attach. A P^i 
mtiBt always keep his head and feet covered, he must never be without 
the sacred shirt and cord, must never smoke, must wash his hands if 
he ever pats his fingers in his mouth, if hp eats from the same dish with 
tvoortiiree others he must not let his fingers ^uch his mouth but 
flmg the morsel into his mouth ; similarly in drinking if the lips touch 
the rim of the goblet the goblet should be v^ashed before it is again used. 
He must return thanks to Ood before every meal and keep silence 
while he is eating*^ After shaving his head a F^i should bathe 

Section VI. 





High Dayt. 


' The Pirri prayer before meals is : In the Name of Qod, the Bountif a1, the Giver, the 
I'l^itbe Baler Ahoramazd. Hero I praiiso Ahoramazd who hae created cattle, 


notion 71- 


bL'foi'e touching aDytiiiug. Similarly on Wving his be<l, before 
toueli or ".lo anything, a PArei is required to perform the smallei 
tiou, tliat is to wash his face hands and feet, and to perform the li 
ablution, that is to bathe bis whole perBon if he has had impure di _ 
or has cohabited. In practice, though they know they are laid down 
in their religion, Pdrsis neglect many of these rulee. Pdraia are verj 
careful r^arding the ceremonial uncleanness of a woman in ha 
periods. During her impurity a woman ia not allowed to touch 
person or thing. She has to eit apart on an iron bed placed ii 
comer of the house, her food ia ser\-ed to her from a distance, and 
clothes which she has worn during her period must be washed 
they can be again used. Aft^r sneezing or yawning old Pi 
generally say Broken be Ahriniiin, apparently believing that the s] 
of breath in sneezing or in yawning is the work of an evil s{ 
Wlien a tooth is drawn or when the nails or hair are cut, texts 
be said over them and they should be buried four inches under groand, 
1'emple priests are careful to observe this practice. The cock is held 
sacred and is never killed or eaten after it has begun to crow.' When 
a cock or a parrot dies ttie body is wrapped in a sacred shirt tadra, i 
saered thread iusU is wound round him, and he, is carefully buried. 

Village PAreis conform to many early practices which they share 
with Hindus and Musalmans. They m^e offerings at the burning 
pile of the Uoli, offer vows and facrifioe goats and fowls to the 
small-pox goddess, and a few carry oil to Hanum&n the Hindu 
village guardian. Some offer vows and make pi-esents to the Mohir- 
ram ehrines or labuU and at the tombs of Musalmdn saints. "" 
faith in ghosts, magic, astrology, and witt^heraft is strong i 
widespread. 'J'hey beheve that many diseases are caused by spi 
possestiion, and employ Musabndn Hindu or P&rsi ejcorcists to d 
out evil spirits and to cure the effetts oE the evil eye. Cliildl 
especially pretty children, have soot or lampblack rubbed on ti 
eyes cheeks and brow to keep off the evil eye. In cases of sicki 
the horoscope is often consulted to see how the sickness willl 
and women sometimes put grains of rice and a copper coin in a 
];aBB the bag seven times round the sick man's head, and le 
it tinder his pillow for a night, send the bag to a sorcerer to i 
the sickness ia caused by an evil spirit. Women have great ba'i 
amulets which they buy from sorcerers and wear round their necl 
in their hair to win or to keep the favour of their husbands. S 
old women never let people sleep with the head towards thenc 
because the north is the home of Abrimdn and liis evil spirits, 
bowl of a dog at night is believed to foretell a death or other e^ 
his master's family, ' Similaily a crow persistently cawing is beheved 
be the harbinger of bad news. 

luu created purity, water, Biid good trees f wlio lioa created the splendonr of light, 
earth, nnd all good. This prayer i» repeated three times. 

< The widespread belief that tbe crow of the cock scares evil Bpiiitsud defcatal 
wilca appears in the old Persian legeod that when Fared an conqacred the sotccriET 2 
who had usurped the throne of Persin, ho chained him in amonntain cave. Ever; I 
by the help uf his sorcery Zohak all but licked through his chain, but the first cock 
made tbc damaged link aa strong aa over. , 


flrra piiests in India are believed to be descouded from a 
led Shapur Shelieiiar who with his sons RamiAr acd Dhaval 
randsons HormazdiAr and Nerioshung (the last the traaslator 
id Aveeta into Sanskrit) ai* believed to have been amonB 
'Arei Bettlere of the prieetly caate at SanjSn in North Th^na 
I. The following genealogical tree shoii'e the deeeeut by which 
I of Navsfiri, Udvd<!4, BalsSr, Sanjin, Snrat with its snrround- 
■ea, and Broach, in fact all Parsi priests except those of 
BCU their origin to Sliipur : 


Section Vlt 




boariDg village «,) 


JiBi.. Uabiab. Cjiuroi. 

DbafpIl. Kiu. SsIbb. 




Uioh*r and 



Different brani'lies of the origit»I family h»ve (liiiu-ibui«il 1 . 
P4r6i set tie meets in Gnjarat intodistrirU ordttrges in oneof wludil 
the memViers of eacli bruicb alone may Ben« h prteste. Orcr 4vfl 

i)rieets o£ certain districts ur divisions is a high priest called Dustir, 
iterally Director, whose ofBoe is liereilitary peeing to the eliiat' 
eon, The hi^li priest does not leave his head -quartets to vii^it tb( 

frifsts under his charge but he»rs ami £«tllee any compta'nts agtia 
is priebt§ that are lodged before him. Though the deecendutt ' 
|irte«t8 can alone act as priests a prieet may either partly or wbal 
employ himself in secular bueiness, 'I'hoagh their eons mairisd t 
daughters of laymen the priests till lately ne?er let their ilauglltl 
marry any one but (trieats. ITie business of weaving the kuOi' 
Eacred cord belongs solely to the women of the priestly class. 
wijmen are not allowed to weave sacred cords and until the hi 
years might not spin the wool which wm t« be used for the ^ 
Priests who are wholly or partially employed as priests diiFer from « 
Tdrsis by dressing in white and weariog a full beard. They i 
forbidden to shave the head or face or to wear even a coloured rf 
tap. The men of the priertly class who are engaged iu sei 
business arc allowed to shave the head and chin and wear ooloun SI 
laymen. After a priest has so far given uji his hereditary position 
to sliavo his head and wear colours he is disqualified from performi 
the higher priestly offices. The religious functions of a priest i 
to recite prayers at the liouses of laymen or of priest* engaged 
secular work, to recite prayers and to perform rites for the dad IQ t 
house of mourning or in the fire-t«mple known as agidri, to p 
form rites and ceremonies at the lire-temples known as JCdwao n 
Atesh HehrAm, and to perform ceremonies at the inventiture of H 
SHOrud girdlcand at marriages, in fact at all religious rites and reTemeufl 
Priosts who, as a class, are called Atltorttan or A'thravan in the Zeid 
Avphla ancl jVjidhidrus or bdivi, supposed to be tie Sanskrit oiiiaf^ 
learned, ui« of two orders, a lower oivler called Herbade' or religious dhi 
and a higher order called Mobeds or learned men that is fuTlnnetti 
Tho son of a priest, if he is otiierwisa qualified, can become a Uorhr^ 
or undcr<priest betweeu ten and twelve and a Mobod between twelve u 
fifteen or twenty. To be qualified to become a Hevbad or undet-pHcet| 
prioef B son in addition to the pnrtu of the Zend Avesta he learnt tar Al 
Navuzol or investiture must learn by heart the seventy-two chapter 
orhfltot the Yasna besides some other portions.' When the yontnbl 

' HorlHHl mMniiiK n'lirioui U (oU Penikn). The corrMpouding P*hlt«l 
Alrpsl tnd (lia comipuntliiig Zuiiil Aetbnip*ti 

«n« atliii I 1 Buiwh vU ; a Pnnr •! Anting ; T ViiJ P»hib : 8 Ho>-Biiiq : B KborAwt 
10 Mrtv Klv*'* : U TtH Bn Othi ; » P>M1 ; 13 Abaimuiil Tut ; 14 Ardlbntat tui , 
Xul, HMbktit. Qoncntlly ilia portiana marked ], 2, 3, i, 0, And 12 mta bsnrt ll 
thU *UiKo. For Ihii Herbaii ceRraony in adJii[aD to Uie above th* yoiith (bould kael 
by haart : it, Ukha Hlnnil : IT Antolihar Nlrurt : 19 AIu MjuM ; le Stmb Tul : M am 
VMt. tl Vrniiil V»l; ta Thi MTUntj-tws obnplon ol tb« Tum; tS Arrinnu: M VU)M*I 
iMiriji' For thi> Mobnl or rull-prieat ccremonr the cuidliiste ahould know tt 
^ «"di,Ud ill artdlliou to the bIjovo. 


t tBe necessary portions of scriptare the purifying cere- 
3r, that is new comrade, begins and lasts for a month, 
e the ceremony begins, if the youth has ever shared, 
p shave so that his bead may have at least forty days' growth 
D a day chKen as sttitahle by the membere of the fanuly 
I through the head-to-foot or BaroBlinum cleaneit^.' To 
it cleansing ceremony two priests, a dog, cow's nrine nerang, 
I nerangdi*,* holy ashes, pomegranate leaves, two nine- 
par stieks one ending in a spoon the other in an iron nail, 
" Ing vessels are required. The two pi'iesta carry these 
nth the novice and a party of male ^ends and relations 
'(M/.tiBnijffi or purifying place. The purifying place is an 
e twenty yards square. The ground is strewn with sand 
iBpacefrom west to east runs a row of stones. These stones 
" a altei-nate groups of three and five, eleven groups of throe 
papa of five. When they reach the enclosure the priests set 
1 the bathing vegsels in the south of the enclosure and 
e round the'vessels. The friends stand at some distance 
e enolosvjre, and, at another Bpot, also outside of the 
o£ the priests helps the priest who is to take the 
I the purifying rite to undress and bathe. When he has 
ping the officiating priest the second priest goes to the 
' i him some distance outside of the enclosure, draws a 
L him, and gives him a pomegranate leaf which the 
1 in his sleeve-covered right Land, The novice chewa the 
_iws Bome juice, and spits out the rest, The officiating priest 
novice some bull's unne nerangdin in a small copper cup 
pkes on his sleeved hand and sips three times saying at each 
Uc this to cleanse my body and my soul ' and recites the 
ki«i or Confession of Sin. The officiating priest holding 
Bilwd stick in bis right hand and the epoon-pointed stick 
Old, goes to the row of stones and facing east places the 
I the knotted stick on the first or westmost group of three 
i rentes a prayer. Then starting from the north-west 
J while repeating prayers he draws with the knotted nail- 
. a number of circles round the whole row of etonea, 
\ this is finished, retires into the circle in which are the 
\ the other vessels. The second priest with the dog posts 
teide of and to the north of the enclosni-e and draws a 
i himself and the dog. The novice, still seated in the circle. 
Home of pure mind pure words and pure deeds, and begins 
• When he has taken olf his clothes) he rises and seats 
I the weetmost of the groups of five stones that is the 
lihe whole row of groups. The officiating priest leaving 
1 which the urine is placed and holding the knotted sticka 

s the accuMlive of Barathmt the top or head and mMiiJ eleanuDK tha 


■ distinct from nerang or cow'i urine, is nrine drawn from m perfectly 

I) is free bam bietnish or ipoti and brooght into uw for religious 
I tha arir^ hsa aadergoiie purifying ritea At the bftndi at m print or 
g it itith cryibkllUed uod HU«d ituigrfji. 

Section Til. 


Herbad or 



Section VII. upproaclieB the novioe with the Epoon-point^d stick in his right hi^H 
tliaia. ^ ^^^ nail -pointed stick ia bis left hand. The noiince lays his rifl^| 

hand ou his head, the priest lays the Epoon-pointtd stick on the novi^H 
Pmw™ood right hand, the novice tlitn places his left band over the spoon, and ^^H 
_ priest recites a prayer. When tlie prayer is o^et the priest retarn^^H 

jTmrhaiinr hls circlc, briogs froiD it some nrriing in the spoon of the koot^H 

stick, pours it on the novice's right palm and Tctnms within ^H 
circle. Ihe novice rubs the tieranff all o\er his body and remains :.eatd^| 
on the same group of stones. The second priest leads the dog close tM 
the novice who touches its left ear with his left band and the second 
priest and the dog withdraw into their circle. T!ie officiating priesH 
again issnes fiom hie circle with the knotted sticks in his bands^ 
recites prayers near the novice, and motions btm to jump to the fooriM 
group tnat is to the second gioap of five stones. At the second gn}ld| 
the ceremony of giving the Kernng and touching the dog ia repeat|^H 
The novice then one ^tor another jumps to the sixth eighth td^H 
and twelfth groups, on each group, that is siz times in all, taking t^H 
nerang and touching the dog. When the novict has reached tbe ■'^^H 
teenth group, the oSiciating priest, instend of nerang, gives him eigbt^^f 
ladlefalls of sand from the spoon of the spoon-pointed stick. li^| 
novice rubs the sand all over his body and touches the dog's 4H 
He then leaps to the sixteenth group, the priest thrice gives hi^| 
water from the sjio on- pointed stick which the novice rubs all ogflM| 
his body, touches the dog's ear, and leaps to the eigbteeuth group ffl 
stones, id e again receives water, touches the dog's ear, and once mrtfl 
leaps to the twentieth group. At the twentielh group the nnv^H 
once more receives three spoonfulls of water and touches the do^^| 
ear. When this is over the officiating priest brings out from i^| 
circle the water-pot and from it thrice pours enough water over ttH 
novice's head to enable biin to wash himself thoroughly. He tlMl 
returns into his circle. The second priest brings up the dog and bl(l 
the last time the novice touches the dog's left ear ivith his left haadfl 
The dog is then taken away, 'J'he officiating priest aga-n corner '"^i 
of bis circle, sprinkles water over the clothes which the novice hlH 
to wear, washes the novice's left band which bad touched the d<'^H 
ear, and retires to his circle. The novice dresses himself, throws tlH 
sacred cord over his shoulder, and puts on his long coat and turb^H 
He then lays the palm of his left hand covered with bis coat sleeve qH 
bis left shoulder, covers the hand with the flap of his long coat, an^ 
the officiating priest coming out of bis circle places over the covered 
hand the spoon- pointed stick which again the novice covers with the 
sleeved right hand.-- The offltiating priest laying the spoon-pointed 
stick on the novice's left shoulder recites a prayer in the second part of 
which the novice joins. Then the officiating priest makes the novice 
recite the words ' Impurity is destroyed, the body is cleansed, the soul 
is purified, the dog is pure, and the priest is holy,' The prioat takea , 
the spoon-pointed stick from the novice's shoulder who ends ■" 
ceremony by winding the sacred cord round bis waist. 

'ihe novioe is then taken to the riaremclier or smaller fire-t6m[J 
which has a large hall set apart for novices. In 'his hall the novioo j 
given & bed and forbidden to touch any person or article. He haa f 




offor a prafer at each of the five geha or watches. He is given only 
two m^B a day, one between nine and ten in the morning the other 
aboat five in the evening and except at those meals he is not allowed to 
toadi water. In this way he passes nine nights in retreat. On the 
Sswth seventh and tenth day he is made to bathe and is given a change 
ct dothee and on the tenth he is taken home. After a day or two the 
yoan^ priest again repairs to the place of purification to be purified a 
■eoond time. The second purification is undergone for the salvation 
of some man or woman, either dead or alive, either a relation or a 
tftranger. Zoroastiians believe that any one in whose name a priest is 
nade is purified from sin^ and people pay from Us. 500 to Rs. 1000 
to have a priest made in their name. The second purification lasts 
the same time and is marked by the same details as the first. On 
Ibe tenth day the young priest returns home and there passes five full 
days in seclusion and religious devotion. On the morning of the sixth 
day a party of friends and relations are called and sprinkled with 
rosewater and presented with flowers. Between eight and nine the 
joang priest bathes and puts on a suit of new white clothes, a long 
wbite coat with a white waistband white turban and a shawl thrown 
orer his shoulders. He holds in his right hand a mace of silver or cop- 
perbrass and escorted by priests and friends starts for the Varemeher or 
smaller fire-temple. At the fire-temple the novice is presented before a 
High Priest^ who permits him to undergo the final sacerdotal ceremonies. 
The novice is then given in charge of two priests. He lays 
aside his overcoat shawl and mace^ recites the sacred-cord prayer, 
and passes into the inner room of the temple. In the inner 
Toom are three stone stools one of which is set as a seat for the 
novice and on one of the other two, vessels are arranged and on the 
other which is some distance in front is a metal urn holding burning 
fixe. The novice while reciting a prayer is made to wash and clean 
the fiie-nm stool, and is then taken to his stone seat, where, under the 
snidance of the two priests, he uses the articles airanged in front of 
mm in performing the ceremony called Yasna, 'i'he Yasna lasts 
about two hours and while it is going on the people leave. When the 
Yatna is over the young priest recites some more prayers and is given 
a Ught meal. He passes the rest of that day in prayer and meditation 
in a retired spot. On the two following days and in the morning of 
the fourth day he goes through the same ceremonies as on the first. 
During these three days he is not forbidden to touch anything or any 
person, but he is given only one light meal a day, because should he over- 
eat himself and be sick or otherwise defiled he is called Nal/dd or a nonen* 
tity and for the rest of his life is disqualified f ron) becoming a priest. 
On the fourth day his relations and friends bring him home and from 
this day he ranks as a Uerbad or under-priest.^ As an under-priest 
he receives the title of Ervad, which is a corruption of Herbad, and 
his name is entered in the Feherest or priestly genealogies.' 

' In relinoiiB ceremonies the son of a priest who has not hecome a Herbad is called 
Oata that is one who has lost privilege, and a layman is called B^edin that is of holy 
nsUfl^on, as Ervad Sheriar, Osta Erach, Behedin Bahaman. 

* In these Feherest or p^estly genealogies any Herbad can trace his origin to i h^pnr 

Section V] 



Herbad or 

Undtr Prit^ 



FM Fritit. 


To pasB from a Ileibad or under-prieBt to be a Mobed or fuil pni 
the youth, who haa generally been two or throe years a Herbad 
IB fourteen to sixteen years old, has to learn the Vandidad. Aftei 
is duly qualified in the uei'eeeary parts of the Zend Avesta the Herl 
goes to the Baraehnum^jh or placid of parification, goes Hiroagh 
Saraslmum or cleansing with tlie same details as in cleansing for 
mieeion to be a Uerbad. On the t«nth day after the cleansing is o 
bathed and dreseed in new clothes, he goes through the Yatna o 
mony at the Daremeker with the same details as during the novi 
four (lays preparation for the Uerbadsbip. On the nigh: of the tentl^ 
day from midnight till morning the candidate recites or reads aloud tlM^ 
Vaadid&d tSade or Code which includes the Yasna, VandidMji 
and Visparad. On this oc(.'asion all the vessels are arranged on " 
■tone stool in front of the candidate and are used during the rites i 
the fire is kept burning on the third stone atool further in fra 
On the day after these rites are completed the candidate has gail 
the rank of a Mobed or learned man. He is now fully quaiiDed toy 
perform religious rites and ceremonies at the parimeker or smalU 
fire-t«mple, and all other functions of a prieet. He is now said to b^ 
a Mobed with baraghnum., that is in a state of purity. He muit 
never be bareheaded and never shave his head or face. If his turbM 
happens to fall off, or if he travels by rail or sea his barashnv-m 
state of purity ends and he is unable to pei-form rites and ceremoiui 
in the tire-temple till he again goes through the cleansing 
in the place of purification and passes nine nights in retreat at 
smaller fire-temple and performs the Ynsna, ceremony on the morning 
of the tenth. Besides to purify himself a Mobed who is paid to do 
it sometimes goes through the cleansing rite for the salvation of 
some man or woman among the laity. While a priost is in a state oE 
purity be must load a strictly pure life and must eat no food oookaA] 
and drink no water drawn by any one but a man or woman of 
priestly class. 

According to the RavnyeU or Persian precepts tha perfect pri( 
must be Avijo Sim that is of pure life, AanidAe kherad of ' ' 
talent. Din agpiiargdu devoted to religion, Yasdan jnanidar __ 
ful of God, Mina vinas/me fixed on the next world, Pak maita»i\ 
pure in mind. East gavaahne true of speech, KkerdikuHankne 
in act, Toidathre tan holy in boily that is free from bodJIy def€ 
Siivd heiuan of sweet speech, A'lrrtjj iVosi a distinct reciter, 
Aiienta a correct reader of the Avesta, Pdiliab Sdzeg/i 
observer of cleanliness, Hiv nirang learned in the ritual, and Nd\ 
jivam devoted to reygious prsctioes. 

A man with any bodily defect or disease, who is Imnehbacked, 
defective sight or hearing or afflicted with leprosy or itch is disquidi- 
fied from being a priest, t-nd is forbidden to go throagh the Murtab 
or Mobed-making ceremony. 

BlielicriAr. The fDllawmg genealogy ot a Navsiri Herbad i> given m an examplad 
Klionhal. Noibecwan, Bi^lu. Hormaid, Baehl, Min^k. Noshfcwan, Hoin, ButU^l 
Bom, F&rednn, Kinl. Hum, MihiAr, Chtniu-, Varnhif, Asa, Furadun, Ham, Bm3m 
aiir, Ehonhed, Bkmaiiiir, Ebi'itali, KhuimaEtn, Movail, IC'rioaane, DIutraL '■Tiinirl 


Tbx chief oeremaaial occasionB in a Gujarat ParaJ familj' u« first 
pregiiancieB, births, sacred cord-girdinga, marriages, and deaths. 

The first ceremony connected with a Pirsi girl's first pregnancy is 
the Panchmdsiu or fifth-month ceremony. On a lucky day in the 
fifth month her husband's parents present the girl with new clothes 
worth Rb, 2u to Rb. 50, or in poor families wifh Rs. 3 to Rs. 7 in cash. 
A more important pj'egnancv ceremony called Agarui takes place in 
the seventh month. At an hour in the morning or evening of some 
Thursday or Sunday "in the seventh month which a Hindu or Parai 
astrologer has fixed as lucky, female friends and kiniiwomen meet in 
the front hall of the husband's house. In the centre of the hall lucky 
dialk-markB are drawn and inside of the marks is set a low wooden 
stool made without metal nails. The girl stands on the stool and puts 
on the new clothes which her husband's parents have presented her. 
The clothes include a silk robe Bari, silk trousers, a sacred fchirt tadra, 
a sacred girdle kuiti, a headcloth, a bodice or polka, and new shoes 
together worth Rs. 30 to Rs, 100. Gajlands generally of daisies and 
roees are thrown round her neck and her brow is marked with red 
powder in which grains of rice are stuck. When the girl is dressed 
the women who have dressed her throw rice over her head and Ijlees 
her. In blessing the girl the women perform the salutation known aa 
OoatifM or (Evil) Removing. In making this salutation women spread 
the fingers over the head and face of the person to be blessed, raise their 
fingers to their temples, and crack their finger joints. Then the girl's 
mother- in-law or sister-in-law fills her lap with sweet-balls, a cocoanut, 
dried dates, almonds, and betelnuts and l^tel-leavea mixed with Besame 
seed and lemon bijora or pomegranate. Carrying these things in her 
kp accompanied by female friends and kinswomen and followed by 
lays of sweet-balls and a basket of wheat, the girl goes to liar 
parentfi' house. At the threshold her mother or some other elderly 
woman waves round her head a cojiper or brass plate with rice and 
water in it, throws the contents at her feet, ' breaks an egg and a 
coooanut, and welcomes her to the house. In entering the house the 
girl steps with her rif;ht foot 6i-st, 'She empties the sweetmeats 
cocoaniit dates and fruit out of ber lap into a winnowing fan, and, 
with a lamp in one hand and a goblet of water in the other, passes to 
the lying-in room which has been made ready for her, and, with the 
object (if driving evil spirits out of the room, goes round it seven times 
^^^ring water all the time. Sweetmeats are given to the girl and the 
len who came" with her, who taste them and return with the girl 

Bdction TT 





to ber bufiband's honge. About half an hour after tliey a 
Eecond party btarts from the girl's mother's house with a complete rait 
of clothes for the girl's btiBband worth Kb, K) to Rs. 50. The party 
are received at the threshold of the husband'e houte in the same way 
as the girl was received at htT mother'a threehotd. They hand o«r 
the dress, taste the sweets, and return. From both hoiiees sweets arfl 
sent to friends and kinspeoiile. Some familioe also afck male and femaiu 
friends to dinner and sptnd the day os a holiday. 

When her time of Jelivery dii^ws near the yoang wife gots to her 
father's huuse. A midwifo, who is generally a Hindu of the HajAm 
or bai'ber caste, is sent for and the girl is taken into the h-ing-io 
room and laid on an iron cot. When the child b born the midwifg 
cuts the iia\el cord and the cord and after-birth are placed in an 
earthen pot and buried, 'i'he child is at once sprinkled with water 
and the exact hour of its birth carefully noted. A motal-plate ii 
beaten close to it* right ear and water in which a twig of the 
I'ersian Aot>i} Asclepias aeida or Sarcostenima viminale biuh has 
been dipped is sweetened with sugar and dropped into the cliild's 
mouth. As soon as the child is bom a meBsenfrer ttnrts to carry the 
news to the fulher, 'I he tirlh of a male child being always meet 
desired, as soon as a male babe is barn, any of the relations or friendly 
DcighLoure or servants hasten to convey the gliid news to the ta,ihei 
who according to his means or the joy ht feels gives the mefsengw » 
ruiJee or more. When they that a child is born the htieliaud'a 
mother and somo of his kinswomen go tu the girl's. The husband't 
mother throws three to nine rupees nn the girl's bed and distribute 
money among the sei-vants. The girl's parents present the hnsbani's 
mother with a robe and she returns home. If the parents are longing 
for a son and if the ciiild is a boy, as soon ns he is born the hoy is 
handed to the nurse and hidden, and mstcad of the child some cowdong 
is shown to the mother,^ The boy is then laid on a wincowing 
fan and is bought from the nurte for Rs. 1^ and handed to liii 
mother. At the same time the nurse bores both his eai's with the end 
of an unhusked grain of nee. For Kvo daj-s after a birth the mother 
is fed on light foinl and the ohild on sugar and water. On the Eecood 
day after the birth a ti-ayfull of sugarcandy among which live or 
seven rupees ai'e laid are sent fi-om the husband to the mother. 
On the morning of the fifth day, in the mother's parents' bouse five 

' Horn VKter is preparut in the smnllor Bre temple or Agiari hy b^ktiog in mlua, 
tccampaniod <ritli reduiiigia nf tcztsf tirli^s of tlie PermBQ ham Aaclepiu wiidm 
plant. The early Pereiaaa bcUevcd thut tlic kom gave great energj to body and ndnf 
An angel i> bt^lievid to prcaidu over the piant and tbe Som ymt is devoted to H 
pniacB. Tbc Peniall Aom is believu^to be ttic same aa the famoaa iatoiicant the Vadf 

* J-Jderly Firai womea aay that this is done lo prevent the mother from gtring Mim 
psrazjima of joy or hystcnci. This may alao be done to guard the boy agsinat Um v 
evil eye and evil ipirita. The object of ahowing the mother cowdung probably ia b' ~ 
any evil which there may be in her glance may be driven out by the ipirit.ici^ 
eowdimg. With thia practice of making a penon look at covdung apparentl; a 
evi1'«ye-ican»' compare tbe Elindn motber'a remark to any one who overpraises, or m 
Scotch aay foreapeaka, their child, ' Look at yonr foot, tt ii covcitd with e: 




kinds of vegetables or bhdjig are cooked with or without eggs or sheep's 
brain, fowls, small round chappdtia or cakes, and sweet preparations 
of dry-ginger and wheat. These things are laid near the mother's 
bed in the dishes in which they were cooked. Five cakes are set at 
the foot of each of the four bedposts, live are thrown on the be.l, and 
a Uttle of the cooked food is set in the mothei-'s dish. Then betel 
dry dates rice and redpowder are dropped into the mother's hands. 
IlYlq mother takes Eome redpowder ana with it marks her brow, the 
legtf of her cot, and the legs of the child'^s iron cra^lle. After this 
a kinswoman drops frankincense on a fire-urn and declares that the 
fifth day or pachori ceremony is over. Large quantities of all the 
oooked things arranged in separate dishes are sent to the husband^s. 
In some families, especially in villages, the mother is bathed from head 
to foot on the fifth day. If for any reason this ceremony is not 
performed on the fifth day it is performed on the tenth, and called 
dasoru On the fifth or other convenient day an astrologer, who is 
either a Brdhman or a Pdrsi priest, is called and told the hour of the 
ohUd's birth. On hearing the hour the astrologer draws chalk-marks 
on a wooden board and tells the parents scvei-al names any of which 
will prove Incky to th*e child. The parents generally choose one of the 
names mentioned by the astrologer. But if they are much set on some 
family name, they sometimes call the child by it, though the astrologer 
did not mention it.^ On the ni^i^ht of the sixth day lucky chalk-ma: ks 
are drawn at the head of the mother's bed, a nailless stool is set over the 
marks, and on the stool is placed a tray with a cocoanut some rice and 
betel and a blank paper an inkstand and a reed pen that the goddess 
Chhathi or Sathi that is Mother Sixth, may write the child's destiny. 
On the tenth a tray of sugar-cakes is sent from the husband's to the 
mother. Within twenty days of the birth presents called vadhavo 
are sent from the husband^ consisting chiefly of money to meet the 
charges to which the wife's family have been put, dresses for the child, 
and materials for a feast, spices, fowls, liquor, honey, and mutton, 
varying in value from Ks. 15 to Rs. 100. Up to the fortieth day 
the mother is kept in the lying-in room carefully tended but not 
allowed to move or touch anything. On the night after the fortieth 
day, the mother is bathed and purified and allowed to move among 
the people of the house. The sacred shirt and cord she wore at the 
time of the birth are buried, and all the furniture of the lying-in 
room except the iron bedstead and cradle is given to people of the 
sweeper caste. Before the child is six months old, and generally 

' The nsmcs are either Persian or Hindn. The commo^iest Persian names for hoys 
ave Ardeshir, Bamonji, Beheramji, Hormasji, Jeh^ngir, Kharsetji, Nasnrwinji, and 
Soribji ; and for girls Gnlb&i, Khnrshedbii, Meherh^, FiroEb&i, and Shirlnbiu The 
commonest Hindn names for boys are Blukhiji, ,^&dibhii, Dhanjibhii, Dossibhii, 
KvTUJi) Minekji, and Batanji ; and for girls Mitbibii, Ratanbdi, RnpabiLi, and Son&bii. 

Bvery PArsi male, when addressed in full, has three names, as Pestonji Bastomji 
GbAndi, Pestonji being the personal name, Bastomji the father's name, and Gh&ndi 
literaUjr grocer, the family name, which is generally taken from some craft or calling 
and whjch may be changed at the pleasure of the nmily. Like the men Pirsi women 
haTe three names, their personal name and their father's name and surname till they 
aanry, and after marria§^ the husband's name and surname. Unlike a Hindu woman a 
Pfosi woman doea not ch&nge her personal name when she marries. 






before the end of the first forty Jays, an astrcloger, eitber a PAi 
priest or a Brrihman, Is asked to prepare a horoscope. The horosco[ 
wliich ia a roil of paper about nine inches wide and ten feet lot 
costs Ee. 1 to Rb. 2, k kept with preat care in a box or press, an 
before a marriage is fixed, ib com]tared with the horoscope of the otb 
party to the engagement. Uefore any important undertaking l" 
horoscope is rend over to see what are the owner's hicky days a 
timoB of life, and, if the owner falls eeriously ill. ihe horoscope 
exaoiined to eee whether he will get better or die.' In the third < 
fifth month after the birth of her child the mother goes to her hasbaniF 
liouse, taking from her father dresses and toys for the child, a woo« 
cradle and bedding, alid eugar-cakes and a baeket of wheat. Tl 
presentation is called Joriport lite-ally meaning cradle and its appmrtfl 
anees. On this day, or soon after, two ceremonies called falli ai 
Chokhiar are performed by way of thanksgiving. The palli consiaj 
of preparing sweet-balls and in the morning or evening carrying som 
to the sea or river side and throwing them into the water with 
cocoannt sugaroandy and flowers as an ofFenng-to the water spin 
In the e/i-okliiar eei-emony turmeric and redpowder marks are draw 
ou a wall of the room in which the ceremony is to be performed and i 
front of the marks small heaps of rice pulse and wheat are laid aloif 
a large low bench ; goblets filled with water are brought by rnarr 
unwidowed girls and set near each heap in two or three piles, each pil 
topped with a cocoannt ; and near the waterpots are laid red 
betel, dry dates, jaemin oil, and redpowder. Four young unmarrie 
boys or girls, bathed and clein-dreased, are seated in a row in frontof tlw 
bench, jasmin oil is rubbed on their hands, their brows are marked witji 
redpowder, and red yarn is wound round their right cars. They an 
servo.! with cookol rice pulse milk and sugar which has previously bei 
oSered to the JUdla or Mother that is to the spirit of the day, i 
throwing frankincense on a tii-e-um in the room. The heaps of gra 
ai'e given to the poor, and the other articles including the water in tl 
goblets are thrown into the sea or into a river, 'i'he yellow and re4 
wall marks remain for a week. Families who have adopted the i 
ideas have dn:ipped the jmIH and chokliiar ceremonies. 

Married women who have been bari'en for fome years Bometinwi 
promise, if a child is given them, to perform certain ceremonies, TheM 
promises are called ij-itlif or vows. The chief of these vows 
Beheraniini vow, under which, on the birth of a child the woman Un 
on fruit and water for twelve days and performs some of the followin 
rites. On the twelfth day after the birth of a child a lamp fed wil 
clariGed butter, witlr a tiny yellow flag waving near it, is pla 
near the entrance to the hous?. In the room in which the child i 
bom are laid in a tray twelve twigs of the milkbush Opuntik I 
vulgaris, twelve betelnuts and twelve betel-leaves, twelve dry date^ ' 
and some grain soaked in water. At midnight the mother with the ' 
child in her arms goes to the entrance of the house where are the lamp 



"^MdA tlie flag, mbs some soot wliiuh is given to lier from tlie lamp on 
Iier own and the child's eyes and returns to her room. Then each of 
the twelve sets of the articles in the tray are thrown near twelve 
entrances to the house,' and near each entrance an egg is hroken. 'Z'his 
has ap]xirently ako the object of gnarding the cliild from the evil eye 
and evil spirits. The child who, in caees of vows like this, has not 
yet been la-.d in the cradle is now placed in it. If a woman has 
taken the Kliamhiitini Goth or vow, as soon as the child is born 
a cluy imago is set opposite the mother's bed. l!efore suckling 
the child, dnnking water, or taking medicine or food the mother asks 
permission of the imago to do so. If a woman has taken the Khardsiti 
Goth or vow on the fixtli day after the birtli of the child, the men of 
the hoose miiet eat witli bare heads. If they refuse some men are paid 
to oat with uncovered heads. Some Pdrsis make a compromise 
between the vow and their religious duty by eating with half of 
the head bare. When a boy whose mother has taken a Kharde vow 
is marriod a goat is killed and the boy's brow is marked with its 
blood. These vows if once taken become hereditary in the male Una 
of a family, that is tBey have to be taken by the wives of the sons and 
grandsons, who have to perform the rite on the birth of every child. 
Still the woman who performed the last vow may at any time stop the 
practice by performing palti that is by throwing frankincense over a 
fire-um, offering sweetmeats, and begging that Tier descendants may 
\te freed from the vow. When the child enters on its seventh month 
the sitting or Brand ceremony is performed. The child is dressed in 
a new silk frock and cap, its brow is mai'ked with reilpowder, and it 
16 made to sit on a stool placed on lucky chalk-marks. An it sits the 
child touciies a eocoanat, which is then broken. The first birthday, 
and all birthda,ys to a less extent are days of joy and feasting, and 
friends and kirispeople send the child presents. 

P^rsi boys and girls are received into the Zoroastrian faith 
between the age of seven and nine. The ceremony wliiih oousists of 
clothing tho child with a sacred thirt called andra- and a sacred cord 
called kasti,^ is the Navzot or making a, new believer. On tlie day fixerd 
for the ceremony the house is set in order, the family dress in their 
^yest, and relations and friends are called and treated to a feast. About 
seven in the morning the child is seated on a stone slab, and, guided 

Section 1 

' If a houH has leiH than twelve cnlrnupos the ceinaiiiiti^ seta are thrown in comcri. 

* The aacnd ihirt or nailra typificR the coat of mul with whioh the ZoTDaitrua 
withstaoda the Bttsck? of tho evil om. It is of very thin mnKlia for the rich &nd of 
•tronger Iciiuni for the poor ; it has short ilec^ and f>1U » little below the hip. The 
cloth i» broaghl from the martpt atid the shirt i« ^neralljr*ewn hy poor Pirai woman. 
il costs 6 annas to Bs. 3 each. The sicrvd cord is of wool sod is made by the wivei 
ftnd daughter! of P&ni |mtiit«. A cord i^osts 6 uniifts to Ha. 6. 

■ la putting it on the cord is pasted three tiacs round tho child's vdiit. At the 
•ocondround two knots are tied Id front and at the end of tho third round two bnuts 
we tied behind. While tying the first front knot the child snya in his inind ■ There !■ 
o&ly ORE God, and he ia the ciefttor of all good thinga.' When the second front knot 
ia tied he siys ' The Mozdiashni religion ia the truu religion.' When the first bick knot 
ia tied he lays ' Zoroaster is the true prophet of God,' and whuu the second or last ii tied 
■ Through my whole life I will strive my utmost to do what is good and right.' ThU 
practiw i* to be oonttoao i throughout life by all every time the kmli or cord is girded, 
a 520—30 

cction VIIL 



by 3. pricEt, oSei'B a prayer, thanking God for the g^Et of lite and tcM 
the beauty oE the world. The clutd chews a pomegranate leaf swallov* 
ing the juice which, like the koin Asclepiau acida juice, ie bclieveJ M 
purify. A£ter chewing the pomegranate leaf the child takes three am 
of bull's urine ncmngdia repeating between each sip the words ' I diinki 
to make my body clean and my eoul holy.' The child then recites tb* 
Pat--t or confession of ein, is undresBed, rubbed with bull's urine, and! 
bathed with cold or hot water warmed by the priest. When the ' 
bath or fta&an ceremony is over the child is lironght into the hall, 
where friends and kinspcople are seated on a large carpet. The child 
is set on a slightly msed central seat facing the east dressed in a 
trousers a, cap and a viuslin t-hould ere loth. The officiating priest tit» 
in front of the child with other priests on either side of hjm. The 
priests repeat tbo confession of sin, the child joining in the prayer, 
holding the sacred shiit in its left hand. ^Vhen the ceremony is orer 
the senior priest draws near the child who rises and standing repeats 
the words 'The good, just, and true faith that has been sent by 
the Lord to his creatures is the faith which Zarthost has brought. 
The religion is the religion of Zurthost, the religion of Aburamaad. 
given to Zarthost.' As the child repeats th^ise words the prii 
draws the shirt over its head. Then the child takes the Bacr 
woollen curd in both bands, and the priest holding its bands, sftnl 
* By the name of the Lord Ahurnmazd, the magnificent the beatitifii)fl 
the unseen among the unseen, Loi'd help us.' \A'hen this is ovec 
the priest rej)eatB the sacred-thread prayer in a loud voiea, the child 
joiDine him. While the prayer is being recited, the sacred thread ia 
wound round the child's waist the ceremony ending by the child 
rei>eatingthe words ' Help me Lord I Help me O Lord ! Help ma 
Lord I I am of the Mazdiashni religion, the Mazdiaehni reli; 
taught by Zarthost.' The child is again seated and the cord- ^ 
ends by the priest reciting blessings and throwing on the child's h< 
rice pomegranate- seed and cocoa -kernel. 

Village Pdrsia often marry their eliildren while still in infancy. 
daya gone by children were somebimes conditionally contracted 
marriage before they were born. When two families agree in wishi 
their children to marry, they exchange their cbildcen's horoscopes, 
are sent to an astrologer, generally a PSrsi priest, who settles whetl 
the marriage is likely to be fortunate. The offer oE marriage may co 
either from the boy's or from the girl's family. It is generally made by 
the poorer family. If both families approve of the match and tlVi 
stars are favourable the maTisge is agreed to. Soon afrer on a lac^< 
day, the women of tlje hoy's family go to the girl's to return 
horoscope. They take with them a suit of clothes, silver foot oi 
ments' for the girl, sugarcandy, curds, and lish as emblems of gi 
luck, and present the dress to the girl in front of a lighted glii-: 
lamp into which a rupee it) dropped. The cost of the clothee no| 
from Rs. 15 to Re. lUO and of the ornaments from Bs. 10 to Rs. 7&, 

The foot onumpnl! »yml>o!l*e tbo girl's 

irg andvr t'he lonlsbtp of lier h-j>baM 


bearers o£ tliesa presents are entertained by the gill's motber with 
Bwe».-tmea;:s ami a fe^v rupees are presented to each, the total varying 
ia value from Rs, 15 to Rs. 30. According to her means the girl's 
mother sends her future son-in-law a silver a gold or a diamood ring, 
a suit of clothes, and Rs, 5 to Kb. 25 in caBb. This completes the 
bairutlul which though not legally is practically binding. 

During the uncertain interval bctweon the betrothal and the 
nuuria^ presents of fish and other tokens of goodwill pass bettveen 
the famitios. On a lucky day ten to fifteen days before the marriage 
con»» the turmeric- pounding ceremony. At both housed kinswomen 
inuet and choose four young married and unwidowed girls to pound 
mrmerio and shike it in a winnowing fan, while songs are sung. 
Af t«r the turmeric -pounding the two fanailies be^^iTi to lay in stores for 
ths marriage feast. The time between the turmeric-pounding and the 
marriage day is set aparS for merrymaking aud during these days 
no ceremonies are performed in honour of the dead. About eight days 
before the marriage day comes the boo t.h- building or ih(I'1(/i(p ceremony. 
A P^rsi with a sha.wl or a woman's silk roba wrapped round his 
head and a redpowder mark on his brow, digs a pit near the entrance 
to each bouse, some silver and gold are thrown into the pit, and mango 
aad samri Proaopis spicigera twigs are planted in it. Ited and yellow 
mirks are made on the wall and near the hole frankincense is burned and 
Boogs are sung. Either before or after the turmeric -pounding, sometimes 
even on the marriage day, the Jiiarni or inviting ceremony is performed. 
On the adarni day the mother oE the boy with kinswomen and friends 
wad with music goes to the girl's and dresses the girl in clotheg and 
ornaments. The girl's mother entertains the party wi'h sweatmeats 
sod presents the boy's near kinswomen with ilreRses. Af :er they leave, 
a party of kinswomen and friends set out from the girPs with 
clothes for the biy who in return presents the girl's mother with a 
dre^. Next day the girl's mother retunis this ilre.'is to the boy's 
mother accompanying it with a few rupees, ns it is thought wrong for 
the girl's parents to receive presents fiom the bjy's side. On the third 
day before the wedding a suit of clothe:^ and a large silver coin, a 
ian rihal, a Mexican dollar, or a fiire-fi'anc pLe<.'e, are sent to the 
I, who wears the coin round b^r neck till thi marriage ceremonies 
Towards evening the women of the f.imily so-it the boy 
ffirl in front of their reupective hnuECS, rub them with the turmeric 
:n was pounded fifteen days Ijcfore, and bathe them wi.h fresh 
water. When the bathing is over they are seated on a wooden nail-less 
•tool, are lifted into the house by four married and unwidowed girls, 
and carried seven times round the luoky cliall^-marks in the centre 
of the hall. A basin filled with clarified butter and raw sugar is held 
near them, frankincense is burnt before them, and they are asked 
to foretell what the various grains will c6st daring the year. If the 
bridegroom and bride are grown up, the bridegroom's turban or the 
bride's robe or sAri is laid on the wooden stool and carried round 
the chalk-marks. Next evening, ia their own houses, the boy and 
the girl are again seated on stools and piles of sugar cakes and 
snrectbuQS or polls jire laid in front of them and j-arn is wound 

Scotioa Ttl 





Fore- Carriage 

rcuDil them. The sugar cakes and buDS are handed roand 
friends aud relatione. A email dish of khiekri mised rice and pulse 
cooked and in the misture a lighted wick fed with clarilied bof 
ia £et and placed near the boy or the grirl. The feet of the 1 
or of the girl are made to rest on an earthen dieh in which ar 
cowdung cake, a rice-biscuit sarto, and a gram-biscnit /mpH*. Ali 
with four married girla the boy and the girl are made to eat 
rice and pulse kliichri aud gram biecuitB. As they i^ise tbey 
made to break the earthen dish under their feet ; the wick in 
pulse and rice dish is put out, and the pulse and rice is made inl 
ball and eaten by women as a cure for barrenness. The next day 
spent in religious riteaand ceremonies performed by priests or Jlobi 
in hoaour of ancestral spirits wJio are called to bless the marriage. 
the same time five seven or nine clay jars filled with water are 
in a row mai'ked with yellow and red, and crowned with riee-biBCi] 
gram-biscuits and sugared wheat-cakes. Some of the women bol 
new tdri or silk robe over the pots. One of the women beats a cop5 
dish, and, calling them by name asks the ancestral spirits to atta 
One woman comes running in barking like ad<^. The other won 
drive her away, and with fun aud kughing eat ail the things they i 
lay their hands on. 

Ou the fourth day the marriage ceremony is performed. Dxiri 
these four days, if the fam.ilieB are rich, or only on the marrii 
day if they are poor, large parties of fricnda and kinspeople ) 
aakel to dine and sup. On the day before the feafit the women of 1 
family go to their female friends and ask them to join the marrii 
ceremonies and feastings. The men arc called by a priest, who witJ 
list of names goes from liouse to house and gives the invitati 
Near relations and leading noembers of the commmiity are visited I 
inviteil by the father or some member of the family. In ton 
some families send printed notes of invitation. At dawn on I 
wedding day the women of both families sit in their houses on 
carpet, singing songs descritiing the festivities and asking blessisga.' 

r of tho most popnlnr marrla^ ann^ : 
„ .. riien; he hu ri<«n on our jojful gftiden ibibM 

riten at tho gates at Gnl, Now the cool w-iat wind bringi bleuingi, and tlte Udi' 
bringing Bnn eliiiiBS ovor tlie Pira-Tumple, over tlie kb, over the g»tc» of the fUlwrW 
fnther-iu-liw, over tlie marriBge poirh, over the cliildteii knd giandeliiWren, ota tl» 
msrritd women, over the wholu rBiuilies of tlie bride Had bridegroom, over the neighlMMl 
nail the ArcoLa aad suburbs. OTer loreieiga and inbjerta, over goiErnori aud eSdlh 
over iDother-eartb ind over nUuntaini and hilli. With {reshtAatnpa ftnd jumin, wiUi 
trayi of pcnrli rice and redpowder, we welcome the lun and the west wind. How it 
wo know that the joyful ^eat wind blwra ? By the note of the iurf on the mango-tiw, 
bj the song of the women in the htniae, by the noise of Sfej and drnms in the msrmp 
porch, by tho mnsic of the Sato in the Woods, hj the clashing of cytnbala in the nuniiga 
porch, by Iho pearls strcwu at tho ^throshold, and bj the trays full of chamea dotat 
and crysaiithemums, Now in tha Urge hall whore are trays of ehampa Soiieti ari 
cryBttnthcmumsthe father of the bridecomos, Iho priests rocito prayera, and the hride'l 
father gives alma and offers bright rupees. The mother of tho brido wears a iiecklaw«t 
mnc strings and the priest rocitos prayers over the bride and bridegroom j thflbride"! 
mother gives thopriestaprcscntaofrapeosand sliawls and scarfs. The bride's motto 
Bivcs coins shawls scarfs tnrbans rich robes and Beeklares to thn son-in-law and his fattat 
■nd mother. In the e'^eniig the porch is adorned with sagarcandj botolnuU and ImtH 
Nobles, merchants, and bankers attend ufl honoM th« woJdiDg, 

dry dates and ri 


At tlieir homeB the bnde and bridegroom undergo the eame purifica- 
tion as when they were invfstcd with the sacred shirt and cord. At 
both houses carpets are laid and rows of benches are set in the 
streets and neighbouring verandas. About four in the afternoon 
the male gueets dressed in white robes reaching to their feet and 
girt I'otind the waist with a li>ng white cloth, be^n to come and 
take th«r seats on the carpets and benches. ^\'hile. the guests are 
gathering, a party of women come from the bride's to the bride- 
groom's, one of them bearing in a large tray presents oE clothes and a 
taiver or copper-bi'ass htir-coah and a pot o£ curds, and another 
carrying, one over the other, *hree water- pots filled with water, the 
topmost cron-ned by a coconnut. The water pots and the cocoanut are 
marked with red and yellow powder. This procession b called topira. 
While they stand at the door of the house the bridegroom's mother or 
some other near relation waves over the head of the preaentrbringer a 
small tny filled n-ith water and with a few grains of rice in it, throws 
the water at her feet and breaks an egg and a cocoanut. When they 
}iaTe entered the bridegroom is called to dip his fingers in tlie water 
goblets, and while he dips them he drops one to Bve rupees in the water 
which belong to the'bride's sister. The women give and receive pre- 
eentfi and return to the bride's. Between five and six in the evening 
tlic male guests who have met at the bridegroom's with native music, 
Utd sometimes in the larger towns witb musio played on European 
iDBfcruments, follow the bridegroom and the high priest to the bride's. 
Before the party starts a Rsherwoman appears and holds a fish near the 
bridegroom for good luck, and for her service is given a few rupees. 
When the bridegroom begins to move a cocoanut a few sugar-cakes and 
diy dates are waved round bis head and thrown away. The bridegroom, 
who Ls called Var-Rija or the marriage chief, is drissed in new clothes, 
8 Masulipatam cloth tiirhan, a long white robe falling to his ankles 
with a strip of nbite cloth about a foot broad wound many tinics round 
tuB wa'st, a shawl thrown over his left arm, a garland of Sowers 
Mund hie neck, a red mark on his brow, and a bouquet and cocoannt in 
Jus right hand. Sometimes the bridegroom gees to the bride's on horES* 
lack, his place in the procession being after the male and IwEoro tlie 
female guests. The female guests follow the men, the bridegroom's 
moUier leatling them holding iu her bands a hrge brass or silver salvor 
containing a pivo or paper-cone of sugarcakcs betelnuts and leaves 
dry dates and rice with a suit of clothes for tlio bride and jewels 
generally worlh Rs, 30" to Rs. 1000. At every street comer, to 
appease evil spirits, a cocoanut is waved round the brid^room's bead, 
I»okeo, and thrown awny. On reac'jing the bride's the bridegroom 
is led to the door, the men of his party take their seats on carpets 
And benches, and the women stand behind the bridegroom at the 
door. At the threshold, as the bridegroom enters, the bride's mother 
waves seven times round his head a copper-bra^s plate with rice and 
.water in it, throws the contents under his feet, breaks an egg and a 
cocoanut, and welcomes him into the house asking him to set ms right 
foot first and puts a ring on his finger. The bridegroom's father 
seats the bride on his lap if she is a child, and presents her with gold 
«nd silver omamente. After thia the wedding ceremony begins. 

Section y 




Bouquets and betel-leaf are Uauded to all male g^ueste. The womea 
6it round on cjarpets, and in the i^ntre the bride and bridegroom 
seated on chairs faciog each other. Their right hands are 
together with cotton threaJ and a curtain-like cloth \a held beti 
them. One prie&t posts himself near the bride and another near 
bridegroom. While reciting prayers they pass twieted thread 
times rouud the bride's and bridegroora'a chairs. When this i; 
the bride and bridegroom are shown a small basin containing c'atil 
butter and molasscB, one of the priests drops benjamin on a fin 
censer, and the bride and bridegroom throw rice over each othac^ 
Whoever is quickest in throwing the rice is Bupposed to be likely t«| 
rule. The guests cloEely watch their movements and reward theft 
nharpness by laughter and applause. When the rice-throwing is ov(c 
the bride and bridegroom are set side by side, two priests etand befoi 
them with a witness on each side holding brass plates full of TvaSr^ 
The two priests pronounce the marriage blessing in old Persian andt, 
Sanskrit, at each seatence throwing rice on the bride's and tb* 
biidegroom's heads.' At int«rvals in the midst of the Ueseing ^ 

■ The wordi of the marriRge prmyer are : In the Kftme nf God, U«y th 
CrektOT Abnnunaid give you miny children, with male grand child kd, moeh foot 

frienrlg with heartpleaaliig budy and face, vrilliiDg tbroagh a long life lur a hundlM; 
and fifty years. On the day N.N., in the month N.N., in the year N.N., one* 
the king of kings the ruler Tazdezard of the (took of ^dsOn. a coDgregatioo ii eoM 
together ta the circle of the fortunate town N.N, , according to the law aud curtail 
ot the good MazdayacDiao religion, to give this maiden to a hnaband, Thii nftidMi 
thia woman, N.N. , by name, accurding to the contract of two thousand NisapoiiHl 
gold dituxTi. 
Do yon join with your relations in agreement for thia marriage, with honouM 

with the three worda, to promote their own good deed fur the believing Njj 
jn tract for life T Do you both " " '' - ■ .»..■.■ ^.i _ »-.-_!■ 
that to both of you pica 

Htth accept tlie oontroct Cor life with a {air i 

this contract for life T 
(hat to both of you pli 

In the name and friendship of Ahurainazd. Be ever shining, ■ 
victorioue. Learn purity. Be worthy of praise. May the n<ind think ^ 
thonghta, the tongue speak good words, the works be good. May wirked thona 
haste away, wickM words be lessened, wicked works be burnt. Be purity pn 
■nd sorcery scared. Be a Masdayacnian. Accomplish works according to thy n 
Win for thjeelf property by rlNht- dealing. Speak truth with the rnlers and be o1 
ent. Be modest with friends ckvor and well-wishing. Benotcrupl. Be not wr 
fnl. Commit no sin through shatne. Be not eovotoua. T.irmeut not. Cheriili fl 
envy ; be not haughty ; treat no one deapitefnlly ; cherish no Inst. Rob not the p 
party of others ; Iteep thyself frona the wives of othere. Do good works with | 
energy. Impart to the YaiatAa and the faithful (nf thine own). Enter into no ti 
with a, revengeful man. Be no companion to the covvlous. Go not in th 
with the cruel. Enter into no agreement with one of illJame. J'nter i 
with the anikiifnl. Combat adversaries with right. Go with friends a 
to friende. Enter into no strife with those of evil repnte. Before an aesemhry si— 
only pure words. Before •kings speaE with mi'deration. From Bocestors inhern 
good name. In nowlje displenw tiiy mother. Keep tlie body pure in jusUce. j 

Be of immortal body tike Kfti-Khoam. Be of nnderetandicglike YLint. Be ihlfldL 
as the Sun. Be pure as the Ui>»u. Be renowned aa Zarthost. Be powerful fl 
Hustara. Be fruitful as the earth. Let your friendship with friends brothers W^ 
and ohildrcQ be as the union of body and soul. Keep always the right faith and aM 
character. ItcDngQiBB Ahuramazd as ruler and Zarthoat as lord, and put ■ 
Abrimln and the evil spirits. 

Uay Ahnramazd aend_yoa gifts, Bnhman thought, Ardibebist speerh, Shsrevarwod 
BpendBimad wisdom, KhordJld sweetness and fatness, Amerdad fraitfalneaa. IL 
Ahoramaid bestow gifts on you, Ad ar brightness, Ardvisflra otirity, the S'un nilikl| 
Moon indease, Tirlibenlity, Gosh tcmparance. May Aburatnasd KiveyoDgift«,lfitr 


PA'RSIS. £37 

lei^room khJ bride axe asked in Persian, Have you choBen her? Section Vt 
Have you chosen him? They answer in Persian or if they are PirsU- 

young their mothers answer for them ' 1 have chosen,' When the 
nUAxriage blessing is over the bride's sister under the pretext o£ csio"*. 

"lini^ tlie bridegroom's feet with milk, steals one of his ehoea and Jtamaa* 

not let it go till the is given a rupee. The bridegroom, leaving 

fc^^e bride at her father's houses starts for his own honse with his friendg _ 

^Skd s bright array of torehee. A feast is given at both bouses and 

^•Jbont midnight the brid^room goes back to the bride's with some 

" Tiends. The whole marriage ceremony described above is repeated. 

VVten this is over the bridegroom's and bride's robes are knotted 

^iOgetber and the whole party returns with them. to the bridegroom's.' 

JiTie bride and bridegroom are made to feed each other from a dish of 

"*ice cuids and sugar called dahi htmlo literally curds, and they hunt 

^or a ring which each in turn hides in the dish and then gamble to show 

^ho is quicker and luckier. On the marriage evening friends and 

delations present sliawU and nipees to the parents of the bridegroom 

vid bride. The presents are carefully noted that on like occasions 

mitable return presents may be made. On the eighth morning after 

the wedding the wife goes to her parents' house and i-etunis in the 

— ■— witii a large vessel filled with wheat having its mouth 

with silk, From both houses sweet-bread and other choice 

Ui«i tLioih obedience, Rmu conduct, Farvardin itreniith, Behrim victory, BAin 
iff B>d mtglit. May Ahuratnaul bretow gifts od ynu, Din wiadom aod m»j<«tyi 
^eHUgnitid ikill, Astac virtae, iumia activity, ZamUd flrmneii, MkhriBpant 
Mfaovght, Aii^rin beauty of body. 
t.Oood art tbou : may est thou uiairitain that which is better for thee than the good, 
Mlltoa Bttest thyHilf wartbilj a*aZauta(perfonnerDr religiouacereuioniea). Hiyeit 
aivceiTBthe reward which i« earned bf thu Zaota aa one who thiuka ipeaks and doe* 

come to Ton which ii better than the gnoA ; may that not como to you which 
n the evil ; may that not come to loe wliioh is worse than the evil, to may 
. btppen as I pny. Spiegel's Avonta, 173 - 175. 

.IThegirl'a portion of the presents i> sent with her either at this time or four days before 
' D the morninK of the marriage day. The ^rl's portion includes a bedtlead, a box or 
ji, a cane basket, cooking and water veisels filled with wheat or riee, a pot of raw 
Vi a tray of lunreakea, a tbin green bamboo, and a suit of clothes for the boy and hli 
_tUons, the whoTe worth Bs. loO to IC«. GOD or more. During the Rrtt y(&r after 
■ ktmtbal on twenty-one occasions proaents are sent to the girl's house by the biiy'i 
rmtt and on five occasiona presents are sent to the boy's house by the girl's parents, 
le twenty-one oecasions on which presents are rant to the (cirl'a honse by the boy's 
vnts aie, on the brttothal day when rctunune the horoscope ; on the Adami or the 
li day preceding tlie marriage day ; on the Tami or the fourth day preceding the 
.jxiage day ; on the Navazot or initiation ; on the evening of the marrilWo day ; 
t the midnight of tiiu marriage day ; on tlie VtovAr or eighth day after the 
on the hnsband's birthdav ; on the -Urat new.siDon day < on Jamshedi 
a Heher Jaaan ; on Ab^n Jasan ; on Adar Jaun ; on fiahnian Juan j on 
^ _aater'a anniversary ; on Kavroz the last day of the year ; on Kbordodsal i on Holi ; 
JB Coccanut Day ; on Dassara i and on Dewnli. 

The five occasions on wluch presenli o( clothes are sent to the boy's house by tb< 
girl'i parcnta are, the Kaviot ; the Adarni ; the evening of the marriage day ; the Navros 
theUitday of the year; and the hnabood's birthday. All the presents made to the wife 
ar« returned to the husband if she dies before bim, and remain with the wife it the 
hoabatid diei before lier. During the lifetime of husband and wife all presents, either of 
rlotbei or omamentfl, made to the wife at the time of her marriage or on the occasiolu 
above mentioned, though at her disposal far use on other subsequent fostivs occuionl^ 
remun in the custody of her pnrents so long as the parents are aViTe. 



£ection VIII. 

>, Mas. 

dishes are taken to the sea or to a river side and ofEered to the 
spirite. In the evening at both houses relatiunsandfriendBaie f 
On tiie firat Bebram that is the twentieth dav o£ the month af 
wcdiiiiig, friends and relations are called to a least. No chairs or 
aro used at wedding feasts. A strip of cloth half a yard wide is 
on the cronnd and the gueets take their places in a row. The 
and children dine first and when they have dined the men are 
Before eai:h guest a piece of plantain or other leaf is spread, s 
the leaf, the servants lay a portion of each course, When all the eoi 
are served the guests begin to eat. While the nwle guests an 
eating, small copper cups of the size of wine glasses are filled with 
vwtcra Baesia latifoliajiquor and the toast 'Glory to God' is drunk. A) 
sooQ as this toast is drunk the cups are refilled and four more tiNula, 
' The Bride and Bridegroom ' ' The Fire Temple ' ' The Host ' and 
'The Guests' generally follow. What with presents of drcsees and 
ornaments, with feasting and other charges, the poorest Pars! (M 
hardly marry his son for less thaa Rs. 4U0 or his daughter for l&t 
than Its. 230. A middle olnss marriage costs Rs.SOO to Rs. 12O0 
and a rich man-iage Rs. 15O0 to Rs. 4000.i ' 

Among Hdreis polygamy is forbidden. The tflithority of reli^on mm) 
custom which was agiuost polygamy was often set aside till polygatoT 
was made illegal under the Pirsi Marriage and Divorce Act (XXV.) of 
1S65. When a wife or a husband dies remarriage is allowed ami 
practised. The marriage of a bachelor and a maid and the marrii^ ol 
a widower and a maid arc called Shdhdzan or roj-al marriage; tin 
remarriage of a widow, whether she marries a bachelor or a widower. i» 
called CiiA'dridji marrii^e or Nmilra} A widow's marriage diffen 
from a maiden's marriage in the following particulars. The cerenwDV 
is performed once not twice and at midnight instead of in the evening- ( 
Duringthe ceremony the bride should be helped by a remarried wiAo« 
and not by a vir^u or an un widowed woman. The ami or robe whiohtla 
bride wore dunng the ceremony is washed as soon as the ceremony 'it 
over, as it is unlucky for any one to uee it before it is washed ; while 
G being repeated the rice is thrown from below instawl 

■Tlu^ cliieFdctaitatre: DrcE« Ra.200to Rs. 300, or^amenU Rs. 500 to Va,VKf), 
■nrt ftMting K»- 700 to Ki. ] 000. 

' These Bre tlic onlj two forniB of inaniagc at pnesent in an among Giiiarit Fini). 
From the Itaraycfi or Precepts, of wMcb an aceonnt is given under Boligiaa {Abmt 
pagaSlli) it Becms that in r«rlier times thtre were flvc formi of marriage ; (I) [\tittiasat, 
tbr rof al wedilingtho eamc ai ShAlidion, that i* the lint marriaee of a boy and prl. I> 
it reeagniscd in both worlds. The merit of good dteds performed by a child burn of tU> 
marriafce redound to the fmrents, (2) Yuiian. If a man bai a daughter and noMg 
the marriage of the ilaaghter is called Y^ktan, bceauu her ooa will bo adopted by kct 
father and made his heir. (3) Chitkarzan ni the marrii^ of a widow with a widomr 
(4) Setar:an, If an anmarricd bay dies a girt i< at onee nntted to him aa hia wife ul 
tbeir names are prononneed together «a hiisband and wife in tlie boy'i funeral nniWi 
The prl tan remarry bui only in the widow- raarriago form. (6) Khiidath-nu-ttl 
literally girl'" choieo ia a mwriage made not by tbe pnrents but by the girl's fhofca 
The Bavnyets or Pcccepta order the high priest to nnile such a pair even though tbt 
parents objert. After the birth nf a child from this union a TCeond matriago oereoiDa} 
■bonid be performed. The aeeond oervmon; i« given the rank of SUAdaan or f'idtH' 
inn that ia of a firat maritage. 




above as in the royal or maiden^s wedding. The dress to be 

ited to the bride is not taken in a salver as in a maiden s wedding 

in a deep basin, so that it may not be seen. When a bachelor 

a widow, on the evening before the wedding he is married with 

an or royal rites to a twig of the samri Prosopis spioigera 

and at midnight is married to the widow with the second 

rites. No children of the remarrying pair may be present 

\g the remarriage ceremony, as it is believed that if anv are 

it disagreements will arise between the children and the stepiather 


When life has gone the body is washed, carried to the ground floor 
tibe hoose, dress^, wrapped in old freshly- waslbed white cotton cloth, 
laid in a comer of the front hall either full length or with the 
crossed. When the floor of the hall is of earth the spot on which 
body is to be laid is marked ofC by drawing a line round it. 
goitace of the enclosed space is broken and on it the body is 
If the floor is of cement or of stone the body is laid on one or two 
slabs which are &et on the floor, and the ground covered by the 
is marked off by a line drawn with an iron naiL A wooden floor, 
plain or covered with stone slabs is never used for laying out the 
The body is laid north and south with the feet towards tiie north. 
lamp fed with clarified butter is kept burning at the head and a 
repeats prayers and bums sandalwood and benjamin in a censer 
front of the body. Except when a death happens at night the body 
phmldbe carried to the Tower of Silence as soon as possible after 
jpifli The bier-bearers must alwa3rs be Pdrsis. They are known as 
Wateidldrs^ and are paid and set apart as body-carriers by the Parsi 
^Imdidyet or local board. When the Tower of Silence is at a distance^ 
iiabody is sometimes carried in a bullock cart, which is immediately after 
(rcfcen to pieces and buried near the Tower. When a body is carried on 
tun's shoulders the number of bearers must not be less than four in the 
IS0e of an adult or two in the case of a child. When the body is taken 
in a cart the number of bearers must be not less than two. In places 
frithin easy distance of a Tower of Silence, the bearers bring an iron 

' * Moflt of tbe parbicalars in which widow*marriage ceremonies differ from the 
memoniei in a marriage between a bachelor and a maid seem traceable to the fear of 
iM spirit of the first husband which is strong among aU classes of Hindus. Details are 
fiwmi in the Sholipur Gazetteer, XX. 524- 627. 

' • The Nases&ldra are always laymen. The priestly class is entirely free from the 
ilrtj of carrying the dead. Poor and destitute laymen becom^ body-carriers. Washing 
iM dead, carrying them to the Tower of Silence, and keeping the Tower in order, Pdrsis 
Bomdder defiling duties. After he touches a de&d body untH he has been purified the 
hody-esrrier remains aloof and is not allowed to touch anything or anybody. After he 
hM purified himself by rubbing himself with cow's urine and washing with water the 
IbmAUur mixes freely with other Pdrsis except tLat at public dinners they eat by 
Ihtmaelyies at a distance from the rest. The office is not hereditary. Bearers were 
hnnevly paid by the mourning family. Now they receive fixed monthly wages, and are 
my ^wlia of the P&rsi local boards who distribute them according as their services are 
m q q ^ n^. When carrying the dead the Nases&Urs are dressed in white, and they either 
gloves and stocldngs or wrap linen round their hands and feet. Their every-day 
if like that of other laymen, except that they are not allowed to shave either the 
or the face. Before he becomes a body -carrier a NasesAUr goes through the 
UarMHwn cleanriog ceremdny, 

B 520—31 

Section VIIL 

• -^— ■— 





Section VIII. \y^^f ^^^^ \^y ^ ^ear the hoiy. The bier is a plain iron bedstead wiU 

F&iBiB' '^^ ''^•^''Pyi standing about eix inches from the ground and with 
long side-rods to rest on the Itearcrs* shoulders. The women of 

CvBTOMB. Eimily aud their friends bit on cniiiets within doors a little way f 

^tp*"'*- the body wailing and crying. The men and their friends sit ont 

^M and in the 'streets in long rows on benches or on carpets. A 

^B iif priests attend and say the prayers for the dead. Two of them, ct 

^H for the occasion, stand at the threshold opposite the body and the 

^H and begin reciting the Ahunvat GAtha a portion of the Yasna whii 

^V ealled Oeiadrnd. In the midst of the recitation the two priests 

^H round, the attendants lay the body on the bier, and a dog is brought 

^H Icok on the fat'C of the'dead and drive away evil spirits. Then the b 

^H priests again turn towards the body and rei-ite. \^'ben the reciting 

^H over the priests leave the door, and the wailing and crying which li 

^H ceased for the time begius afi-eth. The male friends of the dead ga 

^H the door, bow^ and in token of rcsptct for fbe duad rai^ their two luu 

^H from the floor to their heads. After the body is laid on the bier i 

^H uovered with a ^beet from head to foot. The twg attendants bring 

^H bier out of the house, holding it low in their bands, and make it ovei 

^H four more bearers outside, who like the two attendants are dressed 

^H freshly-washed wliite cIothcB. All the men present stand while 

^H body is taken from the house and bow to it as it passes. The body 

^H carried feet foremost, and after the bmly fallow pricets in their w) 

^H diess, and after the priests the friends of (he dead. All walk in coup 

^H each couple bohiing the ends of a handkerchief. At the Tower of Silei 

^H which is generally someway from the town, the bier is Ect down i 

^H little distance from the door. "When all have again Iwwed to the df 

^H the bier is taken by the bearers into the Tower where the body is 111 

^^r from the bier and laid on the inner terrace of tbe Tower.' The dot 

^M ' Tbe Plinus Pitll tho Tower of Silence Dokhmo % Zend noM meaning tomb. Be 

^H tbe f oundutionfl of b Tower of bilonce ntv Wid& (Circle representing IheoalndewiUof 

^1 Tower is marked on the ground and in the dentie s deep pit is dug, I'hia when lined 

^H witli uwsoiiry becomes tbe rentral pit iAonJar of the Tower. All slang tbe ciTcumferesM 

^K > ditch is dug wide enongh to hold the foundation of tbe Tuwiir wall. Then it c«(l 

^HL of the four oorDers, in the Bcnitb.ea8t loutb-wert uorth-weit and north-eHita ditch it dof 

^^H conneeting the central pit and the cirGOmfcreuee. On the da; fixpd f or lajiog tlM 

^^H foundation a lai^ nnmber of people meet. Two ■peciall; purified priecti |ro into (Im 

^^H central pit and drive a long iron nail into the bottom of the pit and nftfrtrardi driTel 

^^H timilariron nail at the Bonth.eaBt Bonth-WEat north-wett and north-ea»t p<HDtBOf tkn 

^^M eircnmferenre. In tjie part of tbe eircn inference between each of theu four CMM 

^^H point* tbe priesta drive in qniueuiix order two rows of amaller nsili. fSve naili in JH 

^^H inner and four naila in tlje onter row. Aloug i«ch aide of the four ditches whii-h ^| 

^^B the central pit with the circQnifrrence, the; ^i thirty-two najla, and drive a nailat^^ 

^^H end of the connecting ditches nearest to the central pit. In all three bnndnd andflH 

^^H nails are driven into the grtiund. A long piece of yam prepared by twisting togetlM] 

^^H • bund red-aad -one thnmde ia first pasBed by the two priests througba bole in the UK 

^^H nail at the Eoatb-east and to tbia nul one end of the tlireada a Ued. Tbe prieita tbA 

^^H draw tbe thread Routb out and in along the nine nailanpto the big iiail at the suutli-«<^ 

^^P comer, then along the nine nails rip to tbe big nail at tbe nortb-wcBt comer, then shj 

^V the nine naiU to the big nail at the north-east comer, and so along tlie last nfl 

^1 naila back to tbe big nail at tbe soatb-eaEt corner. A second round is Tepnl«^| 

^B the same order. In tho third rtninil tlio priests again atart from tbe Mintli-eaat fl 

^H^ but Erit go along thirty-two niulB on either side cf the first eonneetingditoh and tbejH 

^^h at tbe top of it; then to the nine nails at tbe aouth up to the bio; aonth'west nail tnd afl 

^^B the thirtf 'two nails on either aide of the second Gonnef ting ditch and tbe nail at tfa«H 







'9i/rMa^a^r ^/¥aroz/AfCe?^^A^C£ fOOAfA /e9$ 






View 0^ tt)e 

',»wn « //*»■ "J"' f^i*^ 




PA'RSIS. 241 ■ 

torn off and the body is Io£t to tlie rnltai-ee. After the body is laid Section TI 
in the Tower, befoi-e they return to their homeB each of the funeral party p^ia. 

has a little cow's urine poured into the palm o£ his left hand and recites 
the Kfrang prayer. They wash theii- £ace hands and feet at a well *" " 

near the Tower, and repeat the ku»IL prayer. They then go home, Un 
reaching home they do not enter the house till they have ag^in 
washed their face hands and feet and again repeated the kitsti ]>rayer. 
They then enter the house and at once bathe and change their clothes. 
Men who have been at a funeral cannoteat work or mix with their 
friends till they have bathed, and their clothes mu-t be washed before 
they arc agidn used. When a married man dies his widow at 
once brealis her glass bangles and in tlicir ete&il wears gold or silver 
bracelets. Wliile she i-emains a widow, (iiat is until she reman iea. a widow 
does not lake part in any ceremonies connected with joyful occasions. 
Every morning for three days after a death rice is cooked and laid 
in the veranda for dogs to eat. The place in the house where the body 
Was laid is railed off and is not used for one month if the death occura 

afit; Uieii nloof; the nine nails at the west np to t\w big nortb-we«t nail nnd nlong tha 
Uilt on eithiir ai'lfl at the tbir<l conni'rtintc ditcli and the nail at the top of it, and thon 
tlan;Ui« nine n&iU at the north, up tu tho big nortli-esat nail and along the thirty-two 
n^lioR ethcT aide of the foarth dilcb and the oail ait the top of it ; then along tbe niiio 
tuili U the east and bafk to the hig Honth-cait nul. After going rooiul thin nail Ibe 
tWid it earned to the big nail in the centre of tbo pit, and all that remains of the 
Jtn It <TOQDil ronnd it. Thii endi tbu foundation creremony. During the whole procesi 
tfBdng the D^li anil paaaing the yam along then the two prioits continue to Tcctte 
■*n«d i»t«. A disgnira it, Httacfaed showing the position of the 301 naiU. Tbu central 
^vbifh is abodt 150 feet in circnmferenre is lined vrith masonry to s depth of six 
to rigbt feet. The space roand the pit is filled to the level of the pit mouth. This 
pitlbrm is paved with atone glabi which eonTcrge from tbo eircnrnfereacc to the rentre 
iMfbig narrow spaces for the liquid matter to drain to the centre. Round the onter edge 
* ml hide* the inside of the tower from view. The tower it entered through a bigh iron 
'mt to whioh b BiRht of steps leads. Dead bodies ant laid npon the atone platform 
•kirli is about 300 feet in eircumference and divided into three coneentric niws, the onler- 
BM tor men, the next one for womeu. and the innermoat for children. After the tieih is 
**(w by Ilie vnltniea the drr bones are thrown into the central pit wbieb is connected 
^ nMlcrgToaiid passages with four wells built at some distance from the tower. At 
Wbo diatanro beyond tlivse wells, fronting the entrance of the tower, ia a vaulted boiUI- 
ME in which a lainp is kept bnmiDg at nigbt whose rays pass into the tower througb 
«ls> in the iron door. After the tower i* finished the whole of its inside is first washed 
*ilk cnr's urine. After it ii dry it is washed with water. Then for three days the Yaana 
iBd tor three nights the Vandidid ate recited by the priests in the tower. On the fourth 
iayitia fomially opened with ajman ceremony. Now the tower is closed to all but 
^MU and is fit to receive the dead. After the first dead is deposited in it, it is 
^onA even to P&rsis eirept to the eorpse-bearcra or VaieBilMrs. A diagram la attached 
^■■niiog the inner arrangements of a tower, Pftrsis from all pa<4s crowd to the place to 
'itntw the ceremony of opening a new Tower of .'■ileace. The belief is general that tu 
**< the fbondation and towec-openin|; ceremcnies nleauses from sin and that any one who 
^ Hen seven tower ceremonies goes to heaven. The Pirsis ore very careful reganling- 
U« fint body that is laid in a new Tower o( Silence. On no oecoont may the first tenant 
'X'Ait Tower bo a young person. If the first body exposed is a young person many Psrsi 
'"fs and girls will die. ThuJicstbody laid in a ne.r tower ahontd be an old person, 
^uue, it is said, death baa few terrors for the aged. The next best corpse with which 
'" opvo a tower is the body of an infant, bocanse in that case life has scarce begnn. 
Another belief about children is that the mother of the child whose body is first laid ink 
'"* lower ever after remains barren. After a tower is finiBh«d and until it is used tbs 
^t ii earefally covered so that nn dead animal or otL 'inclenn thing may fall into it. 
- IWPitb* have iA,i>.lS98) 113 Toners of Silence and twtnty*eight burial places. 
lin Ai^M-sdix II, page 262, 





between tKe eighth and the twelfth month of the year and for ten diiy 
if tlie death occutb between the tiret and the eeveuth month.' Dorii^ 
the time the placo is thue set apart a lamp is kept burning on it and i 
jar filled with water and with ilowers in ita mouth is set where the S 
of the deceased lay. 

About three in the afternoon of the third day after death a n 
is held in the house of moiurmng. The gueste seat themselves o 
benches chairs and carpets, and recite prajers of repentance on bAt 
of the dead. While the guests are praying, two priests if the dead « 
married and one priest a the dead was unmarri«i, lay BevenJ trsys i 
flowers and one or two censers or incense-bnrners in front of the cp( 
where the body was laiu, or in the hall of the fire-temple, and, standio 
opposite the censer and flowerB, recite prayers. When the prayers K 
over, the son or the adopted son of the deceased bows before the hig 
priest, who matces him promise to perform all religious rites for the dead 
The friends of the deceased tben read a list of charitable contribatioB 
in memory o£ the dead. This ceremony is called Ulhamna I 
from mourning. The flowers in the trays are handed round and t 
people are sprinkled with rosewater and retire. To the priests i 
the poor the rich distribute alms and sacred shirts. Next momin 
before dawn, white clothes, cooking and drinking vessels, fruit and whe 
cikes called dnrun are consecrated to the dead in the fire-temple. 
suit of clothes and a set of vessels are given to the family prieet. 1 
rest are used by the family and the frnit and cakes are eaten. Aftei 
this is over, about four in the morning the grief-raising eeremM^ 
is repeated. For three days after a death except for dogs no foo 
should be cooked in the house of mourning. What food is reqiuie 
is as a rule sent cooked by near relations. liuring the three first days c 
mourning no relation of the dead, wherever he may be, eate fleal 
For the first ten days and sometimes longer, female friends i 
relations come to the house of mourning and are received in the hall by ti 
womenof the house, and remain there from morning to noon. Similad 
kinsmen and friends call at the house for a, few minutes in the mom „^ 
and evening for the first tliree days. They are received by the men ( 

' Ihc proper rcMon wliy the spot where Uie dead Iny i« so muchlongw ontlaui,' 
re hanntod, doring the lattvr pnrt of tlie ytar tLsn during the eailier montlu ii 
(luring the ■outbinii; of tlie SUD the great epirit-Bfarer, as his iraring power g 
lesa the potrer of the Bpirite increaeeB and the dead refoBSB to leave hi* old i 
Uindoi pteierre the wme belief hy B&yiiig that during the Ul«r or ■oatliiiig mat 
heaven'i gates are closed and tlie dead cannot get in. But according to tht " 
icriptnruB the soul depaita from thi* norld on the dawn of tlie fourth dajr. 
ground retnaiUB unclean bcLanse of the ' Daruze nuai' the ctU itnrit that haauta 
(Croanda oc grounda where a corpae baa lain, or in other words, the coDtaiuiiiatiou of 
earth and Uie air caused by a corpse. This ■ Damze ' is scared away by the 
afaring aua, or the contamination 1* removed by the drjing power of the mm, 
power is woaker during the aoutbiiig of the aou, or during tbe later part ol tbeyt 
than durini; the esrlier months, and hence the ground ia considered as remaiiung udc'~ 
longer in the former than in the hitter case, 

' Ptraia believe that a man cannot be saved unlcea he has a son. If be haa do a 
Fiirai mnst adopt one of his Uiwd relations, or failing that a diaUmt rslation, or fai 
that any Zoroaatnan. The adoption uiuit he declued at the nthamna or third 




use and seated in the veranda or near tbe veranda on carpets 
es or chaii's. At morning, noon^ evening^ midnight and at four in 
oming priests are engaged to recite prayers during the three first 
On the fourth day a feast is held especially for priests^ and friends 
so asked to join in it. A little of the food cooked on this day is 
all relations and friends who make a point of eating or at least 
sting it. On the tenth and the thirtieth day after death, the 
-day in each month for the first year and every yeai*ly death-day 
onies in honour of the dead are performed. 

Section VIIL 




Till a.d. 1865 in all parts of Gujardt, and etill in parts of the proviaj 
which belong to the Odekwilr, local councils calleJ aiijiimdui i 
panchdi/etn BcHledall Pirsi social and religious disputes. In a.d, 18" 
the spread of European ideas and the decline of the poner of the leadi 
families among the Bombay PArsis resulted in the formation of 
Pdrsi Law Association. After ten years, as the representation! of tl 
body seemed to express the wish of the more powerful and intelligent!] 
flection of tJie commnnity, Government passed two Acts, the T " 
MarriageandDivorce Aeto£ls65and tUelMrsiSuceesBion ActoflSSJ 
defining amending and making conformable to' Pdrsi customs i' 
law relating to P^rsi marriage, divorce, and suceesaion. Since 18 
the Pdrsi communities in Imperial Gujarat bring all disputes regardin 
marriage and succession to the regular law courts, where, in acoi 
anee with the procedure provided under these Parsi marriage ; 
succession acts, the Judge is aided by Pdrsi delegates nominated I) 
Government after consulting the leaders of the local community. Xi 
the Pdrsi settlements within the limits of the GSekwiir'a territorj 
disputes regarding marriage are still settled by the local councils. 
Navsdi'I, which is the earliest and one of the most important P. 
■ettlements, the council or anjumdn is composed of the highpri) 
^astitr, and the leading priestly family of the clendis as e' 
members, and the represcnta-tives of some other priestly familie 
members, if the matter in dispute touches the excommunication o 
member of the community or some other point of public importano%4 
the meetings are attended by all adult male PArsis. Meetings to allow 1 
remarriage, to hear complaints of priestly irregularities, aod othvl 
matters of less importance are attended only by the leading memben. f 
The local conncil of Navs^ri has the special power of forbidding thftl 
marriage of a widow or a widower unless the council is satisfied that all I 
claims for ornaments or clothes brought by the relatione of the former 3 
wife or husband have been settled. In Navsitri and other Pant J 
settlements in GdekWAr territory the local council aijunnin regnlatafl 
the succession to property and in disputed cases decides who shall bA I 
declared the adopted son. In marriage disputes it tries to effect ft J 
friendly settlement of quarrels between husbands and wives andl 
exercises a check on bigamy.. The council has not power to annul a I 
marriage with a second wife daring the lifetime of a former wife, but, I 
on pain of l>eing cut off from all social and priestly rites and from the 1 
use of the fire-temple during his life and of the Tower of Silence after 1 
Ms death, they can force the bigamous husband to provide a maintenance J 
for his first wife. Since the passing oC the Pirsi Marria^ge ai 
[ Succession Acts of 1865 none of these powers have been exercised ] 

the loGft) councils in Imperial Gujardt. Id fact tlie local councils in 

Imperial Gojardt nonr occupy only the position of trusteeB o£ the 

pulilic funds liolonging to the Beveral commuiiiticB. The funds 

of the Surat Partis have Iwen in charge of the tnietees of the Pdrei 

PftnLhsyct at Bombay since a.d. 1841, the leadinjj Pdrsis of Bombay 

baviug largely conUibutod towards its CTidownient. Tlie disposal of 

the annual income from these funds is in the lianda of a body 

of nine of the leading Pftrsis of Surat, who hold office for life. 

Appointments to vacancies iu this body are made by the surviring 

members subject to approval of the trastees of the Pai-si Panchdyet at 

Bombay, who have the right of veto. In Broach Ahmedabfid and other 

towns und centres vrhei-e PSrsis are numerou9*cnough to have a local 

eeonuil the councillorB are wealthy and influential priests or laymen. 

The powers which all local conncila exeicise are at present conHned to 

the management of public funds, care of the Towers of Silence, oontrol 

ever the establishments (including corpse-ljearers) connected with the 

Towers, and the carrying out of the Gahambdr feaete. Subscriptions to 

public funds among. the Pdreis of Gujarat are mostly the result of 

aiuiB which their sacred books enjoin Pdreis to make on joj'ful family 

ocoasinns and on the third day after a death. The chief uses to 

^hicbthc Fdrsi public subscriptions are put are charitable allowances 

of foud and clothes to pour and nealy Pdrsis, maintaining Pdrsi schoola, 

DMtiDg tbe expenses of the six Gahambdrs or jxai'ly feasts, and maiu- 

lining pnblio Fire-temples and Towers of Silence and the eetablish- 

oent) of corpse-bearers. In all these works of cliarity or public 

neefulaes^ tJie Gujardt Parsis are hel[)ed by the Bombay Pdrsia. 

Many of the moat prosperous families of Bombay Pdrsis have moved 

from Gujarat to Bombay within the last century and a half. Many 

Bomhav families keep up house and other hereditary property in 

Gujarat and the whdle Bombay community at all times and especially 

in liiiiee of distress have freely lent their help to the Parsis of Grujarat. 

Section Vt 

Co imusiix, 










Itadjr NuMrwu,]! .. SMbS«rt.1IBS 

Cnnawntal »"■ 




BoniolthobtBHannu. ITth Nov. I8» 
ii BomBoJi WiidJB. 

Frunjl CuraMU, and Rua- inb Dae. 1H9 

dubtioy BuitiunjI Bi- 

Bubw'ipli-iii ... .. 17111 Ool. 18BJ 
D».l Curto^l TunulJI md Dm. 1706 

Ja^l D!."Sbl!'<5'"No«ar. IKib Nov. Issa. 



H..ari :;; ';: 



Bui». ... '.. 

OKto. BewlFfd 

B»hM.l, B*o«l», 
iiMniei)n>. The 
iDoijher Bomui ol 

819 nr'istfi.' Ibe 
« iTth MuDb liSO. 
aiBl Oct. IBB*. 


Ditta Mb Deo. IS3S. 


DdrU. |ArjB™.o _ ...1 

Hj.Mri. >gcl luUy lo XJdrUi on the S8th Oct. llif. where 

And the nfth nnJ Iiieiit bj HutllbJ Jobuslr Widlii o» th 




Co»a>]l 01»>hav Aden 

atb Oct. 1883. 



CniHtJi Byianiji Nana- 


Ba-bolltby Now. 
raji and Jehin- 
dr PeetO'iJI Va' 
kil. Uth April 


JamullL PeslDnJl Plan- 

ttb Hay 18»7 



Anuoll near Sunt 

ADUinar near 

KhKn Bahidiir Dqitur 

Etona o( il^lat* Hor 
iDUjl Eomanll Wadja. 

Huranne Dbanp&l .,. 


Re-bullt fay tba 

B»buill by Kan. 
Jihhov ^rabS, 
Mtd Dee, isa.s. 

Ro-bal1( by Her- 




Jamaein Jljlbhoy ... 
Homuji BbtK.ii Chi- 



DIMc. „ .. 

Motabboy Shopurji ... 
HnwioH FeaKDji Sao- 

Dhonb^, wIdQW of Da- 
dabboy BblniJI Umri- 

»il. Jane ISM, 


BMoamnr Sarat 

i6tb Dec. 1896. 
let Feb. IBM. 




Appandiz I« 

FiRS'TsMPLsa TEROVOEODT Indja — Continued, 

















Baroda Camp 


Bhagva near Sarat 




ditto ... 

BhifvDagar ... 
BhestfDnear Sura^ 


Bombay, Baharkote. 







ditto ... 



ditto ... 

diUo ... 

Ditto Cbaupati. 
Ditto ditto ... 

ditto ... 


CoUba .. 
ditto .. 



Ditto ditto 

Ditto ditto 

Rrramji NusBerwanJi 

Hc.stoiiJiCnrsetfi Razat. 

JaiiiRetji Sorabji Bhag- 
va jfar. 

PMtonJi Virjibboy 

Durabji Shaparji Umri- 

Dadabhoy and Mun* 
ctiorji Pestonji Wadia. 

Nowroji Jamsetji Wa 
Sorubji Manoclcji Seth . 

Shapuijl 9orabJi Kapa 

ITusserwanji RattonJI 

Nussarwanji Hirjibboj 

Bomanji Menvanji 

Meva walla. 
Mtiu'anji Manockii 


Sorabfi Vachaflrbandy.. 
Cnvarbai, widow of 

Sorabji Cursotji Thoo 

Hormasji Bomanji Wa< 

Avabai Ardoflir Cunetji 

fiubscriytion .«. 

Jijibboy Dnd<ibhat 
Mcrwanji Framji Pan- 
Uormasji Dhunji Fatel. 

Banaji Limji ... 

Manockji Nowroji Seth 


ditto ... 
ditto ••. 

Ditto ditto 




lOthNoT 18C8. 

ffth Deo. 1891. 
25tbMay lb59 

8rd Dec. 180:). 

12th May 1891 
&th Feb. 184ft. 

18th July 1828. 
24th Nov. 1796. 

10th Not. 1867. 
6th Mar. •-1884. 
16th Mar.* 1847. 
nth Jan. 11851. 
2Srd Sept. 1808 

8th Feb. 1858. 
29th May 185& 

26th Nov. 180.'^. 
15th Apr. 1868 
2l8t Aug. 1887. 

15th Mar. 1836. 
4th Deo. 1865. 

14th Feb. 1834. 

25th June 1709. 

10th Jane 1783. 
20th Nov. 1816. 

Ardeair Dadybhoy 
Subscription ... 



Re-built bv So- 
rabji and Nowro- 
ji Framji Mistry. 
9th Mar. 18<>1. 

Re-built by Ba- 
ch ubai Sorabji 
Framji WodU 
6th June 1877. 

Re-built by hi» 
heirs. IHh Nov. 
ls^2Jb Slat Oct. 

Re-built by his 
irrand daughter 
Dinhai Nuasar- 
wanji Petit, 8rd 
June 1878. 

For the use of 
the Bhafraria 
prieeta of Nav- 

8.5th Sept. 1808. 
2nd Feb. 1826 

Otb April 1849. 

Re«built by hip 
family, 16th Apl 

Re-bnilt by bix 
h'ir Jalbhoy Ar- 
der^hir {^etb,6tb 
Nov. 1891. 

Tbe fire of thia 
temple waa first 
eoni*ecrated at 
Ch&upati br 
Curaetii's father 
ManocRjee Do 
rabji Shroff en 
5ih Dec. 1790. 

Be-buflt by Sir 
Jamae^i Jiji- 
bhoy'a aons on 
the 13th Aprfi 
18ri0. Thiaiaspth 
oially boilt for 
Gamudia priests 

Re>bailt by Pei^ 
Ji QodiwaUa o» 
2Srd April 1896 




Ho. Fuui. 





H Bpo.tar, Fon ,. 

MotKMi Jehmglr W». 
Plrojbitt, widotro( Di 

rt.hl,oy IfaDOCkj 
Sogjwlji HIiJI Rf»dj 

inih June 1S«3 


ii »Mq ditto .. 

lUth Nay 18a 

Originmlly buil 

b." rtorabji hJ^ 
mB.|l BaiiJ 

■*«• «c-' 

i.bijl Bhl«,)l 

I2lhSepf.l84flJ it^r.ilf'bi J* 

W Ditto KbntirSdL 

Cu-uli lUnckJl Aiih- 


t7 Ditto riltla ., 
W Ditlo tUliAluol. 

U Ditto Jlirint 


SO Olio Muagorih. 

Pii11»ji' Ounatjl Omn 
HjHwiuJi Dadabboj- 

J*Diwi;i' DuIiblKU 

13tb Irtart IWO 
7lh Nni-. J81S 

Aderin sonM. 

cralud on etb 
Nov. 1894. 


1 Ditto dtIM . 

1th Hay 1167 

St DiMo ditto ... 
V DilM Idouni 
14 Dlno Fuel ...' 

,6 Dllb. ditto ,.. 

« Dltlo Tnrdeo... 
T Snub, Bahulcotfl. 

S..wt,-.ji dniieji Nl 

Dadniilia]' A ^luDcbeiji 
Festouji Wadu. 

"K »'-""» 

Ctuuiiobil Byramji 

"Hsr "■•"'" 

Diulwr KuDdln Fur- 
HOBuJI Donibji 

Hinul Uolaji. 

BomhJI HotmmJi Vak. 



Roalomjl CdO'UjI Bb 


FcatonJL CunegiUodT. 
DonUtfl BDd FramJI 

Hntmajli r.uidar. 
MorwiDjtNowroji Juji 

Buttonbil Hi>mn«Ii 
MnoeherJI Cama. 

InimuaJl'Bhlcca'jl Clii. 

Srd rob. 1§70 
anlJuiy issa 

mthMuf. ia»n. 


Ke-bullt by Uun 
■oni. »Ih Auf. 



1 III 

1 ill 

ISth Fab. i7ea. 
e7th Feb. less, 
latbMar. issl 

cratadaoth May 


a Ditbi diito ... 

I Wtto Kb»ri.™d- 
1 Ciloutw .„ „ 

ttb Jnnt IBM. 
7tb JOBB IBJl. 


■ C^mbi! 

Ditto -. _ 

Mtb M.y 185B. 

Rcbnilt by tba 


OoHdiri' ,_"*..; 

Jill F«b, IMO 
141h Mar. ia3» 



ir.? ;: :: 

'uamfi HurjDrii Ulii- 

e<b June 1987 
27tli Ueo. leoa. 

B ^ 

■■•"• - -1 

H'm'ra-Ji U>lic:k]l 

a«h April 1879 



W 250 



Lesdii I. 


Fits-TBUPLSa TBBOcaaovT iwwj— conUunad. M 






iKhipon niir 

ClivBjl uid PllUnJI 

Mth April 19tJ 

Burml. . 

rhunJCi Soi». 


Teliniidji UnUlMll Mir 

laih M«. lew. 




W.;iJ1 Brnmji Modi 


I>6wbb.l Bot- 
.OU.JI. Fordunjl 

f^gWi ™ 4li 

Nov. loM. 


KUWDhj .- 

•Hirii JuntdtJI BBh-rm 

Srd M.r 1319. 



H'Tiniinl Hlspaljl PU- 





Und Jul. 1B4I 

tBkU-e Som 






KlicrgBum .,. .„ 

9l>t Uay I»at 

xqi Unllib 

KhDDdn - _. 

"zt:^il '*'"'''""" 

lin Uay 1»1 



Wondicrjl C'nvorjl nnd 
HirnilBji SiKimrVJl. 

lit Apr. IMO. 



Uban „ .. 


nth Julj ISM 


Jtah.™ „. .- 

8Qlw?ip«0O _ ™ 




«tb Jan. ia«ft 

BcbDllt ^ BU 



Ditto ._ _ 

£1.1 D«. IS§3 


Elh Uu. ISM. 

Rebuilt Aid lUr. 

ias« Hi:') *ir^n 

mliHl6<i<(. U. 




tToBwri.«Bli MuKJCki 

lib Nov. lat.^ 



1787 „ 


Wth Jun. 1*«. 


HiTilrl .- 

Vgrj old 

Jinou.Htb Feb. ' 

1&SS. Again rt 

) bf]ii>iD- 

cbfrjf (Jniwtil 


17M. and neUo 

!Otb lil« 18S1. 
Rt-buUt V Cur- 


HiniKbar Homji 

1«M „ 

»>li AnlortUr 


Hay ISU. 


Blr JuuKJt Jljlbhcj.,. 


TmstK. ot lb. Wndi. 

Flre-tempta ol Bora. 

Tbe fai^ln o( Carndl 

Mlh I>«. IB«S 



ISUi 3i.n. 1M9. 

.Itennil MstuvbIii. 


Pirdl [d Bouth 

Horiniuit OUIabtaal .„ 

ind Jiint 1S81. 


Sorabjl RaUnJl Putel... 

Otb Aug. lait. 





Sir Junietjl JlJIbhBj... 

!»th Hot. 1814. 

lS(h Oct. 180;^. 



En J June 1883, 



Wet May IfTfi. 



Dinith.w Donibjl Bjui- 

Bs-hDilt br bl> 
wiiloir nralbal, 



a ■rand* ... 

1-nr.k »n<l MM.«ll^i 
Bhln>]l Pi>M.kl.. 

taa Julsr 1880, 


PARSIS. 251 1 

Fma-TxMnsa maovaaovi ZyDiA—eonOinna. 

Appendix t^ 





AaiiHU. ' 


GboUpar ... . 


VIcisJi nail FcilnnJ 

Ditto din!l"*''._ 

mh Sept IStV 
Jrdi-Bb. 18U 

Ce-bullt by itib. 
•crli>tIon, MUi 

Bamt, Gop<puia .. 

Nowrcijl jLmiKtitWidia 
tllVB'jl MjDKkil Muc 

JrbtinitiT HUUIWBK] 
UoU..i.ri^."t - Z 

7Sth KOT, IMO 
im JUy IBKJ. 

S9lh M.r ISll 

Aui. 187». " 
Bf-biilK bjr Rni 

ISth Apnl liiT.' 


Ditto LUirkvW .. 

)tth Bed- lS;o 

Rd-bnill I^ N., 


Re.hnilt by M« 
DBck;l No-rej 

R»-bL.Ul hy Riu- 
tomji AspMdi 

Rebuilt b; Us- 
herjl P.I-1 B.,d 
BBtBHIi Chlbrj 

bij;i l,y P«ton- 



tniM MuhU P«t£ . 

DUta din a 
Dl^i dlico 

Bub»trTlrtlnn ... 
JiDutaeil Jill .. .. 

fHulJi iril RiUnj 

Bimmji BI?Bl. 
Kb.1.1: Jin,«-]1 lltkl 




Pilea]! HoKiJl 

Itch Jan. u;3 
IVth Ma; IHS 

r»rjr old - 


DICto dllto ... 



Dina dllM .. 


De«.1 Mnnchtrji Cnr 

Sir Jimistjl Jljibha).. 
IMibhu i Uuncbsrj 
FMtotill Wkdii. 

Vicajl MehufI 

MndSopt. IBOa 
Klb NOV.I8B4 

lU-boilttf Eilul 
Jl DBdlbhd 

filUli.l-B »M 

3<jUi Uul- 18U. 

B^i'nllt hy Dtn 




IMoa _ 

EdalJI Vlijkhor. „ 

Sir* niH.h™»i.o' kj I 
Pltlt, Biut. 
Dom.nji Sombjl IUp« 


DinbKi' NMM.rwsr.Ji 


8th Apt liM 
«th JUBO 1810. 

]»»'' """ '"" 



T«a ditto .. 
Tliit nnr Nitviitl 

ITtb Mv I8fO, 
loth Nov, law. 



bulbv - ' .. 

Donbj'l Dinah 1 IT Aden- 

!5th Usy ISBS, 






.bo _ _ ... gabwriptlaa ... _ ich Mir. law 
jMD ... -. llerauji Sonbjl Klu- Xud A|>t. Isl7. , 

Ills — _ SunkcrtpcloB _ _ JIMAar. UW.' 

lim«UUd _ ClEio .. . fimXvt^tS, 

aoa — _ Bit JuuEtJi JUn>li07-[ ntbH^iSM. Baflt lor MM 
! . of Fii^ a« 

' btrriLChl ll I? 

iBMo ::: _ 

Khin Bihiiiigr ralim- 

nhiUi. uiM.' 

jl PcRODjl ud Kua 


JiSSS* ■■ ~ 

iBlh Feb. IBM. 
Illti Uu. ISSe. 

AT|.-l OD tba" lUU 

Konijl OgrajTSiilct^ 

l«jil _ :9ol U m. 

1»r Ciuc 


tJrdJUr. 165S 

A'.',kivi.vlr new 

Nuioni!! DtwopU s( 

imw-im;.. SotimiM. 1 


Pe.tonjl BoDWji W- 

2tU> Hat. ISIO 

BiibicTipllDn - ~ 

IIU) Jjui. I9H. 


awh M»i. IfMS. 

Ud.,™nr. BMW .. 

viccji ».d e-noDj 

lith Apl. ISU. 


IMe ... >-M In UM. 


DiLW ... - 

MII.J.11.177T; 1 


nibio ... .- 

:;tb Db^ 19H.' 

niio _. 

t.iiiM.r.iwr. For bMiM »«! 


IndJoriiilMa. bnniEhl Id b^i 

ratw - .. 

MrJ«™t]l JiJllAor-. 

,.» .,xKr^"- 

IK a. ' 

"^"u"* z :: 

BiuUimjl Uomanjl BoC- 

ISth Dtc IMl. 


BuhKrirtlon ... .- 
Mwlyl/lrlUMbi _ 

Domhv ~ ■'- 


SuJJtJt iornafi B.rt.„ 



im Hi7 1770. 

biuo r.'. ^ .. 

uwcbstji Jmoi 

«h Siqt. I7ML 


F^I thi nM nt- 


Did; If..«rwi>n]I .- 

iind ApU 1708. 

hi» own runlly.. 

Franijl t7DWa»]l Bmijl. 

sm Kij i«i2._ 




Wol in u»e. , 


Bclareism ,. 


rcM..i>li Pinl '.'.! Z 

UIW '■' ~ 

BuhKripUon — ~ 

ISH „ 

Not 111 nM. 1 




ToirMM or SnssOM rnaovaBOVT India — contlnaed. 








• •« 

• •* 


Nowroji Sorabji Umri- 


18th Dec. 1838. 




• •• 

28tli Jun.lo22. 






•«• • 

Before 1500 ... 

Brick ruin. 

, 4J 




Hirjl Ana of Surat 
reaton^i Curaetji Mody. 




• *• 

• •• 

2»th Apl. 1820 . 

1 u 


• •• 

• •• 


2nd Irfar. 1374. 



« •• 

• •• 


Not in use. 




• •• 


Jamaetn Bxramji Los- 


Unhewn stone. 



• «• 

■ •• 

12th May 1881 . 




• ■ • 



Byraniji Nanabhoy Mis- 
Dorabji FurdoDJi Las- 

■ •• • • « 



• •• 


22nd Sc«»t. 18C9. 



• t« 

• •■ 

6th Jan. 1788... 

Not in use.Thirty- 


six spaces. 



• •• 

• •• 


JehanKir Kasserwanji 

1 0th Jan. 1839. 


Din M« 

• ■* 

• •« 

10th Mar. 1833. 




• •« 

• •• 


22nd July 1723. 

Not in use. 



• •• 

• • • 








Jamsetji Nanabhoy Gaz 

2l8tAp]. 1817. 



• •« 



9th Apl. 1870. 


Gudar near 



Not in use. 




Ticcaji and Festonji 

19th Oct. 1839. 



• • • 

• • • 


3l8t May 1885. 


Ilao ... 

• •• 






• •• 


Ditto .M 

20th Feb. 189S. 



• •• 

• •• 



Not in use. 



• •• 


Jamsetji Kad 



: 64 


• •• 

• •• 


23rd Apl. 1871. 



• •■ 

• •• 

••• ••• 

Before 1500 ... 

Brick ruin. 



• •• 

■ • • 


1722 ... 

Not in use. 




• • ■ 

Kavail^ai widow ot 
Nusserwanji Dadabho^- 




• ■• 


Nowroji Balabhoy 
Hormusji Dadabhoy 

31 St Mar. 1886. 



• •• 

• •• 

25th Jan. 1848. 




• •• 

■ ■ • 


6th June 1876. 



• •« 

• •* 

Dinbai widow of Poojiaji 

24th Dec. 1828. 


Kbeigauni Siurat 

Motibai widow of Bo- 

2l8t May 1882. 


ma nji Jamsetji Moola. 


Koondiaua <.ditto). 



20th Nov. 1895. 




• •• 


Never used owirj 


of Cuorg. 

to the belief that 
a Tower cannot 
be used until a 
dead child ba^^ 
been laid in it. 
Now (1898 usud 
as a storehouse. 



• •• 

• •• 

Mancckji Jeenajl 

6th May 1833. 



• •• 

• •• 


80th Nov. 18!*9. 



*« • 

• • ■ 


.Mrd Jan. 18.S0. 





Subscription ... 

17th May 184D . 


As their contribu- 
tion poor P&rsis 
throw palm 
juice and occurs 
Into the cement 


used for build- 



ing this Tower. 




• •• 

Mancherji Kharshedji 





• t* 

Subscription ,». 

29th May 1888. 



• ■• 

■ #• 

•••••t « 

Before 1600 ... 

A brick ruin* 




• ■• 

Maneck Changa 


Not ia use. 





Maneckji Nowroji Sott. 

30th Jan. 1747. 




• *• 

Hormusji Manoherji 

6th Mar. 1828. 




• •• 

Nusserwanji Buttonji 

8th Mar. 1878. 





Subscription ..• 

27th Apr. 1877. 

Appendix I 


[Bombay Qa«eti 

TowBaa or SiLXNCg raaononoar AiiM— amtinned. 






Pirdl t"n Houth 

SabicriiXioo ... .- 



PonhJI Rattonjl P»t<ll 

Wtb ApL lets. 

wiw ■." 1 




tUndiriistrSunt . 

SnnhJI Hwcher; 

Jcawll Rsulrmnney 
•nd ftmlomjl D«dii- 

no. amy i;si. 

bhnj- NwIemU*. 


Mfd >Ur. IWJ 


8«.J«n^In North 

Boton 14 DO. 


^Subiorietl™ - ._ 

l!tb ApL 1HT. 


BungwJ.Vlui nw - ... 

5th iTib. IM*. 


Vlcfioll ind Fdnliin] 

3nd Peb. IMS. 


Ha,, I 


nuw '.'2 ■;, 





Btltnci'l|>lloa ... 




0tiw !!' !" 

s - - 

Unl b«. 17H. 

!«-... J..M17TL 

Ditto » 

I It Ju, 1W7. 




IRh ll«t. 1E8S. 

uitw ;~ ;; 

Ditto .'- " 


Snrmll ~ .. 

IS' ■- - 

Suxs r<|i(IOD 

!3nl Nov. 1803 



Ditto Z Z 

T.vrt" ."; :; 

Ditto .- .. 

ISUi Api. IMI. 

A brick ruin. 

TonanMiGunt .. 


rrnw ::; 




IttKi ~. „ 

Hill ruined. 



Ciwi-ll and Dtmbjl 
Buitumjl P'Uil. 
RuttODjlOllUtll Pitd. 

nh Apl. 1T80 .. 


ISth Apl.lSW. 

wtb M« lesi . 

Mot In UM. 


Ditto _ „ 

P«lOril c'uiieyi Body. 

ntb Apf IBM. 

BeudsB these 1 19 ToroerB of Silence Fargis have twenfy-eight bi 
places- Of these ninetOBO ftre in India ; at A Hah .■4b Ad (a.d 180fl>, Bai 
galore (l.o. If'a2), Belgaam (a.d. 18751, Bijiipur (a.p. 1801), Caiinatiort 
(a.d. ISaT), Cochin (a-D. If23), Delhi (a.d. ]f42), Dholia (a.d. lS9fi>, 

Ferozpur {a.d. 1842). Hoahangibid (ad. 18EI6). Hnbli (a.d, 

Lahore (a.d. 1842), Mangalore (a.d. 1T!I7). Mnltan (*.d. 1843), 
warJi.D. 1842), Rawalpindi (a.d. 1840), RntUm (*,d. 1896), Snk: 
(a.d. lf-42), TellichBrry (a.d. 1793) ; Itto in Cejlon, at Coloml 
(a.d. 1E46) andGalle (a.d. 1850); two io the Straite. at Macao (A.d. 18; 
and Sriugapur (a.d. 184,0; ; tlnva in China, at Canton (a.d. 1836) Hoi 
kong (a.d. 185:1) anfi Shatigliai (a.d. ISS'.i) ; One at Zanaibir (a.d. 1880) 
and one in Loodon (a.d, 1801). 

. ...., not Anraugdb, 9a. 
ABBia : pivphet'i luicK foundor ol the AbbS«i 

(amilv, 8; shrine o(, 12 note 3. 
ABBisu : .BMlion of ^hBil^h». 8 nnd unte 3. 
Abb*s[. 4L-U('JtTAHiD Xc,ii.lXh : ihe fifteenth 

KhaUfah (STD-Bai), 8 note 3 conlinaed on 

poge 4 ; H not« 3. 
AbbIsi, ai,-Mcetidir : the eigbtfunth Ehftllfah 

I9<>8'B33), 86 note ). 
AvDlua: beg^nt, atx) called DafMis, laaisl 

noretitB in their perfomunpeA, 20. Sve Beg' 

ABDALUiE: DBinu, tnesning of. 130 note 1. 
AbbIk KaivAn -. witer-room, 92. 
Abdri. Aziz : Wahhtfbi leader, 13 noU 3. ^'m 

Abditi. HtrsAiM : Mina, writer of the Be 

■cMqat. 21 note 1 ; 30 Dote 1. 
Abdvl ElsiK MDn[vrii-Din-01i.XNi : Mknlina 

fkyad uiiit, 6 note 1 (a> ; 60 ; thrine of, 66 

eclebnuionof hisbirthdiyb; l:nimi«. HO. 
Abbdi. Malik : fifth Umayyad Kbulffih, 

(CM-Toe), 1 note 1 conlinued on pi^eSili 

AsorL BbuvXr : Ijanni Bohnra, claimed to be 
thv lin&m Uahdi, hta distorbance at Mindvi 
(1«10}, ilO Dote *. 

AXDCL Wirbab: founderof the Wnhh&bi lect ; 
tui prfschingi a);aiiut retiglous abnaes; hit 
«ipaUiOD from hilt nativepIaco;biK delermiiia- 
tlon to apread bit raforms, 12 note 3. See 

iin.WaBBlfi: Aclan, ISnoteS. fee Wah- 

AsdcliXb :Hhid1i missionary of tbe Hnatailian 
Met, 26; founder of the aect of Shi^h 
Bahorti in Oujarit [1067), 3 note 3 ; 125 ; 
hi* uirMles and sacccu at Camba; and 
P4t>n : MnTcn* king t-idbrdi Jaisingh and 
U* Hindu lubjei'ti, 16. See MianonarioB. 

ABCDuiH: WahbAbi leader; his defeat by 
Mahammad All, Piaha of %ypt (iSlB) ; 
•nlleta death at Coustantiiiople {181>'), ]S 
note 3. Sou Wabbdbis. 

ABDULiiH HAim^H ; 37. 

AlonB RuniD : great ancestor of tbe Af);hjins, 
it believed Co have received the title ot' I^atAn 
from the Prophet, 10 note *. 

Ajudb RiBuur Sakiri : Muhsmmadan name 
of a Htdablr Zamorin ; converted bj NAIatas ; 
at Zhafar, venecatud by tbe Arabe. 



15 n. 


i UI ati9 note 2, 
B 520— 33 

Adi^ Baeb-as-SidiiIc : lawful sacceiaoi of ths 
'Prophet, ISSi ttrst Khalifab (1)32-684}, 
52 iioto 1 ; fonnder of Siddihi hmily, S . 

aneestor of one of the four familiei of NiAabU 

who mifn^Icd to India ises), 11 note 3. 
Anv HAHifAH : .ccond Snnnilmim (70U-783), 

12.'i note 2 cantioaed on page IS6. 
AB[t J.CIiU ; Magian convert to Isldm, alao 

known as Biba Shuji-lM-diii, 142 ; eallad 

Utbi Firdi by the Persians, 136 1 marUer* 

the Khalifab Umar. 136, 142. 
Add JJtTBAUHAD Abiabi : elevenlh Sbilb 

Im&m (S4o|, 12G note 2 eonlinned nn page 

Abul Fazl : Akbar'i historian, 14. [nob 
Abdl Fida : Arab bUtorian (1£73-1348), 1 
Abcii, HiSiv AaKABi: tenth li\tii,h Imini 

(8i9). e note 1(1) i 126 note 8. 
Abi'I. MuoHia: known as Mausdr, Mi full 

name, sjiiritual bead of iho Monsdrii, So 

ADTesiHliV: language 11 and uote & 
AHrBBiKiANB: llabasliis; in Oajnrit Sultan'a 

amies (1531). 3 note I ; 11. See Hdi. 
AbwXb-ul-Makkau ; Ontes of Uakkah, Qnja- 

rit poiti so called, 3 note 1. 
ACTINO : stage, not proctked, 174, See Amnse* 

Adak : introduood as ara/dr 'or inoanvatioa of 

the Hindu god Vishnu, 40. Bee AvaUrs. 
A'dah: Shaikh, head MuUa of the Bobotii, 33. 

See Alia Uolior&s. 
A'dam : Muhainmadiin name of Snndarji.aSiBdb 

Iiohina, 51. h'ee Sunilarjt. 
Ado.vjb : lamtnts for, 136. 
Avauixa : derivation of the name of, 13 note 3 [ 

race, 10 note 4 ; among Oniatftt troopa, 

(157^). 3 note I. 
AoAN :^lark, 9!). Bee Birdi. 
AsABils: landholders, of part foreign deacent, 

»e to be B separata community, II ; IG. 
AoACUARCiDBa : (B.0.177-IOO), 1 note 1. 
"iilA AfiDAS SalIk : Khojih Imim, ion of 

A'glin InLimshih, eicDmmunicaCes Irolm- 

ehib, 41. 
A'oHA ABD'DB-SALiM : writtu the Pandyid-1- 

Jawinmardi for tbe guidance of his Indian 

followers, 41^8. 
A'aha l8L:^U3HiH : Bnrevoaled Kbojih Imim, 

ancestor of HU Highnssa the £ga Khtn; 

believed to be AU'b incarnation, 40 ; 41. 
A'OHA SntT^N MuttAMJfAD SiUh : Khojth 

PdteHA Kuiv: Hi* Higlineu, title of the 
BiiTeTwIed Im&m ol the Ehoj&hi, 41 ; de- 
■ceodant of Ali, S3) hij influence over the 
outlying tribes of the Upper ludutt Valley, 
K note I, 46; 46, iCgh> Shkh Uuau Ali 
the flr* Agha Kliin (1S45), 11. 

A'OBA SHiu Uise^N Ali : Hia HighntM ; Eho- 
iih lm£ui (1644) ; the Rret lamHilia unrevealed 
Imim to iGttU la India (Uib), 41, tee 
A'gbB Kh&n. 

ARL-t'BjLDitn ; people of the tradition, 12. b*ec 

AauAD BIN Ibi(i(Il: head of the Yaman 
Ijnlem&ni Bohor&s, 33. 

Arii£D : Maliammadan name of Rivjj tiie 
Loh&na aoDTert. CI. See EUvji. 

Abvbu: [onndcr of the Karmatinn wet i his 

nickRamo Karmatab ; spreads his new iltiL- 

trines at Nahreia ; liis perKcutlou ; his Kigbt 

to t>yria, 3 note 3 continued aa page 4. See 


-JlfiKBD I. : SnIUin of Ahmedlb&d (1411-1443), 

I 6 note 1 (Tj ; sproada Islim by force ; eon- 

f Tctts Rajputs and otbvr liin^oa (1114- li20), 

C and note 2, 2C note 1 ; persecutes Bohur&s, 

S7 note 1 ; converta Shi4h Bohurii to the 

banui faith, 58 Dot« 2 i 135. 

AbuisII.: hnltiD ot Oiijiirit (15B4-1561); 
his grants of Ridbaopiir and Sami tu Fatcb 
KhinBalfiob, 17. 

Ahuid JaA»ab !>hIbazi: Bayad, ancestor of 
the Shir&ii Bayad faniity of Gujatit, 6 note 
1 (6) I ^rsuades 9:i nni Boboris to kL«p apart 
from tiuih BuhorilB (lfi35). 26 note 1, 34 ; 

^I^i.ta,n Bobor&s ta\tc their name after him j 
r Ilis deiucndaiiCs become Pirn of JaTitari Buho- 
lis, 34 : hia power of working mirai^leB; 
tomb of, at Ahuieit&hid, 34 note 3. 
AaVED Kabib ; Sayad, aaiiit, ancestor of the 
Rlfii Hayad family of Ouiiirilt, S note 
1 (3) ; 23 I 140, 
Asked Keattd : of Sarlcbei, ^heilib, one of 
the four saintly fouudets of AtiiueiUibid city. 

AbhisAbad ; city, founded by aa'nta, 3 note 1 ; 
chief quarters of Mahdnvi Sayada at, 6 note 1 ; 
hwd'ooaitera of Mdaa C^nhiga at, 23 ; former 
■eatof thchead MiitlnofD&udi It^ihor&a at, 
ai note 4 I tombs at, of Mdna, a3, of J,iAfar 
Bhlrizi, 34 note 3, of Fir Muhammodsbih, 
S5, of Shih A'lain, 148; moaquaa at, iril 
note 1 ; eiiba of (Gujar&t), 67 i arrival 
Hemana at, 51 ; kinga of, eiert to apri 
IsUm, 6 and note 2. iL'd. 

A'iK-i'AEBaRi : 14 ^ 6S ; 147. 

JtaoAa: Prophet Muhammad's wi/e, her 

2; aaid to bo the muat zealous ut Mnsalm&a 

Tillers of Onjirit, 5 note 1, 
Ajuib : headninarterfl of Unaaini Bribmans at, 

S-2 ) aaint of, 6 note 1 (4). 
Akbib : Mughal Emperor (16721, 3 note 1 j 

his quarrel with tbe .MirEia [l.>71). ItJ -, his 

oonqueat of GujariU (1573-74); slays Jiin- 

jblrKMn, IS; 14, 
ftKaAHi-CuXa-SuiUBAs: Sanni holiday, 140. 
- »i«Saf,ir. ^ 

) Bprend 

Akii6vd : private honiebold tator, 179 not* I, 
AeIka : sacnfice, rite of, 158. See Sacriflre. 

A'lXohhali. : spirit Creatimnt rosolted to bj 
Meman tromon, fi4i note 4. See Uemaoa, 

AlAuflT : hill fort of Dailam in Poriua ( esUb- 
liabment of Haiaa Sab&h's potior at, 97 &ud 
note 5 : 40 ; 48. 

ALi-us.DiN : Emperor, his exeote for entering 
the Dakhan (1294). 3 Dote 3; converta 
Kananj Brahman priests of Bahucheraji, 82. 

A'lazikhi-bib-salaii I 37. &e Hasan. 

Albpfo : BaiUchiii nre aiud to have oomofrom, 

Alexandbia : moaqiies at (<i43-&t.V81 note 1. 

Ai,i: founder of the AUa Boliora aeet {102*), 
•27 ! 33. 

Au : huiband of Pitiinah. daogbter of th» 
Prophet, 7 i 16 ; 127 : father of Usaan and 
Husain, 47, 136 ; his family falls a victiiD 
to the Umayad Khaltfftha of Damaacna, 
47 note 1 ; hia titles. 36 note 3, 47. 1»7 i hia 
explanation of Ali&h, 41 note 1 ; Sbi^ 
veiieiation and Suntii reverence for, 47 ) 
Hayads claim descent from, 6 note 1, 7 ; HU 
Highne«8 Agha Khiln traces his deacent from, 
3s ; shrine of, 17 ; 45i,l:'5 ; believed to bava 
been incamalud in the pereoa of Agha lalim' 
slirfh, 40, 

Alia BouobAs : see Bohor4i, 

Ai.iFKH.iK ; early M asoLm&ii governor of Oa< 
jariit (12<I7 - 1317). a zealous Snnni, 126; U» 
final conquest of the Gujor&t coast towns 
(1297), 2; apreada Iiltm by Tree and in- 
troducea the Muaalmin faiih from Anabil- 
vida to Broach. 3-5. 

ALlvauiia : aec Benawa Beggars. 

Ali-iuj(uiva : a sect, mentioned by Parishtah, 

Al.LXn-0-AEBAB : God ii great, IW; 141; 
lEt; 160 note 3; 1G9. 

Alub: Zabit, ]2SDoM4i 141 and not« 3. 

ALmrflrAlu: (.1094-1101) younger son of 
Khallf&h AliDurtanslr.lHllth| hiadispute with 
bis brother Nnzir for sucoession ; MosU' 
fclinns are called aft«r his name, 30 note 1, < 

ALHtiBTAKBiR-Biu.^B : (1036- 10y4) EhalifLh 
of li^ypt ; dispute far the succesiion to ths 
Khil&fat between hia two Bona Nsxir and 
Almuatiiftli, 30 note ]. 

Ambika : nvcr io the Enrat district, 63. 

A'uiL : exorcist ; services of, used by women 
to cast out the spirit of barrenuesa, 14T-14S; 
his eiperiencis during the performanoe of 
chilldA or forty-days term, 144. 

AuIb Khusbao : Musalmin writer (thirteenth 
century), 10 note 3; fi6. 

AmIh TtMijR ; (1100), introduces TaiiiaJu, 189 

AuiB-uD-cis Nczbat: Sayad, author of 
N'uliat ul-Akhb&r, 60 note 3. 

.VmOd : Moleialam ThAlcur of, 6S. 

AmB'JBKitl A'Ag : Uuslim eonqueror of Kgypt, 

conalructs the firit pulpit bnilt in Islim, 131 

note 1. 

AXTi.^HUGNTs : field apoTtsj gymnastics, 17S; 

housi> games, 173-174; miuic; actii^s raad- 

AmarilatiIda: Hindu capital of GujaricH i 

maiqoei at ; frequented Ky great nambec of , 

Uagklinin tndon, 2 notp 1 ; Muaalm&n 
Wth inirodaced (ram, to Broacli by Alif 
IUi4d (12B7), 3-S; kingn of, encourage 
Mttlemeut of tndcn mostljr from tbe Pcnian 
Onlf, 2 1 give kind tieaCment to tndera, 3 and 
Dote 3} to early Sbiib preachen (1067), 35; 
TigheU kings of. employ KharieiDi aoldien, 
2 note 3 ) are ulil ta have been ooDrertod tu 
IiUm, 5 noto 1. 26 note 2i 38. 
A-iaiu: beliaf in, 126. 
AitiiiALa ; kept by Muaalmiiu, domertU,8T-S3 ; 

pet, 98-9y i birJi. 119. 
AppKiBASOE: of MnBsliaina ol rsgnlar cldB- 
to»,7; Diildi Boh<>rd>, SB; Khojiihn, 43 1 
Uemaui, 62, 
—Aa^aa ; Earlif, their iettleuiaatB At Cheol, 
^LK>ly^iii 'id Sap4nt, before the kdoptioa of 
^H'laUni ; tlieir religion adopted by the natives 
^■ivn tlie Ualab&r ooait; religion of, t note 1. 
^m .MHiamnadiin, their expeclition to India, 
(636) ; againit the ports oC the OnlF of Cam- 
bay (638); their oonqueit of Jaipur and 
Udeipur {705-7 15) : their eoniqiiesl of Ujjain 
(724) i their attack on Broach (730) ; th«ir 
Beeta lent oguost the EithiAvir coasts 
(766,773); Uke Sigdin (BSD); their attack 
on Chitor, 1 note 1 continoad on pago 2 ; 
Mikira and soldIer«i 3 ; m<<rceDarie9, 3 aiid 
note 2. Of SpeeM CoKtmumlg of part 
foreign descent, II ; thrir two diviibna, ap- 
pMrance. drcsn, ciiararter : beioni^ to the 
Sbtfatl and Hombali Kunni achouls ; their 
panonol Dames, cnalooH, 16 - 17. 
Aa:TOU:> : Sir Joseph, 37 notes 1 and 2 ; 47 

notes 1 and 3 ; 49 note S, 
Absm-Ik .ShjIr: SuIt4nof Obnzni and Hindu- 

sUn (111&- 1118), 68. Saa Bahlims. 
Articilbs: cbiof, of Uuaalmin faitli, 12S. 

See Be tiers. 
AOA 1 wonden stalT in a ninsi{ne, 131. 
£iair : Jinn or afint minister of the Prophet 
SoUiinlD, his uugical eiplaits> 143. >^ 
AjAk ; evening prsyers, 12S note 3, 
AaiSDiiNKi : lady possessed by a giua, ISO, 

See Vowi. 
As.rIu ; Piophet'i eompaainns, 34. 
A'sscRi : tenth day of Mubarram. hold sacred 

by Sannis, 131). 
AmX r names of God, tba two olaascs of, 

terrible and mtrrifol, 144, 
Aaanssi^s : the order of the Fidawis, known ia 

Europe as, 37 and nuU.' 1. 
ArTKOLoai , Itcliof in, of Uemans, GG ; prac- 
tice of, by Hosaiai Br4bniiitu>, 23. 
totjp Jitt ; Niiija, brings Multini Mochis to 

the DakWian, 77. 

ATHiRWA Vbda 1 one of the four Vedorf of 

the Hindus, followod by Huaainl Btihinms, 

«2. ^ , . . 

AiTDtcH Bb.(huax8: Uirdhis or official ipiei^ 

in the Pilonpnr Supariotendency, 1**. 
AintARoiln : Vicoroy of Oujardt (16*1-48), 
36 note 1 ; his persecutions of the Oher- 
mehdis. (16K), 63; Hindus porsacnled to 
adopt IsUmby (1646), 5; his rsmoval from 
the Vicetoyaltv (1846), 5 note 3 ; Xlnghnl 
Kinperor (1668-I7v'7). hU titki of Haitat 
Klmld Mak*ni, ^7 ; spread of the Simni 

faith in Oujarit by hh direction, 12S; 6 ooto 
I eontinned on page 7 ; 35 note I ; B6 j 09. 

ATAoiHA ! Afghins mentioned by Tarili*- 
Mihira (5S0} under tbo name of, lU note 4. 

AtatXks: incamationa, engrafted on the Ismii- 
linn futh to present it in an inviting form 
to Vishnu and Shakti worshipping followers : 
A'dam, the Prophet, and others described as 
acilUtri of the gods of the Hindu Pantheon, 
40 I 4S and note 3. 

Afah : maidservant. OS. 

AzXn : call to prayer, 161 

AzuD-UD-DlN : l^ay ad, ancestor of the Kasbitia, 
64. I;'0G Kasbitis. 

JJini FiR^z : 136, b'ee Ahu Lillii. 
UAbs. OeOb: Abyssinian saint, object of 
worship of the Siilli ; tomb of, at Bstanpur, 
BXEi Ssiril VD-DfH, 142. SeeAbdLdld. 
Baser: Muihal Emperor (15*>6-1G3UJ, entei- 

taina tbo Minis at his coort, 10. 
BXiit^ : of Bidbaapur, 13. 
Babylon: the city of, 14Z; the great well in, 

Badi ; miniatare garlon, carried before the 

bridi^room'fl atcud, IBS note 3. 
Baui Jax.(t: 34. See Jaifari Bohorts, 
BADl-UD-alH Mad.(,b ShIu : saint of Syria, 

22.>-Df» : head M'nila of the DAudi Bohn- 

nb(lS37), 31 note 4. 
BAOQDiD: fleets from, sent to plunder anil 
conquer Gujar&t nooat, 2 ; shrine of Abddl 
Kidir Oilini at, visited by Memans, isa. 
BAaUsA : In the Nisik District, 67. 
BAHiDOR bsAs: IJultin of Qujar&C (1C98. 
1S:M), invites ^yad Jaindl, ancestor of tba 
Kidirl family, to Gnjarit (1530), 6 note 1 (2) ; 
Turks and Abyssiiuans in his army (1631), 
S Qote 1 ; aceocds an asylnm to the Mlrz&» 
in AbmeiUbid and Broach against the veil. 
geance of Humiyun (1533), 9. 
BAiiAoira :^uiH : Emperor of Debli (1707- 
1712). Ills order to Introduce the tjtuih opi- 
thefWosf" in public pmyers, ]2S, note 1. 
BAHX-im-Dfii : Nakshband, saint, 20, 
BAain: believed to be the origin of the uama 

Bohora. 34, note 3. 
Babbaj: believed to be the origin of tho 

name Bohora, 35 note 1. 
BaebIh SuAu : Sull&n of Qhizni and Hia- 
duslAn, comcito Inilia (11181 ; kills Mahanv 
mod AehUm in the battle of Multin, 59. 3ee 
BAB^onAHA: Hinda goddess, 31; 82. Ifua 

BabttrXu : boUevod to be the origin of th» 

name Bohora, 24 note 8. 
Baitkac ; sitting-roam, 92. 
Baithak : form of gymnastic eierolM, ITS. 

See Amntemonts. 
BajXna ; in the KithiiwSr Ageney, 17. 
BjIcau Ali : Plc4na sMnt, his tomb at Plran» 

worshippfHl chiefly by Hindus, 78 note 2. 
Bakbhhish : voluntary giftj amaag Khojiha, 

(jBakzai: «ee KJiIibIiUIi. 

Busl'D: 49; 126; 127. i'ee I'd. 

Bil.* BB1U.1M FATTl : VOW, ICO. Bod Eelillin 

B«il-iH-LBnA : eoTTow-taldDg, 160 note 1. 
See Initiation, 

Blu.Muiiu)HAD SbXb: Tirina Baliit, OS; 
hii tomb kt PCrina worahi bj tlie 
Shuldu, 76 noto 2, 

BalhIbA : Rtfslitnkii^ kings of Uilkbel, 

BOTereipn* of Gujartft (752-973), 3 note 1. 
Bujbbadka: Hakta cf tlie lonrth jH^d or 
epoch, 48. 

BalidsAhb : Einda ucriRco, 4? note !■ 

BALTiig : Undholden, of part foreign descent, 
cesn to be & Espncatg community, II ; 15. 

BiLnsriii : peovla of, S6 note 3. 

SALtoasa- ipeci»l community of p»rt foreTgii 
deaeent, U i detcendaota of Baldtbi iuimi- 
gnuiti, clidm to bave come from Aleppo snd 
Dorth Syria ; lan^iugei appeaiBnce, grouts 
fiom Oajarlt Sulians, clani, wivus, calling, 
cbaracter, called tbo Switicra of tbs Eft't for 
thair fidelity and devotion ; Santiii in nauie, 
17. Jalh, origin of j Hindu wivei of, appear' 
*nce, sneak Gujariti; believe in tl o laJut 
Hidi MahAbaU ; ori^lly tilitfbs, now Han- 
BiM in name, 17-lS. 

BuiiKAB : ImamabAb'a canveruou of Matia 
Eanbis on Ihoir way to, 68. 

BAIfSHisii : eraftimcn ; converta of tbe 
HindD caste of tbc same uame^ UuiiDia Ly 
religion, 71. 

BAMJa^ttis : a wandering tribe of tntdcr> : 
converta of tbe Hindu caste uf the same 
name ; trade in cuttle and nool ; Bupplled 
gnun to Musalmiu and Eaglisb armies i be- 
Hsne in Hindu goda ; form a separate coin- 
munity, S5-S6, 

Babbcb; 84 1 his elaborate proceas, 96-97- 
8[«Tnrki HaUma. 

BaSbosa : tntvclter, his liilt to Gajarit (I5U), 
3 note 1. 

Bahi : also called S&chak, proceasioii carrying 
presoiita to brides, 106 and nolo 1. 

Babu : village near fitan, 63. 

BakodA : defost of Arab iDercensries by tba 
English at (1602), 3 note 3 ; ehief quarten 
of Hohdavi Bajadei G Lota 1 continued on 
page?) Oajarit hoad-quarters cf Uuiaini 
Bcihmans, :!2; 10; 14. 

BABEtlHirBDS : of women ) horror felt by a Mu- 
iolmtn at ; remedies to get rid of, 147-Mtl. 

BXSHABAi : class of beggars who are under 
tbe onUnory Mubammadau law. 19 ; BO. 

BatIn : title, said to be the origiii of tbe iiame 
Pothin, 10 note 4. ^ 

Batib: qiuils, 98. See Birds. 

Baiwa ; village in tbu Ahmeddbld District, 6 

BIwabobi : Muialmln cook, 96. 
BiYiv third form of divorce, 168. 
BXzfoABS : 83. See Madilris. 
BSAMKS : Ur.. 10 nobo 3. 
Bta : title among Muglials, 9. 
_ BlOAIl : title RiDODg 8ayad nomcn, 7. 

BsOQAKa: Hindu converts, division of,— into 
Kondescript idlers and Eleven BratheiiKNida ; 
Brothfibouda further divided into Beahara* 
and B&aliaras ; Offiee-beoren in, and conaU- 
tntion of. tbe Brollierhood, 19-SO. See Abdilifc 
Nakahbands, Btnawls, 20 ; Uijdia, 31-S? ; 
Husauii BcdUmans ; IUJ*ndar*, Uadiris. S2; 
MlisB Suhilgs, lEattia, 23 ; Koeubhihia, 24 ; 
Sayads, beggars in Gajart^ 8 note 1. 

Bedechba: ijiudti goddeas; Hijdat or Parai< 
yas and Esm&lios her chief votariea ; templa 
of at t>ankhan|i nr, 21 ; S3 1 82. tee Bahnchai*, 

BkblIm : vow, also called Bili-Bahlfm polti ] 
vowL'd by woman to be perfonnpd in tbo 
beginning of marriages, lalnuSti/s and bittnil' 
laAi; rites relating to. Phadlti or spirit 
mnacian, chief actor in the rerfonnance of, 

BkhlIhs : cultivators. Bajpdt converts of Iba 
Bubllra tribe ; originally Tnrks ; cewe to 
form a aeparate oUu, ftS. 

BehbIh : btlieted to be the origin of tbe nam* 
Bobora, "4 notea 3. 

Behsisaii ; town In Yaman in Lower Arabia, 
birth-place of missionary Alidalllh ; believed 
to be tlxi origin of tbe vme Bobata, !4 nota 

Bbdri^pjas : actors and. players, Hindu con- 
verte of a miied claaa ; Snnnis In faith, ^0. 

Bklibp and PaAtTiCK r Earli/, in Mtrology, 
S2, GC; Bhiit (Hindu ghost), 143 note 1; 
charma, Stl, 147, 155; Dikau (witch), 14S 
note 1 ; Evil Eye, 143 ; Exorciam, 3U ; Uuic, 
66, 142-145; Umen*,22, 30, 145-146 j Sunt*. 
17, '22 : Sorcery, 56 1 Spirit, 30. 14!. Lfad- 
t«H, in the j)rineipal tenets of the Muaalntn 
faith J in ibe nnity of God; in angela; in 
books; io the scriptures; in prophets; i* 
the resurrection, 136-127, 

Bbllkw ; Major, H. W,, 10 note 4 ; 13 note ». 

BbnawIb: beggars, also CBllcd Alifsbibfa^ 
drawn from many cUiscs of MubammodanB, 
Snnnia in name, ?0-51. 

Beuii JB ; believrdtobatbtoriginof thenam* 
Bohora, !S note I. 

Be-f1h : term of scorn, !27 note 2. 

BrshabaA: beggars above the ordinary Hn- 
hamtna<IaD law, 19 ; 20 ; £9 ; 23 ; 24. 

Betrothals : rite* and eeremoniea relating to, 
cuaUof, 162, 153 note 1 ; gitta in, 163 and 

BuiDBHCKjAS igrainparch'ra. Hindu *on»erf^ 
do not form a separate elaas, Tl . 

Bhaktas: four preachers of the four Hlndff 
yujiif or epochs, 48. 

Bbak^ri: offlcBrin a beggar brotherhood. It". 

converta, boffootu, atory- 

BhAtub : Hisdi. 

tellers. 81 ; 166. 

BHisMAtig r Nat women taking part in bckk 

... batio feats ; origin oF the name of, 89, Sea 

Bh/bdobi : spirit-htdcn obstetric coM wona W 
pregnant women, US; 14». 

BniHMAf. 1. : Rio of Kaohh (l.-ieE-iesil. ar- 
rival of n.'lilu Plr in Wmj in Ibc lime of 4l 
■■'thi: dinners cooked at a liousi' of mourn. 
;, I6f>. 

BitXlni : 

BlunVDA : tcwn Lilwecu Lulili ituJ ILe Skt- 

laj. 81. 
BlLiTTis: tribe of B&jputi converkdbv Msli- 

mad of GluLzci {IDuI-lQSO) ; viUftge Hrvniibs, 

BuWiKt : Uiuda goJdesa, 82. Sco Baliuchara. 
BliAW^Yis: atrolliug iilBj'ers. converts of the 

Hindu caste of the aune uuii', SooBis in 

nligioD, SI I Hiadu plkjen, 154 noU 2. 
BalM II. : taliAki i.\nu of AnshUv^iliH utd 

ta have baa converted to laliLoi by K&t Saxi- 

Kur(lSlOt,et>uotaS; 3S. 
Bhistim : wac«nai'D, also c&Ued Pakliilis, H iudu 

coniertB, 8J ; 98 ; officUling priiat in boat- 

olTeriiigt, 152'1S3; 1G9. 
Bbvj ■■ eapital of Kuhh, iirival of Pir Dilda 

BuuKpXma : chief Ssynd family in GujurAt, 

6 note 1. 
BanxKTK -. «ee Bbatadi, 
BniT. HiDdaipirit, belief in, IJSnot«l. 
BHtTiDl ; form of eicruiie. Hi. See Amnae- 

Buvria I luidholdera of pert foreign deicent ; 
ceajc to be ft wparnte eamiDunity, 11 i 15. 

Biizi -. tbe F&ir, title of the Surat Bubort 
miieionkij , 37. 

BiBl -. title among fLeijih women, 8. 

ahil-El-iJAllNtE : sBeEarthea Disb, 161. 

Bll>l>ct.PM : aatbor of the Tribes of tbe Hindu 
Koih, Sb' note 8 ; 39 note i. 

BlDHl : lend and diver work, skill of MnaalmioB 

Bibb : Khoj&h livmni. 40. 

BccHB Ellin -. Jamuldcof rjilanpiir,S6no(c2. 
BlUSH : pot«, 149. See Biradh-bhamA. 

BiSADH-BaABKA ; pot-fil)iug ceremOD)' proccd- 
ug nil joyous rilu, 149. 

BiBAT : (ce Bindh. 

BtBSSi kept by Uuaatmina, 99. Fee Animals. 

bIrsono : Viraingiro, 84 note 3. 

Buiiri BoBonis: 61. Hw Bob^riU. 

BiBTH ' rites and ceremonies relating to, cbnTmi 
and tatUcaans used to sccare apeedy delivery ; 
eipensei caimouteii with, IM-luS. 156 note 1. 

BiBTB-DAY : cek'brRtlon of. ISO. 

BmiKi : disb, first clius pnblia dinner called 
aftCT, cust oE, 113 aud nolo 1. 

RianiLLAu : inltiatioD, rite of, 159, 100. 

BirlsiHt : gbool, U2 note 1. 

Bloohuan ; Aln-1-Abkari, 6 note 1 (5), U ; 147 j 
159 note i. 

BOAT-OFFBBlHSI : sUo Called Vios ; mode to 
tb« wat«r-splrit in falRlmentof rows ; dewrip- 
tion and ritea of : Bbiahti or water-carrier 
oScifttoaaB. IBS, 153. 158. 

BobobXb: Tradar); ShidAt of the HastaAlian 
biuch of the great Ism&ili seot, 24, 30; 
me^tdag and derivation of the name, Zi and 
QMos % 3 and i ; 25 note 1 ; name citendrd 
to converts from all tho nnanned CBstes, ZC. 
and note 1 1 acct foandod iu Gnjarikt by 
nUdonar; AbdolUh (1067), cosrcrsions first 
nwdii in Cambay, Anahilavida, or Pitan, 26 
md note 1 : arrival of tbe religioai head of the 
tiading Shi^ froui Yatnan with a band of 
lolloiren (clow of tbe eleventh century), 3, 
H Bote 2 i oonvursions made by early Shiith 
■Biuiwuriea froin ^hc great trading contne 

(eleventh oentnr]}, progress of the sect in 
Gnjarit (1130-1380), 20 j Mct repressed 
(1300 - 1413), 27 ; lome of tbe iWOit conveited 
to the tunni faiLh 113B1), 3 note 3, 28 note 1 ; 
persecutions of , by Sunni rulers (Ull-IOM], 
27 and note 1 ; transfer of the seat of the 
head priest td, frtm Yaman to Cnjarit 
(1539); find shelter under tbe Britisb (olosa 
of eighteenth century) ; fnur schistas from 
tbe main body of, Alia, Jaifari, M&goabi, and 
Sulaimlni. 27. 
Alia: one of tb« schiams from tbe mun body 

of Sbiabs. sect founded by Ali (1 G24). 27, 83. 
Sida : Arabian converts to the Igmaili faitli 
inade by a Bohora luiisiunary izalled BiAii the 
Voir, 87. 
Daidi : tnaiu body of S^hiihs, settlements of, SS, 
3J note 8 ; appearance ; language, dress, and 
ornaments, -8 ; food, 29; houses, 29 and 
note 1 ,' calling, chsroctt^, condition, 29 1 
religion, special belirfs regaiding the spirits 
of the dead ; Im<ian beliefs. 30 ; their position 
among Muslim sectaries, 30 note 1 ; names, 
cuBtoniB, written prayer placed iu tbe hands 
of the dsad, 31 and note 2 j eommunity ; re. 
ligioiia aud social bead of, the MuUa, 31 and 
not«s 3 and 4, 32 and notes 1 to 5 i taiea, S3 
and note 1 : prospect. 33. 
Nagoihi \ ur non'llesheatint!', schismi from the 

main body of fhiib- (1789), 27, 33. 
SulaUiidai : followers of tbe Yaman priest 8al)u- 

m&n, progrt«B of, since l&Ql, 27, 33. 
Biinti', Culfitatori : OT village, desoendanta. of 
Hindu coiiTcrtB made by tbe Snuni rulers of 
the province from the unarmed classes (four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries], 24, S6, 58 aod 
note 2 i distribution of. 6S ; additions to, both 
from Hindiu and t^hi&h Buhoris (1411 - 1518), 
6S note S; foreign element in the Broach Bobo- 
r&B. maitily of tlie Mdrv&dta, 59 and note 1; 
appearanoe.; language I food, 59; dress and 
ornaments of men, 59 and notes 2 and 3 ; of 
women, 60 and notes 1 and 2 j charartcr, M 
and notes 3 and 4 ; condition, GO ; names and 
snruames, 59 note 1 and 60 i reli^on, customs, 
60 - 61 ; BUicees of Wahhibi preachers among, 
Broach, Sarat, Biriivi Bohoria {1880-18971, 
61 ! community, prospects, 62. ' 

Jaii/ari : dcsccndantn of tbe Biiidl Bohoria: 
named after Sayad JaH^ar Sbir&ai ; theii 
other names i separate from the miin body 
of.Sbiibs (1391), 3 note S, 26 note 1, 34 ; 
continue to intermarry with the main body 
till 1535, 26 note 1, 84; mnetly traders] 
Arabian traders follow many Arab customs; 
kuovd as Kabriia; form an orgaoizod body, 
34, 35. 
BOHCdiA : snmsme, 24 note 2. 
Books : belief in, HG ; rending of, by men and 

women, 174 and note 3. 
BoTAH : 159. 6«e 
UowiDBS : Perrinn honse of, 20 ; Sniti&s (US'- 

1007), 136 note 3. See Buwaih. 
Beauma; Plr 8adr-ad-d(n, the incarnotdon bf, 

40. 4S. See Avat&rs. 
Bsioas : Goneral, 3 note 3 ; 77 i 85 luid nolo 1 ; 
6G note 1. 

British : Anb mcraaaarios obxtrnct tfae mU- 
bliihmant of tlie power ot, in Gnjsrtt (I80S), 
anaU2j give aid to Muhsmmsd At< tho F&shB 
ol Egypt Ui pat dowa the power of tbe W>h- 
hibia (1S12], IS note 3 ; :!? ; 60 note 4. 

Bkoach : Ut&ckod by Ankb» (730), 1 note 1 ; 
revolt of Momnan at (1691), 76; revolt of 
HUU Eaukna at, Q7 ; disturbance of (janni 
BohoTit at (16S7), 60; note 1; Miu&liii4n 
futh introduced into, ftom AnahiUvAda bf 
Alifkluin, S - 5. 

Bdhdha : niDtb incarnation of Viahna, 48. 
Sue Avattn. 

BviiHA YAiKiTB : Sa;ad, anoeEtoF of the Uraiii 
Sf-ytA fitmily, G note 1 (7). 

BcluiiHQB ! Nligioua, 130- 132. t:«H IniAmbl- 
dli, Masjid. Nam&ig&li. 

filTEsJLiua : chief Savad family in Gajarit, G 
note t (7} ; 57 ; 1^7 note 2. 

BiraalNPttB : formor >oat of the hoad Mulla of 
the Diddi BohorAe, 31 noto 4. 

BD«HiN-OD-Dis Kdtbi A'lam : Sayad. aucertoc 
of the Bukhiri SnytA family in GujaiAt, G 
note 1 (7). 

BOBsiK-uD-DfR : head Mulla. of the IHiidi 
Bohori) aS93}, 81 note i. 

BitBEA: voil-tobe, 29; 34. 

Bdbtok : Sir Richard, 10 note 4 ; 15 note 4 ; 

131 u 


Bhwaih: Fenian bouse of, its aupremacy in 
I PBraia (MS), 30. See Bowidoa, 
I Bdzuko ALiKAsiKiiPlruf Maadra, descendant 
I of Fir Eosnf-nd'din, 60 note 2 ; EL 

CAiito: Iimiilia dootriun first preached at, 
(953-975), 4S. 
ClXBAV : port of, moaqaeB it, 2 note 1, 131 note 
1 ; arrival of Mawlm&n missiotiarieaaC, 28 and 
note 1, arrival of Pursian trfugeet nt (1723), 
(17l!6}, I1767J, 3note S; ahrine of Pit Mu- 
bammnd Ali at, 2G note 1 ; grand Imliatbida 
at. 132 i king of, ooniurtod to IsUm by Malln 

kUubammadali, 249 note 1 ; Nawabs of. spread 
the Shiih faith, 1S6. Oulf of, Muhammadan 
, Arab lupedition agunst the porta of (636), 


nued o[ 

r tlllcpslLL : Sir OeorRC, 10 ooto 9. 

Cafiaivb ; 14. Soe Niiatu. 

Csmvs DBTULS ; of GujarAt Maaslmin popu- 
lation, accacding to occupation (IS7a census), 
Ua • 121 ; aecordins to eacts ( 1^91 census), 1 

CaiBUE SawIb; Muulmiku jockey; horse- 
trainer, 07-98 ; 123 ; 172 note 1. 

CbXco : disciple ot Hir tJatigur, kills Kdr SatL- 
gnr, 88, " 

CuicBNXMAH : 1 note 1 { 69. 

CuAUi.wwIs : Delhi shoes, 100, • 

OHAOHaTti : Tartar-Taikish dialect. 9 note 1. 

CBAcurAiKHiN : son of Cbangizkh&o ; Chu- 
ghadda Mugbsjs calli.'d after him, 9 & uo^ 1. 

CuXeb ; race of ann-worghippers in Kashmir, 
their couToiaioD to lal&ni. 39. 

CuAls : horse pace, 08 ; 172 note 1. 

OeAhbeli : jumin, ISO. 

CaxxpX : floircr tree, near the tomb of aaiot 
Mnm at Ahmed&bdd, its hnliuess, 1 23 note 2. 
lO^fin"^ : the Minis take possossion of, 
after A.J), 1568, 10, 

a vow-receiving yinn i 

Caiyas.alv : 

spirit, 130. 
ChahdiJl : Indian lark, 99, S^ Bird*. 
CaiHOis : landbolden, special eoinmaidty i 

part foreign descent, 11 j IS. 
CnAKDlzKiiAN : powerful Gajartt noble, pr 

tccts the Hirzia i is auauinatcd by Si 

JhnjhcitkUn [15G8I, 10; 12. 
CKia-Jviliau: iirst four Fridays after ma 

riage, 167. 
Cain YAhi : 34. Sec Jaifati Bohotis. 
CiiAHiTV I dnty enjoyed by Muaalmia law, 12& 

'" ' " Heinani, &2 ua 


'1 note 8; secret a 


CsABMa: belief in, 30, 147, tSE. 

ChAtlas : wandering tribe of Uin^a , 

Chaitsak: Indian backgammon, ITSandnotel,, 

Cbblab : 19, See Ehidimi. 

CuBsa : 173 and note 1. See Amosementa. 

; about I 

early Arab settlement at, 

mins found at, 2 note I. 
CbhAhjU : Uiniiu converts, labonren. 

called CbAuharioa or Peiticuat Fwpb^ 

Uoslinis in name only. ^6. 
Cbhati'I : siith-day celebratdon after birth, 
■ 16B. . ^ 

CbsifJs ! calico printers, converts of fflb 

GnjanltJ and Marvidi caKtes of the Mine uanu^ 

Saiinie by religion, 71 ■ 72 ; believe in tba 

BukUril'ir, 127 notes 
Cbilax : bowl of a totiaoco pipe, III note 1. 
CaiLD-an^BH.s: doadaainta, trees near the tomb* 

of certain aainto, 147 - Uf. See A'Tnil, 
ChillIh : period of forty days during w! 

an exori^iat learns his incantatiaus, 144, 
Chibbt : Siifl school, 8 note 3. 
CuiBBTls : chief t'ajad &mily in Qn jarit. S 

1 (1) ; branch of the F&rCiki section of. 

Shaikhs, descondants of Sheikh Niiim-nd-dill 

Chiahti, 8 note 3 ; Hindu converts of 

Cbishl school, 8 note 3 ; 74. , 
Chitok : town, attacked by Arabi, 1 not 

Gontiuaed on pt^e 2, 
CnoTB : name of niissianary 

39 and note 3, 
CHRlSTlAtls : among early Arabs. 1 
Ch6dtw1laS ; braoekit-makera, converta of tb* 

Hindu caste of the same name, iinnnia l^ 

religion, 72 ■ 73. 
CuDUBADDA : Indian Hogbals, 9 anil note 1, 
CBDHiHis : lima-barners, oouvorts of low cIhK 

Hindat, Sannis by religion, 73. 
CBtHDaDiniBAS : silk-knot -printers, Hind< 

converts, claim Arab descent, Snnnis by a^ 

gion, 7i, < 

OutfirviL ; sub-district, forty milea north of, 

Ahmodibbt, 82. 
CiacuucisioK : rite of, 1G0-16L SeeCastonai. 
JCOWBHOOK : J8 ; 26 note I. 
CoKUFNITIKS ; see Sabdivistons. 
CoHMUNirir : Musalmin population u. In 

matters reltgious, calling, amosement. 175. 
CoiTDiTiON ; of Qnjarit Muaalin&ns, 122- 121. 
CoaOLLi : ilr„ 26 note 1 ; SO note 1. 
CON^VBBTS : Hindu, 3-6; name of the clasM 

of, 20, 84 ; 63 i 70; 60 ; 85 ; ncconnts of, IB- 

90. « 

CoBSttALUB : MuquU of (lTBl-98), 8B. 

CuiTS: deU^U of tbe ISTSceaaaB, iea-123. 
See Occntwtiou. 

Cbaftsmbh: cluaei of, Hiada converts as, 
71 -80. See ttendbBiia, UUdbhiiDJu, 
Cbhipw. 71 ; CbundBdi)(iTS8, Chaniris, 
Chddiw&lH*, 73 ; Uhinehu, Kighiia, 73 ; 
Radiii, Kaaiis, li jKh&ridia. Kbit kin, Lafa&rs, 
Muii&Ti, 75 : Honui^, 76 ; MuIUdU and 
HdlUUi! Mochia, 77 ; N&lbsndy, P&njuigin, 
78; Kuigrex, SaMts, t-'ouii, 79 ^ Tuig, HO. 

CtrsTOMH : pregncDCj, 147 -154 ; birth. le4-lSS ; 
Bunitig, I&-16T : ucrificci focticth d&y, 
168 ; nlt-t>Etmg i birlh-day, 169 ; iailiAtioD, 
Ifi9-ie0; eiTcaincmon, 160.161 ;fint ECam- 
maakn fast, 161 ; preient or hadiija, 162 ; 
betrothal, l(i3-163 ; marriage, 163-167; 
dlvoree, 16S ; lUiith, 16S-170 i uioariiiug, 170, 

DlBBOl ; heBd-qaarterg of the Mahdali 
Sa;«lt in Onjaiiit, 6 note 1 toalinui'd on 

page 7 ; 64 note H. 
DioA tllHA-BjtLi : saint, enshrined at Qottu- 

ka, in north Gnjafit, 17. 
DioL aUn : AhmeiUbid Sa;ad, honoured bjr 

Ufrlaia, V3. 
DIdU: Plr,ofBinilb Khojih family; invested 

with mantle of plrur saint bj' the Khojili 

Imiin; converuong by, at Jfimnai^ (l&4t))i 

Kt BhU] (lesG - 1594), 41, 48. 
D*p ; dnitn, pl»;en on the, 20. 
DifUJB : eo. gee AbiUUi. 
DXaa-DBMA : branding among Natu, ''9 note 1. 
Oli: raituonary, 26; 37. Head Mnlla, 32, 

Uidvrife, 154. 
Daium : PeniBTL distriet, 37 ; US. 
Daily Lite : of men, of rii-h cla^i, middle 

olaa^ poor elasg, 116-117 ; of women, of rieii 

elass, middle clasB, poor class. 117. 
DXieiB ; aettlement of Mabdavis in Pilanpnr, 

64 and note I. 
DlsiS : Hiuda witph, the belief in, 142 note I. 
IiXiJlr -. coart-yard uf a house, 91. 
QAlbhIt : dub, pnblie dionen called after i 

cost of, 113, 114andnot«l. 
DlND : form of gjmnaitic eicrciie, 172. See 

B«NKA : dram, 20. 
DaboAh : tomb of a aaint, 160. 
UtBUBTiTEH ; 10 note 4, 
Diaca : calling down bleiu^inga, on the Prophet, 

147 and note 1. 
DasvA FIr : Indoi spirit prayed to by Hindu 

piiecta to drive away Euauf-nd-din, CI. 
DtsMJniH : tythea. 41, 49. Sec Tanea. 
DuiAJl-KEiN : 111. See Ueals. 
DioD SIB AJASsaiK : high priest of -the 

Qujarit Bohot&a (168^), 27. 
DXdd bis KcTtJBauAa : high priest of tho 

Qojaiit Bobori^, 27. 
Bit^DtH : aee Bohoria. 

Da.13: lucky and nolncky, 14C and notea 2 and 3, 
DbAth : ritea and ceremonies relating to, the 

dead body ; bier or janizalia, funeral ; to help 

In funeral a far: or daty ; lidrat feaat ; 

dlnnen on ; monming, 16S - 170. 
SMii : title among aome of tho Dhaodhilka 

rillago Bohoria, t2. 

DalLaABS : 76. See Kb&tkia. 

Dhi(rAl& : armed population of Oujatit, 25. 

DuOL : dmm, players on the, 12 j 21 1 ^9 ; 137 1 
159 J 1(13; 171 and note 1 ; 175. 

Dhobi : waahennan oa eervant, 96. 

Dsouia : drum playera, B3 i 96. Sea Uin. 

l)aoui.n : port in Etitbiiwir, aeat of the pro- 
vincial head or mtikhi of the Meniana, £7. 

DhcuibovAs : Dnst -wash erf, as labourers, coa- 
verta from the Hinda Khatri caste, form a 
aeparate body, bunuia in faith, SG. 

DiVKBRB : Feait-day, liind of food aerred Ht, 
eD«t of, 114-115, Pablic, occasiona of, form 
ofintitatJon to, ceremony observed at, kind 
uf food aervcd at, the three chief cUsaea of 
llMlli 189-170- 

WviNKBisA : public room or parlour, 91 ; 94, 

Di-roBUB ; forma of, looked on with dislike, 
lesB resorted to by Indian Musaluiina, l(iO 

DlwiLl : period best inited to BUhjoet evil 
spiritB, 145, Hindu Mew Year, considered 
ttu evil spirit time, 143. flea Magic. 

Doctor ; Law, 133-136. EecMaulavi,Roligioi» 

DoMH : 83. Bee Uira. 

DoHMS; Uirn'omen,B3; women players, 160; 
female aingen, 164 ; idS ) 174 note 1. 

Ddmbb ; 166. See Meher. 

Drbbs : of men. of the rich claaa, lOClOl and 
uote 2 ; diaj^e of fashion of. 100 note 3 i of 
tho middle claaa. 102 and note 1 ; of the 
poor claaa, 102 and note 2 ; of women of the 
richcbus, 103, 104 note 1; of tbo middle class, 
lOG. 106 not«l;Df the poor class, lOSand 
note 'i ; of children, 107 and note 1 continued 
on page 108 ; of Khojibs, 42-44 ; of 
Memana, 53 - 55. 

D(ii>wA].Ae: milkmen, converts from SihaUaa 
and Uauli Hindu raatee, their other names, 
Sunnis by faith, form a teparato comtonnity, 
3 5 ; also called Manaiiris, 35 note 1- 

Dr-EB ; among Khojiha, 49 note 2. See Tnxet. 

DvFF : Gmnt (JTHJ, 1* note 8, 

U6ti9 : people possessed by the Bf^t of tba 
martyrs, vows offered to, 128 ; brid^rrooma, 
137 ; also persons poMesaed by the spirit of 
the bridegroom -elect of Humin'a daughter; 
tbe proccaa to gida tho inspiraLion of, 138. 
See Muharram. 

Dirt[EB : enjcnmrl by Mnsalmiu law, belief ta 
the principal tenets of the faith ; prayer* ; 
fasts in the month uf Bamaiin ; pilgrim^^est 
alms, 126, 171 note 2, See BeUet. 

EARTHEN DiaH: rite of. 161. 8ee ^ahnab, 
EiDBiiaiB : Sayad family in Gujarit, 6 nota 1. 
Elsot sraasB : 133. irce UaraiAbkhAn. 
EuA9 ; prophet, 152, See Khiir, Khwijah, 
Elliot: Sir Henry, 69; 70, 
Eukboidbrt: special akili of Uusalmina in 

tbe art of, 123. 
EitPBROBB : Debli, peraeoutioaa of Gnjarit 

Bohoria under, 27 note 1. Maghal, spread 

of lalftmby, 5j 126. 
EuHiion NoBisi ; Sidi, of Dehii and Lakhnan. 

12. Bee Hdis, 

Kimt-vo-DtxKkDtiit: SAyn^I snint, liis ile- 
•«nl ; convurtB Hindh rulor "f tbu Uftinma 
dynastj; convarts I.olii™ comnmnity luitli 
iti leader MAnekJi ; cbanges the iikme of tho 
cominiinity to Mitamia ; retiroa t« IrAk ; hie 
deacendants beuoina the r«1igioiia hcidi oi 

I ' the converted coaimanity, 50 ■ 51. 

t BXOBCISV : belief In, 30. 

I HsoKoiST : 117. See &m{\. 

I XtFRDiTioxa : Anil ; to India, 1 note 1. 

f ASius: beggftra, E!>, t-ee Abd41!i. 
Sufir : Towd la. l:iO, See Vqns. 
Vajb^ dawn, prjLyen said at, 126 ante 3. 
FakIbs: religious beggiri, 19, rfeo Buggnrs. 
■FXl K&olna : lauthsByinfC, pinctif e of, M. 
Fakih*: in North Quja,Ti(t, Kaohh, nad •Ei- 
thiAoElt (1S13), 61, 
FjinJui: All son of Uthm&a, I note 8 eontinoed 

on p«eel. 
•F*BaAT-ci.-MirLS ; Hinda conTert goretuor 

of Qajktlt euooaragiia Hiudoiam, 5. 
FAKlA-V-aorrzi ; 1166W, 28 nute 1. 
PAkl'l>-ul>-I>l''''^HlKiaaA.TiJ: Shaikh, unoestor 
of the FarCdl branch of Shoiklu, S note 2. 
' Baa Sh^khs. 
F&B['[>;a : branch of tha F^rdki Shaikhs, S 

note 2, ticc Shaikhs. 
P4M9HTAH : hirtoiiaa, 8 not« 8 i 10 note 4 ; 
' 26 nota 3; 39 and note 2 ; 60 note 3 : 58. 
I 'PARliluS: aectiuD of Shiikht, of pure Foreign 
I ' detoent i two braQohea of, 3 uid doIm i BuJ 
f^ • a. I<ee SU^khr. 

■ PabT: RaniKziln, 127. See Ksmwiii, Vowi, 
FAtiBEBiN : fialdch, obtiuai in gift Kidhau- 
' piir and ^aui, 17. 
FATBHFir'a HiKHBi; tomb of Sheikh Salim-i- 

Chishti Kt, 147. 
PatBH SsiH: king of Ka»hmfr (1*5?. 69). 
Ohlki Dunveiled tu laUm during the reign 
of, 39. 
'PiTlHA: openiQg chapter of the Kuriiin, 
reading of, 123 i 130 ; U7 and note 1 i 16D, 
161 i 1&7; 183. 
pAffLiB: Hick, 133. 5m PaKtA. 
FXtihaB : Lady, eldnt dinghter of the Pro- 

Shet, wife ot All and motiiei of Hoanu snJ 
:aiiiin, S DoCe 1 ; 7 i IG ; 45 ; 47 ; vows to, 
fgtsC offorad by, 127 ; offering! nwto to, in Che 
earthen diih rite, 151 ; dower of, IGi note 1. 
PiTWi: dynirty in Egypt (UlO-1171), 
> fonnded by Obeidultih, powora of the lamHi- 
liAOB originated with, 47. See Obvidullili 
I and iBmallia. 

I PiTiiim KBILifAT: raised in Bgyiii on tW 

'■ badi of opiaiona analogoua to Karinatian 

by Obeidnliah (91S), 3 note 3 eontiuqed on 

■ page4,S7; quarrel for luccaaaioa to {109%), 

30 noEe 1, 37. See OI>ddqlUh. 
Pbabtb! Pritnte, oocbsLom for giving, way of 
■erring at, 1 12. PMin, among D&ildi 
' BohoTta, 31, and note 3. 
FidIi'b : see Fldawfa. 

FlDAWi'a ; order founded by Ha«an Sahib ; 

known in Eorope at the ABsaaaina ; maaniDg 

' of the namej 37 and nota 2. 

L iTiBLD no«r* : 172. See 

> PtNOH : (1010), 15 note 2. 

Fi'bSb Sniii: Tugblak, f-ultin of DvUiiJ 
(1351 - 188S), S note 3 ; TO. 

FiTiiAD ; form of ubarit; in BimlEaD (d, 141, 

Food: 108-116: of (ha neh, Itm-lOO; ft 
middle cbsa, of the poor, 1U9 ; tuarketiiw 
of, coBta of. 110: atimntanla, UO-llI; 
meali. 111 - 112 ; aerved at prirate feaala, 
llSjat public dinnera, U2-lli; at f«ut> J 
day dinner,), 114-113. ■ 

FoRBU: Mr., Jamei (1781), 3 note 2; SSV 
nute I ] 68 ; 156 note 1. I 

FOREianiBs: arriyal in Onjuit of A«b^ 
■ailora and aoldiora (aaTepth, eighth, »>'■ 
ninth oenturyl, 1 ^tc 1, 2i trailen trtrmU 
Pfriisn (tulf (ninth and tauth ceutui}'). ll 
and note 1 ; Inradcrt from the north ( 
{eleveatb and twelfth century), 2 and notea 2 
and 3 ; the religloaa bead of Shiib traJing 
Bohor4i with a band of followers (close of 
the eleventh century), 3 ; aoldien, trader*, 
reCugeea, and alavea 'thirteenth to aarea- , 
teenth oenlurlei), 3 and note 1 ; the ZanjlM,. 
Mdia (middle of oeventeunCb century), T 
Arab DiarceDariea and Pertian piditical rd 
gees (eighteenth century). 3 and note 2, 
FoRTitTH DAT : after chihl-birth, thankaoffar* 

ing to Kbijah KhiitrV, 158. 
Fbidat: diyof reit for all MuMlmins; \lf. 

Bar vice on, 126. 
FnaKtriTBa: honaa, kept by the rich, 92 
by the middle olaaa, 91; by the pMTj Hj 
detula of, 9o note 3. 

G-toiTi : oartmen, 36. See DOdwalia 

GAKHi ; ind.Hir. 173 ■ 17*. See Arauwi 

OXmbTo: Hindu couverti, holders of ;4n> 

viila;^, intermarry with KuhaUa, 63. 
Oahdhbaphi; singers, converts from tin 

Hindu caato nf tlie aamo name, SuiinU ioi 

religion, 91 ■ R2. 
OlROiAD'OKTit : Portugneae bialoriaTi (1S3I})( 

Qates or Maesae : OujarAt porta. 

See Abwih-uI'Makkth. 
QAlTLla: -See D lid Wilis. 
OBmi; vowjto, 130. SeeVowi. 
Ghadcs ; word, puasoiaiug magical power. Lfl. 

Qbamokia: oilman, dMCfndmta of Donreria 
the Hindu Pinjlra and Qh^lnchi oaitMl,' 
known aa Ohinchi-Bohoria; call themaelviK 
UiDturia; San [lis in religion: onrioua foi 
of naina« of ; form a aepaiala body, 73. 

GR^t-PlTB: heart prAyer, Khojih Bacrams 

Ghat PiiH Ua^ba: prayer of the Sbakll 
^aiithii, 48. 

Ghbib uucallid: 13. See Wafahibit. 

Obkrubbdi^ : Hinda convert), and for^p 
Miiaatmins who Ai not believe in Uehu^ 
alio caliod Mabdevia, foUovreri of Sayad' 
Mahammad Jainipuri, 02 : puraecutlona nt^ 
by MuiaSar IL (1623), by Aaraogilb 
aG(5), 63: diirah of, at P&lanpur, 64 aAd 
note 1. ; auitoms of, 64. See Mohdar^ 

Qi'i.iir ; sunt of, 6 note 1 (2). 

GibsXb: hill, 1 note 1, .Sec Ujjanta, 

OOB : iKtIel in the anit; of, 120. Set Bdiuft. 

OOKKBODiia : Krava diggent, of raLieJ 
origin. Snniiii in rclinioii. 87. 

GoTAREi : Tillsee about «g1it tnilea west of 
R^Jhupar, ■Tiriiie of (siut Dldi UalUbaU 

OcJABAT : aiTi»»l of foreigners in, 1 ■ 3 ; 
airinl of H»nonitrie< snd learned men in, 
8 aiul note 3, 6 note I, 26, 33, 4U ; arrival and 
Mttlement in, of foreign Muutmin 
familiea, 3 note 1 ; oE chief SbjuI families. 6 
note 1 ; oE the Mirait, 10 ; ol Meniaai. 51 ; 
conqoert of, hy Alif Khin (1297), S ; by 
24fwKhin(I37l),3note 3; by Hnmiydn 
(W36J,»; by Akbar [1673-71), 12: deca- 
denee of the Snltinate o( (1554 - 1561], 17. 

GcJARiTid: exppl Lbe Mughal K"'i;rDora of 
HumA/do from their phargei (1636), 10. • 

Gcsz: in,n apike, owd by Rafii beggar*. 

GusoH : company of llubarrmm dirge singari, 

188 note 1 continued on page 139. 
OxxiCASTCCM: 172. See AoutciuenU. 

HABASBI9 : Abyadpiane (Ncgroei), in Qujarit 
troojw, (1572) 3 note 1 ! 11. See Sidie, 
Hapsam«dt: •ontijern province of Arabia, 
the Biblical Uuwmavetb, Arabs come from. 
1.1 note 4. 
HlDUMi : Arab inliabilanl of Hadramant, hi» 

character. 15 note 4. 
Hadi\ : present, giten to child's teacher, 162. 
Bee CiutoQii. 
, JOiriZ: Utle; ability to recite the Knraio by 
L beait U the chief qaalifluation to obtain it ; 
H other qnaliScationi to obtain it ; unnaidera- 
P lion ehewn to, IM. See Law Doctor. 
, iUj : tee Pilgrimage. 

nuixs ! barbers, 84. f-'ee Turki Haiims. 

HjUi : pilgrim lo Mskk.h, 66. 

HuJAJ : son of Bmuf, India described to, 1 

note 1 continoad on page 2. 
BsJJiJ: Al, governor of Ir4k (7001, kills a 
lai^ BaTobcr of Siyads and leariiwl men, 14 
Hakim: Maulmin phyncian, qualifieatiani of, 

122 and note I. 
HAaKirKBiN: Tartar, bis massacre o* the 

Lsoidilia popnlntiuu of Persia. 41. 
Hahbai,: a1, Eunm Imira (780), 135 note 3, 

e of the four Sunni sohooli, IC j 


HABlacHAnoBA : biahla or pnacber of tbj 

•ecood ymjd or cycle, 48. 
BaaItsa : ipecUl holiday Arab meal, 16. 
HJaiSt : angel of high estate, first teacher o£ 

magic, bis triAl in the World, hia eternal 

damnation, 142 - 143. See Magic and MlrdC, 
HittAM : son of All, the nurtyr, second Sbiih 

Imini, 45, 47; 125 note 8; 127 1 129; 
133; 136; 139.. 

S 620-34 

Hasav : Ali Zikri-bis Salim. fourth 
of Hasan Snbih ; prcronlgates new doctrine* ; 
transfers the ImAmatc from the F&timites 
to himself ; declares himself the Unrgvealed 
Im&ni (1103); is believed to b*Te sent the 
Hist missionary to India ; His Hlghnesa 
A'gba Khin traces his descent from AU 
tbroDgb, 37 ; 4S. See NaiArians. 

Hahah biM lF<ll.ia : (1873), head of the Snlar- 

mani Boborfa, S3. 
HASAtcSAsXH: lam&ilian misnooary ; toanda 
the order of Pidanis; rapports NaiAr'a 
claim to the Egyptian saccosdoa ; makea 
tbe poiTer of the Ismiiliss supreme in 
Persia ; concentrates his powers at Alamilt ; 
ceases to act aa i^di and political emissary 
of the Kltimites ; makes himself known by 
"the title Shaikb-uI-Jabal, his death (1134) ; 
powers of tbe Ismiilias under his two imme- 
diatesnccesBors, 37 ; 49. ^''ea Naziriana. 

HlTiM : of Tai, Arab hero, fanions for his geoe- 
roaity, 80. 

Hacrat Ali : %ih holiday, oa the 21st day 
of Ramoxln, 140. 

HAzBAT'KntiLD MakIhi: title of the Emperor 
Aurangzib, C7. 

H.izHX'Ts : vows "lade to genii or fairies, ritei 
relating to, 130. See Voiva, 

HsaAcuiBTi : great Jain teacher of Rdhrij, 
said to have been converted to Isltm,26 note S, 

Henna : seed of, is bnmt to drive away evit 
Bpirits,lS5 and note 1. 

HuAz: A1. Arabs of 1 IT. 

HiJDAs: beggars, emasculated mate TotariM 
of the goddess Behechra, 21-22 ; pcoceM 
of the enuse Illation of, 21 g 154 and note S. 
See Pavaiyls, 

HiNi> : Al, India, described to Hajjaj by Iba- 
i-Kiriyyah, 1 note 1. 

HlNPU ; converts. See CooverU, 

lliaA»-i;ti-DlH : Famutr viceroy of Qujarit, 
69. ^ee Parmin. 

UuLV Dais: 136-113. ffiHTro/: HnhanAni, 
137-139; I'd; Bakr I'd, 141. 
Shidh .- Tenth of Ssfar, 139 ; Nineteenth and 
Twenty-firet oE Ramniin, 140; Eighteenth 
of Zilhsjj, 141 ; Twentv-eighth of Zilhajj, 
143. i^aani: Thirteenth of f^afar, ISB ; 
Last Wednesday of Safar ; Twelfth of 
Kabi-ltl-awwal I Eleventh of Babi-us-Sini ; 
Eleventh of Kftjab ; Fourteenth of Shiban, 
140. SuJanU Miaalnni* : t^eveaieenlh of 
Babi-nl-Hff»al, 140. fAqfiyA.- 41 ; 49 ; 50 
■nd note 1. 

Hoai»copi ; drawn by Bitfhmans, 151 note 3. 

UoBBlfoiALiita ; chief trade of tbaK4bnIis, 14. 

HoAbK4B0K: Lord. See Nil SAbeb. 

IIor,aAB; oftherich. SI and notes I & 3.93-93 ; 
of the middle class, SI ; of the poor, 95 ; 
D&iiii BoborAs, 29 and note I, 

HOEBAa : tobacoo pipe, 1 i 1 and note S, 

UDvAytiH: Mughal Emperor, eotertdnment 
of the at the cuurt of, his invasion and 
conqnsst of Gnjar&t ( IG35) ; 9 . 10. 

HUni : White, See Mihira Gurjjara. 

UusAiir: son of Ali and Fltimah, third ShUb 
Imim, Martyr, 22 ; 45 ; 47 ; 62 , 125 note 2 j 
127 ; 129 ; 133 ; 13tj and note 3 : 139 ; 
shrine of, 47. 

BvBAiKt BRiBMAKit : raligiMU beggan, ful- 
lowera nf ibp Alharwa Vida, call tbemKlveB 
after UuBBJn the FropheC'a gnodaon, foUow 
■ome uf iho pcauUue* of the Hindu fMth, 
mwn* of livlthi'od ot, belieb smong' tlivm ; 
Ui«lr head'Cjiiarlon, '^2. 

HitsAta t'D-uln : chief HalU of Daiidi 
Bcliurits iliS'i). 31 note 4. 

Sveitt-VD Ditr : chief JUulU uE Dilddi Bohor&s 
(1H93), 31 DOte 4. 

Edbhh; Bult&n of Khnr&iin, ftucoator of the 
Minu entertaiDed kt the Uughal oourt, 10, 

XbBI AfifR : 3 note 3. 
Ibs-i-B^to'ta : a3481, 14 not* 8. 
Ibx-i-Hal-kal: (943), '2 note 1, 
Ibni-Kkald^h : (133-J- 14D&), 143. 
1sbi-K8jII.ukjIk ; 68 note I. •* 

IsMi-KtBivlMi ; deacnbea India, 1 note 1 eon- 

tiiiiied on pdgc 2. 
Ibrahim : IMier of All, tbe (ouoder of the 

Aliit lluliora sert, 3^- 
I'd : feativalB, Jiatr, featiial ot lurifico, on tb* 

tsQih diiv of ZiUinjj month, obierviuieei of, 

Nl I fca^tsaud pta;er*on,ll5; 136; 127; 

._„ ._. ,„. „ ^^^ (eitival at the 

131; 135; 

end of BamBz4D fuC, on Uie firat dajr of 
Shawival month, obaervancM of, 141 ; feasU 
•ad prayeriua, llSi 126; 137; 133; 135; 
136. bhiiUii, fettirftl on account of Pit 
Ditdu'ii int'Catituie, observed by KliojLhs 

Idvat : term of three moothi after (Uvoice, 

1'Dqah : b'unsi prayer-place to hold I'd or 
fMtival tervioe, also called Kamizgth, 127 
notel; 13U; 132; 141. See BeligioosBnild- 

Is-i-OHADfa; great Shiih holiday on the 

eighteenth pf Zilhajj, 141. 
Idol woBSHiPf BBS : aiDimi; early Araba, 1 

IsBiB : pmphet, aud to have taught weaving 
and sewing to the T4ii, 80. 

iDHiei : Al, bittoiian (1070- 1100), 2 notel. 

Is-tn. Fits: aeerd-ur-RaraazAn. 

Id-cz-zuqa : «ee I'd'ul-Bokr. 

iBTAU-nziiailAT : niime, poaaesting ape<:ul 
power*, 143. Sec Magic. 

iHTAM-EABAeiin : namo, pouening ipecial 
powera, 143. cce Uagic. 

IuXd-ud-dIi' : a Hadnunant saint, 15 nrto 4. 

iMiMBiliAB: thiih privati- mourning chape I a, 
131 ; 132 ; recitaU uf elegies at, J33, 133, 
Bee Religious Buildinga. 

Zllixa; tP'ilen of the Propbct's family, 3 
note 3 continued on pago 4 ; Beligioui leaders, 
Ittl; D'/tiiU, 126 note 2; Suiuii, 12B no^ 2, 
190 ; Conetaltd, 48. 

jHiMSBiE: ririiia I'jr, foanda a new aeet 
in Gujarit. 40 i worka m^toclea and maliei 
■nany eonverta, 3 note 3 continned on page 4, 
6fl, Tit and note 1 ; denoancei the KhejAh 

' prai-liee of tjilhe gathering and ia eicom- 
mniiiratnl, 41 ; bii death (15121 ; hii follow- 
eraunoiit; 3JatiaKBnhii,6S, amung Mumnaa, 
76 ; ahriae of, at Earamthah, 3 note 3 con- 

I Unned on page 4. 
JuXv-irSDlir : Sayad, son of Imitm Shilh, 

Pfrim Fft, died at Earomtbah, 3 note 3 c< 

tinned no page 4. 
iHcABHiTioNS ! 4o, 43. i-ce Avatire. 
Indebthdnsbs; 124. See Condition. 
InitiaTIoh: aee BiatnilUb. 
IsLit nihIz: night prayer of the Khoj&hit 

IbbiuXki 1 Al, fauioua H&Ba and bittorian, M 

IsuAiL: aon of Muhammad, ton of tho ditb 
SliUh Imtm JaAffar Sikdik ; the lait of th* 
revealed liniin* according to the Ismailiaail | 
47, 4S; hia diaput« with hia uurle aboat tha 
aucces^oD to the Inimate (705); hisaap- 
) porters called Iimiitia, 30 note 1. 

\Bukiv : Sfdi, minister of the Btbii of Ridlu 
pur ( 820), 12. 

IsMliLli : £cct of t'hi&ba, ealleil af ier Inni 
granitaon of the tiiith Sbiih liii,kiii| 
note 1 ; alao known ai C<eTenera (beroiuc th<T 
rcekoii seven Imimi) and Isiiiuliana, 47;. 
cparalJon of, from llui main body uf Shiih* 
(TBB), 30 note 1 ; power of, originated with 
the fonndation of the' Fitimi dynasty bjp 
Oboidnllih (!)I0^47; Jamiilia doctrines fint. 
pablldy Uught at Uahdia (BIO), at Cairo 
<Bi>3-97Gj, 48; rise of, in R-rsla {team th« 
beginning of the eleventh century) j pow«r 
of, ettafallahed at Alamut (t07S-tO92), by 
Hasan Sab4b, mia^-ii^nary and political emis- 
sary of tbe Fitiinltes, 37 ; division of, ! ' 
two partiea, (10^4), — NMliisns and 1 
taAliana, 30 note I, SG ; Hasan Sabah aupportt, 
the Kaiftrlan cause, and cesses to be a ni' 
ainnnry (1094); the Nauetfrian form of t 
sect becomea anpreme in I'ersia, 37, te*'. : see lam&il 

Isui-AizAK: Great Name, knowledge o[, 
neceiMrv in High Magie. Brst poaseased by 
the Prophet toleimin, 143. See Magie. 

laaA'-AHBABJH : division of bbiAbs, alw known 
as Twelvers, bdieve in twelve lmllID^ 47 1 
■npportors of Musi £&]dm tho seventh Imim, 
30 note 1. 

tTlMAVIDAH: (1664), 10. 

Jziri : office ia a brotherhood of beggars, 19, 
See Beggars. 

iale in 

f. 112. 

g of a brad MulU ot Diadl 

JAlVAii : Shfrlii, ti'ayad. fee Ahmed Jalfir 

JaAfah Mutbamna : Fayad, ancestor of 

Bnkharis, (i note I (1). 
JaXtab Sadisi tilth bhiih Im£m, his death 

(76C|, dispute for tbe suceeuion among I~ 

heira, 30 note 1, 47 ; 1 S6 note 2. 
JiiriiBl BoaoBAS : see Boboris. 
Jaoeson : Mr. A. M. T., 10 note 4. 
JauXnsIk ! Uughal emperor, eiarts to apread 

lalim (1318), 6, ISC; peraecDtei (1618) 

Ahmedltbad Juns, 6 note % 

Jasiz ! *ifw'« pwpertj-, goes with her own I 

ditnree, 165 note 2. 
JittnAfTt: IClji uf Ksnaaj. tikea to wifo an I 

A{gh4a wumsn who canns his dialli, 39. 
Jt}sa: AhmcdiWd, iiprsfi ultd by Emptror 

Jmlungit (161<«), 5 u«tF 3. 
JiiFua : conqDCit of, by MnLamnisJ, son of 

Eiiim, t note 1. 
J-USurnm Aebab : EmperiR Akbu. 10. 
JaxAl Pathri: Sayad, ancestor uf Kidiri, 

Sarad family in UEiji^rdt. 6 note ) (3|. 
Jatllr-KHaNA : asjipmbl; lodgt uf Kbojdbs, 46. 
JaHKAN JlTi ; Hinda-Mnsalm&n nint of 

noTthcm ladiu, IT. 
Jjva MoanvM : 3& See Vosqum. 
Jin SiBRB: ^rcab nrdu pc«t, antbor of the 

Rvkhtab Zubin. 130 nute Z 
JaSAZAB : bitt. 168 note tl. Titlo of tlic byml* 

wriKtn by Iiiiimahili of PiraiS; -lO. 
J«llaiS 1 Arabic term fur Islnud. 1 ii..te 1. 
Jmits; 8 note 3. 

JiW8: among early Aralw, I note 1. 
Jkou i 9o« Tytbe-galUiriuK wallet. 
iBVlaio-nnlit : tidi Uiijitr<lt nobtu. Villa Cban- 
^ sLikbAn, Vi. 

^^_ JsnwRnirA: ;^iddj.i' rattle, IS and n'<b> !. 
^^K JiXDARivs : elasa uf foreigTi Patbtna in P4Un- 
^^^H par. liuld lands -ncder military tenuru), 8 

^^^[ ioitu : saa of Ziclmriig, 3 note 3. 

JOESlBia : Iwuliineu. 1 4. Sve Tnrki Hsjams. 
JcSOB : Ulgb Conn. }^ulaiinani I5oliara, 33. 
JrLViB : unveiling of ibe bride, 164. 

IKaAb* : in. 
KaB-R-CD-DiS ; Pfr, fonrth Ismiilia miaaioo.- 
arjr 044S). visita the Uukm at Deilain, 40 i 


: aection of JiULfari Bcbortfa, origin of 

I SiBDlila : [jiccial community of part foreign 
dvutwnt I Afgbin setllers f niin Kibul ; apiiiar- 
•noe, cliancler, chiefly borsu-dejltrs, Ennnl 
tnRliK>on,farniasepaim'.econininitity, 13-14. 

I KjiBdTUS ; Kat vomen. takiofr part in acrobatiu 
B, origin of Che name. 8V. 

f SatiUU : battle of (G36j, 1 note 1. 

[ Eadus ! brickUyeri, conviriB I roni tho Hia In 
c^tc of tlie aame name, - iiiiniB in religion; 
tolluwori of the I'Craua riunt ImAm trbab. 14. 

I KIdirib : chief Saj'ad family in Onj^rilt, 6 

L not« 1 (2). 

makers, Hindu convarta, Snii- 
nia in religion, followcra of the Cbiahiis of 
Ahmed UbU, 73-74. 

KAKiiBm: Gaberwoman, female in viter, 112, 

KiEiPdRIs: sonaufsUvea, caid to have ueiDO 
from Mirw&r, merged into the BohA« com- 
munity, 62. 

Eju,&i'DA.aa : monks, their initiatory rites, 22, 
1^ Boggar«. , 

Eiu : Hindn goddeaa, SI. 

Ealiuab: prufesaion of faith among Sunnia 
ud Shi&he. 46. 

EiHtAH: early Arab acttleraenta at, 1 note 1. 

KUfAlJAB : literal meaning of the u>Lme, de- 
■cundsnta of Kananj BT,Lhniana, wur-bit>pen 
of Bfthuchsraji, converUd by the Emperor 

A1e[ ud-din ^1297), ^orahip Babnafaerajl, Ha- 

aalmtns in name only, 83. 
Eaubi^: oEsbootof the Afgbdnatirali,!!. 
Kahopbi : wrllien cli»h titci. t-ie Sbanik. 
I^ANONA : wri9t baudi of the bri<le and bilOo* 

groom, 164, 
Kaxnawa: cnnre ted Siiidh Lob Ana ; c 

Memonito Bhuj at tbe invi»lina tyf Hlo 

Kbe'.:gilr(1648-15S4){{sbo>ioared wilh tbf 

title uf' Sbet'or Squire by the RXo. 61, 
Eanoj BsAHUANS: norahippers of Buhucl 

raji. eouKirted to laUro bj- AU-nd din. 82. 
Easahtu^h: Tillage itight niilea aeuth 

Al.medibAd, abrina of Imlmah&h at, S 

note 3. 
KahjIlias : potters, eonverta from tbe Hindi 

CBite of Kumbbnrs. Snnnia in name, 3d. 
Barbara: place of Slilib pllgrimiiip.. 12 

8;30;47i 12fi, 171 j maWjrs Of, 12 ' | 


: father of Im&mshih of Pin 

Kabmatiams: follower of aaint Ahmed i 

Kahrein j derivation of tliu name ; origin I 

tbe sect ; prim ipal uneia uf Ibc aecc } aprei 

of ibe diietrinei uf, east Ko India and we 

to At-ira and Spain; in the we.t thu w 

dies of itunitii'n, In tho east d<:«troy^ I 

Hahmdd Uhuinayi and UubanmiadMn SI 

(llTu), 9 liKe 8 coDtinun' on page 4. 

EaiaIs: bntrbr'n, belli vetliemaelvrs of R>jpd 

origin, twotlii-aea of. hunnls in religion 

a sep«rat4> ooinmBn''y, 74 76. 

KaaniTia ; town-holders, of part foreign da 

Bcent. 15 i tiaiput convert! ; ori.-iu of, M 

claues i.f. of Dholka, 04 note S ; appearaoc 

of, character of, Sunnis in religion, 64; n 

riagt* rf , nam™ and cnston-« cf, 6B. 

Eistli : nephew of liuiain, bridegroom -eleot t 

tt^kf ah, dnughter of Hnsaii, ; slaughter oj 

8|oii; iif, believed to possesi the liulat 1 

Muharram, 13S. 

KATBliKin ; fuel-setkn. Hlndn conTctts, 8T4. 

KiTBiiwXH : Arab fleet aent airninst ihe 

of (168 - 77B), 1 note I r Memana in. 51 

K*TI.T Ixiu Ali: Shiib holiday, 140. 

Kizi: office of. fnnctiona of, under Mahu 

madan mte; present functions of, potiiic 

amouK the eommunict, ''35; oni'^e u. 

Siiret, BiMovh, and Alimedibid, UC note t 

Sec Kcgi-l.-ar. I eligiLns oHiCBra., 

S"ijy*DA: ThaVnr of, BS. 

EHADiut: iliwijles 19. See B^gan, 

Kh^jah; seeKhwtjuh. 

EH^BirlaS : Uniay iy,t, oF namascns, hoi 

dl. tonania All's f iinily, 47 note 1. 
Kb«ii : title among I'atii ms, 11. 
ICBjIhiI -. cveidi'g mc:il. II}.). 
KbLbub: KhojAb re'Llglous lodge, Snt 

li.hment of, by Pir - Rd^ud diti, 40. 
EoXhau : title of Unghal w>.men, 9 
KaAK^Dia: turncn, converts fi'Om the 1 

eaite of the same name, tinnnii in faith, 76. 
KiiATits: Mua.mftna uf special eoiiimu..ity 

part foreign descent, 11, 13. 
EHATis: I'rcachei'. duties of, IM. 8«e1>ni 
er, Religious offirera. [of. 

KkItkis : tanners, Hindu oonvert*; two eloi 

SxAini: cirenmciiian, rite of, 160 and note 3. 

Hee CuBtoms. 
Khitt* : dub, pnblie dinncre wUud ifter i ci»t 

of, 113, 114 and DoU' I. 
Kk*ttXb : fithCT of KUlifih Uin»r, 1 note I. 
KHiT6 ; Bee Khdtun. 
Kairtu ! title of I'atMn women. 11. 
Ehgda : moQe; lubacription among Metaaai, 

Khjsuar; Bfio, of Kachh (164«-16S*) iuvit^a 
the Sindb MematiB to come sod srttlo at Bhuj ; 
boiiours the head of tlic Memsna with Ibe 
title of • Sbet ' or Squire, 51, 
KHitipBAT: BeeFitimiteKLiliphat. 
Kmuia ; special community of part foreign 

deseeot. II, 15. 
•■K«iNB''-aiDiK: the, plants the banner of 
IiUm on Tirdgadh tbe bill fort of Ajmir. 
6 note 1 (7). 
Khiir : Kbwijih, watcr-«pirit, aim called Pro- 
pbet Elia*, oScrings mude to, 162, 158 and 
note 8. 
KaojiH : Turkish title, 3G note 1. See Kbwi- 

Knojitts t Hindu convertt to tbc Kwirian divl- 
^ou of the great lamAili lect ; literal meaning 
of — hononrable converts; settlementa and 
diviriODi of, S6 i Hrst converrioni of, bj Siir 
Satgilr, in Gujartt during the time of SaUnhi 
Bblmll. (li79-lS42), 38; conversions of, in 
Kachh and lUtbi&nitr (1200) by Kamda, a 
converted Tuvar Rajpiit, 40; addiiiona io ihe 
conKOunitj of, from the convcrtidLohiina tribe 
of the Afghans (1130) ; from the converted 
Ch&ks of kaehmii (1496), 39 ; coBTersiung of 
Kathitfwir LobiEBs by Pit Didil (i54U); 
convflTBionB at Bhuj, by Pfr D.idil, 41 ; 
kb&nali or religious lodge of, flnt establiebed 
by, and tythc-gBlhcrioK first introduced 
among, by Pir Sadr-nd-iHn (1430), tbeory 
of tbe avaldrt of iba gods of the Hindu Pan- 
theon introduced among, by Pir Sadr-nd din, 
40; acriptures of, 40-41 ; Agha Khin, the 
religious buitd of the. 41 ; appearancre of, i2 ; 
dmn of, 43 - 44 ; ornaments, oharacter, and 
calling of, 44 ; casboma among, — cMatti or 
MXth'day CElebration among. 44 ; marriiige, 
4Si death, 4Gj follow the Hindu law of 
inhoritanee, 47 j religion of. 46 - 49 ; form of 
wonbip, 48 ; prayers, counting tbe numes of 
tbe pin, tbo sacrament or hrart-prajer ; 
taies paid by, 49 j holidays ohatrved by, 4S - 
EO and note 1. 
KaoEHAna: Rajpiit coDrerts of the Khokhar 
tribe i derivntion of tbo name of,origin of, men- 
tion of, in A'ln i-Akbftii, in tbe Tirikhi-IiUi, 
in Tahnklt-i-NSsiii ; claim Afgbin otmction. 
■aid to bsvo been represontt-d in Afgbiniat^ 
by tbc existence ot a KUoyl (tribe) of the name 
of, &'>. 
KhoudmIb; Seyad, companion of Snyad 
Mahaniinad Jaonpuri, his defeat by MniaJfar 

KhorXsni : soWiBpg, 2 note 3. 

KtioMs : subscription among Diudi Bohorla, 33 

^S|iUT8»a ; lennon, 1B3, 

KuwiiiB: Persian form of the Turkish won! 
Hnjai, Dteaning of, 3(i note I ; title, llteni 
meaningof, given to Brabma-Eahatris ODthrir 
conversion io Islim, 30. 

Kiaim-DB-BAlirAlN : historical work, 10 nota 8. 

KutoiAa : special eammunity of part tot^ga 
descent, 11, 16, 

KlBicta : passage to India, tbroQgb, 1 note 3. 

KruXltrALA : Anahilaviida king, si^ to have 
been converted to IsUm, £6 note S, 

KtrnlRFiLCBAftiTA: written about llEO, 24 
note 3. 

KuRArsH: IsmilyofSbaikhs.threehranchesnf, 
:~A1)bdsis, Firukis, Siddlkta. 8 ; name cJ tbo 
noble ^rab tribe. Prophet Hubammad belong- 
ed to; tribal came uaoaird by Hindu and 
other oouverts to laUm, 8 note 3. Special 
couimnnity of part forrfpn dtacent. II, 15. 

koTB-UD-Dfs : Eibak, invider of GujaHt 
(1194], 2 note 2; eonquvrar of tbe Ebokbara 
(1202). 65. 
EFTB-DD-lifs; BhiiLb missionary (1400), snc«s- 
tiT of the Pirina lunti, SniAb futh spread by, 
in Cujartt, 125. 
Edtbi A'UH SujCb Shiieb JfVA: asaint, 68, 

JjAB : lip saliva of a Fir or Kunt, IE7 note S. 

LABorR 1 clasMs of Hindn'coaverU connected 
with, S5-H). r^ee Banibiris. 86; ChltUs, 
Chbiras, i GorUisdias, KathiA- 
ras, Uirblila, 87; Malis, Uapirits, Nigoria. 
Nuts, 8S ; Fskhalis, Sblsbahgus. 80 i Thoris, ftO. 

Laufbaoadq : Brahma^Eshatris fly to. S9. 

Li-ILjlHA-lLLAi:l.X& : tenet of the Faith, 16B. 

Laehkau : the elegy singers of, 183. 

Land : classes of Hindu converts connected with, 
mostly Dultivators, from Rajpilt and Koli 
cantCB, GS-70. tee Behlimi, 68; Till^e 
BoboctiB, 58-62; EiUparis, Oinietis, 62; 
Malik9.66; MatU Eaobia, 6U-67: HoU-ss- 
Ums, Parmirs. 68; R&thors, Saiu)U,libaikh- 
daB,60i IJolaokis, Sutniiis, Tiuks, 70. 

LANauia : singers. See Uirs. 

Lava : Fon of K4nia, said to be the founder of 
the Rnthor tribe of Raipati, 39. 

L],(eat Ali; Haulaivi. takes part in the I8S7 
mutiny, travels in Uojarit as VVahhibi tnia> 
sionary after the motiny, makU niany con- 
verts, is arrested and transportiid for life, 
13; 175. 

Lino FKcrr : {Kaadvri), ito holincM. 151 note 1. 

Living: Musalmin style of,— Uo□Ml^ 91-BS; 
scrvantt, S6-07; animaU, 97-93j drMs, 
lUO-lOSi food. 108-116. 

LohvCnab; A:d//iio'iD(ir,con»er8ion«by Pir Didn 
of, toi-be Ebojih setrt, 41 . Panjdh. tbe AJM ' 
triboof, legendary origin of, conversionsof" 
the Khojih sect, 89. 6inrfA, imtAt or dh^ 
of,60note4: coiivcrsionsby Eiituf-n* 
t« the tfunni faith, form a c 
Mvmans, 50-51- See Ehojihsaad Han 
Lotus: BS note 1. See Diildl Bohoris. 
LuHjCrs : Blacksmiths, immigrants ^m Sindb, 

Sunn Is in faith, 76. 
LfTFtTLuiH ; Khan, Monshi, Mr., 26 note 3. 
I.t-TFFLLiii : Fail, Khin Bihidur, 58 note 2. 

MicsBU: fithfrnieii, H inio conv^i of Dhoi 
tad Ehirra rnito, two dUisions of, — the 
lalind *nd the i-^UMt ; of tbe coatt, go on 
long voyttga j Saimia in faith, eeptu-ate cluses 
of ite two diriuOM of; 87- 

MjiCHBLia : Nit women, take pnrt iu acrotntic 
fnti, meanmg of the nnine of. 8S. t'ee tiMi. 

MkDiait: homclesa wBiiilvring bcggara, cri^jiii 
of the n&me of ; tb'Hr peculiar waj of asking 
alius, 22-23. Hindu coDVerts, wsudorinf; 
tribe of platen, followers of saint Sh&b 
Hadlr, worship of Muealmin nkiots aud 
Hiodn godi, Sunnis in name, follow lllndn 

* eostoins.ftndfoTijiBBeFaratecorauiuiiity, LTI, 

UanlsAH : l^aimi place of pilgriinnge, 47 ; 66, 

Maobsjb : prayer at dusk, 49 ; 126 noto 3. 


: 20. 

: Belief in, 50; 143. Frattice of. [or- 
Hddeu bj the EuraAn ; resorted to chiefly by 
■oicen ; its aims; first teiuhen of,— Hirilt 
and Mirtit; 143- 148 ; two kinds of,— Ruhiiil 
or Divine and Shaitlni or satanic ; aub- 
diTitions of the Divine, — Ulavi, the high and 
SuBi. the low ; High magls is commoner, 
requires ceTemocial }iurity and is practised by 
gooi men for good ends ; consists in the know- 
ledge of Isioi A&iam; the knOwWgo of the 
name fint kuowo to the Prophet ('uleirnin; 
otbrr eliarmed wi:irds and natiies potsessin); 
magical powers, 143-144; perforinaui:e oif 
LUIlah toaecure elHcBcy la the art of. 144; 
Sataoii: or black magic strictly forbidden, 
depends on thp ageucy of genii and evilepiritsi 
nqoirei Impurity of body and mind, Gujarit 
waj» of acquiring it more gruesome than Cba 
ibaUkQ I Diwili time (Hindu K&rtika) when 
■U(*il snrits ore free to revisit their earthly 
liaaata, enosen to learn : 14G. 
VaHDJVI: a schiBDiof ijuiioi, Sayads tallowera 
of, RiJD ShabiJ, the chief leader of, the 
Gnjarit followers of, chief quarters in Quja- 
fit of, 6 Bote 1 condnned on page 7. See 
Maiidi or BfEHDi; the Coming Imim, Ihe 
last of the JmAms, 40, 4.S ; title elaimed by 
tayad UabammaU Jaunpari, 3 note 3, 62 ; by 
ObeidulUh, 48 ; bjr a tioDni Bohora Ahd-ur- 
Bchmtn, eO note 4. 
MiHDi : Al, title of OboidnlUb, 4S. 
Kl^ana; the Prophet introdnced as, 10- See 

UaRMCsII, : (153G-I651), Soltin of Ahmcd- 
ibid eierts to sprend Islim by force, S and 
note X 1 persecutes Bohor&t, 27 DotO 1 ; 58 
note 2. 

HABMdii Bboada : (1459-1&13), 9iintii sc>ye- 
r^gn of Oujarit, brings learned men into 
Gtikitt to spread IsUm (1471), 3 noto 3 ; 5 
BndQoteS. 1!5; receives lai&mBh&h. 40 ; con- 
Tcnions of Bohoria, GB note 2; at Rajpiits 
into Holenlima, GB ; of Multanl Mocbis, 
77 ; in the reign of ; coovcriion of Sumra 
EaipuU(147Slby. 70. 

UAKTitD Uhazni: invades OajanLt (1035), 
2 and note 2 ; in Gujartit (1023-1025), 64; 
converts Rajpilta of NortL Gujaiit, called 

llaliks (I02S], 3 note 3 ; expels Karmatiwu 

from Mult&n, 3 note 8, 83 ; coavsrta a tribt 

of Bhatti Kajputi, 81- 
iUsou: 14 note 3. 
UiKJisrda; oat Cawnpur, tomb *f saint 

Bmil-ud-din UiddrsMb at, 83 ; C4. 
Makkah : Sunni plaice of pilgrimage, 30 ^ 47 ; • 

SU; 126i 171; t«inpleat,raiitiired by &adn 

Wabhibi [ltiU3), lSuoto3. Wall in a mouoe, 

MaebXnib : foreigners from the Malinkn coast, 

watchful huehaude, iMinius by faithj Id. 
Haktab : Holla's school. 133. 
Makti^m : concealed Iniims of the Ismliliaa, 

MAETC^Nis : special commnnity of part foreign 

descent, 11 ; Hindu converts from Uakw&na 

tilie of Rajpiils or KoIlb, marriages aaiong, 

distinct commuolt* of, Siinni in faith 

MalaBi(b: coast of, Arabs on, 1 note I, 
Maiakbhau; (1070- 10U3), Saljnkl Emperor, 

Uaix^olu : Sir John. 20 note 1. 
UiLiB : gardeners, coaverti from the Hiodn 

caste of the same name, 88. 
Malik : Sunni Imim, 125 note 2, 1S6, 

Ambar ; of Ahuiednigar, his epithet, 

schools, 126 

M*;3; Raipdt converts, 66 ; the name coined 
by Mnsalmiu governors, 25 ; conversion of, 
by Mahmtid Ghaxni (1025). 3 note 8. 

MALiE-uT-TDJJiia ; chief of ibe mervbants; 
titio, 3 note 1. 

Ualkhrt : in the Dnkkan, capital of the 
Rashtriki^las. 2 note 1- 

MAmI : lady's maid, HG. 

MahodAbIu; firt h man of Uorvi, converted "Vjr 
Mahmiid Bcgsda ; liiirod Bolioris ch^m 
descent from, 58 note 2. 

MiNDvi : near Surat. Sunni Bohora diitvrb- 

Jiisavi : foi-nier seat of the head Mntla of 

Di{idi Bohuris at, 31 note 4. 
UiNBKJi: headof eighty-four BiiWsordiviuona 

of find Lobinis converted to lalAm by Esaiif ■ 

nd-d in. 50-61. 
MAHlilia : ivory banglemakers.HiDdu converts, 

their reverence for saint th4h Alam, C-onni in 

faith. 75-77. 
Makbcr : Siifi or freethinker, his full name 

and title, his crnciHuon; followers of in 

Oujaiit, 35 note I. 
Hanb^iuh : kingdom of, in India, foundation 

of, deetructiaa of, 3 noto 3 eonUnned oa 

page 4, 
MAjiatBis; followers of Mansfir, 35 note 1. 

Sec Mansbr. 
HAPifiia : com-weigheri, Hindn converts, 86. 
Mabjib : Hopefnlls, followers of N&sibU, 38. 
HABEiBCsis : Siadb niler of the Somnw 

dynasty, convrtedtolslim by Eiisnf-nd-dln, 

GO and note 3, 
Mabrtaoh : ages of boys and girts in ; betro- 
thals, 162; fore-observances in, 163-184; 

bari or i&rhak and jahti prescDta in, pro- 


,, 166; ceremony in, IW; liier- 
. a of. eotU of, ie7. See CuaLomi. 
BiXaKHiiH : elegy -si ti^r, found iiuOTig 
Sbi&tu only ; qu&tiGi'BCions of, singing of 
d^rs at UuhttrreiD b.v ; IiakfanaQ, 133. See 
Ta*g)-»iiigec, Iteliglou* cfficfrs. 
[T'XjtBliT : Kngel of hi^b estate, first leochor of 
raogic hii trial iu the wotIcI. hia etsniKt 
dimn&tion, iiZ- 113, t'eo Magic and HtLrUU 
Mart : Virgin, 127, 
JHUllult: onlera frdin Laiv, 134 ncte 1. 
llASuiiKH: gm'.e at Mulln, il'i, Keliginus 
guide ot M omnia, bit Unnlial AliDicdib&d, 
lUaHitL : toreb, mei of, 96. 
HuujIlchi : ligbt-Uiarer, 96- 
MAiniUDis: cbiefSajadfamily inGDJ«Tit,6 

note I (5). • 

Uaibkib : 89, See Palibilii. 
Uunos: mosqu«, di'Dcriplion of. 131 ! the 
beat apBcimcns of, at Ali<iiedAbid, Cambay, 
Fiban, and lUader, 131 note 1. Sm Religioua 
MtBTiNB: iMa>linen.34. See Ba>dl«b^bi». 
UAiDDI : Al (S16), ] note 1 ; 2 note I. 
. M^Tif AjrcHiH: fibaktj-wuriliipping LobAnii, 
L 40. IS. 

rJCATrA Ka\bi8: spttlumentB ofi di'ioeadnnt* 

I of Hindu Li>va Kaibi cuiivorta ; (ullowera of 

r Pliinji Hiut ln.&m Ebilu di^rntio l of, to 

iiiiidbih&b, FinLdn of BurU&np.u', 86 ; btinil 

belief of, in tHo spintu&l gnide j revolt 01 

B.;aHch Matiss (16U1) ; cnltivBtore. follow 

Hindu cDHtamn, form adiatinctbody ,Q7-(iS' 

Havlai lo.d ftud iQMtcr. believed to be tbe 

derivnlian of the lutme MoleiaUm, 68. 
UADLiiK; followMi of Ali. Tlic Upper Indm 
Valley followers of Hn Higbnca» the Agba. 
1I*ITI.AV1: Law Doctor, poeitioD aad aeeom- 

SliibmenU of, 133 i duue« uf.aa a du-:ior uf 
Luliimuiadan Uw, as a religi^un teacher, ai 
• pmfcuor. oE a apiritaa.1 guide, 131; as a 
carer of diseaaei ; raniuDur^lion nf, tor 
several dntiea, 136 j aometinieB a HiBi or 
re[>uater of the Kniilan by heart, 184 ; 
reprcaentatiTca of the grwit pna-^hers of ilio 

' flftenoth and aliteenib oentnrii'ii, 133 nolo 
2. See Law Doctor and Hsligioa) Oibcecs. 

V-AVl.fDi nativity hymn, 134 note 2. Ma- 
hammad-maa earoli, i66. 

JlAvita : holidav on the 17th of the tUrd 
month of the Moharoiui'tnn year. 140. 

VkvlShim: Amb nativity bymn-Biugers, 165. 

MaeDK : grade of MuIIib, 3^, 

HbAl.": nnniber and time of, kiads of f'^od 
■erveilat, 109; forms and cenmoniea obserrbii 

grandiDQ ot >Mh .£lam, 6 

t, 111-112. 

note I (Q), 
UlUDATlS: see Ohcrmebdia. 
MbKDI; Al, twelttbtbirfblmim, irE note 2. 
HehkH: neddiug gift or dower, 106 aod 

llBaEBi jiiiL : marriage portion of a girl, 166 

HxHuiB; arched niche In a moBqne, 131 ud 

the wordi 

Melv-ii.l : Mr,, Its note 1 ; T7 note I, 

M.U1II9: pro|ierly Uulmln* or ItellevEn; 
Hindu convert, from Sln.lh Lohinia and KichhUa-* " " " 
couven'iiin of Sindh Li>hiaii by Kiiadf-ad-dlB 
R&diii {USD; 50-51; change uf the name; 
arrival of tiindb Ucmans at Bhuj at the 
inviiMion of lUo Kheng4r (1548-16Sl)i 
master strong in t^iirat (1»B0 - 1G83) ; bmtna 
of IBIS diaperses them to Bombiy and other 
places; ■etcleuiciits of, 61; appsaranca <d, 
5E j chaiactiT of, E3-&3; dresi i.f.68-SBt' 
toA nf, &5 ; in itih.ritanov follow the Hlniln 
\ay. GO I bdiefii and roUgioD of, LC-57; eaU' 
ii.g ol, B7. 

MttKCRNABiEa: Miinltnln, cmplnyed by Hindu 
chief'), 8 note 3 ; rise of Arab, against tlia 
British {1802) i Pursiau, 3 nuto 2 ; Baioclt 
and Pat bin, 04. 

MiuiBA QiTRUARA ; Somids said to bulong la, 
70. See White HOiiB. 

MiLKHBN : see DddwilA. 

MiuHAB : pulpit in a niotque. 131. 

Minis: fortign tribc^ KsslUia tTmoe <_ 

from, IS. Claas of Dhulka Kaabatis, M 

Mniiij-iTfl-SiKij : aathar of the T&bokit-i- 

Ntsiri, 3.4. 

HlB : a <^yad title. 7. 

MIRAH I^aIad Ali DXtXb: aalnt, claioia 
diwceot from Azud-nd-din, ^ami Ka»biti, &4 ; 
apirit-sciu'ing tomb of, at Unjha, visited by 
Uemana, 66. and others, 1214 1 rites uf spirit- 
BL-aring practised at, I'.'S- 129 ; leaves of tlM 
tree ucar hia tomb are believed [o oare 
12B 1 to (avauc conception, 149. Sw thnaa 
and Vow*. 

Minlsis: landlords, t^ee Mlra, 

Mi'iAi 1 Ahmadi 1 9 notes I, 3 1 6 note 1 ; | 
iio:e3;'~4not4)2:2BDateBl, :'i£S note I] 
B4 note 3 ; 35 note 1 ; 66 and note -i ; 82. 

MiRlT-i-BiKASDABi : 8 dlxb 1 i 6i 1 63 : 70. 

MiuDiiAS ; tpertal (lommnnity ot pnrt-foredffi' 
ami part'Rijput desouiit, 11. <B; darivalioa 
of t lie name of, IS nute .'; officuJ *|.ias 
under Native Bulers. 18- 

Mm Khokd > -A? uute 5. 

UIrb: uoblDH, Hindu converts, 63 : meanitigii 
the name, P3 note ' j ning, n and l>l«_,i 
profession, followers of IHda MiAn ; 
b1»o Dholia, Uomi. Langhtla. Mb«^ S3. 

HiBZA : title among MagiiBlt 9. 

UlKj^Xs : Timurian pK ees, nbcltet ^ven to 1 
(Inj'irit f-ulUn RihAdur«htb ( 1 &3;2] i mM 
Gnjarit Mogbal familiei clBim descent frM 
'9i nuns of Sultlu lliuein of KhDri<4n. abeltJ 
gtvL-D to, by Changl>khin(lS7t) ; spread «i 
Gnjirit, 10. 

Hiwi : black dentifrice, origin of the use o^f 
i'i noto 1 1 held in liigh reipect, 52 nots t$ 
4-i5 i '49 J 168. ' 

MisaiONAnits : UuhamiTiulsn, in Onjarlt, S$j 
i2h; AbrlvllM. at tLe 1.1 uitafcliait i 
converts ebisfly Bohorie, 3 note 3, 81 
Eai»f-ud-dia Kddiri, i-ayad. hia c 
chiefly Hcmac^ SO. ImAmshdh or Imim-nd* 

din, of the NKzician wet, his conTerts ehStfly 
itMia KbdUb icd Motnuia ; 3 iiot«3, 40 fSO ; 
re. M%kamBiiJ J'tiinpari. i^i\-^<\. eh'.et 
eoawniata t'l MihiLivi fkitli, 3 tiute 3, 6-2, 
Mulaminaii Ah. Molla, Stt Dote ]. J/uin- 
W-</i» ChiaMi, 3 not» 3, 6 note 1 (4). Stir 
Saldgur, at the Nutrian lect, hia convtrti 
chieHj Eh.>j:ih9, S^. Sailr-vH-dln, 10. 
SLfiwwf-rf(n, 30. ShAk A'lam, 3 note 3. 
SUi liihir, SuuteS, IS5. 
Uoiicib: MiitUnl, Btioeinalcnn from Miiltln, 

kftrrivtl of. in Gujar&C from Nortli luduL, 
eonronion of, daring tbe reign of Mahaiiid 
B^od* |14aS - 3513), uppennuire, drvu, oci^u- 
- fktioa of, 7T-7S. See UolUnU, 
VoluaUmh : Tt»jpilt lialf (ouv^rl?, tbeir can- 
var^on in the reign of Mulimdd Bcgula, 
(1*50 ■ 1513) ; iiiterprPtations of the UBine of ; , 
Thikon Bud Chiefi ; niBrriuges among, 6 
note 2 ; 25 note 1 i 68. 
^^^JIOMKiBi propCTl)" Mom ins, that igBelieverg, 
^^H' 76 ; offshoot of the m^n Nsztrian stock, <i7 ; 
^^^^B COnTeraioD of, hy TsmuUa t'ayads and ImAm' 
^^H iUh of Plr.^na, T6 aud note I ; divUious of ; 
^^H risltig of (1091); appearance and dress of, 76 i 
^^^V raligion, euitoniH, and rommoniiy nf, 77 ; 
^^B nligiottS diieiplcH of tlie llr^ns Pica, 3 Dotc 3 
^^HL ocmltnaed on psge 4,; 40 ; 127 note Z. 
^HVonaAL : 10 note 3. fee Mughals. 
^B^3fa«0F0UEB : in art, 123. 

3I«ou : olaBS of tnders at BasBcin, ]S ; at Barat, 

U note 3. 
UoBQUES : see Manjidi. 
MfflfAar Jiiid LohKniB, 50 note 1; 51. 
MotrkinHrt ; form of, J70-171. 
MvAHjkflB: see Mcmans. 
UosiblS BIbi : licDtenant of the viceroy of 

Onjsrit, pata down Matia Kiinlii revolt, 67- 
UrOHAlKAii: ancestor of the NiUata cmi- 

I. grauts, U note 3. 
VveBALe: derivation of the name, 10 note 3 ; 
the two diatiri't classes df, — I'ursian and 
, Indian orUbughadda; Peraisii Muglials ura 
. dtaeeudnnts of Persian jraUtical rcfugteaand 
I uerehantsandof tbeSliiah-|i«raaaaian{ Indian 
■ Uughals are dncen-iants of the Mugbal 
I eonqnerors of India and Sana! Iiy fulL ; 
r titlre beforeanil afterthenamea of, 9-10. 
rjllTBAiiMAD: title among ^hRiVbs, 8- 
MiruAHHAo: son <.f Abdul-Wthhab, 12 note 

a t^ Wahbuhis. 
HiraaMHAD : son of Rtfaim, bis conquest of 
J-ipor, Ud&ipur, and Cbitor, 1 uute 1 con- 
tinned on page E. 
MnBAMXiD: rayad, styled lUjo Shabfd, the 
martyr, arrives in Gniarst. prescbps Itah- 
davi doctrines, ia ki!li?d in s skimiiBh with 
tbe troops of the viceroy Anrangilb, 6 ncio 1 
contiDDt^ on page 7i 35 note 1. 
VvHAHMas : ^nyad, oonipanion of Fajad 
Mnharauiad Jnunpari ;?illanparand DaVban 
Haidanibitd ilabdavia claim descent from* 
KuBAKvas Ali: MdIIb, believed to be the 
fttat Bohora miasiunary, worka miracles and 
loakfa eoDverta in C'umba; ; iltrine of, at 
Cambay, 20 note 1. 
[ VniAmAD Ali ; Paaba of Egypt, defeata 
Abdul Wabb&b (l£12}. 12 note 3. 

Mdbammak BXkir : fifth Shiih Imitn, 135 
nc'te 3. 

MtrnAHUADGnoHi: represses the KarmBtiani 
(1175), 3 note 3 conlinaed on page 4 ; 36, 

UuHAincAD Jadhpdki : Kayad, Ualidavi uis- 
sionarj-, comes to Cnjarit (1609); dnims to 
be the Im&m Mehili ; worka nuntcles i gather* 
fuUuwers, 3 note 3, 6'2-63. 

Mdhamuad UneXusHill : Sayad, anoectoi of 
thu Uasb-badi Sayad family, 6 note 1 (S). 

MiTHAMVAD a&La: Plr, tomb of. at Ahmed- 
ib4d, 36. 

MuilAHMAD Hkf. Maultfns, bead of tlie It 
dortnn of IslaTm at AhmedAbad. 63, 

Mdhaumad Cil : (1211). 2 note 3. 

McHAHiUD ZaHjOt Hirza. finds sheltw 
{l.'iSS) under Buhidnr ShUb of Qnjsntt, 0. 

MiuABRAu : first month of tbe Musalmin 
jfar, sacred to the memory of Hasan and 
Hnsain. I3G ; season of ke^n grief and self< 
denial, 126 ; ceremonies performed and obaei> 
vances practised in, 137-139. Vows m ' 
to Tjaziuhs and other institutions of, 1 
139-130; feasts in. 31 note 3, 114 i recital 
of the Karbola massacre in, 132 gelegj'sing- 
ing in, 133, 

MuniT-TTTD-Df* : of Amroba, 130 note 1. Eea 
Sheikh tiaddo. 

MdIk-itd-bIb Chisfiti : aoiiit, first missionary 
to settle in India (USo), ancestor of tb« 
Chisbti iiayad family in Gujarft, G nob ~ 
(1) ; makes many converts at Ajmir, 3 note 
S ; founds Chiaht, a MIfl or mysiic scbool, B 
note S J rcvortince of BuBBini Brlbmans for, 

Mnizz: Al, fourth FAtimite Khalifih 

UirjAWAB ; beadle, I28i 131 ; duties and rem 
Dvrstian of, 131 noU 2 ; 132. See Religic 

MrKism ; Krade cf MaUa. 32. 

UflAhiiiah> heretics of HindtiBt4n,led astwy 
by Niir the Turk, 38, 

Un.LA : relitti^us aiid social head of IKddi 
Bohor^B ; chief Mnlla called D.'lii his head- 
quarters at Surat, 31 ; spats of the furmei 
hrad-qatrtora o(, chief MuIIm from (1786 - 
1S93], 31 note 4; bia laflaence and power • 

>r the I 

inity ( 

anbordina'.e grades nf, Cam tbeir own liveli- 
hood, 32-33. One of the lowest taboi^nate 
grades of Malla. col1)-ge at Snrat. and acbooto 
to train yontbs for the dutiea of, 32. One of 
the lowest orders of religions officers, the 
Uusalm&o priest, his qoalilicationB, his duties 
at tin moatjoe, earns his livelihood as ■ 
BcUoolmaater and adds to bis income by 

iinting amnlt'ta and dealing in char 

33-133. Sec IViest, Belipioua officci 

Mi-ltXn : kingdom of, in India, foundatioi 

. by the ICarmatians, destruction of, 3 Data 
S continued on nage 4, SB j battle of, 68. 

._, secEafiis. png, 

DuXlTKKA : face -biding, 170. SeeUonni- 
UcNHFaosjls: soeRafaia. 
MorIeb: disciples, of the ShUb Miillaa ; ot 

the SnuniRraudah or morshidi in'"-'' ' 

by a Bayad Fir, 127 ond no ~ 


UdkshiS!! : an order of U«cben in k ivgpv 

brottiarhool, dnliea of, IS. Spiritual giudi 
1ST Aud note 2. See Pir. 

Udbtdh Atl : fint ShUh Im&nij 125 note 2 

Ittti : patron uint of the Milu Suh^, uaed 
to drev in woman'* clothes, famani ■in)^r, 
mii to b»vo s*vod the eoanlry from faniine by 
hit pnyen, tomb of, at Ahm^dibtfil ; chainpa 
or michelia tree nvar the tomb of, !i3 and 

UOhi SuaXoa : beg^n, Hindu convorts, fol- 
lowel* of >a>Dt Mun, dmi like mftrried 

~ wamen, remain uuniarried, S3 nni) note 1. 

Udai YHzm: bod of the tilth ShiAh Imtfm Jafar 
SAdilc, hi> dispute with his nephew lam^l 
for the Iniilinttte, hii BUpporten Lnown oa 
Iina-Mhui, 30 nolo I ; aorentb t^blikh ImAm, 
126 note 2. ■ 

KliBi RizX : eightli Shiih Imim, 125 note 2. 

Mosio : 174 ind note 1. Sae Amu«ementB. 

UustiAlubh : diviainn of the great Umaili 
Beet of Sbiih* -, called sfter AlmuBlaali. bod 
of AltnaaUDsirbilUh. Khnlifih oF Kgypt 
(1094) ; »ect repreMiiled in India bj Boboiin i 
Abdaltih, the principal miBBiooary of, 21, 
29, 30 note 1. 

Mdtawalli : mosqne guardian, dnlica of, 131, 
133. See Religious offlcers, 

McwALLiDB: couQtty-born. 11 ; IS. 

HniAlFAB SBDLa : sweet di ah, 113. 

UlI8A¥»Aii I. : govonior of Gnjarit (1391), 
bring* Snnni priest* to apread laiini, conver- 
■ion of Pitsn Sbiih Baborda to Snnni faith 
by the prirats, Sd noto 1, 31 ; bring* more 
priest* (1395), 3 note 3; enuooiages the 
•preadof Sunni dactria<«, SZ; 56 note i; 

Hirz&FrAB H. : Ahmed&bAd king (1.136 ■ inW), 

wttlement of men of lettera from Persia and 

other places in Gnjarit (1613-16^1) in the 

I reign ol, 3 note 3 ; persecntes Mahdavis, 63 ; 

[ UfZBl : special holiday diih of Arabs, 16. 

JM AOAb-Thatha T capital ofbindb (1421), 60. 

Nl<»Hts T Hindu converts, come from Ni(){or 
in U&lifa, niastly cart drivers, form a com- 
munity ; Pilanpur section or, have taken to 
arnu, Buniames of, fond of giving puhlio 
dinners. B8. 

BiooBHla ; see Bohoris. 

TSuiVski.k. : 2 note 1. ^'ee Anahilvida, 

K^lATAS: also calicd Nawatts, shipmen, came 
to India in the eighth or ninth century from 
Arabia, their disappearance from (njarilt, 
thdr trace* in Gbogha Usears, found on the 
ooast of Kinira and the Konkan UDde|the 
name oE Naviiatis : their origin ; claim to 
have proselytiaed one of the Zamorins oF 
UaUbar, 14 and note 8, 15 and note* I, 2. 

NiJM-uD-mv : head Mnlla of Did^ Bohords 
(1785), (!84 2), 31 noto 4. 

NlutotiA: Unsalmtn naval captain, in service 

of the ruler of SemnAth, 3 noto 3> 
NAKts : olEce in a mendicant brotherhood, 19, 

See Iini and Beggars. 
Xaksbbaxdb : mark-makers, Bindn convert*, 
bt^gar*, follower* of wlnt Boluud-i^. 

Kakshbaud, their reverence for 

KiLBANDd : hone-sbocrs, Hindn conTeiti 

NXl I^Xhib : Lord Horse-ihoo. the east ahoe Ol 
the horse cf the b-idcgroom -elect of Hownl 
daughter, believed to ■potsess power to irori 
cures, imitation horse shoes carried by DAla 
or bridegrooms in Uohnrram, 13^. SceT 

NAUAKOHAfiBi: 159. See 3alt-taiting. 

NAUiXGiH : oee Idgaht. 

Nakeb : peculiarity of, among Arab*, __ _ 
Uohoris, Diddi, 3 1 and note I, Jaifari. 34 { 
Vill^e, 59 note 1, 60 : Ghinehis, 7:( , EjuU- 
tis, 35 ; recomoieuded by the Prophet, 1S9 

NAnjiXni : Mr., Sacbedina, 36 note 4, 
Nahkd UtAM : name of a vow- receiving gi 

or spirit, 130. 
Nios! see Boat-oCrering^ 
NXsiBis : enemies of Ali t contemptooiM 

for ennnis, 38, 47, note 3. 
Natb: Tumbler*, wnnd^ing tribe of Binf 

COnTorta froai the tribe of the same nam 

formances, 88-80. 
NavXiatks: sacNiiatis, 
NavXhaoar 1 former seat of the head Unlla of 

DftiliU Bohoiis. 31 m - ' 
NawXits : see NXiat&s. 
NAwuXaA; ninth-month celebratian or flnk 

pregnancy ritea. 149. 
Naw SnAnfD; uine m*ityra, the ihrioe of, at, 

Sunt, 129, 
NaeXb: son of Khallfih AlmnitaDsir-bilU^ 
supporters to his elaims to the lucceasion ara 
called NajArians after him, 30 note 1, 37* 
See Naiirians. 
KAzilBlAna: division of the p:reat lamllti *ecft 
of Shiikha, called aiter Kaiir, aoii of AlaiQ^ 
tsnair-bilUh. Klialffih of Egypt (1^16 - |l)9G)^ 
30 note I ; NBiikr*! caiise is espaosed ia 
Portia by Hatao Sabih, inisaionM'y andt 
political emitsary of theP&temite Eballflh 
of Egypt (1094)1 beaamepowcrfnl iu I'eni%; 
37; ehBogsintbedoctrinef of (1I63).S7,44; 
transfer of the Iniimale froo the F4t>adt«a, 
to Uaann A'lX-Zikri-hiB-SalAn. the tonrtb' 
cetsor of Hasan SabXb. 4S ; A'la-ZikrI.'' 
Salfio bflieved to ba>e Beat the flrit 
K»K4iian missinnary to India. 38; aeot' 
repreaonted in ludii by the KhoJAhs, 30 not* 
1 ; convenion* made in Oujarlt and other 
pnrts of India by miaainnaries of the tect,, 
S9 ■ 41 ; changes made in the doctrinaa bj 
miasionarie* to suit Hinda ideas, 40. 4B. 
Nazb : eon of Kin&nah, one of the aneealon 
" of the Prophet, one of the HXiata famiUea 

claim descent from. It note 3. 
NfzXs : bamboo lances u»d by PhadXIis, 1601 
lELAKEi : looked-for tenth incarnation, ths 
coming Mahdi eiplained to ShaktipanthI* 
as, 40, 48. See Avatar*. 
NuXu-dd-dIh : bliaikh, ancaator oC 
CUisbtis, 8 note 2. Sm C^iihtii. 



Kl^fVA : word possessuig special powers, 143. 
See Magic 

Mt$^B Baksh : tribe of the Hindu Kush, identical 
with the Khoj&hs, 36 note 3. 

'StB, HATieuR : Ism&ilia missionary, is bo- 

- lieved to have been sent to India by Ala- 
Zikri-his- 841am, comes to P&tan in Gnjarit 
an the time of Solanki Bhfm JI. (11790242), 
works miracles and makes many converts, is 
said to have converted the ruler secretly to 
bis fiiith ; marries a daughter of the Hindu 
governor of Navs&ri, ia killed by one of his 
discipleB, 88 ; is described by the third Ismdi- 
lia noissionary Sadrud-din as the incarnation 
of the Prophet, 40 ; of Brahma, 48. 

Nt^RSHAH : seo Ndr SatAgar. 

Nt^BUD-Dfir : see Ndr Satigur. 

Kf^BiTLAH : Sayad, 27 note 1. » 

'* NiJb the Tubk '* : probably Niir SatAgur, 
beb'eved to have converted the MuUhidah, 38. 

Nczhat-vl-AkhbXb : historical work, 50 note 2 

ObeibullAh : surnamed Al Mahdi (^72- 934), 
missionary of AbdullAh Maimiin, founds 

the Fdtemite KhilApbat dynasty in Egypt 

(910), revealed Imim, 37, 47. 48. 
OCCUPATIOK : followed by men (1872 census), 

118 - 121 ; by women j monopolies in, 123. 
ODHNl-UDivA : ceremony, performance of , 162 

note 1. 
OvfiOB-BBABBBB : in a brotherhood of beggars, 

19. See Beggars, BhandAri) Izni, and ISar- 

OrviOBBS : religious, 182-135. Sec KAzi, Kha- 

tlb, MarsifwkhAn, Maulavi, Muj&war, 

Mulla, and Mutawalli, 
Old Mak ov the Mountain : title, 37. See 

Hasan SaUh. 
OstATYAH : ancestor of one of the Ndiatia 

families, 14 note 3. 
Omins : good and bad, belief in, 22, 30, 145- 

Onuu : use of, as intoxicating drug, peculiar 

names of, takers, 110. Seo Stimulants* 
Obioiv : of Gujardt Musalm&n population, 

Obvakbitts : of men, of the rich, 101 and note 

3 ; of middle class, 102 ; of the poor, 103 ; of 

women, of the rich, 104 and note 2 ; of the 

middle class, 306 1 of the poor, 107; of 

childxen, 108. 
Otavb : Captain, 59 note 1 . 
OvnOTOH : 5 note 8, 170 note 1. 

PAZhIlib : water-carriers, also called Mashkis 
and Bhistis, descendants of converts from 
the Hindu caete of the same name, SuiiAb by 
religion, 89. See Bhistis. 
PalIta : 183. See Fatliah. 
PAvDATAs: described as IsmAilia Pontiffs, 4§. 

See Avat&rs. 
PandtXdi JawIn Marjdi : book of the Indian 
Khojdh scriptures, written by A'gha Abdus 
SaUmsh&h, 41 ; 48. 
PanjIb: 70. Seo Takkadesh. 
PiNJNfoARS : cotton thread starchcrs, con- 
' verts from the Hindu caste of the same 
name, form a ssfKirate community, 78. 

B 520— 35 

PAnjnIgabs : Uir, silk starchcrs, have a 
monopoly in the art, 78. 

Pahjtan : 47. See Pentad. 

Pabi : fairy, 142 note 1. 

Pabi-on-kb-tabak bhabna : fairy hAzrdts, 130. 
Seo Vows made to Gcni. 

PabmXbs: Rajput converts, conversionH be- 
lieved to have taken place in 1317 ; Gujarit 
athletes, 68 • 69, 

PAtan: capital of Gujardt (1094-114.3), 26; 
88 ; 62. See AnahilvAda. 

Patari BohobAs : sec Ja^fari Boh()r<'l8. 

PathXns : MusalmAns of the regular class, of 
Afgh&n origin, derivation of the name of, 10 
note 4; titles after the names of, divisions, 
appearance, and character of, mostly 
soldiers, Sunnis in religion, 10- 11 ; class of 
jforoign Pathdns known as Jindarans, 8 
note 3. 

PavaiyAs : worshippers of the Hindu goddess 
Bahucharaji, 82. h'ce Hijdaa. 

Pbntad : 47. See Paujtau. 

Pebiflus : the, 1 note 1. 

Pbrsboutions : of Bohorcls, 27 and note 1 : of 
Mahdavis, 63. 

Persian: (lulf, traders from, tstablish them- 
selves in Gujardt citios> 2. Refugees, esta))- 
lish themselves at Cambay, 3 note 2. 

Pbtondh : contribution among Khojdhs, 41). 

PhadAliS : spirit musiciauR, perfonnanceR of, 
during Bchlim vow offerings, 150-1;')1 ; 
during Boat offerings, 1 53 ; during the offer- 
ings of vows to geni, 130. 

PlCTUBBS: keeping of, prohibite<l by the 
Prophet, now common, 93 and notes 1 and 2. 

PlLOBiHAOBS : enjoined by Muslim law, as a 
duty. 127, 171 note 2 ; places of, for Sunnis 
and Shidhs, 47, 126, 171 ; for DAudi Bohordn, 
SO ; for Memans, 56. 

PfNAE : lotus-eater, opium-eater, 110, 

PfBS: also called Pirzddahs or Murshids, 
spiritual guides, 7 ; religious persons, <li8ciple8 
of, are called Murids, 127 ; most of the 
Salads and Fdrukis Shaikhs become spiritual 
guides, 7, 8 note 2; initiation of Murids by 
a Sayad pir, sources of his income, 127 n(»tc 
2 ; spiritual guides of Bohords, .Tadf ri, 34 ; 
village, 60 ; of Khojdhs, 40 ; of Alemaus, 
51 ; 66 ; 13 i note 3 ; Plrdna, 79, 140 ; blind 
belief in, 67 note 1. 

PiBANA : village ten miles south-east of Ahmcd- 
dbdd, 76 note 2. Pir, 79, 140 ; saints of 
66, 67. 69, 74, 126; Sayads of, 127 note 2, 
tombs at» 76 noto 2. 

PiBf-MiTBfDi: profession of spiritual tutelage 
practised by Sayads and few Shaikhs, 127 
noto 2. 

PIri-RawAk: shrine of MuUa Muhammad 
AH at Cambay, 26 note 1. 

P/bzAdahs : see Pir. 

Playbbs : see Hijdds. 

Population : see Census DctaUs. 

PbalhAdha : 48. See Bhakta. 

Pbaybrs : enjoined by Muslim law, as a duty, 
126, 171 note 2 ; form, num1)er, lime, and 
place of reading, 47. 19, ]16, 126 and notes 
2, 3, 5 ; funeral, 126 ; (written), put in the 
hand of adying Dof6di Bohora, 31 and note 
2; vow to repeat, 127. 

raMUCTt faorm Mt by ani«rit HiimI- 

. ''>» protprd of iMtviag no itatle, 
10 remeitiea tn obiwn cMUIn-u, 
appcBli uiaJs ti) aaiut' ; A'tiiils or eiorti^ti 
fti-kFil (n cajc out «p]iit of luirenneu, 147 i 
vUit to iliiini-'a uid traca potBeuing iuue- 
giv'ng pr^ipetilat, 1)8; oamlcm tkkcn 
■ICtiiiit tlie bancfDl iaflueiicei from the time 
of cono^lioo, 116-149 j rliiwiitdcvr' monies 
Tfluting 111 ~ t«v«nt!i Mi-i Bin-^ mun' h calebn- 
tiim i-f, Uei-iUj pHrformadoeof ■ BB>]:l[n 
vow ia, 150- 51 : performanto of «rth n 
dikli iit« or fahuuk in, l.'il-ln?; otFenn/i 
ofgrn'* loft'i or Nint, 15-J-1S3 ; rite of Ki 
divinulioii by mitk in, 1G3-Ie4. 

PscBar: Mmslmio, 13-2. Ste Mnlla. 

Pbocessio^ ■ of a, convert. I3'i note I. 

Phofsv9:o>i3 : uemai detsila of 872ofclMfci 

foJIowloii, i:0ll.liLiailoi,lS3. 

PnoSTicTg : of GuJAi'it Muulmin population 

iag8i.8.-.l. 76. 
PuLto : dub, publi~ dinner ciUed aftsr, cost 

of, S, 114 and note S. 
ProbsMi: Ui u»ii uf India (150), 1 note 1. 

Il&Iii-ni.'A!EF[ra: aee likl.lua rini. 

Kis crL.AWw.n,: tliird m.inth of the Mn«1. 
mill je»r, holidiifa in, 1 -0 ; lonnoii ilian>ra 
given 00 rtt twelve days of, 111. 

»1Ub1 ive-^Im : f .OTth munth uf tie Mn'alm&a 
jreip. h .li.laj in, 140 ; f=a-t in. 1 1 1. 
BtnaAHfeB : grftut of, tg Fitch Kliiu BalAoh, 

: bfiKgari, mesning of the name of, 

otb.'r namiiof, fi.llon-um of Sajiul Abmad 

Ksbir, w»j» of bejnjiiig, Snnuii ill reliirion, 

13 -Jit. 

WEknn : oontemptuona leroi tor Shiiha, 47 


EiiDA.<4: Jim, (U541. Sindh m'er of the 
S.iai:n* dyavty, Gil. i^ec Markab Eii4n. 

RXt-IsPANt) : mnalaid, burning of, at the 
door to pcBvoot demons from entering, 

aitth month of the Uuaa m&n year. 
■y in I preacbiOK of mtioiiD* dnriag 

.levenD<<;bt>of. 140i fiaaC giren on 

thalast We.lno.da^of-1 4, 
BuAtiiitDRi; Blia of. 2 note 3. 
RUo: a ad, of Uukbira, IH, 
Ki)0 SsiniD; aeo 8iivaa Mohammad. 
BaVazan ' ninth mooth of t e Mnulmtin 

;e ir. month of faatin);. IS; 126 ; 41 ; 71 

nme' :t-,i fiBC of, la^;ho^d^y^ in, 140; 

f*a«t. i ., 31 note 8 127; recitu of Qraien 

in I 13?, 135 ; 136. Id. aee (d. 
S^iuut: conrerted Ta<var Rijpdt, (preadi 

U.i n in Ktcbh anJ KUbiiwir, 40. • 
Ttknantz : Hjeri, atii<t to ba converta from 

HinJo KhM.i or weaver oaate, Sunuli in reli- 

Bion, 79. 
BAsariiAKiiTA : dyiiaaty of the ancient Hindu 

kingB of the D^kkhao, 3 noie L Soe 

RXh Jlin: (Fiffbei'Jhifilnrlctl worl<,2 note 3 ; 
SnotfB 1,2. 3i>not.:-2; iGnitea; "o note 
S uote -J I 80 BOM 1 ; 68 ; t>4 note H ; 08. 

BAif lauitHvi t br)ieBF«. tollowmof tho Pn^ 

pbei ; a<Bo called MasUna, SunnU in reliirSon. 

Bata ' pra : villaze in weatem B .jpipU, tomb 

of siiiit Uiui Qliol at, l'>. 
BilnOBi : Kajpiit convrita, take wivea of 

Hiodn birth, aome have reie'Siice f or Swa- 

minLriyan, obaerve moitly Hindu mutoou, 

Ravjbauas^ 39. i'ee Cblki. 
Bavbktt : SlBJor, 65. 
KlrJM son of Minekji the bead of SiniOt 

Luhanie, ci>»verl4)d to lalim by Eoiaf-itd- 

diu, called Ahui.d .fter convereiun. SI. 
Razub; .■'Ulliuih(l237'124i'), 12 ; 38. 
RaiDiss ; iee AmuBimenu, 
BEu[-TnAH: aee iLw. 


i 64 u< 

Bblisioii: Uiaaimin, tvo fonni of— .^onoi 
and ■■■hiiiti, origin and points of diffe e oa 
between th« two furmi, 47-4B, IZG ■ I 6] 
Imimi of. 125 note ?, IK s ach^U of, IM 
noti' 1 ; ichisma from t^nnni. Uabdavi, 6 not* 
l,3Ii ODte 1 ; and Wa)il}lbi>, 1 and »ole 1. 
13 J diviaiouauf -SUiihs— the lana-Asha-ia a;id 
lainlliiB, fii ther Bubd>viiions of lamlilia 
into— Kaxiriana and UnauM'ans. SO nol« I. 
spreid 'if thefai li inOajaiit Uj miBfloiw'ea 
atid MoHlmfcn rulea. 3-G, ISSilcaiing 
belief* and piaeUce of, 1:26- ISO ; relig;ioiii 
bnildings, IJO - 32 i reliKi<iua oftta la. iSi • 
136i, 36-141i carl;b>iliefl,142- 

BEBCBHECtiOH : d^y of. belief in, 176. 

Bbviilt: of Uatia Kaalua and Ujiuoas at 
Bro.icb, 66. 7ti 

BiFiiJ ; uhiif ;i«yad (imil; in Onjartt, 6 nota 
1 (3). 

BobXni: diiine magic, tret Uagfe. 

BcKViiDiitN-KHiJR tiulB : anccstof of H. B. 
thoAgbt Khin, 41. 

Bitlikh: MuwIm&D, apread I^lAm in nnjarlt 
hr per>eautinn, Mahmud hazni or Qhaauu-ri 
(lOSG), 3 note 3, St; Kmperur Ali-ud-dia 
(1297), 82i govornot Alif ■<htQ (I'-'Or- 1317J, 
S-G, .25; Muiabr I. (I39&t.3 no.e S. l&if 
SulUn Ahmad (U14- U.'O), e and note 1^ 
SS nota 1, .2G i MaUm bd B. gada 114S9 - IGlSl, 
a Tiote 3, G and note £. IM, 7D, 77, l^i 
viaiaffarll. (15131 26j, 25;Uab-ndd IL 
(Hum- ol7i, S anil note 2 i tmperuT Jahin,- 
gir 116181, 5 and n^te 8, 126 1 Bmiwnt 
Aursngiib, as Viceroy of Ooialit (10*8), i 
and n>te3, IS'.. 

BirsTOM : I'unian bare, 136. 

Sacuin: Skli -^tate, 12. 

SAOiiitLiK: ISa ee Akrta. 

Sadih) : StipiUh nfime of n vow-reoeivinggeni, 

oi-Lfia i,f. l:lOao 1 D^ito I. 
irXDlK: r,r. aouof Pir M4'>a.41. 
Sauk-cD-iifN : I'lr. third lamailia miaaioaaiy, 

■dnptt HSndn nxioM, nfl no'eT ; tti^ tn hnre 
"> 'nrwi) Br*li.»j- ishit is. .9 ; fonn U i'] ■ 

e i^ih of bia fo.luvenii niniv- ibo fi at 

bllis-irMhGriii^ wailec 1 en/'' iff iuc'iii- 
V'e I'taiWin tmitb to pr-s-nl Ic m in 

*fBili>i. or Brah'im. W-, Kive- \<is 
liinic to the f mrcU bhukta ; adopts the Qkcni' 
of SMpADth for his new faitb )8. 

SI : leciiDil cnanib of the Maiolmia ;cv, 
da;sm. I .V-140. 
UX:T*nk to'-.'Sfir at iheGnjaKt Sul- 
>,oaiT«rte(l lo Ulk^n by flrili I'liithl ik. '0. 
4 r-m-.-ALiT : ptijer bojK of the DkAdi 
oiia.SUnote I. 
>■ : atiooallei B bl-kf--)ihnrLV and Kan- 
- -, i fo fllmout of vow bj wonio ■ lii 1 lie Lady 
Fi'.imth. descrititiun of, l.'il - 16?. See* 
V«th<n Dish. 
Biav I'Ark KiioeiiCorof the HijiirAt -a'l&ii*, 

n by Fir. 


!:<Ai)l6tt: p olatily 
8«i>TS; li»i-ig and d rI. ■ppeal-' "f w men tOr 
UdKi.. 147) belief in, 17, 28 j vowi 
», I'iS ; wonbip of 'i; Ab^isnian, 1! ; 
t ftliliiedtbi.l. T6l of Ajinir. 6 note 1 (li, H ; 
f B Kbdtd oli i uf I ambay 26 note I ) of 
Hl>a.enOie liii'iofiioHrka. 17^ Hinln- 
tlaMtlmiu III Northern I .di 

llth. 8 ; 

. 2a i 


.na 6i; AT ej,T4, iabiuiBii(us,uai}te, 
I of ^yrin, 22. 
I! groom H(l 

''*a: Lndy, daaghter of Uuanin, bride- 
Jiol Kisim, I3t. 
Saiats ; iDjannB, coxieits hum tlie Hindu 

c*-te of the tame xaiue, 7S. 
8*Lii; Mr. bli I 'risli miliary dUcourse to the 

Kumi-i. 1 notel- 
SALOiH'if: E9Huda''te4. See Blith lav. 
SiL K I CuisaTi : .heikb, tuiab ul, at F^iteh- 

pur Sikiiri, IIT. 
"SatKii": BcariGcatioD pi^foriuance of, in 
Arabia. iS'l note H ooiit.inMe<I □□ |inge 101. 

1 also tailed Ilitaii and Nauiak 



; ilynatty of . 

iidb I 

ilers iL151-'59lJ, 
igin of, probably a 

ikJii»: Hindn oooTerti. 

roc'- tribe 6», 
b'AwXoa ; Hindu prai-tice of abafaotioa, prac. 

litad by Siir at&gur :IS. 
M*i«*i.oiinliiT4: Holy Drop, 48. 
Utii>«:K>n of Emhua, ^aiii4i trace du^ cent 

from, 61. 
8i«i . gra'it of. to Fiteh KUii BAdeXi, 17. 
IJIXKUASPD rvilWeof siity ml e, nortli-oisl 
medlbid. tera,'l« at godUcKS lleli.-i:Ura 


i s-i. 

SiTFAitTU : name giTen bj Fir Sadr-nd-diu 

liisii.ur lai h, 4d. 
SifiD ; W ihliAbi leadsr, ri.e of Wall!, t l.i poiv 

under him, I cote 3. Sde Wuliliit.ia. 

.-iiaps: Muaalm^n^([ul«■■o^a« I de«ji!n''ant« 
of R.iinHh andAlu Iheir dUUke lo ufer- 
niarry with Dtlier commo'iliies. 6 uoie 1, 7; 
arriral and ■etclement uf in Giijirli ; Cliete 
chief faiailiea of, S uote I i apiH ar<n e, titles 
befiroor sfier their taiDes, poidiiion, reli- 
giini— Sunni-anddiiiths. Sl.ifali Sa a<ld form 
adLtiiictcominuniir, 7-& Begaar>. f IId- 
khLri ■to<.-lE, 3 note I. Of Malidavi f^th, ft 
note 1 eoitinoed On p»«H 7. 

t:eHQois : of the Su'ini divi.ion, ISS^uote 1. 

SowpTOKis lielitf li, 126. 

StaOA : a.iwersheet. loS, 166. 

3fif dd-div : ..h;.I .Julia of ihoDiidiTiohoris 
II797J, HI nolo 4. 

ScarAMS: itaCf of, in a Muialmin hou«, 
n i - 97. 

SsttvicB : Qiiveniment a''d privats. followed by 
.Masdmius, ii. e;- (.Kcuiation. 

:ltR»ios : clusui of lin''!! 'smrijrti conneeled 
witli : see Behrtipiii Btiindi, 80; llhai id. 
Bhauraryii, Oandhrap<, t ; Ka-ni iaa, Ma- 
daris, S' ; Ulf or Mirliii, 9ipthii, 83} 
Ttdields Tui-ki H«jtm«. a4. 

itv sEHu : divlsiou at the Shilhi, alo cai!«d 
Sih:tisa-i<i l:<>a.tilU i7 %el3'nl'U«. 
Bi ')t^■l^AIlO• : by milfc, rcroimmy of, '5.1- 

<hjiAb(ji r eighth month ofthe Muia'nilii year, 
h lidaon. 1 -i, I4J. S>e ' bab-i barit. 

iii^ht of rJCO^I, falls ou tba 



i, UD. 

■A 3, 126, e:unol 

of I 

beRgar brotherliood, 9. ^ee Beggars aftd 

Siiai'.p : bead iiasrters of the high priest of 

Uemans. in. 
B«Tavtu: ma^e, sls'.ei'led Sbait.ini, proceuof 

acKjniring knowkdite ot, in . ee Mij o- 

' Ua* : leF<:ach*mouCb coiebratioa during 
It prognsDo;^ 149 

iii Tmim, 

sebnol I 6 iiote 1. 
t^aia; titl annugSata .. .. 
■.siK Aliu sitint, I'earoed man of M>Hmild 

BegLda'sieiiTO i note 3, 7B, 4S i shrine uf, 

at Atiin<..d41iid, 6 t, 
SniiuMAKila: eai<it, P2. 
ieia Noi?; Rliiih place of pilgciniage. place 

of Jtli'i martyrdo n, 47, 126. 
i-aia TXniB! Irnnii ian conrtlpr-ini''.ioTary, 

procup jr of Mujiffar II. 3 note 3. I ;j 
t;BAKia DD'Dis OtiOHi: 39. foe U~lia:^>.i,ad 

t<nlbiiB dD'HIH: K&il Kh&n Biih&dnr, 14 noto 

3 : IB n'>te 1 -, ?5 note 1 : £6 nnis I ; -il nota 

2 ; VH noU £ 1 3:1 note 9 ; 83 note 1. 
ShamXd it : nk'ht of the tnartytdoio, itie Qiutb 

nUhtof Che Uiliarr:i<n 13'. 
Suilaji : ,a ad Plr, diMiendiuit of 'in&'n-nd- 

diu(l601) spiritual bead of MaUio, conjiiti 

suidlde, G9. 
r's'MKH: title. 8, 
c^atlEBB : Miitalmini 0' the regular cUm, S j 

a so include lo-al caiirerti, 'i oale3 ; ineaniiig 

of the name origin, branchea, appwr.inoe, 

titlei befori' and a( er Iho oaaei of, aud 

notes 2 and 3 ( 9 1 Telia diTi^on of. in Rad- 

ShuKBUAS: Hiii'fn oonrerti. drvotsei of till 
rirlnA aiinti. alM railed .-bulthj rorni'lia- 
tin.-lco-.iinm"t,-.6i)-7n. [ ajili 17. 

^HiiSfl-CL-lABAL : titlo aiiumed hi- HaMik 




^uaitAki : form of magic, 143. iiao Satanic 
uud Magic. 

^ii.vMS-UD-DiN ; second Ism&ilia missionary, 
also known as Chote, works miracles, makea 
conversions chietly from Ohdks, 39 and note J. 

SiiA-wwiL : tenth month of the Musalmdn year, 
it!> first day is the Kamdz&n fd holiday, 141. 
bee Ram&z&n fd. 

hUEHKDUAEHi : opium eater, 110. 

biiEBKUAV b'l^K : revolt of, against Hum&yun,9. 

KuiXh :*onc of the two forms of the Masalm&n 
faith, 125 ; etymological meaning of, 47 note 
1 ; origin and points of difference of, 46 - 47| 
125-126; Iro&ras, 125 note 2 ; divisions of, 
into Isn&-&sharis or Twelvers and iSoveners 
also called Isra&ilians or Ismdilis (765), 30 
note 1, 47 ; further subdivisions of Seveners 
or Ism&ilis into Naz&rians and Musta&lifms 
('094) ; Naz6,rians reprosentcil in India oy 
Khojdhs, Mustaftlians by Bohoris, 30 note 1 ; 
spread of, in Gujardt chiefly by Ism&ili mis- 
sionaries, 24 ; 1 25, 

^hIrAzis : chief fc>yad family of Gujardt, 6 
note 1 (6). 

i'lKSiiAUGARS : glossmakei^. Hindu converts, 
found chiefly in Kaira district, make glass 
bottles, &c., 89. 

buaADDHA: mind feast, 147. 

biiKiNB : of Abdul Kadir Qildni at Baghddd, 
^6 ; of All and Hnsaiu, 47 ; of Mirdn ^'ayad 
Ali at Unjha, 56, 123; of Naw Shahld at 
Surat, 129; of Pir-i-Rawau at Cambay, 26 
note 1 ; of IShdh Alam at Ahmoddbdd, 56 ; 
of ^hams•ud din at Uch, 39 ; of b^indhsdh at 
Navsdri, 66 ; miniature, of Ivarbala martyrs, 
128. Vows made to visit 128; spirit- 
expelling element in the, of Mirdn Sayad 
Ali, 128 - 129. 

SiDDfEis : section of S^fhaikhs, 8 and note 3. 
i*oe SShaikhs. 

Sinnpt'R : former scat of the head Mulla of the 
Ddiidi Bohords at, 31 note 4. 

b'lDURAj Jaisingh : king of Anahilavdda, gives 
justice to Musalmdn traders of Cambay, 2 
note 3 ; g^ves patronage to Bohora mis- 
sionary, said to have embraced Isldm, 26 note 

b'fDis : Musalmdns of special community of 
part foreign descent, also called Habashis, 
origin, divisions, language, character of, 11 ; 
special form of worship among, dance of, 
men of position and power among, rulers, 12, 
Zan^ira, arrival and settlement at t:iurat of. 3. 

kiNoAN : probably in Kachh, 1 note 1 ; mosques 
at, 2 note 1. 

Sii!n>usHlH : probably Nur batdgur, shrine of, 
at Navsdri, 66. 

h'lPXniB : soldiers, of mixed origin, p^ly 
immigrants and partly Bajpdt converts, 
mostly husbandmen, b'nuni in religion, 83 • 84 ; 
name coined by Musalmdn governors for 
Rajput and other converts, 25. 

b'OELAS : hymns, 151. 

Soq-uthAna : grief-lifting, 170. See Mourn- 

fc'OLANKis : Rajpiit converts, 70. 

hOLEiMXN : Prophet, knowledge of the Great 
Name Ismi Aozam first possessed by, dominion 

of, over men, genii, wiads, birds^ and beastff, 
uttering of the name of, casts out demons, 
en res the sick and nuscs the dead, 143, i^ee 

hOMNATU : ruler of, 2 note 3. 

boxis : goldsmiths, converts from the Hinda 
caste of the same name ; have a bad name 
for mixing gold or silver with cheaper metals, 

b'OECEEY : belief in. 56. 

Spirit : vrater. fci'ee Khwdjah Khizr. 

Spirits : belief in, .30, 142, 147 ; religious men 
Sayads or Mullas called to cast out, 142 ; 
Amils or exorcists asked to cast out spirit of 
barremieae, 147 ; casting out of, at the shrine 
of Mirdn b'ayad Ali at Unjdh, 128-129; 
A'ldchlidla— treatment resorfaed to by Meman 
women to cast out, 56 ; vows made to, 123. 

^ Evil, Qujardt means of subduing, 145 ; cau- 
tions against the baneful influences of, during 
pregnancy, 148 - 149, during childhood, 156 
and note 1. 

{Subdivisions : of Gujardt Musalmdns, two 
main sections of — Foreigaers and Hindu 
converts, 1 ; two main groups of Foreigners — 
the four chief or regular classes of, Sayads^ 
IShaikhs, Mughals, and • I'athdns, 6; and the 
seventeen special communities of part foreign 
descent, 6, 11 ; Hindu* conveits, 3-5; nine 
classes of, connected with religion, 18, 20 ; 
five with trade, 18, 24 ; twenty-one witli 
land, 18, 58 ; twenty-two with crafts, 18, 70 ; 
eleven \vith service, 18, 80 j fourteen wiAh 
labour, 18, 85. 

SuBOJi-yiMAZ : morning prayer, 49. 

SuFLi : low divine Magic, 143. See Magic. 

fcsUuXoANS : married women who have never 
lost their husbands, 163. 

SulaimAn : traveller (861), 2 note 1^ 

SulaimAn : Yaman priest, 27. 

SulaimAn FAras : saint, 85. 

SuMRAS : bindh tribe of Rajpilt origin, con^ 
verted by Malimiid Begada (1473) : sai^ to 
belong to the Mihira Gurjjdra stock ; call 
themselves descendants of Arab tribes, 70. 

SuNDARji : Lohdna convert, grandson of Md^^ 
nekji, his Muhammadan name Adam, head of 
the converted Lohdna community* 51. 

SuMNAn-WAL-JAiiAAT : the Prophet, 3 note 3. 

iSuNNi : one of the two forms of Musalmdn 
faith, 125 ; origin and points of difference 
of, 46 - 47, 125 - 126 ; Imdms of, 125 note 2, 
126 ; schools of, 126 note 1 ; schisms of, 
Mahdavi, 6 note 1, 35 note 1, and Wahhdbi, 
12 and note 1, 13 ; spread of, in Qujardt, by 
Sunni Musalmdn rulers, 125. 

SupArA : early Arab settlements at, 1 note 1. 

SurAbhAis : IHrdna tomb of, 76 note 2. See 
Pirdna tombs. 

SdRAn-i-AR-RBHMAw : holy book, 162. 

S(^aAH-i-YAsfv : chapter of the Kuradn read to 

* a dying Khojdh, 46. 

Surat : establishment of Zanjira Sldis at, 3 ; 
chief seat of the head Mulla of Ddddi Bohoris, 
25, 31 and note 4 ; college at, to train Mullas, 
32 ; arrival of Momans at, 51 ; shrine of the 
Naw Shahld or nine martyrs at, 129 ; Imdm* 
bdda at, 132 ; Tadziahs in, 138 note 1, 

StfmciujiD : EAj», govornor of Nivudri, his 
daugliWr nuirriud to N(ir SalAgnr, 88. 

SlAlia : ruadiug of, by Ilasnim Brihmans, 2S. 

STuiin^<iis : uie of, 110. t^w Opiam and 

b'wiTZKUi oj THi EiST ; BaliichLs, 17. 

i. aIwIe I amulet, ase of, 183. 

TAiziADj ; miniftture ihriima of tha Unrtyrs of 
Ksi'li»la, ISS; voH'a paid to, ituring Muliar- 
nm, 13S. 129-130: show of. in GujuU 
darinj; MaUrram, IBS-139', flcaC iiukiag of 
(1«J0), 139 DOte 1. tee Tiliilba. 

TABtKiT-I-NiUBl : work on Uiator;, 38, <!5. 

Tabirhce : luoriel of loorBd f.wd, 140. 

TjU^ts: ««o Taiiiohs. 

TiBjtjJCD : iDiJi^ght prayer, 126 note 3. 

T*iB: tilk-wHXVKM, take nmoe from Tiii, an' 
of mixed origin, partly foroign .Maaalmlns 
purtty Hindu comurtB, sud to Ijava lieen 
touglit the craft by Prophet Idiia, Balsir TAia 
claim Atftb descent, 60. 
TliEuln SUl&k: mosquo of, at Aliinud.tb&d, 

TtKiiY-AH : Sbiih -doctriae of concoulox 

f Takakafci, 70. S.« Tabshaks. 
TUsB*Ea: tribointlie FaiijlLb, repreivnted by 

tbe Tttnks, TO. Sco Takkadi.-9b. 
Tax&x : apocial diah among Uijd&a, 31, 
T*LA» TiHii. B«c Tora. 
TlLiBHJNS: o»e of, to securo »peedy delivery, 

TAuionDS : words with special migical powers, 
119. liee Magic 

TlsE3 : Hindu couTerts. landboldora. raid to 
rBpruaeiit the tribe oC Takafanks, tlia family 
"le Sulb&uB of Gujarat belonged ' 

I, lAB. 



'■ Tlsi 

Ubkh-i-TabABI : historical work, 14 aotu 3, 
TisHCtllB : dnim-playeri, f^iid of, SI. 
TiWAKEDL: reiig nation, 7, B. 
TuCES : pjid to the religioni hewl by Diildi 

lA : Sbaikb beg^arg in B^dbaDpnc, 3 note 3. 
« Shaikhs. 

: holiday on the thirtcentli day oE'Safar, 
, Sec TaUn Tuii. 
UB : Utle. Sec Thiknr. 
DB : title of the Lohiiuu, Htlit 
Chojiht addrcaaed by the title of, 39. 
: wandeKng tribo of Hindi 

: chief Sayad family in Gnjiirit, 

TrrLEs : among Mugliabi, 9 ; Poth&uB, 11 j 
Bayada, 7 ; Shaikhs. 8 ; 23 j 30. 

ToDAcoo ; aao of, amoiLg Uusalmia popalation, 
110-llU Seo StiinulantB, 

Tod ; Golouil. 1 note I. 

loUBs: sec Bbrinea. 

ToN^a ; songs. 164, 

Tbadb : cbusca of Uniatmnlii pnpnlatioD 
vonnectul with (1872 oeoana), 122. CIUHaa 
of Hindu converta following. Boboiia, 24'35 j 
D^dwal&a, 8S ; KarLllaa, S6 : Khqibi, 36 - 
49] M^mans, B0-6T. 

TbaDEbS : See Trade. 

Trek : dlacaie-curing pnwera of tlie, nosr the 
grave of s&int Mirtii at Cnjih, 123; iiSDe- 
giviog property in the, neartho tomb of Mint 
bbiXi Alam at Abmed&biid ; near the grave 

Tqbfb.vjto : term of noorn among Eh^lbi, U. 
TbIeau : Sindh Unkhi, devotee of Ri Swli- 

ud din, 4a 
TcNuia: beliefleaa opicnrea, Khojihi, 41, 
TuBEl HajAhs : barbers, of mixed origin, two 

divisions of ; Jokblrii and Ilaj&mB, duties of, 

character. tfuiiiiiB by religion, honour sunt 

Siilainiiln Firas, 8i-H5. 

; division of Sluihs, 47. Soo Isns- 


L'batna : coatnetic mb, 163. 104. 
UdapdR ; conqupit of, by Arabs, 1 note 1. 
Ujjajn : conqneit of, by Arabs (7S1] i 
ap[)ajiBge of Cbitor, 1 note 1 coutinned on 

Bge 2 1 former scat of the head priest of the 
.^ildi Buhor&s, SI note 4. 
UjjAnta : JdnA(jadii hill, I nutc 1 continued 

on page 2. See OirnHr. 
Ulahas ; learned laea of Ahmedib&d, 63, 
UtATi : high magic, 143. ^'ee Uagio, 
Uuab: son of Khattib, second Ehallf&h, bii 

prcjndico agaliiat India, 1 nota Ij 126] 

suffitri death bb a martyr, 136. 
UUAB-AL-Fiai)!! ; ancegtoi of the FAruki 

Bbaikba. 8. t<ee f baikha. 
Cijha: village, &6iailos north of Ahmedibad, 

ahriiio of Mir&ti Saysd All at, 66, 12B, 148. 
tlHAiziB : chief tjoj'wl family in Gujontt, 6 

note 1 (7). 
Uras : death-day fiura. 50 ; yearly meelings in 

hoTtonr of saiDts, 133 uotu 2. 
niBAB : governor of Baarali. 1 note I. 
UtuhAn - 126 ; the thinl EhalU&h, 136. 
UTnAlN'ATn-THiEAn : governor of Bahrdn, 

Buudit dnt Giiieditinn to India (S3G), 1 note 1. 

Y'^'aHBLA KiNOB : 2 note 3. Si.'O AnahiUvildB 

VakIl : dopnly of Rhojilh Im&ms, 41. 

TiOAB or Odd : 47. See Ali. 

Viiuv6: 40, Sue Avatdri, Adam. 

VouoBvir ; orlKla of the word Bohora, 84. 

VowB ; oifuriugB of, allowed by tliu law of 
Ibo I'ropbct i forma of, 127-129 ; made.^ by 
Indian MusolniAns, to flints, to visit abriuea 
of note, 12B']29 ; to Tifazilbs aud other ii 

y{ilf- wnaon, lB4n^ 5, 18». 

WirlT : hulidx;, ou th« tweif^b dav of the 

third mouth, <4>l. rm RaU iiI-Awwal. 
W^OUDis : namea powaaaiiig ipoL-ikl uiagieaJ 

poHten, 143. S«e Magic. 
WAUEisia: DiuB Iters, kiiowD u Gbdr 

UnkalUd or (hl-f Haitfth IJ| M!lilim from 

uadera a^-d thti ^Turnr 
of <lutir«'>f, I^ Dull* 3 s brought into Jndui 
(ISi : |. the:r riu to iaiporun. a ( 867), ■p^«d 
of their doctriiUM id Qajarit, chiefly by 
NanUwi l.iiikaiAli, amoDj c^nmi B-iboru 
13. 01 1 175 I dootriDCH o( 13, 1, IS^. • 

Wali : niut, 62. »anie of a child iu Aklka or 
nainini; nc iflr«, ICS. 

Walid: AI Cmatjaa Khalifiih. 1 noel. 

WlLritiH; riiarri*gpdiiiret»inu(ig Atabt, 1«. 

Wai.»K: Culoriei, lis. 

WAnduit : d>'it. of vi'lage Bohorit. 61. 

Waba : town near Thaih.*. mat of ibe Momaoi, 

W*tH01i : CJooel J W., 25 noU I. 

Whit' Ka-»: uw Umai, 

WusaTilF: Mu-lim fur.n of. 126 and note 6; 
firm [if, among Kuojili*, ii. baint, 12) 
Fin, 8 >. 

"Wvtt : ablution, 126 not* S. 

TX JabBjIb : word having ipeclal powen, 143. 
l-M Ma.ic 
YiWAoA 10 -■ word having special poireri, 14 '. 

Sts Magic. 
TiAcdB: Savad BnlLa, ■ac«.<tor of tbs 
VnM ijafad fumiiy, 6 nou 1 (7j. 

Tamam : pnwiTMB of. in ArsW*, 3 , Maent 

■eatuf the bead priiat of the Boiiori* in. 27. 

33 ^ * 

lAawio : wrrd having specJAl nugical pawBn. 

143, See M^rio- 
YoDieBTtiiBA . hhakta, 48. Sea AvaUn, 

Xti^fUS .ScflaiViCh : high prieit of Shith 

B^hur&d, Kttlw at ^idbpar, 2/ oote 2. 

rjntKR KkLh: eonqaan Onjapit [1^)71), 
" Uim*d men DM argnmeiitt among Mifot- 

lowari to pannids people to . inbriiw l.lini, 

3 n pf 3 I govomiir of Uujarit ( iSSIli : fint 

kiiiguf Ahint<*ii<id,6. 
Zain tJL A'eiDix : fourth SbiU InUm, t2S 

*Zakab'TAII : Prophet. 1E7. 
ZAEABlrvA: HAj, Meinao of RomUy, in* 

(lauci! uf hit aerrat riiAritj. buildt a monqaa 

in Bomliajr runnt'd after faim. 6'i note 4. 
ZaeIc: re)(iilir Miuilni'D alm<, 3il, 49 : DOor 

t,x,Ui).iot84 "^ 

Zavobinb : of .UaUbir. proulytiaation of od* 

of the, bv Nliituu. IS nol« 1. 
Zakzan : the wall of tht^ Ealbe, bolv water 

of. 171. 
Zatjiba: SidiSbatp, B2;'Sidi>of.attiurBt,& 
Zabib : raw* or offifrl igi to, -ffi. 
ZsiH-iTD-Diii: head HulU of D&iidl BohonU 

31 note 4. 
ZiiBAT : feut on tha thiid daj after death. 

ZrCHAS : womei 

ZfLHAJJ: TWi'tf 

yvn, holidBji 

dvi-gtifhildbirth, 160. 
.Ii mo.iUi of tlta Mutalmin 

- -- --B of the tamilka of 

NAUwa, 11 ii.leS. 
ZouB ; nooD pn^or, 126 Dot* 8. 

: Shttlifi. See KtMlifs. 
ABUrrl. RebXiH : HntiKTmnndui fuuttic, niies 

■ nvok \a UiiKlii (1-40). >03 cute 5. 

ABtri. F4»>: histoi-iui. IS^ Dal« 41 noticea io. 

his nccDont of hunt |he fulIow«rs of Zer- 

duBbt : ia girvu cbvga of tlia BMred 6n.> b; 

Akbar. 190. 

AccorxTB : of the Finis, byficw/icoiitniVDlUni 

aodftuthon, Jardt,Bu«, ibofore 1323) ; FrUr 

<M«ric (18231,189 note I i Oanns d'Ort« 

I6W), 189 J Mr, Lorf (1680) ; Sii Thonws 

I Herbert (162(1), i9U| Muidelllo (leSH), 

^^_ 190-191 ; Tbeveool (I06()) i Ogilbv (1670) ; 

^^L Vryn (16T4), 191^ OringCon (IGUO). 1»2; 

^^H SiebDbi (1764), 193; StiTorinui (17T4J. 

^^B 1*6-lBe;Forbe«(]7h8j, 197-198; bTjfMuf- 

^^H m<At aDtbon, IdrUi (1159), 187 : aW Ful 

^^ (IGOO), 190. 

^KAcvxHim:* ; dynsitj (h.c. SSO), P&nj&b 
^V nmier the. 183 note 4 Dontlnued on page 181. 
^V Act: DiToree, Msrrla^, Siioceasiau, 238; 
^B Mt I idmiuislnliDD of justim under, 244. 
Ste Coninionitj. 
ADUt ; ninth day of the Pini month ; niDth 

month ot the Pirri year, 21S, 217. 
AsiH Jabam: faigb fcstWal dBv. obscr*»nce> 

on, 217. SeeJuans. 
ADiKsi : cereuionj pertaining to murinoB in- 

ritatiout, 333. 

Aiinix: Atnh, fire of Area, 1»I6 notr 2-, pnri- 

SoBtion and tutalistiun ot, 31.1-214. tee 

Pin» (b»cred). 

AaTHHAPlTl : Zend word for H8rh»d,2S2 note I. 

Ant^QAN : portion of tbii Z.fnd AreaU, £12 

nolo 1. 
AOABri : ceremony relating lo pregnancy ; 
preaenta given in, ritoB relating to, 327 - 
228, Bee Prpgnancy. 
AoiiUl: PLre-place, £13; Fire-temple, S£2 ; 

liatof, :47-?.6I. See Temple* (Fire). 
Abiud Bfo : NsTib of Bn.«ich, 198. 
AaMU): fnltiii [111 3 -1413), hi« bringing of 
» keen MnulmAn «pirit iato bis govemmcnt, 
ABmutAjr; Satan, 206 note 1 ; belief in, 213. 

See fieliefa (Leading). 
Ahtotat; aGitbi Day; B18. 
ABDSTA.TGfcCh>t 240. 

AauKiHAZO: the Creator,212,2l7: All-know- 
ing Lord, Sill belief in, 212 j Zoroartec 
bring* the true religion from. £13 ; name of, 
ineladed in the AmthtiapMidB, 215, 316, Fir«t 
day of the PAni month, £17. 

■ 520— as 

shleviword for Herbad, 222 note 1. 
Ajdimt cDTea, believed to contaJn a paint- 
ing rrlaling to Naushirrin's embaaay to 
■ i'alikesi II. and piotnreB of Parrii and 
fihirin, 183 note 1 oontiuueil on page IS*. 
Aebar: Mughal Emperor, oonyeraion of, to 
the Hirai fiuth (1B78), 190 and note 4, 197 

JClaf Kaia : general of AU-ud-dia Khilji ; 
defeata the Hajpnb king of 9anj&D ) drive* 
away the l'irBiBfrom8anjin(1316),187j pro- 
bably Ulogh Khin. brother to All-ud-din j 
may h» Alap Ehin, brother-in-law to AU- 
ud-din, 1»7 Dote 3. See Ulugh Khin. 

Ati-CD-Di. Khiwi : 187 and note 3. 

Alkxa^dbb: IheOrcat, 311 note H (9), (10), 

Aharuad : Amihaspind, Seventh day ot the 
Pirai month ; fifth month of the Pitti year, 

Akardad Jasah ; high tealiTal day, 217. 

AjtlRDjlDSXl,; leading high day, 219. 
Festivals (Seaaoo). 

AuiM : Prininpal radar, high jadidal appoiat- 
ment, 108 note 5. 

Aura KHimsti : (1300) 187 note 3 i I8S note 2. 

AuSBASrXSDS: Immortal Fnrtherera ; Hafta ; 
Boven days of the month and aeveo raonthi 
of the year named alter, 216, 816. 

AMrLKT^ : fluth of women m ; object* of, 220. 
See Beliefi (Earlj), 

AMimiauB; priests, derivation of the word, 2i2, 

AMOKt.8 : belief in. 218. 

AMiiHOMAHTirs : 812. SeeAhriman. 

AttiUAX Frast : 217. See Bahman Juan, 

ANjrwAva: local vouacila; of Naviiiii oon- 
Bti^ntioD, fnnctiona, and povien of, 244; of 
Imperial GniarSt, conrtitotion, positiOD, and 
duties of, 2iD. bee Commnoity. 

AKsiEBHWAa: P&rrai foand in (18fiS) i oopy 
of the Tisperdd made at, 1S6 and note 7. 

AfauRiL vu Pbrros : 133 note* B, 4 ; 167 
note 2 ; 1H9 note 2. 

AVABTA : see Avoata. 


Abash : victory of, over the Poraiana (638), 
(641), 183 -, aettlement of, in the island ot 
Jeran, 183 note 8 ; strong in Canton (758). 
1B3 note 4 cvnlinued on page ISB ; trcaUuent 


ot the flre-worsliiiiiieri in PerflU by, 1 

ABDE3BIB ; son of Btthnian, TDKket a copy of 
the Tandid&d in SeisUn 11184), U Mid to 
have come Co OujaiiL ; is M<il to hkve given 
the copy ol the Vandid&d to tlie f&mia, 189 
cote 2, 

AbsesKIB : second ion oC Dbanjiaba of Surat. 
deecenilaat of Nek t'^tkhftn, 107 note 2; aa 
held of the Snrat Police; hij Tecoiiing in 
rew&rd grunts of villagm from the Britiib 
Gorernmont (1S29), 193 note .1 continned on 
page 199. 

ASDtaHlA NoshkbyjIn : Kirmd,n priest, iMmt, 
to Debli to explain the ZoruMtrim futh to 
AhbttT (1578), !9u and note a. 

Abdibihkmbt : Aurnhnsp^d. Third 6a,y of 
Plni month ; second month of the Pini 
year, S17 : 218. Leading high day, observ- 
ances on. 219. See Festivals (Season). 

Akdmibubiht Ji8Aj( : high featival day, ob- 
■erruicei on. 217. tjee Jasane. 

Asi : anceitOT of Katiiri priestn, 2i\. 

A'lAD KHiK : vaiir of Annogiib, 106 note S. 

Atntmko: Sfth day of the Pini month; 
twelfth month of the Vivti year, £17, 21S. 

AspandAd Jasih : high festival day, observ. 
BnoeaoQi nlu hnonn lu Eaitb Feaet, S17, 

ABrANDiBHAT) : the earth'tpirit cp angel, KoS. 

A:4Fiil(SI&BJl KXumHJI : Dastur, high pHcst 
of Broach, gives A.d, 7lf> aa the year of tho 
Firal settlement at Sanjiti, IS5 note 3, 

Abbociation: Liiw, formBtion of, 241. See 

AstbOIXiOy: futbin,a20. fee Btiliefa (Early). 

AtbBH AdbrAk : Bee Aderiln, 

Atbsu BbbrAh : tho fire of Bebrim, 1S6 
note 3, 913 i puriHcatioit and installation 
of, 214 -315! temple of, at SaiijAn, ISo, at 
Bombay, 193 note 2; chief temples of, iu 
QDJarSt, 2U ; list of, 21S note 2, 247. See 
Pirvi (Sacnd), Temples (Fire). 

Atish DiDoHXw ; hearth Gre i ia bIso called 
Proper-pUcc Fira ; in the Agiidor Daromeher 
213. BeeFireaienoredj. 

Atrkbferbst : I'Arsis so called (1600). 191. 

AtbOBrIV : priest, a cl*as of the old Fenian 
eotnmonity, 213 ; 222. 

A^rHRATAD: 223. SeeAlhAman. 

AtTBAnazEB : Mnghat Emperor, hia intervienr 
with the head of the Sunt factory and 
Bastam Mknek (10601, lOfl note 3. 

Axiv : tenth day oF tde PArn month ; gighlh 

AtIn A] 

AtAb AKsiTtBiis Jasam: high feetlval day, 

obiCTvances on, 2IS-217. Sen Jasans. 
Atxrta : langaage of the holy hooks, 201 

and note 1 ; sacred texts, 211 ; Saasiuiian 

name of the aDoient texts, 211 note 1. b'ec 

Zend A vesta. 

Bivifil : town in Bijipar District, capitald 
Pulike.i II., 183ngto4. ^ 

Baoha : pari ol Zend AvesCa, 211 nale 2 ( 
Bauuatt Yhbht : part of Zend Aveata, 

now 2 IIBJ. 
Bauham : animal goanUan. bccond day i 

tha F&rsi mouth ; eleventh month of t' 

Pirsi year, 217. 
Bahuah Jasan : high fntivat day; ofaaen- 

ancea on, £17. fee Jasans. 
Baicthiai country of ZoroaKter, Ell. 
BalsIk: Firai bouM* in (1411), 183 note 6j 

t^anjan fire brought to (1741J, 193. 
Bamahji BcshAmji Patki. : Mr., IBS note 1. 
IjanAjib : rhicf family amoug early PAiw set- 

tiers in Bombay, 195. 
Bandab AbIi: port of, in tho Persian Quit; 

early Persian trade nassei from Jeran to, 

IBS note 3. I^'ee Onmbrun. 
BiNSDA ; t'irn sutUement In, Sanjin fire 

brought to, 187. 
BAItAtiQni'H : cleansing ceremony. 223 and I 


; 239 a< 

Beab ; Great, 217 note 1. See Haptairing, 

Bedani : (1604) 188 note 4. 

Bbhbdut ; Uyinao. meaning of, 22C note 1. 

Behirauihi : vow, rites rc'lating to, 230 - S 
See Vows. 

BtHEHHT ; place ot rewardi belief in, !t2, 

Bbiimav KbkobXo Sakjana : of NavtAi^ 1 
author of the Kiaaah-i-Sanjan, 183 note 2. 

BxbhXii : fire of, 186 and note S, £13, (fee 
Atesh Behr&m. 

BEQRiil: ancestor ot the Breach priests, 221. 

BBurtiM Gob: Pemian prince, visits India 
(436) ; marries a Hindu princess ; eilahlishes 
the Gardhabia dynasty, 183 note i continued 
on page \H. 

BuLiBra .- Early, 290 ; Lending. 912 - 213. 

liissi -. sitting ceremony of a child, 231, 

BETROtBALK \ conditions of, presents in, !3S' 
233. See CuBtoms. 

Dhahdah: central pit In a TuWer cf Silenue, 
2H> i.ote 1. 

BhjIbdt: hills, eight miles east of SanjaB 
I'lrBis fly to. 187. 

Bibb : 240 ; Bearers. 239. See NawsUira. 

BiHTE : rites and ceremonies relating to ; new 
of, uiting presents on, 296 ; naming of tti 
child, 22Sj horoscope of th- new-bom, 229. 
130; Paohori ceremony, Dasori ceramooj 
the Mother Sixth worship, Vadhsvo preaent 
2i:9 ; Joripori present* in tha lhii4 moot 
Bifteri thanksgiving ceremony of Palli, « 
Cbokhiar, 230. tree Cusloms. 

BiRTH'DAf : observanocs on, 231. 

BOMASJI : sou of Rnstam lUnek, 196 note S. 
'Bombay: under the Fortugiiwe (1600-1608); 
under the British [Binoo 1666) ; aettlemenl 
of PArsi families in, 195 j as head-qoaitcn « 
the Finis (1867)> 198) development of tb 
trade ot. due to PArais, 195 i Pirsi sacoMtii 
; 199 i flnt Kadmi fire temple eaObliahed I 

tlfS^l), 193 note -2 ; Ateah Behr&me to, 3t7 ; 

AgUrie in. 248-2-19 ; Towers c^Silatice in, 252, 
BossiL. Mr., Chief uftha Eugljah farlorj at 

Sana, 196 nota 3, 
BooE«: wicred, SI1-21S; latitnugei oF, £01 

•nd no'* 1,211 and iioto 1. Soe Zeiid Averta. 
EocrH-BniLDiSO: 338. Sea M«n(luv. 
OklTiBB : the. Bombay tranrferred to (1666) i 

Sun-, tmiisfetred to (1759). ISB. 
B«o*cn ; amtementa of PSnii in (1300), 188 ; 

riot «t (laST), I9S aid noti- 3 ; Parsi murlyr 

of, 11)4 i acholnrsliips in Zend aiid Pvhlvvi 

«Ub1i*hedat, 191. 
Bkoeurb: PlTsii as, of European Iradingeom- 

paiias at Sural, 1H6. 
BaiTCEi Annals of tlie East Imlia Company, 

196 noie 3. ^ 

BCBIAL-PbACBB ; Damfq of. SS4. 

BCBis : belps Bagbanatbnlii Peahwa'i agent 

and his P4rii companion, IBB note 3. 
Bttknis : Sir A , 189 note 4. 
Brscsi: part of the Zend Areata, 2U note 

CjtitBAT : wttlr-mMit of Piriis in, PArai 
traden in, relntioiiii of tho P£lr>ia of, with 
tliePit™ofthePil.j6b, 186iindnoteli 188 
note 4 i copies uf the Vsndid&d made at, 189 

• Cakton : in China. Arsbe and Porsiani in; 
Uobeds in. !".'< note. 

EJwratra Dbt^ii..-* ; «trenicth of the P&rBiB in 
(1SU6J, (1'16), (1917), (1825), 11835), (l&i2), 
pOpDiatloD acrording- to tlie rennng of, 
P&T2) i (1881) ; (1891). I8.% 199 notu S. 

■*~U(A»8*Ii: itidow re-marriage, form uf, 238 
_Dd not« 3. 
ULHrunB : capital of Mahmud Bcgada, 187 

itoT of the Ifariiri prienta, S8l, 
apparently Chandravati. 
: near Mount iCbu, wtttemont of 


Tina in, 1H9. 
CBJktiat Jinx: Diwar, reli^nuB lajniun, work* 
raJTacles, nnews and eitendi tlie Pdrai f'tith, 
IBT; buUdia fice-teinplo nt Navs&ri fur the 
BanjKn fire, 18H ; continues the practice of 
refra-ring relii^oiis points to Pcrhinn priests, 
189; U appointed Uasai of Navsiri (1419), 
3O0 note 1. 
CVaY4 SisliB : Sanjin big-h prieat, brings 

the S«nj&n fire to Navsiii, 138. 
CbWl: about twenty miles tonih of Bombay, 
Pirri lelllements in; Are woraliippera and 
flK-loniples mentioned at, 1S6. 
Obsathm : GndiUss, worship o(, is also ^Ued 
t, SatU or Mother Sitth, 22'J. 
ViOiroaOBHT : part of the Zend Avesta, 311 note 
I X(la). 

liVBnA: early trade connection of Persia witL*; 

' Pernana Roiug to ; Bre temples in, l!i3 note 4 

eontinoed on pa};ea 18t, 165 ; flrat modem 

FAti visitor to, 19S note 3. 

Chihtat : my to heavan, ill doU 2 (6). Bm 


Crokhiar : thaaki^lving ceremony, ritei ra> 

lating to, 23a fee Birth. 
CuKiaTiAS's ; Kaly&n, Persian Bishop among, 

184 J Uauichaan, 1^8 note 4. 
Closb ; Colonel, Itesident at Foona. 198 noteS. 
CotKii : a cla^ of merchants and shopkeepera 

in Bauein, IbQ. fee Oaura. 
Cochin : Sunit Pirnis go to ; eKoiao farm o^ 

held by a Pirai. 1% and note 2. 
Cook : the, is lield sacred. 220; the orow of, 

believed to scare evil spirits, 220 liDl«l. ^ee 

Beliefs (Early). 
Code op Mobals ; 218. 
Coiiia: Baktrian, 183 mite 4. 
Ooi«HiSTH : Pinis as, 200. 
COHUlTNrrT : the old Persian, fonr classei of, 
,213 ; modem, formation of a Law AssociatioB 

in I paaaing of tlio Acta by Government M> 

reguhLte the caatoms of ; toed eonndls, or 

AnjnmAne of, 244; pnblic fnnds of, 246 [ 

two lections of, — the Shenshihisand Kadmit, 

193 note 3, lOt, 
OoMFANi; the United East India, 193 note 3. 
Confession : of faith, 211 ; of sin, 223, 032. 
Co.irEuaioKS : to the PAriri religion, of ThftnS 

Hindns, IS9 note 1 ; of Emperor Altbar, 1 90; 

of the Pftnia to Hindu and Musalmlln futh, 

187 note 4. 
CowsuHu : spirit and evil eye scaring property 

DtctssTitB : chief family among earlier set- 
tlers in Bombay, IDG, 

DAtLX Livs: of men, 208 ■ S09 i of women, 
209 J uf boys, 209 . 210 ; of girls, ZIO. 

DixoiT : pirt of Zend Avesta, 211 note 2 (6). 

Darkhiubu: gate of Uercy ; fire temple sat 
apart for the rites of the dead, 213; 22iy 
22Si 226. 

Darifs HistMprb : cenqaets the Panjab, . 
(B.C. 510), 193 note 4. 

DiHiTB ; priests. 223. 

Dasoki: ceiemony relating to birth, 229. IJee 

Dastitk : high priert, office of j duties and 
position of, 222 : ai a member of an Anin- 
nian, 241. 

DtwlB : see Ciianga A'sa, 

DATd : of the Pirsi month, names of, 215, 216 
note, I. (Hiah) Pertival, 216-21T.- se« 
Jasans. Leading High, 218 - 219: see Festi- 
vals (Season). 

DiiA'a : rites and ceremonies relating to ; 
dead body tn the house, 239, recital of 
prayers near the dead, 239-240; bier, 240 [ 
bier-bearers or naseeiUra, 239 aod note 2 i 
last look at the dead t carrying of the dead 
body to the Tower of Silence. 210 ; funeral 
party, widow of the dead, 3*1 i itlkamaa or 
rising from mourning, 343 ; feastgiving on^ 
Sl>7, 24S. Bee Cnitoms. 

) bo^L'H 



Dbbra ; perbapi Duhr& Diin, IRS aote 4. 

DiUTBBV: place of; gervicen of iiiiit»i[e at 
the tjoie of, nS. )~ee Birtb. 

DbbAi : famjl)' of, of Nkvidri. 244; offlca of, 
haidfn of the offini of ['oris, 200 noM 1. 

Dsahjibua: of Snnt, takra utive [«rt in 
tbe (UppTearion of M)<u<lvi riot, recognition 
of hii KTTicai bv tbe Briiub OD«emuieBt, 
188 note 6. 

DsANFlLt BnceatoT of tbe Udv4ila, Bulwir, 
mud Sanjan Priosts, 221. 

Dhatai.: priest, >oa of Sb^pnr Sheherimr. 

Dekbotok: Duitdr, 222. 

DiBPD'IlB : reliKioUB, betwee 

of prieata of Nnvaiiri, 192 j u to the rbckon- 
ing of tbo )i!ar, 193 and note 2, 104. 

Dlu : iiland of, on the loatb caut of Kuthia- 
viii ; PinW fl»t seLUemrnt in (700), 161. 

DoCKIABD : Sarot, P&ni carpenters as mau- 
•gera of i Bombay, 192 nets 3. 

DoKDliA : 2*0 note I. flee Tower of Silence. 

DoBiNi NjlHiBBAl I foBDder of tbe Pale] 
fumily, 196. 

nowiSBFJD: patt of tlie Zend Avwt*, 211 
DOt« 2 (lej. 

DowBOH : Professor, 188 note 4. 

Sbbm : of village men, ordinary, on great 
DCcarions; of townsmen, Uidoon and cut of 
doorsi of Priests i det^s and cost of, 201 - 
802 ; of village women, ordioar)-, on great 
OccDsioiiB ; of towiiewomeo ; delailt and ooat 
of ) of cbildren g dutsils and coat of, 20B. 
SsiHKB : articles of. t^ee Food. 
DuDLKV : Mr., 102 note 3. 

SssHiCAiA, Ddzckiita, DuEcrABSTA : a sec- 
tion of the code of morala, 213. 
DnzuK 1 pbce of pnnishuieDt after death, 

belief in. S12. 
DwlKKA : in lUthi&wIlr, Sre-worsbipping priests 
la, IBS note i. 

JjABTB FbABT : El?, f^ee AspandAd Jasan. 

Edcoatioh : of bojrs, primary. 209 ; higher. 
£03 ; of female, f rimary and bigber, SOI ; 
BcbooU and colleges for, 203 j in Persian, 
Zend, and other iangnagea, 164, 204 ; ttcholar- 
■hip for Zend and Pehlevi, 194 ; religions, of 
boys And girls of laymen, of the sons of 
pnests; £09, 210 1 Madresa and conncil 
Bcboola f<>r, 201 ' 

Elphinbtonb : Mr., British Besident at Pooni 
(ISU), 19B note 5. . 

Enolaxh : Pirsi visitors to, 196 note 3. 

XnousB : tbe, drive the Pnrtnguese from the 
island of Jeran, 1S3 note 2 ; as Unghal 
admirals, obtain command of Snrat csetlo, 
197 note 2, Langnage, hutmeUon in, 203, 

EktAs : title of nnder-prici^ 2E5. See Herbad. 

EsfabiB : that is Pirsis, 18B. 

ETBSABrTHSUGi&iIoDrth watch, 214 note 1. 
B«e Oeb, 

ExoROisse: employment of. to drive out . 

frpirita and to cure tbe effects of the oiil i 
220. See BdiefarEarlv). 
Eir: evil, bulief in, cautions against, i 
t>ee Belief* (Karly). 

FACTORT : Snrat. l&ttnnteS. Steam indnsti 
leading part of tbe ?nrus in, 199 and notial 
Fahini : ill GujanU (1790), ]9» note I. 
FAKtncN : vii'lory of, over the sorcerer Zoh 

2 d, 220 nole 1. 
PXhs ! 188 note 1 J 188 note 3. fee Pllr». 
Fakvakdiv : ninoCcenlh day of the Pil 

month, 21fl; flrst month <f the PAnd y 

2IUi commemoration at Snrat of the \ 

day of, lS(inote9. 
Fabvabdih Jabait : high festival day. in 

nuinth of Farvardin ; in the mouth of AdH 

other names of j obaetvauces On 

Fabvabdin Yaebt ; 194 note 1. 

Fbabtb : large dinners ; occauon 

served at i vavs of serving at : ( 

and nole 2. Fire. B 7. See Arlar 
FKniREBT : priestly genealogirs. 225 and nota! 
FasTiVAL! (Higbj Days, 816 -117. 
FM-^TAI,8;t^euon,2l7>2I9, Se« Gahasibin, 

Oitbfta, Mnktad holidays, Loading High' 

FiRDirai: I@3note4. 
Fiiiss ; chief object of vcnerMion ; tbe tacrcA 

three orders of, ^13 - ^flS. ^ee Atesh Dad 

gh4n, Ader&n, Atesh Behram. 
Food: spirit-scaring virtue of; virtne i 

driving off visions in, EOO and note 1 ; Taiiell 

of; detMlsoftiiecanof, 2U6 - ro7 and note ] 
F011BB4 : his description of the Snrat Pto 

197 - 19«. 
Fawalhast : star, 217 note 1. 
Fbauji : son of liiutam Mtnck, 196 nota 3. 
FdAvji KXvbbji Banaji : makes firatattemg 

to open steam factory, 199 note 3. 
Fratashis : 216. tee Froliars. 
Fbohars ; believed to he souls of the dea 

guardian spirits ; Farvnrdin Jatan puforn 

in honoQT of, 216. See Fravsshia. 
r»T«tt: (1874), hiaaccoontoftbePinus, 191 

FCKDB : iharitnble puhlic ; sonreei of ; mi _ 
ment of ; chief uae» of, 24£. See Commniul 
FrsntTUUE: hoase, 2uG, Soc Houar. 

G AIRES : people of Fars. found on the Oin* 
nit coast (1300), IsTnoteS; 188 notv 3 
of Rohilkhand, believed by Professor Down 
ta be reliiii of tbe old Upper India Pinda 
parU of Hind and Sindh belonged to (middl 
of tenth eeutnry). 18H cote 4. 
(Gabri: dialect of the Kabal couBtry, 

OABAWGiBB: religiuns natdoDBl festlvaU, I(t7{ 
season feasts, names of, ohservancea dnrlql 
the, S17-2TS;S4.-). ^'e« Festivals (tieaaank 

Oarcia Ii'Orta; Portogaese wnler, hi* 
of tbe Piirsii, 189. 

QiTsii: iMt axtr» five A^yi ot the P&rii 
year, aamex of, 21S. See Fe>tiv»U (Seaaunl. 

OArBi : n cIxM of Divrchatita and ^hollkeEpe^■ 
ftmnd Kt Bftiunn, 1S9 Scu CmrU. 

Q«VER : ^ir JoUn, I K note S. 

Grh: avittch, asmei of, 214 &Dd note 1; 
SIS »iid note 1 ; a.'S. 

Orbi : rortiaa oE (lua origiaal ZeiLd Areata, 

312 a 


Gsiqer: Dr., 217 note 1. 

GiNSAUMroAi: THEi: of tlie Gujarift priests, 

221 i of Na«4ri Harbuda, 225notfl 2. 
GuTTOOs: 190 -, 191. 

asiti.EnftBt: eaWte of, near Navairi, re- 
ceived in grant by Mi^hcrji Baut from Aktai? 
GhowB: bollef in, 220. See Beliefs (Earlj). 
0<n>liEss : Binsll-po^, ottering of tow» to, MM, 

Set. BelUfs (Early). 
GovBBDH : IS3 iiot^ 3 ; 190. 6«e Bandar AbAi. 
OOTUB : 230. See Vows. 
Odabkba: Pentian Pirsia, 192 note 1. 
OOabrES ; peopla of Fira, 189 note 3 ; Pirsi* 

BOCBlled tmeOl, 191. t-eeGihres. 
QvittiULN : mcnleru motliec-tuiigoe of tbe 

Firalh £03 ; 209. 
GvKJJAaiS: nre-worsbipping. 183 note 4, Bee 

QVIIITASF : king, 1S8 note 4 ; Zorosator pro- 
olBimi bit religion in the court of, ZVi ; liis 
coDTcnlonto the ZuroBatrian faith, 211 nute 

TIsokbt: porttoa of the original Zend 
1 Ave.ta, S12 note 1 ; 220. 

BaTTA-AHBRAePANI)» : Bee Annhiapands, 

HixajOr: aform of Balutstiou, 219. 

HAMASfRTHMBSEU: aiith Gnliambtr, 218. 
See GiabambAn. 

HwutTON : N(W Actonnt by, 192 note 4. 

HaHHANVBXr : agent of ItBghnnlthrao Pesh- 
WB, Tiuti England, 196 not« 3. 

HaxfUah ; H'liidn monkey god, belief in, £20- 
6m Beliefs (Karly). 

HlPTAIKiso: leading constellation of tho 
SonU, 217 notu 1. Sea Bear (Great). 

Hia : Dbapters of the Yeans, £23. 

BIvaxoeh: first waieb, 214 note 1. t'ee Oeh. 

HniBS: I9Snutc4. 

~:«BBiO: Under Prieal, lower sseerfotal order 
of the priests; other names of, 222 and note 
1 ; qaaliHeationi of, 222 j oriUoation of, 2:;S- 
2U ) titles ot, S25 See Priests. 
llRKEiiT: Sir Thomas (1026), writes Oh his- 
tory and religion of the I'ir-is. 190. 

HtBTORS: early hist-irieal referencea t« the Per- 
dan ("onoection with India in mythic tim«, 
183 note * ; defeat of tho Pondans by the 
Arabs ((188,841), settlement of tho Fersiaoa 
io tbe city of Orinuz after their defeat, 183 ; 
the Peraiaas or the I'irsia leave Persia and 
■wk safety in India, arrive and settle at Din 

rit, Birive and settle Bt Fanjin {716>, ISSj 
spread as settlers and merrhnnts in other 
parts of OnJBiAt from SanJ&n, 186 ; fall of 
SauUn snddight of tbe . Jtrsis (1316); &J 
to UAnada nith the ascred fire from the 
Bharat billB, 1S7; nUigiona zeal of Changa 
Asa, 187 '11^8; incrtfaio in number and 
power of the Pitris in sooth Gujsrit, 
198; Bceonnt ot the I'inis (1600- .600) 
189-180, (1800-1700) 190 ■ )B8.(1T00-1B00) 
195-197; Bonverai'iuof Emperor Akbu to 
the Pii-si faith (1578), 190 ; setllenienta of 
the Pilrsis IIGOO- 1800), Il>5'197iin Bom- 
hay (before and aftor, 1666) i spread along 
the Idalah&r coast ; fouud in Hadnu 
(1780), 105 ; leadiug man among the Sniat 
«PArsis.l96aQdnote3l,S,3; honour and in- 
fluence cDJuf'ed bv the Snr^t PArns at the 
court of Delhi. 197 sodooteS; Pfirsi hos< 
jiitality, 11783) I a Ptni martyr; Piirt 

Cperity (imU), 198; Ptfrai sueecu in 
ibay {17I»-18B'), at other places, in 
— '— -ceupatior ~ 


(aboat 70O), l?4i seekan asyl 

;lum in Guja> 

IIoLi : burning jiila, offerings to, 220. Sea 

Beliefs (Early). 
Holidays : see Jasinsj Oahambirs, Glthis, 

L)a)s (Loading High). 
HoM ; Persian plant, is believed to be the Vedio 

soma. 228 note 1 ; 231 i ■ branch of tho, 

presented to Burst Pilrsis by Jsmasp, 194 

Bom -watib; preparation of, early beliefs 

rcgnrding, 223 «nd note 1. See Birth. 
HouvABT: 22d note I, 
HoBMAZDiAR : pricst, grandson of Shapor 

Siieheriar, 221. 
HoBimoopE: prepsrolion of, 229; consuHa. 

tion of. 820 ; 229-330 ; '.'3'J. 
HosEnoKB : fifth watch, 21 i note I. See Oeh. 
HosPiTAiirr : (1783), 198. 
BOCSK : Town ; Village ; furniture in, 205 i 

ohseivaiieos on the occaiioos of boilding, 

HoDSBRoLti PiRR : see Alesh Didgbsn. 
HiriiATA,HuitflTA,HDtB*aTi:aBeotionof tha 

code of morals, 21.') .'^ev Beliefs (Leading). 
UiTits: see While Huns. 
Hits K A BO If : part oUhe Zend Avesta, 211 noto 

2 (19). 
HvBFABim : part of the Zend Avesta, 2tl note 

2 (17). 
HiTTi'ji : craftsmen, a class of tbe old Persian 

community, 213, 

IBK Haveal : (950), 183 note 8 ; 187 note 1 1 
188 notes. 
Ibkahiu : Ghaznivide, attacks a oolany (^ 
Persian Rre-worshippcTs at Dehm, 188 note ti, 
ioBiai : (1153), histonan, 186. 
India : early eonneetion of, with Persia, 18k 

note i. See Perua. 
IbAK : see Persia. 


I laPANDlT Jt : Prince, son of Gnslitup, per- 
suwlei the lUinpprar uF IiiilU to ndopC flro 
worship. 183 note 1. 



Mtttle ftl Banj&U, liib. 

jAsX-NarR : Hn^li&t Bmperor. m&VcB a i^nint of 

RHtii%iri near Nnva^ri to Uull» JMnaip, 

197 n 


JalXl-od-din: Mnlikthab, kiag or Fsraia, 
orilera tbe preparation of s olunilar. 193 
note a. 

iJauasf : Mulls, priest of NaTS&ri. rints 

' Uolhi (1619 , receive* a m-mit of RatnAplw 
near Navejri from the Emperor Jabiuglr, 
IB7 note 3. 
JamABp 1 Pernan prieat ; vliiU QujarSt (1730) ; 
makoH efort« to inimtue the knowledge 
of the Pirds in their sacred booVa; leaves 
a oopy of a Zend-fehlovi VandidiLrl ; eaUib- 
liahei coiitrei of Zenil-l'ehleTi ■ohnlarihlpii ; 
nakei a preaent of the true Hom pUnt aud 
Fitrvardin Yaaht to Sor&t F^ibiii, 193 note 
E, IM- and note I. 

Jahbuid; third king of the Penhdidian 
dynaiCj, new year's day 6 lad by. E19. 

Jambbed : Bvbedin, Periinn laj iuau, arrive* !□ 
Oujarit (1736), brin^a to tbe notice of the 
SuTM PikreU the wrong reckoning of tbe year, 

196 note . 
jAVSHsni NAOK02 : Leading hi^li dav ; Jam- 

iheifa New Day ; ai9. See FeativaU (ScasDii). 
JABASKr : part of Ibu Zeud Aveeta, Stl oole 

JasaHs : monthly fcaats, namei ofi obaervaace* 
during 216 :il7. See (High| Festival (Days). 

jAiqcBi : In the PoraUn Qulf, 192 note i. 

JSBAH : iiland of. Hettlemcnta of the Arabs in 
(18U3 1 i a great trading centre ; taken by tbe 
Portngoeae (15ilHt. by the Peraiana and 
English rieSS), 183 note 3. See Ormuz, New. 

JOBDAHCB! DiiaaionBry, (before 132 3) finds 
P&riis ia ThAoa, 189 note 1. 

JOKiPAKi: preBuntalioD, literal meaning of, 
S3a E!ce Birth. 

« of the, ISS nnle 

KXDBRtA : victory of tlie Arabs over the 1 
iiansat(63»), 183. _ * 


Kaissoshbu : Herbad, stranger from Persia, 
nukes eopiea of the Tuidid&d from the 
Cambay copy, 189 note 2. 

EuoJI : son of Mirean Kbosru Beg, watch re- 
pairer toBajirao Peahwa ; goes to Bh^rnagar, 
1 clock for the Chief, hU descendants 

note a, 
Kahbhai Korawi: Bon-in-1a« of Nek 

EhAn, Visits Delhi, ran<ivc in grwit an » 

in Bander, 1S7 note 2, 
KAuIjt H.ivui : a Brxach martvr, 193. 
EAUDIN PAUAUillastnr of Broach. IMnotea^ 
Kanh-'.bi: CavM. in Stitette near Bombayi 

trace of ibe PArsi* in India !,l()ih century) in 

I'cblevi writings m, 186 and note ?. 
EXiTB : Mnlla, a Broach priest, goe« to Persia 

with his giin Peahotan, the first Eadmi Daa> 

tur, ltl3note2. 
KXvAaJi Eduui : excise farmer in Cechin, 198 

note ■!. 
EXtabji NidriBHAl DItar : opens the Siib 

steam factory. 199 note 3. 
^AtabJi ErBTi'MJI ; walchmalcer, *i»ili Delhi, 

received tlio title nf Mirtsn Kbosm B<8 ~~ 

a grant of land. 197 note 8. 
Kbkobad t «un of Meherji, visits Duilii, m 

a grant of land, 197 note S, 
Khiitvodatha; chapters of the Zend Aveatk 

on marrisgea between ucM reUUrca. 211 

note 2 (18). 
Kbalips: Abbaaid. famih- of the; religion* 

strictnea* of, 1B3 note 4 'lS5. 
EsAKiiXTlHt: TOW, rites relating to, S3I, Sea' 

Kn^HoiH; Shet, wealthy family of Bomba*. 

laCnoteS. SeeNawrojI. 
IChakX<i: vow,ritesTe1atingto,231. ties Tows. 
KHiBlsNt : TOW, rites felatiug to, 331. ~ 

KDAGaKDji Jahbcdji Modi : of Cambay^ 

enjoya a high pontion in the Peahwi's oourl^ 

under the B:itiahQovetnment (18U9J rec ' 

preienls of laud in Oambay, 198 uoW 6, 
Kbabhbdji Kostouji Kiul : Mr., gives tb« 

year of tbe arrival of tbe P4cais at Sauiao, 

185 note 3. 
EhomdId : Ainahnapad ; lixth dAy of the Firal 

month ; third monlh of ti.e P*ri! year. S17. 
EsordXd Jasah : high fa^ival d^, obterv- 

EhordXd Sis,: Ua<ling high day; ia heUered 

to he the anniversary of the birth oif Zorouttri' 

obaervances nn, £19. See Pcativali (Seaaonk 
Ehob«hid KluDiit : Sanjan high p ' ' 

brings the Sanjin Are to N«v»4ri. 188. 
EuCDABH'BAB.SAir : an early form of marriag^ 

238 note 2. ^ 

KtBUAN : in Persia, mercliants of. 1S3 note 4^ 

Priests called from, to eiphuu the VirA nil'. 

glon to the Emperor Akbar, 190. 
Ki9SAn-i-^ANJAN : poetic acenunt of (lie Fttraik 

iSi and note 2 ; IS7 and notes 2, .1. 
EoHiSTAJf ; hills of, lut Eabisa performed ■% 

193 note a. 
KONKANASTBa : Bnlhmaiu. said to belong t 
*t1ie Pefsian stock, 183 note 4. 
EoBHCBABDK : part uf the Zend Avest*, 811 

note 2 (10), 

KoauAs Inmiopi.BiTa'rsa : 183 note 4. 

EcBTi : sacred cord, 20! ; 208 1 227 ; invettior 

the child with, 231 and cote 2. T^aset, S0» 

note 1 i 241. 

Lj^veOLaes: 1SJ,204 and note 1, 211 
InATJl NAUBTisJl V&DIA : forenuQ in 

8aiM Dockyard; Boiulaj DDckv&rd I 

mder tiu mpeniBioo of ; first I'&tu mai 

builder. 19£ualc 3. 
LiMBAinT ; of the Bombay Ptnis, 199. 
Lout: Mr., an Engliih Cbaplnin, wrJCei 

■oonnt of Ibe PirsU (l^^Ci), ISO. 
LTaA : eoMtellAtioD of . 217 note 1. 

MIDRU: FirHiaamerchkntB is (IT80), ToKrr 
o(filaiii;ein(1790J, 195. 
U*DUBAs : 204, .■(« EducaUon. 
Has : KiokrcH word for ion. sigDiflcBtion oh 

Che l«ria, 183 uotu 4coatIaupd on page Ui. 
lUaus '. pea|ite ileligUtiug in flro wurtliip, 187 

note 3 ; ot Tii^hliklipur, 188 note 4. 
Haoi: Brllimani, mi^iitioii of. bv Flolpnij, 

(1611); nligion of, 183 note 4 votiti'mvd on 184. 
UAOikHB: u captirca of Tiinni (1398), 183 

UlsiC : futh in, 32d, See Beliefs (E&rly}. 
UAOvis: of Wilw*, Hlievai by l'rofe»sor 

Dawton to be relic* of the old Upper India 

Panit. 188 note 4. 
Uauuttd Broad*; SullAii, Bnpposcd by Dr. 

Wilsfu to be the eouqnoror of baiijiii, 187 

VaHKiaraKp jAstm leadiog bi^h day, Zoto- 

MiT procbim* bi« religion un, 219. (ee 

PntivalB (reaKD). 
UXavin : Ilerbad, brtngi cop^ of the Vandidid 

tram Yeid in I'vrsia to Uch in India, 186 

note 1 I 1B9 uotca 2 and 8. 
MauBAB : the cout of, apread of the PAnis 

along. 195, 
Halcolu : irir Jobti, Goreruar of Bombay, 16S 

UitlKEllABl 1 the correett'd year ; tba Peraian 

revenae year, 193 note 2. 
UlNOHBBJT KuAKBEDJt : 8eth, Dutch brolicr, 

190 note 1 ; visits Oeibi, 197 note 1. 
UjjicBlKFDEtt: iL Sarnt city ward, named after 

Ur. Maucherji, 196 netel. 
HanpAT : un Bootli-bnildin^. 
HiiTDRWiJi : dewiiption of Snrat I'irsis by 

I163&). 190-mi. 
Hakdti: Abdul Itebmdn'a revolt in aBlO), 

198 note 5. 
UaKLAB : Sunt Pirai, vUila EngUnd, 196 note, 

MasiTUB: Pull Priests. See Mobbed. 
Habeb : ehoek, Ix'tiefs in. £09 and noie 1 ; 

129 i 2S1. Sc« Daily Life. 
MlBBiatu ! Fore, ohairvanccB, tnrmerlc- 

pontldinK oeremony, MindavEeroroouj, Adny- 

ni or inviting ceremony 233 i minor obserr- 
of, 283-234 ; observances during foar 
f,forui of invitation to ; song ajuging, 
d note 1 J preijarations of ; Ibe Sopilra 
Bonj dren of VarEaja or marrlago 
) procaaalon of tbp Vai-lUjn, 235 j wed- 
ny ; 230-237 ; giving and accept- 
I bvfore, 233, 235; after, 237; 

occoaiona of making presents in, the girls' 
portion of the preientii in, 237 nnt« 1 ; after- 
Obseryiuicea. tcait-glving on the flral Bebiam 
after, cost of, 23S Bad note 1 ; modem and 
earlivr forms of , £88 and note 2, 239 and 
note 1. Act, 238, 244, Kemarriage of a 
widow allowed and practiwd, 23S. See Cu»- 

dasTTB : a Bnucli, 198. 

rtABUDir (900-950), I83nolB4i 185; 1S6. 

IKIAH : relii(ion of the Pdnia, known 

iugof. 211. )5ee Kellgion. 

N1BI«: The Ptfnu'e cxpreaaiQa lor 

,ou, 213, See Religion. 

ZABTQOBTt Diir : ten Maidiailinl- 


a : namber and tint 

cf. kind of food. erv- 


at, ways of serving 

Bt, 200. 

Hee Food. 


yer. 220 iiole 1. 

fifth Gahainbir, 21S. 
second GabambAr. 

218. See 

Gab inib^ra. 
MiDiotABEu: the fint Gohambir, 218. b'ee 

Mbhib: the mn or snn angel, sizteeoth day 

of the Fini month, seventh mouth of the 

Parsi yeir, 216.218. 
MxHBH JiBAN ; high fMtiral day. popalaf in 

Persia, obs^vnncea on, 2)S. bee Jasatu. 
MbuibaNoah JabaK ; see Uuber Jasan. 
MtBisuii Risk: high priest of Nsvairi, eon- 
verts emperor Akbcir, rvceivee granla Irom 

Akbsr, ISO, 197 note 2. 

UinzAN : family of, 197 note 2. See EivBAJi 

MLRiAsKBOBinr Bko: title 197 note 2. 
Kavasji the lirst recipient of, 

Uituba: na. SoeMcher. 

Mol;E(ib: Full Priests, higher saeerdotal or- 
der vt prieits j abo calleil MarAtsb, 222 ; 
qnalificatioiu of ; ordination of ; religions 
rules to be observed by j Pirtian preeepta 
(or ; disquali Scat ion of, 2i6. t^ee Pries's. 

Mob'b : topmost Ihhdi of a bonse, observanceB 
at the laying of, 206. See House. 

MODies : family amongcarlier aottlen in Bom- 
bay, 135. 

UoaiiAI,; Court, influence of the Pdrnis st ; 
Pnrsi visitors to, 1B7 and note 2 ; Emperors, 
IBO, 197 note 2. 

MONorOLY : in trade, 200. 

MoMBB:of tba Pini yeni', 215; namea of, 216 
and 'note 2. l-ee Veneration (Objects of). 

MooK ; veneration tor, 218. 

M<i;uBB Siith: goddesa. See Cbbathi. 

MoTAu : «nn-*tor of aumt priosta. Ot Kav- 
a^ri prieats. 221. 

Udhahhah SniH: 187. See Ala-nd-din 

Mdbahvas Shah: Tnghlik, possibly the 
conqueror of l^anjAn ; reeonqaors unjarit 
and Thtna (1348), 187 note 3. 

MORAUHAD Sbab : Mngal Emperor (171S- 

1748), 197 note 2. 
Muhapab : or Mobeds, fonnd in Canton (645), 
183notc4oapage ISS. 

UcKTAD : ceremonf in lioitouv of the Jiod, 
tima of holding, obiervntices in, obeervedM 
IioIiaay>,SI8. Soe FctivsU (Sea.on). 

UcLLA FaaoK: lee FNtiutnn- 

: Nnvsiri print, viaiti Delhi, 

107 D 

L KAo:" •■ 


f Kim, 

Muaalmiit niler, 

^■JTI&bitd: nonentity. 225. Sw Nivor. 
^^KDXsitr: put of tba Zeai ArvsM., 211 note 

^^FTUoi.H Bak: Sanjln high priest, bringa the 
^^" t»nj4n Are to Nurniri, 18(1. ^ 

MioxAHDii. : Sukelaud, 163 uota G. See ^Tv- 

BlB&K : bathing ceremon)'. 332. 

H&H^vUtD : Tictory nf the Ar«b« over the 
PeriiaoB at (fiil), 183. 

NA1I.B : in the Tower of 9ilenfe, L'40 note 1. 

Hawhs : selection of, £29 ; Feraiiiu ; Hindu ; 

If AaiftHAi Narhanoji Patbl : a ^untt land- 
lord. 106 note 4. 

NinPDRA; ■ Fnrut ctty ward, named after a 
Pint, 19enota4. 

Kauboe: New Tear's Day; commonl? called 

IPAliti. observanaet on, 218, SIS. tee 
FertiTali (Svaion), Piliti, bier-bearen ; dre«s of j duties of ; 
•onrcea ot income at, 230 and nots 3. See 
HADsaiKvAH : the Jmt (531-67S), hiitreatiei 

Bod interchange of presenta with the rnlcrs 

of India and Uindh ; his cnibaiB; to Pulikeai 

lI„183D0te4. tiFeAjanCa. 
NItab i new comrade j nnder-priert ; the 

pniifjiDg oereinony of; also called NoTice, 

ordination of , 223 - 2S5. See Her bad. 
N>niBI : Tillage of, nuiBiiing of the name uf, 

Mttlemsnt of P&r«!i in, 18S note G; flni- 

temple bnilt by Cbauga A'ss in ; SaojAn 6re 

brought to, IBS ; relii^oni dispotea among 

the prleits of. 192; TiU Madreaa in. 201; 

ZeaJ and Pebelri scbuliu-ahip eitablisbed in, 

NatzoT : initiation of a oliild into the mjateriei 

of the Zoraastrian faith ; oeremony aiid rites 

relating to, £»l-232. See Custama 
HayinDH- part of the Zend Areeta, 211 note 

2 (16). 
KiE SXt KhAk: a Utle, mwniag of,,tlocabji 

the fl»t recipient of, 197 note il. 
TUtnusa: cow's ndne, porifiin)^ naes of, 203 j 

223:224. Prayer, 20B note 2; 241, » 
NaoAvaDiM : buil'a nrine, pacifying vsn of, 

330 and note 2 ; 232. 
KBHiORBANa : priest, grandaon of (ibtpnr 

bheheriar, translate! the Zend AveiCa into 

Sanakrit, 221. 
NmoBAifSH : (720), 211 note 1. 
SlwaABl: town in Persia; NavB&ri called 

after, IBS note 6, >-'cc Narairl. 
JfiATiaa : portion of the onginkl Zend Aresta, 
212 Hotel. 

Kdviok: Nirar ur uitder-prlrat, ^23. 

NoTBOJi : son of Rnitam MAnetc, goea 
England (1723}, recsivca liononrfrom 1 
Conn of DirectoM i bnyi Nown-ji Hill, hit 
family i> Icnowu aa Sbet KhAudia. "~ 

religious, 519-220. 

OdeKIC : Friar (13£;j), bis accunut of tiM 

VATsis, iSV not« I. 
OoiLBi : (10~U), bis accoant of tbo Pirsia, I: 

and note 4; 191. 
OjittATAMoaa: third watch, 214 note 1. ^'M 

OuAn : the king of ; conDtry onder the, < 

aidered a part of Indi< 184. 
ORDBnn : Sacerdotal, Higherand Lower. 8e» 

OnmnATiON : ot Hctbad ; of Mobod. 8e« 

Obuiti : oily of, 18.1 note 3. New, *ee Jet 
Obnahrmtb : detail* and cost of, of tn _ 

201-202 i of womun, 202-203 ; of childreo, 

1203. See Dress, 
Obta : eon of a priest before ordination 

OnfliLiT : 185, note 4. 

Otanka: evil-removing salutation, form of, 

227. ^ee Pregnancy. 
Otinstoh: (1600) bis account of the PAras, 

PAneHAXAN : an early form of mnrrtage, 231 

note 2. 
Fau.1 : thanke-giiing ceremony; offeiiags b 

the water-spiril in, 230 ; 231. See Birth, 
pANOuXTsra 1 or locul euuneiia, Mi, Sa 

PasohjiAsik : ceremony relating to pregnancji 
rites in, 227, Sep Pregnancy. 

PAMOBKATAir : Ats jewels, pUccd nnder fotu^ 
dXtioQ stone, 205. i^ee House. 

Pandbs : family of, among tbo early PAnI 
settlers in Uombny, 195. 

Pakjab : a part of the Persian dominioni f 
coD(|aest of, by Darius Hystaspes (b.o. 610] ) 
under the AFhmmeneaD dynasty, under the 
Indo-Skjthlan ruler, 183 note 4 ; relatJoaa, 
of (he FSTsis of the, with Camhay PArsi^ 



ViaBi : citizen of Pdrs, 188 note 1. ^ec P&rs. 

?iR8i-PRAKA8H : 186 Dotes 6, 8 ; 189 note 8; 

190 note 2 ; 193 note 1 ; 195 notes 2. 3 ; 196 

notes 2, 8 ; 198 notes 2. 6. 

Pabtiz : Kba:ira, grandson of Nau8hinr&n the 

Just, his treaties and interchange of presents 

with the rulers of India and bindh ; his 

portrait in Ajanta caves, his son the alleged 

fonnder of the Udepnr family, 1 83 note 4. 

Patbl : family of, among early Virsi settlei'S 

in Bombay, 195. 8ce l>orabji Nanabhai. 
PlTST : Pasheminiy confession of sin, 223 ; 

PIteti : Day of Penitence ; observances on, 

218. See Naoroz. 
Pjusanb: old Persian word for Harbad, 222 

Pehlbti : langnsge, original texts explained 
in, 211 note 1 ; commentaries written in, 
21 2 1 scholarahip for, 194. 
Pbbbia: kingdom of, also called Irin, 1^3 
notel; its early religious (b.o. 1000), political 
(B.O. 1729), and commercial (a.d. 545) con- 
nection with India; its commercial connec- 
tion with China (sisith century), 183 note 4; 
passed into the hands of the Arabs (641), 183. 
PiBBiAK : Onlf, its ea'Vly trade connection with 

1h4aa, 183 note 4 on ])age 181. 
Pkbsian : classical language, 204. 
Pkbhotan : son of MuUa K&us, goes to Persia 
(1768) ; becomes Kadmi high priest (1802) ; 
ia well known as Mulla Feroz, 193 note 2. 
Pstrsubm: third Gahambir, 218. bee Gab- 
am birs. 
Phb&ozsha : son of Dhanjisha of Surat. enjoys 
high posts of honour il82d), receivcss in grant 
Tillages from the British Goveniment, J 98 
note 5. 
Pisces Austbalbs : constellation of, 217 note 1. 
Place t pibit : see t pirit. 
PoLT^AMT : formerly practised, now forbidden, 

Population : see Census Details, 
PoBTcrou£BB: the, take the island of Jeran 
(1508) i are driven from the island by the i'er- 
sians and the English 0622), 183 note 5 ; 
Bombay under (1500-1662), 195. 
Pbatsbs; Kuiti, 208 note 1; Marriage, 236 
note 1 ; Meal^ 220 note 1 ; Nerang^ 208 
note 2. 
Prbo-nancy : rites and ceicmonies relating to, 
Panchm&sin ceremony in ; Agarni cere- 
mony in; Ovanna salutation in, 227* bee 
Pbesknts : making and receiving of, in betrothal, 
232-233; on birth, 228; on marriages, be- 
fore and after, 233, 235, 237 and note 1 ; on 
pregnancy, 227. 
Pbiebts : fire- worshipping, introduction of, from 
Persia into Dwdrka, IbS note 4 ; trace thtffr 
descent to Shipur Sheheriar ; genealogical 
tree of, 221 *, distribution of, into districts or 
charges; high priest or Dastur over a district 
or charge ; secular business followed by ; 
intermarriages among, 222 ; dress of, 201, 222; 
appearance of ; religious functions uf, 222 ; 
kusti weaving J)y the women of, 209,222; 

B 520—37 

other names of ; higher and low^r sacerdotal 
orders of, Herbad and Mobeds t ordination of, 
222 - 226 ; schools kept by, 209; education of 
the sons of, 210 ; religious disputes among 
the two bodies of, in >iavs,iri, 192. iSee Her- 
bad, Mobeds. 

Priesthood: 2 ?1- 226. See Priests. 

rBiNCiFAL Sadab Amiit : see Amin. 

Proby : officer in the Surat Factory, 196 note 

Pbopbb Place Fiiib : see Atesh T)4dgh&n. 

Pbohperity: (since 1800), l*Arsi. 198-200 

Ptolemy : (150), 183 note 4 ; 186 note 6. 

PULIKB8I II. : king of B4dami, receives embassy 
from Naushirv4n the Just, 183 note 4. Soe 


UEBK : name of a ship, built by Pdrsi car- 
penters, 192 note 8. 

XVAE : in Media, Zoroaster iborn at, 211. 
Baml/lb : priest, son of SSh&pur, 221. 
RXnA. : an( estor of Navs4ri priests, 221. 

iiANiSHK AR : ruler of the Panj&b, seems to havo 
adopted the religion of the Magi, 183 note 4. 

Rapithavan : midday ceremony performed on 
the Ardibehesht day, 219. 

Rapituayanoeh : second watch, 214 note 1. 
See Geh. 

RiTANPUR : Hajput chief of; sends troops, 
against the Parsi settlers of Variav ; heroic 
defence of the H&rsi female-warriors, 386 note 
9. See Variiv. 

RathestAr : warrior, a class of the old Persian 
community of, 81. 

Ratnaoiri : estate near NaysAri, Mulla Jamasp 
receives tlie grant of, 197 note 2. 

Ratus : heads of creation, 21 1 note 1< (8). 

Rat0shtai : part of the Zend A vesta, 211 note 
2 (8). 

Ravaybtb : collection of opinions of the Persian 
priests on doubtful religious questions, 189 ; 
compilation of, 189 note 3 j wr'tings in Persian 
of authoritative customs, 212 and note 3; 
Persian precepts, 226 ; mention of Pirsi 
aettlenients in Navsiri and other places in, 
189 ; reference to the year of moving the 
Sanjan fire to NavsAri in, 88 note 1 ; 190 
note 3 ; 238 

Keadymuny: Hirji Jivauji, visita China, 
(1756), 195 note 2. 

Relioiom : dififerent names of, 211, 213 ; mean- 
ing ^f, 211; explanation of . 185; the sacred 
books of, 211, 2 2; leading beliefs in. 
212 2'3; Fire-Temples, 213-215; Sacred 
litres— Atesh D4dghan, 2 13, Ader4n, ?13- 214; 
Atesh Bohrom, 2 4-215; objects of venera- 
tion — Amshaspinds and Yaiads, ?15-2I6; 
High Festival days— Jasans, 216 - 217 ; Season 
Festivals— Gahambiirs, 2* 7 - J 18. Githais, 
Muktad holidays, 218 ; leading high days, 
218-219 ; observances, 219 - 220 ; early be- 

Revolt: PArsi (64$^), 186 note 4; Mindvl. 

(1810), 198 note 6. 
KiiiAL : Persian coin, 233. 

: Brokch (1S57), 198 and nnto 3. 
iHi : u chief triors ia the rersian Oulf 
_ (SiS). 185noti'4. 

iBcarov MXnbe: ot Unrti. kDiling Englbh 
broiler, viilti Delhi, lUij and notis 1 and 3 ; 
Itlf and 2. 
Bva-ciK Ukhkrbj<(: of Pcrjb, mikot oopiei 

u( the VaadidM, 189 aotc 2. 
BuaTAUPtTBA : B5uf,t city ward, 19l> note 1. 
, A Pirii aolDtiy ia tbo Piuicli Uahile, 200. 

L Q1DH* : BKTed shirt, 201 i 327 i iilolhing the 

I'D child with. 231. See N»vwt. 

■ ^AriNi): pirc of the Ki^ud Aveita, 211 note 3 

r (13)- 

Sl^auBJi: und, 2Xt note 1. — 

Bi.Kjjla; eur>i BLttlomeut in (7^^.186,3'^; 
fall of (1315). IST. -Pi''*, hcriy fire of 
Bohrlm, blakEii to the BhAtut hills (1315), 
to BiT,«l», 187, to Navsiri (1419), 183. to 
(IT33I. ro-Ukeii lu Nsredd (I73tij, 
IDS, taken to BaMr (17111, to