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or THB 




Under Govemrrr^nt Orders. 






Ths chief contributor to this Yolnnie is the District Compilerj 
Mr. F. S. P. Lely^ C. S. Mr. Lely has, besides supplying xaateriala 
for parts of the Mannfactnre and Agricoltore Sections^ prepared 
and revised the Descriptioiij Capital^ Trade Gnild^ imd great part of 
the Trade Chapters. Materials collected by the late Sargeon-Major 
C. Johnson have been of much nse in preparing the Climate and 
Health Sections. The Snrrey and Sab-diTisional details have been 
sapplied by Mr. N. B. Beyts, Superintendent of Sorvey. 

Since the Maps -were prepared the official spelling of a few names 
has been altered. The changes are in no case so great as to oanse 

Jviy, 1979. 



Chapter I— Description. 

Position Qud Areu; Bnuudurics ; Sub-divisions; Aspect . 
Rirors; Floods; Creeks ... 
lakea; Islands; Climate ... 

Chapter II. — Production. 

Minerals; Trees; Animals... 

Chapter III. — Population. 

Census dptnil.s (I8t6, Itfol, and 1872) 
Division by Race ... ... ... 


Dwellings ; Commniiiticg ; MovementB of the People ... 

Chapter IV. — Agriculture. 

Vrtrlt^tit.s of i^oil ; nistributioii of Soil; Tmj»ntion ; 
Tillng(5 ; Size of a I'ltiii^'h of Jjanti ; Holdings ; Stock j 
Crops ; Tillage Details ; PteasivotH ; Bad Seasons ... 

Chapter V. — Capital. 
Capitalis^ts ; Bills of Exchange ; Bank of Bombay ; 

Insumnco; Gambling, vaida; Classes who Save; 

Modes of Inveotment ; Borrowers; Gates of Interest; 

Currency; Fictitious Currency, ant 
Wages ; Prices ; Weights and Measures ; State of 


Chapter VI. — Trade and Manufactures. 

Section L — Trade. 

Koads; Bridges; Rest-houses ; Fords and Ferries; 

hthipptng ; Laght-honses ; Post and Telegraph 

Trade. Hindu Period (750-1300) ; Ahmedabad Kings 

(1400. 1570); Moghal Viceroys (1570-1700); 

ICigbteenth and Nineteenth Centuries ... 
Sea and Land Trade Statistics ... 
Lines of Trallic ; State of IVatiors 











Bsction IL— Trade Ooilds. 

Origin and firowth ; Constitution ; Membership ; 
Apprenticeship; Juri^diotion ; Communal FunuK; 
IJcotAriau Bickerings ; Nogar Solh; Atiinud Uomes. 106-115 


Chapter VI. — Trade and Manufactures— cwi^'niwi. 
Section III.— MaQafuttureft. nos 

Salt ... 116-124 

Saltpetre ... ... ... ... ... 126 

Pottery; Gold Work; Gold and Silver Thrend ; Gold 
and Tin Foil ; Electro Plating ; Tin Plating ; Leaf 
Printing ; Idol OroamentB; Copper nnd Bnum Work ; 
Iron Ware ; Wood Work ; Cotton Weaving; Steam 
Factories ; Dyeing; Calico Printing; Steam Printing; 
U^ing of Paper, SauS, Oil, aud Soap; SiUc 
WeaTing ; Ivory Carving; Inlaying Mother of 
Pearl ; Leather Working ; State of Craftsmen ... 120'141 

Chapter VII — History ... ... ... 142 

Chapter VIII. — Land Administration. 

AcquiRition ; Adiuinitttratlve Cliaugee; StaCE... ... 143-145 

Ijand System of 1803; Kaabfitia ... ... ... 146-149 

Stato of the Dintrict ; Changes ... ... ... 150-155 

Land Syatem of 1821 ; Mr. KlpLinatone'a Measures ... 150-169 

First Survey ( 1 S20- 1 826) ... ... ... ... 1604 68 

Condition and Administmtion (1827-1853) ... ... 169-173 

Sennnd Survey (1953-1863) ...174-178 

TAlokdfirs, or Owners of Proprietary Villagoa ... 179-185 

Parfiutij Mehvfiai Chiefs ... ... ... ... J86-187 

Seasons (1862-1877); Development (1840-1877J ... 188-190 

Chapter IX. — Justice. 

Civil and Criminal Jaatice ... ... ,„ 191-196 

Police; Jails ... 1&7-I9» 

Chapter X. — Revenue and Finance. 

Balance Sheet ... ... ... ... ... 200-S0& 

Local Funds ; Municipalities ... ... ... 206-208 

Chapter XI. — Instruction. 

Schuuls; Persons able to R«id and Write (1872); 

Race of Pupils ; Town and Village Education ... 208-216 

Colleges; Libraries; Newsjiapora ... ... ... 217 

Chapter XII. — Health. 

Outbreaks of Pestilence ... ... ... ... 218-224 

DiseAsea ; Hospital.^ ; Di^'pensaries ; Vaccination ; Cattle 

Disuasos; Births and Deaths ... ... ... 225-229 

Chapter XIII. — Sub-divisions ... ... 230-248 

Chapter XXV. — Places of Interest ... ... 249-356 


... S57.361 


A /Mbftrf dif^wW- 

• Thwvibnr'— /:b 

— ^ HU0 nmd— 

n MOH^tt . ^ 

% - htButtit 7.SOff\ 


T....I....1 I I— T 

Or* Aob^HoirRyKbr Affo /fana /S7/. 

Alunedabad, iho most northerly district of the Bombay 
Presidency, Ijinpf bptwccn 21° 25' 18' and 2;!** 37' north latitode and 
71° 21' and 7a'' 28' eoat long-itude, has a total area of 3854 sqoare miles 
and a population of 829,687 souls oi- 215*83 to the square mita The 
total realizable Und roTenae amoanting to £142,537 (Ra. 14,25,870) 
waa recorer&d before the oloso of the year ending the 3Ut Jolr 

It may bo briefly described as a tract of country lying north and 
west of the head of tho Gulf of Cambay, to which for administnLtive 
pnrposes, the isolated lands of Par^ntij and Mod^aa in the north-east, 
and of Gogha in the south h^ve been added The main body of the 
district is Donnded on the north by TTis Highness tho Gdikwiir's 
Dehgiim and Kadi sub-divisions, a small portion of the Mahi Kflntha 
and IIi>; Highness the GaikwAr's sub-division of Piltati j on tho vrost 
by the Ran and Jh^Uvad in KathiAwAr ; on the sonth by tho territory 
of His Highness the Th^or of Bb^Tnagar; and on the east by 
the Gulf of Cambay, the territory of His Highness the Nawfib of 
Cambfty, and the Rritish district of Kaira, The ontlying sub-division 
of Parantij surrounded on the west and south by Baroda lands and 
on tho oast and north by the Mahi Kantha is completely dota^hod. 
East of ParAnti] and cut off from it by a narrow strip of Mahi 
Kintha territory, Modasa stretching aonth to Kaira has its Tillages 
scattorod among those of tho Mahi Kantha and Itaroda. Similarly 
surrouudcd by and intermingled with Jhilav&d villages lie the 
town and villages of Gogha on tho western shore of the Gulf of 
Cambay. Even the main body of the district is not entirely 
compact. Of its villages fourteen are detached in small gronpa 
beyond its borders in KithiAw&r, three in Pfilanpnr, and six in 
Baroda, while within British territory arc cloven KAthiiwir and six 
Baroda villages. One Idar village is surrounded by the lands of 

The area included in the district of Ahmedabad is for administra- 
ive porpoeee distributed over seven Bub-divisiona. These, as shown 

> Thu chapter is kbiMt eatiroly the work ol Mr. f . S, F. Leiy, Botabay Civa 

a 1B7-1 

CSiaptsT L 



(Boinbajr Quetteer, 




in the fcUfoKinf^ snmmarj, have oa i 
8gnaK5'inii^^'"12G villages^ and 118,520 i 




This diatribution, baaed Bolely on admioistrotivo conreniencej 
little rocognizod in every day apeech. The popular voicfi places the 
Bob-division of Uogba iu Kathi£w&r, that of Parintij m the once 
unaottlod mehedsi country of the Mahi Kiintha, and divides the main 
body of tho district into scrcn sections each marked by some 
peculiarity of soil and fur Uio most part by a shaile of differeuco in 
the manncro, the habit«i, and even tho dresA of its people. Tbeae 
seven divisions are : 1, Daskrol, more properly Daskrohi, or the land 
included within a nuiius of ton fum ur krog, that is, Hfteen milee 
from tho capilal ; 2, tlie Sdhar Kdniha ronghly defined as the country 
on the lower course of the river 8&baTinati and more accumtvly by a 
line drawn through the villagea of Saroda, Changodar, Kiivitua^ 
RAsam, Oholka, and Vautha ; 3, the Bhal, or black-soil tract, 
comprising the south tuUf of the Dholka and the east half of the 
Dhundliuku Hub-divifiiuns; 4, tlie Hiilk&ntha extending from the 
banks of the NiU to within a few miles south of the town of Sanand; 
bf the Ki'uttcra extending from that iiuint northwards into the Baroda 
territory ; G, tho ChuvtU lying nortn of the Nallcanlha and divided 
from it by a lino mnning oast and west tbrongh the town of 
Viramg&iu. The name is Khorteued from Chuvdlis, forty, the 
number of villagoH it originally included; 7, the Kanedr a narrow 
tract of reddish soil, west of tho BhiU between the towns of Dhandhuk* 
and Barv^Ia. All that remaintj of the Dliundltuka sub-diviston on thtt 
eitreme west is colloquially classed as part o£ Kdthiiiwdr. 

In the extreme north-east of the district near the town of Mod&«a» 
Jong low apnra from the Dungarpur hills sink into a tract of rock 

1 Of the 8S1 Covoninicut viUagvi, 372 oru Idlubldri luid 41 mrKnfin in Ibe ImdiIa 
of UrgB UmlfaolJen, inora or lou iii(l<'p<?iiil«ijt. Tli« UMition of tJM TAJukdIn ii 
cxplMBcd bslow, p. 179 : ihe poeitioa of tL« Mcliv&i faoloen ia itill uuNttiod, 






overUid. for the most part, by a acanty boU through which the 
riK-k often shows in bam masses or loose fragmento. In 1827 
largo areas of this land were so cororei with brushwood aa to be 
absolotely impenetrablo. Much haa ainco been cleared and now repays 
with crops of Indian millet, ^'u»;(ir, and inferior sesamum, tal, the 
Koli-s' rude and lazy husbandry. With gradually deepening soil the 
coQotry slopes, aa the converging courses of several rivers show. 
Boath-nestwat'd into the Barooa sub-dirision of Dehgim. In the 
aoath>east corner of Modisa the rocks break out again, but to the 
south they are complotoly lost in the tertiio fields of Kaira. To the 
west they sink into the sandy ParAntij plain which nndulates down- 
ward from the bank of the Hithmati in hedgeleas fields too often bare 
of trees, but nearly always fertile am) in plaoee, on the Meabva and 
the Khiri, even pictaresquo. Still further west, more richly wooded 
land is crossed north and south by the Udthmati canal and then by 
the Bokh, beyond which it breaks into precipitous heights and deep 
abmpt ravines now only the scanty pasture gronnds of wandering 
berdH of cattle, but half a century i^^o the retreats for coneoalment 
or defence of tiirhulenb freebooters. Underneath, the Sdbar, now 
joined by the Hatlimati, winds southward through its spacious bed 
of Baud and aeparatet; tim portion of the district from the Baroda 
isub-division of Hij^par. 

Twonty-6vo miles from iho sonthcm limit of tho norihera section, 

and beyond an intonrcning tract of Baroda territory averaging 

ixtoen miles in breadth, lies tho city of Ahme(Ubad encircled by a 

lit of park-like country several miles deep. The soil of this ' Aome- 

untnj ' is much tho same in character aa that of E^ordntij, but 

c inhabitants have enjoyed for centuries the moral and material 

advantages of nearness to a oapital and a great market.i The villages 

are largo and well built. Bulky milk-bash hedges enclosing the 

ftelds snow a stronger sense of individual property, and long freedom 

the ambuscades of ontlaws. Relics of former splendour meet 

.0 eye on every side and in every stage of decay, from the dome 

f Batva, tho minarets of Shilh A'lam, the monastic courts of Firfina, 

he embattled fort of Kali, and the country seats of ShdhavAdi and 

etalpur, down to tho wayside tomb and the brick foundations of 

rgotten snburbs. Nor do all the signs of prosperity belong to tho 

The clusely, often highly, cultivated land, the railway from 

ibay branching north ana west,' the well-fed labourers and 

n, tho neatly built schools and rest-houses, bear no doubtfol 

Itneas that the re^wurces once drawn into the cofTers of the courts 

.d expended on proiocts to illustrate a foreign religion or snbsorvo 

e loxory of a few, have not departed from the district hot have 

diffused among an iudusti-ions and contented people. Another 

ihief natoral feature of this part oHhe district is the spreading bod 

the S^barmati which stretches through it from end to end. Below 

city on the left bank of this rirer and also midway between it and 

Khiri are & few small risoej but everywhere else the earfaoe of 

» DMkro WM c»U«.l th(- Ha»cli ..f AIini(.lab*(I in Akhw'ii ntr^cy. 
* Tht Stat« «it«DsioB of (he Bomtwy ud Baroda Railway into lUjputiaa U oow 
a pngrtm <1878}. 

Chapter I.- 

Aapeot. fl 






'cifani SeetiOH. 




the groand is an onbroken IctcI, the proapoct IsTishljr nmcSied 
every side, except the north, with groves of TarionBtroas. 

Along the right bnnk of the Sdbarmati the charactoristics of 
Daskroi are proloDged into Dholka, but towards the vest aad sontfa* 
weat they disappear. In that direction the aspect Bhades off into the 
fertile but absolotclj flat and monotonoas nbick soil of tlio BhU, 
slightly rising north-eatit of Viramgain into the sandy Chuvii], bat 
Klooiug Houlh and west in treelesB fields of rico luid wheat to tlie Nal, 
ancl in extennive salt wastes to the Ran. Bt^yund tho rircr Bfa^^^va 
the black soil loaw none of ita remarkable productive power, bat 
from the brackiahneea of its deep spriogs there is little irrigatiim. 
Tear after year it yields, nnder utterly thriftltsA methods of 
agricQltore, loxariaDt crops of wheat aod cotton, but preeent^ to the 
traveller no tree for shade, mi hedgerow to relieve his eye, vium no 
driDkable water to quench hia thir«t. Here th^ire is nothing to break 
the distant view but compact villages rising during the cold acM on 
like islands oat of a level expanse of Terdure, which la tamed by the 
sun of April and May into an arid waste swept by acorching winds. 
The flats round Dholera and thence along the coast Ut BavU&ri creek, 
impregnated with aalt and intersect^'d by marshes, show all the 
bleakness of the Hh^l with none of its fcrLitily. On the etlhtr hiuid 
along the weatem border the land cbangea into a reddish ooi 
unproductive soil of uneven surface, and yet a little further on a 
narrow strip of the district nms rig^t into the rocky inkerior of 
K^thiawdr. ^m 

The little isolated sab-division of Goghn is in character as wdl ^^ 
in position part of tho province of KathiAwAr. It It broken into hilk 
of crumbling limestone showing traces of volcanic distorbat 
bearing nothing but here and there a stunted tree, and more or I 
abundant crops of gra!ts. Nnmcrons small strpnms flow throOj 
the country and the valleys are fertUe and well wooded. 

Only in tho extreme north-east and south-west does the plain 
surface of the district rise into hills. In Moda-^n are some ridgas of 
metamorphic rock seldom more than 500 fei^t liigli, the sides oovered 
with grass and brushwood. Tn the west a few milcA from the town 
of R&npnr in Dhondfauka, a series of low hills gradually risea towards 
the parent range of Chotila, where a conical peak, 600 feet above sea 
level, is the most remrtrkalJe feature of the country. Some ol ihe 
hilla about Ninama, the most, westerly part of Dhandhuka, are covered 
with fragments of qnartr, a.nd limestone. Farther south the Khokra 
range in Gogha with a height of 06 feet runs north and fiouth parallf 
with the Gulf shore towarda which it throws out lateraJ spura. 




In thedistrict are two distinct river systems ; one flowing son' 
west from the highlands of eastern GujarAt ; the othor flowing 
from the KathiAwiir hills. Among the rivers none is navigable or of 
more than local imporLauce. The 8Sl)ari[iati, wiUi it« tribuiarioe the 
Khdri, Moahva, and MAjham, and thcShcIva and tho Andhari, rising 
from the noi-theiu hilh ami flowing to the Gulf of Cambay through 
the licfht-soj] oasturu land«, form one group. To tiie oilier belong 
the Bhogava^ Bhiidhar, UtAvli, Nilki, PinjAi-is, and A'dhia^ which 

^ irom fche Kiibi&vrkr hUla straffgle with more or leas snccesa 
rough the shiftiDg alluvial tract of black soil eastwards into the 
GaUof Cambaj. 

"Risini?, nnder the name of SiSbar, in the sonth-wenteni sptire of the 
A'rAir&li hills not far from tho popular shrine of Amba BhaTaoi, the 
8&bannAti takes a aoutherly coarsu through tho Mahi K&ntha till 
■t tho north-west comer of the Ahmcdabad district it is joined by 
the Hithmati. From that point taking the compound name o£ 
84bBrnuti it snccesaivcly forms tbo weatcm boundary of Par^mtiJ ; 
M|iar«te« the Boroda sub-division of Debgy^m from tbat of Tlijapur; 
biMCts Daskroi into two fairly equal portions ; eepoi-atea Dbolka from 
Kaim, and finally after flowing about 200 miles and draining an area 
of 9500 square miles ' discharges itself into the Gulf of Cambay. In 
the upper part of its course its banks aro very prooipitous^ in some 
places rising sheer to the height of 200 feet. But they gradually 
Bobside to from thirty to &fty feet opposite the city of Ahmedabud and 
BtUI lower aa they noartheaoa. The stream ia for the moatpart shallow 
had sluggish, holding a winding and often changing way through 
a broad bed of sand. Even as far iuland as Vfighpur the bod is no 
loea Uian 300 yards wide, while fifty miles from ujo river mouth the 
distanoo from bank to bank is said to be about 1550 feet, with in tho 
fair season a stream about 375 feet bruad, A uotewoi-thy featnra 
of tho river is tho formation, by its frequently varying current, of 
ftraota of rand depoait, bh/Uha. This, though tho most fertile soil in 
the district bearing luxuriant crops of sugarcane and other valuable 
produce, is by sudden freshes liable to be overlaid with sand or 
entirety washed away. Nor are the changes of the stream confiaed 
within its banks, wide as they are. At several points between 
Abmedabnd and the sea tho line nf what was once its bed may still be 
traced a long way distaat from its present course, and uumerous 
abandoned village sites boar wittiess to former inundations on the 
adjacent country. Tidal influence extends twelve miles from tbo 
river month.' 

The saving efficacy of the Sabarmati ia not in such wide repute 
as to attract pilgrims from a diHtanoe. Few, however, of the nuuiy 
rho pass IKrough Ahraediibad on their way to more celebrated shrinea 

Chapter L 




■ KaalMry ComsuwiooBr, Itith July 1&7S>. 

3 Th* following fiffnna, fehnwing tho velodty snd ilUchwge oF the &&l)«nnsti, 
nto Iho dtjr M JUunttdabad, iutre been mppfuxl by Ur, J. K. Uatlwrly i 

Sabarmati Speed and Dwduurgt, JM9. 















VHoclly, ft* 
l»r occoad. 

12-00 to 4-O0 

tdet per ib«oik). 


1500 to 92.000 



I Bombay GoMtaair. 


Chapter I- 


Tht Khdri. 

dra, ^M 

fail to take tho opportaiiity oF battling at the holy bank, 
Dudliesbvar, vhoso soil was coniiccratcd by the denixeus of 
with iin} milk, d'l'ih, of K&m Dugha the sacred raw, and where the eya 
of faith mny HtilJ at times see jets of milk ahooting above the dark 
waters of the river. Here are brought for buruiog the dead of 
the higher castes and wealthy Shudras, all otbora being taken. t^J 
Behrjimpar a Iosh favoured itpot lower dowr. the stream. The ti^H 
Dadheehvar is properly applied not merely to the usual bathi^^^ 
and burning place, tho spoeific name uf which ia Chandrabhig, but | 
to both sides of the river at this pai-t of its course. On the right or , 
aorth bonk where now stands the shrine of Dudhia MahAdev, and 
which wasj until recent floods, faced by handsome flights of stem, 
there Hvedj according to the A'tma Pur&Ti, the holy ascetic Dadhk^i, 
who gave up hia own bones to make a weapon by whJch Indra mi^it 
be enabled to slay the impiona Kdkshatt Vritrasur. The holy cow 
Kam Duglia came to oat up the fleeh and rvtnaiuing bones of tho 
Hclf-dovoted saint, but one portion of them became transformed into 
tho emblematic lituj, which under tho name of Khadgatlbdrmhimr^ or 
tiie Ood of the four-edged sword, still diawa thoosauds of local 
worshippers. It is Kituntod higher up tho S^barmatt at the Shihi i 
"Bdtg, and, together with an adjacent shrine of the Bhimn^th Mahidev, I 
marks a locality on the river only less sacred than Dudlieshvar and 1 
equalled by no other except tlio Sapt^ri^hi ijhnt,l\ioti^vi^n saints' step*, 
on the left hand bank below tho city walls. The ShdhiBag is, more 
enpeciaJly oueachMonday in8hnivau (August), thronged by crowdsof 
the religiously disposed, to purify themselves by ablation, and often to 
spend a little of their substance, or fulfil a vow, in feasting Br^mana 
at tho close of the day. Many who live in the neighbourhood of 
tha * seven saints ' prater to resort thpre during tho month of Shrdean- 
(August), buttbe great gathering of the year at that shnuo take» place 
on Shadaroa Sud 5th (September), on which day the females of the 
city attend in great number.^. Besides these special places of resort, 
there arc eight others Ht different points along tho river between 
Jaldlpnr Hanumiii opposite tho i^ntonment on the nortb and the 
Sh^havfidi hank on the south, at any one of which merit ia to be 
acquired by devout bathing.aud all of them are more or less frequented, 
particularly during the intercalary month, Parsota-m. Vantha, a 
village on the S&barmati. some distance below Ahmedabad and ei^l 
miles south-east of the town of Dholka, is held in much repute as 
the point at which seven rivers, the Ssbar, the Hathmati, tho Khirif 
tho MdjLam, the Meshva, the Vatrak, and the Shedhi unite their 
waters. Ordinarily the only devotees who visit it belong to the 
immediate neighbourhood but every year a largely attended fair ii 
held beginning on tho day of the full moon in the mouth of Hdrtak 
(Novombor) and lasting over five days. 

The Kh^ri ri.tea two miles beyond the northern boundary o{ 
ParAatij, through whicb, being joined at Chadasra by the Klmrva a 
stroam thirteen miles long, it flotvs over a winding and shallow bed 
in a south-west direction. Traversing Debg&m and tho eastern half 
of Dsskroi, it crosses a comer of tho Kaira district and falls into the 
Sabannati soutliof thevillagool fiaaikpur after a courae of about 




[l05 milen. Its broadtli m nowhere great and in mniiy places doea 

exceed twenty feet. Of Utc years it bas nhuwii a nlrong tendency 

bretlk off duo south near tlie villngo of Damotvin and join with 

tbe MeshTa. An attempt haa bocn mude to prevent this by tho 

precCion of an earthea dam at the point of threatened dJTorgcoce. 

^ Tho rivcra Moahvo, MAjbam, and VAtrak rise to the Bonth of 

^BDaogarpur and run courses oE about 12G, 66, and I'SI mtlea 

^■reapectively. All tbrco convcrgo southward through Mt>disa and 

^Tnniting their waters join the Siibumiflti opposite Vautho. Kxcept the 

Metrhva which passes through the east of Parantij and &lso cut^ off a 

corner on the east of Daflkmi, no one of the three eutcra the district of 

Ahmedabad after leaving Modfoa^ They are all of the same character, 

being utreams of small volume flowing for some distance fr()ra their 

sources over n.wky shingly l>oda, and Bhowing, where bordered by 

trees, bits of really pictaroaquo secnery. Near llaiisol on the high 

road from AhmeiLibad, the Mcabva is crossed by a bridge of brick 


ITKe Shelvaaud the Audhari are short and unimportant streama 
running through the southern half of Ubolka into the Subonnati on 
its right hand bank. 

The river Bbog^ra, or rather that broken portion of it which flows 
throngh the Ahmedabad district, takes its nse in the Dholka village 
'iot Uhingra and runs southward for about ten miles where it is joined 
"by the Otnkir from the Limbdi territory. Thence it tnma eastward 
and, after forming tho boundary between Dbolkaaad Dhandhukn for 
about eleven miles, empties itself into the sea by the mouth of the 
S^barmati. It is chiefly fed by the Omkiir to which of late yeara 
baa been added the raaiu current of the Bbddbar. During the rainy 
ieaaon the flood water of the Nol also passes into this river. It is a 
brackish stream with few practicable fords in its lower course. 

The river Bhfidhar rises in the hills to the sonth of Cbotila in 
K&tbi&w&r, and, puraaing a generally eastern direction, about eleven 
miles from its source enters the dintrict of Ahmedabad at the village 
of Shekhdol. A shallow stream nowhere of any great breadth, 
it ia even near its source eeldom more than twenty font below the 
level of the inijacent country. For some miles it divides British 
territory from the native state of PaliyAd, and then flows on past the 
walls of the U^npur fort, where it is joined by a petty stream 
catted the Gnma an island being formed at the point of confluence. 
Pour miles further down on ita nortberu bank, stands the fort of 
Nftgnes, belon^ng with a small tract of surrounding land to the 
Wadhwan state. For about three miles the river runs again between 
British villages and then forms the southern limit of the petty native 
state of Kanth&ria, four miles after leaving which it passes a detached 
piece of Limbdi on the south. From this point at the beginning of 
thoproBont century it wound onwards by iho town of Dhandhuka, 
ond then torning soothward flowed a short distance to the cast of 
Bholera and emptied itself by a broad and deep mouth into theOulf 
of Cambay. Two or three milea east of Dhandhuka it appears to 
have gradually beaded up its own chaoDol with silt, so that when 

Chapter L 



The BhdJhar, 

Cliapter I. 

Tht BhMhar. 

J?il^^ Pinidria, 
euui A'Ma. 

(1618) proFewionikl Attention was directed to the subject, it 
roportod that the bod of tbo i-ivcr in this part of its coarse wsA aa 
no&rly on a Wei with its bauka that in the rainy season tho frodea 
aprettdiug over tlio country wero loat.^ All the facts ara not olear^ 
bnt it is at any rate certain that in 1317 the stream broke away at 
the point to which we have traced it abore, and pasain^ through the 
foreiuii villages of Raii^ur uad Cliharoria ofTocUxl a junction with 
tho Otnlci^r between the villages of Lolia and Fedra. In the year 
l&-tl-45, according to Mr. Fawcett, it reverted to its original chaaoel, 
but this can only have been partially the case as unsuccessful attenipis 
were made in 1313 and in 1352 to force it back by means of earthen 
dama at the point of divergence. At present some part of the rain 
flood makes ita way as far as Dhaudhuka, but the current disappears 
altogether near the neighbouring rillAgo of Khasta. About foar 
miles to the south-oast it takes a fresh start and though with much 
diminished volume pursues its old course. Its bed is only from throe 
to five feet below its banks. Opposite ICasindra it is joined by a small 
tributary called tho Uh&ri. Aoout three miles north of Dholora a 
diversion to the village of Gogh la is said to be the course of the old 
river, but the premie nt scanty stream keeps to the west and flows on 
through salt wastes to the village of Khnu whence, iostesd of passing 
southward, as formerly, it biw since 184*-45 rnn dno oast into the 
Gulf. South of RfthatAliiv there is still a trace of the former channel 
by which a small volume of water finds its way through low-tying 
marshes into the estuary. On accooat of its connection with the port 
of Dhulera, the early history of this river is of some interest. Bat 
the available information ia scanty and, perhaps from the great 
fluctuations in rainfall, aeemg contradictory. The Surveyor Ueneral 
in his report quotod above (1818) states that it was alwaya an 
inconsiderable stream, dry daring eight or nine months of the year 
and quite powerless to keep dear the creek at its month. Go the 
other hand, Mr. Dunlnp thon Collector calls it a lively stream flowing 
past Dhandhuka np to within six weeks of the monaooa In his 
opinion the accumuUtioa of sand and mud was due to the reoeni 
diversion of tho stream. 

The river UtAvli rises jnst within the limits of ^^hi^wtb* to the 
east of the town of PaliySa, and being joined by a stream £roai BoitA 
porsnes a seftward course by the town of Barv&la. bnt loses itself io 
the level swampy country near the village of Nfivra. Foot or B.n 
miles north of the same placo similarly disappears tho river 
Nilki which starts at the village of Malanpar and flows past the 
monastery of Bhimnfith. llio converging courses of these two 
channels snggest that they may once have united their waters and 
fallen into the part of the sea now represented by the BiivluM 
crook, and that thoy wero arreatod by a natural process similar to 
that which has taken place in theBhadhar. Other blind rivers of 
little size and importancoj iu this section of tho district, are the 
Pinj^a and the A'dhia. 

I Survoyoi Giuutnl to Qovenunuit, April 29Ui, 1BI8. 




"he TloTiof or TloTir thrtupli rtilTed a riTcr, is nn irrpj^nlnHy definod 
d(T>rL-«(ion williuut any uinliuiu-tiure which recvivfs llii* ilniiii:iKi! uf 
a large tract nf vcmniry in thu wcMtorii ]?arl of Suiiujid iLtid Dholka. 
It extends north nnd stmth for a ilmtaiice of ahoul twunly-sfix miles. 
IhirioH" the rainy seiwrnn it itniUiiuH a larj^ body ctf wnitor; hut 
innqt of it spronds nvcrtho Intr Hat land aroand tho Routhflm ond nf 
the chfuiDt'l and there, as alwnys happens in bucIi case«<, doea ranch 
ititsfhief hy brinjjinij Ui tlur mirfacn tn« salt cif fclio Hu)>»4iiil. By tho 
ciid r>f Kchniary itnthing romiiins hut some lf>riif dcpp pools in tlio 
netghlwurhood of the vilUges of Kesnindi and Dumah" ; these 
largely ased dnring' thy cold weather for watering wheat, sw tlicy aro 
fed only by snrfaco drainage soon boconio stagnant and shnrtly 
afierwardH bmckish. 

A someflrhat similar depression crdlcd tho Bnjva or Bojva in 
1'ArfiTilij is said to be of cumiMiratively fecuul orij(iu. It extends 
for nlvont sisteen miles from a little U-yond tho narthom fnjnticr of 
tfco district to the village of Jonpuf whew it me-cts tlio river KHari. 

The B'ikh,' a broad and deep depression, bofifiiiri n«ir tho meeiing 
ot the Uathmati and S&barniati, and mns south through Par^ntij 
At from three to eight miles iwm the latter rivor. It is a chain of 
pooL.1 and nionwww, tJio largest shoot oC water in it, caJIed tho largo 
JJokh, being about 150 acre^ in extent and aveiiiging tbii-ty feut in 
<luptb. 'ilte next in Kize, called the Kiuall Bukh, and lying op{xwito 
tluj tovm of Parantij, covers alwut l.hirty-fivti sutcvs and ih Haiti to 
avurage iour foot in dc-ptli.' Near tho riUage of MudhaKua tlio 
oourao of tho rivor Klidri is merged into the JJukh, bnt for souio 
distance farther tho banks of the latter may be distinctly traced. 
According toalocal tradition the Bokb is theorigiuol cbauuol of the 
riffor Hiithinati, tlic stream of which itt said to have been directiKl 
into the Siibarmnti by an embankment inado under the oi-dor« of 
Saltan Aluuad I. (14ll-l'ii:3) to incrense tho water supply of bis now 
motropoli». This tnJo is not BUpported by any contemporary records 
aod the striking resemblance of the banks of the lV>kh to tho^e of a 
rivor would, without any historical basis of truth, Bufliciontly account 
fur tho Btory. At the t^ame time it is dilKcnll to explain tho forma- 
Ijoo o£ this SLUgiJar hollow in any other way, and morocjver it is not 
likely that tho towTi of rarantij whieb stands on its eastern bank, 
woaid have boon built on such a site had it not in that remote period 
been "woshod by a (lowing etream. At present during thu miay 

rrrn there iaa considerable discharge of water froiu tho Bnkb into 
Khiiri, bnt it ceases entirely before tho hot weather ftot*i in. 

In coneeqaence of tho ilUdefined channels of the weateiTi riversi 
and the low level of the grouml on the lower course of tho SiSbarmati, 
some parts of this district miffer periodically such heavy losses by 
flood, as would bo irremodiablo if tho soil were less Eercilo, or tho 
credit of iho cultivators less sound. FIoO(!s on the Sabannati are 
laeutioncdinthoyearslTliaud 1739. lu 1 755 tho rains wore sohcavy 

Chapter I 



Tht IlHJPit, 



1 LHcral^ a flunrc ar chum. 

I TboM» lUineiutoiu ve truni a ictum sujiplivd hy tbe Colk-ctor, Mr. BtimulMl*. 

a I87-J 



ns in Tnnnj plnrt^Fi tn irnsh down tlio wiJIb of the city nf Admcdalmd. 
In 1S13 the Subarmati is snid to h&vo risen cijithtocn feet above its 
Bumiuer \evc\, but no accurate data are preeerved. In 1822 a Kmall 
flood in the s&nic rivtsr did suoh dnmago to rrops an to mil fur 
reminBioDs of reveuoe. In 1850 an overflow of the Utayli d<;>'lmi-vil 
many h(iiisi!s but aH the aenson was not far mlvanoudj rauBivl litllc 
loss of npp-icnlturnJ produce. In 1857 very h(»Ty rains did mnch 
dactngo in tbu contml part of the district, carn'ing away a itwtic>n of 
Lho Uogha tnink niad. In 18(>S scarcely any rain fell until tiio lOth of 
Angust when it bnrst heavily, and dnring Uw next fnnr days twenty- 
aeren inches were registered in Ahmedabad.> The river o^barmoti, 
though inm:h Hwollen, did not Hood the city. Bnt the rain to^fillier 
with the wind, which for part of tho time blew with extreme violenoa^ 
Bufficcd to destroy, besides movable property estimated at over X5000 
(Hs. 50,000), no fewer than 05C6 houses of the compated valne ol 
£U5,11G (Us. 9,51,160). OuUido tho w^lU the havoc waa wido^ 
aprcfld. llio Sdbnrmati in ite lower conrso and also tho wcfitcnk 
rivers overflowed their banks with disastrous effect. In the oonnto^y 
traversed by the Bhnga\a, where many of the inhabitants wet6 
graaiora nnd where the iniindatinn wiui fl]K'cialIy hiph laree nnmhcm 
of eattle were washed away. Elsewhere throughout thediBtTict,bn^ 
more particularly in the Dholka and Bdnand rice villages, tbtt 
doetraction of agricultural capital by surface floods and by tho over- 
flowing and bursting of ponds was immense. Exclnaivo of tho city 
tJio dainago was wtimated at £317.231 (Kb. 3I,72,310).» At Pitn 
6851 ) tons (101,840 man«) of salt valued at £2?,776 (Ka. 2,87.760) 
were washed away. In tho town of VimmgAm no fewer than tw* 
thousaiiri housea wore surionsly damaged, or totally deslriiyetl ; is 
that of Parttiitij floven hundred; in that of Dholka one thon.>«ind; 
in that of Patri one thousand. Four villages were aunihilatM 
and HftiHMi human lives were lost. Finallyj the destniction of 
a cnnsiderablo part of the early, kharif, crops was completed by ft 
Bubsequeut drought which prcvontod those rosowa from reaching 
maturity. Government placed £1000 (Us. 10,000) at the dispcRu 
of the Ahmodabnd municipality to sjjend on improvements, and 
granted £:iOOO (Us. 30,000) t« Iwlp the dostituto to rebuild their 
honsea and to procure ncccssarioa. Ltmestono and clay fees were 
reniitte<l and an asMigumeut made for the repair of ponds and 
i-esorvoirs. Tho Bombay, Baroda, and Centi-al India Itailwny 
Company carried timber at roducotl rates and a relief fund uf 
£U1:35 (Ks. 31,350) was raised by private charity. By these meaiiA* 
and still more by tho fortitude and patient indui^tr)* of the ngrioulCnral 
classes, the flood ravnf?os were noon repain^d, and though the great 
scarcity of Indian jnillet litmw reduced the people to e'traits for 
fodder, all outn-ard t.rru.'t<s of the calamity had been efTacod by th^ 
end of tho next cultivating season. ^H 

1 CoUoctor** Reports <Utm] 4th Sciptembcr tod Slid NoTcnbcr 160& 

• The following wtrc the clii«f item»: 42.2113 Lotisce. flST-SSS (R«. 15.7»,580) ; 

G31»l> cMtlo. l'r'Sl>4 (lis. 58,!>40} ; crotiH, £l4'i..%6!l (lU. 14,25,6!W) ; poodB eioIsiiT* 

gi «-oUawldculi»a)^a«Bt^ Xl<*,;iI3(UB. 1,06,130). 





Tho noxt flood,' t)ie lugbest on record, accurrod id 1875. For 
8omu days before the 2l8t September Iho weather in ajid around tlio 
city of Ahmedttbad was exceedingly broken, indicating atTnofrpberic 
dii>turbBDC«B Bxtendiug ovor a very lar^o aroa. Tliu expliuiatioa 
was soon forthcoming. Reports from Idar^ tbo central registering 
etatioQ of ibe Suburniati catchtuout basin, showed for the foar days 
oodjng with tbo 2:ird, a raiufall of 21*20 incbcH, figures whii-b, 
■coordingto tbo ordinarily observed proportion, would reiweaent only 
one-tbini of the fall in tho bills to tho north. To the east the flood 
waters did not Ilsivo tho doop-cut river bod. But after it had bnrst into 
tho Iow>lying country of Daskroi, those barriers gradoally declining 
towanla tbo sea, imposed less and less restraint upon it at every mile, 
wbilo near the river muutli very high spring tides forced back tho 
flood waters. On the ovening of iho 21st, without any local minfall, 
the gauge opjposite the city showed five feet ubovo the ordinary rain 
weatner levuf. At eight o'clock on tho following morning the water 
had roached the Hoitu line of 1868. At noon it swept away tho 
Bcrcw pileniilway bridge tbreu milos obovo the city. An hour later, 
it_ wall breaking i^aiust iho Kllis llridgo in eight feet high waves. 

orlly aftenrards there was a great noiso as if tho piers wi-ro 

ing loosened from below. Treubliug violently the structure began 
;o bulge till at tho centre it was about, one foot out of lino. Then 
of its twenty-tliree spans eight sniipped, turned over, and were carried 
ofl on tbo top of Ibe flood.' During tho nfteruoon tbo water 
coutiniiLHi steadily io rise breaking off one more span on each side, 
and staudiiig in tho evening at five feet above the )8()8 level, or 
altogether at nineteen feet above that of the ordinary summer stream. 
On tbe morning of tho S3rd tbo bridge had lost eight moro spans. 
The flood stuod five foot lower, but soon swelling agnin destroyed 
two moro spans at noon and at five in tho afternoon reached its 
imuiu heighl of twenty-two feet above the onliiiary summer 
vol.* Ojipu^to tho city the oomputcd fu-ctiouil artu nf tbo stnom 
38,035 square foot, its velocity cnlculatod by the geuoral 
ala 11 '00 feet per second, or a dtscbargo pur second of 4-l>0,000 

t.* A largo portion of the city was now uuder water^ and an auKious 

1 The diibub of tbo Qaadot 1875 hftvo bocn obtained fmin UiQ rccnnU of tbc 
Bsvcati*« Buginter Ear liri^iktkrn.thc Dtstriot Kxucutivo Eni^iueer, and Diu Coll ik tor. 

> 9t\vn notcN ljy Mr. (!lnr^i;, V. K. , Ksorativo Kiiginoor (or Irri^^ti'iio. 

* Tb« imxiutun buubt uf thv t1wil lu marki'd <iu tl» butiou doM to tho Ellis 
Itriilgo WAS ftboDt 0-7 fei>t;Owvd tlu.t of IS(ii8,bat in tlURpljkOO therw wm a twck.wat^r 
cauMiI hj tba brid^jo aud ita approach. U&ptuo Cr\iik*liatit, It.E, Dlslrict 

4 Tbeao GfunMluveboennippU«l by Mr. J. R. ISatbcrly, ExiwotiT« tln^nftt tt,T 

Irriguion, Inhisopiiunn th« (ormalna siva f&rtAoliijthn result for riwn wiUiauoh 

at rail aud aiich irTa){nIar beda ua ttio«« uf (iiijilrut. Ho uotm that dni-ins tlio 

UmnI thvnctoaliy maasurc4 velocity In Utc NarbmU wn« only about oae-hnlf of 

aaloolatvd vpwd. H« doabta if nt tbiii limu tbo 8At>arnuiti itrti.uu waa ninoing 

vlhao flav«Dar Cogfatfoot aixv-iiul, th-it i^ alioiit t'wa militi xn huur. 

< Tha foUowira nnaotae u( tliu lluud Ti»<liiit;n : iiiuuiui|ial vtliuo suotb-aaat enmcTi 

Ahovogmuul,? : mtnton acbool ooBpound wall aimthcaflt ofimm, abore fminda* 

tiAQ. 2 8^ i iihaibu- now auuth giAa, above thf gruuml, R'6 ; KJtinpurgat* i\Mtiiid« 

'nitinent* of arch, abuvo ^^rtnind, 0' ; KAilgia inonqn* eaat eDtrauoo tptt«, Iwlww i^te 

'I, t' r ; KaaT* bvuae at tSlulliA|iur »uutfa-w««t cornor, abavo K^nnd, 2' 11' : 

akdpiir usU nnrtfa-wcat i^onx^r of llic neat, olio, brJowtho acftt. <!' 6" ; iMnth-ciMt 

comer of RupfAtii'B tu-je<)^HL- at Miif^A^iur, nbuvc ^ruuiid, I' 6' , Lbakrpi itiAtulatdix'* 



Chapter L 


niffht sot in, niado all the more dismal hy the crMh nf fUltn^honaa^ 
niid tlio cno8 uf t)io unfortunnU' penplvwlifi liud lout thuir properM 
luid were in daiigur vi losinjf their lives. Thu uuiniiui^ uf Uw :£4u 
shdwed a full a£ eiffHt feot, Imt at 8 a.m. a risL- onci> more sot in aod 
C»iitituied Hiiiiii aniversnl diHuay, uutil 2 p.m., wbco to lbt< inteiUv 
rL'Iiuf of all, Ibt) w»Ut liup bi-gim stcodiiy to recede, Hod by th« 
tivouiiie of tliu 2&th the river hod cumpk-tuly retiri'd uit«> Ua natiinl 

I'lio reported total nnrober of Ktp« lost was twetrD. The datl 
eiiiglu items iii tUo li»ct uf property dustmyvd wen.* thv niilway and 
Ibu Kllis brides. Tlio fonnfrcomplt'tt'il in (Vlober 1870 at a total 
cost of 13!l,327 (Ra J{,W3,270) carritii iho Wadhwan rxipnnion oftho 
Doiikbay^ Bartxla, nml CVotntl India llailwuy over tho rivur at a poiol 
near tliu Hhahi Hag, about thrt-o miloa shore tbu city. Tliu piun 
won) furmed of four ci~>IunjQi4 of Mitctii.41 wjrt'w pik's, 2' G' duimt-tor 
vacb^ thuttL* up and down etifuin Iwiug level with thu l>u<i of Uw 
rivur at which puint they weru braved. The two oontral coIuibbb 
snpporlcd tho suporstracture and on tho up-stream aide wpw 

frrott-rtod by hfATy wooden booms. TTinir depth underthcbi'd varifd 
roin fifly-luur to twenty -throt' fcot. The supcrstructuro cotifisKld 
of tiightcen Rpana, of uixly-lwo feet six iuches each, on W«rrcu*» 
pattern. Thi.s brid^ fiitoated below a sharp turn in the river waa 
^□iiitOy nnbincrgod. Ita fall ia chiefly aitribittcd to tho shocta 
ifjven by lar^e masse* of heavy timber brought down on the flood.* 
Tho KIlis bridj^p, named aftnr Mr., now Sir Bntrow, Klhs aoder wfaoiS 
auKpircs Oft Itt-venue CommispJoner N. V. it had b«u dcsignod, 
aupplicd a imasuge acrosa tliu river for all the cart traffic t3iat 
converged to Ahmedabod on tho west bank of the S&bannatt 
Connected with thu A'stodiya road, this bridge formed an iraportaitt 
link in a great lino of com muni catioti between almost the wbola 
vf tho district and tho terminus of the railway from Bombay. It 
consisted of Iwenty-tliree spans of sixty feet each. Tho roadway 
was forty feot widoj and was carried on fuiir Warren girders wiln 
four ineh planking. Each pier consisted of eight wr^mght-imu 
piles with Cast-iron screws. Tbeso wore placed in a double ruw, tha 
9xtromo width of each pier being six fic^et three inches. ThoraillngB 
were of cai)t-iron. The abutments were faced with cnt-stonfr. ito 
whoio work bud been executed on contract by Mr. A. Funic ; the 
bridge buing opened for tratKc in liSTO. Its total cost tai^Sl 

(iffion Mmih wftll, nTmtvo gmuml, 3* |"; IjU gal* tuwt imle pilUi- of ftrchwfty, stivi 
nil, •!' lu'; iiortb-wcftocjrBer o( eorered rtMCYoir of Khia hhdu; »bci»» gnmn^ 
H' 3 > Tin DwvAJA BorUi-eut pillar at amh. iibnT6gniund,i( ; nut ttuliauM aaU of 
JAmit nioiK|ue iKirth-eAst ftnil aontb-fAMt abviiiLi^ula rif arehw*y, above tiu, Vi 
DiaytLirar gnko nortk-wMt pilliu- at krchway, above sill oatKule, 2* 3" ; PreniiUiil 
^Ui nurlh-'nwt pilliu- cf luvhwar, abovs grouDcI. 1' 4 t Bortli-cart towor •i' 
Annia) iiiiiiponnd witll miKh-i-ant ^[le, nborc graan^, 8' 9". It ia worthy of anW 
that, eciinpMvil with tin: iiwl of thv central itifUfi. tho wat^r tiaug the tily waUl 
atood four fn-t hichor at tho ShiliApar gate, aiz feat at tho Delhi ffiiv, and asven (Mi 
at the Dorj'ipur j^ade. 

I 1'Iki ili^tniU of ttic ff>nniTr railway l!riclp> lutvc Im-n auppltnl l>y Mr. H. B. 
Ilarcrave, ItLiii(li:iit En^iiiwr, BuuiUiy luid Barodn Kailway. Thoar of tho Rltl 
Bririgo nn takca (torn thv AduuuieUativn Eiiwrta of tlio P. w. !>. tur tBCd-TOaad 



(Rs. 5,49,210), inoladin^ appmu:Iiofl, liod boon mot by GoTommont, 
and tlie expooso of maintaiaiDg it by the Ahmedfibad Municipality. 

losidu the city 3887 honsea valimd at £58,208 (Ra. 5.82,080) were 
in ruins. The dcstmctiou vt furaiture, grain, and other miscella- 
ncons properly batllut! accarato culculatiui], but wus ruugk)y 
coiapiitetlftt£l(v4-'>'^ (Rs. l,G4,oOO). Outsulo the walla 101 ril^feaj 
on Loth banks of the nvar, were affectud. In some cases the 
inliabitanls bad tofloo fur llioir iivt'sto tliu tufts of tret's tuid nifisquos, 
wliilf in othors, moru hfippily situated, the injury was limited to the 
Inas of a fuw cro))g. In tUo rural parts uf the ilii<trict the daiuago 
dmio was esIiin»t(Kl at a total mm of £1^8,405 (K». 13,84,050).' 
■UlB'.i ac-res of arable land .-wseRseil at £1353 (R». 13,5:J0J and many 
wells were either for a time or permanently mado useless by sift 
doposita. The misce 11a neons loss was probably inconsiderable. 
Viilii!ji'r» have si-Idoiu much honae furniture, and ia new of the 
apiiroiMrhiug harvest, their stocUs uf gi-ain for family consaraption 
bad bcon well nigh cxhanBtcd. 

Sirennonii and entirely sncceiisful efforts were raailo by the 
reaponaible GovcmnK-nt oSicers and by private individuals to rcUovo 
the doftlituto by doles of fowl and clothes. The news of the 
calamity had no sooner fijH'cad than private subscriptious amounting 
to the sum of £H,.'i28 (Rs. I,45,2a0) began to flow in. ITiobnintof 
tho burdon of roliff %vaa boruo by Governnient, who granted £5000 
(Rs. 50,000) to hi'lp the [Kioi-ost sufferers ; directed the forent depart- 
ment to .supply buildinj{ timber free of cost U) the villagers and to 

ic city at half price ;" remitted tho UMial foes on the excavation 
soitd, day, and limo; and sanctioned tho advAnce of £10,000 
. 1,00,000) to enable caltivators to buy seed, cattle, tools, and other 
agricultural stock. Rent reniistiionR were not, as a rule, found 
necessary. On the contrary so littlo was tho cnltivators' cre<lit 
■Soctetl, that out of the largo »um olTered as advivnees, outy £70 
(Rs. 700) were actually tiiKori, lluitigJi hmiis fettered by iiono but 
the simplest fonnalitipLS and witliout int<5roat or other charges wore 
freely given to every needy applicant of good charaotor. 

Undf'T the hmd of creeks may be mentioned those of Dbolora, 
vliari, nud Uogha.' 

Krep sinoe the foundation of the village of Dhobra it* name haa 
probably buen given to some though not always Iho somo inlet of 
tho sea. This part of tho country is specially Hulijuct to rapid 
change. The river Bhadhnr always shifting, completely altered 
it« course withiu the present century, depriving its estuary of a 
mn<ft a»oful scour. Remarkably strong tides acoording to some 
obscrroiB, and again a decrease in their violence according to 


Chapter L 




I ^1 TU« ilflt«l» MO I M70 home^ £50,741 {Kb. 5,07.410); 2006 aiumdlB. xayn 

^Ba 8960); flflld toob, £17,806 (R«. l,7S,0t»)i Btuidiiiff crops, £68,962 (Rs. 

^K^3 Kifiluaivo of carl muI nulwav Iiirv, the volao of ibo iimlmr given oatriebt vma 

Hi5,aH5 (i:«. 1,50.830). 

^^^S Tho .Sibvmnti riior bos a wulo mouth but it it choked wilh umd buiku ruiI hjui 
w> cDuvctucnt luu1>onr. 

(Bombfty -Cue 

Chapter t. 




otliijrs, have liclpo^ the brnphig np of mlt.' These togethor 
tho great mass of hoU yearly brought duwn by tbe Sabar 
and Mahi havo led to tbc encroEichnient of Uio luml rouad iho 
head of tho Gulf which TioficDChalor noticed a ct'utary and a 
half ago, aud which have probably beoa in grodoal prograu aiuoe 
the dBya when K»thi^w4r wus &n island.' Tho eiu-lieet item in tfaa 
biiitory of Uio Dholm-a crook, la a local trwIitioD pointing to the Morii 
U^ta, a spot just north of tho towu and abont sevGn milee woat fraiB 
the uoareot poiut of thu prutfeat cuust-liaei as the place of anchartga 
in thoaixtoonth century. At the end of thoeiglitcouthoeatary, Um 
rirer Bh^dhar was fiowiof^ a short dist&nco coat of this, brooduni 
into an entuary thirteou miles iioatb of the preoenl Dholem en 
and jaat above Uie creek uf Bdvli&rL Up this paaeed ail v«i 
hound for theso parts, bnt already in 1S02 they asoendod no bi[_ 
than Khijra about one mile south uf the preseut Khun iJaudar. In 
18015 Sir Miguel du Souaa, sont by the Bomlxiy Govoriunont to 
inquire into the natural advantages of the port, describes tho rirer 
mouth as ' both fine and doep^ having water enough for laictJts of 
143 tons {400 kh'ntdis) to go in and out with gruat fwfoty/ Two 
years later (ISOS) Lieut. Ballantine iuformed the Collector of Kaira 
that ' the port was so well onlculatffd by nature for the landing and 
loading of merchandise that it could not bo improved by art. The 
most weighty goods wore taken by carta within a fuw yards of 
the vessel and hoisted on board from a tank.' In spit-e of tliis 
prosperooa acooant Bilt was rapidly gathering. Though Uie Rritisb 
port was oatablished at a point bulnw UahatalAv nearer tho ^ca tlian 
nny of previous rosort, it hod in 1810 to bo moved still lower. When 
eurveyed' in 1822, the only passage was between sand banks and mnd 
flaUj perf(i>ctty dry at tho first third ebb, and only ci>voit'd alwat 
three or fonr honrs in the twelve, with from throe to nine foot dimng 
the neaps, and from eight to fourteen feet on the springs. The 
four mile passage to tho landing place was in some places nearly 
choked by sand. Tlie soundings were irregular. At high water 
springs they varied from three to thirty feet, bat at low tide for 
nuiLrty iiiuo hours together, tho creek and several miles below it were 
left dry. Tho tides were very strong, the flood coming in with 
great force in an instant, strong enough to upset any grounded 
vessel caught broadside. Tho creek and the part of the Gulf 
leading to it were extremely dangei-ous. Kvon with expert seaiuen 
veusels above tho size of small boats ran grcitt risk in frcqacntiug 
it. In consequence of this report and of tho number of accidents 
constantly taking place at Dholera, Government in 1S23 declared 
Bdvhiri a public port. This for some years during tho busy seaaon 

1 Th« Sarreycrr General in liis rqxut of April 2!Hh, 18!8, rcmarka that 'the tid^ 
particu)«ily in tho •priugs, runln^ in smi nut of iKe (ol'l) crevk wiU> » npidi^ wad 
Blivii^fth uut pcrUitiM vzcoQilcd L>y Oio ti^li.'* in uuy part of tho wurltL Thia oft«a ■> 
duubt toUB awiky l&rgc ■pitxm from the mud bank» uf tbc creek nud is probaU; Uls 
OMaaof kbe ohui^pis m lU abita.' lite Udu aru atill (lt»7lj| nidbvlM moclk tHrovgc^ 
hwn thui in anyotiier part of the Gulf. 

> ?M nnder * Nal.' pwe 16. 

3 Lt. Uomimculi, '^Ui Mov. ISltZ Boui. tiov. Bct. Uw.76 uf 1823. 




drow off moetoE Ibo shippiug. ' People say,' wrote Mr. Crawford in 
lf*2t], * that almut nino years ap> spnng^ttdes went nearly foar miles 
hi'^lier np tliO Dholera cppok than at pr«ient In time tlio landing 
rlitco will become compU'tdly dry.' Within ten years Mr. Crawford's 
forecast proved true. Tho estuary was altopethor abandoned and 
thofwrt removed to A'nibU some miles np thocoaat But A'mbli was 
found little better than Dhulera. In 1816 the port was chan;^ to 
the old Khnn nandar at the mouth of the ontlet "by which the Blimlhnr 
Imd lately forced a new way £or iteelf to tho sea, and which has sinco 
borne tho name of the Dholera creek. In 1850 the anchnnicrr^ ^vas 
moved aboot fonr miles nearer the town to the spot now called Khan 
Bandar, and there Tessel» have since continued to load and dischorgo 
cargo. At this place an embankment misod above the level of 
spring tides was in 184>d-70re-btiilt at acostof £427 (Rs. 4270) paid 
out o( tho local fouda.' 

The B&vliari creek called after a vilU^ near its head is an arm of 
tho sea running inland at a point sixteen miles south of tho entrance 
to the present Dholera creek. A section of it forms tho bonndary 
between British territory and the Bhavnagar state. ■ When sarvoyed 
"n 1822 it was about eight miles long, mnning nearly north-west, 
,nd for about five miles from 550 to 600 feet broad, and beyond 
Uiat gradually narrowing and losing itself. At high water springs 
the soundings varied from twenty-six to thirty-five feet, and at low 
water, except for tho first one and a half miles from tho entrance, 
it was nearly dry. At neap-tido high water it had seldom less 
than twenty-three feot of water ; and it was not dry for more than 
two and a half or three hours in the twelve. The fiood ran about 
^^ne and three-qnarters, and the ohb about two and a quarter miloa 
^Bhe boar. It wa<; high water on the full and changOj at the entranco 
^Kt 4h.32m. and about five mileu up at Oh. tI6m. p.h. Tho bottom 
^■iraa mostly mud, and mud and sand mixed, whero vessels mtghi 
^ground with the greatest safety without the need of shores. It 
j Boemod well suited for trading purposes. Even during the neaps, 
conntty vessels of tho iargcHt sixo might freijuent it with tho 
greatest ewie and safrty, pas-sing with little difficulty up aud dowa 
with one tide. On the loft bank four and a half miles up, was a 
good site for a port with, mnning west for about 8U0 foct, an inlot 
or creek whore vessels might load and nnload. The banks of 
the creek were generally above spring tide hi^h-watcr mark, and 
the gronnd was well covered with trees and rich grass. Till 
about tho end of Febniary there was abundance o£ fresh water in 
the neighbourhood, and daring the hot weather months sappHes 
could be brought from the large and flourishing village of B&vli^ri 
distant only two and a quarter miles to the north-west. In 

r'"'.o of these advantages, Biivlifiri from the marshy and difficult 
racter of tho coontry inland has never risen to bo a place of any 
insidoroblu trade. 

1 Of UU jv*n fagftto ooold not leaTn the crauk froin the 6tb to th« 11th of «ithor 
biH of Uto nxntk- But tho beAvy Uoodn of ItfTSsoswopt oat tho lUt Hut ft Udea 
boat «a BOW (1878) ptM mt •( aoy tlmpd tkto ; mc Maw * Dhobm,' 

Description. J 





At tho town of Gaglia ia a little creek, dry at low tide bot at his^ 
waiter (ifToring an cnu-ancc to small craft. Larf^ vomioU ridit at 
ancliur about u (tuarter uFa mitu ufT tbu lainliuK placo, tbu ruadstuMl 
giving good holning-grotind and b<:iiig wnll shelt«rod. The Mland 
of Hrom and suvural rocky revta break Iho force of loatharly 
winda, »aud bnuks prutuct it ou ibu norths and very strong tmaiaif 
vinds ore rare. 

Thirty-seven miles aontb'-WDSt of Ahniedaliad, tlio Nal covers an 
area of forty-cine square itiiloa most of it andcrr wntor all tlie year 
found. Fbd from tbo nortbom nptands it is raid somotiaiaa to 
ran dry after a year of Rciutty rainfalL It is a slmlluw and in iDo?t 
parts muddy lagnne, sfldom more tban tax foot deep, .sprn>ainit'd 
by dreary flats relieved only by plaiita and boshuis of the 
rankest and coarsest growth. Tho northeni^ western, and 8«>utbei 
sidea, witliout any well-marked banks arc corerod by tall ne«r 
impenotrabb reeds and higb growing grass. To the nvit tho laud j 
in wave<]jke monnds of Idoso sand, thnmu up by tho fitrong aoi 
west wiud, much like the Kiltocks that fringo the Broach 
Somewhat far apart, with between them wide bare silt-c 
bays, these wavo'Iike sand hilts stretch north-west from 
KaL Soon after the rains arc over, in the shallow part« tho 
water is brackish> and by the end of March it is salt. MyriiuU of 
water birds find a homo in its marshcH, and during the hot season 
its little graS(4-covcred iiitanda are a gruKin^ ground for herds of 
cattlo, Tho reeds, of which there is a most luxtiriant growth, nra 
valued as thatch; and for their small dark-coloured bulbous rootv. 
These sun-dried, Creed from their sheath of poisonous fibre, and 
gronnd into flour mako a sweotish plcasaut-tatrtod brectd nouriahtng 
to those used to it> but to straugers irritating and unwhol(<Aom«, and 
except by tho poorest classes, or lu seasons of scarcity, Uttta uaed as 
an wiiclo of food. 

It is probable that tho Nal and the lower oonrso of tho river 
BhogAva, togethrj" represent what at no very distant date was nn «nii 
of tho sea, which possibly at a still earlier lime coinbiuod with th*; Itjiu 
of Cutch 1-0 i.solntfj Kiitliiftwiii* frcim tho mainland 'Hardly any 
inhabited country,' wrote Mr. Motvill in 1S27, ' can be much luwer 
tlian the iEsthums butwuen the Nal and tho Kan. During heavy 
min it ia entirely overllon-c:d, changing the peninsula into an 
island ; and if the rain is very heavy or lasts long, the water of 
the Rau flow s into the Nal, and from the Nal iinds its way info 
the Gulf of Cumbay'.^ Stones bomd thmugh the centre arc some- 
times still found in tho Nal, and are belived by the per>ple to bo 
ancient anchors.' A popular local legend tells how in tho days 
when Krishna \va8 incarnate, the now shallow lake was a part uf the 
groat ocean, and how on ono occasion a very high tide washed from 

1 Bom. Gov, Scl. X. fiff. 

S Dr. Hovi^ so l*Ui u I76S, waa tnld thai at every high sprini; boata cwiw fmn fur wlc u fur up na I'artiuivAtla timlvr Mitti&jMir, and that outton WM 
Hpurivd trom the aome [>1aou to Brooch and Sural, bum. Ut>v. UcL XVi. ISI. 

, QqiarKi 
P^lie short 


;1]e shore all the saadpipors' egga. Tho berenved pai'enta called a 
general assembly of the birds, who tnakiag cominon cause lH>g:in to 
bring earth in their beaks to diam out the greedy sea. The haaglity 
cogle. Krisbna's stoed, not having attended tho aHBombly, was put out 
nf ca9t«,aiid at his next visit was received with contumely. Forced 
to do somothiag to retrieve hia position, he persuaded his master to 

tore tho lost tggs, and tho birds gave ovor building tiieir dam. 

is tradition soems in inylfaical dress to show, at once tho former 
chamctor of tho country, and tho gradual shriaking of the sea. 

Besides those noticed above, the district contains no natural lakes 

>f any importance, bat its ponds arid reservoirs covi-r an area of 

|;i,946 acres. Especially in the parte of Dholka, Dflsfcroi, and 

^Viraingira formerly traversed by Vanj&nU and pastoral tribes, Uiey 

ire larj,'e, their stores of water far exceeding the wanta of tlie villages 

rhere thoy are found. The Cbandola reaervoir, about two miles soutK 

^of the city of Ahmedabad near the tomb of Shiib Alam, is embanked 

with earth and circnlnr in form, and covers an anyi of ISl acres. 

To fare tho sides with stone would seem to have been part of 

the original plan. Uutthis for some reason was never earned out. 

' 291 acres are asaossed as irrigable from it, but mncb of thia land 

I lies within its own bed as it seldom retains any depth of water long 

after the close of the rains. 

»Abont 3 of a mile from the Rfiypur gnto is another rcaorvoir called 
the Haaz-i-kutub, Kutub's pond, or the Kaukariya, that is. Hie 
Kmeatono lake.' This reservttir, probably the Inrgent of its kind in 
India, covering sovonty-two acres and more than a iniln round is a 
ppgntar polygon of thirty-four sides, each side 190 feet long. It 
was, when completed by Sultan Kutub-ud-din in 1461, entirety 
surronndod by many tiers of cnt stnno stops with six sloping 
approaches flanked by cupolas and an exquisitely can'ed water sluice. 
In the centre of the lake, connected with tho mai-gin by a forly-eight 
arch viaduct was an i.<iland with a garden called Nngina or the jewel,* 
and asanimcr palace called Gbattamandal, a favourite report of the 
later Abmedubad kirigs.^ In 17S1 the approaches and tlieir cujwlas 
were in ruins, tho sidt-s of the take in had repair, the bridge fallen in, 
and the island with no trace of a garden or a palace.* In this Ktate 
it remained till, in 1872, tho Collector, Mr. Borradaile, undertook ita 



I Of th<i Minie Kinkariyft two ator'uM arc itiM, (MK th&t the lake was lo called ttom 
le i)uwitily of lioiaaWDo, baiikar, dim out of it : (ho other that a )>ol>blt>. tankm. that 

(ooml jti w-av into Uic kiug'a ahoc^ vlicn lie avutv to too thu wuika, haul the hunuur of 

givina tho luce its nam a. 

> Mcnt at the deUila rirlatitift to the K^Tikarija lank lini,-e been taken from Ifr. 
Hup«'a ooUa un thr> Arcbitvoture of AiuuedahotL 

> Ib the ■evvnb.vntb oentury this lake vm one of tins tight* at AlimcdalMd. DelU 
Valte I lt:23) Ihuu^lit it oam nf thr tiuut remark nhli? tiln(.-ei( in thn wurld. fy^lUrii, VH. 
THcvsttnt 1 1606) caUa it n grtAt Uku with a bf^aiitiriil ^rdcn ia itie middle, approach- 
H l)y a bridge 400 pocw li-np. At tUo end ft tho garden was a very plMwuit 
haildms. Veyogts, V. 22. Mandclalu'a occonnl ll<i38) is confuiied. He ■peak* nf a 
NaciaaMf DtMs to tiia 8hilii HAg on raised grgund i^'ith a lak« and wells in tlio 
gaMWL Vojaam, 86. 

AFuibw'Or. Man. III. 131. 

Chaptio L 





[Boiotttj Qmietteer, 


Oh&pter I- 






ropair. Since then a road CCOO feet looff hu bean made from 
lako to the Ki^ypnr gat«. 'Hie high bunks of the lake have 
put in order niij planted witb tr<-C8, and tbe stono alopeaod steps of 
the inlet on the north aide repaired. 'IIid lako haa boen tJeared d 
Bilt ; tLe aonth retaininff wall baa been restored ; and a fiigbt of stepi 
built from tho top of tno viaduct down to the embanked canw 
leading; to tho island. Of tbe arched masonry cauBeway connecti 
tbe bank with Uio island, a small portion baa been rcfltored^ and 
tbe rest of tho distance an earthen bank baa been thrown op. Ilk 
tho island tlio anrroonding masonry wall haa boon ro-buJlt ; on ^ 
fonr sides steps bare been made ; a new pierced pampct wall has 
been built ; a well has been cleaned out ; tbe ccutrril foantain poi 
in order; tho north gnrdon house ronowod, and tho open groud 
dufr, cleanid of bricks^ and filled with good soil. It is propoaed 
(1879) by a canal eleven miles long to connect the Kdnkanra hka 
with the Khari river and to use ita waters to supply the 
lake to the north-east of Batva.*^ 

nya taica 


Malik Shahdn, Tbe Slalik Sb^bAn lake, though hardly inferior in aixe 

known, beineaitaatedinannnfrcqacnledtinottwoandKqiULrtcrmika 
eaat of tho city near tho viUago of BakhijU. It ia stono built oi ma 

area of sovouly-oue acres. Its sides 
ita bod is so silted up as to bold 


octagonal siinpe including an 
are in good preservation but 
depth of water.' 

Tho Sarfchej lako, boilt by Mnhmnd Urgada (14r.9-1511) n 
the tomb of Ei^haikh Ahuisd Kiiathi Ganj Bnkliah at Sarkhej, is t 
very fine work oblong in shape. Ita Bymmutry is Bomewhat spefll 
by tho subsoqnent construction of Mabmud's and bis family's 
uansoletims on the north-east comer. Tbe sides of the lake oonaial 
of the usual tiers of stops of cut stone, and tho area of the bod is over 
twenty-six acres. Tho general depth of water is sovcn feet, 

Tho Hansar loss oommonly called tho Mainal-sar lake on tho 
west of tbe town of Yiraingiim watt, like the Malar at DboltDiii 
bnilt during the regency of Jtlainalj or Minid Devi, the motbor 
of Sidh lUj, the great Solanki prince of Patan (1094-1143). It 
oonlains, all the year round, water of an average depth of twelve 
feet Though the area is smaller than many others in tho district, 
being only fiftoou acres, it*i ricihly Rculptiired shrines relieving the 
bare linos of its steps, thuugb now di ruin is Led in uumberaiul going 
to decay, give it a special bi-iinly. Irregular in shape, it is popularly 
beUered to have been built in imitation of the form of the conta 
shell, tho Ilinda war-trumpet. Each of its small spirc-corered 
shrineSj sapposeil to havo onco eqimlled the days of the year and 
still muro than three hnndred in number, is on one side of Ifae 
lake furnished with a pedestal, and on the other with a ctroalir 

I Ex. Eng. Itrifnitinn, 3S7, <Ut«cI !2th Marcli, and OOH, lUfcad S4th Hanh 1879: 
> 'I'bc arc* and doptli uf th« water of Uiia and other rcMrvoin an takaa tttm a<i 
Rttnra riiraiatioil by tho Collector. 
a Strictly apcalmi}; it ia in the \-illAgoof &lakarb«, nc«r BaiUicj. 


basio, jalddhar. It is snppoeed that the former were consecrated to 
aUn Krislma aad the latter to MfthadeT. The water, collected 
from the gurroaDding country, passes fint into a deep octogooal 
Bile trap, kuiid, faced with stoDe and on each side ornamented 
with a uiebo containing a figure sculptured iu hold relief. Fruiu 
the kuiid the water paasoa by a moBonry -lined channel through 
a sluice into the lake. Tlio sluice is dividc<l into three cylinders 
and en a terrace over it is placed a large parilion with pyramidat 
Toof. This building, rt->stoi'ed in Mariltha timesj has on one aide 
Wen boUt up and dedicated as a temple to M«Ua Bechr^jj, Hound 
ihe lake the flight o£ steps is in sevorid places crossed by roadways 
posaing down to the water's edge. On either hand of one of these 
stands a larger temple, foriuod of a porch, nwruhip, with a double 
iimLM- chamlnT and hplre, and in the corresponding po&itiua on bho 
oUier side of the take is a Hat roofed colonnade. 

The Maliir,loea commonlv called the Muiiial lake in the western 
eut'tkirts of the town of Dbolka, covers an area of over forty- 
eight acTvn Hud buhls a perennial supply of watvr nut less than tift«t)n 
feet in depth. It is said to havo boon built by the mothor of Sidh K4ji 
ftnd completed in the year 1115 (511 H.). Mr. Forbes telh* the 
' Uowing story of its construction : 'Ou the east was aeourtezan'a 
booao which as it interfered with the symmetry of her dG*figtt 
ihe H4ni proposed to pnrchase for a largo sum of money. Tlie 
uwner, howevtT, dotlincd to part with it, reuiarkiug that ht*r name 
would bo rendered as famous by the refusal as that of the queen 
iwoold be by the construction of the reAervoir. Makial Ucvi was too 
tipright to employ force and her conduct in the matter though it 
liroduced an irregnlarity in tho tank, which is .still apparent, procured 
lor her government a rcput ati"ii preserved iu the local proverb, ' Would 
jon see justice, visit tbe MabW.'' 

The Kh^n lake, also on the vrcai of the town of Dliolka, is 
uttid to bave been built about the end of the fi^tl^elltb ur the 
l«'gnnning of the sixt*(cnth century by nuo Sarrur Khrin fmm Delhi. 
Octagonal in shape, it covers twofity-fivo acres, and bolJs water all 
tlie year round of an average dejith of ten feet. On an iKhuid in the 
^middle ifl a ruined building, approached hy a Ktone viaduct still kept 
in fair repair at the cost o^ the lucnl uiuuicipality. 

The llullan lake, on the north-wost corner of the town of 
Dhandhukn, is twenty aureus iu e.-ctcut and is surrounded by masonry 
walls now in gn^at diinrepair. Thero arcr no stops and all the water 
ries up in tlie hot season. It is said to havo been built by a Mpghal 
officer whose name it bears. 

At Dholem ha.'j been constructed out of tlie local ' Dharm 
fal^v Fund * a reservoir meaauriug sixty acres, liaving atone walls 
*«& three sides and on the fourth a tlight of steps. 

Sear Oogfaa the Sonuria reservoir through an underground 
Bhanno! supplies the town with water. It is rectangular or nearly 
fuani in shape and covers more tban forty-eigbt acres. 

Chapter L 







I fUBMalA,s& 

3 DcUUs are given under (U'tiUa. 

Chapt«r IL 



With the oxcppUon oF Pimm ihe only island belon^D^ to iUs 
district is a soiaII ono ut ttio mouth of tbo Biburn&ti. ui foraMr 
timc« its f'ilu, Salvadora pemica, Aod^nlausi bushes were a favonrit* 
haunt for lionii and tigers. 

Hram lies in tho Gulf of Cambay about four oad a half miles from 
Viog\m. A. detailed account of this island is given below noder tho 
head * Places of Interest.' 

Except in tho hilly country of Modasa where tho supply is some- 
timca considerable the raiufall throughout the district is gonenBj 
very light. TIlq regiiitvred rainfsH in the city of Aha)edab*d 
during tho seven yearrt ending I84B, gireo on average of 27'6^ 
inches ; that from 1853 to 1300 an nvernge of S.''i'd7 inches; and 
that from 1870 k> 1878 an average of 32-1:1 iiirhoa. The rainy 
aeason generally begins in the latter part of June, oxponda iti 

Seateet strength iu July, and gradually lotiea force till ita close aboat 
e end of September. It is the popular belief of Iho cultivating 
claiiR^, not without some apparent corroboratiou from statistics, thnt 
o£ late yt'^n the raiufall haa ahowa a tcodtiuoy to cuuso at aa earher 
period than formerly.' 

In the cold season (November - February) though the nuig« of 
temiieraturc isverygreat.and the cold, eapecially withadiynoftb-eHt 
wind, socms very severe, the thermuiueter i-arcly goes Iwlow tha 
freezing point. *l\om March until the rains bi'giu, the wiud, turning 
to tho west, grows he«t«<l in the day time. Fcbruai'v and June are said 
to be UBunlly the healthiest mouths^ and October tlie most sickly.' In 
that month, except in Gogim where blows a fresh and healthy sua 
brec/e, tho climate is close nnd uiiuHnmtic Cevors are common. The 
thermometer n-'odiugs in the tdrndu in the city, which may be takca 
as a £airly rcprosuntative locality^ give the fullowtng results : 

1 Tli« unulntle dvUiU for the city of AfanwiiUlMd m 



A*»j4aiQtt JtaSnfkB. lUf-ffTS. 



































im .. 



tuft .. 















i»n .. 






IMO. . 






























I»t . 





























1S30 tlip wliolo eonntrr «xhi'jiU.Hi a Diiwt n)«Un«hi>)y appvArwico. Id a uiskt tbi 

fiiKBt crofiB \n;r*j sliriviiUud. rwl. uid UacloutiL Col]«Uif'6 It«|)VTt> 23rd Nqv. 18311} 

Bom. V,f\v. Itov. Kc«. 17 of 1821, S. ^_ 

> Kiport hy I>r. JobnsoD, diAeH 29tli Ockibor 1S74. 



AhmedtOad Uteraumettr Reading; 1838-1848 and 1861-1874. 








1838 to 1848 

1861 to 1874 

Uin. Mftx. 

S5 8a 
61 80 

Mill. H«x. 

81 106 
81 105 

Mid. Max. 
77 » 

74 as 

Hin. Max. 

58 81 
62 82 

QeneraUy speakinf^, the climate of the central portions of the 
district is more oppressive daring the hot season, and at all times 
less healthy than along the coast-line or in the north, the coast 
benefiting by its nearness to the sea, and the north of the district 
by its height above the sea level. 



Ifiombftj Oaaat 


Chapter IL 



hildiny Stottt. 


TnR moand of jiyiti slnf^ on whicli tho Riaoll missinn 
Rtand--! would w?cm to show that nt one tinio iron oro w»s wnrlccd 
the ueit'bbourhonU of Qu^^lin. Couaidenible tmcts in Vinniigim are 
covored with earth siiitKl to the manufuctnro of nallpftrt'. Tha 
mntorial forthiHmftniifiictnrpin the criiintry round Dholem was cme 
of the adrantagcs urged by tho Qinimda wheu offering tboir torritofy 
to the English in ^80\, nnd Sir Mignel dc Souka, who was dopnt«a 
hy tlie Bombay Goverument to louko Iwul iuuuiries hud Br' 
satisfactory spc-cimt'D. AlM)Utthcl>cginuiiigof tucccutnry sail; 
wna made in targe qiianlitics. ilut s'x>q aft4?r the transfer of Uj^H 
district to the English tho demand ceased, aud, in spittj of effonH 
iiinoo made from titnu to tiino, has nover revived. Details of itft 
nropamtion witl be found tinder tho head * Monn&ctnres,' where hIm 
detikils of tho Klijiraghoda »Jt works are given. Coane eoda, i*^ 
U6ed iu Hoajf-nrnking, is found in largo quantities in tho wost of 
Par&ntij. Frtiin ncjir Cogha, an earth is Bont to Uombay^ and Dsed. 
for making moulds in iron fuundriea. 

The veined agate, dorcidar, one of llio most vnlnod of Cam' 
stones, is found near lldupor, in Dhandhuka, under the surfsco 
in nobbles nf Mirious shapes but not more than half a {Wund U 
weight. When worked ay, it taken a high polish and is of liro 
kinds, tthowiog cither a uark ground with white siroakv, or dail^ 
veins on a light background. A chocolate stone, raUa, of browniali 
earthy base, is found near B&npnr, imbedded a few feet deep in the 
soil in mosses of from ouo to eight |)ouDds iu weight. 

Nodular limostone, kauhxr, found in rivers and watorconraos, and in 
extensive beds eight miles soath-wostof Viramgam at tho villngvof 
Kankniviilij and nt Barvdhi in Uhandhuka, is used for mortar and 
in road-making. Except in Gogha and Jlhn^'uagnr, in tho south-woat, 
the district is liluioKt entirely withoab building stone. At ur uvM 
Gogha are four dilTurent kinds, ^'wrn^U and «uvan, rough-gmlned 
chalky sand»<toneti, and hhijadia, also found in Piram, and *lf>ln -hi-i, 
oougloxnerates. Of these doldskia is most ased, but, as in the G '.-^h^ 
town walls, weiu« badly. These stones oust, by tho hundred cubie itct 
from -tj*. to tilt. (Rs. 2 -Rh. 3) to quarry, and from 16*. to £1 (U-t, 8 • 
lis. IU) to dress. Six miles front tioglm at Kuda » muck better clau 
of sandstone is quarried in tiajrs of from two inches to a foot thiok, 
even sur£u:ed, easily dressed^ and lasting. It costs, by the hundred 

I MutvnnlH for thv Mcoert) nvclion bftvc bcon ■uOTitie<t by Umfainant C- V. VuStt, 
R.R. and fur tho (Jnnic nninmls and Birds SMtkiui uy tliQ fate Msjur F. U SpgiST* 
ODil by Livuluuiiit U. D. UlivicTf K.B. 



foot, 4*. (Rs. 2) to qnany, and 12*. (Rs. fi) to dress. Sue 

of building Htone are found at Bh&Tuagar ; akvddtty a 

;lomorate like the Goghftstono bntmorolastinjf, costs ^. (Rs. 2) 

« 100 cubic feet to quarry, aud IGs. {Rs. 8] to dresa ; ^omd 

d vakudia, both very bard tnip usud only in rubble moKoury 

to quari-y 128. (Ks. 0) tho 1U(> cubic feot; tkordi, a rod 

uglomerate ivitbout lime and pnjbably containiu^ iron, can 

nicely drossod at a coot of £1 (Rh. 10} the 100 cubic feet; 

iithri, oacd cbieliy for hand com-^ndin(^ mills, is very like granito 

ut contains lese quartz. It cu^ts to dreiut ,£2 10<(. (Its. 25) and 

to quarry 8». {Ra. 4) the lUO cubic feet; rdjiiln, a trap good for 

' uilding but not found in larpo blockB, co»is to quarry 8*. (Ra. 4) 

d to dress 12 (R«. 20) the 100 cubic feet. At tsihor a variety of 

eist> niakes smooth flags from one to six inches thick. But it Hplita 

on expognre to the air and is so hard and brittle that it can 

RcUrTcely be dressed. It costs to quarry IGs. (Rs. 8) the 100 cubia 

t. In the Chamilnli hills prauite, sienite, and gneiss are quarried 

large blocks and used chiefly for liutel«. They cost to quarry 

6«. (Rs. 4) the 100 cubic feet, and bo dress £3 (Rs. 30) ; a softer 

ariety is used as road metal. Between Pavi and Bhimndth a hard 

"ety of limestone is found. Tliis, though not in large blocks, ia 

ful in coarse masonry. It costs to quarry 4«. (Ks. 2) and bo dixisa 

(Rs. 20) the lOOcnbic feot. 

Nr> hind has as yet been set apart for foresU. Br. Hove, tho 

'oli>>h traveller, Tvhen in Gujarat about ninety years ago (1787), 

shown two plantations, one of sandalwood near Dholka, tho 

other of blackwood near Abmedabod. The sandalwood plantation 

lay c!o30 to the SdlMinnati, two miles from tho village of Dauhit, 

and was about four and a half mitcH long and two broad. The seed 

had a few years before been brought from Mysore, nnd tho trees 

were still young, none of them moro than nine inches in diameter. 

The seeds wore sown at tho end of tho hot weather in smftll furrows 

sixtcca feet apart. During tho first year the yonug plants wonted 

nch care, and afterwords, botfidea the flooding from the river, they 

ro in the dry season watered from wells, the earth turned np tiear 

thi'ir roots, and tlioir branehcs pruned. They came to maturity in 

about ten years and were then cut down and the ground re-sown.' 

The other plantation near Ahmedabad was of Idldjiuid or black- 
wood, 'fhis was a larger grove, and part of its timber was cut 
ererj y«ir, buried in a swamp and after soaking till it wa^ hlnoM whs 
sent to Snrat and other pLu;es on tho coasts From Dr. Ilove's 
iption tho tree was probably timni, Diospyrus moutaua, and 
<t the regular blackwood, /tixam, Dalbergia latifotia." 
Alunedabftd, with no forests or large grocos, is on the whole rather 
of timber. Except SAuand, Daskroi, and Dholka, where mango, 
rij/ati, Mimuflops indica, mohtuia, Bansia latifolia, fimlnl^^, Melia 
rachta, and other shade trees are foujid either single or 

Chapter II. 



1 IIoTiCi Ton™, Ham. Oflr. SbL XVI. M-tW. 
> HoviS'i Twura. Bum, (Jov. Sal XVI. L4& 




C!iapf«r H. 


in Hmall grovps, mo»l of the distrirt is poorly wooded. 
in the north-ea-st is, to Bonie extent, an exception. Smno parta M 
well Htockifd with hiuuko and rdytt-ii trees, othort are covorod i 
bninhwood, and the ModAsa hlllH have a tauall supply of iufe 
teak rafters and bamboos. The produce is entirely oonflonu-d ia 
the district, cliiyfly in tlie city oE Ahmedabad. Many of the Moilasa 
wild plants, shnibs, and tn-ea arc used as food, in rufdicine, dy«in^ 
fixing' colooiTi, and taDuing. Gum, especiftlly from iho khrr, 
Acacia catechu, and htihul. Acacia arabica. is guLbetx^ by BhilR and 
sold either for grain op money, or oaten by the poorer daasea. Other 
kinds of gum, awjd by goldsinithti and dyera, aro exported* The 
fiploj FicuB religiosa, aud bordi, Zixyphos jujuba, yield a wm 
much Qsod by goldsmitha for staining ivory red. Ptph, bordi, Mid 
iMfikhra leavea are ealeu by bufTalocs. The mukuda is very common 
iu the north-cast ; its berry, boiUnl with grain and the le«Tes ol a 
creeper called liori, is a very favoorito article of food with tl* 
Bhils. From nu^uda seed dotia or soap oil is extracted mxid 
to Kapadranj and Pur&nti]'. Stuoe the extonwou of the ru:.- -,. 
to Wadhwdu, Ahmedabad mangooa ore largely exported to 

Tho chief domestic animals of the district are oxen, ooin^ 
buffaloes, sheep, Roats, horses, camels, and aascs. Of oxen the 1875-77 
returns show a toUl of U8,a99 head. The finest, worth from il5to 
X30 (Ra. IM-Rh. 3(H)) the pair, owned by the well-to-do Kaubiaud 
Bohora cultivators of Daskroi, Dholka, and Dhaudhnka, are bron^ 
from K^tbiilw&r aud Kiinkrej in Falanpur. Tho cattle of tbe 
other parta of tho district, oapcciftUy in Mod&aa, are amall ao^ 
poor. The Oogha oxen, though small and lean, are said, br 
endtuiuico and power of draught, to equal the larger breed. Otoonta 
the total is returned at nO,tl-t, and of she-buffaloes at 110^089. 
Cows of the Dhandhuka breed are much prized and arc said to 
yield as much as sixteen pints of milk a day. Tlie other dotails givco 
ui the Kaira Statistical Account apply to Ahmedabad. 

Sheep and goats are returned at 74,559, a number more tbflo 
suffideiit for locnt wants. Tlicy are not all the prodnee of the 
district. Mauy are yearly brought by Musalin&n traders firooi 
M&m-^r and sent to Bombay. The wool trade to Bombay, also ia tho 
hands of Musalmfiua, ia growing in importance, the totdU qtuwlit; 
aent by rail having risen from 978 tons in 1 868 to 2027 Ions in 1877. 
Other particulars are tho same as those given iu the Kaira Statdatkal 

ITorseo returned at 6804 are owned by lai^ landholders, 
well-to-ilo cultivatorfl, and tflwtispeoplo. Considerable numbers of 
horseaof the Kflthi, Ktibiili, Sindhi, Cntohi, and .^rab breeds an 
reared by KAbuIi merchants in Ahmedftbad. They find a reedj 
sale in the city of Alimeclabnd, among the well-to-do Hinda and 
Musalnian classes, and among large land-holders in Dbolka, 
Phandhuka, aud Viramg^m. As Ahmedabad is one of the best 
horse-growing districta in the Presidency, Government have made 
special efforts to improve the local browT. During the nine years 
ending lb7B from eight to ten stud horses hiivo been kept in Un 





ict, coTcring yearly on an aremgo about 228 maroa.* A yearly 
how has also been held with au average uttuudaoce of about 
animals, the produco of stud horses. 

Campls, retamed at 5o2, aro bred by Kabiins, Rajputs, and Sindhis 

in Daskroi, Viramg&m, and Dhandhaka. Of conntry camels the 

male only is nsed for carryinff burdens and the female for milk, the 

llabari's staple food. The Alimcdabad camnla aro less prized than 

Ih'tse bront^ht from Marwdr. These, eapccifllly the very swift Thai 

ftiniel, wliirh can easily travel forty-five miles a day, are nsed for 

riding by Sindhis. The largest numbor of Mtirwar camflla is foand 

Dhandhuka and Vrramgim. Almost every largo landlord or 

lukddr owns at least two or three. Their prices vary from 

3 to £30 (Ha. 20-Ea. 300). 

I Aeses, returned at 10,835, are, as in Kaira, of two kinds, the 
common and the big white ass from TI/Lldr in KAthiiiwdr. They are 
owned by potters, rice-huskora, earth-diggers or Oda, and RSvals. 
The last are the largest owners in the frontier villages of Dholka 
and Viramg&m, somotimos having as many as 300, 'lliey are used 
in carrying grain, vegetables, and salt. In value they vary from 4*. 

ylo £2 ( Rs. 2 - Rs. 20), but they are difficult to buy as they are all 
of Dse to the owner and cost nothing to keep. 
L Aboat » hundred years ago tigera, lionn, and other large game 
irere common in Ahmedabad. Tigers (1783) were found in the 
de:^olate ground outside' of the city walls, and in the Dholka sub- 
ivision dense forests near the Sfibannuti were the resort of lions and 
ra. Forbes in his Oriental Memoirs' has presorvod Sir Charlea 
t's account of a linn hunt in those forests in (ho year 
780. At Kura, about thirty miles north of Cambay, a place of 
imiiouetrablo woodH, not far from the S^barmati, the traces of soma 
targe animals of the tiger class were found. Failing to beat them 
oat, goats were tied to trees and marksmen set over them. About 
midnight tour large aniuials camo near one of the trooB, and two of 
them trying to carry off the goats wore wounded. Next day with a 
Urge body of beaters they were tracked through a forest, stretching 
for miles so thick that the eportsmou had to force their way on 
hands and knees. The wounded animals when sighted were found 
to be lions. They made their way into a still closer thicket, and 
were forced out only by the device of collocting and driving into 
thoir lair a herd of buffaloes. \Vhon they moved out one of them 
waa killed. The people called it the camel tiger, untia vdgh, the 
strongest and fioroest of the race. In colour it was rathor yellower 
tbui a camel without spots or stripes, * not high, but powerfully 
laassive with a head and forepart of admirable size and Mtreugth.' 
Oil was extracted and thd llenh eaU?n by the Viighris. A few years 
l&tor (1787) in the same part of the district tigers were mot in tho 
high graes Eetds,* and as lat6 as 1824 the salt Eats between Dholka 

Chapter U 




■ Tha l«ut nnmHcr wu Hi> in 1872, the grcfttcot 311 in 1S76. 
J Vatht^Or. Mem. 111. 105. 
iPbrtMM'Or. Uvm. III. 91. 
« BoT^-a Toun. Boto. Gov. SeL XVL 67. 
a 187— 4 









and Uie S&faarm&ti, cororod with b thick growth of marsh Hhrabiy 
were iufoatod with both lions and tijE^rs.' About the Bame ttm* 
(1825) iu Mod&sa and tho uther eaiftern districts, e^pecinlly on tka 
river bunks, tigers were nnmcroae^ doin^' inach hnrm to cattle bafc 
little to men.* Clo»B tv AlimCKUttad tUi< Shahi I)*g and odMroU 
gardoDB* were infested with tigora, and as lata as 1S40 on» mt 
shot in the Queen's MoHquo in Mimipnr.* As in other porta of 
Gajarit the iucreaae of population and tb« spread of tillage havtfii 
during the last fifty years, daue uuch to drive oS. the largvr 
of game. 



The tiger, vdijk, Felis tigris, is now (1877) almost nerer 
within Ahmedabad limits. In the east of MixUMa from onv to 6fft 
tigers are generally killed every season. Bnt the tiger's bauucs and* 
the actual shooting are geoerally a few miles over we Mahi K&ntlia 
border.*^ llie I'anther, cfipdOj Felis leopardna, is found in llodia^ 
and sometimes in large tracts of grass and bmshwoodf bit, iu 
different parts of the district. Of pauthers three each year 
killed in 1873 and 1874, and five each year in 1876 and 187 
The Black Bear, rinehh, Ursus labiatns, is almoBt anknown. It 
sometimes found in Mud&sa strayed from the Idar forestA- 1!i» 
Wolf, var^i, Cauis pallipos, is common in the west of the disliifA 
on the low-lying salt lands near the Xal. Tho Uyfoiia, iaras, or 
tamk, UyEena striata, found whurevur thoro are hilU and brushwood, 
is commoiicet io (logha, Parantij, and Mo<UAa. The Jackal^ mij 
Canis aureus, and the Fox, loMi, Valpes bengaleoats, are codidkm 
everywhere. The Wild Boar, dukkar, Sub indicus, is found la Um, 
nnmberfi throoffhont the district. Except in ontlying parts the wftl 
boar is losing his strength and fierceness. In numy places iuut 
out of fire nave a whity brown tinge, the result of too close an 
intimacy with village swine. 

Of the Deer tribe, the Sdmhar, Rusa aristotelis, is oocauonally 
found in Modisa. The Blue Bull, uUgui, Portax pictus, formerly 
very common, though much reducod in numbers, is still found ia 
the plains tkroughoiit the district. The S{Mitt«d Deor, c/i*7«/. 
Axis maoolatus, is found only in ModiUa, and is there very rara. 
The Antftlope, kalmr, Antelope bosoartica, is found in largo heni*: 
throughout the district. The ludian Gaxelle, chinkur<t, Oaxella 
bennettii, is oommon in the wpHl4>ra distnctH and in the rooky uplands 
of Par&ntij in the oast. The fonrhomed Deer, hekri, Tetrac«ro« 
quadricorais, is found only in the thickly wooded Hodisa ravines. 

Of smaller animals, the Hare, nattii, Lepus ruficandatus, ia fooud 
everywhere, aud thu Otter, piinini hihUii, Lutra valgaris, iu tho 
i>6barmati aud in most largo shoots of water. The Indian Badgo 

1 Bom. Got. Sel. Xr. 4. > Bom. Got. Sd. X. 0. « Bom, Got. Scl X. 8«. 

* Brii^a' Ctios o( Crtijnnlstitr*. 221. 

> 'rbc rakunu sLuw fwur tiffin ia 1S73, two in 1S74. ud nooe is 187^ 1ST0, of 


I Oojuit-] 


^nidamkhor, Mellfvora indica, during- tho raiuT season of 1878 is 
believed to have done much mischiof in Ahtnedaliail.' In the former 
rains, reports of an erii spirit, bhut, wore common. But as it wag 

. Juifcaocascd uf doing any harm, uo iuijiiiry was made. In July 1878 
minours again got abroad, and thin titno tho oril spin't was said to 
have snatched a sleeping child from a bouse venuidnh, and in a 
l^rj short timo to havo cateu it nil but the head, bands, and feet. 

I Search was made, and there was no doubt that a child had been 
kitted and oateu. ProfeiMtunal tracken, called in br the police, 

und markn liko those of a ckita or a b(!ar. Theme they knew to 
badger tracks, and traced tliem to a timber yard. Constables were 
t to watch Che yard, and at iiiglit one had a shot bat missed. After 
in spite of tlie nfForts of Ihe police, th6 badgers could not be 
traced. Meanwhile four children were earned off and eaten, one of 
them snatched fn<m the mother's arms. In one case a boy thirteen or 
fourteen years old was attacked. But an alanu was niised and he 
was rescued. When the crops grew high the badgers left the city, 
Tkey are known to prowl about slaiag'hter-houses and in grave-yards 
to dig out dead bodies. But that the children were carried away by 
badgers has not yet been satisfactorily proved. The me«snrement« of 
one lately shot at Bhuj, in Cutch, were, length 2^ to three feet, girth 
L^ghleen to twenty inches, and height fourteen to fifteen inches. 
^Bue head, neck, and forequarters were very powerful. 

Of Game Birds, the Large Rand Grouao, Ptcrocles arenariiiB, is 

^^aring the cold scAson, November-March, found in tho extreme west 

^^K the district near tht- Khanighoda workn. This is a noble bird, 

^^pfwnring from two to three feet acTo.s.i thf> wings. They are very shy 

and bard to get near. The Common Sand Grouse, Pteroclea exustus, 

II is plentiful thrnnghout the district, ewpeijially in the west. In 
I Dhandhnka they may be .seen in large numbers in the morning near 

water. They breed between December and April. The Common 
Ptiacock, Pavo cristutus, is found wild eastwards in the untilled 
tracts in Modisa, and to the south on the small island of Piram off 
Gogha, where they are in great numbers, very wild and shy. Tame 
, peafowl abound in every village. 

^V The Painted Partridge, Francolinus pictns, and the Common Grey 
^rartridge, Ortygoruia poudiceriana, are common everywhere. The 
Painted Partridgo lives chictfly iu the brushwood and grass-lands 
cr bin; the Grey, a most imclonn feeder, in hedgo-rows and near 

es. Both birds breed iu the district. 

Of Quail, tho Jungle Bush Quail, Perdicula cambayensis, ia 
'common iu busby, untilled lands, and tho Hock Qnail, 
Perdiculaasiatica,is found only in Pardntij. The Grey Quail, Cutumix 
communis, is, except in black soil, common all over the district. In 
some places, except during June, July, and August, they are to bo 
found all the year round. In October they come in large numbers, 
and stay until the end of March, their movements depending, to 

Chapter IZ. 

Omd0 Birdi^l 

I TUi Moognt is Erom ' Major R. We«tauKx>U, Uie Dwtriot SapwinteMUot gf 


Chapt«r XL 

Game BirtU. 


some extent, on the cliAracter of tbe seoAon. Ooa&ig "m 
condition, tht>v do nut pick up till Ncivember. Then tft^f are 
m7«i and till tno middle uf Fohntaiy plump and hearty. Ijike the 
Itain Quail, they live in the Helds m long as they can, moving iw th» 
cropa are out. When the fields are bare^ some lind abetter in the 
hedges, but most take to the bniHbwood and f7rass*Und, hir. Thf 
Bhick-lireatsted or Haiti Quail, Cotornix coromandehca, remainii in 
the district all the year round, but between Mat and Septembers 
not, a« a rule, in fi^ond condition. Tfaoufth lai^ bags have occasiao- 
ally been made in June, the birds are found in greatest number* 
between the middle of July and tlie end of March. During tlw 
Tains (July -October) they frequent grass-land, hir, and fields 
of young crops, In October, when the grain is npeuing, they more 
into the miUer and pulse fieldK; later on tliey are in the rice, wheat, 
and gram, AFt«r all crops are cut, they go back to the grass laodi^ 
bir», and especially ncui' water are generally to be found in ^coi 
nombers near the edge among small bnshe-s and grass-tufts. If tbo 
graaa-huids become bare, they go to the hedges, and, alter rain faai 
fallen, many find shelter in Uie patches of (taneria that apringnp in 
low moist ground. Thpy breed in considerable numlwrs in Jnly, 
August, and 8eptrmber. The Bustard Quail, Tnmix taigoor, and 
the Button Quail, Turnix sykoKii, are found all the year round oa 
the sjime ground as the Grey and Kain Qu^l. 

The Indian Bustard, Eupodotis edwanUii, commonest la 

Bhandbukii.aTidCog-hD^i.'t also found in the country round Ahmedaind. 
During the raiu9 rwBr Gogha hen birds gather iu targe flocka. 

The Lesser Florican, Sypheotidce auritns, nppe«ni m Aa 
Ahmedabad districts in the beginning' of the rains (July). At first tliey 
take to opon ground and young crops near grasg-landa, the hen bird* 
herding together as many as five or six in the same field. They 
breed iu September in the grass-lands. In November the bnik O^ 
them leave, but a few stay all the year round. J^| 

Of Plorera, the Indian Courier Plover, Cursorins coromandelicn«,i« 
found on most open places all the year ronnd. The Ulrey Plover, 
Sqnatarola helyctica, and the Golden Plover, Charsdnus fulvns, 
come to the district during tho cold weather, the golden eddotn, 
but the gi-ey iu targe fiocks. The Kentish, .Ji^gialitia cantianas, 
and tho Indian Itinfrod Plover, ^gialitia philippeusiH, are fomad 
very generally throughout the (fistrict. The Red Wattled 
Lapwing, Lobivanellus goeneis, and the Yellow Wattled Lapwiitg, 
SarcinphoruB bilobus, are common and breed in any open place. 
The Stone Plover, CEdicnomus crepitans, often called UiC Bastard 
Florican, is found near water all the year round. It breeds aaBong 
bushes on river banks. 

Of Cranes, the xdrfu, Gnis antigone, is fonnd in all parts of the 
diatriot, where they sneud the whole year, breeding during the raina 
on tho low rice-field, banks. During tho cold weather as roaoy 
as fifty of them collect in flocks, often joining with tho cold weather 
cranes. The Common Crane, Grus cinerua, and the Demoiselle 
Crane, Anthropoidcs virgo, the latter readily known hj its 



^^Av^^^ breast plames, come Erom the norlh io thousauda in 
KoTombor^ aa sood as the cold iroather has really set in. They loave 
again for the north in March and April. They feed in Iho morning 
and evening, s))ending- the day near water. 

Of Snipe, the Common Snipe, OalUnago scolopacinud, and the 
Jack Snip^?, Gallinago pallinula, como in the begiuning of October, 
and are foand in great numb(?ra until December. Kxcopt in the 
Nal and Bokh, wht-ro they stay till tho end of March, snipe are not 
found in any quantity after aliout tho middle of February. The 
Pointed Snipe, Rhynchcca bongalenais, breeds in tho district, and ia 
foand all the year round. 

Of other water birds, tlie Go<l«'it, Limosa osgocephala ; the Curlew, 
XdRieniosarquata; the Whimbrel, Numenins phtnopus ; the Ruff, 
Philomachus pugnax ; the Ureenshank, Totauus glottis ; the lled- 
sbatik, Totanus cnlidris; the Stilt, Uimantopns Candidas, a resident, 
and the Avocet, Recurvirostra avocetta, a visitor, though hardly 
^mo birds, are sometiaieB shot for tho table. 

Of Coota, the Purple Coot, Porpbyrio poHocephalus, i<i found in tho 
north, and the Bold Coot, Kulica atra, over the whole of the district. 

Tho Gigantic Rtork or Adjutant, Tjeptoptilus argala, i» common, 
Bs also are the Black 'Decked Stork, Mycteria anstralis, and the 
Bittern, Botaurus BteUaris. 

Of Geese there are four kinds. Tho common Grey Gooee, Anaer 
rinereuB ; a Green-headed Goose with a red bill, name unknown ; the 
Barrod-headed Goose, Auser iiidicun. ; and the Black-backed Goose, 
Borkidiornis melanonotuft. The Black- backed Goose breeds in tho 
dii^trict, and is mucb les!* wary tliau the others. At the same time 
ita fieah is very coarse aiul uutU for food. 

Of Ducks thero ore during tho cold season, from November to 
February, and on the Nal foraboutsii weeks later, the Whistlirig Teal, 
Dendrocygna arcuata ; the Ruddy Shieldrak© or Briihmani Duck, 
Ca«arca rutila ; tho Shoveller, Spatula clyi>oa1a, exceedingly common, 
probably breeding in the district; tho MaUard, Anaa bosohas, not 
nearly so common ; the Spotted Billed or Grey Duck, Anas poecilo- 
rhyncha, one of tho handsomoflt and found all tho year ronnd ; the 
Gailwall, Chaulolasmufi strcpcms ; the Pintail, Dafila acuta ; the 
Widgeon, Mareca penelope ; the common Teal, Quorauedula crecca ; 
the Bluewingod or Garganey Teal, Quernuedula eircia; the Cotton 
Teal, Nettapos c<5romandolianns ; tho Red-headed Pochard, Ay tliya 
fetina; the W'bite-uyed Duck, Aythya nyroca;the Tufted Duck, 
Fuligula cristatft. Beginning to come in October, all these dacka 
are found in largo numbers in Navembcr. Formerly during 
ijvember, December, January, and uutil tho middle of February, 
uck and snipe used to be plentiful in Par&ntij, Dholko, Sanand, 
lafikroi, and part of Viram^m. Bat for the last few years [1870- 
1874}, owinK perhaps to the great quftntity of water drawn off for 
II , the rioe fields, they have become less common. 

^1 The rivers of the district, the Sdbarmati, Meshva, M^jh&m, and 
^^*onie ot the smaller Btreoms, larger ponds, and reaervoira are wcU 



Chapter n 






Chapter IL 


Btoeked with fish. Tho chief ruictiea boM m food are the Jfofd, 
lioi, Surrnai, Rav.andFTan. Tho other sorts, much the same as thoW 
found iti Knira rivcr», are only caught or killod by low casto rillagm 
6uch as Vii(^bri« tuitl Padh&ri&s, ami ^atea by them exclunrely. If 
caught ucar cities, ib^ are eatea by Bhoia, Bivch^, and the lower 
order of Mnsabn^a. M&chhis are tho only ciata of profoBsioTia] fisher- 
men ; Bhois, Bdvch&s, Padhiriiftf Y&ghm, and KoUs also catch fiith, 
but Uiuy do not live eulirely on their fomiun aa fishenaeo. The 
dasnea that catch fish far amuAeraent are CnristiaaB, Musalm&aa, 
HarAthis, Parviris, and Mochis, The last three are chiefly nalive 
soldiers. The fiHh-euliiiK puimliuiou is in towua, Chhstiaus, Paniis, 
MusalinAnR, Jews, Mardthii8, Kotis, and VAghria, and in Tillages 
Hajputa, Muaalm&ns, Padh&ri&s, V&ghris, KoliH, and Bhits. The nets 
aro uf two kiudo, the chula, eight y»rdR long, and the hnia, a circular 
net. Trawling is not practised. Kiiropeans and the upper class of 
MuKuIinlti!) srjnietimes catch lish with baited hooks and artificial 
flies and »imRtirne9 ehoot them with bullets. In Panintij, when 
flooded after a hoary fall of rain, people swarm in the Bokh wading 
about and with arrows, tied in harpoon fashion with a long- string to 
their bow», kill ^reat numbers ol fiuh. Fishing by torchlight ii 
ooromon, the Koliii and Vaghrig killing tho fifth by spearing' or uottiDg, 
and the Padhari^s by beating thorn with a thick stick. Uamounc, 
driving, and poi^toniiig with CocuIuk indiciis are also practised! 
£xccpt in Ahmedabad, where they may be had Hatted, fiidi are almost 
always eold fresh. Some of the larger towns are provided with fiah 
market.% bnt in other places they are hawked from honse to houw. 
The inflaence of the i/uihdjan or Hindu trader element does ranch 
to lesBOu the destruction of fish. Many rivers, pools, and ponde are , 
■trictly preserved. ^~ 



OBOiKQ to the 1S46 ceosas, the tata] pnpalatidn of the distnct 

'90,7o7 souIh, or 158'2S to the square mile. Hiudus numbered 

13 or 89-18 per cent^ and Mnsalmdns G3,72() or 10-79 per 

th&t ift at the rate of eight Ilindua to one Musalman, 

vdre besides nineteen Cbnstiaus in civil occupation, forty 

and 165 Persia. Tlio iSoI ceoHUS fihowed a population of 

23 souls. Tho 1872 consuji showed a dtarlling inorease ia 

[atioD, the total returns amounting to no leas than &'2,9,6S7 soxda 

h to the square rnilc.i OE the total number 747,027 or 90"04> per 

were Hindus, 81,373 or 9'81 per cent Musalraiiua, 650 Chrisliftna, 

IW8, 4iJ2 Parpis, and 5!) returned aa Others. The (ollowing 

Dipfit shows thftt in the twenty-six years ending 1872 popula- 

UHivaaced 40'-l4 percent and bouses increased 22-83 per cent. 

Ahmtdaiad PoptOaiioa, 1846 and 1879. 

Chapter HI. 










Pliwla. ObrlaUuifc Oibank Total, 








be following tabular Htatement gives for the year 1872 details of 
opalar.ion of each Bub-diviaiou of tbo difitrict according to 
ipn^ age, and sex : 


inorMM ia probably in gnat in««rare diM to th« inooiDplatviiuas vC tbe I84S 
L Thsra was nucb difikulty Ln taking Dm 1846 cetuue. Tlie people seacndly 
lapwiMUUMl fMrlogMinfi iarm of pnlftax gftr« Mhort rctunu. TLoMabviaia^ 
■M oUuir Pai^tij clnrtM, rFfuactl U> allow aajr wcrutiny ur even bo sits aa 

<4 tiw oanlwr of thsir fMBtliM ; tbe ataJements were tbervfwra AIlMTap bv 

I. Th* account of tho Bbflvnaoar UUiAddri villama waa obtaiaad wilb inaoa 

CoUoctor 207, 30Ut JuBo 1M6. 



' [Boa1»7 Gasett4ci. | 





Bcaaptar TTT. 

^V Popnlstioiif 








Ftmd 11 to M. 



















S3 .40 














AhaMdOail ritj 









ItS ' 



















*H5^ 1 














Hotel ... 























14 1& 
















Ahmvlahftd cU| ... 
























































































AhffioUbwl dly . 













■ ■• 



















, ^ 

































fA-SSIS,JXW8,*irt>0TUXK& 1 

■" 1 




' b 




"* 1 


Aknaiabad dtr •- 



















^ 1 









































TOTAL. — ■ 




















Ahin«fl»b>d cBy .. 




















































Total .. 


















From the above statem 

ent it appears thnt the peroenti 

ige of malM 1 


on the total population 
males Dtuuberod <}96>072 

was 62-89 aad of fcm&lm 47 

11. Hutdn 1 


f or 5301 oud HindQ female 

i& niimbered J 



150,95^4 or 46'98 per cent of tbe total Hinda popnlntion ; Mnsolmda 
tales nomberett 41,934, or 51*53 per cent and MuealcnfLn 
}males 39/t39, or -iS'46 per cent o£ the total Musalm^u population. 
■*ir8i males nambered 280, or 58'09 per cent and Pirai females 
ibered 292 or 41*90 per cent of the total P^al population. 
males numbered -lOfi, or 62-4fi per cent and Christian 
Bmales numbered S44, or 37'54 per cent of tho total Christian 

The total nnmbcr of infirm porsons vma rotamod at 37G1 (males 

i04, females 1557) or forty-fivo per ten thonsand of the total 

^poLition. Of those 240 (malea 200, females 40) or tliree per ten 

thnnsand -wore insane ; 321 (males 227, females 94) or four per ten 

lousand idiots; 671 (males 454, females 217) or eight per ten 

lousand denf and dumb; 22S7 (males 1143, females 1139) or 

ponty-eight per ton thonaand blind ; and 242 (males 175, females 

(7) or three per ton thousaud lepers. 

The following tabular statement gives the number of the members 

fcf each religious class of the inhabitants according to sei at different 

ra, with, at ouch sta;^, tho peroentago on the total populatioa of 
same sex and religion. The columns referring to the total 
ipolatiuu ouiit religious distinctions but show the diJiorence of sex : 

Akmetltibad Populallon ht/ Aijt, 187t. 

C3iApter ni. 




ra „ 30 

W „ K 

90 „ ff> 

M -» 

M „ BO 

■ DO ... 








II 7t 





17,1 ■« 











lli'ii4i.iu sa. 























lIW ... 

a K i> 



Pt'UK, JlWIt, AID OmnuL 


nu I 






pi I 





21 -IM 














l-l to 









4 tA 





13,968 S-18 

m.uti !»';« 
«n,aa» irss 

88,7™ «8 

UJ>e 4-18 

8»l 1-9D 



OM,Kii lo-as 








Chftpt«r III. 



TUo RiaJn population of iho district twloogs, ocoordibg to' 

1872 census, to tliu following aocts : 




















From this stAtcniont it wrmld sp<?m, fha.t of tiio total Hindn 
population the unsectiirian classes numbered 352,2^7, or 47" Ki ^*-r 
cent; Iho Vaislinavue 2!)3,72I>, or 39-32 per cent; tho Shun 
or 8'72 percent; and tlie ShrAvaka 35,847, or ■i-79 per rent, 
dctnils of the Ahmedabnd ]*Mrthann 8am&j are giren in tlM 
Ahmcdabad city account. The Mnsalmfin popolation belong to 
two Boct9, Snnni and Sliia'; the Eormer ntimbeivd 69,662 uiah, 
or 85*47 per cent of the t<^tal MuEi&lmAn population ; and tb$ 
latter, including tbc Sur»t or JMiuli trading Bohor^j tho MotquI^ 
and a few Khnja familie* 11,821 houIs, or 1453 per cent. Tht 
Ftirsis are divided into two branches, Shahanshu and Kadinii 
the number of the former was 446 or 92'53 per cent, aud of tin 
latter 3t> or 7*47 per tent. In the total of 6&0 ChriRtiana there am 
1 Armenian, ICti Catholics, and 483 I'rotcstants, iucluditi^ lt»l 
Epiacopalians, 2U Presbyterians, 4 WealeyaiiR, and 278 natin 

According to occupation, tLe censos retunufor 1872 diride 
whole population into seven classeB : 

I.— Eioplvywl iii)(l«r Oflvonuncoit, or HuBicipal. or otbor local an 
mmbmngin »U 70)!* ennli or 044 pereeat of th« «ntil» papabtfcioo. 

17.— ProfenionftI pcrmmit OTA iwr cwnt. 

111. — Inwrvioaor iicrfonuJiiH |«titotuU oflicca I2,03!><»- 1*92 per oist. 

rV. — fit^fogwl LEI ■griculluro and with aikiniala l«f,&&B, or 16^ pwooa' 

V. — Engiurcl ill noimiKrco and trwlo 30,201, or 2-43 per east, 

VL — Kniiilnyei) in nwchaniol *rta, miujufacturea, and enonacring oparatJai 
anil vDga^ed in tliu »alu of articliM manoilacUmd or otEctwiMi tirvjiatvd br 
ooitNiimptiDD 145^Vt7, or I'.liKi per cent. 

VI1-- -MtBCclliuKniiM pcrfoi)) not cIummI »tik«rwiae (h) wivea IS4,4.*iS ami M- 
drxiD St)9^<ill, in all iM.TJ], nr 54 -GV por cvat, and {b) auttxtttmootu ^wiuw 
23,617. or2S4i.erwjul; t«>t*1477.M4, orM-SSpwoeot. 

Tlio geuomi chapter on the popnUtion of Gujarit inelndee BOpfc 
information as is a\*ailftbU' regarding tho origin and rnstonu of tbo 
Ahmodflbnd people. The following dutails show the strength of tbe 
ditTerC'Qt castes aud raoefi as far as it was ascertabed by tho cemvs 

Under Hrfilimaus came, exclusivo of sob-dimions^ flfty-fonr 
divisions with a Btrength of +7,053 soola (males 23,849, ftimala 
23,204) or 6*30 per cent of the total Hindu population, litcept Uii> 
N^gars, of whdui many are in good condition, tho mnjoritv of 
Brahmiuis live on alms. In point of nnmber the Audich Brahnuuu 
(19,330) hold the first place. They oat as priesla and cooks mad 
cultivate land, but many live on alms. (H 4491 Nfigars of nil 
divisions, tho VadnagnU who oct as clerks, moucy-k-aders and 




jrcbanta, are veil oS and bold a high place both on account af 

lioir iutelligeDce and vealtb. The other Xrigars aro chiefly priestB, 

iks, Borvautfl, and cuHivatorft. The Hodli (4531) ; the Mcrnda 

1322 »; tho ShrinifiJi (1580); tho R(i>i»kv-fU (114^) aud the VAIara 
(1120) ore cultivators, priests, and beggnrs. A fow Doccan 
brnhinano, descundants o£ some who during the eighteenth cetitary 
ktne with the Maritbds, are pemi:kni>ntly settled in the diiitrict 
pd oontinuo to hold respectable positions. Differing; from them 
B dreas, tnannen, customs and lauguage, they bold aloof from 
[}ujar4t Bnihiiiaris and continue to keep np close social and religious 
relalionj with their caKte fellows in the Doccan and in IWoda. 

Under the head of Writers caino three classes, Brahma-KKhatris 

~ ); KiiyoAtha (139) and Parhlms (71) with a total strength of 

aoals (males 410, females 3:JtJ) or 009 per cent of tho total 

da popnlation. As a class tho Brahma-KHliatris aro rich. They 

land and hoiue property. Many of them in Govenimont service 

>ld otiices of trunt and responsibility; others are pK-adors aud 

ucy-londera. Tho numbers shown separately agaiuHt KAya^tlis 

d ParbhuB represent chiefly the Rayasth Parbhtui of tho Konkan 

tricts who came to Oujardt after its conquest by the Mar&thds 

'23-1757) osd have, some of tbem, permanently settled in 


Under tho hood of Mercantile Trading and Shop-kocping clasBOS, 
10 31,559 Moshri or Brfihmanic V^nida belonging to twenty- 
divisions; 29,272 Gujarati Shrivaks or Jaiu Van ids of five 
ILTiaions, 618t> Mnrvadi Sliravaks of two divisions and 4147 
riving a total streugth of 71,104 souls (malea 30,032, 
14,532} or 9-52 per cent of the total Uindii population. 
fnlike other parta of Gujarat the Shravak Vanias or Jain 
jrchaats are Hupenor in wealth to tho Meshri Vauiaa or Brahmauic 
lors. They exercise great influence in trade matters, one of 
namber holding the high post of Nagar Scth, or bond of 
trading comraauity. Tho wealthiest members of both classes 
ploy their capital locally, supplying the fimds by which petty 
nsurers and dealers carry on their trade. Those who do not 
sufficient capital to subsist solely by money-lending, borrow 
modeiute rates of interest from men of wealth and deal in 
cloth, grain, aagar, molasses, and timber. The poorrst of all either 
" these articles io small retail shops, or move ^om place to place 
iwking common spicea, drngs, and cloth. Uesidcs engaging in 
le, tho Shravak and Mesbii Vinia* are employed as clerks, and 
Govonunent service, some of them espociolly among the Shravaks 
aiding places of trust and consequence. The MdrvAdi ShrAvaka 
I powerful south of tho Tdpti hold no place of importance in 
Abiuedabad. Bhiltitis, strangers from Ciitch, are Gpruodiug over the 
mral parts of tho district as village shop-keepers. 

Under the head of Uasbandmen came six classes with a total 

atreogtb of 393.77<} boqIs (males 208.952, females 184.824) or 5271 

cent of tho whole Hindu popnlation. Of those 123,(307 (males 

>,075, femidos 5S,022) were K^uibis ; 49,003 (males 20,395. femaloa 

3,263) RajputB ; G904 (luulL-a 3402, fumaloH 3412) Satbv^ros; 3242 

Chapter II 




Htubanimefk : 




Chapter IIL (Tnales 


(malea 1187, fc 

8,fbmft]os ir>7i) KitcUiiU; 2217 

lift> md20ii,059 (males 111,309. femalM 9G.61Vi) KoIul 
The Kanbis who number 123,097, or 16-55 poroont of the eotin 
population are an important and very valaable claaft. They are of 
three divisions ; two large claaees, Leva and Kadva, most strict in 
thoir tenderness for life, and the A'njnfa a sroaU body eating anioa) 
food and in other rettpecta like Rajputs. Thongh many are sldltod 
wenvere and tirtisans and eume iiave rutnn to hi){h positions m 
Clovominont sorrice or acquired wcjilth in trade, the majority oie 
engaged io t^friculloreand form the bulk of tbu peasant proprietor* or 
yeomanry of the district. They aro excellent ciiltivatore and ham 
many virtneA. Tlioy are sober, peaceable,' indnstrious, and enapt 
on occasions like marriagus, thrifty, good sons, hiutbands, and fathan. 
Gross vice is nnramraon among them and crime rare. They am 
also more intelligunt and lietter educated than tho rest of the 
agricultund population. Female infanticide, owing to the miooitl 
expenses attached to marriage, having been fouml prevalent ■m oag 
the Kanbis, the provisions 0? Act Vlll. of 1S70 were applied Io 
tho Kadva and Luva Kanbia. Subsequently the Kadva Kanbis 
weru declan-d wholly exempt from the proviKions of the Act, and ia 
tho case of tho Leva Knnoia tho restrietifins wore rcdacod to a 
uiui[)le registnititin ufbirthsanddeallts. The Kajputs, though tbiy 
hiLVO given up their turbulent pru(^ticu.<t, still to Mime extent refaun 
tho look and boariug of soldiors. They are divided into two cliiiwn 
f/ilnkddrg or largu proprietors, and common peasauUi. Tlie Conoer 
lead a life of idleness on tho rent of their lands, and are moob 
given to the use of opium. Nothing in the dress of ■ 

fieasant Kjtjpnt distinguishes him from a Kaubi, though as a 
msbandmau ho is fnr below him in skill and less carofnl and 
hardworking. TUeir women are, unlike those of the proprietor clu*, 
not confined to their houses but help their hnsbands in the field work. 
The number of Kajpnts incIudeH S813 NarodAs who are said to bo 
the doscendaats of the slaves of Sidh ibSj's house (1094-1 l-t3). Their 
names are the same as linjpnt linmcs, and in oourage, drees, and food, 
they do not differ from the Rajpnts. They are cultivators and 
marry only among themselves. The Snthv^i^ and K^bhiaa grOV 
anil sell vegetables, flowers and fruits. Borne of them are aho 
artisans and weavers. 

Tho KoHs are tho largest tribe or canto in the district with a 
total strength of 208,053 or 27*^5 pur cent of the entire Uiiuhi | 
population. Besides throe Rmall divii^ions, Kiina, l^Iiirviidi, and Agm, 
Ahmednltad Kolis belong to two chief cla&sca, Talabda. or hems KcUb, 
Dumbenug 140,517 souU settled in all parts o£ the district, and 
Ohttvdliaormoa of forty-four villages, &7,/ 50 strong, belonging tot 

1 Th<^ii^fa »a quiut M a rnl<< thv Knnliis havn in a fsw cnacs in troDHed tiin«« riaai 
to [Hioitiuna of |>^>wrur. Ou« fumilv of Emiva Kuibia from Cliimpiiier caLj|l>li»tu.'4 
tbt'iiiBdFca at Virtungilm and gainwl pow«r utioURh to rohixt fnr ecvcnl yo&n (I'SS- 
I7:tl7| llic MiTAlIm *tt4U7ka an tbcir town. After thuir (h-fcat by I>intikjt HjikwAT, 
they still iu c-liinfR of i'dtri kept up &a urjuod (orve aud actod with uulopvndvitco. 
Bom. Ovr. 4fl. X. H. 

tracfc of covntrj in the north<east, of VimmgAm. Un(1or the Mar&tbiiR, Chftpter IIL 
ttxoept iu the (xiutre of the district whure they would seum to have Population. 
SD orderly cultivators, the Kolis were in a chronic stats of revolt. 

as outcastea and known by the reproachful name of tMhvdt mI^"^ 

^or Uio faithless/ they livini iii separate bands or states with the UMbandmeiL, 

lors and habits of a distinct people-^ In the central parts of tho 

Intrict the home, 'Talalxia, Kolis were in 1820 as at pi-esent quiet 

id easily maiiagedj willing to till to the best of their knowtodgo and 

inu».3 Along the eastern frontier in disturbed times they were 

f td as a guard against the wilder moaataiu KoHs and Bhila.^ At 

treeent some of them are village watchmen, trackers, and laboarers, 

>m most are hnsbandmen, well-to-do, and little inferior in skill to 

Kunbis. Under tho Jiarathas the Chuvalia Kolis were a body of 

rganizpi) plunderers. Led by cbittfs, Utiiknrdtifi, partly of Rajpat 

3nt, they lived in villages protected by almost impassable 

hedges and levied contributions from the districts round, 

mnmg, if refused, regnhir night attacks ami dividing tho booty 

jrding to recognized iiiles. Almost entirely uncontrolled by 

Har&this^ at tlie beginning (^f British rulo the Chuvfilia Rolis 

tlian once, in 181& and 1825, roBe in revolt. On their second 

ing their hedges and other fortifications were removed and 

rir power as an organized body of plunderers was crushed. 

Among them are still men of nnruly and criminal habits, but aa a 

claas tney have for years settled a^ ealtivators and labourers. 

Of Mauufacturors there wcro four classes, with a strength Crajtmea, 

of 13,792 souls (males 7282, females 0510) or 1-81 per cent of tho 

)tal Hindu population. Of these 3707 (males *J071, females 1726) 

rere Khatris, weavers of silk and cotton and makers of gold 

"^nd sUver thread; 3962 (maJes 2091, females 1871) Ghfuidus, 

oil-preasers, vcgetjiblo BcllerB, weavers, and labourers; 5iiG5 (maloa 

'27?>1, females 2614) Bhavsnrs, calicoprinters ; 068 (males 3G9, 

les 299) Chhipfis, calenders, the last two somewhat depressed 

condition owing to the competition of European goods. 

or Artisans, whose condition is on the whole good, there were 

classes, with a total strength of .10,965 bouIb, (iimles 29,818, 

27,1 47) or 7'62 per cent of tho total Hindu population. 

iieso G715 (males 3601, females 3114) were Souls, gold and 

ilversmii.hs;ll,118 [malca 5661, females 5457) Suth&re, carpenters; 

189 (male.i &7*i, females 617) KansarJis, coppersmiths; 1741 (males 

}9, fuutalus 8'12) Kadids, bricklayers ; 85 (malus Hij, females 49) 

masons ; 9650 (males 50411, femalos 4601} Luhara, black- 

iths; 19,761 (males 10,G22. females 912(1) Kumbhdrs, potters ; and 

(males 3378, females 33S8) Darjis, tuilora. 

Under the head of Barda, Songsters, and Actors camo two claMos Bardt. 

E''i a strength of 5255 souls or 070 per cent of tho tolal 
da popuktion. Of those 5225 (males 2809, fomalea 2416) 

rl B«D. Oor. SeL XXXfX. 29. 
Boin. Gov. ScL X. Wi. 

Fur All cxploDation of the wont nithvUs see ftbort^ 
3 Botu. Ciuv. ScL X 121. 




, PopBlAtiOlt. 




were BhittH, barda, and Ch^rani, f^eneoJo^ts ; and 30 (males 1 
females 14) Gbaudliniptf, songtitvni, The Bliits or B&rots, 
Hajpat»' hnnh and genoUogiKta, hftvo lost tnach of the impirtuiea 
tliat. atUchi;d to them trom Ibe sanctity of tbuir persons. Many of 
tliom, ffhoee chance of oiiming a livelihood sh snretiee or fjruMW 
has coasod, now engage in ordinary oocuftationg, tilling land and 
leuding money. In 1827i tho chief capilaliats of ViranigAu 
vore BdrotHj of whom oim was said tb be worth £70,04M> 
(Rs. 7,00,000). The B&>ot8 woro supposed to poRseu in all aboat 
£1+0,000 or fourteen lakhs of rapocs ; they were Horofcioa or 
viaiwliddn and invested their money in loans npon pledges 

Of Personal Servanls tliero were three classed with a strengt 
of 13,127 sonls or 1'75 per cent of the tot-al Hiiidn population. Of 
these IS.OOS (males 0582, femnles 5426) wero Ilajams, barfaore ; 
1043 (males 4^2, females 551) Dhobhis, washermen ; and 76 (males 
37, females 39) Bhistis, water^lrawers. lltongh not so well off as 
otiiaaDBj personal servants arc not Bcrimped for food or clothea. 

Under th« names of Khavas, Golas or Luad^ there Is io large 
Itajpat househuldt) a Gmall class of hereditary servants. Theao are 
all tne descendants of slaves. But among them the Khavfo arc 
superior as either they or their forefathers have been troatud 
their chief with special trust. Some of the Khav&s rolcfised 
their masters from sen'ice have settleil as cultivators. Of tho 
tho men act as body-scrrants and attendants on tho cliit'f and tho 
women on the ladies of tho {umily. Well fed and well trcat^^d the; 
seldom ran away. Tho women known as Vtulknraif or GUholt 
are of easy virtue and hardly any married. On the marriage o 
chief's daughter a certain number of mate and female servants fo 
part of the lady'a dowry." 

Of Herdsmen and Shepherds thoro wero three classea witli 
strength of 28,843 souls or 3'86 per cent of the total niuda 
populution. Of these 17,386 (mates 9G20, females 77ti(>) wero 
Bharv/ias; 10,792 (males 67t3, females 5049) Rabilris ; and r.TO 
(males 41C, females S54) Ahii's. The BharvuJs wander frouL place 
to plitce living in the meanest huts and with no stock more vnloablo 
than shcop and goats. Tho Kabdris live in towns and Tillages in 
well built houses. They o\vn cows aud buffaloes as well as sheep 
and goats; some of them am employed in tho carrying trada to 
districts inaccessible to cart traffic.^ 

Of i-'ishcrs and Sailors thero were two classes witli a stroD{^ 
of 8786 sonia or 0"50 per cent o( the whole Hindn populatit 
Of these 3211 (males 1712, females 1499) wero Bhois, who bfisic 
their oc-capation as fishers, cultivate land and act an labourers 

t Rnm. Qov. F^. X. 73. «{Us MiUa, D. SS9. 

s VinuiupUu was oruncuilly peopled by araoo of»liu|tbcnlatir Aliirx, whoM 

wnrtc tns uokiag after Doeki Bud h«nb, Tlwyaiv Bakl to hnvo Imjit tliu (iimmkI 
iMTge ponds that mo im impoitaat h fcatnro in tbc eountiy. Tlieni ucio aUU (\^X) 
oixirhcnla awl jjTaiucn iu over; villNgc. Bom. Gov. Hoi. X 11, 

domestic sorvants ; and 575 (innlcs 48G, femaloti 89) KburvHS, who 
on> cliioily tilo turnprs.' 

(►f LabourerB aud Miscellancotis Workers there were fourteen 

Unssi's wilhiifltronpthof32,ir(58f>u!a(mak« 17,023, fomales 15,132) 

V30 per cent of the whole HiuJu population. Of these 1701 

Iwi 870, femnluH SSii) woro Golfis, ricopoundurs ; 1092 (iniilon 569, 

S2;J) ManithAs, serviiTits and l«hnun>ni ; 13,102 (males fift56, 

620lj) Vaghris, fowlynt, labourers, and buggan*; 82S(j {maloo 

♦SOS, fmnnU'H SlS'i) Hj'ivuliiis or Rrtval.i, wirriers of i^rain, 

Te^tablo sellers and Iwgj^ai-s ; somo of them chic-fly thoso inhftbitinjf 

Dholka guh-division and the Tillages bordering on the Nal had 

prly a bad name as italt smugglers and beggara ; 77 (malt'fi 38, 

malos S9] RhndlihnnjiSfl, grain parchers ; 198 (mnJcs 90, fi<males 

06) Klimalias, makers <,if blnnkets, ktimli ; GOG (males 370, females 

S6) Bavchds au(J I'oitiliiR, npnarimtly of DwTun origin, IiibmirorH j 

O.'iO (mates 53C, females 414) OuitU, diggers ; 203 (males 117, females 

IG) L'umbias, messengers ; 103 (mnlua 72, females til] Kolils, 

nor distillers; 49 (maleH Hi, females 15) Vanj^r^, carriers of 

31G (maloa 1G4, females 152) Lodh^.t, earrier^ of goods ; 

(males 16G6, feraalus 1^3-1) MArvfidie, immigruntB from MarwAr 

tiring famines; l(jl(* (males 870, fomatcs 740) B*ij.''uiiiin,aernbats; 

nntl 212 (males 162, females 50) misccllaneons. Tmi Padh&rlaji of 

the villageti Iwrdering on the Nul of whom no separate dotails are 

^tfiven in the ccnsns reports are said to \to Kotia who los6 caste from 

Hating dead animals. They cut g^afis and dig np root;; and like 

^V&ghriB catch birds and fish. They genemlly live on tho roots of the 

praj-M, /.I'r, wliicli thi-y pound into nonr. Ercept the Gol^, Mariithfis, 

DhiMlbhunjus., Vumbiiis, KaMIs, Vanj&r&s aod Lodh&s whose eoriitugs 

snlHcofiir their ordinary cxpenaes, these classes are poor, ill clod, and 

Withoat credit. 

Of Unsettle*! Classes there were 1441 sonls fmalea 74f>, females 

>3) or 0"I9 per cont of the total Hjndu popnlatirin. Of tho^e 1429 

(males 744, females G8o) were Bhils, and 12 (males 5, females 7) 

.Chodhra!>. Tho census seems 'to have broiiglic tho unsettled popu- 

ktion of Parifintij under the hcud Kolis. They were formerly c-alled 

At the time of the 1H2G survey they are described as 

iginally degraded I^jputs and others who wore mere robbers and 

itlaws and who, growing In Htren^th during thedistnrbauco of the 

igbtei3nth contury, formed themselves into a separate caste.' 

Of Leather Workers there wftro two clnssoB with a tot«l strength 

" '7^81 soubi (males 9G79, fomales 8202), or 2-39 por cent of tho 

Hindu po])alatiim. Of those 54S(S (nmlea 29+fI, females 251.0) 

I Mochis, shoemakers, in good condition; and 12,305 (luales G733, 

smales 5(>ti2) were Klullpiis, tanners, one of the dcprcssod or 

anrleaa classes, in poor condition. 

** sides the Khalp^ there were five Depressed ctmlett with a total 
thof 54,427 sools (males 29,477, feranloa 24,050} or 7-28 per 





IaoUkt Wurh 

Drpnutd CtaiHt, 

I Tbc fuantiB OoghA Uaoan are MusalaiUis, see below, ii. 42, 
s Bom. Uo». Sol. X. ta 





cent of the total Hindn popnlatton. Of these 333S [nulea 121? 
females 1120) were 6arada» or Dhed pnoaU;Sa^4I (makw 21.272. 
females 18,060) Dheds, wenvers and carriore of dead aniinalii ; 12,7"-j 
(males (39G8, femaica b'ST) WhungiAs, scavengers ; and 4& (nuleit 2t, 
fomaloB 21) ParvdriB, apparently of Docam origin. Some of the 
Dheds and Bhangias are eaid to bo in miserable condition. 

Devotees and religious mendicants of various names, Brahmaclufiras 
Vairigis, CloBais, S6dliu8, and Jogis mimbered Gtill (maU-a '12^8, 
females 2323) or 0-88 per cent of the entire Hindu population, la 
1825 the eastern distnct« of Ahmedabad were infested wiUi 
vandering GosAis in gangs of twenty or thirty. Thoy visited eveiy 
village and besides money, extorted food for thonuelTea and thev 
borses and dogs.^ 

Among the British districts of Gajarit Ahmodabad haa tbe 
largest proportion of Mutsahnflu iuhabitanls with 81,373 soals or 
6'8tl per cent of the whole popnlation. Of the whole number 
23,971 wore, in 1872, retomed as settlt^ in the city of Ahmedalad, 
12,852 iu the aub-divisiou of Dhuudhuka, 11,^80 in Dholka, In. 
in Viramgfim, 8214 in Paniniij, 4(t47 iti I>a*ikroi, 4395 iu San . 
and 4305 in G ogha. Erclnsi^c of women 27,020 and children 24,54^, 
in all o2,469 or 81'52 per cent of the whole, the male adult 
Mnsalmdn population (28,904) wcro in 1872 employed as followvi 
in Government or other pubUe service 1032; in professions 083 j 
iu pcrHonnl service 1212; in agriculture G750; in trade 1714; 
in mechanical art» and mnnnfnctures 13,662; and in miscollaneooi 
callinffs 3002. In addition to the foor main divinona, SyedSi 
8bavKh8, I^th&ns, and Moghals, numbering altogether 25,0111 eoob 
or more than one-third of the whole, there are several cloaaos 
almost all of them descendanta of converted Hindus, cultivat(n% 
traders, oil-pressnrs, weavers, and bricklayers, who ao far k(*ep np 
old caste distinotions that they seldom marry except people of their 
ovni class. Of these the chief are 13,128 Bohora tnulers and 
cultivators ; 50'J3 Malcks, land owners and cultivators ; 5518 Sipihis, 
village servants ; 4791 Gbiinchis, oil-pressers ; 3381 PinjArAa, cotton- 
cleaners; S8C0 Momn&s, weavers and cultivators; 2261 Khoj&s, 
and 1875 Memans, traders and shop-keepers. There is besidma 
considerable miscellaneous population of cultivators, calico-prinloi* 
and dyers, barbers, butchers, tiiid several other classes. 

The Bohords arc of two classes, Shia and Snnni. The tomufft 
followers o£ the Mulla Saheb of Sural, are the more important of tho 
two. Thoy ttro divided into two sects Duudi 2732, and dalemfiai 
1329. As a rule thoy live in tho city or in towns. Many of them 
are successful traders and men oE capital. The Sunni liobor&i 
are husbandmen, cai-tmon, and carriers. They are an active and 
thrifty class, llic Maleks, or lords, arc the descendants of converted 
Xlajputs. As a clo^s they ore tall and fair with good featnrea. 
Their homo langnago is Gujnrdti. Tho men dross like the Kdthis 
with big turbaua, tight jackets, trousers, and waist cloths. The 

a Som. Cor. Sel X 4& 



vomcn dress like Hindus. Thev are land owners and hnsbandmcn. 
The women spin bnt do not work in the field. Though clean, tidy, 
and honest, they aro idle, thriftless and ^Ton to opiam. Their 
women do not appear in public. They are poor, many of them in 
dfbt. The Sipfhis or soldiers would seom to bo a mixed class, 
partly the descendants of imuugrants, partly of Knjpat converts, 
as their surnames ChohAn, RAthod, and Parm^ show. They speak 
6iijaniti. Intermarrying with other Musalmins, they have no 
miliar appcamnco, and vary in their fashion of wcarinj^ the hair 
and beard. Except in KathiawAr where they dross like Hindus, 
both men and women wear Muisalnidi] clothes. They aro ctittiTators, 
labnnrers, and in Government sorvico as soldiers, constables, and 
toessengers. The women spin, and the wives of poor cultivatora 
work in the fields. The OhAnchia or oil-pressora are said to bo 
the descendant!) of converted Hindus of the Pinj&ra and Ghanclii Like the Miutalmau Fiujuras they call iheintiulveK Mnnsuris 
or followers of Man^^tir.' The men and women drean like Hindus and 
q>e»k Gujarati. They marry only among themselves and the 
I^iijdr^ Though some oE them are rich, none have risen to any 
^_iiign position. The Pinjtlrfis, except in their occupation of cotton 
^^Ueaning, differ very little from the Ghilnchis. The Momn^, properly 
^^t&mins or believers, are Shi^ tu religion. Ounverted by tho 
^PBokhilri Syeds at vnriouB times, this sect in generally known aa 
~ IiBim Shihis or followers of Imfim ShAh of Pirdna (144!>). They 
ofaecrvo circumcision, bury the dead, and perform marriage both 
according to Mnaalm/in and Hindu rites. Thoy are chiefly weavers 
of silk and cotton cloth. The Kasbtitia, or owners of kashm or 
townit, are somo of them descended from Boluch or Pathi^n 
mercenaricSj bnt most are of Rajpnt origin. Besides Kasb&tis they 
call themselves Maloks, and may be considered to form pnrt of 
that class. They are holders of grants of land. Occasionally thoy 
marry Hindu wives, Kolis and sometimes Bajpnts by caste. At such 
marrtagea tho bride's friends call in a BnUimau, but in other cases 
[ the ceremony is Musalman. Moat aro sunk in debt and weakened in 
L U>dy by the constant nso of opium. The KhojiiSj or honourable 
^■ttinvcrts, followers of H. H. A{?i Khiin and almost all of them of 
^H^imln de-oeont, are wholesale nni! retail traders, shrewd, hard- 
^Hrorkiug, and thrifty. As a class they are well-to-do. The Aluuians 
^^re of two divisions, Cutchi and H&loi. The Cutchi Meinans were 
Lob^n&jt and the HiSIai, from HAlAr in K^thiawfir, were partly Lohfinfia 
and partly K^lihn!is. These men dealers in groceries, cloth, 

1 ^ii ttumu flourialicd ow iho olow at the fonii»iitli 
nrosSMhl (Elliot, TV. 370) tuva tho foUowinff reference to 
on* o( tfas pupilflof Ain MAliru, had tet bimaelf np o* 
kftving fot loaather a btxly of disinntw naod to n.y ' 
He cauHUUtdeci hii diwiplca th«t when bn lued theM wanla 
■rty* UvM) art.' He fiirthnr ajtiil ; ' I atn tbo Iting who 
a bvok til which h« Iniertcd the wonla of hi* profeaBioB 
It bflloTO rao (Pircz SliiVli. 1X5M3S8). The 
him to pnntshnu'nt am) tii» bfinit I ordered 
the Qujarit •twv tho saint's bead ^tcr it wm cut vU 

al87— « 

oentttiy. Tho Fiituh«t-i. 
him. ' A ponwii who waa 
A aliaitii 111 Quiudt, and 
Ana.{.Bati.- I uu God. 
they won to say ; ■ Thou 

d'u!» not,' And he wroto 

He WM put ia chaina 

charge bouig nrovcd 1 

to bebnml. Aocnrdins 

kept on wyiof; 'Ana'P 



(Bombay QuettMr. 


and migcellftneoDji articles, u« Snnnis of the Hatiaii ecliool. 
livo in towna aiid aru geueruUy well-to-du. Thu HU&i Metmuii 
cuUivat^rs in the west of Ahmedahtul, Aresn like Rajpats wiifa 
a Inrgo loose turbaD, a sleoved-waistooat, bandi, and waut cloth, 
dhoti ; vhile the Gutcfai Mcmons dresa in MtiRalmkn fosliion, witii a 
coat and tronsera and a head dress id shape like the Moghal turbaD. 
The llal&i Alemaus have aa hereditary head, mtikhi, who lives at 
Dhoraji in Kfitbidw^. C«jn»ideriauf themselves a hi^'her class the 
Cutchis refufie to marry with the Ilaliis. Of the special elasa of 
Muealmdn Hailors known as Gogha Ldscars Some dotaila are giran 
in the account of that town. 

Of the total F&nii population of 482 souls, 448 were in If.. 
retiimeil an t^ottlod iu the city of Ahmcdalmd, 13 in ViramgAii 
11 in Dhandhuka, 8 in Goghu, and 2 in Dholka. Kxclasive of 1( 
women and 107 children, the adult male pupulatiun (SIS) wen 
employed an fotlowa : in Govoriiment or other public service ^j 
in professions 2 ; in personal service 33 ; in trade 88 ; in mecbaoic 
arts und tnauufaotureti 25 ; and iu miscellaneous callings 18. 

The total of 650 Chriatians is exclnsive of the troops id the 
Ahmudabud cantonment. The native Chi-istiaus are almost all local 
converts made by missionaries of the Irish Presbyterian Church who 
havo two settlements, one at Sh^hdvadi near Ahmcdabad, tlie other 
at Wallacepor near Gogha. Tho Irish Presbyterian church b<van I 
mission opcrationa in the city and neighbourhood of Ahmedabaa in | 
1801. The immediate cauMe was tho growth of the Christian jKipnla- 
tion and the scarcity of land in Borsao. A suitable waste tract in th^^ 
Tillage lands of Sh&h£vlldi on tho Dholka rood, about five miles soat^^l 
west of Ahmedabad, was secured, and uina families namberiug iu a^^ 
forty souIh settled thoro. In conscquouco of this arrangomcnR a ' 
missionary was stationed in Ahmedabad, and in tho course of a few 
years, owing chiefly to the success of the educatiyiial departuipot ■ 
the work, the services of a second were needed and secured. Inf" 
city of Ahmedabad are (1878) five schools under tho core of resic 
missionaries and supported by mission funds. Of tliese sohooli^ foij 
two for boys and two for girls, are vernacular ; tho fifth, an Bnglij 
school, has for the laat ten years ranked as a high school teochi 
up to tho Bombay Univei-sity entrance standard. The schools 
inspected by (iovornraent educational officers, and according 
examination results receive grants-io-oid : these in 1878 amount 
to the Biim of £22i (Rs. 2240). On the roll of tho vermicular scbt 
there were, according to the last published report (1S77), 356 pnpE 
and on the roll of tho English school 261. Of the pupils not mi 
than a dozen are Christians. Except a fe^r Parsis aud still fewer 
Musalmaiifl, they are all Ilindu.s. In 1877 tho native Chri.^tiaa 
community in and round Ahmedabad numbered 31i> souls. Of llu 
258 have been baptised, and &fby-eight, though like tho others tt 
keep Suuday and attend tho church services, have not yet 
formally received as members of the church . Except a few boys 
attend tbecity schools and the evaugelifits in miaKion aervlcc, all tho^ 
Christians livo in Sh&h&v&di. In the village a Govemmeut day- 
school is attended by nearly all t}io children, and with tho help of 



V veveral of the people the missionary pastor also conducts a Sonday 
school. The chnrch scmcea aro well attended, and the conduct of 
the people is on the whole satisfactory. Since 1801 the number of 
^unities has grown frora nine to sixty-fonr. By birth all nro Hindus, 
dading- persons belonging to the TAnia, Rajput, Kaubi, Kob, 
' &na, Bhil, and Tal^via castos. Most of thoiii live by fanning, 
■•nd as cultivators wo fairly Buccessful. Advantago waa takf^n of 
the light soil of the vilhtge to iuducv the people to use an English 
plough. Bo well havo tbo Eugli»h plouglis worked that during the 
last two or thrco years Mr. Gillespie, the roaidcnt missionary, has 
been asked for and has supplied ploughs to people of the neighbour* 
iog villages. Ainnug tho couvert-s the feeling of caste is as far as 
o-saible repressed. People originally of different castes freely 
itermarry, hardly any regard being shown to their former social 
itoa. Man-iagfi with the heathen is forbiddon, and offenpcs against 
hristinn law aud order are punished as laid down in the Irish 
'sbyterian church book of disciplino. Except those savouring o£ 
tiastc^ thoir aocial euntoina have undergono scarcely any change. 
They dress in the same fashion, eat tho samo food, and in most cases 
_are caUed by the same names. Nearly all can read, write, and 
" iphcr, and the women and girls are very expert in plain and fancy 
leedlo work.i 

The Gngha Christian mission, Iwgnn by the Rer. James McKee 
1844, is part of the Kathiawilrand Gui(u4t mission establishment, 
irtcd and supported by the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. 
Tnclnding three mission agents the Gogha Christian community at 
present (1S78) numbers eighty-nine souls' of whom twenty-throe ai-o 
communicants. Be>fide8 these there are several persons without 
families. Tlie missionary lives at Gogha. The Gogha distrirt has 
not been fruitful of converts. But in 1871 a number of Christian 
colonists came from (injarat, and settled on a tnict of land near the 
yillage of Kui-eda, about eleven miles south-west of Gogha. Tliis 
ttlemcut is the hamlot of Wallacepur, so called in memory of the 
ev. James Wallace, long a missionary at GoKha. The hamlet of eight 
dwellings has a neat church with a good hcU, a niissionaries-houso, 
a rest-house, a public well, aud a cattle pond. The houses, most of 
them whitowashed wthin and without, have each two rooms and a 
walled-in yard with out-houees Eur fodder and cattle. Care is taken 
to keep the vitlagG clean, and the villagers aro fined if they tic cattle 
in the street or in their verandahs, if they let dirt gather near tbo 
houses, or wash clothes at the village well. A row of trees mns along 
the centre of the present street, and other rows mark futnro street- 
lines. The villnge was laid out and most of the houses were built 
by the Rev. Wjllium Beatty, for ten years (18G7-1877) missionary 
at Gogha. Additions have been made by the Rev. G. T. Ilea, who 
since 1877 has been in charge of the mission. Some of the people 
of Wallacepur used to bo weavers ; now all are fanners. A sou of 


1 Contribiited by the Tier. R. CnJoapia, A3uned&bftd. 

> Of tticM, aix bmilioB liv« in the town of Gortut, nine fftmiKcn &t k aettlemcat 





itBuA VfaihotpoT, ttrO fnoiliea in bliivnii^u', ud ud« in ths vtll>(e of UiKhkdi. 

ctuipt«T in. 



ono of tbem is in tho serrice ot tbo Bh&raagar stat« as favjdar or 
oliief cotitttabb. ^iiotber nuui> formerly a teacluir, u in tbu Baaw 
Gcrvico an a road-overseer, whilo a third Christian acte as hooM 
i>t(!wnrd to His Uighness tho Bhavnagar Chief. Kach btaily ta 
Wallfioepar holds about thirty acrca of land, part of it tilled and 
part under grass, llie laud and bouses are rvtited from the miwion, 
the mission being tho Oovummeut tenant. Each family has a weU. 
A light English iron plough and an EngUah harrow hare boea 
inlrodiicod with good effect. Tboagh in breaking up fresh soil four 
are iioeded, in oHJnaty tille<l landtne plough can be drawn by two 
bullocks. Each family owns ono and nomo own two poira of working 
bulli>ck-<, and several bn^loes and cowy. The farm tools are also 
their own. They raise a gtKid stock of ponltryi which> with tho 
cggfi, they sell and use. Their food is tho ordinarj local grains and 
TCgetablcB, and occaaionally potatoes, lea, coffeo, uiattou and reniKo. 
Both men and women, some of whom wero orphan ^rla brought ap 
in the Sarat Miiision Orphanage, can nearly all read and write, and 
are daily instructed by the daughter oE one of tlie Hettlera, who was 
edocat«d in Ireland. They are also familiar with the Bible and 
Christian hymns. The people are from varioas costos, from tha 
Br&hman to tho Uhed. 1 hey keep Sunday as a day o£ rent, meat o£ 
thorii going twic« to chnrch Borvices led by a native ovangelisL Thoj 
have also a social house-to-house religions mooting ovoiy ovnniog. 
Ouite feasts, customs, and distiuctious, as well as excesidvo expeo- 
ditare on festive occasions arc strictly prohibited, as is tho use of 
liquor, opium, and all other intoxicating or onerrating prcparatioiu. 
Church censure or oxcommuni cation is tha penalty for the breacb 
of tliis rule. Tobacco smoking is allowed but discouraged. 
Thoagb not blamebss, the conduct of the conununity is better 
than that of ordiuar)- natives of similar rank. No breach of the 
Penal Code has ever occorrecl in the village, though provocadoa 
from non-Christian neighbours ha^t often been given. In sevmd 
cases, people of different caetee have iutenimrrieu, Br&hmans with 
Kolifl, Brfthmans with V6ni6s, and Kolis with Dheds. Widow 
marriage is oncooraged and has frequently taken place. Child 
marriage is nnknown. Both bride and bridegroom must be old 
enough to choo»o for themselves and to understand the dutiM 
of husband and wife. Of Native Christian workers, three an 
evangelists and fiveschool-tcachors. The rest of tbe school -teachen 
are liindns, Brahmans by caate. Seven schools, five for boys and 
two for giria, are at present at work, with an aggregato roll of 2-tI, 
192 of them boys and 49 girls. Three of the buys' schools an) 
attended b^* goodcasto Uindus and Musalmiins, and tlie remaining 
two by Bhod boys. One of tho girls' schools is attended by upper 
class Hindus and the other by lower. A few girls also attend one of 
the Dhed schools. In two of the best schools Christian boys of Dhod 
piirentago ore pupils without objection from teachers or scholan; 
These npper schools, both for boys and girls, teach according 
to the uovcmmQut standards, and receive yearly granta-in-aid. 
There is no other girls' school in Gogha. Christian books srs 
taught in all the mission schools and Christian hymns are learned by 
hoart. Until lost year, when from tko bttrd limus attoudaacu fell o^ 




}re were schools for Bfaangi^ or sweepers, and many of this class 
kve learned to read and write. BhangU bojs are as a mle sttipid. 

it DLed boys, once in the way of learning are little, if at all, luss 
gifted than higher class boys. Koot races and other ^raes are 
BDmetimca got up for the school boys and ore moch enjoyed.* 

In this district there is one village or town to about every four 
square miles of land, each village coDtaioiug aa average of 9C4 
inhabitants, and about 303 houses. With the excoptiou of the 
people of tlurteen towns, numbering 236,918 souls or 2S'fi5 per cent 
of the entire iuliubitmits, the population of the Almiodabad district, 
accoiiliiig tu the 1872 census returns, lived in 847 villages, with an 
aremgo of 689 sonls per village. Of the whole number of towns 
and villages. 14)5 had Jess thau 2oO iuhiibitAnts ; 293 from 2U0 to 
500; 228 from 500 to 1000; 125 from 1000 to 2U0U; 27 from 
2000 to 3000; 9 from 30O0 to 5000; 9 from 5000 to 10,000; aud 
4 more than 10,000. 

The vQlageR, particniarly thoRO in which the balk of the resident* 
Kanbis, contain many aubstuitial tiled houses two stories high ; 
[ those people a])]K)ar to possess considerable property in house- 
Id ntensiU and ornaments. The .<iame may bo said, in a some- 
it less degree, of the villages inhabited by a mixed population 
of Rajpnta aud Kanbis. The Koli villages are however poor, their 
touiios mean and uncomfortable. 

The following description of a Gujartlt village is taken from an 
account' by Mr. VT. G. redder, of the Bombay Civil Service : ' All 
lands whatever in Gujarat, as throughout the inhabited parts of 
luJia, are divided into portions varying in area from two hundred 
or tbroe hundred to several thousand acres, each of which is appro- 
priated to a single village or towu. ' Parish,' in the ordinary 
II *co<sptation of the term, denotes accurately enough one of these 
II territorial diviaions. The whole population of the parish, a ptBctLce 
which doubtless dates from old times of insecurity, live together in 
L^ho vilhige itself, which is generally sitnated near the centre of the 
j^peo. There are sometimes hamlets, subsidiary to large villages, 
■ont isolate'l dwellings are never met with, except in oue or two 
of the southern districts of Gujarat, where the farm servants 
nocainoDally live in huts upon the farm itself. The village, containing 
from 100 or loss to 2000 or 3000 inhabitants, is always built beside 
h tuuk or large embanked pond, shaded by noble trees among which 
is the temple of the local god. On one side of the tank and in front 
of the village is an open space where the cattle assemble to bo 
^^-atered in the morning and evening, and here is DHually a deep 
chfltubcred well, with a long tlight of stone steps Jeading to the 
%atcr. Borne such wells, built by the charity of rich Hindus, are 
l>Gaatifully ornamented with scniptnre, and have cost as much as 
£10,000. Here also at nightfall, on earthen seats round the stem 

Chapter III. 


1 Tlie *icc<r>nnt of tho Goghs ChriatUa eottlcment lus been compiled from 
tektvriala iDri>ti4^<d l>y tlic- itor. Gon. T. IUsa, Go^im 
3 laiiMn Loooanuit, August IStiS, p. 1ft 


Chapter m 





of nn H^cd treo, the village ciders assemble to smoko the httka 
over tlioir aiiupUi topics. 'ITie village itself ia occasionally si 
by on eorthen wail, but more oomnioniy by a lliick cactua hodgef 
even this defence is now oft^n wantliig. At tbo butranc* arO tW 
huts of tlio Bwcopcrs, oqo of wbo^o duties it ia to guido traT«Uaa| 
and on tbo outskirts of tho viliago li?o>, each m their aepantB 
quurtcrg, the different daeaea of low-cast« Ubourera. Their hnia 
aro somotimos wiutched enough, yot often, and iucrcaeiugly 8u 
late years, they inhabit doccut cottages of one story, built of 
brick and tile.' 

' In the middle of Uie village live the yeomen, the ownen 
cultivators of the lands. Their houses with walls of brick snd 
roofs ore usually built two or even three stories biph, round 
ynrvls opening with a gate to the street, in which the cattle u« 
np fur the night. Sometimes ono houae with its offices is 
enough to form sach a oourt-yard, bat moro often three or 
houses have one yard in common. They front npon tho oonrt, 
the doors, windows, and balconies are generally ornamented 
the delicate wood carving for which Gujardt ia famous. The adei 
or ends towards the street jiresent a blank wall, often coTcrod wiA 
stucco, fttid adorned with frescoes, barbarous indeed iu design, btrt 
brilliantly coloured, and not wanting in Fpirit. A hooso of this 
sort, well supplied with tho aimpto furniture and utensils of Hindu 
housekeeping, is of a cla»ia above the hovel of an Irish cottier, oc 
even the cottage of an English agrieultoral labourer.' 

As regards the number of houses, there was in 1872 a total o( 
2()0,d7C) or on an average 07*71 houses to the square mile> showing; 
compared with 2l2,-t64 in 184<i, an increase of 22'83 per cent. Ot 
tho total number 71,517 houses lodging 239,527 persons or 38'8T 
per cent of the entire population, at the rale of 3*35 soula to tmA 
nonse, were buildings with walls of firo-haked brickn and roofs tit 
tile. Tho rcmiiining 180,-l-!>3 houses accommo dating &t)0,110 
persons or 71'I3 pur cunb with a population per house of 3'1] sonls^ 
mcludod all buildings covered with thatch or leaves, or whose outer 
walls wero of mad or suu*dried brick. 

In the Land Administration chapter aome account is given of the 
constitution of Ooverumeut and pruprietary, tdlukddrij villages. Of 
the village staff thoao specially considered to bo Government aerraats 
are the headman, patd or mukh i ; tho village accountant, taldli ; the 
messenger, kavdklur ; the watchman, cHokivdlai the tracker, pa^f 
and the swecpora and polieo of tho Dhod, Bhangia, and Shevro 
castes. Except tho \'iIlago accountant, tuldti, and tho messenger, 
havdlddr, who receive only money, vill^e servants are paid eithtr 
in cash or in land or in both. Tho watchmen and trackers, who ta9 
generally armed with swords, receive from some of the villagers doles 
of grain or money, and iu return hold themselves reapousiblo for, 
property stolon from their houaoa. They get forty pounds (ons 
man) a house from the cultivators ; 2«, {lie. 1) in cash from V'dniis, 
and a smaller sum from the poorer non -agri cultural olasees. If 
stolen property is not rocovored, tho village conncil assesses tha 
compensation to be paid, keeping in view the probablo amount of 



and the watchmaTi'!! moans. The smn awarded ia^ if necessary, 
^l^ecDverod wheu tUu wutclimun receives liiti yoarly dues. But mMt 
Iwatohmon axo men of eubstonoej cniin^jf land on their own aucoant, 
tftnd nble to Katiijfy the demand otit of ibeir oira pockets, or hj 
I borrowing. Tlie eervunta ui^eful to the rillage commauity and 

fngnnderthn nnmo vattvaydg, or clasRos originally inWtod by the 
munity to minister to their wants, are the carpenter, aufAor; 
blacksmith, luluir ; the potter, Uumhiuir ; the barber, hajdm; 
rfhe tailor, darji ; the shoemaker, and tanner, mitehi and cbdmfulia. 

Thcj'e mun are paid by the villagers in grain and caah. The carpenter, 
^^e bluckKiuJbhj the putter, the bark>er, and in some villages the 
L^pnnor also enjoy Govemmcnt land on paymeafc oi one-quarter to 
|^0-bal£ of the full rent JBach landholder etnploys only one tanner 
^po sapplies him with leather and to whom ho, in i-eturn, gives 
j|0iie-ht)1f the sking of h'm dead sheep and bullocksj and as thoy are 
.too hard tu make anything but rupea, the whole of his bufialoes' 
iSkiaB. Another right enjoyed anil iusi»tcd on by the tanner is that 

oft during sowing time, every day taking to the field and bringing 
L Iioioe the seed drill ; and for this, at harvoiit according to the 
I ooltivator'a means and positian, ho is given from 'iO to 200 pounds 

(1-5 nuin*) of grain. 

TIio Briiliman village priest, gor, also soinetiTnes tha village 
Loolmaster, enjoys land rentf ree or at a quitrent and receives 
ley and grain presents from the villagers. Formerly the 
ircHininarios of all marriages were left in his hands. The village 
pkeepcr, generally a Vnuia, though not one of the community, is 
lught a necesaory person in most i-illagos. Bhavily6s, or strofling 
yers, are attached to most villages and in some cases hold land 
ough they seldouL live in one place. TIio Jogi or Rdval g(>U no 
:Axed allowance either from the State or from the village, but is 
lOonwidered nece«Rary to a complete community, and if not resident, 
Hb summoned from cI»ewhero whoa occasion calls. He Hvch by 
gging and aometimea by selling vegetables. His special duty is 
sound the gong to call the jieople together, though proclamation 
generally made by the Bliangia by word of month. Ho is also in 
me villages supposed to forward public papers, a duty commonly 
trusted to the meseeDger or watchmau.' 

' Many Ahmcdabfid merchants and traders live in Bombay, bat 
Ualiko some of the Sumt traders they do not itettle there returning 
BD Ahraoil«bnd when any family ceremony has to be performed. Of 
Hto BrahmauR, some are emnlnyed as cooVt in Bombay, and many 
flaring the fair season visit ourat and Bombay, returning with thnir 
BBminga. Neither cooka nor be^ara take their frimilies with them. 
A.rtiaan3 seldom leave the district, but of personal servants, a large 
Bumber of barbera, leaving their ftimilies buhiod them, are found in 
mlmy and Surat, where they remain for more than a year at a 
e. Wliule families of Vaghris and R^vali&a go as far as Bombay 

GhtptoT m 



Mt of the otbor details of tlio dilForcat cIasscs of villlgt Mrvsull fivm id the 
StaCtBtical Aocoant, Buiubay Gozottoer, II, 381-39^ e^jr t« AhaodAbftct 


of thepoopte. 

[BomlM7 GuBttaar, 



and maintain tbemselves tbere by begging. In the hasy seascm 
(October -Mar) Bombay and K4tbi4w&r traders and merchanta an 
fonnd at Dbolera. Some account of the movementB of the labonring, 
classes is given onder the head W^^ (page 80). Besides what ii 
there stated^ the chief movement, one t£at dates from the 1869 
fomine, is the infloz of labonrers from M&nr&r. Bringing thCT 
families with them they are employed on railway works, road- 
making, and pond-digging, and still more as reapers in the great 
western wheat lands, and as unskilled workers daring ihe cotton 
season in Ahmedabad, Viramgim, Dholera, and other centres of 
trade. About one-half retnm before the rains to till their 
fields. The rest have settled at Ahmedabad, Yiramgfim, Mfodal 
and elsewhere, some of them working as carpenters, smiths, wood- 
splitters, and at other crafts. As their caste is hard to tdl, both 
employers of laboor and other workmen look on Hbsee M^rridis 
with suspicion. A short time ago all the hands in one of the 
Ahmedabad spinning mills struck work on finding out that <me of 
the Mdrvddi workmen was a Dhed who had passed himself off as of 
higher caste. 




I AGRTnTLTTRB supporta 371,417 perHons or 44" 76 per cent of the 
tiro population.* 

'The two chief kinds of soil are the black, kah', ami the light^ 
"rri(. In many parts of tho district both kinds occur within tba 
lita of the samo village. But on the wholOj tho black soil is found 
|iofly towards the west, and the light soil in tho east. The black 
^belongs to the khokhar variety with n snbsoil of nodular limoatone^ 
iXur^and gravel. It is shallow and mach impregnated with alkali, 
>.' The light soiU are well supplied with springs, which, after 
early harvest has been reapoii, enablo the onltivatora at very 
le cost to have cold weather, rabi, and even hot weather, Jtari, 
>ps. With the help of water and mannre, the light soil is very 
ule. ThoQgh during the dry weather, especially whoro subject 
traffic, it wears into a loose Bne sand, after rain has fallen it again 
:ontc8 tolerably compact and hard. The low^ bdra, lands of 
jdhuka and Dholkn arc, even when tho Boil is doep, too moist 
cotton. But when the rain waters subside, wheat of a very 
jd (laality is widely raised year after year. Tho Bi^nand and 
>ika rice beds arc, owing to bod water-storage, inft^rior to 
of DatskrOL Two other varieties o£ Soil though less generally 
tributed require notice ; an alluWol deposit of the Subarmati 
Br, the raost fertile soil in tho district, easily irrigated, holding 
at the depth of a few feet bolow the surface, and a red 
ly soil, like that of the Deccan, favourable for Indian corn, in 
north-eaat aub-division of Panintij. This red atony boiI also 
Bur? in the hilly parts of Kanpuraud Ooghaaud accuuiulatea in 
tvatleys in a rich losun that yields good crops o£ sugarcane. 

Chapter IT. 


1 ThiktoUl (871,417) U nude up r>f the fallowing itoms: (I) Arlnit malos fagged 
' jiicaliun m per oetwuB of 1{{72. 131 fi27 : (2} u-ivc* at ilittn, CAlcuUtAd on tba 
I of thfi proportion tho tntul ndult tcinitin tiiiiJiilntiim 'if tlie ilintnot boani to tb* 
tnfeU popuUtioo, 119,219 : {'.i) cUildnLuoI 1 luid 2 calculateit on m BUuiJftr liuia, 
71; tOt»l, STI,-*!?. Thia CAbalivtirrn ia neiy)w.vy bcwiuat! the ccniUE returns 
lu^tBany »( Utewonven uiuIvrtlM licivd iniaci:llaiiC»uii «1iuh* a total of utily &til3 
r tbfl tpevial bead •dnlt agrioiiItiu%l roaulciL 
[TIm early disbriot offioon complainod maoh of the liirgo aros of unit. tWr. land 
~t];w)))«dDotbinsbntw«o(Uaii<Ignta. (!<mh1 UnrlH, thoy utiil, somctimM (^adtteoly 
wit "T^ snA rOOUUUUiS UhIcm for one or two ya^Ars ngnin bcc-imc swcnt. 
rM belierod to becoma aolt frnm too uucIl miii. In low-lytnn jilnccn tho 
w»U)r lodged *iid in other puts aftor a rerv hoKvy minfall the water fmm 
I Bftltburias vtrato nmlwd up to tho furfaoe. Bom. Gov. LiUio. ?apor9, 149, 2, 

I a 187-7 


Arable An», 



Exclusive of kncb belonging to otlier (erritory sitttated witln 
limitH, the disinVt contains, according to the return famiHhed b] 
purvey Hupcriniendent, 2,434,762 ncrcs. Of thctic, 245,635 Acn 
lO'^l per cent are alienated, paying only a quitrent to Qovemm 
lj400,416 acres or 57'£l per cent are held by lai^ land*owi 
tMukddrt sad mehvdti chief s ; and 1 77,$50 acres or 7'30 per 
are unarable waste. Of (i07,865 acres, tho total Oovcmmenl ai 
area, .'^W,r>2S acres or 8,1-84 por cent wore in 1877-78 hdd 
cultivation. Of this, 9108 or 1*70 percent wore garden li 
33,:J2<} or 6'o3 per cent, rico land; and 467, US or 1)1 titi per c 
dry-crop land. Of tho rico land, 10,927 acroa arc irrigiUod, 
13,<J99 acres unirrigated. 

Aa most of its rivers flow along' deep narrow channolii, tbo dU 
is not stiit«d for direct river irrigation. At the utme time ihtin 
many epots along thu cuunie of the SAbarmati, Kbiin, Bh&dhar, 
UtAvli, where by means of a frame on tho river banks water ta n 
in bags. Well water is also nted to a considerable extent. Ba 
irrigation from ponds and reservoirs is almoat oonfioed to the i 
part of the cold sciuon, Nuvembor and Deoembor, to brio^ ^le 
crops to maturity. Well water is generally fooud at a dept 
(rom thirty to sixty feet. Bal to raise it is costly, and tfaet 
considerable risk amoonting in places almost to a certainty 
the water will in time become salt. The chief watered crops 
rice, wheat, sugarcane, and garden produce. In 1877-78 of liM^,, 
cultivated area, 39,000 acres or 't"46 per cent were watered, 
the watered land 29,4^7 acres wcro under rice. 

The irrigation branch of tho Public Works Department,* 
began in northern Gujaritt in 1807<G8, has carriod out so 
nnunportant works and has aim by gauging the flow of the va) 
larger atrcams, and by surveys and levels in Dholka, SSa 
Doskroij and Parantij, collected a valuable mass of data for to 
guidance. The only work of any aixe is the Chandcla lake. Tli 
well as tlio K4nkariya take near Ahmcdabad is fed from a stream 
rises on the west of the Bokb. It seems originally to havo fslku 
the Khiiri near tho village of Gaiuri and tu have been turned ton 
those two reservoirs by a dam near Kmiiod. To supplement 
feeder, a cut from the river Khi^ri at IJiiipur was in 18tiS-G9 bogi 
a famine relief work for Milrvi'idi immigrants. As soon as thefiu 
pressure passed off tho work was stopped, and as the Tolaa 
water in the Khari is at present barely sofBcicnt to sn " 
demand on its own baiikH it will probably remain in abeyi 
increaao the flow nf water in the Khari as well as for direct t 
the Hfithiuftti canal was desieiiod. It was opened in Jnao"! 
Its supply is drawn from the river HAtbmati near the ro 
furb of AhmeddRgar in the Idar state, about forty milee eai 
Abmedabad. At this point the water is raisud by a rd 
masoniT weir 22 feet bigh and 1000 feet long, founded p 
ooi sanustono and partly on inferior limestone. At the site ol 

1 The inigktioii duUilawcHipiiUodbyJ. D. Tagiaoa, C.B,aBd Sir. LcJ^ift 


ihead-works, the river ba&& drainago area of 524 aqoaro miles. 

inal, cvomptetely bridged and regnlated, ia twenty railos long 

^macids ao area of 34,()6d acres on the left bank o£ the n?er. 

It three miles are in Idar and then to ita tail where it joins the 

iriver it croeaes Parfintij. When folly sapplied this canal will 

|90 oabio ioet per second, for the iirst ten mileH, diiuinuihius' 

iUy to 60 cubio foot por socood at the tail, the mean width 

I 18 and 16^ feet and the moan depth 5 and 3 feet 

,Tely. Its actaal eo&t, inclusive of ostabliahmeDt charges^ 

tfafl end of 1876-77, £45,629 (Ra. 4,5fi,290) ; the area it ia 

erdntQftUy to irrigate once in a three years* rotation 

of 34,UO0 acres. Much inquiry and cniisidemtion 

n given to tho secondary object in view of which the 

kati canal was undertaken, that is, to the enlargement of 

uri stream. The masonry workii on the upper part uf tho 

pare been mado of extra width to admit water intonded 

|t river, and it has been gii|>gestod that this extra How might 

toff through the Bhog&va which passoR close to the fifth railo, 

Kcing the remaiDing part of the canal for ita primary pnrpose. 

lor storage works have also been proposed on Uie flfithmati 

I the KhAri itself. Tlio project most in favour at present ta 

Bstmction of a dam with slaicc gates at tho nouth end of the 

ind the conversion thereby uf that Urge natural depression 

storage reservoir. In othur parts of the district prolWsional 

on hu chiefly been directed to the S^barmati of which careful 

B have been mode, and the result hsa shaped itaeU into a 

I for constrocting a weir near Ahmcdabnd with tho double 

B of watering a largo stretch of country and bringing to tho 

tnpply of much needed water. The cost of this work including 

through the Daskroi and Dholka sub-divisions is estimated 

,288 (Us. 17,12,8S0) and the area to be irrigated by atriennial 

El, at 70,500 aorcs. Hany diSicuUioa beset the undortakiug, 
f which is the absence in the bed of the river of any solid 
ion for the weir. Speaking generally, this district is not 
kbte for largo irrigation works. Except in the lands of nativo 
to the north and east, there are no sites suited for storage 
lira. Owing to tho looseness of tho soil the loss by soakago 
reat that even within a limited area water will only go about 
I far as iu heavy laud. Finally the rivers flow, as a rule, in 
krrow channels with sandy bods, and to bring water Hovcral 
rom them to command lower land involves serions loss hc-fora 
I ia watered. To secure his rjce-crop it is not unusual for a 
hor who has no well, to hollow near the field a small pond in 
m supply of rmn water gathers and, if tho lator rains fail, is 
I into the rice-beda by a channel or more often by a water- 

in other iiarts of GnjarAt there are in AJimedabad two 
MWOtts, tho early, Itkarif, lasting from July to November and 
B, roW, from November to March. Thyre is also in watered 

■ hot WMithor, harit crop sown in March and April and reaped 

k and June. 

Chapter IV. 







Fonrteen 'Enj^liiili ploaghs have boon dtstribnted in tbe dkt 
In tbo Liglit himIs ihvy htivo buen found to answer well, goug 
deeper t£»n tho nutivo plough and more thoronglily ooreriD? 
manare and wtioda. A light grubber for rooting out grsM aiu 
a bruad sowing machine are tools said to be much wanted. Tlia 
use of maoDro especially in light Boils is admitted, and ho groat is 
the demand, that within the last twenty yeara Uio price of faniw 
yard refuse has doabled and in fiomo places rUen oron fourfold. Id 
th« oast of tho district, where tho soil is deop and improvable rather 
than naturally rich, the supply of manure i» sndly below ihe demand, 
and its nso is almost entirely confined to fields! close round the nllagSL 
Two causae, the want of any fuel except dried cowdung oakea, and, by 
the reduction of tho pasture arca^ the great spread of tillage comfatM 
to limit tho supply of manure. In a fen backward Kcdi parts, fonu-yaid 
refuse still sells for not more than 'id. to A\<h (2-3 annas) the cart 
load, but tho average price is 2g. (Re. 1) and where there is mDch 
land under tobacco or other cshaustiug crops it rises as hi^^h as 3j. 
(Ka. li). The refuse of caator oil seeds is bought from tho preeMT 
at tlie rate of 120 to ICO pounds for 2«. (Ite. 1) and used for rice and 
BUgarcanc. Pond mud boUcvcd to keep off white ants is nsed Ear 
setting sagnrcane cuttiugs. In the rich blacksoil of the west, 
fann-yard refuse is said to ' bum ' the crops, but pond mod is 
occa^ouaUy used. 

Tho area au average pair of bullocks can plough is in rice, XryiMs, 
land ahont four acres; in light, tjorot, land about nine acres ; ami in 
block, kali, cotton or wheat soil about twenty acres. Rice load 
wiintB tho most working, for the soil is not only hoary to plough but 
has tn bo ofton plonghed ; the light soil though easily worked WBUt* 
BOToral ploughiugb and being apt to grow weeds has to be ciftcn 
gmibbed and loosened ; tho black soil though heavy wants littli* 
tillage and is free from weeds. The following statement preptuvd 
by the Purvey tiu^eriiiteaideut shows titat the avenigu sne of a 
ploug'h of land vanes from 7^^ aores in Pariintij to 24-A; in Goi^hs, 
and that tho average sizo of a farm varies ^m 7^ in ]>Ulat)i to 30 
m Dhanuhuka. 

AhtffJaiad lIM'mga and Smt^a * Pbu^' qf Lmd, 1S7S. 









Averoito acreage t>f 

Avorege acreage to 







In 1876-77 the total numljerof holdings in Government villaj^ 
including alionatod lands, was 50,685 with an average aroa of 14| 
acres. Of the whole number 22,511 wero holdings of not more thin 
five acres ; 14,997, of not more than ten acres ; 1 2,127, of not mow 
than twenty acres; 7600, of not more than fifty ones; lG49,of no* 

^Doore tlian 1 00 licres ; S50, of not moro than 200 acrcfl ; 50, of not more 
Ktban 31)0 acres; 13, of not more tlmn 400 acres j 12, of not more 
" than 600 acres; 21, of not more than 750 acres; ll.uf not moro than. 

lOOO acres; 23, of not more than 160U acros; 12, of not more than 

2O0O acres; and 19, above 2000 acres. 

During' tho thirty years ending 1877, the nnmbor of plonghs has 

risen from 59,630 to 63,707 or ti83 per cent, and of carts from 

18,401 to 22,012 or l'J'62 per cent. Live stuck, on the other hand, 

has, from the spread of till«.jfc and the nan-owing of the pasture 

_area, falloa from 5U5,2»5 to 40G,229 or 772 per ceat. 

AAmiabad SttxA, 1846 and 1377. 



Livi Stock, 
















75, Wl 



feoraiM per 

, am IB isn. 











Mat la IHT. 









CuIuTation details are, oat of the whole number of S30 rillages, 
iilable for 462 Oovommout and 291 proprietary vJUsgi^. In them, 
1,218,024 acres of occupied land, 314,720 acres or 26'3 per cent 
in 1877-78 fallow or under grass. Of the 873,304 ' acres under 
grain crops occupied 057,440 or 7o-2 per cent, of which 
i07 wero under whoatj tjhau, Triticum ajstivum ; 215,438 under 
r, Sorghum vulgarc; 158,183 under M_/ni, Penicillaria spicota; 
I6,l0B under rice, ddnj/ar, Oryza sativa ; 13,537 under barley, yaw, 
~' jrdeuui hoxafitichon ; 9823 under kodra, Paspalum Bcrobiculatum ; 
)53 under havio, Panicum frumentaceum ; 2048 under vari, Paniciim 
liaceum; and 38oO under miscellaneous cereals comprising maise, 
tfiJtttf, Zoamays; ro/^i, Kleusino corocana; and chnnna, another kind 
Panicum mi'liacoum. Pulaea occupied 48,722 acres or 5*6 per cent, 
: which 2 1,720 acros were under math, Pliaseolus aconitifoliuB; 12,0(>4 
ider graui, chatia, Cicer arietinum ; 9114 under iway, Phasoolua 
liatus; 2165 under guvar, Cynmopsis psoralioides; 1676 under 
aditd, Phaseolus mungo ; 1613 under kitUhi, Dolichos unitlorue ; and 
370 under miscellaneous pulses comprising f tu'^j-r, Cajanua indicus ; and 
rat, Dolichos lablab. Oilseeds occupied 1 8,214 acres or 2"08 per cent, 
which 10,734 were under giugelly oilseed, fal, Sesamum iudicum j 
}9 under rapcsecd, sarsae, IJrassica napus ; 303 under linseed, 
]e:hi, Linura"oBitati98imnm;7nndermuBtard, rat, Sinapig racemosa; 
0571 under other oilBoods, of which the details are not arailabla 

Chapter IV. 




* 01 873,30* »ctM U,(M7 acrw wero twice crop]«sd. 





Fibres occupied 142,252 acrM or 16*2 p«r cfi&k, o( which USJSf 
acres were uuder cvttoD, knpau, Oussjpium herbocoum; aud lUl 
tinder 8<in, CnjUiliiria junctA. Uiscellaneons crops oocapied 6674 
acres or 0'7 per cent, u£ which 24r96 acnw were imdor sugarcane, Mrii^ 
SHDcbamm officinarutn ; 702 nndor sntBower, kuawaoo, Cartiiamu 
tiQctorins; 329 under tobACOO, tantbdfcu, Nicotiana tAbaoum; 209 
under indigo, gati, lndigof«ra tinotoria ; and 543d nndor inisceUuieaiiB 
v^etables and fruits. 

Among cropsWheat.chiofly from Dbolka,Dhandbaka,ai]dyiramgiin, 
holds the first place with, iu 1877-78, 230,307 acres or 26-37 per imt 
of the whole tillnpre area. Thoro aro two chief Tarietiee, ehdswgnrtrn 
in Dholka, Dhandhnka, yiratDg&m, Sauand^ and Gogba, and udduid 
or vdjia growa iu Diiskrot and Parfiutij. Chdgin is of two kinds, 
kaiha red, and daudkSidni white. Of these only the red is sown io 
Dbaodhuka au the bait aubauil \s belieTud to bo nnfavoarafale to 
the white. ClioBui is grown in light black soil withont wattirbg. 
Eighty-fonr ponnda of seed aro nsed to the acre. Except when it 
takes the place of a failed cotton crDp, the some &eld m one year 
yields i]othiiig hut wheat. Laud intended for wheat ia left mlov 
and ploughed four times before tho seed is sown. The first ploaghing 
is in M;i.y ur June before the rains set in. 'Ilic crop is eown at taa 
end of October or the beginning of November and reaped in April. 
Tho average acre yield of chAtia is estimatod at 258 pounds. V^inn 
or vafia is sown m watered light sandy aoil at tho rat« of 160 
pounds of seed to the acre. It soroetiraea follows rice or millot, bat 
in BQch cases the outturn is small. Except that three ploughings 
aro enough, it is grown iu the same way as fhUia. Tt u sown to. 
December and reaped in April. The average acre yield ia estimated 
at GOO pounds. Oha*ia Suffers from frost, gTa»Rhopper», ka^ 
andother enemies, Vddina or oti/m is liable to mildew, known U 
geru, gervar, or jem. This diaease attacks watered wheat only. It 
gives tho young plants a reddish tioge, the colour growing more and 
more marked aa tbo discasu uprwuls. There is no known remedy for 
it. White or ddutlkhdui wheat commands so high a price for faomS 
couaumption that it does notpavshipoers to export it. The Dholki, 
vdjta, wheat is said to be suiteu to tiie export market and to bo 
similar to the lower class red, jnssi, of the Central Provinces. 

Indian millet, juvdr, Sorghum vulgare, of which there aro no 
fewer than ten varieties, horns the second place, with 215,438 scrtt 
or 24'60 percent of the whole tillage area. It is the staple grain 
of the district and tbo penplo'schief article of food. It is sown in tke 
beginning of July and reaped early in October. With itaregrowD 
pulses which taking longer to ripen remain in the field a montb 
after tlic millet crup has been reaped. Millet straw is highly volaed 
as fodder. To meet the daily coui=iumption of the cultivator's cattJ^ 
much of it is cut groon> and goes fur to mako up for tho want of 
grasa at all times scan^ in U^t soils. 

MiUut, {lujrij Peuicillaria spicata.of two kinds, a smaller and finer 
and a larger andcoarser, holdR the third place, with 168,183 acres or 
IS'll per cent of tho whole tillage area. Next to^xvdr it fomu tho. 
chiuf food of the people and like it is sown along with pulsa 



_ 'Cotton, Jtrtp<i*,Go88ypiamherbaceam, holds tlie fourth place, with 
142,151 acres or lfi-27 por cent of the wholo IUIa^ area. Cotton 
ia yrown in the Dholkn, Dhandhuka, and Viramgiim anb-di visions. 
Of Gbe three varieties of soil, mixed, hes<ir, is the best, black, ka U, tha 
next, and light, goradu, the least soitcd to the growth o£ cotton. 
No foreign cotton is grown. The local varict-ica are in the 
VinuDgim sab-division, ^'afmn'd ; in Dholka, bhiilia and vdyadia i 
in Dhandhnka, lalia and vdgadia; and in small quantities near 
the city of iihmedsbad, jMn'o. Except the jdria theae are all 
yearly varieties. The jdria is allowed to grow for four seasons. At 
the end of tho first before tho rains sob in the branches aro 

' cat close to the root. The second year's crop is the best ; after 
that it falls off, tho seed growing lai^or and tlio staple weolcor 
and shorter. Except in a few villages where it is bowo year uftor 
year, cotton is grown only every secxmd year, in black soil in turn 
with wheat or barley and in light soils in turn with millet. Jdria 
is grown along with millet; the other kinds are sown by themselves. 
Manare is used in light bat not in mixed soila. Even in light soils it 
improves the crop only after a good rainfall. In July whon the land 
IS ready, tho seed cleaned by mbbing with earth and ashes in A 
corded frame is, at the rate of ten pounds the acre, sown from a 
drill plough with three or four tubes or feeders. The watering of 
cotton, common nhnndredyearsago (December 1787)' bntapyiarently 
ia 1850 out of use* has again come into practice in Viramg^ro, 
iMiolka* and Dhandhuka. Watering much iocreaseB the outturn, 
l>qt is open to tho objection that it makes the crop apter to take 
barm from frost. When full grown tho plants stand from 3^ 
to five feet high, l^ields sown in July flower in September and 
October and pod in December. In light soil, before the time of 
flowering oloady weather or oven slight rain, though it aomowhat 
keeps hack the picking, does good. Mnch rain increases 
the size of the seed and lessens the ontturn ; and after pods 
are formed and when near bursting rain harms tho crop. 

f "-finning in early years in January but oftener in February, the 
king season lasts till tho end of March and sometimes till April. 
cepfc the Dhandhuka vdgadia or hiird-shellod cotton, which must 
^ picked with the pods, the other kinds ought in picking to be 
separated from the pod. But this is nowhere the practice and in 
oonsequence the shell, broken and mixed with the wool, greatly 
lowers its value. The one-year plant yields two and sometime* 
throe pickings, the three-year plant alvmys yields three. The picked 
ootton is gathered in heaps and at the end of the day onrried to the 
yard near the cultivator's house. Here tho pods are broken and the 
wool drawn out by the hand and, to loosen and free it from lesf, it 
ig laid on a rope framework or on the ground and beaten with sticks. 
Aocor<ling to a return prepared by the Collector in 1850 the average 
maximum acre produce of clean cotton varied from twenty-three 
pounds in Qogba to lOS pounds in Viromg^m.' The shells serve aa 

Chapter IV. 



Dr. HoT«. Bom. Gov. Sel. XYL &1, > Cost India Fapen (Cotton]. 
ParUabumtaiy Papcn, Eoat ludla Cotton, Part 111. 122. 




fuel sod as oattlo foddor. Of tho farther prooeBsee of f^inning 
pressing some occonnt is given bolow ander the beKl o£ Trade. 

The adulteration of cotton has not been less commoii in AhmedohoJ 
than in other districts. In I860 b system of nnirersal fnuid 
prevailed among the petty traders. The eftorts made by Oovemment 
to panish and n-prees this evQ have to some extent been ^ncoessfoL 
But many dishonest pmctices are still common. These conaitt 
either o£ pressing with the cotton wool, cotton seed, clay, sand, or 
Btones, or of mixing iogothcr good and bad sorts of cotton. For 
fraudulent mixing two sort^ of poor cotton are nsed. Of these one 
called barkl grown in M^rw&r, is brought to tho Alimedabad 
markets and mixed with IdJia ; tlio other called faklta grown in 
wostem Ahmcdabad near the Nal lake, i» sent to Kathi^w^ to fao 
mixed with the mor« Talnable kinds. 

From lime to time during the last fifty years attempts have b«n 
made to introdaco tho culture of foreign cotton. These efforts hav^ 
as the following dotnils showj met with very little snoccM. la 
February I&3U a Mr. Martin fixed on two spots, one near DUandhoka 
and the othor near Kanpor, as suited for the growth of -Egyptiu 
and Pemambnco cotton.* Of the result of these experiments no 
details are arailabte, and nothing more would seem to have beu 
done till in January 1852 a Mr. Price was appointed to supcrinteiid 
experiments in growing foreign cotton and introducing the Amerieu 
■awgin.- Ue was allowed to make presents of New Orleans seed 
to any land owners willing to take it ; to buy the prodaoo at fiw 
per cent above the market price of local cotton, and to prouuM 
that if tho crop failod no rent would be levied. He waa aha 
allowed to take up land and plant it with foreign cotton in Dholka 
and Dhandhuka. In all 128 acres were sown with Ne'er Orleasi 
seed. During tho raiuy season tho crop suflerod from rain aaiL 
many fields entirely failed. Only about 2000 pounds of cotton or 
a yield of about 16^ poonds to the acre were forwarded to Bombsy. 
In 18^3, 402 acres were planted with New Orleans cotton. ~ 
season was somewhat unfavournbjc. Tho local cotton suffered alij 
and the foreign severely, failing altogether in Dholka. The wl 

?roduen waaeatiraatedat IDcwt. or a yield of 5J pounds to tho 
t wa« shipped to England and left a loss of nearly fifty per cent, la 
1854 about fifty acres were sown with foreign seed. Part of this wi 
a complete failure, and tho whole yield wafl only about 200 \Kni 
of clean cotton or nn aero arorago of 41 ponnds. This failure 
supposed to be partly due to bad management, and a &fr. Daly 
appointorl in Mr, Price's place. In liJ^^iS, S7ti acrea wore sown and 
pclded 2'S87 pounds or about TJ pounds to the acre. Heavy rain is 
mentioned as ouo cause of the small outturn, In 185G, b7 acrei 
yielded about '194 pounds or about 8| pounds to the acre. In 1853 

I Itoyle, 420. 

S Tku <l«tttilB About the cotfam expcnnipnta fnun ISQ2 to I8S0 are oonpQld I 
Hr. CBasel'awork " Cottonin llivB-jiDbny i'TCBidciicy," aodtkedctails tor tba j 
ralmequont to 1B60 ktc ennipllcil from the annaal reports Mid from ft paper 
by Mr. Turner, CutttiD luapvctor. 




BO fbroign cotton wns s^iwn. In 1308, 440 acres were sown, but the 

waa completely destroyed by rain. In 1859 no foreign seed 

ran snwn, but somo experimcDts wore made as to the effect of water 

[uid DKinure on the local, vu'jailia, cottoa.' In ItiOO about sorenty 

j9> sown with foreign cotton, yielded 2716 pounds or thirty-oight 

>nnds the ncro. This, thongh a lesri couplote failnre than former 

ampbs, was not encouraging and from 18G0 tho appointment of a 

nnJ officer to carry on cotton experiments ocascd. Between 1861 

id 1865 no further experiments were made. In 1866 Egyptian 

[cotton seeds were distributed. A sample of the ]>roduce was found 

by the Bombay Chamber of Commerce to bo in colour about tho 

AS average, long and regular in staple, and moderately fine 

[sod strong. It classed as folly good £tur. In. 1808, 120 acres in 

)handhuks were sown with Egyptian sood, but only forty acres 

aided any outturn. In 1869 seveuty-six acrc« in Vinungftm were 

jwwn partly wirh local, partly with foreign seed. Of tho local kinds 

[tho yield and quality of Saila and Wndhwdn were almost rqna! to 

|ViTnmg&m, and Broach was found to do well. Of the foreign kinds 

"" 3rptuui and Hiogangh&t prosperod in light soils. Egyptian was 

5wn in abont eight acres of light soil. Tho field was ploughed 

[with the native plough but somewhat deeper than ui^ual. Fart of 

tho field was manun>d. Tho use of tlio village sweepings was found 

{to introaso the growth and strength of the plant but not to add to 

[the outturn. Tbo average acre yiutd waii 1 Oo pounds of clean cotton, 

|A small part of tho field was twice wavered but with no percoptiblo 

leffect on its outturn. Thinning was also tried but was found of bttb 

lose au the plants did not throw out side shoots. Uinganghat also 

lid well, making rapid progress and yielding a fair crop. Compared 

jritb the local varieties, both Egyptian and Ilinganghiit are open to 

' thp objiiction that instead of yielding two or three general pickings 

' ihcy go on ripening slowly for fonr or five months and during tho 

whole of that time want caro and labour. 

Rice, dangar, Oryza eativa, holds the fifth placo with 16,198 acroa 
or 1'8« percent of the whole tillage area.' The beat rice villages 
are in Daskroi and 8anand. Rice is grown in bliiok soil in banked 
and watered fields. The young plants, sown about tho middle of 
June in richly manured nurseries, ore moved into the fields iu July 
and August. For about two months until the ear begins to show, 
ranch water is wanted, and if the i-ainfal! is scanty, supplies mnsc 
be drawn from walls and ponds. In some parts of chn district the 
lice lands are aJtasia or rain watered. They are banked and loTcUcd 

Chapter IT>- 





I Tb« ntulta »[ titme «xperiin«iiti trero : ) &cro of red kH manored tad pnrtly 
irHg»t«d hf pcffcolstion proaoott) fifty poiitHls nf clean cotton, coot of cnltivntion 
ir^£I fia., ftiid theskle pcocecda of lbs cotton nnd beed Km. or a loMoffti.; j Acro o{ 
reil wil mwinfvd and tmrtly irrigJiteH by percolnti'-n prmluood forty nniiuilH of clwa 
coltoQf cnitt ci tmhiviilinn 1 U. md tb« tait prooc«(i» of th« cntton said bogiI lAa. or a 
intirlit ot 4ji. ; i acm i.f wliitt- iriil unirrtgAtnl anil iinrnktiiirMl |irti<liiCNl Uiirty iwiin^B « 
ricwi (■oUiin, t^nat of ciiltivnliiin wax (!■. and tliv oUu pruccnls of tli« cotton Kad SMds 
lOf. ora profit of 4*. ; i aero of hWk §oil unirriKatcl luid notniuiunid produced thirty. 
five pounds of deui cotton. Oo«t oi cultivation Ga., uid the sale proccons of the cotton 
and Mad 12*., or apmlit of fui. 

1 1'hc riec area u iiiniUy inncb larger Iban lliit ; la 1874 it was 41,090 acrct. 




Chapter IV. 







bat tbe yield is reiy precarioua. Tlio chief sorts of rice ore panhJuiK, 
kanwd, eidieki, rt^^irttil, eauklo, aud .fdthi. Of theeo tbo panltAitf 
and Icamod oro, on acconnt of their saptrior qoality, mnch pnaed bf 
tho richer claaseo, aud form au urticlo of export. Saihi ia a 

Of Oil secdfl, tal, SeaamDiQ indicam, ie grown tbroagbonfe 
district, tinsood in Dholka^ and raposcKid in Vimmg&m. Theeo t 
are exported id considerable quantities to Bombay and otlira' plucai. 

Indigo with 209 acres ia grown only in Daskroi. In tho 
seventevuth century, indigo was one of the chief agricoltnral projuols 
of the district. Kvon lato in the cightcouth coutury it was ntodi 
grown.^ In 1820aftcra long period of gT«ht dullness a rise in prii» 
revived its iinportanco. Dot of lato ycftrt, nominally from Hit 
dcstrnction of insect life cansod in its preparation, bnt probably 
chicHy from tho low price it fotohcs^ its caltir&tion has almoil 
entirely ceased. 

Sngaroono with 2498 arres ia grown chiefly in Dsakroif Dholka, 
Dhnndhuka, aud S^acd. It is osually fonnd to detached fields. 
Tlicro aro two sorts of HiigBrcane, kali, black or red cane, and liJutH 
white. Like Knira tho Ahmcdabad district draws much of its sngv 
•apply from Sural. 

In Dholka and Daskroi many ganlen, mAlutt, crops are 
including besides the condimentfi nsed in native cookery, plant 
ginger, garlic, chillies, and limes. 

Among hu8baD(.hneQ Kaiibiei hold the finst place. Hardwc 
intelligent, and with minute hereditary knowledge^ they till 
great skill and success, knowing well tho value of manure andl 
crop changes. It is chiefly to its Kanbis that parts of the district < 
their name for rich garden produce. Next tu Kauliia como ~ ' 
and SathyfiWis, market garaeners seldom found except close to 
towns, bat iu skill and perneverance little inferiur to Kuiibis. Nl 
to them come the llrflhrnans with lo^s skill and knowledge boil 
working and careful. After tho Brithmans rank the Tiilabda KoE 
willing and steady but dull and nUHkilled ; then the Musalminsi 
Rejpnts not wanting in intelligence or skill but idle and 
taking what they can from the land, but not helping it either' 
manure or rest. lielow them the Chuvatia Kotiti, though nettledl 
bui<bii.ndmen, artf still witliont knowledge or skill, and lowest of tS'' 
are iUuMvhr'Ui KoliHand Bhils, unsettled tribes, who in cleared fonut 
patches, valrAs, grow coarse crops with the help of wood ashes and • 
little loosening with a pickaxe, ko<hUi. 

Of only a few of tho Ahmcdabad famiues arc details a\ 
In 1020 and IfjIiO Ahmedahad passed through two ycora of 
BO severe that ita streets wore blocked by the dying. Those 
conld move wandered to other countries. The cause of tho famins 
was want of rain, and so great was tho dbitresa that people wt 
said U) have lived on humau llebh. Poor houses were opwed stj 

1 Dr. BoTii (1787). Bom. Gov. SeL XVL W. 

imcdabad for the relief of the famisheil, and food and money were 
distrilmtod. All tuxes were remitted fur two ycare. Daring the 
funino aU the mnle buffaloes died, and after it was over, ono 
'Was brouplit from CHmpnnerat a cost of £8 lOs. (Ra. 85). The 
Alimedftbnd district waa nearly mined. Abont twenty years later 
(IGoO) there was a succession of bad years causing a scarcity that 
in I60O amonnted to famine and caused great sufTeriug. No dotaila 
''""") available. Again in 1686 there was a great famino, bnt of ita 
lae and effects there are no details. 

[in 1718 millet, bajri, sold at 6d. (4 annofi) the pound and gmin 

imported. Kombers of people died, and children T7cre sold 

r mr sMDings. In 17^^ Gujarat suffered from auothur fniaine. 

Fn 17+7 not ft drop of rain fell uor did a blade of grasa grow. In 

few faminea, says the Padsb&i DW&a can the distress have been 

plater. Grain rose to 6d. (-t annns) a ponnd. The people and the 

Xoattle died in numbers. In 1770 according to the PndshAi Dir^, 

Hlwholesome air and the tnrbulonco of tbc Mfirradis brought on 

rPfaiiiine. Thousands of people died of fever in two or three days, 

so that none could be found to bury them. In 1790-91 an almost 

total failure of min caused a faniiuc. The rupee price of gmin rose 

160 to 20 pounds (i annas • Rs. 2 a man.) Many people 

It from Gujarat to M^wa. Vast nambcrs of cattle died and 

' disease and aickiiess prevailed. 

[The famine' of 1812 and 18I3, though spread over the greater part 

' Gujardt seems, next to Kiithiawar, to have been fiercest and most 

itructive in Ahmcdabad. Locusts were the original cause of the 

line- They were believed to have come from the east in the Bengal 

>vinces about the beginning of 1810, and moving north, to have 

through upper India, and after tif teen months come to M&rwar. 

181 1 the Marwar rains Failed and the people flocked into Gaianvt. 

le to help thorn for a time. On jar&t itaelf was soon reduced to almost 

'misei^. When, in JM/irw&r (August-September 1811), no green 
ing was loft, the locnsts made their way into Pa tan in the north-west 
Gajar^t, and from Patau passed west into Kiithiawar, ami before 

dose of the year had devoured all the grain, leaving in the fields 

bing but useless stubble. The locnsta were most destructive 

KatniSwar, and two visitation!) of them almost destroyed the 

imedabad crop. Once only were they scon as far south as Biimeh and 

Jnno 1812 they had altogether disappoarod. But anothercvil was 

L store for Gujarat. The 1812 mius failed, and theshurt fuud stutL-s 

' to boar tho double demands of the Manvflr and the Kathiawar 

_ Bgeea. Gmin is said to have been imported from Bengal to 

lioTera, and lat^o local stores were brought out and sold. In spile 

this, BO great was tho scarcity, that the mpoo prices of millet roiw to 

jht pounds.' The rifMi in the price of gram, the fears of tho people 

iviug cuch family tu husband it« stores, and the selfish effurts of 

Chapter 17* 


ISth CftUnry. 

tOth Cetdmry. 

Tbft AeUibt n( Uia ISIS-ISH fiunina hnvn hMn aomiiilwl fmrn CM>Uin J. R. 
mu's letter, AaioA Bnruda. Fulirnary >SI5- Tranw. Bom. Ul-Suc. I. 321328. 
' Cotonal Ethurii]j[o'B Elcportoo tlic \iaai [aminos of th« BonWjr rnsJduoy (1868). 

iapter IV 

CTiun-deBlerB to make money uut of tho distress of tbc poor, 'bom 
liroiight the refugeeB into the most grioToos straita. 

The rich ilii] much to help the sufTerora. At almoat all the chief 
towns of CInjarAt thty joiu(« with tho Government tn opening relief 
bouses, spending in Baroda i>f<venil thotuaad rupees a oiouth and 
saving largL^ numb(;rs fnuu Htarvution. But then? was little method 
intheircharityandnoattcmpt to keep order. It waaa cmel sight to 
Bee the stm^leo when the doors were opened to diride the food. 
Children were often crushed under the feet of their own parent^ aad 
many people died from greed and gluttony. 

Tho destitute, especially the M^rvfidis, did little to meet the eftnto 
of their well-wishers. Whether it was that the ready help gifeo 
them on firiit coming to Gujarat mado thom supjKiee Iht^y woald 
never be allowed to atarve, or from innate laztncsH, or from thi 
recklwjsnoss uf exlrumo misery, they would do no work. It wa 
noioriouH that in all cases when their well-wishers offered them vnak 
tbey refused it, even though they know that work alone could save then 
from deuth, The ditlLTencc between the pnuiioworLhy wiUinffneee of 
tho Ibliu'utlia aud Ibo careless idleness of too M^rvAdi was »tnkiug. 

Tho sufferings of tho peoplu were very terribla Near all largv 
towns the suburbs were surrounded by the destitate. 'J^hey aqoattM, 
under trees at tho road sides, men, women, and childi-en hi 
togotherj famished, sick, and dying, some with a scanty cov« 
otSers with hardly a rag. Loud complaint and outcry were folloi 
by the most utter and widespread iudifiorcnoo. ' During this tin 
of misery,' writes Captain Rivott Camac (Fobrnaty 1815), * 1 bar? 
Been a group of MArvudis deny a little water to a dying woman 
u dead infant at her bi-cast, aud whcu she died, sit on letting the be 
lie till tho Gnvomment hnriora carao round. Dogs, by foodirg 
on human flesh, grew strangely fierce. I have seen a pack of tbain 
carry off a living child from its sick mother's arms. I have een 
them day aft.(jT day waiting round tho dying, ready to feast on lh«r 
bodies. Even among the higher classes so koeu was the distrws 
that for a few Khillinga Brahmims sold their relations, rhMdren, aad 
wives.'^ Of tho deaths from famine there is no attempt at I 
estimate.^ Of ticvend hundred thousand people who are gupposGdl 
bavecomnfrom Ratliiflwilr very few are said to havo roturneu, aud] 
tho Marwar refugees, probably at lc«at as large a body, not more i 
one in a hundred, ever weut buck. At Baroda, Captain Rivott' 
bad, in an evening's riflo, seen not lo8s than liity bodies scattered 
about that the servants of Govornuacnt had not time to bm-y. 'Tho 
burials in one day were often more than 500; the uuiuber wl 
could scarcely bo counted.* 

Tlic misery was all the greater becauac, to the distress from 
of food, wore added the sickness and other dre^s of the *' 

' Miijor (ionahV account of Uio ntutf of tbingK in wMrt«m .Mim«lali.-Ml gm* oi« 
further. Tliv luw clac*c« livol on tliv dt-nil anttlc, nuil nuiuoi; tlli: bigliur I'MtCl < ~~ 
wcrr rriK>rlrs1 of tnivthnra catinii llieir own diildrcu. 

1 Own. I'ubUi: Uiariua, lt>20, 217 uul 21& 

{ftminc. The M^rriidis came to Qnjar^t covered Trith duinase; 
confluent Bmnll-pox raj^ed, and the women, prostituting their bodies 
for fmxl, had contracted diseases little less lU-iidly than smiUl-pox. lu 
Gujardt, in 181 2, partly from the general sickness and partly l)e(Mtuso, 
except in Baroda, tho hudies of the dead, both of man and beaat, vrere 
ftUowed lo lie unburied and taint the air, a pcsettlence broku out, 
Uiat in Ahmedabad city alone is aaid to havo carried oS 100,000 souls, 
or one-half of the people.' 

1819-20 and 1824-25 were years of short rainfall and failure 
o£ crops. To. 183-t- the rainfall was again Khort and the distress 
incrcosf^d by swarms of locnsts. The rupee prico of grain roao to 
ten pounds (Ha. 4 a ma7i). In 1838 there was a &ului-e of the nsnal 
supply of rain. la September 1875 the city of Ahmodabad and 
thrc« eastern sab-dlviKions wci-e visited by extraordinary floods in the 
Sabarmati. Two iron bridgeti and a large purtion of the town were 
washed away, and in the districts one hundred and ono vdlagea sabered 
wry severely both iu hou^^es and land. 

■ Locoste occasionally appear though not of ten in very larf^n nurabera. 
Frightful devastatii>n was wrought by thorn in the Dhaudhiika snb- 
divi&ioQ in 1812, and in 1869, in various parts of the district tboy 
did mnoh damage. The people endeavour to keep the swarm from 

Mttliiig by beating tom-toms. 

V^Vliito ants cat tho roots of sag^rcanc, especially in tbo higher 
bud where there is lesH moisture in the soil to chock them. Tlie 
(onall holes dug for the reception of the catlings are fillod up with 
tAuk deposit, which is to some extent a preservation against these 
insects. When about a cnbit high, the plimlw urn caivfully examined, 
and if it appears that they havenron attacked, the refuse of caator- 
oil seeds, khol, is applied at the rate of from 11 to M cwts an acre. 
The main remedy known is frequent irrigation. 

tThc khipri is a winged insect which does much mischief, espocinlly 
len rain holds off, by eating the springing blades down to thcj 
Dund. In tho event of an ansetiBonablo drought many other 
ntaccts and small animal;!, such, as rat3, multiply cnarmou.tly 
and prey upon tho crops they especially affect. A steady rainfall 
^loikrs tJiem awuy. With rofcrcnco to this, as in all the onlitiary 
Bfeuia of life, tho cultivators pay groat attention to tho nak«k<it.rnji, 
!«r twonty-iseven lunar mansious of the Hindu zodiac, each of which 
id supposed to bo under tho domination of n spocial supcrnatiii-al 
inflaouoc. Thus it is believed that rain during the fiinj luikithatra 
which commences on the 5th June, always preludes a great 
al)uDdance of insects, and that ^if rain falls during tho punitrvnitiL 
wilixhntrn. which commonces fourteen or fifteen days afterwards, 
■nillets will suffer from a tiny animal generated inside thu stalk. 

Chapter IV. 



1 Oetaibwe given bolow, p. 220. The catimatu 100,000 b prub.-tl>l7 exccMuva 
OUmt rotnnw MPin tn m:tl«' it likrly thut at this time tbo whola populdUoD of Uie 
rily did wA «woih1 100,4XKt (mc bvluw, p. 3S3.) 

Clmptttr IV 




Gem or mildew Grst dUcoTers itsolf by tnr&iDgtheyoac^i 
JDDludinff its root, to a mldigh colour. After a timo tho b'iMj bos 
o{ the stalk and tho reddish epota on tho Icaroa can be eooUy detected 
by tho cyo at a distauco, aad finally when tho ear has ooma to 
apparent maturity tho grain is found to boahrivollodand naolea. 
In aomo seasons this pest destroys from 25 to 50 por cent of t^ 
crops it attacks, but imppily it is almost confiood to urigatod wheat, 
in consequcni'-'fl of which iHirloyj though a less valuable prodact, it 
often gi-own in pretweiice to a ra}>i crop. Tho evil is said to be 
Mmravated by ovcr-dooding tho fields, by cloudy waatiur at 
Ohristinas timo, and by a warm winter. 

Other diseases, such as kambori which attacka rice nftor pleatil 
rain ; hahlarva which ntt-ocka rice after ita transplantation, and 
white variety of sugarciuo ; and nolu which attooks millet, /utKff, i 
probably forms of mildow, but they have never, bo far as is knoi 
Leon subjected to a sciontifio investigation . 

Excessive cold though seldom, amounting in this dtstrici 
to frost, sometimes causes great damage to cafitor-oil and cotton. 
Tho susceptibility of the Utter crop when grown in i^ora'iu soil is 
BO groat as to check ito cnttivation in tho Daskroi sab-divisioib 
Attempts are mode to ivnrd off tho evil by lighting futM to the 
windward of the field. Wheat and barley, the two other staple 
winter crops, oro httlo aflcctod by it. ~ 




►AccoRDiKG to the 1872 ccDsoB retams there were in that year, 

sides well-to-do cnhivntors and profL'»aional men, 12,080 persona 

swpyiug positions Implying the possession of cftpitAl. Of theso 

"jS were bankers, monoy-changers or shopkeepers ; 8-126 were 

"lants and tradeni j and 1098 drew thoir incomes from rents of 

B and shojjs, from funded property, sharoa, annuitieti and tho 

Tho foUowing m an abatract of the income-tax retuma during' 

four years ending 1873 : 

Ahmtilabad /iuom« Tax .Rfinrvs, IS6S-1S7S. 




£I00I> to 







































^ pi 


ikm mdJ iniMim- 

■«1»™ _ 



























41 f! 










Mn* ul 0(iT4TnnMirl 









mm nQaa t&m Oav 

rranvDi McarttlM ... 



















Although the capitaliuta of this district, more especially thoso 

rying on busiuoaa in the city, MnfTerod heavily on the collapse of 

share-mania in 1866, there are still among them men knowa 

|bo worth as mnch as £11)0,000 to £120,000 (ten to twelve ft'tkhs 

[mpees), and both in pholera and Viratngiim are firms ablo^ on 

Bntation, to cash a biJl for £5000 (Ba. 50,000). According 

tlio 1872 census returns there were in the district 129 bankers 

>per not moncy-changorB, and 36t> bankera and bullion -dealers, 

JO account-booI« kept in the largest establishmenta ore the aamo 

I in Broach with the audition of the two following: {}) iho dnkrdvahi 

' ready reference lodger, posted daily direct from tiio cash book. 

Its object is to show tho state of each customer's account more 

Veadily than tho lodger wbich is not posted froui tho dvru until 

«omt' time after tho tniDsactions have taken place; (2) tho npartajjka 

.43T niemnmndam book in which are made debit and credit entrioa 

kteuded for speedy adjustment and not liable to interest. Should 

lay arise in the case of any particular item it is tmnsEerrod to tho 

ah book. Foremost among tho banking houaea are a certain 

1 Tbis chapter is cootiibotod by F. a P. Lcly, Eau., C S. 

Chapter V. 

Chtpter T. 

nnmber of olJ standintr and of liiglily rcftpecta1>lB character w1 
cliivlly locatwl iu Almifdabad, but a few are t<> be fotmd in tho 
uuportant of liio BmaUer towns. la the time of Natiru rulu ihej oiwd^ 
to follow the rcvenQe-ooUocttng, viuUthjirl, force* on their CAars,iui4 
fouud a profitablo business in advancing the fioldiers' pay on Chu 
Bocurity of their commundersf and in other misoellaoeons army 
agency. Thoy hful bmnch honsea at t>o1hi and Pooha, then the 
scats of govommont. To meet tho exigencies of the tmde which 
sprang np immediately after tho introduction of British tulmit 
traiion they, in common with less eminent honscn, partinllj alt 
the character of their buainem. Ifany of thetn, in thft, 
embarked in opium inrcatmcnta (1819) wliich speedily assami 
dimensions that thoy are said to have netted in one year tl^ 
(a hroT of rupooal. This trade, which waa estimated in 1 8-19 to ompl 
£500,000 (50 I-dichs of rupees), has since passed into the hanas 
merchants in Visnagar, Sidhpur, and other towns in the Baroda »tA\ 
At present, it may bo said, that the first class banlcing 
of tno district employ thoir capital chie6y in loans, bat alsoj 
buyiug and seUiiig bills of exchange, in insurance, and in gamblh 
Thoy also act aa agents in the purchase of ootton for flnns 
Bombay and elsewhere, and at times speculate in that artiato^ 
their own account. A few in Viranig&ui and Dholera make 
on cotton to largo landholders, and o?on keep agents, gumdM 
toor throngh the villages of their connection to collect outatant 
debts and obtain new constitnents. The majority, however, oV 
confine thetr loan transactions to a second class of bi 
SQch as are to be found in all ths towus and many 
larger villages, men who work beyond the limits of the 
capital and who, to money lending and a small exchange bnsit 
an export trade in produce for which thoir intimate business : 
with tneagrioulturalists afford especial facility. They advance: 
on cotton crops and at tho same time buy for forwnrd dclivory. 
snma are withdrawn by these persons, when the Govemi 
aesesaments are falling due, ^m the Brst-chuu> banking huoaoa 
Ahnedahad with which they have credit. Lowest of all in 
Udder of professional monoy-lendors is the WUage shopkeeper, 
is generally a Viiriia but sometimea a Bohora, a Brithman, a ~ 
a tiuhfina, or a Kanbi. lie has sulEciout credit to raise a 
sum from a town firm to eke out his own means in buvmg 
shop-stock at the nearest local market, and to leud to the' pool 
daasea in small sums ranging from 2*. to £10 (Kc. 1 -Ks. TOO). 
few in the larger villages import tlioir supplies direct from Bon' 
and work otuirely ou their own capital. As to the caste of 
mpcrior capitalist classes it may be noted that in former dnvs tfai 
wore mostly Shi-ivak VaniAs, but of late the predominance ufthati 
has boon impairM by the Vaishnavs, that is to say, by the Mf 
VfiniJl« iind the Kiinbis. In Dholora the Shrdvaks and in Dhandht 
and Dholka tho Meshris aro tho moro numcroos, while in 
city of Ahmedabad, as also iu Viramgdm, Parantij, and ModJ 
the two aJre pretty equally balanced. Kauhis, chiefly of ihe Ka 
Bub-diviaion, who havo for generations abandoned agi'iculture 
trade, possess much wealth in He cit/ and idso, thongh fev 



PS, ia Viramgim, BiSvla, aotl eltrewhero. To these may be added 
s^afew Khojas in Dlmlera, a few Slirituiili, Modll> and Audicli 
Um in Dholka and Dliandbuka, a few Biirots in Viramgrim, 
few Pttrsis iu Ahmudabad. During the cotton Boawra many 
enter the niBrket!=i of the district with oatsido capital^ from 
if Wadhw&D, VUnag&r, and Bombay. 

Br tho Mfir&tha rale, owinfj to tho irregular mannw in which 
ivenue was collect«d and tue conttiant transfer of money to 
(cao, there was a conaidomble traflic in billa, hundi^, which was 
by tiin Viramf^m morchantji with those of Ahmcdahad. In 
(y timee of British rule, we find that the Btnall quantities of 
I oeoofisary tx) ailjuKt the exchanf,^eR of tho diutnct^ were 
Bd by camel from tho port of DhohTa, but with tho increase of 
I and the opening vt th« railway nearly all bills have come 
drawn through Ahmwlabad. The oxttinfiive oonsignmenta 
teda from P4tan and Ttadhanpnr throngh Viramgfim, are pnid 
hwidia OD that city from which balhon ia carried direct by 
Dholera is Rtill maintained by itA ^rtgraphical poaition on 
tpondcnt footing, and hills at sight are drawn thero direct on 
V at from -j^ to if, and on Alimudabad at from J to i per 
Ucount In Ahraedabiid, provioua to tho opening of tho 
^ billa on Bombay sold during tho fteason at a minimum 
kt of §1 but the mling rate ia now from ^ tv | per cent, 
nt 1863 the old Bank of Bombay established an agency 
uncdabad, and aflerwarda ojienod sabordinato olhctiH at 
rdn, Dholera, and BhAvnagar for the special purpose of buying 
)mndig, drawn against cotton bought by Bombay merchants, 
topic was followed in tho city by tho Royal and the Central 
, but after a few yoars they all three succumbed to the 
CC9 of the time and had to close their doors. The uatjvo bankers 
boa left in full control of tho district until tho Now Bunk of 
jy, now tho Bank of Bombay, opened a branch in 1870. It 
M principally in bills drawn against cotton, but although it 

donbt appropriated a largo amount of business, tho shroffs 
D Btrong enough to compcto with it. Tho Bank also rccGivns 

oC tho balaucoH in thtj CullecturV treasury, binding itself to 
fia a Btoff sufficient for conducting tho current duties of receipt 
^bnnement, and to credit tho surplus funds in the general 
n in Bombay at par. In retuxn it has the power of utiliiung 
Jaooes in its own opcrationn. 

frnnoe against theft and damage of goods in transit by laud 
hmerly an incident of tho Ahraedabad banker's bnainosa, 
J haa ceased since the railway has mado such precautions 
tMarr. Consignments intended for throngh transmission into 
|i ana other parts of the interior are insured in Bombay, or at 
Qr agents of Bombay firms in Ahmodabad. 

I bnsiaees of marine insuranco' is confined to the port oE 
is where policies are issued, either according to local usago, 

(dAtkib sbont inarino insurance hitva bcbll kiudly inp|ili«d by Mr. A, \\1iittlo, 

In. Qnsvct, Cottua, and Company. 


Chapter T. 

Bill! of 

Baok of I3omUy. 


Siiit bp Sta, 

Chapter T 






qattuui thira^gio, or (iwording to a modificatioD .of the 
praotice introduced in the yenr 1869. Tho fonner is » B3rvteta 
covering risks free of particular average, ibo ooDditions of wfai 
may be aumtnarizod as follows : (1) no preminm or claini to' 
oonsidered duo outil tho tnonth of June, jvtk ; (2) two soiMf 
(Hh) of tho proQiium rate to l>e deducted in bvour of fte 
iuBurer i (3) L^ p«r ceut of the total net promiam to bo retnnHd toi 
bim in June ; (4) 86 per cent only of the amoant insured to b« pn3 
in case of loss ; (5) in case of a boat putting into a port od the Mjf 
to save loss only half the premmni to bo recoToroa ; (6) in case of 
linage or loss two per cent of tho vulae of the cargo ckuDOged to bH 
retained by the unucrwritors ; (7) in case of damage or lom ootf- 
half Ihu freight (which is usually payable in Bombay) on the portioi 
damaged to be puid to tho anderwriters ; (8) in oasa of Ian or 
damage, the amount to be fwaessed by the Bombay agent of tto 
nnderwriters together with a representative of the insurer, il ii 
occurred outaido tho port of Dholere, and by a oomraittee ol 
nnderwi-iters if it occurred inside ; (0] any boat not heard of witldtf 
three months from date of sailiug to be considered a total 
For the issue of policies under this syston, ihora la formt 
beginning of each sooaon, a body of onderwritcra cot 
formerly thirty-five to forty firms but now not su many, 
membor among them takej! tho lead in the acceptancct of 
and in tho general managemout, assisted by a broker wboi 
as remuneration three piea per cent on the amount of pi 
recovered. This system was found to wnrk well enough so 
as the underwriters did not lose on tho whole aeaeoo 
coD.'wqiiently were under no particular temptation to dispute 
obligations, but when it happened otherwise the coniplicutiun 
lasity of tho coudilious opened a wide door to ovBsiau of 
advHutage was readily taken. As a fact, in sncb cases the ii 
was almost always compelled to accept an injurious compruraise. 
is true that of late years (juicker communicatious, and wits reodi 
sharper by education, havo enabled the np-couutry shipper be 
to protect himHclf, but it was still felt that a more bosint 
BTstem was desirable. Accordingly in 1809 a moditii'^tion of 
English system was introduced, tho distinctive features being gn 
simplicity and prompter payment. The couditiuus may be 
Euinmanzed: (1) tho premium rate to be 25 per cent ia e] 
of that cliargeable under village custom, gdmno sktrajtoi (2} 

firemium to paid over at ouco to the undur writer's credit i (3, 
OSS, less two per cent, to bo paid over to the insurer within i 
month from the date of tho salvage inspection j (4) the s 
of loss on partially damaged cargoes to be fixed by the 
writers and the shipper if witlun tho port of DliJ)IcrH., or by _ _ 
represent-atiTes if outside. In case of dispute an ampire may 
called in, whoso decision shall be final. 

A largo amount of the profosaionally-owned capital of the 
is diverted from the legitimate operations of trade to speonlal 
or more correctly, to gnmbling by means of anticipation bargs 
vaiViA. 'Tbia practice/ writes Mr. Fawcettin 1849, ' ^iU prei 



ibstanding.the Act lately passed. Specnlation on theme or 
the opium sales iu Calcutta is still carried on as a sy^tmu, 
m the young people of the merchants' families bet on tbe 
of the sales at Calcutta, boginmng by betting in baddms, 
at amount in use, reckoning 12 to one pie.'^ Opium 
ig hhB decreased with the decline of tlie opium tmde, 
lis dtiiuoi-alizing practice is as rife and as systematized as 
connection with all the other leading objects of trade except 

fraiu. One party agrees to deliver on a certain dnto 
er, say 8] tons (500 man*) of raw sugar at a certain 
the understanding being that ho will merely pny oyer 
Ipeive the difference iu cash between the contracted rat* 
liio market ruto of that particular day. To Militate such 
Eliona subcommittees arc appoiutcd by tho Mahdjans for 
>ose of fuciug the days ou which guiubliiig bargains tthull 
Hot each particular article and anthcritativoly declaring the 
rate on those days. In Ahmcdabad, bargains in cotton 
ted on priceij iu Buuibay, and ore terminable oti tho 2ad of 
»tive momh. In Dholero they are terminable on tho 
of tIic dark half of nuigBhar, December, and of vai-ahakh, 
that iit twice a year, and are based upon Bombay 
ou tho»e dates plus SO^r. (Rs. 15). The decisions of the 
imittees as to the ruling rates are by no means completely 
Jial^ and it is woU understood that if an iniluential member 
ftgiuldisheaTily hit they will endeavour to mitigate the blow 



the whole the t«ndencnr of capital of late years has been to 
ititf*lf^ so that while fewer lai^ fortunes have been amaeaed, 
niber of persons who haro acquired a small competence 
och increased. Iu tho cotton villages the thrifty Kanbis 
money during tho high prices at the time of the American 
Knnc of which they still retain^ but not so the other classes 
tivators or even the Kanbia in other parts of the district, 
hourers and artisans mostly spend their increased eaminga 
e clothes and feasts. Tho people who both can and do 
olute ptfrmuueuL wealth at the present moment are chiefly 
iiBf higher Government servants, and tho steadier traders. 
aUly it may bo said that the first impulse of the non>prcfea- 
os of the prufu!isiuual capitalist is to put his money out at 
Even iho cultivator does this though ho contines his 
tiona to relatives and very intimate acquaintances. Land 
Bomettmes bought as a speculation by urban residents 
[lally in tho neighbourhood of Ahmedabad. Hoards are kept by 
rtiaans and labonrers and to a certain extent by all clasties in 
Iiape of ornaments ; also by old trading houses in the shapo 
( obsolete coinage of the country. In former days superior land- 
re, tdlukth'irt, traders ond well-to-do people generally, wore 
~ habit of storing tho surplus grain of a plentiful harvest in 


M^M of 

1 Bon. Gov. ScL V. 82. 

IBombay i 



<niapter \. 



pita, a Bfiparnto pit for each year. With the firAt-nun^d h<m 
it vras a matter oC neceasity rulbor than uf choice, aiuov if the 
crops were good ihcn' wns no market for their gnio. how i 
owing to improved communicHtiuns, local prices aC9 raiiwd 
HCurcity in the reiDoteei part uf Iiiilia, thutw imprurident poopfei 
no time in coTiverting- their produce into money which they clitti 
iuauproductiveexpeudittire. The same cause Ls said to ba to bnn 
about a diiniaation in the food storm otbd of the mot* ll| 
clawieR. The prnctice of baying GoTemmemt flecuritiM >W 
putting money in gaTinss baolui has during the last twetra } 
spread cousidi'rttbly. 'iTie iiiiereut on tioTerutuent aecnrities 
risen from XSOUO (Us. 20,260) in 1865-66 to £1^20 (Rs. 48, 
in 1877-78 and tho depoiiitB from £7(}20 (lU. 70,200) to SM 
(Rs. 4,67,y80}. 

Owing to the contraction of former ontleU for capital warn 
conservative diflinclination of old houses to turn their money into 
chaunuls, a resideat merchant or banker of unblemished ra 
can raise a loan in the city of Ahmedabad for a short period at 
and fiomctimea as low aa two per cent \ieT annnm. That ia Ui« 
also he would allow fur deput>it«). The second claea banlcd 
merchant can obtain adviincoa fnmi one of the first class at from E 
to six per cent if he is a known and approved client. The third \ 
Mu in hiii turn, uudur similar circumstauoeB, borrow at six to e 
per cent. A respectable artisan or average hoiuefaolder, in thoee 
oases when ho deposits movable property of equal vidue, is obai 
five or BiK per cent in the country and 2} or 3 por cent in the 
where the competition between lenders is keener. On toortgagff 
bouse, if without possossioD, the rate is from 4 J to 7 ( per cat 
with poaaesaion the rent is taken in heu of interest. The tcnni 
will obtain, if he offers only personal secority, vary from aii to t^ 
per ooDt according to the fender's opinion of his means and chanj 
Men of a lower class, who are not poBscssed of any snbstai 
property, have to find sureties from among their relations or fric 
and evun thou are charged at rates ranging to as high a Hm 
eighteen per cent. A large number of handjcraftameu having 
capital of their own require advances for the purchase of 
material, and the terms on which they obtain snch from tho ) 
lender are commonly regolated by some special nndcrstanding. ' 
variations in hwa! iisagearealmoBtendless.buta few uxamplearoa 
given to indicate its general character. Dyers receive plain dotJ 
freo creditj provided payment be made for it within a perio4vBi] 
with the custom of the locabty and the trastwortuiness of 
recipiunt, from two to six months, after which in cose of £ii 
interest at six to twelve per cent is charged. Oilprouera rec 
their loan in cash, but, if the amount exceeds £20 (Rs. 200) oi 
the seed when purchased is deposited in tho custody of the cre^ 
and given out for grinding by instalments. If the seed ia M 
in qaaatity, and therefore not so deposited, tho advance is boQ 
and a bond executed with or without security according to 
confidence reposed in tho borrower. Elsewhere, again, the pnc 
ia for tho broker, daUii, through whom Uio Bded is 



pay dffira tho jmce and to cTiargo nothing tborcon tnt his 
tniMian of ouo per ceut, if thu whole is rupuid within a mouth 
hereabouts. So ov&a the Dliod wearer, if an approved customer, 
Ket a loan of £1 (Rs. 10) on his own persoual secarity, for the 
tuwe of haod-inade yam on couditioa of Uiti paying op as soon aa 
M sold the manufartiirod cloth. Ten per centis deducted at the 
t of the advance, and interest is cliai^d at from nine to eighteen 
bent per aiinuiii arfonliiig to the proinpinetu} he luui tihonn in 
ions aimilar transnctitms. If machmo-made yam in roqoircdj it 
lipplied by the Vioia himaelf, and booked at an advance on 
tDarkeC price of from diL to U. (2-8 u$.) per 10«. (fie. 5), 
^ng to the term fixed for payment. 

bo power of an anskillcd town labourer to 8ocuro a loan and tho 
|a thereof depend almost entirely on the personal charactor ho 
^ MirvAdia and others who have not become attached to any 
Ipermanont rosidonco cannot got credit for even the smallest 
B. A. domiciled labourer of the lowest class, provided he bo 

r* I? reyuhir day wages, may raise £1 (Rs, lU) on executing a 
with or without aocurity to repay £1 2s. (Ra. 11) by monthly 
^Imenta of one rupee with interest at twelve per cent per annum 
tresrs. A respectable man on monthly wages may, with the aid of 
pr three relations as securities, be able to raise from £10 to £15 
(100- Ba. 150) at from nine to twelve per cent interest, besides 
(■emiom of from U. to 2;. (8 a«.-l rupee). Almost every lean 
action is accompanied by the payment of a premium which goes 
le name of vatav, discount ; manddmni, a fee for booking the 
, or iiotklisdnth, a fee on opening- tho bag. OccaEioiially it 
Dca the form of a payment on the liquidation of the debt and is 
(Called drattia. It is tlie«e incidental charges which often swell 
bdorately tho burdou of a debt. A Gogha eailor con get an 
pee for his wife during hia absence on a voyage, sahjoct to an 
^ate deduction of twouty per cent from the pnucipal, hut not 
ing iuterost for eight mouthii ; after that period 1 ^u. (ono anna) 
fs. (rupee) per month is charged. It should however be noted 
^the burden of a debt ordinarily lies heavier on the lahouring 
68 tiian might bo inferred from the above, since with their 
ioteristic improvidence thoy seldom pay np the stipulated 
ImeiiCi), aud thus the luuder gtiiuH au exeucie for exacting Irosh 
ifi for the arroora with interest and a further premium. 

te most substantial of the niral classes commonly borrow, not 
ttheirvillage shi^keeperj but from the banker in the neighbonring 
^ From snch clients no mortgage or even bond or security 
dinarily required. A saSicient guarantee is hold to bo ths 
•irable position in his village which has been transmitted to 
'by generations of ancestors. Small advances are merely 
ted in his currant acconut like an ordinary shop debt, and even 
ft snm he largo, the only additiooal precaution is to cast np tho 
ant and take an admission of the corroctnoss of tho balance upon 
iript st-amp. Tho average rate of interest is 7 J per cent but 
benally it runs as high as nine or as low as six percent. The 
I oasa of Koabi cultivators and othora oa a similar footing. 

Chapter ^. 



[Bom bay 





<3wptor V. beinip alreaily 


enonmbered with debt a] 
beyond their oHaets, are not coQsiderud ho perfoctlj trustwc _ 
It u iinpOBsibld to give preciaelj data which depeiKl entirely on 
B&timatc formed by tiiB lender in each particalar case of the probr 
and means of the borrower and his friends. Generally it may ' 
said that this class can only obtain loans ou stamped bonds with 
without aecuritjes, bnt. that they are left free to reabac the 
of thoir fields as they please, llie rate of interest ttiey }Mf 
varies from twelve to eighteen per cent exclusive of • pnuniaK 
Oruamen('S are not osuallv deposited in pawn even by this aeoond 
class of cultivators, and to offer them wonid be taJken as •■ 
indication that the owner's credit was at its lost gasp. Nor is a 
formal tnortgage over executed of a respectable man'e mo^ 
property though his land is commonly hypothecated. Finally 
come to the lowest order of landhoIdorSj inclnding Qotorioi 
insolvent ICanbis and the great majority of Kolis, who fait to 
more f avoarable t reatoient, not only because of thei r al most invarial 
povert^j but because of the stigma which still attaclies to them 
a caste. Such persons at the opening of the cnltivating seaaoB 
(June- Joly), if the rains are favourable, obtain grain for seed 
subsistence, repayable when the crop is reaped at an eabancci 
of twenty-five to fifty, and in extreme cases even 100 pet cent 
the quantity advanced. The Vinia appropriates the whole of 
crop AS soon as tbro»hcd and credits it in bis books at & 
settled in many villageB by a mixed committee of V&ni&s 
cultivators, but somutimes by the laudcr alone. Against tliis hs 
debits the grain already advanced and also a quantity, generally froo^ 
6A to 8fJ cwts. (1&-25 nwTw) for the subsistence ot tbo borrower 
aua hia family through ttie year. For cash advancos ho charges 
twelve to twenty-four per cent besides a prcmiam. It is not nna 
for a very poor man to borrow a bullock for the season, gii 
security for its retuni, togelbor wilh the ijayment of l-fj or 2f < 
(5 or 6 manfi) of grain for its uso. Seed he sometimes procui-e^: 
a richer caltivator in recompense for the services of hu son or aoinft, 
other tncmbur of his family. 

The power of a rural labourer to raise a loan depends entirely sa 
the natnro of his cmployioent and his own chacaoter. It is aid 
that, as in the case of M&rv£dis in towns, money leodere refuse M 
treat with cattle graziers, bocaaso they are in the habit of roaiiii 
from place to place in search of fodder. Any trauaactinn 
tboin must bo conducted through their women who remuiu 
stationary. Tlic ordinary oai'iier of day wages is not able to obtniv 
more than very small sums oven if some others of his own class staid 
as securities. Ho may however obtain moro if, as is sometiniet 
done, a condition is inserted in tho bond that on fulure of pajmcat 
within a stipulated period the obligor shall become a field servautoi 
the other, receiving food and clothes and fi:i:cd wagos to be wriltea 
oS against the debt until it is liquidated. The interest in any csas 
varies from fifteen to twenty-four per cent. A cultivator who has k 
Servant in his peruianciit employ sometimes stambj security for him 
to tho extent of £5 to £7 (Rs. 50-Be. 70} if he ta in real seed o£ 

1^ IW 

111 in? 



^W moneyi and hy ibis meaos enables Iiim to borroiv on the ume 
tonns as he can oonitnand for himself. It may howeTer be 
predicated of the great mass of Kolid, VAghris, Dlied-i, and other 
rural labourartj, tbab tliey hare never hud suflic-ient credit to be in 

The clana oE saporior landlord**, gtnmds and haeliitvf^ stands 
in BOtDG measure by itsolE. I'ooplo of this class are said to rniso 
laoney in thi-ee wnya : (1) on deposit o£ articles in pawn at six per 
cent ; (2) on mortgage of land or crops without possosaion, at ume 
fto fifteen per cent, with a premium of two to ton per cent ; (3J on 
mortgage of land with poMeesion, in which case the interest ia 
wriiicn off against the rent, with a premium of fire to ton per cent. 

The institntjon of ro^lar courts of law, and the consequent 
knowledge of both parties that there existed a means both accessible 
andc-fficaoions of compelling pajment, led imraediatelj to a dccreaae 
in the rate of interest as well as au extension downwaixls of the 
Vinid's clientele. Already on tbo 1st July 1819, Mr. Dunlop reported 
to Government, that the exorbitant rates of interest formerly paid 
were no longer demanded and that even the present rates were 
gradually fatliug. Manoli, a sort of premiam which the cultivator 
often found it convenient to pay a money lender to induce him to 
1}ecomt« security for hi« rent and so save him from the necessity 
of selling his crops out of handj was according to Colonel Walker 
twenty-five per Cfnt on the first establishment of British authority, 
"but iu 1819 had already diminished to on average of two per cent, 
and half that in some places. The rate paid by a village community 
for advances was quoted at twenty-four per cent peraunum in 1616 
and at twelve per cent lu 1820.^ LicatcnaQt Mulvlll records tliat 
in 1827 the Parintij cultivator paid ' fifteen to twenty-five per cent 
"besides a premium which was added to the sum lent, interest being 
charged on the whole,' whereaa now in the samo district there are 
many who can raise loans at six to eight per cent. In 1840 
Mr. Fawcett quoted the rate of interest on the security of land 
jpaying runt to Government at twelve to eighteen per cent. 

■ Ahmedabad being the capital of Muhnmmadan Gujardt always 
Pnitaineti a mint. Its operations were conducted on account of the 
CSoTcromcnt by workmen whose posts were for the most part hcro- 
ditury, under the superintendence of some selected mercantile firm of 
repute. The sum of £1 fls. Qd. (Rs. 13-4') was allowed for each 
JKIOO (Ha. 1000) coined and allotted in certain fixed proportions to 
religious objects and to the employes. Besides coin, gold and 
silver wire were manufactured iu the establish moat. Under the 
Jfnrrithis the Ahmedabad gicca rupees continued, with the addition 
of a few marksj to be issued as liefore, and to be the chief local 
medium of ezchongo as for as the centre of Kathi^wfu-. In the lawless 
western half of the present district, where the tenants paid their rent 
in kind, there was probably little coin of any sort in use untU the 
establishment of liritiah rule in 1802-3, when the Surat rupee 




Sst«8 0f 

1818- LMfl^ 



1 lit. Doolop to OoTenuDOQt, M July 1819 and 23nl ^gi-onibcir 1S20« 

[Bon bay Guettnr, 


CbKpter T. 


immediately becexne the standard of Choao parts. Tn 18t7 
tttkiug over charge from the G&ikwar anthoritiea of the nlyi 
Ahmedabad, Mr. Doulop found the mint cloned and tho soi 
circulating medium so low as seriously to impede trado. ne 
administered relief by isBuiug a large quantity of now gUra rtt| 
Talacd at 93'202 Bombay rupees por faundrra. The remt * 
inoro distant parts of the district was not so easy. In 
eutorprize was said, oven throe years afterwards, to be ' 
by the scarcity of currency, the old Sumt Nawiib's mpoe, 
coin in use, often selling at as high a premium as twcnty-6T6 par 
cout above the ordinary tiurat ond iJombay rupee, though 
slightly Buperiur in purity ami weight.' ' Besides there wore 
64ikwar*9 Kaim rupee in Viranigam, the SaTuli nipeo at 
the BhaTQng&r rupt-e to some estc-ut in Gogha and Dbaudhu) _ 
the Hali Sicca within the walls of thecitr.and no Iccis than oine 
isflnee from tho Ahmedabad mint more or less current throoghoni 
the district, but varying in real value according to the year in which 
and the authority by which they happened to have been coined.' 
This medley was injurious to all classes. Among the traden A 
rendered all petty transactions uncertain and encouraged a spirit 
of gambling upon the tluctuations of the erchange. GnltinUatS 
on the other hand were invariably fleeced by being paid for their 
grain in one of the inferior currencies which they had immediolrljr 
to exchange into standard Ahmedabad needs, as those alone wm 
declared receivable at tho Government treasury. According 
way was paved by common consent towards the uniform. 
of a single coin. The intimate commercial relations of Dholera'l 
Bombny and Ahmedabad no doubt helped to oust tho Sarat 
from the western part of the district. In Viramgllm tho moof^ 
dealers bound theniselves (1826) nnder a penalty lo do no toow 
bosiness in tho Kaira currency after an iutorval of six months for 
tho adjustment of existing accounts. Tbo Mali S/c^a bad never St 
»ny time obtained currency beyond the walls of the cityj and tlw 
other mpeos mentioned above being fow iu number wore a 
displaced. The upshot of the whole was that in 1828 the Colic 
was able to report to Government that there was 'no other 
aurrent in the district cxoejpt tho Ahmedabad nero.' In June 11 
the Company's rupee wns introduced and tha sicca* aa they wen 
gradually paid into the treasury were withdrawn from cironl 
and sent down to the Bombay mint. Twelve years afteri 
(1 849) Mr. Fawcett roport«i that the latter coins were still 
current among traders, the amount afloat bring ogtimi 
£1,500,000 (Hs. 1,50,00,000). Indeed they had at that time al 
ceased to find their way into the Government treasuries at 
ooDBequcnce of the rate of exchange having, for tlie pr 
five years, risen su-adily in their favour aa against tho Company 
mpooa, notwithstanding the intrinsically superior value of 



1 L«tt«r trom Conuuittoo for teTisiii^ lh« Outoms £(f|[aUtiow, Slat Pot«i^ 
' Ketora by Ui. lJuiilo[), Utb Jtunuuy 1S19. . 



loiter. '^ Thero is no recorded osplanation of this anomaJy. Tho 
gTiftrant«o of a certain weight and purity cvcntanlly secured tho 
field to the Goverumeut rupee^ now tho sole mutallic medium 
fchroughont tho district with the exception of M&flAsa and ovon 
paid to command a premium "beyond its intrinsic viUue over the 
Dative currencies. A largo proportion of tho hoards of old eHtabtiifhed 
bnsinofls hooscs is said to no oompoBcd of tho Ahmodahad sricoM, 
now disused and very rarely seen. In Modaaa all transactitms 
exccjit those with Qovommcnt aro conducted in tho hi'ihnsh'u rupoea 
coined by the Barodn state. In Discembor and Jannnry when tho 
land asa«S8mcut3 aro about to fall due a large quantity of thia 
currency is brought into the city of Ahmcdabad whoiiue it ia for 
the moat part transmitted to Baroda to provide for tho payment 
of the Gaikw4r*8 revenue. The discoont paid by the Modasa 
cultivators on ro-chanRing these hahUhm tor Government rupees 
Varies from Z\d. to 41a. per 2*. (2^ -3 nnnaa per rupee). 

During the latter part of the eighteenth century the froquont 
scarcity of a metallic medium and also perhaps the desire, espc<;iaUy 
natural in lawless times, to avoid as much as possible the ri«k of 
passing bullion from hand to hand led to the establiahtneut in tho 
city of Ahmodabiul of apeciiliar fictitious oarrency called ani. It 
fimt became general (1780-1 785) in consequence of the closing of 
tiie mint after the capture of the city by General Goddard and tho 
still farther depletion of the money market by remittances of bullion 
for the troops in Kathidwdr. Mr. Wodderbum, the AcconntAnt 
General, in 1818 suggested that it also found favour as a raoans of 
duding the frands of native mints in making depreciated issues. 
At any rate very soon after its introduction it became tho almusb 
ODivoraal standard of valuo in the market. 

A transaction in iiiiY may be briefly defined aa a transfer of ci'edit 
in a banker's books in terms of a nominal currency convertible into 
tiaeh at a certain rate varying often from day to day and sometimes 
&om hoar to hoar, according to the state of the money market. A 
cheque in anl is payable at the option of tho preseutor in cash or 
io ant. In, former days this nominal correnoy bccorao a vohicle for 
much overtrading and the most ra;kloss gambUug. One of tho 
principal street."* in the city of Ahnicdabad was called the nut /w:ar, 
and toere every evening excited crowds of people, many of them 
with not £50 (Ea. 500) of their own, would engage to pay or 
receive/ as tho event might roquiroj the cash diiTeronoo on £5000 
to £10,000 (Ba. SO.OOO-Rs. 1,00,000) of mi between tho rate 
for that day and the rate for some particular future day. All 
■alosj except of a fow articles, wero negotiated in dni, the 
fmnitun being settled at. tho rate of tho day of payment in tho 
absence of special agrt-vmeut to the contrary. Thus even legitimate 
meruantilo transactions wero liable to bo deranged by violent and 
fkrbitniry fluctuations in the rates of conversion bronght about by 
anscrupulous specnlators, who had power to influence the market. 
Five or six per cent was a usual variation within a few days. Not a 

Chapter 7. 


■ 187-10 

Bom. Oov. SeL T, K>. 




Cliftpter V. 





bill couM bo drawn on any place otberu'isc than subject to tlu 
nn(%rtaiuly, nor would a Botnliay bHtikt^r drawini; on Ahnmiabad bs 
able to tcU how many roptoa in cash the bill would coinmattdj 
pnymeiit boinginado iu the former case according to the rat« of ihi 
dflj whcntho bill was piirrha.sod, and inthelattcrnrrordinjETtofcliatal 
the day on which it fvll due. Ad incidental conseqnence o£ this mi 
that the Botubay bankers made tlicir rcrnittancee indirectly throng 
Broach, Snrat, and other places where dni w&n nnknown. So 
atroD^ly were \hem eviU felt even by native nilent, that about IfiOJ 
K^&ji O^ikwdr's subhodar urdcn-d that all bills in tirii sboaU 
henceforth, bo encashed at the invariable rate of G^ per cent in fiannr 
of the 'int, but thix would probably have soon proved a dead lelBtT 
even if the Bubtic^iucut 8top|)a^ of the miut had not set ths o&t 
■ystem once more in full swing.' In. 1818 Mr. Dnnlop strong 
aidvocatod itH prohibition by law.' But within thenejct twenty; 
the inoro 9ul)tle and snro Agencies of a sufficicot luid hot 
metallic cnrreucy and a safe thongli not yet speedy cotnmunii: 
with Boiabay had worked a cure, aud by 1840, the year in 
Mr. Fawcett recurred to the subjectf tint wns appRrunily confint^l to" 
Dbolera, whoso remote position still encouraged the use of such ta 
expedieut. To choL-k iU accompauyiog evila the trading guild ur 
mahdjnn of that towu agrood in 18 Ij to limit the price to 1I& 
per cent after a cerlaiu date at the end of the season. Tkil 
action proved futile at tIiL> time, but aa iu Ahmedabuxl, the coar&e<£ 
events soon made a renewed attempt unnccesearyj aud though nctf^y 
all banking transactions at that port are still carried to acoonnt ii 
dntf the pcmiuJoua abutsunf itno longer exinta. Every morchant 
now has it in hi.1 power to check any undue inflation, and the priM 
which in 1813 went up ns high as 125 per cent now seldom if eiv 
rises beyond lOii per cunt. According to the prei:ent pntcticc a nta 
of discount for cash on ant is fixwl by the trade guild at the 
begiuning oE the season and from that time, subject only to tho alis 
disturbing inllueiice of variations in the load value of moufly^ 
decreases regularly an the year wears on until the end (Juno), wl 
all accounts are by the cutitom of the port adjusted and the ntt 
of conversion is par. 

According to the regiiiti-ation returns mortgages in oxcefis rf ''1'^ 
(Ra. 100) have risen from 9i>9 of the value of £74,208 (Rs. 7, J 
inlSGO-TOto l718oftho valuoof£8*,038Clla. 8,40,3S0)in ISJo- 

Almost every cultivator, who can afford it, engages at least 
labourer for the rainy soaaon (June 'October) or, if negrowsai 
weather crop also, for the double season commencing in the 
ning of Juno and ending at tho Uoft (March-April). VVages: 

I Tiio hali ticen rup«Qi, Hret coiDed under the Fcahva aft«r tho i 
the Oiikwitr'a (arm. vron eotnctitnM supipoaeH lo niprcacot dni. WhAt 
n-piT*<Mit; u~ni> -'nt at liw tntc. »( ■.■\>"tinna'! tor hntlton tixt-d bv .laktiji. 

V Motft of tho abute dtitulii haw bvou drrivcd from Mr. Unnlop'i Biiparta 

a 'l-hn d«Uilfl aro, in 1869.70, 909 vkIuo £74,S08 ; la 1870-71, 1603 rxlae «78,fiSSi 
in 1871-78, 2223 vrIiw Cia8.3fi3; in 1S72-T3. 22S0 v«]ii# £10»,M6 ; iyrS-7< 
value £92.SgO ; in ] S74-7-'>, )5(>7 vtiina £87.873 : in ISTA-Tfl, 1S63 vftlav £9i,Sil 
1619-11, 1712 vnluci:il2,r>:t:i ; in l»T7-TN 1718 iiUu«£84.0aS. 




igcr period range from 12«. (R«. 6) for a boy to £2 1G«. (Ra. 28) 

a thoroughly skilled adult, bcaidca meals from the employer'a 

mess, a suit of clolbes, aud occasionally au ullowaoce of tobacco, 

luff, or other small luxury.' Thcso rolativc proportions of cosh and 

pudj however, vary from village to village aud even from holdiug 

' boIdiDg. Somotimcs, for tho raitiy soasou, the labourer rccoivca 

one-sixth to one-fourth of tho crop, and nothing further. In 

[odasa the agreement, whatever its natare, almost invariably 

mdes for victualling tlic labouror for fifteen days> tho objoct boing, 

18 said, to restore his strength cxhaost-cd by the privations of tho 

Ht weather. 

I'The rate for agricultural day labour aa quoted' in 1821 and again 

1840' was 3(1 {two annag) the male adnlt. Most of the fiold- 

)rk, for which it is necessary to call in temporary help, is performed 

special termii, For example wcfding is done by women, who 

roflicieotly remiinerated by being allowed to take the weeds home 

: fodder for their buffaloes. Marradi reapers in the wheat district 

hired by tho gang at tho daily rate of 28. ^Re. 1] for fonr to six 

ra. Rice is cut at 3?. (Re. 1 -S a*.) the acre. Labourei's at sagar- 

le presgisg, in addition to SjJ. or 4hl. (2^ or 3 annas) for atoking 

fire and feeding tho mill, and about 2(7.. (IJ - IJ annaf) for 

Bparing the canes, aro allowed to eat as much as they wish during 

day, and to carry home three canes each at night. Each 

receives at tho end of tho job a small quantity of raw sugar 

^portioned to the total outturn. Cotton is picked fiomotimos 

day-wagt^!4 and sometimes for an allowance of from one to two 

^QDds iu every forty pounds, maiu 

The average daily wage for a bricklayer in 1821 was 75^. (5 <u.) 
is now Is. (8 as.) oxcopt in Dhclka where lack of work and 
lortliiity of workers, of the degraded class of HnUininns known 
. Tapodhana, have kept tho nominal wage down to its former level, 
oominal rate for carpenters has risen from 9d, (G as.) in 1821 to 
ad. (12 ag.) in 1877. In tho steam factories smiths gut from £1 
(Rs. 15) per mouth for an ordinary workman np to £3 lO*. 
35) ior & uurstri or Eoreman. Fitters get £1 IDs. to £2 10«. 
15 - Rs. 25) J firemen £1 to £3 (R^. 10 - Rs. 20) ; bricklayers 
10». to £2 id. (Ra. 15 - Ra. 22). The monthly wages of ordinary 
lie adult oporativea vary from 12*. or Its. (Us. 6 or 7) in 
Dhandhuka to 1S». or 20s. (Rs. 8 or 10) in Viramgdm during tho 
kdMsy reason. Womou aud children are employed for feeding the 
HBtton gins at daily wagos of 3(/. and 'Ij^tl. (2 an. and 1^ aa.) respcc- 
" tivcly, but in the busy aoason these rates rise to -ISfi. and 8(i. [Z a^. 
j and 2 ag.) In the spiumug and weaving mills according to their 
I akill the monthly wages of women range from \0a. to \3». (its. 5 - Rs. 0] 
bad of chUdron from 6s. Co IGs. (Ra. 3 - Rs. 8). The hours of work 

^^K Agrieultanl wogw ia krad in Sanaad for tho rainy bmlsoq (Jono - Octolxirl mte 
^■^ IB the Ujt thirt)- f ean, to luro rjjcn rrom 5 cu-ti>.— 7 cwt 3 qr. 1211m. to 6 cwt> 
■Er.flOlba.— 11 cvu Iqr. SOUm. (U to 7J »t<t>u to ^ . 32 niaru) gnuu. 
^T M>(ciatmtc'* B«tuni, 28th Jaou»ry 1821. 
I BouL Qw. 8aL V. S6. 

Chapter T 


A rtitana. 

[Bombftj Ousttair^ 

Chapter V 



Piece Wort. 



in the factories ftre from daybreak to nmset, but during tib* 
M-asan 1 \ day is often m&do in the cotton fl^ns. In some est 
mont.s half an hoar is allowed for mcois, bat- in some of the _ 
member o£ the workman's family briuge his footl and takes op ' 
task while he is eating. For totally anskillod labonr the rate v&ria 
from 'Ihd. (3 OK.) in Dholka to 7^J. (5 as.) in Ahmedabad at tha 
busiest time as against 3i. (2 at.) for men and 2^. (I}a9.) forbpysaii 
I8M). (ieuerally it mny bo said that all urban laboarom, both ikilM 
and nnskillod, command hijjber rat^s in Dholera, VtramgAta and 
Ahmedabad than elsowhero, and hif^hor ratos in those phicea betwees 
Ortubcr and Duccmberj and botwoon Febmoiy and Jimo tbani 
other seasons. 

Tho systom nf working by the piece is pmdnally making ita wsy 
in the tuwu^, and lurg^ wages are earned in this niianncr donng 
the height of the cotton export season in Dholera and Vinungwa 
Two men bringing thotr own chnrka or country giu are 
accLirding to the weight of tteed they extract, at the rato of 2«. 
li!0 In 140 pnuuda (one rupee for 3 to yj nw»w) between Noveml 
find Mfirch, and between Ifarch and Jnne 2*. for 100 poimda |( 
rupee for 2^ mcme). By worldu^r, as many do^ till rery late hoaraft 
dady outturn of 120to 140 puunda (3 to 3^ fnanx) may ha obt 
bnt the average qnantity is about eighty pounds (2 matts), Sii 
pressing c<jttuu at the native screws is paid for at £3 4«. (B&l 
tht' lnnidn.'il Indus; louding and unloading for the timber mi 
at 28 (Re. 1) the hundi-ed mang ; uuhuskiug coooanuts at 2a. 
3«. (lis. \k - Ks. I{] the thousand nuts; and so on. A 
can in her own home nnshell forty pounds (one man) a day of 
or shelled cotton; for this she gets l\d, (ono anna) iu 
times, hut sometimes as much as 9-lO^d, (G-7 ann<w) when tr 
brisk. In the Parflntij snap factoriea thei-e are sixteen men ei 
oaeach boding, who receive a lump sum of iO«. (K». 5) for the; 
work. Of tbitu 2ir. tiii. (Rs. 1-4 as.) is apportioned to tho two'^ 
Gd (4 a$.) to the two water carriers, and tho rest is divided 
the twelve who make np the Koap. An oilpressor, who does jc 
work, grinds any quantity of («I seed in return for being allot 
to keep the cake wliich i.s valuable as cattle food ; otherwise 
employer pays him at tho rate of Sd. (6 as.} tho m^M of seed. 
Dhed weaver, if wnpniied with yam, is paid at the rate of S*. [a 
rupee) per piece of cloth two feet broad and thirteen to twenty '^ 
long according to texture. He is moreover only oxp«>cced 
retnm the same weight of cloth as he received of yam, whc 
out of every five pounds of yam he can retain about half a 
in exchange for tho same amount of &ize. 

A statement of produce prices, reaching back as for as 1813, 
given below. For the first eleven yenrs the Bgorce refer only to 
portion uf tho district, tho Dhotka sub-division. Since 1^24 
are supposed to represent average prices over the whole 
Of the staple grains, statisticH for millet, hi'ijri, are uot avattabla 
the years between 1823 and 18tjl. Taking therefore thootheri 
gruiu Indian millet, jfitirdr, tho avemgo rupco-pricc during tho; 




iy-five years is' sixty pounds, or exclndisg eleven years 

nially high, and eighb years of abnormally low pnccs, an 

of fifty-nino and a half pounds. Tho olcvc-n yeara of highest 

which vnrieil fnim i*ixteen to thirty-two pouuda, wero 

pouodB in 1813 &nd 1804; nineteen poundu in 1S69 and 

twenty-two ponndtt in tijOU ; twenty-three pounds in 1820; 

-five pounilfi in IdH ; twenty-six ponuda in ISCojtwenty- 

onds in 1871 ; thirty-one ponnda in 1867 ; and thirty-two 

in 1877. The yvan 1803 to 1865, 18G7, and 1869 to 

, whon tho hi^h prico of Indian milloi was duo to tho choapneBs 

[oey rathor than the want of grain, wero times of tho greatest 

pltoral prosperity. ISia, 1814, 1820, and 1877, were years 

miuo or scarcity. Tlio cheap years, oi which there have 

Bight, 102 pounds in 184;?, 107 in 1856, 108 in 1851, 113 in 

114 in ISSl and IS-TJ, and 120 in 1829 and 1830, have been 

fof complaint and inoreorlosa agricultural distress. Kxclnding 

of special scircity, tho whnTo series may be roughly divided 

periods. From 1615 to 1819, a time of dear grain, with 

igG price of forty-five pounds; then, after the scarcity in 

five years of modoratc prices varying from forty-six to sixty- 

d uvcragiug fifty-three pounds. This was followed by a 

of eight years (IH26-183;J) of choap grain, the prices varying 

ighty-ono in 182G to 120 in 1829 and 1830 and averaging 

lunds. Of thoay eight years, during the first five the prices 

ily, and then taking a turn rose to oighty-soven pounds in 

Again from 1834 to IS40 was a time of moderate prices, the 

for Indian millet varying from thirty-nine in 1834 to 

oponndsin 1840, and showing an average of fifty-f oar ponnda 

fifty-three from 1821 to 1825. The next sixteen years 

185ti), though, for cuItiiTitors, not so bail as fnitu 1826 to 

was again a time of low prices j the Indian raillot price varying 

" -five in 1849 to 113 in 1855 and averaging eighty-four 

against 103 from 1826 to 1883. Those sixteen years were in 

Chapter V. 


' AkmnUbad /ndUin-MiUH Rupee Priaa, 1813'1S77. 




Chapter T. 



their tnrn followed by a time (18S7-1862) of moderate pricei, 
returns for the staple varyiug from fyrty-uJK in I8<il to sixtj-lhra 
ia 1857 and 185S and avoragiDg as bufuru fifty-four pouuda. Tb* 
next autl tlio remaining foiiruwiin years (1863-1876) w«* u time of 
very bigfa pricca, the staple Belling' at from sixteen in IStM to Mij 
in lS7ti and gli'ing an average of but thirty-two pounda. Ijastlf, 
the year 1877 was a time of very high prices, chiofiy owing to lh» 
demand in the fauiiue-sb'ickon Decuau and SouUium MftiSW" 
Country districts. 

Ahmi^ahid Pnxtaet PrirtM,^ IS15-1877. 


rnuRPiuap Bcu 



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lailuui minat ... 


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1 Till* iUt«m(Dt [i prvpaml— t, trom IL). DlK.lka Sunvj Bc|xirt, (UimI Urt IVt-mbor intlal 
Ont Sel XL H, cnntkliilng latorawUon lor Ib4 tmh (yom lau M tB»i II, Itdiu Um MDa 
aiMddrvkirn«<)otaJiiliijtfl|niNirorUMmf«rrDml)S4U>IMl.prH|Br«lliir Um prha Kmiun 
lioT HI, iTxm ■ >iv^ Mum prepMM III Uw BocnUjr BccMMia tw Ihe jmn rrom IMt m 1 
iT. Imai Ul* AdibUiUntion ItopiWM for U» «u1<«»<iuonl y»i», WIlM ■■ *it^, PoaloUlMU ■ 
lwU>aiidlJM,Jn^(S«r|buiiivulikre UHlpiUieitMKr.CajUMliuikHi. 




lie details of woights and mGasnres ^iven at |k^ 05 of tho 
^ra StAtifltical Accontit apply to Ahnie(]abiui. Thero was n f^at 
eaiij of weights up to July 1847 when the Compnny's rupee of 
groinfi troy was maile the ODit of a tola and utghty each tohis 
^yttm fixed as equal to one Indian »iyr. For the sake of conveniouee 
tiie peojile called the SO Kupcea' eer a paka, old ftr about equal to 
one-half of this a kacha ger. 

Generally speakiug. it may be aaid that the tendency of late 
yeara has been from wages in kind to wages in wish, and from 
employment by time to pieco-work. The latter transition is itself 
only a reversion to more primitire cnstom. The former may be 
partly occasioned by the introduction of an adequate currency, but it 
IS also one nf many indications that tho former intimate relations 
between master and servaat, epefially In the rural districts, are 
degenerating into thn baldtrst contract. In thnsp ranrt? conservative 
parts, where payment in kind is most practised, there linger 
' Teetiges of the past litute of things. Slaves stil! exist, though in 
name only, in the porsoiiB of tho Khavas or doracstio servitors in the 
honseholus of the chief Rajputs or GiraVia Inndowners. Ijower 
down in the sncriul scale the Far4ntij landholder still cousiderH 
hi.s servant as a mfiiuhor of his fftmily, feeds him, clothes him, helps 
him to bear the expenses of any domestic ceremony, and sometimes 
even undertakes to pmvide him with a wife. lu that part of the 
district at leost, an olu farm-servant is in a distinctly hotter position 
for raising a loan than his other neighboars, because it is audGrstood 
that his employer will in case of necessity become security for him 
and thus enable him to command t<Tms ns easy as he could obtain 
biuisflE. On the other hand in the rural tracts between Cholera 
and Viramgiim, most of the reaping is done by baiids of foreign 
Mdiradis, from whom tho peoplo hold aloof in private intercourse, 
and who having carried out their bargain pass on and are seen no 
more. Between these two extremes the relations between employer 
and employed are to bo found in this district in every stage of 

In the northern portion of the district the labouring classes, 
i;gnm posed ahnofitontirely of Chilaand 'ITiakaria Kolis, rt^inainina very 
^^^raded condition owing to their drinking habits and their general 
ffky uical and mental inferiority. Most of thorn spend the little 
money they may roceivoat the end of tho cultivating season in buying 
apirits, and even the more thrifty are in the hot weather reduced to 
n<ikeiDy cut a bare subsistence by watching fruit trees, gathering 
l^tel, and picking wild berries. In the rest of the district the 
^fconring cIjlsscs, consisting chiefly of RAJputs and Talabda Kolis, 
lave unequivocally progressed in material comfort. TheHuuourali[e 
Hr. Klphmstnuo within a few years after the cession of Alimedabad 
l^rcuiarked this tendency under British mle, and it has received a great 
^■pctus in more recent times. Anintcrestingillastratiouof this is to 
B^onnd in tho fact that in the western villages the staple diet even 
^tbe lowest is Dsoally wheat whereas up to 1 803 it was usually millet, 
isajri orjuu&r. £3sewhero larger entertainments and gayer dress ab 
tioliday time, specially on tho children are clear Bigus of a similar 

Chapter V. 



Chapter T. 

8Uta ul 



cliaDgQ. The c&naes of tliis enhanced prosperity may he thus brieSj 
Bummarizcd. (I) The more iadepeudent position secured to tfa« 
labouring cla-ises by law enaltlen tliom to dispoee of their aerricM 
mora advuutageoasiy to themNelres.' MtfratioD has onormooatj 
increaaed- It in coinputeil tliHt the port of Dholem niono draws to 
itself every year dnring the bnsy season two thousand able-bodied 
men^ who reiom to tbdr families and their Belds as soon as the tima 
for coltiration approaches. Others resort at the same period to 
Ahmedabad, Viramjfi^m, Bhfivnagar, and other centres, thereby 
benefiting both themselres and their less energetic fellows, who 
remain behind tu repair houses af^ust the rainsj protect and picit 
frnit, collect fnel, and so on. (2) The lucrwise in the area under 
cultivation has led to a demand on the part of the Kanbi for man 
hired labour to enable liim to work Ins larg&r holding. (3) Tbc 
extension of trade and of steam mill cnterprize. It is true thsl 
in tiogha, Dholka, and other places, whicb have only partiallj 
shared in the modem revival of trade, many Mnsolm&n women have 
sofFered much, as work in their own homes such as spiumuff yvm 
is the only means of liveHhood permitted to them by custom. 
Against this however may be set the increase in remunerative Ik 
labour in the cotton districta where even BralimaQ and Vi 
women cotton and do other light work. The Uhcds too '. 

been to a ^eat extent ousted by machine-made cloth from i 

occupation of weaving. As there is a prejudice against emplojiBg 
these people on regular tield work, and as the operatives iu' 
Steam mills and similar establishments refnse to associate with tJ 
tlioy would have been hard pressed but for ^4) the extension of raili 
local funds, and other public works, which give cmploymenk, 
large numbers of unskilled labourers of varions caatea. Those 
are swelled in the open season by gangs of Miurvtidia who n 
rotnm to their coantry before the rains, but many who nioved 
the district during the famine of 1869 hare settled as pei 

* Mr. Dtmlop io hitjantdbanfti report for ISIS note* that ' th« KolUof tlij 
Farintii aro tu slaTtNi to the Patcln, Idcir uiteaioni baving sold thciPMlm dsr 
fuDUM.^ All tnee of tlui luu clisapiicarQil luid scow of the sotw tit thmm * «Utbb*j 
Butke their w«y u Im- w BfaAvn&gar for empkymiint in tbe a|ien asMcui. 




10 Native rale, and for fifty ypara after ita fall, 
waa done to improve land communicatioDa. At tbe 
tho first tmlf of the present century, the only made road 
of tho city and cantonment, was about two milon at the 
iroiQ the landward^ to the town u£ Gog'ha. The only 
were, ono over a creek near Dholeraand another across a 
Vimmffiim. In light soils, the main rentes, pulverized by 
kut traiEc into tUttp fine sand, were huavy during the fair 
and firm in the rains. Kxcept for chance Hiiods they were 
passable to the hrciad- wheeled cfnnjtry cart«,' t-o the pack 
of roving Vanjfiriis, and to caiitui^' f:-nm Miirwar and the 
On the other hand, dming the rains, black »oil tracks wero 
Ily closed to whcclod vehicles. Its plastic loam, retaining 
[inoiat the impression of every atop, became hardened by the 
ither into iron-liko ruts and holes tolerable only after the 
, vraa well advanced.* 

1850 both from general and local fundn large flnma have 
eat on roads, aud though from the want of metal much has 
be done, oonsiderable progress haa beea made. Tho first 
both in point of time and of biko, was intended to ho a military 
e highway across the district from tho port of Gogha by 
uka and R^vla to Ahmedabad, and thence 1o Kin&dt through 
Of the original design a total length of 162 miles, from 
as far aa Harsol, was completed. Besides tbe main line, a 
from Sarkhej to Viramgim a distance of thirty miles, waa 
8 made from the one per cent Income Tax aUntment. This 
waa opened in 1805-66, and coat in all £23,0-12 (Its. 2,20,420). 
ig to the decay of Gogha trade and tho conHtructiou of tha 
w^ extension of the Bombay and IJaroda railway, traffic haa 
f deserted it, and tbe trunk-road is no longer kept in ita 
ftl order. From Gogha to Tagdi, fifty-eight mites, it ia 

t inateriKU for thb sectioti hftve been in ptAt part aappluid, uul roach of the 
is <»rilt«i by Mr. P. S. P. L«ly, C.S. 

I Vibart in IMO catini.itc() the urniher of Cftrta in the district lit 16,178. 
nrnttt in 1519 ta^de itie uuuibcr IS,&H Tlui tutftl abova ia the rttunui (or 

lector 170, SOUi Uix-oubcr ISU, 

Chapter TI* 





Cluptflr TL 


well metalled, and except at throe riven nnbroken. Bafc tnmx 
to B&rla, forty-eigbt luUes, no much damage was dontj b^ QooUa a 
ISCG and subaequeut yoar», that »even miles between Taffdi bihI 
Dhandhuk&are Qubridj^Kl, uniuetBltod, and only parttallv OKnInd, 
while the auction l>ctweeri DhniidhiikB and B/wIa ban lallpn into 
complete diitropair. From Gojfha to Dhandhuka the annaal nnilcr 
is met ^tn Govemmout graota. But from B&rla to Ahtnedabai^ 
the expense i» bume by local fund^. This iioction nf the mad 'a 
bridged throughout, and motalK^ with broken brickn and livw 
ffravel. The Alimedabad and Hanwl section, thirty*eig-ht miha 
lung, kept up fruin Government fuudt;, is bridjifed fur two-thirds if 
its course bnt not inctAllod. Part of the Virami^ni branch wu 
used for the Wadhw&n railway ; the rest brid^red and eml>aalMd,j 
stilt kepi up at the nzpense oElocal fondSf chiuQy for tbeooni 
of tiie town of S&nand. 

From local funds, with in some cases the aid of mnniripal 
other grants, many minor roads have been made ; the more i tuport 
towns and Tillages have been connected by cleared an<i fairly 
kept lines, and a network of tmcki is passable For ooobI 
Tehicles. Of ma<le ro8(l8 the following are the chief : from 
Ahmedabad railway station to the cantonment, one and a 
milca ; from tho Ahmedabnd Delhi gale to the Dndheabvar bninil 
n-ound, 5860 feet; from the A'stodiya pate to the Raypnr „ 
tbenoe to tho south bank of the Knnkariya lake, 7400 foftt|_ 
the KAnkariya lake to Shah A'hiin and thence to the A'»todiy»| 
10,4G4 feet; from the AVtodiyn gate to Saraspar and tboni 
to tho KAlnpnr gate, 13,(116 ; metalled roads in the railway 
0080; from the Jamdlpar gate to tho Sapt Rishi A'ro, 
from the railway station to the town of Sfinand aud thenre to i 
old Viram^'am rond, about 2\ mites ; from the railway Btntion trt 
BharvAri and the Ootvfiri gates of Viram^m, IU80 and lS4aflj 
tespectively ; and fnun thi^ Rahiiipuri gate of Viramg&m to 
railway crosdtng, 3175 feet. Of rognlarly repaired croas 
roads th(;Te are : from Ahmedabad to Knha on the way to Ktipwh 
fifteen miles, bridged tbrongfaout; from Alimedal»^ to V' 
far as Nav^pura, fourteen miles, banked and britl^cd iin 
from Dbulkii lo Saruda. eight miles ; from Dholka to 
miles; fntm Dholka t<i Sahtj on ihe way to Kaira, five mi. 
Dhandhuka to llAnpnr, eighteen miles ; from Itanpnr to lit 
eighteen miles; from Kbas to BhiuioiUii, fuurteeu miles ;j 
Goglia to Mahuva, twenty-two miles j from Gogha to VadI 
miles i from Tagdi to Ukherla, six miles; fromNaroda to To 
Par&Dtij to Pipludi on the way to Idar, forty-one milea ; from Pn 
to Uarsol, twelve niiUw ; from Mandal to Jhund railway station, 
miles ; and from Rampura to Dekrida, firo miles. Alt( 
there are now (1878) in tho district 373 mUea o£ mado roods. 

The Gogba, Barla, Ahmedabad, and Harsol high road 

for yearly ordinsnr repairs an average sum of £2400 (Ks. 24,C 
Upon it, betwof^n Vala ar]^ Vartej is a toll that dnring tho five 
ending 1877, yielded «u average roveniie of £-.!09 (Ks. 3090).^ 
is thti only diroct revenue raised on roads in iUe duitriut ¥a 



were toU-hoases at Viramg&m, Sanand. and Sarkbcj, but 
threo hare been aboliabcM], the first on the approprUtioD of its 
for the railway, the secoDd in 1872, and the third ia 1873. 

The chief bridge in the district carries tbo Wadhwfin extension of 
ttto Btjmbay and BaroUa railway over ibc S&barmati.' It stands 
on the site of tho former bridge destroyed in tho 1875 flood. Ft is 
formed vl the same class uf girderSj but is eight feet higher, and 
contains four additional spiuia which mako up its total loi^th to 
tw&aty-two spans of sixtj-two feet six inches each. It consists of 

ftian of four colamus fouudud at a depth of from thirty-one feet six 
Dcbes to fifty-four feet uudcr tho bed of tho river strengthened on 
top by a covering girder, and braced throughout. Tho piers in 
Uia UtHjp water are all formed of columns three feet in diameter 
I and 1^ inches tbick, protected by wooden booms on the ap 
mtream side, and ten of them plated on the same aide with quarter 
\itA thick wrought iron. There are clusUn- piers at every 30U feet. 
^Ks new bridge, begun on tho 1st December 1875, was, at a cost 
fW £5it,&00 (Ra. 5,9o,t)00), opened for traffic on the 18th May 
I fdlowtng. A brick masonry bridge of nine thirty-feet spaoa over 
the river Meshva at Harsol was completed in 1 BH'J ac a cost of JC40S2 
I' (Ra. 40,8S0). It is the chief work on that section of the Ahmedabad 
:d Samcra road. An iron girder bridge of nine thirty-feet spans 
planked roadway across the river BhogAva at Phedra was 
ihed in March 16(30. The total cost, £-1266 (lU 42,060), was 
from tho Oholcm chnritabtc fund which rcaliises by tolls au 
y«arly revenue of £38i! (Rs. HSZV). 

tor's hoQses havo boon bnilt at Gogha, BnrviUa, DhandhuVa, 
pur, Dholka, Bavla, Bagodra, Parintij, and Modasa.' Itest -houses 
r,.r I unipuanlruvellersareKcpt upinthocityof Alimedabad,atS4nand, 

ha, at Ilarsol, and at Viramjram. Except the Gogha reat-honse, 
wiiR a ii> paid for from provincial funds, alt of these are supported by 
local fumU. Rest-huuses for imtivo travellers number in all 159, of 
which forty<ninc are kept in repair out of local funds or similar 
public sources, luid 110 by private individuals or bo<lies. Motft of 
the Utter are intended pnraarily for caste purposes, and arc only 

lie for the accommodation of outsiders when not otherwise in 

Oiapter VI 


Root -hooMa, 

! the upper part of its course, except near the junction of the river Porfj sod Fenlca. 

imati where it is crossed by the Bijdpur road, tho S&barmati 

acconat of its stAop and mgged banks cannot bo passed 

^oarta. Afta* entering Daskroi, though its broad sandy bod is 

lys trying to cattle, it may during the dry weather bo orossod 

Pmany places above the infiuenco of the tide. Always ditficnlt 

'' its deep mud, and sometimes dangerous from the sudden 

of the tide, most of tho traffio across the Bhog&va goes over 

yDhsdaUOs of Ihe SdbariD&tl ratlw»f bridge h&ve tweo eommnmcAted hj Mr. 

~ hoUKi ivrofortho nM at M puMioo^ccre Eubjoct to tho prior rigbt ot 

[Bombky OftiitiM 


Chapter VX the Phedra bridge. With Ihceo two exceptions, all tbo district 
Trade- rivers, save when in flood, can be passed without risk. No fenia 

{ily tbroaghoat the year. Daring the rainy season nino m 
et out iu farm, nt Sh&hib£g, VarAj, KaTipnra, B&r&dttri, MJ 
Bchnimpar in Daskroi, and at Sahij, llingoU, Vaatha, aod BhoW 
in Dholka. These, in 1878, yielded a revenue of £321 (R3. 321C|, 
ont of which an inspector of boats was entertained on a month^ 
salary of £1 5«. [Ka. 12-8). Since, in 1875, the Kllia bridge at 
Ahmcdabad was carried away, paasenger boats have plied acroes fba 
S^bamiati. ' 

A few email Bailing boots^ mathhvdgp ply for local trade botkat 
Dholera and at Gogha, hot distant rontiires are mado only in Bm 
larger craft known an j/acVhtf and batehis. These in all esBeadil 
particulars are the same as Ihosu dascribed in the Broach Staclstnl 
Account' Most of them are built iu Bilimora and Daman, ^ 
want of home-grown timber preventing ahip-building ut Dhikbn. 
In Gogha ship-bmlding was formerly a thriving induscry, bat nin 
the decline of the port, the builders hare gone, most of tl:. 1 " 
JUombay. Except a few that belong to local merchouti-, 
vessels are the property of the captains or tatuleU. They oro m<«u*Ai 
by nativea of Gogha, Broach, Surat, Bilimora, and Bulbar, iiu 
ordinary freight for cotton to Bombay from Dholera is &om It. 
to 28. Gd. (12 untio^- lia. 1^) the half-pressed bale in the early 
of the seafion (October-November), rising as high as irom 4«. 
(Ka. 2-H6. 2i) towards its oloso (April- Stay). 

LighvliouBw. T^e chief light houie is on Piram island. In 1830 Co: ^ 

Grant of the Indian Navy bruugbb to the notice of Govenintnt, 
that thongh to those who knew the coast it was safe enoogh 
the day, it» reefs and strong tides made Piram most dang« 
night. To avoid the risjk, iu the early part of the scNason, Rnilota 
close to the eaatorn Bhoro. Bat in April and May the strong 
from the south forced ihem to make for tho west, and, at thntaesioi^^ 
near Piram, loHses wore commuo. In his opinion, with a light-boaa 
on tlio island, the western coaat would be as safe by night as by daf. 
Accordingly, outof the ruins of the old fort, a tower twenty-six M 
high vas built, and on it a sixty-feet spar with an eight-b 
lantern was miseil. This arrangement was continued till, in F&' 
18tii, a new building was be^n, and, at a coat of £563 (Rs. 
finished in March 18G5. It is a brick tower, from base to 
feet 9 inches high, enclosing a epiral stone staircase and 
a single tixed wlut« dioptric light of order four, in clear w< 
visible for twenty milos from the deck of a ship. The bei-.'-ht oti 
centre of tho lantern above high water is 100 feet and its 
illumination liSS* of tho horixon. Tho hght-houso is, under 
stipen-iKi'in of tliu Collector of Salt Revenue, in charge of a 
of six native seamen at a monthly cost of £S 4s. (Rs. S2) met 
port dues. Since 1850 the north-eastangloof thetown of Gogbi 
north lat. 21" 40' 30" and oast long. 72" 10', has been provided wii 
single fixed whito light in clear weather viaiblo for tea miles ; 

1 Bom. GacvtWor, 11, 414-U6. 




tbo samo timo the ontranno of tho Dholera creek, !n north laU 
V 20' and cast lonp. 72^^ 17' 30", has from Soptcmhor Ist to Juno 
jib bocu providod with a couiuion lauteru with five oil burners and 
iflertors fiscd in a conical biiilJiiiff on wooden piles. Tho centre of 
ie Untem is fifty feet above high water, and in clear weather ia 
idililti fur fifteen milcs.^ 

Except the Dbandhuka and Gogba sab-divisions' incloded in tho 
KuLhiawdr division, for postal purposes the Ahmeilabad district 
forms a part of the Ahmedabad postal division. It contains 
together with three receiving oiEces, two in the city and one at 
'Hhe railway station, fift^-en post offices located at the following 
Stations : Ahmedabad city, Siirkhej. Cantonment, Pardntij, Modisa, 
Harsol, Sanand, Viramgam, Aluudal, Ptttri, Khardghoda, DUotka, 
Kcth, Bavla^ and Rampara. Those offices are supervised by tho 
inspector of post offices in the Ahiuedabad division, assisted by a sub- 
inapector. Except at Ahmcdnfaad city, Uarsol, Koth,and Itimpura, 
the officials in charge of post offices are styled deputy post-mastcra 
•nd are puid yearly salaries varying Erotn £14 Ss. to JCOO {Il«. 144 - 
Ba. 000) and averaging £36128. 4d. (Rs. 36G-2-S). Tho officials at 
Koth and Rjlmpura styled snb-deputy post-masters draw each an 
anunal salary ol £12 (Hs. 120) ; and the oQicial at Ilarsol styled a 
post kdrkuH, draws on annnal salary of £14 8s. (Ks. 144). As the 
Ahmedabad city station is the diabaraing office of tho district, tho 
4^cer in charge is styU'd post-master and dmws a yearly salary of 
~1180 rising to £-210 (Rs. iwOO-Rs. 2100). From tlio stations 
lentioned above, letters aru distribitted by delivery peons or by post 
inners. For this additionitl work the latt-eraro paid a trifling gratuity, 
correspondence for surrounding villages is dcHvorod by mral 
leesengers, who also bring into the stations letters posted in letter- 
placed at several villages in oi^ch sub-diviaiou. The rural 
leBSengera carry with them a stock of postage stamps for sale at 
10 villages they visit. In this district there are in all thirty-seven 
"ivery peons on yearly aalaries ranging from £9 12s. to £12 
96-R8.120)andavenigbg£9198. 9g(2. (R3.90-14-3). Of the 
drty-six mral messengers, ten are paid from the Imperial and 
reiity-aix from the provincial rovenuos; of tho ten, nine draw 
" a yearly salary of £10 Kw. {R^. lOS) and tbo tenth. £0 12#. 
U6) ; while of the twenty-six^ half the uumbur are paid each 
12«. (Rs. Oi>) and the rest each £12 (Rs. 120) a yoar; this whole 
' of rural messengers is distributed according to rcqairements, 
ITS being delivered in some places daily and in others only once 
week. Besides the horse dak line, between Ahmedabad and Patau 
KiUol and Mesana, there are in the district eighteen foot lines. 
i'or their maintonanco in 1S77 the h'lrse-liue, which also carries the 
Kind and Rajmit^na mails, cost £1132 UIa. (Re. 11,328) and the 
>ot-liQca £lb8-i {Ua. 10,8-iO) or a total sum of £2216 16f. 
22,168). Ebiclasivc of tho sale proceeds oC post-etampa, Uie 

Chapter VI- 

Post Offices. 

liPt of ligbt-houw* miblUlied by the Mnrini> Siirroy Department, C«l<TnMa, 1876. 
f '* Tlw port ofBoo* ttt TDuuidbuks. DLolcra, It'Liipur, Barv&U. «ivl Ooglut, tliuugli 
' ' ~ . the Aluacdabad diotrkt, are lu bbo poetiU (UviAtoii of K&thiiwir, 




Chaphnr TL 



I'Coanie of Trade. 
JlMu Period, 

pOBtal rfivenue of the district amoanted in I876<77 to £8Bli 
(Ba. 28,140) and tho expenditure to £4671 (ItA. 4(3,710) ; of tlmt. 
JE4353 (R«. 43,5iJU) were dtibiUKl to liapoml imd £318 (Ba. 811 
provincJAl ftinds. 

Thoagh tho praclice of keeping a register of tetters and othffr 
poat-articlos dulivurod and dc^patctied hoa been, itinco the introdo^. 
tton of tbo now post-maauid (I87rt), discoutiuued, a momorandam 
was, as un oxj^ieriiuont., kupt in 1 877, ehuwitig tho number of \cWcn 
and other article* delivorcd from some of the post offices in t' 
district. Compared with the rutaniH for It570, this memoranda 
shows for some post offices a cunsiderablu increase; at Alunedal 
camp, 17,109 to 75,322 ; Qt BarvAla, 421 to 4:^.732 ; Dholk.^. S2,J 
to 72,722; Modisa, 14,188 to 28.300 ; I'arintij. 41.608 to 80.1 
and Vii-amg&m, 17,109 to 199,472. On the other hand the 
returns show a falling oH from 107,984 to 97,292 and tbos« for tli0 
Abmedabad city from 768,2^5 to 703,0GG.> 

Besides tho railvray tck^raph offieos at tho Uiirtden railv&r 
atations, there are at present (1S78) two Govenimuut teJegnfik 
offices, one at Ahmedabad and tho other at Dholer^ The total 
number of messages of all kinds was at JkJunodabad 20,715 and ati 
Dholeta 9190. 

We knnwtHat ander the strong mle of the Anhilr^a dynastiiV 
(740<lf97), tho primoTa] forest, fi-om the hilU of Mod&aa to tte 
moutb of tiiu iSdbarmati and tho shnro of the Ran, was gradnallf 
converted into cultiratod fields stndded witli populous aad weaJlhjr 
towns, tho very existence of which implimi the growth af 
fmnsidenible trade. Though tho poetic annalists of thoaa timw 
ocoasionallf mention ships and morchant^,^ they give no di'taits 
Mpocially rolatiiig to tho country included in the modem district of 
Aimodobad. Of those porta which woro the great gateways of chssiD 
Gujai'-land not one lay withiu its Unitted coast-line. Its duel 
inliuid mart was probably Dholka.' But during this period 
there hod boon growing np at Gogha, under tho patronage of tin 
P&tan kings, a race of hardy lAacars, whoso prowess enabled 

^AhmtAtbad Pott DeUOU, IS70 md im. 







AlimodatHid aty ... 



n»mA ... 



no. Otatt ... — 



M4lKlal ... 

«■* ... 




Hoaim ... 

.-. ■*. «i- 







.-. ■-. ... 



blimiKlbUkB ... „ 



Miiiuid ... 

,_ ... ... 





hirklii-t . 

'-* «*■ 






™< .M. ... 






l-4(ri ... 



> RAji Mila, Vol. I. 246. 

* Al lilriHi ^1150) speaks of Dal&ko, A«&vnl, und a third toirn H«b&t«1 tM«r Aalnl, 
M pUoM nf good trndTi about «i(i II iU in n»n. Kllicit'a HUUinr of India, I. 87. (talakft M 
DkvUui. AfiiTol wiH vn tliv liiv uf AbiueduLut), nnd IlHiiil*ml «r Jauivsl tB p«sbM* 
Stlinr, tho chief town n1 tht! CliiWTal or CbuTjU, wUicb, in 1525, tiitgbl itiU be dutiMllf 
tntnxl And fruu wkiiMo miiu, ornuaonla and eifuiLic brickt had wan dw. Bon. (ja«. 
SeL Jt. 75. 

|r&ji Gohel, in Oie fourteeuth ceDtury, to Itfvy black-mnil from 

^Dghold in tbo island of Pimm, on all that entered tho Gulf 

fcubay. His poirer, nevertheless, was but shoHbvcd. The now 

imnutdBn masters of the jirovineo eIqw him in battle (1347), 

^yed his fort, nnd converted a populotion of piratca into 

►ble but not less skilful And daring merchant seamen. Other 

stances concurred about this time to iucreoEO tho importatico 

native place. Its roadstead was tho best in tho Galf. Tho 

luring crock of Oundi which had hitherto appropriated moat 

local trade began to silt up. Liaatly when (1411) the city of 

Shuh arose on the other eido of tho <_!ulf, (Joglia becamo 

asw>ciatcd with its growing splendour, as all larger vessels 

[to anchor in ita deeper waters, and there diBcharged their 

into smaller craft for transmission to Cambay whence they 

jcarrted by laud to the capitut. Thus in tho fifteenth century, 

jft iongtliencd intorludo of disorder and insecurity, the district 

upon a new era of commercial prosperity, the focus being 

arred from tho banks of the Sarasvati to tho banks of the 

lati. The now capital was tho heart of the great kingdom 

^ontt which, says Barbowv.had 'many citic« and towns in the 

' and reiy much shlupiug and many merchants and slupowuors, 

jrs and (fcntiles. ' Fmm the land-ward side came into 

tho opium of Miilwaj horses, anna, and silken stuffs from 

1, and indigo, lubacco, cotton and grain from nearer homo, to 

ed for foreign imports and local manufactures. Out of tho 

>wed a great stream of traffic southward to the ancient entropdt 

ulka where much fine cloth was woven by settlera who, 

Ling to a local story, liad been driven by want from lUdhanpor. 

small ofEshoot diverged into Katbiaw^r, but the main current 

on to Cambay, whither were brought by sea from every jiart 

eaatem world the luxuries demanded by a splendid conrt and 

jtQous nobihly.* 

<n the beginning of tho sixteenth cenlnry tho silks, brocatlog, 

ittou cloths of Ahmcdabad, generally biiariug the name 

mbay their place of shipment, were in demand in oveiy 

n market from Cairo to Pektn. Tho wild tribesman of tho 

nn archipelago did not consider his freednm necnred nntil 

storfed Dp a pile of them, crjual in height to himselfj since that 

Q standard nmsom of a captive in tho frnytj in which ho was 

,ly engaged.' On the coast of Africa they were exchanged 

\A often at a hundred times their real value.* * To Aden,* 

boBay ' como ships of Cambay so many and so large and 

much merchandize for transport to the Araliian, Ahynsinian, 

ian markets that it is a torriblo thing to think of so great 

diture of cotton stuffs an they bring.' These goods with 

Cbiptff VL 

ilH'a Bubon, 50. 

iHvjarAt Moon m-o (1513? liisarinnn people who U«e n-sD tuiil upend mncH 
T&Vf SK wry nvU drcnctl and tliuir wuiuuii rivLIy dwlivd out. Staolujr'i 

blej'' BuboM, SOO. * BtaulDj's Barboas, 6, 7. 





Chapter VX 

Bome qnantity of drags, opiam, wheat-, indieo, and beads a|^)earl 
have formed the staple exporta, in exenange for which 
brought back copper, quicksilver, vermilion, and ros©-w»ieP froK- 
Aden ; horses from Arabia ; gold, ivory, amber, and wax froa Mb 
eaeb coast; of Africa; aroca, oocoannt'S, and popper from Malafav, 
Ceyloa and Pegu ; sugar aud muslina from Bengal ; jewehi sod nunk 
from Ava ; epicea and China produce from the great empariaiB oC 
Ifalacofib *nio early Portugno.-40 ftcconntii agreo well with Barboaar 
bearing ample testimony to the commercial predoniiiiaiica of ths 
'great kingdom of Ciimbayj' and ita capital Ahmcdabad. Ita 
merchants were their keenest rivals ; ita merchantmen their ri''^'--** 
prizes. In the Moluccas, on (he Malabar ooasi, and at the gold 
of Sofala, the MiihamniadanHubjects of 'the kingof Gujar&i' were i 'du'i 
glutting the markets with their ^p>odB, combiningto fore© np theprioca 
of country produce, and sometimes even fitirring up the Natnv 
governments and populace to drive out the Kuropeans.* Thia coUi^N 
of iiitere«ts gave the Bi-st shock to the trade of Ahmedabad- Koi 
only did the Portuguese, whose commanding position was finally 
established by their encoess at Diu (1538), close the Red Sea again^ 
Muhammadan shipR, but their supremacy at sea made oven the Guff 
of Cam bay as unsafe to their rivals as in the days before the Gobel had 
been driven from Piram (1317). In vain did the Gogha sailors Cirlfi 
avoid Portuguese crni^ers by keeping out to sea and passing cmUKff 
way to Malacca and Sumatra through the Ualdive Islands tti Ue 
south of Ceylon," Their rich cargoes fell a prey to the Karopean at 
eveiy point, and in 1531 Saldana, penetrating to Gogha itsolf, dustroyul 
the town together with fifteen of the largest prows laden wiih 
spices.' More disastrous still was the declino ai the powor of tlifi 
Ahmcdabad kiof^s. lu the middle of tho sixteenth century anaTvhj 
prevailed thronghoot tho country ' and every species of injnstka 
and oppresHion was introducod.'* 

The strong hand of Akbftr promptly qnclled, thongb he coild 
not prevent, rebellions, restored seciiHty to property, and aboli^eft 
transit dutlOB on all articles in common use. About fifteen jcaa 
after hie conquost, the travollor Ccoaar Frederick (158S} dedans 
that, if he had not seen it, he could not have believed that the 
trade of Ahmcdabad and Canibay was so great.* At tho bog^muag 
of the seventeenth century, though public order was very loosdy 
miiintaiiied, and, especially in the north of Gujarfit, wero ' lorga 
tracts full of thioTiafa beastly men and savage beasts,'*! two 
hundred carts richly laden with moreluuidize left the ospital 
alroost every ton days for export by sea,' In 1G38 the trsvellof 
JUandelslo found groat convouionco of traffic at Ahmcdabad. Exeeiife 
in gunpowder, lead, and saltpetre, for which a licence was wsnt«i, 
Btntngers were free to trade iu any article. The only customs du^ 

I Kerr's Voyage*, IX. 410, 414, 675; VHl. 446, 

» Kwr-g VoyngM. VI. 91. 

» Kerr'a Voysjp--, TI. 2M. I Biid's MJrit-i.Aliniaai, 303-40fi; 

» Korbea- Or. Mem. III. 8«. 

» NicLuJa. Trfflet in Kerr. vm. 302. 

T Kmtb Vojjgee, Vllt 302. 

s c 



s clmrge of fifteen pence on every wagon, and the Vtfni£&' 
eorrespoodents in all parts of Asia and even iu Coustantinople mode 
osch&oge easy and advantageous.* There ivaa scarcely any nation or 
aMrcfaandize in all Asia not to be foand in Ahmedabad.* In 16G6 
TfaeTcoot found great expoi-ts of indigo, sugared and raw ginger, 
engmr, cnmin, Isc, myrobalons, t&marinds, opioDi, saltpetre, and 
liooer ; and besides snppliea of cotton fabrics from L&kor aod Delhi, 
a great local manufacture of satins, velvets, tftffetsB, ailka and cloth 
of gold and wool.^ 

Towards the close of the seventeenth centnry trade began to leave 

Ahmedabod. The head of the Cambay Onlf was silting op, and 

Snrat near the month of the Tttpti, specially favoured as the 

port for Mecca pilgrims and enriched by English and Dutch 

oommerce, was drawing to itself the chief trade of tho province. 

This change Ahmedabad never recovered, and from that timo till 

tho establishment of British rule (1818) the trado of the district 

continued todecline. During this period scores of once prosporona 

Tillages, alike on the borders of Kiithi^w^r* and under the walls 

dt Ahniedabad,^ were deserted. At a distonco from the larger 

towns the trader was only tolerated by the Kolis on one side as a 

eonvenieat agent for the disposal of stolen property, and by the 

Qfr&st&s on the other because ho brought opium and cloth and paid 

^||clcmaiL The trade routes were clogged by tmnsit-dnty stations, 

exposed to the attacks of robber gangs, who roamed about 

KUle check, save from a few military loaders who gave partial 

tion as a means of increasing their own coDsequt<Dce. Special 

ince as a trwle-ceutre only on-w upou a place special exactions. 

Ahmedabad," tho town duties in the best days or Mahammadan 

rule were fixed for Uasalmins, at two and a half per cent on the 

Tolne of the goods, and at five per cent for Hindus. These were 

constantly raised sa the necessities of tho mlers grow more pressing. 

■bey reached a climax, when, in 1755, the Peehwa and the GSikw&r 

^■ridod the city revenues between them. Each Government collected 

^B share by ita own agents and kept constantly introducing 

I Ilanu' TnT«b, IL 114. 

3 But ibb tnv«lMr bIpo repeotcdlr tvfora to tfa« ilNngeroui lUU of Ui« ootmtrjr uid 
Jtjr tlu eiwi roida vtriair to tJiv eicoiM of tbe " Eatbguu " (Rajputs) with whom 
ap«rikl Govcfnor wm uid Ui be in tea^jiw. 

k»T«noi'l Voymfm, V. 35. 0[ tlie vticlea mentioood, Ihaao for wLich Atunodsbul 

_ latkiatinwto ha*« been viwcully fuuoui, ««rn jndifto, ^ngvr, ■ngar.Riiil silk nrpeU. 

SwUw; iniligDwu (ltt36) the faertia tltoproTiuMtMandvlsIo iuli&rr», II. 134fttid 

iuerlll!80) m Ifftrria, 11.373). fiin^rfl«w(ldSO)iD gTeat«r<]iiAncitT jn Alimcdrttvul 

n may pMt at Amo. ' 'Ti« h&rdlj to bo magtiud how anteh wm imiayitrtnd pundied 

jnifa porU' {Tareroier, diiio). Of lotf tanrlkmniieraaij^* (ditto) 'they bodtfaft 

:t »rt of Kflniu it.' He ilio in the Mm* ]u«e« nmtiooi •Msiallj the silk wpein 

<ntb vilrer MM gold. Of other f«bri<M Mwd^lslo tpenks at « not tnannhotoij of 

: and ealiitoee end of goM uid ailver LnxadMi. ttioiigo Iboee were ■liRbter aud at 

■ia« tiiu« dearer thui timtt from Chiua. Whon be wu in Abmedabao a n«w kind 

iB, of silk Mid cntinn irith (fold IIowcra,wuinr«>i)lc(l end eoldal ftcoetof Drocrowne 

anlfHerrii.U. 111). 

lafonution bj Bbigrindi* Ifitbji, Deeli of Db&ndhuku, I80S. Gov. 19th April 

fteport on Deakroi bj tho AietsUnt Collector Hr. WtUiuninr, Slit Au^at 1819. 
[i Hw (klnila that follow bftve bean oblAinod rliirflji Uum n^rta by Mr. Dunlop, tbe 
, CoUacCor of AhmedlUd, nd fiom oUwr papera in Uu CoUoctor'e Keoorda. 

B 187-12 

Chapter VI. 

IStli Centnry. 
DicSn* <^ Tradt. 


t!luq»t«r 71. 


18tb Ceofcoiy. 

^)wfjiK ^r Trade. 



freeb exactions. A system of rules, intentionalW coinpUo»ted«|idl 

Bocret, drove themtTchnTit lopiirclidse theaidoiexporteon 
who, often in league with the maiiagere, played their emplojera Mm. 
Mannfactared silk before it left the city gates had already paid* 
full fourth of its selling valae, and the average faarden on olliv 
inanQ fact mod exports was estimated at twenty per cent^ Nol« 
bunch of plaDtaiQB could be sold except by fannerB whohadboogk 
the right aud who v/ure able to charge what prices they cfaose. Upoi 
eveiy wretched bundle of firewood or beaket of garden atnff, il ill 
sale woa not engrossed by nonopolista, was lerieu a duty of £!!■§ 
to twenty-five per cent on entrance, a handful aa the gate-keaparh 
private doaceor, and another handful to a minor farmer at am; 
guard-room on its way to the market.' Nor waa it sufficieDi for tki 
merchant to satisfy the dcmaiKls of the Government. All or nflu^ 
all goods that entered, the municipal weighing- yard, kotJw^ wo* 
set upon by the agents of favoorcd indivtdusU or religieoi 
institutions who based their claims to exact soiall specified d 
ostensibly upon the oiiginal consent of the traders themaeli 
really on the aupport given to their chums by the 
Government. The ffagarsetb, or chief of the merchants, 
ad-valorem fee of a quarter per cent ; a descendant of a former ] 
took 3 per cent, and ander the name of religion twenty-6T0 
temples shared the spoil with forty Bhats, Vai ragis, and other bej_ _ 
Indeed tbo sunt total of these and similar levies was too hi^ 
for practical collection, and it was acommon practice for merebaoto i» 
warelioui^o their guuds at. Kadi, Peth^pur, and other plaoes ckoaby 
and, by threatening to send them to some other market, to force tM 
&rmers to let them into the city at lower rates. Bvea with Uui 
alleviation, the bunlens upon trade were too heavy to be borw 
' In this city,' says Mr. Forbes in 1781, ' commerce once met wilk 
every encouragement. It waa the reaort of merchants, aiti8t&.aod 
travellers of every description. It nuw exhibits solitude^ pover^ 
and desolation.'^ Thirty<MX years afterwards when Mr. DmiliA 
the &nt British Collector, enteral within the broken walU of t£e 
onoe magDificent capital^ lie fouud it ' a udancholy piciofo , 

Of the sea-borne trade by Cambay at the end of the eigh 

on) o&i 

1 Thvwoffioiab vero called DaredM in AhmedAb*d and Mirdtln ia Dbotka, 
■ The DUiBb«rKhd claimi i^f thmti rM^ipiniila m«<iu to likvfi bM<n nr7iii|; maA tba Briiik 
«)lBeen, ancr tboir oocupAlion urtberity, fuuiid aoniP illfilcultt ia >K»rtBinU]( tlwantf 
tnttli. Acpording to «. report b^ Mr. Dvniop. d«t«d lOib May 1821, twwnty-two Mifbi 
ud tfairl^-four iudiTiduAU wcra ouvh «nutlM u> a MOkll cbu^ andnr ibi b«ad mA* 
wn>i<ting in almotl tvtry iantaaea of from {«/. to ID|il. on rrcrr £IOO(Ri. lOOU mtttilf 
pi«o«gooil*. B««jdM ttiis, b« Hfti, ool!*otiaai tintUrth* bHtdof adyiv wm« cbbncdlff 
tbirtj-on" tmnptwuid tliirtj.foMriiidi*iduala oq luulaaM*, cottoo, grain, toba«eo, mm1o& 
Coruin toiopI'M w«rc allonod lo pua uvrrj joar free of dutj for tbeir ami um •pMlOi' 
qnaoliLiM 0] luori'lituidiMi, Xhiis thfi Shri Hdniji l«mpl«i fnjojiid Uii« priitilii^ »IA 
rc*pectTolv»W» biiudli^aorWDl 1p*/, llSmniMof clnriticd bult«r, utd 13O0rQJil4 offsM 
wire, Similartj' amon^ tho individnaU KomA cUimMl tbo ri|rht of lorymc » Ml 
n«rt«nln^c on mrtiuii goods, and otbi^rs Uia njfht of )««iinga certaibqaftntltjof cImIM 
Jitter fjwjof tlulj^. ■■ 

. » FofbM'Or. M»m. III. 120. 

* Atport to Oov«n»aeBt, Dmembor IBIT* 

j^Mitmy little or aothing remainMl except oer*sioafel abipaMM* oC 

^■t.cMioa.aadotb«ragrio«ltar*l pnxluoe. fmco ttw western dis&iiote 

IKlibe puns lawv down tfaa ooA^t.i Left lo WtmU GogW iaO » 

fnj to nooran** adTeotam, and even «{t«r ahe becawe nDmiaaBf 

■abject io she Pedum, his adniiastzMlioa ia ■» rtaoto & place was 

*do weak to eoontetaoc the great loaal infloeBos of tke Birat of 

^i4niagar» who spared oo puns to draw all the trade that still 

lingered oa that side al the Golf to his own Bewly-foaaded capital.* 

2Cb«9 the workhooan of Gogha wora dM«rted and its Camons 

M^Bn had. bj the bffgiwn^ of the ttipeteonth ceDtury, beeome 'valj 

^^HEbiw of what they ODoa wsn.^ 

\rith the present etmttuj a new era opeoed. On the 6tU Jotra 

}2 the Bombay Gorernment baring acc«pled the cessioo of a small 

at the head of the Golf of Cambajr, hoisted tbe British da^ at 

place, Dbolera. Aboat twenty t^ah) earlier, ia oonse^otare 

i qnanek of its Oir&sia proprivt<>n>. Dbolera bad been nearij 

ea. At the lime of trannfer it consiiitod uf nboat 300 hoaaea 

^t«d bj a few families * who in fear and trembling cullirated 

eoocgh to enable them to live/* Its natural vivBntagee were 

. Its creek was broad and deep enoufrh for iiatiTO reueb of 

107 to 143 tons (300 to 40u Ihantlu). It was the moat 

itflBieot outlet of a oountrr which produced more wheat than its 

vpte conld reap,' and which has eanoe become ono of tho chief 

jn fields in India. Up lo thU time trade had been driren awaj 

the lawless fends of the Girfisia lords, and by the jmlous tactics 

[the Raral of BhiiTaAgar/ whose position enAbled him lo command 

creek. But ic w»s caufidentl,? predicted that in tho strong 

Is of the CumpaQj a port would speedily arise which would 

jlant Bhsvnagar> as Bhamagar had supplanted G(>;;ba. I'be 

9, however, were at first aokiud. Tbe Bbavoagar chief, iu order 

icbeckmato the action of the Ginisi^ in placing tbemaelvos under 

ritiah protectiun, opened a rival port on the adjacent crook of 

idr^i,^ and by means of a low scale of duties succeeded in attracting 

chief ahare of ibo harvests of Dbondhtiktv and Kanpur. Further, 

' 1806, a discontented Gir&sia faction set tire to tho new settlement 

completely gutted every dwelling and workshop. Two yoam 

iT, confidence waa agun shaken by an nttack on tho ncigh- 

riog village of Bh&vnagar, the merchants declaring that unloan 

' were better pmtocted they would take thoir cotton to somo 

)r port. The lawless Btato of tho interior wns a still greater bar 



Ivethm' Or. Mem. EH. &7 >n<l Bov<<'« T-Mn. Bou. Oov. .S«l. XVL 48, 67 ftnil 64. 
LXio^oaat Roberuoo U> Collactor of Kmiw, I*l Jutu IBOfl ud 2inli Septwubcr 

I Lwat«aMil RobectaOD to Collectar of Kaira, Ist Juno 1806 mkI SClh So|>temlMr 

iSirMimwIdeSoua 0603) to GorornmHit on Ibo propond eMtiun of Obolvn. 
■<• ^ars U4«t «ioltwir offieor irrotd, * Dbolam 'a to well tuiutd bj oftlurv for iHiding 
I loailmi; oatrcbMidiia Lbat il (snnot bn improved bjr irf. T)m h«ttViMt good* nr* 
I bjr cKrt* wiibin ft r«w $»H« of the vaaeli a&d baiMM w bovd from a baal^' (LteuL 
Blow tftUr. DfKglc, nth Julj 1«W). 
, Mr. Btroia RowIm. 27tb Uuch 1806. 

* Mr. Holford, BMidnni Ht CWmtwy loOomrompnt, I80i .- 

I SirU. DsSouxBtoMsjgr \yaU«,22nd Juoq 180^, 

Gbaptar VI- 


to trade. Besideii iho Imperial castom8-bouse«, there was, within itm 
limita of each petty Giroaia's estate, a post for the fx)Uecticni of iei* 
or chila vera, to that every cnrt of floods had to pay its w»y to 
the sea coast almost from village to village. Including the torminl 
town-daes a consif^nmeot of merchandi£o woa malct^d on the Btxtna 
miles from Dhaudhuka at four different plaoe8;onth«thirty-twotfttki 
from Limbdt at fire by ono route and at sevoa by aoother ; on Um 
thirty -eight miles from Dholka at cig'htby one route and at ten fay tfai 
other. To these was added the fear of the Kathis, who had asnoMA 
aroring pi undergo Dim issioQ with such e£Eeot that, cot of the Dfaoliai 
duesj one-third was, ondcr the Konction oi the Company, paid to Ihi 
chief o£ Jofidau for passport^ or policies of insurance against the 
attacks of his clansmen.^ lu spite of these hostile inflaeDoefllhi 
Company's strong rule insured the gradual prt^reM of the infiyd 
eettlciuent. In ISIO their commercial agent at !5iirat beg»n to bi^ 
and ship at Dholera part of his annual cotton inTesfcmeDt ; aod in 
1813 the increase of trade wag most satisfactory. 

The rexations inland imposts above mentioned were fm^iiddea 
proclamation in 1817, and the same year also saw the oeaiSoO' 

tha city of Ahmedabad and the complete establishment o( Bril' 
rapremacy throughout the distriot. From this time, be^nn an 
of commercial activity yaried in character and degree, but on 
whole progressive.* At Dholera, the chief centre of trwie, 
cnsioms revenue amounted in 1819 to £6000 (Rs. CO.OOO}.* 
the same dmo several dangers threatened the prosperity of the 
The river Bhadhar, whoso stream formerly sconred the creek, ft)i 
ita coarse in 1812, aud thus probably hastened the accamnlati* 
silt which, by 1817, had bo advaiicetl, thnt navigation beoaaw 
nnsafo as to deter undorwriterti from accepting risks. AttentiOB 
was in consequence directed to Bivlidri a village about fifteen OuUi 
south of Dhulera. There the anchorage was found to be 'perfeol^ 
aafo for the largc-st ship/ and though the swampy natnre of tU 
ground preveultid carts from reaching it till January, the dr»wbsck 
matteruu little as it was after that month that the quicksands in tfcs 
Dholera. creek, and the bore at its mouth became moat nerilooa. 
Acoordiogly, Ihougli with strong injunctions that trade shoum by ai 
meann bo forced to it, B^vli&ri was established as a public portoB 
the 1st Fobmary 1S23. The new port wasasncoess. In M^ay 1B23&i 
customs collections amounted to £438 (Hb. 4380), and in the an* 
mouth four years later to £1180 (Rs. 11,890). Then the trade m 
nearly equally divided between it and the older port, Dholsn 
getting the Lion's shore during the early port of tlie season when tbt 

1 Thi> «uoomBaiit«d in 1S17 into sflxed nnjinent equal to llw amntf:* of the pi* 
r«<»ipU. Other obiofi besidtf Jatdan r»nrivrd rr^ulu- Don tribot ions from tha norakMlk 
Mr- DifTRl^ Ml iin&lod tbkt in Um Dholam iui>-divu)onBl<nw £1W0(R«. 18,000) mjm 
tt«r« Mid liv the trwlcn to pMtj okuifB aomiiaUy for protMitiati, imiiy for forbawmk 
_ I Tho Btutcm«nt« a{ axtonul *Bd intonal Muimene for 1810.90 fonrarded by ita 
Collocior t<> tho Uci>t>i-t«r Gcoicro] aaOcmMum* io Btmbsy ■howMi incarsa** io impolli 
t>f£l'>l,514 [R*. l!2,15,Ui))ui,UdccroaM tu exports of £18.962 (R«. 1.89.i):i0l >■ 
th« pr«viona y«ftr. Tlic dcorcMfi in export* ma omag to tJka Esilon o( Ua ooUiA 


> Mr. Diiolop to GovenuDCDt, lOlb May I&2Q. 

p B&Tli&ri was closed, and Bivli^ 'being almost the only 
fit afadpping in the later months when the prevailing soatb- 
pinda made the anchorage in the estunry of the Bhadhar 
icable. At tho ssmo time Dholera contlnaed the commoa 
m. Thorc building wont on apace while not a Bingle 
I moved to BAvliari.' 

Icra was at this time the terminna of a line of traffic that 
;ed as far north as Pili, the great MiirwiSr trade centre. An 
ital cooacquenco of this was the first advance of Viramgfim 
commercial importance. That place had hitherto been an 
market town' in the centre of a conntry harassed hy 
ry KoUs, and in apite of its natural fertility not prodncing 
oogh for it« own support.' It w&h now to renp the beno6t M 
raid. A Marfitha Qalalpalti or TToU red powdertai was applied 
ring tho walln, and a timoly use of force restored to ordor 
bora of the Chnral. The result of these measures was soon 
t. Situuted at the meeting of now cmmolested high-roitds 
.jput^na, from JhAlav^, from Ahmedabad, and from the threo 
1 of Dholera, Bhdvnagar and Gogha, Viramg&m became a 
ous for droves of camels laden with silks, clarified butter, 
r, and dyoa from the warehoasoa of Visnagar and Kadhanpar 
carta bringing dry goods from Cutch, and grain from 
district of Patan. Some of these commodities, such aa 
ent to JliaUvad, and some, aach as wheat, to Ahmcdnhad, but 
ilk passed on to the sea coast, especially to Dholera, tho 
« returning with dry goods, timber, molal, European cloth 
ther foreign wares, or with salt from the pans of Pdtri and 

• did the revival of commerce fail to reach tho capital 
I district. In 1818, at the time of its transfer, ceuses on 
i«ad necessaries of life were abolished and duties reducod 
5 to 2} per cent. The result of this change was to stir np a 
' the greatest commercial actirity.* Tlic groat northern route 
.iDdastan was once more regularly travei'sed by VauJ<lr&s and 
bnllocks and 8indbi and Knjpat camels. Long droves of 
imals laden with dyed cloth, opinm, sngar, grain, oilseeds 
streamed down onco more over tho hills of Dungarpur into 
ainof GnjarAt and on into Kathidwar, returning with salt, 
90, and sea-borne produce. In two years tho population 
; city omisiderably increased, the import of raw silk roso from 
B7 tona (300 - lOOi) Indian jh/ius), tno value of imported cloth 
kboat £1300 to £2501) (Us. IS,OOU-Rs. S5,00U}, aud the total 

•of So* CoatAma to (>0T«nira«ni, lOth Jtine 1939. 
ctor repent* to Goveriimeat ou 12th Ha-y 18*24 tlut ' Vinmj^En bving a 

with Hinely a nn^le inftnuracture aor] bat a limited trtulo ita pMonikry 
n lira ▼toy tinit«d. HttiuiU beyond four or tive thouiiand nipcM an not 

and only oa« or tvo pmon will giTo thom tor tliat Hum aad thaw not ca 
Mcoant.* Mr. Doalop to Kuiilflat tX BakkU, 27th April 1818. 
Got. Set XI. 7a 

' tmkn *od draftsmen who had qiiitt«d the place returned, knd though 
lis uilitary (dasB lufttoBoek omploymeat eleewbore tho popiiI&Uoa iuoMwd 
bly. Mr, Uunlop, iS20. 

Cliapter VX 






[Bomfa«7 6i 




value of the trade was iDcreased by £125,000 (Ra. 12.50.000). 
the following ywrs this adranco was not kept op. Tbe grtrt 
Btimulue to eeneral trade i^ven by the reduntion of duos had paamd 
oS, and the leading mcrcliantB entered severely from the ^Um^cij 
their opiam speculation a.' The value of exports feli from 
(Rb. 28,17,770) iu the three years endiuff 1823, to £U 
(Bs. 19,90,270) in the three years ending 182G, and the TbImi 
imports from £-105,557 to £310,257 (Ks. 40,5o,570-R8. 31,02^: 
The next three yearn saw a mai-ked revival of trade in exporta 
£199,027 to £200,289 (Ra. IP.OO.syO-Rs. 26,02,690) and iu imi 
from £310,257 to £109,780 (Ra.yi,02,o70-R(.. 40,97,800).* In ihm 
later years full harvests added to the preat spread of tiliaf»e flooded 
the markets with field produce and prieea fell rapidly. Th* 
Ahmedabad demand was of tbe greatest value Ut tbe country round.' 
* We live upon the uity* was a common expression among the 

The following Btateraent ehowa in detail the value of the 
imparts and oxpurto lu tbe nine years ending 1829 : 

Alimedabad CUy 

TnuU, JSS1-ISS9. 




wn-tasa 1 


- ' 












' t 

OnlD „ 







CUnil«4 bnlUr ... 













Totaom „, „. 







61ft... ... 































Tfamd ... ». „ 





Oath - 







Tate) .- 







Iu two respects this statoincut tells uuEa.irly agvnst the trade i 
the later years. The returns for tbe early years include s 
item (£14j548) on account of opium, a trade aoon after put i 
to by Government, aud the apparent decline under othar 
was, to a grcmt extent, a fall in value and not in amount. Ul 
imports, the most noticeable |>oint is tbe increase in mol 
cochineal, and thread. Buth iu molasses aud cocbiueal, as tboir ' 
had fnHen about ono-tbird. the rise in quantity was much ^oater tl 
appcfirs in the table. Under exports, the chief point of intef 
was the increase in tl»e export of cloth from £155,652 (Rs. 15,56,5S 
in the first three yewH to £191,835 (Rs. 19,18,350) in the 
Ou the whole, the trade of Abmedabad was in 1823 Tt 

> The Abmecliihaii opimm tnde beftan in 1819. One Karamai Ihingvii of 
WM tho finl to engntfe in it od « large Male. Boid. Gov. 8«1. V. SS. 

3 Writing in 1825 tha CVlltotor, Mr. Crawford, oompUifis that the tx^»i 
AhiDodabad had nut iccreaecd U> thn anticipated bv Mr. I>Bnl(n>. 
dsprGadon wan, in hi* opinion, due to tlic gamliling tiiat reviilt«d tnim tha ' 
cumncj called Ani (see p. ;3i. 

■ Mr. IJuulpp'a Report to Uovdrumirut 251, 20tli Juuiuy 1820. 





.roQs. But Iq tlie two foUomn^ years (1829-1830) the Chapter VI. 
ionitunil diatross caused by the ruinoaa fell in produce prices Tradft. 

ited the trade of the city; and in 1830, Sir John Malcolm 
iplaiDod that Ahmodabad had nob improved so much as aught 
been expected. 

■eaenJly, it may he said with respect to tho state of affairs in 
}30, th»t oommimicationa wero atiU as bud as they could l)i>, 
McRome land castoma yet existed, and the great mass of the 
people remained absolutely untouched by tho spirit of entcrprize. 
So restricted was the intercourse of tho district with tho outer 
world, that in 1828-29 and 1829-30 great leniency in collecting the 
rerenuo was found to be necosaary, because orer-abnndant harvest 
had BO cheapened all kinds of grain as to cause the ryots dtBiculty 
disposing of their crops. On the other hand, eecnrity of person 
~ property had cnooaraged in tho trading and carrying castes an 
liTity which has since continued in ever-widening circles. Gogha 
" lay overshadowed by Bhavnagar ; Cambay, the ancient port o£ 
capital, was almost effaced by Dholera ; but every other town 
oonsiderablo village in the district had taken a bound in 
irity wliich promised the happiest results. 

iring the next twenty years (1831-1850), these promises were 
or less fulfilled everywhere, except in the cities of Dholka 
Ahmedabad. Of tho former it is sufficient to say that its 
ition on tho high road to Cambay no longer made it of 
iquenco, and that it was weighted by an unwholesome climate 
by on indolent Mnliamnmdan population. Of Ahmedabad ib 
be said that the city w&g always more indebted to tho Court 
army, of which it was tho bead-quarters, than to ita natm-al 
'antagod. It was not, like P^li, the nataral rallying point of a 
inland country ; it was not on any great Imperial route; it was 
crated by no religious traditions attractive to the Hindu 
trading classes; its river was impracticable, down to tho very 
noatb, for the smallest ship ; and even in the palmiest days its port 
Wis an incommodious roadstead fifty-two miles away. When wo 
dao consider that its brocade and silk manufactures were severely 
Affected by the depression of Native Courts who were the chief 
Cnatomerfi, and that its lower classes of textile fabrics woro from tho 
first outriva'ilod by imports from Europe, we may easily understand 
how the once sploudid commerce of the city, instead of returmog to 
~ old centre, became diffused among smaller outlying towns. 

the north-west Viramgam had in 1835 become the most thriving \'iramj;dm, 

in the district. Since 1826 very conHidorable improyomeut 

taken place. Popnlation had increik^ed and a anrpnsing 

_iber of substaatial and very neat bouses had aprung up.' In 

eaat rapid progress was made. Between 1826 and 1S48 the 

tber of houses in Par^ntij rose from 1 685 to 8082, and in Modaaa 

1267 to 1572.' And there is reason to believe that other small 

nBon. Cot. Litho. Paper* ]4?, 30. 
Bon. Uov. ScL X. 6, uul Bum. Gov. Set. V. 64. 

3 Bom. Go>'. S«l. V.$C 


trs^e centres h&d similarly ptftgr^seA, thoogh no atatiatica 
roepoct to tbmn arc ut hand. lu the uoutb-weet, ctmtiaaed sUUDgis 
theoldeBtuarjofthc BhadliarcHUHedaeTemlehBnge&of posidonintha 
Dbolen port. la li^oO it was lixed at Khan, aod with the Maiatanw 
of B&vliari the trade of the port maiatained ita prosperity.' In 
1832 it was yielding an aTerage yenrly cnstotoa revenue of £8O0l^ 
(Rs. 60,000). lo the thirteen years ending l&IG CQtton exportik- 
though witJii groat flnctuatious, had risen from 27,716 tona in Ute 
6Te years ending 18-38 to 51,750 tons in the Bve yeara ending 
\BiS,* In 1813 Dholera nomben-d 6807 inhabitants, and OKMt d 
the trade of the country to the northward passed throngh it on te 
way to Khnn or to D^vli&ri. Some snbstantial bonsea vere htiag 
built, and one or two handsome temples were nearly finished.* 

The most notable feature of this period (ISSl-lSoO) waa lb 
temporary rertval of the trade of Gogha. In the early part of tfaa 
century efforts were from time to time made to attract erada lo 
(Jogha.^ One cliief obstacle to the success oE thin plan wu tba 
BhAvnagar ctuef's claim to share in ita customs rerenue. In 181S 
thiH was commuted on the baitis of an average of past receipts. Tao 
years later the pWo had made considerable pn^reaa. Out ol a 
fund established by themselves the people, stunulatod by the 
example of Viraragdm, proposed to rebuild their mined town wallij 
and in this, chiefly from the active support of Mr. H. BorradailblW 
Collector uf Customs, they succeeded. About 1833 tho poti t a ai a 
to grow into favour for the Bliipment of opium brouglit bx>m Mwws 
by Luuiviida and Kapadvouj.' In that year S17 boxes valued at 
£31,700 (Ks. 3,17,000) were exported, aud the unoont rose tiQ 
the average of the four years ending 184^ was no less tluui ItH^ 
boxes/ valued at £139,900 (Ra. 13,99,000). Ita coUon txado \mi 
also considerably increased, the average Gogha exports f<ir tlis 
thirtecQ years ending 1816 being 1760 tons compared with2;l& 
from Bhavnagar.^ A number of MArv&di morchaut£ eetabUAlisJ 

1 About thia time aa ftttoinpt wu mad* to satsblikk k pott At Moii Boru, U At 
mouth of the S&bArmftri. But this. tbDUgli widA, WM choked with wuidlMiika uHtlte 
experiment f.tiled. Bom. Gov. Sel V. 2Q. 

1 The details u« : )634, 1169 tons; 183S. 7C70 tons; 16S8, 7161 toas; tW, 
Or.Muas: 1838, 2541 tons; lb.19, 44,U7!) tons: IMO, 12,236 tona ;tS4l, 7153 toM; 
lM2,10,t;i2tCM)*f 1843, 12.400 toiu ; 1»44, 10,030 tons; 1S<^ &92)i U>ita ; tni \ 
l2,77fllOM. Bora. OoY. Sol. V. 84. 

» Bom. Gov. Sd. V. 07. 

* OovunimBnt's letter to C<\ll#rtor, ISth Jnly 1806. Mr. 8eci«tAi7 Kci 
Ur. Ilowlu, C'r>I)octor of Kaira, dst«d 11th Au^;iut 1812. 

■ Colleotur'a Repatt, laih DwraibcT IS34. 

« Bom. G«v. Set V. 83. 

' Tho following compvstive stAtcmeDt sIiawi the yoiu-lj eotton tnd« of flu 
ports : 











WO* ,_ 













istv . , 










ISM ... 










icios !□ the town, and carried on conBiderablo traffic between it and 
Pnli in opinm, Cashmcro shawla, wool, and other gnoda. The value 
a£ ehawls ux|iorted waa m IfHd estimated ati^li^OO? (Rs. l,4j,970) 
iMd in 18(0 at £102/lf>9 (Ks. 10,34,990). Kxclnttive oF opium, the 
Hbrag9 yearly raluc of tho Trholc tra<lo of tho port wa«, iu the 
|M ream ooding 1835. £118^90 {lis. 11,82,900), and £441,0^4 
14,10,340) in tho fivo years ending 1847. Thia gloam of 
iperitysoon, howovor, began to fadeaway in favour of Bhavnagar. 
on, tho opening of tho railway in ISO t drew tho ]*Ali traffic 
iabnd, and since then tho totjil vahie of tho (ioglin trade 
falling. Tho annoal averago valno of the trade for the 
years ending 1371-73 was £1511,310 (Ua. 15,93,100) against 
11,846 (Ks. 11,18, i4iO) for the fivo years ending 1877-78.' 

between 1851 and 18G4 the great iucrenso iu the demand for 

hjoulfcural produce and the nso in prices that act in about 18o7, 

a rapid devalopnifittt nf trade, and dnring the years oE the 

ican war (18G2-18G4} tlio trading vLaseca shared largely in tho 

that found their way into the district. But tho cause of thia 

o£ wealth was ao exceptional, and no large a portion of it 

loet in foolish and ruinous speculation, that but for the opening 

jmilway commnnicationH in IHGi, the district might have gone 

very ranch to it« old condition. 

18^4 the opening of the Bombay and Bnroda Railway m Far aa 

ledabnd cause*! two great changes in tho diatrict trade. It took 

ly much of the produce of tho rich Kuini htruls that formerly 

id its way to the Ahmedabad port*), and it rrplncod Ahmedabad 

le position of a leading centre of trade. Beefidea Alinioda!«ul 

Sortion of the line within the limita of the disiriL^t containod only 
arfjadi station. Between 1868, when rctnmsnro first available, 
1871, when a branch was opened westwards from AJimedabail, 
traffic at the two Rt-atiims shows a Htya<ly iiien-dHe, at Ahmedobad, 
ssengers from 27;j,67t> to ■ib7,0iiy and in g«»nds fmm G1,09X 
[63,379 tons, and at Barejadi, in passengei-s from 13,9(>8 tx} 
315; in goods a slight deereuso from 289 to 207 tons. No 
as ore a\*ailablo to show how much of this tnulo formerly 
by rood to Cambay and the Broach ports. But tho following 




xlctiulawo. aYcraeeforthe five years »nrlini> IR7I-73,£I60.91(>: 1 873-74, £92,496; 
l-Ta, *!W.752: ISth-ia, £]r,7fi-23- ia7(i-77, £127.H62i ami l»77-7S. £81,196. 
u the slwvo llgarw. it luiut bclKiroii in mind thou;;Ii not cuinplctetl 
UlMd tintil IKi>4, far soron]y«»npnvionsly, by tho oi^niugof suiii^i^ro 
Dns, UiB nilwiiy hail h«ea gnMladlj coning into c^intact wit1i tho trnilo uf Lhu 
ict. TWnuliray cbuuulic.itiauof uommcNlibicsilucanot curreapund wiLli tlio i^uetoios 
But tho foUawiutt iUinis may bo fonnd luata] lor porpuaea of comparisoQ -. 

Aimaliatia TVoJi Af Bail. SIKS-lSJt. 




■ Azntui. 

















M btillcr „ _ 







utf antU) -u ... u. 




















m ■ 





[> 187-13 

Chapter Vt 



(Bombsj Gon 



sUt^raont bIiows that ikt DHolerft, teftvbff out tlie years o 
Ainuricau war, during the ilrat sea&oiu alter the opeuio^; o 
railway (lSQ2-\8&i), & Eall in imports was more than balancod 
rise in exports.* 

/Mofcro Tmde, 1SS4~1S70. 
















■33, «N 















IMO... ^ 








UU„. .- 








IMC. ... 
















U«.„ .~ 


9, HUM 



The following analysis shows tho changes that have 
trom year to year in the chiel ariiultis o£ trade at Dhokva : 

ffMera Trade^ J8S4-ta70. 














Sm rflk .- 






Tkra „ 





Ivwv - 

QHlBri buHm 






«f— •* 

, ^tf 




Cpoou)OI>-«< •>• 








a ITT 









MilU ... .. ... 






SMdt ... ». ... 







l>KIBn — OHllNaot 9 













^ o 









•tmti ^1 


daHflcd buUcf ... 























14.iMH !■ 

OalM ... ... -. 














Sncu .» ■•• - 



















Outtim .- 





1 Oogba ia left oat, u it b virt'iolly u KithUw&r port. Beudcc, ■fliwlnrt ) 
BUTMfvgUBkiwjr hitly b« wit ofi. 




^K JUllCLW. 









t ■nutt ... 













R X raHTS~OHUl'llH<- 1 . 














rWk .. 





1 .n — 

— ..• 



■ •MM 






•■WHfl^ ■«■ VH 





i' — •-■ ... 







H^{B.^;^Md)" :; 






le figures allow ilirce chiuf changos : first, tlic more vtJnablo 

materials for manufactxiro in Ahraeclftbad havo almoat entirely 

'oncd the Bea route. Second, Dliolora, instead of exporting 

btigun to import grain. For this cliongo there arc two reasons. 

The liuld produce of tho rich Koirs lands, formerly brought to 

Dliolera for consumptioa and shipment, now goes ty rail, and near 

jl'I^holera grain and pasture havo to a great extent been replaced by 

vfoMon. Third, cocoanuts, dates, sngar, and metal, tho luxuries of 

Iho lower and cultivaling claases, ahow on the average an onmistake- 

ible increaso. Bosidc-s this, it is worthy of note that, csctuding tho 

special American war seasons, there has been a steady development 

ixL tho exports of cotton, and that in 18C5-66 occors flis first record 

' tbo export of mposeed, a branch of trade which has since passed 

railway and assumed lai^o dimensions. 

last period of tho trade history of tho di-striet is tho seven years 
1877. The chief feature of this period is the conatrucUon 
'a branch line of railway mnniug west from Ahmedabad. For 
Mven years Ahmedabad continiietl to be the terminus of the railway. 
In lt570nn extension wasoorricd three miles west to Saburniati station 
on the right bank of the river, from that in May 1S71 fifteen milea 
to Sdnand, then in November 1871 twcnty-thrcc miles to Viramgfim, 






Chapter VT- 


SaUtaai/ VetaiU. 

and in May 1872 forty miles to Wadhwin. In 1873 obraach tw< 
three milos long wqb continned from Virarngdm iiorth-M'est bo Plbi 
and tho Kli&ri^hoda suit works. Tliere arc at prcMDt (1878) ninety- 
tbreo miles of railroad within tbu limitti d( tLe Abiaodabwl diatrt^ 
pnivided witK thirteen stations. 'J^ho following statement tthuwi^ 
for tlie sovon years ending 1877, the passenger and gootU traffic *t 
each ulation in the district : 

AhKtKUbai StUlwag Trajte. 1871-JS77. 




III lllllo* 



















BitMinwU ... „. ... 






AantdlBoU... „ ... 








atMDd ... _. 







J»kb«4ilk ... ... ... 














ni,. iJhitnd ... ... 











BtMf Bckd 








UUpur .., .„ ... 








TdW ..- 










Ahncdnbad „ 
tiAliariMti .. 
A'mbU Hind-. 

Cbliinidl ., 




Uk^or ». ... 









11, TM 

Tin, 795 












lU,n|il 7£(3S 









11. tu 









1U.MI eitUCS 




















It: 4 








isun anj»> 

The extension of the nulway wcatwanis Uan Affected tho sea ti»fc 
more than tho opeiiiuf^ of tho main line from Ikmilmy. Yiruugte 
lias becouio a local trade ceutro of some importance, compotiiig 
directly with tho sea route through Dholera. This compotition 
together with Bomc causes mentioned later on, has, as tUo f-iH ■-:'•.' 
BtMcment shows, reduced tho raluo of the Dholera tnni 
£l,&83,i>79 (Rs. 1,58,35,700) in 1871 to £6Sr»,.50l (Ra. tJHfib,:- 1 . ^ 
187y, and of the Gogha trade from £159,310 (its. 15,U3,UHt n 
1871 to £81,196 (Rfi.8,U,96l») in 1878: ' ' ^_ 


COutkra Trade, 13711973. 






1STM*. ' 



[« -. 






' ''. > 


TattI ... 








rmcnt shows in liihulor ronii tlio flncfcitations 
oE trado carriod from and to iho difforenb 
18 of the Abmedabad district : 

Akaudabad Sailteay, Ooofbt. > 1S6S, ms and im. 

















1 IbII prwwJ ... -, 




, J 










IM« „ 



























■a- . " 







b (OMri* ^aUtolU) 







- ... t . .-. 






























MdtBetaMB ... _. ~ 













t r^ —1 •■• 







D ._. ,,. ,.. '-' .- 







13ewiity ._ 







Atfopc .-. ... _. 







TdUI ... 














■c dctail.s for tJio Aimodahnd station show an increase in tKo 

Qombor of passenpDrB from 273,G7G iu 18G8 to 504,780 in 1877, 
in the qnantity of gooda from 51,091 tnna in 1808 to 82,31-i 
in 1877. The chief articloa of export were cotton, ffrain, gced, 
ij motol, makwla, ItoH^iu. lutiTultu, oil, wuo), uud opiam^ and of 
irta Bolt, timber, and tobacco. TTio Viramj^fira st-ation returns 
that passenger tmfBc has incroascd from 133,714 in lS73to 
502 in 1877; goods trafEc shows an increase from 21,142 tons 
7^ to 67,385 tons in 1877. The chief articles of oxport wero 
W, grain, hides, metal, oil, wool, and of imports molas-ses, timber, 
pcOj and salt. Thu duLailN of tho Sauuud station show an 
■win the total number of nasson^ci's ffom 31',1(>0 in 1873 to 
14 in 1877 and in tho quantity of goods from 58G tons in 1873 
8S tons in 1877. Tho dutaifa of the Siibarmati station show 
Dcroaso in tho quantity of articloa exported from 19(16 tons in 

1M8 «Bly two oUbotui, Atuaedahad luid iUrojadi, wera oiicucd lor traffic. 

Chapter VI. 



(Bomliay Oi 



Chapter VI. 

1871 1877. 

HM and 8ta 

1873 to 426&-Mn-& 1877. Tho ohiof articlos of export am 
find gniiji: " '.The Jhund station returns show that passenger < 
has id«iiEde>^ from 3G14 in 1873 to l^^'S2 in 1877 and gwds bom 
ISi tods' in 1873 to 683 tons in 1S77. Tho Pfitri statioa retom 
• **. tiifow that possoQgor traffic has moreaaod from 13,377 in 1873 to 
;■ -49,437 in 1»77 and goods from 14^(9 tona in 1873 to 10^301 tenii 
1 877. The exports arc cotton and grain ; tho im3Xkrts molaaMi 
timber, and tobacco. The details for the KbJlraghoda statioa akw 
an incrcn^c tu tho nnmber of passengers from 4019 in 1873 to 12,0M 
in 1H77, and in tho qimndty of goods from 12,030 tmu in 1573 tD 
63>716 toDB in 1B77. Tho principal artido of oxporfc is salt. 

Tho chief changes in the district trade by rail and by boate vaj 

bo thu^ summarised :' 

Tho imports arc sugar, pioc« goods, timber, metal, graini cooooants, 
and molasses. Of these, timber and metal show a rise, aad pteoo 
goods, grain, molassos, sugar, and cocoannts a fall. Tho timbcTj 
brought chioBy by sea, rises by rail from £3609 to £3615, and by oBa 
from £17,7&1 to £20,072 ; metal, ahio brought chieOy by sea, riae^ 
by roil from £3983 to £10,148, and by soa from £lG,Udl to £18, 
Of tho declining articles, grain has fallen by rail from £tl,632 
£4G8d, and by sea from U0,2Ul to £14,935; piece goods, th 
by rail they have noon from £09G8 to £l'2,7i^7, nave by aea t 
from £52,112 to £20,089 ; molasses, brooght entirely by nul, 1w 
fallen from £24,722 to £15,734; sugar has fallvu. by rail &oa 
£7917 to £6414, and by soa from £52,680 to £27,526; and oocoanotti 
though by rail they have risen tu £1753, haro by sea £sUen fKna 
£26,787 to £17,183. In order of importauoo the importe were ia 
1877, sugar £33,940; piece goods £32,816; timber £38.G87; metal 
£28,511; grain £19,023; cocoauuts £18,930, and molasses £15,784, 
Tho ox{H)rts are cotton, seeds, and grain. Of these seeds and 
show an increase and cotton a decrease. Seeds, oarried en' 
by rail, have risou from £24G1 to £47,600, and groin has riaen,!^ 
rail from £4067 to £26,215, and by sea from £146 to £5251. Coitoo 
has fallen, by rail from £62,703 to £46,129, and by sea fwo 
£1,234,919 to £386,540. Arranged in order of importance, in 1 
cotton cbmos first with £432,669, seeds next with £47,600, 
grain third with £31,4C(J. 

Of tho cotton tnuio in 1877-78 the following too the chief detaill 
Of 30,241 tho total number of balos, 20,409 or 67'48 per cent wcai 
by boat and 9832 or 32*5 per cent by rail. Of late cotton merchaat^ 
both Karopcans and Bombay natives, havo began to buy direct boa 
the growers. But the usual practice is to buy either from a largs 
dealer or from small middlemen who have bought from the grow** 
There wore in 1877-78, 369 gins' worked by steam powor; tluM 
were said to havo been introduced abont fifteen years ago (1863^) 
during the time o£ tho American war. Most of tho gins iltf 

1 Tb« riilwiy Rtams xro kopt ia tona and ihv cnstotna ntnzna abow valtMa 
value of tho (joixld corriod by roitnAy Iim, as far as possible, bcon AaoertafaMMl bf I 

i Tliu cloUila an) : \'inkmj;iUu 130, AUuiwlalNKl 117, Pliulora 40, DliMuUtaU tk , 
S&iuuhI 32, ULil Kpli 20. 




acarth^'fl Patent Knife-roller Gina. TIi© gTnnmpr season be^ina 
old cottoo about the middle of November and lasts till the muldlo 
January ; for new cotton it begins abont tho middlo of March 
' laistq till the middlo of Juno. Cotton is also ginued in vaklMrs 
or yanls by native hand gins, eharhis. 'iTio vakhdr is gonorally 
a Rqnoro wallod enclosore in or near tho village, open on one sido, 
wila two or three rooma on another side for storing unginncd cotton^ 
hapaSf and along the two rcmainitig sides rows of sheds di\'idod into 
opoa spaccfl, six to eight feet wide, with room in eacli for a native 
gin. in tho middlo of tho yard there ia genorally a heap of ootton 
pods and a space for beating cotton before tl is ginned. Tho 
fc of ginning is aoldom over before the rains set in (Juno 15), 
is left is stored nnginaod and ginned in October after tho 
rains are over. CnltivntorB, in their own hoosea, gin a small 
quantity of cotton for seed. The cost of ginniug cotton by steam 
is about 2*. for forty paunds (Ro. 1 a man) of clean cotton and tho 
t of ginning by native hand gins varies from Is. 6d. to la. Od. 
S.14 annag). Of 30,241 balua exported in 1877-78, 8325 or 
7"52 per cent wore full prcaaod and 21,916 or 72**17 per corn, wore 
half pressed. In that year thoi-o wepo in the district seventy-two 
presses, sixty-nine' of them owned chiefly by native merchants were 
baud-worked half prossosj and tliroo, two at Dholora and one at 
Viramgiim, owned by Joint Stock Companies were steam full presses. 
Thf! pressing season bt^gios in November and ends about the middle 
of Jane. Tho cost of pressing by steam varies from 8s. to 10«. 
rrts. 4 - Ra. 5) a 400 pound bole, that of half preaaing by tikanja is 
from I*, to Ifl. ()</. (8-12 auTuu) for a 000 pound bale together 
with an additional charge of 4$. (Rs. 2) for tho wrapper and ropes. 

The following tabular statomont gives the chief dotaila of tho 
'e by rail and by boats : 

AkmtJabad Dutrid IVade ha Rail and Sta, 1371-1877, 

Chapter V! 










By 9m. 



























naoeiiwlt ... 









BVVV »«t ^ 









Orate » ... 



























_ fcl« „. ... 









W"- - 
















^ 1 tiM d«tnb m : Dholcn ^ Mindal IS, Viramgdm 10, Ahmedabod 8, PUri 3, 

- aia«Mtl,ndI>holkaL . 

Chapter TL 






Akmtdabad Ditlriet Trmtr hf Jtait mtd Bm, iS7 1-1977— eoatiMovti^ 


in*-n. V 





s^aB * 









OoUnn - 

HdVHvwtk .. 


Onin „. 
TliBlwr^. ... 

Biirw „. 


VmomuH ... 















* l}u\y lor nnn Uail 

»r tiTi. 

















llMF loodi ... 

□ nUn 


uSS -! !!! 











10,1 «« 





This etatcment showsj that thoagh Dholora traffic contii 
greater tlian tUo total o{ all tht> milwny KtAtums &oin Ahmedat 
to Wadbwto, yet tho trade of that port has sinco 1$71 ntrad 
decHneJ. This is milly owing to the less proejwrous oonditiun 
tho tmiliii}^ and cultivatiiif^ classoR Rumoring- uniicr the reaction: 
the inflated prosperity of 18G2-1865. It ih still morodue to the] 
burdens, imposed with thu tacit consent of tho mercbaats 
on cotton passiitg through Dhotora. Kvcry nnpreesed bal« 
entered tho press-yard vrA» besot by a crowd of idlers and religM 
beggars, each claiming and getting a liandful under the namoj 
custom or charity. Tho Rum totiU of this pilbt^ might have 
borne under the easy-going ayatom of tho past. But in these 
of keou compotitiou it bocamo so intolurohle aa to drive away las 
cotton to BliJl^Tiagnr. So scrioui^ly did the practioo threotmf 
proBpority of tho port, that in October 1876 the trade nnki 
7na}u'tjan, put a stop to it and Cxcd a consohdutud fee of 9«. 
(Ra. 4-13) on each bale.* 

1 The fi^naning ilutkiU givA aanic 'tdiM of wluit actiuilly was (be prac tfc w vivn 
tQ the trwlu eiliut o( 187^^ Ikf^iK th« bondlo of Cuttou wu {mtan dm mJi^ f|1 
0{>fl&ud Mill thu buyer look out two or tbroe potnuU " w & mmple." Vivt 
nuiro he doiiuod m hia ri^t, hak, uid Irum unc aod « hail to two pooadt 




^At present (1878) tho tmdo of the dbttrict pfwsrs almig tlie 
fpllovriiig linea. From the nortti-cost to Ahiiiwlahud, come 
Ptajr^tij EWHtp uud UtAil jiruUuco, aud Mdlwii cottou, opium, iinil ^rain.^ 
From the nortii, Msirwar wool, cotton, hides, and clarified butter 
coiDo to Ahiiifdaluul, ami floukit of sheep to IJartjadi. In return 
eutJ Boot mctui, grocery, and dyuwoodH. Tho n-iwlem Kajputaua 
BtCkte Itailway, now nndor oonfftruRtion, rroAAinfif thia lino of coantry 
irill probably reduce Ahmedabad aa an entrepdt for goods to almost 
DOtirely load importauco. In thu west, Virarngant, onoe a half-way 
liDUsa to Dholoraj haa now becomo its rinil for tho cotton of tho 
Eertile country betwoon thoin, and hti3 drawn to il**t'If moat of tho 
iruQio which on Vaiijilnh bullooka iisod to piuitt from Ahmodaljud 
vest to Kliu] and north to I'ali. It is olno the scat of a larf^ 
md inoreasing trade in needs, most of them grown in the IJaroJa 
I ' - ' r of Patan. In tho south, in Hpito of its iinp]c»«nnt anrhorn^n, 
i .t IN, except for a few Ahi{>s in tho hot HcaHon, able t<o do 
irit>koul tho help of Bavliari. Compared with any possible land- 
■outc, it poHHoascs tho ailvati(aj*ea of choapni«H and of a namo in tho 
loitou market which innarcs a preferonce to ita exportg.' Aa rogmtla 
mports, IJholtira uLiU supplies by far tho groatur part of tho district 
hod ftd joining* conntry with timbor from tho Af alahar Conat and from 
Sroooh. Iron, sncfar, dried fi-ait«, cocoanutu, and thu like, are still sent 
lat of ita warehnusL's to Yimm^diu and the nurthom Bjwoda diHtrictH, 
O B^dhanpiir, Palanpur, l)(M^sn, and ovon as far na Pdii, in C)irt8 which 
■are brouj^-ht cotton and graiu. Tbo course of trade haa scarcely 
fe/t ftdjnstod itsolf to the now conditions tntroducod by opening tbo 
P»r»mgim extension railway. But it soems likely that whatever 
:hant;ca ato made, bo long as its creek can bo entarod by boats, a 
•ertiun share of trade will alwaya fall to Dholera. 

The railway has had, in this district, tUo usual result of depressing 
bo retail shop'kuupurx by uiiuimi/iing pmlils and by carrying 

Chapter TI. 


Li»et (tf Traffic 

(lenenU Condition' 
at IVMliu); ClMsea. 

Ite ri^l of th^ nan who stamped tua mark on tbo wrapper. Next, tho prflte-owncr 
jTjt- three or laat pounds for himAt'^lf, luxl tioo and ft hiJf iKminaUjr for the watt^r- 
Mrrior of the HtAblialimciit. Hu wiw foUowiid by the cmnjniniim mgfmt, lUiuijpi , Ut 
rbnm th« mtUin had boen cotuJKuvd , whu ^t five or lux puuiidu ; liy tliu broker, ilahit, 
rbo ir^ aboat rtirvo pniiDAs ; sail hy tho bhiiarerB, who Among th«m wera oIIdw-aI 
HHT mm\ » half pouud. Fiiiaily a )<ig lint full, putanru^wmilA ba giTan bo an; or 
ilMt Atfcat-'f , proMRHMi'* or hniVitr'i [xst In^^int, who ha(i{ifltiiid to b« pniwnt. I'lui 
i«wi]lt (if sU this oft>^ wa» u> n."tui:<9 a bundleof twenty -tluncio or twenty-four man* 
l^t^reoty nvuM The ooiiKtUdated fee is iliBtribnted ai fnllaiPB : Agenl'a cnnimis- 
\iou O*, : -Ffil'tliii ibtidTi ooanmiaaiMi 1«. ; tn the buyer's dork or hissonfii. ; tubiiiiriirs 
luT ■UkJt'Adiiiir. kc-, id. i iMMim|C*r and woighoi 4*d. ; wstclimpn at prtuis-yard ]}•/. i 
bo tiiu ]irtiM owiicr $id. ; bread for pariah di>tt* lid. ; ruligioa, fur •onia ubjout of th« 
milt or broker 1*. ; cAarit^ tid. ; Ukc fund (or munidpnl pninoaM M. 

> '" tbia put irf th« diatrict nndt-r BritUh rule trada baa greatly devolrip«'d. 

thtlast firtv y«*r« thn vnluu (if import* haa ruoa at PdrJ^ntij from XSiS^i 

■ ■_ -, 'J20) to £2a.'A24 Ills. ■J,fi5.-2'10), aud lit Mo<Um &uiu £S32li (Rb- 63^^) to 

4 T^svovt of ooaveyinft three nnproBtoiI balmof fift^wii mans «ach from tlio doors 
Vimtn^im nuln'av itati'jo to Bombay riA Dholora woidd ordiuatily \>ti aa 
C«Hag<.- to DhoWa 16<«:ight hyVtat to Bombay at Oa por bnltr iiiel tilling 
wurMuw« £| 7*. ; tota.1 £2 IL>. Ilia radway rate wmild lie IS*, pur twi^nty -mam. 
Et^l^ other luad an tv be Mt tbo riak ttid dola^a of the aea mutv. OkmIs ahippcd 
lifcPliuhrs i««j rMicli Bombay in uventMn or etgbtosa days, 'but it u scurody safe 
^^afanlatauu I«u than ooe or even two monthH. M^Tiy of these part icolars have 
kindly coniuuuicawd by Ur. A. Whittle, of Mvwmf. On«v«H, Cottuu & Co, 

B 187— 14 




ClKFtar VL 

their largor costomera to tho wholcsnlc marlrpti. MoTeoreri 
increase of popoktion and tho perfect sccoritj now affoi 
trade, hhvo reuuHed in the accesaioD of large nnnibera to com 
enaployment, especially of tho less energetic and ah: 
therefore le»8 successful men who fill the air with tfaeir oomt 
Yet there is no d(»ubt that, on the wholo, the hnmbler claes 
have as a body gained most hitherto by the improTod com 
To them more than to the rest of the oommonity, have accrn 
moral advautogca of intorcoorso with the outer world. They, to 
been the chief to profit by the increased facility of obtaining 
consequent on the greater ape«d and safety of leigitimato 
In former days a cousignment of cotcon to Boml)ay was a 8| 
tion invnWing peril by land and Boa and a certain siaking of i 
£or a lougthoued period. Kow nith railways and telegraphs 
more rapid turn-over is poasihlo, aud hutiinfaa can be earned 
mnch loss capital. Under thoso circnmstances, much of tl 
formerly mouopohzed by a few wealthy booses has been dtati 
among enterprizing clorka Bome of whom have brcomo 
anhstanco. UufortHTiiitely the good ofFccte of this chang 
been largi'ly doue away by an iuveterato and general sn 
specalation. To this mtist bo addod habita of extraTagiuiv 
Rtrango to the older generation among whom the rich yitm <3 
auxiotts to conceal their wealth. As the local proverb Enya/ ' 
used to keep ia-doorsj now she has come to iho venuidiiii.' 

Tride Oaildt. 

Origia ami OrvttA, 


In the typical Tillage tho community proper consists cxt 
of husbandmen. All other residents from tho Bhopk<?epcr 
sweeper are Btrangers within the gates, not regarded evon bj 
selvee) as having any inherent right to a voice in the 
of communal affairs. Thia is especially true of tho artisan. 
distinctively known as the settler, vasvdyaj^tho man who has] 
to hve' in the place for the convenience of the original inbal 
It unfairly treated by them or from any other cauee di« 
with his position ho still not nnfrequentty terminates a oo 
never anythiiYg more than a service contract and it may be at 
that ho often took this course in earlier days. In snch a 
wonld resort to some central place with more cnstom or 
faciUtj' for the exercise of Ins craft. From these and 

1 The Oojariti i« : Onidina L(^hjHi fiaii ; hattma wmare litirlJu, 
> ThiB aoetiaii ii vootrilmtod by Ur. F. P. Leljr, Bomluy Ciril StninS^^ 
An oHoeUtioa aiiioag tho hJgW oltiiai u ternwd in Uu> "mTiimlsr a< 
Amnng tbe Itnror olriMW, more eapeclally if it htppeo to be rwiTirfu i 
It Ib called a niNcAd^ai. Both words uv iu thii Mconnt tnuuil>t«d 
nob bc'CAOMi the ox]>rf«icin kocnr&lt^Jy oonvei-s their nMoiDg but 
iho w)ii»t<! Lhi- moat rimvnnir tit that cnuM be ODoem. 

S Thi» U-nn in ai-i'lifi! t»i lb« blacksmith, tfao cnrpcntcT, th« potter, 
the nil'preaaer, ilm ^nluncr, the ^vjuhimnAii, the horber, U>« •homn»k«rt L. 
man, the MavaDjgfir, mill tht? BWM'pcr ; tbnt ia U>%Aytitv t'anlr^aanmatKmhot 
U « mattnr nf nght to Im id by tbe villagera on an OOCMOOO of itmMni 
otb«r tioiicl t1i« prieit, tb« ttupkcuptri tlM h.»i^TB^f| ^qJ q^ lAnacr lin« 
right and oro Dot n uUod. 

in tis olasa would increase in tlie town and tliey wonld 

p tho position of iuilcpoiuloiit bodteu the organisation of each 

^h TTonld uQturally assimilate it*elf to that of the more 

' agricuUunil societies around. As in every vilhige there is 

the cnltivatora a council prodded over by its elders and 

g the communal concerns, so in every town not only among 

anta but among the goldsmiths, tho carpenters, thtf metal 

B, the masons, tho dyors, the pottom, the oil-pressors, and 

I all other cr&fUmeii there is a guild pn?6cribing trade rnles 

ktliug trade diaputos under the guidance of its aldennen. The 

■ of these Bsnociationa was made all the easier if all persons 

Dg the same pursuit belonged to tho same caste. Kvea 

t this bond the faculty fur combination so strong in the 

I of India would enablo them to unite without difficuHy for 

omotion of their real or supposed interests. The corporate 

iy waa further etrengthenoti niidor native rule by ttie policy 

officers of Government to whom the system supplied a 

ieat agency for distributing and enforcing their irregular 

OS. 'In iformer days,* says an old Viramgiira dyer, 'if a 

imcnt officer wanted cloth dyed, he sent it to our aldermen 

t the work done and either paid alt expenses out of the conunoa 

r levied a special contribution for the purpose from the whola 

In rotnm tho Government was always ready to give car to 

~siub against any one who, while carrying on our trade 

to ghare in the joint burdens or obey the head-man's order. 

e who misbehaved in this way would probably have found 

called into court and, until he yielded or left tho town, 

with tho whole weight of the next and every further 

on." Even under British rule trade organizations were for 

utilized in collecting kaeub venU or trade cesses. These 

in lump sums on each craft or calling were realized by tho 

>n whose authoniy it was, in consequence, to the interest o£ 

ent to countennDce.^ 

ajan is with respect to matters of trade, what a casto 
fat is with rospect to mutters of caste.^ Nominally it is 
of all the/ree»ien of the particular craft. But a special 

Chapter VX 

Trade Qoilds- 


Bsmple t In Dbotka tbfl ohlel nMerman, xth, of tbo morehuita* sulld used 
to ftppcfftioa among tbo incmban the ceu imposod on his Awn gnild biit 
lojiect from th« kldcnnon of tli« ntliOT giiLidii tlic amouriti dua Eroni tlietn 
tiy. Pot tliia h« rocvivwl tt ciimmiuMn fmm the CiiJlwtor of Uia diatrJct, 
•I the ntt« of U. (R*. 2) ■ tradu. Ho al*o reooived m pearly present, tirpdv, 
trtOMaTj of £3^ ( Ha. 32). It bu aiiiOA been oommnted into a tomp num. 
ratiaUy Uw tnula ootmcil b dutiook from tbe cwte cooncil ; for exmnple, In 
■d Umn >i« foarontM of oaipwitsn nod thvrefor* four tswmblk-H for ca«t9 
tetvly oBDCflrpcmtori' mflActfon. SothcBllk, ma^hnt, wcAvon,' Tualulf an ia 
■ eity contain* both Kaiibiji nnd VitniiU. Many mom iiidtADCi^ might be 
I !• tmportiuit to note tlii* Uevainiiu, uspeoiAlly u) tl>u RiutJIer tuwni, n 
' GSatv U ufttin catitcrminoaa with a piuticular trade and tbe mlei and 
of both are i-uactod .lod enforoed iDdiacriminatf^lv by the sivmn body. Eran 
iSJatu of mu«d castMi the line bvtwnan tho ■oailar nnil tb« nligioiia ii, as 
esTMcted, sot Bonipuloualy olMerviyil. For vxaiuiilu; not bag auo a 
lu VinU of AhmAdabad vhn nlT«n(1cd his cjule r>y marrying aw^ow 
ImI tnun tbo tiluth •lealen' mahitfetn to wbicb he bvlOQgcd and waa lu 
DD oUiged to ckm his sbop mA Imvv tho lowu. 

Oiapter Tt 
Trade GoildJ. 



I call ^ 

position is allowed to^ the Bctha or aldermen who mc ordinarily two 
in number aod who ^o ton^ as they raui&tn in the trade hold ibw j 
pOBltioD by hi-rediUiry nglit.* fjotuetinics it happens that from bad i 
character, dcfioiont ttbility, or some other drawback the re^lar heir | 
to tho dignity is coueidcred unworthy of tUo confidencia of tbo gailiU I 
But cTcn in that case ho retains tho title though the power is iBa4e ' 
over to some other member of hia family. With the sldenaeti an ' 
OBeociatcd a icvi frccinea whoso personal qualities have gaiDod than ' 
influence, and as none of the rust dispute their opiuiona comnt mntl 
anthority virtually rests with this inner cabinet. ^ri 

The only other ot^ce bearer in a guild and that only in W^ 
wealthiest is a Ralaricd clerk, gumdnta. Tt is his business to call the 
meetings, to collect monies due, to keep theaccounta, to bo 
look-out for and report to the aldermen all irregularities such 
non-observance by any member of an appoint*^ holiday, and yen 
to execute any orders that may bo given on behalf of the oorp' 

In moflt guilds even ordinair membership in a right of rovA 
Value on account of tho disabihties entailed ny exdunion. In tiw 
Etaiuu calling it gfuyrally paSBCS as a matt<-r of course from father 
son. For newcomers tho forms vary considombly and in fact d 
on the extent to which individual success cau be afiectcd by 
fiivonr or disfavour of the guild. It is prolwble that in former 
an entrance fee was always cxaoCed except in the case of one 
or whoso forefathers, had been obliged by adversity to giv 
an hereditary calling. Snch a person it he wished to 
would only bo requii-od to pay up tlio arrears of annual 6abscri_ 
At present it is computed that in tho city of Ahmedabod there art 
twenty-nine guilds which levy from oatsiders an entrance feeva! 
in amount from X2 (Us. 20) in tho ease of Uie papenuak 
£50 (Ks, 500) in the case of the tinsmiths. In the smaller towni 
question is often viewed as one simply of enste and if the appls 
con satisfy tho others on that head he is admitted to all com 
privilegoH. Again in consoquenco of tho greater socnritjr 
afforded by law to individual action, many guiuls have been 
to relax or oven entirely remove their restrictions, in 
prevent tho growth of external opposition. Solar has this n 
spniyful tliitt in many bodies all are received who have 
appronticeship and who agree to obey tho rules and 
according to custom to tho common fund. 

It ia uot the practice to execute indentnres or to pay a 
for approTiticeship. A boy intended for any branch of miercantib 
life is usually t.iught by his father or other near relation. If fc» 
have DO each friends already in business ho may got a sitantiouH 
a clerk on a very small salary rising as his nscfulncas incrcsMi. 

1 Tb« vdrI ttUi ii dorivod (rom Suucrit uiul ileootM tlw boet nua and 
Ute hciut, ohirf, or (i>t«tnui of uur oonpony. It in often looeoljr applied 
rcaiH-ctAl'lo uicMuuit «a au eqniirauiBt to Mr. or Sir. The ktdmnoa or Uw 
uii* Ivos ukllu«tttial guiltU as* cnlled fo^ i^ot «fl/i4. 

- Tliough in tboM Mwpabliw mnca inportauco in aitadiod to birth y«t \* 
cviT/wliero clue otiurgy and ability mnkfi Uuur vrny. Honco tho prox-rrh, LiMU _ 
viyj'- : lilutntr ptimlit kur : Ladle trlhio iiiyjf : temi kill na paeir tin: ; vrritiag n*l>a) I 

wntci } aUuJy, tlw Kliolar ; stnviuj;, the «efA, oo oae mIu of what tamily hs ia. 


'the erti, if of an enterpnuing tnm, ho begins to speculate on hia 
owu capitfll or credit. Anion^ nrti^^atia a boy who is Icuraing of snmo 
ono other than hi:? futhur receives from tho beginning amnll wngcs 
inrrcasiQg according to his progress. Oa now year's day il is 
tboufrht an uppropriata act uf oonrioay for him to offer n bula 
or roll of betel leaves, or a cocoonut to his master who in retara 

fives him a (ioi/Ia or jug full of sweetmeats. If hu father givQ a 
inntrr party tho master is invited to sit on tho pat or raisod bench 
Mud m expected to acknowledge tho compliment by preecntiug tho 
boy with n turban or a small sum of money proportioaod tu tha 
■Mana of tho partius. When tho approntice boa Icomod his workj 
OD giving a dinner to tho rest of the members, he is admitted 
to idl tho privileges of the craft. Towards the expense ol this dinner 
^9 ousto panchdyiU often contributes if the lad is poor and 

I^The anthority of tho gTiiId is chiefly exercised in fixing tmde- 
jK>tidaye and enforcing their observance ; in collecting and applying 
the common funds ; and goncmtly in taking cognisance of any 
iDAttor which concerns the members a.s a craft, snoh aatho prohibi- 
liou *jr 8auctii.>nof animprovemout, therate of wages, or the hours of 
working. Tho action of those corporate bodies will be beat explained 
jqr a few apecitic examples. Daring the American war the potters' 
Bnion or guild at Dhandhoka resolved to make up for high food 
ifiricca by raising tho price of their warea. This their customora 
-'•1. The mLTchaubs and bonken, whulcars*, guild, comprising 
-.> mtjtit iuiluuiitial persons of the place, took up tlio quarro! 
Ipp bohalf of the goncrol community. Thoy forbad any ono bujring 
Mrthen ware, Tiiey sanctioued tho use oE metal basins in marriage 
j^premonies. They aoiit mon in diagaiso to distant villages to buy 
ptrtiuio. pots at the oxpon&o of tho oorporaio fanda and to bring 
j^ltem in for those who hud none of mutal. Still tho potters held 
jlliit. Afu^r Humu niaiiths the yearly ouobicin sale of the right to dig 
i|dftj in tlio village lands came on. An agent of the AtAuA'* guild 
Bnui sent to outbid the potters at any cost aud oo deprive them of 
tftheir raw mat4;na1. This lant move forced tho potters tu yield, and 
Jwio price of earthenware to this day is unohiuiged. Agaioat the 
^ rs and the carpeutera, who about tiio aamu ttmo also raised 
cotes, similar tactics were adoptctl, but with less aoccesa. 
rAi^enta sent to bring barbers from other places failed, and a flood 
idttlroying many houses forced the jwople tu agree to the cai*peutors' 
dumiuids. One or two iuslances may be given from the city of 
AJuniNlabad. Tu consequenco of the levy of a rannidpol ccsa of 
QUO pie on eacli donkey-load of briclu eateriug the city gates, the 
liricik makers' guild forbad itd raembora ddivenng gooua anywhere 
except at the kilns, thus throwing on tho buyer the cost of 
carria^'U an well as the paymout of the new duty. In another case 
*Oino ontside masons settling in the city began to work for la. 
H^ aniuu) a day instead of 1*. 3d. (10 annns) the lowest rate allowed 
by tho local guUd. To stop this competition, the aldermen of tlie 
inaaona' guild communicated with those of tho potters' guild and 
induced Uiem to issuo orders that no building' materiids of any kind 
Mhouid be sold except through the agontsj lUiUils, o£ l>hu furmur. TliO 

Chapter VL 
Trade Guildi. 


Chapter VL 
, Trada GoildE- 

rivals were thas driven out of the field bein^ muble even to get i 
for their murtar. Thu authority of a gaiM is still oftener used _ 
koeiiing back any nndiie energy within its own circle. For exanplif 
at the opening of each Beoson the aldermen of the city taiemabMI 
prescribe exactly how many thoDsand tiles each member may make, 
and the minimtim rate at which he may sell them. Again the urhtHa 
of the hand-made textile fabrics exported from Ahmedabad muut 
pass tlirough one or other of ubuat. a dozen agents, kariduig, who 
in their torn are forbiddon to take more than a certain oomnuasiaa< 
Formerly i£ a bricklayer chose to do extra work in the nrif 
morning, he was entitled to HtL (2 annas) a day in rendy cash beads 
his regular pay which he received at the end of the contract, ot 
month by month. But lately as employment was scarce mad aevetal 
of the craft had nothing to do, the aldurmen iseutnl an order ibai 
no one should on any terms work OTerttme. It will be noooal 
that the objocb of the abovo three odicts was the same, to distribnta 
bumneBS among all alike and keep iadividuals from enriching 
themselves at the expense of the rest. 

The most inoonteHtnbly useful function of a guild is that el 
fLrbitrating in trade disputes. For example, the goldsmithc* g*Ai 
investigatos chargt.'s of alloying metal ; the cutton-merchanta'gnild 
settles m case of dispute whether the quality of the cotton delivand 
is according to contract^ andj for the purpose of adjusting tim^r 
bargains, the dealers in varioua staple articles fix what on cerUia 
daya shall be considered the market rate of each article. In 1^ 
present day the guilds confiuo them&clvcs to effecting an amicaUj 
arrongcmont and though they never attempt to enforce 
decisions, the parties interested generally acquicMO. The n umber i 
disputes in tho export trade of the district thus coming before 
is much less now than in former times, when, owing to the sis 
conveyance of goods and of information, prices would often lus 
or fall so greatly between tho time of agreement and of duliwrj, u 
to make one party or other grasp at any oxcaBo for evading th^ 
bargain. ~ 

The broach of a guild rule is ordinarily punished by fine. 
in Ahmedabad a moson, shortly after tho decree against oxtm hoars 
WM passed, had to pay £5-2 (Rs. 51) for working over-time. Bofitfit 
to pay a fine or any other very grave offence is followed by oxpuldoB. 
Even when unattended by caste oxcommnnication this ia a sew* 
penalty as the privileges of a member are often of great 
In the first place he is protected against the competition] 
rest. If he leaves any work nnfinished in consequence of a 
with his employer, no fellow craftsman will take it up until 
demand, if considered roasonnblo by the guild, has boon satiafied. 
nmong carpenters, blacksmiths, and other artiaans, there is a at 
order forbidding any member establishing himself in a Til 
whore another member is already settled. Secondly, exclusion fr 
the guild deprives a man of all the minor good offices of fellowship is 
bu8inosi4 life, pretty much as exclusion from casto oporfttos iu serial 
life. If tho outsider is a master manufacturer, no skilled Ubourrr 
will enter or stay in his scrvica If he is an operative, no one will 
lend him tools or work along with him, and the ganger, muhdda 



will arrange for liim only at hoy'a wopos. If He is a dealer ic 
eiporta or importH, the piikl hnokerg will refuso to act for him, 
ftna According to tlio markot castom bosincss ia imposaible Tritliout 

the whole those nniona have been linrtfol to the general 
sis.' The clever and the stupid, the hard worker and the idler 
fiBTe been kept at the some level by an indolent ond bigoted 
wmimnnism which does not scrapie to enforce its decrees by the most 
fomiidablo religions sanctions ; all efforts at improrement faavo been 
snpprcsaed and the aecamulation of individual wealth impeded. But 

f power of the«e corporations is passing away. They tliemsolvos 
igttizo that they must execute their penalties charily lest they 
g themselves within tho meshos of thf law against extortion 
criminal intimidation. The indastrial classes more than most 
&ro showing signs of unwonted personal independence. The quick 
of news by rail and wire is helping to free trade from tho 
36 of agents who onder various names are the re«dy tools of 
iudqI ^Tonny. Lastly the new steam mills springing op in 
ICO of the guilds and beyond their control, offer a fair field in 
lich native mechanics have ali*eady beguxi to show of what they 
ity bo capable if left untram moiled. 

Except occasional fines tho poorer guilds have few aoarces of 

rcane. The wealthier bodies, composed of the capitaUsts iu the 

towns, draw cnnsidemblo incomes ; 1 from a small tjkx' on tho 

f and export of the principal articles of trade ; 2 from death-bed 

ana or donations by heirs; 3 from fines and entrance-foes ; 4 

tho anction sale of the right to opf n shop or from fees levied on 

>80 who wish to do business on holidays J 5 from land and somc- 

los from house property. In the city of Ahmedabad almost every 

' ijan owns a ra'^ii or lodge where it holds its meetings. The only 

in-preas in Dholka was ei'ected by the merchant's guild and its 

Chapter VI. 
Trade Quilds. 




'Ihayvwetn instances of an individufil being dcuicd tho priTilflgM of lus <asta for 

I erimfl of hnnng invr.nt^ f om<> imprDVcmr.tit hy which he vm enabled to abridge 

' or pr<Mlacc urtickn chcaptr i>r (if > auiitriiT <|iiiJiL]' la oUiers. Somg are 

ted bom praotiuiig the trade their incbuatica or ({enius leads tliein to, I 

^.^ tfacrofoTo empower tho ciril coatt to rBstrict tho gnild'a action to rcligtoos 

«Bd caat« oflionccf.' Mr. Utmlop in IS20L 

3 niw following cMutfiai^ levied by tho Dhcilera maidjan, ara quoted by way of 
ilhiatnitioiL Expoita from tbe towD pay ^\d. (1 cmRa} s cart If diuwn bj two 
WOftcks, and ad. Ci anntt*) if drawn bv four. The sams rates aro charged on 
{BHWrla ei<»pt srain which pay* ooJy urM pi>cS par oart of whatever size, and 
OOCton, On tbiMUttw artide a conKnlidatMl loa of ftr. 10^ (Aa, 4-1 M)} par bate i> 
WImI and spportioaed m toUowt : Coosignee's commluion S». ; brokonca 1^., half 
of thif itatn u dind«d among tho canaigiiM'a clerlu : buy^'s cWk fid ; labonrvre for 
Jouling 8(/. ; watchman and weiffh>er 4l</. ; ditto at prcaByord I {it ; half preming 
I J braad fnr fvxiding luu-i.ih dnjpi Ijd ; cbarity I* dovntwl acoordiog to the reli^fitm 
^i> eooaignce or it tUcra h uo coiuiniee of tbs broker, gmvral chArity M. 
"iftd in alms to iDtimi peopl« and other gfncra] objects of cbarity ; chiu-ity and 
^lAorastfaUr, fnndM. Thia iMtuafMoiallocvl fuml raised witli tJic saDctioii 
anmrnont and ipvtit undor ic« gaoMrsl oirectiotu dd tho vater-sapply and other 
kaof Dtility. Brojr loaded ship arriving off tho whnrf hasaccordrng toi(A siseto 
from ^. to 4ii. &L (Hs. I to 2-4) UiurartlH the rmiintniiance nf a ■ailnr's twnplii, 
ouuit hiiabera, ev«ry day they am emiiloyed , are obli^vd tc uuhusk fifty nut* for 
I bea«Jiiof tbcMo^jiin fnnda. Tb^j pncu of that amoont of labonr is recav4ir«d 
[ibo end of every ninnth (mm tha ganger, muiddam, and orGdit«d balf to the 
aal bornn Micl lutU ti) % V''iLihitao temple. Then aio many other aaub petty 
' I whi«U it wvuiil be tedious Ur voomwatgi 




Oitpter VI. 



profits arp credited to thoir fond. Odior small misecllaneoitt ■ 
var^ iu different pljucs. A porct-ulagc on the profits of oxchAng* 
hunti\«, liDt] on piuiblinfj^ bargains, formerly yieldcU laif^ mi^ 
but tiader tho cltau^ncJ cuDdilioaa of tnulo tliis is no longor tb« OHB. 

The ariiaaD asBociaiions have as a rale no faud for corront axpetma 
nor do they oontribnte to any charitabte orrelifootu objocte. A fins 
tisaally takes the form of a dionor to the momben. Or if too tttik 
for a dinner it is put by until money enon^h haa aocmnoialaL 
Tho fnnds of the various merchant giiilds, often very oonaidiavUiV 
were until lately, and in Viromgira atil! are, appropriated by ibe 
Shr&vak V&niiis fur the support of their panirayol or aninml ' 
£xnopt in Vimmprnm tho oilior oontribrttonea have aflsertod thi; c 
of Ibvir own chiu-itios and now according to the genfral p 
only inonoy pnid by Slirnvnk morcbauta goce to the nniin.'J 
that paid by Meshri Viinlas goes to their local temples ; thak hjf 
Kliujaa to \il& liigbntais A'ga Khan, nnd that by other Mnhitmroadaai 
to some local shrine, roso. The wealthier Itodies also eometiBM 
spend their funds on food kitchens, raiidvar<tt*,ea pTncoe for He 
supply oE drinking wutor to trovoUorH, parab», on ruad-iiido raetii^ 
places, vitanuis, and on other works of charity.* 

It will be soun from the above that the various trado gntlds 
theorotically independent. In practice, however, each acctirdio! 
the wealth and position of it« members, excrciaea more or 
iuflnence over the others. Thus in tho city of Ahmodabad the ShM 
Vanias or cloth dca1i;rs and tbe Taziar or dealers in raw ailk, stasd 
pre-eminent. la tho smaller towns the giihuharB that is all bankm^ 
and respeotftble merchants being compamtivoly (ow in naiab«r, 
combine together for m')ttt purposes, into a ein^lo gnild, whidi b 
by for tho moat influential Imdy in tho place and is generally ablo 1« 
carry with it nit tho others. It \n thiit nggregato of all Luo 
ref^pect■-lble bodies which ia commuuly known to tho ontsido 
as the town viahajan,* 

Hero it ia necessary to notice the distorbing Jnflupneo of the 
roligioQ upon tbe trade organizutions. Tho Shr&vaks, or lay p 

I A plcMiiig inittanfie iDAylw qnnted frnm Pholon, A flnb-iiiflp«cttir 
Cotton Vmuilii Act who was tuuploji'^ tLcru >lii»I » Icwycini i^n tttid tlwl 
nuiAJjan have uver tiiicto BobscnlJctl £2 XQa. (Ka. 22) % maatli U» tb« nppiil 
ctliicAtion of hii yoniijt fuoily. 

s C'utMpMTu U«lliiin itu tlic Knfilial) gulldii * In town* not hrga cnmif^ to 
distinot c<,»ii|MU>(w, ouo iuffnli>ut>|{iiilil cumprehandvd thm tnxlvv in iiwiiwl. or IJS 
chief nf tiieiu:Bn<) thisbecuuc the aubjwit of InoorpocMiBC durUn. Middla AgM. UL' , 
On tho other band the phmse Uia Ahn]e<Ub*d makajntt \t> a miaiiainer, 
b«ii^ Qo {MnoAnont k^nregatioa of guilds «bicb md cUitn lu rpinroHMit ih* 
thftt city in the vmwc thitt Um Dholem mriArf/on niprwcntt Dhol«n. Tfau tn4l 
of the Kauar Sfth vcnhiued witli that of the alderman o( tlia doth dc 
gcnunJIy ccimmand the adherence of nil, hut in each • omo Uie Tarimti 
gaild* merely unite for a temporary ]>uqj>iM«. Tiiuy do not aoalgamate intn 
gaiUi us in Uvo siiuUIcr towns. 

I ]u 1827 ft i>ctition wnn prcMnted to Clovomtncnt tram tba Shnlvaka of Al 
abail piimpUi nii)^ th^altliuuyh iu IBLiO tho various inaA't^aR* had a|[ro<nl tucu 
to dvvotv U) iho »uuport of Ui« aiiituni hoiae i per L'4ul ou all gooda panihiaML 
Meahri VAuiAahad dirertod Uiirir ooatribotiona to their ovn rolitcioBa heacL ' 
(Xillflctorroportecl that though paynuints to the animal home might faav* bowni 
nKcimnuinileil liy tin: qaIivc rulcra, no lustAiicri of actual uofDrwutJit ouuld bc ' 
Uudiir lliv viniiuuittaiiovii tiuvwiuueut ntToatid to iatarfwa 

Uiat faith, long* liuUl such an asoen^UiiCjr in the mercantilu 
imunitK'fl of thi» (lintrict that they were nblo to inijioso their xriW 
iipOD the rest and above all to appropriate nil the corporate ceases 
on trade for the support of the iiiiimid homo tii«ir own particular 
charity. Soon after the introduction of British rule the other 
reh^ouists, especially the Vaiahnav Hindus, began to contest thia 
assuinpiion and the (lisiiiites lietweeu them ran, and still run, so high 
tliat even in the purely bnsinesa-worM the lino of flemarcation 
between sect and eiect goes deeper titan that between ^uild nod 
^ild. ThuB in Ahmedabiul tlie majority of the doth deiuers being 
Jains though they pcld deference to tho Vaishnav ht*ad of their 
guUdj pay tbeir share o( tho corporate fund to the alderman of tho 
baukura' guild who h^ thu management of tho animal homo ntid 
whom they obey as the chief supporter of tho Jain religion. As 
intimated qIkivo tho quarrel about the applicatinu of tho common 
fnnda has been in moat places settled by dirttrihutingthtim according 
U> the sect u£ the contributory. But from time to time bickerings 
ooutinuo to mfflc the surface of merciintilc life. That they nriao nut 
of sectarian jcalonay rather than any important difference in creed 
Tn;»y be iuferred from the fact that both Kjinbiaand Mcshri VfiniAs, 
who arc the chief Vaiehnavs among the trading claasos^ achnowl»1gii 
10 moritorionanosa of the animal home by subscribing to it oat of 
letr corporate funds vrhen it ia tu need, and that tho silk duulera' 
lOd mo6t of whoec members oro Vaiahimvs actnally miuntains a 
stnftll Eimilor iDstitatioD of its own. Another not infroqaeut subject 
fiF diKnension is the susponsiun of bupincjis on each other's roligiona 
' ^, The following account given by a Viramgam confectioner 

1 :-?s the character of these qu»n-elH and the mode in which 

^hey are generally settled, '^^e confectioners are nearly all 
""iMshnavs bat nevertheless we nscd to shut our shopa on Shrifivak 
lidays. One year the pachutan of the two sections of the 
hravaks, the Dfunt and tho Vik'i, fell on ililTerent days and wo said 
e would only observe that of the Ihisa Shrjivaks. Tlic next year 
grew l>older and declined to obsepre any of the Shravak hoUdaya 
all as they declined to keep oura. The quarrel went on for somn 
me and, aggravated by an attempt the ShnWaks made to bring 
some oatsidere, our guild passed a law that no member Hlioidd 
re any dcahngs with a Shravak. Thcrcnpon two members who 
ipponed to be ShrAvaks seceded. We then besouglit the Vaishnav 
bersof thu merclmnLs' guild to help ns, and they .seeing our 
to be just, stopped their contributinna t-o the aniimd honnj an*l 
ircfttened to form themselves into a separate guild. Tliis brought 
Shrii\'ak8 to teims and they agreed to keep one of our holidays/ 

The position of the Nagar 8etk or ' city chief ' of Ahmedabnd is 

Innding evidence of the iofluf-nco still posaesscd by the Shrrivak 

igion in tho mercantile world of Gujarat. In the other towns of 

theili^'trict the title has fallen int-o disuse and never meant anything 

re than that its holder was the chief alderman of the ei'knhir 

ild. In Ahinedabad, however, it was formally conferred by tlio 

rciiantflontho head of a family long held in rrpnte fop its weattli and 

[jiablic spirit, but sLiU more for iU hbend suppui't of the Jaiu faith. Qs 

• 1S7-J5 

Trade 9nild4. 






Chaptnr Vt in on owasHin the liprul of ilio civil oommnnity but he is alwajs 
TradA Qnildi. &l>ovfl all the head of u ^«t rotifootu sect.' In the former capacity 
his titk) is ut ull ordinary times pure); honnritic. Strictly epeoLiag 
be if! only an Bldcrman of the )3ankcrs' guild and his ciric authontr 
is limited to tliat position tLouffh his infloeaco is naturally mutt 
straDgthcned by the fetUty of all Shntvaks of whatever guild. la 
seasoiis of public CAlami^ the citizens look (o him to perEom 
beDBQce for tho whole people as, for tixonipto, if the rain holds oS be 
18 expected to circumimibulnto the city walls ponring ont milk to 
appeaiie Indra the offended ruler of tho skiee. But in ordinary tiam 
be docs not attempt to deal with any public matter without fint 
consulting the chief alderman of tho cloth dealcra' guild, who ii 
sometimes distinctively called market chiyf, CftaMidno S^thy aai 
who is looked up to oa the head of tlio Vniuhnav sect in much Um 
same way as the Na^ar SctK is head of the" ShrAvuks. Those h ~ 
together can carry the bulk o£ the mercantile community with the 
on sneh qiiestiunH aa tlic declaration of a holiday or any other tc-lxffd 
or semi-religiouH question. By Musalman!), V&rsh, and othor nc 
Hindus Kuch bi'hests would be totally disregarded. Un the 
hand with reference to any entirely pecniar niader tbpy exoiriBi 
no nulhority oven over their own co-religionii^tM who do it»t h&ppoa 
to buloiig to one oitbe two guilds over which they preside. 
iHima^yyomu. Tho following is A statement of iho Panjmpoh or animal 

maiutaiued in the Ahmedabad District: 

AtioMii Hemts, tS76, 





nniklwf of 












MiiNla] .. 




molka ... 




Barv&k ... 







|t)i<>l«r& ... 




ModAM» ... 


-. . 














' J 

■ KmcMlTB nt ihc bniKh at Ranrban. 

• €Hi\j tDi temronrf iMlar of ■nlraab pandfcig Inuuto 10 $lma*0 

• Diily (or icTnyono' rticltM. pendinc roB»t«rw HladAl. 

' 1 One of the ancestors uf tbe preaent city chtttf ot AhinotlAl«Ml i:iU> lt»hidl 
TremiitiliAi lIviniI>liAi ia miA to hnnj IicM « Kmnt nf I'AlilMin. In I'SI (ItSSF' 
the loftding guilds formally acknowledged Khu^liAlchnoil Laktuuiolmml t^« 
grnnilfkthiir of tli« tift^cnt y<vjiir •Vr/A lui \\\e. uhiuf nicri'liutt tA tliu city. In 
(I'Hl S.} the uine Khuiiliiklcliajii] Ijtkhiiiidinnil k>,wA tli« city from pltimlcr by I 
MarAtli^. lu nctiijuilion the ouiut>iiiGil KuiliU of tho city uatgnod to bin 
peqiotual right Co lory a quarter per oont on all g^cnla etatuixKl in tho niBiiic 
ireighiug yard. It haa boen oftm tttatuil (llrigc*' (.'ktii-s i>f titijardaliLra '212, :!l3i 
C'OUwitor IfiOl, 3<Ui Dccumticr Its'iil) tlint Khuxiiilcliunaj sttrvioca wvne 
the ocoadon of G«ocnI <>iiddarrl'ii Migi; (I'M). The mblakp probably 
r^mfuuDK I~S1 ^- OnEh ITSI A.D. 8ui~i--«Bivn UAikwAn catifen«d linanom oa 
family aucb aa a Rtato chair, pAikki, with a Vvvly alluwaiic* of £100 (Ka. K 
tho right to bd pr(»oded l>y torches; aud Lho rijjfat to a canopy. In 1S17 
Tlomhny Sndar Anilat on account «( their woalthand rcapeclahility formally ^ 
to Uio hraiU vf Ihti firm the i>rivil(i^ uf liariag xwta in the diaLrivl court-1 
The lien on the city trndt> hua htvn i-umukuted by the Itriunh Uovenunort il 
w umnal pension of Jt213 (Its. 3130} piiyabk from tltu |)nbUc treaEury. _ 



' ' Except in sprfial cfwos, as wben at an auction a bntclior is 
bidding fur an uiiiiiiiU uiid do uul> is able to oppose him, it is not Llio 
practice tn spend the general funds of tho asylum in biiyinjf aniioala. 
In Alimedabad, wheru the rcvcnacs arc largo, maay aniinalii are 
saved from alaui^hter at tlio weykly J'Viday fair not only by private 
charity but by the ytanjrapol clerk who attends for that pnrpfwo. 
All livint' tbinga' are frocly received without fee^thoagh a dwellwr 
outside tho town who sends an animal will genorally, if well-to-do, 
iwompany it with a small contribution t'^wards its Hiipport. 
Creatures dxuigerous to life are not often brought and would perhapa 
be rujecttMl. Any yoan<7 bom in tho home are not usually sold or 
otherwise disposed of» hnt no objection ia felt to mflking use of tliotn 
for the good of tho homo. 

In the Ahmedabad homo all aniniaU are fed within the walU 
oxcopt miloh cows wliich arc taken to gnuco by hordsmea at a 
monthly charge of 2a (Re. 1 ) a head. At the other homes all cattle 
abJo lo walk are sent out daily t*> graae. If their number is small 
they share the common grazing grounds with tho other villngo 
cattk'. In larger places field* art; rented or even bought for pasture. 
Within the waJls aiiinials are tondod by « staff of sorvaots and if 
ncHMKsary fed with milk. SurpUia naimals in tho Ahmodnbad 
borne aro drafted to Itanchcra, a village in the G^ikwiir's district 
of Kadi devoted l-o that object by a bite Ntujnr Seth^ ; ffom Dholcra 
they arc sent to lYiIrtunn, and oaell of tho smaller instltntions has an 
(UTang)^m<^nt by whioh its surplus oiii be sent U> itoine lar^r aud 
woidthior homo. The carcafi&es of aniirialH which dio in tliii homo 
ftrc soiQotimcs given, somotimcMt sold to Dhcds, who carry them off 
fur tho sake of their ttkius and bury them. 

Bosidce occommodfttion for four-footed animals and birds ovory 
homo, except tho very smalloat, contains at least one i/itwi* Khdna 
or insect room. In AhuiotUbod this is Sited chiefly by a servant 
whose bnaiDoss it is, capooially in the rainy season when putrid 
matter is plentiful, to carry a bag round tho streets for tho collection 
of maggots and other snull vcriixin. A tittlo grain lor their 
■abaistonco is thrown into tho room and at the end of each year 
■ now room id opened. Tlie eld rooux is closed for tun or iwi.-lvo 
yt»T9f nud after that, as all life ia KuppoKcd to have ceused, its 
lyjatents are cleared out and sold as maonrc. 

The general management of tho homo and tho custody of ita 
funds are left to soiiva leading merchant of tho Shravak fairh who in 
nnu*tically utifettered except by the obligation to consult on any 
importaQt maiterj a few of hts chief co-roligioniBta. He is assisted. 
bi all eroopt the smallest place:^, by a paid clerk, gwndsta, who 

Chapter TI- 

Trade Qoilda. 

Atuat-d //tmft*. 

• Tbe foUowing i» ii dcLailail lUt i.f Lt:o JninAlui <4 tho AlunmlftbAil hdmo i>n n tUy 
n tiio )>ofrinning of IS7.1 ; 24!S cuwh am) IhiiIIikIc*, 1:10 luifTalnen, R lilincl cattle, KIM 
eoM*. 20 urjraQ*. 7 c*U, 2 lu^nkcyB, S74 T^jwIii. 2!H> duck*. 2040 ijijtv"iiH, 50 ijarrot», 
S& rTHUTtnn, 5 kitoa. nnti .1.3 miJiocllAncniis kir>U. Hy tliwA worn lUily consuui»d 
|B&an Ininrllt* >if linj, bt:iiil<ni n W^ i|imiitity uf jtrniti »u<l aittk. 120 poiiatiB (3 ntaiu) 
(^ till'" ■ <i!«« wereiRi)>{iliL-<l il-iily t<i tli«i>i)toona.iluue. 

- iluUm luut aian by II.'vchiAinK K«ansiti){. n mctDlwr of tliv Xngtu fwtlu' 

l^i-/ tudowcd wiUi IiaU the tilbsQ of MAukol iu Dliolka. 




Chapter VI 

, Jfantiractarea. 


UioVk after dL>tails, koqm tlio accounts and ^npi«Ily cwriMfnT 
orders. It not unifi-cqueiitly happens that, tho ordinar; nsveaoaa 
tnituiliuiont to meet the uxponditiire in wbicli auto the tnahdg^iM ^^ 
vonvuncd und imposes upon itnelE on extra Kabttcriptiun. 


Alimedabod hoUU an impuH^iut place »s a maaufncturin^ distrif 
Kxcepl Ihc prL'ftai'aikiri of Halt enrriiMl on in>ar tho Rtui most off 
mannfmitiires nrn centred in Ahniodabad city and ant thn 

tho skill that gutbenxl tboro when under iCa Maltaminudan ~ 

tliu bt-Kt workinou in etevA, gold, ivory, onaiuot. inlaid mathcr 
pcnri, and Tacquopcd ware met with great encouragement.' 

Fr«)m VC17 mrl; times euiU ' has been madu in the western 
of Vinmigam, borUrring on theUiin. In the sixteenth contupj* (153 
giTiit (jimulities were imitrnfiicturud' and ■□ thi- pi^jhU-eiith ceatt 
thp produce of tlio JliinihiiviidH pit« is spocinlly notici'd for 
trbite colour and good qanlity, n>flcnibling bits of BU^rnr* 
Viramgani rraii Hurvejcd in IH'ZO fchcro wcro witliin a quarter 
inilu of tlio outer limit iif the Ran^ salt pans in four pfaoos, at P 
Udu, Fattepnr, and Jhinjhnvtida; all of tliem, except Patri, witl 
tlio limits of Iho Jhinjliuvada e^iUitc. Tbo salt was umdo in I 
htytirddH, hoilowwl almiit a foot below the level of tbo Kan U 
gnrrouiuled by a foot high wall. 'Hio pang were generally ab'Xit 
100 yards long by liftcun broad covering an area of from fortjT- 
eight to soTonty perches (J to J hiijJuls). Thoy were (ttled froffl 
brino pita about tun foot deep, tho bottom secured by a 
woodon frame, kantva, 'i'he water, found only a few feet 
llio surface, was witbont the aid of bnllocka easily drawn hf^ 
KFt Itio lift used was a polo bung ou a pivot at abont a 
of ita length, with a heavy weight of atones faateood to the 
eud, and from tiro eViorttr, hanging over the well, a ropo 
emull earthen 'pot. Standing on a frame within tho well and ji 
above the water, tho workmen with great apeod filled the pot, letj 
be drawn up, and emptied into a channel leading to the imus. 
firfit idMnit four inches of water were let into the pan and then frott 
day to day enongh to make np for evaporation was gradually 
Every third day the whole was raked with an iron t 
instrument called danfdli, and after fifteen or twenty days the 
was drawn oti' and a fresh supply let in. At the cud of thirty 
iu tbd cold, and of twenty in the hot season, the salt was comi * 

I Tkw ia til* ordiinitrjr fnra of «xpr«Mioii, Bat w ku hvm sbown Ifac 1 
U strtL'tly Hputkinc >Hit n Ma/iiijan ia Uiu tcMo of a guild, m it is IxniDd 
comnidti r«:Iijoi'i>> k-nling.H not by tbe pnmait of m tmtaman oalling. Tho wT^Hh t 
nnmbtfrn of the SbrivAk VAniAs nnd the vncrify wttii wliitli thoy nphold tW<' 
t«Bct (if tbcir crwil givo tbum each, promjjicuuo that botti in this mm otbor ml 
they oftou fluoocotl Id making somu su«t&rian >ctton pMs for Uut of the idla 

• FwbM'Or. M«m, III. 132, 

* Th(] salt aci:ou]it is cLiclIy vumpilci! {mm BoolGov. SoI. X. aod Cnallr.rnl 
Salt Admin iatratiuD Hotx.irt lor 1873-7^ 

• (ilailn'iu'* Ain.i-Al«l»ri, IF. 71. 

* Bird's Uij&l i-Aiuundi, tOS, 




heaps and Chapter 

formed anfl rnady for sale. It wns then gtitlitTcd i 
Inriufif the fiur season left till it was bought ami Ijikon awny. 
Itwoltl hi'npH were at the close of the Eair season cc1loct«<l in largo 
mical ranunds, thn bottom pnrts^ to protccb them from vator, 
?ro cased with tarth, roedi*, niid gntsa, and the tops loft an(w>vored 
the salt fiiKiii ffTow hard aiid close cnoagh to throw off rain. Tho 
iiiiitlily oiittuni of cioch bed was caleulated at 18 tonn (lUOO nianK) 
Ihu coh! wciither and 30 tons (SCKJO mana) in tho hot. Tho 
kit pinki-m cuUikI Agrias woro Kolis by caatti, and worked an 

tbandmen during tho rainy scosou. They aro described aa a 

rvTot^-hud ancommouly black class of beings. The salt formed in cabtc 
ywtjils joined in largo liimpa called kutikrds, tho best Halt having 
lU largest and moHt regular cubes. This salt caliod vaddijrii 
nncoramouly pure and froo from tho earthy particles fomiJ 
the ordinary sea eiilcj if/ififrta/ salt. Of Viramgam salt the bust 
; made at Fattcpur and tho worst at PAtri. 

The produce of tho pans was exported to tho neighbouring parts 

' tliijitnit and to Miilwa Init not U^ Katliifiwar, Moyvvllr, or Cntch. 

I'hroiigh Gujarat it was carried in cart-s and to Malwa by pack 

lullocks. Among the natives there was a remarkable prejudice a traffic in salt. No respectable merchant would andertake 

and the trade wa.i consequently monopolized by Vanjfiras, These 

icn, va\i owners as well as CiLrricrs, came in largo bodies under n 

lor, iwit'fe, filled their pnt^kK, paid the price and duties in ready 

)Doy, and loft with tho utmost oi'dcr and regularity. Besides 

ra^ many potters, cotton spinners, and others, brought asflos and 

ftaloea htden with mahudtt, Basaia latifolia, mango and rdtjun, 

tiuuHu|>H licxandra^ fruit from Kadi, and took back aalt. To this 

.y rctiul traffic tho whole trade was confined, no merchants ever 

■ked in it, and except at tho pans there were no salt stores. 

kns were supposed tc> Lo of great a<^'o. There was no account 

their making, nor did it appear when tho Bo^-croigns of tho 

untry first assumed an exclusive property in them. Tho 

DFalniSu rulors enjoyed a salt monopoly. ' They appointed a 

perint<!ntlent» darogha, and prevented the opening of fresh pans. 

]ho Uiirathas enforced tho same rulo, andou ouo occasion destniyed 

>mo new pans o]}euod near Degiim. To induce him to help them to 

vent the opening of fresh pans, tho Mai-^tb^ granted the chief of 

injhuvada une-third share oE the produce of the pans within 

estate. Tho PAtri pans were included in the first grant made to 

Pesai by Dtlm&ji Gaikwiir, but when that co»!«ion was revoked and 

terms were altered by Ri»ghi>bu, ho reAjrved a fourth share of the 

luce. Under the British tlio whole n)anagt>ment and interest in 

9 pans were taken over by (jOTomment, and tho shareof the Thiikor 

d Dks&i CQuuuuted to a ilxud yearly atlowauco of X9D0 {Ra. UOOO) 




I The DAtnr&I Ran salt xlao oatlod ffhUla ia unwholeftomo cuifliDe akin di«oau 
jiurh-ra. Its unwholMomuneM u dne to the pteauttcv of KpiiniJi unltB iir 
■t« of magnwiiQin, which naths brine crapontM fornut ou tlio toituf tliv ouutiUOD 

It. H«lt Oullvctor'i lt'.-tHTt. 1873-74. 31. 

s l>ati«* wen3(l£D0l ■^I'lk-cbci]. Ain-i-Al(>»trt, It. 71. Thcrcvrniic coUectod ii 
ill tbc itcttltiiucut of tho district. Bird's Mirat>i-Alii 

(Bombay QtseUMT, 



Chapter VI- 

, Maaufoctnrei. 


to tho JhinihnvAclB diief, and £1200 (Bs. 12,000) to tbo 
Deaii. Uuuoi- tUo Marfttlifia there was little order or reffularityi 
tho solo of tho Bait. Packs wcro ohargod at tho ntte of 04. (I 
Cor 82 poundH (tho Bon^^l rnan), whilu carUi were not called to 
nioro Uiau from 4ff. to 8a. (Rs. 2 - Rs. 4>}. The conseqoeuce was ll 
an it vraa much cheaper to taVo avruy salt iu carts thaa in piioks. the 
Vaniariui IuiIUaI in some lar^^ Utvm at au ouy distance, tad 
ructtivod tlwir supply of tuUt from carts to the heavy loss o( th* 
Govcmmont rovcauo. ThU nbaso was stopped by tixiiii^ an uotk 
duly on tho baaia of tlio rato paid for a pack. The averaffo T^ceij 
from tho Vlramgilm paiui wure in tliu six years onding 1620, 
(Rs. 33,U00), yielding*, alter compotisAtion made to the Desii 
Jhiajhu^i'uluchtef.aufjtrevenuetoCtoTonimentof £1200 [Rs. 

In apitc of tho greater tomptation to smoggling dao 
onliuncod tuIuo of salt, until in \S(H, the nulway to Ahi 
vviis tiiiisliod, no change was made in tlio msanf^mcnt of' 
salt wijrks. At tliftt tiiiio thero were five works on tho Kan 
fourtocn on the soa coast btitwuun Camtjay and Baasein. 
BaUd I, tho deputy commissioner of cnstoina, sufrgcated that wit 
increa-'iing the price of »alt to Gujarat consainers, Govomi 
might liB Kiivud luuoh cost by closing the ftvo lltM and the foar 
oo«Ht works north of IJasaein, anJcstnblishinff attlic railway at ' 
gait atoi-ca, leaving privuto enterprise to fill them with salt bi 
from Basaein and Hombay. Shortly afterwards Mr. O. W. 
C S., proposed that all tho »u» sido »ivlt works nnrth of 
should bo closed, that tlie railway should bo extended as far na Pa 
and that vadilgra salt should bo brought by it on Guvornn 
account from works on tho Rsiu to a gT«at store in Ahniodal>ad. 

Tliesu rival pmpiwals cxcitod oonsidcniblo discussion, and 
pnpera were in lH(>!> forwnrded to Mr. W. G. Pinlder, C. S., whi 
bad bucn appointtnl to inquire into the general question of 
managutnont in tliu lionibny Frusidency. Mr. Peduer, with 
changM, anpportiMl Mr. Klliot's proposals, reduced tho 
•chtiioe to practical form, and showed its Buancial advH.n(nm». 
project ho linally snbinitt^^l was; 1, that all sea sidi! works nt 
of Bafisein should be closed ; 2, that salt irmnnfactiiro on the 
slmuld be c?onu«ntnited at one Lirgc work ncnr KhArfighoda j U, 
a railway shoulil bo mikdo from Viramgani to Khilragh'Kla and jc 
with the salt works by bullock tramways ; i, tliat at fourteen stat 
on tlto railway between Putri and DahtEna salt stores shnnl 
establittliod ; 5, that, an soon as it was made, salt should be r7Lr 
»tra!;*ht to the railway stores, none hciug kept at Kh;irngho 
G, that at each store the selling price of salt i^bould be thu oa»t 
making, together with the cTciso and tho cost of carriage. 
project was ontm^ted to Mr. C. B. Pritchard, C.S., and was 
<tut byliini with the following changes ; l.tho railway was taken 
tho heart of tho worloi ; 2, except at Alimodabad, Broacli, and Sur 
whore .ininll stores woro builtj railway stutions wero supplied 
ciintractor, and a largo storo was built at KlidrAghoda, into WB 
tho aalt was bronght as soon as tviuly ; 3, salt was sold at all st 
and railway statious at one unifonn price. Tlio scheme as 

anded was Approved ami gftnctloiied by Govcmmont And has, 
yitJiout any change, worked with marked buccgss. T1jl> salt is now 
n demand at pincea as far away as Bonarcft, tho <pianlitysnld luw 
iscu frcim 13,737 tons in 1873-7t to 41,045 tons in 1877-7y, and 
ho Government tcvcnae from £68>324 (Rs. 6,83,240) to £244,242 
E», 24,42,420). 

'When Khdriighoda was fixed as the sitoof tho new mU. works, it 
vms a bfkro dosort without shade, water, or shelter. Since then trees 
bare been planted, a lake dug, and n village built. Soon after the 
iTorks were opened, all thu wu«tc tends of the villago were platitod 
irith trroa. In some low-lying spots tho bfibnl has jjrown. lint thn 
imMo, A7,a«1iraobta iudica, is tlio tree that ha* prospered beutj »iid 
low covcrn with gr^wn largo strotchcs of land near thu villa<^. Iliu 
ronds of the villages near were at first the only soarco of waler- 
lapply. These ran dry in Mureh,and as from the saUnusA oC the 
iiuier-suil wells could he dug only in a few places, water hatl to Im 
jronght twenty-two miles by rail from Vimmgjim. Now n large 
nkois all but litiishcd, eusuriag in motst years a full store nf wali.T 
which will ha led in earthen ]>ipcs to tho railway fiUilion, Uic workn, 
in>l the village. At first there were no houses or shohor For tho 
rkmeo, DOW tlicrt' is a villago of about 500 souls. 'Die village in 
sCnlly laid out in streets with one quarter set apart f»r the clerkn 
walohroen employeil on the works. For tho wilt-makers' hoiiscs 
[]o\'pmment supplied timber and tiles, loaving tho men to build tlio 
mud- walls and making the housc-t over to them on tho i>aymeut of a 
imn of £3 (Ks. 30). A village office, chwa, has been built uj:d a 
ItAtJCUsary with a trained hospital a^siHtaotBupplicd. A yearly housc- 
■ax of Is. (8 tf.) is levied and from theproreeds a staff of sweepers is 
Itrpt up. llie chief disease is fever, of which a very severe form 
ifl Dommon when, in October, the low lands of tlie Kan are drying. 

The Bait-makers or AgriAa were nupposeil to be a iHwless nnrtily 
slaas. At fir-^t., beforo tho sito of tho work was fixed, rivalries 
between tho people of the different villages caused some ill-feeling. 
Bnt vince they have settled at Kharaghoda, scarcely a crime hnn been 
coiumiUed. The workmen aro prnd at the rate of 2'^ {]\unnjni) 
for S'2 pounds {ihc Hcngal man), five per cent being taken fnim their 
Durningsto cover lo«i> from wiiKtago wliilo the wdt remains in store. 
Bad Halt may be n>j(Tt-<d, but all good salt is bought by (Jovemment 
IumI taken away aa sonn a>t made. Formerly tho Agria.s bad to 
ktand the riak of loss from floods, aud to wait for buyers, and nftoa 
Uieir only mt^aiis of dispnaing of their Rii1t was to allow Healers a 
cousidenbje drawback on the price fixed by Gorcrnmont. Tlify bear 
the expense of loading the railway wagons, Go%'emment paying for 
Ifae airriage of tho salt 1^> tho stare and for diirliarging the wagons. 
They also rea-ivc advances without interest from Government 
lor the maintenance of themselves and their families during the 
•alt-making season, and are thus relieved from the opprp!>.<iion of 
Vanit'M who used to lend tbem money at ruinous rates. Details of 
all monev tranMWTtions belwoon the Agnfls :uul Government are 
pDnctnalfy entered in receipt books kc-pt by the Agri/is. At tho end 
of the Gxvt year oatnlanding advances amounted to £5jI (lis. 5010). 

Quipter VI- 




Satl Makrrii. 

ChApUr YL 


I Siniina Ukf Well. 

Hat next season aU tho workers como bock and cleared ofl* 


Dnring the eight salt-malting months, October- May, thnxs me* 
on each pan can with ordinary labnnr make ICO tone, (4000 Bpogtl 
mava), yielding about £10 \U. (Ha. 107) to oacli worker. U tMej 
work hftrd thoy cftn eiirn more. In I A73 the outtnrn of sevt-nJ [mint 
was more thnu 214 tons (0000 Bengal maH«], and in ouc |juu it «u 
27() tons (7739 Bengal maru), worth to eoch of the workers nuia 
than £20 (Its. 200). Besides this their women and ehildivti aur 
something in the salt harvest season and tho men from rough tjliagt 
in the rains. That middlemeD may not come in and reduce tht 
workmen's pro6t, tho pans aro let yearly and caro is t-u-ken (bil 
they aro let to actual workmen. To discourage the workmoi* from 
running into debt, bcaidoa tho system of Government advance*, 
village gruiu- dealers are forbidden to lot theta run up 
their shops. Sinco the works havo been opened the Airriaa, 
fed, bettor clad, and better housed, have as a body greatly imj 
iu condition and conduct. 

Except tluit aa n rule only one crop is taken in tho 
tho way of making tho salt has changeil tittio since 1 
The brino, found at a depth of from eighteon to thirty 
feet, yields about six timoa as much aalt ob onlinary sco wa' 
To roach tho brine tho first step is to Kink a well. Most ofl 
wuUb are round, abyut niuo fout iu diameter. They are dug th 
a top soil of black ciny and occasional thin layers of sand until 
is reached some nine or ten feet below the surface. Thia water i»i 
tho true britio but a mixture of rain and sen water that during 
rainy season has filtered down. TTie digging then stops, ao ' 
keop tho sides from falling in, a hollow cyliudiT, fianlvii, of s 
wattled bfibul boiigha is introduced. Next, the brinclift isp 
a thirty-feet teak rafter working on a strong wooden upright. 
the long arm o£ the lever a twisted grass rope, with an 
buc'kot at the end^ ift fiisteneil, and balanced at the shorter etidl 
a weight of sun-baked clay. By scraping looso earth from 
surface into ridges along its fonr sides, a simco is made for a 
and with two lifts at work the water is baled out and allowed 
run over the pan. As soon as tho well is dry, the salt-maker 
sets to digging, leavinground the pit-bottom as a rest for thew 
cylinder, luintva, a narrow wall of solid earth. After digging 
ten feetdeeper, a socond umaller cyliuder is iutroduci-d • and, li 
telescope slide, as tho well deepens a third or even a fourth, 
at last tho brine- bearing stratum is reached a stont intake is 
deep into the soil and ou dmwiug out the stoku tho brine Rpooli' 
iu a columuj filling the well to within ton or twelve foot of tho ' 
Three meOj one to dig and two to raise tho brino, are a 
employed on each well, ond according to it» depth iba work 
them from fifteen days to a month. 

1 Tho dfltaila am, Nnlphiit« of lime linn SS, mn 14 : milpbato of nutgnevU Kan f 
■W 43 ; uliloridu u( miu^nia, Kvi 4'fiO, B«R'37 ; ofalorido n( Mdii (siUt) Kan \tm 
MM A^l ; ittiwr salts auU ioUiJ«a Uun 0, sea IW ; water Kan Tft'CI, m* iW 47. 


iCTi tlie wtll is ready, the work of prepariug Hie pan be^iu. 
Tlirtfo vr four inches of tho sorfaco soil sodden by tlie wast* well- 
' water is taken away by lai^e wooden mnd-scrapera. The soil thus 
' eocposed is a stiS clay mixed in places with sand. Auy bit with too 
mach sand ib dng out and replaced with good gotmd clay. More 
' water is then lifted from the well, and as it spreads over tho pan, 
any Qnevenuess in the bed is at ouco seen. Tho outstanding parta 
are shaved off with an iron hue until tho whole is a rough level 
IThen tho water is allowed to dry till only a thin film romains, and 
the work of puddling begins, Pudriling is a hard and weary task. 
IITiroe or four workers in u. row, like mowers in a hay field, one 
a little behind the other, each with his houls close together, stamp 
■ the pan in straight lanes, first lengthways, then across, and then 
nmlly. When in this way tho clay has been well worked 
^pan « allowed to dry. Another film of water is lot in, and tho 
jpizig proocsB again and again repeated till the bed becomes 
>roaghty water-tight. Its sorfaco is then carefully beaten and 
»Uod with wooden booties. Some pans want as many aa five 
puddlings and for others two are enough. The work takes 
Four or five men from one to two months or even ten weeks. After 
first year a single puddling is generally enough, and when the 
ibave been in for ten or twelve years, nothing is wanted but 
jiapo awny tho loose mud washed into them by the rainy season 

Chapter VI. 

Prt]>arifi>/ the 

lo puddling lowers tho floor of tlie pan 8«^me fonr or five inches Mahi^ the BaiL 

»w the ground level. A low wail of well-worked clay ia then 

round all fnur sidoa of tho pan, and the whole is left 

dry. Meanwhile, between the well and tho pan a small 

aorvoir has been made to hold the brine as it comes from the 

. After standing for a conpio of days to clear, the brine is let 

tho [un four or five inches deep. In about a week's time the 

>le bottom of the pan is covered with a salt crust from a hall 

Lhrve quarters of an inch thick. Tho worker sttips into the 

and with his feet breaks the crust into small pieces, and, until all 

crystals are separated, scratches it with a wooden rake, danldli. 

with the wooden mud-scrnper he spreads the crystals evenly 

the bed of the pan. A snort time is allowed for the brine, 

irbed and dirtied by these proccsseK, to settle^ and more brine is 

lot in. Ro long as the salt remains in the pan, it must ba 

^roaghly raked and levelled with tlio hoe at leai5t every other 

ig i otherwise the crystals become uneven in size and shape and 

rittle aa sea sidt. Fresh brine must nl^o be let in every day, and 

mnst be kept filled to a height of at least three inches above 

layer of crystals. 

ono crop of tho best salt can be made in a season. If the Onp, 

starts at the beginning of November, the salt will be ready by 

■ end of tho following March. By that time it covers the pan ten 

Jiea to a foot deep, To rake so large a mass of crystals and to 

j <p brine enough in tho {lau is no efu>y task. Two cropK are somo- 

' ea mado. Tho first ready in January 19 good in quality though 

i— ^^11 in quantity. The second is larger bat not so good as the 

Cbapter VT- 






too qnickly- formed hot weather crystals tare aneTen and bollow. 
The crystals ol tko best salt aro nc&rlj perfect half-inch or tlm«> 
quarter inch cubeii, clear and briglit^ and bo cluse-graincd and 
bard that they stand trnvelling specially well, and will even bear bwn^ 
thrown ou a stone-Boor with conaiderable forco withoat brcakiag'. 
'When tho salt in ripe, it 18 ncmped into long ridges and the water 
drawn off. After standing for a few daynto drain, the saU is oarhad 
away iti baskets and piled in heaps. If a second crop is io bt 
made, the pan maet be thoroughly dried, and the bed levellod bal 
fresh brine is let in. Women and children help to carrying salt i 
in loading it into railway wagons, but only men prepare the 
and wclla and make the salt. The tools are vunr roag^h but 
suited to thoir purpose. From their form and liie way tbayi 
fastened to the lift; rope the earthen brine buckets, as soon sa 
touch the troughs leading to the reservoirs, tilt over of tbcmwii 
The spikes of tho rakes, tough babul twiga, ars so arrangtxl that I 
workman can, to suit tho depth of salt in bis pan, alter their leaf 
at pleasure. The lift- is as simple and uselnl a contrivauoo 
nusing brine as cun well be derised, and the way in which, 
used for lovelHug the pans is very ingenioos. 

Seveml diffinnltioa in tho mating of sale have lately come to lif 
Id prepariQg fresh pans it has been found that hrine or rather " 
springs are not sprtsad ovor the whole Ran. The black clay 
sandj which form tho Ban's upper cruat and overlie the brine*' 
strata, are pierced in places by an impervious yellowish-red 
locally known aa mirMrf, and wherever mamd occura tho true 
seeius to bo entirely absent. This clay, perhaps at some 
driven up by volcanic fon^^e, has in several places been dug 
depth of over forty feet, and a Norton's tube-well hae theuj 
drivea in as far aa it would go, but ia no case was the elaj 
or a brine-spring struck. Its distribution is most irregular ;' 
not run in straight lines, hut occura here and there all over tfcai 
works. It shows no surface sign. A well may be dngaadbrv] 
fonnd, but it ia quite uncertain whether the clay will not beslri* 
within ten feot on either aide. Another risk lies in loss from Ik: 
TrtiVA. Tho first aymptom of blight ia an opaque film on theWi 
the water at tho sides of the pan. Thia iilm gradually spreaill i ' 
the whole pan ; the salt crystals become covered with Rmall 
and feel greasy to the tnuoh, and after a time, nnlcsa tho 
checked, they break into small particles, and the salt ia 
Tho disease is caused by overcouceutration of brine, and 
consequent deposition of magnesia. Of the salts present is 
sulphate of lime or gypsum is the least soluble and the firatl 
down. Chloride of sodium or connnon salt is the next to : 
and after evaporation huM r-ontinuod to a certain limit, snlpl 
magnesium or Epsom salts and chloride of magnesium begin 
These salts melt very oawily, and pynetrating between the thin] 
of the crystals of common salt, cause them to separate and br 
as tlie water dries away. They also give the salt an inteosdy 1 
and very unpalatable taste. In the first season of the new 
(1372-73) this blight caused much damage. It was found to be) 



some of the workers to feed thoir pans regnlarly, 
yflftr careful sapervisioTi vary grwitly reduced the 
it did appear, the pan was at onc« thoTon^hly drained, 
'lowed to dry. A free supply of fresb brino waa then 
<k up any chloride of magnesinra that might have 
d, nud by keeping' up a good head of wutvr imtil the 
Ay, all danger of recrystallization was averted. Dust 
tDOtheT source of danger. Beginning early in May tbey 
uost daily, the wind raising from the crust of the Rau a 
1 the finest salt and niagneeium dust. As much of tlio 

tnot removed from the pans and stocked before tho 
t in is lost, 
ige outtnm of salt dnring the five years ending 1877 has 
iQS. To remove this great store ct salt the pans, each 
by sixty feet broad, are arranged in paralltil rowa, 
y siding nmniog between e^ch pftirof rows. Tliey are 
feet apart with their shorter sides towards the tramway, 
er more than ninety feet wide between the pans and the 
k when removed from the pans is dried and heaped 
or loading tho wagons. Between each double row of 
450 feet wide is Ictt for wells and reservoirs and for 
the waste water used iu cleaning oat the pans. The 
UTonnded by guard-rooms four hundred yards apart, 
manned by three watchmen. The comer rooms are 
~ e others with a guard of four watchmen and a petty 
o centre of tho works ia a gnard-houso with an 
a patrolling party of one petty ofHcer and six men. 
Amonnfactu ring season tho demand for salt is met straight 
The salt is loaded into wagons at the pan's side 
ight to the stores or railway stations at which it is 
18 close of the season tho balance of the salt crop is 
store built on high ground about two miles from 
approached by a long embankment with a gradient 
fifty. To fill tho store tho trucks are ron up this 
it, the line supported by wooden trestles and masonry 
ig through tho store twenty-one feet above tho groand 
mptjing tho stores the wagons are ran along low level 
fr in cuttings deep enough to bring the fioon of the 
p level with the floor of ihn warchouHo. By this nicaua 
tOiog nor in emptying tho store haa tho salt to be lifted, 
uent that compurod with t>tackiug tho salt iu heaps 
or each wagon-load a saving of Ik. (8 anttas). 
T stores at some of tho chief railway stations are plain 
ting on plinths raised 3^ feet above the ground level, 
. either side so arranged tliat when a train of salt irncirs 
longside there shall be a door opposite to each truck, 
ins bo dischaived along the whole length of the stores 
loss of time. Both minor and main stores are divided 
Iments, and an account is kept of the quantities of salt 
taken from each compartment. Only a single 
it each store is worked at one time, and as it is emptied 

Chapter VI. 


iii, dtul ttorvu. 



Ham Stored. 

nSomb&y Gi 



Chapter VI. 
Han ti&Lcf urea. 

Btm DiMtrAuted, 


ita ocooont is claaeill. Aeenfeuil check is thna maintainor on 
officers respoTUitble Cor 1^ mIL 

BotU at tho main and minor storos the salt ia veij^bod by 1 
lofuls over weigh bridgca before being taken up into the stofe. 
is weighed out to purchaaers over platform acales adjasted H . 
morning and toatva ecvara] times a day. Salt for coQRig'ament'i 
railway in issuL-d to the poblic at KhairA^oda only, and tni 
ba^ed in uuifonn quantittos of SJ cwts. (three nuin*) perbsff. 
arrangement proatly aids the testing of the weighmcnte madel 
weigh clerks, and aervea as a osoful check against fraud. A fcw1 
can be taken out of a wagou at any station on tho line, aad^ 
correctness of thoir weigliU ascertained without trouble or d( 
The Btation-moatcr at KhAraghoda FumishoB the saperintcnc 
the worka with a daily account showing the weights aod dt 
of salt presentod to htm for trausmisaion by rail, and the 
dent personally oxaminca all wagons laden with aalt, 
leave the station. 

Tho salt i.4 sold at atl storcsand railway stations hoi ween Khirif^eSt 
nndSunit at tha uuirorm rate of o«. 7^. (Rs. 2-lU) for 82 pnood) 
(thoBengiil man). Stations without stores are stippliod bysponttacur 
who t^ bound to keep at each station a stock of bagged salt enScial 
Vu meet all demands. Buyers can either t^ko bags and all, or the i 
only. They can, if they picaso, send their own bags to Khai 
ftDd make their own an-angcmcots for filling thont, bat they k 
prefer employing the contractor. The same contractor also 
bags, ana despaich&it salt at fixed chai^^ to railway 
in the Central Provinces, or he fills and despatches bags o< 
to }iim for the purpoae. Printed notices explaining at] 6t 
the nnmngi'ments and tho solUng prioe of salt have been distnl 
in every Gujarat village and published la tho vernacular di 
and the asiji»lant collector in charge occasionally visits each 
and sees that the work b properly carried on. The coDtn 

{>roLibited fiom dealing in salt ou his own account and ho long 
arge 8tock is kept ut Kh&rtighoda, im tho right of limiting 
qnantitien i.ssned has been reaor^'ed, there is no ft^ar of Apeci 
bu>-ing tlie whole supply through the contractor and holding it i 
a viow to raise the price of salt. 

Tho following statement shows, for the five years cmding 1s( 
1878, the quantity, thodiatributionj and the value of tho salt pr 
in tho Khantghoda salt works : 

KlulnigKfMia Salt DetaUa, fS74-78. 















1MTT8 ~ ... 






















ToUl ... 



MU0 t 



Over a larjfo area in tho woet of Vimaa&m, chiefly in the villages 

>E Jbiujhnv^cU and Fatri, earth is found saitei) to the manufacturu 

if salipctro. At the beginning of the century in these and tho 

^peiffhhouring 3h&l&v6d, Limbdi, and Pntan villaf^s, saltpetre ira« 

jaue in large quantities.' Bat on the introduction of British rnle the 

fi<]cK|ireod pcaco and the cheaper supply from Bengal put a stop to 

bhe G^janlt manofnctare. Tho Vdniaa declared that, bocauae of the 

marderouii uaes to tthich gunpowder was put, it was a Bin to make 

eal^wtrc, and in 1825 except a little, by Musalm£a!i of tho Ik>hora 

cIbss^ none was produced.' In 1830 tho Revenue ComnuHsioner 

Dunlop made ftn inquiry into the canae of tho failnro of the 

aanufactui-e, and by iho help of Mr. Vivupell, a gentleman of ranch 

iiiUillij^'onco and knowledge, supplied Govorninent with (i full account 

>f tho processes employed ana uf the state and prospccta of tho 

Instry. The manufacture was then on a very small scale;. The 

Tinias opposed the Bohor^ in their attempts to increase tho 

production and a P&rsi who had come to Dholera with pots and other 

>l8 &kiled from ignorance of the proper kind of earth. Still the 

ivea were willing to make saltpetre and, if a demand arose, at 

idiUling for five pouudfi (K». 4 the Man) an unlimit«d quantity 

tight Iw i?npnUed. Bengal saltpetre though n little dearer and 

iforior to tho best local variety was even in Limbdi able to compete 

itti it. Unless Government came forward as a buyer thcro seemed 

iiUo hope of reviving the industry." 

The manafftctnTO is carried on only during the cold season. Tho 
th nsed, of a dark -red mixed with white, bocomoa whiter tho deeper 
is dug. The richest imtches are near villages in places frequented 
l»y cattle. Whpn one plot is exhanstod the workers change to 
Another and keep moving so long as the cold season lasts. Except 
t h(.> alkaline earth and pure water nothing is nsed in the manufactnro. 
^Tho first process is to scrape oft" and gather the surface soil. When 
loagh is gathered the earth is placed in large pierced earthen 
aels called gnla. Fresh water is then ponrcMl on the earth till the 
tveasel fills. And as it strains through, the salt water is collected 
amaller pots, moria, placed below. These are again emptied 
ito deep iron pans, kaTuv^ holding from ten to twenty-fivo inoriaa 
' the strained liquor. These iron pans are set over a cowdang fire 
' as the contents boil and evaporate common sea salt forms and 
'as it forms is taken away in pierced iron ladles. Tho boiling goes 
on till as the wat«r begins to crystallize it thickens into a jelly. H 
is tbL'u in the eveniuu poured into shallow earthen vessels, ^iifuia, 
and allowed to stand all night. In the morning the crystallized 
nitT« is taken away and put into bf^s. In this state, called ^ccdra 
single or once waahod from its largo proportion of common salt and 


1 Hit? «UUs«B and towm vHierv the «wth ii obtoiaoil arc Bboiha. Sarritl, IWod«. 
Utabji >iid ItavvHd in tb« Limbdi distriet 1 BludvAna, lAktitnr, HalviH, Cbokri, ua 
KAkr^i ia .IhilUriii], Jhmjhnv&dft sad PiLii iu ViraminUii, sckI )>uiu and Unnjpar 
tiMr PiVUri. Mr.VjtuncIi I, SOthNcv. 1829. 

» IVNd Qnv. St'l X. 69. 

J iU. J>iuil;<p i&l, 2t>Ui January 1830. 

[Bombay OaMttiin 



Ooid Wvrk. 

other iropuriiies, it is of no use. To ro^ne it thf* saltpetre ia a^n 
washed aud puriBed in clear fresh water. It is then termed herd* 
or twice washed, and tlioQgb somewhat inferior to the Bengal Tariotj 
is used for making gunpowder. After a third pnrifyiog it is eaU&i 
levda or thrico waehed. This the best saltpetre made in &ajartt 
is principally nsod in the munufocture of the finest gpinpowdar 
called ranjki or priming powder. Ilogides these Tartettos at Saai 
and M^nnjpur a kind callud katmi charged with olom is much naei 
for fireworks. 

Ahmedabad pottery is better than most o£ the clay work of 
western India. The clay is shaped into many common and 
useful articles, toys, tiles, bricks, ana pots for cooking and storing^ 
gniin or water. To give the clay a light colour the potters ax 
red ochre, ramehip white-earth, trhmiit and micftj afmik. Before 
being ased theoe colouring materiaU are groand fine and mixed 
with water. White-earth keeps its colour, if, in bakiog, the smntcfi 
from the kiln \h Allowed to escape ; but if the smoke is kept bai^ the 
clay becomes black thrmighont. Red ochre always koeps its oolooT 
and when mixed with whibo-eurth becomes pink. Mica, ahrak, is uaod 
to give a finishing touch of dull gold. It is generally rubbed on 
before the wares are taken to market. A few potters glaxe with 
litharge, mndarting, a semi-vitrified oxide of load. This is bomt, 
powdered, mixeil with water, and rubbed on the article before it ii 

fiiit in tho kiln. Burnt copper filings or Acrnpings coated with 
itharge give a greenish tint. Jars for clarified butter, oil, or pickles 
are sometimes covered with lac. At other times thoy aro polished 
by rubbing them cither with a piece of bamboo or with a string of 
agato pebbles. A few of the Ahmedabad potters are Mnaalmaiis, 
but the greater nnraber are Hindus. The rural town and TiHage 
potters make TOBsels for every-day use, stronger but not so wdl 
finished as those made in the city. The pipe bowls, efutlamSfd 
Dhandhtika, BarvJila, RAnpur, and other villages bordering oo 
mthidwdr, arc thought better than those made in AlimedabxL 
Besides being sold in Ahmedabad at prices varying from id. to 1(. 
(2-8 aniiam), they are to some extent sent to Surat and Bomhsf 
and find a ready sale among all classes. 

The working in gold and silver is an important industry employisff 
large numbers in aJl big towns and villages, especially in Dbolkn -vnJ 
Viramgdm. Tho workers of the goldsmith or Soni caste are chi«.;ii 
ompL>yed lu making gold aud silver ornaments, gold for the rich aad 

Eart gold part Bilver for the middle otass. The chief omamoots an 
roochos, pins and combs for the hair, noserings, earrings, necklacat, 
bracijletti, wristbands, finger rings, waistbands, and anklets. Tli> 
ciistomor oithcr brings tho goldsmith the metal in the form of coins, 
or buys it in bars from an assnyer, choksL Tho goldsmith has seldoni 
anystoi-o of metal or of oruameuts, and, as his fondneaa for choatisg 
ts a by-wonl, the customer generally sends some one to wretch tlis 
goldsmith whou at work, or gets him to come to his house and makt 
the omainoiite thoro. Of late years, more than used to be tho esse, 
asssycrs have taken to keep omamont-s in store. This chaogQ hat 
to somo extent lossencd the- demand for goldsmith's work. 


The making of gold and silver thread, usod in brocaded silkn and 
[old and silver cloth, emplojA a distinct class of workmen. Silver is 
Mut into bars, about tho ttiicknesa of the little llogor aud a yard lon^, 
llMi Ultra reduced to wire, by a set of workmen called bar-drawers, 
tdadtonads, chioflj Konbis by caste. To reduce the size of the rod the 
Mr>dniver fixes firmly between two aprights a metal plate about 
itx incbw long by half an inch broad, pierced with about forty bolea 
if gradoally loBseoiug size. The holes are smeared with wax and 
me end of tho bar is beatea to a point line enough to pass tliRiugh 
rbe largest hole in tho drawplate. The point is then cnaght in a 
leavy pair of pincers, and I'astoned to a strong chain which is passed 
roond a wooden barrtil threo feet long ana about a foot across, 
tioving in a frame snnk below the level of the ground. From tho 
iuter edge of tho barrel, at either end, stands out a circle of wooden 
QAiH liko the spokesof u felloe-less whoul. Laying- hold of the ends 
iCbhe epokes, by the help of their lovei'age the workman drags the bar 
Ibroagh. the boles of the drawplate, a matter at first of much labour. 
Asitis forced through the dilTerent holes the bar gra<lually stretches 
t«D, when all the holes have been pafised, it comes out a fine wire. 
To make it into thread the wire is passed to the wire-drawer, tdnia, 
fc Kanbt by caste who working aftor the same fashion as the bar- 
dinwer.only with lighter tools and a finer drawplate, generally turns 
out six to eight hundred yards of thread from uulf an ounce (1 tola) 
of silver. So great is his delicacy of touch that if desired the tdni^ 
can draw out half an ounce (1 tola) of silver into 2000 yards of thread, 
% feat all tho moro wouderf al that for boring tho holes in his drawplate 
the workman has no finer tool than the file-pointed end of an old 
Bmbrella steel. Next, to flatten the wire, it is wound upou Iwbbius and 
liandod over to tho stamper, chapaJia, generally a Kanbi by caste. 
tmyiag teu of the bobbins side by side in a frnmo so that the threa<l8 
m&y roll easily off, bo passes the threads through a gloss ring faftteniiig 
their ends to a reel held in his left hand. Slowly turning this reel 
he draws the tlireads gently through the glass ring and withahamm«r 
bcid in his right hand, as tho threads pass over a small hi^^hly- 

LJiflhed steel anvil, gives them quick sharp blows so unfailingly 
that they pass on, of one uniform flatness. 

To make gold-thread, ingots of gold are melted and beaten into 
I about a yanl Ifjng and two inches broad. With every care 
imll is clean, the leaf is pressed round a silver bar and bouud In it 
lib a strong hemp cord. The bar is then placed in a bed of live 
Imrcoal and, after lying there for about ten minutes, is token 
||tt and beaten with a heavy hammer. After a second hcattng tho 
^^ is again beaten, and after a third heating, it is allowed slowly to 
cool. It is then ready to be made into wire and is drawn out and 
&ttoned like the silver thread. So thoroughly have tho two motala 
welded Ihat the wire appears to be of gold, showing no 
of the silver. Before it is worked into fabrics tho gold wiro 
wound on specially prepared silk thread. To make this silk 
ad, two frames, one about three tho other about eight feet high, 
ia an open space, set about thirty yards apart. The cross 
ims of each frame are fiirniMhod with sots of seven or oight 
sden p^;9. The workman, flfla'ra, generally a Eaubi by caato, Irom 

Chapter VI. 
Silvtr Thnad, 

OoU ThrtmL 

iptcT VI. 

Tin Foil. 

<MJ Fiiit, 

a reel of ailk held in his hand biatcns the ends of the ftUments bXW 
of the pegH uf the lower frame, and, vaikixxf^ aloog the open Kpai:«,Ut« 
iho nilic Ktnduallj unroll. Whtsn tho higher framo is reached the 
workman passes tho threads over a peg, suaps them, and, from a W-l >^ 
bis drenn, taking b small malot-hoaded spindlo, faatooa the euds 
threodtt to tha stem of the spindle. Inia he does for oach ot m^ 
seven or eight sets ot peg8. Tlio threads, which at Brst hung ]o«^ 
botwueii the two frames, are now tightened bj drawing the Bpindlo 
hcatlfl towards tho ground. Then by a sharp twist of the hand, tlv' 
spindles in turn are set rapidly in motion until they work thenn 
np to the croAs beam of tho frame. Tho throad is tbon suu^'^^ 
from the spindle, tho ends tied, and the wholo cnrricHl to the ay«r. 
On their return the tbroJu1>< aro again stretched and til ronghiioa 
rcitioved by rubbing them with a thin bright stool rod. "The sitk 
is then taken to tho golj-thrcod winder, mH/ruir, and wound on 
a Bmatt heavy>headed spindle. Tho end of the tlircad is by Hu 
help of a hooked stick piused through a glass ring fsstcned in kfce 
ceiling, drawn down, and tied to the stem of a second spindio shaped 
like the first. The reel of gold wire is next placed where it cu 
freely unwind and the workman, Heating himself on o, high thn»' 
li^god atool, fastens the end of the gold wipo to the silk thread on 
the stem of tho empty spindle, and with a violent rub along the 
calf of his log sots it spinning with great speed. Tho threddacA 
winds is fed with gold wire nntil the spindle has twisted itadf is 
highae the workman c-an easily reach. It is then drawn doviifi 
twist gn'ren to the silk thread, and the gnld-thrcAd Kpindle k4 
violently in motion and as before another yard or so of pold thr«w} 
is spun. Thene imhislrim are found only in Ahmedabad. Tht 
workmen chiefly HinduR of tho Kanbi coAbo are steady, thrifty, and 
sober, though not overhonest. 

At rich and middlo-clasa marriages and other rejoicings titf 
lintels and aide po»ts of the houae>door are coTered with strips of 
yellow tin foil. To make this tin foil, blocks of tin brought from 
Bombay aro hammered into loaves at tho rata of sixteen acores of 
six-inch leayes to one pound, 40 tolas, of metal. To colour it yello* 
tho leaf is laid on a piece of oarthonware over a dish of live eoat 
and nincarcd with yellow scaling wax. Tho leaves sell at the ntt 
of ^00 for 2«. (Re. 1 ). Thoy aro utied for ornamenting images of tto 
gods. They Boinotimes hnvo a rough pattern printed on tnem fron 
a load block. Except a few MnsalmAna tho workers aro Hindua of 
the Mochi caste, llie industry is prosperuua. 

To make gold foil, gold leaf is bought from a goldsmith ami 

[)1uced betweua sheets of fine leather, bound in tho form of a smill 
look. This hook is placed on a stone and beaten with a h^v;- 
heatlod iron hammer until tho loaf spreads to about four tic 
itH original itize. The leaves are used by Afusalmin beggars and oth^ 
hcmp-amokora. The hemp, gnnja, is laid in the bowl of the pipe, t1 
gold leaf is stretched across the mouth of the bowl, and on the U 
hreis placed. The foil is sometimes also plaster^ over sweetmei ' 
These workers, called vnrakffars or leaf makers, are Hindus chit 
Uochitt and a few Muaalui^os. The iudnatry is fairly prosperous. 


Electro- plating is to a amall nxtont earned on in AUmedabad. 
The workers, allied platers, t-iM^irtitw, are of the ahoemaber, .Wocfti, 
caste. They plat* with silvyr uu cupper, cliiufly horau titippings 
for marriagos. Konnerly the copper vtim ^ivered with atlvar leavtw, 
but electro-plating ha8 supplanted tliv ttid method. According 
U> the old sydtciu, if u liilvur oniaiiiuut was to ho platod with 
gold, the silver waa hcatod, tokou out of the fire by ihe help of 
a pair of pincers aud cov«i-«d with gold It'af. The guM k-af was 
thun vro^kl^d into the iufi{ualitios of tho article by u Htyte pointed 
wir.h Clitnltay carnclian. It was thou handed over to another 
workman who vrith a fin«r style sinootlu-d lUu surface and pujlishcd 
the gold. Never practised by ^iihUiiulhii, thia work luus always 
been in tho hands tif Muehis. The ornament*! oro brought by tho 
por«on who wishes to have them plated. 

^Tin-plating: ia to a Urge extent carried on in the city of Ahmednbad, 
on a suialler scalu in tho country towus. The workers, calle*! 
tin-platers^ lutlai^arf, aro MiisalinAiui; a few of them are llinda 
cop[H9rsniiths, Kansaros. They plate with tin on copper and bmss 
v^ittels fur household use. The method employed is very simple. 
The vessel to bn plated is Heni.|»iid with a nail-liko iron tool, and the 
till boiled and mixed with ammonia, mivso'jai', islaid on with a cloth 
and th<.'ii polished, with »and and ashes. This industry i^ prosperoas 
as all MusalimlnB and Paruis and moat Hindus have their vcsfiols 

PTo print gold and mWot fnll pattem.t on cotton and silk, tho elnth 
8tampi.><l with a dt*e|)-cnt handbluck dipped in gum. Tho cloth is 
covered with a layer of gold or ailver foil and then sharply rubbed 
by a prdi^hod woodon bar, mora, about eight inches long, ati inch 
roqnd at each end, and two inclies round in tho middle. In the 
middle ou one aido uf tliu wood a Imlluw m imulo, and iu it a large 
polished camelian stono ia set and fiwtencd with plaster. Tho 
mbbii)}r takes away the foil from the surrju-e o£ the cloth except where 
it has been fastened by the gitnimiHl pattuni. Thero the foil in »o 
Ihoronghly workral into thp cloth that it may bo roughly used 
withont giving way. This industry is iu a fair condition. The 
workera are chiefly Mochis. 

wAnother protiperon.s Ahmodabad induHtryj entirely in theliandsof 

Hkcbis, is tho making of ornamimts for (-ho godti. Tho uruamcnts 

^B oE piper, cot into Tanous shapca and covered tvith pieces of 

I^Hferently -coloured tin foil or the eyo from a peacock's tail feather. 

A grt-ftt day for thfs sale of tlicHO ornaments is the Golnd Ashlami 

fair, the birth-day of Krishna in the month of Shrdvan (Angiiat- 

Septf^iuber). Another article much in demand ou that day \^ enamel. 

For this work china in powdered fine, nibbed on pieces of heated 

metal, and molting with the heat forma an enamel. One of the chief 

viiaoielled Artick\s nru gods* ayv^, abnoiid-fthaped piueoH of white 

^BUDoUed silver with n blHck pupil painted in them. 

^^iliirge anantities of copper and bruHS articles are made in 

Alimeiuibaa. Besides the ordinary house potH and oiips manufactured 

10 iDOflt district towns, the Ahme«labad coppersmiths, Kansaras. 

make very graceful and delicately cut brabb-scruumi. Tlieir specialty 

B 167-17 

Chaptar VX 




Iilot Oraamenia, 

Copptr and . 

fBombay Gi 



Chapter VI- 





is the betel lenf lioltW, pdnAtn, & smnll box of the tnost 
braas trocory. Tboir wart-s bolong to two chief classes ; of oop^v 
domestio pots, boxes for ket-pinp jewdry. Mid inkstoTKU ; and OL 
brasB, boxes for k'scpin^ sweets and epioesj nDf^,lamp6, idol», cfaan^ 
bcUs, tonfi^ and betel hntdors. pdnddnM. Besides tho Kanxiri* 
whose frpecin! calling it is some bincksiaithft, Luhars, work m hnm- 
and copper. The mw material, both copper and brass, is bnxi^t frsok 
Bornlmj by re^nlnr metal dealers, Muaaliniins nf tha Shin or Otedi 
Bobura »ect, and Hold by them to tho coppcmnithK. Mixb ol tUp 
brass {» mado in Ahmcdabad by the oopporsmitha from ooppor and 
zinc in tho proportion of foiir parts of oopper to throe of ame. *' 
present copper work nhares in the gnnond datoesa of trade. 


Tron-waro articlos ape not mado in any larffe qnantity. 7T»' 
chief arc koives and field tools, most of thorn made iu the coaattT 
towns, iron bncketa and oooking vessels nsod chiefly by towa 
MitsalmAus and Parais, and nsits, screwsi, hingt-s, and other tliinp 
rcrjiiired for house-building, and locks made only in Ahmedabad and 
from it distributed over the di:«ln<*t. The iron hroiipi'ht from Bc-mhsr 
by Muealuuin Sunni and Shia l^hora and Hindu Viiuia luercfiitiiC* 
IB sold in retail to the ironsmiths, Lnh&re. Tho AhmedabaJ 
Luhars arc a clerer and hardworking class of men. Tho'^. ' 
Modasa are Dliuoo^ for their easy-cliairs and cot«. Tlie monul.! 
of hardware has Biiffered severely frcm Curopenn competition, 
the same timo the introduction of raaelunery has opened U> L: 
both in Ahuiedulmd and Bombay a wide and well-paid fichi li 

Ahmedabnil carpontera have long been Kkmotis for their skill ' 
carving blftrkwnod. Many of the best have left Giijarnt 
Bombay. But iu Ahmednbad the finest specimens of tlus cl 
work are still to l_ie found. Next to the oity carvers^ and in 
respect-'' with an even hiplier local name, nre the Dholera < ■ ■ 
This, before the days of railway, was the chief timber u. 
district. Here Lnv»na and V'ania merrhnnta brinj^ng lojrs ni t(*k 
from 'L'hdna, and of blackwood and sandal wood from the Malnl 
coast, sell tliem to the dinti-ict carpenters, who work thcra up B 
rhairs and Ial>1i3», cnis and cra^lles of Knglish fashion, and in 
handhomo wfll-finished bra.*s-bonnd boxes much sought after Vt' 
Kiiihiawar and wen in Ahmeilnbad city. 

Wociflcn bracelets ano, to a small extent, made in Ahmednbad 
in rather largi^r quantities in Modasa, Oholeru. Dbolks, Virara^ 
and otlipr country towns. Tltcy aro worn by the lower orders ( 
Hindu women and by poor Musalmun women of Hindu descent. 

In Dholera and still more in Mod^, tho turning of cot and cr*dl* 
tegs and small boies is an active iudusti-y. 'lliesumll boxes, xlatbii,^ 
varying in size from two inches to one foot in height, and 1 J to eijjft? 
inches rmmd.arensed, the smnll ones to hold opium, and the larg' 
for women's ornaments. The ModaBa boxes, the best in the du ...^;. 
are in domand From all parts of Ahmedahnd, as welt nn 
Kathi^w:(r. Modnsa-tnrned cots are hIso sent to Ahnied.d»«d 
other towns, and used byrithand middle clabbUiuduuaud Mm<:i 

of Ahmedabad, Dhotka, and ViramK&m also m&kc cots, 
, abildron's toys, uod, ti) a umaW oxt«iit, ban^Iee. The cotu and 
ftre DMd by all oUsaea, th^ banglcn by bigh ca^te Hindu 
, Almost all those artides aru quaintly coloured with stripes 
yellow, black, and nbite wax. OoCci, cradles^ and children's 
Eig9 find the greatest bnlo on the Gokul Athlavti fair in the 
of Shnisan {August- September). Exc«pt a few Musulman 
I, the tumcr-i, Khar,uii« or SaugddiM, are liindns. 'i^be 
lAn tnmero makti to order aad aomotimes have for sale ready 
liBfijimon and counters, nanl or tjot. Tiiruer'a wares are in 
imond. The croft has ttot suffered by European compctitioo, 

spinaing of cotton thread is a very cxtenRive induKl:ry in 
Abad and other towDs and hi;^ Tillngc!;. The f^pinnorft are 
poor Miisalmau and Hindu wumon. The thread, «ut, is utitid 
re weavora for rough work. The raw material is the produce 
Aiatrict, bought bj cotton Fipinncre from farmers and Kold by 
rgiren to women to spin. The hand tiipinning of cotton 
lus Buffumd much fnun tho eumjwtitiou of European and 
ro of local ac«ani apiuniug fiictorie:}. 

weaving of cotton cloth is an important indastry. At 
'_» few Bohoriia aud Tdis wi>avo from Eogbsh yaru cloth of 
I* fine texture, finding a i-cady solo among thi? surrrjundiug 
I and K&this. At Dholka fmm the same materials Hindu 

nuko women's robus, jtiidii^j of niut^H local repute for atead- 
r ol colonr, and in Abmodiibad, although to a less extent, 
Aaknan, Momna, and Hindu Khatris make very g>Jod Hilk- 
ft waist cloths, dhoiut, rubes, mills, erarfa, dupaUiig, ami 
wuist cloths, fhaloldt, whi«h are sont to Gnjarat, Itombiiy, and 
sh. With these and a few other exceptions the only haud- 
dolh 18 made by Dheds, a fow of whuin are found iu almost 
j^ village. Much of this cloth is now made of Kugliith or 
ill-yam. Dbed-wovea cloth, though from difTerenues of 
;nown as khattit cin'f'U, and ihti^ i-s all of Lhi- itamc coarse 
texture. Since tho beginning of British rule hand loom 
[ b&s greatly declined, lu 182U' Guglish luudu cloth was u 
li^e in Ahmedabad tmde. But so rapiiUy did it nuikc its 
I by 1825 ev«i] in the best mart of the district the consump- 
lupertor country made cLoth had bijcomovery iuconsidurablu.' 
irse hand woven cloth on account nF its much gi^-atcr 
I held its own with the cliaaper sorts of lluiro]:ioau cloth. But 
tttou of the local mills has greatly affected the deuaud fi>r 
B of hand woven goorla. 

^h a large suction of hardworking craftsmon are soon to 
flerod fn)m tho (T(Hii])otit.i"n hotwoon hand and inai'liine 
Alimedabad baa not allowed its old cloth industry to die 

Chapter VI. 

CtfltvH Thnad. 

Cotton C7«A 



ualop, 99tti Angust I9W. 

[^u-. SeL X. W). K dtMtnr OiMcr. Beiuw jiartncr in tliu lirm vf GDder !*• 
!«, u >uti>l to Ii»vl' iteon the <ii-at tn intmilui^c lvi,irii{>ciui inA(lu|M^II*liiS and 
thin part nf (Injarit. Wjinffi' (Hifta of CiijriUfatrx, Sli. Tkis uImk oS 
by tii« nsQtfi uf i>(Hi9iikv}Him., 'it iIwUt'ii ulutli. 

Clupt«r TL 

Steam /Vfww. 

Tt hfts now (lS7ft) four factories with on^nee of 250 )if 
pnwQf empli.>yiug 2013 hands mid paying in wages a yearly »QOi1 
about £10,777 (Ks. 1,97,770). In order of ap^J tlicwo mi\U arc (\% 
the Ahmcdabad Cottou Mills Company opened in Jane IB*H wit])C 

308 looms. Jn 1H77-78, l,7U4,8o(> pomidK of cotton were wciiM 
into yam np to 20 S. cf.unt worth £17,772 (lis. 1,77,720) and cnnt 
waist cloths, </Ao/i'*, and loug cloth worth £60,135 (Rs. G,01,3W)» 
In 1878 about UOO liauda were daily employed anil during thf -r-rr 
il>22S (Rs. 92,280) were spont in wages ; (3) the Bcchjurdji 
opened in June 1Hti7, is Ibe private property of Rao iWiMlsr 
Bixihardiia AnibAidAH, C.S.I. Tlie niachiiierj', driven bycn^na 
iixty-iive horse power, works 16,000 Bpindles and 172 lcK:«m». 
1H77-78, 093,1 13 pnuuds of cotton were worked into Nos. 10 tai 
wat«r and mule twiHt worth £16,(180 (Ks. 1,66,800) sod into T* ' 
and cloth for waistclotii* and women's robea worth £24hiK 
{Ra. 2,42,150). In 167S about 500 hands ffore daily oouibiyad 
aijrl during the year £o877 (Rs. 58,770) paid in wages ; (S) lbs 
Ahmediibiid Ginning and Mann factii ring Company, Liinitod, 0* 
spinning mill of 0120 mule Rpindles driven by a stoain i-nt^ni^j 
25 horse power. It was opened on 6tk December 1877. 
Company has a capitftl of £35,000 (R«. 3,oO,000), divided into'l 
gharea of £100 (R*t. 1000) each. In the yew ending S!st Dewnil 
1878, 720,000 poundw of cotton were worked into 20 S. yam w^ 
£22,1)30 (R*?. 2,20,300). In 1878 alwut 250 hands wer, 
employed and during the year £2400 (Rs, 2i,0<)0) were n] 
wages; (4) the GnjaMt Spinning and Weaving Mill was op-, 
the 5th May 1878, with a nominal cBpilal of i80,000 (R-- ^ 
held in 800 shares of £100 (Rs. 1000) OAch. Tiio 
driven by a pair of sixtv horse-power enginea, works; ■ 
and 5103 Lhrostio spindles and 200 looms. From 5tli 
the mill was opened, to 31st December 1878 alxMit 
pounds of cotton were worked, into yarn 10 S. to 25 S. ooi. 
coarse cluth for dhotig and long eloth worth £11,009 1'. 
1,19,098). During the same periodSGS hands were dail . 
imd during the wliolo time .C2272 (Its. 22,720) wr-r.' 
wages. The eotlon at present spnn and woven in i' 
Bteatn mills comi's chiefly from Katluftw^, Vii-antL; 
ether Barodu uwrt«. Small qnanlities are also received from- 
Broach di&triet. There in aomo export to Bombay and 
India. But the bulk of the demand is local, for Ctujsrati 
Kiithiawar eoiwuniption. lUxcept a few Urahman men OiII{ 
bumilers, Vrinla uimi as reelors ami Kanhi men as weai 
workmen are Mnsalmanfi, Knlis, Marathas, I^ardeeis, 
Vighria, Miirvadis, and other lahouring claasca. There are 
MuHolm&ns " minders anrl piecers" and variously emplovod. 1 
men and women are clever workers, but they ate not atlentirt^ 
regular in their ways and as a rule waste their wages. In tl»| 
jBcchardds mill one M the K«"'lis has risen to the nnyition r,! ai 
ovei«eeraaa moutbly sabj-y of £2 lOa. (Rb. 25). The "* '" 

and Panlests are generally good workmen ; most of them take to Chapter TL 
oardin^r. The class which of all others seems to bene6t most, are Mutafactarefr 
tlie Vtighris. Their conditiou was one of extreme poverty formerly, 
«Dpp<>rtiiig thciDBelves by begpiig. But whole families come to 
the fact*"irie8 and mauy are now woll off. Some families are known 
to havo laid by money investing it in the purchaso of omamentti 
ftnd in bailding better houses.^ 
■ Dyeing' is an extensive industry, following the lines of most rivers Dyriaff. 

exmnt the brackiah IthogTiva, and the early-dry Bhfidhar. Outside 
of Abmetlabad city the chief dyeing c^ntrrs are ViSghpnr and Oriin 
on the upper coarse of the Sabarmati, Modasa on the Majham, and 
Barvita on the Dtarti. Dyeing prevails also to a great extent in 
Virftmgfim and to some degree in Dhandhnka and Ranpur. In 
"Vimmgam pond water, and in Dhandhuka and Ranpur the water of 
weHs dng in the Bhfidhar bed is us*xl. The chiL-f colours dyed in 
<>OQiitry towHH are indigo, dark bine, flnd black ; ligliter shades are 
iflyed in the city. Except a few city MuKnlniAns, the dyers, ranjrez or 
Vnn^'irn«, are all liindns, generally of the Bhavs^ caste. The 
liadufitrf is in a good condition. 

Calico-printing is a craft of Home conseqnence in Ahmodabad, Calico- Printing, 
^ratngiim, and ModAsa, and to a less extent in other country towns. 
^he printed oloth is used locally and went to Sifim. P'ormorly there 
was a very large demand for Ahmt'daba<I calicoes, but their place 
IU8 to a great extent been taken by Koropfan prints. To print tiia 
|Dloth it ia at first dirtied and then wa«hea oithor hy the worknion 
Ihemselves, Hindus of the Bhavsar cast*, or by waHhenaen, dhohbia, 
;»tid then diliped into the dyo light or dark blue, black, orycllow as 
>i;d. It 19 thon dried in the sun and by means of wooden 
- the design is printed on the borders. Tlie Ahmedabad city 
LVhars, numlK^ring about 700 families, aro a steady and hardwork- 
claiM mofit of them men of somo capital owning from £oOO to 
[Jt^OOO {Us, &000- Rs. 20,000). 

A st«*m print-workj started by a joint Btock company at a cost of Steam- Priming 
6,000 {Rs. 2,50.0O0J, was fioishod and opened for work in 187S. 
i a mile to the sonth-west of the oity on (he left bank of the 
>&pmati from which it di-nw8 its water-supply, the factory, in 
three scjiarato buildings, has all the appliances of an Kuglish stoam 
Biab work for singeing, blenching, printing in four colours, 
Hjriog, fiuiiihing, and folding. U» prints are said to be very good for 
'simple pftttema with one colour but not ao good for two colonrs. 
' Soon after opening tho work was closed. But this was from 
' tofoe hiloh in the management, not fi^oni any failure or Qaw in the 
' maohinory and it is expected boEoro long to bo again at work. 

I Ahmedabad has long been famous (or its paper. Thirty years Pe^tt. 

iSgo (18i8) about 800 men and boys were daily employud In tho 

^ijwr works. At present (1378) the number is estimated at tiOO. 
bift Gvaii, like many other Ahmedabad industries, is a close 

n (11 




' Tti« bUmiii fikcbxry dctailH bkvi^ licm kin<Ily aupiilicd l>j- V-iu* EUhiHur Beebudiili 
ibMdWt C.3.I., vrbu t)M [uiuiehvdioXonutiwi wxX the vily nuaufwtureifc 

Chapter VL monopoly. The worlcera are MasalmAiui, and the bnAa i» 
Kanofacttmi. regulated by an ussuciatiou called the paper guild, kdydini j'^iwH 
whose memherfl aro hound by common tnierost to keep aecrob d^ 
mysteries of their cmft. The workers do not iimdc in paper. Th^ 
ore geuerally einployeil by rioU Ifiuftlmina, chieSy oF tho Sstui 
Bohora sect The average yearly eamuigs of a huuily, for the wuitir-it 
work as well as the men, vary from £1U to £20 {Ha. 100 -He. 
The emplovcr supplies the materia)^ chiefly old bags and sai.b.uij^ 
moch of it bronf(ht by Vanjanis from Marwar and mixed tvithpMca 
of damaged E^uropean pat)er. The paper of which there art) fin 
kinds, KdhpJi-hhini, khanu/hdii, tiwradsh:iki, 'jiUia, and khnrrhi,it 
made in sheets from 17^ to 29^ inches long and from lt> t 
inches broad. The price o£ a sheet varies acoordiug to si - . 
quality from ^d. to i^(L (one pie to 1} annov). Uiidra' f 
competition pappr-maVing has of late years declined. At j :< - / 
(187SJ Ahinedabad paper is used chieHy in Uovemmcnt v(-j-ua>'ular 
registers, in native KtAtes, and by native traders, whoAO way$ of 
book-keeping and book-binding require tougli and cloeegiwi: 
paper. Besides over most of the Bombay Presidency^ Ahmt 
paper goes to difTeront parts of Central India 

AufT Snuff is made for lueal use at various places in the district 

beat anuiiij^ fmin ViraragAm. This Vinimgdm snuff is made 
Nadi6d tobacco, mellowed by four years* keeping. In 
the stalkti are drawn out, the leaves dried in tbo sun, and 

sand bv slmking in a sieve and soaking' in water from Qve' 

days. "When thoroughly dried, they are again beaton to dost 
sticks mid twice sifted through a coarse ctoth. To avoid ww^te 
ponnding and sifting goes on in a cloacd house, and so trj'ii^' 
the dust that none hut 8t[-ong men con stand it. The cheaper cm 
are made by grinding the leaf, stalk and all, in a mill. 

Besides in Ahrucdabad city, oil-pressing is carried oa chied] 
Moddsa, Yi^au1g^Lm, and Dholka, each the tradc-oentre uf a 
glowing country. The Modiisa oiUpressors crush mahudiXj 
latifolia, berries for the Kapadvanj and Par&ntij 80up-boilei%i 
like the Aliiuudubad uilnien send tlie oil of cheap giogelly fleedj 
Sesamnm indicum, aa far an e&si KtithiawAr. Vinung&m is enpj' 
with castor and sesiununi seed from the villages round, 
with rapeseed fnnn Patnn, though Bince foreign demand has 
its price, liltlo rapeseed is now locally ground. The 
Viramg&m oil giies to Jhaiiviid.^ At Dholka tbe raw i 
are poppyseed, kliankJian, gingelly, and castor seeds. 

Sov- During the last fifty years a largo soap-making iudustxy 

spriiag up in Parintij. The raw Uiatcrial itj at luknd and 
Fuel and mahudii, Bassia latifoUa, berries are brought frooi 
Lilly country to the north ; slkIs, us, from V&ghpur, a neighboG 
village, and liino from near Mod^^a. It is estimated that 74 
(4000 nwn/t) of oil are yearly boiled into 21 !■ Ions (12.000 
of soap. Most of the soap goes to AKuiedubad iiud from thore i 

' Thia reversaa tho staU of ihin^ in 1824. vhca oil wont InNU KAttui^rl 
Tinungam, i;aLl<wtoi s Keport, 12th May IS^ 




itio Bombaj. This imluatrj is chiefly in the hands of Sanni 

Tie leaf dishes nswl at caste-feasts Are made by village Brfttimana, 
two kindH, plates, patrdvlis and cups, dadhjuf, the dishes 
brought into Ahmotlabad in handles of 200 plates and 100 oupA 
iftresold according to size, the plates at from 8d.to6d.{2-4 
wi) the hundred, and the caps at from l^d. to 2^d. [l-l^ 
ttr). Mado of tho dry leaves of thefc/t/iiA/ir trtv, Butenfrondosa, 
Pbed ti»K'>ther with smaU slips of bamboo they keop (it for use 
Hwo years. 'iTiis industry is confined to tho Daskroi villages 
r the city, where only they find a sale. 

|if tho silk products for which Ahmedabad was famous, both 
ier its own kings and under the Mrjghal viceroys, some aoootmfe 

been given under the head of trade. The chief exoellence o£ 
mcihilwvd silk work lay in the bright colours of its plain silks, 

in the strength of its brocade. Under the Mar^thas (1 756-1817) 

silk, taxed when raw, taxed as it passed throoch each process, 

Bg;iiii taxed when ready for sale, waa so weighted in thestrtlggla 
h fnreign silk that its maniifacttire ceased to pa.y iind almost died 
' During the first yearof Bi-itisliot^cnpation (iSIBjthe import of 

silk nmonnted to 11 tons (300 Indian mans], during tho second 
rll was 37 fcons(1000 Indian m'/n«),'and in 1817 it was 109 tons 
55 Indian wianff).* In 1808 the next year for which returns are 
liable it liml fallen to 77 tons (2080 Indian mnns) and in 1874. 

I" [1 risen to 100 tous (270;i Indian man/t). Since then there 
h -i; another seriouM fall to 05} tons (1702 Indian mans) in 1877 

41^ tons {1118 Indian manji] in 1878. Several causes would 
n to have combined to bring about this fall in the import of raw 

; tho scarcity of silk and oonaequout high prices in 1870 and 
7 ; the local high grain prices and dulness of trade ; incrensed 
ngn competition ; and a change in customs, the Gujai'at and 
ihuiwiip chiefH hegiuniiig to give up tho uso of brocades and tho 
mm of the Viinia nod Bnihman castes taking more and more to 
BRee instead of Gujarfit slllts.'' China is the chief source of 
yty , but some silk connis fmm Bengiil, some from Busworah, and 
Wm jears some fi-om Bukhara. Tho fiilk is brought to Ahmedalfftd 
Ir in Bhiidarva and A'bo (September and October) and almost 
■ty by rail. The importers called TntjiiU are Hindns of tho 
Band Ktidvit Kanbi castes and VAiniis. Some of them are men 
■pilSkl, owning from £oUU to £20,000 (Its. oOOO-ils. 2,00.000), 
> buy from Bombay dealers and give out tho silk to Ahmedabad 

Chapter Vt 




tDnnlnp. 2Sth Dwaemljcr 1817. 
mli ot thv CMncUtT uf j^bmedAbail. 
I. Oov Sfl V. 82. 
la aildUi-in u> thetw the ehnngp in tlie lulmiiitxtrntinn nf BtfriU CDnsranont on 

Pof tbe «x-(i«iL'U'if MnlkArnUi Iiim ilualb a severu Uiiw t» the >)lk nnd eattaa 
M of AbmedalMd. The ^iftikuir V>iij;ht unmiAlly, partly Tor tUti u«e of hjj 
All pitrtly to be ciren in pivseuts. ailk koc<Ib incluiliiit; brociulos to the v&lav 
I £SOflOO i6re fai/iii ntiil L-otton goods, tiirhftns. WMtst clathn, dhoinnAci, 
nine of about £30,iKN> (thrMi ftiiJixi. the fiilunatnil prntiU »ut nfiirHprii 
( Im •ilk gfKMU about £5000 {Rn. -VJ.OOO) ami (m onttun giotU about £3000 
'aO,0iOI Note hj Mr. J. P. Fcmao'lvE, Drpaty Collmtot. 

Chapter VI. workmen, pay them for their lobonr, Bud sell the goods when 
Kuiafaotureg. "™ finally wnrltMl up. liosides to these silk dealers and silk Irwlcu 
tbe making of silk ^ruotls gives employment to a lar^ ouuibrr li 
people. Thciio workera may be divided into three main claua^ 
weavers and dyers of plain silks, chietly Uiadas of tlia KLuui, 
Kanbi, ond Bhavadr castes and MaHfUmADs; weaveraofbrocs':)- "->■'' 
|jattorna wrought In (he silk or woven with gold or silver t 
chieOy Kaubis and Kbatris; and silk prioten, chieSy IthAnAri 
Kliatris, and some Mtiaotni^s. Between the limu it coma ta 
AUuiodabad iu mw hnuks nnd is ready for sale either &s pUiu Of 
brocade cloth, the silk passes through the bauds of eleren seioriif 
sets of workmen ; thorcoIer,/;Ao^iar; the sorter, cAauruir, the s; 
kanfndr ithe warper, (nmiar ; the miser, uehdiHtuir ; the dyer. ra<.j„ 
the sizer, PUHdr ; the hoddlo filler, riifh bhariuir; the joiner, namt^nVt. 
the thread arranger, Itlidnjni I'ftanuir, and the weaver, vanntir. 
are almost all Hindus, Kanbis by caste. The reeling and 
are toft to women aud girb ; tho other prDcessea arc done by nni. ' 

ketUug. On reaching Ahmodabad the first process tbrongh which. tb«i 

Cscs is rei-ling. The paie-ycllow hank of raw silk is plaood 
qHoo cage nhout three fei^t rovind with a central rod «b< 
toot long. The winder, generally a young girl of the Kaubi ( 
on the floor with the bamboo cage on her right hand side, and in j 
right hand a reel tn which tho end of the hank is Fastened. 
the central rod of tite bamboo cage agsinst her left foot she 
rapidly by twisting the end of tho rod between two of her tti«a,j 
as the threads are set free winds them on thu reel held ia ber 
Soriitt^ As the threads of raw silk vary from coarse to fine, tbe di 

sorts have to bo woend on diSerent reels. For tliis purpose Uis) 
of raw silk is handed over to a sorter, Widnnnr, who has by 
side live reels, one for enrh of the five TArietiea of silk. After 
its quality tho sorter fastens the thread to its pn>per reel. 
pressing the full reel against her left foot and allowing th<^ th 
pftss through her fingers, so long as its quality remains anci 
sbo lcoc()s winding it round the reel in her right hand. When 
is any change tho thread is at once snapped and occordinj; to i 
quality of tho next purt of the silk a fresh reel is chosen. The 
joins the threads with much neatness and speed by placing the 
ends in her mouth and tying them with hor tongue. 

^SHibtg. When the silk has been sorted it is rej«ly to be spun. The 

hdnlmir, after winiling the threiul from the reel on to a 
tnuirtfers the bobbins to a machine corres(K>nding to the th 
inucbino in European silk factories. This consists of two 
frames about three feet high and 2^ feet apart, ono of t. 
and the other three foot broad. The broader frame 
divided by an upright wooden bar furnished on either sii 
alternate rows of seven pegs or pins pisced parallel tt> the 
bars of the frame. On those pins tho bobbins are pi. 
threads being each carrieil through a separate glas.*; ringsetOfl 
inner side of the frame, then through rings fastened Vi * " 
wooden squaie about two foet brood hung between the two 

finallj Fastened to separofco bobbins, which in two 
_ Jlrf seven each, are placed vertically in iho bars of tho 
frame. Bach of these three parts receives a distinct luotiou 
?heol about five feet in diameter^ attached to the two chief 
irks by beams of wood and bo forming' with them one 
lachine. A etring placed on tho tire of this wheel works 
rins set on the horieontal pins of tho inner and broader 
ork ; an armng^ment connecting it with an endless rope, 
onnd that part of tho nave of the wheel to which the faandle 
ed, gives a slow transverse movement to the central wooden 
irhile a second ropo encircling the other cad of the nave keeps 
a (be TGTtioal bobbina of the outer frame. 

breodfl are next handed over to the waiper, Idnndr. Under 
n beam, with twenty rings let into it, is laid a tray with 
bobbins. Abont four feet from tho bobbin tray ia tho 

frame, tana, two upright bars of wood about eight feet high 
b with a row of nine pegs. The warper passing a thrc»d 
jb bobbin through the rings under the beam, obovo tho 
luray, and agaia through a set of rings placed close together 
of wood about a yard long, fafltens the endH of tlio thread to 
«t peg on one side of tho warping frame. Then, taking in his 
1 the bar of wood with the threudud rings, and holding a rod 
g*ht hand, the warpor walks in front of tho frame and with 

ofhia stick paases tho threads over and under tho pegs, 
tdA and forwards, until enough has been drawn out to form 

iilk is then tied into a large hank and handed over to a 
■ehddndr, who stretches out the threads and arranges them 
irarp. Next the silk is sent to the dyer, rmi^dri, who boils 
e and sochi, Uidr, steeps it in alum wat^r for a niglit, washes 
I river, washes it a second time, and last of all dyes it. 

lyoing over, the silk goes back to tho ucnlidndr to bo droesed, 
QXt sent to the aizor, pandr, who strctchos ont tho threads 
feus them by brushing iu a dressing of size. Next the warp 
he made ready. This includes tliroe processes, hoddJe filling, 
and arranging. Tho heddlo 6Uor, rdch-hhamdr, according 
lattom passes threads through the loops in tho cords of tho 
t heddlos and among tho teeth of tho rood, phanl ; when 
I boon dono tho joiner, tdndfindr, fastens tho ends of the warp 
to the heddlos by tying tho correspondiug threads of the 
tboso passed through tho rood by tho heddle filler, and finally 
I the whole length of the warp tho hh/mjni hkarnar arranges 
nda ID accordauco with tho poaition the joiner has given. 

s ttio varp is ready it is carried to the weaver's hooso and 
|i is set in order. The weaver, vannnr, sits in a hole about 
it square dug into the ground when the room ia in tho 
ttory, or in a wooden box let into the floor when he works 
apper room. Immodiatoly before him is tho cloth-beam 
ih tne woven cloth when finiahod is wound ; then tho portion 
feb at which the weaver ia working; next the reed hung- 
lie ceiliug and enclusud in a wuudua framo heavy enough 

Chapter VI 






IBombftj OAHttMi. 


Chapter VI. 




to Fared liomo tho thronds of Iho woof ; and thon tSio be 

varying in nomber occonliTig to the patt:Om, fastened to s 

in the t-eilioR and ooiiiniaDicfttiing with treddles worked up nsi 
down by tho weaver's foot. Behind the treddles are horinontiU roii 

filacod between the att«mato threada of tho warp to prevent ibrv 
rom becoming cutonglod, and finally thoro is tho war|vbtani tm 
which tho warp is wound. Tho whole is kept tight by bclni? tind to 
a ropo which, panging round a piilloy in front of tho warp-boatt,il 
fast^iupd to a peg near the woavor'a bido and can be grmdnAy 
Blackened as tho web is wound in. 

To weave silks with bordon;, and to weave brooado, a raon 
complicated nrrongemeni of tho loom is noocusty. This apparato^ 
a kind of inverted lieddles, called the p»tt«m rvK-rh, in hang ahott 
tho warp immediately behind the hcddlosj tho other end of too oohfa ' 
being fastentMl to a honrxmtal band rtmning belotr the w9T|i. 
Like the cords of ft heddto the rtakfk strings where they emu 
warp have loops through which certain of tho warp threads 
posted. Bat instead of getting an np and down motion ' 
tredille* pressed by the weavei-'s foot the nakth is worked 
above. A child seated on a bench over the warp inacrta a roll 
thick wedge-shaped bar of wood and by giving it a twist, drawi in 
the cords attached to those of the threads of the warp wkica, 
according to tho pattoruj aro at any time to appear on tho auriaM 
of the doth. Tho ilesign, nakthf is arranged by the vreftver wbo 
adds to tho variety of tho^'ru by working different cx>loim(iE 
silk into tho woof, using alcio in tho riuto of tho richer cLrtfci 
thn?ads of silver and gold. The brocade wesvora ord gwuinQf 
Hindus of the Kaubi and Khatri castoH. 

Silk IB printed by knotting. To knot silk the nndyod cloth ili 
to a dranghtsman, chitarndr, who dindca tho whole surfiut* intii 
inch sqnnrca. Then it goes to the koottcTj bdndhndri, genomlly a [ 
who picks up a httle of the cloth at each comer of the sfjuare 
ties it into » knot, tho uunibornnd position of thc^c knotH or 
fixing tho character of iho pationi. After being kncittod, the 
Uaudod to tlie dyer, who dips the whole into the colour n-tjuin-d 
tho ground o[ tfifi paiU^ni. Tho knots are then uufusu-Mt-*! luid 
ailk that was tied up in tho knots shows in littlo white cirrle*. 
sometimes yellow ceutrou aro painted iu. This is tho tiiinplnij 
tho knottcil paitoms. In others, ospucially in tho flowor-gardrii, j 
vaiii, pattern many colours are used. In printing tho flowor-_ 
the parts that are tu remain white are knotted, nnd the cloth is tlj 
yellow, thi?n somo of the yellow aro knotted and tho cloth dyed j 
For tho fringe some sciirlot parts aro tied and the rest dyed 
"Whuu the printing is over the silk goes to the calender, /•an 
or hiiiiUviiUi, whoro it Im wjishod, starched, and dftm|Hwi witli 
blown in fine apray from tho worker's month, beat«>n by he 
malletK, knndif and folilod. Tho knotters besides middle anil 
clfwg Mnsalindn and Hindu womon are Chimddignrs, Mnsaluuuu M| 
Hindu origin, a hardworking, sober, and thrifty class. 

Of tho three chief classes of silk goods, plain silks, brocwles, i 
silk priutSj tho plaJu silks aro cither sold by Vtoi&s and BoborbJ 




ibul ebopSi or sent to K&ihi&w&r, Itajputana, Central InrlLi, 
ly, Iho Doccan, the Ceiitm! Pmvincca, aud tho Nizmii's 
inions. Somo arc also pxportcd from Bombaj to Siiim. The 
in plain silk goods has of late yairs sufterud from European 
ipotdtioa, and the pricen and rates of wanis aro said to uaye 
sulerably fallen. The brocades and cloths of silver and gold, 
. if uaed afi Htate dresses »nd tmptiingH for cattle, horses, and 
Dhants, aro by Vitnia and Kanbi dealora called dmhi vanid* sold in 
liaw^rand Central Intliiw Coosiderable quantities ar© sent to 
ibuy. Tlio gn)wing fiuibfoa at the coiirtH of GojarAt chiofa of 
. itig away with the nso of brocade haa of late considerably rodnoed 
le local demand. But theyatill find a good market in Central India. 
The eilk prints are used chisfly for women's robes and are by women 
' tho hijfhor classea worn in considemblo qnaniitics in Gujardt, 
kw4r, and Central India. 
rool weaving is not an indnstry of much importance. In 
bbad and still more in many of tho country towns, Bharvads 
Dheds weave wool into blankoLs and paok saddles. Those 
lea have no special merit and are ma<lo chiefly for local nae. 

jry working is carried on only to a small extent. The ivory 

>ught from Catch and Bombay, and in Ahmedabad and to a 

extent in Dholera, MoJAsa, aud other country towns is, by 

I, nianidr«, Kanbis in the city^ and Vdniis and Moa&lm&na 

conntry towns, worked into bracelct-s in the same ysnj aa 

brooeleta. No toys or other artioles are made. Ivory 

"lots are chieBy nsed locally by high caste Hindu women and 

)me Musalman women of Hindu descent. Little goes beyond 

rict limits. The trade is in a thriving condition. All who can 

it wear ivory braceleta for outdoor nso. Even poor KoUa and 

low-caste« stint themselves to buy these bracelets for their 

lOD. Sixj three on oiurli nriu, are g<;nenilly renuirod to bo worn 

ihwomanj and are worth fi-ora£210ir. to£5(Rs. 25-Ra. 50). 

10 of the processes whicli lias fallen into decay, and may be said 
alt but extinct, is inlaying wood with patterns of mother of 

rl. The work is to be seen on the wooden canopies over the shrines 

}h£h A'lam and Sarkhej, and on stone in the marble tom.b of 

of Saltan Ahmad's queens. Tho simpler designs wore formed 

filing pieces o£ mother of pearl to the required size, and 

kting them into tho pattern cut in the block of wood. The more 

>nite designs wore, with fragments of different colonred mother 

[poarl, worked into cemeut and laid on the surface to be 

}Dtcd. Uf tlio coarser and commoner kinds of iiilaying a littlo 

11 nsed for tho frames of tnmhurii*, Tuhdhn, and other gnitars 
ITiotins. No one now practises tho finer forms of inlaying, and 

ono man eapports himself by inlaying mus^ical instrnmonta. 

ither working gives employiuent to a large class of people 

Dah'jarH, Hindus of tho Morlii caste, and Mnsalmilns. Tho 

jf articles are jars for holding clarified butter, made of buffalo 

the thickest of vtmi Indian bides. To make those jars, 

3W clay moalds of tho required shape and usually about half an 

Ihick aro made iu tlu'ce aoporatu pieces, the body, the neck, and 

Chapter VL 




Inlaid Mother 
tif Pearl 


Chapt^ VI- 



lUe rim, anil are left to dry in tlie sdo. A sHn, trtA from Uk 
slaaghter hooBo^ is for scvoraJ boars ecnked in cold water and iixsn, 
khohair and fatty matt-cr is scraped off with a knife, ojid thoakiB 
spread on a stouo or uurblo slab about two feet \hsve inchea loag 
by eighteen inches brcwul. Wbile still wet the skin is laid with tim 
hand round the body of iho mould, and pressed to it with a roagh flat 
Btono. Three pieces are generally enoagh to make the first cost 
of the body of the bnckot. Meanwhile the clay neck is faatenod to 
the body of the jar with wet clay and a strip of lenther ia braorift 
round it ; the jomings of iho edges of the skina being filled wn 
pulpy scrapings and <^MidB and onda kept on a wooden block cloaBbj', 
the skin is then smoothed over with the d'ihar,n flat loather-corend 
cloth stick ; tlie rim is then fastened on in tho same way an the oMk 
and a picoo of skin is rolled round a oirole of olay and DasleDed to 
tho neck with small leather shreds. If a speoially strong w ■ 
roquirctl a second and sometimes a third coat of skin are addolj.. 
paper omnmcnts, wriLt^n oddrcssoi^, and names, are often tl 
luidor tlio outmust skiu. When the jar is ready it is pot in the : 
to dry. It is then beaten all over with clubs bu that tho clny 
is broken into fragmonta and can be poured out throngh the monl 
As a rule tho smallur the bucket tho thiuner is the skin. The wc 
making tho clay moulds ia gonomlly left to tho Dabgar womoiL 
butter and oil jars besides bdng used all over Gujar&t ara 
to the Persian QuU, the Bed Sea, and Africa. Another 
made by Dnbgara is ecaloe, tdjva. These ate mode by stn^tching 
pieces of hide on clay pots, maikds. During the rainy aeas^ ~^ 
tho work of making IcBlher jars is at a standstilli the 

£»int in oil colours and varnish common cotton nmbnlUis. 
te years (1874-1878} tho gi-eat export of hides to Europe is: 
to lave raised the prioe of leather and lessoned tho uianotactura 
jars and scales. 

"Hioro is a largo manufacture of shoos, Ahmodsbad women's 
being thought the best in Gujanit. In jUimcdobad u she 
WKXihi, makes saddles and bridleo after th<j English fashion. Huoti 
whips and shields are also mmln to ii siimll extent, tho latter ci 
to order. Buffalo and cow skin hides are also need cxtena 
in spinning mills for straps and pickers. Some of the shocmakert 
are Musalmrma, the rest are Hindus of two chief divisions, OuJiiAi^ 
and Marviidi lijochis. 

Tho changes of tho lost twenty years have, on the whole, 
against craftsmen whose skill lies in spocitU horeditary pr 
and in favour of those whose ctUlings are more varied and 
Djrers, weavers, and paper makers aw often worse off, while 
t<ir3 and blacksmiths are bettor off than before. Yet, except . 
special cases as tho Dholka weavers and the Viramgiim dyers, " 
whom Riiropean competition has forced into domestic service 
other callings, the artisans aoattered through the distriot 
gained by the wealth of Into years spread among tho lower . 
Thus in Dh.andhuka, which may be token as a fair type, it is tbo<„ 
that while three-fourths of the cultivators are in debt, four-fiftlu ^l 
theartitiaus arc free from debt. To craftsmen, almost as much tf 

Ubonrers, their power of moving abont baa beon a Rain. Nearly 
mrciy odo of (he floariiihiDg Dbulera cmftsmcn is eitiuir himself or 
tlw son of a newcomer. Thirty years ago there was only one 

Lot dyers in V^ghpur. Now there is a large commonity. 
■s of tailors go from Viraragam by rail to AhmiHlabad and 
to Bombay for tho working season, retaniing to their homos for 
roina when thoy prepare r^y^mado clothing for sale. These 
lovomcnts are the result not only of safe and easy roads but of the 
spirit of personal independence so strongly fostered by the present 
jinistration. On the other hand besides the wider and fiero«r 
ipelition nndcr wliich in several cases their special skill has lost 
wUae, their love of show and want of energy iielp to depress the 
tiian classes. It has boon noticed (p. Ill) how the guilds, 
ajans, with iron force keep back any attempt to introduce 
iptttvemente for saving labour or making it uioi-o efficient. The same 
sy is unscmpalooaly used by niujoritiea to keep tho industrions 
^' active few from rising above tho common level. Byo-laws, 
shea of which are puuishwd by heavy fines, lay down the hours 
rithia which the building of a houso «hall proceed and the number 
fcilca or bricks which shall be tamed out of each kiln. It is 
reenlt of the systematixed tyranny of these corporations, and 
wont of energy and entor|mze nmmig their memborB, that 
many artizana havo marked mecbauical skill none of them 
risen to iuQueuce and wealtL'- 

Chapter VI. 

1 1 MitcrialB fortliU and ncrcml other ports of tbA nunnfaiotimw aeotton hsve boon 
■■ ■ bjr Mr. F. S. P. Lely, C.S. 






of Ahme<1ntMu1 anil in tho Daskroi Babdivision, VinuDg&m, 

niiJ tho Pcaliwft's Bliai-o in liiirsol and Modlisa. Aftonnvds,' 

nn lulilitiunal articlu to the same treaty, in exchange for tbo 

of Dftbboi, BhiMnmaTfl, and S4vli, tho G&ikv&r ceded* his vn 

BbareB in the city oi Ahtnedabad and in tho I>aekroi sab-diriaiML 

Tho torritory acquired in 1802-3 romainod under the Reeideat at 
Baroda till, on the 14th May I80fl» it wm inclnded in tho ohatfH^ d 
tho newly appointed Collector of l^ra.' On the lot o£ Juitmn 
1818j in ronseqnence of froah coBBiona of territory, Ahmed&lad 
waa made a separate di»trict.' In IdSO Eairawas rcdared to be i 
tiub-(HilIectorate and pUcoil under tbo charge of the priuc^ 
Collector of Ahmodabad. This arrangement contiaaed f« tnlj 
three years when Kaira was again made, and has since onntinnad, t 
separate charge. Since 1830 betweon Abmodabad and Kaira a iet 
Tillage tranafcra haro been made, and in Ahmedabad tin 
grouping of villagee in sub-divinionB has from tdme to time brat 
tkttered. Bnt except that in IdGO tho CoUoctor'fl civil and onBuadl 
management of 1 Id Bhitvnagar Tilll^r<^ was withdrawn, tho limits of 
his ol^ge have ruinained unchanged. 

For Hscal and othor admimstratire purposes the landfl an 
distributed among Bcven Rub-diviaions. Of theee aix aro geaoaSijf 
entrusted to covenanted assistants and one kept by the Collector unHtf 
hifl porflcnal control. The anperrisioQ of the district treosiuy ii 
in tLe hands of an nnooTcnnnl«d BBsistant styled tho head-qnartcr 
or hnanr denuty collector. These officers are also assLstanta t-i ihe 
Ot'UectoraauistrictMapistrBto, and those of them who have reveaoe 
rliargo of portions of the district have, nnder the presidency r.f !}-■ 
Collector, the chief nMuoagcment of tho difforeot adiuim^ 
bodies, local fund, and municipal committees within the liimLs <ii 
their revenue charges. Under tho snporviaion of tho Collector attd 
his assistants, the revenue charge of each fiscal anb-divisioD b 
placed in tho hand? of an officer styled mdmlaiddr. These funoticB- 
aries, who are also entrusted with mi^^stArial powers, ha\*e Teadf 
aalaries varying from £120 to £300 {lU. 1200-Rs. 3000). One of (lu 
fiscal sub-divisions, Par^tij, contains a pottv division, peia nattS!, 
placed under tho charge of an officer styled mahaU^r!, on IK 
(Rs. 960) a year. Besides the above, there is in Uholera in 
X)handhaka sub-divisinu, an officer styled fh'ivthir on £!)6 (Ha.! 
year, who exercises magisterial and other administrative power!.' 

In revenue and police matters the charge of the 443 stAte 
is entrusted to 487 headmen, of whom fifty-one are 8ti[>endiaiy 
436 are het^ditary. One of the stipendiary and thirty-nix of I 
hereditary headmen perform revenue duties only; forty-fire off 

] Aitclitoon's Trcittiu, IV. 233 and Pratmble of tLea. III. of 1819. 

s Reg. n. af imh. R..C.. V. 

s K«s. IJ I. of ISID. 3«c. III. Tlia Kb&ri rirvr ww mala tho bnnodMy 
Al>m»aalwduid K&Lra. In the case of riUam with kecU on both uitti 
river. It wan settled thftt the village btudB belMurwl h> tiia diBtnri vitltiil 
luiuulL«'riUiigeut«livB<'>B< l^ov. Iter. B«o.48/Vol.U.a< 1811,637. 




hereditary ftttend to mnttora of police only; wliilo fifty fitipeiiiliaTy 
And i}&5 nereditarj lieailmea are entru»t>e(l with both revenue aud 
police powers. The headman's pay, originally fixed with rorei-cnco 
to the villago rcvenne, varies in different vil luges from 12«. to .E4G 
(Bb,8-Rs. -ttiO) and averages Jt5 l-is. (lts.57). iJesidesthchcmlmau 
tbors are in many villages matdddrs, or Bigncrs, who may bo chosen 
as heodnion, and who recoire a yearly snm of £533 {R». 5330) of 
which £210 (Rs. 2100) are met by grants of land and £333 (Us.3230) 
ore paid in Of £2805 [Rs. 28,050) the total yearly charge on 
account of village headmen, £886 (Ra, SSdO) are met by grauts of 
bind, and flltK' (Us. 19,190) arc paid iu cash. 

The village aecountanLs, taldiifi, who under the headmen keep tho 
Tillage accouQts and draw ap statistical and other returns, nuuibor 
in 011248, or about one accountant fur every three villages, each 
charge containing on an average 1870 inhabitants and yiuldiug an 
average yearly rtntal of £320 (H3. 32C0). Their yearly salaries, iiaid 
in cash, averaging £15 (Rs. ISO), vary from £13 to £2i (Rs. 120- 
Ba. 2 10), aud i-epre-sent a total yearly charge of £3819 (lU 3y,-190). 

Under tho headmen and the village acconntants are the vilTngo 
serviuita with a total strength of liHi'J. These men are liable both 
for revenue and for police duties. They are either MusaUmius or 
Hindus of the Roll, Bhil, DLed, and Rhangia castes. Tho total 
yearly grant for the support of this establishment amounts to 
1353U (Ra. 35,300] being £1 l(jff, (Rs. 18) to each man, or a cost [ler 
.Tillage of £8 (Rs. 80). Of this charge £2184 {Rs. 21,840) ar« met 
r grants of land aud £1340 [Hu. 13,400) arc paid in cash. 

yearly cost of villago establishments may bo thus snm- 

Villrtge pat«;ls, £2805 (It«. 28,050) ; village accountani*, 

(Ra. 38,490); village Horvants, £^1530 [H*i. 35;j(H0 ; U.t^d, 

S5 (Rs. 1,01,850) ; equal to a charge of £23 {\W 2:10) ou oAth 

B, or T'Oi per cent of the entire land revenue of tho district. 


)C administrative history oi the Ahmedabail district Falls under 

chief periods. 

The management of the earlier possessions as part of the 

district, 1803-1818; ii. the ailrninistrntion of Ahmedaliad 
i(« formation in 1818 till the introduction of tho revenue 

in 1852; iii. tho years of survey, 1853-184)3; and iv. the 

tbat has since passed. 

Chapter^ VIII, 

Adminis trattoot j 


„„ for Um AdmiiuatntiTe HUton nf AhmetlailMid includa Col. Wklk«r'« 

I^Ol'lSOfi, iRoin. Ciav. SuT., New SariM, \X.\IX.); Mr. Itnwlea' Keporta 

(Bom. Ciov. Rt>v. Roc 102 of ISIS); Mr, T>unlop's Rcp^'ita 1R1!)1S2S. 

Ihiv. ICev. Reos. 141 nf tSI9 anrl 4.1 Vol. II. nf I821-'J2) : Hon. \l. Elpliirutontt'ii 

>I^-2I, (t^tlndJAlWn.Ill. GH-CiOI); Mr. \Vjt1iumHr>n'ii ltL-[j«rtM nf |g2t 

B, (Bom.Oiw. Rev. Rnc. 1" "f 1821, nuil Gov, Lithn. Pnpprs. M»l : Cuptdin 

i^Kjink'n and Liciitpn.T,nt Mi^Ivill'ii Roportn l.Si'.lHUT.dtnm. iTor. Spl X. and XL); 

t^wfonl * Jun^bandi KriHirt for l8-.'4-2fi, {Horn. Cnv. Itfv. Itcc. 117 of t82o) ; 

loitofi' Survey R-^i-rw I&il-ISSM (Ham. (Jnv. lUx. R^«. IJS of 19&S. ISfl of 

•ad.\hni«>Uli»dCoIlTCtor*H Rcc 237 of I856-18ft8) ; fspuin Frescrtt and Mr. 

♦r'.Siirvsy BeporW ISifl-lStW (fVum. firtv. Rev. Row. 1)1 \ nf IRfil and 510 i>f 

WM) ; and Mr, I'cilot Tjilutd.iri S<;tllcincnl Rcimrt (.Bum. Ci«v. S«l, CVL) 

« 187~ 19 

{Bombay Omxrttic 



liapler Vm. 

Admin istrntion. 



i, uatttlial. 

Mticli mixcyl with Pyahwa, OAIIcw&r, ami Cwnbny Ii 
expoKeil Ut the mills of Uio iitiHi^ttli'd Kntliiiiwiir trit>iitario«; 
pnrt of tho tlij<tri(tii waste; the reremic imliT^d by force; 
mtnily clnKscs rubbing' iiiid pliinilorin); ut wtllinnd the ordf 
inhftbitATitR in a ntato of mai^h Tnificry ; Dhnllca, Dliandlinlni, 
tiogba, when handed over in 18UU, wero most difticult to mnnagri 

Compared with tho landn Koath nf the Siharmati their clw£ 
pocuharity was the largo proportioD of villages that paid thu 
only andurthe pressure of military force. UTio practice wiaalo-j 
over the Biib-^livision, f>n a five or nix years lease, to a 
kiimAfiinidr. These nfficers, seldom liviDg is tho district, 
littlu irttt<n>f>t in its welfare and rack-rented tlieir elmryft>B, 
\Hrfio Hiinm from refmcs and fines. Under tho manager wi 
some ports, snb-divisioaal revenue ofHcers, the aapcrintCDC 
desiii, or the assistant ntipcrintendent^ amin pairl, nud the . 
divisional accouotanl, Mnjiumhir; in oilier paria their aQc 
had been annexed und their otiices abolished. Most settled 
had their he.^(lme^, and n few their acconntant, fnUUi, the headmU^ 
servant, and there were se-ciirities who, especially in Dhallu, 
raised themselToa to be large land ownura, aawtR<2,i.r«. 

Tho Tillages wero of three classes ; settled, rd*li, whoM 
civil ofiicers collected; unsettled, metti\isi, which paid only ai 
militaiy compulsion ; and mixed, which somctiinDs paid qtiio 
Bometiniea under rn.*.isure.' Except in Dhollta, wheroof 200',™. 
149 were eitlier altogether or partly settled^ tho villngies were«li 
entin-ly unaottled^ mehitui. In Plianillmko 102 of the TillaeM 
uriBcltU'd and one was peaceful ; in Ranpur foriv-Gve wore uui- 
and fotir peaceful ; and in Gogha 145 wero uuscitlcd aud thita' 

Tho people of tho unsettled villages, who were alsci scatti 
email societies in tho peaceful villajfe*', wero Rajptits, Kolis^ aad '. 
Among' them, besides tlic ordinftrj- villagora, was a c uperior p 
claxs, divided inl-o three grades; a lower, who by sub-dh 
mortgn^'e, and iMilo had lost their land ; a middle, the proprietoni 
villiiK'e or of a group of villages ; and iin upper, who by «< 
and by actiug as protwtoiTs against common enemies, had 
ho tho lords of considorahlc tnicts of crmntry. The lower orl 
class, cultivators in name, earned their living chiefly ma rql 
and plunderers. The middle clu*», the holdors of villages 
village shares, elaiined to represent tho original Rajput famihcB 
in Musflhn^n times were known as zaniimUirg or proprictora. 
tho begiuuiog of British rnle, »o much of their prtiperty asrtni 
in their liaiids, wa« secured to them iminipaircd. hiko 

1 DbAndhuluk puseil fiviBr. i\u: C.t\\v\tAt to tho Pdcliwa io 1761. netnut ' 
time and ilfltraiiRft:r tollic IVitith. I'luLtiiUiuLa wiuiripi>«Ml lotliv cx»cti04Wtfin 
l«rilwra»a(lili«(teprBiUtioiia nr )>r>dit» ol borMu 111* viUa^m foU in min nit 
of Umnir»» dMcriwI. At tlic tinu of tranifv wtcdJ of Ihe Mnallw IsihUmI 
vace aasions to bs plMed latdi^r the prnVctlon of tcmeeliief. Rit* MAls, <U 

> A fnUer aocmint of Uw difTcrcncu lictwa«n Mttl«d, rvK*, lad utittttlcd, ■''I 
rilUeu » givco ftt q, 81 of tlM Kmia t>Ututa<«l Aocvunt. 



ors, Uieir shares were oitlicr held by n family m common, 
^ OouBOut of alt was roquircd for its solo^ or sejjarutely, 
hch holder vsa frco to dispose of the land as ho chum;. 
'juii ol iuilugtry vr&& tho great difficulty iu dc&ling with 
this class. Among tbcm no proFetision wn^ honoui-ablo 
I profesaioQ of arms; no life wiu worth living but a life 
inoe. Ignorant of the comforts uf a sottlod life aud liable at 
ie to lottc atl they poRitcsflcd, tlioy took no pains to gain 
>r to bctttir IhuirsUte. During thu laltvr part of the eighteenth 

I when Moghal rule wais lou^L'iicd aud Mm-atha uacuiidaQcy 
established, tho failure of the centnil authority to sheltLT 

Dm the raids of freebooters and the uxactiuus of their 
* Deiglibount, drove tho owners of iiiaiiy villngim to Roek tho 
>n of local chiefs- Sometiraoa tho cesRipu was in pcrpctoity, 
bonictiines for a certain number of years, aetul, Iu somu 
partook of the nature of a free grant, in otiiera ofamifrt- 
mutiial convenicnco. In alitiosf.all cn<^es only a share of tho 
and a subsistooco^^'tinji, was ruservud for the original uwnur. 

of the landholders as were ablo during those disturbed times 
to their estates aimed at becoming indepundent ebiufs. 
in furtilietl village's, some oF thoiri strcMigLlicnud by Im-go 
lilt castlon, they kopt bandAnf armoJ foUowor^, both foot aud 
t guard their persouH and villages^ and to wtigu war on their 
ura. They manogiMl tlieir aflnirs and settled their dispntca 
own will, and so long as they wore not hostile and paid 
ibatc, the paramount power never ineddfod either with their 
or tbcii- hotue sffmrs.' 

opolation of the qniut villages belonged to three classes, tho 
■8 and artisans, the cultivators, and the Tillage headmen and 
re. Tho villago hcadnieu had uo formal cniolameutsi they 
teir position pay by sparing their own land whon distributing 
rerniaent burden. The mass of the cnltivatora, though, 
ig to the custom of tho coaatry tlioy could not bo ousted 
eir holdings, did not own their fields, bat held tbcm from (bs 

II OS tho managor of tho Goveminout interest in tho Tillage, 
fferent parts of the district, but especially in Dholka, besides 
^ Girasia landholders, a body of men called Kasbatis or 
en, the descendants of rich soldiers, hod by lending money 
Ing na revenne securities raised themselves to be upper land- 
middlemen.' Usefnl as a set-ofTto tho Oirasias, the Kasbatis 
n treated with much indulgenco by the Gaikwili-, and somo 
, claimed tho right of settling for the rental of the villages 
heir management. About the year 1750 they IkkI gained 
rver villages by bringing them into cultivation, stipulating 

Chapter VUL 




I, uimatea. 



iQoar. SoL XXXIX. 61. The follnwing (lolailB sh^w the ilrength of toma 
})Umf*. In Ukolka the KuLli cUuf bail 2(HI0 fnilitin. ami IM Imm.- : the 
^m(, ft coiBtout (urw of 1000 rutfu;tliu Uliivtu^ur cbiwf, 7uOO in^tntry 

|l»t ViutltcuTcputAtionthat ih'irprntoctinnwMiiAii] forliy merchants, ami 
nMJBcd or itiiiwioMl liilluU oil tbuir ilulilorji witliout Mty rufsrcace Iu tha 
AU. I>uiU»p to 'ivvcnuuciit, Sth t^'|>t. 1517.. 



Chapter VHI- 



lAraC /Jv»J\ml. 


nl Uow RMiiixd. 

thai ihpy ehould be aJIovcd to Icn&o tUom at a fixod real. Wha 
the h'wv foil in, it was ronowcil atid iastemlof forcinj^lhe fannen b> 
Adminutratioik close all trbusaciiona connected with tho former loue, the Gaikwir'i 
Govonimt-ui iillnwL-d Ihctu to take bonds from the 
villages for balunccn of ntvcnuo. In pAymcnt of thcae 
Kftsbuitis obtaiut^l Unda and sometuut>0 whole villages in. 

In unsettled villages the ctiltivaton, beAided Inrtb anct 
fees, pnid the suporinr landholder one-half of tlmir rrupe. 
average mtc^ mnch tho samo as that in force in qnict -rillngvn. 
shareholders ]>nid a. qnitreat varying in amoont from ]<. i 
8d., and in Bome cases rising as liigh as S«. an acre. V 
proprietors paid for their vill^e a Inmp snm that was liable 
increased and was Bubjt-ct to the levy of additional ccsaea.* 
pAj-ment cf the larger chit'fx, though in name a rental, /<hmI| 
much of the chnr»cter of a tribute and was enforced oulj 
presence of troops. The amount wi» fi.\ed by the chief's 
rexilit rather than by his ability to pay j when the avoi! 
vinn tiLroug, the demand wax raised. 

Kxcfjit that very many of the villnges were in th© bands of 
of capital, who c-hiofly a» Bnretics had oonio to bold a middle flpaf 
between the village managers and Government, tho iijiitwiiil 
realizing the revenue of qtiiet villnges was the same as in KlAk 
For eaeh village the nmonni was fixed by the district oAmh 
and the headmen, 5iireLies were taken from tho beadraen, M^ 
they were left to arrange with the cultivntors how much psoh '■■ 
to ])ay. Except specially sottlfHl par*len lands^ tho rent* wsit 
fixed either on the basiB of oue-haU share of the produce tak«fi is 
money or kind ; or tho reut was a money acreage cbargo, dctenninel 
partly by the nature of the gronnd and the sort of crop l' ' " 

niaiiily on tho distance of the field from tho village :- 
revenue was paid iu two inBtaimeuts ; in October, and in ^LuxiL ^ 
April. But a considemble portion oftc-n lay over till July or .\:i^<. 
Provision was genenilly made for lowering tho deuiiuid, 
event of war or loss by a ba<l season. As a rule tho system of . 
with men of capital and of forcing them to give suix-ties, ^ 
the punctual pnymont of the Government share. Vilbige h< 
unable to recover their rents from the cultivators, often .- 
mortgaged portions of Govonimcnl land. Failing an armngx: 
of tlim kind, the crops were attochcd, and when ripo one^haJf of 
j>i-oducc was kept For Governments Cultiratora were seldom 

1 The M*rAUiiii>li&il added to ttuirdcmrunla. Bom.CnT.SeL XXXIX.44-f7t 
Klto loviwi a tlnli piiwttrr, gvldt, bms, » datant oaMt ■'■'^ ^ cUiapar or bouif 
Bom. Gov. 8til. .\X\IX. I9i 

I Tho hSffka nte wm ganonlly Icm th&n the xlure ntc, IU. 4 tn TU. A 
Ri. 6 lo R>. S. Th« exAmjilei of hif/ha imt«a given by (A>l<nM>) Wftlk«r 

Ba- 3-Re. 4: pulw, Bs. 4; noc.Rs. S-Ks. 10 iiumcwnv, XU. 10- Its. 20; 

IU. 8-lia. IfiiplAntniniiRs. 15-Bs. S0;vrg«tablu,lls.6-lU.8 ; ein^r. Ks. llH 
if pwwTi by well water, IU. 10;ifliy r»in, JU R. Bom. Rov. fid. XXXI.X.IM 
DnQlop >ay* : In jirMtico Alcbar'« lurvey Mid ralei wijro pntirrly 
CtaTcnim«nC e.\tarto(I vhat revvDue they could Irvm ImmuUuou, aiAnsgcn, ur 
vriLliout uaring how it vos raised. 

im the land ; bnt^ occept fheir tools, tbeir property vas liable to 
t'lxr sold. 

For the fntare rerenao mRnagcment of tlio district, Colonel 
iValker was of opinioD, ttat in villages bclonf^ng to the more power- 
fni chiefs, the system of coUecting their tribute ahouldnot bechanged, 
overament heid probably no right to ioterfero in the management 
' tlieeo principalities. The chiefs were bound to pay their tribute, 
~ to fcpcp from breaking the peace, and as thoy seldom did as 
eiy ought, a just cause would never long be wanting for bringing 
to more perfect obedience. But in Colonel Vralker'e opinion 
■w»r with thoKajpntsand Kolis would cause mnchlossoflifeand would 
bring neither glory nor gain ; * At present,' he wrote, ' we have tho 
hiefs' trufct and wspiHit in a very high dogreo. An attempt forcibly 
cbftngo their customs would rob us of their friendship, and 
if tho attempt failed, we sliuuld busidoa their hatred have their 
cy>ntempt. An acknowledgment of their submiaBion as subjecta 
ehoiild be taken. But no attempt should be mode to raise the revenns 
demand. In unsettled villagCH without any acknowledged chief, 
i|ho revenue should be collect-ed from the cultivators or the villago 
imen.andnot from OJie of thesuperiorholdoraor from asaroty. In 
Tillages, instead of tho destructive Hysteui of farming, and tho 
of middlemen with Jta disgraceful collusion and chicane, 
>*CoTnpaDy's servants should collect the revenue and so secure tho 
[li»tncfl and gratitude of tho cultivators. Finally from illegally 
ienatcd Govemment lands a large increase of revenue should ha 

Dnring the first ten years, ColoneTW"alker*8 advice to change the 
:em of manngement as little as poKsiblo, was carefully followed, 
'ortwo years (lSO-t-1805) thn district remained under tho charge 
'tiie Resident at Baroda, During that time except that the chief 
ional officer, A:«7H/ii'rV/(ir, ceased to be tlio farmer of tho 
'cnue, the managemeTit remained unchanged, and police and justice 
CTC administered according to local usages and the principles of 
cqnily.* In 1806 the district was brought under the charge of tho 
ColUnrtor of Kaira and in the same year tho British regulations and 
SjTitcm of jtiHiicR wore introduced. Those Acts contaiued no 
jrisions to meet tho special case of the almost indepondent chiefs, 
t as their followers did not attempt, by an appeal to the British 
rts, to interfere with thn chiefs' authority, the change in tho 
I* position did not at first cniiso diilirulty or hardship. At 
eanie time the introduction of British regulations was important, 
it Bottled what at (irst wfia doubtful, that in proprietary villages 
tgu authority vested in tho Company.* 

1 7Ua. n. of 1606. , ^ ^ , . i 

. 1 CoEtoI W*tker found ibe Dbolka cWeft in a gwnt acgreo SndepGndent, neway 
(OlhefuotingoftbcKatWiwlr tributarioi. Bom. Uot, 8o1. \XXIX. I*. •'"*•• 
wt«»liMii«ithAlthuPi«hw» tftd jurisdiotjcm anr ths dtttticta lod m^gestwl that 
ll« Ginuii* ■bould, like tho Dholom proprietor*, bo intluiNwl to giro np thftir 
-liudktion. Tbc oiiestion of jurifldi(.-tM,n w.-ut .lisn-'UBse.! nt kiij:th nad tho nctKni of the 
-|Ut fioreramenl WM i" the end apt"^*'^l I'i' *'"^ t-*'""* "^ Dmjctorfc Bnm. Oo*. 
V^SStli May 1SI7 j East India rai>c», lU. (17. Th«I-hikot of Bhiva«eM 

ChapteT VUL 







- m*. 

Tho next points for decision wore whollier ihe Girfaifa wew iWi 
owners of villagus uud estates, nod if so whetlier Government bad 
n ri^lit tu iiicnuwii tliuir puyiiicntH. In ISIO aiid IBll Mr. Rowle* 
the Cullector o£ Kuira imiuired at leu^h into these question*. 
His rest-nrches saLisikil him Unit tho Gir^iis wcro proprietors.' 
At the samo time he was of opinion that tho Oovcminent doouuid 
was not of the nature of a tribute but was buod on b riRht In 
share in tho Titlaf^ revenui:. In snmiort of this ho showwl \Jbat, 
the amount paid by the Thdkor of Limodi had vuried from yew Ui 
y(^ar, and Uiat ''through the venality, remiasnesflt and irabcoiUty 
of porsoDS chargfx] with the maiottinance of tho rtgbta o£ Um 
soTOi-eign/ tho Dhanduka landowners had sinco 1725 been aUu 
to reduce their payment to about oue-half.* He sbowed that tlta 
IlhATUogar chief, though his right to the lands was no boUerlluft 
that of tho smaller proprietors, was (1814) payinpf only fiftMO 
instead of twonty-iive percent.' Mr. Itowlcs' vibwh wuro adopted tf, 
the Ilombay (lovernracnt and the Bhavnagar chief's coniribotioa 
(1816) raised by £l«aO ("Rs. 18,000).* Another important cban_^ 
introduced about tho same time (1812), was thcpayinont of GirasU/ 
money claims from the GoTornmont troasnrics. Those cbiimaw^^ 
of less importance than iu Kaira. A nomber of tho ]>aTn>cnUk 
blackmail to tho Kiitliiiiw^ cliiefa, eoasod to be demanded wl-iii 
Kithiawiir came nndcr tho Company's superintendence. Ami i" 
tho bnrdou was gi^imlly lightcuud, caro was tiiken to avoiJ w>j 
step that might give rise to the idea tlxat tho claims were iast a» 
would bo enforced.' 

Thongh the country was not one in which any rapid iaiproTctDOit 
could bo oxpectod, tho lii^t ten years of Uritinh rule wer© w* 
without good results. Boundary disputes, formerly settled by 
fights between several hundred armed men, had almost censodj tlfl 
feuds of the diCterent chiefs had been sapprossed ; tbe K^tbi t^itt 
to & great extent, stopped ; and the pcacefnl demeanour of Girui^ 
and Kolis showed their contentment under tho CompJi.ny*s rulo.* 
At the tMime time order was by no means well eata.blis]ied. AuHSg 
the Rajputs cases of self-oiitlanry were common, and so stinf 
was tho feeling of insecurity that, long before nightfall, liusbandam 
were in the habit of leaving their fields and seeking shelter witlun 
their walled or hedge-girt villagoa. There was stul tho risk of i 
KAthi raid. Each village had its outlook on some tall tree or otlcr 

at OiBt B])ueiaUy exampte<l from Dritiah jariailiction, forf«it«d the pdnlipla 
uieoDndnct in IKl^. Ham. nuv.Sul. CVJ, II. Another ]iniiitof iinport*BC« MtflM 
4t an early date wna tbnt tlio riKlit tu lury tranut ilutm beluitged to tlir Sii|>irm 
Vowrr Mid coald Ijo PXrroiBwl liy,no ]m>uri«t(>r within the CVmnMiy'i tocrilvnai. 0«* 
Eca. S.'ir.l Aur. 181S ; B^nii. <iw. Rov. JUic. 102 of ISIfi, 2302. 

■ Kut Initu I'A|>cn, III. 71!). . 

* In 1811 tLo7|Mir1 £:^0U (IU 27,O(K>HMNfDr]00vaiag6«thiUiui 1733 ttteyU 
[wi<) for lirtv»iii«- Kast Inilin r;t|K.-n. IU. 790. 

> Mr. itowlop. 23rd >Urvh ISIl. Hnm. Got. Rer. Rec. 102 of 1SI5, 236t\. 

* ffcim Ctav. IVspntcb I7tli April 1810. This de^iinon wu aftcroktilii [I4t: 
1819) Kiiiii-ovuil )>y lliu Court of llir«utur«, who huM tlut the ri^'ht of Gotciuii' 
incrauuthoGirAauta'tributofollciwodfrtttn tlipdcciMiiii un iliu r|iicMi<>iiof»ovcnuiikj- 
GiriaUa wen on tbo mme footing am olhur Kibjirlii, nml tUi^ir proiH-rty h^k IuLk W 
(I [irdjmrtiotiAte iLlitira of tlin ntilijjc tiuiiU-n*. IvAst Iiiatia ['iqient. III. liSK 

A Kiul laClia Vnptn, Ul 

C-ulIoctor of Kaira, Aug. 20, ISOS. 

WL aiimedabad. 

^^^8rfi post, ready at the sigbt of a dast clontl to beat tlio alarm. 

I At tbc sound of his drum rose the cry ' Tho KCithis are coming.* Tho 

mm hnrric*! in from tho fields, tho cnttle gathered together, nnd 

the wniiion rushed oat to hulp thorn into shelter. SoniL'timca 

the K.-ithi horse were too quick for them. Then thnro waa a 

<»mt)ronji'se or u hai:d fight, the bravo Knnbi and Rajjiut freely giviuff 

his hfc, AS many a ptUia or memorial atone along that border laud 

ahowa. It was most difhcult to bring a criminal to justico. Tho 

people gave no help and sureties forfeited their bouda rather than 

sumtiiler thoculprit.^ In Goj^ha, iu 1814,' there wae an uuccacing 

8tTnpi>;lc Iwtween tho cnltivntora and tho proprietors. ITio 

proprietors exercised a haughty superiority over their inferiors,' 

^_ihc burdciiH TTcre uneipinl anti tho husbtLudmon unsettled. Except in 

^■fehf! Btuivnagar villages there wan a general want of industry. Ijargo 

^Kfertile tmets watered by abundant stroamt: lay waste, or were used 

^fonly as pasture grounds.* 

j Tho next six years (1314-1820) saw much, mpider changes in 

I' management. The iirst was the appointment of villagu police boudmen 
and of Government village accountants. Police headmen were 
itroduccd over tho whole district. This change greatly afTeetodtho 
jition of the larger Inndlonls. Either their former police authority 
handed over to a village headman, or tlio proprietor waa 
[.ioucd in the exercise oE his powers, but only as the Magistratc'a 
it. At the same time Government accountants were introduced 
all the settled villager, and details of village managomont wore 
collected. Tho inquiry' showed a very uncqt]»l assessment, and in 
>nie cflscs highly oppressive cesses. These cesses were consolidated 
ith the regular rental, and, where heavy, were lightened. And in 
Hi>nit> eai^os village committees, jjfinfiA^ij/frfjif, were chosen to asffess 
^_|the land at more ©onal rates. Government village accountants, 
^■Ifaongb not appointed in Dhandhnka and Oogha, were in Dhulka 
^^Introciuceid into the unsettled, as well as into tho settled, vilhigea. At 
th« same time tho Government demand was greatly increased, tho 
•hare left to soino proprietors betug limited to twenty per cent 

1 Kini. DetL of Himl. I. 6ft3. 3 noni. Gov. Kor. Uoe, 102 of 1S15. 2272. 

» ■^mcfl 1814/ whUfc Mr. L<!ly, 'the rdiitionii l>otwocn prr>priftors and tenants have 

gTc-*Llv i-luiDgMl. J b&v(< hcAr-I iMiim) an <>1A OinlCMt oomnUin bitt«rly of hulesa 

at pmttiiin. Furmvrjy, ho uu'l, uiie uf tlitt lower clfiAaea a KuU or i'liittvii/a, on HxB 

'~ 't^ of tiii tva would not Ham to put tho bH>l<<f;moin en a hone>auil ponulv him 

Uic Tillogo with mnaic. A rorv rL't|iuatii)>1c onltivator might ecit his oon in 

idkrtv l>ut the iioDM iTA* kept fnr BiAJimana, V.'ViiiAe, nnii Oiniaiix, Non'-ft*(LifS 

ytho*rt*i ckiigi-t n, bono riitni it. Porcnerly, not «v«ii a V4uii wunld dorv Ut ooms 

ininMo the Darhir^liio homu and preinUeo of tbeCit-^ia)ninokinR a ptiio. He woold 

larit viite b«f Are entering. It niB thought ODlieonming (or theloircrcluiseRtoninAlio 

aiiywhcm in tlio villaf;« cxr«rit in Uicir nurn lioui»c*> and iin UirAaiA catuiht oiie of 

i«n in ilioitroet withaAi/in, lio M-iiuM liri-ak it to piMnui. Now «von tlio lowest 

lyrQl amuke in tho DarMr courtyard with iuipuuity. for if the Giri^sia tumod him wonld go away and hrcA his nwn hflM and charRTo tho CtirAitia with lobbcry. 

ITIm rvBult wuulil l-d arrsHt for th«Utt«r and cousAtjiit'iit niin, fi>r itvun au liour 

In jail is held to \k fatal to the htmoar of ti (Jir^a. FvniiLTt}- if a Kaiil>i, ur oven a 

Vinia, tnmtDpd hia whiakciA or tii^d hid turlmn in murtiAl Itajpiit fiuihioti, or if bo 

^ Torn an nnhlo nua or a Mwinl hi.* Wnitld haw hwl hi* i-lnthva nrctty Minn torn off 

4m back and hiiii»(tTf pn>l«Wjr well liicki^il. Now J.jt-* not km'w a Vrtuhri frnm 

I'KsBhl. nr a Kanhi frain a Si)iAhi, aud a Dhod may twiat hia tuustochiba and twi^ger 

I ahout virh the swotd i>f n UiriAia.' 

* Bum. Uor. Hoy. Bcc. W2 of 1815, 2273. 

Chapter VHE. 











of the TiUa^ roTcnnc. The judicial system would also Bcem 
have begim to press hardlj on tlie upper class of prciprieUiPH. 
Kotli chief, at tbe bcginDiDg- of the century in com man d of ISO hunir 
and 2000 fnot, was imprisoned for neglectinj? a magislrate's snmiDOQfi ; 
and the chief of r&tri, who onco for two monthH resisted the »ttarfc>i 
of the Gdikwfir's army, was thrown into jail, bccanso he ccold not 
pay debU coDtract«a dnrin;^ the time of his independence. In 
addition to these change^, all tending to depress the upper c\»ss fi 
proprietors, in some of Uie seasons twfore 1820, the district suffered 
from excessive rain nnd frast, and tho people from an ottark or 
pestilence* and from tho raids of Tariuua freebooters. Th«e 
misfortunoa in many cases mailu tho payment of the GoTommenl 
demand difficolt, and forced many rcsptvtablo proprietors* to oontrmrt 
debtB, and live in a Bti»teof poverty, wholly dependentontlieircreditoni 
Vniile they compkined of the great changes in the GovemmfiU 
demand, they disapproved of 6xing it at a certain share of the 
as they feared that if Uovcmment bad a share, they woald insist 
part management of tho village. In the caae of tho Rhavnagar 
Limbdi chiefs, lenees were, in 1816, granted for seven yeAr«, 
during that time their villages are said to have greatly improved. 

In spitoof the depressod stateof tbo proprietors steady pnjgreis «is 
(1814-1821) made m tho westemdistncts. Scanty as tho popukri^o 
was, except grazing gronnds for their nnmorons ofttdo, tlie rtiJy 
waste lands wore low'tyiiig tracts, very bard to till, and wIri 
cropped, jnelding avery smnJl return. From the tilled lands, coltM| 
barley, and grain were exported in coosiderablo quaatities 
Dholera, BbivnagM*, and Gogha. 

The tbirty-fivo years, from the formation of the Alimt 
district in 1818 to tbe introduction of tho revenue survey in 
form two periods ; one from 1318 to 1830, a time of 
the other from 1880 Ut 1852, a time on the whole of deprcssum. 
first tho seasons wore unfavourable. In 1810, the year of the gwsli 
earth^iuake, and again in 1820, excessive raiu was followed by motl 
deKtnictivo fM>Btfi; and during the next three years the roit ~ 
waa very scanty, and the crops, especially the rice, fuiled.' 
tho same time tbe rise of produce prices honeiitted cultivators i 
gnfBtly encouraged tillage.* 'ITio advance, at first rapid, 
checked by a great fall of prices in 1627 and the following yi 

1 8co below, p. 2ia 

s Tha'proprieton,9(f>n«(b, Ale described by Ur. Williannn.lSM, ■■•lais»i 
kble dua of peoplo, doC likdy to dn much for the grtttA d the ooentry, coi 
wuitiae in tta.\ ami with uiikll mcatu at their diipuMl, Bom. Oov. Rnr. 
1S2], iSl. 

i Horn. Gov. Rev. Reo. 17 of 1$31, 2. In ISSO the nun* wer* the li*»v 
record. Wullsovorflowcd, and betn'een Ihc fftrth<|aake nnd tbe riM(4wMt«ri 
became uiieltu. I'he cold wsathvr cmjis jirftiiuied vivU, but in Jannat^ in tba > 
of a ni);hl w«r« atirivollod aod blackooed bf fmot. la 1S2S the rjne crapl 
1823 wan a seaaon of abort rainfall and failara at rice crop ; IS^ i»aa a tadi 
with a failuns of th^ hitor ruonBoon. 

* Th« avnrapD ropon pricw nf Indian millot.jHiwlr, wae 6fly-t4ir«e imaib li*J 
liv«yeara otiiltiig I82S. In 18?6 tlie nrico fell to dehty-oDe pounds, and fraa r 
to nuiHty iji 1827, and 100 in iKiS. 

DaHfcroi, Viramgfim, and Pftriintij when cMed hy the Gililrw/ir hi 
1817 were, except tLo central lands of Daskroi, in a most depressed 
and di.sordered stato. Id Viramgiini, so littlo w&s tlie Gdikwar's 
;nt feared, tliat in 181G shortly before its transfer, the chief of 
faaar c&rried off from Dholka 230 bead of cattle, and refused to 
them up, except under im order from the Peshwa. In tliu 
>rth-enst tlio chief cause of distiirhance w-a?« tho orgiinized 
bIo&8 of plunderers known as C'huvdlia Kolis. Neither cultivotinff 
IheniHtlves nor letting others cultivate, the comniuu puoplu lived 
|>j plunder, nnd gi-eat part of the ch/ePa rovenuo was derived from 
^lart! in the booty. Surrounded by thick, strong, almost 
ipuf^irable hedges, they lired in popnlous mud-built villiigea divided 
to wards, mi*, each ward with a sheltering hedge and a chief of 
la own. Their whole territory contained about fifty of these villages 
(pT<>ii[H'd into four estates, Bdnkhora, DckvAaa, Chniivnl, and 
^ukavi, each with a lieadsnd about six iinder^cbiefs- The headmen 
tbo Government agonta for collecting the revenue, and 
conHitlerable influence in the country, levying transit dnea 
all goods passing through their territory. la the Pe^hwa'a 
were nominally under tho Viramgara manager, and in the 
"a time, under Kadi. But the amonnt of their contribution 
g^nemUy Hxed and realized by the'commander of the troops. 
the slightest degree offended, till remissions of rent and other 
liona were granted them, thoy roved over tho country aa 
B. Impovonshed od tho north-east by tbo Chuvdlia KoHb, 
iglim had on tho west for years been eipcaod to tho attacks 
losi&s and other freebooters. Though well supplied with 
Is and i-eservoirt!, tho people wero fewer, and the tillage scantier 
In tho west. Except close to villDges, for nearly thirty miles 
reen Viramgam and Jhiujhuvada, there wa.i not an acre of 
LivatioQ. Viramgilm protected by its walls was tbo only 
>gperoa8 place in tho whole aub-division.' 

Of the eastern cessiona, Partintij andUarsolwerein 1819 described 
m» flat and ojwu, the soil light and sandy, tho chief prodnco 
millet and puL^e. Modasa and Biynd were rather more hilly and 
aliDost entirely covered with brushwood. The soil was in many 
oxtreniely goo(L Coarse rico waa grown in tho rains, and in 
fair wasou, watered wheat and barley. This territory, once rich 
id well [wopled, had by neglect and mi.'^rule been brought to groat 
The towns of Parantij and Moda-^a liail lost much of their 
sr prosperity, and except a few, with some well built hoiises, 

TiUaKes were very poor, generally only a cluster of miserabla 

battt. Of the whole number sevcnty-oue, or 37*5 per cent, wcro 
Oppre«tnon and in.tecurity were driving people away, and 
was decreasing. Tho Kolis were very turbuleut and much 
to plunder. The Gflikwar's officers had seldom the means of 
]g them, and had gononiUy to piucha^ their forbeaiuDco. 


ChApt«r VIII 




of 1817. 


iBom. Qor. Rov. K«3. 17 of IftSI, ?n-M. 
. bi Parbibj ol 108 vUUgw tvnuty-three wvrc wule ; in ModiiL tltirty<two of 
ty-two : ill HAnnl, t«o vt iiUt*i«i : and in BiyMl, nz of aiavtwn Bbm. (for. Rev. 
lit of 1819, 3M7. 
■ 187—30 

Chapter Tin. 


of 1817. 



WTion the roTonno colleetmj^ fnrce camr, the IToIis n<?ftTmg tli 
villiigL'5 rutireU to inaccessiblo hills, und camo bat-L when the a; 
vim ^onc. Somotimes joining together thoy roeistcd tho wfa< 
G^ikwi^r army, occasionally with, sacccaa. Under the namv of 
ijhngiliina they extorted manv ceeses from the quiet villagos, canying 
off their cattle if they refnsed to pay. Their vfllogcs wore populom 
but with very littlu tillage, as thu greater Dumber of the p«oplo 
lived entirely by pliuider. The hoadmen of the ijuiot vitU^ 
were indoht^'d to town VinSiai, in many cases so deeply that 
hail little chance of freeing tfaemselvea.^ 

The central Daskroi lands, though to a Ic«s oxtoni t}ian tliG < 
{mrta of the district, had suffered from misrule. The city cf 
Ahmodabad and its neighbourhood wero in a most disturbed Ftatc. 
Elvory night there wore attempts at robbery and tho conntry roaml 
was infested with bands of plimderers, both mounted and on font 
Tho population wna scanty, and more than a half of the Govomnxnt 
arable land was waste.' Though no sudden improvement conld ht 
looked for, much relief was given by putting a stop to the old vfitcB 
of hired rcvcnuo securities, vmvMidarn, and instead of fafaiA 
socuritics, letting one respectable man or village be aarc^Jol' 
another. By this change the people were almost entirely freed :" 
the burden of providing security. 

In Vir£mgam and Parantij order was soon established. In IE 
a rising of the ViramgAm Chuvfilia Kolis was at onoe put doi 
chiefs were made to enter into ongngemcnts backed by 
socuriliea, to give up their nide indepen donee, to bohavo as 
subjects, and to help tho police whenever their aid nni 
called for. At the same time their transit duties were al 
Govemmeut accountants were introduced into their villages, ai 
income reduced to twenty per cent of tho village revenue. With ' 
establishment of order immigration began. The now comers, 
stningors, partly fontier inhabitants, seemed active and intelfij 
Some prngresH was soon made. But. with bo scanty a popolatioo BO 
great aevelopment could for years be expected. 

Ko difficulty was found in settling tho Pardntij Kolis. Thf 
agi-ced to receive payment of their money claiuis fmin the Gow» 
mont treasuries instead of direct from the quieter inhabit^uta,! 
to pay Government a sum £202 (Rs. 2020) in excess of their h 
contribution. In tho quiet villages instead of through 
the settlemont vras mado with tho headmen. This required 
persuasion as the headme-o, who were deeply their debtors,| 
that this change would draw on tbem the sureties' enmity 
in their ruin. So iinder-pe^ipled whs the district, and ao modi 
it was waste, that in many villages no one could bo found williog \ 
undertake the mona^ment. Leases wero acoordiogly granted is 

I BojT. Ofiv. Hcv. Roc. 141 of ISlfl. 20462063, 

8 VaiA liuli* pApcn, III. (172 ; the %ur« ytum 69,030 higi^ tiUod, (BtOH 
Twenty tUIk^s nejv Abrnixlaliul hnd iiouuta but im iwop]«^ thsjr Luda WW 
by tlui NTvauto vf city V^ib. Ur. WiUiaauon, Slat Au^ut Ifilfll 





a number of caaea. The reaalta wero most satis^tory. Poopio, 
BpBoe of them old residents, others from neighboaring states, flocked 
in ; traders came back from the Dcccan aad the Konkao ; wells 
wvTc dag or repaired, and other iraprovcmcnta wore made. In spite 
of DccaatODal gftog robbcrica, order was establishod, aud as early aa 
'j20, tbo general quiet aud safety was tho oommou talk of the 

spite of this improvemeot so backward was the district that 
iTHtnent felt that some time must pnea before ii could show 
Vuny wgns of prosperity. Their leading instructions "to the district 
•oOSconi were to bo active in collecting information ; to do what tboy 
ooold to prevent the cnnscs ol evil ; nod to wait for a time of fuller 
knowledge before undertaking great changes. 

- Under the revenue system in force during the osrly years of 
British, ride, the district executive stalT oonaistc^ of tho Collector, 
Pb European assistant, aud six kaindvisiiarHi* tho Collector's agents 
tlirongb whom settlements were made, tho revenue realized, and 
most of the district statistics collected. Undor its kamdvijtdiir 
•aoli fi^ab-diviaion, except Dholka, had its revenuu 8upurintendeut> 
dbftH, itsacconntant, »n'ijmf«Wr, and most of them amiji-pnleU or 
Mnioliint detaui. The amin-pattl, not heroditary but chosen from 
,1iie patcU, was entrusted with almost all produce examinations, 
ti^e iietai was a valualile check on the kumdvisdiir, and tlio 
•ub-divisicnsl acconntaot was very useful ax the head of tho village 

Fow villages bad the full staff of officers and servants, but as a rule 
thoro wero several heiulmou, an accountant, tid/Ui, and village 

ricrs, purMnuM, dhnrnsanids, rdvanyis, and kavdtfldnt.^ There 
also carpenters, blacksmiths, barbers and torch bearers, potters 

iBDd fVHtcr carriers, Dheda who took away, j^kinned, and ate carcasses, 
und Olgauiis, or Bhnngias, sweepers and guides. Some villages had 
ttieir hereditary priests. The village servants were sometimes paid 
in. land, sometimes in grain, Aiuungthem Mm headmen gained least 
by the cltangefl under British rnle. They had no grants of land and 
liad lost the power th.^y formerly enjoyed of freeing themselves 
%lid their friends from tno payment of revenue. Village exponsea 
ench as temple charges, the support of strangers, and sometimes an 
ftUowance to the headman for attendance at the Collector's oSicOj 

'Vied to bo met by village taxes, tvr«#, levied by the headman. 
JThia practice, as liable to abnse, was stopped and the amount 
when examined and approved was deducted from the village 
TOTcnuo. In a few cases tho villagers defrayed tho expenses by a 
Toluutuiy contribution. 


I BoBL Gov. Rat. Roc. 17 of 1821, 20-67. ItTth«cndof [SSO^ 29 uinr rillnges hn-] 
,tWBO ««talilnlu>d and 12 tlaert«gl villngiu lf»Bcil. 

> Tbu vub-dirUtona w«t« Da«kn>i, IMniuiIliukft, Dliolkn, Guglia, FardDtii, ond 
Virimtfiia. Bom. Qav. R«v. Rod. 45. VdL U. of 1821. eriS. 

I In Virani^.-im tlic haoU-Mra, tnonongcts, on ICa. 6 & Bivntli, vtho looked nttur tli» 
boanilAririt luid prvvviitcd c]iciti.-u:Iiinont«, arc ajHiIiiin of an f>nrticii l^rly DHrritl in ti 
tfrazinkl n^uiiry wheni AitfuUst «b»iit ^rAiinK IadiIs wvrt) cuiiutiua and uilcii cutled in 
I UowI^Md. Bvm. Got, fiov. Rw. 17 of IS21,M. 



Vitlrict Staff. 

ViUtitjt au^. 




Chapter VUL 


■/ tlote Fintf. 
i, fr't/iri'tary 


Bi. tfmplc 

Villages were of two cloitsc*, GoTornment, kJidha, and 

gtriitM. Of tlie proprietary villages some account lias alnad; 
ecu f;ivoQ. In Gov<-rDmont, khdLga, Tillogns the shartebcla 
fy^iem lind eitlier uevor )>e^n common or liitd bn^en down uuder 
M;mitlm fxactionV. A ivw tilmroIioM, pntidari^ villaigaSf cbwAy 
iu Diiskroi remninod anil efforts wure uiodi*, io some oaew wia 
Bucc«>88, to revive the ttystctn. In shart^hold rilla^^, \3m 
sharos were, as in Kaim^ fixed cither hy Uoremmout or by 
sharers. The sharers were mntnallj rcsponsihle for tho 
and tliougl), a» a rule, when one of them failed to pay the reel 
peod his t^hai-o, the system occaKionnlly broke dowti. A d< 
eharer might regain his land, bnt he had first to make good 
deficioncios. In each share tho collivatoi-a and evee the 
artieans were the Kliarcr'fi men, dsamin. They were supplied witli 
hoascs and helped in othfir ways and ao long as they patd their rml 
«eem in have had tho right to remain ou the land. Shares wtR 
enlcable. Rut they wcrr> Kcldoro boM till they had faUon bto I 
•t«to of mismanaj^ment. In polioc tnnttcra the poltoo fxitA 
generslly workfd thnmgh the gharers. Vitlagoe of this class wtrf 
sometimes lea.^'cd to spcculatnra. And though this geoerally remll 
in deatroying their special constitation, in Bomo cases the «bi 
arranged with tho farmer to keep alive the distinction of 
Kxcept the very few held under the fiharchold system, 
fioveminont villages were simple, 8<^ja. 

Tlie Gnrerntneub demand from the large laodholders waN sifl 
a tribnte that ite amoant did nub de[>end ou any special ii 
into their roronucs. Tito payment woa in mcfa caaa fixed irom yi 
to year on a rongh entimate of tho value of the ostato. The lei 
rents were fixed by the custom of the conntry. They were 
a certain share of tho crop takeu in kind. 

In shurohold villages, except oo tho raro occoaioiui whaa 
were handed over to a revenue contractor, the rental was 
with the body of shareni. Varying to aomu extent from j 
year the amount was in any seasotl fixed by tho state of tho 
To find the lillagR area, thf village accOnotaut and headmen X> ^ 
insptHTted the village, and for every field made a return of the 
and the sort of crop. With some reductions for villngo o: 
tho total gave the whole village rental. The Btatemeiits wen 
always correctly framed, and had to be checked by tho ai 
B^pe^intcnde^t,<i»^lIl-j>n^7,an^l the Government manager, itrtm. 
If the area or value of the crop cecnied more than lu tho la 
the liovornment doinand vs&s raised, if less it was lowered, 
when tbp system broke down, the sharers were jointly resp««ql 
for the rent. I^ie whole sum was divided among them accordia^ 
the share oach had in the village. Each was free to rot'ovpp wl 
he choao from his tenants. But from the scarcity of popi; 
tenants wore on the whole well used, paying as a rule 1h 
than tho cultivators of simple villages. The sharer's chief 
profit did uot lie iu lackrcutiug fais tenants, but iu tlte better 
tillage made possible by his advances and accommodations. 
In simple, AyV/., as in slmrehold rillagos, the rental wae 
an cxamiuation of the crops. When the auuuul w&sael 




Hector amtni^ed with tbo headman, or with a rorenac contractor^ 
bocDiDc rcRpnnsiblo (or its })ayinout cifchnr for one year or for 
tterm of years. If a looao was granted, (he revenue contractor 
ad to i!olU«t the rents aeeoriiing to former oustom, not to 
snntc Govf-mmcnt land, and to add to tho tillage area, fto as, at 
'end of hi» lea^e^ to hand over the vill^e in a bettor state 
he found it. Any further fluin bo was able to raise, the 
itmctor wna allowed to keep. ^Vhen for any re«!!on tho ordinary 
iDfFement with the heailtaim or contractor fell throngh, the 
!niii3 was, under the Collector's superviaiun, gathered piocomcol 
tho hui^biindnicn bj the village accountant. 

rental was in all case& based on the right of the Govemmonl to 
rtAin share in the crop. Tliis share varied with different crops and 
differeot hanreata from one-hjilE to one-sixth, or cvea onc-ciglith. 
amount was cithtir a share of the crop or a money payment 
ated on the value of the Goverumeut share. It was generally 
by A village committee, panchdtfat, Mr. Dnclop was inclinifd to 
c Uie nominal rate very often higher than the land could afford 
iv, and that under gnch circunifit&nces cultivation was possiblo 
because Government failed to realize their Bupposod snare, or 
mse along with the highly taxed land, rent-free or qnit-rent 
was held.' The husbandmen paid only on the land under 
Fallows, except when they formed pai-t of a distinct holding, 
or of a village share, were never taxed. If ho dug a 
or hanfciMl a rice field, tho cnllivator was for a term of years 
wed to hold tlie land without a rise in rent. If a landholder 
g bis land overtaxed, complained to the Collector, au 
/ was made into the nuality of the soil. If the manngerj 
vuihir, thought a rcdnction ncces-^ry, ho reported the case to 
Collector, by whom orders were patised. The scarcity of 
Islion WHH the chief safeguard agaiiiHt ovcr-Hsseflsment. When 
tivalor thought himself more heavily taxed than hia neighbonrs, 
'cunld always move to another village. Besides the laud 
,ent, there were many ceweH, verda/ the chief of them a 
^h cess averaging about £2 (Ks. 20} a plongh, though 
8, Bbfita, and others paid less. The large laniiownen), nnd 
Ilnge headmen and contractors who were responsible for tbo 
of entire villages, would seem tr» have paid in money and 
italment&^ Either without or after an estimate made by the 




Xmt Horn FiMU 


privsta or alieutod land gGDcroUy paid huso qnitrent. la reasaouu^ 
iwlwiitltcvpecwllyUxedpartawurcloircnMl tothcntinn>] luvul, aiHinonid ohm. 
, of onethinl of the unlitiftry roDtftl nu fixed ou the kticaatAd 3*iul, Kut lodia 
in. 6*2. 

cuh ett sa n , nmtj, wvra of two UdiIb, those levigd on caltiTatora and tboH 
I and tndora. Cuttintars paid boiidu & plungh coax, from wliich in 

I Ptrintii vUlaiftoa tlin kIioI« doinaad wu racorvrcd, a i:ii.ttla ccw, n water. 

(■lid a bimttt COM, the ratn boiug in muiy vnusm •yw^aily bwvy ou (loit 
'•frceUuds. Among bi>Q-caltimt(»n. hcrilsmen had tapay a cattle cuas, 
cbarg« oo duatiog* oad snlvs, anil thoao not othenriM taxed hod to pny 
_ nor. Hcv. Kee. 46, Vol. 11. of 1821, 705. It Aovt not ■cem cvrUio that 
r abuut uiatalmcatB vxtomlcil to tbo paymcDta of large laodhoiden. 

[BombBy Gaattw 



Chapter Till. 



imf SealieaL 

Inntllioldor himself, ono of tho native district reTcnaooiBcers e» 
tho gtucral state of tho villftge, and ?nado a rough cstimato __ 
pruduce. Comparing tho estimato with the past yiar's paytDeofc^ 
tho OoUoetor fixed tho rental for the next seoaoiL If a proprietor did 
cot paj Ma rent, and if ho failed to make out a cobo for rcmiaaiaa, 
his villajjfo was attached and managed by the Collector, 
of this class geuerally took from tho cultivators a nbaro of tboir 
In other caso8 they required security from tenanta thraa^h 
DgQ&t or Yduia, and kept runmng accounts vnih the caJti' 
If their tenants disputed their demand or failod to juy, 
Collector took the same stops on behalf of tho proprioui^ 
eontntctor aa ho wonld havo takoQ on behalf of Qorommeat' 
directly managed \-iIIftge. 

In directly managed villages tho rent was collected by ii 
at datoH fixnd according Ut tho tiuio tho crops woro likely to cobw H 
markot. Grain payments wcro collectod in tho villago thrMUof 
lloor, and tho sharo was oithor estimated by the OovenmieDt i^mW 
or was actually wcighod in his presenoo.' In landK held undiT tb 
cash acrc-rato, bighoti^ system, tho villago accountants kept i, 
rogistLT of each cultiTator's fields. While the crops wore 
n ri'VCQUo ofiicerj with two or raoro headmen, went to the coll 
field, and saw that the area under tillago agreed with tho area 
in tho accountant's books. After the accountant's caJculatioat:^ 
mode and checked by tho aubordinato rovouno ofBcer, tha 
or one of bis a^tsittants, in presence of the headman of the 
examined the cstiinatoH, compared them, and gave every op^ 
for chucking thoir correctness. In most cases tho hcailman si 
village agreed to be reepousible for, and to collect the 
rffrenuc. If he was unwilling or was a man of bad character,] 
collections were made by tho Government officers straight from 
cultivator. In all cases to protect tho cultivator, the oci 
was bound to ki«p a record of the amoiiut due by each 
and, for all payments, receipts were pass<;d by tho head of the 
Formerly the practice provailod of requiring Hecurity beforo 
was given to cut tho crop. Tho security was geut-'rolly a 
capital, who in return for tho accommodation charged tho 
Lciuvy rate of iuturest. In 1820 to free tho cultivators froa 
bunlen, Mr. Unnlop arranged to take the suroty of one 
cultivator or of ono villago for auothor. WHien a cultivntor 
to pay Lis rent, tho first step taken was to billet moasenj 
homomoa on him. If this foilodj tho debtor was somotimea 

I Horn. Got. Rev. Roc 45, Vol. II. of 1S21, 70B. In Tmnuim fiuiot 
rOToniicwM alwAy* tnkcii id kiml, the. sh&rtMwyine from ono^baUm tho i 
amlritilier touiio.thinl iu the [Kxirpr: Briio. nnv. Itov. K(ir.4fi^ Vt^-lLof IS3t,4S ' 
tlie grain wu rouly (o bo cut. cr nhvr it hncl bicn i>ut, tlic beodniKn uid : 
with two or mora rospectAblc he»lmca in>m otlim' TiUmuw, went to ^k i 
ettimntad the value of its crop. If tho cnttivatnr Mgreea tr> tb« MtlmntQ )mi 
eat or tiik« iwny hit croii. Kho thought the Mtioiatv too huh, the gnia < 
to the viUafre thraakiag ffoor, thrcNhftd. uiil tho CinvonunAnt Kharo fixed by ' 
Any culUrator tntcfal, on pAyin;; iUi v.-Jlic, keep tim Gowmiiicutabvo ul tiuj 
If not iliM|>oe<x1 of iu thp villajji', the (iovcrntiinnt emia wm titkea to 
bub-Uivisigu Wwn and »iAd uuJur Iho luauoguoivat gf uo tamiMlUftr. 





Mr. Rlpliinntone^ 



3n. Dut sach a cuurao was rarely nccossai^ ; in the three Chapter VIII. 
nidinj^ 1821, tho number of persfins placed under conBncmont 
" less than ttino. Distraint of property was unknown.^ 

'The oatablishmont of Government villngo accountants, and the 
inlcrforence with the nmnagoniont of proprietary villages^ wcra 
somewhat too rapidly pressed on. When Mr. Klphinstono, then 
OoverBorotBombivy, visited tliL-district in 1821 (April), he thought tho 
rfHiiltAin some respects unsntiafactory.' In his opinion theHajpiit 
chiefs and landlords should, as far as possible, be left in the position 
of tributaries. Their payments might bo raised once in sis or seven 
, vcAT»i but this should be done only when tho proprietors could afford 
fJL Kg aoconntonts should be appointed and no inquiry should be 
made into the prodnce of their estates. The contributions of some of 
tho smaller landlords should be reduced ten per cent. Tho law conrts 
should, as for na poR?ibIe, dispense with tho personal attendance ot 
Ifa chiefs. In inquiring into old money clninis, tho circumstancea 
ler which the debts had been contracted should be taken into 
dderation, and, instead of sei/Ang a chief's person, part of bia 
Bfaould be talien, and either lianditid over to the creditors 
•laanaged by the Collector. In police matters the chief of 
ETnBgnr should bo mndo a special commissioner for the Gugbb 
livinion, and without the, to them, somewhat degrading title <if 
u jHiUlj the services of the proprietors should, as inr as 
lie, be secured. Dholka and other kasbdtis should be treated 
10 same way as tho Rajput proprietors. The accountants should 
taken away from their villages, and thdr estiniateil shai-o of 
▼iUago revenues be raised ten per cent. Tliey should bo 
rwponsiljlo for the tribute, and tor the maintenance of public 
ir. In judicial mattci-s the proprietor might, if necessary, be 
led on to furnish security and bo forced to give np stolon 
and offenders. But ho should be under none of tho 
lions applicable to police patcls, and it should rest with tbo 
»te whiit offences to notice. No serious crimes should bo 
; over, and in all such cases tho chief should be called on to givo 
tho crLiiiinal. If tho doniixnd waa not complied mth, it should 
enforced by a billet and daily fine. Obstinate neglect might bo 
iinhod by apprehending tho chief, and rosistance by attacking him 
public enemy. Serious complaints against tho chief .should bo 
lined by the Collector; if apprehended, the chief should be raado 
to tho criminal judge. Chicf«i habitually guilty of counivanco 
plunder, might be deposed and imprisonoii, and their office mndo 
Uy an()thf'r member of the family. Civil justice should in 
coses take it^i course. But, in some villages, complaints should 
bo made to the magistrate, who should docido whether to send 
defendants to tho conrta or settle tho dispute by arbitration. 
..rBgnrds tho management ot Govomment villages, the Governor 
not object to Mr. Dunlop'a practice of, on re-assoHsing 
anted lands, imposing a one-third eharo of tho ordinary 

I Bom. Gor. Iter. Rw. 48, Vol. II. of 1B21, 0(>V*719l 
• S«t India P»iicre, lU. 677 C97. 

chftptOT vin. 



Ir. Kipliiturtuoe's 


demand. Ho Iiad little dtjubt that GovemTneut Uad tho rigU tn 
roKume land illegally sold and mortgi^^I by villagv huatlmeo. Ai 
the same time. a« part of the revoQue paid by Govommont luiiU 
waa really drawn fn>iu alienations, to rvtiumt' tyrants would duam 
aasoaimiciitA, and would canse mnch dtof^iit and disorder. Vflhjp 
act;ounlaiito, (Iitjugh somewhat auddeiilv iutroductKl, had worknl 
Hcll. 'Ilje letting of villageB to the hiKhnst bidder, unaTntddbl* 
while their rcMoitrcen were not known, was hurtful to the \i\kga 

and should be discontintted. Mr. Duolop waa »t--- ■- 

iritrodutren eyetom of six to ten-year looses. Of this ])i 
Klphin.itono did not approre. No lease conld safety ) 
till the village facts were known, and all pretsing uut 
rateeaud fraudulent withbuldiiiguftiovfniiaeiit dues were cor' 
Kveu then a lease could not be safely granted to a spf\. — 
or to a headman. It did not suit a cultivator without capitid. Tim 
only case in which a lease was likely to work well was a sbanlioll 
Tillage with a large body of sharers. 

In Bpite of the changes he found it nocessaty to propose, 
Klpbiutitunu vma uf optniim that the ditilrict had been wvU 
Ak in Kaim, tin- u[> cIhsh of Inudholdors, the men of capital, 
tho district officers, had sufTcntd ; the revenue had in aonifti 
been strained to the highest pitch; and the strict nrocesaofi 
civil courts had caused madi loss and hanUhip tu detiiors. 
order hnd been establishod ; crimo in great measure put down ; i 
ib(3 r«vi>iine cullt-ctod without distmiut, and with scarcely 
iinpn'soninrnt. The influx of settlers from other distriota seen 
show that the pe^auts were not too heavily burdened.' 

As in Kaim, one of the most important measures, in the early ; 
of Hnlish rule, wjw Uiy survey of the district. This includes 
preparation of maps ; a minute inqniry into the resonrcos and coodil 
of each village ; and the 8ettlem<?ut of boundary disputes. *^ 
the village statistics for each sub-division, a memoir was pr 
giving full details of tho people (Uid of their mode nf __ 
Beginning in 1820, Dnckroi was surveyed between April 1820 
DecTnil»ur 1822; Dholka between January 1821 and May U 
Pardntij, Modaaa, and Bftyad between Deoeniber lS24»n<~ 
Itj2t>;aud Viramgiim, which remained untiuished, wa^ ap| 
begun in 1825. The survey was limited to the quiet or Govenii. 
villages.' No details are available for the districts of DhandhnkK 
Gogha, ur fur the propriotary vHllagcs of I'ardntij aud Virumgum. 

Exclusive of the largo mass of details that illustratea the ol: 
and coat of tilliigc, the following shortly summarizes the 
of tho state of each sub-division at tho time of snrr^. 

I Eut India Paper*. III. CSS. Mr. ElphbuloM mentioo! 1300 famillof nmlic'i^l 
KM. Sitrh numucrs caino that IhuG.'iikffikr'N Agcat ccimj^iiMl thftl thdt dMl 
wcrv «ullcriii^. Uom-*iov. lU-v. lice. 17 of IK!I, Itl, 17. In 1821, 73 oeirtir^ 
I'J in l):uik><;ji,L'()in Virsjng.iin, 3Lud4l in rariattij wvro «stiU)Uah«L I3gB.C*^- 
BgcITuI IS2I, 11!>. 

■J Ikim. <iur. ^cl. X, odJ XL 




conroniont onler ia to l>e-tfin with the contml Daslcroi anb- 
piaion, tlieri todoHcribc th(?raistcm I'nnintij and Modosa tonitoriea, 
K to ond with Uhcdka and Viramgam. 

TTio tjin'ls IncliidGd in the 14C Baskroi villagee, 8iir7eycd between 
iOiiml lH22j waw, with Iho oicepUon of a barren suit tract ' iu 
>nth-wost, rich and well tilltM]. Thn Hpiiccs round tho city 
preo up to vegetables. In tho south were very fiuo rioe 
and to the east largo fmit-treo grovoa and strotchoe of 
tillft((0. Order was well MtAblishfid, The Kolis, helonpng to 
t Tzkbibda tribu, weix' quiet and easily mao^^d, willing to till to 
3 bf«t of their knowlc»lgo and meaiiH, Thoru wore no chiefs or 
f*ti landlordA. The alienated area, inclnding olcrnn Tinagt>8, was 
■84 per cent of tho whole arable land. Of the 135 Government 
[ggee, 117 were occupied, and thotiKh the sitea of tho other eighteen 
Kiinoc'Ciipiod, thoirlancla were tilled- Except two held aharehnW, 
^oro njanaptni simply." Of tho whole area of arable land .jS'2i 
r cent, was under tillage, and on an avora^ to each wiinaro milo 
re sixty-three housea, 207 souIh, 156 horned cattle, twenty-two 

P')xB, and seven carta. The avemffe net revenue per aero waa 
i 6§. to 9s. (Rd. 3 - TCa. 4-8). The vitlafi^c:) were largo and 
houses tiled, three-fourths of them brick-built. But the 
jplu had lately pa.sscd through a sovore strain, and woro 
luerably dependent ' on money lenders. Tho land revunne, 
ich bad Hsen fi-om £2I»,352 (Hs. 2,(>;J,520) in 1815 to £31,738 
H, 3,17,380) in 1822. foil in 1823 to £28.G18 {U«. 2,86,180).'» 
t> origiual tfy^tem of n»sesament is said to have been crop- 
'iaitm, one-third to Government and two-thirdd to Lhe 
ttva4:or. Then Todar Mol (1590), without entirely doing away 

Rlivi«ion, brought in & money acre-rate, hlijhoii, Rxed partly 
1 kind of 8.iil, partly on the crop. Tho Mnrdtbiia (1755-1817) 
d litllo re«m>ct either to tho crop-.tharo or tho aero-rate 
lam. linl ding ttte village headmen rospon«n>le for tho whole rental, 
jr left them to distribute tho amount as they choso. Partly from 
tjrnsettled state of tho country, pnrtly from tho heaviness of tlio 
demand, all defiuito aystom in collecting tho rovenuo 
Tho er<)p-«haro remainod in some villagoa; acre-ratoa were 
in others ; in a third group crop-sharos ond acro-rates 
tmixtxl, and iu a fourth thu reveaue was chiolly collected 
When tho district cauie under English management 
an nothing was known of their resources, villages wcro 
two or three year loases offered to tho highest bidder. Tho 

Chapter VIII. 




ilanila MviMlinca mdilenly bocunii salt, Utfr, and after rcnuunine "alt 
■ two jieantagaio retxTcrcl their sweclamB. In Mr. Williamaon'* 0|iiuirjii 
mux HUB water waa tlic cauM of ialbuw. Got. Licbo. I'apcra, [49, 2. 
I wi oQort wu) mucin in rwivu tho uliaivhulil iiyiiti>.ni in luimi? nt ttia 
1 vittlCQi in whk'h it hail bnikcn down. [Vut tlic LimwIiduu rcftDM.').!, snyiug 
loo capital Uoni..Oov. Kcv. Mix. 117 of 1S25. M. 
—^ Got. ael. \. 116. Tlwi rlotmla ftr.' I-S1.5. 11li.:t52 j !«!«. £20,107 : 1817, 
%1\h, l^ia. £?7,692; ISIO, £^.K()0 ; IS'JU, lUtU.WU ; 1»21, £30,602 ; 1S33, 
I1.7»:s. IVJ3. ia&fii^ ]ima. Guv. HA. £. 115. 




Iuni<]m('ti unwilling i<> give up their maDugcmciii bid high, nml IhB 
sp*'riiln.t<ir8, Kntihliisl Ihat lliu villngoe bad hitlden rutwiurces, 1*1 
iigaiiiHt tlicin. In their rivalry itnmii for bofond thi.-; fiiirvill.igeretiUll 
wtTo uiTert'il. Thy ivault was much pressuru hihI complaint. Tbr 
h'aso syfltctn wn» given np and in it« atcnd money an-o-mt' 
introduced. Bat the change was brought in gradaally, and j.l ;... 
time uf rnirvey tho forms of assesBmuni were niost vnriod.* JU ii 
Kaim, great part of the acrtsTatCfl were fixed in 1S19-I S2<^. " *"" " 
of high agricultural pnifits. But the following yoars wv 
prtisiKTuuH and rciiiissHms had to he grinted. TJieehiiractcr I'f uw 
change mndo will Ijo sren from the following example. I^ t^^■ 
village of Brtreja, unrlor tho Manitha systum, in ltlll>-2U the ' 
•tors of ftlionatod laml |Kiid atm^-nitoH of fmrn 2ff. to S«. (8 a*. - 1:.^. , 
huiha), and the cultivatora of GoTcmmcnt lajid paid on the early ] 
crupH a little moro than half tho priHlace, and on iho WBt<iit>d 
Weather crops n third. Bcsidon this tho cnltivat^ir had some 

{)aymontM to make, on the ground of cart hire to markt- 1, and «) 
evy, mdnffJia. The dry grains paid n money rate varying a^'cor 
to tho soil frf>m8», tol2*.anacre(R8. 2-Rs. 3 a higlut). Then 
were ceases on most closeeB of traders, artisan!), and cattle-kcv) 
cnltiratora. The new astieBBuoni of 1B20-2I on thn samo 
•was, in alienated buidR, from tho ownrrH, the former ' I 

cultivators not ownorH, one-third of the regidara^- 
Govummont lands, on iho rain or early rice crop, for the best! 
£2 4y. CKh. 22) an acre (Ra 1 1 a bujha), for the middling i2 (Ri.1 
and for tho poor £1 12<i. (Rs. 16); for coarse rice 16a. (Rh.8] 
oold weather wheat from 12«. to I5h. (Rs. 6 - Ks. 8). 0£ 
twoj, £42 14*. (Rs. 427) wore paid by VAni^, £1 8*. (Ra. 
Jogis, l&t, {Rs. 8) by Rabdris, and Ik. (Rs. 7) hy a Roh< 
A hettrth, rhiUn, tax of 49. (Rs. 2) was paid by husbandmen; 
l*t. to 7*. (Ro. A - Ka. 34) by oilmen ; 1». to 5«. (Re. ^ . R>4. 2 
rico-nnonilcni; Is. Ctl. to 2k. (12 n». - Re. I) by markot gar 
6s. (Rs. 2i) bv Kolitt; is, (Rb. 2)l>y trackers; a 1a. (8 a*.) 
bead on milch buffaloen./iiicAAt (v-r^t, or tail tax, on all but colt 
a tax of £10 8«. (Rh. 104] on the Dhcds for swooping tl 
threshing lloor ; £2 (R^. 2(1) fnmi the V4nia for weighing gn 
£2 (Rh. 20) on cattle grazicrii for manure. To thu sur^'ey 
the rattis soomed t<K) high, aud pmposals woro made for )c 
them.' In Capiiiin Cruikshank s opinion irrigation was 
want of tho district. To help irrigation be SQgge«t-ed that tho i 

> In 17 villaf^ tiiM land wm divitktl into hnlclingn, ItuUtft ; to 41 <■ ' 
rata was levied ; in 12 tlio oFop WM shanwl ; ia 41 the hjhUidi w«xiiuxb(I, pMt^' 
pa,rtljrncro-rat«s i and In IS Dwidfls othar awwemnent. a ploagfa oom «mI 
Ati(:n.itr(l Innil*,' wh<^n till«H by thdr ownM«f«i4 their fonn«rquit-renfai,vlNii 
ono-thirilof tliu full Ooverumciit r«tc wu recovered from tin tOMDt, Bita,0^i 
X. no-Ill. 

3 Till) tice higkfi ntoti vnriod in ddo ffmnp of tUU^b frtira Ra. 9 to 
■mothor from Kk. 4 t<i It>. II, amt in n tliini from It*. 8 to Vjt. 14 ; nilMl 
dry cnuiiKvnrii^dindilTerwil KrouiiN rmm S u. to Rc l.tromBe. 1 toIUf.l 
Ri. 4 to Ra. fl : ngiircauc* varied from fla. 13 to Ra. SS. aim) from Rs. IS v' 
The plough oca* vuied fmn Its. 2 to lis. 40. Ilom. (iuv. 8rL .\. MO, III- ^'^ 
CrutKKbnnk propnoed Ui ndncc tKn nit«« on tJii> bi>at land from Ba. 11 >bS^' 


crop lanil should be lowered, and that when a cultivator n.(»rood 
fco bm'lri n DOW well lie ahonld bo grauted rcmiflsion of rent for a 
term uE years. He aUo proposed that, for the use of buab»Dduieu 
done, a state savings bank should be stjirted under the manjigoineiifc 
UiH coutrgl o£ one of tho moat respectable village headmeu. 

Tho eaalem districts, now divided between Pnrftiiti] and Mndasa, 
iicluded, at tbetimeof the survey (1821-1826), four putty divisioaft, 
Paniiilij, HiLTsoIj Modasa, and fiayad. Except in west Huriiiilij, 
whero the groniid was open and well tilled, the country was 
Irili] anil poor. Id the eastern porta it was covered with a deose 
iiulcrwood, and, along the bank oE the Sabarmati, waa rouK'h with 
ieep and Htcep ravines. Under one manAgcr, kntruivigdarf each 
if the four petty divifiiona formed the charge of an outpost oQicer 
JT Ih'inntJur. 'iTio only heredit«rv officer was a dfxal, and a 
Imb-diWsional accountant, majmnihrr, had been httely api)oiut<!d. 
rwo V'liiiia fumiUes, calling thcinHclves dcsdis, did great harm bv 
idvatteing m(»noy to the people. Village acx'ount«.nlH wore niuch 
tcattorcd each with several sioall villages under liis charge Their 
r&cords were vague and imperfect. In spito of the tuixed territory,. 
Iknd the irregidarity of bonndary, the mero narne of the Britirfh 
r* ■ tnonfc without force, prevented any attempt at revolt f>r 

T. Though for unguaidcd tmvellors Home ptirts were BtiU'. 
iiui^^eronfi, tho district had, especially in Panlutij, in a few years 
mnA.' ihe ffrcatfcit advance ia oitler aiid security.^ Tho unsettled, 
(j tmcta lay on the outskirts of tho quiet villages. Their 
inimiMtaats, generally peaeeable, wero useful as a barrier against 
Mtmde attacks. Its 2+3 nllagea wen; divided between the IJritish 
■Tuneiit and the Idar cmof, 1(35 to Govemment, 60 to tho 
- and nine shared botwoen them but managed by Governinont. 
L>£ liie 17-i villages under Govenimoiit nianagoment, four wera 
llienutixl or ni^m* ; livo wero held by a Musalmdn proprietor; 
ftiirty-nino were under Koli or mehvti-il chiefs; and 1*26 were under 
lirect maDagoment. Of tho directly managed villugos a couipleto 
Held survey was made ; of tho proprietary villages tho outer liniitH 
Ijnly were surveyed, and tho Koli or Mt/ituwi \Tllage9 were left 
entirety unnoticed. Of tho tbirty-nino mehvani villages, twuuty- 
bertm wero in Hardotij, eight in Ilarsol, one in Modasa,. and throo 
Uk Bayad. The I*hrautij villages varied much in character. Somo 
iDnder tho Vaghpur chief wore well cultivated, while in others, 
especially in (jdmri, the people were under no control flying into 
fclic thickest forest, if any ouc in authority came near them. In 
"wreul, tixccpt one rich village, the people were disorderly retiriug 

Lu thick forest close by when threatened with danger. In Moddsa 




I Partntij. villafc aftw viUogc had tKoa re-wtaltliahoil ia placea wliora n mid 
li/bc cut tlui.-tit^ t)i<j foroHt, null a vury cxToiuivu tenet h.'vd liocn cltiPCtl Rudt 
L Few i\¥i\M rt:iiiaLiii-il tintcnifiL<:rl tuiil tbu r«st thoiigl) iHuikwan) 'nao dluMljp 
mtjAy ini)>T\>v injf. U.ui. (luv. Scl. X. 3. 

riii)iri'i«.rti'.>u of kliciiatt'tt lanti wna low : the poroonUM^ WGtti, rariiuU], 2ftj 
^. M i UoJiiA, 6 ; lUyaJ, \Z ; Uhulku, \i , and OAokrui, 3J. Uotu. (iov- Sd. X. 21. 


Eatiem DiMrkU. 

OF 176,015 ncrcs ofnreblo land only 59,823 wore andcr tillage.' 
CulcivatloD was ia a most Iwckwunl stitte. Id th» beat piirte huh 
but the ]H)orGBt crops wera growu, aiid, iu the wild tracts, Uio Ksb 
and othuTijj moving from placo to pUov, burnt and tilled Rpaccaiii 
thu fuivst. lliroughout tbore was no muasuro of land in ustt. lo 
ovory Tillage wuru nurda of niileh uattio, and grmsing pntGtA (umad 
an important part of the cnltivators' gains. Except Pamntij atA 
Mod&88, towns o£ over 4O00 ioUabitonta, and odo or twootiior 
places, tbe viltagus wttro poor and niit^umblo. l*huy wera 
oatward defence and withoat stroctM, tlio Intts, f<^ & tiled 
was mtv,* woro either set round a vqnare within which, at nights] 
caitlu wore kopt^ or em!h huusu atouu by itsolf tlio wholo hI 
over a largo stretch of country. With ao littlo to loao by umi 
tho people natuiully did not bU>}} iu ouo placv. Mauy for tbe 
of toe advantagit) offorod to uutlU-rA niulo a pructioo of d 
their villago every year or two. Whoki villagua wcro aoi 
muvud for tho moat tritliog ruasuus, aad all cbusstci from the bi 
to tho lowest cultivator looked on tho dosortiou of a viltagF, ur, 
B8 they called it, tho leaving it without lights, as a matter u( 
littlo uomont. 'Ilio {lopulation wan vory ticanty and tho 
poor.' Of tlio largo laiicUioldor^, except too owner of odd 
woU managed by a Syod lady^ tho condition was most 
In Qovornment villHge» the upper class of cultivators wore in 
enaes deeply in debt, forced to stint themselves of every Injcniy, 
batt«r, aud all their dairy produce.* The lowest class of calti< 
i<io poor tu bavo oithur dubt or credit, wero often forood to fi 
tlu'ir crypB to raise grain to kerp ^em olive till harvest.* 
revenue JCGliOS (11*. C2,U8U) in 181i», rose lo £7916 (Ra. 7D," 
IH22, and agaiu fell to XG21G (Its. 02,100) in 182C.« " 
villages wero subject to no regnlar asaessmGnt. The ehi 
Uuikvrt paid a yearly sum to tho British Goveiiunent, aud wore 

1 In Pftnlutl} of 83,010 aoim only S0J49 wvn UUed : Id UvmL 4tK ^ ll^Vi 
in MrxlAeo. in^ft af W.'J\i ; iu B&ysd, .S)4-2 of 2S,0&3. Itom. Gov. 8el. X. 20. 

s U[ I0,l>55 hiiiiMTS niilj- &211 won tilLil luid ntcmt i.iF Uio rut woT« aor* kM|_ 
■vAnvly liL tu kvui) i>ut thv woftthoTt mmI *lw»y> boing iloatrnyod. OfthvlOVl 
liiud vlllj4jv« 1)1 tmd itu tUi:il liuuxM, t«n luhl tnm onu to tivb, Uircv tuil ircm 
tcD, tliirtcuQ had from ten to twoDty. aad twenty-oDe lutd nkuo tb&a twaitf. 
tiov. »oL X. 41. 

* Bom. Ouv. 8el. X. 41. 8o pcmr waa thutr cnclit that tboy had to fmy i 
leudcntwcuty Tour |)M-ueDtay«M-a»uitonBi to^utltur «ith ci^ht to Im pw< 
preminm und diUyaa or tweatv toon to a Rh&b oa wciinty. ' Tbe Thikm ' 
«tnbamMoil, iniiMivcriahod, and miaonihla.' Boo. iiov. ti^L X. 4&. 

' Bgm. Qo\. HiH. X. 4i. In Modtea tlw nrvwj offioon ootioo tlw 
nambor of wild idauts iuihI for food. Boiu. Gov. &iJ. X. & 

1 rt^i- every nuiH of grain horrowMl in tha hot acMon !{ tol^lud tofcei 
luu-i'vvt time. 8««d nAtitul for •owtujt waa very oomuionly horrowod gn ll 
oonditiuu. BolduB tolurcit ntfmtn \& t<i Sfi jwr cent, the Ivutlcr rMjui-vd 5te>| 
oont of pnminm, inam-ti- Tliin wm nddtd tu the kiud lunt aad ltit4insL traci' 
catil«whotu Bum. Iiov. S(--l. \. 42. 

A Bmn. Gov. 8vl. X. 2G. li*r<>iii tlio Oovi-ninieiit villagca tho iliiaHi ' 
Ba. 46.361 :1S20,Kb. S:}.!;dS ; 1821. ita. n7>t:t : l!C3. Bs, SajTKi 18811 
1924. Ita. 4D,S&1 ; lii'25, IU. 44,1I1S; i&iti, Ibi. 47 /JU?. 



ife from their cultivators ae they ploafuMl. This tboy gonorally 

bj luvyiug a monoy sum from each accvrdiug to his moauH. £'dw 

the chii-Fs coiiUI write ur keep accimiitH. In iitiiet GoTernmont 

vill^en the rant was recovenid m abuut equal pruportioos from 

iliviHiau and from pluagh ooBses.' Though thti land rovimue 

ifHid was low" there were .several other exactions. TIio liftjput 

Koli chiefa' claims had been settled^ and were paid from the 

ivcrnmcnt treasury. But the Maratha grain and grass, gluisdiiaa, 

ivH, a tax of not many years* standing, wa.i the cansc of much 

The collectiuus remained in abeyance from 1819 to W12, 

wore then recovered with arrears. The money was lulvaiicud 

'by ono of the district revenue suporintcndenta who oat.ibli.shcd it an 

-debt on the diOureat viUagoSr recovcriug on its account a yearly 

*ty charge, manotif of five per cent and interest at twelve per 

it* Besides this, horsemen and foot were from time to time 

leted on Itio villages, and, iu one of the ycara (182L], the whole 

amounted to an addition of forty per cent on the amount 

led and actually paid to the Gaikwar.* In the survey officer's 

iniou an effort should bo nmde to mi&e the Koli chiefs from thuJr 

if^ntable state. In so poor a district crop-division seefned to him 

beLt«r than any ratca that could be fixed, lie thought that sonie 

igement should bo given to building butter hou»cs, and 

concessions granted to any one willing to make a well. 

Tho landa included in the 185 Dholka towns and villa^os, survoyod 

r^uuary 1823 and May 1821', Lad been under British couti-ol 

'■. In character and muniigemuut ttiey formed two well 

ced trftctfl, the east, op Government share, rich and well tilled, tlio 

, or prepriotors' ahare, salt, barren, and forbidding. The country 

orderly; in every part of it person and property were safe, OE 

ISS villagos, 1 07 were hold by large landlords, nine wore alienated, 

sixty-nine were Goverumeut'* villages. Unless they failed to 

their contribution, the landlords wore allowed to manage their 

' TIm (Vvcrumcitt ihum wm gcncrtUy otio-tliinl to oue-ruarth or the vorly, 

OBfl-eighth bi nno-teiitii nf the IaUi hivrvd^ Mfuiy hhiaII allnw&nceii, MfitU, 

mi»kmntMiof tbucru^ befunj Um (livisioa was uia<lti. But <>a tlio uthcr hsiul, 

^lMl>ly u an iii<JalL!iiiice nn nccuiuit of the wtliUiijsv gf tbo oountiy, na •lluwitUOQ u£ 

hrvaty tu forty |H>r vent wu nuvlu in tho cultirmtora' farmtr by oatimatijig a 

PWl MfMri A« IM, 70, or tiO. Tb« aluuiv vn» fixed either white the orop wmt in tbo 

Um kaiiar ayBUiin or aft«r it Wl lit:<:ii tlirvaiiml, tliu nuii-hal ■yatum. Tka 

■BmatahuewoflOD'oroilfgrMUogn t!i« (i[iotiui<il ttiti iiuboM Ijoluioe sturod at tb« 

' pUeo ot tltu subilirition. I'lough UixtM were mthor on tli« bnlloi^kB tbui no ihe 

herol [iliMik^hn. Th^y vnriod bccnrilin^ tothucultiraUireE' luvoma fruui abuut Ha. to 

IIU. (11». *. lU 21). Boui. Gav. Scl. X. 30. .31. 

I The aven^> RcroTatos oturgvl (rom ISl'i tt 182j wero, PiLrintif, It. Od. t HjuiKit, 
t iMixUw. »^ ; utd BAyad. Qd. 
vm^$idaa mm fin» limad in ModAw in 1794, uad (n ParAutij in 1906. Bom. Gov. 

1 Th<! iIcmUh wore ; pnvi to the Giikwir, Rh. AOI ; Bhdt locnrity for the yenr at 4 
' oBtit, Ka. IM ; ilt^ii'ii (irigiiial Mxiurily i^ 5 p«r cent, Ra. KO ; intnrt^t an nil Um 
rat 13 |wr cent ]jwr anitnni, ltft.43: advaiicuil tiy tbo liMt to tlii' billul of bi)rst>mea, 

81 ; inturv«toaailviuicu ntl&iwr Cflut. lU. 14 t pay tu two of tho Bh&t'a sOTvaiitB, 

13; ci]ivn0oii ui ontcrtainiag tho Bhftt, Ke. 41. Totikl paid bjr tho rillagon, 

M7. IW>in. Oi>v. Hoi. X. 2U. 
I W tb*j 107 pro|)rwi«ry villojioa, M w«ro Iml J by flie<l*ki or £ajl>ut, and 43 by 

' ior UunhiUui Uiidliulduru. 11*hu. Qvt, yd.X, 33,U. 



Suj-v uy. 





18-20 IsiK. 



villag^os OS thoy clioso, diatriboting tlio GoTorament demand 
tbi-'ir wIimIu estate. An cxaminatiou of their resooroM sLowod _ 
compwroil with tbo Itmdlordj the Governiacut territory hati, jut iqnnre 
mile, 87 hou»c« to 23 ; 247 souls to 5tj; l;t8 hoad of cattlu to \a; 
24 plouf^hs to 9 ; d carta to 3 ; and yioldod a ruvi-iiuo of Jt,6'i {Ha. tS^ 
to £35 (Ha. 350). Tbo tillago area in tha proprietory viilogei waa 
not asctirtuinod. In the Guvornmcnt Tillages, of 13tj,ttu0 antiW 
acres, 74,518 wore tillod, 64,U60 waste, uud 282 auder dispute. Tba 
Govcruiticnt. Tillages, thoagh without any marked signs of wcaltt, 
were of ro»i)ectul)le aixo, ou tho whole rather lar^-vr aad mure auifunn 
than in DaskroL The proprii^tiu-y villugeB varied greatly in 
different oaiatos. In one, the houses wore mora ofton thntchod 
lilod, m another they were goiioruUy comfortable looking, atid 
two wore showed little cure aud mach room fur impnivemuut 
Oovomment lands were ou tho whole woll peopled, and in the woUh 
wo^Iaj^ areas wure wan tud for graKiiig aud an increase of popnlatM 
was perhaps not advisable, liut in tho Dorth anil centre, tko 
population might, with advootago, havo boon incntased foorfnU. 
Almost all the proprietors were in debt ; scarcely any of them itvrv abb 
to agn tlicir names; they wore lazy, careless, and given to onion; 
almost all of them were in the hands of somo hard ond crafty \iaa^ 
In tho Oovoruuieut villuge^i even the bvtter class of liusbiiiidiiiuD wm 
in debt. Snitft were frequently tiled against them^ and i-lioir pn}t)«i7 
sold. Tho low stato of thoir crtMlit checked any agricnltuil 
iniprovciiiont. Thorovenue, in 1817-18,145,2^2 (Rs. 4,52,331), n» 
in 1^20-21 to £48,679 (Rs.4,8G,790), and from that, chiotlybocaa«» J 
a year of short rainfall, fell to £•'{4,108 (Its. U,41,U8C>}. Uuleu on 
failure of rent, the largu landhuUlora were allowed to manogD tlior 
villages as thoy chase, distributing tlieGovernmcTit demand ovofthdif 
whole ustate. From private or ulieuated lands, so long as the 
tilled it, tho chiefs reooverfHl uothing. But when tilled by any une 
tho owner, the landlord t«>ok one-sixth share of the pmduc«x 
their own land, renta were reooverod in kind, certain alio 
hdhfiii, being tirsb taken from tho whole, and of tho rumaimlcr 
a third to a half belonging to the chief. Kesidcs the crop 
plough and other tuxes were levied.' The Government villages 
Heem to hnvc been all simple. Rent-free lands, exci-pt thorn 
by religions pori^ons and village servants, paid, as a rule, a tax cqial 
to one-third of tho regular Goverutncnt assessment. On Govm- 
nient Lmdiii tliuro wa^^ no 6xed aystom of asseiismunt. Acconii^f 
to tho crops they yielded, they were divided into garden. 

I Thv OMQ Df tliv rilloKD Du,^{iLri u givtm m an cx&mplc of the t yrt cm. Krotn tbr 9*^ 
ric« etapa Bundry boiivII aUniruicc* ircre niAilt:. Thno wen i» a flwut of forty '' 
one |Niuiiil to tlid ijik-T ; ) [luiiiiil to t'lc wuiKhnuui ; au« poond lo ttia wa' 
) putiudio tlw niiDiauu^vr, und ) paitad to tliv vUlagv ««tablwhmiot. In ai 
UifiMcadi biu^ioii'lnuiti tiiidto givo fi puunds to tho vilb^bewl; SO fwoubllj 
Tillag3 totnti'la (ukI ihifpi ; lU pounitiito tho JtluaalnuUimjut ; 10 |>uiia4U for tb«inaM| 
cook, luid o jMtiiudii fyr till! cbicf* travi-Uing viyetmo*. Aitvz tliew aUuvrAucn < 
tokoD, hnU 01 Uie renuundor wai tlio cliiofa iihaTo, or of 100 part* about 7 muuMj 
alluwano*ia,45tolliG htubandineD, &Dd 4S to tho cIimL Witb tlicwheatl 
arrnngoinaDb was Homnwhat diiromut. AlxmL 3li nur cunt wt'io lirst a«t «{»r('| 
thu cultivator'* evui vt komI atid Ia1>i>ur, cuid of lliu rvnuuuing 70 per ouni, C^ 
ali'>wui>;M, 30 to tli'C culUVAtui, oud dS tu the diiuL lloio. liot, ticL XL 40, it 



itttt^nrla', iphcat, ghatwar, and dry grain, hajria. OE oacli 
tlic liuds woro orniuged mto threo aorta, Hret, second, and 
inl, iim! tlio nesoBsment was recoverfd pnrtly by crop division, 
a y tly by acre-ralc», partly by both systems, aud partly by taxes.* 

Jrhfl snrvey of Vi'mmgam, in progrosa daring 1825 and 1826, was 
Sm finished * In the east was somo thick woodland, in tho ccntro 
|fni83 plain-^, and in tho weet bairon salt wastes. Excopt ChuvAl in 
i-he iinrth-efl-st, thn whole was bare and bk<nk. Order had not bcca 
thcn^Difhly established. In 182i-, the year biifore the survey, tho 
Dhnvtilta Kolia had revoltedj and a forcQ had to bo aont agninst them 
bo bring them to order. Tho distnrbancp was promptly Bnpprossed, 
bat they still remained a Itxiublcsomo body ot orifaniKcd robbers. 
Its ItiV villages wore divided into three groups, the Daskroi, tho 
Ohnval, and tho Pfitri. Of tho whole nnmber only seventy-five wens 
Government vilhiges. Of tho Daskroi group, two were aliwmiled 
Uirl thtrh!4^n were in the hands of Mu^nlmt'in aud Rtjpitt Iiuullorda. 
The Chnr^ group was distribnted among Koli ehiofa, and tho Pitri 
villager formed llio estate of the Kaubi JtWt of that fort. None 
of the iar;j^ liiiidlmlilers' villages and only fifty of the (iovenimnnt 
¥(-Vtnty-fi\-o weri! surveyed. Of tho area nudor ciiUivalton in 
tho landlurda' villages no details wero collected. In tho fifty 
Bnrveyod Government villages, of 148,543 arable acres, only 39,2;i:} 
tntre onder tillage. Grazing was a very important source of 
tnjvenno, and the practice of yearly burning the grass had only 
lately been stopt.' Rxccpt Viramgam, a town of some trade and 
iwcalth, the vilbgcs were small and lU-Uuilt. The disturbed state 
Bifche country hml in almoat all cases miulo some Bort of defence 
PneBsary. Many vilhiges had no shelter bnt a slight hwlge. Bnt 
towards tho Nnl luke some were surroanded by & mud wall, and 
others hwl small ronrid towers of mud, brick, or stone, open at the top, 
«nd pierced with loophole.^ for muakotry or arrows. In the 
the Cbavfilia Kolis had their villages most carefully fortified. 
First was a deep ditch, and then a thick milk-bush, prickly-pearj 

1 Tbe (Ictwls of S3 gmnlcn riUnjjcH w-t;ro ; t vms aasosHd by ornp diviainn, fi partly liy 
"^ ^alcB portly by crop ithu-R, u\<\ 17 by ncrc-rates. The nit<M were ruj^ktcxiiu 
l<R« !tO a Uljhtt\ iilaiiUiiiid Ha. 12 -Rh. 30; miignr Rx. 7-ltA 20; veuetaUeH 
i.TU.13; rii»b««t Und Bs. 6- Ka. Sl.miaJliuu'Ho- S-fU 7j|. poorKv. I -ItA.3; 
i B». i - lU. 4 : tobacoo lU 6 ■ R«. 12. Of 9 rice villnMa, ft were arttli^d by acre 
, 4 by cnm share, kail 4 n( the U paid n [ilough com *a from R«. 1 to Its. 6. I'h9 
Tutoil Imm a third bi a Imlf, otid the talcs, on thn boat Uiud from Ka. 8} to 
E, on middlo frooi Rs. 8 to Rs. 10, on poor from Ra. 6} t<> Rs. S). Of oij-htonn 
I fiUafiM fotu* wore iharo and foartAon acre-rstea, tn fivonf tlictn plonghtnx from 
I to D& 1 'twas i)«^l. Id tbb nharv villages the *hare won ci ha- half, aiiil, in the rato 
j^, the rate* varied tm Ibe b««t lanil [row Kk. 3 tn lU. 4\, on tnidiUc fmiu Rx, 2^ 
,lo Kk. 3^ on Ihinl class frooi Bs. !( to Rs. 2|. Of Hisloon wheat villof^, in five- tlto 
— '■ -c waaabarod, anil in oJovcn aoTc-rateawertlcviwI. Tn si:c of tlicm uli.u-;h tai 
■ •'■-. 1 to Ra, 8wnanaid. Tbcshar«waa one-half ami thnmU^a varied finm lU. 3 
4 OB Ant elaM ; fnim lU. 2^ to Ita. S) on iii.^c[ind class ; aud froiu Rh, I i to 
. ^ on third eUat land. Bom. Go*. Sel. XI. 21, 22, 23. The taxM, wnti, rarled in 
idUIsmit viUa^fM. Among them werv Uxmou ploughn, cottLo, shop*, buttor, 
recry. ami tnaourf, and <»at« coasea on tailors, ifruEutni, potters, and Dbuda. Bom. 
[f.^. ,KI.24,26. " 

• is giron. It was begun aftor ParAntij aud tho report was written in 

,-. SclX. 72. Much of it was exooUc[itija«t«n:, iu llishttudauf Ahirs 
»bQ had a breed of rattle miponor to that Inthoioutb. 

Chapter VnL 







■ Cbapt«_Vin. 
' liuad 



or other thorny hctl^ wiUi only two ontranoeBf each by n 
windinf^ path. Inside, the hooseA wore separate, each Borroandt^j 
a six foot high mud wait topped with brarableB and at 
with smnll loopholes. After tho distorbonco of 1821 and W 
thick hedgoa were cut away, and the defences disnuutlod. 

Almost all the largD landhohlera wcro hopctesaly sunk in 
The Kaab&tis were comptetoly in their of^ntfa hands, ax 
deeply involved in debt as to be utterly onable to ioiprove 

eetatea. The KoU chiefs were in great money straits, and 

their ignoranoo and carplosHnoss sofFored mnch from decnm 
given against them by the civil courts. The defdi of ViXri, 
unable to meet his crc<litora' di-uiands, hwl boon sent to priaai 
in Ahmedabad. In tho Govommont vilUges, the peopio were (loor 
and depressed. Exclusive of the 6xed psyment from tho l*iUi 
chief, tho rcvonno of the district roao from £i)l<i>5 (Rs. Oi '*'■ 
io 1318, to JtlO,780(R«. I,07,.SO(>) in 1826.' All large hin.i, 
calotcB wore, from year to yonr, aBscased at a lump aura. Hi 
this tho landlord paid two-thirds to Government and kept tlu 
rentuniug third for hiuiselL' In tho Government villuges there vu 
a lai^ area of alienated hind, 20,050 acres, comporod with 30^ 
acres of arable Oovcmmcnt land. Kolis and Bajpnta who hdi , 

{»rivftto lands, auJ watclimeu and others who bad a claim for 
and, wprc, on payment of a plough cess, allowed to till whut _ 
they chose I>nnda tilled in this way by village servants continued] 
stand aft Oovoniuiunt lands. Such a 8y>ttem c»uld aiiswur unli 
wild waste conntry. In Govcmmont lands tho aRReasmont woal 
by a crop division sapplemenied by taxes on ploogba. A ivstBB] 
allowancoB, liabiis, from the crop hiwl been in oho; tbo aUowndj 
were done away and their vaino adiled to tho plough tax. Tlii-s cbs 
wa« uni>opul»r as it increased the proportion of the demaoii 
did not vary according to tlio harvest.' IMough taxes were 
levied and, to include the small holdera, the plan was in 
of charging one man with one bullock as half a plough, 
man with two bullocks as three-fiiiarters, stnd one man 
three l)ii1lot'k<>, or two men with two bullorkft, ns a whole p]( 
The survey ollii-or approved of the system of baaing tho Gi)ViTni 
dcmfuid on a sIihtu of tho proiliice. lie thnnght that, in a cnu 
with so uncertain a rainfall.andwhone water storage depended DBt 
local supply, a fixed acra-tute eould not safely be iatrodnood. 

1 Tlio •l«tiviU wera, )St^ Ra. fi4.n53 ; t81I». Rx. 06.SI9; 1800. 9».a0,ani\ 
Bb. eu.3Mj 1s-J.M;«. SI,SII7; lH2:t, ll*.**i;,105t 182*.IU. 87,737; lOb.B^fJi 
I82i;.i:». 1.07,806. Boui. i:!c.v. ScL X. «0. 

» In tlipl' Kuli villaeoe the oliU-fs aluni wu.iiutuulof WpVMBi, aai 
tbinl. 3:11 per (»:nL Bom. Oov. Sd. .\.fi& 

^ Kxccpt that tho prMliic« of Tillatga hMdmen's Und wMgeacnlljr nlwlaMi 
lower tliAa tliat of iitbur oultivstovt, ths OovBnunuiit ahan wu affully w 
wu] was, in the cas« of net., onfi-fourth. Tltia wm lac&Uy cTt«e«od. ooe lor I 
■Utot, and thr«o or fuur (nr th« cultivMnr. In aiiRi« oimi tha ( 
fptiiipi) nil mldttiunai aluu^ ill virtneof ACtutom whichi^avoa fomtllorKlMlfl 
in ovi-ry ouui, pc in oihor words 1^ or 160 iikum were udtimotwl and mbc ~ 
100. I'-am. dor. SbL X. C2. 

* Bon. Gov. SeL X. 63. 




jj^Bio rest of this period (1825-1830) the fall in produce 
lot a stop to the rapid Bprcod of tillage that had marked 
joara of British nile.* Still, in 1830, Sir John Malcolm found 
te of the district SAtisfact^jry. Mr. ElphinstonG*8 chaages 
irkod well, and the position of the propriotiiry class wiis 
)d. This chwa might, Sir John Malcolm thought, bo treated 
Ul more considomtion. Ho RuggestL-d th»t,»8 nad been done 
loblos of Uio Dcrcan, the Ahtnedabad proprietors might, as 
rtho civil courts, be placed in a siMJcial position," 
IbUowing statomont contrasts the tillago area, rcaources, and 
i of the different parts of the district surveyed l^jtwecu 1820 


Ahm^UAad Survey Dtlaib. tSShiSSe. 










bi .- .- ... 









hiUtM ... 

















•M ™ 








1 - .. ._ 


at -IS 






L -. .. „ 








r - ... -. 








[een 1830 and 1853, when a fresh survey was bognn, the 
after in 1833 recovering from the very groat doproRsiou 
noo prices, had nntil 1840 a time of rather high prices, 
by another long period of depression. In 18-U, though 
yean of low prices, the husbaudmcn's state is said to hava 
itisfoctory, and much better than tho general condition of the 
pie. Tho villages were generally of substantial brick 
houses, with only a small proportion of huts. In somo of 
villages were lionacs with upper stories, and tho people 
in possession of every ordiuary comfort. Even tho lower 
■wore well olothod, tho common KoIih and poorer cultivators 
' a fair share of tho nsual strong cloth." After ISi-i tho 
Imen suffered from a fall in produce pricos. In 1848 tho 
passed through a time of much hardship, and on tho whole the 
for the ten years ending 1853, show little, if any, advance 
fe and resources. During this period the chief changes iu 
management were tho sottlomont with tho villager inHtea<l 
1 the Tillage headman ; the gradual revision of rates &a 
ities came to Ught ; and the chaogo, over the greater part of 
ff'ict, from a crop-sharo to a money acre-rata 

R miUct nipoe prio«a fell from 46 pooads in 1825 to ISO poutula Id 1829 

.Got. Litho, F»p*n, 149. 38. 
P^wiMtt'a 170, Snli mMmlwr 1S44, 





pMirtli Periled, 

1830- isaa. 




Cbaptor Vm 



The following cletaila show the clinn^eaintro(lnc«<l and thepj 
niaile in differeut parts of tho dietrict. During the forqj 
(1820-1860) between its first and aacond sunroy, two chi«f 
were made in the modo of levying the Daskroi land reveni 
first of theso was io 1822, when the Govonuaent chare of i 
was taken in muncy inHtood of in grain. The eecond waa 
when in»itond of a payment baaed on the value of the crop, 
rate ou tbo laud vias charged.^ Between IB28 and 1859, Ui 
changes in cuttivolion were a steady doclino from S8,S57 m 
1S29 to 23,268 act«s in 1833, then a rise to 47,1 (>1 a<:re«i]{ 
and from thai a steady rise to G0,926 acroB in It^iO. Froi 
except in four years,' the nroa rarit^d botwoon 60,000 and 63,( 
Between 1853 and 1868 the area fell to 54,000 acres. Bnt 
it bad again risch to 59,000 acres. Kzccpt in 1832^ 
(Rg. 10,000) ; in 1833 when £1600 (Ra. IG.OOO) ; and in II 
£4300 (Rs. 43.U00) were granted, remiaiuous were 
the whole period they averaeed only 3't>4 per cent of 
assessment, and especially dunng the last seven years (11 
Uiey were almutit nominal Ciim]Hired with the returas 
those of I860 shew an advance in population from 45,552 to^ 
or abont 72;>4 per cent ; in housoa from 13,529 to 25,007, 
per cent ; in welU from 12139 to 2004, or &H'a9 per cent ; in , 
from 5000 to 8000, or 60 pcrcentj and in tillage from 73 
^8,366 acres, or 35-1 1 per cent.' Bat at least in the importai 
of tillage this increase woold soem to have beon almostj 
confined to the first ten years of the period. In 1828, 55,J 
wore under tillage, and the increase to 59,684 in 1S59 waa< 
ouly 7 87 per cent. 

Daritig Hiq tliiriy-five years between 1824 and 18C0, the 
its first and second surveysj the chief change in the revenne 
luent of Partlntij and Mod&sa was, in place of the old cn^ 
and plough-tax assessments, the settlement of a fixed nioiiq 
rate. This change, partly in 1 838 and partly in 1850, was inta 
into all but thit-e villages, whoso landg wore distributed I 
holding, kiu'itdhiutii, system.* In the other vilhigoa the nefrj 
acre-rates wcro fixed by village committeea. In each villa^ 
tbe rates, the laud was brought under two main claaaes, rain 

' < The detwla vera, by Mr. Jiikmm ia 1837. $ vilUaM; b; Sir R. Aril 
IMSftnd IM4, 1 Tillftgra : luid by Mr. Fftvoctt, betveeolHS ftnd 1(156, 38 
Bom. <_liw. liov. lice -HO of ]8ffJ-ii4.234. The r«iulta ware that.~wfaa* ia I 
vUliLgwt 3 woru ■hnmliold luid u( tho r«st in 3 tira imimiiwsI v*b Uvied m 
iu d by ucre-ntua, iu 17 by urupnttva uid iu S7 by m aixtuv o( the oUmti 
in ISGOnnepoid a lumpimm. in 3 the uacMmcDt wmod boltUiigs, in 15 A 
crop tail UL 51 ncrc-rotra, and 46 Vc^« luuetL 

a Tho ymuv went in l>^l'X r^y.OOO: in IM7, 60.000: in 1848. mymrtt 
fall (1370 inch««), G3,eOO; uid in IS5(\ fitt.OOUncrca. Horn. Uov. Rev. ' 
1862-64. 2fiO. SB'i. 

3 Tli« Jetaila are, in t]ry ctp^w from 1)7.883 to 75.877 ; in giid«a bad 
to 13.424 : uid in ri<K irvm 50C0 to WXiX Theee figuni we only 
correct Bom. Cov. Ruv. Hcc S40 of IM'J-K4, 240. 

* Th«t ia.jiayin).', for a term o( jotirs .» tiiin fixed OQ ttw entire IwldiBg 
CD (tiii whole iu«a.wbGth«r (alli^iw.or ttUitl. 




thi, and well-watered, hultar. The rate in each caso depended 
a two chief couKuIeratioas the 6eld and tho holder of the ^old. 

' As rBRords tlio field, the chief points wero ita soil, of first, aval, 
Boond, doyam, or third, soyam, quality, and ita positioa, liable to bo 
armed by robboTA, wild boasts, or floods, and near or far Crom a 
larfcotL As regards tho holder of tbo field, the chief point was his 
katep whether he was a Kaubi or a non-Kaubi. In either class the 
tttes ▼aried accwrding to tho iadividnal's wealth, aud position. So 
Teat was the weif^ht given to considarataona of costo and pontonal 
pealth, that in two villages with much sameness of soil and place, 
he average dry-crop rates wore 4s. (Rs. 2) in odo and 2«. (Re 1) in 
he other. 

Oa their introduction in 1837, the new rates did not seem 
ncceasfuL In 1838 the tilhigearea fell from 27,yOO to 36,000 aorea 
ad large remissions had to be granted. But 1 838 was a specially 
tad year. A chanf^ for the better soon sot in, and thearca rose rapidly 
O 8«,0(>0 in 18iJ9, 43,000 in 1 840, and 4.ti,000 in 1 841 . In 1 842 it was 
►4,000, and after being fairly st^idy at about 47,000 for tbe next 
bro years, fell aj^ain to 42,000 in 18tS. In 1849 it rose to 51,000, 
(nd in the next nine years varied between 5(J,000 and 57,000 till in 
1859 it rose to 62,000. The collections of land revenae advanced 
[ieadily from £4000 (Ra. 40,000) in 1837, to £6700 (Rs. 07,000) in 
[84^, and then, after a sudden fall in 1 8-t8 to £4700 (Rs. 47,000) , rose 
li 1840 to Jt'jgOO (Rs. 63,000), and from that with fairly steady 
irogresato £7400 (Rs. 74,000) in 1850, Compared with the returns 
tf 1325, the figures for 1860 show an inoroa^e of p'>pulrition from 
(HKS87 to 44,755 souls, or 80percont; of houses, from 7207 to 13,571, 
yr 86 per cent ; of ploughs, from 2090 to 6431, or IIS per cent ; and 
n built working ^vells, from 336 to 529, or 57 per cent ; the tillage 
trea had spread, from an avorago of 29,204 acres in tho three yeai-a 
Knding 1839, to an average of 57,469 in tho three ending 1859, an 
Increase of 97 per cent, and while remissions had aveniged ouly two 
per cent, tho revenue for tho same yoars hod ritiou from £4545 
^ 45,450) to £7185 (Rs. 71,850), or 58 per cent* 

The rannagemont of the ViramgSm subdivision between 1825 and 
tS57 was successful In the 77 Government villages, tillage spread from 
■bout 31,850 to nearly 58,900 acres, or 88 per cent, and popnlation, as 
far as mntcrials for comparison wero available, had risen 52 per cent. 
Between 1825 aud 1N,06, in 55 of the 77 Virameum Government 
villages, the crop-share and plough oesa systems wore replaced by a 

riey acre- rate. Ofthe55 viIliige6,38werBchangodby Mr, Jackson 
I8d8, and in 1850 Mr. Fawcett introduced new rates in 26 
{irillages, nine of them, it would seem, already settled by Mr. Jackson, 
^ twelve the crop-share system was continued. In tho villagos ho 
Mttled, Mr. Jackson (1833) introduced two sets of rates, a lower for 
aittd, onder tho former system Uable only to the crop-sharo, and a 
ler for land that had paid a plough cess besides a crop- 
le. Mr. Jackson's rates were low, reducing tho average di'y 

Chaptar Tin. 




1 Bom. Gov. Edv. Rec. 91 A. ollSeO, 8Q-ieS. 




crop aero charge from Us. 1-7-6 to lis. 1-5-a In the M 
vilta^a settled in I8j0 thu rates woro fixed by viUuge coInmtttoa^ 
Qveraginf5 for dry crops Ba. 1-11-2 an acre. During cfaothirfrf yam 
ei)iliii>^ H^jij-o?, the chief changes in tlie tillage ann. were, from 18M 
to 18:11, a steady rise from 31,500 to 41 ,000 acres; tbon in 1832 aol 
Iti-ili a tfuildeu und serious fail to about 15^00^ foUowod in 1334 bj 
dash upwards to 33,o00. I'Vim 1831 except for asligbt drop of 
4000aorcsia 1838, and between 1846 and 1348 abi^r fall of 
G50O acres, the area had pretty steadily incrcesod to 62,000 in 1 
During this time the Government H^tsessmcnt only rose from 
(lla. b.J,000) to £10, lUO {Kh. 1,01,000), or 22-3& per cenL In 
aaaeesraont the chief changea were, in the tTiroo years f nding ISSft-l^ 
a fall from £^500 (Ha. So.OOO) to £0300 {lis. 03,000), and Uwo, 
after a slight rise, n Buddon drop in 1833 tu £4000 (Rs. 40,000}; 
then fullowod a rapid rise to £7200 (lis. 72,000) in 1831. "-.^ 
£9000 (Ra. 00,000) in 1S30, and then with two drops, one in ' 
tJiootbcrin 1848, onthe wholen rise to £11,200 (Us. 1,12,000) w 
1852. In 1803 the reventio dropped to £9200 (Ua. 02,OO0l. ml 
from that rose to £10,000 (Its. 1,00,000) in 1855, and £' 
(Rs. 1,04.000) in 1856. KxcoptiutbrocyonrB,1832, 18S8,and :■-, 
when large sums bad to bo given up, ilio remissions were on tk 
whole Hiiudl, and during tbo throe ycare ending 1806-57 they 

During tbu thirty years between its first and sooond survBy (It 
1853), ncrc-rotos wero introduced into thirteen Dhnlka villages, 
four in IS 1-2, and iuto nine in 1851-^2. K\ccpt for this, and tkit 
the settlement was with thu villagers instead of the vilWe heidiHi^ 
nocbangowas made. As regards the area under Ciuti\-iitioo,« 
about 121,847 acres of (lovcrniuoDt land and 08,208 acroaofuUe 
land, abont 48,126 and 48,336 roapoctivcly were nndor tillagai 
I820-2G. During the thirty years between the first and 
eorvcy (1823-18>!)3), tho tillage area of alienated contiuuod, 
than that of Government laud, ending in 1852-53 with about 57* 
acres compared to abont 4(3,537 acres. Tbrougbunt the wl 
period the Uuctuationsof tillago in alienated aud Uovernmunt i 
very closely corresponded. Tho changes in the tillago ana 
Government lauds, wero, in 182j aud 1820, a rise from alraut 4S,1 
to about 52,330 acros; then, in 1829, a fidl to 40,120 ; aiul m-xt/aj 
18'il, a rise to 53,57i acres. From that, the highest point roaci 
during tho whole period, there waa a rapid fall to S7,02o in II 
followed by a rise to -10,507 in 183.% and after that it chnngcd ■' 
till, in 1838, it fell to 33,342, its lowest poinL In 1839 it rau| 
about 48,614, falling again in ISIO to 42,122, and after varying 
three years between I8,09(> and 40,8tJ.'i, in 184t fell again to 
46jld5 acres. In I8l(i it rose to 47,055, and after, in 1843, 
to 42,130, it was in 1850 us high as 50,025, from which, di 

• Mr. linger*' Siir\-fly Ilcpirt MP. ,10th Dccemtwr 1857. In lFi.T!a.lioutBs. fi^O 
in ]bt:t8 alxmt Rj. 'i-l.lKKI, uu<1 in XAIH jilmut \<m. 3(>.0IW w«(o rroiiitteiL 

^ Tbe totala in \^i'jAila art- ciily iini^jli :u) t)i<*y vieiv luide vul in esliauts i 
bishdf. Bum. Ouv. licv. Hfri:. 13o uf la^S, 170. 

the two romainiiig eoasous, it only slightly fell. Daring this period, 
Uta aaaeHsmont on GoTernment I»nclB was reduced from Jb^3jI0O 
(Rs. 2,31,000) ill 1825-26 to£18,900(K8. 1,89,000) in 1852-53. Its 
lowodt point was £13,400 (Rs. 1,34,000) ia 1833-31, and its highcBt 
£25,200 (Rs. 2,52,000) in 18-bL-43. The realizations generally fell 
Botnewbat short oftheassessmoat. In 1833 thoy wore about £1200 
(Bb. 12,000) short, and in 1818-19 about £1000 (Rs. 10,000). But 
tho only marked year was 1 826-27, when, from loss caused by aplagoo 
of mice, out of £24,300 (Us. 2.-l3,000)ou!y £20,100 (Us. 2,01,000) 
woro recovered. On the whole the period had been one of depres- 
sion. Popalfttion harl increased by 22 per ccut, but the area nnder 
oaltivation had Dot spread, and there waa muoh difficulty in rcaliziug 
tbo revonno. In mauy oases cultivatora were for years unable to pay 
tfao whole of their rent, and the GoTomment outiitandings of a bad 
season wore oellocted in driblets over a coarse of years. 

Of the south-westtiru districtii, Dhandhuka and Gogho, very few 
dctttilsare avuilablo. Aa they were chiefly proprietary, ttUukildri, 
TiUages, no iuqutry into their condition waa niade at the time of the 
£nt Burveyi aud on the baais of a rough caleulalioit, thu villages 
were hold on loasosat a certain lump sum. Of thu state of Dhandhuka 
no details are available. In Gogha, of a total of iiixty villages, 
ionly four belonged to Government. Into the sinte of the four 
Government villages no inquiry had been made at the time of thohrst 
sarvey. Since 1S30 two changes had been made in their revenue 
nuuingcment. In 1 830 the lands were divided intn two main clasaes, 
nrduii and dry crop, and uniform ratea imposed upon each. In 1850 
K more elaborate system was introduced. Koch of the main classes 
divided into throe grades, a first, a second, and a third, and ratca 
fixed by village committees. Between 1839 and 1S50, tillage 
,d from 1C80 to 1953 acres, and revenue rose from £229 to £24-4 
2200 - its. 2U0). Kxcopl. in 1812, when £16 (Ra. 160) were 
vm&ted, thoro wore no remissions. Between 1851 and 185(J, the 
juUaga area fell from 1953 to 1H97 acres, and the revenue fell from 
|£244 (lis. 2-tiO) to £221 (Rs. 2210). In 1850, £10 (Rs. 100), and in 
Itial, .CO (Rs. 00)f wcro rcDitttcd. Since 1852 the fall assessment 
ijbad been realized, 

^^bioagh something had been done to oukko the survey rates more 
HRn ana theHy.^tein of asseasmeut loiw varied and inbricrite, great 
Turiely and confu-sion pri'ivailnd, and it wiis thought th;\t in some parts 
of the district the mtes weruoxeossively higli.' Aceurdiugly in 1853 
the survey and nsHosHiiiont of Dliulka waa begun. DilHuuUy waa 
[oand in introducing the rates and final sanction was not gmntcd till 
1858. Of the rest o£ thodistriut, Dhaudhuka was surveyed itt 1S50; 
Viramgiimin 1857; Daskroi in 1860; Parantij in 1860; and Jetalpur, 
now part of Dartkroi, w;w sitrvoyod in 1 S58, but not finally settled till 
3. Two p»rbi of the diistrictj thu UiliJi'lari oatates of the west and 




Sarvey IVHod, 

: tntn at leart uxtooa iikkIca of lovying the rout in ISSO, iui<l Bonetimca 
I Kiid lout ia Uw ihuqv viiUjii}, kUckay's Wvsbcru India, W. UtiUUs ore givoa 




tho Par&ntij mehvasi villages wore not brougbt under the snnrej. Tlr^ 
period of this ticcond snrvuy loats through tho years of the great rus 
in prices, when bordflmsomo ronta grew light, and, almost the wlwie 
peasMitry, ohangod poverty and depreBsion for comfort and wealth.' 
Tho following dutaila »liow tho Atatc of each nab-divisian at the tiM 
of suiTOf and tUo changes then introduced. 

Eicoept in the north-east, where watt a stretch of woodUcd. I^olki 
waa in 1353 6at and without timbor, Noar the Sdbartnati tha 
soil was a rich allavial, and in other parts either black or whit« vitk 
cndlesM gradations. Of 182 villages uinoty-five were GovcmmeBt, 
acventy-nirm pn.<]>riu(ary,aiid eight alioiiuled. Dholba was theonlr 
mnrkot, Siinand wa<t not of any size, and of the little export tnoi 
that might have gone to Dliolera, much was kept buck by t.he wssl 
of a bridge over tho Bhogi^vs rivor. In 1853 so large waa the wait* 
area that in the yearly aactioa it yielded nothiag*. Herds cf 
Babaris' cattle roaming aboat did much damage to the crop!*, nA 

garden cultivation had of late yi-ars been rapidly declininjy. Tla 
oases were Urge and well built, and th« people well clothed, am], 
to a chance obnerver, they might seem well'to>do. But inquirix 
ehowed that almost all were di^p in debt, even for tillage rharga 
dependent on money- lenders. Cn capital there was scarcely uif. 
Moat of the landholders were practically labourers living from hum 
to mouth, their creditors nbsorbin;^ ibp surplus produce of thfirlauk 
The considerable increase of population, the fall in produce prices, and 
the narrowing of the tillago area, seemed to show that the bo*ly ti 
the people were poorer than they had been thirty years before. Tht 
rovonae UAiiagMacnt of tho district was defective. It was too largs 
a charge* for one mamlatddr. The management had bwn lax, sad 
the records were meagre. Tillage retoms were in dma or eetlmstnl 
hifjhas, and remissions and realizations were broo^t to aeeoiBt 
on no Axed plan. In tho system of aHacssnicnt there waa still gntt 
variety. Of ninety-five villages, twenty-two were Bcttlcd by noo- 
rates, thirty-fire by crop-shares, and six by a mixture nf l>oilt. 
Eleven had aorc-rates and a plough tax ; three had crt>p-6hare9 nail 
a plough tax ; three had acre-rates, crop-sharee, and a pbngb tu ; 
two had crop-sharoB and a lump sum on individuals ; and Uiirtc^o 
had a Sxed cash acre-rate. Tho survey officer, while tracing Biock 
of the depression to the great fall in produce prices,' thought thli 
the land had been over-assessed.* In dry crop lands, inst^d of 4^ 
old rates with an average acre chargo of 7s. \\d, (R«. 3-1.5-4), tht 
survey officer proposed to group the vdlages into five olasees ; the fini, 
with twenty-one villages, to pay an acre-rate of 4*. fir£. (Rg. 2-4-0) ; th« 
second, with forty-one villages, to pay 4«. (Rs. 2) ; the tfatrdj 

1 Rupee pricM of Inttinn millrtt row from eoRbty-two ponada, tbeavoMibrl 
fiv« T«tn uuiliti({ 1853, to forty-fonr iu tlio firo yvn eni^Dg IMS. 

> UboUa, »l>out lt:>0 k^uu-c milea m urea, •nam cquil in aiEe to two-thinb Vt 8UH^ 
Broach, or Kaira, &ud, while N&diid IiM eialitv.two and Broad) niaetv vffllHML 
Dbolka had IffiJ, Bom. OoT. KflT, Kec. 135 of 1*58.201,202. ^^ 

' ProdocB priow had blloo filiy p«r cent. Bain. Gov. Rev, Ree. IS of 1989, m 

« Thft preuoro nf tbs crop nXx* WM nraob gr«iler Uun of thscrnp-^^ 
Bs. JM-3 per acre couipaied with Ra. 3.2.6. Bon. Uov. Iter, Boo. 135 of ISUt 371 


aixtoen, to pny 3s. 6iL (Rs. 1-12) ; tho foortli, with twenty-flve, to pay 
3«. (Ra. 1-8} ; and tha Hfth, with three, to my Ze. (Re. 1). On rice 
UndD, instead of a maximam of £1 13«. lid. (Rs. Itf-d), he proposed 
1(m. 6d. (Rs. 8-4), 8ix rupees of water rato and Bs. 2-4 of 
land cess. Theac chnngos iuvolvcd a loss of about 37 per cent of 
reTenue. Ab rognrdn the raaungemont i^ waste lands, the survey 
officer propojuid that in the case of tho Rabdria, or professional 
Tierdsmeo, instead of a herd taXj payment on every head of cattle 
■boold be made. Bat Government thought that such a tax would 
requiro too minute anpenriaioD, and ordomd that grazing lands should 
be leased. Among other improveiuenta the survey officer auggeated 
that roads were wautcd and that the building of wells should be 
enconragcd ; he had found hundreds of welts brackish and useless. 

In 1857, at the time of sorrcy, uf the 150 Yiramgtim villages 
■eventy-seven were Govomment and the rest proprietary.^ Though 
tlie state of Viraugtiui wus uatUfactory, population wim scanty, and 
tHMidee 72,500 acres of arable wasto much good laud was bo thickly 
oovpred with brushwood that it was claaaifiod as nnorahlo. Tho 
waste lands supported targe herds and flocks, some of them bolooging 
to strangers and tho ro^t to resident cattlo-breoders. Tho water- 
unpply waa poor. Tho ponds depended entirely on local rain, and 
the wells were apt to grow bnt^kiKh. Gardeu tillage was almost 
ankiiown ; wheat and barley, watorod from unbuilt wells, were tha 
only irrigated crops. Boaidoa Viramgim, Patri, and Mindal, there 
wore several large niarkuts in the couuti-y rouud. The average land 
revenue, realiaed during tho ten years ending 18o5-<>6, was £0948 
nU. 99,480) i in 1856-57 it was £10,363 10«. (lt«. 1,03,G35.) Claaai- 
Jytng them on the ground of nearnetia to market, the Burvey officer 
Arranged the villages in four groups ; the first of 14, the second of 
37, the third of 21, aud the fourth of -i villages. The dry crop acre- 
rates wero 4«. (Rs. 2} in the first group, and each of the other groupa 
vms 6i^. {■i ag. ) less than the group above it. Over the wholo dry crop 
area the average ncre-rato wm 2s. 7^d. (Rs. 1-5.) The survey officer 
wnaof opinion that water-rates should be kept separnt'O from land-mtes. 
Tor pond wat<;r tho highest acre-rate was 11«. {Rs. 5-8), and for 
Well water l^x. (Rs. 8) ft hog from permanoDt, and lOs. {lis. 5) from 
temporary wells. Grazing fees should, the survey officer recom- 
IDendcd, 00 levied at different rates from resident and from stranger 
graziers.* Tho result of tho new rates was, in a revenue of about 
£n,f>00{H8. 1,10,000), a redaction of between £2200 and £2300 
fflU. 22,000 - Ra. 23,000) or about twenty or twenty-one per c<^nt.' 
llio settlomcnt of cesses and quitreuts on alienated lands was 
comparatively simple. These proposals wore approved and a thirty 
jeaiV guarantee granted from 1857. 

Chapter VIII. 



18931 853. 


ila 1S26 tb«re wvro 75 QoT»nunent vilUgM. Two of ihM9 wen afterwAnls 
1 M pcDprieUiy, and tfare* now hamtota wure rus«(l to In TiUi^M. Aoconting 
I Ibe unmber trould b« 76 Utd sot 77. 
i Tb« profKiMd rabna wmrv for mident graiicm, one pie a bead for sheep uid 
1 oiiM pia ■ boad for eitttle. For Bon-resideDt gruiera one lUiiu a howl for 
'< and go*!', and aix anDaa for cattle 
> Mr, B^ui' ijurvey Report 119, SUtti Leccmber 1657. 

rBoubay OauUtn^ 








In 1850j at tho timo of Rtirvoy^ there was ranch waeio land in 
Dhandhulu. Roaad Dbolei-a tho country was bnro and btealc; 
tho wator was salt, and tho poople wcra poorer than in the inkod 
diatrict«. Dhandhuka ha*l not been included in" the former aaxytf. 
Tho revenue uml other statistic^U details wero imperfeot and 
UDHotiBfuotory, and tho nominal tillago area waa mial^diog. Tba 
rovenue had boon oolloctod on tho crop division, hh'iffvatai, sjstan. 
Tho chief markets wero Dhandhuka, Dbolura, and ll/tupnr. rropmali 
mode for twentj-nino villages, twenty of them GoTemmm^ 
IhiVjfii, and nine proprietary, l-ihtJaJai-l, with dry crop ratca, varyidp 
frum2ti. to5jt, (Ro. l -Re. 2-8), involved a reductioo of about twenty 
nine per cent on tho former rental.* 

In 1858, at tho time of survey, tho Gogba Tillages •re descriK-H 
as poor, yielding ranch (j^rasa. Of a total of 20,bZ7 Iriyhtlf, 1 J.'.i 
were wraste and G503 tilled. Tho reveann was £222 ti*. (Bs. 2_'-'-l!. 
Except a few fields the land a of tho town of Gogha wore alientit.'! 
Among them, of 5573 arable acres, only 8272 were tilled. Qoghnis 
said to have boon Quurisliiug, and two of the other three villagoa 
improved undor their former settlement. Tho third village was in 
depressed state. Except a slight lowering of average ratoa^ inv(4Ta, 
a roduotiou of about twelve pur cent, few changes wore nrado.' 

In ISOOf tho year of its second survey, Daskroi ia described 
Bomewhat bare and unfniitfol to tho west, bnt on the whole w*d 
wuoded and well Ullod, Of the L34 villages, fourteen were alienated, 
nod of fifteen of tho rrst tho people lived in Ahmedabad. Of lb 
constitution of the 1 1'J Government villages, one was abarohold and 
the rest simple. They formed throe nearly equal groups, KanW, 
mixed, and KoU villages. The KoU villag^ were poor, the boosca 
moan and uucomfDrtablc,aQd tho cultivation slovenly. But tho rast» 
especially tho Kanbi section, bad many subdtantial tiled two-storiej 
dwellings, well stored with furniture and household gootla In 
Bpito of tho improvements that Iiad from timo to timo been ma^e, 
there was great want of auifonnity in tho matterof asscsameut ^ 
some villages the holding system was in force, in others crop-rsta^ 
in others acre-rates, and in nearly a third of the whole, more thu 
ono of these systems was in use in tho same village. Though tho 
former Hui-vey had measured the village lands and numberodand 
registered tho fields, it had not mapped them or shewn their limiu 
by boundary marks. The actual occnpation did not agree with lia) 
old fields, and an entirely uew measurement waa found neces!%rT. 
During ail but tho early years of tho last period {1820-1360) tillsgfl 
had spread but little. 

I Bom, Gov. Eev. Ilec. 1.15 gf I8f 8, 8M, S08. On rioo IaikIs a Rs. 3 wstor-iM 
was; u in Dbolkk, to bo kept arparato from the dry ntto. aiuI cluuvwl only wh«D w^ 
CfOpiwerc ^rown. Bom. Gov. kcv. Hoc. I.tSoF 1858, 30\ Fidil* nlcred fti«l 
ttnuna hiui nu ponnuicot mpply, aa*l wvro th««tore nuvIcUfthleoaty to&tniciUitt 
1KKS. Fickla wfttnnvl fmm w<^1lB n-cra to luive tho IaikI and water rata is vm^ 
Buin.Cov. llcv. Rl*. 1.15 of ISTiS, SOI!. 

a The mMimiira dry crop ratf« werc I!>. 3 an acrtj Tor Qogha, Ra HS^tttt 
Bhvkn. lU. 2 fur Khokm and Knrcra. The Timximum jt&rdcn ntaa tr«rvtU.S 
per MM. Bora, Cov. flov. Iloo. 139 of 1875, 203. The net reduction of daauil ' 
EU. 26% Boui. Qov. Itcv. It«c. IKof Hm, 316. 

K) Mjcty-tffo villages of tbo Jetalpur anb-division,' snrvftyed 

bat not fin&lly settled till 1 8G3, fifty-seven were GoTdmrnent 
) alienated. As regards tlia motiageineat and assessmoDt of 
nated villages, no details were recorded. But in tfao Govern- 
JUgos, though all but one were simple, tbore was the grealevt 

in the land assessuieat. In nine there was a crop-mte, in 
I lU) old acre-rate, in one crop division, and in tuirty-five 

ftcro-rat«9 introduced between 1837 aud IH53.' In 1858, of 
of 04,800 acraa of arable Government land, 33,857 were 
tUlago. The rental was lowered from £15,638 to £13,679 
>6,380-E8. 1,26,790). Under the new rates considerablo 
fl was made. Before 1803 when tho ratoBwore fiiiAlly settled, 
ago area had sproad by 13,7'^ ocroa, and tho revenue 
td by £4414 (Hs. 44,140). The assessment of thia aab- 
, was not thoiifrht satisfactory. Ita dry crop-niC» wera 
red too low and its rice-ratcs too high. On these grounds 
en-yoar guarauteu (1803-1872) was given. An Jc-lalpur was 
up and its villages dietribntetl over Daskroi, Sunandj I^fatar, 
ihmadabad, it was afterwards decided that tho revision of 
iral villages should take place when the guarantee uf tho 
isiona to whieh they had bocn attached expired. In 1803 
ry 14tb) when all survey operations were finished, the 
was reported Houritihiug, Wa^Le lauds were daily being 
nnder tillage, revenue wa-i riaJng, tho villages were 
MS, and tho pooplc contontod and gradaally growing rich, 
|it for thick brushwood and forest on a rango of low hills on 
th, and on tlie steep banks of some of the rivers, Pariutij 
1860, nn the whole, well cuUivatiid. Ilarsol was open with a 
:y hills. But,oxo('pt whore cleared near villages, Modaj^a and 
rero covered with thick brushwood. In Parantij tho soil 
rfly light, with a little modium aud uo black. In Modasa it 
Able, some of it block and moat red, poor in the north, and 
1 the south. The water-supply was pleatiful, and there was 
'irrigstton from wolls. There wero no made roads, but 
Iry seaAon tbc tracks were fairly good. Of a total of 17S 

116 woroGovemuient; eloveu were sliarod hetween Govem- 
jd the chief of Idar ; four wci'c alienated, i/iAm ; five 
J to a Masalmiln proprietor; and forty were held by Koli 
in chiefs.' In the Govt-mmont villagoR, of a total of 1-10,382 
5res, 01,780 or 44'01 por cent wero under tillage. With 
ligation and too Httic capital to grow sngarcano,ali the tillage 





lew nrtcB were inijcilnced in IS-WM. Oov. Em MW. 22ii(i June 18A4. and 
R«v. lltx. •Z40<^W>-2-(ii. 177. 811. The JctalimrmbKtivisi.mwiur.irnicd 
pT. Km. jia. R^S) of f<irty-thr«o Doskroi nnd Hvc L)holkA\-illi^:iii. TuLhuo 
fv, Rw. £727, ^■''t Sept.), to briiu all the rUlagci dnwing waivr from th« 
r bita one aiib-dn-iaiaD, foDrtoea MiUr vUlaKM vera iul<lcd, Dom. Gov. 
HO of 1862.<l>4, 182. In 1863 Jebalpor ceaaxtTto b« a diatiocL itul>.diviMon, 
Tw 5& viUara, Bum. Oor. Bav. Keo. 210 of I6i>.2^. 1S2. 
|snU tbfl •loren iliAtGfl vtllagcB, armngnmcabi bavu bvon made that four, 
ifaat, Vaoiytlil, and BAyad, shnold bo hand»d «vtr to th« Idar chief and 
tl^ GuvcniniBDt. Oov. Hat. TUT, -ttb T>6cenilxir 1877- The Miualnin 
wai a Syfld aaid tu bu Ihv liueal deaoaadaot of Pir Kamil to whom th« 
diTtoiixa WM taux gnatt^ by iim UusAlmius. Buai. Q«v. SvL X. 19. 





was dry crop. Manure ma little nsod, and fallows wen 
tbo ciUtivtttora drnwing some income Erum cattle giuxing. 
chief market was Parilatij with & popuktion of 8631 8011I& 
TiUsffeB in ParADtij, aud a few iu UodHas, were of well boil 
coiiiiiirtalile hoiuca. Tho popalatiou, 44,755 strong, or 157 utlii 
iu|aare miloj hod noithor tho skill nor the means of the Kmibu d. 
the central ilistricts. In spite of the great iucraase in popoUtu% 
the spread of tillage and hooses, and tho marked nse in prodaot 
prices, the enrvoy offloer was not inclined to snggost an incraaw m 
the rnteH. Much land was still waste and the people were pOtf, 
shewing littlu pi-(»gi-css iu irrigation or in the growth of rich cn^ 
The former rates had worked well, and any groat change in Ifiota 
would be likely to cause hardtihip. The question, how Ear 
ia asseBsment based on the caste of the cultivator ehoold 
ccntiTiued, wa.<t one of much diHicnlty. The surrey officer war 
opinion that the wilderclasses should bucharged specially eaartn 
With this view Government agreed, and boaides ku^ deditc^tioafi 
account of distance from markets, special indnlgeoce wa« sh«*!i 
the lesa settled Kohs.^ 

The following Btatemcnt contrasts tho former rates with 
introduced at the time of the last settlement : 

Ahmedabad 8nn^ DeUuU, OH ami /few (ISiS-lSOS) Ratal. 


ShoUu _ 









5 00 

1 ua 


8 II « 


Old Nam 
mm- mm. 

a*. I 

&• IV Ra. a. p. 






Ha* > 

• 8 
4 « . 
»«> tl 10 
0. 4 l> 




CM Ken 


) ( 

I a I 

IS is 
1 e & 

14 u 

The finaucial reeult of the survey was, as shown in tho 
tabular statement, a decrease, over the whole dlistrict, of 19"^-; 
ceut in the Government douuuid : 
Snney Financial StQtfimna, JS6S-JS60. 


Dhiilks ... 

r«nMI ... 

DMkral ... 


of wntW- 

18B&M ... 
l>»4-ft1 .. 
lUT-M ... 
1N»W ... 


















TMal ., 7jt».tH IMMa s.U.iss'. a I « tMJM I U t 

DiVTfy SjM^ft 







1 Horn. Guv. K«)v. Itw. Ul A uf ItHil, tr,-97. 




?63 tho survey lias beon oxtended to the pi-oprietary 
, numbering 372, iucludmg an area of 1968 sqaaro miles or 
UiuQO-lmlf of tho district, aud yielding an cstimatod yearly 
'of over £100,000. The following statement gives theirchiof 
letails : 

Ahmedahad Propv\<<ary ViUaga, 1577. 
















4t *■. 


















toi . 





103 ,3W 



irnera of these proprifttary viltagea belong to three chief 

Bajpnte, called Ghatim or grantees,^ OavietU,oT village 

and ISKumidit, sons of t)ie soil; MusalmiiDB, called KasbatiSf 

raen ; and Kolis, caJled Thdkarddt, or lordlings. The estatoa 
large landholders lie atoog the west of Ahmedabadj tbo 
ixuX bctiroon Gnjarit proper and tho poninsnla of KdthiflTr&r. 
019 line, it may be somewhat roughly eiaid, that the estates 
iajnut laudlioliferti lie in iKu soiiUij bhoeo of tho Musalniaiia 
idulo, and those of the JCnlis in the north. Most of the Rajput 
ors, of whose 221 villages, ninety-four are in Dhamlhuka, 
(r in Oogha, thirty-live in Dholkii, thirty -four in S^nand, and 
'Vininigiim, represent old Rajpnt houBos that still hold a 
tof their lande saved from Musalm^ and Maratha conquerors. 
Ut fifty-four of ita aisty villages are (1878) hold by Guhela 
He Into western Gujarat towards tho close of the tliirt<?onth 
■• Id Dhnndhuka, of ita M7 villages, forty-eight are hytd by 
p6», the descendants of the old Hindu dyiuusty of Juniigad, 
ity-fonr by Jhalas, akin to VAgheliU and first known as 
ifis. Id Dbolka, of its 119 villages, thirty-three are held 
fhelAa, a remnant of the Solanki race who fled from 
da when {121)7) that kingdom was destroyed by Ala-ud-dia 

Chapter VttX. 




lit taken bum Mr, Pailti'« Tolukiuri Settltimeiit Koport. Bom. Gov. SuL 

D iatbe owuerof the viUatco; Ginlsia is&g«o«raJ tetm, a%m<i. in thn Moath. 
Mabod distnott, to moan the owner of twg orttirwvata^. Mr. Williiua- 
]»t. I$20 : 17 of 1821, 147. In (lutnrhc<I Hricb b^tho villagu had pluied 
I auilvr tita proboctioii n( chicrii.itlin, k-i BtiAviia^iir uiliI Subih ioOogbi^ ftad 
>li<tU>.a, odlvd thvm<N>lvM £Ujia. Bom. Uov. iieL XXXJX. 61. 
rRiBMiU, 233(1879). 





Ktilji. Tn S^Tiand, of its oighty-two TiUagee, thirty-foon 
by Viighelas. The fuur villages iu Viramg&m are heM bv 
Besides tiieso, in Dholkaj ono village ia held by IUvhIh, ana < 
3h&]&i; in Dbaudhaka, one by Ravala, ooo by Vaghelis, 
Ch&nme, four by Qo8^, seroiitcou by KAtiiia, taid seven by i 
oloBBoa, and in Gof^ha two by Bdrota. Tho JUthia in Kadi 
weeteru Dliundliuka are the aescondanta of Hindus from < 
about tlitj fuuricutitli century, oustud tbo CbudasmAa aod 
Thoy aro etill a turbulent; class with a bod name ae lane 

UuBultD^n propHoiofB hold in all forty-eight rillagea. 
tweDty*eight arc held by Kosbii^ nineteen in Dholka, 
Viramgdui, and one iu Sdaaod; aod eerciitt.'eQ by Molesalama,! 
Dhandhnka and two in V'immg&m : besides these, throe in Dfaanffl 
arc entered simply as held by Musabnins. The Kaabatt*, or ti 
as opposed to oountiy [nvtprietore, aro oC threo olnases Kiions 
aoldKn-a of fortune who came to tlnjardt in the sorrioe of the Vid 
dynasty of AnhilrfitU (1230-1300); a branch of Pannir H 
cuiiTeilcd by Maliniud Uerrnda oboiit 14S0 ; and Meoa o&d 9 
Boldiers from Ucliiij who oblAined lands in reward for service d 
U> the Haritfa&8. The Molesatoms of Dhandhiika are Par 
Rajpntfl, of tho samo bimily and converted at tbo Bamo time [1480 
the Dholka Kaabdtis. Of the two Molesalim viUages in Virantg 
and the three entered ut> Musalui^ in Dhandhnka oo detuU 
given. In Cbuvill, tho north-coat comer of Virumg&m, Kylii 
Th^kHrdi'ij), tlio otT^pring of Sotankis and of Makvauaa who in 
uiarriod with the Kulis of the ilahi Kantha, hold sixty-mnc villa 

Under tho loose goromroent of tho Sfar&th^s, men of all (1 
olaases, Kajpnts, Mntealm&ns, and Kolis, held as almoat ind^^Mid 
proprietors, thoJr land-tax or tribute varying according to 
of the Mar^tha Govorumout to onforco their demuula. 
British Uovomment an inquiry showed that the rights of tli^ 
classes differed px*atly, and from time to time considerable > 
have bucu iiiudo iu their position and management The 
righta of tho Rjtjput bindowaera of the aonthom boI 
were from tho first admitted,' and, except irhon tbey failed le| 
their land-tax, the mnnngoment of their villages was not inteHe 
with. Tho Chuvfilia KoU chiefs, after their rising and defeat 
Lobar iu 1S19, had aeeouutant:) placed on their viUages. and, en 
an iiUowanco of twenty-fivo per cent, bad to pay their rofOW 
to Govenimcnt.' The Kasbatia of Dholka were from tha i 
coii&iderod to be farmers u£ tho revonue, andiu 1817 the 

I In I80t 0>L Walker and Mr. Dijjigle cnnndcrcd tbo lu-por eUtb 
pedMlent tnt.iitAnm. IW>in. Ouv. .Sel. XXXIX. 14. 21, .11. Th<7 h«U 
■maUer RirAiiiia auil KolU had a (wu^riutuy ri);lit in tba Mil derivm] 
mnotcataiitiiiuityBiKritrv^l tiithomby uitivenalaEaentiui^ tuumpaircd n ilf p 
Ikon. Gov. Sol. XXXIX. 2^ Iu 1814 Mi-. Kowltt ipoke of Uio Ph 
(iogba tiuiiK^tii a* jfrniiridtom. l^tnn. (iov. Itnv. IIm. IIlS of ISIS, UTi, 
KcvsmUir 18H. In 1S20 Mr. DurI<>}> Itdd thnt tho IsoaioH* i>r Dhw 
Ct^uirorc nrD|»rict(>nL Uiim- Ouv, Ttcv, lUc. 17 o( lS2l, 9, JESnl ITonalV I 

« RomI InaiA lVp«ni, III. C77. Dcforc ISIO thty had 'been ia naek V 
iKivitiou aa tb« ULJuidLuk« «Dd OMiha OirAali*. 1km. Gov. Itev. Ucc 17 ' 



tJwir viUngoa was taken otct "by Govornmcnt.* In 1821 these 
dtsttnotioDs were done away. Kr. Elplnnatono raised all claases 
lo the positiou of pTDprietors, withdrew village accuuDtants, reducsed 
tho land tax to two-thirds of the lasillonl'tt Hharti, and granted 
kuw for a term of years. A fvw years later (182i>}, the 
indebtedness and nli9«Ty of liapii Uta, the chief Kaebiti, a?aia 
bronti^ht tho matter to the notiro of Govornmctit. It was then 
decided that his position was different from that of the Rajput 
IsiidlioIdoTH, and that his lanils were held liy snlTcnuu;e of 
(iiivt'mmcnt and were rejtnmnblo at its will. Bat again, in the 
lulluwing yttkr. Sir John Malcolm would seem to have been inclined 
to hold that though thu KH«l)iiti's origiiml claim to rank as a 
I>mprietor was doubtful, his long poeacsaion gave bun a right to 
the pgntioo o£ lomllord.' 

Daring the next thirty 3rcars the Talukddrs' rental was loft 
nnehan;^, and, except when tlioy failed re pay tho tax, 
villages wuFB Ifctt outirely in their ovm management. At the 
time tho practice of gmnting leases for short terms of years 
I continued. It bcxramo nsual in these leases to embody stipnlations 
with the Girfisi&t, aud the original simple agreement was gradually 
expanded into a formidable instrument which a Gir&sia oonid not 
execut« without signing away many of hia rights. Meanwhile tho 
fall in grain prices and their cnrelo&s and extravagant habits had 
ulungea the Girasias deep in debt. UE tho kind of obligation 
inourred by signing bonds on stamped paper they had no experience. 
A few sharp visttacions of tho civil process iuUmidated them into 
needlesR pliability. When summoned to the courts, they either 
ignored the summons to their own discomliture, or compromised 
innttcira with their croditore at a monstruu.^ sjujrilieo. Money-lenders 
Collected and became the t/>rror of the district. Bond was heaped 
' Upon bond until the original transactions were lost in a maze of 
chicimery. Then came the recklessness of men who knew nothing 
of their own affairs except that they were inextricably involved,' 



) The Dbftlte QirAsu vilUeos woalH neen to hav^ bwn tFMtM in thtt uin« war m 
ibt- KiulNUiviU>geB.iiu(lfa&11(«ircrcii>tn>dne«>liutnk]]tjf tlit^mi. Flut Iii<lj& I'ntiem.lfl, 
i^U. Mr. Do^np ( 1820} ttmm to hava thought tlwt in DhiJka, thoiish ihv vUlone 
i|widM«««r* proprivton. tks ri^bbi of the wtat« holdott woro DMoatiiJiy difforeot 
f».». thoMAf th« holdcn is the math. Bnra. Dov. R«t. Rac 17 nf IH<il, 3,S3ttl 

iH-rlSSO. Of Uie KMbitia, a>U>uel Wftlher wrote : ' uDder the MAraIhA* thay 

hi) r«8tor«ncif viUagm who hwl boon (p^t^^la Inuo for s t«rai of vean. 
lb<:y iiwl inixvKMd their ertatM l>y tekins IhdiIk in laortfRwo or as asmirttjr for dobts. 
T%c DhoJkn KMbftti* umgAtcd a powi>r, likr that tho (iiiiaiiU poMcsaed hy inherit- 
t^Wf ol Muttiinit tlia jMiynctil, or j<inia, im tha vil]»(n* QtwlFr thitir inonagtiniwit,' 
Sam. Oov. S«I. XXXi\. IS. 3S, !t9. In ISW Mr. Diui1opb«l(i tlwt KmUIi* bad no 
" "'-tAry ri^ht and bod gained tWr Unda by aola, mortgage, and other niMna 

...r. Rev. UoG. 17 <4 1821, 7, B3rdNov«mb«f 1820. 

II. f!ov. Lithr^ I'apeia, 149,48. 

ij. (ior, tSvJ.CVI. M. Vtttza th« fintt tlu indobtedncffl of the Ui^ landlord 

wtiultl acuu to Lava b(«ii a cauno of tninble. In IfVia thv liirfi«iia were a 

loroo rcHt|>t<i'tiiljIe liu>ly, but wantini^' in laal, and, with oraall niviiuo. M»8t wero indelit* 

,mi Mkd onuieiuBttAU-of t'ltaldv^ndcnco. Boa. Odt. Bov. Rco. 17 of 18SI, 148. ISOi 

» ' ■•", tlte Uholkn lnniiliTiti wcru indnlnnt, afutlictic, and girim (<i opium, with no 

.Mioaauta, <uk1 gcnurolly iu tlw bondn ut «on)« tianl and crafty VIiiia. Uvbi. 




Admiuiitrati on* 


Wliea the rerenao surraj Bystem was introdaccd ioto tbe 
(IH.'>.1) tlic (|ae«itiun of the position of tho largo Inndholdera 
for BCttlcmcnt. The snrroy officers, ftccnatoiiicd to look 
saspic-iou uti tbo claims of alt tniilcllemen.aud Btreugthenod by tho 
of the leaacs aa well as bj old Govommont ro^lutionH denyini; to 
some Talukd^rs any proprietaiy ri^ts, urged titet the Giraat&s mn 
only hurediUry leasetiolaers^ lu this view they were eapported 
by the opinion of the Gtoveomment law t^cers who held tnai tlic 

{)roriHioDS of the Tdlukdira leases were so stxing^ent as to make t^A 
ittle better than Government tenante>at-will. Frum thia mi ' 
all the pecnliar rights of tho TdlakdArs were in theoiy a' 
But in the quarters practicaUy concerned, a different view wu 
on. The croditors, hastening to close on the Gir^iAs, called on 
civil courts to sell their lands. Tho courts held that tbe bod 
mis^t be sold, and whole fields and rillagoB wore pot to aactioo 
and knocked down for a trifle to the creditors or their ngcnli. 
If the landlords were leaseholders, the creditoi-s' security was wnMi 
worthless and their position was desperate. If, on the other baad* 
the Tdlokdars were proprietors, their estates would bo sold atnoniail 
prices, and attempts of the buyers to take possession would probahtf 
cud in a breach of tho peace. Under these circamstaDcra, u 
enactment (Act VI. of I8G2} was framed, reciting the foots as to tha 
leosehold, and providing for a settlement of liabilitiea and 
re-investituro of proprietary rights. It left crcditore no option 
agreeing to an immediate and detinite settlement. The method 
makioir awards on tho claims of creditors was fixed by rules 
appendfod to tho Act. These rnles wore calculated to awiard iho 
whole claim wherever it was hit and reasonable, and to cat off ihit 
excess from such us were extortionate. If the circumstances of 
tho Tdlukdir called for no abatement, or if the loans were second 
on freehold and not on leasehold property, power was given to Uid 
Governor in Council to grant an award according to thetenosnf 
tho deed or decree. That the grant of proprietary rights might ba 

Got. 8el. XI. 43. In 1S25 t1i« Vinangim btidlorda woe all <l«q> in dvbt BOSkl 
S«l. X. ft7- III 1S30 from tboirouvlws uutbrift tJiey weioilwply involvvd Hali^ 
of thvm ■ook m alxolahi poverty. Guv. Litho, PKpisn, 141>, 43. Of the Kiut<itM As 
BtaCc WM worse. In Ism fiipa Mia, tho ohiuf of the Dtii^kft KmIuUn «u is 
luaucy (lifficultlw aud bu ««t«la aud«r attuihinout. Hotiiug Ihjit k« woolil Ja (4«b>; 
th(» Calloctor frewl hU eatate from atticimient aud placed Hiya iit ctarge, Bot ti« wm 
iJls luid jiroAint^ and to nu»B money tnoaferrad the miaagoment to iw Alti>Md*t«l 
baiikor. His cLebta were eetioBatvd at £l5il00 (Ka. I,fiO^OOO) and faia vtwrlr idoomM 
£2000 (RiL. -20,000). tkm.Qw. Ua*.B«>. 117 of 1825.51,61. Bo u wid to hart 
on receipt of a pension, to nsfgu the naDscameDi of bis «atat«. Bom. Gov- 1 
4.^ Lil82fihakadtoIiToiaC:wn1»]rfor fearofbeisgamsted. InlsSOhbi 
attaoheil and himself ao poor, that sir .Tolm Maloolm graiitod him a inon*y allvvri 
Litbo. faponi, 149,43, 15tb OctobcrlSSO. Tho stat« of tho Vinutij[fan ^n-Vt tt 
litUg bettor. They W0ro(l82:i) dmity uid«lit,tl><iir viIl«^|nir»tolu>dlj 
Oov. Sel. X. 67. In lS'i7 tho Cliut-il K»H chiefa verBinTolved in d«4>t. oiaah 
by saita brought agaiiut them in the civil voorts. Bom. Oov. Sel. X. n, 

1 A mnvb-qnottid authority wu, "lake tba r«>itgr of a fanutbe T&lukdir hi 
Tight to cuiitiauecl noaaeuion.' Oov. to Ooll'tctor. Sept. 30, IS29. Hat this ' 
written only of t)i« Dh.>lkK KftiMti*. Bom. Oov. 8«l. OVI. 43. Tba ofBcvi^l 

1820-1836 Hun-ryildinoiItAliikiiilrTiliagoaaaviJIaKesbddoDaalwniditaiT I 

Our. Se1.X.l9,1. In IST'lTilukainuruapokuaor m bcredltarr l«Meb>tMi^T«,s<. 
Iiromiae bulKoeia iiroxiriuturs nndrcvouuo furniun. Horn. Oov. Rer, Rk. AX ui lii^* 



jndod to as loi^ a class as possible, Govommpnt docidod tlmt 
iera of eatiites not in want of relief shoald, if they accepted tho 
new settlement, be declared proprietors. And, to protect this body 
of proprietors, it was decided that, for arrears of litnd tux, portions of 
their estates should be sold onljr W a last rMOurce, and that all eaJes 
should bo conducted by tbo Collootor who, if possible, abould stay 
tho salo and satisfy the decrees by other means. Tho Kash^ia 
Wery among the landlords to whom the provisions of tho Act were 
•xtoaded. Al the sumo time au inquiry into tho origin of their 
ohuma showed that in most coses their lands wero originally 
mortgaged or »old to them as managerft or f&rmers. Accordingly, 
only^ a small number of their villages have boon continued to tbo 
Koabdtis. Of fifty-six, the total number of Kasb^ti villages in 
Ahtnedabad and Kaira at the beginning of British rule, iweiity-tirD 
havo been resnmed, five are mauagod by Gevommont, nine aro hold 
under a contract that allows the Kasbittis twenty per cent of tho 
roompta, in twelve tho Kasbilti iti a Buperiur holder under survey 
mtes, and in eight tho right of levying twice the sorvey ratea baa 
bacD conceded. 

^tohe steps taken to settle the Inndlrtnls'dehtfi were, tho survey and 
^fenment of their estates, the Bxing the land-tax, and tbo advauco 
<d money to help in mooting thoir liabilities. The field work of tbo 
Wirvey was carried out between January 1863 and March 18(JI) at a 
OMt of loss than one anna the ftcre. The new settleineuts, partly 
Introduced in ISOi-fJo, wore completed in 1805-60.' Tho amount nf 
the land-tax was fixed at from fifty to seventy per cent of the 
anrvey rates, and, for an improvement fund to be »pent on wurks 
and schools, a further charge of 6^ per cent of the land-tax was 
levied. An agreement was drawn up, stattug that tho landlord was 
ZKpoDsibte for the imyiiik«nt of the land-tax and co&s, nad explaining 
fais dnticB connocten with the Tillage police. 'ITie sum advanced by 
GoTornmeut amounted altogether to £.jo,000 (R». 5,00,000). The 
result of the inquiry into the landlords' iudobtodnoss wa.H, out of total 
claims amounting to £270,510 (Rs. 27,05,190), the awai-d of £136,040 
(Ba. 13,60,400). The burden of these liabilities was greatly 
oight-eucd, by the more than fourfold rise of prodnco pricm in ]8(j3 
and 1864.' And »uch rapid progress was mado that on the 1st 
inao 1865, £0C,78O (Rs. ij,ti7,iiW), or more than one-half ot the 
Tholo indebte4lna>3, bai.) been cleared off. Since 18(>r> the fall 
fai produce prices has delayed the final settlement. But stendy 
progress has been made, and, at tho close of 1876, £128,9GS 
(Ba. 12,80,630) or 94-73 per cent of tho whole had been cleared ofT, 
tod of tho £55.000 (lU. 5,50,000) advanced by Government only 
£13,617 (Bs. 1,SG,470) wore outstanding.' 




lacb of this Iwid had not boforo hoea lurvcyed. Twlar MaI'd (I51K)) Biirvcy 
I only DhoUu. Tho I8W-1926 mirTG7 laid down the bouadahca of tho Dlimlka 
catat**. But, vscBpt » few acilor ntULchmant, the UhAndhotCA luid 
miMtm had uev«r b«ta surveyed. A tUwtiurl *uTXKiy of each utale was matte, 
lUndpuwdkdiiitoblookBavorBgLiigiLbout forty Ruret. Boin. Oov. SeL CVL 28. 
liMfromKs, lltoK*. Snmnu. Bom. Gov. S«L CVI. 19. 
, 1U. S<rt. V&wr, 6bb OctuWr 1977- 





kptar Vm. 


A Tdlnkdsr's or landlord's wtato is bold aiher hj no idc 
or by a futnily. Onl; seven eeUtos, Mch {omung the donuia 
cliiefKbi[> or ij'idi, tua held by single landlorda. 'ITie regt are 
property oi difTereut mcmbera of the chief family, bfuiifoA, A rill _ 
given by a chief to a younger son revorts to the chief if the yomtfot 
80D dies ohildloea. But if he has five sons, the villn;^ is diTidodit 
hia death into five parts, his oldest son having, with the JhaUi s 
double sharo, and with the V&tfbcUs nod ChadiBtnAs 1^ shares. Tbt 
Kiithts divide equally, and with thorn fciQales also inherit. The CbmU 
'lliiikanlH.'i huve kupt the whole estate in common, the stroarat 
' holding shares in the produce ; the veokcr amid perpetual auarreUnif 
are put off with subsistence lands. Among them the abarnrs m 
so nnmerous and their influence so divided and uncertain, tW, 
except ^lerhups at Bhankora, there is nowhere anything like a eopsnU 

The chief of Katesan in the Uabi Kantha, and the 
limbdi, Wsdhw&n^ V&nkaner, Vnla, and Liithi, bare 
western A hraedabad ; so also had the lliakorof Bh&vnagar' 
18€4 his villages were transferred to KathiAw^. 

In ft Tnlukdiir'n vilUgo are the Talakdtir or Tiilukd&re, 
called the Darbdr ; the attendants commonly Kajpotfl o( 
ChohAn, Kulhod, or Pann^ clans; one or two shopkeepers 
whom the TiilukiUr has an account For petty supplies, and per 
a Goft&i or Charon, llosides these there aro the police ht 
mit/fAi, appointed under the Collector's approval by the Tal 
the mcasenfror, havdldii-r, who helps the headman and lool 
the crops in the village grain-yard ; the village barber> tracker, : 
others, and thu oultivatorSj of whom a few aro Kanlus and 
and the rest cattle-dcnlers of the BharvAd, Ahir, and other cutM. 
There are no hereditary village ofiicers, and except in DhuLka, thi 
came of Patel is unknown. The Darbdr is highly regarded, even ii 
ita eooentncities and follies, and no one holds any Ht«tion in ihk 
village but by its plensnre. The summary jurisdiotioo of tkt 
eightoonth century has not boon entirely forgotten. |t is more thu 
suspected thut some of the chiefs have occasionally revived 
feudal powers which the laws liavo superseded. Withthcviovl 
giving them a personal interost in npholding the law, some of t\ 
best qualified among their number have lately boon invested 
magisterial powers. 

Like the rest of the lands, the villatre site ts the property 
ilie Darb&r, and when a tenant leaves a village^ the wooooi £t«D0J 
his house is one of the chiefs pcrqmsitca. 

Except such as he or bis ancestors may have given awig-, 
villttgo landa pay rent tu the Talukd^. Of oliennteil lands fi 
part has been given absolutely to temples, BnUinians, or Chinu*^ 
the rest, often paying a cess or quitrcnt, is enjoyed by the viOaff 
servants as their wages. Of the chief's land a portion ie genonllrs 
home form, 9/iar/.'^/, cultivated by the house flervanta. Then ' '' 
to tenants, whose tenure is not securest by leases or written coi 
bnt is presumably renewed from year to year. Tonauta 
pay a sum to secure u Huld^ bub bitis is irregular, and the . 


probably goes into the monaf^r's pocket. Eioept in a few instances, 
rents aro everywhere paid in kind, the Uudlurd dividing the produce 
iccording to tlie vilmgo custom, lifulro. Tlio share varies with 
iificrcnt crops. In the case of wheat and other food gmJus, the 
;:otariiou pructice is io make an esliinato of the standiu^ crop by 
suiting and wc-ighing a few rowa at tixc<l intervals, and so getting an 
vrerage, dhal. With cotton, the mere favoured phui ia to bring 
Lhe prodacc to the village grain yard and divide it there, mankhat. 

As its variations are countless, only a general idea of the cuatomary, 
JAiiro, rent can Ijo given. First, the cultivator is allowed for seed, 
in the case of wheat fifty pounds the acre, and in the case of gram 
tweoty-five pounds ; next, he geU grain equal to the pay of tho extra 
labciurers en^^aged for the harvest ; and thini, under the name of 
partJtnroj he is allowed about five per cent of the produce to cover tho 
wear and tear of his etock. Under the dheuc of mapu the Inudturd has 
a similar cess, from 25 to five per cent, of the prwluce, for interest on 
capital. Lastly, the village servants and temples have their small 
perquisites amounting to about five per cent of the prodaco. After 
these deductions, the produce is commonly divided between tho 
landlord and the tenant in eqnal shares. In villages where the land- 
lord takes less than half, be geuemlJy makes up by a plough tax^ 
tdnUii vero, varying from £1 to £2 (Rs. 10 - Ks. 2U) a plough. 

If the tenant raises garden produce, or oven if he manures his 
iWd, he haa the farther ailvautage that tho Talukdfir allows for his 
Bxtra outlay by taking one-fourth, or even one-eighth of the produce, 
testead of half. Tho tenant has also the straw of tho grain crop, 
the grass from the sides of his Rctd, and in some villages from tho 
meadows. If bo takes up now ground ho pays for throe years either 
nothing or a quitrcnt. 

Of the expenses the landlord pays the land tax, jama, the polioQ 
beadman's alhiwaiice, and provides land for the support of village 
iervanhs. Together landlord and tenant pay for seed, extra labour, 
Mttin fur village servants, and village charities. The tenant finds 
U8 own tools and cattle, genenvlly receiving more for the wtyir and 
t»r of his strick than the landlord does for any capital he msy have 
Bnok. In case of such a crop as sugarcane, tbo tenant has an 
tHowance for all extra outlay, and a larger share of the produce. 

Except the CKimraon grains kept for food, the crops aro sold to 
%Vml1ing BgentR who visit the villages at harvest. The coat of 
CMOOTal falls on the buyer, but is duly cousidered in the price 
offered. Tho tenant ia saved the trouble and anxiety of storing and 
idling more than his own share of the produce ; be cannot be pressed 
tar rent before the produce is i-ealized, nor for a cash instalment 
^aforo he has got his money from tlni huj er. 




I'nder this system, though the cultivators are tonauts-at-wil[, 
Bing from year to year, they are not subject to excessive demaiida 
Qr liable to be turned out of their fields. The practice of sharing 
tin produce keeps the rents at a fixed standard. The custom, or 
Bkffiro, signed, both by landlord and tenant, forms part of tho records 
•I every village. Neither civil nor revenue courts would help a 


trintij Kolis. 

Iftndlfird to exftct more thtia the custom allows, vhilft the [ 
of a bIx inuntiiii' nuticu bufoix) tlie close o£ a tenancy guardsi 
hanh timt stiinmary eviction. As a matter of fart, oxnctioos an 
rarcl; attempted, and cases of eviction ore almost unknown. 60 
long-aa a tenant oonforma to the custom, he is practically aaa&EBais 
cultivator in a Qovcmmont village.' Some better Bystem of wtter 
storage is the great want of these estates. At present tbuj are 
almoBt entirely (loporidcDt on the local rainfall, and though in goal 
jearfl they yield lar^ rerennos, the otter barrenness of a bad 
can, nuleas it has been aeon, hardly be bclierod. 

Tito arrangemcota, mode in ISG2, for freeing from indel 
tho wcatorn landowners, were not extended to tho oastem 
or ntihca^s, chiefs. These chiefs, of whom there are sixty-five te«diB| 
ftharers, claim, liko tho Chur^l chiisfs in Viramg&m, a stiaia in 
Hnjput blood, some of them bearing the names of Kuthod, Choh^,u4 
Mukv&n. Of their forty-ouo villages lying rliiu6y on the hoi^ 
of tho sub-division, thirty-seven are in f^rautij and four io MoiUk 
Of tho sixty-Sro chief proprietors four have two Tillages ndi^ 
fourteen ouu village, and forty-soven have share« in niuetora 

When, in 1818, they oame under British management then 
chiefs were the most initcpendcnt in tho country.* But tho fst« o( 
the LoHar Koli.i h-id so good an effect on them, that tliey agreed it 
once to pay their Innd-lax, and two years later the amomit WM 
incrf>iise(] without the slightest opposition," No accountants 
appointed to tlioJr v illagoa. In 1821, Mr. tllphinstoQQ wrote ; * I 
have inaintjuned their independence, and in some oases 
rebellions Jiud probatory spirit ; they should be made 
for the tmymeut of the tribute and for tho maiutenauce ot put 
order, but no accountants shonld be sent to tlieir vttlagnA ; the 
Amount of itjvonue should for long be considei'oJ secondary to 
the reform of their habits and tho increaec of their industry; 
a slight rise in suitable cases, the tribute should bo kept 
stationary'." Accordingly their lands were, in 1824, exoraptedl 
survey meaauremont und inquiry. At tliat time, tlinngo oB 
whole orderly, many of the villages bore a bad iinme for thit 
and the country was extremely wild with but littlo tillage, 
chiefs were impoverifihed, paying ou money odvances kImiuL fo 
per cent interest. Their dependence and poverty were Umcnul 
and urgently called for remedy.' Since 1824 the position of 
vHnhpda chiefs has been in no way changed. From year to year 
Collector has continued to make rough settlements, fixing the landl 
by what the chiefs were thought able to pay. In 1818 the amoral 
of their contribution was £1-W7 (lis. 14.070), It has ainoe viiwL 
from £1766 (Its. 17.1550), its highest in 1S21, to £869 (Rs. SdSQIfif 

1 Act 1. 1861. XLIII. 1, 2. 
a Survey 8ii|tt, 131, fth Febniwy 1873. 12. 
* Bum, Oov. Kvv. K^x. 141 of 1SIS>, lAliH. 
6 Bom, Gov. Rftv. Rec. I? ot 1821, 6a 
« LmI iodia Fft|>en, III. 6T4-fiti4. 

1 3tm. Oov. S«L CVJ. !7. 

T hwa. Vov. Stl X. Itl, 4346. 





psl in 1833. For the last ton ycarB the chanj^pa have been vory 
llight, the highest sum being £1356 (Rs. 13,5G0) in I860, and tho 
t £1071 (Rs, I0j,7I0) in 1875-7C. During all Una tiauo tho 
nafjnemeDt of these villages has boon left entirely to tho chiefs, ami 
Doitber In 1861 when the revenue survey was introduced into the rest 
f I'tiriiiitij, nor in 18G3 when special meaAures woro takuu for the 
irf of tho western hindlorda, was any chnngo made in tho state 
the eu(item villages. Compared with the d(;t«ilc<l Icnowledge of the 
of the dicttrtcl, the unsatisfactory naturo of these chance yearly 
ttlements, had, for some years, made tho Collector anrions to have 
i WUagws surveyed and some certiunty introduced into the 
'on of tboir rovcnuos taken hy Government. Accordingly in 
tho survey of thcso villjiges was sanctioned.* Tho objocta of 
e Burvey were to aacL-rtaiu tiie state of the villages, to find out 
much of the land was alienatod^ and having found their n^venuo•- 
iding powers, to fix a fair land-tax. Tho survey showofl 
of 65,083 acres of culturablo laud, 55,583 or 85*4^ por cent 
nnder tillage ; that, to each square milo, there wore 223 souls, 
-six houses, one well, five carts, thirty-!*cvcn ploughs, eighty-six 
xen, and I8't milch cattle, figureB which in every way comparyJ 
Bvoumbly with the state of the Govi'mment villages of Pan'mtii in 
tlio year of their last survey. In spite of tho great spread of 
e, the increase of wealth, and tlie aJmost nominal demands of 
tate, tho condition of tlic chiefs would seem in the last fifty years 
have little if at all improved. All of them are in vory straitened 
mslances, many towards the close of tho season having barely 
means of subsistence-' All are more or loss deeply involved, 
debts vnrj'iog from £100 to X3000 (Ks. 1000 - Us, 30.000). 
.while their managers, in many oaeee also their money-tenders, 
g all the income, drive in fine carriages and build magnificent 
uses. The result of tho sorvoy was to show that tho rovenae of the 
>tes was very much greater than hod before been supposed. In 1 870 
rding to the statements made by tho chiefs to the Collector their 
revenue waa £19?:^ (Ws. 19,980). Butou tho basis of tho survey 
sanctioned in I8(jl for other Pardntij villages, the revenue 
fonnd to be, allowing for deductions on account of alienations, 
033 (Rs. 50,330). On tho proportion, fifty to soventy per cent 
tho survey rovenue, sanctioned in 1863 as the amount of land- 
c to bo recovered frvm the landlords of western Gujarat, tho 
vernmont contributions might bo i-aised to from £2408 to £3371 
S4,080.Rs. 33,710). Even the lower figure shows an increase 
the present demand of £1400 (Rs. 14,500) or 123^ per cent. 

The following is a summary of the chief available facts regarding 

e etftte of»Uie district during the last sixteen years : 

In 1362, the rainfall of twenty-eight inches was plcntifnl and on 

whole sennonable. Tho crops were excellent and pnblio health 

good. The land revenue roso from £138,511 to £1-14,»24 

13,86,110-Ks. Il,49,2i0) ; £205 (Re. 2050) were remitted, imd 

Chapter^ VUt 



ParAutij Kvl 


Seaann Rfporta, 

1 timr. Bet. 3376, 9th Jiino IS73. 

■ 8«rr«y Saponut«Ddcut 131. 6th Febnury 187S,44. 


fieasnn Reporta^ 

£010 (Ra. 6100) leffcoutatanilin^. Indian miltet^junCr, rupee 
rose from forty-twy to Iwouty-eiglit pounds. 

la lS6fJ, thn rainfall of twenty-eight inches wnaplontUttl but too 
soon over, Rico auftored, and, thongh most of it was iwTed b/ 
watcriiip, tliehnE^eatwnsaboTifc a fourth less than in the yearbefiora. 
Public health veas p:io(l. The land revenne, chiofly from tlw» 
introduction of rovisctl ratos, rose from £144,1)24 to i.l57,7$3 
(Us. 14,49,210- Rs. 15,77,330) ; £76 (R». 760) were remitU-d, and 
£1899 (Rs. 18,900) left outstanding. Indian milletropec pricda nm 
from twenty -eight to twonty-two pounds. 

In 1864, the rainfnJI of nineteen inches was scan^, the failnreaf 
the late rains reducing the harvest to about forty per cent beW 
the avemgo. TIio land revenue foil from £157,733 to £I50,4« 
(Rs. 1 5.77,3.10 -Rfl. 15,0V»f»") ; ^^^ i^- 810) wore remitted, wmI 
£lOG9(Rs. 10,690) left outstuiitliug. ludiau millet rupee prices nm 
from twenty-two to fifteen pounds. 

In 1865, the raiofall of twenty-six inches though late was plesttfd, 
and e:cct*pt rice the oropB wcro good. Thoro wore rather widespnd 
outbreaks of cholera and fever. The land revenue fell from .tlSO.iW 
to .£145,822 (Rs. 15,04,090-R«. 14,58,220) ; 12 [lU. 20) iww 
remitted, iind £1S9 (Rs. ISOO) loft outstanding. Indian millet nipw 
prices fell from fifteen to twenty-six pounds. 

In 1866, the rainfall of twenty six inches was snfBoient bft 
untimely, too heavy in August arid mther soon over. Some of lfc« 
crops suffered. There was much fever, and in Dnskrai a dii 
f^led bhtLtnria cftrriod off many buffaloes. The land roTcniw 
from £145,822 to £146.040 (Ra. 14.68,220 - Rs. 14,69,400) 
(Re. 3170) were remitted, and £697 (Rs. 6970) left outstandii 
Indian millet rupee prices foil from twenty-six to tbirty-fonr 

In 1367, the rainfall of Boventoen inches was scanty and ill-ti: 
loo late of beginning and boo heavy at the end. Rice, cotton, 
and grass suffered. Public health both of man and beast was 
The land revenue rose from i;i4G,940 to £150,734 (Rs. il.63; 
Ks. 15,07,340); £212 (Ks. 2120) were remitted, and £41 {Rh.41I 
left outstanding. Indian millet rupee prices rose from thirty* 
to thirty pounds. 

In 1868, the rainfall of forty-six inches though abnadant 
ill-timed, scanty at Brstj then too much, and again too aoon _ 
The crop suffered much. Public health wiis on the whole good. TV 
land revenue rose from £150,734 to £151,454 (Rs. 15,07 
Hs. 15,14,540) ; £1231 (Its. 12,310) were remitted, and t 
(Rs. 4-i90] left outstanding. Indian millet rupee pricoa fell 
thirty to thirty-two pounds. 

In 1SC9, the rniufall oF thirty-fonr inches was snfllicicQt and th< 
at first scanty was in the end well-timed. Except that millet 
much from locuata and tbat grasH was at first very scarre, 
crops were good. There was much cholera and fever, and in Hai 
Boriio 3000 head of cattle died from eating leaves iostcoil of gran 
The hiud revenue feU from £151,451 to £148,374 (Ra. 15,14,5W' 





14,88,740); £01 (Rs. 910) were remitted, and £324 (Ra. 3240) 
' oatetaiidiiifif. lodion millet rupee prices roao from Uiirt^-two to 
ictoen ponnas. 

In 1870, tho rainfall of twenty-eight inches was sofliciont anil 
[well-timed. Kilcept eome darangc by locusts, the crops wore good. 
LCbolera and fever were rather prevalent. The land revenue fell 
>ra £148.374 to £147,1 65 (lU. V1,83,7W - Rs. 14,71,060); £113 
18.1130) were remitted, and £685 (Rs. G360) loft oatatanding. 
tndian millet rupee prices rose from nineteen to eighteen pounds. 

In lS71,tbo rainfall of thirly-throe incheu though sufficieut was 
[Ul-tiinod, too mach about the middle and too noon over. The crops 
jpocially rice anffered. Except for fever public health was good, 
land revenue rose from £147,100 to £147,378 (Re. U,71,(iOO - 
14,73.780) ; £184 (Rb. 1840) were remitted, and £518 (R«. 5l«0) 
[left outfttaudiug. ludiao inillut rupee priceH full fiuni eighteen to 
[twonty-eight poond^. 

In 187S, the rainfall of fort^-eight inches was abundant and well- 
itimod, and the crops, except some injured by frost, were excellent. 
[Fever was common but public health wns on tho whole good. 
The land revenue fell from £147.^78 to £147,109 (Rs. 14,73,780- 
IBb. 14,71,690) ; £517 (Rm. 5170) wore remitted, and £242 {Rs. 2420) 
[left ontatanding. Indian millet rupoo prices full from twenty-eight 
[to (hirty'two pounds. 

In 1873, the rainfall of twenty-thrco inches was short, but, except that 
' began rather late and i>topped too soon, was well-timed. The early 
lliwests were large, the lute rather short Pobllc health was good. 
"The land revenue foil from £147,109 to £14.5,777 {Rs. U,71,690- 
|ft«. 14,57,770) : £129 (Rs. 1290) were remitted, and £334 (Rs. 3340) 
^lofti outstanding. Indian millet rupee priu&H full from thirty-two to 
[forty ponnds. 

Ib 1 374, the rainfall of forty inches was sufficient, and, though a Utt lo 

of beginning, was well-timed. The harvest and public health 

are good. The land rovonne fell from £145,777 to £Ht.l.SO 

14,57,770-118. 14,41,800) ; £420 (Rs. 4200) wcro remitted, and 

£235 (Ra. 2350] left outstanding. Indian millot rupee prices 

imained steady at forty-two pounds. 

In 1875, the rainfall of twenty-three inches was rather shortand 
Utimed, floods in September doing much damage. Rice suffered 
lut other crops were fair. Except for an uutbreak of cholera public 
loalth was good. The land revenue fell from £144,180 to£142,121 
[Hs, I4,41.S0O-R8. 14,21,210); £2295 (Us. 22,950} were remitted, 
md £35 (Rs. 350) left outstanding. Indian uiillot rupee prices fell 

)in forty-two to forty-eight pounds. 

In 1 876, tho rainfall of twenty -two inches was short, but on the 
rhole well-timed. The crops were good. There wasa rather severo 
tbreak of choloca. The laud revenuo rtJtio from £142,121 to 
42,683 (Rs. 14,21,210.R.H. 14,-26.830); £400 (Ks. 4000) wore 

'j:<envitt«d, and £71 {Ua. 710) left outstanding. Xudiau millet rupee 

prices IcU from furty-cight to fifty poiuida. 

Chapter Tm. 



CBonbiv GftiBttsfta 



Chapter TIIL 




In 1877, tiie rainlall of twenty-one inches was short and fll-tuned 
The crops suffered considerably and fodder was very scarce. Pab& 
health was on the whole good. The land rerenne rose from £142,68S 
to £143,040 (Re. 14,26,830 -Bs. 14,30,400) ; £205 (Bs. 2050 ) won 
remitted, and £414 (Ks. 4140 ) left ontstanding. Indian miM 
nipee prices, on account of the &mine in the Deccan^ rose from fif^ 
to thir^-two pounds. 

Daring the thirty years ending 1876, population has increasBd 
from 590,757 to 829,637 or 40*44 per cent ; houses from 212.464 
to 260,970 or 22'83 per cent ; ploagha from 69,630 to 63.707 cr 
6-83 percent; carts from 18,401 to 22,012 or 19*62 per cntj 
while the number of cattle decreased from 505,235 to 466,229 cr 
7*72 per cent. In these years the land rerenne haa risen fnm 
£118,708 to £142,683 or 20*19 per cent^ Eight moniaipalitie^ 
four dispensarira, and 175 scdoola have been established, and 371 
miles of road and ninety-three miles of rail have been opened. 

, in 1802, the districts north of Iho Mahi wore coded to tho 
L jnatico was Tiot sdmiiiiRtcrcd acoonling to any written law 
Bcortlmg tu tLe will of the local authority. This in the 
Bed dintricts Vios thu chief and in the quiet villages the manager 
Bnuo ffirmor. In the nnsottled tcrritorien, thongh tho power 
tiuid death wan in their hands, the chiefs fieluom punished 
I against the person ; the offender was leFii to suffer at the 
[of tho injnriHd man's relations. Under thi.i arrangomcnt one 

rled to another, tho avenger receiving pniiae rather than 
* The lift! of a man was taken with Iho sumo itulilTorence 
[life of a beast.' ' At the same time the local custom set ono 
put check on rongeance. Any run-away Gtr^isia criminal who 
[himself at the feet of another Girfisia and asked for shelter 
p« to find it. TT is goardian would refuse to give him np till 
Bvlio sought vengeance made a solemn promise to treat him 
Dndneas. liVhen the friends of tho slmn man agreed to drink 
kwater, htuH-mba, from the murderer's hands tho blood feud was 
^'"d. In quiet villages the manager, besides his want of power 
capital punishment, waa restrained by common feeling and 
But in spite of this safeguard, his efforts to mako the 
t poesiblo revenoeout of crimes, caused the widest injuptica 
erj-. No case was inquired into that did not offer the hope 
ij and any guilt, however heinous, could be cleared by a 
ent. To proven person goilty, the crueloat measures 
To make him confess, the accused was sot in the snn 
large atone on his heud, or bo was beaten, or his fingers rolled 
in were dipped iu oil and set on fire. IE he proved not to bo 
to make op for his sufferitigs the tortured man had a turban 
bim or some small money present. Tho whole was done withopt 
fl, and except an entry of the amount of tho line no record of 
TC was kept. Besides paying a fine the offender was bound to 
BOority for his future good cenduut. Of these securities there 
iix, fail or ehatu znvtin for good behavionr ; hAatr znvUn for 
Ul appearance ; /i7<i, green, that is Ifuiting security for good 
iDnr ; adzdmin, a cross that is counter or additional surety ; 
ikantlahvar MahadeVj a solemn, and unusual engagement.^ 

psettled villages civil disputes were either decided by tho 

&r RcEllcd by arbitration or by the inflnonce of a Bhdt socurity. 

ning his opinion the chief was guided by no rule and generally 

the question in fnvonr of the party who piiid him most. 

itration cases, but these among the warlike tribes were not 

Cliapt«r IZ. 


, Got. Set XX.\I.\., 1.32. 

» Bow. Oov. Sel. XXXIX. , I 3C. 




Chaptdr IX 



JuilidiO stAfr, 

avti Slatiflk», 

common, the chic-f kepi a small sum aad spent it on clianty, Houey 
dinpntcit wuro sottleii by llio htilp of a Blidt or Charan atcurity. Tbu 
debtor Id all caaea had to name a surety. If ho did not pay, tlw 
surety wonld sit starving at tbo dubtors door, and if tlus taSei 
vronld wonnd hitii<tetf or kill his mfo or child. Bat the debtor vta 
aeldom Btobbem enough to let thiugs reach this pass. lu 
peocefnl villages civil dinputos wore gonorally settled by arbitml 
the managftr always rocovnriug from the successful party one-" 
[mrt of the amount aivarded. 

The judicial admioistration of the lands acquired in 1803 
in the hands of the Ro-^idont at Baroda, tilt in 1305 a Jndgc 
Magistrate was appuiiittid for Kaira. The Itcsident and his offi 
niltninistcrcd the police and josticoof the country acoordin^^ to eqaitj 
and local usages. lu 1805 the British liegolations and systea. a 
justice woro introduood. In oonsoqaonce of the acquiaitiou of fi^ 
territory, a separate Jndge was appointed for tlie Aiimedafaad 
on Ist January 1818 and the western districts were tr«____ 
frum Kaira to his clmrge. In 1828 the office of Judge of Kaim 
nboliHheil, and since that time the Kaira district has been nnder 
jurisdiction of the District Jodge o£ Ahmedabad.^ 

Of the Ktrength of the staff lippointed to decide civil cases in 
Ahmedabad district no details have been obtaJne)^ earlier than Ue 
year 1830. In that year the district ivas fumiahed with foartma 
judges. The total number of suits disposed of was 7t>77.* 
years later in 18;J0 there were in all twelve courts and tjio 
disposed of numbered 11, G3G. In 1860 there were tbirtcon ti 
and the suits numbered 370C. In 1870 the number of coorta 
reduced to seven, while the number of decisiooa rose to SOtiO. 
1874 there were six courts and 5851 decisions. In 1877 
number of courts was the same while the total of suits fell to 5S43. 
present (1878) the district is provided with a judge and an ossi 
judge each with jimsdiction over the Ahmeilaliad and K 
districts ; and four Knbordiuato judges with an average jurisdf 
over 9G3 square luilos and 207,409 souls. Ofthe sub-judgos, 
stationed at Ahmedabad has jurisdiction over Daskroiand some vilWtf^i 
of Sanand, ParAntij.nud Mudasa ; auotherat Dholka has jorisdiraeB f^ 
over Dholka and some villages of SAnsnd ; a third at Viniuigini I* 
jurisdiction over Viramgam and some villages of S&nand;a8d', 
fourth at Dhandhuka has jurisdiotion over Dliandhuka, 
Oogha which ho visits twice a year in March and Novemi 
UoKiiles these there is a small clause court at Ahmedabad. 

The average distance of the Ahmedabad court from its 
furthest villages is forty-four miles ; of the Dholka c 
twenty-two j of the Viramgam court, thirty-two, and ef 

Dhaudlmka court, thirt^'-eight. 

Exclusive of suits settled by the small cause court, the «■ 
number of cafics decided daring the eight years ending U 
5854. During the first four of uiose years tho total roae from 

tin I85n a Senior Aitia«tsnt .Inil^ wm ai> pointed (or Kairs. Thla 
VM uUdialiBd ill li69. Bum. Uawttwr, lU. tltt. 



to 01G7 in 1873 and 
thm^dahxd Ei-parte Dfcrte*. 1S70-1S77. 

T.1UI ... 














SO 37 

58 61 

then fell to 5843 in 1S77. OE tho 
total number oE cnam 
decided uurin}^ the eight 
years Bndicig 1877, 5H01 
per cent have on an nver- 
age been given against 
tho defendkint in his 
absence.. The proportion 
of casos decided in this 
way wouKl seem fco have 
varied but little, tho per- 
centages being 58*2 in 
1870, GO-2 in 1871, 
CO'3 in 1876 and 64'4 
in 1877. Of contested 
only 16'97 per cent have, during this period of eight years, 
on au average det-ided [or the defendant. The proportiuo of 
coses decided in favour of tho dofendant fell from 20 per cunt 
?0 to 14 per cent in 1877. In 161 or 2-75 per cent of tho 
nomber of suits decided in 1877 the decree has been executed 
ntting tho plaintilT in tho possession of the iminovablo 
irty claimed. Tho number nf cases of this kind rose from 
'-fonroutuf 50G5iul870to 230ontof tilU7 io 1873, and then 

tho next foTir ywira fell to H!l out of 58'tO in 1S77. In 

per cent of the "decisions poi^scd in 1877, decrees for money 
kTe been executed by the attflchinent or sale of property ; of 
5*80 per cent have, on an average, been by the sale of movable 
7'77 per cent by tho sale of iiomuvablo property. Compared 
870, ibe 1877 returns of attrichineiiiH or sales of niovublu and 
vnblo property show a rise from 245 to 33i) in tho foi-m«r and 
896 to 1023 in tho latter. 

npttrcd witli IS70 the number of docroct executed by tho 
of the debtor during tho eight yesirn ending 1877 has 
lorably fallen, the t<»l!d for 1S70 beijig 4117 against Gl in 1877. 
ill bo scon frY>m tho follonring tablo, tho unniber of civil 
ton) bu;f varied tittio during tho eight yeara ending 1877, 
tal in tlu! latest year being 112 compared with 127 in 1870, 
S8 in 1871 and 1870. 

Akm^lahad Chil PruonerM, 1870- tS77. 







So mih- 













•<• >. ■ • ■ ■ 








■M- «■- 








■ ■1 







... . , ... 








• ■■ 















— ^^— 









(<) Iboapcd. 

Chapter IX 


Civil SUttatK:* 


Chapter I^ 

Civil Cnnrta, 

fwo/f Catut Court. 

Arbitration Cetirt, 

OF tho 112 piisonen in 1877, 101 were Hindoo and 11 
'I'he following Btatement ahowa in tabular form the workingj 
Dtstrict Giril Courts diiriag iha eight yoatB endiog 1877 : " 

AAmudahqdCwit Count, J870-JSTt. 









ll 1>0 


13 Oft 


















Ml «« 
7U «l 
IM! 45 
Mi M 





From the following table it will be seen tliat during 
ycoTB ending 1877 the total number of Buiu decided 
Ahmedabsd SranJl Cansc Court, which rose from 3680 in 
4760 in 1872 has fallen to 2540 in 1877, or « decrease of 
cent in dght years. During this period of eight years the 
valno of suits has ranged between £5 la. 6d. {Ka. 50-12-0) i 
and £6 Is. (Rs. 60-8-0) in 1877. As regards the execution of q 
attachments of property havo risen from 261 in 1670 to 383 ii 
with the bighcat total of 728 in 1878 ; and ealoB from eigh^ 
with the highest total lySin 1873. The number of dobtor* imp) 
mu 55 in 1877^ compared with 51 in 1870 and 63 in 1875, — ^ 

Ahmdid>od SwUl Ottm Ctrurt, IS70-1S77. 























A. ». d. 
5 12 7 
5 13 8 
5 4 10 
5 1 
7 8 

5 13 5 
( 8 II 

6 1 


£. ». 




11 4 
13 10 
11 »i 
12 11 







In ^orembor 187G, an association was formed at Ahmedsbi 
the purpose of settling liy arbitration, lavad, debt and other 
civil dispntea. The raemberSj altogetlier aboat fifty in n ' 



jinte, bankerSj Qorammenfc pennonen, pleaders and newspaper Ckapt«r IX- 
Thu basiueMiB managed by a oommitteu of four, bel]>etl by JuBtica. 

Va ploader by profcKsiuii. Tvro o( llio mombcrs nttcud ia 
dispose of bnsiDess. Before a cane is beani, ibe partita state 
g that they will be bound by the court's award. Pleaders, 
ities wish it, arc allowed to appear. Except in intricate 
..hen two sit together, the award is generally passed by a 
^member; &nd uuloi^s tlie parties press for it^ or tho member 
KV6 it wishes a review, the award is final. The members 
) no pay. But to meet expenses, fees for serving summonses 
r copies of awards are levied varj'iiig from l^d, (1 amia) ia, 
)f lc«s than £2 \0s. (Rs. So) to 2x. (Re. 1) in suita for mord 
1300 (Ks. SOCHI). Unless they are filed in a civil court, these 
ition awards have no legal force. During the firiit year 
rking (Nov. 1876.Nov. 1877), of 1376 suits filod, 235 were 
id, 122 were withdrawn or compromised, aiid 1019 reuioiucd 

rt is r^stration enough to employ seven anb-registrars, of lUgBtnrtio*. 

BIX are special, and the seventh, hatd clerk to the mamlatdar 

pha, belongs to the ex-officio class of sub-registrars. They 

itribnted, one at each of the head-quarters of the district 

yisions. In addition to the sapervision exercised by the 

tor, who is the diatrift Kegistrar, and by his assJHtant or 

r, % special scmtiny is, under the control of the Inspector 

d of Registration and Stamps, carried on by iho inspector of 

btion for Gujarat, The sub-registry office at Ahmedabad 

of the most important in tlie Bombay Presirloncy, yearly 
oas ranging from 1500 to 2000, According to the 

ion report for 1877-78 the registration receipts for that year 

■ to £ 1807 (Rs. 18,070) and tlio charges to £946 (Ra. 9460), 

a balance of £921 CBa- 9210). Of 5563, tho total nmnber 
istrations, 102 were wills. Ho were documents affecting 
le, and b'HQ documents affecting immovablo property. Of the 
lass, in addition to 1244 miscellttiieons instruments, 47 were 
i of gifts 2(>93 were deeds uf sale, and 1902 were mortgnges. 
Bgistered valoB of the total immovable property transforrod 
238,998 (Ho. 23,39,980). 
(ireaent (1878) twonty-soveu officers share the aduiiuistration of Crimin*! Juatiuaw 
uljnsticQ. Of tbcso seven are magistnitcs of tlm finit class Bu^, 

prmty of tho second and third classes. Of the latter four are ^^^ 

1. Of the former, four are covenanted European civilians, one a 
7^ commissioned officer, one an Eurasian and one a native. 

the District Magistrate, who has a general supervision over 

district, each firvt class magistrate bus on average charge 

^•qaare miles and a population of 138,273 souls. In the year 

first class magifttrates decided COS original and 304 appeal 

cases. Of thu suven first ckss magistmtes, four }iavo aa 
'.aasiatant collectors, and deputy collector, revenue charge 
.parts of tho district iu which thoy exercise magiBterial powers, 

rdinato magistrates there are twenty, all of them natives, with 
je charge of 192 stumrc miles and a population of 41,482 

Iq 1870 they decided 292'Ji original ci'lmiiiiJ casqs. Besides 

[Bombay QuiMm. 



Chapter IX- 

rimiiuU JukIJuc. 



tbeir tnagirterial iluUes tiMse ofBoon, ooccdiinve of Uia 

magiHtratm, est^rriflo rnvenno pownm as m&ml&ldArtt or tho 
clerks of m4mlfti<lar». Kuurtoen of the vilUgo lieedtueD^ vi mhoa 
therc nru 487 with an avcrogu anniiul pny of £5 14«. (Ks. 57), 
been ontniHtod with povrera of Suing nnd imini«o<)inf^, wid 
rest with the powurs contumplnbed by the Bombar ViUngo 
Act VlH.uf 1867. 

From tho tiiblo of offences given below, it will be scan tbt 
during thu stiven years uuding 1 877, 38S6, or one ufTeuce far 
SI 4 of tho population, woro on an average committed. Ofl 
tliertt vrvre, ou nu urerage^ sixteen murders and attumpta to 
murder ; sovoii ciiltMiblo homicides ; sorenty-six canes of 
hurt ami hurt by dftn^erona weaponn ; forty -seron cases 
and robbery ; and 3719 or 96 per cent of tho whole, minor ' 

It haa boon noticed in the Land Administration cliapt«r* tiatj 
eastern diittricts, Dholka, Dhandhuka, and Goghu, when handf " 
in 1803 wont most difficult to manage. In 181 1 boandarr dii^ 
formerly settled by fights between soTeral hundred armtHl men 
to a greitt extent, cc-usi-d ; the feuds of the different chiefs had I 
nupprosaod, and tho Kiithi raids ahnnet atopped. Still, at 
Haiputs, coses of self-outlawry were common, ana so strong wa«i 
lecuiDg of iusecarity that long bofoiv nightfall husbandmen weivj 
ihehabitofhtuviiig their Holds and seeking shelter within iheirwalT 
or hedgo-girt villages. It was most ilifiicult to bring a crimiinl ta 
justice.' 'rhe diNtncts ncijuired in 1817 were also in a disoi' 
state. In tho north-rast tho chief cause of disturbance 
organized class of plunderers known as Chnvalia Kolis whu, 
ISID, 1821, and 1825 raised diisturbaucee. Troops wcro soot 
suppress thn revolt and the chiefs forcoil to give securities for _ 
behaviour. In the eastern districts, oppres!:iau and insixiunty wsn 
driving people away. Thecity of Alnneiialjodand its neighboB 
were in a most disturbed state. Every night attempts at 
wore made and the country round was infested with 
plunderers, both mounted and ou foot. 

Vigorous police measures were at once taken, and in spite 
occahUHitd gting robberies, order was eHtal>ltshed as early as lU^ ' 
this time nnd for several years after, cattle-stealing was practil 
a very huge scale Especially in the outlying parts, tho BhUa! 
regularsystom,knownaH^a/idjifri, of pounding oattleandgivingl 
up if the owuors agi'ood to pay them a i^um of money .^ But thongh iaT 
several yeiirs cattle -ttcahng remained almost unchecked, the oiDfl 
serious crime of armed niiding was slowly but steadily pnt don. 
In 1828 gang robboricit were far rarer than they nsed to be;*) 
1835 'large aad fearful' raidB hud almost entire] j ceased ;' 

I 8cr imt'"^* '*". ''■'O- a Hiun. D». ot Hia, L 693. \4 

) In 1>>%S in tbo ciBtcm districti the Bh'la generally took the Mttin they (Ul'l^ 
Mime larg« tiUoge wbtro tho ovntsr by aoraci hint or by foUowwo np Uic i.%A^t 

{gnvrally trKwdthi^m. He w.i» biM hotniaht g«t hu aoimaU bkot (or aoerUUi 
fhc Agivad all woa wUl'Uit, i( h« rtifunwl Oio Bliili oarrtixl tho Cfttlls to ttii 
And ivdrciw wu hopd«8B. Under th«n cirounutanccs Uus ownor BlmMt aiwvn ] 
Uom.rioT. Sul. X. II. 
« Ciivuit Juilg«, ^tb Aiiril 1828. > Ciniait Jsd^ inii Fubnuor ISK 





the district was siirprlsiugly peaceful,' aod iu 1849 robberies 
iiu loiigor the work of orgiuiiKcd liauda but of individual hate 
' Tho chief difficulty the police at present (1878) find in 
crime is due to the fact tlmt Uio diiiLrict in, exeept on the 
th whore it marches with Kaira, entirely surroanded bj native 
Other hindmnces to the suppretttiioa of crime are, tbe great 
IKculty of tnwelling during tho r&iuy Heason ta the westora 
ct«)j and the large number of tribaR, Vanj^r^s, Sariinias, Bajanios, 
B, and V^ghriif, who wander about commiltiiig petty thefts, 
riaii criiueii ure not very cuniinou aiid are coiitiuod tu casoB in 
ich the cultiTAtor is ovcrwholmod by bis creditur's demands. 
tber class of qaarrelaarisesfrotn grazing disputes. But these are 
17 rure. Poisoning is an nnusual form of crime. Gang robberies, 
ough not by professional men, are less nucommon. A few men, 
generally Kathinwar or CiTukwiir's uuthiws, baharvalidi, armed with 
nrords and guns, HUii-t with horses and camels, rob and make a 
•tjaigbt run for foreign territory. 

In the year 1 877 the total strength of tbo district, or regular 

Uoe force, was ] 234. Of th<r3e, under the Superintendent and 

istant siiperiuteudent, three weresubordiuateoffieers, 220 inferior 

rJinato officers, 101 mounted police, and i>02 constnbles. The 

of maintaining this force was for the two European officers, 

Superiutendent and the assistiiet supenntendent, a total yearly 

ry of £1140 (Us. 11,400); for the subordinftto officers on yearly 

of not less Uiaa £120 (Rs. 120D), aud the inferior subordinatu 

on yearly salaries of less than £120 (Ks. 12U0), a total yearly 

<rf £6220 4«. (Rfl. 62,292) ; and for the 101 monnted poHcc and 

» 90S eoiuitables a sum of X13,009 -U. (Its. 1,^0,092). Besides pay 

i, total yi'arlyBum of ZGIH (Ks. 6I8U) was allowed fur the horses and 

ve-lling cxpeniics of tlie superior officers ; £^0S 8*. (Its. S084) 

ly pay aod tmvelling allowance for their establishments, and. 

I9i5 4s. (Rs. 1*052) a year for contingencies and other expenses, 

ring the total yearly police charges to £22,300 (Rs. 2,28,000). On 

weaof S864B']uare miles, anda population of 829,637souU tbesa 

res giveone man fur every 3*12 square miles and 072 souls. The 

t<>f the force is £5 15#. 9<i. (Rs, 57-14 as.) the square mile, or 

(4( at.) to each head of population. Of the total strength of 

exclusim of tlm Superintendent and assistant superintendents, 

ff fonr of them officers aod thirty-six men, werein 1 877 employed 

_ " at district, central, or subsidiary jaila ; eigbty-sovou, 

'nrteen of them officers and seventy-three men, were engi^od aa 

nards over treasuries, lock-nps, or as escorts to prisoners and 

urc; 719, 131 of them officers and 588 men, were engaged oa 

fr duties; and 386, eighty of them officers and 306 men, were 

ationcd in towns, municipalities, and cantonments. Of tbe whole 

nmbcr.exclosive of the tiuperin Lend out aud assistant supcritituudeut, 

irt were provided with fire-arms and 832 with swords or with 

vds and batons; 502, of whom 155 wero officers and 347 men, 

..Id read and write ; and 270, of whom thirty wero ofBcers aud 240 

.uiPD, were uudcr instmction. 

Chxp\AT IX. 


1808-1978. . 


i<;)tcuit Judge, i9tli Umnh 1899L 

» Bom. Qw. Sd, V. 78, 

Chapter IZ- 



187 iW7, 

&oeri I 
wen I 

Except the Suprrintondent and astistaat saporiotendrat wlin 
RuropeaOK and a tjubordioato officer drawiuKlL*^ than £120 (Bft. IS' 
a year who was an Kurafiiikii, the members of the police fom 
were all oatireti of India. Of these, mnetj*5eTeQ officers aad 414 toes 
were Mahammadans; tweotj-two officers aad fifty-foar mifn »r« 
BrAhioaQs; eleven offloers and eighty -two men w«ia Rajpatc; 
luneteeD officers and forty-throe men wen? Marith&s ; twelve offioera 
and bix^-bIk mea were fihils; furty-!Hix officers and 250 men 
Kolis; aerenteen officers and sixty -eight men were Hindua of o 
castes ; odo officer was a Parsi ; aad one officer and one mao 
Jens. There were 27 vacancies. 

Of 474 persons accused of heioons crimes, 205 or 4d*S4 per ent 
wcro couvicted. Of 7438 the total aamber of porsona aoomed-ql 
crimes of all sorts, 43-13 or 57'04 percent were convicted. Id 
matter of the recovery of stoleo property, of £3G53 4^. (Bs. 36, 
allo^d to have been stolon, £2353 (lU. 23,530) or 6432 
cont of tho whole amount were recovered. Of tho five di*t; 
Gajur&t, Alimediibud iu 1877 i-anked second, both aa rvgardi 
proportion of convictions to arrests and tho proportion of the 
of property recovered to tiie amount stolen. 

The following t4ib!e gives the chief crime and polico details 
scvun years cndiug 1877 : 

Almtdabad Crime md Pi^lee, 1871-1877. 

%u Hotilvr. 



mHing detailB are available for the five years onding 18t9 

Akmtdahad Crhme ami PoS/x, IS45-1S49. 

.. in 



















I fat 




<: >. 

MM 10 


is,Ma I 

icon IS 

10,T3S 3 

48,IEeS IS 


t. I. 

U* 4 

BI4 B 
»(M l(h 
M» 19 

M;IO 3 



, comparison of tlio two tabular atatomouts shows for the wliolo 
'bnt m crime a filight comparativo increaao from a yearly averago 
?5d in 1849 and the four precediug years, or on the baHiu of tne 
Icensnfl, one criiiioto every 214 inhabitaDts, to a yearly averofj^B 
)0S in 1877 and the fonr preceding ycura, or on the basis of tli© 
; census returns one crime lo every 2U7 inhabitants. Among 
lore heinous crimes there iz a considerable falling off, raurder 
rinf; a fall from a yearly average of twenty-three to sixteen, and 
Dpie aud gang robberieB from 993 to 1G3. 

iiidcB tho accommodation provided for nndcr-trial prisoners 

He hftid-qiiarters of each Biib-tlivjaion, there are at Ahmodabad 

-jaila, one in the city and the other ontside nf the city Icnown aa 

9 l)huUaicot jail. The Ahmedabad ja^il, with accommodation for 

prisoners and managed by a staff thirly-sovun strong, occupies 

' very handwjme Mnsalmfin building known na A'zam Khan's 

It had in 1877 a total population of 2165 prisoners and a 

•TBTBge of 424. About two-thirds of the prisoners Bentenced 

' terms arc employed within jail limits in grinding, oil-presaing 

carpentry ; the short term prisoners are employed outside in 

Bningand roml-nmkirg. The jail industries are cairpet-making, 

i-cloth weaving, and canework. The total cost wan, in 1877, 

H3 (lis. 30,130), or an averse of £7 (Ra. 70) to each prisoner. 

Dhulidkot jail, about 1^ miles west of the city of Ahmedabad, 

old lines of the Gujarat Irregular Horse, was started in 

to relieve the otber Gujarat jaila. The buildings consist o£ 

racks, one uaod nfl a weaving factory and the other niuo 

lating 324 pHfioners. This jail managed by a staff fifty- 

3ng had, in 1878, a population of 1207 and a daily average 

rX. The jail grounds cover an area of ninety acres of which 

•re under tillage. The prisoners are mostly employed onteide, 

in cultivation and some in brick and lime-making, while 

are furnished for making and repairing ron<l8. The jail haa 

i been remarkably healthy. The total cost in 1878 waa 

(Ks. ZQfi'M) or an average of £7 (Rs. 70) to each prisoner. 

Chapt«r IX. 









Chapter X. Thr porlioHt availnhlo diHtrict balance abect is for 1821 

il«TWiae and tbotigh siuco thoQ muny accvuut changes have been nuule, the 

Tfaaace- itnma ain iu most cases bo bmugbt under correspondini; 

B*i»acio Sheet, ^bc form* now in use. Exclosivo of £5i,235 (Ra. 5.1"^. 

IS22-ISJ7. adjnatmenb ou occouut of alienated land, the total ■- 

• cntoi-cd in tbo diwlrict balance sheot for 1876-77, nmounted, 
receipts to £409,070 (Rs. 46,90,760) against £20T,tiO(» (Rs. SO.lfii 
in lti21-22, tuiduuUercharjf08toJi-M7,o4l(lU. 44,75,410} 
£200.^72 (Ra. 20,Go,720). Exchsivo of tuUt rovenuo departmffMj 
miacolluueous recoints, and pa^meutHinrcturu fur servicitt randfftfti 
8ucb OS post ai)d telegrapli recoipta, tho 187(>-77 rovuiiui*, u;. ' ' 
beads, [mporifil, provincial, local, and munieipal, cauio to i- 
(Rs. 28,40.470), or on a population of 821^037 a ^baro of C«. io^i. 
boad. As no eensos details are available for 1821-22, 
information for tbat year cannot bo givon. 

During tbo fifty-fivo joars botweon tbo dates of tbo two 
shoots tbo following changos have token place nnder tbo ch 
lani JtmmtK. ^^ receipts and cbarpos : Laud rovonuo receipts, forniinp 66*10 

cent of £284,047 (Rs. 28,40,470) tbo entire roToiiuo of the ■^■^"'^ 
bavo risen from £145,477 (Ra. U,54,770) in 1821-22 to i ' 
(Rs. 18,77,810) iu 1876-77. Tbo inoreaso is chiefly dae ; (i;[oraf 
intruductioa of revised rates of assessment; (2) to the largeamitl 
land bronght nndor tilltigc; and (S) to tho scttlcmont of alieoiiBii 
land. Tho land reronuo charges show a docrL'Hse from £ii,79^> 
(Ha. 2,57,860) in 1821-22 to £16,921 (Rs. I,ti9,2!0). The mt rf 
collecting the land revenue baa incrcasod owing to a rise in 4» 
nnmber and amount of revenue officers' salurios ; the appufit 
decreatiu is duo to tho trausfor of herc<litary oflicors' payments fran 
the head of ' land rovenoe ' to that of ' allowances ana assignmeula.' 

Tlie following st&tGment ^ shown tho land rcTonue collected in 
of the forty-eight years ending 1878 : 

1 Fignreaforthfi yeAi* between 1830 and l^ffSxre taken Itvta >tat«iD«it No-U'l 
Mr. Otlt'ii Kxci»i lioiHirt •lat«-i) I«t Ovtvli«r ISCtf. Fij^urvi for aobMqiMtit yan*iy 
taJtva fivm Uiv iiuuuu rv]JvrU. 1 


Ahwdabad Cand Svtmw. 18S0-W8. 


tp receipts have risen from 2G070 to 122,U\ (Rs. G0,700- 
' AiH) and tho expenditure from £403 (o £(>90 (Rs. 40S(>- 

Chapter Z. 



B«vettDe and 


LaaiI lUTfnac. 




L4ad R«Teaii«, 


Balanve Sheet, 








18S2-fi3 ... 






l8(;3-64 ... 






IBftl.O.') ... 

150.4 lU 



1849^ .. 








1808-67 ... 


• ^ 



1 t->,5!l5 

IS(r7-68 ... 






18t».e9 ... 






1809-70 ... 






1870-71 ... 












1872.33 ... 






1873-74 ... 





1 19,209 

1874-75 -. 





131, (<4t 

1875-76 ... 







1976-77 .. 






1877-78 ... 



the southern districfcs of Gnjarfit, liqnor is little nsecl, 
receipts have risen from £2477 to £7018 (Ks. 24,770- 
^180), and tho cxpondituro from £112 to £123 (Ra. 1120- 

Fatid JDstice rcceiptfl, chiefly fines, have risen from £4C5 to 
~ i. 4*;50-R8. 22,-!>O0). Tho 187C-77 charges were Xia,876 
3,760) against £9420 (Rs. 94,200) in 1821-22. 

are no forests, 

lowing tabic ehows, cxclasivo of official salaries, tho amount 
from tho difTcront nssc3Bcd taxes tovicd between ISGOand 

fOvfing to their variety of rates and incidence it is diflScult to 

ay satisfactoi-y corapariaon of the results : 

AtMudiOad AtHfsted TaxeA, ISCO-Wt. 













1 E 




son, 603 



1.33. (MM 
















Baknce Sh««t, 






302 ^^^ DISTRICTS. 

Akmfdabad At*aitd Taxn, 18C(^lS7t—<aa1iaaf)A. 







Above 410. 

















Income Tax, 




1871-73 ... 


745, (W2 





Castoma receipts haro fallen from £22,547 to £10^44 [Bs. 2,25,479^1 
Ba. 1.08,440). 

There was no duty on salt in 1821-22. The 1876-77 
amounting to £99,734 (lU. 9,97,340) represent the roTenoe i 
Kh^r&gbodB. BuJb works. 

The 1876-77 charges of £70-i6 (Rs. 70,460) under Pol 
Ageociofl represent the cost of the Mahi K^tha and Pi 

The 1876-77 military charges on account of the Ahmedafaad 
Deesa troops and garriaon wens £145,276 (Ra. 14,52,760) 
£38,290 (Ha. 3,82,900) in 1821-22. 

Registration and education are new heads. 

The 1876-77 jail receipts, £3527 (Rs. 55,270), represent the i 
of the Dhnliakot and Ahmodabod jails. The charges nnder ! 
head have risen from £1404 to £7166 (Ra. 14,040 - Ra. 71,650). 

Transfer receipts have risen from £22,9'19 to £96,368 (Ra. 2,29^ 
Ra. 9,63,680) and charges from £93,652 to £107,257 (Ra. 9,i 
R«. 10,72,670). The increased receipts are due chiefly to 
on account of local funds, to romittances from other 
the amount held as deposit on account of savings banks, and 
recovery of loans made to lauded proprietors, iaiukihxra. 

In the following balance sheets of 1821-22 and 1876-77,J 
figures shown in black type on both sides of the 1876-77 
sheet axe book adjustments. On the receipt sido the \iein 
(Rs. 5,42,360) represents the additional rerenoe the district 
yield had none of itji land been given away. On the debit sodaj 
item £1425 (Rs. 14,260) under land revenne is the rental ol] 
lauds granted to village headmen, except those engaged 
on poUco dnties, and the village watch. The itom £5C 
(Rs. 5,02,600) under 'allowances and assignments' represents the i 
of tho lands granted to district hereditary officers, to gimMO*, ' 
other nuu-scryico cloimonta; tho item 12641 (Ra. 25,410) 


'epresents the rental of the hmds granted to village headmen Ohiptar IL 
ed Bolely on police duties. Cash allowancea are^ on the other Bamiu and 
reated as actnal chaiges and debited to the different heads of Thunoe. 
i according to the natare of the allowance. Thus cash grants BabuM ShMt 
ge headmen, except those engaged solely on police dnties and 1822-1677. 

age watch, are included in £16,921 (Ks. 1,69,210), the total 
revenae chains ; cash graate to non-service ckimants are 
d in £11,958 (Ba. 1,19,580), the total of allowance and 
nent charges ; and cash grants ixtpcUeU em^ojed solely on 
dnties are included in £25,661 (Bs. 2,56,610), the total of 



Bermine ud 



^ihmxZa&a^ Boiaw 





the Collactor. 

Stuuiw — 


I«i* mud Jnatloe 



MiMelUneoiu .. ... 

loMtcii on adFutOM, lONu, and utcan 

•toM ... 



PnbUc woiki 





ToW ... 








Total ... 

Depoalbi uid repapnentiot advaneeaand loana. 

BlllH fuid cBKb rHiniUaucW 

fension fuDd recdpla 

Local lundi 

ToU) .. 

Gnwd ToU] ... 

i«s,4n ir 

OOTO s a 

MT1 1 « 

«« s 

^U I T 
SS » 

UT^at ) 1 

us/tu u r 


B.— Admtnlftsnd | 
tn DepartmeDUJ- 

xi^T a a 
34 a 7 


IO34I 14 1 

SLmu t 
lUwn 1 


S1,»IS 4 10 

143^ } i 


IS 1 

'isi'" S 9 


IWV > 
UN *l* 

mu * 

jaru I 



S3 4 9 

tM S I 

TnmBfer Itemi otj 
■ucoonta. i 

141 16 T 

n^ 13 S 

sea o\o 

H,U4U i 

0,04) 10 10 

S6,»U 1 

soi,ooe 14 

4W,CI7S 1 1 




a, 1831.2^-1876-77. 





jt. :». a. 

£. «. d 

1*... .- 

lOT S fl 

S10417 S 


3&,T8a 19 10 

io,m 11 



^ ^^ 


no 7 s 


'113 8 

US 1 


1 11* ■>. 

MB IB 7 


SOS « 

12,110 S 8 



1837 1 4 



1890 8 S 



sei 11 9 

704« 1 » 



taau 10 

1I,0B8 7 7 



4408 11 11 


Total ... 

>sea « 

88 » S 

it^W 8 « 

e7,MS a 1 


BM , 

IS^B U 11 


p.. ■'• >>■ >-< >.* 

• ..« X' f-- 

ii,nT IS t 

• work! 

. ■■• •*< ... 

UTS 1 t 

eO,»44 8 4 




I4fi^S 4 9 

»• *.■ <>■ t.i li* .. 

■ ... •'■ 

... . 

SIB 7 7 

<-■ •>■ iti <■. ,*i .. 

. »• >>■ 


7SM 17 7 


IWal ... 

BSOd 9 

eosos u 8 

938^7.10 S 


40 • 6 


"» <>■ *-. 

e*s c 8 


— f •-« »' 

BS4S 13 C 


BOSl 8 

1B,«1 13 S 

m „ 

»■ •<■ ■<> 


SS48 19 11 

— ■ ... ... t u 

1404 t 10 

7109 fl 7 

ariM. oflloe renta, to. 



838 « 6 

r dspwuuanu 

■*• "» — 

T4S 1 6 


TUal ... 
Aada ... 


IS8 10 S 

v>;tM lu 

41170 ■ S 

Ha Monad and adtaoeaa and loau 

lOI 19 7 


04,045 Iff 11 

•SM 1 • 

■Dd eaih temlttoiMea 

■( on OovanmNDt aeonHtiaa 

w,eM u 


' "■ 


1*,«8 I I 

TMal ... 


107,11714 S 

Grand Total ,.. 

aoe,6n u ti 

447,5U 9 S 


Aerflnas and 

B*hiK» Sheet, 

Oliaptdr X. 

BeTeQQo and 

Local Fvuda. 

lievenue other than Imperial, 

Tlie district local funds, coUcctod since 1863 to promote rant 
oducation and aapplv roads, water, dnios, rest-hoases. diapeoaaniBL 
&nd other nsefnl objects, amcnnted in tho year 1877-78 to it tow 
fium of £16,583 {Ra. 1, 65,830] and the expenditure to £SI.2<i9 
(Rb. 2,12,030). Tliiu revenue m drawa from taroe aonrcea, a epeal. 
oeM of one-sixteenth in Addition to tho oidinary land tu^ tin 
proceeds of certain subordinate local funds, and some miBCBllanaeoi 
items of revenue. The special land cesa, of which two-thirds an Ml 
apart as a road fund and the rest as a school fund, yielded in 1877-7B 
a revenue of £11,799 (Ks. 1,17,990). Smaller funds, including a lenr 
fuud, a cattle round fund, a travellers' bungalow fund, and asdua 
fee fnnd yielded £1852 {lU. 18,520). Government and privito 
subscriptions amounted to £24G1 (Rs. 24,G10}, and nmoellaneoai 
receipts including certain items of land revenue to £4G7 (Ba. 4C9QJL 
This revenue is administered by committees composed putlj ■ 
official and partly of private members. 

Fur udministrative purposes the local funds of tbe district an 
divided into two main sections, one set apart for Public Works and 
tho other for instruction, llio recoipta and disbursements ditdit^ 
the year 1877*78 uodor those two heads were as follows : 

Alaudabad Local FumU. 1877-78, 
PCBUC woaxs. 


B«luic«, lit April 1977 ... 

TwD-Uiirda of tho lui<I ctem.. 


Cattle noantl* 
Tr»v«llen' roai-bonsei 

«. t. 

6907 10 

7B6G 10 

.121 4 

783 Ifi 

53 10 

770 ti 

78 3 



KopAUS ... 


Bftluuo, iBt AprO 1S78 ... 

TMal ... 

& a 




MO 19 


san « 

Total ... 

16,789 18 

16 jw n ; 


Balance, lut April 1977 ... 
Oitc ■ Uiin) of tlid luiil COM . . . 

School iec fund 

CDBtrilmtion [OoTenunent) . 

Dilto (private} 

lnt«rwt on Iim Jed lavMt. 


£. M. 

2310 18 

3im 5 

695 2 

1462 16 

380 4 

S37 3 

ise 9 

HJll 10 

School charges 
HuliohT«hi|Mi. . . . . , 
Suluwl boWM, Dew 

Do, rvpatn 
BiOadov, Ut Apra 1378 


& *- 

SS77 » 
411 I 
Ul I 

140 n 


Mil w 

Since 1SG3 the fcllowing local fund works have been carried eit 
To improve communication, 252 milee of road wore citlier mads 
cleared or repaired, and planted with trees. To improve tho water 
supply, 330 wcUbj seventy .quo ponds, and twcnty-fivo waUw-coacM 




ire 'boon mtido or ropaireJ. To help villaf»e instmction, axty-five 
■ehoole, and for thtt coinFort of travollors fifty-Gvc reet-hocscs, 
dhara^Mdldt, and eightj-fivo village offices, chords, hare been built. 
B«&idt38 these TTorkKj four dispeDH&ries, 104cattlo pounds, and tlireo 
Btaging hnogBlowa havo beon constrnctod. 

In 1S77-78 there were eiffht municipalities. The total mnoicipal 

tcuac in 1877-78 (wnountcd to £33,235 (Ra. 3,32,350). Of this 

£16,818 CBa. 1,68,130) were recovered from octroi dnes, £3324 

33,240) from a toll and whoel-tax, £3948 (Us. 39,480) from 

taxca, and £9149 (Rs. 91/490} from miscellaneous sourcea. 

Under the proviaionB of the Bombay District Mnnicipal Act (VI o£ 
1873) Ahmedabad forma a city munioipality; its f unda, under the 
presidency of the Collector, being administered by a body of 
commissioners, official and private, in tho proportion of at least two 
of the latter to one of the former. Under tho same Act, the roat aro 
town municipalities administered by a body of commissionrrs with 
tho Collector as president and the Assistant or Deputy CuUcctur iu 
charge of the sab-diTision aa vice-president, the commisaionors 
being chosen in the same way as the city mntucipality commissicuora. 

The following statement givew for each municipality the rocoipta, 
ehu^es, and incidence of taxation during the year ending Slat 
Much. 1878 : 

B Ahmifdn^ad Jfunkipai DtiaiU, 1878. 





UU> U*r 1^7 

M H«rab IWV, 
Ui Jul; 1M6 .. 

Ixt ilAT.USfl .. 

l«t Jiitj 1S5S .. 
\h\ti Not ISW. 






SS73 ID 

ara s 
it* i 

211 II 
Ml 4 

I« IH 

T 931.1 1 


Tolla «ihI 


»U 4 
l» S 

181 n 

3«4 S 



susi» sua 17 

»HB la »1M li 



M» T 
KTT 1 
SGS ft 

S»l s 


14» • 



Itevenne and 




ssai I 


e. I. 

IE» M 
343 ID 

Mt a 

7ft 4 
■K Vi 


ti e 



7l» 18 
3m> 10 
ItO t 
Bt 14 
(L I 

4iKti 12 I 111,743 IV 


1 la 

OilKlnoI ftqwin. 

Ml II 


£, «. 

ITM 13 

173 10 

M 11 


£. (. 

laio ii 


C *. 


JM 17 

an 14 

H 1 

17 9 
14 IG 

4 a 

1U4 13 


IfHO 18 

oao 1 

SI] 1 

174 S 

lOS 11 
14D 1 

3T.«I4 It 



a. 4. 

EBombay QftMttHMi- 





Dttaram TbUv 

At present (1878) an establishment ia connection with the Cotton 
Frandfl Act (Bombay Act VII of 1878) for preventing the adolteratioa 
of cotton is, under the control of the Collector, maintained at a 
total yearly cost of £631 (Ba. 6310). This chu^ is met from tlia 
Cotton Improvement Fund. The estabUshment consists of thrw 
snb-inspectora with monthly salaries varying from £12 to £25 
(Ba. 120 - Ra. 250) and five messengers. 

The Dholera Sharam Taldv Fnnd managed by the Collector wu, 
about 1818, raised to secure a supply of water along tiie road to 
Dholera. It has always been supported by voluntary contribatioiv 
from the owners of merchandise passing through the town. Is 
1877-78 its revenue amounted to £1050 (Bs. 10,500), 



iliere were 175 GnvfimraeTit schoolg, or on an aTerage 
lOol for orfiry five iulia.bitc>(I villages alienated as well aa 
ment, with 11,4-40 names ou tic rolls and an average 
Dce of 8179 pupils or 191 per cent of 426,024^ tho entire 
lion of not more tlian twenty years oE age. 
nding auptirintendence charges, tho total oxponditnrQ on 
on on account of theso as well as aided and other schools, 
led to £10.100 (Rb. 1,01,000), of which £-40H (Ru. 40,140) wero 
[ to Government and £6086 (Rs. 60,860) to local and other 

Chapter XL 

School A, 
1 877 -78, 


9T the Director of public instmotion, and the edncational 
or, northern diviaion, the schooling of the district waa, in 
Bf conducted by a local staff 41 7 strong ; of these one was a 
inspector with general charge over all the echooU of tho 
s drawing a yearly pay of £210 (Rs. 2100); one waa an assistant 
inapector entrusted with the oxamination of tbo Rchoola in 
olka and Dhnndhuka sub-divisions and drawing a yearly pay 
(Rs. 900) ; and the roflt were ina-sters and assistant masters 
pql a with yearly satarics ranging from £000 to £2 Ss. 
p.Rs. 2-1.}. 

75 tho total nomber of Government schools, in 163 Guiarilti 
is taught, and in six Urdu. In the six remaining schools 
tion was given in English and Gnjarati ; and one was a high 
teaching English, Gujiiriiti, and a classical language (Sanscrit 
n) op to the standard required to pass the Bombay University 
ye tost examination. Of tho Gnjarati schools, two were 
g or normal schools, one for men aud the other for women. 

idition to the Goverament schools there were thirteen private 
., Of these eleven were Government aided schools and tho 
ing two were inspected by educational officers. 
following figures show the increased means for Wrning to 
id write offered by Oovcmmoat to tho people during tlio hiat 
ro years. The first two Government vernacnlar schools 
pened in the city of Ahniediibad in 1826 ; and a third in 1827 
[)lka. Three years later, in 18-30, a verna«!nlar school waa 
I at Dhandhaua ; while during the next nineteen years, only 
more schools were opened between 1817 and 184-9, two at 
labad and one at Bholera. The first English school iu the 





■'Ohftpter XI. 

Girli' Schoo'j. 

BtiaJ^-n and 






district Tras opened at Alitnedabad in 184G. Four years later^j 
18'}0, thora waH a total iiuiiiher of 113 iianiQfl on the rolls. 
lH.50-51 there were nine Gorernment schooU with a total nnml 
of Sdi pupilfl enrollod, or 025 per cent oi 333,893, thau 
population of not more than twenty years of age. In ISS^l 
the number of Hchoola rein»inecl the aaroe bat the number 
pnpils roue to 1178. In 1805-5*5 there were sereutceu sdlioob 
with 1S33 names on the rolls and an averafi^e attondanoe -oC 
799 pupila or 023 per ceut of 333,893, the total population of 
not more than twenty years of ago. Ten years later the number 
of schools rose to 102 with 8056 naraea on tho rolls and an average 
attendance of 5441 or 1*G2 per cent of 333,893, the total populatioo 
of not more than twenty years of age. In 1870-77 the total nonUwr 
of all schools in the district was reported to be 185 with ll,'^ 
names on the rolls. In 1877-7S there were 188 schools with 12jl 
names on the mils and nn average attendance of B977 pupils or 
per cent of 426,024, tho tcital population of not more than ti 
years of age. A comparison with the returns for 1850 gi« 
therefore, for 1S7S an increaao in the number of schools from 
to IS8 ; while of 420,024, the entire population of the district of I 
more than twenty yuiirs of uge, 12,579 or 2'95 per cent were and 
instruction in 1^77-78 compared with 804 or 0'25 per cent a 

Before 1865-56 tbc*rB were no (firls* schools in the district, but] 
1865-66 tho district waa proridwl with ten schools for girls 
418 names on tho rolls and an arorage attendance of 254 
Ten years later tho number of schools rose to twenty, 
pupils on the rolls and an average attendance of 594 pupils. 

The 1972 census retnms give for the two chief races of 
district the following proportion of persons able to road and writei 

Of 141,219 the total Hindu male population of not more 
twelve years of age, 10,087 or 7'7S per cent; of 70,2!)(i above 
and not mora than twenty years, 10,703 or 15"22 per cent; 
184,557, above twenty years, 30,989 or 16'79 per cent wore a 
read and write or were under instmctiim. Of 120,164 the 
Hindu female population of not more than twelve years of age^ 
or 0'40 per cent ; of 54.3U2, above twelve, and not mora Ibui t' 
yearn, 205 or 0''37 per cent ; anil of 176,429, above twenty 
S95 or 0*22 per cent were able to read and write or were 

Of 13,524 tho total Mumlmjin malo population of not more 
twelve years of agtf, 1247 or 9'22 percent; of 7007 above twdl 
and not mora than twenty years, 1174 or 16'75 per cant; and H 
21,403 above twenty ycara, 3100 or 14*48 per cent were able to mi 
And write or were under instruction. Of 12,41 3 the total Musalmiil 
female population of not moro than twelve years, 148 or MS 
per cent ; of 0433 above twelve and not more tJian twenty yean, €i 
or r04 percent; and of 20j.J'J3 above twenty years. Ill or 0*5^ pet 
oent were able to read and write or were under instmctton. 

The returns do not give correapoadiog details for P&rsia. 



Pvpiit by Raf^ 1S65 aitd 1877. 











41 "2S 



I :»; 

111 ..71 i-M ' 0-13 j 

56 tbero were no returns wranging the pnpiU 

according to race 
and ryligion. The 
Btatetneub gi^ea 
in the margin 
flhows that of the 
three chief races 
of tho (li^trict tho 
Parsis have the 
largest propor- 
tioa of Uietr boys 
under iDstruction, 

'92, the fcotaJ number of pnpfls in GoTonmient schools at tho 
eoember 1877 there were 2069 or 19*]7 pr cent Brfihmaua 
' Yy&B (27) J 76 or 070 per cent writers, 44 Kslmtria, 
tha, and 6 Parbhiia; 3448 or 31 -Oi per cent tradci-a and 
ere, 2243 Vauit^, 997 Bhravaks, 2 Bhdti^, 190 Luh&nas, 
da, I Khar&Ii, and 5Tambolia; 2584 or 2304 per cent 
^ 1812 ICanbis, 43 Kiichhitis, 15 U&\h, 465 Rajputa, 245 
id 4 B&vate ; 984 or 9" 1 1 per cent cmJtBmeo, 121 Bh&Ta&rs, 
Dtora, 177 Souia, gold and allvor amitbs, 196 Suthitrs. 
B, 107 Darjis, tailors, 36 KansirAs, coppcrsmitha, 81 Luhdrs, 
Lb, 28 Kudiuti, bricklayers, 52 Kuiubhars, potters, 24 
iroftTors, 8 Khaiaiirs, woavera, 154 Ghiincliiaj yil-proiaBers; 
|9 per cent bards and genealogists, 53 Bb&tSj 12 Chamns, 
ami 7 Bbav^yaa ; 55 or 0'50 per cent fishers and labourers, 
,hia and 3 Bhois; 24 or 0*22 per ceot shepherds am) 
L, 4Bharvdds, 15 Itabaris. and 5 A'hirs; 118 or 109 per cent 
96 Hajfims, barbers, 16 Uhobbis, washermen, and 6 Hhistia, 
kwers ; 166 or 1*53 per cent labourers and mtscellaneoua 
39 Golaa, rice- pounders, 10 Kbdrvas, sailors, 9 Viighria, 
nd hunters, 35 Mardthda, labourers, 3 Miirvadis, labourers, 
intijAs, grain-pa rchers, 40 Sathvdras. vegetable sellers, 7 
liqooT-sellers, 2 Ods, diggers, 16 Khavda, servants, and 
I, Iftboui-ers; 1 Mochi, shoemaker; 36 or 0'33 per cent 
beggars, 18 Oos&is, and 13 Sadhus; 69 or 0' 63 per cent 
Mo or 9'68 por cont Musalmdns; 29 or 0'26 converts ; 13 
Bws and Beni Israels. No Dhcd or Bhangia bojs attended 
mment schools. 

to the total number of girla enrolled in 1877-78 in the 
girls' Schools, 1110 or 94*95 per cent were Hindus; 25 or 
oent were Musalmius ; 28 or 239 per cent were Pirsis ; and 
per cent wore others. Besides thoso in the Fomala Training 
p6 Ahmedubad there were 15 Hindu and 1 Muaaltuau paid 


nng table, prepared from special returns furnished by 
liiional department, shows in detail the number of schoola 
la with their cost to Goverumcut : 

Ponik br Rac«, 

1866-1 S7S. 

Obaptar Zt 

Town Bdiicfttioti, 

Fiumi/iartkt rninrrttf, Udt-IBTI. 


























PritaU Siieoi*, 
















A compivriaon of tlie present (1877-78) provision for teachmg' 
diKtrict town Rod couutry [jupulutiou givos the fuUowiug reeulta. 

In the town of Ahmedabad there were in 1877-78 twenty-lhiw 

OoTDrnmmt schools tntii, oat cf 
2709 luunes on the rollfl, an aTengi 
attendance of 2049 pupiUi. OF tbeM 
Bchools; one was a high school } tbr« 
wero Anglo-Tomacnlar schools ; tea 
were Teroacular echools, nice tvt 
boja, one for girls; throe Unla ; fuor 
nightschooU; and two were truniiig 
coUegen, oue (or mea and the otiiet 
for women, TLe average fearljoett 
per pupil in the high school wm; " 
*2s. (Rb. 91) and in the 
collegeB £13 4s. l^d. (Rs. 1! 
1 antuz) i ^rhile in the rest it 
from 8)». to £2 10*. (Ra. 4.Ra. 
The table in the margin shows 
number of pupils who, nnoe IS^^ 

have pasned tbvir Uuiversitjr entrance test uxainioatioa from 

Ahiuedftbad high school. 

In addition to the Qovernment schoolsi there were in 187 
six private sobools, one of which wau a high acbool, one an 
vernacular school^ two veroacular Schools for boys, and two t 
Echoolfl for girls. The avenige attendance, out of 829 names on 
rolls, waa returned at. 545 or 0-46 per cent of the total popnln 
of the city. The table given above shows the number of pi 
that pasaed their Uoivereity entrance teat examination from prr 

In the town of Dholka there were, in the year 1877-78, 
Government schools with, out of a roll call of 44e names, an ai 
attendance of 271 pupila or 0"23 per cent of the total populatioij 
the town. Of these one was an English nchool ; one an Urdui 
and three wore Gujardti Hchools, two for boys and one for girU. 
Bvenkge yearly cost per pupil in the English school was £o (Ba. i 
ill the Urdu school £1 (Rs. 1 0), in the girls ' school 15k. 6d. (R«.1 
12 as.), while in the rest it varied from 16«. to £1 (Rd. 8-IU. 10^ 

In the town of ViramgiSm there were in 1877-78 five Gotwo* 
ment schools with, out of 415 names on the rollsj an &i 
attendance of SS3 pupil.t. Of these one wm an Bogliah acfaool ; ' 
an Urdu school, and three Gujar^ti schools, two for boys and < 
for girls. The average yearly cost in the Knglish ficbool waa £41 
(Rs. 4t'd as), in the Urdu school lit. ikl. (Rs. 7-4 as.), in 
girls' school, £1 2s. [Rs. 1 l)j and in the rest it varied from 16*. I 
£16«. [Ra. S-Rs. IS). 

In the town of Dholera there were, in 1877-78, three 6oi 
vernacular schools, two for boys and one for girls, with, out of < 
namoB on the rolls, an average attendance of 335 papiU. ' 
average yearly cost was 1U«. (Ka. 6) in the former Emd IGs. (B». ' 
in the latter. 



iivbofihe four towns of Alimodabad, DHolkn, Vimis^in, 
_ )hoIcra, tho district o£ Ahmodabad was, in 1877-7S, provided 
I 129 Bchoola or on an avemgo ono school for c%oiy 6"40 
ifaici>d viUogos. Tho Tolluwiiig btatcmcut shows tht) distnbutioa 

schools by sab-divisions t 

Ahnvdnfmd ViUijy* ScAaoU, 1S78. 






Ouyi'l oil''*- 







Boj-*. UIlU. 

eforo tho ostablislimont of Govornnu-nt villago schools such 
Inm &a got any education generally wont to privato schools kopt 
Br^hmauii.' Tho pupils weru gunurally Grnhtnana and Vaoias. 
J few of tho other cIii^^^oh It-arned to read or write, Tlioy made 
17) thoir money calcuUtiouo by small stones mid bits of earth 
Ues which they passed from side to sido as tho counting wont 
[Now (1878) only about oue-holf of the pupils oro Br^mans 

etniU of thf^ Gnjartvt Collego and of tho Training Colleges aro 
jD in tbe account of tho Abmodabad city (p. 309). BcsidoB tho 
"iraedabad city libraries, of which particQUirs will bo found at 
m, thcrowere, in 1377-7S, twelve reading rooms in different 
the district.' The working of the Gujarat Voraacular 
and tho uumbor and circulation of tho Ahmcdabad 
ftiApers, have boon noticed in the Ahmedabad city accoant (pp. 
>511). A committ-oo called the ' Ahmodabad Association ' was, in 
\, funned in Ahmedabad to represent to Government tho 
ta of the people. This, like other Gujarat political asaociatiooa, 


ViUage AUitoilKM. 


ba dcuQi (Ktoq la tbo Koin Sutiiticnl Accoant (p. 133) of tho modo of 

ing bi tbe nlit iirirkto KhoolH apply to Alunodftl>*it. 

Ion. Oor. Scl. X. 43 ud XL 45. 

UvftboTop. SI I. 

rhtt twolvD plocoe &ro ; Botv&Ia, Dhonilhukiw Dholcrm. DhoIkA, GO(;hii, Kbiii- 

~ , iCodAiB, 1 itri, lUnpor, tiiniuid, BukJiuj, and Viraui(^u. 






A BiSKAfiC, in its cliief featares the satne as the trae pi 
■pfxfim} han tlitrinf; liifltortc times more than onr(> ri.sttcl Aluoc 
Of three chief outbreaks, id ltil8, from IGbli to 1089, and 
ltil2 to 1821, Bomi} dutails ara aTailablo.' 

Tho diaease that ruRvd in AUmeJabiid ia lOlS began in fli 
Paojiib in IGll. It is called tho plngac, imhn or 'wa.ha-o-^lt'^^\tf\^ni 
t]io works of tho Hindus oro said to havo no mention of sub I 
dii^uuie. It was thought to bo cotmvctvd with the comet o{ 161& 
From tho Panjdb it spread thruaeh Lahore, thnia^h tfaoDcnbtt 
Delhi, and north to Kashmir. No place in HindnsUin wna bm 
fnim its ravages. Lnlliug at times,' it continued to lay wwtelhi 
cotinti'y for eight years. Aboat tlio same time, in KandnhAr (k 
land was oTormn by mice, and mine and plagae seom to hin 
had some close cuniiexion. A niouso would rash out of itaholnM 

' Hur^Mu OeoTKA W»te™, one of th« btMt «Tit«» on th* UtwripnUmin )d*M 
it> HAtUlietl that thftt diseue U due to tho Lprvkthing of lit disrjc^'l "^ H*V 
C()»ct?&tnt«l miilarul or m&rah pmeon. uid thftt. In oudireolts of tbc piMM ■> ** i 


I'ernMiUnK, thrra arcjH^irtilrntial r^ntreaturMniadnl b^toiccntnc 
iltMiMic, Iwcotiiuiu Iria ami Jru acnonii lriua.nU th« cimtmfercnce of tb* 
cintlw. TliTW Veara' MeiUc«l Hivt^ra ul thv Purifta OnU 11878^ ^. ^ 
This diBeosVt Mr. WMm is wtisfled, u ant onatagtoas bejniau Ui* Umito t^ 
H'htch tb« mnlkrin is gMierAtfid. lie ia of oninion th*t lii« (fneaM doacnbH ih4> 
ti'Xti* tho Huno aa tlie McHipiitiuiiian putguo ; tlmt it ia an aufiKiAUd tWtoi 
ntalMJal BUil Qvt i>f typliiia f«««r i and tliiU it cuuiqC ii}ircad Wyood Um 
maUriAl atniwjiliitre. E^cfuo to Tlircc YMn' hcdic*! Hiitot?, awl 
April lUth. 1(>;!1. 

* Plnguv ia lieUevwl to havn lint appeared in tb« d«)t» of tlie Xfl« n^ 
A.D. &t2. Arab writer*, une u( whon cu-liart notjoM k. in 7ti. tli« dMth 
of oavof elu Khaii/abt, speak of thttdiMMo^ boUiaaBit^Midta'awK. (F< 
PUcue, >6 uul Ga) Uf ludiaB autlveaks it u, on the •utfauritv of llt^ker, 
lUakea'a P*U Fla^c (54), that th« ermt perttleno* oF tJM Utti centufj, tba 
' black death,' depopuUteiUudia. £it the MoMJaiia Urtorians oTtbatonUr 
Tory littlo mention of plnmie. The only twn r«feraiicca that hare be«Q tn 
from llin Bittiiln. who (Kllint, III. 619) notice* that Muhaniinad TngMih aJLg:^ 
1351) army ill !kla1iAr tiwiptlj* norUked of pevtilencei and that at the 
Mntiiry (13iK)}, after Tiiitur left, the ilistricta thmoKh which br bad 
viaitcd by pestUenc*^ |Tlnkh-i-MnhAr»k Slmtii : Klliot. IV. Vi(A. In 1 
Milwa, the tilagne cauaed audi toM of life iii SuItAn Ahmail l.'a anuj thtfi 
Diauy of tb« luiad unlmnu'l, lie rrtired to OnjanU. Poritbta calla tliia 
and speaks of it as \-ery nnasual in India. (;olaad Briegm thnagbt FctisbtMi^^-tfJ 
wrong as there wu no ease of RgjiiLimn pUtfue in IndTa. The faBUne ^i^^hi^J 
1.^)4, WM in \f&7> followed hy a kind of plHiPie tkat U-sidc* h a m l et *— ^=^11 
iliM>vpi,ilAtvil wlmlc citive. (LuUlalU'i-Taw4nkb : £Uiot. VL 108>. . 
inlnnnod li njnrit Hitidnn thiTc is ttiiA to bo a memen of a cwt )>U^« 
from l)M-ilrk>{.SupenuUMuliiig Surgeon N. U. 24S;9thMay 1837). Olita d a *^<)gjj 
is knnwn 

* * Nuw (Marcli 1616) it has wholly tutwided.' Wiki&t-i -JaUDgin ; fiUwt. njtt 




mad, and striking itself agntnst tke doors and nulls of the honsc, 

~d die.* Then tho pla<^o was in tlio houBC. If the people at 

fled they might bo saved ; if they stayed, the whole village 

swept away. To touch tho dund, or orun his clothes, was 

th. Hindus sofforcd more tlion Musolmiins. In T^oro, ten or 

enty people would die in cue house, and tho neighbours would 

A cow feeding on gross, on which a plague -putient hod been 

', dtod, and dogs that ato tbo row fell dead on the spot.* 

IGIS tho Em|>eror Jahiingir congratulated himself that ho had 

.pod the plague by cumiug to Ahitiudabail.' But the plague 

.0 to Ahmedubfld soon after tho Emperor, and, at least amoug 

e Earopeaus, was moxt deadly. 

'An extreme burning and most grierous peBtitence>' says Terry,' 

rbo aa Sir Thomas Roe's chaplain was there for several montlis 

anuary -November), 'attacked Ahmedabad. In nine days soron 

in^ died. None were ill mora than twenty-four hours and most 

mor© than twelve. Tho bodies of those that died were set all on 

by it so soon aii they were viHited, and dying', broad spats of a 

and blue colour' Appeared on their brcaats, and their Aesh was 

10 extreme hot by their most high distemper that we who 

ived could scarce endure to keep our bands upon it. 'llioso 

>t well had many grrnt blistorH, Hlled wiih a thick wittery 

\ee, that arose upon many pnrta of our bodies which when they 

ike did even bum and currode our skins as it ran down upon them.' 

Tor ik-vural ycwrs before ItjHJ) the piagao, ti'mn and ip«6a, was 

in Ahmcdabad, and lasted for seven or eight years. 'Jlie visible 

■ks were swellings as big as a grape or banana behind the ears, 

er the arms, and in the groin, and redness round tho pujiiU of 

-Daring the eighteenth century, though none of Iho symptoms of 
disease are described, there would seem to have been several 

'•* O wppfcri! ilBiiag tbe Lonrfoo pltgar^, 'the varjr dianuU runniof; of dUtompeml 

■bont Lhe <tT««U,' bvfom (lit July li;ii5) tho nnler JMUwl ahattiD^; iufuuhHl 

nwue >.'( t/.iid«n J Du Foe't Work. (ISW). IX. 37. 157-100. 

' VAU lUm»-i-Jaltin^ri : Elliot, VI. 4O.V407. Of tbia tnuDoouthreokthcEraperor 

"■■ir wriUta : * It ia Mud by old mon ftud it ia *Ibo cle*r fmni the histonea of 

thaw that thia dutM* uul aavvr appuHad bofora Id this oountry. I itskvdtfao 

am utd UtaniO'I meai what ww tho cauM of It, aafor twu yean ihorc bad boon 

•«f min anil the caontry biutmiffoTod tram famine. Hama uiil it waa Ame to 

of th« air frun drought and icarcit^ : othtm aacritied it tc> utlior cjumw. 

. nnd ir« oitut patiwntly Kntimit to hm irill.' Wulciit-i-JalliUljpri iu EUiut, 

^'^O. Thia dtwani ia callvd laiba aud ia dixtijiguishol from oliolarai haaa, 
^'f. nau 1). 
&fciit.i- JahiJtgiri in EUlot, VL S67. * Tony'a Voyngea, 227. 

7*8 numtioD ot tbwo ptogao-spota is importuit as it rmiim to oonfirm Dr. 
Ttew that tho ^ota, aaid to uvo boon abitcnt in tlie ntnoUicnth cuntury 
** v^tbroaks, mny onB havn boon alnont only overlookoi] from thi> dark culour of 
~ *^V Ihv ricliiiis' akiiiH. Liirliau Pbk^ua, 54. 
u^^*5 ' *'A9 this aame plA^^ie broke out with Kn*% vioUnco at Dijdpur, ' )U1 attackod 
I^^L^- ^vo aji hotH'.' It had bouu in tliv jDouoan for auvuml yeure. (MuiitaUmlni- 
M^J^b : Ktliot, V1I..13T]. Ttii4 wju> tli« aamo outbrautk that m W<s^ niAr <ina 
J^r^^^^ Sultia Muuuu'ii army aju! unrriuil off-WOmonaday (Orimj'iiHiat. Vx*a. 142) ; 
TT^"J «a RunUforaix yuan (IKSMti'XJj (BomlKiy Caautteor, U. 01) ; "duowf U890) 
*^>t]iliky garrison to .13 KntjMflh soMicra (Umco'e Annals, III. W) ; lik« a hobo 
i^OBS) an vii>l«nt that it not oidy tixtk nway nil! mrniia iif iiruparintf for a f^it 
*■*«* in a few ho<ira in Sunt, Dutiion, BosKviti, wnl Tlwiia I'^Lriiud off whok city. 
^ ponplo aicinolit Cucri in l^burchill, TV. ViSt)) , and at Tdtba to Sind (L6W1 
UO^OQO aotda (Hum. New Ac. 1. I£t]. 

Chapter Xn. 






Ohapter XH 




ontbrcaka of a moflt deadly form of foror. In 171 S, a year d 
famine, great Qoiulwra died of sickness.^ In 1770,' anothto- Eubm 
year, on account of Die miwhulcacimeDCBa of the atmoepbcn^ 
thuusiu]<b of people dicKl of fever in two or tbroo d»y^ no Lh»Ln» 
one could be found Uj bary tbum. Fearful diseaso ia eaad to ban 
•e lompanied tbo 1 7dU famine. 

Tlie next outbreak wns early m the present centmy. Thi? haim 
of 1811 and 1812» waa, at tho cIoHoof 1812, foUowe<l in Culefrj 
an outbrfuk nf i>cMili^co eo deadly, that it fvixn ro-id to 
doBtroycd half tiio ryots in tbo uoitntry.' At the same 
'contagion n^cd at Ahmodnboii with a fury that can Roarodr 
bolievod.' Every bouse sickened, whole families were carnedl 
and lunny a funeral party coming back to tbo honite of 
friiind that, in their abftcnce, another momber of the family 
BiL-keticd and died. So thinned wero some caatea tli.-it tlieir 
had to help to curry ilie deed. All the fuel was burne'i and thooH 
houses were pulled down tfl supply logs many bodifs had to be Mi 
hidf consumed. lialE of tho people of Abmedubad, perhnps sImI 
!!fO,000 souls, are said to have perished.' In Ahnicdal»d Musnbnls! 
and Hindus suffered alike. But in other parts it was notieed tbii 
among' Mtivalmdos the disoasu was lo«s fMsX. Of the sympiant 
of this aickm«s no details are recorded. But tliore seems etwj 
reason to suppose timt it was the same dtstuso thnt, lullinj* 
two years, in May 1815, after one of tho huariest rainfall*' 
record," broke out afresh with deadly force at Kantakofc in 
Cutcb, In cases of this diseaso slight fuver waa foUowMll 
great we^cness and weariness, and then awoUings came 5" 
the groin and nrnipits suppurating in some ease* and ia 
oibeni remaiuing hard lumps. Few stricken with the dura* 
recovered. Mu»t dtrd between tho third and ninib day. 1b» 
disease seemed in tho air; there was nothing tn show tltat tt hd 
becu brought from tho oul,sido, or was spread by the touch. " 
wiinied to atljick most fienx'Iy the slnggisu and rcgctalilo 
Itajpnts e.H(.'Hpwl where BrShmana and VAniaa rutted < 
iiuikors Wire believL'd to bo safL'.' From Kantakut it S|'i 
other )iaris of VigarcAQsing iimch loss of life in the early nir-.U'- 
of 1810. lu May 1816, it crossed to Morvi ia Kiithilkwir, uu» 

• Rtticri<lgc, Ih>i»l>n>' Fiuiiiiic«, 41. 

* Details An- f^iviii, p. .V.l. 

* ItoD. Lliiv. Sol. XV. 1»|. WUat anit bava stawagttieiiod, if it diH nn* (in rt» 
l<\ thia |>Iagiu In Cntch wm dvorvrovnlinc. Vor sobm ymn fvt (laut-UU 
ais-nli^ IimL boBii H grut Uial U>e imimla fled ban m vi1U)(d» umI 
sholtor in llic Uiwnt. Vtna. (iov. Sri, XV. 1X2. 

• Tranr Bom. IJt 800. I. »2(>-Sa7. Rivett-Cwwff fhrw 100,000 
twtinuitml nnmUr o( acktha. lint (tee p. 3!93) tho vhiJc atf nopolMMa « 
have* heon mimi than lOO.tmo. 

• lu 18)4 Iho nina wvrv •« heavy tliat in the wnith-mrt of PAlaavtfl 
lliiron cwi-riwl nway the Ksniiitau- or t<n milo Isko tlisS imA watalydm 
«< ton itncu itiWK lit* MJJa, L To5. 

* In Hhnj. euro was Ukcn that no ano stumlil oono in fn>in lb* »Sf>rlnl 
One lu-tii fltn],th(w«HiUi hiniwcrv tnmcilaat, uiUtbu hanw ■anhol vitb h 
via nnnmicil, l>r. McAiUin, Aiiiiir. L^tcb, tJtb Novrmber It^lft IfauL Mwd. Tna«'> 



Aagnat within ten miles of Bhaj, an<I at tbc sAmo timo 
I Ridliaupur and Sind. From Morvij in 1817, it travellod 
!», brought, it was Mud, from Catch oithcr by traders or 
[iimen.^ At Dholeni only three pocple wcreattackcd; but 
em tUod. From Dholcm it sprend amonirlbc villages ronnd 
itfl way to Dhandhnlca. It kopt on amonj; (lio Rau border 
till the dosu of liJl7. It then f^radually leeeonod but did 

0, isoUtt-d «ist« happening in Gog-ha in 1818. It lurked in 
' till, at Rariad abrmt <ivo mtloa westof Dholera, iu April 1619 

out with fresh fury." It nigod them till June eutiro!y 
Ug forty familice. Enrly in Juno it passed to Kj'ijka, about five 
3St of Harind, and carried off nearly all its people. During 
9, July-Octobor, it spread ovor a wido tract carrying j)anic 
lOin death. At this Htago it was equally deadly at scvoroJ 
[jlaoes at the same timo. About the- end uf Juuo it cami^ to 
and horo dciLth vftxs bo sudden and certain, tliat ai'lor losing 

00 to 3000 of their number, loavinj^ a few to hum or bury 

1, tlie poople He'd. Tluiy guinud liLtlu by Ihuir flight. So 
ero the rnins that thn country wag under wiLtor, ihn raised 
;it«a Btandinp; out liko ialauds in a eea. In them thtro was 
rowdiug and the diouase barat out iu several towntt and 
both to Uie oast mid we^t of LtmlKli. In the beginning of 

1 utmoRt ea8t>em limit was Limbdi, but before the end of the 
ubaber Itj20) the plague was iu Iladkaupur.' la 1821 tho 

m the drc^ of famine several causes combined to make this 
K specially deadly. Tho marshes at tho top of the (lulf of 
were more than usually fevorbh ;* the people were filthy, 
washing nor oihng, wearing iminoneo (jusuitititjs of clothes, 
r classes never changing them tilt they rottetl off*; the towns 
STCrowded, hemmed in by walls and thick hedges^ fiJIed with 
dloTB, and crowded with diseased cattle.' 

In thi> limitfl whero it In^gan and Bmouldcrcd for yours tho 
would liieom to have nttjickod vcgetable-eatcrs moat severely ; 
ns, Vanias, bonis, Darjis, and Kanbis suffered most, wmle 
r exceptions iho ilesh-oating classes esca]K;d.' In Kilthifiwflrj 
he disease seems to have been bronght from tho lowlands 
) Ban, the Mn^alm^n weaver of the Bohuiit &ect were first 
1. In Siln, UliedH are nuticud to have been ulnuvit untouched. 
Hen, though Dr. Whyte did not believe this, wcro said by tho 

Obapt«r Xn.' 





il7er. Bum. Med. Trans. 1. 19D.1D9. 

tlder, >Vb. ISJlift 


Mar. Vth. 1820. 

rkjf, Ukich i8sa 

hjtt, lUnh 18fl». Dr. Whvta vtoU ibw of tbo people or Kdthii^ir;^!-, Of 

tapdopla Ilr. GUm aiiii) : 'ihcy an ths dirticut nuw I over siw : tlioy 

9 qwuititiMi nf cliithca whicli are nnt chatt^L'tt till ttioy drop »ff r<)tt4;n 

. TIm tilth w vnjfraiiioil in UteJrRkuic' t^otwl iu Ur. FurUu* liuIioD 


i}(kr, .Uiuicdnbftd, FuUruary 1830L 

I Chapter ZZI. 



of tiff 

pcoplo to haro boon marked eulferent.^ Of the total mortolr^ 
noLhiug is kiinwu. Rat the diaeoao was admittod to bo mtat 
deadly, and tbo coses of roooTOiy to have been very few. Ualfto 
most otlior outbraiks uf the plarue man alone Boema to htm 
Buffered. A aickneas among cattlu la aaiil to have followed tbe \d\i 
famioe, and in 1815 and agaiu in lttl9 the cropa of wuHUm 
Alim&dabad wero (testroyed by rata. But as far as has bean tntfd 
rata were not, as they were in 1618 and again in 1837, supposed ts 
have bad any tbiu^ to do with the outbreak of tbe diaouo. 

The disease appeared niidor two main types, tbe fcnot^f^rtnM 
babo dit«a8e, and tbo spitting, kokla, or fever, Uiv, sickneu. 
babo form began with groat uneasiness ; poina in the head and 
then hard knotty and in some oaacs highly painfnl ewellingn of 
throat, armpit, and groin glands, and, after four or five boartw 
attack of fever growing fiercor, with keen thirst, till death camo, od 
tlio third day.' If tho third day passed, though euch cases 
rare, the patient began to mend, the buboes sof^urated, and tho 
grew milder. After a fortnight strength began to come back. 
fever or Bjntting form showed high fevor, with burning and nc'. 
painii iibuul the heart, the skiu as hot as fire ; hiccoDgh ; deep _ 
hard bn'at.hing ; a prickiug as of ptns ovor the whole body ; painfl 
tho chest, joints, and navel ; delirium ; groat anxiety and Uiinl'; 
8}>itting of clutt«d bloud ; broatbing still harder ; death on tho fv^'--^<i 
day.' This net'ond form was tho most taiai. The cases :>t 
beginiiing of an outbreak were generally of this clasB. and were tcmt- 
timos HO extremely Buddcn tlrnt a person was struck down at once tmA 
diod blee^ling a h'ttic from the month. WHien buboes caoie ud 
suppurated, accompanied by purging or sweating, there was hope bt 
the patient, and Hometimes when buboes came without fever there «M 
little danger to life, and people went about their overy-day datieB. 

Yeiy catchitiig within its home Umit« the lowlands to tbo wwtfc- 
eoat of tlie Itan, tho disease was only slightly contagions in the mcir* 
healthy pai*ts of Kiithi^war,* aua though trade was in no 
interfered witb^ it did not spraEuJ to any distant places. 

Under these ctrcumiitanctis the doctors differed as to the 
it should bear. Dr. Whyte held that it was the trne plago^ 

' ' I holievc tliifl vaa a flcrLton, anit llie people **til it b«canM I had praMtl tboB ' 
nib thcnuMiNra wjtb vil m s eafc^mrci. ' Dr. Whyte, Much 1820, SttUitT' 
ciiiu iif tliu fuiiilios thst tnifferwl mutt wvorely wu ui oUbuui'b. Porbca* 
Plague, :«;. .17. 

3 Aiii<tliuriu:<:oimtgivM thtwedotmlaof the bub»form : ' OetMn-nlly ana W 
nock, ATiupJt, breaat, or fpmn ; tho t(ingn« fnmd with white in Uie middl* ^ 
ml at tho edges, n curityuB mnMulArtrcniov, k«oii thirst, and much we*kiwM^'^ 

* Of A etme of thu fovcr luiii liin^ tyiKu l>r. Ctildcr ^tm thoM detail* : ' Tbo [ 
■ M^wu mjuL, who had (inly Ikniii attacLml that tnoruin^, b«l no marked lyHl 
oliicivcTe divkavGa. Thu U<.«t et tha body was aot *eiy high, the [iuIkc not vioy I 
the howeitt fairly rc^fular and the (ongae not very foul, or ii-wniiti. l]«i 
Walk about, and tslk clearly. But he Waa moat uneaay and wotlM tliitik vf mi 
but a pain in bi> chert ; when Mked he tnid hit linibt puuned him ioo, )>iit tt wa 
ofaeat that diatreiaed him. He ha<1 a Blight couch and ipittiii| of blood. Nrit 
ho wai in lii^h fevor and died within 4S honra of hia Bcimra ; no bulwoa it p|j —M>A' 1 

* Dr. Wliyt.(i fnnnd in KAthiilw.Ar that th« diMiaao had cntne thefa firmi vitkaollJ 
that it (lid ii»t break 'jut at <<ue« in diflvrcnt |>1kui, atid that it WM llisiat alli*(f f 
cuiUiuwl tu tuwna. Bom. Mod. Tnuu. 1. "JH, 




iilder and Dr. (lion that it was a local fever made specially 
Qous by unusual caascs luid attended by buboes.' 

stop the ftproad of the discaao, the Collector ordered all heads of 
io allow DO oue to come £rom infucted villii^ee^ and that if 
Iiarhom-od pooplu from udiBcaeed viilagt! he aud his family 
►to be tnmnd ont.* Ijnter on {.January 1820) it whs found 
iBuy to keep people from going to diseased villages to their 
ions* fnnerals by ordering villaeo officers to turn any oneoat who 
Baited an infected village.' Nothing was done to stop the general 
p of the cDuntnr. The chief medical measures wore to keep 
Bea clean, and whure it could be managed, to allow a free current 
p.* Personal cleanness and rubbing tJie skin with oil wero 

Ecmnta to cure met wltli little success. In Kfitliiiffdr, vill^« 
«n-uurberH did notliing till the fifth day ; then tlioy api>lied 
llants to draw out the buboes.^ In Dholera, Dr. Gilder (1820) 
I them using stimulants iu the knot> aud astringents iu the 
and lung aickness ; both, hethoughtj with an eqimlly complete 
of success. European skill failed to suggest any cure. Dr. 
te couid buy notliiuL'. He had the chance of treating ouly one 
i} pntionts, and aa they died, the ptn^iple would not let him 8co 
jore. In the bobo type Dr. Gilder thought that at an early 
emetics and bleeding would do muck to stop the disease. 

1821 about fifteen years passed without any rnmoor oE 
Kk In ISSit) news came from r»1i, that a disease, in iU leading 
m the same as the great Jhiilaw^r sickness, was carrying oft 
'^ambers of people. To guard against infection the Collector 
liahed a qnnrantine outside of Alimedabad city for all persona 
ig trotn PA\\. No goods were nllnwed to enter the city from 
juartor, and all letters were smoked with brimstone. Steps 
^Iso taken to dean and wliitewusli the town.' From PAW tho 
, lasting till 1838 and causing a loss of abont 60,(900 lives,' 
widely, west to Jbalor aud Jodhpur, north to Ajmir, and east 
lywiid. It seems to have made no pmgress south to Gujurat. 
don was drawn between Marwar and Gujarat, allowing 
.ndisD, but preventing diseased people from passing," Uow 

Chapter XII. 




Iv Gil'ler *kyi, in voatcrn Ahmrdaliart it wiu tj'iibtiN n{i^nTnt«<l hv Kicnl 
tag [Fel>nuiry 183)) ; l-H*. OI«n, vchD wtw only tht (■Iuh! of tliu itullireiiJc, iuiy« 
tmt of lociJ cuiscH uid waa not ccutuuious ( Letter clAtdd 35tb OL-tol)ur 18.16) | 
liytocki*!, in KAt(ii;'iwAr it wu (lb2l>| contti(,')uu8 in cIobd w»Ued uidairlcea 
it waM nut coDta);i'JU« ui open viiluEcs (Morcli I KM). 

lector to tiovt, 14th Scptanib«r 1919. Iu «tiit« o[ lliti <| unmutine the dJacMB 
at to Dhwuttiuka. Dr Whyte iu Bom. Med. Trans. L 17^ 
BoriotU oao bappcned in V«lanir in KiithUwAr; the Bnhoria, after lotting 

^drtiumti«r. of their uwn aecoixt li-ft tlit; towu Aod atiiyiiijt b^ wciik la a 

\i»dt and uu more foil aick. Vr. Wliyte, Much 18'.H). 


tti-r's Lottcr, 23rtl S«pt«Biber 1836. 

a' Indian I'la^e, 30. Thu is a rvutih cstimntfi. 
i'nwcutt, PvliiivAl £)Upcriiitoiiduiii, i'oiaapur, totb DooetaLier L83€. 

Chapter XXL 



lonpr locnl procaationa were kqit oa at Ahmcdftbad faan nc 

In its leading sTmpioma ihc Pali diseaae wu almost the same u 
tlie JMLlwilr plag^uo of 1819.' It difforcd from tho earlier ouiLnal 
in two respects ; tliore waa nothing in tho jjenoral cotidicifH of 
the people to which the outbreak could be traced, and like tlto I<^I^ 
pU^ao lU appcuraoco fi:»lIowc<I a fatal epidomic among rata. Tlio 
yeara before 1 83U hod yielded good harvests : &iod wna cheap, uu! 
the Tillage of TaJvali, about fifteen miles sonth-eaat of P^i, whcntb 
dlAeaw first o]>peared and in n few weeks carried off 1 50 inhabilMiK 
wua clean and airy, tolerably rich, and without bmsbwood ornok 
vegetation.^ WTiat*vcr the cauao, 1837 would seem to have b«Ai 
very UDhcalthy scaRon in Central India. Porta of Jeypor 
Kohilkand, where tiio Pali plague did not spread wore Tiaited I 
deadly aud infectious yellow fever.* 

The otlior peooliarity of tho P^li plagnc was that, as in the , 
of 1618, men were believed to have caught the disease from rata. 
Taiv&li, where the plagne first broke out, during tho last fortnij 
in April all the rats died. They lay dead in atroeta, comers, and 
holesj and shortly after (May) men began to sicken. This connecl>«i 
with rata was not peculiar to TaivAli. Wherever men began to 
sicken rats had sickened before ^em, and bo general waa the * " ' 
that people fled from any house where a dead rat wad found.' 

The medical officers who know tho PiiU disease were of 
that to prevent its aprcnding the beat chaueo' waa to give jfoo^ 
and take away filth. The native practitioners after trying blec 
and other cures fled. Tho only Euro]>ean officer who wrote of i 
would, except opening and maturing tho gland swellings, treat it 
other fevers.' The arrangements made by Sir Charlea llctcalfc^ 
case the disease should pass into British territory, aro worthy < 
record. Aa eoon as a town became afTectcd it was to be tsolatead 
five separate places set apart in it. These were : a ho^itol for i 
affectod j a depdt for tho strougly anspocted ; a quarauLine for i 

■ In Aijril 1637 «d ftUrm of plAgas wm ntwd in LoairAda ta the itcwk 
Biit mt'Uc&l moui>7 aeemcd to mow that tho cu« wm aoUifng niorv tban 
fuTsr with M>«lluig «nd nlcenttion oT Uia thnwt. Ur. Ba.yn«a, I«t April 
SaivODO BrigkwoU, lOtb Apri] 1837. 

s I>r. ?arbM uyi % Id tlie mildett cases bnboca Mpear with IiHIa on 
di«tnrt)iuiDBj Mppomto in dno eoune, uaA th* ps^m gDts betlOT : in th« 
CUM there » a audiltin. fvvar Kud gluul vwwlliiig ; in Uw mov* tvv««, hfdsrli^J 
DOM, dvlirioiii, smftU or du buboM, butt mush , laboured hruthing, dasth thsj 
or sixth Ahy \ in tho wont ouee, ih> (erer, eou^SBdipiUiafof bloocl.daanya 
prcHinf^ tlunU, hlooilchkrKed urtiiu, blood Donns Irom tha gUUM, b«»rt tunat 
(U[hna>tiQO, dvAtb in 4Uboim. ItuUMi I'Ugnw, 10. 

* Throe storiva were told of the origin of thu pla^pie. Ooo that it bod 
Etgjrptiui goods tram Stu-at ; uiothw- that « Kabul trader \im\ brought it ; m thttd I 
it was the rvsult of a tioiAi'a curae, 

* Baaktn'i Fili Plagaa, L Tlie rainfoU wna unnaaally bsavr, bat thni 
wfiton do a»t Msetn to haw thought tliat thia went iat to oxplaia tb» outbrMk. 

" Dr. Whyto rc|)rsti thia kyctk] tinifiii in lila raporta d»t«d 29Ui JaBBJtfJT, ' 
March, and 3rd May 1837- The v^ridumo iu Kiuoiou (U84-3&) loUavsd a 
■i«koeM anonjj tho nte. Porbe^ Indtiui Planw, Zi, 

f Baakdn'al'ili Plagac, 4T-4V. 


; dcpSt for infected ffondn, and * redidcncc far expiirprators. 
I disoasudid uuLpasu tutu iJritiyU terriburic-s LIh'ku arrangements 
a no coso nocosaary. The li'iuliiig prtXiuilinns tiikcm were 
.thu blockade uf all ailected plttceu by thtJ chieBi of Jodhpur 
Icpurja frontier cordon ; and a preventive line of troops 
the most; cxpoAcd British stntions.' During the last fifty 
to rumour of plagau has disturbed Ahmedabad. 

tie years, perhaps from the spread of tillage, the diBtrict ia 
have becoino much more bealtUy and remittent IWer to 
ill milder than formerly. Of ordinary diaeaaes ague in endemic, 
nittent fever and skin diseases appear nt nil sejxsoiia of the 
Ju the autumn months, aguu, dyt^eutery^ and diarrlitea, and in 
i weather bronchitis and pneumonia are the chief eomplaints. 
Ihe end of December sumllpox, g^uerally imporlud, muketi its 
inco among* the pooivr classes^ bnt only in isolated ciiHoa, »rul 
ha an epidemic. The district ia gcnoridly free fmm bad 
of cholera. The cases that occur are chiefly bnjughl from 
^ido, oapccially by pilgrims returning (rotn fairs. 

B year 1877 there wore, hosidoa the Ilatising and Premdlihili 
bhce, and leper liospit.ilg, nine dispensaries and one lunatic 
[all established since liib'J. Of these dispeusai-ica ftovcu arc 
i-aid; one, the Hoclmrdils digpensary, is endowed, and onOj 
idrnghoda dispensary, is a Government institution. During 
f 1877, exclusivo of the leper hospital and the Inuatic asylum, 
persons were treated in these hospitals and dispensanes, 3-107 
I in-door and 85,814 out-door patieutet. Except the Dholera 

Chapter XCT. 


La'» PIU Facuc, 8,0. Dr. Forbot vu aatisflod that the Ahmcdabivl or 
■JekneBS of ISI^ to 1821 :)0<1 thi) PfUi stokncaa of ISSfi to 18.tS, wen tnitli 
UagDC Bo WAS iucliticd to hold tlmt on ca^h occomoq tJto dineuo wm 
\ on the spot) «od «ru not bronght from auUidc. The (uUowing iihowi 
■ viowi u tu tho Dfttaro of tlie plaguv and tbe bv«t motm* for ohuoiiug its 
nid it ftgntn a|)jtGar : l.plagofl may HonwtiiiiM app«Jir witbantlMuig brought, 
MdMu LaiipciLH luiil only in certain ulaocA ; S^ tt« appo&ruico and sprc*d on 
•Med eflluviu lr<>nt living bodiw wbom pover for e«-il in increued by sonis 
in tho air ; 3, those who catch the ctiiwo on in a state o( boaJtb that faolpa 
itolayhildof thcni whiab it ^nnrally <toc« through the air obannelB : 
Ug the mmn ur tm tlin nick ia, vritbout touch, iiuuuuh to give tha dUeaae, 
lit breathing tliti tir, it ia tiot proved that either boauhlng thn aick or their 

&■ the diaeaeej 5, the numlxsr and fiflrooooM d plagae oncbnaki depunda 
ition of tho people suui ilie extuut to whkli thoy arc onvded ; 6, the tirao 
fctcbing and auowtBg the diaean is usaaUy about Tivo aiid uevor more thau 

lek the nprcad of the diaciue T>r. Frirboa votild iaolat« large town* 
kn stop crathc. Mun cuiuinu froiii a ('iacued or suiiioctGd village Rhould 
IPS he k^pt apart and watched; iDercbaii<li»> he thpa^^nt tiiifjht in all cases 
rand tfwmvoruthe groat wants; feeding, dialuiuK, and wbitswaahiiiff, 
ti importaaoe. A tingle case of feviir with bnbo or carbuDcle ahoold ba 

tplagiM. ViHsaes wIiisk a vun ocuurrud should for nomc days, as faraa 
emptied and the people Indgod in aeiwrato huts iu tliu ltvld». In towns, 
' ponplfl cotUd not wall be spread, thu f(Tcatcst care should be takvu to 
Ms and honsBa:aDd, lurge flies shmiM he )mr7i(--d to ronae CMrn-nta nt 
ieh Iowa throe Imildings lODuld be set a^iart n» hospitals, one (or [lAtienta, 
fvalcacflnts, and one for doubtful ca«ei ; and bostdDi the hospitsls there 
r reoeiring house* whsrc funilici, aiuon^ whom a oaao of pla^e bad 
Uioald be fed sod kept Uia days wfaile their houaes were being airod and 
rorbca' ladiau Plagns, W-iW. 

ctairptw zn. 


dispensary which is in a hired house, a11 these inittihitionB 
providt'd with, separate buildingH. The total amoant speot in 
checking di^tcaeo in 1877 was £5355 (Ba. 53.550) j of this X3S^ 
(Kb. y8,80O) came from provincial rerentieB, JC661 (lU. COlO) fmni 
local and £808 (Rs. 8080) from mmiidpal funds. 'V\ie foU(Jirnij 
wortcing detaiU are taken from the 1877 n^rrs and from a psper 
contributed by the Huzur Deputy Collector, M.r. Feniaodes. 

The Hatising and Promfibh&i hoepibil nt Ahmodabail wns butk 
in 1858 at a cost of £5200 {Ra. 52,000].* Tbe hospital has »<v 
for niuoty-two lu-patients. Tbo buildings aro in a targe wiIU 
cnclnsuro almost in tbo centre o{ the town. Tb?y are ooo^tond 
raised on a fire feot high plinth. The w&rda are high and airy, li 
separata buildings there are a women's ward and a ward for knr 
casta patients. Of in-pationts tbe total treated in 1877 nnml^i^ 
2203. Of these 1707 were cured, 201 left, 1 24 died, and 17 1 ru ^ 
nnder treatment at the end of the yt^or. The total atttii . 
of ont-patienta was 10,952 or an incrcaao on the 1873 retui ■. '.' 
more than SoO. The average daily sick was of in-paticoitB 14?« 
and oE ont-pa(.iontH I22-2. The chief forms of sickness 
malariooa feTcra, rhenmatism, nyphilia, eye and lunff 
diarrba'a and dysentery, gotiorrhcea, ulcers and skin diseases, 
total nuiAbor of patients tn^atcd in the police hospital at 
was 253. Of these 252 were onred, nve died, and ono tniuii 
ander treatment at the end of the year. The average of daily mk 
waa 5"65. Thn chiof forms of eirkness were malariona lt¥ef«, 
rheomatism^ and bowel and skin oSoctions. 

The leper hospital oatsido of the city between the A'stoduiJ _ 
tho lUypur gates, was opened in 1S67. Besides room for fiftv-iU 
inptirablee and lepers, there are nino small-pox and ton cholera miIl 
Till!! hoRpitat, a branch of the Hatising and PrcmAbhai hospital, 
bnilt at municipal cost. 

The lunatic asylum was built by QoTemraent in 1863 at 
£iaH2 lt)(t. (Rs. 18,028). In a retired spot out.«ido of the iWhi| 
on tho ShlUii Big road, it hns about fourteen acrea of land all 
by thi> inmates. Tho bailding, cruciform with cells back In loJ:. 
is enclosed by a ten teiii high wall, the whole forming a r* 
181 5 feet hjr 158. The interior is arranged m foar divii. 
which one is set apart for women. The asylom now 
eontnins twenty-three lunatics. 

Tho Gogha civil hospital has its own building. 

In 1877 the total treated, inclnding nevonty in-patieBts of' 
three died, numbered 5196 or a falling off from the 1876 
of nearly 900, Tho avonigo daily sick was 47-5. Tho chiof 

1 In«ludin^ Um Mst nS the hnildiuf^ Ihv wlwl« bospiUl fnadi utWNtntad Iv i 
fRft. 06.000). Of this UbOn {Rm. 53,000) were gi^-ctt by the imnniitAti'ra tfj 
l*to Msti»Lng Keeriun^, « wudthy opiuin merehuit, £S000 (tta. 9n,CU0) M 
BithAHnr Prcin&bhii HamibbM, tbe pramnt N«gBn«tb, ud £S100(Ba Jlji 

at fticknoss wcro malarious fevers, ^o and laog ftffbotions, bowel 
aad ekia diseases. 

The Raypnr dispensary at AHmedAbad was opened in 18G4. Iq' 
1872 thii uiuuicipnlity suppUeil it wibhii handsome buildiug' costing' 
£1950 (Hs. 19,500). In 1877, including U in-patienU, the toUU 
treated was ly.iSS, or about 200 more than in the year boforo. Tbo 
«hief forms of Bicknesa were malarious fevers, with eye, efl.r,- 
lang and skin diseases, niid syphilis. The Ahmedabad Bechanlaa 
dispensary, called aicer Uao JJah^dur Uechardis AmbaiddiJ,-C.S.I., 
who gave £1050 (Ks. 16,500) for its support, was opened in lS6o. 
Tho building was erected by the mnnicipality at a> cost of £700 
(Ka. 7(iOO). in 1^77, including iii<palients, the total troated 
namberud 091-^ or 229 loss than in the year before. The chief 
SSse88«9 were malarious fevers, eyo and skin affections, ulcers, and 
6j-]>hilis. The Sanand dLsponaary was opened in 1860. In 1877 
including 147 in-patients,, the total treated was 8702, or S800 more 
than in tho year befora Tho chief forms of sickness were fever, 
rlieumutisni, cyo and skin afToctione, and KyphJlis. Tho Vii-oingiiiii. 
dispensary was opened in 1868. In 1S77, including 2 13 in-patienta, 
Ihu total number treated wati 9703 or 220U mwa thcUi iu thu yuar 
biifore. Tho chief diseases were malarious fevers, lung and ttkiu. 
affections, ulcers, and syphilis. The Dholka dispensary was openetl 
in Itl<>;). In 1877, including 121 iu-patiuuts, the tut^d uumltur 
trcuted was 7807, or about SOO loss tliau iu tho year before. Tho 
ishtef diseases were fcvoi's, rhi^umairisai,. and eyo and skin 
affections. The INiandhuka disponsnry was opened in 18(i0. In^ 
1877 including 106 in-paticnto, the total number troated was 4873 or 
less thou in the year before. Tho chief diseases wore ulcers, 
affections, and malorioas fovers. The Dholem dispensary ia 
I Dhandhuka sub-division was opened in 1 865. In 1 877, inchiding 
^faineteen in-potionts, tho total number treated was 5307, or 26S nx»n>- 
than in the year before. The chief diseases were skin affections, 
olceri, malarious fevers, and syphilis. The ParAntij dispensary 
mis opened iu 1309. la 1877, including 120 in-patients, the total 
,Bamber treated was 1650, or about GOO less than iu the year before. 
Tlie cluof forme of sickness were malarious fevers, ulcers, and eye 
and skin affections. Tho IChantghoda dispensary ia tho Viramgam 
tub-division was opened in 1874. In 1877, including 12 in-patients, 
'ifbe total Duinber trcuttd was 1 1 3 1 , or about 4U0 more than in the year 
''^"forc. Tho chief diseases were malarious fevers and skin affections. 


tn 1877-78 the worfc of vncciiwtiou waa, under the supervision of 
1^ Dupaly Sanitary C<mimissioner in eiistcrn Gujnnit, carried nti 
br fonrteen Taccinatora with, yearly salaries varying from .£14 8ji. 
iKe. 14'4) to £28 lOo. (Jls. 288). Of the operators nine wer« 
^distributed over the rural parts of the district, two for cai-h of tho 
Sub-divisions of Daakroi and Dhanduka, and one for each of the other 
five sab-divisions. Of town vaccinators there were five, one each in 
'Viramgani, Dfaolka, and Dhandhuka, and two in iUimedaluul. Tho 
ioltd number of operations was 27,201 besides 1401) ro-vacciii»tionK, 
coraporud with 2^,003 primary vucciflotioas and nu re-vacciualious 
io 1800.70. 

Chapter XIL 



Ohapier XII 

Tho following nbsU-acb shows tbo sox^ raligioU| and age of lbs 
persons vacciiifttod : 

CkIUc Duuu. 

rSirtlu And D«BthK. 

Ahii-^Miut t'lKtinatiott DrtaiU, 


Tanom vmokatu. ■ 






ITcBUkha Ulndos. 


















The total co«t of these oiiomtions vns in Id77-7S, £631 \S$- 
(lis. 651!)), or about b^d. (3| im.] for viu-h succustsful caoa. 71h 
«iitire chtirgo was mmlo up oF tho fotlowiiig il4>ins: SopcmMK 
■ml irift|)ection £270 2rf. (Rs. 5701), cstttbliahmcnt£3G82«. (Ra.8<Wl), 
and coiitiugouciuB £lii lis. (Kt>. 137). Of these tho Haporvisuig and 
inspucUng' chor^is and lO^i. (Ra. tt) on Aoooimt of continffoocio 
ivm-o wholly met from Government provincial funds. Of tk 
roiiiiiiiitlur tho uxponitu of £237 lOv. (I(h. 'S^7b) on account of nnl 
viK^riiuitors was bcimo l>y the loewl fnmis cif tho different sub- 
flivision;), while the Vii-aingani, Dholka, and Dhnndbaka iuunici-_ 
fMLlitias iinil the city of Ahmodnbod paid tho sum of £113 It 
(R», 140S) for the services of the vaccinators omployod by them. 

Aineirig caltio a flcvoro form of pustular disease like Bniallpox is 
every year uioii3 or less cuminon in the months of Jano and i 
thai i», imrijciliutuly before^ and after tho rains. In 1863 
oiitlirmk waa more than ummlly fatal. In I S70 «|x>plcxy, AAarwi 
rngwi in the district, the cattle (idling down and dying in a fa 
hours. Other forms or cattlu disease, are rindcrpust, balia or 
htonJIy Huiallpox. Tbo ityinptoms arc pnrgiog and refuHal uf To 
and water for souio days. The attack eonfcinucB for aboDt ft 
Mdutli and hoof disease, wtwaM or khttrva} the symptoms 
foHiiiiiig at tlu) mouth, refusal of food and wator^ and the fat 
of Biiiail worms in tho hoofs. The disoafic lasts for four or fil 
dtiy». IntlutnmHliou uf the chi'st, malci Hul'h, the animal bu i 
hevorc coughj will not eat, gota weaker gradually, and disB : 
two or three months. Inflammation of the throat, h^njttri.A 
disease, the animal cannot eat or drink, und in a few dnys 
from exhaustion. H'tru disc'JLse, A'tfrnedi', is not alwiiyH ftUal. Vt 
seldom fatal, is caumjd by swallowing some insect in llw^ grass i 
symptoms are fuaiuiug at the uioulh and refusal of food and * 
for twuorlhreo dily^4. The lai^t tsboilson the tougutif«4Uv/o, a' 
but not ilaiigerous disoa«e. 

'J^he LoUil niiinlicr (if deaths in the seven years ending IA7d, 
«hown in the iSanitaiy Comnii.'^itmer's Annuiil Reporti-, is V/i/ 
or an avcnitfe yearly molality of22,-UJ5, or attsuming tbofi; 
of tho ronsim of 1^72 an a ImKiR, nf 270 per cftiit nf the t 
pr.pnlftlioii. Of the avcrngo nnmbcr o( de:Uhs l-'»,i:l:j or CiS-Si 




cent were returned bs doe to fevers; 1293 or 5*77 per cent to Chapter XIL 

bowel complaints ; 1003, or 4'48 per cent to cholera ; 379 or 1'69 Ho^th. 

per cent to small-pox ; and 4030 or 1 7*99 per cent to miscellaneous 

diseases. Deaths from violence or accidents averaged 277, or 1*24 

per cent of the average mortality of the district. Daring the same 

period the number of births is returned at 112,436 souls, of whom 

60,292 are entered as male and 52,144 as female children, or an 

average yearly birth-rate of 16,062 souls ; or, on the basis of the 

census figures, a birth-rate of 1*94 per cent of the entire population 

of iba district.^ 

1 The figures are incorrect, for while the population of the district is increadiig 
thfl returns show a birth-r&te less by 6343 than thu death-rate. The ezplanatioa 
trabaUy m that nearly all the deaths aad aot nearly all of thu births are recorded. 

Chapter Zni. 






Fara'ntij Sub-division. Inclnding on tho cast tho is 
Modasii putty-diviftiou, Parautij in. the extrome north-out of 
A-lmieJabud, and cut off £roiit tlie rest of tho district by a fifum* 
milo-belt of Mahi Kilntha land, is booadod on thu north by Mabl 
Kanthn, on tho cast by Rcva Kantba, on tho south by Mahi KauIuv 
and ou the woat by Uuroda territory. Its urea in 4 13 square nPa*; 
itH pivpiilution, according to tbo 1872 census, was 10fi/.t:Jl soulior 
241 U) tho square mile; and in 1877 its roaliaablo land rcvciino ir« 
JCia.bW. (K». i, 38,-150.) 

Of its 4-yt sqimro milGH,lS7 are occapied by alienated and mAtid 
villag'ea, TKg rest, according to tbo revenue survey returns, contliM 
195,01!) acroH, or (iU por cent, o£ occupied laud; 92,953 acres, or S3 
pur cont, of arabLo ivaate ; 69,474 acrcti, or 21 per cent, of nnanU* 
wasto; uud 43,192 acres, or 15 per cout, of village sttas, twh. 
ponds, and river-beds. From the 195,619 arable acres, 32,669, tl» 
urea of alienated land in Qovemment villages, Has to be UJc(a> 
0£ tho baluQCO 1 72,950 acres of arable iTOVL-rmuoiit land, 83,l(J9 JOWr 
or 47*51 per cent, were in the year 1877-78 under tillage. 

Prom tho north-east. Lines of rocky, rather bare hills, gradaallT 
sink west and sunth into a plain, at first thinly wooded and pootlj 
tilled, then with deeper soil, finor treos and better tillage, till In the 
extreme west along the Sabarmati bank the surface u brokcB bj 
ridges and ravines. 

Once sickly and feverigb, sinoo tho brushwood has boon clauti 
tho cliinato has improvedj and during the hoi season it isnovtha 
heulthiest aud coolost part of the district. 

Besides wolls of swcot and good water specially abundant in tbe 
Bokb }toUow, Fanintij has many I'ivcrii, tho Sabormati, HdtluDAli. 
Kharij Moshvu, Viltrak, and Mujhain llo^Tlng throughout tbo jvr- 
It id hIwi croHHCtl by tlio Hiithinati canal. From its backward stato 
and its thnftlo.4B poopio tho Panintij stores of wat«r are little ttwt* 
In iy77 LLu water-supply figures wore 36 wells with steps, llOOimll' 
without steps, 292 water lifts, dliehtdis, 314 ponds or rcacrroiis, loi 
81 rivers, streams, and springs. 

The provailbg soil is light, 'j^rdf, towards tho eftst somowhm «J 
and gritty. In south Mwlasa are stretches of bhu;k soil wurM 
into rioe-beds iu tlm low-lying parts of Parantij. In tho out 1^ 
slsple crop is malise, a:id in tho wet^t millet. Garden tiUt^ 

1861-62, Uic jeftr of settlement, 10,035 holdings, lehdtas, wero 
loorrded with an avenige area o£ yy^- acres anil au average rental of 
7a. -i^d. {Rs. 8-11-0). R<iiia]]y dividod among tho agncaltural 
apolatioD, these holdings would, for each jjerson, represent an 
btmcnt of 2|ff acres, at a yearly rent of &». 5<i. {Its. 2-11-4). 
: distributed among the whole p«palatinn of tho Ruh.dt\-ifliou, tho 
laro to each would amount to l^g acres, and the incideuce of th« 
od tax to 3«. 3^. (Rs. l.IO). 

lo following statement shows the arable area in 113 Go7em- 
li Tillages, and the rat^s fixed in I8tit for thirty years : 

psment on OoTemmflnt &nrl KlimiAted lajirL 
JMuel — Aliuutkau 

Ra. a. p. 

1,70,707 2 
41,S4H) 4 9 

17,070 14 4 
4M<i 7 



Unuiog fanna and river-bcJ ttUatfe.., 

1.37,S4S 14 
M29 7 
fiS-lO 3 

13,784 13 9 
043 16 \0k 
6M i 

Total reTonao ... 

l.fiO.llfi & 3 

15,011 10 7| 

^QThe 1872 population, 106,934 souls, lodged'in 29,175 houses, wero, 
n 1^76-77, sopphetl with 1239 wells and 314 ponds, and owni-d 
|7iit ploughs, 2771 carta, 35,065 oxen, 27,755 cowa, 25,018 
iloes, 1318 horaes, 14,823 sheep and goats, 1777 aaucs, and 133 

in 1877-78, of 82,169 acres, the total area of cultivated land, 

[0,1'*3 acres, or 12'iJ*l per cent, were fallow or under grass. Of 

remaining 72,026 acres, 3441 acres were twice cropped. 0£ 

75,167 acres under actual cultivation, grain crops occupied 

15 acres, or 70'60 per cent, 2lt,It2l' of thoin under bajri^ 

licillaria spicata; 8405 under jui4r Sorghum vulgare; 5085 

Chapter XHt. 





Ohapter Zni. 




.,1 u,i~ 

oTidor AwfpA, Paspalom flcrobical&tnm ; 3033 nnd^yr mni^, 

Zoa umys ; 2190, under wlieol, 'jhau, 'I'riticum ajslivam ; 398 

linrloy, jav, Konteiiin ht^jciLKlirtitni ; 109tf under poddy nnd nn^ 
'/,nj;/ff*-.()rjzn saliva; 2172 under Diisoellaaeom ocreaU. Pultee oct-n- 
pitid lif/t^H acn!s, or 25*78 per cunt, uf wbicb 3025 acres were andef 
ui»^, PhaAcolns mdintiiH ; 107G iindor $r'^"> rJtnna, Ctcer ariftlii. 
315 uudtif adadf Pliii&eolas muiigo;aQd 15,()'1'2 under iiiisc(.'Uaii(: 
cnipM, comprising yinvif, CyaniiipsiH psoralioidoe ; math, PIukae>j 
nr^)nitifolius j vdl, Dolichns labhib ; and chola, Vigna catuini:. 
seeds uccQpicd 2u72 acres, or t!'40 per cent, of which. 24<>t! 
under iat, Hesaniiiiii iudioum ; and lUO iioder othur oil-sc 
Fibres occupied 42 acres, or *05 per cent, of which 8 acrvs 
under cotton, ka^U, Gossypium herbaceum ; and 34 under Ik 
Mill) Crutalaria junci!a. Mistiellaneuus crops occupied 100 
or "25 per cent, of nhich 81 acres were under sugarcjioe, 
SAochnrum otHcinnruin ; C2 under safflower^ kagHmba, Cv 
tinctorina ; and 07 under misoellnneous vegetables and fmio. 

The 1872 CCUSU5 returns show of a total population of IOC,! 
soulg, 98,ij81>, or \>2-2H per cout, Hindus; 824-t, or 7-71 per oooi, 
Miisalmans ; and ono CnristJan. StatiBticfl specially proparsd fron 
the eiiunicratora' forms givo the following taste details : 4769 
BMhniniis. -i Hnthnin-KriKhatris, writora,52*l7 V^i&s,2G24 Shrinks, 
traders nml morchanta, 19,438 Knnbis, 4-78 Rajputs, 3+1 Sathi 
41 Kaubhii'is, 170 M&lis, and 41,571 Kulis, cultivators, 
Ilb^vs&rs, calico-printers, 198 ChhipiSs, calenders, 220 
weovers, 233 GUdncbisj oil-pressers, 476 Sonis, gold and sUreri 
12()3 ESuttmrs, curpcuters, B7 Kans-lnis, braKs and copper emit 
1252 Luhira, blacksmiths, 938 Darjia, tailors, 182 Kadiis, h 
layers, 774 Bhiita, bards, Itftil Kumbbirs, potters, 1220 Hai 
barbers, 124 Dhobhis, washermen, 2582 Bhar\'^s and Kat 
herdsmen and shepherds, 88 Hhois, fishers and labourers, 
Vanjdriiii, carriers, 32 Mnratbas, labourers, 338 Vaghris, fowie 
hunters and beggars, 1453 Havalifis, cotton tapemakers, 42 
lirjuursellers, 38 Baj&ni^, acrobats, 103 Thoris, players, 200 
cultivators^ 5112 Mochis, Bhocmokei's, 19G1 Chimadios, 
Garud&s, 4215 Dhods, and 1221 Bhangii^, depressed cli 
500 religious beggurs. As regards occupation the same 
arraugcs the whulij population under the seven foUowin^f 
i. Kmployetl under Government or municipil or other local outl 
1082. ii. Piofessiuiml persons, 401. lii. In sei-vice or perfii 
personal offices, 1402. iv. Engaged in agricultura and 
auimala (a) cultivators 23,739; (6) Ubourers 2192; total 23,93 
V. Engaged in commerce and trade, 2736. vi. Employed in mechaniii 
arts, manufactures and engineering operations, and onga^d in 
sale of articles manufactured or otherwise prepared for oonsnmpttc 
20,031. vU. Miscelliiuuoug persons not classeii otherwise (a) 
14,755 and children 3S,7;j2 ; in all 53,487. and (b) mil 
persons. 1804; total, 55,201. 

Daskroi Sub-division. The Daakroi. or hcad-qnt 

division, stretches round Ahmedabad about thirty miles nor 
south and twenty east and west, it is bounded ou the oortb 
BaroUa territory, on the east by Mulii Kautlia, on the sootli \/fJ 




and fm the west by Bidiond and by Bnro^A territory. Its 
ii 351 squaro miles ; its population, accortliDt; to thu 1872 
3, wiiH 24i),:ii!fi souls,! or 710 to the Hqimro mile; and in 1877 

We land revenue was f;J5,04O (Rs. a.OO/lOO). 

its 351 sqnnro miles. Si oro occnpiod by alicnatod villAgea. 

rest, according to the revenuo eurvoy rotura, contains 202,933 

or 90 per ciiut^of occupiod land; iy5,9l-l ocro8,or CO per cent, 

lie waste ; 3i5,0O2 acres, or 1 6 per centv of unanil)lo wnsto ; and 

acres, or 1-4 p«r cent, of village sit^s, roads, ponds and rivers. 

the 202,933 arable acres, 55,232, tlio nrca of alienated land in 

mrnt vilLigca, has to bo taken. Of tho balance 147,701 acres 

P«nible Government laud, 98,023 acres, or GG'80 per cent, wore iu 

year 1877-7S under tillage. 

.0 Bub -division, except to the east and sonth, vhero thoro aro a 
Baud-hilla and gentle swollings, is Rat. East of thn SiilKurnati 
£urly well wooded and park -like ; bat on ^o west it is o]>od and 
bare o£ trees. 

it of reach of tho aoa-brcczo, and with a light sandy soil, tho 
is hot and dr^'. During- the eight years ending 1S60, tho 
rainfall waa thirty-five inches. 

The sub-division is crossed by tho S*lbanmi1.i, Kliitri and Tifoshvo. 
Bot, c:cccpt in tho extreme suutb, their waters aro little usod for 
irrignrion. In 1877 the water-supply fij^iros were 6-i wolls with steps, 

kit wells without Rtops, 17 wator-lifte, dhelmd-!^, G34 ponds or 
>irs, and 1 rivers, streams, and springs. 

st of tho soil is light, qordl, varying from mero sand to tho richest 
But with good tillogo and wat^r, thu sandiest fields yield 
crops. The soil of the low-lying part^ of the sonthem villages 
sk and much usod for rice, in the loops of the Sabarmati aro 
ics of alluvial, hkniha, land yielding thu finest sugarcane and 
Tho Daskroi staple crops are millet, hajri, Indian millet, 
ir, and rice. 
In 1860-61, the year of sottlomcnft, 17,476 holdings, lihaUU, were 
inled with an average oTBaoI 7'?,!^ acres, and an average rental of 
\\ 11^. 3(^. (Ui 15-9-11). Eqnnlly dividcil arntmg tbo agnciilttiral 
kipulation, these holdings wonlcl, Eor each person, represent an 
iiicnt of 2J-*^ acres, at a yearly rent of 9«. bd, (Its. 4-11-2). 
itributcd among tho whole population of tho fiiib-diviaion, the 
U> each would amount to \\% acres, and tho incidence of 
le land-tax to 5s. Q\d. (Ks. 2-12- 1). 

The following statement shows tho arnblc nroa in 125 Govomraont 
B, and tho rotes fixed ia liJGO-tjl fur tweuty-sovoa years : 

COi^itar Zni- 








• lUs toUl incliukia Ui« popiilaUoii of tlio AlitatHUl>«d dty (1 18,756 souls). 


Chapter XXZL 





IfiomtHiy Oi 






Dry crap 

Bin „. 



Bki ... „. 










«Mi n.Tii 

Uft.yii| t,c:.ia 



3 ji a Mjvn 

S 1 


< 411 

a ] ) 

9 1 t 

• 10 

a ift u 








t I s ii«.no 

t^^ 1 

IU.,;»' MV" » 1 1 


I u a) 

& « to 




ftminwiiiiiit «t Qarerninetit and BlujtMtwl Uoi 
/M«i<<— Alietuktions ... 

Rs- «. p. 
1,73.567 15 


Uionwiu ... ■.. .1. ... „> ..■ 

^(ict— Quit-raata 

Grnang fsn» snd rivsr-bed tillngii... 

S,21.&93 13 
.t!).42g IS 3 
S3,4I8 19 

SMS 11 a 


Total ni venue ... 

S,84.4i2 6 3 

3S.U4 tfl 

Tho 1872 popalfttion, 2'1[>,36U bouIs, loil^^l in 10,H70 honse^ 
in 18"t>-77, siippliwl with 4083 wclla nnd 634., aiid owned IC 
ploughs, •2823 cartji, 2;?,487 oion, 10,61G cows, 27,J':it> bafTdoOff 
horscfi, 1 4,702 slioep and goats, 2U50 asses, and 6G cuncU. 

In 1877-7fi, of 98,023 acren, tho Iota! area of cahirated Uiid,i 
acres, or 0*05 per cent, wcro fallow, or uudfi- grass. Oftharen 
03,067 aores, 3185 acres were twico tn^ipped. OE (b»1 
acres nnder actual culrivatiou, grain crops occopied SS,-"} 
or 8J>-60 per cent, 43,299 of tbcin nndor Aiifrj", PcniciUaris spimifl ;' 
S6,Kti7 nndor Juvdr, Sorffhnm mlgaro ; 740i)andoppaddy and ri«, 
dangar, Oryza nativa ; 5701 ouder barley, jav, Hordeum hrt»- 
tiohon; ViGO uiidt^r kndra, PospiJam Konibicalatiim ; 7d5 uhIr !< 
wheat, gkaitj Triticiun tustiviim ; and 8SG under misoelljuieous 
Pulses occtipiod 2036 acres, or 3*05 per cent, of which 5S8 
were under gram, citana, Cicer nrioLinutn ; 561 nnder mnff, Hhai 
radintns ; 8t> under adad, Phaeoolns mungo ; 35 under tuv^r. Cqi 
iudicus; and 1716 under misccUniuioas crops, comprisini 
Cyamopsispsomlioides ; math, Phaaooliw aoonitifolins ; ral, 
Iftblabjaiul rhoh, Vijriift catiang. Oil-seeds occupied 3177 
or 3'30 per cent, cf which 122 wore under lal, Sosamom iodic 
and 3055 under other oil-8ecdH. Fibres occnpied 1366 acres, orlH 

cent, oE which 184t acres wero nnder cotton, knptU, QosRypium 
uerbuceiuiu ; and 22 uQiler hemp, gan, Crotalaria jimcea. Miftcellunc- 
OQS ci-opa occupied 2107 acres, or 2"5t» p(?r cent, of which 87o acios 
iverg uuder sugarcane, serJi, Saccbaruin officinarnm ; 20S under 
indigo, gall, ludigofora tinctoiia ; 76 under saffloi^er, A-M»»ni&a, 
OkTliiamna tlnctorius; lH under tobacco, tambiilsu, Niootiona tabiicum; 
and 1184 under miscellaneous vegetables and frnite. 

TUo 1872 census returns show of a total population of 130,010 
60uU, 125,31)1, or 01) per cent, Hindna ; iMil, or 3'78 per c«nt, 
Miutalm&ns; and 272, or "20 percent, CliHstians. Stah'stJcs specially 
prf'pnred from the enumerators' forms give the fullowiug caato 
<|. In Is : C75ij Br^hinuns, 1 Urabmii-Kshatri, 1 Piirblin, writers^ 
aU2ii V^niiig, 421 I.iirAnas, 3703 Shraraks, traclen and merchants, 
ae^PIOKanbis, 5104 Kitjputs, 15 Kdchhiiis, 158 Mdlis, 39,593 Kohs, 
cultivators, 381 Bhdvsnrs, calico-printors, 20(5 Sonis, grild and silver 
smiths, 1567 SuthArs, cai-penters, 133G Liiliarf*, Mrscksniitbs, 538 
Dnrjis, tiulors, 12 Kadijvs, bricklayers, 273 Olianchis, oil-pressors, 
Hft5 Bfa&t.s, 55 Ch&rnns, bards and genenlogists, 2680 Khitmbiirs, 
HfeterB,2514nAJani8,barbers, 45 Dhobhis, washermen, 8698 Bharvads, 
nnd Rabitris, herdsmen and shephoi-ds, 177 tioliis, rice-pounders, 
51 Manithas, lalKjurers, 17.40 Bhois, fishers aoH labourers, 2822 
ViSghris, fuwlers, hunters and beggars, 2057 liavaliiU, cotton-tapo 
makers, and beggars, IGG (Xls, diggers, 2't Kritnaltiis, makers 
of blankets, himti, 776 Aldrv^dis, labonrcrs. III Bajaniils, acrobats, 
!B1>2 Mochis, shooiuokora ; 2289 Ch^madifls, tanners, 5ti2 Ganidas, 
t3 Dhodtt, 212S Bhungids, depressed classos, and 087 religious 
in. As rfganls uccopation the same roLurn arranges th» 
lolo population under tho sovon following hauls : j. Ktnployod 

sr Government or municipal or other local authorities, 581. 

Professional persons, 884. iii. In service or perfurming 

>nal offices, 1772. it. Engaged in agnculturo and with 

(a) cuItiTOtora S0,810 ; (fc) labourers 2838 ; total 33,648. 

Bng&ged in commerce and trade, 1209. vi. Employed in 

Ohapt«r xm. 


thanical arts, mnnnfacLures and engiiiccc-ing operations, and 
fed in tho sato of articles manufactured or otherwise prepared 
JT consumption, 19,979. tU. Miscellaneous persons not cUissed 
j^ierwiso, {a) women 33,095 and children 36,837, in all 69,932 ; 
Kd (6] miscelhineons persons, 2605 ; total 72,537. 

"Viramga m Sub-division. Vimm{ri*im is boancled on tho 

TT-iTili by ilaroda territory, on the east by Baroda territory and 

nd, on the south by tho Nal, and on tho west partly by 

Ktiiiawarand partly by lladlmnpnr. Its nroa is 679 square miles; 
population, according to the 1872 census return, was 128,044 souls, 
188 to the sqnare mUe ; and in 1877 its realizable land revoune 
i £20,014 (Us. 2,00,140.) 

Of its 679 eqaaro miles, 363 are occupied by tho lands of alienated 
pd ttil'ikiidri villages. The rest, according to tho rovonuo survey 
tnms. contains 202,352 acres, or 47 per cent, of occupied land ; 
^,618 ncres. or 24 per cent, of arablo waste; (i3,360 acres, or 15 
cent, of nnnmblo waste ; and 36,374 uoro», or 8 per cent, of 
aitoB, rnods, p«jnds and rivers. From 202,3.>3 arablo acres, 
|l,029, ibe area of nlicuutcd land in Gorci'nnicut villages, hoi) to bo 



Chapter Xm. 
Sub^ visions. 

VlBiUlUA K. 

taken. Of tlio Tjalanco 172,723 acres of arablo Qoreramonf 
137,629 acrca, or 7i>-G8 per cent, were in Uio year 1877-78 om&ee 

Kxccpt in the north, vliore tlio sar&co is brolcen by rolling nad 
hills, with iu plocos patches of briialiwood, Ytramgdin is a pmn of 
thinly wooded U^bt soil in tho oast, and to the west and soatli of 
open black soil ending in tho salt level of the Ran. 

In tho hot season Viramgam is one oE tho hottest parts of 

Without rivers, Yimmg^m is woll snppliod with pond* and 
reservoirs. In lip^ht soils sweet water is found near the Burfacc la 
blaok, though Hamcient iu quantity^ it is generally brackish. Bxccfii 
rioe-liinds watered from ponds, tho district has Itttio ganldi 
cultivation. In 1877 the water-supply figures were 3 welb willi 
stops, 80G wells withoat steps, 1423 ponds or reservoirs, and -i riTes, 
streams, and springs. 

In tho north-east aboat ono-third of tho area is light, tforaljgai 
yielding millet and pnlae, the rest, except chanoo Itgbt patchctil 
black, yielding cotton, wheat, millet, and rice. 

In 1838-59, the year o£ settlement, 4435 holdings, kJmldt, vat 
recorded withan average aroaof ZS^^acrcsand ao average rental of 
£1 lis. S\d. (Ra. 18-10-3). Eqnally divided among tho ogricoltanl 
populiitioii, these holdings would, for each person, rcpreseoC M 
flilotmont of 4^5 acres, at a ycfirly rent of 7#. \0(l. (lis. 3- 1 4-9). B 
distributed among the whole population of the sub-division, Ibf 
eharo por head would be 2A acres, and the iuuidunco of the hfll 
tax 3«.5i<i.(Il3- 1-11-8). 

Tho following statement shows the arable area in &ixi;-5i 
Government villages, and tho ratoa fixed in 1868-50 for thirty yfOfc 



Bot on GoTCmioeat aod~ali«D»to(l Uad... 
tat— AllenatioDi 

F-Qnit-natii' .'." 

Gnudng firna ftud rivor>bo(I tilhga . 

Total nrvoDue ... 


P- 8 
31,2C0 4 

1,40,899 i 
63,314 15 2 

2,01,S32 D 4 



17,715 10 
S126 6 

14,58!) 13 
6SS 16 Si 
6334 9 l(j 

20.453 4 8 

{lS72 popQladoc, ISS.O-U souls, lodged in 49, t04 hoases, woro, 
-77, aappUed with 809 »vcUs aaiJ 1 4-28 ponds, tuitl ownud 1 1 ,423 
4459 carts, 2G,39(J oxen, 14,900 cow.-), 2G.256 bnffaloc«, 1171 
1 14(71 7 ttheup aud goulti, lolt^ asses, and 195 camcla. 

r7-78,of 249,569 acres, the total area of cultivated land, 
or 23'77 por cent, were fallow, or under grass. Of iho 
190,237 acroH, 1046 wcro twice croppwi. Of tho 
acres under actual cnlfcivation, grain crops occnpiod 
7 or 00*41 per cent, 64,802 of tliem under jHwr, Sorglium 
B; 28,514 unuor tiajri, Penicillnria spioata; 24,425 nndor wlioat, 
Criticum aostivnm; 4133 under barloyjaUjliordeumlieiastichon; 
idor kodni, Paspalum scrobiculatnm ; 413 nnder padJy aud 
(n^ar, Oryza sativn ; and 2529 under nuscellancona corcals. 
occupied 11,431 acres, or 5'97 per cent, of which 2022 acres 
ader gram, eharui, Cicer arietinum ; 4425 under mag, Phascolua 
B ; 837 nnder aiad, Phaseolus mungo; 60 under tuner, Cajamis 
I; and 40i57 under miscellancoos crops comprising auvdr, 
psis p^oraliuides ; math, Plmseolus aeoiiitifoliua j val, lAilichoa 
) and eholn, Vigna cnfciang. Oil aocHls occnpiod 1764 acres, or 
' coot, of which 577 were under tal, Sesamnm indicum ; 
B7 under oUior oil-seods. Fibres oooapiod 62,300 acres, or 
per cent, under cotton, kapas, (rossjpium hcrbocoum. 
bnoons crops occupied 221 acres, or '11 per cent, of which 9 
idor sugarcane, terdi, Sacclwraiu ofTu-inanim ; 3 undur t'.ibaeco, 
iw, Kicotianatabactini;and209 under miacellaneous T^etabloa 

J872 oensu9 retams show of a total pnpulation of 128,044 
J7,244, or 91'56 percent, nindus ; 10,773, or 8-41 por ccnfc, 
Uins ; 1-3 Farsis ; and 14 Christians. Statistics specially 
)d from the ounmerators' forms givo the following caato details : 
Jrihmans, C Brahma- Kshatri.^, writers, 1759 Viiniiis, 419 
B, 6512 Shravaks, traders and merchants, 21,837 Kanbis, 
UJiJttts, 1887 SfttKvarti^, 3913 NaroiUs, 252 Mfilia, 37,709 
lutivators, 308 Chavs&ra, caltoo-printers, GO Gh^chis, oil- 
I, 287 EUiatris, woavors, 1016 Souls, gold and silrer smiths, 
InthArs, carpenters, 81 Kanaariis, braes and coppor smiths, 
[di&ra, bhicksmiths, 1403 Darjia, tailors, 8 ChundrAs, brick- 
ie 1 Bhats, 321 Cbiiraus, banls and genealogists, 3350 

in,potter8jl75lHajtuas, barbers, 13 Dhobhis, woshormou. 

Chapter Sin. 





rBomtmy Ouettoer. 


"Chapter Sm 





^453 BharTlids nud Rab£ris> herdsmen and ahepberdsj SS GoUib 
ricc-pouiiderri, 93 PnrabUs and &Iarftthfb<, aorvants and labooren^ 
27 Bhois, lishora and labourers, 1615 Manr&dis, labuun>r^ ^Si 
Yllghria, fowlerg, hunters and begi^ars, 1510 Ravaliis, cotton tap^ 
makers aad beggars, 20 Bhils, cultivators, 126 KamalUus. makers 
blankotSf kdmii, 208 Ods, dtggersi 282 BiijiiQi^?, acrobat 

Mochis, ahoeraakers, 2107 Chfimadi^, tanneraj 261 Garadia 

Dhods, 1628 Bhoagias, depressed classes, and 908 religious beggm 
As regards occupittioa the same rotam arranges ilie wliolo 
population under the seron following heads : i. Employed nnd 
Go7oriimoat or municipal or other local anthoricies, 787. 
Profesaionol persons, -133. iii. In semco or performing ^ 
offices, 1373. iv. Engaged in agricaltnre nnd with sninab((| 
caltivators 15,832, (6) laboorera 2995; total 18,827. v. 
in commerce and tmde, 2663. vi. Employed in mechanical 
manu&Lctui-es aad cogiaecTiug opemtions, aud engaged tu the ule 
articles manufoctnrod or otherwise prepared for cont^umption, 1Q,II{ 
vii. Miscellaneous persona not classed otherwise, {a) women S6,9r 
and chlldroQ 49,-103 i in all 85,317, aud (b) miscellaueous 
2527 ; total 87,814. 

Sa'nand Sub-divisioiL Sannnd is boaadcdou the nor^' 
Buroda territoiy, on tli.- east by jJnskroi, on the south by Dholli 
and on the west by Virsmgdm. Ita area is 360 sqaare miles ;i 
population, according to the 1672 cetiatu rotuni, was 73,1 
Bouis, or 203 to the .square mile; and in 1877 its realixablo 
revenue was £17,250 (Bs. 1,72,560). 

Of its 3G0 squnro milea, 1G2 are occnpied by the lands of alu! 
and tdluhdfiri villages. The rest, accoi-Jiog to the rovenae 
roturns, contains 120,547 acres, or 55 per cent, of oocopiod 
69,525 acres, or 30 per ocnt, of arable waste ; 39,703 acres, or 17 per 
cent, ofunarable waste; and 17,319 acres, or 8 per cent, oE rilligv 
sites, roudtj, ponds, and rivers. From 12tt,547 arablo acres, 38,<m 
UiQ area of olicnatod land in (rovernnicnt villages, has to be ttksa- 
Of the balance 87,851 acres of arable Govemmout. land, 58jG-i0icn^ 
or GO 75 per ocnt, wore iii the year 1877-78 under coltivatioa. 

Except an xmdalating strip of land in the west, Silnand is a ridij 
plain in the centre of light soil with hedged well-wooded fidda^- 
m tho south and west a bai-er stretch of black soiL The poopis ■ 
on the whole goud cultivators, living in rich vill^cs with se*-* 
Que ponds. 

Tho climato is like that of Daskroi ; tho water good, and in 
years the rainfall sufficient. 

Besides tho Siibarnuiti, watering some of tho alluvial lands in As 
east, S^naud ia from north to south crossed by the Kohar, wliich 
loses itself in tho Siul mai-sh. Though readily svailalilo its wsf* 
arc little used for irrigation. Eapocittlly in the light soil Irarts 1^ 
wells are gcnnrally bi-aefcish and from luiviug a substratum of gi*' 
SUMb u£ Uio pouds ui'O diy cai-ly lu Uiu auasuu. In liJ77 Uio 

woTO 4 wells with steps, 1374 wells witliont steps, 
r-IifU, (ifttkudiif, OSO ponds or rcacrvoira, and It rivent, stroainsj 

be north and centre tho soil w light chiefly growing millet and 
|n tiie south it is black yielding good rice, along tho Sabarmati 
be allaviiiL lands, and to the wcat near the N'al some black soils 
t less charged with soda, khdr, yield cotton, panic, kodra, and 

860-fllj the year oE settlement, 5G74' holdings, khdtds, wero 
M with an average area of 1*2,', J acres, and an average rental 
Y' 4''. iU. (Ilr-8-i). Equally divided among the agricnUui-al 
^on, these holdings woalJ, for oach purson, reprcdent an 
fat of 3/ff acres, at a yearly rent of 7«. ii^d. (Rs. 3-12-2). If 
ptfld among the whole population, the aharotocach would L@ 
res, and the incidonco of the land tax is. l^d. (Ra. 2-0-11). 
(following 8tateini»ut shows the arable area in forty -soven 
lb villages and tho rates fixed in lStiO-61 for twenty-seven 


SdmtKt Rrnt RoS, ISSO-Gl. 



















TWmJ ... 




Ra-* p. 
1 U B 
• U 1 
4 4 8 

s n 1 




I 1 10 

a a 

■ 10 1 





1 » 11 

3 IS 8 




1 ■! • 


1 13 11 

|E E 





1 S 8 

K a t 

3 l» I 






16 3 
B 8 1 
B 10 1 

Him „ 



1 fj I 






1 tit J 

ijr tfop 




1 « II 

3 14 H 



1 I UH «UI« 

tin stu 
3 10 ]| ir JO? 


I S » 
6 10 
1 u s 


2 Ci 10 


1 r flj 10»,2X7 


L 13 b 

I CnvnMtncnt imil alienated Und. 
rAlKDalioua ... 

t— Qnii-rmU 

GntZiajt fvrat «U(I rivcr-lMHl tillagv. 

Tot«t rovcnue 

Ra. a. p. 

\^l^& 13 10 
8-e67 9 
8,3M 7 6 

i,4'Mr,i 14 4 

C. e. d. 

20.<«8 IS 2 
6906 (i 

13,180 17 tV 
886 15 1| 
830 12 III 

14.907 5 »i 

n872 populftiion, 73,220 souls, lodgnd in 2<i,3U hou(«€s, were, 
|6-77, supplied with 1378 wclla and G8(> ponda, and owned 73*9 

Cliapter XXn> 





(Bombfty Gasetl 



twXm. ploagH 2392 carts, 16,284 oxen, 8087 oows, 17,019 boJIaloos, 
livifionf. Worses. 6G1& sheep and goats^ aud 1107 asses. 

Chapter ZOL 



lo 1877-78 of 132,739 acres the total area of cultinted land, 
£6,222, or 43-86 per cent were fallow or under gnus. Of tht 
remaining 74,51 7 acres, Go7 were twice cropped. Of the 75,174 aom 
under actual cultivation, grain crops occupicsd <>1],14-Jr acres, or SUS^ 
per cent, 2*5,616 of them under juvar, Sorglmm vulgnre j 
under wheat, ghau^ Triticom lestivum ; 12,160 ander hCtjri, Por 
spicata; 6325 nnder paddy and rice, dangar, Oryza 
2423 nnder barley, jatr, Hor<Ienm hexastichon; 1530 tmd&r 
rnspalam scrobiculatnm ; and 1522 under miscoUaneoos cer 
Piildt'soccnpied 2771 acres, or 3'GS per cent, of which GlOacn'SwoB 
under gram, fAawd, Cicer arietinnra ; 730 under miu}, Phascoliwj 
radiatua \ 435 under ot/tuj, Phasoolous mango ; 07 under iuvcr, Cajain 
indicns ; and 884 nnder miBcellaneons crops, comprising giftitt 
Cramopsis psoralioides ; math, Phaseolua aconitifolias ; vdl, D<4i^ 
lablab ; and chola, Vigna cationg. Oil-seeds occupied 1204aoni«i 
1*68 per cent, of which 124 wcro under ial, Sesamum indicom ;i 
1140 under other oilseeds. Fibres occupied 8163 acres, or U 
per cent, of which 8125 acres wcro under cotton, kaynis, Goasj 
herbiwreum ; and 38 under hemp, mn, Crotalaria juncea. Hi 
neous crop;s occupied 832 acres, or 1*10 per cent, of whicb 583 won 
wore under sugarcane, aeriiiy Saccharum oIEcinarum ; 46 nudcr 
saOIowcr, Itasximha^ Carthamos tinctorins; 48 under tobaoiA^ 
iamb&hi, Nicotiana tabacum; and 155 under 
v^gctftbles and fniit.s. 

The 1872 census rotums show of a total population of 73,! 
souls, GS,931, or 93-90 per cent Hindus ; 4395, or 600 per 
Musalmiuis ; and 3 Christians. Statistics specially prcf 
from tho onnmfffators' forms givo the following caste details: 31 
Brdhnians ; S Brahma-Kshatris ; 1 Parbhu, writers ; 374 VAnif 
Shrfivaks, 651 Luv^niis, traders and merchants ; 11,618 
KajputA, 88 Sathvtiras, 16 Mdlis, 11 lUchhifs, 2I,13S Koli^, cs 
tors, 41 Gh^iclui>, oilpreasers; So3 Bb£vs^, calicoprintcra; 1^ 
Btmis, gold and silver smiths ; 816 Suth^, carpenters ; 647 ~ 
blacksmiths ; 355 Darjis, tailors ; 7 KadiAs, bricklayers ; 363 
155 Chirans, bards and genealogists; 1831 Kumbbars, 
1387 Hajfima, barbers; 64 Dhobhls, washermen; 3407 
and llabiiris, herdsmen and shepherds ; 00 GolAs, noepoundenjl 
lihuis, Gsboa and labourers ; 21 M^vadiy, labourers ; 12 
water-bearers; 1655 VArfiris, fowlers, hunters, and bcggara; 
lUvmli&s, cotton tapemalers and beggars ; 34 K^maliJis, luAken '■ 
blaokete, Jbdm/t; 116 Ods, diggers; 132 Bajiai&s, acrobats; % 
Uoehia, shoemakers ; 1003 Ciamadi^ tanners; 148 Gamdis, 404| 
T)1r>iU, 731 SindhHe, 683 Bhangi^ doprossod ol&saes; and 
religious b^gars. As regards occupation, tbs same retom 
the nhole population nnder tho neren following heads : i. Rm[ 
ondor GoTcmmeut or mnuicipal or other local autboritius, 
ti. Profc^uonol persons, 125. lii. In service or pcrformiug pen 
^c«0, 687. iv. Engaged in agricoltoni and with animal^ 

Itintois 15,073 ; (6) labooms 1539 ; t^^tal 16,612. v. 

imorce At»l ttwle, 1»76. vi. Kmployed in mochimicnl arts, 
actaros ftud eiij^ioooriiig operations, and engngod in the salo of 
s mnnofacturcd or otherwise prepared for cousumption, 1G41. 
iscoliaiieoufl pernons not clast^ othorwiBO, {a) womon 
^and children 32,123, in all 49,698, and (fc) miscellaneona 
is 1990, total 51,GS8. 

plka Sub-diTision. Dholka Is bounded on the north bv 

0, on the east by Matar in Kaira and by (^uibay, on the soiitli 
Bndhukaand on the west by Katbian^r and the Nal. Its area 
[nqnAro miles ; its popnlation according to the 1872 census 
[was 113,375 souls, or 164 to the eqimro niilo, and iu 1877 ita 
^le land revenuo was £28,920 (Ra. 2,89,200). 

l8 690f<qaare miles, 3(iO aro occnpied by the lands of alioiated 
mikddri villages. The rost, according to the revenue survey 

1, boa 210,9^5 acres or 48 iwrcentoE oooupiod buid ; 1 17,591 
fr 20 per cent, of arable wafitc, 54,S93 acres or 13 per cent 
Vublo wastfi ; and 38.511 acres, or 9 per cent of village sit*?, 
[ponds, and rivers. From 210,995 arable acres, 72,085, the 
f alienated land in Government villagea, has to be tflken. Of 
kkBco 138,310 acres of arable Government land, 93,073 acres 
II per cent were in the year 1877-78 under tillage. 

pea is a plain sloping south-west to tho little Ran. In the 
ftng tlio Sabarmati and near Dholka the fields are hedj^d and 
id thick planted with fruit trees. The south-west is low, 
«nd (lut aH if not very long ago it had Iain under the sea. 

pastern parts along the SiSbarmati, cooled by tho eea-broezo 
jrc temperate than Daskroi. But tho sontb-wost is moat 
bpen to biting winds in tho cold aeascm and burning winds in 
L The aven^^o rainfall la thirty inches. 

Ipfc tho Kohar little more than a local drain, the only river 
pe east the Sabarmati, its waters much used for irrigation. 
f tho water-snpply fignres were 64 wells with steps, 2470 wells 
latepfl, 132 water-lifts, dhekudiHf 725 ponds or reservoirs, and 
L itreams, and springs. 

^hfc soili hfLVo a large store of well water and the black 
I well provided with ponds. Within tho snb-tlivision arc roust 
lief varietieH of soil, lu tho north is rice land, kiyarthi, in 
near Dholka the Gnest light, ijoru.t, along the counw of the 
ti alluvial soil, and poor brackish biook in the south and 
garden, mdliat, produce of Dholka is unKurpaflsed. 

>7, the year of settlement, 97(i3 holdings, hhdlus, worn 
with an avuraifo aiea of 12^^^ acres and an avemgc rental 
\^k'^. (It*. lO-li-2). Kquaily divided among tbo agricultural 
jn, these holdiniTi wuuld, for each person, ropresfnt an 
It of 4i^T acres, at a yearly rent of Is. (R«. 3-H-O). H 
" among the whole population of tbesuli-division, theshara 
wonld be ISJt acres and the incidence of the land-tax 
(Rs. 1-7-8). 

Chapter Zm. 







(BomlMy GuettMT. 



Clupter Zm 


Tbc following alatement ahowa tbe anble area in eeren^-fi]^ 
GovenuneDl viuages and the nXem fixed in \8b6-57 for laatj 



Add — Gnuliig Unna Mai riTcr-b«d tillag* 

Total revaooa 



tSt&i 13 












1,92.317 6 S 

19,331 u n 




The 1872 population. 113,375 souU, Mged in 2S,333 bouHi^j 
were, in 1876-77, supplied with So34 ncllg and 725 ponds 
owned 10,532 ploaghs, 4358 carts, 2»,657 oxon, 148D 
21.702 bnfEaloes, 1068 horses, 12,181 ehfiep and goate, 1G74 aasttwi « 
79 camels. 


In 1877-78 of 222,141 acres, the tot*] area of cullJTated 
60,960, or 27'44 per cent, wore fallow or nnder grssa. Of 
romaining 161,181 acres, 1533 were twice cropped. Of the 163, 
acres under actoal cnltivation, grain cropa occupied 1 3C,S9l ktoj, 
or 84"12 per cent, 91,638 of them nndi?r wheat, ghmt, Triti 
seatimm ; 29,889 under jftrar, Sorghom vulgnro ; 7625 under A- 
Penicillaria spicata ; 4748 under barley, jav, Hordeum hexastuj 
] 100 ttnder kudm, PaspBlnin Borobicnlabim ; 889 under paddt 
rice, ddngar, OrvKa sativa; and 1003 under miticellaneonG cei 
PdImb occupied 5266 acres, or 3"23 por cent, of which 284S octm 
andor gram, eitann, Cicer ariettnum; 303 under mag, PhH 
raUiatiis ; 160 under invfrr, C&janns indicns; and 1897 orfff 
tuiscellauooas crops, comprising (/urdr, Cyamopeia peoralioidu ; 


)Ius mtscellanoooa oconitifolma ; ml. DoUchos Inblab ; and chola, 
catiaiig. Oilseeds occupied 33t2 acres, or 2'05 per cent, of 
ich 18oi< wcru luidur taf, Sesamum indicnm ; and 1983 ander other 
oibiends. Fibres occupied 14,645 acres, or O'OO per cent, of wbich 
14,038 acres were under cottoBj kapebs, Gossypium herboceam; and 
7 under hemp, sun, Crotalaria juncoa. Miacellaueoua crops occaptod 
2571 acres, or 1 '58 per cent, of wbich 683 acres were under sagwr- 
ouie, Mrrii, Saccharum officioarum ; 502 ander saffiovrer, kasumha, 
CartliaxQOS tiiictoriiis ; 152 under tobacco, iambaku,, Nicotiana 
tAbacam ; and ISS-li under miscellaneous vegetables and fmits. 

Tlie 1S72 census returns show of a total pr>puIation of 113,375 
Bonla, 101,487 or 89*51 per cent Ilindos ; 11,886 or 10'48 per cent 
UaHalmaus ; aud 2 P&rsia. Statistics specially prepared from the 
enamerators' fonns give the folluwing caste detaili^ : 0G14 BrShtnans ; 
Z\ Brahma-Kshatris, 17 Kiyasths, wiiters; 3165 Vanias, 1290 
LavAn&8, and ISl'GShrdvaks, traders and merchants; 12,672 Kanbia, 
10,509 Rajputs, 49 SathvarAs, 1788 Kfichhifo, 18!) M&lis, and 27,520 
KoHs, caltivators ; 333 BhSvsdra, calicoprintera ; 182 Khatris, 
weavers; 471 Ghdnobis, oilprcsscra; 630 Sonia, gold and silver 
smiths; 14-12 Suthdrs, carpenters; 71 Knnsjlria, brass and copper 
smiths ; 944 Lnh&rs, blacksmiths; 034 Darjis, tailors; 13 Chuntiris, 
bricklayers; 576 Uhats, and 431 Chttrans, bards and genealogists; 
S366Kambbdrs, potters; 1 776 liajdms, barbers; 137 Dhubhis, washer- 
loen : 'l^SO Bharvads, and 831 Kabdris, herdsmen aud shepherds ; 
69S Gohis, ricopoundera ; 42 Purabias and Mar&thAa, servants and 
labourers ; 549 Bhoiu. fishers and labourers ; 581 MarrSdis, labourers ; 
2007 Vagliria, fowler^i, hunters, and beggars ; 853 Ravaliiis, 
cotton tapcmokors, and beggars; 17 Kdmaliis, makers of blankct^Sj 
haanii; 151 Ods, dig^rs; 554 Bai&ni&s, acrobats; 2963 Mochis> 
Bboemakers ; 410 Garutka, 7443 Dheds, ami 2348 Bhaugida, depressed 
duaos ; and 830 religions beggars. As regards occupation tho 
«amo return arrangt-s the whole population under the seven 
followieg heads: i. Kmployed under Guvernnieut or municipal orothor 
local authorities, 1168. ii. Professional persons, 854. iii. In sorvico 
or performing personal offices, 1859. iv. Engaged in affriculturo 
■od with animalH, (a) cultivators 16,209, (&) labourers 2861, total 
18^70. V. Engaged in commerce and trade, 1833. vi. Employed in 
Ifcbohanical arts, manufactures and engineering operatious, and 
engagod in tlio sale of articles manufactured or otherwise prepared 
for conaumptioD, 25,183. vii. Miscellaneous persons not classed 
otherwise, (ft) women 22,180, and children 38.520; in all 60,700, 
»Dd [ii) miscellaneous persons 3218 ; total 63,918. 

Dbandhuka Sub-division. Dhandhuka is bounded on tho 
nortJi, west, and south by K^thi^war and on tbo east by the Gulf 
of Cambay. Its area is 1107 square miles, its population according 
to tho 1872 census return was 124,860 sonls, or IIS to the squaro 
mile, and in 1877 its land revenue was £23,250 (Ra. 2,32,500). 

Of its 1107 square miles, 072 are occupied by alienated and 
Ulukdari villages. The rest according to tho revenue survey 
relums contains 86,236 acres or 12 per cent of occupied laud, 
3^13 7 ftctos or 6 per cent of ai-ablc waste ; 13,772 acrca or 2 per 

Obapt«r xm. 








Chapter Xm. 





cent of nnnrablo wasto, and 38,277 acres or 5 per oatt bt iHh^ 
ttiLcfl, nuulH, jioikIh tuiii rivcra. FiMtu 80/2:16 arablo acres, 14,72d 
tbo area of aJien&ted land in (Jorcnimcnt villages, haft to bu uJceo. 
Of tho balanco 71,508 acres of amblo (Jovornmont land, 3G/112 ama 
or fi0'02 per cent wero in tho year 1877-78 nnder tillago. 

ExL'upt in tliu west a traut of hare biUs and rou^ valloya vitt 
millet fielJH nnil garden patchos, Dbandliuka ia an opon, treoleair 
blacksoil plain slopiug towards tbo Gulf ahorfij grovuig cottoo in 
tbo cuntro and wLoat in tbo east. 

With a short rainfall of from sixteen to twvntj-foor iachta, 
with DO sbado and swopL b^ a bnmin^ land wind, tho cUmale «i 
Dbandbuka is, oxccpt in tho cold seaaon, most tiding. 

Tbo water-BuppIy is scanty. Thoro aro no largo riTois. Tim 
Bhildhar and Ut^vli, littlo moro thaa atrcaina, lose IhemselTea b titf 
xoarahes. Pouds aro bitd, wcUa few, and irrigntiou vcrjr bimtwL 
In tS77 tho wnter-fiupply 6)^re8 wore 13 woJIs with stopi, ISl 
ireUa without stops, 170 pondJa or reeerroirs, and 22 rirara^ 
and epriuga. 

In the weat is nome codrsc light soil. Bnt the rest ia blade 
snitod for cotton and wheat. 

In 1857-58 tho year of aottlemont, 1140 hnldingn, khntiii, wm 
rocordod with on averago area of 30 acr«B and an RVCTAgo rental of 
£2 it Old. (Kti. 22-^-4). Equally divided among the agricu lmj 
population theso holdings would, for each person, rej 
allotment of ti|j\ acres at a yearly rent of 9a. lOf ti. {Ha. 
if distribated among tho whole population of tho anb-divifiion, 
share to oarh would amount to 2 acres, and the iuoideaoe of ttui ' 
tax 2*. lliiL (Ua. 1-7-9). 

Tho following statement shown the amblo ansa in twelve Goren- 
meat viUagtis, aud tho rates fixed in 18o7>58 for thirty years : 


HMMHncnt on OoventAeut anil klicmtod luid 
^irbi^Bil illiiiiiili III! 


^Km OnoMg fanoB and rivor-bed tOU^ ... 

V^ Total .. 

B«. IL p. 

0.1,063 4 
18.372 12 

£. e, d. 

6308 4 
1637 5 6 

34,709 B 

783 9 4 

88M 4 

3470 19 U 
78 7 2 
6S9 6 01 

-(I.3S7 I 8 

4133 U 2) 

"Hie 1872 population I24.8G0 8ouIb, lodsed ia 40,382 houses were, 

1U76-77, mipplieil witti 800 vuIIk, 170 ponds, and owned 7365 

nghs, 3Gt5fi carts, 19,027 oxon, ll.Sl,'; cows, 11,486 buffaloes, 

borses, 9169 ubeep and goats, 1324 owes, 80 camels and 


. In 1877-78 of 339,084 ncrea the total area of land cultivatei?, 
99,471 or 2727 per cent were fallow ot ander gnwa. Of the 
remaining 246,613 acres, 2780 acres were twice cropped. Of the 
249,303 acres under actnal cultivation, grain crops occupied 182,543 
73'19 per cent, 100,431 of them under wheat, (fkau, Triticum 
,; 47,159 under juvdr, Sorghum volgitro j 31,314 under 
PouicilUiria spicnla ; 25 undor barley, jtiv, Hnnh-rim 
iitichon ; 13 under paddy and rice, ddngar, Oryza sntiva, and 3G0I 
miiiCtillauoous cereals. PuUes occupied Olddacrus or2'48 per 
of whieli 6155 acres were under gram, chmci, Cicer arietiiiuui ; 
34 under mtucelluneous crops, cotnpriBintr guvdr, Cyamopsis 
^aoralioidos ; mnth, PIiiifitioIuH aconitifohuH ; vrl, Dulicbus lablab ; 
and choht, Vigna c-atiang. Oilseeds occnpiod 4259 acres, or 1 '70 por 
cent, of which 4151 were undor tat, Setsaniam indicumj and 103 
Deader other oileeoda. Fibru« oocupied 56,0^0 acres, or 22*33 por 
cent, under cotton, kaptU, Gossjpium horbacenm. Miscollanoous 
occupied 700 acres or 0'28 per cent, of which 355 acres wero 
sDgni*cnno s^-riU, Saccharuiti ofTicinaniin, 17 under Hafllower, 
imfco, Carttmmns fcinctorius; and 334 nndor miscoHaneoua 
stftbles and fruits. 

le 1872 census rotnms ahow of a total population of 124,860 
ni,942or89-Copercout Hindus; 12,852 or 10'29 por cent 
ImJins ; 11 I'lirKiH ; and 55 CThriaiianR. Statifltics Kpocially 
from the enumemtora' forms give the follnwing caste 
5295 Urahmunfl, 50 Brahma-Kaliutrib, 12 Parbhus, 14 
jths, writers; 7288 V(ini*i«, 1191 T.uvflnfis, 4800 RKnivnlcs, 
land merchants ;8816 Kaubis, 1 1,227 Rajpnts, 4524 Sathvaras, 
lin, 1523 Kiitbisand 30,502 Koli3,culUvator8 ; 710 Uhavsars. 
ioo-printers ; 8 Chhipfis, calenders; 146 Khatris, weavers ; iH>6 
Sonis, gold and silver smiths; 1793 SuthArs, carpenters ; 280 
KuiS(inis,braR8and copper smiths ; 1584 Luburs, blackEmiths ; 1885 

Rriis, tailors; 29 Kadias, bricklayers; 154 Bhdta, 931 Charana, 
ds and genealogists; 5240 Kumbhars, potters; 1016 Hajams, 
Itere; 87 Dhobhis, waahermen; 5425 Bhnrvfida and Rabliris, 
faertUnmn aud nhcphenls; 17 Gohis, riceponndors ; 19 Marathiis, 
bbourers, 416 Khavas, scrvonla; 1616 V^hris, fuwlecs, huolors. 






(Bombar GtMtUar. 

ter znr 








and bc^^^ors ; 771 R£valiiU, cotton tnpeniakers aod beggm ; 298 
Ods, diggers; 3G7 Bajimi&s, acrubata ; 778 Mochis, ahoemakcii; 
1723 Cb^tmulids, UnDdnii 317 Qarudds, o493Dhed8, 2161 Bluuigi^ 
doprcssod cIo&bcs; and 1535 roligioas beggars. As mguii 
occupation tho same return arranges tho wholo popalatioa under 
tho seven follomng heads : i. Gmployod ondor Oovommeut cr 
mnnicipnl or othor focal authorities, 850. ii. ProFoBsional ponoDi, 
1191. iii. In sorvico or perfonniog personal offices, 1788. ir. 
Engaged in agriculture aud with onimala (a) onltivBtora 15,721, (i) 
labourara 2467, total 18,18S. v. Engaged in commoroo and tnip, 
2048. vi. Employed in mechanical arts, manofactarea and ongioeft- 
iiig operations, ondongagod in tho sale of artictoB manolactored 
orothorwiso prepared for consnmption, 32,110. rii. UisceUanoou 
persons not classed otherwise, (a) women 2o,S55 and childnft 
40,91)7, in all r>(;,2:>2 aud {b) miscellanooos persons 2-133 ; total dSfiSi. 

Gogha Sub-divisiOQ. Kxcent four villages ou the Camba; 
Gulf, Goglia is on all sides surroimaed by Bh^magar land. Its am 
is 22-i square inites ; its p'jptilation according to the 1S7S caonw 
return, was 38,829 souU or 151 to the square mile, and in 11*77 i* 
realizable land revenue was JLSS62 (Ka. 93,620). 

OF its 224 square miles, 204 are occupied by tho lands of alienated 
aud tdiukddri villages. The tvai, according to tho revenoe mw; 
returns, contains r2,d52 acres or 9 per cout of occupied land, 8Bn 
•eras or 2| por cent of arable vasto, 1468 acres or one per cent of 
nnarablo waste, aud 7397 acres or 5^ per cent of village aatos, raids, 
ponds and rivers. From 12,852 arable acres, 2087 tho an* d 
slianatod laud in Govonunent villages, has to bo taken. Of tltf 
balance 10,765 acres of arable Qoverument land, 3675 acraa or 
S4'l-t percent were in the year 1877-78 under tillage. 

A narrow plaiu skirting tho shore of tho Gulf, and behind hills vttk 
well-tilled and well- wooded valleys fall of springs, Gogha is espediCj 
at the close of tbe rains a place of much beauty. The hills knowB u 
the Khukhm raiijjfc arc cluofly limestone. Barv&la the highest pesk 
is about 600 foot above the sea. 

I rm 

Close to tho Boa tho climnto is healthy and cool, os]KH:iaIly in theluA 
weather months, when a strong steady sco-brecwj blows. The nil 
Boldum more than twenty and often as little as twiJve incliei 
light but falling on a retentive subsoil is sufficient. 

Many of the streams, though small, flow throngbont the 
There are few ponds aud irrigation is chiefly from wells dag nror iM 
streams. In 1877 ihu wnter-siipply figures were 21 wells withstep^ 
403 wells without stcpa, 23 ponds or reservoirs, and GO rivers, BbMM 
and springs. 

In the valleys is nomo rich chalky loom. In other parts the boS 
red in colonr, shallow and gritty. 

In 1858-69 the year of settlement, 165 holdings, JtAufic, 
recorded with on average area of 24A acres and an avenigu 
£1 4ff. hid. (lis. 12-3-8). Ecfually dividod among the ag; 
population those holdings would for each person ropresoat 
ailutuieut of 5^0 acres at a jrcarl^ ruuL of iJ£.l^<i.(IU.2-9-l]. If 




disrfcribntod nmongthe wholo pomilntion of the sub-division, the shoro Ohtjiter 

to each would be 4S acrt^ b^^ tho incidcnco of the land tax b^d, Snb-diniioiii* i 


The following statomcTifc shows tlio arablo arm in fonr Govem- 
meut villagw Mid the rates fixud iu Iti0ti-t>^ fur thirty years : 


Otfgha Ibtnl HoO, I8SS-S9. 







Graod Total 










« U 4 
4 S ■ 

1 > I 

U 8 

< > 10 

I I G 







■era nU«. 

B*. a. p. 
10 10 

oil 1 

10 1ft 

> U 1 

11 1 














oi« a 

D U 4 
4 9 1 

1 1 9 

13 a 

t I 7 

la B 

/>iiurt— Alieuationa ... 


. JlW-*)«it-r«ito ... 

ToUl revenno 

IU. a. p. 


2383 8 

£. e. d. 
238 7 

2»7li 8 

£« 8 

37M 13 6 

207 13 
« 17 
379 9 8i 

6S29 13 6 

662 19 8] 

The 1872 population 33,829 aoula, lodged in 10,571 houaesj wore, 
in 1876-77, supplied with 424 wells and 23 ponds, and owned 1962 
plonghfl, 5*3 carts, i376 oxen, 2386 cowa, 2313 buffaloos, 3S5 
horses, 4963 sheep and goatfl, and 1385 aasoa. 

In 1877-78, of 94,297 acres tho total area o£ cultivated land, 58,63-4 
acres or G2']8 per ocnt, were fallow or under grass. Oftlio remaining 
33,663 acres, 1405 were twice cropped. Of tho 37,068 acrea Qndor 
actual cultivation, grain crops occupied 33,453 acrosj or 90*24 per 
oent, 25,947 of them under juvar. Sorghum vulgare ; 539S under 
hi^rit Penicillarift spicataj 2026 under wheat, ghm, Triticum 
sativum } 57 nuder paddy and rico, lUngar, Oryza sativa; and 25 
nndormiBcellancjouacorcalB. PuIsbk occupied 1552 ji.tjreB,or 4"1S per 
C«nl, of which 1307 acres wero under gram, cliana, Cicer arietinnm ; 
and 2-45 under miscellaneoas crops, comprising t/tipfir, Cyacuopsia 
pnomlioidcB ; math, PhaseolnB aconitifolnis ; ?;af, Dolichoa tablab; 
Sod cAofrt, "Vigna catiang. Oilseeds occupiod 1934 acres, or 5'21 per 
_MDk_ imdor ialj bcsEunum indicnm. Fibres uccupied 42 acreS/ 






ohaptOT xnt 



■» — ■- 

or O'll per cont nndcr cotton, htpda, GoBsypinm faerbtcmn 
Miscellaneous crops occupied H7 acres, or 0'2<t por cent, uf whiiA 
1 4 acres were under sugarcane, serdi, Saocbarom offictimraai ; asd 
73 under miBcoUanonus vegetables and fruits. 

The 1872 oonBOB returns show of a total population of 33,629 aonia, 
2g,'Ul8,or 87-10 percent Hindus ; 4305, or 12-72 per cent Masalmiofi 
8 Parsis ; and 4tt Christians. Statistios specially prepared frcun lk» 
ennmemtors' forms give the following coste details : 2€7G Brdhmas; 
8 Bmhtna-KBhafcris, 3 K&yasths, writers ; MOti Vdnids, 1 394 Shr^nki, 
56 LnvAolis, fomders and merchants ; 974 Kanbin, o378 llojput^, 79 
K^bhiils; G36 Mulis, 7923 Kulis. ciiltinOors; 150 Bhavsan, calioo- 
priutcrs ; oC C'bhipiLt, calenders ; 4^2 Sotiis, gnlil ibnd silver smitlia ; 
o52 Sntlt^rs, carpenters ; 35 Kftnsi^niA, bra«s and copper smithn ; 310 
Luh^rs, blacksmiths; 32 Dnrjis, tailora ; 29 KiuluSa, bricklajrera ; ^ 
SaldU, masons; S05 Bhdte, bards; G»3 KumbbArs, potters; 469 
TiaAime, barbers; 82 Dtioblm, wuahermeu ; 1446 Bharr&ds aid 
SaMris, hordsnici) and (^1iephenl» ; 23 Golas, riccpouuders ; 93 Bhm, 
fishers and labourers ; 4 riirabias, servants ; 140 Vaghris, fuvlflr% 
hunters and bcggani ; 130 ll^vuliasj cuttou lapemakurs and beggui; 
13 Ods, digsrers; 2U3 Bhils, cultivators ; 4tK) Mochis, shoemakera; 
390Oi£madi^ tAnners; 18 GorudKa, 1804 Dbcds. 383 Bbangii^ 
depressed cl>saea;aud 417 religious beggars. Asreigarda occupatiQI^ 
the same return amwigea the whole population under the sere* 
following heads : i. Kraployod under Government or municipal or 
other liH^I authorities, 496. ii. Proftittflional pentuns, 22o. lii. In 
service or performing personal offices, 201. iv. Engagod in agricnl- 
tune and with animals, (a) cultivators &175, {h) labourora 1195, 
total 0370. V. Engaged in commercoand trade, 941. vi. Employe 
in meohftnical arta, maniifactiire.s and engineering oporationa, 
engagied in the sale of articles mftiiufacturvd or otherwise preponi 
for consumption, G8o4. vii. MiscelEancous itersona not clund_ 
othormae, (m) women 0857 and children 10.369, in all 17,220 
{b) miscelliLueoDH persoos 1426; total 1S,652. 

It I 




(Horth latitado 23" I', and east longitmie 72° 37', on the loft 
B of tbe Silbariuati, about 173 feet above meau sea lerul. aud 
ii milca north of tho head of tho Cambay Gulf, the city of 
Lodabad covers an area of two sqaaro miles. 

htside tho city tho country in well wooded^ and, far bt>youd the 
b of the present dwelhngs, its anrface is roug'honod by tho 
■ns of the snbarbs' and viltageR that, in the time:) of its greatest 
pority, formed part of Ahmcdabad. Along tho west of the 
t flows (ho SabarmiLti, except in the rains a thin fltrcuinof wator 
'broad bed of deep sand, and to the north, east, and south, are 
fed fields of cotton and roillet, thick studded with tombs, mosques, 
bid stone-bnilt reservoirs and welU. 

le Citv Walts, nmniiig' on the west for about a mile and throe 

lors along the bank of the Sftbarmati, and stretching cast in 

- Hrcalar form, include an area of two square milc^, tliickly peupled 

north and east, and with fewer huuses and mure trees to the 

and west. Within rity limits there are, according to tho latest 

twenty-eight miles of made roads, ^b,2Bi hou»eB, and a 

tioii of ]l(),H73 souls. The municipal reveiiuo amounted in 

to £22,5to (Rs. 2,25,460).=' 

Seelion L—HUiorfj. 

Un (March 4th) » SultAn Ahmad \.* like hia father 
n Mnhammad, fond of the site and air of Asflval op the 
mati, chusu it as his capital, and in honour of four Ahmads, 
ilf, his religious teacher Sliailth Ahmad Khattu, and two others, 
Ahmad and Malik Ahmad, Domed it Abmcdabad.^ Since Hit, 

tails *r« given below at p«KO 327. 

injHipiiLiti'in lignm* nrr tor IS7'J ; the ruatl untl n-rfTmn flc«rw ff>r 1878. 
iKiuLkli Tlb.SlS B. BIuoHouiuu'ii Aiui-Akburi, I. CuT. VvrisliU gives 1413 
^8iaU.). Ilri^lgB, IV. 14. 

"tin AhriiAil iiuigr.tuilHi'in of Siimn MnxalTni 4I.19I-141I), UioBunufaconvvrt*! 
jput. BJuE^tTar, in n51 l'UdqIiIuiI liy ibv KmiHiivr l^iroz Tuijihlik. was to ISOl 
ovAmnr nf (, aivil from th»t tiinu wim prncticAlly An iniinpeiiiloiit mW. 
story ■> th»t tlir king, \iy the ai>l of tbe tuiiiit Sbtkikli Abuiail Uliattii, cntlcd 
~i{loet Elijah or Khiar^ snd [ri:>iii hiiu f{ot Iuutu tu build a uity ii ti« i-uuirt liiid 
HH whohwl uovcr iniss«ii UivafU'rucipn prayer. A sesrch over tiutArit 
twojth* sftint WW thcthtrd, anil Ihfikingthcfoiirth. Arch Snrv. 1874-'*'., 2, 
r AlimiuU urc mul tu liavc Wcu L(!l|ici) by twelve tUliia \ thcM were hi^ 


Chapter XI 7. 
Places of luterest- 




tBoBliA7 OufftUar, 



Chapter XI7- 
FluM of Interest 

Annttri Aimi, 


ATimcdnbad bus passed throngh fire periods, two of prmtnesa, 
oC ilway, anU oue of revivhl. Fir&t undtr strong rulers came 
biiii(lr(>a years (1411-1511) of growth and rising wealth ; then ko^ 
years (1512-1572) of decline daring the decajof ibeOujaratdjaastj; 
nextldtj years (1A72-1707) of roaowod greatue&e anuur the cady 
Moffhal Emperors; opfain 110 years (1707-1817) of dutorder uid 
loBs under weakly Afogbals nnd greedy Marath^i, and last of il], 
sixty years (1818-1878) of steady progreea under IJritiBh rule.,] 

Clearing' the neiglibourhofjd of nibbers and highwaTmen,' 
bnilt a citadel orfttrt ufiimdi strength and beauty, calling it Bl . ^_ 
after the Patan citadel ;* laid ont ^is city in broad fair streets,' MJ 
added to the Sfibannaii's scanty stream by turning into it the wstm 
of the Hathmati.* Bringing marble and other rich building material 
&OIU Anhilv»da nod Chandrdrftti," be raided ningiiiBcent mosqae^ 
palaces, and tomba,** and gathering mcrchantti, wcaferB, and tiaiSti 
criiftsmen, made Aliniedafaad a centre of trade and znannfacim 
During the re^t of the fifteenth century, under powerful, rich, ail 
successful rulers, Ahmcdabad grew steadily in size and wealth aai u 
the nmnborand beauty of its public buildings. AmongitsmleisSoltJi 

Klinja, EUha Uru, ami Rika Kftnimal. boricd st DhnlkA ; Bibs All RImt ud Wh 
Mkliuud buried At Sarklicj ; a second ItitM Ali Sber whouMid to lit atark nakaJilUk 
l^vnkkul biiriod in tho Nuinbul milinrh, Bilw I.iilni l>uried in Muijtivri Nk, 
Ahinad KiUiori burivd nuar the Nill»od iuOK)ae, BAba Lcilbk Iwhad amu tkt BiM 
wickrt, lUbA Ilhfikkl hori«d behrMn tlw SbiMpnr aod V«lhl p%m^ Btbft Sljril 
Imrieiliii Vimnifcim. There ja a tlurtwnth Biba Kamti Kicmia abovi whoB aj» 
ritisi ars not agned. Major J. W. Wataon. P«h. 4th , 1879. 

■ Ahmad ShSh. bcfor« astabliduuff AMval aa bit oapHal, had tA d*tcat sBfafl* 
KoU obi«f whn ah»iil a ynar hcfntv had ru«o a^nst kia maHMkhet'm jpjllitM t 
<Btrd, 184. 1S7>. Tlic lUiil uMild mvdi to bava httm a roMxr and fdnadmr el h^ 
waya, nnt an indcjMuideikt cbieE, u BflTcn yean before (1403) SiiltiD Mnbanii. 
8ulUii Atuusd'fl fnChfir, hnd made A«bval W capitnL (Biid, Ij!)). Atiral bad H 
Inns been a place of iinportucm. Hare MDlMRiinxl IWblik Shih (1 325-1350) hrM 
duiughianippnaticnof theaoianltiuutiiiy (1347). (Tirikb-iFlroz Shihi : BM< 
m. S<SO).Twohiiiidred jre»nfaruerH tna (1 IMl) a well Moplod, baaj, brnding. 
focturin^ &n(l ri«b town (Jaiibcrt> Kdriai, L 170, 174, ITb). In IIm alvrvntb ce 
Karan kingnf AnhiUadu (1072-1094) miMl« the town bit rarjtal, adorned it with' 
temples, one tv Kotihmb, th« ait« ttill known, and tbe ouer te Jayasti Dtrt. 
naanedit KaTaJULvatt.Kftran'a tnwu, Shrinaear, prospercMU ota, and Uijaaar, U 
town. WU MllU. 711, 80. 89). Mat tboiiub, lik« SidUn Ahmad be bad. to pmmlhtfi 
robber Koli* liefuro bn ninite it kin cnpitu, Karao waa n<:>t iu foHikder- la Uw MA 
cvntiiiy AsAvat waaoiiQ ut Uivchiut putcca inGujarit {Al BirDni,v«O-lO30)> Beiaiidh 
Fngmcntfl, 121. niicl'a Hutor;. I. 66. 

> 'Vhc VkUu ritiulcl was Mnbably the old Rajpnt fort colled aA«r ffto^t* « 
tkv pmpitiuuii K.-ili. Major Watwn. The fort wae pai<iapa im prore d far Svfaa 
Mahxiitd Bci.iula (l4S0-l.'ill). See twlow uitdcr ' Bbad&r.' p. 27A. 

■1 The Moghfii liuionana (IfidO-lfiOO) and almost all the Koropeu tmTeUns (I'^- 
noO) praiac th>r citiu)(<l and tfae broad itToeta. 

* Mr. MelviJl, who betwoim 1824 and 1836 rarvered PuAtitij and M«ilAM,«* 
aatiaSed tlmt, Uionirh nutreoc efa dam rvmainod, the hoUow known m tbe Bbkhaal 
be artidcial, the work cf Saltin Alunad tu ad<l tn hie new titv'a wmt«r aQimlT. )^ 
Uov. Set X. 6. 

fi Tod'a Wuttoru India, SS7. All the Imildtn^a were nfat^as bnwghtftnKi acnel 
diataoce IchieHy from l>htAnf:.tdra in KAthiAwAr aud Idar. mm below |k SSIIk %A, 
133. Spectall]' ooodlinie wm bniuuht fuim Idnt, aiMt in piaster work, with w)uch*b 
fine buildinffB. plcMnre hon»a, and U.'iiibs wcni covervd , took •» fine n |»twb m <• 
reflect till- fieht 1ik»nliHikiug glass. Jtird'a Mirftt-i-Ahmndi, lOfi. 

• The <ihi«f buililingit wtrc the C'ity WaUs, tbo BLaiUr. and lb« Triple Oatewir I 
1^ mnaqnee, t^ultiu Ahtnad'n, Hulint. Khia'a. Sved A lam'n, Malik Alasi'lf JAbBi M 
Sidi Syed's ; and of tombs, fjultiui AUiuod'a aitiit lus Queana'. 




^11111111(1 Bej^a (1459-1511) rcpaircil its wftlla,' planted its streets 
th trees, adorned the city anil Buburbu with spleaditi buililiiigV aiid 
wwh mach care fostorml its trndern and craftamon.' So closely did 
ho look aftor its welfare tbat iE he heard of an empty hoasc or shop 
ha ordurod it to be filled.* At the cloi^ of Malimud'& roign (loll) 
in Rpilo of the f^at wealth and size of ChAmpfinor, Ahmodabad was 
still preiiter, very rich anil well supplied with many orchnrds and 
f^rdeuKj walled; and embellialiod with goad streets, aqQares, aud 

For sixty years after Mahmnd'adcath (1511-1572) the fortunes of 
imod&bad declined. Bah&dur iShiih (152(i-t53d), when strong iitul 
profiperoiispreferrod ChSiupfiuer to AUtucdabad, and, in the tlisorders 
that followed hit death,* the power of the Uujar^t king's waned, 
their revenues fell, and tho capital, its trade crippled by Portnf^eso 
competition, was impoverished and harassed by the constant quarrels 
of unraly nobles.' In I57I, tho year before its capture by Akbar, 
the city had twelve wards within tho walla and others outaido. Ita 
chief iudustrios were the manufacturo of silk, gold and silver threa*!, 
" Ibc. It yielded a yearly rovcnuo of Xl5o,000 (Ka. 15,50,000)." 

In 1572, called in by a party o£ the Oujarfit nobles, the Emperor 
' .bar, meeting with little opposition, entered Ahmodabad (ISth 

'* Theilato 148fi given in tho d*te-Ho'0 'WhooTerUwfthin WMfo," (Brifif!''''''oriilita, 
70) woald weaitoshow that MAhtiiii.1 ik^pultt built thtioiiUr wM. Dot, Mtbv 
kl-i-AbniBdi •sprcBflly tUtcs that .\hiiisil buill Ixotb Cbo fort umI Iho citv walla, 
lud pivliaMjr strougthonod pcrtiA]:^ rcji&ucd thotn. Before building the vaKt 
lad U aaiil Ui luire I'liaiigvil the cnano of th« S.ilmnnnLi whicli fntruarly riui 
ID Kii-uij •qukrv, bctw-««D tbn Bhadar iui<I tliu Thrvu <>Ates. }1n^^' Citiw 
litn, 303. This, if dotui nt all, wna ^rotubly tho work of Snltdn AhiDiul> 
'flhittf hnildin^ and worlu«arrii»daiit in AhmodAlioil br;tw«cn 1411 and Ifill 
e, hhiIlt MultAmmad II. [I441-I4fill, Kntli-nd-din'a mnMgur ; nndor Kutb-ml-ilia 
ll-14r>!)),MalikSliil4u'a motKiuOiDnryaRliiii'ntrtmli.tho Kdnkftriyatako, lh« small 
ttTs vhrinD, and fiuij Bakhd'a tamfi at 8arkhr) ; nnd under tJalimud tksads 
(l-L'i'.MAII). tho (joccn'a nxMiiiie m Sdraiiifpur, Dostar Kliuii's niOBinn, MrihAlis 
KJiiD'aiaofrino.n^ln llarir'a wflU, Mijra Khin l'lii«(itj'ii m'>»(iuc, ArhtrtUilii'amoaqu^ 
Sywt Uraiiu'a mowjuu and ttPiab, and jmrlH of Sliih Almii niid Hdlva. 

> 1>iinii2tliiar(!ij2:n (Hfld} ajuftcial mAntinn ia ntaAit of ailvor sword baudlcc of 
Akueilah*d work. ISinln M irftt-i-yVliuijidi . 207- 

* Bird'* NiOlt i-Ahmadi, 205. 

B Sualey'i BarboM (lAH), M, Thuhoiuoa woro of atone tuiil white- waabed brick 
with rnafs in tJie Itnlinn fsahion. 

• During Htiinnyuu'n verv *hf)rt poa3«*iion of nnjnrAl flSSfl) !»• dppoinlctl hi* 
hnrthor A>knri governor of Altmsdabad. Bloofaraann'a Ain-i-Akbari, I. M9. 

T lUrly in tho aixtoenth century (IROO) Ahmedabad trada began tt> lulTcr at tha 
luutdaaf the I'ltrt iij^cm. Hut it w,-L^!ii>t till 1A38 that, actth-d nt l>iii aaUrda nf the 
a«a. the Port UiiattBe «ociirml Um gmiler jtart of th« prulitu that fiiriiitrly enriched th«- 
lii«'KhiuitH 'tf Abniv<.labad. Of luL'aleventathat a(Tct.'to<I Aliuit'dabad niay be notioud : 
1. in l554th<ipartJtiMiof Onjarlt among thf nobles, leaving tnthcnonuniil king Ahiiiu'l 
fUiah II.(I.V>4-l,Vil). ucd; the cily and noishbr-urhooil of Ahmcdnhod ; % in 1571 ita 
ckptore t^ ChingiE RliiLti ; and 3, >U nn^e by .\ laf Khin, till the arrival at Akbar 

8 Of the titnl. CVIOO <Rh. M.OOO) came frnm cnltiration ronn.1 tho city. £100,0D(> 
(Ka. K),00.(I(X1) from Uxc« on vo«i4<iUe«. i;si),fXl(l (lU. 3,(W.«00> frcm .a roiiiHg.; l««, 
«nil *2t>.000 (lU. SiOO.OW) fmm (jolicu. Thu ("dictdclnils Vfvtv iuj-*,CiriQO ; bwtel luif, 

VWi rjttle iBArkcliCasOn; loo, i.'.'KK) ; wirn, jClOtH) ■ n|>iiim. f.'tOO ; silk. £1800; 

tier*, £500 ; tiKKMn^cn, .UI.'iO ; falnc wMuhU, £>iO(l ; *h<i[>a £irrOO : rcvoiint? o1 tho 

lv« citj- wards, />i>ni.i, i'-IM : city ;;iibe oollcctiniw, EinoO ; "Hut ward*, /winlii, 
cuafsctuHU and utboi Uiiius, £200 ; <vtitl, I^U.UUO. Bml'o Mirii i-Akiuai, 

Chapter XTT- 
Places of IntereBt 




Moglial Viotnnya* 

Chapter XIV- 

Places of Interest 






tht Citji, 

NovcTinljor 1572), ancl reccivini^ the subminsion of its nobl« 
Gujnrfit » provinco vi' hJH empire, and appoiiitcd a Viceroy. Though 
ensily won, ton years passed before order was c«tiibliahi>d at 
AhuiodabaU. Akbnr was but a few months gone, when (1573) tlri 
rulii'l Mir%&s/ holped by some of tlio Unjardt nublee, canie agaiinl 
AhiDodnbad ; two yonrs later {I67&) at a second sieve MuaAir 
HuBain Mirza all but took the city, and in 1589 Muzafiar tne lastof tirt 
Abniedabad kings cnpturod Ahmedabod and spoiled it of i?f>I(], jinrel)^ 
and fine cloth.* MiizafTar'a revolt was somi put dowr*. Minta Kh£ai 
Olio vi Akbar's most rising nobles, led. an ImperiuJ army offtinst 
Ahuiodnbad, and (22nd January 158^1) meeting Muzaflkrat Sarkliej, 
after a bard fought battle, routed bi^ troops and forced him to flft 
Raised to be Kh&u Kh&ndii or head of the nobles, Mirza Khiu tunwj 
tbo Hnrkbej battle field into a garden, Fatch B'ujh, the garden uf 
victory, for long ODe of the ctief eights of AhmeKlabad* After 
this victory, though at times disturbed by brawls and rioti, 
Ahmcdnbad, for more than a century free from outside uasollt 
contiuued one of the richest cities of the Mogh&l empire. 

At the duRO of tho sixteenth century tho city wba large, well foraudt 
and remarkably healthy ; rnoKt of its houses were built of brick ini 
mortar with tiled roofs ; tlio Btreots wore broad, tho chief of than 
vritli room enough for ten ox-caniitges to drive abrcojtt ; and atnODg 
its public buildings were 1000 atouo mosquee, each with two Uq^ 
minarets niid many wouderfiil inscriptions. Rich in the pn>dawii£ 
every part uf the globe, its puioters, carvers, inlayers, and workcn in 
(silver gold and iron, were famous, xin mint was one of four aUoml 
to coin gold,* andfram it^ Imperial workshops came maaterpiecoft il 
cotton, silk, velvet and brocade with astonibhing figorcs and pnttfra^ 
knots and Fashions.^ Tho town was ou the whole the haadMHUll 
in HiudustAn, perhaps in the world.' 

1 Tlw Minrilx. Shih Minn the gTandnm, anil [lirAltun Hiaain and TbhiluntBaJ 
tliiHtiit the youtiRur iKuiH of Uuliauauiut i^ultAn Minm, m iiiraii^ from (hor ««■ 
moniuicutcirTiiiiiir tliaOrant, bud Iicvd tnntod with gnat dutmotioD bj HmnUM 
ftiiil Ak)Mtr. MiixAfTiir Huiwin whoiiiMirly <.'«|)tun>d Atuuedahwl ia I57& Wa> «imii( 
lljiiiliim. Hliicbtniitin*]i Ain-t-AkbM-i, I. 4(>M*>3. 

» Bint's MirAt-iAhmiuli. 362. MunlTar, who in L^TS full into Akbar'n homli^ **9' 
hata cunlin'OniDtit in li)78, ftsd fifld to Kithikw^r. Bloohmann'a Aia l-Akboii, [. IMk 

8 Bird'* Mirilt-i-AlntiAdi. S7& Wbcit Muhamuukd All KJita wrutf <1748-lM 
Ba\-crml of tb« ImililingH ojiil rrmaina nf tho sutiunar huuM wnv Ktill to b« Mft 
Ac Viooroy (lAS-l-lSiM)! UicKb&ii Khaiiiu Ubunndfor ttw |iro«|>erity ol MkswmaMi 
nndtho rclicT ofthoApproMoilCBird, 37S}. IJo wm fairniDs for bis libenJity fM# 
at tlic liiial coni^iiMt <d Uujarit, bis whole property tu lii> M>ldier«. UocMbI 
Ain-i-Ak)inn, I. :i%). 

* rtiu ullittr [tlAuut were tbc teat of Governmout, Bttng*!, «iid EhIjdL BlodnBHi% 

I Dlin'liiuauii'it Ain*i'Akhnri, I, SS. Hnir wt«viiig, m|ifiiirently gold and ohw 
thrvod (ilitUt, 9*2), fttid Bilk Bpinninj; vraro brought to porlnrtiim. Tbc goods fnr «bA 
Aljmr(Uluu1 would soiiiii to luivulioen a|»oial]y fftmova wcr», Itcocadn, volvau ul 
silk witlib«n offtUvcr tlirLod |<lJLto, 92, 93). 

Fcrokta, IV. 14 and liladwin's Ain-i-AkUtri, 11. 63. Of th« pnfmUkknt oF ikl 
city noMtuostQ liiu been truuvd. It ianotvssy to retwodJe tbeaucoaBta o4 |W«« 
uF tbe cityciTen in FcriiditA, th(< Alii-i-Akhftri, utdthv MirAt-i-Alintn>Ii. AnaiidaEO 
tlm Ain-i'.Mtl)Ari (IftSOJ, tlicru ivcn; StiO pitrtiji, of which only rishty-fimr wtw »* 
llDumtiii'ut'ilD'Iwi". ■■• *''i) .«'('»i><liii>,'t^ir«rinliUiU>i.TCwvrv, inToOO, .*»> w wA ^ H il' 
MCh Biirrouudt-d 1iy » wall (Briggs, IV. H); the MvAt-i-Ahisadi is on* 


In the early years of the wjviintw-nt h century Ahmoilabad iTicreaBod 
in siKe, its j^fovenior (l(>(Hl-HiOt>) foiimling n new wiinl iinil liiiildinga 
acAndtomb.* A few yo&rs later (lC13),acompauy of thirty-two 
fiog'fifihmeD under Mr. Aldworth came to Ahmedabad. Early in the 
following year (April llil t), ft faonse was hired and brokera and 
Mrranta left to gather goods.' At the close of 1617 (December 
i&ih) Hir Thoinad Rvq, prt:Bsing in front of Jahdngir's camp, 
c to Ahmeda^iod. Abont three week.H Inter (January 6th, 1(U8), 
Kmperor came, and in due course received bis preseots froui 
e Conipttoyj and gave an audieuco to a party oE KngUsii speculators, 
, under a certain Richard .Steel, had come out with the object of 
geUing contracts for lead pipes.' One day (January 13tb), some 
Datuh merchants appeared at court with a great preseut of Chiua 
ware, gaunders-wood, parrota, and cloves. Aijced about the strangers, 
u tidd thu priace, ' they were anatiun under the King of Kiighmd, 
welcome in all parta' To his diaguat they were made 
>me at Ahmodabad. Hoe was asked, aft their feilow-gubject, to 
uce them ; their present was received, aud they were stfltionod 
,e to the KnpliHh,"* The Knglirth were much pleased with 
abad. Tt wait a goodly city as large na London. The walls 
I and thick with many gates. Outside wore no aubarbs ; 
side broad well-paved streets wore lined with trees so high and 
that it seemed like entering a wood, the buildings wero 
atiful, comparablo to those of most cities tu Asia, iho houses 
■e of brick, many of them ridged and tiled. The Viceroy's house 
largo and »t:kte!y, of excellent stono, wcll-squarod mid put 
ether. Ita craftsmen were cunning weavers, carvers, painters, 
.yers, and gold and silver embroiderers. Its traders. Pagans, 
■iwalm&ns, and Christians, dealt in indigo, cloth, and drugs ou so 
o n scale thftt^ io the busy Hoason (November- Aprip, almost 
■ ten days a caravan of abont 200 wagons started forCambay." 
hia is very anlike the Kmperor Jahilngir's description of the city, 
m-itton about the same time (l(jl8). Feverish and oppressed with 
heat he found little to admire. ' What beauty or oxcellcnco/ 

Chapter XTV. 
Places of Interest 



The DiOch, 



lird, 31 ] ) skya. mcb was onco ibi populous stata that it contAinod 380 jmr<li, each 

1 k (wuidenible <iafttt<;r nlmtAt * rily ; in another fiMHU^ he muntioufilwelvD 

WUtla luul othorn outfluli' (HinI, 114), ami in hui dutaileid aooiunt of the city 

taentioai by lunio I tO raburbv of wkii'h 19 wero oettlod aodor Mk^IiuI rolo [sea 

p. XZ8). AftMii Terry (1i)t8> aikva, vrithoat the wall thvro am no auhtirlw, 

««, 179) lui'l MuixIuIhIu (IB^), tite aubiirbi* uid tlqmn'Iimt vi]In>;tia ure uiiarl/ 

Xs^piM ron nil, i Viiv;tf;c«, 7K}. I'^rb&pa thure Jm uu hattur fxplnji.itioii of tli>M<! 

BC*M, tbui the difiiuulty Uioro aln-nya is to draw a llue butwcuii u city, its 

Mid thti villagos mn itii outHkirta. It SL'cms nnlitioly that andor its cwn kinjfs 

bod ma» uvor ao great oa ib bc«ain« iindur tbc MoahiU vicnruys. 

ITTlis Viceroy wwSyed Martaxa, Shaildi Fiirid-i.BukSAri (IWM-ItiOft). The new 
I WM in hia liononr <»lliid tliu BnklAri mahuliith, the mowjoe uul tumb wurc in 
ir oMVijib-ud-diri (died I58()|. BlAolimanu'a ^liu-i-AkboH, 1. 4IA. 
Ontic'f Hmtorical I'rnjpiviiU, 3.'M-S3lf. 

Boo, in Korr IX. 3&4. Roe, wbu fuuiid Stuvl ' hi^h in hia concoit nnd Fivrgotful of 
. I'diuppravol of tho project tbintiing, chitiHy fmin thftcost of Innd cikrrutgc, 
on stt«ni]>t to ailvMtico Um aale of lead waa moDuy and labour thrown nwiiy. 
I Roe, in Kurr IX. :Mi4, 36^ 

» The travolkra uvre Finch and Nidi vl us Cfllet (l^tl) Horru I. Sd niid K«rr 
Vlll. :ioi ; NiohollaaWhittit)gt4>u(lG13) Kerr IX. 127, and Terry, VofB£o to Eoat India 
CtiiSJ, 170, IW. 

Chapter XIT. 
PUc«i of Iiit«r«8t 



he complains, * am tho Eomider ot the city have Been in this wrei 
land -mth its dnst-ladcn air, ita hot winds, its dry river-bed, 
brackiah nasty water^ and it« fchom-ooTered dubnrbs.' At first In 
called it Dust city, Qardabadf afterwards as his dislike gr«« 
stronger Simoom town, HamurnUtan, Thorny town, Zakxtmdarf 
B&diiig, porbaps when he heard the plaguo' hud broken ont, in the 
names, Sick town, Bimurinldn and Hell city, JniulnnaiH-ihui. Dnrinj 
part of Jshangirs nine mooths' stay in Ahmetlabad, his farourlte 
wife Nur Jab^n governed the city.'* A record of Ids visit remains i^ 
the JahAngir mint (p. 280) which he either built or renewed.' "^M 

In 1616 IMace Khurnim, afterwards (1627-1658) tlic Emperir 
Shall Jahan, was made Viceroy. Daring his govemmcnt (1616-1622), 
among other improvements, he built a palace in the Shahi Bog and 
royal baths in the Bbodar. Shortly after (1G26), the EogCah 
iravcller Sir Thomas Herbert describes Ahmcdalwd as ' the megapolis 
uf Gujardt, circled by a strong waU with umuy large and comely 
fitrcetSj Bhops full of aromatic g^ins, pcrfuuic-s and spices, eill% 
cottCDB, calicoes and choice Indian and China raritiett, owned nod 
sold by (he absteiuions Banians who liore surpass for number thm 
other inhabitants.'* In 1629 and 1630 Ahmodabad passed ihMQ^'b 
two years of famine bo severe that ita strceta were blocked by tio 
dying, aud those who could move, wauduiod to other countries. For 
the poor and destitute soup kitchens, langar-khamiH, were establi-'- ■ 1 

and A sum of JtSOOO (lla. 50,000) diatributod/ The famine over, lit 
city soon regained its prosperity. Majideklo/ in 1638, describes 
ita craftsmen as famous ror tneir work in steel, gold, ivory, oiuuod, 
mother of pearl, paper, lac, bone, siUc, and cotton, and its merchanli 
as dealing in sugarruudy, cumin, honey, lac, opium, cotton, bonXi 
dry and preserved ginger and other sweets, myrobalans, saltpett* 
and sol ammomac, diamonds from Bijapor, ambergris, and muik. 

During the next thirty years (1610-1670), the fortune^ (•? 
Ahmedabad were at their best. A succession of able gowiu'.rs 
maintained order tliroughout tho cuuntry, protected fbroigD 

1 WikiAt-i-JnhAngin : EUir>t'a lliatmr. VJ. avt^lfiO. Jahingfr thmight he haA meaf- 
ed UiP [ieiit.ik-111'c, iiyifm, lliHit hull iVirsciimc ttniu biiou mgiii); at Agra. But it aM>«n4 
■t AlusiodAbrtil Aiid at liiut to th« KrifjHitli was mgst dcojliy, Tarry, 327. Dvtiuiha^t 
bMDgJTHi uiKlur tliD head Hi-iUtli 1p. 219). Is Huite nt hit abun t.<{ tho plMc JiltMifk 
had aoine ihAni of nmiviiniii'i'it in AhmoilAltad. (hie ni^ht, Rnc Tvpiirta, aftal • 
pir^ Mi a iprduii imtiiiile of Uiu cit^, tha Emperor drove hu bruorite Nsr ifkUt m 
■B open bullock wn.j{iiii liinia«?tf nctma $a wuooer. Kerr, IX. 363. Anotber m^, 
u he himself tolls, ho hold a tnarKct in'tno coartymrd of his pnljuw when innli| 
inlaid &rti<.-lL'«, implomnate, niii) nil kind* nf ctoth mid »taBk,«-)th plenty uf b^M 
lftiit«>*ns bcfon) G«cfa (hup, made a uovdI ahuw. Wikiiti-JahAii^iri : tvlltot, VT. ^^ 

3 PaTon'B Ztuid Atoetal. cclxvii uid uxiv, ItrtK^'s' Citt(« ofUui«ruLi' 
A cnin or ramlitl was etmck in Ntir J.-khin*B honmir with th« imcrtptiAa - i , r 
Uiirteeiith ofthfliuntAUMiiiinO^ H. 1618} Niir.rah.4ti wife of Che Kiog Jttbia^. 
■on of the Kid^ Akbsr, lady ijtuvuravr of iUuncdnbad.' 

8 Bri^l^' Citice of IJiijarifllitni, 224. 

I IViltrU, Vfi. Hrrbert Bpenka from he&rmy. Ho was only » fortnight in fliitrit 
(27th Novemlwr to I7tfi Hewmljor) nnd Bpont aU th»t time rt SurM, IVIU V*IK 
thme ytMM UJaf [i>T23) ft'Uiid tbu etroote broad, boiiiCiful mid vtnJght, )>irt frW 
the doqi dnM diliicult for iQcu t« go on foot or horwe to go fast 1Mb VtOt, 
L«tt«n, III. !)l.'.l'i. 

ft Bidaiub-uAiu* iii KUli^V• Uixkriy, VU. 34, 2& • VcjfVM, SOi 


ts, an3 adorning the city wttli new )>uiltlinps, developed its Qi»pt«r XIV. 
in, indn^tries, und trado.* U£ the cily during tlii» timo of Flaoea of IstFereat* 
;y (Fobnuuy, 1666), Thovenot, tho Frcncli traveller, has ahhkdabad. 

Eollowiog accoDDt. It was so full of trees that from 
> it seemed u green forest. From the Boutli the approncb, 
avenues of trees, lay past walled pfardens, houses, aud well 
ubfi, then through a gateway* luto a street of houses leading 
to tho city walls. Including tho suburbs the city was 
( miles long.* Its walls were strong, in good repair, and well 
. Inside, the streets were broad, the main street at least 
tecs across, ending towards the west in three great gateways, 
pened into the king's plain, 700 yards long by -tOO broad, 
loutk was a large travellers' rest-house or car&yanscmi, with 
ry of six or seven guns, the front omamentc-d with 
King pillared balconies of 6uely cut stone. In the middlo 
^n was a liigh tree with a target hung from its top, and 
A over tlic plain were many small sqnare buildings, about 
it high where the police naagistrato, liotrdl, tried offenders, 
tho square from the Three Gateways was tho citadel, aa lai^ 
lie town, bnt with no good rooms, snrroundod by a well cat 
all, and entered by a strong gate flanlied by liigh towew. 
O whole city wore many mosques, tombs, and palaces, public 
nd reservoirs, fountains, and water coorsos.* Tho chief 
of trade were, of raw produce, indigo, sugared and ntw 
sogar, cumin, lac, myrobalans, tAmarinds, opiuTn, saltpetre 
ley, and of manufactured goods, satin, velvet, taffeta, cloth 
, silk and wool, pilk carpets and cottou fabncs some miule in 
i some brought from Lahore and Delhi.* After Thevenofr's 
le city, tliough for several years (1683-1689) afflicted by 
of pestilence,* seems to have lost little in wealth. In I6'.>5 it 
■ heed-quarters of menu facta n^-'S, ' tho great^cst city in India, 
r inferior to Venice for rich silks and gold stuffs cuiiously 
t with birds and flowers.'' 

tho close of Anrangzcb's (1707) w^ign began a period of pUantrr. 

:. The MarAthas, who for about half a century had caused i707-i725. 

OHst distingaiiluxl VIccrojri were A'zud Khia (I63S-164S), Anrangzeb 

.6). Mu) Mor^ Bakhsb (ItiM-IKST). During thia titno the on); diKirtlitr wu 

,iiot bct«i«eu iluidus and MuulmAns ia which under Aonnineb's <ml«n 

tie of CbinUmvi near !:lanui|>tir wu inutilatcd. Details of thu temple xre 

Dir, p. atfi. 

aaot (V. 23) calliithc^e ti /oiisk porta. Itiraa perhapa^aa is Alillthn caio 

poutr, » fftttvt^y williuuti any walla. 

mot, V. 33. 

not, V. 25. Votlm' Or. Moid. III. 127. 

MM. V, 35 : aiid T&vemier in Harris, II. 37.^ At tliifi time then w«n in 

amMiiJui uui AbyMiuikD chordioa nail aJewiahsyuagoijni?. UuUby'aAtlaa 


»kh* ICUint'a History. VII. ^7. 

lUj L'jinii : C''hnrcliin, IV. 180. Thia aeems exaggerated, m about tbo aante 

'2-1081} Fryer make* Delhi, liohora aud Arto tb« IIith chief citieanf titdiA. 

Duat,I0O. In the IwgiaJitnf; ot tho aightveDth century HiOO'lTSD). [laiailloa 

aedabftd agreat city, ID auic nod WMJth little itifvriur to tbc ha«t tourna 

pe, yielding ft reT«oii<i ten ttnica that of Surat or about ' £162,600 

11.000).' Nuw Aciwttiit, 1. 144.149. 

PIu«s of Xnterert- 




misriiief niid damn^n in soiitli Qujar&t, on hearing of the Gti 
death sent »n oxpeilition a^inst Ahmcdnbad. Under the i 
of iVdiiji Vishvanath they poswxl tha Impurial troops in tho Puck 
Mbli^U, plondcrcd as far as Batra within five niiloB nF tlie citjr, ud 
were only bought oil by Iho payment of £21, OlXJ (Rs- 2,IO,000).» 
In thb city the ni-xt years werti marked by riots and dtstttrbaaoe. 
In 1700 an cu-dor camo from tho new Emperor Bahadur SbA 
(1707-1712), that in the public prayors, among tho attributes of dia 
Khalif A'li, tho Shia opithot tmuti or hoir should bo iutrodaced. 
This order cansod great diHcontcnt among tlie Ahmodabod SottBiL 
They warned the reader not to use the word vntti agstin, and, u la 
pereietcd in obeying ordera, on tho next occasion they d«gged '~ 
from the pnlpit and stabbod him to death.' Three or roar yean ' 
(1713-17L4) auothw disturbance broke out. this time between 
Hindus and Musalm^nn. A Hindu inRisting on baming the 
near somo Musfllm&u houtiM, the Mnhammadans retalinted 
kilhng B cow. On this the Hindus seiwd a lad the son of a but _ 
and killi'd him. Tlion Uip Miiw»lm*in« cspcrinlly thn AfghAnaroKl 
sacked, andliumpd shops. They attacked a rich jfwcllcr, Kspnrchsa^ 
who defended hie ward, /mf, with matchlock men and kiOed 
Bcvr^rnl of the riotora. For tbree or four days work was at a staiut 
Btill.' Ncit ywu- (1715) in the city tho riots were renewed, 
were plundered and much miuchief done,* and outside (171C),i 
Kolia and Kiithis grow so bold and presumptuous as to put a 
to trade.* During tho next ton years (172U-17-')U), the rivnJnai j 
tho Imperial nobles were the cause of much misery at Ahm< 
In 1720 Anopsingh Bhand^ the deputy viceroy, committi^ 
oppreiutire acts murdering Kapnrchaud Bhans^li, one ol the U 
mcrcliantA. 8o unpopular was ho that when news reacheil the 
that Shuj^t Khan had been chosen to succeed him, the people of i 
town attacked the iihadar and all but took AQopsingh's life, 
there followed a struggle between Hamid Khan, the Nixiim'ei 
helped by the Manithas, and Sarbaland Khiln tho Viceroy a 
deputy. I>uring this contest Ahmedsbad was pillaged bv tb 
Marath&s, tho city more tlian once taken and retaken, and cvm 
when the Viceroy's power was established in name, he ^ 
practically besieged in tho city by the crowds of Manithn bca 
who ravaged tho conntry up to tho gates. The revenues cut o^j 
pay their troops the Impenal officers granting orders on b 
seized thorn, put them in prison, and tortured them till they p 
Jieduccd to wretchedness many merchants, traders, and artisias 
the city and wandered into foreign parts,* Though suc'^s 
against tbu Maratbils tho Viceroy had to agree to give them ai 

1 Wiit<oii*» OnJArit REattn^ 89l » ^tu»taltlll»b-^ll■LoM^) : KMi'^. 

a Mnnbtklinh-ul-hiiihib; Mliot, VTl. 4&4-45(L * U'nUou'a Gnjarit lli*t.>r7,*L 

B HunilbTi's New Account, I. I4r>, 

WaltfuD'i Uujar^t UisLury, 04-101. Mauttikhab-ul-Lobilb in KQioU WLWi-SB 
ThudotAilt wvr» : in 17*23 Miili&rii-til-Mulk Viceroy, chM>c8hnJ*t KhAnliiaikpaV** 
Ahmodnliail, and }Iiuiiiil Khiii, tlit.-ti hnlilin;; AhniedAbwl (or tiic Ki>am ths iii*|' 
Viceroy, TOtireil ; Shuijit Kliikii t("ik bi« iilnw. aii<l wi«nt toM4lM'tlribtite. IfcoiBiOT' 
rctnrucd.ctafcated autikillod Shujit aiidLi'Midl tTio liunJkbout AiuiM(lKba..L Ih** 
KMUiShDiit'ibrotbur, camcotjiuiietlUiiiikL lltim J won oyct tbe Maittlii** uiui'* , 



Lthe revenue, ftnd badly off for money had, in 1726, and again in 
so greatly to increase taxation tliat tho city rose in revolt.' 
the samo year (1730) Uub&riz-ul-Muik tho Viceroy, suporswicd 
by the Maluirdja Abh^^singh of Jodhpnr, refused to give up the 
city and uutaido oE the walls foaght a most closely oontosted batile.' 
'luder the management of Abheaingb, Ahmudubad remained 
slestcd, till in 1733 a Mantthn army coming against the city 
to be bought o0 by tho payment of a large sam of money.' 

In 1737 a frefth dispute arose among tho ImpGrial officers. 
Tomin Kban the Viceniy h»d his appuiiitnient cancellDd in fiivour 

»Abheaiiigh*s deputy KHtaiistrigh Illiaiidari. Refusing to obey 
taccondordor, Momin Kh£n by thopromiaoof half of the revenues 
Gujarat and half of Ahmedabad, won Dfimfiji GAikwar to bis sido, 
and bombarding tho city, liftc^r a sioge of some months, captured it 
in 1738. 

Actiording to agreement tho city waa divided between Momin 
Khan and t^ Q^itcw^r'R agent Bangoji/ and this joint rule lasted 
for fifteen years (1738-170^). 

Hie fifteen years of mixed Mnsnlin^n and Gllikwitr management 
wiui a tinio of almost unceaeing disturbance. Within tho city Momin 
KhAn, til) his death in 17-13, held without diHpule the chief place 
among tho ^tusalm&n8. For a short time after Momin Khan's death, 
power (17tli) passed into the hands of Fidi-nd-din Khan. It waa 
tJien usurped by Jawnn Mard KhiSn, and he, in spite of tho attcmptfl 
of Muftakhir KMn, afterwards Momin Kh&n II. (174^?), and Fakfir- 
Dd-dan1ah (1744-48) tho nominal Viceroys, held it during the 
au remaining years. Meanwhile the cunning and greed of tba 
iih&s caused uncoat^ing trouble and disorder. Driven out in 
before a year was over they forced themselves back. Again 
t74S the Uusalm&ns rose against them, kept them out of power for 
iL two years, and for a time hold their leader Kangoji a prisoner. 
3ing from oonfmomont, Rangoji next year (1744) rctnrnod and 
Jawan to give him his share of power. Aclmowf edging their 
fur some years, Jawiin, in 1760, when OamdjiUtiikwiir was iu 
SeDeccan, again drove the MaratliAs out of the city, i'or two years 
Juris remained in sole power, till in 1752 the Peshwa, owuiug now 
Ibe one-half of the Gaikwiir^s revonuos, sent PliudDrang Pandit to 
CoDect hia dues. Shutting tho gates Jawiln sacceeded in keeping 
tto Mariilhas at bay. Uut knowing his weakness he admitted their 

E ^ 

^Rtte<I will kllluil Rustam. uul seized and piUaKed Alimffdnluul. Then tb« Viceroy 
Hmrix-ul-Mulli came Anil took AlimiHlubail (1726). For liis avrvkiM iit atuppin^ 
|V« ullkgc of the rit^y Nnthtmha KhuHh^UhiLntl. oti anccfltiir of the present Nagor twtn. 
Of ouef i)f ibu nicrvbaiitf, niui miacil L<> that luniiiur. Brigga (Oitioa of tlni&rAalttn, 
9121 thouglit th*t Ihii vicWr, fniiii ^1 hum NattiuNlia miTncI Ahmvdabad. w«« not th« 
Utrithiu but the English. The lUtt-s probAbly mialcd Itmi, VJMktiafg in Uinda 
•tjU 17S0 tbe A-D. year of th« Kb^IuIi victory, ' 

1 WstMB'i Qnjurdt History. 102, ICHi. 
* WUMii'aGuJarit lliatory, 11)7. 
1 Wotnuti'ii fiiijanit Miirtory, 111. 

*Tlie Marithit nhare tna tlia south of thn city inclodiuf; Lho commMil of Um 
XhiUMd. Kliiu J»ki.a. Jsm^iiur, Band ur clo4cd, aba csllctl Miihtidlift, A'stodiy% 
' •*■ kiypar gates. Wataou's Oujarit lliatory, 119, 

Chapt«r XIV: 
Placet of Interoat.. 


.Iriint Rule, 

P^Chftpter HV. 
IQaoM of Intarest. 

Joint Kul*, 

TViim hutJte 




rudni Ay 

Momiti Kmh II. 

17 i&. 

Rt-takm by the 





claim to shut! tlio revenue snd allowed their depaties to ^»j in 
town. Next yt'nr(]7o3) when Jawin wa« In Palanpur coU 
ToreTinc, ilie Pfwhwa aod ti&ikwilr with £rom 30,000 to 40,000 
8iid<leDty appearing in Oujarit, proBsod north to AlunedabwL 
people, fenving the suburbs, ilcd nithin tho walb. And the ] ' 
nnoppofled itiveotod the city with their 30,000 horse, the 
lilockadrng the oorth, Gop&l Hari (be east, and tha Featwii'B 
Kagi\nnntn Ki'ui watt^hiiig tho sonth and wcat. UoesaffD aller i 
sent tijt JnwATi as ho moved about the conntry, fiuled to 
One at Ust found him and starting with 200 picked 
passed during the iii^ht thitiugh tho Mar&tha lines and aafeh 
the city. Chrc-rinft tho garriaon they defended tho city with 
foiling nn attempt to surprise and driving back an upon 
Their deputies turned out of Iho city and JawdD'agarruKin _ 
fttrongthened from ontaido, the Mar4tba chances of snoceAS 
small. But Janiin wms badly oil for money, and, in spite of bvifiai 
the iownspeoplOj ho cfiuld not find enoagfa to pay his troops. 
were agreed on^ and^ giving; Jawto a sam of £10^000 (Rs. l,00,(i 
the Marathis in April 17&8 euteriHl Ahmedabad.* 

Tho aioge had done the citr Usting harm. The nt 
desortinl at the approach of the Slarfithiis, w«re never re-j 
Tho oxcesaiTa greed of the Marath^ as solo rulors of Ahn 
caused great diaoontent. Knowing this, and learning that 
raiu had ma<Ie great breaches in the city walls, Momin Khio 
advanced from Cunbny. •Some of hia men, finding a p 
through one of the breaches, opened the gate?, and bis 
ruRJiing in drove out the MarAtli^ (December 1765), and, excepti 
well defended English factory, plundered the town. Calling 
Momin Kh&n to surrender, the Maritbis at once invest^ the 
For more than a year tlie siege lasted, Momin K h^ and his ' 
Shambhnr&m a Night Brdhmnn, driving beck all aesaulte, and 
times dashing out in the mnst brilliant and destructive 
But the beeiegcd were l>adly off fnr monev, the pay of tho troops 
behind, and the pooplo already im]>oreri«ned were tearing the 
in numbers. The copper pot4 of the rnnawaja kept tho gai 
in pay for a time. Hut at last this too wa» at nn end^ and 
hcildingontfor a year and a quarter Momin Khto, receiving £IOjl 
(K». 1,00,000), gave up the city (April 1757).» 

E8lab1i«hod in Ahmcdahnd, the Pe^hwa and G^ikwdr dirldcd 
reveuuiis, the Peiihwa, ejieept that the (jitiikwar held one gate 
that his deputy remained m tho city to see that hia share of 
revenue wa^ fairly .set apart, undertaking the whole mani 
of tho city. For ncarlv twenty-three years the city rei 
MarAlha hands. Then m 1780 (Fobniary) a Britiidi force db 
General Gf>ddarfl,ac(ing in alliance with Fateh Singh Gaikw&raj 
the Toona Govemment, advanced to Ahniedabud. Finding tM4 
strongly garrisoned,' seeing no sign of sorrendcr, and sufleriogi 

I Watoon's Gajnrdt Hiotory, 1 19-141. 3 w*l«on'a Qnjuik Hkto?. iO;^} 

' Tho gMriwMi Iwd, unuo; ulWv, eUUO Anlia uad 'MM oindiy. Briggi* '"' 
GaJArialitrx, 2li, 




the Citif, 

eoemy't fire, General Goddftrcl (Febrnary T2tK) opmiocl Chaptw^XIV. 
ry, and by itie evening of th» second day bad, near tLa KliiltD piacn of Intecait 
gate in the soiith-wesf comer of the city wall, maile n 
tble breach. Two da}^ passed waiting for an offer o£ 
lor. But nO' offer came, and on the morning of the fif teenthj 
loniniAnd of Colbnel Hartley, with a forlorn hope of volunteers 
\a Bombay division headed by Serjeant Fridge,, the atonning 
nshed np the broach. The Btniggle wii» fierce, the gan-ison 
P only after 3()0 of their nnniberand lOfi of thoir nssaihintd 
d. Itesiatouce over, the liritish troops showod the greatest 
ess and good coudnct. There waa no plmideriug and no exmes. 
Iro noD'Combatants lost their \xv&%.^ A detachment of British 
icas lefttogarriBonthecitadel, andthocity waalmndodoTor to 
Bingh. Mr. Forbes, who visited it abont a year later (Mawb 
•hews how low Ahmedabad ba<l fallen, Near theoitytLo 

Sthrongh acres of dosolation. Thora wore trcos and fiolds, 
J ruins of honses aud no sign of life except tigers, hyenas, 
ckals. The walls were broken down in many placen. Tlio 
itreets were without trooa or pavement and mnoh of the city 
ire or in ruins. The public buildings were in decay ami 
jur. Everywhere Miisalmiu splendour was soiled by Manltlia 
id untidynoss. The pojTulittioD was littlu over 100,000 s^iuIh.? 
I some calico printing, brocade weaving, and lacqut^rcd wiirk 
I aud silver, thei-e were few i^igus of trade or manufactuitHi. 
I solitude, poverty, Mid de^^olatiou.* 

fa Singh held the city for two years. Under the terms of tho 
[>f Siilbai {21th February ITf^l) Alimodabad was restored tO' 
thwa, the G^ikwar's interest beforejimited to one-half 
revenue and tho oommand of one of tho gates. F6r some- 
ho city improved, its manufarturos in 1789 being ' incompArabty 
than those of Surat.'^ Then the 1700 famine caused fresh 
^ttnd a few years later only a tjuurtcr of the space witlun tho 
rae inhabit-ed." At this timo (17()8-1800) A'ba Slieluknr Lho 
a's Governor, indebte*! aud ypprcssive, ill-used tlio peopIOj' and 
lied tho Gaikwar's rovenues. Advancing against A'bu, Govind 
fcikw^r dofeatod him near ShAh A'lam and, pursuing him into 
ladel, made him prisouer.' Ou this tho Peshwa, who 6-om 
t dislike to Aba wna socrctly pleasod, granted the tidikwi'ir, 

p* ChiM ti Gnjariahtra, 31 1. This part of tlia wkII is still f)JttMl with shot, 
tt Duff. 431. AoGoniin^ Ui ftnotliur Aci'cHint tho garniKin a liuu wiu IUI.IO, 
bh luM 120. Hut. Act. o/jllom. I7S1, 338. A* xxm ita tliu K>rruou yi«kl»<1, 

Go(ldM>d iMUod ■ Peniitui piXH^Diatiou rallinfi no tho ji«opI« tn rcmftin i^iii«i 
homos aod follow their every-day huBiaou, (earjoGa oi hurt. Briggii' Cities 
Mbtm, 312, 213. Mr. Bri^4^' iuistivk>- in HiapiHising that neiientT CiodilAnl 
pd to mclc tho t'>vm hw alrvttily hf^.n potntorl vut, |i. 2S7. 
kt Duff, 430. Mr. F<tIk« gays ^jUOyOOO, (wo-thuxU of tkem Muaalouius uiil 

BindnsL Or. Mem. 111. 1:^1. 
b«'Or. Mem. Hi lOMSi. 
kt ID Sunt Papers, 22. 
BSQt'« OntlinM, I. G7. 

log Uictr lUBtartalii an4 fArcing tUeJr Isbnnr, Aim nUoJ in tho citJuIcI tlio 
»w (ISfiO) uDwl u tltu 8w*i'>u» Ouurl, JU» U&U, 373. 
U Dun, MA iU4 Molu, 37t. 

(Bembay GaaettMr. 



»B of Intereit 




Uiih Rule, 

for a yearly poymeint of £50,000 (R«. 6,00,000), a fivc-^Mr lease 
liis aliam of tuo Gujariit rcvoaQOS.' This arranfjement, 
for teu years in 1804<f continued in fon-o till 181-i. TLd 
yeara of ihe loaso were disastrous. Near the cloao of tho 
manaptimont, tho city, which had conaidorabty recovc?red, waa in 1( 
viBit«d by a most terrible famine and pestilence. In 1811 ham' 
diaoosed and famiuo-atricken people crowded in from Marwar < 
Klithi&wAr and the cropB were much damnpod by locasts. This 
of scarcity waa followed hy a failnro of rain. Grain prices _ 

famine pitch, and tho atrangers sickly and starving, with herd* ti 
discasca cattle^ died in crowda aud were left to lio nnhtmcd. A 
pestilence broke oat and raged with such violence that half the peojtt 
of the city aro said to haro died, and though houses were polled T 
for their timber the bodice of the dead had to be left half bomt.' 
the Oatkw&r's management had been Buccessful, order had 
maintained and tbc jxjpulation of tho city increoaed.* The 
prcssod the Poona conrt to renew tho lease and make it poi 
But the P(<shwa anxious to strengthen lus couuoction with GnJR 
refused. The appointment of Sar-iSnbhod^ was granted to Im 
favonrito Trimbakji Uengia who sending troopa and agoots 
posaossion in the Peehwa'a name (23n:l October 1814). Thia 
waa moat diaiiatrous. Between tho Poahwa aud Ollikwir 
keenest ill-feeling prevailed as to the division of power in the 
and the Peshwa's officer anxious only to collect money, 
revonne by every sort of iuiqnity.'* Thia state of oonfodoo 
brought to an end in 1817. In that year under the terms of 
tn'Hty of Pi>oua tho PcHhwa agreed, for a yearly payment of £45J 
(Ks. 4,5O,00U), to lot in porputuity to tho G^ikwAr the bam 
Abmedabad. Under the itamu treaty the Peahwa agreed, that 
revenue from tho Ahiuedabad farm, should be paid by tiie 
to the Britiah as part of tho British clatma on the ] 
revenues.* A tew months later (November 6th) , it waa i 
with the G^likwdr that he »hould, in payment of a subsidiary fc 
cede to tho British the righta ho hod ntitatnod nndor the Peshi 
farm, and, in exchange for territory near Baroda, give ap his^ 
aliare iu tho city of Ahmedabad." The only exception to 
transfer was that tho G^ikw&r was allowed to keep his fort, h 
(p. 277) in the aotith-west corner of the city. 

At the time of ita transfer (December 1817) Alimodabad 
melancholy wreck. To escape taxation some of the [leople had ' 
to live in tho suburbs. Tho walla were in mins and inside 
large tracta covered with fallen honscs, moaqncs, and tomt 
the resort of thieves and highwaymen.^ Trade and manufact 

J Cnvnt I>uff, 561. 

« 11^.. Dmc. nr Hindurtin. I. 698. Tnuw. Bom. Lit 8oc. 7. 321-329. 
8 ThciJiilcw&T's innjiAKvmeDt was a \nMa to tbc city. Ht. itualifu 3$llti 
1817. Bom. Gov. IJlhn. Pjqwni. 149, U7. 

• ll&m. Vtmc. of HuiditBtiin, I. iiTi, &)$. 
6 Thoni,-M' Tmatiw, .'>31t. 

• Aituhi«oti « TrwtiM (Ed. 1876). IV. 227, 228. 
'Mr Dunlob'a Reiiort. I7th Vte. 1817- Boni. CJov. IJUto. r*|ivn. 149, 111 

Every nj^t roijbcric« Look ii1«c« citlicr witliiii the wrILi vi' ia Uw lubaita, 


almost at a standstill. There ivna a great Bcnrcity of coin. Chapter TtV^ 
>rt8 were charged from ten to twenty -five por cent of their value, pi_.__ _« TntBr«iiL 
manofacturos were still more heavily weigbteil, the wurkuiitn 


taxed at every stage of tbo work, and the mauufnctarcd gonds 
i«^ a heavy export duty. Soon aftor the transfer (June, 1K19) 
nty saSered from a sercro shock of earthquake. Tho ehakiug 
ite of tho J&ma moeqne foil and many houses were destroyed, 
in one case the loss of 500 persons mot at a marringo feast.' The 
[ilishmentof orUi.>r and the lowering of the town dues, gave a great 
tus to trade and the city was for a time btisy and prosperous, 
population rose from 80,000 in 1817 to about 88,000 in 1.S24* 
lag the eight following years a special cess was levied and at a 
of £25,000 (Rk. 2,50,000) the city walls were repaired. About 
same timo a cantonment wofi establishod on a site to the north of 
ity, chosen in 1830 by Hir John Malcolm. These (1825-1832), 
_ ^h some of them years of agricultural depression and dull trade, 
brought a farther increase of population to yU.OOO.* In t!ie nejt 
ton ycnrs tho state of the city improved. The population rose 
(Ift-itl) to about 95,000, and Halisiugs temple and otnor buildings of 
tih»t time (1S-14<1S4>G) show that some of the city merchants were 
^BBBBsed of very givat wealth.* Tho pnblic funds available after 
(Be walls were finished wero made use of for mutiicipal purposes. 
Streets were widenod and thoroughfares watered.^ During the 
following years the improvomout continuud. AhraodiibaU'fi gold, 
c, and carved-wood work agaiu (1805) became famous, and its 
lis and brokers enjoyed a name for liberality, wealth and 

>uring the 1857 mutinies, the large needy and unsettled ilusalniiln 
|>opalatiun of Ahmedabad, was, in the absonce of Knropuan troops, 
a CHUse of anxioty to QoTcmrocnt. Hasan Khan Hatangi, a 
Uasalmin gentleman of good family, was ordered to enlist, from 
tho dangerous classes, 2000 infantry and 150 horse. Their 
employment, though it added little to tho military strength of the 
Government, had the effect of keeping the men out of mischief till 
the crisis was over. Had it not \mmi for this polittu mea.sure, and 
the severe example matle of the mutineers of the Gujari^t IIorBd, and 
xtf the 2nd Grenadier liegiment, the city would probably have boon 
plundered. It was known that the Native officers of the (lUjar^t 
Xlorse had been tampering with the arsenal guard, and so general 
"Wat! the fear of disturbauco that traders buried their treasuro and 
employed parties of Rajputs and Kolis for the defence of their houses. 


British Rulv, 

i/lifiny Year, 

' Tmu. Bool Geo. Hoc XVII. S92. Two yeorgUtei' aHI minutes juuit 2 on 
UiQ ISth Augnat IH2I an earL!i[]ii;Lke shock huUul for Uilrty tctujula. A uliifht 
trtumlutu motion, It wm ouonAh Co atriai; laube and rockcbaint. ThgiUv wm doii'ty 
aadflAol witbont my >p«aiar stnuieplwria pbcnotncDa. Am. J'jnniAl, XlII. |IS2'.!], 
S9S. *Cb« ont; earthqiiako sboclt nnoa reoordod in AliiD»ila1uu] wiu in \MA (April 29], 
It is deacribod BB a uniirt iliock traveUiDS froai soutli tu nocUi, «iid loMtuK fur 
90 aooond* vitb a noise like tho rolling ol % hoavy otuiiage on a hard tovL Tmu. 
fioa. Geo. 8oc. XVU. 21M. 

t [;»« bdow p. 293. ABriggit' CUi«M of OiiinrAahtr*. 209. 

* BrigM'CiUMof OtijurijiLtj-a, 232. 

• Di. Boiat : Bern. Uca Cioc MXL <)2. 

s briiut*' CitiM ul dDju-Asbtni, S09. 


fBombtty Ga»tt««r. 



PImm of Isteisit. 



On Um arnr&I of the 8&th Btigiment (Jannftry 1658) tbe cftf 
tliaarmetl, wliea 2i>,i)Q0 mnna cmeflj mntchlocka and swords 

Hio eight jean after tho mating' (18&7-1S85), wua time of { 
prosperity. The American war (1KG3-1865), and uboat the 
time fIS'i*)tf>*t'p«'n'ng-i>ftlieranwaytti Bombay, flooded Alimcda 
with, wealth, aud thoi^fa iu 18G6 many a fortuao waa h>st, earn 
money remained tu koop the tmde and wealth of the city fnoi 
siiiking to ita former IcveL 

Sinoo 186G AhmeiHbad has twice, m 1869 and in 1875, 
grefltly damaged by floods, and twice, in 1877, soffon>d fn>m 
Of the tIo(>ds details have been given iu Chapter I. Of th 
fires, the Hrst on the ^7th Jonaair waa cnusfd by an cxpl 
gaopowder in a Bohora's shop. This shop, in which were 
than 500 poands of gunpowder, was about ten at night foond 
bo on fire. The gunpowder explodtnl burning- firo shops 
killing eighty-eight people.* Two months later, on the night ol 
24th March, a nre broke oat in the chieE onclosare, pol, of 
S&rangpnr division. The «treet was very narrow and Hned 
four-story high hoaaoe. It was only witl» the greatest difficnlty 
the engines cotUd be broaght to play on the fire. Military help 
called in and by ten next morning the fire was got nnder, bnt 
until ninety-fonr houses had been burned and property worth £CO,W 
(R.-*. G,00,000) destroyed.* At present (1878) its lower classes 
Buffering from the long oontinncd high prices of food-graina, KoS. 
upper ciassee from the dullness of trade and losses in Bombay 
Still during the five years ending 1877, while roach has boon 
to improve the appearance and he^th of the city, ita trade has 
riseu,* and its stoam ootton spinning and weaving milU, 
cheapening cloth, give well paid employmoat to about 2000 of 
poorer inhabitants." 

Arc hiteot lire. 

Section II. — Objects oflnterctt.* 
Except an old Hinda well, the Dutch tombs, and Bome modaOj 

1 Th« non. T-. R. Aiihlmrnor, r.S.T., Poll. aOih, 1879t 

S Mr. J. F. Ftiniuidvit, Hiucur I>u|nity CuUwtor. 

J Police CommiMionor N. D, , No. tl27 of 7th April 1877. 

4 From 57,'262 ton* iu ISi3 to S2,3!4 tons io 1877. 
^ Tho acgituat of the jinoHuit >tate nl Alinuid»bnd, tta lodges, Uanples, fain, I 

■■d nuDubctona, njid the IS'd clcy-divinuu and suburb*, owns taoob of ito fnilnM 
to owterula BtippU«d by Mr. J. F. F«nuutde>, ilMiAit Ltcinty (Jollvctut. (ht 
CItj Snnroy officer, Mr. A. \V. Waih>, hu abo bc]|)«d in [Mp»ring tbo aty nif 
and in anpplyiiua vanvty of deUiU. Ou pufialalion and luaaiifaoCurM, KAo fahiAw 
Bc«hardiA Ambudla, C.». I,,hna luadly girui nuefa naofnl infomutioa. 

5 In cnmpiling thin Mctmn froouaa bna becnniade of KurlMw' Orwotal HemiH 
(1813) ; of ths 1824 City Knrvcy KeoonU ; of Itrigg*' atiea u( Gnjjutehln (]»«•) :<4 
Mr, Burgess' NutM on <i(iiarAi (1870) ; of C'spt, l.y»n'«Not«S on PhotngrAplt^ I-"' 
and of Mr. Bur^H* Arubi)M>logic&l ■'^urvoy Kcport for 187-4-75. But ma: • 
infiirtiiatiDn, architnctun) nuuirka, and cntidsniK, ara taken from Ucma T. i. U'r 
oud Keiguwou'a Murk t>a the Afclii lecture of Ahinodabad (ItMK). 

tomplcs, all bailduigs of arcliit«ctural icterest in Alimedab*! 

!■» one or two, as Darya Khaa'a (n. 284) auil A'zam Kli^n's 
^tombn, aro rou^b and coramonplaco, and soma oa Sb&h 
litl-iim's (p, 27H) tomb, and Ibe Sliahi B«^' (p. 283) and A zam 

palacc8(p. 274), aro of late date (lOOO-UOOj. But almoat all 
Irst clana reinaina have the special intoreat of roprc3cnting n 
I style of afchitoctnrc. The date of this, ' the most elegant and 
tive of I ndo- Saracenic stylos,'' corresponds with tlio ccuitury 
iaIF {H^3-1573) of independent Afamcdabod rule. Starting 
i, before ten yeara were over, tbe builders had gained enough 
kd coufidouce to raise tUo Jama mosque, still ono o£ tba 
most in the city. Tbo Kani Asni, or oa it ia gonorally called 
ni Sipri mosque, tbo geinof Ahmedabad, bears the date 15l-l>. 
IB the style waa then at it8 best. But daring the next sixty 
i fell off but little, for at tbe time of the Moghal conqneat 
. two moeques' were iu hand whose half finished remaias are 

the chief ornomenta of the city. 

pite of the vigoar and religious zeal of ita kings ; the strong 
of foreign'blood that constant dealings with Western Asia 
ronght into the province ; and the taste and talent of the 

strangers at its court, so groat was tbe building skiU oE 
of Gujnrilt, that its Ainhammadan architeotnro ia, ia 

ion and detail, the moat Uindu of Indo'Saracenic styles.* 
icstic buildings, the palaces, taking Mahmud Bogada's Sarkhej 
as an example, aro built without arches entirely iu the pillared 
t Hindu style. In civil buildings, except that trui!t!ry takes 
CO of images, the beautifully designed step wells and niany- 
peservoirs with flights of stone steps aud richly carved 
r aud inflow sluices, are almost purely Uinda.* In religious 

Chapter XIV. 
Places of latenst 


U<tmimkn 520. &27. 
279 tnd tho lUha Lnltii mnsqnr. p. 290. 

b. 111. 527. *lf the iti»tcrU]a tuceH in tha AhinMlabtuI 
K fmrl of tlie tuidttooo ouiit: from AlimediixpLr 60 nitlus t» tfav norUi-Mrt 
NlabAd. ukd the r»t. n. batter Ktono, from Ubringiulra in KAtluitwAr, Ot 
1^ ibmos, bc<i>ic« thooo lirrmght from tliv rtiiiis of ChAmlri^'ati anil 
lis, A fine wliitn tnarlili: roniL- Imui Ma.kiia nlunit 35 tniltui north nf Ajmir I 
[of «liit« oiarlilu U'ilti yvUfw luid 1<1acI<. blotuLes fivui kQuiury ftlwut five 
rth (if Amh& Bhavam : an OL'hrfl or VfHow niJirblo from JABumir, and » itrtorcT 
rtMD l'4Iiuina ; blue loftrhli' frim JLVpnr ; Muck lUto, that look a linUuwt 
Jul wa> often thought Ut he marlile, trum [)hr^npt(lr;i ; luid a mottled y«Uow 
Du Dskiv&ds in Cut«h. Bn^iff•l' Citivu of GujaHUhtra, *2<>0-:i))2. Of tha 
ftsanwwemnatireaaf (laj&r^t, njid othom, acconlingtoacomnhin AInnnlnlMul 
[HUm; KUMof them wvrv Ilindiu ad il nth cm convert* I u liiIAin. Atnooa 
|lvakUI«dina*tBr IntildenL Of the chuut uf men who giiidcd and directed 
tan no rtfonaoQ hw bG«D tnoed. But it seeuu jirubulile that, m in Kgypt 
ttodan Ygy^^-OB, 078. note Uttbe execution of the work vtm )(wcrAlly 
d io oTeW ow , lometiinM military or civil acrventa of afivvmnitiiit, Knictinim 
rbo nmploynd workmoii ■kiUod in every brttnch of tho art. 
Hmn, M)r» Ur. Kergaivno, did the people of Ahtnodnh«d nhow thcmtwIvM 
(cfailacto then lolbMa lueful works. It wmb m Be^*»itj of llicir nature thjit 
|>}eotebould Im omamt^ntAl mnd their miocvu wna ai fcrt^nt m in their ino«]uee 
iciae. Uiit. of Arch. HI. fi37. ti^xucpt fur Ihu vreut of iiuo^;!-!!, mid thet Id the 
wMte-weir there is one large Uueeba&n luch, tbe Kanluuiye mid Sukhej UkcA 
lyle, parety Hindu. 

IBombaj Qi 




eiof lutereit 



bailifiii^B thcTO wns more chnngv. Thongh no class Of local fuBi 
luuuuiueiiUi cuulil bo tined a» MuwUuidu tombs, the domed and pill 
porchce of Hindu tomitlea wcro ea»iiy made to serve the yi 
Thin, iu iU simplest form, was au octagonal dome sopportud 
twelve pilluni witli, acconliii|; to tlio sizo of tlie building, other pill 
added on evoi^ sido. Unlike the dlo^nal arrangement in 
porches, tlio Aumedabad tomb was a equ&ro with entrances in ' 
centres of the Bides. Whore manj pillars wc^ro used the Kqi 
arranf^mcnt became somewhat monotonoQB, thongh this wu,j 
most aisos n'liovod by screens of finoly cut open stone 
tilling the spaces bctweon the pillars. Late iu the best 
Ahmodab&d art, to the great tncrcoso of sizo, \argo piers and 
took the place of pillars and flat roofs. Either beoanse the 
arched Batra mausoteum was never Sni&hed or because it fell, 
ifl, in the strictly Ahmcdabod period, no example of this style. 
the arched tomb uf Mir Abu Turab, built in this style in I57di 
after the Moghal couquoat, is most sucocssful and ploa&ing. 

Not only from their superior richness and beauty, but becaoaet 
skill with which they blend local Hindu practice with foreign 
and ideas, the most interesting of the bQitdin^nre the mo(U|H 
la spite of the widely differing chAracicr of their places of worship, I 
dark Himln slirine where only one or two cAn enter, and the > 
welt lit hall where the whole congregation of the ^thful may 
a pillared Gujarat temple with its courtyard, porches, and color 
can. With ease, bo turned into a mosqne. The chief oell and 
porch taken from the middle of the court, and the entrances of I 
surrounding colls built np, there remains the typical mosqi 
courtyard girt with a double colonnade. For the remaining * 
the important Mecca wall, all that is wanted is to raise thcrv ' 
tall porch pillnm and dome with, if they are to be had^ a st 
dome on either side.'' M<iN(jue.s hiul with snccess been tnade 
this fashion in Fdtau at the close of the thirteenth, and in Canl 
during the foarteonth centuries.' Hot, as far as is known, 
early Gujarat mosqoe builders were either foreign roei 
working in foreign stylOj or conquerors satisfied with ro-arnui| 
Hindu matorials. It was left for the AhmcdalMul kings, and for i 
learned men that adorned their c<3urt8, to work out a style of buililti 
Hindu in detail, but with a largeness and frecucsa of plan 
oiit-lino which the Hindu temples want.* The progress of 
style can be traced from the first rough attempts (1413-H 
to draw a serecn of plain Masalm&n arches in front of the rent 

t Forlm <IUm Mil*, 1856. II. 183) prem an mgravinf ei m Oajuii 
fuuoral Biouumant, a litUo dunuiJ canopy mipported 1^ f our ooluniia. 

3 I^criiiissoD'B Hiat. nf Aroh. IIL 3«4. 

3 Alif KhAn (I^W) built the J4uk mosqiiu at PAtan oC wfait* BUrblfl with m i 
{•illiir* tliAl thi! mniinciH i>n>)i1e o(t4^ii inwU a mi«tak« in oountini; tb«fn. bl 
KiKliUoof ttu' vi^]iU;unlli<.-riitury it wuttili ■ woftdcrhil and aohia LuJlttiB^ 
Uirit'i-Alunatii, liil3. ImnLr bin Ahouut Kijirioi built a Jima noaqus at C^ah9j 
IZ'i-'i, inf<?ri<ir in nixe naiy to the Ahmednbad J&ma miMqiw, the inlMior all bodM* 
from Jaih t«mplf4. l-'ergitnon'ii Hint nf Arch. III. fiST. Tli« forviga McmIb* 
morclxuiU had moKiun at C'aoibay anil AnliilvAda. But exmpi tut ttc) *■■ , 
iiiiuBnrta (a«c below p. '2&it nothing i>f their ityU is knowa. 

* F«rgusiiou'a Uiat. of Arcb. LU. fiS7. 


Rdn pillars; \lirough a timo (l-tdO-liGO) when nlmoflt &I1 that 
KB forc'ipi wiis ^ven up and the whole biuliiing wa3 Hindu in phin 
id detail, till, better hlcndecl than formerly with the Uiniln, the 
[osalm&u element again appours and cuutinuea in aso up to tho 
ose of the Ahmedabad dynasty.^ 

In three rficpoctfi, the way they aro lighted, tlie delicacy of their 
iwieries, and thoir minarets, the Ahmcdabad mosqnca differ, both 
Dm the local Hindu, and £rgm the other styles of Icdo-Saraceoic 

Bv making the central domo higher than the side domes ; by 
sUmg a double row of dwarf coluiunfl on tho gidoroofH; and by 
nilding in front of the colnmns a richly carved balustrade and 
kmeiimes a most delicately cub sCoue screen, a clerestory was 
mned through which, with perfect Tentilatiou^ a subdued light 
tssed into tho central compartment. 

The forma of traoery nsod in tho Ahmedabad mosques will 'as 
rswnenta compare with those of any age or any land/* They aro 
f two kinds, screens of open cut etoue, filling arches and spaces 
elween pillars, and in minarets tho arched tracery panels that 
hfce the place of tho image ntchoa of Hindu tomplo towers. 

Their minareta, tho only minarets that in beauty of outline nnd 
iChncaa of detail surpaas those of Cairo,* ore the chief glory of tho 
Juuedabad mosques. The Ahniedabad minaret is part of tho 
KwqQe, built into its wall. In all but tho worst examples tho lines 
(I tho tower start from the ground. Tlie tower, with beautifully 
^kon outline, richly ornamentc*! with ai-ehod panels of trellis 
Hvk and belts of varied tracery, stands out bnt tress-like from tho 
nmnd to the mosque roof, reUeving ita Ihit front wall. Above 
ha roof it rises around slightly-tapering tower, relieved by galleries 

rrted by most richly carved brackets and surrounded by 
tely cat balustrades, and ending in a conical top of varied 
iingn. Though only at Sarkbej aud Batra mosques wore built 
rithoot minareta, the towers of a few others were either never Sniahed 
r buvo fallen.* Thoso that remain, always in pairs, '^ stand in most 

Chapter XIV. 
Plaoea of Interest' 







l'Tb*aar]ie>tmoaqnM,thoM withoOfttiKnipt tohlondtho Maa&lmiln and the Hmiln 
IneoU, Mv toar -. Ahmiul SJidh'*, 1414 ; HaiKit Khin'«, I4U ; Svad A Iuh'b, 1430 i 
M M&Uk Alom'i, I4iii. ThcB come* Uie Jdiua uioaque, 1-124, wiien minuvu ud 
kbed winiiniTS hn aucccufuUy combined with tbt Hindu ualea and Interinr. Aftor 
bi, it) the mixed atylu of tho JimA ino«(|u<s, ftro tho MireApur mM)t{uu, 1431 ; HiiU 
itd'i, 1443 1 xad HaltXa Kath-a^-dia't, 1446. At tho narnn time a now, purely tint EUiii 
Buhl vkriet)-, a(lmiri>bIyHiiiipIoaiiduiu[i>mi, vrae tried «tSark.liuj, 1446, uid atl^tva, 
tfi^ ftod Utot on with the addition of cod-min&rets intlieSyedUsmininoftjne, 1460; 
Id tlw Rini Amai or Sipri nioaque id 1614, the but ftod mint porfeot ■peoimsD of ita 
iw. Meanwhile the mixodatrlswukvptiiD in Miya Khin CIiisbti'imowiQa,146B| 
MnhAfii Kbta'a moaqnc and Achat BtDi'l monque both about 1470, the taat 
mdisgiDoatiuooMMhilJy tho flatandthearchedatylea. In ifi7Zt two vorv bcaulifnl 
k ArgoaaoD's Hist, of Arch- III. b^X 
■ Ttt^mon'a Hist, of Arch. IIL 634. 

^ Tba laiiiArats of tho Shih^nr and BAlia Lulni'* tnoaqnni, ta^gnn about KGO, irara 
rSniabed ; tbow of tba J«n»(1424). the (jhocu'k Mir/A|iur. <U31), the Kutab 
k (1419). and tho Adiat Ribi moaquea ( 1409). dthcr partly or altogothur f»llon. 
ebot Bibi'a tuoaquo {1469) had ouce sevon mmareta, three at the outer entnnos 

B IS7-34 

[Btmibajr Oasetl 


Chapter Xr7. 
Places ^InUnat 

<% Bnildineti 

cases on cither side of the main door. In four mf>sqiies' 
iiiiiiorpts are at the ends of Ibe fnmt fiice, »nd in two, UsmJ 
And RAni At^ni'H, they aro puri'ly nmarucntal wit}i on 
or opecing from which the call to prayer cait be sounded, 
the enrlieKt mosques, Ahmul Sh^^a (I4I4) and Haibat 
(1414), the minaret!!, hnilt on the roofj rise short plain and 
little better than chimney pots. The de»i^ll wd0 fiood impr 
A ffw yiiars later in Syml A lain'H mwtjue, the lines of thi? tuii 
instead of stopping at the roof, am carriird to the ground. 
en, the ornament grown richer and ia better tiprMid, thu 
are larger and more dearly arched, aad the tracery !« f reeri 

ThoDgli in Egypt, moro than 250 years earlier, Lho mosque-mii 
bad reached a very high dcgroo oF perfection,' the Alimc' 
would seem to be the first uE Indu-Saractmic styles to imo the uii 
as part of the mo«(|uc.> Under the Gbaitni dynasty (075-11 
and, except an nnsTioccssfal attempt in the Ajmir mosqnc, nnSa 
Patb&n kugs of Delhi (1I92-1551) uiiuarfte were victur)- piUarai 
mooqne-towers. In Jaannnr (l-J07-14"fi), the mosfjiK'-niinttrct 
as little known as at Delhi, and thoro were no moaduc-ininaretBil 
Guur(]203-la7a), M&Dda (140l-Lot!8), or Kalbur^ (IS^MCCf 
The Ahnic<labad kin^ may have oved the snn^;>i%tion to one oCi 
learned atranpers from western Asia. Bnt tho dotiuls and 
vhole character of the tower aro Hindu, in some reepecti 
resembling the second Chitor rictory pillar,* and moro geni 
recalling the base of a Gojariit Hindu temple tower.* 

The objects of interest form two main gronps, those witli!«i 
and those without the city w&llg. Bt-pintiiiiff with the city bir* ' 
Uio&iuiplustordt-r seems to be to start with those tici-u from ihuL 

of the •ndoraro, two st tbo inscr, him) oii« on «itlivr aide at tlia ehicf ilrxr 'f ^ 
iDMijoe- Alt nt tbeae, excc|tt thi- tUnijia at lho mn«i(}ii4! towrn, hftvc ' f^m 

M ia ttwiWD tlut Jima nMei|u« at rhJinii.ii»:r «iiUi mx mlnareU, iimi &< 'Pi 

Um ouortyml mkI ou* nti cacli uilc of tbe inniii K^ta, ia thv tmiy Onyuai n>i -^iv 
man tliui twr> Biiaareta. 
I UBnto-H. (HGOli StkU) AlamX (>460}j lUoi A■Dt'^ II&I4}; uul UuhuUirf 

t Fergmiiicin'i Iltit, nf Arch. II. 387. 

s Tww |MUMii|{i« mniM M>ctn t<i rhow that tbci« wen nunmts in n«}irll Wp 
tbotUya oftllo Ahui«^)al>aii .Salti^u. In the twelfth vontnry •.!]<> torrq^n MMih ' 
TiMrnhAitta '>f l^mbaj htuA a monao and a tnbuuiet (tmd wkirli thp r^tl tf> pnfvr 
aoiiiiilr.1. Thta waa doatft^Ml ui a riott retoDI by 8idh K:ij (IWl-llCf);^ 
(tvatniyml by Ibe BAlAs (about 1290), iind boob after TestonM) wiih four toners aaJl 
ca|K>laa by a attain Sjed Sliunf Tamin. (MnhaHinind I'li [I:>IM::S.'>1 w 
HltC IL103-I84). AsamA)UKl>in(|-i!l7}ia*aiilU>haT«l>nilt:im.«»a« with 
PAUn. (Bird'aUtrit-iAiuDadi. IAS). »ut thiaaM9udo«bUnl : in tbedetattd 
of tlw I'Atan moMno tbcra is no meDtinn of mtnanta. (Ditto, 163). 

• PcrsonmiV HitL o( Arch. HI. 407, 61S; 618^ bSO, S5S. 

B Thia waa baUt in M3!i a f«w jtm htSon Ui« doM of the Ga}anlk SahUn Ahsi' 
!.*■ mgn. A woodcut cf tb« tower ia ftvMi by retfttrntia. III. SS3. 

' ThA Iwuca ol the AhnxMlabad ninarat* at*, except for th« cbasgo trtm tiMlPi 
to tnu.-ory. vlAti^tnl co|iin of tha perpendicular paita of Ui« baacnatita iit |T«b 
tonipliui (Keru. nut. Aivh. III. 033^. So alao Forbea ; the mioaivts of AI»aU«it 
■noaqim, if, tor thai- anhtd frJiatod paoeh, idol-aealptiiTpd aito-relirf* are nhMIUI- 
Bd. ar« on a naaU aeale pcrf^vt r«(<n.-«iil^ti>na of tb» tw» atnrim of a ebniw bi««rta 
whieh thfl im ag ia ati on cao wuilj »d<i a curv iliiwai ayiw. Buia. ^^lur. Rcr. V. Sift 

, and, fuHowin^ tho main lino of road from tiio atation south- 
Sross the city to tlio Uhadar or citadel, to divide tho city into 
|e>half to the leCt or south, tho oUier to the right or north of 
an road. 

baildings seen from the railway station, as the train reaches 
iabad, ara Sidi Buthir's, and the Itailway Station moHqaee. 

roniaiDs of Sidi Bashir'n mosfjuc and tomb )ie to thn tsouth- 
f the railway station. Tho agu of tho moB(|no in doulitful. 
13 to have been built either by Sidi Bnshir, a slave oE Sultan 
\ 1. whoso tomb hcs cloao by ; or by Mabk Sarang, one of 
id Beg&da's nobles, who founded a now dpscrtcd .SarnTifmnr 
>. In stylo it is luixod Iliudu aud Musalman much liko 3liyi» 
Dhifihti'g (p. 2S1) mosqao built in 14G5. Only thouiiiiiirota 
thed central gateway remain ; tho "body of tho buildiiif; was 
fed in 1 7o3 during tho atrugglo botweua the Murathiia uud 
Jhfard Khfai. 

he loft hand side, as the train enters the station, are tho two 

Eareta in Ahoiedahnd. All traces of thoir moanno,' and the 
' its namo and date are gono. Tho style ana mnt«nal of 
te point to tho close of Mahmud Begada's reiyn (151 1), or 
ft rather later. Though much damaged, espocifllly near tho 
10 stairs inside tho minarotH may still bo used. 

UiQ way to the city the next object of interest is the City 
[ These, built by Sidli'm Ahratwl I. in 1412, were, in 14S0, so 
ihrnedand rupoirodby 3iahruudB'ega<hi,as to uiakoAJimcdubaii 
tho strongest cities in India.' In tho sovontoonth century 
p8 of Ahmedabad were noticed with wonder and praise by 
all EoTopean travcllors.' Daring the disorders of tho early 
tho eighteenth century (1723-1750) the walls suffered, and 
' the i-ains were so hoavy that in aevfml places they fell down.* 
Bamo year Momin Khan put them in repair. But after in 17dO 
Sre, near tho Khiin JahAn giito, broached by the British, they 
)eem not to h&vG been put to rights, and gradnally became bo 

Chaptar XIV. 
Places of Interest. 

Sidi RoAir't 

Itail wfU/ 

CU]/ IVaiit. 

IDriiMin Kiying io AhmtKlnlmil inAkts tbti nut tn h.ive teeu the iQiNuina of tho 
Sbia, llutloriA. Anr<th(.T liuililin^- •jf »uuij iuiv-rmt, b< Uiu tii^rth-uut of Uio 
^tion outoiilo tho KituiMir gati!, is tlia tumh id Kl)&ii JiJijin. Thia, tha 
t RAoaorKor^th, ili-f'-nUvl l>,v Muliinuil IW-gxU in 1471) or 1472, tivntmc * 
[ndiiu anil » (olkiwitr uf H;u.rat ShAli A l.-uii. llmra &I irit-i-Ahniwli, 209 ; 

jbta (Brigga, IV. In) states th&t in 1 IS*! Mahmud ftegadn cnuicd tho dty to 
ndod by • w»ll and Itutions Diarluuii; tW time bjr th« iUt<;-hnw ' Wlimcver 
[bufft.' Thu give* S&2H. ot 14H» A.D. But, im in ihn Utnit-i-Ahi»Aili, 
«Baly notiotKl thirt Sult&n Aliiniul built Tj»th tho Blia<Iar or citadel uii) the 
a. ^Ultmud Begkdik can only have rcpaircl thtin. Major Wataon. 
1 (161 IJ nay! tho city hail a kumI uhai-o at »tr«iiglli in cutlo gntoH anil iitmiig 
una, I. SV) -, Whittm^n (1U13} tnt^tioua its ■tronif waU (Kvtt. IX. 1'27) ; 
lib) Ita maiiy fitir gatca girt with a hi^h and thick hnck wall (Vi>ya0O, 170) ; 
b (1638) it« lHnuti?ul walla witli twvtve gatoa, louiy hi^h towon and a dit^h 
\n yania hnm-l but dry anil niincH) iii placnsa (Voytigr.», 77) ; Thi!vcui>t { lli(jK) 
btatonvand bride Btrun)ttliviK-<l by gronfc ri>uiiil towem and kt-iJlin the moat 
tnir(Voyaf;i». V. ^). anil Ogilhy (I^W) its walla siji mi Ira round, forty (out 
liifU-cu thick (AUii», V. SlW.) 
pn'i Uujiuiit lliaUiTy, lH. 

'earing that it was too lato to bope for any sufiicieiit i^0^^|H 
after tiiis, cUielly by tli8 exertions of Mr. IT. Bomulaile the O 
iimcb publia iuteroBt was taken in the rostoratiDD of the wal] 
on clarified batter was lurieil nnd in 1832 nt a cost of j 
(Ra. 2,50,000) they wore thoroughly repaired.* lu 1847 Mb 
described tbo walU as five miles six fnrloDgs and twoDtynng 
rnnnd, averaging fifteen feet in height and from four to! 
thick, with large bastions at every tifty pacO0. Tho wall M 
and has ainco boon kept in good repoir.* 

Except Bomo pflrta on the riror aide which are facod -witl 
the whute city wait is of briuk. In tho walla ore cight'ocl 
fiftiwn large and three small. Of tho fifteen, one is closed, I 
are new. These gatoa arc, beginning from tho north-wost corul 
in tho north-wall, tho ShdhApor in tho north-west, tho Dil 
north, and tho Daryfipor in tho north-east; four in Uw e^ 
the PromAbbAi, a new galo, in iho north-east, tho Kalupur inj 
the Panchkuvaj a now gato, iu tho east, and tho Sarangpii 
suuth'CaHt; four in tho south wall, tho K^iypur and A'sUniiyi 
Bouth-oast, and the Mahiulhn, the closed gato, am] thu Jnul 
tho south; sovcu iu the west wall, iho Kluin Jahau, Ruyk 
M&nek in the aooth-wosi ; the three citadel gatos^ Ganeahf I 
Borttdari iu iho centre; and the Khuupur gate iu tho norUi 

IBrig^' CilMof riuJftnUhtrK. 20». FotIm (1781>iI«wHhaa th« waU i 
nmnd witb trr«;n>liu- tow-vn cwry iUlr y<»nls. tvclvu ehiaf rum and m 
pnrU. Or. Mem. III. 117. Of Uio waIU, in liAO, the Mthar of tbu MiHU 
givn tbMO (IctAtlii; tb«ro irore twttlvegnUM. bejpnnin^ fmm Itii; unrt li, SUliu 
pr tMhi, IlKTvAiiiir, Kilupar, 8Anuig|Mir, lUjiput, A ■toliy:!, Junilptir, K 
KATkhad, uia KMaitnr. Ue doea »ut riMoUoa Uw HttUmiUu wr cImhI. J 
and giv« a Ubodriui gato (not idRntiAed). Th« wiOla. ho adds, b«d 139 1 
lowon, ooraon or noM, Mid 67(S3 bAtUetneiita. Tlioj' ware almut tj 
nmiid Mid mioIuiliI a ■t>aou S\'i5 ouliita long and 'iinoO <nilMt* btj 
Kv«ni^ ht^iKht wu wn to tnulvG l&n. Major Wuaou'i Tnuialalius, FoLa 

> IWin. iim. I!ev. R«^-. 1 17 of 1823, 44. 

a Circuit Jii(lg*'» itn[i<«rt, April 30, 18% 

* AluuudalMi*! Arvliituctuivt && 

* Bringii'CitieBoraiJatiahtn, 200. Brwu]hHnad«hyUMl875 
•_11w details are :(hd81iiUi4pur gal*, tkia ' 

1 the mil way station pRssing tlirongh the Kflapnr, Panch- ChApter HV. 
r Si&raDgpur gate, aaci taking one of tiict moiu roada west to PUces of Interest 
del, in ^0 left or south dirision of the city are, in the sonth- 
ner, two mosquee, the Queen's mosque in S^rangpur and the 
of Muhammad (j-hans. Tboogh the date of the Queen's 
ia ancertfttn, its close Hlceness to the Achufc Bibi'fl mosque 
) fixes it at oboat 1510. late in Mabmad Begada's (1459-151 1) 
This is one of the buildings in which the Bat Hindu and the 
Mnsahnan stylea are most happily combined. It has tost 
Its minarets. 


Sontli IHrition. 

Qtieai't Mosyue in 


it 300 yards aonth of the Queon'fl mosqno ia the mosque of 
.Muhammad Ghaus Gw&liori. This, built in 1562, hati little 
1^ flpecial Aliuiedabod Htyle. Clumsy, though nob wanting 
pbr, It looks a bad copy nt tho Jaunpur monqnes (1307-1478). 
inch like the larger mosquoa of uppor India it is worthy of 
ispocially for thy Bkill shown iu arching off the square comers 
I Tocetro the rouod domes. 

it 800 yards south-west, not far from the A'sf^idiya gate, are 
pques, Raui Asni's, better known as Hani Sipri's,' and Dastur 
, B^ni ABui'a mosque, ' the gem of Ahmedabad, and of its 
ie of the most exquisite buildings in the world/ was finiahod 
by Rani Asoi the widow of Sultan Mabmud Bogada. It 
lin size, fiity-fivo feet by twenty and baa two fifty-feet high 

Kdm Sipri or 
Aania Moa^uc 

myn of poinUHlitrctica, the Central ahi? 18 feci wide ami S8iliiah;iuiil encli 
raj 7 fwtwiilonnd Iflbigh. TheSiVmiigpnrgAt^, <]«r<r« of iron-pIat«(l timber, 
f d three bUiou arobot twcDty-Biz feut Ligb uid fifteen brvad and a roofM 
fix Ift, pfAToed for three ganjiL The ItAji^ur gate, dimr* of lron-plntj»l timbTr, 
r ol three stone &rche8 tweDtjr*«iK feet bixh and uiaetwu brood anil n nMifetl 
SX^, pi«rc«dtr)r three gnna. Th« A'etodiragate.doonofiritn-pUt'-J tituber, 
my vf turtfa rtvue aroluH ■eviiDtm.ii fwt bix«d and twority-fivo bi|,-h with • 
28x37. pierced forthree gnna. The Mahndhagate with a roofed pbbtfona 
id Iweniy fci-t hmh. This j^atcway was ill-omciiicd nncS waa buitt ii{i and 
id. It ia Bpoken ni u the Shut, /Jnicf, giitft, am) in probably th« Dhedriafa 
twrned ill the Uic^t-i-Aliiiukdi Tliv Jain^tiur u"^ ■ gatvway of bhteo itoo* 
anty-two feet broad ami twuntyseven high luid a roofed platform 32x27. 
kr one gnu. The KhiUi Jfiliiti gflU: 'vrith an lu-cbcd j^tcvay, iron pUt«d 
Laa ppen pbitfonn 2Sx20 miil twonty-txro firct bi^h, It wu nmr this gate 
[?0Otae ^itinh broached thu wull nnd ti>'>]t tbo dty by nr^uiilt. iSlioi tnnrkB 
|b«Meaou tJiuwAllBuf aiiK<ai;Li>! near. HiriK^'^T^tiiiaf'I (•llJa^'kllht^^211]. I'ho 
gate 90A0 fcut iiurlit (if tbi- Kli^n na.t*i, hu throu ittout! arL'lK-H kijiI nu 
Mdoor. North of lUykhad suxi nbont 159 fcot noothoasi of Uancah is ihs 
M which in smiJl in tuM and hu nunc atnps. Uiid<.<r thohoad 'Bhadar'mmo 
iagirencftbo I^hailar gatisi. The Khi^]>tir gfttci, t.hi> dfH>n a( iron-plntiid 
)m gatewayof three aUme ardiea twenty-ft>iir feet lut;h by Mvuutaou bruad 
ofedpUtfonu 31x2a 

■oaqiie waa till latdy called the fidai Sipri'i inOH(ue, and waff nippi«ud 
leco built in 1433 by th£ wife of one of Hiut&n Ahina<l'« aona. Hnt tt has 
tide in Arabia : " God mho ia bleased and high haa aaid ; 'Ol a truth ntuaquea 
I Ood, tb«Q call ye on no one elae with bim'; and tho I'rophct has snid ; ' llo 
liaamqme for lied Almighty, will haw a castlu built fur him by (•t>d in 
,' Tltui ntoaqiM was bniLt during lliu nngti nf tlio gri'at kinjit, wlioae hel[)er 
tl-neraitnl, Shama-nd-donya wmI-iIid AlmnnAjtr Muuitt'ar Sh^^h, soaof 
Shih, Bon of MuhaBimad Shih, eon of Ahmad SUiUi, bod of MuliiinunMl 
n of UnxaHar Bh&h the King. May Hod make his kiii^nm 1«M ! Tho 
I this nKisc|ac> ia tb« mntlier of Abn Baknr KhAn, wni of Malimud Sliab 
irh" i> isUlcd Hint Asni. During thn montlis of Ujl' rnurtli wtar yew of tiie 
ruga in irsO ( A.D. ldJ4J," Ateh. Surv. Uop. lS74-7fi,7. 

upter XI7. 
Places of Inter wt 

■ A'm Bhffa 


minaratB. Ilindn in stylo with only one arch in a rido door, and 
purely oruauaoutaL miuaroUi, thin buildiiig has tbu double charm uf 
Kirnplcaitiluiiifiiriii dci^if:^'n,i»]dof ^^racefuland littiDg dotail. Tbui^ 
wry bettuliful the tuuib in froat is not equal in Uivsign to tho mosqoo. 
Thu upper Rtory iatootaJIfortfae basement and ita unpicroed itou 
has rv iioflvy look. Tho parapot round the tomb is a rich i 
Hindu work. 

Abont 100 yards north-weet of Hini A^ni's moAqno is tho 
tho fort of tho Blul chief who, in early times, gavo his nnm'' to 
town of Asdvul. On this mound ono of Snlt^ Ahmnd's (1414) 
mosques is said to haro been built, In 1824 tho mosqao was m( 
in ruins.* 

About too yards westof A'ga Bhil's monnd is Dnstar Khi 
inoaqoe, built probably in l-i80 by one of Mahmad Hf^ada's (l4 
loll) luiniatora. Its chiuf interest is the opun cat-stono acrcoa.i 
shuts in tho cloister round the court-yard.* ~ 

About OOO yanln nonth-weat of Daatnr KhAn's vamopaf 
oxtreiuu Buuth uuar the Jum&lpur gate, is Hitibat Khin's 
by Hail)at Khan, one of Ahina<l'H nobles, accordiii<^ Ui tho oofflBOi 
story CD tho site of a Hindu temple. Thoug'h of little beauty, 
muBquo is interesting as one of the eHrlit;st uttcmpls to com 
Muhnmmadiui and Hindu cleinenld. Tho front wall is plain, pii 
by three small pointed arches ; tho minarota small and wi' 
ortmimitit, riao like chimneys from thu niof ; luid, with adpmrfad 
unlighU'd clerestory, the conti-o is barely raised above the sidedoi 
Inside, in tho centre, is a Hindu dome of ^roat beauty, and piUM 
tnktin frum difforunt temples with orery variety of rich omatosBt 
Except for tho form of its dome, the outer porch would bo as "wfl 
Buitod to tho entrance of a Hindu tcmplo as of a Uusalm&n mosc^ot. 

About 50O yards west of llaibat Khan'ii mosquo, oataidc tfac axj 
close under tho Khau Jahan gate, where in 1760 the walls vert 
bretichod and tho city takun by the Kiiglish,' is the Protestanc gri' 
yard onoc a Musalmiln burying ffronnd. A number of tho ^ 
are of marble. The only one of auy age was raised, in 1780, 
GonunU Godiiard, to Captain Thomas Gough of tho Bengn.1 ivrmy, 

I City Sarvoy Reoords, IB!M. 

> A Hbiuo iu thia mosqna luu tKcsa irordB in AratHO : " Ood «Hu> is UcaialM 
grcnt liw Bojil; ' Of tt truth moMne* bolon^ to liod i wnr»lii[i no anewitli hm'i wl 
tbv [*r»^livt, fowl's lileMinjt <ni bun. baa suil ; ' Mu who builda % tiioai)U< lor (W 
will have a boDBc liko it built by rkxl fiirhitiiin PAradiack' The ctlilii:* ol thitJim 
■ribiHjUO was built duriutf therwuii of Uie Kiiiguf Kiuna, Naatr-ail'tliuiya wa,iHUa.Ual 
y«tli Ma.biiinil ShAb, aou of MubAmmwl ^h&h, aoD ofMnuid SluUi, soa of Malxmit 
BhlUi. KuiJ iif MuuifTar ShiJi tbc King, liy tbo ilav* who ho\fm to gun tlu 
of On], thaMililc MaJik tlhani Kb^ia-ilttwholiwKMiTad fnuiiliisMignstB 
hx\A tho hi^ abeltor (of tlit' {loopK') ibe titloof Daatnr^uUMulk. MarGud 
him in his high pUoo thul ho may ^ain tho morojr of Ood. uid moat witn liii 
KwaKL Thii wu on lOtli Stiilxln of tho year 8, (pn>btUv SDS; that ia U 
Arch. Hurv. Kcp. IK74-7ri, l>, 7. Thin iiictwjur ia wiitl to liarc oemn boilt fniwa lilB 
vglluotLiI from so aliuunrl, fjiuliltn, wutth a little aUfve ono-nftictb ]Mn "t » aui>i« 
taken ilaity fruui oodi uT the bboiiror8GUt|>lL>yLtl iu ru^wiring thu aty nulla 0^ 
HurVL-y, 1 8*^4. 

3 iiliub uuuka uuiy be svvii on the ^«Hay. 



(►fthcvoliintecra for tho 'forlorn liope.** A stone-throw to tlir pnntli Chapter^XIT- 

ii tlio Tlomnn Catholic grave-yanl, a HiaaJI strip o£ ground with no Places of laterMt 
rich tombs. 

Passing back, on tho mtun road nonr tho cpntro of the city, are 
the J&m& mosaiio, Sultau Abiuad's tomb, anil tho toruus of 
jSolt^n Ahmad'tt Wives. 


The Jjima MaRJitt, or Public Myjique, finished In 14*2 !■ (-Ith (Tannaryl 
by Snltin Ahnind 1.,' about Kixth in ogo of tho Ahnicdalmd 
Uusulinnii remains, i» the targt^st and grandest mosque in tho city and 
fniB of the most romarkablo buildings of its class in India. On tho 
eouth side of tho main etrcut, a littto cast of tho Three Gateways, 
ODCe the centre of a great aqnoro, tho moaquo onc]oaaro, 382 feet 
long by 238 wide, has gradually been shut in by houses built against 
its outer walls. Through the umall jwiiTh in the centre of tho 
north Tvall is a largo paved courtyard, Burrounded on the norih, 
nst, and south by cloisters with a light-dolued roof supported by 
vtone-pitlarB, tho walls insi^ribcd with Bentences from tho Kuriin. 
In the Houth wan, opposite the north entrance, is another gate, 
ornAmented by a covered Ftone porch, probably of later date than 
tho mosqoo, so purt^ly Hindu, that l)ut for tho ai-ohes at its boao, 
it Dii>fht be taken for an nnmoved teniplc. In a pond in tho 
centre of tho courtyard worsUipporB bathe, and then puss west, 
ivhore the mosque fillB tho whnio breadth of tho woKtcm wall. 
From the cjourtyard the mosquo Bcema a row of five domes, the 
centre domo highest, with lower-domed aisles, and in the same lino 
beyond and lower than tho aisles, domed wings. The wings aro 
open in front, and tho centre and aislefl are entered hv open 
archways. The contral arch is on either side adorned by the base 
of a highly omomenttd tower, all that is left of tho onco famous 
shakiDg minarets.' Tho moi^que is n simple rectangular hall 21U 
feet long by ninety-five brood. Its floor is of coarse wliito marble 
with, under the central cutrance'Srch, 6 black nmrhio slab. Raid 
to be tho back of a figaro of PdrasQ^th, the 23rd Jain saint. The 

Jdma Mot^ttt, 

1 BriAM* CHf«8 n( GaJAnUhtrn, 2(10. Tlir InstMption rnna ; * Eraoted "bf eidsr eS 

OttwnuuAdtltin] tu the itiuumry j^f Cai>t. Tliotniui (Iuul'Ij, wlio tUed oE UA woiuid 
bsroceivfclii] the nnault nf A)iinci1jil>n<l on till- lAth FcliriiarT l7iKI. Afie<l 3S jMrs,* 
Copt. OoDgh'a is tho ooly b>Di1> vf tiny hialoriu intcrvst. Mr. FcnuuidflE, Mity 1879. 

tf>n& mu-hle klnt) Htiavc thi> (■cntri'-nf the thrM prayer nichu arc th«*K wnnl« 
in Antic : "Thu hub Mid far-iitTV'tcliinu tii<'S(|ite \taa rat>c)I hy the ahiva witn Inuts, 
CDin» 9iK»iii, and nefcs thij mercy of Hod, who is kiii<I, nhouloae is to bo wnrehii>iK.'<I, 
H the Knrna uya, 'truly ino«qau> belong to Ood, wonhiii im one elm witb hint,' by 
tbei>Uv(.-whr>trtiabitti<;)icI[>ii)g(4nd,NAAir-iid-(liinyAWiiH.rtin A lull Fiith AlimndShih, 
mnn nf Mnluuiiniail Shiih, xm of UuxnfTAr thv KltiK. Tlic <tiite of iU Imildtng from 
the dijjht «j the Prophet God*B tilessingon bim, is tbc first day of Safnr. iiiay the 
month end ao^oeasrally unci victoriously, in tho year 827 (4th Jaimary 1421)." 
Arch. Hnr»-ev Hem.rt, 1874-75. 6- 

* In 1781 Mr. ^orlm saw ntid drvw two lofty ininnret*. ' olc^ntly pn^prrtioniMl 
ud ni^hly (1rcorAt«Hl, ' A cirrulftr flight of ate|Hi ltd to ft gallery Zicw tbc t<^p uf each. 
{Or. Mem. III. IS4,I2E). A little fr)rcc at tho arch of the mnii-r gnJkiy made bolh 
mitureita ohake, IlKini^h the niof of the moAqiie romaiiied aiiinnvml. (irindtny, Scrnrry 
0( Wntcm India, lS'2ii, The iniiuu-ctH won: thruwn dwn by tho grant 1819 (Junu 
Ifitli) CMtfaquftke. Uoth of tht;m brok« ofT At thn aill of thovrindow wbenccthii oaU 
to prafvn UMd to be cbuiUd. Mr. Bur)j<HA' Notea (1870), 36. 

[Bombay Oaiet 



SuUdn Atmatti 

OtMpba^nw. urraDgenirat of p31ars^ is wmple. Each of the fire domes 
loflBterat bom outside, represeutB a row of three domee, odomud with 
most delicate fretwork^ and each snpported bj twelve pillurs. 
the west w&II the prater niches, Idbla*, are inlaid with skilTa 
^roaped coloured mArbles. Compared with the enrlier biiildisi 
toe JAma mosque shows much skill in combining' Tfinda 
Mnhamnwdan elementa. Except the clcrestoiy pillars andpci 
the porch of the south gateway there are lew fragmontB 
Hindn bnildings. 

The door, in the east wall of the J^a moeqne enclosare, U 
to the mnusolcam of Sultiln Ahmad I., a massive domed binld 
lighted at intervals by windows of pierced stone-work and enc 
several white marble tombs. Besides Sultan Ahmad's tcimb, 
building contains the tomb of hia aon Sultan Mahammnd, and 
ETaodsons Jala) Khan, Stilts Katb-nd-din, and Sultan Abmad 
On SultKn Ahmad's tomb, Afosalni^lna and Hindus still lay Qoi 
and other offerings. 

Kast of this mansoloam, in an cnrlosuro ten feet bIk)vc tlu 
ground, entered by a lofty gateway and sorronndod by a trdlixd 
cloister, are the tombs of some of Solt&u Ahmad I.'s qneeus. 
Tlio principal tomb, richly carrod in white tnarblo, and eiti witli 
a Peraian inscription in minnte relief, is that of Moghaliii Bilij, 
Near it, of black marble, inlaid with mothor-of' pearl is the 
of Mnrki Bibi, an especial favourite, and other tombs are group 
around. They are beautiful works of art, fitted to their object^ 
graceful in form and detail. 

£¥kh Factory, Across the main road from these tombs is a largo heavy aj 

roomed building. This, now osod as the Bombay Bank, was onost 
Dutch factory. The Dutch came to Ahmcdabad in 1618, bi 
rich presents and, in spito of Sir Thomas Roe's attempt 
discredit them, were well received, and allowed to oetablinh tW 
factories, one in the city and one at Sarkhej. The Sarkhej iacHaej 
was closed before 1670.* The city factory was kept oo m- 
17i'i when all the European servants and the Company's efli 
were removed and only three or four natives loft to keep ^ ' 

StOldn Ahmaft 

Wiua- Tamil. 

1 Thfi numher of pillan ii pvtta by Mr. ftnr^n ni SGO, by Hr. FermMOD ml 
and by Mr. lloDi<AL33a Ur. W. E. Wiut«of Uie City Sarv«y OfGc« bam V 
Bapplioul UuiM doitkil*: There am in all 736 pillars. Of th«w 239 ato in tb« cla 
ana pofchM sod 49S in th« mosquo^ Of tlio moequo pilUra, 3S6 an on tb* j 
floor ; 42 in tha women's cluieter j 70 In the baJcony on tho lirat Utmr, Mid 8S 
baloooy on tlm Becuod floor. 

S Ob a slab ia tbo tumi) ara ttiM» words; "Tbo lofty tomb cf AJitDsd SUh*) 
King, wtiDse dutuu for hulfcbt rivals th« vault of hnren, though it bui Buny Mf 
and tiiangb ttii?y alw&^a etrovc ta keep it in order, no Oti« hue yet repaired it 

•planilid a manner as tEiu )M':rf(.vt Tiiiii<! of that re«pect«d and tnH^ inaa, 

MQvEsotorof tfas urvtent Kcuernti'jn. Karhat-nl-MDik, who is pimu, God-Cascil||« 
Ubsn) ud raithfnl. The datc-Unc at bin oRice tenant bits, with God's b«l|i^ bsd 
ak«wii br tJto po«t Yahya, in tho wonla * Farhat-i-Miilk ;' tbeae Uturs nn 
UwvMr A.H. 944 (A.D. IS37-38}. This whtiDg is Uio w«rk of AIumI CtaW^^ 
Arch, aorvoy RB|>ort, I874-7S, 8. 

S Korr, EC. 364. 

4 SUToriniu, IIL 110. 

» SlAvorinuB. III. lOMlL 



chief Dutch tmde was in imligo and calico- prints, tlie latter 
coargor than tlioso of Miiaiiliputtiin.' Not fur from tliis tttood 
KoglUh factory. As neither the building nor its sight haa bo<)a 
tifiod, details regarding it aro given iu a foot-note.' 

Ibout 260 ^ards Dorth-west of the J/ima mosque, the TinDarvSza 

"~ (iatoways, built by SultAu Ahmad I., a magnificeut 6lou« 

loiuro with aumo rich carving, croeaea tho main street. The 

fcy of the centre gate is t»vetity ft-ot wide, and that of each side 

esTeDtoen. The height of tho arches is twenty-fivo feot. The 

on tho top of the gateway wna formerly roofed over. But 

1877 tho gatevray was repaired, and tho terrace throwu open. 

gateway led into tho largo oucloauro that formed tho outer 

of tho Bhadar, known as tho royal sqaarc, Mavldn Sknh, 

feet long und tjOO broad, which iu 1G38 was surroiuided by two 

of palmtrooa and tamarinds mixed with citrons and oranges." 

ingh modern buildings have greatly encroached on the apace, 

[urigiuul form may Htilt be trucud. 

it© tho middlo of the Throe Gateways and in tho centre 
le open space is a building known as the KAranj or fountain, 

which, as has boon tho custom since, in tho fiftoonth century 
SultAn used to attend it in state, tho l-'riday market is hold. Tha 
Iding was till lately a quadrangle, enclooiug a ruined pond 
fountain, formerly, it ia said, fed from a welt in the Bhadar.* 

now in tho hands of a doaJor in Earopean goods, who by additiouB 
made it ono of the chief buildings in the city. In front of thiri 

3, and facing the Bhadar gato, is a municipal garden, tnid out 

much taste in ]b7<i-77 at a coat of about £1000 (Rs. 10,000). 

renot, V. 35. 

I Aptil 1614. AldwoTth hired khonto, anri Icfthnjkors and «erruita to provlilo 

(OnnvV Hitt. Prng. 3S4-33(J|. In August lf>15, Alilwortli ilinH, •.ml KorhHg*, 

nM*edv<l Uiai wu, k^iuAruiitly wJtliuut mum, iuipriaimed uiil flu«d l>y tlitt 

(Br)^' Citiea of tiujarftBlitra, 267. ADdentiU a Weatcni India. 19). But 

1617 wlidnR'io wAa iu AhmodabAd, tti« English would s-Min t•^ huve imen 

[• partT niid w«1l tritated (K«it, IX. '.iM). In lti'23 tiin Italijui tnirllrr [h'llji 

■tnyvd At the KuKh"!! fsvtury [iMltvn^ 111. 91). Iu 163& Miuid«I<du fuuud 

ifjurU^r, Mr R')li«rt«, living in grcAt style, with « bandsiime Poniftn tiano «!lh 

Br trafiiiinjt*. luid »ii ludiau carriAgv, gOl and cuvcml wilh dTaian corpeta, drairu 

iwobullocu iw aironK and full of npirit «■ Eiiru[KUin horira. Th4 Wtoiy VKt 

' wall built wiUi miuiy hudtoma rooau aud cuurtjimU fur Btvrinjt goudu. Thu 

Idant's rooRi, JMilcing nut on ft fmiDtun, Vfts cftnictod &ud tli« mllon nrftth«d in 

Tliero Mu ■l»oftyruit au^per-haU (VoyaoM, 7S.70). In IfiuB Uiey ware well 

1, dwnf( a grmt trade id Dvllii and LuKitie clotb (Tbovanot, V. 2S). Soon 

Uiia, tbc fftctoi7 wai clciiod (Ajjdonob, 75). But it wua agaiD opsned aud ii 

tioned iti 1702, ftt thetlTn« of the unioD of the nrai ri'iinpani«s(ADilerMJi. Hli). 

Ui« UDion it waa otmtinucd fur mnuy jc*n. in the 1T5C dialurbftiicea wlitin 

a Khin took Abra«dikbad from titc AlxritlijU, tha Kolta pillagiu tb« town, 

C«d tba Rutflbh factory but met with »o •piritud a rt-airtmcB that Uuy reliral. 

I'sGajftrit HiAt. I^o). Tl)dfiwU>ryHeeiiiatahjtvaboGiioloBed before 1780, vh«a 

ky waa captund by (}«ti«ra] (ludd&rd. At tLat tiino tliB buildm({ would flcem 

bT*1tMO removed, bat tbsapot wiuBUllu-Qllkauwa. it'urboa'Ur. .Mum. 111. 131). 

'IftBilalalo'a VoTAgcs, Tfl. Th«vcnot givta 'JlOU (ret long nod ISOO bniatL 

■■ ho tKw it (I^iIR) thprc wnrc mnny ainoll Mjuare buildingn, ftboiit tiini: Ivd lii^b, 

police tnauisimtv'a, io(t«}/'«, iribniiala. la lb« centra 'iltlio w^uoiv was a v«ry 

,b tree viib a target at the top for archery pnwticc. 

r • Whi^n (li'>23) Delia VaUe ri«it«i! Ahmfedabad, Cbe wntor of the well vtm good for 

V^m whole city and groat crnwda of pvnpU want to fetch it. Luttera, III. 93. The 

nd near the K&ranj hu lately Meu nuJKd fvur feet. During tlie great 1875 tloud 

ivataiatoodfronfl tolli (eetdeep. 

■ 1S7— Sfi^ 

Chapter XIV- 
Places of Intoreit- 


Tke Threa 



MaJii Skdlxin'i 

Atom Kltdn't 


Chapter UV. 



North of tbe garden are tlio Aljmedaba<l High School boilc 
and to llicir wohI tbo H»itiiil>Mi lostitDto, with a gv>od library, 
a fair itore of English and Tcroacotar neirepaporfl and periodicals. ' 

Near it in Malik ShiSMu'sj or Hnzar-i-Sb/ih'B, mosqno* a an^ 
building with everj trace of liuviog ODce beou the (K>n:h of a Hiada 
tcuiple. It was built in 1452 (Slab Maj) during Iho reign of 
Snltao Kutb-ud-din.' 

Abont 400 yards soutb-wcsl of the Tbreo Qatoways is A'sam EUl/h^ 
palace,' one of the Inteat Musalmin retnainB, built in 1 ()8l> hf A'l 
Kh&o, the :i3rd Vicoroy (1635-1642), whoso love of bmldingi 
him the nickuatue of the whito aut, -udai. First naed asa travflti 
reafc-honsD, or caravanserai^ it aftern-ards was made a oolti 
noder the Marath&s it became the residence of one of their mi 
leaders ; and nndor tJio British (1820) it waa changed into a 
Over the entrance a Persian date-lino, ' Echo was ksked to gtvs i 
diito : a voice was heard saying the houae of goodoess and iwfwr! 
coDcoala the year 1046 H., thai is, 1636 A.I>. The jail, 
ou both sides with the Bhadar walls, baa a rery handsome eal 
Tho gate, about eighteen feet high, passing under an arcbi 
opens into a regular nclagoiiat hall of great elegaore, S7} fe 
diameter, each side containing on tho upper story an arched gi 
inclosed in front by a low wall of open cot stone. Each gall 
is sarmonnted by a cnpnia with a alighttv Battened ceiling wfi^ 
niarblo chequeriug IB hid by a coating of whitewash. TIio wallsi 
embellished with designs cut into the plaster. Beyond the 
is a very largo square surronnded by storied blocks of baild 
used as cells for prisoners, and beyond thia equaro lit 
mannfafitorics oucloaed by a high wall. To tho left, on eat 
tho square, are the hospital and female wards. Undemaatb 

■ Cfn a Blab ia this Bwwqn* sni than words in Anbk ; "Ood Atiuj^cbty aayx 'Of al 
miMtjuoi lielong Co Oorl, wonhip no ono dw wilh hiia.' And tho Pr>pheC " 
blaMing on hitn, wfa ;'He wild tiuUila a miMqui-i fiir IiihI will haro M fauoa* boB 
hiui by U<h] m PttradiN.' Tlii* i&o«qu« trat IraiU dDring tfa« rvigo of tbr Kl 
King* Kuth-ud-dunym wnd-dia Abal Moss&r Ahnuul Sfau, soa ni Mnh>ini—if 
•on (jT AbmAil SliAh, K>n of Muhftinintol SbAh.KiD of Hnnlbr 8bAt> t)i« Irai^ ' 
slave whu luu nowl of God the Hplficr, I lamui Sb&Iidii, »un nf Tu1if> .SiilbMi ' 
th« tttlt) of Lord ChunborUin, im^iiu! Mult, (ruDi ■ dtuiT w mun th« farm 
iLD.! win hii great rvfrmrd. Thia took [•!«.» on the 2nd JanuLd I. a3(I(t:iatM«yH 
Arch. Snrv. Itcy. ISTI-TS, 6, 

3 Muidi'Ulo (lli.'M) diw-notmentioa it RqI Tbeirwwt (IMS) Mlb it a c 
acrai, s gKSt oruameDt Go tlt« Mjoore^ Ills (runt rich witlt maay baloiUM'^fi 
trollla tmrk, the antranea a graat octageiul dnine vithntea opcBing it-*-> lli^ 
Iiuililiiif;, iqiiin'r-, two-tt'iriml. built tit cut ■Uih', poltabnl like ituu-liln, •.< 
Riund for stnum-m. (Vayngca, V. '2.'i). Tha full writing nror Ibavutiai] 
Tiio protwtur of the v^pl« of tb« oaivurM audtt lb« sliadow it i4i« Aimt^aii 
Tb« Shahil SAhib Kir&n Itoiar the aooond, Shihi^iid-din Muhamnuwi. lioa at\ 
|3) Tlw king vf kings of tb« worM, Uw gnat Akbar iiumiyon-Uk*, a Sahu i 
of a iJulUn. [4) Prom atnaniint liiBMrvant*, on* who ia wtxl ami hvjt 
otdan, (5) The glnry of jnatic«, A'uun KhAn tlM bmve wboae awurd la t 
Uia conntiy. (6) H« built in (lujiirit a uanjuon, like wbich mw in ih« wimUi 
uada. (7) Woacierfnl odilicw, iu height ii aiich aa tA tuwar Ut and atMiva JD 
Id the flrmuitant. (8) It ia itt baaoty and taate lika sata Fandise uid It J4 B*tt I 
the gatckMpor of Pandiao ahmtld be «UtioiM)d h«rab (9) This a«r*i anit i'tit 
nnw completed by order of the Loril <ji Jnatioa, the nwMt o[>«nlMn>lnJ ti 
|I0) Roho wu Mkadbogiv« iU dAl«, A rojca aoiwcnd 'TbvbouM ti(Bcwdai*l 
favour.* Briggi' CHAn of OujulBbtra, iW. 


and of the samo form, la a splendid vaaltj lehlihdna, 
_ a night of steps at each aide, with, in t-ho middle, a 

rToir and a fountHio. Behind the jail and iaside the DLad&r 

Bl is a amatl garden worked by the convicts.* 
Aoeo to A'zam Kbaii's {uilace a gateway,' with a police guord- 
m on cither mdo, a balcony abovo, and a modern Hindu tomple 
to Bliudra KAli M^ta close by, furtna the entrance to the Bhadar or 
fl&tadol. This, called fihadar after the ciradel uf Patau or Anhilvada, 
alucU irofi originally dedirati^d to the goddess Bhadra or the 

Bpitiooa K&H, was built by Sultan Ahmad at the time of founding 
-city (HI I).' SL|uapy in form, enclosinji^ an area of about 
ly-tnroe acres, and containing 162 houjien, the BImdAr has cighb 
gaies. three large, two in the east and one in the south-west 
OWUfT; cJbrco mid<lle-!<i7,cd, two in the north and one in the south; 
And two small, in the west.* To the west, along the river bank, 
ihtf Bhadar resta on tho outer city wall and in other parts is 
Mmiuiuled by a high brick wall kept in a state of good repair. 
Belive^n the Bhadar gat* and the jail is a celebrated temple 
dedicated to Kalka Mata, the special goddess of J^4v&gad near tho 
pld city of Champ^ner. lb is held in great veueratiou by Hiodna, 


Chapter XTT. 

Places of Interei 


The Bhadar 

1 Sir. J. F. FemwidflB, Hnrar TJepnty Cmllmtor. 

^S This g*tcway is uf liistonc iut«ruat. Tlirontth it, la 1459, Mkhmud Begad*, king 

' a few roontlia, and nnt fiftooa yaant old, quiver on back and Ih'VT in baml, 

Ij 300 horMttnen. tiikrched ti>dtsp«Mohu n-ltel uoblManJ their 3I>.IX» fuUuwunt. 

^ tint palace, tti« ynaite kioz oriIar«d the roada leiadiog io it t«i In.' livM L>y 

nil, and, with tkv ruytU music plajrlog, moichcd aluwly along iho tuait) itrvct. 

1 bnmty gare soma of hla faiuiful nobin tima to joui. and furtnini; a cnnid' 

iCorcft.Uiough amailoMnparal with the hiautgenta, attacked thvui. ^ut Lbmu 

ii, anadoatroyiad thairlaadan. Urigga' Ferishta, IV. 48,49, and llird'a MicAt-i- 

"' 2M. 

to Ogilh? <lf>80) tho Btiadar vtm, asc^pt Kilbnl and EandabAr, 
jdarad ifie atrongeat Mot-kal toHnna in ludia. ll waa aomuiouly fortiliciil bv 
larg« and mauy »n»it guua (AtJaa, V. 909). In 187S aoion^ iioijii!i fuiind- 
dig np iciaidg of the Bliadar wcni several luge atooa bloclts vitli Hiuiiu 
'warhag. One nf tham had a Rbort iaacri|Ttioa daiod 1303 IIACD S.). Thutw hava 
1m«0 (Areh. Sunej Report, l8T4-7u, p. 'd.) tiapiKiaed to be fwuDdatiooa of Sult^ 
I^Uoasa'a cittdel. But it ae«nia more likely that they belonged to s palace, ot 
I other of the citadel building!, as the aotbar of the Mirat-i-Ahnadi exprcBt]/ 
tthktihc wnllii <if th« pnwcntcitadal w<;t« built by SiiltAn Ahmai-1 I (Major 
(ko^. Dells Vall« (ltl-3) describca tha palaoaaa haviug n courtyard with wliite 
1 valla, and in the middle a bisl> tower for anih?r*. Tothv left werv the 
''■ tooma, and otbor roomH for the cfiinniand«ra of lOOOhorac. In uno of 
nka, Sliah Solim wasaaid to have put an imnc« of the Viigin Mary. But 
Valla did not aeo it ( IxTttim, ill. 94}. MniiduUlo (I6:)8| d^munbea tbe citadel 
' large sod well Toadi.- uf cut ntonoH, ouu of the beat in tho «<iiipir« (Voyages, 76). 
■ntajlds 'ss big u A nnall tatra' [Vojogee, V. 25). Both of tfacsu traTollera 
I a brick jinliic^n olnoe to thi- «i{iiitra, belonging t<> the King with, on tbo gat«, 
tsuKictaiia' balcony. Inside wvrti romnt bunlaonti'ly gilK aud paiutoulint 
; in pntportioQ aod design. (Voyage*. V. 2S). 

ditails ara: on tho oc^rth face two middle-Btzod gstoe. ono leading to 

Khinpnr, ami tho other to tbc Miri^tpur tvani ; the f<irti)CT woa originafly a 
vpvQioK lalvly, at a cost of £11 (1^. 110), tamed intoagritvvny, 13fuvt wideaiiil 
: fcion, with nuitber doom nor ar«h4»i ; on the cost two, both lar^ the Lai in the 
. Ui-eaal aud the Diaiu gittu iIcucnhcKl m th« tuxt ; ou tho soiitli two, i^no a new 
llS?^) middle. sized gate withcint doi^a. iu the oentre nrar th« jnil guilcn, Rnit th« 
n^har tho largv Ganoah gate iu tho south-west coruur ; the former, an arched gate- 
tntf. 18 fact wide asd 17) high, cost £92 (Ks. 9S0) ; the Oaucsh gate was in 1779 
■taual 1*7 Altiii Ganoali, it is aairt, in one itay ; nu tliu v> cat two, both small, the 
ECisDj with atoDe atepa in the southwest, aud the lUr^ari ui tho uorth-woat. 

[Bombay Oi 



Cbapt«r XIT. 

I of luterHt 


H Aiu 

B within tho 

I Sttilin Alinad f.'e 



and is open for worship throaghoai the day. TSxb Mita is s 
favourite with lately sontcnced prisoners, who, with all sorM' 
promises, call on her to help their appeals. Over tho Bhodar 
on a hif^h wall, between the two towen, on one of which in 
times floated the Biitish flag, stands the town clock with two 
plates, one ^ing the K&rauj, the other facing the vest. It 
put np in 1849 at a cost of £800 (Rs. 8000). 

Within tho Bhadar^ the chief remains are Sult&n Abmad'a mca^ 
on the south ; tho M&nek Bitraj, or ruby bastion, at the soi ' ^ 
ounier, and tho Sidi Sycd mosquo in tlie north-east. 
Sultdn Ahmod'a mosque in the south, built in 1414,* one of 
earliest of Ahmedal>ad Musalm&n remains, is said to bare been 
as the royal houschold'a prirato chapeL The outer wall, aji 
bare of ornament, with ill designed pointed arches and 
minareta, mark the Hindu's £rsl attempts to build in Mi 
styk>. Inside, five largo and several smaller domes formed 
converging stones and richly carved, are supported by rows of pillan, 
some of them still bearing Hindu fj^ures nod emblems. Tho nortli 
porch leading into tho latticed " Pruieesfiea' Gallery" is Uiodji 
throughout and may bo part of some temple on whose site lb) 
mosqim was raised. The pavcmeut is of white marble, the canon* 
covered pulpit has a yellow marble balustrade carded in a ten 
pattern, and white marble steps. In the courtyard is amonndcaUw 
Qanj Shdkid or the martyrs' mound, the tomb of warriors w] 
perished in Sultan Ahmad's early 6ghts.* 

West of Ahmad Shiih's mosqne is tho MSnek Bnraj, or 
bastion, built, it is said, round the fonndatiou-stone of the city. 
tower, on tho outside fifty-tlireo feet high, used to contain a 
roofed well known as the Mhiek tntva, or mby well, seventy-W 
feet round. By a change in the coarse of the river the woU bwsaa 
dry and in 18G0 was filled up.' 

Outside of the L41 gate, built into the north-east comer of lb 
Bhadar, is Sidi Syed's mosqne, the work of one of Sult&n Ahmafi 
ekvos. Desecrated by the Mar£th&s, tho mosque is now nsed m 

1 On ■ liirga iruu-blo tl&b orw Uie pnyer oicbe. mehrdh, arc thu« wiv<k : "Ui 
lariro nn<t liu--3trt;t<tbiii2 tnosq^ue wu raiiteil hy the slave wjjo oaU«, oonuw •flaia, tti 
•cnltv tlie inoruy of Oud whu is woraliipijetl in iiinK<]u(M witli buwa utd iiiiiimiiwt. 

A.H. (I7tti DwcMtiLer 1414)." Ardt, SurT. Rag 1974-74, i, 5. 

) The raords of ih% 1824 surrey ikIiI ; ' the r«abwi idaiIa oh Af th* moaqv* m • 
ctorehouHo for wikmI Kiid gnwa. It wu much ehAkea bv thol819eartbqBsk»b«lml 
■till (1824) in g(H»l ftrder.*^ 

s Tim HhiiIuh uy tlikt iLo UJiuek Butaj is nut tho rul)^ t«war bat Mtoek'i tMA 
otlled itfUr a Hindu monk, ^cirit, vha bi\i] ta l>c otncilubeJ twfor* tlM n'«IU ««* 
built. Every >\ay he maite & cQ«hiot) uid wcry uight h« picked it to piaoM, Md * 
hn jiickoH, tho lUy's irorlt at tlic waJU f^ll duwD. Tho SidtAn fdund 9h» ** 
trvublii^B hiiu, anil uking him to ^ve anotbcr proof ot hii povar. got ths iniNl" 
into a iiimU jsr uid kept hini thore till be promiicd to l«t tbe wall-Euildfaa a* • ■* 
MSOO. After tliia musiciiui, bcaidM tbe tuwer, tiiegr«atn»rk«tMiQ«kcfcMMMll* 
BSTO bmii i-nlliml. ui<I thi^ tomb &rid aliriDo of &Uu«kn4tli Oodftdia, wboisuMltatei* 
. iMta burWd alive, may rLill he Keen, 

iblio office. Two of ita wiudoirs, filled with a white mwblo 

»r7 of troo atoms and branch«Hj are for finenoss^ aize, aod 

|anc« unrivalled in India, aud for naturalness of detiign are 

ibly aneiiuallud by any dutailinGreekur Gothic architfjctare.' 

I. Besides tbeAO Musalmtln n-Tnnina are Bomo modem Hindu temples 

.lo Ram, HaDumaDi Shir, Krishna, and Vithoba. The court honse, 

adal<it, raze*l to the grouud in 1874^ waa formerly the palace o£ 

Shelnltftr (1798-1800) the Poshwa's governor of Ahmodabad.' The 

'«ito of the Collector's house aad office waa once occapiod by a palace 

irhiiae ruins were cleared away when the office was built,' In 187't, 

■ to the ori^nal buildinfj, a rojifi-stmtton office and a police inspector's 

office were added, and the lock-up was enlarged. The small round 

tomb in the yard near the Collector's office^ is said to contain the 

"head of Tbrdhim Knli Khdn, a Persian warrior, who died a martyr 

to the faith and bad his body taken t<) Bagdad. Ibrfihim is the 

saint to whom all people, confined in the magisterial lock-up, pray 

for an acquittal. Probably from the resemblance in the sonnd of 

hia name to the phrase ' Abhrdm kul na ddvd' used in releases 

Knd salenleeda, JiiMhim is believed to have been a specially just 

who was alTrays appealed to as an arbitrator.* To the north 

the Collector's office is an old bath, hamdm, used as the Huznr 

^ ntr Collector's office, and to the east is a mausoleum nsed as 

office of the Excentivo Kngiaeer. 

Before beginning the buildings in the north of the cityj some 

)unt should be giren of the Arsenal, formerly known as the 

ikwir's palace, fuiveli, the second citadel in Ahmcdabad. Lying 

the sonth-weat comer, between the Kaykhod and Khan Jahin 

ip this citadel is supposed to have beou built iu 1738, when the 

jiTemment of the city was divided between Momin KhAn and the 

kntthfis. * Afterwards (1757) when, in the divisioo of the city 

tween the Peshwa and Gaikwir, tho haveli fell to IHm&ji, he 

jbably improved and Rtreugthoned it.' An irrogularly built wall 

_ilh heavy gates, encloses a Ijirgo area divided into three pHrts, that 

If) the north was originally » garden watered by a Persian wheel; 

the ctintre and inner part, resting on tho city wall, was tho citadel; 

the south part was added, in 1K14, by Kosoba I^ndit. For some 

rmxs after the cession (1817-1824) this building was usetl aa barracks 

. tor tho city garrison. In ISSiJ it was turned into an arsenal for tho 

; Northern Division of the Army. After the opening of the railway 

i>-it was reduced to an ordnance depOb. In the north are quarters 

FlacMOf Intereflt- 


Within tb« 

OiUlnedr't Palae* 
or Havtii. 


1 In 1817 the T*lac«w«ud b> have bad one UrRe IiaII. wanting nmttiinK but a 
Ht*irc&io lu miiko it rmdy for a ecurt-rooro. Tho rest cf tho IiublJing wj»» ilh-jde^I 
Into «ni>ll ivKiniA arul paiMgfs, cnnfinpjl nnil Ank with, it wiu uii<l, 350 <i^>tm (u.SOS), 
Mr. Ihinluj), 2Stli IS17. Bum. Gov. Ulho. IWri, 149, 128. I2«. 

> Survey lUv.wd*. 1824. TTiii palace wm oaJlml tho Padthdhi /Jiwiit Hdita where 
f ISt7) thn tliinno of cuRfaioni and pillows wm atill Inid out and daily di>^»imt«J witli 


flnwom, Mr. nmilnp. 'J>ith l)iwnin>nir 1817- Ilooi. Oov. Litlio. pApcn, Htf, 127. 
i; ■ ■ AfAiltm kul na ttOva' in geuciilty Ukmi to bo Ibribim KiiII'd claim. 'The i>hnu« 
I from Uh wokU, am in jjcueral, ifirdi rtloaac, kul all, »iid jm ot ratuer !d 
rithontcUiins. Mr. l-'oiuil J.iitfiitlAh. ' 

lu 1740 Momiii Khtn hod Ui pnll dnwn n tower Iio had built wbich coramaoded 
Uaritha dopoty's rMidotiw at JaiEullpar aatfl. Wnt«»n'a GniorAt Ui»toiy. IZi 
TlM boildiog ta attribnted to the braT« DimAJi. Brigga' CitiM of Oujaruhtn, 

IBombfty OfliBttML 



Korth Diviiion. 

Sh^t Kkdn't 




XJff- for the deputy commissary o£ opdnanoo ; in the oenfere are- iho 

PlaoM of Intflrwt ui'li^^^ Btoree ; and in tim south ore loacon' liDce. 

Oatfiidcof tho Bhadar, abont 400 j'ards north^cAstof theL£]gil«, 
are the mosque, tomb, uid college of Sbnjiit Kbaa. This moK{u«, 
which ta not shown id the map, has two slL'iiiler iiiiDareu threo Iati 
apart, and a marble floor divided by piors into five bays. Tu 
pulpit steps are of yellow marble and orer the prayer nicbo are vritUn 
the creed and the date 1107 H. (A.D. lGl»5-0t)). The walla uo \keA 
Trith marblu nix foct high. On a RinaU slab, let into the baek whI^ 
are carved the words ' Fa FutUih,' Oh Opener I Tho tomb is »( 
brick, its marble Boor much destroyed.' This, also called th» maiUs 
and tho ivory moaqne, is described by Mr. Forbea' { 1 7fi 1 ). as bmtf 
' finely proportioned and proverbially beautiful among AhmedaM 
Husalm&nSj with a handsome tomb, and a once sumptuoos ruisfO 
palace, or rather college, mainwa.* Mr. Briggs (1 847) thought ibe 
minarets poor and tho domes lai^e luid well propurtioneo. Tho 
floor waa paved in compartments of different coloured marble.* 

About 150 yards north of the Bhadar. and about 400 wait sf 
Shujit KhAn'a moaiitie, is Sh4h Wajih-ud-din's tomb, built by Sye^ 
Murtaza KhAn Bukhari, tho eleventh (1606-1600) Viceroy, al'tlw 
beginning of the Emmror Jab^gir's reign. Though the cbiof duuur 
ia too toil, nnd the long groin wants some central point, this ii 
very beaatifn] mouumcut^ the whole graceful and the windows 
delicate tracery.* 

About 100 yards further 'north, is Syed A'lam's moaqna bsEt 
about 1420 by Abu Bikkar iiusaini. This, though early, ehows son 
coDsiderablo advance towards harmoniEing the outer aud tnstr 
architecture. At tho Bame time the bases of ittf minarets ara Hindi 
story is heaped on story with no apparent motive, and thfn an 
balconies without windows. The inner detcula are aa rich as Hialii, 
art cuuld make them. 

About 700 yards uorth-oast of Syed Alum's mosque, on the 
to the Delhi gate^ ia tho Queen's mosque in Mirs&par, bailt prohsUf 
in tho latter years (1430-1440) of Sidtan Ahmad I.'s reign. Thu 
mosque, 105 feet long, forty-six broad, aud Uiirty-two high, taka 
its name from two ladies, probably of Sultfln Ahmnd's houseb'iH 
whoso torabs are close by. One of them, as her uuiuo Kupavnti ehowi^ 
was by birth n Hiridu. Though broken short in tho 18l9earlli- 
quake, the baj^es of their minarets, from the fine tracery ia their 
niches^ ore still the mosque's chief beauty. This is one of Uu 

» Arch. Surv. K«port. nU'lS. 10. 

9 Forbc*' Or. Mem. ril. 12.1, 126. 

> Bngga' Citiflii of UujiirkslitrB, 3?3L AocorJiog tO Mr. Farbe* Ihla of SfaafU 
Khiin vu coUbd tha ivury iiio»(]Uv frvui boiug curiviuly UdmI •» itb ivory ■O'l iiWi 
wiUi a {irofuei'iD r:[g»mit to JtrnUto tiAtural flowen bnrd«nd by a tilvtsr foUuvA 
inotii«r-of-i)Karl likn tlmiitt &t BatvA. (Ur. Mom. III. 120). Over Ui« pr»wniuwil 
written ill (.'maiiivntal atyletbe Mniilini cr«n(t and dato 1 107 H. (A.D. l6wt- 

* This Viceroy iiUofouDdeda wiuxl, niiiAoJ/uA, ntul oallod it BlinUiiri. ShifaVi^ 
uA-din died in 1&80 (088 H.), IHlociliuiiuinA Aia-i-Akbiri. I. -Ilfi. Than ia ta W» 
ground rM^rvoir ftDtJ a cialeni naid to havo he«liiig powct ood Dot to luiva htim ilj 
• tor 400 yoaim.' Survey Recordi, 1824. 


ill ilinipirr. 



bttilt!iTiEr« where tlio attempt to romliino tho Brcbed MusalmlSn and 
the HhI Hindu atylce, wnn hardly a ruccoss ; the plaianess of tbo 
central arch clasluug with the extreuK; richuess of uio upper cornice 
iknd tlie side minareCs. Close bj the mosquo is a mooDmont, with a 
l&rge central and two Bide domes, raised over the tombs of the two 
ladies who built the mosque. The inside of the dome is richly frcttod. 
The design is like, but in Mr. FergDMon'a opinion better than, that 
of the Ban! Asni tomb. 

About 130 varda to the Bonth-eost oE the Qiieen'a mosque is the 
Bomnn Catholic Chftpol, a small plain bnitding. Itwashmltin 1842, 
and enlarged in 186-i; the cost, on both o^casioas. being met by 
aubficriptions, It has two rooms nttAched at, the northern angle ul 
tba eastern side for the tiee of the priest. 

Abont 350 yards north-east of tho Qaeen'a roosqne in Mirzfipnr 
IB tho EogliBh chtirch built in 184fi at a coat of about £1200 
(R«. 12,000). Tho stylo is Elizabethan with lancet windows, pointed 
tiled roof, and western belfry. Tho ground plan is in the form of a 
erota, seT«utyH:>De feet long and forty-two broad.' It is able to 
bold 139 persons. 

Next, in the extreme north-woat, ia tho ShilhSpnr mosqne built, 
in 1565, by Shaikh Quiui^iu Muhammad Chiahti, and, iu the troubles 
bf that time, never Untbthod. Seventy feet long by thirty-eight broad, 
' tfcia, if finished, would have beon one of tho most beantiful of 
Ahmcdabad mosques. The body, simple and grorefiil, arched in 
the mider story, and except tho central window flat iu the upper, is 
a bappy attempt to combine the pillared and arched styles. Tho 
minarets, perhaps in too great contrnt^t to the plainness of the body 
o! tho bnilding, are for richness of ornament and delicacy of tracery 
equal to any work in Ahmedabad. 

About 900 yard.i Boath-ea.<?t of tho SlulhiSpur mosqne are two other 
mosques, those of Kutub Shdh and Mulmfiz Kban. Kutiib Sh&h's 
ktoaqoe^ raised in 1440 by Sultdn Kutb-iid-din dnring the reign of 
I ^father SultAn Mnhammad 11., is a large heavy building.' 

Mnbilfii! Kli&n'a mosqoe, built in 1405 by Jaraiil-iid-diii Muhdfiz 
Khan, fnr some time {14711 governor of Ahmedalmd under Malimud 
Bogada, is smell, fi£ty-oue feet by thirty-six, with miuareta fifty -five 
feet high. In the best repair of any of the Ahmedabad mosquea 
tlie body is plain with three central arcaes. The detail is as elaborate 
and successful as in any o£ the Ahmedabad buildings. Tho baao of 
its minarets, and tht^ir trelliRed iitrbes and rich galleries, throw a 
charm over the whole. But, iu Mr. Fergusson's opinion, the design 
is faulty and clumsy, inferior to the Uat style adopted In tho Sarkhej 
and Rjini Asni mosques. 

Mnh&Gz Kh&u's moaque completes the list of the chief old 
buildings of interest witliin tho city walla. But abont 500 yards to 

Chapter Xrr. 
Places of Iiit«T( 

Th§ Soman 
CalAotie CkapelA 



Mithiijiz KMn'$ 



Svdmi N4f 


1 Brig»* Citi«a of Giiju&Hlitra, 2G8. 

.> UrrBrigaa complMHa of a want of tasta and nnJformity in the ouUtdo auJ of thu 
cIitDuiiiMB (Tthv tiiuer dumiw (Citi« of OBJsi^iktra, 221 , 223). TLut aruhitcctare, 
mj% Okpttim Lyoo, 12j is Uiadn In cvaty rcspeeb 

Chapter HT. 
TUetm of Interest 


Jlmimai /Tome, or 


Ontdde nf 


the Boath-enut r»f Mnhif!^ Khfln'e moflqno ia an iiiten?8ting modtm 
Hindu building tUo SvAmi NAriyan temple 6nished in 1650. Built 
bj tbe 8U0C«Mur of Sabajflmuid Hrimi, wboM eloqaence aud sappoteJ 
power of working miraclos bolped him^ to tbe enrly part of tfafl 
present century, io spread a refonnod Bindn religion over nortk 
GiiJAriit, thiH turtiple la in stv1e Almost tbe same as tbe old Gojarft 
Hinda building Its principal feature is an octagonal do 
supported on tw£>lve pilUnt in tbe usual Hindu {orm, exc 
tbe corners are filled in and that the porch is sqaarer. Wii 
exception, which in Mr. FnrguBson'B opinion doBtrors tbe pUy 
outline, tbe denign of the whole is not unwonhy of the great d»/s < 
the earlier style. lu couuection with the tomplo is a lar^ 
and monaatery.' 

Closo to the Sv^mi N&rijan temple are two plaoea of some inf 
Of these one about 850 yards to the euutb-weet is ihe Asii 
Home, Pdnjnipol. Thin, a square enclosure of 12,538 aqoareyai^, 
■niTOtuided by sheds, had in 1876 besides an iusect-room, atmot 
filiammala. Tbe yearly expense, of alwut fliiOO (Ra. lS,000),ii 
met from the MabAian funds, and the institution ia manajred by a 
committee of Hindus, chieBy of the Jala sect.* Furtbta* details ban 
been given under 'Trade tiuilds' to Chapter VI. 

A short distance south of the Svimi Nt(r&yan temple is a gronti «f 
nine tombs, each eighteen feet three inches long, known as the Nm 
Qua Pirt, the nine yard eaiuta. These tombti are worshipped, aoda 
yearly fair is hold in their honour." 

About 300 yards south of the S7&uii N4riyaa temple are U« 
remaina of Johfiugir's mint,* a quadrangular yard with a Lu^ 
dwettiug hoQse at the entrance and inside a caste lodge and a giiii' 

Thia completes the chief objects of interest within tbe city wslla 

Of the uLjects of interest outside of tbe ciry walls, beginning wilk 
the north. Just beyond the Delhi gate on the right of ibe ws^ 
road, is Hatittin^'s temple. This, together with a rust-heua 
and a mauaion close by, was finished in 1848 at a cost of sbool 
£100.000 (Kb. 10,00,000). Tiio tlireo buildings occupy a Urg» 
recUtngular euclosure. Cluae to the road is the dwelling, witk 
a Greek portico aud aome Imndsome well shaped rooms. iB 
entrances, lobbies, staircases, halls, and dmwiug rooms, hare all ths 
finish and currectuess of an European mansion. I'ho temple deeignol 

1 StOiMJAnimd SrAml, bora near Luakaow la 1780, at u Mrly afs m| htiiwlt 
apart to rcri>rai tho Hindu faith counaelling, aa oppoatHl to Uio modera fonu d 
VaiahoaTiani, a moral ittitt even an aaoetto life. Tbaaviiui'a tona of faitb OMiiaaB' 
■till iimkcs uijuiy cunv^rt* iu Ciiijorit. Details of tUa aaot are givMi niulnr Ift* 
head ' VadUl ' iu tliu Kaira 8utiitical Aaoouot (Bon. Gas. III. ITS. 17tl(. 

g In 16fi6 ThoreDot aaw a binl and unadruuMl boapiUl with wooatfodj 
canurla, burtM, and dtbar animala, wall fwl, bought rruoi Cbriatiaaa and Ml 
If iDOorabla Uioy «-era k«|it thtrru uud if tbty goC better they K-er« aald. 
V. 3S. T3u boiufl wu in eiiaicDw in 178J. Forbes' Or. Moo. IlL 1*29. 

* Brigga* Citie« of Ou^arosblra, 22&. Aocording to iha ISM Skivvy BtWl^ < 
tombe are baliuTol U> bo twio* aa did mm tbe otty, 

1 Jtriggi' Cities of Uujariabtra, 'iM, 

niulnr Ifta 



chand SaliU is {iniKTiecl irith tho gr^atcflt wealth oE oraftmeiit 
pturu is iufurior, and thc3 style )iaa lost, in purity. But tbo 
aa lii^li iw ill the beat ilays of Jain ftrchitecture, and showa 
lir skill has ia uo way left tho Uujardt buUdors and stono 
Eiiteriug bv a rather poor Doric gateway, in a pavod 
ikrd, Bnrroundea by an impoeing row of cloisters, coTLtainio^ 
rocelU, each ccU withamarbleima^ofoncof tboTtW/ianiiura 
L saiuts and a roof rising ia a riclily-cat rounded spire, ia 
iplo sacred to DhamiAiiathoneof the twenty-four Jnin saiuU. 
nro-8toried with ehiborato porches on thixso sides, the fnmt 
orowncil by a iar^^ Musaliiuin-Iike dome. The other two 
B and the principal hall have the ordinary peaked, roof covered 
crowd of small cupolas. 13ohind the roof of the haJI, rise tho 
piroB of Iho shrine, ronndcd and richly cut like the cloister 
Inside, the chief feature of the temple is the i-tiH<in,orbliriiio, 
Bj'B tliroo cells each with qu iniagc of tho saint.'' 

Dt a quarter of a milo beyond Ilatising'a temple, on the right 
cantouumnt rood, is llazrat T^lusa Sahd^s mosque. It is said 
3 faoGii hnilt by Musa himself about 400 years &j?o. llo was 
', generally known as Auliya, or the saJnt, Musa Snh^g. The 
I, that once, in answer to hia prayers, rain was sunt and a famino 
Then tho people pressed after him so mnch that, to escapo 
ptioc, he droMea tike a woman. At his mosqno there are five 
lour of thom inside and one outside of the mosquo onolosarc. 
}ry of these tombs ia, that once the rains wore U)o heavy and 
^ went to tho holy man U> ask him to pray to have tho rain 
Uut ho, fearing a fresh attack of popalarity, prayed that 
and might cover him. Hia prayer was granted, and whon 
tried to dig him out, his head rose in another place, and 
ppeored. Digging at this placo tho head appeared in a 
t. And so it happened four times. Thon the king eaid ; ' lot 
flowers at his totnb.' But tho saint again appeared, this 
^tsidc of tho mosque enclosure, and said he wanted uo oiferin^pi, 
'e tombs mark tho fivo places thus oonaocratod. In tho 
enclosure is a very old and largo champa troo with many 
and branchoa hung with glass braceloto. Those anxious 
children como and offer tha saint bangles, 7, 11, 13, 21, S9 or 
ing to their moans and importunity. If the saint favours 
:, tho cJiampa tree snatches up the bracelets and wee-rs them 

Chaptir ZIV. 

Places of Interest 




^ I'NotoB (1870). 42-43. Mp. FergtiBson Bsya; 'Tho fons is very perfect. 
tfilWWi in di;^nity to tho aanctuiu'jr. The «xt«nor cxprcuca tho interior 
JllAbdy thiiii vvnn aOiFthtc d<?ingri, uitl, whotliKr Itiokad at ^um iUcoiirtB or 
outside, it poMewN varioty witlLOut oonfusioa and uu appropriAtcDi>w of 
rt to thDirarpnec intended.' Hiat.of Arch. III. 258. According to Mr. Porbes 
'. Itcv. V. 18£7. SOS), in buiklin^ thin And otbtir tni-xU m .Iaid tnnpli.-* tJia 
of division of labour in tho matter of dcaign in unrofiLlly fi>lIuwod. In 
. uyi Mr. Forh<!«, no drAwingn urn mxde, but the j^onoral iloaiir) with th« 
dMioo rei[um-i! in dcwribod in wonla liy the mtrehint to the niHiitcr-niaion. 
iy-bnilt teiniilca aa aro withiu reach arc oianiiDeil Miit ini prove men ts on 
I «u^Mt«d ciUicr at tbia tima or durinK tbo progrvsi of thv wu^1^ by van ur 
Ihopwrtin, the hindicnkftumun being uy no mcAnit nxoludnd. The rcRnlt 
Ing mhwtantially tho satiK M tboto uutlt boTuru it but bctLcr anited to the 
d wwita of tbc (lay. 



C9iflpt«r XIT. 
Placet of Inb)T«8t 


I>iuJa Ilarir'a 



nn its nrm^. From Mnsa Bohfig sprang an orJor of be||^;sr8 
liko their master, dress in woiiien'& clothes ood wear iiose-ringa, 

At tlio village of AsJtrra, oboat a mile east of Hatisioji^a temple, 
aro two wdlH IJiula Harir's and M^ta lllmviini's. DuUa Hnrir'a well, 
also known as Niirae,or Dhdi, Ilarir's woU,wasbniltiu 14^5 byaladf 
of tlio liousobuld of Mahmud Ut^ado, at, it ia said, a cost of £30,001) 
(R8. 3,00,000). At tbc level uf the ground it ia 10(i fcot long Ij 
forty wido. At the onst ond, from n domod canopy, a descent a 
eight »tcp8 leada to a cuverod gallery. A second flig-ht of wat 
fltoptt leads to another gallery, and a third of eight steps to tlit 
lowest gidlpry two or throe foot above the level of tho wnttr. 
At each landing a corridor mna along the sides oud Icada to 
other gallorios that croHS tho well at intervals. At tho wost tal 
is the well, octagonal in shape, its walls richly carved, witb on 
each side small cupolas, and under thorn spiral staini leading dowi 
to tho water. Behind the main well is a second well twenty fort ia 
diameter, nsed for watering land. 'Ilie whole is far more elabonM 
than the Mnta BhavAni well close by, and has no equal k 
Gujanit except tho well at Addlaj, bnilt about the same time by % 
Ilindtt lady' Kndbdi wife of RAja Virsing. Close by tlio well tk« 
nurse built a mosqac* and a tomb in whit-h she wna burii^L Tkfl 
well boars two inscriptions, one in Sanskrit on the south, anilnnii 
in Arabic on the north wall, of tho first gallery. Tho Arahie writii* 
nins: ' Thia holy and wholesorao water; the splendid tmvellerr 
rest*hoD8e enclosed on four sides by car\'ed and painted walls, nol 
a grovo of fruit trees with their fruit, a well, and a pool of waipf 
for the nso of man and bcaat, were built in the rric^n of t)ie fif 
tlie Sultans of the ago, eBtHbh'shud by the grace of God and of At 
fiitlh, Abul Fath Mulirnnd Shidi, son of Muhammad Shah, bob d 
Ahmad ShAh, son of Mnhammiid Sh^h, son of Mn3B.ifhir Sliiih Ab 
Saltan, may God keep his kingdom. Dated the metropolis ef tb) 
kingdom the 2nd of JamiUTi-ul-awwal in tho 2Gth year of the rt^n." 

A litilo to tho north of the Nurse's well ia Sfnta Bliavfiui'a well, b 
takes its name from a small gbriuo of the ^[ai;L on the lower gaOrtj 

1 Aonoirling tn onotlwr ittnry, tfan Addln} wnll was liuiU by Uie eiiler of IM Rsid 
Mr. BrigKK troiulot^ tliu iiuonptiuu im U (liv buBdiT wuii » man not a wonwn. wA 
Ca|it(bin l.ynii (t>, 11) saya ■ wlwUiarman or woman ia doubtful.' 

' Tliu toi« ut tho uiiiiar«tA am plain, lookiiig fnna a ilutoiece like the Unna ^ > 
eovilc. Cuptain Lyon, 14. 

* ThU givDH I48fi A.I>. Mr. Burgcaa' Kote«(1970),4S. ThoSuHktit iamMm 
•ooorAln^ lo.ono aocouiit f^s-cn l.'iW' | IfAG K.) aa tlio ilato of the woll. Urima-' OiOM^t \ 
<kij«fiBbtTa, SIS. Aoconlmg to aouther, it gives 1421, CjiplAin Lyun, IVUr. I^hI* ; 
0761) g^Toi Ul« toUuwilui aoooiuit of tlw muII. ' About a mUo from Sliihi Bi| •* 
btrSR woU or nUhnr ■ noUB mervoir, oiiatructod by a iiunu bo uon of tbe kti^rf 
f;iiJu-.U and ntiH oolted tho ' Nnrae'fi vdV AgRuid Itight a(at«pal«a<tstoth«wlK 
tJmmgh (iuubk rowi of vQl&n nnd uiliuton e1«>|aiitly futiiiiibMt lar bdow tbe aaiftf 
of tlu> oarth. ThJa nacrrutr ia all of hown Btono etiiTDUDdcd by gallcriM. «m«MI| 
cinriihu- atepa aud a dome enpported by Iatco colnmna over CAclt. Ibeao ia!l«t» 
cimiRiiinioat« with tho princijuu oUitni and adil UiOingunnral magni !)<!«□(«. UpwaA 
of thirty tUouaaml pnntidn wi-raiigjtiiit <>u tliiii iiitiuiliveDt work , w bich mibio aUnhto 
Ut tlio iiHrs" nnil ntlxini to a rioii il:uK-i]i;;-j;irl who tircutcd it witli tho iin^tuco of •■" 
of hnr atikli! )owvIn:thn otbrr 8hr< is reported ta havo thiowniuto the water lu nr«ll4 
Uw UHvh 4>i thadivor.' Ur. AJciii. 111. 14U. 

Jly believed to be the work oE tbo five Pfin^avs. More modorn 

ftyltiing at Abu or ChnmJmvati, tbia woU is probably obler 

Bythmg- cIbc in Ahraedabod, the only romnant of the old city 

or KoroQ^vati.' As iu most largo Qujordt we\h, lon^ 

)f stops and pillared gallories load down to tbo wnter ana 

open abafts arc i-aisod light pillar-supportod canopies. 

t B mile and a quarter nortb-weat of Hatisinj^'n temple is the 
' , or tbo Boyal Garden palace, built in 1022 by Sbah Jalu&a 
1G-IG22) Viouroy of Abmediibiid, to givo work to the poor 
a season of scarcity. The SImhi Urig gardens were in tbo 
nth ceatary famouH, the rcivort of tlte %vhole city, and ona 
iuf ornamuDls. A century and a half lalur (1781), though 
wi» in ruins and tho fountains and water-conrsos broken, tbo 
could still boast of tiomo noble cyproEisos, cedars, pnbns, 
and castiias^ with mango, tumarinn, and other spreading 
.* BcsidoB the Sliabi Bag gardens, there wai, a Httlo 
mn older garden called the Ajidfuiri Uddi, or dark garden, 
roins.^ 'Xlto palace, always kept in good repair, is thus 
by Mr. Forbe« m 1781 : 'The saloon la spadons and lofty 
ailding ; tho walls are covered with a white stucco, polished 
finest marble, and the ceiling is painted in Bmnll compart* 
ith much tast«. The angular rocc«se6 lead to eight small 
rooms, four bolow and as many above with separate stairs 
They nro finished in the Hiimc stylo as the sidoou, tbo walls 
iter and tbo cuiling otriljuiised. The Qat roof commands a 
low ; tbo rooms nnder the saloon, and a Burrounding platform 
ntcd with small camUs and fountains, form a cool retreat.'* 
original centre ttaloon, two largo wings and several rooms and 
B were, about 1835, added by Mr. Williiims, of tho Civil Service.* 
ittle distance from the royid mansiou, on tbo bank of tbo 
uti, with K)|>amte gardenii, baths and fountains, was tho zaudna 
Bs' palace Tho apartments lor tho officers and attendants 
coart were still further detached." In tho great flood of 
le strong stouo wail, which provonts tho river from passing 
awards tbo city, was slightly iniun>d, and sand was washou 
covering and dcRtroying the garden bods. Since this tlood, 
(the wall the water is much dooper and tho current much 
than it was before. 


Or. MeiiLnLl»;.138. 
Onv. 8cL X. 8S. In I >iS8 tho .^h&hi Big wu my Urge, sliitt in by a grrat 
I ditdiM full of wfttcr, u bfAutidil hoiiK, Mitt vt-n noh ronmo. KfiuitlolBlo, 85, 
666Tliev«ootfmimllliB Kiiii^aganlunruU of all kinds of treoa. Tho roM 
IghAUftveDDaliko tliuec in Paria, II10 gonlcin was vory l&rgo cir rnthur thttre 
ml ranlons rinnc Uko »n unphitheAtrc, Tlivro whto four wi>nd«rlul wiilk» 
DnattbBTudari^tacrQH thugirdiiD, by n tcrnwr fiiil (jf fifjwcrji nuil meeting 

Kof BOTHi, wMraWH a jfrwt building witli iin>u[ with (.-nxw tiicu. 
iwwtha aMating pl4M) of alt tho young pooplo of tlio city. Tlievvjiut, 

■'Or. Mem. UI. 130. 

IJ..IIP. Uo>. s.n: VII. no. 

1' Or. Men. lU. 137, 1^ 

Chapt«r Xr7. 

Places of lute roBt 






Chapt«r nv. AcUlaj, n vilUgeabotit ten tnilc-e north of the 6h£hi 6%, is 

Flac«« o7 Interest ^'*^'* 8t«p-well, hdrdi, built about 1U>9 (I555S.) by RuJbiiiorBi 
l^ini, (]might«r uf Raju Venu, wife to Kfija Vtrstng u Vdghela Raj 
ftt aa L'stimatc-a cost of £50,000 (its. 5,00>000].i 



Ifiya KhdH Chiafura 

Arhnl BSt/Tt 

Darjta KMn't 

Mtvtqut amd 'fumh. 

A D]Uo and a half to tho north-«(u(fc oE tho Shihi B&g ia Ut 
coutonoiont on a site chosou by Sir J. Malcolm in ItJ^O. DDtaikin 
giroQ below (p. 3^1). 

Between the SbiUii B<kg and tho city are throe old btiildiags, Mijrt 

KhanChiflliti'smosfjuOjAchtit IJibi's mosque, and Dftrya Khan's Ivmli 
Abuat H. (jaartcr of a milu iMuth-weat of thn Shdhi liiig', on h^ 

fmitud overloukmg the Siibarmatir m Miya Kh^n Chishti's mosqK 
t wftfl bnilt in 1465 by Mnlik Maksnd Vazir, brother of Ualft 
l$aha-ud-diD, for Miya Kiian Chishli, whoso family still claims ibo 
ollioo of city jndge or Kazi. 

Abonl half a niilo more to the sonth-west, also on tho bonk <i 
tho b^barmati, about a mile from the city, ia Achat Bibi's moerju. 
It wna built in 146!) by Utiji Mnhk Kah^ud-din, entitled IniM' 
ul-Mutk, ouo of Mftbmud Ilfg-ada's (14o0-161l) miiiistere, lor Iw 
wife Bibi Achut Kuki who&c tomb is close by. Its lar^ cncloean 
waa once adorned by seven minarets, three at tho outer and two at 
the inner entntace, and two' on the mosque Jtsolf. Except titf 
lower pnrta of tho mosqac ratnarot^, all aevou were thrown dam 
and destroyed in the IHIO earthquake. 

Aboat another half milo to tho south-east, is Darra Khin's tomh. 
It was built in 1453, during his Ufotimc, by Darya KhAii, a tolonlvit 
bnt abuniluDud nublernikn, one of Mabmud Ucgada's miaUtea 
Tho tomb, the larprt^st in OujorAt, ia of brick with nine fcot thick Wllfal 
It is a massive building, iu a style that is common all over India, aal 
has no trace of the special Ahmodabad grace. Ilio tomb ta, p' 
from its air of gloom as much as from any memory of Darya i. 
misdeeds, supposed to be haunted. On a certain day iu tli. 
Satan visits it and may be seen there at midnight. 

Across tho Sabarmoti, about three- quarters of a mile west of 
Darya Khuu'a tomb, are Syed Ustu^u's mosque and tomb on ibe 
site of the old subnrb of Usm^nnar. Tho Syed, who had foaDdnl (Iw 
suburb of Utimanpiir, died in l-loS, and on his accession in the jnr 
aftor (14o9), Mahmud Uegadu built this mosque and tomb. 31* 
mosqne, with a minaret at uach ond, is in tlio style of the SarUe} 
mosque pure Hindu without an arch. Inside, the arrangeiiKui 'f 
pillars, is neither bo simple uor so clear as at Sarkbej. Unu 
peculiarity of the tomb is that \i» demo ia supported on twolw 
instead of on eight pillam. This change gives maeh variety uJ 
the tomb is altogether the most successful svpulchrul doaigu carrM'l 
Dot in tho pillared style at Ahmcdalmd.^ 

1 Rntn. Gov. Sd. X. 88, uwl HAb M&U, I. 3«fi. 

3 I.<k<.' Lliuw oT Um Jiiitta ii)us(|iiP, thuao two iQinaret* won ewUy ubiikcii. Snep 

a Kor^-uasun'B iiuL of Arch. 111. 631, 533. 




About a inilo nail a half east oE tho city, in the Saraspur suburb 
jnd the milwny stntion, h a neglect^] Jain ttimpla tcnown na 
le tciiiplo of Chtnttmuin. This in a place of some historic interest. 
i'iniBhuil abtiut lUaS at a cost of £00,000 (Hs. 'J,00/>U0J hy SAntidfis 
rich VAnia morchftiit, it was one of the handsoniost hnildings 
the city. The temple was in tho centre of a great coart> which 
iS Btiriviimletl )>y a high wall of cut stone, with a ctoistcr ninuing 
n round dinclocl int«j c«!ls with in each a naked Btatne of h\ack 
tt white marble. Before the entrance wore twoUfe>si2e bhick*marb1e 
ubauta with tho iiniLgu of S^ntid&s on one oE them. The 
was domed and tho walls adorned by many images of men 
id beasts.' A few yeaxs later, apparently in the rehgiooa rtots 
I<j44-1G, Auraiigzub defiled thu temple by Imving u cow's 
iroat cut in it, and, brooking tho images, changed it intonmoaqno. 
[*he Jaiiiu potiiioned the Emperor Shah Janftn, and ho much 
[displi-aaed wilh Aiirangzebj ordered him to restore the temple to its 
)r condition. In 1G66 Therenot' speaks of the buildinf; as a 
)uc. But this sueuiH doubtEol as the cloister shrinett had still 
•ir Jiiiii aaiuta' iiimgOK, and inaido though their nosos were broken 
lie walls were still filled with figures of men and animals. Stmtidas 
iTed the chief image and taking it intu thu city built a temple for 
in Jawhoriv^da. 

About a mile south-east of Saraspur, just beyond the villago of 
':hi4t, is the Malik 8h&bau lake. TIiIh, octaj^nal in shapo, built 
>f atone, and covering an area of thirty-five acres, is Jn good order 
itt BoaaoQS of average ruiufoll holds water thi'oughout the yoar.< 

About three-quarters of a mile south-east of the Raypor gate, 
tlui Iluuz-i-Kutub, Kutub'spond, or the Kiinkuriya, that in tlio 
le-pebble, lake. This re.scr\-oii', probably tlie largest of its kind in 
lia, is a regular pwlygou of thirty-four sides, each side IDO foot 
and tho wholo uioro than a mile ivuud. The arc^a Ls seventy-two 
Details are given (p. 17) under lakes in Chapter L 

On tho left bank of tho Kankariya lake arc some Dutch and 

liL-uian touibs 8ikracentc iu style with domes aud pillars. The 

as far a.s llicy have been deciphered ningo from IC-U to ICiOO*. 

Anaeuiau tuuibb perhaps belongc<l to brokei'S iu thu Dutch 


About throe quarters of a mile aooth-wost of the Kankariya lake, 
lililobo tlic wcstof tho Kaira read, k Malik A'lam'amotiquo, built 

Cbapt«r XtV. 
Places of Interest. 



MnliL Ski 



t Muideblo's Voyagos, 77. 
' ThcTonot't VtntLgfM, V. 2Sl 
B Bom. Got. Sol. X. 67. 

* Aimmft the Liucriirttuns mw. Bnsravon Dalnwl Aimftolnit 23nl April anno 1661 ; 
e;;ravcn Ccin)«li<)B W oyiu von Bftu&. Died 12th Jouuftry 1669: JoIiAnn ftliltiMr'a 
Iwtrr Lniirur^. DimI r>th Aii^iint lf>79 ; Willx^ii HtiyauiAU. Died 28tli Itctnbc-r lm9. 
b' Cilica ot GujaHUlitra, 2t>l, 2f)A. Mr. Forties snjn aomo of tliu (Liti-* »tv i-arly 
> •ereDtocntli cfvtary. Uc (pvca nocxauipln. Or. Muta. III. 131. If ttxcrfi am 
Mf ao nlil, MM of t)iu tninha might tra AldwurUi'Hwlioi'RtaliliiilH'atlif: Kiij^liiili C'oin- 
•Uiy'* f.-K't^iry in AliiiK'>l.tliailai)il tlltxl Ikorv iii lUlCt. Amlcnuti'a ^Vi-.iti'r[i InOin, S. 
ft Urtq;)!' Ciliw of IJuiiu-iUhtra, 2G-t. In tlic anri.>iit4>i.')itl) cuntiirjr (HIMil) Uicni wen 
I «iuu^ la AbmwlAlatl tu Lavu k duuvli. Oijilby'i AUm, V. SVJ. 

fBombar QouUw 


Ohflfter^XIV. in 1422 by oqo of Stilts Alunml's soaa-m-law, Malik Alomlna 
Mum of Intcreit Nur Kabir, RtylcMl Vozir-ul-Mutnillik. Cotnparod witb the eariier 
buildings it ahows greater dkiU iu tictiu^ the nicUo and omamcQt U 
the Hinda spiro to Iho bosu of tiio MubamHiadim minaret. 


5MA Ahm. About a qnaricr of a inilo fnrtlmr soatb is a groap of bnUdinj^ 

a tomb, a mosqae, and aa asftembly hall, enclosed by a lofty ud 
bfu4tioned wall^ sacred to Uio memoir of Slulb Alam, theaon of 
Kntb-al-Alam of Batra, who, till bin dflath in 1475, us tho gaideof 
MiilHiiiid Begada'e yooth> and afterwards as ono of tbo most ravond 
ol M usalman roligioos teacborsy held a faigb place in AiimedHluiil- 
From the north tbo oncloaura is ontcroa thmngh two haii>! . 
stono giite-ways. Within tbt* second gate on the loft is an astK-uii^j' 
ball built; by Sultan MuzufTiir III. (15(>l-l-372), and partly destroyed 
by the British in 1760 to furni^b tnat4?Tials for the si^o of the 
eity. On tbu right are Bouiu other baildings of which tho date haa 
not boon tmcod. In front of tlieso butldiags, to the right is a 
handsomo reservoir, and to tho loft of the reservoir in the cesln d 
tlto onolosuru, is Sb&b A'lam's tomb. This, tho oldest of the buildiiffir 
is said, soon after tho aaint'a death (I47o], to havo been raised aj 
Taj Klijtn N:u-i^li a noblotnan of ^fahmud's conrt. It ia of ntf 

{iloasing dusig'u and has much uE tho spceini chamctcr of tlis 
iiiildiiiga of that time. Early in the ai'vuntconth century A'tai 
Kliiiii, tho brothor of tho famooa Nur Jahaii, omainontcMl the dome 
with ^old and precious atones.^ The tloor of the tomb ia iabui 
with bLick and white marblo, tho doors are of open oat brass wofk, 
and tho frame in which tho doors are sot, as woU as what then 
betwooD tbo door frame and tho two stono pillars to tho right tai 
left, is of pare white maH>lc boautifnlly carved and pierced. Tha 
tomb itself is completely encloaod by an innor wall of piorood stooa 
Tho outer wall in tho north is of stone trellis work of tbo moit 
Taricd design.^ West of the tomb is tho mo»4qno, built bj 
Kabammad Sdlah Budakbshi, with minarets at either end began ]n 
Nia&bat Khfln and linislied by Sitif Khiin.' Tlio mosqno tbooga 
pleasing in outUno and with skilfully constructed domes* hiH^ 
liko Mulmmuind Ghnus' (p. 2G9) mosque, much of tbo urdinsi} 
Mtihammadon form found in other parte of ludia, aud scarcely Ixdeiia 
to tbo special Alunodabad stylo. To the south of the moeque, a torn 
on aplmi similar to that of tho chiof maoaolonm, ia tho burying 

Iilaco uf Shah A'lam's family. Outside of the wall to tbo wostiif 
arge reservoir built by the wife of Taj Kh^ Nah^ 

1 A'Bnf KhAn was tn Ahmodi^Mil Titfa the Emparor Jahin^r (n 1$1& 
(I6fi6) Bpfaks of the vory beMHtfiil niotlicr of pearl wotxt work and bnat ' 
a«nraw cut tit ililTarent yMmnu. VogragOM, V. fit. Th« bran work bteljr 
■lunra that tlio AhnwdsMd ooppenniutlu hflTo loit none nf thoir entitling 

S Ca[itAin Lymi, 14. In thia ttiMiAolQum is buric>l Shnikh K*bir, ranownad ii*l 
IcariiiiiK, wbtt iliuit in 1G1S (10'.'(i tl.). llWhmsiiu's Aiii-i-Akl»ri, I. M7. 

3 Tlia miuaruM wcni much diuii&^'d by tlio 1810 outhtiiuko. Eiiuou 186llker lH" 

bMa repftired oud atc iir>w in good untor. 
' Aa luMnhnninMul liKnua' inoaui 

' mowiuo (p. S(iO) the akiU with wliick ibo conun w *■! 

oir to nwviva tbu ciivuiju- dvuie dowxvM uvticc. 


A EM EDA 13 \D. 


Al Balviv, more than throo tnilca farther alonj? tho Kairo roml, ia 
lothur f^np of bDildinptt, two tombn ruid n nios<|UO raised iu 
jmory of Shiili A'taiii't> futlier uiid brolhur. Burhiiii-ud-di!i Kutb- 
I-Alam, tho father oi ShAh A'Ijmh, mtw tho grandson of a famong 
luat buried at CJch on tho Sutlej. AUmctcai to thu court of Saltdn 
^hnuwl I. {Hi I-HIS), bo sot^lod at Rtuiva, and died thuro in li52. 
]o nobloA of tho courta of Snltita Ahmad, Snltiin Kath-ad-din, 
Sultan Mahuiuil flof^nda, flrnt raised a small shrini?, and 
rardH a mosijui*, a i4>iiib to ono of his snntt, a large many-eiilod 
)ud, and a vast mauKoleHm. Tho inosqno and Hon's t.nnibaro, aaat 
rVhcj, in tho Hat Hindu style without arcboa or DiiDarots. 13ufc 
itbohu^ inautK;loum, with agroaCgain insiiM), thoarch takoB the 
of tho beam, and tlie dome in raised high in air by a boood<1 
of archoa. Tlio arch, unifornily iisod with one consititont design, 
niQch beauty and pn^prioty. Tho toinl) iH of thu most olaborate 
>rknianjihip snrmountcu by a richly inl.'tid canopy. But tho 
uldiag is incompUite, it wantu tho uutur aiulutt and has no etono 
sUtB work in iia windows.' 

Near tho villago of Giramtha, about nino miles sonth of AhmoilnlMid, 
a rich, wc.'Il-w<^iO(It,Nl. and waving conntry, lies the monastery of 
Ina. Sum^undcd by a strong wnll, its Bno mausoluums, rozan, 
lonmas Imdmshah's, fjarshali's, SarAbbtli's, Bdla Mntuimmatl'a, 
Biikar Ali's, bavo nono of them any claim to architectural 
ity." Imamsliah's, tho chief mnnsoleam, is at presiont in tho 
ids of Nathu Shiititji, a Leva Kanbi by casto, known by tho titio 
lidktt, or unclu. Belonging to tho tombs aro soveuty-Gve bonaos, 
by about fifty [>cnious, scrvantu and roclosce, laih'tjt. Tho yearly 
)mc, of aboDt £1003 (Ra. 10,000), is epont chiolly in dolos, 
tldnartSf of cooked or uncooked foo<.l to Hindu and Mubammadan 

Of tho origin of theso buildings tho story is, that in 1419(1505 S.) 

(8ycd namud IraAmslirih camo from PurBia into Gujarat and settlod 

ft hillock at the entrance of tho Girnmtha viflf^ifo. For tliroo 

DO rain had fallen, and the rillage land-owners, pf'Uiddni, 

feeling him to bo a holy personagt^, pnvyed him to bnngrain. Ho 

lid raio would como, and when it cnnvo the people choso him as their 

iritual guide, yiiTi*. A sliud was built for liim to the west of tho 

llage whcro nn arrow shot by him had Dillon. Soon after this, 

[ohauunad II. (14-II-145I) lung of Ahjncdabad, camping near 

Chapter XIT. 
Places of luterest 




1 1 Hr. PergnMon •oemn tf tnkA for granted ttut Che ftroadcJi wtrc mined trom aomo 
in tho IniiUinu. Hut Mr. J. K. Huni«r, «rtti> lal«Iy (1877^ exuninad tho 
iBi, u «atisllea thnt it «!» nvvtir finiahocL Mr. Humor's view seems np- 
by ttu) nnt of atniio trellis wurli in tbv appar wmdowi, ind by iho hurt tliftt 
Uubink's tomb At MohmAilivhad, of the same itylit uid age, and posaildy by 
knu wohit«ct| is still perf wtly strong 
I itr. FortMvho visited the ahrinfl m 1781 doscribiM them u erf whita marliln 
mdamtd wibh oatrich-cj{g^ tows of Mm pearl«, and vreatlia of flowcra. Tlic vrnUtt 
pillara aiul iloiilea of th» mouldsnag adifioM wbidi cnnttUD them, war* inlai'I with sinnll 
loofcin2-glftMOS,agifecataodeani«GKU,tiioi«fp»ady tti&n olegunt uidrery iiifariortothu 
afarin<« «t Il«tv>. Tho tracery or the windows wan nuo.t. atid hllod with Utoiuod jlm 
bvoi Curvpc iu the uuu)ut:r of oiu* owu culhodraLe, Or. Mom. UL im. 



ChkptArXPf. (limmthfi, lirnni nf Iinj(inBliii)i'H intracninas power, luid Ity 
loTLiterMt- ^*^^^' t)ittt)ifyin^lilmaolf that the holj inmi wa» no iinpo«tcir, took 
to AbtnoUalxid, uiid ^iivc him bia daaghter io marriM^. By her 
hod fonr sons the niicostora of tho present Pir^a Sjods. 

Afi ho grow ohi Inuliii»hiih bcf^au to build bis tomb, apooc 
nn it, it i» said, about £15^000 (Ra. 1,50,000).* When he OnU 
buihUng tho tomb, Im^mah&h had fivo chief followers : IlAsarl 
Muaalin^n ; Bal}hcrdin, a Leva Kuiibi cart-driver; N&ga Kdka, a ] 
Sh^ra Kitka, a Tjcva Kanbi; and Cbichihiii, Bubhoi^Tn'n sistter. ~ 
hisond drawing near, Iiiitim^iih told Hi^zarbogihtLtht} too woaldi 
dio, tltat bo would Ikt buried near Im^uishiUi's t'lirib, and Vhv ' ' ' 
wouliJ koi'p ovil though baked by tho son, and would liotbi 
tttrDwe«l with fluwortj. Bubbonlm and hit! sister he »eiil to Vi 
Kjika to Rcwa KdntliOi, and t«) 8Ii^ini Kiika bojE^vethe ch;i 
shrine. ImAmHhiih died Roon altor, and war bui-icd in tho u 
In tho mcmth of Itt%itK*in, tho annivenuuy, ura.^, of his dcnt.ii i^ iieiiii 
with a fair aticndixl by a largo numbor of Hinduii. Fairs an dIm 
held (lU tho w-cond day of ovory month, and in August, iSArrjciw^flB 
(joknl A'tlmm and Duro A'thaiu, aud in Sopteuiber, ou t)io liftddanm 
Swi mji'tnis. His du4('iplc» arochictly Brdhinans, V^ias, Iievaa&i 
Kadva Kanbifi, and Kitclihilia. Nono of thorn are Mna^oiaH.* 
Tho liwul or liuldor uf tlie cushioa, yadi^ has to giro op oil wiaUlf 
ooncorna ; to woar a yoUow-oolonMHl waiat r-loth and sheet, and a vhftii 
coat and tnrban as ttigns of hamility, and to lot tho beani ^^^- 0& 
his death, the ablest of the Leva Kaiibi disciplos is choBon niiniwwunj 
the present inanflg'or being tho twrnty-first in order. The fbUowM' 
of Im&nifihib, known as Imdmsb^is, form a largo body in Ui 
districts of Unrhanpur, Surat, aud Khdndesh. Thoy ara aUo tomA 
in Cutch, K&thi^war, nnroda, Oambay, and Katra. Many Ahmedabtd 
villagoB have largo bnildiugs called Uhdna, or, posltaJj bolongix^tO' 
this sect, where tbo dovotoKS, foii«8, stay whon on tour, and whan 
the disciples meet every day and say prayers to Imamabjih. In lla 
Jam^pur quarter of the city is a buildiiig of this sort, with » 
congregation of abont 200 souls. 

Nurshah's, the second of the five shrines, is worshipped mlmoat 
outin'ly by Ahinodabad city Moinniis. Tlicy have nn cstAbliahnieiit 
at Piraua except a devotee, who lives tboro with his l^iniily to ligdl 
tho lamp at the tomb. The foUowera are called Kurabdhia. 

SunSbhdi's, the third of tho sbrinos, is, as tho name shows, noti 
tomb but a cusliiou, tjiidi, that is a plitce rvvercncod as tho seat of 
a Baint. Tho followci's, railed Ptlnchule, from tlio fivo devotees nbo 

1 To tert ImAnuahjib, tho king niMle liitn (Ihok tniUc mixM xrith poupn, but tbkJii 
bim 110 hftrm ; tliea hu sot onolied oafa flnh boforo him, but at Im&niahAh'a wati at 
oommATKl tliti cat JQinpnl op alira ; iliinlljr, the kingMnlK>iaoinc*t in & L-ovtnul <b^ 
■ariu); ho fax) Mint sucne itwea, the lotikan>Ou wnc ■aqiriMd -wben IraAcn^uUt, frkiql 
off the ooror, bonded round nao Imvm. 

9 One story of the hailding i» Lbat ImAnuhAVa practice tftM to M«t UnualfMt 
cn«hinn htkI jaj- tho workmen witii ironn)' ink^n from nndpr it. Th« KoJlUbiMrti^ 
tbiukiug Uijkt trauuiv inutt bv tiiJ. cwuu vav ni^lit wid dofi, baX foend DOtbug. IM 
cveaiag at pajr-timo th« bdy m&u g»?e tliuas that baa tnrd to BtcaJ, » doaUe 
ftUowanoo, U<Ilina them it unu [■>r the extra wark dono <lnrina tbo nigbl, 

s Tliia And otE«r dct«ils arg from ml accoont fiiv«D by wt Viriia •""■*•. Vtk 
OcWbir 1571. 



r first managed tbo iostitatioii, are conhortls, Bab^s, of the viUajipQ Chapter XIV- 
iBilishana under Pitan, and Hirohi, Bombay, and Catch goldamitha pjn^g o7lnt«reit. 
cf>p|x^rsimthii. Tho manager, Baji Surjibhai, belongs to the 
chda secL, a cia^G of pouplo of Hindu origin. 

Skin ifuhammad's, the fourth shriue, is vonorated by Masaliii&na 
the Shckhda sect. The owner alxn is a. Shekhdo, The followers 
tra called S-ili'U, from tho seven original managing devotees. 

mkar All's, the fifth ahi-ino, was built in 1832 (1888 S.). The 
foUowem, call&d A'lhia^, from the eight dHVOtCiCS who managed the 
iDStitation, are found in Ahmcdabad, Mahi Kantha^ Baroda, and 
Snmt. Several Kdthiiiw&r vegetable sultttrs, Kdchhitis, goldsmiths, 
carpentera, belong to this sect. 

the origin of this shrine tho following details are recorded: 
Wiya, the fonndcr, is said to have been a Sindhi, who, taking a 
'b garb and claiming descent fi-oin ImainsliAh, succoedcd in 
ining a Ucenso, pnrvmid/t, from tho Kmporor at Delhi, authorizing 
lihn a« Imamfihah'ft descendant to take charge of his tomb. On his 
mrriTal at Pir&sa the managers and Syeds wure away, and he very 
'ly gained possession of tbo tomb, and kept it for two years. 
tlie former devotees, hlhdit, complained to tho Mariitha 
or of Ahmedabad, who sunt both plaintifiB and defendant!! 
Voona. Tbe Syods succeedod in proving their claim, showing a 
SfcTgely signe*! pfitition in their favour, and Akal Mi^a had to bind 
fcimsplf in tho sum of £;i500 (Bs. 2o,00U) to keep the peace and give 
up the place to the ka!ui» and Syeds. After this, Akal Mtya'a 
ideftoendanLs t^t^ttlcd at Ahmodabad and Cambay. During tho time 
of Akal Miya's grandson they bought a plot of land in the village ; 
"but, as the ordora of the Peshwa forbnde them and their family 
ifrnm living or raising any buildings at Tirana, no shrino was built 
-^1 in 1 6:}2 after tho death of B&kar Ali, tho fourth in descent from 
.^Jcal Hiya. In time tho roxa had several disciples, and a yearly 
jnoome of £oOU (Bs. 5000}. In building it, and some honaea 
-connected with it, a debt of £8000 (Ka. 80,000) was incurred. The 
%Uowors then took the place sad it« belongings, paid off tho debt, 
wnd settling a yearly allowanoo of £50 (R,q. 500) on Husain Miya, an 
■adopted sou of Bakar AliV, placed a Kanbi ltnl:a in charge. Besides 
>||ie five chief shrines, thero are smaller ones to Wdlamshdh under 
^e same management us Nnrshith's, to Syed Khan and to Sajji Miya,, 
^ T\ H one kuown as Dadt-ni-Ottmti, or Dadi's tomb. 

Tho arrangements for cooking and for lodging travellers are in 
the hands of religious mioistrants, mftjdvctrs, who never marry or 
follow any worldly calling. Those men are children of followers of 
the Pir&mv sainffl, among whom it is usual to bring up tho eldest to 

sir own calling and set apnrt a younger son to Piraua, 

le Pirana worshippers belong to throe classes : foreign Mnsalm^s, 
converts, and Hindus. The foreign Musalraans are Syeds, 
the dei>cendants of Tmamsliilh, who arc called smnt's sons, pinadd«, 
anil in their religious observances do not differ from other Shia 
Mnsftlmdns. Of local convci'ts there are throo claasos : Momnis, 
Sbckhs or Shekhdis, and Matia Kanbis. The Momnis, Uusalmina 

a IS7-37 


iiptw nv. 

Placei of Intereft 


■ Aim Turiih'a 

of the SbU fiMt, belonpT to Eaar (lirinons: ImAmshini), Nm 
MasU^tkbshiUii, aud Ktabiuadsli^lii. TbesoclasaM are dUUti^ataliii^ 
from one another by the extent to whicb tbcy have |^cn Dp Eiiuii 
practtcea and fQllow the Miuialm^ law. Some wear the beant 
others Hbave the chin, while the chaitge m the mligtoua cosuioi 
of others is to nligbt that thej sHll wonbip hunps. Thcj >D 
Tenerate the sbriDes at PirSna, particularly tnat of Norab&li, tbt 
affairs of which are eutriisted to their managemont. In 1691, as 
account of the ill-trcAtment of their bead Sjed Shaliji, the Momaii 
roe« ia revolt. Marching' against Broacbi they aeized tbe fori; 
and slew the governor. Bnt after a few days they were 
and defeated with great slangbtcr.' The Shelcbs or Shi 
except that they bury their dend, differ little frvm Hiadaa. 
are not circumcisetl, imd du not eat with Mu«aliiUinK ; thnj 
forehead mark-t, and niimy of them tielong to the Svami ^antymj 
cronun unity, la their custotua Matia Kanbia cloaely reaearak' 
Shefchd&a. The Hindo worshippers are Bnihmuos, V&ni&Sj LerauJ 
Kadva Kanbis, Kachhia.% golasmitbfi, carpontcrsi, and cowb«tdiL 
Tbey observe Hindo holiday ;>, obey caete rules, ivad their own religioni 
hooVsjaud,exc(!pt that their roverenco for Imfim&hdfa leiuiH uura, 
after burning their d^ad to bury the bones at Plr&na, they are like 
other Hiudutf.' The shriae managers, ktUaitt who belong geutoaD; 
to the Lova Kanbi caiite, so far difuir from the other Hindu Tiilbwers 
that they toko tows of ccHbocy, wear yoUow clothes^ and bury ihai 

The buolc of religions precepts, Bhiksha pain, written by ImdnuUli 
is suppoHod to be rend by all. The common forin of prayer is, by lb 

r pic, a repetition of thevtord.' Shia^ham* or ' I am Shiv,' aod 
tb« Kakax, 'Imam Kevalah', or 'The Iniam (that is Inrttmibtt) 
iH The One God.' Tbough some worship him as a deity, most of ha 
fullowors do not consider IiniimAhAh more than a religions teacher or 
ftaiut. All fa^t oa the second and fourth days of eacb of the twdvB 
mouths, and during tbo whole of tbo month of liatmdn. 

Further west near the city, abont half a milo outsidt) of ife 
Jumiilpur gate, are two boitdings, Baba Lalui'a mosqutf and^ 
Abu 1 urub's tomb. 

The B&ba Lului mosque, of the same ago and style aa the SIu(h£piir 
mosque, was about lutiO built by K^ba Lulut, or Baba MnhamTTf^ 
a p^iH merchant. It lit, on the whole, more pleasing than tli* 
Sbdh^pur mosque ; for though the central dome wanta dignity, tbo 
DODbrast between tho styles of the wings and centre is losa striking. 

This tomb was built late in the sixteenth century by Mir Abo 
Tnr&b, a nobleman of talent and power who had much to do w^ 
the settlement of Guiarat under the Emperor Akbar (1573-lE^). 
In 1579, appointed chief of the Mecca caravan, be brought back » 
stoDo with the mark of the Prophet's foot. Taken first to the Bmperor 

> Wuka's Oajurit Ilirtory. 82. 

^ Tlui prai-tico of Inirymg txinm hu giTMi riw to the belief th&t tfao Cvl 
•oUbwmaf Um Ttriiui nint. cut nlT od« of Um titUa flogera of the ^ ^^r ■f1 t)o<l«. i 
^ryiita thebouw! nUuigAtMiib ovurit. The people deiiy tbat tka tinty 



ipur Sikbri, tte rolic waaaftarwarda brought to Ahmndabftd, 
perhaps near this tomb, hnd a buildiii(;f raised over it, and drpw 
munbers of pil^ims. In the dialurbed times of the eigbteonLh 
liury^ OS the suburbs wcro no longer safe, the stone was taken 
witbit) the city walls.' Abu Tur&b's tomb is simple and OTaceful, 
Eorty-one feet sqaave with a double colonaado of pillars, the inner 
eolounado formerly enclosed by stone trellis work. LacaX in stylo 
ibe tomb shows the art in iU best form. The flat lintels 
ittve tbroaghoat given place to the' arch, and as no rich miuaret- 
'.bases clash with the plainness of the main building, the whole 
'h-nniform and pleasing. On each face threo large and two small 
wohes point to the presence of an octagonal dome, and, without 
confusing, relieve the samonoss. 

On the road from Ahmedabad to Sarkhcj, about If miles From tho 
Cjty, is a masHivo brit^k manaoleura containing tho tombs of A'zam 
'Kniin and Mozam Khan, two strangers from Kliuraaiin, believed to 
^imve been the archif^cts of Snrkhoj. Tho tomb waa probably built 
about 1+57. Like Darya Kh4.n'3 tomb, it is a solid heavy bnilding 
with no traco of the special Ahmedabad style. 

About itj miles beyond A'zaiii Kh&n'» tomb ia Sarkhej, a village 
which Shaikh Ahmad Khatku Ganj Baklwh of Anhilvada,' the 
d and adviiier of Sultun Alimad I. retired, and where ia 1445 he 
In his honoura tomb,^ begun in 14'15by Miihamniad II., 
Srros, in 1451, finished by his son Sultan Kutb-ud-din. Aftcrwsi-ds 
Snrkhej wasone of Mahmnd Bcgada's (HSQ-lSll) favourite resorts, 
He dag a large htkc, surrounded it with cut stoue steps, built on ita 
■oath-weat comer a. splendid palace, and fiimlly, opposite to the saint's 
'toinb^ mi}<ed a mausoleum for himsc^tf and his family, wliore be, his 
■on Mnzalf.'U' II. and hia queen Rujbui are buried. 

Entering the covered eastern gateway on tho north bank of the 
Sorkboj lake, ^e building to the right with a handsome stono 

C'lion* in front of it, ia tho raausolomn of Shaikh Ahmad 
ttu Ganj Raklish. ITiis, tho largest o£ its kind in Gujarfit, has 
irfnring its whole length it.^ sides filled with stone trellis work, and 
'jnide, rotmd the tomb, has a beautifully cut open metal screen. 
AcroBH the courtyard on the left are two mansolenms with a 
nBonnecting porch, the oast mausoleum coutainiog the tombs of Sultan 
1 ^ . 

I AljnTtirib,on«cif tboSalilRiiSyedsofSbirAxui 15S3 (OH? H.) brouj^ht « Urm 
ikRM fjnm Mecca with a footprint of iha Prophst, This ttuuu la aoid to hav« bvoa thv 
■una which Sye-l Jalkl.i.nukli^ri hronght tn Dirlhi ot ths tima of Snltin Firaz. 
Akhu- looked nn tba whoU MB prntH fraud, mmI th<ni^h the atuuc wh n^4;eiTed with 

Est rniwct, Abn Tur&b wu ftUuw«d to keep it in bii hon>i;. Wlieu [IS83) 
mid was made CIoT«raAr ofr.ajankt, Abn Turib foUowod hiia n» Amin of thw 
Bobh* uid wu huri«d at Ahni<a<UtKuI in 1597 (]005 M). DIo^hroann'B Aini-AJcbui, 
L 507- Compnrfl tho more enthusia^tio Minlt-i-Ahmadi nccouiit. Bird, 35035I. 
, 1 He i* cailod the Ump of tho Salnalah-i-Maghribijdh or Maghribi (w«atcni} sect. 
wocbnuum'a AiU'i-Akbarj, I. 507. 

* Over the door of the msveoUnm are thene worda ; 

" Wl>»[i ilM oMan ef Ahin»d> palm ■catMngwu-li. 
Hope'* iMna bMOUM U)* tnaMK ol Pinrli. 
Kn wmdorlr InunlM bibvnd b^'iro bU »1i>ln«, 
TtaD «hol«< «nrfMO at Ulo tartli fiat* It* liHd.' 

Ireh. Surv, Rep. 1874-75. lOt 

• This pATilioD, wilh ite aixteea pillars Mid pleasing roof of nine snill aooiMf 
I dtaerrwt notice. 

Flac«8 of Iut«ce«i 


Mir Abu TWdb'j 


A som and ifotam* 

Khdnjl TonUn, 


[ Bombfty Qaicttw, 


Chapter Xrv. 
Places of In ter«t 




Mnlimnil Rfiguila (U&d-IMIl, and of hia bod Sdt&i MnnflSu: 

(loll-I5*2i>j, and Uic west, tlie tomb of lUjb&i Moxa&r'a qi 

Beyond the Uaoj Baldiab maDsuleum la a courtjardf oovtmtft 

more than aa acre of groand, sniroandod by cloistera, with, at 

tfao west end, a moeque only slightly amaller tlian the J&ma tnoecjOB, 

The want of lainarete and the ehalkiwneaB of its eaves rather mr 

the ontside effect. lint inndo * it is the perfoctinn of mmplo Kr«M 

BimTalted in India except by the Moti mooqae at Agsm.' IxkJob^ 

■oroea the lake the ruined bailcKugs at the aonth-west connr an 

Mahmud Bcgnda's palace and hnritn. The lake covering 17| acrea' 

is a work of great beauty. Oblong in shape, it is Rnrroutided 

6igfats of atone steps, and has a most richly decoratod snpfply 

With the lake the Snrkhej buildings &>rm the most beanmnl 

in Ahmedabad. Belonging to the best period of the stylo, the; < 

throughout inarkiKl by purity and grace, and have the i 

iutorust of being almost purely Uiudu.wiih only the faintest Hut 

feeling. Tbo only ardies are three at the cotrauoe gntewaj, 

one great constrnctive arch in the palace. The rest is as comple 

Uindu as the templea on Mount Abu. Besides the chief group 

remains, the country round is studded with mosques and ot" 

hnildings. A little to tho south of the lake is a small ugly 

wa*hed tomb, tho burial place of B&ba ATi Sher, a saint held 

highor respect even than Gunj Uakhsh." Close by are tho roi 

of MirKa KhAii Kh&iin's (1583-Io90) Fateh Biidior victory 

taid out iu 1584 to mark his defeat of Muzaffar III. the Inst of 1 

Ahmcdaliad kings. In the seventeenth contnry Rarkhej wa» 

famous for its indigo that in 1020 the Dutch established a fact 

iu tho villago.* 

Section TIT. — Population. 

Of the popubtion of the city at the time of its greatest proRperi^ 
either in the fifteenth or seventeeuth century, no infornmli-m b»« 
been obtained.^ In 1780, when taken by General Goddard, tfav 
popalation was ostimatod at upwards of 1 00,000." In ISI I , »fU.T l«^ 
yoan of good management under the Gatkwar, the total is 

1 Then warn tmriod ftt Sarkkej, Ghjutili of Maatihkd unrivAlled in ilnpth of I 
uirl awetQicu of luizukfftt, at boom in the nAb1« tboaj>bU of the Sutii. H» i 
.XI ihiiSTih R»|"b im TA.D. 1575) ud wubiiriodby Akb«r ia SukiMJ. 8)« 
muui'a Atu-i-Akbari, T. K66. 

* Man(l(ilsla(ia3!!l} B|K4ksa( it m a grcAt Uke, fnllof wmter, ahntiaby a wkllfMi 
cdi ftll Biilea by lokiiy wtnJowa VavMM, IH. 

»Bma. Gov, Sri. X. 6?. 

AStavonntu, III. tOd; Su-khoj vu (KM) agrfiftt placaofpUghmaf* gmwutll' 
best indidA in tiujftrtkt, MmhIaUIo'* Tflrn^M, M; kU Uie indigo told u Ahmedkki' 
oomes [1666) from Skilcliei, Tlmvenut « VovagM, V. 32. 

* Forb«s (Or. M«m. III. 160) BUtetiOatW authority of 'MoithjJ writen,'t]Hti 
lftI5Alinw(liJ»dhi«iapopTilntiouof3,000,lW(>»..iiI», ood Mr. Hope tAroh. df- " 
abaci, 37) tjH-aiit tA • tixnf) SfiQOJOOO aaaU.' llitt it uema prob^le U»t 
wu DQvor H( rich or lo popalona w dnriiiiE Um latter pari <d Um acTHit 
oeatucy, &n(l noiiQ ftf th» anulahlft aocoanta written by KnropMO invaUin at' 
time point ta any tbioe like so lam a popniation. 

e Grant Uu 0*^430 : >M-bM'Or.M«m. IlL ISO, MxtycwfMay 1781), ip* 
aa Iba popolattga. But Umn icesu &» roaaon to anppoM it had taojMMd p** 



1200.000, a number tliat tfaofaaiiDeandpestnonceo{I8I2aii(l 1813 Chapt»XIV. 
»aid to liavo n'lliicotl by ono-hMlE.' In IS17, at the tirao of Places oflntere 
lafer, the populntion i» returned at 80,000.' Since tliea it haa 
tly iucreast'd lo 87,000 in IBM; 90,000 in I8a2>; H3»0 in 
; 07,0-18 in 1851, and 11(5,873 in 1872.* Asint* as 1781 about 
-thirdft of the city popalation are supposed to have been 
Ini&DS.' But since 1HI7 Hindus hare been mure numeroaa, 
pniportton increasing from aboat 76-31 per cent in 1824 to 
;t^ 21 per cent in 1872. 

In 1872, of the total popnlarion of 116,873 souls lod^d in 35,284 

), 92.619, or 97-24 per cent were Hindus; 23,491, or 20-00 

cent, Musalmfins ; 440, or 0'38 per renl, PArsis j 10 Jews ; 2tJ4, 

rO'32 pf>r cent, Chri-itians ; and 13 * Others ' not incloded in any of 

classes. * 

The following is a finmraary of the avaOablo information re^rding Dttaiia. 

tiie strength^ occupation, and oonditton,o£ the difFert-nt Hub-divisions 
'Uie A limotlabafl townspeople. Among H)ndu^i, llrahmans, 10,754, 
>t Nagara who are chiefly in Govommont serrice, middling; 
ivaks, 11,703, tniders, merchants, and luouey-Iendeni^ prospcroos; 
Tkalis, 8952, chiefly trailers, a few well-to-do, the rest poor ; Lnvdn^, 
S80,milfcsellers,tumeps,and8hopkeepors, middling ; Brahma-Kshatris, 
226, Gurermuiint semuits juid plwidym, well-to-do; Kayastha, 105, 
iParbhilSj-45, chiefly clerks iiiCiovpniinent. oftircs, well off ; Kan bis, 
MO, moncy-lendenf, traders^ weavers, and cultivators, as a class 
I-to-do; KAchliiaB, 1308, vegetable sellers, middling; MSlis, 446, 
rer sellers, middling; Khamars, 361, weavers and traders, 
prostwrous; Bh^vsdrs, calicoprinters, and Chbip^, caleudors, 2939, 
nuduling, a few arc rich and many poor; Khatris, 2624, weavers, 
middling, a few are rich nnd nmny poor; Salvia, 4D5, weavers, a 
lew are rich ; Ghduehis, oil-preasors, 2352, ougaged in various callings, 
well-to-do ; Sonis, goldsmiths, 2830, prosperous ; Suthfini, oairientcrs, 
2018, prosperous; Kansirfis, coppersmiths, 644, proaperooa; Lnh&rs, 
^jacktuuitlis, 1876, prosperous; Kadias, bricklayers, 1475, prosperoos; 
Bl^ts, ma5ions, 26, middling; Darjia, tailors, 88G, middling; KumbhiSrs, 
'pMers, 1608. middling; Hajams, barbers, 1365, middling; Dhobhis, 
visfaernien, 484, middling ; Bhistis, 64, wator-boorors and hackHmrt 
drivers, poor; Rftjputs, 1463, servants and labourers, poor; Oandliraps, 
30, bhiSis, 194, and Obaraua, 11, sougsters aud bards, poor; GoWs, 
1^43, ricepounders and ri<»! sellers, middling ; Bhois, palanquin bearers, 

^B llani. [>e*c. of Hm. I. SOS. 500,000 ia proWily uaexcBHire estiiDAte. Ja^fftng 
^EUi« IS17 tij(uref, at the diiiI of tho |>«ti]«iic« tho populatiuu wm not more Uuui 

mhr 7n.oiN). 

> Bno^' V\X»» «[ Cajftriahtra, 2-tS. > Brigg*' CitiM of r.njanlshtra. SOO. 

' Th« totjd 10I.97A. reconlwl lu the ISIM siirvej, wm c&lcuUtod od & total of 20,000 
{lth«lril«d hooMttwttb &I1 Averse nf 3^ Buals t'> oitoh house. Thi* hiw been ahnngcd 
lo 87.000 iMHita, aa Lke ceoitiB of 1846 it od 1631 Hhowol thnl tin- aTora([e> hnuioUoId 
lti4 oot contain mors than ihraa pemona In th* next, year ( 1825), Mr. C'rawfoiy). in 
ooawMtioo ffitb a |>rapi»«(I houM t«s,^*Meha niuubarof boaBai&t U5,»S'J0 inst«a(i 
of 1B,I90. The aurvfl7 Apirea an lh« mnst trnatwoHhy. as tmm the nalura of 
Ur. Crawfonl'H inqgiry lh» return wus |)nbab[y inAutaptpU'. TIi<> I84i! o«ii«iia riw 
I9.tit an*l th« lail ceusa*. 33,3*i9 Iwn-c* HricMa (Citi« of fiujaribhtra, 249) gifcs 
LOO.Om (MnwiiM fnr I»47. ami ThomUm 130,000 for 1&37, but thoM ftni cstunatoa. 

* JfattM* Or. Mau. \M. 15U. 

163, poor; FarAbiasam 
30i, SadKars. Hl.BAvch&j, 340, nm\ Pom 
Lpaor; BU^hnjiis, ^^iu parrhtrM, 73, poor; 
'K^ iB >ft-do; Bharrads and liabdria, ahcpi 

; Lodb^ gnss-sellers, 257, middling; V^^in^ 
■wi b^gus, as a. class poor, a few fwailia 
49o> coitou-tape makers and boggw^ u 
■hoHiialfeM, 1181, middliog-, a low ncfa; 
-tSJapoor ; Dabgant, drum makers, 71 , middluigj 
lia^ poor i Dheds and Bhaagiia, dopnMd 
Msbeggiu-8, 95G, of vrfaotD ShrfiTOk S&dhaa 
i^Wi. 3*) umbor 226, Dhandia Sadhus, 13, Sriai 
^^^^ ttSk Goa4» and Vair^, 261, KabirpanUiis, ^ 
a^B^aftnacUraaDd Sanj&is, 49; uthcr bct^ara.!^; 
mefaidcd in any of the aboro daiwes, ISL 

.of ISViBohor^ia and 281 Moman?^ w1u» vw 
eoaffitaon^ the Musaluidus, Goremtietit 
. pvfe^ thopkeBpere, weavera, and lafaoimn 
!wd 446 J Govemrapnfc servauta, traders, iSta^ 
tbey aro well-to^o. Jews, 40, clerks ud 
-d well-to-do, the rest middling. There* 
I wad 13 ' Others ' not includwl under au] 


b im. tt» cftj popnTntion of 116,873 sonla was U 

^^M'>aMI% 31.405 of them of the better, aad 3S79 of (ho'^, ^ 

housphold was S'35 persons xa the better hau9' 

The dwellings aro uacquallj distributed 

BHii»«nw XBSwasteru divUiuiis, with many npon spaces, 1 

tfcgai 3w Mvsoos to the aero compared with about 125 in 

■».* TW Msee (p. 323) are chiefly nppor eUiried of brick and 

IT «ttk tBri nwCs. Compared with Surat, timber is dear ■od 

% tMt llwn a maeh Iks rich wood carving-. Iq many parU of 

!■« % Atad «all tacoa the street, the windows bcui? on tb 

l-tttli IwilEiiig^ oa mn eneloaed coarhrord. One pecul "~~' 

' ~ ii ili irreat number (356)* of house groni 

IBMilfcrMifciiK. TIhw seem to date from the timo of divit 
tttt^ W3>» V*» Mawhaln and Hindu fights wore specially cot 
llfcai Willi (1 790-1833], when, in their decay, the town walls 
^i^ktlMrBrum n>bbers,the fol gate and watch must hart 

|^b4 P< iff Imb* group, has only ono or at most two ent._ 
yy^W^w d ly % fMN wi y ckmd at uigbtaH a sofecruard against thici _ 
|i,-f^r « jM» MMMfe a fcP U t, with crooked lanes branching on either •&- 
)|mI y^* itt9M»froaifira or ten to fifty or sixty houses. One of Oun, 
yhr U411CIY I ^ iklh* Jamilpar division, is much larger than the nrt 

\ v^ 

^^^^MTWCk*. AJBO. J»Iy IB. IS75. "^ ^^^ 

, ,_ ^H*«»taHid81 DodM-; SbihAmir hu 40. all of then maia pib; 
k^|M7t4|||MBHatai«da5wid«:KhidiTahu US. 108 of tlwaaua 




Chapter XIV- 
Places of liit«T« 


'•nd iuclmlos sorernl Biiiallfir/joil*, with an areaof abont fifty arwsftnj 
B |n»inilalirni of 10,001) Htmls, Poh are almost entirely iiilmbilLxi by 
Hinaiis, ill norno cascs by a settlement of families bclonpngto one 
lasti', Hiitl in tttliem by families of several uf tho liij^her castes, 
Br^imans, ViSniiis, Sntbars, and Kanbis. Most of tho pola have been 
eetabtuhed and provided with a gateway, at the expense of soma 
leading man ■whose name the jjoi in many caaes bcarsj and whi^a 
family ihnldR a poai'tion of respect as the bends of the pal. Each pol has 
genemlly its own watchman and its own sanitaiy aiTangements. The 
Ahmcdatcul talent for combining is shown in the mamigoment of tho 
fH)l affairs. Tho house property in tho 110/ is to anmo extent held in 
common. Formerly no man could sell or mortgage a house to an 
outsider witltout iirst offering it to the people of the vol. Though this 
mle is not now kept, inmates of a pol are careful to rpII to mon of 
their own class and never to people of low caste. When a house is 
mortgnf^i'd or Bold, the people of the pal have a right to claim from 
^ne-half to two per cent of the money received. Again, on wodding 
and uther great family occasions, each householder is expected to fetutt 
the whole ptii, and in some cases all the men of the Vfll, though not 
of the same caste, are expected to attend any funeral that may tako 
place. If the pot rules are slighted, the ofTenJer ia fioud, and, in 
i(»n[iur times, till ho paid, ho was not allowed to light a lamp in hia 
h(>D!)o or to give a least, Tlie money gatheretl from gifts, 6noa, 
and the percentage on house property sales, forms a common fund 
^toaiiagefl by tho lenders, gafJut, of the pol. This is spent on 
'Bepairs to tho pol gate, tho pol privioe, or tho pol well. The polia or 
i-nte-kocper is not paid out oE the fond. Uo earns his living by 
ijegging from tho people of tho pol and works a« a labonror for them. 

KComporod with sonth Gujardt tho Ahmodabad style of living is, 

'Soiong Hindus frugal and thrifty, and among Musalmans careless 
Mad costly. Among Hindus, the lower classes, especially the crafls- 
,meQ, aro much soberer than those of Snrat, and the upper classes, 
aft least equally frugal in every day life, give public feasts on a much 
emallor and loss costly scale. Ot late years a fondness for good 
living, pleasure, and show has increased, and, amongthe Ahmcdabad 
Shruvaks, their inborn love of gambling shows itself iu the large 
BDUis they win and lose at the Vastrdl bullock races. But, so 

i^ar, compared with Snr-at Vanias the love of pleasure and show is 
namsual. On the other hand, exoept the Uohorda and Momans, thrifty 
and well-to-do claftsea, the Ahmedabad Musalmdns affoct a showinesa 
ID their drejw, and on holidays and fair days, and at marriages, births, 

' and deaths spend sums that sink them in debt. 

Within the city there are sixty-four Uindu caste lodges, vo,iUi and 
^dharmahdUis, foin-teen in the Shdhapur, thirteen iu tho Daryiipur, 
.ftwenty-thi-co in the Khadiya, and fnnrt.een in tho Jamiilpur division. 

Of these, forty-(-ight aro able to hold cot more tiiaii DUO persons; 

eight, between 50U and 1000; two, between 1000 and 1500; threCf 

flOOO each ; one, 8000 j and two, 10,000 eadi. 

In MirK&pnr, the B&kar Ali's lodge, able to hold 10,000 persons, ShdMpur DiviatMT 
n used by all classes uf people who belong to his sect. I'ho lodgo 

Stylo of Living. 


ispter TtV. 
PUuws of Interest 

Out« LodgM. 

contains Bdkar All's cnsLion, g^li, before wliicli tiio tlerotett 
fnllnwcni »8Aorablo tind pray ; and OTonr Monday twenty poandi <„ 
grain aro distributed among the poor. The foUowcrs gire yearly noft- 
tenth of their iacoDio, and the fund at present amounts to £40 (Ke. 400]. 
The repair and othor charges are met from tliese oontribatiou. 
In Kaoikhad is the Bechwrd^ rest-boose boilt about 1872, ol 
able to hold a)»)ut 'iOO ium&tes. Hindu pilfjfnitm and tra vcDew 
are, as a role, allowed to pat np hero for a day, and are offered a 
day's food. The expenses are borne by Rao Bahadur Bechonlu 
Ambiid^, C.S.I. In front of Bukhara's pol, and able to hold 500 
persons, Barot Knrar BAjibfaAi's lodge wwt bnilt about 1849. ll 
contains a Mah&dev's temple and is used for litudu oastc dinnen 
Tberepciirand otlierchar^feB an) Uimo by the ownpr. Bnilt by tlK 
nncestnrff of Lallubhni Hangaldas, the Jh^loda ViiiiijU' lodgti is 
io hold 600 persons and containtt a temple of Ilemja Mibk 
u»ed by Jhaloda V^i^ for cast« dinoers. The repair and < 
cliargea are borne by the canto committee. Near the St 
spinning and wearing mill, and oat of the mill fands^ a lodge 
!'.> hold 40 inmates, was built about 1869, and set apart for the m 
t)f tbo maimed, diftabled, and hnmelesa, who are attended, to, Mil 
given food and dothos. 'Ihe expenf%s are bomu by Mr. 
the owner of the mill. Noar R^gila pot, about 1859, the 
gold thread drawers' guild, at a cost of £»00 (lU. BOOO), bt 
caste dinners, a lodge able to hold 2000 persoos. The alms-l 
fodavarit fiormorly uttacliod to the lodge, has, witlun the last tT 
months, been closed from want of fouds. The charges were bonli 
by iho trade guild from entrance feoB and other soorces of ini'' 
Moar NuTt&vis, about 1839, at a coat of £GUO (Ra. tiOOU), 
Renixdvdldt', or silk spinnors' guild, bailt a lodge able to hoM 
persona. It oontaiua a Mah&dov's and a Rdm's temple, and U 
for caste dinners. If a devotee, «(i(IA», puts up at tbe place, be is I 
Tlio chargi^H arc met by the trade guild from entrauwi fees anc' 
fines. In Bnkljiira's />!>/, built about 1729, tho BAva Sarasva 
lodge is able to hold 200 persons and contains a temple of Bee! 
when?, all day and niglit, a butter lamp is burned. Kice-pot 
potters, and Kanbis share the expenses of this lodge. Near 3t 
A'mblt, about 1849, tkepotters, Kumbh&rs, at a cost offSOOf 
built a lodge able to bold 1400 persons. It contains a 
Ranchhodji and is used for ca.<tto dinners. The repair and other cba 
arebomo by thecouncil of the pottere* caute. luGbi-Kantaisalc 
containing the cushion, ijiVU, oi Miya S&heb and styled Miya Saherk 
lodge. It 13 able to hold 1 00 persons and is used by Kanbis who hmr 
the cost of the repair and other chai^ges. Near Qhi-Kanto, aboci 
1839, Scth Magiinblidi Karamchand built a lodge at a cost nf £900 
(lis. 8000). It is able to hold 10,000 persons, and is osed for cuts 
dinners by Jains or Shrfivaks. Tbe repair and othor charges art 
borno by the Soth bim.sclf. Near Maganbh^'s lo*!?^) about. [HiO, Un 
sweetmeat-makers, i?aii(fefr,atBcostof £500 (lU. 50OO)built alo^ 
able to liold 200 perKons. It is used for caste dinners. Tbo repsir 
and other charges arc met partly from the rent of rooma attached, tad 
partly from the tundsoE the Kandois' nnion. Near Uaganbh^''B]od|g^ 
about i8^1>jtbertcc-pounders,GoUs, at a coal of about £-400 (Bs.' 


Placet of Iat«rMt_ 


, CuU Lodgoo. 

H^t a lod^ able to bold 700 persons. It contains a Mnhildcv'a 
HkipW an J is used for caste dinners. Th9 rent of the rooma at tacUed 
tnwta in |wrt tlio oipcuBt-s wliich are barao by tlio caste. At the 
fiankor mJX-a, about 18(57, the oil-prcasera, Gfmnchis, at n. coat o( 
Hot) (Rs. :iO00j Luilt a lodj/o able to hold 300 pei-soiia. It is used 
^E casto diunera^ repair and other charges being mot by the oaste. 

^At the PanTcor im/ivi, about 1779, Brahmftchdri Ramananfl, at a Thu-ydpnr iKvkSa 

coat of £100 (Rs. 1000) built a ledge. It ia a spauicua enclosuro 

.able to hold lUOO pernonH, and hjks rooms round it which, yielding a 

yearly rent of £30 (Ra. 300), meet the ropnir and other charges. In 

the Tankwil j)ol, about lSo7, the Umttbhiii lodge wag built at 

a cost of £2000 (Rfi. 20,000). Ablo to hold 2000 persons, the lodge* 

OODtains a Jain temple and ia used for casto dinners, 'fho repair and 

other charges are Uurue by the Soth himiiclf. At Ghi-Kdntn, about 

180t, the Sainfil Benhar lodge was built at a ciwt of £1000 

(Ra. 10,1)00). Able to hold 50O pcr-sons, the lodge contaius a 

Mahadev's temple aud is used fur caKlu dinners. The temple has a 

yearly Govemniont cash allowanco of £.•> (Rs. 50] which meets the 

repair and other charges. In DabgarvAda, about 185+, the oilmen, 

Ghanchis, btiilt a bdgu able to hold 500 persunti. It is used for 

caste dinners, llio repair and other cliargi'rf l»eing Iwrne by the casto. 

Ne.-ir Katkiavfld, about IS19, tho Khatris, at a cost of £1000 

(lis. 10,000) built » lodge nblo to hold 200 persons. It contains & 

temple of Hiny;laj Miita and is u&ed for casto dinners, Tho coato 

OQuiicil bears the repair aud other charges. At tho Pinjara ndha, 

tat 1810, the Kanbis of tho Bhada Bhavat pol built tho 
chhodji lodge, able to hold 500 persons. It is used for caste 
lers, the repair and other charges being mot from tho rent. In 
iun^-lvudtt. abonb 18.*J9, at a cdst of £400 (Rs. 4000), the Kadi&i 
nU a lodge able to hold 500 pc^rsons. It is nscd for caste dinners; 
uns and other charges Jire met from caste funds. lo HjIjb patcl's 
tho Visa Shrimali Shravak Vaniaw, at a cost of £100 (Ra. 4000), 
nult a lodge able to hold 1000 persons. It Is used forcasto diunora, 
ibe repair and other charges being met from caate funds. In Dhaua 
Sutbdr'a p'j/, abont 18-ty, Seth Abliechiind Pauiichand at a cost of 
£500 (R». 5000), built a lodge able to hold .500 porsous. It is used 
for rasto dinners. In Burhan Miya's pol, the IMvat casto, at a cost 

K£200 (Ra. 2000), built the Deiikuva lodge able to hold 300 person*, 
is nfiod for caato dinners; the repair and other charges ai-o met 
m tho rent. Near tho BechnrdiS.s dispensary an old woman 
ib^biii, about IS20, at a mst of £300 (lis. 3000) built a lodge 
able U) hold 100 persons. Itcontjunsa temple of Kanchhodji and 
is used for csiato dinners. The repair and other charges are met from 
(be rent Near Chandan Talavdi one Bdpnji Mahdrdj, at a cost of 
>0 (Rs. 3000) built ilie Miutrii.V(U-'is lodge. At present (1879) it 
longs to the ilasruvdlde, the weavers of Ahmedabad cotton and 
clothj viwsru. Able to hold 400 persons the lodge is used for 

It U whoro Uio old luiut ui«d to utaod. 

tt BcbooL 

B IS7-3S 

On cae (idc there is Ui« HarkuvarliiU's 


Placea of Int«tMt 

CHt« Lodsia. 

JChadiga DieUUM. 

cnsto diTiners. Before 187C only p«rx:hed gmm was given in rWitr. 
Since thun nn alnm-hriiiHe, mt'li'tcttrt, h»s henn ertftblished oRenng 
every betrgar who will oook and oat it within tho onclosnre, oop day'* 
food. The gnild fnod? of ih\n clana at preneni (1879) amoimt b> 
£1500 (Rs. 15,000). Formerly thpireBrlyrovenne amounted to£SOO 
(Re. &O0O), but owing to deM^lming trade it b»a fallen to £M0 
(Bb. 20O0). In the KfiliipurrAflWa is the Qajtanivilhui' or ailk wsarai' 
lodge able to hold 200 persons. Purohw! gram costing- £50 (Rb. 500) 
a year is distributed here daily. The expenses are mot from a fc* 
of 1 ^lil. (1 awiui) on eat^h piece, -pat or tdh^ of silk, which in ordioaiT 
BoafloDfl yields £100 (Rs. 1000) a year; some yean ago it azaonnDed 
to £200 (Rs. 2000). 

In Gali^r&vdd is a lodge built by the g^ild of the Obindui 
or oit-pressers. Able to hold 450 persons, the lodge contaiiu i 
temple of BocUraji Mat«., and is uaod for cast© dinners. The repair 
and other chaises are met out of the cnste funds. Near the HavoU 
pol is s lodge bnilt by the Vadnognra Xiiigar KrAhmana at a ooal of 
£500 (Rs. 6000). Able to hold 50U persons, the lodge eoania 
a tcmplo of Mat^ji and is used for caste dinners. Tbo repair aai 
other charges are mot out of the caste fouds. Neiur tlio PaacUnm 
gate 19 a lodge built by the guild of the Tagiaa, or mSt 
dnklers. It is able to hold 2000 persons and baa an altn*- 
honse, tailavart, attached to it. Ere^ beggar is given a day's 
nncooked food with mnlassofl, ^ol. Bat the same mea do not 
(fet fed day after day, Beaidea this, 200 pounds of rice and ptt^ 
michmli, are daily cooked and dis^bnted to the poor. Erwy 
begiuuer in this trade htta to pay £30 (R«. 500), ami tbe gniU 
fund at present (1879) amounts to abont t¥im (Rs. 40,000). Ketf 
the Paiichkuva gate, about 1849, the'KausanU or coppcMmrib 
built a lodge able to hold 500 poraona. It is used for caste dinn4>n. 
lhoro|Mur and other charges being met from tho cnste funds. Kcar 
the Panchkuva gate is a lodge bnilt by the ca«te comniiti«»o of tte 
Khamirs, a clafis of wonvoi-s. It is able to bold 350 peraona, Iw 
a tetnpio of Becbr6ji M/tta, and is nscd for caste dinners. The rofMur 
and other charges are borne by caste funds. Near the Pancbkan 
gate is a lodge bnilt by tho gnild of tho Kadia, or bricklayer, 
caste. It is able to hold 1200 persons, has a Mahadov's temple. 
and is unod for caste diunen*. Tho repair and other charges are borott 
by cttste funds. In Dotntkhftna is a lodge built by Salh&rs» <r 
carpenters. It is able to hold 800 persons, has a Mah/ider's tempk. 
and is used for caste dianera. Tho repair and other charges arc borne 
by the caste funds. Near the l*anchkuva gate is a lodge hoitt 
by Setb Mayftbhfii who bears the repair and other charges. It is tiM 
to hold 60U persons and is used for caste dinners. In Golntd ba 
lodge built by Htith Harivallabh Mulchand who bears the repair 
and other charges. It is able to hold 150 persons and is naod for 
caste dinners. In L&kha Patcl's pol is a lodge built by the carts 
of DcB/LViU Vflni&s. It is able to hold 300 persons and is used for 
caste dinners. The repair and other charges are borne by thecal 
funds. Near tho I'uncbkuva is a lodge built by the Khatri people- 
It is able to hold 100 pcrsou^, has a Hahbdcv's temple, and ia nat" 



Chapter ZIT. 
Fl&cu of ijitereBt' 


>rcMto dinners. The repair and other charges are borne by tlio caste 
fnods. lu flHypiir is a loilgu built by Ur' aucostora of outi Bujurav. 
[t is ablo to hold 150 persona, has a Mahddov's tetnplu uud is 
MCasioDally used (or cast« diuuers. The repair aud other charges 
Ire borue by tho ownor. lu K&ypur is a lodge atylud Dolatray 
Uagutr^y's lodgo. It is ablo to hold lOO porsons, hatt a MahAdeT's 
templeaud is u^ed for ca»to dinners. The repair and other charges 
kre buroo by the owaer. lu Rjiypur is a lodgo built by a l»te flaroda 
immatcr VoQimm aud jfivoii over to his castemen tho Amlich 
Brdhmaiui. ItisablctohuldloOpersoua. The repair aud other charges 
fere burnt) by tho founder's family. la Sarkhiviid is a ledge built by 
Ran^y or silk dyers of the Leva Kanbi ctuss. It is able to hold 100 
persons and is used fur caste dinners. TIio rei>air and other charges are 
Mme by Uio funds of the Kaiigrcj ueion. At the I'anchktiTa gate is 
% lodge built hy a timber dealer and carpnuter, flanj?»rftin. It is 
ftble to hold IVU persons, lius a Mahadev's Leoiple, aud is used for 
imsie dinners. Tlio repair aud other cliar^Tfl are home by the owner. 
En the old Khfidiya ward is a lodffc built by one Haririlm. It is 
able to hold lUU persons, iuia a Muhadev'a teiuple, and is uaod for 
imste dinners. The re))airaiidothor eharj?es arc borne by the owner. 
Opposite to Amritlttl's itul is a lodge built by a Vittnagara Nagar 
BnibiiMU, Amritlal. It is able to hold J 50 pursous, has a temple of 
Malittder, aud is used for caste dinners. In Dolatkh^ua is a lodge 
built by the Darji or tailor caste. It is able to hold loO persons 
uid is owd for caste dinners. The repair and other charges are homo 
by the caste funds. Ne^r the Vad fil police station is a lodgo built 
by one Mauibdra. It is able to hold IJO persons, and is used for 
caste dinners. The repair and other chargos are borue by the owner. 
In the S&rangpnr chakla is a Tarvadi's lodge able to hold 200 
perauns. It is used for caste diuaers. It has a temple of Mah&dov 
visited by many people. Thw repair and other charges are borne by 
the owner. Near Gh^sirfttn's yol is a lodge beJonging to KhadilytA 
VAni^. It is ablo to hold 200 persoa:*, and is used for casto dinners. 
The repair and other charges are borne hy the caste funds. Near tho 
Kh^ya police station is a lodge belonging to the Sathodra N/Lgar 
Br^man oasto. It is able to hold 4-00 persons, and is used for 
mate dinners. The repair and other charges are borne by the oaste 

At the Pi4nkor ymka is a lodge styled Amn Miy^'s lodge. It was /mnd^ Z>)t>i«ii 
baUt by an ancestor of a certain Jama^lar Auiu Miya J&mu 
Bliya during the Mariitha rule in Ahmedabad. It is ablo to hohl 
&00 persons and is used by Musalmans. Men from any of the GujariSt 
Btfttes also put up here. The repair and other charges aru met from 
thereat of the outside rooms. In Kigcli lane is a lodge built aboat 
1864, at a cost of £oOO [Ka. 5000) by the Visa Shrimali ShrilTaks 
for the use of their own caste. It is able to hold 3000 jHtraous and ia 
used for caste meetings as woU as caste dinners. The repair and other 
Dhargesare met from tho rent of tho outside rooms. At KliiiLma>«a'8 
pAoJbL is a lodge builfc, about 1861, at a cost of .£UO0 (Rs. Ifi^OOO) 
fend styled the i>fLs;t-Niigar-Meshri Viinius' lodge. The lodge is able 
|o hold 1000 porsoua and ia used for caste dinners by all Hindu cautes. 

lapter XIV. The ropairan J otlior cliarges art? in©t from tlierent of the oatsit^eraoau. 

Placos of Interest' ^^ Klifimiisa'arytaWu is nnother lodge built id ISIU. Able to hold 400 

persons, the lodge containg a Hananmn'atcmplcatid jsnsed for l.t: ! 

KiiiivAiui>. casto dinners. The repair and other charges are borne by the Ij:h4 

Cwta Lodgm. ^^^^ funds. Along the Tiijpnr wall is a lodge bailt about 1779 aaJ 

Jamdijmr DieisHm. ^ylod Lftla Tnjeraiu's lodge. It f^ able to hold 200 peraonfl and u 
used for caf^te dinners. The repair and other chargxe are bonn' '7 
a h&vn. of Chhahila Hannmdn. Along the same wall is u Luii -^ . 
or blacksmiths*, lodge built about 1864. It is able to h.^ld i!") 
persons, has a Maha^lev's tomplej and is ascd for castti dinner-. 
The repair and other charges arc bomoby thoeaste funds. Outinitt 
the I'njpiir Chuligara^W is a lodge built nbont 1819. Ahlo to holil 
500 persons, the loilgo belongs to the Chiligara pot aaiea. hra « 
Hanumin'a temple, and is UBod for castodinners, Then"pair!infi*'t}i^ 
charges ore buriiu by tliu pol funds. In S&lvis' j>vl js a 1' 
about 177ft and able to hold 100 persons. It has a -M — u- 
teuiplo and is nscil for caste dinners. ITie repair and other chargesan) 
bonm by thy jwl fuud«. Near the Oaikwar's havili, or palace, is 1 
lodge built alMmt 1720 and styled lliinntldl Mnlukcbaud's lodfte. 
Able to hold 200 porsfms, the lo»lgc contains a Mahiidov'a tfunli' 
and is UHL-dIi.'rea»lo diuuenf. Tlio n'pair and other cliargi« aruljiin' 
by the owner. Nitar the flancah giito ia a very old lodge sU 1 'I 
liailtiadhiin's lodge. U is able to hold 400 persons, haa a Midiadi'^ > 
temple, and is u&ed fur i.7i£to dinners. Many GosAis pot up aod 
live in the lodge. The Gos&is boar the repair and other chargw. 
In the M<K:hi lane is a ledge bnilt about IN-J'J and able to hold ^ 
noi-sons. It in lined Et>r dinners of the Moehi or aboemaker c-i u-. 
The repair and other charges are borne by thecaatcfands. B-.-lniiJ 
Salvis' pol is Sv^mi Motipuri's lodge built about 1809. Able ta 
hold 400 persoiiK, this lodge cxtntains a Mahfuk-v's temple and i> 
used for cnsto dinners. The repair and other rharges are bomo by « 
Oo»ii. In D^nnpith is a lodge built about 1^39 by the PhnUiiu', or 
grain dealers' gnihl, who hear the repair and other chargi's. It ia 
uhlo to bold 256 persons and is nspd for cafit<i dinners. In the Maudrj 
pvl is n lodge built about 1779 and styled Joita Dhola's lodge. 
Able to hold :}00 persons the lodge has a Mah^dev's temple and it 
nscd for casto dinners. 7^ho repair and other charges arc borne hj 
the owuoi*. 

Most of the clilef places o£ woi'ship haye recdved separate noticf. 
But as Ahmcdabud is the hiiad-tpitu-ters of the Gujarat Joio iX 
Shravak sect, somo farther details of their places of worship are 
given hei-e. Hesides au altar with images in theimderground cdhr, 
ftA/»yr/i, of every dwelling, the Jains have upwards of 120 tomplc*. 
Of these, eighteen, bcRidos Uatising'a alreaay described, from their 
BiJie or other reasouB, call for special notice. Of the eight«n, 
twelve are in the LhiryApur, four m the Khadiya, and two io Uio 
Jamalpur division. 

Jten T«inpI«L Of the Dary-npur temples, Shambhan&tb's in the Jawheri\-^d:i /^>' 

I>arydptir £}iviiwii, of llio same name, is one o[ the oldest and largest, Ite dal*" is n<-'t 

luiown^ but it is said to have been built by the Join community at * 

Tmipl*.* aiKl 


Chapter XXT- 
nacea of Intenst. 

Jftia Temploi. 
Darifdpur Divition. 

cost of .C10,O0O(Rs. 1,00,000). Ontsidc, the baUding is plain with no 

markod arcbitectiu-al features. Inside, there are three divisions, the 

nuktuiap or porch, the aasombly hall, saiha mamlap, and the shnnc, 

vijinnndir, the floor of ftU laid with rich tuarble. From the anWui 

tnanii'ip a, l]i|;ht of steps loads to an undorgroDud tcmplo of tho same 

azo ttH tJmt above gi-oiind, and Uko it, divided into three parts, man-tap, 

sahh't in-iiuUtp, And nljinandif. TIio ceiliug is supported by pillars, 

and the fluur is rJcliIy iuluJd with luarblo. Tha objects of worHliiji oro 

thn* riclily finished mfirblo fijfurea about twico tbii siaoot life. 

Jajjvallubh Vf^rasDath's in Nisa jiot lu Jawhorivii^ is an old tomple 

Ijuilt at a cost of £750f) (Rs. 7o,W0) by a company of Jaiu j)iljfriiua. 

It baa two nnder-i^raund collars, hlioyra. One of thorn contains a 

Statue of Jagvallabh Pai'asnath with two small sbitues, one on each 

side. Opposite ta this is another room with a st^iiue uf A'deaar 

Maix&T^\ nnd smaller statncs, one on each side. The old temple of 

A'dL-Tuir Bhagvun iu JawhurivfUlu wiui robuilt about 1Sj9 by Soth 

LnJlubhAi Piniichaud at a cot^t of about £J0OO (Rs. rjOjOOO) ; it bag 

ft largo ander;,'romid cellar with thrco larffo statues. Tho int4^rior 

is ipury richly liuibhed with mnrblo ttoors. The Chomitkji tomplo 

in Clioni:ik]i /«>/ in Jawbifriviida was in ISlJO (l!)22 S.) built hy 

Beth MaganbhAi IlakfuncbaTid at a cost of aboat £1500 (Us. 

45,000). Tho old temple of Chiutimau, with an uudergruund cellar, in 

Juwherivsida wns built by tlie (Kinitniltce, ^^rji/r/i, nt a coat of abimt 

12:.0U (Rs. 25,000). Annthor old tomple of Chint6m:*ii ParasnatU 

in Juwherivada was, about 1 H-jt). rebuilt by Seth Siirajmal Vakhatsbiv 

at ft cost of about £1000 (Its. 40,000). The old tot.iple of Ajitn^th 

in Jawheririda was rebuilt by Seth Vakhatchaud Kbusbaichand at a 

ooet of about £4000 (Ka. 40,000). The old temple of Mahavir Svami 

inJawheriv^a was burnt down. Another wa-s, at a cost of about 

44000 (Hs. -10,000). iu ISiO (1905 S.), raised on the spot by Rao 

fiahildtir Proniabhai Hemiibhai. In Dosivilda po/ is the Asbtapadji 

temple built in 185fi (lt)12 S.) by Seth Maganbhai Karamchand at a 

cost of tOoOO (Its. (iJ.OOO). Partly Jain partly Musalinaa in style, 

the inside iu paved with different coloureu marbles, and in the shrine 

are fifty-threo marble seats, fifty-two of them white with four figures 

each and the 53rd black with sixteen images. Tho temple of 

^Jlandir Svami in Dosivfidajiot was built by tho Jatn community of 

;'Osr£l Vanias at a cost of £M)00 [Rs. 40,000). The temple of 

Dharmndtb iu the Tauksi'd ^o! was, in ISiO (19I5S.), built by Sethdni 

HarUuvarbiii at a cost of about £2000 (Ks. 20,000). The old temple 

of A'dosar Bhag-van in Dhana Suthhr p'll was built at a cost of about 

£3000 (Rtf. 3U,000) by Sada Somji. The cost of repairs is home by 

^Ui e committee, jiai^rA. 

HHfah^vir SvAmi'a was an old temple in tho Phati^a poL It was Khd^^ J^ioiaio%\ 
^Pbnilt by Seth Umiibhiii Uupchand in 186)5 (1922 S.) at a cost of 
£5000 (Rs. 50,000). E-tcupt a row of Jaiu pillars iu front and in the 
inner porch, aai/ki mandap, iho tomplo in uf no architectural interest. 
The old Uansnfithji'a temple in Plmtiisa />o/ was in 1862 (1918 S.) 
rebuilt by Sothuni HarkuvarbAi at a cost of £J000 (Rs. 50,000). 
Tbe Jain community bears Iho cost of repiiirs. This temple is 
l^andaomcly buiil with a douic, titoue piikre, and luarblu Uoor. Tho 



Oitf W^ 

old lemple of Neminilli in Chang poi mis bailt by the 
ocd&iiuiiuU Bl a coat of sboat £3000 (lu 30,000). The old 
of ShambhsTii£th in Kalapar mu bailt by iKe panch at a i 
sboot £7000 (B*. 70,000). It has an undergroaQd collar auS 
statue of SbambhaToJUb and another of Chiotdmanndth. 

The old templa of Godi Pananith in Tokaraha's jtol was built by 
the pamth at a cost of aboat £5000 ( Rs. 50.000). Tho Saraar Shtkbr 
tootple* in the Maudvi pol was bmit by Ropvi jny ^hardj at a O0«ftl 
about £5000 (Ba. 50,000) raised by aabscriptioQ. ~ 

Thoogh, in and roand the Ahmcdabsd city, there is no 
esteem^ holy enough to draw warehippera From any groat dist 
in addition to the Uinda piljorrinuige of wAlking roand the 
every third year, twenty-foar fairs are held, fifteen of them ~ 
and uno Hoaalmdn. All the Hindu and three of tho Mn 
fairs la«tt for ooe day, and of the rest none are held for more than I 
days. Kxcept at the tihab A'lam fair, whore thoro is a vciy ! 
tmfficking. at none of those fiin does tho trading go beyond 
aeUing ol flowera, fruit, sweebneato, and toys. 

Keoct in merit to the world pUgrunage, prilhoi pradttkAn 
oomee tho city 'pHf^nmBi^,na'jarj)radaJcflutnn. Oneo in erory throe 
Hindn years, during tho intercalary month, .'W/n't or Purtuhottau 
tnd-$, iliudn women^ ud some holy duya, walk barefoot rout 
city, bathing and worshipping at seventeen * places, most 
on the left bank of the Sabarmati. la making this round,] 
etarta early in the morning for Diula Hnrir's well, and going^ 
the north, west, sonth, and east, comes home throngh the 
she left by. On coming into the city she Tisita some 
before going home. To do all this takes a fnll day, from ten I 
honre. Any one doing the piignmage passes the day 
does not sleep daring the night, and next day does not btvskl 
fast bill she has feasted some Brdhmans.' 

t Of this t«mpl4i the anrrsy reoord of IS21 cnntjun>tbe (••Ilnwing not»»: 
abrtut » tiontiiiy Mid ft tuJf Ago, *t m cott of SlSfiOlt (ft*. 1,36,000) thu Umple i*i 
iirvUy, auil faiuiibumcljr psveal witli Ruu-Uir. It veto ita Dane, th^i Sumnr M 
frxiin A mcwt «UboRittf carTiBsof Ui« (abled hill of Smdats. ncred both tmaag 
and Brihmaaic Hinilua ; aoa rdtgUBMn'a Uisi. at Arch. III. 231. 

3 Though Ihcj liftthe at moM plkiica, the wbole ewrwaouy is known ms Um M«1« 
bktJu, biir lin mdAdru. 

B The order of vintinK and the rit«t to tm pcrformod st Uio diflPenmt piva 4 
wonhip, an u foUowa : Jjrida flarir'i well, buxhA, And wonhip NdkAntli MAhidtt 
and A ohirji ; Camp, hathe and wonhip Hnnnmin ; K/iadgmiJt^vinoar, bitviai tU 
cunp uid 8hihi lUu, hatha «nd vorahip th« KhAdgtdUrMbvtt HaUbdcv : SUk 
Aitf, bathe nod worehip UhlmolUi Mahidcv ; ^inranghai at Pkdto tn, hiOitt at 
btay to th» snn ; Ihidhtdtoar, bathe vid wonhip Dsdhicbi liishi U«hid»v ; Clliiwfri 
Udf/'i, bathu and pnty to tho Almighty ; WAdAdpiir, Inthe end prty to tb« Atmii^t 
Kluinp«r, hiithv nnd yn.j to tb» iUmigbty ; Bitrttdart, hmht muA pea* la lla 
Alzoi^bty ; Xnm f/o/e or JTaAddnw) An, bathe and woiBbip HaUtdev ; /IWMJUfi 
Maltddet!, bathe and vronhip MahAdev ; Bdukhait, batbo and pray to the AhaUAri 
, JTUh Jahan, hatho and wonhip Mithldnir t Jnitiaifmr, batliu and wonhip Hnhfti* t 
Saitt/i Ki*lii.bAiht! and 'tinirhip iiiJiM»v iii/tti/uiMUii, uIUm aad wonihin MiliiifT 
Uttni Uiv pilgtim givca aims. 


Hindn fsirt. 

Shit^'Stilan or 

At Dadheahvar K/ijipur, about a mile nnd a half north-wcat of tlio Chapter XIT- 
Delhi gate, on .'Udd v<ul HlKK f J iily) is heM tho DirfLsa fair attended p^^gg o7lnt«t«t 
by about l^^OOU Uiudus who bathe, worship Maliaduv, audgive alms. 

At the ShihiBag,orP4dshahi Bildi.on S/immn vad?ih (August) a 
Hindu Tair is licld, attended by about 1^,000 people, Tho story of tho 
origin of the fair is that, in tho time of Vikram, achildleSs Vdiiiaof 
TJjain, asking a Bnihman wliat he should do to gtjt an hoir, was told 
that, if he duf? a largo hiku, tho j^oddens Shitia would bo pleased and 
grant his wish. Tho Viinia built a lake, but it remained dry. Asking 
Another Brahman, he wa^ advised to win the goddess's favour by 
offering her a liuiiiiin sacrifice. Securing hia victim the VAnia 
went to king Vikram and entreated him to offer the sacrifice. The 
king agreed, and on Skmvaii, ead 6th stood with tho victim id 
the middle of the lake, and on the seventh slew him. As soon an the 
victim's blood fell on the ground, the lake filled with water, and the 
hodics of both king and victim disnppcarcd. But before tho day was 
orer, the godd(*9s came and carried them away in a car. Then tho 
peopltf. that had come to see the sacrifice, Lalhud in the lake, and 
guiui; homo, ate food cooked tho day before. Like thorn tho 
worshippers on this day, bathe with cold water and cat no freshly 
'ted. food. 

LttheSh/ihi Bfig, or Pjidshahi Bidi,OQ Skravan vad 8th (Angnst), 
lononr of Kriubua's birthday, a Hindu fair is held, uttendied by 
it 10,000 people.' 

Lt the Sbiibi Bi^, on Bhiidarua aud 8lh (September), a Hindu fair 
. held attended by about 15,000 people. Tho story of this fair 
7that oUL-e a wonuin wout with her daughter-in-law to cut grasa 
jn a fiiild. The; daughter-in-law said she would not cut bent, darOf 
[staas and gathered a bundle of other kinds. Ou their way home 
limy hoard tliat their huuiju was on fire. Tho daughter-in-law had 
left her child in thecradle,and ranhing into tho fire found it unharmed. 
So it came that on this day a fair is hekd and no bent grass is cut. 

The month of Shnivart (Angnst) and especially iu Mondays are 

Kaarwd to Shtv. On tho last day, amiis, about 15,000 Hindns visit 
'^ilkanth Mah&dov at As^rva about a mils north-<»sfc of the 
Asitrva, abont a mtle north-east of the city, is tho scat, gtidi, 
clidrji Mahiir&i. Uoldiug him to be an incarnation, avtiXr, of 
Eriahiia, on Kdrtait sud 9lh (November], about lOjOOO Hindus visit 

tTbv story of Kriahna'abirtli in, tliat K«unti thv ruler of Maihurft, warned that lut 
I>Bvki'ichi]<l would kill hiiu, kept huciuidhcrliuibaii(iyaaa<I«v in ooatiDemffnt. 
■mn timu to timn, hj atriking thum ugitloaLu atoiio, kiUeJ hercbildren lu they wcro 
In thu Wfty hvou ohildrvO w«r« slun. Tti« el^lith, K rialina, bom >t midnight 
fa ttrdnui rod 8th, wu at anoe takea to Ookol and snMdt over to ita rulur, Numl. la 
ftlCDni a (UnghtcF, bom in tbe XahiI fiunily, wm bronght to Mnthui-ft and Uid beuda 
Kfuhm'a mothnr. The iii*xt (biy, Kaiiim, linarinff of the birtli, );<>l tli« cbild.and, M ha 
■Iswhur, hirr spirit, iinppvAricigiuxl>gbtuiugllMb,crif)il'Vour«uaiuyujUivviaO<tlutI 
«ad will luU yun.' 

Of Janma 

I>an A'Uam. 



Uinda Fmm. 


JtiAi PancAnt. 



JtalhJdira or 



Uosalnt^ Fain. 

2>dmli Bofmrdt' 

In the Gomtipnr subarb, a mile Ronth-onst of Uin S«rangpar pU, 
on tho trsdiag netr year's day, Knrt'tk nud Iri (November), Mlml 
20,000 Hindus visit tlio t^mpluuf Nareiub. 

At tho Kdnkariya lako outside tho A'stodiyn gutc, on A^m ni 
JOib (October), is the Dasera fair attended by about 15,000 tneBi 
[liiiilii!!! of nil dasKeg. Amonff them the Dftkshaui BriUtmAna 
Maratltils worship the aluuni tree. 

On the second I^nnday in Shrtirnn. (Aufa^sO nbont SOOO 
visit Sukhray Mab&dev at Vastral, a rilliigt^ about fuur milei^ 
east of the city, 

A week later, on the third Munday in Shmvnn {Auj^u.-tt). 
Uie same numlwr (6OO0) of Hindus vinit tbo MahAdcvat ShAhivi _ 
a village about two and a half miloH nuuth-vcst of the Jani^par gile- 

Outside the JamiUnur gaio, on BhdAarva stid 5th (Augastltft Ht 
is held at tho Seven Saints' Lamling, Sapta Jitshi no A'ri/, on the ieh 
bank of Ibe HjibartimLi- It is att^-'udL-d by about 5000 Hindus. Tht 
Htxory of tho fair is tlmt Aonio ouo porformiu;^ ceremonies iu honoBT 
of the dead, a.-*ki"^d sfnuc BnUunans to dine at his house. The wi^nua 
of the bouse, whilu cuukiui;, found herself ctircmouially uncl«ma» 
fi»ring that the food would tra thrown away, told no one. 
Brtlhrnana diuod and left. But hor guilty conscieuco gun 
woman Qo rost, and she went to a saint, Riakif who told hor to 
this BM<lafm gttd 6lh holy, and on it U> cat nothing groire Tif 

Ontaido tho Jamalpnr gate on Ktirtak sml loth (NoTomber)j 
Shr4vak fair is uLtend^ by abi^ut 10,000 people. Tbi^ is the Usli 
of the niiny, chmmisH, Kuasou and the Shruvaks are now free to _ 
tours and pilgrimages. A map of the temple and Sidhiichii] bflll 
Falitiina is hung up and for Shraraks, whocuuunt leave Abmc 
the sight of the map is as guod rs tho sight of I'alildna itself. 

Ou tho river banks, from early morning to aboutll a.k. on, 
S7t'l Jlth (November) at tho end of the rainy season, the Dut-d 
agiartw fair, in honour of the god'*' return after their four moi 
rust iu tho lower world, is attended by about 20,000 Uiadu«. 
this marriagos, that have beeu stopped during tho four rainy moaC 
can again Le hold. 

At tho Jam^pur gate, on Asdd eitd Snd (July), about 
Hindus join in dragging the Jagannath car. The practice 
introduced, iu 1SG9 by a certain naum^udas Bava from Jagaou^ 

Within the city at the Sv^i Nttrdyan temple ta Dary&por, QO 
CluiUur sud 9th (April), the Elamnavmi fair in honour of ttiatt 

birthday, is attended by about 10,000 Uindua 

Within the limits of AMrva about a mile north-east of the ei^ 
in honour of Kutb-ud-din, a Mtsul MuUh of tho 8hia Bohoris, ' 
died in 1035 (104ti H.), on the S7lk Jarnddv-uLakhxir, a Mi 
fair, -urtM^ is attended by about ^00 people incladiug many Bobofv 



£rom distant villngee. Th« fair luta For three d&js uid some petty 
tmdiag goea oa. 

At the village of RAkhi&l about U miles east of the S^rongpar 
oate, OD the Htui Jamudi-ul-aunoal a Muealuidn f&ir, ur<u, is uttonaed 
by aboat 500 people. Tbo fair is in honour of Malik Sharaf, a 
■lave of Sultan Muhammad sod ot SulUtu Ahmad I., who was 
minister, rosiV, to Sultan Kutlj-ud-dio, aud fltjied Malik Shabdn. 
Giving up his office he devcted himself to a rcli^ons life and died 
j^ bis estate in the village of Kakbial in 140& (ij7G H.). 

■ About a mile and a balf ontsido the Jam&Ipnr gate, at tho village 
of Daniltmbda, on tbe SOth Jamadi-ul-dhhar, in honour of Sh4h 
Alain, a MuBalm&n fair, uraa, is attended b; about 60,000 people 
from Bombay, Snrat, Cambay , and K&thidw^r, as well as from the 
Afamedabad district. It is one of the largest of the citv fairs and 
IflMts for five days. A few Hindus attend and some small trade ia 
carried oo. 

Details of the Pirina fairs are given above at page 2S3. 

At Sarkhej, on the 14th Shawwdl and two following days, a 

Hfurmlmau fair, ur(u, in honour of Shaikh Ahmad Khatta or Ganj 
Bakhsh, who died in 1445 (850 H.), is attended by about 4000 people. 

At Sorkhoj, on the 10th Jama4i-ul-awwa.l and two following days, 
uiothcr Mu3ft!mdn fair, uraa, in honour of Biba A'li Sher, a saint, 
vrati, notvd fur his practice of wearing no clutheSj^ who died in 
li45 {SbO H.) is attended by abont 1000 people. 

In the Sh£hiSpur divi.sion near the civil hospital, ou the S7ih 
Jamadt-ul-aunval &nd two following days, a Miisalnian fair, in honour 
of Firroad Sh&h, is attended by about 3000 people. The saint who 
died in 1749 (1163 H.), lies buried in a tomb near tho Patharkuva 
Or stone-well in this diviaioD. Many Sunni Bohor^s and other 
Musolm&ns attend. 

At the Rhanpur gate in the west city-wall on the lOih 
Bluharram is held the greatest Musalman gathering, the Muharram 
fair. It la.it8 for one day, and almost the whole city, as well as people 
irom outside villages attend. Though with leas show and on a 
^matter scale than in Surat, the practice of carrying tdzioM, or 
iontations of the tomb of Im&m Husain the grandson of the 
Prophet wbo was slain at Karbata in 672 (60 H.), is on tho 10th 
Mwutrram kept up at Ahmodabad. With the Shids this is a 
Mason of moumiDg. But many of the lower classes of Sauoia 
make it a time of merriment, appearing for Dmnsement or profit 
as tigers, bears, and in other gnisea. During the greater part 
of the day, from 12 to 5 F.K., bands of people carrying tdzidt, 
|Mus out of the Kb^pur gat« and, leaving them by the river side, 
Tetum home. 

In the Milnekchok on the 4-^h Rabi-ul-dkhar a Musalmiin fair, 
itTfu, in honoarof Sult&n Ahmad I. the founder of Abmedabad, is 
attended by abont 4000 people. 

Chapter TXT' 

Places of Interest. 

Arhkdh bad. 

MaMlmAn TiXn. 


ShdA Atan. 

find no. 

Shailh Ahmad 

KhaUu or 
Oat^ BaiAtli: 

Biba AU SK<r. 



Suiidn AXmad. 

• IB7-39 

1 Thia is donUftil ; k« p»se 249, foot-oot* 6. 

ObApter ZI7. 
FlaoM of Interest 



Section TV. — IVwda and Manvfa4i*tr»». 

A f^oQoral arcoant of the tT&ds of Ahmedsbad, m its timi 
pru8i>erity(l411-1720),ofdepr«ision(l720-1817j,»ndo{ rwiTal.1 _ 
been given in the history of the city, and ia too chapter oa Indr 
Up to IHGS DO details are avaikble to ilhiatrato the Hiatoc7 at tim 
tnide of the city under British rule. Since 1868, hs will b« «mb 
from the following table!, the total traffic by rail has iu goods lina 
ft-om &1,C'J1 tons in 1668 to 82,314 in 1877, and in pnasengm &tin 
273,C7fi to 504,786 : 

AhmedeUid StalioK Itaiina$ Tn^flCt tSS8-JS7T. 


Pa— MM. 

Ooot*. 1 





















1W« _. 







I8JI ... 





















in* ... _ 














UJ» ... 














The following stat-oraeut ahowB for the ten years ending 1S77 
chief changes in exports and importH: 

JhiMtiilMd Good» Tn^ffie m T<m* hg RaS, ISCS, ISJS, IS77. 




un. J 







f'V ■ ■■ '.Md ... ,„ ... 

1 .vi 



r u 

I lUI 










OfBlii uiJ utdl „ ,_ 






II. !« 

MaAaJa, Iteada laUrolh 






















VUcm ffood*, 00011117 ... 

Do. EDtope 


1 « 



1 am 

1 " 

1 ^ 

(Wi „ 






tanrandmelUMa .. „ 







Ttntbu' ... _..„„... 






TubUM „ ^, 







l^Ul, Ooonlry ... ._ ,_ 

1 - 





t ? 

Woo] „. \Z ... 







8lllHlll«.„ ._ „. .„ „ 







Tout ... 





Of thu nmin ktems of trade, cotton exports have fallen froiu 10,lJ 
tons in 1SHS, to 1333 in 1373, and to 640 in 1877. On the otl 
hand, cotton imimrta have risen from 76 tons in 1S68, to 372 
1873, and 419 in 1S77. This cUiiupc is probably duo to inci _ 
consumption in the Ahmedabad mills. Under grain and seeils tbofV 
is a coTiaiderable rise, in iinporta from 5003 tons in 1868 to LI 
in 1877, and in exports from 3624 tons to 19,353. Little m-^ 
Bassia latifolia, is imported ; tho exports show a fall from 2207 
1868, to 1575 in 1873, and GGO in 1877. Opium exports rose from U 



in 1868 to 940 io 1878 ; in 1877 the esport EoU to 784 tons. The Chapter XIY. 
ening of a rnilwajr to the Government salt works at Khiiriigliocla Flaoea cpf Interwt- 
1873) Iifts led to a large salt traffic by nu! to Ahmedabad. The 
qoantity carried roBO (.o 3-108 tons in 1873, and G1G5 tons in 1877. 
The arrangoments for station stores and nniform ratos of carnage, 
h&TO stoppt^id tlio former small (-393 tons iiil87:j) salt export fi-om 
Afamedabad. Tho export of wool fell Erom \i7i) tons in 18U8 to 309 

in 1873 ; in 1877 it again rose to 443 tons. 

1 1' 

The manafactnring prosperity of Ahmcdabad hangs, as of old, on Manufftcture 
three threads, cotton, aiJk, and gold. The haud spinning of cotton 
thread, and the weaving of coartie cotton clotli, have from the 
competition of steam greatly declined. But tliese indufttrios have 
sot been lost to Ahmedabad. Within tho past twenty years four 
eteam factories, for spinning and weaving, have been opened 
•nd continue to prosper, giving employment to about 2000 workmen. 
The prodnce of these and of the Bombay mills has interfered 
niach with tho hand-loom weaving of ctuirso cloth, and European 
competition lias lowered the value of the finer classes of goods. At 
the same timo tho local mills supply cheap yarn to the weavers of 
fine cloth, and for the finer aorts of hand woven goods there is still 
a ^r demand. Chiefly in the «lamalpiir division of the city, calico- 
printing employa a largo nnmbcr of Mui>almanB and Hindus, who, 
m spite of toeir mde tools and materials, turn out wonderfully 
beaotifnl work. A large quantity of prints goes to Siam and esporta 
are mode to various other places. Soino account of the new steam 
print work has been given above (p.l33) uudfrtLohoad'Manutiicturea.' 
All the processes in the maiiuf:i(;turo of tulk and gold thread are 
Gturiod on in the city. The raw silk comoa through Bombay from 
Cluna, Bengal, Bua8orah,and Bukhilra, the yearly supply being about 
200,000 nounds of silk valued at about £160,000 (Rs. 15,00,000). 
As already noticed (p.l 35) tho rcturna of the last two Bcasons show & 
serious falling off. Bukh&ra silk has but lately been introduced into 
the A hmedabad market, and the quantity imported is small. It comes 
iBftdy for wearing and is nacd only for the woof. Of both tho white 
and yellow varieties of China silk, the consumption is large. Bussorah 
BiUc comes in a raw etaie ,- the is valued at from SGs. to 38^. 
(Bfl. 1 8-Hs. 10) a pound. Bengal silk, both as regards tho dcmnnd for it 
and the pricu it fetches, hold.s almost the same position as Busaorah 
mUc. The uianufwTtnred goods Und a market in Bombay, KAthiitwAr, 
Baipatdna, Central India, Nagpur, and the Nizdm's dominions. Tho 
making of gold and silver thread, used in the richer varieties of silfc- 
oloth and brocade, supports many families. Tho richer Ahracdaba<l 
aUcs and brocades are, both in texture and colour, considered moro 
lasting than those of Benares. 0£ metal workers there are many 
goJdemiihs, braxiers, and blacksmiths, who have gcnornUy full 
employment and arein good circumstances. Of ornaments, Ahmedabad 
■ilver anklets, ktilUis, are held in high esfceom over all Gujarfit and 
KAchidwar, and in Bombay. The modem open brass screens in 
Uat'yaing'a temple and in the Shah A'lnm tomb, show that the 
Abiuodabad copper and brass smiths have not lot^t thoir old skill as 
BKit&l workers. There are about 175 Hindu families, most of thoni 

Pttblie OSew. 

[Kia ana aoKieis, 8i;anas, ana oexei-ieai cases, panaontoi, « 
only of braaa. Among those, the only article for which All 
is Bpecially famous, is ita betel-leaf boxes of well deirig^ 
finely carved brass-work. The wood and stone car?ers, Q 
skill Ahmedabad has so many boantiful proofs, are now ' 
condition, finding little demand for tbeir work. Ahmedabac 
is much batter than that of most placvs in western India. | 
a few Mosalm&ns, the potters arc Hindus. Boddea I 
bricks, pots, toys, and grain jars are made in lar^e qnann 
ornamentvd with red ochre and a white earth called kha'ii.l 
for which Ahmedabad was odci> f'lniouH, is still made by Ma 
Bat except for vernaoolar Uovemment registers and fc^ 
account bonks, the demand has greatly fallen off. A stca;| 
mill, that had for some time been at work, wna defltroyfl 
1875 flood. The machinery was saved and set op in the S|{ 
but it wa« foimd not to pay and has since been cIo«| 
Ahmcdnbad leather workers are well employed. Their d 
ni{gdi shields, and their cloth and leather women's ahoea, al! 
the most popular articles of Ahmedabad make. 

Section F. — Ciiy Maruigmuni. 

The chief public offioea are, within the Bhodar, the 
offices, except the trcasory which, since 1870, has boon han{ 
to the charge of the Branch Bauk of Bombay in the old Duto| 
(p, 272) , the Ahmedabad registry office, the city police iu 
office, and the magisterial lock-up j the Executive Eh 
office ; the small cause and sub-judge's courts ; the n^aart 
and in Sidi Syed's iimsquo (p. 27<i), the Daskmi mamlatdfir'i 
OntsidethcBhftdar, in thenorth-west,Ja the city survey office,! 
north-east, iu Khanpur, are the courts ' of the District Judgj 
assistant, and further north in Mirs&pur, the officer of the a 
Engineer for irrigation and the Deputy Surgeon General. I 
the Delhi gate in the Sh&hi Big is the Police Superintendon 
To the sonthof the Bhadargftt«, along thecftst wall is the city 
jail (p. 274), East of the jail is the post oflice, and farth| 
mil til** mnnicipal and telegraph 


■Sikwdi-'a palace (p. 277), anJ to iU east the ciWI debtora' jail ia 
Sidi Saliia'apalnce (pp. 319, 327). On the west about two miles ia 


Dhuliakot criminal jail (p. 199). 

Besiiles private, and one Anglo- vernacular and four veraacular 
(two for boys and two for girls), or in all five f^nt-in-atd-scboolB 
with 720 pupils, and three Anglo-vemacnlar, ten Qujar&ti (nine for 
boyB and one for girls), three Urdu, im<I four night schoola, or in all 
twenty Govermoent nchools with a total of 2'i22 pupils on the rolls, 
the city of Ahiuiidaljaii haM, of Government educational iostitutiona, 
a college, n high school, and two training colleges, one for men and 
the other for women ; and of grant-in-aid institutionsj one oiission 
high school. 

B Iq 1861 to meet the demand for higher education m north 
Bniar&t, a law lectureship was, nndcr the siiperviaion'of the head 
^■tater of the high schoolj fuunded iu Ahuiodabad and to 8ait the 
eonvonienco of high nchool student*, Gnvurnment servants, and 
others, morning and evening classes were held. Afterwards English 
bterature and Sanskrit, lugic, mathematics, and science luctureKhipa 
were added. But the classes were poorly attended, and after beio^ 
oontinned for thirteen years, were closed in 1S73. One canse of 
this failnre probably lay in the fact that the lectureships were 
anconneetod with the University courne. This mistake has lately been 
corrected, and with the vi^w of saving matriculated student* the 
expense of ruadtng fur tlietr First Arts exnmination at Bombay or 
Poona, a college has been opened in Ahmedabad to teach Bnglisfa, 
a cUkssical language, history, logic, mathematics, and science, up to 
the standard of the First Arts oxaminatian of the Bombay University. 
This scheme was sauctioued iu April 1870, and classes were at 
once formed under a staff consisting of a European Professor, 
who is also Head Master of the high school, and two native 

^wThe Ahmed&bad high school was established in IS-iG as an English 
school. With buildings of its own, it has now (1878) on the rolls 
IBS students against 99 in 1851. Since 1868 eighty-seven of its 
papits have passed their matriculation examination. Like all high 
KhooU it teaches English, Sanskrit, history, mathematics, and 
Bcience up to the matriculation standard of the Bombay University. 

The Ciiijnrafc training eollt^ge waa established in 1857 at the 
expense of (jovornment. Thirty-three, the number of pupils on the 
roll in the beginning, had in December 1878 risen to seventy-two. 
The number of scholars, all of whom board at tho college, depends 
On the departmental demand, nc more th&n the number required 
being admitted. The college hae a building of its own. orocted in 
1867-68 (p. 325). 

KThe female training college at Ahmedabad was established in 
71 at the oost of Government, the municipality paying a monthly 
contribution for its support of £5 (Bs. 50), and local funds, one 
of £.33 (Rs. 330). It has a building of its own erected in 1870 
(p. 32-j). The namber of scholars has risen from eight in the 
beginning to seventeen in 1879. Tho institution ia under a £)uropeaa 

Cbapter 217. 
Places (^ IntereiL 


OujarxU CloUegnl 

Ahmtdabad Huth 


Training Ooikgta. 

For Mai. 

For If 'omen. 

Chapt« XIV- 
_f Uces Qf Interest 







Lady SaperiDteodeDt. It has hitherto prorided nineteen toaoWsl 
girls' schools in tho city and district Thero are (1870) six resideBt 
8tiidoiit9 under the charge of a niHtron. Being of ditferent cwU) 
they nrran^ for their own food nnd cooking. To thia itutitntioil 
is attAched a. practising school supported by local funds, in which 
there are (1879) 112 pupiU. Thu more advanced of tl 
along witit the normal scholars in thu training oollega 

The Irish Presbyterian Mi&ion high school was opened in 1) 
at the cost of the Prosbytonan charch in Ireland, tho oontril 
amouutinKto£ll-i (Rs. 1140). In the beginning ther« wore thir 
four pupils ; there are now (1879) '201. It has a building of1 
own (p. 325). Tbft only resident students are six ChriBtisn Iniij 
whnH0 parents are members of the Christian commanity at 
ShabdvAdi. • This school teaches up to tho matriculation stAndard. 

In 1868 a Tdlukdiiri school was opened for the sons of T£Iu& 
with contributions atnoucting, in the b^inning,to£2 10 (Mi. 21'JI 
The number of pupils was fourteen iu 1868 and varied hmvt 
seventeen in 1809 and ten in 1876. The boys liv«d in a reot 
building, each in a sepamtn room with his own uervant. Thoi 
supervised the chargfia of their food, and their allowance waa finl 
according to their position. The espimsea were defrayed from thk 
allowance under the snwn-ision of the master, subject to tlio 
of the Tnlukdfiri Settlement Officer. Not proving a si 
school was closed in 1878. It is again to bo opened in cot 
with tho Ahmcdabad high school, the boys boarding in 
under tho charge of one of thu high Bchool oasiataut mast 
attending snch schools in tho city oa are suitCKl to their 

The (iiijantt Vernacular Society was established at Ahi 
in 1848 by the late Mr. A. K. Forbes for the encuornKenK 
vernacular litemture and educationj and for tho collectioa 
manuscripts and printed hook.s. The society had in 1S77 a fuui. 
£2791 (Us. 27,910). of which £1000 ^lU. 10,000) were contribuiea] 
Mr. PreiJiyhand R^ychaud of Bombay. The first newspaper in (rujl 
was started in Ahmed»1>ad by this society under the per 
Bupen'tsion of Mr. Forbes. It was a weekly paper issued ot 
W ednoHday, Budhvdr, and hence in Ahmedaliad all newflpnper? K* 
still called Biulhvaruja. The library, now included In the ITomabhiii 
Imttitute, and the iirst girls' school in Ahmodabad, were eetabhslwi 
by the help of this society. Useful books were printed by it, and tte 
puhlicfttion of others waa helped by money grants. It Itrinj " 
monthly magazine, the " Bnddhi Prakash " or Light of Knt _ 
which iu 187ti h:id a Tiiontbly sale of 12')0 copies. The society 
libraries in all parts of Ciujarat and KathiiiwiSr, and gives jir' 
schools. It undertakes to sell and distribute good books, and 
annual prizes for essays on rarions useful sabjeota.^ Its Ul 

1 A yearly priiQ wf£lS (R«. ISO) i* givoa for ttro best On jariitt ostty »n 
nbjuct, the lunda coming from an rndowmont oi £2M) (Rs. 2.^00} giv«u in I 
m, KombAV roerchftnt. Mr. SorAl>ji JfUaMxlji Jijibb^. tiocitrlr'a .Annital RcpoAl 
1876, July lUb, 1877. 



itninptl (1877) 1590 volnmeH in TarioiiBlnn{»nngW!. At tlie close ot 
17(> tlitM-o were forty-pight life membfcrs, two yearly members, and 
honorary uieinbera.^ Its yearly receipts amount lo about £180 
, 1800) and its expenditure to £129 (Ka. 1290). 

Tliere are two libraritw iu the city, the HeinfibMi near Kdranj, 
and the A'nArAv in Khfidiya. The chief library is in the " HomBbhdi 
Institute, built in 185S by the Nagar Seth Hem^bhai Vakhatchaiid, 
who >nive £700 (Rs. 7000). Besides subscribing to a number of 
periodicals and newspapers, the library' contains a total collection 
of 4227 Tolumett. Its receipt* were in 1878, £79 (Ra. 790), and ite 
expondttnre £87(R8. 870). The upsLairs ball of the Ingtitute is 
Dsed for public lectures and meetings. The " A'pirfiv Library *' 
gtartcdin 1870, haa no building of its own. Itcoiitaia^ lODOTolnmce." 
There ia be&idoHj a reading room in Sb&h^pur, established in 1876. 
It has aeTonty-soTcn members, and a collection of 600 Tolomes, 
100 of theiD Ungliab and 500 Gujaruti ; and subscribes to five 
Gujar&ti magazineH and eight GuJarA.ti newspapers. 

tThroo veoltly newspapers* are published at Ahmedabad, on 

i^lo-Gujar^ti, the " Hitechhu" or Well Wisher that has been in 

ktiou for seven years; and two Gujarati, the" Samsher Bahadur" 

rbrenty-four, and the " Ahmedabad Sam^char " of nineteen years' 

Of the Hitechhu 450, of the Samsher Bahadur 200, sad 

t'tho Samaehar, sixty copies are in circulation. 

For about fifty years Ahmedabad has bad a revenue available for 

Snnicipal purpofiOH. Fimt levied about 1830 for tho repair of tho 

town walls, the fund continued to bo called the town wall rnnd, till, in 

J58, a municipality wa« established, and in 1872 wa» constituted a 

iy munieipality. Residua two square miles within tbo city walls, 

Lite nemben sabBoribo £& |R«. 60) or apwirda ; the ysarljr mibtwriptioD is 
r. (Ufl. 6>. 

Tho labiicrilMsnt numbt^ 20 life membeTji anil 30 finit, SB Moonil, and 31 HhirA 
■ii.'iutiur>i, or iu all I7l>. tha lubtcnptioD rat«s for t]i« diree obuKii bfiug 
(lU. ID), «i. (Rb.3(. 2s. {Re. 1) yewly. or ^- U^c. I), Bi (a*. 6), and 3rf. 
|U. 2| monthly. A ilofiitrinn of £Ifl (IU. 100) and npvArds oukeB tb« eiver a lif« 
erabcr. At th« (^l<">a iT ISTti tUr^re wnra 4137 voIiudm^ 3747 of tb«in j^^ish and 
I TomsculKT. Thd library subavribed to eiKht Eii){Iisli, thrcQ Anftlu-Uujoriti, 
Abglo^UAritM, uut fiv« Gnju^ti newapspcra ; four nf thom dftilias oad fAUrt«en 
ikbe*. IC k1m> took in Kcvcn Ku^tiKh ami live lIujarAti mngaxiDen, 
I ^be aDbwriliTT* iniinbvr 2 hfu membcn ami •'i'S Snit, 57 ■oconil, nnd 177 tJiird 
metnbeni, or lii idl 203. Tlic iiih84:ription for a life meiubi^ iit £a (Rs. SOj &nd 
rib t for * ^TSt cIam membor, 4^. (Ra. •2\ : and fnr a sccoml class mombci-, ]o. fi(A 
ISj «y«ar. Third cluaa incmbcra an: Admitted frtx^ ofcliArgt^ Ui T«ad n«wi|up«ni 
jr. Th« rMoipts atnuurit to £40 [Hj>. 4{X)) and tbo i-xiic!Ii*<;k In £36 {Kb. 360]. 
th<i do«o of 1673 there wvre 1323 volaiue*, 720 of tbi.-iu Enj^liah and 605 
lar. There were 4.18 magaaiiniw, 171 Kngiiah and £fi7 Oajar.lti. Of tb« 
Eugliah books, 13 wcTo on niligion, H on law, *27 on sc^icncc. 1(1 on f;eograpby awt 
■velS) tl>3 on hi)it(iry and bio}rrn.g>)iy, 4tIS un jxvtry and gcnvra) iit«niturv, 18 on 
4Mopb^, and 8 on oriontal literatani. Of the 603 Tenuwulor books, 21 wer« in 
■tjknt, 40 in Mankthi, and A44 in OujaratL Of oewspapon, th« library aubacrJbvd 
two Ku^]i>h daitiea, tbr«0 Ki^ulixh weekli**, and on » Enuliah pain[>hl«t; pnv 
^ar&ti daily, tlirco Gnjarati wv«Kliv«, ami two GuJsnUi [lauj^^ilcta. 

la AhmMaliad. ati in most lanre citios of Hinduatiin, there were fontKrlj 

rmriXmn who at mifluigbt recorded all the tr&nBactiuiiB of the tng day, and 

abclivd th«ir journal" to tlioir diH'orimt nimiiipondcntA, but mia trailv, owing to 

groat politiual rvvolutiniui iu liidin, tB fact d«cUiung, aadiabsrs tltogatlMr 

jngMtBhod' 1)817). Ham. Deac. ol Hin, I. 606. 

Chapter XTV. 
Places of Interfiet. 





[Bomb^ OtMtiM, 


Ohaiiter ZIV- 
Flaoeft of Intorast 





Saraspnr b town of ftbont fifty-two acren, and fifty-five arras of ^ 
Railwnv Suburb tti the v»»\, ara included in tnunicipal Hmito. Fof 
municipal parposea the city is distributed DOiDng four diTinom, 
Sbahapur in the norlh-west, Dary&por in the aorth-east, fCbadinii 
tlie Boutb-eattt, and Jam&lpar io the soath-weat. Oatsideof tfa« waUi^ 
Sanutpur and the Railway Subnrb form dislinot diri&ious. bae2i of 
the city divisions has a municipal inspector, the Khiidiya cWgl 
including Ibo Railway Suburb, and the Dikryipar charge «"'*'■»'**■■ 
Sara«pur. In 187H tho mnuicipa) receipts uaoiuit«d to £22^ 
(Ra. 2,25,4&0), aitd the chareM to £26,798 (R«. 2,67,9Si». TIa 
incidonce of taxation was 3«. \Q\d, (Bs. 1-14-10) per bead of thi 

The following tabular stateuieot, exclusiro of balauoes, adranota, 
and deposits, ahowa the chief heads of reoeipta anddiabnraciaaatii' 

tho year 1877-78: 

AKtnedahad Mtinieipataf BaituuxStuM,* iS77-78. 


DiaairvuMiam 1 






. M .t- — ■ ,h 


BaMl-owptM riiiipi 



... ... ««• .■' 


AntTvnglBi ... _ 


So*nfig)i<> emt 



j-lr. .„ „. „ ... 


RiJlwaf Mibovh 

• •i "• ■•> ... 

««•»■ .., _. „, 
LIfbl _ .. 

U»J HlM 

..• au ^ <.> 


IlknMM Ud IMM ... 


Shop not! 

-p — — 






llMlHtn* „ ^ ...... _j 

ln*lra«UM ^ ... „.._.. 
Cllr •Dr*«j ... ...... V — 



TMal .-. 




8inoe its establishmont (]8r>8) tho Ahmedabad municipality faia 
spent, besido.<t £41,290 (Rs. -i,12,!}00) on road^ * and bridges, £11^ 
(Ra. 1.10,37U) on water worka ; £3120 (Ra. 31,200) on addiliooatp 
the city gntea and walU ; £2867 (Ra. 28,670) on ho^itals 
disponsaries ; and £1866 (R«- 18,650) on aauitation.' 

Tho chief strootn run north and south. Most of thoae 
east and west are broken and do not stretch across the tows. 
OUphant road, forty feet broad, with aide foot-paths and 


JE21I0(!{B. '.M.IOO); tho Miraipar ro«a oMtmc £2000 (R* SO.JMO) ; tfa« 

toCliADK pol row! cvitiug £11}91 (Re. 16,910); aad the Klite BKArraad 
ei470(lU. 11. 7901. 

a Of minor worlu thtrevc, Ihc public nrtteni, £1013 I Ril 10,120) : tb« nm/ooA 
oOovB, £1007 (Ra. 10,070); Lbe rosetafale uiark*^ X4H (Ra. 4640): tk« ?*« 
itaUau, £266 (Ra. 2660) : the dock towsr, ££4.1 (Ri. »t30) i mhI the atn-owU^ 
tb* aailway .Suburb. t2-2i> (fti. S2&0) 


baik ftt a cost of £13.700 (Ra. 1,37,000) runs from the Milnplc 
in tbo Houth-weat to the A'Rtodipi gate in the Boath-eaJt. It 
not paaa throngh thn thickly peopled parta of the city, but 
vtme of hoosee art) gnulually risiDg on cither aido of it. No 
materiaU aro available for stone-metalling the AhinedabatI HtreeU. 
Of fifty miles of thoroughfare, incladiog city lanes, only tweuty-t'ight 
■re fit for wheeled carriiweB. Of the«e, twenty milea are laid with 
£ne!iCone from the river bed and with metal. The streets are kept 
«lean. At a monthly cost of £200 (lis. 2000) about twenty-two 
Viile!< of them are watyred twice a <lay. Tho watering ia done partly 
by forty-throe water earners, AAtV^V, and forty-live c»rt«, and 
partly by the bucket splashing of 193 Vdghris from roadside channels. 
Ata monthly cost of Jbl50 (Ks. toOO) tho atroets aro well lighted 
by 1420 kerosine lamps. There are eleren fire eng^ines,' 

The highest point in the city in roughly about thirty feet abOTO 
the river. Through four deepened water-course 3 drains mn west and 
north into the river. Hut the south-east comer, cut from the river 
by a ridgo, etrotching from near the A'fitodiyn gate on tho south to 
the Kalupnr gate on the east, drains east into a channel dug outside 
gi the walls. 

HAhmedabad has nut often aufferod from floods. Opposito tlio 
^iy, tho river, with a bed about 1550 feet wide, flows during the 
fair season wiih a channel of only 376 feet, and leaves between the 
stream and tlio city a broad stretch of dcop sand riaiog in mounda 
in froDt of the walla. Towards the south-west comer, tho stream 
^OBsee to the left bank, and flows close under the city. The chief 
risk of fionding ia from the river bond about 1 J miles north of tho 
city. JJut this in ordinary years is guarded by the strong wall bnilt 
alovg the left bank of l>he river at the Shah i Bag. In 1714 and I7:i9 
tbe Sabarmati flooded tho city, and in 1755 tbo rain was so heavy 
that great breaches were made in the city wall. In 181$ the river 
ia said to have risen eighteen feet above summer level. In 18G8 
there was scn-rcely any rain till August 10th and then in four days 
twenty-Bcven inches fell. There was no flooding from the river. 
But the local drainage, together with a very wimi, destroyed 
9666 houses worth £95,116 (Rs. 9,51,1(50). and movable property 
amessed at £5007 (Rs. 50,070). In 1875 on the evening oE the 2lBb 
September, the gauge opposite the city showed the water five feet 
above the ordinary flood level. From tnat it continued to rise for 
two days till it Rtood five feet higher than in 1863, or about 
ainetecn feet above the river's ordinary level. The two bridges, the 
nu'lway bridge about three miles above the city, and the Ellis bridge 
in the south-west, wero swept away. ITie flood waters forced their 
way ihrougb seroral of tho city gates, made many breaches in the 
city walls, and covered more than a third of the town, causing 
twelve dmths, ruining 3887 honsos worth £58,208 (Rs. 5,82.080), and 
destroying property valued at £16,459 (Rs. 1 ,64,590). This 1875 flood 
vaa the highest known at Ahmodabad and lasted for three dayx. 

The average rainfall during the fourteen years ending 1S74 was 
29'36 inches'; the highest fall in any one year being 46-43 inches in 

1 Dvtkili of the two iMt [IST7) great AlimcdjkUd Brca ue giixn At p»ffj 'ie2. 
B 187-40 

Chapter XIV. 
f laces of Interei 







I Bombay DurtMr- 



Ohaptar XIT. 
JPlaces of intflreit 





1S68, and the lowest, 16'fi5 inchm in 1861. In 1877 the imii 
was 21't>& and io 1878, 47*89 mchM. Be«id«« doing^ much t/> 
aod Kwecten the sur^^^ hoU vi tbe citj, tfaiA loipplj of w&ltrr h 
toftHe use of to 611 cement-lined dsterns, wliich, Svd from tb 
roofs by cement channuls or iron pipes, are to be found rn ahnort 
all the courC}rarUs of the belter cta!<s of bouses, and fora 
the principal ftonroo of Ihe townnpeople's drinking water. 'He 
oth^ chief aonrce of drinking water i* the rirer. This, faoaite 
bein^ used by the crowdis of people that daily pasa towMhmi 
draw water, has for the last thi i-ty venrR, al the »onth-wpat coma (tf 
the city, been pumped into a fifty*two feet high tower, Bltered throonib 
vegetable oharcoal and gravel, and, by a masonry guarded eigbl- 
inch earthftn pipe, boon bronght into the heart of the city, and tJi«» 
distributed from seventeen iron stand-pipes and ten masottry 
reeorroira. lliissonrceof snpply isunHntistactory. It is tooamall is 
ftmouut yielding not more tlmn one gallon a da^ to each of the 
nnd even after tilteriug it is impure, the river getting 
it passes the cantonment and great part of the city.* The 
most wells within city limits has, partly at least from the 
any plan for freeing the citv of its sewage, become ^o bmcl 
impure as to bo untir to drink or to give to plant«, and is oi 
for watering the roads.s Outside the town walls are 
brackish and not very pure, but used by same of tbe poorer 
There is finally the groat Kiinkariya lake (p 17) in the sontb' 
of the town, which, under the scheme now in pnifmws to 
from the Kh6ri river, will furnish a \-aIuable Hupply of drinking wit* 
to th« people of the eouth-east quarter of the town. 

The eonserrancy staff is eight inspectors, twelve fore-roea, utl 
614 sweeperSj &0d for privies, and 135 fnr roads. The street* «« 
well swept and provided with 125 dust-bins, and 275 places Inn 
also been set apart for house-owners to bring refniiie to. tievidei 
twenty-four public necessaries, fourteen of them inside and tn 
outaide of the city, there are altogether 7071 privies, 2l^<I 
belonging to pots, and 51-18 private.^ Hesides the priviea, four 
fields, one each outside of thu Sbahaptir. £)ary&pnr, and Jaa^v 
gates, and the fourth in the Sarospur suburb, have boeu mt apill 
for nece»»ary purposes. The refuse, brought in baskets by iweefHa 

1 Tho wM«r wu at lint dnwn by P«nJ«n wheeloi ta their ^we two mim 

innps, one ol klx »nd tlic. other uf five horH-power, were pvt up in iSfiO; tA ■ «Mtf 
1660 jRe. I6,G00). A) tlte rircr ia much diaturbed dnnng tbt djijr, tb« Jfomft ■« 
worked onN iit nijjht. 
1 Som« Mvonitt of tiia fow fntih wcUi aeu- Um city waIIs ia fpvaa al m|m XA, S& 
■ Mr. Hewlett, Acting SwitMr CommtMtoiMr, adds Uiom dcud* : Ui« fMt 
pnvioa eiiotuwO \>y a •tono wall mrm |»v«d and Mitvd , tb« vwetptr aprinkloi wad Mta 
■mong tha Digln-nnI, aud earries it off by a back paaaaco ; the liqatd flon iaUi«» 
poola and ia cart«(t away; except that tlM-y are naually ttitiiuvcd the arraagfOii' 
at thejM/ fwiviMii maoh the aanw; tk« nubt-aoil o( tlivurtvato jirmn, vUit 
aragtMrally plaoadinaoorawof tbfl veraiulaJion the errand float <.t tbe k(«■^i• 
^enwl Diit by a Bwwpcr through a miall (rap door. Tbe liquul flowa Cm icA a 
eatoh ph, himtii. whtn, after atraining. it puava intu a black well, Utattmt*. m 
eeaipool, nuind, brick-bailt, about thrvv fvwt aoniM, maii irom Iwnty tu tw*ntj-6» 
fwt d«ep, srchod over from two to Hve fMt bel'^w the »urfac«. In the nm» tk« 
maipooH an dnaed and Ihc watur lot flow on Uie Btn^L TbHW ceaspoob dAb 
rcnaia unolaaaed r«r thirty w forty yean. tiW-A, Itftli July I87&. 



■nd in carts or on donkey-back from tlie dual-bins, is tefemi to one 
vl ihrw stores, the Daryapur atoi-e, tbr&e-qaarters of a milo to the 
Borib-oost ; the K&ypnr, half b mile to the Bouth-eattt ; and the 
Junilpur, a mile to tho sootJi of the citj walls. At these stores 
ihe night-soil, mixed with wood ashes, is thrown into trenches 
40x 15 and six feet deep, coTered with street Bweepings, and after 
Ijiag for five or six months, is sold to farmers, fet.chin(|f abonft 
'SftBeo pence a ton, or six ponce (4 as.) a cart. To these stores alsu 
dead animals are brought and their bonea gathered and sold. There 
is one private slaughter-hotiRC for cattle in MirrApnr, and fifteen 
plsiCfttt in Jam^pur and Sbahdpiir where sheep and goat-s are killed. 

Foraboot eight months iu the year the wind blows from the west. 
East and soath-east winds are uncommon. Deaths are registered by 
Uwpolice, and as all dead bodies pass through one of the city gates 
on their way to the bnroing or burying groands, the death figures 
are probably complete. It is perhaps partly due to this that the 
AhiiH'ilabad death-rate seenin ho high. Daring the five years endiuif 
1877 the yearly number of deaths averaged 584S or 50'04 the thousand. 
Of the whole nnmbor I SI or 2*20 per cent were due to oholora,6 or O'lO 
per cent to small-poi, 3:J60 or 57G0 per cent to fever, 133 or 2'27 
per cent to bowel complaints, 41 or 0'75 per cent to injuries, and 
2162 or 36'06 per cent to other causL'.s. The mean death ratio to- 
one thousHiid was, among ChrUtians 7'&8, aiuoug MuHulm&us 42'53, 
among llindus 53 lU, and among other classes 38'08. The fever 
retnrn is very large, throe times as high as Bombay. The greater 
healtluoess of Musalmaus Lliau of Hindus is, in tlie Sanitary 
.Commissioner's opinion, dno partly to the Mnsalmans' mar» 
Bngtheuing diet, and partly to their greater cleanliness. 

Early in the serent«onth century (1618}, for several ye«u about 

and again at the beginning of the present century (T813), 

itnedabad was vinitttd by a diseaHo, in many of its symptoms like 

trne plagiio.* Since its transfer to the British the city has been 

free from outbreaks of cbolcra and other epidemic diseases. 

'^Hie city has, within the wnlls, one hospital and two dispensariea 

1, during 1877, a tola! number of 41,52li patients, of whom 39.215 

ont-door and 2311 in-door. There are beisidte two other 

titutions, bothout&idu the walls, one a lunatic asylum on the north 

tide the Delhi gate, and the other a hospital for leprosy and other 

fcthsomo and incurable diseases, in the south-east outside tha 

L'stodiya gate. The civil, or the Ilatisiug and Prenifibhiii hospital 

|th at'cdinmodalion for ninot,v-two in-palienta, wasoponed in 18o9' 

cost of about IB200 (Rs. 53,000). In 1877, 2203 in-patients and 

!,9o2 out-patients were treated here. Part of the honpital is given 

to the use of the invalids of the poliee force, of whom 2.'>8 out 

ft total strength of 285 were treated in 1877. The Raypur 

nssTT, built in 1872 by thi; munii-ipaiity at a cost of £1950 

1. 19,500] has room for nine in-pattcnts. In 1877 there were eleven 

Chapter XIV. 

Places of lat 





1 Uebuli of tbeM oatbreiklu mit gives in the HvaiUi uba^itvr (|^ 313). 



OhayUr ZZT. 

VUcM of IntorMt 






in-patients and 18,417 ODt*p«tiente trutail here. Tlw 
diMptu8ar/ was built in lytio iit a ooat of £700 {Ha, 7600) 
Hko fialiadur Ueclmt-dax AmbdiiWt, C.S.I., b weftlthy Ahia< 
niercluuit; it has room fur Wa io-pativaia. In L877> vJaeij-M 
iu-patienU tuid 98it) out-|>atieut8 were trmted. The 
au^liunf situated at a short disumci! nauide the dty on tlie lel^ oE tb« 
oantonnientroed, waaopeuediul»U3at a cost of £1803 (Bs. 1S,6301. 
With accommodalidti fur 11)8 patienta it haa about fouriefu »<-< 
land atltti-bud to it, tilled by the inmates. The bniUliniic, in tbe : 
a oroAn, h»s oells buck (« back, and is encioB«d by a tva-ftM^t iu^ 
wall, the wbolo hinniu}; a rectau^^lo 181^ feet by Idtj. The iat 
is arranged in four divisions of wliich one ia set A{>art for woB 
In 1877, twenty-three were treated. People from any part of Guj 
may make uso of thisinBtiiution ; moBtof the patienta are from i 
a^'rulr.itml claafle«.* The lejHir bospitil at Kli^apith immediat< , 
ootitide tlie A stodiya gato was opened in I8G7 at a coat of il(^ 
(Kb. t)!20;. It has room for forty-five lepers and for thirty othm 
afflicted with loathsome and incurable di^easee. During 
of epidemic sickness, amuigemonta oro made for the treatmcDt 
amall-poz and cholera patienta. 

There in also the animal home, piinjnlpolf of which details ■* 
given (p. 280) under 'Objects of Intereat. 

In 186S the mnnicipality opened a regotafale market in a 
leading from the KAraiij, but as yet it is not much us4k1. Tli "^ 
markets are, in the Manckchok, in the street north of the 'i 
and east of the Three Gateways and in the open >c[>ace toward* 
K&ranj. There are no stalls in the streets, ihe dealers misinftcl 
booths over their wares. In the Mitnckehok are fiio shnp9»ril>e 
ohief bankers, jewellers, and native piece-goods dealers. In fr-f '^ 
fcheae every aflemoou from about three till dark, is held a tuir. ' 
when people from the city nud surrounding TiUagea come tcgctiirr 
aud buy cotton aud silk goods, brocade, gold and silver IsMt 
and ready made articles of children's dreea. In the street east of lb* 
TTiree Gatjjways are European piece goods, hardware, sweetmrsti 
tkud vegetable ahops. In the open snaco towards the Kdraoj (p. 21^ 
whei-o are grocery and betol-leaf snops, the old weekly Jcr- " 
Friday market is still held, lastiug in all xortA of weather Erom i 
the morning to four in the tifternoon. On market days, n 
of the sijiisre from the Three (jnteways to the KAranj ia fij 
of sellers j^qiiatted on the ground, their wares in fivmt of tbeai 
Borronnded by erowda of buyers and lookers-on from the citv u<! 
irom sereral miles round. Besides almost every article of : 
persona] and household use, horses, cattle, goats, poultry, parrots im 
other bii-ds are offered for sale. Grain is sold at several placeSi bBt 
the chief grain market is at D&niipith in the Jamalpur divtaioa. 

The burial gntuiid now in use for Christians (p. 270), one part (or 
Protestants the other for Catholics, is close outside of the Kb*" 
Jahdn gate in the south-woiit of the city. Maaalmina are baried a 

> burjooQ Mijor C. Jghoaoo, Civil Sttrs«UB, 187-la 

ly {[fnkTe.yM-33 round the city. Hindos, except the Sfaravaks or 
itis who bum tboir dead ucax the Sliaiiiipur ^to, havo tiiotr 
Imrnini^ ground at Dudheghvar' on the river bank about a mile above 
bhe city. KoIi£, MurvikdU, uud other low class Hiudua bur; their 
dead io the sand of the nrer bod. 

Section VI, — City Dieinons, 

"Rie f