Skip to main content

Full text of "Gazetteer of Berkshire County, Mass., 1725-1885"

See other formats

136? 793 



3 1833 01100 7637 






Compiled and Published by 





" He that hath much to do, will do something wrong, and of tha\; wrong must suffer the conse- 
quences ; and if it were possible that he should always act rightly, yet when such numbers are 
to judge of his conduct, the bad will censure and obstruct him by malevolence, and the good 
sometimes by mistake."— Samuel Johnson. 

Printed at the Journal Office, 
January, 1885. 

Almanac or Calendar for 20 Years. 


C , 





DC 1 










1880 ! 












C B 

1 ^ 










1 1893 


2 9 





— I— i— 

T.9I201. . 


i ' — 



















Jan. and Oct. 



Feb., March 


Sept. and 

April and 

Thurs. I Wed. 

Frid'y. Thurs. 



Thurs.' Wed. 

Frid'y. Thurs. 




Mon. Sun. 

Tues. Mon. 










Sat. iFrid' 

Sun. I Sat. 



Explanation. — Fiud the Year and observe the Letter above it ; then look for the Month, and 
in a line with it find the Letter of the Year ; above the Letter find the Day and the figures on the 
left, in the same lino, are the days of the same name in the month. 

Leap Years have two letters ; the first is used till the end of February, the second during the 
remainder of the year. 



In presenting to the public the "Gazetteer and Business Directory," we 
desire to return our sincere thanks to all who have kindly aided in obtaining 
the information it contains, and thus rendered it possible to present it in the 
brief space of time in which it is essential such works should be completed. 
Especially are our thanks due to the editors and managers of the county papers, 
for the uniform kindness they have evinced in calling pubhc attention to our 
efforts, and for essential aid in furnishing material for the work. We have 
also found valuable aid in the following : The various papers that have been 
read before the Berkshire Historical Society ; the Berkshire Athenaeum ; The 
" History of Western Massachusetts," by J. G. Holland; Fields " History of 
Berkshire County," published in 1829; the "Gazetteer of Massachusetts," 
by Elias Nason, M. A., published in 1874; the " Gazetteer of Massachu- 
setts" by John Hayward, published, in 1847 ; the " History of Lee," com- 
piled by Rev. C. M. Hyde, D. D.^ and Alexander Hyde ; " History of Great 
Barrington," by Charles J. Taylor; " History of Pittsfield," by J. E. A. Smith ; 
the " Geology of Massachusetts," by Edward Hitchcock, LL. D. ; " His- 
tory of Savoy," by H. E. Miller ; " History of Paper making in Berk- 
shire," by Hon. Byron Weston; " Historical Address on New Marlboro," by 
Aaron Smith ; " Historical Lecture on Lee," by Rev. Amory Gale ; " Tagh- 
conic, or a Romance of the Hills," by "Godfrey Greylock ;" Report of the "Cen- 
tennial Celebration of Lenox;" "Centennial Celebration of Sheffield;" Re- 
port of the " Berkshire Jubilee," held at Pittsfield in 1845; " Report of the 
Massachussets Board of Education ;" the " Manual of the General Court ;" 
F. B. Beers's "Atlas of Berkshire County ;" The " Berkshire Life Insurance 
Co.'s Map of Berkshire County ;" and in the various pamphlets, and 
to the reports of a number of societies, institutions, corporations and towns. 
Our thanks are also due to the clergy throughout the county, and to Hon. 
Julius Rockwell, of Lenox ; H. D. Sedgwick, of New York city ; W. M. 
Kniffin, of West Stockbridge ; Josiah A. Royce, of Lanesboro ; Prof. A. L. 
Perry, of WiUiams college ; Henry W. Taft, W. R. Plunkett and James W. 
Hull, of Pittsfield ; H. Clay BHss, Hon. Jarvis Rockwell and Frederick P. 
Brown, of North Adams ; George W. Adams, D. J. Dean, and Franklin 
H. B. Munson, of Adams ; Leonard McCullock, of Savoy ; Dr. James 
Smedly, of Williamstown ; A. B. Clark, of Lee ; Hon. Norman W. Shores 


and A. Chalkley Collins, of Great Barrington ; E. J. Vosburgh, of Sheffield, 
and to many others who have rendered valuable aid. 

That errors have occurred in so great a number of names is probable, and 
that names have been omitted which should have been inserted is quite cer- 
tain. We can only say that we have exercised more than ordinary diligence 
and care in this difficult and complicated feature of book-making. Of such 
as feel aggrieved in consequence of errors or omissions, we beg pardon, and 
ask the indulgence of the reader in noting such as have been observed in the 
subsequent reading of the proofs and which are found corrected in the Errata 
following the Introduction, 

It was designed to give a brief account of all the church and other socie- 
ties in the county, but owing in some cases to the negligence of those who 
were able to give the necessary information, and in others to the inability of 
any one to do so, we have been obliged to omit special notices of a few. 

We would suggest that our patrons observe and become familiar with the 
explanations at the commencement of the Directory on page 3, part 2d. 
The names it embraces, and the information connected therewith, were 
obtained by actual canvass, and are as correct and reliable as the judgment 
of those from whom they were solicited renders possible. Each agent is 
furnished with a map of the town he is expected to canvass, and he is 
required to pass over every road and call at every dwelling and place of busi- 
ness in the town in order to obtain the facts from the individuals concerned 
whenever possible. 

The margins have been left broad to enable any one to note changes oppo- 
site the names. 

The Advertisers represent some of the leading firms and business men of 
this and other counties, and we most cheerfully commend them to the pat- 
ronage of those under whose observation these pages may come. 

We take this occasion to express the hope that the information found in 
the book will not prove devoid of interest and value, though we are fully 
conscious that the brief description of the county the scope of the work enables 
us to give, is by no means an exhaustive one, and can only hope that it may 
prove an aid to future historians, who will be the better able to do full justice 
to the subject. 

While thanking our patrons and friends generally for the cordiaUty with 
which our efforts have been seconded, we leave the work to secure that favor 
which earnest endeavor ever wins from a discriminating pubUc, hoping they 
will bear in mind, should errors be noted, that " he who expects a perfect 
work to see, expects what ne'er was, is, nor yet shall be." 





County Chapter. — On page 19, tenth line from the top, read i6th 
day of 3d month, 1762, instead of "1862." 

Hancock. — Charles H. Read's tannery, in Hancock, was built in 1874. 
The first was built at least 40 years ago, was destroyed by fire in 1867, 
rebuilt in 1869, when Mr. Read bought it and enlarged it. It was again 
destroyed by fire and rebuilt by Mr. Read in 1874. He gives employ- 
ment to twelve men in the manufacture of card and russet grain leather. 
The production is from 350 to 400 sides of leather per week. 

LaneshOTO. — The M. E. church of Lanesboro was organized in 1864, 
with eight members, the present membership being thirty-three. The 
first pastor was Rev. Mr. Boxley. The church building will comfort- 
ably seat 125 persons, and is valued at $700.00, about its original cost. 
The Sunday-school numbers forty scholars. Rev. H. W. Dann is the 
present pastor. 


Adams. — ALLEN iron works, manufacture chain splitting, not 

"chair" sphtting machines as printed on page 4. 
BEVERLY ZELOTUS F., has sold out his meat market in this town, and 

removed to Hinsdale, where he is engaged in the real estate business. 
Charbonneau John B., is pastor of the Seven Dolors church. 
Beciret.— CORDONIER AUGUSTUS and Nicholas receive their mail 

at East Lee postoffice. 
MALALLY JOHN, instead of "Malaly," as printed on page 52. 
Tower Hercy E., not "Town," as printed on page 54. 
Cheshire. — Adams Enos & Co., (of Bennington, Vt.) manufacturers of 

quartz sand, Thomas J. Gatheny, superintendent. 
Cheshire Water Works, the officers are J. D. and J. G. Northup, not "North- 

rup," as printed on page 57. 
DEAN GEORGE Z., deals in general, not "funeral" merchandise, as printed 

on page 58. 
HOWES HENRY & SON, make cheese in the John Leland cheese factory, 

instead of as printed on page 59. 
Northup Jared D., is supt. of John Leland cheese factory, not as printed on 

page 62. 
NORTHUP LEROY J., not "Leroy A.," as printed on page 62. 
WHITE DAVID D., lumberman, soldier in Co. E, 37th Regt., Mass. Vols., 

captured and made prisoner of war Maj.-Gen. Custis E. Lee, at Sailors' 

Creek, April 6, 1865, h Depot street. 


DaitOil.— CALLAGHAN THOMAS, not "Callahan," as printed on 

page 69. 
CURTIS MARSHALL C, not as printed on page 72. 
LOCKWOOD ARTHUR C, not "Arthur G.," as printed on page 75. 
Great Barrington.—^^ ^^5 CHARLES is a patron of this 

KELLOGG FREDERICK, and Frederick, Jr., are located on road 44, not 

"38" as printed on page in. 
Owen Paper Co., (Housatonic) Henry D. Cone, prop., instead of "Henry & 

Cone, props., as printed on page 114. 
REUWEE EUGENE L., instead of "Renwee" as printed on page 115. 
SPRIGGS JAMES D., instead of "James E," as printed on page 117. 
WHIPPLE FRED C, is a patron of this work. 
iJancOCif.— LAWSON IRA R., is a patron of this work. 
Whitman James R., owns farm 360. 

Hinsdale- — Frissell Thomas A., is also agent American Express Co. 
INGRAM GEORGE, not "Ingham" as printed on page 127. 
SAYERS WILLIAM., is a patron of this work. 
Ziane-sZJOPO.— ELM WOOD INSTITUTE, Rev. A.A.Gilbert, M. A., 

Sherman Joel B.. is located on r 29, not "49," as printed on page 135. 
WOOD CHARLES L., instead of Charles "C„" as printed on page 136. 
Lee- — Beebe Levi is a resident of Gt. Barrington, (see directory of that 

Child WiUiam D., resides on road 11, not "15," as printed on page 141. 
NUSS ALEXANDER, has moved to Pittsfield, since our canvass, (see Pitts- 
field Directory.) 
SMITH ALBERT M., is a patron of this work. 
Sturges Edwin, r 26, with his father, Edwin, in the marble business. 
Verran Byron L. and John, instead of "Veran," as printed on page 166. 
Lenox. — Lannier Charles, r 35, banker, 26 Nassau street. New York city, 

breeder of Jersey cattle, reg., 20 horses, owns Allen Windom farm 190. 
MALLARY R. DEWITT, instead of "Mallorv," as printed on page 177. 
RACKEMANN ELIZABETH SEDGWICK, r 42, widow of F. W., farm 75. 
SCHENCK HARRY de B., is proprietor of Larchmount farm, not "Larch- 

ment," as printed on page i8.i, 
THAYER RUFUS L., on page 183, lives on road 5, in Lee. 
WELCH MICHAEL, instead of "Welsh," as printed on page 184. 
New Ash ford — Roys Lester, instead of "Rays," as printed on page 

New MarlborO'—BsLrher & Cook, (Southfield) (Herbert L. B. and 

Arthur J. C.) whip manufacturers, have formed a partnership since our 

Benedict Stephen W., instead of "Stephen N.," as printed on page 192. 
Berkshire Paper Co, (Mill River) James Goodwin, pres., manufs. of book 

BISHOP MARIA B., on page 192, is the widow of Wesley. 
Cooper John T., is book-keeper for Berkshire Paper Co., not "Buksline," as 

printed on page 193. 
Frost S. T., teacher. 
HENNESSY PATRICK R., resides on road 54, not "59/' as printed on 

page 196. 


>Iorton Egbert D., resides on road 69, instead of "70," as printed on page 

Smith Lyman A., (Clayton.) 

North Adams, —archer OvSCAR a., instead of "Arthur," as printed 

on page 203. 
Cady Arthur D., was appointed cashier of the Berkshire National Bank, in 

January, 1885, in place of Charles H. Ingalls, resigned. 
CHEESBRO HOMER, instead of "Cheesebro," as printed on page 213. 
CHEESBRO MUNROE, is a patron of this work. 
CROCKER FRANK P., is a patron of this work. 
HENRY RALPH L., instead of " Hewey," as printed on page 229. 
*HOOSAC VALLEY NEWS, on page 234, Hardman & McMillin are now 

Ingalls Charles H., has lesigned the cashiership of the Berkshire Nat. Bank, 

Arthur D. Cady taking his place. 
McMillin Edward A., (Hardman & McMillin) h 16 Ashland st. 
Mcpherson JOHN M., is a patron of this work. 

*MERRIAM S. D. Dr., has removed to Ashley Falls, in the town of Shef- 
North Adams Electric Light and Power Co., Geo. Darby, pres. ; F. L. Til- 
ton, sec'y ; E. Barnard, treas. ; organized since our canvass. 
North Adams Gas Light Co., on page 246, Arthur D. Cady, not "Cody," is 

Phelps Carleton T., is agent for Cluett & Sons, at 72 Main st. 
Rowley F. H. Rev., pastor Baptist church. 
Richardson Charles T., fireman on R. R., h 17 Quincey. 
Sherman William B., (Blackinton) farm laborer. 
TALHAM ALBERT E., is a patron of this work. 

WHIPPLE HENRY F., instead of " Henry A.," as printed on page 263. 
Otis. — TINKER WILLIAM, on page 270, is also proprietor of a tannery. 
Pepiz.—FRISSELL DWIGHT, resides on road 17. 
Pittsfield.— BARRETT HENRY N., instead of "Henry U.," as 

printed on page 277. 
Berkshire Blacking Co. have removed their business to the old "drum shop," 

corner Learned's lane and Taconic st. 
Berkshire Valley Paper Co. occupy the second floor of the Gamwell block, 

on Railroad st. 
Briggs Josiah, is manufacturer of medicines, not " machines," as printed on 

page 282. 
Collins D. M. & Co, (Dwight M. C, and Tillotson & Power,) manufs. of 

knit underwear, Central block. 
*C00LEY ARTHUR N., is successor to his father, S. M. Cooley, in the 

carriage business, since the printing of card on page 290. 
*C0RKHILL BROS., firm dissolved December 4, 1884, and the business 

is now carried on by John Corkhill. 
Colt Henry and Henry Jr., instead of " Coult," as printed on page 293, and 

are the same as mentioned on page 291. 
■Courtney M. J., curate of St. Joseph's church, in place of Rev. Thomas 

Joyce, who removed to Greenfield. 
CURTIN PETER P., on page 361, is a patron of this work. 
Elmer Edwin, of the firm of L. A. Stevens & Co., on page 300, has removed 

to Blair. Neb. 


Ford Henry G., clerk for A. A. Wells, 25 North st. 

HANNON THOMAS A., instead of " Thomas S.," as printed on page 310 

Harrison Almon H., grocer, has removed from 97 North st. to the Gamvvell 

block, on Railroad st. 
Hill Emory F., salesman for Edwin C, 29 North st. 
HUNE CLARENCE H., a patron of this work, instead of '• Hume," as 

printed on page 314. 
Jones Edward D. G., instead of "Edwards, D. G." as printed on page 315. 
Joyce Thomas Rev., has removed to Greenfield. 
Linn William D. B., died in 1884. 

Miller & Gamwell's feed store is located in the Gamwell block. 
MORTON WARNER G., not "Warren G.," as printed on page 329. 
Murphy John J., druggist, will remove to Academy of Music Annex, April i, 

PIERCE RUSH A., instead of " Piere," as printed on page 374. 
PITTSFIELD FURNITURE CO. have dissolved, Wm. C. Renne having 

bought Peter F. Harder's interest, and the business will be removed to 

Renne's block, Fenn st 
Russell Solomon N., instead of "Solomon M," as printed on page 344. 
SOUTH PHILIP, died October 10, 1884, aged 60 years and 6 months. 
Van Sickler Martin, cotton manuf., is located on Water st. 
WELLER EDGAR M , resides on road 36, not " 86," as printed on p. 378. 
Welles R. H., stock and produce broker, room 22, Berkshire Life Ins. bldg. 
Warden Elias, instead of "Worden," as printed on page 361. 
WILCOX WILLIAM E., is a patron of this work. 
mchmoud. — WiUiams Jennie E. Miss, instead of " Mrs.," as printed on 

page 385. 
Saudis field. — Bidwell & Langdon have sold their Montville store to 

Norman P. Sears. 
Claflin Alfred, on page 386, is a rake manufacturer. 
DEMING & NORTHWAY, on page 387, A. C, not " C. E." Northway, 

is a member of the firm. 
Sheppard George A., instead of " Sheppard," as printed on page 391. 
Shepard Lewis F., instead of " Sheppard," as printed on page 392. 
THOMSON MYRON L., instead of "Thompson," as printed on page 392. 
5aV0J.— McCULLOCK ALMIRON J., and LEONARD, instead of 

" McCulloch," as printed on page 397. 
Perry Linus E., instead of "Line E.," as printed on page 397. 
Sheffield.~*MERBlAM S. D. Dr., (Ashley Falls) has removed to this 

town from North Adams. 
StOCkbridge.— BRACKEN THOMAS E., is a patron of this work. 
Day ELdward L., deputy sheriff, Railroad st. 
West StOCkhridge. — Toby John F., r 21, farmer, owns the homestead 

of Sylvan us Toby. 
Williams town. — Smith Andrew M., M. D., is physician and surgeon^ 

not " surveyor," as printed on page 460. 



Almanac or Calendar for 20 years, part i 2 

Business Directory, by towns, part 2 3 

Census Table, 1790 to 1880, part i 420 

Classified Business Directory, part 2 47 1 

County Ofiicers 11 

Courts in Berkshire County 13 

Distance Table, part i 419 

Errata ... 5 

Gazetteer of County, part i 17 

Gazetteer of Towns, part i 88 

Mail Routes and Stage Lines 14 

Map of Berkshire County inside of back cover 

Postal Rates and Regulations 13 

Postoffices and Postmasters 12 

Publisher's Notes, part 2 521 

Societies 15 


Adams 3 

Alford 44 

Becket 46 

Cheshire , 55 

Clarksburg 64 

Dalton 63 

Egremont 79 

Florida 86 

Great Barrington village 89 

Great Barrington, outside village 105 

Hancock 119 

Hinsdale , 133 

Lanesboro 132 

Lee 137 

Lenox 168 

Monterey 184 

Mount Washington 188 

New Ashford 190 

New Marlboro 191 

North Adams 202 

Otis 266 

Peru 270 

Pittsfield village 273 

Pittsfield, outside fire limits. ... 361 

Richmond 379 

Sandisfield- 386 

Savoy 394 

Sheffield 399 

Stockbridge 412 

Tyringham . 427 

Washington 429 

West Stockbridge 43^ 

Williamstown 444 

Windsor 465 



Z. Crane, Jr., & Bro.'s mill, Dalton, opposite 1 28 

Old Court House, &c., Lenox, 210 

Onota Lake and Greylock Mountain, 277 

The Park, Pittsfield, 279 

Court House, Pittsfield, 281 

S. K. Smith & Co.'s silk mill, Pittsfield, 292 

Methodist Episcopal church, Pittsfield 3^9 

St. Joseph's (r. c.) church, etc., Pittsfield, 321 

Thomas C. Phelps, (steel portrait) Williamstown,. ... opposite 409 


Vestal of Larchmount, (portrait Guernsey cow) 47 ^ 



Adams Freeman The, Adams 60 

Andlers Mrs. F., bakery, Pittsfield 210 

Anthony J. H. & Co., general jobbers, Pittsfield 146 

Barrett F. J., jeweler, Lenox 258 

Barton Wesley B., poultry dealer, Dalton 70 

Bates & Benedict, laundry, Pittsfield 70 

Beals D. A. & Son, carpenters and builders, North Adams 210 

Berkshire County Eagle The, Pittsfield 178 

Berkshire Courier The, Great Barrington 242 

Brewer John & Sons, lumber dealers, Great Barrington 100 

Burt Wallace M., attorney at law, Adams 18 

Butler James H., lumber dealer, Pittsfield ... 290 

Carter & Lawrence, carpets, Pittsfield inside back cover 

Chapin A. N. Mrs., artist, Pittsfield 50 

Chickerings Commercial College, Pittsfield .foot lines and 274 

Child Hamilton, comprehensive diary, Syracuse, N. Y 384 

Clark W. D. & Co , clothing store, Lee 146 

Cooley S. M., Arthur N. Cooley, successor, carriage builder, Pittsfield. . 290 

Corkhill Bros., painters and paper hangers, Pittsfield 34 

Cummings John, contractor and builder. North Adams 210 

Curtin & Hanrahan, milliners, Adams 18 

Dalrym])le Orson, grocery, North Adams 50 

Diehl Martin, bakery, Pittsfield 194 

Fitch Horace S., marble dealer, Alford, 34 

Fuller Samuel G., livery stable, Dalton 70 

Gillmor Fred, druggist and apothecary, Lee 230 

Goodell J. W. & Co., headstones and monuments, Burlington, Vt., . . . . 

fly leai, opposite back cover 

Goussett J. B., grocery and general merchandise. East Lee 146 

Heaphy Thomas, sewer pipe, Pittsfield 194 

Henry, Johnson & Lord, proprietary medicines, Burlington, Vt 513 

Hill E. C, hatter and furrier, Pittsfield foot Hnes and 352 

Hoosac Valley News The, North Adams 320 

Jenks & Legate, hats and caps, Adams foot lines 

Jones A. H., steam, water and gas plumber, North Adams 50 

Kilian P., music store, Pittsfield ..... , 368 

Learned Frank, Onota stock farm, Pittsfield too 

Learned Lyman Clapp, carriage works, Pittsfield 194 

Lucas H. P., agricultural implements, Pittsfield 471 

Manning M. S. & Son, drug store 194 

Merriam Dr. S. D., Ashley Falls 

Moore J. S., druggist and apothecary. West Stockbridge 434 

Morton Warner G.. coal and wood, Pittsfield inside back cover 

Newman J. R. & Sons, custom tailor, Pittsfield 400 

Newton H. H., real estate, Pittsfield 384 

North Adams Transcript The, North Adams 336 

Pittsfield Steam Renovating Co., Pittsfield 258 

Pixley E. S., M. D., cancers and tumors, Pittsfield 18 

Piatt's Son, C. B., hatter and furrier, Pittsfield 290 

Robbins F. A., jeweler, Pittsfield inside back cover 


Schenck H. de B., Guernsey cattle. Lenox 47 1 

Shaw Henry F., druggist, and jeweler, Ualton 70 

Spiegel H., millinery, Pittsfield 384 

Sun Printing Co. The, Pittsfield 1 r6 

Teale W., bakery, Pittsfield 400 

Teeling W. H. & Co., bakery, Pittsfield 384 

Valley Gleaner The, Lee 162 

Walden W. B. Mrs., book and job printing, North Adams 50 

Watkins & Simmons, photographers, Pittsfield 210 

White John & Co., florists." Pittsfield 368 

Williams D. P. & Son, hardware dealers, Lee 230 

Williams Eleazer, hardware, Pittsfield insitle back cover 

Wood Bros., music store, Pittsfield 84 


United States Senator. 

Henry L. Dawes , Pittsfield 

Representative in Congress. 
Francis W. Rockwell Pittsfield 


state Senators. 

Northern Berkshire District S. Proctor Thayer, of North Adams 

Southern Berkshire District Herbert C. Joyner, of Great Barrington 

Representatives to the General Court. 


I. Hancock, Lauesboro, New Ashford, Williamstown, and Clarksburg— Bushnell Danforth, 

of Williamstown. 
II. Adams and North Adams— Moses B. Darling, of North Adams, John Adams, of Adams. 
III. Pittsfield and Dalton— Dewitt C. Munyan, of Pittsfield, John Allen Root, of Pittsfield. 
IV. Florida, Savoy, Cheshire, Windsor, Washington, Peru, and Hindsdale— Edwin Tremaim 
of Hinsdale. 
V. Becket, Lee, Otis, and Tyringham— Henry C. Phelps, of Lee. 
, VI. Richmond, Lenox, Stockbridge, and West Stockbridge— Chauncey Sears, of Lenox. 

VII. Alford, Egremont, Gt. Barrington, and Monterey— Alfred S. Fossett, of Great Barrington. 
VIII. Mount Washington, New Marlboro, Sandisfield, and Sheffield— Charles A. Claflin, of San- 

District Attorney — J. A. Waterman, of Pittsfield. 

Judge of Probate and Iiixolvene;/— James T. Robinson, North Adams. 
Reaiftter of Probate avd Inxnlvency—E. T. Slocum, of Pittsfield. 
Clerk of the Courts— Henry W. Tatt, of Pittsfield, 

Register of Z>«e(?,s— North District, E. E, Merchant, of Adams; Middle, Henry M. Pitt, of Pitts- 
field; South, J. C. New. of Great Barrington. 
County Treasurer— Qeorgei H. Tucker, of Pittsfield. 

Sheriff and Master of the Bouse of OorrectioH—Uiram B. Wellington, Pittsfield. 
Deputy Jail&r—I,. Scott, of Pittsfield. 

County Commisiioners—A. B. Wright, of North Adams; J. B. Hull, of Stockbridge; Lyman 
Payne, of Hinsdale. Compensation $1,600 per year for the Board. Meetings first 
Tuesday in January, April, July and October. 
Special County Commissioners— H. M. Peirson, of Pittsfield; and James M. Waterman of 

Master in Chancery— AnAvf^w J. Waterman, of Pittsfield. 
Medical Examiners— Dra.YravikK.'Pa.AAock, of Pittsfield; O. J. Brown, of North Adams; C. 

C. Holcomb, of Lee: Samuel Camp, of Great Barrington. 
Commissioners to Qualify Civil 0#ce?-.9— William T. Filley, Henry W. Taft, J. N. Dunham and 

Robert W. Adam, of Pittsfield. 
Commissioner for State of J^ew For/?— John F. VanDeusen, of Pittsfield. 

Trial </M-s<tc6s— William C. Spaulding, West Stockbridge; Henry J. Dunham, Stockbridge; 
George A. Shepard, Sandisfield. 






Ashley Falls, 


Bucket Center, 









East Lee, 

Bast Windsor, 



*Great Barrington, 




Hoosao Tunnel, 





Lenox Furnace, 

Mill Hiver, 



New Ashford, 

New Boston, 

New Lenox, 

New Marllioro, 

*North Adams, 

North Egremont, 






Kichmond Furnace, 

Rockdale Mills, 



Savoy Center, 


South Egremont, 


South Lee, 

South Sandisfleld, 

South Williamstown, 

State Line, 


Sweefs Corners, 


Van Deusen, 


West Becket, 

West Otis, 

West Pittsfleld, 

West Stockbridge, 



*Money order office. 









North Adams, 


New Marlboro, 








Great I arrington, 


New Marlboro, 



Great Barrington, 





New Marlboro, 



New Ashford, 



New Marlboro, 

North Adams, 







West Stockbridge, 





New Marlboro, 




West Stockbridge, 




Great Barrington, 





West Stockbridge, 





John E. Mole, 


James H. Edwards, 


Albert LeRoy, 


Jarvis Norcott, 

Mary J. Camp, 

William G. Harding, 

Chauucey J. Whitney, 

Edward W. Blackinton, 

Henry C. Bowen, 


Calvin E. Barnes, 

Wilbur E. Howes, 

Benjamin F. Barker, 

William B. Clark, 


Julius B Goussett 

Edgar H. Pierce, 

Nathan White, 


Cdarles Goodrich, 

Julia E. Seeley, 


William H. Lapham, 


Miss Nancy A. Lawrence, 


Walter P. Davidson, 


Charles H. Goodell, 

John M Seeley, 

Charles L. Wood, 


Joseph C. Chaffee, 


Thomas Post, 


Ira E Blanvell, 

Dyer Stannard. 
William S. Bidwell, as S. 

T'ham, 1824 

James H. Merrill, 

Lasell Baker, 

Lincoln E. Deming, 


Oscar S. Hutchinson, 

Charles H. Andrews, 


John B. Tyler, 


Seyniour B. Dewey, 


Joseph Kenyon, 

Sylvester S. Bowen, 

Thomas H. Learned, 


Ebenezer King, 

Miss Jennie E. Williams. 


Harvey J. Dresser, 

Erwin F. Barnes, 

Albert C. Butler, 


Calvin Bowker. 


John W. Gurney, 


John D. Burtch, 

Walter B. Peck, 

Herbert L. Barber, 

Isaac H. Pixley, 


Abner S. Webster, 

Charles A, Mills, 


Louis F. Smith, 

Henry L. Plumb, 


Daniel J. Sweet, 

George W. Garfleld, 
Henry Baker, as VanD( 



George G. Simmons, 


Joshua Shaw, 


Jabez C. Ward, 

Augustus W. Williams, 

William C. Spaulding, 


Calvin R. Tatt, 


James L. Whipple, 


Rates of Commission Charged for Money Orders. 

On orders not exceeding $10, eight cents: over $10 and not exceeding f If, ten cents; over $15 
and not exceeding $.30, fifteen cents; over $30, and not exceeeing |40, twenty cents, over MO, and 
Sot exceeding $5^ twenty five cents; over $.50, and not exceeding $bO thirty cents; over $60 and 
Sot exceed! ui $70, thirty^five cents; over $70 and not exceeding $8t) forty cents; oyer $80, and not 
exceeding $100, forty-five cents. No single order Issued for a greater sum than $100. 



At Court-House, in Pittsfleld. 
Supreme Judicial Court. 

Jury Term — Second Tuesday in May. 
Law Term— Second Tuesday in September. 

Superior Court. 

•y, June, and Octobi 
luary and July. 

Probate and Insolvency Court. 

Civil yeraj— Fourth Monday in February, June, and October 
Criminal Terin — Second Monday in January and July. 

January 1, February 5, March 4, April 1, May 6, June 3, July 15, September 2, October 7 Novem 
ber 5, December 2. > , lu 

District Court of Central Berkshire. 

Jurisdiction in the towns ot Hancock, Lanpsboro, Peru, Windsor, Dalton, Hinsdale Pittsfleld 
and Richmond. Stamiino; Justice, Joseph Tucker ; Special Justices, Wm. T. Fillev 'ist • T, Tt' 
Oamwell, 2d ; Clerk, Walter B. Smith. . • ■ rnie,j, isc , i.. m. 

Criminal Business, court in session tvery day except Saturday, at 9 o'clock a. m. 
Civil Business on Saturday. 

District Court of Northern Berkshire. 

At North Adams and Adams. 

Jurisdiction in the towns of North Adams, Florida, Savoy, Adams, and Cheshire. Standine 
Justice, Jarvis Rockwell ; Special Justice. H. J. Bliss, of Adams. ' 

Civil Btisiness, North Adams, at Court-house, Bank St., Tuesday of each week ; Adams at Court- 
room, Town Hall, first and third Wednesday of each month. ' ' 
Criminal Business daily at North Adams by Judge Rockwell; daily at Adams by Special 
Justice Bliss. 

District Court of Southern Berkshire. 

At Courtroom in Town Hall at Great Barrington. 

Jurisdiction in ShefQeld .Great Barrington, Egremont .Alfcrd, Mount Washington, Montgomery 
and iMew Marlboro; Norman W. Shores, Standing Justice. 
Civil Business on Saturday of each week. 

Crimiri'tl business on all other days. No criminal business on Saturdays, except by special 

Police Courts. 

At Lee, John Branning, Justice; Franklin W. Gibbs, and Albert B. Clark, Special Justices 

At Williamstown, John R. Bulkley, Justice.' 


Postal cards one cent each, to all parts of the United States and Canada. 


Letters and all other mailable matter of other classes subject to letter postage by reason of a 
violation of the postal laws, two cents per half ounce to all parts of the United States and 


On registered domestic letters and third and fourth-class matter an additionnl fee of ten 
cents is required. 

" Local, or " drop " letters, that is for the city or town where deposited, two certs if delivered 
by carriers, and one cent if there is no carrier system, per half ounce. 

Manuscript for publication in books, (except when accompanied by proof sheets,) newspapers 
and magazines chargeable as letters. 


Newspapers, to each actual subscriber in the county, where published, free of charge. 


Newspapers and periodicals, transient excepted, to be prepaid at the oflBce of publication at 
two cents per pound, or fraction thereof. 


(Must not be sealed.) 

Mail-matter of the third-class embraces printed books, (except transient newspapers, four 

ounces for one cent,) and periodicals, circulars, proof-sheets and corrected proof-sheets, man- 


uscript copy accompanyinf; the sume.) and all matter of the same general character, as above 
enumerated, the printing upou which is designed to instruct, amuse, cultivatr the mind or taste, 
or impart general information, and postage shall be paid thereon at the rate of one cent for each 
two ounces or fractional part thereof. 


Mailable matter of the fourth-class embraces labels, patterns, photographs, playing cards, vis- 
iting cards, address tags, paper sacks, wrapping paper and blotting pads with or without 
printed addresses thereon, ornamented paper, and all other matter of the same general charac- 
ter, the printing upou which is not designed to instruct, amuse, cultivate the mind or taste, or 
impart general information. This class also includes merchandise, and samples of merchandise, 
models, samples of ores, metals, minerals, set-ds. &o., and any other matter not included in the 
first, second, or third-class, and which is not in its torm or nature liable to destroy, deface or 
otherwise damage the contents of the mail-bag, or harm the person of any one engaged in the 
postal service. Postage rate thereon, one cent for each ounce or fractional part thereof. 

Packages of mail-matter must not exceed four pounds each in weight, except in cases of sin- 
gle volumes of books. 

Undelivered letters and postal cards can be re-sent to a new address witbout additional charue. 

Senders may write their names on transient newspapers, books or any package in either class, 
preceded by the word "from." 

Stamps cut from the stamped envelopes are rejected by the postofBce. 

Stamped envelopes and wrappers, postal cards, and stamps of different denominations for 
sale at the postofQces. 

Stamped envelopes accidentally spoiled redeemed at the postofQce where bought. 


No Stages Run on Sunday. 

Adams by Savoy Center and West Hawley to Charlemont. (Franklin Co.,) 16 miles and back 
three times a week, Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Leave Adams at r2:30 p. m., arrive at 
Charlemont by 4:30 p. m. ; leave Charlemont at 12:30 p: m., arrive at Adams by 4:30 p. m. John D. 
Lake is mail carrier; two-horse conveyance; fare, Adams to Savoy Center, 50 cents; through, 
$1.:.'5. Send express and telegrams via Adams. 

Alford to Great Barrington, 5 miles and back daily. Leave Alford at 11 a. m., arrive at 
Great Bariingtoii by 12:15 p. m. ; leave Great Barrington at 3 p. m., arrive at Alford by 4:15 p. m. 
Eli Hawver IS mail carrier; one-horse conveyance; fare 50 cents. Send express and telegrams 
via Great Barrington. 

ASHFiELD, (Franklin Co ) by Plainfield and Savoy to Adams, 21 miles and back three tiroes a 
week, Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Leave Ashfleld at 6:30 a. m., arrive at Adams by 11:45 a. 
m. : leave Adams at l'.i:':iO p. m, arrive at Ashfleld by 5;45 p. m. Two-horse conveyance. Send 
express and telegrams via Adams. 

Cummington in Hampden Co., by West Cummington, East Windsor, and Windsor to Hinsdale, 
1^)4 miles and back daily. Leave Cummington at 6 a. m.. arrive at Hinsdale by 10:30 a. m ; leave 
Hinsdalde at l.i:45 p m., or on arrival of train, arrive at Cummington in 4>^ hours. O. M. Clark 
is mail carrier; two-horse conveyance ; through fare, $1.00. Express and telegrams via Hins- 

CuRTisviLLE to Stockbridge, 3 miles and back daily. Leave Curtisville at 12 m., or in season to 
connect with train, arrive at Stockbridge in one hour. Leave Stockbridge at 2:45 p. m., or on 
arrival of train, arrive in Curtisville in one hour. Send express and telegrams via Stockbridge. 

Florida to Hoosac Tunnel, 3 miles and back Tuesday and Saturday. Leave Florida at 11 a. m., 
or in season to connect with train; leavK Hoosac Tunnel at 12:30 p m. or on arrival of train. 
Albert E. Wilder is mail carrier; one-horse conveyance; fare, 50 cents. Send express and tele- 
grams via Hoosac Tunnel. 

Great Harrington by South Egremont, and North Eghemont, to Hillsdale, N. Y.. daily- 
Leave Great Barrington at 8:30 a m., returning, arrive at Great Barrington by C p m. M. A. Bris- 
tol, of Great Barrington, is mail carrier ; two horse conveyance ; fare, 25 cents to South Egre- 
mont; 50 cents to North Egremont; $1.00 to Hillsdale. Send express or telegraph via Great Bar- 
riugtou or Hillsdale. 

Hancock to Pittsfield, 10 miles and back, daily. Leave Hancock at 8 a. m., arrive at Pitts- 
field by 10 a. m., or in season to connect with train ; leave Pitrsfleld at 3 p. m. or on arrival of 
train, arriving at Hancock by 5 p. m. A. A. Grant and D. D. Grant are mail carriers ; two horse 
conveyance : passeni^er fare each way .50 cents. Express should be sent via Pittsfield or Steph- 
entow'n, N. Y. Telegrams should be sent via Stephentown. 

Jacksonville (Vt) by Whitingham, Readsboro, Readsboro Falls, Heartsville, Stamford, 
(Vt.) and Briggsvillis to North Adams, 28 V miles and back daily. Leave Jacksonville at 4:45 a. 
m., arrive at North Adams by 11:45 a. m.; leave North Adams at 2 p. m., arrive at. Jacksonville by 
9 p.m. H. G. Davis is mail carrier; two horse conveyance; fare $1.50. Send express and tele- 
grams via North Adams. 

Lenox to Lenox Railroad Station (no office) 2^ miles and back, three trains daily to connect 
with trains, 

Monterey to Great Barrington, 9 miles and baek, daily. Leave Monterey at 6a . m., arrive at 
Great Barrington by 9 a. m ; leave Great Barrington at 1:30 p. m., arrive at Monterey by 3:20 p 
m. Albert B. Cbamplain is mail carrier; two horse conveyance; passenger fare 50 cents. Send 
express or telegraph via Great Barrington. 

MoNTiviLLE to New BcsTON, Smiles and back daily. Leave Mootville at 5::^0 a. m., arrive at 
New Boston by 6:15 a. m; leave New Boston at 6 p m., arrive at Montville by 6:45 p. m. Frederick 
R. Robinson is mail carrier; one horse conveyance. Express via Winsted, Conn. Telephone 
at New Boston. 



New Marlboro by Hartsyillk 10 Great Barrington, 11 miles and back daily. Leave New 
Marlboro at 6 a. m , or in time to connect with trains, arrive at Great Harrington by 8 a. m. in 
summer, and 10 a. m. in winter: leave Great Barrington at 1 -.30 p. m., arrive at New Marlboro by 
4.30 p m. Stephen W. Benedict is mail carrier; two horse conveyance; fare 35 cents to Harts- 
ville, 75 cents to Great Barrington. Send express and telegrams via Great Barrington. This 
route also passes Mill River. Fare from Mill River to Great Barrington 50 cents. 

Otis by Becket Center, and CHE.STERto Chester Depot, (no office) in Hampden Co., V2X miles 
and back on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. Leave Otis at 6:3t) a. m., arrive at Chester Depot by 
9:30 a m ; leave Chester Depot at 1 p. m., arrive at Otis by 4 p. m. Albert Champlain is mail car- 
rier, two horse conveyance ; passenger fare either way 40 cents. Express or telegrams via 

Otis by New Boston, Colebrook River, Conn., Riverton and Robertsville, to Winsted, Conn. 
24^ miles and back daily. Leave Otis at 5 a. m., arrive at Winsted by 11 a. m.; 1 eave Winsted at 
l:30p. m.oron arrival of New York Mail, arrive at Otis in six hours. Two horse stage- 
through passenger fare $1.50. Express via Winsted, Conn. Telephone via Winsted, New Hartford 
and East Otis Reservoir. 

Otis by West Becket and East Lee to Lee 12 miles and back daily. Leave Otis at 7 a. m., ar- 
rive at Lee by 10 a. m.; leave Lee at 2::M p. m., or on arrival of train, arrive at Otis in three 
hours. John Deming is mail carrier under 1. B. Tinker, of Tyringham. Two horse conveyance • 
fare each way, 75 cents. Express and telegrams should be sent via Lee. ' 

Otis by West Otis to Monterey, 7 miles and back three times a week, Tuesday, Thursday and 
Saturday. Leave Otis at 5:15 a. m., arrive at Monterey by 7 a. m. ; leave Monterey at 4:15, ar- 
rive at Otis by (j p. m. Albert B Champlin is mail carrier ; two horse conveyance ; fare 50 cents. 
Send express and telegrams via Chester or Great Barrington. 

PiTTSFiELD and Dalton stage (no mail) daily. Arrive at Pittsfleld from Dalton at p. m. 
Leave Pittsfleld for Dalton at 4 p. m., from Burbank & Enright's on North st. 

Pittsfield, Lenox, Lee and Stockbridge .stage, (no mail). Leave Pittsfleld at 2 p. m., arriv 
at 10:30 a. m. From Lenox arrives at— :30 a. m. 

Readsboro (Vt..) to HoosAc Tunnel. 10 miles and back daily. Leave Readsboro at 7.30 a. m., 
arrive at Hoosac Tunnel by 10 a. m. Leave Hoosac Tunnel at 2 p. m., arrive at Readsboro at 4.30 
p. m.. Two-horse stage. Send express via Hoosac Tunnel 

South Egremont by Mount Washington to Copake Iron Works. (N. Y.) lOX miles and back 
three times a weeB, three additional weekly trips from June 1 to September 30. Leave South 
Egremont in summer at 9 a. m , or on arrival of mail from G eat Barrington, arrive at Copake 
Iron Works in 2>j hours ; leave Copake Iron Works at 2:30 p. m., or in season to connect with mail 
for Great Barrington. From October to May the mails to be carried at above hours on Tuesday, 
Thursday and Saturday. j^fAbove schedule advertised for by U. S., Sept. 1.5,1884. No postoffiee' 
heretofore establ shed in Mount Washington. Send express and telegrams via Great Barring- 
ton or Copake Iron Works. 

SouTHPiELD by Mill River and Clayton to Canaan (Conn.) 10>^ miles and back daily. Leave 
Southfleld at ti::^0a. m.. or in season to connect with train, arrive in Canaan in 2>^ hours ; leave 
Caanan at 1 p. m.. or on arrival of train, arrive at Southfleld in 2)4 hours. J B. Haskell is mail 
carrier ; stage fare from Southfleld to Mill River 15 cents ; Clayton 50 cents ; to Canaan 65 
cents. Send express and telegrams via Canaan. 

Tyringham to Lee 5 miles and back daily. Leave Tyringham at 12 m., arrive at Lee by 1:15 p. 
m.; leave Lee at 2:30 p. m., arrive at Tyringham by 3:45 p. m. Send express or telegrams via 

WiLLiAMSTOWN by Sweet's Corners, South Williamstown, New Ashford, Lanesboro and 
PoNToosuc to Pittsfield, 21 miles and back daily Leave Williamstown at 6:45 a. m., arrive at 
Pittsfleld by 11:45 a. m. ; leave Pittsfleld at 3 p. m., arrive at Williamstown by 9:.30 p. m. Passen- 
gers carried. Send express or telegrams via either terminus. 

Winsted, Conn., bv West Winsted, Colebrook, North Coldbrook, and South Sandisfield to 
Sandisfield. 15m miles and back, daily. Leave Winsted at l;3ii p. m , or on arrival of train, arrive 
at Sandisfield by 5.30 p. m. ; leave Sandisfield at fi:45 a. m., arrive at Winsted by 10:40 a m. 
Michael E. Ryan is mail carrier; passenger fare, $1.00 through. Express should be sent via Win- 
sted, Conn., and telegrams via Colebrook, Conn. 

WoRTHiNGTON. (Hampshire Co.,) by West Worthi.ngton and Peru to Hinsdale and back 
daily. Leave Worthiugton at 7 a m.. or in season to connect with train going West, arrive at 
Hinsdale by 10 a. m. ; leave Hinsdale at 12:45 p. m , or on arrival of mail train, arrive at Worth- 
ington by 3 p. m. Edwin Burr, of Worthington, is mail carrier ; two-horse conveyance. Fare. 
Hinsdale to Peru, 40 cents; to Worthington, 90 cents. Send express and telegrams via Hins- 


Masonic Fraternity. 

Adams.— *Berkshire Lodge, F. & A. M., chartered in 1858, meets first Monday of each month, in 

Collins Block, Robert N. Richmond. M.; W. S. Jenks, Sec'y. 
Corinthian Chapter. R A. M., meets third Thursday of each month, in Collins Block ; John 

M. Morin, M. E. H. ; A. W. Safford, Sr^c'y. 
Cheshire.— Upton Lodge, F. & A. M., chartered in 1870, meets second Tuesday of each month; 

William P. Martin, Master. 

*Fraijklin Lodge, F. & A. M., was cliartered June 9, 1794, John M. Cutler, G. M., and was continued 
until anti-masonic times. The only member of this old lodge now living is Ezra D. Whitaker of North 


Hinsdale.— Globe Lodge, P. & A. M.. meets first Monday of each month, John R. Davison, 

Great Barrington.— Cincinnatus Lodge, F. & A. M., chartered in 1795, meets Friday, on or 

before the full of the moon of each month; Miles T. Huntington, Master. 
Lee.— Evening Star Lodge, P. & A. JVl., chartered in 179.5, meets Tuesday, on or before the full of 

the moon of each month; Edward H. Phinney, Master. 
MoNDMENT Chapter. — Meets on Monday after the full of the moon of each month. 
North Adams — Greylock Lodge. P. & A. M., chartered in 1875, meets at Masonic Hall on second 
Tuesday of each month; Edward T. Dart, M.; Alexander Caswell, Sec'y. 
Lafayette Lodge, P. & A. M., chartered In 1849, meets at Masonic Hall Monday, on or 

before the full of the moon; A. W. Pulton, M. ; G. H. Minor, Sec'y. 
Composite chapter meets first Monday of each month. 
PiTTSFiELD. — Mystic Lodge, P. & A. M . stated communications on the first Tuesday evening of 
each month, Charles E. Merrill, W. M.; James Carver, S. W.; James Kittle, J. W.; E. H. 
Nash, Treas. ; J. P VanDeusen, Sec'y. 
Crescent Lodge, P. & A. M., George H. Tucker, W. M. ; William C. Stevenson, S. W.; W. P. 

Wood. J. W.; Theodore L, Allen, Treas ; Clark F. Hall, Sec'y. 
Berkshire Royal Arch Capter, Thomas H. Day, H. P.; William K. Rice, K. ; Edward H. Rice, 

S.; Clark P. Hall, Treas.; John P. VauDnusen Sec'y. 
Berkshire Council Select and Royal Masters, Hezekiah S. Russell, T. 1. M.; Lebbeus Scott. 

D M.; William D. Astell. P. C of W.; Otis Cole, Treas. ; A. J. Newman Recorder. 
Berkshire Commandery Knight Templars. Stat.od conclave second Monday evening of each 
month. Irving D. Perry, E. C. ; William B. Wilcox, Gen.; Charles E Merrill, Capt Gen.; 
Otis Cole, Treas ; Clark P. Hall, recorder. 
Stockbbidge. — Occidental Lodge, F. & A. M., chartered in 1870, meets th e first Tuesday on or 

b-^fore the full of each moon; Charles H. Willis, Master. 
West Stockbridgk.— Windsor Lodge, P. & A. M., chartered in 1803, meets first Thursday on or 

before the full of the moon of each month; W L. Curtis, Master. 
Williamstown. — Williams Lodge, P. & A. M., chartered in 1872; Homer Torry, Master. 

Temperance Societies. 

Pittspield. — Father Matthew T. A. S.. organized February 1, 1874, meets in Martin's Block every 
Tuesday evening; William Nugent, Pres.; F. F. Stanton: Sec'y. 

Patrons of Husbandry. 

DALTON.—Dalton Grange, No. 23, Edward L. Brown. M ; and Emma Walker, Sec'y. 
Florida. -Florida Grange, No. 100, E. C. Rice, M ; and Mrs. K C. Rice, Sec'y. 
Hinsdale.— Hinsdale Grange, No. 19, C. E. Robinson, M.; and Mrs. F. P Wadkins, Sec'y. 
Lanesboro. — Lanesboro Grange, No. 21, P. D. Demiug, M. ; and W. P. Parnham, Sec'y. 
Richmond.— Richmond Grange, No. 32, A. G. Sharpe, M ; and Katie Nichols, Sec'y. 
PiTTSFlELD. — Pittsfleld Grange, No. 14, John Strong, M.; and C. P. Hall, Sec'y. 
Savoy. — Savoy Grange, No. 99, Isaac N. Burnett, M.; and W. W. Burnett, Sec'y. 

Grand Army of the Republic. 

Great Barrington,— Capt. E. T. Dresser Post G. A. R., No. 158, meets first and third Mondays 

of each month; William McDonald, Com. 
North Adams —C. D Sanford Post, G. A. R., Frank M. Poote, Com. 

PiTTSFiELD — W. W. Rockwell Post, G. A. R , No. 125, meets first and second Mondays of month; 
William H. Chamberlin, Com. 

Independent Order ot Odd FelloAVs. 

North Adams. -Oneco Lodge, No. 100. F. B. Walker, N. G.; N B. Flodel, P. S 

PiTTSFiELD. — Berkshire Lodge, No. 57, Thomas E. Hall, N. G. ; George McGregor, P. S ; meets 
every Tuesday evening. 
Oseola Lodge, No. 125, Rufus A. Teeling, N. G.; Charles F. Wakefield, P. S.; meets every 
Friday evening. 

Knights of Honor. 

PiTTSFiELD.— Pittsfield Lodge, No. 339, John L. Brady, D.; Charles H. Clifford, R.; Frederick A. 
Churchill, P. P.; and Henry C. Clark, T. ; meets first and third Mondays of each 
Laurel Lodge, No. 777, K. and L. of H , Frederick A. Churchill, P.; H. C. Morris, S. T. ; 
Osbert J. Copeland, F. C; Arthur H. Hall, T. ; meets on first and third Wednesdays 
of each month. 

Royal Arcanum. 

PiTTSFiELD. — Onota Council, No. 5(58, Dr. H. W. Dewey, Jr., R.; John L. Brady, S.; Darwin E. 
Streeter, C; George A. Holland, T.; meets secona and fourth Mondays of each month. 

Knights of Pythias. 

Adams.— Adams Lodge, No. b7, Adelbert Tinney, C. C. ; Jerrold Howatt, Jr., K. R. S.; meets every 

PiTTSFiELD.— Berkshire Lodge, A. W. Stewart, C. C; F. P. Reed, K. R. S.; meets every 


Ancient Order of Hibernians. 

Lee. — Has sixty-five members, with John D. McCarthy, president; Thomas Haphy, treasurer; 

meets first Tuesday of each month. 
North ADAMS.— Dennis Finnegan, president; John Haynes, secretary; meets second and last 

Tuesdays of each month. 
Pittsfield.— Dennis A. Uogan. president; John Smith, secretary; meets every Sunday. 

(^Continued on page 527, part Second.') 




" Thou who wouldst see the lovely and the wild 
Mingled in harmony on Nature's face. 
Ascend our rocky mountains. Let thy foot 
Fail not with weariness, for on their tops 
The beauty and the majesty of earth, 
Spread wide beneath, shall make thee to forget 
The steep and toilsome way." — Bryant. 

BERKSHIRE COUNTY, whose wealth of beauty and historic lore has 
fancy -tipped the pen of many gifted ones, rears, "round as the bosom 
of beauty," her voluptuous hillt, and wide-spreads her charming valleys 
and sylvan vales over the whole of Western Massachusetts, extending from 
the southern bounds of the Green Mountain State down to the Northern Hne 
of old Connecticut. Here the Taghconic and Green Mountain ranges 
have united the picturesque and the grand in an exquisite harmony, their 
various blendings of light and shade combining in a woof more rare than was 
ever wrought in the looms af Ispahan, while "cloud-girdled" Greylock, the 
highest mountain in the State, holds, from his mighty throne, watch and 
ward over all. Of this beautiful country, however, it is not our purpose to 
attempt in the following pages a full and detailed history, nor a complete 
description thereof ; but simply to place on record the principal events con- 
nected with its history, to outHne the Uves of some of its pioneers and hon- 
ored citizens, to trace the erection of each one of its townships, and to hand 
down to future generations the names and occupations of its present resi- 
dents, all of which, however, unite in a task by no means slight, and for any 
imperfections in the execution thereof, we beg the kind indulgence of the 

Let us turn back over the old Bay Path, adown the vista of faded years, 
and hastily glance at the links in the strong chain that unites us with that 



little band whose bended knees devoutly pressed old Plymouth's frozen snow 
on that dreary December day in 1620 — that band who had braved persecu- 
tion, and the rigors of a winter sea, that they " might walk with God and one 
another in the enjoyment of the ordinances of God, according to the primi- 
tive fashion/' and now, on this dreary 21st of December, began their stern 
fight with the elements, with famine, and with a savage foe, to found one of 
the greatest nations upon which the sun has ever shone. A God-fearing, law- 
loving, fearless, industrious people were this litle Puritan band, the "noblest 
men that ever founded a nation." Of their many trials in those early days it 
is not necessary to speak — they are fam^iliar to all. Accessions to the new 
settlement was soon made, other colonies were established, and it was not 
long before emigration began its steady march towards the West, a march 
that even now, though more than two and a half centuries have intervened, 
is not ended. Cotton Mather quaintly speaks of these times as follows . — 

" It was not long before the Massachusetts colony was become like an hive 
overstocked with bees, and many of the new inhabitants entenained thoughts 
of swarming into plantations extended further into the country. The colony 
might fetch its own descriptions from the dispensations of the Great God 
unto hi^ ancient Israel, and say : ' O God of Hosts ! Thou hast brought a 
ruin out of England ; Thou hast cast out the heathen and planted it ; Thou 
prepardest room before it, and didst cause it to take deep root, and it tilled 
the land ; the hills were covered with the shadow of it, and the boughs 
thereof were like the goodly cedars ; she sent out her boughs into the sea.' 
But still there was one stroak wanting for the compleat accoramodaticns of 
the description ; to wit, she sent forth her branches unto the river, and this, 
therefore, is to be next attained. The fame of Connecticut River, a long, 
fresh, rich river, had made a little Nilus of it, in the expectation of the good 
people about the Massachusetts Bay, whereupon many of the planters, belong- 
ing especially to the towns of Cambridge, Watertown and Roxbury, took up 
resolutions to travel an hundred miles westward from those towns, for a fur- 
ther settlement upon this famous river." 

In 1 63 1 the Connecticut first became known to the colonists, and in Octo- 
ber, 1633, was begun the first settlement in its valley, at Windsor, Conn. ; 
and in 1636 William Pynchon and his little band came down the old Bay 
Path to found what is now the flourishing city of Springfield. With this event 
begins the authentic history of Western Massachusetts. 

A little over a quarter of a century later, old Hampshire county was incor- 
porated, the settlements here having increased to such an extent that this act 
had become necessary. The act of incorporation reads as follows: — 

" Forasmuch as the inhabitants of this jurisdiction are much increased, so 
that now they are planted far into the country, upon Connecticut river, who 
by reason of their remoteness cannot conveniently be annexed to any of the 
counties already settled; and that public affairs may with more facility be 
transacted according to laws now established : It is ordered by the Court, 
and authority thereof, that nenceforth Springfield, Northampton and Hadley 
shall be, and hereby are, constituted as a county, the bounds or limits on the 
south to be the south line of the patent, the extent of other bounds to be full 
thirty miles distant from any or either of the aforesaid towns : and what 



towns or villages soever shall hereafter be erected within the aforesaid limits 
to be and belong to the said county. And further, that the said county shall 
be called Hampshire, and shall have and enjoy the liberties and privileges of 
any other county ; that Springfield shall be the shire town there, and the 
courts to be kept one time in Springfield and another time at Northamp- 
ton ; the like order to be observed for their shire meetings, that is to say, one 
year at one town and the next year at the other town, from time to time. 
The Deputies have passed this, with reference to the consent of the honored 
magistrates. >, 

" 16th day of 3d Month, i§i62, 

" William Torrey, Clericus." 

Under this act old Hampshire county flourished for nearly a hundred years 
with no material curtailment of her vague and roughly stated limits ; but 
finally, on the 21st of April, 1761, the old county was divided, its western 
portion taking the name of Berkshire— the territory of which we write. The old 
county, however, parted with very little of civilization when she gave up the 
territory of Berkshire, but she lost 950 square miles of beautiful territory and 
nearly as much of fine farming land, or nearly one eighth of the whole terri- 
tory of Massachusetts, the limits of which the act of incorporation fixed as 
follows : — 

" Beginning at the western line of Granville, where it touches the Connec- 
ticut line, to run northerly as far as said west line of Granville runs, then 
easterly to the southwest corner of Blanford, and to run by the west line of 
the same town, to the northwestern corner thereof; from thence northerly in 
a direct line to the southeast corner of No. 4 [Becket], and so running by'the 
easterly line of No. 4, to the northeast corner thereof; and thence in a direct 
course to the southwest corner of Charlemont, and so northerly in the west 
line of the same town, till it comes to the north bound of the province, and 
northerly on the line between this province and the province of New Hamp- 
shire [now Vermont], and on the west by the utmost limits of this province." 

Since then, however, a number of changes have been made in its eastern 
and western boundary lines. At that time the Dutch claimed the territory as 
far east as the Housatonic, on the county's western border, while the settle- 
ment of the boundary line between Massachusetts and the province of New 
York had long been, as it continued long to be, a subject of controversy be- 
tween the two powers ; indeed, it was not finally adjusted until 1787, when the 
line was drawn by a joint commisson from the two commonwealths. This 
adjustment threw a large portion of the township of Hancock into New 
York, though it left a gore of that state's territory lying against the towns of 
West Stockbridge and Alford. which was finally annexed to those towns. In 
the extreme southwestern part of the county there was a tract of land that 
was incorporated as a district, April 14, 1838, under the name of Boston 
Corner; but being divided, or shut off" from Mount Washington by the 
roonntains, it was ceded to New York, to which it naturally belonged. May 
14, 1853. It contained an area of 940 acres, and had seventy-five inhabitants. 
The eastern boundary has been subjected to still greater changes. In 1783, 
" the northeast corner of Becket, the south side of Partridgefield [Peru], a 


part of Washington, and the land called Prescott's Grants, all in the county 
of Berkshire," with portions of Worthington and Chester, in Hampshire 
county, were incorporated as the township of Middlefield, which was annexed 
to Hampshire county. Still later, a part of Hampshire's territory was taken to 
increase the territory of Windsor, and in 1792 the township of Hawley was 
incorporated, being made up. from land that had been granted here as " Plan- 
tation No. 7," and was annexed to Hampshire county, being now, however, 
apart of FrankHn county. Finally, in 1822, a gore of land in the north- 
eastern part of the county was taken towards forming the township of Mon- 
roe, which was annexed to Franklin county. 

At the time of its erection there were only five incorporated townships 
within the hmits of the county, viz.: Sheffield, Stockbridge, New Marlboro, 
Egremont and Pontoosuc (now Pittsfield), though the northern part of Shef- 
field was incorporated as the township of Great Barrington on the 30th of 
June, the day that the act incorporating the the county went into eff"ect ; and 
there were only four other settlements, at Williamstown, Tyringham, Sandis- 
field and Becket respectively, while there are now thirty-two townships, as fol- 
lows : Adams, Alfred, Becket, Cheshire, Clarksburg, Dalton, Egremont, Flor- 
ida, Great Barrington, Hancock, Hinsdale, Lanesboro, Lee, Lenox, Monte- 
rey, Mount Washington, New Ashford, New Marlboro, North Adams, Otis, 
Peru, Pittsfield, Richmond, Sandisfied, Savoy, Sheffield, Stockbridge, Trying- 
ham, Washington, West Stockbridge, Williamstown and Windsor. The total 
area of the these towns constitute a territory of 950 square miles, lying be- 
tween 42'"" 2' and 42° 44' north latitude, and between 4° 4' and 3° 33' east 
longitude, bounded north by the state of Vermont, east by Franklin, Hamp- 
den and Hampshire counties, south by Connecticut, and east by New York, 
while their total population in 1880 amounted to 69,082 souls. 

But of the beauties of Berkshire and its superb views, what can we say ? 
Pen cannot paint nor palette filch its delicious curves, its varying, tremulous 
<^olors — hazy, dreamy, changing as the chameleon's, with the varying atmos. 
phere. Since first they gladdened the heart of the pioneer, they have inspired the 
poecy of giant intellects, and the quaint legends that have their home among 
them have afforded food for the pen of Longfellow, Bryant, Hawthorne, Mel- 
ville, Thoreau, Sedgwick, Holmes, Kemble, and others, each of whom has 
failed to leave a perfect picture of the hills they loved so dearly. What won" 
der, then, that our "poor shell should fail to wake the weary nine," and our 
palsied pen shrink, appalled, the task. No more brief, analytical, view of 
this subject, perhaps, can be found than that presented by the mellow pen of 
" Godfrey Greylock," in his charmmg work. Tag/iconic, which we take the 
liberty of repeating : — 

"But first listen to Mr Ruskin," he says, "whom I suppose you will recog- 
nize as a competent interpreter the laws of beauty : 

" ' That country is always the most beautiful which is made up of the most 


" That is the great teacher's absolute dictum directly applicable here : and 
listen to another, applicable by indirection but clearly pertinent: 

" 'In all beautiful designs of exterior descent, a certain regularity is neces- 
sary; the lines should be graceful, but they must also balance each other, 
slope answering slope, and statue to statue.' 

"And now observe what may be considered Mr. Ruskin's application of the 
first-quoted law. It forms part of his ideal description or characterization of 
the 'picturesque blue country' of England ; that is, a country having a blue 
distance of mountains : 

" ' Its first and most distinctive peculiarity is its grace ; it is all undulation 
and variety of line, one curve passing into another with the most exquisite 
softness, roUing away into faint and far outlines of various depths and deci- 
sion, yet none hard or harsh; and, in all probability, rounded off in the near 
ground into massy forms of partially wooded hill, shaded downward into 
winding dingles or cHfify ravines, each form melting imperceptibly into the 
next, without an edge or angle. ****** Every line is volup- 
tuous, floating and waving in its form ; deep, rich and exquisitely soft in 
its color ; drowsy in its effect, like slow, wild music ; letting the eye repose up- 
on it, as on a wreath or cloud, without one feature of harshness to hurt, or of 
contrast to awaken.' 

" Mr. Ruskin might have written the quoted passages sitting here upon 
this tower [at Maplewood Hall, Pittsfield], and been guilty of nothing worse 
than almost Pre-Raphaelite precision. The landscape is literally all curves : 
there is not a straight or ungraceful line in it, except it be of man's making. 
In what graceful sweeps those mountain walls were thrown up. Into what 
an endless and infinitely varied succession of interlacing loops and curves, 
the old glaciers scolloped their crests and indented their ravines. The mean- 
derings of the countless brooks, the serpentine windings of the Housatonic, 
the wavy and sinuous contours of the lakes, soothe the eye by the multitude 
of their luxurious curves. The bare morains, the wooded knolls, the mossy 
maple groves and clumpy stretches of willow, are all soft and rounded. The 
shadows which lie under the solitary trees on the hill side, have no harsher 
shape than that which the fleecy passing cloud casts near them. Nay, Na- 
ture, compelling man to own her own sweet mood, forces him to bend his . 
railroads and highways gently around the circled bases of her mountains. 
Even when he makes his ways straight, ' Nature soon touches in her pictur- 
esqe graces,' and covers his streets and his habitations with her swelling 
drapery. Berkshire, as you see it here, surely answers well to Mr. Ruskin's 
definition of 'the most beautiful country.' 

" And as to the demands of the second passage which I have quoted, and 
to the general requisitions of his essay; I repeat what I have said elsewhere; 

"A lovlier landscape one might not desire to see; and when satiated with 
long luxurious gazing, the spectator seeks to analyze the sources of his delight, 
all the elements of beauty justify his praise. To the eye the valley here pre- 


sents the proportions which architects love to give their favorite structures. 
The symmetry, too, with which point answers to point, exceeds the attain- 
ment of the art. 

"Variety, the m^st marvelous, but without confusion, forbids the sense to 
tire. Colors, the richest, softest and most delicate charm the eye, and vary 
with the ever-changing conditions of the atmosphere. Fertile farms and fre- 
quent villages imbue the scene with the warmth of generous life ; while, over 
all, hangs the subdued grandeur which may well have pervaded the souls of 
the great and good men who have made Berkshire their home from the days 
of Jonathan Edwards down." 

As we have previously stated, the county lies upon the great ridge which 
separates the valleys of the Hudson and Connecticut rivers, and which is di- 
vided into the Green and Taghconic ranges of mountains ; the former extend- 
ing from north to south across the eastern part of the county, while the 
Taghconics have a parallel course across the Western part. Between the 
Taghconic range and a spur of the Green Mountains known as the Hoosacs, 
there stretches a beautiful valley through the whole length of the county, 
through which flow the Hoosac and Housatonic rivers, the former to the 
north and the latter to the south. Along these streams are located the prin- 
cipal villages and manufactures, while or either hand from this valley are 
stretched the agricultural towns. The valley towns are from 500 to t,2oo 
feet above the level of the sea, while the mountain towns have a mean eleva- 
tion of from 1,200 to 1,800 feet, the highest point being located in the north- 
western part, where Greylock rears his crest to an altitude of 3,500 feet. Of 
the healthfulness of the Berkshire Hills, Dr. J. F. A. Adams, president of the 
Berkshire District Medical Society, states in a paper read before that society 
in December, 1883, as follows: — 

"The climate is dr}"-, cool and bracing. Against the cold and moist east 
and northeast winds which prevail along the New England coast, Berkshire 
possesses a double line of defense, namely, that portion of the Green Moun- 
tain range which skirts it on the east, and also the southern prolongation of the 
White Mountain system east of the Connecticut valley. On the summits 
and eastern slopes of these two mountain chains the east winds deposit their 
superabundant moisture and expend their force, so that, on reaching Berkshire 
their character is wholly changed. In like manner the west winds are de- 
prived by the two mountain ranges east and west of the Hudson river of the 
dampness gathered from the great lakes. The elevation of this region is an- 
other cause of the dryness of the atmosphere, and likewise renders it coo 
and bracing. Other things being equal, the average temperature of a place 
is diminished one degree for every 300 feet of elevation. The average tem- 
perature of Berkshire is, therefore, from two to six degrees cooler than the 
lower districts lying to the 6ast and west. The climate of moderate altitudes 
is stimulating, accelerating the breath and circulation and giving tone to the 
nervous system. The beneficial influence of this stimulation on invalids, 
especially consumptives, has been carefully studied by eminent medical author- 
ities in Switzerland, Colorado and elsewhere, and, although the altitude of 
the towns among the Berkshire hills is less than that of the Engodine or of 


Denver, the same quality of atmosphere exists and a similar beneficial effect 
is experienced." 

Aside from those mentioned, the principal elevations are Mount Everett, 
Mount Washington, Monument Mountain and Potter Mountain, all of which 
and many others are spoken of in detail in connection with the sketch of the 
towns wherein they are located. The county is well supplied with streams 
which have their sources in the clear springs of the many hill-sides, the prin- 
ciple of which are the Housatonic, Hoosac, Deerfield, Westfield, Green 
and Farmington rivers, with their numerous tributaries. The Housatonic, 
whose name, with its various orthographies, was derived from the Indians, and 
signifying " over the mountains," has its sources in the towns of Lanesboro 
and Windsor. The two branches meet at Pittsfield, where the river forms ; 
it then passes south, through Berkshire county, entering Connecticut, and thence 
meanders on to Long Island Sound. The sources of the rivei being located 
at an altitude of more than a thousand feet above the ocean, its current af- 
fords excellent motive power. The volume of water is not very large, except 
in seasons of freshet, when the rains from the mountains swell it until it inun- 
dates the valleys, thus greatly fertiHzing the soil. The scenery which envi- 
rons it is in many places enchanting. 

The Hoosac river proper has its souce in two branches, one in the north- 
ern part of the county and the other in the mountainous tracts of Bennington 
county, Vt. The branches unite near Hoosac Falls, N. Y., about three 
miles west of the celebrated Bennington battle ground, and thence it drops 
into the Hudson, fifteen miles north of Troy. The stream in this county 
affords many excellent mill-sites. 

The Deerfield river rises in Stratton, Vt., and falls into the Connecticut. 
It is connected with Berkshire county only in forming the eastern boundary 
line of Florida. It is an important stream, however, being about fifty miles 
in length, watering 320 square miles of territory. 

Westfield river is made up by three branches. North branch has its source 
in Windsor. It flows northerly, thence easterly, round the hills, and then 
turning southerly into Hampshire county ; Middle branch rises in Peru and 
flows southwesterly into Hampshire county; and West branch has its sources 
in Washington and Becket, and flows southeasterly to unite with the other 
branches, m Montgomery, Hampden county. 

Farmington river rises in Becket and flows a southerly course into Hamp- 
den county, forming a part of the eastern boundary line of Sandisfield. 

Green river, so named from the color of its waters, which is probably pro- 
duced by the clay washed out from its banks, rises in Austerlitz, N. Y., and 
flowing through Alford and Great Barrington unites with the Housatonic. 
There arc also many other minor streams, and a great many lakes and ponds 
which are spoken of in the several town sketches. 



A study of the science of geology is ever an interesting one ; and as related 
to this county is exceedingly so, for here the records of the changes, or "foot- 
prints." that time has left in succeeding ages since the earth was created, are 
numerous and well developed. Before mentioning the several rock forma- 
tions that enter mto the structure of the county, however, it may not be con- 
sidered superfluous to briefly note some of the fundamental principles of the 

Among geologists it has become the common, if not the pevailing opinion, 
that in the beginning all the elements with which we meet were in an ethereal 
or gaseous state — that they slowly condensed, existing for ages as a heated 
fluid, by degrees becoming more consistent — that thus the whole earth was 
once an immense ball of nery matter — that, in the course of time, it was ren- 
dered very compact, and at last became crusted over, as the process of cool- 
ing gradually advanced, and that its interior is still in a molten condition . 
Thus, if the view suggested be correct^ the entire planet in its earlier phases, 
as well as the larger part now beneath and within its solid crust, was a mass 
of molten fire, and is known to geologists as the elementary or inolie?i period. 
Following this came another age, in which the molten mass began to cool 
and a crust to form, called the igneous period. Contemporaneous with the 
beginning of the igneous period came another epoch. The crust thus formed 
would naturally become surrounded by an atmosphere heavily charged with 
minerals in a gaseous or vaporous condition. As the cooling advanced, this 
etherealized matter would condense and seek a lower level, thus coating the 
earth with another rock. This is named the vaporous period. At last, how- 
ever, another age was ushered in, one altogether different from those that had 
preceded it. The moist vapor which must of necessity have pervaded the 
atmosphere began to condense and settle, gathering into the hollows and 
crevices of the rocks, until nearly the whole surface of the earth was covered 
with water. This is called the aqueous period. As these waters began to 
recede and the "firmament to appear," the long winter that intervened 
while the sun was obscured by the heavy clouds, would cover the earth with 
mighty ice floes and glaciers, forming a drift or glacial period. 

A great difference also exists in the consolidation and structure of the depos- 
its thus formed. The very newest consist of unconsolidated gravel, sand and 
clay, iormmg alluvium. A little further down we come to tht tertiary strata. 
where are some hardened rocks and others more or less soft. Next below the 
tertiary areTound thick deposits, mostly consolidated,but showing a mechanical 
structure along]with the crystalline arrangement of the ingredients. These 
are called secondary and transition. Lowest of all are found rocks having a 
decidedly crystalline structure, looking as if the different minerals of which 
they are composed crowded hard upon one another. These rocks are called 
metamorphic'Jiypozoic and azoic. 


The principal rocks entering into the geological structure of Berkshire are 
mostly azoic, and are known as gneiss, limestone, talcose-slate, itiica-slate 
quartz rock associated with mica-slate and chlorite, mentioned in the order of 
their preponderance. The great bed of gneiss enters the county from the 
south, extending nearly to the Vermont line, underlying the greater part of 
Sandisfield, New Marlboro, Otis, Tyringham, Becket, Lee, Washington, Hins- 
dale, Peru, Windsor and Savoy. The essential ingredients of gneiss are 
quartz, feldspar, and ;«/Vrt:, forming a rock closely resembling ^r^;///.?, differing 
from it only in having a distinctly stratified, slaty or laminated structure. 
For this reason it makes a very handsome and convenient building stone, as 
the sheets or strata can be easily obtained at the quarries, and it can be spht 
or divided into any required thickness. 

Limestone extends all through the vallies of the Hoosac and Housatonic 
rivers, affording an abundance of material for building purposes, for the man- 
ufacture of Ume, and for monument and cemetery work, as in many places it 
is in the form of beautiful grades of marble. The best of these Berkshire 
marbles are white, some grades of a snowy white; some of them, however, 
are clouded, and some gray. The gray and white are the most esteemed for 
durability. For further notice see the sketches of the several towns wherein 
the quaries are located. 

Talcose-slate is the next rock in point of abundance. A large bed of this 
rock extends along the whole western border of the county, branching out in 
the northern part into New Ashford, Williamstown, Adams and North Adams, 
Cheshire and Lanesboro. Of this range Prof. Hagar speaks as follows : "It 
embraces Saddle mountain, and the Taconic range, the loftiest mountains in 
Massachusetts. It is interstratified with the mica-slate and limestone in some 
of the valleys; but chiefly near their western side, except at Adams, where we 
find the talcose-slate at the foot of Hoosac mountain in nearly perpendicular 
strata. All of the talcose-slate in the western part of Berkshire embraces 
more or less oi mica, except perhaps occasional beds of c/ilorite-slate ; axi^ 
often it passes into mica-slate so entirely as to perplex the observer. I sup- 
pose that the term micaceo-talcose slate would be the most appropriate one 
for this rock. Although frequently much resembfing the talcose slate of the 
Hoosac range, yet in general it is obviously a newer deposit, passing insensi- 
bly on its western side into argillaceous-slate. Crystalized minerals are not 
common in it, except octahedral iron ore, quartz, and a few others, though 
such minerals are not common in the Hoosac mountain range." 

Mica-slate is found in the southern part of the county principally in New 
Marlboro, and in the northern part in Clarksburg, Adams, North Adams, 
Florida, Savoy, Windsor and Peru. This formation is about the same as that 
of talcose-slate, except that it has mica in place of talc. 

Quartz rock is found in most of the valley towns of the Housatonic, and 
also, in lesser degree, in the Hoosac valley. From this rock is obtained the valu- 
able supply of quartz sand used in the manufacture of glass. The principal 


ingredient in this rock, as its name implies, is quartz, though it takes into its 
composition mica, feldspar and sometimes the blue schistose clay. In this 
county it largely partakes of mica, diftering from mica-slate, in many places, 
only in the preponderance of quartz. In other places it has a schistose structure. 

Chlorite slate is only found in the eastern parts of Savoy and Windsor. 
The principal minerals found are plumbago, iron, lead, serpentine steatite, etc., 
though only iron has been wrought to any great extent. For description of the 
deposits, works, etc., of the latter, see the article under the head of "manu- 

Numerous evidences of the aqueous period are met with throughout the 
county, in the form of ancient sea beaches. They consist of sand and gravel, 
which have baen acted upon, rounded and comminuted by the waves, and 
thrown up in the form of ridges, with more or less appearance of stratifica- 
tion or lamination. The manner in which they were formed may be seen 
along the sea-coast at any time in the course of formation, as they have the 
same form of modern beaches, except that they have been mutilated by the 
action of water and atmospheric agencies since their deposition. 

Evidences of the drift or glacial period are left here by large bowlders 
scattered over the country, by drift scratches and by moraine tet'races, while 
it is asserted that many of the valleys, and the peculiar rounded appearance of 
the hills and mountains were produced by this glacial epoch. These dnft 
scratches are grooves worn in the rocks by those mighty rivers of ice, which 
though they moved through the valleys at the rate of only about two feet 
per day, their great thickness, and the weight of the superincumbent snow, 
caused them to grate and crush the rocks beneath, leaving marks that eons 
cannot efface. Morain terraces are elevations of gravel and sand, w^ith cor- 
respondent depressions and scarcely describable forms. The theory of their 
formation is that icebergs became stranded at the base and on the sides of 
hills, and that deposits were made around and upon them, and that they 
would have been level-topped if the ice had remained, but in consequence of 
its melting they became extremely irregular. 

For facts further then the hasty glance we have given of the geology of the 
county, see the sketches of the several towns. 


The soil of Berkshire differs materially in different parts of the county, 
though in general it is inferior to that of no other county in the state, its several 
river valleys being proverbial for their richness, while its foot-hills and moun- 
tain slopes afford large areas of grazing land, for which the county is justly 
celebrated. There is one other thing that Berkshire people are proud of, too, 
and that is their Berkshire Agricultural Society, the mother of all agricul- 
tural societies, for it was the first organized in this country, and after it are 
modeled all the societies of to-day. The society was brought into existence, 


briefly, as follows: During the first decade of the present century, Hon. El- 
kanah Watson, then a resident of Pittsfield, having moved there from Albany, 
imported a pair of Merino sheep, the first brought into Berkshire. As the 
sheep here were then very scrawny and possessed of course wool and very lit- 
tle of it, the advent of the sleek, fine-wooled Merinos naturally attracted a 
great deal of attention. Accordingly, Mr. Watson determined to devote one 
day to their exhibition ; so one bright day in 1807 the two sheep were placed 
on exhibition under the "old elm" in Pittsfield park — the first exhibition of 
the kind in the county. But it does not appear that anything was done towards 
establishing a society until 1810, when Samuel H. Wheeler, of Lanesboro, 
issued an invitation to farmers in general to an exhibition of stock, in the vil- 
lage of Pittsfield, on the first of October, from nine to three o'clock. This 
exhibition proved a great success, as is attested by the local press, which 
in remarking thereon said : " The display of fine animals, and the num- 
bers, exceeded the most sanguine hopes of its prompters, and a large collec- 
tion of people participated in the display." 

On the 25th of February, 181 1, an act of the legislature was passed, incor- 
porating the " Berkshire Agricultural Society, for the promotion of Agricul- 
ture and Manufactures." The petitioners named in this act were Elkanah 
Watson, Ezekiel Bacon, John B. Root and John Churchill, of Pittsfield j Ca- 
leb Hyde, of Lenox ; and Samnel H. Wheeler of Lanesboro, who were author- 
ized to appoint the time and place for the first meeting in Pittsfield. At 
this meeting Hon. Elkanah Watson was chosen president. The present ofii- 
cers of the society are James BuUard, of Lee, president ; Charles J. Kittridge, 
of Hinsdale, first vice-president ; Joseph A. KHne, of Egremont, second vice- 
president; W. H. Murray, of Pittsfield, secretary; and Charles E. Merrill, of 
Pittsfield, treasurer. 

Mr. Watson also found here very poor grades of pigs and cattle. The pigs, 
especially, were lean and scrawny, seemingly incapable of becoming fat. So 
he purchased some short-legged, small-boned pigs, thus laying the foundation 
here of the celebrated breed of " Berkshire hogs." The cattle were small, of 
Devon breed, and not suitable for this soil and cUmate. So Mr. Watson im- 
ported an English bull of a different breed, and from that time the breed of 
cattle all over the county began to improve, spreading all over the State. 
Thus much has Mr. Watson and Berkshire county done for agriculture. 

The Hous atonic Agricultural Society. — This society, located at Great Bar- 
rington, had its origin m the gathering of a few gentlemen at the Berkshire 
House, in Great Barrington, October 30, 1841, " to consider the propriety of 
forming an agricultural society in the southern part of Berkshire county 
At this meeting committees were appointed from each of the eleven southern 
towns of the county to confer with the people and ascertain their views on 
the subject. This movement resulted in the organization of the society 
before the end of that year, though it was not incorporated until 1848. At 
its formation, in 1841, Major Samuel Rosseter was chosen president ') 


Increase Sumner, secretary ; and Philip Barnes, treasurer. The first exhibi- 
tion was held on the 28th and 29th of September, 1842. The society organ- 
ized under its act of incorporation, April 11, 1848, when the following officers 
were chosen : Seth Norton, president ; William Dewey and Gilbert Mun- 
son, vice-presidents ; Charles N. Emerson, secretary ; and Edward P. Wood- 
worth, treasurer. The present officers are Joseph A. Kline, of Egremont, 
president ; Marshall S. Heath, of Stockbridge, and Charles E. Slater, of 
Tyringham, vice-presidents ; Frank A. Wright, of Great Barrington, treas- 
urer ; and Henry T. Robbins, of Great Barrmgton, secretary. 

The northern part of the county has also a flourishing society, the "Hoo- 
sac Valley," with headquarters at North Adams, detailed mention of which 
we are obliged to omit, owing to our inability, notwithstanding repeated cor- 
respondence, to procure the information 

As the soil, productions, etc., of each town is spoken of in con- 
nection with the sketch thereof, we will conclude our remarks at this point 
by quoting the following statistics, shown by the census reports of 1880. 
The county then had 3,751 farms, representing 314,644 acres of improved 
land, valued at $12,696,545.00, while its total public debt, bonded and 
floating, was $1,526,436.00. These farms supported 6,992 horses, fifteen 
mules, 1,411 working oxen, 19,497 milch cows, 15,137 other cattle; 
22,802 sheep, and 7,287 swine. The stock products for the year were 
99,388 pounds of wool, 1,825,864 gallons of milk, 1,540,848 pounds of 
butter, and 240,097 pounds of cheese. The agricultural products were 
12,418 bushels of barley, 35,459 bushels of buckwheat, 202,221 ; 
bushels of Indian corn, 288,937 bushels of oats, 45,896 bushels of rye, 
2,284 bushels of wheat, 103,774 tons of hay, 308,731 bushels of potatoes, 
and 85,747 pounds of tobacco, while their valuation ot orchard products was 


The unusally good motive power offered by the several streams of the 
county, whose utility has been greatly augmented in many places by the 
erection of reservoirs, early pointed Berkshire out as a manufacturing region, 
and that prediction has surely been verified. There are four principal manu- 
facturing industries to be noted, viz.: That of cloth, of paper, of iron, and 
of glass, though there are many other manufacturing industries of lesser note, 
all of which, however, are spoken of in detail in connection with the sketch 
of the town wherein they are located. At this point, then, we will only briefly 
notice the four principal manufactures mentioned and give some general sta- 

Iron Majiufacture. — All of the available iron deposits in the county are of 
the brown hematite variety, or the hydnis petoxyd of iroji. Geologically 
considered, it belongs in all probability to the tertiary formation which ex- 
tends from Canada to Georgia. The principal deposits are found in Adams, 


LanesborOj Cheshire, Pittsfield, Richmond and West Stockbridge, the two 
latter containing the largest, though it exists to a greater or less degree in 
many other towns. The principal works are those of the Colby Iron Co., at 
Lanesboro, which has one stack ; the Richmond Iron Works, which has 
three stacks, one at Cheshire, one at Richmond, and one at Great Barring- 
ton, all being charcoal furnaces; and the Pomeroy Iron Works, in West 
Stockbridge, which is an anthracite furnace. The charcoal stacks make from 
ten to twelve tons of iron daily, while the anthracite furnace will make twenty- 
five tons daily. The ore is mostly mined underground and hoisted to the 

Paper Mamifacture. — The pioneer in this manufacture was Zenas Crane, 
who came on from Worcester in 1799, prospectingfor a suitable site for erect- 
ing a mil], finally locating in Dalton, where, in company with Henry Wis- 
wall and John Willard, he erected a mill in 1801, upon the site now occu- 
pied by the mill of Carson & Brown. This mill was not only the first mill 
erected in the county, but it was also the first built west of Worcester. Since 
that time the county has become celebrated throughout the world for this 
branch of manufacture, the principal mills being erected in Dalton, Lee, 
South Lee, Mill River, Housatonic, Sandisfield, Sheffield, Otis, Hinsdale, 
Glendale, Tyringham, Adams and Pittsfield. 

Cloth Matiufacture. — The manufacture of cotton and woolen goods of all 
grades, for which Berkshire is now so justly celebrated, was began in the first 
years of the present century. It is claimed that the first broadcloths ever 
manufactured in this country were made in Pittsfield, in 1804. " About 
1789," the account runs, "one Arthur Scholfield emigrated from Saddles- 
worth, near Leeds, and came into Pittsfield in 1800. Here he at once set 
up a machine for carding wool, and although the women were somewhat jeal- 
ous, at first, of his innovations, they soon became his patrons, and wagons 
heaped with wool came teeming into the town, and went out, with the same 
neatly carded into rolls, the envelope (a spare sheet in most cases), being 
secured with thorns, for that was before the day of cheap pins. Mr. Scholfield 
was soon joined by his nephew, Isaac, and commenced the manufacture of 
carding machines for sale. These machines commanded about $1,300.00 
each. Scholfield was a man of great energy and enterprise. In order to get 
his machinery out from England, from which its exportation to this country 
was forbidden, he had to make two voyages to England, and bring the ma- 
chinery out piece-meal, hidden in his bedding, with drawings and models of 
the more cumberous parts. Having been joined by one Rigby, another 
Englishman of congenial spirit, the Scholfields carried on their business profit- 
ably until the introduction of power looms, when they entered heartily into the 
new improvements. During the war of 18 12 they sold considerable quantities 
of the gray mixed broadcloth, which was the uniform of one of the regiments, 
to the officers stationed at Pittsfield. It was a stout, coarse article, which 
would now be worth, perhaps, $1.50 per yard, though it then sold for $15.00 



per yard." From this small beginning has grown the great enterprise, occupy- 
ing acres upon acres of floor-room, and its thousands of busy looms. 

Glass Manufacture. — Berkshire county was identified with the manufac- 
ture of glass very early in the present century. Its eastern range of moun- 
tains is rich in quartz sand of the purest quality. Nothing equal to it is 
found this side of the Mississippi river. These rich deposits of sand, and 
abundance of fuel, led to the development of the glass industry, Avhich for 
many years has been an important one in Berkshire county. The first 
incorporated glass company in Massachusetts was located here. Its name 
was the Adams Glass Co., its date of incorporation, June 15, 1812, the 
names of its incorporators being "John Whipple, James Mason, Daniel 
Sherman and others." This factory was located in the town of Adams. 
The next incorporated company in Western Massachusetts was located 
in Chester, and was known as "The Chester Glass Co.," the date of 
incorporation being June 7, 1814. Two days later, June 9, 1814, was 
incorporated the Farmers Glass Co., located in Clarksburg. The names of 
its incorporators were Rufus Darling, Ebenezer Pratt, A. Southwick, Daniel 
Aldrich, and John and Isaac Sherman. The most important of all, though 
never incorporated, was the Cheshire Crown Glass Works, which were built 
and commenced operation in 1813. These Cheshire works were the second 
in point of date, the Adams company, being incorporated in 1812, and the 
Chester and Clarksburgh in 1814. The capitalist of the Cheshire concern was 
Capt. Daniel Brown, and the company consisted of his sons Darius and John, 
and John D. Leland, son of the celebrated Parson L eland, and a man named 
Hunt. These works were crown works, and were situated near the stream 
and close by the present sand works of the Gordon Company. Though built 
directly over one of the finest sand deposits in the country, the proprie- 
tors were ignorant of the fact, and brought their sand from the Lane bed 
three miles above. 

While there are many interesting legends connected with these works^ 
relating principally to the difficulties encountered, trouble with their drunken 
workmen, etc., etc., we have only space to say that they only ran between 
two and three years ; but sufficiently long to financially ruin the proprietors. 
Capt. Brown ran a store and distillery in connection with the glass works, 
and from his day book it appears that the men were more dependent on the 
distillery than the store for their daily pay. With the closing of the Cheshire 
works, the manufacture of glass in Berkshire county leased for a generation, 
though the sand from the Lane bed was taken to Sand Lake, N. Y., and to 
Keene, N. H.,for many years for glass purposes. This sand has no superior 
in the world for glass making, being more than 99 per cent, pure Silex. The 
finest glass made in the country has always been made from this sand. But 
its inland situation and the difficulties attending the transportation of the glass 
to market prevented any further manufacture till 1847, when the present 
works at Berkshire were started by a stock company known and incorporated 



as the Berkshire Glas^ Company. The original incorporators were Samuel 
Smith, W. D. B. Linn, and William T. Filley, the latter of whom is still living in 
Pittsfield. The stock was principally taken in Boston. The works were built 
in 1853, under the superintendence of Mr. A. K. Fox, of Sand Lake, whose 
works there were destroyed by fire, and what was left of the Sand Lake 
works was brought to Berkshire. With the exception of one year, during 
the panic of 1857-58, these works have been in constant operation since their 
erection, and have been very much enlarged under their present manage- 
ment, which commenced in 1858, when the original Berkshire Glass Com- 
pany failed. Li 1858 a division of the works and sand beds was made, the 
works and real estate being bought by Page, Robbins & Harding, of Bcston, 
and the sand beds by George W. Gordon, of Boston. In 1862 Mr. Robbins 
sold his interest to Mr. Page, and, until 1883, the firm style was Page & 
Harding, and Page, Harding & Co. In 1883 an act of incorporation 
was obtained, and it is now known as the Berkshire Glass Company. The 
plant of the company embraces one plate and cathedral and three window glass 
furnaces. For the last ten years the ribbed plate and rolled cathedral have 
been largely made here, and only here in the United States. The cathe. 
dral is made in a great variety of colors and tints. The quality of the 
glass made here has always been of the highest standard, and it is the only 
glass made in the country which is equal in quality to the best foreign manu- 
facture, and commands the same price. 

The same year that the Berkshire Glass Co. commenced operations, the 
Lenox Iron Co., which had been incorporated in 1S48, erected glass works 
near their iron furnace in Lenox. The iron company was composed of Oliver 
Peck, William A. Phelps and James Collins The glass works were erected 
under the superintendance of these men and Hiram Pettee, now living in 
Pitlsfield. Mr. Pettee soon left, to manage the Briggs Iron Works in Lanes- 
boro, and was succeeded in the management by his brother, Seneca Pettee. 
After a very short run these glass works were burned, and immediately rebuilt. 
After running two years and incurring a heavy loss to the Iron Company, they 
were closed. In the autumn of 1855 they were leased to James N. Richmond, 
of Cheshire, who had been experimenting for the Massachusetts Glass Co., 
at Cheshire, in the manufacture of rough or rolled plate. Mr. Richmond con- 
tracted to purchase the works and organized a stock company. The stock was 
principally taken in New York, and prominent in the management were Judge 
Lathrop and Richard Busted, of considerable poHtical notoriety. The casting 
table and fixtures of the Cheshire company were removed to Lenox. 

This was an entirely experimental business, nothing of the kind having 
ever before been attempted in this country, and they failed in the next year, 
1856. The works returned into the hands of the iron company and were 
left idle until 1858, when the iron company resumed the manufacture of 
rough plate, and were very successful until 1862, when the works were again 
destroyed by fire, involving a heavy loss, and with no insurance. They were 


immediately rebuilt and successfully run till 1865, when the Lenox Plate 
Glass Company was organized and succeeded to the property and business. 
This company continued the business until December 30, 1869, when a new 
company, known as the Lenox Glass Company, was organized. One year 
previous to this, 1868, the " Lenox Crystal Glass Company," for the manu- 
facture of cylinder or sheet glass, was organized. The new organization, the 
The Lenox Glass Company, was a very large concern with a large capital, 
and under it were consolidated both the Lenox Plate and the Lenox Crystal 
Companies, also a cryolite company from Philadelphia, hitherto known as the 
" Hot Cast Porcelain Company." The Lenox Glass Company attempted 
the polishing of plate and erected a fine building for this purpose. The com- 
pany failed in 1872, and the property was sold and divided. The polishing 
works were bought by the Smith Paper Company, of Lee, and is now run by 
them as a paper mill. The cylinder or crystal works went into the hands 
of the Schanck estate, of New York, and the plate works to Mr. Theodore 
Rosevelt, of New York. Since the failure in 1872 the rough plate works 
have been run at intervals under a lease by Messrs. Servin & Averill, and by 
Mr. Servin alone, and are now run under a lease by Page, Harding & Co. 

The sand used by these various works was principally obtained from the 
Washington mountain bed, situated" just south of Lake Ashley, and it was 
from this bed that the Chester works obtained their sand in 1814. With the 
exception of the period included during our late war, the years between 181 2 
and 1820 seem to have been the most active in glass making, especially in 
Berkshire county, where, including Chester, five different works were estab- 
lished. From 1 815 to 1845 glass works were in operation most of the time 
in Keene, N. H., and the sand was carted for many years for these works 
from the Lane bed in Cheshire. Cylinder glass was again made in Cheshire in 
i860, by James N. Richmond, for a short time, and subsequently by James B. 
Dean and a few associates. The works have been converted to other pur- 
poses, and there is no present prospect of the revival of glass making in 
Cheshire, where it was established in 18 13, and revived three different times 

According to official statistics for 1880, there were then in the county 515 
manufacturing establishments, representing an invested capital of $13,882,- 
594.00, giving employment to 11,364 hands, to whom was paid $3,732,714.00. 
The total value of material used was $11,744,047.00, and the total product 


At the time the settlement of the county was commenced, and thence 
down to the period of the Revolution, the judicial system of the Province 
comprised a Superior Court of Judicature with original and appellate juris- 
diction throughout the Province, corresponding in a great degree to the pres- 



«nt Superior Judicial Court, and holding its sessions in the several counties ; 
a court called the Superior Court of Common Pleas, for each county, consist, 
ing of four justices, of whom three were necessary to form a quorum, which 
had " cognizance of all civil actions, * * * * triable at the common 
law, of what nature, kind or quality, soever;" and a Court of Sessions in 
each county, comprising all of its justices of the peace, which had a Hmited 
criminal jurisdiction, and managed the prudential affairs of the county. Jus- 
tices of the peace had a separate jurisdiction in minor matters, both criminal 
and civil, and from their judgment there was a right of appeal to the Com- 
mon Pleas and Court of Sessions. There was also a Probate Court, having 
jurisdiction as at the present time. The Superior Court never held any ses- 
sion in Berkshire, but all its causes arising in this county were heard at the 
term held in the county of Hampshire. Judicial business was thus equalized, 
though the courts with which the inhabitants of the county were most famiHar 
were those presided over by the local magistrates. All of the judicial officers 
were appointed by, and held their offices at, the pleasure of the crown, or its 
representative, the governor of the Province, with the consent of the council. 

The county of Hampshire, as we have stated, was created in 1662, and 
although its boundaries were so loosely defined, it did in fact extend so far as 
to embrace territory now included in the States of New Hampshire and Con- 
necticut, a portion of Worcester county and thence westward to the Prov- 
ince line. During all the period, therefore, which elapsed after the settle- 
ment of Berkshire county commenced, down to 1761, the inhabitants of its 
territory were within the county of Hampshire, and were amenable to the 
jurisdiction of its magistrates, though having magistrates among their own 
number who were called to attend on the courts and transact their public busi- 
ness at Springfield and Northampton. We find that during this period two 
of the justices of the Court of Common Pleas for Hampshire county were 
appointed from among the citizens of Berkshire county — Ephraim Williams, 
in 1741, and Joseph Dwight, in 1753. 

Ephraim Williams, the first of those mentioned, was a son of Captain Isaac 
Williams, born at Newton, October 21, 1691. He married and settled in 
Newton and removed thence to Stockbridge, in 1739, having possibly lived 
for a time in Hatfield, whose pastor, Rev. William Williams, was his brother. 
He was appointed a justice of the peace in Middlesex in 1735. Tradition af- 
firms that when he removed to Stockbridge he carried his younger children 
in panniers upon a horse. His was one of the four English families provided 
for in the original settlement of Stockbridge. His house in Stockbridge was 
on the hill overlooking the present village street, on or near the site after- 
ward occupied by Rev. Dr. West. He was a man of decided position and 
influence in his new home, and retained his position of justice until 1749, 
when he resigned. He was a colonel in the local militia, and hence is some- 
tiroes confounded with his son of the same name, the founder of Williams 
college. He died while on a visit to his son, Dr. Thomas WiUiams, in Au- 



gust, 1754, and was buried at Deerfield. His descendants in the county are 
to be found in the Sergeant, Dwight, Hopkins and Sedgwick families, of 

The only persons whom we can find held the office of justice of the peace, 
then an office of great dignity and importance, resident in Berkshire county 
while it remained a part of Hampshire county, other than those referred to, 
were David Ingersoll and Jabez Ward. David IngersoU was a son of Thomas 
IngersoU, of Westfield, and after a residence in Springfield and Brookfield, he 
settled in Great Barrington, then a part of Sheffield, as early perhaps as 
1735. He was vigorous, energetic, and perhaps audacious in his business 
enterprises. He became interested largely in real estate, and in or about 
1739 he was the occupant, if not the owner, of the water-power now belong- 
ing to the Berkshire Woolen Co., and there erected a dam, saw and grist- 
mills, and also a forge and trip-hammer for the manufacture of bar iron. He 
was a captain of militia, and served as a selectman of the town of Sheffield. 
He was appointed a justice of the peace, September 8, 1749. His business 
enterprises eventually proved disastrous, however, resulting in his becoming 
involved in difficulties, whence he fell into such disrepute that he was 
removed from office in 1755. He died at Great Barrington, March 23, 1773, 
aged seventy-three years. Jabez Ward was probably a native of Marlboro, 
and removed with his large family to New Marlboro in 1744. He was promi- 
nent in the organization of his adopted town, and does not seem to have been 
re-commissioned after the incorporation of Berkshire county. He died at 
New Marlboro, August 29, 1767, aged sixty years. 

The increase of population in Berkshire, its distance from the Connecti- 
cut river valley and the difficulty of communication attendant on the few 
and imperfect highways of the period, led, as we have stated, to the formation 
of Berkshire county, in 1 761, the act of incorporation going into eff"ect the 
30th of June of that year. The first duty of the executive after the passage 
of this act of incorporation was to organize the new county by the appoint- 
ment of its judicial and executive officers. The governor of the province was 
then Sir Francis Bernard, who was appointed by the crown in 1760, Thomas 
Hutchinson, a native Bostonian, long familiar with the people and politics of 
the province, was heutenant-governor, and Israel WiUiams was member of the 
council from the western counties. Governor Bernard then, on the 24th of 
June, appointed Joseph Dwight, William Williams, John Ashley and Timothy 
Woodbridge, justices of the Court of Common Pleas ; Joseph Dwight, judge ; 
Elijah Dwight, register of probate; and Elijah Williams, sheriff 

The Court of Common Pleas, as then constituted, was exceptionally timely 
and fitted for its duties, though the members of the court at this period were 
not usually entitled to very high respect for judicial ability. The justices were 
not commonly professional men, nor famihar with judicial proceedings. Very 
few of the judges of the Superior Court were bred to the law. But of the new 
Berkshire judges, Dwight and Ashley were educated lawyers, and the former 



had had a long judicial career. Williams and Woodbridge were cultivated 
and intelligent men and had long been magistrates. The first meeting of the 
justices of this court is recored as follows : — A t^fy'^/^^'~K 

" Berkshire : At the first meeting of the Justices of the Inferior Court of 
Common Pleas, held at the dwelling of Timothy Woodbridge, Esq., of Stock- 
bridge, in said county, on Monday, the 13th day of July, in the first year of 
the reign of George the Third, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, 
Defender of the Faith, etc., Annoque Domini, 1761 : 
"Present, Joseph Dwigbt, "] 

William Williams, ' „ , 

John Ashley, > ^"^'^ ^• 

Timothy Woodbridge, J 

"After having taken and subscribed the oaths appointed by Act of Parlia- 
ment, instead of the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy, the Test or Declar- 
ation in said Act contained, together with the oaths of Arbitration, the Pre- 
vious oath respecting the Bills of Public Credit of Connecticut, Rhode Island 
and New Hampshire, and the oath of office, unanimously oppointed Mr. Eh- 
jah Dwight to be the Clerk of said Court, who was sworn to the faithful dis- 
charge of his said office." 

At the same time and place the same persons under commissions as jus- 
tices of the peace organized the Court of Sessions, appointed Elijah Dwight, 
clerk, and Mark Hopkins, register of deeds, the latter to hold the position un- 
til some person should be elected to the office. 

By the statute incorporating the county, Great Barrington was made the 
shire town, and the courts were to be held alternately at that place and Pitts- 
field. The first regular session of the Court of Common Pleas was held at 
Great Barrington, on Tuesday, September i, 1761, in the meeting-house which 
stood on the east side of the river, near the bridge in the upper part of the 
village. Seventy eight actions were entered, a jury was in attendance, and 
there were three trials. Mark Hopkins, who was admitted to the bar at this 
term, now tried and won his first case before a jury. The second session was 
held at Pittsfield, at the house of Col. Williams, one of the judges, on the 
first Tuesday of December, 1761, and this appears to have been the usual 
place of meeting in Pittsfield for a considerable period. 

The Court of Sessions was held at the same time and places as the Court 
of Common Pleas and grand and traverse juries were in attendance, crimes 
and misdemeanors were inquired into and indictments duly presented and 
tried. The same Traverse jury appears to have served in both courts. The 
first criminal case tried by a jury was an appeal by one John Williams, Jr., 
who had been convicted before a justice of the peace of stealing two deer- 
skins. The jury acquitted him. The first indictment found by the grand 
jury was against Samuel Lee, of Great Barrington, for presuming to be an 
inn-holder and selling strong drink without a Ucense. The first indictment 
returned by the grand jury which came to a hearing illustrates the spirit of 
the times. Hewitt Root, of Great Barrington, was indicted at the March 
term, 1762, for that "he did wittingly and wilfully suffer and permit singing 


fiddling and dancing in his dwelling house, there being there a tavern or pub- 
lic house." He pleaded guilty and was fined 10 s. and costs. And a further 
illustration is found in the fact that at the same time Judges Dwight and Ash- 
ley were licensed as retailers of spirituous liquors, and their associates on the 
bench became their sureties. 

The Court of Sessions made early provision for the erection of a court-house 
and jail at Great Harrington, but as late as 1765 they were still unfinished. 
Israel Dewey's house was fitted up and used as a jail for several years. The 
court-house was a plain unpretentious wooden structure, about 30x40 feet, 
and stood in and near the west side of Main street, in front of the entrance of 
Castle street, then only a lane leading to the residence of Rev. Samuel Hop- 
kins. It was high between joists, finished on the ground floor only, and had 
neither cupola nor spire. The jail was a few rods southwest of the court-house 
and not far from the site of the present Episcopal church. 

The records of the Court of Cdmmon Pleas show some peculiarities. There 
was not, so far we can learn, a practicing attorney residing in the county at 
the time of its organization, and the appearance in the court of lawyers from 
Hampshire county and the neighboring colony of Connecticut was continu- 
ous up to the period of the Revolution. Joseph Hawley, of Northampton, 
John Worthington and Moses Bliss, of Springfield, were quite constant in at- 
tendence, and more rarely John Bliss, of Springfield, Simeon Strong, of 
Amherst, Cyrus Marsh, of Windham Co., and John Canfield, of Sharon, Conn. 

The justices of the court seem to have been accustomed to prosecute and 
defend their own cases in their own court, and the scarcity of lawyers led to 
the employment of non-professional attorneys. Jabez Ward, Esq., appeared 
often in behalf of his neighbors, as did Joseph Gilbert and William King, of 
Great Barrington, the latter a man of imperfect education but of fine natural 
endowments. The court was also empowered by law to make rules of practice. 
The wild and unsettled condition of the country is manifested by such de- 
scriptions of parties as the following, which are frequent : " Janathan Hinsdale, 
living on a tract of land north of Stockbridge, in the county of Berkshire, yeo- 
man, etc." This was in 1763, and the locality the present village of Lenox. 
Again — " Asa Hills, living in the green woods, so-called, on the road leading 
from Pittsfield to No. 4, etc." The common law forms were closely followed, 
and great strictness in pleading seems to have been required, notwithstanding 
the provision of law enacted as early as 1701, that, "no writ * * * shall 
be abated * * * for any kind of circumstantial errors or mistakes when 
the person and case may be rightly understood and intended by the court, 
nor through defeat or want of form only, and the justices, on motion made 
in court, may order amendment thereof." 

The first Probate Court was held at Great Barrington, July 30, 1761, and 
the court continued to be held there until after the death of Judge Dwight, 
when it was alternately held at Great Barrington, Stockbridge and Pittsfield. 
The sessions of the Court of Common Pleas terminated with the May term, 


1774, the August term being broken up by troubles attending the general 
unsettled condition of the country just prior to the Revolution. Judge 
Dwight died in 1765, and was succeeded by Perez Marsh, otherwise the com- 
position of the court was unchanged previous to the Revolution. Colonel 
WiUiam WiUiams succeeded Dwight as judge of Probate, and held his 
last court August 17, 1774. The office of registrar of deeds was kept open 
until July, 1776, perhaps the period when the time of the incumbent expired. 
From thistim.e until 1780 no courts were held. In the meantime occurred 
the Revolutionary contest, and soon after its close events occurred wbich 
brought about the memorable Shays Rebellion. For this reason it may be 
well to insert a sketch of that affair at this point, though it properly belongs, 
perhaps, to another portion of our work. For the following notice thereof we 
are indebted to the History of Berkshire Comity, published in 1829: — 

Shays Rebellion, though primarily brought about by the scarcity of money, 
caused by the interruption of trade and the drain upon the finances of the 
country, by the war, was largely owing to two circumstances in this county. 
One was, that when the Revolutionary war began, the people were laboring 
under the hardships of a new settlement ; the calamites growing out of the 
war being, therefore, more deeply felt. The other circumstance was, that 
the inhabitants of this county were the first to put a stop to courts at the 
beginning of the Revolution, and were very backward in consenting to have 
them resume their functions. No probate courts were held here from 1774 
until 1778, and even deeds were not recorded from 1776 until the last year 
mentioned. In the course of this year the several towns were consulted as 
to whether they would open and support the courts of Common Pleas and of 
Quarter Sessions, until a new constitution should be framed, and adopted by 
the people, and the point was decided in the negative by large majorities; as 
appears from the minutes of the county convention, which sat on the 26th of 
August. This convention drew up a petition to the General Court to call a 
convention of delegates from all the towns and places liable to taxation, to 
form a bill of rights and a constitution of goverment. In 1779, it is under- 
stood, the county assented by a small majority of their delegates in conven- 
tion, after debating more than two days, that the courts might be opened, 
though no judicial proceedings were actually held until after the adoption of 
the constitution, in 1780. This suspension of the courts, however desirable 
the constitution was, besides occasioning a vast accumulation of causes for 
future adjudication, was unfriendly in its influence to order and good govern- 

After the constitution was adopted, courts were held according to the pro- 
visions which it contained, and justice again began to take its direct course. 
But in 1782 an act was passed, usually denominated " The Tender Act," pro- 
viding that executions issued for private demands might be satisfied by neat 
cattle and other articles particulary enumerated, at an appraisement of im- 
partial men under oath, which caused a multitude of law suits to be post- 



poned until the year's existence of the law expired. This law furnished the 
first signal for hostilities between creditors and debtors, between the rich and 
the poor, the few and the many. The increase of civil actions gave employ- 
ment lo the practitioners at the bar, and induced an unusual number to enter 
into the profession. These became odious to debtors as the legal instru- 
ments of their distresses, and were held up at length as the proper objects of 
proscription by the disaffected generally. From the bar ill will was extended 
to the courts and to the senate, to the laws of the state and the provisions of the 
constitution. No mild measures were sufficient to satisfy the discontented. 
An evil spirit continued and spread, until the summer and autumn of 1786, 
when events rapidly hastened the crisis which took place the succeeding win- 

During the Revolutionary war, county conventions had been held for the 
purpose of devising measures for promoting the public welfare, and were in- 
strumental of much good. They were now held to consider grievances, and 
became, in some instances, the instruments of unspeakable mischief. On 
the 22d of August a convention met at Hatfield, composed of delegates from 
fifty towns in the county of Hampshire, which drew up a catalogue of griev- 
ances and sent them into the counties of Worcester and Berkshire. The 
effect of this was soon visible, though the precise effect that followed may not 
have been intended by the convention. On the last Tuesday in this month 
a large number of insurgents, supposed to be near 1,500, assembled under 
arms at Northampton, took possession of the court-house, and effectually 
prevented the sitting of the court of common pleas and general sessions of 
the peace there at that time, as prescribed by law. 

Upon this violence a proclamation was issued by the Governor, caUing in 
strong and spirited language upon all the officers and citizens of State to sup- 
press such treasonable proceedings. Notwithstanding this, more than 300 
insurgents appeared the next week at the court-house in Worcester, where 
the court of common pleas and general sessions of the peace were to be held, 
and by a line of bayonets prevented the judges from entering the door. 
Though the judges went to a neighboring house, opened court and adjourned 
until next morning, the violence of the mob soon obliged the court of 
common pleas to adjourn without day, and the court of sessions to adjourn 
until the 21st of November. 

During the last of August, a county convention was held at Lenox, which 
took a much more justifiable course than the convention in Hampshire. 
Though a rage for reformation was conspicuous in it, yet they passed many 
judicious resolutions, and among others, that they would use their influence 
to support the courts in the exercise of their legal powers, and endeavor to 
quiet the agitated spirits of the people. The insurgents, however, assembled 
in force to the number of eight hundred at Great Barrington soon after, and 
not only prevented the sitting of the courts, which were so obnoxious to 
them, but broke open the jail and liberated the prisoners. They also com 



pelled three of the judges of the Court of Common Pleas to sign an obliga- 
tion, that they would not act under the commissions until grievances were 
redressed. It, however, in justice to the insurgents, ought to be mentioned 
that Hon. Elijah Dwight, then too a member of the senate, upon a proper 
resistance, was not compelled to subscribe to the obligation. 

Hitherto the insurgents had directed their efforts against the inferior 
courts, but they were now determined to prevent the sitting of the Supreme 
Judicial Court, that they might not be indicted for obstructing the adminis- 
tration of justice. This court was about to sit at Springfield, and the Gover- 
nor ordered Maj. Gen. William Shepard to occupy the court-house with 600 
men, which was accordingly done. But on the day of the court's sitting, 
Shays appeared with a body of men equally numerous, greatly incensed that 
the government had taken possession of the' court-house. The insurgents 
sent a request to the judges that none of the late rioters should be indicted, 
who returned a firm reply^ purporting that they should execute the laws of 
the country agreeably to their oaths. But such was the confusion attending 
the presence of so many armed men, who were continually increasing, and 
the panel of jurors not being filled, that the court adjourned on the third 
day, after resolving that it was expedient to proceed to the county of Berkshire. 

When the time arrived for holding this court in Great Barrington, the mal- 
contents, pretending the resolution of the court was merely intended to 
deceive them, assembled there in considerable numbers, became extremely 
riotous, and obliged several persons, who were obnoxious to them, to fly. One 
gentleman, who sustained a very honorable office, was pursued by armed men 
in various directions, houses were searched, and, in some instances, citizens 
fired upon. 

Some time after this, and while the house of representatives (for the legisla- 
ture had been convened) was debating respecting the suspension of the writ 
of habeas corpus, some of the insurgents, alarmed by the circumstance, sent 
a circular letter to the selectman of many towns in the county of Hampshire 
requiring them immediately to assemble their inhabitants, to see that they were 
furnished with arms and ammunition according to law. They also ordered the 
militia in some instances, to be furnished with sixty rounds of powder, and 
to stand ready to march at a moment's warning. 

On the 2ist of November, when the Court of General Sessions were to 
meet according to adjournment at Worcester, the seat of justice was filled 
with armed men ; the justices were obliged to open at a tavern, and all the 
exertions of the sheriff w^ere insufficient to procure them entrance into the 
court-house. Immediately on receiving news of this procedure, the Gover- 
nor issued his orders as commander-in-chief, called upon the major-generals 
of the militia immediately to see that their several divisions were completely 
organized and equipped, and ready to take the field at the shortest notice. 

In the early part of December some hundreds of the insurgents collected 
at Worcester, and on the i6th of the month Shays assembled 300 malcon- 


tents at Springfield, took possession of the court-house, and prevented the 
court, which was to sit then at that place, from proceeding to business. 

On the first of January the Governor and council, in view of these transac- 
tions, determined to raise a body of men from different counties, to suppress 
the insurrections which were now taking place with alarming frequency. Seven 
hundred from the county of Suffolk, 500 from Essex, 800 from Middlesex,. 
1,200 from Hampshire, and 1,200 from Worcester, the whole amounting to 
4,400, rank and file. Two companies of artillery were ordered to be detached 
from Suffolk, and a like number from Middlesex. The troops of the first 
three named counties were ordered to rendezvous in the vicinity of Boston, 
on the 19th of January; those from Hampshire, at Springfield, on the i8th; 
those from Worcester were to join the troops from the eastern counties at 
the town of Worcester, and the whole were to be raised for thirty days, unless 
sooner discharged. 

On the 19th of January, 1787, his Excellency directed Major-General 
Benjamin Lincoln, of Hingham, whose military reputation and mildness of 
temper admirably fitted him for the delicate and important trust, to take com- 
mand of this respectable course. In his instructions, the Governor informed 
him that the great objects to be effected were, to protect the judicial courts, 
particularly those which were about to be held in the county of Worcester, 
should the justices of those courts request his aid ; " to assist the civil magis- 
trates in executing the laws, and in repelling or apprehending all and every 
such person and persons as should in a hostile manner attempt and enter- 
prise the destruction, detriment or annoyance of the commonwealth ; and 
also to aid them in apprehending the disturbers of the public peace, as well 
as all such persons as might be named in the State warrants, that had been, 
or might be committed to any civil oflftcer or officers, or to any other person 
to execute." 

In case he should judge it necessary, the govenor authorized him to call 
upon the major-general for further and effectual aid ; and while he confided 
much to his discretion, suggested that it might be necessary to march a re- 
spectable force into the western counties. The raising and movement of these 
troops produced strong sensations among the malcontents, and prompted 
them to various expedients and efforts, in hope of securing themselves from 
punishment, and of distressing and weakening the (riends of government. 

Before the troops under Gen. Lincoln marched from Roxbury, Gen. Shepard. 
had been ordered to take possession of the post at Springfield. He soon col- 
lected 900 men, and afterwards 200 more, the continental arsenal furnishing 
them with a sufficient number of field pieces, and such equipments as were 
wanted. It became an object with the insurgents to gain this post, if possi- 
ble, before the arrival of Lincoln's army. Their movements, therefore, were 
towards West Springfield on the one side, where about 400 men were col- 
lected under the command of Luke Day ; and towards the Boston road on 
the other, where 1,100 more were headed by Shays himself. Besides these, a 


party of about 400 from Berkshire, under the command of Eli Parsons, were 
stationed in the north parish of Springfield. 

Shays proposed to attack the post on the 25th of January, and wrote to 
Day on the 24th to co-operate with him. In a letter which was intercepted 
by Gen. Shepard, Day replied that he could not assist him on the 25th, but 
would the day after. On the 25th however. Shays, confident of his aid, about 
four o'clock in the afternoon, approached the arsenal where the miHtia were 
posted, with his troops in open column. Gen. Shephard sent several times 
to know the intention of the enemy, and to warn them of their danger, and 
received for an answer, in substance, that they would have the barracks, and 
they immediately marched onward to within 250 yards of the arsenal. An- 
other message was sent, informing them that the mihtia was posted there by 
order of the Governor and of congress, and that if they approached any nearer 
they would be fired upon. One of their leaders replied, "that is all we want," 
and they immediately advanced one hundred yards. Gen. Shepard was now 
compelled to fire; but, in hope of intimidating them, ordered the first two shots 
to be directed over the heads, which, however, instead of retarding, quickened 
their approach ; and the artillery was at last pointed at the center 6f their column 
which produced its effect ; a cry of murder was raised in the rear of the insur- 
gents ; their whole body was thrown into the greatest confusion, and in spite 
of all the efforts of Shays to form them, the troops retreated precipitately 
about ten miles to Ludlow, leaving three of their men dead on the field, and 
one wounded. Had Gen. Shepard been disposed to pursue, he might easily 
have cut many of them in pieces. But the object was not to destroy them, 
but to bring them to consideration and amendment. 

Notwithstanding this retreat, there was serious apprehensions of another 
attack from the insurgents ; for Day was now on the west side of Connecticut 
river with his men, and Parsons at Chickopee, whither the party of Shays 
repaired, after losing 200 men by desertion, on the 26th. This apprehension 
was allayed the next day, at noon, by the arrival of Lincoln's army. 

Gen. Lincoln had reached Worcester on the 2 2d ; had protected the courts 
there, and learning the situation of Gen. Shepard had started for Springfield 
on the 25th, having dispatched orders to Gen. Brooks to proceed to the same 
place as speedily as possible, with the Middlesex miHtia. Although the march 
from Worcester was very fatiguing, the weather being uncommonly severe, the 
army were ordered under arms at half past three o'clock the same day on 
which they arrived; most of them were marching across the river to attack 
Day, while Gen. Shepard, with the Hampshire troops, moved up the river to 
prevent Shays from joining him. The party under Day speedily fled, with 
scarcely a show of opposition, and made the best of their way to Northamp- 
ton. In like manner the party under Shays fled the next day, as the army 
approached them, retreating through South Hadley to Amherst. 

On his arrival at Amherst, Gen. Lincoln, finding that Shays had passed 
through the place with most of his men towards Pelham, too long to be over- 


taken, gave up the pursuit and directed his march to Hadley, the nearest 
place he could find cover for his troops. The next morning, information 
being received that a small number of Gen. Shepard's men had been taken 
at Southampton, and that some of the enemy were still there, a party was 
sent after them, who overtook this body of insurgents at Middlefield. at mid- 
night, captured fifty nine prisioners and nine sleigh loads of provisions^ and 
returned to the army the day following. 

The whole force of the insurgents having taken post on two high hills in 
Pelham, called east and west hills, which were rendered difficult of access by 
reason of the depth of snow around them, Gen. Lincoln, on the 30th of Jan- 
uary, directed a letter to Capt. Shays and the officers commanding the men 
in arms against the government, calling upon them to disband their deluded 
followers, threatening them with apprehension in case of refusal, etc., which 
led on to an unsatisfactory correspondence. The time for an adjourned ses- 
sion of the legislature soon arrived, and on the 3d of February a sufficient 
number of representatives were collected for the transaction of business. On 
this day the Governor laid before the assembly a full view of the state of 
things in the commonwealth, and the day after, a declaration of rebellion was 
unanimously passed in the senate, and concurred by the lower house. A peti- 
tion dated the 30th of January, and purporting to be from the officers of the 
counties of Worcester, Hampshire, Middlesex and Berkshire, at arms, in Pel- 
ham, was sent to the general court, acknowledging their error in taking up 
arms, and promising to lay them down and return to their homes, on condi- 
tion that a pardon should be granted the insurgents for their past offences. 

They did not wait, however, the result of this petition, but on the 3d of 
February moved their forces from Pelham to Petersham. Gen. Lincoln, 
informed of this, marched for Petersham on the evening of the same day, and 
by a rapid movement of thirty miles, in which much was suffered, the latter 
part of the way from a violent snow storm, came upon them by surprise on the 
4th and put them to flight. One hundred and fifty were taken prisoners, 
many retired to their homes, and the rest, including all the principal offi- 
cers, fled into the states of New Hampshire, Vermont and New York. The 
rebels being thus dispersed. Gen. Lincoln, after dismissing three companies 
of artillery, and ordering two regiments to Worcester, directed his attention 
toward Northfield, in the neighborhood of which many of the fugitives had 
taken shelter. But an express arrived with a letter from Maj. Gen. John 
Patterson, the commander of the militia in Berkshire, which led him to take a 
different course. 

Some time previous, while the army was marching from the vicinity of Bos- 
ton, the disaffected in this county, who had not proceeded to Hampshire, un- 
dertook to support their cause by appearing under arms in their own neigh- 
borhood, while the friends of good order adopted measures to oppose them. 
Should they be driven from the counties eastward, it was apprehended they 
would collect in some of the fastnesses on the Green Mountain range, on the 


borders between Hampshire and Berkshire, draw their subsistence from 
towns in the vicinity well affected to government, and take, perhaps, some of 
the more important characters as hostages. To secure themselves, and pro- 
mote the public welfare, therefore, a voluntary association was formed, 
amounting to about 500 men, comprising the most respectable citizens. One 
company of these volunteers, containing forty or tifty men, was formed in 
Sheffield, under Capt. Joseph Goodrich. But so great was the agitation in 
that town, (and many other towns were in commotion,) and such was the dan- 
ger of their being attacked by their fellow citizens that they did not march to 
Stockbridge, the place of rendezvous, until a company went down from Great 
Barrlngton and joined them. To show their spirit and determination at this 
juncture, 150 or 200 insurgents assembled at West Stockbridge village. It 
was deemed indispensable to disperse them before their numbers should be 
increased. The companies at Stockbridge were formed into three divisions, 
and ordered to march to that place in the directions which the road naturally 
pointed out. The central division took the common road to the village, over 
the mountains ; another, under Capt. Goodrich, took a more southern route, 
and the third, under Maj. Rowley, of Richmond, a more northern. On the 
approach of an advanced party from the central division, consisting only of 
thirty-seven infantry, and seven gentlemen on horseback, they were fired up- 
on by the sentries, and the insurgents were at once formed in good order, 
and were commanded to fire. But their situation so affected them that they 
apparently staggered. Advantage of this pause was taken by Judge Sedg- 
wick, whom they well knew, who rode to their front and directed them to lay 
down their arms, which many of them did, while others fled. A firing, how- 
ever, took place between scattering parties on both sides, and two of the in- 
surgents were wounded. The southern and northern divisions, having further 
to march, did not arrive at this place in season, but had an opportunity for 
taking many of the insurgents prisoners as they fled. On the return of the 
divisions to Stockbridge it was found that eighty-four, among whom was their 
leader, had been taken. These were kept under guard, while the troops tra- 
versed the county. 

The express related this affair to Gen. Lincoln, and also stated that the in- 
surgents afterwards collected at Adams, but upon the approach of Gen. Pat- 
terson separated, intending to collect again at VVilliamstown j that here also 
upon his appearing they again scattered ; that there seemed, notwithstanding, 
such a disposition in them to embody, in order to prevent the sitting of the 
courts, and that such numbers were actually on their way to Washington, 
under Maj. Wiley, that Gen. Patterson thought his situation unsafe, and earn- 
estly requested assistance from the army. On receiving this communication, 
in connection with Gen. Patterson's letter, Gen. Lincoln sent back the follow- 
ing reply: — 

Petersham, February 6, 1787. 

" Dear Sir : — I have been honored with the receipt of yours of yesterday's 
date. Shays Saturday afternoon left Pelham. In the evening I received 


information of his movement, put the troops in motion, and arrived here Sunday 
morning, nine o'clock. Upon our approach, he left this place in a very preci- 
pitate manner. One hundred and fifty men fell into our hands. He moved 
through Athol northerly ; the last information I had of him was near Chester- 
field, N. H., with about one hundred men. The rest were dispersed, and many 
returned to their homes. This gives me an opportunity to remove as fast as pos- 
sibletowards you. I shall commence my march for Hadley to-morrow morn- 
ing. No time will be lost in throwinga very sufficient force into your county, 
shall have the pleasure to come with the troops. The general court have 
conducted with great spirit and dignity ; they have fully approved the measures 
taken — they will provide for the expense of it. They have declared a 
rebellion to exist, and have ordered the Governor to keep up a force until the 
rebeUion is fully crushed. 

" Take some strong post, if you consider yourself in danger, until I can 
relieve you. Should you think it advisable to attack the insurgents prior 
thereto, warn them of their danger ; and that the general court has declared a 
rebellion to exist, and that if they do not surrender they will be considered 
as open enemies and treated as such. "1 am, etc., 

" B. Lincoln." 
"Gen. Patterson." 

According to his promise. Gen. Lincoln marched immediately for this 
county, passing through Amherst, Hadley, Chesterfield, Worthington, etc., to 
Pittsfield, while another division of the army, under Gen. Shepard, marched 
by a different route to the same place. But before their arrival a body of 
insurgents, amounting to about 250 men, who had gathered in Lee in order 
to stop the courts, agreed to disperse, providing the commander of a body of 
militia, consisting of about 300, collected to oppose them, would use his in- 
fluence, should they be pursued by the government, to have them tried 
within their own county; and so the matter was adjusted. From Pittsfield 
Gen. Lincoln detached a party under the command of the adjutant-general, 
to Dalton, after Wiley; and another, under Capt. Francis, to Williamstown, 
on a similar undertaking. Both returned the next day, the first with six pris- 
oners, (one of whom was Wiley's son, Wiley himself having escaped,) and the 
other with fourteen. 

From these events, however, we are not to infer that the spirit of the in- 
surgents was altogether broken. The following letter from Eli Parsons, prob- 
ably intended for the disaffected in Hampshire, as well as some other events 
which followed, show the contrary : — 

"Berkshire, February 15, 1787. 

" Friends and Fellow Sufferers. — Will you now tamely suffer your 
arms to be taken from you, your estates to be confiscated, and even swear 
to support a constitution and form of government, and likewise a code of 
laws, which common sense and your consciences declare to be iniquitous and 
cruel ? And can you bear to see and hear the yeomanry of this common- 
wealth being parched and cut to pieces by the cruel and merciless tools of 
tyrannical power, and not resent it even unto relentless bloodshed? Would to 
God I had the toungue of a ready writer, that I might impress on your minds 
the idea of the obligation that you, as citizens of a republican government, 
are under, to support those unalienable rights and priviliges that the God of 


nature hath entitled you to. Let me now persuade you by all the sacred ties 
of friendship^ which natural affection inspires the human heart with, immedi- 
ately to turn out and assert your rights. 

'•The first step that I would recommend, is to destroy Shepard's army, 
then proceed to the county of Berkshire, as we are now collecting at New 
Lebanon, in New York, and Pawnal, in Vermont, with a determination to 
carry our point if fire, blood and carnage will effect it. Therefore, we beg 
that every friend will immediately proceed to the county of Berkshire, and 
help us to " Burgoyne" Lincoln and his army. I beg that this may immedi- 
ately circulate through your country. 

" I am, gentlemen, in behalf of myself and other officers, your humble 
servant, Eli Parsons." 

The volunteer companies in Berkshire, on Gen. Lincoln's arrival, returned 
to their homes. The time for which the mihtia was detached expired on the 
2ist of February, and the troops under the new enHstment, which had been 
ordered, did not assemble in large numbers at once. In one instance the 
General was left with only about thirty men. Though the rebels may not 
have known precisely his situation, they were watching for opportunities to 
do mischief. 

On the 26th of February Capt. Holcomb marched from Sheffield to head- 
quarters with a company of drafted men, with the best arms that could be ob- 
tained. Learning this fact, a body of the insurgents, under Capt. Perez Ham- 
hn, who had been lurking about the borders of New York, eighty or ninety in 
number, made an interruption the night following into Stockbridge, at mid- 
night, which they pillaged at their pleasure, and took a great number of the 
most respectable inhabitants. The next morning they proceeded with their 
booty and their prisoners to Great Barrington, where they halted at a public 
house. News of this interruption was soon communicated to Sheffield, run- 
ners spread the news, and the citizens friendly to government met at the cen- 
ter, with such arms as they could muster, and about one o'clock, being joined 
by Captains Dwight and Ingersoll, and a small company from Great Barring- 
ton, who had fled before the insurgents, they were prepared to advance north- 
wards to meet them. The whole body, about eighty, was under the com- 
mand of Col. John Ashley. 

The insurgents were now supposed to be coming down to Sheffield, and 
various rumors were abroad as to the course they were taking. It was at first 
said they were making their way westward, through Egremont and out of the 
county. But it was found that they were marching towards Sheffield, and in a 
httle valley near the western Hne of that town the foes met, and there imme- 
diately occurred the most severe skirmish during the insurrection. 

The insurgents got in the rear of Col. Ashley's troops, surprising them. 
A halt was immediately made, and an attempt made to form the companies 
in order. After a few moments of great confusion, Capt. Goodrich directed 
the Sheffield company to follow him through a lot of girdled trees, on the west 
side of the road ; and the Great Barrington company, under Capt. Ingersoll, 
advanced through a copse of timber on the east. By this time a scattering 


fire commenced, and continued while the companions were advancing, with 
a rapid march, fifty or sixty rods, when a well directed fire from eight or ten, 
who were foremost, upon a considerable body of insurgents in the road, dis- 
comfited them and put them to flight. The whole body dispersed at once, 
fleeing in different directions. They left two of their number dead near the 
place of action, and more than thirty were wounded, among whom was Ham- 
lin, their captain, and a man by the name of Rathbun, who died some time 
after of his wounds. A body of men coming on from Lenox, under the com. 
mand of Capt. William Walker, immediately after the skirmish, enabled the 
conquerors to take more than fifty prisoners. The loss of the mihtia was 
two killed and one wounded. One of the killed was Mr. Porter, of Great 
Barrington ; the other was Solomon Glezen, taken prisoner at Stockbridge. 
The person wounded was Dr. Burghardt, of Richmond. He was in the 
company of Capt. Walker, and was wounded by a small party who fired upon 
them before they arrived at the spot where the action was fought. 

The insurgents generally showed great want of firmness and perseverence 
in the actions in which they were engaged, owing in part to their being poorly 
officered, but more, probably, to serious doubts concerning the lawfulness of 
their proceedings, and apprehension of their proving finally mischievous to 
themselves. After this affair at Sheffield, Gen. Lincoln dispatched an 
express to the Governor of New York, informing him of the incursion into 
the county, and of the continuance and support of the rebels in one district 
of that State ; which produced prompt and energetic measures for dispersing 
or apprehending the m. The consequence was that they fled to Vermont, 
where the government had been previously requested to lend their aid in 
apprehending the rebel ringleaders, and where a proclamation from the 
Governor was issued about this time against them. Other States in the 
neighborhood also adopted measures for suppressing the rebellion. 

The cause of the insurgents had been for some time sinking. Very many 
privates gave up their arms, submitted to government, and took the oath of 
allegiance, agreeably to the proclamation which Gen. Lincoln issued at Hadley, 
both before and after his arrival at Pittsfield. Indemnity was granted after- 
wards to 790 persons concerned in the rebellion, by him and two other gentle- 
men, associated with him by the general court for that purpose. It was 
judged necesssary, however, to take a different course with some who had 
been more deeeply concerned in opposing the government. Early in the 
spring, therefore, the supreme judicial court proceeded to try a num- 
ber charged with treason. Six were then convicted of this offence in 
this county, six in Hampshire, one in Worcester and one in Middlesex, all 
of whom were sentenced to death. Besides these large numbers were con- 
victed of seditious words and practices, many of whom were persons of con- 
sequence, and one a member of the legislature, who was sentenced to sit on 
the gallows with a rope about his neck, to pay a fine of ;^5o, to give 
bonds for keeping the peace and for maintaining good behavior for five 



years; which sentence was put into execution. Of those condemned to 
death, four in this county and four in Hampshire received a free pardon on 
^ the 30th of April ; and the rest on the i 7th of May, were reprieved until the 
2ist of June, then until the 2d of August, and then again until the 20th of 
September. Those confined in Berkshire finally escaped from jail, and the 
others, as reasons for severe measures had now passed away, were pardoned. 
One man, however, in Berkshire, sentenced to death in October, was favored 
only with a commutation of punishment, to hard labor for seven years. 

In September, 1787, the military forces which had been kept up in the 
western counties, where the insurrections principally took place, were all dis- 
charged, and peace and tranquiUty were considered as restored. Too much, 
however, had been said and done to permit the feelings of the people at once 
to become altogether friendly. Unhappy jealousies remained in neighbor- 
hoods and towns. The clergy who had favored the Revolution, opposed the 
rebellion, and thereby offended, in some instances, many of their parishioners. 
This is understood to have occasioned the dismission of Ihe ministers in Eg- 
remont and Alford. The Congregational church of the former town remained 
destitute of a pastor for nearly thirty years, and the church in the latter 
town, after dwindhng for a time, became extinct. From the same cause, dis- 
affection arose against their minister from a part of the congregation in 
Sandisfield. It was generally thought, however, that this rebellion impressed 
the importance of an energetic national government, and hastened the for- 
mation and adoption of the present constitution of the United States. 

In November, 1782, upon petition of representatives from this county, 
the legislature appointed a committee to take a general view of Berkshire, 
and to determine where the courts should thereafter be held. The committee 
examined the county, conversed with the gentlemen of intelligence in differ- 
ent places, and met a delegation from twenty towns, at Stockbridge, in which 
the subject of the future seat of the courts was largely discussed. The com- 
mittee decided upon Lenox as the most central town, and advised that a court- 
house and jail be erected there. This report was accepted and an act passed 
directing the courts to be held at Lenox after the ist day of January, 
1784. In May, 1783, however, a petition was set on foot at an adjourned 
court of sessions in Great Barrington, praying the general assembly to post- 
pone the removal of the courts to Lenox indefinitely, on the alleged ground 
that the county was unable to erect the necessary buildings. The result of 
this petition in the assembly was the postponement of the removal of the 
courts to Lenox for two years only, until the ist of January, 1786. 

In the autumn of 1784 an efTort was made to have the courts held alter- 
nately at Great Barrington and Lanesboro ; and in 1785 a greater effort was 
made to have the court of Common Pleas held alternately at Stockbridge 
and Pittsfield, to have the Supreme Court held at Stockbridge, and that 
established as the shire town, both of which failed. In the beginning of 
1787 an order was issued by the legislature for the Court of Common Pleas 


to be held at Lenox in February, and the Supreme Court in May of that 
year, and in 1790 the prisoners were ordered to be removed from the jail in 
Great Barrington to Lenox, as soon as the new jail should be prepared. The 
new buildings were commmenced in the spring of 1788, and finished in 1791. 

From that time until 1868, Lenox remained the shire town of the county, 
though a conflict was kept up between the northern and southern portions of 
the county in consequence thereof. In 1868, Pittsfield, after several un- 
successful attempts, was at last successful in securing to itself the honor of 
being appointed the shire town, where the courts have since been held. 

The Court of Common Pleas, as established in 176 1, was continued until 
181 1, during which time the following named judges officiated, the court con- 
sisting sometimes of three judges, and sometimes of four, three constituting a 

Joseph Dwight, of Great Barrington 1761-65 

WilUam Williams, of Pittsfield 1761-81 

Timothy AVoodbridge, of Stockbridge 1 761-74 

John Ashley, of Sheffield . . 1765-81 

Perez Marsh, of Dalton 1765-81 

William Whiting, of Great Barrmgton 1781-87 

Jahleel Woodbridge, of Stockbridge 1781-95 

James Barker, of Cheshire 1781- 

Charles Goodrich, of Pittsfield 1784-88 

Elijah Dwight, of Great Barrington 1787-94 

Thompson J. Skinner, of Williamstown 4 1-^2-1807 

John Bacon, of Stockbridge 1789-1811 

Nathaniel Bishop, of Richmond 1795-1811 

David Noble, of Williamstown 1 795-1 803 

William Walker, of Lenox 1807-1811 

Of these, the following are supposed to have presided in this court: — 

Joseph Dwight 1761-65 

William Williams 1765-81 

William Whiting 1781-87 

Jahleel Woodbridge 1787-95 

Thompson J. Skinner 1795-1807 

John Bacon 1 807-11 

In 1 81 1 the State was districted and a Circuit Court of Common Pleas 
established for each district, the western district comprehending Worcester, 
Hampshire, FrankHn, Hampden and Berkshire counties, the only judge of 
which from Berkshire County was Ezekiel Brown, of Pittfield, serving from 
181 1 to 1814. In 1820 this court was abohshed and a Court of Common 
Pleas estabhshed for the State, which held three sessions in the county an- 
nually, commencing on the fourth Monday in February, June and October^ 
until 1859, when it was abolished and the present Superior Court established, 
Julius Rockwell, of Lenox, and James M. Barker, of Pittsfield, now being 
justices thereof. Sessions of the Superior Court are now held at Pittsfield, 
for civil business, on the fourth Mondays of February, June and October j for 
criminal business, on the second Mondays of January and July. The Su- 



pi eme Judicial Court holds its sessions at the same place on the second Tues- 
days of May and September. 

Prior to September, 1804, the judges of the Supreme Court had a clerk 
of their own, who attended them in their circuits through the commonwealth. 
Since that time the clerks of the Court of Common Pleas, and later of the 
Superior Court, have been clerks of the Supreme Court. The clerks from 
1 761 have been as follows: — 

Ehjah Dwight, of Great Barrington 1 761-81 

Henry W. Dwight, of Stockbridge 1 781-1803 

Joseph Woodbridge, of Stockbridge 1803-21 

Charles Sedgwick, of Lenox 1821-56 

Henry W. Taft, of Pittsfield 1856- 

The Probate Court and Court of Insolvency, though distinct in their 
jurisdiction, powers^ proceedings and practice, have the same judge and reg- 
istrsrs. Probate courts are held at four places in the county, as follows : At 
Pittsfield, on the first Tuesdays of January, February, March, April May, 
June, September, October and December, on the third Tuesday of July, and 
on the Wednesday next after the first Monday of November ; at Lee, on the 
Wednesdays next after the first Tuesdays of January, April and October, and 
on the Wednesdays next after the third Tuesday of July ; at Adams, on the 
Thursday next after the first Tuesdays of January and October, on the 
Wednesday next after the first Tuesday of March, and on the Thursday 
next after the third Tuesday of July; and at Great Barrington on the 
Wednesdays next after the first Tuesdays of February, May, September 
and December. The judges of the probate, since the establishment of the 
court in 1761, have been as follows : — 

Joseph Dwight, of Great Barrington 1761-65 

WilHam Williams, of Pittsfield 1765-78 

Timothy Edwards, of Stockbridge 1778-87 

Jahleel Woodbridge, of Stockbridge 1787-95 

William Walker, of Lenox 1795-1824 

William P. Walker, of Lenox 1824-49 

Daniel N. Dewey, of Williamstown 1849-59 

James T. Robinson, of North Adams 1859- 


Elijah Dwight, of Great Barrington 1761-81 

William Walker, of Lenox 1781-85 

Edward Edwards, of Stockbridge 1 785-95 

Nathaniel Bishop, of Richmond 1 795-1823 

George VVhitney, of Stockbridge 1823-25 

Henry W. Bishop, of Lenox 1826-51 

Francis D. Farley, (July to September) 185 1 

John Banning, of Monterey 1851-53 

Henry W. Taft, of Lenox 1853-55 

Andrew J. Waterman, of Williamstown 1855-81 

Edward T. Slocum, of Lee 1881- 




From 1 76 1 until 1790 there was but one registry of deeds in the county, 
at Great Harrington, where Mark Hopkins served from 1761 to 1776, and 
Moses Hopkins from 1778 to 1790. In 1790 the county was divided into 
three districts, the Middle, Northern and Southern, the towns belonging to 
the middle district now being Lenox, Pittsfield, Richmond, Stockbridge, Tyr. 
inghara, Lee, Otis, Becket, Washington, Hinsdale, Dalton and Peru • all the 
towns north of this constitute the Northern District, and those to the south 
the Southern District. At the time the division was made the proceedings 
and records were all removed to Lenox, where they were kept until 1868, 
when they were removed to Pittsfield, there being an office in each of the 
other districts, however, at Great Harrington and Adams, respectively. The 
registrars of the Middle Districts have been as follows : — 

Caleb Hyde, of Lenox 1790-96 

Samuel Quincey, of Lenox 1796-1801 

Joseph Tucker, of Lenox 1801-47 

George J. Tucker, of Lenox 1847-56 

M. S. Wilson, of Lenox 1856-62 

George J. Tucker, of Lenox 1 86 2-7 7 

Theodore L. Allen, of Pittsfield 1877-81 

Henry M. Pitt, of Pittsfield 1881- 


Moses Hopkins, of Great Barrington 1 790-1838 

Charles W. Hopkins, of Great Barrington 1838-41 

Samuel Newman, Egremont 1841-46 

Isaac Seeley, Great Barrington 1 846-84 

John C. New, Egremont 1 884- 


James Barker, of Lanesboro 1791-96 

Timothy Whitney, of Lanesboro 1 796-1806 

Samuel Bacon, of Lansboro 1806-11 

Luther Washburn, of Lanesboro 1811-24 

George N. Briggs, uf Lanesboro 1824-31 

Richard Whitney, of Lanesboro 1831-69 

Silas P. Butler, of Lanesboro. 1869-70 

Herbert A. Fuller, of Lansboro 1870-77 

E. Earl Merchant, Adams 1877- 

Previous to 1761 only five persons resided within the limits of the county 
who were engaged after their settlement here, in the practice of law, viz.: 
John Huggins, John Ashley, EHsha Huggins, Mark Hopkins and Theodore 
Sedgwick. For a list of the present members of the Berkshire bar, see the 
Classified Business Directory, in part second of this book. 

In 1868, when it was decided to remove the seat of justice from Lenox to 
Pittsfield, the clause—" on condition that the town shall furnish suitable sites 
for the court-house and jail, and provide rooms for the courts until the court- 
house shall be completed," was inserted. The town readily accepted the con- 
ditions, and appointed the following committee to select and purchase the 



sites for the court-house and jail : S. W, Bowerman, Theodore Pomeroy, 
Thomas Colt, John C. West, J. V. Barker, E. H. Kellogg, Edwin Clapp, John 
E. Morrill, W. B. Cooley, Owen Coogan and Abraham Burbank. The John 
Chandler Williams place, on the corner of Park Square and East street was 
chosen by the committee for the site of the court-house, for which they paid 
$35,000 00, and a site on North Second street was purchased of Abraham 
Burbank for the jail, for which was paid $6,500.00. 

The legislature granted $350,000.00, to be assessed on the county, for 
the erection of the buildings. Of this sum $190,000 was expended on the 
court-house, and the remainder on the jail and house of correction building. 
Subsequently $28,000.00 were appropriated for furnishing the buildings, of 
which the greater portion was expended for the court-house. The buildings 
were completed in 1871, the court-house being one of the finest in the State, 
both in point of utility and beauty. It is constructed of white marble from 
the quarries of Sheffield, resting on a basement of light-blue marble from the 
the same town. It was first occupied at the September term of the Supreme 
Court in 187 i. The jail is constructed of marble and pressed brick, having 
all the modern improvements of prison architecture. It has 129 cells, and 
now (July, 1884) has 100 inmates, most of whom are employed in the manu- 
facture of ladies' and children's shoes, under contract by George C. Hall & 
Co., of Pittsfield. The institution is under the immediate supervision of 
Hiram B. Wellington, sheriff of the county, whose twenty-three years experi- 
ence as sheriff and deputy sheriff well fits him for the position. 

There have been eight executions in the county for capital offences, as fol- 
lows : John Bly and Charles Rose, December 6, 1787, for burglary com- 
mitted in Lanesboro, under pretense of getting supplies for men engaged in 
Shays Insurrection; Ephraim Wheeler, February 20, 1806, for outraging his 
own daughter; Ezra Hutchinson, November 18, 18:3, for rape; Peter John- 
son, a negro, November 25, 1819, for rape; Samuel P. Charles, an Oneida 
Indian, November 22, 1826, for murdering a negro in Richmond; James 
Callender, a mulatto, in November, 1863, for the murder of Mrs. Jones and 
her two children, of Otis; and John Ten Eyck, August 16, 1878, for the mur- 
der of Mr. and Mrs. Stillman, of Sheffield. All of these executions, except 
the latter, which occurred at Pittsfield, were performed in Lenox. 


One of the first requisites after the settlement of the wilderness country 
was begun was the establishment of roads, or avenues of communication. 
The embryo road, however, was nothing more than a bridle-path, or blazed 
track, through the forest, in many instances following the course of some old 
Indian trail. As the settlement increased, these paths were enlarged, ex- 
tended and improved, some of them ultimately becoming the greatly im- 
proved turnpike, which, during the latter quarter of the i8th and first quarter 



of the 19th centuries, were considered the very acme of convenient modes of 
intercommunication; and even our modern fancy, in these days of speed, 
push, force and power, turns with a sigh to the " good old staging days," 
when the sharp crack of the driver's whip and the resonant toot of his horn 
blended in a thrilling music long since drowned in the shrill shriek of the 
dashing, snorting locomotive. 

It must be remembered that the approach of civilization towards Berkshire 
county, or to Hampshire county as it then was, extended from the east and 
from the west — by the Dutch up the valley of Hudson river, and by the puri- 
tans from Massachusetts Bay into the valley of the Connecticut. The great 
approach from the east was the well known " Great Trail," or "Bay Path," 
which extended through Grafton, Sutton and Oxford, in \V orcester county, 
to Hartford and Springfield. Over it passed Rev. Joseph Hooker and his 
flock on their way to Hartford to found a new State, and also William Pyn- 
cheon, the father of Springfield, two and a half centuries ago, nearly one and 
a half of which it was the main thoroughfare between the people of Massa- 
chusetts Bay and those of the Connecticut Valley ; and over this well-trodden 
course, also, wearily plodded many of those grand ones who opened new 
townships among the densely wooded hills of what is now proud old Berkshire 
county, bringing with them those stern, rigid principles of integrity, justice 
and industry, upon whose broad, deep foundation rests her fair renown of to- 

The first road into Berkshire county, of which we find any mention, is that 
" from Westfield to Sheffield," which is mentioned in a report of a commit- 
tee to the General Court, January 15, 1735, as follows : " The committee are 
of the opinion that there should be four new townships opened upon the road 
between Westfield and Sheffield, etc.," (see sketch of Sandisfield). Again, 
in a petition by Samuel Winchell, then living west of Sheffield, February 8, 
1743, mention is made that he "settled at Twelve Mile pond [Brewer's], on 
the road from Westfield to Housatonic ; at that time there was no other per- 
son lived on that road, etc." 

The thoroughfare thus mentioned, after passing through Blandford, enters 
the country at East Otis, formerly making a detour to the north of the hotel, 
thence in near the present traveled way for a short distance; thence by a 
direct westerly course, it crossed the Farmington river, a little more than a 
mile south of Otis Center ; thence, continuing westerly over a steep hill, 
through the northerly part of Sandisfield, between the two Spectacle ponds 
to a junction with the present road from Cold Spring to West Otis, about a 
mile southeast of the latter place. Within this distance, about six miles, 
which is now almost entirely abandoned, there were at the time of the Revo- 
lution, four hotels, at one or more of which Burgoyne and portions of his 
troops and captors, en-route to Boston, were fed and lodged. From West 
Otis the road followed nearly the course of the present traveled way, through 
Monterey, passing Three Mile hill, through the village of Great Barrington, 


across Green river, through North Egremont and thence into New York state. 
With the exception of about a mile and a half of new road in the westerly 
part of Monterey, laid north of the old course, the old thoroughfare can be 
readily traced as one drives over the present carriage way. 

Unwritten historic lore is thickly woven about this old highway — the first 
road established in Berkshire county. It was first an Indian trail, and doubt- 
less some old forest monarch along its course, could it speak, would rehearse 
strange tales of the Redman's wiles, his wild loves and savage wooings. Next 
we find it the probable route of Maj. Talcott, in his pursuit and capture of a 
body of Indians in Southern Berkshire, in 1676, the first whites known to 
have invaded the territory of Berkshire county. Later on it afforded a mode 
of entry to the founders of most of the towns of Southern Berkshire, and over 
it passed the commerce between them and their neighbors east and west. 
Later still, it witnessed the marshalled array of Gen. Amherst and his army, 
in 1759, '^he soldiers of the Revolution, Burgoyne and his captured army en- 
route to Boston, the soldiers of the war of 18 12-15, while many a weary pil- 
grim, long since passed away, enjoyed the hospitality of its numerous taverns 
of by-gone days. Yes, strange tales, indeed, could that old forest monarch 

In 1742 or '43 a branch from this road, commencing about a mile east of 
Brewer's pond and passing north of Mount Hunger, through old Tyringham 
Center (about a mile northwest of the present center of Monterey), thence 
over the high mountains in the northwestern part of that town, through Bear- 
town to Stockbridge, was constructed. A branch leaving it about half a mile 
northwest of the old center aforesaid, and passing Artemas Dowd's and Wil- 
Uam Miner's, to a junction with the old Albany road, about half a mile east 
of the line between Great Barrington and Monterey, was probably one of the 
early important roads, made necessary by the location of Tyringham Center, a 
mile north of the Albany road. 

The next road through the county was probably along the Deerfield valley, 
over the Hoosac mountain, passing Fort Massachusetts, through Williams- 
town, etc. The fort being built in 1744, a road or trail was probably in use 
then. In 1752 a grant of 200 acres, including the fort, to Ephraim William.s, 
stipulates that he shall "be required to keep an open way two rods wide, on 
the northerly side of the said fort, lea;ding towards Albany." In 1746 Sam- 
uel Rtce petitioned for a grant of 200 acres, on condition that he " build a 
new and better road over the Hoosac mountain." 

The first road through Pittsfield is mentioned on page 286, book 121, of the 
Massachusetts Archives, as follows : — 

"In obedience to the note and order of the Honorable House of Represen- 
tatives. I set out on Monday, the 23d day of March, to look out and make a 
horse road from Northampton towards Albany. Rode to Stockbridge, got 
two Indians to assist me, and traveled to a place called by the Indians Cake- 
muck, which is about fifteen miles from Albany and lies upon the river that 
runs through Kinderhook. From thence we began to mark the road and 


came about five miles, along by said river, most of the way in intervale land. 
We crossed said river twice, having good fording at both places. Soon 
after we left the river we came to a large hill, but the ascent was gradual and 
the hill not steep, so that I believe there may be a good cart road over it. 
About a mile east of the foot of the hill we came to the west line of the Pon- 
toosuck township [Pittsfield] and had good traveling till we came to Pontoo- 
suck river, which was in the northeast part of the township. The river where 
we crossed it, was about four rods wide, the bottom good, and I believe may 
be easily forded in most seasons of the year, although sometimes it may be 
difficult to ford it. From Pontoosuck to the east branch of the VVestfield 
river, which is about seventeen miles, the land is generally hilly and very thick 
set with timber, so that I believe there cannot be a good, pleasant, easy road 
there, but I believe there may be, with a little cost, as good a road, if not better, 
than that between Westfield and Sheffield. Westfield river we crossed in five 
branches. The westermost branch is but about a rod wide and the water 
shallow ; the next east of it is much the largest of all the branches, but the 
banks and bottom are good, so that I believe it maybe used almost anytime, 
as I myself, and the Indians that were with me^ waded it the first day of 
April and it was not then three feet deep ; the next branch to it is not half so 
big, and the bottom very good; the eastermost branch, save one, is, where we 
crossed it, about twenty feet wide, and the bottom is rocky, so that in high 
water it will be bad crossing, but there is a very good place to make a bridge, 
and it may be done with a very little charge ; the eastermost branch is about 
two rods wide, and the bottom is very good. From Westfield river to North-, 
ampton the road is feasible and has few hills. The road we have marked 
crosses the river that runs to Northampton five times, but the river is so 
small that it may be forded at any time. The distance from Northampton 
to Albany, to go in the road we have marked, is, I suppose, about sixty-three 
miles, and I believe there is no part of the way but a team might draw two- 
thirds of a load, if the way be cleared. 

" Erastus Hawley. 
"Northampton, April 6, 1752. 

" To the Honorable House of Representatives Sitting at Cambridge." 
From this time forward roads multiplied with the constant increase in pop- 
ulation, though it was not until the latter quarter of the century that turnpike 
corporations began to be popular, as more convenient modes of communica- 
tion were rendered necessary by the great increase in travel and commerce. We 
will not mention the many companies that were organized, but simply speak 
of one, the Pontoosuc Turnpike Company, chartered in 1825, to Jonathan 
Allen, Lemuel Pomeroy, Joseph Shearer, Joseph Merrick and Thomas Gold, 
of Pittsfield; Henry Stearns, of Springfield, and Enos Foot, of South wick. 
They were granted the right of building a turnpike through Chester, Middle- 
field, Becket, Washington, Dalton and Pittsfield, "which route presented, of 
all others, the most level passage from the Hudson to the Connecticut," as 
was subsequently reported by those in charge of the initial survey of the 
Western railroad. This turnpike was completed in October, 1830, and ulti- 
mately became, practically, the route of the Western railway — the Boston & 
Albany railroad of to-day. 

In the mean time the feasibility of building a canal from Boston to Albany 
was presented to the legislature, which was more seriously entertained after 



the successful completion of the Erie canal, in 1823, and in 1825 they ap- 
pointed three commisioners and an engineer to ascertain if it were practicable. 
The commisioners were Nathan Willis, of Pittsfield, Elihu Hoyt, of Deerfield, 
and Henry A. S. Dearborn, of Boston, with Col. Laomi C. Baldwin, engineer. 
Several routes were tested, though their report, in 1826, favored a route across 
^'northern Worcester, up the Deerfield river, through the Hoosac mountain, 
and, by the valley of the Hoosac river, to the Hudson, near Troy." This route, 
so far as Berkshire county is concerned, ultimately became the route of the 
Troy & Greenfield railroad, necessitating a bore of Hoosac mountain, one of 
the most stupendous engineering feats the world has ever produced. To 
these remote beginnings, then, must we look for the present routes of the two 
great railroads of northern and central Berkshire. 

The Boston and Albany Railroad. — As early as 1827 the feasibility of con- 
structing a railroad on one of the above mentioned routes was agitated, though 
it was then contemplated that horse-power be used. Some idea of their con- 
ception of such a road may be derived from the following extract from a com- 
mittee's report before the legislature on the i6th of January, 1829: — 

" It is found that the cost of a continuous stone wall, laid so deep in the 
ground as not to be moved by the effect of frost, and surmounted by a rail of 
split granite about a foot in thickness and depth, with a bar of iron placed on 
top of it, of suflficient thickness to form the track on which the carnage 
wheels shall run, is much less than that of the English iron rail, and that rails 
of this construction, so far as can be judged by experiments which have yet 
been made, possess all the advantages of durability, soUdity and strength." 

This impracticable idea was soon abandoned, however, as was also that of 
utilizing horse-power. March 15, 1833, the charter of the Western Railroad 
Corporation was granted by the legislature to Nathan Hale, David Henshaw, 
George Bond, Henry Williams, Daniel Denny, Joshua Clapp and Eliphalet 
Williams and their associates, for the purpose of constructing a railroad from 
Worcester, the terminus of the Boston & Worcester Railroad, to the Ime of 
the State of New York, with a capital limited to $2,000,000.00. The corpora- 
tion was not organized until January, 1836, when the following gentlemen 
were directors: John B. Wales, Edmund Dwight, George Bliss, William 
Lawrence, Henry Rice, John Henshaw, Franc s Jackson, Josiah Quincy, Jr.> 
and Justice Willard. Maj. William Gibbs McNeil was engaged as chief engi- 
neer, and Capt. William H. Swift as resident engineer of the company. The 
organization of the directors was, Thomas B. Wales, president ; Josiah 
Quincy, treasurer ; and Ellis Gray Loring, clerk. 

The survey of the corporation commenced in April, 1836. Twenty miles 
of the road, commencing at Worcester, were put under contract in January, 
1837, and work was commenced on that section in the month following. In 
June of the same year, the road from East Brookfield to Springfield was put 
under contract, and the work commenced upon the section in July. On the 
ist day of October, 1839, the road was opened to travel between Worcester 
and Springfield, and, on the 23d of that month, regular merchandise trains 


were established. Early in 1842 the whole line was completed through to the 
Hudson river, with the exception of fifteen miles within the State of New 
York, which was run on the track of the Hudson and Berkshire railroad. 
From the State line to Alban)' the road was nominally, at least, under the 
conduct of a New York corporation, with the name of the Albany & West 
Stockbridge railway. This section was opened for travel on the I3th of Sep- 
tember, thus accomplishing the long looked for object. On December i, 
1867, the Worcester and Western railroads were consolidated, under the name 
of the Boston & Albany railroad. 

The Hudson and Berkshire Railroad Company. — This company was incor- 
porated in 1832, for the purpose of building a road from Hudson, N. Y., to 
the State line at West Stockbridge, a distance of thirty-one miles. The road 
extended over the line into West Stockbridge, a distance of three miles, how- 
ever, making the whole length thirty-four miles. The road was built during 
the years 1836, '37 and '38. November i, 1854, it was purchased by the 
Westerd Railroad for $150,000.00. 

Troy 6^ Greenfield Railroad. — In 1845, three years'after the completion of 
the Western railroad, a road was opened from Boston to Fitchburg \ and soon 
after another was commenced, extending from the latter place to the Con- 
necticut river at Deerfield. Between this point and the State line in Ver- 
mont, a distance of thirty-four miles, was left a gap, the only missmg link of 
another great chain connecting Boston with the West. To construct this 
link, the Troy & Greenfield Railroad Co. was incorporated, in 1848, with a 
capital of $3,500,000.00, the persons named in the act of incorporation being 
George Grennell,' Roger H. Leavitt, Samuel H. Read, James E. Marshall 
Henry Chapman, Alvah Crocker, Jonas C. Heartt, Franklin Ripley, Abel 
Phelps, Asahel Foote, Ebenezer G. Lamson, and D. W. Alvord. To con- 
struct this link, however, it was necessary to make the great bore of the 
Hoosac mountain, which had been talked of when the proposed canal ques- 
tion was being considered, as previously mentioned. 

This mountain, five miles in diameter, was a formidable object to attack. 
Surveys for the tunnel were commenced in 1850, and on the first of January 
of the following year the directors voted to break ground at once. A broad 
path was cleared over the mountain, extending from the proposed eastern 
and western mouths of the great bore, work being begun at both ends. Sub- 
sequently, however, it was decided to sink a shaft from the summit of the 
mountain to the level of the tunnel, there having already been one sunk from 
the western part, thus enabling the miners to bore from six surfaces. The 
magnitude of the work may be seen when we consider that in sinking this 
central shaft alone, a distance of 1,028 feet, required four years of continuous 
labor and the expenditure of not less than half a million of dollars. Here^ 
too, the nicity of the engineering skill employed is attested, in that alligning 
the work, so that the workmen who were boring from the different openings- 
should meet, the calculations varied only five-sixteenths of a inch. 


It is not necessary to speak of the changes of contracts, loans from the 
State, and final completion by the commonwealth, or of the many trials and 
delays ; but we will simply state that the great work was so far completed as 
to allow the passage of cars on February 9, 1875, after twenty years of labor, 
during a portion of which time upwards of a thousand men were emnloyed 
and the work pushed night and day. On April 5th the first freight train 
passed through, consisting of twenty-two cars, from the west, loaded with 
grain. Passenger trains began to run from Boston to Troy in October of 
the same year, though the tunnel was not officially declared to be fully open 
and ready for business until July i, 1876. In round numbers, the tunnel is 
25,031 feet in length, twenty feet in height, twenty-four feet in width. 
From it was excavated 1,900,000 tons of rock, while it has 7,573 feet of 
brick arching, in which are 20,000,000 bricks. Its entire cost was $14,000,- 
000.00 and 195 human lives. The road and tunnel are now the property 
of the State. 

The Pittsfield and North Adams Railroad.— The Pittsfield & North 
Adams Railroad Company was originally incorporated in 1843, with the right of 
building a railroad from Pittsfield to North Adams, passing through the towns 
of Pittsfield, Lanesboro, Cheshire, and (since) Adams. Nothing was done under 
this charter, however, so it expired, and it was renewed in 1846. During that 
year the road was commenced and completed, at an expense of $450,000.00, 
the last rail being laid at eleven o'clock, October 6th. The road was con- 
structed under the direction of the Western Railroad corporation, through 
an arrangement made with the government of the Pittsfield & North Adams 
company. Under this agreement the road was leased to the Western com- 
pany, at a rent of six per cent, per annum upon its cost, for a term of thirty 
years, at the expiration of which time it had the right to either buy the road 
at cost, or renew the lease for ninety-nine years, at five per cent, rent, hence 
it is now operated by the Boston & Albany Railroad Co. In order to induce 
this arrangement, the citizens of North Adams raised a guarantee-fund of $3 1,- 
000.00, which was to be drawn upon yearly to make up to the Western Co. any 
deficiency between its earnings and ex[)enses. This fund was exhausted about 
1855, soon aft' r which the road became remunerative. 

The Berkshire Railroad Compajiy. — This company was incorporated in 
1842, for the purpose of building a road from the state line in Sheflield, to 
continue the Housatonic road from that point to West Stockbridge, passing 
through Great Barrington village and Van Deusenville, to connect at West 
Stockbridge with the Hudson & Berkshire road. It was completed during 
that year. In 1847 it also obtained permission to connect with the Western 
road, at State Line, and is now a part of the Housatonic railroad. 

The Pittsfield &> Stockbridge Railroad Company. — This company was 
organized in 1848, for the purpose of building a road from Pittsfield to con- 
nect with the Berkshire road, at Van Deusenville. Ground was broken the 
next year, and on the first of January, 1850, the road was opened for traffic 


and travel. The road is twenty-two miles long and cost $440,000.00, and is 
operated by the Housatonic railroad company, under a perpetual lease. 
This, then, gives the Housatonic road, which was originally opened in 1842, 
extending from Bridgeport, Conn., to the state line of Massachusetts, connec- 
tion through to Boston and to Albany, and also with New York, via the New 
York, New Haven and Hartford railroad, from Bridgeport. 

This completes our sketch of the county's internal improvements, though 
we have made no mention of the many charters that have been issued, grant- 
ing the right to build railroads over different proposed routes. In some 
instances indeed, however, these proposed roads were surveyed and their con- 
struction begun, large sums of money being expended on them, though ulti- 
mately, from one cause and another, they were abandoned. 


In the following sketch of the newspapers that are or have been published 
in the county, we give the towns wherein they were published precedence 
according to alphabetical order, though the papers for each town are arranged 
in chronological order : — 

Adams. — llie Adajiis Republican, the first paper printed at South Adams, 
was established by Gushing & Frary, the first number appearing June i, 1827. 
It was a four-page, five-column paper, issued every Thursday. It was con- 
tinued here about a year, when it was removed to Lenox. 

The Berkshire Post, a six-col um folio, was established by F. O. Sayles, 
the first number appearing January 19, 1861. The Post \\a.'=, continued here 
until March, 1862, when it was sold to Delos Sutherland and removed to 
Chatham, N. Y., where it is still published as the Chatham Courier. 

The Saturday Freeman was established by B. F. Reynolds, the first num- 
ber appearing December i, 1876. Mr. Freeman retained the paper until 
December i, 1881, when it was purchased by W. F. Davis, who has since 
conducted it, changing its name to The Adams Freeman, December i, 1883. 
The Freeman is an eight-column folio, issued each Friday. 

The Adams Independent ^zs, started by B. F. Reynolds, January i, 1884. 
and was issued each Saturday for about six months, when it was discontinued. 

Great Barrington. — The Berkshire Courier was established by John 
D. Cushing, the first number appearing October 16, 1834. The paper was 
printed in an old building which stood, blocked up on timbers, in the rear of 
the stone store of J. C. & A. C. Russell, then in process of erection. The 
printing office of Mr. Cushing was afterwards removed to an upper room in 
the rear of the old Leavenworth store, on the Castle street corner, where the 
paper was printed until April 10, 1839, when the building was burned down, 
and the publication was consequently, for a few weeks, interrupted. Mr. 
Cushing, having repaired the damage to the press and types, renewed the issue 
of the paper on the 19th of May, and continued it without interruption till 


the autumn of 1854, when the office — at that time on Railroad street — was 
destroyed by fire. By this disaster the pubhcation of the paper was delayed 
only one week. The office was re-opened in the Mechanic's Hall, on the 
site of the Sumner building, where the Courier was for several years after- 
ward published. In the spring of 1846 the title of the paper was changed to 
the Berkshire Courier and Great Barrington Gazette, and Clark W. Bryan, 
of Hudson, N. Y., became associated with Mr. Cushing in its publication, 
under the firm name of Cushing & Bryan ; but Mr. Bryan's connection with 
the paper — at that time — was only for the space of six months. 

In the meantime two other papers had been established here, The Inde- 
pendent Press, in 1845, by Kipp & Murray, and the Housatonic Mirror, by 
Theodore Dewey, about April i, 1846. The Courier and the yT//r;-(7r were 
Whig papers, while the Press was Democratic in poUtics. A semi-partnership 
existed between the Press and the Mirror, and the curious anomaly was pre- 
sented of a Whig and a Democratic sheet printed on the same press, with the 
same types, and aside from the poUtical editorials, containing the same 
matter , for such was the case with those papers. But those new enterprises 
were not of long duration. When Mr. Bryan left the Courier, Theodore 
Dewey joined Mr. Cushing in its publication, and the paper, for the time, 
assumed the name of The Berkshire Cotirier and Housatonic Mirror. The 
publication of the Independent Press was suspended in the summer of 1847, 
and the Courier has from that time, been the only paper pubHshed in Great 
Barrington. In November, 1848, Clark W. Bryan resumed his connection 
with Mr. Cushing, and assumed the business management of the Berkshire 
Courier. The co-partnership then formed continued just four years, when 
Mr. Bryan withdrew and connected himself with the Springfield Republican. 
Mr. Cushing then for nearly ten years conducted the Courier alone; and in 
January, 1862, was joined by Marcus H. Rogers, who assumed the manage- 
ment of the paper under the firm name of Cushing & Rogers. In the spring 
of 1865 Mr. Rogers purchased Mr. Cushing's interest in the business, removed 
the office to the second floor of the building next south of the postoffice, and 
a little later substituted a steam press in the place of the old hand press. Mr. 
Rogers erected the substantial Courier building in January, 187 1, and con- 
tinued the publication of the paper to January i, 1879, when he sold the 
Courier and the building to Clark W. Bryan, who with his son, James A. 
Bryan, has published the Courier to the present time. 

Lee. — The Berkshire De?fiocrat via.s established at Lee in 1840, by E. J 
Bull, with L. D. Brown editor. The Democrat had a short existence in Lee, 
however, when it was removed to Stockbridge, and published there under the 
title of the Weekly Visitor. 

The Valley Gleaner. — In 1851 a printing office was started here by 
Charles French and Josiah A. Royce, two enterprising young men who were 
occupied for a few years mainly in printing wrappers for the paper manufac- 
turers. In December, 1856, a prospectus was issued from the office of The 


Wesijield News Letter, announcing that the Lee Liome Companion would be 
published weekly in Lee, commencing January i, 1857. This stirred French 
& Royce to a similar enterprise, and on the same date, also, appeared the first 
number of The Valley Gleaner. The former proved to be a second edition 
of the Westfield Neivs Letter, with a local editor, and a page devoted to Lee 
news and advertisements. The Gleaner appeared on a small sheet, 18x24 
inches, with only four columns on a page. At the end of the first year the 
Cojnpanion ceased to exist, and the Gleaner was enlarged to five columns 
on a page, and in i860 it was again enlarged to six columns. In 1862 Mr. 
Royce bought out his partner, and for twelve succeeding years was both editor 
and publisher of the Gleaner, assisted during the latter part of the time by 
Alexander Hyde, to whom and J. P Clark, a practical printer, he sold the 
office in 1874; in the mean time having enlarged the paper to its present 
size. Mr. Clark retired from the office the first of January, 1876, and in 1877 
Mr. Hyde sold out to Rockwell & Hill. May 18, 1881, the concern was pur- 
chased by James Golden, formerly of the Sentinel, of South Norwalk, Conn, 
February i, 1883, Mr. Golden sold out to E. S. Rogers, and returned to the 
Sentinel, and Mr. Rogers has continued the pubHcation of the paper since. 
The Gleaner is issued on Wednesday and has circulation of 1,500. 

The Central Berkshire Chronicle was established by William H. Hill & 
Co., in 1868, edited by James Harding. The paper was continued three 
years, when its subscription list was transferred to the Pittsfield Eagle. In 
1876 the Chronicle was revived by Mr. Hill and continued about one year 
when it was united with the Gleaner. 

Lenox. — The Watch Light was the first paper published in Lenox. It was 
a campaign sheet established by Eldad Lewis^ M. D., about the year 1800, op- 
posing the election of Jefferson. It was continued only about six months. 

The Berkshire Star was removed from Stockbridge to Lenox, by Charles 
Webster, where it was united with the Adains Republican, which had also 
been moved here by John D. Gushing, January 10, 1828, and published un- 
der the title of the Berkshire Star and County Republican, by Webster & 
Gushing. September 11, 1828, the firm was changed to Webster & Stanley, 
and April 23, 1829, another change was made, making J. G. Stanley editor 
and proprietor. August 28, 1829, Mr. Stanley disposed of the paper to John 
Z. Goodrich, who then commenced the publication of the Berkshire JournaL 
Mr. Goodrich subsequently became one of the most prominent leaders not 
only of Berkshire, but of National politics, being chairman of the National 
committee of the Republican party in the formative period of its existence. 
September i, 1831, the Pittsfield Argus was removed to Lenox, united with 
the Journal, and published by Samuel W. Bush, under the title of the Berk- 
shire Journal and Argus. The subsequent history of the paper is given in 
that of The Argus, of Pittsfield. 

Berkshire Herald, a campaign paper advocating the election of William 
Wirt, of Maryland, for president, and Amos Ellmaker, of Pennsylvania, for 


vice-president, was established by J. G. Stanley, January 5, 1832. It was 
continued for only about six months. 

The Lenox Echo, a monthly, was published by W. E. Ranger, then princi- 
pal of the Lenox High School, the first appearing in December, 18S2. The 
Echo was devoted to school interests and local news, and was continued 
one year. 

North Adams. — The Berkshire American, a weekly, was the first news- 
paper printed at North Adams. It was neutral, and was edited by Dr. Asa 
Green, who issued the first number early in the winter of 1826-27. The sub- 
scription list never exceeded 400, and the undertaking was disastrous to those 
who engaged in it, as they sunk nearly the amount of their investment. The 
paper had a sickly existence of about two years. 

The Socialist was also published by the same unfortunate pioneers, being 
merely the matter of the Berkshire American reprinted on a smaller sheet 
without the advertisements. It had about 100 subscribers. 

The Berkshire America?i (No. 2.) was started in 1830, Atwill & Turner 
having been induced to recommence that publication. With the same old 
Ramage press, but some additions to the type, they got up a very respectable 
sheet, for those days, which they served to 500 subscribers, for two years. 
Heman Atwell was the editor. 

The Adams Gazette and Farmers' and Mechanics" Magazine, neutral, next 
came into the field — William M. Mitchell, editor and publisher. This paper 
had about 450 subscribers, and existed one and a half years. 

The Berkshire Advocate. — In 1833 A. H. Wells appeared in the field, 
and, with the aid of some enterprising citizens, a new press and modern style 
of type were added to the old concern, and the paper appeared, advocating 
Whig doctrines. It had 400 subscribers, and Hved about one year. 

The Greylock Mirror was next brought out, by William M. Mitchell, with 400 
subscribers, and was printed about six months. For several years after this 
none could be found bould enough to undertake the revival of a press here, 
the want of which, however, was sadly felt by all classes of the community. 

The North Adams Transcript. — This paper was established, as a Whig 
sheet, under the title of the Adams Transcript, September 7, 1843, by John 
R. Briggs, with 600 subscribers. In April, 1844, Mr. Briggs associated with 
him Henry Chickering, and in the following December retired from the firm. 
Later, Messrs. Burton and Winton purchased the paper merging it with the 
Free American. They in turn disposed of the concern to William S. George 
and then it became the property of William H. Phillips, who united with it 
tht JToosac Valley News, and took into partnership with him Francis S. Par- 
ker. Parker subsequently withdrew, and Phillips, in 1866, sold out to Hon. 
James T. Robinson, who, in company with his son, Arthur, still conducts the 
sheet. When the IVezvs was united with the Transcript the title was changed 
to the Adams Transcript atid Neivs, and soon after Mr. Robinson took the 
paper he changed the name to the Adams Transcript which was retained un- 


til the division of the town, when it was again changed, to the North Adams 
Transcript, which title it now bears. It is a large, nine-column sheet, 
having a circulation of over 2,000. issued each Thursday. 

The Grey lock Sentinel v^tl?, started, as a Free-soil paper, February 15, 1851, 
A. J. Aikens, editor. In February, 1852, Mr. Aikens retired, and the edito- 
rial chair was filled by A. D. Brock. The Se?itinel \i2,^ a circulation of about 
6150, and in the autumn of 1852 was changed to the Free American. In 1853 
it was sold to Burton «&: Winton, who subsequently united it with the Tran- 

The Hoosac Valley News was originally established by Clark & Phillips, 
in 1857, Mr. Phillips subsequently becoming sole owner, who united it 
with the Transcript as stated above. When he sold the latter paper to 
Mr. Robinson, he also sold the good-will of both sheets, giving bonds 
not to publish another paper in North Adams; notwithstanding this, 
however, he, in company with John Mandeville, re-established the News, in 
January, 1867. He was soon obliged to rehnquish the enterprise, however, 
selling his interest to J. C. Angel. The firm of Angel & Mandeville was con- 
tinued three or four years, when J. L. Bowen purchased Mandeville's interest 
and, about a year after. Angel became sole proprietor. In 1877 his son, E. 
D. Ar.gel, became pubhshed, the father still acting as editor. July i, 1879 
the paper was leased to Charles T. Evans, the lease continuing in power un- 
til October 1, 1880, soon after which the paper was sold to Angel's son-in-law, 
A. W. Hardman, who, in company with Edward A. McMillin, is the present 
publisher, the latter having been admitted as a partner in the autumn of 1884. 
Since that time, however, it has been run under lease by Angel & Evans and 
by the Oatman Bros., of Pittsfield, Mr. Hardman having had the paper in 
charge only since October i, 1883, and during all the period, except when 
under lease to the Oatman Bros., Mr. Angel has acted as editor. The News 
is published on Saturday of each week. 

Pittsfield. — The American Centinel, the first paper established in Pitts- 
field, was commenced by E. Russell, December 1, 1787, on a sheet ten by 
eighteen inches, at the head of was printed the following audacious motto: — 

" Here you may range the world from pole to pole, 
Increase your knowledge, and delight your soul." 

In the second issue Mr. Russell '' returns his thanks to those gentlemen 
who expressed their anxiety to have the printing office at Pittsfield by engag- 
ing him to print a certain number of papers, and begs leave to inform them 
that he has a large number of papers on hand for which he has, as yet) 
received nothing, and which he wishes those gentlemen to call for, according 
to agreement. If agreements are not fulfilled, the Centinel must stop." This 
modest request seems not to have been very generally responded to on the 
part of the Centinel' s subscribers, for the publication of the paper was soon 
after stopped. 

The Berkshire Chronicle was the next paper established here, by Roger 



Storrs. the first number appearing May 8, 1788. It bore for its motto the 

following couplet : — 

" Free as the savage roams his native wood, 
Or finny nations swim the briny flood." 

The second number of the paper contains two well written moral essays on 
the first page, and quite extended foreign news on the second, while the other 
pages are occupied by a good summary of domestic news, a poet's corner 
headed " The Parnassian Packet," agricultural reading, and advertisements. 
The first number is twelve by eight inches in size. The 3131 number which 
appears as the Berkshire Chronicle and Massachusetts Intelligeticer is enlarged 
to the size of eighteen inches by ten. The advertisements came much mure 
from other towns in Berkshire county than Pittsfield. Fugitive slaves from 
New York are advertised among other things. This paper was really con- 
ducted with much talent, and must have been, for its time, a remarkable 
affair. Its facilities for getting news may be ascertained in the paper of 
April 24, 1789, which had Boston news to April 20, New York to April 3, 
and London to December 20, the previous year. In the issue of May 3d the 
proceedings of Congress are brought down to April 15th. This paper was 
hving January 17, 1790, with no signs of dissolution, though at what time it 
was discontined we are unable to state. 

The Chronicle was succeeded by a paper the very name of which is for- 
gotten. Tradition tells us that it was published by a Mr. Spooner who 
soon after the establishment of the sheet removed to Windsor, Vt. 

The Berkshire Gazette was started by Nathaniel Holly, Orsemus C. Merrill 
and Chester Smith, the first number appearing January, 17 — , a sheet nine- 
teen inches by twelve, bearing the following motto : — 
"Man is man, and who is more." 

Sixteen numbers of the Gazette are preserved, and represent a respectable 
newspaper. Mr. Merrill withdrew from the firm in June, 1798, and Mr. Holly, 
in March, 1799. Mr. Smith then conducted the paper alone until its close, 
which occurred with the close of the year 1799. 

The Pittsfield Sun, whose long and honorable career is not yet ended, 
succeeded the Gazette, being established by Phineas Allen, the first number 
appearing September 16, 1800. This paper was printed on a sheet thirteen 
inches long by eleven wide, being on a scale smaller than any of its predecess- 
ors, except the Chronicle, which was enlarged with its thirt3'-first number, 
while the Sun remained as at first for twelve years. The first number was 
adorned with a rude cut of the rising sun, and bore the motto, — 

"Here all may scribble with unbounded sway, 
If they will do it in a decent way." 

The Sun continued to be published by Phineas Allen alone, until 1829, 
when he admitted his son of the same name, as partner in its publication and 
editorship. The senior partner died May 8, 1868, but his son continued the 
paper until May, 1872, when he sold it to his kinsman, Theodore L. Allen. 


The new proprieter, after conducting it creditably from May to August of 
that year, sold it to WiUiam H. PhilUps. of North Adams, who removed to 
Pittsfield and conducted the paper until it was taken by Horace J. Canfield, 
who had it in charge until it was taken by the present Sun Printing Com- 
pany, March 15, 1882. The Sun is Democratic in pohtics, devotes a large 
portion of its space to local matters, and issues a very readable sheet each 

The Berkshire Reporter was the next paper started, by Button & Smith. 
Button subsequently retired from the firm, after which the paper was con- 
ducted by Seymour & Smith for a time, when Seymour retired and the pub- 
lication was continued by Milo Smith & Co. Smith, however, was not a good 
business man and got into debt. To get out, he agreed to get ten men of 
the Federal party, whose organ the paper was, to become responsible for him. 
on giving them a mortgage on his press and type. He got three, and then 
crossed the line into New York. The victimized three paid his debts, and 
continued the paper with the imprint of "E. Leonard, for the proprietors," 
until about 1815, when it was discontinued. 

The A?nerican was started by Dr. A. Green, in Becember, 1825. It was 
a small sheet and treated local and general affairs alike in a humorous way. 
Mr. Green soon removed to North Adams. 

The Argus. — A handsome sheet, twenty-one inches by sixteen in size, was 
commenced by Henry K. Strong, the first number appearing in May, 1827. 
Mr. Strong having become financially embarrassed, left the State, and was 
succeeded by Samuel W. Bush, May i, 1828, who conducted the paper until 
September i, 183 1, when he removed it to Lenox, and united it with the 
Berkshire Journal, then published by John Z. Goodrich. In removing to 
Lenox the paper took the name of The Journal and Argus. Mr. Bush con- 
tinued to edit until September, 1838, when Mr. Goodrich became editor as well 
as proprietor. With the issue of August 27, of that year, the name was changed 
to X\\& Massachusetts Eagle. In March, 1838, Messrs. Eastman and Monta- 
gue became publishers, with Henry W. Taft, editor. Charles Montague 
became sole_ proprietor in July, 1838, and on the retirement of Mr. Taft, in 
1840, he assumed the editorial chair. In 1842, Mr. Montague removed the 
paper to its old home in Pittsfield, where he continued its publication until 
November 20, 1852. It was then purchased by Samuel Bowles & Co., of 
Springfield, who replenished the material of the office and leased it to Otis 
r. R. Wait, who changed the name to the Berkshire County Eagle. But 
after the end of one year, the establishment was sold to Henry Chickering, 
then of North Adams, and Henry A. Marsh, of Pittsfield, who conducted it 
until July 20, 1855, under the firm name of Chickering & Marsh. At that 
date Mr. Marsh was succeeded by James B. Bavis, and the firm continued to 
be Chickering & Davis until January i, 1859, when Mr, Davis withdrew, Mr. 
Chickering conducting the paper alone until July i, 1865, when William D. 
Axtell became associated with him in its ownership and management. 



March 5, 1881, Mr. Chickering died, and July ist of the same year, the firm 
became Axtell & Pomeroy, W. M. Pomeroy having purchased what had 
been Mr. Chickering's share. March i, 1883, Mr. Pomeroy sold his share 
to John B. Haskins, the firm now being Axtell & Haskins. The Eagle 
is issued every Thursday. 

Old Tip, a campaign paper, was published by Thaddeus Clapp, 3d, in 1840, 
supporting the election of Gen. Harrison. 

The Berkshire Cojmty W'V//^ appeared in 1840. It was edited by Hon 
Henry Hubbard and his son, Douglas S. Hubbard, the latter being also pub- 
lisher. In 1849 the publisher migrated to California, and the paper was dis- 

The CaA?;rt'^/' appeared in 1844, established by T. D. Bonner. Bonner 
was a rabid temperance reformer and used the paper for ventilating his very 
peculiar views, and that, too, in so grossly personal and scurrilous a manner, 
that his office was at one time mobbed and he was at last obliged to leave, at 
the end of two years. The paper passed into the hands of Messrs, Quigley, 
Kingsley and Axtell, who continued it eighteen months, and then sold the 
subscription list to an Albany publisher. 

The Star was commenced in 1847, by William D. Axtell, who published a 
sprightly and pleasant paper for about six months, when it was discontinued. 
I. \The Berkshire Agriculturist was commenced in 1847 by Charles Monta- 
gue and E. P. Little. At the close of the first year, Mr. Little left town, and 
Mr. Montague continued the publication until 1848, when he sold it to Dr. 
Stephan Reed, who changed its name to the Culturist and Gazette. Dr. 
Reed continued to edit the paper until 1858, when it was discontinued. 

The Berkshire Medical Journal, a monthly, magazine was published by 
Professors WiUiam H. Thayer and R. Cresson Stiles, in 1861. 

The Institute Omnibus was a small but sparkling sheet, published by the 
pupils of the Young Ladies' Institute for several years. 

The Berkshire Gyrtinasium was the name of a small sheet, published by 
the students of the institution of that name, durmg the time it flourished 

The Pittsfield Evening Journal was established by Nathan C. Fowler, 
wvi^tx \\\& \\\\q oiiho. Daily Everting Journal, the first issue appearing Sep- 
tember 27, 1880. Mr. Fowler retained the paper until August 1, 1881, when 
he sold out to the Journal Company, with I. C. Smart, editor. March 12, 
1883, Whitman & Mills purchased the enterprise, conducting the paper until 
August 30, 1883, when B. C. Magie, Jr., came into possession. Mr. Magie 
conducted the paper until December 22, 1883, when it was purchased by 
Joseph E. See, the present proprietor. Mr. See changed the name of the 
paper to the one it now bears, and conducts a creditable sheet, the only 
daily paper published in the county. 

Stockbridge.— The Berkshire Star was the first paper printed m Stockbridge. 
It was established by Loring Andrews, of Boston, in the autumn of 1783, the 



second paper published in the county. After Mr.Andrews, the paper was man- 
aged by Benjamin Rosseter and Heman Willard, in company ; then by Willard 
alone ; Edward Seymour, Elisha Brown and Jared Curtis, in company ; Rich- 
ard H. Ashley and Charles Webster, in company, and lastly by Webster 
alone. T\\q name of the paper was changed several times, being successively 
The Western Star, The Political Atlas. The Tarmer^s Herald, The Berk- 
shire Herald, and the Berkshire Star. Under the latter name, in 1828, the 
paper was remove 1 to Lenox, where Mr. Webster was joined by John D. 
Cus'iing, publishing the paper under the title of the Berkshire Star and 
County Republican. 

The Weekly Visitor was the next paper established here. It was originally 
established at Lee, in 1840, by Jonathan E. Field, who removed it to Stock- 
bridge in 1 841, changing its name from The Berkshire Democrat to the 
Weekly Visitor. The paper lived here about two years, when the types, 
materials, etc., were taken to Great Barrington, where they were used in 
giving life to the Independent Press. 

The Tenipemnce Banner was commenced here about 1843, by T. D. Bon- 
ner, a violent temperance reformer. In 1844 he removed it to Pittsfield, 
ch 'Hging the name to the Cataract, where he made his batteries so hot and 
personal as to cause his being warred off. 

This completes our list of the newspspers that have been published in Berk- 
shire county, and we believe it covers them all, unless, perhaps, it be some 
small amiteur publication, or a campaign paper gotten out for partisan pur- 
]oses during the heat of an approaching election. 


The origin of the North American Indians is a subject which, though it 
has ei t;r<)is.d the attention of learned men for over two hundred years, must 
ever lemnn open to debate; and the question, " By whom was America 
peop'ed ?" will doubtless ever remain without a satisfactory answer. In 1637, 
Thomts Morton wrote a book to prove that the Indians were of later origin. 
J'.hii Josclyn held, in 1638, that they were of Tartar descent. Cotton Mather 
1; clinetl to t!ie (pinion that they were Scythians. James Adair seems to 
have been fuilv covmced that they were descendants of the Israelites, the lost 
tnlies; i nd after thirty years residence among them, published in 1775, an 
account of their manners and customs, from which he deduced his conclu- 
si^ ns. Dr. Mitchill, after considerable investigation, concluded " that the 
thiee laccs, Malays, Tartars, and Scandinavians, contributed to make up the 
j.reat American population, who were the authors of the various works and 
antiquities iound on the continent." DeVVitt Clinton held, that "the proba- 
bility is, that America was peopled from various quarters of the old world, 
end that its predominant race is the Scythian or Tartarian." Calmet, a 
distinguished author, brings forward the writings of Hornius, son of Theo- 


dosius the Great, who affirms that " at or about the time of the commence- 
ment of the Christian era, voyages from Africa and Spain into the Atlantic 
ocean were both frequent and celebrated," and holds that "there is a strong 
probability that the Romans and Carthagenians, even 300 B. C, were 
acquainted with the existence of this country," adding that there are " tok- 
ens of the presence of the Greeks, Romans, Persians and Carthagenians, in 
many parts of the continent." The story of Madoc's voyage to America, in 
1 170, has been repeated by every writer upon the subject, and actual traces 
of Welsh colonization are affirmed to have been discovered in the language 
and customs of a tribe of Indians living on the Missouri. Then the fact is 
stated that "America was visited by some Norwegians," who made a settle- 
ment in Greenland^ in the tenth century. Priest, in his American Antiquities, 
states that his observations had led him "to the conclusion that the two great 
continents, Asia and America, were peopled by similar races of men." 

But it is not necessary to enlarge upon this catologue. Charlevoix and 
other later writers have entered into elaborate disquisitions on this subject, and 
the curious reader will find much to interest, if not to instruct him. The 
aboriginal occupants of Berkshire belonged to the Mahican nation, and when 
first known to the whites here they had only a small village in Great Barring- 
ton, called Westenhook. The theory of a northwestern immigration by the 
barbarous hordes of Asia, long advocated, and holding credence among mod- 
ern authors generally, is in a measure substantiated by the early tradition of 
the Mahicans respecting their origin, which rur.s as follows: — 

"The country formerly owned by the Muhheakunnuck nation was situ- 
ated partly in Massachusetts and partly in the states of Vermont and New 
York. The inhabitants dwelt chiefly in little towns and villages. Their chief 
seat was on Hudson's river, now it is called Albany, which was called Pem- 
potowwut-hut-Muhhecanneuw, or the fire-place of the Muhheakunnuk na- 
tion, where their allies used to come on any business whether relative to the 
covenants of their friendship or other matters. The etymology of the word 
Muhheakunnuk, according to original signification, is great waters or sea, 
which are constantly in motion, either ebbing or flowing. Our forefathers 
asserted that they were emigrants from west-by-north of another country; 
that they passed over great waters, where this and the other country are 
nearly connected, called Ukhkokpeck ; it signifies snake water or water 
where snakes are abunda.nt; and that they lived by side of a great water or 
sea, from whence they derive the name of Muhheakunnuk nation. Muhheak- 
unneuw signifies a man of Muhheakunnuk tribe. Muhheakunneyuk is a 
plural number. As they were coming from the west they found many great 
waters, but none flowing and ebbing like Muhheakunnuk, until they came 
to Hudson's river; there they said one to another, this is like Muhheakun- 
nuk our nativity. And when they found grain was very plenty in that coun- 
try, they agreed to kindle a fire there and hang a kettle, whereof they and 
their children after them might dip out their daily refreshment. That before 
they began to decay, our forefathers informed us that the Muhheakunnuk 
nation could then raise about one thousand warriors who could turn out at 
any emergency." 

The Mahicans, who, says O'Callagan, (" the Mahicanders or River Indians,") 


lined the Hudson on either side of its mouth, had, according to Hecewelder's 
account, been confined to the east bank of the river at the time of Hudson's 
advent in 1609. Hecewelder's information "of the extent of country the 
Mahkaimi inhabited," (the best he could obtain.) " was from an aged and in- 
telligent man of this nation whose grandfather had been a noted chief." He 
said the western boundary was the Mahicanniltuck (the Hudson or North 
river) ; and that their "settlement extended on the east side of this river 
from Thuphane or Tvphanne, (a Delaware word for cold stream^ from which 
the whites have derived the name Tappan,) to the extent of tide water up 
this river ; here was the uppermost town. From thence our towns were 
scattered throughout the country on the smaller rivers and creeks." 

"Our nearest neighbors on the east," continues the narrative, ''were Wam- 
pano. These inhabited the Connecticut river downwards, and had their 
largest town where the sea runs a great way into the land, and where the 
white people have since built a town, which they called New Haven. These 
(the Wampano) were in possession of an island, which the white people 
called Rhode Ishmd. Adjoining theWampano, east, were the Munachecanni; 
next to these the Paamnakto ; then the Piituchtinnau ; then the IVaw- 
iachienfio, and the Machtitschivannau. These latter lived at or near a place 
on the sea, where there were a number of islands together, through which a 
strong current ran, wherefore they were called by this name, which signifieth 
the same. All these nations were with the Mahicanni Uke one, and assisted 
their grandfather, the Delawares, in carrying on the war against the common 
enemy, the Maqua, until the white people had come into their country. Our 
grandfather (the Delawares), owned and inhabited all the country from the 
extent of tide water above Gaschtenick [Albany], to the extent of tide-water, 
in a river far to the south, where a place was called Pathamook or Pate-ham- 
moc [Potomac]. Clean across this extent of country [viz.: from Albany to 
the Potomac], our grandfather had a long house, with a door at each end, 
one door being at Pate-ham-moc, and the other at Gaschtenick ; which doors 
were always open to all nations united with them. To this house the nations 
from ever so far off used to resort, and smoke the i)ipe of peace with their 
grandfather. The white people coming over the great water, unfortunately 
landed at each end of this long house of our grandfathers, and it was not 
long before they began to pull the same down at both ends. Our grandfather 
still kept repairing the same, though obliged to make it from time to time 
shorter, until at length the white people, who had by this time grown very 
powerful, assisted the common enemy, the Maqiia, in erecting a strong house 
on the ruins of their grandfathers." 

Such, then, is a brief sketch of those Indians whose territory originally 
embraced the head waters of the Hudson, the Housatonic and the Connec- 
ticut, and the water-shed of lakes George and Champlain. But their "long 
house " had indeed grown shorter and shorter, until they finally had dwin- 
dled down to a few scattering remnants. One of these was located in Berk- 


shire county. It consisted of about twenty families, who were located mostly 
in Great Barrington, Sheffield and Stockbridge. 

In 1722 Joseph Parsons and 176 others purchased of these Indians a tract 
of land in the valley of the Housatonic, which became known as the cele- 
brated "Upper and Lower Housatonic Townships." "That which the people 
of New England then regarded as an absolute essential in such enterprises," 
says one writer, " a reservation for the use and support of a minister was 
included in their charter. Subsequent investigation having proved that the 
location of a minister among them could be greatly promoted by avaihng 
themselves of the aid of the Society for Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts, and that the prospect of improving the condition of the Mahicans by 
direct association was better than through the intercourse had with them at 
the forts, where missionaries had been stationed, it was determined to make 
application to that society for a missionary. The application was granted, 
but on condition that the consent of the Mahicans should first be obtained. 
A committee accordingly visited them at Westenhook, in July, 1734. The 
relations existing between the Mahicans and the Massachusetts government 
being intimate and friendly — Konkapot, the Mahican chief, having been 
commissioned a captain by Governor Belcher, and Umpachene, his subor- 
dinate, made a lieutenant, in the colonial service — this consent was 
readily obtained. In September following, the Rev. John Sargent was 
appointed to the mission and entered upon his duties in October. In 1735, 
the mission was definitely located on the W-nahk-ta-hook, or the Great 
Meadow, the great council chamber of the nation, where a township six miles 
square was laid out by the legislature as a reservation, under the name of 
Stockbridge, by which name the Mahicans who were then located there, as 
well as those who subsequently removed thither, were known to the authori- 
ties of Massachusetts and New York." 

Thus was commenced the celebrated Stockbridge mission, whose further 
history will be given in connection with the sketch of Stockbridge, on a future 
page; therefore, suffice it to say at this point, that after the erection of Stock- 
bridge into a township, these Indians shared in conducting all the town 
affairs until 1785-87, when they removed to Stockbridge, Madison county, 
N. Y., where they erected the first grist and saw-mill in that town. Subse- 
quently, in 1822, they made a second migration, to Green Bay, on the west- 
ern side of Lake Michigan. In 1833 the United States government effected 
a treaty with them, giving them $25,000.00 and two townships on Lake Win- 
nebago, in exchange for their improvements and lands at Green Bay. Thither 
they accordingly removed, remaining in comparative peace until 1838, when 
a new emigration began to be agitated, which finally resulted in their remov- 
ing to Shawnee county, Wis., where about 250 of them now constitute a little 
Christian community. And this little settlement has dwindled the mighty 
Mahican nation, the people who greeted Hudson on his visit to the river that 


has since borne his name, and who were the aboriginal occupants of the 
Berkshire Hills. 


Following along down the faded decades in search of the first event con- 
necting Berkshire county's territory with history, we arrive at the year 1676, 
when were transpiring the closing events of King Phillip's war. In August 
of that year Maj. John Talcot, with a body of Connecticut soldiers and 
friendly Indians, pursued a body of hostile Indians from Westfield, and over- 
taking them on the banks of the Hcmsatonic, killedand made prisoners of a 
number of them. This sanguinary event turns the first page in the history of 
this region. Altliough the event certainly occurred in what is now Berk-hire 
county, it is difficult to place the exact scene of the battle, some authorities 
claiming it for Stockbridge, others for Sheffield, and still others for Great 
Barrington. In Hoyt's Antiquarian Researches the following narrative of 
the affair is given : — 

"Not long after his arrival at that place [Westfield], the trail of about two 
hundred Indians was discovered in the vicinity, shaping towards the Hudson. 
Talcot immediately took the trail, and pressed on to overtake the Indians, 
and on the third day discovered them encamped on the west bank of 
Housatonic river, in the most perfect security. Being late in the day, he 
resolved to postpone an attack until the next morning, and drawing back, lay 
upon his arms in the most profound silence. Towards the dawn of day, 
forming his troops into two divisions, one to pass the river below the Indians, 
make a detour, and attack them in the rear, while the other was to approach 
by a direct route opposite to their camp, and open a fire across the river the 
moment the attack commenced on the opposite side. The plan was partially 
frustrated. One of the Indians left the camp in the night, and proceeded 
down the river for the purpose of taking fish, and as the trot^ps who had 
crossed the river, as had been ordered, were advancing to the attack, he dis- 
covered them and gave the usual cry, Awanux ! Awanux ! on which he was 
instantly shot. Talcot, now opposite to the Indian camp, hearing the report, 
instaitly poured in a volley, as the Indians were rising from their slum.bers. 
A complete panic ensued, and they fled in confusion into the woods, followed 
by Talcot, and most who escaped the first fire made good their retreat. The 
division below was too far distant to share in the victory. Twenty-five 
Indians were left on the ground, and twenty were made prisoners, and among 
the former was the Sachem of Quoboag. Talcot lost but one man and he a 

Hubbard, in his Narrative of Indian Wars, written soon after the occur- 
rence, says that Talcot fought with the Indians, "killing and taking prisoners 
forty-five, whereof twenty-five were fighting men, without the loss of any one 
of his company, beside a Mohigan Indian. Many of the rest were sorely 
wounded," he continues, "as appeared by the dabbling of the brushes with 
blood, as was observed by them that followed them a little further." As a 
postscript to this report, he states : " It is written since from Albany that 
there were sundry lost besides the forty-five forementioned, to the number of 


three-score in all; and also that a hundred and twenty of them are now 
dead of sickness." 

Thus were the Berkshire Hi)ls early baptized with blood, and its silent for- 
est wakened to the echo of the dying war-whoop and the death rattle. 
The next historical reference we find follows on a few years later, when cer- 
tain shrewd Dutch traders at Albany take advantage of the Indians igno- 
rance and cupidity to secure to themselves a title to the larger pirt of this 
beautiful region. But to make clear our statements we will d gress f r a 

It is doubtless well known to the reader that Massachusetishad great trouble 
in finally establishing and maintaining the boundary lines of the western put 
of her territory. On the north, where was then the province of New Hamp- 
shire, the boundary line was long a source of controversy, a mooted question 
that was not settled until March 5, 1740, when King George II. decreed that 
the line should be surveyed in accordance with certam special instructions, 
which was accordingly done during the following year by Richard Hizen, 
whereby the Bay State lost a large amount of territory, which she had sup- 
posed was her own. On the south, when the boundary line was fi ally 
determined, in 17 13, it was found that Massachusetts had appropriated IC7,- 
793 acres of land that rightfully belonged to Connecticut. This land she 
retained, however, by ceding to Connecticut a like amount, located in other 
parts of her domain. This "equivalant land," was sold at public auction by 
Connecticut, on the 25th day of April, 1715, being bid off for ;^6vS3, New 
England currency, or about one farthing per acre, the money thus obt.qined 
being applied to the use of Yale College. But over the western boundary of 
the Province occurred the sternest controversy of all. Here New York orig- 
inally laid claim to all territory as far east as the Connecticut river, thus 
including what is now the entire territory of Berkshire, and nearly all of 
Franklin, Hampshire and Hampden counties. And it was not without ap- 
parent good reason that New York insisted upon the Connecticut as her 
eastern boundary line, and had she rapidly pushed settlers into the disputed 
territory, the Berkshire Hills would doubtless at this time be the just pride 
of New York, instead of belonging to her Puritanic sister. But this she failed 
to do, neglecting to push her settlements east of the Taghonic Mountains, 
while Massachusetts by occupancy obtained possession, eventually establish- 
ing her right to the disputed territory. This divisional line, after long and 
tedious quarrels, sometimes resulting in bloodshed, was finally agreed upon in 
1773. ^t a general distance of twenty miles east of the Hudson, though it was 
not permanently settled until 1787. 

We will now return to the Dutch grant, given under the authority of the 
Province of New York, and known as the " Patent of Westenhook." The 
petition for the patent, dated July 11, 1705, with its claim based upon deeds 
given by the Indians in 1685, 1703 and 1704, recites, that "the petitioners 
had, several years before, advanced money and goods to the Indian proprie- 


tors of land on a creek called Westenhook, describes the boundaries of the 
two upper tracts, nearly as they were written in the patent, and states that the 
Indians mortgaged the premises to the petitioners; that they had made fur- 
ther advancements of money and goods to the Indians, and had purchased 
the lands of them on the first and second of October, 1703 ; that, the Indians 
being unable to pay the sums previously advanced, or to obtain the money 
and goods which they wanted from any other party, the petitioners had ' con- 
descended' to make these further advancements and take deeds of the land." 
The grant under this patent covers four large tracts of land extending north- 
erly, along both sides of the Housatonic river from a point below Canaan 
Falls to a considerable distance above Glendale, and w^as issued in favor of 
Peter Schuyler, Derrick Wessels, Jno. Abeel, John Jouse Bleecker, Ebenezer 
Wilson, Peter Fanconier, Doctor Daniel Cox, Tiiomas Wenham and Henry 
Smith. The boundaries are vaguely stated, though sufficiently clear to 
show that the grant covered a large part of the county. It does not appear 
that any improvements were instituted previous to the advent of Massachu- 
setts settlers^ though the subsequent clashing of titles led to vexatious quarrels. 
Finally, in 1722, occurred the first movement towards a civiHzed settlement 
in the wilderness that covered the Berkshire Hills. On the 30th of January 
of that year, 176 inhabitants of Hampshire county petitioned the general 
court for two townships of land situated on the Housatonic river. The 
petition was granted, and the townships ordered to contain a tract seven 
miles square, each. John Stoddard and Henry Dwight, of Northampton, 
Luke Hitchcock, of Springfield, John Ashley, of Westfield, Samuel Porter, of 
Hadley, and Ebenezer Pomeroy, of Northampton, were appointed a com- 
mittee for dividing the tract, granting lots, admitting settlers, etc. This 
committee met in the following March, at Springfield, and fifty-five prospec- 
tive settlers received grants, complying with the conditions attached to them. 
Measures were taken to purchase the land contained in the grants, of the In- 
dians, and, on the 25th of April, 1724, a deed was executed by them, convey- 
ing a tract bounded on the south by the divisional Hne between Massachu- 
setts and Connecticut, west by the colony of New York, eastward to a line 
four miles from the Housatonic river, " and in a general way so to extend ;" 
and north "to the great mountains." The deed thus embiacing the present 
towns of Sheffield, Egremont, Mount Washington, Great Barrington, iVlford, 
a considerable part of Lee, and the larger part of Stockbridge and West 
Stockbridge. The Indians made certain reservations of land, and received 
in consideration ^\^o in money, three barrels of cider, and thirty quarts 
of rum. The tract was known, until its later division into townships, as the 
" Upper and Lower Housatonic Townships." Here, in what is now the 
township of Sheffield, was begun the first civilized settlement in the county, 
though there had been a few Dutch traders among the Indians. The first 
settler was Matthew Noble, who came on from Westfield in the autumn of 
1725. He spent one winter here entirely alone, or with no other companions 


than the Indians. Returning to Westfield in the spring, he started in June, 
1726, to resume his residence on the banks of the Housatonic, taking with 
him his daughter, only sixteen years of age. She rode on horseback, taking 
her bed upon the horse with her, and lodged one night in the wilderness while 
making the passage. Thus was begun the first settlement in Berkshire county. 
During that year settlers came in to the number of about sixty, and from 
that time forward the new settlement slowly increased. In 1734-35 was 
begun the mission among the Indians, spoken of on page 69, giving a new 
impetus to immigration. But it was not long before the first French, or Cape 
Breton war came on, in 1744, bringing with it the constant dread of Indian 
and French invasion, which, together with quarrels over land-titles caused the 
young settlements to languish for many years. But during this time the terri- 
tory was crossed and re-crossed by British soldiers, many of whom, struck by 
the beauty of the country, subsequently became settlers, as did also many of 
those who were stationed at the forts built in North Adams, Williamstown, and 
Lanesboro. But the memorable battle on the Plains of Abraham, September 
^Sj i759> when Quebec capitulated, and the subsequent peace treaty of 1763, 
when all of Canada was ceded to Great Britain, did away with the menace of a 
foreign and a savage foe, and settlers from Connecticut and the earlier settled 
parts of Massachusetts began to pour in, so that in 1791, when the first U. S. 
census was taken, the county had a population of 30, 291 souls, equaling nearly 
half its present population. 


Scarcely had the pioneers settled down to the avocations of peace, when the 
tyranny of Great Britain began to be felt, terminating in the war of the Rev- 
olution. We will not rehearse the causes which brought this great event about, 
but simply glance at their results as shown in Berkshire county. In 1774, a 
county convention was called, meeting at Stockbridge on the 6th and 7th of 
July. At this convention, or "Congress" as it was then called, the several 
towns were represented by delegates, as follows : Adams, Eliel Todd ; 
Alford, Ebenezer Barrett, Deodote IngersoU and William Brunson ; Becket, 
Nathaniel Kingsley, Peter Porter, and Jonathan Wadsworth ; Egremont, 
Ephraim Fitch, Capt. Timothy Kellogg and Samuel Culver ; Great Barring- 
ton, Mark Hopkins, Dr. Williitm Whiting and Truman Wheeler ; Hancock, 
Capt. Asa Douglass ; Lenox, Caleb Hyde, Capt. Edward Gray, Lemuel Col- 
lins, Jno. Patterson and William Walker ; Lanesboro, Gideon Wheeler, 
Peter Curtis and Francis Gittau; New Marlboro, Ehhu Wright, Jabez Ward, 
Noah Church, Zenas Wheeler and Ephraim Gittau ; Peru, Nathan Fisk ; 
Pittsfield, Jno. Brown, James Eason and Jno. Strong; Richmond, Capt. 
EHsha Brown, Lieut. David Rosseter and Nathaniel Wilson ; Sheffield, Jno. 
Ashley, Capt. Nathaniel Austin, Silas Kellogg, Theodore Sedgwick, Capt. 
William Day, William Bacon and Dr. Lemuel Barnard ; Stockbridge, Timo- 
thy Edwards, Jahleel Woobridge, Samuel Brown, Jr., Thomas WiUiams, and 
Dr. Erastus Sergeant ; Tyringham, Giles Jackson, Benjamin Warner and 


Ezekiel Heirick ; West Stockbridge, Elisha Hooper and Benjamin Lewis ; 
Washington, William Spencer and Moses Ashley ; and Williamstown, Robert 
Hawkins, Elisha B iker and Jacob Marsh, making fifty-eight delegates in all. 
These gentlemen drew up the following set of resolutions and forwarded them 
to the '• Committee of Correspondence," at Boston : — 

" Whereas, The Parliament of Great Britain have, of late, undertaken to 
give and grant away our money, without our knowlege or consent ; and in 
order to compel us to a servile submission to the above measures, have pro- 
ceeded to block up the harbor of Boston ; also, have, or are about to vacate the 
charter, and repeal ceitain laws of this Province, heretofore enacted by the 
General Court, and confirmed to us by the king and his predecessors. There- 
fore, as a means to obtain a speedy redress of the above grievances, We do 
solemnly and in good faith covenant and engage zvith each other : 

" 1st, That we will not import, purchase, or consume, or suffer any person 
for, by, or under us, to import, purchase, or consume, in any manner what- 
ever, any goods, wares, or manufactures, which shall arrive in America from 
Great Britain, from and after the first day of October next, or such other 
time as shall be agreed upon by the American Congress; nor any goods 
which shall be ordered from thence and after this day, until our charter and 
constitutional rights shall be restored ; or until it shall be determined by the 
maj )r part of our brethren in this and the neighboring colonies, that a non- 
im|)Ortation agreement will not have a tendency to effect the desired end, and 
untl it shall be apparent that a non-importation or non-consumption agree- 
ment will not be entered into by the majority of this and the neighboring col- 
onies, except such articles as the said General Congress of North America 
shall advise to import and consume : 

" 2d, We do further covenant and agree, that we will observe the most 
strict obedience to all constitutional laws and authority; and will at all times 
exert ourselves to the utmost for the discouragement of all Hcentiousness, and 
supp-essing all disorderly mobs and riots : 

" 3d, We will exert ourselves as far in us lies, in promoting peace, love, 
and unanimity among each other ; and for that end, we engage to avoid all 
unnecessary lawsuits whatever. 

"4th. As a strict and proper adherence to the non-importation and non- 
consumption agreement will, if not seasonably provided against, involve us in 
many difficulties and inconveniences, we do projnise and agree, that we will 
take the most prudent care for the raising of sheep, and for the manufacturing 
all such clothes as shall be most useful and necessary ; and, also, for the 
raising of flax, and the manufacturing of linen ; further, that we will by everv 
prudent method endeavor to guard against all those inconveniences which 
might otherwise arise from the foregoing agreement : 

'•5th, That if any person shall refuse to sign this, or a similar covenant, or 
after having sig;ed it, shall not adhere to the real intent and meaning thereof, 
he or they shall be treated bv us with all the neglect they shall justly deserve, 
particularly by omitting all commercial dealings with them. 

" 6th, That of this, or a similar covenant, shall, after the first day of Au- 
gust next, be offered to any trader or shop-keeper in this county, or he or 
they shall refuse to sign the same for the space of forty-eight hours, that we 
will from thenceforth purchase no article of British manufacture, or East 
India goods, from, him or them, until such time as he or they shall sign this 
or a similar covenant," 

Soon after this convention was held, two regiments of "minute men" 


were raised by voluntary enlistments ; one in the middle and northern part of 
the county, under Col. John Patterson, of Lenox, afterwards General Patter- 
son, and the other in the southern part, under Col. John Fello.vs, of Sheffield^ 
afterwards General Fellows. Both of these regiments marched to Boston 
soon after the battle of Lexington, where they were re-organized and enlarged. 
In addition to these regiments, also, many other soldiers went out from the 
county, for longer or shorter terms of enlistment, while in 1780, by an act 
passed by the general court on December 2d of that year, 222 men were 
raised here for the service, to serve " three years, or until the close of the 
war, which were distributed among the several towns as follows : Sheffield, 
twenty-two ; Great Barrington, eleven ; Egremont, seven ; Alford, three ; 
Stockbridge, twelve ; West Stockbridge, seven ; Tyringham, ten ; New Marl- 
boro, twelve ; Sandisfield, twelve; Becket, five ; London (part of Otis), three; 
Richmond, thirteen ; Lenox, ten ; Pittsfield, fifteen ; Ashuelot Equivalent 
(Ualton), three; Washington, four; Lee, seven ; Lanesboro, fifteen ; New 
Ashford,two; Williamstown, thirteen ; Hancock, seven ; Partridgefield (now 
parts of Peru and Hinsdale), six ; Windsor, eight ; and Adams, fifteen. 
The Stockbridge Indians also furnished a company, commanded by Capt. 
Abraham Nimham, one of their own tribe. 

But our space forbids an extended notice of the part that Berkshire soldiers 
took in the events during those days that '• tried men's souls." Suffice it to say, 
then, that her brave sons bore an honorable part at Bunker Hill, at Boston, 
at Bennington, in the expedition of Arnold through the wilds of Maine, in 
the taking of Ticonderoga, and in the co-operation of Montgomery, by the 
way of Lake Champlain, Montreal and St. Lawrence, with Arnold under the 
frowning walls of Quebec. And as a fitting reward the county had the pleas- 
ure of acting the part of host to General Burgoyne and his conquered army, 
for one night at least, while they were passing over the great highway leading 
from Albany to Boston. 

WAR OF 1812. 

For a period of nearly thirty years, except the troubles attending the Shays 
Rebellion, which has already been spoken of, peace was enjoyed. During 
this time forests had disappeared and villages and highly cultivated farms 
taken their places, mills and factories had sprung into existence, while Berk- 
shire county, from a pioneer settlement, had stepped well forward in the 
ranks of her sister counties. But England, nothwithstanding tlie lesson she 
had received, and all the years that had intervened, seemed not to appreciate 
the fact that her American colony had grown to an independent nation ; and 
though m March, 1782, Burke and Fox had raised their voices in the British 
parliament, and the House of Commons had formally declared that it "would 
consider as public enemies all those who should advise a further prosecution 
of the war with America," England still persisted in acts of tyranny until they 
became unendurable. Accordingly, on the i8th of June, 181 2, an act was 
passed in our House of Representatives, by a vote of seventy-nine to forty- 


nine, and in the Senate by a majority of nineteen to thirteen, declaring war 
against Great Britain. The message of the President contained these as the 
principal reasons: " The impressment of American seamen by the British, 
the blockade of her enemies' ports, in consequence of which American com- 
merce had been plundered in every sea, etc." 

During the two years that this war raged, Berkshire, as in days of old, sent 
out many of her sons; but no important event pertaining to the war occurred 
here, except, perhaps, we consider as such the purchase of fourteen acres of 
land at Pittsfield, by the U. S. Government, on which to erect barracks and 
a hospital for the troops. In the autumn of 1814 Governor Strong issued a 
call for troops, when an entire regiment of infantry was raised in this county. 
One of New Marlboro's sons, Major-GeneralWhiton, was distinguished as hold- 
ing that high office. His aids were Col. Henry W. Dwight, of Stockbridge. 
and Colonel Sloane, of Lanesboro. 


" Immortal names ! O noble ones ! 

A nation's heart will throb 
For ye who fell in manly prime, 

For freedom and for God ; 
And woman's eye grow dim with tears, 

And bows its head 
Before thy deeds of valor done, 

New England's honored dead." 

For nearly half a century after the war of 181 2, peace brooded over the 
green hills and fertile valleys of the old Bay State. Youths had grown to man- 
hood and to old age, and now, as gray-haired grandsires, they trotted the 
children upon their knees and rehearsed to them the tales they loved best to 
hear — tales of the battles fought and won. Prosperity asserted itself in 
the hum of busy machinery, telling of the increase of manufacturing in- 
terests, in the silver threads that were branching in all directions, proclaim- 
ing the route of the iron-horse as it conveyed to prosperous marts the harvest's 
surplus. Each morn the sun rose on a prosperous, happy, contented people ; 
but alas ! as its rays wreathed with a glad smile the mountain summits on the 
morn of April 12th, 1861, it awakened no answering smile in the hearts of 
the people. The first shot on Sumpter had frightened away the angel Peace, 
and grim War usurped her place. 

Side by side with her sister states, Massachusetts endured the weary 
marches and bore the brunt of battles, and side by side their sons sleep the 
long sleep — some 'neath the sun-kissed plains of the willful South, some rocked 
in the bosom of the broad Atlantic, "held in the hollow of His hand," while 
others have been borne to rest among their kindred by sympathizing friends, 
who, year by year, to muffled drum-beat, wend their way to their consecrated 
tombs to deck their "couch of dreamless sleep" with beautiful spring flowers 
— a national tribute to the memory of 

"New England's honored dead." 



The Bay State, aside from her treasure, furnished 159,254 men, being a 
surplus of 13,492 over all calls. Of this number, according to the returns 
made by the selectmen of the various towns in 1866, Berkshire county fur- 
nished 5,356, which was about the quota required. This number, however, 
could not have included the surplus to which the several towns were entitled, 
as every town furnished its full quota under every call by the President, and 
all except Mount Washington and Tyringham had a surplus to their credit at 
the end of the war. The aggregate expenditure of all the towns in the county 
amounted to $597,652.55, to which should be added $262,049 ^i, the amount 
raised for state aid to soldiers' families during the war, and which was reim- 
bursed by the commonwealth, and the grand total raised will be $859,702.16. 
The following table shows the amount of money, excess of men, and number 
of commissioned officers furnished by each town : — 










Great Barrington . . 



Lanesboro ... . . . . 




Mount Washington, 

New Ashford 

New Marlboro .... 





Sandisfield , 



Stockbridge , 



West Stockbridge. . , 



Total $597,652.55 

Amount Expended, 


of State Aid. 

In Excess 


all Demands. 



16.387 00 




2 1,654.56 





25 778.53 






9 241.63 




6,000 00 


















* Including Nortli Adams. 


Roster of Field, Staff and Company Officers. 

The following roster of commissioned officers who went out from Berk- 
shire county, serving in the various Massachusetts regiments, is compiled 
from the reports of the State Adjutant-General and from other sources, the 
several regiments being given precedence according to their numerical order, 
the names of the officers being arranged alphabetically : — 

First Regiment Cavalry, mustered in for three years, had a total of 
2,767 men, forty-nine of whom were killed in action, and 167 died of wounds 
or disease. 
Hopkins Amos L., of Williamstown, age 20, 2d Lieut., Aug. 11, '63 ; Capt., 

Dec. 10, '63 ; Maj., Dec. 10, '64 ; exp. of service, June 26, '65. 
Hopkiris Edward B., of WiUiamstown, age — , rst Lieut, Jan. 2, '64; killed 
at Ashland, Va., May it, '64. 

Second Regiment, Infantry, mustered in for three years, had a total of 
2,767 men, 1x6 of whom were killed in action, and 276 died of wounds or 

Miller Adam, of Lee, age 22, 2d Lieut., June 13, '62 ; ist Lieut., Aug. 10, 
'62 ; discharged Dec. 30, '62, for disabiUty. 

Fourth Regiment, Cavalry, mustered in for three years, had a total of 
2,018 men, twenty-one of whom were killed in action, and 123 died of 
wounds or disease. 

Leavill Sheldon, Jr., of Great Barrington, age 21,. 2d Lieut., April 9, '64 j ist 
Lieut , Feb. i, '65 ; resigned as Brevet Capt., Aug. 9, '65. 

Fifth Regiment Cavalry, mustered in for three years, had a total of 
1,516 men, 117 of whom died of wounds or disease, though none were killed 
in action. 

Pelton Timothy, of Great Barrington, age 21, 2d Lieut., May 26, '65 ; exp. 
of service Oct. 31, '65. 

Eighth Regiment, Infantry, mustered in for three months, had a total of 
711 men, among whom no deaths occurred. 

Bache Robert, of Pittsfield, age 27, 2d Lieut., April 30, '61 ; ist Lieut., 

June 15, '61 ; exp. of service, Aug. i, '61. 
Briggs Henry S., of Pittsfield, age 36, Capt., April 30, '61 ; Col., loth Regt,, 

June 12, '61. 
Goodrich Alonzo E., of Pittsfield, age 47, ist Sergt, April 30, '61; 2d 

Lieut., June 15, '61 ; exp. of service, Aug. i, '61. 
Richardson Henry H., of Pittsfield, age 35, rst Lieut., April 30, '61 ; Capt., 

June 15, '61 ; exp. of service, Aug. i, '61. 
Eighth Regiment, Infantry, mustered in for 100 days, had a total of 913 
men, four of whom died in the service, 
Butler La Fayette, of Pittsfield, age 39, Capt., July 21, '64; exp. of service, 

Nov. ID, '64. 

Champney Fred W., of Adams, age 20, 2d Lieut., July 16, '64; exp. of 
service, Nov. 10, '6 a. 



Kittle James, of Pittsfield, age 23, 2d Lieut., July 21, '64; exp. of service, 

Nov. 10. '64. 1 

Lyons Henry M., of Adams, age 25, Capt., July 16, '64; exp. of service, 

Nov. JO, '64. 
Reid William D., of Pittsfield, age 30, 1st Lieut., July 21, '64 ; exp. of service, 

Nov. 10, '64. 
Richardson Eugene B., of Adams, age 21, ist Lieut., July 16, '64; exp. of 

service, Nov. 10, '64. 
Tenth Regiment, Infantry, mustered in fcr three years, had a t'tal of 
1,499 men, ninety of whom were killed in action and eighty-three died of 
wounds or disease. 

Bacon James M., of Gt. Harrington, ;ige ^3, ist Lieut., June 21, '61 ; dis- 
charged, Dec. 4, '61, for disability. 
Blais Napoleon P. A., of Adams, age 27, iPt Sergt., Ju' e 21, '61 ; 2d Lieut., 

June 21, '62 ; died, July 11, '62, at Harrison's Landing, Pa. 
Briggs Henry S.. of Pittsfield, age 36, Col., June 21, '61 ; Brig.-Gtn., U. S. 

Vols., July 27, '62. 
Clapp Thomas VV., of Pittsfield, age 31. Capt., June 21, '61; discharged, 

Nov. 25, '62, by order of War Dept. 
Cousens WiUiam H., of Adams, age 27, Sergt., June 21, '61; discharged, 

Dec. 21, '63, to re-enlist, Dec 22, '63, as Sergt.; ist Lieut., May 22, 

'64; transferred June 20, '64, to 37th Infantry. 
Cottrell Mark H., of Lenox, age 23, ist Sergt., June 21, '6r ; ist. Lieut., Nov. 

26, '62 ; exp. of service, July i, '6.;. 
Darby William F., age 26, Private, June -21, '61 ; Com. -Sergt., May. '62 ; 2d 

Lieut., Nov. 26, '62; exp. of service, Jul) i. 64, .is Brevet Capt. 
Eldridge Simeon N. (or H.), Private, June 2r, '61 ; 2d Lieut., Nov. 26, '62; 

exp. of service, July i, '64. 
Goddard Lewis W., of Adams, age 40, 2d Lieut., June 21, '61; resigned 

Nov. ig, '61. 
Hager George, of Pittsfield, age 20, 2d Lieut., June 21, '61 ; discharged, 

Nov. 25, '62, by order of War Dept. 
Howland John W., of Pittsfield, age 43, ist Lieut., June 21, '61 ; resigned, 

Sept. 29, '62. 
Ives Ralph O., of Gt. Barrington, age 22, Capt., June 21, '61 ; exp. of service, 

Sept. 19, '64. 
Mansir Allen S., of Monterey, age 29, 1st Sergt., June 21, '61 ; 2d Lieut., 

Oct. 7, '62 ; ist Lieut., June 21, '62; exp. of service, July i, '63. 
Smart Elisha, of Adams, age 37, Capt., June 21, '61 ; killed, May 31, '62, at 

Seven Pines, Va. 
Traver Samuel C, of Adams, age 24, ist Lieut., June 21, '61 ; Capt., June i, 

'62; cashiered, Nov. 25, '62. 
Wells David W., of Adams, age 24, Sergt.. June 21, '61 ; 2d Lieut , Nov. 20, 

'61 ; ist Lieut., June i, '62 ; resigned. Nov. 28, '62. 
Wheeler Charles, of Dalton, age 22, ist Lieut., June 21, '61 : Capt., July 21, 

'62 5 resigned, Dec. 20, '63, as ist Lieut. 
Whittlesey Elihu B., of Pittsfield, age 21, 2d Lieut., June i, '62 ; exp. of 

service, July i, '64. 


Wilcox Henry L., of Gt. Barrington, age 39, 2d Lieut., June 21, '61 ; re- 
signed, Oct. 7, '61. 
Eleventh Regiment, Infantry, mustered in for three years, had a total of 
2,423 men, eighty-five of whom were killed in action, and 147 died of wounds 
or disease. 
Bassett Russell W. (or Wm. R.), of Pittsfield, age 23, Private, June 13, '61 ; 

discharged, Dec. 28, '63, tore-enlist as ist Sergt., Dec. 29, '63 ; 2d Lieut., 

July IT, '65; exp. of service, July 14, '65, as ist Sergt. 
Eighteenth Regiment, Infantry, mustered in for three years, had a total 
of 1,633 rnen, eighty-four of whom were killed in action and 148 died of 
wounds or disease. 
Hastings Benjamin F., of Lenox, aged 26, assistant surgeon. Mar. 13, '63; 

exp. of service, Sept. 2, '64. 
Nineteenth Regiment, Infantry, mustered into service for three years, 
had a total of 2,469 men, T04 of whom were killed in action, and t6o died of 
wounds or disease. 
Eggleston Melville, of Stockbridge, age 20, 2d Lieut., May 6, '65 ; ist Lieut., 

May 30, '65 ; exp. of service, June 30, '65. 
Twentieth Regiment, Infantry, mustered into service for three years, had 
a total of 3,220 men, 192 of whom were killed in action, and 192 died of 
wounds or disease. 
Hibbard Lansing E., of Pittsfield, age 22, 2d Lieut., Nov. 12, '62 ; ist Lieut., 

June 16, '63; killed. May lo, '64. 
Mali Henry W. T., Jr., of Stockbridge, age 18, ist Lieut., Mar. 8, '64; Capt., 

May 7, '64; discharged, May 20, '65. 
Rouce Ashbael W., of Adams, age 29, Sergt., Dec. 31, '63; 2d Lieut., June 

I, '65 ; exp. of service, July 16, '65, as Sergt. 
Smith Walter B., of Pittsfield, Capt., March 4, '65 ; transferred to 37th Inf ; 

exp. of service, July 16, '65. 
Twenty-First Regiment, Infantry, mustered into service for three years, 
had a total of 1,619 men, ninety-five of whom were killed in action, and 119 
died of wounds or disease. 
Clark William H., of Pittsfield, age 26, ist Lieut., March, 15, '62; Capt., Oct. 

30, '62; died of wounds, August 16, '64. 
Richardson Henry H., Pittsfield, age 35, Capt. Aug. 21, '61 ; Major, Dec, 

'62; Lieut-Col, July 16, '64; discharged Aug. 30, '64, as Major, having 

declined promotion. 
Severance John F., of Becket, age — , Chaplain, June 16, '64 ; dechned 

Twenty-Seventh Regiment, Infantry, mustered in for three years, had a 
total of 2,103 men, seventy-one of whom was killed in action, and 293 died 
of wounds or disease. 
Ainley Joseph, of Adams, age 21, ist Sergt., Sept. 20, '61 ; discharged, Jan. 

1, '64, to re-enlisted, same position ; Capt. May 15, '65 ; exp. of service, 

June 26, '65, as ist Sergt. 
Birsh Richard J., of Gt. Barrington, age 20, 2d Lieut., July 23, '63 ; resigned 

Oct. 28, '63, 


Bligh Charles H., of Mt. Washington, age 19, Corp., Sept. 25, '61; discharged 
Dec. 23, '63 ; to re enUst, ist Sergt., Dec. 24, '63 ; ist Lieut., Sept. 14, 
'64 ; Capt., May 15, '65 ; exp. of service, June 26, '65, as ist Sergt. 

Bowker George M. 5 of Adams, age 30, ist Lieut., Jan. 21, '6^; discharged 
Feb. II, '65. 

Bradley Luther J., of Lee, age 23, 2d Lieut., Oct. 16, '61 ; ist Lieut., July 

23, '62 ; Capt., June 4, '64 ; exp. of service, June 26, '65. 

Briggs VVm. H. H., of Adams, age 21, 2d Lieut., Oct. 16, '61 ; ist Lieut., 

Dec. 7, '61 ; exp. of service, Jan. 13, '65. 
Brown William M., of Adams, age 45, M aj., Sept. 25, '61; resigned, Dec. 6, 

Camp Samuel, of Gt. Barrington, age ^;^, Asst. Surgeon, Sept. 21, 61; 

resigned March 27, '62. 
Coombs Edgar H., of Lee. age 30, ist Sergt., Oct. i, '61; re-enlisted, Dec. 

24, '63, as 1st Sergr. ; 2d Lieut., April, 18, '64 ; killed June 4,'64, at Cold 

Harrington William F., of Pittsfield, age 22, ist Sergt., Sept. 20, '61; 2d 

Lieut., June 4, '63 ; discharged, Sept. 12, '64, for disability. 
Hurst Frank, of Lenox and Pittsfield, age 21, Corp., Sept. 20, '61 ; Sergt., 

Dec. 24, '63 ; 2d Lieut., May 15, '65; exp. of service, June 36, '65, as 

Joselvn Jerome B., Adams, age 25, 2d Lieut., April i, '62; resigned June 10, 

McKay William M., of Adams, age 23, 2d Lieut., May 29, '63; ist Lieut., 

March i, '64 ; Capt., May 17, '64; Maj., May 15, '65 ; exp. of service, 

June 26, '65, as Capt. 
Roberts Robert M., of Mt. Washington and Pittsfield, age 23, Corp., Sept. 

20, '61 ; Sergt., Dec. 24, '63; ist Lieut., May 15, '65; exp. of service, 

July 26, '65, as Sergt. 
Sanford Charles D., of Adams, age 21, ist Lieut., Oct. 16, '61 ; Capt., Dec. 

7, '61 ; killed May 16, '64. 
Sanford Miles, of Adams, age 45, Chaplain, Oct. 8, '61 ; resigned, Feb. 25, 

Stamm Otto L., of Great Barrington and Monterey, age 23, Corp., Sept 21, 

'6r ; re-enlisted, Dec. 24, '63, as Sergt. ; 2d Lieut., May 15, '65 ; exp. 

of service, June 26, '65, as Sergt. 
Terry Sydney S., of Adams, age 22, Corp., Oct. 12, '61 ; Sergt., Jan. 2, '64 ; 

ist Lieut., May 5, '65 ; exp. of service, July 26, '65, as Sergt. 
Tyler William H., of Adams, aged 30, ist Lieut., Sept. 17/61 ; Com. -Sub- 
sistence, U. S. V,, Jan. I, '63. 
VVhittaker Amos D. (or T.), of Lee and Lenox, age 27, private, Jan. 26, '64; 

2d Lieut., May 15, '65 ; exp. of service June 26, '65, as private. 
Thirtieth Regiment, infantry, mustered into service for three years, had 
a total of 2,064 men, twenty-seven of whom were killed in action, and 344 
died of wounds or disease. 
Brett Josiah W^., of Pittsfield and New Marlboro, age 29, ist Sergt., Jan. 2, 

'64; 2d Lieut., April 21, '65 ; exp. of service, July 5, '66, as ist Sergt. 


Thirty-first Regiment, infantry, had a total of 1,781 men, forty-three of 
whom were killed in action, and 147 died of wounds, or disease. 
Bache Robert, of Pittsfield, age 27, Maj., Feb. 20, '62 ; resigned, April 14, 

Chubbuck Francis E. R., of Pittsfield, age 27, Chaplain, June 12, '62 ; exp. 

of service, Nov. 26, '64. 
Dinan Patrick J., of Washington, age 21, private, Dec. 5, '61 ; re-enlisted, 

Feb. 15, as ist Sergt. ; 2d Lieut., Dec. 7, '64 ; ist Lieut., Feb. 3, '65 ; 

exp. of service, Sept. 9, as 2d Lieut. 
Fordham Elbert H., of Pittsfield, age 28, ist Lieut., Feb. 20. '62 ; Capt., 

Sept. 6, '62 ; Maj. April 15, '64 ; exp. of service, Nov. 26, '64, as Brevet. 

Lieut. -Col. 
Hayden Lester M., of North Adams, age 31, ist Lieut., Feb. 20, '62 ; Capt,, 

April 22, '64 ; exp. of service, Nov. 18, '64. 
HoUister Edward P., of Pittsfield, age 25, Capt., Feb. 20, '62 ; Lieut.-Col., 

57th Regt., Inf, Dec. 21, '63. 
Morey Benjamin F., of Lee, age 45, ist Lieut., Aug. 19, '62 ; Capt., Feb. 2, 

'64 ; resigned, Sept. 9, 64. 
Pelton Wm. H., of Great Barrington, age 27, ist Sergt., Co. H, Dec. 7, '61 ; 

2d Lieut., Jan. i, '63 ; 1st Lieut., Mar. 2o,'64 ; exp. of service, Dec. 15, 

Perry David, of Richmond, age 31, 2d Lieut., Feb. 20, '62 ; resigned, Jan. 

30. '64- 
Rockwell William W., of Pittsfield, age 22, Capt., Feb. 20, '62 ; died, Dec. 

3, '63, at Baton Rouge, La. 
Sears George W., of Pittsfield, age 19, private Nov. 20, '61 ; re-enlisted, Feb. 

17, '64, as Sergt. ; Sergt.-Maj., Sept. 23, '64; 2d Lieut., Dec. 7, '64; 

exp. of service, Sept. 9, '65, as 2d Lieut. 
Wade Charles J., of Lenox, age 22, 2d Lieut., Dec. 7, '64 ; exp. of service, 

Sept. 9, 65. 
Thirty-fourth Regiment, Infantry, mustered into service for three years, 
had a total of 1,448 men, eighty-one of whom were killed in action, and 172 
died of wounds or disease. 
Butler Lafayette, of Pittsfield, age 38, ist Lieut., July 15^ '62 ; dishonorably 

discharged, Sept. 5, '63. 
Cooley William H., of Pittsfield, age 28, Capt., Aug. 6, '62; resigned June 

24, '63. 
Gardner Robert I. (or J.), of Egremont, age 24, ist Sergt., July 31, '62; 2d 

Lieut., May i, '65 ; exp. of service, June 16, '65, as ist Sergt. 
Millard Henry J., of North Adams, age 28, Asst. Surg., Dec. 30, '64; exp. 

of service, June 16, '65. 
Mitchell Wells B., of Adams, age 2;^, 2d Lieut., Oct. 18, '64; ist Lieut., 

Nov. 25, '64; exp. of service, June, '65, as 2d Lieut. 
Potter Andrew, of Pittsfield, age 28, Capt., Aug. 6, '62 ; Maj., Sept. 24, '64; 

exp. of service, June 16, '65. 
Pomroy Lemuel, of Pittsfield, age 32, Sergt.-Maj., Aug. i, '62; 2d Lieut., 

Nov. 29, '64; exp. of service, June 16, '65, as Sergt-Maj. 
Piatt Samuel H., of Pittsfield, age 22, 2d Lieut., Aug. 6, '6z; ist Lieut,, 
March 18, '64; resigned March 11, '65. 


VanLoan Lyman W., of Pittsfield, age 34, ist Lieut., Aug. 6, '62; Capt., 

Sept. 24, '64; exp. of service, June 16, '65. 
Walker Melville E., of Pittsfield, age 27, 2d Lieut., June 18, '63; ist Lieut, 

June 6, '64; Capt, Nov. 9, '64; exp. of service, June 16, '65. 
Thirty-seventh Regiment, Infantry, mustered in for three years, had a 
total of 1,483 men, no of whom were killed inaction, and 138 died of wounds 
and disease. 
Bradley John S., of Lee, age 21, ist Sergt., Aug. 30, '62; 2d Lieut., Jan. 29^ 

'63 ; ist Lieut, Feb. 9, '64; discharged. May 15, '65, as Brevet Capt 
Casey Michael, of Pittsfield, age 19, ist Sergt., Sept. 2, '62; 2d Lieut, Mar. 

2, '65; ist Lieut., June 26, '65; exp. of service, June 21, '65, as ist 

Chalmers James G. (or C), of Pittsfield, age 22, Com. -Sergt., Sept. 4, '62; 

2d Lieut., Nov. 20, '62 ; ist Lieut., Dec. 5, '63 ; discharged, July 30, 

'64, for disabihty. 
Champney Jonas A., of Adams, age 32, ist Lieut., Aug. 27, '62 ; Capt, May 

15, '64; exp. of service, June 21, '65, as Brevet Maj. 

Colt Thomas G., of Pittsfield, age 20, ist Lieut., Aug. 5, '62 ; Capt., Sept 23, 

'6 \, discharged May 23, '65, as Brevet Maj. 
Cousins William H., of Adams, age 27, ist Lieut., May 22, '64; discharged 

Nov. 26, '64. 
Dodge Daniel J., of Pittsfield, age 42, ist Lieut., Aug. 5, '62 ; resigned, Jan. 

28, '63. 
Dooley Peter, of Cheshire, age 40, 2d Lieut., July 30, '62 ; Capt., Aug. 27, 

'62; dismissed, March 9, '63. 
Goodrich Alonzo E., of Pittsfield, Lieut-Col., Aug. 27, '62; resigned, Jan. 

16, '63. 

Hopkins Archibald, of WiUiamstown, age 19, Capt., Aug. 27, '62; Maj., 

May 19, '65; Lieut-Col, June 26, '65; exp. of service, June 24, '65, 

as Capt., Brevet Maj. 
Hurlburt Edwin, of Great Barrington, age 44, Capt., Aug. 11, '62; resigned, 

Oct. 14, '62. 
Hyde George H., of Lee, age 22, 2d Lieut., Aug. 27, '62 ; 1st Lieut, Jan. 

17) '63 ; Capt., July 27, '64; exp. of service, June 21, '65. 
Lawton Thomas C, of Sheffield, age 28, Assistant Surgeon, Aug. 15, '62; 

resigned Feb. 23, '64. 
Morgan P. Woodbridge, of Lee, age 20, 2d Lieut., Aug. 27, '62 ; resigned, 

June 19, '6^. 
Morse Frank C, of Pittsfield, age 23, Chaplain, Aug. 27, '62; exp. of ser- 
vice, June 21, '65. 
Pease Frankhn W., of Lee, age 40, Capt., Aug. 27, '62 ; died of wounds, 

March 14, '64. 
Plunkett Thomas F., Jr., of Pittsfield, age 19, 2d Lieut, Aug. 14, '62 ; ist 

Lieut., Aug. 27, '62 ; dismissed June 2, '63. 
Reed Julius H., of Lee, age 20, ist Sergt, Aug. 30, '62; 2d Lieut., Oct. 13, 

'64; ist Lieut., May 24, '65; exp. of service, June 21, '65, as 2d Lieut. 
Robinson John C, of Adams, age 25, ist Lieut., Aug. 27, '62; Capt., Dec. 

24, '63 ; discharged May 15, '65, as Brevet Major, 


Smith Walter B., of Pittsfield, age 31, 2d Lieut., Aug. 27, '62 ; ist Lieut., 

April 5, '64; Capt., March 4, '65 ; transferred to Twentieth Infantry. 
Sparks Albert C, of Lee, age 21, Sergt., Aug. 30, '62; 2d Lieut., June 3, 

'63; ist Lieut., May 15, '64; discharged Sept. 20, '64, for disability, as 

2d Lieut. 
Stannard Edward E., of New Marlboro, age 22, ist Sergt., Aug. 30, '62; 2d 

Lieut., May 15, '65 ; exp. of service, June 3i, '65, as 1st Sergt. 
Taylor Richard H., of Great Barrington, April 29, ist Sergt., Aug. 30, '62; 

2d Lieut., Nov. 18, '63 ; ist Lieut., Oct. 13, '64; exp. of service, Oct. 

13, '64- 
Fortieth Regiment, Infantry, mustered into service for three years, had 
a total of 1,367 men, forty-six of whom were killed in action, and 146 died 
of wounds or disease. 
Brewster Oliver E., of Pittsfield, age 46, Surgeon, Aug. 20, '62; resigned, 

Oct. 3, '63. 
Cass Jonathan, of Great Barrington, age 37, Assistant Surgeon, Sept. 2, '62 ; 

resigned, July 27, '63. 
Smith Andrew M., of Williamstown, age 35, Asst. Surgeon, Sept. 2, '62 ; 

Surgeon, Oct. 4, '63 ; discharged, March i, '64. 
Forty-ninth Regiment, Infantry, mustered in for nine months, had a 
total of 966 men, twenty-one of whom were killed in action, and eighty-four 
died of wounds or disease. This regiment was raised entirely in Berkshire 
county, there being only three of its members from other counties. Pittsfield 
contributed 140, Great Barrington eighty-two, Sheffield seventy-five, Adams 
seventy-four, Lee fifty five. New Marlboro forty-one, and most of the other 
towns their just proportions. These men were the very flower of the county, 
averaging about twenty five years in age. The old 49th upheld well the 
credit of Berkshire county and of the old Bay State on many a sanguinary 
field, among which is mentioned, with commendable pride, that of May 27, 
1863, when of her 333 men who volunteered to lead the forlorn hope and 
storm the outposts of Port Hudson, in less than three quarters of an hour 
.eighty fell, killed or wounded. Over the tidings from this fitly-called 
" Slaughtersfield," could many a Berkshire farmer, had he the Roman forti- 
tude, exclaim,— 

"Thanks to the gods my boy has done his duty. 
Welcome my Son. There sit him down my friends. 
Full in my sight, that 1 may view at leisure 
The bloody corse and count the glorious wounds: 
Who would not be this youth? What pity 'tis 
That we can die but once to save our country." 

Brewster Henry A., of Pittsfield, age 38, Qr.-Master, Nov. 19, '62 ; exp. of 

service, Sept. i, '63. 
Chaffee Samuel B., of Gt. Barrington, age 29, 2d Lieut., Co. D, Capt., Sept. 

19, '62; discharged at exp. of service. 
Clark George VV., of Pittsfield, age 28, ist Lieut., Co. A, Sept. 18, '62; 

resigned, Dec. 26, '62. 


Deming Benton D., of Sandisfield, age 31, 1st Lieut., Co. H,' Oct. 28, '62 ; 
killed May 27, '63, at Port Hudson, La. 

Doolittle John, of Monterey, age 26, 2d Lieut., Co. F. Dec. 31, '62; dis- 
charged at exp. of service. 

Dresser Edson T., of Stockbridge, age 22, ist Lieut., Co. F, Sept. ?o ; dis- 
charged at exp. of service. 

Foster Daniel B., of Cheshire, age 34, ist Lieut., Co. C, Sept, 19, '62 ; dis- 
charged at expiration of service. 

Francis Frederick A., of Pittsfield, age 27, 2d Lieut. Co. A, Sept. 18, '62 ; 
ist Lieut., Dec. 21, '62; discharged at exp. of service. 

Garlick Charles R., of Pittsfield, age 27, Capt., Co. B, Sept. 19, '62 ; dis- 
charged at exp. of service. 

Gleason Sanford E., of Adams, age 23, 2d Lieut., Co. K, April 15, '63 ; dis- 
charged at expiration of service. 

Harvie Robert B., of Williamstown, age 21, ist Lieut., Co. G, Sept. 21 ; dis- 
charged at exp. of service. 

Judd Isaac E., of Egremont, age 22, 2d Lieut., Co. K, Oct. 28, '62; ist 
Lieut., April 15, '63; died of wounds, June 13, '63, at Baton Rouge, 

Kellogg LeRoy S., of Lee, age 31, ist Lieut., Co. I, Oct. 28, '62 ; resigned, 
May 31, '63. 

Kniften Charles W., of West Stockbridge, age 26, ist Lieut., Co. B, Sept. 19 
'62 ; discharged at exp. of service. 

Linginfelter George R., of Pittsfield, age 28, Capt., Co. C, Jan. 3, '63 ; dis- 
charged at exp. of service. 

Lyons Henry M., of Adams, age 23, 2d Lieut., Co. G, Sept. 21, '62; dis- 
charged at exp. of service. 

Morey Benjamin A., of Lee, age 44, Capt., Co. F, Oct. 25, '62 ; discharged 
at exp. of service. 

Morey Henry G., of Great Barrington, age 24, 2d Lieut., Co. D, Nov. 24, 
'62 ; resigned, April 7, '63. 

Nichols William A., of WiUiamstown, age 24, 2d Lieut., Co. L, Oct. 28, '62; 

discharged at exp. of service. 
. Noble Robert R., of Williamstown, age 21, 2d Lieut., Co. B, Sept. 29 ; dis- 
charged at exp. of service, 

Parker Francis W., of North Adams, age 27, Capt, Co. G, Sept. 21, '62; 
discharged at exp. of service. 

Plunkett Charles T., of Pittsfield, age 22, Capt., Co. C, Sept. 19, '62 ; Maj. 
Nov. 19, '63; discharged Sept. i, '63, at exp. of service. 

Reid George, of Gt. Barrington, age 23, 2d Lieut.. Co. A, May 23,' 63 ; 
discharged at exp. of service. 

Rennie Zenas C, of Pittsfield, age 26, Capt., Co. L Oct. 28, '62 ; discharged 
at exp. of service. 

Shannon Augustus V., of Lee, age 25, Capt., Co. H, Oct. 28, '62 ; dis- 
charged at exp. of service. 

Sherman Robert T., of Egremont, age 25, ist Lieut., Co. E, Sept. 19, '62; 
discharged at exp. of service. 

Siggens Thomas, of Great Barrington, age 34, 2d Lieut., Co. D, April 15, 
'63 ; discharged at exp. of service. 


Sisson Henry D.. of New Marlboro, age 25, 2d Lieut., Co. E, Sept. 19, '62; 
discharged at exp. of service. 

Smith Dewitt S., of Lee, age 22, 2d Lieut., Co. H, Oct. 28, discharged at 
exp. of service. 

Strong James N., of Pittsfield, age 42, 2d Lieut., Co. C, June 24, '63 ; dis- 
charged at exp. of service. 

Sumner Samuel B., of Great Barrington, age 32, Capt., Co. D, Sept. 19, '62 ; 
Lieut.-Col., Nov. 19, '62 ; exp. of service, Sept. i, '63. 

Sweet George H., of Tyringham, age 19, 2d Lieut., Co. F, Oct. 25, '62; 
discharged Dec. 26, '62, for disability. 

Taft Roscoe C, of Sheffield, age 26, ist Lieut, Co. K, Oct. 28, '62; re- 
signed March 30. '63. 

Train Horace D., of Sheffield, age 40, Capt., Co, E, Sept. 19, '62; discharged 
at expiration of service. 

Tucker Joseph, of Gt. Barrington, age 29, 1st Lieut., Co. D, Sept. 19, '62; 
discharged at exp. of service. 

Weller Israel C, of Pittsfield, age 22, Capt., Co. A, Sept. 18, '62 ; discharged 
at exp. of service. 

Wells W. M., of Pittsfield, age 35, 2d Lieut., Co, C, Sept. 10, '62; dis- 
charged Jan. 24, '63, for disabihty. 

Weston Byron, of Lee, age 31, Capt., Co. K, Oct. 28, '62; discharged at 
exp. of service. 
Fifty-Second Regiment, Infantry, mustered into service for nine months, 

had a total of 955 men, seven of whom were killed in action, and ninety-one 

died of wounds or disease. 

Sabine Henry M., of Lenox, age — , Asst-Surgeon, Nov. 19, '62 ; exp. of ser- 
vice Aug. 14, '63. 
Fifty-Fourth Regiment, Infantry, mustered in for three years, had a total 

of 1,574 men, fifty-four of whom were killed in action, and 154 died of 

wounds or disease. 

Bassett Almon H., of Pittsfield, age — , 2d Lieut., Feb. 14, '63; resigned 
and commission cancelled. 

Emerson Edward B., of Pittsfield, age 17, 2d Lieut., June 3, '63 ; ist Lieut., 
July 19, '63 ; Capt., March 30, '65 ; exp. of service, July 14, '65. 
Fifty-Seventh Regiment, Infantry, mustered in for three years, had a total 

of 1,543 men, 1 12 of whom were killed in action, and 137 died of wounds or 


Dashull Alfred H., Jr., of Stockbridge, age 40, Chaplain, April 14, '64; exp. 
of service, July 30, '65. 

Dresser Edson T., of Stockbridge, age — , Capt., Jan. 25, '64; killed, July 
30, '64, at Petersburg, Va. 

Heath Charles E., of Monterey, age 32, Asst. Surgeon Jan. 13, '64 ; dis- 
honorably discharged, Nov. 22, '64. 

Hollister Edward P., of Pittsfield, age 27, Lieut.-Col., Dec. 21, '6^ ; resigned, 
April 16, '64. 

Marshall James H., of Hancock and Pittsfield, age 21, ist Sergt.,Co. I., Mar. 
10, '64; ist Lieut, Oct 7, '64; exp. of service, July 30, '65. 


Royce Charles H., of Pittsfield, age 20, 2d Lieut., Jan. 28, '64 ; ist Lieut., 

Oct. 7, '64; discharged, May 26, '65. 
White Whitman V., of Stockbridge, age 28, Surgeon, Dec. 5, '6;^ ; exp. of 

service, July 30, '65. 
Sixty-first Regiment, Infantry, mustered into service for one year, had a 
total of 1,013 "^^") five of whom were killed in action, and seventeen died of 
wounds or disease. 
Brown William H., of Pittsfield, aged 31, ist Lieut., Sept. 22, '64; exp. of 

service, June 4, '64. 
Eldridge Simeon N., of Adams, age 26, Capt., Sept. 22, '64; exp. of service, 

June 4, '65. 
Johns Henry T., of Pittsfield, age 36, 2d Lieut., Sept. 6, '64; ist Lieut., Jan. 

15) '65 ; exp. of service, June 4, '65, as Brevet Capt. 
Kern George H., of Pittsfield, age 26, ist Sergt., Sept. 12, '64; 2d Lieut., 

Mar. 15, '65; exp. of service, June 4, '65. 
Montgomery William W., of Adams, age 21, Private, Sept. 14, '64; 2d Lieut., 

Mar. 15, '65 ; exp. of service, June 4, '65. 


ADAMS lies in the northern part of the country, in 42^' 37' north lati- 
tude, and in longitude east from Washington,* 3° 53', bounded north 
by North Adams, east by Savoy and a small part of Florida, south by 
Cheshire and a small part of Savoy, and west by small parts of Cheshire, 
New Ashford and Williamstown. The town was named in honor of the 
patriot Samuel Adams, and was originally in the form of a parallelogram, seven 
miles long and five miles broad, remaining thus until it was divided a few 
years since, the northern part being formed into the town of North Adams 
As this division occurred so recently, however, we shall for the present con- 
sider the towns as one, the old town of Adams, as their early history is co- 

These combined townships then, were originally known as East Hoosac, 
the tract being explored and surveyed by a committee appointed by the 
general court, in 1749, they being instructed to lay out a township six miles 
square. This order, for some reason, they did not obey, but made the tract 
seven miles by five, or having an area of 22,400 acres. From this a small 
part was taken towards forming the town of Cheshire, March 14, 1793, other 
than which no changes were made until the division of the town. In the 
year following that in which the survey was made, in 1750, Ephraim Will- 
iams secured a grant of 200 acres, under condition that he should " reserve 
ten acres for a fort, and build a grist and saw-mill, and keep them in repair 
for twenty years." The reservation of ten acres was located in the north- 
western part of the town. On June 2. 1763, the general court sold at 
auction nine townships in the northwestern part of the county, among which 
East Hoosac was No. i. It was purchased by Nathan Jones, he paying 
therefor ;^3, 200. Soon after his purchase he admitted as joint proprietors 
Col. Elisha Jones and John Murray. 

The proprietors, in October of the same year, employed a surveyor to lay 
out forty-eight settling lots of 100 acres each. A line was drawn through the 
length of the town, dividing the best of the land into two equal parts, and 

*As the whole countj' is in north latitude, with longitude reckoned east from Washing- 
ton, the terms north and east will hereafter be emitted. 


on each side of this Hne a range of lots was laid out. Each lot was i6o 
rods long from east to west, abating from the breadth of each lot enough to 
bring the range of twenty-four lots within the north and south limits of the 
town. These torty-eight settling lots, occupying the bottom of the valley 
through its whole length, comprised the heart of the township. Four years 
after, or in 1764, Israel Jones, then a resident of the town, was authorized 
to survey a further number of lots, not exceeding twenty, of 100 acres each, 
and as agent of the proprietors to admit sixty settlers, this number being 
fixed upon in order to fulfil the conditions voted by the general court, that 
" when the number of settlers shall have amounted to sixty, they shall build 
a meeting-house and settle a learned protestant minister." The proprietors 
would naturally be anxious to obtain this number, as the building of a church 
and settlement of a minister would prove a great impetus in drawing other 
settlers, thus enhancing the value of land. The rest of the township was 
divided into 200 acre lots, in 1768, and distributed among the proprietors 
according to their shares in the property of the town. Ten years later, 
October 15, 1778, East Hoosac was incorporated as the township of Adams, 
named, as we have said, in honor of Samuel Adams, who subsequently be- 
came Governor of the State. April 16, 1878, the town was divided, the line 
passing midway between the northern and southern boundaries, north of 
which the territory was incorporated into the township of North Adams, and 
the southern part retaining the old name of Adams, and is thus the Adams 
of which we write. 

The surface of Adams is broken and mountainous, being noted for its pic- 
turesque scenery, having within its limits the highest point of land in Massa- 
chusetts, old Greylock, towering to an altitude of 3,505 feet. Hoosac river 
enters the town from the South, flowing a northerly course through the entire 
length of the township, twisting its serpenrine course through a rich valley of 
great beauty, to the east and west of which rises hill upon hill and mountain 
upon mountain, here turned in graceful curves, and there broken into sharp 
angles by crag and precipice. Within this beautiful valley are located nearly 
all of the inhabitants, within it is conducted the manufactures of the town, 
and crossing and recrossing the Hoosac, like threads of silver, extend the rails 
of the Pittsfield & North Adams railroad, over which is conducted the towns' 
harvest surplus and the result of her toil in the factory and shop. The moun- 
tains of which Greylock peak forms a part, are now known as the Greylock 
group, though they were formerly, and are still to a certain extent, called as 
a whole, Saddle Mountain. This very unromantic title, however, is fast giv- 
ing way to the poetic and smooth-sounding Greylock, given from the poetic 
fancy that the peak, when whitened by the snows or frosts of autumn and 
spring, the body being clothed in dark forests, presents the appearance of the 
grey and straggling locks of an old man. The sides of the mountain are cov- 
ered with a thick growth of maple, beach, birch and cherry, while its summit 


affords to the observer a most magnificent and enchanting prospect, of which 
Mr. W. Gladden speaks as follows : — 

" Down at its feet lies the valley of the Hoosac, nearly three thousand feet 
below. Pittsfield, with its beautiful lakes, and many smaller villages, are seen 
in the valleys and on the adjacent slopes. Southwestward the eye sweeps over 
the top of the Taconics, away to the Catskills, beyond the Hudson ; north- 
westward the peaks of the Adirondacks, in Northern New York, are plainly 
visible ; in the north the sturdy ridges of the Green Mountains file away in 
grand outline ; on the east Monadnock and VVachusett renew their stately 
greeting, and Tom and Holyoke look up from their beautiful valley ; south- 
ward Mount Everett stands sentinel at the portal of Berkshire, through which 
the Housatonic flows. And all this grand circuit is filled with mountains ; 
range beyond range, peak above peak, they stretch away on every side, a 
boundless expanse of mountain-summits. Standing here and taking in with 
your eye all that is contained within the vague boundaries of the horizon, you 
receive the grandest if not the very first impression you ever had of distance, 
of immensity, and of illimitable force." 

Between Greylock and the other mountain summits, just over the line in 
Williamstown, lies "the Hopper," a chasm more than a thousand feet in 
depth whose four wooded sides, seen from above, appear to converge at a 
point below. 

"The Bellow's Pipe" is a narrow gorge between Greylock and the peaks 
on the east, through which the northwest gales sometimes sweep with fearful 
violence. The soil of the valley is rich and deep, and here are located some 
excellent farms, while the hillsides afford some fine grazing land. The 
rocks entering into the geological structure of the territory are talcose and 
mica-slate and li??iesfone. 

In 1880, when the last census was taken, Adams had a population of 5,591, 
though she now has, owing to increase in manufacturing interests, about 
3,000 more, while the report of the State Board of Education for 1883, shows 
the town to have employed twenty-eight teachers during the year, five of 
whom were males, and to have sustained one high school, having forty-four 
pupils, while the aggregate attendance upon all the schools was 1,581. The 
annual report of the school committee for 1884 shows the town to have 
1,602 children of school age, the average membership in school, being 1^136, 
and the average attendance 1,056. 

Adams is a handsome post village nestled at the foot of old Greylock, on 
the Pittsfield & North Adams R. R., and extending on both sides of the 
Hoosac river. Here are collected factories, mechanic shops, rows of busi- 
ness blocks, dwellings and churches, forming a neat, prosperous and vigorous 
New England village. North and south of it, strung along the Hoosac like 
beads on a thread, are other prosperous, manufacturing villages, so that the 
valley is almost a continuous village through the whole length of the town, 
for it must be remembered that nearly the whole population of the township 
is gathered in this narrow valley. 

Arnoldsville is the southermost village, extending nearly to the Cheshire 


Maple Grove is a bright manufacturing community, lying between 
Arnoldsville and Adams village. 

Renfrew is another enterprising little village, where are located the Ren- 
frew mills. 

Rowlands comes next, a village yet in its infancy, though possessing a 
wonderfully sturdy growth, where are located the extensive works of the 
American Zylonite Company. 

The First National Bank of Adams. — This bank was incorporated in 
1863, and extended in 1883. The officers are H. J. Bhss, president; H. H. 
Wellington, cashier ; and H. J. Bliss, L. J. Colby, L. L. Brown, S. W. Bow- 
erman, D. J. Dean, James Renfrew, Jr., and H. H. WeUington, directors. 
The following is a statement of the bank's affairs October i, 1884: — 

Capital stock paid in , $150,000.00 

Deposits 197,000.00 

Loan and discounts 328,000.00 

Undivided profits 75,000.00 

Premium account 10,000.00 

Reserve 68,000.00 

South Adams Savings Bank. — This institution was incorporated and 
organized in 1869, with H.J. BUss, president; L. L. Brown, L. J. Cole, and 
Charles H. Ingalls, vice-presidents ; H. H, Wellington, treasurer and secre- 
tary; and D. J. Dean, B. F. Phillips, James Renfrew, Jr., Daniel Jenks, 
Charles F. Sayles, A. J. Bucklen, D. D. Wheeler, George W. Adams, and J. 
B. Farnham, trustees. Its present officers are H. J. Bliss, president; L. L. 
Brown, D. J. Dean, and L. J. Cole, vice-presidents ; H. H. WeUington, treas- 
urer ; James C. Chalmers, secretary; and D. J. Dean, A. J. Bucklin, James 
Renfrew, Jr., Daniel Burt, F. E. Mole, B. F. PhilHps, C. F. Sayles, W. B. 
Green, and J. B. Farnham, trustees. The bank is doing a prosperous busi- 
ness, its statement October i, 1884, when it had 1,700 depositors, was as fol- 
lows : — 

Due Depositors $599,672.59 

Guaranty Fund 1 5,800.00 

Interest account 1,287.50 

Profit and loss 20,000.00 

Total $636,760.09 

The American Zylo7iite Co.— Paper, camphor and alcohol, combined and 
treated chemically, make zylonite, and from zylonite in turn are made almost 
numberless kinds of goods, which have heretofore been produced from shell, 
bone, ivory, hard rubber, celluloid and metal, celluloid being so similar a 
combination and closely allied to zylonite in both material and manufacture, 
that cross suits at law are either pending or have recently been decided in the 
matter of infringement, injunctions, etc., between the zylonite and celluloid 
companies. These works are located midway between the villages of North 
Adams and Adams, at the pretty and prosperous village of Rowlands, which 
no longer than three years ago had neither name or habitation. Ground was 


broken for the erection of manufacturing buildings and for the residences of 
employees, the result already attained being a handsomely located hamlet with 
plenty of room for growth to a comely village. 

Like all new enterprises, in this instance introducing not only an entire new 
line of manufactured goods, but a new process of manufacture, the first steps 
of progress were slow ; but the outcome gives evidence that they were surely 
taken, and that the work of building factories and residences, making streets 
and sidewalks, securing help, constructing machinery, etc., has been success- 
fully carried out. 

In the summer of 1883 the first manufactured goods of the company were 
put upon the market, the early installments offered to the trade creating such 
a demand that the entire force of the establishment is kept busy in filling 
orders for goods, and the larger part of the works is kept running both night 
and day. 

As we said at the outset, paper, camphor, and alcohol are the materials 
from which zylonite is made, paper being the basis and principal feature of 
the stock used in this system of manufacture. This must needs be made 
from pure rag stock, and be as nearly without spot or blemish as the greatest 
care in the selection of stock and details of the manufacture of paper can 
make it. This paper is manufactured at the Greylock mills of the L. L. 
Brown Paper Co,, at Adams, being made expressly to order and delivered in 
rolls. The first process of manufacture into zylonite is the cutting of the 
paper into strips^ about an inch wide and two feet long, the paper being em- 
bossed while passing through the machine. The embossing is found neces- 
sary to prevent the paper from matting together, as it would be liable to do 
in sheets in the following process of manufacture : 

The paper strips are placed in iron vessels,, when strong acids are applied, 
and by means of chemical action the paper is again resolved into pulp. Then 
by means of processes peculiar to the company and which cover all the secrets, 
if secrets there are, in the manufacturing details, the important features of 
which are the introduction and combination of camphor and alcohol to the 
pulp, making the preparation entirely insoluble. At this stage of proceedure, 
the mass partakes of the nature of cellulose, when cole ring matter is intro- 
duced, and the combined preparation is passed continuously between heavy and 
highly pulished rollers, not unlike paper-mill calender rolls in appearance, or 
perhaps more like the machinery generally used for grinding rubber. It is then 
molded into slabs of four or five feet in length, two feet in width and three 
or four inches in thickness, after a certain length of time, and when in proper 
condition, the slabs are placed on the bed of a machine in which they are shaved 
to any desired thickness. At this stage, the shaved sheets are as clear as crys- 
tal and transparent as glass, presenting nothing to the eye when looking through 
them, but tlie shade or color, which may have been added at the proper time. 

Celluloid, having first been made from gun cotton, was necessarily an ex- 
plosive compound, and the idea has quite generally attained that both zylo- 


nite and celluloid are dangerously explosive substances. Zylonite is not ex- 
plosive in the least degree ; but it is inflamable, and will burn readily and 
freely, as will paper in its crude or any of its more finished conditions, Zyl- 
onite being just as Uable to destruction by fire as paper is found to be, and 
more so. The particulars we give, as to what zylonite is, viz. : paper, camphor 
and alcohol, cover all the published information that is to be had on the sub- 
ject, as both Webster and Worcester are silent on the subject, and will con- 
tinue so until revised editions are printed. 

The American Zylonite Co. was incorporated in 1881, with a capital 
of $750,000.00, the officers of the company being Emil Kipper, of Adams, 
president ; S. W Ingalls, of North Adams, treasurer. The New York oflice 
of the company is at 361 and 363 Broadway. The company employs 150 
hands. Later on, in 1883, was incorporated the 

Zylonite Comb and Brush Co.^ with a capital of $100,000.00, which now 
employs 175 hands in the manufacture of zylonite combs, brushes, and 
mirrors of all kinds. The officers are W. L. Brown, of North Adams, presi- 
dent ; B. E. Kingman, of New York, treasurer; and C. A. Denny, of New 
York, secretary. Still later, or early in 1884, was incorporated the 

Zylonite Novelty Co., with a capital of $100,000.00, for the manufac- 
ture of zylonite shoe-horns, glove-stretchers, pen-holders, checks, handles of 
all kinds, toilet boxes, martingale rings, etc., etc., giving employment 
to about fifty hands. The officers are W. L. Brown, of North Adams, 
president, and B. E. Kmgman, of New York, treasurer. The business of 
these companies is constantly increasing, necessitating the erection of new 
buildings, etc., promising within five years to become the largest manufac- 
turing establishments in Berkshire county. 

The Renfrew Manufacturing Co., whose works are located at Renfrew, 
was incorporated in 1867, its present officers being L. L. Brown, president ; 
James C. Chalmers, secretary ; and James Renfrew, Jr., agent; a capital of 
$1,400,000.00 being employed. The company manufactures ginghams, yarns, 
turkey-red damask table cloths, and fancy dress goods, employing about 2,500 
operatives. The mills are operated by both steam and water-power. 

The Adafus Steatn Grist Mills, located on Hoosac street, Adams, were 
built by Messrs. Butler & Fairchild, in 1869. In 187 1 the property came 
into the hands of H. A. Butler & Co., and in 1874, Mr. M. C. Richmond, of 
this firm, became sole owner, and still conducts the business. The mills have 
two runs of stones, with the capacity for grinding 600 bushels of grain per day. 

Henry J. Arnold &= Son's steaiti saw and platiing-mills, located on Spring 
St., was established in 1878. Mr. Arnold gives employment to fifty hands in 
the manufacture of lumber, boxes and barrels, turning out about 3,000,000 
feet of lumber per annum. 

Allen Iro7i Works located on Mill street, operated by both steam and 
water-power, were built by James A. Allen, in 187 1. Mr. Allen manufac- 
tures patent grate bars, filters for paper-mills, sugar refineries, bleacheries 



and dye works, beamers, skein spoolers, bobbin winders, chain warpers, dye 
machines, and chain-sphtting machines, all of which are his own inventions 
and his specialties in manufacture. He has also invented a new steam-heat- 
ing apparatus, which is considered of great value for heating factories? 
churches and dwelhngs. He gives employment to about twenty-five hands. 

The Greylock Woolen Mills, located at Maple Grove, on the Hoosack 
river, were erected in 1864, by Messrs. Peter Blackinton and B. F. PhiUips. 
The present firm is B. F. Phillips & Son, who manufacture cassimeres, ladies' 
dress goods and shawls. The mills are operated by both steam and water- 
power, are furnished with seven sets of machinery, and give employment to 
160 operatives. 

James B. Dea7is gnsf-mill and cotton-batting factory are located on road 
i4cor 26 and 27, on Peck's brook. The grist-mill grinds meal and feed, and 
cotton batting is made from waste material gotten at cotton factories. 
Mr. Dean employs six hands. 

The Maple Grove Warp Mills, located at Maple Grove, Adams & Co., 
proprietors, have 4,100 spindles and employ 125 hands in the manufacture of 
cotton warp. The mills were built by Adams & Seeley, in 1848. 

The Plunkett Manufacturing Co. — The mills occupied by this heavy com- 
pany were built by Stephen L. Arnold & Co., in 1846, going into operation 
July 4th of that year, manufacturing cotton cloth. Upon the death of Stephen 
L. Arnold, the concern was left entirely to his partner, Daniel Arnold, and 
then came an unsuccessful period of several years. It then became the prop- 
erty of O. Anold & Co., and then, several years later, came another change 
of proprietors, and finally, in 1881, it was taken by the present company. The 
officers of the concern are J. R. Anthony, president ; W. B. Plunkett, treas- 
urer; and Charles T. Plunkett, manager. They have 5,200 spindles and 
120 fancy loom;-, producing bleached dress goods. 

W. C. Plunkett &= Sons. — This firm, composed of William B. and Charles 
T. Plunkett, carry on an extensive business in the manufacture of white and 
colored cotton warps and yarns, operating 14,200 spindles. 

The Pump Log Factory. — This old factory was located on Tophet brook, 
about three-quarters of a mile east of the village. It was built by Daniel and 
John Anthony, in 1822, 40 by 30 feet, three and one-half stories in height, 
for the manufacture of cotton yarn. The water was thrown upon a wheel 
twenty-six feet in diameter, on a level with the third story. The weaving 
was all done in the famiHes of the surrounding neighborhood. About seven 
years later Cyrus and Jacob Peck leased the factory, changing it to a ma- 
chine shop for the manufacture of cotton and woolen machinery. About 
1 83 1 it was again changed, to a factory for manufacturing satinets, operated 
by Isaac U. Hoxie, who continued until 1834 or '35, when the factory was 

Turner's Factory. — This building was erected in 1814, by Gersham, 
Caleb, George and Sewell Turner, standing where the machine shop now 
stands, near the Stone Mill of the Renfrew Manuf. Co. 



Although the two towns were then one, the sketch of old Fort Massachu- 
setts and the Indian history pervading its story properly belong with the his- 
tory of North Adams, to the sketch of which town the reader is referred. But 
in the following remarks relative to the early settlement of the territory, it 
must be remembered that we speak of the two towns as a whole, or as though 
no division had ever been made. 

Among the early settlers of the town, not including a few soldiers who 
hngered near the fort, were Abial Smith and his sons Gideon and Jacob, 
John Kilborn and John McNeal, of Litchfield, Conn.; Reuben Hinman and 
Jonathan Smith, of Woodbury ; and Messrs. Parker, Cook and Leavenworth, 
of Wallingford. These settlers, however, with others who located with them, 
did not remain long, most of them celling their lands to purchasers from 
Rhode Island, many of whom were Quakers. Others, not of that order, 
soon followed from the same State, until nearly the whole town was occupied 
by Rhode Islanders. October 15, 1778, the town was incorporated, the first 
town meeting being held March 8, 1779, when Capt. Philip Mason, Capt. 
Israel Jones, and Capt. Reuben Hinman were elected selectmen. The prin- 
cipal points of settlement were at what are now the villages of North Adams 
and Adams, forming the nucleuses about which these villages were built. The 
grist and saw-mill required by the grant to Ephraim Williams, were built at 
what is now North Adams village, and a grist-mill was built about the same 
time at Adams village, or as it is generally known. South Adams. The fol- 
lowing biographical sketches, however, are of only such as settled in what is 
now the township of Adams: — 

Benjamin Farmer came to Adams, from Dartmouth, R. L, about 1787, 
settling as a pioneer farmer, where he resided until his death. His son Will- 
iam, born in Dartmouth in 1775, was twelve years old when he came to 
Adams with his father, and resided on the old homestead during the remain- 
der of his life. He married Martha Chase, of his native town, who bore him 
eleven children, who hved to attain a mature age, and all married, except one 
daughter who remained at home and ministered to the wants of her parents 
until they died. Only one of this large family, Mrs. Ann Eliza Fessenden, 
now resides in the town. 

Job Anthony, born at Taunton, Mass., in 1797, came to Adams in 18 16, 
commencing an apprenticeship with Joseph Shove, tanner, with whom he re- 
mained three years. He then entered into a contract to support Hattel 
Kelly, a bachelor, and his maiden sister, for the use of a small tan-yard and 
a farm of fifty acres. This he continued to do until the death of Mr. Kelly, 
when he purchased the property to which he has added from time to time. 
Here he has continued to live, up to the present time. Mr. Anthony is of 
Quaker extraction, and early identified himself with that society here, being 
now the only surviving member thereof. At the dismission of the society, in 
1828, caused by the doctrines of Elias Hicks, Mr. Anthony took strong 
grounds against these sentiments, and is now decidedly orthodox. In his 


thirty-first year he married Hannah Harkness, who died in i86r. This union 
was blessed with the birth of two sons and a daughter, viz.: Susan (Mrs. 
Andrews Hall), Uving on Myrtle street ; Job Kelly Anthony, merchant, of 
the firm of Anthony & Burlingame, at Maple Grove ; and Edmund, a farmer, 
residing on the homestead. During his whole course as a business man, in- 
volving transactions of considerable amount, Mr. Anthony has never broken 
a contract nor failed to meet an obligation. 

John Fisk, from Cheshire, came to Adams at an early date, locating on 
the farm his grandson, John H. Fisk, now occupies, where he remained till 
his death. He built the house thereon, which is still in a good state of pres- 
ervation, in 1797. He married Hannah Smith, who bore him four children, 
none of whom are living. His son Daniel succeeded him on the homestead. 
Daniel was twice married and reared six children, four of whom are now 
hving, viz. : Daniel W., in Wisconsin ; Ann Eliza (Mrs. Henry Bliss), in 
Adams village; John H., as before mentioned; and Charles E., an invaUd, 
occupying, with his mother, a part of the homestead. 

Hiram H., son of Jerred Clark, was born in VVilliamstown, in November, 
1820. He spent his youth much as other farmer's sons, in work on the farm 
and in attending the common school of his, neighborhood, until fourteen 
years of age. He then was engaged to work in the cotton mills of Dr. Bray- 
ton, where the woolen mills of Deweyville are now located. In 1836 he 
engaged with James E. Marshall, a cotton manufacturer, of North Adams. 
In 1846 he engaged with Messrs. Pollock & Hathaway, where he remained 
two years, then bought out Mr. Hathaway's interest, the firm being known as 
William Pollock & Co., and was continued until 1863, when Mr. Clark with- 
drew and formed a partnership with George W. and John S. Adams, manu- 
facturing cotton warp, under the firm name of Adams & Clark. This firm 
continued four years, when Mr. Clark purchased an interest in the Renfrew 
Manufacturing Co., holding the position of superintendent. Here he re- 
mained till 187 1, when he sold out his interest and moved to Alabama, to 
superintend a manufactory of cotton checks and plaids, remaining there 
until the autumn of 1883, when he returned to Adams, and is now superin- 
tendent of the mills of the Plunkett Manufacturing Co. at Maple Grove. 

David Anthony, from Rhode Island, came to Adams, as near as can be 
ascertained, about the time of the breaking out of the Revolution, locating 
in the southern part of the town, on the West road, near the Cheshire line. 
At the time of the battle of Bennington, while the men turned out with such 
arms as they could procure— guns, pitchforks, etc., — and hastened forward to 
the scene of war, Mrs. Anthony collected her pewter ware and other valu- 
ables, placed them in her large brass kettle, and buried the whole in the 
cellar of their log house. Mr. Anthony remained where he first located 
until the division of the Friend's society, about 1827, when he went to live 
with his orthodox brother, in Greenfield, N. Y,, where he died. His four 
sons were EUhu, John, Humphrey and David. Ehhu and John, early in life, 


went to Greenfield, N. Y. Elihu was a farmer, blacksmith and Quaker 
preacher, John a farmer. Humphrey was a farmer and blacksmith, but 
owned fifteen shares of stock in the South Adams Cotton and Woolen Com- 
pany, and was the Company's agent one year. He married Hannah, youngest 
daughter of Joshua Lapham, and attained the great age of ninety-six years, 
his wife dying at the age of sixty-six. Their children were Daniel, Susan, 
Hannah, John, Joshua, Abrarn, Ira, Ann Eliza and Humphrey. Daniel, 
a man of high talents and fine education, was a manufacturer, and built, 
with his brother John, the Pump Log Factory, and was the prime mover in 
organizing the first academy in town. He left Adams about 1827, and died 
in Rochester, about 1857. He married Susan Reed, a daughter of one of 
the early settlers, and reared six children, two of whom attained a national 
reputation, viz. : Miss Susan B. Anthony, and Col. Daniel R. Anthony, of 
Leavenworth fame. John was at one time a manufacturer here, but finally 
went West, and became an extensive land owner. Joshua was a farmer near 
the old homestead, and was killed by lightning about 1835. Abram has been 
a manufacturer, first at Maple Grove, with his brother John, next with his 
brother-in-law, Israel U. Hoxie ; he then gave his attention to farming, owned 
600 acres, continuing a farmer several years, when he built a saw-mill and 
grist-mil'I, at Renfrew, and finally sold out to William Pollock, in 186-. He 
still owns valuable land in the vicinity of Renfrew Mills, along the Hoosac. 
Ira died in boyhood. Ann Eliza married Mr. Dickinson, and is now a 
widow, residing in Chicago. Humphrey resides in town, a wealthy farmer. 

Joshua Lapham came to Adams sometime previous to 1781, and was one 
of the organizers of Friends society, and one of its first members. He was 
a farmer, and located about half a mile north of Bowen's corners. His sons 
nearly all went west, were enterprising and energetic men. None of the 
name, however, are now in town. 

Stoel E. Dean was born in New Ashford, April i8, 1809, and came to 
Adams with his father, a tanner, when twenty years of age. He was a part- 
ner with his father a few years, and in 1841 he left Adams and engaged with 
his brother in the tanning business at Pittsfield, where he remained nine 
years. In 1850 he returned to Adams and formed a partnership with B. F. 
Phillips, under the firm name of Dean & Phillips, for the manufacture of 
woolen goods. This firm continued about three years, when he rented the 
factory to Messrs. B. F. PhiUips and Peter Blackinton, but soon obtained an 
interest in the firm. This continued until about 1857, when Abram La 
Monte entered the firm, and later Messrs. Phillips and Blackinton retired, 
Mr. Dean and Mr. LaMonte continuing the business alone until the fac- 
tory was destroyed by fire. The building was soon after replaced and occu- 
pied by the Richmond & Upton Paper Co., in which Mr. Dean had an inter- 
est. The factory was finally sold to William C. Plunkett, and is now used 
by his sons in the manufacture of cotton warp. Since then Mr. Dean has 
retired from active business. He was in early life a Democrat, but in 1844, 



believing the principle of Free Soil correct, he left the party, and at the 
organization of the Republican party he identified himself with it, and was 
elected to the State legislature in the autumn of i860. 

Horace M. Holmes, M. D., was born in Waterville, Vt., November 2, 
1830. He received his education at Bakersfield Academy, and then went to 
Warsaw, 111., in May, 1848, where he successfully engaged in teaching about 
a year and a half. He then, after teaching a short time in Alexandria, Mo., 
returned East, commencing the study of medicine with the late Profs. H. H. 
and T. Childs, of Pittsfield, also attending lectures at the old Berkshire Med- 
ical college, from which he graduated in 1852. He immediately commenced 
practice in Cambridge, Vt., remainmg only a short time, however, when he 
located in Adams in 1853, forming a partnership with the late Dr. George 
C. Lawrence, which lasted one year, since which time he has practiced alone. 
During his first year heie he was elected school committee, serving two years. 
In politics, Dr. Holmes is a firm Republican, and in the autumn of 1878 was 
elected to represent the Second Berkshire District, serving on the committee 
on public health, and was re-elected the following year, serving on the same 
committee. He has since, however, given his whole attention to his large 

Liscom Philips, M. D.,was born in Ashfield, Mass., in 1777, studied medicine 
with Dr. Bryant, of Cummington, father of William CuUen Bryant, and com- 
menced practice in Savoy soon after graduating. He remained thereuntil 181 2, 
when he removed to Adams, where he remained in practice until his death, in 
1 82 1. He married Nancy Paddleford, of Taunton, who bore him seven chil- 
dren, all of whom, except three, removed from the town at an early age. 
Henry P. Philips took his father's profession, attended Williams college, and 
graduated from the old Berkshire Medical college, and commenced practice 
with his father-in-law, Dr. Tyler, in Lanesboro. Two yeais after he settled 
in Adams, remained till 1840, then removed to North Adams, where he re- 
mained in successful practice until his death, in November, 1881. Julia A. 
Phillips became the wife of Stoel E. Dean, in 1834. Benjamin F. Phillips^ 
now occupying the homestead, on Park street, was born therein in 181 7. 
He commenced work in the wool-carding mills of William Jenks, at the age 
of fourteen, remaining in this manufacture until 1850, when he became a 
partner with Stoel E. Dean. In 1853 Mr. Phillips and Peter Blackinton 
rented the mills of Mr. Dean, and in 1857 Messrs. Dean and LaMont were 
admitted, the firm name being Blackinton, Phillips & Co., which was con- 
tinued till i860, when Blackinton and Phillips withdrew and commenced the 
manufacture of woolen goods at Maple Grove. In 1864 they built the pres- 
ent Greylock woolen mill, and in 1866 they divided their property, Mr. Phil- 
lips obtaining Greylock mills, which he now operates in company with his son 
Albert L., manufacturing cassimeres, ladies' dress-goods and shawls. 

Zebedee Dean, born in Rehoboth, Mass., in 1782, moved to Cheshire 
about 1800, and learned the blacksmith trade of his step-father, Ephraim Farm- 



ington. After learning his trade, he bought out his father and carried on the 
blacksmithing business and farming until about i860, when he gave up black- 
smithing and sold his farm, but lived in the house until his death, in 1867, 
aged eighty-five years and six months. Three children are living, D. J., James 
B., and Albert G. 

D. J. Dean, born in Cheshire, in 1816, worked on the farm till fifteen years 
old, then went into the store of Russell Brown, continued there until the dis- 
solution of Brown & Plunkett, in 1841, then came to Adams, entering the 
employ of Mr. Brown, as business manager of his mill and store. He con- 
tinued with Mr. Brown till the latter's death, in 1851, when, after settling the 
deceased's estate, he bought an interest in the mercantile business, with David 
Richmond, continuing with him three years, then bought his interest and 
continued the business until 1883, He then, on account of age and failing 
health, sold out to E. J. Noble. He was a member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives in 1848 and 1876 ; member of the Senate in 1879 ; town assessor for 
twenty-five years; selectman one or two years; director of the First National 
Bank seventeen or eighteen years; and vice-president and trustee of the 
South Adams Savings Bank from its commencement, in 1869, to the present 

Russell Brown, born in Cheshire, in 1782, worked at farming until about 
1803-04, then commenced mercantile business, at Cheshire, which he contin- 
ued successfully until 1845-46. He was a member of both branches of the 
legislature several times. About 1820-25 he bought an interest in the Adams 
South Village Cotton and Woolen Mfg. Co., at Adams, and by buying in 
the shares was principal owner in 1825-26. In 1831-32 he sold an interest in 
the mill to William C. Plunkett, who, in 1832-33, built the "Stone Mill," 
for the manufacture of print cloths, under the firm name of Brown & Plunkett, 
who continued together till 1841, when they dissolved, Mr. Brown taking the 
lower or Stone Mill, and Mr. Plunkett the upper or Brick Mill. Mr. Brown con- 
tinued manufacturing until his death, in 185 1, aged sixty-nine years, ending 
a long, successful and honorable business hfe. He died without issue. 

Gen. William C. Plunkett, who died at Adams, Saturday, January 19, 1884, 
ending a well spent and useful life of eighty-four years, was the last of three 
brothers— William C, Charles H., of Hinsdale, and Thomas F., of Pitts- 
field — who have left their mark in the business, social and political life of 
Berkshire. Mr. Plunkett was born in a log cabin at Lenox, but managed by 
economy to obtain a practical academic training, which fitted him for a school 
teacher, and enabled him to obtain a situation in Lanesboro, to which place 
his family had removed from Lenox. About the year 1830 he moved to 
Adams, and although his capital then consisted of only $270.00, it was the 
foundation for large manufacturing interests with which he was identified up 
to the time of his death. He made cotton and woolen goods, and the 
Plunkett Manufacturing Company and the Greylock Mills attest his enter- 
prise and industry. His two sons, William B. and Charles T., were associ- 


ated with him for a number of years, owning a controUing interest in four or 
five mills. Mr. Plunkett acquired his military title in old military days^ and 
although having held the high offices of heut.-governor, executive coun- 
cilor, senator and representative to the general court, there was no honor 
he more highly prized than that of moderator over the deUberations of his 
fellow citizens in town meetings. He was a progressive man in every respect, 
and good schools and school-houses were always advocated by him. Gen. 
Plunkett held many offices of trust in the State. He was lieutenant-gov- 
ernor with Gov. Emory Washburn, of Worcester, in 1854, a member of the 
senate in 1840, and several times represented his district in the lower branch 
of the legislature, the last time in 1872-73. He served in the executive coun- 
cil with both Governors Rice and Long, and was a member of the constitu- 
tional convention in 1853. He is particularly missed by the Congregational 
church and Sunday school, having been one of the most prominent members 
of the church since its formation in 1840, its most hberal supporter and a 
deacon almost constantly. He had also been superintendent of the Sunday 
school for forty-two consecutive years. 

Edmund Jenks, from Smithfield, R. I., located, in 1778, about a mile and 
a quarter east of Adams. He reared a large family of six sons and three 
daughters, the sons being named Charles, Samuel, William, Thomas, George 
and Edmund, Jr. They all upheld well the good reputation of the family as 
farmers, mechanics, manufacturers, doctors and in political life. They 
located in different parts of the county and have left many descendants. 

Zacheus Hathaway, born at Freetown, Mass., in 1751, married Eleanor Up- 
ton, of Berkley, and came to Adams in 1791, locating on road 12, where they 
reared a family of eight children. Edward, the fifth child, remained on the 
old homestead, married Abigail Power, of Hudson, N. Y., and reared four 
children. Of these, Rufus B. and Lydia P. are living, occupying the old 
home farm. 

During the Revolutionary period the inhabitants of Adams maintained 
prompt co-operation with the government. Numerous votes stand on record, 
authorizing assessments to defray the expenses of the part they were taking 
in the contest. They raised large sums at a time. At one meeting it was 
"voted to give nine month's men ten dollars a month in grain, — wheat at 6s., 
per bushel, rye at 4s., corn at 3s., and one hundred continental dollars before 
they marched." 

The Baptist church of Adams, located on Commercial street, was organ- 
ized by James Mason, Daniel Smith and others, in 1826, Rev. Mr. Sweet 
being the first pastor. Their church building, which is still in use, was 
erected in 1835 ; it is a frame structure capable of seating 300 persons, and, 
including grounds, etc., is valued at $2^500.00. The society now has 216 
members, with C. W. Anable, D. D., pastor. 

The First Congregational church of South Adams was organized by Rev- 
Stillman Pratt, with two members, January i, 1840, Mr. Pratt being also the 


first settled minister, installed in 1845. In 1S43 the society erected a house 
of worship which did service until 1868, when the present handsome wood 
structure was erected, which will comfortably seat 600 persons, and is valued, 
including grounds, at $30,000 00, its original cost being $25,000.00. The 
society has about 300 members, with Rev. Edward Hungerford, pastor. We 
quote from a copy of the New York Observer, of 1883, the following para- 
graph relative to this church, from the pen of S. E. Bridgeman : — 

" We were much interested in the reminiscences of the town of 
Adams as given by Gen. C. W. Plunkett, a county octogenarian. When 
he went to that town half a century ago, the Sabbath was openly pro- 
faned, stores were kept open, farmers plowed their fields, boys played 
ball in the streets, factories were ^ raised,' and even the pastor of the single 
church carried his grist to mill on Sunday ! When an earnest Baptist minis- 
ter came into the village and preached against the desecration of the Sab- 
bath, by the people digging ditches and grinding corn, the public sentiment 
was so strong as to compel him to leave. Dr. Alden, of Williamstown, and 
Prof. Hopkins, his associate^ seeing the ungodliness of their neighbors, sent 
out the cry : ' Who will go to Adams ? ' Rev. Stillman replied, ' I'll go,' 
and he went, often preaching to an audience of six. In 1840 the church was 
organized, with two members. In two months the original church had dimin- 
ished one half, but that half being a woman it could not die, and to-day it 
has a membership of nearly 300, and a Sabbath School of over 250. 

St. Paul's Universalist Parish was organized by E. F. Jenks and thirty-two 
others, March 28, 1844, Almond W. Mason being the first pastor. The soci- 
ety soon after built a small brick church, which did service until 1871, when 
the present commodious structure was erected, which will comfortably accom- 
modate 350 persons and is valued, including grounds, at $25,000.00. The 
present pastor of the society is Rev. W. S. Woodbridgc. 

St. Mark's church of Adams, Protestant Episcopal, was originally organ- 
ized in 1867, and re-organized in 1872, their church building being erected 
in 188 r. This is a neat stone structure, capable of seating, including chapel, 
400 persons, valued at $32,000.00, about it» original cost. The parish now 
has sixty-three members, with Rev. Herbert Smythe, rector. 

The Seven Dolors of the B. V. M., Roman Catholic church, was organ- 
ized by its first pastor. Rev. C. Crevier, with 400 members, in 187 1, and in 
1875 their church building was erected, which is valued at $6,000.00. The 
society now has 1,700 members, with Rev. J. B. Charbonneau, pastor. 

St. Charles Borromeo, Roman Catholic church, located on Park street, 
has 2,000 members, with Rev. Dennis C. Moran, assisted by Rev. James F. 
Maher, pastor. 

ALFORD lies in the southwestern part of the county, in lat. 42° 15' and 
long. 3° 36', bounded on the northeast by West Stockbridge, on the 
east by West Stockbridge and Great Barrington, south by Egremont 
and west by Hillsdale and Austerlitz, N. Y. The township is extremely 
irregular in outline, being about five miles in length and nearly three in width, 


and containing about ir,ooo acres of territory, which was made up of sev- 
eral tracts of land, as follows : A tract purchased of the Stockbridge Indians 
in 1756, known as the "Shawenon Purchase," bordering on Egremont, the 
northern boundary line of which town was finally established February 6, 
1790; the "Greenland Grant," supposed to have been granted to David 
Ingersoll, of Great Barrington, 652 rods long and 210 wide on the north 
line, 266 on the south; and an addition of 712 rods in length to the south- 
end of this latter tract, made February 18, 1819, and a small strip from New 
York, that fell into the town when the boundary line between New York and 
Massachusetts was estabUshed. The township was incorporated February 
16, 1773. 

The surface of the town is rough and mountainous, especially in the wes- 
tern part, where the scenery is unusually wild aud romantic. The princi- 
pal elevation is Tom Ball mountain, in the northeastern part, from whose 
summit a large extent of beautifully broken and variegated landscape is visi- 
ble. The streams are numerous, clear and sparkling. Seekonk river flows 
a southerly course through a beautiful and fertile valley in the central part of 
the town, furnishing several good mill privileges. Burnham brook, its prin- 
cipal tributary, enters it from the west. Green river, a very beautiful stream 
has its source among the highlands of the southwestern part of the town, 
whence it flows through a charming valley, and meandering through Egre- 
mont and Great Barrington, it unites with the Housatonic. This stream has 
the honor of having inspired the pen of William Cullen Bryant to breathe 
the fine descriptive poem, commencing, — 

" When breezes are soft, and skies are fair, 

I steal an hour from study and care. 

And hie me away to the woodland scene, 

Where wanders the stream with waters of green, 

As if the bright fringe of herbs on its brink 

Had given tlieir s^ain to the wave they drink : 

And they whose meadows it murmurs through 

Have named the stream from its own fair hue." 

And it is a fact that the stream was named from the color of its waters 
the green cast probably being attributable to the clay washed from its banks, 
and not to " the bright fringe of herbs on its brink." 

The soil, except the rocky and barren tracts of the mountains, is generally 
good, especially in the valleys of the several streams. In the northern part 
of the territory it is quite gravelly, while in other localities it is a loam with 
an intermixture of clay. The geological formation is Lauzon schist and 
Levis limestone. Galena iron pyrites and hematite are found, while in the 
northeastern part are valuable quarries of marble. Upon the farm of J. P. 
Ballard, on road 15, is a bed of hematite which was opened in 1865, when 
about 200 tons of ore were mined ; but the company, for some reason, failed, 
and the ore was left upon the ground. In 1872 the property came into Bal- 
lard's hands, who recently leased the mine to Brown & George, who have 


begun active operations again, with prospects of success in the enterprise. 
The marble is of the clouded variety, and of good quaUty. That which was 
used in the construction of the old city hall, at New York, was taken from 
the farm now owned by Mary J. Reed. H. S. Fitch, on road 4, is operating 
quarries that were opened in 1845. There were formerly other quarries in 
operation^ and in 1865 a company, known as the Berkshire Marble Co., 
erected mills for sawing the marble, near Mr. Fitch's quarry, but after a few 
years the company failed and the work was abandoned. 

In 1880 Alford had a population of 348. In 1883 the town employed 
three male and three female teachers in her public schools. There were 60 
pupils attending school, while the entire amount raised for school purposes 
during the year was $492.62. 

Alford (p. o.), the metropolis of the township, is a hamlet located in the 
southeastern part of the town, on the Seekonk river. 

C. F. Stoddard'' s grist and saiv -mill, located on r 17, is operated by water- 
power and cuts 30,000 feet of lumber per year and does custom grinding. 

It is not known precisely when the settlement of the town was begun, 
though it was not far from the year 1750. The early settlers mostly came 
from Connecticut, among whom were Dea. Eleazer Barrett, Ebenezer Barrett, 
Dea. Robert Johnson, John and Simeon Hulburt, and the Sperry, Wilcox, 
Kelsey, Hamlin and Baker families. Later there came families by the name 
of Brunson, Fenton, Munger and Warner. In 1773 the population had in- 
creased to about what the town now has, and in 1791 it had 577 inhabitants, 
229 more than it had in 1880. On February 16, 1773, the town was incor- 
porated, and named, it is supposed, in honor of John Alford, founder of the 
Alford professorship in Harvard University. The first town-meeting was held 
on the 4th of the following March, when the following officers were elected : 
David Ingersoll, moderator ; John Hurlbut, town clerk ; Deodat IngersoU, 
John Hurlbut, William Bronson, Daniel Kelsey and Eleazer Barrett, select- 
men ; William Bronson, treasurer ; Stephen Kelsey and Sylvanus Wilcox, 
constables and collectors ; John Morris, James McLellan and Daniel Griffin, 
church wardens ; Daniel Griffin, Jabez Olmstead, Daniel Ticknor and Robert 
Johnson, highway surveyors ; Reuben Kelsey, Daniel Griffin, William Bron- 
son and James Baker, fence viewers ; Ezra Creppen and Deodat Ingersoll, 
deer reeves ; Nathaniel Daly, Jabez Olmstead and Joshua Hurlbut, hog 
reeves ; and Noah Hopkins, sealer of leather and tythingman. It was also 
voted at this meeting " that William Bronson's house be the work-house." 

The first mill erected in the town was a grist-mill, and stood where Stephen 
Smith's cider-mill now is, on Seekonk river. The following is a copy of the 
builder's agreement to perform the work : — 

"This indenture witnesseth that Jonathan Hughs. Dan Burns, Joseph Jones 
and Ebenezer Barrett, all of Great Barrington, in the county of Berkshire and 
Province of Massachusetts Bay, yeomen, have jointly and severally agreed, 
and do by these presents jointly and severally agree, to and with one another 
on the following articles, and in manner and form following, viz : That the 


said Jonathan, Dan, Joseph and Ebenezer shall begin, build and finish one 
good and convenient saw-mill in said Great Barrington [now Alford], on See- 
konk river, in lot twenty-third, west division, by the 20th day of May next ;. 
and the said Jonathan, Dan, Joseph and Ebenezer do likewise agree as afore- 
said that at the place aforesaid they begin, build and finish a good and con- 
venient grist-mill by the 20th day of October next ; and in performing the 
several articles aforesaid, the said Jonathan, Dan, Joseph and Ebenezer are 
severally to do an equal part of the labor, to provide an equal proportion of 
iron and all other necessary materials to complete the same, according to the 
true intent and meaning of this agreement. Dated, 15th day of March, in the 
fourth year of the reign of George III. of Great Britain, etc., King, etc., 
Annoque Dom,, 1769." 

At the iron ore deposits in the western part of the town, there was erected 
at an early date a forge for smelting the ore. It was built by John Whitten, 
and stood upon the farm now owned by E. K. WiUiams, on road 17. For 
some reason the employees and neighbors became possessed with the idea 
that the community was invested with witches, and that one of them haunted 
Mr. Whitten, as revenge for his not loaning her a horse on a certain occasion, 
and that she would cause the dam that gave him his water-power to break as 
often as he should repair it. As the dam really did, for some reason, cause- 
him a great deal of trouble, the story gained general credence, and the busi- 
ness was given up and the forge abandoned. 

Near the forge was also erected a saw-mill, by a Mr. Spurr, one of the 
original proprietors of what was known as the "Spurr grant," which is sup- 
posed to have been the first saw-mill erected in the town. On this farm 
there now stands an old house which sheltered Commodore Perry and a por- 
tion of his men while on their way to Sacketts Harbor, it being then the prop- 
erty of a certain George Darby. 

Upon the farm now owned by B. E. Stoddard, on road 15, occurred the 
birth of the first male child born in the town, Abel, son of Stephen Kelsey. 

Located on road i, the property of G. W. Stickles, is the oldest house in 
the township. It was built by Abithy Fowler, in 1765. The building is a 
large two-storv structure, finished in a style not common to buildings of that 
day, the siding to the main or " upright" part being composed of boards 
thirty inches in width. Mr. Fowler came to Alford a poor man, but subse- 
quently amassed considerable wealth, and this building was in its day con- 
sidered a very imposing mansion. 

Capt. Elisha Tobey, from Sharon, Conn., was an early settler. He pur- 
chased of John Bronson the farm now owned by his grandson, Elisha L. Tobey, 
and also much additional land, amounting in all to 500 acres, which he 
divided among his sons. Jonathan, one of his seven children married, for 
his first wife, a Miss Hatch, who bore him two children ; for his second 
wife, Polly Dyer, and for his third wife, Anna Hill, who bore him three 
children, Harriet, William, and Elisha L. The latter is the only one now 
living. He occupies the old homestead, as mentioned above, the third in 
line to inherit its acres. 


Eleazer Barrett was born in England in 1704, and came to this country 
while still quite young, locating first in Salisbury, Conn., and subsequently, in 
1760, came to Alford, locating on road 12. Eleazer, Jr., born in 1733, came 
here with his father, and subsequently married Sarah Church, who bore him 
eight children. She died in 1779, and in 1780 he married Orpha Bush, who 
died in 1823, aged ninety years. His son Daniel, born in 1778, married 
Cornelia Hollenbeck, who bore him ten children, six of whom are now living, 
viz. : Mary H,, wife of James Baker, of Richmond ; Timothy P. and Emma 
D., in Michigan ; Howard L., in Kansas ; Eleazer, in La Porte, Ind. ; and 
Charlotte M., wife of Elisha L. Tobey, of this town. 

Cornelius, son of Samuel Williams, was an early settler of Alford. He was 
born in 1750, and in 1772 he came to this town, from Hartford, Conn., and 
made the first settlement on the farm now owned by his son Elijah K., build- 
ing, in 1784, the house that now stands thereon. He married, for his first 
wife, Anna Kelsey; for his second, Mrs. Thankful (Sackett) Nash, who bore 
him five sons ; and for his third wife he married Sarah, daughter of Elijah 
Kellogg, a direct descendant of Lieut. Ephraim Kellogg, who was one of the 
early settlers of Hadley, Mass. The fruit of this latter union was six chil- 
dren, two of whom, Elijah K., of this town, aged eighty-two years, and Cor- 
nelius, of Egremont, aged seventy-nine years, are living, Elijah K. married 
Orret, daughter of David Wheeler, of Egremont, who bore him three chil- 
dren, of whom only one, Samuel C, survives, and with whom Elijah resides. 

Josiah Curtis, from Sharon, Conn., came to Alford in 1806, and purchased 
of Pelex Dewey the farm now owned by his grandsons, Robert M. and 
George R. Curtis. Ashbel H., son of Josiah, who was twelve years of age 
when his parents came here, married Phoebe L., daughter of Robert Miller, 
of Franklin, Delaware county, N. Y., who bore him six children, three of 
whom, Robert M., George R. and Elisha, are Hving. 

Elisha Stoddard came to Alford, from Woodbury, Conn., in 1803, and pur- 
chased the farm now owned by Dr. Richard Beebe. This family trace their 
ancestry back to 1060, in a cousin knight of William the Conqueror, and who 
went to England in the year mentioned, from Normandy, with William. The 
first of the family in this country was Anthony, who immigrated to Boston in 
1639. Elisha married Mary Crane, November 22, 1791, and reared eight 
children, only two of whom, William and Augustus R., are living. William, 
born July 21, i8or, married Elizabeth Emigh and has reared five children. 
He has been representative in the State legislature two terms, 1842 and 

Abner Kellogg was an early settler, locating upon the farm now owned by 
Elihu Church. His son kept one of the first stores in town, where E. M. 
Gates now resides. It is said that the two men hung at Lenox in 1787, for 
burglary committed in Lanesboro during the excitement attending Shays 
rebellion, also broke into Mr. Kellogg's cellar, but appropriated nothing but 


Stephen Barnum came to this town from Danbury, Conn., in 1796. He 
purchased of Sylvanus Wilcox the farm now owned by his grandson, E. R. 
Barnum, where he reared a family of nine children. 

Jeremiah D. Hatch came to Alford from Kent, Conn., about 1800, and 
purchase the farm now owned by E. M. Gates. 

Isaac Tuttle, from Woodbury, Conn., came to Alford in 1796, locating up- 
on a part of the farm now owned by H. S. Jacobs. He married Olive Hann, 
who bore him five children, only two of whom, Michael H., of Alford, and 
Joanna M. Chittendon, of Lansing, N. Y., are Uving. 

James Baker, an early settler, located upon the farm now owned by W. C. 
Hinman, about 1761. Upon this farm is an old burial ground, the grave 
stones of which bear record of as early a date as 1774. 

Sanford Fitch, from Salisbury, Conn., came to Alford in 1797, purchased 
the farm now owned by Mrs. Mary J. Reed, and in 1799 moved his family here. 
His first wife, Abigail Landon, bore him three sons, only one of whom, Freder- 
ick, is living. For his second wife he married Abisher Lewis, of West Stock- 
bridge, who bore him three children, Horace S., Nancy J. Milligan, and Sarah 
A. Fitch, all of whom are living. 

William, Daniel and Benjamin Ticknor, from Sharon, Conn., came to 
Alford in 176.1. WiUiam and Daniel located upon the farm now owned by 
Thomas Cruikshank. Daniel reared two sons, Daniel, Jr., and Elijah, and 
two daughters. Daniel, Jr., married Anna Chadwick, of Lyme, Conn., who 
bore him eight children, only one of whom, Ezra C, is hving. Ezra C. has 
served three terms in the State legislature, and has been a justice of the 
peace over forty years. He resides at Alford Center with his only child, 
Henry, at the age of eighty- one years. 

Hubbard Hurlbut, one of the early settlers, had a pottery in operation for 
a time where John H. Tuttle's dwelling now stands. 

The first church in the town was probably not established until 1780. It 
was Congregational, audits pastor, who must have been settled about the time 
the church was organized, was Rev. Joseph Avery. The disturbances that 
occurred at the time of the Shay's Rebellion created trouble between the pas- 
tor and his people, and he was dismissed, it is supposed in 1787. His 
church languished for a time and then became extinct. Several other soci- 
eties have been organized, but the only church building here now is what is 
known as the Union meeting-house. Rev. Jay Dana, residing on road 4, is 
pastor of the Congregational society. 

BECKET lies in the eastern part of the county, in lat 42°i7' and long. 
3°52', bounded north by Washington, northeast by Hampshire county, 
east by Hampden county, south by Otis, and west by Tyringham, Lee 
and Washington, thus occupying about the district of territory that formed, 
under the name of "No. 4," one of the Une of four townships established by 


the general court in 1735. These townships reached from the Connecticut 
to the Housatonic valley, and were conveyed to the government by the 
Stockbridge Indians. During this year " No. 4 " was granted by the gen- 
eral court to Joseph Brigham and fifty-nine others, its charter Hmits origin- 
ally enclosing thirty-six square miles, or a district six miles square ; but 
owing to the waste land by ponds, it is said, these limits were somewhat 
enlarged, to eight miles by four miles and two hundred and ten rods. Various 
changes have since taken place, however, so that the outlines of the town are 
now very irregular, viz. : In 1783 that part of the town lying northeast of the 
west branch of Agawan or Westfield river was severed to go towards making 
up the territory of the present town of Middlefield, in Hampshire county; in 
1798 a tract lying between this town and Blandford, and that part of Otis 
which was then called Loudon, was annexed to Becket on the south ; and in 
1810 another tract was annexed, from that part of Otis which was formerly 
called Bethlehem, so that the town now has an area of about 26,000 acres. 

The surface of the town is hilly, broken and rocky, and diversified by 
numerous streams and ponds, or lakelets. While these features afford a pic- 
turesque landscape scene, they greatly retard cultivation of the soil and ren- 
der much of the land unimprovable. The soil is usually hard and cold, con- 
taining very little clay or sand, though when well- cultivated it yields moderate 
crops of rye and corn, wheat being out of the question. The excellent pas- 
turage lands the hills and vales afford, however, compensate in a great meas- 
ure for the lack of grain-bearing soil. The natural growth of timber is that 
common to the vicinity, excepting, perhaps, walnut, chestnut and white-oak. 
Of the elevations, Benton hill, in the northern part of the town, is a com- 
manding eminence ; Becket Station, in the northern part, has an elevation of 
2,194 feet above sea-level; while Wadsworth hill, in the central part, is the 
water-shed of the Westfield and Farmington rivers. The streams are 
numerous, but small and rapid, affording rather poor mill privileges. Among 
the several beautiful sheets of clear water are Center Lake, covering an area 
of 163 acres; Rudd pond, ninety-six acres; and Yokun pond, 118 acres. 
The climate is clear and bracing, and exceedingly cold in the winter, though 
quite healthful, withal, the longevity of the town's inhabitants being marked. 

Geologically, rocks of several formations appear, though gneiss and granite 
prevail almost universally, excepting, perhaps, a few beds of limestone in the 
eastern and northern parts. A fine granite quarry was opened here in 1879, 
by Brown & Cheney, which is now known as the Snow-Flake Granite Quarry of 
Becket, It is now the property of Francis S. Gross, of Lee, who takes from 
it a granite of fine texture, susceptible of a high pohsh, and which has already 
found its way into many states of the Union. 

In 1880 Becket had a population of 1,123. I'^ ^^83 the town employed, 
during the year, one male and ten female teachers, at an average salary of 
$29.00 per month for male and $20.00 for females. There were 117 school 
children in the town, while the entire amount raised for school purposes was 


North Becket (Becket p. c), a handsome post villiage and station on the 
Boston & Albany railroad, has two churches (Cong, and Baptist), four stores, 
one hotel, four basket shops, a blacksmith shop, grist-mill, and about fifty- 

Becket Center postoffice is located in the central part of the town. 

West Becket postoffice is located in the southwestern part of the town. 

A few individuals came into the town with the intention of commencing a 
settlement as early as 1740, locating in the southeastern part, on Walker 
brook, where they erected a saw-mill, etc.; but they were soon obliged to re- 
linquish their endeavors, through fear of hostile Indians, and it was not until 
fifteen years subsequent, in 1755, that the settlement was renewed. For a 
time Jonathan Walker and his wife were the only inhabitants, and during 
their first winter here, it is recorded, Mr. Walker cut his foot badly, so that 
he stood greatly in need of assistance. The nearest neighbors being in Bland- 
ford, a distance of several miles through an unbroken wilderness, Mrs. Walker 
was at a loss how to obtain the needed aid, as she did not deem it safe to 
leave the wounded man alone while she made the journey. As a forlorn hope, 
then, she resolved upon taking the bloody bandages from her husband's 
wounds, and tying them about the neck of their horse, start him off towards 
Blandford. This she did, with great success, for the animal arrived at Bland- 
ford with his message of blood, procuring the desired assistance. Through 
such and kindred perils and hardships did our forefathers pass, laying deep 
the foundations of our present comfort and prosperity. 

One of the earliest tragic accidents in the history of the town was the acci- 
dental shooting of Micah Higley. He and James Rudd were hunting deer ; 
during the progress of the hunt they became separated, and Mr. Rudd, sup- 
posing he saw a deer, hastily fired his weapon, killing his companion instantly. 
It is said that the accident so overwhelmed him with sorrow as to nearly lead 
to insanity. A parallel case is also noted by a grave stone now standing in 
the center of the town, bearing the following inscription : — 
In Memory 


Luke Viets, who 
was shot, supposed for a deer, 


October 21, 1757, 
in the i5th year of his age. 
When the trying times of the Revolutionary period came upon the people, 
Becket evinced her patriotic spirit and remained true to her country, choos- 
ing and instructing her delegates to the provincial congress, and voting her 
quota of men and supplies. Some of the citizens it seems, however, needed 
a certain disciplining before they could be induced to strike off the shackles 
of Royalty. In 1777 the selectmen of the town called a meeting, whence 
they reported the names of certain individuals whom they charged with being 



"dangerous to the public peace and safety." At a subsequent meeting, when 
seven men took the oath of allegiance, these persons presented a long and 
humble petition, acknowledgmg their error, asking forgiveness, and pledging 
themselves to do all in their power for the "American cause." During the late 
war, also, Becket showed her patriotism, sending out no men, nine of whom, 
it is recorded, lost their lives in the service. 

The early settlers were mostly from Cormecticut, and bore the names of 
Birchard, Goss, King, Kingsley, Messenger, Wadsworth, Wait and Walker. 
The first birth was that of Jabez Wadsworth, in December, 1755, who died 
here in April, 1826. On the 21st of June, 1765, ten years after the settlment was 
begun, the town was incorporated, and on the 15th of the following month it 
was duly organized, the first town-meeting being held on that day, when Na- 
thaniel Kingsley was chosen moderator and clerk ; Nathaniel Kingsley, 
James Birchard and Eldad Taylor, selectmen ; James Birchard, treasurer ; 
and Jonathan Walker, constable. Of these gentlemen, who formed the orig- 
inal executive in the municipal government, Mr. Birchard was the last sur- 
vivor. He died July 27, 1828, having lived a useful life of ninety years. 

James Harris, the subject of this sketch, was born in the State of Rhode 
Island, about 1760, and emigrated to this town immediately after the close 
of the Revolution. As was the condition of nearly all who participated in 
that extraordinary contest on the part of the colonists, he came out of it 
poor, and with a fortitude and perseverance rarely developed in men, accom- 
panied with sterhng judgment, succeeded in a few years in converting the 
forest into a fruitful field. Many years were allotted to him to enjoy the 
benefits derived in part from his services as a soldier, which embraced the 
whole period of the war, he having died about 1845. He was emphatically a 
man of daring, always ready and willing to embark in any enterprise con- 
nected with the interest and welfare of his country. Aside from his firmness 
and iron will, he exercised much of benevolence, although ill-timed and often 
misplaced. Truth with him was a word of potenc meaning, and to its mild 
teachings he yielded implicit obedience. The following incident related by 
himself^ and corroborated by history, fully illustrates the leading characteristic 
of the man. At an early period of the war the Continental forces suffered 
a severe loss in the capture by the British of Gen. Lee, and war councils 
were frequent to devise ways and means for his restoration to his compan- 
ions in arms. It was clear that the rule of exchange could not be applied 
to accomplish the object; for at this time no general ofllicer of the British 
army was in the possession of the Americans. Stratagem alone could ac- 
compUsh the object. This was hazardous, especially when the duty required 
was that of a spy, and although officers in command may sanction experi- 
ments of the kind, rarely recommend and never order such undertakings. 
Gen. Green, who commanded in Rhode Island, feeling deeply the loss sus- 
tained by the American cause in the absence of Lee, suggested to Col. Bar- 
ton, a brave and meritorious officer of his corps, the idea of making the 


British General Prescott a prisoner of war by stratagem, to which Barton 
readily acceded and tendered his services to head the expedition, on con- 
dition that he should be allowed the privilege of selecting the men to ac- 
company him from the line of the army. This was as readily granted, and 
in a short time the arrangements were complete, and Barton, with seven men 
only, were ready for the march. Night came with its gloom and darkness, 
through which this little valient band could clearly fancy the rays of hope 
portentiously lighted up. A boat is at hand, and with muffled oars, they 
leave their friends for the Island, and presently find themselves between two 
British frigates lying near at anchor, and comprising a part of the fleet under 
the command of Sir William Howe. Although the hailing words were dis- 
tinctly heard from ship to ship, yet in silence did the boat pass along unob- 
served to the point of its destination. They land, and expeditiously make 
their way to the quarters of Prescott. A solitary sentinel is discovered, and 
from a consciousness of the security of the place is entraped, then gagged, 
and conducted to the General's quarters by his stealthy enemy. The stone 
house is assaulted, and Barton with his brave followers enter and find missing 
the object of the search, and in the stead thereof the lady of the General 
and her maid in waiting. " Where is Gen. Prescott? " shouted Col. Barton, 
and with the greatest self-possession the lady responded, " Gone to the camp. 
Sir." Then boys, fire the house, was instantly thundered forth by the 
chivalric Barton, at which order Gen. Prescott came forth from his hiding 
place in an adjoining closet, and surrendered himself a prisoner of war. The 
party now hastened back to their boat, having thus far succeeded in the 
object of their mission, leaving Lady Prescott at her leisure to communicate 
the intelligence of the seizure of her husband to the British camp, which at 
the time was but one-half mile distant, and contained more than four thous- 
and men. Having reached the boat in safety, but one further obstacle ap- 
peared formadable, and that was to repass the frigates, which was done ere the 
alarm guns had broken the stillness of the night, and the captors and the 
captured had gamed a firm and safe footing on the main shore of Rhode 
Island. Harris being the last to leave the stone house after the lights were 
extinguished, sought for some trifling memento of that night's transaction, 
and sweeping his hand across a table secured what he supposed to be a pewter 
mug, but on examination the next morning, found it to be the silver pitcher 
of Gen. Prescott, which he retained in his possession till near the close of 
life, when he presented it to his son. Judge Harris, of Amherst^ Ohio. His 
granddaughter, Mrs. Nathaniel W. Harris, resides on Main street. 

Abel Cheeseman came to Becket from Connecticut about 1770, and settled 
near the center of the town. He was drafted as a three month's minute 
man, and was at the battle of Bunker Hifl. Having served his time he 
enlisted again, was in the battle of Stillwater, and was present at the surrender 
of Burgoyne. He died here in 1825. Two of his six children are now living. 
A grandson, Sidney H., resides in Becket. 


Oliver, Nathan, Asa and Amaziah Snow, four brothers, with their cousin, 
Sylvanus, came to Becket, from Ashford, Conn., about 1770. Nathan is now 
represented by a daughter, Mrs. Letitia Davis, and her daughter, Mrs. Orlando 
S. Higley. Asa is represented by his grandchildren, Mrs. S. C. Snow, Miss 
H. C. Snow .and William H. Snow. Sylvanus is represented by his great- 
grandchildren, Frederick and Clara, and his great-great-granddaughter, Miss 
Blanche Perkins. 

Timothy Snow came to Becket some time previous to 1770, locating on the 
place where his grandson, Frederick, now resides. Timothy married Joanna 
Kingsley and reared a large family. 

Joseph Higley came to Becket from Simsbury, Conn., about 1776. He 
had a family of four children, none of whom are living. A grandson, Orlando 
S., and a great-grandson, William E., now reside in Becket. 

Abner and David Ames, brothers, came to Becket from Voluntown, Conn., 
in 1777, each locating on road 14. Abner has a grandson, Joel, and a great- 
granddaughter, Mrs. Isabel D. Taylor, now living in Becket, on road 25. 

John Messenger came to Becket from Norwich, Conn., about 1780, locat- 
ing in the northern part of the town. He married five times, reared fifteen 
children, and his death, at the age of ninety, was caused by a fall from an 
apple tree, which he was trimming. He was an old Revolutionary soldier. 
A son, William E., resides on High street. 

Moses Barnes came from Brookfield about 1794, and bought a piece of land 
on the line between Becket and Middlefield, building on the Middlefield por- 
tion ; but being burned out in 1800, he built on the Becket part of the farm. 
He had ten children, of whom three sons, Silas, Wright and Almon, reside in 
town. A grandson, Sidney, is depot-master in Becket. 

Samuel Dearmg came from Belchertown, Mass., in 1800, locating in the 
southwest part of the town. He reared four children. The only descendants 
now in town are Mrs. J. A, Hunt and children, who reside on the old home- 

Ebenezer Huntington, from Lebanon, Conn., came to Becket about 1800. 
He was a clothier and located in the southeastern part of the town. He had 
a family of eleven children, of whom William S., the present town clerk, is 
the only resident of the place. 

Joseph Mecum was a resident of Becket from about the beginning of this 
century until his death, in October, 1883, at the age of eighty-six years. His 
son, Joseph L., resides on road 3. 

Gains Carter came from Wolcott, Conn., in 1803. He reared four chil- 
dren, only two of whom are now living, Stephen W. and Mary, on the home- 
stead. Stephen W. has been selectman for thirty-seven years, represented 
the town in the State legislature in 1848, and the same year was a delegate 
to choose presidential electors. 

Richard Church came to Becket, from Chester in 1815, locating in the 
northwestern part of the town. Of fourteen children only three are now liv- 
ing, of whom Richard, resides on road 5. 


J. W. Wheeler, a tanner^ came from Sterling, Worcester county, in 1847, 
and in company with ex-Governor Claflin, bought out Mr. Barnard's tan- 
nery, building, a few years later, two other large tanneries. In 1865 Mr. 
Wheeler sold his interest and bought about 20,000 acres of timber land in 
New York. He has one son, a clerk in Boston. 

Michael McNerney emigrated from Ireland to America in 1849, settling, 
soon after, on a small farm in the southern part of Becket. He has now 
about 300 acres of land. Mr. McNerney had a son John, killed in the battle 
of the Wilderness. He was a member of the 37th Regt., Mass. Vols. 

Elias Ballou, grandson of Elias Ballou, who came from Rhode Island to 
Peru in 1782, in company with Sanford White, ran a grist-mill in Becket for 
several years, but has retired from, active business, and his son, Monroe E., 
now owns the mill. 

James N. Cross is of Scotch descent, his grandfather having come to Amer- 
ica in Burgoyne's army, when but a lad of about eighteen, Amos G., great- 
grandson of David, is proprietor of the Claflin House. 

Joshua Shaw removed from Palmer about 1788, coming to Otis by the aid 
of marked trees, and built a log house in the northern part of that town. Only 
two of his eight children are now living — Joshua Shaw, Jr., who resides on 
the old homestead, and Mrs. Sarah Hokum, of Portland, Me. Joshua Shaw 
Jr., has a son, George H., a farmer in Great Barrington, and a daughter, Julia 
E., living at the homestead in Becket. 

First Congregational church of Becket, located at Becket Center, was organ- 
ized by Rev. Messrs. Smith and Martin, with five members, December 28, 

1758, and Rev. Ebenezer Martin was ordained as its first pastor, February 23, 

1759, remaining with the society until October 12, 1764. Their first house 
of worship was erected in 1762, and did service until 1800. when a new build- 
ing was erected, being dedicated on the 19th of November of that year. This 
building was superseded by the present structure in 1849, being dedicated 
June 19, 1850. Its original cost was about $3,000.00, though it is now val- 
ued at only about $1,000.00, and is capable of comfortably accomodating 250 
persons. The society now has thirty-four members, with no regular pastor. 

The Second Congregational church, located at North Becket, was organized 
by Edward C. Snow and others, to the number of fifty-five, who were dis- 
missed from the First church for this purpose, September 25, 1849. They 
immediately erected a church building, which was dedicated November 21, 
1850. It will seat 200 persons, and is valued at $3,000.00. The society now 
has sixty members, with no regular pastor. 

CHESHIRE lies in the northern-central part of the county, in lat. 42° 
33' and long. 3° 51', bounded north by Adams and New Ashford, east 
by Savoy, Windsor and Dalton, south by Windsor, Dalton and Lanes- 
boro and west by Lanesboro and New Ashford. It has an area of about 
18,000 acres, enclosed within an outline more irregular than that of any 


Other town in the county, its boundary line having twenty-five angles — obtuse 
right, and acute, all degrees. It is said that in laying out the town, the wes- 
tern line was drawn with reference to the religious views of the settlers, 
taking the farms of the Baptist famiHes into Cheshire, and leaving the 
Presbyterians in Lanesboro, thus giving that boundary much the appearance 
of a rail fence. The town was incorporated March 14, 1793, being made 
up from several minor tracts, as follows : What is now the northeastern 
part of the town was a tract called New Providence, about 1,400 rods 
in length from east to west, and 600 in width from north to south, which 
was originally a grant to Colonel Joab Stafford, Joseph Bennett, and Gov- 
ernor Cook, of Rhode Island, and was named in honor of Providence. With 
this grant was taken a tract of about 600 by 600 rods from Windsor, a tract 
1,400 rods in length and averaging 800 in width from Lanesboro, and a tract 
about 400 by 400 rods from New Ashford, forming them all into a new town- 
ship by the name of Cheshire. February 26, 1794, however, a small part of 
the territory taken from Windsor was re-annexed to that town, and February 
6, 1798, another small tract was taken from New Ashford. 

The surface of the town is sufficiently diversified by hill and mountain to 
form a pleasing landscape, yet it is not so broken but that it is, in general, 
good farming and grazing land. Hoosac river flows a northerly course through 
a rich and fertile valley in the central part of the town. On either side of 
this valley rise gentle hill slopes and mountain crests, affording many excel- 
lent dairy farms, for which the town has many years been justly celebrated. 
Rounds Rocks, one of these heights, was chosen as a station during the trig- 
onometrical survey of the State a few years since. Among the Hoosac's 
affluents, which come dancing down from the higher lands, are Dry brook 
South brook and West brook, affording some excellent mill-sites, and also 
bringing constant enrichments to the arable soil of the valley. Through this 
valley, also passes the Pittsfield & Adams railroad. 

The geological formation is made up oi limestone, quartz Sind. gneiss rocks. 
In the eastern part are found bods of serpentine, and iron ore in the central 
part. The iron manufacture will be spoken of later, and the celebrated quartz 
glass sand produced has already been mentioned, on page 30. 

In 1880 Cheshire had a population of 1,537. In 1883 the town employed 
two male and nine female teachers, to whom was paid an aggregate monthly 
salary of $47.28 to males and $23.75 to females. There were 229 school 
children in the town, while the entire amount raised during the year for school 
purposes was $2,800.00. 

Cheshire, a post village and station on the Pittsfield & Adams railroad, is 
a bright, enterprising town, lying in the central part of the township on the 
Hoosac river. It has four churches, five stores, one hotel, school-house, cheese 
factory, saw-mill and barrel-stock factory, grist-mill, iron furnace, works of the 
Berkshire Glass Sand Co., one of the Cheshire White Quartz Sand Co., a 


carpenter shop, wheelwright shop, two blacksmith shops, cider-mill and about 
i,ooo inhabitants. 

Cheshire Harbor, a hamlet and station on the Pittsfield & Adams rail- 
road, is located in the extreme northern part of the town, on Hoosac river. 

The Cheshire Water Co. was organized in 1876, for the purpose of sup- 
plying the village with water. This company, which is under the control of 
a president and board of directors, has a large reservoir, rendering an excel- 
lent water supply to the village. J. D. Northup is president, and J. G. 
Northup, treasurer. 

H. C. Bowen 6^ Soji s grist-mill, located at Cheshire, was originally built 
as a tannery, by Alanson P. Dean, in 1845, and was used for this purpose 
until 1874. It came into the possession of the present firm in 1881, who 
manufacture about 500 barrels of flour per annum. 

Leonard B. Wood's steam cider-tjiill, located at Cheshire, was built by Mr- 
Wood in 1876. He manufactures about 400 barrels of cider per annum. 

The Berkshire Glass Sand Co., whose works are located at Cheshire, was 
organized as a stock company in 1879. They have three mills for pulveriz- 
ing the sand, and ship about 10,000 tons of sand per annum. F. F Petit- 
cler is superintendent. 

The Cheshire White Quartz Sand Co., was organized in 1876, with a capi- 
tal stock of $6,000 00, J. B. Dean, president, and George Z. Dean, treas- 
urer. They have two mills, with capacity for manufacturing 3,000 tons of 
sand per year, wnich is used in the manufacture of glass. Their process is 
to crush the rock, without washing. 

The Richmond Iron Co. — This company was originally organized as early 
as 1829, though it was not incorporated until 1842. Originally the company 
engaged in smelting only at the Richmond furnace, to which was added at 
the time of incorporation, the VanDeusenville furnace, and in 1863 was 
added the Cheshire furnace. All of these have since been rebuilt, enlarged 
and improved, so that the company now produces about 12,000 tons of iron 
per annum, giving employment to 700 hands. William H. Barnum, of Lime 
Rock, Conn., is president; George Church, of Great Barrington, treasurer; 
and R. A. Burget, of this town, agent. 

The John Leland Cheese Factory, at Cheshire, was built in 1870, by the 
Cheshire Cheese Factory Association. It turns out about 110,000 pounds 
of cheese per annum, with J. D. Northup, superintendent. 

Henry Howes 6^ So7i's broom factory, located at Cheshire, turns out 200 
dozen brooms per year. 

Charles Belair's carriage shop, located at Cheshire, was built by Francis 
L. Jinks, about 1871, and was purchased by Mr. Belair in 1881, who manu- 
factures new work and does a general repair business. 

A. S. Farnam or' Bro.'s lime kilns, located on road 25, were established in 
1875. They give employment to twenty men, and manufacture 30,000 bar- 
rels of lime per year. 



Warren B. Dean's saw and stave-t/iiil. — This business w?s established by 
J. B. & Alanson P. Dean, in 1855, who conducted it about six years, when 
George Martin bought out A. P. Dean's interest. The mill was burned in 
187 I, and was rebuilt by Dean & Martin, in 1872. In 188) Mr. Martin 
retired, and in 1883 Mr. Dean sold out to his son, the present proprietor. 
He employs fifty men and manufactures about 1,000,000 feet of lumber per 

Enos Adams &= Go's quartz sand mill, located at the corner of roads 15 
and 19, was built in 1862. for manufacturing sand for sand-paper and for pol- 
ishing and cutting purposes. They employ four men and manufacture 300 
tons of sand per annum. 

The Grey lock Cheese Factory, located on road 13, was built by A. J. Buck- 
Hn, S. W. Lincoln, S. L. Lmcoln and W. F. Card, in 1863, the first cheese 
factory built in Berkshire couniy. In 1876 the factory was taken by a stock 
company, organized at that time, and is now under the management of Henry 
F. Wood. It turns out about 105,000 pounds of cheese per annum. 

The Gheshire Harbor Warp Mill, located at Cheshire Harbor, was orig- 
inally built by Elisha Jenks, being then used as a cotton and grist-mill com- 
bined. In 1 88 1 it was taken by the present proprietor, John S. Adams, who 
employs about forty-two hands. The mill has 5,000 spindles and turns out 
about 5,500 pounds of warp per week, under the supervision of George I. 

The settlement of the town was commenced in 1767, the earlist and prin- 
cipal settlers being Joseph Bennett, Col. Joab Stafford, and John Buckland, 
from Coventry, R. I. ; John Lippit, from Scituate, R. I. ; Maj. Samuel Lowe, 
Simon Smith, Amos Smith, Stephen Carpenter, Shubael Willmarth 
and John Willmarth, from Providence, R. I. ; Jonathan Richardson, 
from Newton ; Isaac Warren, from Framingham ; Charles Saben, from Kil- 
lingly. Conn. ; and John Wells, all of whom located here previous to 1770. 
The first town meeting was held in April, following the incorporation, when 
James Barker was chosen town clerk. Daniel Brown was the first represent- 
ative to the general court. The first church, Baptist, was organized in 1769, 
in the New Providence grant. 

J. G. Holland, in his History of Western Massachusetts, speaks of the 
political history of Cheshire as follows : — 

"In 1813, Cheshire was, from its firm adherence to Madison's administra- 
tion, made a rendezvous for British prisoners. In 1793, John Hancock had 
ninety-nine votes for governor, and all others but three. From that day to 
1843, a period of fifty years, the people were nearly unanimous in their sup- 
port of Democratic principles, in the popular understanding of that term. 
Jefferson was a great favorite with the people of Cheshire, and to show their 
regard to him, and their approval of his policy, they made for him a mam- 
moth cheese, which was sent to Washington, and there, January i, 1802, pre- 
sented to him, by Rev. John Leland. as a New Year's gift. The mode of its 
manufacture was the following : On a given day, the dairy women of the 
town sent their curds to one place ; but the quantity thus collected was too 


great to be pressed at once, even in a cider mill, so that three additional 
cheeses were made, weighing seventy pounds each. The big cheese weighed 
1,450 pounds." 

Capt. Daniel Brown, who at one time owned all the land which the village 
of Cheshire now occupies, came to Cheshire, from Warwick, R. I., about the 
year 1767, locating in the eastern part of the town, where he reared a family 
of eight children, none of whom survive. He died in 1840, in his ninety- 
fourth year. The hotel which now stands in Cheshire was finished by him 
in 1797. He was one of the leading men in pubhc affairs, and was at one 
time a member of the legislature. He served in the war of the Revolution, 
and was present at the battle of Bennington. His son Darius, who was 
born in this town, lived here until his death, which occurred in 1835. He 
reared one son, Daniel B., born in 1806, who has been engaged in the lumber 
business and in farming. He has run a saw-mill in Cheshire for sixty years, 
and now resides on road 4. 

John Waterman, was born in Coventry, R. I., May 18, 1755. The first 
and second years of the Revolution he was a sailor or privateersman, annoy- 
ing the commerce of Great Britain. He came to Cheshire in the latter part 
of 1776, or beginning of 1777. His home for two years was in the family 
of Capt. Daniel Brown, being there while the Captain was absent in com- 
mand of his company, at the battle of Bennington, August 16, 1777. He 
was enrolled as a " minute man," but we cannot say that he did service in 
the war after leaving Rhode Island. He married Anna Hall, a native of 
Stafford, Conn., about 1780, and his eight children were born in Cheshire. 
In 1803 he removed to his farm adjoining the village of North Adams. The 
late Col. Wm. Waterman, of Williamstown, was the oldest of his five sons. 
He was born April 6, 1784, at Stafi^ord Hill in Cheshire, in a house still 
standing on the southern slope of said hill. John Waterman, the subject of 
this sketch, had very limited education in youth, but became one of the best 
informed men of his time. He was fortunate in securing the friendship and 
society of Dr. WiUiam Towner, who practiced medicine in Cheshire before 
removal to Williamstown. Elder John Leland was another associate and life- 
long friend. He was a delegate from Adams to the State convention of 
1820, for amending the constitution of Massachusetts, and also had been a 
member of the legislature previous to that date He was social, kind to the 
poor and unfortunate. He removed to Williamstown in 1S29, and died May 
28, 1830, at the age of seventy-five years and ten days. 

Jonathan Richardson, born December 30, 1753, removed to Cheshire from 
Newton, Mass, in 1767, locating in the eastern part of the town, though 
afterwards removing to road 20, where he resided until his death, in 1840, at 
the age of eighty-six. In 1779 he married Esther Eaton, and reared a family. 
He was largely engaged in settling estates, and held many offices of trust. 
His son Ira was born in Cheshire, December 18, 1794, and at the age of 
sixteen entered a store in Adams, with his brother Joel, where he remained 



until 1826, when he returned to Cheshire, located on the homestead, on road 
20, and resided there until his death, August 21, i860, at the age of sixty- 
five. He married Anna Jenks, by whom he had four children, three of whom, 
Henry W., of Pittsfield, Esther, residing in this town, and Mrs Harriet A. 
Wilkinson, of Binghampton, N. Y., survive. 

John Wells came to Cheshire, from Rhode Island, about 1769, and located 
on road 18, though removing about 1785 to the farm where his grandson, 
John B. Wells, now resides. He reared a family of four children, none sur- 
viving, and died about the year 181 2. His son John, who was quite young 
when he came to this town, reared a family of four children, and occupied 
the homestead until his death, in 1853. John B., son of John Jr., and the 
only survivor of the family, resides on the homestead. He has reared a fam- 
ily of six children, one of whom, Oscar D., occupies the place with his father, 
his children being the sixth generation to live upon the old homestead. The 
house is one of the first three framed houses built in Cheshire, of which only 
two are standing. 

Voluntine Barven moved to Cheshire, from Swanzey, Massachusetts, in 
1776, and located in the eastern part of the town, on the farm now owned 
by Hulbert Jacques. He reared a large family, one or two of whom served in 
the Revolution. He resided on the farm until his death. His son Nathan 
reared a family and resided on the homestead until his death, in 1840. David, 
son of Nathan, occupied the old homestead for many years, but finally re- 
moved to the southern part of the town, where the Farnum brothers now re- 
side. A daughter, Mrs. Calvin J. Reynolds, resides in Cheshire. 

Asahel Potter, a blacksmith, came to Cheshire, from Rhode Island, about 
1770, and located in the eastern part of the town. He reared five children, 
none surviving, and died in 1848. His oldest son, Aden, went to New York 
when a y(?ung man and died in Fishkill, in 1832. Aden's daughter, Mrs. 
George W. Fisher, resides in this town. 

Stephen Northup removed to Cheshire, from Danbury, Conn., sometime 
previous to the Revolution, locating in the western part of the town, reared a 
large family, and died in 1836, at the age of ninety-one. He served in the 
war of the Revolution, and was at the battle of Bennington. Stephen, Jr., 
who was born in Cheshire, in 1781, and resided here until his death, in 1861, 
reared a family of seven children, only one of whom, Jared D., residing on 
Depot street, survives. Stephen, Jr., held several town offices, and served 
one term in the legislature. His son, Jared D. , has three children, Stephen 
L., of Lanesboro, Leroy J., residing in this town, and Mrs. A. M. Howe, of 
the Sandwich Islands. Jared is one of the directors of the Water Company. 

Edmund Jenks, from Smithfield, R. I., settled in Adams in 1778, locating 
in the southern pari of the town, upon the farm now owned by Charles Jenks. 
He and his three sons, Charles, Samuel and Thomas carried on a grist-mill 
for many years where the paper-mill of L. L. Brown & Co. now stands. Ed- 
mund subsequently removed to this town, and died here in 1818. His son 


Charles succeeded to the home farm here, where his son Charles now lives, 
and died in 1844. Three of his thirteen children are now living, viz.: Charles, 
Mrs. Anna Richardson, and Dennison R. Henry, son of Charles and brother 
of the present Charles, was a surveyor and died here in 1874. Two of his 
daughters and one son, Scott, now reside here. 

Nathan Mason came to Cheshire, from Rehoboth, Mass.^ sometime previ- 
ous to the Revolution, locating about two and a half miles northwest of the 
village. Sometime previous to his death he went to Adams, to reside with 
his son, where he died, at the age of eighty-six. He was a Revolutionary 
soldier and was at the battle of Bennington. His son, Nathan, who was a 
child when he came here with his father, spent most of his life in Adams, dy- 
ing there in 1850. He reared a family of seven children, four of whom, 
Ethan A., of California, Ira N., a physician in Cheshire, Maria D.,aIso of 
this town, and one, a minister, living in Maiden, Mass., survive. 

Nathan Wood removed to Cheshire from Rehoboth, Mass., some time pre- 
vious to the Revolutionary war, and reared a family, two sons of whom, 
Nathan and Daniel, served in the Revolution and were at the battle of Ben- 
nington. Daniel located on the farm where Mrs. Daniel Wood now resides, 
and reared a family, one of whom, Mrs. Laura Northrop, is hving. He died 
in 1820. Elisha, son of Daniel, was born on the homestead, where he resided 
until his death, in 1850. Daniel, son of Elisha, was also born on the home- 
stead, where he resided until his death, in 1881. Several of his children 
reside in town, whose children are the sixth generation to make their home 
here. Nathan, brother of Daniel Wood, located on the farm adjoining Daniel, 
and reared a family of sixteen children, fourteen living to maturity, but only 
one of whom, Mrs. Orisa A. Ingalls, survives. Nathan died about 1842. 
Mason, son of Nathan^ was born in town, where he resided until his death, in 
1858. Two of his grandchildren, Mrs. Nancy L. Leonard and Henry F. 
Wood, survive. 

John Bennett, from Warwick, R. L, immigrated to Cheshire about the time 
of the breaking out of the Revolution, locating on road 18, upon the farm 
now owned by Amy E. Brown. He reared a family of nine children, none of 
whom survive, and died about 1856, at the age of ninety-four years and five 
months. His son Andrew, born here in 1795, died in i860. He reared a 
family of six children, three of whom, Luther M., Mrs. Amy E. Brown, and 
William P., who resides on road 26, survive, all residing in Cheshire. Andrew 
represented his district in the State legislature and held other offices of trust. 

Rev. Nathan Mason, a Baptist clergyman, from Rehoboth, who came here 
at an early day, lived here many years and died in Montreal, while on a visit 
there. His son Hezekiah came to Cheshire about the year 1776, where he 
Uved till within about three years of his death, which occurred in Stephen- 
town, N. Y., in 1825, at the age of seventy-two years. He reared a family 
of eleven childien, all of whom survived him. But three of the family 
remained in this vicinity, nearly all of them removing to New York, Pennsyl- 


vania and the West. One daughter, Sally, married Samuel Martin, and died 
in this town. Her son, Orrin, now resides here. 

Israel Cole came to Cheshire, from Swanzey, Mass., about the time of the 
battle of Bennington, locating about two miles west of the village, reared 
eight children, and died in Adams, about 183 1, at the age of ninety-five 
His oldest son, James, always resided in Cheshire, where he died at the age 
of eighty-eight. Another son, Jonathan, who came here with his father at 
the age of eight years, went to Saratoga county, N. Y., when a young man, 
removing from there to Herkimer county, where he died in 1848. He 
reared a family of eight children. His son Lansing is now a resident of the 
town. Silas Cole, grandson of Jonathan, was born in Cheshire, lived for 
many years on the farm now owned by L. A. Cole, and died in 1878. A 
son, M. L. Cole, now resides on road 13 corner 12. 

Stephen Whipple, who came to Cheshire from Providence, R. I., in 1776, 
located in the southern part of the town, on the farm now occupied by 
Martin Ingalls, residing here until his death. He had born to him twelve 
children, all of whom hved to maturity, and nearly all of whom attained an 
advanced age. Stephen was at the battle of Bennington. One son, Samuel, 
who was ten years of age when he came to this town, resided here until his 
death, in 1853, at the age of eighty-six. He reared a family of ten chil- 
dren, four of whom, D. C, wife of Aaron Richardson, of Attica, N. Y., 
Harvey, of Canastota, N. Y., James M., of Windsor, and Samuel P., of 
Cheshire, survive. 

Jesse Jenks, one of the early settlers of Cheshire, came from Smithfield, R.I., 
locating in the eastern part of the town, where he cleared a farm. He 
reared a large family, and died about 1827. His son Jesse, who came here 
with his father, reared a family of nine children, of whom one, Jesse A., sur- 
vives, and resided in Cheshire until his death, in 1853. Havrille was born in 
this town and spent his life here and in Adams. He died in 1853. Of his 
family of eight children, one daughter and seven sons, all of the sons survive. 
One, Towner, served in the late war and was wounded at the battle of Gettys- 
burgh. Another son, Marquis D., resides on road 8. Elisha Jenks, born in 
Cheshire in 1801, was a print cloth manufacturer at Cheshire Harbor for over 
forty years, acquiring a large fortune; and was also largely engaged in farm- 
ing. He was twice married, but reared no family, dying in 187 1. His 
widow, Sarah A., survives him, a resident of this town. 

Samuel Lowe, who resided on the farm now owned by M. V. B. Jenks, was 
one of the early settlers. Mr. Lowe was a slave-holder, owning four slaves at 
the breaking out of the Revolution. He freed two, WiUiam and Mary Dia- 
mond, keeping the other two, Alhoy and Mary, their children, whom he car- 
ried to New York. " Aunt Mary" remained in Cheshire, attaining the great 
age of 105 years. 

Daniel Wood came to Cheshire from Rhode Island, about 1780, and set- 
tled in the northern part of the town, living there till his death, in 1820. He 


had a large family, only one daughter, Mrs. Laura Northup, of Cheshire,, 
aged ninety-four, now living. His son, EUsha, was born in Cheshire, had 
eight children, five still living, and three in this county. Elisha was select- 
man. His son, Luther D., hves in Lanesboro on road 8, and has carried on 
the cheese factory ten years. 

Silas Partridge came to Cheshire at an early date. His father, Josiah Part- 
ridge, was in the battle of Bennington. Silas left Cheshire for Adams and 
afterwards went to Savoy and Connecticut, where he died. His son, Joseph 
S., was born in Cheshire, but followed his father and died in Connecticut. 
His son Truman, born in Savoy, went to Lanesboro, where he now lives on 
road 2 2. 

Samuel Wolcott, a native of Goshen, Conn., immigrated to Cheshire about 
1778, and located in the southern part of the town. He was with Ethan 
Allen at the capture of Ticonderoga. He died of small-pox. His son 
Moses, who came to Cheshire with his father, reared a family of six children, 
none of whom survive. Moses was a soldier in the Revolution, and was in a 
number of severe battles. He died in 1837. His son Russell B., born here 
in 1793, died in 1855. He was a farmer, and at one time owned over 1,400 
acres of land. Only one of his four children, John C, a lawyer, of this town, 

Samuel Ingalls came to Cheshire, from Rehoboth, Mass., in 1786, and 
located on the farm where David D. Ingalls now resides, where he died in 1795. 
He was a man of gigantic stature and great physical strength. He is said 
to have carried seven and a half bushels of corn at a time, up a flight of stairs. 
Samuel, his son, came to this town with his father, but went to Cooperstown, 
N. Y., about 1796, and died in 1827. Stephen, son of Stephen Jr., came from 
Cooperstown to Cheshire, located on the farm where his son, David D., now 
resides, and reared fifteen children, twelve of whom lived to maturity, and 
nine are now Uving, their average age being seventy years, and eigth of whom 
reside in Berkshire county. One son, Samuel, was engaged in a manufactur- 
ing business in Adams, and a son of Samuel is now cashier of the Berkshire 
National Bank of North Adams. 

Jonathan Farnum immigrated to Cheshire from Uxbridge, Mass., about 
1796, and located on Stafford Hill, where he lived until his death, in 1834, 
rearing a family of nine children. His son, Warren, was born in 1792, and 
made his home here until his death, in 1876. His wife, Hannah, now resides 
in Cheshire. 

Pardon Lincoln, from Smithfield, R. L, came to Cheshire about 1795, 
locating upon a farm in the eastern part of the town. He reared a family of 
five children, four of whom, Seneca L., Mrs. Alden Jenks, Shubael W., and 
Mrs. Lucinda Mirick, of Savoy, survive. He was deacon of the Baptist 
church and its last clerk ; he was also captain of the militia. He died in 
1870, at the age of seventy-five years. 

Edward Martin immigrated to Cheshire, from Barrington, R. I., in 1791,.. 


■moving his family and goods upon a sled, drawn by two yoke of oxen. He 
located upon a farm he had purchased the year previous, and which is now 
owned by his grandson, Orrin. Edward was thrice married and reared a fam- 
ily of eight children, none of whom survive. Later, he removed to the farm 
now owned by L. A. Cole, where he died in 1830. Samuel, son of Edward 
Martin, who was six years of age when he came here with his father, remained 
upon the old homestead, reared a fam.ily of five children, only one, Orrin, now 
living, and died in 1854, at the age of sixty-nine. 

Zebedee Dean, who came to Cheshire in 1798, from Taunton, Mass., was 
a blacksmith by trade and a farmer. He had born to him three sons, Albert 
G., Dallas J., and J. B. Zebedee died in Chesire, in 1868. His son, Albert 
G., died at the age of forty. Dallas J. was for many years a merchant in 
Adams. J. B., who has always resided in town, commenced the mercantile 
business in 1840, in which he continued until 1883, his son, George Z., being 
his partner for the last twenty years and is now his successor. He has also 
been engaged in the lumber business and establised the business now carried 
on by his son, Warren B. 

Daniel W. Baxter, a shoemaker, came to Cheshire from Canada, about 
1809, locating about half a mile west of Cheshire village. He reared a 
large family of children, three of whom survive, one son, William, residing on 
road 26. He died here in 1859. 

Ichabod Loomis, from Windsor, Conn., came to Cheshire in 18 10. He 
was a clothier by trade, _ in which business he was engaged in Cheshire for 
many years. He reared a family of three children, only one of whom, 
Luther B., is now living. He died in this town, in 1849. Luther B. was 
born in Cheshire in 1812, and resides on Main street. He succeeded his 
father in the clothmg business. 

Daniel Chapman was one of the early settlers in Great Barrington, com- 
ing there some time previous to the Revolution. He was taken prisoner at 
New London and kept in captivity for several years, returning, after his re- 
lease, to Great Barrington, where he remained a few years, removed from 
thence to Windsor, where he remamed several years, coming, about 1819, to 
Cheshire, where he died about the year 1830. Daniel, Jr., born in Groton, 
Conn., m 1769, removing with his father, located in Cheshire, and reared a 
family of eight children, only one, Mason Chapman, of this town is now 
living. Daniel, Jr., died in 1857, at the age of eighty-eight. 

James Brown, son of Caleb and Amy Brown, who came to Cheshire, from 
Rhode Island, lived here many years, reared a family, and died in 1854 or 
55. His son, Russell C. Brown, born in this town in 1813, engaged in the 
mercantile business for many years, being also identified with the sand 
business. He was the postmaster for many years. A son, Fred C, now 
resides in town. Russell, another son of Caleb, was a prominent manufac- 
turer at Adams, where he took an active part in public affairs. 

George W. Fisher came to Cheshire, from Frankhn, Mass., in 1835, and 


resided for some time with his sister, in the eastern part of the town, but 
settHng in 1854, upon the farm where he now resides. He has been a select- 
man since 1858, with the exception of two years. During the war he was 
provost marshall for the town, also recruiting officer, and in 1875 was census 

Felix F. Petitcler, born in Dampiere, France, in 1839, emigrated to 
America with his mother when but six years of age. In 1850 he came to 
Cheshire and entered the employ of L. H. Stevens, for whom he worked 
until the autumn of 1853, when he entered the employ of the Lanesboro 
Iron Company. He is said to have gone to New York in search of work- 
men for the iron company when but a lad of ten years. He has been en- 
gaged in the lumber business and in fanning, besides other pursuits, and is 
now superintendent of the Berkshire Glass Sand Co.'s works. He married 
a daughter of Dr. Cole. 

Phineas Lamphire removed from Tolland, Conn., to Lanesboro, at an 
early day, coming some time before the Revolution. He reared a family of 
five children. One son, Amos, born in Lanesboro, in 1777, resided there 
until his death, in 1857. Amos reared a family of eight children, only one 
of whom, Chester K., now survive. Chester was born in Lanesboro in 1807, 
where he resided until about thirty years of age, after which he removed to 
Lee, remaining there until 1880, when he located in Cheshire, where he now 

Joseph Hathaway came to Savoy, from New Bedford, Mass., about the 
time of the Revolution, living there until his death. He had a numerous 
family, one son of whom, Jesse, was born in Savoy, but removed to Adams, 
where he resided many years, dying in Savoy. He reared a family of twelve 
children, six of whom survive, one son, John W., residing on road 16, in 

Rev. Edmund Foster was pastor of the Unitarian church in Littleton, 
Middlesex county, Mass., in the year 1770. He led his parishioners in the 
conflicts at Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill, and became known as the 
" fighting parson." He was the father of thirteen children, the oldest of whom 
was Edmund, who enhsted in the United States army and was appointed an 
ensign by Thomas Jefferson, president of the United States, in the ninth regi- 
ment of riflemen, to rank as such from the T2th day of December, i8c8. 
His commission was countersigned by John Smith, acting secretary of war. 
On the 6th of July, 18 12, he was appointed first heutenant in the ninth regi- 
ment of infantry, under Col. Winfield Scott, afterward made lieutenant-gen- 
eral of the United States army. This commisson was granted by James 
Madison, president of the United States, William Eustiss, secretary of war. 
He was appointed a captain in the same regiment on the 13th of March, 1813, 
by James Madison, president, WilUam H. Crawford, secretary of war. He 
was in the battles of Brownville, Fort Erie, Lundy Lane and others during 
the war. Had the command for a time of the cantonment at Pittsfield, and 


at the end of the war was honorably discharged. His next younger brother, 
WiUiam, was first heutenant in the same company and his brother Charles, 
second heutenant in the same company. They served through the war and 
were honorably discharged at the same time. His commissions on parch- 
ment, signed by Jefferson and Madison, are now in the possession of E. D. 
Foster, his oldest son, who resides in Cheshire. His youngest son, the late 
Daniel B. Foster, was first lieutenant in company C, 49th regiment Massa- 
chusetts Volunteers, and served in the war of the rebeUion. 

Rev. John Leland, for many years pastor of the Baptist church, was a 
man of mark in his time. He took an active interest in all the public affairs 
of the town. He was a member of the legislature in 181 1, and labored power- 
fully against the provisions of the 3d article of the Bill of Rights, contending 
that legislatures had no power to bind the consciences of men. He was a 
ready orator, as well as writer, and composed his own epitaph, as follows : — 
Here Lies the body 


John Leland, 
WHO labored 68 years to promote piety, 


77^1? Baptist church of Cheshire was organized by Rufus Mason and 
others. May 30, 1769, having about seventy members. The first pastor. Rev. 
Peter Werden, held the office from 1770 until his death, February 21, 1808. 
Their first church building was erected in 1794, and did service until 1849, 
when the present building was erected. It will seat 300 persons and is valued, 
including grounds, at $8,000.00, its original cost being $5,000.00. 

T)ie Methodist Episcopal church of Cheshire was organized by Rev. John 
Cadwell, with twelve members, in February, 1844, Rev. John F. Crowl being 
installed as the first pastor. Their church building, which will comfortably 
accommodate 200 persons, was erected in 1848-49. It is valued, including 
grounds, at $3,000.00. The society now has fifty-five members, with Rev. 
Hobbs, pastor. 

CLARKSBURG lies in the extreme northern part of the county, in lat. 
\2^ 48' and long. 3° 53', bounded north by Benningtoncounty, Vermont, 
east by Florida, south by North Adams and west by Williamstown. It 
was formed from on unincorporated gore of land lying north of North Adams, 
which formed parts of Bernardston's grant and Bullock's grant. Rev. John 
W. Yeomans, in the History of Berkshire, speaks of the formation of the 
town as follows : — 

"When Colonel WilHam Bullock measured out the grant which bears his 
name, he was compelled, in order to complete his complement of 23,040 


acres, to extend it around Bernardston's grant. He intended to reach 
to the line of Vermont ; but not knowing precisely where it was, and 
careful not to loose any part of his grant by going unto that State, he 
stopped a mile short of the line, and proceeded westward four or five miles 
along the north line of Bernardston's grant and Adams [now North Adams]. 
The part of Bullock's grant which lies north of this grant and town, and west 
of Monroe [the portion 'west of Monroe' now forms a part of Florida] to- 
gether with the gore which separates it from Williamstown and Vermont, 
now constitutes Clarksburg." 

The town was incorporated March 2, 1798, receiving its name in honor of 
the numerous family of Clarks then residing in the town, though it was the 
intention of the petitioners for the act of incorporation to have it named 
Hudson, after a man of that name who, it is said, felled the first tree in the 
town, and in honor of whom Hudson's brook derives its name. The name 
Hudson was inserted in the petition, and, it is said, the petitioners never 
knew by what authority or by whom it was altered m the petition. The act 
of incorporation describes the boundaries of the town as follows : — 

"Beginning at the northeast corner of Williamstown, and thence running 
east on the line between this commonwealth and the State of Vermont, seven 
miles ; thence south to the hne of Bernardston's grant about two and one- 
half miles ; thence west on said line to the east line of Adams ; thence north 
on said line to the northeast corner of Adams ; thence on the north line of 
Adams to the east line of Williamstown ; thence north on said line to the first 
mentioned boundary." 

According to these bounds the town area was 10,400 acres, which amount 
was somewhat diminished May 2d, 1848, when it was shorn of a portion of 
the eastern part of its territory, which was annexed to Florida. 

The surface of the territory is uneven and mountainous, Hoosac mountain 
lying on its eastern border and Bald mountain on its western. The latter 
elevation, sometimes also called Clarksburg mountain, attains an altitude of 
2,272 feet, affording an excellent view of Greylock and other mountains, 
and of the surrounding country. It was also an important station in the 
trigonometrical survey of the State. The principal streams are the west 
branch of Hoosac river, Hudson's brook, Beaver creek, and Hunterfield and 
Wheeler brooks, all of which, except Beaver creek, flow a southerly course- 
Several good mill-sites are afforded by the streams. The soil is generally 
hard and stony, as a large amount of the territory lies upon the mountains 
we have mentioned, though it sustains some valuable oak, chestnut, spruce 
and hemlock timber. Between the mountains the soil is more arable, afford- 
ing some excellent grazing land, and also a fair amount that produces wheat, 
rye, oats and potatoes to advantage. 

The rocks that enter into its geological structure are gratiite^ mica-slate, 
quartz and hviestone. Iron ore is said to exist in the southeastern part of 
the town. 

In 1880 Clarksburg had a population of 724. In 1883 the town employed 
one male and six female teachers in its public schools, to whom was paid an 



average salary of $28.00 to the male and $25.67 per month to the females. 
There were 148 school children in the town, while the entire amount raised 
for school purposes was $742.59. 

Briggsville, a post village located in the southern part of the town, has 
one store, a woolen-mill and about twelve dwellings. 

Briggs Bro.'s wooleji mill, located at Briggsville, was built in 1866. It 
has thirty broad and six quarter looms, and manufactures about 350,000 
yards of fancy cassimeres per year, giving employment to 135 hands. 

Joel C. Hoskins's steatn saiv-tJiill, located on Hudson's brook, on road i, 
is supplied with circular and band saws and shingle machine. Mr. Hoskins 
manufacturers about 500,000 feet of lumber and 500,000 shingles per annum, 
and also deals largely in railroad ties and telegraph poles. 

The Berkshire File Works, located on road 8, owned by H. F. Hurd, were 
originally established at North Adams, in 1872, by R. R. Andrews. Mr. 
Hurd employs five men in the manufacture of files, superintending the busi- 
ness himself. 

C. W. Gallufs saw and grist-mill, located on road 6, grinds about 6,000 
bushels of grain and cuts 250,000 feet of lumber per annum. 

R. G. Hall's turfiing works, located on road 12, were established by him 
in 1 86 1, where he has since been engaged in the manufacture of wagon 
spokes and wagon stock. 

The settlement of the town was commenced in 1769, by Capt. Matthew 
Ketchum, his son Matthew, and his cousins Epenetus, Daniel and Samuel, 
all from Long Island. Four brothers came to this locality, from Rhode 
Island, previous to 1773, and the town derived its name from them. Eventu- 
ally one left and went to Rochester N. Y., two returned to Rhode Island, 
and one, Nicholas, remained in Clarksburg till his death in 1803. He raised 
a large family of children, one of whom, Samuel, was born here in 1773, and 
lived here till a few months before his death, which occurred at North 
Adams in 1830. He had eight children, who all lived to maturity, and two 
still remain; a son, Reuben, lives in Lanesboro, on road 7, and a daughter, 
Mrs. Emily Cook, in Halifax, Vt. Laban, son of Joseph, and grandson of 
Nichola'^, is a resident of this town. 

Daniel Aldrich was also an early settler, and died here at the age of eighty- 
three years, having during his life here built a saw and grist-mill on road 4, and 
also established a glass factory. Asahel Aldrich, residing on road 4, is a son 
of Daniel. 

George F. Kilburn came from Stamford, Vt., in 1866, locating where he 
now resides, on road i. He has held the office of collector one year and of 
selectman two years. 


D ALTON lies just north of the central part the county, in lat. 42" 28' 
and long. 3° 52', bounded north by Cheshire, east by Windsor and 
Hinsdale, south by Hinsdale and Washington, and west by Cheshire, 
Lanesboro and Pittsfield. It was originally known as "Ashuelot Equi- 
valent," for the reason that it was granted to Oliver Partridge and others, of 
Hatfield as an equivalent for a township granted them on the Ashuelot 
river, which now forms a part of the township of Winchester, N. H., and 
which was subsequently found to belong to New Hampshire. In 1784, March 
20th, the township was incorporated, under the name it now bears, given in 
honor of Hon. Tristram Dalton, then speaker of the House of Representatives. 
In 1795 about 5,000 acres from Windsor were added to the territory of the 
town, while in 1804 the area was diminished by a tract 2,500 acres in extent 
which was annexed to Hinsdale. This left Dalton's territory nine miles in 
length from northeast to southwest^ with an average width of less than two and 
one half miles, covering an area of about 13,000. 

The surface of the town is in general rough and broken, especially so in 
the northern and southern parts. Through its central part, from northeast to 
southwest extends a beautiful valley, through which flows a branch of the 
Housatonic. This stream, while lending a charm to its surrounding scenic 
beauties, also affords many excellent mill privilges. This fact was not lost 
sight of by Zenas Crane when he came among the Berkshire hills, in 1799, 
prospecting for an eHgible site for the establishment of the first paper-mill in 
western Massachusetts, and which, together with the springs of exceptionally 
pure water he found in the evironing hills, led him to locate that site in Dal- 
ton. Since then this narrow valley has gained a world wide celebrity for the 
fine paper it produces. The finest point of view, though there are many, is that 
afforded from the summit of Day mountain, an eminence having an altitude of 
about 700 feet above the surrounding country, and lying about a mile south 
of Dalton village. " On the south^ at the foot the hill, runs the old road from 
Pittsfield to Hinsdale, over which Burgoyne's army was marched prisioners on 
their way to Boston. To the north in the distance lies Greylock, towering hke 
a monarch above his fellows, with hills roUing below Hke vast ocean billows. 
At one's feet the quiet Uttle village — too busy in its thriving, ever grinding 
paper-mills, and whirring and combing cotton and woolen mills, to make much 
stir of business outside the factory walls — nestles its hamlet along the 
well used waters of the Housatonic, every drop of which must help to whirl its 
turbines as often as the surveyor's level indicates a suitable fall. On the north- 
east, the bare walls of Windsor, with beyond a gUmse of Hampshire's sum- 
mits; next comes the church of Peru hill, from whose divided ridge waters 
flow into the Connecticut on one side and the Housatonic on the other. At 
one's feet on the east, Hinsdale, with its factories; next beyond, Washington. 
On the west is the beautiful valley, broad enough and especially adapted by 
Nature for her Queen, with room for 50,000 people, each home surrounded by 
a park. In it lies Pittsfield, the city of parks, shown in all its glory, with its 



necklace of diamond lakelets, and the whole in an emerald setting of moun- 

There is much good farming land in the town, and many highly cultivated 
farms, though the township ranks as a manufacturing rather than a farming 
community. Its principal rocks are gneiss and limestone. 

In 1880 Dalton had a population of 2,052. In 1882 it employed fifteen 
female teachers in its pubUc schools, at an average salary of $31.83 per 
month. There were 396 school children in the town, while the entire amount 
raised for school purposes was $4,000 00. 

Dalton is a handsome post village located in the central part of the town, 
on the Housatonic river, and is also a station on the Boston & Albany rail- 
road. It has three churches, (Congregational, Methodist Episcopal and 
Roman Catholic), a town-house, two hotels, three dry goods stores, two drug 
stores, millinery store, printing office, flour and feed stores, four paper-mills, 
two woolen mills, box factory, blacksmith shop, harness shop, two libraries 
and two public schools. As the village extends nearly or quite to the Pitts- 
field line, its central and western parts are each locally known by separate 
names, taken from the extensive manufactories situated in each locality, viz.: 
Carsonville, to the locality about the Carson & Brown mills, and Cranesville 
to the neighborhood environing the Crane mills. 

Americans I 

Encourage your own Manufactories, and they 
will imp7 0?'e. 


Ladies, save your RAGS. 

S the Subscribers have it 
.m contemplation to erect a PA- 
PER-MILL in Dalton, the ensuing 
spring ; and the business being very 
beneficial to the community at large, 
they flater themselves that they shall 
meet with due encouragement. And 
that every woman, who has the good 
of her country, and the interest of her 
own family at heart will patronize 
them, by saving their rags, and send- 
ing them to their Manufactory, or to 
the nearest Storekeeper — for which 
the Subscribers will give a generous 




Worcester, Feb. 8, 1801. 

The above advertisement, appearing in the Pittsfield Sun, was the first 
public intimation of the contemplated establishment of paper manufacturing 
in Berkshire county, and was the result of a journey made by Zenas Crane 
in 1799, who had come from the employment of General Burbank, at Wor- 


cester, in search of a location to build. The mill was put into operation in 
the spring of 1801, and produced for the first few years about twenty tons' of 
paper per annum, or just about the quantity that is made weekly by the 
Crane mills at Dalton at the present time. This increase is commendable 
both to the pioneer, Zenas Crane, and to his descendants, to the good judg- 
ment exercised in selecting a locality so well adapted to the business, and 
also to the enterprise and skill that has steadily enlarged and improved the 
business, bringing it up to its present high position. 

In 1845 the pioneer, Zenas Crane, died, having three years before, in 1842^ 
transferred his property and business to his two sons, Zenas Marshall and 
James B., who now carry on an extensive business in new mills, as Crane & 
Co., associated with them, as the managing member of the firm, being W. 
Myrray Crane, son of Z. Marshall Crane. In their mills, known as the "Pioneer" 
mill and the "Government" mill, are made the bank-note paper used by the 
national banks and the paper used by the United States government for legal 
tenders and bonds, also paper for the currency and bonds of other govern- 
ments. They also make, in great excellence. Parchment, Drawing and Trac- 
ing papers, Parchment deed, antique letter, artificial parchment, "onion 
skin," "bullet patch," map, and other papers. These are the highest priced 
papers made in this country, and, as can be inferred from the purposes for 
which they are used, must possess great strength and wearing qualities. It 
is said that a sheet of their paper placed in a modern testing machine will 
show a greater strength than any other fine paper made. 

In 1865, Zenas Crane, Jr., son of Z. Marshall Crane, and grandson of the 
pioneer, rented and afterwards bought the stone mill, situated about one- 
eighth of a mile below the Pioneer mill, and formerly known as the Ashuelot 
Woolen Mill. It had been converted into a paper-mill a few years prior to 
this, and run by Crane & Wilson, but at this time was idle. Zenas Crane, Jr., 
ran this mill from 1865 till 1877, when it was destroyed by fire, and was re- 
built at once on a much larger scale by himself and his brother, W. Murray 
Crane. It is now one of the best equipped mills in this country, and, as our 
accompanying engraving shows, is also a handsome structure. The mill is de- 
voted to the manufacture of ladies' fine stationery, and was the only mill in 
this country to branch out into this line. The beautiful envelopes and note 
paper made here in a great variety of tints and sizes have become famous all 
over the United States. 

The new tints, of which there are now many, began to make their appear- 
ance in Lyons silks, and were soon applied to stationery by foreign paper- 
makers. When Mr. Zenas Crane, Jr., was in Europe, he visited some of 
the finest paper-mills and got some acquaintance with the stationery trade. 
He saw that there was to be a great future for these tinted goods among 
the purchasers of the best stationery in this country, and he at once began 
the manufacture of them in their mill, and the result is a product here that 
challenges a comparison with any goods in this Hne that the world can pro- 


duce. The tints are wonders of delicacy, clearness and subdued tone. A 
few years ago our fashionable people would use no stationery but imported 
goods. The American styles and makes did not come up to what they re- 
quired. Messrs. Z. Crane, Jr., & Brother, set to work to prove that as good 
or better goods could be made in this country as abroad. How well they 
have succeeded is shown from the fact that the foreign goods are now scarcely 
quoted in the market, while "Crane's goods" are staple stock with every 
dealer of any pretentions. This firm has done much during the past two or 
three years to produce a taste for dead-finish papers, and to-day their brands 
of "Grecian Antique," "Parchment Vellum," and "Distaff " are as popular as 
their finest "satin finish" goods. The names to each of their brands are copy- 
righted, and also their boxes, each of which bears their well known trade- 
mark of the "Fireside Crane." 

Z. Crane, Jr., & Brother have, within two years^ established a library for the 
use of their employes, and the neighborhood. A handsome building, somewhat 
in the old English style of architecture, was built near the mill and surrounded by 
lawns and shade trees on each side. The library contains about 500 
volumes, to which are to be added each year fifty or more volumes. The 
reading-room has all the magazines, illustrated papers and leading newspapers 
of this part of the country and the county newspapers. 

The senior member of this firm, Hon. Zenas Crane, Jr., is a member of 
Gov. Robinson's Executive Council, having been elected to it last fall by the 
counties of Berkshire, Hampshire and Hampden. His father occupied the 
same position with Gov. Andrew, and his grandfather with Gov. Edward 
Everett. A prominent Trade Paper says : "The Crane family is a family of 
paper manufacturers and has been engaged in the industry from its early 
establishment in this country. The family living to-day occupies a promi- 
nent place in the manufacture of the best papers of the world and bear the 
same relation to the paper manufacture of the United States that the 
Montgolfiers do to that of France." 

The Carson 6^ Brown Co. — The " Old Berkshire Mill" owned by this com- 
pany occupies the site where the old pioneer firm built their first mill, and 
where they made about twenty tons of paper per annum until 1807. Wiswall 
& Carson succeeded them, continuing until 18 10. Since that year the mill 
has been rebuilt several times, burned once but soon lifted from its ashes, 
and has been principally managed and owned by the Carson family, except 
for a short time when the Powers Paper Co., afterwards the Powers & Brown 
Paper Co., (L. J. Powers, of Springfield, and Charles O. Brown, of Dalton,) 
owned it. It has grown from a one-vat hand mill located in the woods, to a 
grand structure containing seven engines, making two tons of first-class paper 
per day. David Carson, who came to Dalton about the year 1800, was one 
of the original hand paper makers, and his sons, Thomas G., William W. and 
David J., were brought up to the business, and were considered among the 
best of their trade in the country. The father, after retiring, removed to 



Pittsfield, where he died in 1858, aged seventy-five years, being at the time of 
his death president of the Pittsfield Bank. Charles O. Brown is now presi- 
dent of the company, and John D. Carson, treasurer. 

The Byron Weston Paper Mi/Is. — The old Defiance Mill was built by David 
Carson in 1821, and sold by him to Henry Chamberlin in 1840, by whom it 
was operated, or rented to others, until 1863, having in the meantime, how- 
ever, been burned out and immediately reconstructed. In 1863 it was bought 
by Hon. Byron Weston, who has greatly enlarged it, and is now turning out 
his celebrated record and ledger papers. This mill was origmally a one- vat, 
one engine mill, making "twenty posts" of 126 sheets, or about five reams 
of paper a day, while its capacity is now over two tons. Most of the younger 
ChamberUns, John, Albert and Ezekiel, learned the paper business in this 
mill, and it has often been said that the spring water was so good that the 
mill made good paper regardless of the management. In 1855 Capt. A. S. 
Chamberlin built a paper-mill on the privilege in the center of Dalton village, 
and known as the oldest mill power in town, formerly occupied by the " water- 
mill," so called because the grist-mill upon it was run by water-power under 
the toll system. This mill was owned and operated by Chamberlin & Mitchell 
and James Wilson until 1867, when it was purchased by the late Gen. W. F. 
Bartlett and Capt. Edwin Moodie, commander of a Cunard steamer. Col. 
Walter Cutting subsequently bought Captain Moodie's interest, and the mill 
was run by Bartlett & Cutting until 1875, when it was destroyed by fire. The 
ruins were purchased by Byron Weston, who has built on its site a seven 
engine mill, which is runnmg as a rag department for his seven engine Defi- 
ance Mill near by. He thus has fourteen engines, employs 200 hands, and 
turns out about four tons of paper per day. His paper is used for county 
and state records, and for all purposes where great strength and abifity for 
standing age are required. Mr. Weston has also succeeded in sinking here 
one of the most celebrated artesian wells in New England. About January 
20, 1884, while boring at the depth of 20c feet, he obtained a flowing well of 
400 gallons per minute of pure, soft water. Previous to this, while boring at 
the depth of 500 feet, he obtained allowing well of 150 gallons per minute. 

West &= Glennotis tmoolen mill. — In 1865 W. J. Hawkins, of Pittsfield, 
and Charles E. West and Christopher Glennon, under the firm name of Haw- 
kens, West & Glennon, having concentrated two privileges on the old Weston 
place, erected a three story wooden building, 100x50 feet, with attendant 
dye-house?, and commenced the manufacture of the Windsor Falls repellants 
and fancy cassimeres, and prosperously operated the factory until August 25, 
1873, when it, the adjoining building and two dwellings were entirely destroyed 
by fire. Thirty days after the fire their new factory was in process of erection 
and was completed in less than six months, a brick structure 130 x 50 feet and 
three stories high. On the death of Mr. Hawkins, in July, 1878, the remain- 
ing partners continued the business. The firm has undergone tome changes 
during 1884, and is now known as the Windsor Falls Company. The mill is 



supplied with six cards and forty-six broad looms, and have turned out about 
500,000 yards per annum. 

C. J. Kittredge &= Co.'s woolen mills were built in 1867. The company 
are engaged m manufacturing cassimeres and all-wool doeskins, turning out 
about 150,000 yards per year. Both steam and water are used as motive 

The Renfrew cotton yarn manufactory^ of Ddlton, was originally built by 
S. G. Birmingham, for a woolen-mill, about 1864. Four or five years later it 
was destroyed by fire, and rebuilt by the insurance company who carried its 
risk, and about 1870 it was sold to the Renfrew Manufacturing Co., of Adams, 
who run it in the manufacture of cotton yarn. 

David C. SmitJi s grist and saw-mill^ located on road 25, was built by him 
in 1849. He grinds about 125 car-loads of grain annually. 

Smith Bros', saw-mill, located in the northern part of the town, on road 5 
was built in i860, upon the site of a mill built by Abner and David C. Smith 
in 1846, and which was destroyed by fire in i860. The mill cuts about 
200,000 feet of lumber per annum. 

William C. Burr's saw-?nill, located in the northern part of the town, was 
originally established about 1843, by Samuel I. Parker. It cuts about 100,000 
feet of lumber per annum. 

The settlement of the town was commenced by Dr. Perez Marsh, Daniel 
Frost and Nathaniel Kellogg, in 1755. Soon afterwards, Joseph ChamberHn 
moved into the southern part of the town, locating near the Pittsfield fine. 
About 1770, WiUiam Cady, Josiah Lawrence and Abijah Parks moved into 
the eastern part of the town, and Mr. Lawrence subsequently built the first 
grist-mill. The town was incorporated March 20, 1784, and from that time 
immigration was more rapid, so that in 1791, when the first census was taken, 
there were 554 inhabitants. 

The first town meeting was held on the 19th of April, 1784, nineteen days 
after the town was incorporated, whenWilliam Williams, Eliphalet Chamber- 
Hn, Ephraim Cleveland, Solomon Storey and Nathan Webb were elected 
selectmen ; William Williams, town clerk and treasurer ; and Eliphalet Cham- 
berlin, Josiah Lawrence and William Williams, assessors. Among the votes 
also, passed at this meetmg were the following : — 

"Voted, That the swine may run at large in this town the present year, they 
being >oked and ringed accordmg to law." 

"Voted, That Deacon Williams have leave to innoculate his family for the 
small-pox on lot No. 46 in this town." 

The original town-house was built about 1840. In 1870 the present com- 
modious building, was erected upon the site occupied by the old building, 
costing 3,000.00. 

Dr. Perez Marsh was the son of Capt. Joel Marsh, and was born at Hadley, 
October 25, 1729, and graduated from Harvard in 1784. He was a physician 
and surgeon's mate in the Regiment of Col. Ephraim Williams the younger^ 
when he was killed at Lake George, in 1755. Immediately after, he came to 


Ashuelot Equivalent. He was appointed justice of the peace, June 24, 176 1, 
a special justice of the court of common pleas, June 6, 1765, and a standing 
justice of said court, to succeed Gen. Dwight, September 6, 1768. He was a 
man of intelligence and character, though these appointments were probably- 
due quite as much to the fact that he was a grandson of Samuel Porter and 
son-in-law of Israel Williams. He died at Dalton, May 20, 1784, leaving two 
sons and several daughters. The daughters married in Pittsfield and some of 
their descendants now reside there. The late Henry Marsh, Esq., of Dalton, 
was his grandson. The epitaph upon the slab that marks his grave, reads as 

follows :— 

Henry Marsh, 
IN Memory 


His Honored Father, 

Perez Marsh, 

Qui Vitia Ecepit 

May 20, 1784, aged 53 years. 

Pause here and think how oft a tomb .like this 

You've seen aloud exclaim prepare thee for an early grave. 

William Cleveland immigrated to Dalton at an early day, from Massachu- 
setts Bay, making his way a part of the distance by the aid of marked trees. 
He located on road 5, where Alvah K. Cleveland now resides, being the first 
to settle upon that farm. A sample of the pioneer life he led is shown in 
the fact that his wife spun and wove the flax which William had raised on 
his farm, after which he carried it on his back to Kinderhook, N. Y., a 
distance of fifty miles, and exchanged it for their first cow. He married 
Mrs. Sarah Tozer, rearing eight children. He was a Revolutionary soldier. 
Alvah, son of WiUiam^ who succeeded him upon the farm, married Hannah 
Kittredge, of Dalton, who bore him five children, one son, WiUiam K., 
marrying EUzabeth W. Mitchell, of Windsor, by whom he had three children, 
William D., Nellie M., and Alvah K. William D. resides in Wyoming Terri- 
tory ; Alvah married Amy E. Neate, of Pittsfield, and has two children, re- 
siding upon the homestead settled by his great-grandfather, where Nettie also 
resides. The old homestead dweUing was used for a hotel by Alvah Cleve- 
land for many years. 

Thomas and Josiah Lawrence, brothers, were among the first settlers in 
Dalton, coming from Plainfield, Conn., about 1778. Thomas, who was born 
in 1748, was the first to locate on the farm now occupied by T. A. and C. 
B. Lawrence, on road 20, and died in Dalton, July 26, 1825, at the age of 
seventy-seven. His youngest son, Daniel, married Nancy Burchard, of this 
town, and reared thirteen children, of whom three, Thomas A., who married 
Sarah Otis, of this town, and reared three children, Clara A., Sarah B., and 
Mary E. ; Martha now Mrs. Hyde, of Waterbury, Conn. ; and Charles B., 
who married Lydia A. Johnson, survive, Charles and Thomas residing upon 
the old homestead. 



Amos Smith immigrated to this town from Connecticut, at an early date, 
and located on road 5, where the widow of Sullivan Smith now resides. His 
son, Abner, was born in 1781, married Mary Driscoll, and reared seven 
children, of whom five, David C, Dr. Abner M., of Pittsfield, Eliza, Amos, 
and James D. survive. Amos, residing on road 5 in Dalton, married Julia 
R. Fhnt, of this town, who bore him two children, Edith and Belle L, 
David C. married Permelia Comsrock, of Stockbridge, Mass., by whom he 
had four children, among whom are Ensign M., who married Lucy A. Branch, 
and has two children, and now resides in Texarkana, Ark.; David, of Pittsfield, 
who married Milla E. Hale, of this town, and has one child, Anna P.; and 
Robert A., who married Lucia M. Owen, of Lee, Mass., and has two chil- 
dren, and resides on North street. James D., brother of David C, married 
Rachel E. Gleason, of this town, rearing two children, and resides on North 

Zenas Crane, the pioneer in the paper industry of Western Massachusetts, 
was born in Canton, Mass., May 9, 1777. In the spring of 1801 he came 
to Dalton and built the original paper mill, where Carson & Brown now are. 
He had previously visited the locality, in 1799, and traveled over the moun- 
tains and streams on horseback,- in search of a suitable mill-site, and what is 
of more importance in making fine papers — suitable spring water. In 1809, 
in company with Martin Chamberlin, he built the mill where his sons now 
are. He died in 1845. ^^ 1^42 his two sons, Zenas M. and James B., 
became sole proprietors, and the business has been continued without inter- 
ruption until the present time. In 1879 ^^7 purchased what is now known 
as the " Government mill," built just over the Pittsfield line by the late 
Hon. Thomas Colt, and which is now run on bank note and bond papers for 
the United States government. At their other, the " Pioneer mill," in 
Dalton, they also make bank note and bond papers, which are used by 
several foreign governments, and by the trade generally. W. Murray Crane, 
son of Zenas M., became a partner in the business about 1879. 

Justin Cole, a Revolutionary soldier from Hatfield, Mass., was one of those 
who made an early settlement in Dalton, locating upon the farm now occu- 
pied by D. J. Pratt. 

Dea. William Williams, who came to this town at an early date from Hat- 
field, Conn., was appointed a trustee of Williams college in 1797, and in 
1800 was senator in the State legislature. He died March i, 1808, at 
the age of seventy-four. 

James Barden removed to Dalton, from Uxbridge, Mass , and made the 
first settlement upon the farm now owned by Joel W. Barden, on road 4, in 
1784. He married Tryphenia White, who bore him ten children. Joel, son 
of James, was twice married, rearing by his first wife, Mary Ensign, five chil- 
dren, namely: Jamelia, AJmira, Lovell M., Jasper W., and Mary W, ; and by 
his second wife, Lydia Wright — who is now, at the age of 96, the oldest per- 
son in town — five children, as follows: Joel W., John W., Amelia C, James 


W., and Clarissa W. Joel was first married to Mary E. Parker, after whose 
death he married Lydia F. Messenger who bore him four children — Bertha 
E., and Blanche A., twins, and Angle E., and James E. The homestead, 
where Joel resides, has been in the family for about a century. 

Charles Burr, a native of Milton, Mass., married Sarah Baker, and immi- 
grated to Dalton about the year 1785. Of his family of ten children, seven — 
Mary A., Nelson, Francis, Lucinda, David, Sarah and William C, are now 
living.^William C, residing on road 5 in this town, married Helen M. Part- 
ridge, of Hinsdale, by whom he had two sons, Charles W., who married 
Sarah A. Mann, and now resides in Troy, Penn., and Dwight W., residing 
on road 5, who married Cora E. Stetson. 

Elijah Curtis, from Worcester county, Mass., came to Dalton in 1794, being 
the first to locate upon a farm on road 7, near the present residence of D. H. 
Tower. He married Annie Stockwell, rearing ten children, one now living, 
Chloe, who married John Benton, now of Cleveland, Ohio. His youngest son, 
Elijah, married Harriet Rogg, of Sharon, Conn., who bore him three chil- 
dren — Maria H., now dead; Marshall C, residing on Main street, Dalton, 
married Ann G. Gibbs, of Otis, and had born to huii three children, Florence, 
Charles, and Edith ; and Chloe. 

Alpheus Brown, on road 7, is the oldest man in this town, being ninety- 
three years of age. He was in the war of 181 2, and draws a pension. 

Jacob, fourth son of Jacob and Hannah Jones Booth, born in 1770, married 
Lucinda Richmond, of Hinsdale, Vt., by whom he had nine children, four of 
whom are still living — EHzabeth Gardner, a widow, Charles H., Watson A. 
and Philander F. The latter married Almena Davis, of Stafford, Conn., and 
located on the soap-stone quarry farm, where he has resided seventy-three 
years, rearing three children, namely : Lucinda, who married Myron Sher- 
man, now of Dalton; George F., who married EHza A. Aldrich ; and John M., 
who married Lucinda Reed, of Windsor, and is now a resident of Wahoo, 

Rev. Isaiah Weston removed to Dalton from New Bedford in 1814. His 
grandson, Byron, a paper manufacturer in Dalton, is one of her most noted 
and respected citizens. He is vice-president of the Third National Bank of 
Pittsfield, Mass., also director of the Berkshire Life Insurance Co., and Berk- 
shire County Savings Bank. Mr. Weston was captain in the RebeUion under 
Gen. W. F. Bartlett ; was State senator in 1876, and lieutenant-governor 
of Massachusetts for 1880-83, being elected with Gov. John D. Long in 
1882, against Benjamin F. Butler. 

Solomon Lawrence, son of Micah, formerly a Presbyterian minister in Man- 
chester and Keene, N. H., was born in Winchester, N. H., and married Mary 
Cole, of Dalton, in which place he located and reared four children, but one 
of whom, Hubbard W., survives. Hubbard married Eleanor Gray, of Temple- 
ton, Mass., and has one son, Harlen S., of Dalton. 

Roswell, son of Vine Branch, who located in Berkshire county, Mass., 


about 1770, and who was also a soldier in the battle of Bennington, married 
Theodocia Wright, of Pittsfield, where he located, rearing a family of seven 
children, namely : Vine P., Mary, Orson A., Salmon W., Rufus, Albert and 
Grove VV., Grove married Pamelia Sprague, of Pittsfield, afterwards locat- 
ing in Dalton, Mass., and reared seven children, all of whom, Hayden W , 
CaroHne, Robert, Pamelia, Lucy, Ellen and George, are still living, Grove 
was twice married and has resided in his present home fifty years. He was 
deputy sheriff twelve years, and a member of the State legislature in 1842 
and 1843, besides holding other offices of trust, and has been deacon of the 
Congregational church twenty-five years. 

Shuabel Otis, a native of Norwich, Conn., was thrice married, having by his 
first wife Fennlia Francis, of Windham, Conn., seven children, and by his 
second, Sarah Butts, five children. His third wife was Irene Butts, of this 
town. James, son of Shubael, married Louisa Stowell, of Hinsdale, who bore 
him six children : Joseph H., Edwin, Ella M., Lettie E., James O., and 
John O., the latter being twins. All are now living except Edwin. 
Joseph H. succeeded to the homestead formerly occupied by his father and 

Nicholas Crane emigrated to this country from Wexford, Ireland, about 
the year 1837, finally coming to Dalton, and locating on East Main street ^ 
where he now resides. He married Sarah Morgan, of Pittsfield, the union 
being blessed by a family of eight children, namely: Thomas, John, Edward, 
Nicholas, Mary A., Sarah T., Michael and Kittie, six of whom are still 

Elijah Curtis's father, with his two brothers, emigrated to Massachusetts 
from England, and all served in the war of 1812. John, son of Elijah, mar- 
ried Patty Newell, of Dalton, who bore him nine children, of whom two still 
survive. Hannah, wife of Seth Walker, and now of Medina, Ohio, and John, 
who married Mary Smith for his first wife, by whom he had ten children, 
four of whom are still living, namely : Mary Prentice, of Pittsfield ; Cynthia 
Perkms, of Dalton ; Adda N. Balch, of Elgin, 111. ; and Diodana C. Clark, 
of Springfield. After the death of Mary, John married Polly Nye, whom he 
also survived, marrying for his third wife Margaret Clark. He now resides in 
Dalton, on road 9. 

Isaac N. Allen enlisted twice in the war of the RebelHcn. His son, 
Alpheus N., also served in this war, and died in the hospital at New Orleans, 
in 1869. 

Stephen D. Tower removed to this town, from Windsor, in 1854, locating 
on road 7, where he resided until his death in 1881. He married Esther E. 
Beals, in 1831, who bore him ten children, but one deceased. His son, 
David H., who now occupies the homestead, married Margaret Young, of 
Huntington, Mass., in 1869, and has one son, Walter L. 

George E., son of Nathaniel Hager, of Pittsfield, married Hattie N. Wil- 
son, of Dalton, and has five children, Susie B., Hattie W., George S., Lucy 


G., and James W. He served in the Rebellion, and was taken prisoner at 
the time of Sheridan's raid, May 10, 1864, and imprisoned at Andersonville, 
and other prisons, making his escape during the removal of the prisoners 
at the evacuation of Charlestown, February 17, 1865. 

Joshua A. Barton, born at Butternuts, N. Y., in 1800, married Relief Vinton, . 
rearing eisht children, four of whom, Harvey B., of Stockbridge, Mrs. James M. 
Parsons, of Lenox, John S., of this town, and Henry A., are still living. The 
latter married Dorcas A. Benton, of Lenox, who bore him six children, four 
of whom are living : Mrs. Lephia O. Warren, of Windsor, Wesley B., who 
married Carrie Lewis, of Bridgewater, Conn., Mrs. Grace Parker, of Dalton,. 
and Henry A., who married Carrie M. Curtis, of this town, where he resides, 
on road 22, corner 23, and has four children — 'M. Alta, Charles H., Blanche 
M., and Claire C. John S., brother of Henry A., Sr., married Phebe T. Hol- 
den, of Cairo, N. Y., who bore him three children : James A., residing in this 
town, who married Elvia Kidd, of Tiskilwa, III; Emma E. Raymond, of 
Hinsdale ; and Willie. 

Alexander M. Groesbeck, of Albany, who married Emaline Holmes, of 
Palmer, Mass., and located in Lee, was the father of eleven children, four of 
whom survive: Jane Butler, who resides in Minnesota ; Adell E.; and Frank- 
lin N., who married Hattie Maynard, of this town, and has one child, Edna. 
M., and Charles H., of this town, who married Clara A., daughter of C. C. 
Benton, of Lee, and has two children, Emma L. and Grace A. Charles 
served two years and a half in the Rebellion, being honorably discharged at 
its close ; and his grandfather, John B. Holmes, served in the Mexican 

Richard A. Davis, of Oneida county, N. Y., married Mary C. Davis, of the 
same place, and had born to him twelve children, of whom three survive, 
namely : James, of Middlefield, Mass., Mary J., of Sharon Springs, N. Y., 
and Theodore. The latter married Bertha Blinn, of Canaan Four Corners, 
N. Y., and located finally in this town, where he now resides, and has a family 
of four children, Cora E., Chloe E., Jennie I., and Mary A. He served in the 
war of the Rebellion, in the 37th Mass., Co. E., from which he was honor- 
ably discharged after a service of three years. 

Marcus Putnam, of Becket, and a descendant of Gen. Putnam, of Revolu- 
tionary fame, married Phebe Rouse, of Windsor, and became the father of 
six children, four of whom still live, namely : Joseph and Rufus, of Westfield, 
Charles, of Pittsfield, and Henry H., of Dalton, who marrie<l Jane Cady, of 
this town, and has one child, Lucy L 

Daniel, son of Daniel Brownson, of Cornwall, Conn., and a blacksmith by 
trade, married Mary Dean, of Cornwall, where he located, rearing two chil- 
dren, Philo, who died in the war of the Rebellion, and Emery M., engineer 
in a paper-mill in Dalton,where he now lives. He married Lucy Ann Nobles, of 
Cornwall, and has six children, Philo C, Francis M., Ada, Edwin H., Louisa,, 
and Eugene E, 


Timothy, son of James Callaghan, a native of Ireland, emigrated to this 
country in 1850, and is now a resident of this town. He married Anna Cur- 
tain, of Cork, Ireland, who bore him seven children, all of whom, Nellie, 
Katie, Julia, WiUiam, Hannah, Mary and Maggie, are living. 

John Callahan, of county Cork, Ireland, son of James, came to this country 
in 1857, and resides in Dalton. He married Ann Suttle, of Galway, Ireland, 
and has three children. 

Maurice Callaghan, a native of Ireland, and a resident of Dalton, came ta 
this country in 1839. He married Catharine Curtain, of Lanesboro, and has 
four children, James, Hannah, Ellen and William. 

Willard Cooper settled in Windsor, Mass., about 1800, and married Mary 
Saunders, by whom he had seven children : Royal E., Eliza M., Clara A., 
Leander C, Marietta, John C, and Samuel W. Samuel, the youngest son, 
married Minerva Maynard, of Dalton, for his first wife, by whom he had two- 
children, Willard M., and Carrie ; and for his second wife married Louisa 
Maynard, both being of this town of which he is a resident. 

John H. Smith enlisted twice in the war of the Rebellion, serving the first 
time in the 47th Mass., and in the second time in the i6th Mass., an unat- 
tached company, and was honorably discharged. 

Amasa Converse, one of the early settlers of Windsor, married first, Sinai 
Chaffee, rearing six children, afterwards marrying Esther Walker, daughter of 
Robert, of Revolutionary fame, who bore iiim four children. His youngest 
son, Charles A., also married twice, rearing by his first wife, Jane A. Rice, 
one son, Amasa R., now a banker, of Cheyenne, Wyoming; and married 
for his second wife Sarah Mitchell, of Windsor, locating first in that town, 
but afterwards, in 1873, coming to Dalton, where he died in 1880, leaving 
one daughter, Ethel, wife of Frank A. Fowler. 

Myron A. Sherman, grandson of Sylvanus Parsons, who was a Revolutionary 
pensioner, married Lucinda Booth, rearing five children, and is now a resi- 
dent of Dalton, on road 5. 

Thomas Thompson came to this country from England as a sergeant in 
Gen. Burgoyne's army, among the British Grenadiers, a noted regiment, — all 
of the men being six feet in height. He married Martha Smith, of Bridge- 
water, and finally located in Pittsfield. Thomas D., son of Thomas, married 
Abbie Barlow for his first wife, and for his second the widow of Jonas Flint. 
He has two sons, George W., a paper maker in Brooklyn, N. Y., and Fred- 
erick A., in the same business in Westfield, Mass. Thomas resides in this 
town, at the age of ninety. 

John Brown, who was one of the early settlers of Windsor, was a deacon 
in the Congregational church there for fifteen years, his son John, Jr., served in 
the same office ten years, and the latter's son, Alpheus, twenty-five years. 
His wife was Abigail, daughter of Captain Pierce, of Windsor. Alpheus, Jr.. 
residing in this town, on road 7, married Czarina, daughter of Gen. Holbrook, 
of Windsor, rearing eleven children, six of whom, Addison W., Henry C, 


Charles O., Selden S., Edward E. and Francis W., are now living. He served 
in the war of 18 12. 

Dwight M., son of Lewis Bartlett, son of Edward, an early settler in Worth- 
ington, Mass., married Clarissa J. Ramage, of Holyoke, Mass., and has one 
child, Laura E., and resides in Dalton. Lewis married Laura A. Prince of 
Windsor. His other two children are James L. and Amanda, both married. 

William B. West, of EngHsh descent, and grandson of Josiah West, of Sal- 
isbury, Conn., who was a Revolutionary soldier, resides on road 5, in this 
town. He married Julia Loveland, for his first wife, and for his second the 
widow of William Reed, having one son, Josiah, now living. 

Andrew J., son of Ethan A. Mason, and grandson of Nathan, of Cheshire, 
married Anna Jenning, of Adams, and has two children — Ernest, Marinda, 
wife of Samuel Hildreth who has two children, Rufus R. and George I. ; and 
Andrew J. was wounded in the war of the RebelUon and honorably dis- 
charged. He now resides on road 3 in this town. 

Osiah Hawley was an early settler in Otis, Mass., rearing a family of ten 
children, among whom was Harry S., father of Wilham Henry, a resiflent 
of Dalton. Harry L. married Betsey Crittendon, of Otis, and has four chil- 
dren now living. He was a farmer in Sandisfield, and died at the age of 
eighty-seven. William Henry married Charlotte J. Whitney, of Otis, and has 
had three children. His grandfather, William Crittendon, served in the 

Henry H. Knight is a grandson of James Knight, who came from Eng- 
land to this country as a soldier under Gen. Burgoyne, and was at the battle 
of Saratoga, afterwards locating in Saratoga county, where he died about 
1820. Henry H. resides in Dalton. 

Alonzo, son of Asa Cone, formerly a resident of West Stockbridge, and 
grandson of Levi Crittendon, a Revolutionary soldier, and who served at the 
battle of Bennington, is a resident of Dalton, on road 22. He was twice 
married, rearing by his first wife, Elizabeth P. Nichols, of Richmond, two 
children, both deceased. For his second wife he married Elizabeth A. Day, 
of Rowe, Mass., who is still living. 

Charles P., son of Hubbard Sanderson, of Rutland county, Vt., and 
grandson of Weller Sanderson, an Englishman, and a Revolutionary soldier, 
married Mary J. Fredericks, of Lenox, and now resides in Cranesville. 

John W. Flansburgh, grandson of John Waldron, of Coxsackie, N. Y., 
a pensioner of the war of 181 2, is a resident of Dalton, a carpenter by trade. 

John Dwyer, a resident of this town, emigrated to this country about 1850. 
He married Bridget Callahan, who bore him six children : Maggie, Edward, 
Francis, Mabel, Willie and Joseph, all living. 

Lawrence Connors, of this town, a native of Galway, Ireland, married 
JuUa Callahan, of the same place, who came to this country about thirty years 
ago. He has seven children. 

Spencer Fuller, a native of Whitingham, Vt., married Maria Flemming, 


and reared a family of eight children : Elmira, Hiram, Jerusha, Evaline, 
Willard, Harvey A., (who married first Ida A. Cross, of Searsburg, Vt., and 
afterwards Sarah Porter, of Lanesboro, and has one child,) Guy W. and 
Adelia, six of whom are living. He resides in Cranesville. Samuel G. 
Fuller, son of Spencer, married Anna Crosier, of Searsburg, has two chil- 
dren, and also resides in Cranesville. His grandfather, Gardner Flemming, 
served in the Revolution. 

James S. Smith, son of Amos, married Caroline Comstock, of Stock- 
bridge, rearing five children — Cynthia P., Melissa M., Roswell P., Olive M., 
and James S. The widow of James S. now resides upon the homestead on 
road 5, in Dalton, which was first settled by Amos Smith. James married 
for his second wife, Eliza Driscol. of this town, who bore him four children, 
namely: Andrew D., Emma C, Arthur L. and Helen M. 

The First Congregational church, located on Main street, at Dalton village, 
was organized by Rev. John Leland, Daniel CoUins and Thomas Allen, with 
eleven members, February ii, 1785, Rev. James Thompson, being the first 
pastor. The first house of worship was built in 1795, and stood where the 
lower cemetery now is. The present building was erected in 1812. It will 
comfortably accommodate 300 persons, and is valued, including grounds, at 
$5,000.00. The society now has 100 members, with Rev. George W. 
Andrews, pastor. 

The Methodist Episcopal church, located on Main street, was started in 
181 2, composed chiefly from dissenters from the Congregational church, 
while some attached themselves to the new church from political motives, 
■connected with the last war with the Great Britain, and others still on 
account of the Congregational society moving their church building to a new 
site. Their church building was erected in 1834, at a cost of $1,400.00' 
It will comfortably seat 350 persons, and is now valued, including grounds 
and parsonage, at $.1,050.00. The society has 165 members. 

St. Agnes Roitian Catholic church, located at Dalton village, was organized 
by the Right Rev. P. S. O'Reyley, in 1880, with 800 communicants. Rev. 
Father Cronin, the present incumbent, was the first pastor. The church 
building was erected in 1880, at a cost of about $17,000.00. It will accom- 
modate 600 persons, and is valued, including grounds and other property, at 
$18,000.00. The society now has 1,000 members. 

EGREMONT lies in the southwestern part of the'county, in lat. 42° 10' 
and long. 3° 35', bounded north by Alford, east by Great Barrington 
and Sheffield, south by Sheffield and Mount Washington, and west by 
Columbia county, N. Y. Dr. Holland, in his History of Western Massachu- 
setts, speaks of the original grants that covered the present territory of the 
township as follows: — 


"The Indian reservation, made at the time of the purchase of the lower 
Housatonic township, extended through the present town of Egremont. A 
considerable part of this was leased by the chiefs of the Stockbridge tribe to 
Andrew Karner, October 20, 1740; and, in 1756, a portion of the reservation 
was purchased of the Indians, and this tract became known as the 'Shawenon 
Purchase.' It was 'bounded east on Sheffield, south on Indian land, west on 
the land lately laid to Robert Noble and others, called Nobletown, and to ex- 
tend north as far as said Nobletown, to the northeast corner of said town ; to 
run east over to the Stockbridge west line.' This tract of land, for the con- 
sideration of ^20, was conveyed to Ebenezer Baldwin, Aaron Loomis, Josiah 
Phelps, Benjamin Tremain, Samuel Colver, Samuel Welch, David Winchell 
and several others. Nobletown was west of the dividing Une between Mass- 
achusetts and New York, being at the present time a part of the town of Hills- 
dale. In October, 1756, another tract of land, afterwards known as the Spoor 
Grant, was conveyed by the Indians to Isaac and Cornelius Spoor, and others. 
Karner's lease passed from hand to hand until it was lost sight of. At last, 
between thirty and forty years ago [written in 1857] , it came into the posses- 
sion of William F. Gragg, of Augusta, N. Y., who laid claim to the land which 
it covered. In 1826, however, the occupants paid him $400.00 for his right, 
and thus adjusted the claim." 

Mr. 8. B. Goodale, in a manuscript history of the town, tells anothei" 
of Indian grants, substantially as follows: A tract of land containing story 
1,200 acres, extending from the present village of South Egremont westerly 
to the mountain, a chestnut tree standing formerly in the little inclosed 
yard in front of the Mt. Everett House being the northern boundary, was 
sold or leased by the Indians to one of their tribe named John Van Guil- 
der, and his brother-in-law, Andrew Karner, each having 600 acres. At 
the same time, also, was sold a like tract lying in Sheffield, to Messrs- 
Vosburgh and Gordon. John Van Guilder was a strong Indian boy, 
who, having found a home with a Dutch family living just over the line in 
New York, took the name of his foster father, though his real name was Konk- 
apot. Previous to the purchase mentioned he rejoined his tribe and mar- 
ried the daughter of a white settler named Karner, and on the removal of 
the Indians from Stockbridge they made the above mentioned transfer. Van 
Guilder's half-breed descendants were at one time numerous in the town, 
though the majority of them removed to Granville, N. Y. The last of them 
here was a State pauper, named Reuben Winchell, who died in 1850. 

In 1836 an agent of the Stockbridge tribe appeared here, claiming the prop- 
erty that had been leased to Karner, agreeing to settle the matter, however, 
for $1,000.00; but two years later he accepted $400.00 in settlement of the 
claim. The tract delivered to the Indian, Van Guilder, seems to have been 
given under a warrantee deed, hence the title of the owners was good. 

But be these matters as they may,the Indian grants, together with other lands, 
were incorporated as a district of Sheffield, Eebruary 13,1760, under the name of 
Egremont. The new district was invested with all the powers, immunities, and 
privileges accorded the townships of the province, except the right of sending 
a representative to the general court, this right being held in common with 



Sheffield. The privilege of sending its own representative was not accorded 
until some years after. Why the name Egremont was chosen is not definitely 
known. Some assert that it was given in honor of Lord Egremont, of Eng- 
land, by some emigrant or emigrants from that Lord's borough; others, that it 
was so named in honor of Charles Wyndham, Earl of Egremont, who, in 167 1, 
was made secretary of state ; while still another, though improbable version, 
is that the district being originally a part of Great Barrington and Sheffield, was 
by natural agreement set off" as a separate district, hence the name Agreement, 
finally corrupted into Egremont. 

Since its incorporation Egremont has had its boundaries changed so often 
that it is now extremely irregular in outline, bearing no resemblance to its orig- 
inal proportions. The boundary line between it and Alford was not finally 
established until February 6, 1790, and the 2 2d of the same month parts of 
Sheffield were annexed to the town; on June 17, 1817, a part of Mt. Wash- 
ington was annexed; and February 16, 1824, other parts of Sheffield were 
annexed, and the boundary line between the two towns was finally estabHshed 
in 1869, so that the town now has an area of about 16,000 acres. 

The surface of the town is extremely varied and irregular, the western and 
southern portions extending up upon the eastern slope of the Toconic moun- 
tains, rough and craggy; while portions of the eastern section are level and 
productive, with an undulating territory lying between them, sinking, however, 
in the central part of the town, into an extensive swamp. The soil in most 
parts of the town is productive and adapted to grain raising, while some locali- 
ties afford excellent grazing lands. Green river, having its source in New York, 
winds through the northern part of the town, and Karner river through the 
southern section, both flowing an easterly course. Winchell pond, covering 
an area of about 140 acres, fies in the northern part of the town, and Marsh 
pond, covering an]area of seventy-two acres, lies in the central part. Marble 
quarries have been opened in the northern part of the town, by Henry Tobey 
and David Olmstead, which yield a marble of good quahty and of consider- 
able extent. 

The geological formation is principally Levis limestone, underlying most of 
the eastern section, while the other portions are made up mostly of mica, taL 
cose and argillaceous slate. 

In 1880 Egremont had a population of 875. In 1883, the town employed 
one male and five female teachers in her public schools, to whom was paid 
an average monthly salary of $40.00 to the males and $35.33 to the females. 
It had 103 school children, while the entire amount raised for school pur- 
poses was $1,046.66. 

Egremont is a post village located in the eastern part of the town. 

North Egremont, a post village, is located in northern part of the town. 

South Egremont, a post village, is located in the southeastern part of the 

Dalzell & Co! s carriage hardware works. — In 1845 David Dalzell came 


to Egremont, from Hudson, N. Y., and purchased the carriage business of 
Major Karner, located where the present works now are, at South Egremont. 
In 1850 he added to the works the manufacture of fine carriage axles, In 
1 868 he took into partnership with him his two sons, David, Jr., and William 
C, and in 1876 added the manufacture of the Dalzell & Ives patent, wrought- 
iron case-hardened axle boxes, increasing the business to large proportions. 
In 1878 David, Jr., died, and in 1879 his death was followed by that of his 
father, thus leaving the business entirely in the hands of William C, who, in 
October, 1880, took Roscoe C. Taft as a partner. The firm now employs 
sixty men, turning out 12,000 sets of axles and 12,000 sets of axle boxes per 

Benjamuis cork sole factory. — In 1879 Arthur A. Benjamin, then twenty- 
five years of age, estabHshed the business of manufacturing cork insoles, at 
South Egremont, only making about fifteen dozen pairs per day. He now em- 
ploys sixty hands, uses 600 yards of cotton-flannel and 400 of enameled cloth 
making 500 dozen pairs of soles per day. 

The permanent settlement of the town was commenced about 1730, 
though it is said that Andrew and Robert Karner, from Rhinebeck, N. Y., 
and John, Isaac and Jacob Spoor, from some other part of that State, came 
in at an earUer date, supposing they were locating on territory belonging to 
New York. Between 1730 and 1756 the settlement increased rapidly, the 
following named being among the early arrivals : Nicholas Karner, Jacob 
Karner, Cornelius Spoor, Ebenezer Baldwin, Aaron Loomis, Josiah Phelps, 
John Perry, Timothy Hopkins, Elias Hopkins, Nehemiah Messenger, Benja- 
min Tonman, Samuel Colver, Samuel Younglove, William Webb, Jonathan 
Welch, Samuel Welch, Robert Joyner, Gideon Church, Ebenezer Smith, 
Aaron Sheldon, Israel Taylor, William Roberts, Joseph Hicks, Edward Bai- 
ley, Abraham Andrews and John Fuller. In March, 1760, the first district 
meeting was held, when Samuel Winchell was chosen clerk, and Jonah West- 
over, Timothy Kellogg and Isaac Spoor, were elected selectmen. 

Isaac Fuller, from Tuxbridge, Conn., came to Egremont about 1735, and 
built a small house near the brook just east of the old Tuller burial ground. 
His land, however, was then included in that of the town of Sheffield, and 
was a part of the old Indian tract purchased by a Mr. Vosburgh. During the 
French and Indian war, Mr. Tuller acted as wagoner in transporting provis- 
ions and supplies across the country into Canada, making, it is said, some 
money thereby. After the war he returned to Egremont and built the brick 
house now owned by James A. Gardner, from brick he manufactured on his 
own farm. This is the oldest house in the town, having been built in 1761. Mr. 
Tuller died in 1797, aged eighty-five years. John Tuller, 2d, built the hotel at 
North Egremont. 

Ebenezer Baldwin was an early settler, making the first settlement on the 
farm now owned by Henry Burget. James Baldwin was born on the old 
homestead, on what is now known as Baldwin hill, in 1759. He married 



three times, first when quite young, and reared five sons, Ephraim, Benjamin, 
Jonathan, Stephen and Cyrus, and two daughters. Ephraim inherited a qual- 
ity of great executive abiUty from his father, and was made a colonel during 
the war of 18 [2. In 1829 he was elected representative, being returned the 
following term. In 1831 he was appointed a justice of the peace, holding 
the office fourteen years, and in 1842 he was appointed postmaster at North 
Egremont, which position he held eight years. Col. Baldwin married Dim- 
mis Karner, February 23, 1815, who survived him, his death occurring June 
I, 1863. They reared six children^ only four of whom attained a mature age, 
and only two, Levik, of California, and Mrs. Julia F. Rounds, of Egremont, 
are living. Stephen married Elizabeth Smith and reared one son, Stephen, 
Jr., who now resides on road 4. Benjamin married Maria Crippen for his 
first wife, by whom he had six children, five of whom, Joel, Fanny, Franklm, 
WiUiam and Maria, are living ; his second wife was Mary Joyner, who bore 
him three children, Albert H., Edwin A., and Thodore S. Jonathan Bald- 
win married Esther Church, of Great Barrington, who bore him nine chil- 
dren, six of whom, Cyrus, Emeline, Andrew J., Mason, Theodore and Lydia, 
are living. 

Nicholas Race, from Scotland, was an early settler, locating on the farm 
now owned by David Millard. Isaac N., son of Nicholas, was born here in 
177 1, married a daughter of Seneca Tuller, and reared six children, two of 
whom, Seneca T., of Egremont, and Rovilla T. Kinney, of Canaan Four Cor- 
ners, N. Y., are Hving. 

Joseph KUne came to Egremont, from New York State, with his father, 
John C, in 1802, he being at that time only six years of age. He became 
the husband of Sabra, daughter of Levi Karner, and in 1827 purchased the 
farm now owned by his son, Joseph A , where he reared seven children, 
five of whom, Levi K., Dimmis A. (Mrs. Stephen Baldwin), Almira A. 
(Mrs. John B. Taylor), Joseph A. and Lydia J., wife of George C. Parson, 
of California, are living. 

The First Cojigregational church of South Egremont. — In 1767 the inhab- 
itants erected a church building and made an effort to establish a church, but 
the object was not accomplished until February 20, 1770, when a Congrega- 
tional society was organized, and on the 28th of that month Rev. Eliphalet 
Steele was installed as pastor. Mr. Steele remained with the people, in 
entire harmony, until the time of the Shays Rebellion, when, many of his 
parishioners being among the malcontents, they became his enemies, from 
the fact that he did not sympathize with them. Some of them entered his 
house at night, and, after inflicting sundry personal indignities upon him, 
stole his watch and several articles of clothing. The disturbing elements 
thus introduced never became thoroughly reconciled, though Mr. Steele 
remained with the society until April 29, 1794, when he was dismissed. 
From this time the society gradually diminished in size and strength until it 
finally became extinct. In 1816, however, a new society was form.ed, which 


Still exists. It was organized by Rev. Aaron Kinne, with thirteen members, 
Rev, Gardner Hayden being the first pastor. The old church building stood 
upon a sightly eminence in the center of the township, about a mile from the 
present building, which is in the heart of Egremont village. This building 
erected in 1833, at a cost of $2,500.00, will comfortably seat 300 persons, 
and is now valued, including grounds, at about its original cost. The soci- 
ety now has 120 members, with Rev. Parris P. Farwell, pastor. 

The Baptist c/mrc/i, Iccsited at North Egremont, was organized in 1787 
and incorporated in 1808. Their house of worship, erected in i8i7,will seat 
400 persons, and is valued at $2,occ.oo. Rev. Jeduthan Gray was the first 
pastor. The society now has fifty-six members, with no regular pastor at 
present writing. 

FLORIDA lies in the extreme northeastern corner of the county, in lat. 
42° 40', and long. 3° 59'. It is very irregular in outUne, having Ver- 
mont, and Monroe, Franklin county, on the north, Rowe and Charle- 
mont, from which it is divided by Deerfield river, on the east. Savoy, from 
which it is partly separated by Cold river, on the south, and North Adams and 
Clarksburg on the west. It was incorporated as a town, June 15, 1805, the 
northern point being previously taken by Bernardston, in compensation for 
the loss sustained by a town of that name in running the line between Massa- 
chusetts and Vermont. The tract was for many years known as " Bernard- 
ston's grant." Bullock's grant and King's grant, so-called, each contributed 
towards forming the present town's territory. On May 2, 1848, a part of 
Clarksburg was annexed to the town. 

Florida lies upon the summit of the Green Mountain range, and contains 
some of the finest mountain scenery in the State, and is also noted for being 
tunnelled its entire width, from east to west, by the celebrated Hoosac tunnel, 
(see page 56). Hoosac Mountain, which extends nearly the whole length 
of the town, rises to a height of 1,448 feet above Deerfield river, and 
affords some magnificent views, of which the following extract from the pen 
of Mr. Washington Gladden gives a vivid picture : — 

" On this bleak, rough mountain-top lies all that is inhabitable of the town 
of Florida. There are a few good grazing farms ; but grain has a slim 
chance between the late and the early frosts. The winter's are long and 
fierce. During the Revolutionary war, a body of troops attempted to make 
the passage of this mountain in mid-winter,'and nearly perished with cold and 
hunger. Passing on the left a dilapidated old tavern, where none but a stranger 
will be likely to get taken in, and on the right, as we ascend the western crest, 
a smooth surface of rock, with furrows chiselled in it, by primitive icebergs, 
then suddenly bursts upon us a scene whose splendor makes abundant com- 
pensation for the dreariness of the three miles just passed. 

" In the center of the picture rises Greylock, king of mountains: about him 
are the group of lesser peaks that make his court. On the north, Mount 



Adams, a spur of the Green Mountain range, closes the scene. Between this 
and the Greylock group, the beautiful curves of the Taconic range fill the 
western horizon. From the north flows down, through the valley that sepa- 
rates the mountain on which we stand, from Mount Adams, the north branch 
of the Hoosac river ; from the south, through the village of South Adams, 
and the valley that lies between us and Greylock, comes the other branch of 
the river, and 1,500 feet below us lies the village of North Adams, packed in 
among its ravines, and chmbing the slopes on every side ; and here the two 
branches of the Hoosac unite, and flow on westward through the other valley 
that divides Greylock from Mount Adams. VVifliamstown lies at the foot of 
the Taconic hills, just behind the spur of Mount Adams. The straight line 
of the Pittsfield and North Adams railroad cuts the southern valley in twain ; 
the Troy and Boston railroad bisects the western valley; and the twin spires 
of little Stamford, in Vermont, brighten the valley on the north. These three 
deep valleys, with the village at their point of confluence and the lordly 
mountain-walls that shut them in, give us a picture whose beauty will not be 
eclipsed by any scene that New England can show us. If it should fall to 
your lot, good reader, as it fell to the lot of one (' whether in the body or out 
of the body I cannot tell') to stand upon the rock that overhangs the road 
by which we are descending, while the sun, hiding behind amber clouds in 
the west, touches the western slope of the old mountain there in the center 
with the most delicate pink and purple hues ; while the shadows gather in the 
hollows of its eastern side, and the sweet breath of a summer evening steals 
over the green meadows where the little river winds among its alder bushes, — 
if this should be your felicity, you will say, and reverently too, ' It is good to 
be here: let us make tabernacles, and abide ; for surely there shall never rest 
upon our souls a purer benediction.' " 

Cold river, with its tributaries, flows a southerly course through nearly the 
whole length of the town, and forming a part of its southern boundary. The 
underlying rock is calcareous gneiss and the Quebec group, containing a vein of 
serpentine marble. 

In t88o Florida had a population of 459. In 1883, the town employed 
eight female teachers in its public schools, at an average monthly salary of 
$23.00. The town then had ninety-nine school children and raised $831.54 
for school purposes. 

Florida is a postoffice located in the central part of the town. 

Hoosac Tunnel (p. o.) is a hamlet located at the eastern mouth of the 
" Great Bore." 

The settlement of the town was begun by Dr. Daniel Nelson, from Stam- 
ford, Conn., in 1783. Previous to 1795 he was joined by Paul Knowlton, 
from Shrewsbury, Sylvanus Clark, from Southampton, Nathan Drury, from 
Shelburne, Jesse King, from Deerfield, and Stephen Staples, from Adams, 
and soon after this the settlement was quite numerously reinforced. 

Aside from the Revolutionary incident of the American troops passing the 
mountain, occupying three weeks in the journey, it is also related that four 
Irish deserters from Burgoyne's army supported themselves here for several 
years, mostly by hunting and fishing. 

Dr. Daniel Nelson came on horseback to Florida from Long Meadow, and 


settled on Deerfield river, in the southeastern part of the town, where he 
subsequently had quite an extended practice. He is the only one of the 
first settlers now represented here, having a grandson, Wallace E. Nelson, 
residing on the old homestead. Dr. Nelson tended the toll-gate on the turn- 
pike across the mountain for forty years. 

Sylvanus Clark, one of the early settlers, removed from Southampton in 
1785, and located on the place now owned by Noah Clark. Of a family of 
three sons and three daughters, none are now living, but Sylvanus has two 
sons, grandsons of Sylvanus, now residing in the place. 

Samuel PhilHps, who settled in the northern part of Florida about 1800,. 
reared a family of six children, only one, Anson Mayhew Phillips, of Shel- 
burne Falls, still surviving. There are but two representatives of the family 
in town. Consider R. and Samuel A., sons of Samuel Ripley. 

Ebenezer Bradley, of Rowe. came to Florida, about 1804. He had born 
to him a family of six children, the only one now living being Beda Bradley, 
who lives with her nephew, Ira Bradley, upon the old homestead cleared by 
his grandfather. In early times the family Uved in a log house, and the 
howling of wolves was frequently heard. 

Daniel Burnett came to Florida, from Ashfield, about the year 1805. But 
two of a family of eleven children are now living, and only one, Isaac, re- 
sides in Florida, Hving upon the old homestead. Daniel Burnett, Jr., repre- 
sented by Horace W., married Miss Electa Loomis, who taught the first 
school, about 1800, in a barn. 

Nathan Kemp came to Florida, from Shelburne, in r8o6 or '07, when the 
country was but thinly settled, locating on the farm now owned by his grand- 
son, Nathan W. Kemp. He reared a family of seven children, but the only 
representatives now in town are Nathan W., Mrs. Gideon, his mother, and 
an aunt, Mrs. Kendall Kemp. 

Thomas Tower, born in Ashfield, February 8, 1783, came to Florida in 
1807, and located in the southeastern part, on the place where Ephraim 
now resides. Of a family of two sons and two daughters, only one son, 
Ephraim, and a daughter, Mrs. Clarissa Whitcomb, now reside in town. 
Ephraim has had a family of three children, one son, Austin, residing upon 
the old homestead with his father. Three brothers of Thomas Tower also 
located in Florida, two of whom are still represented in town — William by 
two sons, Sedate, and Dennis, and one daughter, Mrs. Kemp ; and Martin 
by three sons, Miles, Minor and Sidney. 

Ebenezer Thatcher, from Conway, came here in January, 1807, locating 
in the southern part of the town. He reared a family of six sons and three 
daughters, nearly all of whom settled here, but of whom only one, Sumner, 
now resides here. Sumner has two sons and four daughters now living, two 
of whom, Sereno S. and Amelia M., reside in Florida. Sereno lives on the 
place cleared by his father. Two brothers of Sumner are also represented 
here — one, Jerry, by his two sons, Marcus, and Ebenezer ; Leonard, by one 
daughter, Mrs. Sedate Tower. 



William White removed from Templeton, his native place, to Athol, and 
finally, after making several settlements, located in Florida, about 1822. He 
had born to him two sons and three daughters, the two sons, WilHam and 
Nathan, settling in Florida. William reared six children, two of whom, 
George W., and Mrs. Lorenzo Whitcomb, now reside in town. Nathan, who 
lives on the old homestead, has been twice married, having one son, Ernest 
C, by his first wife. 

The Baptist church, located at Florida village, was organized in 1810^ 
with twenty-six members. Their first church building was erected in 1824, 
and the present structure in 1861. The church building cost $3,000.00, 
will accommodate about 175 persons, and is now valued, including grounds, 
at $4,000.00. The society now has seventy-three members, with Rev. 
George L. Reeberg, pastor. 

GREAT BARRINGTON lies in the southwestern part of the county, 
in lat. 42° 12' and long. 3" 40', bounded noith by Stockbridge, West 
Stockbridge and Lee, east by Tyringham Monterey and New Marlboro, 
south by Sheffield and New Marlboro, and west by Alford and Egremont. 
This town formed a part of the territory granted as the "Upper and Lower 
Housatonic Township," the history of which transaction has already been 
mentioned in the County Chapter. The Upper Township was surveyed by 
Timothy Dwight, of Northamton, in October, 1736. It had been encroached 
upon the survey of the new "Indian Town" (Stockbridge) , so that it seems that 
the boundary of the whole township was as follows: "Beginning at the north 
western corner of Sheffield, the line ran east 9° south, 1,902 rods, then north 
40° east, over the Beartown mountain, 2,256 rods, to a point which falls on 
the farm of David and John Baker, in Cape street, so-called, in the present 
town of Lee. It then ran west, 9° north, crossing the southern slope of Rat- 
tlesnake mountain and Stockbridge mountain, 3,150 rods to the supposed 
line of New York; then south, 11° west, 1,950 rods, to the point first men- 
tioned; containing 31,360 acres, the area of seven miles square. The part 
taken up by the Indian Town was on the north of the township, 770 rods in 
breadth, extending from the supposed line of New York, six miles, or 1,920 
rods east. This contained 9,240 acres, so that what belonged to the Upper 
Housatonic Township in 1736, was 22,120 acres." In 1743 this tract was in- 
corporated as the North Parish of Sheffield, — sometimes called Upper Shef- 
field, and during that period was included in and formed a part of the town 
of Sheffield. But June 30, 1761, it was incorporated as a separate township, 
under the name of Great Barrington, so named in honor of Lord Barrington, 
of England, "the first of the name and peerage of Barrington." Its prefix 
"Great" was obtained, it is said, from the following circumstance : "The divis- 
ional line between Massachusetts and Rhode Island was unsettled and in con- 


troversy. The town of Barrington, now in Rhode Island, lay near the disputed 
line, and had been, in some degree, subject to the jurisdiction of Massachu- 
setts ; but as it was uncertain whether, by adjustment of the line, Barrington 
would fall within Massachusetts or Rhode Island, and to obviate the possible 
impropriety of having two towns of the same name in the province, it was 
determined that the new town should be called Great Barrington." 

In its outline the town is of irregular form though its average length and 
breadth are nearly the same, — a little less than seven miles. The whole 
area of the town, as near as the roughness of its boundary lines and the in- 
accuracies of their recorded surveys permit of computation, is 28,621 acres, 
or a little less than forty-five square miles. February 16, 1778a considerable 
tract of land was taken from the northwesterly part of the town and included 
in Alford. This section was 652 rods in length, north and south, with a 
width of 210 rods at its northern and 266 rods at its southern end; again, 
February 18, 1819, another piece, south of and adjoining the above described 
tract, was separated from this town and annexed to Alford^ making with the 
first piece a strip of 712 rods in length, and 296 rods in width at its southern 
end. In the northeastern section, that part of the Upper township known as 
the Hoplands, was taken from this town and included in the town of Lee at 
the time of its incorporation, October 21, 1777. Bj the setting off to Alford, 
Great Barrington lost 1,075 acres of its territory, which was still further 
reduced about 4,700 acres by the annexation of the Hoplands to Lee. By 
these changes the whole reduction of area since the incorporation of the town 
has been nearly 5,800 acres. In January, 1761, a small tract, including the 
dwelling and part of the lands of GarrettBurghardt, was, on his own petition, 
set oft" from Egremont and attached to Sheflfield, and on the incorporation 
of Great Barrington, a few months later, fell within the limits of this town. 
This change caused the jog or irregularity in the west line of the town near 
the late residence of Jacob Burghardt, deceased. On the south, the divisional 
line between this town and Sheffield, which is now commonly considered a 
straight line, was formerly the north of the Indian Reservation, and in the legis- 
lative act of the 13th of January, 1742, investing the — afterwards — North 
Parish, of Sheffield, with parish privileges, is thus described : " Beginning 
at the most northwesterly corner of the Indian land, in the west fine of 
the town of Sheffield, running easterly on said Indian land till it comes 
to a beech tree marked, near the mouth of Green river, then turning 
something northerly, and leaving to Sheffield a small piece of meadow, 
or intervale of said Indian land till it comes to range the line and beech 
tree on the easterly side of said meadow, or intervale, and then to 
continue said line till it intersects the east line of Sheffield Propriety." 
By this hne as described, — which afterwards became the south line of 
Great Barrington, — the " clear meadow," reserved by the Indians, was left 
to the town of Sheffield, but in later years the crook in this line has been dis- 
regardedj and, without any known legislative enactment, by common con- 



sent of both towns, this line has been perambulated, surveyed and recorded 
as a straight line, thus leaving the clear meadow within the limits of Great 

The surface of the town is broken and uneven, yet affording sufficient 
level, arable land to have it rank as a fine agricultural town. In the north- 
easterly part Bear mountain extends southeasterly from Stockbrige and Lee 
in to Monterey, cutting off from thejnain body of the town the school district 
of Beartown, and rendering it inaccessible by public highways except through 
the adjoining towns of Stockbridge and Lee, or Monterey. To the westward 
of Bear mountain, and directly at its base, lies the locality known as Muddy 
Brook, a secluded farming district — extending from the top of Three-mile 
hill northerly to the Stockbridge line — through which flows the stream that 
gives name to the locaUty. To the westward of the central part of Muddy 
brook valley the monument mountain rises, reaching northerly into Stock- 
bridge and spreading westerly with spurs and offshoots to the Housatonic 
river, which washes its base at the village of Housatonic, in the extreme 
northerly part of the town ; from its southern base a long range of hills 
extends southerly along the western border of the Muddy brook valley to 
Three-mile hill, and there unites with the Warner mountain, a spur of East 
Mountain. Immediately east of Great Barrington village, the East mountain, 
or, as it is somtimes called, the Great mountain, rises to an elevation several 
hundred feet, having its northern terminus in a singularly prominent pile of 
rocks, about one-third of a mile east of the " Great Bridge," from which it 
extends, with a gradually widening base, easterly, beyond Three-mile hill 
into New Marlboro, and southerly into Sheffield. Opposite to, and east of 
the southern part of the village, Hes the' Little mountain, apparently thrown 
from the larger or East mountain, in some great convulsion of nature, and 
still reclining in the lap of the parent mountain. Between the Little and East 
mountains a narrow valley intervenes, through which passes one of the early 
highways of the town, and also the East Mountain brook, which supphes the 
village with water. The East mountain, below the village, recedes from the 
river and in the southerly part of the town throws out an arm to the westward, 
which extends into Sheffield, and is called June mountain. To the eastward of 
June mountain, between it and the East mountain, passes the road to the Soda 
Springs and Brush hill, and the elevated intervening valley furnishes a course for 
Roaring brook, which flows northerly to its confluence with the Housatonic, 
near the late residence of David Leavitt, deceased. In the northwesterly part 
of the town the mountain called Tom Ball, in West Stockbridge, and Long 
Pond mountain, in this town, enters the town from West Stockbridge and 
reaches along the Alford town line, more than two miles, to the valley of See- 
konk brook. This mountain, too, has an offshoot to the eastward, called 
Sherlock mountain, the eastern base of which borders on Williams river. 
Between the Sherlock and Lond Pond mountains is an elevated valley, con- 
taining good farming lands, and forming the basin of Long pond, a secluded 


and attractive sheet of water of about loo acres. The principal streams of 
water are the Housatonic, Williams and Green rivers. 

The town thus cut by mountain, hill and valley, presents in all a magnifi- 
cent piece of scenery, the most attractive of its many points being Monu- 
ment Mountain, extending from the northern part of the town into Stock- 
bridge. This weird pile, 

" Shaggy and wild 
With mossy trees and pinnacles of flint, 
And many a hanging crag, " 

was made famous long ago by William CuUen Bryant's well-known poem, 
" Monument Mountain." It derives its name from a curious monum.ent on its 
southern slope, raised by the Indians for some unknown purpose, which was 
still standing when the white men first came to this region. There are many 
traditions extant as to the origin of this monument. Mr. Bryant, who was 
famihar with the mountain, has given the popular tradition in the above men- 
tioned beautiful poem, which states as follows : " Long before white men 
came, a beautiful maiden was so unfortunate as to fall in love with her cousin, 
— a love deemed illegal by these stern tribes. She struggled a long time 
with her unfortunate passion, but all in vain ; at length, overcome with 
despair and shame, she climbed one day the dizzy height of this mountain 
precipice accompanied only by a friend, a playmate of her young and inno- 
cent years. On the verge of the precipice the friends sat down, and then — 
"When the sun grew low. 

And the hill shadows long, she threw herself 

From the steep rock and perished. There was scooped 

Upon the mountain's southern slope a grave, 

And there they laid her in the very garb 

With which the maiden decked herself for death, 

And o'er the mould that covered her the tribe 

Built U]D a simple monument — a cone 

Of small loose stones. * * * * 

As the legend runs, "the cone of small loose stones," was built and con- 
tinued to grow by continual deposits, as each one who passed the grave cast 
another stone upon the heap, out of respect to the memory of her whose body 
rested beneath. It is said that years ago this cone was leveled by some van- 
dal, out of curiosity, or otherwise, and that it has since been rebuilt by visitors 
in the same manner in which it was originally raised. 

The rocks entering into the geological formation of the territory are prin- 
cipally of limestone formation, forming in some places ledges of excellent 
marble. In the western part of the town there is a ledge of talcose slate, and 
in the eastern part a range of quai'tz rock. Iron ore exists in some localities 
to a considerable extent. 

In 1880 Great Barrington had a population of 4,653. In 1883 it employed 
five male and twenty-nine female teachers in its public schools, at an average 
monthly salary of $42.00 for males and $30.44 for females. There were 718 


-school children, while the entire amount raised for school purposes was 

Great Barrington is a handsome post village located in the central part 
of the town on the Housatonic river and on the Housatonic railroad. At 
the time of the incorporation of the town it was a straggling hamlet known as 
Upper Sheffield, extending from Pixley street south to the Great Bridge, and 
thence to the Zina Parks place, south of Merritt I. Wheeler's ; but with the 
exception of the old David Ingersoll house, there were no dwellings between 
the bridge and the present Congregational church, and the few dwellings 
south of that point were scattered at wide intervales. Indeed, nearly all the 
buildings in Water street have been erected during the past fifty years. The 
central part, proper, of this hamlet was east of the bridge; and its not very 
extensive business was mostly in that vicinity. The meeting-house, standing 
in the west line of the upper burial ground, the mills on the river bank, 
erected by David Ingersoll more than twenty years before, and the notable 
tavern of Captain Hewitt Root, at the east end of the bridge, formed a nu- 
cleus about which a few dwellings had been congregated. Further east, at 
the Bung Hill corner, was another small collection of residences, a shop or 
two, and the smithy of Jonathan Nash. In laymg out the lands on the east 
side of the river, through Pixley street, the settling committee appear to have 
had in view the site of a prospective village on the level ground in that vicin- 
ity, and gave the main road in that part of the town a width of ten rods. 
The establishment of the courts and the subsequent erection of the county 
buildings, as mentioned on page 35, gave an impulse to the growth and 
added to the importance of both the village and the town. 

It is now a charming village of about 2,700 inhabitants, whose broad 
main street, numberless huge elms, fine business blocks, neat and well-kept 
houses, and its business activity wins for it the admiration of all. It has, 
aside from its business blocks and manufactories, four churches (Congrega- 
tional, Methodist, Episcopal and Roman Catholic), two banks and many fine 
private residences. The scenic beauties in its near vicinity are marked and 
striking, while its drives in all directions are among the most charming to be 

The Great Barri7igton Water Company. — The village has a fine water sup- 
ply, furnished from a reservoir which is supplied by East Mountain brook. 
The reservoir was built in 1868, by the above mentioned company, which 
was organized that year, with a capital of $20,000.00. The present officers 
of the company are John L. Dodge, president; F. T. Whiting, treasurer; 
Billing Palmer, secretary, with their office located at the store of F. T. Whit- 
ing & Son. 

The Great Barrington Gas Company. — In 1854 the Berkshire Woolen 
Company put up works for manufacturing gas for lighting their mills, being 
first used October 30th of that year. In 1855 the above mentioned company 
-was formed, which laid pipes through Main street and introduced into the 


village the gas made by the woolen company. It was first used for lighting; 
business places in October, 1855, and has since come into quite general use. 

The Natio7ial Mahaiwe Bank. — May 24, 1847, the Mahaiwe Bank was or- 
ganized, with a capital of $100,000.00, which was subsequently increased to 
$200,000.00, and went into operation the following autumn. In 1865 it be- 
came a national bank. Its first officers were Wilber Curtis, president, and 
Henry Hooker, cashier. J. L. Dodge is now president, and F. N. Deland, 

The Great Barrington Savings Bank.~-i:\-\\'s, institution was incorporated' 
February 23, 1869, and commenced business on the first of June of that year. 
Its first oflficers, elected May 8, 1869, were as follows: Egbert Hollister, 
president ; David S. Draper, and R. N. Couch, vice-presidents ; and M. Lud- 
low Whitlock, clerk. Egbert Hollister is now president, with Charles I. Tay- 
lor, treasurer. 

The Berkshire Woolen Company. — This company, engaged in the manu- 
facture of fancy cassimeres, was incorporated in 1836, the business "having 
been commenced in a small way by J. C. & A. C. Russell, the year previous. 
The company gradually increased its manufacturing facilities by the purchase 
of all the immediate water-power and buildings on both sides of the river, and 
the erection of extensive works including the large stone factory — built in 
1858-59 on the site of the old tannery — and a machine shop on the site of 
the old forge, on the east side of the river. The original factory of the Rus- 
sells, erected in 1836, was destroyed by fire in December, 1864. Parley A. 
Russell is now president and treasurer of the company, and George E. Rus- 
sell, secretary. 

HousATONic, another thriving post village, where are situated the extensive 
works of the Monument Mill Co., lies in the northern part of the town, on 
the Housatonic river. It has, aside from its factories, business places and 
neat residences, three churches (Congregational, Methodist and Roman Cath- 
olic,) and a good school building. 

The Monimient Mill Co. — This large concern was originally incorporated 
as the Housatonic Manufacturing Co., in 1830. That company, however, 
failed, and May 29, 1850, the present company was organized. The mills 
have sixty-eight jacquaid looms, 1,800 spindles, and give employment to 350 
hands, who turn out 330,000 quilts and 2,700,000 pounds of plain, fancy and 
double and twist cotton warps per year. The present officers of the com- 
pany are George Church, president, and John M. Seeley, agent and treasurer. 

The Owen Paper Co. — In 1852 Heniy L. Potter erected a paper-mill on 
the site of the present mill, which was destroyed by fire in March, 1855. Dur- 
ing the following year Messrs. Owen & Hulbert purchased the property and 
erected a paper-mill which they operated until 1862, when the Owen Paper 
Co. was organized. Since that time they have erected the large mill about 
half a mile down the stream from the old works. The firm does a large busi- 
ness in the manufacture of ledger, banknote, bond, thin linen, wedding royals,. 


and writing paper of all kinds. The stock is owned by Henry D. Cone and 
his wife, who was the widow of Edward H. Owen. 

Van Deusenville (Van Deusen p. o.) is a small village located midway 
between Great Barrington and Housatonic, on Williams river, and on the 
Housatonic railroad. The village has only the works of the Richmond Iron 
Co , a church, school-house, about twenty dwellings, etc., though it was for- 
merly of considerable importance, having three stores, an hotel, two factories, 
a chair shop, a wagon shop, and a blast furnace. Isaac L. Van Deusen, to 
whose energy and enterprise the village was largely indebted, and whose re- 
sources were impaired in building it up, removed to Grafton, Ohio, in 1834, 
and died there. He was highly esteemed, represented this town four years 
in the general court, 1820-21, and 1827-28, and was also for several years 
town treasurer. The Richmond Iron Co. have extensive works for smelting 
ore located here, but they are not now in operation. 

William R. Calkins's grist-mill, located on road 23, is operated by steam 
power, has two runs of stones and grinds from 100 to 150 bushels of grain 
per day. 

£. F. Gilmores saw -mill, located on road 25, is operated by water-power 
and has two lumber saws, one shingle-mill and a planing-mill. It gives em- 
ployment to four men and cuts 300,000 feet of lumber and 300.000 shingles 
per annum. 

William P. Turner s saw -mill, located on road 28, is operated by steam- 
power, employs four men, and cuts 1,000,000 feet of lumber per year. 

Messrs. Ashley and Pomeroy, of the committee for laying out the townships, 
came to Housatonic in March, 1726, determmed the boundary, on the river, 
between the two towns, and made the division of the Lower Township. It is 
to be presumed that some settlers were admitted into the Upper Township in 
that year, and it is certain, from records of the committee, that several of them 
had entered upon their lands previous to May 12, 1727. These settlers were 
molested by the Dutch people, who claimed the lands as within the jurisdic- 
tion of New York, and the progress of the settlement was for a time delayed 
by the settling committee, of May, 1727, issued by instruction of the lieu- 
tenant-governor, prohibiting the further laying out of lands, and prosecution of 
suits against the New York claimants. The records of the committee furnish 
but little information relative to the cause or extent of the troubles with the 
Dutchmen. The State of New York, claiming the Connecticut river for its 
eastern boundary, had granted the lands along the Housatonic, as has been 
stated in our County Chapter, to the Westenhook patentees, thirty years pre- 
vious to the commencemet of the settlement, and these patentees, or others 
holding under them, now contested the right of the Massachusetts settlers to 
the lands in both townships. [It is said that the New York men brought suits 
against some of the settlers and caused them to be arrested and taken to Al- 
bany for trial. These troubles retarded the settlement of the town for a 
number of years. 


The majority of the first settlers were English, several of them from West- 
field and that vicinity, while a few were Dutch from the State of New York. 
The earliest settlers, south of the bridge, were Coonrod Burghardt, Samuel 
Dewey, Samuel Dewey, Jr., Asahel Dewey, Thomas Dewey, John Granger, 
Samuel Harmon, Moses Ingersoll, David King, Stephen King, Israel Lawton, 
Joseph Noble, Thomas Piper, John Phelps, Joshua Root, Joseph Sheldon, 
Samuel Suydam, Lawrence Suydam, Joshua White, Samuel Younglove, Sam- 
uel Younglove, Jr. Most of these settled here from 1726 to 1730, none it is 
probable, coming later than 1733. Above the bridge, the forty proprietary 
rights in the Upper Township were, in 1742, owned by sixteen individuals, 
several of whom were non-residents. 

The early settlers in that part of the town were Derrick Hogoboom, Hez- 
ekiah and Josiah Phelps, Joseph Pixley and his sons Jonah, Joseph, Moses 
and Jonathan, John Williams, Isaac Van Deusen, Jehoiakim Van Valkenburgh, 
John Burghardt alias De Bruer, and Hendrick Burghardt. A little later came 
William King, Thomas Horton, Daniel Nash and his son Jonathan, Jonathan 
Willard and David Ingersoll. These last named appear all to have resided 
here as early as 1740. To these settlers, or to the owners of proprietary 
rights, house lots, with meadow and upland, were laid out by the settling com- 
mittee, along the valley of the river from the north line of Sheffield to the 
foot of Monument mountain ; and a few locations were made west of the 
Green river, in the southerly and westerly parts of the town. But with these 
few exceptions the settlements were for the most part confined to the valley, 
and did not penetrate the more remote parts of the town until 1753, or latter. 

The first town meeting was warned by Gen. Joseph Dvvight,July r8, 1761, 
to "meet at the meeting-house, on Wednesday, July 22d, 1761, at four 
o'clock, p. M. At this meeting Joseph Dwight was chosen moderator, and 
the following Hst of officers elected : Mark Hopkins, town clerk ; Joseph 
Dwight, Timothy Hopkins and John Burghardt, selectmen and assessors ; 
Timothy Hopkins, town treasurer; Thomas Pier, Jr., constable; Aaron Shel- 
don, Jonathan Pixley and William Brunson, hog reeves; Timothy Hopkins, 
Jonathan Nash and WiUiam Brunson, surveyors of highways ; Aaron Sheldon 
and Israel Root, fence viewers ; Timothy Hopkins, sealer of leather ; Wil- 
liam Ingersoll, Jonathan Nash and Timothy Hopkins, overseers of the work- 
house; William Ingersoll and Jonathan Nash, tythingmen ; and Jonathan 
Nash, TimothyHopkins and William Brunson, wardens. 

In 1775 the town had 961 inhabitants, and in 1790 its population had 
increased to 1,373. Among the prominent citizens earlier than 1810, may be 
mentioned the following : James Hyde, George Beckwith, Allen Henderson 
from New Hartford, Conn. ; Samuel and Gamaliel H. Barston, from Sharon, 
Conn. ; David and Isaac Leavenworth, Ebenezer Pope, originally from Leb- 
anon, Conn. ; Samuel Riley and Timothy Pelton. Of those between 1810 
and 1820, were William Cullen Bryant, John Chatfield, Charles and Ralph 
Taylor, Alvenus Cone and Charles Foote. Between 1820 and 1830, John C, 


and Asa C. Russell, Increase Sumner, Elijah Foster, Gilbert Munson, Wil- 
liam M. Battell, Daniel Wilcox, Linus Manville, Washington Adams and 
Benjamin Peabody. Between 1830 and 1840, Noble B. Pickett, Augustine 
and Daniel E. Giddings, Enos Foote, George Taylor, John C. Cone, John 
D. Gushing, Joshua R. Lawton, Phineas Chapin, John H. Coffing, George 
W. SterHng, John W. Couch, Henry Loop, William S. Stevens, William and 
George Stanley, and Philip Barnes and many others. 

Prominent amongst the men active in town affairs between 1810 and 1830, 
were David Wainright, Lucius King, Moses Hopkins, David Leavenworth, 
James A. Hyde, John Whiting, Ebenezer Pope, George H. Ives, WiUiam C. 
Bryant, John Seeley, Berjamin Rogers, Samuel Rosseter, Isaac L. Van Deu- 
sen, and George Beckwith. Among those most prominent between 1830 
and 1850, and several of them later, were Charles W. Hopkins, David Ives, 
Edward P. Woodworth, George Pynchon, Increase Sumner, Ralph Taylor, 
Gilbert Munson, Benjamin Peabody, Prentice Comstock, PhiHp Barnes, 
Henry Loop, Isaac Seeley, Charles Foote, Almon I. Loring, Joshua R. Law- 
ton, Augustine Giddings, Loring G. Robbins, Jacob H. VanDeusen, Charles 
W. Emerson and Samuel Newman. 

The men furnished by Great Barrington during the late war, the troubles 
attending the Shays Rebellion, the Indian mission estabhshed here, the 
town's court history, newspaper history, etc., etc., have all been noticed in 
our County Chapter, to which we refer the reader for further information. In 
the following brief biographical notices we mention a few of the early set- 
tlers, a few of those whose deeds have identified them with the history of the 
town, and a few of those whom the exhaustive and well-arranged ''History of 
Great Bartington," by Charles J. Taylor, to which we are so largely indebted, 
has omitted to notice. 

David Humphrey, born in 1720, was one of the early settlers of Great Bar- 
rington, locating on the farm now owned by Hiram Comstock. His son Hugh, 
who was born December 8, 1749, married Desiah Pixley in 1776, and in 1794, 
purchased the farm now owned by Mark Humphrey, which farm has ever 
since been in the possession of the Humphrey family. David, son of Hugh, 
who was eight years old when his father moved upon the homestead, married 
Sophronia HamUn, of Canton, Conn., and reared a family of seven chirdren, 
five of whom, Mark, of this town, Isaac, of Springfield, Mass., Electa Nichol- 
son, and David, of Nashville, Tenn., and Francis Hollister, of Kansas are still 
living. In 1867 Mark Humphrey, in company with George R. Ives, pur- 
chased the Woodruff property of seventy nine acres and opened Bridge street. 
In 1872 he purchased the right of way from the Berkshire House to the bridge 
of Mr. Ives, at an expense of $1,500.00, and built the first bridge across the 
stream at this point, at the cost of $2,408.00, proceeding at once to grade 
the street at the additional expense of $2,000.00, making the total expense 
$6,000.00. In 1880 the town voted to accept the bridge and roads, and pay 
Mr. Humphrey $500.00. 


David Sanford, born in Medford, Conn., in 1737 came to Great Barrington 
about 1756, making the first settlement on the farm now owned by his great- 
grandson, F. T. Sanford. He married Bathsheba Ingersoll, in 1757 by whom 
he had ten chilldren. David, Jr., born January 6, 1759, married Hannah 
Medway, rearing a family often children. John son of David, Jr., born May 
22, 1784, married Aurora Farnham, who bore him six children, five of whom, 
John F., and Frederick T., of Great Barrington, Mrs. Mary L. Wilmot of 
New York city, Mrs. Aurora Laselle, of Florida, and David, of St. Paul, 
Minn., are still living. 

William Pattison, born in Connecticut, came to Great Barrington before 
the Revolution, locating on road 6, and served in the war from this place. 
He married Betsey Williams, who lived only about a year. He afterwards 
married Wealthy A. Lawrence, by whom he had eight children, two of whom, 
William, of Witbville, Va., and Bazy W., of this town, survive. 

Phineas and Hezekiah Atwood were among the first settlers in this town. 
A son of Phineas, Phineas, Jr., who was born September 11, 1766, married 
Amy Martin in 1793, and reared a family of eight children, of whom one son, 
Henry, of Lancaster, N. Y., survives. Jeremiah, son of Phineas, Jr., mar- 
ried, in 1841, Cynthia Upham, who died in 1861. He married Mariette 
C. Bullard, in 1866, rearing one son, Henry B., who survives, residing on road 
26. In 1824 Phineas was elected colonel of a company in the battalion of 
cavalry in the first brigade. 7th division. He died April 14, 1882. 

Con Murray, a native of Ireland, enhsted and came to this country under 
Burgoyne, and was with him until the surrender, after which he came to Great 
Barrington, locating on the farm now owned by William Palmer. 

Peregrine Comstock, from New London, was among the early settlers in this 
town, locating on the place now owned bj Burdett Shepard. Hiram, son of 
Prentice, and grandson of Peregrine, born in 1805, married Eleanor Town- 
send, rearing a family of five children, four of whom. Perry G., Mrs. Euretta 
Laning, Mrs. Mary A. Van Deusen, of this town, and Mrs. Mary E, Cross, of 
Berkshire, N. Y., are living. 

Elijah Dwight the first clerk of the court, and register of probate, was the 
son of Gen. Joseph Dwight, and was born at Brookfield, April 23, 1740. He 
held the above offices until the Revolution, and September 6, 1765, was ap- 
pointed a justice of the peace and special justice of the court of common 
pleas. He is understood not to have sympahized very strongly with the pop- 
ular leaders in the Revolutionary contest. He certainly was not an active 
Whig, but he was a man of the highest character and standing, and never in 
any resi)ect obnoxious to his fellow citizens. He was repeatedly a represent- 
ative from Great Barrington, a member of the State senate from 1788 to '93, 
a member of the convention which ratified the Federal constitution in 1788, 
and one of the justices of the court of common pleas from 1787 until his 
death. He died at Brookfield, June 12, 1794. It is said of him — "he was 
an able magistrate and a very gentle, kind-hearted, good man." Remarried 


a daughter of Dr. Thomas Williams, of Deerfield, but has now no living 
descendants. His home in Great Barrington was the home built by his father 
and is still standing. 

Mark Hopkins was the youngest child of Timothy Hopkins, of Waterbury, 
Conn., born September i8, 1739, ^^^ graduated at Yale in 1758, in the 
class of Israel Stoddard. He came to Great Barrington, perhaps drawn 
there because it was the residence of his elder brother. Dr. Samuel Hopkins, 
then pastor of the church here. He was admitted to the bar at the first 
session of the court of common pleas (September, 1761), the first person 
admitted to the bar in this county. At the same time he was by the court 
appointed register of deeds, which office he held by successive elections to 
the time of his death. It is worthy of mention that he was succeeded in 
this office by his nephew, MoHes Hopkins, Esq., in 1778, who, in his turn, 
was re-elected from time to time for a period of sixty years. Mr. Hopkins 
was also county treasurer for a number of years. Kings attorney or prosecut- 
ing officer, from an early date, and justice of the peace from 1766, after the 
Revolution commenced, and during the unsettled state of the government, he 
was appointed by the council (September 28, 1775), judge of probate for this 
county, but never assumed the office. He was a decided Whig at the open- 
ing of the Revolution, a member of the county convention at Stockbridge, 
July, 1774, and in 1776 jomed the army about New York, as brigade major 
in the brigade commanded by Gen. John Fellows. He died in the service 
at White Plains, April 20, 1776. The house and office which he built and 
occupied in Great Barrington are still standing, though each is removed from 
its original location. 

Isaac Seeley, who was long register of deeds here, was born in Van Deusen- 
ville, June 27, 1805. He was afforded a common school education, and 
soon after leaving school he became a clerk in a store at Van Deusenville, 
and also taught school for a time. Later he went to Worcester, Ohio, where 
he was a clerk in a store. Returning to Great Barrington, in 1828, he again 
began teaching school, and taught school for several years. About this time 
he became interested in politics, and in 1833 was elected a Whig member of 
the legislature, and in 1840 was a member of the convention at Baltimore 
that nominated Harrison for President. In the spring of 1844 Mr. Seeley 
began to keep books in the store of the Berkshire Woolen Company, and 
continued in that occupation until 1846, when he was elected register of 
deeds, of the South Berkshire district, retaining the position until his death, 
in 1884. He also held town offices and was postmaster a number of years. 
His widow and five children survive him — Miss Julia A., Mrs. Kate Gallup, 
Miss Alice E., and George B., of this town, and Merret, of Concord, N. H. 
Clarkson T. Collins, M. D., was born in Smyrna, Chenango Co., N. Y., 
January 8, 182 1, and died in New York City, April 10, 188 r. His parents, 
Job. S. and Ruth Collins, were well known and highly esteemed members of 
the Society of Friends. They removed to Utica, N. Y., in 1835, where they 



continued to reside until the father's death, in 1870. Dr. ColUns graduated 
from the medical department of the University of New York, in 1843, hav- 
ing also attended the city hospital. He then settled in New York city, where 
he soon secured a good practice. Soon after his graduation, he was appointed 
one of the physicians to the Eastern Dispensary, and also district physician 
to the New York Lying-in Asylum. In 1845, with his characteristic energy 
and progressive ideas, he estabUshed the New York Medical and Surgical 
Reporter, when medical papers and magazines were by no menns so common 
as at the present day. Having made a special study of Gynecology, he estab- 
hshed, in 1848, an infirmary for the treatment of female diseases and re- 
mained in charge of it until the year 1849. In that year he was conjpelled 
by repeated hemorrhages of the lungs to reHnquish, for a time, his arduous 
professional duties. He spent four months on the Island of Madeira, and 
then made a tour through Spain, France and England. On his return from 
Europe he made a visit among the Berkshire Hills, and the climate here 
agreed with him so well that he decided to remove from New York city to 
Great Harrington, which he did, in the autumn of 1850, and continued to re- 
side here in his villa, known as "Indiola Place," until the time of his death. 
During his residence of over thirty years in Berkshire county he established 
a large practice and won a wide reputation for medical and surgical skill. 
In 1 85 1 he founded an institution, still known as the "Collins House," for 
the treatment of chronic diseases, and received many patients from all parts, 
of the country. 

Dr. Collins was an early advocate of the American Medical Association, 
and was a delegate from New York city at its meeting in Boston, in 1849. 
He was also one of the earliest advocates of the New York Academy of 
Medicine, which was organized in 1847. He was made chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Ether by the Academy when the members of his profession were 
divided in sentiment as to its use ; that committee consisted of thirteen mem- 
bers, among whom were Drs. Valentine Mott, Parker, Post and other emi- 
nent men. Dr. Collins was a member of the American Medical Association, 
the New York State Medical Society, the Massachusetts Medical Society, and 
the Berkshire District Medical Society, and of the latter was twice presi- 
dent. He was also one of the ceijsors and State councillors, also corres- 
ponding member of the Massachusetts Board of Health and of the Boston 
Gynecological Society. He devoted much time to the study of his profession 
and published a number of contributions to its literature. He married, in 
1844, Lydia C, daughter of Charles G. Coffin, of Nantucket. In 1864 his 
two children, a son and daughter, died. This sad blow was followed in a few 
months by the death of his wife. Dr. Collins was a man of commanding 
presence and vigorous personahty, which never failed to impress those with 
whom he was brought in contact, while his kind heart and genial disposition 
greatly endeared him to those who knew him best. He combined with a 
practical judgment and broad and progressive ideas, an indomitable energy 



and untiring perseverance that won for him an enviable place in the ranks of 
his profession^ and enable him to exert an influence that will long be felt in 
the community in which he lived. 

Augustine Giddings was born in Sherman, Conn., October 5, 1804, and 
died in Great Barrington, April 7, 1876. The early ancestors of this family, 
emigrated to New England from the parish of Great St. Albans, Hertford- 
shire, Eng. , in the year 1635. Connected with this ancestry were Rev. Salmon 
Giddings, the first Protestant missionary in Missouri, in 1815 ; Joshua R. 
Giddings, representative in congress from 1838 to 1859; and Marsh Gid- 
dings, governor of New Mexico from 1871 to 1875. Both his father and the 
grandfather of Augustine bore the name of Jonathan, each engaged in hus- 
bandry, and the family estate in Sherman descended from father to son. 
Augustine came to Great Barrington in 1827, and was followed soon after by 
his brother, Daniel Edwin, and then by his sister Laura, wife of N. B. Pickett, 
an earnest Christian and a skillful physician. The three families settled upon 
adjoining farms on North Plain, prospered in their worldly affairs, and cele- 
brated their thanksgivings together. Mr. Giddings was representative in the 
legislature of 1841, and held the office of justice of the peace forty-two years. 
Thoroughly orthodox in his religious faith, he instructed his family in the 
assembly's catechism, and daily acknowledged his Heavenly Father in family 
prayer. He married September 6, 1826, Olive S., daughter of Philo and 
Olive Millard, an adopted daughter of Dr. John Raymond, of Kent, Conn. 
Their children were as follows : Myra Ann, died young ; Edward Jonathan, 
entered the Congregational ministry, has labored in Housatonic, West Stock- 
bridge, Gill, Scituate, and Somerset, Mass., Eaton, N. Y., and Wolcott, Vt., 
married Rebecca Jane, only daughter of Revilo Fuller, of Sherman. Conn., 
descendant of Dr. Samuel Fuller, a deacon of the church in Holland, and 
signer of the compact on board the " Mayflower." He resides at Housatonic, 
and has four children — two sons in the employ of Springfield Union. Augus- 
tine Henry, graduated at Union college, settled as a lawyer in Michigan and 
was elected judge of the fourteenth judicial circuit, 1869, re-elected 1875, 
died in 1876. Theodore studied medicine, was graduated at the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, in New York, and is in the successful practice of his 
profession at Housatonic. William, graduated at Williams college and at 
Union Theological Seminary, labored in the ministry at the West for a time, 
and now occupies the homestead; he married Maria A., daughter of William 
Mallory, of Hamden, N. Y., and sister of Rev. Charles W. Mallory, of Housa- 

John, son of John Kellogg, one of the early settlers of the county, was born 
in Tryingham in 1755. He married Lydia Church, of Great Barrington, and 
made the first settlement on the farm now owned by Joseph trein. They 
reared a family of four children. Philander, Charles, John and Norman, of 
whom John married Hopy Stillman, of Sheffield, Mass., rearing a family of 
seven children, Norman, Fanny, John, Frederick, Ralph, Edmond, and Hopy. 
Of these, Frederick and Fanny, both of Great Barrington, survive. 


Capt. Nathaniel Turner, the common ancestor of the Turners living in 
New Haven, came from England, accompanied by his wife and four children, 
with Gov. Winthrop in 1630, landing in Salem June 12th, and lived in Lynn 
until 1638, when he removed with Gov. Eaton, to New Haven, Conn. Jabez 
and William, descendants of Nathaniel, and Elijah, all of North Haven, 
Conn., were among the early settlers in Great Barrington. Jabez and William 
located in the northern part of the town, and Elijah made the first settlement 
on the farm now owned by M. G. Hall. Mix, son of Ehjah, was born in 
1786, and at the age of twelve went to reside with his uncle William, and 
learned the blacksmith's trade. They used to bring all the iron they worked 
from West Stockbridge upon their backs, a distance of six miles. Mix after- 
wards opened a blacksmith shop on the place now owned by Sarah Couch, in 
the neighborhood of which he always resided. He married for his first wife 
Salona Vining, who bore him four children, one of whom, Mrs. Mary Thomp- 
son, of Suffield, survives. His second wife was Mary Large, by whom he had 
seven children, George L., James M,, William P., Joseph L., of Great Bar- 
rington, David, of Lee, Silence, and Roberts who married Frances Judd, of 
Sheffield, all of whom are living. Mix died in September, 188 1, at the age 
of ninety-five. Jabez Turner, before spoken of, purchased the farm now 
owned by his grandson, H. H. B. Turner. Benjamin W., son of Jabez, mar- 
ried Laura Hart, and reared two children, Cornelia E., and H. H. B. Turner. 
The latter still resides in Housatonic. 

John Van Deusen, one of the early settlers of Great Barrington, came from 
Salisbury, Conn., locating on the farm now owned by Charles Hollenbeck, 
and reared a family of five children, only one of whom, Joel, survives. Joel 
married Lydia S. Molthrop and reared two children, Newton D. and Franklin 
B., both residing in Housatonic. 

Joel TuUer, from Connecticut, was one of the early settlers in Great Bar- 
rington, purchasing the farm now owned by J. M. Joyner. 

John Seeley, one of the early settlers, came from Connecticut, and located 
near Long pond, where he reared a family of three boys, Jared, Bethnel and 
John. John, Jr., married Mary Hart, of Great Barrington, rearing a family 
of two children, John M., and Laura. John M. Seeley was born April 17, 18 14, 
and when fourteen years of age went into the woolen mill of W. Adams & Co., 
at Van Deusenvilie, working there four years, when, in company with Mr. 
Adams, he opened a store in connection with the mill. In 1837 the mills were 
converted from woolen to cotton mills, the manufacture of which was con- 
tinued until 1846, when the mill and water-power was sold to Coffin & Chit- 
tendon, the power to be used in the blast furnace, after which Mr. Adams 
and Seeley went to Adams and purchased the water-power of the late William 
C. Plunkett, erecting a cotton-mill which they operated six years, when, in 
1864, Mr. Seeley sold his interest to the heirs of W. Adams, and coming to 
Housatonic, took charge of the Monument Mills, which he has greatly en- 
larged, and for which he is still agent, at the age of seventy-one years. 


John Powell, who was born in Great Barrington, January 26, 1781, married 
Orange Marcham May 27, 1801, and reared nine children, two of whom, 
Mrs. Benjamin, of this town, and Mrs. Mary Buck, of Conklin Station, N. Y., 
are still living. 

Jonathan Ford, from New Haven, Conn., came to Great Barrington in 
1797, locating on the farm now owned by WiUiam H. Burget. He married 
Polly Bassett, of New Haven, by whom he had six children. One son, Jes- 
sie, married Abigail G. Grinnell and reared a family of eight children, of 
whom three, Mrs. Phebe A. Benedict, and Enos J. Ford, of Prairieburg, la., 
and Gilbert, of this town, survive. 

Peter Burgett removed to this country from Holland, and located in this 
town, among the earHest settlers upon the farm now owned by Warren Crissy. 
Lambert, son of Peter, was born here, and married Fischa Van Deu- 
sen, by whom he had five children. His son, Isaac, who was born May 20, 
1796, married for his first wife, Mary A. Burgett and reared three children, 
John L., of this town, Maria F. Van Deusen, of Binghamton, N. Y., and Caro- 
line. His wife dying January r, 1834, he married for his second wife Har- 
riett Van Deusen, who bore him four children, three of whom, William H., of 
Great Barrington, Mary Rowe and Henry W. of Egremont, are still living. 

Richard, son of Peter Burghardt, was born in Great Barrington, and mar- 
ried Katie Van Deusen. His son Harry married Mary Van Deusen, and 
located in Upper Lisle, N. Y. William, the oldest son, lived upon road i 
until his death in 1884. 

Bennet, grandson of Dr. Thomas Pickett of Sherman, Conn., married 
Arminda Potter, who hved but a short time thereafter. H^ married for his 
second wife Sally Giddings, and reared a family of six children, two of whom, 
Daniel, of Orleans county, N. Y., and Buel, of Rockford, 111., survive. Noble 
B., another son, who was born January 19, 1801, commenced teaching at 
the age of twenty, which occupation he followed about ten years, beginning 
at the age of thirty the study of medicine. In 1834 he married Laura 
Giddings of Sherman, Conn., and began the practice of medicine in the north- 
eastern part of Duchess county, N. Y., coming to Great Barrington in 1835, 
and locating near Housatonic, where he practiced until 1873, when, losing 
his eyesight, he was obliged to retire from practice. In 1879 he took up his 
abode with his daughter, Mrs. D. W. Beck with, where he resided until his 
death, m 1884, at the age of eighty-three. Dr. Pickett was a representative 
in the legislature in 1851-52. 

Jacob, son of Isaac Van Deusen, was born in this town and located on the 
farm now owned by John E. Rogers. His brother. Mason, married Anna 
M. Holenbeck, of Greenport, N. Y., and reared three children, two of whom, 
Mrs. John H. Ferguson and Mrs. Elisha CoUins, both of this town, are Hving. 

Christian Wolf removed to Sheffield, from Coxsackie, N. Y., in 1808, 
and purchasing the farm now owned by Ami Wilcox, of New Hartford, 
Conn., and reared a fa:mily of six children, two, Polly Cook, of Winsted, 


Conn., and Harriet Lawrence, of Canaan, Conn., are still living. His son 
Henry, born in Coxsackie, and who was twelve years old when his father 
came to Sheffield, married Sarah Partridge, of Canaan, Conn., and had four 
children, only one of whom, James C, of Great Barrington, survives. 

Thomas Abbey, from Enfield, Conn., was an early settler in Sandisfield, 
locating on the farm recently owned by Orville Merrill. His son, Capt. 
Henry, born in 1791, married Julia Gibbs, of Tolland, rearing three boys, 
FrankUn, Milton and Frederick, of whom but one, Frederick, of this town, 

James Bennett, a native of England, came to Great Barrington, in 1859. 
His wife was Ann Burdge, by whom he had eleven children, four of whom, 
Henry J., Charles B., George W. and Eliza A. are still living. James died 
in Housatonic, March 27, 1883, at the great age of lot years, two months 
and nineteen days. 

Edwin D. Brainard, born in Canaan, N. Y.. came to Great Barrington when 
but fifteen years of age and learned the mason trade. Most of his Hfe has 
been spent in contracting and building. In i88t he erected the fine resi- 
dence in which he now resides. 

Amos Briggs, of Dana, Mass., came to Lenox in 1820. married Anna 
Amsadon, and reared a family of fifteen children, five of whom, Luther A., 
George W. and Mrs. Mark Church, of Great Barrington, Alonzo, of Derby, 
Conn., and Amos of Haverstraw, N. Y., are still living. 

John Curtiss came to Sheffield from Wallingford, Conn., being among the 
first settlers at Ashley Falls. His son Giles, who came with him, joined the 
Revolutionary army, serving three years and four months. He returned, after 
the war, to Sheffield, and married Hannah Westover, who bore him fifteen 
children, all growing to manhood and womanhood, and of whom four, 
Edmund Curtis, now residing with his daughter, Mrs. Matthias Snyder, at the 
age of eighty-nine, Mrs. Cornelia Gardner, and Mrs. Hannah Crosby, of 
Sheffield, and Electa Hall, of Stony Creek, Conn., are still living. 

John C. Russell, one of the founders of the Berkshire woolen mills, was 
born in Westfield, Conn., and came to Great Barrington with the meager 
sum of one dollar and twelve and a half cents in his possession. The same 
silver dollar is still in the possession of his son George. 

The First Congregational church of Great Barrington. — In the " North 
Parish of Sheffield," the first meeting-house was built in 1742, and the first 
minister known to have officiated was Rev. Thomas Strong — afterwards set- 
tled in New Marlboro — who preached here for a time, probably as a canidate, 
in 1742-43. The parish committee for providing preaching secured the ser- 
vices of Rev. (afterwards Doctor) Samuel Hopkins, who came early in July, 
1743. Mr. Hopkins, after preaching through the summer, to the acceptance 
of the people, was invited, by the unanimous vote of the parish proprietors, 
September 9, 1743, to settle here in the work of the ministry, and was 
accordingly ordained December 28th of that year. On the same day with. 


the ordination of Mr. Hopkins, the church was organized with five members 
besides its pastor. To these, twelve were added on the 5th of February fol- 
lowing, and seven others during the year 1744. The old church building did 
service until the year 1812, when another wooden structure was built; this in 
turn was used until 1859^ when it was removed to Bridge street, and a fine 
stone edifice erected upon its site, at a cost of about $22,000.00, to which 
was added a chapel in 1878, at a cost of $5,470.00. On the evening of 
March 4, 1882, these buildings were entirely destroyed by fire, the bare walls 
alone remaining in position. Soon after, however, was commenced the struc- 
ture of the present elegant stone building capable of seating 600 persons, and 
furnished with a $30,000.00 organ. A fine, costly parsonage has also been 
added. The society now has 200 members, with Rev. Evarts Scudder, 

Sf. James Episcopal churchy located at Great Barrington village, was 
organized by Rev. Thomas Davies, September 21, 1762, the first settled rec- 
tor being Rev. Gideon Bostwick. Their first church building, erected in 
1764, had used in its construction so much glass that it was known as the 
"glass house." In 1833 this building was superseded by a building of stone, 
and in 1858 the present building was erected. It is constructed of blue 
limestone, will comfortably seat 450 persons, cost $18,000.00, and is now 
valued, including grounds, etc., at $22,000.00. The society has 170 com- 
municants, with Rev. Joseph E. Lindholm, rector. 

The Trinity Episcopal church, located at VanDeusenville, was organized by 
Rev. Sturges Gilbert, the first rector, in 1829. consisting of about forty mem- 
bers. Their first church building, erected during that year, did service until 
1868, when the present building was erected, at a cost of $14,000.00. It 
v/ill seat 200 persons, and is valued, including grounds, at $15,000.00. The 
society has forty members, with Rev. Arthur H. Profiitt, pastor. 

The Housatonic Congregational church, located at Housatonic village, was 
organized by a council convened for the purpose, June 18, 1841, with eight- 
een members. Rev. Charles B. Boynton being the first pastor. During the 
following year their church building was erected, and enlarged in 1867, so 
that it is now valued, including other property, at $10,000.00, and will com- 
fortably accommodate 450 petsons. The society has 153 members, with 
Rev. Charles W. Mallory, pastor. 

The Methodist Episcopal church, located on Main street, Great Barrington, 
was organized by Rev. John Harmon and others, in 1845, Rev. Humphrey 
Humphries being the first pastor. Their church building, erected during 
that year, at a cost of $4,000.00, is a wooden structure capable of seating 475 
persons, and is now valued, including grounds, at $8,000.00. The society 
now has 100 members, with Rev. Gideon Draper, pastor. 

St. Peter's Roman Catholic church, located at Great Barrington, was organ- 
ized by its first pastor, Rev. Patrick Cuddiby, with eighty members, in 1854. 
During that year, also, their church building was erected, which will seat 300 


persons, and is valued, including grounds, at $10,000.00. The society has 500 
communicants, under the charge of Rev. John H. Murphy. This parish 
includes, also, the church at Housatonic village, built in 1877 by Father Peter 
Hennessy, whose society has 350 members, and also the churches at Mill 
River and Shetlfield 

The Housatonic Methodist Episcopal church, located at Housatonic village, 
was organized by Rev. Albert Nash, with forty members, in 1868, Rev. Will- 
iam Bryant being settled as the first pastor. This church building was con- 
structed in 1870, by moving an old church from Monterey and remodeling 
it. It is now valued, including grounds, at $4,500.00. The society has ninety 
members, with Rev. James D. Spriggs, pastor. 

St. Bridget's Roman Catholic church, located at Housatonic village, was 
organized by its first pastor, Rev. James Hennessy, in 1877, during which 
year, also, was erected their church building, which will seat 200 persons and 
is valued, including grounds, at $5,000.00. This society has 350 members, 
under the pastoral charge of Rev. John H. Murphy, of Great Barrington, 
assisted by Rev. Dennis F. Hurley. 

HANCOCK lies in the western part of the county, in lat. 42 "^ 32', and 
long. 3° 41', bounded north by Williamstown. east by New Ashford, 
Lanesboro, and Pittsfield, south by Richmond, and west by Columbia 
and Rensselaer counties, N. Y. It comprises a long, narrow strip of terri- 
tory, about sixteen miles in length and two miles in width, hemmed in by 
parallel ridges of the Taconic mountains, which form almost a natural wall 
around it, whence its early name, Jericho, was derived. Its territory was 
originally obtained from the State by several minor grants, the residue being 
sold to the actual settlers by the general court, as follows : The first and prin- 
cipal grant was made in 1760, the legislature granting a tract to Asa Doug- 
lass and Timothy Douglass, of Canaan, Conn., Col. John Ashley, of Sheffield, 
and Josiah Dean. During the following year Charles Goodrich, of Pittsfield 
obtained a grant in what is now the southern part of the town, and Dea. 
Samuel Brown, of Stockbridge, and a Col. Farrington received small grants 
in the northern part. The residue of the town was sold by the general court 
in 17 89, to the actual settlers. This territory was called Jericho, and August 
26, 1776, Jericho was incorporated as a separate township, under the name of 
Hancock, the name being given in honor of Hon. John Hancock, then presi- 
dent of the Continental Congress and afterward governor of the State, the act 
of incorporation reading as follows : 

" Whereas, It has been represented to this honorable court ; That the Inhab- 
itants of a place called Jericho, in the county of Berkshire, have been taxed 
for several' years past and have met with difficulties in assessing and collect- 
ing the same, and likewise are liable to many other inconveniences for want 
of beitig incorporated into a township ; Be it therefore enacted by the Council 


and House of Representatives in General Court assembled, and by the authority 
of the same that the said Dlantation, bounded east on the towns of Pittsfield 
and Lanesboro, north on WiUiamstown, south on Richmond, and west on the 
line between this and the New York government, containing about 20,000 
acres of land, be and is hereby erected into a town, by the name of Hancock, 
and that the inhabitants be and hereby are invested with all powers and priv- 
ilages and immunities which the Inhabitants of towns within this Colony do 
or may enjoy, etc." 

Since its erection as a township, however, Hancock has been divested of a 
considerable portion of its territorial limits. In 1787, when the line between 
New York and Massachusetts was finally established, it took from the west- 
ern part of the town a valuable tier of lots ot from half to three-quarters of a 
mile in length, throwing it into the Hmits of the former state. As this land 
was of an excellent quality, it proved a serious loss to the town. In June, 1798, 
the town sustained another, though minor loss, when a tract in the north- 
eastern part, about 241 to 389 rods wide, and from 950 to 990 long, was set 
off to New Ashford. Other than these changes, the territorial limits of the 
town are to-day as they were in 1776. 

The surface of Hancock is diversified by smiling, verdant valleys, and rough 
mountains crags, presenting many combinations of exquisite landscape scen- 
ery, and affording points of view that are grand in the extreme, Potter moun- 
tain, on the line between Lanesboro and this town, being one point that is 
famous for the magnificent view it affords. Hemmed in, as we have mentioned, 
by its barriers of old Taconic walls, the town has, extending from Williams- 
town on the north to Hancock village on the south, a distance of about seven 
miles, a beautiful, productive, though narrow valley, where are found farms 
that are excelled by none in the county. South of this valley, however, for a 
distance of several miles, rough, mountainous rises prevail, wild and rough, and 
presenting such a succession of uprisings and downfallings as to even preclude 
the possibility of a carriage road, rendering it necessary for the inhabitants of 
the valley district mentioned, when visiting their southern neighbors, to step 
out of the town and circumnavigate the mouniains by trespassing on the terri- 
tory of New York. South of this, however, to the Richmond line, is a tract 
of excellent land again, having a soil of gravel and loom. The soil except in 
the mountainous parts, is a good quaUty, producing good grain crops, except 
wheat. Tne mountain slopes and hill-sides abound with fine pastures, adapt- 
ing the town generally better for grazing purposes than for the cultivation of 
the soil. The native timber is principally maple, birch, ash, butternut, bass, elm 
and chestnut. The town abounds with fine springs of water, and in the cen- 
tral part there is a small pond or lakelet, called Berry pond. About three 
miles south of the northern boundary, a branch of the Green river has its source, 
flowing north into WiUiamstown. Just south of this source Kinderhook creek 
rises, flowing a southerly and westerly course, passing through the village of 
Hancock into New York. There are several other minor streams, though few 
mill privileges are afforded. The rocks, entering into the geological forma- 


tion are principally takose slate, except in the northern part, where is found 
a considerable range of Hmesfofie. 

In 1880 Hancock had a population of 642. In 1883 the town employed 
one male and ten female teachers, to whom was paid an average monthly 
salary of $12.00 to males and $21.00 to females. There were 103 school 
children in the town, while the entire amount raised for school purposes was 

Hancock is a small post village located in the central part of the town. 

Shaker Village is a pleasant and interesting little hamlet, located in the 
southeastern part of the town, lying partly in Pittsfield. The growth of the 
sect here was begun in 1780, when several individuals embraced their pecu- 
liar religious views, and began to visit Mother Ann Lee and the elders at 
Escuania, N. Y., and in 1784 they set up a meeting-house here. Among the 
first to embrace the faith were John Deming, Hezekiah Osborn, Daniel, Na- 
than, David, Ezekiel, Hezekiah and Jeremiah Goodrich, Israel, Josiah and 
Joseph Talcott, and Joshua Cogswell, the latter from Pittsfield. Since then 
the sect here has risen from indigence to wealth. The first elders, or rulers, 
of the society, after it was faiily organized, were Dr. Calvin Harlon and Sa- 
rah Harrison. Their successors have been Nathaniel Deming and Carson 
D. Goodrich, Grove Wright and Eunice Hastings, Thomas Dawson, Albert 
J. .Battles, and Hannah A. Agnew, the present incumbents. The principal 
occupation of the Shakers at the present time is farming, though there is 
some manufacturing, but not so much as formerly, there being a grist mill in 
the Pittsfield portion of the village. They devote considerable attention to 
breeding and growing cattle, with much success. Ira R. Lawson is their 
business manager. A large, circular stone barn, 270 feet in diameter, with 
walls twenty-one feet high and from two to three feet thick, built in 1826, is 
considered much of a curiosity in its way. " There is nothing to be said 
against the Shakers," says J. G. Holland, '' except that their religion involves 
the sacrifice of the purest and most enobling relations of life, and — (theoret- 
ically) the depopulation of the world." 

Asa Douglass, the first of the grantees in the original grant of 1760, made 
the first settlement in the town, in 1762, the story of his settlement being as 
follows: Having been "unsuccessfully engaged in trade at Canaan, Conn., he 
concluded to go into a newer country, to try his fortune. Journeying north- 
ward, inquiring for a good locality in which to settle, he was directed by an 
Indian to this place. He liked it, sought and obtained a grant of 1,000 acres, 
and located his dwelling" southwest of the present village, near where the 
road crosses into the State of New York. Here located, also, most if not all 
of his seven sons. The settlement was soon after augmented by the arrival 
of John Clothier, Jesse Squire, Amasa and Martin Johnson, Benjamin Davis, 
Samuel Grippen, David Sprague, Samuel Hand, Capt. Caleb Gardner, David 
Vaughn, Reuben Ely, and Henry and Jonathan Hazard, most of whom were 
from Connecticut and Rhode Island. 


In 1764, Daniel Goodrich, nephew of Charles Goodrich, who had obtained 
the second grant as previously mentioned, began a settlement thereon. During 
the following year he was joined by his father and his nine brothers. Benjamin, 
Samuel, Nathan, David, Ezekiel, Elizur, Hezekiah, Jeremiah and Enoch; 
and about the same time came Jeremiah and Hezekiah Osborne, father and 
son, and Israel Talcott. In this many of the settlers on this grant afterwards 
became Shakers. 

The first child born in the town was William Douglass, grandson of Asa, 
the latter of whom was also a direct ancestor of Hon. Stephen A Douglass. 
The first school-house was built soon after the settlement began, on the 
Douglass grant. The first grist and saw-mill was built by John Gardner. 
The first church was built in 1791. 

Hon. Rodman Hazard, grandson of Jonathan Hazard, an Englishman and 
one of the earliest settlers, was born in 1775. Rodman was apprenticed to 
a tanner and currier in Lanesboro, after which he was engaged for several 
years as a journeyman shoemaker. He represented the town for a number 
of years in the State legislature, served one term in the State senate, was a 
member of the Governor's Council, and was in the senate at the time of the 
laying of the corner-stone of Banker Hill Monument, assisting as one of 
the committees on that occasion. Rodman had two sons, who settled in Han- 
cock, Rodman, Jr., and Thomas J, The widow of the latter, Mrs. Amanda 
C. Hazard, still resides there. 

Thomas Eldridge removed from East Greenwich, R. I., in 1776, when his 
son Grififin was only thirteen years of age, coming in a covered wagon, drawn 
by a yoke of oxen and a horse. Griffin Eldridge reared a family of eight chil- 
dren, of whom the survivors are Mrs. Hannah White, nearly eighty-one years 
of age, and Lyman Eldridge, in his seventy-ninth year. Lyman has been a 
deacon of the Baptist church for nearly thirty-four years. 

Caleb Gardner, from near Wickford, Rhode Island, located in Hancock in 
1 767, on the place now owned by Kirk E. Gardner, which has always been in 
the possession of the Gardners since. The only representatives now living in 
Hancock are a great-granddaughter, Sarah W. Gardner, who resides on the 
place adjoining the homestead, and a great-grandson. Kirk E., together with 
his son John D., and his daughter, Mrs. F. H. Eldridge. Caleb's son John 
Gardner represented Hancock in the State legislature, and Kirk E. repre- 
sented the Berkshire county district in the State legislature in 1873. 

Elijah Goodrich came to Hancock, from Wintenbury, Conn., in 1771, 
locating near the school-house in Goodrich Hollow. He reared a family of 
twelve children, and Goodrich Hollow received its name from the fact that 
eight of his sons settled there. None of this family are now living, but there 
are two descendants, Clark B. and Solomon P. Goodrich, and their descend- 
ants now residing in town, Clark B. has three sons, Eugene C, Henry M., 
and Charles J., and Solomon P. has two sons, Elmer S., and Orrin H., and 
three daughters. Goodrich Hollow was in early days quite an enterprising 


place, as about 1807 there were located here a blacksmith shop, a distillery^ 
two saw-mills, and a spinning room for spinning flax, by water-power. 

William Hadsell came from Nine Partners, N. \., about the year 1777,. 
and located on the place where George H. now resides, which place has al- 
ways been in the Hadsell family since. William reared a family of ten chil- 
dren, none of whom are now living, although there are descendants residing 
here, viz.: Mrs. Dorcas Gardner, daughter of Isaac, William and George Had- 
sell, and Mrs. Kirk Gardner. 

Job Dawley removed to Hancock, from Rhode Island, some time previous 
to 1790. He had born to him a family of five sons and four daughters, none 
of whom are living. Silas G., a son of Rodney and a grandson of Job, rep- 
resents this family here, and his brother James E. lives in Williamstown. 

Abel Corey came from Rhode Island to this place in 1780, carrying his 
small amount of property upon his back. In 1789 he married Abigail Hall, 
and settled on the farm now owned by his son, F'rebon. Of his family often 
children but two are now living, Mrs. Humility Saunders, of Stephentown,. 
N. Y., and Frebon, who resides on the old homestead in Hancock. 

John Gorton removed from Connecticut, and, after settling in several places, 
at last located in Hancock, in 1800. Of a large family, none survive; but 
three grandsons, Lester, Frank and Philander W., reside in town. 

Rhodes Whitman, from Greenwich, R. I., came to this town about the 
year 1800.^ He had a family of three sons and three daughtersborn to him, 
none of whom are now living. There are several descendants, however, in 
the town, among whom are Herman H., a son of Henry, Andrew J., James 
R., and Daniel, sons of Benjamin, Charles and Ernest, sons of Nathaniel Whit- 
man. Herman H. lives on the farm settled by his mother's father, Geo. 
Hall, about the year 1784. Herman has held nearly all the town offices. 

Jason White came to Hancock, from Adams, Mass., in 1822, settling in 
1833 upon the farm where his son, Daniel N., now resides. Of a family of 
three sons and three daughters, but two, Daniel N. White, and Mrs. Henry 
Lapham, now reside in Hancock. Daniel N. represented the First Berkshire 
district in the State legislature, in 1878. 

Nathaniel Gardner came to Hancock from Rhode Island, about 1770, his 
wife accompanying him on horseback and carrying a young child in her arms. 
He located on the place now owned by his great-grandson, John J. Gardner. 
Of his descendents now residing in Hancock, there are his great-grand- 
children, John J., and Minerva M., with his great-great-grandchildren, Don 
A., Willie A., Sarah A., and Norah E. 

Of the part Hancock took in the Revolution, J. G. Holland, in his History 
of Western Massachusetts, speaks as follows : — 

" The first town meeting was held August 21, 1776, at the house of Esquire 
Douglass. Born thus with the Revolutionary period, the town, in its action^ 
was worthy alike of its natal year, and its name. Early in its meetings it 
'voted that a committee be appointed to procure such evidence as may be; 


obtained against all persons charged by the inhabitants of this town as being 
inimically disposed towards this, ur any of the United States.' The people 
voted that tories should not be permitted to remain in the town, and that 
any one coming into the town to live should bring a certificate from the 
town he had left that 'since the year 1775, his conduct has been friendly to 
these American States.' Asa Douglass took a very active part in the Revo- 
lution, and declared that he would sooner see his sons fall, than witness the 
defeat of the cause of liberty. His son Capt. William Douglass, Capt. 
Bills, Lieut. James Smith, and several others from Hancock were in the 
battle of Bennington, the guns of which were heard by their wives and 
families at home. Whitman Vaughn, Clark Gardner, and a Mr. Sweet fell 
in that battle. During the day the wife and daughter of Lieut. James 
Smith walked the high mountain at the northeast of the town, listening to 
the far-off roar, and full of anxious solicitude for the husband and father. As 
night approached, the wife felt a presetiment of her husband's safety, and his 
speedy return ; and, hastening down the mountain, said, ' Molly, put the 
kettle on, and prepare supper, for Jamie is coming home to-night and will 
soon be here.' 'Jamie' certainly soon came in, having received a furlough 
for only one night." 

HINSDALE is a mountainous town in the eastern-central part of the 
county, in lat. 43^ 26' and long. 3° 54', bounded north by Dalton 
and Windsor, east by Peru, south by Washington, and west by Wash- 
ington and Dalton. It was a part of the old town of Partridgefield, which was 
originally township No. 2, and was sold at auction in Boston to Elisha Jones, 
June 2, 1762, for ^1,460. Subsequently, OHver Partridge, of Hatfield, 
became a joint owner, and July 4, 1771, the town was incorporated, the 
name Partridgefield being given m honor of Oliver Partridge. In 1795 the 
town was divided, the western part of the territory being incorporated as the 
"West Parish of Partridgefield," and June 24, 1804, this "West Parish" 
was incorporated as the township of Hinsdale, named in honor of Rev. 
Theodore Hinsdale, the first settled pastor. 

The surface of Hinsdale, being rough and mountainous, is more pleasing 
to the lover of fine mountain scenery, exhilarating breezes and crystal foun- 
tains, than to him who deHghts in broad acres of highly cultivated land. 
Still, Hinsdale, despite its rough and broken surface, and the convulsions 
that have upheaved its rocks and earth into the pleasing incongruities that 
delight the artists soul, still retains many acres of rich, productive land 
nestled in its valleys, while on the banks of its streams are large tracts of 
meadow land. A portion of this meadow land, it is said, was brought under 
cultivation as early as 1780, the price for laborers in clearing it being "four 
quarts of Turk's Island salt " per day for each able-bodied man. The soil 
on the uplands and hill-sides is also fertile, and affords good pasturage. The 
streams are the Eastern, Western and Middle branches of the Housatonic 
river, and afford some excellent mill privileges. The Boston & Albany 


railroad follows the course of the main branch of the Housatonic through 
the town. 

The geological formation is almost entirely made up oi ^/le/'ss rock. Near 
the center of the town there is a mineral spring of some celebrity. Broivn 
hematite and serpentme are found, and apatite and zoisite occasionally occur. 

In 1880 Hinsdale had a population of 1,595, and in 1884 had twelve 
pubHc schools^ employing twenty one teachers, at an aggregate salary of 
$2,481.80. There were 405 pupils attending public schools, while the entire 
cost of the schools for the year was $2,822.11, leaving a balance in the treas- 
urer's hands of $64 49 for the year. 

Hinsdale, a post village and station on the Boston & Albany railroad, is 
located in the western part of the town on the main branch of the Housa- 
tonic. It has three churches (Congregational, Baptist and Roman Catholic), 
a public library, ten stores, a grist-mill, three woolen mills, two blacksmith 
shops, two livery stables, a basket shop, wagon shop and about 150 dwellings. 

Ihe Public Library of Hinsdale has a fine collection of 3,300 books. The 
new building was located in 1866, a handsome stone, fire-proof structure^ of 
the Gothic style. It was opened January r, 1867. Mrs. Mary Twining, for- 
merly a resident of Hinsdale, left $5,000.00 by will a few years ago^ for 
founding a pubUc library here. This was opened as a free library in 1881. The 
town has made annual appropriations for sustaining the library, and for add- 
ing new works. Miss Mary Barrow is the deputy hbrarian in charge. 

The Hinsdale Mills, operated and owned by the Hinsdale Bros., of 
Pittsfield, (F. VV. and J. H.,) employ about 250 operatives in the manufac- 
ture of woolen goods — cassimers, kerseys, suitings, etc., — having seventeen 
sets of cards and sixty-seven broad looms. The mills consist of two stone 
and one framed building, with accessory buildings for store-houses, dry- 
houses, tenements, etc. These gentlemen are natives of Hinsdale, and are 
descendants of Rev. Theodore Hinsdale, after whom the town was named. 

The Pbmkett Woolen Co.'s Mills, located on Water street, Hinsdale 
village, are also engaged in the manufacture of all kinds of woolen goods, 
with George T. Plunkett, manager. 

Albert E. Parish s warp and yarn mills, located at Hinsdale, were built 
in 1882. He manufactures about 3,000 pounds per week. Across the way 
from Mr. Parish's mill stands a red building, used by Mr. Parish as a wool- 
picking house, which was the second saw-mill erected in the town. 

The Tracy sazv-i7iill, located on road 29, owned by George Tower, and 
leased by Curtis Bros., was burned Saturday, December 20, 1884. Its capac- 
ity was 300,000 feet of lumber per annum. 

The first settlement in what is now Hinsdale was commenced about 1763, 
by David, Thomas and Francis Miller, from Middlebury. Francis was sub- 
sequently employed by the government to survey the boundary line between 
New York and Massachusetts, and also the route of the middle turnpike from 
Boston over the mountain to Albany. The settlement was soon after 


increased by the arrival of Nathan and William Torrey, from Rhode Island, 
Phineas, Joseph, Zaccheus and Michael Watkins, from Hopkinton, and 
Nathan Fisk. The latter, in 1771, built the first grist and saw-mill, in the 
southeastern part of the town, receiving therefor a bounty from the govern- 
ment, of 250 acres of land. In 1774 Nathaniel Tracy, James Wing, and 
Amasa and Nathaniel Frost came into the town. From this time up to 1800, 
the settlement was increased quite rapidly, most of the settlers coming from 
Connecticut. Among those of this latter period were Rev. Theodore Hins- 
dale and Richard Starr, who organized the Congregational church, in 1795. 
The first public house was opened by Rufus Tyler, about 1797. At this 
house Joseph Bonaparte and suite dined while passing through the town. 
David Miller was the first magistrate, or " a keeper of the peace" as he was 
called. The first lawyer was Thomas Allen, who was admitted to the bar in 
1799. ^^- Abel Kittredge was the first physician. Simeon Thompson was 
the first child born in the town, in 1768. The first town meeting 
was held Aggust 13, 1804, when Thomas Allen was chosen moderator ; 
Henry Howard, town clerk ; William Pearse, Rufus Marsh and James Wing, 
selectmen ; Thomas Allen, treasurer ; and Nathaniel Tracy, James Wing and 
Hubbard Goodrich, assessors. 

Nathan Torry, one of the first settlers in Hinsdale, served in the French 
and Indian war from 1754 to '63, and was the first person buried in the town 
of Hinsdale. He was the father of Triphena Torry. 

Ichabod Emmons, who was one of the early settlers, located on the pres- 
ent Emmons homestead, on Maple street. He married Midwell Mack, who 
bore him five children — Monroe. Noadiah, Eliza, Laura, and Emily. Mon- 
roe, his oldest son, was a dry-goods merchant and postmaster here. He 
married Sarah Hutchinson for his first wife, who bore him no children, and 
and Louisa Wood for his second, rearing a family of eight children, five of 
whom, Henry, James H., David M., Harris G., and Emma PL, are living. 
The latter part of his life Monroe passed on the old homestead, where he 

Amos Raymond, one of the pioneers of the town, married Sena Jackson, 
of this town, and had born to him a family of four children. His youngest 
son, Ashael, was first married to Electa Curtis, of Dalton, by whom he had 
five children — Minerva, Louisa, Amos, John and Ashael J.; and for his second 
wife, Sylvia Miner, of Windsor, rearing seven children — John C, Sena, 
Samuel, Abraham, Lyman, James and Charles. Of his children, John married 
Anna V. Ballou, of Becket, and reared four children, all of whom are living — 
AmoSjWho resides in Hinsdale, married Emma Warren, and has five children; 
Ashael who married Marietta Pease, of Middlefield, and has four children now 
living ; Samuel who married Emma Barton, of Dalton; and Daniel G., who 
married Minnie Watkins, of Hinsdale. 

Chester Cady located at an early date on road 7, upon the place where C. 
C. Pierce now resides. He married Lucy Frink, who bore him twelve chil- 


dren. Eleazer, her eleventh son, married Lucretia Kellogg^ of Ashfield, Mass., 
and reared three children, two of whom, Fanny J. and Edward W., are now 
living, and resides upon road 4, in Hmsdale, the homestead of their father. 

Nathaniel Tracy, a Revolutionary soldier removed to Partridgefield, from 
Norwich, Conn., in January, 1771, the first to locale on the Tracy farm on 
road 30. He married Susanna Burnham, of Connecticut, and reared nine 
children. One son, Walter, was twice married, having by his first wife, Mary 
King, of Westfield, four children, one of whom, Clarissa survives, the wife of 
Henry Noble of Pittsfield. His second wife was Betsey Durant, of Middle- 
field, Mass. His sons, Charles K., and Ezra B., located on the homestead- 
farm. Charles K. married Nancy M. Durant, of Middlefield, by whom he 
had two children, one of whom, William W., is still living, in Pittsfield, 
Ezra B. married Elizabeth S. Curtis, of Hinsdale, and reared five children, — 
Charles E., Harriet E., Clara E., Walter H., and Frank E. Charles and 
Ezra built the Ashmore and Tracy reservoirs, and were selectmen for many- 
years. They are said to have erected the finest farm buildings in the town. 

Hugh Smith, for many years a resident of Partridgefield, married Pattie 
Hooker and reared a family. His son Calvin married Sarah Watkins, of 
Partridgefield, rearing a family of ten children, four of whom are living. One 
son, Charles D., was a resident of Hinsdale, on Maple street, until his death 
in 1884; three others. Chandler, William M. and Selden C, were physicians 
and surgeons, now deceased. 

Epaphras Curtis, son of John, of Hampton, Conn., married Ehzabeth 
Waldo, also of Hampton, removed to Cummington. and soon after, in 
1794, came to Hinsdale, locating on road 18, where Peter TuUy now 
resides, and where he lived until his death, February 15, 1813. He reared 
six children, Minerva, Waldo, Betsey, Epaphras, Samantha, and Anson his 
oldest son, who married and had born to him three children, Elizabeth S., 
Harriet C, and Henry W. Henry W. has twice married, his first wife being 
Hannah Sanford, of Stephentown, N. Y., and his second, Laura S. Fuller,, 
of Naples, N. Y. He still resides in Hinsdale. Epaphras, Jr., who served 
five years in the Revolution, reared a family of five children, three of whom 
are living. Mary is the wife of J. S. Cady, of Sonora, Cal. ; Warren resides 
in Hinsdale; and Edwin married Sylvia L. Millikin, April 14, 1827, and has 
six children still living, Mary J., who married Eugene C. Watkins, of Hins- 
dale; William P., Sarah D., Jarvis D., Robert E., and Elwin C. They are 
descendants of the Puritans, and still retain in the family the coat of arms of 
the family, and which dates back to the year 1606. Edwin, grandson of 
Epaphras, now resides with his family on the River Bend farm, on road 28. 

Joshua Jackson came to this town, from New Marlboro, about the year 
1785, locating on road 14. His son Abraham was twice married, having by 
his first wife, AHce Raymond, three children, Irena, Selah and Stedman; and 
by his second wife, Polly Rockwell, of Peru, six children, Abraham, Jr., Levi, 
Mary E., Joshua, Henry and Haven, three of whom still survive. Haven 



married Sarah A. Smith for his first wife, who bore him one daughter, 
deceased, and for his second wife, EUza Brown, by whom he had two children 
Sarah A. (Mrs. Utley, of Hartford, Conn.,), and Mary C, who hves on the 
homestead. Haven Jackson is now a retired farmer, residing on Maple 
street. He has been a selectman four years. His grandfather, Amasa 
Rockwell, was a major in the war of the Revolution, under La Fayette. 

David Brown, from Killingley, Conn., located here on road 14, about 1799, 
upon the farm now owned by S. B. French, and reared a family of seven 
children. His second son, Obadiah, born in 1786, married Polly, daughter 
of Isaac and Azuba Bassett, of Hinsdale, and reared six children, Lewis D., 
Lucian, Henry, Edward, Marion and WiUiam. Obadiah died in 1867. 
William settled on the homestead, but now resides on road 30. He has 
been assessor for twenty years, and held other offices of trust. 

Joseph Lyman, son of Samuel Lyman, a Revolutionary soldier, and a 
native of Connecticut, came to Hinsdale in 1829, locating on road 35. His 
son, Clark T., married Lydia R. Mack, of this town, and reared a family of 
four children — Mary E., wife of A. B. Pomeroy, of Springfield, Mass.; Sarah J., 
wife of John A Manley, of Warren, Mass.; and Charles and George S., residing 
in Idagrove, la. 

William Sayers, a native of Ranfordshire, Scotland, emigrated to America 
in 1843, settUng first in Pittsfield, and afterwards in Hinsdale, upon a farm 
on road 27, where he now resides. He married Janett, daughter of Allen 
and Sarah Smith, of Pittsfield, and has reared seven children — Emily, John, 
Mary, Martha J., Frank, James, and Jessie, all of whom are living. 

John Dwyer, a native of K^lmore, County Kerry, Ireland, married Catharine 
Noonan and has six children, of whom Michael married Margaret Sullivan, of 
the same town. He emigrated to this country, and settled in Hindsdale 
about 1858. Of his six children, John came to this town in 1848. He mar- 
ried Catharine Harrington, of his native town, and reared six children. His 
son, Edward, came here in 1844, married Elizabeth Keenon, of Dubhn, Ire- 
land, and has four children — Michael, who married Frances Toban, of Tip- 
perary, Ireland, Edward ; Jr., Margaret and Elizabeth. 

Martin son of Adam Schmachtenberger, of Bavaria, came to Hinsdale in 
1849. He married CaroHne, widow of Victor Sigrist, of Switzerland, and 
they have one child, Caroline K. Sigirst, step-daughter of Martin. Martin 
still resides in Hinsdale. He is in the employ of the Boston & Albany 

James Cashin, born in Ireland in 1803, emigrated to this country, locating 
in Hinsdale in [850, as a laborer. He married Margaret Kiley, of Ireland, 
and has had born to him a family of five children, of whom four, Mrs. Cath- 
arine Driscoll, Mrs. Elizabeth Shea, Edward, and Michael, who married El- 
len Costello, now deceased, are residents here. James died in 1883. 

Peter Durant, a native of Quebec, Canada, came to Hinsdale in 1852. 
He reared a family of five children — Peter, Charles, Alexander, Phebe and 



Mary. Alexander, who came here from Canada with his father, was thrice 
married. His first wife, Julia Ducett, bore him two children, Louisa and 
Salina. By his second wife, Clara Gordon, of Quebec, he had one son, Al- 
exander J. He is now residing, with his third wife, formerly Mary Vincent, 
in North Adams, and is a farmer. 

David Leach, from Manchester, England, located in South Adams in 1845, 
as a butcher. His wife was a native of Cheshire, England. They reared two 
children, John, now of Fall River, and Matilda. In 1872 he removed to 
Hinsdale and located on a farm on road 20, where his daughter, Mrs. Ma- 
tilda Jenks, with her daughter Emma, now resides. 

James Miller, son of Samuel Miller, married Lucy Starr, of Middlefield^ 
and located in Hinsdale, where he was superintendent of the Plunkett Woolen 
Mill for about thirty years. Of a family of six children four are now living 
namely : Mrs. Emily A. Hughes, and Mrs. Ellen M. Sawyer, both of Chicago, 
Mrs. Eliza M. Church, of Middlefield, Mass., and James F., who married. 
May 16, 1876, Jennie E. Day, of Hinsdale, where he resides. 

Michael Murphy came here from Kildare, Ireland, in 1848. He married 
Catharine O'Grad}^, also from Kildare, Ireland, and reared three children, 
WiUiam, Philip and John J. John is a medical student. 

Curtis Roth, a native of Preston, Conn., married Mary Newton, by whom 
he had five children, Rebecca, Harriet, Lizzie, Susan and WiUiam Henry. 
William H. married Amanda Loveland, of Washington, in this county, and 
located on road 33, where he has resided for the past thirty years. He 
reared a family of two children, Leander C. and Emily M. Leander C. was 
killed at the battle of the Wilderness, May 5, 1862, and left a wife, (formerly 
Hattie Post) and one daughter, Hattie, who resides with her mother in Hins- 
dale. Emily M. Roth married George England and had two children, 
Edward H., and Ella J., both still living. Curtis Roth's father^ Curtis, was a 
Revoutionary soldier, and was at the battle of Bennington. 

Lattimer, son of Samuel Watkins, of Natick, Mass., was born in Hinsdale, 
Mass., and married for his first wife Lucretia Marsh, of this town, by whom 
he had two children, Emeline, now dead, and Samuel. He married for his 
second wife, Louisa Parsons, and reared six children, Lucretia M., Luther P., 
Levi, Julia A., John and Mehssa L. His first son, Samuel, married Maria 
P., daughter of PhiUp and Lydia Meacham, of Middlefield, by whom he had 
three children, George M., Henry W., and Frank. Frank is now dead. 
George M. married Sarah S. Bottom and resides in Hinsdale. He was in the 
war of the Rebellion, from which, after a service of three years, he was 
honorably discharged. Henry W. resides on the homestead farm, on road 25. 
with his father. 

William Dwyer, a native of Cork, Ireland, came to America about the year 
1820, and located in Hinsdale. He married Mary Allen, of Boston, and 
reared eleven children, seven of whom, Frank, David, Henry, Mary, Bella, 
Ellen and Charles are now Uving. Charles married Mary A. Wall, of Hins- 



dale, and has four children, Ellen F., Charles W., Mary C. and Agnes W., all 
of whom are residents of Hinsdale. His son, William, was a soldier in the 
war of the Rebellion, having enlisted in Co. E, 27th Mass., and was wounded 
at the seige of Little Washington, fiom which injury he died. Joseph, 
another son, was also in the war in the same company and regiment. He 
was wounded at Cold Harbor, and honorably discharged. 

Lewis P., youngest son of Benjamin Brague, of Hillsdale, N. Y., married 
Mahaley Cleveland, of Hinsdale, and reared six children, all of whom are 
still Hving, William C, Kate M., Job C, Mary D., George W., and Lewis B. 
Lewis B., a resident of this town, married Augusta Barrows, of Goshen, Mass., 
and has one child, Grace M. George W., also a resident of Hinsdale, married 
Eliza Grinnell, of this place, and has one daughter, Eva B. 

Daniel W. Dicey, a native of Gilmington, N. H., son of John, married 
Mattie A. Eldridge, of Pittsfield, Mass., and resides in Hinsdale on a farm on 
road 34. His brother, George W., served four years in the war of the Rebel- 
lion, and was a lieutenant in the 7th New Hampshire Regt. His brother, 
Dana, who served in the loth N. H. Regt., was killed by a sharp-shooter 
while at dinner. 

Lewis Cole, of Peru, married Rhoda Brown, and reared a family of five 
children, three of whom are now living. One son, Charles, married Mary 
Tinker, of Worthington, Mass., and has four children, all of whom reside in 
Hinsdale, on road 33, upon the homestead of his father. 

Charles E., youngest son of Zacharias Watkins, of Peru, married Mary 
B. Barrett, of Hinsdale, where he subsequently located upon a farm on road 
12. He reared a family of eight children, four of whom are now living. 
His youngest son, George E., who resides with his brother, Wallace E., in the 
northern part of the town, married Emma Loring of this town, and has four 
children, Charles H., Fanny A., Mary E., and George N. Nathaniel Barrett, 
father of Mrs. Charles E. Watkins, was the first settler on road 12, in this 

William, third son of Joshua Clark, of Windsor, married for his first wife, 
Olive Cady of Hinsdale, rearing ten children, five of whom are still living. 
He married for his second wife Amanda Winthrop now aged eighty-seven 
years. She bore him four children, Amanda M., Jennie L., Daniel C, and 
Edward W,, the latter of whom married Mary E. Pugsley, of Clarence N. Y., 
and resides in Hinsdale, on Maple street, he has held many offices of trust. 

Joseph Como, a native of Canada, was twice married, rearing a family of 
twenty-six children. One son, Francis, who came to Hinsdale in 1847, died 
March 12, 1878, at the age of fifty-seven. He married Flavia Roy, by whom 
he had seven children, four of whom survive. His son Francis, a resident of 
this town, married Agnes Guyotte, and has three children, Eugene, Annie, 
and Mary. William, brother of Francis, was in the Rebellion, serving in the 
14th Vermont Regt. Charles A. enlisted in Co. H, 27th Mass. Regt., both 
being honorably discharged. 


Henry Field, grandson of James Field, who was a slave in the early days 
of the commonwealth, and son of Henry, who reared a family of ten children, 
married Elizabeth Persep, of Hinsdale by whom he had one son, John A, He 
resides in Hinsdale, on road 22. 

Thomas Allen, admitted to the bar in 1799, was the first permanent lawyer 
in Hinsdale and the first justice of the peace. He was a native of Sharon, 

Horace Spring, son of Ciril and great-grandson of Ephraim, an Englishman 
who located in Rhode Island early in the seventeenth century, resides on road 
36, in this town. He married Susan Putnam, of Williamsburg, Mass., and has 
four children now living, Charles E., of Northampton, Mass., Maria, of Hunt- 
ington, Mass., and Lottie and WiUis C, who reside at home. His son Milo 
was corporal of Co. I, 49th Mass. Inf. He died in 1870. 

William, son of Morse Couch, of Redding, Conn., and afterwards of Steph- 
entown, N. Y., who resides on road 31, married Sarah, daughter of WiUiam 
and Margaret Bly, of Stephentown, in 1839 and has three children now living, 
Willett, who married Chloe Mason, now of Nebraska, Mrs. Louisa Martin, of 
Berkshire, and Mrs. Mary E. M^ason. William Couch and his son were both 
in the war of the Rebellion, in the 31st and 37th Mass. Regts., and were both 
honorably discharged, 

Martin Pease, son of Eldridge, and a resident of Hinsdale, married Mary 
Cross, of Becket, Mass., and has three children, Cathleen J. (Mrs. Thayer), 
Nelson E., and Martin A., all of this town. 

Philo, son of L. L. and Julia Sherman, of Newtown, Conn., married Delia 
A. Patchin, of Bridgeport, Conn., who bore him six children, Louie, Carrie, 
Jennie, Willie, Frederick, and Imogene, all hving here except Imogene, who 
married Smith J. Robinson, of Huntington Conn. 

Thomas F. Barker, son of Asahel and grandson of Thomas, of Lebanon, 
Conn., who settled in Peru in 177 1, resides in this town, on road 26. He 
married Armasella A., daughter of Alson H., and Laura T. Pelton, of Peru, 
and has three children, Mary E., Laura S. and Helen L. 

Christopher C. Pierce, son of John, and great-grandson of Ebenezer, an 
early settler in Peru, resides on road 7, in this town. He married Eliza 
McCloughan, of Northumberland county, Pa., and has reared three children, 
Elma, Alden and Sarah. 

William H. Jandro married Cornelia M. Smith, of Brooklyn, N. Y., and 
reared three children, and is a resident of Hinsdale, on road 25. 

Abram Collins, a native of Schoharie county, N. Y., married Annie Cook, 
by whom he had three children, Charles W. and Eva K., both now of 
Albany, N. Y., and Edgar C. Edgar C. came to Hinsdale, from New York 
city, in the spring of 1882, entering into partnership with the late Dr. 
Dresser. He is a graduate of the Albany medical college. He married 
Emma J. Alger, of Hudson, N. Y., and has one child, Eva J. 

Nathaniel Tremain, an early settler of Pittsfield, and a native of West- 


field, Mass., married Olive Lyman, of Salisbury, Conn., and reared a family 
of fourteen children, of whom one son^ Milo, married Sophia F. Otis, of 
Dalton, by whom he had three children, but one of whom, Edwin, is still living, 
a resident of Hinsdale. He married Mary A. Pearce, of this town, and has 
two children, Frank M, and George F. One son of Milo, George F., served 
in the war of the Rebellion, having enlisted in the 76th Illinois Regiment, 
and was killed at Fort Blakeley, one of the last engagements of the war. 

Otis Justin, a native of Stonington, Conn., who located in West Gran- 
ville, Mass., married Frances York, of Watch Hill, R. I., who bore him five 
children, all of whom are now living — Elizabeth, of Fall River, Mass. ; 
Martha, who married H. M. Peebles, and Lydia, both of West Granville, 
Mass. ; George H., of Palmer, who was a soldier in the Rebellion, in Co. D, 
34th Massachusetts; and James M., a resident of Hinsdale, who married 
Susie E. Clark, and reared six children, all living. James M. served in the 
war of the Rebellion, enlisting first in Co. I, loth Massachusetts Regiment, 
and afterwards in the 46th Regiment. He was promoted to the rank of 
captain in Co. E. 

Michael Conway, a native of Ireland, who emigrated to America about 
the year 1850, married Catharine Costello, who bore him nine children, — 
Mary A., Thomas, Michael, William, Kate, James, Patrick, Peter and John 
H. John H. married Julia Porter, of Rhode Island, in 1875, by whom he 
had one child, Robert. John H. died here in 1884. 

Patrick Costello, a native of Galway, Ireland, married Honora Burke, by 
whom he had three children, Martin, Margaret, and Patrick. Martin emi- 
grated to America, coming to Lebanon, N. Y., in 1848. His other son, 
Patrick, emigated to America in 1842, married Eleanor Brady, and reared a 
family of nine children, three of whom, Francis P., Mary E , and William B. 
survive. WiUiam' B. married Mary A. McColgan, of Cummington, by whom 
he has two children, Ehzabeth and Francis, and resides in Hinsdale. 

James F. Keenan, born in County Dublin, Ireland, married Ehzabeth 
White, of the same county, and reared a family of ten children, among 
whom are Margaret, Catharine, Jane, Elizabeth, and James F. James F., Jr., 
a resident of Hinsdale, married Anna Scanlon, of Irish descent, by whom 
he had eight children, — Lizzie, Martha, Jennie, Annie, William A., James F., 
Henry R., and Mary E., all residing in this town. 

Richard Abrahams, a native of Somersetshire, England, married Elizabeth 
Drew, in 1830, and came to America in 1857, locating in Pittsfield, Mass., 
where he resided until his death, December 22, 1873. ^^ reared a family 
of seven children, — Sarah, Caroline, Mary, WilHam. Elizabeth, John and 
George. George, a resident of this town, married Helen Streeter, of Berlin, 
N. Y. They had three children, two of whom survive, Carrie E., and 
Nellie E., in Hinsdale. 

George, son of Wells Ingrain, of Connecticut, one of a family of eight, 
married Jane L., daughter of P. P. Brackett, of Middlefield, Mass., and has 



had two children, Charles E. and Gertie M., both of whom are dead. 
George is a resident of Hinsdale. 

James W. Ascha from White Creek, N. Y., married Mary E. Ackert, and 
located in Bennington, Vt., rearing three children, William H., Elvia A., and 
Charles G. Charles G. was married to Anna Chapman, of Pittsfield, Mass., 
September 3, 1870, and has four children, Hattie E., Mabel, Ada L., and 
Bessie F. He is now residing in this town. Charles G. Ascha's grandfather^ 
John Van Bogit, served in the Revolutionary war, and was at the battle of 
Bennington. He was also aid-de-camp of Gen. Washington. 

Thomas Axtell, from Sutton, Mass., born in 1754, and one of the early settlers 
in the town of Peru, reared a family of seven children, of whom his second 
son, Ebenezer, married Eleanor Ellison, of Peru, and had born to him eleven 
children, Loretta, Julietta, Electa, Clorinda, Lucinda, Ebenezer P., Artimicia 
M. Rosetta, Algernon S., William V., and Ellison, seven surviving. Ellison, 
a resident of Hinsdale, was twice married, having by his first wife, Sinai C. 
Converse, one child, Julia, deceased. For his second wife he married, Octo- 
ber 17, 1S76, Mary E. Clark, of this town, and resides on Maple street. El- 
lison was a selectman in Windsor, Mass., six years. 

Frank W. Strong, son of Tillinghast B. Strong, of Great Barrington and the 
youngest of a family of nine children, mairied Ida E Parker, of Lee, Mass.^ 
and resides in Hinsdale. They have one child, Frank W., now Hving. 

Phillip Hoose, a native of New York State, and who came to Cheshire, Mass., 
about the year 1800, was a slave, being owned by a man by the name of Se- 
bron. He, however, made his escape, but was followed by his master, wha 
finding all efforts to recover him alive futile, was obliged to return without 
him. He married Hannah Persip and reared a family of twelve children,, 
nine of whom are still living. Richard and Amos D. are residents of Hins- 
dale. Richard married Mrs. Lena, widow of William Gardner, who had one 

Harland W. Nye, who removed from New York State about the year 1852, 
locating in Dalton, on road 4, married Mary J. Hathaway, of Savoy, rearing, 
three children, H. Eugene, Almira T, and Nelson W. H. Eugene married, 
first, Hattie E. Hathaway, and afterwards Cynthia L Hathaway, of West 
Cummington, and has had one child, Alfred E. Eugene is farming in this 
town, on road 4. Almira T. resides in Middlefield, and Nelson W. in South 

Titus Morgan, a native of West Springfield, married Sarah Morgan of the 
same town, and reared a family of nine children, all being now dead. His 
fourth son, Julius, located in West Springfield, and married Azubah Day, by 
whom he has nine children. Two are still living, Mrs. Julia Raymond, of 
Enfield, Conn., and Edwin A,, a farmer in Hinsdale, who married Lydia 
Watkins, of Peru, and has one child, Charles A. 

Samuel Baldwin, an early pioneer of Windsor, was a public surveyor about 
Boston, and in the Provincial service to survev the islands east of Penobscot. 


He married Milicent Butler, by whom he had eight children, and died July 
9, 1826, having survived his wife but about three years. His son, Ephraira, 
a native of Windsor, was thrice married, having, by his first wife, Triphena More, 
of Stillwater, N. Y., eight children, Charles M., Milicent C, Elias J., Ephraim 
Jr., EHza, Angeline, Samuel D., and Chauncey. He married for his second 
wife, Betsey Whitmarsh ; and for his third, Polly Brown. Chauncey, second son 
of Ephraim, was a resident of Windsor sixty-five years, but had lately lived in 
Hinsdale village until his death in 1884. He was twice married, his first wife 
being Clarissa Hall, of Windsor, who bore him four children, Celinda, Harvey 
W., Martha A., and Henry W. ; and for his second wife, Harriett A. Hume, 
also of Windsor, by whom he had four children, Charles H., Cehna S., Caro- 
line M., and Catharine E. 

Christopher Hibbert, a native of Canada, emigrated to Lee, Mass., where 
he located in 1845. He married Julia Patnode, of Canada, and reared four 
children — Margaret, Florence, Stephen and Joseph, all of whom are living. 
Joseph a resident of Hinsdale, married Bridget Kelly, of Ireland, rearing a 
family of six children, James, Catharine J., Joseph E., John L., William H., 
and Franklin T., all of whom are living. 

Nelson Hale, son of Daniel Hale, of Burnston, Mass., married Polly Parks, 
and reared six children. Oscar and Wiliston served in the war of the Rebel- 
hon, dying at Belle Island. WiUiam D. Hale, who is a resident of Hinsdale, 
living on road 31, married Francis P., daughter of Ephraim Stephens, a Rev- 
olutionary soldier, and has had six children, all of whom are now living. 

Michael Daily, a native of Ireland, and who now resides in Pittsfield, was 
thrice married, rearing three children, Mrs. Mary Shannon, now of Colerado, 
Mrs. Bridget Hogan, now of Springfield, and Thomas. Thomas was twice 
married, having by his first wife, Margaret Welch, nine children, five of whom, 
Josie, Maggie, Nellie, Lizzie and Mary are now Hving. He married, for his 
second wife, Bridget Stanton, of Pittsfield, where he now resides. Josie mar- 
ried Frederick L. Kimball, of Rochdale, Mass., where she now resides, but 
he still has representatives in Hinsdale. 

The Congregat'mial church, located at Hinsdale village, was organized by 
Rev. Theodore Hinsdale, December 17, 1795, with twenty- three members, 
the first settled pastor being Rev. Caleb Knight. Their church building, 
erected about the year 1800, will comfortably accommodate 400 persons, 
and is valued, including grounds, at $5,000.00. The society now has 209 
members, with Rev. James H. Laird, pastor. 

The Baptist church of Hinsdale, v^a.?> organized May 22. 1797, composed 
of members from this and contiguous towns. The principal men engaged in 
the formation of this society and church were Eleazer Cody, Joshua Jackson 
and Nathan Torrey. Elder Eleazer Smith was the first pastor. Abraham, 
son of Joshua Jackson, was the first person baptized and united with the 
church after it was estabhshed. He was subsequently ordained and became 
pastor of the society. 


SY. Patrick's Roman Catholic church, located at Hinsdale village, was 
organized by Rev. P. Curdy, with 200 members, in 185 1. Their church 
building, erected the year previous, is valued, including grounds, at $7,500.00, 
and will accommodate 400 persons. The society now has 450 members, 
under the pastoral charge of Rev. Daniel F. Cronin. 

LANESBORO lies in the western-central part of the county, in lat. 42° 
32 , and long. 3" 46', bounded north by New Ashford and Cheshire, 
east by Cheshire and Dalton. south by Pittsfield, and west by Han- 
cock. The erection of this territory into a township was brought about 
mainly as follows : In January, 1741, the general court was petitioned by 
Samuel Jackson and seventy-five others, residents of Framingham, Middle- 
sex county, for a "grant of wilderness land situated on the Housatonic 
river, near to an Indian town." The petition was favorably considered by 
the committee to whom it was referred,, the gra';ts made and the grantees 
authorized to survey and locate " a township, of the contents of six miles 
square, adjoining south on Indian Town, so called, on the Housatonic 
river, or as near that place as the land would allow," under the usual restric- 
tions and reservations of such grants. Under the act thus passed the 
township was located and surveyed, much as it lies to-day, except the por- 
tion taken from its northeastern part, March 14, 1793, towards forming the 
township of Cheshire. At a meeting of the proprietors, held October 19, 
1742, it was voted that the new grant should be called Richfield, until a name 
should be given it by the legislature. When this change occurred the name 
New Framingham was given it, which was retained until the incorporation of 
the township, June 21, 1765, when Lanesborough was substituted, since 
shortened by common usage to a terminal of "boro," in common with most 
towns ending with "ough." This name was taken, it is said, from James 
Lane, Viscount Lanesborough, in the peerage of Ireland. 

The surface of Lanesboro is broken and uneven, presenting some exquis- 
ite scenery, and affording some of the finest views in the county. It has an 
altitude of from 1,200 to 2,000 feet above the sea level, thus giving a brae, 
ing, healthful atmosphere, though its winters are severe. A spur of the 
Hoosac mountains divides the town from Cheshire on the east, while Potter's 
mountain of the Taconic range, divides it from Hancock on the west. 
These two ranges, in a succession of hills, unite on the northern line of the 
town, while the south opens out into an extended and beautiful view down the 
valley towards Pittsfield, and to the mountains beyond. A branch of the 
Housatonic river rises a few rods north of the northern line of the town, 
flowing southerly through beautiful and luxuriant meadows, through the 
charming Pontoosuc lake, which is well stocked with the finny tribe, and 
which conveys the stream into Pittsfield, the lake lying partly in that town; 


in the eastern section rises the Hoosac, flowing northwardly, — one stream 
blending with the waters of the Hudson, near Troy, N. Y., and the other 
dropping into Long Island Sound. To one who delights in the wild and 
picturesque, Lanesboro hills afford views of which he will never tire. Promi- 
nent among these may be mentioned that from Savage mountain, Farnum 
hill, and Constitution hill. The latter eminence, lying near the geograph- 
ical center of the town, affords a prospect wherein is spread before the 
beholder, as on a map, a large section of the Housatonic valley and the 
chains of mountains which enclose it. Of this prospect, the mellow, golden 
pen of Godfrey Greylock (J. E. A. Smith), remarks as follows, in his Tagh- 
cpnic : — 

" Nestled closest in the bosom of our hills lies the little villageof Lanesboro 
— the very fondling of nature. Thither turns never the good mother her 
wrinkled front ; near pressing as the mountains clasp the narrow valley, you 
must not look among them for frowning precipices, or earthquake-rifted 
chasms. High into the air their summits press, but not in jagged peaks — 
only with the full, round sweUing of loving breasts, upon which you may re- 
pose, if you will, in the gentlest of summer reveries. There is one eminence 
near — inpatrioticgratitude they call it Constitution Hill — with such awinsome, 
neighborly look to it, that in our streets, miles away, it seems near as your 
own garden. If you have in you any yearnings at all after beauty, I am sure 
you cannot look upon, and not be irresistibly drawn to it, to be lifted up 
gently and humanly, above the baser things of earth. Lying under its druid- 
ical oaks, or seated, farther up, upon a pearl-white quartz rock, in the shade 
of a whispering birch, you will see below you, groves and farms, and broad, 
fresh meadows, with laughing lake and winding rivulets, like silver embroid- 
ery on the green banner of Erin.'" 

Rich in scenic beauty as it is, Lanesboro has also riches in nature's boun- 
teous garner — the earth. The basis of its geological structure are rocks of the 
talcose-slate, limestone and quartz formation. The limestone^ aside from its 
enrichments to the soil by its rapid disintegration, affords also some excellent 
quarries of marble, and material for the manufacture of lime ; the slate por- 
tion contains deposites of iron that have yielded thousands of dollars worth 
of ore ; and the quartz affords a valuable sand, some of which, possibly, 
forms a part of the window pane through which pass the rays of light that 
enable me to write these words, and possibly, also, through which pass the 
rays that enable you to read them. Among the curiosities of nature are the 
" Rolling rock," in the southwestern part, and a large cave, in the western 
part, both of which awaken various speculations in the minds of the curious. 
The Rolling rock, a huge boulder, some thirty feet long, fifteen feet wide 
and about the same in height, is so pivoted on another rock, about three feet 
from the ground, that it can be easily moved, and still not be overturned, 
seeming to have been placed thus in the sport of some Titan, in the primeval 
ages. The cave, dark as Erebus, is about fifteen rods in extent. The soil of 
the town is generally of a good quality, consisting principally of a clay 
loam, though little grain is grown, grazing taking the principal attention of 
the farmers. 


In 1880 Lanesboro had a population of 1,286. In 1883 the town em- 
ployed two male and ten female teachers in its pubUc schools, to whom was 
paid an average monthly salary of $32 00 to males and $24.75 to females. 
There were 267 school children in the town, while the whole amount raised 
for school purposes was 1,600.00 

Lanesboro is a post village located in the southern part of the town, in 
the luxuriant valley of the Housatonic. 

Berkshire is a post village located in the southeastern part of the town, 
on the Hoosac river, and is also a station on the Pittsfield & Adams railroad, 
which crosses this corner of the town. Here are located the works of the 
Berkshire Glass Co., mentioned on page 30. 

Elmwood Institute, a family school for boys, located at Lanesboro, was 
established here by its present principal, Rev. Alfred A. Gilbert, M. A., of 
whom further mention is made on another page, in 1849. This school, owing 
to its excellent corps of teachers, and its healthful location, has been very 
successful. The present corps of teachers is as follows : Rev. Alfred A. 
Gilbert, M. A., principal, higher mathematics and languages ; Rev. Benjamin 
W. Atwell, professor of elocution ; Alfred B. Gilbert, M. S., commercial de- 
partment, EngUsh ; Prof. Zelotcs R. AVood, vocal music, and Miss Ella 
Pratt, instrumental music. 

The Lanesboro Iron IVorks, located at Lanesboro village^ were established 
by the Pingrees, of Salem, in 1847. I^i ^864 they came into the possession 
of J. L. Colby, of Pittsfield, the present owner. When running at their full 
capacity, these works give employment to 175 to 200 men, manufacturing 
from twelve to fifteen tons of car-wheel iron per day. 

The Berkshire Glass Co., whose works are located at Berkshire village, 
gives employment to 150 men in the manufacture of all kinds of window 
glass. The factory was originally established in 1853, and came into the 
present company's possession in 1858. 

David T. Culver's grist-mi/I, located on road 3. has two runs of stones, is 
operated by water-power, and does custom work. 

William B. Dewey' s grist-?nill and carriage shop, located on road 4, was 
built by himself in 1868. The grist-mill has one run of stones and does cus- 
tom grinding, while in the carriage shop Mr. Dewey builds wagons and sleighs 
and does a general repair business. 

The Lanesboro Cheese Factory, located at road 3, was built by Joshua New- 
ton, in 1867. It turns out about 25,000 pounds of cheese per annum. 

The first actual settlers of the town were Moses Brewer, Capt. Samuel 
Martin and a Mr. Steales, who came in during the year 1754 or 1755. Mr. 
Brewer was given a bounty of ^8 sterling as the first settler, and Captain 
Martin ;^ 7 as the second settler. A fort to protect the inhabitants against 
the raids of savages was soon built, but notwithstanding this, during the 
troubles attending the French and Indian war, these settlers were driven out 
by a party of Indians, and only Captain Martin returned. Near the fort two 


Indian chiefs were killed, and both their bodies buried. This old log fort 
was located about fifty rods south of the south burial ground, near the pres- 
ent Sidney Hubbell house. The story of the two Indians killed is related to 
us substantially as follows : A large party of Indians were on their way to 
Pittsfield, from some point northwest, intending to massacre the inhabitants 
of that settlement, and while passing through Williamstown were discovered 
by two young men, who cautiously followed them. As the band passed along 
the valley in Lanesboro, they halted a short distance from Berkshire village, 
in order to reach Pittsfield at a proper time for carrying out their bloody in- 
tentions. While there, the two young men, having learned something of these 
intentions, cautiously advanced, and having selected two of the Indian chiefs 
as a mark, decided each to shoot his man, — but separated from each other 
before firing, in order to deceive the enemy as to their numerical strength. 
The plan was carried out, and one chief was instantly killed, and the other 
fatally injured. The young men immediately fled in different directions, 
reaching Williamstown in safety. This' loss of their two chiefs, the story re- 
lates, caused the Indians to change their plans and abandon the contemplated 

As early as 1759 there were the following heads of familes in the town: 
Nathaniel Williams, Samuel Tyrrell, John, Ephraim, Elijah and Miles Powell, 
brothers, Lieut. Andrew Squier, James Loomis, Ambrose Hall, Isaac Hill, 
and Charles Goodrich. Between that time and 1762, the settlement was in- 
creased by the arrival of William Bradley, James Goodrich, Thaddeus Curtis, 
Eben Squier, Benjamin and Joseph Farnum, Peter Curtis, Samuel Darwin, 
Nehemiah Bull, Samuel Warren, Moses Hale, Joseph Keeler and Beriah 

The first public meeting of the settlers was held at the old fort. May 2, 
1759, " notyfication having been given out by Dea. Moses pike, in the 
Publick prints." This meeting, however, was adjourned immediately after its 
organization, as likewise were various others from time to time, for the reason, 

the records state, "that so few were present." Some of the records of 

these meetings we quote, simply as curiosities: — 

"Oct. 29, 1781 : At a proprietors' meeting legally warned, mad coyce of 

Elijah Powel moderator. Voted Mr. Levi post shoold be our gospil 

minister. Voted to give him 91 pounds settlement, and 80 pounds salary 

yearly and his fier wood. 

" Voted, The school hows should be 28 ft. long, 24 ft. wid and 9 ft. stod. 
"Voted, Thare should be 80 pounds disposed of out of the treasury for 

gospil purpusses. A trew Entry from the Menits, S. Martin, Clark. 

" Dec. 12, 1 76 1, question poot whether Mr. Daniel Collins should be our 

gospil minister, post affirmative. 

"Voted, 130 pounds settlement, 80 pounds yeareley. Voted to get Mr. 

Collins 30 cords of wood yeareley, he finding the wood. 

" March 31, 1762, i, Mad Choyce Mr. Peter Cortis to be thare moderator. 

2, Voted that 6 shillings be drone out of the tresurey upon Each Ratable 

Lott, to make and mend the Hi ways. 3, Voted Samuel Martin draw six 

pence on Each Lott, for the yeuse of his hows for public worship. 


'• April 20, Voted that Misters Peter Corti,s, William Bradley and W. 
Buell, Be a Commety to provide preaching for the futer." 

These extracts, as we said before, are simply curiosities of literature^ and 
as illustrating the manner in which the public business was transacted in 
those early days. In 1791 the population had increased to 2,142 souls; but 
at the taking of the next census, in 1800, this number had decreased 1,443^ 
owing largely, probably, to the annexation to Cheshire, in 1793. 

Among the prominent men of Lanesboro of the last century, may be 
mentioned Nehemiah Bull, Peter Curtis, Gideon Wheeler, Wolcott Hubbell, 
William Bradley, Samuel W. Wheeler and Ebenezer Buck. Among those 
of the town, or those who resided Iiere for a time, may be mentioned 
Hon. Henry Shaw, his son, Henry W. Shaw, (" Josh Billings,") who was 
born here in 18 18, Hon. George N. Briggs, and A. L. Hubbell, Esq. 

Three brothers, John, Miles and Powell, settled in Lanesboro about 

1760. John lived nearest the village till his death. His son. Col. John 
Powell, was eight years old when brought here, was colonel in the Revolu- 
tionary war, was in the battles of Bennington and Ticonderoga. He was the 
father of twelve children, eleven living to maturity. He died January 7, 
1827, aged seventy- five. Asahel A., his son, was born in 1794, lived in the 
town till his death, 1869, aged seventy-tive. He had seven children, five now- 
living, two in this town, Mrs. W. R. Weed and Miss Ada L. Powell. 

Joseph Farnam removed from Connecticut to Lanesboro at an early date, 
when there were but four families in the town, and settled on the farm where 
Henry J. now lives. His wife, Anna, melted the weights of her clock for bullets 
to fight the British. Joseph Farnam, Jr., born in Lanesboro in 1777, died 
in 1869, aged ninety-two. John 2d, t-on of Joseph, Jr., was born in Lanes- 
boro in 1807, died in T88oaged seventy-three. Henry Farnam, his brother,, 
was born in 1805, died in 1880, aged seventy-five. John, 2d, left two sons,. 
Henry J. and Clifford T., both of whom now reside in Lanesboro. Henry 
Farnam left no children. 

William Bradley removed from New Haven, Conn., in 1762, locating on 
the farm now occupied by his great grandson, William Bradley, where he died 
in 1809 aged seventy-nine. He had six children. His son Uri, born in Con- 
necticut, came here at six years of age, and died in 1843, leaving three children. 
WilUam Bradley, son of Uri, was born on the farm where his son William, 
born in 18 13 yet lives. The present William married Clarissa Miller, of Adams 
Their son, William D., was graduated from Williams college in 1865, then 
from the Albany law school. He died in 1870. One son, Carlton A., now resides- 
in North Adams, and his son Charles is the sixth generation who remain at 
the original family home. 

Asahel Bradley, son of WiUiam, was also an early settler. Eli, his son,. 
born in 1787, lived on the farm on road 7, (now occupied by his son Asahel 
T.) till his death in iS56. He had three children, two dying in infancy. 

Capt. Ephraim Bradley, brother of WilUam^ was born in Connecticut in, 


1752, came here at an early date, and died in 1824. He left a fund of $1,000 
to the Episcopal church in Lanesboro, and the same amount to the North 
Center school of this town. 

Peter Curtis was a very early settler, coming from Connecticut, locating in 
the north part of the town, and died thereon a farm now leased by W. H. Rice. 
He was graduated from Harvard. His son, Peter B., was born in Lanesboro. 
and kept a hotel there till his death. His son, David, was born in 
this town about 1768, and served in the war of 1812. He lived for a time 
in Lewis county, N. Y., but returned here and died in 1841. His wife, 
Rachel, still survives him, aged ninety-five, the oldest resident of the town. 
His son, David, born in 181 7, is also a resident of the town. 

Benjamin Weed came to Lanesboro at an early date, locating in the west- 
ern part, where he lived till his death. He had nine children, only one of 
whom is now living. 

Joseph Barnes came to this town from Connecticut, and first settled in the 
eastern part of the town. He afterwards purchased the farm now occupied by 
his granddaughter, Mrs. Annie B. Pratt, and lived here till his death in i8ig. 
His son Naaman was born here, and Uved here till his death, in 1838. 
He left four children, all of whom are now living, two in this town, one son, 
Pitkin H., in Lee, and one daughter, Mrs. Ellen Day, in Ohio. 

Dan Bradley, brother of Eh, was born here in 1792, and hved here till the 
latter part of his life, when he moved to Pittsfield, and died there in i860. 

Nathaniel Wilhams came from western Connecticut previous to the Revolu- 
tion, setthng on a portion of the farm on road 7 now occupied by George S.Will- 
iams, where he died. He left three sons, Stoddard, Solomon and WiUiam. 
Nathaniel, 2d, son of Stoddard, was born in Lanesboro in 1779 and died there 
ill 1875, leaving five children, George A. and two others residing in this town- 

Job Sherman came to Lanesboro from Newtown, Ct., about 1762, settling 
near the center of the town, and had eleven children. His son Asahel was 
born in town in 1792, fiving here till his death in 1879, of his three children 
only one son, Ezra H., now town clerk, is living. 

Joel B. Sherman, born in 1807, has lived fifty-three years on the farm on road 
29 now occupied by his son, George B. 

Abial Piatt moved from Connecticut about 1762, settling in the northern part 
of the town, on the farm now owned byjosua Pine, where he reared a numerous 
family and died there. His daughter, Hannah, married Wm. Harrison and 
was the mother of the present Wm. Harrison of this town. 

Timothy Whitney was born April 26, 1764, came to Lanesboro at an 
early date, and Hved here till his death in 1841. He had six children and was 
postmaster and registrar of deeds for many years. His son Richard, born in 
1800, died in 1879, was also postmaster for some time, and was registrar 
of deeds after the death of his father, Timothy Whitney, until the removal of 
the office to North Adams. Richard married Clarissa Tower, had four chil- 
dren, only one, Mrs. A. H. Harrison, of Pittsfield, is now living. One of his 


sons, Charles, was born in 1827, living in town till his death in 1872. In 1847 
he entered as clerk in the store of the Briggs Iron Co. (now Lanesboro Iron 
Co.), and in two years had charge of the store and the books of the company 
until he died. He was twice married, and had one son by each wife, George A. 
and Frank P. His first wife, Laura L. Sherman, was a descendant of Job 
Sherman, one of the earliest settlers of the town. 

John Farnam, born in Lanesboro in 1767, lived there till his death in 1856 
aged eighty -nine. His son Oran J. was born in 1797 and lived here till his 
death in 1866. He had four children, three now living in this town — Oran F., 
George VV. and Almena M., who is the wife of V. Burlingham. Oran F. married 
Hannah M. Hungerford and has three children. 

Peleg Potter came to this town at an early date, cleared a farm in the west 
part, and reared thirteen children, he died in 1823. His son Jesse was born 
in 1822, living in town most of his life, and died here in 1882, he left two sons 
and one daughter. The daughter is the wife of Rev. P. L. Dow, of Ketchum's 
Corners, N. Y. One son, Warren L., is assistant cashier of the Hoosac Val- 
ley savings bank, at North Adams, and one son, Clarence E , lives in Lanes- 

Jason Newton came from New Milford, Ct., about 1774, setled in the west- 
ern part of Lanesboro, cleared a farm and reared a family of children. His son 
Philo was a small child when brought here, and in 18 14 he moved to Chautau- 
qua county, N. Y., where he died about i860. His son, Jason, was born in 
Lanesboro in 1789, and Hved here till his death. Jason took an active part in 
town and church affairs, was warden in the Episcopal church for thirty-two 
years, held offices as selectman, assessor and collector of taxes for many years. 
He had eight children who hved to maturity, four of them still living. His son 
J. W. has been deputy sheriff for thirty-two years, also chairman of the 
board of selectmen and of the assessors for many years. Of the other chil- 
drea Ehas A., Jason and Henry H., live in Pittsfield. Stephen, son of Philo, 
was born here in 1793, died in 1873. He had three children, two now hving, 
Mrs. Sarah B. Griswold in Stamford, Ct. and Sidney A. born here in 1815, 
and has lived here most of his life. Sidney A. has five children, four now living 
in this town. 

Titus Wood came from. Newtown or Salisbury, Ct., to this town about 
1774, and settled in the western part, had fifteen children, twelve living to 
maturity. He died January 25, 1839. His son Titus was born in 1791, mar- 
ried Elizabeth Weed in 1813, reared ten children, and died in 1872. Eight 
children are still (except one) living in this town — Mrs. Mary Gardner, Mrs. 
Hannah Burlingham, Mrs. Louisa Shepardson, Miss Helen Wood, in Lanes- 
boro, and Mrs. Sarah Tower, in Pittsfield, while George M., who served in the 
war of the RebeUion, Erastus and Leman, a present selectman, also reside 
in Lanesboro, as well as a number of the eleven children of George M. 

Stephen Mead came from Dutchess Co., N.Y., in 1775, his native place being 
Stamford, Ct. He settled on the same farm which has remained in the 


Mead family to the present date. He died in 1794 aged fifty-one. His 
son Stephen, who was two years of age when brought here, died in 1865, 
about ninety-five years old. His son Henry was born in Lanesboro, in 1793, 
and lived there till his death, August 9, i860. Five of Henry's children are still 
living, only one, William H., in this county, who resides at the old homstead 
on road 11, settled by his great-grandfather. 

John Pratt moved here from Taunton, Mass., about 1780, located in the 
north part of the town, and died therein 1831. He had six children, one dying 
young. His son Micah was born in Taunton in 1778, but came here with 
his father and lived till his death in 1862. He had five children who lived to 
maturity, three now hving, two, Jesse C, on the original farm, George 
D., on road 7, and one son, Albert M., in Bryan, Ohio. 

Henry Pratt, son of Micah, was born here in 1820; was graduated from 
Pittsfield medical college, practiced medicine for some years in Becket, and 
went from there to Ohio. About 1858 he returned here, and followed his pro- 
fession till his death in 1877. His only son, Edward L., is now a student of the 
N. Y. University medical college. His widow, Anna B., resides on road 13. 

Zadoc Fuller moved herefrom Plainfield, Mass, about 1783. He had a 
family of eight children. Noah was the youngest son. He died here about 
1865. One of his sons, Charles H., now lives on road 12. 

Jabez Fuller came here when quite young, hving in town till his death in 
1855. He had eight children, only one, William A., now living. 

Nehemiah Talcott came here from Connecticut about 1813, locating in the 
northern part of the town, where he followed the business of a clothier and 
wool carder for about fifty years, and died there about 1848. He had six 
children, only two, Mrs. EmeHne Tower and Wm. A. Talcott, now living, both 
in this town. 

Marshall Shepardson was born in Adams, in 18 16, came here with his par- 
ents about 1820, and lived here till his death in 1862. Four of his children 
are still hving. One son, George M., resides off road 21 ; another son, Jason 
N., is in Pittsfield, and two daughters, Mrs. E. P. Wood and Mrs. Frank Stur- 
ges, resides in this town. 

Enoch Nourse was born in Groton, N. H., in 1 795, and came here about 1822, 
locating first on a farm in the north part of the town. About 1832 he settled 
on the farm where his son Frank now lives, and remained there till his death, 
in 1868. He married Experience Parker, of Whitley, Mass., and had nine chil- 
dren, four of whom are now hving. 

Joseph Belcher was born in Stephentown, N. Y., 18 18, came here about 
1843, and now resides on road 13. Two of his sons served in the late war, 
one of whom, Frederick, died from wounds received at the battle of Port 

Rev. Alfred A. Gilbert, A. M., was born in Cummington, Hampshire county, 
Mass., in 1816, was graduated from Union college, Schenectady, N. Y., 
and from the Theological Institute in Conn. He preached for some years, 


and in 1849 established "Elrnwood Institute," of Lanesboro, which until the 
present time has been solely under his supervsion. This school has been pat- 
ronized by scholars from nearly all parts of the United States, from Canada, 
and from South America, some of whom are the most prominent men of this 

Robert B. Dickie was born in Scotland in 1839, came to Berkshire county, 
in 1852. He enlisted in the 2d Regt. N. Y, V., and served two years in the 
war of the Rebellion, and was wounded four times. He was a staff officer 
for Generals Berry and Carr, at different periods. 

Pnnce Bowerman moved from Falmouth to Adams about 1800, living there 
till i860, when he came to Lanesboro, where he died in 1873. H^e left three 
children, two, Joshua L. and Angeline E., hving here, and Samuel W., a lawyer 
in Pittsfield. 

William Smith came to Hancock from Rhode Island previous to 17841 
locating in the eastern part of the town, and lived there till his death. He had 
eight children. His son, William, Jr., was born herein 1784, married in 1806. 
In 1807 he moved to Canada, where he lived till 1836, when he returned 
to Lanesboro, Hving in this vicinity till his death in j 864. He has eight chil- 
dren, five now living. William B. now resides at Lanesboro, and his two sis- 
ters, Mrs. Amy Boice and Mrs. Roxy Edwards, in Pittsfield. 

Benjamin Chase came from Nantucket, being one of the first settlers of 
North Adams. He settled in that section known as the "Notch," and there 
cleared a farm and had a family of children. His son William was born there, 
but after his marriage he moved to Cheshire and died there about 1863. He 
had five children, all now hving. One son, Harvey, lives on road 16, in Lanes- 
boro, and has held most of the town offices. 

Captain Adonijah Royce, a brother of Josiah and Nehemiah Royce, the 
latter of whom settled in Vermont, was born in Woodbury, Conn., January 10, 
1744. He married his first wife. Amy Brush, at New Fairfield, Conn., about 
1771, and soon after settled in Lanesboro, where he became possessed of 
quite a large tract of land, and reared a family of nine children, all of whom 
married. A second wife, Deborah Barker, whom he married in Newport, R. 
I., January i, 1796, was a daughter of Peckham Barker, a hatter of Newport. 
Three children were born to them in Lanesboro. The eldest, Dorcas, mar- 
ried Harry Mead. The youngest, Amos, married, July i6, 1823, Laura Rock- 
well, a daughter of Josiah Rockwell, a native of Danbury, Conn., who camt 
early to Lanesboro and married Mary Hungerford. They reared a family of 
fourteen children, thirteen of whom were married. Amos, the youngest child 
of Adonijah Royce, (who died June 23, 1807,) inherited a portion of his 
father's home farm, and purchased the remainder, in all about 100 acres. He 
and his wife, Laura Rockwell, both died in 1881. Of their eight children 
only two are now living, Josiah A., their second son, and William S., their 
youngest son. Josiah married, Oct. 23, 1852, Emily E. Heath, of Sandis- 
field, Mass., eldest daughter of Daniel Heath ; William married her sister, 


Mary J. Heath, and they reared three children, two sons and a daughter. Of 
Josiah Royce's five children only one son, Rubert S., is now living. In 1851 
Josiah Royce formed a copartnership with Charles French, and they estab- 
lished a job printing office in Lee, Mass., and remained together nearly 
eleven years. In January, 1857, they commenced the pubUcation of a weekly 
paper called The Valley Gleafier, which Mr. Royce edited seventeen years. 
In 1866 he purchased of his father the old family homestead of 100 acres, 
and having sold out his printing business at Lee, he moved with his family, 
in 1876, to his native place in Lanesboro. He greatly improved the place, 
which is called " Brookside Farm," remodeled and enlarged the old farm- 
house, so that he accommodates during the summer months twenty or twenty- 
five city boarders, many of whom are attached to this beautiful town, nestled 
among the Berkshire Hills. 

" In the struggles of the Revolution, "says J. G. Holland, " the town took 
a decided stand in favor of Independence, and cheerfully sustained its propor- 
tion of the burdens. Peter Curtis was chosen a delegate to the Provincial 
Congress, held at Cambridge, February i, 1775. April 26, 1776, it was voted 
to purchase 150 pounds of powder, 600 pounds of lead, fifty guns, and 1,000 
flints. The position of the minister, Mr. Collins, in relation to the Revolu- 
tion, was not satisfactory to the people, and a committee was appointed to 
confer with him. The committee hstened to his explanations, and they were 
reported to the town, but the town voted that they were not satisfactory. 
The matter was finally satisfactorily adjusted. June 7, 1776, it was voted to 
abide by the Continental Congress, in case it should declare the colonies in- 
dependent of Great Britain. Four days afterwards, money was granted to 
defray charges for taking care of unfriendly persons. December 12,1777, 
it was voted 'to allow a sum of money to Thomas Barnum for his horse that 
was killed by the goard of a bull when out in an alarm.' April 23, 1778, 
the new constitution was unanimously rejected, and a committee of seven 
appointed to amend it. June i, 1778, it was voted that John Welch was an 
enemy to the country, and that he be sent to Bennington, and delivered to 
the proper authority. It was voted at the same time that Capt. Ebenezer 
Newell procure the evidence against Sol. Biinhill, then in the Northampton 
jail, and attend the court at his trial. Bunhill had shot two of his neighbors 
through the head at the Bennington fight." 

T/ie Congregational church of Lanesboro. — Previous to the organization of 
a church society, the people received occasional ministrations from Rev. 
Samuel Hart, Rev. Woodbridge Little and others. But March 28, 1764, 
Rev. Samuel Hopkins, of Great Barrington, and Rev. Stephen West, of 
Stockbridge, organized the present Congregational society, consisting of eight 
members — five males and three females. On the 17th of the following month 
the first pastor. Rev. Daniel CoUins, was installed, and in 1765, the first 
house of worship was erected. This building did service until 1828, when 
the present brick edifice was erected, which is now valued at about $5,000.00. 



The society now lias twenty-seven members, with Rev. William F. Avery, 

.SV. Luke's Episcopal church, located at Lanesboro, was organized by Rev. 
Samuel Andrews, of Wallingford, Conn., in October, 1767. The first rector 
was Rev. Gideon Bostwick, who had charge of the church, in connection 
with St. James church in Great Barrington, from 1770 until his death, in 
June, 1793. Their first church building was a wood structure, erected in 
1785. In 1836 it was superseded by the present gothic building of stone, 
which will comfortably seat 400 persons, and is valued, including grounds, at 
$5,000.00. The society now has fifty-eight members, with Rev. Charles J. 
Palmer, rector. 

71ie Baptist church of Lanesboro, located at Lanesboro village, was or- 
ganized by Rev. Augustus Beach, the first pastor, and neighboring ministers, 
February 33, 181 8. For some years before a church building was erected, 
which was not until 1828, meetings were held in the town hall and private 
houses; but in 1828 the town hall was destroyed by fire, and within a few^ 
days thereafter a meetmg was called to consider the question of building a 
church edifice. The result of this meeting was that Asahel Jordan donated 
the land, Bushrod Buck the brick, and Abial Piatt and Henry Mead the 
marble for erecting the present church. The house was finished in 1828, and 
the society took possession of their new building free of debt. The original, 
or charter members of the society, twelve in number, were as follows : Dea- 
con, Joel Redway, Laura Redway, Joel Redway, Jr., Dr. Wm. H. Tyler, CeHa 
Tyler, Augustus Beach, Linus B. Miner Polly Reynolds, Deborah Green, 
Sibyl Hill, Eunice Smith and Maria Sunderland, Gov. George N. Briggs, 
then a young lawyer here, was an earnest supporter of the church. Henry 
Shaw {Josh Billings ) married a daughter of Levi Bradford, a deacon of the 
society. An earnest work of grace, soon after the church building was 
erected, resulted in many additions to the society, and seventy-five families 
were soon represented among its earnest supporters. Death and migration, 
however, has greatly reduced the interest, so that the society now numbers 
only seventy members, the pulpit being supphed by neighboring pastors. 

LEE, a very irregularly outlined town, lies just south of the central part 
of the county, in lat. 42° 17', and long. 3° 47', bounded northeast by 
Washington, east by Becket, south by Tyringham and Great Barring- 
ton, and west and north by Stockbridge and Lenox. The line on the 
west, the dividing line between Lee and Stockbridge, is S. 7" 30' W. about 
1,550 rods. Great Barrington line on the south is E. 7° S. 757 rods. Tyr- 
ingham line on the southwest corner has one re-entrant angle, and running 
from the corner made with Great Barrington, extends N. 37° E. 628 rods, to 
Deerhorn Corner, where it turns and extends E. 2° S. 1,072 rods. At this 



southeast point of the township it forms a corner with the Becket line, which 
runs N. 8|° W. 376 rods. Here is met the Washington town line, which runs 
N. 29° W. 580 rods, then makes a sharp turn on hne of lot No. 63 of the old 
township, S. 63° W. 246 rods, then takes the same course as first given, N. 
29^^ W. 1,236 rods, to the uppermost corner of the town, on the east bank of 
the Housatonic river. From this it follows down the line of the river 1,106 rods, 
then across the river, enclosing a little strip between the river and a line running 
S. 8° W. 162 rods. Then it crosses the river again, and runs in general course 
W. 6^° N. 563 rods. Here the line makes a double jog like two steps down- 
ward N. 6° E. 48^ rods, S. 85^^ E. 52 rods, N. 10" W; 34! rods, S 84' E. 
122 rods, till it strikes the Stockbridge line. 

The territory thus inclosed as a township was made up from portions of 
five different grant? of land, viz. : Hopland, Watson's, Williams's, Laraby's 
and Glassworks. The first of these extended nearly across the southern por- 
tion of the town, including what is now six school districts — the two at South 
Lee, the one near the Charles Hinckley homestead, the two in Water street, 
and the one at East Lee. " In or about 1770," says Charles J. Taylor in his 
History of Great Barrington, " William IngersoU, afterwards a leading 
citizen of Lee, removed from the central part of Great Barrington to the 
Hoplands. In February, 1770, the proprietors of the Upper Township 
authorized the sale of the school land in the Hoplands for the benefit of its 
inhabitants, and in the same year, by a vote of this town, those inhabitants 
were excused from the payment of ministerial, school and highway rates. 
The first roads in the Hoplands were established by this town in 1771, and 
six years later — 1777 — thirty persons, inhabitants of that section, were pay- 
ing poll taxes in Great Barrington. But the Hoplands, isolated and remote 
from the central part of the town, were by nature separated from it, and at the 
incorporation of Lee in 1777, were made a part of that town without opposi- 
tion from Great Barrington. The name of this tract was derived from the 
great quantity of wild hops which formerly grew upon the banks of the river 
which flows down from Tyringham. William Ingersol! owned about one- 
quarter of the tract, making a good sized farm for himself and each of his 
seven sons. 

Watson's grant comprised a large tract originally purchased by Robert 
Watson, of Sheffield, (assisted by a Tory lawyer of Great Barrington, named 
Williams,) of the Indians in 1757, which constitutes to-day the town of 
Washington, and parts of the towns of Middlefield, Hinsdale, Lenox and 
Lee. This land, before it became incorporated into the several townships 
with which it is now connected, passed through a number of hands, and was 
known, or parts of it at least, by the successive names of Watsontown, Green- 
ock, Hartwood, and Mount Ephraim. 

The Williams grant was a tract of land located in what is now the north- 
western corner of the town, embracing about 4,000 acres. It was granted to 
Col. Ephraim WiUiams, of Stockbridge, and six associates, January 21, 1740. 


Col. Williams was the first justice appointed from among the citizens of what 
is now Berkshire county, in 1741, and was the father of Col. Ephraim, the 
founder of Williams college (see sketch on page 33). 

I.arabee's grant was made to John Larabee, who then had command of 
the single fort " Castle Williams," which was thought to afford sufficient pro- 
tection to the harbor of Boston. Upon his memorial, which sets forth seven- 
teen years of especial services, a large and dependent family, a small and in- 
adequate compensation, the legislature, in June, 1739, voted to grant him 
^175 and 500 acres of unappropriated land of the Province. This grant, 
located east of the Williams grant, and duly reported to the legislature, was 
confirmed to Lieut. Larabee and his heirs and assigns. He seems to have 
been a faithful officer, for in 1762, the year following his death, a grant of 
^50 was made to his heirs, by the general court, in testimony of his faithful 

The Glass Works grant covered the center of the town — the present village 
— and was made in 1754, by the general court, to John Franklin and his as- 
sociates. It was designated " A Grant of Money to Encourage the Making 
of Potash ; " and consisted of 1,000 acres of land. Certain parties seem to 
have been engaged at Braintree, now Quincy, in the attempt to manufacture 
"potash, cider, glass and cloth," in which they were pecuniarily unfortunate, 
and after various attempts to acquire, first monopolies and then indemnities, 
they seem to have obtained, in 1757, an addition to the former Glass Works 
grant, assistance " by way of lottery," which the general court authorized them 
to enjoy, and voted them the use of the Hall of Representatives, as a con- 
venient place in which to '• draw" it. 

In 1777 the inhabitants of these grants and parts of grants, numbering 
probably, ^50 souls, petitioned the general court for a charter of incorpora- 
tion, and October 21st of that year the tract became an incorporated town- 
ship, under the name of Lee, in honor of General Charles Lee, who was at 
that time a popular commander in the American army, but subsequently fell 
into disrepute, having proved himself to be only an adventurer of fittle ability. 
He was born in Devonhall, Cheshire, England, in 1731, and died at Phila- 
delphia, Pa., October 2, 1782. At one time he was taken prisoner by the 
British and was recovered by exchange for General Prescott, in May, 1778. 
General Prescott was captured through stratagem, for the purpose of effecting 
this very exchange, an interesting sketch of which event we print on page 109. 

Of the topographical features of the town Rev. Dr. Hyde wrote as follows: 
" The town is six miles in length and five in breadth, and presents a very 
diversified appearance. It forms a part of the intervale which lies between 
the Taconic and Green mountain ranges. The Green mountain range, 
which rises to a moderate elevation, runs partly within the eastern limits of 
the town, presenting a very picturesque appearance. These mountains are 
for the most part of gentle accHvity, and are cultivated in some places quite 
to their summits. From the base of these mountains, the surface is rather 



uneven, occasionally rising into hills of considerable height, but generally 
descending until it reaches the plain upon the banks of the Housatonic." 
West of this river the land is everywhere undulating in its appearance, in- 
clining towards the south. Beartown mountain is a large and grand pile of 
hills on the southeast of Stockbridge, northeast of Great Harrington, forming 
the northwest part of Tyringham and southwest part of Lee. Deerhorn 
Corner, the name given the point at the angle of the two town lines, is so 
called from the fact that a deer's horn was fastened here to mark the spot. 
Washington mountain, chiefly in Washington, extends south to Lee, and 
forms the eastern boundary of the Housatonic valley for several miles. East 
mountain extends into and from Becket on the east side of the town. The 
Housatonic river divides the town into two nearly equal parts. Its course is 
southerly when it first enters the town ; but before reaching South Lee it 
turns sharply to the west. At this point it is 831 feet above tide water at 
Derbj', Conn. In its passage through the town, the Housatonic receives the 
waters of Laurel lake, formerly called Scott's pond. The outlet of this lake 
empties into the river at the north end of the village. Two streams come 
down from Washington mountain and empty into the Housatonic near Brad- 
ley street. Through Cape street flows the outlet of Greenwater pond, in 
Becket, which unites in Water street with the outlet of Lake May, and Long 
pond, two natural reservoirs artificially increased, lying partly in Lee and 
partly in Tyringham. These two streams, both before and after their union, 
furnish power for numerous mills. Hop brook flows down from Tyringham, 
and was so named from the abundance of wild hops in the low land through 
which it flowed. Smaller streams generally bear the name of the owners of 
the land through which they flow, with every change of owners changing 
also their names. 

Geologically, the mountains on the east of the town are of mica-slate 
Two or three eminences of quartz rock in the valley project their ragged ele- 
vations. "Fern Cliff" " has quartz rock at the base, and ^;;^/i-j- on the sum- 
mit, in which are frequent crystals of iron pyrites. In the slaty rocks, 
above the quartz, are numerous tourmaline crystals ; but li?nesfone is 
the principal rock to be found rising from the lowland. If it wifl not 
take a polish it is not fit for use as marble, nor is it fit for cutting 
if it contains fibrous and bladed crystals of tremolite, such as are found south- 
west of Gross's quarry. In Hitchcock's Geology of Massachusetts there is a 
detailed description of the geological strata of the county, and a figure is given, 
illustrating Dr. Hitchcock's theory of the manner in which the strata have 
been distorted between the Hudson and the Connecticut by upheavals. Erosion 
next removed the softer parts and gavethe present topographical outline. In 
Lytell's Antiquity of Man, is a sketch of the course of erratic bowlders traced 
from Caanan, N. Y., across the range of hills southeast to the Housatonic 
valley. Limestone is readily obtained in various parts of the town. Much 
that is not valuable as building material is suitable for making lime, and the 




production of lime has ever been one of the industries of the town. In former 
times the limestone was burned in temporary kilns, and when a kiln was 
burned the fire was permitted to go out. Remains of these old kilns are 
found in all parts of the town, and as no lime is known to have been exported 
in early times, it is supposed that lime was burned as it was wanted by an 
individual or a neighborhood. About the year 1840, William L. Culver 
began burning Hme in a patent self-feeding kiln, the fire of which is kept burn- 
ing for months, the Hmestone being put in* at the top of a chimney lined with 
fire-brick, and the hme taken out at the bottom as fast as it is burned, Lee 
lime has quite a reputation, and finds its principal market in this and the 
neighboring towns, much of it being used for bleaching rags in the manufac- 
ture of paper. 

" Marble is the most valuable mineral in Lee as yet discovered. The sup- 
ply is inexhaustible. It is easy of access, and for a generation, at least, it 
will be easily quarried, as some of this marble fies 120 feet above the river. 
The marble is of a superior quality. Prof Hitchcock says that it is 'a pure 
crystalline double carbonate of magnesia and hme.' It is therefore dolomite 
marble, forty-eight per cent, carbonate of hme and forty-nine per cent, car- 
bonate of magnesia. Much of it is pure white and is susceptible of a very 
fine polish. It will also work a perfectly square arris. This renders it a 
desirable material for chimney pieces, furniture, etc. Frost and heat pro- 
duce little change in size and weight. It will sustain a pressure of 26,000 
pounds to the square inch, while Italian marble crushes at 13,000 pounds, 
and most of the American marble at 1 2,000 pounds. By some of the severest 
tests to which marble can be put, by the chemist and architect, Lee 
marble was decided to be the best for building material, hence a congres- 
sional committee decided that this should be used for the enlargement of the 
capitol at Washington." Among the mineialogical specimens to be obtained 
m^^yh^x^Q.w'ixo'ntii marl, peat, micaceous limestone, mica, quartz, gray lime- 
stone, augite, bladed tremolite, radiated actinolite, dolotnite and shere. 

In 1880 Lee had a population of 3,939. In 1883 the town employed five male 
and twenty female teachers in its public schools, at an average monthly salary 
of $80.00 for males and $28.30 for female?. There were 760 school children 
in the town, while the entire amount raised for school purposes was $7,650.00. 

Lee is a bright, stirring, handsome post villiage located nearly in the center 
of the town on the Housatonic R. R. It has many handsome residences and 
fine business blocks hning its broad, neat, streets, forming, with its charming 
environs, a locality whose varied attractions are seldom surpassed. Utility, 
too, is blended with these charms, for here the Housatonic aftbrds power that 
turns many a busy wheel in shop, factory and mill. The Housatonic has 
pecuhar facilities here for manufacturing purposes. Goose pond, lying upon 
the Tyringham mountains, some ;6oo feet above the river, affords a natural 
reservoir, capable of holding in reserve sufficient water to run the mills four 
months, should a time of drouth render it necessary. The town is celebrated 


for its immense paper manufuring industry. The history of this manufacture 
has lately been written up by Hon. Byron Weston of Dalton, from whom we 
quote as follows : — 

'• The manufacture of paper in the town of Lee began in the year 1806, in 
which \ ear Samuel Church moved into the town from Connecticut, and built 
a 'two-vat mill' on the site now covered by one of the Hulbert Paper Com- 
pany's buildings in South Lee. Such a mill made an average of ten reams of 
paper per day, of course making it by hand. The process, in brief, was, to 
beat the rags to a pulp in engines similar to those used now ; this pulp was 
gathered, while mixed with water, upon sieves or wire-covered frames, one 
sheet to a frame, and on the frames it was dried sufficiently to be handled, 
then finished by pressing between hot metal plates and press paper boards. 
There were no calendars in use to give the paper the smooth, beautiful finish 
now desired. Some idea of the process made in producing quantity at the 
mills may be had from the fact that a "four-vat mill" of the hand era would 
produce about 400 pounds of paper per day. A. modern four-engine mill, with 
the same number of employees as worked in the four-vat mill, but with mod- 
ern machinery, will make 2,000 pounds of very much better goods. The price 
of the old hand-made paper was from forty to fifty cents a pound ; the price of 
our modern machine-made paper is from fifteen to twenty-five cents. Ten 
thousand dollars was a large capital for a four-vat hand mill] for a modern 
four-engine mill forty thousand dollars is sometimes too limited a sum. 

" The first North Lee mill, and the third built in the county, was put up by 
Luman Church, in 1808, on ground covered now by the Smith Paper Com- 
pany's ' Eagle Mill.' The Churches seem to have been not only pioneers in 
paper making, but to have been energetic ones. In 1821 Luman Church 
built the 'Forest Mill' now Harrison Garfield's, and in 183 1 the ' Waverly 
Mill' of the firm of Chaffee & Hamblin. The Churches' connected with the 
business closed, however, before its prosperity and growth began, but their 
enterprise and faith in it gave Lee the impetus which resulted in making that 
town, for many years, the most important in the paper trade in this country. 
In 1840, it is said, one-fifth of all the paper made in the United States was 
manufactured at Lee. 

"In 1822 John Ames, of Springfield, patented the cylinder machine which 
gathered the pulp on a revolving wire cylinder, taking the place of the old 
hand-frame or wire sieve and greatly increasing the productive capacity of the 
mills. Other improvements about this time, when there were three mills in 
Lee, were devised. The rags for the hand mills were picked up about the 
country by peddlers, who traded paper, pens, school books, etc., with the far- 
mers' wives for their rags. The process of bleaching, as now practiced was un- 
known. The rags were sorted and the different colors separated. Blue was 
supposed to be a color that could not be bleached out, and blue rrgs were 
sold to some mills where ' tobacco paper ' was made. The tobacconists ttill 
stick to their color, but it need not be inferred that their wrapping is now, 


as it then was, all made from blue rags. The beating of the rags to a plup 
gave rise to the story of the origin of ' foolscap,' and it was repeated seriously 
to the writer by an old paper maker in Lee. It was related that a half-witted 
youth sat upon a rock on the top of which was a shallow depression contain- 
ing some water. Into this puddle the boy dropped his cap, and, with a stone. 
fooHshly and idly pounded his linen turban into pulp. The sun dried the 
' stuff,' or fiber, which had spread itself through the water upon the bottom of 
the puddle, and lo ! it was lifted out a sheet of paper — foolscap in fact. 

"In 1 826, when the improvements just spoken of became accessible, another 
mill building era began in Lee. Messrs. Walter, Winthrop and Cutler Laflin 
built in that year a mill on the site of the Smith Paper Company's present 
'Housatonic Mill.' It was the first in the town in which paper was made by 
machinery, and as the building was 100 feet long, it was considered a marvel 
in the lavish use of capital. The Laflins also built a mill on the Housatonic 
at the present location of the Columbia Mill, owned by the Smith Paper Com- 
pany, and they continued prosperously in the business for ten years. During 
this decade, Stephen Thatcher, who recently died at Saratoga, nearly one 
hundred years old, built the mill now obHterated, but for years run by Mr. 
John Bottomley. Mr. Thatcher and the Laflins are remembered in the paper 
trade as being connected with the 'Navarino Excitement,' which was one of 
the most successful speculations in the history of the business, Mr. Thatcher 
began making a thick, straw-colored paper which was pressed between plates 
and stamped so as to resemble the present Leghorn hat material It was sold 
for bonnet and hat making, and became as 'fashionable' and as universally 
worn as paper collars were a few years ago. It is said bonnets nicely made 
from this paper sold as high as five dollars each. The Laflins with their 
greater facilities, soon went into the speculation, giving their paper the 'Leg- 
horn appearance' by the quicker process of running it between engraved roll- 
ers. For a time the business was very prosperous, but it had a rather short life. 
Perhaps a thousand Navarino bonnets were caught out at a showery picnic 
and the mishap ruined the fashion. Belles and beaux, matrons and maidens, 
who had been proud of their 'Leghorn hats,' an expensive luxury in those days, 
found, when the rain had wilted them and spoiled the straw-like impression, 
that they had been wearing only a smart Yankee's paper imitation of the 
costly genuine article 

"The ' Bottomley Mill,' so-called, passed to its ashes through more hands 
than any other mill in Lee. Built in 1833 by Thatcher & Son, it became 
Thatcher & IngersoU's in 1840 ; in 1851 it was bought by Harrison Smith and 
David S. May. They ran it until 1856, when May retired from the firm. In 
1857 Tanner & Perkins took the mill. Then it became Toole & Bottomley's. 
Still later Mr. Bottomley owned it alone, and it was burned while under lease 
to Ferry & Wrinkle. 

"The 'Pleasant VaUey Mill,' just north of Lenox Furnace was built in 1835, 
by Leonard Church, Joseph Bassett and Thomas Sedgwick, who made printing 


paper for several years. Messrs. Church & Bassett sold out to Sabin & Cone, 
and afterwards the firm became Sedgwick & Cone. Robins & Crosby were the 
next owners, and following them Gibbs, Dean & Osborn were proprietors un- 
til 1857. The mill was idle for many years, or until the Smith Paper Com- 
pany bought it. 

" The ' Washington Mill,' now Harrison Garfield's, on Water street, in Lee, 
was built by Foote & Bosworth in 1835. While the mill was building, Bos- 
worth was killed by the overturning of a load of wood upon him. Joseph B. 
Allen, of Newton, and Leander Backus, of Lee, took up the enterprise, 
and ran the mill until it was sold to Benton & Garfield in 1849. 

'• The first mill on the Lake May stream was built in 1837, by Jared Inger- 
soU and Sylvester S. May. It was a one-engine mill and produced straw 
paper. It was burned in 1839. In 1840 Mr. E* S. May bought Mr. Inger- 
soU's interest and the mill was rebuilt with two engines, running on straw 
paper until 1845. They then built further up the stream their middle mill, 
containing two engines, also running on straw paper until 1 846, when it was run 
on wall papers. In 1847 both mills began to produce writing papers. In 1852 
Benjamin Dean was added to the firm, and the ' upper' four-engine mill was 
built and run upon fine papers. Dean remained with the firm, until 1854, 
when he retired and the late Samuel S. Rogers entered the partnership. Dean 
was a somewhat remarkable character. He recently died in Michigan. Dur- 
ing the latter years of his life in Lee, his peculiarities made him a marked 
citizen. He had a massive head, long, flowing grey hair and whiskers, and 
spent his leasure hours in writing ' poetry,' as he called it, satirizing the bar 
and pulpit. He became a Free thinker and Spiritualist and was always 
ready for an argument. Some one said to him one day, ' You can find a 
rhyme for almost any word, but it would puzzle you to concoct a rhyme for 
' Timbuctoo.' Instantly Dean replied : — 

" 'The missionary went to Timbuctoo 

Where savages ate him and his hymn book too.' 

" In 1877 the firm of May & Rogers was dissolved by the retiring of Mr. 
Rogers, who took the upper mill, since burned and not rebult. The firm of 
E. & S. May is the oldest active business paper manufacturing firm in the 

"In 1838 John Baker and George Wilson built a mill on the Cape street 
or Greenwater stream. They ran it a short time, and it then passed into the 
hands of Ira VanBergen, subsequently it was owned by Platner & Smith, 
later by George West, who owned it when it was burned, and it has not been 
rebuilt. The only other paper mill ever located en this stream was built in 
1844 by Sturges & Costar. They ran it three years and it was then bought 
by Orton Heath, who operated it a number of years and then sold it to Baird 
& Linn ; afterwards Mr. Baird owned it alone and sold it to Patrick Owen, 
who ran a brief and disastrous career. The mill is idle, comparatively worth- 
less, and is falling into ruin. 



"In 1846 the mill on the Lake May stream known as the 'Upper Forest 
mill,' was built by Benton & Garfield. Benton & Baird (C. C. Benton & 
Hon. P. C. Baird) next owned it, and later Mr. Baird bought his partners 
interest. It was burned but rebuilt by Mr. Baird, and is now owned by him. 
In 1823 Bradford Couch built a mill on the Lake May stream, and it was 
run by him and by Couch & Clark until bought by Mr. Baird, and it is now 
run on collar paper. Mr. Baird was among the first to begin manufacturing 
paper collars, and he and his brother, George K. Baird, now a druggist, 
made immense numbers of them before they finally abandoned the business, 
Hon. P. C. Bard's factory alone sometimes turning out 100,000 collars in a 

"In 1855 Northup & Eldridge built a mill on the site of the mill recently 
run by Gilmor & Sparks, the mill nearest Lake May. Northup sold out to 
Eldridge and later the mill passed into the hands of Tanner & Perkins, 
machinists. The next proprietors were Blauvelt & Gilmor; subsequently 
Mr. Gilmor had it alone. In this mill was made paper twine during the 
high price of cotton in war times. It was twisted from strips of manila 
paper and it was strong enough for light purposes, unless is happened to meet 
the supposed fate of the Navarino bonnets by getting wet. This site has 
been an unfortunate one, as three mills have been burned upon it. The 
present mill was built in 1878. 

' The ' Greenwood Mill,' now owned by Benton Brothers '^^J. F. and C. C), 
was built by Benton & Garfield in 1854. Its product is about 1,000 pounds 
of fine paper per day. This old firm of Benton & Garfield, organized in 
1836, and continued in industry and good works until dissolved by the death 
of Mr. Benton in 1867, deserves more than a passing notice for its great suc- 
cess. Beginning with a trifling capital in money, but rich in energy, it made 
a great reputation and fortune. In the beginning the members of the firm 
and their wives worked cheerfully and heartily in the mifl. When Mr. Ben- 
ton died, his share of the estate amounted toa handsome fortune. Hon. Har- 
rison Garfield is president of the Lee National Bank, has served his State in 
both branches of the legislature, and is the oldest active business paper maker 
in the county. 

" In 1855 Lin.i & Dean built on the Lake May stream a small mill for 
making bank-note paper by hand. It was afterwards run by EHzur Smith 
and Mr. Linn ; but it is now owned by Mr. Baird, who uses it in connection 
with his other mills. In 1862, while Mr. Linn was running the mill, it was 
discovered that he was making bank-note paper with the initials " C. S. A.'' 
in water marks upon it. A United States marshal suspected that the initials 
meant ' Confederate States of .America,' a concern with which we were hav- 
ing some difficulty at the time, and the officer took Mr. Linn to Boston to 
answer for the supposed aid and comfort he was giving the enemy in making 
paper for them upon which to print their money. Mr. Linn was able to 
show that he received the order for the goods from a New York house, who 


also furnished hira the mold or machine which made the initials water marked 
in the paper, and that he knew nothing about the purpose for which the 
paper was to be used. He was acquitted. I believe the New York firm set 
up that their purpose was a patriotic one, as they intended to counterfeit the 
Confederate money and ruin the credit of the concern b) flooding their own 
territory with worthless notes. The patriotism may not be very apparent, 
but such was the excuse made. Mr. Linn is now living in New Jersey. 

"The Smith Paper Company operates the 'Valley,' 'Columbia.' 'Eagle' 
and ' Housatonic ' Mills. Sketches of all of these have been given in what 
I have read, except the ' Columbia.' This was originally built by the Laflins 
in 1826. Subsequently it was operated by Phelps & Field, the former the 
late George H. Phelps, and the latter Matthew Field, son of Dr. D. D. 
Field, author of a history of Berkshire county, and long a settled minister in 
Stockbridge This Lee paper maker was a brother of Cyrus W., David Dud- 
ley, Stephen J., and Henry M. Field, and Cyrus W. worked in his youth in 
this mill for his brother Matthew. Cyrus W. was after .vard in the paper busi- 
ness in New York, and dealt extensively with the Berkshire paper makers. 
He is remembered as very bright in the trades that were made of the pro- 
ducts of the mills for the raw material. He had a habit of dropping his eye- 
lids or closing his eyes during his bargaining, and if one eye only closed, the 
prospects were that the paper maker would 'fare pretty well' as they used to 
say, but if Cyrus closed both eyes, 'then look out for him.' He would get 
the best of the bargain. In 1863 this mill was bought by Mr. Smith, im- 
proved, and its capacity increased, and run until September 2, 1865, when it 
was burned. On the night of the fire Mr. Smith, just married, was receiving 
his friends, and the conflagration was made particularly memorable by that 
fact. News of the fire was brought to him in the midst of the festivities, but 
he quietly bade the feast go on. The next morning he was seen on the -pile 
of ruins giving orders for clearing up the rubbish so that rebuilding could 
commence The Smith Paper Company is composed of Ehzur, Wellington, 
and DeWitt S. Smith, the two latter nephews of the former. The firm is 
the successor to Platner & Smith, which was formed in 1835 and was at one 
time during its continuance the largest producers of writing paper in the 
country, if not in the world. Besides the mills owned by them in Lee village? 
they had also the mill built by Baker & Wilson, in East Lee, in 1838, and 
rented for a time the ' Defiance Mill,' in Dalton. Mr. Smith was also inter- 
ested in a mill at Russell, with his brother, John R. Smith, and Cyrus W. 
Field & Co., of New York, and they have owned the ' Turkey Mill,' at Tyr- 
ingham. The fine paper of Platner & Smith was known all over the United 
States, and the firm was a power in the business. It was during the time 
when an English or French label was demanded on nearly everything for the 
best American use, and Platner & Smith made at Lee the best ' imported ' 
paper on the market. The company now conducting the business makes 
only book, news and manila wrapping paper. They own every water privi- 


lege on the Housatonic river between Lee and Pittsfield, about ten miles. 
They have thirty rag engines in their mills, of from seven hundred to eight 
hundred pounds capacity each. They use for power eleven steam engines 
and twenty-seven water wheels, and their product per week is over one hun- 
dred tons. Their largest week's production was one hundred and thirty-nine 
tons. In connection with their mills they have two factories at Lenox Fur- 
nace for making wood pulp, and at Lee a large and thoroughly equipped 
machine shop." 

Paper Mills of South Lee. — " The fiist mill built in Lee, by Mr. Churchy 
was the second to be built in the county, the first being erected at Dalton in 
1 80 1. The Lee mill was sold by Mr. Church to the firm of Brown & Curtis, 
and in 1822 it was sold again to Messrs. Owen & Hulbert. As the means 
of the latter firm increased they enterprisingly increased their business, buying 
of BiUings Brown his grist-mill, which they converted into a paper mill, and 
they purchased other mill-sites and lands for future use. They also bought 
the ' forge,' on the east side of the river, so as to control the entire water- 
power of the vicinity, and on that site erected a flouring-mill, which site is 
now covered by the Hulbert Paper Company's new mill. Owen & Hulbert 
put in a cylinder machine in 1833, a calender in 1834, and ruling machines 
in 1836, showing an early adoption of all improvements in their business. 
This firm also built the mill in Housatonic now owned by the Owen Paper 
Company. In i860 the firm dissolved, Mr. Hulbert retaining the property at 
South Lee, and Mr. Owen taking that at Housatonic, and each associated 
with him a son in the business. The new firms, as stated already, took new 
names, — at Housatonic, the Owen Paper Company ; at South Lee, the Hul- 
bert Paper Company. The founders, Mr. Hulbert and Mr. Owen, were both 
born in 1794, the former in Wethersfield, and the latter in Windsor, Conn. 
They won a grand reputation as paper manufacturers, and as honorable, sterl- 
ing citizens of their town. The water mark and stamp of " O. & H." was 
always a guarantee of good goods. Mr. Hulbert, devoted to his occupation, 
cared little or nothing for public life, his chief delights being his family and 
his business. He died in 1861. Mr. Owen was more pleased with public 
honors, and deserved them. He was a major of miHtia, served in both 
branches of the legislature and in the governor's council. He died in 
1870. The two sons of Mr. Hulbert, Thomas O. and Henry C.,. 
are his successors to the name and business of the Hulbert Paper Com- 
pany. Charles H. Plumb was a stockholder in this company in 1865, and 
remained till 1868. He is now the keeper of the old and popular hotel at 
Stockbridge, and a prince of good fellows. Under their management it has 
prospered and greatly increased. In 1872 they built one of the largest and 
best mills in the country. It is 373 feet long, 50 feet wide, and, including the 
basement and attic, four stories high. The whole product of their mills is 10,- 
000 pounds of fine writing paper per day. 

The Lee National Bank was incorporated in 1835, and June loth of that 


)'ear George Hull, of Sandisfiekl, was chosen president, and July 3Tst John 
Furber cashier. The capital stock was $50,000.00, which was increased at 
various times until it amounted to $300,000.00. In 1864 this was reduced 
to $210,000.00, its present capital. After four years service, Mr. Hull 
resigned, and since then the following presidents have served : William A. 
Phelps, elected in 1839 '> Walter Laflin, 1841 ; Leonard Church, 1844; Thomas 
Sedgwick, 1856; Harrison Garfield, 1862. The cashiers have been, after 
Mr. Furber, Thomas Green, chosen in 1840 j Edmund D. Chapin, 1848; 
Edward A. Bliss, 1850; John M. Howk, 1862; John L. Kilbon, 1868; 
The bank is now in a prosperous condition, its officers, aside from those men- 
tioned, being P. C. Baird, vice-president, and Frank Savage, teller. 

The Lee Savings Bank was chartered March 5, 1852, and commenced bus- 
iness in June following. Harrison Garfield has been its president, with the 
exception of the first year, when William Porter was chosen. The cashiers 
of the national bank have served as treasurers of the savings bank. "The 
institution now has in its charge an aggregate deposit of $570,000.00. 

East Lee a post village located about two miles southeast of Lee village, 
on the Green Water river, is another bright, busy manufacturing community, 
where many tons of paper are made each year. Although a postoffice was 
established here in 1848, it was abandoned for a time, and revived again in 
the summer of 1884. 

South Lee, is post village and station on the Housatonic R. R., strung 
along the Housatonic river in the southwestern part of the town. 

Lee Sieam Marble Works, located on road t^t^, were estabUshed previous to 
1850, by Rice, Baird & Heebner, who opened a quarry on the Culver farm. 
They furnished marble for the capital extension at Washington, during the 
years 1852 to 1865, furnishing therefor 491,000 feet. In 1867 F. S. Gross 
& Bro. succeeded to the business. This firm now employs seventy-five men, 
is supplied with all modern improvements for quarrying, and is now fur- 
nishing marble for public buildings at Philadelphia, Pa. 

East Lee Flock and Shoddy Mill, on Green Water river, was formerly a cot- 
ton mill operated by Beach & Royce. The present proprietor, George T. 
Bostwick rebuilt and enlarged the mill in 1883, so that it is now a fine stone 
structure 70 x 40 feet, and five stories in height. Mr. Bostwick is running 
the mill in the manufacture of flocks and shoddy. 

The East Lee Machine Shops, engaged in the manufacture of paper-making 
machinery, was originally estabhshed by Beach & Royce. In 1840 it was 
purchased by Edward P. Tanner, the present manager of the concern, with 
his son, J. Albert, agent. The shop gives employment to thirty hands. 

Theron L. Foote' s grist atid flotcring mill, located at East Lee, have the 
capacity for grinding 500 bushels of grain per week. 

John Dowds machine shop, located on road 26, was established in 1850. He 
emplo)s six men in the manufacture of paper-engine roll-bars, bed-plates, 
trimming knives, rag cutter knives, etc. 


jRufus L. Thayer's saw and cider-mill^ located on Reservoir Pond brook, 
has the capacity for manufacturing 100,000 feet of lumber and 800 barrels of 
cider per year. 

The first settler in the town was Isaac Davis, who, in 1760, located in the 
southern part of the town, on the banks of Hop brook, where John P. French 
now lives. He died at Chenango in 1801. Duringthe ten years from 1760 to 
1770, only thirteen families came into the town, among whom were Reuben 
Pixley, John Coffey, Hope Davis, Aaron Benedict, George Parker, William 
Chanter, a Mr. Atkins, Lemuel Crocker, Asahel Dodge and Samuel Stanley. 
They lived in small log houses, mostly located upon the mountain sides. No 
roads had been made. Marked trees served to mark the pathway through 
the forest, and a fallen tree across the river the only bridge. In 1770 John 
Winnegar, of German origin, built the first grist-mill, at "Crowe Hollow." 
His log house, the eleventh erected in the town, was built against a perpen- 
dicular rock, which served as the back of the house and of the ohimney. The 
latter was so constructed that the wood cut from the hill in the rear of the 
house could be hauled to the top of the rock and thrown down the chimney 
into the fire-place. About 1775 Mr. Winnegar built another grist-mill, on 
Cape street, where John McLaughlin's works are now located. He also built 
the dwelling which stands in front of them, it being now the oldest house in 
the town. Mr. Winnegar, while hunting deer with an Indian, got lost upon 
the mountain and wandered about for three days without food or fire, freez- 
ing his feet so badly that it rendered him a cripple for life. 

During the years between 1770 and 1780, many valued citizens came into 
the town, among whom were Nathaniel and Cornelius Bassett, Jesse Gilford, 
Jesse Bradley, WiUiam IngersoU, Timothy Thatcher, Oliver and Prince 
West, Arthur Perry, Samuel Stanley, Amos Porter, Josiah Yale, Ebenezer 
Jenkins, Nathan DilHngham, Job Hamblin and others. From that time 
until 1791 the population increased to 1,170 souls. 

"Cape street " was the name given to the eastern part of the town, because 
many of its settlers came from Cape Cod. This section, with its narrow valley 
and its convenient hill-sides for the homes of the early settlers, was at first the 
most populous part of the tOivn_, and there it was proposed to build the first 
meeting-house; but Cornelius Bassett and Nathan Dillingham, in 1778, built 
the " Red Lion " tavern on what is now the Pease lot, which was occupied as a 
hotel till 1833, and remiined as a landmark and memento of earlier days for 
some years after the more modern hostelry, built where the Memorial Hall 
now stands, took its place as the hotel. It was the first two-story house built 
in Lee, and it is said that the first store, to which Job Hambhn brought from 
Boston by a forty days' journey, a load of salt, was kept in its buttery. This 
imposing and important establisment had, of course, a centralizing tendency, 
and aided in drawing the population and the "meeting-house" to the pres- 
ent center. 

The first town meeting was held at Peter Wilcox's homestead, December 


22, 1777. It is supposed that the population was then about 200. In 1780 
the meeting was adjourned "for eight minutes, to meet in Peter Wilcox's 
barn," indicating probably an increase of population which made the one 
room of the log house inconveniently small. The next place of meeting was 
at Major Dillingham's tavern, and after that, at the meeting-house for many 
years. Notices of town meetings were posted on the whipping-post, near 
the meeting-house, and at the two grist-mills. Upon the site of Wilcox's 
dwelling now stands the house since occupied by Mrs. Smith, mother of 
Elizur. At this first meeting the following officers were chosen : William 
Ingersoll, moderator; Prince West, town clerk; WiUiam Ingersoll, Jesse 
Bradley, Oliver West, Amos Porter and Prince West, selectmen ; William 
Ingersoll, treasurer; Reuben Pixley and James Penoyer, constables; Daniel 
Church, Job Hamblin, John Nye and WiUiam Ingersoll, highway surveyors ; 
Abijah Tomlinson and Samuel Stanley, tythingmen ; Samuel Stanley, leather 
sealer ; William Ingersoll, Jesse Bradley and Oliver West, committee of cor- 
respondence. The first lawyer was Alvan Coe, a native of Granville, who 
settled herein 1807. Gideon Thompson, a native of Goshen, Conn., was 
the first physician. Jedediah Crocker was the first postmaster in Lee, in 
1803, and kept his office at his tavern in Cape street. The postoffice was 
first opened at East Lee, in 1848, L. S. Sturgess being the first postmaster. 
At South Lee a postoffice was estabhshed in 1826, and Thomas Hulbert was 
postmaster. Among the natives of Lee who have been graduated from col- 
lege, are the following : Solomon Foote, M. D., Rev. Cyrus Yale, B. Hinck- 
ley, M. D., William Dillingham, Charles DiUingham, John D. Crocker, Law- 
rence Warner, Issac Howk, Jonathan Foote, 3d, Rev. Alvan Hyde, Joseph 
Hyde, William Hyde, Alexander Hyde, Solomon Foote, Jr., Rev. Barnabas 
Phinney, Rev. Noah Sheldon, Rev. WiUiam Bradley, Rev. Thomas Scott 
Bradley, Rev. Elisha P. Ingersoll, Elisha Bassett, Rev. Edward Taylor, Rev, 
WUliam Porter, R^ev. Charles B. Ball, Addison H. Laflin, Rev. Lavius Hyde, 
Asahel Foote and Rev. Stephen Peel. 

The part taken by Lee in the wars, in Shays RebeUion^ and its newspaper 
history have already been given in the county chapter. 

Rev. Alvin Hyde, D. D., came to Lee early, and was their pastor for 
forty years, being for many years the only minister in the town. He made it 
a practice to visit each school four times annually. The poor in him found a 
generous friend. He buried the original settlers and many of their children, 
and married the fathers and mothers of Lee, their children and grandchil- 
dren during a period of forty years. He knew every person in town, and 
could call them, even the children, by name. 

Jonathan Foote, grandson of Nathan, who was granted a tract of land in 
Connecticut by Charles II , for saving his life from the enemy, by assisting 
him to hide in a hoUow oak, came to Lee about 1770, and took up a large 
tract of land. His son, Captain Alvin Foote, was born on the homestead in 
the year the town was incorporated, 


Job Child immigrated to Lee in 1791. He married Rhoda Hatch, and had 
born to him a daughter, Temperance, and one son, Joseph H. Joseph, born 
in 1803, was married to Electa Hulet, rearing one son and two daughters^ 
namely, Lucinda E., Almira and William D., the later residing upon the old 
homestead, on road 11. Lucinda E. married J. G. Davenport, and has long 
resided in Cahfornia. 

Stephen Bradley, son of Elisha Bradley, of Stockbridge, Mass., was born in 
1774, and immigrated to Lee in 1799, having married Lydia Cork four years 
previous. Of his six sons and two daughters, one son, Ebenezer, born in 
1796, is dow residing in Illinois. Another son, Stephen, who was born in 
Lee in i8or, married Hannah Austin, of Becket, rearing two sons and four 
daughters. Of these, John E. is principal of the high-school at Albany, N. 
Y., and Edwin A. married Aggie Clark, of this town, and resides with his 
father on the old homestead on Bradley Hill. He is the father of three sons. 

Thomas Sturges came with his brother William, to Lee, from Cape Cod, 
about the year 1800, Thomas engaging in the marble business, in 1810. His 
son Edwin, born in this town in [807, in 1852 succeeded his father in 
the marble works, in which business he is still engaged at East Lee, on road 
26. He married Charlotte Hewett in 1828, rearing two sons and one daugh- 
ter, George, Edwin, and Frances A. Edwin was collector of taxes for many- 

Charles Hinckley, son of Benjamin and Puella (Goodspeed) Hinckley, was 
born in Lee in 1800, and married Harriet Bassett, who bore him five chil- 
dren : Charles Edgar, Evahna, (who became Mrs. Edward A. More, and died 
in 1883,) Frank K., residing on the homestead, John W., of Connecticut, and 
Harriet B., residing with her mother. 

Ehal, son of Timothy and Dorothy (Phelps) Thatcher, was born in Shalor 
Hill, in 1 812. and began working at the blacksmith's trade when but fifteen 
years of age, which trade he has followed for more than sixty years, having 
learned of Amos G. and S. A. Hulbert, of Lee. He marred Emily Gale, of 
Hadley, Mass., rearing three daughters. He resides on Main street. Ema- 
line Phelps married James Finney. 

Pliny M., son of Reuben and Amelia M. Shaylor, came to Lee in i8r6, 
where he kept a hotel on Cape street for nineteen years. He married Han- 
nah Owen. His son, Pliny M., Jr., born in 1830, married Josephine L. 
Perrin, by whom he had one daughter, Mrs. Frank Belden, and resides on 
road 7. 

Amos G., son of Adams Hulbert, a Revolutionary soldier, was born in 
Weathersfield, February 7, 1799, and came to Lee with his brother, Samuel 
A., at the age of twenty-one years, where he engaged in the manufacture of 
wagons, sleighs and carriages, continuing prosperously until 1849, when he 
engaged in the insurance business. He has one son, Henry C, of New 
York, and a daughter, Mrs. Dr. Wright, of Lee. 

John, son of Miles and Mary McLaughfin, and a native of Shgo, Ireland, 



emigrated to America in 1820, entered the machine shop of Beck & Royce, 
in Lee, when about fifteen years of age, working there eleven years, after 
which he purchased the grist and saw-mill of Jacob Winegar. In 1847 he be- 
gan the manufacture of iron and paper calendar rolls. Mr. McLaughhn 
married Alida Westfall, of Chatham, N. Y., in 1843, t-earing four children, 
among whom are James H., who is with his father, and Henrietta (Mrs. J. J. 

Eliphalet, son of Samuel Wright, and a descendant of Abel, one of the first 
settlers of Springfield, was born at Hinsdale, Mass., in 18 18, and came to Lee 
when eighteen years of age, studied medicine with Dr. A. G. Welsh, graduated 
from the Berkshire medical college in 1841. After practicing seven years in 
Granville, he settled in Lee, in 1849, where he has since maintained an exten- 
sive practice. 

Nicholas Spoor, son of John and Maggie (Walker) Spoor, was born in West- 
moreland, N. Y., in 1800, married Dotia McKee, who bore him two sons, 
George N., and Albert J., and immigrated to this town in 1836. His son, 
George married Lydia C. Clark, rearing a son Albert M., and a daughter, Zoe 
Jane, now Mrs. Frank Brace. Albert M. married Maggie Howison, of Glen- 
dale, by whom he had two sons and two daughters. He is a paper maker by 

Thomas, son of John and Mary Norton, of Ireland, was born in 1838. He 
came to America and located in Lee about 1852, and died in October, 1864. 
He married Mary Purcell and had three sons and two daughters. Of these, 
John married Jennie Doyle, Michael married Mary Ryan, and Ellen became 
the wife of James Waddock. John and Michael are machinists by trade. 

Edward J. Cassidy, who was born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1839, emigrated 
to America at the age of sixteen. He had worked as a paper maker in Ire- 
land. He, with his brother Michael, operated the old Turkey mill for a 
few months, when it was burned. After working in the South mill several 
years, he became a manufacturer of furniture and an undertaker, combining 
the two. He married Susan C. Dunn, who bore him eight sons and two 
daughters. He died in 1880, leaving a wife and seven children. His widow 
continues the business on Main street. 

Frank A. Goussett, born ii_ Alsace, France, in 1822, emigrated at the age of 
thirty-two, with his wife and two children, Sebastian and Justine. He came 
to Washington Mountain, going from there, after t\vo years, to Wisconsin, 
and from thence came to Lee, where he purchased a large farm, where he is 
now residing on road 27. He was the father of six children. son, Jus- 
tine, married Constant Roy, of Lenox Furnace ; another, Julius B., is post- 
master and merchant at East Lee. 

The Congregational church, located at Lee village, was organized May 25, 
1780, by Rev. Daniel Collins, of Lanesboro, with thirty members, the first 
settled pastor, Rev. Elisha Parmelee, being installed July 3, 1783. Their 
church building was erected in 1780 and did service until 1800, when an- 


Other was built, used until 1758, when the present edifice was erected. It 
will comfortably accommodate 900 persons, cost $30,000.00, and is now 
valued, including grounds, at $50,000.00. The society now has 472 mem- 
bers, with Rev. Lyman S. Rowland, pastor. 

The Methodist Episcopal church was organized by Rev. D. Starks, a circuit 
preacher, in 1830, by the appointment of George Benton as class leader over 
a class of about thirty. In the spring of 1840, Rev. William Gothard was 
appointed over the new station of Lee, then established by the New York 
annual conference. The church was then re-organized, consisting of 195 
members. Their church building, erected in 1839, was enlarged in 1849-50, 
and remodeled, improved, and a steeple added in 1866-67, so that it is now 
a neat structure capable of accommodating 500 persons, and is valued, 
including parsonage and grounds, at $15,000.00. The church has now 200 
members, Rev. D. McCarthy being pastor, the twenth-third in charge. The 
church has also an ecclesiastical society connected with it, incorporated un- 
der the laws of the commonwealth, which holds the property in trust for the 
use and benefit of the members of the " Methodist Episcopal church forever," 
the land being deeded to the trustees and their successors in office, though 
the " Methodist Episcopal Society " was organized, in accordance with the 
discipline of Methodist denomination, in January, 1839. The church build- 
ing and parsonage was built by the latter society, funds being raised by gen- 
eral subscription, the land, also, being a nominal gift for the above purpose. 
The interest in the church is healthful, the finances based on sohd principles, 
the church nor society having no standing liabilities, current balances being 
adjusted at the end of each year. 

The Bethel Baptist church, located at Lee village, was organized Septem- 
ber 14, 1850, by its first pastor. Rev. Amory Gale, with twenty members. 
Their church building, erected in 1852, will seat 600 persons, and is valued, 
including grounds, etc., at $12,000.00. The society now has 100 members, 
with Rev. John D. Pope, pastor. 

St. Mary's Roman Catholic chtirch, located at Lee village, was organized 
by Rev. P. Cuddihy, with 500 communicants, about 1850, Rev. Peter Eagan 
being the first pastor. Their church building, erected in 1855, which will 
seat about 750 peisons, is valued, including grounds, at $20,000.00. The 
society has now about 1,000 communicants, with Rev. T. M. Smith, pastor. 

St. Georges Protestant Episcopal church, located at Lee village, was organ- 
ized with the following members, in 1856 : William T. Fish, B. F. Bosworth, 
James Levy, J. A. Weed, W. F. Davies, J. Evans, J. G. Wakefield, C. Smith, 
J. Holmes, J. F. Cook, S. Hellewell and C. C. Holcombe, Rev. George F. 
Chapman being the first pastor. The first house of worship was erected in 
1857, the second in J864, and the present one in 1879. Two of these were 
destroyed by fire, and afford an apt illustration of the value of proper insur- 
ance, as the latter building could not have been built had it not been for its 
insurance, as the parish, weakened by deaths and removals, could not other- 



wise have afforded a new building. It is a neat stone structure, capable of 
seating 300 person, and valued, including grounds, at about $9,000.00. The 
society now has fifty members, with Rev. Samuel Haven Hilliard, rector. 

The East Lee Union Chapel v^z.'=> built in 1864. It is valued at $4,000.00, 
about its original cost. 

St. Francis Roman Catholic church, located at South Lee, was organized 
in 1883, with 300 communicants. Rev. George Brennan being the first pas- 
tor. The church building, erected during that year, will seat 400 persons and 
is valued at $4,000.00. The society now has 250 members, with Rev. Father 
Smith, pastor. 

LENOX occupies nearly a central position in the county, lying in lat. 42° 
22' and long. 3° 44', bounded north by Pittsfield, east by Washington 
and Lee, south by Lee and Stockbridge and west by Stockbridge and 
Richmond. It originally foimed a part of the territory of the last mentioned 
town, its early history being briefly as follows : In 1760, a company, through 
their agent, Samuel Brown, Jr., of Stockbridge, purchased of two chiefs of the 
Stockbridge Indians, named Ephraim and Yokun, a tract of land lying just 
north of Stockbridge, between the New York line and the Housatonic river, 
paying therefor ^1,790. On the 2d of June, 1762, this territory was sold at 
auction in Boston, as township No. 8, to Josiah Dean, for ;^2,55o, and by 
him was transferred, in February, 1773, to Mr. Brown and his associates for 
^650. The tract vi'as divided into lots, and the future erection of two towns 
anticipated by a dividing line, commencing at the present southeast corner of 
Richmond, and running thence north 2° west to the north line of the pur- 
chase. The territory west of this line embracing about 9,000 acres, was 
called Mount Ephraim, and that east Yokun-town, both in honor of the 
sachems of whom the first purchase was made. June 20, 1765, the territory 
was incorporated, under the name of "Richmont," in honor of the Duke of 
Richmond, which was subsequently, March 3, 1785, changed to Richmond. 
By an act of the legislature passed February 26, 1767, the easterly portion 
of territory was taken to form the District of Lenox. Subsequently, however, 
on the division of the town, 1,700 acres of the western portion of the Yokun 
purchase was annexed to "Richmont." Dwight's grant, Williams's grant,and a 
part of Hartwood (Washington), were added in 1770, and again, January 
31, 1795, and February 18, 1802, other annexations from Washington were 
made, while the area was again slightly changed by the final establishment 
of the Lee line, February 7, 1820, 

Lenox received its name, as did Richmond, in honor of Charles Lenox, 
Duke of Richmond, an early defender in the House of Lords, of American 
colonial rights. The word itself, however, is of Scotch origin, said to have 
been derived from the section along the river Levan, which flows from Loch 


Lomond into the Clyde ; the section was called " Levanocs," finally corrupted 
into Lenox. What could be more appropriate than this adoption of a name 
which had its birth amid the beauties of Loch Lomond. The surface of the 
town is broken into gentle swells and hills, which rise in succession from the 
valley of the Housatonic westward to Prospect hill and Lenox and Bald 
mountains, whose summits overlook a large portion of Berkshire county. 
The principal streams are the Housatonic, flowing a southerly course along 
the eastern border of the town, and the Yokun river, which rises in the south- 
westerly part of the township, flows northeasterly nearly to the northern line, 
then turns southeasterly, uniting with the Housatonic. There are other 
streams and brooks, but of minor importance. In the southern part of the 
town, lying partly in Stockbridge, is a handsome sheet of water called Laurel 
lake, which is quite a resort for pleasuie seekers. 

These gentle swells, rounded hill-tops and winding valleys, unite in form- 
ing a scene that is alike charming and captivating to all, though lacking the 
elements of rugged grandeur so admired by some. It is a fact that the beauty 
of Lenox has a world-wide fame ; but it is the reposeful beauty of a charming 
face which possesses a classic contour of features, but lacking the sterner 
lines of energy and character. Indeed, it takes hold of one's senses with a 
mysterious spell that it is difficult to analyze, but still has, to quote from one 
whose long familiarity with, and undoubted love for, its charms should render 
an authority, " remarkable natural scenery which steadily holds the first place 
in the love and esteem of many constant beholders, whose tastes have been 
moulded or corrected by extended travel at home and abroad : scenery whose 
charms seem to me to exist more in an unusual combination of satisfactory 
quantities, and freedom from .blemish, than in any specific splendor of land- 
scape — however striking instances of the latter may here and there present 

The Lenox of old was more particularly known to the world at large from the 
fact of its being the county seat of Berkshire, and for its climatic resemblance 
to the Polar regions. On these particular points did it, for decade after decade 
of years, rest for its recognition and laurels among the men and times of former 
generations. The resident county officials, being people of intelligence, char- 
acter and culture, of excellent social attainments, in some instances of much 
literary abihty and cultivation^ naturally drew aiound them, as the years went 
by, people of their own position and places in the world. Among these lat- 
ter, probably no one person was more instrumental in bringing this portion of 
Berkshire county into public notice and appreciation than was Fanny Kemble 
Butler. She came to these hills in her earlier and best days, and took them 
to her heart at once. She loved the people she found here, and saw the 
charms of the surrounding scenery before others had discovered and known 
of them. She built here a cottage for her own temporary occupancy, being 
among the first from abroad to do this. She rode her flying steeds to the 
very mountain tops, leaped the small streams of the valleys, and Hngered lov- 


ingly and long with nature, heartily enjoying the wild excitement. She saw 
what an opportunity there was here for improvements, and was one of the 
first to give substantial aid to the work of beautifying and adorning the town ; 
and while others stood listlessly and uninterestedly by, she sought out and 
directed attention to the natural scenic beauties of the vicinity and prophesied 
enthusiastically that they would all come to be widely known and fully 
appreciated in due time. To verify and establish how well these prophesies 
have been fulfilled, it only needs to take a hasty glance at the Lenox of to- 
day: wealthy New Yorkers, Philadelphians and Bostonians have here erected 
extensive villas, and founded a summer resort peculiar to itself, representing 
much aristocracy of wealth, refinement and culture. The old town has been 
completely metamorphosed, with palaces standing now where plain farm- 
houses once had place ; elegant equipages dash up and down what were once 
the quiet village streets, and out upon the hillsides; and where nature has 
failed to leave an impress of beauty, art has been called to her aid. 

During this stage of metamorphosis the town has been the home, at differ- 
ent times, of distinguished literary talent and of pronounced genius. Here 
the beloved and lamented Dr. Channing spent the last summer of his life, 
and here fell his last accents upon the ears of a pubhc audience ; here Haw- 
thorne, too, might have been seen occasionally during his residence in the 
" old red house " which stands just over the Stockbride line ; here also, about 
a mile south of the village, stood the residence of Catharine Sedgwick, a lady 
not more remarkable for her Hterary genius than for those enchanting virtues 
that made her the helper of the poor, the comfort of the afflicted, a cherished 
friend and an esteemed Christian ; here Charlotte Cushman, " the Queen of 
the American Stage," found a home for a time, and is remembered as a lady 
of unassuming manners — a noble type of American womanhood ; and here, 
also, often has wandered Henry Ward Beecher along the secluded rambles, 
drinking in the inspiration afforded by the beautiful surroundings. George 
Morell, the eminent jurist^ was born here, March 22, 1786, and died at De- 
troit, Michigan, March 8, 1845, ^.nd Hon. Anson Jones, the last president 
of Texas, was born here, January 20, 1798, and died by his own hand at 
Houston, Texas, January 8, 1858. 

The rocks entering into the geological structure of the town are mostly of 
limestone formation, with mica-slate in the southern and western parts, and 
quartz in the eastern part. Iron ore abounds to a considerable extent, and has 
been mined for many years. Fine grades of marble are found in the Hme- 
stone ledges, which have also been quarried to a considerrble extent. 

In 1880 Lenox had a, population of 2,043. ^"^ 1S83 the town employed 
four male and eleven female teachers in its public schools, at an average 
monthly salary of $47.00 for males and $27.43 for females. There were 401 
school children, while the entire amount raised for school purposes was 


Lenox is a handsome post village located just south of the central part of 
the town, upon an eminence which commands a pleasing view of the surround- 
ing country. President Dwight, who visited it in 1798, describes it as fol- 
lows : — 

" Lenox, the shire town of the county, is principally built upon a single 
street, on a ridge, dechning rather pleasantly to the east and west, but disa- 
greeably interrupted by several deep valleys crossing it at right angles. The 
soil and the buildings are good and the town exhibits many marks of pros- 
perity. The buildings consist of a church [the same which now crowns the 
hill], a court-house, a school-house and jail." 

Another traveler's description of it, about a quarter of a century later, is as 
follows : — 

" Lenox, the capital of Berkshire county, is a town of uncommon beauty. 
It is built upon a hill on two streets, intersecting each other nearly at right 
angles. It is composed of handsome houses, which, with the exception of a few 
brick, are painted a brilliant white. It is ornamented with two neat houses for 
public worship, one of which is large and handsome and stands upon a hill higher 
than the town, and a little removed from it. It has a court-house of brick, 
in a fine style of architecture ; it is fronted with pillars, and furnished with 
convenient offices and a spacious court-room ; this room is carpeted, and, 
what is more important, contains a hbrary for the use of the bar. Lenox has 
fine mountain air, and is surrounded by equally fine mountain scenery. In- 
deed, it is one of the prettiest of our inland towns, and even in the view of 
the European travelers (who had eyes to see anything beautiful in what is un- 
hke Europe), it would appear like a gem among the mountains. I did not 
count the houses, but should think there might be one hundred houses and 
stores, etc. White marble is often the material of their steps, foundations and 

But what a change would either of these writers witness could they visit the 
village to-day and ramble about its handsome streets, and witness its whirl of 
gaiety, its mammoth hotel, and many princely mansions surrounded by 
elegant grounds, forming in all what would appear to them the aristocratic 
suburb of a popular city. In place of its "two, neat houses of public wor- 
ship" they would find four church buildings (Congregational, Methodist 
Episcopal and Roman Catholic), and such a general change in almost every- 
thing, that they would doubtless fail to recognize the place. They would 
find many old land-marks, however, among which may be mentioned the 
Congregational church, the court-house erected in 1791 which is now looked 
upon with so much veneration by the inhabitants, and in which is located the 
postoffice, and the "court-house of brick," erected in 18 16. The account of 
the town's appointment as the county seat and the final removal of the courts 
to Pittsfield, in 1868, has already been given on page 32. 

The Charles Sedgwick Hall. — After the removal of the courts to Pitts- 
field, the court-house was purchased by Mrs. Adeline E. Schemerhorn, who 
donated it to the town to be used for public purposes. In it are located the 
town hall, town clerk's office, and a gocd hbrary and reading-room, known as 
the Charles Sedgwick Hall Library. This hbrary was established in 1855. 

Lenox Academy. — This venerable institution of learning occupies a com- 


manding and pleasant site in the village. It was incorporated in 1803, the 
act making it a corporation also granted a half township of the State's terri- 
tory lying in Maine, to be used towaids the support of the school. For a 
number of years this land afiforded no revenue to the institution, but about 
1830 it was sold and the funds used in the school. Levi Gleazen, A. M., 
was the first principal of the institution. Mr. H. H. Ballard is the present 
incumbent. The principal of Lenox Academy is the founder and president of 
the Agassiz Association, a society for the study of natural history. The society 
has attained in two years a membership of over six thousand, distributed in 
over five hundred "chapters," or branch societies, in nearly all the United 
States and Territories, as well as in England, Scotland, Ireland, France and 
South America. Reports from these various sources are regularly received, 
and a condensed summary of them constitutes a regular department in the 
S^. Nicholas Magazine. The headquarters of this association is the Lenox 
Academy, and here is the society's valuable and growing museum, 


Lenox Furnace is a small post village, located in the southeastern part of 
the town, on the Housatonic. It is noted for its iron and glass manufac- 
tories. A furnace was established here as early as 1780, by Job Gilbert, since 
which time thousands of tons of iron have been smelted here. In 1848 the 
Lenox Iron Works Co. was incorporated by the legislature, with a capital of 
$100,000.00. The present company has extensive works here, but they 
are not now in operation. The history of glass manufacture has already 
been given, on page 30, 

Dewey's (New Lenox p. o.) is a hamlet located in the northeastern 
part of the town. 

The first settler in the town was Jonathan Hinsdale, who came on from 
Hartford, Conn., in 1750, and built for himself a small house on the east side 


of the county road, about fifty rods south of Court-house hill. In the following 
spring a man by the name of Cooper located in the southern part of the 
town. Subsequently a Mr. Dickinson built a house near Mr, Hinsdale's. 
The first clearing in the northern part of the town was made by Jacob 
Bacon, on a hill west of the county road. In his neighborhood settled 
Messrs. Hunt, McCoy, Glezen and Steel. About this time a Mr. Wa- 
terman located in the extreme northern part of the town, in what has 
since been known as East street. The early setlers were the families 
of Root, Miller and Dewey. Messrs. Whitock, Parker and Richards 
made the first settlement where the village now is. In the western 
part of the town the early settlers were Collins, Treat Andrus, Wright 
and others. Settlers came in slowly, however, for the French and In- 
dian war, which soon came on, laid the frontier settlements open 
to constant fear of raids by marauding parties of Indians. In or 
about 1755 all the settlers became alarmed and fled to Stockbridge for pro- 
tection. During this flight, a man by the name of Stevens was shot by them 
while he was passing a ledge of rocks in the southern part of the town. The 
horse he was riding was killed, and a woman who was riding with him was 
only saved by Mr. Hinsdale coming to her rescue. With the return of 
peace, however, the settlement began to enlarge, and in 1 791, at the taking 
of the first United States census, there were in the town 1,169 inhabitants. 
The first town meeting was held on the 5th of March, 1767. 

The part taken by Gen. John Paterson, one of the patriots of Lenox, in 
the Revolution and the subsequent Shays Rebellion have been spoken of in 
our county chapter, and that the inhabitants in general were early active in 
the American cause is attested by the following vote of instructions to their 
representative on the 3d of June, 1776 : — 

" To the Representatives 0/ Zenox : —These are to direct to use your Best 
Endeavor to suppress all the Tiranical measures that have or may take Place 
from Great Britton, and Likewise take as much care that you do not set up 
anything of a dispotick Power among ourselves. But let us have freedom at 
home, although we have war a Broad. We Do Further Direct you to use 
your utmost abilities and intris with our assembly, and they Theirs with the 
Continental Congress, That if they think it safe, for the colonies to declare 
independent of the Kingdom of Great Britton, and in your so doing we Do 
Declare in the above mentioned thing we will stand by you with our lives 
and fortunes." 

General John Paterson, the youngest child and only son of Major John 
and Ruth (Bird) Paterson, was born at Farmington, Ct., about 1744. His 
father, of Scotch descent, and said to have been a liberally educated man, 
was a British officer in the French war, and was with Wolfe at Quebec. He 
died of yellow fever at the taking of Havana, September 5, 1762, aged fifty- 
four. General Paterson graduated at Yale college in 1762, taught school 
and was a practicing attorney and justice of the peace m New Britain, then 
the principal village in his native town. June 2, 1766, he was married to 
Elizabeth, daughter of Deacon Josiah and Hannah (Warren) Lee, of Farm- 


ington, and before 1774 removed, with his father-in-law's family, to Lenox 
Here his abilities were soon recognized, and he was selected to represent the 
town in the two provincial congresses of 1774 and 1775. He was chosen a 
selectman and assessor in 1774, and was re-elected the following year. 
Entering the service as colonel of the fifteenth regiment he was made a brig- 
adier general February 21, 1777, and attached to the northern department. 
He remained in service until the close of the war, then returning to Lenox, 
where his home had been during the whole period, and engaging in mercan- 
tile business with his son-in-law, Azariah Egleston. In 1785 he represented 
Lenox in the general court, and in that and the following year was again a 
member of the board of selectmen and assessors. During Shay's Rebellion 
he headed a detachment of the Berkshire militia ordered out for its suppres- 
sion. In the army General Pateison was associated with Kosciusko, the 
Polish hero, with whom he formed a close and intimate friendship. They 
were at the battle of Saratoga, and made the northern campaign together, 
and were both stationed at West Point after the escape of Arnold. While at 
West Point General Paterscn was appointed one of the judges at the trial 
of Major Andre. Being one of the proprietors of the " Boston Purchase " 
of 230,400 acres in Broome and Tioga counties, New York, General Pater- 
son removed from Lenox, with his family, in 1791, and settled at Lisle, in 
Broome county, now Whitney's Point, a village in the town of Triangle. 
Shortly after his settlement at Lisle he was chosen a member of the New 
York legislature, and held the position for four years. He was also a mem- 
ber of the New York constitutional convention of 1801, and in 1803-05 rep- 
resented in Congress a large portion of central-southern New Yoik. For 
twelve years he was the presiding or first judge of the county court of Broome 
county, his term of service ending with his life. General Paterson is said to 
have been remarkably quick and active, and a great walker. It is told of 
him, that while county judge he would often walk to Binghamton, eighteen 
miles, to hold court, rather than go to the field and catch a horse to ride. 
While in the service he excelled as a drill officer. The historian of New 
Britain, Ct., (from^which place he removed to Lenox,) says that, judging from 
the honorable offices bestowed on General Paterson, he was, in these re- 
spects, the most distinguished man ever reared there. He died at Lisle. 
July 19, 1808. A grandson of Gen. Paterson, Hon. Thomas J. Paterson, 
formerly a member of Congress, is now living at Rochester, N. Y. 

Azariah Egleston was born in the year 1757, and died in 1822, at Lenox. 
His ancestors came from Exeter, in Devonshire, England, in 1630. They 
settled at Dorchester, Mass., but subsequently removed to Windsor, Conn. 
He was the son of Seth Egleston, v.'ho removed from Windsor to Westfield. 
Azariah was one of several children. He came to Pittsfield previous to the 
Revolutionary war, and there enlisted in Capt. Noble's company of minute 
men, April 22, 1775. (Miller seems to have been captain of his company, a 
part of the time.) This company belonged to the regiment commanded by 
Col. Paterson, and contained the flour of the young men of Berkshire. He 


returned to Pittsfield from Boston, in December, 1775. He was afterwards 
lieutenant and paymaster and belonged to Col. Vose's regiment. He con- 
tinued in the array during the war, and was twice wounded. He was in the 
advance guard at the battle of Trenton, and was in the battle of Princeton. 
He was in the battle at Bemis' Heights, and at Saratoga, at the capitulation 
of Burgoyne. He was at Monmouth, Newport and Stony Point. He was at 
West Point at the time of the court martial upon Andre, of which court Gen. 
Paterson was a member. While at West Point he became intimately acquainted 
with General Paterson. He was at New York at the British evacuation, and 
returned to West Point and settled the accounts of the ist Mass. Regiment. 
March 4, 1784, he left West Point and came to Lenox. At the close of the 
war he was a major, and was afterwards generally known as Major Egleston. 
He was personally acquainted with Gen. Washington, and his signature is the 
seventh to the articles of association of the Society of the Cincinnati, Gen. 
Washington's being the first. (See in Library, State House, Boston.) August 
1 1, 1785, he married Miss Hannah Paterson, daughter of Gen, John Pater- 
son. She died at Lenox, January 31, 1803, aged thirty -three years. Thirteen 
years previously, her sister, Miss Polly Paterson, died at the age of seventeen. 
For twenty years after the war Major Egleston was one of the leading citi- 
zens of Lenox, distinguished for public spirit and hospitality. In 1796, at 
Christmas time, he entertained at his home a party of one hundred ladies and 
gentlemen, from Pittsfield and Stockbridge, as well as Lenox, a full account 
of which occasion is contained in a manuscript letter written by the Rev. Mr. 
Burhans, an Episcopal clergyman. It is understood that Major Egleston's 
property was afterwards lost, or greatly diminished, by obligations incurred 
for others. Mr. Egleston had several children, among whom were Mrs. 
James W. Robbins, of Lenox, and Mr. Thomas Egleston, a distinguished 
merchant ia the city of New York, whose family preserve the old mansion 
with commendable care, and occupy it as a summer residence. 

Gen. Caleb Hyde was born at Norwich, West Farms, (now Franklin.) Conn., 
July 29, 1739, the fourth son of Elijah Hyde and Ruth Trury, and grandson 
of Samuel Hyde of the third generation. He married, in 1764, Elizabeth 
Sacket, daughter of Captain John Sacket, of Oblong, N Y., and niece of 
Admiral Richard Sacket, of the British navy. He settled at Lenox in 1769, 
and took an active part in opposing British aggressions and in urging on the 
Revolution. He was delegate from Lenox to the third provincial congress, 
represented the town in the general court five years, was for nine years a 
selectman, and for a time was sheriff of Berkshire county. He removed to 
Lisle, Broome county, N. Y., probably with Gen. Paterson, whose eldest 
child, Josiah Lee Paterson, had married, January i, 1788, Gen. Hyde's 
daughter Clarissa. He soon became a leading man in Broome county, was 
major-general of militia, twice elected State senator, and in 1804 chosen by 
the assembly a member of the council of appointment. He died at Lisle in 



Charles Mattoon immigrated to this town from Watertown, Conn., in 1768, 
and located on road 9, rearing one son, Charles, and six daughters. Col. 
Charles Mattoon married Julia Ann Burnham, of Vermont, who bore him two 
sons and three daughters. One son, Myron, born in 1806, married Laverna 
D. Higley, and was the father of two sons, and one daughter — George M., 
Charles G., and Catharine, now Mrs. John M. Cook, of Lenox. Charles G. 
married Anna O. Smith, who bore him three sons and three daughters. My- 
ron resides with his son, Charles, upon the old homestead. 

Thomas Landers, one of the first settlers of this town, located at Lenox Fur- 
nace, whei e he owned a large tract of land, and gave the site upon which the first 
grist-mill in the town was built, which mill is now operated by P. H. Shaylor 
& Co. His son Ashel was the second white child born in Lenox, whose 
daughter, Lucy M., widow of James Thompson, resides on the homestead. 
Thomas was one of the nine original members of the first Congregational 
church here. 

William, son of Caleb and Elizabeth Perrin Walker, was born in Rehoboth, 
Mass., in 1751, removing to Lenox in 1770. He joined the American army 
immediately after the battle of Lexington, and was with Washington at the 
battles of Trenton and Princeton, New Jersey, being also engaged in the bat- 
tle of Bennington. He was a member of the constitutional convention of 
Massachusetts^ and repeatedly a member of the general court as a represent- 
ative from Lenox. In 1783 he was chosen a senator from this county. In 
1 781 he was appointed by Governor Hancock register of probate, which 
office he soon after resigned. For a time he was employed as a surveyor. 
For this service he was well qualified. In November, 1795, he was appointed 
by Governor Adams judge of probate for Berkshire county, and discharged 
the duties of that office till January, 1824, when he resigned. In 1807 he 
was appointed by Governor SuUivan a judge of the court of common pleas in 
this county, which office he held till a new system for that court was estab- 
lished. In 1829 he was an elector of President of the United States. In 
1781 was appointed justice of the peace, which office he held until his death 
in 1 83 1. He married Sarah Woodruff, of Farmington, Conn., who bore him 
three children. His daughter Sarah became the wife of Dr. Charles Worth- 
ington, of Lenox. One son, William P., born on the Goodman farm in 
this town, in 1778, married Lucy Adam, in 1807 and located upon the 
place now occupied by Judge Julius Rockwell, rearing five sons and four 
daughters. Of these, Lucy F. became the wife of Judge Rockwell ; Frances M. 
married R. D. Williams, of Stockbridge ; Cornelia married Joseph H. Scran- 
ton, founder of Scranton City, Penn.; Sarah W. became the wife of Hon. 
David Davis, of Illinois ; and Richard H. married Anna Perry, and has two 
daughters, Lucy A., wife of Rev. R. DeWitt Mallory, of this town, and 
Anna P. 

Samuel Northrop removed his family from Salisbury, Conn., to Lenox, in 
1770, when his daughter Phebe was but three years of age, coming with an 


OX team most of the distance, but at times being obliged to travel on horse- 
back by the guidance of marked trees. Samuel located on East street. He 
died in 1786, aged 42 years. Col. Elijah Northrop, a younger brother of 
Samuel, accompanied him to Lenox, and erected a house next south of his 
brother on the place now owned by Thomas Sedgwick, which house was 
used as a tavern during the Revolutionary war, and is one of the oldest 
houses in the place. Col. Northrop died in 1832, at the age of eighty-two. 
During the Revolution, Indians and wild game were plenty, and often trouble- 
some. Mr. Northrop used to relate that on one occasion he and others killed 
three bears close to his house. At another time he had killed a deer and 
brought it into the house, when an Indian called and claimed it, as he had 
followed it all day. It was finally decided to give it to the "child of the forest." 

Josiah Osborne, son of Daniel Osborne, of Ridgefield, Conn., immigrated 
to Lenox in 1773, and built a log house on road 28. He married Hepsebath 
Olmsted, in 1773, by whom he had seven children. One son, Deacon Ezra,^ 
married Thalia, daughter of Deacon Oliver Kellogg, of Lee, the marriage 
being blest by two sons. One of these, OHver W., born in 1823, married Mary 
C. Crosby, of Ashtabula, Ohio, who bore him two daughters. After her 
death, in 1859, he married Elsie M. Bourne, who bore him one son. Charles- 
S. now resides upon the homestead first settled by his grandfather, OHver. 
Josiah Osborn served in the Revolutionary war. 

Reuben Root, at a date previous to the Revolution, married Sarah Curtiss^ 
and removed to this town from Sheffield, Mass., locating on road 20. He 
was the father of six sons and three daughters, of whom one, Calvin, married 
Lois A. Cook, by whom he had three children, two, Rodney C, who was 
born on the homestead in 18 17, married Nancy Babcock, and had born to 
him three children, and Sarah E., now Mrs. Kieth, of Springfield, are living. 
Calvin H., son of Rodney, born in 1844, married Addie A. Parsons, and 
resides upon the former home of his great-grandfather. 

Luther Sears, born in New Lenox in 1774, is said to be the third child 
born in the town. His family is as follows : Nelson, born in 1798 ; Nancy, 
born in 1799, who married Levi Butler; Marshall, who was born in 1802 and 
died in 1883; Zachariah P., born in 1804; Luther; Marietta, who married 
Ira Carrier, of Fulton, N. J.; Anna Maria, wife of L. C. Judd; Harriet, wife 
of F. Washburn. Zachariah P. married Marietta, daughter of Lyman and 
Amanda Dewey Judd, and had born to him two daughters, Anna Amanda, 
now Mrs. Charles H. Lay, and Martha H., wife of A. W. Bigelow. Mr. Z. 
Sears resides in Lenox, on road 25, and is a successful farmer. 

Nathaniel Miller came to New Lenox in 1783, locating on the Dr. Trask 
place, and purchased the mill. His son, Collins S., born in 1778, served in 
the war of 18 12. He married Mary Williams, of Washington, Mass., who 
bore him four sons and four daughters. One son, Levi C, born in 1820,^ 
married Jane E. Howland, and has owned and run the grist-mill on Mill 
brook for forty-eight years. 


Jacob Washburn, son of Miles, married Phebe, daughter of Samuel 
Northrop, in 1786, and was the father often children: Samuel, Ira, Sophia, 
Laura, Amos S., Thomas, Olive, Mary, Miles and Anna S. Jacob Wash- 
burn was a prosperous farmer, and was much respected. He died in 1828, 
aged sixty-five, and his wife Phebe survived him until the twenty-eighth day 
of Febriiary, 1867, when she died at the age of 100 years and nine days. Nine 
days before her death her Centennial birthday was celebrated. Gathered around 
her were four generations. She has had sixty-five lineal descendants, viz.: Ten 
children, eighteen grandchildren, thirty great-grandchildren, and seven great- 
great-grandchildren. She had spent ninety-seven years of her life in Lenox. 
Miles Washburn, Jr., married Emily Hatch, who bore him two sons, George 
T., who married Ehza Case, also rearing two sons, Edwin C. and David S., and 
Edward M., who married Anna O. Judd, rearing two sons, Robert and Henry 
J., and resides upon the old Washburn homestead. 

Sela Cook, a native of Southington, Conn., married Lois Dunbar, and 
located in this town in 1786, rearing four sons and three daughters. John, 
born in 1800, married Thankful Butler, of this town, and located upon the 
farm now occupied by Cornelius Butler, rearmg one son, John W., and two 
daughters, Lucinda, and Mrs. George Winchell. 

Jethro Butler, in early Hfe a seaman, was born at Martha's Vineyard, and 
removed to Lenox about the year 1791, rearing a family of seven sons and 
seven daughters. A son, Levi, born in 1794, married Nancy Sears of Lenox, 
by whom he had six children, three sons, Luther, Albert C, and John W., 
still residing in Lenox near the homestead of their grandfather. Thankful, 
sister of Levi Butler, married John Cook, and now resides in Lenox with her 
son John. 

Nathan Barrett, son of Nathan and Ruth (Bond) Barrett, of Conway, Mass., 
removed to this town in 1799. He married Rachel Foster, and had born to 
him three sons and three daughters. He engaged in the marble business, erect- 
ing a mill for sawing marble on road 7, where S. E. Nichols now resides. 
James L., born in 1815, is now in the marble business. He married Harriet 
Curtiss, of this town, and has one son, F. J., and two daughter's, Fannie and 
Lizzie. Nathan's wife dying in 1830, he married Lucy Lathrop, who bore 
him one son. Edwin. Nathan died in 1837. 

Erastus Dewey, born April 15, 1779, located in Lenox early in the present 
century. He married Matilda Willard in 1833, and reared nine children, 
and both died in the year 1865. Chauncey E., the fourth child, a prosperous 
farmer, who resides on the former Levi Sears place, was twice married, hav- 
ing for his first wife Phoebe, daughter of John Mattoon ; and for his second, 
Caroline Bailey, of Rupert, Vt., becoming the father of four children : Duane 
B., Harvey H., Mary Josephine, and Caroline E. 

Hon. Julius Rockwell was born in Colebrook, Litchfield county, Conn., 
April 26, 1805. He entered Yale college in 1822, graduated in 1826; .stud- 
ied law at the New Haven law school, and was admitted to the bar in Litch- 


field county in 1829, commencing practice at Pittsfield in 1830, when he was 
admitted to the bar of Berkshire county, and removed to Lenox in 1865. He 
was a member of the State house of representatives from 1834 to 1838, 
and was speaker from 1S35 to 1838, in which latter year he was appointed 
bank commissioner, holding the office three years. He was a representative 
in Congress from 1847 to 1851, and United States senator for two sessions, 
by appointment of Gov. Washburn, to fill the vacancy made by the resigna- 
tion of Mr. Everett. In 1853 he was a member of the convention to revise 
the constitution of the State; a presidential elector in 1856; in 1858 he was 
again speaker of the house of representatives of Massachusetts, and at the 
organization of the superior court, in 1859, he was made one of its judges, 
which position he still retains. He was the eighth president of the Berkshire 
County Bible Society. 

Amos Shepardson, of Milford, was a captain in the war of the Revolution, 
being at the battle of Lexington, also in the vicinity of the scene at the time 
capture of Major Andre. Lovit, son of Amos, served in the war of 1812, and 
was present at the battle of Plattsburgh. He married Sally Perry, of New- 
fane, Vt., in 1816, and came to Lenox in 1826. His son, W. T., who is 
extensively engaged in the manufacture of brick, married Celia Balcolm, and 
resides on road i. Munro, brother of W. T., married Siloma Ingalls, and 
has had born to hirn fifteen children, of whom five sons and three dauhhters 
survive. Munro has been deputy sheriff" twenty-two years, and constable 
twenty-five years. 

Michael Broderick, of Newtown, Ireland, married Mary Gorman, in 1826. 
and emigrated to America in 1832, lived at Boston and New York, and finally 
came to Lenox in 1841, locating upon the Jessie Root farm, on Bald moun- 
tain. Elizabeth, daughter Of Michael, became the wife of George H. Rus- 
sell. Three sons and five daughters of Michael are now Uving. 

James A. Farrington, of Bennington, Vt., came to this town in 1847, 
where he took charge of the iron foundry. He was twice married, having 
a family of three children, Arthur R. of this town, Mrs. D. W. Shaw, and 
Mrs. O. P. French. 

Thomas Leahey, a native of county Cork, Ireland, emigrated to this coun- 
try in 1848, and located in Lenox. He married Mary Coherty of Clare- 
raont, in 1853, and reared afamily of seven children : Mary, Michael, Corne- 
lius, Anna, John, Thomas and James. Cornelius, married Eliza Mullen, 
daughter of Cornelius Mullen, of Galway, Ireland, and resides on road 37. 

Frederic William Rackemann was born in Bremen, Germany, in 1821. 
His long residence in Lenox, his great love of the place and of the delightful 
scenery which surrounds it, and his zealous interest in the welfare of the town, 
were such as to make his foreign birth almost forgotten, although the first 
twenty years of his life were passed in Bremen. Born of a musical family, 
he manifested his unusual gifts in that line at a very early age^ and performed 
at times the duties of the organist in the Cathedral while he was still too 


small to reach the pedals with his feet. Later, in spite of great obstacles, 
he devoted himself with great assiduity, to the piano-forte, though after the 
death of his father, the breadwinner, the student, of necessity, became the 
teacher, and at fourteen years of age he gave piano lessons in Bremen, the 
fruits of his industry being turned into his mother's scanty purse. He 
remained with her as long a her life lasted, and then, after making a success- 
ful debut as a concert giver in his native town, he sailed for America — then 
as now the hope of youth, the land of promise. He established himself in 
New York in 1842, where his acquaintance increased rapidly and spread 
widely, not more perhaps on account his unusual gift of music than by vir- 
tue of his social prochvities and his rapid acquirement of the English tongue, 
which eventually was hke a second nature to him. There are now so many 
remarkable and distinguished pianists that it is difficult to-day to reahze how 
great a mark the advent of one made in those days. As a teacher Mr. Rack- 
emann's great fidelity and enduring patience gave him a steady success and 
reputation — a great deal of the good amateur work which has been done in 
New York in the past years might justly be traced to his influence and inspira- 
tion. He was one of the early habitues of Lenox, before it was the thronged 
summer resort which it has become, and his friendship with Mr. Charles 
Sedgwick's family resulted in his marriage with Mr. Sedgwick's second daugh- 
ter, Elizabeth, in 1855, since when he always passed his summers in Lenox, 
and eventually settled in the Sedgwick homestead where he latterly resided 
throughout the year. From this time he identified himself with the place, 
taking a warm and active interest in it. When interest was first awakend in 
the project of reviving the "Lenox Academy," fifty years since quite a famous 
"seat of learning," to which pupils flocked from north, west, and south, 
but which had fallen into decay, it was mainly through Mr. Rackemann's 
unwearied personal exertion that sufficient funds were collected to render 
the undertaking feasible. He took an ardent interest in it, and became one 
of the trustees when the academy was re-established. He was also one of the 
trustees of the Lenox " Charles Sedgwick Library and Reading Room," and 
a chosen member of the " Lenox Improvement Society." His character 
was one of singular earnestness, purity and modesty. Of firm convictions, 
frank, gentle, hospitable and liberal to a fault, those who knew him best 
loved and esteemed him most. He died at Lenox, August 16, 1884. 

Lenox has had several centenarians, among whom may be mentioned the 
following: Phoebe Washburn, aged 100 years; her step-grandmother, 
Mrs. Qates, who died at the age of 10 1 ; Mrs. Tabitha Scott, who died in 
1821, aged 107 years; Mrs. Jabez Ellis, who died in 1831, aged 100 years ; 
and Mrs. Silence Bonny, who died in 1859, aged 103 years. 

The Congregatio7ial church of Lenox. — In 1769 Rev. Samuel Hopkins, of 
Great Barrington, organized this church. Rev. Samuel Munson, a graduate 
of Yale in 1763, was ordained as its pastor November 8, 1770. Soon after- 
wards a church building was erected near the site of the present building, 


which was occupied until 1806, when it was destroyed by fire. The present 
building was then erected, occupying one of the most commanding eminences 
in the town. In addition to the church, the society owns a beautiful chapel 
in the village, a parsonage and two wood-lots, the whole value of which is 
about $35,000.00. Rev. Mr. Munson was dismissed in 1792, and Rev. (after- 
ward Dr.) Samuel Shepard, was installed in his place April 30, 1795, retain- 
ing the charge for about fifty years. The present pastor is Rev. R. Dewitt 

The Methodist Episcopal church, located at Lenox village, was organized 
at an early date, the first pastor being Rev. Clark Fuller. A church build- 
ing was erected in 1834, which gave place to the present edifice in 1851. It 
will accommodate 300 persons, and is valued, including grounds, etc., at 
$6,000.00. Its dedication sermon was preached by Bishop E. O. Haven. 
The society now has thirty members, with Rev. James M. Yeager, pastor. 
Among those who have officiated as worthy and efficient pastors of this church 
may be mentioned Revs. Albert Nash, Wesley Hubbard, J. W. Lindsay, 
Archibald Foss and John E. Cookman. 

Trinity Episcopal church of Lenox was organized in 1774. It 
is not known when the first Episcopal services were held. In De- 
cember, 1793, the Rev. Daniel Burhans was engaged "to officiate in 
his public character, for one year, every other Sunday." The en- 
gagement with Mr. Burhans was repeated from year to year until 1796, 
when he removed to Connecticut. In 1800 the Rev. Ezra Bradley was 
engaged for "one-fourth part of the time." In 1804 the Rev. Samuel 
Griswold, brother of Bishop Alexander V. Griswold, was chosen rector 
of the church in Great Barrington and Lenox. He chose the former 
as his place of residence, and officiated in each town, preaching on alternate 
Sabbaths, until 18 18. During his ministry the present church building was 
erected, in 1 816. After his dismission, services were held only occasionally 
by different clergymen till 1826, when the Rev. Benjamin C. C. Parker, son 
of Bishop Parker, was chosen rector, who remained until 1832. He was 
followed by Rev. Samuel P. Parker, afterwards for many years the highly 
esteemed rector of the church at Stockbridge. Then came the Rev. George 
Walters, in 1841, and after him an interval of suspended services. The 
Rev. Dr. Pynchon, now a professor in Trinity college, at Hartford, 
took charge of the church in connection with that in Stockbridge, of which 
he was rector. In 1855, the Rev. WiUiam H. Brooks followed him. From 
1858 to i860 the church was again under the care of the Rev. Dr. Parker. 
The Rev. J. A. was chosen rector at Easter, i860. He was suc- 
ceeded at Easter, i86x, by the Rev. H. A. Yardley, afterwards professor in 
the Theological school in Middletown, Conn. He was obliged, in consequence 
of ill health to resign, and at Easter, 1862, the Rev. Justin Field, the 
present rector, was chosen. The church was enlarged in 1873, but as more 
room is now needed, it is contemplated to erect a new stone edifice. 


St. Au/is Ro77ian Catholic church, located at Lenox village, was organ- 
ized in 1868, by Rev. G. H. Brennan, its first pastor, with 250 commu- 
nicants. Their church building, erected in 1875, will seat 350 persons, and 
is valued, including grounds, at $10,000. The society now has about 550 
communicants, with Rev. T. M. Smith, pastor. 

MONTEREY lies in the southern part of the county, in lat. 42° 12' 
and long. 3"^ 47', bounded northeast by Tyringham, east by Otis 
and Sandisfield, south by Sandisfield and New Marlboro, and west 
by Great Barrington. It was originally a part of Tyringham, to the records 
of which town we refer the reader for the early history of this tov/n, though 
the first settlement of Tyringham was commenced in the portion of the town 
now Monterey. The division was brought about principally, on account of 
a range of highlands that divided the town into two nearly equal parts, ren- 
dering communication between the two portions exceedingly difficult. 
Accordingiy, November 23, 1846, the matter of division was brought up, 
voted upon, and the measure adopted by a -large majority, the line of di- 
vision was brought up, voted upon, and the measure adopted by a large ma- 
jority, the line of division following this range of highlands. About a mile 
south of the original line, in New Marlboro, was a hill, called " Dry Hill," 
which extended parallel with the line, so as to separate the intervening terri- 
tory, making it appear as though a part of Monterey. The inhabitants of 
this section also being much more connected with Monterey than with their 
own town, an effort was soon mstituted to eff'ect an annexation, which, in 
1 85 1, resulted in success. Added to this was a small part of Sandisfield, 
April 24, 1875. 

The surface of Monterey is pecuUar. Extending nearly around the town's 
entire outhne are high hills, which gives it the form of an elevated basin, 
rising to still higher elevations on or near its whole boundary line. In this 
outhne, however, the hills are so broken that roads and driveways are con- 
veniently built. The soil is better adapted to grazing than grain-raising, 
though the southern part of the town has some farms that are excelled by 
those of none of the other hill towns in the county. The northern part is 
mountainous and mostly unfit for purposes of cultivation. Chestnut hill is 
a high elevation in the southeastern part, affording a fine prospect of the 
surrounding country. Brewer's pond, a fine sheet of water covering about 
250 acres, lies near this hill, and Six-mile pond^ covering an area of 344 
acres, lies in the southwestern part, extending into New Marlboro. These 
ponds are well stocked with fish, and lend a pleasing diversity to the land- 
scape. Hop brook, so named from the wild hops growing on its banks, 
rises in the northern part of the town, while branches of the Farmington 
river flow over the southern part. 


The geological formation is made up of quartz rock, /itnestone, gneiss, and 
mica-slate. Iron ore is found in the southern part of the town. 

In 1880 Monterey had a population of 635. In 1883 the town employed 
one male and eight female teachers, at an average monthly salary of $40.00 
for male and $19.93 for females. There were in school children in the 
town, while the entire amount raised for school purposes was $873.48. 

Monterey is a small post village located in the central part of the town. 

J. K. Hadseirs saw, shingle and plafiing- mill, located on road 32, is oper- 
ated by water-power and cuts annually about 150,000 feet of lumber and 
125,000 shingles. 

The early history of Monterey, as we stated before, is written in connec- 
tion with that of Tyringham^ the first settlement being made here in April, 
1739, by Isaac Garfield, Thomas Slaton and John Chadwick. 

Rev. Adonijah Bidwell, the first pastor of the first church in Tyringham, 
now Monterey, was the posthumus son of Thomas Bidwell, who sailed from 
Barbadoes in 1716, and was never heard from. His mother, Jemima Devo- 
tion, was the lineal descendant of the Norman kings of England, beginning 
with King William the Conqueror, born 1027, and in the line of the Henrys, 
I., II., and III., the Edwards I., II., and III., Thomas of Woodstock, Duke 
of Gloucester, Sir John Bouchier, Sir Humphrey Bouchier, John Haynes, 
first Colonial Governor of Connecticut, Rev. Edward Taylor and Rev. Eben- 
ezer Devotion, and in the hands of their descendants is a record still farther 
back through the Saxony kings of England, beginning with King Egbert the 
Great, who reigned 800 to 836. Rev. x\donijah Bidwell left four children, 
two sons and two daughters, all of whom filled places of distinction. Adon- 
ijah, the first born, lived the most of his life in his native town, and left a 
large family, some of whom still hve in Monterey, and of his grandchildren 
three are now living there, as well as some of two later generations. The 
second son, Barnabas Bidwell, a lawyer of distinction, removed from Stock- 
bridge to Kingston, Canada, and his son, Marshall S., was a lawyer, member 
of parliament, speaker of the house of assembly in Canada, and afterwards 
Uved and died in New York city, and his namesake, Marshall Spring Bidwell, 
descendant of Adonijah, is now living in Monterey. One of the daughters, 
Jemima, married William Partridge, of Pittsfield, and was the mother of a 
large family, some of whom were ministers' wives and missionaries. The other 
daughter, Theodosia, married Elial Brewer, of Monterey, and was the mother 
of a large family, of which was the Rev. Josiah Brewer, who was the first 
missionary in Smyrna, Turkey. The descendants now living are scattered 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, judges and lawyers, ministers, doctors, bank 
presidents, etc. Rev. Mr. Bidwell was installed as pastor of the church here 
in 1750, preached here thirty-three years, and died June 2, 1784, aged sixty- 
seven years. 

Tristian Stedman, from Rhode Island, near Tower Hill, came to Monterey 
in 1771, and located on road 8, near the Otis line. He married Penelope 



Hazard, to whom was born twelve children. Hazard and Olive Raymond 
located in Central New York ; Tristian Stedman, Jr., who married Hulda, 
daughter of Maj. Herrick, located on road 9, building the house now occu- 
pied by Mrs. William Warren. He had born to him a family of seven chil- 
dren — three sons and fcur daughters — five of whom survive. They were 
Lorenzo H., Abigail C, Henry A., Mary B., Anna E., Julia M., and Oscar 
A. Henry A. married Miss L. A. Couch, and reared three children. He has 
always resided in Monterey. 

Isaac Benedict, among the earliest settlers of the town, located on road 
18, and kept a hotel for a number of years. His son, Able, resided on the 
homestead and reared two sons, Abel and Isaac, of whom Abel continued to 
reside upon the farm. He had three sons who located in Pompey and Ho- 
mer, N. Y. Isaac was twice married, having, by his first wife, Anna Bond, 
two children, Mary and John. He afterwards married Martha Wickwire, 
who bore him four children, Amelia, Louisa, Harriet, and Egbert, of whom 
only Egbert survives. He resides in Lee. John married Sally Upham, who 
bore him eight children, five of whom survive, viz. : Mary, Eunice, Isaac N., 
Fanny and M^elinda. Two died in infancy, and Phebe died at the age of 
eighteen. Isaac N. is of the fifth generation to reside on the old home- 

Nora Martin, formerly from Woodbury, Conn., came to Monterey about 
the year 1783, at the age of twenty-two, and taught school. Having gotten 
a house under process of erection, he sent for his family — consisting of a wife 
and two children — who made their journey thither on horseback. He married 
Hannah Munn and reared a family of three sons and six daughters, one 
daughter of whom is now living, at the age of ninety-one. 

Charles Thomson, from New London, Conn., came to this town with his 
wife and five sons, Lemuel, Samuel, Gideon, Jared, and Aaron, locating up- 
on the place now occupied by C. L. Bunce, on road 35, on Mount Munger. 
Aaron removed to the western part of New York. After a residence of a few 
years here, Lemuel, a farmer, carpenter and joiner, and who was also some- 
what of a preacher, although never ordained, married a Miss Judd who bore 
him six children, all living to maturity, but only one, the eldest, Alanson, is 
now living. Samuel reared a large famil)'^, but two of whom survive, who now 
reside in other towns with their children. Samuel was killed by a mad bull ; 
Gideon located on road 11, where he passed the remainder of his days, and 
on which road Lemuel and Samuel also resided. Jared married Lois Judd 
and located on the homestead, where he died at an advanced age. His wife, 
who bore him a family of nine children, all Hving to maturity, died at the age 
of ninety-three. Jared served his town as representative, and was also cap- 
tain of a militia company. One of his children died at the age of twenty. 
Of his other children Jared married and removed to Pennsylvania ; Charles 
and Davis moved to New York ; Lester, who located in Sandisfield, married, 
for his first wife, Miss Fargo, and for his second, Jane Walker ; Lyman mar- 


ried Mary Turner, and located on the homestead, where he cared for his 
grandfather ; Sardis, who married Emily Bosworth, was a carpenter and joiner, 
and was a rover and never long settled in one place ; Matilda, wife of Frank- 
lin Fargo, is now residing in Illinois ; Melinda resides in this town ; Lyman 
reared a family of six children. He was assessor for thirteen years, and a se- 
lectman for several years. His wife survives him at the age of seventy, and 
resides with her daughter, Mrs. Charles Hastings. M. V., son of Lyman, 
married Fanny Brewer, and resides on the Ann Wheeler place. He is a large 
farmer, has a creamery and silo, and was the first person in this town to en- 
gage in that business. He has been a school committeeman. Silona married 
S. W. Thompson, of Albany, N. Y., but is now dead. J. M. died at the age 
of twenty-two ; Matilda M., wife of Dr. Hasting?, resides at Feeding Hills, 
where here sister, Lois L., also resides; Ellen M. married Charles Hastings, 
of Agawam, Mass. E. O., son of Sardis Thomson, is employed by a con- 
densing milk company, in England. Lester had two children, Myron, who 
married Harriet Walker, and Angeline, wife of Thomas S. Webb, of Sandis- 

David Munson, from Wallingford, Conn., came to this town about 1807 
and located on the place now owned by Lester Busby. He married Miss 
Dorman, and reared six children, the aggregate weight of whom, at maturity, 
was over 1,300 pounds. But one of the family, David. Jr., located in this 
county, the others locating in New York. David, Jr., resided in New Marl- 
boro until his death, in November, 185 1. 

Oliver Smith was born in Southwick, Mass., February 14, 1780, and came 
to this town in March, 1813, locating on the place now owned by his son, 
Amos. He married Ruth Boardman, of East Hartford, rearing seven chil- 
dren, Eunice, Lyman, Asa, Oliver, Jr., Louisa, Eli, and Amos, only two sons of 
whom survive. 

Aaron Tyrrel immigrated to Monterey, from Norfolk, Conn., in 1814. He 
married Candace Stoddaid, of Connecticut, to whom was born six children. 
One, Mary, married and resides in AVilliamstown, Mass.; Mrs. Hanott Morey 
resides in Kansas ; Grove married Lucy Brewer, of this town, and removed 
to Iowa ; Jared, who married Lucinda Hale, resides in Fairfield, Conn.; El- 
bridge married Lydia Searles and reared four children ; and after marrying 
his second wife removed to Wisconsin. Lewis, who married Eunice Lang- 
don, had born to him a family of fourteen children, all living to maturity, ex- 
cepting one, who died at the age of thirteen. Six reside in this county. 

Norman S. Sears, a resident of this town, has been a selectman for eight 
or ten years, and assessor for about five years. He came to this town from 
New Marlboro, before Monterey was taken from Tyringham. 

Samuel Townsend, from Needham, Mass., came to Monterey about 1788. 
He married Ruth Tolman and reared eight children, viz.: Sarah, Rufus, Jon- 
athan, William, Lemuel, EUzabeth, Samuel, and Esther. Lemuel remained 
on the old homestead, married Mary Jenkins and reared two children, Lem- 



tiel, Jr., and Jonathan. Samuel Townsend, Sr., was sixty years of age when 
he came to the town, and died, September ii, 1822, aged ninety-four years. 

MOUNT WASHINGTON is a mountainous town lying in the ex- 
treme southwestern corner of the county, in lat. 42° 6' and 
long "3 34', bounded north by Egremont, east by Sheffield, 
south by tlie state line of Connecticut and west by the state line of 
New York. It was originally known as Taghconic, or Taconic moun- 
tain, its settlement being commenced as early as 1753 or '54, and in 
1757 the Indian title to it was purchased for ^^i 5. Soon after this John 
Dibble, John King, Nathan, Benjamin and Peter Woodin, Benjamin Osborn, 
Charles Patterson and others petitioned the legislature for a grant of the ter- 
ritory, and in 1759 or '60 the township was surveyed under direction of the 
legislature, and divided into fifty lots, though the grant prayed for was not 
issued until 1774. June 21, 1779, the township was incorporated, under the 
name it now bears. June 17, 181 7, a part of Egremont was annexed to its 

Rising in noble grandure above the valley of the Housatonic, the traveler 
through southern Berkshire will see the dome-like summit of Mt. Everett, or 
Bald mountain, rising abruptly 2,000 feet above the valley, or 2,624 feet 
above tide water, flanked by a short range of mountains extending north and 
south. Behind it, to the west^ is another range, along the state line of New 
York, of nearly equal height above Harlem railroad, which skirts its western 
base. Between these two ranges there is an elevated inhabited area, from 
one to two miles in width from east to west and seven from north to south — 
the town of Mount Washington. 

This " town among the clouds," as it were, however, is not only rich in 
picturesque scenery, but has an eventful and interesting history. Its loca- 
tion in the extreme southwest corner of the county and State, and its height 
above the neighboring towns, places it in a disadvantageous position as a 
business town ; but as a health resort, winter or summer, no town in Berk- 
shire county is more favorably situated, nor more accessible from New York 
city and vicinity, access being by the Harlem and other railroads, at and near 
Copake Iron Works, 104 milesfrom New York city, while Sheffield, the near- 
est town on the Housatonic, in Berkshire county, is 135 miles. 

The grand and beautiful scenery in the drive of three miles from Copake, 
by two routes, the one following the Bash-Bish stream, through a deep ravine, 
passing the well-known Bash-Bish falls, the other skirting the western slope 
of the mountain, and giving a panoramic view of the Hudson river valley, 
with the entire range of the Catskill mountains in the back ground, proves a 
pleasant change from the thirty miles longer railroad ride up the Housatonic 
to Sheffield. The principal and at present only good carriage road from 



Berkshire county, is by excellent roads from Sheffield or Great Barrington,. 
through South Egremont to the base of the mountain, about two miles west 
of the village of South Egremont. Then, after following a mountain brook 
by a well-shaded road between two ranges of mountains about two and a half 
miles to the summit, a view unique, and hardly surpassed in New England,, 
bursts upon the view. That to the north, from Sky Farm, looking down 
through the gorge, through which you come to the farthest extremity of 
Berkshire, with Greylock and the mountains of Vermont in the distance, 
Lenox, Stockbridge, Monument mountain, etc , in the intervening distance, 
is grand in the extreme. The various views of the interior of this "mountain 
town girt round about with- mountams," its cultivated fields, and scattered 
white farm houses form a picture in itself. The views of the surrounding^ 
country from the various peaks of Mts. Ethel, Sunset, Prospect, Fray, Cedar, 
Alander, and that monarch of all, Mt. Everett, from whose dome-like summit 
you have an unrivalled view of the whole of Berkshire county, Western Con- 
necticut, New York State to the Catskills, and a birds-eye view of the fine 
scenery of the town which lies beneath you. From the bright, silvery lakes in 
Salisbury, to the deep blue of the Catskills, from the distant hills and mountains 
of Berkshire to the rich and fertile valleys of the Housatonic and the Hudson, 
with their cultivated fields, the eye will continue to return to the nearer 
grand mountain ranges which, like natural ramparts, form the boundaries of 
this romantic town, transforming it into a fortress, form altogether a scene 
such as God alone can make. In the northwest part of the town 
are two water-falls and ravines rivaling even Bash-Bish. First Sage's 
Ravine, in the extreme southeast, partly in Connecticut, through which, for a 
mile or more, a mountain stream of almost icy coldness in midsummer plunges 
down through a dense forest, by successive leaps, from a few feet to sixty or 
more. About a mile north of this, a stream from Plantin pond, which nestles 
among the hills i,ooo feet above the Housatonic, after flowing a quarter of a 
mile through a wild forest, plunges over an almost perpendicular cliff nearly 
500 feet, and disappears in the woods below, and thence, by a less rapid 
descent, it flows south and joins the brook from Sage's ravine, at the base of 
the mountain just across the State hne in Connecticut, and thus united, as if 
reluctant to leave their mountain home and beautiful Berkshire, flow slowly 
several miles northeasterly into Berkshire again, to join the Housatonic in 
the village of Sheffield. At the top of the mountain, from the character of 
its surroundings and the richness of the Housatonic valley scenery beneath, 
one of the finest views in New England is obtained. With the roaring brook 
at your back, rushing through the forest to its final plunge, and the forest 
trees over your head, you look down upon a scene which lingers long in the 
memory of all who witness it. The forest, 500 feet beneath you, in which 
the brook is soon lost after its final plunge, the fertile valley of the Housa- 
tonic, Twin Lakes beyond, with perhaps a train passing across on the Con- 
necticut Western railroad, three miles distant, the hills of Canaan and Norfolk 


in Connecticut, and New Marlboro and Great Harrington across the valley of 
the Housatonic, with the scattered villages here and there and the farm 
houses of Western Sheffield at your feet, combine to make a landscape of 
surpassing beauty. 

Such in brief are some of the views in this town of less than the average 
area. It has also a dry and sunny atmosphere, the purest water from numer- 
ous springs and mountain brooks, and an even temperature. These many 
attractions are rapidly becoming known and appreciated, and the capacity of 
its well-kept summer, boarding houses prove insufficient to accommodate even 
half of those who apply, while many who have spent several successive seasons 
here have commenced to build cottages for themselves, so that the present 
time appears to be the beginning of a fresh impetus in the growth of the 
town, bidding fair to become a popular summer resort. 

The rock is principally takose-slate and limestone. Iron ore of a good 
quality is found, which formerly was wrought to a considerable extent, though 
not much has been done in this line since about 1850. 

In 1880 the town had a population of 205. In 1883 the town employed 
one male and two female teachers in its public schools, paying $24.00 per 
month to the male and $20.00 each to the females. There were then twenty- 
two school children in the town, while the whole amount raised for school 
purposes was $160.00. 

There is no postoffice in the town at present, though there is, we believe, 
one to be established soon. 

Small in population though it has ever been, Mount Washington has an 
interesting early history, being one of those earliest settled in the county, by 
an energetic class of pioneers, many years previous to its incorporation. 
These earlv settlers were in constant conflict for a number of years, with 
Robert Livingston, whose grant from the colony of New York then included 
the west part of this town. Among these early settlers, previous to the pur- 
chase of the territory of the Indians, March 15, 1757, were Christopher and 
Henry Brasie, John and Michael Hollenbeck, Andrew Race. Josiah Loomis, 
James VanDeusen, Joseph Paine, George Robinson, Jonathan Darby, Elea- 
zer Stockwell, William Race, Joseph Graves, John Cade, Thomas Wolcott, 
Daniel Lord and a Mr. Vangilder. May 7, 1757, the houses of several of 
these were burned, or pulled down, by the Livingstone party. But these 
troubles were finally ended, and, after the Indian purchase, the settlers were 
mostly of a new class of people. In 1766 there were about twenty famihes 
in the town, and a grist-mill and a saw-mill had been erected. At the time the 
town was incorporated, in 1779, most of the landowners were the following, 
viz. : John Barber, Joseph Benedict, Peleg and Nathan Benjamin, William 
Campbell, Samuel Cogswell, John, Daniel and Samuel Dibble, Elnathan Hall, 
Andrew Hoxton, Jonah Ireler,Thomas Jones, Samuel Judson, John and Fenner 
King, Andrew Loomis, Gilbert and James Murray, Ezra Nickerson, Benjamin 
and Jonas Osborn, Nathaniel and Wilham Palmer, Andrew and Charles Patter- 


son, George and James Robinson, Philip Ruff, Allen and Sebah Sage, Elisha 
Sheldon, Eleazer Stockw.ell, John Wright, John, Abner and Peter Woodin, 
and Samuel, Azariah and Joseph Winchell. 

As early as 1800 thj town supported two schools, and soon after three. 
Its first church was erected in 1806. Between the years 1830 and 1850, it 
manufactured bar iron, axes, shovels, forks, hoes, and cartridges, but since 
about that time there has been no manufacturing carried on within its limits. 
Since the beginning of its popularity as a summer resort, the citizens have 
erected a new church building, a town-house, and the project of erecting a 
large hotel is being agitated. Telegraph and mail facilities, of which the 
town has been deprived, are also being talked of. 

NEW ASHFORD lies in the northern part of the county, in lat. 42° 36' 
and long. 3° 47', bounded north by Williamstown, east by Adams and 
Cheshire, south by Cheshire. Lanesboro and a small part of Hancock, 
and west by Hancock. It is principally noted as being the smallest town in the 
State, both as regards area and population. It was originally incorporated as 
a district, February 26, 178 r, having all the privileges and immunities enjoyed 
by regularly incorporated towns, except that of choosing a representative. 
March 14, 1793, a portion of its territory was taken towards making up 
the township of Cheshire; Februiry 6, 1798, another portioa was added to 
the same town, and June 26, 1798, a portion of Hancock was annexed to 
New Ashford, so that it is now about 1,400 rods in width, from east to west, 
at its widest part, and about 1,000 rods in extent from north to south. IVIay 
I, 1836, it was incorporated as a town, and since that time has enjoyed 
the privileges accorded such bodies. 

The surface of the town is very rough and mountainous, being situated 
principally upon the steep and rugged hills which are made up from Saddle 
mountain on the east, and the Taconic range on the west, which here ap- 
proach each other. In the narrow valley between these hills, along the rise 
of the western branch of the Housatonic, and the eastern branch of Green 
river, are some small tracts of land, having an arable, productive soil, though 
the soil in general is hard and gravelly, and of an indifferent quality. By 
these streams, with the connected springs and brooks, the town is well 
watered. The branch of Green river, on which are some mill privileges, flows 
north into VVilliamstown, receives the branch from Hancock, and finds its way 
into the Hoosac. The source of these streams is near the source of the west- 
ern branch of the Hoosatonic, which takes an opposite course and flows into 

The rocks entering into the geological structure of the territory are lime- 
stone and talcose-slate. Some valuable beds of marble are found. In one 
part of the town, also, is a remarkable cave, about 130 feet in extent. Some 



of its apartments have arches rising twenty feet above the floor, which 
ghtter with stalactites, formed by water dripping for ages over the limestone. 

In 1880 New Ashford had a populatiou of 203. In 1883 it employed 
three female teachers, at an average salary of $20 per month. There were 
thirty-four school children in the town, while the entire amount raised for 
school purposes was $102. 

New Ashford (p. o.) is a hamlet located in the southern part of the town. 

Lester Roys s grist and saw-mill, located on Green river, was built by Gid- 
eon Lewis, many years ago. The grist-mill has one run of stones, and the 
saw-mill cuts about 10,000 feet of lumber per year. 

The settlement of the territory was begun as early as 1762, by emigrants 
from the eastern part of the State, and from Rhode Island and Connecticut. 
Among the early settlers were Nathaniel, Abel and Gideon Kent, Uriah, 
Peter and EH Mallery, Samuel Gregory, John Wells, WilHam Green, Jacob 
Lion, Samuel Gridley, Jonathan, Hezekiah and Caleb Beach, Samuel P. 
and Benjamin Tyler, Abraham Kerby, William Campbell, Amariah Babbit, 
Evans Roy?, Captain Samuel Martin, John Lyon and a Mr. Mason. 

The first store was kept by Peregrine Turner ; the first hotel was kept by 
WiUiam Starkweather ; no doctor or lawyer has ever been located in town. 

During the Revolutionary period committees of safety were formed here, 
and several of the citizens were actively engaged in the war. Some of them 
were at the battle of Bennington, present on the occasion of the surrender of 
Burgoyne, and five or six were at Stone Arabia when Col. Brown fell. J. G. 
Holland mentions an incident of the old French war, as follows : — 

"An incident of the bravery of two young men, which occurred within the 
territory now covered by the town, during the old French war, may be related 
here. Samuel Curtis and James Ensign, youths seventeen and nineteen years 
of age, volunteered as bearers of a communication from fort No. 4 (Williams- 
town) to the fort in Lanesboro. They had arrived at the northern part of 
New Ashford, where they discovered that Indians had been digging for ground 
nuts. They cautiously followed their trail, up the valley, to the knoll where 
the dwelling of William B. Dewey now stands. On arrivmg there, they dis- 
covered four savages, unsuspectingly roasting their ground-nuts, and each 
selecting his victim, fired, and ran for the Lanesboro fort. The two surviv- 
ing Indians seized their rifles, and gave pursuit. The chase was a long and 
desperate one, and darkness only saved the young men. Their course was 
cut off, and they were driven easterly out of their way, but during the night 
they made their way to the fort. On their return, the following week, they 
visited the scene of the encounter, and two newly made graves showed that 
their baffled pursuers had preceeded them." 

Evans Roys, one of the first two settlers of New Ashford, (Hezekiah Beach 
being the other,) came from Connecticut some time previous to the Revolu- 
tionary war. His son, WiUiam, also lived and died here about 1830. His 
son John was born in town in 1790 and died here in 1874, aged eighty-four. 
He had nine children, only three now living, one son, Lester, on road 3, in 
this town. 

Archibald Beach, an early settler, came here and located on what is called 


"Beach Hill." He had a large family, all of whom are now dead. His son, 
Atwater, was born here in 1792, and lived here till about four years before 
his death, which occurred in 1864. He raised six children, four now hving 
in New Ashford, Florea, William P., Rhoda C. Phelps, and Sibyl N. Baker. 

Uriah Mallery came here from Connecticut, or Rhode Island, at an early 
date, and settled on the farm which is now owned by Van Ness Mallery. He 
built the house now occupied by Van Ness, in 1794. 

Henry Dewey moved from New Lebanon, N, Y., to New Ashford some 
time previous to 1800, settled near the center of the town, lived there till his 
death in 1859. He had a family of fourteen children, nine of whom lived to 
maturity. Three still live, a daughter, Betsey, in North Brookfield. Mass., 
another, Susanna, in Fairfax county, Virginia, and a son, William B., on 
road 4 in Lanesboro. 

Jonathan Ingraham moved here from Pelham, Mass., about i 790, and located 
in the northern part of the town. He had served through the Revolutionary 
war, was at the battles of Stillwater, Cowpens, Valley Forge and many other 
important engagements, and died in New Ashford in 1847, aged eighty-six 
years. He had eigiit children, all now dead. His son, Elihu, was born here 
in 1792, living here till his death in July, 1868. He was a captain of the 
militia, an active, public-spirited man who held many town offices. He had 
a family of seven children, five now living, a son, George H., in Pittsfield, a 
daughter, Sarah E. Goodelle, in New Ashford, also a son, Elihu, the present 
town clerk and first selectman, and a daughter residing in Michigan. 

Gaines Harmon came to New Ashford from Suffield, Conn., just before the 
battle of Bennington, in 1777, at which battle he was present. He settled 
on road 9, on the farm now owned by EUhu Ingraham, and died there about 
18 1 8. His son, Nathaniel, was born (it is so supposed) here in 1779, and 
lived here till near the close of his life, when he removed to Dalton, where 
he died in i860. Nathaniel had six children, all living to maturity. Two 
still live, one son. Judge Nathan W., in Lawrence, Mass., and a daughter, Mrs. 
Dean, in New York State. One son, Phinehas, born here in 1802, was a resi- 
dent until his death. In his early life he was a school teacher, was married in 
J 830 to Sarah A. Mallery, had eight children, was appointed justice of the 
peace about 1833 by Governor Lincoln, holding that office till 1882, and 
was town clerk most of the time from 1832 to 1867, besides being selectman. 
He died June 10, 1884, aged eighty-one years, eleven months. 

Samuel Baker, a very early settler of New Ashford, lived in the southern 
part of the town on road 5, till he died about 1820. His son, Elihu, was 
born here in 1802, but removed to Hancock and finally to Bennington^ Vt., 
in 1835, ^i^*^ he died in Cheshire about 1868. Six of his sons are residents 
of Berkshire county. 

The Methodist church, located on road 3, was organized by its first pastor. 
Rev. Martin Ruter, at an early dav. The church building was erected in 
1828, and is now valued, including grounds, at $1,500.00. 


NEW MARLBORO lies in the southern part of the county, in lat. 42° 
6' and long. 3° 47', bounded north by Monterey, and Great Barring- 
ton, east by Sandisfield, south by Litchfield county, Conn., and west 
by Sheffield. It was granted in 1735, under the name of Township No. 2, 
the grant being brought about as follows : At the great and general court of 
Massachusetts Bay which sat at Boston from Wednesday, May 28, 1735, and 
was continued by several adjournments to the 31st of the following Decem- 
ber, Edmund Quincey, Esq., from the committee of both Houses, made the 
following report : 

" That there be four towns opened upon the road betwixt Westfield and 
Sheffield : That they be contiguous to each other : That they be six miles 
square and as near to said road as the land will allow: That there be sixty- 
three house lots of sixty acres each laid out in each township, in as regular, 
compact and desirable a manner as may be, one of which shall be for the first 
settled minister, one for the second, one for the school, and one for each 
grantee, and who shall draw equal shares in a 1 future divisions ; and also that 
said grantees shall appear and give surety to the value of ^^40 to perform 
all things on their lots and in their respective townships which had been 
required by the Great and General Court of grantees between the Connect- 
icut and Merrimack rivers, and that there be a committee of five appointed, 
empowered and obliged to bring forward the line of the townships as is before 

Immediate and active measures must have been taken for complying with 
the terms of the grant, for only two years after, June 24, 1837, the necessary 
surveying had been accomplished and a plot of the four new townships, num- 
bered I. 2, 3 and 4, and afterwards incorporated under the names of Tyr- 
ingham. New Marlborough, Sandisfield and Becket, was presented to the 
house of representatives, accepted and confirmed to the grantees of the 
said townships "to them, their heirs and assigns forever; provided said 
grantees perform all the conditions of the grants." The original grantees 
admitted into No. 2, or New Marlboro, was Caleb Rice and fifty-nine associ- 
ates, among whom was undoubtedly Benjamin Wheeler, who became the first 
actual settler within the limitsof the township. June .15, 1759, No. 2 was incor- 
porated as a township under the name of New Marlborough, (since shortened 
by common practice to New Marlboro) taking its name probably from Marl- 
borough, Middlesex county. The original area of the town was about 26,000 
acres ; to this was added small parts of Sheffield on three diff'erent occasions, 
viz: June 19, 1795, February 7, 1798, and April 19, 1871; and parts of 
Tyringham, February 27, 181 1 ; while a part of New Marlboro was annexed 
to Monterey, May 24, 1851, and apart to Tyringham, February 11, 1812, 
so that the town now has about 28,000 acres. 

The surface of the town is generally uneven and hilly, and like most of the 
elevated towns of the county is stony, though there are some very fine farm- 
ing districts. It is watered by numerous brooks and ponds, the latter of 
which. Lake Buel, is the largest. It lies partly in Monterey and Great Bar- 
rington, being about two miles in length and one in width. George N. Gib- 



son has a steamboat running on this lake, and also a fine grove at its south 
end, on road i, which is a great resort for picnic parties. East, or Hermit 
pond comes next, about a mile in length and a half mile in width. It was 
named Hermit pond from the fact that a hermit by the name of Timothy 
Leonard, from Danbury, Conn., settled on its shore just prior to the Revo- 
lution, residing here in loneliness, with an insane abhorance of woman, until 
his death, June 17, 1817. Konkapot river, on Mill Run, the largest stream, 
has its source in Lake Buel and flows through the eastern part of the town, 
furnishing a number of fine mill-sites. The town also contained several 
points that are celebrated for the natural curiosities they contain. Among 
these is the " Tipping rock," located just south of the junction of roads 52 
and 53. This immense bowlder, weighing about fifty tons, is so nicely bal- 
anced on a pivotal point that a sHght pressure will cause the immense mass 
to oscillate. Located on the southern line of the town, in a wild and pictur- 
esque spot, are Campbell falls, where the water falls over a precipice of one 
hundred feel or more. From whom, or what they derived their name we 
were unable to learn, though it is probably derived from some person or family 
by that name who resided near them. In the southwestern part of the town 
upon the farm of M. H. Mansir, there is quite an extensive cave, called the 
" Cat Hole." Dry hill is an elevation located in the northeastern part of 
the town. The early settlers in its vicinity found its rocks and stones so 
covered by a peculiar vegetable mold, as to completely hide them, causing 
the men to express a fear lest they should not be able to obtain stone enough 
in the vicinity for building purposes. This fear, however, was proved to be 
completely groundless, for the rocks here are of a peculiar flinty formation, 
and are so cut by nature as to be taken out of the quarries in nearly perfect 
cubes of difl"erent sizes. The name of the hill was derived from th^ fact that 
no springs or streams are found upon it. Its timber is mostly chestnut, of 
fine, compact grain. 

Geologically, the formative rock is -pnudpally/errt/o-ifun/s g/ie/ss, Potsdain 
and Livis limestone. Iron., gold and silver ore exist in limited quantites. In 
1880 L. J. Cleveland leased a strip of land on his farm, located on road 55, 
to J. B. Eldridge, William B. Gibson, WiUiam Sardam, and George W. Gib- 
son, for the purpose of mining gold and silver thereon. These gentlemen 
have sunk a shaft twelve feet in diameter to a depth of twenty-two feet, devel- 
oping ore of both kinds which assays about $28.00 to the ton. Gold was 
first discovered here in 1867. Upon the farm of Hiram Hotchkiss there 
exists a considerable deposit of iron ore. He has also a fine ledge of mar- 
ble. In the westerly part of the town there is a valuable bed of white porce- 
lain clay. 

In 1880 New Marlboro had a population of 1,876. In 1883 it employed 
three male and fifteen female teachers in its public schools, at s.n average 
monthly salary of $25.50 for males and $21.40 for females. There were 347 
school children in the town, while the entire amount raised for school pur- 
poses was $2,041.52. 


Mill River, a post village and the municipal center of the town, lies in 
nearly the center of the township, on Konkapot or Mill river. It has two 
churches, (Roman Catholic and Congregational), one hotel, three stores, 
town hall, grist-mill, two saw-mills, three paper-mills and about fifty dwell- 
ings. It is decidedly a manufacturing village, and has, within a mile, eight 
dams each with a head varying from seven to twenty-five feet, and aside from 
this is one of the lovHest villages in Southern Berkshire, and was the last to 
loose its business on account of remoteness from transportation facihties. 
The question of building a railroad to Canaan, Conn., to connect with the 
lines there^ is being agitated, which, if it succeeds, will lestore the village to 
its past importance. 

New Marlboro, a post village located about two miles east of Mill River, 
and the same distance north of Southfield, is the oldest community in the 
town. It has one church (Congregational), one store, the buildings of the 
South Berkshire Institute (now used as a summer hotel), and about twenty 

Southfield, a post village located in nearly the central part of the town, 
has two churches (Congregational and Baptist), one store and about twenty 

Clayton, a post village located on the line between New Marlboro and 
Connecticut, has one store, a blacksmith shop, the Sheffield China Clay 
Works, and about a dozen dwelHngs. It came into the town along with the 
annexation from Sheffield in 187 1. 

Hartsville, a post village located in the extreme northern part of the 
town, near Lake Buell, has one church (Methodist), one store, a machine 
shop, foundry, grist and saw-mill, and about a dozen dwellings. 

Of the paper industry as carried on at Mill River, Hon. Byron Weston, of 
Dalton, gives the following history, appearing in The Paper World oi Novem- 
ber, 1880:— 

"In 1836 a paper-mill was built at Mill River, by Wheeler & Gibson. It 
was burned the following year, and when rebuilt was located across the river 
from its first site, where it still stands, and where writing paper has been made 
by Wheeler & Gibson, Wheeler & Sons, Wheeler, Sheldon & Babcock, Gib- 
son, Crosby & Robbins, George Robbins, Marlboro Paper Company, and the 
Brookside Paper Company. In 1838 or '39 John Carroll built a small straw 
mill on the privilege next below the Wheeler mill. In 1856 he made addi- 
tions, improvements and changes, and began the manufacture of writing pa- 
per, but soon abandoned it for the manuf icture of printing paper made from 
straw, the second mill in the country to make white paper from rye straw. In 
1873 Mr. Carroll took into partnership with him James Goodwin, and they 
built another mill on the site below, which they bought from George Sheldon. 
These mills were afterwards operated by the Carroll Paper Company. In 1877 
James Goodwin became sole proprietor and still runs the mills, making three 
tons of print paper per day. Above the old Wheeler mill, Beach & Adams, 
in 1839 or '40, built a small mill and made printing paper. The several pro- 
prietors have been E. C. Brett & Co., Adams & Brett, Paul Face, Wheeler, 
Sheldon & Babcock, Gibson, Crosby & Robbins, George Robbins, Marlboro 


Paper Company, and the Brookside Paper Company. In the same locality 
Messrs. Andrews, Sheldon & Adams built a mill for makmg manila paper in 
1856. George Sheldon soon bought out his partner, and run the mill until 
1872, when it was burned and the ruins were sold to J. Carroll & Com- 

TJie Berkshire Paper Oompany. — The first mill built by John Carroll, 
about 1840, was burned in 1868, and immediately rebuilt. The lower mill, 
built by Sheldon & Adams in 1856, burned in 1872, and the ruins sold to J. 
Carroll & Company, was rebuilt by them in 1874. In 1876, on the death of 
Mr. Carroll, the company took its present name, with James Goodwin, presi- 
dent. They employ sixty hands, with capacity for turning out five tons of 
book paper per day. 

Mill Rivet Hotel, Frank W. Keyes, proprietor, is located in the midst of 
some of the finest scenery and best trout fishing grounds in Southern Berk- 
shire, making it an extremely pleasant summer resort. Mr. Keyes, who is a 
popular host, has been here since 1879. 

The South Berkshire Institute Buildings, located at New Marlboro village, 
which until lately were devoted to the uses of a popular educational institu- 
tion, were built in 1856. They are now leased by Ira G. Tuttle, who con- 
ducts therein a fine summer hotel, capable of accommodating 120 guests, and 
containing fifty-two rooms arranged singly and in suites. 

llie Sheffield China Clay Works, located at Clayton village, were estab- 
lished by Orchabla Taft, in 1866, and in 1873 were taken by Robert L. Taft, 
the present proprietor. The clay is mined, washed free from sand and dried, 
when it is shipped to consumers a fine pottery clay, and for use in the manu- 
facture of paper. Mr. Taft employs fifteen hands and turns out about 1,500 
tons per annum. 

F. G. Holfs sa7v-mill and box factory, on road 70. was built by McAlpin 
Bros., about 1844, and was bought by the present proprietor in 187 1. The 
mill has the capacity for cutting 250,000 feet of lumber per annum. 

Wallace Canjield's saw and plainitig- mill, located on road 73, was built 
about 1844, and came into Mr. Canfield's hands in 1876. It has the capacity 
for cutting 300,000 feet of lumber per year. 

Hartsville machine shop and foundry, located on road 3, is the property 
of a stock company and is managed by G. T. Sheldon. It is operated in 
the m.anufacture of saw-mills and stump-pullers, and in all kinds of repair- 

John A. Doucaster's sa7v, grist and fiouring-mill, located on road 3, was 
originally built in 1804, and came into the possession of Mr. Doucaster in 
1870. It is supplied with an upright saw, two runs of stones, and does cus- 
tom work. 

Jolm G. Calkins' s saiv, grist and Jlouring-mill, located on road 49, was 
built by W. Abbott, about 1S30, and was purchased by Mr. Calkins in 1878. 
He does custom work and deals in grain and feed. 


Walter Rotes grist-mill, located on road 44, was built in 1883. Mr. Rote 
does custom work and deals in grain and feed. He also makes cider. 

Williafti B. Gibson & Sotis steam saw and shingle -mill, tub factory and 
cider and fee^-mill, located on road 67I, was built by the present proprietor 
in 1865. The saw-mill has the capacity for turning out 200,000 feet of lum- 
ber per annum, while in the other departments he manufactures oak pails and 
tubs and cider jelly. 

Dr. John Scovilles saw, shingle, planing a?id grist-tnill, XoczXedi 3.1 Konka- 
pot, on road 58, was erected in 1856, and came into Mr. Scoville's hands 
about 1879. The grist-mill is leased to Edward B. Grant, while a cheese 
factory connected with the property is leased and operated by C. E. Burns 
& Co. 

Chauncey B. Brewer's saw, shingle and cider-7nill, located on road 34, has. 
been owned by the present proprietor since 1876. It has the capacity for 
manufacturing 500,000 feet of lumber, 200,000 shingles, and fifty barrels of 
cider per annum. 

Henry Sisson's saiv, planing and pnlp-mill, located at Mill River, came 
into his hands in 1857. He can manufacture 600,000 feet of lumber per 

Fred G. Alexander's grist and flouring mill, located on road 24, was built 
by the present proprietor's father in 1858, The mill has two runs of stones 
and the capacity for grinding 200 bushels of grain per day. 

The first white settler in the town was Benjamin Wheeler, who remained 
here during the severe winter of 1739-40, engaged in clearing his farm, his 
nearest white neighbors being in Sheffield, a distance of ten miles. Near 
the outlet of Brewer's pond there was a small colony of Indians, who, hke 
the other Indians of the county, were generally friendly, though they forbade 
Mr. Wheeler the use of his gun lest he should shoot deer with it, thus taking 
from him part of the means upon which he depended for support. During 
the following summer he visited Marlboro and returned with his family. In 
1 741 the settlement was strengthened by the arrival of Noah Church, Jabez 
Ward, Thomas Tattlow, Elias Keyes, Joseph Blackmer, Jesse Taylor, John 
Taylor, William Witt, Philip Brookins, and, soon after, Samuel Ryan, from 
Marlboro, and vicinity; in 1744-45, Joseph Adams, Charles Adams, Moses 
Cleveland, Nathan Randsford, Thomas Randsford, Solomon Randsford, and 
Jarvis Pike, from Canterbury, Conn. ; Eli Freeman and four brothers, from 
Cape Cod ; in 1745, families by the name of Sheldon, Wright and Allen, from 

Northampton, and Seth Norton, Ezra Sheldon, and Harmon, from Suf- 

field, Conn. ; in 1746 William Alexander and John Thompson, from Dedham ; 
and in 1760, Bullard and Rawson, from Meriden, Conn. In 1753, John 
Collar, grandfather of Deacon J. N. Collar, owned and occupied the farm 
now owned by Mrs. John P. Wadsworth. He served two campaigns as an 
officer in the Continental army in the defence of the colonies, and for sev- 
eral years as lieutenant-colonel in Ashley's regiment, in the Revolution, In 


1754, Eben Smith, afterwards Captain Smith, of Revolutionary fame, Ger- 
shom Howe, Timothy Rober and William Keyes all owned and occupied lots 
in township No. 2, contiguous to the south line of the colony. 

At the first drawing of lots, Wheeler drew No. 25, which remained in the 
family until about 1872. Lot No. 21 was set off for the first settled minister. 
No. I for the second, and No. 48 for schools. August 25, 1737, Nahum 
Ward, Esq., of Shrewsbury, was appointed and. empowered by the house of 
representatives to assemble the proprietors of this township for certain specific 
purposes. He issued his warrant, convening said proprietors on November 
29th^ at the house of Jonathan Howe, inn-holder in Marlboro, Middlesex 
county, at which meeting Nahum Ward and Colonel Ephraim WiUiams were 
appointed a conmiittee to petition the house. On the very next day they 
presented to his excellency, Jonathan Belcher, a petition setting forth that 
they had paid into the hands of the honorable committee of the court the 
sum of yr,2oo for defraying the expense of surveying said township and for 
other necessary charges, and for the purpose of cultivating a good agreement 
with the Indian owners of said land ; and that there might be no grounds for 
uneasiness, they had purchased said land of Tap-hen-han-new-ak, also 
Konkapot. chief of the Housatonic tribe, and sundry other Indians, "which 
deed is duly executed and acknowledged before the Hon. John Stoddard, the 
consideration being ^300, and no tobacco or rum, which sum the proprietors 
had actually paid," making a total of $7,500.00. The committee further 
stated that "the amount is greater than ever paid by any other proprietors," 
and closed by asking a "further grant of land," and that "the Konkapot deed 
may be approved and fully ratified." 

On the 7th of the following December the house voted, in answer to this 
petition, that the deed from the Housatonic Indians "be and hereby is fully 
allowed and approved of, to all intents and purposes," and also, "that a fur- 
ther grant of 11,000 acres be made to the grantees of said township, upon 
condition that seven more families be added to the township," hence the 
second division. 

October 31, 1738, the proprietors, at a meeting held at the house of widow 
Sarah Howe, inn-holder in Marlboro, a committee was chosen to make ar- 
rangements with suitable persons to raise a grist-mill in No. 2. At a subse- 
quent meeting the committee reported a failure to accomplish the purpose ; 
but in June, 1739, ^ contract was made with Nathan Ward to build both a 
grist and saw- mill on "Iron Works river," now Mill river. In consideration 
of this service he received ^120 in money and fifty acres of land. Ward 
first gave bonds in the sum of ;z^5oo to keep the mills in good repair and 
running order for twelve years, when the money was raised for him by taxing 
the lots ^2 each. A grant of twenty acres of land was also made to Joseph 
Blackmer, "to encourage him in raising a grist-mill," and at the same meeting 
a cash appropriation was made for the purpose of raising "the town stock of 
powder, lead and flints." The last vote at this, as well as the other pro- 



prietors' meetings, was to instruct the treasurer to "pay the shot to Landlady 
Howe," which was usually ^i 2s. 3d. 

In 1 741, Samuel Bryan, Noah Church, Jesse Taylor, Phineas Brown and 
Nathan Randsford were appointed a committee to. " locate the meeting- 
hoase," procure the ground for the same, and to raise the building. They 
located this -important structure on lot No. 22, having first procured of Adon- 
ijah Church a deed of three acres of land, " for to set the meeting-house on." 
By vote of the proprietors, the building was to be forty feet long and thirty- 
two feet wide, with a twenty-foot shed. The contract was probably let to 
one Thomas Taltilow, though the records fail to state such fact. July 17, 1744, 
the proprietors being duly assembled at widow Howe's, it was voted among 
other things, "to accept of the choice of the inhabitants of No. 2 of the Rev. 
Thomas Strong to settle in the work of the Gospell ministry in said township," 
and choose Dr. Benjamin Gott, Abraham Williams, and Jabez Ward to pre- 
pare articles of settlement and salary, and report at a future meeting. Sub- 
sequently the committee reported that the Rev. Mr. Strong have a settle- 
ment of ;^i5o, old tenure, and an annual salary of ^^50 in bills of credit, 
^'so long as he proves faithful." The committee report was accepted, both by 
the proprietors and Mr. Strong, and on October 31, 1744, the first church 
was formed, with five members, viz. : Moses Cleveland, Samuel Bryan, 
Jesse Taylor, William Witt and Joseph Adams, and on the same day the 
Rev. Mr. Strong was ordained pastor. In the same year, 1744, special 
grants were made to Elias Keys and Moses Cleveland, " to encourage them 
in the building of mills upon Iron Works river, in township No. 3." 

Prior to 1749, all proprietors' meetings were held in Marlboro, Middlesex 
county, 125 miles distant, on account of Indian troubles attending the first 
French and Indian war. The next ten years, up to 1759, was employed in 
forwarding the settlement of No. 2; but on June 15th of that year, that 
township ceased to exist, and New Marlboro took its place. At the first town- 
meeting, held soon after, the following officers were elected : Jabez Ward, 
Solomon Randsford and Jesse Taylor, selectmen ; Elihu Wright, town clerk ; 
Jesse Taylor, treasurer; Zenas Wheeler, clerk of the market; Ozias Pike, 
constable; and "a suitable number of tythingmen." The first born in the 
town were twins, a son and daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Brooknis. The dis- 
tinction of having brought the first wagon into the township is a matter of dis- 
pute between the descendants of Capt. Solomon Hart and Capt. Samuel 
Bryan. The first newspaper subscribers in the town were Edward Stevens and 
Harvey Holmes, the latter of whom is now a resident of Great Barrington. 
The first native of the Emerald Isle to become a resident of the town put in 
his appearance in 1839, in the person of Timothy Wrinkle. It is said, that 
although there was nothing in his appearance or demeanor to distinguish him 
from any other ordinary man, and although he went quietly to work in the 
Wheeler paper-mill, no elephant broken loose from a caravan could have cre- 
ated a greater excitement. The people flocked up the valley and down the 
hill-sides to catch a glimpse of the first Irish resident. 


The attitude taken by the town relative to the Revolutionary struggle was 
early and decidedly developed. At a town-meeting assembled on the second 
Monday of July, 1774, the following resolutions were passed: — . 

^'■Resolved, That King George the Third is our rightful king, and that we 
will bear true allegiance to him : 

''Resolved^ That the inhabitants of this, his Majesty's colony in America, 
are justly entitled to the rights and liberties that the inhabitants of Great 
Britain are entitled to : which rights and liberties have been particularly con- 
firmed to the inhabitants of this Province, by charter: 

'■'■Resolved, That it is one of the grand rights and liberties of said inhabit- 
ants of Great Britain that they cannot constitutionally be deprived of iheir 
property but by their own consent : 

" Resolved, That the late act of British Parliament for giving and granting 
to his Majesty a duty upon all tea imported into America, which duties by 
said act are made payable in America, for the purpose of raising a revenue 
within the same, was made without the consent of the inhabitants of America, 
whereby their property is taken from them v/ithout their consent and therefore 
ought to be opposed in all legal and prudent ways : 

" Resolved, That it is the undoubted right of the inhabitants of said col- 
ony in all actions to be tried by their peers of the vicinity, and therefore all 
those acts of British Parliament that in any way respects the collection of 
duties aforesaid, whereby the trial by jury is taken away, or whereby the an- 
cient trial is in any way altered, are unconstitutional and oppressive : 

'■'■Resolved, That when any franchises and liberties are granted to a corpo- 
ration or body politic, those franchises and liberties cannot be legally taken 
from such corporation or body politic, but by their consent or by forfeiture, 
that the inhabitants of this province have divers grants and liberties, and 
valuable franchise granted to them by charter, which franchises and liberties 
have not been forfeited or relinquished by said inhabitants, thereby the late 
acts of the British Parliament the most valuable of those franchises and lib- 
erties of the said inhabitants are taken from them without even the form of a 
trial, therefore : 

" Resolved, That it is the indispensable duty of every person who would 
preserve to himself and to posterity the inestimable blessing of liberty by all 
constitutional ways and means in his power, to endeavor to avert the much 
dreaded consequences of those arbitrary and oppressive acts, and that for 
that purpose it is prudent for the inhabitants of said colonies to enter into an 
agreement not to purchase or consume the manufactures of Great Britain 
under such limitation and exceptions as shall be agreed upon, and that 
such non-consumption agreement is neither unwarrantable, hostile or treach- 
erous, or contrary to our allegience to our king, but tends to promote the 
peace and safety of the community." 

In the war of 181 2, New Marlboro responded promptly to the call of the 
country, and during the summer of 1814 Captain Joseph S. Catlin was in com- 
mand of a company formed by detachments from several militia companies 
with Luke Harmon for lieutenant, Benjamin Smith, Jr., ensign, and Jonathan 
Arnold, fifer. 

The town's expenditure on account of the late war, which was never re-im- 
bursed, was $25,778.53. The soldiers' record of the town bears the names 
of 202 men, 21 of whom were killed, or died of wounds, during the service. 
One hundred and nine enlisted in Massachusetts regiments, twenty-four in 



Connecticut regiments, and the rest elsewliere. At the close of the war there 
was standing to the town's credit, over and above all calls, a surplus of twenty- 
two men. 

Jehiel Baldwin, a descendant of Nathaniel, who came to this country from 
England about 1620, came to New Marlboro in 1744, settling on road 40. 
He reared a family of seven children, of whom his eldest son, David, married 
Lois Churchill, and remained on the old homestead, rearing six children. 
David, Jr., his second son, married Esther Morley for his first wife, by whom 
he had two children, William R. and Isaac H., and by his second wife. Electa 
Heath, four children, Edward C, Esther E,, Edwin R. and Henry M. For 
twenty years William R. has carried on business in Southfield, where he had 
his store burned three times, and has also been engaged in the manufacture 
of whips for several years. He has been a justice of the peace for the past five 
years. Edward C. was engaged in the whip business for a number of years, 
and was JDresident of the company for some time. Esther married Martin Van 
Deusen, and resides in the town. Edwin R. resides on the old homestead, 
which has been in the possession of the Baldwin family 140 years. He at 
present is employed by B. Hammond & Co., as a traveling salesman. Henry 
M. lives in West Stockbridge. 

EU Freeman, with four brothers, came to this town from Cape Cod in 1744, 
Eli locating on road,6, cor 16. Silas, his oldest son, born October 11, 1746, 
was the first male child born in town. Silas married Elizabeth Hasson, 
located on road 25, and reared a family of nine children, Alice, Sibyl, Silas, 
Weltha, James, Karson, Calvin, Heman and Elizabeth, each of whom lived 
to be over eighty, and some over ninety years old. The youngest, Elizabeth, 
still lives with A. J. Freeman, son of Heman, upon the old homestead. 

Timothy Leonard, or "Hermit Leonard," as he was called, was a very eccen- 
tric person who came to New Marlboro from Danbury, Conn., just previ- 
ous to the Revolution, locating near East Pond, with the intention, it is said, 
of bringing his intended bride thither in the following autumn. Upon return- 
ing to Danbury, for her, he found that she had married his brother. This so 
worked upon the feelings of the man as to partially destroy his reason. He 
returned to his lonely cabin, where he lived the life of a hermit during the 
remainder of his days, denouncing all womankind as false, dying in June, 
18 1 7, aged about seventy years. He was buried near the cabin that had 
served as his solitary abode for so many years though his body was subse- 
quently disinterred, it is supposed, and found its way to the dissecting table. 
In signing his name to any document, he always used the following phrase, 
clearly demonstrating his insanity : " I, Timothy Leonard, God of Gods and 
Lord of Lords." 

Seth Sheldon, one of the first settlers in New Marlborough, removed from 
Northampton, Mass., to this town, in 1745, locating on the farm now 
owned by John Alexander. His son, Seth, born in this town July 13, 1784, 
married Hannah Lyman, of Southampton, who is still living at the age of 


ninety six. Tiiey reared four children, two of whom, Seth L., of Great Bar- 
rina;ton, and Corinthia U. Clary, of South Deerfield, Mass., survive. 

Seth Norton removed from Sufifield, Conn., locating in this town in 1745. 
His three sons settled in New Majlborough, Samuel locating on read 70, 
where D. White now lives ; Seth on road 35, on the Rugby place, and 
Phineas on road 72, upon the place now owned by Sheldon Norton. Phineas 
reared a family of four children, of whom one of his sons, Dan, married 
Hannah Hurd, of Sandisfield, and located on road 69, where his son Egbert 
D. now resides. He reared a family of six children, Sheldon, Rowland, 
Corydon, Clinton, Egbert D. and Eunice. Four of this family still live in 

Ezra Sheldon came to New Marlboro from Suffield, Conn., in 1745. His 
son, Eben, who located on road 13, reared a family of three children, of 
whom Josiah located on the old homestead. Josiah married for his first wife 
Esther Stevens, by whom he had three children, George S., Henry W., and 
Esther A. For his second wife he married Charlotte Wheeler, by whom he 
has had two daughters, Elizabeth and Emily. Henry W. is a prosperous 

Among the early settlers there came from England to this country three 
Canfield brothers. Matthew settled in Norwalk, Conn., and had a son, Sam- 
uel, who also hved in Norwalk and reared a son, Samuel 2d. The latter 
came to southern New Marlboro and settled on the place now owned by 
WiUiam H. Sardam. He married, first, Abigail Austin. August i, 1709, she 
being a daughter of Thomas Austin, of Norwalk ; and second, Abigail Dean, 
May 9, 171 1. He died in September, 17 12. Samuel 3d, born June 4, 17 10, 
was twice married, his first wife being Mary Barnum, and his second, Mary 
Wallen. He died February 10, 1804. His son, Samuel 4th, born in 1734, 
was twice married, his first wife being Mehitable Stillson, and his second Abi- 
gail Babbitt. He died May 19, 1806, having reared ten children, one of 
whom, Daniel, born May 19, 1761, died at Lenox, March 8, 1841, having 
also one son, Samuel 5th, born February 9, 1770, and who died at New 
Marlboro August 25, 1854. Daniel was twice married, first to Rebecca 
Hotchkis and second to Ruth Stevens. He reared ten children, Roderick, 
Ruel, Ruammi, Rama, Rupus, Erastus, Rial, Rebecca, Ruth, and Daniel. 
Samuel 5th was twice married, his first wife being Hannah Bishop and his 
second Lois Sheffield, and had nine children, Mahitable, Dennis, Sally, 
Myron, Philena, Samuel 6th, Naomi, Elmore B., and Edward S. The 
latter two are now living on their farms in Southfield, having passed 
their allotted three score and ten, and although having lived un- 
eventful lives are honored and respected by their townsmen. Elmore 
B. has been twice married and has three children. Edward S. is 
quietly passing his old age with the wife of his first choice, hav- 
ing reared three daughters, all of whom died within one week and were 
buried in the old burying-ground in the south part of the town, where lie 


several generations of the family. Roderick had five children, Harriet R., 
Jabez, Warren D., Mary and William P. Harriet R, is the only one Uving. 
She married David Brooks and had five children, all of which are dead. 
Jabez B. enlisted in the 6th Connecticut regiment and died at Hilton Head, 
S. C. Johnnie C. enlisted in the nth Connecticut and died at New Berne, N. C. 
He won several prizes as the best shot in his regiment, although but seven- 
teen years of age, and after being placed in a company of sharp shooters, 
won credit for himself by taking the prize off'ered by the officers of the army. 
Jabez married Abigail Brooks and reared two daughters, Harriet and Eme- 
line. The latter was an invaUd and confined to her bed for years. She be- 
ing very sensitive to noise, they built a small house for her away from the 
street, and in which she was burned one morning while the family were at 
breakfast. Jabez died in 1879, at the age of seventy-three years. He was 
always the first to call upon the sick and aid them in any way he could. 
Warren D. married Julia H. Cook and had three children, William, Nellie 
and Wallace. He died in April, 1876, at the age of sixty-four. He was a 
carpenter and lumber dealer and accumulated quite a property. William 
now Hves on the old homestead in the south part of the town, and by the 
addition of his uncle Jabez's farm, has one of the most desirable homesteads 
in the county. He is at present one of the selectmen of the town and has 
the confidence and respect of his fellow men. He married Lydia A. Stan- 
ton, in 1870. They had two sons, Willie H. and Roy W. Lydia A., died 
May 9, 1883. NeUie married Frank Coon and died August 11, 1872. 
Wallace married Mary Sardam, has one son, Hves on what is known as the 
Fox place, near that of his brother. He owns a good farm and two saw- 
rxnills and is doing a good lumber business. 

Charles Adams, of the fifth generation of the family in this country, was 
born in Canterbury, Conn., January 2, 17 16, and returned to New Marl- 
boro in 1745, locating on road 6. He married Judith Hyde, by whom 
he had one son, Davenport, who married Elizabeth Tracy, and reared a 
family of eleven children. Only one of this family, Phebe, living in New 
York, aged ninety-four, survives. Davenport resided upon the homestead, 
and was succeeded by his son, Charles. The Adams family is now represent- 
ed in town by Edwin, a grandson of Davenport, who is engaged in the meat 
business in Mill River, with his son, James W. 

Samuel Trescott, a native of Stonington, Conn., came to this town about 
1759, locating on road 77, on the place now owned by his great-granddaughter, 
Maria Bishop, after having lived about a year on the place where William 
Sardam now resides, just over the line in Connecticut. He was the first 
surveyor in this section, which profession he followed all his life. His son, 
Samuel Jr., who came to the place with his father when but ten years of age, 
located on the homestead. He married Mary Clark, by whom he had nine 
children, all removing from New Marlboro, except Jonathan, who remained 
upon the old homestead. He married Betsey Cobb, and reared a family of 



five children. Those now living are Wesley, in Canaan, and Maria, widow 
of Wesley Bishop, upon the homestead, which has been in the possession of 
the Trescott family for five generations. 

John Hyde, of Canterbury, Conn., came to this town prior to 1768. He 
was twice married, rearing four children by his first wife and six by his second. 
Tames, his youngest son, married Elmira Rogers in 1828, and has had three 
children, John A., Elizabeth, and Henry D. James is still living at the age 
of eio-hty-one. He was representative in the legislature in 1843 and 1858^ 
and was a selectman in 1851, holding this office for several years, and has 
held most of the other town offices. Henry D. remains on the homestead 
with his father. 

Hopestill King came from the eastern part of the State and located on 
road 64 about 1778, building, a year or two later, the house now owned by 
WiUiam Arnsted. This house, being built during the Revolutionary war, 
when iron was very expensive, wooden pins were used in the floor and in 
putting together all other portions of the house where it was possible. CaUph,. 
son of Hopestill, remained on the homestead, and married Sally Shepard, by 
whom he had six children. Arial, son of Caliph, married Polly White, rearing, 
four children, of whom none survive, excepting Charlotte, who married Will- 
iam Amsted. Arial still resides upon the homestead, aged eighty years. 

John Gibson, Jr., of Connecticut, removed to this town with his father, 
when only eleven years of age. about 1785, locating on road i, where Mrs. 
Noah Gibson now resides. He had three wives, Charlotte Martin, Lucy 
Powell and Mrs. Wright, rearing five children, John 3d, Harriet, Noah. 
George and Lucy. Noah married Delia Fairbanks, and located on the 
homestead. He had five children, George M., Delia, John, Martin and Noah, 
Noah was representative in the legislature in 1842, and was in the govern- 
ment council in 1851 and '52. He, with Warrea Wheeler, built the first 
paper mill on Mill River. He was an active business man and held many 
offices of trust. He died March 29, 1883, aged seventy-nine years. George 
M. resides on road i. 

Stephen Powell who came to this town from Great Barrington, in 1796,. 
and located on road 17, where his son Stephen now resides, was a tailor by 
trade. August 27, 1806, he was appointed postmaster^ which office he held 
ten years, keeping it in his house. This was at tliat time an office of no 
small importance, as the mail had been previously brought from Stockbridge 
on horseback. 

Nehemiah, son of Nehemiah and Wellha Palmer, of Stonington, Conn,, 
immigrated to New Marlboro in 1824. For several years he hired out, but 
in 1835 he married Frances M. Palmer, and located on the place where he 
now resides, a prosperous farmer. He had born to him five children. The 
only one living, Henry W., resides on the homestead with his father. 

John Carroll of Union^ Me., removed to Saffield, Conn., where he was 
engaged in the manufacture of paper for ten years, coming from there in 


183810 Mill River, where he entered into business, amassing quite a fortune. 
He contributed largely for benevolent purposes and was a great benefactor of 
his town. His death was lamented. 

William Alexander, a native of Ireland, came to this town in 1746, from 
Dedham, Mass., and located on road 8, where Patrick Barrett now resides, 
and where he soon brought his wife and two children, William, Jr., and Mary. 
Mary married Mr. Everett, and had two sons, Edward and William Everett. 
William Alexander, Jr., married Mary Wright and reared eleven children, 
Molly, Wilham, John, Lovisa, Lucy, James, Jane, Patrick, David, Obadiah, 
and Caroline. Patrick settled on the old homestead, and reared a family of 
eight children. David married Mary Hall, daughter of Ebenezer Hall, and had 
born to him six children. In 1822 he moved to Mill River and carried on a 
forge where the upper paper-mill now stands. Alfred H. resides in Mill 
River, where he and his son Fred G. carry on a grist-mill. 

Eben Calkins, a native of Amenia, N. Y., removed at the age of seven 
years with his parents to Monterey. December 31, 1804, he married Etta 
Stevens, of Lee, and reared a family of five children. They came to this 
town in 1847, and located on road i. Three of their children, John G., pro- 
prietor of a grist-mill on road 49, Mrs. Amos Brewer and Lucinda reside in 
this town. 

Grove Gaylord, son of Anson and Almeda Gaylord, of Norfolk, Conn., 
came to this town in 1847, locating on the place where he now resides. He 
was a member of the legislature in 1864, and has been selectman for several 

Patrick R. Hennessy, a native of county Cork, Ireland, came to this coun- 
try and settled in New Marlboro in 1848. He located upon a farm on road 
54, where he still resides in the possession of a handsome property. 

John, son of John and Ellen McCarty, and a native of county Cork, Ire- 
land, came to New Marlboro in 1851. In i860 he married Bridget Grau, 
locating in 1865 on road 35, upon the place, where he now lives. 

Dennis Hayes, son of Roger and Ellen Hayes, emigrated from Ireland, 
coming to this town in 1853, where in 1865 he purchased a fine farm. He 
married Julia McGuiness, and reared a family of seven children. Mr. 
Hayes has been a selectman. 

Hiram Hotchkiss, son of Daniel and Sarah Hotchkiss, of Norfolk, Conn., 
came to this town in 1865, locating on road 68, on the Samuel Canfield 
place, where he now resides. Mr. Hotchkiss has twice married, his first wife 
being Harriet Canfield, and his second Esther Hawley, and has had born to 
him two children, a son and a daughter. The son, Dennis H., resides near 
the homestead. 

James Foley, son of Dennis and Elizabeth Foley, was born in county 
Cork, Ireland, and came to this town in 1867. He married Ellen McLaugh- 
hn, and located on road 54, where he has since resided. 

Nathan, WiUiam and Timothy Keyes were among the early settlers in New 


Marlboro. Timothy was captured by the Indians, carried into New York 
State, and killed. A son of Nathan, Thaddeus, remained in town and reared 
a family of nine children. Denison, third son of Thaddeus, born on road 
44, upon the place where S. G. Keyes now resides, married EvaUne Marshall, 
of Colebrook, Conn., and located on lot 43, where P. Mambert now resides. 
He reared a family of six children, Mary Ann, Dorrence D., Marshall, Loren 
P., J. Henry and Helen, four of whom survive. Marshall was killed at the 
second battle of Bull Run. Loren P. located, in 1865, on the farm where he 
now resides, on road 53. Mr. Keyes has twice represented his district in the 
legislature, besides being selectman and has held most of the town offices. 

David Walker, from Hopkinton, Mass., was among the early settlers, locat- 
ing on road 21, upon the place now owned by O. L. Dowd, and reared a 
family of three children, — Herman, Lydia and Calvin. Calvin married Almira 
Chapin, of this town, and had born to him six children, only one, Warren, 
surviving, who resides in this town, on road 6. 

Martin Norton came to New Marlboro from Suffield, Conn., locating on 
Norton Hill, on road 34. His son, David, remained on the homestead, mar- 
ried Rachel Spaulding, and reared nine children. Isaac, eighth child of David, 
married PauHne Ward, settled on the homestead, and reared a family of two 
children, John C. and Mary W. Mary is now the wife of E. C. Baldwin, and 
resides in town. 

Tedediah Sage, a descendant of David Sage, the first of that name in this 
country, removed to Sandisfield, from Cornwall, Conn., and reared a family 
of four sons and three daughters. Calvin, oldest son of Jedediah, was born 
in 1790, and removed to New Marlboro, locating on road 38, on the place 
lately occupied by his grandson, Charles H.,now of Sandisfield. He married 
Clarissa Smith, by whom he had five children, — William H., Ebenezer, Har- 
vey S., Elisha and Marrietta. William H. passed his life upon the homestead. 
His son Francis hves on the farm adjoining the homestead. 

Ebenezer Hall was among the early settlers in this town. Ebenezer, Jr., 
located on road 25, erecting the house at Mill River now owned by H. Sisson, 
and an iron forge where Sisson's saw-mill now stands, or just below, on the 
ground now flooded by the upper paper-mill pond. Opposite Sisson's saw- 
mill, he built and run the first carding and cloth dressing mill in town, and 
probably the first in Southern Berkshire, and the second in the county. Eben- 
ezer, Ji., married Mary Chapin, and reared a family of seven children, being 
careful to give to each a name containing no more than four letters, as he 
had always considered his own a burden. His children, John, Levi, Noah, 
Milo, Mary, Lucy, and Anne, all settled in this town, execpting Lucy, who 
died in Litchfield. Noah married Almeda Wright, located on road 25, and 
reared a family of eleven children, two of whom, Wesley and Chauncej", are 
still living, and both residing m this town. Mrs. Chauncey Hall is grand- 
daughter of Thomas Renfrew, who came to New Marlboro in 1745. 

The South New Marlboro Congregational church. — This church, located at 


Southfield, has already been spoken of on page 237. In 1793 the Httle 
church of five members which had been planted in the wilderness, forty-nine 
years before, and which had been guarded from heresy by Rev. Thomas 
Strong, Rev. Caleb Alexander and Jacob Catlin, had gathered in strength so 
that they were under the necessity of building a new meeting-house, which 
they did, removing its site from Mill River to Southfield. This was done the 
same year and is still in use. The next year, 1794, Ebenezer Smith, Esq., 
by order of the legislature, divided the town into two parishes. The early pas- 
tors of the second church were John Stevens, Nathaniel Turner and Sylvester 
Burt. The church building will comfortably seat 275 persons, and is valued, 
including grounds, at $7,000.00. The society now has thirty-two members, 
with Rev. L. B. Scott, pastor. 

The Afethodist Episcopal church, located at Hartsville, was organized in 
1844. Their church building, erected in 1850, will seat 200 persons, and is 
valued, including grounds, at $2,000.00. The society has thirty- three mem- 
bers, under the pastoral charge of Rev. L. B. Scott. 

The New Marlboro Baptist church, located at Southfield, was organized in 
1847, with twenty-five members. Rev. A. N. Benedict, who now holds the 
office, being the first pastor; but there have been six other pastors, Mr. Bene- 
dict not having officiated continuously. The church building, erected in 
1847, will comfortably seat 150 persons, and is valued, including otherprop- 
erty, at $2,500.00. The society now has fifty-five members. 

■5"/. Mary's jRoman Catholic church, located at Mill River, was organized 
by Rev. Father Mennette, with 400 communicants, in 1865. The church build- 
ing, erected during that year, of wood, will seat 400 persons, and is valued, 
including grounds, at $6,000.00. The society has 600 communicants, with 
Rev. Father Murphy, pastor. 

The Mill River Congregational church, located at Mill River, was organ- 
ized in 1870, with forty-five members, the first pastor being Rev. Thomas 
Crowther. Their church building was completed February 2, 187 1. It will 
seat 400 persons, and is valued at about $12,000.00. The society now has 
sixty-nine members. 

NORTH ADAMS lies in the northern part of the county, in lat, 42° 
40 , and long. 3° 53', bounded north by Clarksburg, east by Florida 
and Savoy, south by Adams and west by Williamstown. This town, 
originally including the township of Adams and known as East Hoosac, 
has already been spoken of in connection with the sketch of Adams, where 
the story of the early grant, early settement, and a topographical description, 
etc., are given, bringing us down to April 16, 1878, when the old town of 
Adams was divided, the southern half retaining the old name and the north- 


ern half taking that of North Adams, which its enterprising metropolis had 
for so many years honorably borne. 

The surface of the town is exceedingly rough and broken, except through 
the valley of the Hoosac ; but there are still some very good farms, though in 
general the township is emphatically a manufacturing district. Upon the 
east Hes Hoosac mountain, with its " mighty-bore," a good description of 
which is given in connection with the sketch of Florida, while upon the west 
lie mountains of the Greylock group, of which " Godfrey Greylock" speaks 
as follows : — 

" The isolated mountain range between the Hoosac and the Taghconics 
now generally known as the Greylock range, is not so much a chain as an in- 
tertwisted cluster of mountains in the towns of Adams, North Adams and 
Williamstown ; from which a spur strikes southward through New Ashford, 
Cheshire and Lanesboro, to Pittsfield. The main cluster has a length, from 
east to west, of about six miles, and an average altitude of perhaps twenty- 
four hundred feet above the surrounding valley. It consists of seven distinct 
peaks and ridges rising above a common base. The highest peak — the Grey- 
lock, from which the cluster takes its name — is upon the east, and has an 
elevation of about 3,500 feet above sea level, or 2,600 feet above the valley 
of the HoosaCj at its base on the north and east." 

Between these mountains, flowing through the narrow but fertile Hoosac 
valley, is the Hoosac river, which enters the town at about the center of is 
southern boundary and flows a northerly course to North Adams village, 
where it is met by the North Branch, whence it flows almost a direct westerly 
course into Williamstown. On this stream and on the Branch are many fine 
mill-sites, not a few of which are utilized. The only other stream of impor- 
tance is Notch brook, which flows a northerly course through the eastern part 
of the town, uniting with the Hoosac at Braytonville. This brook furnishes 
the North Adams village water-works with pure, cool water. Among the 
other elevations of importance in the town are Mount Hawkes, and Williams 
and Adams hills. Among the curiosities that Dame Nature's eccentric work- 
people have deftly constructed is the " natural bridge." " This is located," 
says one writer, "about a mile northeast of the village, near the line of Clarks- 
burg, where Hudson brook has worn a channel thirty rods long, and in some 
places sixty feet deep, through a quarry of white marble. The mass of rock 
terminates towards the south in a steep precipice. Down this 
precipice it appears, the water once fell ; but finding in some places 
natural chasms, and in others wearing away the rocks themselves, 
it has found a passage, from thirty to sixty feet below its former 
bed. The mean breadth of the channel is about fifteen feet. Two 
masses of rock— one of which lies ten or twelve feet above the other — under 
which the water has made its way, lie like bridges across the channel. The 
upper bridge is now much broken. Under the lower one, which is beauti- 
fully arched, the stream has sunk its bed nearly fifty feet." " The walls of the 
ravine," says another writer, " are perpendicular cliffs of pure white marble, 
highly crystaUine in coarse granulation — a dolomite susceptible of a fine edge 


under the chisel. They are mottled all over, from top to bottom, with inden- 
tations of various shapes and sizes ; but oftenest circular and concave, like a 
saucer, with an average diameter of eight or ten inches, making a very pretty 
arabesque fret work. But, small or large, the indentations were evidently 
made by rolling pebbles kept in motion by the waters of the sinking stream." 
Near the bridge there is a small cave that often attracts the curious, while 
another is found about a mile south of the village. 

The geological structure of the town is made up of rocks of talcose-slate 
li?nestone and nuca-s/afe formation, disposed in nearly equal parallel ranges 
extending north and south, the /imesfofie deposit occupying the center, includ- 
ing the valley of the Hoosac. 

From the school superintendent's last report we make the following 
abstract: Population of North Adams in 1880, 10,292; number of children 
between five and fifteen years of age. May 1882, 2,720 ; increase from last year, 
forty-two; number of different pupils enrolled during the year — boys 1,227, girls 
1,257, total, 2,484; decrease from last year, eight ; average number belonging, 
1,844.9; increase from last year, 45.3 ; average attendance, 1,734.3 ; increase 
from last year, 56.7 ; number of pupils between five and fifteen not attending 
school during the year, 346; whole number of different teachers employed 
during the year, fifty-four ; number in regular teaching force, forty-eight ; 
total cases of tardiness for the year, 731 ; decrease from last year. 258; aver- 
age number of each pupil, .39; decrease from last year, .15; number not 
tardy or absent during the year, thirty-eight; value of school houses and 
property, $130,500.00. 

North Adams, known also by the sobriquet of the "Tunnel City," is a 
bright, pleasant, decidedly business-like post village located in the northern 
part of the county on the Hoosac river. It has, aside from its many manu- 
factories, fine churches, rows of business blocks, convenient hotels, spacious 
union depot, and elegant private residences, four banks, and two ficurishing 
weekly newspapers, The Transcript and The Hoosac Valley News, the history 
of the latter two of which, as well as of the several railroads which center 
here, and of the Hoosac tunnel, is given in the county chapter at the begin- 
ning of the volume. The nucleus about which 'this enterprising town has 
been built was the grist and saw-mill erected here by Ephraim Williams, in 
order to fulfill the conditions attending the grant of 200 acres of land made 
him by the general court, viz. : " that he should reserve ten acres for a fort, 
and build a grist and saw-mill, and keep them in repair for twenty years," as 
previously mentioned on page 88. Down to about the first quarter of the 
present century, there had been gathered about this nucelus a village of about 
a thousand souls, as follows, to quote from a writer of that time : — 

" The north village now contains three houses of religious worship, one for 
Baptists, one for Methodists and one for Congregationalists. It has seven 
factory buildmgs, seven stores, two taverns, a printing-office, a post-ofiice, 
an iron furnace, three blacksmith shops, one tin shop, six shoemakers, one 


silversmith and jeweler, three milliners, two tailors, one hatter, two saddle 
and harness makers, three carpenters and two sleigh and wagon makers. 
There are other mechanics in the village, who keep no regular shops, such 
as carpenters and joiners, brick layers, etc., and there are other shops con- 
nected with the different factories, for working wood and iron, which are not 
embraced in this list. The village contains eighty-seven dwelling houses, 
occupied by 105 famihes, which, including all employed in the factories, 
mechanic shops, etc., number not far from 1,000 souls." 

This is surely not a bad showing for a New England village of that early 
day ; but now, in conjunction with what we have already said, read the 
following from " Godfrey Greylock's " Tag/iconic, and draw your own conclu- 
sions of the Tunnel City of to-day : — 

" But I think bright, busy, bustling, dashing North Adams, with its Hvely 
streets and peculiar surroundings, will show otf well in this cool, clear atmos- 
phere. * * * * To my mind, the most notable thing in this fine old 
town, or its bright village, is the people : not to disparage some very noble 
scenery, or perhaps the most remarkable natural curiosity in the common- 
wealth ; and, least of all, to speak lightly of the grand tunnel. But North 
Adams is, I verily believe, the smartest village in ' the smartest nation in all 
creation :' the concentrated essential oil of Yankeedom. As you pass 
through its streets, you see evidence of this great truth everywhere ; in the 
shops, in the manufactories, in the hotels: and, if these do not convince you, 
there will be no room for doubt when you come to the Hoosac Tunnel." 

The area covered by the village is, in some places, exceedingly rough and 
hilly, so that one has here the advantage (and disadvantage) of immediate 
hill, cUfif and mountain, and also fine views of far-reaching, magnificent 
mountain scenery. The village is well protected against loss by fires, having 
a fair water-supply and an excellent fire-department, the North Adams Fire 
District having been incorporated Monday, February 4, 1845. 

Blackinton is a small post village and manufacturing center located in 
the northwestern part of the town, on the line between this town and Will- 
iamstown. The village has also a good free library and a fine union school. 
The hbrary was established in 1859, by the formation of a society with O. A.. 
Archer, president. A tax of fifty cents per annum was at first charged for 
drawing books, but smce 1878 it has been free. It has 1,400 volumes, with 
O. A. Archer, librarian. The Blackinton Union School was estabhshed in 
1873, by a special act of the legislature authorizing a Union Graded School. 
The building, erected that year, is a two-story wood structure and cost $10,- 
000.00. The school has now about 275 pupils, with Frank Ketchum, prin- 

Braytonville is a small village on the Housatonic, about midway between 
North Adams village and Blackinton. 

Greylock, between Blackinton and Braytonville, is the seat of the Grey- 
ock mills. 

The Adams National Bank of North Adams wa.^ organized in 1832, with 
Caleb B. Turner, president ; WiUiam E. Brayton, cashier ; and Caleb B. 
Turner, Josiah O. Robinson, Nathan Drury, David Anthony, Sanford Black- 


inton, Edward Richmond, Isaac U. Hoxie, Samuel Bowen and James Wilbur, 
directors. The presidents, since Mr. Turner, have been Nathan Drury, Dan- 
iel Smith, Duty 8. Taylor, W. E. Brayton, and Sanford Blackinton who still 
holds the office, he being the only living member of the original board, and 
has held an official position in the institution since its incorporation. The 
cashier is Edward S. Wilkinson. The original capital was $100,000.00, which, 
upon the re-organization of the bank under the national law, in 1865, was 
increased to $350,000.00, and has since been increased to $500,000.00. 

The North Adams Savings Bank, located on Main street, was incorporated 
in 1848. Its officers are C. F. Thompson, president; V. A. Whitaker, treas- 
urer ; and George Walter Olds, assistant treasurer. 

The Hoosac Savings Bank of North Adams was organized in 187 1, with 
O. A. Archer, president ; Sylvander Johnson^ W. S. Blackinton, Charles H. 
Reed and C. R. Taft, vice-])residents ; and Austin Bond, treasurer. The 
present treasurer is William W. Butler. 

The Berkshire National Bank of North Adams was organized in 1878, with 
Jarvis Rockwell, president; N. W. Hodge, vice-president; J. Rockwell, N, 
W. Hodge, James Hunter, A. D. Cady, W. H. Gaylord, S. W. Ingalls, 
Joseph White, James C. Chalmers and J. R. Houghton, directors ; and C. H. 
Ingalls, cashier. The only change made in this list of officers has been the 
election of Keyes Danforth to fill the vacancy made by the resignation of 
Joseph White. The original capital of^the institution was $100,000.00, which 
has since been increased 'to $200,000.00. 

Medical Association of Northern Berkshire. — On the 15th of August, 1876, 
the local physicians of North Adams met at the Arnold (now Wilson) House 
and organized a society, under the above title, for the purpose of mutual im- 
provement, by fellowship reports of cases and discussion of the same, and 
the circulation of approved medical journals among its members. The fol- 
lowing officers were chosen : N, S. Babbitt, president, and O. J. Brown, 
secretary and treasurer, and the plan of holding monthly meetings adopted. 
These meetings the society has continued to hold, with good, practical re- 
sults and an increased fraternity feeling. Several prominent members have 
died during the time, including Drs. Howkes, Phillips, and Lawrence, of 
North Adams, and Drs. Sabin and Duncan, of Wilhamstown. The society 
now has a membership of eighteen, extending south into Cheshire and north 
into Pownal and Stamford, Vt. The present officers are Homer Bushnell, 
president; A. F. Davenport, vice-president; and C.J. Curran, secretary and 

The Hoosac Valley Agricultural Society* — In the autumn of 1859 this 
society held a cattle show and fair, and during the following winter secured 
an act of incorporation, approved March 5, i860, in which it mentioned the 

*This sketch should have been printed with those of the other agricultural societies, on 
page 27, but the information did not arrive in time, so we insert it here. 


following gentlemen as incorporators : Clement Harrison, Edward R. Tinker, 
and Rodman H. Wells. In 1876 the records of the society were destroyed 
by fire, so the data of the early proceedings of the society are difficult to 
obtain. The first president, however, was Hon. Joseph White, of Williams- 
town, who held the office two years. He was succeeded by Sylvander John- 
son, of North Adams, 1863-63 ; Daniel Upton, of South Adams, 1864-65 ; 
Asahel Foote, of WilHamstown, 1865-66; Benjamin F. Mills, of Williams- 
town, 1866-69; John M. Cole, of WilHamstown, 1869-76 ; O. A. Archer, of 
Blackinton, 1876-79; J. R.Houghton, of Stamford, Vt., 1879-82; WiUiam 
S. Johnson, of North Adams, 1882-84, and William L. Brown, elected No- 
vember 18, 1884, the present incumbent. The treasurers have been Henry W. 
Kingsley, of North Adams, 1860-61; Salmon Burlingame, of North Adams, 
1861-76; Rufus G. Welden, of North Adams, 1876-S2; William Burton, of N. 
Adams 1882-84; and S. B. Dibble, elected November j 8, 1884, the present offi- 
cer. The secretaries have been William W. Gallup, of North Adams, 1860-69; 
H. Clay Bliss, of North Adams, 1869 to the present time. The society has 
had its grounds and track located in North Adams badly damaged by fresh- 
ets at different times, rendering it necesssary to build a new track, and remove 
its buildings, entailing considerable expense, so that at the present time it 
owes $3,600.00. In other respects it was never in a more flourishing con- 
dition, the receipts for the past year being larger than those of any former 
year. The building, consisting of a large exhibition hall, a barn with twenty- 
two stalls for horses, a judge's stand and a grand stand, were erected some 
five or six years ago by an association, and at the expiration often years are 
to revert to the society. They are all in good repair and were newly painted 
in 1883. 

T/ig North Adams Gaslight Company was organized in 1864, with a capital 
stock of $50,000.00, and with John B. Tyler, president; W. W. Freeman, 
treasurer; and H. Clay Bliss, secretary. This company furnishes a very good 
grade of gas and are quite liberally patronized. The present officers are 
W. L. Brown, president; J. B. Tyler, vice-president; Arthur D. Cady, sec- 
retary ; and Frank S. Richardson, treasurer. The company's works are 
located just off Main street. 

The North AdaiJis Roller Skating Rink, located on Marshall street, Ladd 
Bradley &Co., proprietors, was built in November, 1883. It has a floor 86x 
36 feet. 

The North Adams Hospital was established in 1884, the by-laws providing 
that the corporation shall be managed by the board of control, which includes 
all the officers and directors. These are, as also established by the by-laws, 
composed of ladies from all the local churches. 

The North Adams Electric Light Company was organized in December, 
1884. The officers are George M. Darby, president, and F. L. Tilton, 

The Arnold Print Works. — This company, whose mills are located on 


Marshall street, at North Adams village, was organized as a stock company, 
Octo'ber lo, 1876, with David A. Brayton, of Fall River, president, and 
Albert C. Houghton, treasurer. They have eight printing machines and 
manufacture about 15,000 pieces of from forty-five to fifty yards each, per 
week, giving employment to 450 hands. The president of the company is 
A. C. Houghton, and the treasurer is WiUiam A. Gallup. 

The Eclipse Mills, located on Main street, are owned by the same company, 
and superintended by R. R. Kelly, have 300 looms running on print cloths, 
making about 1,800 pieces per week, giving employment to 175 hands. , 

The Beaver Mills, Gallup & Houghton, proprietors, were established in 
1871-72 by Gallup, Bailey & Co. They have 230 looms, give employment 
to 135 hands and turn out about 1,300 pieces of print cloth per week. 

The North Adams Manufacturing Compa?iy y^a.^ organized about 1863, 
with Sanford Blackinton, president. October 23, 1877, it was re-organized 
with H. G. B. Fisher, president; and E. D. Penniman, treasurer and agent. 
The works have fifty looms and turn out about 20,000 yards of six-quarter 
fancy cassirners per month, giving employment to 250 hands. 

The S. Blackinton Woolen Company was organized in 1876, with S. Black- 
inton, president, and O. A. Archer, treasurer. Their mills have fifty broad 
and thirty-six narrow looms, and turn out about 50,000 yards of fancy cassi- 
meres per month, giving employment to 300 hands. 

The Greylock Mills. — These mills were established by a stock company 
organized in 1880, with Theodore Pomeroy, of Pittsfield, president, and a 
capital stock of $250,000.00, for the manufacture of fine ginghams. In 1882 
WiUiam C. Plunkett became president of the company, which position he held 
until his death. The present officers are Wellington Smith, vice-president ; 
S. H. Pomeroy, of Pittsfield treasurer; and W. B. Plunkett of Adams, business 
manager. These mills have 325 looms, give employment to 325 hands, and 
turn out about 250,000 yards of goods per month. 

The Glen Woolen Company. — The mill owned by this company was built 
in 1863, by Chester Baily, who operated it as a batting-mill for about six 
months, when it was taken by Perry & Penniman, who operated it as a woolen- 
mill from that time until 1868. For the next ten years it was operated as a 
woolen-mill by S. Blackinton & Son, and from 1878 to '80 by S. Blackinton 
& Son and Frank A, Walker, and December ist of that year it was taken by 
the above named company, which was organized under an act of incorpora- 
tion at that time, with S. Blackinton, president, and F. A. Walker, treasurer. 
The mill has eight sets of cards, employs 150 hands and turns out about 
22,000 yards of fancy cassimeres per month. 

The Freema7i Manufacturing Company operates three mills in the manufac- 
ture of print cloth, viz. : The Eagle mill, erected in 186?, for spinning and 
weaving ; the Estes mill, built about 1840, for carding, spinning and repairing; 
and the Stone mill, erected in 1824, for weaving alone. The product of these 
mills is about 90,000 yards of print cloths per week. 


D. J. Barber's tannery, located on Union street, was established by Hatch 
& Merriam, about 1834, and in 1836 was sold to Captain Bixb}', after which 
it passed through many changes of proprietors, until it finally came into the 
hands of Mr. Barber. 

I. F. Lof tits' s marble works were established by John Flaherty about T863, 
and were purchased by Mr. Loftus in 1879. He manufactures and deals in 
foreign and domestic marble and granite of all kinds. 

James L. Comi sky's furniture and undertaking establishme?it, located on 
North Church street, was established in I'&^i, by Kelly & Comisky, where the 
latter now does all kinds of furniture repairing and everything pertaining to 
the undertaking business. 

S. B. Dibble's sash, blitid atid box factory, located on State street, wasestab- 
Hshed in 1875. He does all kinds of work in this line, employing about 
twenty-five men. He also is engaged in the lumber business, which he pur- 
chased of E. J. Carey, in 1874. 

James Hunter or Son' s foundry and machine shop. — -In 1848 Mr. Hunter 
established a foundry here, taking into partnership with him, about a year 
later, David Temple. Two years later, Abel Weatherby purchased Mr. Tem- 
ple's interest, and subsequently sold it again, the firm becoming Hunter, Thayer 
& Co. They added a grist and planing-mill and box factory, continuing the 
business thus five years, when the firm became James Hunter & Co., and 
three years later James Hunter & Son. In 1861 they built the present wood- 
work shop, and commenced the machine shop business. They manufacture 
shaftings, hangers, friction pulleys, couplings, etc., also Hunter's patent 
hand drills. Hunter's patent improved fulling-mill, and the improved wool 
washing and scouring machine, employing about seventy-five hands. 

T. E. Brigham's broom factory, located on Liberty street, was established 
by him and Benjamin Smith, in 1865. At the end of about a year Mr. 
Brigham purchased the entire business, taking into partnership with him C. 
M. Hibbard, and in August, 1871, again -became sole owner. He employs 
eight men, manufacturing about 6,000 dozen brooms per year. 

O. Wells &= Son's acid and iron liquor wor/is were originally established 
by James Ward, and were purchased by Mr. Wells in 1839. They manu- 
facture pyroligneous acid and iron liquor, from wood, a cord of wood yielding 
about 150 gallons. 

Fisher'^ Morgan's soap factory, located on road 15, was established by the 
present firm in 1879. They manufacture about $2,500.00 worth of soap 
per year. 

Whipple Bros! lime kiln, located on road 15, was established by the present 
firm in 1884. They have two kilns and manufacture about 30,000 barrels of 
Ume per year. They also have kilns at North Pownal, Vt., where they man- 
ufacture about 15,000 barrels per year. 

Moses Willard, located on East Brooklyn street, is engaged in the manu- 
facture of "temperance porter," where he has been in the business since 1880. 



Eugene Church's carriage ?nanufactory, located on the corner of Marshall 
and Center streets, was established by him in March, 1881. He does a 
general repairing business. 

The Eagle Grist- Mills oiyi. D. & A. N. Hodge, were built by James A. 
Marshall in 1842, and were bought by the present firm in 1873. The mills 
have five runs or stones and six sets of rollers, give employment to eight men. 

The Vienna Bakery, A. G. McLaughlin proprietor, was established by J. 
Wilbur, about 1853, and came into the present proprietor's possession in 1881. 

H. T Cady's shoe manufactory was established in 1866, by William G. and 
Hiram T. Cady, under the firm name of Cady Bros., who continued the 
busmess until 1880, when H. T. Cady became sole owner. He gives employ- 
ment to 150 hands and turns out about $250,000.00 worth of manufactured 
goods per annum. 

Charles Eeige's bottling works, located on Main street, where he bottles 
ales, larger, porter and ah kinds of mineral water, were established by him in 
December, 1881. 

Levi W. Boyd's turning and carpenters' siipply shop, located on Main street, 
was established by him in November, 1883. 

J. H. Adams' s furniture business, on Main street, was establishd by Ezra 
Ingraham, in 1828, who, with various changes of partners, conducted the 
same until 1852, when it was purchased by J. H. and David S. Adams. 
Since the death of David S., in i860, it has been carried on by J. H. Adams 

Edgar P. Loomis's bakery, was established by S. F. Kimball in 1878, who, 
in 1833, took into partnership with him Edgar P. Loomis, who subsequently 
became sole owner. 

Edtvard Vadner's carriage shop, located at the rear of 72 Main street, was 
established about 1869. He employs sixteen men in new work and in gen- 
eral repairing. 

William H. Turner's carriage shop, located at Willow Dell, has been 
operated by him since May r, 1883. He manufactures all kinds of carriages, 
wagons and sleighs, and does also a general repairing business. 

James M. Barber's carriage factory, located on West Main street, was 
established by him in the spring of 1878. He employs about ten men in the 
manufacture of all kinds of wagons, carriages and sleighs and in general 

William F. Hodge' s foundry and machine shop, located on Brooklyn street, 
was established by O.J. & W. F. Hodge, in i867, and was conducted by 
them until the death of O. J., July 6, 1853, since which time it has been car- 
ried on by W. F. Hodge. 

Oliver S. Miner's carriage shop, located at \A^illow Dell, was established 
in 1872. During the year 1883, he did about $3,000.00 worth of work. 

Abner L. Isbell commenced the manufacture of carriages, sleighs, etc., in 
1850, located on Main street, where he carried on the business about seven- 



teen years, then moved to the place he now occupies on North Eagle street. 

Albridge Hodskins English ale brewery was estabhshed on Church street, 
about 1864, where he carried on the business about fifteen years, then built 
a brewery on Brooklyn street, which was burned in 1883, when he removed 
to his present location, on the same street. 

The early settlement, etc., of the town having been noticed on page 95, 
we will turn our attention immediately to the building of old Fort Massa- 

As soon as the declaration of war between England and France was pro- 
claimed at Boston in June, 1744, orders were issued by Governor Shirley for 
the building of a line of forts, more effectually to protect the western frontiers 
of Massachusetts from the ravage of the Indians. Of the routes which had 
been pursued by the enemy in the former wars in approaching the frontiers 
from Canada, the most northern was by the river St. Francis, through Lake 
Memphremagog, in Vermont, thence by portage to the Passumpsic river, and 
down that river to the Connecticut, and thence to the settlements bordering 
the banks of the latter stream. Sometimes the enemy, having sailed down 
Lake Champlain, as far as Whitehall, would proceed up Pawlet river to its 
sources, thence across the mountains to West river, and down that stream to 
the Connecticut. At other times they would approach that river by follow- 
ing up Otter creek to its sources. In 1734 Fort Dummer had been built on 
the Connecticut, where Brattleboro, Vt., now is, as an obstruction to the In- 
dians in their northern march into Massachusetts. 

The forts which Governor Shirley commanded to have built extended from 
Fort Dummer to East and West Hoosac, now North Adams and Williams- 
town, and was located in the following towns : Fort Massachusetts, in North 
Adams ; Fort West Hoosac, on the public square in Williamstown ; Fort 
Shirley, in Heath ; Coghran's and Rice's forts in Coleraine ; and Sheldon's 
fort, in Bernardston. In the latter place, as well as in Coleraine, several 
houses were stockaded, and at Northfield and Greenfield the old defenses 
were repaired. The western cordon of forts was placed under the immediate 
command of Capt., afterwards Col. Ephraim Williams, who established his 
headquarters at Fort Massachusetts. Col. John Stoddard, of Northampton, 
commander of the militia regiment in the county of Hampshire, was charged 
with the general defense of the same quarter. 

The rations allowed the garrison forces on the frontiers were, for each man, 
one pound of bread and half a pint of peas or beans per diem j two pounds 
of pork for three days, and one gallon of molasses for forty-two days. March- 
ing forces were allowed a pound of bread for each man ; the same of pork, 
and a gill of rum per diem. Parties were kept continuously ranging 
from fort to fort on the line between Forts Dummer and Massachusetts, and 
thence to Pittsfield, for the purpose of ferreting out the Indians, and compa- 
nies of large dogs were trained to scent their trails. To induce soldiers to 
engage in this kind of warfare, a bounty of thirty pounds each was offered on 



Indian scalps. The officer who commanded a " scalping expedition," was 
required to keep a fair and correct journal of his marches and operations 
and return it to the government of the province. 

Fort Massachusetts v/as located near road 3, as numbered on our map, or 
the main road leading from North Adams to Williamstown, about four miles 
from the present village of Williamstown, upon a meadow of the Hoosac 
river, now a part of the Harrison farm. Its immediate site is marked by a 
large elm tree which was planted by Prof. A. L. Perry, of Williams college, in 
1859. During the year 1744 no very important demonstrations were made 
by the enemy, and none within the reach of the forts, and even during the fol- 
lowing year, 1745, the vigilance of the scouts was rewarded with no discovery 
of, or collision with, the enemy. But May 6, 1746, as Lieut. John Hawks 
and John Miles were riding out from the fort, they were fired upon by two 
Indians and wounded. Miles made his escape to the fort ; but Hawkes 
fought for sometime and might have taken both prisoners, had he understood 
their language, for it was afterwards learned that they both asked for quarter. 
On the nth of the following month, June, a party of the enemy attaked a 
number of men who were at a distance from the fort, and a skirmish ensued. 
After sustaining the fire a few minutes, the enemy fled, having lost one of their 
men. Elisha Mims and Gresham Hawks were wounded, and Benjamin Ten- 
ter was taken captive. 

No attack then took place until the 20th of August, when an army of French 
and Indians under Gen. De Vaudreuil, their number being variously estimated 
at from 800 to 900, appeared before the fort. A more unfortunate time for 
the garrison could not have been chosen, as its ammunition was nearly ex- 
hausted, and there were but twenty-two able men in the fort. The French 
general made propositions to Sergeant John Hawks, then temporarily in 
command of the fort, to surrender, but he declined, thinking, perhaps, that 
succor might reach him during the time which he might be able to delay his 
surrender. The attack was accordingly commenced, and the brave little gar- 
rison defended the fort against forty times their number for forty-eight hours 
During all this time the enemy were kept at a respectful distance, and some 
of them were shot, at the long range of sixty rods^ when they supposed them- 
selves entirely beyond the arm of danger. At the end of this long and most 
gallant defense, the ammunition of the garrison became exhausted, and no 
choice but a surrender was left, and even then the commander of the garri- 
son made his terms. One of the conditions was that none of the prisoners, 
numbering thirty-three men, women and children, should be delivered to the 
Indians. DeVaudreuil made the pledge, and the army next day, under the pre- 
tence that the Indians were mutinous in consequence of withholding prison- 
ers from them, one-half of the number were delivered over to them, and one 
of the number was immediately killed, in consequence of his being too sick to 
travel. The garrison lost but one man in the attack, while the enemy lost, in 
killed and mortally wounded, forty-five. The fort was destroyed and the cap- 



tives marched to Canada, where they all, except the murdered man, arrived 
in safety, being treated as humanely as circumstances would allow. Twelve 
of them, however, were taken sick and died there, while the remainder, with 
other prisoners, arrived at Boston on August 16, 1747, nearly a year after 
their capture, under a flag of truce, and were redeemed. This affair, one of 
the most gallant in the whole history of the frontier wars, has invested the 
locality of old Fort Massachusetts with patriotic associations, such as attach 
to few of the points made interesting by having been the scene of bolder 
struggles, and is regarded and spoken of with affectionate pride by those Hv- 
ing in its vicinity. That Sergeant Hawks would never have surrendered if his 
ammunition had not failed him is very certain, and, as it was, the victory won 
by DeVaudreuil was no subject of boasting. 

The fort was rebuilt during the following winter and spring, and on the 
25th of May, while it was in progress of erection, there being several hun- 
dred people present, an army of the enemy came on with the design of hin- 
dering the undertaking. About a hundred men had been sent to Albany a 
few days before for stores of provision and ammunition. As these were 
approaching the fort on their return, a scout was sent forward, who, upon 
coming within sight of the' fort, discovered the enemy and began an attack, 
which gave alarm to the people at the fort, who had not yet discovered the 
enemy. A few issued out and maintained a small skirmish, until the enemy 
fled. The people remained at the fort, and the commander of the party with 
the wagons were much blamed for not affording assistance, and were charged 
with cowardice. In this action three persons were wounded and a friendly 
Indian from Stockbridge was killed. 

On the ist of October following, Peter Burvee was captured near the fort ; 
and on the 2d of August, 1748, about 200 of the enemy appeared at the fort. 
It was then under the command of Captain Williams. A scout was fired 
upon, which drew out the Captain with "about thirty men, and an attack was 
begun, which continued for some time; but finding the enemy numerous. 
Captain Williams fought upon the retreat until he had regained the fort. 
The enemy soon withdrew, but with what loss is not known. A man by the 
name of Abbott was killed, and Lieutenant Hawley and Ezekiel Wells were 
wounded. Colonel Williams was killed at Lake George, September 8, 1755, 
and afterwards a Captain Wyman had charge of the fort. The last sanguine 
affair at the fort, at which we have mention, was on June 7, 1756, when 
Benjamin King and a man by the name of Meacharn were killed, this being 
during the second French war. 

We have already stated, on page 95, that some of the first settlers of the 
town had been soldiers located at Fort Massachusetts. One of these a John 
Perry, had settled here, built for himself an house, and had cleared a small 
farm at the time the prisoners were captured, of which he was one, August 
20, 1746. His house and effects, it seems, were destroyed, and a short time 
after his release from captivity he petitioned the general court for compensa- 


tion for his losses. This quaint petition, which we print below, it seems, 
however, was disregarded by the court. It is dated November 5, 1747, less 
than three months after the return of the captives : — 

" Whereas, your Honors' humble Petitioner enlisted in the service of the 
country, under the comniand of Capt. Ephraim Williams, in the year 1745, 
and was posted at Fort Massachusetts, in Hoosuck, and upon ye encourage- 
ment we had from ye late Col. John Stoddard, which was that if we went with 
our families, he did not doubt but that ye court would grant us land to settle 
on, whereupon I, your Honors' humble petitioner, carried up my family with 
my household stuff and other effect, and continued there till we was taken, 
when we was obliged to surrender to the French and Indian enemy, August 
the 20th, 1746. I would humbly lay before your Honors the losses I sustained, 
then, which are as followeth: — A house which I built there for my family, 
^ 80; two feather beds with their furniture, ;^ioo ; two suits of apparel apiece 
for me and my wife, ;^i5o; two brass kettles, a pot of pewter with tramel 
tongs and fire slice, and knives and forks to ye balance of ^20; one cross-cut 
saw, ;^2o; and one new broad-ax, ^6; three new narrow axes, ^8 ; two steel 
traps, ;^r 4; two guns, ;^32 ; one pistol, £^^\ one one-hundred weight of 
sugar, ^20; total, ;^457, with a great many other things not named. The 
losses your humble petitioner hath met with, together with my captivity, hath 
reduced me to low circumstances, and now humbly prayeth your Honors of 
your goodness to grant him a grant of land to settle upon near ye forts, where 
I fenced, which was about a mile west of the fort or elsewhere, where your 
Honors pleaseth, and that your Honors may have a full reward hereafter, for 
all your pious and charitable deeds, your Honors' humble petitioner shall 
always pray. " John Perry. " 

This date places John Perry as the first settler in the Hoosac Valley, though 
he never came back here. Among the early settlers of Egremont, however, 
was a John Perry, who possibly may have been the one in question. The es- 
timates he made on his property, it must be remembered, was in " lawful 
money, " that is, colonial bills made legal tenders, and these, during that very 
year, were being redeemed by Massachusetts at the rate of eleven for one sil- 
ver dollar. 

Jeremey Slye removed to North Adams from Rhode Island, at an early 
date, coming some time previous to 1784. He located on a portion of the 
farm now owned by his grandson, Addison M., where he resided until his 
death in 1854, rearing a family of five children, of whom but one, Mrs. Lydia 
Howland, of Palmyra, N. Y., survives. A son, Ira, born here in 1805, Hved 
upon the homestead until his death in 1880, and was the father of eight 
children, five of whom are now living, one son, Addision, occupying the old 
homestead. A daughter, Mrs. Martha Bowen, resides in Adams. 

Otis Blackinton immigrated to this town from Attleboro, Mass., in 1782, 
located about three miles from the village, and followed farming as a 
business. He reared a family of ten or eleven children, four of whom are 
still Hving. He died while on a visit to Attleboro. One son, Sanford, was 
born in Attleboro, in 1798, but has spent his life in this town. He has been 
engaged in manufacturing a great many years, and is now president of the 
Glen Woolen Company, also of the Blackinton Woolen Company. He is 



president also of the Adams National bank, and for many years has been one 
of the most prominent business men of the town. 

James Paul, of Connecticut, came to this town about 1786, and located 
on road 18. He was an extensive farmer and land holder. Of his family of 
eight children, one, David, now resides in Indiana. James died about 1828, 
.Joseph, another son of James, came here with his father when about 
four years of age. When a young man he was a school teacher. About 
18 16 he married and settled on the farm where his father first settled, where 
he resided until 1853, rearing four children, all of whom are now living, and 
one of whom, George R., succeeds to the homestead. 

Elisha Kingsley came to this town from Swansea, Mass., about 1790, locat- 
ing in 1 810 on road 23, where he died in 1849. Two sons, Elisha and Henry 
W., reside in North Adams, Henry occupying a farm adjoining that formerly 
owned by his father. 

William Wilbur came to this town about 1800, located upon the farm now 
owned by his grandson, L. S. Wilbur, rearing a large family. His son. Smith, 
was born in town in 1804, and resided here until his death in 1879. Two of 
his children, Mrs. Emily Ballou, of Adams, and L. S., residing in this town^ 
on road 20, survive. 

Ansel Amadon came to North Adams from Pownal, Vt., at an early date 
residing here until his death. His son. Philander, accompanied him here, 
where he also resided until his death in 1875. His two sons, George A., and 
L. T., are residents of this town. 

David Darling, a blacksmith by trade, immigrated to this town from Rhode 
Island about a century ago, and is said to have been the first to carry on that 
trade in North Adams. His son David, who came here about the same time, 
followed his father's trade, also keeping a hotel on the site of the present 
Martin block, which was known as. the " Black Tavern." George, son of 
David. Jr., also a blacksmith, always resided in North Adams, and reared a 
family of five children, three of whom are still living, and two, Albert and 
Allen B., in this town. 

James Eddy went to Adams from Rhode Island, at an early date, it being 
some time previous to 1784. He settled in the "Bowen District," and reared 
a family of seven children, among whom was one son. Preserved, born in 
1795, who always resided either in that town or North Adams until his death 
in 1867, rearing four children, of whom three are still living, among whom 
are Mrs. William Ketchum, and James W. Eddy. 

John Whipple from Rhode Island, came to North Adams about 1807, 
locating near the village, but afterwards removing to South Adam.s, where he 
died, about 1843, having reared a large family, five surviving. One daughter, 
Almira, married Nathan Gove, an early settler from New Hampshire, and 
had thirteen children, five still living, and one son, W. H. Gove, residing on 
road 2, in this town. 

Orson Wells, grandson of John Wells, one of the early settlers of Chesh- 


ire, was born in that town in 1795, and removed to North Adams in 1810, 
engaging in the manufacture of acid. He married Zeruah PhiHps in 1817, 
and has one son, Daniel M., whom he has associated with himself in busi- 
ness. Mr. Wells is now eighty-nine years of age. 

Benjamin Chase, from Dartmouth, Mass., came to this town about the 
year 181 2, and cleared a farm. None of his family of nine children are now 
living. One son, Joseph, who came here with his father, resided upon the 
homestead until his death ,in 1837, at the age of eight-seven, and was the 
father of eleven children, of whom Hiram A. succeeded to the old home- 
stead on road 21. 

Ezra D. Whitaker, son of Ezra, a sea captain, was a merchant in this town 
from 1824 to '29, after which he removed to Troy, N. Y., returning to North 
Adams in about five years, and engaging in mercantile pursuits, which he fol- 
lowed until about 1858 when he became treasurer of the North Adams sav- 
ings bank, which office he resigned October 7, 1872, after a service of about 
fourteen years. He is still an active business man, although eighty-six years 
of age. His son, Valmore A., was chosen treasurer of the bank to succeed 
his father, which office he still holds. 

Josiah Quincy Robinson emigrated to Adams from Hardwick, where he 
remained from 1794 to 1828, when he settled in North Adams, where he died 
in 1856, at the age of eighty-three. His son, Benjamin F., who was born in 
Adams, coming thence to North Adams in 1828, owns several farms in Adams, 
and two in North Adams. He was engaged in mercantile pursuits until 1845. 
He married Eliza B. Whitman, who died in 1853, rearing three children, two 
of whom, Mrs. Susan F. Fisher of New York, and Sarah Eliza, wife of G. L. 
Rice, of this towii, are still living. 

Df. Edward Norman, born in Hudson, N. Y., in 1806, removed to this town 
in 1830, and opened the first drug store in the place, selling out in 1859, to 
W. H. Griswold and Dr. Lawrence, both now deceased. Dr. Norman married 
Miss L. M. Putnam, a great-granddaughter of Gen. Israel Putnam, by whom 
he had two children, Martha M., wife of Samuel Keyes, of this village, and 
Emily N., wife of L. M. Hayden. He was one of the oldest F. & A. Masons 
in the town. He died May 28, 1874. 

Dr. Seth N. Briggs was born at Rochester, Vt., September 2, 1S13, the 
youngest of six children of Enos and Lovisa (Nichols) Briggs. He began the 
study of medicine in 1832, with Dr. Ross, of Rutland, and afterwards studied 
in Philadelphia. He first began practice in Starksboro, but in 1840 came to 
North Adams, and has since practiced in this place. His wife was Sarah 
Campbell, also from Rochester. They have three daughters, all residents of 
North Adams, Calphurna V. (Mrs. William M. Lennox) Elizabeth (Mrs. 
Ohver Arnold), and Mrs. Minerva S. Boss. 

Dr. Snell Babbitt's father was a Revolutionary soldier, and a prominent 
early settler in Savoy, serving in the legislature several terms. Snell came 
with his father from Norton, Mass., to Savoy. He became a physician and 


practiced in Hancock for some years, when he moved to Adams, where he 
practiced successfully until his death in 1854. 

Dr. Nathan S. Babbitt, son of Dr. Snell Babbitt, was born in Hancock, 
August 30, iSr2. He studied medicine with his father and with Dr. Wells, 
of Windsor, graduated at Williams college, and began the practice of 
medicine before twenty-one years of age, and has always practiced medicine 
in Adams. He married Ann Eliza Robinson and has no children. 

William Hazelett, was born in Houston, Scotland, in 182 1, emigrating to 
North Adams in 1834. He married Miss Chesbro,by whom he has four chil- 
dren, Mary S., David W., Emma E., and William H., all hving. He was a 
member of Co. B, loth Regt. Mass. Vols. 

James Hunter emigrated from Scotland to America in 1833, locating in 
1838, in North Adams. In company with McLellan, Magee, and Dr. Hauks, 
and under the firm name of McLellan, Hunter & Co., he built the original 
Greylock mills at Greylock. 

James Easton, a shoemaker, by trade, was born in Southwick, Mass., in 
1819. He came to this town in 1841, where he has followed his trade forty- 
three years. 

Lester M. Hayden, born in Clarksburg in 1831, came to North Adams in 
1853. He married Susan Clark, by whom he had three children, John, Fred, 
and Arthur. He was a captain in Co. E, 31st Mass. Vols., afterwards the 
6th Mass. Cavalry in the late war for the Union. 

Moses B. Darling, from Rowe, Mass. removed to this town in 1858. He 
has been engaged in the grocery business about thirty years. In 1883 he 
was elected representative of the second district to the general court by the 
RepubUcan party, and he has also been assessor several years. 

Edward A. Messer, born in Troy, N. ¥., in 1844, came to this town in 
1867, where he is now foreman in the extensive shoe factory of the Sampson 
Manufacturing Co. He narried Miss Kimball, rearing nine children, namely: 
Mary, Charles, Maude, Edna, Ralph, Frank, Willie, Madge, and Paul, seven 
still Uving. 

WiUiam H. Button, of Berlin, N. Y., came to Adams in 1869. He was 
a member of Co. I, 30th Regt., N. Y. Vols., and was in several engage- 
ments. He is now of the firm of Button &z Bassett of this town. 

S. A. Kemp, (son of Nathan Kemp, who came to Florida from Shelburn 
about 1790, and cleared a farm, raising eight children,) came to North 
Adams in 1869, and located in Kempville, so-called from the fact that Mr. 
Kemp has erected a large number of buildings here, both for dwellings and 
business. He is a lumber dealer and real estate agent. Barnas, son of S. 
A., is a builder in the town. 

Henry H. Peck, born at Whitingham, Vt., in 1841, married Elizabeth 
Sabin, by whom he had three children, Carrie C, Willie H., and Nellie, all 
of whom are now hving. His wife dying in 1876, he married Miranda H. 
Sabin, and has been foreman for C. T. Sampson thirteen years. Mr. Peck 


was a member of Co. H, 27th Regt. Mass. Vols., being in three general 
engagements, and was discharged March 8, 1864. 

John H. Towle, from Windsor, born in 1844, came to this town in 187 i. 
He was twice married, having by his first wife, Lettie A. Thayer, one daugh- 
ter, Lillian M., and by his second wife, Sabra Baker, one son, Alfred S. 
Mr. Towle enhsted in Co. B, loth Regt. Mass. Vols., was wounded at the 
battle of Malvern Hill, July ist, 1862, and July 2d was taken a captive to 
Richmond, where he was retained two months, and was discharged Decem- 
ber 28, 1863. He is now employed in the Sampson shoe factory. 

J. M. Pinkham, a native of New Hampshire, born in 1836, was a member 
of the ist N. H. Cavalry. He came to this town in 1875, where he is one 
of the foremen in Sampson's shoe factory. He married for his first wife, 
Sarah Plumber, by whom he had two children, Fred W. and Metta W. He 
married for his second wife Melinda M. George. 

Joseph Scott, a blacksmith, located in the southern part of WiUiamstown 
about 1808, and reared a family of nine children, seven of whom are still liv- 
ing, five residing in North Adams, one in Worcester, Mass., and one in Penn- 
sylvania. Joseph died about 1869, aged eighty years. 

W. H. Draper, from Brimfield, Mass., came to North Adams in 1882. He 
married Sarah J. Wheeler, of Marlboro, Mass., rearing four children : Ella, 
who died in 1869, William E., Ea M., and Charles E. Mr. Draper was a 
member of the loth Regt., Mass. Vols., under Gen Miles, in the 6th corps. He 
is now one of the foremen in Sanpson Manufacturing Co, 

David Smith, born in West Stockbridge, Mass., was a soldier in the war of 
1 81 2. He married Betsey Smith, by whom he had eight children. Orange, 
born in 1810, married Climena Kline, and reared a family of ten children. 
His daughter, Amanda, married Nelson Bishop, and resides in North Adams. 

Don C. Mathews, born in Skowhegan, Maine, in 1850, came to North 
Adams in 1883, and is now one of the foremen in the Sampson Mfg. Co.'s 
works. He married Mary J. McKay, by whom he has had three children, 
two, Louisa H. and Rena McKay, are living. 

The Cotigregational church of North Adams. — The early settlers, most of 
whom were from Connecticut, immediately established the institutions of 
religion, in accordance as well with their uniform policy, as with the con- 
ditions attached by the general court to the conveyance of the township. 
They built a meeting-house of logs, on a site at the corner of the roads near 
the southern line of the town. A church was formed, and Rev. Samuel Todd 
settled as pastor, but at what date is not known, as the records are lost. It 
was probably, however, in 1766; at least Mr. Todd came into the town in 
the autumn of that year. The change in the character of the population, 
which must have occurred soon after Mr. Todd's settlement, withdrew from 
him his support, and put a stop to his labors. A vote of the inhabitants was 
taken, January 3, 1778, proposing to him to reUnquish his claim to the min- 
isterial lands, and to receive his dismission, but, while he acceeded to the 


latter clause, he retained the lands. Mr. Todd was a native of North Haven, 
Conn., and graduated at Yale college in 1734. The first church probably 
existed, with him as pastor, for about ten years, and then became extinct. 
For a period of twenty years after the dismissal of Mr. Todd, there was no 
society in the town except that of the Friends, which was formed in 1781. 
About 1782 the people of North Adams, comprising the remnants of the de- 
funct Congregational church, with others of similar sentiments, joined in put- 
ting up and covering the frame of a meeting-house a few rods south of the 
village, which stood unfinished and unused until 1794, when it was moved 
into the village and finished. But it was not until April 59, 1827, that the 
present church was organized, Rev. J. W. Yeomans being the first pastor. 
Their fine brick church building, located on Summer street, was completed 
and opened during the following year. 

The First Baptist chicrch of North Adams, located on Church street, was 
organized under the ministry of Elder George Witherell, with twenty-two 
mem.bers, October 30, 1808. Their first church building, however, was erected 
ten years previous, in 1798. It did service until 1828, when it was succeeded 
by another, which was used until 1848, and the present structure was erected 
in 1880. It will comfortably accommodate about 1,000 persons, and is valued, 
including grounds and other property, at $100,000.00, the original cost of 
the church being about $50,000.00. The society now has 900 members, 
with Rev. A. C. Osborn, D. D., pastor. The home Sunday school has 600 
scholars and the five mission schools about 100 each. 

The Methodist Episcopal church, \oc2X&di on Church street, was organized 
by Rev. Mr. Lewis, of Petersburg, N. Y., with twenty members, in 1824. 
Rev. Friend Draper being the first pastor. Their first church building, 
erected in 1828, did service until 1842, when it was superseded by the 
present brick structure, which will seat 1,500 persons, cost $65,000.00, and 
is valued, including grounds, etc., at $75,000.00. The society now has 
650 members, with Rev. J. W. Thompson, pastor. The Sunday school has 
400 members. 

St. John's Episcopal church, located on Summer street, was organized by 
William Tatlock, Stephen H. Tyng, Jr., the students of Williams college, 
and some others, in 1856, the Rev. Benjamin F. DeCosta being the first rec- 
tor. In 1857 a church building was erected of wood, which was succeeded 
in 1869 by the present stone structure, which will seat about 350 persons, 
and is valued, including grounds, at $26,000.00. The society now has 140 
communicants, with Rev. Harry I. Bodley, rector. The Sunday school has 
191 scholars and fifteen officers and teachers. 

The Blackinton Ufiioti church, located at Blackinton, was organized by 
its first pastor. Rev. John Alden, in 1843, with twenty members. The church 
building, erected in 187 1, will seat 300 persons, and is valued, including 
grounds, at $12,500.00. There are now about 150 members here, the pul- 
pit being supplied by Rev. T. T. Munger, S. McKean and A. C. Osborn, of 


North Adams. The church building was erected by Sanford Blackinton and 
donated to the village. 

OTIS lies in the southeastern part of the county, in lat. 42"" 12'andlong. 3° 
56', bounded north by Becket, east by Blandford in Hampden county, 
south by Tolland, in Hampden county, and Sandisfield. and west by 
Tyringham and Monterey. It was made up by uniting the old town of Lou- 
don and the district of Bethlehem. Loudon was incorporated as a township 
in 1773, from what was previously known as Tyringham Equivalent, a tract 
granted to the proprietors of Tyringham, as an equivalent for loses sustained 
by them. It had an average length of seven miles from north to south, and 
three miles from east to west, comprising an area of about 13,000 acres, 
2,944 of which lay at the bottom of ponds, and was bounded as follows : 
North, by Becket, east, by Blandford, south, by West Granville, now Tol- 
land, and west by Bethlehem. The latter section was incorporated as a dis- 
trict, June 24, 1789. It was originally called the " North Eleven Thousand 
Acres," with reference to Southfield, which was called the " South Eleven 
Thousand Acres," and which was also incorporated as a district, June 19, 
1797, and united with Sandisfield February 8, 1819, and both of which 
tracts, with the exception of a few iadividual grants, belonged to the four 
towns of Tyringham, New Marlboro, Sandisfield and Becket. The "North 
Eleven Thousand Acres," or Bethlehem, was about four miles square, 
bounded north by Becket, east by Loudon, south by Sandisfield, and west 
by Tyringham. The tracts thus described, then, Loudon and Bethlehem, 
were incorporated, under the name of Loudon. This name was retained 
only for a short period, however, for at a town meeting held in May, 1810, it 
was proposed to have the name changed to Mountville, "or by some other 
name, at the discretion of P. Larkson, Esq.," who was at that time their rep- 
resentative in the general court. In June he obtained for the town its new 
name, selecting Otis, in honor of Harrison G. Otis, of Boston, then speaker 
of the House of Representatives. As Bethlehem was three miles shorter 
than Loudon, and Sandisfield extended as far east as Bethlehem, the north- 
east corner of Sandisfield is only about half a mile south of the center of 
Otis, thus appearing on the map to greatly overlap the township. 

The surface of the territory, lying among the highlands as it does, is ele- 
vated and broken, rendering much of the land unfit for purposes of cultiva- 
tion, while the soil is not, in general, of a good quality, except for grazing 
purposes, as the rocks, being of a granitic character affords but small contri- 
butions to it by disintegration. Tiiley's mountain is the highest peak, aff'ord- 
ing a fine view of the beautiful scenery with which the town is replete. The 
Farmington river flows a southerly course through the central part of the 
town, affording, with its tributaries, many excellent mill-sites. It rises in 


Becket, formed by the union of two streams in the northern part of that town. 
There are also several large, beautiful natural ponds, as Great Lake, of 335. 
acres, Parish pcnd and Rand pond, forming a chain in the eastern section of 
the town. They are connected by a stream called Fall river, which, after 
leaving the last pond, falls over a precipice of sixty or seventy feet, forming a 
charming cataract, after which the streams passes through a deep defile into 
Farmington river. Hayes pond lies in the northwestern part of the town. 
These bodies of water, aside from lending a charm to the surrounding land- 
scape, afford a home for many of the finny tribe, attracting numerous disci- 
ples of Walton; There are yet remaining about 3,381 acres of woodland, the 
forests consisting mostly of beach, birch, maple, ash and hemlock. Pine 
and whitewood were once quite plentiful, but are now scarce. 

The geological structure is made up almost entirely of rocks of calcareous 
gneiss formation. Iron ore has been mined at one place, but owing to the 
marshy character of the surrounding land, the enterprise was soon abandoned. 
Near the center of the town, or about half a mile^west of it, there is a large 
rock having an opening or cavity in it, where crystals of quartz and iron 
pyi'ites have been found. The cavity in this rock was formed, it is said, in 
a singular manner. About one hundred years ago, the tradition affirms, 
Daniel Summer, while passing in the vicinity of this rock, heard a sudden 
loud explosion, so violent as to hurl fragments of rock a distance of fifteen 
or twenty rods. Investigation discovered this rock, with its newly made 
fissure, black and discolored. It was supposed the explosion was caused by 
the combustion of hydrogen gas. 

In 1880 Otis had a population of 785. In 1883 the town employed thir- 
teen female teachers in its public schools, at an average salary of $18.84 per 
month. There were 175 school children in the town, while the entire amount 
raised for school purposes was $1,111.55. 

Otis Center (Otis p. b.) is a post village located in the central part of 
the town, on Farmington river, along which it extends for nearly a mile. It 
has two churches (Congregational and Episcopal), one hotel, town-hall, 
which contains a town library and school rooms besides a hall, two stores, 
tin shop, blacksmith shop and about twenty dwellings. 

East Otis is a hamlet located in the southeastern part of the town on 
very uneven ground. It has a saw-mill, blacksmith shop, hotel, and about 
half a dozen dwelhngs. 

West Otis (p. o.) is a hamlet located in the southwestern part of the 
town. It has a church (Baptist) and two dwellings. 

Cla7-k Cha?idier''s saw-mill^ located on road 12, on Farmington river, has 
been owned by Mr. Chandler about thirteen years. He runs it about nine 
monthsm the year. 

William Tinker's laimery, located about a mile north of Otis Center, on 
Farmmgton river, employs five men. The power here was first used in 
1785, though for operating a tannery only since 1830. 


William H. Stow' s satv-mill, located on Farmington river, about a quarter 
of a mile north of Otis Center, is said to occupy one of the oldest water-pow- 
ers in the town. Mr. Stow is a resident of Winsted, Conn. 

Fay (Sn Williams's saw-mill, located at Otis Center, manufactures lumber, 
shingles, lath, etc., doing a large business and employing a number of men. 

Henry B. Nortofi s saw-mill, located at East Otis, does a large amount of 
custom work. 

Isaac L. BristoV s rake factory, located on road 2, was first used as such 
in 1S45. The saw-mill just above it was first used about 100 years ago. 

The settlement of the town was commenced about 1851, by a few families 
locating in the eastern part of Loudon, though the precise date of their migra- 
tion is not known. Among the first settlers were David, Stephen, and 
Isaac Kibbee, soon after followed by Paul Larkeom, Dan Gregory, Jeremy 
Stow, Ephraim Pelton, George Troop, Ebenezer Trumbull, Jacob Cook, Tim- 
othy Whitney, Jonathan Norton, and Smith Marcy. The Kibbee's and 
Larkeom were from Enfield, Conn., Pelton from Greenville, Whitney from 
Petersburg, Norton from Suffield, and Marcy and Tioop from Woodstock, 
Conn. At a later period Bethlehem began to be settled, its first 
inhabitants being Daniel Sumner, Thomas Ward, Phineas Kingsbury, Adon- 
ijah Jones, Ebenezer Jones, Miles Jones, John Spear, John Plumb. Jarnes 
Breckenbridge, and Robert Hunter, most of whom were emigrants from Pal- 
mer. The Jones, however, were from Connecticut, and accessions to the 
settlement were made from time to time from that State. In 1791, at the 
taking of the first census, the returns show the town to have had 605 inhabit- 
ants. Ten years previous to this, however, in 1781, Loudon had only forty- 
seven men capable of bearing arms, as the town at that time was called upon 
for three men for service in the army, and the names given in from which 
they were to be selected only aggregated this number. This shows that the 
settlement must have been rapid during that decade, owing, probably, to the 
close of the war and return of peace. 

In 1774 the first vote for a move towards establishing educational facilities 
was taken. During this year, also, was made the first interment known to 
have occured in the old cemetery in the southeastern part of the town, though 
there were probably burials there at an earlier date. The first road, or path, 
made through the town was in 1759, by Gen. Amherst and his army, while 
on their way to Albany, from Boston. He stayed one night each at Westfield, 
Blandford, Sandisfield, and Monterey. For many years after the Revolution 
this road was called " the great road from Boston to Albany," and was the 
only road from those places crossing directly Berkshire county. Burgoyne's 
army, after the surrender at Stillwater, passed over this road on their way to 
Boston, and remained three days in Otis, where they buried one of their sol- 
diers. A few deserters remained in the town, and an officer was left here sick. 
He resided here several years after, teaching school, though he finally returned 
to England. 

j66 town of OTIS. 

John Davison, a Revolutionary soldier, was born November 28, 1763, and 
was one of the early settlers of this town, locating on a farm on road 29. 
His son Thomas lived on this farm and reared a family. Edmund, son of 
Thomas, who now occupies the homestead, was born in 1839, married Jennie 
Chapman, of Palmer, Mass., and has one child. 

Samuel Tillotson, a clothier by trade, moved from Monterey to Otis, locating 
on road 1, upon the farm now owned by Waite C. Broga, where his son 
George W. was born. George W. married Mary, daughter of Elijah Palmer, 
and lives on the Elijah Palmer farm. They have three children. 

Richard Pearl, a Revolutionary soldier, came from WelUngton, Conn., in 
1790, and located on road 6. His grandson, Richard D., (son of Nathan), 
now seventy-seven years of age, who has lived on the farm all his life, married 
Elenora Hunter, a native of Otis, and has three children. He has been a 
selectman in Otis. His son, John H., is a mason and farmed, living with his 
father. William, another son, who served in the 49th and 57th Regiments 
Mass. Vols., is in Winsted, Conn. Ellen S., a daughter, resides with her 

James Clark came to Otis from Charleston, R. I., about 1794, and settled 
on a farm in the extreme southern part of the town, near the reservoir gate. 
James Clark, Jr., came here with his father when about eight years of age, 
married Fannie Clark, of Middletown, Conn., and had eight children, all of 
whom, except Sylvester, are living. Charles, James and Sarah reside in Otis. 
James married Augusta Stratton, of Sandisfield, and has reared six children, 
five of whom are living. He has been a selectman seven years, which office 
he how holds. He has always been a farmer, and has also been engaged in 
the lumber and real estate business. 

Moses Day, from West Springfield, Mass., came to Otis about 1830, and 
engaged with Thomas Davison in the manufacture of clock-cases, afterwards 
had a harness shop, but soon entered into general mercantile business. He 
was proprietor of the hotel which still bears his name, his two sons having 
succeeded him. Mr. Day was a deputy sheriff for over twenty years. He 
married Mrs. Henrietta McKeen, of Kent, Conn., and had three sons, 
Edward L., George D., and Henry A. Edward was for a time proprietor of 
Day's hotel but now resides in Stockbridge. He has held the office of deputy 
sheriff about twenty years, in which office he succeeded his father. Henry 
A. is now proprietor of the hotel. He was a member of the 49th Regiment 
Mass. Vols., in the late war, under Col. Bartlett, and was under Gen. Banks 
at the seige of Port Hudson. He married Lizzie C. Chadbourn, and has one 

Chester R. Corn well, who was born in West Granville in 18 19, and came 
with his father, Chester, to Otis when he was twelve years of age, was a shoe- 
maker by trade. He married Nancy L., daughter of William Carter, and had 
nine children. Of the six now living, five reside in Otis. His son, Charles 
H., is a blacksmith doing a prosperous business. Chester R, has held sev- 


eral town offices, and was at one time proprietor of the mail route between 
Great Barrington and Chester, Hampden county. 

Loren Flint settled about 1834^ on the farm on road 28. where his widow 
still resides, with her two sons. Levi and Joseph. Of a family of eleven, four 
others survive, three sons living in California. One son died in the late war 
in the Wilderness. 

Ephraim Gibbs, born in Blandford, Mass., in 1804, came to Otis in 1839, 
settling in the eastern part of the town, and since 1842 has lived on a farm 
off road 23. Mr. Gibbs married twice, having three children by his first wife 
and nine by his second. He has held the offices of selectman, assessor, and 

Elias B. Palmer came to Otis from Hopkinton, R. I., in 1865, locating on 
road 14, where he still resides. He has three sons and one daughter. Elias 

B. is one of twenty brothers and sisters, there being ten of each. 

William Tinker is a native of Tolland, Mass. He learned the tanners 
trade of his father, and continued in that business until 1857, when he went 
to Colebrook, Conn., and became one of the firm of Sawyer, Tinker & 
Co., carrying on a cotton goods manufactory, a flouring-mill, and also a mercan- 
tile business. In 1865 he came to Otis, and purchased the tannery of Jonas A. 
Stone & Co., which he has since operated. Mr. Tinker has held several 
town offices, and in 1880 was representative of the 5th Berkshire district 
to the general court. He has four children, one of whom, Richard, is a 
physician of Manchester, Conn. 

Samuel C. Marshall was born in Tolland, Mass., where he learned the car- 
penter and builders trade. He came to Otis in December, 1875, and bought 
a turning-shop just over the line in Sandisfield. which business he still follows. 
He married JuUa E. Spring, of Tolland, Mass. His one child died in 

Albert B. Champlin was born in Schoharie county, N. Y., a son of Dr. H. 

C. Champlin, of Owego, N. Y. At the age of fourteen years he removed to 
Blandford, Mass., and a few years later came to Otis, though he subsequently 
resided in Becket, whence he enlisted in the 2d Mass. Heavy Artillery and 
served eighteen months. He returned from the war in June, 1865, and has 
since been a resident of Otis. He married Ruth W. Ellsworth, of Becket, in 
1856, and has reared four children, three of whom, Willard H., Sarah J., aild 
Charles S., are living. 

Oliver, Nathan, Asa, and Amaziah Snow, brothers, with their cousin, Syl- 
vanus Snow, came to Otis from Ashford, Conn., about 1770. They have 
several descendants now residing in Otis. Nathan is represented by his 
daughter, Mrs. Letitia Davis, and her daughter, Mrs. O. S. Higley ; Asa, by 
his grandchildren, Mrs. S. C. and Miss H. C. Snow, and William H. Snow; 
and Sylvanus by his great-grandchildren, Frederick, Claud, and Blanche 
Perkins. Asa was a Revolutionary soldier. 

The Congregational church of Otis, located at Otis village, was organized 


by Rev. Zadock Hunn, of Becket, with seven members, February 2, 1779. -^ 
house of worship was erected in 1807, which was destroyed by fire just after 
it was completed ; and in 1810 the present edifice was built, which, with the 
improvements it has received, is now valued at $3,000.00. The society now 
has eighty-two members, with Rev. James C. Seagrave, pastor. 

Sf. PauFs Protestant Episcopal church, located at Otis Center, was organ- 
ized by Hon. Lester Tilley, John Demmock and others, in 1829, the first 
pastor being Rev. Mr. Parker. Their church building, erected soon after the 
organization of the society, will comfortably seat 150 persons and is valued, 
including grounds, at $1,500.00. The society now has twelve members, with 
Rev. Mr. Hilliard, rector. 

The Advent church, located on road 5, was organized in 1879, ^y George 
W. Tillotson, Mrs. Elizabeth Warren, of Hinsdale, being the first to fill the 
pulpit. The church building will seat about 200 persons. The society has 
a full attendance and is under the pastoral charge of Rev. Enoch Phelps, of 

The Baptist church, located at West Otis, is a very old society, though it has 
now no regular pastor. Their church building, erected about fifty years ago, 
will seat 200 persons. 

PERU lies in the eastern part of the county, in lat. 42° 25' and long. 3" 
58', bounded north by Windsor, east by Cummington and Worthington, 
in Hampshire county, south by Middlefield, in Hampshire county, and 
Washington, and west by Hinsdale. , It has an area of about 27,000 acres, 
which was erected into a township as follows : June 2, 1763, nine townships 
were sold at auction in Boston, among which was " Township No. 2," whose 
territory included the present town of Peru and parts of Hinsdale and Mid- 
dlefield, in Hampshire county. No. 2 was purchased by Elisha Jones, for 
^1,460. Subsequently, Oliver Hartridge, of Hatfield, became associated 
with him in the ownership of the grant, and in his honor it was named Par- 
tridgefield, being incorporated under this title July 4., 1771. March 12, 1783, 
a part of its territory was taken, in connection with portions of Becket and 
Washington in this county, and of Worthington, Chester and Prescott's grant, 
in Hampshire county, to form the township of Middlefield, of that county. 
The remainder of the town was divided in 1795, the western part bemg incor- 
porated as the " Westerly Parish of Partridgefield, " which, June 21, 1804, was 
erected into the township of Hinsdale. Two years later, June 19, 1806, the 
name of Partridgefield was changed to Peru, since which time no changes have 
been made in its territorial limits. 

Lying upon the summit of the Green Mountain range, the surface of the 
town is wild, rough and mountainous, with scenery wild and romantic, but 
with a soil that is hard and rocky, rendering the locality poor for farming, 


though it is excellent for grazing and stock-raising purposes, while it has 2,398 
acres of valuable woodland. The highest point of land is French's mountain, 
rising to a height of 2,239 ^^^^, "^^.r the center of the town, and affording a 
prospect that is grand and extensive. It was an important station during the 
late trigonometrical survey of the State. There are a number of streams, 
thoush they are small, as they have their source here, flowing east into Hamp- 
shire county, and west into Hinsdale. This water-shed is so remarkable that 
the water from the roof of the Congregational church, at Peru village, finds its 
way from one side into Westfield river, while from the other it unites with the 

The rocks that make up the geological structure of the town are principally 
oi gneiss and mica-slate formation, though the town has a quarry of excellent 

In 1880 Peru had a population of 403. In 1883 it employed twelve female 
teachers in its pubHc schools, at an average salary of $18.60 per month. 
There were seventy-two children in the town, while the entire amount raised 
for school purposes was $616.67. 

Peru, a post village located on a hill near the central part of the town, at 
the junction of roads 21, 15, 13 and 22, has a church (Congregational), town 
house, store, and half a dozen dwellings. 

Robert Mc Cray's saw-mill, located on rood 16, operated by both steam 
and water-power, was built about forty years ago, though there has been a 
mill on the site for a hundred years. Mr. McCray manufactures lumber, 
shingles and lath. 

Jetvett H. Geer's saw-mill, located on road 32, built in i860, is operated 
by steam and water-power. Mr. Geer manufactures lumber, shingles and 
cloth-boards. His was the first steam power ever in the town. 

The settlement of the town was commenced in 1766, by Henry Badger, 
from New Jersey, and by Nathaniel Stowell, who came in about the same 
time, from Connecticut. About this time, also, Peter, Daniel and Nathan 
Thompson, from the eastern part of Massachusetts, located in the town, and 
were followed soon after by Ebenezer Pierce. The first town-meeting was 
warned by WiUiam Williams, the warrant being directed to " Cornelius Thayer 
of Partridgefield, in the county of Berkshire, yeoman," and was held August 
13, 177 1, at the dwelling of Nathan Watkins. The list of officers chosen on 
this occasion was as follows: Nathan Fisk, moderator; Nathaniel Stowell, 
town clerk ; Cornehus Thayer, Michael Darling, and Capt. Francis Miller, 
selectmen and assessors; Cornelius Thayer, treasurer; Ebenezer Southland, 
constable ; Henry Badger, sealer of weights and measures ; James Watkins, 
sealer of leather ; David Miller, Nathan Watkins, Phineas Watkins and Peter 
Tompkins, highway surveyors ; Jedediah Benton and Thomas Whitney, fence 
viewers ; Abraham Blackman and Daniel Walker, field viewers ; Ebenezer 
Pierce and Henry Badger, Jr., tything men ; Thomas Miller and Daniel 
Chapman, wardens ; Wilson Torrey and Moses Little, deer reeves ; Edward 


Kibby and Josiah Fish, hog reeves; and Sylvanus Smith and John Lesuer, 
surveyor of clapboards and shingles. 

The first team to cross the mountain into the town was in 1767, the 
route taken by them subsequently becoming the turnpike from Albany and 
Pittsfield to Northampton and Boston. The church was organized in 1770 
and the first church building erected in 1780. Several of the inhabitants 
served in the war of the Revolution, among whom were Capt. Nathan Wat- 
kins, Joseph Badger, and Nathaniel Stowell. These and many others belongd 
to the company of minute men who marched upon the Lexington alarm, 
under the command of Watkins. They were enrolled in Col. John Pater- 
son's regiment, stationed at Fort No. 3, in Charlestown, at the time of the 
battle of Bunker Hill. 

William, Amasa. Thomas and Lemuel Frissell, four brothers were among 
the very earUest settlers of Peru. Lemuel located on road 9, where J. P. 
Sennett now resides, and died there. He reared five children. His son, Frank, 
passed his life on the homestead, and built the house which Mr. Sennett now 
occupies. None of Lemuel's family survive. Thomas located on the place where 
E. E. Keeler now lives, on road 7, where he resided until his death. He, also, 
had a family of five children, none of whom are living except Statira, who 
became the wife of WiUiam Bowen, and resides on Peru hill in the 
village. Amasa, who resided on road 7, in the house now owned by 
Mr. Mattoon, of Lenox, was thrice married, having by his first wife 
four children, viz.: Judeth, who was a missionary to the Indians, and 
died in Arkansas; Mason, a graduate of Wilhams college, who became a law- 
yer, removed to Missouri, where he became a county judge, and died there ; 
John, who graduated fromWilliams college with the degree of A. B., in 1831, be- 
came a physician and surgeon and now resides in WheeUng,West Virginia ; Soc- 
rates was a farmer who passed most of his life in Peru, but died in Middlefield. 
Amasa had, by his second marriage, two children, Amasa C. and Ehzabeth. 
Amasa C, a minister, is in New York city, in the employ of the American 
Tract Society, and Elizabeth married and removed to New York city, where 
she died. Socrates, son of Amasa, married Mary Scott, of Peru, and reared 
a family of ten children — Emerson, Addison, Mason, Mary, John, Dwight, 
Edward I., Martha, Ralph, and Joseph B. Of these Emerson married and 
had born to him a family of three children and is now living in Worthington, 
Hampshire county ; Addison died in infancy ; Mason is a physician and den- 
tist in Minneapohs, Minn., and reared two children ; Mary became the wife 
of Joseph Knight, removed to Lakeville, Conn., and had five children, dying 
in 1883 ; John, who resided in Kansas, was twice married, reared a family of 
five children, and died in 1884; Dwight, who resides on road 17, married Ann 
Eliza Rockwell, of Peru, and had born to him seven children, four sons surviv- 
ing ; Edward L died in Florida during the war ; Martha resides, with her second 
husband, in Chester, Mass., and has had two children ; Ralph, a hardware 
merchant in Syracuse, N, Y., married in Eastern Massachusetts, and has had 


three children ; Joseph B., a resident of Clinton, la., has a family of four 
children ; William, brother of Amasa Frissell, had a family of three children, 
and died in Peru. 

David Brown was one of the early settlers in Peru, coming here from Rhode 
Island. He was the father of four children, — Solomon, Daniel, Oliver and 
Sally. Solomon married Sally Gilbert and was blest with a family of eleven 
children — Elijah, Dolly, Rhoda, Cynthia, Orrin, Allen, Electa, John, Reuben, 
Urial and Sarah, and died in Peru. Elijah died in Pittsfield, having reared a 
family of seven children ; Dolly married in Hinsdale, had three children, 
and moved to Illinois, where she died ; Rhoda, who had a family of five chil- 
dren, was married and died in Hinsdale ; Cynthia has been twice married and 
is now living with her second husband, in Cheshire. She has no children ; 
Orrin, a resident of Peru, has been twice married, rearing nine children ; Al- 
len, who married in Canada, is living with his third wife, and has had eleven 
children ; Electa^ who married and died in Pownal, Vt., had five children ; 
John was twice married, became the father of ten children, and is now 
living in Hinsdale with his second wife ; Reuben, who had six children, mar- 
ried in this town, but is now a resident of Minnesota ; Urial married in Ver- 
mont and has had seven children. He now resides on road 2 ; Sarah, who 
married in Pownal. Vt., where she now resides, has had seven children ; 
Daniel, son of David Brown, removed to Hinsdale, where he died, having 
had eight children born to him. Olive, who married and resided in this town, 
but died in Hinsdale, had nine children. Sally, who made her home in Canada, 
died there, having had a family of nine children, making ninety-one decendants 
of David Brown. 

Nathaniel Stowell, who immigrated to Peru, from Pomfret, Conn., between 
1764 and 1768, accompanied by three sons, located on the place now 
occupied by Dea. Stowell. He reared four sons and six daughters — Cyrus, 
Henry, Daniel, Azel, Molly, Clara, Lucelia, Experience, Lois and Aletheia. 
Cyrus, born in Connecticut, was twice married, having by his first wife one 
child, and by his second, four. He was a farmer, and represented Peru in the 
legislature for thirty years. Cynthia, his first child, married Capt. Elisha 
Rockwell and lived and died on the old homestead, on road 13. Henry was 
twice married, having by his first wife twelve children, Austin, James C, 
Hiram, CaroUne, Franklin, Aletheia, Cynthia, John M., Henry E., Susanna, 
Esther A. and Margaret P. Of these Austin married and died in 1825. 
James C. was married three times, having, by his first wife one son, who is 
a resident of Hartford, Conn. A daughter by his second wife is married and 
is also a resident of Hartford. James C. is now residing on road 25 with his 
third wife, Harriet Bacon, of Peru, by whom he has had one son, who died 
in the army. Hiram, brother of James C, died at the age of twenty-four. 
Caroline married Elijah Wentworth, of Hinsdale^ and had two sons, both of 
whom are married, Merrick living in Chatham, and Milo in Hinsdale. Frank- 
lin married, for his first wife, Lydia Graves, of Middlefield, and reared three 


children, — Almond, who resides in Candor, N. Y.; Austin, who married Hyla 
C. Watkins, of this town, by whom he has seven children, and now occupies 
the farm formerly occupied by his father, Franklin, off road i8 ; and Lydia J., 
wife of Dwight Geer, of Middlefield, who has three children. FrankHn 
married, for his second wife, Sarah Bowen, of this town, who died in 1878 
childless. Aletheia married Horace Streeter, of Hinsdale, and had four chil- 
dren, and removed to New York State where she died. Cynthia, widow of 
Elijah Wentworth, of Hinsdale, has had two children, and is a resident of 
Hinsdale. John M. married Melissa Ferguson, by whom he had three chil- 
dren, two being dead, and a daughter now residing in Blandford, Mass. He 
had, by his second wife, Elizabeth Smith, of Bucket, one child. They have 
also adopted a son, Charles I. Stowell, who resides with them. Henry E. 
married Betsey Stannard, of Lee, who is now dead, and was the father of nine 
children. Susanna is now dead. Esther A. married, had one child, and re- 
moved to VVorthington where she died. Margaret P., wife of Seldon Fergu- 
son, was the mother of three children. She removed to Hinsdale and died 
there, Hervey married for his second wife, Mrs. Jerusha Herrick, who died 
November 5, 1883, at the age of ninety-six, and who bore him one child, 
which died young. Daniel, brother of Hervey, reared a family of six chil- 
dren, and removed to Illinois, where he died. Azel married in this town, 
reared seven children, and immigrated to New York State where he died. 
John M., son of Azel, married in Kentucky. He is Mayor of Milwaukee, 
Wis., and has had three children, two now living. Molly married David Ide, 
had a family of six children, and resided on the farm, on road 18, where 
Austin Stowell now resides, both Molly and David dying there. Clara, who 
married and went to New York State, had four children. LuceHa married 
and removed to New York, dying there. Experience also married and 
moved to New York, where she died. Lois became, by her second marriage, 
the second wife of David Ide, of Peru, and died there. Aletheia was the 
second wife of Rev. John Leland, pastor of the Peru church. Cynthia had 
five sons and one daughter, Lorenzo, Pitt, Cyrus, Eunice, Dwight and Jarvis. 
Lorenzo died single in Peru; Pitt went to the West; Cyrus married Mary 
Pierce, and removed to New Hampshire ; Eunice married and removed to 
Hinsdale ; Dwight married and resides in Northampton ; Jarvis married in 
North Adams, where he now resides and has a family of two children. He 
is judge of the district court. The 105 decendants of David Stowell here 
recorded doubtless fall short of the true number. 

Amasa Rockwell, who removed to Peru from Connecticut, about 1780, and 
located on road 13, where T. Grace now resides, was married three times, 
having by his first wife six children, Elisha, Polly, Levi, Haven, Martha and 
Amasa. Elisha, whose whole life was passed in Peru, was the father of nine 
children. Polly married in Hinsdale, had a family of ten children, and died 
there. Levi married in Peru, afterwards emigrating to Ohio, where he died. 
Haven was married, lived and died in Ohio. Martha died when a young 



lady. Amasa, Jr., married in New London, Conn., and died there. Amasa, 
Sr., reared by his second marriage four children, Julius P., William H., 
Enretta, and John C. Julius P. married in Lanesboro, lived and died in 
Pittsfield. William H. married in Hartford, Conn., and removed to Ne^/ 
York city, where he and his wife died. Enretta has been twice married, both 
husbands being now dead. She resides in Chester, Mass. John C. married 
in Hartford, Conn., and is now a resident of Pittsfield. By his third mar- 
riage Amasa had two children, a son, who died in infancy, and a daughter, 
Ann Eliza, who married D wight Frissell, residing on road 17, and has had 
seven children, four sons of whom are now living. 

Col. Joseph Thompson, from Brimfield, Mass., came to this town soon 
after the Revolution, but left his family here about a year afterwards to look 
after some land which he had purchased in Ohio. He had a family of two 
sons, Amherst and Artemas, and four daughters. Artemas built the house 
where William S. and Sylvester S. Brown now reside, and kept a tavern here 
eight or ten years. He was the father of six children. His father, Amherst, 
born in Brimfield, Mass., came to this town with his father. He reared a 
family of ten children, Sally, Joseph, Abigail, Amherst, Jr., Almira, Smith, 
John, Lovinaand Angeline. One died while young. Sally married and had 
a family of eleven children, removed to Ohio, and died there. Joseph, who 
lived and died in Peru, had two children. Abigail married and removed to 
Wisconsin, where she died, having had a family of five children. Amherst, 
Jr., married in Northampton and finally removed to Chicago, 111., where he 
died. He reared six children. Almira married and went to Michigan, where 
she still lives. Smith married in Windsor, and has always resided here, on 
road 20, upon his father's farm. He has two children. John, president of 
the Chase National Bank, in New York city, has three children. Lovina, 
who married in Plainfield, but subsequently removed to Michigan, is the 
mother of five children. Angeline married in Montreal, where she now lives 
and has three children. 

Steward Shumway, born in 1807, came to Peru from Belchertown, Mass., 
about 1826, and married Mary Leland, of Windsor^ where he has since 
resided, rearing a fartiily of eight children, — Charles S., Caroline M., Cathe- 
rine. Caroline M., 2d, George D., Henry L., Edwin and John W. Charles 
S. died on board ship, while going from Austraha to South America. Caro- 
line. Catherine and Caroline, 2d, died when young. George D. moved to 
Ohio, where he married and still resides. Henry L. also married and resides 
in Ohio. Edwin married Julia Norcott, of Becket, for his first wife, and 
Charlotte P. Edwards, of Windsor, for his second, and resides on road 21. 
John W. died here, at the age of twenty years. 

T/ie Congregational church, located at Peru village, was organized by 
eight or ten of its original members, in 1770, Rev. Stephen Tracy, from Nor- 
wich, Conn., being the first pastor. Their first house of worship, a wood 
structure, erected in 1780, was superseded by the present edifice in 1808. 



This building will comfortably accommodate 600 persons, and is valued^ 
including grounds, at $4,500.00. The society has eighty-nine members, with 
Rev, J. M. Lord, pastor. 

PITTSFIELD, the shire town of the county, lies in the western-central 
part of the same, in lat. 42° 27' and long. 3° 45', bounded north by 
Lanesboro, east by Dalton and Washington, south by Washington, 
Lenox and Richmond, and west by Hancock. Owing to conflicting grants, 
the township became the joint property of Col. Jacob Wendell, of Boston, 
Col. John Stoddard, of Northampton, and Phihp Livingston, of Albany. 
Col. Wendell was an ancestor of the late Wendell Phillips and of Oliver Wen- 
dell Holmes, and both he and Stoddard were prominent actors in the early 
Provincial proceedings. Colonel Stoddard was one of those to open the 
settlement of Sheffield, to establish the mission at Stockbndge, and was also 
a commander of militia during Queen Anne's war. In consideration of this 
and other services the general court granted him, in 1734, one thousand 
acres of " Unappropriated lands in the county of Hampshire," as a reward 
for his " great services and sufferings for the public in divers journeys to 
Albany, and the eastern parts, upon public affairs; his serving in war 
with good success ; his transactions with the Canadian and other Western 
Indians ; and his entertaining of them at his own house without any expense 
to the Province." The act was passed by the legislature, December 17, 
1734, and was dulv confirmed, though the report of the survey was not 
submitted until June 22, 1736, giving the bounds of the grant as follows : — 

" Lying on the main branch of the Housatonic river, about sixteen miles 
north of Capt. Konkapot's house ; beginning east ten degrees, south eighty 
perch from two hemlock trees, marked (which trees stand upon a ridge of 
upland running northerly), and coming to a point a few rods from said trees, 
which are about ten rods from sand bank on the east side of said Housa- 
tonic river, just above Unkamet's or Autankamet's road, where it crosseth 
said branch; and, from the end of the aforesaid eighty perch from said trees, 
it runneth north ten degrees, east two hundred and forty perch ; thence west 
ten degrees, north four hundred perch ; thence south ten degrees, west four 
hundred perch ; thence east ten degrees, south four hundred perch ; and 
thence north ten degrees, east one hundred and sixty perch, to the eastern 
end of the first eighty peach." 

It seems, however, that Mr. Stoddard considered this as not adequate com- 
pensation for his " great services and sufferings," placing his estimate at 
about a full township. With this idea in view, then, he not only extin- 
guished the Indian title to his 1,000 acres, but also that to a large area adjoin- 
ing it, corresponding nearly with the land comprised within the area of Pitts- 
field of to-day. 

In the meantime, and before the Colonel was able to procure legislative 
confirmation of his newly acquired acres, they were granted to other parties, 


under circumstances as follows : In June, 1735, Boston petitioned the gen- 
eral court for a grant of " three or four townships" of the wild land of Hamp- 
shire county, "to be brought forward and settled as the circumstances of the 
petitioners might seem to require, or upon such conditions as the court might 
deem meet," to assist that town in irs heavy expenditures in supporting the 
poor and maintaing its free schools. 

This request was favorably received by the court, and three townships were 
granted, under title of Boston townships 1, 2 and 3, No. i corresponding 
with Charlemont of to-day. No. 2 with Coleraine, and No. 3, with Pittsfield. 
These grants were made June 27, 1735, and in June of the following year, 
1736, township No. 3 was purchased at public auction by Col. Jacob Wen- 
dell, he paying ^1,320 therefor. In September, 1738, the township was sur- 
veyed by John Huston, a Northampton civil engineer, and December 8, 
1738, his plot of the new town was accepted by the general court, its bounds 
being described as follows : — 

" Beginning at a stake with stones about it, the south-east corner, nigh a 
small Run of water, about a mile and a Half East Housea Tunnic River ; 
from said Stake the line extends North 20° 462 chains 31 Hnks to a Hem- 
lock tree marked on a Hill, the north-east corner ; From thence the line 
runs west 20° 520 chains to a Beach tree marked upon a steep Hill, with 
stones about it, the north west corner ; From thence south 20° west 462 
chains 31 links to a Hemlock Standing by a little brook, marked with stones 
about it, being the south-west corner ; From thence east 20° south 520 chains 
to the Stake and stones first mentioned, which said Township is lying about 
five miles north-north-east From the Indian Town on Housatunnick River, in 
the County of Hampshire." 

These bounds not only covered Colonel Stoddard's 1,000 acres, but also 
the additional territory he had purchased or leased of the Indians, and nearly 
two years elapsed, after the confirmation of Wendell's title, before these con- 
flicting claims were adjusted; but in the mean time, a third party, Philip 
Livingston, of Albany, N. Y., was introduced as an interested party, as ex- 
plained in the following extract from the mutual agreement between 
them : — 

" Whereas the said John Stoddard hath not only a just and complete title 
to the thousand acres aforesaid, but hath also, at great expense, purchased 
several grants and leases from the natives, of the lands above described; and 
afterwards, this very day [March 29, 1741], the said Jacob Wendell, and the 
said John Stoddard, for an amicable settlement of their mutual claims and in- 
terests in the township aforesaid, agreed that the said Jacob Wendell should 
have two-thirds of the thousand acres aforesaid, and the said John Stoddard 
should have one-third of the rest of said township ; * * * * and whereas 
also, the said Jacob Wendell, in all these transactions, purchased as well for 
Phihp Livingston, of Albany, in the Province of New York, Esq. (by agree- 
ment not mentioned therein), as for himself, in equal halves, and, in his pur- 
chase and after-gratuities to the natives for their satisfaction and other charges 
upon the premises, disbursed the sum of ^^14,016, 3s, 3d, and for that now two third-parts of that whole tract of land surveyed and platted as afore- 
said ; now, therefore, know ye, that the said Jacob Wendell, in faithfulness 


to his trust aforesaid, and in consideration of the sum of ^758, is, 7^d, in 
hand, received of said Philip Livingston in full of his part of said purchase- 
money and other disbursements aforesaid, doth hereby convey * * * * 
to the said Philip Livingston one-half of his above-mentioned interest." 

The cost of the township was thus, allowing Stoddard's public services 
to count in ratio of Wendell's purchase money, ;£2,ij4, 4s, 2d, 2 far. 

The proprietors immediately began their efforts to settle the tov/n, but 
were peculiarily unfortunate. Livingston succeeded in inducing seventy 
Dutchmen, from Albany, to come into the town, but when they learned they 
were not to be allowed to pick the land they were to purchase, they immedi- 
ately returned. Huston, the surveyor previously mentioned, also turned his 
attention to colonizing, and succeeded in inducing a number from Westfield 
to come on and purchase of Livingston the forty lots the Dutch colony had re- 
fused, they paying therefor ^-^1,200. In the mean time troubles on the other 
side of the ocean were brewing, which resulted in war between France and 
England, in 1 744, practically putting a stop to all further efforts towards forming 
a settlement, and it was not until 1749 that any further attempts were made. 
Colonel Stoddard had died the year previous, while misunderstandings and 
mistakes relative to ownership of property had made land-titles very insecure ; 
this fact, when another influx of settlers arrived in 1752, led, June 23, 1753, 
to a petition being presented the general court " from the inhabitants of the 
township on the Housatonic river, commonly called Pontoosuc," praying for 
directions and assistance in unravelling the tangled skein, in response to 
which the court incorporated them as " The Proprietors of the settling-lots in 
the Township of Pontoosuc." From this time forward the name Pontoosuc 
was universally adopted, though previous to this the town had also been 
styled Wendell, or Wendell's Town, and sometimes Wendell and Stoddard's 
Town. But in 1761 the name was changed, and Pontoosuc became the in- 
corporated town of Pittsfield, the act being approved April 26th of that year, 
the name of the town bemg selected in honor of the English statesman, Will- 
iam Pitt. 

The surface of Pittsfield is moderately uneven, perhaps just enough so to 
afford a pleasing diversity, though it is almost entirely surrounded by moun- 
tain ranges, forming, as it were, an elevated basin of rare loveUness and fer- 
tility, with six sparkling lakelets glistening brightly in contrast with its vary- 
ing tints of color and shade. But to the description of the beautiful scenery 
of this section we have already devoted considerable space, beginning on 
page 20, where we have quoted from a far more competent pen than ours. 
The princii)al stream is the Housatonic, which is formed just south of the 
village of Pittsfield, by two branches which come down from Lanesboro and 
Windsor. The other streams are Unkamet, Lulu, Smith, Phelps and Shaker 
brooks, with some others, affording many valuable mill privileges. 

The six lakes spoken of above are to the pleasing landscape which Pitts- 
field presents, what dimples are to the cheek of beauty, where "smiles hide 



and linger." Lake Onota, lying in a pretty upland basin, a little more than 
a mile west of the village, is the largest, and is, indeed a handsome sheet of 
water. Before it was enlarged to serve as a reservoir, in 1864, it was a mile 
and three-quarters long, and three quarters of a mile wide, having an area of 
486 acres, now increased to 683. This enlargement, while it of course 





' . -^mmm^^'^'^'^^ 1 


increased the usefulness of the lake, also destroyed much that was of interest 
to the curious. Previous to this a causeway divided the waters into two 
independent lakes, the smaller one, about thirty-four acres in area, being 
formed by a beaver dam across its outlet. On the western shore the action 
of ice had thrown the scattered pebbles and bowlders into a wall, whose reg- 
ularity was such as to lead to the tradition that it was built by the Indians, 
behind which to hide while shooting deer ; and it is certain that it had been 
used for this very purpose, if not by the aborigines, by the early white inhabit- 
ants. The enlargement of the lake has submerged all this, though it has 
increased its picturesque features. The hill upon the southwestern shore 
affords a magnificent view, and is also an historical spot, as it was fortified 
during the old French and Indian wars. 

Pontoosuc, the next in size, lies upon the town's northern border, the 
larger part of its surface extending into Lanesboro. This body of water had, 
also, its area changed, in 1S67. Previous .to this it was a mile and a quarter 
long, and at its broadest point three-quarters of a mile wide, coverirg an area 
of 425 acres. It now covers 575, the increase being chiefly in Lanesboro. 
This is an extremely handsome sheet, and its environs are picturesque in the 
extreme, while the view across it, in either direction, is surpassed by few. 
The Indian name of the lake was Shoon-keek-moon-keek, about which "God- 
frey Greylock" has woven a beautiful Indian legend, in his lag/ico/iic. It 


has also borne the name of Framingham pond, Lanesboro pond, North pond, 
and "Joe Keiler's farm." This latter name was derived from the anecdote 
that a wag of that name once bargained it away and actually made a deed 
of it, to a New York citizen, who mistook it, when covered with snow and 
ice, for a level expanse of land. 

Richard lake, in the southwestern part of the town, lying partly in Rich- 
mond, was formerly nearly circular in form, having an area of ninety-eight 
acres ; but in 1865 it was enlarged to 250 acres. Upon the old maps it is 
called South pond, and near it is marked another small body of water, long 
since drained, designated as Rathbun's pond, in reference to Vallentine 
Rathbun, who, about the year 1760, built clothiers' work near it. 

Silver lake is the name given the pretty little sheet of water just east of the 
village. It now covers about sixty acres, having been enlarged in 1843, as 
one of the reservoir's of the Pittsfield Cotton Factory. It was known 
among the early settlers as Ensign's pond, from Jacob Ensign, who built the 
first fulling-mill in Pittsfield, and owned the land along the eastern borders 
of the lake. In later days a hat factory was erected on its northern shore, 
whence it took the name of Hatter's pond. 

Goodrich lake about a mile east of Silver lake, is another secluded lakelet 
of about thirty acres. It appears on the old maps as " Sylvan lake." The 
meadow in which it lies was, on the earliest town plans, named " Unkamet's," 
after the celebrated Indian of that name. The present name of Goodrich is 
derived from one of the early settlers, who owned tracts of land in the vicinity. 

Morewood lake is a lovely little dimple of about thirty-five acres, lying 
about two miles south of the village, and just east of South mountain — '' a 
gem-like, crystal water, hidden among groves interlaced with frequent pic- 
turesque paths, that often debauch upon sunny lawns or gravelly beaches." 
It has for many years been the favorite haunt of some of the most celebrated 
men in politics and literature. Is is located in the grounds of a broad-hailed 
mansion, which has successively been the home of Henry VanSchaack, 
Elkanah Watson, Thomas and Robert Melville and the Morewoods, and has 
successively borne the names of all these owners. A few rods east of this there 
is another small lakelet, covering perhaps an acre or so, lying in the midst of 
a fine grove. 

The geological structure of the town is made up principally of rocks of 
limestone formation, though there are some deposits oi quartz and mica-slate 
in the eastern and southern parts, respectively. There is also considerable 
talcose-slatexw the western part,, extending over from the immense beds 
located in Hancock. 

In 1880 Pittsfield had 13,364 inhabitants, and in 1883 the town employed 
five male and seventy-three female teachers in its public schools, to whom 
was paid an average monthly salary of $102.00 to males and $33.90 to fe- 
males. There were 2,732 school children in the town, while the entire 
amount raised for school purposes was $27,700.00. 



PixrsFiELD, the '• City of Parks," and county seat of Berkshire, is a beau- 
tiful, pleasant and enterprising post village located in the central part 
of the town, with the two branches of the Housatonic lying, one on its 


eastern and the other on its western side. To the visitor its broad streets 
and walks, almost arched with the foliage of elm and maple, its public 
buildings and business blocks, its handsome stores, elegant residences and 
many evidences of public spirit and enterprise will at once find way 
into his favor, while a further acquaintance with its many beauties 
will force him to concur wiih "Godfrey Greylock" that it is "indeed 
a fair town ; and, standing in the center of that magnificent panorama 
of hills which compose the county, it is embosomed in beaut)'. Branch- 
ing from its central elm-shaded green, delightful avenues invite one into most 
picturesque regions." And these avenues, too, that so suggestively invite one 
to pleasant drives, extend into broad, fine carriage-ways which, take what 
direction you will, aftord drives that in interest and beauty are excelled by 
none in the county. 

Pittsfield village has a population of about 12,000 souls, among whom 
are men of might in politics, in literature, and in manufactures. It covers 
an area about a mile square, and requires only a vote of acceptance to be- 
come an incorporated city, as a bill passed the legislature several years since 
granting the town a city charter. It is, however, specially incorporated as 
"The Fire District." This act of incorporation was originally established 
for the support of a fire department, but afterwards was empowered to build 
and control water-works, sewers, sidewalks, and the like, and to maintain 
street-hghts. The principal manufactures are woolens, cottons, machinery, 
clocks, tacks, etc. 

The beautiful square in the center of the village was formerly the village 
green. The first attempt toward its improvement was made in 1824, and 
during the follov\ing year Mr. Edward A. Newton became very much inter- 
ested in the enterprise. Many citizens joined him, and in 1827 the beautiful 
shade trees that now adorn it were planted. Improvements from time to 
time have since been made, a fine soldiers' monument and a fountain erected, 
until the fine park shown by the accompanying engraving has grown out of 
the the old "village green," or "common," where stood the Old Elm tree 
whose memory is dear to all of the elder citizens of Pittsfield, and whose 
lofty head, age and the Hghtning's scathing brand obhged the woodman in 
kindness to lay low in 1 86 j, after having stood for nearly two centuries. 
From this little gem of a park branch North, South, East and West streets. 
To these wide, shady, well-kept avenues, and the handsome residences that 
line them, the village is krgely indebted for its far-famed beauty. The resi- 
dences are mostly spacious and handsome, and surrounded by beautiful lawns 
and shrubbery and magnificent trees. Among the prominent residences and 
other buildings may be mentioned, on West street, the W. C. Allen place, 
the Crook farm, the residence of A. J. Waterman, and the Bigelow and Gov- 
ernor Briggs homesteads ; on South street, the residences of F. E. Kernochan, 
Rev. J. L. Jenkins, Frank W. Hinsdale, Hon. S. W. Bowerman, Josiah Car- 
ter, T. Harold, H. M. Peirson, the two Campbell places, Miss Salisbury's 


school and the high-school building; on North street, the Berkshire Life In- 
surance building, the Central block, England's new building, the Academy of 
Music, St. Joseph's church, and many other fine structures, besides the resi- 
dence of Thomas A. Oman, commanding a grand view of the northern val- 
ley, with Greylock's cloud-capped peak in the distance, and the Maplewood 
Institute grounds ; and on East street, the Athenaeum, court-house, First 


Congregational church, St. Stephen's church, and the residences of the late 
Thomas Allen, the late Ensign H. Kellogg, Mrs. T. F. Plunkett, J. R. War- 
riner, E. D. Jones, Senator Dawes and otheis. The house of Mrs. Plunkett 
has also an undying charm, in that at the head of its broad stairs stood the 


clock which Longfellow immortalized in his poem, "The Old Clock on the 
Stairs." It was the summer home of the father-m-law of the great poet, and 
in it he spent many happy hours. Among the other residences that are 
striking in their beauty, are those of James H. Hinsdale, Thaddeus Clapp, 
Mrs. A. C. Joslyn, O. W. Robbins, and Col. Walter Cutting, and also Wen- 
dell Hall, Mrs. E. G. Baldwin's school for boys, all on Wendell avenue. 
Gold avenue has Mr. Learned's "Elmwood," J. L. Colby's ^'Chestnut Villa," 
and the residence of the late Judge Colt, and others. On Fenn street is the 
Methodist church, a grand brick structure. On Appleton avenue are the 
residences of James W. Hull, Dr. W. E. Vermilye and Mrs. John B. Ayers. 
But this catalogue might be greatly lengthened, and still omit many fine 
homes, while just beyond the village Hmits are many other fine places. 
Among these, to the southeast, is the OUver Wendell Holmes place, owned 
by John A. Kernochan, and on the same road is Col. Richard Lathers's beau- 
tiful "Abby Lodge." South of this village is the summer house of the 
Moorewoods, mentioned on a previous page ; north may be found '• Spring- 
side," one of the most beautiful places in Pittstield ; just beyond it the sum- 
mer home of the Davols, of New York ; and still a little further north, 
George Y. Learned's attractive home ; east is Mrs. Pollock's "Grey Tower," 
Mrs. Henry Chickering's residence, and just off the North Adams road, W. 
F. Milton's residence ; and west is Mr. Buckingham's summer home, with 
unrivalled views. "Jubilee Hill," located in the western part, so-called 
from the 'Berkshire Jubilee," held thereon in August, 1844, commands an 
enchanting view in all directions, and also has several elegant residences. 

The town has also good banking facilities, several good hotels, and an ex- 
cellent supply of water and gas. 


The Pittsfield Coal Gas Company was incorporated in 1853, but was not 
organized until April 4, 1854, the original capital being $40,000, which has 
been increased twice — once to $50,000 and again to $62,500. The chair- 
man of the first meeting was George S. Willis, and the clerk, Robert W. Adam. 
The first president was Thomas F. Plunkett, with Robert W. Adam secretary 
and-treasurer. F. E. Taylor was elected treasurer in 1855^ and upon his 
removal from town William R. Plunkett was elected treasurer and has had 
the active management of the company ever since. Robert W. Adam was 
elected president in 1856, and has held that oflice continually since. Among 
the persons who have been directors are Thomas Colt, Theodore Pomeroy, 
W. B. Cooley and C. C. Bulkley. At the commencement $4.00 per thous- 
and was charged for gas. During the war the price was advanced to $5.00 
per thousand ; since that time it has been gradually reduced, until it is now 
$3,00, with a liberal discount allowed for prompt payment. The first 
superintendent was John Faulkner, who, at his death, was succeeded by his 
brother, Robert Faulkner. George S. Dunbar, the present superintendent, 


was employed in 1869. The works have been improved from time to time, 
and were much enlarged in 1873, about $34,000.00 being expended in new 
pipe and a new holder or gasometer which holds 70,000 cubic feet of gas. The 
capital stock was increased at that time $12,500.00. The company has for 
the last twenty years been very successful, and has claimed to furnish gas of 
as good quality, and at as low a price, as any other inland town in New Eng- 


The scarcity of good water was early a source of annoyance, owing to the 
prevalence of rocky ledges beneath the soil, rendering it almost impossible 
to sink wells that would afford any but surface water. The feasibihty of 
constructing works so that an adequate supply might be afforded, was agitated 
before the beginning of the present century. The first effort was made by 
Charles Goodrich, who constructed an aqueduct upon his farm, which, how- 
ever, proved a failure. The next enterprise in this direction was in 1795, 
when Simon Larned, John Chandler Williams, William Kittredge and 
Joshua Danforth were incorporated as '^ The Proprietors of the Water- 
works in the Middle of the Town of Pittsfield." This company erected 
works, but they seem not to have been very successful, and though repeated 
efforts were made, it was not until 1855, when the present works were 
erected by the Fire District, that any thing like success was attained. 
Water was taken from Lake Ashley, on the summit of Washington moun- 
tain, at a distance of six and a quarter miles from the village, affording 
a head of about 70c feet. Since then, in 1873, the "lower reservoir" was 
erected, and still later the supply was increased by water from Sackett's 
brook. The works have now about fifty miles of mains, while the village has 
seventy-six fire hydrants. The total cost of construction has been, according 
to the statement in Smith's History of Fittsfield, as follows : — 

Original construction $50,000.00 

For re-laying and extending pipe prior to 1866 14,000.00 

Extension of pipes after 1866 22,917.53 

Re-laying street mains after 1866 28,772.63 

New twelve-iach mains 45)423-32 

Raising dam at Lake Ashley 2.186.88 

Lower reservoir and dam in 1873 13,172.60 

Addition of Sackett's brook [8,329.94 

Total* : $194,802.90 


Soon after the opening of the present century, when banking institutions 
were springing up in almost all of the httle New England towns, Governor 

*This total, however, was given in 1876; the entire expense up to the present time, 
July, 1884, has been $201,000.00. 


Strong, ,in February, 1806, chartered the Berkshire Bank, the corporators 
named being Simon Larned, Timothy Childs, Joshua Danforth, Daniel 
Pepoon, David Campbell, Jr., James D. Colt, Jr., Thomas Allen, Jr., Theo- 
dore Hinsdale, Jr., Ebenezer Center and Joseph Merrick. The capital stock 
was fixed at $75,000.00, all to be paid in gold and silver coin previous to 
October 6, 1806, and the issue of bills was restricted to $150,000.00. The 
bank was organized July 5, 1807, by choosing the following directors: 
Simon Larned, John W. Hulbert, Joshua Danforth, and Daniel Pepoon, of 
Pittsfield ; Joseph Goodwin, of Lenox ; Andrew Dexter, of Boston ; and James 
D. Colt, jr., of Pittsfield. Simon Larned was chosen president, and Ebe- 
nezer Center, cashier. A neat banking house was built where the Athenaeum 
building now stands, and business was carried on until 18 10. when the bank, 
owing to the dishonesty of Andrew Dexter, made a very bad failure. It 
seems that Mr. Dexter, to carry on gigantic (for those times) financial 
schemes in Boston, connected himself with country banks, from which to 
keep supplied with money. He represented to the directors of the Berk- 
shire bank that he wished $200,000.00 in their bills, simply to place on de- 
posit to satisfy the law in regard to private bankers, and not to be taken 
from the original packages nor put in circulation. The result of this unbusi- 
ness-like proceedure is obvious. The directors found themselves in Lenox 
jail, in 181 1, imprisoned for debt. When they were liberated, six gentlemen 
who, a few years before, were accounted among the most prosperous in 
Berkshire, returned to their homes pecuniarily ruined. 

The Agricultural Bank was chartered in 1818, and is still doing a lucrative 
business. The corporators named in the act were Nathan Willis, Joseph 
Shearer, David Campbell, John B. Root, Thomas Gold, Theodore Hinsdale, 
Jr.^ Lemuel Pomeroy, Henry C. Brown, Samuel D. Colt, Josiah Bissell, 
Jonathan Allen, Timothy Childs, Henry H. Childs, and Phinehas Allen. The 
capital was fixed at $100,000.00, and the par value of the shares at $100.00, 
Books were opened for the subscription to stock March 9th, and on 
the 27th of April, the stock being all subscribed, the stockholders unani- 
mously chose the following board of directors : Thomas Gold, Nathan Willis, 
Josiah Bissell, Samuel D. Colt, and Henry C. Brown, who subsequently 
elected Thomas Gold, president, and Ezekiel R. Colt, cashier. The bank 
originally conducted its business in the building erected by the Berkshire 
bank ; but in 1853 it removed to the building east, and in 1868 took up its 
present quarters in the Berkshire Life Insurance building. In 1851 the cap- 
ital stock was increased to $200,000.00, and in 1865 it was made a National 
bank. Its present capital is $200,000.00 with a surplus fund of $250,000.00, 
the officers being J. R. Warriner, president; J. N. Dunham, vice-president; 
Irving D. Ferry, cashier; and J. R. Warriner, Jabez L. Peck, Edwin Clapp, 
J. N. Dunham, William R. Plunkett, Josiah Carter and W. M. Crane, 

The Pittsfield Bank was chartered in April, 1853, with a capital stock of 


$150,000.00. The first meeting of the stockholders was held in May, 1853, 
when the following directors were chosen : David Carson, John V. Barker, 
Gaius C. Burnap, Robert Pomeroy, Henry Stearns, Thomas Colt, and 
George W. Platner, who elected David Carson, president, and Junius D. 
Adams, cashier. In March, 1854, the capital was increased to $300,000.00, 
and in May, 1857, to $500,000.00. In June, 1865, it was re-organized, as 
the Pittsfield National Bank, with an authorized capital of $1,000,000.00. 
The bank has now a capital of $500,000.00, with a surplus of $200,000.00. 
The officers are JuUus Rockwell, president ; John V. Barker, vice-president ; 
Henry Colt, Z. Crane, Jr., A. J. Waterman, James M. Barker, C. V. Spear, 
John D. Carson, and D. A. Clary, directors ; E. S. Francis, cashier, and 
Henry A. Brewster, teller. 

The Berkshire County Savings Bank was incorporated in 1846, the orig- 
inal corporators being Henry Shaw, Thomas A. Gold, Thomas. F. Plun- 
kett and Charles Sedgwick. These corporators met on the 28th of March, 
when forty gentlemen from all parts of the county were elected associate 
members of the corporation. April 29th the following- officers were elected: 
Henry Shaw, president ; Charles M. Owen, Phinehas Allen, Samuel Rossiter, 
Sanford Blackinton, vice-presidents ; Thomas A. Gold, secretary ; and Jason 
Clapp, Jabez Peck, Thomas F. Plunkett, Thaddeus Clapp, George W. Camp- 
bell, Solomon L. Russell, Comfort B. Piatt, Stephen B. Brown, Zenas M. 
Crane, Henry W. Bishop, George W. Platner, Samuel Gates, John C. Rus- 
sel and Socrates Squier, trustees. At the first meeting of the trustees, June 
3, 1846, James Warriner was chosen treasurer. The first deposit was made 
July, II, 1846, by David Stockbridge, the amount being $25.00, and 
since that time the institution has been very successful, its assets, July i, 
1884, being $2,037,395.73. The present officers are Juhus Rockwell, 
president ; William T. Filly, George N. Dutton, ' Charles W. Kellogg, and 
F. W. Hinsdale, vice-presidents; Robert W. Adam, treasurer; and John 
R. Warriner, secretary. 

The Third National Bank commenced business June i, 1881, with a capi- 
tal of $125,000.00. Although a new institution, the management includes 
tried and careful business men, insuring confidence from the start, and it 
receives its share of the banking business of the town. The officers are 
Henry W. Taft, president ; Byron Weston, vice-president ; Ralph B. Bard- 
well, cashier ; and Henry W. Taft, Byron Weston, E. D. Jones, S. N. Rus- 
sel, Charles W. Kellogg, John T. Power, J. Dwight Francis, William H, 
Sloan and Levi A. Stevens, directors. 


The common schools of the township will compare favorably with those of 
any other township in Western Massachusetts. There is no record of any 
appropriation for educational purposes before the incorporation of the town 
in 1761 ; and indeed the settlement was so much interrupted by the French 


and Indian wars, that there was little opportunity for any. But at the meet- 
ing of 1762, ^22. 6s. were raised and divided equally between the East and 
the West ends. This was a start in the right direction, but the schools were 
not much more than an apology for such for many years, and it was only 
through a strong current of opposition that the shackles of old ideas and cus- 
toms were broken off, admitting the more modern and progressive plans that 
have brought up the schools to their present standard. The schools, except 
in the center districts, were taught by men in the winter, and by women in 
the summer, until later years, when it was discovered that children can be 
managed by other than brute force, or through fear of the birch and ferule. 
In 1849 there were fifteen school districts in the town. The plan of abol- 
ishing the district system in accordance with the views of the State Board of Ed- 
ucation was constantly pressed upon the town, but was stoutly resisted by 
most of the outer districts ; and in that year, 1849, Hon. Edward A. Newton 
offered as a compromise, a resolution that the school-houses of the several 
districts, many of which were unfit for their purpose, should be re-built by 
the town. The resolution, with the amendments to it proposed in town 
meeting, was referred to Calvin Martin, Abel West and James H. Dunham. 
The committee reported that the town ought to procure a plan or model for 
all the school-houses so that all should be alike except as to size ; and that 
they should be built by the town, the districts giving the old buildings — the 
houses to be built two each year, and the first in the districts where they 
were most needed. The districts were to furnish sites and keep the build- 
ings in repair. The report was adopted and all the school-houses in the 
town were re-built in the course of a few years, and in 1869 the district sys- 
tem was abolished. In 1874 a system of graded schools was estabfished for 
all except a few outer districts. The system as at present established con- 
sists of a high school, a first grammar school, two secondary grammar 
schools, intermediate and primary schools. Aside from these there have 
been, and still are many private schools and institutions of learning. Among 
the present are Chickering's Commmercial College, Miss Salisbury's school for 
young ladies. Maplewood Institute, St. Stephen's Classical and Mathemat- 
ical school, and Miss M. E. Goodrich's select school. Among the institutions 
that have attained prominence in the past, may be mentioned the celebrated 
Berkshire Medical College that flourished for so many years, and the Berk- 
shire Gymnasium, the latter of which built up the magnificent buildings and 
grounds of the present Maplewood Institute. 


The trustees of the Berkshire Athenaeum were incorporated March 24, 
187 1, " for the purpose of establishing and maintaining, in the town of Pitts- 
field, an institution to aid in promoting education, culture, and refinement, and 
diffusing knowledge by means of a library, reading-rooms, lectures, museums, 
and cabinets of art, and of historical and natural curiosities." Previously 


established libraries and cabinets were combined in their hands, so that the 
Athenceum now has a library of 16,000 volumes, an historical and art 
museum, and a fine mineralogical cabinet, each with a large number of rare 
and interesting specimens, while the reading-rooms are supplied with reviews, 
magazines and newspapers. In 1874 the Athenaeum building, located on 
Bank row, was commenced, one of the finest buildings in the town, and one 
of the finest for the purpose in the State. Its very soHd foundation was built 
in the autumn of that year, and the superstructure was nearly completed in 
the following year. Funds for building it were donated by the late Thomas 
Allen, of St. Louis, Mo., a native of Pittsfield, on ccndition that the town 
should furnish the site and make the hbrary a permanent institution. It is a 
much admired specimen of the richer Gothic style. The chief material is the 
dark blue limestone of Great Barrington, left with a rock face, and laid in 
courses, while the same stone hammered, and thus becoming a lighter blue, 
forms a portion of the dressing. The remainder of the ornamental stone- 
work is of the red Longmeadow freestone, and the red granite of Missouri ; 
the latter of which is almost identical in character with the Aberdeen granite 
of Scotland. The frontage of the building is ninety feet, and the general 
depth sixty feet. A projection in the rear gives a depth of eighty feet to the 
main library-room, which is thirty feet wide. The following is a list of the 
principal pecuniary bequests, donations, etc., to the Athenaeum up to 1880: — 

Town of Pittsfield for site of building, $22,400.00 

For yearly support as by terms of contract, 12,000.00 

By special appropriations, including dog fund,. . . . 8,565.00 


From Thomas Allen, by gift of building $50,000.00 

" " " by purchase of land, 1,900.00 

" " " by fitting up Agricultural 

Bank building for library, 900.00 

" " " by various other gifts, 1,000.00 


From Calvin Martin, 5,000.00 

From Thomas F. Plunkett, purchase of land, $1,900.00 

" " " other gifts, 1,100.00 


James M. Beebe, 500.00 

Mrs. Elizabeth C. Clapp, 1,000.00 

Franklin E. Taylor, 500.00 

Medical College sale, 4,400.00 

Mr. Pomeroy and others, for five years support of 

the reading room, 750-oo 

Mrs. Mary E. Francis and others for furnishing the 

East Hall, 225.00 

To this.liowever should be added other pecuniary donations and bequests 
from the Allen family and others, making the total of the Athen^um's prop- 
erty, foot up considerably over $200,000.00. 



In the early years of the settlement the dead were buried in some con- 
venient spot near the family residences, many of which " family burial- 
grounds" can still be traced. At the first meeting of the Plantation, in 1753, ^ 
committee was appointed to look after the construction of a meeting house, 
and also to " look out a place or places for burying the dead." But by 
whom, when or how the site of the first meeting-house or the burial-gruund 
was finally fixed, is not known. The meeting-house commons and the grave 
yard, however, were soon merged in each other, covering all the space em- 
braced within North street, the old line of East street (including the present 
Park place), a line drawn past the north side of the Baptist church, and another 
drawn near the west side of St. Stephen's to meet it at right angles. This 
ground continued in use until 1834, being for that time the exclusive resting- 
place of the dead of the town, with the exception of a yard in the east part, 
and two, used at different times, in the west part, all of hmited size. That 
at the east part, in which lie buried the remains of the first white woman who 
made her home in the town, still remains, and is cared for respectfully ; the 
same is true of the second burial-ground at the west part; but the first 
is overgrown by woods, and is only recognized by a few sunken and 
moss-covered head-stones, which may be seen by the traveler, on his left 
hand, as he begins to ascend the mountain on the road to Lebanon Springs. 
The present cemetery association was incorporated as the " Proprietors of 
the Pittsfield Cemetery," in 1850, and was organized April 8th of that year, 
with Calvin Martin, president; John R. Warriner, vice-president; James H. 
Dunham, treasurer ; and Elias Merwin, clerk. The association has about 
140 acres of land lying just north of the village, about a quarter of which is 
used for burial purposes, and which is tastefully laid out and decorated, and 
contains some fine monuments and tombs. The late Hon. Thomas Allen, 
who was president of the association at the time of his death, April 7, 1882, 
made a bequest in his will of the sum of $5,000.00 for the purpose of erecting 
a suitable gateway at the main entrance of the grounds, which was accord- 
ingly done during the past summer. 


Pittsfield has also one of the finest and best regulated fire departments in 
the State, outside of Boston, consisting of 195 members, made up largely of 
the leading people of the town. It has two steameis, five separate com- 
panies, and five buildings. The chief engineer, George S. Willis, has held 
the office since 1881. His father. Col. George S., and his grandfather, General 
Nathan, were also engineers, the latter being one of the original organizers 
of the department. In the winter of 1882 the present fire alarm telegraph 
system was completed, at a cost of $5,000.00. 



The Pittsfield Alms House and Insane Asylum is located on road 29, 
about three miles west of the village, and is under the charge of R. G. Her- 
mance. The building is a large, neat structure, with ample accommoda- 
tions for one hundred inmates, and is surrounded by a farm of eighty acres. 
During the past year, 1884, the average number of inmates has been thirty, 
twelve of whom, on an average, were insane. 

The House of Mercy, a finely appointed and well-regulated hospital, 
located at the intersection of North and Tyler streets, was established in 
1874. Rev. Dr. John Todd originated the charity, and in a brief time inter- 
ested several ladies of Pittsfield, who were ripe for the work. To raise money 
for carrying into effect their plans, the ladies got up a bazaar, from which 
they realized a net profit of about $6,000. The first location of the institu- 
tion was in small quarters on Francis street, but with the acquirement of 
means for the purpose, the present building was erected in 1877. The directors 
of the charity have laid out about $12,000 in land, building, and some furni- 
ture, and now have a fund of about $6,000. The money used every year comes 
from annual subscriptions and other donations, from bequests, and enter- 
tainments given in benefit, conducted by the officers of the institution. The 
late gift of a fine mortuary chapel to the Hospital is a notable act of charity 
by Mrs. Rebecca F. Coffing, of VanDeusenville. The chapel is erected in 
memory of her late husband, John H. Coffing. It cost about $1,400, and is 
located adjoining the House of Mercy. In the rear part of the building is 
the autopsy room ; in the front part, the audience room, having large double 
windows on three sides and capable of seating fifty to sixty people. It is 
provided with chairs and reading desk, and is heated from a fire-place. On 
the chimney, above the fire-place, is a tablet of polished black marble, with 
this memorial inscription : — 










The House of Mercy is under the immediate charge of Miss Anna G. 
Clement, as matron, the physicians in attendance rendering their services 
gratuitously. Patients who are able to pay for services, however, are obliged 
to do so. 

The history of the newspapers that have been, or still are, pubhshed in 




the town, the railroad history, sketch of the Berkshire Agricultural society,* 
something of the early cloth manufacture, war record, the erection of Pittsfield 
into a shire town, a description of the court-house and jail, etc., have been 
given in the county chapter, so we will omit further mention of these sub- 
jects here. The churches will be noticed on a future page. Aside from the 
village of Pittsfield, there are a number of small villages located in different 
parts of the town, most of which have grown up about the several manu- 
facturing establishments, and take their name from them or from their owners. 
Among these are the following : — 

PoNTOOSUC (p. o.) is the name given the village about the Pontoosuc and 
Taconic mills, just north of Pittsfield. The village is sometimes locally 
divided, however, the neighborhood in the immediate vicinity of the Pon- 
toosuc mills taking its name therefrom, and that in the vicinity of the Ta- 
conic mills, near where the postoffice established about a year ago is located, 
being called Taconic. Aside from these, there are on this road^ between Pitts- 
field and Lanesboro, Bel Air, Eveningside auvi Wahconah, while just east of 
the village is Morningside. 

West Pittsfield (p. o.) is the name given the small village of Shakers, in 
the southwestern part of the town, though it is more commonly known as 
Shaker village. 

Coltsville (p. o.) is a small village in the northeastern part of the town,, 
having a station on the Pittsfield & North Adams railroad. 

Barkersville lies a httle southeast of West Pittsfield, while northeast of it 
lies Stearnsville and Lower Barkersville. 

The Po7itoosuc Woolen Manufactm-'mg Company was incorporated March 
2, 1826, and the company was organized and officers chosen March 2, 1827, 
with Henry Shaw as the first president, and is, therefore, one of the oldest 
incorporated woolen companies in Berkshire. David Campbell, Jr., the first 
agent, died in June, 1835. In April, 1836, George W. Campbell was elected 
agent, and was succeeded in December, 1841, by George Campbell, Socrates 
Squier being elected president at the same time. In November, 1861, Mr. 
Squier sold his interest to Hon. E. H. Kellogg, who afterwards sold part of it 
to the other stockholders, and succeeded him as president. Thaddeus 
Clapp, the present agent and superintendent, became a stockholder in May, 
1862, and in January, 1863, his interest was increased by a transfer of more 
shares. He was elected to his present position in January, 1865. J. D wight 
Francis became a stockholder in May,' 1864, and was elected treasurer and 
assistant superintendent in January, 1865. The company made from its or- 
ganization up to about 1834, plain broadcloths and satinets in a variety of col- 
ors, when they commenced the production of drab carriage cloths, running 

* In our sketch of this society on page 26, the accidental omission of two words, " one 
of," has made us say what we would not — that is, that the society was the first organized 
in the country. It was not, but was among the first, and its plan was universally adopted 
by other organizations of the kind. 



entirely on this class of goods until i860, excepting for a brief interval, when 
part of the machinery was used to run blue and black cloths for clothing pur- 
poses. In i860 they commenced the manufacture of Balmoral skirts, and 
the " Pontoosuc Balmoral " was known throughout the country as the best. 
They commenced making blankets in 1865, and to-day nearly every traveler 
throughout the continent who uses a Pullman or Wagner sleeper has for his 
covering a specimen of the Pontoosuc blankets. During the past year the 
company have erected an addition 78x35 feet, containing elegant offices and 
a large packing-room. They are now running twelve sets of cards, fifty broad 
looms, and give employment to 250 operatives, their annual product being 
about $600,000.00. 

The Bel Air Manufacturing Cotnpany now occupies the mills at Bel Air 
originally erected by Spencer & Churchill and E. M. Bissell, as a cotton-mill. 
The original proprietors were unsuccessful, and the property passed into the 
hands of the Pittsfield Woolen Company, who made great improvements, 
erected new buildings and operated the mills up to 1871. July 24, 1873, 
Frank E. Kernochan, Hon. Edward Learned and Edward McAlpine Learned 
were incorporated as the Bel Air Manufacturing Company, with a capital of 
$100,000.00. They immediately commenced operations, running on fine 
fancy cassimers, and last year produced nearly 150,000 yards of 6-4 width, 
representing about $500,000.00. They give employment to about 170 hands, 
eight sets of cards and forty broad Crompton looms. 

The Taconic Mills. — These mills, located at Taconic, were built by a cor- 
poration known as the "Taconic Mills," in 1856. The main building is a 
wooden structure, 50x150 feet, four stories in height. The company com- 
menced manufacturing in 1867, continuing until 1873, when business was 
suspended until 1880, the mills lying idle. During the latter year is was leased 
by the present firm Messrs Wilson, Glennon & Co., who manufacture fine 
union cassimeres. They operate eight sets of cards, thirty-four broad and 
thirty-six narrow looms, giving employment to 125 hands. 

The Wahconah Flouring Mills. — These mills, located at Wahconah, were 
erected by Caleb Goodrich, and consist of a three-story stone building 44x64 
feet, and a three-story wooden building 32x80 feet. The stone building was 
erected for turning works, and the wooden building as a woolen-mill. In 1859 
the property was purchased by Clark, Bulkley & Co., and changed into flour- 
ing-mills. In 1861 the firm was changed to Clark, Cole & Powell, in 1865 
to Cole & Powell, and in 1875 became the sole property of the present owner, 
Otis Cole. He has kept fully up with the modern improvements in this class 
of manufacture, so that he now produces about 6,000 barrels of choice flour 
per annum, also 1,500 barrels of rye flour and grinds about 100,000 bushels of 
coarse grain. 

S. N. &= C. RusselVs woolen mill, located on road 13, is a fine brick 
structure erected in 1863. The firm employs about 225 hands, in the manu- 
facture of fancy union cassimeres, operating eleven sets of cards, fifty-four 



broad and twenty-three narrow looms. The company sells its goods at its 
own office. 54 and 56 Worth street, New York, their net sale for 1883 being 

The Shaker Flouring Mill, located on the water-privilege next below the fac- 
tory built by Daniel Stearns, where there was, in 1823, an old oil-mill, and in 
which year it was purchased by the Hancock and Pittsfield Shakers, who 
erected a dam, and in the following year a wooden grist-mill^ 40x30 feet, two 
stories high, and containing two runs of stones. In 1867 the mill was almost 
entirely rebuilt, and enlarged to 63x42 feet. It has three runs of stones, one 
of which is devoted exclusively to grinding wheat. 

Barker Brother's woolen 7nills. — In 1882 John V. and Charles Barker pur- 
chased of Daniel Stearns the mill they now operate at Barkersville, which 
was built in 181 1, and which had been in disuse for sometime, and com- 
menced the manufacture of woolen goods. Two years later Otis R. Barker 
was admitted to the firm, and April 14, 1884, Charles died, since which 
time it has been operated by the two surviving brothers. The original mill 
was added to, improved, etc., as their business increased, and in 1869-70 
they built a new mill. In December, 1865, they purchased of D. H. Stearns 
the mill at Lower Barkersville, and now run both. They employ 280 hands. 
Tke Berkshire knitti7ig mills, D. M. Collins & Co., proprietors, are located 
in the Central Block. The firm was organized in the spring of 1883, and 
now employs about ninety hands, who turn out about seventy dozen sets of 
fine underwear per day. Two of the firm, Tillotson & Power, also operate a 
woolen-mill, where they manufacture the yarn used in the knitting-mill. 

S. K. Smith &= Co.^s silk mills, located on Robbins avenue, were com- 
pleted and put in operation by Mr. Smith, January 19, 1882. The main 

building is 45 by 132 feet, three 
stories high, and the machinery is 
all new and the latest improved, 
operated by steam power. The 
firm manufactures braids and bind- 
mgs of mohair and silk, button 
covering material, machine and but- 
ton-hole twist, sewing silk, saddlers' 
silk, floss silk, organzine and trams, 
employing fifty to sixty hands. S. 
K. Smith was born in Brooklyn, 
N. Y.. and learned the business of silk manufacturing in Rockville, Conn., 
with E. K. Rose & Co., beginning in 1866. He first came to Pittsfield as 
superintendent of the Saunders Silk Co., in 1874. In 1876 he became con- 
nected with Belding Brothers, and under the firm title of Belding, Smith & 
Co., established the manufacture of silk at Montreal, introducing the first 
machinery for that purpose ever set up in the Dominion of Canada. During 
1877 he returned to Pittsfield and began business for himself, and in Febru- 



ary, 1878, his first mill was completed and put in operation. During this 
season he became associated with W. B. Rice, under the firm name of Smith 
& Rice, which continued till January i, 1884, though during this time he 
erected his present mill, which he operated independently till April 15, 1884. 
The present firm was formed by the admission to partnership of M. B. Smith 
and George D. Foot. .By his untiring devotion to business and the exercise 
of high executive abihty, Mr. Smith has increased the annual business from 
$15,000.00, in 1878, to $120,000.00, at the present time. 

L. K. Loynes's iron foundry. — This foundry, located at the corner of Fenn 
and Second streets, was established about 1840, by Edson Bonney, who 
carried on the business of makmg castings for agricultural machinery, paper- 
mill and factory work. The columns in the Berkshire Life Insurance Com- 
pany's building were made here. Mr. Bonney was partially burned out in 
1866, and leased the premises to F. A. Brown, who repaired the buildings and 
carried on the business six years, when May & Chapel became lessees, with 
L. K. Loynes, manager ; and in April, 1877, the latter purchased the lease and 
has conducted the business since. He employes four men, in the manufac- 
facture of all kinds of iron and brass castings. 

William Clark &> Co.' s foundry a?id machine shop, located on the corner 
of McKay and Depot streets, were estabhshed by Gordon McKay, m 1845. 
The successive firms have been McKay & Hurback, McKay & Handley, 
Dodge & Francis, Francis & Clary, Clary, Sedgwick & Russell, H. S. Russell, 
and in 1874, the present firm. They employ fifty men in the manufacture of 
machinery, etc. 

E. D. G. Jones' s machine shop. — In 1856, Mr. E. D. G. Jones began the 
manufacture of paper making machinery, at Lee, where he continued in busi- 
ness until 1867, when he removed to his present location, on McKay and 
Depots treets, where he employs twenty men. 

S. M. Cooky's carriage manufactory, located on McKay street, was origi- 
nally established here by George Van Valkenburgh, in 1867, and came into 
Mr. Cooley's possession in 1879. The factory gives employment to twenty 
men, under the management of Arthur N., son of S. M. Cooley. 

H. S. Russell's boiler works, located on McKay street, are the only works 
of the kmd in the county. He has been sole proprietor since 1874, and gives 
employment to ten men in the manufacture of boilers and in general plate- 
iron work. 

The Pittsfield Tack Company was incorported in 1875, with J. D. Peck, pres- 
ident, and George N. Dutton, secretary and treasurer, each of whom retains 
his position. The company first located in the Kellogg Steam Power Co.'s 
building, where they remained until January 1,1884, when they removed to 
their present location in the building of the Terry Clock Company. They 
give employment to twenty-five hands in the manufacture of all kinds of tacks 
and small nails. This, also, is the only manufactory of the kind in the county. 
George Van Valkenburgh, who was in the business of manufacturing car- 


riages, on McKay street, as stated above, is now located on Liberty street, 
where he has been since 1880. He gives employment to ten men. 

Lyman C. Learned'' s carriage, wagon and sleigh mam/factory, located on 
Clapp's avenue, was established in 1808, by Jason Clapp, who carried on the 
most extensive business of that kind in Western Massachusetts. Mr. Lear- 
ned commenced business here August ir, 1884. 

W. C. Stevenson Manufachiring Company, located on Clapp avenue, is 
engaged in the manufacture of all kinds of weaving shuttles and reeds. The 
business was originally commenced by W. C. Stevenson in 1880, though the 
present firm was not organized till May 1884. 

George T. Clark, located on West street, began the business of silver 
plating and all kinds of electro plating in 1877, and now employs, on an 
average, about ten men. 

The Berkshire Overall Company, located on West street, was incorporated 
in 1881. They employ about twenty hands and manufacture 4,000 dozen 
cotton pants and overalls per annum. 

The Spragne Brinwier Matinfactiit ing Company, located on Railroad street, 
was organized in February, 1880, employing about fifteen hands in the man- 
ufacture of shirts. The firm now employs 200 hands and turns out 400 dozen 
shirts per week. 

Owen Coogan 6^ Son's tajinery, located on Elm street, at the crossing 
of the east branch of the Housatonic, was estabhshed previous to 1790. It 
was at that time in the hands of James Brown, who, with his younger brother, 
Simeon, conducted the business over sixty years. Owen Coogan purchased 
the property of Benjamin Dean, January i, 1850, and has conducted the 
business since that time. He has entirely rebuilt the tannery buildings dur- 
ing this time, however, and increased the business about five-fold. The aver- 
age number of men employed is about thirty, and they have the capacity for 
tanning about 15,000 hides annually, using about 12,000 tons of bark, a 
business aggregating $125,000 to $150,000.00. The present firm was formed 
April I, 1882, by the admission of WiUiam J. and Clement F. Coogan, sons 
of Owen 

Robbins dr Kellogg's shoe yjiam/faclory , located on Fourth street, was 
established by the present proprietors in 1870. They occupy a four-story 
building, 180x36 feet, fitted with all modern appliances and operated by a 
thirty horse power engine. They give employment to 400 hands and manu- 
facture 40,000 pairs of shoes per month. 

ILenry, Blain &= Co. — In 1850, Dexter Winslow and Lorenzo Henry estab- 
hshed, under the firm name of Winslow & Henry, the manufacture of 
tinware and the business of wholesaling peddlers' supplies. In 1858, 
Harvey Henry purchased Mr. Winslow's interest, and until 1865 the firm 
name was L. & H. Henry. During that year Harvey Henry and Homer J. 
Grant became owners, and subsequently Mr. Grant died, Mr. Henry con- 
tinuing the business until 1873, when Louis Blain became a partner. This 


iirm continued until 1882, when Mr. Henry's eldest son, Cyrus C, was 
admitted to partnership, forming the present firm of Henry, Blain & Co. 
They manufacture tin, sheet-iron and copper-ware, and carry on a wholesale 
and retail business in wooden, glass and tinware and Yankee notions, 
employing fourteen hands, and have sixteen peddlers on the road. They do 
an aggregate business of from $75,000.00 to $100,000.00 per annum. 

May &> ChapePs machine shop, located at the corner of Fenn and Sec- 
ond streets, was built by them in 1870, they having purchased the business 
of E. Sedgwick on North street, removing it into the new building. They 
employ from ten to twelve men, doing mill-work and general repairing and 

Mr. VanSickler's cotto7i factory, located on Water street, was built by Mc- 
Kay & Fenn, in 1845, ^"^ ^^s enlarged and owned by Hon. Thomas F. 
Plunkett. In 1849 the firm was changed to Plunkett, Clapp & Co., by the 
admission of Jason Clapp and Martin Van Sickler. In 1864 Plunkett & 
Clapp sold their interest to Mr. Van Sickler and A. R. Learned, and in 1867 
Mr. Van Sickler became sole owner. The main building of the factory 
is a brick structure 120x40 feet, three stories in height, and is surrounded 
by suitable outbuildings. Mr. Van Sickler employs ninety hands and man- 
ufactures 30,000 yards of sheeting per week. 

Farnham d^ Lathers' s woole7i-7nill, located corner Burbank and Spring 
streets, is a three-set mill, 48x100 feet, three stories in height, built by 
-George Burbank. It was purchased by the present firm in September, 1881. 
They manufacture heavy-weight evercoatings, employing seventy-five hands, 
with capacity for turning out 1,200 yards per week. 

W. H. Teeling 6^ Co.^s cracker bakery, located on Northrup street, gives 
employment to ten men, with capacity for making one hundred barrels per 
day. Mr. Teeling began business in Pittsfield in 1852, and last year built 
the building he now occupies, a four story structure, 45x57 feet. 

J. White &= Co.'s green houses, located on West street, rear of Burbank 
House, were established by Meillez & Co., florists, of Springfield, in 1875, 
and were purchased by the present firm in 1895. They have half an acre of 
land under glass. 

M. A. Fennock's paper box factory, located in the Central block, was 
established here in July, 1882, a branch of the factory at Cohoes, N. Y. 
They employ fifteen hands. 

A. F. Clair's wagon shop, on Liberty street, gives employment to six men 
in the manufacture of wagons, carriages and sleighs. 

W. H. Johnson 6^ So7i s bottli7ig works, located on Liberty street, give 
employment to seven men during the season, in the manufacture of birch 
beer, soda, sarsaparilla, and ginger ale, and in bottUng lager, porter and 

Rice Brothers' bottli7ig works, located on West street, give employment to 
seven men, in the same business as the above firm. 


Elms Werde/i, located on First street, commenced the manufacture of sash^ 
doors, blinds, step-ladders, etc., in 1868. Reconducted that business about 
two years, when he commenced the manufacture of picture frames, fancy- 
stands, hat racks, camp chairs, etc., giving employment to twelve men. 

C. H. &= W. A. Booth commenced a lumber business on Fenn street, in 
1859, continuing there until 1865, when they removed to First street, where 
they continued until May i, 1883, when W. A. Booth retired, since which 
time C. H. Booth has conducted the business alone. He employes fifteen 
hands in the manufacture of sash, doors, blinds and wood-work of all kinds, 
using about i,ooo,oco feet of lumber per year. 

Gi))ilich 6^ White's brewery, located on Railroad and Onota streets, is 
the largest in Western Massachusetts. In 1877 the business was started in a 
small way, with capacity for brewing 500 barrels per year. The business has 
since steadily increased, so that in 1880 they built the present large five-story 
brick building, 40x80 feet, which is surrounded by the necessary buildings for 
ice, storage, etc., having the capacity for brewing 16,000 barrels per year, 
giving employment to sixteen men. Mr, Gimlich represented this district in 
the legislature in 1883-84. 

Fuller &= Maslen, located on North street, are engaged in the manufacture 
of all kinds of marble and granite work, giving employment to eight men- 
The firm at the beginning, in 1855, was Mead & Fuller. The present firm 
makes a specialty of Quincy granite. 

G. Van Bergaiis soap works, located on River street, were established 
by him in 1879. ^^ makes five barrels of soft, and 1,000 pounds of hard 
soap per day. 

Edwin Davis's tripe and neaf s-foot oil manufactory, located on road 34, 
was established in 1870. He manufactures about 200 pounds of tripe and five 
gallons of neat's-foot oil per week. 

George A. Parker's cider-mill, located on road 34, was built by Mr. Parker 
in 1874. It has the capacity for making thirty barrels of cider per day. 

Mullany Brother's marble tvorks, located on North street, give employ- 
ment to several men in the manufacture of monuments, headstones, stone 
coping, building trimmings, etc. 

The Willey Robinson Mfg. Co. , located on North street, was estabhshed by 
B. F. Willey, in 1S81. They give employment to twenty-five hands in the 
manufacture of custom and sale shirts, and in operating the Franklin steam 

Jabez L. Peck' s cotton and woolen-mills are located on road 13. The cotton- 
mill, built in 1847, has 6,000 spindles, and employs 125 hands in the manu- 
facture of fancy and colored cotton yarns. The woolen-mill was built in 1864. 
It has seven sets of cards, eighty looms, and gives employment to ninety hand? 
in the manufacture of white and colored flannels. 

W. W. Whiting's envelope and stationery paper matiufactory, located at the 
corner of Market and McKay streets, was estabhshed by Mr. Whiting in 


1882. He employs twenty-five hands. They put a superior quahty of paper 
in very attractive forms, and are doing a constantly increasing business. 

The Terry Clock Company. — In 1793 Eli Terr)' began the manufacture of 
wooden clocks, at Plymouth, Conn. Since that time the business of clock- 
making has been continued by him and his descendants. In July, 1880, the 
company removed to Pittsfield, from Waterbury, Conn., and was re-organ- 
ized under the laws of Massachusetts, with E. D. G. Jones, president ; H. S. 
Russell, clerk and treasurer ; C. E. Terry, superintendent and general man- 
ager ; and S. G. Terry, selling agent. The works are located on South 
Church street, consisting of a three-story building of brick, 154x40 feet, and 
a two-story case shop 130x30 feet. They employ t2o hands, turning out 
about 350 clocks, of nearly 150 different styles, per day. 

Berkshire Blacking C(9?«/(Z/rc was started in April, 1883, to manufacture 
and sell, under royalties, the different blackings manufactured and controlled 
by the Nubian Manufacturing Company, of London, Eng,, being the sole 
proprietary agent for the United States and Mexico. The chief article 
brought out in this country, up to date, is their well-known NubianWaterproof 
Blacking, the merits of which need no comment, as it has always proved 
itself rehable and satisfactory. The company's business has been constantly 
increasing, and their agents are travehng through all of the large towns and 
cities throughout the East and West. The firm is composed of William P. 
and C. D. Learned. 

Z. A. Ward' s furniture matmfactory, located on Depot street, was estab- 
lished by him in 1874. About this time a book published by Charles East- 
lake revolutionized the furniture manufacture, and Mr. Ward immediately 
came to the front and has remained there in the adoption of all modern in- 
ventions for the promotion of beauty, style or utility. From a very small be- 
ginning he built up the business until he now employs twenty men and occu- 
pies 10,000 feet of floor-room. 

Col. H. H. Richardson, contractor and builder, estabhshed himself in busi- 
ness in Pittsfield in 1865. He employs about thirty men in the erection and 
finishing of all classes of wooden buildings. 

J. K. ^//-^//^ estabhshed himself in business here in 1857, as a contractor 
and builder. Among the buildings he has erected are the Carson & Brown 
Co.'s paper-mill, at Dalton. the J. L. Peck mill, S. N. & C. Russell's mill, 
and the "Government " paper-mill, also many large blocks in Pittsfield. He 
employs about thirty men. 

F. W. Couch's steam saw-mill, located on Elm street, was built by Jacob 
Stewart, about 1867, and has been operated by Mr. Couch since 1870. He 
employs three men and cuts about 300,000 feet of lumber per year. 

T. R. Glentz, located on the corner of Liberty and Depot streets, gives 
employment to about twelve men in the manufacture of brackets, mantles, 
doors, etc., and stair-building. 

D. C. Bedell, contractor afid builder, commenced business here in 1870. 


Since then he has built many fine residences, blocks, churches, etc., among 
which may be mentioned the Central block, the Episcopal church at Lee, 
and the Baptist church at Bennington, Vt. He employs from fifteen to 
twenty men. 

Hiram Proper, contractor and builder, established himself in business here 
in 1870. He employes about eight men. 

The Humphrey Granite Quarry. — About 1830, Constant Luce built a lime 
kiln about two miles south of Pittsfield, on road 57, where Charles Bishop had 
opened a quarry a few years previous. In 1840, he took into partnership 
with him his son-in-law, Isaac Humphrey, conducting the business until his 
death, in 1855. ^J"- Humphrey then conducted the business alone until his 
death, in 1857, when his son, Edwin L., succeeded to the business. In 1876, 
the hmestone became exhausted, since which time he has been engaged in 
quarrying granite, of a quality quite valuable for building purposes, the pro- 
duct brings about $4,000,000 worth per year. 

Dewitt C. Munyan, contractor and builder. — A. B. &. D. C. Munyan formed 
a partnership as contractors and builders in 1850, a partnership ending only 
with the death of A. B. Munyan, in 1878. During that time they built many 
fine residences and public and private buildings in Berkshire county, among 
which may be mentioned the old Medical college, the court-house, jail, the 
Berkshire Life Insurance Building, the Athenaeum, etc., etc. Mr. Munyan 
is now building the Fenn street school-house, under contract for $40,000.00. 
Though he is not conducting as heavy a busines as formerly, he employs about 
twenty men. 

The Berkshire Life Lisurance Company ranks among the first of this char- 
acter of institutions in the country for soundness, economy of management, 
and upright and liberal dealing with claimants and poHcy-holders and in all 
that is creditable, reliable and popular. It was incorporated in 185 1, and 
since 1861 has not enforced a forfeiture of its policies in cases when from 
any reason members have failed to pay premiums when due. Under the 
present perfected system, in all such cases when premiums have been paid 
for two years, and are then discontinued, without any action on the part of 
the policy-holder, the policy is reduced to a proportionate part, and is con- 
tinued for this part, and is paid at maturity in accordance with its terms and 
conditions. The action of the company is in strict compliance with the laws 
of the commonwealth, and policy-holders receive a protection greater in 
degree than the laws of any other State secure them. The growth of the 
company has been a healthy one ; it is careful in the selection of its risks, 
favorable above many other companies in its rates, prompt in adjusting claims, 
and it merits the confidence and patronage of the people. Their fine build- 
ing, located on the corner of North and West streets, is alike the piide and 
boast of the town. It is built of Nova Scota sandstone, and was erected in 
1867-68. The present officers of the company are WiUiam R. Plunkett, 
president; James M. Baker, vice-president; and James W. Hull, secretary 
and treasurer. 


The Berkshire Miituat Fire Insurance Company is one of the oldest incor- 
porated institutions in the county, and is among the oldest fire insurance 
companies in the State. It was established in 1835, after having first secured 
the $50,000.00 advance insurance required by its charter, with Nathan Willis, 
Edward A. Newton and Ezekiel R. Colt as associate incorporators, and chose 
its first board of seven directors on the aSth of May. On the 30th the di- 
rectors elected Nathan Willis, president, and Parker L. Hall, secretary. With 
such men as incorporators — the fathers of the town — it is not surprising that 
the company has stood all the shocks of business and is to-day among the 
staunchest of home companies. It confines its business to the four western 
counties entirely, has assets amounting to $181,000.00, of which $53,000.00 
is cash accumulation. The present oflicers are J. L. Peck, president, and J. 
M. Stevenson, secretary. 


As we have stated on a previous page, no permanent settlement was effected 
until 1752. Though there were many attempts made, the conflicting 
claims to sound land-titles, and the unsettled condition of the country attend- 
ant on the French and Indian wars, thwarted all efforts. But just prior to 
the year mentioned efforts were again made, and were attended with success. 

When the township was plotted by Capt. Huston, in 1738, two roads, each 
seven rods wide, were laid out, intersecting each other near the center of the 
township. One of these, now East and West streets, ran from boundary to 
boundary ; the other, in that part of its course which is now North street, ex- 
tended two hundred rods above the crossing, and on the old direct line of 
South street, • four hundred and six rods below it. A third road, four rods 
in width, was laid out parallel with the first, and two hundred and two 
rods south of it. East of its intersection with South, is now Honasada 
street, and upon Honasada street (road 36) was commenced the first per- 
manent settlement in Pontoosuc, or Pittsfield. 

During the summer of 1752, the year accounted as the birthplace of the 
town, Solomon and Sarah Deming, from Wethersfield, came on to make the 
first settlement, one horse serving for both, Sarah riding on a pillion behind 
her husband. She was then a brave young good-wife of twenty-six years, the 
first white woman to call the beautiful hills of Pittsfield, home. Mr. Dem- 
ing's farm was on the north side of Honasada street, in the eastern outskirts 
of the township, now the farm of Moses G. Tracy. Here they hved in a 
log cabin, which stood near where the bee-house of Mr. Tracy now stands, 
and the old w.ell they built soon after is still in use. Subsequently Mr. Dem- 
ing built a framed house, the first erected in the town, a story and a half 
building 38x15 feet, and which is now standing. Mr. Deming died here at 
an advanced age, Mrs. Deming surviving him until 1818. The farm passed 
into the hands of Robert Stanton, who built the large house for an hotel, and 
removed the old one to serve as an " L " thereto. Stanton in turn sold the 
farm to High-sheriff Brown, who rented it to Marlborough Wells, who with 


eight children had come from Preston, Conn., in 1822, and for two years had 
occupied the Sackett place opposite. Here he kept the " M. Wells Inn " for 
six years, and the farm was long known as the " Wells place." Finally, how- 
ever, it has come into the hands of the Tracy family. 

The room which Mrs. Deming occupied during her later years, and in 
which she breathed her last, is about 20x18 feet in size, occupying the north- 
east corner of the ground floor of the new building. Here is the little fire- 
place that afforded her light and warmth, and swinging within it the crane 
whereon she did her cooking, while to the left is the tall cupboard which 
served as her larder. The unpretentious furniture which served Mrs. Dem- 
ing in her frugal home was considered of no value at the time of her death ; 
but the remanant which now remains in the museum of the Athenaeum could 
not be purchased at any price. The remains of this good " mother of Pitts- 
field," are resting in the Httle burial place near by, and over the grave the 
citizens of the town have erected a neat marble obelisk to her memory, 
which bears the following legends : — 

{South side.'] This 


is erected by the town of pittsfield 

to commemorate the heroism and virtues 

of its first female settler, and the mother of the 

first white child born within its limits. 

[AWf/i side.] Surrounded 

by tribes of hostile indians, 

she defended, in more than one instance, 

unaided, the lives and property of her family, 

and was distiguished for the courage and fortitude with which 

she bore the dangers and privations of a pioneer life. 

Sarah Deming, 


February, 1726, 


aged 92. 
\_£ast side.] A 

Mother of the Revolution 


Mother in Israel. 
[ IVest side. J Sarah Deming, 


February, 1726, 



AGED 92. 



Nathaniel Fairfield came into the town next, locating where the two 
branches of the Housatonic unite, just south of the village. He had first 
visited the town in 1748, and had made some improvements on his farm, and 
now, in the summer of 1752, he was bringing his new wife to their new 
home, the journey serving as their wedding tour. The young couple were 
accompanied by a yoke of oxen and a dray bearing their household goods ; 
and, pursuing their way by the aid of marked trees, they reached the house 
of Solomon Deming on the third evening, and there passed the night. During 
the same summer, also, Zebediah Stiles found companionship in a like hum- 
ble home, at what is now the corner of West and Onota streets. Then, also, 
came Charles Goodrich, " driving the first cart and team which ever entered 
the town, and cutting his way through the woods for a number of miles," It 
is related by tradition that he " reached the last of the Hoosac summits 
which he had to pass, just at nightfall ; and fearful of missing the path if he 
attempted to proceed in the dusk, tied his horses to a tree, and kept guard 
over them all night against wild beasts, walking around to prevent himself 
from faUing asleep, and munching an apple, his sole remaining ration, for 

During this year, also, there came into the town Abner and Isaac Dewey, 
Jacob Ensign, Hezekiah Jones, Samuel Taylor, Elias Willard, and Dea. Josiah 
Wright; and in 1753 they were followed by Stephen and Simeon Crofoot, 
David Bush and Col. William Williams. In 1754 Eli Root, Ephraim Stiles, 
William Wright, and some others ; but the French and Indian war again 
broke up the settlement, the settlers flying to Stockbridge for security, in 
company with the Lenox settlers, as is detailed in the sketch of the town of 

For four years after this the settlement made but slow and difficult 
progress, though most of those who had joined the hegira returned, probably, 
within two years. Three small forts were erected for the protection of the 
inhabitants. One, Fort Anson, was built in 1754, by Col. William Williams, 
upon the commanding eminence on the southwest shore of Lake Onota. 
Another, called Fort Goodrich, though in reality nothing but a block-house, 
was erected in 1756, by Charles Goodrich, about two miles south of Fort 
Anson. Goodrich was appointed commander of this, with the rank of ser- 
geant. The last one was built in 1757, and stood between Honasada street 
and the river, near the bridge, upon the land of Nathaniel Fairfield, from 
whom it took the name of Fort Fairfield. In 1758, there were about twenty 
log cabins in the town, and a meeting of the proprietors in September is 
recorded. Between this date and 1764, the following became settlers: Sam- 
uel Birchard, Daniel Hubbard, Daniel and Jesse Sackett, Jonathan Taylor, 
David and Oliver Ashley, William Francis, Gideon Gunn, Joshua Robbins, 
Ezekiel Root, Gideon Goodrich, James Lord, Charles Miller, Thomas Mor- 
gan, Daniel and David Noble, WiUiam Phelps, John Remington, Phinehas 
Belden, Solomon Crosby, Israel Dickinson, Elisha Jones, John Morse, David 


Roberts, Aaron Stiles, Israel Goddard, John and Caleb Wadhara, Aaron and 
Phinehas Baker, William Brattle, Col. James Easton, Benjamin and Josiah 
Goodrich, Moses Miller, Joseph Phelps, Amos Root, John Williams, Rev, 
Thomas Allen, James D. Colt, Ezra and King Strong, Dr. Colton, Rufus 
Allen, John Strong, and some others, who were followed soon after by- 
Joseph Allen, David Bagg, Lieut. Moses Graves, Woodbridge Little, Col. 
Oliver Root, Ebenezer White, and others. In 1791, when the first United 
States census was taken, the town had 1,992 inhabitants. 

At the first meeting of the proprietors (as proprietors) a part of their busi- 
ness was "to choose some person or persons to make exchange of a part of 
the school lot for some part of Dea. Stephen Crofoot's lot, so as to accom- 
modate his mills, and to see what the proprietors would give Dea. Crofoot 
for setting up the mills." It appears that the water privilege which Dea. Cro- 
foot wished to occupy was within the limits of the school lot. This move- 
ment was in 1753, but the building of the mill was delayed some years, though 
eventually the town granted Dea. Crofoot the use of the privilege for several 
years, and he built the mill and gave bonds to keep it in repair for the benefit 
of the inhabitants. A fuUing-mill was put up by Jacob Ensign, in connection 
with the same estabfishment. Crofoot's lease expired in 1778, when the town 
sold the mill-privilege to Ebenezer White. It remained in his hands, and 
in those of his son, until 1842, when it was purchased by Thomas F. Plunkett. 

The first town-meeting was held in the forenoon of the nth of May, 1761, 
at the house of Dea. Crofoot, which stood near the west end of Elm street. 
The only business transacted was the election of the following officers : David 
Bush, moderator ; William Williams, clerk ; David Bush, treasurer ; David 
Bush, Willam WiUiams and Josiah Wright, selectmen and assessors ; Jacob 
Ensign, constable; Gideon Goodrich, David Bush and E^li Root, highway sur- 
veyors ; Nathaniel Fairfield and WiUiam Francis, fence- viewers ; Simeon Cro- 
foot, sealer of leather and of weights and measures; Solomon Deming 
and David Noble, wardens ; and John Remington and Reuben Gunn, deer- 

Among the following biographical sketches, we have endeavored to give, in 
a brief, concise way, a sketch of as many of the early settlers and prominent 
citizens of ancient and modern times as our space would possibly admit, 
though we are conscious that many who have taken a prominent part as 
builders of Pittsfield's history, and many whom we pass by with regret^ are 
of necessity omitted. 

Charles Goodrich, whom we have previously mentioned as bringing the 
first team into the town, was a member of the provincial congress, a member 
of the general court a number of years, and a justice of the court of common 
pleas. He lived here sixty-three years, and died November 16, 1816, aged 
ninety-six years. 

Col. William Williams, who was among the early settlers of the town, was 
a chief justice of the court of common pleas, judge of probate, and a repre- 



sentative of the town for many years. He died April 5, 1788, aged seventy- 
five years. 

Israel Stoddard, son of the famous Col. John Stoddard, and an early sheriff 
of the county, was born at Northampton in 1741, and graduated at Yale in 
1758. He married Eunice, daughter of Col. Israel Williams, and settled in 
Pittsfield, where his father had such a large interest in lands. He was ap- 
pointed a justice of the peace in 1765, was a major in the Berkshire regi- 
ment, and received high consideration on the source of his own merits, as 
well as the social standing of his family. At the outbreak of the Revolution 
he naturally took the conservative side, and was so free in the utterance of 
his sentiments that he came to be regarded as a bitter Tory. And when the 
authorities of Pittsfield undertook to deal with him in the early part of 1775, 
he fled to New York. He returned, however, after a short period, but con- 
tinued to be watched and regarded with suspicion for two or three years 
longer. At length he gave in his adhesion to the " United States of America," 
and was a volunteer at the battle of Benington, in 1777. He died at Pitts- 
fied, June 27, 1782. 

Woodbridge Little was born at Colchester, Conn., in 1741, graduated at 
Yale in 1760, studied theology, and, it is said, preached for a time in Lanes- 
boro ; but he afterwards took up the study of the law, was admitted to the 
bar at the April term, 1764, and probably settled in Pittsfield about that 
time. He was made a justice of the peace in 1770, and seems to have been 
actively engaged in his profession up to the time when business in the courts 
ceased. He was a decided loyahst in the early part of the Revolution, fled 
to New York with Maj. Stoddard, and was afterwards arrested and tempo- 
rarily imprisoned, but subsequently made his peace with the Whigs and was a 
volunteer at the Battle of Bennington, in 1777. He appears to have been 
sincere in his convictions, and to have taken the loyal side conscientiously. 
But after 1777 he adhered faithfully to his new alliance, and was so fully re- 
stored to the confidence of his fellow citizens that he was chosen selectman 
in 1781, and for several successive years. He did not resume the practice of 
law in the re-organization of the courts, but continued to take a Uvely inter- 
est in church and state affairs, allying himself with the FederaHsts, as was 
inevitable with his conservative tendencies. He died July 21, 1813, leaving 
no children, and by will gave the bulk of his estate to Williams college. 

Daniel Jones was born at Weston, Mass., July 25, 1740, graduated at Har- 
vard in 1759, was admitted to the bar in Berkshire at the December term, 
1 76 1, and was the first lawyer who settled in Pittsfield. He was son of Col- 
onel Elisha Jones, who had a large interest in the town. His older brother, 
Elisha, was a settler here, and was nearly related to the WiUiams and Jones 
families in Stockbridge, all of which will account for his taking up his resi- 
dence here. The family were mostly loyalists and Elisha, Jr., became a refu- 
gee, and his estate was confiscated. Another brother, Isieal, was later a 
highly respected citizen of Adams, Daniel Jones remained in Pittsfield but 


a short time, though the records of the court seem to show that he had suffi- 
cient inducements to prolong his stay. His name "does not appear in the 
records of the April term, 1763, and in December of that year he mar- 
ried Lydia, daughter of Maj. Elijah Williams, of Deerfield, and removed to 
Hinsale, N. H., where he was a reputable lawyer and judge, dying in 1786 
and leaving descendants who are widely scattered. 

Col. John Brown was born in Sandisfield, October 19, 1744, graduated 
from Yale in 1771, studied law in Rhode Island, and commenced practice in 
Pittsfield in 1773. He was elected a delegate to the provincial congress, 
was a member of the general court, and in December, 1775, marched at the 
head of a regiment of militia to Mount Independence. After the battle of 
Bennington^ being sent by General Lincoln with a detachment to surprise 
the garrison at Ticonderoga and Mount Independence, then in the hands of 
the British, he made himself master of the outposts, took an armed ship, sev- 
eral gun-boats, 200 batteaux, a quantity of arms and ammunition, and re-took 
a standard and about one hundred American prisoners. Not being able to 
capture the forts, however, he returned to General Lincoln with his booty. 
He was killed at Stone Arabia, in Palantine, N. Y., in an ambuscade of Can- 
adians, Tories and Indians, on his birthday, October 19, 1780, at the age of 
thirty-six years. 

Rev. Thomas Allen was born at Northamton, Mass. January 17, 1773. He 
was educated at Harvard, graduated in 1762, studied theology under the in- 
struction of Rev. Mr. Hooker, of Northamton, and on the i8th of April, 1764, 
was ordained as the first minister of Pittsfield, where, during a ministry of forty- 
six years, he labored to promote the temporal as well as the spiritual wel- 
fare of the town. Mr. Allen was simple and courteous in his manners, zeal- 
ous in matters of belief, warm in his attachments, and frank in his reproofs 
of those he considered in the wrong. His frankness and zeal sometimes ex- 
posed him to the charge of indiscretion. Convinced that the American Rev- 
olution was founded in justice, he engaged in it upon a principal of duty. He 
was chairman of the committee of correspondence, chosen by the town in 
1774. Constitutionally ardent and intrepid, he was impelled in those trying 
times to take up arms in his country's cause. When a detachment of Bur- 
goyne's troops had penetrated as far as the vicinity of Bennington, he marched 
with the volunteer militia of this town to meet and repel the invasion. Be- 
fore the attack was commenced, being posted opposite to that wing of the 
enemy which was principally composed of refugees, who had joined the in- 
vaders, he advanced in front of our militia, and in a voice distinctly heard by 
those Tories, in their breast-works, exhorted them to lay down their arms, 
assuring them of good treatment, and warning them of the consequences of a 
refusal. Having performed what he considered a religious duty, and being 
fired upon, he resumed his place in the ranks, and when the signal was given, 
was among the foremost in attacking the enemy's works. He was a Colonist 
in sentiment, and in ecclesiastical government, a Congregationalist, believing 


that Congregationalism in the church was analogous to republicanism in the 
state. On principal he was opposed to Presbyterianism and Episcopacy, as 
he was to aristocracy and monarchy in civil government. He died February 
II, 18 10, aged sixty-seven years. During his ministry 341 were admitted to 
the church. 

Colenel Simon Larned, who came here in 1784, was born at Thompson, 
Conn., in 1756. He was an officer of merit in the Revolution, represented 
this district in congress, was sheriff of the county many years, and was col- 
onel of the 9th U. S. Infantry during the war of 1812. He died here No- 
vember 16, 181 7, aged sixty-one years. 

Colonel Oliver Root, another early settler, came from Westfield. He served 
as a soldier in the second French war, was an officer in the Revolution, and 
was with Colonel Brown when he was killed, in 1780. He died May 2, 1826, 
aged eighty-five years. 

Thomas Gold, a distinguished lawyer of his time, was born in Cornwall, 
Conn., graduated from Yale in 1788, and settled here in 1792. He held va- 
rious town offices and was president of the agricultural society and of the 
Agricultural bank. 

Hon. Timothy Childs, M. D., was born at Deerfield, in 1748, entered 
Harvard college, studied medicine, and in 1 771, at the age of twent3^-four 
years, commenced practice in Pittsfield. He entered the army in 1774, and 
did not resume his practice here until 1777, which he continued until within a 
week of his death, which occurred February 20, 182 1, at the age of seventy- 
three years. He represented the town many years in the legislature, was a 
member of the Massachusetts Medical Society, and president of the district 
society, composed of fellows of the State society. His son. Dr. Henry Hal- 
sey Childs, born in 1783, graduated from WiUiams college in 1802. He 
became one of the most prominent and honored citizens of the town. He 
was one of the most active and energetic promoters of the Berkshire 
Medical Institution. The school which was located in the old Pittsfield hotel, 
went into operation in 1822. In April, 1863, at the age of eighty years. Dr. 
Childs resigned his professorship though he retained the presidency from 
1837 during the life of the institution. The war and other causes, together 
with the better facilities offorded by the heavily endowed city schools, served 
to depress the school here, and the institution was practically closed in 
1867-68, and in 187 1 the building was sold to the town, which remodeled 
it for the use of its high and grammar schools. J. E. A. Smith says of this 
school in his History of Pittsfield: "In an existence of forty-four years it had 
graduated eleven hundred and thirty-eight doctors of medicine, who held a 
rank in their profession equal to that of those sent out by any college. It 
had had a large share in the advancement of medical science and the eleva- 
tion of medical character. It had attracted to Pittsfield in its faculty and 
others, persons of culture, who had adorned the society of the village while 
they mingled with it, and left it the better for their presence. And, when it 


could no longer creditably perform the work which was entrusted to it, it 
gracefully yielded the place to those who could." 

Hon. Ezekiel Bacon, son of John Bacon, was born at Stockbridge in 1776, 
graduated from Yale, and came to Pittsfield in 1806. He was a member of 
the State legislature in 1805-06 ; chief justice of the court of common pleas 
in 1813 ; first comptroller of the United States treasury from 1813 to 1815; 
and representative in congress from 1807 to 18 13. He subsequently removed 
to Utica, N. Y., and was a delegate to the constitutional convention of 

Hon. George N. Briggs was born in Adams, April 12, 1796. He com- 
menced life by learning the trade of a hatter; spent one yeir in an academy ; 
studied law and was admitted to the bar in i8i8 ; was a representative in 
congress from 183 1 to J 843, officiating during the twenty-seventh congress 
as chairman of the committee on the postoffice ; and from 1844 to 1851 was 
governor of the State. From 1853 to 1859 he also held the position of 
judge of the court of common pleas, having been a member of the State con- 
stitutional convention of 1853, and registrar of deeds from 1824 to 1831. 
He was a trustee of Williams college for sixteen years, and was a noted ad- 
vocate of the temperance cause. He died in 1 861, from effects of an acci- 
dent received from a gun. 

Theodore Pomeroy was born in Pittsfield, September 2, 1813, and died 
here September 26, 1881, aged sixty-eight years. He was the eighth of the 
twelve children of Lemuel and Mrs. Hart Pomeroy, his father being a grand- 
son of Gen. Seth Pomeroy, an officer of note in the French and Indian war 
and one of the four selected by the general court of Massachusetts at the 
opening of the Revolution to command its armies, which position he modestly 
declined, however, giving as a reason his advanced age ; but he served 
with credit at Banker Hill, and subsequently as colonel, until he died in camp 
at Peekskill, N. Y., in February, 1777. The Pomeroy family, however, had 
also a civil record quite as honorable as its military. Eltweed and Eldred, 
the first of the family in America, are recorded in Dorchester, where they first 
settled, as " men of independent and liberal minds, in good circumstances and 
of respectable standing," and such, as a rule, their descendants have ever 
since been. The branch of the family of which Theodore was for many 
years previous to his death the head, have been manufacturers or artizans of 
exceptional skill and enterprise, for seven generations — or, including his sons 
and successors, eight. Eldad, the son of Eltweed, having received a grant of 
1,000 acres of good land in Southampton, as an inducement for him to 
establish himself there as a gunsmith and blacksmith, the grant being still in 
the possession of one branch of the family. Seth Pomeroy, before he was 
made a general, also lived at Southampton and carried on his art as a skill- 
ful manufacturer of firearms. 

Lemuel Pomeroy, the father of Theodore and grandson of General Seth, 
is one of the most noted in the annals of the family, and was also one of the 


most noted and enterprising of the citizens of Pittsfield. He was bom in 
Southampton in 1778, and came to Pittsfield in 1799, bringing with him the 
very anvil which his ancestor, Eldad, had carried up the narrow Bay Path 
from Windsor to Southampton, and which his descendants still preserve among 
the most precious of their many heirlooms. He first established himself here as 
a blacksmith, but in 1806 he entered upon his ancestral business, the manufac- 
ture of firearms. His small musket factory he soon enlarged so as to be able to 
contribute several thousand stand of arms annually to the supply of the national 
army and to the mihtia of the several States, until 1846, when the government, 
with his advice, began to manufacture its own arms. The income from this lucra- 
tive business he devoted for the most part to building up in the face of innu- 
merable obstacles, one of the feeble early woolen manufactories until it 
became one of the most successful and respected in the State. This enter- 
prise at last brought him in large profits, though near the close of his Hfe Mr. 
Pomeroy is said to have remarked that his " experience as a woolen manufac- 
turer had been a hand to hand conflict with obstacles, now of one kind, now of 
another," and that as to the results, " he would gladly exchange all his pro- 
fits for two percent, upon the outlay." 

Lemuel Pomeroy was also a man of great public spirit. He erected ex- 
tensive buildings to enable his son-in-law, Prof. Dewey, the distinguished 
naturalist, to estabHsh the great school knows as the Berkshire Gymnasium, 
and which were finally occupied by the Maplewood Young Ladies' Institute, 
another flourishing educational institution. He also built the town-hall — a 
good one for its day — the town furnishing the site, and being a partner with 
his heirs in its ownership to a late day. Indeed, there was scarcely and pub- 
lic movement in Pittsfield in which he did not have a prominent part and 
generally a controlling influence ; but that of the largest interest, and for 
which the people of Pittsfield owe his memory the deepest gratitude, was his 
influence in securing the route of the Western, now the Boston and Albany, 
railroad through the town, in preference to one further south. The result of 
this spirit of enterprise, public and private, was that in 1839 he had invested 
largely in various species of property, from a church edifice to workman's 
cottage, and was conducting the most extensive business in Berkshire county, 
taking it in all of its branches. In that year, having purchased .he interest 
of his partner and kinsman, Josiah Pomeroy, in the woolen factory, he 
admitted as partners his sons Theodore and Robert, the firm name being 
Lemuel Pomeroy & Sons. Lemuel, Jr., his eldest son, was afterward connected 
with the famous blast furnace at Copake, N. Y., being then his father's prin- 
cipal assistant in the musket factory, while Edward, the youngest, being not 
twenty-one years old, was a practical iron worker. 

Theodore Pomeroy was at this time twenty-six years old. He had been 
educated at the Pittsfield Academy and at the Gymnasium of his uncle, Prof. 
Chester Dewey. In 183 1, at the age of eighteen, he began his business edu- 
cation as his father's clerk in the Pomeroy factory, there thoroughly fitting 



himself for the position which he was soon to assume and occupy to his Ufe's 
end. In 1849 his father died, leaving a large estate, and a will in which, 
after properly providing for other members of the family, he made his three 
sons, Theodore, Robert and Edward, then resident in Pittsfield, his residuary 
lec^atees. The will further provided for the continuance of the business by 
these sons, under the firm name of Lemuel Pomeroy's Sons, Theodore 
being at the head of the firm. In 1878 the business had increased to mam- 
moth proportions, and the old firm, L. Pomeroy's Sons, was dissolved, Theo- 
dore purchasing the interest of Robert, Edward having sold his interest to 
them several years previous. Theodore continued the firm name, and his 
son, S. Harris, attainmg his majority soon after, he admitted him as a part- 
ner. In addition to the woolen mills, the store, fine residence and other 
valuable real estate connected with them, Mr. Pomeroy, at his death, owned 
a large interest in the Greylock mill, at North Adams, and was president of 
the company, as well as a large amount of other property of different kinds 
variously distributed. He was one of the principal founders of the Pittsfield 
bank, and from its organization to his death was one of its most valued di- 
rectors, and was also for many years a director of the Berkshire Life Insurance 
Company. Mr. Pomeroy neither sought nor accepted political office, though 
whenever the manufacturers of the country met in council he had a high 
place among them, where the utmost confidence was placed in his judgment 
and wisdom, and on these occasions he showed abilities which would 
have well fitted him for either legislative or executive positions. Perhaps the 
greatest tribute one could give his memory is to quote the following remark, 
from one who knew him best : " In whatevei" relation Theodore Pomeroy is 
considered, those most highly esteemed him who knew him most intimately 
and truly." Mr. Pomeroy married three times, as follows : In 1836, to Fannie, 
daughter of Hon. Ezekiel Bacon, of Utica, N. Y., but formerly of Pittsfield, 
who died in 1851, by whom he had two children, who died in infancy; in 
1S52, to Mary, daughter of Col. Silas Harris, of Pine Plains, N. Y., who bore 
him six children, of whom Fanny (Mrs. W. L. Brown, of North Adams), Mar- 
garet H. (Mrs. W. P. Washbun, of Chicago), Mary (Mrs. Frank Russell, of 
Pittsfield,) and S. Harris are living. She died in 1863. In 1866, he married 
Laura C. Knapp, of New York, who bore him two children, one of whom, 
Theodore L., is now living. She survives him. 

Hon. Henry L. Dawes was born in Cummington, Mass., October 30, 
1816, graduated at Yale in the class of 1839, was admitted to the bar in 
1842, and commenced practice at North Adams, where, for a time, he edited 
the Transcript. While a student he taught school and edited the Greenfield 
Gazette. He represented North Adams in the legislature of 1848, 1849 and 
1852, and in the constitutional convention of 1853. In 1853 he was elected 
to the State senate. He was district attorney of the western district from 
1853 until elected to the thirty-fifth congress, in 1857, wherein he served as 
a member of the committee on Revolutionary claims ; was re-elected to the 



thirty-sixth congress, serving on the committee on elections ; re-elected to 
the thirty-seventh congress, serving as chairman of the committee on elec- 
tions ; re-elected to the thirty-eighth congress, serving on same committee, and 
to the thirty-ninth the same, also serving on that on weights and measures. 
He was also a delegate to the Philadelphia " Loyalist's Convention" of 1866, 
and re-elected to the fortieth congress, serving again at the head of the commit- 
tee on elections. In 1874 he declined a re-nomination, and in the following 
session of the legislature was chosen a United States senator, which office he 
now holds. 

Hon. Henry Chickering, son of Rev. Joseph and Sarah A. Chickering, was 
born at Woburn, Mass., September 3, 181 9, and died at his residence in 
Pittsfield, March 5, 1881, aged sixty-one years and six months. When Mr. 
Chickering was three years of age his parents removed to Phillipston, Mass., 
where he received a common school and academic education, and later, after 
a short term in the Phillips Academy, at Andover, he entered the printing 
office of Gould & Newman, of Andover, to learn the printer's trade, being 
then fourteen years of age. In 1844 he purchased the TranscnJ>f, of North 
Adams, continuing his connection with that paper until 1855, during which 
year he took up his residence in Pittsfield, having, in 1853, purchased an 
interest in the Eagle of this place, which he retained until his death. On the 
formation of the Republican party, Mr. Chickering identified himself with it, 
attending the first Republican convention held in the State, and earnestly sus- 
tained its interests during his remainmg hfe, having also been a prominent 
and influential member of the Whig party. When the party came into power, 
in 1 86 1, he was appointed postmaster in Pittsfield, a position he retained for 
twenty years, or until death released him from earthly duties. In 1833-54, 
during the administrations of Governors Clifford and Washburn, he was a 
member of their councils, and from i860 to 1868, when he resigned, he was 
a trustee of the Reform school, at Westboro. In 1843, Mr. Chickering be- 
came a member of the Congregational church of Phillipston, was a deacon of 
the church at North Adams for many years, and in i860 was elected a dea- 
con of the first church in Pittsfield, retaining the office until 1873, when he 
resigned. He was also for many years a prominent member of the Masonic 
order, having united with the LaFayette Lodge, of North Adams, in 1851 
his first step in that direction. In 1863 he received all the degrees of the 
Scottish Rite, up to and including the thirty-second, and in September, 1880, 
was elected to the rarest of the Masonic degrees, the thirty-third. Mr. Chick- 
ering was twice married, his first wife being Miss Martha Newton, of Phil- 
lipston, who died in 1843, after a wedded life of about eighteen months, 
leaving a son who survived her three years. In October, 1844, he married 
Miss Elvira P. Allen, of Bowe. Mass., who survives him, having borne him 
three children, John A., Sarah C, and WiUiam H., only tlie latter of whom is 
iving, a rising lawyer of San Francisco, in partnership with a son]of Judge 
Thomas, of Boston. 



Edwin Clapp, son of Jason Clapp, was born in Pittsfield, May i, 1809, and 
died here July 27, 1884. His father came to Pittsfield, from Northampton, 
in 1802, and established the afterwards famous carriage manufactory in Pitts- 
field about the time of Edwin's birth, and in which Edwin became a partner. 
Mr. Clapp took an active interest in town affairs, was among the first in most 
important public undertakings, and took an especial interest in the fire 
department, of which he was for many years a member. Mr. Clapp was 
twice married, first to Miss Emily, daughter of Capt. Jabez Peck, who bore 
him three children, all of whom died young, and next to Miss Mary, daughter 
of the late Calvm Martin, who survives him with one daughter, one child 
having died in infancy. 

Josiah Carter, a native of Portland, Me., who settled here in 1841, formed 
a partnership in 1846, with Capt. Curtis T, Fenn, (a dry goods m'erchant 
here since 1814,) under the title of Fenn & Carter, as dealers in carpets and 
paper hangings. They carried on business for twenty-five years on 
Bank row. In 187 1 Mr. Fenn died, but the old firm name was 
retained until 1882, when Edgar T. Lawrence was admitted to partnership, 
under the firm name of Carter & Lawrence. This is the oldest carpet store 
in town. Mr. Carter has been town treasurer several years, is one of the 
directors of the Agricultural national bank, the Berkshire Life Insurance 
Company, the Berkshire savings bank, having been a director of the life insu- 
rance company since its organization. 

Nathan G. Brown, born at Preston, Conn. ^ January 27, 18 18, came to Pitts- 
field, July 20, 1838, as a supply contractor, for the contractors who were build- 
ing the Albany & Boston R. R. He married Sarah Brown, of this place, Novem- 
ber 25, 1841, and has always been more or less engaged in manufacturing 
business both in this place and in Curtisville. He was a member of the leg- 
islature from this place in 1862 and 1863, and has held many important town 
offices, being always actively identified with town affairs. He was also one 
of the prime movers in organizing the Kellogg Steam-power Company, and 
was its first president. He was appointed special sheriff in 1880, re-appointed 
m 1883, and is now one of Pittsfield's largest land owners and taxpayers. 
He has three children, Agnes M., Charles H. and Jessie L. 

Jacob Stewart was born in New Baltimore, Greene county, N. Y., Febru- 
ary 7, 1820, learned the carpenter's trade, and in 1847 came to Pittsfield, and 
has been engaged in the builders' trade since. He married Margaret Rob- 
erts, and has three sons, two of whom live in Pittsfield. 

Stephen V R. Daniels was born in Stephentown, N. Y., February 28, 1813, 
and came to Pittsfield in 1839, locating in the village. He married Louis 
D. Hart, of Pittsfield, in November, 1836, rearing three children — Clara, 
who was born in 1849 and died in 1845; Emma L., born in 1849, and Ella 
I., born in 185 i. Emma L. is the wife of Ralph B. Bardwell, cashier of the 
Third National bank, and has one child, one, Bertie B., having died at the 
age of four years. Ella is the wife of Henry R. Peirson, of the firm of Peirson 


& Son, hardware dealers of Pittsfield. Mrs. Daniels died September 4, 1877, 
aged sixty-nine years. When Mr. Daniels first came to this town he engaged 
in the bakery business on West street, which he continued ten years, during 
which time he commenced the business of wholesaling flour and grain, which 
he continued twenty-seven years. Mr. Daniels had also dealt largely in real 
estate, and now resides with his son-in-law, Mr. Bardwell, on Daniel's avenue, 
the street named in his honor. He has served on the finance committee of 
the savings bank for the past four years, and has been tendered offices in 
the local affairs of the town, though he has never accepted the honor, pre- 
ferring to leave those offices to those who could better afford to devote the 
time to their faithful discharge. 

Dr. Oliver Brewster, one of the officers in the regiment commanded by 
Colonel John Brown at the battle of Stone Arabia, in the Mohawk Valley, 
N. Y., in October, 1780, was a surgeon, the only officer not from Pittsfield, 
his home at that time being at Partridgefield, now Peru. He was born in 
Lebanon, Conn., April 2, 1760, and died February 12, 1812, at Becket, 
Mass., where, after leaving the army, he began, and continued till death, the 
practice of medicine. His father was of the fifth generation of Elder William 
Brewster, of the Plymouth colony, and his mother was of the third genera- 
tion of Governor WilHam Bradford, of the same company. He was a godly 
man, and in the absence of a pastor, his solemn counsels to his patients, and 
his fervent prayers with and for them were blessed to their good. He was a 
faithful physician and successful, particularly in acute diseases. He fell in an 
apoplectic fit at a house where he was making a professional visit, dying in 
six hours later. 

Dr. John Milton Brewster, the only son of Dr. Oliver Brewster, was born 
at Becket, Mass., October 22, 1789. Graduating at the Boston Medical 
School in 1812, he arrived at home the very day his father died, and at once 
succeeded him in the practice of his profession. After a busy life of nine 
years at Becket, and sixteen years at Lenox, where he held some positions of 
trust, he removed to Pittsfield and continued his profession thirty years more, 
making in all fifty-five years. Here he owned and occupied one of the old- 
est houses of the place — now 23 East street, still unchanged, and built pre- 
vious to 1790, by Colonel Simon Earned, paymaster of the United States 
army. He was among the most active early anti-slavery men of this town, a 
genial christian man, respected and beloved, Uving to a good old age, being 
nearly eighty at his death, May 3, 1869. 

Dr. Oliver Ellsworth Brewster, oldest son of Dr. John Milton Brewster, 
was born at Becket Mass., January 31, 1816. He graduated at Williams 
college in 1834, and at the Berkshire Medical college four years later, com- 
mencing then to practice, in company with his father, in Pittsfield. In Au- 
gust, 186 1, he received a commission from the surgeon-general of Massa- 
chusetts to appoint such surgeons as he deemed competent to examine re- 
cruits for the government service in Western Massachusetts, he himself ex- 


amining those raised in Pittsfield and vicinity, which position he held till Au- 
gust, 1863, when he was commissioned surgeon of the 40th Regt. Mass. Vols. 
From the beginning of the war he had earnestly desired to serve his country, 
and it was his patriotism which induced him to leave a practice of over twenty 
years, lucrative and constantly increasing, and all the comforts of his delight- 
ful home, for the trials, hardships and dangers of camp life. Just before the 
regiment was ready to start he was authorized to go at once to the battle- 
ground, taking or sending other surgeons to help care for the great numbers 
wounded at the second Bull's Run battle. In the army his habits of purity, 
simplicity, unostentatiousness, were at first much in his way ; but after he be- 
came known, both officers and men saw that he was a conscientious, pains- 
taking officer, guided by stern principle, holding to his own judgment when 
he knew it to be right, which others at first diff"ering from him would often 
acknowledge. After serving the 40th regiment thirteen months, he was hon- 
orably discharged October 3, 1863, on account of severe sickness. On re- 
covery he resumed practice, held some positions in town, and was president 
of the Beskshire Medical Association at his death, September 12, 1866, at the 
age of fifty. He was a christian man, of noble, generous impulses, delighting 
in the society of his friends, to whom he was deeply attached, succumbing to 
death after a week's sickness of his army trouble, no earthly physician being 
able to cure him who had been skillful in caring for others, very many of 
them gratuitously. His two elder sons also served their country in the war 
of the Rebellion. 

Gen. William Francis Bartlett was born in Haverhill, Mass., June 6, 1840, 
the son of Charles Leonard Bartlett, and descended from a line of honora- 
ble ancestry of the Revolutionary period. He, in 1861, then a junior in. 
Harvard College, not yet twenty-one, enlisted as private in a militia company, 
and in July was commissioned captain in the 20th Mass. Regt., and went 
immediately into active service. By the death of his superior officer in the 
battle of Balls Bluff, in October, he became acting lieutenant-colonel. In 
1862 he was shot in the knee, while in charge of a picket line before York- 
town, and was obliged to have the limb amputated. This would have ended 
the military life of a less heroic man, but as soon as able he accepted the 
duties of organizing and took command of the 49th Mass. Regt., nine 
months' men, and was its honored and beloved commander until, in the bat- 
tle of Port Hudson, in May, 1863, his left wrist was shattered by a bullet, 
and he was forced to return home in advance of his regiment. His next 
position was colonel of the 57th Mass. Regt., of three years men, and he 
led it to the field in Virginia in 1864, where they participated in the battle 
of the Wilderness, in May, and he received a wound in the head. In June 
he was made brigadier-general. In July following, he was taken prisoner at 
the battle of Petersburg, and taken to Libby Prison, was exchanged in Sep- 
tember and took charge of the ist Div. 9th Corps of the Army of the 
Potomac, and in 1865 brevetted major-general. All this occurred before: 


he was twenty-five years of age. He was married to Agnes, eldest daughter 
of Col. Robert Pomeroy, of Pittsfield, in 1865, and went with her to Europe 
where he renewed an acquaintance with Garibaldi, which in his boyhood had 
begun, and had inspired his youthful mind with a worship for the Italian 
hero, and an ardor for military affairs. He lost no occasion in the years fol- 
lowing the war to speak words of reconciliation between the men so lately 
arrayed in battle against each other, and by his open hearted sincerity and 
honest patrotism he gained such a place in the hearts of his fellow country- 
men as few can acquire though they live to twice his years. He died in 
Pittsfield December 17, 1876, leaving a wife and six children. 

Caleb Goodrich, a native of Wethersfield, Conn., and a tailor by trade, 
came to Pittsfield previous to the Revolution. He was quarter-master in the 
Continental army, and was present at Burgoyne's surrender. He died about 
three weeks subsequent to his return home. Of his ten children, Maj. But- 
ler and Orin remained in Pittsfield. Orin learned the carpenter's trade, but 
became a farmer. He married Lydia Sackett, and was the father of eight 
children. He married, for his second wife, Mary Bagg, by whom he had one 
daughter, now Mrs. Gilbert West. Chauncey Goodrich, who resides on South 
street, at the age of eighty-six, is the oldest son now living. He has been 
for twelve years one of the selectmen. Orin was for many years a member of 
the board of selectmen, and represented Pittsfield in the legislature six or 
seven years. Maj. Butler Goodrich married Lydia White, and had eleven 
children. His son George W., a farmer on road 12^, has lived in his present 
residence seventy-one years. He has one son in the customs department, 
in China, and a daughter, Mrs. Henry T. Dunham, in Norwich, N. Y. 

Robert Merriam, a descendant of Robert Merriam who emigrated to this 
country from England about 1620, came to Tyringham about 1775, where 
he resided until his death. His son, Robert, Jr., was born in 1782. 
He was a carpenter and joiner by trade, married Hannah Walker about 
1800, and located on a farm on West street, in Pittsfield, where he remained 
until his death, in 1839. But one of his nine children married, and but one, 
Lorenzo, who owns the homestead on West street, survives. A brother, Will- 
iam, married Lucy Fairfield, and reared two sons. 

Frazier Luce, oldest son of Trustian Luce, was born in Pittsfield, Novem- 
ber 7, 1807. Becoming lame from a fever sore when a boy, he adopted the 
Hfe of a peddler, for which he proved very capable, displaying a marked de- 
gree of financial ability, and acquiring an ample competence. He continued 
in his chosen business until 1850, when he began speculating in western 
land, and at the time of his death, in 1S69, was a large real estate owner. 
He married A. M. Schofield. 

Deacon Almiron D., son of Deacon Daniel H. Francis, was born in Pitts- 
field. May II, 1807, and has always resided here. He married Lucy 
Churchill for his first wife, by whom he had three children — Lucy M., Henry 
M., and James Dwight. His wife died in 1868. He afterwards married 


Mary E. Merrill. Mr. Francis was a carpenter for several years. After 
working for Gordon McKay some years he purchased Mr. McKay's interest 
in the machine shop, and formed a partnership with John E. Dodge, who, 
after several years, retired from the firm, David H. McCleary succeeding 
him. Mr. Francis has been a deacon of the Baptist church for the past 
twenty years. 

William Renne was born in Dalton, Mass., July 27, 1809. His education 
was hmited, and he entered the paper-mill of Zenas Crane at the age of 
twelve years, where he remained eight years, when he came to Pittsfield and 
began the manufacture of neck stocks, being the first person to engage in 
that business, and in which he continued about twelve years. He also man- 
ufactured Clough's Columbian Bells several years. Mr. Renne is widely 
known as the inventor of " Renne's Magic Oil," which he placed on the mar- 
ket in 1854, continuing with large annual sales until 1877, when he sold out 
to S. W. Warner, of New York. He has been a member of the Methodist 
church about sixty years. 

Ebenezer Dunham, born in Northampton in 1806, came to Pittsfield in 
182 1, when but a boy, and was apprenticed to his uncle, Jason Clapp, to 
learn the coachmaker's trade. He married Martha B. Carey, of West Brook- 
field, Mass., in 1832, and began business for himself about a year later, locat- 
ing on the spot where the Academy of Music now stands. In 1843 he erected 
the shop on North Pearl street, where his sons are now engaged in business. 
In 1874 he purchased the Jason Clapp shop, and, with his son George, worked 
both shops until his death, January 15, 1883, on Melville, corner of North 
street. He reared six children, all surviving him- — George C, in Middletown, 
Conn.; Maria B., Charles, and Samuel, in Pittsfield; Edward H., in Elyna, 
Ohio; and Mrs. Ella G. Hudson, in St. Louis, Mo. Mr. Dunham was one 
of the founders of the South Congregational church. 

John C. Parker, son of Linus Parker, was born in this town in 1822, and 
married Lydia A. Goodrich, December 8, 1856, by whom he had two sons 
and one daughter. He was a baker for a number of years, but the latter 
part of his Ufe was given up entirely to town trusts, and to the settlement of 
estates, as executor, guardian, and trustee. He was assessor eight years and 
a selectman six years, also a prominent Free Mason. He died December 8, 
1881, on the twenty-fifth anniversary of his marriage. 

Jabez and Elijah Peck, sons of Elisha, one of the early settlers of Lenox, 
came to Pittsfield, Jabez in 18 18, and Elijah in 1828, and engaged in mer- 
cantile business on East street. Elijah, born in Lenox, in 1791, married 
Harriet Isbell, rearing seven children, Mrs. N. P. Davis, Miss Julia H. 
and Charles O. Peck, of this town, now living. Elijah and Jabez began the 
manufacture of satinet warp in 1847, which mill is now owned by Jabez L., 
son of Jabez, who is also largely engaged in manufacturing cotton yarns 
and flannel cloths. Elijah Peck died October 5, 1878, and Jabez died March 
II, 1867. Jabez was, for many years the largest tinware manufacturer in 
Pittsfield. He was born in Berlin, Conn., in 1780. 


Amos C. Barber, from Russell, Mass.. came to Pittsfield in 1833, and 
entered the paint shop of Jason Clapp, where he learned the trade, and in 
which business, and in the same shop, he had continued fifty-two years. 
He painted the carriage presented by the city of Boston, to Franklin Pierce 
just previous to his inauguration as President, and another which was exhib- 
ited at the first World's Fair in London, about 1850-55. Mr. Barber married 
Harriet Parker in 1840, and reared three sons, one of whom, Theodore H., 
of Concord, N. H., survives. Mr. Barber is now living with his second wife, 
Susan Aldrich, of Worthington. 

J. M. Holland, a native of West Farms, N. Y., came to Pittsfield in 1830 
and learned the painters' trade, returning to New York, where, after a resi- 
dence of three years, he again came to Pittsfield and established himself in 
business, building the house in which he now hves, in 1842. He married 
Mary E. Lavery, three of his six children, George A., Walter B., and Mrs. 
William Gamwell, residing in town. Mr. Holland does an extensive busi- 
ness in his line. 

Hon. E. H. Kellogg, son of Elisha Kellogg, was born in Sheffield in 18 12. 
He graduated from Amherst in 1836, and began the practice of law in Pitts- 
field in 1838. He was also later engaged in the manufacture of woolen 
goods. In 1 841 he married Caroline L., daughter of David Campbell, the 
union being blest by three daughters, Elizabeth C. and May, who became 
successively, each the wife of William R. Plunkett, Esq.. and both of whom 
are now dead ; and Caroline, wife of William E. Cushing, of Cleveland, O. 
Mr. Kellogg was chosen representative several times, first in 1843, was twice 
speaker of the House, was once president of the Agricultural Bank, direc- 
tor of the Saving Bank, and holding many town offices. 

George W. Foot, born at Chester, Mass., in 1830, came to Pittsfield 
where he learned the mason's trade of Lewis Stoddard, with whom he after- 
wards entered into partnership, the firm continuing until Mr. Stoddard's 
death. Mr. Foot formed a partnership with Edgar Hodge for a short time, 
since which he has been alone in business. Many of the finest buildings in 
Berkshire county, among them, Peck's and Russell's mills in Pittsfield, L. L. 
Brown's paper mill in Adams, Weston's mill in Dalton, and Smith's paper 
mill at Lee, were built by him. 

Jacob Stewart was born in Baltimore, New York, in 1820, and came to 
Pittsfield in 1847, where he has since worked at the builders' trade. He 
married Maigaret Roberts, and had a family of three sons, who reside in 

Charles M. Whelden, born in Boston, Mass., in 182 1, was the son of 
Quaker parents. His father being a brass and iron worker, he was brought 
up to that trade, but having a taste for the druggist business he engaged in 
this at the age of twenty-six. In 1841 he became a member of the " Wash- 
ington Light Guards," at Boston, in 1850 joined the " Ancient and Honor- 
able Artillery." He came to Pittsfield and purchased the drug store of 


Peck & Olds, in 1851, which he conducted until 1874. In 1853 he joined 
the Pittsfield Guard, Co. A, 3d Division, as sergeant, becoming captain in 
1859, which office he held until i860. He went in the 8th Mass. Regiment 
as a volunteer staff officer in April, 1861, at the close of the three months 
term service he beeame a recruiting officer, and, in conjunction with Major 
A. M. Brown, raised companies in Berkshire county, three of which were 
mustered into the loth Regiment. He afterwards labored incessantly rais- 
ing men for the United States service^ until October, i86r, when he began to 
raise the Western Bay State Regiment, under Maj.-Gen. B. F. Butler. In 
November he had raised several companies and was mustered into the 
United States army as lieut-colonel, and November 18, 1861, commander 
of camp Seward (now the Agricultural Fair grounds at Pittsfield). In Jan- 
uary, 1862, he went in command of the regiment then numbered 31st Mass., 
to Ship Island, and when Gen. Butler entered New Orleans, his command 
was the first to land. After the transfer of his command from the United 
States to the Mass. roll. Gov. Andrews refusing, from personal motives, to 
give him a commission, he resigned his position, and served on Gen. Butler's 
staff while in New Orleans. Afterwards becoming a provost marshall gen- 
eral of the department of Virginia, where he served until the close of the 

William Pollock was born in Renfrewshire, Scotland, in 1808. In his youth 
he learned the trade of a cotton spinner, in which he became an adept, and 
accumulated sufficient capital to bring him to Canada in 1835, where he 
tried farming, but soon after entered the employ of Gershom Turner, propri- 
etor of a small cotton mill near Troy, N. Y., in which Mr. Pollock soon 
became superintendent. He was also employed by James, son of Gershom 
Turner, to start another factory at East Nassau, N. Y. About 1840 he 
hired a small factory of George C. Rider, at Adams, Mass., entering into 
partnership with Nathaniel G. Hathaway, and they were enabled, in 1842, to 
purchase the mill. In 1845 '^hey purchased the mill privilege just below 
their mill and erected the " stone mill " now owned by the Renfrew Manu- 
facturing Company, which mill has since been somewhat altered. In 1848 
Mr. Hathaway sold out his interest to Hiram H. Clark, and in 1855 Mr, 
Pollock purchased his partner's interest, and conducted the business in his 
own name until 1865, when he received his nephews, James Renfrew, Jr., 
and James Chalmers, into partnership. The following year the mill privi- 
lege and the land now owned by the large brick mill of the Renfrew Manu- 
facturing Company, was purchased, and soon after the foundations of the 
mill laid. Mr. Pollock removed to Pittsfield in 1855, where he resided until 
his death. He also became a large stockholder in the Taconic Wool 
Company, the Pittsfield Wool Company, Washburn Iron Company of Wor- 
cester, and the Toronto Rolling rtiills in Canada. He was for several years 
president of the Pittsfield Bank, a trustee of the Berkshire Life Insurance 
Co., a director in the Western Massachusetts Fire Insurance Co., and a 



State director of the Western, now Boston & Albany railroad. On the 
organization of the 49th Regt. Mass. Vols., in 1861, he equipped at his own 
expense, one of its companies, known as the Pollock Guard. His first wife, 
whom he married in Scotland, died before his removal here, leaving one 
daughter, who became the wife of Benjamin Snow, of Fitchburg, Mass. His 
second wife was Lucy Gillson, of Adams, by whom he had one daughter 
deceased. He was united a third time in marriage, to Miss Susan M. Learned, 
sister of Hon. Edward and George G. Learned, of Pittsfield, and daughter 
of Edward Learned, contractor of the Boston Water Works. She now 
resides in Grey Tower, built by Mr. Pollock before his death. Mr. Pollock 
visited Europe in 1866, and died shortly after his return, at Fifth Avenue 
Hotel, in New York city, December 9, 1866, in his fifty-ninth year. Mr. 
Pollock achieved a distinguished reputation as a manufacturer, and amassed a 
large fortune. 

Noah B. Barrett, of Richmond, went to Hinsdale with his parents when 
young, where he spent most of his lifetime on the farm now owned by his son, 
Gilbert A. He died in 1 881, at the residence of his son, H. N., in Pitts- 

Hosea Merrill, born in Hebron, Conn., in i86r, came to Pittsfield at the 
age of nineteen, locating where the government paper mill now stands. He 
served in the Revolution, being sentinel at the time that Major Andre was 
shot, and was wounded. He married Sarah Phillips, rearing nine children — 
four sons, farmers, locating in Pittsfield. One son, Ayers P., was a physician 
and surgeon in the regular army, and located at Natchez, Miss. Philip was 
born in this town, October 12, 1790, and married Frances A. Stanton, rear- 
ing four children, all now living. He was a large farmer, and died in 1873. 
His son, John C., born in 1820, married Elizabeth Childs, and has six chil- 
dren. He was representative to the general court in 1867, and has held 
other offices for years. 

Thomas D. Thompson came to Pittsfield about the time of the Revolution, 
in which war he served as soldier. He lived and died near the village, and 
had a family of four children. Thomas D. Thompson, of Dalton, is a de- 

Joseph W. Russell, now residing in Pittsfield, was born in Sunderland, 
Franklin county, Mass., March 17, 181 1. He married Myra Taylor, of 
Hawley, at South Deerfield, in 1835. In 1838 he removed to Dalton, where he 
lived until 1876, rearing six children, three of whom are now living — E. J. 
Russell, of North Adams • Lucy E. Barrett, of Hinsdale ; and Martha A. 
Russell, of Pittsfield. Joseph W. Russell was for nine years chairman of the 
board of selectmen, of Dalton, and served the town in some capacity nearly 
every year of his residence there. 

John C. West, son of Abel J., came, to Pittsfield from Vernon, Conn., and 
began business here as boot and shoe merchant, in 1836, under the firm 
name of John C. West & Co., Jabez and Elijah Peck being associated with 


him as partners. In 1839 this partnership was dissolved, and Mr. West, in 
company with Doria Tracy, now of Toledo, Ohio, began a general mercan- 
tile business on the corner of North street and Park row, where the former 
has since been located. Mr. Tracy withdrew from the firm in 1844, when 
Mr. West's younger brother, Gilbert, was taken into partnership, since which 
no change has been made. So Mr. West has now the honor of being longer 
in business here than any other merchant now in Pittsfield. He has been a 
selectman twenty years, being chairman of the board nineteen consecutive 
years, and has also represented the district in general court several terms. As 
chairman of the board of selectmen, he had much to do with raising the 
town's quota of soldiers during the late war. 

The First Congregational church. — December 9, 1763, the town decided 
to invite Rev. Thomas Allen, of Northampton, to preach to them on proba- 
tion, and under his ministration was formed "The Church of Christ in Pitts- 
field." On the 7th of February, 1764, "a number of members belonging to 
different churches" met at the house of Deacon Crofoot — Rev. Samuel Hop- 
kins, of Great Barrington, Rev. Stephen West, of Stockbridge, and Rev. 
Ebenezer Martin, of Becket, being also present. A Confession of Faith and 
a Covenant were drawn up, and signed by eight male members, "who then 
and there united so as to form a Church of Christ in this place." These 
eight original members were Stephen Crofoot, Ephraim Stiles, Daniel Hub- 
bard, Aaron Baker, Jacob Ensign, WiUiam Phelps, Lemuel Phelps, and 
Elnathan Phelps. Col. Williams, Capt. Goodrich, and other prominent citi- 
zens were connected with churches in other places, but, a few months later, 
joined this church. In 1817, upon the reunion of the parish, which was 
divided in 1809, the name of the First Congregational Church was adopted 
in place of the old designation. The first church building stood directly in 
front of the site occupied by the present church. It was a plain, angular, 
framed building, two stories in height, forty-five by thirty-five feet, and twenty 
feet high, with peaked roof and square windows. Its broad side faced the 
street, while in the middle of its south, east and west sides were doors of the 
same Quakerish fashion as the windows. Plain and barn-like though this 
building was, however, it was commenced in 1761, and not finished until 
1770. At its "raising" the workmen were voted four shillings per day for 
their services, though they were paid only three shillings, the fourth being 
reserved "to pay for the rum and sugar" used. In 1793, a new 
building was erected, and in 1853 the present stone structure took its place, 
the chapel being built in 1870. The original cost of the buildings was 
$28,000.00 for the church, and $21,300.00 for the chapel, the former being 
capable of seating 1,200 persons and the latter about 600, while the entire 
property is now valued at $75,000.00. The church has 484 members, with 
Rev. Jonathan L. Jenkins, pastor. 

The Methodist Episcopal church, \oc3ittd on Fenn street^ was organized in 
1791, by its first pastor. Rev. Robert Green. The first church building, 




erected in 1828, gave place, in 1872, to the present elegant brick structure 
which was erected at a total cost of $115,000.00. It has accommodations, 
including lecture room, for 1,600 persons, and is valued, including grounds, 
at $120,000.00. The society has 682 members, with Rev. George Skene, 

The Baptist church. — A small Baptist society was formed here in 1772^ 
under the ministrations of Valentine Rathbun. In 1780, he and his people 
joined the Shakers, though they only remained three months, when Mr. Rath- 
bun renounced their doctrines, but was not able to re-collect the whole of his 
flock, though the church had, in 1786, twenty-four members. About 1798 
it became extinct, and on the 27th of October, 1800, a new society was 
formed, with sixteen members, the organization taking place at the house of 



John Francis, who became their first pastor, the first communion being observed 
August 3, iSoi. But it was not until December 27, 1849, that the church 
became a regularly incorporated body. Their first church building was erected 
in 1827, and was succeeded by the present structure, located on North street, 
in 1850. The society is now in a prosperous condition, with Rev. E. O. 
Holyoke, pastor. 

Sf. Stepheji s Protestant Episcopal church, located on Park place, was organ- 
ized according to law in 1830, consisting of one male and two female mem- 
bers only. Rev. Edward Ballard was installed as the first rector, and in 1832 
the present fine stone building was erected, at a cost of $14,000.00. It will 
seat 400 persons and is valued, including grounds, at $25,000.00. The society 
now has 280 communicants, with Rev. William W. Newton, rector. 

The Second Congregational church. — In 1846, the colored people of Pitts- 
field, belonging to the various churches and congregations, came together 
and formed the Second Congregational church with twelve members. Rev. Dr. 
Todd, Hon. E. A. Newton, and other gentleman, took an active interest in 
the new church, and mainly through their eff"orts the present church building 
was re-constructed from an old Wesleyan Methodist church, being dedicated 
in the month of February of that year. Rev. Henry Highland Garnet, then 
of Troy, supplied the pulpit for a few Sabbaths, and was succeeded by Rev. 
Thomas P. Hunt, of Philadelphia, who remained a little over a year. In 
1849 they called Samuel Harrison, then a theological student, to labor as a 
missionary. In 1850 he was Hcensed to preach, and August 13th, of that 
year, he was ordained as pastor of the church, a position he now holds. During 
the war he servedfor a time as chaplain of one of the Massachusetts regiments. 
He has been pastor of the church continuously for tbe past twelve years. 
The society now has about fifty members, their church building and property 
being valued at $2,500.00. 

South Co7igregational church. — November 12, 1850, a colony of 130 per- 
sons was organized as the South Congregational church, being dismissed 
from the First church for that purpose. Rev. Samuel Harris, D. D., being 
ordained as their first pastor. Their first church building was destroyed by 
fire when nearly completed, and another was immediately built in its place, 
which was dedicated the day after the organization of the society, so that the 
building, considering the loss, cost $15,000.00. It is located on South street, 
will seat about 750 persons, and is valued, including grounds, at $14,000.00, 
while the society has also a parsonage valued at about $5,000.00. The so- 
ciety now has about 320 members. Its pastors have been, since Mr. Harris, 
Revs. Charles B. Boynton, D. D., Roswell Foster, Samuel R. Dimock, 
Edward Strong, D. D., Thomas Crowther, William Corruthers, and C. H. 
Hamlin, the present incumbent. 

-5"/. Jean LeBaptiste French Roman Catholic church. — About the year 1869, 
Rev. Mr. Lemarque, assistant pastor of St. Joseph's church, collected the con- 
siderable number of French CathoHcs in town, into a congregation by them- 



selves, to whom he preached in their own language. When the congregation 
of St. Joseph's took possession of their new church, the French Catholics 
purchased the old church, a neat, commodious wooden building. The pres- 
ent pastor is Rev. A. L. Desaulniers. 


St. Joseph's Roman Catholic church.— T\^Q first Catholic services were 
held here in 1835, at the house of a Mr. Daly, on Honasada street, by Rev. 
Father O'Callahan. of Vermont. From that time until 1839 Father O'Cal- 
lahan visited Pittsfield yearly until 1839, and was succeeded by Rev. John 
D. Brady, as mission priest, who, in 1844, bought of Henry Callender a lot 



on Melville street for a church and burial-ground, and the church was built 
that year. In 1854 the present pastor, Rev. Edward H. Purcell, was called 
to the charge. In 1864 the present fine stone structure on North street was 
commenced, the first ground being broken in July, and the corner-stone laid 
August 20th, the church being consecrated November 20, 1866. 

The GermaJi Evangelical Lutheran church. — In 1859, when the Protes- 
tant German population of Pittsfield was about 400, arrangements were made 
by a portion of them for divine service in their own language. These ser- 
vices were at first held in private houses, and with occasional visits by cler- 
gymen from New York. But in April, 1859, Rev. Augustus Grotrain, a 
learned and able minister of Albany, accepted a call, and organized the Ger- 
man Evangehcal Lutheran Church of Pittsfield. The town subsequently 
granted a pleasant site in the corner of First street burial-ground, where 
their church was erected, at a cost of $2,274.00, and which was dedicated 
September 14, 1865. The present pastor is Rev. John D. Haegar. 

RICHMOND lies in the western part of the county, in lat. 42°22 and 
long. 3°39', bounded north by Pittsfield and Hancock, east by Lenox, 
south by West Stockbridge, and west by the state line. The story of 
the original purchase of the town of the Indians, the re-creation of the town- 
ship, division of territory and changes of name have all been mentioned in 
connection with the sketch of Lenox, on page 207, to which we refer the 

The surface of the town is broken and picturesque, the central part, how- 
ever, being a charming valley extending north and south, with the highlands 
and mountains rising on the eastern and on the western borders. This 
depression mto valleys and uprising into rugged mountains has been accom- 
plished when nature was in her happiest mood, and she has left evidence 
thereof in the charming scenic beauty for which the town is so justly cele- 
brated. The high altitude, also, fanned by the pure upper strata of air, ren- 
ders the town remarkable for its healthfulness, while the arable, productive 
land yields a plentiful reward to the toils of the husbandman, so that Rich- 
mond is almost exclusively an agricultural district, containing not even a hint 
of the crowded village or still more crowded city. Numerous springs and 
rivulets abound, imparting unusual freshness to the verdure and salubrity to 
the atmosphere, though there are no large streams. Near the center valley 
is formed the water-shed of the town, from which the streams flow into Rich- 
mond pond, and south into the Housatonic. In the northern section are 
Ford, Roye's, Tracey and Plummet brooks, while in the southern section 
Coae and Griffin brooks, flowing southerly, unite and form Williams river, a 
tributary of the Housatonic. Perry's peak, lying in the northwestern part 
of the town, is the highest summit of one of the largest mountain masses in 



the Taconic range, which, like many of the others, has several minor 
prominences. It rises 1,030 feet from its base, which itself has an altitude 
of 1,050 feet above sea level. From it may be obtained one of the grandest, 
most extensive and most picturesque views afforded in the county, extend- 
ing to Greylock on the north. Mount Washington on the south, the Catskills 
on the west, and the Hoosac on the east. " In the south the Taconics raise 
their noble dome against the sky, while nearer, for an interval, they present the 
appearance of pyramidal summits, the convential form in which the abstract 
mountain range is represented, but which this rarely assumes to the eye, and 
never in reality. The far off Catskills can sometimes hardly be told from the 
massive clouds which overhang and mingle with them. At the western foot 
of the mountain in New York, gleams Whiting's pond, better known as 
Queechy Lake, one of the prettiest lakelets among the hills. Upon the other 
side one looks down upon Richmond pond, another pretty sheet of water, and 
moreover, a favorite with sportsmen. Eight miles away may be seen the 
spires of Pittsfield. Scattered all about are points of individual interest ; but 
it is the grand coup d' ceil, which it affords in several directions, that gives 
Perry's Peak its celebrity." 

Geologically considered, the formative rock of the township is talcose-slate, 
limestone and mica-slate, the first underlying the western part, and the latter 
the eastern part, with the limestojie region between them, where are found 
numerous deposits of iron ore. Richmond also is famous in scientific circles 
for its well-defined course of the " Richmond bowlder train." This is a range 
of bowlders of a peculiar chloritic schist, extending across Richmond and on 
southeastward, from Try's hill, in Columbia county, New York, and which 
were first discovered, or accounted for, in 1843, by Dr. Reed. These rocks 
were evidently dropped by floating ice during the glacial period. Some of them 
weigh many tons, while others are nothing more than pebbles. In Richmond, 
this trail of rocks is about three miles wide on the west hne of the town, 
while in the eastern part it may be reduced to two miles. They are found 
most numerous near the center of the current, and at the west base of the 
acchvities over which the current passed, where, as appearances indicate, the 
barque that floated them ran aground, and threw ballast over-board to top 
lighten, so as to pass through shallow water. Sometimes we find them on the 
ridges, scattered plentifully, as though they, by dragging the bottom, had 
been stopped in their course. On the east side of Lenox mountain, near the 
road passing from West Stockbridge to Lenox, are some thirty of these rocks 
lying in confused order, as though, in passing away from the mountain, the 
transporting power had made a fearful plunge, and left a part of its burden. 

In t88o Richmond had a population of 1,124. Iii ^883 the town em- 
ployed one male and five female teachers in its public schools, paying an 
average monthly salary of $24.00 to the male and $26.54 to the females. 
There were 286 school children in the town, while the entire amount raised 
for school purposes was $1,231.96. 



Richmond (p. o.), a hamlet containing one store and also a station on the 
Boston & Albany railroad, located a little southwest of the center of the town, 
is the nearest approach to a village the town has. The postoffice was estab- 
lished here in 1806, and has since been in the hands of only three famiUes, 
named Branch, Pierson and Williams, a WiUiams having had the office for 
the past forty-five years. 

Richmond Furnace (p. o.) located in the southwestern part of the town, 
is a small settlement located about the works of the Richmond Iron Com- 
pany, being mostly employees of that concern. They have also a small store 
here for their accommodation, though most of the trading done by the in- 
habitants of the town reaches Pittsfield. 

The Richmond Iron Company ^a°> oxx^xx^d^y organized as early as 1829, 
though it was not incorporated until 1842. Originally the company engaged 
in smelting only at the Richmond furnace, to which was added, at the time 
of incorporation, the Van Deusenville furnace, n Great Barrington, and in 
1863 the Cheshire furnace, of Cheshire, was added. The company has two 
ore-beds in Richmond, and also charge of one of the Leetbeds in West Stock- 
bridge. In Richmond, the company employs fifteen men at the furnace, 
fifty men in their mines near the furnace, and thirty men in their mine located 
on road 37. All the company's furnaces have been rebuilt, enlarged and im- 
proved, however, so that they now produce about 12,000 tons of iron per 
annum, giving employment to 700 hands. WiUiam H. Barnum, of Lime 
Rock, Conn., is president of the company, George Church, of Great Bar- 
rington, treasurer, and R. A. Burget, of Cheshire, agent. 

The settlement of the town was commenced in 1760, by Capt. Micah 
Mudge and family, who located in the southeastern part of the town, near 
the Stockbridge line, and his daughter Elizabeth was the first white child born 
in the town. Mr. Mudge and his family remained there alone during the 
summer, but, in the autumn, Ichabod Wood, from Rehoboth, moved in, 
and settled on the lot where the Congregational church now stands. There, 
three miles apart, these two settlers spent the long and rigid winter that 
followed. In 1761, Elijah and Isaac Brown, John Chamberlin, David Pixley, 
Joseph Patterson, and David, Timothy and Aaron Rowley moved in with 
their families, and settled in the southern and southwestern part of the town. 
In 1762 the settlement was extended into the western part by Joseph and 
Paul Raymond, and into the southeastern part by John and Daniel Slosson. 
In 1763 the eastern part was settled by Prince and Jonathan West, Jacob 
Redington, Stephen Benton, John Higby and John Bacon, and the northern 
part by David Rossiter and Benjamin Merriman. From this time forward 
the settlement increased rapidly, the population reaching its maximum about 
1791, which was 1,255 souls. During this period most of the families who 
came in up to 1774 or '75, were as follows: Nathan Peirson, from Long 
Island, Simeon and Elijah Tracy, from Preston, Ezekiel Olmsted, from Nor- 
walk, Ebenezer and Ephraim Welch, from Norwich, Eliphalet Redington, 


from Tolland, Silas and Aaron Parmelee, from Guilford, Edward Robinson 
and Samuel Fitch, from Stonington, Vine Branch, from Preston, Samuel 
Comstock Betts, from Wilton, David and Parker Stevens, and John Nichols, 
from North Killingworth, Benjamin Reeve, from Litchfield, Able Harrison, 
from Litchfield, Samuel Hockley, from Norwich, Benjamin Peirson, from 
Long Island, Benjamin Mer