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Full text of "Gazetteer of Grafton county, N. H. 1709-1886"

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PART FIRST. 



GAZETTEER 



Grafton County, N. H 



1709==1886. 

COMPILED AND PUBLISHED BY 

HAMILTON CHILD 



AUTHOR OF WAYNE, ONTARIO, SENECA, CAYUGA, TOMPKINS, ONONDAGA, MADI- 
SON, CORTLAND, CHEMUNG, SCHUYLER, STEUBEN. ORLEANS, HERKIMER, 
CHENANGO, NIAGARA, ONEIDA, MONROE. GENESEE, S.ARATOGA, MONT- 
GOMERY AND FULTON, ALBANY AND SCHENECTADY, RENSSELAER, 
WASHINGTON, WYOMING, LEWIS, COLUMBIA, SULLR^AN, SCHO- 
HARIE, OTSEGO, ULSTER, CHAUTAUQUA, ST. LAWRENCE, 
BROOME AND TIOGA, CATARAUGUS, ALLEGANY AND OTHER 
COUNTY DIRECTORIES IN NEW YORK STATE, AND ERIE 
AND CRAWFORD COUNTIES, THE BR.^DFORD OIL DIS- 
TRICT IN PENNSYLVANIA, BENNINGTON, RUT- 
LAND, ADDISON, CHITTENDEN, FRANKLIN 
AND GRAND ISLE, LAMOILLE AND ORLEANS 
WINDSOR AND WINDHAM COUNTIES IN 
VERMONT, BERKSHIRE CO., MASS. 
CHESHIRE COUNTY, N. H. 



PERMANENT OFFICE, - _ _ SYRACUSE, N. Y. 

ESTABLISHED 1866. 



"He that hath much to do, will do something wrong, and of that wrong must suffer the con- 
sequence ; and if it were possible that he should always act rightly, yet when such numbers 
are to judge of his conduct, the bad will censure and obstruct him by malevolence, and the 
good sometimes by mistake." — Samuel, Johnson. 



SYRACUSE, N. Y. : 

The Syracuse Journal Company, Peintees and Binders. 

Jime, 1886. 



Almanac or Calendar for 20 Years. 



D 


C 


B A 


G 


F 


E 


DC 


B 


* 


G 


1874 


1875 


1876 


1877 


1878 


1879 


1880 


i88i 


1882 


1883 


FE 


D 


■c 


B 


A G 


F 


E 


D 


C B 


^ 


1884 


1885 


1886 


1887 


1888 


1889 


1890 1 


1891 


1892 


1893 



I 8 


152229! Sun. 


Sat. 


Frid'y. 

Sat. 


Thurs. 


! Wed. 


Tues. 


Mon. 


2 9 


162330 Mon. 


Sun. 


Frid'y. 


Thurs. 


Wed. 


Tues. 


3 to 


17 2431 Tues. 


Mon. 


Sun. 


Sat. 


Frid'y. 


Thurs. 


Wed. 


411 


18 25'-..' Wed. 


Tues. 


Mon. 


Sun. 


Sat. 


Frid'y. 


Thurs. 


512 


1926 . . Thurs. 


Wed. 


Tues. 


Mon. 


Sun. 


Sat. 


Frid'y. 


613 


2027 . . Frid'y 


Thurs. 


Wed. 


Tues. 


Mon. 


Sun. 


Sat. 


714 


2128.. Sat. 


Frid'y. 


Thurs. 
C 


Wed. 


Tues. 


Mon. 


Sun. 


Jan. and Oct. A 


B 


D 


E 


F 


G 


May. B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


A 


August. C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


A 


B 


Feb., March, 

Nov. ^ 


E 


F 


G 


A 


B 


C 


June. E 


F 
G 


G 


A 


B 


C 


D 


Sept. and „ 
Dec. ^ 




B 


C 


D 


E 


April and 1 ^ 
July. ' ^ 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 



Exi'LANATioN.— Find the Year and observe the Letter above it; then look for the Month, and in ahne 
with it find the Letter of the Year; above the Letter find the Day and the figures on the !cft, in the same 
line, are the Says of the same name in the month. 

Leap Years have two letters; the first is used till the end of February, the second during the remaindc 
of the vear. 



INTRODUCTION. 

1169866 



In presenting to the public the "Gazetteer and Business Directory" of Graf- 
~ ton County, we desire to return our sincere thanks to all who have kindly 
^ aided in obtaining the information it contains, and rendered it possible to 
present it in the brief space of time in which it is essential such works should 
be completed. Especially are our thanks due to the editors and managers 
of the county papers for the uniform kindness they have evinced in calling 
3L- public attention to our efforts, and for essential aid in furnishing material for 
\- the work. We have also found valuable aid in the following : '"History of 
A<V'Coos Country," by Rev. Grant Powers; "History of Warren," by William Lit- 
tle ; "History of Bethlehem," by Simon BoUes ; "History of Charleston," by 
Rev. Henry H. Saunderson ; "History of Northfield, Mass.," by J. H. 
Temple and George Sheldon ; "Granite Monthly ;" "Belknap's New Hamp- 
shire ; " "Gazetteer of New Ham])shire." by John Farmer and Jacob B. 
Moore; "Gazetteer of New Hampshire," by Alonzo J. Fogg; "New Hamp- 
V, shire Churches," by Robert F. Lawrence; "State Adjutant General's Re- 
^ ports ; " "State Superintendent of Instruction's Report"; "New Hampshire 
*^'' State Atlas," by Comstock & Cline ; '•'New Hampshire As It Is," by Edwin 
A. Charleton'; "History of New England," by Rev. Henry White; "Hall's 
'Eastern Vermont," and in the various pamphlets and reports of a number of 
societies, institutions, corporations and towns. Our thanks are also due to 
the clergy throughout the county, and to Prof. Charles H. Hitchcock, of 
Dartmouth college ; Hon. Frederick Chase, of Hanover ; A. S. Batchellor, 
V.sq., and James R. Jackson, of Littleton ; W. F. Flint, B. S., of Winchester, 
N. H.; Hon. J. E. Sargent, of Concord ; Samuel Emery, of Lisbon ; Mark- 
infield Addey, of Bethlehem and New York ; William A. Wallace, of Canaan ; 
Rev. Charles A. Downs, of Lebanon ; Rev. J. Q. Bittenger, George W. 
Chapman, W. F. Westgate, of Haverhill; Col. Thomas P. Cheney, of Ash- 
land ; Ira. F. Chase, of Bristol ; Harry M. Morse, of Lisbon ; Dr. C. F. 
Kingsbury, and Rev. E. P. Butler, of Lyme ; and to many others in and out 
of the county, who have rendered valuable aid. 

That errors have occurred in so great a number of names, dates and state- 
ments, is probable, and that names have been omitted which should have- 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

been inserted, is quite certain. We can only say that we have exercised more 
than ordinary diligence and care in this difficult and complicate'd feature of 
book-making. Of such as feel agrieved in consequence of errors or omis- 
sions, we beg pardon, and ask the indulgence of the reader in noting such 
as have been observed in the subsequent reading of the proofs, and which are 
found corrected in the Errata at the close of this volume. 

It was designed to give a brief account of all the churches and other soci- 
eties in the county, but owing in some cases to the negligence of those who 
were able to give the necessary information, and in others to the inability of 
any one to do so, we have been obliged to omit special notices of a few. 

We would suggest that our patrons observe and become familiar with the 
explanations at the commencement of the directory, on page 3, part 2d. The 
names it embraces, and the information connected therewith, were obtained 
by actual canvass, and are as correct and reliable as the judgment of those 
from whom they were solicited renders possible. Each agent is furnished 
with a map of the town he is expected to canvass, and he is required to pass 
over every road and call at every dweUing and place of business in the town 
in order to obtain the facts from the individuals concerned whenever possible. 

The margins have been left broad to enable any one to note changes op- 
posite the names. 

The advertisers in "part second," we most cheerfully commend to the pat- 
ronage of those under whose observation these pages may come. 

The map inside the back cover will oe found, in connection with the direc- 
tory, very valuable. 

We take this occasion to express the hope that the information found in 
the book will not prove devoid of interest and value, though we are fully con- 
scious that the brief description of the county the scope of the work enables 
us to give, is by no means an exhaustive one, and can only hope that it may 
prove an aid to future historians, who will be better able to do full justice to 
the subject. 

While thanking our patrons and friends generally, for the cordiality with 
which our efforts have been seconded, we leave the work to secure that favor 
which earnest endeavor ever wins from a discriminating public, hoping they 
will bear in mind, should errors be noted, that "he who expects a perfect 
work to see, expects what ne'er was, is, nor yet shall be." 

HAMILTON CHILD. 



S^ZE¥1EE^ 



OIF 



GRAFTON COUNTY, N. H. 



"Thou shalt look 
Upon the green and rolling forest tops, 
And down upon the secrets of the glens 
And streams, that with their bodering thickets strive 
To hide their windings. Thou shalt gaze at once 
Here on white villages and tilth and herds, 
And swarming roads, and there on solitudes, 
That only hear the torrent and the wind, 
And eagle's shiiek." — Bryant. 

FROM the foot-hills and mountains of Northern New Hampshire, wind- 
ing amid a panorama of surpassing loveliness and fertility, across 
Massachusetts and Connecticut, to mingle its waters with the saUne 
floods of Long Island Sound, roils "America's Nile " — the grand old Con- 
necticut. For nearly sixty miles along its eastern shore extends the territory 
of Grafton county, with Coos upon the north and Sullivan upon the south. 
It is a region of mountain and valley, of lake and stream, of sublime soli- 
tudes and Athenian culture, of woodland, farm and field. Its attractiveness 
is world renowned, and from the four winds gather thousands, season by sea- 
son, to pay a just homage to its sublime beauty, its gentle loveliness, and its 
salubrious climate. Extending far into its northern Umits lies the famous 
White Mountain region, while in its southern and central parts, and all along 
the Connecticut, are a thousand scenes of storied or of unsung loveliness. 
Such is the background of the picture our work would paint — the scene of 
the historic incidents it would relate. That the stranger may more readily 
grasp its history, let us glance briefly at the history of its parent — the Granite 
State. 

In 1623 the English colonists, Capt. John Mason and Sir Ferdinando 



6 GRAFTON COUNTY. 

Gorges, jointly held a grant of land extending from the Merrimac to the Ken- 
nebec rivers, and, during the following year, the first settlements were com- 
menced thereon, at Portsmouth and Dover. November 7, 1629, the grant 
was divided, and a separate grant made to Mason of that region west of the 
Piscatauqua river, under the name of New Hampshire, while Gorges held the 
portion east thereof, which was given the name of Maine. In 1641 Massa- 
chusetts extended her jurisdiction over New Hampshire, and maintained her 
authority here until T679. when, the case being brought before the highest 
court of appeal in England on Colonial matters, it was decided that the claim 
of Massachusetts was illegal, and New Hampshire was thereupon constituted 
a separate Province. In 1686, the charter of Massachusetts having been 
annulled, New Hampshire, Maine, Massachusetts and Narragansett were 
united in one Royal Provmce under Piesident Dudley, and afterwards under 
Governor Andros. In 1689, upon news of the English Revolution, the gov- 
ernment of Andros was overthrown, and Massachusetts resumed under the 
old charter. Some of the colony petitioning Massachusetts to be received 
under control and protection till orders should come from England, Massa- 
chusetts assented, and exercised a merely nominal authority over it. In 1692 
the Province of New Hampshire was re-established by the English Govern- 
ment, and ever after remained separate from its neighbor, finally becoming 
one of the original thirteen States of the Union. 

The Province was originally divided into five counties, of which Grafton, 
known as "The Fifth," was established by an act of the- Colonial legislature 
passed March 19, 1771, in which it was made to contain "all the lands in the 
Province not comprehended in the other counties," viz. : Hillsborough, 
Rockingham, Cheshire and Strafford, its name being given in honor of Au- 
gustus Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton. This act erected into a county an 
immense tract of land, extending south from what is now the Canada line for 
a distance of nearly 150 miles. But this large territory it was not destined to 
retain. The curtailment began as early as November 27, 1800, when the 
township of Burton, whose name was subsequently changed to Albany, was 
set off from Grafton and annexed to Strafford county. Three years later, 
December 24, 1803, the whole of the northern half of Grafton county was set 
off to form the new county of Coos, and finally, June 18, 1805, the area was 
still further reduced by the annexation of the whole of a tract known as 
"Nash and Sawyer's Location" to Coos county. After all these reductions, 
by an act of the legislature passed January 2, 1829, the boundaries of the 
county were fixed as follows, from which there has been made no material 
change: — 

"Beginning on the westerly bank of Connecticut river at the southwesterly 
corner of Dalton ; thence on the westerly and southerly line of Dalton to }. 
Whitefield ; thence on the westerly and southerly line of Whitefield to Bret- 
ton Woods [Carroll] ; thence on the westerly and southerly lines of Bretton 
Woods and of Nash and Sawyer's Location to the southeasterly corner thereof; 
thence southerly on a straight line across the unlocated lands to the line of 



BOUNDARIES. 



the county of Strafford at the northwesterly corner of Burton [Albany]; 
thence southerly and westerly by the line, of the county of Stratford to the 
southwest corner of Holderness, at the Pemigewassett or Merrimack river ; 
thence down said river to the north line of Franklin ; thence westerly on the 
northerly lines of Franklin, Andover, Wilmot, Springfield, Grantham and 
Plainfield to the southwest corner of Lebanon, on the west bank of Connec- 
ticut river ; and thence northerly on said bank to the bound first mentioned." 

This places the county's 1,463 square miles of territory between 43° 27' 
and 44° 22' north latitude and between 71° 20' and 72° 20' longitude west 
from Greenwich, bounded north by Coos county, east by Coos, Carroll and 
Belknap counties, south by Merrimack and SuUivan counties, and west by 
the west bank of the Connecticut river, its greatest length being fifty-eight 
miles and its greatest breadth thirty miles. It is divided into thirty-nine 
towns, twenty-nine of which were granted under King George III. — eleven 
in the second year of his unfortunate reign, in 1761 — and ten under the 
State government, viz.: Alexandria, Ashland, Bath, Benton, Bethlehem, 
Bridgewater, Bristol, Campton, Canaan, Dorchester, Easton, Ellsworth, En- 
field, Franconia, Grafton, Groton, Hanover, Haverhill, Hebron, Holderness, 
Landaff, Lebanon, Lincoln, Lisbon, Littleton, Livermore, Lyman, Lyme, 
Monroe, Orange, Orford, Piermont, Plymouth, Rumney, Thornton, Warren, 
Waterville, Wentworth and Woodstock. 

The surface of Grafton's territory, though greatly diversified and present- 
ing all shades of scenery from soft luxuriousness to Alpine grandeur, still 
affords large areas of arable, productive land. In the northern section are 
mountains belonging to the White Mountain range, Franconia mountains and 
Carrigain mountain; a little to the southwest, in Benton, is Moosilauke, tower- 
ing to an altitude of 4,811 feet, affording one of the finest prospects in the 
county, while at the east and southeast is a part of the Whiteface, in Water- 
ville, and the Campton mountains, in Campton and vicinity. The southern 
section, though rough and broken, partakes more of a hilly than a moun- 
tainous character. There are also several picturesque lakes scattered over 
the surface of the territory, while it is abundantly watered by several river 
systems. In the western section it is watered by the Connecticut and its 
tributaries, the largest of which are the Lower and Wild Ammonoosuc rivers, 
in the northern part, and Mascoma in the southern section. The Pemige- 
wassett and its branches water the central portion. The principal bodies of 
water are part of Squam lake, in the southeastern section, Newfound lake in 
the southern, and Mascoma in the southwestern portion. To be more 
definite in the description of these lakes and streams, — 

The Lower Ammonoosuc has its source on the western side of the White 
Mountains ; thence passing west through the southern portion of Carroll and 
northern part of Bethlehem to Littleton ; thence in a southerly direction, through 
the easterly part of Littleton, the westerly part of Lisbon, diagonally through 
Bath, and joining the Connecticut near the westerly corner of Haverhill. A 
considerable stream coming from Lincoln and Franconia passes in a north- 



8 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



westerly direction and joins the Ammonoosuc in Lisbon. Two miles from its 
mouth it receives the Wild Ammonoosuc. coming from the northerly part of 
Benton through Landaff. The Lower Ammonoosuc is noted for its romantic 
falls in the vicinity of the White Mountains. It is said to be the wildest and 
most rapid stream in New Hampshire, having a fall of 5,003 feet in its mean- 
dering course of about fifty miles. It drains a surface of over 220,000 acres, 
or 344 square mile of territory. 

Baker's river is formed by two branches uniting in Wentworth. The 
north branch has its source near Moosilauke mountain, in Benton, whence it 
flows, in a southerly course, through Warren, to Wentworth, receiving in its 
passage a considerable stream issuing from Baker's Upper pond, in the east- 
ern part of Orford. The south branch rises in Orange, thence flowing north 
through the easterly part of Dorchester, and uniting with the north branch 
at the easterly part of Wentworth ; thence it pursues a southeast and easterly 
course, through the southerly part of Rumney and northerly part of Plymouth, 
where it forms a junction with the Pemigewasset, just above Plymouth village. 
It drains a part or the whole of twelve towns, comprising an area of about 
150,000 acres, and has an improved horse water-power of about 1,250. 

The Mascomy, or Mascoma, river has its rise in Dorchester, and thence 
flowing southerly through Canaan, it falls into the Mascoma lake, in Enfield ; 
thence it runs a westerly course through Lebanon, dropping into the Con- 
necticut opposite Hartford, Vt. The water-power is valuable on the stream 
before it reaches the lake, which has been dammed so as to make it a fine 
reservoir for the manufactories along the river from its outlet. In its course 
of about twenty-five miles, the river has a fall of over 600 feet and waters a 
territory of over 100,000 acres. 

The Pemigewasset has its source in the White and Franconia mountains, 
and passes through, or borders the towns of Lincoln, Woodstock, Thornton, 
Campton, Plymouth, Holderness, Ashland Bridgewater and Bristol, this 
county, in its course to Franklin, where it unites with the Winnipiseogee river 
to form the Merrimack. Its most important tributaries are Baker's, Mad, New- 
found, Squam, and Smith's rivers. It drains the whole or part of thirty-three 
towns, covering on area of over 632,000 acres, or nearly 1,000 square miles. 

Squam lake, the largest body of water, borders on the counties of Grafton, 
Belknap and Carroll ; and on the towns of Holderness, Sandwich, Moulton- 
borough and Center Harbor. It is about six miles long, and, in its widest 
part, three miles in width. It is a splendid sheet of water, studded with a 
succession of romantic islands. Its outlet is Squam river, which falls into the 
Pemigewasset, in Ashland. 

Newfound lake is pleasantly located in the towns of Bridgewater, Bristol 
and Hebron, It is about seven miles long and three wide, and empties into 
the Pemigewasset, at Bristol, by Newfound river. 

Mascomy, or Mascoma, lake is a handsome sheet of water lying in En- 
field. It is about four miles in length and a mile in width. The other streams, 



GEOLOGICAL. 



lakes and ponds of the county will be noticed in connection with the sketches 
of the towns wherein they are located. 

GEOLOGICAL.* 

Topography. — The foundation for correct knowledge of the geology of any 
district is to be gained by a study of its elevations and depressions, or its to- 
pography. Two well-defined depressions call for notice — first, the valley of the 
Connecticut, and second, the valley of the Pemigewasset. The first consti- 
tutes the western boundary of the county. Connecticut river enters Little- 
ton at an altitude of 750 feet above the level of the sea. It falls 290 feet 
before reaching the mouth of the Passumpsic river, a distance of nine miles. 
From here to the southwest corner of Lebanon the fall is 140 feet, reaching 
to 320 feet above the sea. Excluding the falls at the upper part of the 
course, the descent is at the rate of two feet and a trifle more, per mile. The 
lowest part of the Pemigewasset river, in Ashland, is about 456 feet above 
the sea. It rises to nearly 2,000 feet at the Profile House, in the Franconia 
Notch, with very high mountains upon either side. The descent thence 
fiortherly is to the Connecticut valley. 

The Ammonosuc river has cut down as deep as the Connecticut, and hence 
there is a triangular territory between these two streams, rising to over 2,000 
feet for the culminating ridge. As this is noted for its deposits of copper and 
gold, it has received the name of "Ammonoosuc raining district." East of the 
Pemigewasset the White Mountains show themselves, the higher peaks being 
as follows : — 

Feet above sea level. Feet above sea level. 

Mt. Lafayette 5,259. Tripyramid 4,200 to 4,000." 

Twin mountain 5, 000. Mt. Osceola, 4,400. 

Mt. Lincoln 5,1 00. Sandwich Dome 4,000. 

Mt. Guyot 4r9oo. Mt. Huntington 3, 800. 

Mt. Bond 4,800. Mt. Hitchcock 3,600. 

Mt. Canigan 4,678. Mt. 'Garfield 4,500. 

Mt. Hancock 4,420. Mt. Liberty 4,500. 

Mt. Willey 4,33o. Mt. Flume 4,500. 

Mt. Field 4,070. 

The following are the heights along tlie watershed of the Connecticut and 
Merrimack basins, beginning at the south line of the county and proceeding 
northerly : 

Feet above sea level. Feet above sea level. 

Prescott Hill, Grafton t,7oo Ridge east of Dorchester, 

Furd Hill, Grafton 1,800 Canaan 2,137 

Summit N. R. R., Orange 990 Valley, lowest point, Dor- 

Hoyt Hill, Orange 1,700 Chester 1,250 

Road from Orange to Gro- Smarts Mountain, Dorchester, 3,200 

ton. Orange 1,600 Gap, Orford 1,438 



Prepared by Prof. Charles H. Hitchcock, of Dartmouth College. 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



Feet ^bove sea level. 

Mt. Cuba, Orford 2,927 

Watershed, S. E. of Indian 

Pond, Orford 1,100 

Piermont Mtn., Piermont... 2,500 

Road over Ore hill, Warren . . 1,542 

Webster Slide Mtn., Warren. 2,210 
Oliverian Notch, B. C. & M. 

R. R., Warren 1,063 

Mt. Moosilauke, Benton... 4,811 

Notch, 1,655 

Mt. Kinsman, Lincoln 4,200 



Feet above sea level. 

Profile Mountain, Franconia 3,850 
Franconia Notch, Franconia 2,014 
Mt. Lafayette, Franconia. . . 5,259 
Mt. Garfield, Franconia. . . . 4,500 

Gap, 3,000 

Twin Mountain 4,920 

New Zealand Notch, Liver- 
more 2,123 

Mt. Field, Livermore 4^070 

White Mountain Notch, near 

Crawford House 1,914 



The foundation of this water-shed is supposed to represent the oldest rock 
of the State, but it does not always appear at the surface. East of the Fran- 
conic Notch the mountains are mostly eruptive granites. Many of them are 
conical like the corresponding heaps of igneous debris collected around the 
vents of volcanoes at the present day. 

Classification — The following table shows what groups of rocks exist in the 
county, arranged by age : — 

STRATIFIED. 



Paleozoic. 



Eozoic. 



Azoic. 



Niagara group, upper silurian. 

Coos group, mica schist and quartzites. 

Clay slate, Cambrian. 

Kearsarge group and fibrolite mica schist. 

Auriferous conglomerate, ] 

Lyman group, \ Huronian. 

Lisbon group, | 

Hornblende schist, J 

Montalban, upper Laurentian. 

Lake group, I middle Laurentian. 

Bethlehem group, j 

Porphyritic gneiss, lower Laurentian. 



UNSTRATIFIED. 



Basic. 



Acidic 



Diabase. 
Uiorite. 
Gabbro. 
Porphyry. 
Granite. 
( Syenite. 

The Loivcsf Group. — The oldest rock seen anywhere in the county of 
State is a very co2.x%q gjieiss ox granite. The minerals being alike in both these 
crystalline aggregates, it is necessary to determine whether they are arranged 
in parallel lines or are promiscously mixed together, if we would say gneiss 
ox granite. Well-defined ledges of this age are easily recognized because of the 



GEOLOGICAL. 



large quadrangular blotches of light-colored feldspar which thickly pepper 
the mass and render the surface as conspicuous as the figures of a patch-work 
bed-quilt. These crystals vary from half of one to three inches in length. 
Quartz and feldspar are the essential constituents of the rock, while a third 
mineral is commonly white mica and rarely hornblende or chlorite. Black 
mica is the most common. Examination with a compound microscope some- 
times reveals the presence of apatite in fine needles, and long slender hairs 
of riitile in the quartz. The crystals oi feldspar are often twined, that is, they 
have been cut in two along their greater length and one of the halves has been 
turned half way around. Inasmuch as the crystal is not rectangular, the 
halves do not match each other, and consquently reflect light differently on 
each side of the dividing plane. 

The rock is ofter said to be porphyritic, because of a general resemblance 
to porphhyry. A porphyry usually consists of crystals, commonly feldspar, 
scattered through a fine grained material of the same composition ; but our 
gneiss is composed throughout of crystalline particles. It would, hence, be 
nearer proper to speak of it as an imitation, false or pseudo-porphyry. A Ger- 
man name for a part of it is augen or eye-gneiss, because a superadded group- 
ing of mica scales causes the white crystals to appear like eyes staring at va- 
cancy. If we carefully explore a section of this fundamental rock, we shall 
be perplexed to separate ihQ granite from the gneiss, the two seeming to be in- 
terlocked and commingled inextricably. Perhaps the granite may represent 
the earlier condition, and the gneiss has been developed from it by pressure. 
Beds of a dark schist, sometimes carrying fbrolite, may be intermingled with 
the gneiss. Three areas of this ancient rock appear in the county. One is found 
in Grafton, Orange, Alexandria and Groton, the northern prolongation of the 
largest area of this rock yet mapped in New England. It is sixty-one miles 
long, reaching nearly to Massachusetts. The second extends from Ellsworth to 
Franconia, and is the foundation of the Moosilauka and Franconia moun- 
tains. The third is only ten miles in dia r.eter at Wing Road railroad junc- 
tion. As a rule, there is no inversion of the supposed strata. Sections in 
Groton, Ellsworth, Franconia and Bethlehem, represent the group as under- 
lying all the adjacent rocks. 

Bethlehem gneiss. — The typical localities of this rock are in this county. 
The best known is an area in Hanover and Lebanon, about ten miles long. 
The center is a granite protogene, and is used for a bulding material. It is 
surrounded by a band of coarse mica chlorite schist, which we regard as 
the upper member of the series, and not to be confounded with an adjoining 
mica schist of the Coos group. In the Bethlehem area there is a pophyritic 
gneiss within the protogene and a more schistose variety without it, so that 
there are four members of the group at the north end of the county. Beds of 
limestone suitable for the manufacture of lime are found in this group, in Lis- 
bon, Haverhill and Lyme. Farther east there is a band of ordinary gneiss, 
stretching through the county from Grafton to Franconia. Its northern bor- 



12 GRAFTON COUNTY. 

der occasionally rises to a considerable height, constituting Moose mountain, in 
Hanover, Smart's, in Dorchester, and the foundation of Mt. Cuba, in Orford. 
The southern part is a valley crowding close to the lower Laurentian, and in 
it is the magnetic iron veins of Lisbon, (Franconia) and Landaff. The maxi- 
mum thickness of this gneiss is 18,000 feet. The suggestion is natural that the 
protogene is the equivalent of the ordinary gneiss, the mica having been 
changed into chlorite or a hydrous mica. Another suggestion is that the 
ovoidal protogenic areas originated in an eruptive granite, operated upon by 
great pressure so as to induce the quadruple concentric structure described 
above. Some authors believe that the schistose structure is generally occas- 
ioned by pressure, and that the original rock has had no connection with de- 
posits of a sedimentary character. 

Mo7italban. — The upper Laurentian is an imperfect gneiss, but shown just 
east of the county in the White Mountains, and attaining a thickness of 1 2,000 
feet. It may be seen in the Pemigewasset valley. In the New Hampshire 
report another group of rocks was referred to the age, which is best developed 
between Plymouth and Grafton. It is a band of hard mica schist interpene- 
trated by fibers of the mineral fibrolite, and has been filled by large veins of 
coarse granite, whose mica is mined for use in the arts. These veins also hold 
large beryls, apatite, albite, tin ore, tourmaline, triplite and other minerals. 

Hiinmian. — In the " Ammonoosuc mining district" this system is best de- 
veloped. The lowest member is thought to be identical with the belt of 
hornblende schist traceable along the Connecticut river from Lebanon to 
Orford. At Hanover the formation is not less than 1,000 feet thick, as it 
underlies Darmouth college. Handsome garnets checker the beds close by 
the old pine where the college classes sing their parting songs. At Lisbon 
the lower division is a green chloritic schist alternating with greenish quartzites, 
diabases and hydro-mica schist. In Lyman the upper members developed 
consisting mostly of grey argillitic quartzites. Upon Gardner mountain 
this member changes into the Cornish kellas and is filled with copper and iron 
pyrites, sufficiently for mining. Above all the others is a thin band of con- 
glomerate shown by analysis to contain a small amount of gold. The total 
thickness is about 12,000 feet. 

Cambi-iaii. — A clay slate about 3.000 feet thick overlies the Lyman group of 
the Huronian throughout the Ammonoosuc district, and again on the wes- 
tern flank of the Huronian, farther south, this is traversed by auriferous quartz 
veins. One of these has been mined in Lyman for a number of years. About 
$60,000 of the gold coin in circulation came from this mine. The best part 
of the vein averaged about $18.00 to the ton of rock. The rock has also 
been quarried for roofing slate in Littleton. 

Cods Group. — In the Connecticut valley is a broad band of mica schist belong- 
ing to a still later series, apparently. It is characterized by the presence of 
the mineral staurolite. The basal member is a quirtzite r,ooo feet thick, which 
by its unyielding nature causes mountains to project above ,the general level. 



GEOLOGICAL. 1 3 

It adds to the altitude of Moose mountain in Hanover and Cuba mountain in 
Orford, and is the main mass of Piermont mountain. In Hanover and Lyme 
the quartzite is reported nearer the Connecticut. The Coos rocks between 
Lebanon and Orford are partially made up of chloritic schist, and a rare bed 
of limestone, suggesting the calciferous mica schist of adjacent counties. 
The most characteristic rock of the group is an argillaceous and micaceous schist 
filled with staurolite. The best localities of this mineral are in the towns of 
Lisbon, Enfield and Grantham, where cruciform crystals are quite common. 
It was shown early in the history of the state survey that the Coos group was 
newest of all the crystalline schists of New England, and that it may possibly 
belong to the Paleozoic age. Considerable heat must have been evolved in 
order explain the presence of the staurolite. This does not seem to have 
been derived from the proximity of igneous rocks, but to have been liberated 
by the elevation of the strata. 

Niagara Gi'oup. — Greatly to the delight of geologists, a few fossils have 
been discovered in Littleton and Lisbon, belonging to the upper Silurian. 
They are the chain-coral, honey-comb coral and other related forms, Peiita- 
7neriis A^ysius, a bivalve brachiopod shell and crinoidal fragments. The rocks 
overlie all the crystalline schists of the neighborhood, and are readily distin- 
guished from the Coos strata. There is no ground for the opinion that these 
fossiliferous strata are interstratified with the crystalline, and thus for the 
hypothesis of the formation of the latter from Paleozoic sediments. Slates and 
limestones represent the group with the possible addition of sandstone and 
quartzites. 

UNSTRATIFIED OR ERUPTIVE ROCKS. 

Grafton county furnishes many fine illustrations of rocks that have once been 
melted, and most likely derived from the great internal caldron ever ready 
to belch forth an igneous fluid. The Basic division, represented by diabase, 
diorite and gabbro, is known only in dikes, which are the filling up of fissures 
by molten matter injected from below. The diabase is a black or dark grey, 
fine grained rock, quite heavy, and a microscope is needed to discover that 
the constituent minerals are augite, labradorite and magnetic or titanic iron. 
Diorite differs from diabase only by having hornblende in the place of augite. 
The gabbro is more like granite of coarser grain, but has the same constituents 
as diabase, the augite being foliated. 

A noted locality of the diabase is at the Flume in Lincoln (Franconia). 
A dike of this material rather more than a yard wide occupies the middle of 
the chasm. When melted it not only filled the chasm but also induced jointed 
planes of division in the granite adjacent. The water wore away the dike 
first, and then water flowing into the cracks froze and thus gradually pried 
ofi" fragments which were washed away by the stream. A continuation of 
this process for ages finally produced the Flume. In the ice age a large boulder 



14 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



was brought from near the Profile House and left so that it rolled into the 
flume and remained till 1883, as a bridge over the chasm, and a terror to 
timid people walking beneath. In this last named year slides rolled down 
the sides of Mts. Flume and Liberty, the most gigantic masses of debris known 
to move down mountain slopes within the memory of man in New Hamp- 
shire, and enough pushed its way through the flume to remove this boulder 
and bury it deep in the rubbish a thousand feet below. The stone which is 
carefully fenced in and labelled as the original one is unfortunately about two 
feet shorter than the first named. 

The most prolific locality of these basic dikes is at Livermore Falls, near 
Plymouth, at a railroad station. Five or six of them crop out on the high 
cliff" upon the west side of the Pemigewasset river, and in the railroad cut. 
There are diabases, diorite, syenite, coarse granite, and olivine diabase. 

At Waterville the gabbro is immensely developed, covering two or three 
square miles on the west and south flanks of Tripyrimid. It was unknown 
till revealed by the slides of 1869 and 1885. 

Of the Acidic division porphyry is finely developed in the south part of the 
Twin mountains, of variegated and bright red colors, suitable for ornamen- 
tal purposes. It is not utilized at present. The granites with the porphyry 
occupy an oval area of about 300 square miles in the White mountain region, 
and are believed to have been of eruptive origin. We have made careful 
studies of this region and think but to give some of the results in respect to 
the origin of granite, as the subject has not been well understood in the past 
even by those familiar with geology. 

The origin of granite. — The more this rock is studied the clearer does it 
seem to have had an eruptive origin. Many authors have supposed it to repre- 
sent an altered stratified rock, partially fused through thermal action. Thanks 
to the use of the miscroscope the intimate composition of crystals may now 
be thoroughly studied and their origin made known. One of the best known 
localities for exhibiting the phenomena of eruption is the range overlooking 
Fabyans and the White Mountain Notch, seen most advantageously in Mt. 
Willard. 

This mountain is nearly 3,000 feet above the sea, and about 1,000 feet 
above the Notch at the Crawford House. Most of it is composed of a hard 
mica schist or gneiss belonging to the Montalban series, and it is the south 
end of the great range of mountains named after the President of the United 
States. This rock has been cut by dikes of eruptive granite. Two or three 
separate outbursts may be seen. The first and oldest is that termed Coji- 
way gra/iife, a coarse grained rock having black mica or biotite for its third 
constituent. It once filled the valley of the White Mountain Notch, and 
reaches westerly across to Franconia ; north to the Twin Mountain House, 
and south to Waterville, covering 200 or 300 square miles. A second is 
termed Albany granite, both names being derived from the towns where they 
abound. This Albany rock gives the best signs of igneous fluidity, as it flowed 



GEOLOGICAL. 



upwards in a rent between Conway granite on one side and the compact 
■andaliisite mica schist in tlie other, elsewhere known as the Kearsage group. 
This mica schist has had its character changed by contact with the igneous 
vein, while the Conway granite was unaltered, having once been melted itself, 
and therefore incapable of further change by heat. 

The Montalban rocks were terribly shattered before the protrusion of the 
Conway granite, and its fragment cemented by a third igneous paste called 
for convenience a breccia granite. This is finely shown where the railroad 
passes around the southeast angle of the mountains. The vein of perhaps 
300 feet in width crosses the valley at the Dismal Pool and runs transversely 
up the side of Mt. Webster. The Conway granite joins this breccia on Mt. 
Willard, and the sharp line of junction may be followed the whole height 
of the cliff, showing that the two rocks were erupted at different periods. 

The Albany granite has filled a fissure between the Conway granite on the 
east and the Kearsage mica schist upon the west. Near both walls the felds- 
par crystals are better formed than in the center, accompanied by dihexago- 
nal pyramids of quartz. In the middle the matrix is a grey fine-granular ag- 
gregate, having the color of a mixture of pepper and salt. The many crystals 
of feldspar render the rock spotted in appearance. Examined microscopically 
the fine-granular mass shows amorphous quartz with inclosed fluids, hornblende, 
biotite, magnetite, apatite, augite and fluorspar ; but the most marked char- 
acter is the uniform presence of square prisms of zircons. The changed ap- 
pearance next the walls, developing a porphyry, is due to the effect of contact 
of heated material with cold surfaces. Upon examining the mica schist fifty 
feet distant from contact with the granite, it is seen to consist of quartz, white 
mica or muscovite and chlorite with pencils of andalusite, with a very little 
biotite, iron minerals and tourmaline. At the distance of twenty-five feet 
the schists are less earthy and the biotite a-.d tourmaline crystals have 
increased in quantity. At fifteen feet the chlorite has disappeared, and 
the rock is still a mica schist. Between this point and the contact the schist 
loses its structure and becomes a black hornstone, breaking into angular frag- 
ments. Still nearer the granite is a dark grey mass filled with reticulated black 
veins. This is scarcely noticeable at the top of the mountain but becomes 
wide and prominent below. Microscopically it is found to be a nearly pure 
mixture of tourmaline and quartz, and is termed tourmaline veiiistone. 
The remaining zone is a breccia composed of fragments of various schists 
and quartz porphyry cemented by granitic material. There is, however, a 
systematic and progressive series of changes; first, water has been removed; 
second, boric acid and silica have been added ; third, alkalies have been 
added directly upon the contact. These additions and changes are such as 
■would come from igneous eruptions, and therefore the inference is authorized 
that the Albany granite was injected as a melted liquid like lava. The vein 
may be followed the whole length of the Rosebrook range adjoining the Con- 
way granite, as well as over the entire White Mountain region of eruptive rocks- 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



If thoroughly igneous at Mt. Willard it must have had a similar origin else- 
where. 

Granitic Cones. — Another form of the granite or syenite is that of a cone. 
Examples are Catamount hill in Haverhill, and that interesting crescent line 
of isolated peaks, Mts. Nancy, Anderson, Lowell, Cardigan, Hancock and 
Hitchcock. When adjacent to schistose rocks the heat has altered the sedi- 
ment somewhat as on Mt. Willard. Observation shows that the granite came 
up through a vent directly under the apex of the cone, that when soft the 
pasty material oozed from the opening and gradually accumulated till the 
whole mountain was built up. Wherever the slaty flow can be examined it 
is found to be altered by the impact of the hot granite. This is a great im- 
provement over the old idea that granite has formed only at a great depth, 
say beneath 40,000 feet of sediments, for in that case it is necessary to be- 
lieve in the subsequent removal of this imnriense mass by denudation. The 
present view regards the granite piles to have originated just as conical beds 
of lava accumulate at the present day. 

BEGINNING OF DRY LAND. 

In another place (Vol I., Geology of New Hampshire) I have given a series 
of maps showing how the dry land of the State has been gradually reclaimed 
from the primitive ocean, beginning with the areas of porphyritic gneiss. I 
have latterly gone further and claimed that these same areas, with others like 
them, constituted the nucleus of the North American continent. It would 
seem as if these projections, or islands, were of eruptive origin, very much 
like submarine volcanoes, the first that appeared after a crust had formed 
around the earth. Later ejections increased their dimensions and sediment 
came down the slopes so as gradually to unite the cones. A continuation of 
the earth's contraction would tend to raise the earUer heaps of eruptive debris 
and thus to construct a continent. This view gives us the advantage of fix- 
ing upon the very beginning of terrestrial accumulation, instead of being 
forced to imagine a basin in which these earliest accumulations were de- 
posited as sediment. As this theory has been broached but recently, a few 
points may be cited in its favor, as follows : — 

First : — Considering the igneous nature of the earth, volcanic energies 
would naturally continue their action as soon as there was a crust to be 
broken through, and immense molten floods would ooze through the fissures. 
We are now beginning to understand that the numerous granites, syenites and 
porphyries of our region were eruptive, and that the older the period, the more 
numerous the igneous rocks. 

Second : — We have found ovoidal areas in Grafton county of both the old- 
est and later gneisses, while they are very numerous in other parts of the State. 
A careful study of some of them reveals a concentric structure, just such as 
would arise from the accumulation of molten rock, rather than from sedimen- 



GEOLOGICAL. 1 7 



tary deposits. Doubtless this concentricity will be found in all these areas when 
minutely studied. A somewhat similar structure is apparent in large volca- 
noes like Vesuvius. Should that volcano cease to be active, rains would 
obhterate the craters and reduce the lava to a rounded dome, which, when 
cut into, would show concentric layers of differently constituted aggregations. 

Third : — The difficulty in deciding whether our oldest group is granite or 
gneiss from an inspection of its crystalline particles, is just what may be 
expected upon our theory of its origin. Furthermore, all the special mineral 
peculiarities of true eruptive granite are to be noticed in our rock. Hence we 
would say that gneiss is derived from granite by pressure, rather than that 
granite is gneiss melted down. 

Fourth: — The analogy of the origin of oceanic islands at the present day, 
suggest the igneous derivation of the Latirentian areas. Most of the high 
islands of the Pacific are composed of lava, built up from submarine volca- 
noes ; and the lower lands may have been the same originally, supplemented 
by the labor of coral animals. The size of a cluster of Pacific islands is cer- 
tainly not inferior to that required to equal our American granite areas. The 
Hawaiian islands have a base of 100,000 square miles, which exceeds the di- 
mensions of New England. 

THE AGE OF ICE. 

Volumes would be required to present all the facts of interest respecting 
the cold period of geological time known as the Age of Ice. Our country 
was overspread by a glacial sheet shortly before the introduction of man, and 
its relics may be seen in the smoothing and the striation of the rocks and the 
universal dispersion of bowlders. Three stages of progress are demonstrable: 
First, the accumulation of a thick coating of ice which covered every square 
foot of land, not excepting the summit of Mount Washington. Where the 
sea washed the edge of the ice, characteristic deposits were left. Second, 
this ice-sheet melted rapidly, and enormous floods of water transported the 
coarse gravel now arranged in the celebrated horsebacks, eskers or kames, 
great plains of sand and clay, and river terraces. The time was brief, and 
corresponded very well to the violent and powerful action of spring freshets. 
Third, after the removal of the ice and the floods, the country must have been 
barren till vegetation revived, and the geological changes effected have been 
comparatively unimportant. 

Two hundred courses of striae for Grafton county are given in the State 
report. It would appear that the southeast and southerly courses are the 
most common, pointing to the elevated land between the St. Lawrence river 
and Hudson Bay as the origin of the glacier. Observations elsewhere indi- 
cate that the ice moved radially from those high lands, viz., northerly towards 
the Arctic regions; northeasterly over Labrador towards Greenland; south- 
easterly over Newfoundland, New Brunswick, and New England ; and espec- 
ially southwesterly towards Dakota and the Missouri river. The resistance 



1 8 GRAFTON COUNTY. 

from high land was least in that direction, and glacial markings extend 
nearly a thousand miles. Inasmuch as the White Mountains are 
more elevated than the Laurentian high lands, it is necessary to believe 
either that the country was much more elevated in the ice age than at pres- 
ent, or else that the ice itself accumulated thousands of feet in thickness, 
and in consequence of its great altitude, was enabled to flow over the moun- 
tains of New England. It would seem as if the St. Lawrence valley must 
have been filled up to the brim before any of the ice flowed over New Hamp- 
shire. If so, it is likely that in New England the cold age did not commence 
so early as in Canada and the Western United States. 

The deposits left by the glacier are mainly examples of the ground moraine 
— a species of glacial deposit neglected by most Alpine observers. When 
the glacier had greatly diminished streams wocld have appeared in such of 
the river valleys as were well adapted to hold them and of which examples 
have been cited in my State reports. Terminal, lateral, and medial moraines 
may be found occasionally in such valleys. This moraine is commonly termed 
till, a term of Scotch origin. It is of two parts, the upper and lower. The 
latter is the most abundant and characteristic. It may be recognized by its 
great compactness, blue color, and the presence of stones that are scratched 
or worn and that have come from great distances. In Hanover one often 
finds red stones which have been transported more than seventy miles, from 
the neighborhood of BurUngton, Vt. These bowlders are usually quadrangular 
or trapezoidal in outline, with the striae upon four sides parallel to the great- 
est length of the stone. The upper till is loose, brownish red, and carries 
rough unworn stones that have been transported a very little distance. It is 
supposed that the lower till derives its compactness from the weight of ice 
over it, while the upper till consists of the fragments embedded in or resting 
upon the ice at the time of melting. With this view the degree of oxidation 
of the iron corresponds. That which is blue represents the ferrous unstable 
condition, being the freshly pulverized rock scarcely exposed to oxidating in- 
fluences ; the brownish red earth has been wet in the presence of the atmos- 
phere, and thus easily converted into the hydrated ferric oxide. 

The Connecticut valley affords a fine illustration of an esker or kame. This- 
deposit is a straight ridge of gravel, with arched stratification, occupying 
the lowest line of the valley. It is not seen north of Lyme, and it crosses very 
shortly into Thetford and Norwich, where it has been cut through by the 
Pompanoosuc river. About two miles north of the Ledyard bridge in Han- 
over, it returns into New Hampshire, and then returns to Hartford, Vermont, 
in season to be cut through by the White river at the Railroad junction, and 
thence it may be followed to Windsor. The gaps in it uniformly show sand, 
gravel and water-worn cobblestones, in a very narrow belt, and at Hanover 
plain the ridge has been partially covered by the later fluviatile deposits. Its 
origin may be conceived by supposing the material filled a chasm in the ice 
deposited by the rapidly rising river. The ice bordering the chasm would 



BOTANICAL. ig 



have held the gravel in place till the amelioration of the climate removed the 
glacial sheet. Immediately succeeding the formation of the esker the water 
must have increased in volume enormously, being at least 175 feet higher 
than now at Hanover, and more than 200 feet higher at Woodsville, where the 
great tributaries of Wells and Ammonoosuc rivers greatly swelled the volume of 
the Connecticut. The immediate result of such a freshet was the filling of 
the bottom of the valley with a blanket of sand, gravel and clay. As the water 
diminished in volume, it cut through the flood-plain and carved out the ter- 
races which i)Ow adorn the flanks of the hills and furnish beautiful sites for 
villages and private residences. 

BOTANICAL. 

Because of having Dartmouth college within its limits as a scientific center, 
the flora of Grafton county has been more carefully studied than other parts 
of the State, and those interested in this subject should consult a catalogue of 
the " Flora and Fauna of Hanover and Vicinity," published by Prof. H. G. 
Jesup, in 1882. This catalogue contains most of the species occurring in the 
county, with hints at range and distribution. The catalogue which we place 
before the reader, for which we are indebted to William F. Flint, B. S., of 
Winchester, N. H., is only appro-ximately correct, and necessarily without 
reference to distribution. For botanical discriptions the reader is refered tc 
Gray's '' Manual," or Wood's " Class-book of Botany," which are generally 
used in the higher schools. Our catalogue, we would say, also, includes the 
ferns, but not the mosses and lichens, as their discriptions are not easily acces- 
sible to the general public. 

As altitude above the sea level is the prime factor governing plant distri- 
bution, the county is a region in which northern types are predominant in its 
flora. The portions where the Alleghenian types occur abundantly, as those 
plants which prevail in southern New England are called, are restricted to the 
immediate vicinity of the Connecticut and Pemigewasset rivers and their 
principal tributaries. An examination of the plants of this limited territory, 
however, reveals the fact that many of the plants which are common to the 
same river valleys southward, yet within the New Hampshire Hmits, have 
either totally, disappeared or been replaced by a more northern species. Thus 
the chestnut {Castaiica vulgaris, var Americana) is no longer indigenous, 
having disappeared within the limits of Sullivan county. This is true also of 
the yellow barked, or black oak ( Qiierciis finctoria), the barren or scrub oak, 
( Q. ilicifolia), the black and the grey birches, {Betula lenta and B. alba, var, 
populifolia), the mountain laurel, {Kahnia laiifolia), the Rhododendrons, two 
of the blue berries ( Vaccinum), and many others, both shrubs and herbaceous 
plants. Only one species of hickory persists, the bitter or swamp hickory 
( Carya amara), which is found very near the river, north to the mouth of 
the Ammonoosuc, while the hackberry, {Celtis occidentalis), which find its 
eastern limit on the Connecticut, also appears near the same locality. 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



Replacing these, to some extent, are the arbor vitse {Thuja occidentalism, 
the Canada blueberry ( Vacci/iium Canadense), the high bush cranberry 
.{Viburnum Opuius), the downy thorn {Crafcegus fome?itosa), \.\\q red osier 
{Cornus siolonifera), and others which, being herbaceous, are less con- 
spicuous. 

The white pine {Pinus strobus) may be found up to an altitude of 2.500 
feet above sea level, but in much less quantity than further south. The al- 
luvial lands along the Connecticut once bore a belt of white pine timber 
which was equal in size and quality to any in the United States; but 
only a few straggling specimens of this ancient forest remain. The pitch 
and the red pines {P. rigida and P. resinosd) are rather closely confined to lo- 
calities which are not far from 600 feet above the sea level, and are usually 
found in small quantities along the Connecticut and Pemigewasset rivers; 
though a tract where the red pine predominates extends from the mouth of 
the Ammonoosuc southward to Haverhill, forming one of the most extensive 
tracts of this kind of pine in the State. 

The principal portion of the county has an elevation of its surface suffi- 
cient to bring it within the great spruce region which clothes the White Moun- 
tains and extends southward along the Connecticut-Merrimac water-shed. 
Here the northern or Canadian type is almost supreme. The chief con- 
ifers are the black spruce, {Picea nigra), the balsam fir {Abies balsamea) and 
the hemlock ( Tsuga Canadensis). The principal broad-leaved species are the 
beech {Fagus ferruginea), the maples {Acer), yellow and white birches {Betula 
lutea and B. papyrijera), basswood {Tilia Atnericana), and white ash {Frax- 
inus Americana). Of these the canoe birch is the most generally distributed, 
being found along with the spruces and firs at the limit of trees on the highest 
mountains. 

The summits ot some of the mountains of the Franconia ranges, the prin- 
cipal being Mts. Lafayette, Lincoln, Liberty and Flume, are so high as to rise 
above the limit of arborescent vegetation in this latitude. But they in turn 
support a peculiar vegetation, Alpine or Arctic in character, containing the 
same species as are found in Labrador and under the Arctic circle. These 
spots, although not containing half as many species as the treeless area in- 
cluded by the summit ot Mt. Washington and the other peaks of the Presiden- 
tial range, are yet well worthy of botanical study and will repay the naturalist for 
all his rough mountain climbing. 

CATALOGUE. 

(The natural orders are printed in small capitals, the indiginous species 
in Roman, and the introduced species in Italics. Rare or very local species 
are marked thus*, and Alpine species thusf.) 





BOTANICAL, 


21 




Ranculace^. 




Fumariace^. 




(Crowfoot Family.) 




(Fumitory Family.) 


J 


Clematis Virginiana. 


3°- 


Corydalis glauca. 


2. 


Anemone cylindrica. 


31- 


Dicentra Cucularia. 


3. 


A. Virginiana. 


32. 


D. Canadensis. 


4- 


A. memorosa. 


2,3- 


Fumaria officinalis. 


5- 
6. 


Hepatica triloba. 
H. acutiloba. 




crucifer^. 


7- 


.Thalictrum dioicum. 




(Mustard Family.) 


8. 


T. Cornuti. 






9. 


Ranunculus aquatilis. 


34- 


Nasturtium palustre. 


10. 


R. Flamula, var. reptans. 


35- 


IV. sytrestre. 


T I. 


R. abortivus. 


36. 


jV. armoracia. 


12. 


R. recurvatus, 


37- 


Dentaria diphylla. 


I ^. 


R. Pennsylvanicus. 
R. biilbosiis. 


38. 


D. Maxim. 


14. 

15- 
16. 


39- 


D. laciniata* 


R. acris. 


40. 


Cardamine hirsuta. 


R. repens. 


41. 


Arabis laevigata. 


17. 


Caltha palustris. 


42. 


A. hirsuta. 


18. 


Coptis trifolia. 


43- 


A. perfoliata. 


19. 

20. 


Aquilegia Canadensis. 


44- 


A. Urommondii. 


Actaea alba. 


45- 


Barbarea vulgaris. 






46. 


Erysimun cheiranthoide 




MENISPERMUMACEiE. 


47- 


Sisymbrium officinale. 






48. 


Brassica nigra. 




(iVloonseed Family.) 


49- 


B. campestris. 


21. 


Menispermum Canadense. 


50. 
51- 


B. sinapistrum.* 
B. alba. 




BeRBERIDACE/E. 


.S2 


Capsella Bursapastoris. 






53 


Lepidium Virginicuni. 




(Barberry Family.) 


54 


L. campestre. 


22. 


Berberis vulgaris. 


55- 


Raphanus Raphafiistrum. 


23- 


Caulophyllum thalictroides. 




VlOLACE^. 




Nymphs ACE.E. 




(Violet Family.) 






56. 

57 


Viola rotundifolia. 




(Water Lily Family. 


V. blanda. 


24. 


Brasenia peltata. 


58. 


V. cuculata. 


25- 


Nymph;iia odorata. 


59 


V. sagittata. 


26. 


■Nuphar advena. 


60 


V. canina. var, sylvestris. 






61 


V. pubescens. 




Sarraceniace.t.. 


62 


V. renifolia.* 






63 
64 


V. selkirkii. 




(Pitcher plant Family.) 


V. prostrata. 


27. 


Sarracenia purpurea 
Papaverace^. 


65 


V. Canadensis. 

ClSTACE^. 

(Rock Rose Family.) 




(Poppy Family.) 


66 


Helianthemum Canadense. 


28. 


Chclidoiiiii.m majus. 


67 


Lechea major. 


29. 


Sanguinaria Canadensis. 


68 


L. mmor. 



22 


GRAFTON 


COUNTY. 




Dkoserace.e. 




LiNACE/E. 




(Sundew Family.) 


100. 


Linum Virginuanum. 


69 


Drosera rotundifolia. 




Geraniace^. 


7° 


D. longifolia. 












(Geranium Family.) 




HVPERCACE/E. 


lOI. 


Geranium maculatum. 




(St. Johnsvvort Family.) 


102. 


G. Robertianum. 


71 


Hypericum ellipticum. 


ho3. 


G. Carolinianum. 


72 


H. perforatum. 


iio4. 


Impatiens fulva. 


73 


H. mutilum. 


1^5- 


Oxalis Acetosella. 


74 


H. Canadense. 


106. 


0. stricta. 


75 
76 


H. Sarothra. 






H. pyramidatum. 




RUTACE.-E. 


77 


Elodes Virgmica. 




(Rue Family.) 




Carophyllace.^. 


107. 


Zanthoxylum Americanum. 




(Pink Family.) 




AnacardiacevE. 


78 
79 


Saponaria officiiiaUs. 
Silene inflata. 




(Sumach Family.) 


8o 


S. antirrhina. 


roS. 


Rhus typhi na. 


8i. 


Lychnis Githago. 


108. 


R. glabra. 


82 


Arenaria Groenlandica.f 


1 10. 


R. copallina. 


83- 


A. laterifolia. 


III. 


R. venenata. 


84. 


Stellaria media. 


112 


R. Toxicodendron. 


85- 


S. longifolia. 






86. 


S, borealis. 




VlTACE.E. 


87. 


Cerastiiim viscosum. 






88. 


C. arvense. 




(Vine Family.) 


89. 


Spergularia, rubra, var, camp- 


113- 


V. riparia. 




estris. 


114. 


Ampelopsis quinquefolia. 


90. 


Spergula arrensis. 






91. 


Sclearanthus annus. 




RhamnacetE. 


92. 


Mollugo verticillata. 








(Buckthorn Family.) 




PORTULACACE/E. 










I '5- 


Rhamnus alnifolius. 




(Portulaca Family.) 






93- 


Portiiliica olcracea. 




CELASTRACEyE. 


94. 


Claytonia Caroliniana. 




(Stafif-tree Family.) 




MALVACE.-E. 


116. 


Celastrus scandens. 




(Mallows Family.) 




Sapineace.k. 


95- 


Malva rotundifolia. 






96. 


M. crispa. 




(Soap-berry Family.) 


87. 


M. moschata. 


117. 


Staphylea trifolia.* 




TlLIACE.^. 


118. 


Acer Pennsylvanicum. 




(Linden Family.) 


119. 
120 


A. spicatum. 
A. saccharuuim. 


98. 


Ahutilon aviceiince. 


I 2 I. 


A. dasycarpum. 


99. 


Tilia Americana. 


122. 


A. rubrum. 





BOTANICAL. 23 




POLYGALACE.E. 


165 


P. Canadensis. 




(Milk-wort Family.) 


166 

167 


P. argentea. 
P. fruticosa. 


123 


Pol\glala sanguinnea. 


168 


P. tridentata. 


124 


P. verticillata. 


169 


P. palnistris. 


125 


P. polygama. 


170 


Fragaria vesca. 


126 


P. pauciflora. 


171 


F. Virginiana. 






172 


Dalibarda repens. 




Leguminos.e. 


173 


Rubus odoratus. 




(Pea Family.) 


174 


R. triflorus. 






175 


R. strigosus. 


127 


Trifolium ari'ense. 


176 


R. occidentalis. 


128 


T. pratense. 


177 


R. villosus. 


129 


T. repens. 


178 


R. Canadensis. 


13° 


T. agrarium. 


179 


R. hispidus. 


131 


T. prociiinbe?is. 


180 


Rosa Carolina. 


132 


Melilotus alba. 


181 


R. lucida. 


133 


M. officinalis. 


182 


R. Blanda. 


134 


Robinia Fseudacacia. 


183 


R. riibiginosa. 


135 


Desmodium nudiflorum. 


184 


CatcCgus coccinea. 


136 


D. acuminatum. 


185 


C. tomentosa. 


137 


D. rotundifolium. 


186 


Pyrus arbuti folia. 


138 


D. Canadense. 


187 


P Americana. 


139 


D. Dillenii. 


188 


Amelanchier Canadensis, var, 


140 


D. paniculatum. 




Botrypium. 


141 


D. rigidum. 


189 


A. Canadensis, var, oblongifolia. 


142 


Marilaudicum. 






143 


Lespeda violacea. 




Saxifragace.-e, 


144 


L. hirta. 
L capitata. 




(Saxifrage Family.) 


145 






146 


Vicia saliva. 


190 


. Saxifraga Virginiensis. 


147 


V Cracca. 


191 


S. Pennsylvatjica. 


148 


Apios tuberosa. 


192 


Ribes cynosbati. 


149 


Amphicarpea monoica. 


193 


R. hirtellum. 


15° 


Cassia MarihDidica 


194 


R. lacustre. 






195 


R. prostratum. 




ROSACE.E. 


196 


R. lioridum. 




(Rose Family.) 


197 


R. rubrum. 






198 


Mitella diphylla. 


151 


Prunus Americana. 


199 


Tiarella cordifolia. 


152 


P. pumila. 


200 


. Mitella nuda. 


153 


P. Pennsylvanica. 


201 


Chrysosplenium Americanum. 


^54 


P. Virginiana. 






155 


P. serotina. 




Crassulace.e. 


156 
157 


Spirea salicifolia. 
S. tomentosa. 




(House Leek Family.) 


158 


Agrmonia Eupatoria. 


202 


. Penthorum Sedoides. 


159 


Geum album. 


203 


Sedum Telephium. 


i6o 


G. Virginianum. 






161 


G. rivale. 




Hamamclace.e, 


162 
163 


G. strictum. 
Waldsteinia fragaroides. 




(Witch Hazel Family.) 


164 


. Potentilla Norvegica. 


204 


. Hamamelis Virginca. 



24 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 





HaLORAGE.T'. 




Cornace^. 




(Water Milfoil Family.) 




(Cornel Family.) 


205. 


Proserpinaca palustris. 


238. 


Cornus Canadensis. 






239- 


C. circinata. 




Onagrace.e. 


240. 


C. serica. 




(Evening Primrose Family.) | 


241. 


C. alternifolia. 

CaPRIFOLIACE/E. 


206. 


Circsea Lutetiana. 






207. 


C. alpina. 




(Honeysuckle Family.) 


208. 
209. 


Epilobiiim angustifolium. 
E. palustre, var, lineare. 


242. 
243. 


Linnea borealis. 
Fonicera parviflora. 


210. 

211. 
212. 


E. coloratura. 
E. molle. 
GEnothera biennis. 


244. 

245 
246. 


L. cilliata. 
L. coerulea. 
Diervilla trifida. 


213. 


OL. pumila. 
Ludwigia palustris. 


247. 


Sambueus Canadensis. 


314. 


348. 


S. pubens 




CUCURBITACE.E. 


2 49- 


Viburnum Lentago. 






250. 


V. nudum. 




(Gourd Family.) 


251- 


V. dentatum. 


215- 
216. 


Echinocystis lobata. 
Sicyos angulata. 


252. 
253 
254- 


V. acerifolium. 
V. Opulus.* 
V. lantanoides. 




Umbellifer.^. 




Rubiace^. 




(Parsnip Family.) 




(Madder Family.) 


217. 


Hydrocotyle Americana. 


255- 


Gallium asprellum. 


218, 


S. Marilandica. 


256. 


G. trifidum. 


219. 


S. Canadensis. 


257- 


G. triflorum. 


220. 


Daiiciis Carota. 


258. 


G. cirffizans. 


221. 


Heracleum lanatum. 


259 


Cephalanthus occidentalis.* 


222. 


Ligusticum Scotiawi. 


260. 


Mitchella repen^. 


223. 


Pasta7iaca sativa. 


261. 


Houstoma cterulea. 


224. 


Archangelica atropurpurea. 






225. 


Thaspiurn aureum. 




Composite,. 


226. 
227. 


Cicuta maculata. 
C. bulbifera. 




(Composite Family.^ 


228. 


Sium lineare. 


262. 


Eupatorium purpureum. 


229. 


Cryptotaenia Canadensis. 


263 


E. perfoliatum. 


230. 


Osmorrhiza brevistylis. 


264. 


E. ageratoides. 


231. 


0. longistylis. 


265. 


Tussilago Fafrara. 


232. 


Co Ilium maculatum. 


266. 


Sericocarpus conyzoides. 






267. 


Aster corymbosus. 




Araliace.e. 


268. 


A. macrophyllus. 




(Ginseng Family.) 


269. 

270. 


A. Icevis. 

A. undulatus. 


233 


Aralia racemosa. 


271. 


A. cordifolius. 


234 


A. hispida. 


272. 


A. multirtorus. 


235 


A. nudicaulis. 


273- 


A. Tradescanti. 


236 


A. quinciuefolia.* 


274. 


A. miser. 


237 


A trifolia. 


275- 


A. longifolius. 





BOTANICAL. 25 


276. 


A. puniceus. 


329 


Cichorium liitybus. 


277- 


A. simplex. 


330 


Kirgia Virginica. 


278. 


A. tenuifolius. 


IZ^ 


Hieracmm Candense. 


279. 


A. acuminatus. 


332 


H. scabrum. 


28o. 


Erigeron Canadense. 


m 


. H. Gronovii. 


281. 


E. bellidifolium. 


334 


H. venosum. 


282. 


E. Philadelphicum. 


335 


H. paniculatum. 


283. 


E. strigosum. 


336 


Nabalus albus. 


284. 


E. annum. 


337 


N. altissimus. 


285. 


Diplopappus linarifolius. 


11^ 


Taraxacum Dens-leonis. 


286. 


D. umbellatus. 


339 


Lactuca Canadensis. 


287. 


Solidago squarrosa.* 


340 


Mulgedium leucophasum. 


288. 


S. bicoior. 


341 


Sonchus oleraceus. 


289. 


S. cassia. 


342 


. S. asper. 


290. 
291. 


S. Virga-aurea, var, humilis. 
S. aguta. var, juncea. 








Campanulace^. 


292. 


S. nemoralis. 




(Bell- wort Family.) 


293- 
294. 


S. Canadensis. 
S. serotina. 


343 


I^obelia cardinalis. 


295. 


S. lanceolata. 


344 


. L. inflata. 


296. 
297. 
298. 
299. 


S. thysoidea. 
S. altissinia. 
S. latifolia. 


345 
346 
347 


L spicata. 
, L. Dortmanna. 

Campanula rotundifolia. 


S. stricta. 


348 


C. aparinoides. 


300. 


Inula Hele Ilium. 




Ertcace^. 


301. 


Xanthium strumarium. 






302. 


X. spinosum. 




(Heath Family.) 


3°3- 


Kudbcckia hirta. 


349 


Gaylussica resinosa. 


304- 


Helianthus strumosus. 


350 


Vaccinium oxycoccus. 


305- 


H. decapetalus. 


351 


V. macrocarpon. 


306. 


Helianthus tuberosus. 


352 


V. Vitis Idtea.f 


307. 


H. divaricatus. 


353 


V. Pennsylvanicum. 


308. 


Bidens frondosa. 


354 


V. vacillans. 


309- 


B. connata. 


355 


V. corymbusum.* 


310. 


B. cernua. 


356 


V. uliginosum. t 


311- 


B. chrysanthemoides. 


357 


Chiogenes hispidula. 


312. 


Maruta Cofula. 


358 


Epigaea repens. 


313- 


Achillea Millefolium. 


359 


Gaultheria procumbens. 


314. 


Leucanthemum vulgare. 


360 


Cassandra calyculata. 


315. 


Taticetum vulgare. 


361 


Andromeda polifolia.* 


316. 


Artemisia vulgaris. 


362 


Kalmia angustifolia. 


317- 


Gnaphallium decurrens. 


363 


K. glauca. 


318. 


G. uliginosum. 


364 


Rhododendron nudiflorum. 


319- 


Antennaria margaritacea. 


365 


R. Rhodora. 


320. 


A. plantaginifolia. 


366 


Ledum latifolium.f 


321. 


Erechthites hieracifolia. 


367 


Pyrola rotundifolia. 


322. 


Senecio aureus. 


368 


P. elliptica. 


323- 


Cirsium discolor. 


369 


P. secunda. 


324. 


C. pumilum. 


370 


P. chlorantha. 


325- 


C arvense. 


371 


Moneses uniflora. 


326. 


Circium lanceolatum. 


372 


Chimaphila umbellata. 


327. 


C. muticum. 


373 


Monotropa uniflora. 


328. 


Lappa officinabis. 


374 


M. Hypopitys.* 



26 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 





Aquikoliace^. 
(Holly Family.) 


405- 
406. 
407. 


G. guercifolia. 
G. pedicularia. 
Pedicularis Canadensis. 


375- 


Ilex verticillata. 


408. 


Melampyrum Americanum. 


376. 


Nemopanthes Canadensis. 




Verbenace^.. 




Plantaginle. 




(Verbena Family.) 




(Plaintain Family.) 


409. 
410. 


Verbena hastata. 
V. urticifolia. 


377- 
378. 


Plantago major. 
P. lanceolata. 


411. 


Phryma Leptostachya. 


379- 


P. Rugelii. 




LABIAT.E. 




Primulace^. 




(Mint Family.) 




(Primrose Family.) 


412. 
413- 


Trichostema dichotomum. 
Teucriuem Canadense. 


380. 


Trientalis Americana. 


414. 


Alentha viridis. 


381. 
382. 


Lysimachia striata. 
L. quadrifolia. 


415- 
416. 


M. piperita. 
M. Canadensis. 


383. 


L. cilliata. 


417. 


Lycopus Virginicus. 


384. 


L. thyrsiflora. 

Lentibulace.b. 


418. 

419. 

420. 


L. Europ?eus. 
Hedeoma pulegioides. 

Mo liar do didvma. 




(Bladder-wort Family.) 


421. 
422. 


Nepeta Cataria. 
N. Glee ho ma. 


385- 


Utricularia inflata. 


423- 


Brunella vulgaris. 


386. 


U. vulgaris. 


424. 


Scutellaria galericulata. 


387. 


U. minor 


425- 


S. lateriflora. 


388. 


U. intermedia. 


426. 


Leonurus Cardiaca. 


389. 
390- 


U. cornuta 
U. purpurea.* 


427. 
428. 


Galeopsus Tetrahit. 
G. La da num.* 



391- 
392. 



393- 
394- 
395- 
396- 
397- 
398. 
399- 
400. 
401. 
402. 

403- 
404. 



Orobanchace.-e. 

(Beechdrops Family.) 

Epiphegus Virginiana. 
Aphyllon uniflorum. 

ScrophulariacetE. 

(Fig-wort Family.) 

Verbascum Thapsus. 
Linaria Canadensis. 
L. vulgaris. 
Chelone glabra. 
Mimuliis ringens. 
Gratiola aurea. 
Veronica Americana. 
V. scutellata. 
V. serpyllifolia. 
V. peregrina. 
V. Buxbaumii. 
Gerardia tenuit'olia, 



429. Stachys palutris. 

Borraginace/e. 

(Borage Family.) 

430. Cynoglossum Morisoni. 

431. LitIiospai-ini{))i arveuse. 

432. L. officinale. 

433. Myosotis palustris. 

434. Echiiiospermitm Lappa ia. 

HYDROPHYLLACEiE. 

(Water-leaf Family.) 

435. Hydrophyllum Virginicum. 

CONVOLVULACEiE. 

(Morning glory Family.) 

436. Calystegia sepium. 

437. C. spithamcTS. 

438. Cuscuta Gronovii. 



BOTANICAL. 



27 



SOLANACE/E. 

(Night-shade Family.) 

Solanum Dulcamara. 

6'. iiignnii. 

Datura Strainoniitni. 

Gentianace/e. 

(Gentian Family.) 

Gentiana crinita. 
G. Andrevvsii. 
G. quinqueflora. 
Menyanthes trifoliata. 
Limnanthemum lacunosum. 

Apocynace.«. 

(Dogbane Family.) 

Apocynum cannabinum. 
A. androsEemifolium. 

Asclepiadace^.. 

(Milk-weed Family.) 

Asclepias Cornuti. 
A. phytolaccoides. 
A. purpuracens. 
A. incarnata. 
A. quadnfolia. 
A. tuberosa. 
A. obtusifolia. 

Oleace.«. 

(Olive Family.) 

Fraxinus Americana. 

F. sambucifolia. 

ArISFOLOCHIACE/E. 

(Birthwort Family.) 

Asarum Canadense. 

Phytolaccace.^. 

(Poke Family.) 

Phytolacca decandra. 

Chenopodiace.b. 

(Goose-foot Family) 

Chenopodiiim album. 
C. Botrys. 



Amarantace^. 
(Amaranth Family.) 



462. 


Amarantiis rctyoflexiis. 


463. 


A. albus. 




POLYGONACE^. 




(Joint-weed Family.) 


464. 


Polygoimin Orcntah. 


465. 


P. Pennsylvanicum. 


466. 


P. Persicaria. 


467. 


P. Hydropiper. 


468. 


P. amphibium. 


469. 


P. aviculare. 


470. 


P. arifolium. 


471. 


P. sagittatum. 


472. 


P. Couvolviilus. 


473- 


P. dumetorum. 


474- 


Rumex crispiis. 


475- 


R. obtusifolius. 


476. 


R. Acetosella. 




Thymeleace^. 



477- 



478. 



479- 



480. 



482 

483 
484 

485 



486. 



(Mezereum Family.) 
Dirca palustris. 

SaNTALACE/E. 

(Sandal-wood Family.) 
Comandra umbellata. 

Ceratophyllace^. 

(Horn wort Family.) 
Ceratophyllum demersum. 

Callitrichace^. 

(Starwort Family.) 
Callitriche verna. 

Euphorbiace.e. 

(Spurge Family.) 
Euphorbia maculata. 
E. hypercifolia. 
E. Cyparissiis. 
E pcpliis. 
Acalypha Virginica. 

Empetrace.^. 

(Crow-berry Family.) 
Empetrum nigrum.! 



28 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 





Urticace^. 


516 


S. sericea. 






517 


S. cordata. 




(Neitle Family.) 


518 


S. livida, Yar, occidentalis. 


487 
488 

489 

490 

491 


Ulmus fulva. 
U. Americana. 
U. racemosa.* 
Celtis occidentalis. 
Moras alba. 


519 
520 

521 
522 

.S23 


S. nigra. 

S. lucida. 

S. alba. 

Populus tremuloides. 

P. grandidentata. 


492 


Urtica gracilis. 


524 


P. balsamifera. 


493 


Laportea Canadensis. 




CONIFER.E. 


494 


Pilea pumila. 






495 


Bcehmeria cylindrica. 




CPine Family.) 


496 


Cannabis sativa. 




Pinus rigida. 
P. resinosa. 


497 


Hamulus Lupulus. 


525 
526 




JUGLANDACEvE. 


527 


P. strobus. 






528 


Picea nigra. 




(Walnut Family.) 


529 


Tsuga Canadensis. 






430 


Abies balsamea. 


498 


Juglans cinerea. 


531 


Thuja occidentahs. 


499 


Carya amara. 


532 


Larix Americana. 




CUPULIFER^. 


533 


Juniperus communis. 






534 


J. Virginiana. 




(Oak Family.) 


535 


Taxus baccata,var, Canadensis^ 


500 


Quercus alba. 




Arace.'e. 


501 
502 


Q. rubra. 
Fagus ferruginea. 




(Arum Family.) 


503 


Corylus Americana. 


536 


Arisasma triphyllum. 


504 


C. rostrata. 


537 


Calla palustris. 


505 


Ostrya Virginica. 


538 


Acorus Calamus. 


506 


Carpinus Americana. 
Myricace^. 
(Sweet-gale Family.) 




Lemnace^. 
(Duckweed Family.) 






539 


Lemna minor. 


507 


Myrica-gale. 


540 


\j. polyrrhiza. 


508 


Comptonia asplenifolia. 
Betulace.t.. 




Tvphacb. 
(Cat-tail Family.) 




(Birch Family.) 


541 


Typha latifolia. 


509 


Betula lenta.* 


542 


Sparganium simplex, Yar^ 


510 


B. lutea. 




fluitans. 


5" 


B. papyrifera. 


543 


Naias tiexilis. 


512 


Alnus incana. 






513 


A. viridis. 




Naiadace^. 




Saliccae.«. 




(Pond Weed Family.) 




(Willow Family.) 


544 
545 


Potemageten natans. 
P. Spirillus. 


514 


Salix humilis. 


546 


P. hybridus. 


515 


S. discolor. 


547 


P. gramineus. 





BOTANICAL 


29, 


548 


P. pusillus. 


588. 


Liparis Lceselli. 


549 


P. Oakesianus. 


589- 


Corallorhiza innata. 


55° 


P. Claytoni. 


590- 


C. odontorhiza. 


55' 


P. lonchites. 


591- 


C. multiflora. 


55-' 


P. perfoliatus. 


592. 


Cyripedium acaule. 


553 


P. pauciflorus. 


593- 


C. pubescens. 


554 


P. Tuckermani. 


594- 


C. aretinum.* 


555 
556 


P. amplifolia. 
P. sufescens. 




Iridace^. 


557 


P. Compressus. 




(Iris Family.) 


558 


P. perfoliates, var, Lanceolatus. 




559 


P. pectinatus. 


595- 


Iris versicolor. 


560 


P. Robbinsii. 


596. 


Sisyrinchium Bermudiana. 




Alismace^. 




Smilice^. 




(Water Plantain Family.) 




(Smilax Family.) 


56i. 


Scheuchzeria palustris. 


597- 


Smilax herbacea. 


562 


Alisma Plantago, var, Ameri- 








can urn 




Lilliace.e. 


563- 
564. 


Sagittaria variabilis. 
S. graminea. 




(Lily Family.) 




HVDROCHARIDACE.'E. 


598. 


Trillium erectum. 












599- 


T. erythrocarpum. 




(Frogs-bit Family.) 


600. 


T. cernuum.* 






601. 


Medeola Virginica. 


565. 


Vallisneria spiralis. 


602. 


Veratrum viride. 






603. 


Uvularia sessilifolia. 




Orchidace^. 


604. 


Streptopus roseus. 




(Orchis Family.) 


605. 
606. 


S. ainplexifolius. 
Clintonia borealis. 


566. 


Orchis spectabile.* 


607, 


Smilacina bifolia. 


567- 


Habenaiia tridentata. 


608. 


S. trifolia. 


568. 


H. viridis, var, bracteata. 


609. 


S. racemosa. 


569- 


H. hyperborea. 


610. 


S. stellata. 


570. 


H. Hookeri. 


611. 


Polygonatum biflorum. 


571. 


H. orbiculata. 


612. 


P. giganteum. 


572. 


H. blephariglottis. 


613. 


Aspargiis officinalis. 


573- 


H. lacera. 


614. 


Lillium Philadelphicum. 


574- 


H. psycodes. 


615. 


L. Canadense. 


575- 


H. fimbriata. 


616. 


Erythronium Americanum. 


576. 


H. obtusata. 


617. 


Allium Canadense. 


577. 


H. dilatata. 


6i8. 


A. tricoccum. 


578. 


Goodyera repens. 


619. 


Hemerocallis fulva. 


579- 


G. pubescens. 






580. 


Spiranthes cernua. 




Juncace/e. 


581. 
582. 


S. gracilis. 

Arethusa bulbosa. j 




(Rush Family.) 


583- 


Listera cordata. 


620. 


Luzula i)ilosa. 


584- 


L. convallarioides. 


621. 


L. parviflora,var, melanocarpa.f 


585. 


Pogonia ophioglossoides. 


622. 


Juncus effusus. 


586. 


Calopogen pulchellus. 


623. 


J. bufonius. 


587- 


Microstylis ophioglossoides. 


624. 


J. tenuis. 



.30 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



625. 


J. Green i. 


662. 


C. stipata. 


626. 


J. acLiininatus. 


663. 


C. cephalophora. 


627. 


J. pelocirpus. 


664. 


C. rosea. 


628 


J. Canadensis, var, coarctatus. 


665. 


C. tenella. 


629. 


J. noilosus. 


666. 


C. trisperma. 


630. 


J. trifidus. 


667. 


C. canescens. 


63>- 


J. filiformis. 


668. 


C. scroparia. 


632. 


J. marginatus. 


669. 


C. lagopodoides. 






670. 


C. strammea, var, typica. 




PONTEDERIACE.*. 


671. 


C. " var, aperta. 




(Pickerel Weed Family.) 


672. 


C. crinita. 






673 


C. gynandra. 


633- 


Pontederia cordata. 


674. 


C. granularis. 






675. 


C. pallescens. 




Xyridace^. 


676. 


C. conoidea. 




(Yellow-eyed Grass Family,) 


677. 
678. 


C. gracillima. 
C. viresceris. 


634 


Xyrisflexuosa. 


679. 


C. plantaginea. 


635- 


X. var, pusillata. 


680. 


C. platyphylla. 






681. 


C. Emmonsii. 




Eriocaulonace.'E. 


682. 


C. laxiflora. 




(Pipe-wort Family.) 


6S3. 


C. umbellata. 






684. 


C. Pennsylvanica. 


636. 


Eriocaulon septangulare. 


685. 


C. pubescens. 






686 


C. scabrata. 




CvPERACE.t:. 


687 


C. comosa. 




(Sedge Family.) 


688 


C. hystricina. 






689 


C. intumescens. 


637. 


Cyperus diandrus. 


690 


C. lupulina. 


638. 


C. dentatus. 






639- 


C. strigosus. 




Gramin.«. 


640. 
641. 


C. inflexus. 
C. filiculmis. 




(Grass Family.) 


642. 


C. phymatodes. 


691 


Leersia Virginica. 


643. 


Dulichium spatchaceum. 


692 


L. oryzoides. 


644. 


Eleochans obtusa. 


693 


Alopccnrus pratcnsis. 


645- 


E. tenuis. 


694 


A. gf/iiLiilcitus. 


646. 


E. acicularis. 


695 


Phleurii pratciisc. 


647. 


E. Robbinsii. 


696 


Sporobolus serotinus. 


648. 


E. palustris. 


697 


Agrostis perennans. 


649. 


E, olivacea. 


698 


A. scahra. 


650. 


Scirpus validus. 


r.99 


A. vulgaris. 


651- 


S. sylvaticus. 


700 


A. alba. 


652. 


S. atrovirens. 


701 


A. canina. 


653- 


S. Eriophorum. 


702 


Cinna arundinacea. 


654. 


S. pungens. 


703 


Muhlenbergia glomerata. 


655. 


S. Torreyii. 


704 


M. Mexicana. 


6q6. 


S. debilis. 


705 


M. sylvatica. 


657. 


Rhynchospora alba. 


706 


M. sorbolifera. 


658. 


R. glomerata. 


708 


Brachyelytruni aristatutn. 


659- 


R. fusca.* 


709 


Calmagrostis Canadensis. 


660. 


Cladium mariscoides. 


710 


C. Langsdorffi.f 


661. 


Carex vulpinoidea. 


711 


Oryzopsis melanocarpa. 





BOTANICAL. 31 


712. 


0. asperifolia. 


763 


E. limosum. 


713- 


0. Canadensis. 


764 


. E. variegatum.* 


714- 


Dactyl is i^Ioz/ierata. 


765 


E. scirpoides. 


715- 


Glyceria Canadensis. 




FiLICES. 


7 1 6. 
717. 
718. 


G. elongata. 
G. nervata. 




(Fern Family.) 


G. pallida. 


766 


Polypodium vulgare. 


719. 


G. fluitans. 


767 


. Adiantum pedatum. 


720. 


G. aquatica. 
Poa annua. 


768 


Pteris aquilina. 


72T. 


769 


. Asplenium Trichomanes. 


722. 


P. compressa. 


770 


A. ebeneum. 


723- 


P. serotina. 


771 


A. anguslifolium.* 


724. 


P. pratensis. 


772 


A. thelypteroides. 


725. 


P. trivialis. 


773 


. A. Filix-foemina. 


726. 


P. alsodes. 


774 


Phegopteris polypodiodes. 


727. 


Eragrostis pectinacea. 


775 


P. hexaganoptera. 


728. 


Festuca ovina. 


776 


P. Dryopteris. 


729. 


F. elation 


777 


Aspidium Thelypteris. 


730- 


B ramus sccaliniis. 


778 


A. Nnvaboracense 


73r- 


B. cilliatus. 


779 


A. spinulosum, var, interme- 


732. 


B. Kalmi. 




dium. 


733- 


Triticum repens. 


780 


A. var, Bootii. 


734- 


Elymus Virginicus. 


781 


A. cristatum. 


735- 


E. Canadensis. 


782 


A. marginale. 


736. 


Gymnostichum Hystrix. 


7^^ 


A. acrostichoides. 


737- 


Danthonia spicata. 


784 


Cvsopteris fragilis. 


738- 


Hierochlea boiealis.* 


785 


Cystopteris bulbifera. 


739- 


AiitJioxantliiiin odor at 11 in . 


786 


Camptosorus rhizophyllus. * 


740. 


Phalaris Cauariensis. 


787 


Struthiopteris Germanica. 


74r. 


P. arnndinacea. 


788 


Onoclea sensibilis. 


742. 


Paspalum setaceum. 


789 


Woodsia Ilvensis. 


743- 


PanicuiJi sangidnale. 


790 


Dicksonia punctilobula. 


744- 


P. agrostoides. 


791 


Osmundaregalis. 


745- 


P. capillare. 


792 


0. Claytoniana. 


746. 


P. latifolium. 


793 


0. cinnanionea. 


747- 


P. dichotomum. 


794 


Botrychium Virginicum. 


748. 


P. Crus-galli. 


795 


B. lunaroides, var, obliquum. 


749- 


P. glabrum. 


796. 


B. var. desectum. 


75°- 


P. Sanguinale. 


797- 


B. matricarrefolium. 


75'- 


P. clandestinum. 


798 


B. lanceolatum. 


752. 


P. virgatum. 


799- 


B. simplex.* 


753- 


P. xanthophysum.* 


800. 


Ophioglossum vulgatum. 


754- 


P. depauperatum. 




LvCOPODIACE.t. 


755- 


Sctaria e/a/zrir. 




(Lycopodium Family.) 


756. 
757- 
758. 


S. 7'iridis. 

Cenchrus tribuloides. 
Androporgon furcatus. 


801. 
802. 
803. 


Lycopodium lucidulum. 
L. selago.* 
L. inuiidatum. 


759- 


A. scroparius. 


804 


L. annntinum. 




Equisetace.k. 


805. 


L. complanatum. 




(Horsetail Family.) 


806. 


L. clavatum. 


760. 


Equisteum arvense. 


807. 


Selaginella rupestris. 


761. 


E. hymale. 


808. 


Isoetes echinospora. 


762. 


E. sylvaticum. 


809. 


1. riparia. 



32 GRAFTON COUNTY, 



SOIL AND STAPLE PRODUCTIONS. 

As the soil and productions vary materially in different parts of the county, 
these subjects are covered in the town sketches. Some idea of the territory, 
as a whole, however, may be obtained from the following statistics, shown by 
the census report of 1880. The county then had 4,794 farms, representing 
an area of 425,783 acres of improved land, valued, including buildings, etc., 
at $10,520,102.00, while its total public debt, bonded and floating, was 
$642,484.00, with a sinking fund of $59,221.00. These farms supported 
8,337 horses, 14 mules, 5,060 working oxen, 14,190 milch cows, 18,750 
other cattle, 74,054 sheep, and 8,577 swine. The stock products for the year 
were 384,918 pounds of wool, 153,104 gallons of milk, 1,432,673 pounds of 
butter, and 201,455 pounds of cheese. The products of the farms were 
32,961 bushels of buckwheat, 8,981 bushels of barley, 206,323 bushels of In- 
dian corn, 360,902 bushels of oats, 5,813 bushels of rye, 43,318 bushels of 
wheat, 108,048 tons of hay, 684,796 bushels of potatoes, 3,734 pounds of 
hops, and orchard products to the value of $96,424.00. 

MANUFACTURES. 

The county is not what may be called a manufacturing district ; indeed, 
while it has many fine water powers that are utilized, it has still many others 
that await the hand of enterprise ; but as sketches of the resources and his- 
tory of each of the manufactories are given in the town wherein they are re- 
spectively located, we will dismiss the subject at this point with the following 
statistics from the census report of 1880: There were then 465 manufactur- 
ing establishments in the county, representing an invested capital of $2,155,- 
956.00 and giving employment to 2,528 hands, to whom was paid $633,- 
869.00 in wages. The total value of materials used was $2,595,146.00 and 
the total product $4,117,710.00. 

THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE LAW IN GRAFTON COUNTY.* 

As early as January, 1755, a proposition to divide the Province of New 
Hampshire into counties was entertained in the Assembly. The Merrimack 
river was to be the dividing line and there were to be two counties — Ports- 
mouth and Cumberland. The Council rejected the bill because it provided 
for a court at Exeter as well as Portsmouth, and they "could by no means 
consent" to that. The two branches of the Assembly continued to consider 
this question in various forms and continued to find grounds of disagreement 
as to details until 1769, when an agreement was finally reached and the es- 
tablishment of the counties effected by the Crown's approval of the act of 
March 19, 177 1. (Laws of 177 1, Ch. 137, p. 204.) Under this legislation 



*For this admirable slcetcli of the legal history of Grafton county we are indebted to- 
Mr. A. S. Batchellor of Littleton. 



BENCH AND BAR. 33 



^ve counties were erected. These were Rockingham, Strafford, Hills- 
borough, Cheshire and Grafton, so named by the Governor after some of his 
friends in England. The counties of Strafford and Grafton, being much less 
populous than the others, were to remain annexed to the county of Rocking- 
ham, till the Governor, by the advice of Council, should declare them com- 
petent to the exercise of their respective jurisdictions, which was done in 
1773. At this date the towns included in the county were New Chester (now 
Hill. Bristol and Bridgewater), Protectworth (Springfield), Grafton, Relhan 
(Enfield), Lebanon, Hanover, Canaan, Cardigan (Orange), Plymouth, Cock- 
ermouth (Groton), Dorchester, Lyme, Orford, Wentworth, Rumney, Treco- 
thic (Ellsworth), Warren, Piermont, Haverhill, Peeling (Fairfield, then Wood- 
stock), Lincoln, Landaff, Bath, Lyman, Gunthwaite (Concord, then Lisbon), 
Franconia, Apthorp (Littleton and Dalton), Lancaster, Dartmouth (Jeffer- 
son), Shelburne, Chatham, Conway, Northumberland, Woobury (Strafford), 
Alexandria, Burton (Albany), Coventry (Benton), Dryden (Colebrook), Pres- 
ton (Columbia). Thornton, and all other territory northerly of a line from the 
northwest corner of Plainfield by the northerly side lines of Plainfield and 
Grantham, to the northeast corner of Grantham, thence by the easterly side 
line of Grantham and the northerly side line of Saville to the north end of 
Sunapee pond; thence by the westerly line of Dantzick, Hiedleburgh, and by 
northerly side lines of Hiedleburgh and northwesterly side line of Emerys- 
tovvn to Pemigewasset river; thence up the river to Compton; thence round 
the westerly end of Compton, and by the northeasterly side lines of Comp- 
ton, Sandwich and Tamworth ; and thence easterly to the Province line on 
the same course with the northerly side line of Eadeton. 

A census taken in 1773 contains returns from twenty-five towns in this 
county, and gives a population of 3,549, of which ninety were students at 
Dartmouth college, and twenty were slaves. (10 Prov. Papers, 635.) 

The Revolutionary convention in the Province, in 1775, "ordered a sur- 
vey to be made of the number of people in the several counties." It appeared 
from this enumeration that Grafton county had a population of 4,101. Dur- 
the long period of the French-English and Indian hostilities, which tiid not 
case until the peace of 1763, and by which the French possessions to the north- 
ward were ceded to England, the region of Grafton county could not be set- 
tled. The French and Indian marauding parties killed and pillaged in com- 
parative security for themselves, at points far south of the present county 
boundaries. Immediately upon the overthrow of the French dominion, how- 
ever, there was a rush of settlers to the northward. Hardly any settlements 
had been effected previous to 1763, and in 1767 the population was only 
747 ; but in the succeeding decade a considerable portion of the vigorous 
elements in the surplus population of the old settlements found homes in 

Note — Emerystown is now Andover. Dantzick and Hiedleburgh were laid on the an- 
cient maps, one nearly east of " Sunapee pond " and the other adjoining the first on the 
north. 



34 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



Grafton county. Grants of townships were eagerly sought and surveys 
extended up the branches of the Merrimack and the Connecticut valley and 
into the country on either side of the river. Much of the territory now 
re-granted by Governor John Wentworth had been previously disposed of 
by his predecessor, Benning Wentworth. Various conditions were annexed 
to the grants, among which was that of forfeiture in case of a failure of the 
grantees to effect a settlement in five years. By taking advantage of this 
clause he assumed the disposal of a vast territory. The grantees of Benning 
Wentworth protested against ihe forfeitures as arbitrary and unwarranted. In 
the distribution of official favors by Governor John Wentworth, one of the 
council, Peter Livius, conceived himself to be unduly overlooked, and returned 
to England in a belligerent frame of mind. He proceeded immediately to an 
agitation of New Hampshire affairs, and filed charges of maladministration 
against Wentworth. His first article of complaint was "that the Governor 
and Council, without any legal process, or the intervention of a jury, had 
deprived the grantees under the Crown of their lands, on suggestion only that 
the conditions had not been complied with." (Belknap, p. 345.) To this it 
was replied "that the resumption of grants forfeited by non-compliance with 
the conditions of settlement, was supported by the opinion of the attorney and 
solicitor-general, given in 1752 j that the invariable usage in these cases, had 
been to issue notice to delinquent proprietors, that they should appear 
on a set day, and show cause why their shares should not be forfeited and 
re-granted ; that their allegations had always been treated with proper respect, 
and that no complaint of injustice had been made by any persons whose 
grants had been thus resumed." 

The lords of trade before whom the complaints were first laid found that 
they had been fully verified, but they also reported that Wentworth's adminis- 
tration had been successful 

A rehearing was had before a committee of the privy council who reported 
a judgment on the several articles. On the first one they said in substance : 
" That by the law of England, when lands were granted, upon condition, the 
breach of that condition must be found by a jury under a commission from 
the Court of Chancery ; but that no such court existed in New Hampshire ; 
and though the general rule was, that the law of England extended to the 
colonies, yet it must be understood to mean such part of the law as is adapted 
to the state and constitution of them. That though the Governor had re- 
sumed and regranted lands, yet there was no evidence that such resumption 
had been made without proof or public notoriety that the condition of former 
grants had not been complied with; and that no complaint had been made 
by any person supposed to be injured. That it had not been proved that 
resumptions had been made without notice to the proprietors ; and it had 
not even been suggested, in cases wheie time had been allowed, that grants 
were resumed before the expiration of it." 

The people of Grafton county were settled on lands which were subject 



BENCH AND BAR. _1__LV^»^«^ V-r v^ ^5 



1169866 



to grants successively made by these governors by the methods investigated 
in these proceedings. Wherever the grants weie renewed to the same 
proprietors, as was the case with Chiswick, afterwards Apthorp, then Little- 
ton and Dalton, great difficulty was avoided. A large number of towns, how- 
ever, were granted under rival charters to different sets of proprietors. This 
was the case of Concord, regranted as Gunthwaite ; of Franconia and Lin- 
coln, regranted as Morristown ; Landaff, regranted by the same name. The cir- 
cumstances of these grants raised some of the first important questions for 
litigation in the county. The great haste and carelessness which characterized 
the survey and location of the grants and the allotment among the individual 
proprietors, gave further occasion for angry controversy without and with re- 
course to the remedies of the law. The result of the incidental considera- 
tion by the home government upon the complaint of Livius, of the questions 
of forfeiture under these grants, was not known in New Hampsliire until 
the political condition of the colony was much disturbed by the rapid evo- 
lution of the sentiment of revolution. It would indeed, under more favorable 
conditions be regarded as an evasion rather than a decision of the question. 
The local courts of the county, organized in 1773, hatl only come fairly into 
working order when they were overtaken by the revolutionary storm and 
their doors closed. Proprietary rights found no peaceful settlement while the 
war progressed except in a summary manner through the home-made tribunals 
or by legislative disposition. The important questions relating to the prior- 
ity of the township grants were among those which remained in abeyance. 

The Superior Court of Judicature included Grafton county in its circuit 
upon the organization of the county. Its members were Theodore Atkinson, 
of New Castle, chief justice Mesech Weare, of Hampton Falls, Leverett 
Hubbard and William Parker, both of Portsmouth, associate justices. 
Samuel Livermore, then of Portsmouth, was attorney-general. There was 
no practice, such as now prevails, of reporting opinions in the causes deter- 
mined in order to inform the public of the reasons for the decisions. 

A Court of Common Pleas of four justices, and a Court of Sessions com- 
posed of the justices of the peace, were erected in the county with the other 
departments of civil government. The members of the Common Pleas were 
men of mark in their time. Col. John Hurd, of Haverhill, was chief, and Asa 
Porter, of Haverhill, David Hobart of Plymouth and Bezalee Woodward, of 
Hanover, associate justices. Col. John Fenton, of Plymouth, was clerk. 
Col. Hurd was a graduate of Harvard, who was also county treasurer, register 
of deeds and receiver of quit rents. He made Haveihill a half-shire and was 
one of the largest land-owners and most influential men in the county. It is 
remarkable that the Rev. Grant Powers, in his history of the Coos country, 
should have disposed of this career by only relating the story of the escape of 
Col. Kurd's cow from the Haverhill settlement and her safe return to her old 
home at Portsmouth through the wilderness without accident. Col. Porter 
was also a wealthy, land-owner and a graduate of Harvard. Col. Hobart was 



36 GRAFTON COUNTY. 

a prominent citizen at Plymouth and foremost in military affairs. His career 
is sketched in a note tJ Potter's War History. (Adjt. Gen.'s Report. 1866, 
Vol. 2, p. 320.) Judge Woodward* was a professor in the college at 
Hanover, who came from Connecticut with President Wheelock. He was a 
graduate of Yale college and was for thirty-five years the '• end of the law " 
for the vicinity of Hanover. He acted as trial justice under the authority of 
New Hampshire and Vermont at different periods, and his dockets were 
voluminous and are still extant. 

The New Hampshire Register for 1772 gives the foUowmg as at that time 
members of the legal profession in the State. 

Barristers at law : — 

Samuel Livermore, Portsmouth; Wiseman Claggett, Portsmouth ; Noah 
Emery Exeter; William Parker, Exeter; John Sullivan, Durham; John 
Pickering, Portsmouth ; Joshua Atherton, Amherst ; and Simeon Olcott, 
Charleston. 

Practicing Attorneys: — 

Ebenezer Champney, New Ipswich; Peter Greene and Stephen Scales, 
Concord ; John Prentice, Londonderry ; Samued Hale, Portsmouth ; John 
Wentworth, Dover; Elijah Williams, Keene : Richard Cutts Shannon and 
Oliver Whipple, Portsmouth. 

There were none in Grafton county. Legal advice and assistance were 
sought in the older counties. 

In those red republican days the King's courts were not acceptable to the 
people.f They ceased to dispense justice in Grafton counry in 1775. The 
Provincial Congress reorganized them with the same machinery but with a 
reformed personnel. The Common Pleas in Grafton, appointed in 1776, have 
left no records of any business transacted and probably they never organized. 
The war of the Revolution occasioned unusual burdens and difficulties in this 
county. Tne Cohos country, so-called, was constantly garrisoned against the 
common enemy. Heavy levies of men and means were repeatedly made from 
the infant settlements. The courts of justice were closed and law was ad- 
administered by local committees or the military. i\.t the same time also 
that the war with the mother country was in progress, the towns in the Con- 
necticut valley were in revolt against the provisional revolutionary government 
of New Hampshire. The spirit of disaffection was so intense that the 
towns on the western side of the county refused to send any representatives in 
the manner prescribed by the New Hampshire Assembly. They were mean- 
time represented in the independent assemblies of the valley towns, or in the 
Assembly of Vermont. The controversial papers of the period which emanated 

* For sketch of Prof. Woodward, see Records Gov. and Council, \'eimont, Vol. 2, p. 
114. 

t See Boylston's History of the Early Courts and Committees of Safety, Hillsborough 
county. 



BENCH AND BAR. 37 



from Judge Woodward, Judge Payne* and others, have been reprinted in Bou- 
ton's Collection of Province Papers, Vol. lo. They contain evidence of the great 
polemical ability of the men of Grafton county in that day. Many of them dis- 
play a masterly understanding of the fundamental principles of government. 
Occasion is not given in this place for a detailed examination of this interesting 
epoch. It has however a place in the legal history of the county. These 
agitators sought by all the means at their command to erect a state in the 
Connecticut valley whose back-bone should be along the river and whose 
capital should be at Hanover. They had little sympathy with the political 
doctrines that obtained in Eastern New Hampshire. One of the cardinal prm- 
ciples with them was the individuality and independence of the town. The 
classification of towns for purposes of representation was the rock on which the 
sections split, and in Vermont no such practice is permitted to this day. The 
sentiments of the popular leaders were entertained by the common people to a 
considerable extent. There is an indication of it in Mr. Coroner Crocker's reply 
to Mr. Hurd, "that he did not choose to accept the office for he did not like our 
form of government," when Hurd informed him "that the body of poor John 
Presson, drowned this afternoon, is jast now taken up, and they are in quest 
of a coroner to set upon him." (Town Papers, Vol 12, — Hammond, p. 199.) 

The eastern part of the county was not involved in the movement. The 
people were well disposed towards the Provincial Government. Hon. Samuel 
Livermore, of Holderness, was, at a critical point, appointed to undertake 
the settlement of the controversy on some basis which would secure the rights 
of New Hampshire and maintain her boundaries. The Continental Congress 
took the matter into serious consideration, and Washington threw the weight 
of his influence by active, advice and suggestion in favor of adjustment of the 
causes of dispute. By the operation of these and other influences the limits 
of New Hampshire were set at the west bank of the Connecticut river. The 
inhabitants generally accepted the situation in good part and peaceably 
resumed their functions in the State. Some of the leaders had become em- 
bittered against the State and removed permanently into Vermont. The 
restoration, however, took place in Grafton county with less friction than in 
Cheshire.! 

There was at the same time throughout the whole county a considerable 
tory clement. t Col. Fenton, the clerk of courts and judge of probate, had 

* Hon. Elisha Payne first resided in Cardigan, now Orange, and subsequently in East 
Lebanon. The New Hampshire legislature elected him to the office of chief justice of the 
Common Pleas for the county in 1779, perhaps as a "sop to Cerberus ; but he paid no heed 
to the compliment. He was made chief justice of Vermont in 1781, and held the office 
till the allegiance of the courts on the east side of the river was restored to New Hamp- 
shire. For a sketch of his life see Records of Gov. and Council, ^"ermont, Vol. i, p. 275, 
and article on "Lawyers of Lebanon." — J'osl. 

tSee Amory's life of Sullivan, 192. 

XT\\e patriots of Lebanon proposed the "purging out of this detestable leven.'" 
3* 



38 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



been deprived of his office and sent out of the country, for this cause, i Judge 
Asa Porter was under surveillance and was subject to an investigation as to his 
loyalty. A portion of the evidence in his case is given in the Province Pa- 
pers, Vol. 8, pp. 324, 331. The soldiers, spies, scouts and Indians allies of 
the hostile armies constantly traversed the territory of the county. Yet the 
people remained true to the main cause, and were never lukewarm in supply- 
ing men and means for the prosecution of the war. They were on the very 
scene of hostilites, and their soldiery, under Hobart, Webster. Chase, Bellows, 
Bedell, Hazen, Morey, Johnson and Wheelock, rendered distinguished ser- 
vice on many fields. 

Amidst all this confusion, distrust, uncertainty for the present and future, 
internecine strife and public danger, we can but wonder how the scattered 
settlers bore their difficult part in the struggle for independence and main- 
tained themselves so well in this great wilderness frontier. 

While the courts were closed the King's Common Pleas judges were vari- 
ously occupied. Chief Justice Hurd was the member of the Committee of 
Safety for the county of Grafton. He took a prompt and positive stand for 
the cause of independency and was the minister of war for the northern sec- 
tion of the Province until his influence was undermined by the New State fac- 
tion which surrounded him in the Connecticut valley. (Provmce Papers, Vol. 
10, p. 318.) Judge Woodward was engineering the scheme for annexation of 
Vermont to New Hampshire or the western New Hampshire towns to Ver 
mont, in either of which events the capital should be established in the Con- 
necticut valley and in the vicinity of Dartmouth college. Judge Hobart was 
in the saddle at the front, pounding the scales of justice with the s.vord ; and 
Judge Porter was considerably occupied with the case that was pending 
against himself on the charge of toryism. 

The first reorganization of this court was in 1782, when Samuel Emerson, 
Ezekiel Ladd, James Woodward and Enoch Page were made judges, with 
George Willamson Liverraore, of Holderness, which was then annexed to the 
county, as clerk. The record is that the causes pending in this court at the 
April term, 1775, were brought forward. They were ten in number. 

The Vermont controversy and the war with the mother country having 
ended almost contemporaneously, and the courts having been reopened, 
the people lost no time in waking the causes of litigation that had slumbered 
during the progress of the conflict at arms. There was ample material in the 
confused state of the Royal grants of the townships and the subdivisions un- 
der them. The people had for a considerable time realized the necessity of a 
more regular administration of justice. An illustration of this may be 
found in the petition of Enoch Bartlett, now published in Hammond's Town 
Papers, Vol. 12, p. 180. He said " a sort of banditti" had pillaged his mill 

XSee the interesting and exhaustive paper on Colonel Fenton by Charles R. Corning,. 
Proceedings of Grafton and Coos Bar Association. 



BENCH AND BAR, 39 



at Norihumberland, and that he had " suffered much at the town of Bath in 
said county for that he could not enforce the contract against his tenant :" 
and was put to trouble to prevent him from getting possession again without 
leave ; " that^a due consideraton of the many instances of Fraud, Injustice 
and oppression that prevails in that County since the laws were suppress'd — 
will influence You to Make the Necessary Provision Pray'd for." 

It is not certain who was the first lawyer to locate in the county. Jonathan 
Mitchell Sewall, the poet lawyer, was made register of probate in 1773, pre- 
sumably with a view to his location in the county, but he soon resigned the 
office and continued in practice at Portsmouth. Moses Dow succeeded Mr. 
Sewall as register of probate in 1774, holding the office continuously till 1808, 
when his son succeeded him. Gen. Dow was in all probability the first perma- 
nently settled lawyer in the county. The Register for 1787-88, names only 
three in Grafton — Moses Dow, at Haverhill, John Porter, at Plymouth, and 
Aaron Hutchinson, at Lebanon. The local bar gradually increased in num- 
bers and abilily. Something concerning each is given in articles relating par- 
ticularly to what may be termed the law towns. No attempt, however, can be 
successfully made in the space allotted to this subject to give in detail the 
characteristics and accomplishments of the gentlemen of the profession who 
have given the bar of Grafton county the prestige it has enjoyed before the 
courts and people of the State for the past hundred years. 

One of the most discriminating and authoritative records of the state of our 
jurisprudence in the latter part of the eighteenth century is given in the Hfe 
of William Plumer. I-n legal equipment the disparity is shown to have been 
very wide between the members of the court and the leaders of the bar. The 
salaries paid the judges were insufficient. It was as much the usage of the times 
to appoint clergymen, physicians and merchants to the bench, as professional 
lawyers. It is asserted on excellent authority that the laymen were the better 
judges. This was because the lawyers who were competent could not aff'ord 
to take places in the courts. From 1782 to 1790 Samuel Livermore was 
chief justice;* but of him it is said (" Life of Plumer," p. 151,) that "though 
bred to the law, he was not inclined to attach much importance to precedents, 
or to any merely systematic or technical rules of procedure," In a manu- 



* Since the Revolution six of the chief justices of the highest court have been identified 
with the Grafton county bar as local practicioners, viz.: Samuel Livermore, 1782 to 1790; 
Arthur Livermore, 1809 to 1813; Andrew S. Woods, 1855; Ira Perley, 1855 to 1859 and 
1S64; Henry A. Bellows, 1869 to 1873; J. E. Sargent, 1873 to 1874. Arthur Livermore, 
William H. Woodward, Jonathan Kittredge, were chief justices of circuit courts. Nearly 
all tlie gentlemen named as chief justices of common law courts, also served as associate 
justices. To the list of associate justices who had been local members of the bar of this 
county, may be added the names of Nathaniel G. Upton, at one time of Bristol, Leonard 
Wilcox, of Orford, Ellery A. Hibbard, at one time of Plymouth, George A. Brigham, 
of Littleton, A. P. Carpenter, of Bath, Charles R. Morrison, of Haverhill, Josiah Minot, 
of Bristol, Edward D. Rand, of Lisbon, and Isaac N. Blodgett, of Canaan. 



40 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



script report, which I have, of one of his charges, I find him cautioning the 
jury against " paying too much attention to the niceties of the law. to the 
prejudice of justice," a caution of which jurors do not ordinarily stand much 
in need. He was himself governed little by precedents. When once reminded 
of his own previous decision in a similar case, he made no attempt to 
reconcile it with his present ruling, but dismissed at once the objection with 
the familiar proverb, " Every tub must stand on its own bottom." If he 
paid little attention to the decisions of his own court, he was not likely to 
defer much to those of other tribunals. The question was once argued before 
him as to the authority of the English law reports, and he then decided that 
those of a date prior to the Declaration of Independence might be cited here, 
not as authorities, but as enlightening by their reasonings the judgment of 
the court ; but that those of a later date we had absolutely nothing to do 
with. 

The salary of the chief justice at this time was six hundred dollars. Liver- 
more was succeeded as chief justice by Josiah Bartlett, a physician. Of him 
we are told that " when the law was with the plaintiff, and equity seemed to 
him to be on the other side, he was sure to pronounce in favor of the latter." 
The object of the law being in all cases to do justice as between the parties, 
that must, he said, be law, which in any given case conduced to this end. It 
was, at any rate, better to be governed by a right principle than by a wrong 
decision. The next chief justice, from 1790 to 179=5, was John Pickering, 
who was a well read lawyer. His successors have all been of the same pro- 
fession, though one of them, Simeon Olcott, who held the office from 1795 to 
1801, was more distinguished for the uprightness of his intention than his 
knowledge of the law. '• In his office of judge," says his biographer, " he mani- 
fested less regard for the letter of the law than for the spirit of equity." This 
is a mild way of saying what was often true, that he made the law to suit 
the case. 

The Common Pleas in Grafton county was reenforced in 1785 by the res- 
toration of Prof. Bezaleel Woodward to his placi in the court. His associates 
for many years were Samuel Emerson, of Plymouth, chief, and James Wood- 
ward and Ezekiel Ladd, both of Haverhill. From what the contemporary 
writers says of the Supreme Court it would seem that matters once heard by 
Judge Woodward's court would not ordinarily be bettered by appeal. 

The local bar of Grafton were assisted by the legal giants of the day, — 
Jeremiah Mason, Jeremiah Smith, William Plumer, Sullivan and their con- 
temporaries. Later on came Webster, Bartlett and Woodbury. Those 
were the days of the circuit riders, when the people flocked to court as for a 
holiday, to behold the encounter of the great men and to listen to forensic 
eloquence which will not be excelled in this matter of fact age. Mr. Curtis, 
in his " Life of Webster," says : " It is not easy to determine whether Mr. 
Webster's first speech, which he says was made when his father " was on the 
bench," was made in the Common Pleas Court, of which his father was judge. 



BENCH AND BAR. 41 



or in the Superior Court of Judicature of which the Hon. Jeremiah Smith 
was chief justice. The local tradition in the county of Grafton at the period 
of Mr. Webster's death, was that his first cause was a case of some notoriety 
that was tried in 1805, at Plymouth, in the Superior Court and that Judge 
Smith was on the bench. If this was the case in which his father heard him, 
Judge Webster must have been invited to take a seat on the bench accord- 
ing to the usual courtesy, but he could not been present in his official capacity, 
as he was a member of an Inferior Court. Nor could his son, in the year 
1805, have been entitled to argue a case before the jury in the Superior Court, 
since he was not admitted as a counselor of that court till 1807. On the 
other hand there is something more authentic than a tradition, respecting a 
case which was tried before Chief Justice Smith in what was then the county 
of Hillsborough, in 1806, and m which Mr. Webster was allo.ved to take the 
part of a junior counsel ; and it is after hearing him in this case that Judge 
Smith is said to have remarked on leaving the court house, that 'he had 
never before met such a young man as that.' Both of these were civil cases. 
There is also an account of a very powerful speech which he made in defense 
of a person indicted for murder and tried in the Superior Court of Grafton 
county. It is said that the senior counsel abandoned the cause after hearing 
the evidence, leaving to Mr. Webster the whole burden of summing up to the 
jury. But it is scarcely needful to trace the precise degree of accuracy with 
which these several accounts have come down to us, or to determine which 
of them is to be regarded as his first cause. It is enough to know that before 
he left the interior of the State, he had produced an impression which is even 
now not etfaced, and that different counties have contended for the honor of 
having been the scene of his first efforts at the bar." The inference from the 
incident given in Morrison's life of Chief Justice Smith, p. 179, would seem 
to be that the place of Webster's first trial was not in Grafton county, though 
this authority does not in terms contradict the common tradition. 

In the older counties, debt, discontent and the demoralization of army 
life, created open sedition soon after the declaration of peace. Beside an 
unlimited issue of paper money and a general division of property, a large 
party of malcontents demanded the abolition of lawyers Grafton county had 
had only two or three *at that time and could not well raise mobs for this 
cause.* Those that arose for the practice of the law in the county were 
taught in the rough arena were the giants contended. As a result of such 
tutilage, the local leaders in Grafton at length becimea match for all comers 
and have so maintained themselves to the present time. 

As would be expected the re-opening of the courts was soon followed by 
litigations on the old questions which Livius raised against Wentworth. The 
validity of the forfeitures which had been declared by himself or the council 



* Cert.iinly in Canaan and Orford, and probably in other towns, there was much oppo- 
sition manifested to the settlement of any lawyer in the community, even at a much later 
date. 



42 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



was again tested. Dartmouth college had a grant of Landaff and the same 
territory had been previously granted by Benning Wentworth to other parties. 
Settlers were in, claiming under both titles. Bouton's collection of Town and 
State Papers, Vol. lo, p. 412, under the title Landaff, shows how serious the 
strife was on this account in that township. A decision was reached which 
ousted the college and restored the proprietors of the first grant. In other 
towns the situation was similar to that in Landaff. We cannot wonder at 
the consternation and indignation that followed t'lis decision. The settlers 
had purchased their lands in good faith, they had transformed the rocky wil- 
derness of the mountain country into productive farms and comfortable homes, 
in the midst of hardships and dangers of which we can have but a faint appre- 
ciation. The law was of course defied and the court denounced in vigorous 
terms. The grievances of the settlers under Morristown are vigorously set 
forth in John Taylor's petitions to the General Court (Hammond's Papers, 
Vol. 2, Title Franconia,) in the course of which he says "they have been de- 
feated in the possession of the land granted to them by an alteration inour judi- 
cial detenninations." Even in these days of enlightened jurisprudence, something 
similar to the complaint of John Taylor is occasionally heard ; the utterance 
comes still with equal vehemence if not with equal cause. The settlers relied 
on the juries and often got relief from the suits brought by the proprietors, 
on technicalities and on account of betterments. That was at a time when 
the jury was no inconsiderable part of the court. 

The act of February 6, 1789, empowered the Superior Court of Judicature 
to try any causes relating to forfeitures of lands within this State and to judge 
and decree as a Court of Chancery in certain cases. 

The relations of the Church and State furnished a plentiful source of liti- 
gation. The biographer of Plumer says : — 

'' The Congregational clergy in the State had been originally settled by the 
towns or parishes where they preached ; and the inhabtants were all taxed for 
their support. But many individuals of their congegations having now come 
Baptists, Methodists or Universalists, were no longer willing to pay for preach- 
ing which they did not attend. Property had been taken in many cases in dis- 
traint for taxes so assessed, and suits were commenced to ascertain the rights of 
the parties. The sectarists were nearly all Republicans : while the Congrega- 
tionalists, especially the clergy, were generally Federalists. The Constitution 
of 1792 was intended to secure to all religious denominations the most perfect 
religious freedom, and to prevent the "subordination of any one sect or de- 
nomination to another." But much was yet to be done with both courts and 
juries, especially the great mass of the religious communit}^, before the equality of 
all sects in the eye of the law and their independence of eacli other could be 
brought home to the understandings of the people, and carried out in courts 
of law to its practical results. These religious prosecutions were among the 
most important means, though not so designed, for effecting this desirable ob- 
ject. It was not, however, till the Toleration Act of i8i9that full eft ect was 
given to those principles of religious freedom." 

The court might be Congregationalists or Federalist, or both. The juries 
were almost certain to contain some of these elements. The difticulty 



BENCH AND BAR. 43 



which a secretary would encounter in proving himself to be of " another per- 
suasion, sect or denomination," would be formidable. Judge Wingate, for 
illustration, charged juries that there must be some greater difference than 
that which separated Calvinists from Universalists. They were both Chris- 
tians, agreeing in more points than they differed : both were Christians and 
consequently must support the same minister. This interpretation of the 
law raised a species of protective tariff in favor of the standing order. It was 
regarded as an infant industry, which though already privileged for a hundred 
years under the law, must not be crushed by outside competition. Woes in- 
numerable were foretold if the Toleration Act should be carried. Prominent 
divines said it would be equivalent to a decree to burn the bibles and close 
the doors of the churches. Undoubtedly this law was a source of profit to 
the legal profession. Yet Plumer and other leaders at the bar upheld the 
agitation and assisted in accomplishing the reform of 1819. Grafton county 
furnished two notable advocates of the Toleration Act. These were Dr. 
Thomas Whipple, the eminent physician of Wentworth, who was both able 
and eloquent, and Rev. Daniel Young, of Lisbon, the famous itinerant 
Methodist minister. Dr. Whipple championed the measure in the house and 
it bears his name. Young was sent to the Senate five terms in succession from 
the Grafton district, and advocated the Toleration Act from the introduction 
of the proposition until its enactment. He devotes a chapter to the subject 
in his biography. This reform was partly social, reHgious, political and legal. 
Another controversy somewhat involved in it and prosecuted in the same 
period, was the Dartmouth college case. That was beyond question the most 
important litigation that ever has originated in this county or with which its 
people or institutions have ever been intimately connected. It was at a 
time when Judge Story could listen in his Circuit Court with undissembled 
admiration and delight, to what he called "the vast law learning and the pro- 
digious intellectual power, of the New Hampshier bar." " Webster," referring 
to the same period, " after practicing in the first courts of the Union, told 
Choate that he never met anywhere else abler men than some of those who 
initiated him into the rugged discipline of the New Hampshire courts." 
Vastly important as was the issue, the bar of New Hampshire was equal to 
it. Hon. John M. Shirley, a prominent practitioner at the bars of Merrimack 
and Grafton counties, has in his recent work. The' Dartmouth College Cases, 
earned the distinction of being the historian of that extraordinary litigation.* 



* This, the only college in the state, was established at Hanover in this county in 1769. 
Her great defender in this litigation was her foremost son, Chief Justice Chase, and a 
multitude of other eminent lawyers were also educated at Darmouth. Chapman's Biog- 
raphies of the graduates gives the names and many details of each career. The address 
of Chief Justice Perly, published in the proceedings of the centennial celebration of the 
foundation of the college, contains a more general treatment of the same subject. Another 
valuable contribution to the department of legal l)iography is the series of memorial ad- 
dresses upon the lives of destinguished judges, then deceased, who had been graduates of 
the college, jniblished in 1S80. 



44 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



It engaged the greatest legal talent of the age ; it was determined by the 
great judges who made the Constitution what it has become by construction, 
in the jurisprudence and political fabric of the Federal Union ; and its far 
reaching consequence cannot yet be measured. The following summary is 
contributed by Mr. Shirley, who has attempted to condense the statement 
of that case within the space here allotted*: — 

From the beginaing, arms have reconstructed the politicil map of the 
world. They have moulded the policy and shaped the course and destinies 
alike of empires, kingdoms and republics. Legal warefare has not unfre- 
quently had the same effect where the form of government was not personal 
but rested upon written constitutions. 

Since the existence of the Federal Union no judgment has ever been ren- 
dered so far reaching in its consequences as the decision in the Dartmouth 
college causes which arose in Grafton county. These decisions not only put 
all state agreements and grants upon the same basis as private contracts, but 
made the Constitution of the United States retroactive, and a part of all 
these arrangements entered into before its existence, and put it beyond the 
power of their Creator to impair them. 

Many things which relate to these famous lawsuits cannot be properly un- 
derstood vvithout a brief history of the steps which resulted in their insti- 
tution. 

In 1735 Eleazer Wheelock settled in what is now Columbia, Conn. He 
had become a christian and stood in the van of what is known in religious 
circles in New England as the "the great awakening of 1740." He was set- 
tled on an insufficient salary over the church at Columbia where he remained 
till late in 1770. To eke out a livelihood he kept a private school consisting 
of a few pupils. Among those, December, 1743, was the Indian, Sampson 
Occum. Occum became a christian and pioficient in his studies and after- 
wards a noted preacher both at home and in Great Britain. 

Wheelock was of cleanly life, deep religious convictions, a staunch Presby- 
terian, but tolerant to those whose doctrinal views differed from his own. He 
was a man of marked ability and possessed great knowledge of men, and 
tact and sagacity in dealing with them. He beheved that his duty to God 
required him to devote his life to christianizing the Indians. To this end 
he devoted his whole life with all the fervor of a religious enthusiast. To 
this everything else was subsidiary. 

On July 17, 1855, Joshua Moor, a farmer of Mansfield, Conn., gave a 
house, shop, and two acres of land "for the foundation, use and support of 
an Indian chanty school." From this humble origin sprang " Moor's Indian 
charity school," which has still at Hanover, N H., a legal but nominal ex- 
istence. Funds for this school were gathered slowly at first from the Colo- 
nies and the mother country. To facilitate this. Smith and other eminent 
friends of Wheelock here and elsewhere, suggested a charter. None could be 
obtained from the crown of Great Britian nor an act of incorporation from 



BENCH AND BAR. 45. 

the legislature of Connecticut, which the crown officers affirmed to be the 
proper authority. 

The next step was to secure a charter, not from the King or from the legis- 
lature of New Hampshire, but from the Governor of the latter Province, 
whose power to grant one was to say the least very questionable, and from 
neither his own nor the zealous clergy of the dominant religious denomina- 
tion in New Hampshire had ever been able to obtain one for themselves. 

VVheelock, with the assistance of his accomplished legal friends, framed a 
draft for such a charter for the Indian school, and an academy at Hanover. 
It was changed in some essential particulars by the former in conformity 
with the views of his legal advisor. At the suggestion of VVheelock the term 
" college" was substituted for " academy" in the draft. More than ^12,000 
I had been collected for this Indian school. The bulk of these funds was held 
in trust by the trustees in the mother country, and these were still left in 
their hands. They had been collected specifically for Moor's Indian school 
1 and not for any academy, college or university. 

On December 13, 1769, the Governor granted the re-constructed charter 
! of Dartmouth college. Of this the trustees of the funds for the school and 
I the King were wholly ignorant. The trustees, with the Earl of Dartmouth at 
; their head, when they found out what had been done, were much dissatisfied, 
; and the Earl protested that Wheelock was " going beyond the line by which 
both you and we are circumscribed." In a word, that Wheelock was attempt- 
ing to pervert the trust. The trustees of the college voted that they had no 
control over the Indian school, and hence the funds were long kept separate. 
There had been a struggle as to whether the school should be located on 
the Mississippi, at Albany, N. Y., Springfield, Mass., or at Landaff, Bath, 
Haverhill, Fiermont, Lyme, Orford, Hanover, Lebanon, Cornish, Hinsdale, 
Canaan, Plymouth, Rumney, or Campton, or other towns in New Hampshire 
and Massachusetts. The Governor and trustees preferred Landaft', but 
yielded to Wheelock who by dint of good management caused it to be 
located at Hanover. 

The Governor undoubtedly desired to make the institution a university 
and to give its authorities the domination over the college town exercised by 
those of Cambridge and Oxford, and in this VVheelock heartily concurred. 

The corporation was duly organized on October 22, 1770. The charter 
declared Dr. Wheelock the founder, made him the first president, and author- 
ized him by his last will to appoint his successor. 

VVheelock and tlie trusteets of the college acted in harmony, and the 
church (Presbyterian) at Hanover, the Indian school, and the college, were 
practically under the personal government of Wheelock until his death, on 
April 24, 1779, when John Wheelock, son of Eleazer, became, by force of 
his father's will, his dynastic successor, and retained the office until on August 
26, 181 5, when, against the earnest protests of Jeremiah Mason, he was 
removed by a hostile majority of the trustees, after a service of thirty-six 



46 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



years. On August 28th, Rev. Francis Brown was elected in his stead. This 
was the cuhnination of troubles between Wheelock and a minority which for 
six years had been a majority in the board of trustees. Political and religious 
differences were not the primal source of these troubles for the second Whee- 
lock, and nearly all the trustees were federalists, and professed the same 
religious faith. It was the result of petsonal antagonism and a determin- 
ation, as Judge Crosby put it, -to rid the board and the college of the family 
dynasty." 

The result, as Mason, whose penetrative power bordered close upon inspir- 
ation, foresaw, opened Pandora's box, made the cause of Wheelock and the 
trustees the personal quarrel of thousands who had never known either, and 
brought in legal, constitutional, personal, party, and religious differences to 
swell the angry stream by a flood. 

The agitation drove the federalists, who had controlled the organization of 
their party, from power, and made an old-time federalist governor. In his 
message of June 6, 181 6^ he brought the college question to the attention of 
the legislature, which, after a most determined struggle on the part of the able 
men who championed the cause of the trustees, amended the charter of the 
college, changed the name to university, provided for enlarging the board of 
trustees to twenty-one, and for the creation of a board of overseers of twenty - 
five, and required the president and professors to take an oath to support the 
constitution of the United States and of New Hampshire. 

The trustees and their friends were at first in doubt whether to bend to the 
legislative will or defy it, but finally determined to contest every inch of the 
ground, and did so. 

On February 8, 1817, the trustees brought an action of "trespass on the 
case," in the Court of Common Pleas, for the county of Grafton, against Will- 
iam H. Woodward, of Hanover, the chief justice of that court, and former 
secretary of the college, for the conversion of certain books and records of 
the corporation and its seal. The damages were laid at $50,000^ and a chair 
valued at $1.00 was attached. This case was entered at the February term, 
181 7, and was transferred to the May term of the Superior Court. It was 
argued at this term by Mason and Judge Smith for the trustees, and by the 
attorney-general, Sullivan, and perhaps Ichabod Bartlett, for the defendant, 
and was continued for further argument to the September term of the court, 
at Exeter, in the county of Rockingham, where the argument lasted for two 
days. Mason occupied two. Judge Smith four, and Daniel Webster who had 
the close, a little less than two hours. The argument of Mr. Webster, was 
one or the most brilliant and eloquent of his eventful life. The attorney- 
general and Bartlett occupied three hours. The judges continued the cause 
for advisement till the November term, at Plymouth. On November 6, 181 7, 
Chief Justice Richardson read the unanimous opinion of the court sustaining 
the act of the legislature. In form the case was taken from this term to the 
Supreme Court of the United States, upon the special verdict of a jury, but in 



BENCH AND BAR. 47 



fact there was no trial, but a special verdict was drawn up by Judge Smith, 
and agreed to by the attorney-general, and filed December 29, 181 7. It was 
argued before the federal Supreme Court at Washington, on March 10, 1818, 
by Judge Hopkinson and Webster for the trustees, and discussed by John 
Holmes and William Wirt for the defendant. On March 13, 18 1 8, Chief 
Justice Marshall announced that the judges were unable to agree, and that the 
•cause must be continued for a year. 

The friends of the university, dissatisfied with the way in which their cause 
had been handled, employed William Pinkney, of Maryland, the only man 
who could meet Webster before that court on equal grounds, to re-argue the 
cause. Early in November he gave notice to the opposing counsel, that he 
should move for a re-argument, and made the most elaborate preparation for 
it. All the judges knew it. On the morning of February 2, 1819, the instant 
six of the judges had taken their seats, the chief justice commenced reading 
his famous opinion, which sustained the trustees at all points. One of the 
judges was absent. Judge Duvall dissented, and the other four "concurred 
in the result," but delivered no opinions. Souie of their essays on the subject 
were afterwards filed with the clerk, and published in the reports. Mr. Web- 
ster forthwith followed up his advantage, by moving that judgment be entered 
up as of the last term, Judge Woodward having died during the vacation. Mr. 
Pinkney opposed it upon the ground that he wanted to avail himself of a 
•stipulation in the case, and to argue the questions in the other suits which 
Mr. Webster had caused to be instituted, and which he thought could be sus- 
tained upon other grounds than those raised by the first case. The court 
refused to hear Mr. Pinkney, and Mr. Webster refused to allow the case to be 
amended accordmg to the stipulations, and forced Mr. Pinkney to consent 
that the other causes should be "remanded to the circuit court for the district 
of New Hampshire, for further proceedings." On May i, 1819, Judge Story, 
sitting in the circuit court, rendered an elaborate opinion m these causes, and 
•soon after ordered judgments against the defendants. 

Technically this was the end of these causes. These judgments over- 
turned the university and established or re-established the college. Great 
changes had been wrought since these controversies had arisen. The war- 
fare at College Plain had been bitterer than in the courts. Old friends had 
become alienated and old enemies had become friends. The newspapers 
were full of gibes by one party against the other. Social intercourse in some 
intances had been broken off. Wheelock went to his grave in an early stage 
of the litigation. Judge Woodward followed him in a little more than a year, 
and President Brown early in 1820. After Marshall's opinion the old trus- 
tees, on Februarys, 1819, without waiting for a judgment, took possesion and 
reasserted their domination over the buildings, etc., which had been controlled 
by the university. 

The decision was put by the Supreme Court upon the ground that the act 
of the legislature impaired the obligation of contracts and was, therefore, 



48 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



prohibited by the federal constitution. This was not the original view en- 
tertained by Mr. Webster. He regarded the strong ground as the one on 
which the suits which he caused to be instituted in the federal court were 
based, to-wit : that the legislative act transcended the general principles upon 
which our form of government rests. To review all orjany considerable portion 
of the causes which have been decided upon the clause referred to, would 
not only overstep the limits of an article of this kind, but serve no good pur- 
pose. These decisions must be analyzed, compared, and then studied to- 
gether. Great differences have arisen between the judges of the Supreme 
Court upon this question. Some of the judges have dissented, and others, 
like Chief Justice Chase, who did not believe that the decision in Trustees vs. 
Woodward was sound, have been restive under the authority of that case and 
have been-the means, under the guise of distmctions more or less subtle or 
refined, of withdrawing a host of causes from the grasp of the foundation 
principle laid down by Judge Marshall. In Sturges vs. Crowinshield a com- 
promise was effected among the judges upon a great constitutional principle. 
In Ogden vs. Saunders, Judge Marshall, for the first time since the decision 
in what was in eftect the Moot case of Fletcher vs. Peck, failed to carry a 
majority of the court with him. , 

The accession of Chief Justice Taney, prefigured a change in the course of 
decisions in that court. The case of Charles River Bridge vs. Warren 
Bridge was felt by all the judges to be a great departure from the application 
of the principles referred to. There can be no doubt, had Marshall lived, the 
decision would have been the other way. Judge Story dissented, feeling that 
the constitutional doctrines formerly held by that court were fading away, 
and in consequence he became very desirousof resigning his great office. The 
so-called Granger cases, and those that have followed in their train, wrought 
another revolution. These cases, while affirming the general power of the 
State to tie itself by contract-grants, hold that that power does not apply 
where the police^'power of a state is concerned. That this loose and ill-defined 
attribute of sovereignty, unlike others, cannot constitutionally be made 
the subject of bargains and sale, or be knocked off under the hammer, and 
therefore hold that the so-called Granger legislation, which regulated the con- 
trol of railroads and gave a board of commissioners the power to determine 
priina facia what should be a reasonable tariff, is not prohibited by the Fed- 
eral constitution. There has from the first been an ebb and flow in the tide 
of judicial opinion in the highest tribunal in the land, but as a rule that 
court has been swift to see a contract in a grant, charter and the like, and 
slow to release one from the operation of the obligation clause of the con- 
stitution. Under the varying decisions the court practically has the power to 
treat a contract as binding or not, and views of public policy seem to domi- 
nate in determining that question. The departure in the Granger cases and 
in the case of the Boston Beer Company vs. Massachusetts, has been succeeded 
by various decisions like those in the New Orleans Gas-light Company vs^. 



BENCH AND BAR. 49 



Louisiana Light and Heat Producing and Manufacturing Co., and the New 
Orleans Water Works Company z'j. Rivers, decided at the October term, 1885, 
which seem to go far in the opposite direction and give quite as stringent an 
interpretation to the constitutional provision as that in the college causes. 
And probably from the very nature of things this must go on to the end. And 
thus the decision in Judge Woodward's case is likely to be as immortal as the 
memory of the republic. 

A marked reform in the administration of the law, followed the appoint- 
ment of Jeremiah Smith to the ofifice of chief justice in 1802. By reserving 
important questions of law, and the preparation and filing or publication of 
the written opinions of the judges, greater certainty and consistency was 
attained. In the next fifteen years political and other considerations impelled 
the legislature to make several successive changes in the judicial s;^stem ; and 
in that period the tenure of the judges was uncertain and dependent, in a 
measure, on party supremacy. From the time of the restoration of the courts 
in 1782, to 1 816, the bar of the county gradually increased in numbers, and 
was strengthened in professional ability. Among the principal resident prac- 
titioners, besides those already named, were Aaron Hutchinson, Arthur Liver- 
more, Alden Sprague, John Porter, Jr., Benjamin J. Gilbert, William Wood- 
ward, Payson, Thomas Thompson, Phineas Walker, Richard C. Everett, of 
Lancaster,* Abiathar G. Britton, Jeduthun Wilcox, Mills Olcott, George 
Woodward, Henry Hutchinson, David Smiley, Swan, Joseph E. Dow, Moses 
Dow, Jr., David Sloan, Pettingill, John Nelson, James Hutchinson, Ira Good- 
all, John Rogers, Ira Young, S. C. Webster, and Joseph Bell. 

The court established in 18 16, continued for the longest period of any in 
the history of the State, without "overthrow by political tornadoes." Its 
opinions on questions of law were published with only occasional, or perhaps 
accidental, checks. From 181 6 to 1840 ten volumes of decisions were re- 
ported. Those for a previous period were preserved in manuscript, by Judge 
Smith, but not published till recently. These ten volumes are a very good 
index to the personnel of the bar of that time, and indicate the character of 
the litigation of the county. It appears to have been largely in the depart- 
ment of commercial law, and the law of real property. Many points of 
pleading, practice and evidence were tested. The rights and duties of towns 
under the pauper law received considerable attention. Other corporate bodies 
contributed to the causes on the dockets ; and, with the multiplication of cor- 
porations, this class of litigation rapidly increased. The first ten volumes of 
reports contain opinions in not less than 267 cases from Grafton county. In 
those years it is understood that a very small portion of the causes actually in 
suit were transferred to the law terms. The clerk's dockets indicate an entry 
of some 1,100 cases at a single term. Now the term entries will not average 120, 
including equity matters, in the county. The business in Justice Courts then 

*Coos County was organized in 1805, under the .ict of corpoialion of 1S53. 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



was immense. Now it is comparatively nothing.* Many attorneys became 
wealthy by prosecuting the business of collectors. It was customary to sue 
every claim in the office once or twice a year. The claim would of course, 
increase by the addition of costs and interest, in rapid arithmetical pro- 
gression. The law of exemptions of persons and property from seizure, in 
its liberal modern growth, and the refuge provided in courts of bankruptcy 
and insolvency, have compelled the lawyers to look elsewhere than in the 
business of collections for simple sustenance, to say nothing of wealth. The 
minutes of council in the printed reports may not designate all the leaders in 
the business of collections. Those who excelled in the science of the law, 
of course, were heard in the trial of the issues of law. Of the council in the 
law cases, as shown by an examination of the first ten volumes of reports, the 
counselors from abroad, who most frequently appeared in this county, were 
Jeremiah Smith, Ezekiel Webster, Richard Fletcher, Parker Noyes, Levi 
Woodbury, Ichabod Bartlett, and Joel Parker. Their contemporaries in the 
county, who are oftenest mentioned in the records of the law trials, were Bell, 
Sloan and Nelson, of Haverhill; Blaisdell and Freeman, of Lebanon; Gil- 
bert; Perley, Olcutt and Haddock, of Hanover ; Walker, Thompson and N. 
P. Rogers, of Plymouth; Bradley and N. G. Upham, of Bristol; Bellows and 
Ainsworth, of Littleton ; Britton and Wilcox, of Orford ; Kittredge and 
Weeks, of Canaan ; Quincy, of Rumney ; Payson, Swan, Jonathan Smith, 
Goodall, and Woods, of Bath. Some of these, it is presumed, were in the 
law courts principally as juniors, and are named in the reports rather as 
attorneys of records than as having been responsible for the brief or argu- 
ment. Joseph Bell appears as of counsel in as least 176 of the 267 Grafton 
cases reported in the first ten volumes of the New Hampshire Reports. This 
remarkable record would be augmented by contmuing the examination of the 
the records of the cases in the later reports. Since 1840 more than six- 
sevenths of the whole body of the case law of the State has been added. 
Grafton county has furnished its full proportion. Counsel from abroad have 
had considerable dockets in this later period ; but this has resulted, in a great 
measure, from considerations of convenience to clients. f The early neces- 
sity of calling in leading counsel from other counties has, in the later times, 
been very nearly reversed. The history of the administration of the law in 
our own time is complicated by the rapidly increasing domain of corporate 
action. Municipal agencies multiply. The individual is made subordinate 
to the social connections, and the great mass of the accumulated wealth of 
the people is yielding its return through the instrumentality of a thousand 
forms of corporate organization unknown to the earlier lawyers and legisla- 



* See also "Statistics of Litii^ation, "Appendix to Senate and House Journal, N. H.,iS6o, 
p. 731 ; same 1S86, (Report of Minority of Com. p. 84-/.) 

f See for summary of the latei progress of the administration of the law in New Hamp- 
shire, address of Daniel Barnard, Proceedings of Grafton and Coos Bar .Association, p. 87. 



BENCH AND BAR. 



tors. The interests of these innumerable agencies, coming in hostile contact 
with each other, or with the individual and the body politic, in every direction, 
must continue to exhaust the industry of the bar, and the wisdom of the 
courts. To ascertain rights and limit encroachments of ail these complicated 
modern activities, will demand of those who shall ado[)t the profession of law, 
no less of integrity, learning and industry, and indeed of genius, than belonged 
to our i)redecessors who stand oat in history as the founders of our jurispru- 
dence. 

The administration of the criminal law in this county has been marked by 
substantially the same features as are elsewhere observed. 

A glimpse of the methods that obtained among the Indian occupants of the 
Connecticut valley in dealing with capital offenses, is permitted by the light 
of traditions preserved in local histories. A remnant of the St. Francis tribe, 
whose home had been at Coos before the French and Indian war, returned 
to the vicinity after the close of hostilities. The story of several tradgedies 
among them is told by Rev. Grant Powers. One of the most vicious of this 
remnant was a low browed fellow named Toomalek. In a fit of jealousy, in- 
tending to kill his rival, one Mitchel, he stealthily came upon Mitchel who 
was sitting with his bride, Lewa, by the fire in the evening, and without warn- 
ing shot at and wounded him, and by the same discharge killing Lewa. 
Mitchel recovered. A trial was had after the Indian customs. The president 
of the court was an influential and cruel old warrior, known as Captain John. 
Toomalek was acquitted. Judge John holding that the killing of Lewa was no 
murder, for it was not intentional, and, though he meant to kill Mitchel, he 
did not succeed, and of course that was no capital crime. This court did not 
trouble themselves with questions of emotional insanity. Toomalek was 
encouraged by this result to follow up the business of manslaughter. 
Mitchel had married another dusky maiden as attractive, perhaps, as Lewa. 
Toomalek, accompanied by a white man and a bottle of firewater, visited 
Mitchel's wigwam. Mitchel drank much and Toomalek litttle. When Mitchel 
had taken so much that he was practically helpless, Toomalek encouraged 
him in the utterance of some bitter reproaches against the former for the 
murder of Lewa, and the quarrel in words resulted in Mitchel's making a 
feeble pass at Toomalek with a knife. Toomalek promptly made this the 
occasion for dispatching Mitchel on the spot. Toomalek had his trial and was 
acquitted because Mitchel made the first assault and Toomalek argued that 
he killed Mitchel in self defence. Old John again saved the life of Toomalek. 
Retribution however soon followed both. A party of Indians were on the 
Haverhill side near the old courthouse. Pi-al, the son of Captain John, had 
some bantering talk with a young sqnaw from Newburv. She took umbrage 
at some of Pi-al's sallies, and going aside with Toomalek whispered with him. 
Toomalek returned to Pi-al, and as he was walking by his side drew a long 
knife and by a back-hand stroke plunged it into Pi-al's throat. Pi-al fell dead 
a few rods away. Old John was almost frantic with agony when he learned 



52 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



that Toomalek had killed his son Pi-al. He confessed his sin in sparing the 
life of Toomalek. The next day in the forenoon a court was called to try 
Toomalek. All the evidence was taken and it was unanimously agreed that 
he was guilty and must be shot. They sent a deputation to Rev. Mr. Powers 
to learn whether that decision was agreeable to the word of God. The minis- 
ter heard the evidence and affirmed their judgment. " By the Indian law, 
Old John must be the executioner as he was the nearest by blood to the slain 
and he must avenge the blood of his son. The ground floor of the old court- 
house* was the place designated for the execution. Toomalek came to the 
place himself, without guard or attendance, where John stood in readiness with 
his loaded musket. He seated himself upon the floor, said his Catholic 
prayers, covered his eyes and said ' mack bence ;' that is, ' kill me quick.' 
John stepped forward, put the muzzle of his gun near his head and he was 
dead in an instant." The celerity with which justice was meted out in this 
case is one of the notable features of the proceedings. Toomalek had the 
benefit of two great miscarriages of justice. But in the comparison of results 
of the civilized and barbarous methods of dealing with such ofl"enders, some 
things will occur to those familiar with modern instances which may tend to 
decrease the disparity. 

The Kings court, in Grafton county administered a severe code of criminal 
law. There were many cruel and unusual punishments, including whippings, 
brandings, cutting and piercing of ears, wearing letters on conspicuous parts 
of the outer garments, as a perpetual evidence of conviction, sales of convicts 
into servitude, and a large hst of offences punishable with deatlj.t 

In the case of King rv. C N , June, 1774, is a record stealing one yard 

of cloth, trial by jury, verdict guilty sentence to pay ten shillings fine or be 
whipped ten stripes by the public whipper ; also to pay complainant nine shil- 
lings, being trebble the value of the stolen goods, costs, etc., and in default of 
payment of the nine shillings to be sold into servitude by complainant for 
six months. 

For forgery, the same party at the same term was sentenced to imprison- 
ment for one year without bail or mainprize and to be set in the pillory and 
to have one of his ears cut oft". 

At the October term, 1783, respondent was found guilty of counterfeiting, 
sentenced to be set in a pillory and have an ear cut off" and be imprisoned 
for one year. 

In May, 1796, State against Holmes, a transient person, there was a ver- 
dict, guilty of horse stealing, and a sentence, 'that he be marked with a line 
of India ink well and deeply inserted, across the forehead from the hair of 

* Historical Sketches of the Coos Country, 2d edition, p. 183. 

t The criminal code of 1680 made fifteen crimes punishable with death. In 171S there 
were but five. In 1791, there were eight. In 1812 the death penalty was abolished exccjit 
for treason and murder, and in 1S36 treason was taken from the list. 



BENCH AND BAR. 



53 



the temple on one side to the hair of the temple on the other side, and with 
a line from the center of the line aforesaid to the tip end of the nose on the 
most prominent part thereof, and pay to the said Elisha Paine the sum of one 
hundred and seventy dollars, being two-fold of the value of the mare stolen, 
and costs, &c., &c." 

Parties were often sentenced to be sold into servitude for specified terms, 
down to a time within the memory of men now living. 

As the oflfice of county solicitor was not created till 1789, the court, in the 
absence of the State's attorney, appointed some attorney to act for the time 
being. Moses Dow or Aaron Hutchinson was almost always the one named 
for this duty. The latter became the first county solicitor. Elsewhere in 
these pages a full list of the incumbents of this office is given. Several im- 
portant and closely contested trials of capital causes have occurred in the 
county. The trial of Cummings for wife murder in 1843 brought out some 
of the best legal talent that the State aff"orded and was the occasion of its 
fullest exercise. For th3 State the counsel were Hon. L. B. Walker, attor- 
ney-general, and Harry Hibbard, Josiah Quincy, Leonard Wilcox and C. E, 
Thompson. The case was reported in full, with the confession of Cum- 
mings. The more recent case of State vs. Sawyer was twice tried and twice 
resulted in a verdict of disagreement. This will be regarded as one of the 
celebrated capital causes of this State. Hon. L. W. Clark, attorney-gen- 
eral, and Geo. F. Putnam, solicitor, represented the State, and John H. 
George and Harry Bingham made the defence. 

The ancient practice of circuit-riding generated among the practitioners a 
social element which is unknown in the metropolitan practice or that which is 
of the same style. The lawyer who attends to his business in court m rea- 
sonable hours in the day and never fails, except by some exceptional circum- 
stance, to spend his nights at home, has no such fellowship with his legal 
associates as would result from the long tours and intimate acquaintance of 
the old circuit riders. The northern counties of this State have preserved 
more of the necessities and habits of former times in this respect than their 
southern neighbors. The county seats are still in a measure isolated. Trial 
by jury survives in considerable vigor. Those who are engaged in contested 
cases are of necessity thrown together in close relations for protracted periods 
occupying a large part of their whole time. A certain esprit de corps neces- 
sarily results. 

Haverhill has always been one of the landmarks of the old time practice. 
Its court-house has been the scene of the display of the best legal talent of this 
and other counties. Its hotels have been the rendezvous of tlie wit and wisdom 
of the bench and bar, and within their hospitable halls they have made merry 
for a hundred years. The reader will welcome the reproduction of a para- 
graph of remmiscences of some of the characters who have been familiarly 
known at this old county seat. 

The late William H. Duncan, Esq., of Hanover, in writing of the death of 



54 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



Mrs. Elizabeth T. Morgan, the widow of the late Dr. Morgan, of Haverhill, 
said : " The bar of the county of Grafton will lose many of her reminiscences, 
so long treasured up in her memory, of the judges' and distinguished lawyers 
who have been in the habit of attending the courts at Haverhill for the last 
forty years ; perhaps I may say that her recollection of some of them would 
extend back for half a century. When she was a "child, or at any rate quite 
young, her opportunities for being acquainted with them were such as does 
not often fall to the lot of many young women. For many long years her 
father, and then her mother, kept one of the most famous hotels that was 
ever kept in our State, where the judges and leading lawyers were accus- 
tomed to board. This house was burned at the March term of the court in 
T848, and with it was burned out the last relic of the old colonial aristocracy 
and exclusiveness which lasted longer at this house than anywhere else in 
New Hampshire. It was a custom coming down from colonial times to have 
a room and a table set apart for the court and the bar, and to this judicial 
and legal alliance no lay gentlemen were admitted, however great his wealth 
or high his social position. The young, unfledged lawyer, who owed his tailor 
for his coat on his back, was entitled to a seat at the table, but no millionaire 
was ever admitted into these legal precincts. 

" Mrs. Morgan's recollections went back to the time, when, with a child's 
wonder and curiosity, she saw Mason drive up to the house in his ' one horse 
shay,' bringing along his huge person, and his still greater learning and 
intellect. And there, too, came Judge Smith, the great judge in his 'one 
horse shay' with his fun, his humor, and his genuine Scotch-Irish wit, ever 
ready with his joke, and his repartees, which scintillated and sometimes 
burned like the sparks from a blacksmith's anvil. And there, too, came also 
Governor, Senator, Judge of the Supreme Court of the United States, with 
his handsome, ponderous person, full of labor and learning, Levi Woodbury. 

"And of the number came the late Judge Fletcher, who was, in the opinion 
of the late Judge Wilcox, the best advocate who ever appeared at the Graf- 
ton bar. And there, too, drove up in his rather dilapidated 'one horse shay,' 
which the writer well remembers, George Sullivan, the elder, so long the able 
and accomplished attorney-general of the State, still retaining in his dress the 
fashions of the Revolution of '76, the small clothes, the white top boots, the 
queue, as well as the high bred, high tone courtesy of the olden time. I well 
recollect his voice and manner. His language was fluent, beautiful, and 
rapid. His silver-toned voice was an appropriate accompaniment to his 
p )etical language. Having the same blood coursing in his veins which 
warmed and fired the hearts of the great Irish orators. I have frequently 
thought — indeed I can have no doubt — that he possessed in a degree, more 
or less, the same power of graphic description — the same poetical imagery — 
the same beautiful language, the same sweet silver-toned voice, for which 
Flood, Grattan, Curran, and Emmett were so distinguished. I would not 
say that he was the ablest advocate who ever appeared at our bar, but I have 



BENCH AND BAR. 55 

no hesitation in saying that he was by far the most eloquent. Those who 
heard him might well say, when they went away, with the music of his voice 
still ringing in their ears, what Shakespeare makes the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury say to Bishop Ely in the Historical play of Henry the V. about the 
King : ' When he speaks, the air, a chartered libertine, is still.' 

"There, too, came Ichabod Bartlett, the skilfull and artistic advocate, who, 
when a case before a jury was about equally balanced, if he was for the plain- 
tilT, was pretty sure to carry the verdict away from his able competitor, the 
late Joseph Bell, although the latter was far the abler lawyer, and while Bart- 
lett carried away the verdict, Bell was as equally sure in carrying his law 
points against Bartlett, and by the way, when the writer of this sketch was 
admitted to the bai more than forty years ago, no lawyer lead off in the trial 
of a case of any importance, except Bell and Bartlett. It would have been 
looked upon as audacious presumption for any one else to have made such an 
attempt. Bell and Bartlett were emphatically the leaders of the bar, always 
pitted against each other. Bartlett had been in Congress and, when there, 
did not fear to measure swords with Henry Clay; and, it is said, sent Clay a 
challenge. When in Congress he gained the reputation of being an eloquent 
speaker, and an able parliamentarian. He possessed a wit that was as keen 
and trenchant as a Damascus blade ; it was as spontaneous, quick and sud- 
den as the lightning flash, and in another respect it was heaven's artillery, as 
some one has described it, when, he says, " it strikes, as well as dazzles." 
Many of his witticisms and sarcasms will be long remembered by the bar of 
New Hampshire. I leave it for others to speak of his great competitor Joseph 
Bell. 

"But Mrs. Morgan's acquaintance with the bench and the bar was with a 
later generation. From the decease of Chief Justice Richardson, in 1838, 
till within a few years, there was hardly a judge or a lawyer of our bar with 
whom she was not more or less acquainted, and there was no season of the 
year to which she looked forward with more pleasure than the sessions of the 
court. Having been so much accustomed to meet the legal fraternity not 
only at the ' Old Towle Tavern.' but also at Smith's, where she so long 
lived with her husband, and at her own house, she was, so to speak, ' to 
the manor born,' and it was usual for those who had long known her, always 
to call upon her whenever at court. She had no hesitation in saying that she 
liked the society of lawyers, and the feeling was reciprocal. There were Par- 
ker, and Perley, and Bellows, and Woods, and Britton, and Hibbard — I men- 
tion only the dead — of whom she often spoke with a deep sense of their loss. 
I well recollect how often she was in the habit of speaking of Judge Bellows 
and his delightful society. There was much in Judge Bellows to charm any 
woman of mtelligence and refinement — his unvarying kindness of heart, his 
courtesy and gentlness of demeanor, and his deference and loyalty to the sex. 

"In calling up the memories of the judges and lawyers who have adorned 
and illustrated our bench and bar, I am reminded of what was said in the 



q6 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



"American Law Review," in an article upon the life and labors of that great 
magistrate. Chief Justice Shaw, of Massachusetts. After speaking of his 
birth, and graduation at Harvard, is said that he studied his profession in 
Amherst, New Hampshire, " that cradle-land of lawyers." In the past it has 
certainly deserved that title, what it may be now it would be hardly becom- 
ing in one of the present generation to say ; but we may hope and wish that 
its title so freely accorded may never be shaken. 

"In calling up these reminisences I may seem to have wandered from the 
subject with which I commenced, but they have naturally sprung from the 
thought that with the death of Mrs. Morgan, has also passed away so 
many delightful recollections of our bar and bench which can never be re- 
called. Job said, ' Oh, that my enemy should write a book.' With as deep 
a wish I would say, Oh, that my friend would write a book, so that the recol- 
lections — the personal anecdotes, the sarcasms, the witticisms, the forensic 
triumphs of the bar, and thenobiUty, and authority, and influence of our bench 
might not pass away forever out of the minds and memories of men. We 
are too careless of the memories of our bench and bar. Why can we not be 
as proud of and careful to hand down to those who shall come after us the 
reputation — the character and services — I may well say the renown of our 
distinguished judges and lawyers, as our sister State of Massachusetts." 

The bar of New Hampshire effected a permanent organization at a conven- 
tion held at Concord, on the third Wednesday of June, 1788. Sixteen prac- 
titioners, from various parts of the State, were present in person, and the 
record mentions twelve more, who participated " by their representatives." 
John Porter and Aaron Hutchinson appeared from Grafton. The body of 
the proceedings on this occasion, being brief, are reproduced. 

"Voted, and chose John Prentice, Esq., Attorney-General, president. 
"Voted, Oliver Peabody, Esq., secretary. 

"Voted, that the society will consider themselves as a corporation, and 
bound by the votes and proceedings at any regular meeting of the Bar, in 
the same manner as the Individuals of any Society really incorporated. 

"Voted, that this society be styled an association of the bar throughout 
the State of New Hampshire. 

"Voted, that the gentlemen of the bar in their respective counties, do, at 
their first meeting after these rules are adopted, form themselves into a county 
society, and proceed to the election of a president and secretary for the en- 
suing year, and that a president and secretary be forever hereafter annually 
chosen by the major vote of the society. 

"Voted, that it be the duty of the secretary to keep a fair record of the 
proceedings of said society. 

" Voted, that the proceedings of the county societys, respecting their prac- 
tice, not incompatible with the rules of this association, shall be considered 
as binding as though they were a real corporation. 

"Voted, that in absence of the president, the senior attorney present at any 
bar meeting shall preside; and in the absence of the secretary, that the junior 
attorney shall act as secretary. 



BENCH AND BAR. 57 



" Voted, that it be considered as an indespensible requisite for the admission 
of any candidate for the bar, who has received a degree at any college that 
he has regularly studied three years after having received such degree in the 
office of some practising attorney of a Superior Court : and that no candidate 
not having received such degree be recommended for admission without hav- 
ing studied five years as aforesaid. 

" Voted, that no clerk be received into the office of any attorney, as a candi- 
date for the bar, without the previous consent of the bar of the county in 
which such attorney shall reside, had and obtained at a regular meeting. 

" Voted, that the gentlemen of the bar in any part of the State, attending in 
any county be considered as members of the society of the county in which 
they may happen to be. 

" Voted, that any attorney intending to offer any candidate for admission 
shall give notice thereof at some bar meeting one term previous thereto. 

"Voted, that when any candidate shall be approved by the bar, notice thereof 
shall be given to the court in writing, under the hand of the president of the 
bar, and a request made for his admission. 

"Voted, that it be deemed requisite for the admission of any attorney to the 
Superior Court that he has previously practised two years at some Court of 
Common Pleas. 

" Voted, that no attorney on any consideration give aid or countenance to 
any process commenced by any person not regularly admitted to the bar, or 
assist in conducting or defending any suit in which any person not regularly 
admitted may be engaged on the same side, excepting such cases wherein an 
attorney could not be reasonably applied to, which shall be previously de- 
termined by a major vote of the coninty society. 

" Voted, that when application is made for admission to practice in any 
court in this State by a gentleman who has studied out of the State, or is a 
practicer in any other State, it shall be deemed a necessary qualification that 
he has studied and practiced in all respects agreeably to the rules of this as- 
sociation. 

" Voted, that this association adjourn to meet at this place on the first 
Wednesday of J^ne, 1790, and if a meeting should be thought necessary be- 
fore that time, that the same be notified by the attorney-general for the time 
being." 

The first record of any association of the Grafton county bar, now extant, 
gives the proceedings at a meeting at Flaverhill, March term, 1793. There 
were present, "Aaron Hutchinson, Esq., president pro. tern , Arthur Liver- 
more, Thomas Thompson, Bela Turner, Jr., and Alden Sprague." From this 
time on till November 12, 1838, the record is continuous and apparently 
complete in one volume. It indicates that the organization was regarded as 
subsidiary to the State association, as contemplated by the regulations of that 
body. William H. Woodward was secretary until 1812. and was then suc- 
ceeded by Henry Hutchinson, who held the office till he removed from the 
State in 1824 or 1825. The ne.\t permanent secretary was Nathaniel P. 
Rogers, whose record completes the book. There is a missing link in the 
record from 1838 to 1S53, If the book is preserved, it is not in the proper 
custody. The record has been continued m a somewhat intermittent man- 
ner by Mr. Chapman, who has held the office most of the time since 1853. 



58 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



Meetings have not been held as regularly in this period as formerly, owing, 
first: to the transfer of jurisdiction over the admission of students to the bar 
from the bar associations, in each county, to the courts committee which is 
now established by law, and sits at the capitol for the examination of appli- 
cants for the State at large; and, secondly, to the practical assumption of the 
duties of the county organization, or some of the more important of them by 
the Grafton-Coos Bar Association. 

The old record contains a vast amount of material for legal biography. In 
it all matters ot discipline are entered. The preliminary notices and per- 
missions for the admission of students to the law offices as clerks, and to the 
bar as attorneys, are carefully noted. It was voted at an early date that the 
time a candidate might have served as deputy sheriff should not be allowed 
as a part of his five years of study for admission to the bar. Later on, in the 
case of Ira Goodall, it was determined that the office of postmaster was not 
incompatible with that of an attorney. John Porter, Sr., Esq., received a 
vote of censure for appearing in support of an action commenced by one not 
admitted to the bar. In 1804 certain fees were established. Arguing contin- 
uance at Court of Common Pleas was two dollars, and the same for demurrer 
Argument at Court of Common Pleas to court or jury on issue joined, was six 
dollars ; and for the same at the Supreme Court, ten dollars. On the 4th of 
December, 1804, a convention of delegates from the several counties re- 
ported and recommended a series of "general regulations for the gentlemen 
of the bar in the State of New Hampshire." Moses P. Payson and William 
Woodward had attended as delegates from this county. These regulations 
were adopted by the bar of Grafton. The code contained twenty-one 
articles. 

Article 5, required candidates for admission who "had not a degree in 
the arts," excepting a knowledge of the Greek language, to "be duly qualified 
to be admitted to the first class of students at Dartmouth college." 

Article 6. prescribed five years of study for admission for candidates with- 
out "a degree in the Arts" and three for those with it. 

Article 7, forbade members receiving as a reward for tuition of a student 
at law less than two hundred and fifty dollars, for the time required, or in 
that proportion for a shorter time. 

Article 7, prohibited students at law from having the benefit of any per- 
quisites or profits from the business of the office or any other business apper- 
taining to the profession of law, and from engaging in any other employment 
during the term of study. 

Two years of practice at the Common Pleas was required before admission 
to practice in the Superior Court, and only the admitted attorneys of the 
Superior Court could vote upon the admission of students to an office, or ad- 
mission to practice. 

In subsequent years it was found difficult to enforce the rules in their in- 
tegrity. In the latter period, covered by the /irst volume of records, con- 
siderable controversy was occasioned by the construction given to the rules 



BENCH AND BAR. 59 



by individual members, which in many instances amounted to evasion, and 
even defiance of them. It is manifest by the record that the bar was gener- 
ally disposed to enforce the rules. This doubtless contributed to the creation 
of a public opinion which finally broke down all barriers in the way of admis- 
sion to practice law in any and all the courts.* 

The members of the Grafton bar in its early days had under consideration 
other projects than those indicated by the secretaries' records. They sought 
to co-operate in the collection of a public law library, and to that end peti- 
tioned for an act of incorporation. The original petition is in the possession 
of Hon. George VV. Nesmith, of FrankUn. It is interesting as a part of the 
history of the bar of the county, and valuable as a memorial of the distin- 
guished men who were the movers in the enterprise. The instrument is as 
follows : — 

"To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representatives, of the State 
of New Hampshire, in general Court convened : 

"The memorial of the subscribers, attornies practicing in the Courts of 
Judicature, in the County of Grafton, in said State, humbly showeth : That 
your memorialists being deeply impressed with the important advantages de- 
rived from a choice collection of law books, placed in some central point, in 
said county, and having already at very considerable expense commenced 
tlie collection of such works, as are considered the most necessary in such 
an establishment, and want nothing at this time but a little of the fostering 
care of your honorable body, to complete and perpetuate their design. 
Wherefor your memorialists pray that they be incorporated into a society by 
the name of the Grafton Bar Library Association, and that in their said ca- 
pacity they may be empowered to make such by-laws, and regulations^ as 
may be found necessary for the well ordering of the afifairs of the corporation, 
and enjoy all the powers and privileges, appertaining to corporations of this 
kind. And in duty bound will ever pray. Plymouth, 25th May, 1808. 

Moses Dow, J. Wilcox, A. Sprague, William H. Woodward. A. G. Britton, 
Benjamin I. Gilbert, John Nelson, Samuel A. Pearson, Moses Eastman, D. 
Webster, Parker Noyes, Phineas Walker, James I. Swan." 

Although the county organization of the bar continues nominally in the 
ancient form, it must be admitted that there is very little vitaHty in it. Various 
causes have operated to effect this result. The principal reason which may 
be assigned for the moribund condition of the old county society, is that 
there does not seem to be any occasion for its existence. The society has 
now nothing to do with admissions to the bar, and the court regulates the 
practice, except in the domain of those rules, which have now come to be re- 
garded by the practitioners as "hereditary custom," and relate principally to 
fees and charges. While these matters do not now command the active attention 
or supervision of any organization of the bar, there are other subjects well 
worthy of their attention, as an organized society, without reference to 
county limits. Such would be the encouragement of a fraternal spirit which 
may allay and counteract the rivalries and resentments that are constantly 



"Proceedings of the American Bar Association. iSSi, p. 242, e( scif. 



6o GRAFTON COUNTY. 



and necessarily provoked in the contentious business of the profession ; the 
protection of the rights of parties against the mischiefs of tardy, uncertain, arbi- 
trary, or dishonest administration of the law ; the preparation and preserva- 
tion of suitable memorials of the work and worth of deservmg members of 
their fraternity, and of a reUable history of the development of the science of 
jurisprudence, more particularly as it may be affected by the courts, legisla- 
tures and bar of our own State ; and the formulation and encouragement of 
reforms in jurisprudence by concerted and progressive action. 

The members of the Grafton and Coos counties bars have an organization 
which seeks to accomplish these purposes. It was put in active operation in 
November, 1882, and has ever since enjoyed a useful and vigorous existence. 
Its members have collected a large amount of material for the use of the 
future biographers of the barristers. They have already effected valuable im- 
provements within the sphere of their professional labors and will not weary 
in well doing. 

In the brief individual sketches of the lawyers of Grafton county, which 
have been collected by gentlemen interested in legal history and biography, 
in several of the principal towns, and which are presented in this volume^ 
will be found some evidence of the influence exerted in various directions, by 
the lawyers of the county. They will be recognized as pure, upright and 
eminent judges ; as leaders in the great social and political reforms of their 
day and generation ; as among the foremost soldiers of their ti:r.e ; as mighty 
movers of vast business enterprises ; as founders of beneficient institutions ; as 
scholars and philanthropists. Let them be judged by their works. 

Ashland. — (See Holderness and Ashland.) 

Bath*. — Bela Turner moved from Massachusetts to Bath about 1794. He 
commenced the practice of law at once. It does not appear that he was suc- 
cessful in his profession, though possessed of considerable ability and learn- 
ing. He was an expert penman, and taught penmanship during the latter 
part of his life. He acquired habits of intemperance, and died at Bath in 
1809. 

Hon. Moses P. Payson, born in Rowley, Mass., about 1773, was graduated 
from Dartmouth college, class of 1793. He read law with Alden Sprague, 
Esq., at Haverhill, N. H., and was admitted to the bar in 1797. He opened 
an office in Bath in 1798. He did a large and lucrative business, acquiring 
a handsome competence. He was in his day considered the best presiding 
officer in Grafton county, being constantly called to preside over deliberative 
bodies. He represented Bath several years in the legislature, and afterwards 
in the senate, of which latter body he was made president. He was, at the 
time of his death, president of the old Grafton bank, and one of the trustees 
of Dartmouth college. He married Hannah Perley about 1798, by whom he 
had several children. His death occurred at Bath in October, 1828. 



*By Harry M. Morse, Esq. 



BENCH AND BAR. 6r 



Hon. James I. Swan, born in Haverhill in 1780, was educated at Haver- 
hill academy, and studied law with Alden Sprague, Esq., and was admitted 
to the bar about 1802-03, and located in Lisbon, N. H., where he remained 
till 1807, when he moved to Bath and continued in practice there till his death 
in 1S20, at the age of forty years. He married Elizabeth Sprague, daughter 
of Alden Sprague, Esq., of Haverhill, N. H., by whom he had several chil- 
dren, none of whom survived him. Mr. Swan was a man of rare talent, 
standing among the foremost at the New Hampshire bar. As a jury advo- 
cate he has been compared with Webster and Choate, without suffering. In- 
deed, Isaac Patterson told the writer that he once heard Webster and Swan 
argue a cause as opposing counsel, at Plymouth, and it was generally con- 
ceded that Swan's argument was the better by far. He was counsel either 
one way or the other in all the litigation growing out of disputed lines be- 
tween Lisbon and Franconia, alternately settling and unsettling the bounda- 
ries. Physically he was a very large and a remarkably handsome man. 

Ira Goodall, son of Rev. David Goodall, born in Littleton, N. H., about 
1789, went to Bath in April, 1809, and read law with Hon. M. P. Payson, 
and began practice there in 181 4. He did an expensive business for many 
years. It is said that for quite a period, he entered a larger number of actions 
than any other practitioner in the state. In 1828 he formed a partnership 
with the late Hon. Andrew S. Woods, (who had been a student in his office), 
which continued until October, 1840, when Mr. Woods went on to the bench. 
Mr. Goodall represented Bath in the legislature two years. He was also made 
(1857-58) president uf the White Mountain railroad. He accumulated a 
large property, but his connection with the railroad was financially disastrous. 
He died in Beloit, Wis., about 1865. He left a family of ten children, five 
boys and five girls. 

William Mattocks, born in Danville, Vt., about 1768, was a brother of Gov- 
ernor John Mattocks, of Vt. He graduated at Dartmouth college in 1793. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1798, and practiced at Danville and several 
other places in Vermont, till 1817, when he moved to Bath, where he re- 
mained in practice till 1820, when he returned to Danville, Vt., and con- 
tinued there in practice till his death, in 1834. 

General Ira Young, son of Colonel Samuel Young, born in Lisbon, N. H., 
in 1797, studied with Hon. James I. Swan, and was admitted to the bar in 
181 7. .After Mr. Swan's death, in 1820, he took Mr. Swan's oftice at Bath, 
and a part of his business, and entered into practice. In 1827 he located in 
Colebrook, N. H., where he did a successful business for several years. He 
removed to Lancaster, N. H., about 1838, and did an extensive business there 
till, his health failing him, in 1845, when he went to Havana, Cuba, where he 
died November 17, 1845, aged fifty-one years. General Young enjoyed the 
confidence of a large clientage, and stood among the foremost of the bar in 
Northern New Hampshire. He was a popular citizen, and a high-toned hon- 
orable gentleman. He left two sons. Captain Harry D. F. and Richard, both. 



62 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



of whom served in the Rebellion, the latter losing his life. He inherited a 
lively taste for military afifairs, his father having been an officer in the war of 
the Revolution. In 1835, being in command of the 24th regiment, he was 
designated to lead the expedition to quell the insurrectionary movement at 
Indian Stream. He was appointed brigadier-general of the 6th biigade, in 
1836 and major-general of the 2d division in 1837. His tombstone was 
erected by his brethren of the bar, and its inscription bears testimony that he 
stood eminent among them, "both for his courtesy and abiUty as a lawyer, 
and his high character for honor and integrity as a man." 

Isaac Patterson, born in Piermont, N. H., about 1792, a son of Capt. Isaac 
Patterson, of that town, entered Dartmouth college at the early age of six- 
teen, graduating with high honors in the class of 181 2. He immediately en- 
tered the office of Hon. John Russel, of Troy, N. Y., to pursue the study of 
the law. After about two years he returned to Haverhill, N. H., where, in 
the office of Hon. Josiah Bell, he completed his legal education, being during 
a portion of the time principal of the academy in Haverhill. He was admit- 
ted to the bar in New Hampshire in September, 1817, and at once opened an 
office in Lyme, N. H. At the end of two years he removed to Bath, N. H., 
and formed a partnership with Hon. Moses P. Payson, which relation con- 
tinued for one year. He then, about 1820, opened an office, and continued 
in the practice at Bath, till 1879, forming no other business connection. He 
was for ten years a member of the board of selectmen, serving nearly every 
year as chairman. He represented Bath in the legislature from 1831 to 1834) 
and was elected town clerk for thirty consecutive years. He did not distin- 
guish hmiself at the bar, but did during his early years quite a lucrative office 
business. He was a fine belles-lettres scholar, and a polished, cultivated 
gentleman. He Uved single and died at Piermont in 1882, the last of his line. 

Jonathan Smith, son of Jonathan Smith, was born in Peterborough, N. H., 
in 1798, nephew of the distinguished Judge Smith, of Exeter. He fitted for 
college at Exeter, and graduated at an early age from Harvard university. 
He read law with Governor Lincoln, of Worcester, Mass. In 1825 he opened 
an office in Lisbon, N. H., where he practiced for two or three years, when 
he removed to Bath, and formed a partnership with Hon. M. P. Payson, 
whose daughter he married, and by whom he had four children — one daughter 
and three sons. His wife died in 1838, at the age of twenty-eight years. Mr. 
Payson died in 1828, after which Mr. Smith continued practice until about 
1836, when, his health failing from over-application to business, he went 
abroad tor about one year. He died in Bath, August 10, 1840. He occupied 
a distinguished position at a bar where Joseph Bell, Ira Goodall, Josiah 
Quincy, Leonard Wilcox, Andrew S. Woods, Ira Perley, and others hardly 
less distinguished, were leading practitioners. His legal arguments were 
models of calmness, precision and force. Chief Justice Richardson once re- 
marked that Mr. Smith presented all the qualities to constitute an eminent 
judge. He was very popular in the community, and enjoyed an enviable 
reputation for integrity and square dealing. 



BENCH AND BAR. 63 



James Trask Woodbury, son of Peter Woodbury, and brother of Hon. Levi 
Woodbury, born in Francestown, N. H., came to Bath and opened an office 
in 1827, and practiced there some two or three years. Becoming deeply in- 

I terested in reh'gious matters, he abandoned the practice of law and began the 
study of the Gospel. He was settled as pastor of the Congregational church 

, in Acton, Mass., about twenty years, representing the town once or twice in 

i the state legislature. About 1851, he removed to Milford, Mass., where he 
died a few years later. 

Benjamin Bordman came to Bath, from Massachusetts, in February, 1828, 
and formed a partnership with Ira Goodall, which continued but a few months, 
when he disposed of his interest to Andrew S. Woods, and left Bath the fall 
of the same year. Where he located it has not been possible to ascertain. 

Andrew Salter Woods, son of Andrew Woods, born in Bath, 1803, was the 
first native of that town to enter the legal profession. He graduated at Dart- 
muuth, in 1825, and immediately began the study of the law with Ira Good- 
all, Esq., gaining admission to the bar in October. 1828. He entered into 
partnership with Mr. Goodall, and with him did a large and successful busi- 
ness, till October, 1840. He was then appointed associate justice of the 

1; Supreme Court. This office he held till March, 1855, when he was appointed 
chief justice. Upon the re- organization of the court about a year later, he 
resigned and resumed practice. In June, 1859, he formed a partnership with 
his son Edward, and with Harry and George A. Bingham, under the firm 
name of Woods & Bingham. The firm had two offices, one at Bath, where 
Judge Woods and George Bingham were located, and one at Littleton, man- 
aged by Harry Bingham and Edward Woods. This partnership was limited 
to two years. At its expiration in June, 1862, Judge Woods and his son 
Edward formed a partnership which continued till Judge Woods's death, which 
o( lurred in June, 1863, of Bright's disease. He married Eliza Hutchins, 
(liughter of James Hutchins. Seven children were born — Ehza Isabella, born 
.\'>\ ember i, 1830, who is the wife of Hon. George A. Bingham; Rebecca 
N( well, born February 22, 1833, the wife of T. J. M. Smith, of Boston, Mass.; 
I.lward, born October 24, 1835; Katherine Jane, born September 25, 1837, 
<lu(l of consumption in May, i860; Harriet Jameson, born Julys, 1840, 
• lied of consumption in September, 1863; Helen Adelaide, born December 
22, 1842, died in March, 1843 ; Andrew Salter, Jr., born March i, 1845, ^^^^ 
Sc|itember 26, 1847. 

John L. Carleton, born in Bath, N. H., son of Ebenezer Carleton, of that 
lowii, took his preparatory course at Exeter N. H., and entered Dart- 
mouth college in 1827, and led his class throughout his college course, and 
graduated with the highest honors, in 1831. He studied his profession in 
the office of Henry Morris, of Buffalo, New York, and al the Yale Law school. 
He was admitted to the bar in New Haven, Conn., in July, 1831. He then 
came to New Hampshire and began practice at Bath in November of the 
same year. He is still living in Bath, but has been out of practice for several 
years. He married Lucretia, daughter of Ira Goodall, Esq. 



64 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



Moses P. Payson, Jr., only son of Hon. Moses P. Payson, born in Bath in 
1806, graduated at Dartmouth college in 1829, studied law at the Cambridge 
Law school and with Hon. Joseph Bell, of Haverhill, and began practice in 
Bath in 1832. He left Bath in 1837. After some time he resumed practice 
in New york city. He died there in the spring of 1854, of consumption, at 
the age of forty-seven. 

George W. Hutchins, born in Bath, i8og, was in Dartmouth college two 
years, read law with Goodall & Woods, and went to the bar in 1835. He at 
once formed a partnership' with J. Smith, and continued in the practice till 
his death which occured August 4, 1839, ^t the age of thirty. 

Harry Hibbard son of Hon. David Hibbard, was born in Concord, Vt.,. 
June I, 1816, Reentered Dartmouth college in 1831, at the age of fifteen, and 
graduated in class of 1835. He studied law with General Isaac Fletcher, of 
Lyndon, Vt., and with Governor Williams, of Lancaster, N. H. He was ad- 
mitted to the N. H. bar m 1838 or '39, and opened an office in Bath, and at 
once became prominent in his profession. He was assistant clerk of the N, 
H. Houseof Representatives, and clerk of the same body in 1840, '41, '42. He 
represented Bath in the state legislature, in 1843, '44, '45. He was speaker of 
the House in 1844-45, He was state senator in 1846, '47, '48, and president of 
that body^during the last two years. Mr. Hibbard was a courteous dignified 
presiding officer, and a skilled parliamentarian. In 1848 he was delegate to 
the Democratic national convention which made General Lewis Cass, of 
Michigan, the presidential candidate of the party. The following year, 1849, 
he was elected to represent his district in the lower house of Congress, and 
re-elected in 1851 and 1853. He was prominent in the House as a debator, 
and was frequently called to the chair ; he served on the ways and means com- 
mittee during the whole six years. He was the candidate of his party for 
United States senator in 1846, when but thirty years of age. In 1854 he 
was again candidate. Upon the accession of his friend Franklin Pierce to the 
presidency, he was tendered several positions, all of which were refused. At 
the expiration of his Congressional term in 1855, he returned to Bath, and re- 
sumed the practice, doing an extensive business. He was appointed to a seat 
on the bench of the Supreme Court of the state, but his declining health pre- 
vented his acceptance. Several fugitive pieces, both prose and verse, from his 
pen, disclosed literary talent of a high order. In 1848 he married Mrs, Sarah 
Hale Bellows, daughter of Hon. Salma Hale, of Keene N. H. He had several 
children, none of whom lived to attain their majority. After a painful and 
protracted illness he died, July 28, 1872. 

Arthur Livermore, son of Chief Justice Arthur Livermore, born in Hold- 
erness, N. H., January 7, 181 1, graduated from Dartmouth with the class 
of 1829. He read la?v with Hon. Jonathan Smith, of Bath, one year, com- 
pleted his legal studies with Hon. Jeremiah Mason, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1833. He first opened an office at Gilmanton Iron Works — now Bel- 
mont — there and at Lowell, Mass., he practiced till, in 1839, just prior to the 



BENCH AND BAR. 65 



death of Hon. Jonathan Smith, he removed to Bath and took his office and 
business. While in Bath he became largely interested in real estate in that 

: and adjoining towns. He left Bath in 1859 and returned to Lowell. He 
was soon after appointed by President Lincoln consul to Londonderry, Ire- 
land, which office he has held under successive administrations up to the 
present time. His discharge of the duties of the office has given universal 
satisfaction. He is a man of much learning, and his correspondence dis- 
closes great elegance of style and felicity of expression. 

Hon. Charles R. Morrison was born in Bath January 22, 18 19, the son of 
William Morrison. He received his education in the schools of his native 
place and at Newbury, Vt., academy. Contrary to the advice of his instruct- 
ors he did not enter college, but directly on his graduation at Newbury began 
the study of law in the office of Goodall & Woods, at Bath. Upon his ad- 
mission to the bar at Haverhill, in 1842, he began the practice of his profes- 

[ sion in Bath. In three years, however, he removed to Haverhill, N. H., 
where he practiced till the summer of 185 1, when he was commissioned, by 
Gov. Dinsmore, "Circuit Justice of the Court of Common Pleas," a position 
which he retained till the Know-Nothing ascendency in 1855. After a year's 
further practice in Haverhill he removed to Nashua, N. H. In September, 
1862, soon after the breaking out of the Rebellion, he received a lieutenant- 
adjutant's commission from Governor Berry and served in that capacity till 
September, 1864, when he tendered his resignation and was honorably dis- 
charged. He has since made Manchester his home, and is still engaged in 
the practice there. He compiled and published the following : " A Digest 
of the N. H. Reports," " Town Officer," " Justice and Sheriff and Attorney's 
Assistants," '" Probate Directory," and '• Digest of School Laws. 
David R. Lang. — (See Orford.) 

Samuel H. Goodall was born in Bath, March 31, 1823. His father, Ira 
Goodall, received him, after his graduation at Dartmouth, in 1844, as a stu- 
dent in his own law office, and three years later formed with him a partner- 
ship which extended till the spring of 1853, when the son established at 

( Portsmouth, N. H. After several years of successful practice he left Ports- 

I mouth for Boston, where he still resides, following his profession. 

I Harry Bingham read law with Hon. Harry Hibbard, and later conducted 
his business at Bath, in connection with his own practice at Littleton, during 
Mr. Hibbard's term in congress. (See Littleton.) 

William W. Hutchins was the son of William V. Hutchins, of Bath. He 
graduated from Dartmouth in 1S45 and entered the Harvard Law school. 
Later he studied with Hon. Samuel Ingham, of Connecticut, and in 1848 he 
was admitted to the bar from the office of Hon. Harry Hibbard, of Bath. 
With the exception of a short stay at Haverhill, as assistant clerk of the court 
of Common Pleas, he resided till his death, in 1852, at Bath, in the practice 
of his profession. 

John Bedel, son of Gen. Moody Bedel, was born in Indian Stream terri- 



66 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



tory, July 8, 1822. His younger years were spent in Bath, where he received 
his education at the pubhc schools and at the seminary in Newbury, Vt. He 
began the study of law in Hon. Harry Hibbard's office. In 1847 he enlisted 
as a private in the Mexican war. In May of that year he was appointed 
sergeant, in December a lieutenant. For several months, in 1848, he com_ 
manded a company. Returning to Bath at the close of the war, he resumed 
his legal studies in Mr. Hibbard's office, doing at the same time quite an 
extensive pension business, in the capacity of claim agent. He was admit- 
ted to the bar in the spring of 1850, and went into partnership with Mr. Hib- 
bard. The partnership continued three years, when Mr. Bedel received an 
appointment in the Treasury department at Washington. Not the least im- 
portant branch of his duty in this position was the adjusting of claims with 
such government agents as had made ex-parte settlements with "Uncle Sam," 
and failed to pay over balances found to be due him. In prosecuting this 
portion of his business he brought to bear the same tireless energy and cease- 
less vigilance which characterized all his undertakings. He held this office 
for eight years, serving under both Pierce and Buchanan. In 1861, upon 
the breaking out of the Rebellion, he was appointed major of the 3d regiment 
of N. H. Volunteers. In June, 1862, he was commissioned lieut. -colonel. April 
1864, while a prisoner, he was commissioned colonel. He received a wound 
at Morris Island in June, 1863, and though suffering from its effects he re- 
turned to duty after less than a week's absence. On the night of July 18, 
1863, during the assault upon Fort Wagner, he was captured on the ramparts 
and far in advance of his men. He was sent to Columbus, South Carolina, 
where he with other prisoners was kept in close confinement, suffering intensely 
from exposure and privation. Gen. Bedel, not submitting to the inhuman 
with such meekness and dociUty as was satisfactory to the prison officials, was 
put into solitary confinement, and kept until his parole, in August, 1864, — a 
period of five months. Immediately after his release, (after lying in prison 
for seventeen months,) he hastened to Washington, and sought an interview 
with the president, in which he detailed the horrible sufferings of himself and 
comrades and urged with great earnestness the necessity of speedy exchanges 
to relieve the distresses of those confined in Rebel prisons. There can be 
no doubt that this interview had much to do with bringing about that result. 
He returned at once to his regiment at Wilmington, N. C. He was appointed 
brigadier-general U. S. Vols., by brevet, for gallant and meritorious conduct 
and services, commission dating from March 13, 1865. He returned to Bath 
at the close of the war, and engaged extensively in the manufacture of starch. 
He represented Bath in the legislature in 1868-69, ^"^ ^^^s Democratic can- 
didate for governor in i86g, and again in 1870. In December, 1853, Gen. 
Bedel married Mary Augusta, daughter of the late Hon. Jesse Bourns, of 
Nashua, by whom he had seven children, only three of whom survive him. 
Gen. Bedel died February 26, 1875. 

Alonzo P. Carpenter, son of Isaah Carpenter, was born at Waterford, Vt., 



BENCH AND BAR. 67- 



in 1829. He graduated at Williams college, class of 1849. He soon came 
to Bath, and taught the high school at the village for several terms. Among 
his pupils were Miss Julia R. Goodall, whom he afterwards married (in 1853), 
and Dr. William Child, of Bath. He read law with Hon. Andrew S. Woods, 
and with J. & S. H. Goodall, and was admitted to the bar in 1853. He 
formed a partnership with Hon. Ira Goodall which continued till 1856, wlien 
Mr. Goodall left New Hampshire. Mr. Carpenter continued in business at 
Bath, or that part of it known as the "Upper Village," occupying the old 
Goodall homestead. Mr. Carpenter was made solicitor in 1863, which posi- 
tion he filled till 1873. From that time till the repeal of the bankrupt law. 
he had, practically, all the bankruptcy practice in his section. He formed a 
partnership with his son PhiHp, in September, 1880, which continued till his 
appointment to the bench, in September, 1881, which position he is still fill- 
ing with signal ability. Judge Carpenter's name was prominently mentioned 
in connection with the vacancy on the bench of the United States Circuit 
Court, caused by the resignation of Judge Lowell, in the spring of 1884. His 
appointment was urged with great vigor and earnestness by the entire New 
Hampshire bar, and a majority of the Boston bar. Had the executive con- 
sidered the abiUty and fitness of the candidates, Judge Carpenter would have 
received the appointment. Judge Carpenter, in the fall of 1884, disposed of 
his landed interests in Bath, N. H., and removed to Concord, N. H., where 
he is at present living. Five children have been born to the family, all of 
whom are living — Lillian, the wife of Frank S. Streeter, Esq., of Concord, 
N. H.; Philip, a lawyer, in New York city; Arthur, Edith and Helen. 

Edward Woods, son of Hon. Andrew S. Woods, was born in Bath, 
October 24, 1835. He fitted for college at Phillip's, Exeter, and graduated 
from Dartmouth in the class of '56. After reading law with his father he was 
admitted to the bar at Haverhill, in 1859, and at once located in Littleton, 
as a member of the firm of Woods & Binghams. In 1862 he removed to 
Bath, and formed a partnership with his father, Judge Woods, who died the 
year following. Mr. Woods has since resided at Bath, having represented his 
town in the legislature of 1873-74, and acted many years as town treasurer. 
He was a member of Governor Weston's staff, with rank of colonel, in 1874. 
In April, 1863, he married Mary, daughter of John L. Carlton. Of their 
four children, Edward, Jr., Katherine E., Thomas Smith, and Andrew Salter 
the last three are living. 

Arthur K. Hutchins was a native of Bath, the son of the late Major C. C. 
Ilutchins. On his graduation at Harvard he entered the office of Hon. A. 
r. Carpenter as a student. He was no sooner admitted to the bar than he 
riilisted and was serving under a lieutenant's commission when he was killed 
:it the Wilderness. 

George A. Bingham was located at Bath from 1850 to 1862, inclusive, as 
a member of the firm of Woods & Bingham. (See Littleton.) 

Philip Carpenter, son of Hon. A. P. Carpenter, born in Bath March 9, 



68 GRAFTON COUNTY, 



1856, was educated at St. Johnsbury, Vt., and at Dartmouth college, gradu- 
ating from the latter institution in the class of 1877. He read law with his 
father, and was admitted to the bar in September, 1880, at Concord, N. H. 
He formed a partnership with his father, and began the practice at Bath 
in September, 1880. The partnership continued till Judge Carpenter's 
apoointment to the bench in September, 1881. Mr. Carpenter contin- 
ued in practice at Bath alone, doing a large business, till January, 1882, when 
he entered the firm of Ray, Drew & Jordon, at Lancaster, N. H. He re- 
mained with this firm till June, 1885, when he removed to New York city, 
where he still resides, doing an extensive business, having his offices at 280 
Broadway. He married Miss Fannie H. Rouse, of Winstead, Conn., Sep- 
tember 3, 1880. They have no children living. 

Bristol.* — Bristol Village was mainly included in Bridge water from 1788 
to 1820. The names of the lawyers who have practiced here are, as a rule, 
in this article given in the order of their arrival in this place or commence- 
ment in the practice. 

David Smiley, practiced in this village (then Bridgewater) in 1808 and 1809, 
It is understood that he removed to Grafton, N. H., and was the father of Dr. 
Smiley, of that place. 

Moses H. Bradley, son of John and Hannah (Ayer) Bradley, was born at 
Concord, March 15, 1782, and died there June 22, 1834. He was at Bridge- 
water in 1812, and, with the exception of 1813 and 1814, was taxed as a res- 
ident in that town or Bristol till 1834. He was married, but had no children. 
He was a member of the school committee, 1824, 1825, 1826, representative 
to General Court in 1823, state senator from the Bristol district in 1824. In 
i8i3and 1814 he was probably in practice at Sanbornton. He was a grad- 
uate of Dartmouth college in the class of 1807, a lawyer of fair abiUty, but 
not an advocate. 

Nathaniel G. Upham, a graduate of Dartmouth college, class of 1820, was 
the son of Hon. Nathaniel and Judith Cogswell Upham. He was born at 
Rochester, and began the practice of law at Bristol in 1824, and removed 
thence to Concord in 1829. He was the first signer of the constitution and 
by-laws of the First Congregational church, in Bristol, in 1826. He was a 
judge of the Superior Court of N. H., from 1833 to 1843. In 1853 he was 
sent to London as commissioner for the adjustment of claims between the 
United States and Great Britain. He was the recipient of the degree of 
LL. D. from Dartmouth college in 1862. He was twice married, and died 
in 1869. 

Soon after leaving the bench. Judge Upham became superintendent of the 
Concord railroad, and held the office during the remainder of his life. He 
was a man of executive ability and skill, as is indicated by the fact that the 
property of that corporation became the most valuable of any in the state, 
as much by reason of its management as by the peculiarly favorable location. 



*By Ira S. Chase, Esq. 



BENCH AND BAR. 69 



Benjamin F. Weeks was a resident according to the town records of 183 1, 
1832. He came from Warren, N. H., and went west in 1832 or 1833. 

George Minot, a brother of Hon. Josiah Minot, was born at New London, 
August 10, 1806. He read law with Hon. N. G. Upham. He was a resi- 
dent of Bristol in 1829, according to the records of the town; then removed 
to Concord with Judge Upham. Having been admitted to the bar, he re- 
turned to Bristol, and practiced his profession a year or two, being assessed 
as a resident in 1833 and 1834. He. located temporarily at Gilmanton, and 
permanently at Concord. He married a daughter of George Reynolds Clark, 
of Portsmouth, May i, 1839. He was cashier and president of the Mechan- 
ic's Bank of Concord, treasurer of Merrimac county, and of the B. C. & M. 
railroad. He died at Concord, March 8, 1861. 

George M. Phelps came to Bristol, from Hill, where he was formerly in 
practice. He was not much of a lawyer, and some authorities make other 
points in regard to his career. He was assessed as a resident of Bristol in 
1835. He remained in the place but a short time. 

Samuel H. Stevens was a son of John and Ruhamah (Fifield) Stevens, 
born at East Kingston, November 20, 1802. He read law with Stephen C. 
Lyford, of Meredith, and Daniel M. Christie, of Dover. He began practice 
in Bristol in 1833, and remained there till 1846. He resided for a time in 
Maine, was made cashier of the bank at Exeter in 1849, and resigned the 
position in 1858. July 27, 1840. he married Sophronia, daughter of Moses 
Sanborn, of Kingston. He was a grailuate of Dartmouth college, class of 
1830, and died in 1876. 
Ralph Metcalf was in practice here a short time between 1838 and 1840. 
: (See Plymouth.) 

\ Frederic Bartlett is another son of Bristol who is enrolled among her law 

practitioners. He was a son of Ichabod C. and Anne S. Bartlett, born 

November 29, 1815. His academic education was at the New Hampton 

I Institute, and collegiate at Dartmouth. His law studies were commenced under 

[ Judge N'esmith and prosecuted also at the law schools of Cambridge and New 

i Haven. His location in practice has been at Bristol, and for a time he was 

; a member of the law firm of Bartlett & Bryant. In recent years he has not 

j been much engaged in legal matters, except in the Probate courts. He was 

! married in 1845, and has four children. He has represented Bristol in the 

j state legislature at different times, and was a member of the constitutional 

I convention of 1850. He is a Congregationalist and Oddfellow. Mr. Bartlett 

' indulged a lively interest in practical agriculture. He owns one of the finest 

farms in Bristol. 

Josiah Minot entered upon the practice at Bristol, in 1840, and went 
thence to Concord, about 1844, where he has since resided He was a native 
of Bristol, born September 17, 1819, the son of James and Sally (Wilson) 
Minot. He read law with Hon. J. J. Gilchrist, of Charlestown, and Hon. S. 
D. Bell. He was justice of the Circuit Court of Common Pleas from 1852 to 



70 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



1855 and United States commissioner of pensions in 1855. He married 
Abbie P. Haines, of Canterbury, August 24, 1843. Mr. Minot has been a 
prominent Democrat for many years, liaving been an influential party leader 
in his own state, and prominent in the national councils, as delegate to national 
conventions, and member of the national committee. He is regarded by those 
who know him best as one of the most astute business men in the state. He 
grasps great enterprises with facility, and his abilities command positions at 
the head of movements with which he is identified. In later years he has been 
intimately connected with some of the most important railroads and banking 
institutions in the state. As a lawyer in the strictest sense of the term he 
has maintained a standing in the front rank for forty years. He is a joint 
donor with Hon. S. S. Sleeper, of Cambridge, Mass., of the elegant public 
library building at Bristol. 

George B. Burns was here in 1847 and 1848. He then sold his business 
to Napoleon B. Bryant. 

Napoleon B. Bryant continued in the practice of law in Bristol until 1853, 
when he disposed of his business to Lewis W. Fling. (See Plymouth). 

George Tenney was a practitioner of the law at Bristol several years be- 
tween 1850 and i860. He was a son of Benjamin and Betsey (Taylor) 
Tenney, born at Groton, N. H., February 12, 1821. He graduated at Dart- 
mouth college in the class of 1847. He married Eluthera Malvina, daughter 
of Isaac Bissell, of Hanover, June 23, 1852. He removed from Bristol to 
Concord and died in 1880. 

Lewis W. Fling, since 1853, has been a practitioner at Bristol. (See VVent- 
worth). 

Samuel K. Mason was a native of the town of New Hampton, born May 
17, 1832. He was prepared for college at the New Hampton Literary in- 
stitute to enter one year in advance ; but did not pursue a collegiate course 
further. In the spring of 1854 he entered the law school at Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y., but completed the course at the law school of Hamilton college. He 
was admitted to the bar in New York city. Returning to New Hampshire 
he studied for some nine months in the office of Judge Hibbard, at Laconia, 
and then opened an office in Bristol, where he established a successful busi- 
ness and remained till his death. 

In politics Mr. Mason was an earnest and decided Republican though not a 
voilent partisan until the Sumner, Shurz and Trumbull break in the senate 
of the United States in 1871-72. He held the office of postmaster of Bristol 
from 1861 to 1868. Having been elected to the legislature at the latter date, 
he resigned the federal office. He represented the town three years succes- 
sively, and took an active position on the Republican side in that body, en- 
gaging frequently in debate. He was also twice appointed one of the commis- 
sioners for Grafton county, by the court, holding the office in all about f6ur 
years. 

When the liberal Republican movement was inaugurated in 1872, Mr. Masoa 



BENCH AND BAR. 7: 



indentified himself with it, and continued steadfast to that cause. He was the 
Hberal Republican nominee for Governor in 1873. His letter of acceptance 
is remembered as an able political document. He was with his party in its 
coalition with the Democracy, and in 1874 was appointed judge of Probate 
for Grafton county by Governor Weston. He filled this office acceptably 
for two years and was with the rest of his party associates in office a subject 
of this general removal for "political reasons only." In 1858 he married Miss 
Helen M. Smith, of Bristol, and they had one child, a daughter. 

Mr. Mason was for many years an invilid, but he held bravely to the 
many duties of life which called for his attention until he was literally forced 
to surrender. He was genial in manners and firm in principal. 

Kensel E. Dearborn, a native of Hill, N. H., born April 22, 1844, was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1873, ^"^ has since been in practice at Bristol. He is 
a son of Selwyn C. Dearborn. His academic education was at the New 
Hampton Literary Institution, and his law study was with Hon. Davis W. Fling. 
He has been married, but his wife is now deceased. He has four children. 
He has held various offices at Bristol, but more frequently those relating to 
school affairs. He is now a member of the board of education. 

Ira A. Chase is a son of Bristol, born March 25, 1854. His parents are 
Ira S. and Cordelia P. (Simonds) Chase, his father being a well-known phy- 
sician of the place. The son was educated at the Bristol high school, the 
New Hampton Literary Institution, and Dartmouth college, where he gradu- 
ated in 1877. He was a law student of Mr. Fling, admitted by examination 
under the new rules at Concord in 1881. His d^enominational connections 
are with the Orthodox Congregationalists, He is an active Free-mason, hav- 
been master of Union Lodge several years and a recipient of the more ad- 
vanced degrees. He has been frequently called to official stations, as super- 
visor of check lists, and member of the board of education in Bristol, besides 
serving as assistant clerk of the state Senate for the past two legislative ses- 
sions. He has fairly earned the promotion in. this direction, which usage of 
the party accords. 

Canaan*. — There were no lawyers among the early settlers of Canaan. 
Every man felt himself constrained to be neighborly, friendly and forbearing, 
because each one was dependent upon every other one for some of the com- 
forts in their rough life. Settlement of disputes, conveyancing, &c., were at- 
tended to first by George Harris after 1767, William Ayer about 1780, 
Thomas Baldwin, and perhaps others. 

Nathaniel Farrar came into town about 1792, a lawyer who, with strong 
assurance, told the people they needed him, or, at any rate, he needed them. 
They appeared to be thrifty and to have many nice questions in law to talk 
over, and he proposed to stay and get his living among them. He remained 
here about two years, and in that time occurred the first lawsuit in town, over 

* By W. A. Wallace. 



72 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



a stolen horse, which created such a strong sentiment against Mr. Farrar, 
that he soon left Canaan. 

In 1807 Thomas Hale Pettingill, a graduate from Dartmouth college in 
1804, and just admitted to the bar, settled in Canaan. He was a son of 
Benjamin and Polly Pettingill, of Salisbury, born in 1781, read law with John 
Harris, of Hopkinton. He built the house now owned by Judge Blodgett, 
of Boston, and opened an office in one of the rooms m the spring of 1808. 
At first he met with indifferent success. The old prejudice against lawyers 
was active ; but he persevered, and when told there was no good use for his 
kind of men he would simply shrug his shoulders and — wait. He bad not 
long to wait — not more than a year, before he had the whole town by the 
ears. His labors necessitated the appointment of a sheriff. The next im- 
portant thing was a court ; and from that day until now Canaan has never 
been without a lawer with his attendant sheriff and court. Mr. Pettingill's 
diligence and success surprised his friends. Mr. Pettingill resided in Canaan 
until 1822, when he returned to his native Salisbury, where he continued to 
reside until his death. 

Elijah Blaisdell, born in Canaan, October, 30. 1782, son of Hon. Daniel 
and Sally (Spinger) Blaisdell. About 1802 he married Mary Fogg, of Hamp- 
ton, and settled in Pittsfield, a shoemaker. At the age of 27, with a wife and 
three children dependent upon his labors, he concluded that shoemaking 
was not his strong point. He might get rich, but he never would become 
famous ; so laying aside his last and apron, he entered an office in Montpelier 
Vt., and for three years applied himself to the study of law. He was admit- 
ted to the bar. For a few months he loitered about in search of a location. He 
tried Grafton, and Danbury, but the people were not sufficiently litigious. In 
the fall of 18 1 2 he came to Canaan Street, where T. H. Pettingill had already 
a court with all its machinery in full blast. Here he lived and labored until 
1833, when he sold out and removed to Lebanon, and died there about 1862. 
He held the office of judge of Probate for several years, during the suprem- 
acy of the Democracy. He represented Canaan in the legislature two years, 
in 1827-28. He served in all town offices. In politics he began as a Feder- 
alist. Before the inauguration of Jackson, in 1829, he visited Washington to 
witness the ceremonies. He was received with so much affability by the old 
General that he became his warm supporter, and ever after voted and talked 
as a Democrat. 

Mr. and Mrs. Blaisdell had three children born to thsm in Pittsfield, and 
eight in Canaan. He was twice married, his second wife was Mrs. Mary 
Kingsbury, of Plainfield, N. H. 

George Kimball, born in Harvard, Mass., in 1787, son of Benjamin and 
Nancy (Wilder) Kimball, was graduated from Dartmouth college, in 1809, read 
law and was admitted to the bar. In 18 13 he settled in practice at Union, 
Me.; thence to Warren, Me., in 1814 ; was a successful teacher in the public 
schools at Concord, and Richmond, Va., and afterwards in the island of Bur- 



BENCH AND BAR. 



73 



muda, where he married a lady who was the owner of many slaves. On leav- 
ing the island in 1820, Mrs. Kimball freed her slaves. In 1824 Mr. Kimball 
became editor of the Concord Register. He was a gentleman of refinement 
and intelligence, companionable, and of amiable disposition, a good story- 
teller, and a writer of fair ability. 

In the fall of 1826 he abandoned journalism, came to Canaan to practice law, 
opened an office, and was made postmaster a few months after. He was a 
scholar, an agreeable speaker, but he was not familiar with practice. Busi- 
ness flowed in upon him, but in the details of legal forms he made mistakes, 
and was often obliged to ask leave to amend his declarations. He was 
largely instrumental in building the Congregational church in 1828, and in erect- 
ing the "Noyes academy," and in changing its original features so as to 
admit colored pupils. 

Mr. Kimball found it to his interest to leave Canaan. In 1836, in com- 
pany with Nathaniel Currier, he engaged in mercantile business in Alton, 111. 
He was not successful in trade. After a time he came east, more em- 
barrassed than when he left. Discouraged, at last, at his wife's solicitation 
they returned to Burmuda, where, for about eighteen years, he was a lawyer 
and teacher in the town of Hamilton. He died in 1858. 

John Hancock Slack, A. M., son of John and Betsey Ide Slack, born in 
New London, in June, 1789, died at Loudon county, Va., m August, 1857, 
aged sixty-eight years. He was a graduated from Dartmouth college in 181 1, 
taught school at Hopkinton, read law with Hon. Moses P. Payson, of Bath, 
and Hon. John Harris and Baruda Chase, of Hopkinton, practiced at An- 
dover, Pembroke and Goffstown, was a resident of Canaan two years (1829 
and '30), where he taught a select school and had some practice. Leaving 
Canaan, he drifted southerly to Georgetown, D. C, thence to Fairfax, Va., 
and afterwards to Loudon county, Va., where he died. In 1825 he married 
Lydia, daughter of Levi Hastings, of Wilton. He was an excellent teacher. 

Jonathan Kittredge, LL. D., son of Dr. Jonathan and Apphia (Wood- 
man) Kittredge, born in Canterbury, July 17, 1793, graduated from Dart- 
mouth college in 1813, read law with Bleecker & Sedgwick, at Albany, N. Y., 
and Roswell W. Lewis, of New York city. He commenced practice at the 
latter place in 181 7. He opened an office in Canaan in 1823 and resided 
here until 1826. when he moved to Lyme, where he resided about ten years. 
Meantime he married Miss Julia Balch, Februarys, 1829; eight children. 
Before he came to Canaan he had contracted the habit of using strong drink. 
His case was sad and seemed almost hopeless. He had thrown off self-re- 
spect, lost caste in society, his brethren of the bar shunned him, and 
clients seldom sought his counsel ; but after all hope seemed in vain, 
he threw ofT the yoke and afterwards was an advocate of temperance. 
While at Lyme he wrote and delivered an address upon temperance, Jan- 
uary 8, 1827, which was published, and gave him almost a national reputa- 
tion. Lyme had not much use for lawyers either before or since that period, 



74 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



but Mr. Kitteredge continued to reside in that town among friends, who 
tenderly watched over him until he should gain courage and strength to meet 
his old enemy, and all his bad foes in the wide world's arena. In 1836 he 
returned to Canaan. In politics he was Whig. Five times he was elected to 
represent the town in the legislature. He held various town offices, such es- 
pecially as were agreeable to him. He went to Philadelphia in 1848, delegate 
to the convention that nominated Gen. Taylor, and worked actively for his 
election. In 1856 he was appointed a judge of Court of Common Pleas, and 
held the office until the court was legislated out of existence in 1858. He was 
respected as a lawyer and judge, but he was not popular either with lawyers 
or clients. He received the degree of LL.D. from Dartmouth college in 1858. 
In the spring of 1859 he removed to Concord where he continued to reside 
until his death, April 8, 1864, aged seventy-one years. 

William Pickering Weeks, son of Brackett and Sarah Pickering Weeks, 
born at Greenland, February 2, 1803, graduated from Dartmouth college in 
1826, read law with Hon. William A. Hayes and Charles N. Coggswell, of 
South Berwick, Me., and located .at Canaan November, 1829. He soon 
afterwards became a partner with Mr. Blaisdell and continued thus for two or 
three years. 

His practice was extensive and lucrative, chiefly in those branches of law 
relating to debt and credit, and the validity of titles. In these matters he 
made himself an authority. He was never counted a great lawyer, 
but he was a correct business man, and carefully attended to all matters 
placed in his hands. He was married July, 1833, to Miss Mary Elizabeth 
Doe, of Derry, and as the years went by three sons and two daughters were 
born to them. 

In 1839-40 and also in '50 and '54 he represented the town in the legisla- 
ture. He was in the state Senate in 1848-49, being its president the last 
year. He was also in the constitutional convention in 1850. His business 
was profitable, and in his later years he became in all but the name a banker. 
His loans were great accommodations to persons in need of assistance, and 
it is but just to say in this regard that he was a lenient and honorable credi- 
tor. He was very fond of his cattle, horses, and particularly of sheep, and 
spent much time in caressing his fine flocks. Mr. Weeks died suddenly, Jan- 
uary 8, 1870, aged sixty-six years. 

Hon. J. Everett Sargent, LL. D. (See Wentworth.) 

George Washington Murray, A. M., born in Hill, July 23, 1830, son of 
John and Mary Murray, read law in the office of Nesmith & Pike, Franklin; 
admitted to the bar, April term, at Concord, 1855. Same year opened an office 
at East Canaan, and that village has grown up about him. By diligent study 
during his thirty years' practice he has won an enviable reputation.as a sound 
lawyer. He has served one term in the legislature and was a member of the 
constitutional convention of 1878. In religion he is a Methodist, and he gets 
credit for piying a large percentage of the expenses of his church. He is 



BENCH AND BAR. 75 



much interested in the schools of his village. He received the degree of A. 
M. from Dartmouth college in 1875. 

Joseph Doe Weeks, son of William P., born in Canaan October 29, 1837, 
graduated from Dartmouth college in 1861, read law with Daniel M. Christie 
and Wheeler & Hall, of Dover, with whom for a short time he practiced. At 
the request of his father he returned to Canaan in 1864, and has since been 
a resident here. In the years of his practice here he has ever manifested a 
disposition to bestow favors upon friends, and other needy persons ; has en- 
tered with enthusiasm into all schemes for the success of the Democracy, to 
which he bears unswerving allegiance. His legal attainments are equal to 
all his needs He is generous and friendly, and has never been charged with 
oppressing any poor wretch who happened to fall into the fangs of the law. 
This trait has given him great power in politics, and he has seldom^met with 
defeat even in this Republican town. Several times he has been sent to Con- 
cord, both as representative and senator. He is a regular attendent at the 
Methodist church and a generous sui)porter. Either as lawyer or man he is 
large of heart, sympathetic and friendly — is very genial and enters heartily 
into all social schemes " to drive dull care away." He is unmarried. 

William Brackett Weeks, son of WiUiam P., and brother of Joseph D., 
born at Canaan April, 1839, educated at Canaan academy, was graduated 
from Dartmouth college, 186 1, read law with his father, was admitted to the 
bar and practiced at Canaan a short time, then emigrated to West Virginia 
with the intention of making a home there ; but the war raged everywhere, 
and northern men were not welcome. In a few months he came back to his 
native hills, and became an attorney at Lebanon, where he has continued to 
reside. He is counted a well read lawyer and his correct legal knowledge se- 
cures him the confidence of business men. In 1866 he married Miss Hen- 
rietta Bndgeman, of Hanover. 

Isaac Newton Blodgett, A. M., son of Caleb and Charlotte B., born in 
Canaan, January, 1838, educated at Canaan academy, read law in the ofhce 
of Rolfe & Marshall, at Concord, and with William P. Weeks, and was admitted 
to the bar in April, i86i. In May, 1861, married Sarah, daughter of Rev. 
Moses and Cynthia S. Gould. From the date of his admission to the bar he 
was partner with Mr. Weeks for six months, when he bought out the business 
and continued to practice in the same office until 1867, when he removed to 
Franklin and became a partner with Mr. Pike. Always a politician, he has 
several times represented Franklin as a Democrat, and was chairman of the 
Democratic state convention in the campaign of 1876. He was for several 
years town treasurer of Franklin, and proved himself an able financier. He 
was successful as a lawyer. A vacancy occurring in the Supreme court in 
1 88 1, he was appointed to that bench, and has worn its honors with dignity, 
preserving a reputation for wisdom and impartiality. From Dartmouth col- 
lege he received the degree of A. M. in 1S75. 

Frank D. Currier, son of Horace S. and Emma P. Currier, born in Canaan 



76 ■ GRAFTON COUNTY. 



October, 1813, educated at Canaan Union academy, and in a school at Lowell, 
read law with Mr. Pike, at Franklin, admitted to the bar ar Concord, April, 
1877, then spent one year in the office of Mr. Murray, at East Canaan, and 
afterwards opened an office in the same village. He was studious and ener- 
getic, and is said to have managed his cases with such skill as to give him a 
good standing as a lawyer. But his career was not a long one. The facina- 
tions of poHtics were more attractive than the abstruce themes of law. The 
people sent him to Concord once. In 1883 he was elected clerk of the House 
of Representatives, and at the session of 1885 was made clerk of the Senate. 
He has served two campaigns as secretary of the Republican state committee, 
and in that position has rendered his party good service. 

Danbury.* — William Taylor Norris was born in Danbury, then in Grafton 
county, April i, 1822. His father, William C. Norris, was a native of Salis- 
bury, whose father, Samuel Norris, was a native of Epping, married Sally 
Fraquier, of Nottingham, and raised a large family. His mother was an 
Elliott, of Concord, whose mother was a Carter of Canterbury. He is one of 
fourteen children. His youth was passed on a farm, with scant common 
school privileges. He fitted for college, beginning at twenty, at Canaan Union 
academy, took a partial course at Norwich university, studied theology a 
while, with a view to being a Universalist minister, read law in the office of 
Weeks & Sargent, at Canaan, and Crofoot & Broadhead, at Pontiac, Oakland 
county, Michigan, and was admitted to the bar at Detroit in May, 1849. ^^ 
formed a partnership with Judge H. E. Hoyt, of Milford, Oakland county, 
and was in practice there nearly a year, when, on account of his wife's health, he 
was obliged to return to his old home. He then went to California after gold, 
to stand probation on, came back without it, and began practice in the town 
where he was born in 1854. In 1856 he was a member of the legislature, and 
re-elected in 1857. Here he continued in practice till he entered the firm 
of Eastman, Page & Norris, at Concord, in January, 1875. In a year Judge 
Eastman went out of practice, and the firm became Page & Norris. Dur- 
ing the existence of this firm the notorious Pembroke murderer. La Page, was 
twice defended by them, on the first trial Mr. Page acting a senior counsel 
Mr. Norris taking that place on the second trial. When Mr. Page went to 
Woodsville the firm of W. T. & H. F. Norris was formed, and run a few years. 
He is now in business alone in his native town. In 1857 Dartmouth college 
conferred on him the honorary degree of master of arts, and for a couple of 
years he was a member of the board of trustees of the state Normal school. 

Stillman Clark was born in Dickinson, Franklin county, New York, No- 
vember 20, 1833, came to Danbury when quite young. He supplemented 
limited school training with a few years at an academy, served about three 
years in the Union army, read law with Judge Mason, of Bristol, was admitted 
in May, 1866, was postmaster here fifteen years or more, but never engaged 



•'Danbury, until July 10, 1874, was a part of Grafton county. 



BENCH AND BAR. 77 



in active practice of the profession. He lias for a number of years been run- 
ning a country store, and turning his attention somewhat to farming. 

Enfield.* — Samuel Rice, who was in practice here from i8r6 to 1824, read 
law with Judge Sumner, of Charlestown, N. H., and came to Enfield from East 
Lebanon, where he had been previously located. Mr. Rice was a man of 
more than ordinary ability, but owing to various troubles and embarrassments 
did not attain the success to which his powers entitled him. He was in pol- 
itics a Democrat, but not a churchman. His family was a wife, one son and 
four daughters. He finally removed to Lowell, Mass., where he died. 

Nathaniel W. Westgate was in practice here from 1827 to 1836. (See 
Haverhill.) 

James G. Harvey, a notary of Canterbury, N. H., was located here about 
one year in the practice, in i88r and 1882. He did not attend court and did 
not apply for admission to the bar of the county. He studied law with Hon- 
D. C. Denison, of Vermont, and was admitted to the bar of Windsor county 
in 1880. Since his return from Enfield, he has been engaged in successful 
practice at White River Junction, Vt. 

Hanover.! — We do not certainly know who was the first resident attor- 
ney. There are doubtful traces of one in 1775. But for conveyancing and 
other local business appropriate to this profession our people for many of the 
early years relied upon the services of Prof. Bezaleel Woodward, who was at 
the same time justice of the peace, holding regular terms of court at Han- 
over, and one of the justices of the county Court of Common Pleas. The 
first regular practitioner whose name appears on the dockets of Judge Wood- 
ward's court was Aaron Hutchinson, of Lebanon, in 1787 or 1788, but he 
never resided in Hanover, 

At about the same time (1787) there came hither to reside, Bela Turner, 
Jr., son of a merchant and inn-keeper of that name, in Lebanon. He was a 
member of the bar of the Superior court, but appears to have enjoyed but a 
very limited practice. He is supposed to have removed to Landaff in 1794, 
and thence to Bath, where he died in 1814, aged forty-nine years. 

William H. Woodward, (the middle initial was inserted by act of legislature 
June, 1807,) eldest son of Prof. Bezaleel Woodward, and the first male child 
born on the college plain, graduated from Dartmouth college in 1793 and 
began the practice of the law at Hanover the following year. He was treas- 
urer of the college from 1805 to 1816, chief justice of the Court of Common 
Picas, western or second circuit, from 1813 to i8i8, and died August, 1818,- 
aL^cd forty-three years. He was an able man and a good lawyer, though 
somewhat technical, and highly esteemed in social life. 

Benjamin Joseph Gilbert, born in Brookfield, Mass, graduated at Vale 
college in 1786, and settled in the practice at Hanover in 1792. He held a 

*i;v \V. F. Westgate. 
fliy lion. F. Chase. 



78 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



prominent position at the bar of this county until 1826, when he gave up 
business and removed to Boston to reside with his children. He died there 
in 1849, aged eighty-five years. He was soUcitor for Grafton county several 
years, councilor in 1809-11, and was member of the House of Representatives 
in 1800, procured the incorporation of the fourth New Hampshire turnpike. 
He was prominent in political life on the federal side. As a lawyer he 
ranked high for sound learning. Webster, who enjoyed and valued his 
friendship, took repeated occasion in public to express a high estimate of his 
capacity and attainments. 

Mills Olcott, son of Gov. Peter Olcott, of Norwich, Vt., graduated at Dart- 
mouth in 1790, entered on the practice of the law at Hanover in 1800, and 
spent his life here. Being an extensive land owner and much occupied with 
other business, he was prevented from taking a very active position at the 
bar. He was treasurer of Dartmouth college from 1816-22, and from 1821 
to 1845 a prominent member of its corporation. As its attorney he insti- 
tuted the suit upon which, in 18 19, was rendered the judgment in the college 
case. He was an ardent federalist, and one of the two New Hampshire del- 
egates to the Hartford convention in 18 14. He enjoyed the intimate friend- 
ship of Webster, Mason and Smith, and their contemporaries. Choate 
and Joseph Bell married into his family. He did not aspire to eminence as 
a lawyer, but his extraordinary business capacity, his elegant presence, his 
generosity and universal friendliness, his abounding hospitality and his wide 
acquaintance gave him a position altogether unique in this community. He 
died in 1845. aged seventy-one years. 

Henry Hutchinson, son of Aaron Hutchinson, Esq., of Lebanon, a grad- 
uate of 1804, settled here in 1810 and remained until 1825, when he removed 
to New York city. He was a brother-in-law of Judge W. H. Woodward and 
a strong partisan of the " University " in 1816-19. He died in New York in 
1838, aged fifty-three years. 

James R, Wheelock, of the class of 1807, was a son of James Wheelock, 
Esq., of Hanover, and grandson of the founder of the college. He was ad- 
mitted to the Grafton bar September, 1813, and practiced at Hanover 
till 181 7, when he gave up the law for the ministry. He died at Boston, 
Mass., November, 1841, aged fifty-one years. 

Barna Tisdale, Jr., born in Lebanon, graduated at Dartmouth 1809. He 
was an attorney in Hanover from 1815 to 1819, but not in heavy practice. 
He then retired to a farm. He removed to Bradford, Mass., in 1856, and 
■died there in i860, aged seventy-two years. 

George Wheeler, of the class of 1807, came here from Troy, N. Y., in 
1815, and remained till about 1830. He was for a while a partner of Mr. 
Olcott, and afterwards postmaster of the village. He returned to Troy in 
1830, where he died in 1870, aged eighty-seven years. 

WiUiam Smith spent his boyhood in Salisbury and in Haverhill, studied law 
with Hon. A. G. Britton, of Orford, and was admitted to the Grafton bar 



BENCH AND BAR. 79 



September, 1813. He practiced at Hanover from about 1817 to 1833, when 
he removed to Lowell, Mass. Hon. B, F. Butler studied there in his office, 
and formed a partnership with his son who took the name of Henry F. Durant. 
Mr. Smith afterwards accompanied his son to Boston, and died there at an 
advanced age. He was a busy lawyer, devoted mainly to office practice and 
the conduct of routine actions. 

Ninian C. Betton, of the class of 18 14, a student of the Websters, prac- 
ticed here from 1820 to 1823. He then removed to Boston, where he 
enjoyed considerable prominence at the bar, and died in 1856, aged sixty- 
eight years. 

Timothy Farrar. Jr., son of Hon. Timothy Farrar, of New Ipswich, came 
here, from Portsmouth, in 1822, as treasurer of the college. He had pre- 
viously acquired considerable eminence, had taken an active part on the 
side of the college in the great litigation, and published a report of the case 
in a volume of 400 pages. He was in 1824 advanced to the bench of the 
Common Pleas. Giving this up in 1838, he returned to Portsmouth, and 
thence removed to Exeter and to Boston, where he died in 1874, aged eighty- 
six years. 

WiUiam T. Haddock, afterwards Heydock, of the class of 181 9, a brother 
of Prof. C. B. Haddock, and son of William Haddock, of Franklin, read law 
with Daniel Webster, and practiced at Hanover from 1822 to 1828. He re- 
moved successively to Concord, and Boston and Lowell, Mass. He died at 
Hanover, in 1837, aged thirty-seven years. He published, in 1829, a New 
Hampshire Probate directory of great excellence. 

Edward R. Olcott, son of Mills Olcott, a graduate of 1825, practiced here 
from 1828 to 1830. He then removed to Haverhill, and afterwards to Louis- 
iana, where he was raised to the bench. He died in 1869, aged sixty-four 
years. 

William Olcott, also son of Mills Olcott, graduated from, college in 1827, 
practiced at Hanover from 1830 to 1835. He removed to Rochester and to 
Buffalo, N. Y., and then to Shreveport, La., where he died in 1851, aged 
forty-one years. 

Ira Perley, son of Samuel Perley, of Boxford, Mass., a graduate of Dart- 
mouth in 1822, and a tutor till 1825, read law at Hanover with B. J. Gilberts 
and settled here in practice in 1827. He was college treasurer from 1830 to 
1835. He removed to Concord in 1834. He was raised to the bench of the 
Supreme Judicial Court in 1850, and in 18^5 was appointed chief justice. 
He died in 1874, aged seventy-four years. 

Solon Grout, of Brattleboro, Vt., came to Hanover and entered on the 
practice in 1832. He was for a time a partner of Mills Olcott. He removed 
alxnit 1835, and finally returned to Bellows Falls, where he died. 

Daniel Blaisdell, son of Hon. Eljiah Blaisdell was born at Pittsfield, spent 
his youth at Canaan, and graduated at Dartmouth in 1827. He read law 
with Joseph Bell, at Haverhill, practiced there from 1830 to 1832, than at 



8o GRAFTON COUNTY. 



Lebanon a year, and finally removed to Hanover in 1833. He was forty 
years treasurer of the college, from 1835 to 1875, and at the same time an 
able industrious and enthusiastic practitioner of the law. He was senator in 
1863-65, and several years a member of the House. Through this long period 
of forty-two years active professional service unexamplied at Hanover, he 
possessed in a remarkable degree the esteem and confidence of the commu- 
nity. He died in August, 1875, aged sixty-nine years. 

William H. Duncan, was of Scotch-Irish blood, a native of Candia. He 
graduated from the college in 1830, with the highest honors, and read law at 
Charleston S. C. He practiced at Haverhill a year or two, and came to Han- 
over in 1837. He died in 1883, aged seventy-five years. He had the ad- 
vantage of a graceful manner, scholarly talker, ready wit; extraordinary power 
of expression, and attractive social qualities. 

. Augustine O. Brewster, son of Col. Amos A. Brewster, of Hanover, fifteen 
years high sheriff of Grafton county, graduated at Dartmouth in 1843. ^^ 
studied law with Mr. Duncan and others, and practiced here from 1846 
to 1850. He then removed to New York city, and in 1852 to Boston, where 
he now is. 

Frederick Chase, a native of Hanover, son of the late Prof. Stephen Chase, 
and a graduate of Dartmouth of i860, commenced practice herem 1874. He 
had previously been at the bar in Washington D. C. He became treasurer of 
the college in 1875, and judge of the Probate for Grafton county in 1876. 

Henry A. Folsom, born in Sandwich, a graduate of Dartmouth in 1871,, 
cametothebar in Boston, where he acquired an enviable standing in the 
profession, but driven from it by failing health, removed to Hanover in 1882. 

Haverhill.* — Moses Dow. — The exact time when General Dow came to 
Haverhill, is not certainly known, but it must have been previous to 1774, 
as in that year he was appointed by the Court of the General Sessions of the 
Peace, to act as Jcing's attorney, in the absence of the attorney-general. His 
native place was Atkinson, and his father's name was John Dow. Of his 
early education we have no information, but his academic course was pursued 
at Harvard college, from which he graduated in 1769. When and with whom 
he read law is also unknown. He began the practice of his profession, in all 
probability, at Haverhill, soon after his admission to the bar, and continued 
to do so till he was appointed a judge of the Court of Common Pleas, with 
an interruption of five years at Plymouth. He was unquestionably one of the 
strong and leading lawyers in the early history of the Grafton county bar, and 
held a prominent position, not only in his profession, but also in popular 
esteem. His name occurs repeatedly in the town records as taking an active 
part in town affairs, and he filled various town ofiices from 1783 till toward 
the close of his life. In addition to these places of service and honor, he was 
called into larger spheres of trust. For four years he was solicitor for Grafton 



*By J. Q. Biltinger. 



BENCH AND BAR. 8 I 



county, and from 1774, for a period of thirty years, he was register of Pro- 
bate. In 1780-81 he represented the town of Haverhill in the legislature, 
and as early as 1790, he was a member of the state Senate, of which body he 
was chosen president during his term of senatorial service. Previous to this 
he was a member of the governor's council. He was interested in military 
matters, and was a brigadier-general of the state militia. In 1808 he was ap- 
pointed a judge of the Court of Common Pleas for Grafton county, which 
office he held till the close of his life. General Dow was also elected to the 
Continental Congress, by the General Assembly of New Hampshire, but de- 
clined the honor on the ground that he did not feel himself qualified for the 
high responsibilities of the position. 

General Dow was the first postmaster of Haverhill, and received his com- 
mission for that office from President Washington. He took a deep interest 
in all local matters, and was active in promoting the welfare of the town. His 
name appears as one of the incorporators of Haverhill academy, and he was 
a heavy subscriber to the stock of a bridge company, for the purpose of 
building a bridge across the Connecticut river in Haverhill. He was the 
owner of the "Dow farm," so-called in local parlance, a tract of land two and 
a half miles north of Haverhill Corner. His residence was that now owned 
and occupied by Milo Bailey. 

General Dow was a man of great independence of mind, and early led off 
in a protest against being taxed for the preaching of the gospel. He was 
fond of discussion, especially the discussion of religious questions. In per- 
son he was tall and commanding, with dignified bearing and courtly manners. 
As a citizen he was enterprising, energetic, a true and earnest patriot, and 
a man of high character and fine literary attainments. His prominent stand- 
ing in his profession, and his great abilities, made him not only a foremost 
citizen of the town, but eminent in the county and in the State. 

General Dow married Phebe Emerson, by whom he had four children, two 
sons and two daughters, and died in Haverhill, in 181 1. 

Alden Sprague was born in Rochester, Mass., and came to Haverhill about 
1796. He was married twice. A daughter by the first wife married James 
I. Swan, a lawyer of Bath. His second wife was Eunice Stoddard, a remark- 
able woman, and they had five children. PC. C. Sprague, a prominent 
lawyer of Buffalo, N. Y., is a grandson of Alden Sprague, and was the author 
of the famous Sprague-Clark letter in the campaign of 1884. 

Alden Sprague was a learned and acute lawyer, a very eloquent advocate, 
and enjoyed a large and lucrative practice. He was a favorite in society, and 
a man of wit and brains. The late Judge Rand's mother was a daughter 
of Alden Sprague. He was admitted to the bar in Cheshire county, and 
studied, probably, with his half brother, Peleg Sprague. Mr. Sprague was a 
tall and dignified man of gentle manners, manly in his bearing, and public 
spirited, taking a leading part in town affairs. He died in Barnet, Vt., in 
1811. 



82 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



John Porter, born in Haverhill, was the son of Asa Porter and Mehite- 
bel (Crocker) Porter. Read law in Chester and practiced there, afterward 
moved to Haverhill in 1795. He practiced in Newbury, Vt. He married 
a Miss Webster, of Chester, and moved to Canada. 

Moses Dow, Jr., son of Moses and Phebe (Emerson) Dow, studied, it is 
thought, with his father, and began the practice of the law in Haverhill in 
1800. He was judge of Probate from 1808 till 1838, and was also post- 
master in Haverhill for a number of years. Mr. Dow was a man of little force 
of character. 

George Woodward, born in Hanover, was a grandson of president Wheelock, 
of Dartmouth college. He began the practice of law in Haverhill in 1805, 
married for his first wife a Miss Leverett, of Windsor, Vt., and for his second 
wife a daughter of Capt. Webster, of Plymouth. He was clerk of the court, 
a member of church, and died in Lowell. 

John Nelson, born in Exeter, in 1778, graduated at Dartmouth college. 
Read law with Charles Marsh, of Woodstock, Vt., and Peter O. Thacher, of 
Boston, practiced in Haverhill, and died there. He had eleven children. 
As a lawyer he is said to have been nearly as good as Bell, but lacked his 
physical power. Was associated with Hon. Richard Fletcher in the famous 
Dow and Bell breach of promise case. Mr. Nelson was a lawyer of high stand- 
ing in ability and character. He married for his first wife Susannah, daugh- 
ter of Ebenezer Brewster, of Hanover, and for his second wife Lois Everett, 
daughter of Mr. Everett, of Windsor, Vt., who was a representative in con- 
gress for twenty years. 

Henry Hutchinson was admitted to the bar of the Common Pleas at Sep- 
tember term 1807, from the oftice of Aaron Hutchinson, and began the practice 
of law in Haverhill in 18 10. 

Daniel Sloane, born in Pelham Mass., in 1780, worked his way through 
Dartmouth college, and graduated in 1806. He read law with George 
Woodward, of Haverhill, and with W. H. Woodward, of Hanover and began 
practice at Haverhill in 181 1. He married a daughter of Capt. Thomas 
Johnson, of Newbury, Vt., and had two sons graduate at Dartmouth college. 
Mr. Sloane was a shrewd and astute laivyer and a man of prominence. He 
died in i860. 

Joseph Bell, born in Bradford, N. H., in 1787, was a son of Joseph and 
Mary (Houston) Bell, and was of Scotch-Irish parentage. He graduated at 
Dartmouth college in 1807, and taught in Haverhill academy in 1807-08. 
Read law with flon. Samuel Bell, of Amherst, Hon. Samuel Dana, of Boston, 
Hon. Jeremiah Smith of Exeter, and began the practice of his profession ir^ 
Haverhill m 181 1, and continued there till 1842, when he moved to Boston, and 
became associated with the late Henry F. Durant. Whilst at Haverhill Mr. 
Bell was solicitor for Grafton county, represented the town a number of years 
in the General Court, and was a candidate for Congress in 1835. He was also 
cashier of the Grafton county bank, and afterward its president. 



BENCH AND BAR. 85 



Mr. Bell, while he resided in Boston, was a member of the Masschusetts 
legislature, both of the House and of the Senate. He was also president of 
the Senate for one term. Mr Bell married Catharine, daughter of Mills Olcott 
of Hanover. They had three children, one son and two daughters. In 1837 
Mr. Bell received the honorary degree of LL. D., from Dartmouth college. In 
personal appearance he was a large, powerful, compactly built man. His posi- 
tion as a lawyer was in the front rank in the state, of his time. He had a large 
and lucrative practice, and was in those days a high priced lawyer. His practice 
extended into the neighboring counties. He was stronger as a lawyer than 
as an advocate. Inspeach he was loud and imperious, and often turned the 
sympathies of the jury away from him on this account. He was naturally 
aristocratic and overbearing. Had Mr. Bell spent the prime of his life 
in a larger center he would have gained more than a state reputation. He 
died at Saratoga in 1851. 

Samuel Cortland began the practice of law in Haverhill in 1825, and con- 
tinued to do so till 1838. He was a man of excellent ability, and held the 
position of state senator at one time. His political ambition was not fully 
gratified, and he is said to have been a disappointed man. He was a person 
of fine character and excellent ability, but lacking some in force. He was 
personally attractive, and of kindly disposition. 

Edmund Carleton, a son of Dr. Carleton, born in Haverhill, graduated at 
Dartmouth college, read law with Joseph Bell, was admitted at Haverhill in 
1828, and began practice there. He married Miss Coftin, sister of C. C. 
Coffin (" Carleton " of the Boston Journal). He was a man of precise man- 
ners, a church member, and extremely anti-slavery in sentiment. 

Hale Atkinson Johnson was born in Haverhill in 1801, a son of Capt. 
Michael and Sarah (Atkinson) Johnson. He graduated at Dartmouth col- 
lege in 1825, taught in Northumberland, Pa , read law with James McKeen, 
of New York, finished with Joseph Bell, was admitted to the bar in 1829, 
and practiced in Haverhill till 183 1, when he died of consumption. He was 
a man of hopeful professional prospects. 

Daniel Blasdell was born in Pittsfield in 1806, son of Hon. Elijah B. and 
Mary (Fogg) Blasdell. He fitted for college at Kimball Union academy and 
graduated at Dartmouth college in 1827. Read law with Joseph Bell, admitted 
in 1830, and began practice at Haverhill with John Nelson, moved to 
Lebanon and thence to Hanover, where he continued his profession, and was 
also treasurer of Dartmouth college for many years, was representative for 
several years, state senator and presidential elector in i860. A man of courtly 
manners, exact in speech, close and patient lawyer, and Unitarian in religion. 
He died in 1879 (?). 

Edward R. Olcott. — (See Hanover.) 

Jonathan Bliss was born in Randol|>h, Vt., in 1799. He graduated from 
Dartmouth college in 1824, read law with Joseph Bell, William C. Thompson, 
and at Northampton, Mass. Began practice at Haverhill and at Plymoutlv 



84 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



in 1828. In 1836 he moved to Gainesville, Ala. He married for his first 
wife Lucretia, daughter of Hon. William Leverett, of Windsor, Vt., and 
second, Mary, daughter of Dr. Samuel Kidder, of Charlestown, Mass., 
and third, Mrs. Maria Kidder, of Medford, Mass. He died in 1882 or 1883. 

William H. Duncan. — (See Hanover.) 

Samuel C. Webster was a lawyer in Haverhill in 1835. He remained in 
Haverhill only one year, where he died.— (See Plymouth.) 

Nathan B. Felton, born in Pelham, Mass., in 1798, fitted for college in 
Chester, Vt., graduated at Middlebury college, Vt., in 18 19, read law with 
Gen. Charles W. Field, of Newfane, Vt., began to practice law at Lebanon, 
afterward, 1834. moved to Haverhill and practiced law there till his death. 
He was clerk of the court for ten years, representative, and register of pro- 
bate, also served in town offices. He was a man of slight body, large head, 
of quaint humor, a learned lawyer, a safe counsellor, and a man of marked 
integrity. 

David H. Collins. — Of Mr. Collins little can be learned. He came to 
Haverhill in 1838 or '39, from Deerfield, and was engaged in the register of 
deeds' office for a few years. He was in poor health, and soon left Haverhill 
for his home, where he died of consumption. He was a very worthy man, 
but not very social, and a little singular. 

Jonas Darius Sleeper was born in Guilford, and received his education at 
New Hampton and at Brown University, Providence, R. I. He read law with 
Hon. Josiah Quincy, of Rumney, whose daughter he married. He was ad- 
mitted in 1842, commenced practice at Hill, was appointed clerk of the 
Grafton county court in 1848, which position he held till i860, when he 
became cashier of the State Capitol bank of Concord. Afterward he was ap- 
pointed clerk of the Merrimack county court, and continued in office till his 
death. Mr. Sleeper was also, at one time, a state senator. He was a man 
of integrity, ability and fidelity, of social and genial companionship, and an 
excellent citizen, a friend to all, and all friends to him. He died in 1868. 

John S. Bryant was born in Meredith in 1800, wasa self-mademan, came to 
Haverhill and began to practice law in 1846, and died therein 1873. He was 
full of energy, public-spirited, and a very agreeable man in society, and 
naturally a man well-endowed. 

David Page, son of Samuel, was born in Haverhill, Mass., August 6, 1809, 
and removed with his parents to Benton, when about four years of age. Until 
twenty-one years of age, he aided his father and brothers in clearing and 
doing the work of the farm, and attended the district school during the winters. 
Then, being determined to obtain a better education, he worked his way 
through several terms at the Haverhill academy, prepared himself for teach- 
ing, and followed this vocation several winters. In 1839 he went to Groton 
as a clerk in the store of Moses Pike, and married Margaret Taylor, a native 
of Derry, N. H., and a teacher in that town, December 31, 1844. Soon 
after his marriage, he moved to Haverhill. Mr. Page was admitted to the 




4^ 



^!iy^j-c.^ (y }^c 



"T^ 



BENCH AND BAR. 85 



bar in Haverhill, in 1845, and practiced several years. He afterwards pur- 
chased a store and stock of goods, and went into the mercantile business, 
which he continued until 1857. After this he practiced law, and did a large 
business in procuring pensions after the war. In his early life he was a mem- 
ber of the militia, of which he became a captain. He served as selectman 
in Benton, and was several years auditor of Haverhill. His wife died in 
March, iSSr, and his death occurred July i, 1881. Of his five children, two 
died in infancy, and Elvira, born in 1847, is now the wife of Alvin Burleigh, 
Esq., of Plymouth, N. H.; IVJartha A. became the wife of C. R. Whitney, of 
Keene, and is now deceased ; and Samuel T. 

W. C. Thompson was a lawyer in Haverhill previous to 1855, in which year 
he went away. He was an elegant and accomplished man. He married Mary 
Orcutt, of Hanover. 

George Willey Chapman, born in 1830, in New Chester (now HoUis), 
educated at Cleveland, Ohio, Northfield, and Hill academy, studied law in - 
Cleveland, Ohio, with Willey & Carey, with J. D. Sleeper, of Hill, and with 
Judge Nesmith and Pike, of Franklin, was admitted to the bar at Plymouth 
in 1849. He practiced at Hill till 1853, since then at Haverhill, and married 
Eleanor H. Towle, of Haverhill. Mr. Chapman has been a successful, prom- 
inent lawyer, of a large and lucrative practice, public spirited, agreeable in 
society, hospitable and abounding in story and anecdote. He is now presi- 
dent of Bradford Savings bank, Vt. 

Charles Robert Morrison. (See Bath). 

Hon. Nathaniel VVaite Westgate was born in Plainfield, N. H., January 26, 
1801, son of Earl and Elizabeth (Wait) Westgate. Until fifteen years of age his 
lot was that common to boys of country birth — attending district school. At this 
age, however, his school life was interrupted by a serious illness, that confined 
him for two years to the house, and left him with a lameness from which he 
has never recovered. When health was sufficiently restored he resumed the 
pursuit of an education, attending school at Kimball Union academy at Meri- 
den, where he took the prescribed course. Choosing the law as a profession he, 
at the age of twenty two, entered the office of Charles Flanders, Esq., as a stu- 
dent and was admitted to practice at Newport in the autumn of 1827. Imme- 
diately afterward he located at Enfield Center, opened an office, and for a 
period of nearly thirty yeasr continued to reside here, engaged in the prac- 
tice of his profession, before the courts of Grafton and Sullivan counties. Chosen 
to the office of register of probate in March, 1856, he assumed its duties in 
July, and took up his residence in Haverhill in the house where he still lives. 
From register he was appointed to the position of judge of probate, succeed- 
ing Judge Berry when he was elected governor in 1851, and retired from the 
office only when advancing age disqualfied him for its duties, in 1871. In 
politics, originally a Whig, the principles enunciated by the Republican party 
upon its formation met his approval, and he became an early and permanent 
adherent to its creed. During his residence in Enfield he filled with credit 



86 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



various offices of public trust, including those of superintendent of schools, 
town clerk and postmaster for several years. He was chosen representative 
from Haverhill in the legislature in 1861. His duties as register and judge 
of probate, have taken him at stated intervals to all parts of Grafton county, 
and in his long official career has given him a personal acquaintance with many 
of its inhabitants, wherein his hearty cordiality, unequivocal sincerity and 
sound judgment, have established universal respect and profound regard. 

The care and sagacity which have marked his private business life and 
made it successful have made his counsel and advice highly valued, and often 
sought in business matters. Generosity, benevolence and philanthropy have 
characterized his response to calls for aid in all projects calculated to enhance 
the material, social, intellectual or religious welfare of the community in 
which he lives, as well as in many cases of private necessity. Quiet and un- 
assuming by nature, his official trusts have come as the result of public con- 
fidence in recognized ability and integrity, rather than of self-seeking, and 
his influence for good m the community has been by an example known, read 
and approved of his fellow-men. Now, from the good old age of eighty-five, 
he has reason for calm satisfaction and honest pride, in looking back over a 
lifetime of honorable public service, stainless private character, domestic felic- 
ity and financial success. 

He married for his first wife Lydia J., daughter of Doctor Prentiss, of Spring 
field, who died five years after marriage. His present estimable helpmeet, 
Louise, daughter of Austin Tyler, of Claremont, became his wife November 
14, 1842, and is the mother of his six children : Tyler, born at Enfield, De- 
cember 2, 1843, was educated at Kimball Union academy, graduating in the 
class of 1864, has served as register of probate four years^ as clerk of the 
state Senate, as postmaster at Haverhill from 1881 to '85, and is now of the 
firm of Poor & Westgate, merchants at Haverhill. He married Lucretia M. 
Sawyer who is now deceased. Nathaniel W., Jr., born January 19, 1846, 
studied at Kimball Union and Haverhill academies, enlisted at the age of 
eighteen, served in the Civil war and died in the rebel prison at Danville, Va., 
January 7, 1865. 

William Francis Westgate, son of Nathaniel W., educated at Haverhill, Kim- 
ball Union and New London academies, graduated from the Chandler scien- 
tific department, Dartmouth college, studied law with G. F. Putnam, Esq., 
admitted to practice in March, 1880, and has since practiced law and civil engi- 
neering at Haverhill. He has served as superintendent of schools, as repre- 
sentative in the legislature of 1882, and as register ot probate since July, 1884. 
Jennie L., a daughter, and George H., of Haverhill, are also children of N.. 
W. Westgate. 

George F. Putnam, born in Croydon, educated at Thetford academy and 
Norwich university, Vt., read law with N, B. Felton, of Haverhill, and Judge 
C. R. Munson, of Manchester, was admitted at Manchester in 1867. He 
began practice in Haverhill in 1867, afterward at Warren, and then again in 







cri^f;^^;^^ 




BENCH AND BAR. 87 

Haverhill. In 1882 he moved to Kansas City, Mo., where he now is in practice 
He married a daughter of Sylvanus Reding, of Haverhill. Mr. Putnam 
held many public positions. He was representative from Haverhill and from 
Warren, solicitor of Grafton county, and a delegate to the St. Louis conven- 
tion that nominated Mr. Tilden for President, is an able and successful law- 
yer, public spirited, energetic, affable, and a model ot physique and health. 

Luther Colby Morse, born in Haverhill, in 1834, educated at Newbury and 
Dartmouth college, read law with Oliver A Lull and Nath. W. Westgate, of 
Haverhill, admitted at Haverhill in 1863, and began practice there. Reg- 
ister of probate for ten years from i860. Says "put in a substitute during 
the war." He is now living somewhere in the west. 

Samuel Taylor Page, son of David, was educated at the district school, the 
Haverhill and Kimball Union academies, and at Dartmouth college from 
which he graduated in 187 1, working his way through the course, in part by 
teaching. He studied law at Manchester, was admitted to the bar at Am- 
herst, in May, 1874, and has always resided in Haverhill. He has served as 
school superintendent of this town eight years, and was register of probate 
for Grafton county in 1874 and '75 and from 1879 to 1885, and represented 
Haverhill in the General Court in 1877-78. He married Frances M. Eaton, 
of Manchester, in October, 1872, and has two children, Gracie M., born Jan- 
uary 12, 1874, and Donald T., born October 27, 1878. Mr. Page is now 
general business manager of the New Hampshire Democratic Press Company 
at Concord. 

Samuel Berkley Page, born at Littleton in 1838, educated at Exeter, Mc- 
Indoe's Falls, Vt., and Union college, N. Y., read law with Woods and Bing- 
hams, and at the law school, Albany, N. Y., began practice at Wells River, Vt., 
afterward at Warren, Concord, and then at Woodsville, in Haverhill. He 
married Martha C. Lang, of Bath. Mr. Page was representative from War- 
ren for a number of years ; from Concord a member of constitutional con- 
vention in 1876. He is a lawyer of ability, and does a large business. 

HiLL.*t — Hon. Nathan Crosby, son of Asa and Rebecca (Holt) Crosby, of 
Sandwich, N. H., and brother of Prof. Alpheus Crosby, the eminent Greek 
scholar, and Dr. Dixi Crosby, the eminent medical practitioner and instructor, 
was born at that place February 12, 1798, and died at Lowell, Mass., Febru- 
ary 10, 1885. He was in the practice of law at Hill from about 1823 to 
1826. He graduated from Dartmouth college in 1820. Among his distin- 
guished classmates were Hon. George W. Nesmith, Hon. N. G. Upham and 
Hon. George P. Marsh, He was engaged in the practice of law successively 
at Gilmanton, in partnership with his old preceptor Mr. Moody, whose daugh- 
ter he married; at Ameshury, Mass., and at Newburyport. Though he had 
met with good success at the bar, in 1829 he entered in the business of man- 

* By George W. Chaptuan, Esq. 

f Hill, until July i, 186S, was a part of Grafton county. 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



ufacturiiig as agent of the Salisbury Company. After six years he became 
agent ot the Massachusetts Temperance Union. In 1843 he resumed the 
practice of law at Lowell. He was employed in 1845 and 1846 in purchas- 
ing the New Hampshire lakes for reservoirs by the corporations in Lowell 
and Lawrence. In May of the latter year he became justice of the Lowell 
Police Court, held the office more than thirty-eight years, and until a few 
weeks before his death. He performed a great amount of Hterary work, 
lectured much on temperance, edited the Tetfiperance Journal^ published 
articles entitled, "The First Half Century of Dartmouth College," "History 
of the Crosby Family," "Reminiscences of Distinguished Men of Essex 
County," "Eulogy on Hon. Tappan Wentworth," "Memorial Address on 
Judge Samuel S. Wilde," and made a multitude of other contributions to 
current literature and history. Formerly he was a Whig in politics. He was 
a devoted and life-long member of the Congregational church. In his judi- 
cial term he did not announce his poHtical creed. He was a Prohibitionist in 
doctrine, but perhaps not in politics. Nine children were of his first marriage- 
His second marriage occurred in 1870. Several children survived him. 
George W. Phelps located here from about 1827 to 1843. (See Bristol.) 
Jonas D. Sleeper located here from about 1843 to 1848. (See Haverhill.) 
George W. Chapman located here 1848 to 1853. (See Haverhill.) 
HoLDERNESS AND ASHL.A.ND.* — Hon. Samucl Livermore was a descendant 
of John Livermore, of Watertown, Mass. He was born in Waltham, Mass., 
May 14, 1732 — two months and twenty days after the birth of Washington. 
He graduated at Princeton, N. J., in 1752, was at Falmouth (now Portland, 
Me.,) in 1754, and was a witness to^the signatures appended to a treaty with 
the Penobscot Indians, which treaty v/as "done and concluded at Falmouth, 
Casco Bay, July 6, 1754." He came to Portsmouth, N. H., in 1757. Sep- 
tember 22, 1759, he married Jane, daughter of Rev. Arthur Browne, of Ports- 
mouth, who was the first church minister in New Hampshire, and who is cel- 
ebrated by Longfellow in his bright little poem of "Lady Wentworth." He 
was one of the grantees of the town of New Holderness (Holdernesst since 
1 8 16) in 1 76 1. In the same year he was one of the wardens of Rev. Arthur 
Browne's church, in Portsmouth. In 1768 he was appointed the King's attor- 
ney-general for New Hampshire, which office he held till the Revolution. In 
the years 1 768-69-70, he was a member of the House of Representatives 
from Londonderry. In 1774 he moved to New Holderness (now Holderness), 
where he settled upon a large farm upon the bank of the Pemigewasset river, 
opposite Plymouth village. Here he erected a flouring-mill, and for two years 
or more — about 1775-76 — he tended the mill with his own hands. While 



*By Colonel Thomas P. Cheney. 

f Ashland was constituted from the territory of Holderness, July 1, 1868. 



BENCH AND BAR. 89 



there thus employed he received a letter from Governor John Wentworth, as 
follows : — 

"To Samuel Livermore, Esq., 

Attorney General, 
Sir:— 

I have frequent occasion to consult you, on 
many points, as Attorney General, and therefore desire you will come directly 
on receipt of this letter. 

I am, Sir, 

Your humble servant, 

John Wentworth. 
"Portsmouth, 7th Jan'y, 1775,) 
Sat. Morning, 10 o'clock, j 

Considerable discussion has been had as to the political attitude of Mr. 
LivertTiOre at that time, but his absence from the seat of government, his 
employment, and the necessity for the governor to write this urgent letter 
to him, would indicate that he ivas not a very earnest loyalist. 

June 12, 1776 he was appointed "Justice of the Peace for the colony'' 
of New Hampshire. February 19, 1778, he was chosen attorney-general. In 
1779 he was elected and served as representative for the towns of New 
Holderness (now Holderness) and Rumney. November 4, 1779, he was 
chosen, by the General Assembly, commissioner to support the claims of 
New Hampshire to the New Hampshire Grants west of the Connecticut river. 
He was chosen member of Congress in 1780-1782, and June 21, 1782, was 
chosen chief justice of the state (succeeding Hon. Meshech Weare), and 
so remained till 1790. He was a member of the Federal convention in 1788, 
and president of the same. In 1791 and 1793 was again member of Con- 
gress. He received the degree (honorary) of LL. D. from Dartmouth col- 
lege in 1792. He was chosen United States senator from New Hampshire 
upon the expiration of his last term in the United States Houses of Representa- 
tives. He made his journeys to and from Congress with his own horse and 
carriage. Major William Shepard, of Holderness, his servant, driving him and 
family on such occasions. He was a brother to Hon. Israel Livermore, who 
settled at Livermore's Falls, Me. Israel Livermore was the father of Hon. 
Hanibal Hamlin's mother. 

Samuel Livermore died at New Holderness (now Holderness), May, 1S03, 
aged 71. He was buried in the grounds of the North church, Holderness, 
about one third of a mile east from Plymouth village, the spot being marked 
by a heavy marble slab, properly inscribed, which covers the grave. 
Mrs. Betsey Shepard, of Ashland, N. H., now (April, 1886) in her loist 
year, remembers Samuel Livermore well, and speaks of him, as a "dignified 
gentleman," and the "man who knew the most of any one anywhere about 
here." "If anybody wanted to know anything they went to Judge Liver- 
more, his say-so was the law." 

Arthur Livermore, son of Samuel Livermore, was born at Portsmouth. N 



QO GRAFTON COUNTY. 



H., July 29, 1766. In 1774 the family removed to Holderness, N. H., 
where Arthur ever after lived. He married Louise Bliss, of Haverhill, N. H. 
His death occurred July i, 1853, and he was buried in the grounds 
of the North church in Holderness. His early manhood was spent upon 
the farm and tending the grist-mill which his father had erected. His 
education was received from his father and mother, both of whom had been 
learnedly educated. That he was a classical scholar appears from the Latin 
and Greek text books used by him and containing his boyish signature, now 
in possession of one of his sons. The following is from the pen of ex-associ- 
ate justice, Jeremiah Smith : — 

Arthur Livermore may be said to have been " born in the ermine." His 
father, and brother Edward St. Loe Livermore, both preceded him upon the 
bench. His name was strongly urged for the vacancy in the Superior court 
caused by his brother's resignation in 1798; but the appointment was first 
conferred upon another person, who did not accept. 

Mr. Livermore was, however, appointed to the bench in 1799, and from 
that time until 1832 was kept almost constantly employed in the public ser- 
vice. He was associate justice of the Superior court from 1799 to 1809, 
when he was appointed chief justice, serving in that capacity until 1813 
Upon there-organization of the courts in the latter year, he consented to serve 
on the Supreme court as associate justice under his old chief, Jeremiah Smith, 
and held that position until the next re-organization in 18 16. He was repre- 
sentative in Congress from 1817 to 1821, and from 1823 to 1825. From 1825 
to 1832 he was chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas. His aggregate 
term of judicial service was one of the longest in our annals, covering about 
twenty-four years. 

Judge Livermore flourished during the golden age of the New Hampshire 
bar, and was not an unworthy compeer of the other great lawers who have con- 
ferred so much renown upon the state. From all the information, written and oral, 
which has come down to us, it is safe to say that he was a man of very 
marked ability, entertaining clear views on the questions before him, and 
capable of expressing these views with great energy. He was undoubtedly 
a person of great independence, possessing a good deal of that quality, "which, 
when a man is right, we call firmness, and when he is wrong, we denominate 
obstinacy." 

It is a matter of history that his independent spirit once came near termin- 
ating his judicial career. At the session of the New Hampshire legislature 
in December, 1805, an address for his removal was submitted to the House 
of Representatives, in the following form : — 

"Whereas. It was made to appear to this Legislature, at their session in 
June last, that Arthur Livermore, Esq., one of the Justices of the Superior 
court, had not attended to the duties of his ofiice during one whole circuit of 
court, and a committee was at that time appointed to enquire of said Liver- 
more his reasons for not attending : and whereas said committee now report 



BENCH AND BAR, 9 1 



a communication from said Livermore, fraught with expression highly indec- 
orous and by no means satisfactory to this Legislature : therefore, 

Resolved, That His Excellency the Governor is hereby requested, with con- 
sent of Council, to remove said Livermore from the office of Judge of the 
Superior Court." 

The address failed to pass the House ; ayes 63, nays 71. 

It is extremely probable that Judge Livermore had a perfect excuse for the 
above mentioned absence from the circuit, but would not condescend to give 
reasons in answer to what he deemed the impertinent and uncalled for in- 
quiry of the legislature. The best proof of his faithful discharge of judicial 
duties is to be found in the fact that he was promoted to the Chief Justice- 
ship in 1809 by his former colleague, Judge Smith, who had just quitted the 
bench for the gubernatorial chair. 

Judge Livermore was a man of much humor, and various sayings of his 
have been handed down by tradition.. The late Daniel M. Christie used to 
tell a story of Judge Livermore's facetiousness upon a trial where the issui re- 
lated to the paternity of a child. If we- remember aright, the mother was 
named Fish, and the man sought to be charged as the father bore the name of 
Pike. When the child had been duly exhibited to the jury, Judge Livermore 
said to the counsel: "don't slight the Court, gentlemen. Let me see the 
child." The infant was accordingly handed up to his Honor, who thus ad- 
dressed it. "Well, my little dear, it seems to be admitted that you belong to 
the genus Fish ; and the question now is whether you belong to the species 
Pike." 

There is something remarkable about the longevity of the old time Judges. 
In 1802 the bench of the Superior court was composed of Jeremiah Smith, 
Timothy Farrar, Paine Wingate, and Aurthur Livermore. The average age 
to which these Judges lived slightly exceeded ninety-two years. Smith lived to 
be eighty-two, Farrar one-hundred-one, Wingate ninety-nine, and Livermore 
eighty-seven. The last years of Judge Livermore's hfe were passed on has 
farm. The biographer of Gov. Plumer, who saw Judge Livermore a few 
months before his death, speaks of him as "a remarkable old man, his memory 
still retentive, and his early liveliness of manner and vivacity of expression but 
little impaired." Judge Liver ..ore died July i, 1853, at the age of eighty- 
seven. 

By his neighbors. Judge Livermore was looked upon as somewhat eccen- 
tric, and of rather an austere disposition. He was the poor man's friend, 
however, if he thought him deserving a friend. "Give alms of thy goods, and 
never turn thy face from any poor man," which appears upon the tablet cov- 
ering his grave, was his rule. 

James Ladd Wilson was born April 21, 1834, in the town of Morgan, Or- 
leans county, Vt., and is the son of William and Sally (Morse) Wilson. He 
was educated at Andover academy, Andover, N. H., studied law vvith Butter- 
field & Shirley and was admitted to the bar in Concord, N. H., in August, 



02 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



r858. He commenced practice at Holderness (now Ashland) in 1859, where 
he has since continued. He was married to Lydia B. Long, of Andover, 
N. H., December 17, 1859. 

William Bainbridge Fellows was born in Sandwich, N. H., July 5, 1^58. 
His father was Col. Enoch Q. Fellows, of the ;^d N. H. Regt. Mr. Fellows 
was educated at the New Hampshire Conference seminary, Tilton, graduated 
in 1880 from Dartmouth college, and immediately commenced the study of 
law with Hon. E. A. Hibbard, at Laconia, N. H. He was admitted to the 
bar at Concord, August, 1883, practiced about one year in Ashland, when, 
in November, 1884, he removed to Tilton, N. H., where he is now located. 
At Laconia he held the position of clerk in the Police Court, 1882 and '83. 
He was sergeant-at-arms of the New Hampshire Senate in 1881. He now 
(April, 1886,) holds the position of clerk of United States Senate committee 
on claims. He married, November i, i88r, Ida G. Scribner, daughter of 
Fiaklin Scribner, Esq., of Ashland, N. H. 

Lebanon*. — Colonel Elisha Payne, was born in Connecticut in 1731, is 
said to have been a graduate of Yale college, was one of the grantees of Car- 
digan, now Orange, in 1769, to which place he went in 1773, among the first 
settlers. In 1778 the proprietors of Lebanon granted a tract of land to Col. 
Payne on condition that he should erect both saw and grist-mills on the Mas- 
coma river within two years, ''except the public commotions and the pres- 
ent wars shall render it impracticable, in which case they shall be built as 
soon as the public affairs will admit of." Soon after this he became a resi- 
dent of Lebanon, was representative from the town in 1784, '85, '90, '93, 
'96, '97, and 1800 He was a leader in the Vermont controversy of the towns 
on the east of the Connecticut river, chosen lieutenant-governor of Vermont 
in 1781-82, chief justice the same year, and brigadier-general, trustee of 
Dartmouth college from 1784 to 1801, its treasurer in 1779-80. He died at 
Le'janon July 20, 1807, aged seventy six years. 

Aaron Hutchinson was born in Connecticut about 1755, graduated at 
Harvard college in 1770, in his sixteenth or seventeenth year, received the 
degree of A. M. from Dartmouth college in 1790 and from New Jersey col- 
lege in 1794. He came to Lebanon about 1783. At that time there was 
only one other lawyer in the county. For many years he followed his profes- 
sion m this and neighboring towns. He was chosen moderator of the town 
in the years 181 1, '12, '13, '14, '17, and '18, selectman in 1797 and 1818, 
rei)resentative in 1802, '03 and 1805. He had two sons, James and Henry, 
both lawyers. 'Squire Hutchinson seems to have been a good lawyer, find- 
ing a large field of practice in the neighboring towns as well as in Lebanon. 
With his professional business he combined agricultural pursuits, and was 
successful in both, owning at one time a handsome property and living in 
g.)od style. He was a "gentleman of the old school," courtly in manners, 



By Rev. C. A. IJowns. 



BENCH AND BAR. 



93- 



neat and precise in dress, wearing knee-breeches and ruffled shirts to the end 
of his days. It must have been of great advantage to the town in the form- 
ing period of its history to have, as one of its citizens, an educated, refined 
and capable man, such as 'Squire Hutchinson was. He died April 24, 1843, 
in his eighty-ninth year. 

Samuel Selden, the second lawyer to take up his abode in Lebanon, was 
born in Vermont, probably at or near Royalton. He graduated at Dart- 
mouth college in 1805, and settled in Lebanon in 1809. He was moderator of 
tlie town from 1822 to 1830; selectman in 1815, '16, '17; representative in 
1816, '17, '24. He married, first, Louisa Parkhurst, of Royalton, Vt., June, 
181 1. She died February 24, 1824, aged thirty-four years. Mr. Selden mar- 
ried her sister for his second wife. In 1830 he left Lebanon and spent some 
years in Hartford and Royalton, Vt., and in August, 1837, went to Liberty* 
Jackson county, Mich., one of the first settlers of that region. He gave his 
attention mainly to farming till his death, which took place in t868, nearly 
ninety years old.. 

Mr. Selden was the reverse of 'Squire Hutchinson in all things, especially 
in dress and manners. Short, stout, jolly, delighting in the open air, working 
in the field bare-headed and bare-footed. He -was an enthusiastic fisherman, 
and it was a common thing to see him wading the brooks and rivers in pur- 
suit of his favorite recreation. He was free and cordial in his manners, both 
humorous and witty in his speech, quick to see the ridiculous side of things, 
original and apt in giving expression to his perceptions in that direction. 
Everybody seems to have liked him, because of his friendly and genial ways ; 
and the few who can recall him, hold him in pleasant remembrance. 

James Hutchinson, son of Aaron, was born in Lebanon, N. H., December 
2, 1786, fitted for college at Chesterfield, graduated at Dartmouth in 1806, 
leading his class as a mathematician", and among the first in other depart- 
ments. Ezekiel Webster was his room-mate one year, and Daniel Webster 
an intimate friend. He studied law with his father, and commenced the prac- 
tice of his profession in Lebanon. In 1815 he married Eunice Kimball, of 
Plainfield, who died a few years afterward. Mr. Hutchinson commenced life 
with every advantage. Well connected, well educated, and of superior talents, 
his future was bright. But through intemperance he lost his station and 
became a wanderer. Finally, he returned to the home of his youth, eked out 
a scanty subsistence by manual labor and the charity of the town and county. 
He died at the county farm in May, 1877. 

Henry Hutchinson, son of Aaron Hutchinson, and brother of James, was 
born in Lebanon, N. H., March 30, 1785, graduated at Darmouth college in 
1804, became a lawyer and was in New York city, where he died in 1837. 

Elisha Payne, Jr.,* son of Col. EHsha Payne, was born in Connecticut in 

*There was an Elislia Payne chosen state senator, 1786-88, whose residence is given as 
Haverhill. Whether they are one and the same person I am unable to determine, but 
think they may be. C A. D. 



94 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



1753, graduated at Dartmouth college in 1784, studied law, but from ill health 
did not practice his profession to any great extent. He died at Lebanon 
May 20, 1808, aged 45 years. 

Samuel Rice settled as a lawyer in East Lebanon about 1804 and remained 
till 1814. (See Enfield.) 

Samuel Cortland was at Lebanon, according to the New Hampshire Reg- 
ister in 1824. (See Haverhill.) 

Nathan B. Felton practiced law at Lebanon several years, from about 1826. 
(See Haverhill.) 

Daniel Blaisdell was located in practice at I,ebanon from 1831 to 1834. 
(See Hanover.) 

Elijah Blaisdell, from 1835 to 1836. (See Canaan.) 

Daniel Gilbert was at one time in practice at Lebanon, according to the 
New Hampshire Register. 

John Kimball, Jr.. was also given as a Lebanon practitioner at one tmie, 
but it was as easy to perpetrate errors in such compilations at it is at the 
present da3^ 

Aaron H. Cragin was in practice in Lebanon from 1847 to 1877. He was 
born February 3, 182 1, at Weston, Windsor county, Vt. His father was 
Aaron Cragin, grandfather, Benjamin Cragin. He received an academic ed- 
ucation at Chester academy, Chester, Vt., Burr seminary, Manchester, Vt., 
and the Lebanon (N. H-) Liberal institute. His law studies were with A.. W. 
Richardson, Weston, Vt., and Allen & Hastings, of Albany, N. Y. He was 
admitted to the bar in New York city in 1847. He was a Free-mason and a 
Congregationalist. 

In the pohtical movement of 1855, commonly termed the "Know Nothing" 
affair, which was the forerunner of the Rebublican party, Mr. Cragin was 
brought forward as a congressional candidate and elected. He succeeded 
himself in 1859, as representative for this district, and in 1864 was chosen LT. 
S. senator, succeeding Hon. John P. Hale, and was re-elected in 1870. He was 
selected by Mr. Hayes as a member of the commission to determine the ques- 
tions of title arising in the Hot Springs, Ark., reservation, and was chairman 
of that tribunal. He made his residence in Washington after the completion 
of this service and has since been a resident of that city. In 1848 he mar- 
ried Isabelle Fuller, and has one son, Harry W. Cragin, now a patent lawyer 
in Washington. During Prof. Patterson's term, 1867-73, both the senators 
were residents of this county and of adjoining towns, though neither was a 
native of the county. Now it happens that both, Blair and Pike, are na- 
tives of the county and of neighbormg towns, Campton and Hebron, and 
both are residents of other counties. 

George Ticknor was an attorney at this place two years, 1850-52. He was 
a native of Boston, Mass., his parents being Benjamin and Hannah (Gard- 
ner) Ticknor, formerly of Maine, born in April, 1822. His academic edu- 
■cation was at Kimball Union academy, of Meriden, N. H., and he was 



BENCH AND BAR. 95 



graduated from Dartmouth college in 1847. Nesmith & Pike, of Franklin, 
were his law preceptors, and he was admitted to the bar about 1850. He 
was subsequently located at Lebanon, Marlow, Claremont, and Keene in the 
practice of his profession. He was a Free-mason^ an Episcopalian, and a 
Republican in politics. He married Lucy A. Stone, Claremont, N. H. Two 
daughters, Clara and Anna, now reside in Concord, N. H. He was solicitor 
of Sullivan count)', appointed in 1855, and register of probate for Cheshire 
county, appointed in 1864, continuing in this office till his death in 1866. 
He was a member of the law firm of Metcalf& Ticknor, at Claremont, (the 
senior being Gov. Ralph Metcalf) and for a. short time was a partner with 
Wheeler & Faulkner, at Keene. He was also much engaged in literary work. 
At the time of his death he was an associate editor of the Keene Sentinel, 
and compiled the New Hampshire Gazetteer, published at Concord, in 1855. 

Rodney Lund was in practice from 1855 to 1861. 

George S. Towle was born in Meredith, N. H., graduated at Dartmouth 
college, 1839, came from Haverhill to Lebanon as editor and proprietor of the 
Granite State Whig in 1848. He practiced his profession to some extent in 
connection with his duties as editor, till the year t86i, when he received an 
appointment to a clerkship in the Boston custom-house where he continued 
for eight years. He was chosen moderator in 1861, representative in 1850, 
'56, '57, state senator in 1861-62, president of the Senate in i860. He died 
in October, 1883. Mr. Towel was a man of ability as a writer and speaker, 
enthusiastic, and excitable. It is to be feared that his last days were not 
altogether comfortable. He married and had two daughters. 

Lewis R. Morris was located in practice at Lebanon most of the time from 
1857 to 1876, the year of his decease. He was born at West Fairlee, Vt., 
a son of Park and Sophia (Morse) Morris. He received an academic educa- 
tion at the Newbury (Vt.) semenary and studied law with Robert Ormsby, of 
Bradford Vt., and N. B. Felton,of Haverhill. It is said he practiced his pro- 
fession for short periods at each of those places. He was connected with two 
firms at Lebanon — Lund & Morris, at West Lebanon, and Morris & Parsons 
at the Center. Mr. Morris married Lucinda B. Bliss of Bradford Vt., they 
had no children. They were Congregation alists. Mr. Morris was not a bril- 
liant lawyer, but gave much attention to current literature which he read e.x- 
tensively, 

J. H. Buckingham came to Lebanon about 1861 and remained three years. 
He then removed to Lancaster, where he remained till his death. 

Nathan C. Sweat was born in Canaan, N. H., May ti, 1836, educated at 
Malone and Potsdam, St. Lawrence county, N. Y., studied law with Hon. 
L. D.Stevens, at Concord N. H., admitted to the bar in 1862, and entered 
into partnership with Hon. A. H. Cragin the same year. Afterwards spent 
two years as clerk in the treasury, Washington D. C. He went from there 
to Toledo, la., remaining two years in the practice of his profession^ in part- 
nership with J. G. Tracy. Being in ill health he returned to Lebanon in 1869, 



96 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



and after a courageous struggle for life, died of consumption, May 31, iSyj. 
Married Lora T. Kingsbury, of Hanover N. H., December 28 1863. No 
children. 

William B. Weeks commenced the practice of law in Lebanon in 1867. 
(See Canaan.) 

James I. Parsons was from Coos county and was in practice here about one 
year — 1870-71. He has since been successfully engaged in his profession at 
Colebrook, N. H. 

John Langdon Spring entered upon the practice of law at Lebanon in 1870. 
He had previously been so engaged at Wilton a part of one year, in i860, 
and the remainder of the succeeding ten years at Milford. He was born at 
Newport, N. H., May 14, 1830, a son of John Clark Spring. He commenced 
the study of law upon a common school education, supplemented by such 
study as he had pursued by himself. His law preceptors were Hon. Thomas 
Wentworth and Hon. C. W. Woodman, of Dover. He was admitted to the 
bar at Manchester in i860. He is a successful business lawyer and has always 
had a very large docket. He married Ellen Melvina Fountain, March i, 
1856, and they have four children, Arthur Langdon, Clarence Walker, Carrie 
Melvina and John Roland. Mr Spring has been a member of the state leg- 
islature and of a convention to revise the state constitution. He is a Free- 
Mason and one of the foremost Odd Fellows in the state, having been for 
several years a member of the Sovereign Grand lodge. His law firms have 
been Spring& Gould, 1873-74, and Spring «& Spring (Arthur L.) to the pres- 
ent time. 

Charles A. Dole. (See Wentworth.) 

Edwin B. Gould, was a Lebanon, lawyer from June, 1873, to November 
1876. He is a native of Hillsborough, N. H., born January 24, 1839. His par- 
ents, Jonathan S. and Sabra Ruth Gould. He received an academic education 
at the public school of his native town, Francistown academy, Appleton 
academy. Mount Vernon and Kimball Union academy. He commenced 
the study of law in i860 with Hon J. F. Briggs, of Hillsboro Bridge, and Hon. 
F. N. Blood, of Hillsboro, and was admitted at Manchester in 1864. His 
places of practice have been Suncook, Lebanon and Nashua successively. 
He is an Odd Fellow, an attendant at the Orthodox Congregational church, 
and a Democrat. He married Jennie E. Kelsey, of Nottingham, N. H., in 
1869. Li 1864-65 he was a member of the law firm of Stanyan & Gould, at 
Suncook. 

William H. Cotton, the present county solicitor, has been a practitioner in 
Lebanon since September, 1876. Mr. Cotton is a native of New Market, a 
son of Oliver and Sarah (Furber) Cotton, born February 6, 1846. He was 
fitted for college at Northwood seminary and graduated at Dartmouth col- 
in the class of 1872. His law instructors were George C. Peavey, of 
Staff'ord, and Col. L. E. Pingree, of Hartford, Vt. In December, 1875, he 
was admitted to the Windsor (Vt.) county bar, and at Haverhill, March term. 



BENCH AND BAR. 97 

1876. March -2 1, 1876, he was united in marriage with Miss Persis A. Wood, 
of Lebanon, and has one son. A few passages from a sketch of Mr. Cotton, 
pubhshed in 1875, ^^^ abstracted : — 

"In early life he was accustomed to hard labor, and soon exchanged the 
common schools for the active business of life. He learned the rough les- 
sons of labor in Massachusetts factories, before he was prepared to undertake 
the task of educating himself in the high schools and colleges. * * * 
As a lawyer Mr. Cotton is studious and conservative. His papers are 
carefully prepared and his causes are managed with reference to what he re- 
gards as the best interest of his clients. His integrity in business, political, 
social and all other affairs stand beyond reproach." 

In 1884 he was elected to the office of solicitor, but he has never been a 
candidate for a poUtical office outside the line of his professional duties. 

Arthur Langdon Spring is the junior member of the bar at Lebanon. He 
is a son of John L. Spring, born February 25, 1857, at Salmon Falls, N. H. 
He was educated at the Lebanon high school, Kimball Union academy, and 
Dartmouth college, class of 1880. He studied law in his father's office and 
is a graduate of the Boston university law school, class of 1883. He is an 
Odd-Fellow and unmarried. Since his admission to the bar, in 1883, he has 
been a member of the law firm of Spring & Spring. Mr. Spring is a graceful 
speaker and writer, and has already had favorable experience in the lecture 
field. 

Lisbon.* — This town has had ver)- few lawyers resident in it. but within the 
past few years it has been more favored than formerly in that respect. Situated 
between Bath and Littleton, it was "between the upper and nether millstones," 
until Judge Rand came to the rescue in i860. Since that date it may be pre- 
sumed that some of the money expended by Lisbon people in the law has been 
kept at home. 

Luther Mills was the first resident attorney of Lisbon. He was here in 
1806 or 1807, according to the New Hampshire Register. It is understood 
that he removed to Windsor county, Vt. 

James Ingalls Swan was located here from 1803 to 1807. (See Bath.) 

Edward Dean Rand was a native of the town of Bath, a son of Hamlin 
Rand, born December 26, 182 1. He fitted for college, and graduated at 
Wesleyan university, Middletown, Conn., in the class of 1841, with his elder 
brother, Charles W. Rand, afterwards United States district attorney for New 
Hampshire. After leaving college he went south, and was engaged for a time 
in teaching in New Orleans, where he studied law, and was admitted to the bar 
His legal preceptors wereLockell& Micon, and Judah P. Benjamin and Mi- 
con. Returning north, he formed a partnership with his brother, above named, 
at Littleton, and resided in that town five years, meantime marrying Jennie 
Stevens, daughter of Truman Stevens, of that place. Mr. Rand, in i860, 

*By E. C. Stevens, Esq. 



98 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



made his residence in Lisbon, the firm tliereby having an office at each place. 
His residence was at Lisbon ever afterwards, with the exception of a brief 
temporary residence in Concord, after his service on the bench. The part- 
nership continued until the serious disability of Mr. C. VV. Rand, which re- 
sulted in his death In 1874. E, D. Rand was made a justice of the Circuit 
Court by Governor Weston, in 1874, and occupied the position until 1876, 
when the court was legislated out of existence, after the New Hampshire 
fashion, upon the advent of a change in the political complexion of the legis- 
lature. Judge Rand displayed industry and conscientious devotion to the 
principles of justice. It fell to his lot to be associated in the trial of several 
capital causes, which rank among the most notable in the history of criminal 
jurisprudence in New Hampshire, including that of Joseph B. Buzzell, for the 
murder of Susan Hanson, of Brookfield ; that of Elwyn W. Major, of Wil- 
ton, for the murder of his wife ; and of Joseph La Page, for the murder of 
Josie Langmaid, at Pembroke, in all of which responsible positions he ac- 
quitted himself with credit. 

In legal practice he was distinguished as an advocate. Gifted with an 
elegant diction and a convincing power of statement, he exercised a remark- 
able influence with juries. In this respect he had few peers at the bar of 
New Hampshire in his time. He was a life-long Democrat in politics, and 
though never an office seeker, and never a candidate before the people, his 
voice was often heard effectively upon the stump in advocacy of the cause 
and principles of his party. He cultivated his decided literary tastes, and 
some of the gems of thought and song that have fallen from his pen compare 
favorably with the best literary work of this generation. He died at Lisbon 
January 14, 1885, but he labored in his professson almost to the very last. In 
business he was prudent, honorable and successful, and in recreation he was 
genial, companionable and full of healthful entertainment. 

John L. Foster has been in practice in this place about nine years. He was 
admitted to the bar at Nashua from the Manchester office of Morrison, Stanley 
& Clark in 1868. He then practiced his profession two years in that city, 
two-years in Boston, later on three years at Littleton, when he was justice of 
the Police Court, removing thence to Lisbon. He was born in Lyman, Sep- 
tember 15, 1837, a son of George and Phila (Hoskins) Foster. He graduated 
at Dartmouth in 1864, and about that time became a paymaster's clerk and 
served in that capacity some time at Hilton Head, S. C. Mr. Foster has 
had much to do with schools, baving been a teacher of large experience, and 
a member of the board of education, both at Lisbon and Littleton. He mar- 
ried Augustia L. Stevens, of Haverhill, a daughter of the veteran county 
sheriff. Grove S. Stevens, January 14, 1875, and three of there family of four 
children are living. Mr. Foster's relegious associations are with the Con- 
gregationalists. He has a considerable business in chambers, but owing to 
his assiduous attention to home demands is not an aggressive circuit rider. 

Harry M. Morse was admitted to the bar after examination under the new 



BENCH AND BAR. 99, 



rules, August 31, 1880. He has been in practice at Lisbon since that time, 
and until Judge Rand's death was in partnership with him. His law studies 
were with John L. P'oster one year and two with Mr. Rand. He received an 
academic education and has been a careful student of literature. His parents 
resided at Haverhill many years and he was born at that place March 22, 
1857, his father being John F., and his granfather Moses N. Morse. He suc- 
ceeded to the law business of the firm of Rand & Morse. With an excellent law 
library and connection with the most important litigation in the county, he 
has an honorable professional career bsfore him. Few men are more agree- 
able companions or have more favorable social relations than Mr. Morse. 
He is not of strong sectarian predelictions but belongs to the Stalwart wing 
of the Republican party. He is one of the young Republican advance guard 
that stormed and carried the Democratic ranks in Grafton county. He evi- 
dently has no ambition in the line of political office, but performs his share in 
non-political official duties, and is particulary interested in educational mat- 
ters. He has for some years past held the principal school offices in town ta 
the general satisfaction. 

Littleton.* — The first settlers of Littleton were poor. In many instances, 
they did not hold a title to the land from which they wrung a scanty subsistance. 
The town seems to have been neglected for a long time by members of the 
learned professions. Nearly thirty years had elapsed from the date of the 
settlement before a doctor was established, thirty-seven, before a lawyer was 
habituated, and a full half century was rounded out ere the first minister was 
settled. 

Joseph Emerson Dow. — In 1807, Joseph Emerson Dow, son of General 
Moses Dow, of Haverhill, then thirty years of age, came to Littleton and 
located at the north part of the town, at that time the principal seat of busi- 
ness. Mr. Dow does not seem to have possessed those peculiar qualifica- 
tions so essential in establishing a practice in a community long accustomed 
to the conduct of its own affairs without the assistance of members of the 
legal fraternity. He was gentle and unassuming in his manners, averse to 
the turmoil of business and inclined to drift with, rather than to direct the 
current of affairs. He remained four years, and though he failed to gain a 
professional lodgement, he discharged with fidelity the offices of good citizen- 
ship and gained the reputation, then rare in the profession, of being a lover 
of peace rather than a fomenter of strife. He was graduated from Dartmouth 
college in the class of 1799, ^^^^ 1^^ ^'^h his father, and before coming to 
Littleton practiced at Haverhill. In iSii he took up his residence at Fran- 
conia, and subsequently, for a few years, at Thornton, but in 1847 he returned 
to Franconia, where he continued to reside up to the time of his death, in 
1857. After leaving Littleton he gave his attention to teaching, and dis- 
charging the duties incident to the office of a magistrate, in which he rendered 
his townsmen valuable service. 



*By James R. Jackson. 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



Mr. Dow was twice married. His first consort was Abigail, daughter of 
Hon. Jonathan Arnold, of Rhode Island, a lady of high character and many 
accomplishments. She bore him five children, Catherine, who died in infancy, 
James Barber, Moses Arnold, George Burrill and Charles Marsh. His second 
wife was Nancy Bagley, of Thornton. 

Elisha Hinds. — The second lawyei was Elisha Hinds, who came soon after 
Mr. Dow's departure and located at the village on the Ammonoosuc, to 
which he and Dr. Burns were to give the name of Glynville. Mr. Hinds 
was born at Shrewsbury, now West Boylston, Mass., February 7, 1784. 
He was once a student at Harvard, but was graduated from Williams 
college in 1805. He was admitted to the bar in 1809, and was prac 
ticing in Essex county, Vermont, before coming to Littleton in 18 13. Mr. 
Hinds was something of a contrast to his predecessor. He was sharp, 
even to cunningness, was fond of business and much given to interesting him- 
self in the affairs of others. He was fairly successful in his paractice, and it 
is said that in the first ten years of his residence he accumulated a moderate 
fortune. In 1825 he took upon himself the management of an estate which 
was eventually to result in his ruin. His business affairs became complicated, 
and the attempt to extricate himself dissipated his entire fortune. In 1834 he 
went to Hinsdale where he kept a hotel a few years. Failing in this business, he 
went to Brooklyn, New York, where he died in 1854, aged sixty-nine years. 
He married a Miss Lawrence and had no children. He was the first postmas- 
ter at the village and held many town offices. Up to the time he became in- 
volved in the matter of the Curtis estate, he seems to have been held in es- 
teem by his neighbors. 

Henry Adams Bellows. — The lawyers of Littleton have generally stood 
well ai the bar. Prior to 1830, Bath and Haverhill monopolized the legal 
business of Northern Grafton. Payson, Swan, Goodall and Woods were the 
legal luminaries of this section. The entire valley of the Ammonoosuc poured 
its tribute into their coffers. They waxed strong and accumulated great wealth. 
When Henry A. Bellows opened an office in Littleton in 1828, it was with 
men like these that he had to contend. He made his way, slowly at first, 
but with steady strides, to the front rank at the bar. He succeeded in estab- 
lishing a lucrative business, and gradually drew to Littleton it full share of 
legal patronage, a tendency which has continued until the condition of things 
has been reversed to a large extent, and her clientage is now larger than that 
of any other town in the county. 

Henry Adams Bellows was born in Rockingham, Vt., October 25,1 805. His 
father was Joseph Bellows, of Walpole, N. H., of a family long distinguished 
in the history of the town. He was educated in the schools at Walpole, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1826. For two years after his admission he was 
located at Walpole ; but in 1828 he began the practice of his profession in 
Littleton. At that time the title to the lands in Lisbon, Littleton, Bethlehem, 
and other towns in this section were largely in dispute, and in the litigation 



BENCH AND BAR. 



growing out of this condition of affairs he was constantly employed for nearly 
twenty years. In 1850 he removed to Concord, where he enjoyed a consid- 
erable practice until he went upon the bench of the Supreme Court, in 1859. 
He was chief justice from October, 1869, until his death, March 11, 1873. 
While a resident of Littleton he em'jarked in a number of enterprises other 
than those incident to his profession. In partnership with Truman Stevens 
and others he engaged in business and mide a considerable investment in 
timber lands in Canada. He was largely instrumental in building the woolen 
factory, and gave his countenance and money in aid of every enterprise which 
promised to advance the material, intellectual and moral welfare of the town. 
He married, about 1836, his cousin, Catharine Bellows, of Walpole, N. H., 
and had four children, Josiah, John Adims, Stella and Fanny, all of whom 
were born in Littleton. Mrs. Bellows died in 1849. Of the children, Josiah 
is now a clerk in the treasury department at Washington, John A. is a cler- 
gyman at Portland, Me., Stella became the wife of Charles P. Sanborn, Esq., 
of Concord. She died some years ago, and Mr. Sanborn subsequently mar- 
ried her sister, Fanny. 

Judge Bellows possessed rare social qualities. In the family circle, among 
his friends and associates, at the bar and upon the bench, he won and wore 
without offense the "grand old name of gentleman." He was master of him- 
self. In the midst of domestic afflictions and financial distress, when credi- 
tors were importunate and business associates even more troublesome, his 
equanimity was unruffled. At the bar his cases were prepared with skill and 
presented to the court and jury with precision and logical sequence. He had 
perfect command of every detail, and seldom had occasion to refer to his notes. 
He knew the law thoroughly and stated it with convincing force. His treat- 
ment of a witness upon the stand could hardly be surpassed. He had in a 
remarkable degree the art of compelling an unwilling witness to disclose the 
whole truth. He was never arbitrary nor brow-beating, but to the candid, the 
opinionated, and the untruthful witness his courtly and polished manner was 
the same. He knew little and cared less for the arts of oratory. He was an elo- 
quent man — eloquent in the simplicity, directness, candor and earnestness of 
his address. If he could not convince a jury of the correctness of his posi- 
tion, it must have been hopeless from the start. Upon the bench, the high 
attainments which distinguished him at the bar shone with the same lustre. 
His industry and capacity for labor were great. He posessed unlimited pa- 
tience, was courteous to the bar and to suitors. He presided with great dig- 
nity, and his impartiality was such that the defeated party could not ascribe 
his want of success in any measure to the presiding justice. His opinions, 
found in the New Hampshire reports, from volume 39 to 52 mclusive, illus- 
trate his learning and judicial acumen. His rulings at the trial term were 
seldom over-ruled by the law court. 

Judge Bellows was a firm and consistent member of the Whig and Repub- 
lican parties, but his refined sensibilities rendered him averse to the activities 

7* 



I02 GRAFTON COUNTY. 

of politics. He was elected a member of the General Court from Littleton 
in 1839, and in 1847 was the candidate of his party in the old Fourth district 
for Congress against Harry Hibbard. After his removal to Concord he repre- 
sentedjiis ward in the legislature in 1856 and 1857. He discharged his pub- 
lic duties with the same fidelity which characterized every act of his life, and 
he possessed a wide influence over his associates. 

A member of the Unitarian church, he was catholic toward the religious 
opinions of others, but tenacious of his own. While he did not hold to the 
Evangelical doctrine of the divinity of Christ, he was surely one of the most 
exemplary followers of His teachings. His pure and candid soul was never 
stained by selfishness or the corroding influence of gain. In the calm at- 
mosphere of the home circle he was a devoted husband, a fond father, an 
effectionate brother, and a valued, trusted friend. He was always happy- 
tempered, ever helpful, never selfish. In his death the state lost one of her 
most noted and valued citizens, and the bench and bar sustained an irrepar- 
able loss. 

Edmund Carleton was of Haverhill, where he was born October 29, 1797. 
He was educated in the common schools of his native town, at its academy, 
and graduated from Dartmouth college in 1822. The same year he began 
the study of the law with William Garnett, of Tappahannock, Essex county, 
Va., where he was at the time residing and engaged in teaching. He returned 
to New Hampshire and finished his studies in the office of Hon. Joseph Bell, 
and in 1826 was admitted to the bar. Poor health precluded his entering 
upon active practice for some years ; but he continued to reside with his 
father and transact such business as he could, until 1831, when he opened an 
office in Littleton. As a lawyer, Mr. Carleton was well founded in the prin 
ciples of jurisprudence, a safe adviser, who always endeavored to satisfy his 
clients that a peaceable adjustment of differences was preferable to a contest 
in the courts. Ill health induced him to abandon his profession and engage 
in more active pursuits. In 1836 he built a saw-mill at the scythe factory vil- 
lage, and for about a dozen years was engaged in the lumber business. Mis- 
fortune attended this enterprise, and it was abandoned. Mr. Carleton was a 
member of the Congregational church. One of the early members of the 
Abolition party, he was always active in its affairs, and his home was a sta- 
tion on the Underground railroad to Canada. On two occasions he made an 
attempt to induce his church to take an advance position on the question of 
s'avery, but with only partial success. His stand on this question disturbed 
his business, ruptured old friendships, placed him in an attitude of hostility 
to the dominant party in his church, and largely deprived him of his influence 
in the community. Still he kept the course marked out and approved by con- 
science, his guide through life. November 30, 1836, he married Mary Kil- 
burn Coffin, of Boscawen, N. H. 

Calvin Ains worth, Jr., was a native of Littleton, and a son of its first phy- 
sician. He was born August 22, 1807, was educated at the academies at 




fr^x43 



Ui^rxyL^ 



BENCH AND BAR. I03 



Concord Corners, Vt., and at Meriden, N. H. He read law with Jonathan 
D. Stoddard, at Waterford, Vt., and with Hon. Henry A. Bellows, at Little- 
ton ; was admitted to the bar at Plymouth, in November, 1835, and opened an 
office in Littleton soon after. In 1845 he went to Concord and formed a 
partnership with Ira Perley. During his residence in Concord he was regis- 
ter of probate for Merrmiack county five years, and, in 1852, was one of the 
commissioners to compile the laws of the state, his associates being Hon. 
Ralph Metcalf, of Newport, and Hon. Samuel H. Ayer, of Manchester. He 
was justice of the PoUce Court at Concord for a year. In 1854 he took up his 
residence in Madison, Wis. In 1862 he was elected police justice of that city, 
and discharged the duties of the position with great credit. Judge Ains- 
worth was a man of strict integrity, of amiable manners, a learned lawyer, 
but lacking sufficient force to render that learning available in the conflict at 
the bar. He won and retained the confidence and friendship of all with 
whom he came in contact. He was twice married, first, to Eliza Bellows, 
sister of Hon. Heniy A. and William J. Bellows, and second, to Mrs. Letitia 
(Stinson) White, who survives him. He died at Madison, Wis., July 7, 1873. 

" WiUiam Burns* was born at Hebron, in Grafton county, on the 25th day 
of April, 182 1. His father was Robert Burns, a man of decided mental vigor 
and persistency, who displayed in his successful struggle with fortune the 
characteristics that enabled his son to attain the acknowledged eminence ac- 
corded him. As the name indicates, the paternity was thoroughly Scotch. 
In early life the father, with his brother William, labored with their hands for 
daily wage. William accumulated a large estate. Robert went to New- 
York, and after each day's labor was completed, devoted himself to the study 
of such books as he could procure, sleeping in a barn in warm weather and 
poring over his work with the earliest and latest light. He returned to New 
Hampshire, became a physician of distinction, accumulated a handsome 
estate, was a representative in the Federal Congress, and died at an ad- 
vanced age at Plymouth. 

"His son William fitted for college at the academies at Plymouth and 
New Hampton, entered Dartmouth at the early age of sixteen years, gradu- 
ating in the class of 1841. He was a close student, and stood high among 
his associates. Choosing the law as the profession to which he was to de- 
vote himself, he entered as a student the office of Judge Leonard Wilcox, of 
Orford, from whence he became a member of the law school at Harvard 
university, graduating there in the autumn of 1843. Selecting Littleton as 
his future home, he there opened an office and soon after was married to 
Miss Clementine E. Hayes, of Orford, on the 23d anniversary of his birth, 
and immediately repaired to his new home. Remaining at Littleton but a 
year and a half, a new field attracted him in Coos; and in May, 1846, he 
succeeded to the business of John S. Wells, of Lancaster, 

* Extract from the memorial address of Henry O. Kent, delivered before the Grafton 
and Coos Bar Association, at Lancaster, N. H., January 2g, 1886. 



I04 . GRAFTON COUNTY. 

" Mr. Burns was appointed, in 1847, by Governor Williams, a member of 
his personal staff, with the rank of colonel, and also by him solicitor for the 
county of Coos, which latter position he held with credit for the ensuing five 
years. During this time he retained the large and valuable business and 
cHentage to which he succeeded, and won new successes at the bar. In 1854 
occurred an event that had a controlling effect upon his subsequent life and 
career: an event that was the commencement of that long physical martyr- 
dom which he bore with such uncomplaining fortitude for over thirty years. 
The first railroad that became an accomplished fact in Coos was the Atlantic 
& St. Lawrence, since leased to and known as the Grand Trunk. Mr. Burns, 
with Mr. Fletcher, his partner, was its attorney; and on the ist day of De- 
cember, 1854. he started for Portland, the then headquarters of the com- 
pany, on professional business. At Stark there was a collision — catastrophe 
dominated the hour, cars were overturned, stoves set the wreck on fire, and 
from the horrors of the scene mutilated bodies and shattered victims were 
extricated. Mr. Burns was one of these, with a leg and arm so badly frac- 
tured that they were never restored to strength, and with serious internal in- 
juries he was conveyed to Lancaster, where for months his life trembled in 
the balance, only to be preserved by the most devoted nursing. From the 
effects of this disaster he never recovered. Actual physical pain was ever 
present to the day of his death, a resultant of these injuries, and it was only 
his indomitable will that enabled him again to take up his profession and sus- 
tain that reputation as a lawyer, which is so readily accorded him by the pro- 
fession. In 1876 he finally relinquished the practice, his state of health ab- 
solutely demanding this, to him, great sacrifice, and although his counsel was 
thereafter sought even to within a fe^v months of his decease, his active pro- 
fessional career then ended. During this time Mr. Burns was for. a brief 
period associated in business with Benjamin F. Whidden on his first arrival 
in Lancaster, the firm being Burns & Whidden ; for a much longer time, and 
duruig the greater part of his active practice with Hiram A. Fletcher, as Burns 
& Fletcher ; and later with Henry Heywood, under the firm name of Burns 
& Heywood. 

" Of pronounced opinions, consequent upon profound convictions, it was 
natural that Mr. Burns should engage in those political duties so naturally 
the complement of legal work in Nga- Hampshire. With the graces of the 
orator he early developed the ability for effective pubUc speaking, which was 
thereafter one of his chiefest gifts and most potent influences. For nearly 
forty years he was a favorite speaker at all convocations of his party, and the 
echoes of his silver speech linger among the hills and valleys of his native 
state. He was twice a member of the Senate, in 1856 and 1857, from the 
old twelfth district, then practically comprehending the counties of Coos and 
Grafton. He was the candidate of his party for Congress in the former third 
district in 1859, 1861 and 1863, the campaign of the latter year being a me- 
morable one, in which he came within less than two hundred votes of an 




^^- <^ci.^ 



BENCH AND BAR. I05 



election. In 1876, by unanimous vote of the people of all parties, he was 
one of the members from Lancaster of the constitutional convention. In 
all gatherings of his party — at local, state and national conventions, his was 
a familiar voice and figure, always welcomed and always influential. He 
died after a long and trying illness, at the Pemigewasset House, Plymouth, 
April 2, 1885. He is buried in the old Livermore church-yard at Holder- 
ness. in the family lot of his father, among his kindred and his boyhood 
friends. 

" In the pantheon of our hills are enshrined the bodies and the memories 
of eminent men, who, during more than an hundred years, strengthened the 
state, illustrated the law, and honored themselves and the people of their 
vicinage. Am I not justified in saying that these venerable shades may 
admit to their august presence without derogation and without reproach our 
brother, who did his work so well ? whose virtues we now commemorate. 

" Farewell, manly soul ! we dismiss thee, not to the tomb of forgetfulness 
and death, but to a blessed memory, an unclouded fame and to a Hmitless 
life." 

Charles White Rand, son of Hamlin Rand, a prominent business man of 
Grafton county, was born in Bath, July 5, 18 19. He was graduated at Wes- 
leyan university, in 1841, standing second in his class, his brother, the late 
Judge E. D. Rand, having the first place. After leaving college he entered 
the office of Hon. Henry A. Bellows, in Littleton, and was admitted to the 
bar three years later. He opened an office in Littleton where he continued 
in the prctice of his profession up to the time of his death. Hon. John Farr 
was for a short time his partner, and when his brother Edward D. returned 
from the south, where he had been in practice, they formed a partnership 
which was to endure until dissolved by the advent of the Dread Messenger, 
whose actions and demands can not be '-cor.tinued." Mr. Rand came to the 
bar thoroughly equipped for his work. He was uncommonly well grounded 
in the principals of the law, and he had acquired in college and as a student 
of law, habits of industry which were to last through life. His mind was cul- 
tivated and enriched by constant and varied reading, of the best authors, and 
he retained to the end, and found opportunities to gratify, his fondness for 
general literature to an extent quite uncommon among those whose time is 
largely engrossed by the demands of professional business. His practice was 
remunerative from the start, and, after the firm of C. W. & E. D. Rand was 
thoroughly in harness, it was large in the number of cases and important in 
amounts involved. To Charles W. was assigned, by a division of the labor of 
• the firm, the duty of preparing cases for trial and the argument of questions 
of law to the court. His work was always well and conscientiously done. He 
was among the foremost equity lawyers at the bar of the state. He was ap- 
pointed, by President Lincoln, United States district attorney for New Hamp- 
shire, and he held the position nearly two terms. During his administration, 
the business of the position was increased by reason of the large number of 



Io6 GRAFTON COUNTY. 



cases growing out of the violations of the internal revenue laws, and involved 
great labor in their investigation and the construction of the statute. He 
brought to the discharge of these duties such industrj^, patience and knowl- 
edge of constitutional law as to facilitate the dispatch of business and secure 
the rights of the government which he represented. 

In his domestic and social relations, Mr. Rand was particularly fortunate 
and happy. He married, June 24, 1847, Jane M., daughter of the late Otis 
Batchelder, who survives him. He was very companionable, fond of a good 
story, and delighted in the discussion of his favorite authors. He seldom, if 
ever, lost a friend, and won and retained the confidence of all who came in 
contact with him. He died August 3, 1874. 

Harry Bingham. — No man occupies a more exalted position at the bar of 
New Hampshire than Harry Bingham. He '\^ facile princeps in his own state, 
and one of the foremost lawyers of New England. Born at Concord, Vt., 
March 30, 1821, he fitted tor college at Lyndon, Vt., academy, and was 
graduated at Dartmouth in the class of 1843. His course of legal study was 
pursued in the office of Hon. Harry Hibbard, at Bath. He was admitted 
to the bar at Lancaster in the spring of 1846, and in September of the same 
year established an office in Littleton, which has since continued to be his 
home. During the time he was at college and in Mr. Hibbard's office he 
earned a considerable portion of the sum necessary to defray his educational 
expenses, by teaching in district schools and academies in St. Johnsbury, 
Woodstock, Concord Corner, Waterford and Wells River, Vt. When Mr. 
Bingham came to Littleton, Henry A. Bellows was at the full tide of his suc- 
cessful career at the bar. Ira Goodall, of Bath, was at the height of his 
fame, and Harry Hibbard occupied the position which he maintained to the 
end, as one of the most brilliant attorneys and advocates ever at the Grafton 
bar. He entered the arena of the law, fully armed and equipped for successsful 
combat with these legal giants, and so bore himself as to command their re- 
spect and win a constantly increasing clientage. It was not, however, for 
some years that his great legal ability became generally recognized. He had 
none of the showy qualities which attract the attention of the multitude. His 
strength lay in those solid attainments which command success through less 
popular but more enduring channels. In 1852 his brother, George A., be- 
came his associate in business, and together they constituted a firm that for 
legal knowledge and power has never been surpassed in New Hampshire. 
While in partnership they were employed in every important case tried in the 
northern part of the state. Their business rapidly extended and included 
cases in the Federal Courts as well as in the courts or adjoining states. In 
1859, the brothers became members of the firm of Woods & Bingham, with 
offices at Littleton and Bath. This firm dissolved in 1852, and the old firm 
of H. & G. A. Bingham was re-established, to continue until 1874, when it 
was dissolved. Since then Mr. Bingham has associated in his business a 
number of young men who received their legal education under his careful 




y^)aia.y /^^r 



^ylL^/Zl^i^c-^L. 



BENCH AND BAR. I07 



guidance. The present style of the firm is Bingham, Mitchells & Batchellor, 
his partners being John M. Mitchell, Albert S. Batchellor and William H- 
Mitchell. Mr. Bingham also has an office at Concord, N. H., witli John M. 
Mitchell as resident partner. 

At school, in college, at the bar, Mr. Bingham has been an industrious and 
discriminating student, whose intellectual processes winnowed the wheat from 
the chaff and stored it in a memory which held it secure for future use. Much 
reading has made him a full man, his knowledge of history and biography is 
remarkably full and acurate, while there is hardly any branch of hterature 
with which he is not more or less familiar. In his profession he has mastered 
every branch. He has great reverence and fondness for the cold science of 
the law, and is equally familiar with that of the books. The client who em- 
ploys hmi gets all there is of him. No matter whether the amount involved 
be large or small, he gives the case his time, his thought and his patient in- 
vestigation. Probably no attorney in the state is so frequently called upon 
to furnish opinions upon matters not in litigation, and nona whose advice is 
more generally respected and followed. He is not an eloquent advocate in 
the general sense of the term, but what is better, is a successful one. All his 
arguments are based upon the strict letter of the law. His power of analy- 
sis and homely vigor of statement are unsurpassed. He constructs his legal 
arguments as an architect erects his buildings. The foundation is laid, the 
walls move slowly up, every stone being securely fastened in its place, roof, 
doors, windows and ornaments are appropriately placed, and when complete, 
all criticism is defied. He seldom addresses a court or jury without instruct- 
ing them. His eloquence is the eloquence of honest conviction earnestly 
and impressively uttered. 

Mr. Bingham is a Democrat root and branch, and for twenty-five years has 
been the intellectual leader of his party in the state. For eighteen years he 
represented Littleton in the legislature, and has for two terms been elected 
to the Senate from the Grafton district, a period of service covering twenty- 
two out of twenty-six years from his first entrance upon public life. He was 
a member of the constitutional convention of 1876, and chairman of the im- 
portant committee on legislative department, and exercised a weighty influ- 
ence in the deliberations of the convention. He has thrice been the candi- 
date of his party for Congress, and many times its legislative candidate for 
United States senator. He has also been a delegate to three national con- 
ventions, and has received other marks of confidence at the hands of his 
party. From the beginnmg of his public career he has been a recognized 
leader, and in matters other than partizan his influence has been equal to that 
of any other member. In debate he is direct and powerful, going straight 
to the gist of the matter in controversy and pounding his opponent with 
sledge hammer blows of fact and logic. In the halls of legislation he never 
speaks without commanding cause nor plays with the weapons of the dema- 
gogue. In manner he is dignified, impressing one with a sense of his power, 



[o8 GRAFTON COUNTY, 



and to those who do not know him well, reserved if not austere. He is, how- 
ever, one of the most approachable and kindly of men. He is democratic in 
all his ways, and a respecter of worth rather than of men. His alma mater 
conferred upon him the degree of LL.D., in 1880. He is now in the full 
plenitude of his great powers and the enjoyment of a success which is the just 
reward of laborious days devoted to the noblest and most exacting of 
professions. 

William Joseph Bellows is the younger brother of the late Chief Justice 
Bellows, and possesses many characteristics common to that celebrated jurist. 
He was born in Rockingham, Vt., July 3, 18 17. He was educated m the 
schools of Bellows Falls, Vt., and Walpole, N. H., and in the academy at 
VVaterford, Vt. He was for a few years a salesman in a Boston commercial 
house, but, in 1842 returned to Littleton and entered his brother's office as a law 
student. He was admitted to the bar at Haverhill in 1845, and entered into 
partnership with his brother under the firm name of Henry A. & William J. 
Bellows. This lasted until Judge Bellows took up his residence at Concord, 
in 1850. The Littleton business was conducted by Mr. Bellows alone until 
1854, when John Farr became associated with him under the style of Bellows 
& Farr. This firm had quite an extensive practice, but was dissolved in 1859. 
Upon the advent of the Republican party to power in 1861, Mr. Bellows be- 
came postmaster of Littleton, a position he held seven years. Ill health led 
him to abandon practice in i860, and for the next three years, in addition to 
his duties as postmaster, he edited The People's Journal, the organ of his 
party \\\ iN'orthern Grafton. Subsequently he engaged in trade. At the bar, 
as in all other relations of life', Mr. Bellows was a high-toned, honorable gen- 
tleman. He was a well-read lawyer and a persuasive advocate, who en- 
deavored to see that equity was done as well between counsel and client as 
between litigants. Since his retirement from practice he has often been 
called upon to serve as referee and magistrate in determining causes both 
civil and criminal. Mr. Bellows is a valued citizen of the town. He has 
taken a e;reat interest in educational matters and the consolidation of the 
village districts, and the formation of Union school district was largely due 
to his infiuence. He was one of the original members of the board of edu- 
cation, and is at this time its president. He married, August t2, 1847, Miss 
Carohne, daughter of the late Samson Bullard, and has a daughter and two 
sons. Theologically, he is a Unitarian, but attends the Episcopal church. 

John Farr, the subject of this sketch, has had a varied career. Brought 
up on a farm and subjected to the privations and scant educational advant- 
ages which the early settlers of the town could afford their children, a frail 
constitution compelled him at an early age to seek other means of livelihood 
than such as were offered on the rugged farm of his father. He entered the 
store of William Bracket and subsequently began a mercantile career, as a 
member of the firm of Ely, Farr & Co. He was for some years deputy 
sheriff for the county, and had a considerable interest in various business en- 
terprises. In 1848 the condition of his health led him to return to the occu- 
pation of his boyhood years, and we find him located upon a farm in Glover, 
Vt. This he abandoned two years later and returned to Littleton. At an 
age when few men would have deemed it prudent to change the habits 
formed by a life of nearly thirty years in another field of activity, he resolved 
to begin the study of law, and, in 1850, entered the office of VVilliam J. Bel- 
lows for that purpose. He finished his studies in the office of C. W. Rand, 
and in September, 1854, when a {t\\ months more than forty-four years of 




yt^^ i^/ /Z<^OLY^t.c<.^i^^^ 



BENCH AND BAR. IO9 



age, was admitted to the bar at Haverhill. A year prior to his admission he 
had formed a partnership with Mr. Rand, which was dissolved soon after. He 
then became a member of the firm of Bellows & Farr (William J. Bellows) 
and continued this connection until 1859, when Mr. Bellows withdrew. Mr. 
Farr's professional life was essentially that of a business lawyer. He made a 
specialty of drawing business papers, collecting claims and settling estates. 
In this branch of the profession he was skillful and successful. When he re- 
tired from active business he possessed an independent fortune which was 
acquired during the twenty years in which he followed his profession. After 
his son, Major E. W. Farr, was admitted to the bar, the firm of John Farr & 
Son was formed, and it flourished until 1873, when the senior member sub- 
stantially closed his professional life. Mr. Farr has always taken an active 
part in public affairs, and has been an earnest advocate of every measure cal- 
culated to promote the best interests of the community. He has twice held 
the office of county commissioner, has been a member of the board of select- 
men, justice of the Police Court, and a member of the board of education. 
He married, first, Tryphena Morse, in 1833, by whom he had seven children 
— Caroline E., George, Mary Ellen, John, Jr., Evarts W., Caroline (wife of 
Dr. B. F. Page), and Charles A.; second, in 1852, Mrs. E. M. Bowman; and 
third, in 1862, Mrs. Emma M. Woolson, by whom he has one child, Stella 
B. He is a member of the Congregational church, president of the Littleton 
National bank, and a trustee of the Savings bank. He is now seventy-six 
years of age, and though in feeble health, his interest in public affairs is not 
abated. 

Edward Dean Rand. (See Lisbon.) 

George Azro Bingham, the younger of the Bingham brothers, was born in 
Concord, Vt., April 25, 1826, was educated in his native town and at acade- 
mies in the vicinity, teaching a portion of the time to obtain the means to 
prosecute his studies. When twenty years of age he commenced reading law 
in the office of Hon. Thomas Bartlett, Jr., at Lyndon, Vt., then a leading 
member of the bar in that state, where he remamed until December, 1848, 
when he was admitted to the bar at Danville, in Caledonia county. During 
his course as a student he applied himself with the diligence whicti has since 
been characteristic. Soon after his admission he made a trip through the 
west, spending some months in Iowa, but returned in June, 1849, to Lyndon, 
and formed a partnership with Mr. Bartlett, under the name of Bartlett & 
Bingham. This firm existed two years, when Mr. Bartlett was elected to 
Congress and George W. Roberts became a member of the firm under the 
name of Birtlett, Bingham & Roberts. Mr. Bingham, during his practice i^ 
Vermont, was engaged in some important causes of which he had the prep- 
aration and direction in the trial, substantially, and met with good success. 
In 1852, Mr. Bartlett, owing to the redistricting of the state, was not a candi- 
date for re-election, and Mr. Bingham sold his interest in the firm to the 
other members and moved to Littleton, Grafton county, N. H., and formed 
an equal partnership withrhis brother Harry, under the name of H. & G. A. 
Bingham. In 1859 the b others associated with Hon. Andrew S. & Edward 
Woods, of Bath, having an office in each town, the Littleton office being in 
charge of Harry Bingham and Edward Woods, and that at Bath of Judge 
Woods and G. A. Bingham. At the expiration of the co-partnership in 1862 
Mr. Bingham returned to Littleton and lesumed business with his brother, 
under the old firm name, which continued until 1870. The different firms did 
a good business and were engaged in important causes, though not a large 
•business. After the dissolution, in 1870, the brothers continued to reside in 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



Littleton and to some extent became rivals in business. In August, 1876, Mr. 
Bingham was appointed an associate justice of the Supreme Court. From 1870 
to this time he had been alone in business and had been successful, his en- 
gagements being chiefly as associate counsel in the trial of causes, bringing 
but few suits himself. At the time of his appointment his retainers numbered 
about four hundred in cases pending in the different courts in which he 
practiced, which gave him an income which may be safely said as good as 
that of any individual lawyer in the state. October ist, 1880, he resigned 
his place on the court and resumed practice. In January following he formed 
a partnership with Edgar Aldrich, and two years later Daniel C. Remich was 
taken into the firm under the name of Bingham, Aldrich & Remich, which 
continued till December, 1884, when the senior member was reappointed to 
the bench. After he resumed practice in 1880, very many of his former 
clients came to him, and soon he was doing as successful a business as when 
first appointed, which increased until his reappointment, and was among the 
most lucrative m the state, his business being in the New Hampshire, Ver- 
mont and United States courts. 

As early as 1858 Mr. Bingham was retained in the important case of Rus- 
sell vs. Dyer, involving the title to the Fabyan House and property, to argue 
it to the jury, F. O. J. Smith, of Portland, Me., being employed to argue it 
on the other side, and from this time forward, he was retained and took an 
active part in the preparation and trial of many of the important real estate 
cases in Northern New Hampshire and some in Vermont, such as Wells vs. 
Jackson Iron Manufacturing Company, commenced in i860, to recover 
twelve thousand acres, including the top of Mt. Washington; Cahoon vs. 
Coe, for the recovery of Wentworth's Location — a tract of fourteen thousand 
acres, and the so-called New Hampshire Land Company cases vs. H. L. Til- 
ton and others for the recovery of large tracts in Bethlehem, in all about 26,- 
000 acres ; also, several important will cases, of which that of Dr. Samuel 
Bemis was as noted as any. He was also counsel for six years in the business 
of the Grand Trunk Railway Company in the states of New Hampshire and 
Vermont, and the Boston, Concord & Montreal Railroad Company, during 
which time several important causes were tried, such as Richardson vs. G. 
T. R. in the U. S. Circuit Court for the district of Vermont, and reported in 
the I of Otto 454, Taylor vs. G. T. R., reported in the 48 N. H. 304. 

Mr. Bingham is a good, thorough lawyer, quick to apply his knowledge to 
the case in hand ; his mind is clear and penetrating; no flaw in the prepara- 
tion or case of his opponent escapes his keen scrutiny, and no fact essential 
to his client is neglected or left obscure. As an advocate he had great in- 
fluence with the jury, strong in statement, powerful in appeal, eloquent in 
address. His knowledge of human nature and commanding presence com- 
bine to make him an effective advocate. As a judge he possesses the essen- 
tial qualifications of an admirable presiding justice. He holds the scales of 
justice with even poise. His extensive knowledge of the law and practice 
enable him to detect the main points in issue, and hold the contending coun- 
sel quietly but firmly to them. He possesses great patience, and here, as at 
the bar, his industry is continuous and unflagging, and thus early 
in his judicial life has earned and worthily wears the title of model 
judge. He has been twice married and has five children. judge 
Bingham has taken great interest in public affairs. Democratic in 
politics, in the counsels of his party he has been an active and 
sagacious leader, and it has often recognized his merit. He has been 
twice elected senator in the State Legislature, in 1864 and 1865, 
twice representative from Littleton to the General Court in 1875 



BENCH AND BAR. 



and 1876, a delegate to the Democratic national convention held at Charles- 
town and Baltimore in i860, and was the candidate of his party for Congress 
in 1880. His interest in educational matters is evinced by his membership of 
the board of education for Union School district in Littleton from 1874 to 
1886, and by his holding the office of trustee of the State Normal school 
eight years, from 1870. He is a director in the Littleton National bank and 
and president of the Savings bank. Amid the pressing demands of a large 
professional business, he has discharged the duties of these minor positions 
with fidelity. 

Evarts Worcester Farr, son of John and Tryphena (Morse) Farr, was 
born in Littleton, October 10, 1840. When a mere lad he resolved to make 
his own way in the world, and, leavmg school, went to Roxbury, Mass., where 
for some months he drove a milk wagon into Boston. After an experience of 
nine months in this business he concluded that it was hardly suited to his 
talents, and returned home to resume his place in school. He fitted for col- 
lege at the academy in Thetford, Vermont, and entered Dartmouth in 1859. 
The following winter he taught the village school in Whitefield, N. H. He 
did not return to Dartmouth, but entered his father's office and began the 
study of law. His pursuit of this science was destined to a rude interruption. 
The call to arms which followed the conflict at Fort Sumter found in him a 
«wift volunteer. He was the first volunteer of Littleton, and accompanied its 
-first contmgent to the battle-field. Of his career as a soldier, from the in- 
glorious engagement of the first Bull Run to the triumphant close of the con- 
flict, we have spoken elsewhere in this work. When soldiers were no longer 
needed, he resumed his studies and, in July, 1867, was admitted to the bar at 
Lancaster and formed a partnership with his father. Major Farr entered at 
once upon a considerable practice, and by trying his own causes, to a large ex- 
tent, broadened and increased the business. Before coming to the bar he had 
been appointed deputy assessor of the internal revenue, and held this office 
until he was appointed assessor for the third district of New Hampshire in 
1870. He entered zealously into the political contests of the day. and was 
frequently the candidate of his party for representative to the legislature and 
for town offices, but failed of an election because of an adverse political major- 
ity. He was a member of the exective council in 1876, from the Fifth Coun- 
cillor district, solicitor for Grafton county, and in 1878 was elected to Con- 
gress from the old Third district, receiving a plurality of 1,045 votes over Col. 
Henry O. Kent, the Democratic candidate. In November, 1880, he was re- 
elected to the 47th Congress. His Congressional career was short, having 
covered but one session of his first term. Here, however, as in other spheres 
of pubUc life in which he was called to serve, his strong common sense, his 
ready tact, his suavity, his genius of adaptability and his devotion to duty^ 
bid fait to extend his fame beyond the limits of his native State. He quickly 
won the respect and retained the confidence of his associates in all the rela- 
tions of life. At the bar the same traits of character which gave him so large 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



a degree of success in political life made him a popular attorney with as large 
a clientage as he cared to possess. His constantly increasing interest in pub- 
lic matters engrossed so large a share of his time from the first, as to prevent 
his giving that attention to the law which the extent of his practice would 
seem to require. As it was, his intellectual resources enabled him to meet 
the demands of his business and gave him more than the average degree of 
success at the bar. It can not be doubted that, had he devoted himself especi- 
ally to his profession, his ability would have enabled him to attain a foremost 
position in its ranks. He was a fluent, persuasive and often eloquent speaker. 
Major Farr married at Portsmouth, N. H., May 19, 1861, Miss Ellen F. Bur- 
pee, of New Hampton, N. H., who with three children survives him. 

His last Congressional contest was made with Judge George A. Bingham as 
his principal opponent, and was for some time doubtful. He threw himself 
into it with more than his accustomed energy, and its labors were such as to 
seriously impair his health, which had not been robust smce the wounds he 
received at the battle of Williamsburg. A severe cold contracted late in 
November resulted in an attack of pneumonia, which terminated fatally No- 
vember 30. 1880. His untimely death was widely mourned. 

John Michael Mitchell occupies a position in the front rank of New Hamp- 
shire lawyers. He is the son of John Mitchell, of Derby Vt., and was born 
in Plymouth, N. H., July 6, 1849. His education was acquired in the com- 
mon schools and at the academy in Derby, Vermont. He began his legal 
studies with Edmunds & Dickerman, of Derby, and in 1871 entered the office 
of Hon. Harry Bingham, in Littleton. Admitted to the bar in March, 1872, 
he was at once employed by his preceptor, and one year later became his part- 
ner, under the firm name of Bingham & Mitchell. He remained in Littleton 
until 1881, when he removed to Concord and established there an office of 
his firm. He still retains an interest in the firm of Bingham, Mitchells & 
Batchellor. Mr. Mitchell is devoted to his profession, bringing to the dis- 
charge of the duties of an attorney, good natural abilities, untiring industry and 
a laudable ambition to serve his client as well as to achieve distinction as a 
sound, learned and honorable lawyer. He has to some extent made a spe- 
cialty of the preparation of briefs, and presents the law with fullness, logical 
force and precision. He has given much attention to, and is a master of, 
corporate law and has been the most active of the counsel engaged in the 
several cases growing out of the lease or the Northern railroad to the Boston 
& Lowell corporation. He has taken an active and influential interest in pub- 
lic affairs and was for two years a member of the board of selecmen of Lit- 
tleton, in which position he rendered the town important service by funding 
its debt at a low rate of interest and in other respects. He served as solicitor 
of Grafton county from March, 1879, to July, 1881. November 19, 1874, he 
married Miss Julia C. Sonergan, by whom he has a daughter and a son. 

Albert Stillman Batchellor, born in Bethlehem^ N. H., April 22, 1850, son 
of Stillman and Mary Jane (Smith) Batchellor, attended the seminaries at 



BENCH AND BAR, 



Newbury, Vt., and Tilton, N. H., and was graduated at Dartmouth, in the 
class of 1872. The same year he entered the ofifice of H. & G. A. Bingham, 
and after pursuing the usual course of study, was admitted to the bar in 
March, 1875. For one year he was employed by Hon. G. A. Bingham, and 
when that gentleman went upon the bench, he took his office and entered 
upon an active practice. Charles W. Bolles was for one year his partner. In 
1879 he became a member of the firm of Bingham, Mitchell & Batchellor. 
This firm, with the addition three years later of WiUiam H. Mitchell, still con- 
tinues, and is regarded as among the strongest in the state, Mr. Batchellor 
has not been an exception to the rule among Littleton attorneys, but has taken 
a lively interest in politics. He has three times represented the town in the 
General Court, and served a term of two years as solicitor of the county. In the 
legislature he bore a prominent part, and was at one time the candidate of 
his party for speaker. He served on the more important committees, and 
proved a spirited and practical debater. At the bar he is thorough, systematic 
and conscientious in the discharge of the duties of his high office as an at- 
torney. He takes such an interest as good citizenship requires in all matters 
affecting the public welfare. He is a lover of books, and given to collecting 
such as relate to local and national history and genealogy. For some years 
he has given as much time to matters pertaining to the history of Littleton as 
the demands of an exacting business would permit, and is a member of the 
committee appointed by the town to prepare its history for publication. He 
is also one ot the most active members of the Grafton and Coos Bar Asso- 
ciation. He is a forcible and instructive writer, and an effective public 
speaker. In April, 1880, he married Miss Harriet A. Copeland. They have 
two children, a son and a daughter. 

John L. Foster. — (See Lisbon.) 

Elbert Carroll Stevens, son of Grove S. and Lydia (Wilson) Stevens, was 
born in Piermont, N. H., November 10, 1847. He was educated in the com- 
mon schools of Haverhill and at Meriden academy. His legal education 
began when he was thirteen years of age. His father was sheriff of the 
county, and he served as court messenger, and in that capacity acquired a 
large share of his very considerable legal knowledge. He was sub'Sequently 
a student in the office of the Hon. N. B. Felton, and finished his course with 
George W. Chapman. In August, 1871, he was admitted to the bar. In 
1873 he came to Littleton, and formed a partnership with the late Hon. 
Evarts W. Farr, a relation which was dissolved in 1878, since which time Mr. 
Stevens has been in practice alone, with the exception of a brief period, when 
Edgar M. Warner was in company with him. Mr. Stevens possesses a legal 
intuition, which leads to accurate conclusions, and enables him, without ap- 
parent labor, to rapidly dispose of business. Indeed, his peculiar nervous 
organization renders contmuous application to study well nigh impossible. 
Before settling down to the law, Mr. Stevens had been in business at the West 
and Southwest. He married, July 26, 1875, Miss J. Augusta Stevens, of Lit- 
tleton. They ha\e no children. 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



William Henry Mitchell, the junior member of the law firm of Bingham, 
Mitchells & Batchellor, was born at Wheelock, Vt., September i8, 1856, and 
received his education in the common schools and in the Littleton high school. 
In 1877 he entered the office with which he has ever since been connected, 
and was admitted to the bar at Concord, March 19, 1880. He was at first 
employed by the firm as an attorney, but in July, 1882, was admitted as a 
partner. Mr. Mitchell devotes himself largely to the practical branch of the 
profession. He is studious and painstaking in the preparation of his cases, 
and well versed in the law applicable to the case in hand. He possesses great 
industry and a practical judgment which is seldom at fault. For some years 
he has taken much interest in educational matters, and has served his town 
as Supermtendent of school committee, and for six years was a member of 
the board of education for Union school district. Politically, he is an 
active member of the Democratic party, and one of its youngest leaders. He 
is a sagacious and conservative adviser, who has no selfish ends to subserve, 
and is always content with securing success for the party to which he belongs 
and to which he gives loyal, zealous and faithful service. 

Edgar Aldrich was born at Pittsburg, N. H., February 5, 1848. His edu- 
cation was acquired in the common schools of his native town and at Cole- 
brook academy. In 1866 he began the study of law in the office of Ira A. 
Ramsey, in Colebrook, N. H., and in March 1868, was graduated from the 
Ann Arbor law school. The following August he was admitted to the bar 
at Colebrook, and opened an office in that town. In 1870 he became a mem- 
ber of the law firm of Aldrich & Shurtleff", and in 1875 ^^s the senior member 
of the firm of Aldrich & Parsons. In January, 1881, he came to Littleton 
and formed a partnership with Hon. George A. Bingham, which continued 
until June, 1884, when Judge Bingham was appointed to the bench. May i. 
1882, Daniel C. Remich became a member of the firm under the name of 
Bingham, Aldrich & Remich. Upon the withdrawal of Judge Bingham the 
junior members continued the business as Aldrich & Remich. October 5, 
1872, Mr. Aldrich was united in marriage to Miss Louise M. Remick, sister 
of his present law partner. They have a son and a daughter. 

Before attaining his majority Mr. Aldrich became an ardent politician, and 
after coming to the bar was appointed solicitor of Coos county by Governor 
Straw, and continued in the position until the fortunes of the party suffered 
an eclipse. When his party resumed power Governor Cheney again made him 
the prosecuting officer of his county. After coming to Littleton he devoted 
himself entirely to his professional work until November, 1874, when he was 
elected a member of the General Court, and upon the assembling of the leg- 
islature in June following he was elected speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives, and discharged the duties of the position with eminent satisfaction to 
that body. In his profession Mr. Aldrich is regarded as a leader among the 
younger members of the bar. He has a strong legal mind and unusual re- 
serve power. Indeed, it requires more than an ordinary occasion to call forth 



I 



BENCH AND BAR. 



his best efforts. He does not like to be hurried, but when pressed is very 
apt to reach the goal. 

Daniel Clark Remich was born in Hardwick, Vt., January 15, 1S52. He 
attended the common schools and academy of his town, and in 1875 began 
to read law in the office of Edgar Aldrich, in Colebrook, N. H. Subse- 
quently he pursued his studies in the offices of Aldrich & Parsons and of J, 
H Dudley, at Colebrook, and was graduated at the law school of Michigan 
university in March, 1878, and the following April was admitted to the bar 
at Lancaster. He began the practice of his profession at Colebrook as a 
member of the firm of Dudley & Remich immediately after his admission, 
and remained there until May, 1882, when he became the junior member of 
the firm of Bingham, Aldrich & Remich, of Littleton. In February, 1879, 
Mr. Remich married Miss Belle Loverin, of Colebrook, who died at Littleton 
in September. 1885. May i8, 1886, he married Lizzie M., daughter of Ben- 
jamin W. Kilburn. 

Mr. Remich's earlier educational advantages were limited, and for nearly 
four years after he was eighteen years of age he worked in the cotton mills 
at Lawrence, Mass., but the indomitable energy which characterized all his 
undertakings conquered adverse fate, and he has won a position at the bar 
as a sound lawyer and untiring worker, who was never known to leave the 
traditional stone unturned that promised to lead to success. 

James Waldron Remick is a brother of Daniel C. and of Mrs. Edgar Aid- 
rich. He was born in Hardwick, Vt., October 30, i860. He was edu- 
cated in the common schools, and when nineteen years of age began the study 
of law under the tuition of B. F. Chapman, at Clockville, N. Y. Later he 
was a student in the offices of Aldrich & Parsons, at Colebrook, and of Bing- 
ham & Aldrich, in Littleton. He attended the Michigan university law 
school, whence he was graduated in 1872. The same year he was admitted 
to the bar at Concord, N. H., and was for two years in practice at Cole- 
brook and subsequently in the employ of Aldrich & Remich, at Littleton. 
In 1885 he formed a partnership with Hon. Ossian Ray, and opened an office 
for the firm in Littleton. Mr. Remick is a diligent student, an eloquent 
speaker, and promises to achieve distinction in his chosen profession. He 
is fond of literature, and has varied the monotony of professional life by en- 
tering the lecture field, where he has won an enviable reputation. An ardent 
Republican, his services have been in frequent demand upon the stump, 
where his brilliant advocacy of the principles of his party has been highly ap- 
preciated. 

A number of young men have located in Littleton in practice of the pro- 
fession, but not to remain a sufficient length of time to become identified 
with the interests of the town. Among these were James Ancrum Winslow, 
Charles W. Bolles, David S. Whitcher, and Edgar M. Warner. 

James Ancrum Winslow, son of the late Rear- Admiral Winslow, of the U. 
S. navy, was born in Boston, April 29, 1839. He was educated at Harvard, 



TI2' GRAFTON COUNTY. 



graduating in the class of 1859, pursued a course of legal study at the Uni- 
versity of Virginia law school, and was admitted to the bar at Boston in Sep- 
tember, 1 86 1. He was for a time in practice in that city, but in October, 
1867, came to Littleton, where he remained less than a year. His legal at- 
tainments were considerable, and he possessed a large fund of general infor. 
mation. He was an accomplished public speaker, and while here took an 
active part in the pending political campaign, advocating the principles of 
the Democratic party upon the stump. He is now located at Bingham- 
ton, N. Y., where he has a prosperous practice. 

Charles W. BoUes was born in Bethlehem, N. H., August 24, 1847. He 
was educated in the schools of his native town, and in the academy at New 
Hampton, read law with Hon. Henry W. Blair, at Plymouth, and with A. S. 
Batchellor, at Littleton, and was admitted to practice at Haverhill, in Septem- 
ber, 1877 He began his professional career at Littleton immediately after, 
and was for a time in partnership witl» A. S. Batchellor. In 1879 he removed 
to New York city, where he is now in practice. Mr. BoUes is a good business 
lawyer, a branch of the profession in which he is a specialist. 

David Simeon Whitcher was born in Landaff, now Easton, November 
30, 1846. He was educated at the seminary at Tilton, and at the New 
Hampton Literary Institution. His legal education was obtained in the offices 
of C. W. & E. D. Rand, and of Bingham & Mitchell, in Littleton. He 
was admitted to the bar at the March term, at Haverhill, in 1876, and for 
one year thereafter was employed as an attorney by Bingham & Mitchell. 
He then opened an office, and, notwithstanding the rapid encroachments of 
consumption, he did a considerable office business. He was, however, com- 
])elled to relinquish his practice, and in the summer of 1881, he retired to 
the home of his parents, in Easton, where he died in November of that 
year. He has been described by one who knew him well, as "the soul of 
professional honor * * * * absolutely free from vices of habit or pur- 
pose, * * * * never betraymg a cUent, a friend, or even an enemy." 

Edgar Morris Warner came to Littleton from Connecticut where he had 
practiced his profession for some years and enjoyed numerous political hon- 
ors. He was born in Worcester, Mass., June 16, 1850, was graduated from 
Harvard law school in 1872, and admitted to the bar in September of the 
same year, at New London, Connecticut. Before coming to Littleton he was 
located at Norwich, Conn., three years, and at Central Village in Plainfield, 
Conn., seven years. He remained in Littleton but one year in partnership 
with E. C. Stevens He possessed a good legal education, but was wanting 
in the faculty of applying his knowledge to the case in hand. He was an 
honorable, high-minded lawyer, who gained many friends in this section. He 
is-now in practice at Central Village, his former home in Connecticut. 

It should be remarked that all the attorneys enumerated in this classifica- 
tion were bachelors while citizens of Littleton, and the three who are still liv- 
ing persist in remaining in that condition. 



BENCH AND BAR. 112' 

Lyinie.* — Joseph H. Johnson. — The first lawyer located in this town, so 
far as can now be learned, was Joseph H. Johnson, who canne from Keene 
about 1812. He continued in the practice till about 1817, when he removed 
to Cincinnati, Ohio. It is said that he met with an accidental death at that 
.city. He was a "perfect gentleman" and a man of fine intellectual endow- 
ment. His wife was one of the well known Keene family of Wilsons. They 
had two daughters and a son. 

William Smith was early located here and was the successor of Mr. John- 
son. (See Hanover.) 

Isaac Patterson was in practice here for two or three years, following Mr. 
Smith. Mr. Patterson came from Piermont. (See Bath.) 

George M. Phelps was in practice here from 1819 to 1826. (See Bristol.) 

John Frink Adams, son of Prof. E. Adams, of Dartmouth college, was in 
practice in this town from 1825 to 1827. He was born in Leicester, Mass., 
November 3, 1799, graduated at Dartmouth college in 1817, studied at the 
Litchfield (Conn.) law school, practiced two years at Watertown, N. Y., and 
before coming to Lyme, and at Mobile, Ala., from 1827 to 1853. He then 
removed to Washington, D. C, where he was for many years a government 
clerk, and died at Baltimore, Md., in 1883. 

Jonathan Kitteredge was located at this place in practice from 1827 to 1836. 
(See Canaan.) 

Orford.I — Hon. Abiathar G. Britton came to Orford about Septem- 
ber, 1796. It is understood that he came here from Fryeburg, Me., or that 
region, where he and the late Judge Dana met and cast lots to see which 
should locate in Fryeburg and which in Orford. The lot for Orford falling 
on Mr. Britton he soon came to this town on horse-back with his entire 
worldly effects in his saddle-bags. He very soon settled at what is now called 
Orford Street. He was admitted to the bar of the Superior Court for Graf- 
ton county at the November term, 1800, and was soon engaged in a lucrative 
practice, always taking great interest in all public affairs, being often engaged 
as counsel for the town. He was for many years one of the board of audit- 
ors of selectmen's accounts, and also moderator at the town elections, was one 
of the state Senate in 1816-17, represented the town in the legislature in 
i^SS-'s^, '38, '39, '50, '51, was delegate to the constitutional convention of 
1850-51. Mr. Britton was for many years one of the directors of the old 
Grafton bank, of which Mr. Payson, of Bath, was president, and afterwards 
Mr. Olcott, of Hanover. Mr. Britton was possessed of a large fund of in- 
formation upon all manner of subjects, which he always seemed quite will- 
ing to impart, especially to the younger portion of the community. He 
amassed a large property here, where he resided until near the close of his 
life. He died in, or near, Boston about 1851 or '52. Mr. Britton had two 
sons and several daughters. 

*By Preston H. A. Claflin. 
f By Paul Lang. 

7*A 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



Jeduthan Wilcox, bom in Midd leto wn, Conn., 1769, received his education 
in the best school of that city. He moved to Hanover, N. H., in 1795, and 
read law with Hon. Benjamin J. Gilbert, removed to Orford and commenced 
the practice of law in 1803, where he ever afterward practiced his profession, 
till his death in July, 1838. He was a member of Congress from New Hamp-. 
shire from 1813 to 1817, and served in the state legislature a number of terms. 
Mr. Wilcox had a large practice and was connected with various business in- 
terests and enterprises. He maintained a commanding influence in public 
affairs for many years, and is entitled to a place among the foremost men of 
his time in the section where his active life was spent. 

Leonard Wilcox, a son of the Hon. Jeduthan Wilcox, was born in Han- 
over, N. H., January 24, 1799, and passed nearly the whole of his life in Or- 
ford. He graduated with distinction at Dartmouth college in 18 17, and in 
a few years afterwards was admitted to the bar. He was elected to the leg- 
islature in 1828, and represented Orford during the six subsequent years. He 
was again elected in 1837. In June, 1838, he was appointed one of the jus- 
tices of the Superior Court, which office, however, he resigned in June, 1840. 
In February, 1842, he was appointed by Governor Page, and in June follow- 
ing was elected by the legislature a senator in Congress, to serve out the un- 
expired time of Hon. F. Pierce, who had resigned. In December, 1847, he 
was appointed a circuit justice of the Court of Common Pleas, and in June, 
1848, he was again appointed an associate justice of the Supreme Court, 
which office he held at his death, June 18, 1850. With learning of a high 
order Judge Wilcox combined a character for integrity, uprightness, human- 
ity and great soundness of judgment, which, together, rendered him an honor 
to the judiciary of the state. 

Samuel M. Wilcox, a son of Hon. Leonard Wilcox, was born at Orford, 
January 39, 1829, graduated at Dartmouth college in 1847, ^^*^ admitted to 
the bar in 1849, practiced law at Franklin, N. H., in 1849-50, at Orfoid in 
1850-52, at Lancaster in 1852-55, Nashua in 1855-58, at Exeter in 1858-64, 
and since that time at Washington, D. C. 

John Rogers was one of the reliable business lawyers of Orford. He re- 
mained upon his father's farm until his majority. The law became his ambi- 
tion, and by teaching and other remunerative employment he procured means 
to prosecute his general and legal education. His law study was in the office 
of Hon. Jeduthan Wilcox, at Orford, and he secured admission to the bar at 
about the age of twenty-eight. He at once married and opened an office in 
Orford, where his business became extensive and lucrative in the department 
of collections. He practiced here fjr some twenty years, in the last of which 
he was a partner with Judge Wilcox. At that period various enactments had 
begun to operate unfavorably upon the business of collections, and Mr. Rogers- 
retired from practice and returned to his first love, the farm. His legal fram- 
ing made him a useful counsellor and efficient public officer. During all his- 
life he was largely occupied in public affairs, and undoubtedly was a valuable- 



BENCH AND BAR. 



citizen. He was a selectman, it seems, more years than any other individual 
in Orford. In all the relations of life he was regarded as upright and reliable. 
He died at Orford, December 28, 1859, at the age of seventy-seven, having 
maintained his active and laborious habits almost to the last of his long and 
•useful life. 

Thomas B. Mann was in practice at Orford from 1850 to 1858. He is a 
native of the town and was educated in her schools. At the conclusion of 
some eight years of practice here he removed to Elizabeth, N. J., where he 
has since resided. 

Hon. David R. Lang was in the practice of law in this place from 1864 to 
May 30, 1875, the date of his death. He was a son of Sherburn Lang, 
born at Bath, May 6, 1830. His education was at the old Newbury seminary 
and Dartmouth college. In 1854 he began the study of law with Hon. Harry 
Hibbard, at Bath, graduated at the Albany law school, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1857, at Haverhill. He continued in practice nearly all the time at 
Bath until his removal to Orford, in 1864. He married Josephine R. Smath 
in 1859, and five children were born to them, — Paul Lang (now an attorney at 
Orford), Kittie R., Edward J., David R. and Mary J. Mr. Lang was always 
popular among the people, and was representative from Bath in 1859 and 
i860, and from Orford, 1867, 1868, 1869, and 187 1. He was appointedjudge 
of probate for Grafton county, by Governor Stearns, in 1870, and held the 
office until 1874, when all the judges joined the "outs" in consequence of 
certain election returns, favorable to the Democracy. Judge Lang was a man 
of "infinite jest." In conversation he was full of humor and genial enter- 
tainment. He always made the court-house an agreeable resort when he had 
a part in the proceedings himself, or had the free use of a quill while some one 
else was making opportunities for his jocose sallies. 

Said one of the leaders of the Grafton bar, on learning of his decease : 
" The public have lost by his death a good man, and a judicious and influ- 
ential citizen ; but he will always remain with his friends, a green spot in their 
memories." 

Charles Warren Pierce, who studied law in the office of Hon. D. R. Lang, 
of this place, from which he was admitted to the bar, at Concord, in 1863, 
was in practice here from that date until his death, February i, 1801. He 
was a son of Jerediah and Deborah Heath Pierce, born August 6, 1837, at 
Fairlee, Vt. He was not a college graduate and his education was princi- 
pally obtained at Orford. 

Mr. Pierce earned a high reputation for integrity in business and fidelity to 
all matters committed to his management professionally, or as a citizen and 
official. He was rather a- business than a court lawyer. The people of Or- 
ford always had full confidence in him, making him town treasurer, represen- 
tative to the General Court, and an especial favorite as the custodian of trust 
funds and as confidential adviser. He was twice married, first, October 2, 1866, 
to Sarah C. Dimick, and second, December 12, 1876, to Martha Abbie How- 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



ard. Two children were born to him of the first marriage, and one of the last. 
He was not identified with any church ; was a Repubhcan in politics. He 
was connected with the law firms of Lang & Pierce and Pierce & Streeter. 

Frank S. Streeter, a native of East Charleston, Vt., was in practice here 
some six months in 1877, a member of the firm of Pierce & Streeter. He 
had been a student of Hon. A. P. Carpenter, at Bath, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1877, at the Haverhill March term. In the latter part of October, 
1877, Mr. Streeter formed a partnership with J. H. Albin, of Concord, 
which continued two years. He has since been a member of the firm of 
Chase & Streeter at the same place. Meantime Mr. Streeter has attained an 
honorable standing in his profession. The firm has an extensive and lucra- 
tive practice. Mr. Streeter is identified with several social organizations in 
his city, and is representative of his ward in the legislature. In the last ses- 
sion of that body he held a leading rank on the Republican side, and was one 
of its most industrious and reliable representatives in debate and committee 
work. He was prepared for college at St. Johnsbury (Vt.) academy, entered 
Bates college, in Maine, and graduated at Dartmouth in 1874. He married 
Lillian Carpenter, daughter of his law preceptor, Hon. A. P. Carpenter, Novem- 
ber 14, 1877, and has two children, a son and daughter. Mr. Streeter is fortunate 
in the possession of a most attractive home, and he is greatly devoted to his 
domestic affairs. His religious preferences are Unitarian, and his politics are 
now and always have been positively Republican. 

Emory B. Smith opened a law office here in March, 1881, but died in the 
following July. He was a native of New York, but came from Boston to 
Orford. He was about 46 years of age at the time of his death. 

Paul Lang,* a son of Hon. David R. Lang, came to the bar from the office 
of George W. Chapman, at the March term at Haverhill, 1882. He was born 
at Bath, July i, i860, fitted for college at the St. Johnsbury (Vt.) academy, 
and was one year in Dartmouth. He commenced the study of law in 1879. 
He has been located in practice at Orford since his admission to the bar, 
and a member of the firm of Chapman & Lang since March, 1882. This 
firm has an extensive business, the proportion of causes for trial largely oc- 
cupymg the attention of Mr. Lang. He is a Republican in politics, unmar- 
ried, and without any active church connections. 

Plymouth.! — John Porter was probably the first lawyer who settled in 
Plymouth, N. H. In April, 1784, he was admitted to practice in the Su- 
preme Court of Judicature. He continued in practice at Plymouth until 
18 1 3, when he moved to some other field of professional labor. He was sec- 
retary of the State Bar Association for a time and until 1793, when he re- 
signed. He was reported to be a lawyer of abilityand learning. 

Phineas Walker was admitted to the New Hampshire bar in 1796 and 



*By A. S. Batchellor. 
■J-By Alvin Burleigh. 



BENCH AND BAR. 



practiced at Plymouth until 1832. Mr. Walker was a lawyer of character 
and ability, and for several years was a judge of Probate of Grafton county. 

Stephen Grant was admitted to the bar at the September term of the court 
of Common Pleas, in 1803, and practiced law in Plymouth until 1829, and 
again from 1844 till 1846. He died and was buried in that town. 

Samuel C. Webster was a native of Plymouth, N. H. He studied law with 
George Woodard, Esq., and was admitted to the court of Common Pleas in 
18 1 2. It is said that he was not always on friendly terms with Judge Arthur 
Livermore. The latter preferred charges against huTi at the September term, 
1817, for not entering a certain appeal upon the court docket. He was fully 
exonerated, however, after a careful investigation of the charges. He prac- 
ticed in Plymouth from 18 15 till 1835. ^^ ^^s originally a Whig, but later 
in life a Democrat. He was speaker of the New Hampshire House of Rep- 
resentatives in 1830, and was an able and influential man. May 5, 1816, he 
married Catherine Russell, and in August, 1835, he died at Haverhill, N. H. 

Benjamin Darling was admitted to the Grafton county bar, February term, 
1815, and practiced his profession in Plymouth from that time till 1823. He 
was considered better qualified for office practice than the trial of cases in 
court, and devoted himself more especially to the former division of profes- 
sional work. 

Nathaniel P. Rogers was born in Plymouth, N. H., June 3, 1794, the fifth 
child of a family of eleven. In personal appearance and moral characteris- 
tics he is said to have resembled, in a remarkable degree, his remote kinsman, 
John Rogers, who was burned at the stake in Smithfield in 1555. He gradu- 
ated with honors at Dartmouth college in the class of 1816, and was admitted 
to the bar of Grafton county at the November term of the Superior Court in 
1819. From 1824 till 1839 he practiced law at Plymouth. As a lawyer he 
was earnest, industrious and well read ; careful in preparation and vigilant in 
the trial of causes. He was conscientious and faithful toward his clients, with- 
out giving needless ofifence to his opponents. His known purity of character 
and high regaru for principal, aided by brilliant and forcible speech, made him 
one of the foremost jury advocates of the Grafton county bar. 

In 1835 he became an abolitionist, and in 1838 removed to Concord and be- 
came the editor of T/ie Herald of F>'eedom, one of the most brilliant and aggres- 
sive newspapers in the country, and devoted to the anti-slavery cause. From 
this time till his death he was an earnest, industrious and fearless advocate of 
woman's rights, temperance and the abolition of human slavery. On the street 
in the press, and upon the platform his voice and pen were untiring in sup- 
port of these causes. He was apposed to war and became an active member 
of the Non-resistance Society of New England. At a meeting of the society 
on one occasion the president justified the slaughter of the Canaanites as a 
mandate from Heaven. Rogers inquired if he would slaj human beings with 
theswordif God commanded, and upon receiving an affirmative answer re- 
pUed "well, I wouldn't." This incident forcibly illustrates the strength of his 



112'° GRAFTON COUNTY. 



convictions on great public questions. He was deeply interested in history, 
poetry and general literature, and made valuable contributions in those fields 
of labor. Although a prolific writer, a single volume of editoral articles is 
said to be the only work in bound form that preserves the record of his wond- 
ful pen. He became a member of the Congregational church while at Ply- 
mouth, and was for a time much interested in church and missionary work. In 
later years his religious views grew more liberal as the cause of suffering hu- 
manity engrossed his attention in larger measure. 

His ancestors, originally from Dedham, England, had for many generations 
lived in Massachusetts, and were remarkable, among other things, for pre- 
senting eight Congregational ministers in almost unbroken succession for as 
many generations. His father. Dr. John Rogers, who married Betsey MuUiken, 
of Bradford, Mass., was born in Leominster, Mass., graduated from 
Harvard college in the class of 1777, went to Plymouth in the extreme youth 
of that town, and enjoyed a high reputaion as a physician. Mr. Rogers was 
married, in 1832, to Mary Porter Farrand, of Burlington, Vt., daughter of Hon. 
Daniel Farrand, who was one of the justices of the Supreme Court of Ver- 
mont. In 1840 he was sent by the Abolitionists of New Hampshire to the 
world's anti-slavery convention at London, but the refusal of that body to ad- 
mit .as members Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and other women 
of the American delegation, decided him to decline the honor for himself and 
his constituents. Returning home, he found his name at the head of the Anti- 
Slavery Standard, the organ of the American society, and published in New 
York city. He declined this honor, as it necessitated his leaving New Hamp- 
shire, but furnished weekly editorals, however, for about a year. In 1845 ^^^ 
loss of his property through the failure of another, with other grevious afflic- 
tions, shadowed his last days with sorrow. This christian gentleman, scholar 
and philanthropist died in October, 1846, and was buried in the old cemetery at 
Concord. No human hand has reared a tablet to his memory, but some kindly 
oaks have grown and stand as faithful sentinels over his grave — a constant re- 
buke to the heedless crowd that so easily forget the benefactors of their kind. 

William C. Thompson was a native of New Hampshire and a lawyer of 
sound learning and great intellectual acuteness. His professional training, 
habits of close logical study, and aptness in reading human character, made 
him one of the safest office counsellors and successful practitioners of Grafton 
county bar. Endowed with large common sense, candid judgment and well 
balanced faculties, always cool, active and vigilant, he was most efficiently 
equipped for the legal encounters in which he took so promment a part dur- 
ing his long professional career. He practiced in Plymouth from 1826 till 
1852, reared an interesting family of intelligent, successful children, and ac- 
cumulated a respectable fortune. His death, which was of recent date, oc- 
curred at Worcester, Mass., where he had for several years been living in quiet 
retirement. 

Jonathan Bliss was a graduate of Dartmouth college. He studied law 





iy^^oOJ^^^ 



BENCH AND BAR. 112" 

with J. Bell, was admitted to the bar and practiced law at Plymouth from 
1829 till 1834, a portion of the time being a member of the law firm of 
Thompson & Bliss. From Plymouth he moved to Gainsville, Ala., where he 
practiced law until his death, at an advanced age. Originally he was a Whig, 
but after his removal to the south he became an ardent Democrat. 

Joseph Burrows was a native of Maine. He was born in Lebanon, August 
26, 1 8 13. His early education was limited to the common district schools. 
He taught school winters and worked on the farm summers. In the fullest 
sense he was a self-made man. By private study and instruction he prepared 
himself for college, but from lack of means was unable to secure a collegiate 
education. His law education was with Joseph Dearborn, of Effingham, N. H., 
and at Harvard Law school. He was admitted to the bar in 1834, and began 
practice in Holderness, N. H. In 1858 he removed to Plymouth where he 
practiced till his death, April 3, 1883. He was counsel in State vs. Green- 
wood, Worcester vs. Plymouth, Haines vs. Insurance Company, State vs. 
Xnapp, and many other leading cases at the Grafton county bar. Originally 
he was a Whig, but for the last twenty-five years an ardent Democrat. He 
was sent to the legislature five times from Plymouth, and as a delegate to the 
constitutional convention of 1876. He was twice elected as state councilor 
from the fifth district. For several years prior to his death he was a trustee 
of the New Hampshire asylum for the insane, and a member of the New 
Hampshire Historical society. In 1874 he received the honorary degree of 
A. M., from Dartmouth college. Mr. Burrows was a man of strong feelings 
and positive convictions, of warm friendship and intense dislikes. He was 
faithful to his clients, careful in the preparation of cases, and efficient in trials ; 
a good judge of law, a safe counselor, endowed with common-sense and prac- 
tical judgment. He was a successful member of the legal profession, and 
died esteemed and regretted by those who knew him best. 

Joseph M. Burrows was born in Holderness, N. H. He was the eldest 
son of Joseph Burrows, Esq., late of Plymouth. He studied law with his 
father in Plymouth until his admission to the bar in 1864, when he began 
practice and entered into partnership with him. Not long after he removed 
to the city of Chicago, where he has since been in the practice of his profes- 
sion. He inherited from the elder Burrows that independence of character 
and plainness of speech, the positive likes and dislikes for men and measures, 
which distinguished the latter in so marked a degree. 

Jonathan C. Everett practiced law in Plymouth only two years, beginning 
with 1827 and closing with 1829. 

James McQuesten, for many years a successful practitioner here, was largely 
consulted, especially in matters of Probate. For a fuller account of this ex- 
cellent man, see page 587. 

William Leverett, like many other successful attorneys of the New Hamp- 
shire bar, was a son of the Green Mountain State. He was born at Wind- 
sor, July 8, 1813, graduated from Yale college in 1831, and was elected to 



112" GRAFTON COUNTY. 

deliver the class oration on Presentation Day. He studied law in New York 
city, and at Utica in 1839, ^"<^^ ^^^ admitted to the bar at the latter place. 
In 1839 he began practice at Plymouth, where he continued his professional 
work until his death, September 18, 1874. He was a member of the Congre- 
gational church of Plymouth for several years prior to his death. October 6, 
185 1, he married Catharine R. Spaulding, of Rumney, and after that his 
home was the Mecca of his affections. With singular directness of purpose 
he devoted his whole energies to the legal profession. He was a man of 
scholarly attainments, well versed in the law, of good judgment, and gener- 
ally successful at the bar. A gentleman of unblemished character, his death 
was a loss to the profession and to the general public. 

Ralph Metcalf was reared upon a farm in Sullivan county. He was born 
in Charlestown, N. H., November 21, 1798. He prepared for college under 
private instruction and entered Dartmouth in 18 [9. In 182 1 he left college 
and became professor in Norwich university. Returning to the same college, 
he graduated in the class of 1823. His legal studies were pursued with Gov- 
ernor Hubbard, of Charlestown, Richard Bartlett, of Concord, and George B. 
Upham, of Claremont, until September, 1826, when he was admitted to the 
bar. He began the practice of law at Newport, N. H., and there remained 
until 1828, when he moved to Binghamton, N. Y., and there resided until 
June, 183 1, when he moved to Claremont, N. H. In June, 183 1, he was 
elected secretary of the state and held that office till 1838, living in Concord 
in the meantime. From 1838 to 1840 he held a clerkship in the United 
States Treasury department. Returning to New Hampshire he practiced 
law in Plymouth during a part of 1841-42, and then removed to Newport. 
In October, 1845, he was appointed judge of Probate for Sullivan county. 
He was elected representative to the New Hampshire legislature for 1852-53. 
He was elected governor of the state in 1885-86, and during the former year 
was one of the trustees of the New Hampshire asylum for the insane. Until 
1855 he was a Democrat, but thereafter a Know-Nothing and a Republican. 
He died at Claremont, N. H., August 26, 1858. 

Napoleon B. Bryant, born in Andover, N. H., February 25, 1835, comple- 
ted his education at Waterville college and graduated at Harvard law school 
in 1848. At the adjourned term of court in Plymouth, January, 1849, he was 
admitted to the bar and began the practice of law. Soon after this he served 
as chairman of the county commissioners for two years. In 1853 he was ap- 
pointed county solicitor, and held the office for one year. He moved from 
Plymouth to Concord in 1855, and there practiced his profession until i860, 
when he removed to Boston, and has since been a prominent member of the 
Suffolk county bar. While in Concord he was elected to the popular branch 
of the state legislature in 1857-58-59, and during the last two sessions was 
speaker of that body. Since his removal to Boston he has had an extensive 
practice, not only in the state of Massachusetts but in the Federal Courts and 
those of other states. He was called from Boston to act as leading counsel 



I 



BENCH AND BAR. 



in the important cases, State vs. Greenwood and Wooster vs. Plymouth. Mr. 
Bryant is a gentleman of fine presence. He possesses unusual tact in the 
examination of witnesses, and has a good command of choice and forcible 
language. As a jury advocate his success has been remarkable. Few if any 
practitioners at the Grafton county bar have been able to equal his forensic 
efforts. 

EUery A. Hibbard was born at St. Johnsbury, Vt., July 31, 1826. He was 
nine years of age when compelled by the death of his father to rely mainly 
upon his own resources in the matter of support and education. He attended 
the district schools and finished his education at the Derby (Vt.) academy. 
He studied law with N. B. Felton and Charles R. Morrison, of Haverhill, N.. 
H., and Hon. Henry F. French, of Exeter, N. H., and was admitted to the 
bar of Grafton county at Plymouth in July, 1849. He began practice at that 
town and there remained until July, 1853, when he removed to Meredith 
Bridge, now Laconia, N. H., where he has ever since resided. He has al- 
ways been a Democrat. Laconia elected him moderator each year from 1862 
till 1873. He was assistant clerk of the New Hampshire House of Represent- 
atives in 1852, clerk in 1853-54, and member from Laconia in 1865-66. 
During the latter year he was a conspicuous member of the committee on Na- 
tional aff"airs and a prominent member of the House. He was elected and 
served as a member of the House in the 42d Congress, and was placed on 
the committee on patents. March 17, 1873, he was commissioned associate 
justice of the Circuit Court of New Hampshire, and served on the bench till 
the re-organization of the judiciary in August, 1874, since which time he has 
been one of the leading attorneys of the Belknap county bar, and has acted 
as rounsel in many leading cases in the state. He has been a trustee for the 
New Hampshire asylum for the insane since 187 1, Mr. Hibbard is an indus- 
trious, faithful and learned counselor, of modest, quiet deportment, thought- 
ful and reflective mind, and thoroughly conscientious in the discharge of all 
duties, political, professional and judicial; of few words and to the point, 
aiming at the merits of men and things, honest with the court and his clients, 
he has gained a deserved and enviable reputation both as a citizen and lawyer 
of his adopted state. 

John A. Putney was a native of Manchester, N. H. He studied law with 
C. J. F. Stone, of Plymouth, and was admitted to the bar at the May term 
of the Supreme Court, 1855, and practiced law in Plymouth from 1858 till 
1859, when he returned to Manchester. 

Joseph Clark was born at Campton, N H. He graduated at Dartmouth 
college and practiced law at Plymouth from 1857 to 1868. His political attach- 
ments were first Republican and finally Democratic. He served for a few 
months as captain of company A, 6th Regt., N. H. Vols., and then resigned. 
He retired abruptly from the bar by the summary aid of the court, at the June 
law term in 1868. Subsequently he engaged in the lumber business at Plym- 
outh until fire and creditors brought this enterprise to a close. He then. 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



emigrated to the Pacific coast and was admitted to the bar of San Francisco? 
from which he withdrew a fewyears since by the active assistance of the court. 
He is now engaged in mining operations. It is perhaps too early to decide 
whether or not he has gravitated to a business congenial to his taste and 
suited to his varied attainments. 

C. J. F. Stone was born in Andover, N. H. After his admission to the 
bar he moved to Plymouth and practiced his profession from 1857 till i860, 
when he suddenly died in the prime of life. In politics he was a Democrat. 

Henry W. Blair is of Scotch-Irish descent in the line of his paternal ances- 
try. He was born in Campton, December 6, 1834. On account of the ac- 
cidental death of his father and destitute condition of the family his lot was 
cast among strangers at the early age of eight years. His minority was 
passed on the farm, and his only educational advantages were the district 
schools in the winter season and two fall terms in 1851 and 1852 at the 
Holmes academy in Plymouth. He taught school and studied alternately 
until he entered the law office of William Leverett, Esq., of Plymouth. In 
1859 he was admitted to the bar, and the next year was appointed solicitor of 
Grafton county. While occupying this office he engaged in some of the 
most noted criminal cases that have been tried in the county, among which 
juay be mentioned. State vs. Knapp, State vs. Williams, and State vs. Green- 
wood. In 1862 he volunteered as a private in Co. B, 15th Regt., N. H. Vols., 
was elected captain of the company, and subsequently appointed lieutenant- 
colonel of the regiment. He was twice wounded in the assaults on Port 
Hudson, and led the charging column on that fortification June 14, 1863. 
He was representative to the legislature from Plymouth in 1866. In 1867 
.and 1868 he was elected to the state Senate. He was elected representative 
to the National House in the Forty-fourth and Forty-fifth Congresses. In 1879 
he was elected to the United States Senate and was re-elected in 1885. Dur- 
ing his first term in the House he introduced a resolution to amend the con- 
stitution of the United States, prohibiting the manufacture and sale of dis- 
tilled spirits in the United States, after 1900, and supported it in a speech of 
remarkable power and statistical data. He is an earnest advocate of tem- 
perance, free schools, free and well paid labor, and woman suffrage. He be- 
lieves in a protective tariff and a sound currency. Science, literature and 
the arts have found him a warm friend and patron. Mr. Blair has been a man 
of extraordinary industry and application. He is a constant student, an earnest 
speaker, a forcible and voluminous writer. Some of his best Congressional 
speeches and written efforts have been on education and labor, free schools, 
a sound currency, foreign markets and commerce, the Pacific railroad subsi- 
dies, election frauds in the South, the exodus of colored people, the tariff 
bill, the public land bill, administration of the pension laws, public aid for 
common schools, and eulogies upon Henry Wilson, Zachariah Chandler and 
Evarts W. Farr. He is the author of the Blair educational bill, which has 
twice passed the Senate of the United States and has given him a national 



BENCH AND BAR. 



reputation. His time is almost entirely devoted to public business. He is 
rarely absent from his seat in the Senate, and always votes when present. He 
has held the chairmanship of important Congressional committees, and is an 
earnest, efficient worker in the discharge of official duty. His rapid and con- 
tinuous advancement in public life has been remarkable, and fairly indicates 
the high esteem in which he is held by the people at large. 

John W. Ela was born in Meredith, N. H., September 26, 1837. He was 
educated at the New Hampton and Northfield academies, and the Dover high 
school. He studied law with Judge S. W. Rollins, of Meredith village, was 
admitted to the bar of Belknap county, in 1859, and practiced there until 
i860, when he removed to Plymouth, and there followed his profession till 
1862. He then enlisted in Co. B, 15th N. H. Vols., and was soon after com- 
missioned captain of the company. For a time he was provost marshall of 
the military district of Carrollton, La. Returning to Plymouth in 1863, he 
resumed practice, and lived there till 1864, when he moved to Chicago, III., 
and has since continued his legal pursuits in that city, and in Washington, 
before the city, state and federal courts. His practice has been remunerative 
and extensive, and his legal ability, good judgment and learned counsel have 
been much sought after in cases of great magnitude. Mr. Ela is well informed 
in the advanced fields of Hberal thought, and is an advocate of broad and 
progressive views respecting the leading problems of modern civilization. He 
is a good writer and forcible advocate, not only in his professional work, but 
in all fields of intellectual effort to which his attention has been directed. 

Benjamin Clark was born in Campton, N. H., and reared upon his father's 
farm. After his admission to the bar, he practiced law in Plymouth from 
i86r till T863, when he removed to the state of Minnesota, and engaged for 
several years in the grain and flour business. He is now occupied in profes- 
sional work. 

Alvm Burleigh.* — The war of the Rebellion did not call many members of 
the Grafton county bar into the service. Henry W. Blair, of Plymouth, 
became a lieutenant-colonel of one of the regiments. General Marston, of 
Exeter, a native of Orford ; Colonel Bedel, of Bath; and Colonel Whipple, 
of Laconia, who had been former Grafton county practitioners, were among 
the most distinguished soldiers of the state. Several young men abandoned their 
law studies for the army. Major A. B. Thompson and Captain George Farr 
were of the number. Mr. Arthur E. Hutchins, of Bath, was one of the most 
promising of these, and he gave his life to the cause. Others returned from 
the war to the law in this county. Among these there were Major E. W. 
Farr, and Lieutenant John A. Winslow (son of Admiral Winslow, of Kear- 
sarge fame,) and Alvin Burleigh, who served in Co. B, 15th N. H. Vol. In- 
fantry, and John W. Ela, who went out in the same company and regiment. 
Colonel Blair became United States senator ; Major Farr, congressman, and 
Winslow is a prominent politician at Binghamton, N. Y. Undoubtedly the 



*By A. S. Batchellor. 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



southern lawyers were more generally found in the army than were those of 
the north. It is in acqordance with the principle developed in his lectures on 
Reconstruction, by Judge Joel Parker, that the military men should come to 
the front in political matters. It is illustrated by the careers of the gentlemen 
named. Mr. Burleigh has not come fairly before the people as a candidate 
for purely poUtical office. His possibilities are held in reserve. 

He was born at Plymouth, December 19, 1842, and was descended from 
Revolutionary stock. Three of his brothers, like himself, were in the Union 
army. At the age of fourteen he was thrown upon his own resources. He 
learned the tanner's trade, and by devoting himself to his' occupation and 
teaching at intervals, he paid his own way through Kimball Union academy 
and Dartmouth college, graduating in 1871. The following year he taught 
the Woodstock (Vt.) high school. He read law with H. W. Blair and be- 
came his partner upon coming to -the bar in 1874. Subsequently Mr. Blair 
retired from practice and Mr. George H. Adams became a member of the firm 
of Burleigh & Adams. Mr. Burleigh is a Free-Mason, member of the G. A. 
R., and an attendent at the Methodist church. His first vote was cast for 
Lincoln, and he has always been a staunch Republican. He is a positive 
and practical temperance man of the total abstinence division. He is a 
sound lawyer, and usually has one side of the contested cases in the eastern 
district of the county, as well as a large docket as referee in other parts of the 
state. He married Miss Elvira Page, of Haverhill, January 6, 1873, and they 
have two sons. Mr. Burleigh is a man of genial manners and social instincts, 
and is interested in all matters that concern the public welfare. 

Charles Adams Jewell was born in Campton, N. H., November 10, 1844, 
graduated at Kimball Union academy in 1868 and from Dartmonth college 
in the class of 1872. He was principal of Franklin high school in 1874, stud- 
ied law with Pike & Blodgett, of Franklin, and Joseph Burrows, of Plymouth, 
and was admitted to the Grafton county bar in 1875. ^^ has practiced law 
at Plymouth ever since, first in company with Joseph Burrows, and since the 
death of his partner in his own name. In politics a Democrat, he was elected 
to the New Hampshire legislature from Plymouth in 1875 and '76, was assist- 
ant clerk of the New Hampshire Senate in 1874, sohcitor of Grafton county 
in 1883-84, and has been a trustee of the State Normal school since 1876, 
and for the last four years has acted as secretary and treasurer of the board 
of trustees. He is also president of the board of education in the town of 
Plymouth, and has a good practice in his profession. 

Joseph C. Story was born in Sutton, N. H., August 30, 1856. He attended 
Phillips academy, at Exeter, and graduated at Kimball Union academy in 1875. 
For two years he was principal of Canaan Union academy. He studied law 
with Pike & Barnard and E. B. S. Sanborn, of Franklin, and George W. 
Murray, of Canaan, and completed his legal education at the Boston law 
school. In 1880 he was admitted to the New Hampshire bar, and directly 
after began practice at Wentworth, where he remained till September, 1883, 



BENCH AND BAR. 



when he removed to Plymouth, and has continued his professional work in 
the latter place to the present time. In politics he is a Republican. Though 
not a member of any church his denominational preference is toward Uni- 
tarianism. 

George H. Adams was born in Campton, N. H., May r8, 185 1. His 
father, Isaac L. Adams, is a thrifty farmer, and has held some prominent offi- 
cial positions in that town. His mother, Louisa C. Adams, is a daughter of 
the late Walter Blair, who was state senator for 1835-36, and subsequently 
judge of probate for Grafton county. He completed his preparatory studies 
at Kimball Union academy, and graduated at Dartmouth college in the class 
of 1873. I" politics he has always been a stalwart Republican, in 1876 he 
represented the town of Campton in the state constitutional convention, and 
was elected a member of the legislature of 18S3 from the town of Plymouth. 
He served as chairman of the committee on insurance during that session. 
He studied law with Blair & Burleigh, of Plymouth, and was admitted to the 
Grafton county bar at the September term of the Supreme court in 1876, and 
has since practiced his profession in Plymouth. Since 1879 he has been a 
member of the firm of Burleigh & Adams. 

RuMNEY. — Hon. Josiah Quincy* was a native of Lenox, Mass., and his 
birth occurred March 7, 1793. His father, Samuel Quincy, was a lawyer in 
Roxbury, Mass., and died many years ago. The son fitted for the sopho- 
more year of college at the Lenox academy, but concluded to forego a col- 
legiate course, and at once entered upon the study of law with Samuel 
Jones, of Stockbridge, Mass. After his admission to the bar he practiced 
his profession a few months at Stockbridge, and removed from there to Shef- 
field, Mass., where he remained a short time, and then came to Rumney, 
which place was ever afterward his home. The young lawyer, by indus- 
try and perseverance, soon gained a high rank in his profession, and his prac- 
tice extended many miles from Rumney in all directions. Not many years 
elapsed before he was known as one of the most eminent lawyers of the state, 
and when he retired from active practice in 1864, his professional business 
was said to have been as large as that of any legal gentleman in New Hamp- 
shire. He was an able and successful criminal lawyer, being retained for the 
defence in more criminal cases for many years than any other lawyer in the 
state. He was also for many years engaged as a partner in the mercantile 
business, but that never took his attention from his chosen profession, the 
law. Mr. Quincy was a prominent Democrat, and filled many public offices. 
He was several years a member of the House of Representatives, and was 
twice elected to the State Senate, both years being president of that body. 
He was also a member of the first board of trustees of the state asylum for 
the insane. In financial matters he was favorably known, and for many years 
he was an officer of the Pemigewasset bank at Plymouth. He was one of 

♦From Hon. J. E. Sargent, in Granite Monthly, November, 1SS5, and from Boston 
Journal. 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



the most active of that persevering band of men who originated and carried 
forward the building of the Boston, Concord & Montreal railroad, and was 
fourteen years the president of its board of directors. He was very active in 
educational and religious matters, and had been president of the New Hamp- 
ton academy, and a trustee of the Newton (Mass.) Theological semmary. 
The deceased had many law-students, and among them was Mr. Clifford^ 
now the distinguished judge of the United States Court. 

Mr. Quincy was many years president of the Grafton county bar. He 
was an eminent lawyer, a faithful public officer, an upright business man, and 
a generous and valuable citizen. In private hfe he was a most courteous 
gentleman and made friends in whatever circle he moved. In business affairs 
he was highly prospered and gained a large property. He married, first, 
Mary Grace Weld, daughter of Jabez H. Weld, of Plymouth, in 1819. For 
his second wife he married Miss Harriet Tufts, of Rumney, October 20, 
1845, and for his third wife, Mrs. Mary H. Dix, a native of Boston, but then 
of Woburn, Mass., June, 1868. After he was first married he built and 
occupied the office near the house where he lived ever after. His widow and 
five children survive him, — four by his first wife, and the fifth by his second 
wife, two sons and three daughters, as follows : Mrs. Martha Grace Sleeper, 
Samuel Hatch Quincy, Mrs. Elizabeth Frances Dix, Josiah Quincy, and Mrs. 
Mary Ann Kinsman. At the time of Mr. Quincy 's death, his two sons re- 
sided at Rumney, but have since removed to Lancaster, Mass., where they now 
reside ; and their sisters all reside in that vicinity. Mrs. Quincy with her 
daughter, Miss Mary H. Dix, occupies the old homestead at Rumney. The 
death of Mr. Quincy, January 19, 1875, removed one of the most eminent, 
best known and most highly esteemed of the public men of New Hampshire. 

Hon. Nathan Clifford, was born in Rumney N. H., August 18, 1803. Born 
to honorable poverty he succeeded in securing an education mainly by his 
own efforts, teaching school when he was not a pupil. Then came the hard, 
dry study of the law, which he read with Hon. Josiah Quincy, of his native 
town, being obliged to teach school winters while studying his profession, until 
at last he stands upon the threshold of a new life, well qualified for its stuggles 
and resolute to win its prizes. 

In May, 1827, he was admitted to practice law, by the Supreme Court of New 
Hampshire, and the same year he removed to Maine which was ever after his 
home. Here for more than thirty years his life was filled up with as varied, 
as useful, and as honorable experiences as heart could desire. He was for 
several years a member, and twice speaker of the House of Representatives of 
his adopted state, then he was a member of Congress for four years, then he 
was attorney-general for Maine, and afterwards attorney-general of the United 
States. He was commissioned to negotiate a treaty of peace with Mexico 
and was afterguards sent as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 
to that country. He had subseqently been engaged for several years in the 
active practice of his profession. When he was called in the year 1858 to a 



BENCH AND BAR. Iia'*" 

place on the Bench of the Supreme Court of the United States, which he 
adorned with his industry, his learning and his integrity for more then twenty- 
years. His opinions are to be found in forty-two volumes of the reports of 
United States Supreme Court. He was an upright, a painstaking, and an im- 
partial judge, no labor was too great for him if his duty required it, and it was 
his delight to search diligently for the right, and when found to declare it. In 
1877 he, as senior justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, presided 
over the commission which assigned to Mr. Hayes the disputed election to 
the Presidential chair, Mr. Clifford having uniformly voted for Mr. Tilden. 
He died at Portland Maine, July 25, 1881. 

Samuel Herbert* was admitted to the bar and located as an attorney at 
Rumney in 1846 — there he was born, December 17, 1813. there he was edu- 
cated, and there studied law with Josiah Quincy. In 1847 he moved to 
Wentworth, having bought out Col. Whipple, and practiced law there five 
years, when he returned to Rumney. He has been successful in business, 
has a family of children well established in life, and abundant leisure with 
which to enjoy his tastes and inclinations. He has performed a large amount 
of literary work, lecturing and writing on education, theology, agriculture, 
politics and government. His townsmen honored him with many of the civil 
and military offices in their gift. Several times he was representative in 
the legislature, and twice was Democratic candidate for speaker. Form- 
erly he was a Calvinist Baptist, but he has now abandoned that faith, "which," 
he says, " I once believed with all sincerity, but now disbelieve with the 
same sincerity and far more knowledge." His wife's maiden name was 
Maria Darling. 

WARREN.f — Benjamin F. Weeks is reported as an attorney of Warren 
previous to 183 1. It is said that he went west about 1832 or '^;^. 

Joseph B. Hill is named as a practitioner here from 1855 to '57. No fur- 
ther report of him has come to hand. 

Joseph W. Armington, 1861-62, is now understood to be engaged in teach- 
ing and literary pursuits. 

Samuel B. Page was at Warren from 1861 to 1869. (See Haverhill.) 

George F. Putnam followed Mr. Page in practice at Warren from 1869 to 
1876. (See Haverhill.) 

Peter Chandler, 1878-79, was also engaged in the business of teaching, and 
has died since his residence at Warren. 

Wentworth. J — Loammi Davidson, Esq., was the first lawyer that resided 
in Wentworth, so far as we can learn. He came here about 18 13, and was 
admitted to the bar in Grafton county, at the court of Common Pleas, Feb- 
ruary term, 1817, though the New Hampshire Register has his name as an 



* By A. S. Batchellor. 

t By Samuel B. Fage, Esq. 

:j:By Hon J. E. Sargent, I,L. D. 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



attorney of that court, in 1814. He never did much at law, but was more of 
a man of business. He was about five feet, ten inches in height, with side 
whiskers ; of a sprightly and animated appearance. The New Hampshire Reg- 
ister has his name as a lawyer in Wentworth for the last time in 18 19, and he 
probably left town about that time, and it is said, went to New York state, 
somewhere in the vicinity of Rochester, and died there soon after. We have 
been unable to ascertain from whence he came to Wentworth, but his wife 
was a daughter of Colonel Amos Tarleton, of Piermont, N. H. 

Hon. Warren Lovell was born in Rockingham, Vt., December 3, 1802. 
He was educated in the common school, and at the academy at Chester, Vt., 
where he continued three years. He read law with Judge Daniel Kellogg, of 
Brattleboro, Vt. He was admitted to the bar in Windham county, Vt., 
in 1825, and in the same year was admitted to the bar in this county, and 
remained in Wentworth, where he opened an office, till 1826, when he re- 
moved to Meredith Village, where he did an extensive law business, and was 
elected to the New Hampshire House of Representatives in i82S-'29-'3o-'37 
-'38 and '39, and to the state Senate in 1833 and 1834. He was appointed 
aide-de-camp by Governor Matthew Harvey, in 1830, with the title of colonel, 
and judge advocate of the second brigade, New Hampshire militia, by Gov- 
ernor Dinsmore, Sr., in 1832. In 1835 he was solicitor of Strafford county, 
and judge of probate for the same county in 1839, and when, in 1841, Bel- 
knap and Carroll were set off from Strafford, he was made judge of probate 
for the new county of Belknap, which place he held till December 2, 1872. 
He was a very popular judge of probate, always ready and willing to give the 
widow and the fatherless counsel and advice that it was always safe to fol- 
low. He was one of the trustees of the New Hampshire asylum for the 
insane, in 1847, in 1851, and in 1855. He was a commissioner of the United 
States Circuit Court for the District of New Hampshire, from 1842. He was 
a director and president of the Belknap County bank, at Laconia, for twenty 
years, from 1846. He was also a trustee of the Belknap Savings bank from 
its organization, and for a time its president. Judge Lovell married, in 1831, 
Miss Susan Badger, of Meredith, who, with two daughters, survives him. He 
died at Gilford, August 18, 1875, leaving a large estate. 

Hon. Josiah Quincy, of Rumney, soon after 1825, began to visit Went- 
worth regularly on certain days, for the purpose of attending to such law busi- 
ness as came in his way, and he soon settled down into the habit of going 
there every Saturday, riding up in the morning and returning at night, and 
attending Justice Courts, collecting for the merchants, and other law business. 
This was his constant practice up to 1840, and though he never lived in Went- 
worth, yet for more than ten years in that way, he did all the law business of 
that town, as much as though he had been a resident there. (See Rumney.) 
Col. Thorpas J. Whipple was a native of Wentworth, a son of Dr. Thomas 
Whipple, a very successful and distinguished medical practitioner there. He 
had also distinguished himself in the legislature as this state, particularly in 



.-^^«^i««a&,>.^ 








BENCH AND BAR. 112** 



1819 by introducing the bill long known as the "toleration act," and advo- 
cating its passage in an able and eloquent speech, and finally carrying his 
.measure so that it became a law. Afterwards he represented his district for 
eight years in the United States House of Representatives. Col. Whipple was 
born January 30, 18 16, educated at New Hampton, Bradford, Vt., and at Nor- 
wich university, read law with Josiah Quincy, of Rumney, and Salmon Wires, 
of Johnson, Vt., and was admitted to the bar in 1840, and settled at once in 
Wentworth, and soon had a very extensive law business. He was aid-de 
camp of Gen. Cook when only seventeen years old, and raised an independ- 
ent company, the Wentworth Phalanx, before 1840. He volunteered in the 
Mexican war, was commissioned first lieutenant in the Ninth U. S. Infantry, 
April 9, 1847, was adjutant of Col. Pierce's (afterwards Col. Ranson's) regi- 
ment in May following, went to Vera Cruz, was there taken prisoner, and was 
exchanged at Jalapa, and was on Adjutant-General Lewis's staff. He returned 
when the war was over, resigning February 23, 1848, and the people of Wen- 
worth had a public reception in his honor on his return. Soon after he set- 
tled in Laconia. In the war of the Rebellion he was lieutenant-colonel in 
the First New Hampshire regiment, colonel of the Fourth, and was chosen 
colonel of the Twelfth regiment. He has been assistant clerk and clerk of 
the New Hampshire House of Representatives, solicitor of Belknap county, 
secretary of the constitutional convention ot 1850, was a member of the con- 
stitutional convention of 1876, and has been attorney for the Boston, Con- 
cord & Montreal railroad since 1870, and also for the Lake company since 
the death of Senator James Bell. Colonel Whipple is an able though eccentric 
lawyer, an advocate of great power, with original thoughts and the power of 
forcible expression. He is one of the best of story tellers, and a mast genial 
friend and companion. In 1842 he married Miss Belinda Hadley, of Rum- 
ney, who died many years ago, leaving one daughter, who still survives. 

Benjamin Poole, Esq. — In 1844 Col. Whipple sold out his place and office 
and business to Mr. Poole, who remained only about a year and a half, his 
wife was so discontented that they finally gave up the idea of remaining, and 
Col. Whipple took back all the property he had sold to Poole, with business, 
etc., in August, 1845, ^"^ Mr. Poole left town about April, 1846, and met 
with very successful business in Boston soon after, though not in the legal 
profession. 

Samuel Herbert, Esq. (See Rumney.) 

Hon. J. Everett Sargent, LL. D.,* was born in New London, N. H., Oc- 
tober 23, 1816, the son of Ebenezer and Prudence (Chase) Sargent, the eighth 
in the order of descent from one Richard Sargent, of England, who was a 
member of the royal navy, as follows : — 

1. Richard Sargent, of England. 

2. William, son of Richard, born in England in 1602. 

*By John N. McClintock, A. M. 

7*B 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



3. Thomas, son of William, born in Amesbury, Mass., April, 1643. 

4. Thomas, Jr., son of Thomas, born in Amesbury, November, 1676. 

5. Stephen, son of Thomas, Jr., born in Amesbury, September, 17 10. 

6. Peter, son of Stephen, born in Amesbury, November 2, 1736. 

7. Ebenezer, son of Peter, born at Hopkinton, N. H., April 3, 1768. 

8. Jonathan Everett Sargent, born at New London, N. H., October 23, 
1816. 

Judge Sargent has been in every sense of the word the architect of his own 
fortune. He started at seventeen years of age for himself, under an agree- 
ment with his father that he should have the rest of his time to twenty-one, 
and was to call on his father for nothing more. He was to clothe himself and 
pay his own bills. By teaching school every wmter, after he was sixteen, and 
laboring in vacation, he fitted himself for college at Hopkinton and Kimball 
Union academies and entered Dartmouth college in 1836. He graduated in 
1840 among the first in the class, though having been out of college three 
terms besides winters, one term caused by sickness, and two terms he taught 
the academy in Canaan. He was selected from his class as a member of the 
Phi Beta Kappa society. 

After graduating he studied law with Hon. William P. Weeks, of Canaan. 
But in February, 1841, by the advice of his physician, he went south, stop- 
ping in Washington city awhile, then teaching a high school in Alexandria 
some six months and a family school in Maryland for a year, and in the 
meantime studying law under the direction of Hon. David A. Hall, of Wash- 
ington, so that he was admitted to the bar in that city in April, 1842. Re- 
turning to New Hampshire in the fall of that year he entered the office of 
Mr. Weeks, at Canaan. In 1843 he was admitted to the bar in the Supe- 
rior Court of New Hampshire, and entered into partnership with Mr. Weeks, 
where he remained until the summer of 1847. He did quite an extensive 
business at Canaan. He was aid-de-camp to Governor Steele, with the title 
of colonel; he also raised an independent company in Canaan known as the 
" Union Phalanx," of which he was commissioned as captain. After com- 
manding this company two years he ranked up and was commissioned first 
as major and then as lieutenant-colonel of that regiment, which place he re- 
signed when he moved from town. He built him a set of new buildings in 
1843, and that fall was married to Miss Maria C. Jones, of Enfield ; was also 
chairman of the building committee that built the new meeting-house on Ca- 
naan Street that year. He was appointed solicitor of Grafton county in the 
fall of 1844. In June, 1847, he removed to Wentworth, where he soon se- 
cured an extensive and lucrative law practice, was an able advocate and tried 
and argued all the state's cases and all his own suits; was re-appointed so- 
licitor in 1849, which place he held until 1854, was elected a member of the 
legislature in i85r, 1852 and 1853, the first year being chairman of the com- 
mittee on incorporations, the second year chairman of the judiciary commit- 
tee, and the third year he was elected speaker of the House of Representa- 



BENCH AND BAR. 



tives. While a member of the House he was appointed chairman of a com- 
mission to investigate the affairs of the New Hampshire Central railroad, and 
a member of a commission to erect a monument to the memory of President 
Mesheck Ware, which was done. In 1844 Mr. Sargent was elected a sena- 
tor from district No. ti, and on the meeting of the legislature he was chosen 
president of the Senate. In April, 1855, he was appointed a judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas, and in June of the same year, when the courts 
were remodeled, he was selected as the judge of the new Court of Common 
Pleas, which place he held till 1859, when that court was abolished and he 
was immediately appointed to a seat on the bench of the Supreme Judicial 
Court, which place he held fifteen years. 

While at Wentworth, in 1853, September 5, he married for his second 
wife Miss Louisa Jennie Page, daughter of deacon James K. Page, of Went- 
worth. He built several houses in Wentworth and had a large farm there. 
In 1864 and 1865 he was elected Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Free 
and Accepted Masons in 'New Flampshire, and moved to Concord in 1869, 
having been at Wentworth twenty-two years. From Dartmouth college he 
received the degree of A. M. in 1843, and in 1869 her highest honors, the 
degree of LL. D. 

On coming to Concord he was soon chosen a director of the National 
State Capital bank there, which place he still holds. In 1872 the Loan and 
Trust Savings bank was chartered at Concord, and Judge Sargent was chosen 
as its president, which place he still holds. He has long been a member of 
the New Hampshire Historical society, and for the last ten years or more has 
been one of its vice-presidents. In 1873, on the death of Chief Justice Bel- 
lows, Judge Sargent was appointed chief justice of the Supreme Judicial 
Court of New Hampshire, the highest and most honorable legal and judicial 
position in the state. In 1874 the court was abolished to make room for the 
friends of the Democratic party, which then became dominant in the state, 
and after this Judge Sargent again resumed the practice of the law with Will- 
iam M. Chase, Esq., of Concord, where he remained five years, doing an ex- 
tensive business, and in 1879 he retired from law business altogether. Since 
1878 he has been president of the New Hampshire Centennial Home for the 
Aged, at Concord ; for many years was vice-president of the New Hampshire 
Home Missionary society, and was a delegate to and attended the national 
council of Congregational churches of the United States, at St. Louis, Mo., 
in November, 1880, and also at the council of 1883, at Concord. In 1876 
he was a member of the constitutional convention of this state, and was made 
chairman of the committee on the judiciary in the convention, and was also 
a member of the House of Representatives from ward five, in Concord in 
1877 and 1878, and both years was chairman of the committee on the re- 
vision of statutes. A commission was appointed in 1877, of which Judge 
Sargent was chairman, to revise and codify the laws of the state, which work 
was accomplished and the laws enacted in 1878, and the new volume was 
printed a;id the laws took effect the first of January, 1879. 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



In June, 1879, he delivered the address at the centennial celebration in 
New London, his native town, which has been printed, and for which he has 
been highly complimented; and in 1880 he delivered a eulogy upon the life 
of Joel Parker, LL. D., late chief justice of the state, at the commencement 
at Dartmouth college, at the request of the trustees of the college, which was 
also printed. He has also prepared and delivered many addresses before 
lyceums and on other pubHc occasions, which have been favorably noticed by 
the press. While on the bench of the Supreme Judicial Court, Judge Sar- 
gent delivered some three hundred opinions, many on important questions. 
These opinions are found in Vols. 39 to 54, mclusive, of the New Hamp- 
shire reports, and exhibit great ability, learning and research. He was an 
earnest, eloquent and convincing speaker, and as a judge he was laborious, 
persevering, patient, impartial and fearless. 

His has been a busy life. Few men in the state have worked harder, or 
studied more perseveringly than he, and few men have turned their work and 
study to better account. While his great effort has always been to deserve 
success and to be worthy of distinction and honor, the public has not been 
slow in recognizing his claims, or in rewarding his highest ambitions; and 
while the highest legislative and judicial honors have been freely showered 
upon him, all have admitted that they were richly merited and worthily be- 
stowed. Judge Sargent is now a member of St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal 
church of Concord. He is enjoying life with his books and his friends, a hale 
and genial gentleman, the most distinguished and honored among the long 
list of distinguished names which Wentworth has furnished to adorn the his 
tory of the bar and of the jurisprudence of the state.* 

Hon. Lewis W. Fling. (See Bristol.) 

Hon. Thomas J.Smith was born in Dorchester, N. H., April iS, 1830. He 
was fitted for college at New Hampton academy, and graduated from Dart- 
mouth in 1848. He entered the office of Judge J. E. Sargent, at Wentworth, 
in 1852, and was admitted to the bar in January, 1855. After admission he 
was partner with Mr. Sargent, remaining until the latter's appointment to the 
bench, and afterwards practiced alone. Probably no man in the state has 
taken a deeper interest in politics than Mr. Smith. A Democrat of the 
"straightest sect," he has never deviated a hair from the support of the Demo, 
cratic party. He represented Wentworth in the legislature from 1861 to 
1865, inclusive. In 1866 he was elected to the Senate from district No. 12, 
and was re-elected in 1867. He was quite distinguished as a political speaker, 
both in the legislature and out of it, for many years. 

In 1868 he moved to Dover, desiring a more extensive field for legal prac- 
tice. The same year the paper known as the People was established at Con- 
cord, and Mr. Smith was applied to, to take charge of the political department 
of this paper, and he did devote a portion of his time and efforts to the edi- 



*.See sketch of Judge .Sargent's life in " Successful New Hampshire Men," also in the 
history of the "Bench and Bar of Merrimac County." 



BENCH AND BAR. 



torial charge of that paper, without giving up his practice at Dover. Mr. 
Smith served several years on the superintending school committee at Went- 
worth, and has been a member of the board of education several years at 
Dover, where, since the fall of 1869, he has devoted himself entirely to his 
profession. He was clerk of the constitutional convention of 1876. He is a 
sound lawyer, and has argued many cases with ability in the courts. In Sep- 
tember, 1854, he married Miss Sarah S. Kelley, of VVentworth, by whom 
he has three children, two daughters and one son. 

Charles Augustus Dole* was born at Lunenburg, Mass , June 20, 1834, the 
only son of Stephen and Martha Dole. He attended the high school at 
Lawrence, Mass., while they resided in that state, but after they removed to 
Wentworth he attended Orford academy. He studied law with Hon. J. Ev- 
erett Sargent, and was admitted to the bar at Newport, in 1857. He opened 
an office at Wentworth and practiced there "until July, 1858, when he was 
appointed clerk of the court for Grafton county and removed to Haverhill, 
where he remained as clerk until August, 1874. After this he removed to 
Lebanon where he has been in practice ever since, and is a good lawyer. He 
was chairman of the board of supervisors in that town in 1879 and 1880, 
went as representative to the legislature from Lebanon in 1881 for two years, 
and was appointed on the state board of equalization in 1883, where he still 
remains. He married, first. Miss Caroline L. McQuesten, of Plymouth, in De- 
cember, 1863, and second. Miss Helen M. Stevens, of Haverhill, in January, 
1866, by whom he has had two daughters. 

Hon. Charles Henry Bartlett was born in Suaapee, N. H., October 15, 
1833. He IS the fourth son of John and Sarali J. (Sanborn) Bartlett. He 
read law with Metcalf & Barton, at Newport, George & Foster, of Concord, 
and with Morrison & Stanley, at Manchester, from whose offtce he was ad- 
mitted to the bar in Hillsborough county in 1858. That same year he com- 
menced practice at VVentworth, and soon secured a good business. After five 
years, he removed to Manchester where he has since resided. He was in 
company with Hon. James U. Parker for some two years, after which, in 1867, 
he was clerk of the District Court for New Hampshire district, since which 
time he has not actively practiced his profession, but has devoted himself to 
the duties of his office. He was clerk of the New Hxmpshire Senate from 
186 1 to 1865, was private secretary to Governor Smythe, in 1865 and 1866. 
He was elected city solicitor and served for one year but declined re-election 
on account of his appointment as clerk of the District Court. He was also 
elected mayor of the city of Manchester, in 1873, and served for a short 
time, but resigned on learning that it vvas the policy of the general govern- 
ment that clerks of United States Courts should not hold state or municipal 
offices. He has been trustee of the Merrimack River Savings bank and the 
Peoples Saving bank, and also a director of the Merchants National bank, 



^Contributed by Hon. J. E. Sargent. 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



all of Manchester. He has been a United States commissioner since 1872. 
He was a member of the constitutional convention of 1876, and chairman 
of the commission appointed to investigate the affairs of the asylum for the 
insane. In 1881 he received from Dartmouth college the honorary degree 
of A. M. In 1882, he was elected to the New Hampshire state Senate* 
resigning his office of clerk, and was chosen president of the Senate. He 
is a prudent, cautious and practical man, who has succeeded well financially, 
and has now only to devote himself to his books and his office to become 
distinguished as a practitioner at the bar. He married, December 8, 1858, 
Miss Hannah M Eastman, of Croydon, N. H., by whom he has had two 
children, one son and one daughter, the latter of whom only survives.* 

William A. Flanders, a son of Sylvester Flanders, was born and educated 
in Canaan, commenced the study of law in 186 1 with George W. Murray, 
Esq., and was admitted to the bar in 1863. He commenced practice in 
Wentworth the same year, and has continued there ever since. He married 
Miss Angie L. Clark, of Canaan, by whom he has five children. 

Joseph Clement Story. (See Plymouth.) 

COURT HOUSES. 

The first court-house was built about three quarters a mile north of the 
present hotel at North Haverhill. In the detailed account of the expenses, 
by Asa Porter, who made out his account against " the Committee for erect- 
ing the Court-House and Goal in Haverhill," the first item was charged in 
May, T773, and the last in May or June, 1775. This account was not finally 
settled till September, 1791. The court-house and jail were all one building. 
Among the items charged, and allowed, were for the raising, which commenced 
on the igth and continued till the 30th of November, 177-, when they used 
about forty-five gallons of rum, at 6s. per gallon, 650 pounds of beef, bread 
that cost 4^, 9s., one and one- half gallons of molasses, at 6s. per gallon, and 
twenty-five pounds of pork. This court-house and jail were used until 1793, 
when Charles Johnson gave an acre of land at the " Corner" for the jail, where it 
now stands, and he and other citizens prepared a building for the use of the 
courts and offered it to the court, which accepted it with a vote of thanks. 

*See Granite Monthly, Vol. 6, page 281. 

[Note. — Many natives, early residents, or former practitioners in Grafton county, are 
now members of th-j bar in the prominent towns in other parts of the state. At Laco- 
nia, are Col. D. J. Whipple and ex-Judge E. A. Hibbard ; at Franklin. Senator A.. F. 
Pike, Hon. Daniel Barnard and Judge Isaac N. Blodgett; at Concord, Hon. J. E. Sar- 
gent, Hon. Lyman D. Stevens, Hon. Josiah Minot, William M. Chase, Esq., Sylvester 
Dana, Esq., John M. Mitchell, Esq., H. M. Cavis, Esq., George M. F. Fletcher, Esq., 
F. S. Streeter, Esq., A. B. Thompson, secretary of state, and Judge A. P. Carpenter ; at 
Manchester, Hon. Charles R. Morrison, Hon. Joseph F. Briggs, Hon. E. M. Topliff, 
Hon. Charles H. Bartlett, William Little, Esq., C. A. Sulloway, Esq., and Senator H. 
W. Blair; at Exeter, Gen. Gilman Marston and E. G. Eastman, Esq. — Editor.] 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 



The last record of a meeting of a court in the old court-house was Tues- 
day, June 3, 1793. This new house was on the ground now occupied by 
Haverhill academy. About that time the academy was chartered and the 
county and academy finally owned the building in common, and it was used 
as a court-house until the present one of brick was built in 1843-44. The 
county offices were built in 1837. 

The first court-house erected in Plymouth, in 1774, was a one-story wooden 
building, in size about 30x30, with a cupola. It was removed the same year 
by David Webster, to Russell hill, directly in the rear of the present resi- 
dence of John M. Mudgett, corner of Russell and Pleasant streets. It was 
sometimes used as a school-house before it was abandoned as a court-house. 
An old lawyer named Smilie there taught some ot the children who after- 
wards became prominent men of the town. It was there that Daniel and 
Ezekiel Webster made their early if not first professional efforts. After the 
building of the present court-house, in 1823, Hiram Farnum purchased the 
old court-house and removed it to the lower end of Main street, on the east 
side thereof, and about three rods south of the present residence of William 
R. Park. It was occupied as a wheelwright shop from that time until the 
death of Mr. Farnum, a few years subsequent to the close of the Rebellion, 
Mr. Farnum used to say that Daniel Webster came into his shop one day, 
while on a tour to the White mountains, and with a paint brush made a mark 
on the spot v/here he stood while making his plea to the jury. While mov- 
ing the building the cupola had to be taken off on account of a large elm 
tree on Main street, and was never again placed upon the structure. After 
the death of Mr. Farnum the building remained unoccupied till about 1876, 
when to prevent its destruction and for the purpose of preserving a valuable 
historic relic, Hon. H. W. Blair purchased the building, procured a lease of 
the ground directly in the rear of the present court-house in Plymouth, moved 
it upon that lot and restored its exterior, so far as it could be done, to its 
original plan, finish and proportions. He then deeded the building in trust 
to the Young Ladies' Library Association, of Plymouth, to be held and used 
for the purposes of a circulating library, and it has since been used in accord- 
ance with the trust created. 

COUNTY FARM, 

Grafton county farm cost, in 1868, $20,000, and is located two miles south 
of Woodsville. on Connecticut river, in Haverhill. The buildings, erected in 
1868, cost $15,623.54; stock, furnishing, tools, &c., $5,461.05; total, $41,- 
084 59. The buildings are of wood, commodious, pleasantly located, and 
neatly painted. 

INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

From time immemorial Connecticut river was the favorite pathway of In- 
dian travel, and later became the great highway of the white settlers in its val- 
ley. But with the increase of population came the increase of commerce 
and travel, and it soon became apparent that some more convenient mode of 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



transportation must be devised than was afiforded by the rude flat-boats of 
the Connecticut, or by the stage lines which traversed the several turnpike 
systems. Accordingly, October 29, 1829, the legislatures of New Hampshire 
and Vermont passed an act incorporating the " Connecticut River Steam- 
boat Company," the charter being given to " Jonathan H. Hubbard, Freder- 
ick Peters, George D. Button, Isaac W. Hubbard, Edward R. Campbell, 
Albert G. Hatch, David H. Sumner, William Hall, James I. Cutler, Alexan- 
der Fleming and their associates." This charter was altered, however, No- 
vember 5, 1830, to the ''Connecticut River Valley Steamboat Company," 
allowing the corporation to " purchase, hold and convey real estate to the 
value of $20,000.00." Canals and locks were built where rapids or falls oc- 
curred, so that the Connecticut navigation became very convenient from 
Hartford, Conn., to the "Fifteen Mile" fall at Dalton, in Coos county. One of 
the canals and locks was built at Bellows Falls, one at Sumner's falls, and 
another at Olcott's falls. Between these falls, except between Sumner's and 
Olcott's, were located steamers, which were plied until the canal was reached, 
when the passengers and freight had to be transferred to the steamer waiting 
at the other end of the canal, though the flat-boats, rafts, etc., made through 
trips, using the locks. 

Although steam navigation on the Connecticut was never brought to a 
point of practical utility, its history begins with the history of the steamboat 
itself, briefly as follows : About the beginning of the century there lived two 
brothers Morey, Samuel and Ithamar, the former at Orford and the latter at 
Fairlee, Vt., — Samuel, with a remarkable genius for invention, and Ithamar, 
a skillful mechanic. The universal applicability of steam had already been 
demonstrated, and among those who undertook its application to navigation 
was Samuel Morey. Under his direction Ithamar built a steamboat, which 
actually navigated the waters of the Connecticut between Orford and Fairlee. 
Of this steamboat, which had its machinery in its bow, Samuel took a model 
to New York and showed it to Fulton, who was experimenting to the same 
end. Fulton was pleased with the work, and suggested to Morey to change 
the machinery to tlie middle of the boat. This he returned to Fairlee to do, 
and then took his model again to New York, to find that Fulton had made 
use of his ideas and was ahead of him in getting out a patent. He returned 
home disappointed and with a sense of injury. Several years since, J. H. 
Simons, of Windsor, Vt., informed us that he himself has seen in Fairlee 
pond the remains of Morey's boat. 

The first real attempt at steamboat navigation on the Connecticut, how- 
ever, was made in 1827, when the "Barnet," a strong boat was built, and suc- 
ceeded, with some help, in ascending the river as far as Bellows Falls. This 
was her first and last trip, however, for she was taken back to Hartford, laid 
up, and finally broken to pieces. In 1829 a Mr. Blanchard built a boat 
called the ''Blanchard," and another eighty feet long and fourteen feet wide,, 
drawing only twelve or fifteen inches of water, called the "Vermont." The 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 



Stroke of its piston was horizontal, and its engine of 120 horse-power. A few 
experimental trips were made between Bellows Falls and Barnet, but the ob- 
stacles were such that the undertaking was relinquished. The navigation 
company also built a steamer called the "Williams Holmes," plying from Mon- 
tague to Bellows Falls, where it connected with one called the "Barnet," 
while one other, Ihe "John Ledyard," came up as far as Wells River. F'inally, 
in 1832, a boat 100 feet long, called the "Adam Duncan," was built on the 
banks of the Connecticut just above the mouth of Wells river. Its trial trip, 
widely advertised, was to occur July 4th of that year, and a great crowd gath- 
ered to participate in the excursion to Hanover. When about a mile north 
of Haverhill, however, a steam pipe was broken, and the escaping steam 
caused a panic, in the midst of which Dr. Joseph Dean, of Bath, stepped or 
fell overboard and was drowned. The excursion was terminated, and the 
boat, being disabled, drifted aground and soon floated down to "Bailey's 
eddy," and sunk in deep water; but it was afterward raised and made the 
trip to Hanover, though its powers were found unequal to making the return 
trip, and it was tied up and abandoned to its fate. The remains of its hull, 
up to a recent date, were visible in the river above Olcott's falls. The captain 
of the "Adam Duncan," Horace Duncan, ot Monroe, is still living. A steamer 
run by Captain Nutt, of White River Junction, was built in 1830, so as to be 
locked through the entire distance, but it did not prove a success. 

More than fifty years ago aged men claimed that when they were young, 
long before dams and locks were known here, fiat-bottomed boats were used 
for conveying freight on the levels between the several falls of the streams. 
Each succession of falls necessitated the transportation of freight to other 
boats waiting at their foot or head, as the case might be, until Hartford, 
Conn., was reached, which was then, as now, the head of sea navigation, 
situated about sixty miles inland. The boats used then were small, eight tons 
being considered a good load for one ; but after the canals and locks were 
completed they were'made much larger. The farther up the river one passed, 
however, the smaller he would find the locks and boats, the "up country 
boats" being capable of carrying about twenty-five tons. The largest, and 
also the last, boats used as far up as Hinsdale were owned by Messrs. John 
B. Capron and Edward Alexander, of Winchester. They were sixty-eight 
feet in length, fourteen feet beam, would carry thirty-six tons, and drew eight 
inches of water, the draught being increased to three feet under load. Each 
was supplied with a mast thirty-three feet in height, though a sliding topr 
mast of twenty additional feet was arranged to bt used at will. Their two 
sails, main and top sail, aggregated a 200 square yards surface of canvass, 
and though square-rigged, it is said, the unwieldy crafts were capable of sail- 
ing in a nearly side wind, providing it be strong and steady. Handsomely 
painted, cleanly kept, and supplied with a well-furnised cabin, however, these 
boats presented by no means a bad appearance. 

The advent of the railroad was heralded, however, about 1850. It called 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



the business from the river, and its flat-boats, its canals, its locks and its 
romance, are among the things of the past. 

Tlie Boston, Concord &■ Montreal railroad. — The following remarks rela- 
tive to this railroad we quote from the manuscript " Personal recollections," 
of Dr. Phineas Spalding, of Haverhill. -'After the railroad had been built 
from Boston to Concord, N. H., for some years, it was thought it would not 
be extended any farther into the country. The citizens of Concord were not 
■desirous that it should be, and the Democratic party, who had control of the 
state, were opposed to granting any more charters. There was no move- 
ment made until one evening Harry Stevens, Esq., of Barnet, Vt., while at 
my house, suggested to me that we get up a railroad meeting at Haverhill. 
I drew up a call, which was signed by Harry Stevens, myself, and many oth- 
ers. The meeting was very fully attended by prominent men from Canada, 
Northern Vermont and Grafton county. The subject of building a railroad 
from Concord to Montreal was fully discussed, and a petition for a charter for 
a road from Concord to Wells River was drawn up. I was chosen to appoint 
efficient men in the towns along the proposed route to circulate the petition, 
and the work was most thoroughly done. The charter was granted to B., C. 
& M. R. R., December 27, 1844. The corporation was immediately organ- 
ized, subscription papers for stock circulated, and the survey made. 

" The people of Canada and along the line of the Passumpsic united in the 
enterprise, giving assurance that they would continue the road from Wells 
River to Montreal. About the same time another charter vvas granted, for a 
road to extend from Concord to the mouth of White river, and there connect 
with the Vermont Central. These last two roads endeavored to defeat the 
building of the BDston, Concord & Montreal road by the pledge of $750,- 
000.00 to the Passumpsic to induce this corporation to retract its promises 
and join with them, and together they thre>v every obstacle in the way of the 
success of the B., C. &. M. enterprise. One scheme to defeat the enterprise 
was a proposition to form a junction at Canaan, on the Northern, thence ex- 
tend a railroad through Lyme, Orford, Piermont and Haverhill, to Wells 
River ; and this route was surveyed, but no further work was done." 

In consequence of all this opposition, however, the building of the B., C. 
& M. road was retarded, it being opened to various points in its course as 
follows : to Sanbornton Bridge, now Tilton, May 22, 1848 ; to Meredith Bridge, 
now Laconia, August 8, 1848 ; to Lake Village, October i, 1848 ; to Mere- 
•^ith Village, Mirch 19, 1849; to Plymouth, January 21, 1850; to Warren, 
June, 185 1 ; and to Wells River, May 10, 1853. The White Mountains Rail- 
road, an extension northward of the mam line, was chartered December 24, 
1848 ; opened to Littleton in August, 1853 ; to Lancaster in November, 1870; 
to Northumberland in August, 1872 ; to Fabyan's in July, 1874; and to the 
base of Mt. Washington, July 6, 1876. The White Mountainsroad wasconsoli- 
dated with the B., C. & M. in 1873, the owners of the former receiving 
$300,000.00 in six per cent, consolidated bonds for their property. The cost 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 



of the line from Concord to Woodsville was $2,850,000.00. No dividends 
have been paid on the old "common stock, amounting to $459,600.00. The 
preferred stock, amounting to $800,000.00, has paid six per cent, dividends 
since 1867. The bonded indebtedness of the road, origmally incurred and 
covering the construction of the extensions and branches, amounts to $3,069- 
000.00. The whole Hne was leased to the Boston & Lowell road, June i, 
1884, at six per cent, on preferred stock, and five per cent, thereafter for the 
term of ninety-nine years. The road extends from Concord to Wells River, 
Vt., a distance of 93.5 miles ; thence to Groveton Junction, on the Grand 
Trunk railroad, 51.95 miles ; its branches being from Wing Road station 
to the base of Mt. Washington, 20.4 miles, and from Plymouth to North 
Woodstock, twenty-one miles. The latter, known as the Pemigewasset rail- 
road, was completed in 1883, at a cost of $300,000.00. 

The Northern Railroad, extending from Concord to White River Junction, 
Vt., a distance of 69.5 miles, with a branch from Franklin to Bristol, 13.41 
miles, was originally chartered June 18, 1844 ; but this charter was superseded 
December 27, 1844, because it contained no provision to take land. The Bris- 
tol branch, chartered as the Franklin & Bristol railroad, July 8, 1846, was con- 
solidated with the Northern, January i, 1869. The Northern road was opened 
to Frankhn, December 28, 1846, and was operated by the Concord railroad 
until the completion of the line to Grafton, on the first day of September, 

1847. On the 1 7th of November, following, the road was opened to Labanon, 
and to White River Junction in June, 1848. The Bristol Branch, opened in 

1848, cost $200,000.00, or $16,000.00 per mile. The Northern road cost, 
exclusive of Branch, $2,868,400.00. It is leased to the Boston & Lowell road 
for ninety-nine years, at five per cent. 

The Portland cS- Ogdensburg railroad, extending from Portland, Me., to 
Lunenburg, Vt., a distance of 114 miles, whence the system is extended to 
Swanton, on Lake Champlain, 120 miles, was chartered in New Hampshire 
in 1869. Construction was begun in 1870, and the road was opened to Fa- 
byan's August 7, 1875, a distance of ninety-one miles. From Fabyan's to 
Scott's Mills, twenty-miles, the Portland & Ogdensburg runs upon the iron of 
the Boston, Concord & Montreal railroad. The road and equipments cost 
$4,035,262.00, of which $1,052,185.00 is in stocks, $3,177,000.00 in funded 
indebtedness, and $175,000.00 in receivers certificates. On the first of April, 
1884, the physical and financial condition of the road rendered it advisable to 
place it in the hands of a receiver, which was done by decree of the Supreme 
Judicial Court of Maine, confirmed by the U. S. Circuit Court for the district 
of New Hampshire. Samuel Anderson, of Portland, was appointed receiver. 

The Profile &' Franconia Notch railroad, a narrow gage road extending 
from Bethlehem Station on the Boston, Concord & Montreal railroad to the 
Profile House, ten miles, and from the same point to Bethlehem Street, three 
and one half miles, a total of thirteen and one half miles, was chartered July 
II, 1878, and opened July i, 1879. The road cost $191,017.99 ; equipment. 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



$24,945,03 ; total $216,017 02. The capital stock is $200,000.00. Six per 
cent, dividends have been paid since the opening of the road, with the excep- 
tion of the opening year, when four per cent, was paid, and in 1882, when 
the dividend was seven per cent. The Bethlehem Branch, three and one half 
miles, was constructed in 1882. 

The Sawyer River railroad, built in 1877, is a branch extending from the 
P. & O. R. R., into Livermore, for lumbering purposes 

NEWSPAPERS. j 

The following sketch of the newspaper enterprises that have been estab- 
lished in the county, we have arranged by towns, in alphabetical order, the 
names of live papers being printed in small capitals: — 

Ashland. — The Ashland Advance, published by W. A. Roberts, was 
estabhshed by C. H. Kimball, May 19, 1881. 

The Ashland Item, published by R. R.. D. Dearborn, was established at 
about the same time as the Advance. 

Bethlehem. — The White Mountain Echo was the first paper of its kind 
published in the United States giving summer resort information, with a 
weekly directory of visitors in the district in which it is published. The idea 
was taken from European papers, where many of like character have been 
published, while tlie style and form was copied from the illustrated weeklies. 
The Echo was first published in Bethlehem, in 1878, by Markinfield Ad- 
dey, who continues to be its editor and proprietor. It is an illustrated 
weekly of from sixteen to twenty-four pages, published every Friday morning 
for twelve weeks during the tourist season, its principal features being in- 
formation relative to the White Mountains, social gossip, and directory of 
guests stopping at hotels and boarding-houses in the region. 

Bristol. — The Bristol Weekly News, a twenty-four column newspaper, 
was established here May 22, 1869, by Isaac B. Gordon. It was published just 
one year, and then discontinued. A few months previous to its suspension, 
the office of publication was in the old "South Alexandria^ meeting-house," 
two miles from Bristol village. This was destroyed by fire, the week the 
paper was discontinued. 

The Weekly Enterprise ^d.% established in Bristol, June 22, 1878, by Rich- 
ard W. Musgrove. This was a sixteen column folio. Four weeks later it was 
enlarged to a twenty column. January i, 1879, ^t was enlarged to a twenty- 
four column, and its name changed to the "Bristol Weekly Enterprise." 
At the commencement of its fourth volume, in June, 1882, it appeared as a 
twenty-eight column folio, and in June, 1884, commenced its sixth volume as 
a thirty-two column folio. It now has a circulation of 1,600, and is one of 
the best papers in the county. 

Canaan. — About twenty-five years ago, G. F. Kimball and James Barnard 
bought a press and started a paper here, calling it The United States Ga- 
zette. It was devoted chiefly to personalities, lottery and gift enterprises. It 



NEWSPAPERS. Iia"-" 

had a lingering existence from the start, and when it ceased to exist, its loss 
was scarcely missed, even by those who had paid their subscription in advance. 

The Canaan Reporter appeared in 1867, in two small pages, published 
by C. O. Barney, a young man who had just finished his school education. 
The paper has been enlarged from time to time, and has grown to be an in- 
stitution of influence. The office is well appointed, and its work is done with 
tasts and neatness. The proprietor now sends forth from his office, the Ca- 
naan Reporter, the Mascoma Register, the Concord Tribiune, and the 
Kearsarge Sentinel, giving a circulation of about 6,000 copies, 1,500 of 
which are in the town of Canaan. 

Enfield. — Rev. Ebenezer Chase at one time edited a periodical devoted 
to the interests of Freemasonry. He was one of the charter member of 
Social Lodge, in 1827, and at that time was a Congregational clergyman, and 
preached here. This periodical was called the Masonic Casket, and is thought 
to have been identical with the one printed at Haverhill. 

Hanover.* — The Dresden Mercury, by Alden Spooner, 1778-79. Of this 
paper no specimens are preserved. 

The Eagle and Dartmouth Sentinel, later the Eagle, from July 22, 179 3, to 
June, 1799, edited by Josiah Dunham until 1796, by Benjamin True until 
1798, and by Moses Fiske until 1799. 

The Dartmouth Gazette, from August 27, 1799, to June 3, 1820, published 
and edited by Moses Davis until 1808, and then by Charles Spear (part of the 
time with his brothers, William and Henry). 

The American, by David Watson, Jr., from February 7, 1816, to April 2, 
1817. 

The Dartmouth Herald, by Bannister & Thurston, from June 21, 1S20, to 
July 25, 1821. 

These were all country newspapers, in the ordinal y sense of the term, and 
had no special connection with the college or the students. They were issued 
weekly, on four pages, ranging in size from ten by seventeen inches to twelve 
by twenty inches. 

The Literary Tablet, published also by Moses Davis, from August 6, 1803, 
to August 5, 1807, was a bi-weekly paper, of four quarto pages, ten inches by 
twelve. It was edited by Davis himself, with the assistance of other gentle- 
men under the nom de plume of "Nicholas Orlando," and was purely literary 
in its character. 

Subsecjuent to 1830 there is said to have been published for a brief period 
a paper entitled The Hanover Chronicle, of which little is known, and in Oc- 
tober, 1835, three or four numbers of an Independent Chronicle find contem- 
poraneous mention ; but it is not known that any copies of either remain. In 
the same year, 1835, beginning wich October 21st, there appeared a bi-weekly 

*For this sketch of the Hanover journalistic ventures we are indebted to Hon. Freder- 
ick Chase, of Hanover. 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



literary venture under the name of the Magnet, that survived some little time. 
It was printed by a Thomas Mann, for a " social conclave, " in the form of a 
sixteen page octavo. 

In October, 1837, a single number was issued by the same printer of a sim- 
ilar paper, under the name of The Scrap Book, conducted by "a literary club 
of under-graduates in Dartmouth college." 

This was followed in November, 1839, by The Dartmouth, which was es- 
tablished and conducted by the students under a committee annually selected 
by the senior class. It was the first organized effort for the establishment of 
a journalism distinctly collegiate, and resulted in a distinguished success. This 
was a magazine of ten numbers a year, in octavo form, each containing thirty 
or forty pages, with a handsome cover. Five volumes were issued, terminat- 
ing in June, 1844. 

In 1840 E. A. Allen, then the printer, began the publication of an octavo 
literary pamphlet styled the Iris arid Record, which survived some months, we 
do not precisely know how many. In the same year an attempt was made by 
Mr. Allen to revive the village newspaper. With that object he started. May 
II, 1840, The Experiment, a four page demy. Proving successful, it was en- 
larged, November 17, 1840, and rechristened The Amulet. As such it con- 
tinued at least into its second year. 

In August, 1841, the state organization of the literary party established an 
organ at Hanover, under the name of The People's Advocate, published by 
St. Clair & Briggs, agents of the committee. In June, 1843, it passed into 
the hands of Joseph E. Hood, an ardent abolitionist and a briUiant man. In 
February, 1844, he replaced it with The Family Visitor, a quarto of eight 
pages, which ceased with the sixteenth number, June 5, 1844. 

The Valley Star, published by Simpson & Weeks in September and Octo- 
ber, 1850, was a Democratic organ, but ceased with four or five numbers. 

The Parents' Monitor and Young Peoples' Friend, printed by Rev. David 
Kimball, from 1845 to 1850, was a quarto of eight pages, designed for a fam- 
ily paper. 

The Dartmouth Advertiser was issued monthly from March, 1853, to April, 
1854, primarily as an advertising medium, by I. O. Dewey, an enterprising 
merchant. Eleven regular numbers were issued. 

There have been numerous publications of an occassional nature, but none 
other of a permanent character (except those mentioned below) until the es- 
tablishment of the Hanover Gazette, xVIay 23, 1885, printed by P. H. 
Whitcomb, under the editorial management of Dorrence B. Currier. It is 
modelled in size and style somewhat after the old Dartmouth Gazette, and is 
a handsome and creditable newspaper. 

The era of modern college ]o\!irxidX\%vi\ began with a modest venture in April, 
1851, styled the Dartmouth Index, at first in quarto form, four pages, and then 
octavo of eight. In July, 1855, this was supplanted by the Plueuix, edited 
by Edward H. Kimball, and afterwards by his brother, W. F. D. Kimball, 



NEWSPAPERS. 



which combined the features of the Index with editorials and advertisements. 
It contained four pages, twelve by nineteen inches, and was published thrice a 
year, at the beginning of each college term, at five cents a copy. At the close 
of the college year in 1858, the F/itrnix was left without an editor, and the 
incoming junior class (which was to graduate in i860) undertook to continue 
it as a class matter, under the name of The ^-Egis. The first number ap- 
peared in an improved form, September, 1858, and the paper was regularly 
continued by successive junior classes with great success, until April, 1867, 
when it was thrown into octavo form, with a cover, and increased in price 
and from time to time in volume and pretentiousness, until now it appears but 
once a year, about New Years, at fifteen times the price of the more useful 
little paper. 

In 1S67 The Dartmouth was revived as a monthly magazine, in much the 
same form that it wore twenty-five years before, as a purely literary magazine, 
and was very successfully published by the senior classes down to 1875, when 
it was changed to a quarto form, reduced in number of pages, and issued for a 
time weekly. Since September, 1879, "^^ ^"'^s been a bi-weekly, and it still flour- 
ishes. It has lost to a considerable extent its exclusively literary character,, 
by the admission of advertisements and by giving more attention to current 
college matters. 

T/ie Anvil was a personal venture of a talented st-udent, Fred A. Thayer, 
a graduate of 1873. It began January 2t^^ 1873, and continued nearly a year, 
winning great praise. 

Haverhill. — A small paper was published here for about six months prior 
to 1800, by Nathaniel Coverly ; and three or four numbers of a magazine 
were published by Mosely Dunham. The Coos Courier, another small 
sheet, was begun April 21, 1808, and continued for a short time. 

The New Hampshire Intelligencer W3t.?, begun in November, 1819, by Syl- 
vester T. Goss. In 1826 the sheet was enlarged from four to five columns, 
but was discontinued soon after. The press and material passed into the 
hands of J. R. Reding, who established the Democratic Republican. During 
this time, also, Mr. Goss published the Evangelist, a religious paper, for a 
short time. 

The Masonic Casket, a sixteen-page monthly, "designed for the benefit of 
all Free and Accepted Masons," was established by Mr. Goss, also, in Janu- 
ary, 1824, but we cannot say how long it was continued, but certainly more 
than two years. 

The New Hampshire Post and Grafton and Cods Advertiser was estab- 
lished in July, 1827, by Atwood & Woolson. It was a four-page, five-column 
weekly, and advocated the re-election of John Quincy Adams to the presi- 
dency. In April, 1829, it had been enlarged to six columns, and Moses G. 
Atwood's name appears as publisher, Woolson having retired. In the same 
number notice is given that he had " sold to John L. Bunce and will retire." 
George S. Tow'e, a lawyer, afterwards bought the paper ^nd continued it 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



until the fire of 1848 destroyed the ofiice, when he removed to Lebanon and 
continued the sheet, having changed its name, in 1844, to the Granite State 
Whig. 

The Democratic Republican and General Advertiser was estabHshed July 
23, 1828, by John R. Reding, who bought out the New Hampshire hitelli- 
geticer. It was a paper of four pages and twenty-four columns. John R. 
Reding, its publisher, was postmaster at Haverhill ten years, and became 
New Hampshire's representative in Congress in 1841, and was re-elected in 
1843. Politically the paper was an advocate of Democratic principles. 
Upon the election of Mr. Reding to Congress, his brother, H. W. Reding, 
became his partner in the paper and edited the sheet, with the exception of 
the years 1852-53, when his brother was with him until January 14, 1863, 
when the following announcement appeared: ''To our readers: After this 
number the publication of the Democratic Republican will be discontinued. 
H. W. Reding." This paper was of the most pronounced Democratic pro- 
chvities. After it was discontinued no paper was pubUshed at Haverhill until 
October, 1S82, when W. Cone Mahurin bought the office and material and 
established the Grafton Countv Signal and Democratic Republican, de- 
voted to local and general matters, and claiming adherence to independent 
Republicanism. He continued to publish the paper two years, and in De- 
cember, 1S84, sold it to Joseph H. Dunbar, A. M., who has since published 
it. In December, 1885, he changed its form, making it eight pages of four 
columns each, and adopted the custom of cutting and pasting the paper for 
mailing. 

The Whig and Argus was published here for a short time by J. F. Hayes, 
but we have not been able to obtain dates 

The Haverhill Herald sNds established by Pringle & Scott, May 17. 1879, a 
five-column four-page weekly. Q. A. Scott sold his interest to his partner, 
William A. Pringle, about three months later, who sold to William Arthur 
Jones in 1880. He also changed the name to the Advertiser and Budget of 
Fun, which, after a year, was discontinued for want of support. 

The Woodsville Enterprise was established by Eli B. Wallace, in July 
1883, he having purchased the office and material of the defunct Advertiser 
He still continues the publication, a neat four-page, seven-column sheet, 
printed at Littleton. 

The Olivcrian, a four-page sheet, was issued in December, 1885, in which 
the publisher's notice was as follows : "The Oliverian is published by the 
pastor of the Methodist Episcopal church, East Haverhill, in the insterest of 
the church. The net proceeds will be devoted to building anew fence about 
the church proj^ertv. William A. Loyne, editor ; Guy W. Richardson, as- 
sistant. 

The Grafton County Register was established by the firm of Bittinger 
Brothers, in January, 1886. It is an independent local newspaper, of four 
seven-column pa^es, published at $1.35 per year. It is ably edited, and the 



NEWSPAPERS. 



entire office being equipped with new material, steam presses, etc., the me- 
chanical make-up of the sheet is pleasing and attractive. 

Lebanon. — The Granite State Whig, started at Haverhill, in 1844, by 
■Geor2;e S. Towle, was removed to Lebanon, in 1848, and published by Towle 
•till August I, 1861. In 1859 the name was changed to the Granite State 
Free Press. It was purchased by E. H. Cheney, the present proprietor, in 
1 85 1, and has been conducted by him since, with the exception of four year- 
— 1875 to 1879 — when Fred W. Cheney, son of the latter, was proprietors 
The Free Press is a Republican weekly, issued Fridays. It has eight 26x40 
inch pages, and has a circulation of 1,450 copies, at $1.25 per year. 

The Ne7u Hampshire Weekly News was started by William M.. Kendall, 
Jr., in 1875, and was continued about one year. 

The Dollar Weekly Ne^vs was established by the same proprietor, in 1879, 
and was discontinued January i, i88o. Mr. Kendall now publishes the 
JBiidget, at Manchester. 

Lisbon. — The Lisbon Index was founded in September, 1882, by Lucius 
A. Young, the present proprietor. It has eight pages, forty-eight columns, is 
independent in politics, and has a circulation of 800. A bright, breezy local 
sheet. 

Littleton. — The Ammonoosuc Reporter, the first newspaper published in 
Littleton, was established by F. A. Eastman, in July, U852. Mr. Eastman, 
who subsequently moved west and became postmaster of Chicago, and is 
now an editor in Wisconsin, published the paper until the autumn of 1854, 
when he was succeeded by Van N. Bass and L. D. Churchill. In January, 
1855, the name of the paper, which was Democratic in politics, was changed 
to the White Mountain Banner. Mr. Bass soon after became sole proprietor. 
The paper ran several years, and was finally suspended. 

The People s Journal ^^2.% started in f855, by H. W. Rowell, as a Know- 
Nothing organ, subsequently Republican. In 1859 this paper passed into the 
hands of William Davis, who was succeeded by William J. Bellows, in 1861. 
Mr. Bellows published it a few years, when it was united with the Lebanon 
Free Press. 

The Littleton Gazette, a neutral paper, was started by Rowell & Smith, in 
1865. Smith soon retired, and L. W. Rowell continued the paper until Oc- 
tober, 1867, when it was purchased by C. E. Carey, and changed to a Demo- 
j cratic paper, under the name of the White Mountain Republic, which has 
I been continued under varied managements, to the present time, George C. 
I Furber being the present proprietor. The paper has a large circulation. 
I The Littleton Argus, a Republican paper, was started by James S. Peavey, 
j in December, 1875, ^.nd was united with the Cods Republican, of Lancaster, 
i in May, 1878. 

I The Littleton Journal, also Republican in politics, vvas established by 
I B. F. Robinson and P. R. Goold, January i, 1880. The Journal is a flour- 
ishing paper, and has a large circulation in the community. 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



The Musical Bulletin, "a monthly journal devoted to the best interests of 
musicians and the trade," was started in Littleton, by D. F. Chase, in Janu- 
ary, 1883. It is still continued by hin). 

Lyme. — The Weekly Boomerang was started in April, 1884, nominally 
published in Lyme by the "Boomerang Publishing Company," but in reality 
printed at East Canaan. "The Boomerang Pubhshing Company was Will E. 
Shaw, who, after securing a paid subscription list of between two and three 
hundred names, and a good advertising patronage, let the paper die of neg- 
lect, an infant of seven or eight weeks. Such was the feeling among the 
subscribers, however, that he compromised by sending them the Mascoma 
Registe;^ for the term of their subscription. 

Our Church Work is an eight page paper, eleven by fifteen inches, pub- 
lished at the beginning of January, April, July and October, of each year, by 
Rev. E. P. Butler, pastor of the Congregational church in Lyme, at the nom- 
inal price of tv^enty-five cents per annum. The first number was issued in 
November, 1880. It was designed to subserve the interests of the church 
above mentioned ; but no other paper being published in town, it has come to 
be considered an authority regarding current events in the place, as well as in 
the religious and secular world at large, and not only has a generous patron- 
age in the immediate vicinity, but is eagerly sought by natives and former 
residents of this section who have become citizens of other places. 

Plymouth. — The Grafton Journal ^2^% \\-\t ^\'?,l paper published here, in 
1825, by a Mr. Moore. 

The White Mountain Bugle appeared next, in 1844, published for a year 
by John R. French, afterward sergeant-at-arms of the U. S. Senate. It was 
a cranky, rabid, anti-slavery sheet, and survived but a year. 

The Grafton County Journal was established in November, 1874, by 
John C. Cushman, who had been running a paper in Pittsfield, N. H. After 
two or three weeks he sold out to John H. Dearborn, who run it until May^ 
1876, when he sold to C. H. Kimball and O. N. Flanders, both of Manches- 
ter, N. H. In May, 1877, Flanders sold to Rev. J. H. Temple, a Unitarian 
minister, who remained until July, 1878, when he sold to Charles H. Kim- 
ball, who run it alone until September i, 18S5, when he sold to W. A. Rob- 
erts, of Massachusetts, the present [)roprietor. The paper is neutral in politics. 
In September, 1880, Mr. Kimball started the Republican Star, and on July 
7, 1883, the Exchange, both of which were running on September i, 1885, 
the date he sold to Roberts. 

The Grafton County Democrat was established January i, 1878, by 
William M. Kendall, of Lebanon. After running it six months he sold la 
Lewis & Sanborn, of Laconia, they, as did Kendall, employing Van N. Bass 
to manage it. On January i, 1880, they sold to V. N. Bass and Edward L. 
Houghton, who run it. six months, or until July, 1880, when Houghton sold, 
to Bass, who run it alone until 1883, when he sold to the Democrat Pub- 
lishing Co., Miron W. Hazeltine, manager, who are at present running it. As- 
\% name indicates it is Democratic in politics. 



ABORIGINAL OCCUPANCY. 



ABORIGINAL OCCUPANCY. 

The region of country embraced within the limits of Grafton county was 
probably never the permanent home of any Indian tribe ; that is, no large 
body of savages ever congregated for any length of time within its borders, 
but like the nomads of the desert, wandered from place to place. Bancroft 
tells us that the Algonquin race occupied the whole Atlantic coast, from the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence to Cape Fear. The Indians of the interior were known 
and called among the tribes upon the sea-shore by the general name of Nip- 
mucks, or fresh water Indians, and, true to their name, the Nipmucks usually 
had their residences upon places of still water, the ponds, lakes, and rivers of 
the interior. The Nipmuck Indians, then, were the aboriginal occupants of 
the territory under consideration. 

These Nipmuck Indians, however, are divided by Indian historians into 
several divisions, or tribes, of which the PemigeA^assets occupied the valley 
of the Pemigewasset. As neighbors of the Pemigewassets we arc^ told that 
"a great and powerful tribe" lived on the Nashua stream and were called 
Nashuas. That another lived on the Souhegan river, and of course were 
called Souhegans. A third lived at Amjskeij; falls, and ware called Amos- 
keags. A fourth inhabited the beautiful interval at Concord, called by the 
Indians Pennacook, and they were called Pennacooks. A fifth dwelt on 
Squamscott river, now Exeter, and for the same reason were called Squam- 
scotts. A sixth stopped at Newichannock, and they were Newichannocks. 
A seventh stayed at Piscataqua river, and they were Piscataquaukes. An 
eighth built a wigwam city at Ossipee lake, and they were the cultivated Ossi- 
pees, with mounds and forts like more civilized nations. A nmth built flour- 
ishing villages in the fertile valley of the Pequawket river, and were known as 
the pious Pequakees, who worshipped the great Manitauof the cloud-capped 
Agiochook. A tenth had their home by the clear lake Winnepiseogee, and 
were esteemed " the beautiful Winnepissaukies." An eleventh set up their 
lodges of spruce bark by the banks of the wild and turbulent Androscoggin 
river, and were known as " the death-dealing Amariscoggins." A twelfth 
cultivated the Coos intervals on the Connecticut, and were called " the swift 
deer-hunting Coosucks." Besides these twelve tribes, the Pemigewassets 
also had as neighbors in New Hampshire, and along its present borders, the 
Winnecowetts, inhabiting a beautiful pine-tree place in the southeast corner 
of the state, the Wachusetts living about the mountain of that name in Mas- 
sachusetts, the Agawams residing at the mouth of the Merrimack, the Paw- 
tuckets, who fished at Pawtucket Falls, and several small tribes upon the 
banks of the Connecticut river whose names are unknown. 

But these tribes or families, as we have said, were nomadic in their habits. 
Thus, in the "Masschusetts Historical Collections," Roger Williams tells us 
that "from thick warm valleys where they winter they remove a little nearer to 



112" GRAFTON COUNTY. 



their summer fields. When it is warm spring they remove to their fields, 
where they plant corn. In middle summer, because of the abundance of 
fleas which the dust of the house breeds, they will fly and remove on a sudden 
to a fresh place. And sometimes having fields a mile or two or many miles 
asunder, when the work of one field is over they removed hence to the other. If 
death call in amongst them, they presently remove to a fresh place. If an enemy 
approach th^y remove to a thicket or swamp, unless they have some fort to 
remove into. Sometimes they remove to a hunting-house in the end of the 
year and forsake it not until the snow lies thick • and then will travel home, 
men women and children, through the snow thirty, yea fifty or sixty miles. 
But their great remove is from their summer fields to warm and thick woody 
bottoms where they winter. They are quick in half a day, yea sometimes in 
a few hours warning to be gone, and the house is up elsewhere, especially if 
they have a few stakes ready pitched for their mats. I once in my travels 
lodged at a house at which in my return I hoped to have lodged again the 
next night, but the house was gone in that interim and I was glad to lodge 
under a tree." It is easy to understand, then, that the different families of 
these several tribes, neighbors of our Pemigewassets, were not very careful 
to confine their residences to any particular locality, but generally changed 
them several times in a year, and changed their names as often as they 
changed their residences. Consequently when a few families went to Amoskeag 
Falls to fish they were x^moskeags ; if they went to the rich intervals of Pen- 
nacook to plant they were Pennacooks ; if they went later in the season to 
Winnepissiogee lake, where they could fish through the ice and hunt on the 
hills, to spend the winter^ they were Winnepissaukies — and, furthermore, any 
tribe hid but to sd^y presto and travel, and they immediately changed into 
some other great tribe. 

In several towns of the county traces of Indian occupation are found, though 
the early settlers found no resident savages here; but probably there is no 
town in the county but that has had at some time a portion of a tribe of the 
Nipmucks residing within its limits. 

On both sides of the river, at the Ox-Bow in Haverhill, the first settlers in 
the county found a cleared interval, which Rogers mentions in his journal, and 
which was undoubtedly used by the Indians as a planting-ground ; and it is 
said that there were evidences of there having been quite a thriving settlement 
here at some time. Remains of a fort, or oboriginal fortifications of some 
kind, are even still to be traced. Upon the Keyes farm, formerly the "Do^" 
farm, near the river, is a conical hill sixty to seventy-five feet in height, around 
whose summit artificial embankments are plainly visible. It was here that this 
fort is supposed to have been located. 

About a mile north of Haverhill railroad station, ten or twelve rods west of 
the track, is a smooth rocky ledge surmounting a knoll of land. Three or 
four feet below the highest point of this ledge a hole about twenty-six inches 
in diameter and thirty inches has been drilled, and which tradition asserts was 



WHEN FIRST SETTLED BY THE WHITES. 112" 



used by the Indians for a mortar in which to pound the corn raised upon the 
Coos Meadows. Upon the summit of what is known as Indian rock, in 
Warren, are found four of these smoothly-cut bowls. In this latter town, and 
others also, ridges where these aborigines planted corn, ashes where their wigr- 
warn was built, stone gouges, arrow and spear-heads, knives, etc., with re- 
mains of pottery and domestic implements have been found. Thus, in 
"Farmer and Moor's Collections" we find that "at the mouth of Baker's river, 
in the town of Plymouth, N. H., the Indians had a settlement, where have 
been found Indian graves, bones, gun-barrels, stone mortars, pestles and 
other utensils in use among them." 

WHEN FIRST SETTLED BY THE WHITES. 

The first visit of the whites to the region now included within the limits of 
Grafton county was, so far as known, made in 1709, by one Thomas Baker, 
from whom Baker's river derived its name. This visit is graphically set forth 
in an article printed in the December number of the Granite State Monthly, 
1878, written by Hon. J. E. Sargent, from which we extract the following : — 

" It seems that early in the year 1709, one Th^>mas Baker was taken cap- 
tive from Deerfield, Mass., by the Indians and carried up the Connecticut 
river to Lake Memphremagog and thence to Canada. The next year he was 
ranso:^ed and returned by the same route to his home in Northampton, 
Mass., thus having gained a knowledge of the route and of some of the In- 
dians. In I 7 12, he raised a company of thirty-four men, including one friendly 
Indian, as a guide. His object was to ferret out and destroy, if possible, the 
Indians having their encampment somewhere upon the waters of the Pemi- 
gewasett river. He then held the title of lieutenant, and went directly by the 
old carrying-place with which he was familiar to the Coos or Cowass intervals 
in Haverhill and Newbury. There he halted, and following the lead of the 
Indian guide up the Oliverian brook to the height of land south of an-d in 
plain sight of Moosilauke and then followed a small brook down to the Indian 
Asquamchumauke in Warren and thence through Wentworth, Rumney and 
Plymouth to the mouth of the river. 

" When Baker and his men, who had kept on the west and south side of 
the river, came near its mouth, the guide signified that it was now time for 
every man to be on the lookout, and so every one moved with the utmost 
circumspection, and when near the junction of this river with Pemigewassett, 
they discovered the Indians on the north bank of the Asquamchumauke. 
sporting among their wigwams in great numbers, secure as they sujiposed from 
the muskets and the gaze of all 'pale-faces.' This was in fact, their principal 
village or settlement, where they deposited their booty and stored their 
furs. 

"Baker r.nd his men chose their positions and opened a tremendous fire 
upon the Indians, which was as sudtlen to them as an earthquake. Many of 
the sons o^ the forest fell in death in the midst of their sports \ but the living 
disappeared in an instant and ran to call in their hunters. Baker and his 
men lost no time in crossing the river in search of booty. They found a rich 
store of furs ; deposited in holes, dug in the bank of the river horizontally — 
in the same manner that bank swallows dig their holes. 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



" Having destroyed their wigwams and captured their furs, Baker ordered 
a retreat, fearing that they would soon return in too large numbers to be re- 
sisted by his single company. And it seems that the Indians were fully up 
to his expectations or apprehensions, for notwithstanding, Baker retreated 
with all expedition, the Indians collected and were up with them, when they 
had reached a poplar plain in Bridgewater ; a little south of where Walter 
Webster formerly kept tavern, a severe skirmish ensued, but the Indians were 
repulsed and many of them killed — several sculls have smce been found on 
this plain by the early settlers, some of which had been perforated by bullets, 
which were supposed to have belonged to those who fell in this engagement. 

" The leader of the Indians in these engagements was Walternumus, a 
distinguished sachem and warrior, and in one of these engagements and pos- 
sibly in this one at Bridgewater, he was slain. It is said that he and Baker 
fired at each other the same instant; the ball of the Indian grazing Baker's 
left eyebrow, while his passing through the Indian's heart, he leaped in the 
air and fell dead. The Indian warrior was royally attired, and Baker hastily 
seizing his blanket, which was richly ornamented with silver, his powder horn 
and other ornaments, hastened on with his men. 

" But notwithstanding the Indians had been repulsed, the friendly Indian 
advised Baker and his men to use all possible diligence in their retreat, for 
he assured them that the number of the Indians would increase every hour 
and that they would surely return to the attack. Accordingly Baker pushed 
on the retreat with all possible dispatch, and did not wait for any refresh- 
ment after the battle. But when they had reached New Chester, now Hill, 
having crossed a stream, his men were exhausted, through abstinence, forced 
marches and hard fighting, and they concluded to stop and refresh themselves 
at whatever risk, concluding that they r..ight as well perish by the tomahawk 
as by famine. 

" But here again was a call for Indian strategem. The friendly Indian told 
every man to build as many fires as he could in a given time ; as the pursu- 
ing Indians would judge of their numbers by the number of their fires. He 
told them also that each man should make him four or five forks of crotched 
sticks, and use them all in roasting a single piece of pork, then leave an 
equal number of forks round each fire, and the Indians would infer, if they 
came up, that there were as many of the English as there were forks and this 
might turn them back. 

" The Indian's council was followed to the letter, and the company moved 
on with fresh speed. But before they were out of hearing and while the fires 
they had left were still burning, the pursuing Indians with additional rein- 
forcements, came up and counting the fires and the forks, the warriors 
whooped a retreat, for they were alarmed at the numbers of the English. 
Baker and his men were no longer annoyed by these troublesome atten- 
dents but were allowed peacefully to return to their homes, owing I heir pres- 
ervation, no doubt, to the counsel of the friendly Indian who acted as their 
guide. Baker's river is sup|)osed to have been so named to perpetuate the 
remembrance of this brilliant affair of Lieut. Baker at its mouth. 

" This is the first party of whites that we have any authentic account of 
having passed al-^ng the course of this winding river, which was from that 
time fortii to take the name of their illustrious leader. The date of this 
expedition of Baker is stated by Whiton in his history of New Hampshire to 
have been 1724, but this is evidently an error, as the journal of the Massa- 
chusetts legislature shows that Lieut. Thomas Baker, as commander of a 
company in a late expedition to Coos and over to Merrimack river and so to 



WHEN FIRST SETTLED BY THE WHITES. 



Dunstable, brought in his claim, for Indian scalps, which was allowed and 
paid, in May, 1712, and an additional allowance made for the same, June 11, 
17 12, which would seem to fix the time beyond question. In addition to 
other piy, Baker was promoted to the rank of Captain, by which title he is 
generally known." 

From about the year 1665 down to 1760, with a few brief intervals of peace, 
a constant war was waged between the French and their Indian allies of Can- 
ada against the English colonists and the Indians who espoused their cause — 
an echo of the jealousies rife in the old world. In 1748 the peace of Aux- 
La-Chapelle was signed, between France and England, ushering in the last 
of those brief periods of quiet in America. It was during this comparatively 
quiet period that New Hampshire was first permitted to adopt any measures 
towards securing to itself the valuable tract of country in the northern part 
of the Connecticut valley. In 1752 the governor of the province made sev- 
eral grants of townships on both sides of the Connecticut, and a plan was 
laid for taking possession of the "rich meadows of Cohos,"* glowing ac- 
counts of which had been heard from hunters and returned captives. 

The original design was to cut a road from "No. 4," or Charlestown, to the 
Cohos; to lay out two townships, one on each side of the river, and opposite 
to each other, where Haverhill and Newbury now are. They were to erect 
stockades, with lodgements for two hundred men, in each township, enclos- 
ing a space of fifteen acres; in the center of which was to be a citadel,, con- 
taining the public buildings and granaries, which were to be large enough to 
receive all the inhabitants and their movable effects, in case of necessity. As 
an inducement for psople to remove to this new plantation, they were to 
have courts of judicature, and other civil privileges, among themselves, and 
were to be under strict military discipline. 

Before this plan was put into execution, an event occurred which changed 
the contemplated tactics. In the spring of 1752, John Stark, afterwards Gen- 
eral Stark, Amos Eastman, afterwards of Hollis, N. H., David Stinson, of 
Londonderry, and William Stark, were hunting upon Baker's river, in the 
present town of Rumney. They were surprised by a party of ten Indians. 
John Stark and Amos Eastman were taken prisoners, Stinson was killed, and 
William Stark escaped by flight. John Stark and Eastman were carried into 
captivity to the headquarters of the St. Francis tribe in Canada, and were led 
directly through the "Meadows," so much talked of in Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire. The captives retured that summer, and their accounts still 
further stimulated the desire for exploring and securing possession of the 
locality. The l)reaking out of hostilities between France and England again 
was momentarily expected, and the government of the province feared the 
French would establish a garrison at the coveted point ; accordingly, it was 
determined to send a company to explore the region, not by the way of the 
Connecticut from "No. 4," but pursuing the route taken by the Indians and 
their captives. 

* Coijs was originally spelled Colios. 



GRAFTON COUNTY, 



In the spring of 1754 a company was sent out under Colonel Lovewell, 
Major Tolford and Captain Page, with John Stark as guide. Leaving Con- 
cord on the loth of March, they reached tlie Connecticut, in the present town 
of Piermont, in seven days. The party remained there one night, and then, 
probably through fear of an Indian attack, made a precipitate retreat to Con- 
cord, arriving thirteen days after their departure. 

But the Government was not discouraged by this failure, and the same 
season, 1754, Capt. Peter Powers, of HoUis, N. H., Lieut. James Stevens 
and Ensign Ephraim Hale, both of Townsend, Mass., were appointed to 
march at the head of a company to effect, if possible, what had hitherto been 
attempted in vain. The company rendezvoused at Concord, which was then 
called Ruraford, and commenced their tour on Saturda}', June 15, 1754. 
From their journal we learn that they went by way of Contocook up the 
Merrimack to the mouth of the Pemigewasset, and then followed the latter 
stream to Baker's river, then up Baker's river across by Baker ponds and on 
to Oliverian river at the falls, where they arrived June 25th, ten days after 
their departure from Concord. 

This places the company upon the banks of the Oliverian river, in the pres- 
ent town of Haverhill, the site ultimately to be chosen for the first settlement 
in the territory included within the limits of Grafton county. Their journey 
was continued the following morning, and proceeding between the valley of 
the Connecticut and that of the Ammonoosuc, upon the highlands of Bath, 
Lyman and Littleton, on the night of the 2gth we find them encamped in the 
southern part of Dalton. On the 2d of July they had penetrated to the 
vicinity of the present Northumberland, whence they turned about and began 
to retrace their steps. 

On the night of the fifth they encamped just below the mouth of Wells's 
river, on the opposite side of the Connecticut. On the morning of the 6th 
they " marched down the Great river," says the Journal, " to the great Cohos 
and crossed the river below the great turn of cleared interval, and there left 
the Great river, and steered south by east about three miles, and there 
camped. Here was the best of upland, and some quantity of large white 
pines." On this item of the Journal the Rev. Grant Powers, in his "Histor- 
ical Sketches of the Coos Country," comments as follows : "I think they 
crossed into Haverhill at the 'Dow farm' (now Keyes farm), so called, and 
the three miles brought them to Haverhill Corners, and their description of 
it answers to the description given by the first settlers. I would say 
to the people of Haverhill Corner that eighty-five years ago, on the 
sixth of July last (1839), your common was the encampment of an explor- 
ing company, sent out by the government of England; that this company felt 
themselves surrounded by a vast wilderness ; and, while the towering trees of 
the forest formed their canopy, they confided in theit own vigilance and 
prowess, under God, to protect them from beasts of prey and savage men. 
Well you may exclaim, while in your sealed houses and while surveying from 
your windows your ample fields and meadows, 'What hath God wrought .'*' " 



LAND TITLE CONTROVERSY. 



At this point the Journal ends, and imagination only can trace the balance 
of the journey of this little band through the primitive forests to the territory 
of which we write. 

The French and Indian war soon came on, and from this time until after 
the close of hostilities nothing more was done toward exploring or settling the 
" Cohos Country." In 1761, however, immediately after the war, two men 
became very much interested in consummating the original plan of laying out 
two townships on the " rich meadows of Cohos." These men were Col. Jacob 
Bailey, of Newbury, and Capt. John Hazen, of Haverhill, Mass. During that 
summer, as a preliminary to actual settlement. Captain Hazen sent two men, 
Michael Johnston and Joh:i Pettie, on with his cattle, who took possession of 
the "Little Ox-Bow," in the present town of Haverhill. Here they remained in 
solitude until the spring of 1762, when Captain Hazen came on with hands 
and materials for building a grist-mill and saw-mill on the present Swazey mill 
site. Col. Joshua Howard, who died here January 7, 1839, at the age of 
nearly ninety- nine years, related that he and two others were the first among 
the settlers who came on that spring, taking a straight course from Salisbury 
to Haverhill, in April. He, with Jesse Harriman and Simeon Stevens, em- 
ployed an old hunter at Concord to guide them through. Tliey took a course 
west of Newfound pond, in Hebron, followed up the northwest branch of 
Baker's river, into Benton, and down the Oliverian to the Connecticut, per- 
forming the journey from Concord in four days. On the i8th of May, of the 
following year, the two coveted townships were granted, one taking the name 
of Newbuiy, the other of Haverhill. The former, as is well known, through 
the adjustment of the boundary line between New York and New Hamp- 
shire, ultimately became a part of the territory of Vermont. The history of 
the latter town will be detailed in a future chapter. 

In 1765 settlements were made m Orford, Lyme, Hanover, Lebanon and 
Plymouth, and two years later, in 1767, the territory included within the pres- 
ent limits of the county had a population of 747 souls. Six years later, in 
1773, the population had increased to 2,922, while only two years later, in 
1775, it numbered 3,296. The details of the settlements thus made we now 
leave to the sketches of the several towns. 

LAND TITLE CONTROVERSY. 

The settlement of the western and southern boundary lines of New Hamp- 
shire, and of the location of the western boundary of the Masonian Grant, 
was long a subject of dispute among the proprietors and settlers, and thus 
gave rise to much trouble and litigation relative to land titles. The settle- 
ment of the Mason line was long a bone of contention, and it was not finally 
adjusted until after the Revolution, when a curved line, intended to be sixty 
miles from the sea shore, was decided upon. 

For a period of sixteen years there was a controversy between the author- 
ities of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, relative to the boundary line 
between the Provinces, and a contest kept up in regard to the control of the 



GRAFTON county:. 



territory in the vicinity of Hinsdale and Fort Dummer. Finally, on the 5th 
of March, 1740, George II. decreed that the line between New Hampshire 
and Massachusetts should be surveyed in accordance with certain special in- 
structions, and in i74r the line was run by Richard Hazen, and found to 
leave about sixteen miles of Massachusetts, disputed territory in New Hamp- 
shire, upon which that province had already made several grants. In his in- 
struction thereto the King recommended the Assembly of New Hampshire 
to care for and protect the settlers about Fort Dummer, which was on the 
west side of the river. From this royal recommend, Governor Benning Want- 
worth naturally supposed that the King recognized the jurisdiction of New 
Hampshire as extending to the same point west as Massachusetts, namely, a 
point twenty miles east of the Hudson river. Accordingly, on the applica- 
tion of William Williams and sixty-one others, January 3, 1749, he chartered 
a township six miles square, in what is now the southwestern corner of Ver- 
mont, but, as he supposed, in the southwestern corner of New Hampshire. 
As early as 1763 he had granted other townships lying west of the Con- 
necticut river, to the number of about 138. The population therein had 
grown to quite respectable proportions, and the section had come to be 
Icnown as the New Hampshire Grants. In 1763, however. Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor Tryon, of New York, laid claim to the territory, by virtue of a grant 
made by Charles II., to the Duke of York, in 1664, which included "all the 
land from the west side of Connecticut river to the east side of Delaware Bay." 
Finally, on application of the government of New York, it was decided by 
George III., in council of July 10, 1764, that "the western bank of the Con- 
necticut river should thereafter be regarded as the boundary line between the 
Province of New York and the Province of New Hampshire." With the war 
between the settlers of the grants and government of New York, which lasted 
for full a quarter of a century, we have nothing to do. It belongs to the his- 
tory of Vermont. Of the abortive attempt to create a new state from por- 
tions of New Hampshire and Vermont, the reader is referred to pages 36-37. 

REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 

Want of space forbids our giving an extended sketch of the war for inde- 
pendence — neither is it required, for all readers are conversant with that epoch 
in our country's history. The people of New Hampshire had always been loyal 
to the mother country; but when their liberties weie at stake, they were quite 
as zealous to defend their rights as they of their sister states, and furnished 
their full quota of men for the great struggle. So far as we have been able, 
we have mentioned the part each town took, in their respective sketches. Of 
the War of 1812 we may say the same. 

WAR OF THE UNION. 

It seems but a recent dream, the election of Abraham Lincoln to the 
Presidency in i860, the occupation of Fort Sumter by Major Anderson, 
and the final attack upon it ; tlien, like the shock of an earthquake, the follow- 
ing years of blood and carnage. But it was a fearful dream, and eyes are still 



WAR OF THE UNION. 



red with weeping over it in not a few of the homes of our land. Side by side 
with her sister states, New Hampshire endured the weary marches and bore 
the brunt of battles, and side by side their sons sleep the long sleep — some 
beneath the sun-kissed plains of the wilful South, some rocked in the bosom 
of the broad Atlantic, ' held in the hollow of His hand," while others have 
been borne to rest among their kindred, by sympathizing friends, who, year 
by year to muffled drum beat, wend their way to their consecrated tombs 
to deck their graves with beautiful spring flowers — a national tribute to the 
memory of the gallant dead. 

The following table gives a fair synopsis of the number of the soldiers 
which each town of the county furnished on the call of July, 1862, and sub- 
sequent calls ; and the number of soldiers who were killed in or died from the 
effects of the war, and amount of municipal war loan awarded to each town: — 



Calls of 1862, &c. Died, &c. Municipal War Loan. 



Alexandria . , 

Hath 

Benton. . . . 
Bethlehem . 
Bridgewater. 

Bristol 

Campton . . . 
Canaan .... 
Dorchester. 
E^llsworth . . . 

Enfield 

Franconia . . 
Grafton . . , . 
Groton .... 
Hanover . . . 
Haverhill.. . 
Hebron . . . . 
Holderness . 
Landafif . . . 
Lebanon . . 
Lisbon .... 
Littleton . . . 

Lyman 

Lyme 

Monroe . . . . 
Orange .... 

Orford 

Piermont , . . 
Plymouth . . 
Rumney . . . 
Thornton . . 
Warren .... 
Waterville . . 
Went worth. 
Woodstock . 



94 

136 

16 

87 

39 

107 

no 

146 

47 

19 

171 

45 

93 

47 

157 

215 

37 

168 

75 
194 
161 
196 

57 

147 

44 

21 

115 
76 

119 
70 

101 

64 

6 

70 
34 



5 


$ 8,700.00 


27 


10,950 00 




1,450.00 


33 


8,100.00 


12 

20 


3,766.67 
10,416.67 


30 


9-083.33 
12,641.67 


13 


4,050.00 




1,933-33 




14,775.00 


6 


4,233-33 


10 


8,100.00 


8 


3,958.33 
12,083.33 


12 


17,741 67 


6 


3,S50-oo 


20 
22 
10 
38 


15-525-00 

6,697.67 

15,416.67 

15,166.67 




17,150.00 


36 


4,341-67 
11,416.67 


22 


4,325.00 


II 


2,035.00 




9,050.00 


10 


6,475.00 
10.091.67 


10 
20 


6,733-33 
7,841.67 


10 


5.575-00 


I 


600 00 


10 


6,866.67 




2.575-00 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



ROSTER OF FIELD, STAFF AND COMPANY OFFICERS. 

The following roster of those who went out as commissioned officers, or 
who went out as privates and were subsequently promoted to a commission, 
is compiled from the State Adjutant-General's Reports, and is, we believe, as 
accurate as can be made. Many officers not here named, who served in other 
divisions, and went out from other places, however, have made their homes 
in Grafton county since the war : — 

Ballard William W., of Holderness, 2d Lieut. Co. G., ist Regt., N. H. Vol. 
H. A. Sept. 8, '64; ist Lieut., Feb. 23, '65; mustered out, June 15, '65. 

Bean Frank S., of Enfield, ist Lieut. Co. H., nth Regt., July 25, '64; trans- 
ferred to Co. L, Sept., 23, '64; wounded, Sept., 30, '64; died of wounds, 
Nov. 25, '64. 

Bedel John, of Bath, Col, 3d Regt., April 6, '64; paroled as prisoner of war, 
Dec. 9, '64; appointed Brig.-Gen., U. S. Vols , by brevet, for gallant 
and meritorious services, to date from March 13, '65; mustered out as 
Colonel, July, 20, '65. 

Bell J. LeRoy, of Haverhill, Capt. Co. G., nth Regt., July 22, '64; wounded, 
July 30, '64; wounded, Sept. 30, '64; mustered out, June 4, '65. 

Bemis Mose P., of Littleton, Sergt. Co. B. 6th Regt., Jan. 2, '64; wounded'^ 
July 30, '64; 2d Lieut. Co. G, June i, '65; mustered out, July 17, '65. 

Blair Henry W., of Plymouth, private Co. B, 15th Regt., N. H. Vols; elected 
Captain of the company and subsequently appointed Leiut.-Colonel 
of the Regiment. 

Bronson Ira T., of Lisbon, private, Co. I, 5th Regt., Jan. r, '64; Scrgt.; is't 
Lieut , Oct. 28, '64. 

Brown Charles M., of Hebron, private, Co. D, 12th Regt., Sept. 5, '62; Corp., 
Jan. r, '63; wounded, May 3, '63; Sergt., Feb. 5, '64; ist Sergt., May 9, '64; 
1st Lieut. Co. H, May 18, '65; not mustered; mustered out as ist Sergt., 
June 21, '65. 

Buswell Daniel C, of Lebanon, Capt. Co. E, 9th Regt., Aug. 10, '62; 
wounded July 22, '64; died of wounds, Aug. 8, '64. 

Carleton Thomas J., of Enfield, ist Lieut. Co. B, 6th Regt., August i, '64; 

wounded Sept. 30, '64; Capt., Jan. 10, '65; honorably discharged, June 

13, '65- 
Gate Omar VV., of Holderness, Qr.-M.-Sergt 6th Regt. , Jan. 4, '64; re-enlisted 

Jan. 4, '64; ist Lieut. Co. A, June i, '65; mustered out July 17, '65. 

Cheney Daniel P., of Holderness, private Co. E, 12th Regt., Sept. 5, '62; 
Corp., Sept. 23, '63, Sergt., Jan. i, '64; 2d Lieut., May i8,'65; not mus- 
tered; mustered out as Sergt., June 21, '65. 

Cobleigh William, of Hanover, Capt, Co. I, i4thRegt., Nov. 22, '64; mus- 
tered out July 8, '65. 

Coleman George H,, of Piermont, private Co. K, 2d Regt., Dec. 3, '63; Sergt.,. 
July I, '64; ist Sergt., May i, '65; 2d Lieut., Sept. 20, '65; mustered 
out Dec. 19, '65. 



ROSTER OF FIELD, STAFF AND COMPANY OFFICERS. 



Cross Daniel K., of Hanover, Sergt. -Major, 5th Regl., Oct. 28, '61; 2d Lieut., 
Feb. I, '62. 

Day Lorenzo, of Enfield, Sergt Co. H, nth Regt., Sept. 2, '62; reduced to 
ranks May 26, '63; Capt. 125th U. S. C. T., April 21, '65. 

Dewey Joseph W., of Hanover, private Troop I, N. H. Bat., ist N. E. Cav., 
Dec. 17, '61; Sergt.-Maj., May i, '63; not officially accounted for. 

Dimick Orlando VV., of Lyme, Capt. Co. F, nth Regt., July 22, '64; mus- 
tered out June 4. '64. 

Dow Samuel H., of Campton, ist Lieut. Co. F, i8th Regt., Oct. 13, '64; hon- 
orably discharged March 13^ '65. 

Edgell P^ederick M., of Orford, Maj. ist Regt., N. H. Vol. H. A., Nov. 10, 
'64; mustered out June 15, '65. 

Edwards Clark, of Landaff, Sergt. Co. D, 13th Regt., Sept. 19, '62; dis- 
charged for disability at Washington, D. C, Nov. 20, '62; re enlisted; 
ist Lieut. Co. H, ist Regt., N. H. Vol. H. A.. September 13, '64; mus- 
tered out June 15, '65. 

Eldredge Daniel, of Lebanon, private Co. K, 3d Regt., Aug. 24, '61; Corp., 
May 3, '62; Sergt., July i, '63; wounded slightly, July 18, '63; 2d I^ieut., 
Jan. 7, '64; ist Lieut. Co. E, 3d Regt., July 7, '64; wounded severely, 
Aug. 16, '64; Capt. Co. C, Jan. 4, '65; declined, Jan. 20, '65; honorably 
discharged June 22, '65, as ist Lieut., to date May 21, '65, to accept 
appointment in V. R. C. 

Farr George, of Littleton, Capt. Co. D, 13th Regt., Sept. 27, '62; wounded 
severely June i, '64; mustered out June 21, '65. 

Farr Evarts W., of Littleton, Maj. i ith Regt., Sept. 9, '62; mustered out June 

4, '65- 
Fellows Joseph P., of Bristol, private Co. C, 12th Regt, Sept. 5, '62; 2d 

Lieut. Co. K, June 20, '65; not mustered; mustered out as private, June 

21, '65. 

Ferguson George W., of Monroe, Sergt. Co. D, 13th Regt., Sept. 19, '62; 
Com. -Sergt., May i, '64; ist Lieut. Co. H, July 15, '64; mustered out 
June 21, '65. 

Flynn Frank P., of Lebanon, 2d Lieut. Troop K, ist Regt., Cav., Feb. 13, 
'64; 1st Lieut., Feb. 23, '65; mustered out July 15, '65. 

French Henry, of Enfield, ist Sergt. Co. H, nth Regt., Sept. 2 '62; woun- 
ded Dec. 13, '62; reduced to ranks, May 26, '63; Sergt.. Aug. i, '64, 
having been unjustly reduced to the ranks; ist Lieut., June, i, '65. 

Gage Henry P., of Orford, ist Sergt. Co. F, 18th Regt., Oct. 30, '64; 2d 
Lieut., April 12, '65; mustered out June 10, '65. 

Gaskill Augustine C, of Littleton, private, Co. D, 13th Regt., Sept. 19, '62 
Corp., Jan. 6, '63; Sergt., March 12, '63; wounded slightly, June i, '64 
ist Sergt., Aug. 15, '64; 2d Lieut., June 15, '65; not mustered 
mustered as ist Sergt., June 21, '65. 

Getchell Sebatian L., of Wentworth, 2d Lieut. Co. G, 6th Regt., Jan. 7, '64; 
isl Lieut., July 2, '64; not mustered; discharged for disability as 2d 
Lieut., Aug. 26, '64. 



112^° GRAFTON COUNTY. 



Goodwin Samuel G., of Littleton, Capt. Co. B, 6th Regt., July 31, '62; 
wounded June 3, '64; appointed Major U. S. Vols, by brevet, fur gallant 
and meritorious service before Petersburg, Va., to date from April 2, '65; 
mustered out as Capt., July 17, '65. 

Gordon Lucian N., of Enfield, Sergt. Co. B, 6th Regt., Dec. 23, '63; wounded 
June 3, '64; captured at Poplar Grove Church, Va., Oct. i, '64; ex- 
changed; ist Sergt.; 2d Lieut. Co. H, June i, '65; not mustered; mus- 
tered out as Sergt., July 17, '65. 

Green Chauncy H., of Littleton, 2d Lieut. Co. I, ist Regt., N. H. Vol. H. 
A., Dec. 26, '64; mustered out, June 15, '65. 

Griggs Asel B., of Orford, ist Lieut. Co. F, 2d Regt., U. S. S. S., Nov. 22, 
'63; Capt., June 16, '65; transferred to Co. K, 5th N. H. Vols., to date 
Dec. 23, '64. 

Hale Charles A., of Lebanon, Corp. Co. C, 5th Regt., Oct. 12, '61; Sergt.- 
Maj., Feb. 8, '63^ 2d Lieut., March i, '63; Capt. Co. F, Jan. 3, '65; 
mustered out, June 28, '65. 

Hardy Frederick P., of Groton, 2d Lieut. Co. A, 6th Regt., Jan. 2, '64; 
Capt., Jan. 8, '65; mustered out, July 17, '65. 

Hicks Henry M., of Haverhill, ist Lieut. Co. H, 4th Regt., Feb. 8. '63; dis- 
charged for disability, Sept. 14, '64. 

House Jerome B., of Lebanon, Capt. Co. C, 7th Regt., April 29, '62; wounded 
July 18, '63; died of wounds Oct. 25, '63. 

Hughes George K., of Holderness, Corp. Co. E, 12th Regt., Sept. 5, '62; 
Sergt., Oct. 17, '63; 2d Lieut., July 16, '64. 

Jackman Enoch F., of Landafl^, Corp. Co. G, 2d Regt., June 5, '61; wounded 
slightly July 2, '63; ist Lieut., U. S. C. T., Sept. 12, '63. 

Jackman Lvman, of Woodstock, Capt. Co. C, 6th Regt., Aug. i, '64; captured 
at Poplar Grove, Va., Sept. 30, '64; released, Feb. 24, '65; mustered out, 
July 17, "65. 

Ladd Hiram K., of Haverhill, 2d Lieut. Co. H, i8th Regt., Sept. 20, '64; ist 

Lieut., April 4, '65; mustered out, June 10, '65. 
Little Ludo B., of Lyme, Capt. Co. A, 9th Regt., Jan. i, '64; wounded 

severely July 2, '64; honorably discharged on account of wounds, Oct. 
24, '64. 

Liscomb Charles S., of Lebanon, Corp. Co. C, 5th Regt., Oct. 12, '61; Sergt. - 
Maj., Sept. II, '62; 2d Lieut., Oct. i, '62. 

Marland Alfred, of Canaan, private Co. K, 4th Regt., Oct. 15, '63; ist 
Lieut, Feb. 17, '65. 

Mooney John, of Holderness, 2d Lieut. Co. H, 9th Regt., Oct. 9, '62; dis- 
charged March 2, '63. 

Morrison George W., of Haverhill, Sergt. Troop I, ist Regt. Cav., Jan. 5, '64; 
2d Lieut. Troop I, July 30, '64; missing near Lacy Springs, Va., Dec. 21, 
'64; gained from missing; ist Lieut. Troop G, July 10, '65; not mustered; 
mustered out as 2d Lieut., July 15, '65. 

Parker Ezra B., of Littleton, Capt. Troop D, ist Regt. Cav., March 31, '64; 
absent on detached service at Annapolis, Md., July 15, '65; no discharge 
furnished. 



ROSTER OF FIELD, STAFF AND COMPANY OFFICERS. t I a^"- 

Pingree George E., of Lisbon, private Co. G, 2d Regt., June 5, '61; Corp., 
April 9, '62; wounded May 5. '62; discharged on account of wounds, 
Aug. 9, '62; Capt. Co. G, iith Regt., Sept. 4, '62; lionorably discharged 
to accept appointment in V. R. C, April 30, '64. 

Porter Charles L, of Lyme, 2d Lieut. Co. B^ i 8th Regt., Sept. 20, '64; mus- 
tered out June 10, '65. 

Quimby H. Baxter, of Lisbon, ist Lieut. Co. B, 9th Regt., Jan. i, '64 ; cap- 
tured at Polar Grove church, Va.. Sept. 30, '64; escaped; Capt. May 1, 
'65 ; not mustered; mustered out as a L'eut., June 10, '65. 

Russ Edward K., of Lisbon, private Co. H, 8th Regt., December 20, '61; 
Scrgt,^ Oct. I, '62; re enlisted ; Sergt. Co. H, 8th Regt., Jan. 4, '64; ist 
Sergt., March 9, '64 ; ist Lieut., April i,'64; Capt. 2d Louisana Cav., 
Aug. 23, '64. 

Saunders James W., of Alexandria, Sergt. Co. C, 12th Regt., Sept. 5/62; 

1st Sergt.; 2d Lieut., Jan. 3, '64; Capt,, Oct. 28, '64 ; discharged May 

19, '65. 
Saunders Marshall, of Littleton, Capt. Co. B. 13th Regt., July 15, '64 ;. 

wounded slightly, Sept. 29, '64; mustered out June 21. '65. 

Shackford Nathaniel, of Holderness, Maj. T2th Regt., Nov. r6, '64; Lieut. - 
Col., May 26, '65; not mustered ; mustered out as Maj., June 21, '65. 

Sheldon Charles S., of Warren, private Co. G, 12th Regt., Sept. 9, '62; Sergt, 
Oct. I, '63 ; wounded June 3, '64 ; 2d Lieut., July 16, '64; not mustered ; 
died of wounds at Washington. D. C, June 27, '64, before commission 
was issued ; buried in National Cemetery, Arlington, Va. 

Shepard Edward L., of Holderness, ist Lieut. Co. E, 12th Regt., July 20, 
'64; Capt. Co. G, May 26, '65 ; not mustered; mustered out as ist 
Lieut., June 21, '65. 

Sherman Andrew J., of Bethlehem, ist Lieut. Co. D, 13th Regt., Oct. 28, 
'64; mustered out June 21, '65. 

Smith Elias F., of Lebanon, Capt. Co. B, i8th Regt., Sept. 20, '64; mustered 
out June 10, '65. 

Smith James O , of Holderness, Sergt. Co. A, 6th Regt, Dec. 21, '63; 
wounded May 6, '64 ; wounded May 9, '64 ; 2d Lieut. Co. E, June i, 
'65 ; mustered out July 17, '65. 

Smith William, of Groton, Sergt. -Maj. 4th Regt., Oct. 31, '63; re-enlisted 
Feb. 15, '64 ; captured at Deep Run, Va., Aug. 16, '64; paroled Feb. 
24, '65 ; mustered out June 10, '65. 

Thompson John H., of Holderness, ist Lieut. Co. I, 3d Regt, Aug. 7, '61; 
died of disease at Hilton Head, S. C, Aug. 27, '62. 

Thompson John L., of Plymouth, Col. ist Regt. Cav., March 17, '64; Brig.- 
Gen. U. S. Vols., by brevet, for distinguished and meritorious services, 
to date from March 13, '65 ; mustered out as Col., July 15, '65. 

Tilton Timothy, of Bristol, Corp. Co. C, 12th Regt, Sept. 5, '62; Sergt, 

Aug. 28, '63 ; ist Ser.^t, Oct 14, '64; 2d Lieut., May x8, '65 ; not 

mustered; mustered out as ist Sergt., June 21, '65. 
Wainwright George \.. of Hanover, Adjt. 17th Regt., Nov. 4, '62; mustered 

out April 16, '63; Maj. ist Regt., N. H. Vol. H. A., Sept 29, '64; 

mustered out June 15, '65. 



GRAFTON COUNTY. 



AVeed Eben, of Haverhill, Sergt. Co. I. 4th Regt., Feb. 11, '64; 2d Lieut., 
March i, '65; ist Lieut. Co. F, Aug. 23, '65; not mustered; mastered 
out as 2d Lieut., Aug. 23, '65. 

Wells Benjamin F., of Lisbon, Capt. Co. A., ist Regt. N. H. Vol. H. A., 
Nov. 9, '64; mustered out Sept. 11, '65. 

Wheeler James L., of Franconia, Corp. Co. H, Sth Regt., Dec. 20, '61; Sergt., 
Jan. I, '62; re-enlisted Jan. 4, '64, as Sergt.; ist Sergt , Aug. 23, '64; 
transferred to Co. C, Vet. Bat,, Sth N. H. Vols., Jan. i, '65; 2d Lieut., 
Sept. n, '65; not mustered; ist Lieut., Oct. 28, '65; not mustered; 
mustered out as ist Sergt., Oct. 28, '65. 

Whitney George S., of Thornton, ist Sergt. Co. E, i8th Regt., Sept. 28, '64; 
2d Lieut., March 15, '65; mustered out June 10, '65. 

Williams William, of Lebanon, private Co H , 2d Regt., Nov. ir, '63; Corp., 
Feb. 15, '64; Sergt., July i, '64; Sergt.-Maj., May 22, '65; 2d Lieut. Co. 
A., July 26, '65; -dismissed Nov. i,'65. 

Wool Will C , of Lyme, 2d Lieut Co. H , nth Regt., July 25, 64; ist Lieut., 
Jan. 2, '65; tran^iferred to Co. C; mustered out June 4, '65. 



GAZETTEER OF TOWNS. 



ALEXANDRIA lies in the southeastern part of the county^ in lat. 43° 
37' and long. 71° 50',* an extremely irregularly outlined township, 
bounded north by Groton and Hebron, northeast by Bristol, south by 
Hill Danbury and Grafton, and west by Orange. It was originally granted by 
the Masonian proprietors, to Joseph Buttertield, Jr., and others, March 13, 
1762, and was incorporated November 23, 1782. Many changes have been 
made in the town's territorial limits, however, by curtailment and annexa- 
tion, so that the original limits, as given in the charter, would be almost en- 
tirely unrecognizable, they being stated in that document as follows : — 

" Beginning at a maple tree in Mason's Patent line, about forty rods from 
Newfound pond, thence over part of said pond, south 12° east five miles and 
a half, to a hemlock tree ; thence south 53"^ west eight and a half miles, to a 
beach tree, marked ; thence north 12° west four and a half miles, to the pa- 
tent line aforementioned ; and thence easterly on said line to place of begin- 
ning." 

An additional tract of land was granted by the proprietors, July 7, 1773, 
greatly increasing the limits, and bounded as follows : — 

" Beginning at the southwesterly corner of Alexandria aforesaid, on the 
Patent line, and running on said Patent line to Fishersfield corner, in Great 
Sunapee pond, from thence east on the northerly side line of Fishersfield, 
472 rods, to Parrystown corner ; then north 85° east, about four miles, to a 
beach tree, marked, on Parrystown line; thence north 99° east, about 1,673 
rods, to a beach tree, marked, in Alexandria corner ; thence north 12° west, 
to the Patent fine aforementioned, on the westerly side of said Alexandria." 

This latter tract had been known by the name of Heidleburg for some 
years previous to this grant, and was subsequently so called by some ; but in 
most official documents it was designated as Alexandria Addition. On June 
25, 1779, it was incorporated as a separate township, under the name of New 
London, which name it still bears. 

On February 11, 1778, a part of Alexandria was taken towards forming, 
with a part of New Chester, (now Hill,) a new township by the name of 

* As the county is all north latitude and west longitude, from Cireenwich, the words 
"north" and "west" are omitted. 



14 



TOWN OF ALEXANDRIA. 



Bridgewater. Another portion of the town was set off June i8, 1795, and 
incorporated as a town by the name of Danbury. By an act of December 7, 
1820, a tract of land was severed from the town of Orange and annexed to 
Alexandria ; and by an act passed on the 20th of said month a tract of land 
was severed from Alexandria and annexed to the town of New Chester, the 
last change the town has been subjected to, and it now contains about 20,- 
800 acres. 

In surface, the town is wildly diversified, picturesque and beautiful. On 
its western border, forming the dividing line between it and Orange, ranges 
Cardigan mountain, which, at an elevation of 3,156 feet, towers above all 
the other elevations of the vicinity. Its base is rugged and covered with a 
heavy growth of timber, while its summit is divided into two granite peaks 
which can be seen for miles distant. From the base of the mountain the 
surface of the town has a general slope to the northeast — very broken, with 
Prime hill as the highest elevation. Foster pond, lying in the southern part 
of the town, has its outlet into Newfound lake, which extends a short dis- 
tance into the northeastern part of the town. Into this outlet debouche two 
other quite large streams, with their tributaries, forming the water-course of 
the township. The larger of these tributary streams. Fowler's river, has its 
source near the summit of Cardigan mountain. The soil is in general 
good, especially bordering the streams and ponds where are found excellent 
alluvial deposits. There is also about 2,000 acres of valuable intervale land 
which bears every evidence of having once been the bottom of Newfound 
lake, there being found imbedded, at the depth of twenty feet, stumps, trees, 
and traces of beaver dams. 

In 1880 Alexandria had a population of 832. In 1885 the town had nine 
school districts and nine common schools. Its twelve school-houses were 
valued, including furniture, etc., at $2,425.00. There were 159 children 
attending school, taught during the year by three male and ten female teach- 
ers, at an average monthly salary of $23.00 for males and $19.34 for females. 
The entire amount raised for school purposes during the year was $833.88, 
while the expenditures were $1,507.15, with A. F. Cheney, superintendent. 

Alexandria is a small post village located in the eastern part of the town. 

South Alexandria (p. o.) is located in the southern part of the town. 

Alexandria Town Library. — The town has a good library of 465 volumes. 
Dr. Timothy Haynes bequeathed by will $1,000.00 to the town as a library 
fund, provided the town would raise a like sum for the same purpose. This 
requirement was promptly met, the library was established, and a part of the 
town-house was lately appropriated to its use. 

Erastiis T. Hutchins's sa'w-mill^'\oca.itd in the northern part of the town, 
was built by David Martin, about thirty years ago. It has the capacity for 
cutting about 500,000 feet of lumber per year. 

James W. Saunders's saw, shingle and plaiiing-77iill, located in the north- 
ern part of the town, was originally built by Nathan Sleeper, was rebuilt by 



TOWN OF ALEXANDRIA. II5 

A. H. George, greatly repaired by W. H. Folsom, who put in circular saws, 
and was finally purchased by the present proprietor. It has the capacity for 
sawing 500,000 feet of lumber per year. 

Seth G. Patten's steam saw-mill, located in the western part of the town, on 
road 34, was built by him in 1883. It is the only steam mill in the town, is 
suppUed with circular saws, shingle-mill and planer, and has the capacity for 
cutting 1,000,000 feet of lumber per annum. 

The settlement of the town was not commenced until December, 1769, 
when William, Jonathan, and John Moor Corliss came on and commenced a 
clearing. But the ice once broken settlers seem to have come in rapidly, 
for in a petition sent to the general court only four years later, in 1773, is ap- 
pended the names of all the male inhabitants at that time, which were as fol- 
lows : 

James Russell, Moses Johnson, Ebenezer Wells, 

Eliphalet Gale, Asa Hastings, William Powell, 

John Moor Corliss, Jonathan Merrill, Anthony Taylor, 

Josiah Emerson, Jonathan Corliss, John Tolford, 

George Corliss, David Atwood, William Palmer, 

David Cross, Jeremiah Ladd, Jonathan Palmer, 

William Patterson, Nason Cash, Jonathan Palmer, Jr. 

Daniel MacMurphy, Joseph Atwood, Ebenezer Farrar, 

Christopher Bartlet, Jonathan Farrar, John Champney, 

Benjamin Hoyte, Jonathan Taylor, John Fravier, 

Thomas Hoyt. James Taylor. 

This petition was for a reduction and equalization of taxes, as they were 
"a burthen insupportable for them in their present infant state, and much 
heavier than what is laid on other towns of their ability." In December, 
T775, we find the additional names of William Morrow, Robert Morrow, 
Jonathan Clark, William Palmer, John McMurphy, Joseph Basford, Jr., Will- 
iam Polee and Joseph Hoyt, while the Census report for that year shows the 
entire population to have been 137 souls. An inventory of the town was 
taken in 1777, with the following result: — 

"No. of polls, eighteen years of age and upwards 36 

"No. of acres of arable or tillage, and mowing land 93 

"No. of horses and mares 12 

"No. of oxen 28, cows 42, cattle three years old 10. 

"No. of cattle two years old 15 

"No. of cattle one year old 14 

"One saw mill and one corn mill. 

"Sum total of money on hand or at interest ;i^ i°o 

"Sum total of the value of all real estate not included before 

"in lands. No. of acres 21,358 640. 7. i| 

"^320.3,14" 



Il6 TOWN OF ALEXANDRIA. 



Eliphalet Gale came to Alexandria from Salisbury, N. H., and was one of 
the early settlers of the town. Stephen, one of his six children, married Mar- 
garet Sanburn, of Bristol, N. H. Luke, one of the thirteen children of Ste- 
phen, married Louisa A.^ daughter of Elias and Rebecca (Simonds) Perkins, 
and has three children, namely, Sarah L., Clara A., and Orrin S. The latter 
has been town clerk eleven years, is now justice of the peace, was a member of 
the State constitutional convention, for New Hampshire, in 1876, and repre- 
sented the town in t88i. He married Emma R. Bailey, has two children, 
Shirley L. and Angie L., and resides on the home farm with his father. 
Luke Gale has held many offices of trust in the town and in the county. He 
represented the town in 1869-70. 

Alexander McMurphy, one of the early settlers, came here from London- 
derry, N. H., and located as the first settler on the farm known as the 
■'McMurphy farm," on road 38. In the year 1777 he was given fifty acres 
of land to induce him to settle in Alexandria. He was a pensioner of the 
Revolution, and also served in the war or 181 2. He married Mary Palmer, 
of Sutton, N. H. His son Daniel married Betsey Huntington, of Bristol, 
N. H , and had born to him eleven children, ten of whom, two sons and 
eight daughters, grew to maturity. Of these, Daniel Jr., married Sarah E., 
daughter of Silas and Rebecca (Haywood) Roades, and has two sons, Alber- 
tus N. and Silas A. The latter n^arried Emma Tilton, of Bristol, and has 
one child, Lizzie L Albertus N. married Jennie N. Tilton, of Bristol, and 
has one daughter, Helen A. Daniel McMurphy and his two sons, Silas A. 
and Albertus N., reside on the homestead, thus making four generations that 
have hved there. 

Moses Atwood, a miller, was an early settler of Alexandria and Bristol. 
John, one of his nine children, married Elizabeth Corliss, and reared four 
children, namely, George, Mary, Elizabeth and John W. The latter married 
Susan, daughter of Daniel and Susan (Cheley) Bailey, and has had born to 
him four children, three of whom, Ella F., Emma R. and William L are liv- 
ing. John W. resides here on road 15, corner 31. 

Stephen Bullock and his brother Joseph came from Plymouth, England, in 
1623, and landed near Boston. Richard, son of Stephen came with them and 
was but three years of age. Elisha, one of his descendants, married Maria 
Leeds, of Canaan, reared five children, and settled in Grafton. His son 
Bradford married Lovina Gale, of Alexandria. Elisha H., one of his nine 
children, married twice, first, Abbie C. Allen, of Lyme, N. H., and second, 
Sarah M., daughter of John and Maria J. (Flanders) French, and has two 
children, Abbie M. and Georgia A. He now resides at Alexandria Center, 
an road 30. 

Hezekiah Bullock, a resident of Grafton, on road 27, married .Mary Mar- 
tin and reared seven children, three of whom are living, namely, Pluma, Sa- 
bra and Gilbert. He died at the age of eighty-seven years. His son Arial 
K. came to Alexandria about 1840, married Orpha Simons, of this town, and 



TOWN OF ALEXANDRIA. II7 

located on a farm on road 34. His wife died in 1876, aged sixty-six years, 
and his death occurred in 1878, aged sixty-eight years. Three of his five 
children are living, viz. : Kendrick S., Mary E. and Gilbert A. The latter 
married Clara A., daughter of Luke and Louisa A. (Perkins) Gale, has one 
daughter, Eva L., and resides in this town. He has been town treasurer 
five years, and is the only merchant and postmaster in town, 

John Patten came to Alexandria at an early day, making his way by blazed 
trees. He died on the farm where he first located, aged eighty-seven years. 
Joseph, one of his nine children, married Sarah Braley, of Danbury, N. H., 
and reared three sons, Orlando R., Willie J. and Truman T. The latter 
married Etta M., daughter of Isaac H. and Maria M. (Braley) Bailey, has 
one son, Leroy E.. and resides in town, off road 8. Mr. Patten has a fine 
mica mine on his farm from which may be taken sheets of mica fifteen inches 
square. There are also fine specimens of garnet and feldspar on the place. 

Robert Patten came to Alexandria from Londonderry, N. H., about seventy 
years ago. Jonathan, one of his four children, married Margaret, daughter 
of vSamuel and Margaret (Ross) Clark, and rea.ed three children, namely, 
Sophia, now dead, Mary Fernald, of Orange, and Samuel S., of this town. 
The latter married Etta, daughter of William L. and Lizzie (Bailey) Bailey, 
and has four children, as follows : Dora M., Chester S., Lura L. and Lena 
E. He resides on a farm on road 29. 

John Patten served in the Revolutionary war, enlisting when he was but 
sixteen years of age. He married Jane Abbot, who bore him eleven chil- 
dren. His son Benjamin A. married Polly Hastings, and reared five chil- 
dren, namely, Emily, Amanda, Jonas, Manson and Seth G. The last men- 
tioned lives here on road 34. 

William Pattee was an early settler here, and lived on the farm known as 
the Pattee farm, on road 41. He married Judith Worthen, and reared eight 
children. His son Moses married Jane Gordon, of this town, and reared a 
family of ten children, viz.: Jessie, WiUiam, Moses, Henry, James, Wilber, 
Betsey J. ist, Rosa M., Betsey J. 2d, and Lewis F. The last mentioned 
married Mary P., daughter of Oilman, Jr., and Sarah L. (Roberts) Ingles, 
and has three children, namely, Fred L.. Charles H., and Mary L. Mr. Pat- 
tee resides here, on a farm, on road 41. 

Jonathan Tilton, son of Sherburn and Huldah Tilton, came to Alexandria, 
from Britlgevvater, and resided here about forty years. He married Sarah 
Clifford, and reared nine children. His son Timothy married Mary Mc- 
Murphy, of this town, and had born to him three children, namely, Jeriah, 
Sarah E., and Horace F. The latter married twice, first, Jennie E. Lewis, of 
Maiden, Mass., who died at the age of twenty-four years, and second, Flora, 
daughter of Moses and Susan Noys, of Springfield, N. H., and has two chil- 
dren, Bertha M. and Edith M. Mr. Tilton resides in town, on a farm on 
road 42. 

Samutl Tilton was a resident of Andover, N. H., where he died. His son 



I I 8 TOWN OF ALEXANDRIA. 



Joseph, married Mary, daughter of Jessie and Mary Rowe, of Campton, N. 
H. George T., one of his twelve children, married Mary H., daughter of 
Jasper E. and Eliza F. (Rowe; Glidden, has one child, Willie G., and resides 
in this town, on road 44. 

Jesse Gordon, son of George, came to this town, from New Hampton, N. 
H., at the age of fifty-six years, and resided here until his death, at the age 
of eighty years. He married Susan Bartlett, of Kingston, N. H., and reared 
a family of ten children. His son Moses married Jane^ daughter of William 
and Judith (Worthin) Pattee, and has had born to him three children, two 
of whom, Moses W. and Hiram L., are living. The latter married Catha- 
rine, daughter of James and Sybil (Chamberlain) Coburn, and has seven 
children^ viz.: Sybil J., Sarah E. Caton, Elmer H., Robert B., Lendal A., 
James C. and Mary A. He resides in this town, on a farm, on road 44. 
Moses W. is located on the homestead with his father, on road 42. Amos, 
one of the ten children of Jesse Gordon, married Hannah E. Pattee, and 
had born to him two children, Isaac and Charles Henry. The latter married 
Dorcas D., daughter of David and Mary M. (Smith) Calley, of Bristol, has 
two children, Carl A. and Helen M., and lives on the home farm of his grand- 
father, on read 42. Isaac B., married Louise, daughter of Dr. D. E. and 
Mary E. (Wells) Wells, and has two children, Roy W. and Ross S. 

Oliver Ballou, son of Oliver, moved to Enfield from Providence, R. I., and 
was one of the early settlers of that town. He married for his second wife 
Mary Simons of Alexandria, and had born to him twelve children, eleven of 
whom grew to maturity. His son Horace married Mary, daugher of Caleb 
and Louis (Phelps) Simons, and has had born to him four children, one of 
whom is now living and resides at Spirit Lake, Iowa. Mr. Ballou was the 
first permanent merchant in Alexandria, and remained in that business forty 
years. He has been justice of the peace twenty years, postmaster, twenty 
years, and town clerk, one year. He is now retired from business and resides 
in this town, on road 29, Hosea, one of the twelve children of Oliver, mar- 
ried Cynthia P., daughter of Joseph and Sarah (^Parsons) Sanburn, and reared 
seven children, three of whom are living, namely, Charlotte A., Ellen Burpee, 
of Bristol, and Luisde F. The latter served three years in the late war, en- 
Hsting in Co. C, 12th N. H. Vols., and was honorably discharged. He resides 
in this town with his mother. 

Robert Simonds, son of William, who was one of the early settlers of this 
town, was .born in Alexandria, and married Phebe Hastings, of Bristol. Six 
of his eight children are living, one of whom, Robert. Jr., married Margaret, 
daughter of Caleb and Lois (Phelps) Simons. His four children now living 
are Scott H., of California; Emma M., Preston F. and Walter F. The last 
mentioned married twice, first Tirza Ladd, and second Sarah A., daughter of 
Jacob and Emily (Terrill) Sanburn. He has two children, Perley H. and 
Flossie E., and resides in this town on a farm on road 15 corner 18. Mr. 



TOWN OF ALEXANDRIA. II9 



Simonds has been selectman two years, town collector five years, justice of the 
peace for the past ten years, and is now State justice. 

Nathan Butterick, son of Eli, was a native of Concord, Mass., came to Al- 
exandria when twenty-one years of age. He married Mary Clififord, of this 
town, and reared four children, namely : Nathan B., John A., George F. and 
Charles W. Charles W. married Mary A., daughter of Jonathan and Lucy 
H. (Dean) Dickinson, has one daughter, Mary L., and resides here on a 
farm on road 44. 

EUiot Healy, whose father served in the Revolution, came to this town 
from Northfield, N. H., about 1810, married Judith Heath, and reared seven 
children. The son Joseph S. married twice, first Mary Garlin and second 
Elizabeth Hammond, of Bristol, N. H. Of his four children, Albert lives in 
California, Eller resides in Manchester, Joseph H. served in the late war, in 
Co. C, 7th N. H. Vols., and died in Georgia in 1863, and Fred N. lives in 
this town, on road 11. Fred N. married Hannah Stevens, daughter of Jona- 
than Ackerman. 

John Pitman, who served at the battle of Bunker Hill, armed with a pitch- 
fork, married Susan Keniston and reared nine children. His son John mar- 
ried Shuah Lougee, of Gilmington, N. H. John, 3d, the eldest of his six sons, 
married Fannie B., daughter of WiUiam and Hannah (Batchelder) Miles, of 
Alton, and has reared eight children. He is the first settler on the farm 
where he now resides, and, with his wife, has occupied this farm for the past 
sixty years. They are both eighly-three years of age. His son Warren L. 
married Julia E. Tappin, has six children, and resides on the home farm with 
his father, on road 9. 

Phineas Ackerman, who served in the war of 181 2, came to this town, 
from Farmington, in 1835, and located on road 2. He married Sarah AU- 
ard, of Farmington, and reared four children. His son Peter married Bet- 
sey Scruten, of Strafford, N. H. Eight of their ten children are Hving, one 
of whom, Peter T., married Emma J. Berry, and has six children, namely, 
Peter, Etta, Enoch, Arthur, Clark and Oren. He resides in this town on 
road 9. Phineas W. Ackerman married Elizabeth, daughter of Daniel and 
Susan (Chesley) Bailey, and has two children, Charles O. and Lydia O. Pat- 
ten. He resides o : road 19. 

Peter Ackerman, a native of Rye, N. H., was a pensioner of the Revolu- 
tionary war, and was wounded and crippled for life at the battle of Ticonde- 
roga. He married twice, first Rachel Lock, and second, Harriet Marden, 
and reared six children. His son John married Abigail Gray, of Farming- 
ton, N. H. Four of his nine children are living, one of whom, Shem G., 
married Joanna W., daughter of Samuel and Betsey (Rollins) Clark, of Dor- 
chester, and has five children, viz. : William C, John L., Fred H.. Abbie G. 
and George W. The last mentioned lives at home with his father, on a farm 
at the foot of Cardigan mountain, on road 6. 

Thomas Hutchins, son of Thomas, was a resident of Westford, Mass., 



TOWN OF ALEXANDRIA. 



where he died at the age of eighty-three years. Thomas, one of his three 
children, married twice, first, Hannah Dedman, and second, Sarah Dadman, 
and came to Alexandria in 1857. Three of his large family of children are 
hving, namely, Horatio E., Francis S. and Erastus T. The latter married 
Annie H., daughter of Caleb T. and Hannah (Kineston) Robie. His chil- 
dren are Mabel A., Josie L., Bert C. and Earl L. He resides on road 9, 
corner 1 1. 

Ezra T. Gilford married Almira, daughter of John and Kesiah Kimball.. 
Ezra L., one of his seven children, married Helen L., daughter of John W. 
and Harriet M. Braley, and has four children, namely, Leon C, Ada L., 
Minnie S. and Harry L. He resides on road 44. 

John Noyes resided in Springfield, N. H., and was the first settler on a 
farm where he died at the age of eighty-four years. He reared seven chil- 
dren, one of whom, Moses, married Susan C, daughter of Ebenezer and 
Elizabeth Whitmore, and reared six children, namely, Eben E., Lydia A., 
Mary J., Charles M., Florilla S. and William H. He died in Springfield in 
November, 1884, aged seventy-four years. William H. married Lucy A., 
daughter of Asa and Olive G. (Hogdon) Hoyt, of East Canaan, has one 
child, Harry, and resides here on road 45. Moses Hoyt served in the war 
of 181 2, and his widow, aged sixty -nine years, survives him and draws a pen- 
sion. 

Samuel P. Heath was a native of Salisbury, N. H., when he died at the 
age of twenty-seven years. He married Mary A. Dunlap and had born to 
him two children, Eliza and John C. The latter married Jennie, daughter of 
Samuel and Harriet Morrell, of Andover, N. H., and has three children, 
Mary, Willie and Ernest. He resides on road 44. 

Lewis Chamberlin, son of Ira, who served in the war of 181 2, was a na- 
tive of Chazy, N. Y., where he died at the age of forty-seven years. His 
son William H. married Jane Aldrich, of Chazy, N. Y., and has three chil- 
dren, namely, Jennie L., Nettie M. and Carrie B. He resides here on 
road 46. 

Nathaniel Berry resided in Strafford, N. H., and reared a large family of 
children. His seventh son, Levi, married Sarah Page, of Epsom, N. H., and 
reared eleven children, eight sons and three daughters. His son James mar- 
ried Lorana, daughter of Peter and Lydia (Ladd) Fellows, and has three chil- 
dren, namely, Gilbert H., Caroline M. and Olive A. He was the first settler 
on the farm he now occupies, on road 4, on which place he has hved for fifty- 
six years. He is eighty years of age, and his wife is seventy-four years of age. 
Gilbert H., is also a resident of this town. 

Rev. William Saunders, a resident of Strafford, N. H., married Comfort 
Drew, of Barnstead. His son Joel married Phebe, daughter of James Scott, 
and Hved in this town two years. Three of his children are living, of whom 
Horace married Hannah, daughter of Thomas and Betsey Challis, of Par- 
sonfield, and has two children, Imogene and Inez F. Mr. Saunders has held 



p 



TOWN OF ALEXANDRIA. 



the office of selectman five years, represented the town in 1877-78, and has 
been the only merchant and postmaster in the town for ten years. He resides 
on road 29. James W., son of Joel, married Mary J., daughter of John and 
Abigail (Gray) Ackerman, and has three children, Alice, Horace and Ida. He 
served in the late war, was a sergeant in Co. C, 12th N. H. Vols., and a cap- 
tarn in Co. B, 1 2th N. H. Vols. He resides on road 11. 

David Cheney moved to Bristol, from Newbury, Mass., married Anna 
Worth, of Newbury, and reared twelve children, four of whom are living. He 
died in Bristol, January i, 1855, aged eighty-seven years. His son Leonard 
married Rebecca B,, daughter of David and Rebecca (Bailey) Haynes, of 
Alexandria. His daughter, Christina M. Seavey, resides in Dover, N. PL, and 
his son, Augustus F., married Laura, daughter of David and Mary (Batchel- 
der) Young, of Loudon, N. H., and has one adopted daughter, Bessie R. 
Augustus F., lives on the home farm, on road 19, with his mother, who is 
seventy-three years of age. This homestead was first settled by David Haynes, 
who resided there sixty years. Mr. Cheney has been collector three years, 
superintendent of school committee two years, and justice of the peace three 
terms. 

William Tucker was a resident of Rye, N. H., and reared six children. His 
son, William, married Sarah Nutlir, of Rochester, N. H. Charles W., one of 
his seven children, married Alice Gilchrist, of Methuen, Mass., and resides on 
road 1 1. 

Joseph Kelley, a native of Newburg, Vt., moved to Plymouth, N. H., where 
he died at the age of fifty years. He married Susan Crawford, .and reared 
three children, Joseph D., Lovina and William C, The latter married Cora 
T., daughter of Daniel and Abigail Page, and has one daughter, Lillian W. 
He was town representative in 1868, is now engaged in farming, and is also 
proprietor of a grist-mill in Bristol. He resides on road 15. 

Peter Sleeper, son of Gideon who was an early settler of Grafton, married 
Sally Wood, of Alexandria, and reared eight children. His son Peter married 
Wealthy, daughter of John and Abigail (Bowen) Corless, and had born to 
him three children, namely, James, of Chicago, John M. and Marcus O., of 
this town. Pie died in 1883 aged seventy-two years. His widow resides with 
her son Marcus O. The latter married Minnie E. Vose. John M. married 
Clara S. Merrill, of Appleton, Wis., and has four children, namely, Jessie 
M., Clarence M., twins, Myrtle and Archie L. 

Samuel Thisell, a native of Beverly, Mass., lived in that place until his 
death, aged seventy-nine years. He married Polly Wyatt and reared five 
children, viz.: Samuel, Eben, Andrew, Mary and William. The last men- 
tioned married twice, first Sarah A. Davis, of Orford, and second Sarah T. 
True, of Wentworth, and has two children, Charles C. and Martha. He re- 
sides on road 31. 

James Dalton, a Revolutionary soldier, resided in New Hampton, N. PL, 
where he died at the age of seventy-five years. He married Elizabeth Whit- 



TOWN OF ALEXANDRIA. 



ton, and had born to him one son, Samuel, who married Mahaley Robinson, 
and reared twelve children, four of whom are living, namely: John M., Alvin 
B , Ida and Charles L. The last mentioned married Harriet E , daughter 
of Josiah and Lucy (Ladd) Ingals, of this town, and resides on the farm 
known as the Ingals iarm, on road 15. 

Samuel Davis moved to Canaan from Plainfield, N. H., at an early day. 
Martin, one of his eight children, married Lydia Aldrich, of Grafton. His 
son Charles E. married Ella, daughter of Charles and Jane (Bennett) George, 
has one son, Edwin A., and resides on road 42. 

David Rollins married Judith Leach and had born to him eight children. 
His son Joseph married Harriet K., daughter of Caleb and Lois (Phelps) 
Simons, of Hebron, and was the father of ten children. His son George A. 
married Edna J., daughter of Lowell and Charlotte (Bean) Scribner, of 
Franklin, has one adopted son, Harry D., and resides at the center of the 
town. 

Rev. McDonald Martin, a native of Pembroke, N. H., married Johanna 
Weber, of Plymouth, N. H., and reared four children. His son Charles L. 
married Orpha, daughter of Zebulon and Abigail (Blake) f errin, and was 
the father of five children, four of whom are living. His son Joseph P. mar- 
ried Louisa B., daughter of Joseph G. and Fanny (Bowen) Francis, has one 
child, Charles J., and resides on road 34. 

John Phillips served seven years in the Revolutionary war as a drummer, 
married Annie Cummings, of Plymouth, N. H., in 1783, and reared twelve 
children — six sons and six daughters. His son Alvah A., born in 1803, mar- 
ried Ruth A., daughter of Peter and Sally (Atwood) Sleeper, and had born 
to him one son, John F. Mr. Phillips died April 2, 1867, aged sixty-three 
years. His widow lives on the homestead, on road 37, and is seventy-seven, 
years of age. John F. married twice, first, Sarah A., daughter of William S. 
and Betsey (McMurphy) Pattee, and second, Sarah A., daughter of Jonathan 
and Mary V. (Hall) Ferrin, of Plymouth, N. H. His children are Ella R., 
Henry C, Willie A., Levi H. and Lou B. Mr. Phillips served in the late 
war, in Co. C, 12th N. H. Vols., and was honorably discharged. He was 
at the battle of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg and Washing- 
ton Heights. He has been town representative two years, selectman five 
years, and town treasurer two years. 

Ebenezer Ferrin lived in Bristol, Vt., where he died, and reared four chil- 
dren. His son Phillip married Nancy McMurphy, of Alexandria. Levi, the 
only one of his nine children now living, married Sarah M., daughter of 
Amos and Elsie (Flanders) Clough, of Lowell, Mass. His daughter Emma 
J. married Rev. Alexander McGregor, of Amesbury, Mass. His son Frank 
C. resides in Franklin Falls. Levi Ferrin has been a merchant for many 
years, but is now retired on a farm near the center of the town. 

The Free Will Baptist church, located at the center of the town, was or- 
ganized about 1818, as a Union church, by Methodists and Baptists. The 



TOWN OF ASHLAND. I 23 

church building, a wooden structure capable of seating 300 persons, was 
built during the same vear. It is now valued, including grounds, at $2,500. 
The society is now under the pastoral charge of Rev. G. O. Wiggin. 



ASHLAND lies in the eastern part of the county, in lat. 43 43 , and long. 
71° 41', bounded north and northeast by Holderness, south by New 
Hampton, in Belnap county, and west by Plymouth and Bridgewater, 
This is the smallest township in the county, having only about 3,853 acres of 
improved land, and was set off from the southwestern part of Holderness, 
and incorporated mto a separate township, July i, 1868, being given the name 
of Ashland, in honor of the home of Henry Clay. 

The surface of the town is generally rough and broken, though so diversi- 
fied as to present some very charming scenery. Through its center, from 
north to south, extends a ridge of highland called Church hill, from which the 
land slopes east to Owl brook, a tributary of Squam river, and west to the 
Pemigewasset, which washes its western border. Little Squam lake, a hand- 
some sheet of water, extends into the township from Holderness, greatly 
enhancing the beauty of the scenery. Squam river, its outlet, flows a south- 
westerly direction, faUing into the Pemigewasset, and affording, in its course, 
some excellent mill privileges. The soil is hard, but, when properly cultivated, 
produces good crops. The Boston & Lowell railroad crosses the southwestern 
section of the town. 

In i88o Ashland had a population of 969 souls. In 1885, the town had 
three school districts, four common schools, and four graded schools. Its five 
school 'houses were valued, including furniture, etc., at $15,125.00. There 
were 149 children attending school, seventeen of whom were pursuing the 
higher grades, taught during the year by one male and eight female teachers, 
the former at an average monthly salary of $48.00, and the female teachers 
at an average monthly salary of $24.57. The entire amount raised for school 
purposes during the year, was $1,708.30, while the expenditures were $1,724.- 
38, with H. C. Dearborn, superintendent. 

AsHL.\ND is a thriving, brisk post village, located in the southwestern part 
of the town, on Squam river, and on the Boston & Lowell railroad. It has 
two churches (Baptist and Episcopal), one hotel, four dry good stores, a shoe- 
store, millinery store, grocery, etc., one hotel, a bank, public school, two 
woolen-mills, three paper-mills, leather-board mill, two glove factories, two 
tanneries, machine shop, blacksmith shop, two wagon shops, two saw-mills, 
and several other small mechanical shops. Aside from these manufactories, 
the village has about 200 dwellings, and is situated in the midst of wild, 
romantic and beautiful scenery. 

Ashland Savings Bank, with Frank Scribner treasurer, has 2S5 depositors, 



24 TOWN OF ASHLAND. 



with an aggregate deposit of $47,676.00. The bank was organized in 1872, 
with Nathaniel Batchelder, president, and J. F. Keyes, treasurer. 

The Squam Lake woolen-mill was built by James Briggs & Bros., in 1840. 
They operated the mills about eight years, and from that time until Septem- 
ber I, 1 88 1, when the present proprietors leased it. The property changed 
hands several times, and for several years the mills were idle. The mills 
have 1,500 spindles and the capacity for manufacturing 150,000 yards of flan- 
nels and cloakings per year. 

J. F. Draper 6^ Co! s glove factory was built by them in 1880, they having 
moved to Ashland from Plymouth, where they were engaged in the business 
a number of years. They employ 200 hands in the manufacture of buckskin 
and kid gloves. 

The Ashland woolen-mills were built in 1880, by A. Scribner, who used 
them for manufacturing paper until 1883, when they were taken by the pres- 
ent firm, Carter & Rogers, and converted into woolen- mills. They have 720 
spindles. 

E. F. Bailey' s leather-board mill. — Mr. Bailey came here from Lawrence, 
Mass., in the autumn of 1863, and purchased a paper-mill of Simeon L. Gor- 
don, and began the manufacture of straw-board. In 1868 he changed the 
manufacture to that of leather-board — the first manufactory of this kind 
established in the State. In January, 1870, his mill was burned, and in July 
following he built the present structure. He manufactures about one ton of 
leather-board per day. 

Charles T. Wilder 6^ Co.^s paper-mill was originally built by George 
Mitchell, about 1850, and subsequently re-built by the present firm. They 
also built mills known as No. 2 and No. 3, which were destroyed by fire in 
1844, and upon whose site they have just built another large mill. The firm 
does an extensive business in the manufacture of Manila wrapping paper. 

C B. Fosdick's tafifiery, operated by H. D. Smith, has the capacity for 
tanning 2,000 deer skins per annum. 

Shepard cSn Fletcher's machine shop is the only shop of the kind in the 
town, and has been in the possession of this firm about five years. 

A. E. Harriman's leather-board tnill was built for a peg factory, about 
thirty-five years ago. 

Ashland was so recently severed from Holderness, that the record of its 
settlement, etc., properly belongs to the sketch of its parent town, to which 
sketch, on a future page, we refer the reader. 

Robert Huckins, one of the twelve children of James Huckins, of New 
Hampton, N. H., was a resident on the home farm and married three times, 
first, Deborah Gordon, second, Rebecca McGoon, and third, Abigail Mudd- 
gett. James, one of his twelve children, married Louisa Plaisted, has two 
children, and now resides in Ashland. His son James F. married Mary S. 
Smith, of this town, has two children, and is now a dry goods merchant in 



TOWN OF ASHLAND. T25 



the village of Ashland. Mrs. Cordelia M. Cheany, daughter of James 
Huckins, has one child and resides in Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Simon Harris, a native of Bridgewater. and the first mail-carrier of that 
town, married Susanna Crawford, who bore him thirteen children. Rufus, son 
of Simon, married twice, first, Violet S. Sanborn, and second, Alvira Webber, 
end has had born to him seven children, four of whom are now living. He 
has been a manufacturer of paper, has resided in Ashland thirty-four years, 
and is now eighty years of age. William F., son of Rufus, married Electa 
T. Emmons, of New Hampton, and has two children. He is depot agent 
for the Boston & Lowell railroad, and resides in this town. 

James Ames, a native of New Market, N. H., married Comfort Masten. 
Caleb, one of his eight children, married Sarah, daughter of William and 
Sarah Burleigh. William Burleigh served in the Revolutionary war and was 
at the battle of Burgoyne. Daniel H., youngest son of Caleb Ames, who 
had seven children, married twice, first, Mary M. Batchelder, and second, 
Anna B., daughter of Alonzo and Theodate Cheney, of Boston, Mass. He 
has four children and resides in this town, on road 19, corner 20. 

Capt. Thomas Cox, a native of Holderness, married Miriam Dearborn, of 
Plymouth, N. H., and had born to him seven children. He died March i, 
1830, aged forty-seven years. His son Daniel H. married Charlotte, daugh- 
ter of David and Charlotte (Haynes) Smith. One of his eight children, 
Thomas H., married Ida F., daughter of George F. and Angeline (Baker) 
Cummings, and resides in this town. 

Barnett Hughes served in the Revolutionary war and married Jane Grimes. 
His son, Thomas N., one of the early settlers, was a farmer and a lumber- 
man, was representative of Holderness in 1864, and of Ashland in 1869-70. 
Frank L., one of his three children, married Elizabeth A., daughter of John 
C. and Elmira Shepard, of this town, has one child, Elmer C, and is now a 
merchant of Ashland village. He served in the late war in Co. E, 12th N. 
H. Vols. 

Stephen Chase Baker, son of Joseph Baker, was born in Holderness in 
1821. His great grandfather, Joseph Baker, when a lad of i 2 or 14 years 
ran away from his home; in England, came to America and settled in New 
England. His children were born in Nottingham, N. H. He was one of 
the grantees of Holderness, and his right was improved by his son Andrew, 
who settled in the township about 1772, and became the ancestor of the 
Baker family in Ashland and Holderness. Joseph A. Baker, his grandson, 
occupies his original homestead. Andrew Baker was an only son, had two 
sisters, one of whom married John Shaw, from whom are descended the 
Shaws of Holderness. One married Levi Drew, grandfather of Asa Drew, 
of Ashland. Andrew Baker married Anna Knowlton, and had three daugh- 
ters, and six sons who reached manhood, viz. : James, Andrew K., Stephen, 
Ebenezer, Col. Nathan and Joseph. Joseph Baker inherited his father's farm, 
married Hannah Piper and reared five sons and four daughters. He was a 



126 TOWN OF ASHLAND. 



drum-major in the old militia companies. Stephen C. Baker, the eldest son,, 
followed farming, teaching school winters until about 1845, when he became 
interested in the manufacture of paper, in the employ of George Hoyt. In 
1854 he became a partner with Joseph W. Galley in the manufacture of 
straw-board, and has been identified with this business and the manufacture 
of leather-board. He has been superintendent of the Sunday school about 
twenty years and chorister about nineteen years. He has filled various town 
offices, and has also been an earnest temperance worker for many years, and 
for the past two years has filled the position of Grand Worthy Patriarch in 
the New Hampshire Grand Division Sons of Temperance. 

James Baker, son of Andrew, was a farmer, married Jane, daughter of 
Samuel and Peggy Smith, and died at the age of seventy-two years, while his 
wife died at the age of eighty-three years. His second son, Samuel S., mar- 
ried Avis Drew, of Ashland- Seven of his eight children are living, four 
daughters residing in Grafton county, and two sons in Massachusetts. His 
third son, Daniel S., married twice, first, Henrietta A. Elkins, who bore him 
one son, now at home, and second, Edna M., daughter of Jeremiah and Ma- 
hala (Veasie) Smith, of Laconia. He now resides in this town, on a farm 
on road 23. His second daughter, Frances O. married Paul Perkins, a 
stone mason and son of Timothy and Sarah Perkins, of Center Harbor, N. 
H. They have one child, Ella F., and reside here on road 23. Andrew, 
son of James and brother of Samuel S., married Sarah Mudgett, 
of New Hampton, who bore him three sons. One of them, James S., mar- 
ried Arabel A., daughter of Arad and Sophronia (Drew) Simonds, has two 
children and resides in Ashland village. Mr. Baker served three years in the 
late war, enlisting.in Co. E, 12th N. H. Vols., was at the battles of Freder- 
icksburg, Chancellorville, Gettysburg, Cold Harbor and at the siege of 
Richmond, 

William Corliss, a native of Haverhill, Mass., was an early settler in this 
country, moving to Alexandria about 1750. Willard, one of his eleven chil- 
dren married Catharine, daughter of John and Mary (Fullsifer) Spiller, of 
Bridgewater, and had born to him six children. John Spiller was a soldier 
in the Revolutionary war. James, son of Willard, married Deborah H., 
daughter of William W. and Judith (Cross) Spiller, has had two children, only 
one of whom, Mrs. Garrie L. Fadden is living, and resides in this town, on 
road 17. 

David Carr, of English descent, was one of the first settlers in the town of 
Holderness, locating upon a farm on road 9. Jacob, one of his five children, 
married Harriet, daughter of Thomas and Mary (Hackett) Beede. His son 
John B., one of the four children now hving, married twice, first Ann F Fogg, 
of Franklin, N. H., who bore him three children, and second, Jane H., 
daughter of Ira and Grace (Beede) Huckins, who has borne him one child, 
Mrs. Cora B. Jackson. He Uves in this town on a larm on road 23. His 



TOWN OF ASHLAND. 127 



Other children are Mrs. Ella M. Bryant, now of Meredith, N. H., Fred A., of 
this town, and Grade B., who resides at home with her father. 

Williani Currier came to Plymouth, N. H., from Concord, about 1784, 
and was the first settler upon the farm where he remained until his death. 
His son Daniel was a life long resident of the home farm. William, son of 
Daniel, married Sophia R. Dow, of Pembroke, N, H., who bore him five chil- 
dren. His second son, Edwin B., married Mary A., daughter of Crosley and 
Louisa B. (Center) Smith, has nine children, and resides in this town on road 
9. His daughter, Jessie M., married Edwin B. Evens, of Plymouth, N. H., 
but who now resides here. 

Levi Drew moved to New Hampton from Madbury, N. H., about 1760, 
married Mary Baker, and had born to him five children. His oldest son, 
Joseph, married Elizabeth, daughter of Nathaniel Wallace, of Moltonboro, 
N. H., and reared nine children, only one of whom, Asa, is now living. The 
latter married Nancy, daughter of Parker and Polly Chase, of Campton, N. 
H., has seven children, and resides in this town, on road 11. Benjamin, son 
of Levi, married Elizabeth Greeney, of Plymouth, N. H., and had born to 
him two children. George K., the elder of his two children, married Ruth,, 
daughter of Robert and Ruth (Martin) Carr, of North Hampton, and had 
born to him four children, now Uving. He died in 1848, aged forty-nine 
years. His widow still resides in town, on road 21, aged eighty-seven years. 

Enoch Rogers, a native of Byfield, Mass., wasasoklier in the Revolutionary 
war and was one of the men who threw the tea overboard in Boston Harbor. 
He married Lydia Moors, of West Newbury, Mass., and had born to him ten 
children. His youngest son, Charles, married twice, first Mary L. Gordon, of 
Pittsfield, N. H., who bore him three children, and second, Tryphena French, 
and had born to him one child. He resided in the town for many years, 
where he died at the age of seventy-four years. His oldest son, Gardner F., 
married Myra A., daughter of John S. and Mara (Robinson) Brown, of 
Groton, N. H., has three children, and resides in this town. 

Nathaniel Cummings, a native of New Hampton, N. H., reared a family of 
nine children, one of whom, Jonathan, married Nancy, daughter of Daniel 
Brown, of Bridgewater. He had born to him five children, four of whom are 
living. He died in this town in 1853, aged fifty-eight years. His oldest son, 
Joshua F., married twice, first Lettice T. Hannaford, and second, Jane Wil- 
kinson, of Guilford, N. H. He has two children, S. B. and Jonathan, both of 
whom reside in town. 

Elias Ladd, a native of Sandwich, N. H., settled in Holderness, where he 
died in 1847. William, one of his six children, married Mary, daughter of 
John and Charlotte Sturdevant, of Moultonboro, N. H., and reared four chil- 
dren, two of whom. Hale M. and Ruel W., are living. The latter married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Dr. Samuel and Mary Ann (Webster) Wright, has two 
children, Maria F., and Adele C, and resides in this town. 

Hon. Samuel Livermore was an early settler of Holderness. He was born 



128 TOWN OF ASHLAND. 



in Waltham, Mass., in 1732; graduated at Princeton college in 1751 ; was 
judge advocate of the admiralty before the Revolution ; subsequently judge 
of the Superior Court of New Hampshire; and a senator in Congress from 
1793 to 1 80 1, when he resigned ; and was president /r*? tern, of that body dur- 
ing two sessions. He died here in May, 1803. 

Tacob Peaslee was an early settler of Ashland, and reared a family of eleven 
children. His son John married Abigail Crawford, of Bridgewater, N. H., 
who bore him nine children. Jacob, son of John, married Ann Clement, has 
three children, and resides in the town. Aquilla E. married Anna Taylor, has 
two children, and resides in Ashland village. 

Horatio N. Smythe, son of Joshua, was an early settler in this town, upon 
a farm near Little Squam lake, on road 7. He married Eliza, daughter of 
Caleb and Abiah (Colburn) Smythe. Charles W., one of his six children, 
married Margaret, daughter of Dr. Charles and Mary Harris, of North Caro- 
lina, and reared five children, all living. Louis N., his second son, married 
Nellie, daughter of Charles W. and Mary Herbert, of Rumney, N. H., has 
one son, and is a dry-goods merchant in the village of Ashland. 

David Calley was one of the early settlers in that part of Holderness which 
is now Ashland, upon a farm on road 1. He married for his second wife 
Mary Masten, who bore him eight children. His son Jeremiah M. married 
Mary Shepard, of Holderness, and had born to him five children, all now liv- 
ing. Willis H., eldest son of Jeremiah M., married Harriet Smith, of Camp- 
ton, has four children, and resides on the home farm. 

John Shepard, an early settler of the town of Holderness, married Eleanor, 
daughter of Richard Shepard, who was one of the first proprietors of Holder- 
ness. George W., one of the eleven children of John, married Sarah Fowle, 
and had born to him three children, only one of whom is living. Robert 
Fowle was the first Episcopal minister in this town. Henry H., son of George 
W., married Mary, daughter of Jeremiah M. and Mary Calley, has one child, 
Martha M., and resides in Ashland, near Little Squam lake. 

Benning M. Plaisted, son of William, resided in New Hampton, N. H., 
and married Phebe Eaton, ofCandia. Benning E., one of his three children, 
rr^arried Nancy B., daughter of Moses and Sarah (Chandler) Merrill, of Ash- 
land, and has three children, namely, Oscar A., Mrs. Pamelia A. M. Hog- 
don, and Mrs. Georgeanna E. Stephens, all of whom reside in this town. Os- 
car A. married EUie J. Clough and has one child, Blanche M. 

Robert Deane, son of Benjamin, who was a native of Ireland, married 
Eliza Webb. His son Barnabas married Grace Deane, came to New Hamp- 
shire in 1852, and now reside in this town. His daughter Rebecca is now a 
prominent merchant of Ashland. Benjamin Deane, son of Barnabas, resides 
in this town. John, son of Robert, married Elizabeth Splain, resides in this 
town, and has three children, two of whom, Robert and Lizzie, live at home. 

Jonathan Smith, son of Jonathan, was born in New Hampton, N. H., and 
reared a family of four children. His son Jonathan M. married Elizabeth 



TOWN OF ASHLAND. I 29 

A., daughter of Caleb and Sarah (Godfrey) Mason, and reared a family of 
five children, only one of whom, Jonathan E., is now liwing. Jonathan M. 
Smith was a farmer and machinist for many years, but finally became a min- 
ister in the Free Will Baptist church. He was pastor of the Holderness and 
Center Harbor churches, also at Jackson and at Sugar Hill, and at East Hol- 
derness. He died November ii, 1880, aged fifty-five years. Jonathan E. 
lives at home with his mother, who is a resident of this town. 

Nathan Pierce, a native of Francestown, N. H., married Jane Steele, of 
Windham, and had born to him five children. His son William married 
Dorothy, daughter of Currier and Samson Barnard, of Plymouth. Mr. 
Barnard was a soldier in the Revolutionary war. David, son of William, 
maried Mary A., daughter of John and Eliza (Rogers) Fuller, of Bridgewater, 
has one child, Clara E., and resides in Ashland. 

Cyrus C. Plaisted, of this town, son of Stephen, married Eliza Rowe, and 
has seven children. Of these, Samuel, Clark and Ai, served in War of the 
Rebellion. Cyrus C. was also in the late war, and is now a farmer on 
road 2 1. 

Samuel Brown, a native of Bridgewater, married Susanna, daughter of 
Abraham and Rachel Dolloff. Horace, the second of his four sons, married 
Mary A., daughter of Jesse and Patience (Hobert) Fletcher, and had born to 
him three children, all now Hving. He was a native of Bridgewater, was first 
selectman of that town for maay years, and died there in 1874. His widow 
and three sons, Burdette, Wilfred F. and Ora A., reside in Ashland village. 

Reuben B. RoUins, a soldier in the Revolutionary war, married Mary 
Smith, and had born to him thirteen children. His son John married twice, 
first, Mrs. Wiggins, and second, Ruth B., daughter of John and Nancy Sar- 
gent, of Holderness, and had born to him four children, now living. He was 
a farmer and mail-carrier, served in the War of 18 12, and was at Portsmouth. 
His widow draws a pension, and resides in the town of Ashland. 

Samuel Dustin, a native of Haverhill, Mass., was a life-long resident of that 
town, and reared a family of nine children. His son Ira married Nancy Hall, 
of Thornton. Ezekiel, son of Ira. married Elsie B. Parmenter, of Sterling, 
Mass. Five of his seven children are living. Ezekiel Dustin served in the 
late war, enlisted, in 1862, in Co. K, 14th N. H. Vols., served three years 
and was honorably discharged. 

Stephen N. Morse married twice, first, Elizabeth, daughter of Moses Gor- 
don, of Gilmanton, and second, Mrs. Jane L. Drew, daughter of John and 
Anna Goodwin, and had born to him four children, all now living. His 
widow resides in this town, on road 18. Their children are Mrs. Lizzie A. 
Pulcifer, of Lake Village, and Amy, William, Henry and Bertha, who live 
with their mother, on the home farm. 

John Hughes was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, was at tlie battle of 
Bennington, and was a farmer in Rockingham county, N. H. He married 
Mehitabel Buzzel, and reared a family of eight children. His son Barnett 
9 



T30 TOWN OF ASHLAND. 



married Jane Wilson, of Windham, and reared a family of eleven children,, 
seven sons and four daughters. Barnett, Jr., married twice, first, Martha L. 
Clark, of Franklin, N. H., who bore him seven children, and second, Esther 
J., daughter of Samuel S. and Adis (Drew) Baker, and has had born to him 
one child, Lucy Ashland, who was thefirst child born in this town. 

Leonard Moore, son of Jesse, and a native of Worcester, Mass., married 
Polly Huntington, of Plainfield, Vt. Philander L., one of his nine children, 
married Nancy M., daughter of Pesson and Nancy (Green) Bancroft, has six 
children, and is a farmer in this town, on road i. 

Paul Abbott, son of Darius, who was one of the first settlers upon the farm 
known as the Abbott farm, on North hill, was a native of Hillsboro, N. H., 
and married Naomi Cart. Darius, one of his five children, married three 
times, first, Betsey Prescott, second, Mrs. Bean, and third, Nancy Huckins. 
Parker P., one of his three children, married Harriet C. Smythe, has one 
child, Elmer E., and resides in Ashland, on road 2 corner 4. Parker P. served 
in the late war, enlisting in Co. G, 50th Mass.. Vols., and was honorably dis- 
charged. 

Edwin Dearborn was a farmer in Lincoln, N. H., married a Miss Rogers, 
and reared a family of nine children, three of whom are now living. Of these, 
Washington married Abigail Cook, of Campton. N. H. Henry C, one of 
his four children, married Frances M., daughter of Darwin and Laura Shep- 
ard, of Ashland, and has three children, namely, Adelle C, George H., and 
Alice M., all of whom reside in this town. 

Nathan Goss came to this country, from England, with two brothers, at 
a very early day, and served in the Revolutionary war. His son Nathan mar- 
ried Dolly Grant, of Isam, N. H,, and reared a family of twelve children, 
seven sons and five daughters. His son Samuel married Christina I.- Perry, 
of Nashua, N. H., has one son, George S., and resides in this town. 

Simeon Batchelder lived in Bridgewater, married Mary Martin, and reared 
a family of nine children. His son Caleb married Hannah Moses, had born 
to him thirteen children, and died in Sanburton. Simeon, son of Caleb, mar- 
ried Ann, daughter of Joseph and Fanny (James) Banks, of Newport, R. L, 
has four children, and resides on road 31, in the town of Holderness. 

Samuel Scribner married Hannah Webster, who was an aunt of Daniel 
Webster's father, Judge Webster. Mr. Scribner was captured while at work 
in the hay-field, by the Indians, during the early Indian wars. He was taken 
to Canada, and sold for three years' servitude, but escaped and came home 
within a year after his capture. This happened about seventeen years before 
the Revolutionary war. His son. Captain Josiah, married Phebe Cross, and 
was a drover and dealer in stock in Andover, N. H. John, one of his thirteen 
children, married Abigail,'daughter of Josiah Emery, of Loudon, N. H., and 
had born to him six children, four of whom are now living. He moved here 
from Andover, in 1864, and remained here until his death, which occurred in 
1867, aged eighty-three years. His children, Franklin, John C, Asentha and 



TOWN OF ASHLAND. T3I 



Ambrose, are now residents of Ashland. The former married Marcia E., 
daughter of Chase T. and Susan Hackett, of New Hampton, and has three 
children, namely, Mrs. Ida G. Fellows, of this town, Carrie A. and George E. 
who live at home with their father. Franklin and his brother Ambrose, have 
been engaged in the manufacture of Manila paper in this town, about twenty 
years. The former has been treasurer of the Ashland Savings bank, for the 
past six years, and has lived in this town for forty-three years. 

Ambrose Scribner was born in Andover, N. H., June 13, 18 17, and located 
in what is now Ashland in 1849, and with his brother engaged in the manu- 
facture of shoes for a Massachusetts firm. In this he continued five years. 
In 1855 he bought, in company with W. P. Drake, a paper-mill of George 
W. Mitchell, now one of Wilder & Co.'s mills, and manufactured Manila pa- 
and straw-board about a dozen years ago. Franklin Scribner sold out his in- 
terest, and, with Lewis Scribner, built the paper-mill which was sold to Wilder 
& Co. in 1 87 1, and burned in 1884. Ambrose Scribner sold out to Mr. 
Drake and acquired an interest in the shoe-peg mill, estabhshed by Col. Jesse 
Ladd and Aaron M. Gordon about 1849. He erected the present mill, 
operated by Carter & Rogers, in 1880, which property he now owns. He has 
held the office of town treasurer four years, and that of selectman one year. 

Jonathan F. Keyes was born in Hancock, N. H., and in 1828, at the age 
of seventeen years went to learn the paper-making business at Bennington 
village, Vt. He remained there until 1848, when he sold the paper-mill he 
then owned and removed to Holderness, bought a paper-mill and carried on 
the business until 1872, and operated a store from 1848 to 1857. In 1872 
he led in the movement which resulted in the incorporation of the Ashland 
Savings bank, of which Nathaniel Batchelder was the first president, J. F. 
Keyes, treasurer and secretary. He has held various town and county ofiices, 
among which are postmaster, eight years, selectman, town treasurer, and 
county commissioner five years. He married Mary W. Woods in Benning- 
ton, and had ten children born to him, of whom five are livings viz.: Mary E. 
(Mrs. Thomas P. Cheney), Lucy A. (Mrs. R. R. D. Dearborn), Alice J. (Mrs. 
E. G. Clapp), Fanny M., the present postmistress at Ashland, and Josephine 
W., (Mrs. Blakslee), of Wisconsin. Two sons grew to manhood, of whom 
Capt. O.W. Keyes, the elder, was killed in the battle of Chancellorville. His 
brother, Henry F., was wounded in the same battle and had his arm ampu- 
tated. He returned to Holderness and at the time of his death, two years 
after, was postmaster. 

The Free Will Baptist church, located at Ashland Village, was organ- 
ized in 1 83 1, Rev. Dr. Dana being the first pastor. The church build- 
ing, erected in 1834, will seat 400 persons. The society now has eighty- 
four members, with Rev. Daniel Davis, pastor. The Sabbath school has 
145 scholars, taught by thirteen teachers. 

St Mark's Frotestafif Episcopal church. — The first Episcopal church in 
the town, was organized by Rev. Robert Fowle, about a hundred years ago, 



132 TOWN OF BATH. 

who preached to the society about forty years, or until his death. The old 
church building stood at the head of Little Squam lake, in the corner of 
the old burial ground. It was torn down. The present society was or- 
ganized by Rev. Joshua R. Pierce, the first rector, in 1859. The build- 
ing will accommodate 150 persons, cost $5,000.00, and is now valued, 
including grounds, at $8,000.00. The society has forty members, with 
Rev. Lorin Webster, rector. The Sabbath school has thirty scholars and 
six teachers. 



BATH, one of the fertile river towns of the county, lies in the western 
part of the northern half of the same, in lat. 44° 10' and long. 7 a'", 
bounded north by Monroe and Lyman, east by Landafif, south by 
Haverhill, and west by the west bank of the Connecticut river. The town 
was orio-inally granted by Benning Wentworth, September 10, 1761, to Rev. 
Andrew Gardner and sixty-one others ; but they failed to comply with the 
conditions of their charter, and thus forfeited their grant. On petition of 
Nehemiah Lovewell and others, a new grant was made by Gov. John Went- 
worth, March 29, 1769, in which the limits of the township were defined as 
follows : 

" Beginning at the mouth of Ammonoosuc river, at a pine tree marked 
with the figures 9 and 10, and with the letters BW ; thence up the Connecti- 
cut river, as that tends, to a pine tree marked with the figures 10 and 11, 
which is also the southwest corner bounds of Lyman ; thence turning off and 
running south 55"" east six miles, to a beech tree marked BL, CLD ; thence 
south 2° east six miles and fourteen chains to a spruce tree marked BB ; 
thence turning off" again and running north 55° west six miles and one-quar- 
ter of a mile, to the bounds first mentioned." 

The surface of Bath is in some parts rough and mountainous, though a 
large portion of its territory is a fine farming country. Extending north and 
south through the town, from the confluence of the Connecticut and Ammo- 
noosuc rivers, is a ridge of mountainous land known as Gardner mountain, 
which renders communication between the eastern and western portions of 
the town exceedingly difficult and toilsome. To the east, this high land 
slopes down to form the smiling valley of the Ammonoosuc, through which 
that stream winds its sinuous course, cutting the town in a diagonal direction 
trom its northeastern to its southwestern corner Entering the town from the 
east the wild Ammonoosuc river traverses its southern portion, falling into 
.the Ammonoosuc. In the western part the streams fall into the Connecti- 
cut. These with their numerous smaller tributaries form the river system 
of the town and afford some very fine mill privileges. The soil of the hills 
is a reddish loam, resting on a bed of marl ; but in the valleys it is alluvial. 
Brick clay of an excellent quality is abundant. About one-eighth of the 
town consists of interval land. In several localities large veins of copper ore 



TOWN OF BATH. 1 33 



have been opened, which appear to be of much value, if properly worked. 
The Boston & Lowell railroad passes through the town, following the Ammo- 
noosuc valley. 

In 1880 Bath had a popoulation of 1,033 souls. In 1885 the town had 
twelve school districts and twelve common schools. Its twelve school-houses 
were valued, including furniture, etc., at $4,520.00. There were 238 children 
attending school, 70 of whom were pursuing the higher grades, taught during 
the year by two male and fourteen female teachers, at an average monthly 
salary of $20.00 for males, and $17.16 for females. The entire amount raised 
for school purposes during the year was $1,519.95, while the expenditures 
were $1,882.75, ^i^h John P. Demeritt, superintendent. 

Bath is a post village and a station on the Boston & Lowell railroad. 
There is a considerable business carried on here in the shipping of lumber, 
wood, potatoes, live stock and wood-pulp. For the manufacture of the lat- 
ter there is a large establishment, which is the only manufacturing industry 
now carried on in the village. Bath was formerly one of the busiest and 
most prosperous villages in northern New Hampshire, but of late has gone 
into decay. There are two stores of general merchandise which do a fair 
business. 

SwiFTWATER is SL post village in the southeastern part of the town. It has 
a saw-mill, grist-mill, a carding and dyeing establishment, blacksmith shop 
and oneT:hurch. 

Bath Upper Village, where a few years ago was considerable trade, with 
physicians, lawyers, and quite a population, is now only a quiet hamlet. 

Conaiit &= Co! s pulp mill, at Bath village, was established by William Ban 
croft in 1872. It is operated by water-power, gives employment to about 
twelve hands, and turns out four tons of pulp per day. 

Brydoii Sa7vyer' s grist-mill, at Swiftwater, has three runs of stones and is 
capable of grinding 500 bushels of grain per day. 

James M. Williams's carding-fnill, at Swiftwater, was established by his 
father-in-law, Myron S. Woodard, in 1837, who, though the mill burned in 
1845, continued the business \intil his death, in November, 1884. This is 
the only carding-mill doing custom work in Grafton county. 

Moffett 6>^ Garrison, of Lisbon, carry on a lumber business in this town 
at the old "gold mill," near Lisbon line. They manufacture dash boards 
and panels for sleigh fronts and backs by a process of cutting from the round 
log. They employ a number of hands. The business, now in its infancy, 
bids fair to become a large one. 

The first settlement of the town was made by Andrew Gardner, in 1765, 
who located upon a farm between the two villages, and which is still known 
as the "Gardner Place." The following year John Sawyer commenced a 
settlement where the upper village now is, and Jaasiel Herriman located in 
what is now the lower end of the lower village. At that time, it is said, there 
were, between him and the Wild Ammonoosuc, four wigwams occupied by 



134 TOWN OF BATH. 



Indians. During this and the following year, also, a number of others came 
in, among whom were Moses Pike, who located at the island at the upper 
village, Samuel Martin, Elijah King, Deliverance Sawyer, John Hew and 
William Eastman, the latter settling just above the upper village. Quite a 
number had come in by 1767, for the proprietors' records speak of " twenty- 
two settlers having made their various pitches and wrought upon them more 
or less." Considerable additions were made to the settlement soon after the 
granting of the second charter, in 1769, there being among those who came 
at that time the following : John Waters, Benjamin Lee, Joseph Tilden, 
John Beard, Ezekiel Colby, Robert Bedel, Abel Chase, Noah Moulton^ 
Edward Bailey, William Belknap, Benjamin Prentiss, Francis FuUerton, 
Reuben Foster, John Sandborn, Ebenezer Sandborn, Daniel Bedel, Samuel 
Titus, Col. Tmiothy Bedel and John Dodge. 

When the Revolutionary war commenced, in 1775, many of the settlers 
left, as they were north of the regiment stationed at North Haverhill to guard 
against the invasion of savages, Tories and Canadians. The dangers attend- 
ing pioneer life here during the war, however, did not prevent some settlers 
from coming in before its close, among whom was Mark Sandborn. Soon 
after the close of the war, emigration seems to have received a fresh impetus, 
there being among the new settlers several persons of enterprise and influ- 
ence, and who for a long time were leading men of the town, viz.: Ezra 
Child, from Woodstock, Conn., in 1782; Jeremiah Hutchins, from Haverhill, 
Mass., in 1783 ; Jacob Hurd, from Haverhill, Stephen Bartlett, from Newton 
N. H., and Timothy and Aaron Hibbard, from Woodstock. Conn., also in 
1784; John and Dudley Child, and Amasa Buck, in 1786; Henry Hancock; 
Aaron Powers, Roger Sargent and Maxi Hazeltine, in 1770; and William 
and Samuel Lang came a year or two later. 

The first town meeting was held in 1784, when the following officers were 
chosen : John Way, moderator ; Capt. Jeremiah Hutchins, Capt. Ebenezer 
Sandborn and Ezra C|iild, selectmen ; Aaron Bailey and Ezra Child, tyth- 
ingmen • Jacob Hurd, town clerk ; John Merrill and Aaron Hibbard, fence 
viewers; Capt. Jeremiah Hutchins, surveyor of lumber ; Jacob Hurd, sealer 
of weights and measures ; Mark Sandborn, constable ; John Merrill, Daniel 
Mills, Capt. Ebenezer Sandborn, Dea. John Jewett and David Powers, high- 
way surveyors ; Elisha Cleveland, and John Rowell, hog reeves ; Moses 
Eastman, sealer of leather; and Capt. Ebenezer Sandborn, pound keeper. 
Among the "first things" of the township are mentioned, in the pamphlet 
history of Bath, the following : — 

'•The first family that moved into town was Jaasiel Harriman's, in 1766; 
(individuals had come the year before, but without families.) The first child 
born in Bath was a daughter of his, named Mary Harriman ; her birth took 
place December 8, 1766. She married Simeon Smith of Campton, and died 
in that town near the clcse of 1854, aged eighty-eight years. The first death 
in town was in the same family, a little son of Mr. Harriman, two years old, 
was scalded to de th in 1767. This child was the first person buried in the 



TOWN OF BATH. I35 



graveyard at Bath village. The first marriage in Bath, it is said, was that of 
[ohn Waters to Hannah Pike, and that all the people in town witnessed it ! 
it took place near the commencement of the Revolutionary war, in the fori 
on Eastman's meadow, where all the inhabitants were collected at that 
period. The first road was made in 1768, extending diagonally across the 
town from southwest to northeast. The first bridge at Bath village, over the 
Ammonoosuc, was built in 1794. The first mills were built in 1772, near the 
mouth of Mill Brook. The first meeting-house was erected in 1803, finished 
and dedicated in 1805, and painted in 1806. The first framed building 
erected in Bath, tradition says, was a barn on the farm now belonging to 
Dwight P. Child, about 1775. Not far from the same period, the first framed 
house in town was built on Col. Kurd's place, a little north of where the old 
meeting-house stands. The first framed house at Bath village was built by 
Knowles Clark, in 1793 or '94, near where the Congregational meeting-house 
is now situated. The first settler at Bath village, as already stated, was J. 
Harriman, and the falls here were formerly known as Harriman's falls. The 
second was Daniel Mills, who is supposed to have come about 1783. Roger 
Sargent was the next, who came about 1786. Near the same time, Elisha 
Cleaveland settled on the plain, a few rods east of the graveyard. The first 
settler at the upper village, was John Sawyer, in 1766; the second was 
Moses Pike, in 1767; the third, was Elisha Locke, about 177 1 ; and the 
fourth was John Merrill. The first settler at Swiftwater was Jonathan Cox, 
in 1816. The first corn, pumpkins, and cucumbers raised in town, were 
upon the Great Rock, just below Bath village, in 1767. They were planted 
by Mercy, a daughter of J. Harriman, about nine years of age, who carried 
the dirt in her apron on to the top of the rock, and there made her a garden. 
She was afterwards married to a man by the name of Carr, and died at Corinth, 
Vt., in 1847, aged eighty-nine years. Chaises were first introduced here in 
1807. In the inventory for 1808. they are found agamst the names of M. 
P. Payson, S. & J. Hutchins, David Mitchell, and Amos Towne ; in 1809, 
against the above, and also Ezra Child, John Haddock, Aaron Powers, David 
Smith, and .Abraham Thomas; and the next year againt James I. Swan, and 
Samuel Browning. Wagons were introduced some four years later, about 
181 1. Stoves for warming buildings were first used in this town about 1810. 
At the annual town meeting in March, 181 1, a vote was passed, ' that the 
selectmen furnish and put into the meeting-house two suitable stoves ;' this 
was probably done the ensuing autumn. Cooking stoves were introduced in 
18 1 5 or 16. Clocks were first introduced in 1808. At that time, three eight- 
day brass clocks were brought in and sold. Lucifer or friction matches were 
first used in Bath, about 1S34." 

After the Revolutionary war commenced, a fort was built on East- 
man's meadow, into which all the families that remained in town were 
collected, together with some from Landafif and Lisbon. No enemy, how- 
ever, came to molest them. During the war, when the population of the 
town is supposed not to have been more than seventy famiHes, no less 
than forty-six of the inhabitants enlisted as soldiers. The following is a 
list of the enlistments : 

Timothy Bedel, Daniel Bedel, Moody Bedel, 

John Bedel, Jacob Bedel,' Joshua Bedel, 

Richard Bedel, Robert Bedel, Jonathan Eastman, 

Obadiah Eastman, William Eastman, John Foreman, 



36 



TOWN OF BATH. 



Hugh Gammel, 
Samuel I. Gilman, 
Joshua Hunt, 
Ebenezer Holladay, 
Abel Chase, 
Solomon Cleaveland, 
Noah Holladay, 
John Merrill, 
Moses Pike, Jr., 
Mark Sandborn, 
Stephen Smith, 



Jeremiah Gilman, 
David Greenleaf, 
Zebulon Hunt, 
John Beard, 
Eliphalet Cleaveland, 
John Dodge, 
John Jevvett, 
Thomas Newman, 
John Rowell, 
Richard Sandborn, 
John Waters, 



Francis FuUington, 
Peter Gilman, 
Daniel Hunt, 
Ira Hand, 
Cvrus Bailey, 
Elisha Cleaveland, 
fames Eastman, 
Benjamin Lovekin, 
Moses Pike, 
Ebenezer Sandborn, 
Joshua Sanders, 
David Weeks. 

About thirty Revolutionary soldiers became inhabitants of Bath after the 
close of the war, as follows : 

Ezra Abbott, George Amy, William Alexander, 

David Bailey, Jonathan Baron, Timothy Barron, 

Amasa Buck, Edmond Brown, Jesse Carlton, 

Peter Carlton, Samuel Chase, John Clement, 

Thomas Currier, Ezra Gates, Jesse Hardy, 

Aaron Hibbard, Timothy Hibbard, Seth Johnson, 

Jacob Hurd, Samuel Lang, Jirah Martin, 

Phineas Merrill, Annis Merrill, Moses Moore, 

Edward Polland, Robert RolHns, James Smith, 

Timothy Stevens, Glazier Wheeler. 

Jeremiah Hutchins, one of the early settlers of this town, came here from 
Haverhill, Mass., in 17S3. He brought with him his family of twelve chil- 
dren, five sons and seven daughters, and settled in Bath Upper Village, on 
road 21. He engaged in the mercantile trade and keeping tavern, and 
was succeeded in business by his two sons, Samuel and James. The 
other members of the family settled in this town and vicinity. Eliza H., 
daughter of James, married Andrew S. Woods, a lawyer who practiced here 
many years. Mr. Woods was born in 1803, graduated at Dartmouth col- 
lege in 1825, readlaw with Ira Goodall, and was admitted to the bar in 1828. 
He entered partnership with Mr. Goodall, and continued with him until 1840, 
when he was appointed associate justice of the Supreme Court. This office 
he held until March, 1855, wlien he was appointed chief justice of the 
State, which position he held two or three years. In 1859 he formed a part- 
nership with Harry and George Bingham, of Littleton. He died in 1863. 
His widow resides with her son at his late residence Edward Woods, son 
of Andrew, studied law with his father, after having graduated from Dart- 
mouth in 1856. He was of the firm of Woods & Bingham, this firm having 
an office in Bath and one also at Littleton. Mr. Woods is now the only law- 
yer in town, his office being located at Lower Village. He obtained the title 



TOWN OF BATH. 137 



of colonel, beino; on Governor Weston's staff', when the latter was Governor 
of the State. He married Mary, daughter of John Carlton. 

William Eastman, one of the early settlers of Bath, was a son of Jonat an 
and Hannah Eastman, who resided in Haverliill, Mass., at the time the Indi- 
ans invaded the town, about 1697, killing many, and taking others captives, 
among the latter of whom were Hannah Dustin and Hannah Eastman. The 
infant of the latter was killed, and she carried to Canada, where her husband 
found her about three years later. William Eastman was born in 1814 or '15. 
married Ruth Chase in 1838, who died in 1844, leaving three children — Ruth, 
Stephen, and William, Jr. His second wife, Rebecca Jewett, had eight chil- 
dren— Obadiah, Hannah, Azubah, James, Moses, Jonathan, Peter and Amos. 
William Eastman located m Bath about 1767, in the northeast part of the 
town, where he died November 23, 1790. William, Jr., died in Haverhill, 
leaving Stephen and Miriam. The latter married Captain John Barber, a 
Hessian soldier of the Revolution, and Isaac Barber, of Lisbon, is their grand- 
son. Stephen Eastman married Lydia Ford, spent most of his life in Lyman, 
and reared seven children — Pamelia, Clarinda, Eber, Stephen A., Abbie S., 
Dan and Solenda. Dan and Eber held in succession, most of the local offices 
in Lyman. Stephen A. was a Methodist Episcopal clergyman. Obadiah 
Eastman, son of William and Rebecca, married Ehzabeth Searles, of Temple, 
N. H., and had children, as follows: Betsey, Hannah, Rebecca, Wil- 
liam, Jonathan, Seaborn, Peter and Stephen R. He served in the Revolu- 
tionary war three years. Jonathan, son of Obadiah, married and spent his 
life in Haverhill, but his descendants are now widely scattered. Hannah 
Eastman, daughter of William and Rebecca, married Deacon John Ladd, of 
Haveihill, and afterward removed to Hanover, where some of her posterity 
now live. Azubah, daughter of William, married Nathan Judd, and lived in 
Landaff. Her daughter, Azubah, married David Brunson, and their daughter 
Rebecca W, is the wife of George E. Eastman, of North Haverhill. James, 
son of William, born September 24, 1753, with him came to Bath in 1767, 
and was the one to whom descended the paternal homestead. He married 
Mary Searles, had seven sons and one daughter — James, Moses, Amos, Searle, 
Mary, William, Joel and Eber, all now gone except Eber, whose age is eighty- 
two years. James Eastman lived to the age of ninety-nine years and three 
moiiths. Of his children, Amos died in infancy, James, Jr., and William, 
unnarried. Moses married Sally Smith, of Bath. 

His children were Melissa, Hubert, Wilbur F., Calista, Su an, Lucia, Henry, 
Ruth and Abbie. Melissa married Solon S. Southard, and now lives in 
Bristol. Hubert married Louisa Rice and has one son, Wilbur F., residing 
with him ni Haverhill, and one daughter, Mrs. John Chamberlin, of Bath. 
Lucia, daughter of Moses, married Moses Abbott, of Bath, and died, leav- 
ing one son, Chester Abbott, of Woodsville. Henry, son of Moses East- 
man, is a railroad man in Indiana. Searle, son of James Eastman, married 
Rebecca Bailey, and second, Sally Moulton, and had nine children. His 



38 TOWN OF BATH. 



widow Still lives in Lisbon, aged ninety-three years. Priscilla M., daughter 
of Searle, is still living in Lisbon, the widow of Ebenezer C. Stevens. Orrin 
Eastman, son of Searle, resides ar Swiftwater. Joel, son of Searle, married 
Ellen Moulton, of Lyman, where he became one of the selectmen, died in 
Lisbon in 1882, where his widow still lives. Joel, seventh son of James 
Eastman, married Lucretia Rix, had one son, Alfred W., and both of them 
died in Washington, D. C. Eber Eastman, son of James, the only sur- 
vivor of this generation, resides at North Haverhill, aged eighty-two. He 
has been a teacher, school superintendent, and town representative in 1843 
and '44 One accomplishment of which he is justly proud is his penman- 
ship. He has, since eighty years of age, written distinctly the Lord's Prayer 
on one-twentieth part of an inch surface. Moses, son of \Villiam and Re- 
becca, came to Bath soon after his father, and was "sealer of leather" in 
1784. He married Azubah Snow, and second, Lois Martin, and had a large 
family, most of whom live in Massachusetts. He lived to the age of ninety- 
seven years. Jonathan, son of William and Rebecca, lived and died in Lit- 
tleton, I earing four sons — Jonathan, Simeon, Lewis and Arza. Amos, the 
youngest son of William and Rebecca, lived and died in Haverhill. 

Samuel Lang came to this town in 1783, and settled on the farm now 
occupied by his grandson, William H. Lang, who married, first, Ellen Titus, 
of Lyman, who died in August, 1870, leaving one child, and second, Emily 
Titus, sister of his first wife, who has also one child. 

Henry S. Lang, a son of Sherburne and Mehitable (Ricker) Lang, was a 
native of this town, born in 1825. His first wife was Martha, daughter of 
Henry H. Lang, and his second wife, Martha Jane, daughter of John Hib- 
bard, also of this town. He has a family of two sons and two daughters, and 
is located on road 19. 

William H. Lang was one of the early settlers of this town, having removed 
hither from Lyman, and having previously came from Portsmouth, his native 
place. He had a family of nine children, of whom his son Daniel, married 
Hannah Page, of this town. They had two sons and two daughters. Moses 
married Calista Clough for his first wife, and Jane Kimball for his second. 
Dudley C. married Ruth M. Cooley, also of this town, and had a daughter 
and a son, both of whom are married, the daughter living in Lisbon, and the 
son in Webster. Mr. Lang now resides on road 21, Bath LTpper Village. 

Amasa Buck came from Woodstock, Conn., to this town in the winter of 
1786, by ox-sled conveyance, with his wife and three small children, one an 
infant in arms. Mrs. Buck rode on a meat barrel, with quilts for cushions, 
and the barrel is now doing service in the cellar of Timothy H. Buck, having 
been in constant use for a hundred years. Mr. Buck first settled at Swift- 
water, but remained there only a short time, when he removed to road 13, 
to the farm now occupied by his grandson, Timothy H Buck. Five children 
were born to him in this town. Two sons, Horatio and Timothy, settled 
here and spent their lifetime. Silas settled at Napoli, N. Y. Amasa went 



TOWN OF BATH. 1 39 

to Nunda, N. Y., and taught school for many years. He founded a college 
at Milwaukee, Wis., where he died. Timothy H. married AHce Lang, and 
resides on the old homestead. His children are the fifth generation Uving in 
the same house. 

John Hibbard was born in Bath, September 4, 1792, of parents who came 
here at an early date from Connecticut. He married Abigail Child, also a 
native of this town. He had thirteen children, seven of whom are now living, 
only two residents of this town. Arthur married Mina E., daughter of Eben- 
ezer Deming. He died February 17, 1883, leaving six children. Mrs. Hib- 
bard still resides on road 28. 

William A. Woods was born in this town, of parents who came from Ire- 
land in 1795. He lives on road 7, married Martha, daughter of Samuel 
Minot, a native of this town, and has had nine children, of whom only three 
are living, viz.: Arthur, who married Adaline B. Weeks, daughter of Dudley 
Weeks, Andrew J., who lives in Bernardston, Mass., and Luella W., who 
married Charles W. Leighton, and resides in Greenfield, Mass. Two child- 
ren died in childhood, and the other four were residents of this town, except- 
ing Emily, who died in Bernardston, Mass. Arthur Woods has four children — 
three sons and one daughter. 

Frederick Hibbard was born in this town, his father Aaron Hibbard hav- 
ing been one of the first settlers, taking up a farm which was an unbroken 
forest, and building a log hut, on road 3. His grandson, Charles M. Hib- 
bard, married Harriet E. Mills, of Boston, Mass., and now resides on road 
20. They have three children, two sons and one daughter. 

Timothy Hibbard came to this town at a very early date from Connecticut, 
and settled near Swiftwater. They had six sons and six daughters, all of 
whom lived to manhood and womanhood. Two of them only are now liv- 
ing, John C, in Pennsylvania, and David, who lives in this town. One son, 
Aaron, married Lydia Morse, of this town, and had a family of nine children, 
of whom three sons and two daughters are still hving — B. Franklin, in New 
York city, Linus M., in this town, and David, in Warren. One daughter, 
Mary C, married John Hastings, who died in August, 1878. His widow 
now resides with her daughter, Mrs. Henry Haddock, on road 8. Lydia 
Hibbard married L. F. Ash, and resides in Lisbon. 

Phineas Chamberlin, one of the three brothers who came to this town 
from Newbury, Vt., and settled on adjoining farms, was grandfather of 
Charles P. Chamberlin, who resides on road 15. Phineas had seven children 
— three sons and four daughters. The three sons, Abial, Isaac H. and 
George, all settled on adjoining farms, and the four daughters all married and 
settled so near that their father could visit all his children in a single day- 
Isaac married Jane Lang and had seven children, of whom only Charles P. 
is living m this town. He married Sarah M. Parker, of Haverhill, and they 
have one son. He enlisted in Co. G, nth N. H. Vols., August 12, 1862, 
and served nearly three years. He was taken prisoner at Poplar Grove 



[40 TOWN OF BATH. 



Church, Va., and was confined at Saulsbiiry prison five months. He was 
wounded in the hip at the battle of Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, 
from which causes he is a pensioner. 

Seth ChamberHn removed from Newbury, Vt, in 1810, locating on the 
west side of Mount Gardner, near the Connecticut. Two of his brothers, 
Martin and Phineas, also settled on adjoining farms. Seth had a family of four 
sons and three daughters, Martin and James in this town. One of the three 
brothers, Martin, was drowned in the Connecticut river in August, 1820. 
Phineas had five children, of whom John and Harry live on road 30. John 
married Martha Eastman, of Haverhill, Mary is the wife of Samuel Ross, 
who lives on road 25. James Chamberlin married Ehzabeth Whiting, of 
Willington, Conn. They have three children living, of whom Julia A. E. 
married Samuel Smith, who resides on road 28. Mr. and Mrs. James Cham 
berhn are the only couple now living who were in this town and married in 

1833. 

Martin C. Powers was born in this town, in 1806, at West Bath, and Uved 
there until after his marriage, in 1826, to Mary Weeks, daughter of David and 
Matilda (Child) Weeks. His grandfather was Aaron Powers, whose name is 
mentioned as moderator of town meeting in 1787. His father, Walter Powers, 
was also born in this town, and pursued farming. Martin Powers had seven 
children, six of whom are now living, viz.: Charles resides at Toledo, Ohio ; 
Ellen M. married H. B. Deming, who lives in Lisbon ; Laura W. married 
Reuben Dow ; John M. married Fanny Mandeville ; Walter married Ellen 
Cheever, and H. H. who married Lucia Weeks, and resides in this town. 

William V. Hutchins was a native of this town, and all his life a resident 
here. His death occurred in 1875, at the age of seventy-three years. From 
twelve years of age he was clerk in a store, and after his majority, carried 
on a general mercantile business in Bath village for forty years. He built the 
brick store now occupied by D. G. A. Foster, and was for many years post- 
master and town clerk. His wife was Martha Newell, of Windsor, Vt. They 
had five children, three of whom are living — Zebina N., who lives at Little- 
ton ; James R., in Kansas ; and Martha A., who occupies the old homestead 
in this village 

William Southard, was born at Fairlee, Vermont, October 17, 1805. When 
eleven months old his father was drowned at White River Junction. When 
five years old the family removed to the village of Bath, then one of the 
most thriving places in New Hampshire. Mr. Southard says there 
is not an individual now living within a mile of Bath village who was then 
living within the same bounds. After he became of age he engaged in log- 
ging on the Connecticut river for eight years. He has walked from Hartford, 
Conn., to Bath fourteen times, often accomplishing fifty miles per day. In 
1838 he located on a farm near Swiftwater, and ten years ago he bought a 
starch factory on road 38, which, after he run two years, was carried off by a 
freshet in the Wild Ammonoosuc river. He married Annie Barron, of this town, 



TOWN OF BATH. I4I 



and has a family of eight children, of whom one daughter is in Wisconsin, a 
son and daughter are in Bay City, Mich., one son is in Texas, two daughters 
are in Detroit, Mich., and Lemuel J. and Timothy B. are residents of this 
town. The last named resides with his father, on the homestead at Swift- 
water. 

Dan Clough was a native of Lyman, born in 1814. His parents were 
Abner and Nancy Clough. From Lyman the family moved to Bath, in 1821, 
and located near the Lisbon line, where they lived for a number of years. 
Dan married Betsey Hutchins, of Bath, and had only one child, Solon H., 
who now resides with his father, on road 11. The latter married Lizzie Week, 
of this town, and has four children. 

George Morrison was born in this town in 182 1, his father, William Morri- 
son, having come here from Post Mills, Vt., in 1808. He was a saddler and car- 
ried on the trade for a number of years in both the upper and lower villages, 
and was deputy sheriff sixteen years. George also carried on the same busi- 
ness from 1839 to 1858. From 1858 to 1874, he was deputy sheriff. In 
1855 he was selectman, and was elected deacon of the Congregational 
church that year, and has held the office since. He married Susan Ricker, a 
native of Bath, and they have had no children. An adopted daughter died in 
1883, at the age of twenty-four years. 

Moses Lang, a native of Bath, was born in 1816. His father, Daniel 
Lang, was also born in this town, and his grandfather came here at a very 
early date. Moses married, first, Cahsta Clough, of Landaff. She died in 
1856, leaving two sons and an adopted daughter. The two sons live in Wor- 
cester, Mass., and the adopted daughter married William Clough, of Som- 
erville, Mass. His second wife was Jane H. Kimball, of this town, a twin 
and one of a family of fifteen children, of whom nine are still living. He 
was captain of Company C, 15th N. H. Vols., in the late war, and was 
mustered out in August, 1863. He resides on road 27. 

Dwight P. Child was born in 1810, John Child, his father, having come 
hither from Woodstock, Conn., about 1786. John had a family of ten chil- 
dren who lived to an adult age, and all settled in this town and have all died 
here, excepting two, Dwight P. and Bradley G., who are still residents, and 
reside on road 27. Dwight P. married Nancy Child, of Exeter, and has a 
family of seven children, William is a physician at New Hampton, Henry 
L. is a dealer in agricultural implements at Sparta, Wisconsin, Parker M. is 
in the same busmess at Neponset, 111., John D. married Juha Dow, of this 
town, and is a farmer with his father, Adaline H. and Jennie M. are also 
residents with their father, Juliette married William H. Thorn, of Westboro, 
Mass. Mr. Child has served his town a number of years as selectman, col- 
lector, and overseer of the poor. He was its representative in the State leg- 
islature in 1875 and 1876. Dudley Child was born in this town in r8ig, a 
son of Dudley Child, who came here from Woodstock, Conn., in 1797, and 
settled on road 17. He had a family of twelve children, four of whom died 



142 TOWN OF BATH. 

in childhood and eight grew up, and all but one of whom settled in this 
town. Dudley, Jr., married Hannah E. Hibbard, of this town, and has three 
children living. Lizzie J. married S. W. Belden, of St. Johnsbury, Vt., 
Franklin L. resides with his father, and Edwin W. hves in Iowa. 

Bradley G. Child was born in i8i8, and married Hannah Child, a native 
of Exeter. They had eight children, only three of whom are living — Charles, 
residing with his father, Myra, who married Dr. H. H. Hollister, and Flora, 
who married S. W. Plimpton, both residents of this town. Ahce married H. 
H. Jones, and died October i, 1884, leaving three children. Bradley G. 
Child represented his town in the State legislature in 187 1 and 1872, and 
was selectman and overseer of the poor a number of years. 

Samuel Smith, who lives on road 28, married Julia A. E. Chamberlin, and 
has two sons and four daughters. Mrs. Smith has in her possession a round 
table more than two hundred years old, which is in a good state of preserva- 
tion, and is in constant use. In the family, also, is a silver spoon of peculiar 
value, considered as a relic. It is now the property of their daughter Eliza- 
beth, who is the seventh generation of the name of Elizabeth' who has owned 
it. The first presentation of it was more than one hundred and fifty years 
ago, or in 1734. 

David S. Reed was born in Barnet, Vt., but, excepting two years, has all 
his life resided in this town. His wife was Huldah Moulton, of Lyman, and 
their family consists of six sons, of whom Horace E. married Emma Lang, 
and is a farmer on road 13 ; Elmer E., Albert M., Abiel S. and Henry S- L. 
reside at home with their parents ; and James B. is at Taunton, Mass. The 
house in which Mr. Reed Uves is one of the first built in town. Ninety years 
ago a Mr. Hatch, of Boston, came here and bought four hundred acres of wood 
land, and on it built this house, with a view to its use as a summer resort. 
Soon after the house was finished Mr. Hatch died, and the farm was sold in 
parcels. Rev. David Sutherland, the first settled minister in the town, bought 
the house and a large farm adjoining, and here he lived while he preached in 
the old meeting-house, and died here. His son John occupied the farm a 
number of years after his father's death. The farm has changed hands but 
four times in eighty years. 

Ephraim Thayer was born in Lisbon in 1806, and came to this town in 
1869 and located on road 34. He married Ezuba Quimby, of Franconia, 
and five of their eight children are now hving, of whom Willis lives at Vic- 
tory, Vt. Lydia married Levi Bisbee, and Henry, Hibbard ami Levi G. all 
live in Bath, Ephraim Thayer, now seventy-nine years of age, has never 
been eighty miles from his native town, has never been inside a railroad car, 
and since ten years of age has not missed a season's work in the hay-field, 
and has used the scythe in mowing every year since he was fifteen. 

Joseph Snow was born in Landaff, in 1798, where he lived until 1838, 
when he removed to Bath Upper Village, where he engaged in tavern keep- 
ing for three years. He afterward built a dwelling on road 25, and resided 



TOWN OF BATH. 



:43 



there thirty years. He married Hannah Noyes, of Landafif, and had a family 
of ten cliildren, eight of whom lived to an adult age, and four are now livings 
Sarah married William Simonds, who lives on road 34, with whom her 
widowed mother now resides, at the age of eighty-four years. 

James C. Noyes was born in Landafif, in 1820. His father, Rufus Noyes, 
was a son of one of the first settlers of that town. He lived in Landaff 
forty-two years. In 1866 he came to this town and settled on a farm on road 
34. His first marriage was to Betsey E. Coggswell, of Landafif, and his 
second to Maroa E. Bowles, of Lisbon, who has one son, a student. Arabella 
F., a daughter by the first marriage, married Timothy B. Southard, of Swift- 
water. 

Joshua M. Nutter was born in 18 18, at Portsmouth, where he lived until six- 
teen years old, when he went to Boston, and was there engaged as clerk in a 
grocery store for eight years. He came to Bath twenty-eight years ago, loca- 
ting where he now resides, on road 35. He married Sarah Heath, of Bath^ 
and seven of their twelve children are now living, all in this town, viz. : Jo- 
seph M., who married Sarah French, and is one of the selectmen, William 
S., Joshua, a blacksmith at Swiftwater, Walter, Sarah Corinne, Nathan and 
James H. 

Darius W. Simonds was born in Landafif in 1809, where he lived until 
after his marriage, in 1834, and the birth of two children. His wife was 
Betsey Poor, also of Landaff. In 1866 he removed to this town and has 
since been located on road 34. Their daughter Lizzie died in 1881. The 
only surviving child, William, married Sarah Snow and resides with his parents. 

Capt. Stephen Morse was born in Newburyport, Mass., in May, 1751. He 
removed to Haverhill about 1790, after having served in the Revolutionary 
war. He settled on Brier Hill, on the farm now occupied by David Hunt. 
He married Sarah Bailey, a native of France, and they were the parents of 
Moses N. Morse, who was born and died on the same farm. His son John 
F. now lives on road 40. He married Susan W. Johnson, and their children 
are Harry M., a lawyer of Lisbon and for a number of years a partner of the 
late Judge E. D. Rand, and Frank O., a student at Lawrence, Mass. 

William Waddell was a native of Barnet, Vt., born in 1806. In 1840 he 
married Emaline Bass, of Lyman, and settled on road 39, in this town. He died 
in 1864, leaving six children, one having died before the death of the father. 
Emma married Lemuel Southard, of this town, Emily married Payson New- 
comb, of Orford, and Harry married Katie Moore, of Haverhill. In 186S 
the terrible scourge, diphtheria, visited the family, and in four weeks carried 
ofif four of the children and one grandchild. Among those who died were 
Mrs. Southard and Mrs. Newcomb, mentioned above. Mrs. Waddell's father 
died the same year, making in that short period six deaths in the household. 
Mrs. Waddell, with her daughter Martha, still reside on the old homestead. 

Isaiah P. Kimball was born in Peacham, Vt., January 12, 1819, his jiarents 
being Isaac and Betsey (Fellows) Kimball. She was a direct descendant of 



144 TOWN OF BATH. 

the noted Hannah Dustin, and it is said that Mrs. WilHam Varnum, of Mal- 
colm, Iowa, a sister of Mr. Kimball, has in her possession the home-made 
cloth in which Hannah Dustin carried home the scalps of the Indians she slew 
when she escaped. The savages, on entering her cottage, had torn off and 
carried away the end piece of the web she then had in her loom, and this 
was the piece of cloth she took for the purpose above named. Mr. Kimball 
married, March 26, 1844, Lydia B. Page, of Landaff. They had four 
daughters, of whom Annette married Pliny E. Crafts, of Bradford, Vt., Eliza- 
beth married George W. Forbes, of Greenfield, Mass., Ella F. is a teacher 
and resides with her mother in Bath village, and Kate J. is a graduate from 
Mount Holyoke Female Serninary. Mr. Kimball was an architect and builder 
and died May 26, 1881, at Formosa, Florida, whither he had p'one for the 
benefit of his health. 

Samuel Ross came to this town, from Gilmanton, at an early date, and 
established himself in the business of cabinet-making, which he carried on 
for several years. Afterwards he removed to Lisbon, where he kept tavern 
for a few years, when he again returned to Bath. He established a line of 
stages from Hanover to Lancaster, and another from Littleton to Plymouth, 
through the Franconia Notch, which he run until the building of the White 
Mountain railroad, which supplanted the use of stages, and he was one of 
the directors of the old White Mountain railroad company. He married 
Fanny, daughter of Jonathan Smith, who was one of the early settlers of the 
town, for his first wife, and his second wife was the widow of Oliver Smith, of 
Lebanon, who is still living. By his first marriage he had four sons and two 
daughters, of whom three of the sons are dead. Julia married Cyrus Eastman, of 
Littleton, Seraphiria married D. K. Jackmasi, of this town, now dead, and 
Harvey P.. the surving son, married, first, Eliza Balch, of this town, and 
second, Lucia W. Eastman, of Littleton. He has two sons and one daughter 
by his first wife. He is station agent of the Boston & Lowell railroad, and 
ran on this road as express messenger for fifteen years, and was afterwards 
United States mail agent from Boston to Littleton for a year and a half, 
which ofiice he resigned for his present business, which he has pursued for 
the past eighteen years. He is also agent for the United States & Canada 
Express Co., and manager for the Western Union Telegraph Co., in which 
he is assisted by his son, Elwood J. His other son, Samuel, has been a con- 
ductor on the B. & L. R. R. two years, between Boston and Fabyans. He 
is now a farmer on road 25, married Mary, daughter of Phineas Chamber- 
lin. Mary, the only daughter of H. P. Ross, married F. H. Rollins, of 
Plymouth. 

Harvey Deming, a native of this town, was born in June, 1833. His grand- 
father was one of the early settlers of the town. He married Mary, daughter 
of Ira E. Elliott, and they have a family of three sons and one daughter. He 
is located on road 23, and owns the ground where the first meeting-house in 
town was built, and his present dwelling wr.s one of the first built in the town. 



TOWN OF BATH. 1 45 

William Minot was born in this town, October 9, 18 14, his father having 
come here in 1802, from Concord, Mass., and settled on road 27, where Mr. 
Minot now lives. When his father located here the farm was nearly all a 
wilderness, only a few acres being cleared. The first night spent on the farm 
Mrs. Minot thought a hundred wolves were howling in the woods near them. 
William Minot married Emily Weeks, whose father was a native of this town, 
and her mother a native of Connecticut. They have three daughters and one 
son, all residents with their parents. Mr. Minot was born in the house he 
now occupies. In 1865 he was selectman, and is prominent in all which con- 
cerns the welfare of the church and society. 

Joseph A. Davis came to this town sixty years ago, and located at Bath 
Upper Village in the shoemaking business. He married Priscilla Merrill, 
of Lyman, and had five children, one of whom died in childhood, and one, 
Samuel M., died at the age of thirty-four. Phebe M. married Henry Chand- 
ler, a minister now living at South Berwick, Me. Charlotte E. married Henry 
M. Peters, of Manteno, 111., Joseph A. married Parthena E, Haywood, of 
Haverhill, and is a farmer on road 40, near Swiftwater, and has three chil- 
dren. On the spot where he resides a house was burned fifty years ago, 
and the present one was erected on the same spot in one week from the time 
of the burning of the first building. The new one was 28 by 48 feet, and 
preaching was held in it by Rev. David Sutherland, the first settled minister 
in town. 

Jonathan Brownson was born in Hartford, Conn., and with his parents 
came to Landaff, about the time of the Revolutionary war. He often held 
the oftice of selectman, was elected to represent Landafif in the State legisla- 
ture the same year in which Andrew Jackson was elected President, and was 
reelected each of the eight years of his presidency. His grandmother came 
to Landafif also and died there at the age of 104 years, having lived in three 
centuries. His son Jonathan lives at Swiftwater, a practicing physician. He 
married Mary S. Chandler, of Haverhill, and has a family of seven children, of 
whom Ira is a physician at Sedalia, Mo., Jonathan E. is a miner in Colorado, 
John E. is a glove maker at Littleton, William E. is a farmer in Florida, 
Mary M. married James M. Watson, of Taunton, Mass., and Nettie married 
Rev. C. N. Krock, of Enfield. 

Andrew J. Leighton was a native of Newbury, Vt., born in 1831. His 
grandfather came to Sheffield, Vt., from Massachusetts, and afterwards to 
Newbury. The father of Andrew J. had a family of twelve, two of whom 
are settled in this town, one- in Haverhill, one at Ackworth, one in Iowa, one 
in Massachusetts, and two in California. Andrew J. lives on road 15, where 
he is a large farmer. He married Helen, daughter of William Bedell, of this 
town, one of a family of fourteen. They have four children living and have 
lost one. He is one of the selectmen of the town, and has held that office 
ten years. In 1884 he was elected to represent Bath in the legislature. 

John Sawyer was born in Dorchester, in 181 5, and lived there until five 



146 TOWN OF BATH. 

years after his marriage, to Louisa Johnson, in 1842. From that time for 
eighteen years he lived in Ruraney, carrying on a lumber business with farm- 
ing. In 1866 he came to this town and located near Swiftwater. They had 
eight children, five of whom are now living, of whom John M. and George H. 
reside in this town, Charles N. in Manchester, N. J., Joshua W, in Worces- 
ter, Mass., and Amanda L. married Ezra A. Rodimon, and resides on the 
old homestead, with her widowed mother. 

Charles D. Atwood was a native of Landaff, the son of David and Julia 
At wood, born in 1847. When three years of age his patents removed to 
Lisbon, where they are still living. In October, 1873, he came to this town 
and located on road 10. He married Emma, daughter of Ephraim and 
Lucinda Clough, who occupied for many years the farm on which Mr. At- 
wood now lives. They have four children, three sons and one daughter. 
Ephraim Clough, named above, was a native of Lyman, and removed to this 
town m 1820. 

Daniel Whitcher was born in Benton, formerly called Coventry, January 
20, 1827. In 1859 he removed to Landaff, to the locality now known as 
Whitcherville, and commenced lumbering, tanning, farmmg and manufactur- 
ing potato starch, and has followed similar business for thirty-seven years. 
He also carried on a mercantile business in Landaff. In 1883 he came to 
this town, where he is carrying on a large business in the manufacture and 
sale of lumber. He has a side track from the Boston & Lowell railroad, 
known as " Whitcher's Landing," at the junction of the Ammonoosuc and 
Wild Ammonoosuc rivers. He represented the town of Benton in the State 
legislature, and was often a selectman of Landaff, and also represented that 
town in the legislature. He was influential in getting a highway built, known 
as the Bungay road, in the face of tremendous opposition. The road runs 
from Swiftwater, Bath, Wild Wood, in Benton, along the Wild Ammonoosuc. 
It is a great public benefit, but the building of it was the subject of litigation 
for twelve years. Mr. Whitcher, seeing the utility and necessity of the road, 
pushed the matter tenaciously, and finally it was decided in his favor. Mr. 
Whitcher married Nancy R. Knight, of Landaff. and has had a family of 
nine children, only five of whom are now living. He is the ninth often sons, 
and the fourteenth of a family of sixteen children. 

James H. Johnson was born at Bath, June 3, 1803. engaged in the mer- 
cantile business at the Lower Village in 18 17, was appointed deputy sheriff 
in 1824, and served two years, then resumed the mercantile business at Lis- 
bon, in company with Ira Goodall, Esq., and remained at that place eleven 
years, married, in 1828, Jane Hutchins, daughter of Col. James Hutchins, 
of Bath, and had six children, of whom only one is living. Col. Johnson was- 
appointed paymaster of the 32d State militia regiment, in 1826, and afterwards- 
served as adjutant, and then colonel of the same regiment. In 1836 he 
was elected State representative from the town of Lisbon, and served two 
years, was then chosen as State senator for two years, and afterwards was 



TOWN OF BATH. 1 47 



elected to the Governor's council, in which office he served two years. In 
1839 he returned to Bath and engaged largely in the lumber business, own- 
ing the saw-mill and nearly all the water-power of the village. In 1844 he 
was elected member of Congress, and again in 1846, serving two terms in the 
House of Representatives. In 1847 he married Miss Sophia Orne Edwards, 
of Springfield, Mass. They have three children, two sons and a daughter. 
The eldest son, J. Howard, graduated as a civil engineer at the scientific 
department of Dartmouth college in 1870, and the ensuing year he went to 
Peru and entered into the employment of Henry Meiggs, the railway king of 
South America. In 1874 and 1875 he surveyed and built the highest known 
railway in the world, which connects Arequipa with Cwyco, which was called 
the City of the Sun, when the Incas ruled Peru. In 1877 he married Miss 
Martha B. Childs, of Cleveland, Ohio, and they reside at Lima, Peru, where 
Mr. Johnson owns a large ice factory. The youngest son, Stanley Edwards, 
is now a senior at Dartmouth college. His eldest daughter married William 
G. White, of Chicago, and his youngest daughter married Dr. N, C. B. Hav- 
iland, of Rochester, Vt. 

Rev. David Sutherland, the first settled minister in the town, was born 
June 19, 1777, at Edinburgh, Scotland. His childhood and youth were spent 
in the place of his nativity. He served an apprenticeship in a printing office ; 
at the age of sixteen became hopefully pious, and when nineteen years old 
entered a Theological seminary and studied for the Christian ministry. 
Having pursued the usual course of study, he graduated the last week of the 
eighteenth century, and commenced his ministerial life the first Sabbath of 
the present century. Afcer laboring as a minister in Scotland for nearly three 
years, he received an invitation from a Scottish farmer in Barnet, Vt., to cross 
the Atlantic and preach in his neighborhood. In comphance with this invi- 
tation he left his native country in the spring of 1803, and with his beloved 
companion came to the United States. His wife was Anna Waters, born in 
Scotland, December 22, 1774. Her talents, her education and devoted piety 
eminently fitted her for the duties of a pastor's wife and for extensive useful- 
ness in the Lord's vineyard. In April, 1803, she was united in marriage to 
Rev. D. Sutherland, and after a married life of nearly fifty years, died Feb- 
ruary 3, 1852, aged seventy-seven years. She was the mother of seven chil- 
dren, one of whom died in infancy, another at the age of nineteen. Mrs. 
Sutherland was a rare woman, sustaining most worthily the relations of a 
wife, a mother, a friend, a neighbor, a member of society, and of the Church 
of Christ, her many lovely and excellent quahties greatly endeared her to 
her friends, caused her to be universally esteemed and beloved, and have sa- 
credly embalmed her memory in many bosoms. Having preached in Bath 
several Sabbaths in 1804, Mr. Sutherland received a call to settle, in May, 
1805, which call he accepted and immediately removed from Barnet, Vt., to 
this town. In October following (as soon as the meeting-house was finished) 
he was installed as the first pastor of the church, and first minister of the 



TOWN OF BENTON. 



town, eighty years ago. He resigned this pastoral office in 1843, but con- 
tinued to preach in different places nearly every Sabbath up to 1854. His 
last sermon was delivered fifty-five and a half years after he commenced his 
ministerial labors. He died July 25, 1855, at the age of seventy-eight years, 
one month and six days. 

Myron S. Woodward, a grandson of Hon. James Woodward, one of the 
early settlers of Haverhill, was born July 24, 1803, in Haverhill. At the age 
of sixteen years he was apprenticed to the trade of cloth dressing and wool 
carding, in Bath, at which he worked for a number of years. He married 
CaroHne Hutchins, of Bath Upper Village, in 1829. About that time he 
bouo-ht a cloth dressing mill in Lyman, which he carried on for three years. 
He then removed to Swiftwater, and built a mill for his regular business, in 
1837. This business he carried on until his death, October 8, 1884. He held 
various town offices, being a justice of the peace nearly fifty years, was 
selectman three years, and also collector. He had three sons and two daugh- 
ters of whom Ira E. is a wool carder and carriage maker at Lancaster ; Mary 
J. married James Williams, who succeeded to Mr. Woodward's business at 
Swiftwater ; Horace J. lives at Cold Water, Mich.; Laura E. married J. O, 
Gifford, of Haverhill; Arthur v/as a soldier in the late RebeUion, enlisting at 
the age of sixteen, in the ist N. H. Cavalry, was taken prisoner June 29, 
1864, on Wilson's raid, and died in Charleston, S. C, October 4, 1864, prob- 
ably starved to death in a rebel prison. 

The Congregational church. — The first church formed in Bath was in 1778, 
on the Presbyterian platform. After the Revolutionary war, several prom- 
inent famihes came in from Massachusetts, who were of the Puritan stamp, 
and in 1791 a Congregational church was formed in its stead, consisting of 
nineteen members. The first minister called was Rev. Ebenezer Cleveland, 
by the proprietors of the town in 1784, but Rev. David Sutherland was 
the first settled pastor, in 1805. Till the year 1803, meetings were 
held in barns and dwellings; but the people then concluded to build a 
church, which was completed in about two years, at a cost of $3,000.00. 
The present edifice was built in 1874, at a cost of $7,000.00. It is a wooden 
structure, capable of seating 400 persons, and valued, including grounds, at 
$9,000.00. The society now has 103 members, with Rev. John P. Demeritt, 
pastor. 



BENTON, a rough, mountainous township, lies just northwest of the cen 
tral part of the county, in lat. 44^ 2' and long. 71° 5^', bounded north 
by Landaff and Easton, east by Woodstock, south by Warren and 
west by Haverhill, having an area of about 33,290 acres. It was granted to 
Theophilus Fitch, Esq., and sixty- four others, eleven of whom bore the name 
of Weed, January 31, 1764, under the name of Coventry. According to the 



TOWN OF BENTON. 1 49 



conditions of the charter, the town was to be divided into seventy one shares, 
two of which were alloted to the grantor. Gov. Benning Wentworth, one for 
the propagation of the gospel in foreign parts, one for the first settled minis- 
ter, one for the support of the schools, one for the glebe for the Church of 
England, and the remaining shares among the grantees. This document 
gives the official bounds of the township, as follows : — 

"Beginning at the southeasterly corner of Haverhill, thence running south 
58"^ east six miles and a half; thence north 24" east seven miles and three- 
quarters; thence north 55° west about six miles, to the northeasterly corner 
of Haverhill; and thence south 25° west, by the town of Haverhill, to the 
bounds began at." 

From the records of the proprietors' meetings, however, it seems there was 
a conflict relative to the charter bounds of Warren and the Coventry town 
line, for votes were taken to raise money to defend the proprietary rights of 
the grantees of Coventry, and committees were appointed to act in their 
behalf. This line was somewhat altered, in common with those of many 
other towns, by legislative enactment about 1784 or '85. The name of Cov- 
entry was retained by the town until it was changed by an act of the legis- 
lature passed December 4, 1840. The name Benton was given in honor of 
Hon. Thomas H. Benton, United States senator from Missouri for many 
years. 

As we have previously intimated, the township is almost completely stud 
ded with lofty mountains. But foremost in its grand physical characteristics, 
and having wide fame, even where the name of the township is unknown, is 
its mountain Moose Hillock, or " Moosilauke," as it is now spelled, which 
towers to an altitude of 4,636 feet above the level of the sea, and majestically 
alone, is the southern sentinel of the White Mountain group. From its sum- 
mit, where a hotel and observatory have been erected, may be seen the most 
of the New England mountain peaks, notably Ascutney, Camel's Hump, 
Mt. Mansfield and Jay Peak, in Vermont ; Washington and its mountain 
body-guard, the white summits of the Stratford peaks, northward ; the distan^ 
Monadnock to the south; the hills of Maine, and, on a clear day, the Harbor 
and shipping at Portsmouth. Moosilauke, with its attendants, Black Moun- 
tain, Owl's Head and Sugar Loaf, either of which would be majestic if stand, 
ing alone, occupy most of the township. 

The name of the mountain is derived from tlie Indian mosi, bald, and 
auke, a place — Bald-place. It has been a noted resort for many years. There 
is a tradition that Waternomee, an Indian chief, ascended it about 1685 
Robert Poaieroy, one of Roger's Rangers, died on it in 1759. Chase Whit- 
cher, father of William Whitcher, was the first white settler, and Mrs. Daniel 
Patch the first white woman who ascended it. Amos F. Clough, photo- 
grapher, and Prof. J. H. Huntington, of the State Geological Survey, spent 
the winter of 1869-70 on its summit, being pioneers of mountain meterology, 
and the first men who ever achieved so perilous a feat. There is a bridle- 
path leading to the summit from the terminus of road 8, a distance of three 



150 TOWN OF BENTON. 



and a half miles, following along one of the ridges from which many fine 
views may be obtained. The "tunnel " is 500 feet deep, with almost perpen- 
dicular sides. At its upper end is the "cascade," down which the tunnel 
stream dashes in sharp falls for 200 feet. At the end of road 8, the base of 
the mountain, G. H. Damon keeps a boarding-house and stable for the 
accommodation of those who ascend the mountain. On the summit is the 
"Tip Top" House, a fine, large summer hotel. 

Long pond, in the western-central part of the town, and Beaver pond, at 
the head of Tunnel brook, are the only bodies of water of any prominence, 
and even these are small. Oliverian brook, so called from a Mr. OUver who 
fell into it, (Oliver is in — ^^ Oliverian'), has its source in the central part of 
the town, flows south to the town line, and then turns west into Haverhill. 
Baker's river rises in a small pond on the eastern side of Moosilauke, and 
flows a serpentine course, partly in this town and partly in Woodstock, south- 
erly into Warren. Whitcher, Davis and Tunnel brooks all have their source 
in Benton, and flow north into the Ammonoosuc. 

Perfect quartz crystals, in great abundance, are dug from the ground at 
North Benton. Immense crystals of epidote are found on Owl's head. Nu- 
merous specimens of lead and copper ores abound, and a quarry of stone re- 
sembling Itahan marble has been opened on Black mountain. The Boston 
& Lowell railroad passes through the southwestern part of the town. The 
only public house in the town is the hotel on the summit of the moun. 
tain, though many summer boarders are pleasantly entertained at the farm 
houses. 

In 1880 Benton had a population of 378 souls. In 1885 the town had four 
school districts and ten common schools. Its six school-houses were valued, 
including furniture, etc., at $2,425.00. There were 71 children attending 
school, taught during the year by one male and six female teachers, at an av- 
erage monthly salary of $34.00 for the former and $16.31 for the latter. The 
entire amount raised for school purposes during the year was $571.40, while 
the expenditures were $520.00, with P. W. Allen, superintendent. 

Benton (p. o.) is in a hamlet located in the northwestern part of the town. 

Edgar S. WelcKs spruce oil distillery, on roads 14 and 15, was established 
in 1H85, and has the capacity for turning out about 100 pounds of oil per 
week. 

Birt Cox's spruce oil distillery, on road i, has the capacity for turning out 
about 100 pounds of oil per week. 

J. H. Keyser's sa^v mill, on Tunnel stream, road 8, was built by him in 
1861, It is operated by water-power, and fitted with machinery for the 
manufacture of clap-boards, shingles, rough lumber and framing timber. It 
is operated spring and fall, and cuts about 50,000 feet of clap-boards, 85,000 
shingles, and 50.000 feet of rough lumber, employing three men. 

The first settlement of the town was made by Obadiah Eastman, shortly 
after the commencement of the Revolution, who located in that part of the 



TOWN OF BENTON. T 5 I 



town now called High street. Janaes Page settled soon after on Oliverian 
meadows, and William Whitcher was the first settler of North Benton. He 
was the father of sixteen children who lived to grow up, all very tall, and 
"there are more than a hundred feet of Whitchers in William Witcher's family," 
was a true and very co.i:mon expression. Dick French, a noted hunter and 
wolf-killer, formerly lived at the north part. The settlement of the town was 
very slow, however, for the census report of 1791 only gives the town a popu- 
lation of eighty-eight souls. Among the early settlers, Josiah Burnham and 
a Mr. Lund were here in 1777; Peltiah Watson in 1778; Moses Noyes, 
Samuel Eaton and Stephen Lund, in 1783, and Samuel Jackson in 1787. 

The first recorded proprietors' meeting was warned December 20, 1796, 
pursuant to a petition dated December 16, 1796, "to be holden at the dwell- 
ing house of Dr. Amasa Scott, inn-holder in Haverhill, Tuesday, .-^pril i r, 
1797." At this meeting Hon. John W. Chandler was chosen moderator, 
Obadiah Eastman, clerk, and Hon. John W. Chandler, Major Moody Bedel and 
Obadiah Eastman, Esq., finance committee. On the following day, at an 
adjourned meeting, Hon. Nathaniel Peabody and Major Jonathan Hale were 
added to the committee. At this meeting, also, it was voted to raise a tax 
and appoint committees to lay out and build highways, one through Oliverian 
valley, from Haverhill town line to Warren town line, and from Landafif town 
line to Warren town line, the wages for workmen being set at four shillings per 
day, oxen "three and six" per yoke. The first survey of lands was made by 
Major Caleb Willard, his report being dated July 9, 1786, wherein it is stated 
that the southwestern part of the town had been laid out into lots of 105 
acres each. James Masters, James Curtis and Robert Whitton were the first 
whose claims to land were acknowledged by virtue of settlement, and on the 
following day the rights of eleven others were similarly acknowledged by vote 
of the proprietors. 

The first town meeting was held at the house of Major Jonathan Hale, 
December 30, 1801^ when the following officers were elected : Obadiah East- 
man, moderator; Salmon Niles, clerk; Samuel Jackson, Obadiah Eastman 
and Barnabas Niles, selectmen ; and Elisha Ford, constable. The first rep- 
resentative was Colonel Moody Bedel, who represented Coventry and Haver- 
hill in 1802. The first marriage recorded is that of Ira Martin, of Bradford^ 
to Sally Flanders, of Haverhill, March 7, 1802. The present road passing 
north and south through the town was built about 1852-53. A hotel was 
formerly kept at Benton, by David Marston, beginning about 1830. 

Jonathan Welch was brought up in the family of Obadiah Eastman. His 
father was an early settler of the southern part of Benton, and, when Jonathan 
was quite young, started from home, passing down the road toward North 
Benton, which then went through the notch between Black mountain and 
Moosilauke, and was never seen or heard from again. Jonathan married Ruth 
Merrill, and reared two children, Silas M. and Ezra B. He died in 1880, 
about eighty years of age. Silas M. married Nancy Albert, was one of the 



152 TOWN OF BENTON. 



board of selectmen for several years, and died in February, 1863, aged 
thirty-six years. Of his three children, George H. and Edgar S. occupy the 
homestead, and Ella married Charles Cutting, of Piermont. 

Obadiah Eastman, who was the first proprietors' clerk, settled opposite of 
where the school-house now stands on read 14 corner 11. His son James 
moved to New York, after his family of eleven children had grown up, and 
seven of them accompanied him. Jesse settled in Warren, where his descend- 
ants now live. William W. Eastman, son of Sylvester and Louisa (VVhitcher) 
Eastman, was born in Joy, N. Y., in 1850, and, when about a year old, his 
parents returned to Benton, where he still lives. He married Georgia A. 
Aldrich, May 8, 1879, and has been selectman six years. 

Samuel Page was born in Haverhill, Mass., July 10, 1772, married Submit 
Jeffers, of Hampstead, N. H., and came to Haverhill, N. H., between 181 1 
and 1814. They lived with her brother until they could build a log house on 
the farm now owned by Albert W. Morrill, on road 12. He had born to him 
eleven children. Captain Daniel D., born in Benton, January 20, 1817, was 
town representative in 1855-56, and in 1873-74, and was justice of the peace 
from 1855 to 1878, at which time he died. He married Charlotte A. Boleyn, 
of Hinsdale, N. H., and reared nine children. Of these, William B., Harry 
E. and Harriet E. reside in Benton. David Page, born August 6, 1809, at 
Haverhill, Mass., was the father of S. T. 

James J. Page, son of Samuel, was born in September, 1800. His son 
James, born in Benton, on road 12, February 10, 1834, spent his life on his 
birth place, and was one of the town officers for many years. He represented 
Benton two years, and died in 1878. He married Olive A., daughter of 
Jonathan Hunkings, of North Benton, and reared two sons and one daughter. 

Israel Flanders came to Benton, from Bradford, Vt., about 1827, cleared 
a farm, and built the the house in which he now lives. He married Polly, 
daughter of Ephraim Wells who settled on road 4, and has four children. 
Mr. Flanders and his wife are the oldest married couple in Benton, having 
passed their sixty-first anniversary. Their eldest son, John R., married Eliza 
J. Brown and owns a portion of the old homestead. 

Nathan Mead was born in Connecticut. He was about to be married to 
Mary King when the Revolution broke out, and he went at the call of his 
country to serve in the army. After the close of the war he returned and 
they were married, and went to Peacham, Vt., to establish their home. They 
continued to reside there until about 1804, when they removed to Coventry 
and became the pioneers in settling the southwestern part (on road 12) near 
East Haverhill. Here he cleared up a large farm and spent his later life. 

Peter Howe, a Revolutionary soldier, moved to Landafif when his son Dan- 
iel was but seven years of age. The latter located in the northern part of 
Benton, about 1809, and cleared the farm now occupied by his son Daniel 
M. Of his five sons and three daughters, Samuel and Daniel M. live in Ben- 
ton, Susanne (Mrs. D. K. Davis} and Lydia (Mrs. J. A. Clark) live in Hav- 



I 



TOWN OF BENTON. 



153 



erhill, Timothy E. is in Lisbon, and Julia A. (Mrs. J. G. Drew) resides in 
Easton. Daniel M., who served in the Rebellion, married Susan J. Clough 
of Lisbon, and has three sons and one daughter, namely, Kendrick L., Paul 
M., Sam, and Kate S. Samuel Howe married Merab, daughter of Samuel 
Royce, of Haverhill, and has two sons and four daughters. 

William Keyser, was a farmer and cooper, and came to Benton, from 
Northtield, N. H., in March, 1827. In 1830, he bought land where no clear- 
ing had been made, and put up a log cabin where the dwelling of his son, 
James H., now stands. He died here in March 1865. He had born to him 
six children, four of whom are living. James H. has been a lumberman and 
a farmer, and has served as town clerk, selectman, etc. He married Ehza 
A. Poor, and has three daughters and one son, Bion C. Charles B. Keyser 
served as selectman in 1862, '6^, and in 1877 and '78. He married Mary 
A., daughter of Jeremiah B. Davis, an early settler, who did much of the 
own business, and who was also a school teacher here. 

Samuel Mann, a native of New Haven, Conn., moved to Landafif when 
seven years of age, and came to Benton in March, 1835. He bought the 
farm where George W. now lives, and married Mary Howe. He died in 1842, 
aged seventy years, and his widow died November 15, 1866, aged eighty-six 
years. George W., the youngest of his eight sons, was born in Landaff, Feb- 
ruary 20, 1 82 1, spent his early life in farming, and, in 1853, became engaged 
in his present business as a contractor and builder. He was first chosen to 
a town office in 1844, then being collector of taxes five years, became one 
of the selectmen in 1846, serving eight years, has been justice of the peace 
for thirty years, school superintendent ten years, and town clerk four years. 
He was town representative in 1857, '60, '75, '76, '80, '81, '82 and '83, and 
was a member of the constitutional convention in 1876. in the local militia 
he began in 1838, and rose to the rank of captain. Whatever office he held 
he filled with credit, taking the same pains to serve his constituents' interests 
that he would his own, and in the legislature showed that he was there to act 
as well as to vote. At the close of the legislative session of 1883 we was 
presented with a gold-headed cane and a pair of gold-bowed eye-glasses by 
his fellow members of the House. He has attended thirty-four State Demo- 
cratic conventions. He has married twice, first, Susan M. Whitcher, April 
13. 1843, who bore him five sons, and died October 6, 1854; and second) 
Sarah T. Bisbee, March 4, 1855, and has had born to hini three sons and 
two daughters. Of these children, Ezra B. is a druggist in Woodsville ; Ed- 
ward F. is assistant superintendent of the White Mountain, Montpelier &: 
Wells River, St. Johnsbury & L. C. divisions of the Boston & Lowell rail- 
road ; Geo. H. is a conductor on the Boston & Lowell R. R.; Orman L. is 
a farmer in Benton ; Osman C. died at the age of eighteen years; Melvin 
J. is a conductor on the Boston & Lowell railroad ; Hosea B. is also a 
conductor on the same road; Susan M., a graduate of the New Hampshire 



154 TOWN OF BETHLEHEM. 



Normal school is a school teacher; Minnie S. is also a school teacher, and 
Moses B. is a graduate of the New Hampshire Agricultural college. 

Solomon, Levi, Asa, Samuel, Lemuel, Isaac and David Parker, brothers, 
were among the earliest settlers of Lyman, and were the ancestors of most 
of the Parker family, of the northern part of Grafton county. Prescott Par- 
ker, son of Prescott, Sr., and grandson of Solomon Parker, was born in Bath, 
in 1821, and brought up in Lyman. He came to Benton in 1855, where he 
has since lived. He has filled various offices, was town representative in 
1877-78, and served as selectman in 1873, '74 and '79. He married Maria 
A. Fitzpatrick, and has three children, namely, Lebina H. and Dora A., of 
Benton, and Frank B., of Bath. 

Pardon W. Allen located in Benton in 1875, engaging in the lumber 
business, built and opened the first store ever kept in town. This store, with 
two dweUings, a shop, two saw-mills and other buildings to the number of 
ten, were destroyed by fire September 17, 1883. Mr. Allen has been town 
clerk seven years, and school superintendent five years. He served three 
years and eleven months in the late war. having enHsted before his four- 
teenth birthday, and received a severe wound by an exploding shell at the 
battle of Spottsylvania Court House. He married Dorcas, daughter of 
Samuel Howe, of this town. 

George E. White was born in Halifax, N. S., and moved to Massachusetts 
at the age of seventeen years. He enlisted in the 3d Mass. Cav., served in 
the last years of the war, and after its close engaged in an expedition against 
the Western Indians. He came to Benton in March, 1875, and engaged in 
farming. He married Deborah Hilt, of Hope, Me., October, 1868, at 
Lowell, Mass. 

The meeting-house, located in the northern part of the town, was erected 
as a union house of worship in 1846, at a cost of $1,180.00, though it has 
once been extensively repaired. It is not now occupied by stated services, 
though meetings are held there frequently by appointment. 



BETHLEHEM lies in the extreme northern part of the county, in lat 
44" 14' and long. 71° 45, bounded north and east by the county line, 
south by Livermore, Franconia and Lisbon, and west by Littleton. 
The territory, or at least the principal part of it, was originally granted by 
Gov. John Wentworth, under the name of Lloyd Hills ; but exactly to whom, 
and under what date, it is impossible to state. We know, however, that 
Holland's map of New Hampshire gives place for a township designated as 
Lloyd Hills, which occupied a considerable part of what is now Bethlehem. 
The book of charters in the secretary of State's office contains nothing of 
this township of Lloyd Hills, except one reference to it as a boundary of 
another town. Some light is thrown upon the history of this grant, however, 



TOWN OF BETHLEHEM. 155 



"by two documents which have not until recently been accessible to the 
public, viz. : First, the manuscript of a lecture on " The Early History and 
Geography of Littleton and the Vicinity," by the late Dr. Adams Moore, the 
historian of that town, and which is now in the possession of the Littleton 
committee on town history. The following passages in this lecture relate to 
Lloyd Hills :— 

"His [Gov. John Wentworth's] last official act was to dissolve the colonial 
legislature and retire to the Isle of Shoals, from whence he embarked finally 
for England. Some years after, somebody wrote him a letter of inquiry re- 
specting a charter covering most of the town of Bethlehem, called Lloyd 
Hills. It appears by the charter of Whitefield that that town was bounded 
■on the southwest by a town with that name. Some person interested in land 
matters, finding no record of it in the office of the secretary of State, wrote 
to Governor Wentworth, who, it appears, lived at a place called Hammer- 
smith. I have seen his answer, which, from sinister motives, was kept rather 
private, as it was a key to some land disputes, and if seen would operate 
against the parties holding it. It contained a correct plan of the town of 
Lloyd Hills, now Bethlehem. The Ammonoosuc river [was] laid down with 
-great accuracy, — the line between that town and this [Littleton] distinctly 
placed as crossing a certain bend in the river, near the Alder brook mills, 
wherq the proprietors of this town have supposed it to be, but from which 
they have been crowded back this way about fifty rods. The survey pur- 
ported to have been made in 1774, by W. Coleman, who had surveyed this 
town [then Apthorp] four years before. The Governor must have taken 
from this country a book of plans of all these townships, furnished him by 
the deputy surveyors of his time, which would unravel the snarls of many a 
lawsuit, passed and perhaps to come." 

Second, the following matter relating to Lloyd Hills was copied by Philip 
C. Wilkins, of Littleton, at Portsmouth, August 8. 1850, from a paper pur- 
porting to be the original, in the handwriting of Gov. John Wentworth. It 
was in the possession of council in a court then pending in Portsmouth rela- 
tive to lands in Bethlehem. One of these council was the late Ira Goodall, 
of Bath. The great mass of his professional papers were sold to paper- 
rnakers in the time of the civil war, and it is not improbable that the original 
of Governor Wentworth's Lloyd Hills communication was thus destroyed. 
However that may be, no one appears to have known of its existence in 
recent years. Mr. Wilkins's record of surveys. Vol, i, pp. 263, 264, 265, 
266, contains his memoranda and copy, which are substantially as follows: 
" Province ") Portsmouth, 3d 

New Hampshire, } Januaiy, 1774. 
"This certifies that this plan, beginning at a beech tree, standing in the 
northwesterly hne of Greenthwaite, which is the southwesterly corner of 
Apthorp; [thence running south 57^° east, two miles and fifty-six rods, 
to a spruce tree, which is the northeasterly corner of Greenthwaite ;] thence 
south 58° east, three miles and 264 rods, to a birch tree; thence north 56° 
east, five miles and 162 rods, to Britton Woods, so-called, (now the town of 
Carroll); thence by said Britton Woods, north one mile and twenty-five rods, 
to a stake ; thence north 58" west, five miles and ten rods, to a fir tree ; 



[56 TOWN OF BETHLEHEM. 



thence south 56° west, six miles and one-half, to the bounds begun at, con- 
taining 22,760 acres, is known by an original plan or survey of said tract or 
township as retained to me by Dudley Coleman, deputy surveyor. 

"Attest: James RiNDGE, S. G." 

" It is certified that the within described land in the Province of New 
Hampshire was surveyed to Joseph Loring and others by authority of Gov- 
ernment, part by his Majesty's mandamus and part on condition of settle- 
ment and cultivation, and that the grant of said lands was called in council 
according to the usual forms ; also that an order was issued to thesecretary of 
the said Province, for engrossing the patent, but I cannot recollect whether 
the patent was peifected, although the said tract of land was actually 
granted, and I do remember that about 20,000 acres was the property of 
Mr. Loring and that the township was named Lloyd Hills. 
Hammersmith, 15 June, 1783, 

"J. Wentworth." 

In November, 1798, the inhabitants of Lloyd Hills, then "called Bethle- 
hem," petitioned the legislature for an act of incorporation for the said town- 
ship, as follows : — 

" The petition of the inhabitants of a place called Bethlehem, in the county 
of Grafton, in the State of New Hampshue, /i/r?fi/>/y s/ie7i'e//i, that whereas the 
said inhabitants are settled on a tract of land formerly belonging to said State 
and lalely sold by order of said State, for the purpose of making and repair- 
ing the road from Conway to the Upper Coos, and down Ammonoosuc river 
to Littleton, and that the number of settlers being increased to more than forty, 
it becomes highly necessary for the peace and good order and prosperity of 
the said inhabitants, that they be vested with lawful authority to govern them- 
selves and transact such business as respects them as a people, which is nearly- 
impossible to be done without^ — therefore the said people of Bethlehem, from 
the above consideration, sincerely pray the honorable court that so much of 
the aforesaid land be formed into a town and incorporated by the name of 
Bethlehem, as lies between the following towns and adjoining the said tract 
of State land : Littleton on the west, Whitefield on the north, Britton Woods 
on the east, and Franconia and Concord on the south, containing about 27,- 
000 acres; and as in duty bound will ever pray. 

Nathaniel Snow, ^ Committee 
Amos Wheeler, v for 

Stephen Houghton, ) Bethlehem." 

In the House of Representatives, December i, 1798, a hearing for the doc- 
ument was ordered for the next session ; meanwhile notice was to be given. 
The senate having concurred in the matter, the town was incorporated on 
December 25, 1799, ^^""^ ^^^ °f incorporation fixing its bounds as follows: — 

"Beginning as the northeast corner of Franconia, thence running north 
58° west about nine miles and three fourths of a mile to the southeasterly 
corner of Littleton ; thence north 56° east, about six miles and one-half, ta 
the southwesterly corner of Whitefield; thence south 58° east, about five 
miles and ten rods, to the line of Britton Woods; thence southwardly about 
three miles and thirty rods, on the line of Britton Woods to the southwest cor- 
ner of said Britton Woods; thence on a straight line about three miles and 
one hundred rods, to the bounds first mentioned." 

Thus the township exists to-day, except that a tract of land lying east of 
the town and south of the town of Carroll in Coos county was annexed to 



TOWN OF BETHLEHEM. 157 

Bethlehem in 1849, and in 1873 an additional large tract of wild land, ex- 
tending to the line of Carroll county, was annexed, so that the area of the 
township is now 31,154 acres, of which 10,955 acres is improved land. 

The surface of the town is broken and rough, forming an endless variety of 
the most beautiful scenery. The principal streams are the Great Ammonoo- 
suc and Gale rivers, the former flowing in a westerly course through the 
northern part of the town and the latter flowing south into Franconia; there 
are, however, several other streams of considerable importance. The prin- 
cipal mountain peaks are Mt. Agassiz, formerly known as Peaked Hill, and 
Round Mountain, near Bethlehem village, the former located nearest the vil- 
lage, though having a slightly lower altitude than the latter, is the most noted 
and affords one of the finest views in the White Mountains. It has an alti- 
tude of 2,390 feet and was named in honor of the celebrated Swiss natural- 
ist. The mountain is under the control of Milo J. Corliss, who has con- 
structed a carriage-way to its summit, on which he has erected an observa- 
tory. As it is claimed by some authorities that there is no other point in 
this section from which such an extended view may be obtained, we quote 
the following description thereof from Osgood's " White Mountains :" — 

" About seven miles distant across the densely wooded valley of Gale 
river, a little east of south, is the thin and craggy crest of Mt. Lafayette, 
whose immense spurs and foot hills run far out over the wilderness. On its 
right flank is the rugged mass of Eagle cliff, with the deep gorge of the Fran- 
conia notch adjoining, and apparently blocked up by the low Bald mountain. 
Next comes the massive and round-topped ridge of Mt. Cannon, flanked by 
the sharp and rolling summit of Kinsman. Nearly south-south-west, up the 
long Landafif valley, is the high top of Moosilauke; and on the right, much 
nearer, are Ore hill and Sugar hill. More to the west is the long and 
monotonous range of Mt. Gardner, which occupies parts of four townships. 
Far beyond, along the horizon, is a line of blue peaks in Vermont extending 
for scores of leagues down the Green Mountain range. Among these Camel's 
Hump is seen nearly west-north-west, and the higli plateau of Mt. Mansfield 
is more to the right, with Mt. Elmore apparently adjoining it. In this direc- 
tion, but close at hand below, are the hotels of Bethlehem, beyond and 
above which is the larger village of Littleton, with the high -school and the 
Oak Hill House on the heights. The Scythe -factory village runs to the east 
from Littleton along the Ammonoosuc, and Mann's hills are seen beyond to 
the right, over which is a distant mountain which may be Jay Peak. About 
due north, across the Amonoosuc valley, is Dalton Mount, at whose foot is a 
bright lake shining among the forests. Portions of the great ranges towards 
Willoughby lake are seen far beyond, with the mountains near the Connecti- 
cut river. The view now passes over the plains of Whitefield, bordered on 
the north by Martin-Meadow hills, and the round summits of Mts. Pleasant 
and Prospect. Over the saddle between the latter two runs the Lancaster 
highway, and Cape Horn is seen beyond. Nearer at hand is Kimball hill 
in Whitefield, and over the right flank of Prospect are the two v/hite domes 
of the Percy peaks, backed by the long Strattbrd and Bowback Mounts. The 
blue lines of the Pilot Mounts extend to tlie right, and towards the northeast 
is the white village of Jeff"erson Hill, at the foot of Mount Starr King. The 
black mass of Cherry Mount is more to the right, and much nearer, and fills 



158 TOWN OF BETHLEHEM. 



a long section of the horizon. Then, nearly east-north-east, the view rests 
on the sharp and lofty pyramids of Mounts Jefferson and Adams, flanked by 
the rough ridge of Clay; and then the imposing crest of Washington appears, 
with portions of the railroad, the white station buildings, and the Summit 
House. To the east, down the long Ammonoosuc Valley, is the Twin 
Mountain House, while beyond rise the peaks which run from Mt. Washing- 
ton to the Notch, Monroe, Franklin, Pleasant, and Clinton. Then come the 
huge and far-extending Twin Mountains, six to eight miles distant, and not 
far from southeast. Close to Agassiz is the wooded top of Round hill, over 
which appears the boldly cut peak of the Haystack (now Mt. Garfield) rest- 
ing to the right on Lafayette." 

Among the elevations in the eastern part of the town are Hall, Osceola, 
Tom, Field and Willard peaks. 

In 1880 Bethlehem had a population of 1,400 souls. In. 1885 the town 
had nine school districts, eleven common schools, and one graded school. Its 
ten school-houses where valued, including furniture, etc., at $7,100.00. There 
were 329 children attending school, thirty of whom were pursuing the higher 
grades, taught during the year by four male and fifteen female teachers, at 
an average monthly salary of $38.50 for males, and $21.90 for females. The 
entire amount raised for school purposes during the year was $1,897.60, while 
the expenditures were $1,841.16, with Rev. D. J- Smith, superintendent. 

Bethlehem Village, or Bethlehem Street, as it is usually called by the in- 
habitants, is located for about two miles along one broad street in the west- 
ern part of the town, having an altitude of nearly 1,500 feet above the levei 
of the sea. Small though this village is, however, it is almost as universally 
known as that other rural locaUty of the same name in that distant Eastern 
clime. It occupies a position on a broad terrace near the summit of the 
mountain range which is bounded by the Ammonoosuc and Gale river val- 
leys, facing the cool north and the wide strath which opens into the Connec- 
ticut valley, and is now one of the foremost summer-resorts of America. There 
are several villages in the Carolinas which are higher above the sea, but they 
are nearer the equator, and also more closely environed by highlands ; so 
that Bethlehem's urgent claims for superior coolness based on altitude may 
still hold good. The hay-fever unfortunates also find here a safe refuge, and 
convene their national assemblies on these heights without fear of sneezing, 
save when, on rare occasions, the south winds blow through Franconia notch. 
The view of the Presidential range from this long street is one of the best 
imaginable, being at the true artistic point of distance, and showing forth 
magnificent effects under the lights of morning and evening. The village has 
been made very accessible by the construction of a narrow-gauge railway, 
diverging from the Boston & Lowell line at Bethlehem Junction, and ascend- 
ing the heights for about three miles, having its terminus in the vicinity of the 
chief hotels. 

And yet upon the i)lateau on which stands this " Star Village of the White 
Hills," the " Sneezers Paradise," only a small wayside inn and a straggling 
farm-house or two were the signs of human habitation presented to the vision 



TOWN OF BETHLEHEiM. 159^ 



of that poetical and sympathetic lover of nature, Scar King, when he visited 
the region thirty years ago ; but his penetrating eye discovered that the site 
was one that must some day become the locale of a thriving mountain vil- 
lage. It is but five miles east of Littleton, for many years the railroad ter- 
minus of the western side of the White Mountains ; and referring to the high- 
way between the two villages that delightful writer remarks : " The pecul- 
iarity of this approach tu the mountains is that the highest ranges are seen 
first of all. The ride from Littleton to Bethlehem brings into full view the 
whole extent of the White Mountain range and^also the grand outlines of Mt. 
Lafayette and its neighboring peaks. And it is a great pity that Bethlehem 
is not one of the prominent stopping places for travelers who seek the moun. 
tain region. No village commands so grand a panoramic view. The whole 
horizon is fretted with mountains." It was not till a half a dozen years after 
these words were written that the first step was made to take advantage of the 
position which was here presented for a healthful and delightful summer re- 
sort, and like many other of the world's events, this village may be said to 
owe its origm to an accident. The overturning of a carriage, which had al- 
most been attended with fatal results to some members of the family of a 
Providence gentleman, since favorably known as ex-Governor Henry Howard, 
of Rhode Island, necessitated a stay of some weeks at the little wayside inn 
already spoken of; and he was then so greatly impressed with the truthful- 
ness of Starr King's remarks that he not only soon after returned for a further 
sojourn in this bracing atmosphere, but became the purchaser of a considera. 
ble tract of land, and the foundation was soon laid of what has become one 
of the most popular resorts of this mountain region. 

Isaac S. Cruft has also done much for the growth and prosperity of Beth- 
lehem. Some years after Governor Howard's purchase, Mr. Cruft, a wealthy- 
citizen of Boston, secured the Maplewood and became equally interested in 
property at the eastern end of the village. To these two gentlemen Beth- 
lehem owes much, we might almost say that it ows everything. By personal 
application and pecuniary expenditure they raised the little hamlet to a noble 
summer resort, whose name is known in every corner of our great country 
— the exertions of the one leading to boarding-house after boarding-house 
being erected on or near the "Street/' while those of the other have tended to 
the erection of one of the greatest and best of mountain hostelries. Mr. 
Cruft was b. rn in Boston in 1824, and for many years was engaged in mer- 
cantile pursuits, giving up active business, mainly, about 1865. His nephew,. 
General George T. Cruft, who has charge of the property here, came to 
Bethlehem in 1873, and has made the town his home since. He was born at 
Lexington in 1844. General Cruft is a strong Republican and first voted 
here in 1876. In 1878 he was appointed State quartermaster-general, under 
Governor Natt Head, ranking as brigadier-general. He is postmaster at 
Maplewood, is a justice of the peace, notary public, etc. 

The village now possesses about thirty hotels and boarding-houses ; Prot- 



[6o TOWN OF BETHLEHEM. 



estant Episcopal, Methodist and Congregational churches ; a public hall, 
stores, cafes, etc., and is supplied with water from reservoirs situated on 
neighboring hills; while three miles of plank walks permit pedestrian exer- 
cise to be taken without fear of wet feet, even after a refreshing shower. 
Every point of interest in the Mountains can be brought within a day's excur- 
sion either by road or rail, and there are pleasant half-day rides to places m 
the more immediate vicinity, such as Rowland's Observatory, Round Moun- 
tain, Echo Farm, Around the Heater, Cherry Valley, etc., while Mount 
Agassiz, Cruft's Ledge and Strawberry Hill are within comfortable walk- 
ing distance. The following brief description of several of the more im- 
portant of the hotels and boarding-houses gives a fair idea of the village's 
facilities afforded by the village as a summer resort : — 

Maplewood Hotel, O. D. Seavey, is the handsomest and one of the most 
extensive erections of its kind in the mountains, having accommodations, 
with the private cottages in connection, for over 500 guests. This elegant 
establishment possesses a large hall for entertainments, etc., has an elevator, 
is lighted with gas and electricity, is perfectly drained, has the Presidential 
and Northern ranges of mountains in full view^ and is located within beau- 
tiful grounds, 800 acres in extent, comprising observatory, wooded walks, etc. 
It has post and express offices of its own, and a depot on the narrow gauge 
branch, midway between Bethlehem and the Bethlehem and Profile junction. 

Sinclair House, Durgin & Fox, proprietors, is a large modern hotel in the 
center of the village, covering the site of the original establishment, the first 
of its kind in Bethlehem. It can accommodate 300 guests. The house has 
all modern conveniences, is lighted with aas, well supplied with water, per- 
fectly drained, delightfully situated and commands a full view of the surround- 
ing hills. The hotel has a good livery attached. 

Alpine House, C. H. Clark, proprietor, situated at the west end of the vil- 
lage, has accommodation for fifty guests. This house, from its peculiar loca- 
tion, commands extensive views, not only of the grand Presidential chain and 
the northern mountains, but of the beautiful valley of the Ammonoosuc, with 
Mount Mansfield and the green hills of Vermont beyond. It is fully fur- 
nished with all the modern improvements, and is in connection with a good 
farm and an extensive and well appointed livery establishment. 

Avenue House, J. C. & F. L. Kelley, proprietors, situated on the Main 
street, accommodates about 60 guests. The grounds surrounding the house 
have been enlarged and beautified and supplied with croquet sets, lawns, etc. 
It has in connection a good livery establishment. 

Bellernie House, David S. Phillips, accommodates ninety guests. This 
house, pleasantly situated on Main street, has since last season been refurn- 
ished and repainted, and hot and cold water laid on to the upper floors. A 
fine lawn-tennis ground has also been added. Extensive views are obtained 
from the upper windows and cupola of the house. Livery stable connected. 

Bethlehem House, H. E. Richardson, proprietor, is pleasantly situated on 



TOWN OF BETHLEHEM. l6l 



Congress street, a few rods from the main street, and accommodates fifty 
guests. The location of this house, exempting it from the dust of a much 
traveled thoroughfare, renders it a desirable residence for persons subject to 
hay- fever and asthmatic complaints. 

Centennial House, H. W. Wilder, proprietor, is situated on high ground at 
the western end of the village, and accommodates sixty guests. The house 
commands a view of the Presidential range on the east, the Stratford peaks 
and other mountains to the north, and the Ammonoosuc valley and Green 
hills to the west. It is a favorite resort with many families who annually fre- 
quent it. There is a spring of delicious pure water on the premises and a 
superior livery. 

Hillside House, Mrs. E. S. Davis & Son, proprietors, on Mount Agassiz 
road, accommodates fifty guests. It is situated on high ground facing Mount 
Washington, and with Mount Agassiz in full view to the south. The rooms 
are large and airy, the drainage is perfect, and a livery stable is in connec- 
tion. 

Highland House, J. H. Clark, on Main street at the west end, accommodates 
eighty guests. This house possesses spacious apartments with closets, open 
fire-places and baths, hot and cold water on every floor, electric bells, and 
other modern improvements, and has a fine lawn tennis and croquet grounds. 
Good livery in connection. 

Hozvard House, C. E. Bunker, proprietor, is lotated on the main street, 
near the depot, and accommodates sixty guests. This house is conveniently 
and pleasantly situated, and the piazzas and windows command extensive 
mountain views in every direction. It has in connection a livery stable. 

Mapleivood Cottage, Charles B. Goodwin, proprietor, nearly opposite to and 
northeast of the Maplewood Hotel, accommodates one hundred guests, who 
are privileged to enjoy the social advantages or the Maplewood Hotel with its 
delightful surroundings. 

Maplewood Hall, Charles B Goodwin, added to the Maplewood estate last 
year, is on the opposite side of the road and northwest of the Maplewood 
Hotel Its capacious and handsome apartments appropriated to the occupa- 
tion of families boarding at the Maplewood Hotel and cottage. 

Mount Agassiz House, Horatio Nye, proprietor, on Mount Agassiz road, 
accommodates sixty guests. The house is centrally situated, near to the 
Sinclair House, postoftice and Cruft block. 

Mount Washington House, C. L. Bartlett, proprietor, located on Park ave- 
nue, accommodates, with adjoining cottages, sixty guests, pleasantly situated 
forty rods from the main street, and ten rods from the new depot, it com- 
mands mountain views from every window, forty peaks being visible from the 
piazza alone. It has an excellent livery and a large farm in connection. 

The B7'oadview, G. L. Gilmore, pleasantly situated on Main street, accom- 
modates forty guests. The rooms are large and airy and command exten- 



[62 TOWN OF BETHLEHEM. 



sive views of the mountains ; while the grounds around the house are 
tastefully laid out. 

Prospect House, M. J. Phillips, proprietor, situated in its beautiful grounds 
one-third of a mile from the depot, accommodates eighty guests. The 
mountain views obtainable from this house are said by some to be more ex- 
tensive than those commanded by any other in Bethlehem, it being the only 
one from which both Mts. Washington and Lafayette, with their neighboring 
heights, are visible. It has a livery stable in connection. 

Ranlefs Hotel, D. W. Ranlet, proprietor, corner of Main street and Park 
avenue, and near to the depot, accommodates seventy -five guests. An ele- 
gant cafe, situated on the grounds, supplies ice-cream, sherbet, and other 
delicacies of a quality equal to any found in the leading establishments in the 
large cities. A croquet lawn adjoins the hotel, and fine views are obtained 
of the White Mountain range and the northern peaks. 

l^ur/ier House and Cottage, J. N. Turner, proprietor, Main street, on 
Turner's farm, accommodate seventy-five guests. These houses are delight- 
fully situated amid handsome shade trees, and possess a stream of water 
noted for its coldness and delicious purity. It has in connection a good 
livery. 

The Uplands, W. C. Noyes, on Main street, at the west end, accommo- 
dates forty guests. This first-class new house, situated on high ground about 
loo rods from the railroad depot and separated from the main thoroughfare by 
terraced lawns, is superior in every respect and is thoroughly warmed for the 
comfort of guests who remain late in the season. 

William G. Moivry's "■' Waumbek" steam saw-mill on Ammonoosuc river, 
near the corner of roads 9 and 19, was erected by the Waumbek Lum.ber Co.^ 
in 1868-69, who operated it until July, 1877, when they suspended opera- 
tions. It then stood idle till 1880, when it passed into the control of Mr. 
Mowry, who has operated it since. The mill gives employment to thirty-five 
men, who annually convert about 3,500,000 logs into various kinds of lumber. 
James E. Viall is superintendent. 

M. C. Noyes' s saw-mill, on road 11, which was purchased by him in i860, 
gives employment to seven men, and cuts annually about 300,000 feet of 
coarse lumber, 150,000 feet of clapboards and 200,000 shingles. 

/olin Fierce, Jr.'s saw-mill, on road 20, was built by him and his brother, 
E. O. Pierce, about 1847. He employs thirty-five men, cutting about 200,000 
feet of lumber per year. 

Cortes Bones' s cider-mill, on r 6, built in 1884, manufactures about 350 
barrels of cider per year. 

F. A. HaskelCs carriage shop was built by him in 1879. Aside from a 
general jobbing business he makes about twenty new vehicles per year. 

H. C. Libbey's sa7v-inill was built by him in 1877. It gives employment 
to about forty men and cuts 300,000 feet of coarse lumber, 100,000 feet of 
clapboards, 300,000 lath and a large number of shingles per year. 



I 



TOWN OF BETHLEHEM. 163 



Charles A. Sinclair's grist-mill, ox\ road ii, operated by Allen Peabody, 
was built about 1844. It has three runs of stones and does custom work. 

The first settlers in the town, according to the best authorities, were Ben- 
jamin Browp and Jonas Warren, who came on from Massachusetts in 1787 
or 1788. For a time there were only three families in the town, those of the 
two gentlemen mentioned and one other, whose name or origin cannot now 
be ascertained. Mr. Warren, who had a family of four children — Otis, Betsey, 
Jonas and Anna — located upon the farm now owned and occupied by Charles 
Blandin. Mr. Brown, who had a family of eleven children — Abigail, Fran- 
ces, Marcus, Benjamin, Ida, Cynthia, Anna, Susannah, Triphena, Oliver and 
Mahala — located upon what is now known as the James Dean place. In 
the spring of 1790 James Turner began his settlement in Lloyd Hills, there 
being at that time only two families in the town; afterwards, during the 
same year, others came in, among whom were Nathaniel Snow and Nathan 
Wheeler. In March, 1794, Lot Woodbury settled in the town, from Royls- 
ton, Mass., bringing his family and effects on an ox-sled. The venerable 
'"Sir" Isaac Newton Gay, who is still a resident of the town and whose cele- 
brated "museum" is so much frequented by the habitues of the Maplewood, 
came here an infant in 1797. Of a balm of Gilead tree near the residence 
of A. S. Phillips, Mr. Gay says, "On my seventh birthday, June 6, 1803, I 
set it out with my own hands; there were twQ of them, but one died." 
Nathaniel Snow, father of the Nathaniel Snow who died in this town, "origin- 
ally surveyed Bethlehem, and the compass used by him is now in the posses- 
sion of Reuben Baker." 

Mr. Gay also makes from memory, in substance, the following statement of 
the settlement of the town. He was born in Ipswich, Mass.. July 16, 1796, 
and was brought here February 19th of the following year. He says the first 
eight families in town were : — 

First, Nathaniel Snow, a land surveyor, who had six children — Nathaniel, 
Jr., Asa, Jerusha (Mrs. Dea. Thomas Hale;, Mrs. Moses Eastman, Mahala 
(Mrs. Major Amos Wheeler), and one other. One lived where the rose 
bushes now are on top of Phillip's hill. Nathaniel lived in the two-story 
house opposite the Robbins place. Asa lived on the Lindsey Whitcomb place- 
Deacon Hale lived on the South road. Moses Eastman lived at the Amy 
place, and Major Wheeler on the opposite side of the road, and across the 
brook. 

Second, Simeon Burt, had six children — Levi, Simeon, Jr., John, Lydia 
(Mrs. Dea. Willis Wilder), Mrs. William Sawyer, and Mrs. Oliver Sawyer. 

Third, Jonas Warren, had twa children — Mrs. Benjamin Brown, and Mrs. 
Lot Woodbury, Sr. Mr. Warren lived and began the settlement on the William 
Kelso place, and was the first man hurried in Bethlehem cemetery. 

Fourth, James Crane, lived in a small frame house near the house of Reu- 
ben Baker, built a saw-mill there, had two children — Polly, and a boy, who died 
young. Crane soon moved away. 



164 TOWN OF BETHLEHEM. 

Fifth, Benjamin Brown, began where his son Marcus has lived many years , 
and had ten children — Marcus, Benjamin, Jr., Oliver, Abigail, Fanny, Try- 
phena, Juda, Mahala, Ada and Anna. 

Sixth, John Giles, began on what is called the Bray place. 

Seventh. Isaac Batchellor, began on what has since been called the Batch- 
ellor place, near the Kelso place, and had six children — Isaac, Jr., Silas, 
Nehemiah, Stillman, Mary (married John Burt), and Betsey. 

Eighth, Peter Shattuck, began at the top of the hill near where the Asa 
Phillips house now stands, and had four children — Stephen, Peter, Jr., Abigail 
and Ruth. None but Stephen Hved in Bethlehem. Mr. Gay and his mother 
(Martha Breed), came with this family, Mrs. Peter Shattuck's maiden name 
being Rebecca Breed. 

> By the petition for an act of incorporation, in 1798, it will be seen that the 
town then had "forty settlers;" while the census reports of 1800 give the 
entire population as 171; souls. The privations, sufferings and hardships of 
the early inhabitants were numerous; and, had they not been hardy, perse- 
vering. men, they could not have borne up against them. Starvation at one 
time almost stared them m the face ; but they were saved from this lingering 
death by nurishment procured from green chocolate roots and other plants. 

The fi'rst town meeting was held at the house of Amos Wheeler, March 4, 
1800, when the following list of officers were elected : Moses Eastman, mod- 
erator and town clerk ; Moses Eastman, Nathaniel Snow, and Amos Wheeler, 
selectmen; Edward Oaks, constable and collector; Simeon Burt, John 
Gile and Edward Oakes, highway surveyors ; Lot Woodbury, fence-viewer ; 
Amos Wheeler, sealer of weights and measures; James Noyes, tithingman ; 
and John Russell and Edward Oakes, hog-reeves. Otis, son of Joseph War- 
ren, was the first child born in the town. Mrs. Lydia Whipple died March 
17, 1795, the first death in the township. Reuben Baker was the first mail- 
carrier. Moses Eastman was the first shoemaker. The first blacksmith was 
Abel Hale, whose shop occupied the present site of the Sinclair House. The 
first physician was Dr. Better Shattuck, though the first to practice his pro- 
fession here was a Dr. Rawson. The first grist-mill was located at "McGreg- 
ory Hollow," Stephen Houghton being the proprietor. 

Lot Woodbury came to Bethlehem, from Royalston, Mass.,in 1795, travel- 
ing by marked trees, and bringing with him his family, household effects, 
and two yoke of steers. He located upon a portion of the farm where his 
grandson, H. W. Wilder, now lives, cleared a farm and reared four children. 
He kept a hotel for about fifty years, opposite the place where Horace W. 
Wilder now lives. The latter has the old»hotel sign now in his possession. 
Mr. Woodbury took an active part in town affairs, represented the town, 
served as selectman, and as justice of the peace. His daughter Eliza became 
the wife of Joseph Wilder, and the mother of H. W. Wilder, of this town. 

Willis Wilder came to Bethlehem, from Templeton, Mass., in 1796, and 
settled where the Maplewood Hotel now stands, where he cleared a farm. He 



TOWN OF BETHLEHEM. 1 65 



reared a family of eight children, nearly all of whom located in this town, 
and all are now dead. He took an active part in town affairs, and held most 
of the town offices. His son Josep^h was born in town in 1800, and always 
resided here. He died while on a journey south, in New Orleans, of yellow 
fever. Two of his children now reside in town. His son Horace W. is pro- 
prietor of the Centennial House, served as town representative in 1865-66, 
and was town clerk twenty-four years. 

Joel Winch was born in Frammgham, Mass., and when a young man spent 
several years in Boston, where he married Sarah Sessions. They came to 
Bethlehem about 1808 or '09, bought the farm on which the widow and chil- 
dren of his grandson, Richard H. Wilder, now live, and spent their lives in 
town. He was an honest, hard working ^farmer, a leader in the early Free 
Will Baptist church, reared to Hves of honor and usefulness seven sons and 
one daughter, and died at the age of ninety-six years. His eldest son, Joel, 
now resides in Columbus, Wis.j Minot F,, George F. and John C. are suc- 
cessful business men in New York ; Dr. Albert was a physician in White- 
field, where he died ; FrankHn and Sewell F. were respected citizens of Beth- 
lehem, and died here, 

Joseph Barrett came to Bethlehem, from Winchendon, Mass., about 1798, 
and located on road 18, where he cleared a farm. He had born to him five 
children, who lived to maturity, of whom, Joseph K. resides in this town, 
James J. resided in Littleton until his death, in 1885, and Mrs. Sally Bowles 
also Hves in Littleton. Mr. Barrett died in 1858. 

Jesse Phillips came to Bethlehem from the southern part of the State, and 
located in the western part of the town, on the farm where Artemas S. Phil- 
lips now lives. He reared a family of nine children, two of whom are living, 
Reuben and Jeremiah, who reside in Littleton. Mr. PhiUips died in Rich- 
mond, while on a visit to that place, about 1828, but was buried in town. His 
son Moses was born here, and lived in this town until his death, in 1874. He 
was a farmer, and reared nine children, five of whom are living, viz : Mrs. 
Amanda Taylor and Mrs. Martha B. Jesseman, of Bethlehem, Frank B. and 
Dennis, of Littleton, and Willie B. of Lisbon. George W., a resident of 
Bethlehem, died in June, 1885. 

James Turner came to Bethlehem, from Bernardston, Mass., about 1790, 
there being at that time only two families in town, and commenced a clearing 
on the farm where James N. Turner now lives. He worked here three sum- 
mers, returning to Massachusetts during the winters. ' He married Mrs. Par- 
ker, and had born to him three children. His son Timothy P. was born in 
1795, and resided on the home farm until his death. Samuel, father of James 
Turner, also came to this town, and resided with his son until his death. 
James Turner died in 1835. Timothy P. served as town clerk many years, 
was captain of militia, justice of the peace, and also represented the town in 
the legislature. He reared a family of six children, only one of whom, James 
N., resides here. The latter lives on the homestead. 



[66 TOWN OF BETHLEHEM. 



Noah Swett came to Bethlehem, from Gilmanton, N. H., when there were 
only nine families in the town, and settled near where the Maplewood Hotel 
now is. He was a shoemaker and farmer, and reared a family of eight chil- 
dren, four of whom are now living. His death occurred in 1869, aged 
seventy-six years, and his wife, Sarah, died within twenty-four hours after, both 
being buried in the same casket. His son Elisha has held every office in town, 
except that of town representative. 

Samuel Morrison came to Bethlehem, from Gilmanton, about 1800, settled 
on Gilmanton Hill and cleared the farm where his son William M. now lives. 
He was a farmer, and died in this town about 1867. Of his six children, 
John C. and Gillman K. reside in Littleton, Mrs. David Oaks lives in Lis- 
bon, and William M. resides on the homestead. 

Samuel f. Gilman came to Bethlehem, from Gilmanton, about 1823, and 
located upon the farm where his son Albert now lives. He reared a family of 
nine children, two of whom are living, Mrs. George C. Cheeney and Albert. 
Mr. Gilman died about 1857. David, brother of Samuel, came about the 
same time, lived for a while with his brother, and afterwards bought him out. 
He died in Laconia, N. H. The Gilman family, consisting of three brothers, 
originally came from England, settled in Gilmanton, and from them that town 
derived its name. 

Lindsey Whitcomb came to Bethlehem, from Easton, about 183 1, and 
located on the farm where his son now lives, on road 23. He was a farmer 
and a lumberman, and died in 1S83. Two of his sons, C. L. and H. E., 
reside in town. 

Noah Burnham came to Bethlehem, from Gilmanton, about 1806, and 
located about half a mile from where his son now lives. In 1820 he removed 
to the farm, where his son Benjamin now resides, and lived there until his 
death, in 1855. He reared a family of nine children, only one of whom is 
now living, Benjamin, who resides on the homestead. 

Samuel Burnham came to Bethlehem, from Gilmanton, and located in the 
western part ot the town, on what is known as Gilmanton hill. He died 
about 1844. Two of his children are living, Mrs. Joanna Phillips and Mrs. 
Elizabeth Richardson, of this town. 

Dudley F. Ladd came to this town, from Gilmanton, N. H., about 1840, 
and located on road 15, on Gilmanton hill. He afterwards removed to Gil- 
manton, where he died. His children are Lorenzo S., Plummer B., Mrs. 
Daniel Crane, Josiah M. and Mrs. Morrison. 

John Wesley, a native of Kent, England located in Bethlehem about 
1843. He was a farmer, and died in 1869. Of his children, Mrs. C. C. 
Shattuck and John L. reside here, and Mrs. G. B. Merrell and Mrs. Frank 
Blake live in Warren. 

Philip Hoit, son of Samuel, a Revolutionary soldier, moved to Piermont, 
from Littleton, at an early day, and resided there for many years. His son, 
Wells P., now lives in this town, and has resided in the same neighborhood 
for forty-two years. 



TOWN OF BETHLEHEM. 1 67 



Caleb Baker, a native of Rhode Island, was a surveyor. He located in 
Franconia at an early day, and in 1815 came to this town, locating in the 
southern part. He was selectman in Franconia, did some legal business, 
and also kept the only store at that time in town, drawing his goods with an 
ox-team from Concord. He reared eleven children, three of whom are now 
living. Reuben, the only one residing in this town, was born in Franconia 
in 1797, was eighteen years of age when he came to Bethlehem, and has re- 
sided here since. 

Cyrus E. Bunker was born in Barnstead, N. H., in 1823, came to 
Bethlehem in 1853, and was one of the first to engage in the boarding-house 
business. He built the Mt. Agassiz House, now owned by H. Nye, and in 
1878 built and still conducts the Howard House, erected on the site of 
a house named after ex-Governor Howard, of Rhode Island, which was 
destroyed by fire in 1874. 

Allen Thompson was born in Woodstock, Vt., in January, 181 4. He 
studied surveying, and, in 1835, came to Bethlehem to reside, though at first 
he came here to hunt, and has killed one hundred deer in this section in the 
course of a single year. He surveyed much of the town^ in the employ of 
individual owners, but for the past forty years has also acted as guide to 
sportsmen in the White mountains and among the lakes of Maine and 
Canada. He married, first, Lucinda Barrett, of Bethlehem, who bore hira 
eight children, of whom Mary P., Luella A., Ellen E. and Frances, are liv- 
ing, and second, Harriet (Chase) Phillips. 

Daniel Wilcomb was born in Atkinson, Mass., July 28, 1783. He married 
twice, first, Betsey Page, January 23, 181 2, who died October 25, 1815 ; and 
second, Hannah Eaton, February 21, 18 16. Six children were born to him, 
three by each wife, only two of whom are living — Daniel P. Wilcomb, in St. 
Johnsbury, Vt., and Moses K., in this town. Daniel Wilcomb moved to this 
town in 18 12, locating on the farm now owned and occupied by Moses K. 
He represented the town in the legislature in 1840-41. He died September 
7, 1862. 

Nathaniel Noyes was an early settler of Landaff. Only two of his large 
family of children, Rufus and John, located in that town. Rufus died there 
and John moved to Bethlehem, and resided with his son, M. C, where he died. 
Nathaniel's grandfather, with two brothers, came from England at a very early 
date, and subsequently settled in Newburyport, N. H. 

James M. Kidder, born in Weathersfield, Vt., came to Bethlehem in 1845, 
where he purchased and cleared wild land. In 1867 he engaged in the man- 
ufacture of lumber, in company with W. A. McGregory, and also the manu- 
facture of potato starch, at Dalton and East Concord, Vt. They also built 
up most of the present Congress street, Bethlehem. Mr. Kidder has held 
various town offices, including selectman in 1871-72, and representative in 
1872-73. He married Lucy L. Houghton, of Bradford, Vt., and has three 
children — William H., of Lowell, Mass., Cynthia A. and Josie F. 



1 68 TOWN OF BETHLEHEM. 



The Congregational church. — The first edifice devoted to religious pur- 
poses erected in Bethlehem seems to have been built by the Congregational- 
ists and Methodists about the year 1825. It was erected a little east of the 
ground on which the Centennial House now stands, and then known as the 
common. The inhabitants, previous to this, had worshipped in barns, in the 
school-house, private dwellings — ^any place, in fact that could be made use of 
conveniently. Shortly after 1830 the Methodists erected a church of their 
own, where their present edifice now stands. This was disheartening to the 
Congregatipnalists, who had suffered many vicissitudes since the establish- 
ment of their society, October 15, 1802, and the result was that in course of 
time their church building became so dilapidated that in 1853 they decided 
upon resigning it, and made arrangements with the Methodists to occupy 
their church, after needed alterations, upon alternate Sundays, which agree- 
ment was in force until 1865. Eventually, in 1876, the Congregationalists 
decided to erect a new church. The severe vicissitudes to which this de- 
nommation had been subjected, the lack of a church of their own, and the con- 
tinual falling off of members by death and otherwise, had reduced their 
numbers to such an extent, that in January, 1876, there were but eight mem- 
bers left of the congregation. Two of them were over seventy years of age, 
another was unable to attend, and consequently there were but five members 
able to assist in the duties of the church. 

In that year, however, these eight and four more, making twelve, all told, 
came together and resolved to build a church and perfect an organization. 
Isaac F. Cruft, of Boston, owned some land near the "Street," and he offered 
to make the society a present of the la:d and $150.00 in money if the mem- 
bers would build the church. He also promised to open a road to the church. 
The promises he carried out to the letter. Another gentleman, a former res- 
ident of the town, Mr. J. Pierce, of Littleton, gave $1,000.00, others signed 
in smaller amounts, and the balance was assured by the Home Missionary 
Society. George T. Cruft, riephew of Isaac S. Cruft, aided iu many ways in 
laying the foundation and raising money. Messrs. Mead, Mason & Co., of 
Concord, took the contract for the foundation and building at a cost of $3,- 
000.00, and the building was opened for public worship in the summer of 

1877. 

The first Congregational minister ordained here was the Rev. William 
Hutchinson, on January 27, 1830. He resigned on January 12, 1833. He 
was followed by the Rev. Edmund Burt, who was ordained at Franconia, 
January 13, 1841, and resigned August 20, 1845. The Rev. Daniel Mc- 
Clenning, his successor, was ordained April 28, 1852, and dismissed, at his 
own request, August 15, 1854, when he was succeeded by the Rev. Thomas 
Hall, who commenced his ministration on December 15, 1854. The Rev. 
Charles W. Richardson and the Rev. Mr. Esty devoted several years to this 
congregation at the time when it was without a regularly ordained preacher. 
There is no minister in charge at present. 



TOWN OF BETHLEHEM. 



169 



The Church of the Nativity, Protestant Episcopal. — Though no communi- 
cants to the Protestant Episcopal Church resided in Bethlehem previous to 
1879, the village was annually visited by hundreds of its members, whose 
only opportunities of participating in its services were occasionally in the 
parlors of the hotels and boarding-houses. The need of a proper edifice in 
which to worship became, in time, so much felt, that at a service held Sep- 
tember 12, 1875, by the Rev. Dr. Rankin, initiatory steps were taken to- 
ward the erection of a permanent structure for summer worship. The prin- 
cipal iiiover was George VV. Tinges, of Baltimore, who had then resided 
three summers in Bethlehem, and it is to his untiring energies during the two 
succeeding years that the present church owes its existence. Mr. Tinges 
proposed to head a subscription list if e.x-Governor Howard, of Rhode 
Island, would give the necessary land, which the latter not onlv promptly ac- 
ceded to, but supplemented his gift with a liberal subscription. Pledges of 
$500.00 were immediately received, which sum was sufficiently increased 
during tlie season of 1876, by offerings at occasional services, by further sub- 
scriptions, and by pledges of labor, to justify the commencement of the 
building, for which a design was obtained from C. C. Haight, of New York. 
The Rev. J. B. Goodrich, then of Littleton, supervised the erection, the 
funds at his command being, however, little more than enough to put the 
building under roof. 

Tht Church of the Nativity was opened for public worship on the after- 
noon of Sunday, July 8, 1877, by the Rev. A. R. Graves, of Littleton, and 
services were continued throughout that summer, for the most part, twice 
each Sunday, the edifice being only supplied with common pine seats and 
chancel furniture, and with cotton cloth in the windows. Before the close 
of the season, however, additional funds were obtained for providing stained- 
glass windows, the cost of which was almost entirely defrayed by individual 
contributions, and for some other requisites. The offerings in 1877 were ap- 
plied to the building fund, but have since been devoted to the support of the 
services, with occasional exceptions, a clause in the deed of gift making it 
imperative that the sittings shall be entirely free. 

Several clergymen visiting Bethlehem officiated during the summer of 1877, 
the Rev. Dr. Rankin taking charge in August of that year. When the church 
was reopened in 1878, it was placed in the charge of the Rev. A. R. 
Graves, of Littleton, who continued until his removal to Vermont, at the 
close of the season of 1880. Since then it has been each summer in. charge 
of one or more clergymen, who have been assisted by many visiting prelates 
and clergymen. The church was consecrated on Wednesday, July 28, 1880, 
by the Right Rev. W. W. Niles, D. D., Bishop of the Diocese ; the sermon 
on that occasion being preached by the Rev. W. B. Buckingham, of New 
London, Conn. 

After [877 Mr. Tinges rarely visited Bethlehem, and the good work which 
he had so zealously begun was thereafter continued with equal zeal by G. B, 



[70 TOWN OF BRIDGEWATER. 



Du Bois, of Boston, and it is to the energy of the latter gentleman that the 
church is mainly indebted for the completion of its interior. The total 
amount of money collected for the erection and furnishing of the church has 
been $3,127.77, all of which has been expended. The building is of pointed 
style, with high gable roof, and — in the interior especially — is of neat ap- 
pearance, the chancel being tastefully carpeted, the floor covered with mat- 
ting, the roof oiled and the rafters painted. Its seating capacity is about 250, 
which it is hoped to increase to 325 by a proposed addition, trustees now 
having about $1,000.00 in hand for this purpose. 

IVie Methodist church. — As already stated, the Methodists erected a church 
^on the site of their present edifice about 1830, and in 1853, when the Con- 
gregationahsts desired to join them in the use of the building, it was materi- 
ally renovated and improved, and for some time continued as a union church. 
The new Methodist church grew and prospered well, and about 1874 extensive 
improvements were made to it. The structure was raised, and a vestry built 
at a cost of $6,000.00. 

Free Will Baptists. — Many years ago there was a Free Will Baptist church 
in the town, situated about one mile west of the village, but it has long 
since ceased to exist. 



BRIDGEWATER, a small irregularly outlined township, lies in the 
southeastern part of the county, in lat. 43"^ 38' and long. 71° 45', 
bounded northwest by Hebron and Plymouth, east by Ashland, and 
a part of the county line, and south by Bristol. It originally formed a 
part of the township of Hill, then called New Chester, from which it was sev- 
ered by an act of the legislature passed February 12, 1788, and incorporated 
into a separate town, with the following bounds: — 

" Beginning at the mouth of Newfound river, so called, thence running 
by the southerly bank of said river to Newfound pond ; thence by the east- 
erly shore of said pond to Plymouth line ; thence by said line to the Pemige- 
wasset river, and thence down said river to the bounds first mentioned, in- 
cluding all the islands in said river lying against said tract." 

These bounds were changed, however, by an act of the legislature passed 
June 24, 1819, which set off the southern part of the town to form, with the 
northerly part of New Chester, the present township of Bristol. 

The surface of the town, rough and uneven, presents some very picturesque 
scenery. North and south through its center there extends a ridge of high- 
lands known as Bridgewater hills, whose slope terminates on the east in the 
valley of the Pemigewasset, and on the west in the shores of Newfound lake. 
The Pemigewasset, which forms the eastern boundary of the town, is the only 
stream of importance, though there are numerous minor ones and many 
springs. About a quarter of Newfound lake lies within the limits of the town. 
From these highlands many magnificent points of view are afforded. Far to 



TOWN OF BRIDGEWATER. 171 

the northward rise the peaks of the Franconia mountains, the vision to the 
eastward being met by the beautiful Squam lakes, nestled among the wood- 
lands, and to the southward hills peep over hills in an endless chain which 
melts into the distant horizon, while a not unimportant feature in the grand 
whole is the sparkling waters of Newfound lake. The geological formation 
of the territory is made up principally of gray sandstone and mica schist. The 
timber is mostly hard wood, with large quantities of maple, which afford am- 
ple facilities for sugar-making, which the inhabitants find a profitable indus- 
try. The soil of the township is generally good, though better adapted to 
grazing than grain-raising purposes. The B. C. & M. R. R. passes through 
the northern parn of the town, where it has a station. 

In 1880 Bridgewater had a population of 384 souls. In 1885 the town had 
eight school districts, and nine common schools. Its eight school-houses 
were valued, including furniture, etc., at $1,530.00. The^'e were eighty-nine 
children attending school, twenty of whom were pursuing the higher grades, 
taught during the year by two male and nine female teachers, at an average 
monthly salary of $18.00 for males, and $16.30 for females. The entire 
amount raised for school purposes during the year w. s $562.17, while the ex- 
penditures were $368.75, with John L. Morrison, superintendent 

Bridgewater (p. o.) is a hamlet located in the southern part of the town. 

Flo?-ence V. MitcheWs saw and cider-mill, in the northeastern part of the 
town, on Mill brook, has the capacity for manufacturing 4,000 feet of lumber 
per day and 300 barrels of cider per year. 

Tradition has it that the first visit of civilized men to Bridgewater was 
previous to the French war, as follows: During the time that Massachusetts 
was laying claim to the Province of New Hampshire, a Captain Baker was 
sent out with a party of men from old New Bury, to ferrit out the Indians, 
who had a camp somewhere on the Pemigewasset. He surprised them on 
the north bank of Baker's river, so named in his honor, in Plymouth, where 
they were driven off with loss. The Indians rallied, however, and overtook 
Baker on a poplar plain in the eastern part of this town, where a sharp skim- 
ish ensued, though the whites were again victorious. Samuel Dearborn, an 
early settler in this vicinity, found a number of skulls on this plain, which were 
supposed to have belonged to those who were then slain. Though the little 
party made all possible haste in their retreat, the Indians again overtook them 
in what is now the township of Hill, where they were eluded by a neat strat- 
agem, suggested by a friendly Indian, who had acted as guide to the party 
all through the expedition. The party pretended to go into camp, built a 
large number of fires, and placed numerous pieces of meat to roast before 
them, then Hid in the bushes. The foe's scouts came on, counted the fires 
and pieces of meat, and supposing that each piece of meat represented a' 
soldier, beat a hasty retreat, and were not heard from further. 

The first settlement was make by Thomas Crawford, who came on in 1766, 
and located upon the farm now occupied by George F. Fletcher on road 17. 



[72 TOWN OF BRIDGEWATER. 



He it was, tradition has it, who gave the name of Bridgewater to the locaUty, 
for the reason that civiHzation could not be reached without crossing a bridge. 
Mr. Crawford was soon after joined by his brother Jonathan, and several 
other famihes from the southern part of the State, and from Reading, Mass., 
came in, so that the wilderness soon began to take on the appearance of civil- 
ization, and in 1790 the town had a population of 281 souls. The first town 
meeting was held at the house of Samuel Drew, March 1 1, 1788, when Daniel 
Heath was chosen moderator; Thomas Crawford, clerk; Daniel Heath, con- 
stable; Thomas Crawford, Simeon Cross and Michael Mosier, selectmen; 
Thomas Locke, Chase Fuller, Samuel Drew, Jonathan Carleton, Jonathan 
Ingalls, Jr., and Joseph Farrell, highway surveyors; and Jonathan Ingalls and 
Josiah Heath, hog-reev3s. The first marriage recorded was that of Nathaniel 
Cummings and Mary Crawford. One of the first schools taught in town was 
kept in a barn on the place where R. P. Mitchell now resides, by Captain 
Caleb Pillsbury. 

Daniel Mitchel, son of Abel and Susan (Glover) Mitchel, was born here in 
1848, married Florence V., daughter of John and Susanna (Mitchel) Nutting, 
in 1877, and has three daughters, namely, Nora Blanche, Ethel S. and Edith 
Florence. Mr. Mitchel occupies the Robert Mitchel place, in the northeastern 
part of the town, on road 5. 

Capt. Caleb Pillsbury came to Bridgewater at an early day, located on the 
place where Rivers Mitchel now lives, and reared three sons and ten daugh- 
ters. Caleb, the seventh child, was born in this town, in 1786, married 
Nancy. Nelson, July 4, 1808, and reared six sons and six daughters. Randall 
J., the seventh child of Caleb, Jr., was born here in 1830, learned the carpen- 
ter and builder's trade, worked in Manchester twelve years, and in California 
several years. He married Emeline L., daughter of S. G. and Dorothy S. 
(Prescott) Fletcher, in 1856, and has four sons and one daughter, viz.: Geo. 
I. and Henry F., who reside in Manchester, and Ida G., S. G. and Fred R., 
who live at home. Mr. Pillsbury is selectman, and resides on road 4. 

Thomas Eastman came to this town, from Hopkinlon, in 1804, and located 
on the place where his granddaughter, Mrs. J. A. West now lives. He reared 
five sons and one daughter, namely, Aquilla, John, Thomas, Stephen, Benja- 
min and Hannah. The last mentioned became Mrs. Jonathan Fellows. 
Stephen, born in 1784, took the homestead, married twice, first, Sally Em- 
mons, and reared five sons and one daughter. His first wife died in 1825, 
and he married for his second wife, Sally, widow of Reuben Piper, in 1834, 
and had born to him one daughtei, Harriet A. Mr. Eastman died in 1873, 
and his widow, aged eighty-five years, resides with her son-in-law, J. A. West. 
The latter was born at Boscowan, in 1827, came to Bridgewater, in 1848, 
married Harriet A. Eastman, in 1851, and has had one son, who died in in- 
fancy. Mr. West occupies the Eastman homestead, on road 3. 

Abel Fletcher came to Bridgewater, from Massachusetts, with his wife 
(Betsey Gillman) about 1806, and located in the northeastern part of the 



TOWN OF BRIDGEWATER. 173 



town, on the place where his granddaughter, Mrs. Randall J. Pillsbury, now 
lives. He reared two sons and six daughters, as follows : Samuel G., born 
in 1804; Rhoda (Mrs. Samuel Mead), who died in 1884; Jane H. (Mrs. 
Samuel Currier); Betsey (Mrs. William Wheeler); Mary (Mrs. Moseg 
Farnham), who died in Rumney ; Franklin, who died young; Eliza Ann 
(Mrs. J. Lyford); and Sarah (Mrs. Asaph Dearborn), of Plymouth, now 
deceased. Samuel G. married four times, first, Lydia Prescott, who bore 
him one son, S. G., and second, Dorothy S. Prescott, who bore him two sons 
and two daughters, viz: Emeline L. (Mrs. Randall J. Pillsbury); Ruth A., 
who died at the age of fifteen years; George F., of Bridgewater ; and Henry 
G., who died at the age of twenty-three years. Mr. Fletcher married for his 
third wife, Mary L. Sleeper, widow of Cyrus Sleeper, who died in 1878, and 
he married for his fourth wife, Sally, widow of Noble Prime, of Manchester. 
Mr. Fletcher has been a prosperous farmer, and an extensive cattle dealer. 
He moved to Plymouth, N. H., in 1883, where he now resides. 

Joshua Fletcher came from Westford, Mass., and located on the place 
where Manson S. Brown now lives. He married Sarah Bi-own, and reared 
eight sons and one daughter. His son Nathan married Nancy Pillsbury, of 
Bridgewater, and had born to him three sons and two daughters, viz.: Cyrus, 
born in 1810, died in 1852; Arthur F., born where he now resides in 181 1; 
Samuel W., now of Ashland; Julia Ann, born in 1816, died in 1842; and 
Arvilla, who married Charles Barnard. .Cyrus married Mary L., daughter of 
Moses W. Sleeper, and had born to him one son, Arthur F. The latter, 
born in 1836, married twice, first, Betsey Jane Wheeler, in 1859, who bore 
him one son, Cprus W., of Fitchburg, Mass., born in i860. This first wife 
died in 1863, and he married for his second wife Ellen S., daughter of Ed- 
mund and Sarah (Hogsdon) Brown, in 1864, and has had born to him two 
daughters, Blanch Jane and Mary Ellen. A part of Arthur F. Fletcher's house 
is said to be a portion of the first frame house ever built in Bridgewater. 

Moses Fifield came to Bridgewater, from Brentwood, in 1814. Samuel, 
one of his family of three sons and six daughters, was born in 1806, and mar- 
ried Elmira, daughter of Daniel and Betsey (Cass) Martin, in 1826. Of his 
three sons, Daniel M. was born in 1828, Edwin A. died young, and John 
E. S. was born March 21, 1842. The latter married Eliza E., daughter of 
David and Sarah (Abbott) Fifield, of West Concord, in 1866, and has had 
born to him four daughters and one son, viz.; Rose Elmira, Addie Grace, 
Sarah Abbott, Edith May, and Elwin Augustus. Mr. Fifield has been town 
clerk seven years, and occupies a part of his grandfather's homestead, on 
road 15. 

David B. Clement, son of Simeon, was born in Thornton, N. H., in 1812, 
and when seventeen years of age came to Bridgewater. He married Mary, 
daughter of Joshua and Lydia Rollins, in 1837, and has had born to him one 
son and two daughters, as follows: Lydia R., David B. Jr., and Mary S. R. 
(Mrs. Joseph A. Bartlett). Mr. Clement is a prosperous farmer, and resides 



[74 TOWN OF BRIDGEWATER. 



on road 6. His son, David B. Jr., born in 1842, married Ellen M., daughter 
of Joseph and Ali')ira (Prescottj Hickins, in 187 1, and has children as fol- 
lows : Willie D., Josie H., Harry B., Myra, Ellen, Rose, Jane and Mary. 
Mr. D. B. Clement, Jr., is first selectman, and resides on a part of his father's 
farm, on road 6. 

John Brown, born in Andover, N. H., May 7, 1804, came to Bridgewater 
in 1839. He married twice, first, Eliza Noyes, of Springfield, in 1835, who 
bore him two sons and one daughter, viz.: Elizabeth M. (Mrs. J. George 
Morrison), born in 1841, died in T878; John S., born in 1844; and Jona- 
than I., born in 1848. His first wife died in 1854, and he married for his 
second wife, Dorothy A. Spiller, in 1855, and had born to him two sons and 
one daughter, as follows : Flora Annette, who married Sumner G. Prescott, 
and died in 1879; Walter bherman, born in January, 1864; and Clarence 
E., born in 1869. Mr. Brown resided in the eastern part of the town, was 
justice of the peace many years^ and died in 1874. Walter S. married Sarah, 
daughter of Charles L. and Marilla (Houghton) Hoyt, March 9, 1885. 

Thomas Hammond, son of Thomas and Hannah (Burnham) Hammond, 
was born at Dun barton, in 1814, and came to Bridgewater in 1840. He 
worked for Nathan Hammond five years, and worked on a farm in Hebron 
eight years. He bought the Nathan Hammond farm in 1853. He married twice, 
first, Esther D. Hammond, December i, 1839, who bore him one son and one 
daughter, Melissa W., who died in 1865, aged twenty-four years, and Nathan 
D., who died in March, 187 1, aged twenty-eight years. His first wife died 
March 26, 1844, and he married for his second wife Sarah N., daughter of 
Nathan and Mary L. (Noyes) Hammond, in 1845. Mr. Nathan Hammond 
married twice first, Isabel Smith, who bore him two sons and two daughters, 
and second, Mary L. Noyes, and had born to him four sons and five daugh- 
ters. He built the house where Mr. Thomas Hammond now lives, on road 
14, and where the present Mrs. Thomas Hammond was born. 

Rodney Hammond, son of Nathan, was born in 1810. Of his children, 
Ann A. married David S. Batchelder, Esther D. married Henry W. Tilton, and 
Mary N. married D. S. Johnson, in 1861. The latter has two sons, Ora P. 
and Herman F. D. S. Jonnson died in 1875, and the widow married Rev. 
Thomas Wyatt, in 1876. They live on the D. S. Johnson homestead on 
road 21. 

John W. Goss, son of Daniel and Malinda (Weeks) Goss, was born at Gil- 
manton, in 183 1, and married Olive A., widow of Charles Henderson, in 
1852. He enlisted in Co. K, 14th N. H. Vols., in 1862, and served three 
years. He afterwards went to Sandwich, where he was engaged in the grist 
and sliingle-milis for several years. He came to Bridgewater in 1884, and 
occupied the Boardman place, on road 16. He has one son, John H., who 
was born in 1862, and works the farm with 'his father. 

Alonzo F. Wheeler, son of William O. and Betsey (Fletcher) Wheeler, was 
born in Plymouth, in 1835, and learned the blacksmith trade, and worked 



[ 



TOWN OF BRIDGEWATER. 175 



with his father. He married Lucia N., daughter of Samuel Worthen, in 1857, 
and has had born to him, two sons and one daughter, viz.: Nellie F., born in 
1859, died in 1879 ; Roscoe F., born in 1865 ; and George H., born in 1873. 
Mr. Wheeler resided for a time in North Groton, came to Bridgewater in 
1864, and bought the J, T. Morrill farm. He resides off road 16. 

Orrin L. Dolloff, son of Levi and Roxia (Locke) Dollofif, was born July 26, 
1833, and married Clarinda, daughter of Daniel and Dorcas (Baker) Elliot, 
May 26. 1859. His children are Alba O., who married Nellie, daughter of John 
and Emily (Haywood) Vose, of Alexandria; Mrs. Frank H. Elliot, of Con- 
cord, and Mabel M. and Maud M., twins, born November i, 1868. Mr. 
Dolloff owns a farm of seventy-five acres, and is proprietor of a summer 
boarding-house, formerly the old Hoyt stand, on road 11. 

Alba H. Carpenter, son of Horace H. and Elizabeth Carpenter, was born 
in Coos county, in 1854, learned the carpenter trade and also the blacksmith 
trade. He married Isabel, daughter of > Luther Barrett, and the widow of 
Elisha B. Ferrin, in 1880^ and has one daughter, Ethel May, borp April 2, 
1883. Mr. Carpenter occupies the Luther Barrett homestead, a farm of 120 
acres, on road 19. 

Charles Woodman, son of Isaac and Mary E. (Locke) Woodman, was born 
in Woodstock March 24, 1S22, taught school several wmters, and married 
Jemima, daughter of Jacob and Jemima (Cook) Avery, in 1848. He lived 
on his father's farm two years, and has been engaged in the mercantile busi- 
ness sixteen years. He came to Bridgewater in 1865, and located on the 
James Brown farm. He has had born to him five sons and two daughters, 
viz.: Jacob A., living in this town ; Lyman B., who is a soliciting agent and 
resides at home; Charles S., who resides in Ashland; Addie C, who is a 
teacher and a crayon artist, and resides at home ; Corydon E., who lives in 
Boston; Cora M., who died in infancy, and Austin W., who is a guide and 
landscape painter. Mr. Woodman has been justice of the peace about thirty 
years. 

Congregational church. — As early as 1790 a Congregational church was 
organized here by Rev. Mr. Page, of Hebron, as a branch of the Hebron, 
.church, services being held in Dea. Boardman's barn. In i8c2 a church 
building was commenced, which was completed in 1806, a large, two-story, 
antique-looking aft'air. In 1798, or about that time, Dea. Joshua Fletcher, 
from Plymouth, moved into the town, locating near where the church was 
built, and preached to the congregation until 1822. In 1825 Rev. Charles 
Bowles was ordained and engaged for five years, though he only preached 
three and a half years, when he was dismissed by a council. At that time 
the society had thirty-eight members. From the time Mr. Bowles left, up to 
1850, the society continued to hire preaching most of the time, though grad- 
ually declining in strength and numbers. The church building was remod- 
dled and is now used as a town hall. At Bridgewater, in the southern part 
of the town, however, a neat chapel has been erected, which is used m union 
by all denominations for religious purposes. 



76 TOWN OF BRISTOL. 



BRISTOL lies in the extreme southeastern part of the county, in lat. 
43° 35 ^^'^ l<3"g- 7^° 45') bounded north by Bridgewater, east by 
New Hampton (in Belknap county, the Pemigewasset river being the 
boundary line), south by Hill, in Merrimack county, and west by Alexandria, 
the little town being very irregular in outline. To give an approximately 
correct idea of the conditions which brought the town into existence, one 
must turn back to the charters of other townships in its vicinity. B'irst, then, 
a township by the name of New Chester, which name was subsequently 
changed to Hill, was granted by the Masonian proprietors to John Tolford, 
Matthew Thornton and forty-eight others, September 14, 1753. This grant 
included the present territory of Hill. Bristol and Bridgewater. On Febru- 
ary II, 1788, that part of New Chester north of Newfound river was set off 
to form a new town by the name of Bridgewater, which was bounded as fol- 
lows : " Beginning at the mouth of Newfound river, thence running by the 
southerly bank of said river to Newfound pond ; thence by the easterly shore 
of said pond to Plymouth line ; thence by said line to Pemigewasset river ; 
and thence down said river to the bounds first mentioned, including all the 
islands in said river agamst said tract." Finally, on the 24th of June, 1819, 
the legislature passed an act incorporating the southern part of Bridgewater 
and the northern part of New Chester into a new township. This latter was 
a small town containing only about nine thousand acres, which was given the 
name of Bristol. 

The surface of this little township is decidedly mountainous in its charac- 
ter, and presents a wealth of natural scenery that is picturesque and pleasing 
to a high degree, while its altitude is sufficiently great to warrant cool sum- 
mers and a healthful chmate. Bristol Peak, situated in th^ northeastern part 
of the town, is the highest elevation within its limits, being 1,785 feet above 
the level of the sea. Between Sugar Hill, just north of the village, and an 
elevation to the west of it. flows Newfound river, with its unrivalled water- 
power, the outlet of Newfound lake. About two-thirds of this fine body of 
water lies within the limits of Bristol. Its waters are clear and pure, and, 
lying in the midst of picturesque scenery, its shores vary from white sandy 
shingle to precipitous, rocky bluffs, forming in all not a small factor in the, 
town's fine scenery. There are several other small streams, but they are of 
minor importance. The water-power afforded by Newfound river is, as we 
have intimated, one of the best and most reliable in the county. The stream, 
in its course of two miles from the lake to the Pemigewasset, makes a total 
fall of 241 feet and seven inches. The lake, which has a length of between 
six and seven miles, and is three miles in width at its broadest portion, forms 
a superior reservoir, having an extensive water-shed. Its waters are held in 
reserve by a dam at its outlet, so that it may be drawn down, if necessary, 
during the dry season, to the extent of six feet. Although the surface of the 
town is rough, the soil is of more than average fertility, and good crops of 
hay and of nearly all of the cereal products are generally secured, while fruit 



TOWN OF BRISTOL. 1 77 

is abundant. The manufacturing interest, however, is the chief source of 
prosperity, and upon it the town depends for future grov/th and prosperity, 
even as it has been the means of hfting the small territory to a position of no 
little importance in the county. The Bristol branch of the Northern rail- 
road, extending from Bristol village to Franklin, was chartered as the Frank- 
hn & Bristol railroad, July 8, 1846, and was opened for traffic in 1848, hav- 
ing been built at a cost of $200,000.00. It was consolidated with the 
Northern road January i, 1869. 

In 1880 Bristol had a population of 1,353 souls. In 1885 the town had 
nine school districts, seven common schools, four graded schools, and one 
high school. Its nine school-houses were valued, including furniture, etc., at 
$9,500.00. There were 248 children attending school, twenty-seven of whom 
were pursuing the higher grades taught during the year by twelve female teach- 
ers at an average monthly salary of $29.03. The entire amount raised for 
school purposes during the year was $1,559.75, while the expenditures were 
$2,077.15, with Dr. J. M. Bishop, superintendent. 

Bristol, a bright post village, is the center of the manufacturing interests 
of the town, and is a thrifty and progressive business place, situated on both 
sides of Newfound river, at its confluence with the Pemigewasset. 

Numerous mills and shops are located along the course of Newfound river, 
the more extensive of which are the paper and straw-board mills, of Mason, 
Perkins & Co., the pulp and paper-mills of Train, Smith & Co., the wood 
pulp mills of Mason & Berry, the lumber mills of E. D. Crosby & Co., (about 
a mile north of the village, and their shops in the village, for the manufacture 
of croquet sets and croquet boxes, ten pins, and chair stock,) the Shaker 
Flannel Mills of Dodge, Davis & Co.. and the grain and flour mills of Taylor 
& Merrill, and W. C. Kelly's grist-mills. 

The village has also had numerous and enterprising merchants, of whom 
Cyrus Taylor is the veteran dealer, five doctors, three lawyers, the Sleeper 
and Minot town library, three good church edifices (Methodist, Congrega- 
tionalist and Free Will Baptist;, of which the Methodist, recently built, is 
especially an elegant, large and convenient structure, a commodious and fine 
Union High School edifice, and the Bristol House, a comfortable and well 
kept hotel. Besides all these, its neat and well built cottages and residences 
furnish pleasant homes for its twelve hundred inhabitants. 

The village's elevation ensures its people a delicious coolness in summer, 
and immunity against malaria and miasma, so that seekers for rest, health 
and pleasure do well in making this a summer resort. The high surround- 
ing hills furnish a variety of extensive, picturesque and charming views, and 
the well kept highways aff"ord enjoyable drives. Those along the Pemige- 
wasset and Newfound rivers are among the finest in the Old Granite State, 
and on any fine summer's day parties on arriving at the foot of Newfound 
lake, will find E. M. Drake, the courteous owner of the trim little steamer, 
" Lady Ellen," ready to make the circuit of this matchless sheet of water. 
12* 



178 TOWN OF BRISTOL. 



The Bristol Savings bank is a well-managed institution enjoying the 
merited confidence of the public, and a liberal patronage. It was chartered 
in 1868. and commenced business in 1872, with Samuel King Mason, presi- 
dent, and Samuel E. Holden, treasurer. The present officers are Lewis W. 
Fling, president, and George M. Cavis, treasurer. The bank receives any 
amount on deposit, but pays interest on no sums of less than five dollars. It 
has deposited with it at the present time about $450,000.00. 

Manufactures. — As previously intimated, Bristol enjoyes the distinction of 
possessing one of the finest water-powers in New England, and, though its 
facilities are not yet fully utilized, it has been the means of bringing the town 
into a prominence rarely attained by townships of its limited size and inland 
station. In justice to the prominence of the manufacturing interest, as com- 
pared with other items of the town's history, nearly all the space the scope of 
our work allows us to devote to the Bristol article should be given to its 
manufactures; but this, of course, even though at the expense of justice, 
cannot be. 

The first mills in this locality were erected by Maj. John Tolford, whom we 
have mentioned as one of the principal proprietors of New Chester. This gen- 
tleman received a grant of two lots of land from the proprietors "in consider- 
ation of his building and operating a saw and grist-mill on the Newfound 
river, and another of each kind on Smith's river, both being within the limits 
of the town of Bristol." In accordance with the conditions of the grant the 
mills on Newfound river were built first, and appear to have been completed 
some time during the latter part of the year 1767, although there is no 
definite record and the precise location of the mills is not known. At all 
events, it appears from the proprietor's records that in March, 1769, it was 
"Voted, That Maj. John Tolford shall be obliged to tend his grist-mill in 
New Chester every first Monday in each month for the year, and on no other 
day in said year ;" and it is known that the mill referred to at this time was 
the one located on the Newfound river, and somewhere within the limits of 
Bristol village. 

Mason., Perkins &= Co.' s paper-Diill. — This is one of the most important 
establishments in the town. The company was organized in 1870, and built 
their present brick mill, located about midway between the village and the 
outlet of the lake, in 187 1, though it has been greatly enlarged and improved 
since. The mill was put into operation th-e following year, containing the 
best improved machinery. Its water-power is one of the finest on the river, 
having a twenty three-foot fall. The company, consisting of David Mason, 
B. F. Perkins and Nathan H. Weeks, employs from thirty-five to forty hands 
and turns out five tons of manufactured goods per day — news, book and col- 
ored poster paper. The same company own and operate a straw-board mill 
about half a mile from the village where they turn out a large amount of 
goods. 

Dodge., Davis <^ Co.'s flannel-ftiills are located on Newfound river, on 



TOWN OF BRISTOL. 179 



Lake street, about a mile below the outlet of Newfound lake. They com- 
menced business in the Holden mill with two sets of machinery. The build- 
ing was a two-story structure. In 1884, a new mill in addition, 72x52 feet, 
three stories high, a store-house 28x50 feet, a dye and picker-house, were 
erected. They are manufacturing the celebrated Shaker flannels, employing 
forty operatives, run five sets of machinery, consume 200,000 pounds of wool, 
and are producing a superior quality of fine flannel. 

Mason 6^ Berry's pi/lp-mill, located near the confluence of Newfound river 
with the Pemigewasset, turns out about one and one-half tons of pulp per 
day, principally from spruce timber, giving employment to eight hands. The 
company was formed in January, 1882. 

The New Hampshire Pulp and Paper CoJs jnills passed, by mortgage 
foreclosure, into the hands of Messrs. Train, Smith & Co., of Boston, Febru- 
ary 12, 1885, and have been operated by this firm since. They manufacture 
No. I Manila paper, turning out 5,000 pounds daily. About twenty-five 
hands are employed, under the direction of C. A. Lucas, the company's 
apent. 

Edward D. Crosby &> Co.'s lumber mills are located about a mile north 
of the village. They give employment to about fifteen hands and turn out 
from 500,000 to 1,000,000 feet of lumber per annum. The company also 
manufactures about 15,000 croquet boxes per year. They alko have works 
for the manufacture of croquet sets, ten pins and chair stock at the village. 

William C. Kelly's grist-7nills, also located about a mile north of the vil- 
lage, have three runs of stones and are capable of grinding 250 bushels of 
grain per day. They are operated by A. H. George, as agent. 

B. L. &^ A. Wells's planing-mills, located at the village, manufacture 
house furnishings and do an extensive business in job planing of all kinds, 
while they also deal in sash, doors and bUnds. 

Albert G. Robie's iroji foundry, established about 1870, is located at the 
village. He manufactures all kinds of mill castings to order and does gen- 
eral job work. 

Taylor 6^ Gordon, manufacturers of all kinds of wood for mills and house 
furnishmgs, are located at the village. 

Edward M. Drake's mills, for the manufacture of lumber, lath, shingles, 
piano-stool stock, etc., are located at the village. He gives employment to 
ten hands and turns out about 200,000 feet of lumber per annum. 

Calley 6- Currier have a crutch manufactory at the village, where they em- 
ploy five or six hands and manufacture a large number of crutches which are 
sent 10 various parts of the world. 

Of the early settlement of Bristol little remains to be said, as its territory 
was settled long before it was erected into an independent township, and the 
notice of such settlements naturally belongs to the sketch of the town where- 
in they were respectively made. We will simply say then, that the settlement 
of the territory was begun by Col. Peter Sleeper, Benjamin Emmons and 



l8o TOWN OF BRISTOL. 



Others, about the year 1770, and that among the early settlers and prominent 
families have been the following : — 

Jonathan Merrill was born in Concord, N. H., married a Miss Farnum of 
that place, and remained there till his oldest son, who was born in 1768, was 
eight years of age, when he removed to the wilderness of Alexandria, in 1776. 
He remained there two or three years, and finally located in Bristol, near the 
junction of Smith and Pemigewasset river, where he remained till the close 
of his life. His wife survived him several years. They were parents of five 
sons and four daughters. His oldest son, John, succeeded him on the home- 
stead, where he lived from the time his father settled there about 1780. until 
his death in 1830, aged sixty-two years. He married Betsey Darling, of 
Sanbornton, and was the father of six children, only two of whom are living, 
John, aged eighty-four, residing in Wisconsin, and Clark, who resides in the 
border of Hill, about a mile from the old home. Clark Merrill married 
Elizabeth Crowell, of Hill, and has nine children, viz.: Hannah (Mrs. Benja- 
min Southmayd), of Campton, Moses, also of Campton, Elizabeth (Mrs. Mer- 
rill Greely), of Thornton, George S., who lives in Wisconsin, Rose (Mrs. Eben 
Blodgett), who resides in the village of Bristol, Edwin C, of Alexandria, Al- 
bert L., of Rumney, Ruth A. (Mrs. WiUiam Kelly), of Hill, and Clarence 
N., a miller of the firm of Taylor & Merrill, in Bristol village. 

Benjamin Locke was born in Sandown, N. H., April 10, 1770, came to 
Bristol when only fifteen years of age, performing the journey of sixty miles 
alone and on foot. In 1786 he bought a tract of one hundred acres in Bridge- 
water, where Horace Sanborn now lives. He cleared several acres, built a 
barn, but sold out in a few years. He married twice, first, Hannah Favor, 
who became the mother of twelve children, and died November 15, 1825. 
He married for his second wife Nancy Gurdy, in 1826, who bore him one 
daughter, and died April 15, 1866, aged seventy-eight years. He settled in 
the eastern part of this town, where he lived until his death, April 9, 1858, 
aged eighty-eight years. Of his children, Favor was born August 21, 1797, 
married Sally Dolloflf, and was a fifelong resident of Bristol ; Roxy married 
Levi DoUofif, and both died in Bridgewater; Sherburn was born April 10, 
1801, married Sally Hill, and died in the West; Levina married Henry 
Wells, and both died in Bristol ; Joanna married Jacob Webster, is a widow, 
and resides in Minnesota ; Philena married Timothy Wiggins, and resides in 
Bridgewater; Benjamin, Jr., married Harriet Mason, both deceased ; Han- 
nah married Kiah Wells, and resides on Lake street, in Bristol ; Sally married 
Winthrop R. Fellows, and also resides on Lake street, in Bristol ; Levi mar- 
ried twice, first, Susan Gilman, and second, Mrs. Sarah Robinson, and resides 
in New Hampton ; Dorothy married M. , H. Page, and resides in Bridge- 
water ; Harriet married Phillip S. Drake, is a widow, and resides in Bristol ; 
and Susan D. married Milo Fellows, and resides on Summer street, in Bristol. 

Samuel Sleeper, a native of Sandown, N. H., came to Bristol in 1793, and 
settled in the forest, on the place where his son Aaron now lives. He built a log 



TOWN OF BRISTOL. l8l 

cabin, in which he lived the first seven years, and in 1800 built the frame 
house in which Aaron now lives. He married Ehzabeth Sanborn, of Chester, 
and had born to him nine children, only one of whom is now living, Aaron, 
aged eighty-four years, who resides on the homestead. Samuel T. W., son 
of Samuel, was born June 20, 1796, in the log cabin his father built. Al- 
though a scholarly man, he had only a common school education, and in his 
early years taught the schools in his own and adjoining towns for several 
years. He married Bethana Seavey, and settled in the wilderness, in the 
valley of Newfound lake, where his son Justin M. now lives. Here he made 
himself and family a fine home, which he continued to enjoy until his death, 
January 15, 1867, aged seventy-one years. His wife survived him nine years, 
and died at the age of eighty years. Mr. Sleeper had born to him thirteen 
children, six of whom are living. Although his time was largely given to his 
farming interests, he took an active interest in the welfare of his town, and 
had the confidence and support of his townsmen, who, by their partiality, 
called him to officiate as selectman and justice of the peace, which latter po- 
sition he held for more than forty years, and his decisions in hundreds of 
cases which he tried were never reversed in the superior courts. He repre 
sented his town in the State legislature four or five years, and was the candi- 
date of his party for Congress. Justin M. is the only one of his sons now 
living in his native town, and resides on the homestead. He married Louisa 
Berry, of Moultonborough, N. H., and has one daughter, Eva L. (Mrs. 
Joseph H. Legallee), who resides in Sommerville, Mass. 

John Kidder, son of Benjamin, was born in Bristol, January 7, 1793, on 
the old Kidder homestead, married Ruth Fellows, and located on the farm 
where his son Frederick now Hves. Here he lived for a number of years, 
when he purchased the old home of his brother Joseph, which adjoins the 
farm where he first located, and removed there, where he spent the remainder 
of his life, dying in 1848, aged fifty-five years. His widow survived him until 
1880, when her death occurred at the age of eighty-five years. He had born 
to him four children, namely, Frederick, John W., Charles and Arianna. 
Frederick married Samantha S., daughter of Timothy and Lois Chandler, 
and lives on the place where he was born. He is a farmer and has had four 
children, three of whom are living, viz. : Ellen G., who resides with her 
parents; Cora A. (Mrs. O. J. Muzzey), who resides with her husband on the 
old Kidder homestead, and H. Dana, who also resides with his parents. 
John W. died, aged twenty-four years. Charles married Susan Johnson, has 
four children, all of whom live at home, and resides in the village of Bristol. 
Arianna married Richard Sawyer, and both are now deceased. 

Stephen T. Brown, the second male child born in Plymouth, married Anna 
Davis, of Goffstown, and immediately settled in Bristol, on the farm where 
D. Y. Emmons now lives. He located in the wilderness, and was obliged to 
endure the privations of a pioneer life, lie reared a family of twelve chil- 
dren, eleven of whom lived to maturity. He and his wife died in Bristol, 



TOWN OF BRISTOL. 



Mr. Brown at the age of seventy-two years, and Mrs. Brown at the age of 
eighty-five years. Of his twelve children, John married Sarah Ingalls, of this 
town, first settled on the old farm, then went to Grand Isle, Vt., but event- 
ually died in Ionia county, Mich, where he resided the last forty-seven years 
of his life, being one of the pioneers of that county. He was a member of 
the Methodist church nearly seventy-five years, and attained the great age of 
ninety-five years. Samuel married Susan Doloff, of Bristol, moved to Bridge- 
water, was a farmer, and died at an advanced age. Joseph married Relief 
Ordway, located on a farm in Bristol, but later built and managed lumber 
mills. He moved to Campton, where he engaged in farming and the manu- 
facture of lumber, and died at the age of eighty-eight years. Enos F. mar- 
ried Lovina Heath, located on a farm on both sides of the line of Bridge- 
water and BHstol, where he lived till his death, aged eighty-two years. Mar- 
tha J. married Daniel Simonds, moved to Alexandria, where they lived thirty 
years, then removed to Bridgewater, where they resided until the death of 
Mr. Simonds, in 1850. Since that time Mrs. Simonds has resided with her 
daughter, Mrs. Solon Doloff", in Bristol. She is now eighty-five years of age 
is the mother of six children, forty grandchildren and six great-grand- 
children. Mr. and Mrs. Solon Doloff have a family of five chil- 
dren. Sarah married Jacob Colby, of South Weare, where she died 
at the age of seventy-nine years. Hannah married William Colby, 
and died in Michigan in 1863, aged sixty year, Mary married J. B. Warner, 
of Boston, moved west, where she lived many years, is now a widow and re- 
sides in Connecticut with her only son, who is a lithographer, doing business 
in New York. Stephen died at the age of eighteen years. Asenath married 
Calvin Fuller, and resides in New Boston with her son George, on the estate 
of her husband. 

John Fellows came to Bristol, from Sandown, and settled in the woods in a 
log cabin on the place where his great-grandson, Horace M. Emmons, now 
lives. He cleared the land, built commodious buildings, and remained there 
until his death. His son Josiah married Jemima Quimby, and succeeded 
him on the homestead. He made frequent trips to Bosto«, in the employ- 
ment of Mr. Lewis, the first merchant, with a team of four oxen, taking a 
load of farm produce down, and returning laden with West India goods and 
a large supply of New England rum. This distance of 100 miles required 
two weeks to make the round trip. The children of Josiah were as follows: 
Abner, born in 1781, Jeremiah, born in 1782, Josiah, Jr., born in 1784, Jona- 
than, born in 1786, Elizabeth, born in 1788, Molly, born in 1790, Peter, 
born in 1791, Ruth, born in 1795, Jemima, born in 1796, and Benjamin, 
born in 1799. The last mentioned married Miriam C, daughter of Samuel 
and Judith Hoyt, remained on the homestead several years, when he sold 
the place and removed to the farm now owned by E. K. Pray, at the ter- 
minus of road 7. He had two children, Milo and Belinda (Mrs. Franklin 
Robinson). Mr. Fellows died at the residence of his son Milo, on Summer 



TOWN OF BRISTOL. 1 83 

Street, in 1880, aged eighty-one years. His wife died in April, 1866, aged 
seventy yeais. Milo married Susan D., daughter of Benjamin and Nancy 
(Gurdy) Lock, of Bristol, is now engaged in farming and stone-cutting, and 
resides on Summer street. His children are Albert R., Smith D., Oscar F., 
Milo A., Leslie H., Susie M. and Alice A. Josiah, Jr., married Susan San- 
born, located in this town on the place where David Sleeper now lives, and 
remained there until his death m 1852, at the age of sixty-eight years. Mrs. 
Fellows survived her husband until 1864, when she died, aged seventy-five 
years. They were parents of four children, viz.: Louisa, Calvin P., Samuel 
S. and Rufus. Louisa married Jesse F. Kendall, is now a widow, and resides 
with her son in Thornton. Calvin P. was a farmer, married Mary J. Wor- 
then, and moved to New Hampton to educate his children, where he died. 
Samuel S. married Mary S., daughter of Joseph Rollins, is a farmer, and has 
had born to him two children, Mary F., widow of J. D. Prescott, and Scott, 
proprietor of a hotel in Haverhill. Rufus married Elizabeth Nelson, is a 
physician, and resides in Sanbornton. 

Benjamin Hall, born in Candia, N. H., January 22, 1790, married Nancy 
Brown, who was born April 25, 1795. His marriage occurred April 9, 1810. 
He came to Bristol, and settled m the forest, in a log cabin, on the place 
where his son Oliver S. now lives. He cleared his farm, and built more 
commodious buildings, remaining there until his death, May 15, 1855, aged 
sixty-five years. His widow survived him until November 2, 1863, when she 
died, aged seventy-two years. Their children were Rufus, Lyman, Oliver S., 
and Albon, of whom Oliver S. is the only one now hving. He resides on the 
homestead, is a farmer, and married Isabel Morrison, of West Rumney. He 
has had four children, viz.: Nancy J., who married Uriah H. Kidder, Adna, 
who died in the United States hospital, in 1863, of wounds received at the 
battle of Gettysburg, Oliver P., a farmer who resides in this town, and 
Carrie B. (Mrs. Otis S. Damon), who also resides in Bristol. 

Abraham DoUoff came to Bristol near the date of his marriage, in ijgi. 
The maiden name of his wife was Rachel Locke, a sister of the Benjamin 
Locke who became a settler of the town nearly at the same time, and gave 
name to the Locke neighborhood, which name the locality still bears. Mr. Dol- 
lofif was a carpenter by trade, and built and occupied for his first home the house 
which later became the Locke homestead. This became the birth place of 
the oldest son, Levi Dolloff, who in due time married Roxy, the daughter of 
Benjamin Locke, who was born in the same house, and same room, and this 
latter couple died in the same room in their own house on Bridgewater Point. 
Abraham Dollofif, after selling this place, bought and built again on Bridge- 
water hill, near the meetinghouse, which home became the birth place of 
seven of their children. The next and last removal was to the farm now 
owned by the Ferrin Brothers. Here he built again, and here the youngest 
of the family was born, making in all nine children. Mr. Dollofif died in 
1855, at the age of eighty-six years, and his wife survived him four years, 



[84 TOWN OF BRISTOL. 



dying at the age of eighty-seven years. They both lived to see all their nine 
children becojne parents, and one or more grandchildren from each of the 
nine families, followed both to their graves. Their married life covered a 
period of sixty-one years, and all their children outlived them. In their family 
of nine, the first, fourth and ninth child were boys. The eldest son died at 
eighty-four years, the youngest daughter at fifty-one years. Their eldest 
daughter is living at this time at the head of five generations, all of which 
are in this town. Their success was the price of industry, their wealth an 
imperishable character, and their monument, less perishable than marble, 
is their memory enshrined in the hearts of their children of five generations. 
Ichabod Colby Bartlett, son of Levi, moved with his mother, after the death 
of his father, to Boscawan, N. H. He attempted to learn the cabinet-maker's 
trade, which proved too hard for his strength, and he then entered the store 
of Andrew Bowers, of Salisbury, N. H., remaining there till 1800, when he 
came to Bristol. He commenced business as a country merchant, at first on 
the New Chester side, and afterwards more extensively on the Bridgewater 
side, in a building standing on the common, which was afterwards replaced 
by the "Old Brick Store," now owned and occupied, since 1842, by Cyrus 
Taylor. Mr. Bartlett, when twenty-two years of age, married Ann Sleeper, 
in 1801, who was then eighteen years of age. He died March 20, i860, and 
his widow died Octobers, 1869. Of his children, Mary, born, June 7, 1802, 
married William M. Lewis, of Bristol, who moved to Gainesville, Ala., where 
Mrs. Lewis died May 31, 1831. Jane, born, July 19, 1804, died atthe home- 
stead, February 23, i88r, Levi, born June 8, 1807, was a man of business 
enterprise, and acquired a large estate in the same mercantile employment as 
his father. He eventually sold out to his brother Gustavus and Cyrus Tay- 
lor, devoting his last years to farming, as his father had done. He was an 
active member of the Congregational church in Bristol, and for many years 
its most efficient supporter. He died November 12, 1868. Frederick was 
born September 5, 1808, and died June ir, 181 1. Gustavus was born Oc- 
tober 22, 18 ID, engaged in business for some years, then became a farmer, 
removing to Lowell, Mass., and afterwards to Milford, N. H., where he now 
resides. Anna, born December 14, 181 2, married Jonas Minot, of Bristol, 
moved to Brockport, N. Y., and died February 19, 1848. Frederick, born 
November 29, 1815, graduated at Dartmouth college, in 1835, studied law 
with Judge Nesmith, of Franklin, and after a few years practice, changed his 
profession for agriculture. He was in the New Hampshire Constitutional 
Convention, in 1850, and served as town representative in 1851 and i860. 
The Bartlett family is of purely Fnglish descent, and one of the oldest and 
best families of New England. Their ancestor, Richard Bartlett, was of 
those who settled in Newbury, in 1635. For two centuries and a half his 
descendants have filled prominent positions as lawyers, politicians and soldiers. 
Not the least among these was the Governor of New Hampshire, whose name 



TOWN OF BRISTOL. 1 85 

Stands among the signers of the Declaration of Independence, an honor of 
which, those American famihes who can claim it, are justly proud. 

Sam FoUansbee was born in Weare, N. H., moved to New Chester at an 
early date, and settled near Murray Hill, now included in the town of Hill. 
He located in the woods, cleared up his farm, and became an extensive 
breeder of deep red cattle, having a herd of seventy, and all of them of that 
uniform deep red color. He was the manufacturer of the wooden ploughs 
used in his day, and, on account of their superior excellence, he supplied this 
and the adjoining towns. One of his ploughs, a relic of the past age, maybe 
seen at Bristol, in the possession of his grandson and namesake, Sam Fol- 
lansbee, who resides on Beech street. Mr. FoUansbee Hved to the age of 
seventy years, dying on the place where he first settled. Of his three chil- 
dren, the youngest son, John H., settled on the homestead where he lived 
during his whole life, dying at the age of sixty-seven years. The latter was 
one of the most substantial of New England farmers and known as having 
the best flock of sheep in his county. He had born to him two sons and one 
daughter. One son died at the age of twenty-two, and the daughter, Abbie 
(Mrs. A. D. Caswell), resides in the southern part of New York. The 
surviving son, Sam, resides in the village of Bristol, and is giving his atten- 
tion to farming and breeding of high-blooded horses and cattle. He has 
been an extensive traveler, and has visited all of the New England States, 
most of the Middle and Western States, Canada and New Brunswick. 

Isaac Swett was born in Thornton, December 22, 1784, came to Bristol in 
his youth, and married Nancy, daughter of Stephen T. and Anna Brown, 
who was born May 28, 1791. Their marriage occurred in October, 1817, 
and in the spring of 18 18, settled upon the place where their son-in-law, 
Thomas H. Wicom now lives. At the time they came here their house was 
without doors, windows or chimney. They constructed a fireplace of stones, 
formed a sort of flue or chimney of green boards, and Mrs. Swett passed the 
summer as contented and happy as any during her whole life. They aban- 
doned their home about two or three months during the ensuing winter, but 
returned and lived there during the remainder of Mr Swett's life. He died 
January 19, 1873, aged eighty-eight years. His widows still lives at the old 
home, aged ninety-four years. Of their five children, Benjamin married 
Sarah Todd, served in the late war, and resides in this town. Roswell D. was 
also a soldier in the Rebellion, and died at the Soldiers' Home in Boston, Oc- 
tober 12, 1863, of a disease contracted in the army. Mary died in Haver- 
hill. Sylvester married twice, first, Emma Jaquette, who died in 1863, while 
he was absent in the war, and second, Marcia A. Smith. He resides on a 
farm in Plymouth. Marinda L. (Mrs. Thomas H. Wicom) resides with her 
aged mother and her husband on the homestead. 

Amos Dickinson, 2d, son of Moses, who was one of the pioneer settlers of 
New Chester, was born in New Chester, in 18 15, and was educatetl in the 
common schools of his town. He married Huldah, daughter of Daniel and 



1 86 TOWN OF BRISTOL. 



Ruth Bartlet, and remained on the homestead where he hved from the time 
he was about a year old until his death, in 1864, aged forty-nine years. He 
took an active interest in town affairs, officiating as justice of the peace and 
selectman for many years, and served as town representative two terms. He 
was often appointed a referee in the settlement of suits at law. which duties 
he discharged in a manner satisfactory to all concerned, and with credit and 
honor to himself. His widow survives him, is seventy-one years of age, and 
resides with her youngest child, Charles H., in the village of Bristol. Of 
their four children, Nellie F. married O. E. Eastman, a thrifty farmer and 
lumberman, residing in the village of East Andover. Sarah E. married Ros- 
well Blake, a real estate dealer, living in the village of Bristol. Watson A. 
married Ella, daughter of B. F. Sargent, of Lowell, Mass. , where he now 
resides, is engaged in the manufacture of mill supplies, and has the most ex- 
tensive manufactory of the kind in that city. He was formerly engaged as 
commercial traveler for Whitton, Burdett & Young, of Boston, in the sale of 
clothing. Charles H. engaged in farming on the homestead, which occupa- 
tion he followed for eight years, and then removed to the village of Bristol. 
He is now engaged in the general clothing business and in the manufacture 
of overalls. He is of the firm of Dickinson & Horner. He is also the agent 
and manager of the Western Union Telegraph Company, which position he 
has held the last six years in this place. He married Ida May, daughter of 
John B. Gordon, in 1876, who died in a little over four years after their mar- 
riage, leaving two sons. 

Joseph Rollins was born in Sanbornton, N. H., April S, 1789, married 
Mary Huckins, December 6, 181 2, and located as a farmer in Bridgewater, 
where he continued to reside until about 1831, when he moved to Bristol, 
locating on Newfound river, about a mile and a half north of the village. 
Here he engaged in farming and lumbering. His saw-mills were on the loca- 
tion of the mills now owned by E. D. Crosby & Co., and were the first to 
occupy that site. He remained here until 1869, when he removed to Bristol 
village, where he lived the remainder of his long Ufe, dying in 1876, aged 
eighty-eight years. Mrs. Rollins died in 1867. Their children were as fol- 
lows: Eliza, Samuel H., Sarah Jane, Mary S., Richard B., Joseph and 
Lyman. Eliza married Putnam Spaulding, and died in Wentworth. Samuel 
H. married twice, first, Irena Whipple, and second, Mrs. Huldah B. Walker, 
in 1876. He was a partner with his father in the manufacture of lumber, 
until they sold in 1869. He built a saw-mill which has been converted into 
a paper-mill, now run by Train, Smith &: Co., and also built the grist-mill 
which is now owned by William C. Kelley. He now resides in the village of 
Bristol. Sarah Jane (Mrs. John F. Tilton) resides in the northern part of 
Bristol. Mary S. (Mrs. Samuel Fellows) died in Bristol, in January, 1884. 
Richard B. married Martha Gray, is a farmer. and resides in North Bristol. 
Joseph married Amanda Ingalls, was a leading merchant and builder of the 
Rollins block in the village of Bristol, and died about 1870. His widow 



TOWN OF BRISTOL. 187 



married George Dow, and she and his only son, Liston, reside in Morris, 111. 
Lyman married Augusta Flanders, of Concord. 

Elbridge Tilton, son of Silas B. and Abigail Tilton, was born in Andover, 
N. H., April 10, 1822, and came to Bristol with his parents, in 1837. He 
married Alice Cummings, of Groton, March 25, 1847, located as a farmer in 
the northern part of Groton, where he remained thirteen years, but during 
that time visited the California gold regions, and engaged in gold mining in 
1854 and 1855. In i860 he moved to Canaan, and after living in that town, 
Gilford and Laconia, he returned to Bristol in December, 1871, locating on 
the Burton farm, on the border of the village, where he now lives. He has . 
one son and one daughter, Zerah and Delia, who reside with their parents. 

Lowell Robie moved to Bridgewater, from Candia, N. H., about t8oo, where 
he lived about fifteen or sixteen years, when he moved to Alexandria, where 
he lived the remainder of his life, dying at the age of eighty-three years. He 
married Margaret Kenniston, and had eight children. His son John married 
Almira, daughter of Abraham and Rachel (Locke) DoUoff, lived for a time 
on a farm in Alexandria, but moved to this town, where they have continued 
to live for the last fifty-two years. Of their children, Gustavus resides in the 
village of Bristol, Sarah (Mrs. A, J. Ferrin) resides on a farm near her parents, 
and Kathleen (Mrs. George H. Robinson) resides in New Hampton. 

James M. Bishop, M. D., son of John and Abigail (Parker) Bishop, was 
born in Hanover, May 14, 1821, where he resided until nineteen years of 
age. His parents both died when he was but seven years of age, and he was 
adopted by his mother's parents, who moved to Canaan about 1840. Having 
a desire for an education, he obtained the means to support himself at the 
academies at Lebanon and Canaan, for a term or two each year, by working 
for the farmers a portion of the year, and teaching a district school during 
the winter. He thus obtained a good academic education. In the spring of 
1846, he entered the office of Doctor Jones, an allopath physician, of Canaan, 
and with Doctor Wheat, of the same place, about one year. The next two 
years he studied with Doctor Mead, of East Hanover, giving his attention to 
a school each winter. In the spring of 1849, ^^^r teaching a term in Maine, 
he went to Plymouth, and entered the office of Doctor Goodrich, as his assist- 
ant, with the intention of taking his practice, as Doctor Goodrich then 
intended to move South, but eventually decided to remain. He located in 
Bristol, November 11, 1849, ^"^^ immediately commenced the practice of 
medicine. In 1854 and 1855, he attended the Eclectic medical college of 
Worcester, Mass., where he received his degree of M. D. He remains in 
active and extensive practice of his profession, in Bristol, having gradually 
adopted the homeopathic course of treatment. He has taken an activ^e part 
in town affairs, serving as town treasurer several years, has been superintend- 
ent of the schools for the town, a member of the board of education for the 
village, and a member of the boa'rd of health, 

Hon. Samuel K. Mason was born in New Hampton, N. H., May 17, 1832, 



TOWN OF BRISTOL. 



and graduated from the New Hampton Institute, in 1854. He read law in 
Professor Fowler's law school, at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., attended Hamilton 
College law school, graduating from there in July, 1855, continued his law 
studies in the office of Hon. E. A. Hibbard, at Laconia, and commenced 
practice in Bristol, in 1856. He was successful in his profession, and also largely 
in public life. He was postmaster in Bristol from 1861 to 1868, town repre- 
sentative in 1868. 1869, and 1870, judge of probate for Grafton county from 
187 1 to 1873, and twice served as county commissioner, by appointment of 
court, once for three years, and again for a short term. He was the candi- 
date of the Liberal Republican party for governor of New Hampshire, in 
1873. For some time before his death he was physically prostrated and con- 
fined to his bed, but his mind remained clear and active, and he transacted 
business to a considerable extent, nearly up to the time of his decease. He 
died in June, 1882. 

Enos Ferrin was one of the pioneer settlers of Alexandria, and settled in 
the northern part of that town at a very early date. He cleared his farm, 
and reared a family of seven sons, and several daughters. Later he moved 
to Hebron, where he died. His youngest son, Jonathan, married Harriet, 
daughter of Bailey Webster, and located in Bridgewater, on the farm now owned 
by Josiah Morrison, of Ashland, where he resided about fifteen years, then 
went to Alexandria, where he engaged in farming for the next twenty years, 
holding while there the position of selectmen two or three years. After 
residing in Ellsworth and in Campton, he finally died in Temple, while on a visit 
to his daughter Laura (Mrs. Rockwell), at the age of eighty-four years. His 
wife died in 1849, aged forty-six years. They were the parents of sixteen 
children, viz.: Bailey W., Augustus J., Francis L., Vienna V., Morris T., 
Enos B., Melissa J., Benjamin F., Hiram W., Levi E., Harriet A., Mary E., 
Abigail D., Moses A., Laura J. and Ira K. Augustus J. married Sarah Robie, 
has had born to him five children, four of whom are living, is a farmer, and 
resides in the northeastern part of this town, on road 13. Enos B., who is 
not married, resides with his brother, Augustus J. Moses A. lives in Plym- 
outh and is engaged in the manufacture of the celebrated Plymouth gloves, 
Mary E. (Mrs. Oren Rowe), resides in Campton, and has one daughter. 

Hon. Cyrus Taylor, son of Nicholas M. and Sally (Eastman) Taylor, was 
born in New Hampton, December 18, 181 8, and was educated in the com- 
mon schools and at the academies of the vicinity. When sixteen years of 
age, he entered the store of George W. Smith, of his native town, where he 
remained one year, when Mr. Smith failed. He then engaged as clerk with 
Isaac Shepard & Co., of Meredith, and continued in his employ about six 
months, when he came to Bristol to work for I. C. Bartlett & Co. In 1838 
this firm was changed to Bartlett & Sleeper. April i, 1842, Mr. Taylor 
bought the interest of Mr. Sleeper, and the business was continued under the 
firm of Bartlett & Taylor, continuing until 1858. Since that time Mr. Tay- 
lor has practically continued the business alone, with his nephew, son of his 



TOWN OF BRISTOL. 



former partner, and his own son, Henry A., associated with him at short 
intervals. He occupies the store where he first engaged a clerk, when he 
came to Bristol, and has been in trade a much longer time than any other 
dealer in town. He served as town representative in 1864-65, and was sen- 
ator in 1869-70. He married Martha, daughter of James Minot, and has 
had born to him one son and one daughter, Henry A. and Abbie M. The 
latter, born in December, 185 1, married Ira A. Chase, a prominent law- 
yer of the firm of Fling & Chase, in 1882. Henry A., born in 1848, 
married Helen A. White, of Bristol. He was engaged in mercantile business 
with his father for a short time, when he went to Concord and entered the 
banking-house of Minot & Co., as a book-keeper and messenger. He con- 
tinued here until his last illness, which terminated in his death, in Septem- 
ber, 1877. He was father of one daughter, born seven months after his 
death. 

Hon. Benjamin F. Perkins was born at Center Harbor in 1831, resided 
there until seventeen years of age, and attended the public schools. He at- 
tended the high school at Ashland, which was taught by his cousin, Nancy 
Perkins, a daughter of Rev. Thomas Perkins, also private schools in Boston 
and Lowell, and in the latter place he took a full commercial course. He 
learned the bricklayer's trade, which he followed a few years, giving his atten- 
tion to his education during the winter season. About 1855 he went to New 
Hampton to assist his invalid father, and remained there until 1865. While 
there he was selectman six years, was recruiting officei, and served as 
town representative in 1864-65. He came to this town in 1865, and engaged 
in the manufacture of straw-board, the firm consisting of B. F. Perkins and 
and George Z. Collins, under the firm name of B. F. Perkins & Co. In 1867 
Mr. Collins retired from the firm, and the business was continued by Perkins 
& Ames. In 1870 Mr. Perkins bought the interest of Mr. Ames, and a firm 
composed of David Mason, B. F. Perkins, Nathan H. Weeks, of Plymouth, 
and James Flanders, was formed, under the firm name of Mason. Perkins & 
Co. They bought the straw-board mills of David Mason, and built the fine 
brick paper-mill, which the company continues to operate. Mr. Perkins rep- 
resented the Fourth Senatorial district, in the New Hampshire Senate, in 
1883. 

Daniel Cummings, son of Henry, was born at Plymouth, N. H., May 18, 
1796, and removed to Groton with his parents in 1800, where they settled on 
a farm in the northern part of the town, remaining there until the time of 
their death. His father died August 5, 1820, aged fifty-two years, and his 
mother died in May, 1851, aged seventy-three years. Daniel succeeded 
his father on the homestead, where he lived the remainder of his life. He 
married Lois Kidder, of Groton, reared seven children, and died August 25, 
1854, aged fifty-seven years. Of his children, Alice (Mrs. Elbridge Tilton) re- 
sides m Bristol, and is the mother of Zerah and Delia Tilton. Lois A. married 
Alden Judkins, is a widow, the mother of one daughter, Emma F., and re- 



IQO TOWN OF BRISTOL. 

sides in Natick, Mass. Daniel K. is a farmer, has one son and two daugh- 
ters, Orville D., Emma M., and Mary, and resides in Bridgewater. Henry is 
a cooper, and resides in Plymouth. Adaline C. (Mrs. Roraanzo J, Hun- 
kins) has one son, Willie H., and resides in Groton. Frank E. is a druggist, has 
two daughters, Etta Louise and Helen Augusta, and resides in Natick, Mass. 
lames A. is a farmer, has one daughter, Mary Lois, and lives at West Plym- 
outh. 

Oliver Ballou, a native of Rhode Island, came to Hanover, over loo years 
ago, and remained there about twenty or twenty-five years. He finally settled 
in Alexandria, where he Uved the remainder of his life, and died in 1816, aged 
about sixty years. He married twice, first, a Miss Tiffany, who bore him four 
children, and second, Mary Simons, who was the mother of twelve children. 
His son Hosea was an extensive cattle dealer, beginning the business when 
only eighteen years of age, and was one of the largest dealers in Brighton 
market. He died in the west at an advanced age. One of his sons was the 
builder of the first railroad in Cuba, where he died of yellow fever. John, 
son of Oliver, was born at Hanover, in 1807, married Tirzah Evans, and located 
in Alexandria. Six of his seven children are now living. His oldest son, 
Hiram P., married Sarah Heath, of New Hampton, is a manufacturer of 
hosiery and knit goods, and is an inventor and patentee of improved machin- 
ery for facilitating its manufacture. He resides in Bristol, and has two chil- 
dren, Arthur W., a druggist, in Laconia, and Minnie E., who fives with her 
parents. 

Rev. Josiah Norris was the youngest of a family of ten brothers and one 
sister, the latter of whom, the oldest of the family, attained the great age of 
103 years, while all of the brothers, except one, who died aged forty-seven, 
lived to be over eighty years, and most of them attained the age of ninety. 
Josiah was born in 1779, and married Mary Adams, of Moultonborough, N. 
H. At the age of thirty years he entered the ministry of the Free Will Bap- 
tist church, and was ordained as a revivalist. After traveling several years 
he settled as pastor of a church in the northern part of Hanover, where he 
continued its pastor about thirty years, when the approach of old age and 
ill health compelled him to retire. He then had a home with his youngest 
son, Josiah, at Wentworth, where he died in 1862, five or six years after leav- 
ing Hanover, aged eighty-three years. His wife survived him until May, 
1875, when she died, aged eighty-eight years. Only two of their six children 
are now Uving, Josiah, Jr., now residing at Lake Village, N. H., and Huldah 
D. (Mrs. Samuel H. Rollins), residing in the village of Bristol. 

Levi Nelson moved to Bridgewater in 18 13, and settled on the western 
slope of Peaked hill. Four years previous to this time he had married 
Sarah Evans, of Salisbury, where they had buried their first two children, the 
present occupant of the old home farm being then an infant in his mother's 
arms. During the period of about fifty years that Mr. Nelson was a farmer, 
he bought two adjoining estates, built four houses, and settled, at difterent 



TOWN OF BRISTOL. 19T 



times, five of his sons in and about the old homestead. The family of child- 
ren numbered fourteen, and both grand parents lived to see about forty 
grandchildren. In the Union army were two sons and five grandsons, three 
of whom fell, and the G. A. R. Post of the town bears their name The 
parents both lived to see eleven of their children settled in life, and nine still 
survive them. It is probable that few families in the State are as fine repre- 
sentatives of a sturdy yeomanry as is the family of Levi and Sarah Nelson. 
They were honest, industrious, frugal, with will enough to make a way 
where none appeared, with ingenuity enough to fashion what they could not 
buy, and with enough intellectual strength to give them positions far ahead 
of all posterity that does not toil. 

Hon. Solomon S. Sleeper, son of Rev. Walter Sleeper, was born in Bristol^ 
March 15, 1815. He received a common school education, with two terms at 
New Hampton Institute. At the age of seventeen years, he entered the store 
of Ichabod C. Bartlett, in Bristol, as a clerk, and remained there until he was 
about twenty-seven, when he went to Boston and became a member of the 
firm of E. Raymond & Co., wholesale grocers. After a few years he bought 
Mr. Raymond's interest, and became the head of the firm of S. S. Sleeper & Co., 
and still continues the business. Mr. Sleeper's brother, Horace L., was one 
of this firm after Mr. Raymond retired, and continued a member until a few 
years before he died, at his home in Winchester, Mass., November 23, 1884, 
aged sixty-four years. Mr. S. S. Sleeper may be classed among the success- 
ful men of the times, and though he has given close attention to his large 
business, he has found time to serve the public, and is now serving his fourth 
year as alderman of the city of Cambridge, and has represented his ward sev- 
eral years in the legislature of Massachusetts. In conjunction with Judge 
Minot, of Concord, he has generously remembered Bristol, their native town, 
by donating to it a fine and commodious library building, and furnishing 
$1,000.00 to purchase books In honor of the generous donors this town 
institution is named "The Sleeper and Minot Library." 

Daniel S. Mason was born in Bristol. April 2, 1809, on the Joseph Moore 
farm, near Moore's Mill, which was then a thriving village. His entire life 
was passed in his native town. He came from a hardy, robust race, and 
was early accustomed to hard labor. When a young man, in company of 
Nicholas Dolloff and Joseph Moore, he run the first raft of lumber down the 
Pemigewasset. On this occasion the raft struck Worthen's rock, and Mr. 
Mason was washed off and carried far down the stream, but was rescued by 
his companions. When twenty-six years old he purchased the saw-mill at 
Moore's Mills, and was for many years engaged in the manufacture of lum- 
ber. In 1858 he removed to the village of Bristol, and engaged in the man- 
ufacture of paper, and continued this business till 1863, when the mill was 
destroyed by fire. On December i, 1835, he married Miss Angeline W. 
Webster, by whom he had four children, two of whom, John, a merchant at 
Plymouth, and Mrs. Albert Blake, jr., survive him. After a few years of 



192 TOWN OF BRISTOL. 

wedded life he buried the companion of his youth, and January 31, 1849, he 
married Miss Anna C. Taylor, who survives him. He was ten times or more 
elected to the office of selectman, and in his hands the material interests of 
his town were most faithfully guarded and promoted. He died at his resi- 
dence October 15, 1885, in the seventy-seventh year of his age. 

Hon. Lewis W. Fling, of Bristol, is a native of Windsor, Vt., where he 
was born December 6, 1824. After receiving a common school education 
he continued his studies in the New England seminary, at Windsor and at 
Claremont, Lebanon, and Norwich university. He was engaged in teaching 
for a number of terms. While securing his education and pursuing the study 
of law, upon the study which profession he entered in the spring of 1847, at 
Canaan, in the office of Hjn. J. E. Sargent, afterwards one of the judges of 
the Supreme Judicial court. When Judge Sargent removed to Wentworth, 
shortly after this time, Mr. FHng went with him and continued his studies in 
his office until he was admitted to the bar, in November, 1S51. After his 
admission he entered into partnership with Judge Sargent, and remained with 
him about a year and a half, when the partnership was dissolved and Mr. 
Fling removed to Bristol, where he opened an office, and has ever since con- 
tinued in practice. Although Mr. Fling is a decided Democrat, he is not an 
active politician, and has engaged but little in political life. His election to 
the State Senate in his closely contested district in 187 i and 1872 was a high 
compliment to his integrity and ability, and in that year he received the 
degree of A. M., conferred by Dartmouth college. He is highly esteemed 
as a citizen by the people of Bristol, and has given essential aid in bringing 
the Bristol schools to their present high standard of excellence. 

Solomon Cavis, born in 1800, came to Bristol, from Bow, N. H., when 
about twenty-one years of age, and entered the store of Ichabod Bartlett as 
a clerk, where he remained only a few years. He then commenced his ca- 
reer as merchant, on the corner of the square now occupied by the firm of 
Dickinson & Horner. He retired from business in 1858, and was succeeded 
by his son, who had been his partner about six years. He married Miss Al- 
mira Minot. His children are George M., treasurer of the savings bank, 
and Harriet M. (Mrs. Abbott). 

Rev. Walter Sleeper, the pioneer of Methodism in Bristol, was born in 
New Chester (the portion now a part of Bristol), January 20, 1790, and died 
here May i, 1875, aged eighty-five years. His wife was Nancy Plaisted, 
whom he married in 18 14. In 1812, at the age of twenty-two years, he en- 
tered the itinerant ministry of the Methodist church, and was assigned to 
Tuftonboro circuit, N. H. For this year's service he received $12.00, not 
one cent of which was cash. The next year he was the junior preacher on 
Bridgewater circuit. New Hampshire district, and received, all told, the sum 
of $2.30. In 1814 he was received into the New England conference, then 
embracing all New England, and was appointed to Canaan circuit. New 
Hampshire district, all New Hampshire being then one district, with Solo- 



TOWN OF BRISTOL. 1 93 

mon Silas, presiding elder. The year following he was appointed to Landatif 
circuit. At the conference held at Bristol, R. I., in 1815, he was ordained 
as a deacon. Bishop Robert R. Roberts presiding. In 181 7, on account of 
the feeble health of his parents, Mr. Sleeper located with them to look after 
their necessities. His certificate of location has the signature of Bishop 
Enoch George. During the long period of fifty-eight years he continued lo 
preach in towns in the region of his home, and, with few exceptions, without 
fee or pecuniary reward. He twice represented Bristol in the State legisla- 
ture, once in 1832, when Gen. Franklin Pierce was speaker, and was also 
selectman of Bristol several years. 

Asa Hastings, born December 28. 1752, married Molly Lowell, March 22, 
1775, she being born Dece ber 30, 1752. They removed from Alexandria 
to Bristol in 1780, and settled where their grandson, Col. John Hastings, 
now lives. This farm was then a wilderness. They were the parents of ten 
children. Their son Jonas, born January 19, 1779, succeed to the home- 
stead in 1805, and died January 13, 1869. He married twice, first, Poliy 
Ordway, November 28, 1805, who died March 17, i8ii,and second, Nancy 
Atwood, April 2, 1812, wh died January 18, 1864. He was blessed with 
twelve children. Col. John, son of Jonas, bought the homestead in 1835. 
He was born December 9. 1S06, married Dorothy Emmons, daughtei of 
Benjamin Emmons, Jr., April 18, 1833, ^"^ their eleven children are all 
living. Col. John Hastings was early interested in military affairs, and held 
the offices respectively of sergeant, ensign, captain, lieutenant-colonel and 
colonel, when he commanded the 34th Regt. N. H. militia. He is still farm- 
ing the old homestead at the age of seventy-nine years. 

David Mason, son of David, was born in New Hampton and has resided 
in Bristol since he was twenty-two years old. He commenced active life as 
a lumberman. In 1852 he built his first paper-mill, and commenced the 
manufacture of straw-board, in company with George W. Dow, and con- 
tinued its manufacture up to 1885. In 1882 the firm of Mason, Perkins & 
Co. was formed, and built the fine brick mills which they now operate in the 
manufacture of colored poster-paper. In 1882 he also entered the present 
firm of Mason & Berry, manufacturers of woud pulp. The two last named 
mdustries now receive his entire attention. The product of the wood pulp 
mill of iVIason & Berry is all used in the manufacture of paper by the firm 
of Mason, Perkins & Co. Mr. Mason, by his constant industry and native 
good qualities, has led to his being classed among the most successful men 
of Bristol. His residence, built recently, is a model of elegance, taste, 
beauty and substantial comfort. He is a member of the Methodist church 
and a liberal contributor to its material interests, and especially was a munifi- 
cent donor for the erection of their present elegant church edifice. His 
townsmen have attested their appreciation of his abilities by sending him to 
the legislature in 187 1, 10 the State legislature in 1S72, and returned him 
again in 1875.. 



194 TOWN OF BRISTOL. 



Hon. Nathaniel Berry, ex-governor of New Hampshire, and now one of the 
most venerable and respected of Bristol's citizens, was born in Bath, Me., 
September i, 1796, a son of Abner, and grandson of John Berry, who served 
as captain of an infantry company in the Revolutionary war, where he lost 
his life. Mr. Berry's father died October 22, 1802, leaving his mother with 
four small children, so at the age of nine years Nathaniel was obliged to go 
out to earn his own living, and began this new life as "chore-boy" at Joseph 
Lambert's tavern, in Bath. At the age of eleven years he began to learn the 
shoemaker's trade, where he remained about a year and a half, when, in 
March, 1S09, he came to Lisbon with his mother, and step-father Benjamin 
Morse. In the following November he went to Bath, N. H., to live in the 
family of VVilliam Morrison, and in March, 1812, was apprenticed to the tan- 
ner's trade with Edmund Carleton, with whom he remained till twenty-one 
years of age. In April, 1818, he came to Bristol to work at his trade as a 
journeyman, beginning business for himself here two years later. He began 
active public life in 1828, when he was elected Bristol's representative in the 
legislature. He left Bristol in 1840, to reside in Hebron, and for many years 
was not a resident of the town. In 1861, he was elected governor of the 
State. He married Ruth Smith, of Bath, N. H., January 25, 182 1, who died 
July 26, 1857, and in January, 1859, married Louisa Farley. 

James Musgrove was born in London, Eng., in 1796. When a mere boy 
he was left an orphan, and, homeless and friendless, with no one to advise as 
to his plans for life, at the age of twelve he enlisted in the British navy tor 
Hfe. During the next six years he visited many parts of the globe. His ves- 
sel took part in the war of 181 2, and he was for some months a prisoner of 
war at Philadelphia. When about eighteen years of age, while his vessel was 
at St. Johns, N. B., he deserted from the British service and bound himself 
for seven years to learn the tailor's trade. After having served here five 
years he learned that the vessel from which he had deserted was coming into 
port. Making his case known to his fellow-workmen he was assisted in 
taking passage on a vessel bound for Boston, but soon after reaching the 
coast of Maine the vessel was wrecked, and from there he made his way to 
Boston on foot. Here he finished his trade and then returned to London, 
and in 1827 he married Ann Donker, of that town. In 1832 they emigrated 
to Boston, ^lived a short time in that city, Charleston and Lynn, Mass., and 
in 1837 they removed to Bristol and resided here till their death. For more 
than thirty years he carried on the tailoring business here, and he and his 
wife were both active and devoted members of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. He died May 16, 1878, aged eighty-two years, and his wife 
followed him to the spirit land March 2o,following. They had eleven children, 
five of whom were born in Bristol, six now survive, viz.: Susan and Richard 
W., who reside in Bristol; William I., who is in trade in Cohoes, N. Y.; John 
H., superintendent of the Berkshire knitting , mills, at Pittsfield, Mass.; 
Charles M., an overseer in the same mills : and Sarah M. C, for several 



TOWN OF BRISTOL. 1 95 

years a city missionary in Troy, N. Y. One son, Abbott C, was a corporal 
in Co. H, 115th N. Y. Vols., and was killed at the battle of Deep Bottom, 
Va.. while carrying the regimental colors. 

Richard W. Musgrove was born in Bristol, November 21, 1840. In 1857 
he entered the seminary at Tilton, intending to acquire a liberal education, 
and here his winters were passed till 1862, the rest of the year being devoted 
to hard work by which to acquire the means to attend school in winter, but 
the war changed the current of his life. August 12, 1862, he enlisted as a 
private in Co. D, 12th N. H. Vols., and was appointed a corporal. In 
March, 1873, he was promoted to sergeant and about a year later made ist 
sergeant. In May, 1864, he was given a commission as ist lieutenant in the 
1st U. S. Vols, infantry and placed in command of a company, and three 
months later promoted to captain, which position he held till June, 1866, 
when he was mustered out after having served nearly four years. As an 
enlisted man he served in the Army of the Potomac, and was in every engage- 
ment in which his regiment participated during his connection with it; as a 
commissioned officer, most uf his service was against the Indians on the 
frontier. On his muster out he returned to Bristol and engaged in the 
wool business, but in December, 1869, he opened a job printing office here, 
and in June, 1878, started a small sixteen-column paper called the Bristol 
Weekly Enterprise. The paper has been well managed, and has increased 
in size and circulation, till now it is a thirty-two-column folio, with a circula- 
tion of about 1,600. Mr. Musgrove has held the office of town clerk six 
years, and in November, 1884, was elected a member of the legislature for 
two years, commencing in June, 1885. 

Dr. Hadley B. Fowler, son of Blake Fowler, who was captain of Co. C, 12th 
N. H. Vols., in 1861-65, grandson of David Fowler, a private in the war of 
181 2, and great-grandson of Abner Fowler, a soldier of the Revolutionary 
war, was born in Bridgewater, N. H., in 1825. Educated in the high school 
of Bristol, and at Hebron academy, he read medicine with M. C. Sawyer, 
M. D., of Bristol, and Prof. Dixi Crosby, of Dartmouth Medical college, 
where he graduated in 1850. He settled in Alexandria, removed to Bristol 
in 1854, when, in the summer of 1862, amid the national unpleasantness 
with the South, permission was given by Governor Berry, to a few energetic 
men of Belknap, and a portion of Grafton counties, to raise a regiment in ten 
days, with the privilege of electing their officers. The regiment was raised in 
four and a half days, and the Doctor elected surgeon — the 12th N. H. Vols. 
His father, captain in Co. C, and his son, George H. Fowler, then fourteen 
years old, as private orderly, and they left Concord for the seat of war on 
September 27th. All three were captured by Stewart's cavalry, at Washing- 
ton, Va., the first of November. They were paroUed, exchanged, and the 
Doctor was back to the front in the middle of December ; was in charge of 
the Third Division Third Corps hospital, at the battle of Chancellorsville, May 
2, 3 and 4, 1863 ; operating surgeon for the Second Brigade, Second Division 



196 TOWN OF BRISTOL. 



Third Army Corps, at the battle of Gettysburg; July 2, 3, 4, etc., etc., down 
to the close of the war, in 1865, the last important position he held being 
that of surgeon in charge of Point of Rocks hospital, at City Point, Va. In 
May, 1865, he was appointed by the War Department to remain in the Freed- 
man's Bureau, then under General Howard, but owing to impaired health and 
solicitations of comrades and friends, returned with the regiment, and was 
mustered out at Concord, N. H., in June, 1865, the only full surgeon that 
left the State as such and remained the three years, or during the war. 
Since the war Dr. Fowler has been in active practice in Bristol. He has been 
twice president of the Center district, and has been president of the State 
Medical society. He is a member of the National Medical Association, an 
unsuccessful candidate for railroad commissioner, though running largely 
ahead of the ticket ; chairman of the Board of Education, member of the G. 
A. R., and F. & A. M., I. O. O. F., and interested in all good works. 

Dr. Ira S. Chase was born in Gilmantown. November 21, 1816, the son of 
David Chase, who was the son of Stephen Chase, a direct descendant of 
Aquilla Chase. Mr. Chase was educated at Gilmanton academy, and 
studied medicine with Dr. Nahum Wight, of Gilmanton, and graduated at 
Hanover, N. H., in the fall of 1841, attended a course of lectures in Boston 
the winter following, and at New York during the winter of 1849-50. He 
commenced practice at Alexandria, February r, 1842, where he remained 
nine years, and where he married Cordelia P. Simonds. He came to Bristol, 
January 7, 1851, where he still resides, in the practice of his profession. 

Warren White was born in Dana, Mass., May 3, 1803. He carried on 
the manufacture of leather in Massachusetts and Vermont. While still a 
young man he came to Bristol, N. H.,in 1836, and bought of N. S. Berry the 
tannery which he run until his death, a period of thirty-eight years. During 
this time he owned and operated another tannery at Bristol, and also one 
at Woodstock ; was also engaged in the manufacture of sale shoes in Hold- 
erness, now Ashland, and carried on the manufacture of custom boots and shoes 
in Bristol at one time. He was an extensive farmer and dealer in cattle. 
He represented his town in the legislature two terms. No man in his time 
did so much for the material prosperity of this place as he, and he also ac- 
cumulated a handsome property, and was at one time the largest tax-payer in 
town. He died May 12, 1884, aged seventy-one years. 

T/ie Methodist Episcopal church was organized by Asher Smith with seven 
members, in 1801, Rev. John Broadhead being made the first pastor. The 
first church building, a wooden structure, was erected in 181 3, and did service 
until 1839, when it was superseded by another, and which in turn gave place 
to the present building, erected in 1871. The latter is a fine wooden struc- 
ture, capable of seating 600 persons, and cost $20,000.00. The society now 
has 338 members, with Rev. John A. Bowles, pastor. The Sabbath school 
has 131 members. Three of the most ])rominent of the early Methodist di- 
vines were pastors of this church during the first decade of its existence, viz.: 



TOWN OF CAMPTON. 197 



John Broadhead, Elijah (afterwards Bishop) Hedding, and Martin Ruter. The 
circuit of which this church jurisdiction was a part was originally called Bridge- 
water circuit, and subsequently Bristol circuit. It is now included in Clare- 
mont district of the New Hampshire conference. 

Tne First Congregational church in Bristol, located at the village, was or- 
ganized by Revs. Jonathan Ward, Andrew Rankins, and Samuel Arnold, with 
twelve members, November 15, 1826, Rev. Samuel Arnold being installed as 
its first pastor. The church building was erected in 1827, though it has been 
enlarged and repaired since, so that it is now valued, including grounds, at 
$12,000.00. The society has 120 members, with Rev. H, G. Pillsbury, pas- 
tor. Its Sabbath school has sixty scholars. 



CAMPTON lies in the eastern part of the county, in lat. 43° 49' and long. 
71" 40', bounded north "by Thornton, east by the county line, south by 
Holderness and Plymouth, and west by Rumney and Ellsworth, having 
an area of about 28,000 acres. This township was originally granted to Gen. 
Jabez Spencer, of East Hadden, Conn., and others, October 9, 1761;* but 
they, it seems, failed to comply with the requirements of the charter, and thus 
the grant became invalid. On January 5, 1767, however, the town was re- 
granted to the heirs of the first grantee and others interested. This is the 
date of the incorporation of the township, also its name being given, it is re- 
lated, from the fact that when the surveyors came up to lay out this town 
and others in the vicinity, they built their camp here, and hence the name 
"Camptown," shortened by use into Campton. These surveyors, it seems, 
however, did not execute their work in so thorough a manner but that oppor- 
tunities were left for dispute over the boundary question. At least such dis- 
putes did arise relative to the boundaries of the towns of Campton, Rumney, ' 
Warren, Wentworth, Plymouth, Piermont and Orford, a committee being 
appointed by the legislature, October 27, 1780, to settle the matter, their 
report to be conclusive. In this report the boundaries of Campton were 
stated as follows : — 

" Beginning at a red oak tree at the pitch of the great falls on Pemige- 
wasset river, commonly called Convinse Falls, being at the northwest corner 
of New Holderness, thence east six miles to an ash tree ; thence north five 
miles to the old northwest bounds of Campton ; thence west five miles to a 

*It has always been recorded that the town was granted to Jabez Spencer. But Mr. l" 
W. Hammond, in his "Town Papers," published in 1882, states that the charter was 
granted to "Christopher Holmes and sixty-three others, by the terms of the grant Mr. 
Holmes being appointed moderator of the first meeting." Never having seen the charter, 
we cannot decide which is correct. Whose name came first on the charter, however, is of 
little consequence, for this is all it amounted to, as the territory was, or was intended to be, 
divided equally among the proprietors. 



TOWN OF CAMPTON. 



beech tree by Pemigewasset river; thence south 20" east 112 rods, to a 
maple tree ; thence south 88° 40 west two miles and three-quarters and 
thirty-eight rods, to a spruce tree, being the northeast corner bound of Rum- 
ney ; thence south 28° west by Rumney five miles and a half to a hemlock 
tree, the northeast corner bound of Cockermouth ; thence north 86^ east 
about five miles to the red oak tree began at." 

These are about the boundaries of the township to-day, except that bv an 
act approved June 27, i860, a tract of land was severed from Campton and 
annexed to Plymouth; while in July, 1867, a portion of Thornton was an- 
nexed to Campton. 

The surface of the town is rough and mountainous, some portions abound- 
ing in rocky ledges. This fact, as a matter of course, detracts from the 
value of the territory as an agricultural district ; but it affords the principal 
element in making up the beautiful scenery for which the town is so justly 
celebrated, and which affords a revenue, also, in the entertainment of the 
summer tourists whom this beauty annually attracts in large numbers. It 
must not be inferred, however, that Campton has no good farming land, for 
its valleys are very fertile and productive, while there are large areas of in- 
terval land, and the high land, when not too rocky, is good for grazmg pur- 
poses. The principal elevations are Mount Prospect, in the southern part, 
and the Morgan mountain range, in the eastern part of the town. Mount 
Prospect, located upon the farm of David B. Pulsifer, has an elevation of 
2,963 feet above tide water. From its summit a beautiful view of Lake 
Winnipiseogee and vicinity, as well as of a large portion of the southern 
part of the State, may be obtained. Pemigewasset river flows south nearly 
through the center of the town, and receives the waters of Mad river and 
Beebe and Bog brooks from the east, and West Branch from the west. Liv- 
ermore falls, in the Pemigewasset, near the southern line of the town, are 
said to be very pretty, while their surroundings afford an interesting field for 
naturalists. The formation of the rock in the bed of the river, at this point, 
bears evidence of volcanic eruption m some remote period. The forests are 
mostly deciduous, though some pine, hemlock and spruce exists. Large 
quantities of maple sugar are manufactured annually. 

In 1880 Campton had a population of 1,163 souls. In 1885 the town had 
fourteen school districts and fourteen common schools. Its fourteen school- 
houses were valued, including furniture, etc., at $7,700.00. There were 249 
children attending school, six of whom were pursuing the higher grades, 
taught during the year by one male and nineteen female teachers, at an 
average monthly salary of $32.00 for the former, and $21.33 ^0^ the latter. 
The entire amount raised for school purposes during the year was $1,343.50, 
while the expenditures were $1,220.00, with the Rev. Jacob L. DeMott, su- 
perintendent. 

Campton is a post village located in the central ixirt of the town. 

West Campton is a post village located in the northern part of the town, 
on West Branch. 



TOWN OF CAMPTON. 



199 



Campton Village (p. o.) is located in the extreme northern part of the 
town. 

The Mad River woolen-mill^ located at Campton Village, was established 
by Moses Cook. It is now operated by E. Dole & Co. The mill has 240 
spindles and uses fifteen tons of wool per year. 

E. Dole 6^ Cols grist and Jlouring-mill^ at Campton Village, was estab- 
lished by them in 1869. 

Daniel Morrill's saw-?nill at Campton Village, was built hy him in 1872. 
It has the capacity for manufacturing 200,000 feet of lumber per annum. 

Nathan Pierce' s fiir^iiture factory , at Campton Village, was established by 
Joel Pierce & Sons, in 1855. 

Erastus F. Emersotl s sash and blind factory^ at Campton Village, was es- 
tablished by him in 1882. 

The Excelsior bobbin-mill, at Campton Village, was built by William 
Southmayd & Son about twenty-eight years ago. It was purchased by the 
present proprietor, A. A. Madden, in 1884. 

Dustin Moulton's saw-mill, at West Campton, was built it 1S83, upon the 
site of a mill burned the year previous, which was built by Joseph Brown 
about forty-two years ago. It has a turbine wheel and circular saws. 

J. E. &= /. S. Bump's saw-mill, in the eastern part of the town, on road 
33, was built by their father, James Bump, in 1849. It has the capacity for 
turning out 150.000 feet of lumber per year. 

The early settlers of Campton were principally from Connecticut, Massa- 
chusetts and the southern part of this State. The first settlement was made 
by Isaac and Winthrop Fox, from Connecticut, probably in the spring of 
1762. They were the only inhabitants during that year. In the spring of 
the following year, 1763, they were joined by Isaac's wife and son. Isaac, 
and Enoch Taylor. Isaac Fox, Sr.. settled on the east side of the river, 
near where the bridge now stands. Isaac, Jr., settled on the opposite side of 
the river, and Mr. Taylor some two miles above on the west side. The tra- 
ditions in regard to the time of the settlement of the town are conflicting ; 
but all accounts agree that when the first settlement was made there were no 
settlers between this place and Stephenstown or Franklin, and we know that 
some seven or eight families came to Plymouth, from Hollis, in 1764. Fox, 
having been here one year before his family, would fix the time of his coming, 
as stated, in 1762, and that of his family in 1763. Still it is believed by 
many that Enoch Taylor was with Mr. Fox that first winter. The following 
list gives the arrival of settlers, number of their families, and whence they 
came, for each year down to and including 1820: — 

1762. Isaac Fox, Connecticut. 

1762. Winthrop Fox, a nephew. 

1763. Isaac Fox, Jr., and his mother and his family. 

1763. Enoch Taylor, and familv. 

1764. Joseph Spencer, son of Gen. Jabez Spencer. 

1768. Abel Willey, seven children, the fifth family in town. 



TOWN OF CAMPTON, 



1769. Benaijah Fox, the son of Isaac, Jr., was the first male child born 
in town. A daughter of Hobart Spencer, was born in the same 
year. 

1769. Hobart Spencer, six children. 

1769. Darius Willey, seven children, 

1769. Moses Little, six children, Massachusetts. 

1769. Samuel Fuller, six children. 

1769. Daniel Wyatt, nine children, Massachusetts. 

1769. David Perkins, eight children, Massachusetts. 

1769. Joseph Pulsjfer, eleven children, Massachusetts. 

1769. Gershom Burbank, six children. Massachusetts. 

1770. Asa Spencer, seven children, Connecticut. 
1770. Jesse Willey, eight children, Connecticut. 
1770. Ebenezer Taylor, three children. Connecticut. 
1770. Joseph Palmer, three children, Massachusetts. 
1770. Samuel Cook, nine children, Massachusetts. 
1770. Nathaniel Tupper, five children, Massachusetts. 

1770. James Harvel. 

1771. Samuel Holmes, Connecticut. 

1771. Jonathan Cone, five children. 

1772. Israel Brainard, five children, Connecticut. 
1772. Chiliab Brainard, five children, Connecticut. 
1773- Jolin Southmayed, nine children, Connecticut. 
1774. Selden Church, seven children, Connecticut. 
1774. Thomas Bartlett, fourteen children, Massachusetts. 
1775- John Holmes, seven children, Connecticut 

1776. Carr Chase, eight children, Massachusetts. 

1777. Elias Cheney. 

1777. William Baker, sixteen children. 

T777. Dudley Palmer, eight children, Massachusetts. 

1778. Moses Baker, three children. 

1778. Joseph Palmer, six children, Massachusetts. 

1778. Moody Cook, twelve children, Massachusetts. 

1778. Ebenezer Cheney, five children. 

1778. James Merrill, four children, Massachusetts. 

1778. Chauncey Holmes, five children, Connecticut. 
Homans, five children. 

1779. Joseph Homans, son of Homans, two children. 

1780. Benjamin Baker, three children. 

1780. Jonathan Burbank, son of Gershom, six children. 

1781. Israel Blake, three children. 

1782. William Page, six children. 
1782. Edmond Marsh, eleven children. 

1782. John Marsh, thirteen children. 
17^3' James Bump, seven children. 

1783. Jabez Church, nine children. 

1784. Ezra Tupper, four children. 

1785. David Bartlett, six children. 

1785. Ichabod Johnson, seven children, AUenstown. 

1785. John Clark, four children, Candia. 

1785. John Homans, son of Homans, fourteen children, 

1786. Samuel Cook, Jr., ten children, Massachusetts. 

1787. Cutting Cook, son of Samuel, twelve children. 



TOWN OF CAMPTON. 



S^noch Merril, nine children, Plymouth. 

Edward Taylor, Oliver Taylor, sons of Eben, ten children. 

John Blaisdell, son of Nathaniel, eight children. 

David French, Massachusetts. 

Ebenezer Bartlett, son of Thomas. 

David Wooster, eight children, Connecticut. 

Isaac Mitchell, eight children. 

Ephraim Cook, son of Samuel, thirteen children, 

Samuel Noyes, two children, Massachusetts. 

Daniel Blaisdell, son of Nathaniel, eight children, Chester. 

Stephen Goodhue, seven children. 

Ebenezer Little, son of Moses, eight children. 

Ebenezer Bartlett, Jr., ten children, Massachusetts. 

James Burbeck, fourteen children, Massachusetts. 

Rowland Percival, nine children, Connecticut. 

Rowland Percival, Jr., nine or ten children, Connecticut. 

Nathaniel Blaisdell, three children, Chester. 

Samuel Johnson. 

Joshua Rogers, four children, Connecticut. 

Joseph Pulsifer, Jr., son of Joseph, seven children. 

Darius Willey, Jr., son of Darius, ten children. 

James Little, son of Moses, nine children. 

James Holmes, son of John, five or six children. 

Jesse Hall. 

Christopher Noyes, nine children, Massachusetts. 

Stephen Giddings, eight children, Massachusetts. 

Moses Pulsifer, son of Joseph, eight children. 

Stephen Giddings, nine children, Massachusetts. 

Samuel Chandler, three children, Hampstead. 

Samuel Merrill, thirteen children, Plymouth. 

Enoch Merrill, six children. 

Elijah Hatch, seven children. 

Thomas Cook, son of Samuel, eleven children. 

Isaac Willey, son of Darius, eight children. 

John Pulsifer, son of Joseph, eleven child'ren. 

Peter Blair, ten children, Holderness. 

William Giddings, eight children, Massachusetts. 

Robert Smith, ten children. 

Daniel Wyatt, son of Daniel, six children. 
The first town meeting recorded was held in 1772, when the following list of 
officers were chosen : Moses Little, moderator ; Col. Joseph Spencer, town 
clerk ; Capt. Gershom Burbank, Moses Little, Esq., James Harvel, Ebenezer 
Taylor and Benjamin Hickox, selectmen ; Jonathan Cole constable ; Samuel 
Cook and Samuel Fuller, tithingmen ; Nathaniel Tapper and Joseph Pulsifer, 
fence-viewers, David Perkins and Darius Willey, sealers of leather ; William 
Hobart and Asa Spencer, surveyors of highways ; Joseph Palmer and Joseph 
Pulsifer, surveyors of lumber ; Nathaniel Tupper, surveyor of brick ; Darius 
Willey, Isaac Fox and Benjamin Rug, hog-reeves ; and Ebenezer Fowler, sealer 
of weights and measures. The first meeting of the inhabitants, however, was 
held December 16, 177 r. The town was annexed to Grafton county Septem- 
bor 14, 1782. 



1789 
1789, 
178.- 

1790 
1790 
1790 
1-90 
1790 
1790 
1790 
1790 
1790 
1791 



1792 
1792 
1792 
1792 
1793 
^793 
1793 
1793 
1793 



1794 
1794. 
1802 
1802, 
1804 
1805 
1805 
1807 
1809 
1820 



TOWN OF CAMPTON. 



The first wedding in town is said to have been solemnized under a tree in 
the open field. The first male child born in the town was Benjamin, son of 
Isaac Fox, 2d, January 20, 1769. A daughter of Hobart Spencer was born 
the same year. Col. Holmes procured the first chaise, and drove it into town 
on his return from general court at Concord, in 181 1. The first school taught 
by a man was kept at the house of Colonel Baker, by a Mr. Rawson, a young 
man from Connecticut, not far from 1780. This was the only school which 
many of the first generation of the town ever attended. Jeduthan Clough, 
from Canterbury, who settled at the village in 1802, was the first physician. 
The preacher of the gospel was Rev. Nathaniel Emmons, who became the 
celebrated Dr. Emmons, of Massachusetts. He received a call to settle here 
in 1771, but did not accept it. 

In the war of the Revolution the town furnished ten soldiers, aside from 
those who were called out for a few days at the time of Burgoyne's invasion, 
in the autumn of 1777. The names of the ten. so far as we have them, were 
John Cannon, John Mayloy, Jeremiah Archibald, Silas Fox, Uriah Fox, Asa 
Spencer, Edward Taylor and Oliver Taylor. Five of the ten are said to have 
lost their lives in the service. 

In the late great war, the town had eighty-seven enlistments placed to 
her credit. Of these, six were taken prisoner ; four were killed ; fourteen 
were wounded, from the effects of which four died ; while eighteen died o 
disease. The quota under all calls for the town, was ninety-nine. The citi- 
zens furnished thirty-seven substitutes, seventy-five enlisted in town, and 
thirty-seven recruits were furnished, making a total of 112, a surplus of thir- 
teen. 

Ebenezer Taylor came here from Connecticut, in 1765, with a Mr. Fux j 
they being the first settlers in the town of Campton. Mr. Taylor settled upon 
the farm where George C. Taylor now resides, on road 16. His son Oliver 
served three years m the lR.evolutionary war. Oliver, son of Oilman R. Tay- 
lor, married Polly Baker, and settled upon the home farm. George C, one of 
his four children, and the oldest son, married Amanda P., daughter of John 
B. and Dorcas H. (Smith) Huckins, of Holderness, has had two children, 
now deceased, and resides upon the old homestead. John B. was the son of 
Dea. John Huckins, who died at the age of ninety-four years, and the grand- 
son of Dea. James Huckins, who died, aged ninety-six years. 
• Diodate Willey, son of Abel, came here from Connecticut, in 1766, aged 
seventeen years, and settled upon a farm, on road 15, being the fifth settler 
in the town of Campton. He married Lydia Church, in 1778. His son 
Diodate married Mary Butler, and reared a family of eight children. His 
eldest son, Selden C, married twice, first, Elizabeth Denison, of Gloucester, 
Mass.. who bore him one daughter, Elizabeth, and second, Melvina, daughter 
of Daniel and Fanny (Ferry) Harvey, of Colebrook, N. H., who has borne 
him two children, Milton H. and Esther E., twins. The latter married Frank 
P. Hart, and resides on the home farm with her mother, and Milton H. is 
dead. 



Hon. Moody Merrill was born at Campton, June 27, 1836, and was educa- 
ted in the district schools and at the Thetford (Vermont) academy. During 
the summer season his time was occupied in farming. In the winter of 1856 
he taught school at Ellsworth, and in 1857, at Thornton, His ambition at 
that time was to enter college, put owing to ill health, he was compelled to 
give up this desire. In 1859 he went to Boston, and in December of that 
year, he entered the law office of the Hon. William Minot. After a faithful 
course of study, he was admitted to the Suffolk bar in February, 1863, and at 
once commenced the practice of his profession. 

He served on the school board from 1865 to 1874. During this term he 
was chairman of the Roxbury High School commitee for seven years. In 1868 
he was elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives where he served 
during the three folio .\ing years. He was a member of the Senate in 1873 
and 1874. On entering the Senate his wonderful energy and perseverance 
showed themselves to the best advantage, and the powerful influence which 
he always exerted in all his undertakings, placed him at once among the lead- 
ers. In 1874, as chairman of the committee on State police, he secured the 
passage of the bill abolishing that body, over the Governor's veto. This was 
a proceeding which had never before been accomplished in the history of the 
Massachusetts legislature. One of the notable incidents connected with this 
measure being the fact that ex-Governor Banks, who was in the Senate at 
that time, after making a speech in opposition, was so much influenced by 
Mr. Merrill's vigorous presentation of his side of the case that he voted with 
Mr. Merrill in favor of the bill. He was also chairman of the committee which 
had charge of the memorial services on the death of Charles Sumner, and pre- 
pared and complied the Memorial History commemorative of that occasion. 
Since that time he has devoted himself to the Highland street railway, of 
Boston, of which he has been the only president. It is into this enterprise that 
Mr. Merrill has put his best efforts. The charter was granted April 12, 1872, 
against the combined opposition of all other reads, and by the 24th of October 
of the same year, five miles of road and two large stables had been built and 
the road was opened for travel, and is to-day the most perfect horse railroad 
in the world. Even his warmest friends predicted failure, but his indomitable 
courage and inherent power has carried him through every undertaking, the 
greatest of which was in securing the passage by the legislature of 1886, of the 
bill allowing this corporation to purchase and consolidate all the other street 
railways of Boston, representing a combined capital of about $15,000,000. 

Mr. Merrill's influence in the municipal affairs of the city of Boston, and in 
promoting its great interests and prosperity has been more widely felt in the 



20 2^" CAMPTON. 

past fifteen years, than that of any other man. Although he has refused to 
accept any municipal office, he has had great influence in moulding and con- 
trolling the action of the city government. As was well said by Mayor 
O'Brien, in his address before the Grafton County Agricultural Association at 
its fair of 1885, "Your county has produced in my friend the Hon. Moody 
Merrill, Boston's best and most active citizen. He is a lawyer of great genius 
and power, owns and runs a hotel, is president of and runs the best horse 
railroad in the country, and runs the city government, and we purpose to 
elect him to Congress and let him run the national government at Washing- 
ton." It was almost entirely through Mr. Merrill's influence and controfling 
power that the system of public parks for the city of Boston, was established. 
More especially that part of the system including the new Franklin park, con- 
taining nearly six hundred acres of the city's must beautiful suburban lands. 
The city has already appropriated nearly four million dollars for this park, 
and, when completed, it will be one of the finest in the country. 

Mr. Merrill's tact and skill as a lawyer was well demonstrated in the cele- 
brated Moran murder case. In the trial of this case his associates took a 
line of defense which was not in accordance with his views ; but as they were 
older lawyers than he, he was obliged to yield to their judgment. The result 
of the trial showed that he was right, and they were wrong. After Moran had 
been sentenced to death and the day of his execution set, Mr. Merrill was 
still so impressed with the fact that the case had not been properly tried and 
the true defence made, that ignoring and discarding his associates, he took 
the case before governor and council. They had once refused to com- 
mute the sentence on the defense made at the trial, but having heard Mr. 
Merrill's ideas as to what it should have been, they unanimously commuted 
the sentence to imprisonment for life. Several years after he brought the 
matter before a subsequent governor and council and convinced them that 
Moran should be pardoned, which was done immediately. Moran to day is 
a highly respected, faithful and trusted book-keeper in one of the largest 
manufacturing establishments in the State of New York. 

Mr. MerriU is president of the Oakland Garden Association, and of the Mag- 
neso-Calcite Fire Proof Company, of Boston, and has recently been elected 
president of the Grafton County Agricultural Association. In 1880 he was 
a member of the Massachusetts Electoral college, but has taken no active part 
in politics for several years and has no further desire for public office. He is 
probably to-day, the best known, as well as the most popular and influential 
public man in Boston. 



I 



TOWN OF CAMPTON. 203 



Hon. Moses Baker, son of Benjamin and Ruth (True) Baker, of Epping, 
born April 8, 1738, married, December, 1758, Deborah, eldest daughter of 
Ephraim Davis, one of the original settlers of Concord, and died April 6, 
1802. Moses Baker settled early in that part of Chester now Candia. He 
was one of the petitioners for the incorporation of that parish (1763) and from 
that time until his removal to Campton he was one of its most active and 
influential citizens both in military and civil affairs. In January, 1775, he 
represented the parish in the convention called at Exeter to "consider the 
state of affairs " in the aroused and troubled colonies. Having some years 
before received from Governor Wentworth a royal commission as lieutenant 
of militia in the Province, in 1775, his experience was valuable in preparing 
the troops for service; and when, in December, Washington called for aid, 
Captain Baker (commissioned by Com. of Safety) raised a company of volun- 
teers and joined the New Hampshire troops at Winter Hill, where fortifica- 
tions were being erected "to continue the siege of Boston." In 1776, he, 
with other loyal citizens of the Province, signed the following declaration 
know as the "Association Test:" " We, the subscribers, do hereby solemnly 
engage and promise that we will, to the utmost in our Power, at the 
Risque of our Lives and Fortunes with Arms, oppose the Hostile Proceed- 
ings of the British Fleets and Armies against the United American Colo- 
nits." 

His course was in harmony with his word, for from the hour the struggle 
for independence began, he held his talents, his ample means, and his life in 
readiness for instant action in any emergency. He was a man fitted for 
emergencies, and the occasions were seldom wanting. During the summer 
and fall of 1776 (as major in Col. Wingate's regiment) he was encamped OQ 
Mt. Independence (at the head of Lake Champlain), where batteries and 
troops were stationed to resist Burgoyne's invasion. During this campaign, 
Arnold performed the daring exploit upon the lake known as the Battle of 
Valcour Island. In October, 1777, he, with his company, joined Stark's 
brigade which, marching rapidly to reeforce the army at Saratoga, arrived 
just in season to prevent the escape of Burgoyne and witness his surrender. 

In 1779, he removed to Campton where he had purchased a large tract of 
land lying near the center of the town and including rich Pemigewasset inter- 
vales. Almost from the time of his arrival he took a vigorous leadership in 
the affairs of the new settlement. His wisdom and experience, his habit of 
prompt action, and his dignity of character made him a man of mark in the 
•community, and until nearly the close of his life he continued to fill positions 
of honor in the town and in the State, being for several years a member of 
the legislature. His children were Mary, born August, 1760, married first 
Rev. Selden Church, and second Moody Cook; Moses; Benjamin, born at 
Candia, October 12, 1776, died April 23, 181-I., was a major of mihtia, mar- 
ried a daughter of Deacon Daniel Wyatt, of Campton — children, Mary, 
.married John Keniston, and Eliza, who married Samuel Keniston. 



204 TOWN OF CAMPTON. 

William Baker, son of Benjamin Baker, of Epping, was early engaged in 
the war. In the winter of 1775-76, he was at Winter Hill with Sullivan's 
brigade, being a member of the company of volunteers raised in Candia by 
his brother. He was the first of the family to emigrate to Campton, and 
immediately on arrival took part in the affairs of the town. He is said to 
have been a delegate from the town to the first convention for the formation 
of a State government in 1777. He was early appointed deacon in the 
church, a post which he worthily occupied during the remainder of his life. 
He died in 18 14, leaving a large family. 

Benjamin Baker, son of Benjamin, of Epping, was among the first to rally 
to the relief of his country. He is beheved to have been at Bunker Hill with 
Stark's men who fought so gallantly at "the rail fence filled with hay," and 
who were among the last to leave the field. During the ensuing winter he 
was with Washington's forces at Cambridge. He came with his family to 
Campton about 1780. He had suffered much while in the army from sick- 
ness and exposure, in consequence of which he became permanently disabled 
and met with an early death. 

Col. Moses Baker, son of Moses and Deborah (Davis) Baker, was born 
January 1, 1769, married, in 1789, Molly Wyatt, and died May 31, 1829. 
Like his father, Col. Baker early evinced a talent for service and a generous 
public spirit. For thirty years he held continuously some official positioVi, 
notably those of town clerk, selectman for twenty-five years, and representa- 
tive in the legislature for fourteen years. Col. Baker was a justice of the 
peace as well as officer of militiaj he was also a land surveyor, and in this 
capacity was member of the committee for a survey of the township (Camp- 
ton) in 1804. He was one of the joint owners of the town hbrary established 
by the Rev. Selden Church (about 1790), and he contributed liberally towards 
its support. The confidence of the community in his ability and steadfast 
integrity was repeatedly shown in affairs of private as of public trust. His 
children were Levi; Davis; Hannah, married Samuel Marsh; Moses, mar- 
ried Polly Dearborn ; Polly, married Oilman R. Taylor ; Rebecca, married 
Coffin Cook ; Lois, married William H. Blair ; Clarissa, married Zebedee 
Cook ; Carohne, married John Buckman. 

Col. Davis Baker, son of Moses, 2d, and Molly (Wyatt) Baker, born at 
Campton, June 24, 1791, married Hannah Church, October 27, 1814, and died 
June 13, 1842. Col. Baker inherited the abilities and emulated the virtues 
of his immediate ancestors, continuing to till the family acres and succeeding 
to the official responsibilities which for three generations were upheld by a 
member of the family. He never courted public favor, yet his eminent 
fitness for public service was repeatedly recognized, and he held a guid- 
ing hand in the counsels of the town for more than twenty years, repre- 
senting it also in the legislature. In land surveying his skill and accuracy 
were noted, and his services held in frequent requisition. In 1829 Col. 
Baker was associated with Mr. Cummings, of Plymouth, as a commission 



I 



TOWN OF CAMPTON. 205 



authorized by legislature to survey a large tract of "ungranted lands" in- 
cluding a portion of the White Mountain region, and to report on the char- 
acter and prospective value of the same. In 1841, under another appoint- 
ment by the State, he settled the boundary of territory north of Waterville. 
These surveys of a rough wilderness necessitating the passage of unknown 
and untracked mountams, proved arduous tasks and involved no slight hard- 
ships. As a magistrate his business was extensive, and his knowledge of law 
was so correct and his sense of justice so keen that his judgments were sel- 
dom questioned. It is said that an appeal once being made from his decision 
to the court of common pleas, and the case being called, the presiding judge 
asked from whose decision the appeal was taken. On being informed that 
it was Col. Baker's, the judge pleasantly remarked to the prosecuting attorney 
that it was scarcely worth while to prosecute the appeal, since the Colonel's de- 
cisions were always found to be correct. His private trusts were always ful- 
filled with an eye single to the interests of those who reposed confidence in 
him, and all his dealings were characterized by the same rare judgment, dis- 
cretion and fidelity. In great reforms of the day (notably those of the tem- 
perance and anti-slavery movements, in which he was a leader,) his vision 
was clear and prophetic. In the church, when his interest was deep and ac- 
tive, his influence was powerful and his counsels always made for peace and 
righteousness. A man of great personal dignity, grave, reserved, retiring yet 
always ready at the call of duty ; whose words, never superfluous, were in- 
violable ; of profound convictions and great courage in maintaining them ; 
of unswerving adherence to principle and of spotless integrity — it was the aim 
and the joy of his life "to do justly and to show mercy, and to walk humbly 
before his God." His children were Deborah Davis, married George W. 
Keniston ; Walter Wyatt, married Elizabeth L. Noyes, and resides at Lex- 
ington, Mass.; Davis, married Statira Spencer, resides in Washington, D. C; 
Hannah married Gardner Spencer; Freeman, married first, Sarah L. Noyes, 
second, Ellen M. Case, resides at Maiden, Mass.; Elihu Church married Ade- 
line A. Parker was member of the Massachusetts Senate in 1855 ; president of 
Senate in 1856, and at present judge of probate for the county of Darling- 
ton, S. C, resides at Darlington; Henry Woodward, resides in California; 
Henrietta, married Jeremiah Leavitt ; Edward Payson, married Leora A, 
Parker, (upon breaking out of the war of the Rebellion enlisted in the Twen- 
ty-seventh Iowa regiment, later promoted to a captaincy. His health be- 
came impaired through his services in the army, and his death in 1880 was 
virtually a sacrifice for his country), and Moses Rogers. 

George Washington Keniston, son of William and Sally (Morrison) Kenis- 
ton, was born in Sanbornton, N. H., December 22, 1810. When a boy of 
eleven years, he walked to Campton, a distance of thirty miles, to take up 
his residence with his brother Samuel. He subsequently learned the stone- 
cutter's trade and, for a number of years was foreman in Cady's stone-works, 
at Medford, Mass. On September 14, 1837, he married Deborah Davis, 



2o6 TOWN OF CAMPTON. 



oldest daughter of Col. Davis and Hannah (Church) Baker, of Campton, and 
settled upon a farm in Thornton. Five years after, he moved to the "Baker 
farm," a large interval farm in Campton. where he resided until his death, 
September 29, 1884. He was selectman while living in Thornton, and deputy 
sheriff for Grafton county in 1849 and '50 ; in 1859-60, he represented Camp- 
ton in the State legislature, and in 1865 he was elected treasurer of the com- 
mittee for funding the town debt of Campton, an office he held uuiil the 
bonds were paid, in 1878. He was, also, from time to time, chosen for many 
other offices of trust and responsibihty. His life was marked for its energy, 
perseverance, and strict honesty. His children were as follows : Emma 
Elizabeth, born February 11, 1839, married WiUiam Thornton, September 27, 
1859, and died December 23, 1866, his children being William Elmer, born 
September 23, 1863, died at the age of three years ; George (Keniston) Thorn- 
ton, born January 22, 1865, now (1886) in the employ of Parker, Holmes & 
Co., of Boston, Mass.; George Hancock, born September 29, 1840, a shoe- 
maker, and settled in Stoneham, Mass.; Ann, born October i, 1847, died 
while attending school at New Hampton, November 7, 1866; Davis Baker, 
born July i, 1850, married Ada Elizabeth, daughter of Lucius M. and Eliza- 
beth (Cutter) Howe, of Plymouth, January 4, 1876, resided with his father, 
upon the old homestead, which he still owns, until 1884, when he moved to 
Plymouth, to become a partner in the mercantile house of Blodgett & Kenis- 
ton, his children being Elizabeth Howe, born October 5, 1876, Davis Baker, 
Jr., born September 14, 1880, and Sarah Thorndike, born October 23, 1881. 
Joseph Pulsifer, born in 1705, was a native of Ipswich, Mass., married 
Sat ah Lovell, and was a soldier in the French and Indian war. His son Jo- 
seph, born in Ipswich, Mass., in 1745, married Mary Brown in 1769, and 
came to Campton in the same year. He was the first settler upon the farm 
where T. S. Pulsifer now resides, on road 38^, upon which place he located 
in 1781. He reared a family of ten children. Of these, Major John, his 
second son, was born February 13, 1781, married twice, first, in 1806, Mary, 
daughter of Joseph and Martha (Taylor) Palmer, who bore him eleven chil- 
dren, four of whom are now hving, and second, Martha L., daughter of Steph- 
en and Keziah (Stearns) Foss. He died in August, 1874. His son Thomas 
S. married Hannah P., daughter of Col. Moody and Lucy (Eaton) Cook, has 
one son, John M., and resides on road 38^. He is trustee in the Ashland 
Savings bank, and director in the Pemigewasset bank, of Plymouth, N. H. 
Moses, brother of John, married Mary, daughter of Dea. David and Joanna 
(Hazeltine) Bartlett, and reared nine children, four of whom are now living. 
Of these David B. married Isabella W., daughter of Reuben and Sally (John- 
son) Draper, has three children, Flora L., Joseph W. and George E., and re- 
sides upon a farm on road 38^. Charles W., son of Major John, married 
Melvina, daughter of Thomas and Martha (Bartlett) Cook, has two children, 
Willard C. and Lizzie G., and resides upon the place known as the Bartlett 
farm, on road 20. Phebe, daughter of Major John, married Benjamin F, 



TOWN OF CAMPTON. 207 

Stickney, of Newbury, Mass., who came to Campton in 1837, locating upon 
the Pahner farm, and remained here until hisdeatli, April 13, 1876, aged sev- 
enty years. Of his family of nine children, five are now living. His son Ben- 
jamin F. married Laura A., daughter of Alvin and Roxanna (Chamberlain) 
Eaton, has two children, Annie E. and Henry E., and lives upon the home 
farm with his mother. 

Darius Willey came here from East Hadden. Conn., on horseback, in 1770. 
and was the first settler upon a farm on road 15. He was a soldier in the 
Revolutionary war. He married Mary Willey, and reared six ch Idren. His 
son Isaac married Susan Ryan, of Plymouth, and settled upon the home 
farm. Isaac's son Allen married Mehitable W., daughter of William Foss, of 
Thornton, and resides on the homestead. 

Ephrain Cook, one of nine children of Samuel Cook, located here about 
1770. Coffin, one of his thirteen children, married Rebecca, daughter of 
Col. Moses and Molly (Wyatt) Baker, who bore him three children. The 
wife of Coffin Cook died March 2^5, 1838, and his death occurred May 4, 
1865. Corydon W., the only child now living, married Sarah J., daughter of 
James and Deborah (VVadley) Garman, of Laconia, and resides at Campton 
Center, is a general merchant, and has been postmaster for the last twenty- 
four years. James Garman served seven years and seven months in the 
Revolutionary war, and James Garman, Jr., was a soldier in the war of 181 2. 

Moody Cook, a soldier in the Revolutionary war, was a native of New- 
buryport, Mass., came to this town at an early day, and settled in the west- 
ern part of the town, on road 20. He died there, aged eighty-four years. 
He reared eight children, only one of whom, Amanda Ellsworth, of Water- 
loo, Iowa, is living. Moody, Jr., married Lucy, daughter of David Eaton, 
of Plymouth. Of his five children now living, Joseph married twice, first, 
Sarah P. Cook, by whom he had one child, and second, Eliza A., daughter 
of Alexander and Eliza (Barker) Kenrick, of Plymouth, N. H., has one 
daughter, Mrs. Sarah F. Adams, and resides in Campton Village. Arthur 
B.. youngest son of Moody, Jr., married Dora B., daughter of George and 
Deborah Foss, has two children, Nelson B. and Fannie G., and resides in 
Campton Village, with his brother, Daniel E. 

Edmond Marsh, a native of East Haddan, was a soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary war, came to this town about 1780, and was the first settler upon the 
farm now known as the Marsh farm, on road 14. He married Emma Cook 
and reared ten children, one of whom, Newton, married Lydia, daughter of 
John and Mary (Poor) Butler. Two of Newton's six children are now living. 
Of these, Christopher H. married Mrs. Mary A. Heath, daughter of Henry 
Plummer, and resides on the farm. 

Ansel Mitchell, son of Isaac and Anable Mitchell, was a native of Camp- 
ton, married Malinda Flanders, of Canada, and reared nine children, seven 
of whom are living. George W., fifth son of Ansel, married twice, first. 



2o8 TOWN OF CAMPTON. 



Annie E. Spencer, and second, Edwina, daughter of Benjannin and Martha 
Caldon, has one son, Fred D., and lives in Campton Village. 

Frederick A. Mitchell, son of Elijah, and a native of Campton Village, 
married Lucretia M., daughter of Norman and Lorena (Kitteredge) Strong, 
of Port Hope, Ont., and has two children, Frank and Lulu. Frank is an 
engineer on the New York & New England railroad. Frederick A. has been 
engaged as railroad bridge builder and contractor for the past thirty-two 
years. He was a soldier in the civil war, serving in Co. B, 15th N. H. Vols., 
two years and nine months, and since the war, until his death a short time 
ago, was a resident of Campton Village. 

Timothy W. Mitchell married Mary J., daughter of Luther and Mary 
(Dickey) Tucker, of Thornton, and had born to him six children, three of 
whom are now living. His son Luther P. served in the late war, in Co. D, 
9th N. H. Vols. J and died at Andersonville prison. Timothy VV. died at the 
age of fifty-seven years. His widow resides with her mother, Mrs. Mary 
Tucker, who is at present the oldest lady in town, aged eighty-three years. 

John Spokesfield moved to Thornton, from Maine, in 1795, married twice, 
first, Abigail Furnald, and second, Betsey Crosby, of Alexandria, N. H. 
His son Jonathan C. married twice, first, Keziah Foss, of Thornton, who 
bore him six children, four of whom are living, and settled in the Western 
States, and second, Jane, daughter of William and Susan Chase, of Deer- 
field, N. H, and is now a resident of West Campton. 

Benjamin Johnson came to Campton, from Haverhill, Mass., and was the 
first settler upon the f^rm where I. T. Johnson now resides, off road 44. 
Joseph W., one of his five children, married twice, first, Sarah C. Wilkinson, 
and second, Lydia B., daughter of Henry and Abigail F. (Spokesfield) Dear- 
born. His son Benjamin G. served in the late war, in Co. B, ist N. H. 
Cav., and died in Libby prison. Mr. Johnson now resides on the farm which 
was first settled by Henry Dearborn, on road 3. 

Thomas Elliot, one of the early settlers of Thornton, moved to Campton 
Village, where he run a grist and saw-mill. He married Ruth A. Burbank, 
and reared a family of seven children, four of them now living. He died at 
the age of eighty-four years. His son Jason serv^'d three years in the civil 
war, in Co. C, 13th N. H. Vols., and was honorably discharged. He married 
Mary, daughter of Nathan Colby. Four of his six children are living. Of 
these, Albert J, married twice, first, Armena H. Russell, and second, Mary 
B., daughter of David and Anable (Gifford) Stonecliffe, of Hager, Mich., 
has one daughter, Lela M., and resides in Campton Village. 

Elijah Smart, a native of Coryden, N. H,, was a pensioner of the Revolu- 
tionary war, was at the battle of Brandywine, and was wounded at the battle 
of Bennington, Caleb, one of his seven children, married Hannah Libby, 
of Gorham, Me., and reared a family of nine children. His youngest son, 
Lewis B., married Amanda J., daughter of Jonathan and Amanda F. Dear- 
born, of Thornton, and has three children, Willis E., Amy A. and Bertha 




-^Mrrat^O.^^^^c 



TOWN OF CAMPTON. 209 

M. He resides at Campton Village. Willis E. is a grocer at Danvers, Mass., 
and Amy A. is a milliner at Lowell, Mass. 

David Webster, a native of Holderness, married twice, first, Olive A. 
Smith, and second, Phebe F. Clark, and reared a family of nine children, 
seven of whom are living. He finally removed to Campton, where he re- 
mained until his death in February, 1861. His son Alfred was in the late 
war, in Co. C, 13th N. H. Vols., and after three years service, was honorably 
discharged. He married twice, first, Susan E., daughter of Jesse and Louisa 
(Fellows) Kendall, and second, Lydia M., daughter of George W. and Julia 
M. (Durgan) Wallace, of Thornton, N. H., has five children, and resides at 
Campton Village, on road 7. 

John Elliott moved from Shipton, P. Q., to Lowell, Mass., about 1835, 
and thence to Campton in 1841, where he bought a saw-mill and engaged in 
lumbering, and has reared four children. John F. Elliott, his eldest son, 
located in Lyme in 1877, where he now lives. 

Ebenezer Morrison was a native of Sanbornton, N. H. His son Joseph, 
also a native of Sanbornton, married Olive, daughter of Abraham and Betsey 
Batchelder, of Louden, N. H. Three of his children, ReHef R., Abram B, 
and Joseph W., are living. Joseph W. married Hannah F., daughter of Will- 
iam and Sarah Giddings, and has five children. Of these, Emily N. married 
Fisher Ames and resides in San Francisco, Cal. Mary J. married Dr. J. M, 
French, of Milford, Mass. Weld and Frank L. are merchants at Franklin 
Falls, N. H.. and Joseph W., Jr.. and his father are now leading merchants 
in Campton Village. The homestead is located on road 6, corner 7. 

Thomas J., son of Charles T. and Martha P. (Haines) Sanborn, was born 
May 23, 1812, and married Relief R., daughter of Joseph and Olive (Batch- 
elder) Morrison. He was postmaster in Sanbornton and in Campton for 
twenty-five years, was elected selectmen of Campton six times, and was com- 
missioner for Grafton county from 1866 to 1869. He also conducted a 
large and popular hotel for summer boarders upon his farm in West Campton, 
on road 4. Mr. Sanborn died September 8, 1883. His only child, Edward 
H., and his mother, aged seventy years, still occupy the home farm and 
run the hotel. Edward H. married Julia E., daughter of William and Julia 
(Foss) Robinson. 

Daniel Brown, son of Nicholas, came to Holderness, from Strafford, N. H., 
in 1828, and finally moved to Campton, where he died in 1872. He served 
in the War of 1812, and was at Portsmouth. He reared seven children, all 
living. His second son, Nicholas, married Eliza Ann, daughter of Daniel 
and Sabrina (Clement) Page. George O., only son of Nicholas, married 
Alice J., daughter of David M. and Abbie (Bickford) Roberts, and has two 
children, Irving H. and Amy M. He resides with his father on road 26. 

Daniel Page, son of John, was a native of Kesington, N. H., and served 
three years in the Revolutionary war. He married Anna, daughter of Samuel 
Towle, of Hampton, N, H., and reared eight children, only one of whom, 



TOWN OF CAMPTON. 



Daniel 2d, is living. The latter married three times, first, Sabrina Clement, of 
Center Harbor, N. H., who bore him five children, second, Hannah Wyatt, 
of this town, who bore him four children, and third, Hannah Downing, of 
Ellsworth. His eldest son, Ozias M., married Susan, daughter of Reuben 
and Sally (Johnson) Draper, has nine children, and lives upon the farm first 
settled by Col. Samuel Holmes, who settled here from Hadden, Conn., in 
1772, on road 14. 

Pelatiah C. Blaisdell, a native of Campton, and son of John, who served in 
the war of 1812^ and was engaged m the battle of Plattsburg Bay, married 
Lois Cook, and reared nine children. John M., one of the seven children 
now living, married JuUa, daughter of Alpheus and Rosilla (Avery) Hall, of 
Sandwich, and has one child, Edith M. George F., brother of John M., is 
also a resident of Campton, on road 15. 

Joel Pierce, a native of Petersham, Mass., came to Campton about 183 1, 
married Hannah F. Rowe, and reared eight children, six of whom are living. 
He was engaged in the manufacture of furniture, and died in 1876. His son 
Nathan married Caroline M., daughter of Greeniief and Rebecca (Mitchell) 
Foss, of Campton, is a manufacturer of furniture, and resides in Campton 
Village. 

Benjamin Stickney came here from Newbury, Mass., about 1838, and re- 
mained here until his death in 1876. He married Phebe Pulsifer, and had 
born to him nine children, five of whom are now living. His son William H. 
married Sarah O., daughter of Joseph and Almira Hogdon, and resides in the 
village of Campton. He was in the war of the Rebellion, enlisting August 
21, 1862, in Co I, 1 2th N. H. Vols., and after three years' service, was hon- 
orably discharged. 

Benjamin Stickney, a native of Newbury, Mass., married Annie Poor, of 
that town, and reared eight children, two of whom are living. His eldest son, 
Charles Stickney, married Abigail, daughter of Samuel and Abigail (Bur- 
bank) Noyes, and had born to him five children. Of these, Samuel N. mar- 
ried Sarah A., daughter of Samuel P. and Sally (Judkin) Smith, has seven 
children, and resides in this town on a farm off road 25. 

Alonzo D. Muchmore, M. D., was born in Orford, April 4, 1840, and was 
the second son of James Muchmore, who was born in Orford, August 4. iSio, 
and was a farmer and a manufacturer of lumber. James Muchmore, grand- 
father of Alonzo, was born at Northfield, N. H., and James, the great-grand- 
father of Alonzo, was born on the Isle of Shoals, N. H. His mother, Sarah 
J. Buntin, was the daughter of James Buntin, a soldier of the war of 181 2. 
His grandmother, Sally Sherman, was a daughter of John Sherman, a soldier 
who served through the seven years' War of the Revolution. Her brother 
served in the War of 18 12 on the ocean as officer of privateers, John Sher- 
nian having command of one. He also commanded the first steamboat that 
cruised Lake Champlain. Alonzo Munchmore spent the early part of his 
life laboring on his father's farm or in his fathers mill, but being greatly in- 



TOWN OF CAMPTON. 



terested in the study of medicine, his leisure time was engaged by that pur- 
suit. He enHsted, November 30, 186 1, in the 6th N. H. Vols., and, after 
serving several months, was discharged April 9, 1862, by reason of disease of 
the lungs. He was then unable to perform hard labor, but pursued his stu- 
dies when his health would permit, and finally, in 1879, ^^^ examined by the 
State censors of the New Hampshire Eclectric Medical Society, and granted a 
certificate. He commenced the practice of medicine at Campton, where he 
has a large and lucrative practice. Since then he has attended two courses 
of lectures in the Eclectic Medical college of Maine, where he graduated 
February 8, 1883, receiving the diploma of that institution. He is a mem- 
ber of the Campton Village Baptist church, and one of its wardens, a member 
of the New Hampshire Eclectic Medical Society, and one of its State board 
of censors, a member of Penniman Post G. A. R., of the Sons of Temperance, 
of Olive Branch Lodge, No. 16, F. A. M., and of the Ancient United Order 
of Druids. He married Effie L. Cross, of Piermont, June 16, 1870, and has 
one child, James Christie, born April 4, 187 i. 

Henry Dole, a soldier of the war of 181 2, married Anna Poore, reared a 
family of nine children, lived in Newbury, Mass., but afterward moved to 
Limerick, Me. His son Henry married Sarah, daughter of John and Sarah 
Butler, of Newbury, Mass., had born to him eleven children, nine of whom 
are now living. Erastus, the i.inth child, married twice, first, Samantha, 
daughter of Moody and Lucy (Eatou) Cook, who bore him two children, and 
second. Flora E., daughter of Dr. Peter L. and Elizabeth A. (Davis Hoyt. 
Mr. Dole came to Campton, from Limerick, Me, about 1840, and engaged 
in the manufacture of woolen goods, carrying on the business which is known 
as the Madriver Woolen Mills in the village of Campton, which he has con- 
tinued with great success up to the present time. His sons. Moody C. and 
Herbert E., are residents of Campton Village. Moses C. Dole, brother of 
Erastus, came to this town in 1841, and engaged in the manufacture of 
woolen goods with his brother, in which business he still continues. He 
married twice, first, Lucy, daughter of Moody and Lucy (Eaton) Cook, and 
second, Sarah E., daughter of Judge Walter and Eliza (Farnum) Blair. Mrs. 
Sarah E. Dole graduated at Newbury Seminary, Vt., and was a teacher in 
the high school at Concord, N. H., for ten years. 

George Robinson came from Scotland at the age of sixteen years, being 
the first ot that name who came to this country. Ezekiel, his eldest son, mar- 
ried Hannah Hutchins, of Killingly, Conn., and reared a family of six child- 
ren. His son Preserved married twice, first, Betsey Gillis, of Bedford, N. H., 
and second, Mahaley Kimball, of Concord, N. H. He built the first cotton 
mill in the State of New Hampshire. William P., one of the four children, 
married Julia W., daughter of Carter and Mahaley Foss, of Thornton, and 
had five children, namely, George, Charles, Julia, Jennie and Frank. Will- 
iam P., Robinson died October 27, 1877, aged sixty-one years. His widow 
is now at the homestead in Campton Village. Ebenezer Foss was one of the 



TOWN OF CAMPTON. 



early settlers of Thornton, N. FI. Daniel Robinson was governor of the 
State of Florida many years ago. 

Richard Plurnmer, a native of Gilmanton, N. H., married Mary Boynton, 
and reared seven children. Richard J., one of the three children now living, 
married Nancy, daughter of Samuel and Abigail (Hunter) Swayne, and has 
two children, Sarah A. Kimball, residing in Matoon, 111., and John H , o^ 
Campton Village. The latter served in the late war in Co. E, i8th N. H. 
Vols. He married Nellie, daughter of Pelatiah and Mary A. Woodman 
Russell, of Plymouth, N. H., and has one child, Carrie E., who lives at home. 
Richard J. also resides in Campton Village. 

Daniel Damon was a resident of Redding, Mass., and reared eight chil- 
dren. His seventh son, Warren, married Nancy, daughter of Samuel and 
Abbey (Hartshorn) Pierson, and reared six children, three sons and three 
daughters. His second son, Warren, married Adeline F., daughter of Moses 
and Abra (Holmes) Blaisdell, of Campton, and has one son, Charles H., who 
resides in Boston. Warren, Jr., came here, from Lowell, Mass., in i860. He 
has been in the United States military service five years, being in the Florida 
war in 1839. 

John Cutter, a native of Woburn, Mass., came to Jaffrey, N. H., married 
Abigail DeMary, of Rindge, and reared twelve children. His son fohn was 
a tanner by trade, and married Betsey Crosby, of Jaffrey. Alpheus Crosby, 
grandfather of Charles Cutter, was a soldier in the French and Indian war, 
and his father. Captain Josiah, was a soldier in the Revolutionary war. The 
latter, a native of Billerica, Mass., commanded the first company raised in 
Amherst, Mass., and marched from that town the day after the battle of Lex. 
ington. He was present at the battle of Bunker Hill. Charles Cutter, one 
of the ten children of John, married Sarah L., daughter of Joseph and Sarah 
D. (Parker) Joslyn. He graduated from Dartmouth college, and since then 
has taught school for fifteen years. He came to this town in 1857. He 
was appointed school commissioner of Grafton county for 1863. and has 
been town superintendent several years. 

Dr. John Kinsman, son of Isaac, who was an earl} settler of the town of 
Grafton, married Susan Lumber, of Lebanon, N. H., and re red nine chil- 
dren. Stephen D., the only one now living, married Belinda, daughter of 
Alexander and Sally (Bean) Rowe. His adopted son, Alanson W. Barney, 
was a soldier in the late war, enlisting in Co. B, 4th N. H. Vols., served four 
years, and was killed at Burmuda Hundred, 

Simeon Knowles, a native of Seabrook, N. H., came to Grafton county in 
1843, and married Abigail Rollins, of Northwood, N. H. His son, Hiram S. 
married Mary F., daughter of Levi Cram, and has two children, WiUiam N. 
and Edwin G., and lives at Campton Village. 

Stephen Smith came to Thornton, from Newburyport, Mass., and reared six 
children. His son Stephen married Hannah, daughter of John and Mehet- 
able (Worthing) Foss, and had born to him six children. Freeman C, one 



TOWN OF CAMPTON. 213 



of the four children living, married Marinda C, daughter of Daniel and 
Mercy (Priest) Jewell, has two children, Lucius D. and Wilfred, and resides 
in Campton Village, on Main street. 

Shubael Sanborn was a native of Canterbury, N. H., and also a life-long 
resident of that town. He had born to him twelve children, seven sons and 
five daughters, one of whom, Joseph, moved to Holderness about 1830, mar- 
ried Cyrene Cofran, of Northfield, N. H., and reared six children. He died 
August 9, 1874, aged sixty-five years. Benjamin, one of the two children 
living, married Nettie D., daughter of Edmond and Sally (Bartlett) Cone, and 
resides in Campton Village. Shubael Sanborn, brother of Benjamin, married 
Lizzie Russell, of Thornton, and resides in Rising City, Neb. 

Horace L. Thurston, son of Josiah and Martha M. (Marsh) Thurston, 
married Stella L., daughter of William and Asenath (Scales) Baker, has one 
child, Lillie M., now at home, and resides in Campton Village. Mr. Thurston 
was a soldier in the late war, enlisting in 1863, in Co. A, 8th N. PL Vols., and 
was honorably discharged. 

Ebenezer Foss came from Concord, and was one of the early settlers of 
Thornton. He married a Miss Hoyt, of Concord, and had-born to him thir- 
teen children, three of whom are living. His son, John H., married Eliza= 
beth, daughter of Moses Chase, and reared a family of thirteen children, five 
of whom are living. His son John R. married three times, first, Nancy M. 
Richards, second, Mary Wilkins, and third, Mrs. Laura A. Thompson, 
daughter of Samuel and Elizabeth (Davis) Emerson, and has four children 
namely, Emma M., Lucia M., Edwin B. and Laura E. Mr. Foss is a resi 
dent of Campton Village. 

David Philbrick, a native of Old Hampton, N. H., married twice, first, Jen- 
nie Masten, who bore him four children, and second, Hannah Graves, and 
had born to him three children. His son David, married twice, first Eliza 
Dockham, and second, Abigail Roberts. Sylvester, one of his three children 
married Sarah, daughter of Edward and Betsey (Pease) Wallace. His four 
children, Nellie E., AHce M., Byron J. and Lizzie G., reside with their mother, 
on the homestead, in Campton Village. 

Dodavah Ham came from Barnsted, N. H., and was an early settler in the 
town of Ellsworth. He was twice married, and reared a family of seven chil- 
dren. His son, Dodavah, married Abigail, daughter of Benjamin and Betsey 
(Spokesfield) Hill, of Thornton, and had born to him five children, two of 
whom are living. His eldest son, Joseph H., resides in Campton Village with 
his mother. His brother Benjamin A. was a soldier in the war of the Rebel- 
lion, enlisted in Co. A, 6th N. H. Vols., served one year, and died in 1862, at 
Newport News, Va., aged eighteen years. 

Simeon Sanborn, son of Ebenezer, who was one of the early settlers of 
Sanbornton, N. H., was born October 8, 1793, married Lucy Palmer, and had 
three children. He was a soldier of the War of 1812, and was the last sur- 
vivor of the Sanbornton soldiers of 18 14. He was a highly respected deacon 



214 TOWN OF CAMPTON. 



of the Congregational church, at Plymouth, N. H. He died September 27, 
1883. His youngest son, Charles, married twice, first, Elizabeth Cram, and 
second, Ann Rowe, and has one son. He served in the late war, in Co. 
C, and Co. A, of the 5th and r8th N. H. Vols., and was honorably discharged 
at the close of the war. His son, Carroll G., married Hattie G., daughter of 
Gideon and Esther W. (Perkins) Moulton, and resides in Campton Village. 

Thomas Robie, of Revolutionary fame, was a resident of Thornton, and 
was a blacksmith. He was of Scotch descent, married Jennie McDerrnitt, 
and reared seven children. His youngest son, Archie, married, May 12, 
1853, Sally S., daughter of Mark and Nancy (Clark) Plummer, of Sanborn- 
ton, N. H., and has reared thirteen children, seven boys and six girls. He 
resides in Campton Village, has held the office of selectman four years, town 
collector three years, and has been overseer of the poor seven years. He 
has been a noted lumberaian in the town for many years. 

Joseph C. Blair, son of Peter, was born December 17, 1809, married Dolly 
P. Noyes, and reared four children, two now living. He died October g, 
1864. His son, Joseph C, married Christine S., daughter of Daniel R. and 
Eunice K. (Coffin) Burleigh, and has three children, Joseph C, I^aura A., 
and Agnes B. He resides in this town, and is proprietor of the popular 
summer boarding-house, called Blair's Hotel. 

Addison P. Barker was a native of Island Falls, Me., and married Susan 
A. Brown, of North Woodstock, N. H. Addison P.. one of his three chil- 
dren, married Minnie E., daughter of Louis A. and Lucy M. Young, of this 
town, and resides at West Campton, on road 4. 

Timothy Davis, the fifth generation of that name, married Mary Coffin, of 
Nantucket, and resides in Boston. Mard N., one of his four children, mar- 
ried Lucy, daughter of Gilman and Bellona (Reed) Greenwood, has one son, 
Timothy, and has a summer residence in this town, on road 23. This farm 
was settled by Mr. Fox, the first settled in town. 

Ebenezer Mitchell, a native of Maine, reared seven children, one of whom, 
Israel, came to Campton in 1849, and married Hepsibah P. Blair. Samuel 
S., one of his seven children, married Milla H., daughter of Gilbert W. and 
Jane C. (Bryant) Homans, has three children, and resides on the home farm. 
His brother, Ira C, married Mynetta, daughter of Sylvester Sweet, has three 
children, and resides on road 1. 

Benjamin Morrell, of Revolutionary fame, married Lovey, daughter of 
Samuel Drew, and reared ten children. His son Theophilus E. married 
Mary, daughter of Nathan and Elizabeth (James) Thorn, and reared eight 
children, five of whom are living. Nathan Thorn served in the Revolution- 
ary war. Rev. Theophilus E. A. Morrell, son of Theophilus. married Eliza, 
daughter of Jeremiah and Mary (Jones) Brown, has two children, and resides 
in West Campton. 

John S. Hanaford, son of Peter, came to Campton, from Holderness, in 
i860, married Lydia, daughter of John Clark, and granddaughter of John 



TOWN OF CAMPTON. 215 



Clark, who served in the Revolutionary war. Mr. Hanaford resides in this 
town, on road 25. 

Hezekiah Smith lived in Meredith. N. H., and reared nine children, one of 
whom. Moody H , came to Campton, from Sandwich, N. H. He reared a 
family of ten children, three of whom served in the la*e war. His daughter 
Fannie C. married J. Frank Smith. They have three children, and reside in 
this town, on road 3. John M., father of J. Frank, came to Campton, from 
Laconia, in 1853, married twice, first, Fanny Edgely, and second, Sarah 
Watson, of Guilford, N. H., had born to him four children, and died in 1881, 
aged seventy-five years. Daniel, father of John M,, a soldier of the war of 
1812, was a native of Gilmanton, N. H., married Mary Mudgett, and reared 
eight children, one of whom, Mrs. James Mudgett, of New Hampton, is 
living. 

WiUiam Wallace, son of William, is a native of Portsmouth, N. H., mar- 
ried Julia M., daughter of EHsha Starks, of Hanover, and had born to him 
ten children. William, Jr., one of the six children now hving, married Han- 
nah B., daughter of James and Ruth (Pulsifer) Burbeck, and resides in this 
town, on the homestead of James Burbeck, on road 38. The first settler 
upon this place was Chilliad Brainard. William Wallace served in the late 
war, in Co. K, 12th N. H. Vols., and was honorably discharged. 

Moses Shaw, a Revolutionary soldier, was an early settler of Holderness. 
His son Asa married Diodama York, and reared nine children, eight of whom 
are living. His youngest child, William H., married Charlotte E., daughter 
of Timothy and Esther (Cox) Marden, has three children, and now resides in 
Holderness. 

James E. Bump, son of James, married Nancy J., daughter of Stephen 
and Mary (Avery) Hutchins, of Rumney, and has three children, namely, 
Ada M., Curtis G., and Wald J. He resides on the home farm, on road 27. 

Edson P. Hart, son of Abel, married twice, first, Mary J. Morrison, and 
second, Mary S. Stinson, and has reared five children. Edwin A. Hart served 
in the Rebellion, in Co. B, 15th N. H. Vols., and died in the service, in 
August, 1863, aged nineteen years. 

David Bartlett, a native ot Newburyport, Mass., came to Campton in 1783, 
and was the first settler upon the farm where J. M. Calley now lives on road 
20. He was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, married Johanna Hazelton, 
of Chester, and reared a family of six children. He removed to a place on 
road 15, where he died in 1844. He was a deacon in the Congregational 
church fifty years. His son David married Eunice, daughter of Edmond and 
Eunice (Cook) Marsh. Four of his eight children are Hving, one of whom, 
Gardiner S., the oldest son, married Rebecca S., daughter of George and 
Lydia Burrows, of Bradford, Mass., has two children, David G. and Martha 
P., and resides on the homestead. 

Jeremiah Dow, a native of Newmarket, N. H., served in the war of 1812, 
was at the battle of Plattsburg Bay, and came to Barnsted, N. H., about 



2l6 TOWN OF CAMPTON. 

1810. He married twice, first, Mary Hall, of Strafford, who bore him eleven' 
children, and second, Mrs. Mary Wentworth, daughter of Gee and Phebe 
(Littlefield) Nason, of Dorchester. Lieut. Samuel H., one of the four chil- 
dren now living, married Catharine L. Munson, and has reared five children. 
His eldest son, Walter H., married Clara A., daughter of Luther and Eliza 
Sanburn Osgood, has one son, Luther O., and resides in Campton. Ernest 
W., second son of Lieut. Samuel H. Dow, is now located at Knoxboro, N. 
Y., as a licensed minister, married Blanche Hinman, of Munnsville, N. Y., 
and has one child, Helen K. Mary C, eldest daughter of Lieut. Samuel H.. 
married Dea. William Chase, of North Tisbury, Martha's Vineyard, where 
they now live. Mr. Chase is a farmer and a carpenter. 

William Preston, son of John, is a resident of Cabot, Vt., married Eliza 
Bradford, and has three children. His son Henry C. married Selina, daugh- 
ter of Henry C. and Eliza (Packard) Houston, of Thornton, and has four chil- 
dren, namely: Mrs. Cory N. Bugbee, of Hartford, Vt., Charles M., Fred 
H. and Herbert R. He resides m this town on road 8. Henry C. Preston 
was a soldier in the late war, enUsted in 1862, in Co. H, 12th N. H. Vols., 
and served until the close of the war. Adin Packard was a pensioner of the 
war of 1 81 2. 

Thomas Jefferson Sanborn was born in Sanbornton, in 181 2. He was 
educated at Sanbornton academy, and in early life was engaged in teach- 
ing our primary schools. He married Relief Rogers Morrison, of Plymouth, 
in 1 84 1, and soon after was engaged in keeping a hotel at Sanbornton 
Square. In 1848 he bought a farm in West Campton, to which he removed. 
He soon after commenced taking a few city boarders, the house then being 
only a common farm-house. The number of his boarders annually increased, 
and he enlarged the house from time to time until he could accommodate 
nearly seventy-five guests, and it is now among the popular summer boarding- 
houses of the county, managed by his only son, Edward H. Sanborn. While 
a resident of West Campton he was elected to all the important town offices^ 
was postmaster twenty-five years, moderator twenty-nine years, representa- 
tive two years, and county commissioner two terms, and discharged the du- 
charged the duties of every office with the greatest fidelity. He was also 
quite extensively engaged in the insurance business. He was a great reader 
and a man of great general knowledge, a member of the Congregational 
church, a life member of the Bible society, and a good temperance man. He 
died September 8, 1883, ^ged seventy-one years. Mr. Sanborn was distin- 
guished for his fine sense of honor, and at the time ot his death it was uni- 
versally remarked, "A good man has fallen." Many will long remember his 
kind and gentle nature. 

Gideon A. Wallace married Eliza V., daughter of John and Olive A. (Chad- 
wick) Knowles, and resides at Campton Village. 

Sylvester Marsh, the originator and constructor of the Mount Washington 
railroad, is a native of this town. 




o-^^i^/ J^ J^S^^2.^^W^^ 



TOWN OF CANAAN. 2 1/ 



The First Congregational church of Campton^ located at Campton Center, 
was originally formed by Rev. Selden Church, June 2, 1774, who was ordained 
the 26th of the following October; but it was not until 1807, that a strictly 
orthodox creed was adopted. Some preliminary steps were taken towards 
erecting a church building, when the Revolutionary war came on and stopped 
the proceedings. In 1779, the "dwelling of Joseph Pulsifer" was purchased by 
the town, and fitted up for a church. In 1791 it was moved to a more conven- 
ient spot, near the Pemigewasset river, re-modeled and made more conven- 
ient. The present building was raised m 1799, and finished in 1802. It is 
a wooden structure, valued, including grounds, at $6,000.00. The society 
now has seventy-eight members, with Rev. Quincy Blakely, pastor. The Sab- 
bath-school has 112 scholars. 

The Calvinistic Baptist church, located at Campton Village, was organized 
by elders Chapin and Baker, with fifty-one members, in 1812, Rev. Shubael 
Tripp being installed as the first pastor. The church building, a brick struc- 
ture, erected in 1826, will seat 250 persons, and is valued, including grounds, 
at $3,500.00. The society now has 122 members, with Rev. William Bart- 
lett, pastor. Its Sabbath-school has 114 scholars. 

The Campton and Thornton Free Will Baptist church, located in the north- 
western part of the town, was organized by Elder Horace Webber, with ten 
members, in 1835, Rev. Moses Fulson, being the first pastor. The church 
building, a wooden structure, erected in 1853, will seat two hundred persons, 
and is valued, including grounds, at $1,000.00. The society's present pastor 
is Rev. J. L. Demont. Its Sabbath-school has fifty scholars. 



CANAAN lies in the southern part of the county, in lat. 43 "^ 40' and 
long. 72" 3', bounded north by Dorchester, east by Orange, south by 
Enfield and west by Hanover. The surface of the land is very uneven, 
arranged in hills and valleys, much of the hill land being at the present time 
bare and almost barren, from the denuding of the forests and from unskilled 
agricultural labor. The earth is very full of stones, there being a very small 
portion of it which will not yield from each square rod stones enough to 
build a four-foot wall around it. The soil is good when nourished and cared 
for. Many of the farmers are poor men, whose necessities compel them to 
work so much from home that the farms are neglected, and thus their poor 
lands have grown up to bushes, brakes and hard-hacks. These disparaging 
remarks, however, do not apply to all the farm lands, as very skillful and 
thrifty farmers are located in communities, who are proud to show their well 
preserved buildings, clean fields and nice, growing crops. 

The only stream of importance is the Mascoma river, which has its source 
in the northwestern part of Dorchester, and, after a serpentine course of 
some fifty miles, empties into the Connecticut, at Lebanon, first passing 



2l8 TOWN OF CANAAN. 



through Mascoma lake, in Enfield. Indian river, called by the early settlers 
North branch, has its source in the southeastern part of Dorchester, and, 
after a winding course of twelve or fifteen miles, unites with the Mascoma, 
in the meadows near Benjamin Norris's. There are several brooks and 
ponds, the waters of which finally reach the Mascoma, and many of these 
brooks, after more than one hundred and fifty years' labor by the patient fish- 
erman, are still alive with speckled trout; but it requires very skillful handling 
of the rod to make the beauties rise to the hook. Heart pond, near the 
center of the town, is 1,150 feet above tide water, a beautiful sheet of clear 
water, with shallow edges and sandy bottom. It is 560 rods long by 320 in 
width. On its western shore is a level stretch of land which afforded so 
much attraction to the early settlers that they laid out, in 1788, a highway 
eight rods wide and 288 rods long, extending by compass "north 12° east," 
which they named "Canaan Broad Street," and which name it has always 
since borne. That strip of highway became the business center of the town — 
a thriving village, with churches, schools, stores, and traders and artisans who 
died in the belief that their village was to flourish forever. Twelve years 
ago Heart pond was stocked with bass and land-locked salmon by the State 
Commissioners, and these, with the pickerel, afford legitimate and exciting 
sport. The air in this section is pure and healthful, and in recent years The 
Street has become a popular resort for city people. Goose pond, in the 
northwest corner of the town, four miles long, is well stocked with pickerel. 
Clark pond, in the northeast part, is stocked with perch and pickerel. Mud 
pond and Bear pond are famous for their turtles, snakes and lillies, and for 
the wavy, undulating motion of the shores all around them, indicating that a 
crust is forming over their muddy waters, which will some day be covered by 
a grassy plain. 

The charier of Canaan bears the same date as twenty-two other townships, 
having been issued July q, i 761. According to this charter the town was divided 
into sixty-eight shares, among sixty-two men and six societies. All of these 
proprietors, except twelve, were from Norwich or Colchester and vicinity, in 
Connecticut, and intended to become bona-fide settlers. The twelve excep- 
tions were Gov. Benning Wentworth and his friends in the vicinity of Ports- 
mouth. Their names were written in the charter through court favoritism, a 
system of rewards for political services well understood in courts and cabi- 
nets, and by which men of genius and wit got lands and property without 
work. Among these court favorites were Daniel Fowle, the printer, two 
cousins of the governor, and George and WilHam King, merchants. 

The charter is an interesting document, its tone being very grand and 
kingly. Attached to it are the names of the sixty-two original grantees, among 
them all it does not appear by the record that more than twelve ever visited 
their grant, Amos Walworth, Lewis Joslyn, Ebenezer Eames, George 
Harris, Daniel Harris, Samuel Meacham, Thomas Gates, Thomas Miner, 
James Jones, Samuel Dodge, and perhaps a few others, became residents. 



TOWN OF CANAAN. 2I9 



These gentlemen appear to have made explorations and to have performed 
various labors, leaving honorable names upon the records. There were also 
other men than those mentioned in the charter, to whom Canaan was in- 
debted for opening up highways in the wilderness which enveloped all her 
hills and valleys. 

But few authentic papers exist relative to the early settlement of the town. 
No diaries detailing the events of daily social life have ever been discovered. 
Very few letters are extant relating to the prospects or fate of those who came 
here, many of whom departed hence without leaving their address. The 
information to be obtained from the public records is meagre. These records 
give the appointment of committees and the election of officers, whose re- 
ports, after being " excepted " are not even placed on file. There are votes 
authorizing the raising of money for various purposes, but it does not appear 
how the money was expended. Not until 1793, thirty-two years from the date 
of the charter, is there a record of the taxpayers. The list for this year gives 
124 names. 

In 1880 Canaan had a population of 1,763 souls. In 1885 the town had 
twenty-one school districts, thirty-one common schools, and two graded schools. 
Its twenty school-houses were valued, including furniture, etc., at $2,050.00. 
There were 317 children attending school, eighteen of whom were pursuing 
the higher grades, taught during the year by two male and tweny-three female 
teachers, at an average monthly salary of $33.00 for males and $15.89 for fe- 
males. The entire amount raised for school purposes during the year was 
$1,470.92, while the expenditures were $1,534.03, with S. R. Swett, superin- 
tendent 

East Canaan is a post village located in the southeastern part of the town, 
it is a very thriving little community and a station on the Boston & Lowell 
Railroad. 

Canaan Street is a post village located in the central part of the town, 
on an elevation commanding a fine view of the surrounding country. It has 
one church (Methodist Episcopal) and a general store. 

Factory Village (Canaan p. o.) is a bright little manufacturing village 
located in the central part of the town. 

West Canaan is a small post village and station on the Boston & Lowell 
Railroad, located in the southern part of the town. 

The Cardigan House, George W. Miller, proprietor, located near the R. R. 
station at East Canaan, is well kept, clean and wholesome, by a courteous 
and accommodating landlord. A stable is attached, whence travelers may be 
conveyed at their pleasure into the surrounding country. 

The Parker House, at East Canaan, Freeman S. Parker, proprietor, is a nice 
resort for quiet people. It is pleasantly located about eighty rods from the 
Railroad station. 

The Jerusalem Spring House, E, A. Hibbard proprietor, was built seven 
years ago, at an expense of $15,000.00. The great attraction is its spring of 



TOWN OF CANAAN. 



pure aerated water, which boils out from a fissue in the rocks. The eleva- 
tion of the house is 2,000 feet above the water. All its appointments are 
neat and tasty. 

The Sunset House, near Canaan Street, by Mrs. H. B. Tenney, is a new 
house for summer boarders. It has accommodations for about twenty guests, 
is situated 1,100 feet above tide water, and is easy of approach. 

Crystal Lake Hotel \?, the name of the old tavern on Canaan Street, Mrs. 
M. S. A. Derby and daughter, proprietors. It was built in 1791; but has 
been enlarged and repaired so as to make a very desirable resort for sum- 
mer boarders. It has an elevation of 1,200 feet and fronts on Heart pond. 

Several other farm houses have been fitted up for the accommodation of 
summer guests, and by the aid of the newspapers the town has been made 
the home of large numbers of strangers during the summer months. 

Peaslee^s saw-mill and chair stock factory. — Stephen Peaslee carries on the 
manufacture of lumber on an extensive scale, at Factory Village, where he 
commenced business in 1875. He manufactures hard wood lumber, shmgles, 
chair-stock, lath, and dimension lumber of all kinds. He gives employment 
to fifteen men and a number of teams. He has turned out a million and a 
half feet of lumber yearly. He has also a steam saw-mill at East Canaan, of 
the capacity of 10,000 feet of lumber daily. He also has a grist-mill in the 
same village, which has two runs of stones, and does a custom and merchant 
milling business. 

Fred J. L'oUins &^ Co., of Boston, carry on the manufacture of leather- 
board, at Factory Village, in the factory owned by Stephen Peaselee, and 
formerly used for the manufacture of straw-board. This business was estab- 
lished in February, 1885. They employ ten hands, turning out twenty-five 
hundred pounds daily. 

Joseph F. Stockbridge carries on the business of a dealer in granite, and 
manufacturer of all kinds of cemetery work in granite, at East Canaan. 

C H. Butmari: s grist-mill^ on road 45, a half mile from East Canaan, was 
built about 1870, is run by water-power, and has three runs of stones. 

The story of the first settler in Canaan is partly legendary ; but some 
authentic facts have been obtained concerning him, from his descendants now 
living in Canada. John Scofield left Connecticut in the spring of 1766. in 
search of a home. He had worked his way up the Connecticut river, from 
the vicinity of Norwich, with the intention of going on to Canada. In De- 
cember, 1766, he was wandering about in the neighborhood of Lebanon and 
Hanover, and from passing hunters and woodsmen learned of the rich inter- 
vales, large trees and abundance of game to be found in the wilderness of 
this town, where as yet no man had stopped for a longer time than was needed 
to take up his traps. He started for the dew region, hauHng his effects on a 
hand-sled, followed by his wife and three children — two young sons and a 
daughter — the distance being fourteen miles, marked by blazed trees. He 
reached the Mascoma river, and crossed it on the ice toward dark. He 



TOWN OF CANAAN. 



brought his axe, shovel and rifle, and locating on a convenient spot about a 
mile from the river, he built a great fire, cleared away the snow, and packed 
up brush to serve as a night's shelter for his family, then ate a frugal supper, 
and slept. His first brush house was woven together in the valley, about 
twenty-five rods north from the school-house, in district No. lo, and, as soon 
after as possible, he built a log house, in the same place, which served for a 
comfortable shelter during his first winter here. It was at this place that he 
was startled by the report of the gun of Thomas Miner, on that eventful 
morning, in the following spring, which was a signal to him that he was no 
longer a lone settler in Canaan. Sometime after this event, and before the 
lands were taken up by the slowly arriving grantees, he built a house nearer 
the river, where he spent the remainder of his life. The field where his 
remains now lie was his property, deeded to him by Thomas Miner. He 
cleaied it, and dedicated a portion of it as a burial place. Several young per- 
sons were buried here previous to his own death, which occurred July 5, 
1784. Mrs. Sarah Scofield, his widow, survived lim until 1796, and is sup- 
posed to have been the last person buried there. It does not appear that Mr. 
Scofield's intention to set aside this ground as a burial place, was ever com- 
pleted, no record being found of the fact, and when the farm was sold to Capt. 
Daniel Pattee, in 1803, no reservation was made in the deed as to these 
graves, and they became the property of the purchaser of the farm. 

The family of Mr. Scofield consisted of Sarah, his wife, and three children, 
Eleazer, twelve, John, Jr., ten, and Miriam eight years old^ at the time of 
their arrival. Miriam afterwards became the wife of Maj. Samuel Jones, one 
of the early settlers from Connecticut. 

Mr. Scofield was a strong-minded, self-reliant man of fifty-one years at this 
time, and had been accustomed to the comforts of social life. That his 
labors and virtues were appreciated is evident from the fact that when the 
proprietors awarded sixty dollars to those pioneers who had contributed most 
towards the good of the colony, Mr. Scofield was mentioned first of four, his 
share being twenty-six dollars. 

Thomas Miner was the second man who came on to colonize the town. 
He was a resident of Norwich, Conn., and at the date of the charter, in 
which he is mentioned as a grantee, he was eighteen years of age. He was 
a restless man, of great energy and activity all his life ; not much of a scholar, 
a poor writer, and not always mindful of the courtesies of life. Several of his 
early years were passed upon the sea. In 1765, at the age of twenty-two, he 
married Eleanor Lamb, of Norwich, and their first child, Allen, was born in 
September, 1776. At this time he was out of business, and had consulted 
with several of the grantees upon the propriety of making a journey into 
New Hampshire to look after their township. Had he followed his own 
inclinations he would have been here in advance of Mr. Scofield. There 
were then no mails, no postmasters ; all communications being passed by 
private hand. ' He could learn but few particulars concerning the locality. 



TOWN OF CANAAN. 



Emigrants to the Upper Coos had passed through it by the foot trail, but 
they could give no description of it except that it was covered with goodly 
trees, had plenty of stone for building purposes, and that the water abounded 
with fish and the woods with game, some of it dangerous: 

Many of the proprietors, particularly the Harrises, — George, Gibson, and 
Daniel, — and Dr. Eames, James Jones, Amos Walworth, and Samuel Mea- 
cham were arranging to come. Joshua and Ezekiel Wells, Sam and Jehu 
Jones, Lewis Joslyn, and Samuel Benedict also intended to come, and did come 
afterwards, but were not quite ready then, and persuaded Miner to wait until 
the spring of 1767, when, they assured him, they would all go together and 
strengthen and support each other. When the spring opened they were still 
undecided, desiring to hear something more definite of the territory. Miner 
told them they were too slow for him, that he should start about the first of 
April, and if any of them chose to go along, he would be pleased with their 
company. At his own appointed time he took his wife and child, and 
such implements as he could pack upon a horse, and with a compass in 
his pocket to guide him when he became uncertain of the way, he started for 
the new territory, driving a cow. His journey was a quiet one, unmarked by 
any disturbing incidents. Arriving at their land of promise, they first camped 
upon a rise of land afterwards called the South Road. 

Thomas took his axe and soon cleared away the brush and arranged the 
branches of the trees for a shelter. Then, with flint and steel, he struck a 
light, and while his wife mixed the corn bread he milked the cow, and they 
soon sat down to their first frugal meal in Canaan. On awaking the next 
morning, their ears were greeted with sounds as of chopping. Thomas dis- 
charged his rifle and awaited the result. This was soon answered by the 
report of another rifle. Working his way cautiously through the bushes, he 
soon found himself in the presence of our first settler and oldest inhabitant, 
John Scofield. 

After the departure of young Miner, the scheme for emigration often came 
to the surface with those left behind, but the faith of many was so weak that 
it was several months before a conclusion was reached, and that was to send 
up a small company of explorers, who should view the land, observe all its 
beauties and deformities, and report upon the uses to which industrious men 
might put it. This party consisted of George Harris and his brother Daniel, 
Amos Walworth, Samuel Benedict, Samuel Jones, Lewis Joslyn, Asa Williams, 
Joseph Craw, and Daniel Grossman, several of whom had the courage to 
bring their families with them. This expedition arrived here late in the 
summer of 1767. 

George Harris, a man of energy and superior intelligence, was recognized 
as the leader among them. He immediately organized parties for exploring, 
and in a few days they had visited the southern, northern and western por- 
tions of the town. These parties returned to Mr. Miner's camp at the 
time appointed, bringing favorable reports of the lands they had examined. 



TOWN OF CANAAN. 223 



In their travels, each one had selected a spot on which to build his home. 
George Harris, Samuel Jones, David Grossman and Samuel Benedict se- 
lected lands on "South Road " so as to form a neighborhood. Asa Will- 
iams, Daniel Grossman and Joseph Graw selected lands south of the cen- 
ter of the town, and they, having their families along, in imitation of Sco- 
field and Miner, went immediately to house-keeping under the brush. 

Mr. Harris and Mr. Walworth returned to Golchester to convey the result 
of their observations to the waiting ones. These were not yet ready, how- 
ever, and did not start for more than a year, except Mr. Harris, who with his 
wife and two sons, Joshua and Hubbard, accompanied by Samuel Dodge and 
Gapt. Josiah Gates, returned to his new home and busied himself in assign- 
ing lands, laying out roads and other matters in the interest of the grantees. 
Before winter set in, each of these families had built log houses and were pre- 
pared with their slender means to meet the rigors of the season. Fortunately 
for their comfort, the snow was not abundant and the season was compara- 
tively mild. 

Their numbers increased slowly. In 1776, ten years after the arrival of 
Mr. Scofield, the total male population above twenty-one years of age was 
twenty-four, all of whom signed the "association test," by which "we, the sub- 
scribers, do hereby solemnly engage and promise that we will, to the utmost 
of our power, at the risque of our lives and fortunes, with arms, oppose the 
hostile proceedings of the British fleets and armies against the united Ameri- 
can colonies." 

There was much to discourage these new settlers — no roads to pass from 
house to house, no grist-mill, no saw-mill, no crops to be gathered. The 
mode of their coming not being favorable to the transportation of food or 
grain, their slender stock slowly diminished and they began to feel alarm 
for their future. At Lebanon a mill had been erected. Only a foot trail 
^ed there, obstructed by swamps and fallen trees ; rafts of logs served for 
bridges ; hither a man must walk, work a day to earn a bushel of "bread- 
corn" and have it ground, then pack it upon his back to his home. We can 
imagine how carefully that bushel of bread-corn was husbanded. During the 
winter and spring of 1768 there was but little variation in the labors of the 
settlers. Some progress had been made in laying out roads, several acres of 
trees had been felled and the land burned over preparatory to putting in seed. 
The first legal meeting of the proprietors was held this year. The following 
is a copy of the record of proceedings: — 

" Ganaan, July 9, 1768. 

" Province ^ " At a meeting legally warned of the proprietors of the 
OF >- township of Ganaan, in said province, the following votes 

Nf.w Hamhshire J were passed, viz. : — 

" Ghose Mr. George Harris, moderator. 

" Made choice of Joseph Graw, proprietors' clerk. 

" Made choice of George Harris, first committeeman ; Gapt. Josiah Gates, 
second committeeman; Samuel Benedict, third committet man; John Bur- 
dick, fourth committeeman, and Joseph Craw, fifth committeman. 



224 TOWN OF CANAAN. 



" For assessors, made choice of Samuel Benedict, John Burdick and Joseph 
Craw. 

" Chose Samuel Dodge, collector, and John Scofield, treasurer. 

" Voted, to raise three dollars upon each proprietor's right, to defray the 
charges of making and mending roads. 

" Voted, that the above mentioned tax of three dollars be worked out un- 
der the care and direction of the proprietors' committee, to be done by the 
middle of November, next, and that said committee allow 4s. per day for 
said labor. 

" Voted, to raise one dollar on each proprietors' right, which the proprie- 
tors will give, with 100 acres of upland to be laid out in the undivided land 
with a stream, where it shall be judged best and must convenient to build 
mills, to any person who will appear and build a good corn-mill and saw-miU 
within sixteen months from this time, so as to have said mills well done and 
going for the benefit of said town. 

" Voted, that the proprietors' committee is hereby directed to lay out to 
those proprietors as are already settled in the township, ten acres of meadow 
and also one hundred acres of upland, where they have already made their 
pitch, to be allowed towards their right or share in said township ; and also, 
the said committee are further directed to lay out ten acres of meadow and 
one hundred acres of upland as above said [to such persons] as shall appear 
to make a speedy settlement in said town ; and furthermore, the proprietors' 
clerk is hereby directed to put the returns of said lo-acre and loo-acre lots 
upon record as they shall be laid out and returned by the committee to each 
proprietor, as aforesaid. 

" Voted, that the owners of more than one-sixteenth part of the shares or 
rights in the township shall make request to the proprietors' clerk, setting 
forth the reasons for calling said meeting, and also the articles to be acted 
upon, and of the time and place of holding said meetings ; that the clerk 
warn a meeting by setting up a notification, agreeable to said request, four 
days at least before the time of holding it, at the house of John Scofield, 
shall be a sufficient warning for the purpose. 

" Voted, to raise 6s. on each proprietor's right, in labor of proprietors, to 
be given the first settlers in said Ca laan, as was proposed, to give them en- 
couragement, to be proportioned among them as follows, viz. : to John Sco- 
field, ye vallew of $26.00; Asa Williams, ye vallew of $18.00; Samuel 
Jones, ye vallew $8.00 ; and Daniel Crossman, ye vallew of $8.00. 

" George Harris, Moderator, 
" Joseph Cram^, Clerk." 

A young child of Joseph Craw died this year, 1768, and was buried in the 
ground now embraced in the Street burial-ground, the first death in the 
township. 

In 1769 the charter of Canaan was declared forfeited, by reason of non- 
compliance with any of its provisions. The grantees sent their prayer to the 
governor for an extension, and he, considering their hardships, granted their 
prayer by reissuing their charter, in the terms of the old one. No town meet- 
ing had yet been held to organize the town. In June, 1770, application was 
made to Benjamin Giles, one of the king's justices of the peace, at Orford, 
who issued a call, pursuant to which the people met at John Scofield's house, 
July 3, and elected the following officers : John Scofield, moderator ; Samuel 



TOWN OF CANAAN. 225 



Benedict, clerk ; John Scofield, Joseph Craw and Samuel Benedict, assessors; 
Asa Williams, tithingman ; and Ezekiel Wells, highway surveyor. 

The proprietors found themselves involved in the same difficulties as the 
town in reference to their organization. The charter having been re-issued to 
them, they appHed to Israel Morey, Esq., one of the king's justices of the 
peace, at Orford, to call a legal meeting of the grantees, which he did, and 
appointed the loth of May, 1770, at John Mann's inn. in Orford, as the 
time and place of said meeting. The meeting was held agreeably to the 
call, and continued in session two days. They chose John Scofield, modera- 
tor, treasurer and assessor; Joseph Craw and Asa Kilburn, assessors ; Jede- 
diah Hibbard, proprietors' clerk and collector, and then adjourned to meet at 
Canaan on June 12th, and it was continued by adjournments during three 
and one-half years, very many important votes being passed. 

The absence of corn-mills and saw-mills had seriously embarrassed the 
settlers, and the proprietors had constantly increased the premiums for a 
builder, until three i co-acre lots were offered, together with the privilege of 
the water-power selected. This premium was finally accepted by Dr. Ebe- 
neezer Eames and Nathan Scofield, who built the first mill in the town, on 
the site of the old tannery at "The Corner," upon .the brook running from 
Heart pond.. It was completed and opened for use December i, 1771. 

In 1774 it was voted that Thomas Miner have the hberty of pitching one 
hundred acres of the undivided upland, as encouragement for building a 
saw-mill in said town. This saw-mill is said to have been erected on Moose 
brook, south of the road. The land was deeded to Mr. Miner by Capt. 
Caleb Clarke, Capt. Charles Walworth and John Scofield. This deed is very 
neatly written, in the fair hand of Thomas Baldwin, and by its terms the 
people of Canaan were '"well accommodated." It is dated "This 15th day 

of September, annoque domini, 1777," with Thomas Baldwin and 

Asa Kilburn as witnesses. 

After this period the people suffered no more inconvenience on account of 
the lack of mills. Jonathan Carlton came in from Amesbury and built mills 
at Factory Village ; Robert Barber came from New Market and built the 
mills afterwards known as Welch's ; John Pearley came from Gilmanton and 
built a mill at Goose pond, and lumber became abundant and cheap. 

In 1775 the selectmen sent a letter to the "committee of correspond- 
ence," at Exeter, by the hand of John Scofield, assuring them of the sympa- 
thy of the people in the movement for independence, other than which no 
record appears for this year. If Paul Revere's message was heard in Canaan, 
we do not know it; if any of the young town's laborers joined that band of 
patriots, we do not know it ; the old yellow leaf where the record should ap- 
pear is a blank ; the whole year went by, with all its momentous events, and 
nothing was recorded in Canaan. 

In 1776 more new names appear. Thomas Baldwin was chosen constable, 
Jonathan Bingham, surveyor; Jehu Jones, tithingman; and Asa Williams 



2 26 TOWN OF CANAAN. 



pound-keeper. The pound was located near Samuel Chapman's. Capt. 
Samuel Jones, Thomas Miner and Caleb Welch were appointed a committee 
to lay out a burial-place, and selected and laid out the grounds known as 
"The Cobble," near Jehu Jones's house, on South Road. This closes the 
record for that great year. That some of the Canaanites did engaged in the 
struggle for independence, however, is evident from the record of the follow 
ing very liberal bounty, offered by the town to the soldiers : — 

"Voted, that every person who has been in the Continental service, or may 
enlist the ensuing year, and may be gone through the usual season for busi- 
ness, shall not be liable to pay any highway taxes for that year he is gone." 

Thomas Baldwin was elected clerk for the years 1777, '78, '79 ; beyond 
this fact, and for a period of six years longer, until 1786, the town records are 
a failure, nothing appearing, save the notices of marriages, births and deaths, 
and even these are in an unknown hand. Thomas might have done much for 
our enlightment, for he was a young man of ability. He gained a great rep- 
utation in the Baptist church, but as a town clerk he was not a success. 

The first settlers, as we have said, were from Connecticut, and came chiefly 
through the influence of George Harris, one of the grantees who was much 
interested in the new colony. Williams, Craw, Jones, Crossman, Benedict, 
the Wellses, Welch, Joslyn, Walworth, Gates, Lathrop, Eames and others 
came with, or followed soon after Mr. Harris. These first comers located, 
most of them, upon the ridge of land called "South Road." Their pitches 
and purchases extending from John Scofield's, near Mascoma river, to the 
Grafton line, near which William Ayer had built a house. The South Road, 
then called the "Post Road," was laid out by the county court, and was a 
continuation of the Post road from Boston to the upper Cobs country. It 
crossed the Mascoma river near Mr. Harris's house, and passed up over Town 
hill and Sawyer hill, to Lyme, and beyond. The proprietors' committes laid 
out roads to accommodate the houses of the settlers, and they thus passed 
over high hills and through deep valleys. There were no wheeled carriages, 
and as the people all went on horse-back or afoot, the roads were straight, 
with no reference to the inequalities of the'ground. 

After 1780, when the soldiers were returning from the war, immigration 
received a fresh impulse, families from Haverhill, Amesbury, Plaistow, Hamp- 
stead. New Market, and other eastern towns, were induced to settle here, 
chiefly through the representations of the friends of the Governor, who had 
been made grantees, and were anxious to realize some profit from their grant. 
Among those who came at that time were Jonathan Dustin and his son 
David, whose descendants now occupy the lands of their ancestors. Parrot 
and Daniel Blaisdell, William Ayer, Nathaniel Bartlett, Robert Barber, Moses 
Sawyer, the six Richardson brothers, Joseph Flint, Henry Springer, William 
Longfellow, Matthew Greeley, Daniel Colby, John Worth, Richard Clark, 
Richard Otis, Warren Wilson and Joseph Wheat — thirty-eight in all, and 
thirty-two of whom lie buried here, many of them in unmarked graves. 



TOWN OF CANAAN. 227 



Capt. Asa Pattee removed to Canaan from Warner, and settled on the farm 
known as the "Pattee place," located on the South road. This place was 
first occupied by John Scofield, whose story we have told as the first white 
inhabitant of Canaan. Scofield remained on this forest home with his family 
till his death, and was buried on the place. The headstone that marked his 
grave has been removed to the State Historical Society's room, at Concord, 
for safe keeping= The first stone chimney and cellar constructed in Canaan 
now plainly mark the spot where Mr. Scofield erected the first cabin. To 
this "lodge in the vast wilderness" Capt. Asa Pattee brought his family, and 
through all these intervening years it has remained a heritage of his descend- 
ants bearing the name of Pattee. He was succeeded by his son. Col. Daniel 
Pattee, who was a farmer, and father of four sons and six daughter. His 
sons were Barnard, Daniel, James and Moses B. 

Barnard, the only surviving child of Daniel Pattee, now nearly ninety years 
of age resides in Canaan, and is a farmer. He married Betsey Howe, and 
they had born to then three sons and one daughter, only two now living, 
Daniel Pattee, Jr., second son of Daniel was born in Canaan in 1799, was a 
prominent farmer and also early in life took an active interest in military and 
political aftairs. At the age of twenty-eight years he was commissioned by 
Governor Merrill captain of a company of Artillery in the 37th Regt., of N. H. 
He was selectman of his town several years. He married Judith Burley and 
they were blessed with six sons and three daughters. One of the sons died 
in infancy, another at the age of twelve years. The other four and two of 
the daughters are living. Mr. Pattee was a life-long resident of his native 
town and died in 1875, aged seventy-six years. Mrs. Pattee survived her 
husband until May, 1883, when she died aged eighty-three years. The sur- 
viving children of Daniel Pattee, Jr., are Gordon B., a prominent and exten- 
sive manufacturer of lumber of the firm of Perley & Pattee, in Ottawa, Can- 
ada. He married Miss Mary Read, and they are parents of five children, four 
now living. 

Hon. Lewis C. Pattee, the only representative of this branch of the Pattee 
family now in Grafton county, resides in the pleasant village of Lebanon, 
and is one of the leading business men of his county. Like his brothers, he 
had a good academic education. He is now engaged in manufacturing lum- 
ber in his native town of Canaan, where he first engaged in business, and is 
also one of the firm of the Woodsville Lumber Company, and a member of 
the Pattee Plow Company of Monmouth, Illinois, which is an extensive 
manufacturing enterprise in agricultural implements. Mr. Pattee is not with- 
out civil honors. In politics he is a staunch Democrat, conservative, not 
ultra. He has held the position of county commissioner six years, and was 
elected to the oflfice of sheriff two terms of two years each. In 1858 Mr. 
Pattee married Miss Rebecca Perley, of Enfield, and they are the parents of 
six children, four of whom are now living, a son and three daughters. James 
H., son of Daniel, Jr., in his early manhood emigrated to Monmouth, Illinois, 



TOWN OF CANAAN. 



where he no^v resides. He organized the Pattee Plow Co., ot which he is 
now a member, and is the inventor of the New Departure Tongueless 
cultivator, which has been extensively adopted throughout the great West. 
He married Miss Mary E. Nye, of Monmouth. They had two sons, one of 
whom died at the age of three years. Henry H. son of Daniel, Jr., also 
removed to Monmouth, about twenty years ago, and is one of the firm of the 
Pattee Plow Co. He is also an inventor and patentee. He married Miss 
Lizzie R. Morgan, of Canaan, who was the mother of one daughter, who died in 
early childhood, and her mother died in early life. Mr. Pattee married second 
time Miss Anna Willets, of Monmouth, and they had born to them one son. 

Louise M., daughter of Daniel Pattee, Jr., married Ithamar P. Pillsbury, 
and resides in Monmouth, 111. Mr. Pillsbury is of the firm of the Pattee Plow 
Co. Mr. and Mrs. Pillsbury are parents of three daughters. 

Eliza D., youngest daughter of Daniel Pattee, Jr., married John Q. Perley, of 
Enfield, and also resides in Monmouth. Mr. Perley is of the firm of Pattee & 
Perley, manufacturers of lumber in Canaan, and has an interest in 'the Pattee 
Plow Co. They are parents of one son and two daughters. 

James, son of Daniel Pattee, Sr., succeeded to the homestead, and was 
also a farmer. He was twice married. His first wife was Rebecca Currier, 
who was the mother of four sons and one daughter, viz.: Wyman, who resides 
in Enfield, a sketch of whom appears in the historical chapter of that town. 
James F. Pattee was a prominent citizen, held the office of postmaster ten 
or twelve years, and was a general merchant in trade in Enfield about twenty 
years. He married Marion F. Blake, and they were the parents of two children 
who reside in San Francisco. Mr. Pattee died in 187 1. His wife survives 
him and is Uving with her second husband, Mr. Fhnt, who holds a good posi- 
tion in the employ of the Central Pacific R. R. and is located at San Francisco. 
Ann R. Pattee married James Currier, and resides in Springfield, Mass. 
Burns W. Pattee in early years commenced labor as an employee of the 
Northern R. R.,and by his merits alone attained the position of passenger con 
ductor, which place he held until ill health compelled him to resign. He is now 
engaged in the general merchandise business in Enfield, is a Democrat and 
leader of his party in his town, and has held the position of representative in 
the legislature two terms. He married Miss Tryphena Leeds, of Canaan. 
The second wife of James Pattee, who was Miss Rosamond Jones, sur- 
vives her husband and retains the old homestead, but resides in the village of 
Enfield. They had born to them one daughter who resides with her mother. 
Moses D., son of Daniel, was a farmer, married and reared four children, all 
deceased except Jesse P. Pattee, who resides in Enfield. 

Joshua Currier was born in South Hampton, and removed to this town in 
1804. He married Mary Farrington, of Amesbury, previous to his coming. 
He settled on road 64, and resided near the same farm on which he first 
located, until his death, which occurred June 16, 1871, at the advanced age 
of ninety-three years. He was a prosperous farmer, and for many years was 



TOWN OF CANAAN. 



229 



a deacon in the Baptist chuich. He had a family of eleven children, the 
eldest of whom is Eben F., born in 1805. He married Sophia Noyes, in 
1832, and has always lived near the place of his birth, on road 64. He had 
four children, of whom Moses E. married Arabella Hadley, and resides with 
his father. Amos N. lives at Iowa City, where he is professor of languages 
in the Iowa State University. Elizabeth R. and Mary A. both died many 
years ago. Moses Currier has one daughter (adopted). Eben F. Currier is 
now deacon of the Baptist church at East Canaan. Amos N. was a soldier in 
the late rebeUion, leaving a professorship in college at the time of his enlist- 
ment. He served in an Iowa regiment three years. 

William W. George was born in the town of Sunapee, formerly Wendall, 
in this State, in 1807. When a boy he went to Croydon as an apprentice to 
the trade of manufacturing woolen cloth. He removed to this town in 1832. 
Previous to this time he married Lucy B Whipple, of Croydon. He, in 
company with Nathaniel Currier, established the manufacture of woolens at 
Factory Village, which business they carried on successfully for many years. 
He afterwards carried on a lumber business a number of years. For fifteen 
years he was deputy sheriff, doing business in three counties. For a number 
of years he was first selectman of his town, a member of the State legisla- 
ture at different times, and was at one time a candidate for State senator. He 
had a family of five children, one dying in infancy. Isabell married Dr. Asa 
Wheat, of this town. Harriet S. married James H. Kelly, a merchant for 
many years at Factory Village, now deceased. Mrs. Kelly resides with her 
daughter, at Lebanon. Frances K. married Charles Day, a very prominent 
man in all the affairs of this town. Mr. Day died in March, 1885. He was 
town treasurer at the time of his death. Allen H. married Jane E. Wheat, of 
this town. He has been in the railway postal service for seven years, between 
St. Albans and Boston. Previous to that service he had been in the mercan- 
tile business in this town. In the late war he served as lieutenant in Co. H, 
nth N. H. Vols., and was on Gov. Walter Harriman's staff, with the rank of 
colonel. William George was one of the foremost of Abolitionists when it 
cost something to maintain the principles of that party. During the Rebel- 
lion he furnished a soldier at his own expense, receiving a certificate for the 
same from Chester Pike, then provost marshall of the third district of New 
Hampshire. The maintenance of this volunteer cost Mr. George more than 
seven hundred dollars. He was always noted for his acts of benevolence in 
all the walks of hfe. 

Polder Nathan Jones was born in Wilmot, September i, 1818. In Janu- 
ary, 1845, he removed to this town. Eastman, Balch & Kittridge had started 
the manufacture of steel hammers at Factory Village, and about 1855 he suc- 
ceeded William Butterfield in the business. He carried it on for twenty-five 
years, manufacturing large quantities of nail, shoe, blacksmiths' and farriers' 
hammers. This business he continued until 1880. He married, first, Polly 
C. Bailey, of Newbury, with whom he lived nine years. His second wife was 



230 TOWN OF CANAAN. 



Mary A. Gile, of this town. He has two children living and has buried four. 
Mr. Jones has been a preacher of the Free Will Baptist denomination forty 
years. He has spent a busy life, as the record of one year's work will testify. 
He forged with his own hands 610 dozen hammers, preached 114 sermons on 
Sabbath days, attended ninety-eight social religious meetings, spent eighteen 
days in protracted meetings, baptized seven converts, married eleven couples, 
and attended fifteen funerals. For the forty years of his ministry he has at- 
tended ten funerals per year. He is now preaching, but not over a settled 
charge, and is also a farmer. 

Harry L. FoUansbee was born in Enfield, where he Hved until twenty-six 
years ago, when he removed to this town, settling on road 35, then known as 
Springer Hill. This name was derived from a man by the name of Springer, 
having been the first settler in this portion of the town, and who built the 
first house. It was of logs and on the farm now occupied by Mr. FoUans- 
bee. His grandson, Mr. FoUansbee, married Susan Day, a native of Enfield. 
They had two children, Mary A. and Lewis. Lewis married Florette Peeler, 
a native of Vernon, Vt., and has two children, a son and a daughter. Mr. 
FoUansbee has always occupied the same farm since his coming to this town, 
and has always Hved within three miles of his birth-place. 

Stephen Williams came to this town, from Enfield, about 1797, with his 
parents, and died here in 1853. He married Elizabeth Longfellow, of By- 
field, Mass., and had born to him seven children, four of whom are now liv- 
ing, of whom Samuel was a lieutenant in Co. C, 7th N. H. Vols., during the Re- 
beUion. He was obliged to resign on account of sickness, and of which 
he died in Enfield. Stephen was also a soldier during the war, in ,the 8th N. 
H. Vols. Lorenzo D. was lost at sea in January. 1838, while on a fishing 
excursion. William was a farmer in this town and died in 1882. Susan 
married James Eastman, and resides in Hanover. Mary married Leonard 
Hadley, and resides in this town. Abraham L. married Chastina Burnham, 
of Hanover, who died in 1861. He has been a farmer for many years on 
road T,;^, where he has built neat and comfortable farm buildings. 

Stephen R. Swett was born in Salisbury, June 18, 1820. He removed to 
Andover with his parents in 182 1, where he lived until 1836, when he re- 
moved to Wilmot. His education was acquired at Franklin academy. From 
1840 to 1 86 1 he was a manufacturer of shoes at Wilmot Flat and Andover 
Center, for the southern trade. In 1861 he entered the service of the United 
States as captain of Co. I. ist R. I. Cavalry, which company he raised in 
this State, which, with three others from this State, joined eight companies 
from Rhode Island as the ist Regt. R. I. Cavalry. In 1862 he was promoted 
major in the same regiment. On account of wounds received at the battle 
of Kelley's Ford, he was honorably discharged in 1864. Since the war he 
has been deputy sheriff" for seven years, has been a surveyor and land convey- 
ancer, and has also been town superintendent of schools for seven years. 
His first wife was Sarah Cheney, of Sutton, who died in 1871. His second 



TOWN OF CANAAN. 23 1 



■wife is Sarah Clough, of this town. He was chosen representative from Ca- 
naan for 1885. 

Hazen F. Wooster, born at Maidstone, Vt., July ir, 1846, removed to 
Manchester with his parents in 1849, and from there to Bristol, and to this 
town when sixteen years of age. His father was an engineer for many years 
on the Northern railroad, and also had the contract for sawing the wood for 
the Northern railroad and Concord and Claremont and Bristol branch for 
seven years, sawing more than 25,000 cords yearly. He bought the hotel at 
East Canaan, in 1868, then known as the Granite Hotel, which he kept for 
seven months, and died there in October, of the same year. Hazen F. was then 
twenty-two years of age, and thrown upon his own resources, having worked 
for the railroad company since fourteen years old. When tv/enty-one he 
engaged in the purchase and sale of real estate, which he has followed since 
that date. He has become one of the most prominent men in that business 
in the State, and it is said has bought and sold more real estate than any man 
living in the State, of his age. His wife was Chestina H., daughter of Noah 
B. Hutchinson, one of the brothers of the famous Hutchinson family of 
singers, of Milford They have two sons living, one son, David H., having 
died August 17, 1883, aged two years. 

Charles Davis was one of the nine children of Samuel Davis, born in Plain- 
field, in 1824. In 1846 he came to this town and settled on road 65, in the 
south part of the town. He lived there seventeen years. From there he 
removed to the farm he now occupies, on road 42. He married Carohne T., 
daughter of Ehsha Miner, whose father, Thomas Miner, was the early settler 
of Canaan. 



For a detailed account of the members of the legal profession in Canaan 
the reader is referred to the " Bench and Bar " in the County Chapter. 



From its first settlement the town has always been well supplied with 
physicians. Dr. Ebenezer Eames was the first. He came in 1769. 
Then came Dr. John Harris ; Dr. Caleb Pierce, who built the hotel 
now known as the " Crystal Lake House," and died of spotted fever in 1813 ; 
Dr. Amasa Howard, who built the old house where Mr. Perr)''s house now 
stands. He was a surveyor, also, and, after several years left town. Dr. 
Timothy Tilton came in 1813, and remained until his death in 1836. On 
his 'grave-stone he desired to have engraved, '* The Slave's Friend." Dr. 
Cyrus B. Hamilton and Dr. Daniel Hovey practiced here each a year. Dr. 
Daniel Stark was too poor when he graduated to pay his matriculation fees. 
He practiced here many years without a diploma, and became a very skillful 
physician. Then came Dr. Jones, who married Miss Sophia Martin, re- 



232 TpWN OF CANAAN. 



mained a few years, and sold out to Dr. Arnold Morgan, whose practice ex- 
tended over a period of thirty years. Dr. Morgan died in 1878, and his place 
was taken by Dr. George E. Leet, who continues to ride in the old buggy of 
his predecessor. Dr. Ara Wheat, grandson of Elder Joseph Wheat, com- 
menced practice here forty years ago, and still rides when called for. Dr. 
E. M. Tucker a graduate from the army hospitals, has been in practice here 
about twelve years. He has firm nerves and a cool head, and is reckoned 
among the skillful of his profession. Dr. John Rogers is a man over eighty 
years of age. These years are a bar to much active practice. 

CLERGYMEN. 

The clergymen in Canaan have not been so numerous, nor so well paid, 
as the gentlemen of the other professions. Elder Thomas Baldwin was the 
first ordained minister. The ceremony took place June 11, 1783, in Deacon 
Caleb Welch's barn, on South road. Rev. Samuel Shepard, of Brentwood, 
preached the sermon. Rev. EHsha Ranson, of Woodstock, Vt., gave the 
charge, and the Rev. Samuel Ambrose, of Sutton, gave the right hand of fel- 
lowship. His salary during the seven years of his pastorate here was thirty 
pounds per year. He had a wife and four children. After his departure in 
1790 there was an interregnum of twenty-three years before the town 
agreed to settle another minister. There were so many " gifted " brethern 
among the people that they would never agree upon any of the numerous 
candidates who offered themselves, but elder Joseph Wheat finally captured 
the town, and preached here ninteen years, or until his death. He never 
received $200 a year. Since that time the Baptists have had a great deal 
of preaching, but no settled minister. They built a nice little church at 
East Canaan about fifteen years ago, at a cost of about $7,000. In these 
years, however, its doors are seldom opened for public worship. 

Aside from the respectable citizens already mentioned, there were several 
men in the past who deserve mention. John Currier, Esq., was prominent 
for forty years, dying in 1826, useful in all places, trusted and honored with 
many offices — surveyor, justice of the peace, selectman, representative, guar- 
dian and executor of many estates. His descendant of the same name ocu- 
pies the old homestead. 

Hon. Daniel Blaisdell came here on his discharge from the Revolutionary 
army, in 1780, aged eighteen years. Intelligent, self reliant and willful, he 
worked his way up to fortune and honors, until in 1809 he was elected a rep- 
resentative to the XI. Congress, the only resident of Canaan who ever received 
that honor. His decendants, at about the time of his death, 1833, numbered 
nearly one nundred. 

Nathaniel Currier came in 181 6. He was a successful trader for many years, 
and was often elected to various town offices. He was very decided in his 
political opinions — an active Abolitionist from the organization of the party ;. 



TOWN OF CANAAN. 233 

but these opinions proved prejudicial to his business, in the days when 
pubHc sentiment was strongly pro-slavery. He died in 1863, aged seventy- 
three years, beliving he had done something to keep the abohtion ball rolling. 
His son Frank is now a trader in his father's old store. Frank D., already 
mentioned as a lawyer, is a grandson of the old trader. 

James Wallace came in 1817 a trader and active business man. He was 
a manufacturer of pot and pearl-ashes many years ; was prominent in 
all town affairs, and was honored by election to many offices of trust. He 
died in 1831, aged forty-four years. 

James B. Wallace and Horace S. Currier, sons of the foregoing, were suc- 
cessful traders up to 1853, when : the former died. Mr. Currier died 
in 1866. 

The Wallace family consisted of eight children, two of whom are living, 
Mrs. Harriet O. Martin, of Oakland^ Cal., and William A., who occupies the 
old homestead. 

Caleb Blodgett, Sr., born in Hudson, N. H., in 1793, married Miss Char- 
lotte Piper, and took up his residence in Canaan, in 1835. He was for many 
years sheriff of the county, a clear-headed man, filled with good common 
sense, a man whose advice was worth attention, — a genial, handy old gentle- 
man, neighborly, social and reliable. Honors and trusts were heaped upon 
him, in all of which he acquitted himself with credit. In all his long life he 
never but once failed to vote the Democratic ticket. He died March 6, 1872. 
At the pr-eceeding March election his infirmities were so great that he paired 
off with a Republican, who was suffering Hke himself. 

Looking about the town, the traveler passes many old houses, of a size 
greatly out of proportion to the families of the present day. These old houses 
are chiefly two-stories high, and are not nearly finished, very few of them being 
painted. They were built when large families were the rule, and increase of 
offspring the desire — thus : Thomas and Ellen Miner had eight children ; 
Capt. John and Lydia Scofield had nine children ; Ezekiel and Phebe Wells 
had eighteen ; Jacob and Phebe Dow had fourteen ; Joseph and Mary Flint 
hadfourtem; Job and Abigail and Annie Tyler had sixteen; Daniel and 
Sally Blaisdell had eleven ; John M. and Sally Barber had eight ; David Pol- 
lard was the father of twenty children, all of whom attained an adult age; 
Nathaniel and Rebecca Currier had eleven ; Joshua and Miriam Plarris had 
ten; ar-d Jehu and Betty Jones had eighteen children. 

ACADEMIES. 

Noys' academy was established here more than fifty years ago. Its friends 
and patrons hoped some day to see it a great institution, sending its benign 
influence far out over the land. Its doors were opened to all races, and whites 
and blacks were invited to come and partake of its benefits on equal terms. 
But the public opinion of that day was not tolerant. The academy had not 



234 TOWN OF CANAAN. 



long been in operation before the people met in "legal town meeting" and 
voted that "niggers" could not be tolerated here. And they were not. On 
the toth of August, 1835, five hundred men, embracing many of the sub- 
stantial and respected citizens of Enfield, Dorchester and Canaan, assisted by 
a string of ninety-five yoke of cattle, hauled the devoted building from its 
foundation, and it was afterward set on fire and burned. The colored boys 
and girls, seventeen in all, fled from the town for fear of bodily harm, and 
were not allowed to return. When the noble deed had been accomplished, the 
selectmen of the town called a legal meeting, and passed a solemn vote of 
thanks to the "gentlemen" who had so gallantly assisted in abating the 
"nuisance," as the academy was called, and guaranteed immunity to them from 
any prosecution that might arise in the premises. And thus this academy 
was destroyed, and a magnificent educational idea lost to the world. Noboby 
was prosecuted, and it was confidently asserted at the time that no jury in 
New Hampshire would return a verdict favorable to an abolitionist. All of 
which was true. 

Canaan Union academy arose from the ashes of the one burned. For 
about twenty years, with able instructors and a friendly public sentiment, it 
offered good educational facilities to large numbers of pupils who gathered 
within its walls. But teachers and pupils are gone, to return no more, and 
the buildmg, long abandoned, is slowly falling to ruins. 

ECCLESIASTICAL. 

Nearly all C'f the early settlers were strongly religious, either through their 
own prejudices or their convictions, and there always was, and still is, a 
strong antagonism towards apposite faiths. In 1780 the Baptist preponder- 
ated. Up to this time they had depended upon one another for religious 
instruction and entertainment. They now felt it a duty to organize a church, 
that they might have recognition by the sister churches which were growing 
up around them. Thus the Baptists formed the first church, but not bemg 
able to hire preaching, they still ministered to one another, holding their 
services in Deacon Welch's barn. Richard Clark would lead off in prayer; 
Deacon John Worth would strike up a hymn, and then, oftentimes, Thomas 
Baldwin would read an interesting discourse. Their's was a very simple 
religion, and those men and women never tired of discoursing of its saving 
virtues, or of their own experiences. 

Thomas Baldwin, born in 1753, came to Canaan a lad of sixteen, his 
mother being the wife of Dr. Ebeuezer Eames. He was a carpenter by trade, 
married Ruth Huntington, in Norwich, in 1775, and brought her to Canaan. 
He was intelligent and thoughtful. In one of the prayer-meetings held in 
Deacon Welch's barn he resolved to change his mode of Hfe. He began to 
study with the intention of entering the ministry. This Baptist church was 
always feeble, and is more feeble to-day than it was one hundred years ago. 



TOWN OF CANAAN 235 



Mr. Baldwin contributed his services until 1783, when he was ordained as an 
evangelist, and put in charge over the church. He continued with them seven 
years, and this grateful people generously granted him "thirty pounds lawful 
money" per year for his services, payable m labor and produce. In 1790 the 
good man left Canaan, and took up his residence in Boston, where his fame 
grew and expanded until he became a shining light in his denomination. In 
1793 the people built a meeting-house, the owners of pews being the pro- 
prietors. It was completed and accepted in 1796, being occupied by each 
denomination pro-rata ; but there never was much satisfaction gotten out of 
of it until 1 8 14, when Elder Joseph Wheat, a Revolutionary soldier, was 
called and settled. He continued to occupy the pulpit until his death, in 

1833- 

In 1803 a Congregational church was organized as a branch of the church 
in Hanover. Dr. Eden Burroughs had charge of it. This, like the Baptist, 
was always a feeble, and partially a missionary church. In 1825 Rev. Amos 
Foster, of Salisbury, was ordained and installed its pastor. He labored here 
nine years, doing good and praying for blessings upon the people, but it was 
sterile soil, and needed more vigorous cultivation than it received. The Congre- 
gational house was built and dedicated in 1829, and has often been well 
attended, but there was a lack of heart and sympathy on the part of the 
worshippers, and year by year it fell away, until now the church is not repre- 
sented in the doings of the association. 

The Methodists organized a class here about 1800, and they had circuit- 
riders for many years, and extensive revivals occurred under their earnest 
leaders. In 1826 they built a small house on South road, in which they 
worshiped eighteen years. Then they sold it, and in October, 1844, dedi- 
cated the house on "The Street," in which they now worship, under the minis- 
tration of Rev. I. Taggart. There is also a Methodist church at East 
Canaan, organized about twenty-five years ago ; but it is not strong, either in 
numbers or wealth. Mr. Taggart is in charge, and his labors are divided 
between the two chutches. 

The Free Will Baptists have a church organization here also. In numbers 
they exceed all the other denominations. Having no house of worship, they 
usually assemble in school-houses. They have no stated preaching, but 
depend upon such preachers as may come along, and thereby they may "some- 
times entertain angels unawares." 

A considerable number of Canadians, of French extraction, have migrated 
to the town, probably more than a hundred. These are all Roman Catholics. 
They have no place of worship, but a priest comes to them at intervals, 
administers the rites or the church, and receives their contributions in return. 



236 TOWN OF DORCHESTER. 



DORCHESTER lies in the southern-central part of the county, in lat. 
43° 46' and long. 71^ 59' bounded north by Wentworth, east by Gro- 
ton, south by Canaan and west by Lyme. The town was originally 
granted July 8, 1761, to Henry Thompson and others; but "Henry Thomp- 
son and others " failed to comply with the requirements of their charter, and 
hence forfeited all right to the township. In answer to petition, the territory 
was again granted to Samuel Hobart and others, who, it seems, also failed 
to keep the bond. A third time then was the land granted to John House 
and others, in seventy-two equal shares. May i, 1772. LTnder this latter grant 
were the settlements made and the lands held. 

The surface of the town is very uneven, in spite of which, however, it is a 
good farming territory. Smart's mountain lies partly within the northwestern 
corner, from whose summit, at an altitude of about 2,500 feet, a charming 
and extensive view may be obtained. Bald Head, another prominent eleva- 
tion, rises from its eastern border. The numerous other elevations are of 
minor importance, among which may be mentioned Pollard, Thompson, 
Norris and Read hills. The south branch of Baker's river, a tributary of the 
Pemigewasset, and Rocky Branch rivers, afford here some excellent mill privi- 
leges. The intervals along Baker's river are very fertile, yielding excellent 
crops of hay. There are also several small ponds here, the largest of which 
is Norris pond, near the central part of the town. Smart's pond lies on the 
western line, and Line pond on the northern line of the township. The town 
has an area of about 23,040 acres, about 9,531 of which is improved land. 

In 1880 Dorchester had a population of 586 souls. In 1885 the town 
had eight school districts and ten common schools. Its nine school-houses 
were valued, including furniture, etc., at $2,310.00. There were 144 chil- 
dren attendmg school, six of whom were pursuing the higher grades, taught 
during the year by two male and seven female teachers, at an average 
monthly salary of $28.00 for males and $19.05 for females. The entire 
amount raised for school purposes during the year was $641.32, while the 
expenditures were $664.07, with Byron Richardson, superintendent. 

Dorchester (p. o) is a hamlet located in the eastern part of the town. 

North Dorchester, (p. o.) is a hamlet located in the northern part of the 
town. 

Eittsville, (p. J.) is a hamlet in the northeast part, where is located the 
only store in the township. 

John A. Norris has a steam saw-mill, on road 18, which turns out a large 
amount of lumber. 

Leonard S. Felloivs has a saw-mill on road t^t^, operated by water-power, 
which turns out about $500.00 worth of manufactured lumber per annum. 

StMnan Merrill ca.ne^ on i\\e business of carpenter, builder and wheel- 
wright, near Dorchester town-house. 

The settlement of the town was commenced by Benjamin Rice and Stephen 
Murch, from Hanover,' formerly from Connecticut, about the time the last 



TOWN OF DORCHESTER. • 237 



charter was issued, in 1772. The settlement was slow, however, and attended 
with many troubles and privations, as is attested by the town and State 
records. No meeting for the choice of officers and the proper organization 
of the town was held until the year 1780, owing to the troubles we have 
referred to. The first record of a town meeting on the town clerk's book is 
partly gone, but what is preserved shows that it was held previous to 1800. 
There were thirty-one articles voted upon, the eighteenth of which was 
"voted, to raise $66.64 for the benefit of schools the ensuing year: The 
Twentieth article — " the sense of the town being taken by a vote, it appears 
that the town are for the revision of the Constitution of this Sate." The 
twenty-first—" voted not to raise any money for the support of preaching the 
year ensuing and $16.86 was voted to pay town charges the ensuing year. 
John Woodworth was town clerk. The first part of the record being gone, 
the list of town officers chosen cannot be given. 

As an illustration of the tribulations of the early settlers of Dorchester, we 
quote the following petition relative to taxes, sent by them to the general 
court in 1786. 

"We, your Honor's Petitioners, conceive ourselves to be over Taxed in a just 
proportion with Other Towns in the State, and, whereas, there is considerable 
sums in back rearages which we are now called upon for; which at present ap- 
pears impracticable For us to pay and Support our Families in this uncultivated 
Wilderness. In the Year 1777 we were called upon for ;^r3, i8s., od., atwhich 
time we had only six Ratable Polls, Little or no Ratable improvement in Town, 
and but very few Cattle or Horses, and them supported at a great expense. 
In the year 1778, for ^19, 17s., od., at which time we had only seven ratable 
polls and a Small addition of improvement. In the year 1779 ^^ ^^'^^e called 
on for ^41, 14s-, od., at which time we had only Eleven Polls, and our 
income No ways adequate to our Support, but a Great part of our provisions 
we purchased and Brought from a considerable Distance, which much retarded 
our Settlement : and never till the Year 1780 had any Town officers, so as to 
be in a capacity to Collect any Tax we wish here to observe that altho' 
there was a valuation taken by the Sellectmen of Cockermouth, December, 
1779, w^ conceive, by reason of our unacquaintance with them things, that 
our improvements were Set Much too high, and we have been rated until the 
year 1784 on that valuation. We would here observe that the Dispute in 
these parts about Jurisdiction rose so high in the year 1781 That we acted no 
way, and thereby lost our meeting, which was not revived until ye Year 1784, 
by which means no Taxes were assessed (which neglect we readily acknowl- 
edge). We, Sensibly Feeling the Before innumeraced Difficulties, together 
with our Arduous Struggles in Beginning and Settling this Rugged Wilderness, 
Our Lands being Something Broken and not so fertile as most Towns round 
about us ; Therefore, we pray your Honors to take our Difficult Situation into 
your Wise Consideration, and grant us such relief in the premises as in your 
Wisdom You may think fit, that thereby our heavy burthen May be lightened 
and we incouraged to exert ourselves in every Possible way to discharge 
what may be found to be our Just proportion, and we. Your Honor's Hum- 
ble petitioners, as in duty bound. Shall Ever pray. 

"Dorchester, January 21, A. D. 1786." 

By an act passed December 21, 1791, a special tax -of two pence per acre 
was authorized, for the purpose of repairing highways, and the town was 



238 TOWN OF DORCHESTER. 



authorized to assess a tax of three cents per acre for the same purpose. The 
charter of 1772, printed on parchment, an interesting reHc, is now in the po- 
session of Henry H. Woodward, town clerk. 

Benjamin R. Norris was born at Corinth, Vt., in 181 o, from whence he 
removed to Hanover, and, fifty years ago, to this town, settUng on what is 
known as Norris hill, where he carried on farming during his life. He died 
in November, 1882. He married Pamelia Stark, of Hanover, and they had 
a family of seven, three sons and four daughters, of whom John A. married, 
first, Phebe Jessaman, and second, Mrs. Hannah Ellenwood. He carries on 
a steam mill for the manufacture of all kinds of lumber, shingles, etc., at 
Dorchester Town House. He is one of the selectmen of the town. Ira B. 
resides on road 15. He has been a selectman of the town for the past ten 
years. In 1875 and 1876 he represented Dorchester in the State legislature, 
has been collector a number of years, and for a long time was postmaster, 
resigning that office when elected representative. He married Carrie 
Leavitt, of this town, who was elected postmistress on the resignation of her 
husband, and now holds the office. Hattie M. married Edward Colburn, 
who died of fever at Newp®rt News, while a soldier in the Eleventh N. H. 
Vols., in the late Rebellion. Mrs. Colburn now resides in this town, with 
her widowed mother. Jennie M. married L. W. Aldrich, of Westmoreland, 
N. H. David P. is overseer of the Pacific Corporation, at Lawrence, Mass. 
He married Emma Wood, of Hartland, Vt. Elvina married Henry H. 
Woodard, of Duxbury, Mass., now a resident of this town and its town 
clerk. Abbie married Henry H. Bailey, of Glover, Vt. 

Charles C. Merrill was born in the town of Hill, and removed with his 
parents to this town when eight yeais of age, where he resided till about 1861, 
when he enlisted in a Wisconsin regiment for the war of the Rebellion. He 
died of disease in Tennessee, in 1863. He married Elmira A. Copp, of 
Sanborn, N. H., who survives him. 

John M. Fitts was born here in 1843, his father having been a native of 
South Hampton, and for a long time a resident of this town. His mother was 
Thankful Moore, a native of Dorchester. John M. for the last sixteen years 
has carried on the business of a general merchant in the northeast corner of 
the town, where, in October, 1883, he was instrumental in establishing a 
postoffice, called Fittsville, and of which he is postmaster. He married 
Emmn M. Carr, of Orford. They have one son, John B. 

Walter R. Hall, now ninety years of age and the oldest inhabitant of the 
town, was born here in 1796. His parents came here from Rumney at an 
early date. Walter R. was one of a family of fourteen, and is the only sur- 
viver. He married Lucinda Cummins, of Groton, in January, 1826, and the 
same year moved on to a farm on road 17, built a house, and has lived in it 
ever since. Mrs. Hall died January 3, 1885, at the age of eighty-two. They 
had two children, J. C, who enlisted in 1864, in the late war, afterward settled 
in Groton, where he died, in December, 1884, and Mary Ann, who married 



TOWN OF DORCHESTER. 239 

Stillman Merrill, a resident of this town. She died just one week previous to 
her mother's death. Mr. Hall is in good health, and his memory excellent 
for one in his advanced years. 

Pettingill Blaisdell was born in this town, in 1824. His parents 
were also natives of the town. His father was Sanborn Blaisdell and his 
mother Mehitable Sanborn. Pettingill married Lorette Lillis, also a 
native of Dorchester. They had three children — two sons and one 
daughter. The children all developed a remarkable musical talent when 
quite young, and, with their father, traveled fourteen years, giving concerts 
and playing for various societies throughout the New England States, the 
Western States and the Canadas. Mr. Blaisdell played the clarionet, Henri 
G., first violin, Ella Mable, violin soloist, and Pettengill S., double bass. They 
were long considered second to none in New England, until the death of the 
daughter, Ella M., April 19, 1882. Since that time the father has retired- 
Henri G. has now an orchestra at Concord, and is called for from far and 
near. Pettingill S. is at home with his father. 

CHURCHES. 

Previous to 1S27 there was a small Methodist meeting-house, without a 
steeple, in the west part of the town. In November of that year Rev. I. S. 
Davis visited Dorchester, and, without any request or prospect of compen- 
sation, spent four weeks here visiting from house to house, preaching evenings. 
The first Sabbath he preached in the Methodist meeting-house, and many 
were converted. From this a Congregational church was organized, May 20, 
1 82 8, with three males and six females. About this time Mr. Davis offered 
to raise $400.00 toward building a meeting-house. His offer was accepted and 
a church was built, costing $1,500.00. Of this, Rev. Dr. Codman, of Dor- 
chester, Mass., paid $100.00. The mother of Rev. Mr. Davis, of Newton, 
contributed another $100.00, and probably contributed the remainder. Mr. 
Davis was ordained pastor of the church the same day the meeting-house was 
dedicated, October 9, 1828. On account of dissatisfaction relative to the 
location of the house, another was built, in the south part of the town, which 
was occupied mostly by the Baptists, no one demomination owning it. Rev. 
Mr. Davis served the people faithfully as their pastor for five years. The 
meeting-house on the site of the present town-house was burned January 
23, 1842. The old church in the south part of the town stood tenantless and 
unused for many years, and, in 1883, was taken down and the present church 
edifice built, near the town hall, at Dorchester Center. 

The Free Will Baptist church, located at Dorchester Center, was organ- 
ized by its present pastor, Rev. J. D. Cross, with twenty members, in 1882. 
The church building, a wooden structure erected in 1844, will seat 200 per- 
sons and is valued, including grounds, at $2,000.00. 



240 



TOWN OF EASTON. 



E ASTON lies in the northern-central part of the county, in lat. 44 8^ 
and long. 71° 47', north by Lisbon and Franconia, east by Lincoln 
and a small part of Woodstock, south by a small part of Woodstock 
and Benton, and west by Landaff. It was set off from Landaff and incor- 
oprated into a separate township by an act passed July 20, 1876. 

The surface of the township is rough, mountainous and picturesque, a great 
deal of Its territory being covered by valuable forests. Notwithstanding this, 
however, the town has not a little of good farming land which gives fair 
returns to the labor of the husbandman. Mt. Kinsman, with an altitude of 
4,200 feet, Ues upon its eastern border, while Cooley and Cole hills rise from 
the western part. Between them hes a fair valley, drained by a stream called 
Ham branch, which, with its numerous tributaries, flows north into Franconia. 
The Wild Ammonoosuc flows across the southern part of the town, receiving 
Clay and Black brooks from the north, and Tunnell brook from the south. 
Among the natural curiosities the township presents to the observer is "How- 
land's Flume." This natural flume is located about a mile from the residence 
of H. B. Oaks, on road 2. It is about eight feet in width and one hundred 
feet long, while the waters from it are precipitated to the level below forming 
a beautiful fall 142 feet in height. From Howland's mountain, near the 
flume, an extensive view of the surrounding scenery may be obtained. 
Another curiosity is a large rock opposite the residence of Charles O. 
Whitcher, which is supposed to be petrified wood, and closely resembles a 
hemlock stump. It was found near Bartlett's blacksmith shop. 

In 1880 Easton had a population of 302 souls. In 1885 the town had 
three school districts and seven common schools. Its three school-houses 
were valued, including furniture, etc., at $2,503.00. There were fifty-five chil- 
dren attending school, taught during the year by five female teachers, at an aver- 
age monthly salary of $15.80. The entire amount raised for school purposes 
during the year was $312.00, while the expenditures were $261.50, with Josie 
W. Whitcher, superintendent. 

Easton (p. o.) is a hamlet located in the northern-central part of the town. 
It has two saw-mills, two blacksmith shops, a paint shop and six or eight 
dwellings. About the year 1857 a Union church was erected here, but it is 
at present without a pastor. 

WiLDWOOD (p. o.) is the romantic name given a hamlet located in the 
southern part of the town, comprisingthree saw-mills and six or eight dwell- 
ings. 

The Easton Liiinber Co.'s saw-tnill, located at Wildwood, is operated by 
water-power, furnishes employment to twenty-five men, and is fitted with 
machiney for the manufacture of board and dimension lumber, shingles, clap- 
boards, etc., cutting about 1,500,000 feet of lumber per year. 

Whitcher ^^ KendaWs sarv-fnills, located at Wildwood, one on road 4 and 
one on roa<i 12, are operated by water-power, and are fitted with machinery 
for manufacturing dimension timber, shingles, clapboards, etc., with the 
capacity for turning out 500,000 feet per year. 



TOWN OF ELLSWORTH. 24 1 



N'oyes cSn Lawson's smu-mi/I, on road 13, cuts about 250,000 feet of lum- 
ber per year. 

Ofis Brooks dv Son's saw-?nili, at Wildwood, is fitted v/ith board and bench- 
saws and cuts 175,000 feet of lumber per annum. 

Rufus W. YouTig's steam saiv-mill^ on road 7, is fitted with machinery for 
the manufacture of dimension timber, bobbins, sheathing, etc., and cuts 
about 200,000 feet per year. 

C. A. Young's saw-mill and bobbin factory, on road 4, is operated by both 
steam and water-power, manufacturing boards, lath, shingles and bobbins. 

Daniel Whitcher's saw-mill, on road 11, managed by G. A. Glines, cuts 
about 200,000 feet of timber per year. 

As Easton was for so many years a part of the township of Landaff, its 
history is necessarily identical with that of that township. The precise date 
of the first settlement made in the territory now included with the limits of 
the new township is not known, though it probably occurred in 1783, Nathan 
Kinsman being the first settler. The State granted him 600 acres of land 
here, consequently he cut a rude path through the forest from Haverhill to 
the spot where C. H. Merrill's house now stands, moving his goods over this 
road with six mules. Here he erected a rude log house, which, a few years 
later, was burned, and he then built a block-house on the same site, which 
was long known as " Kinsman's mansion." It contained a stone fireplace 
which would hold six five-pail kettles, the wood being drawn into the house 
by a horse. Mr. Kinsman died in this town on February 8, 1822, aged 
eighty-one years. His son's widow, Mrs. Peter Kinsman, is now living in 
Landafif at the age of ninety-nine years. 

Stephen Shattuck moved into the territory in 1802, and resided here until 
his death, November 11, 181 1. 

Among the other early settlers were Asa Oaks, John Whitcomb and 
Joshua Kendall, of Winchester Mass. 

The first item in the book of town records is as follows : 

" January ist, 1877. 

" The subscribers, met at Timothy B. Young's, in Easton, and organized 
by choosing G. W. Cogswell, chairman, and Timothy B. Young, clerk, for the 
purpose of warning a town-meeting to organize the town of Easton, agreeable 
to an act of the New Hampshire Legislature, and approved July 20, 1876. 

" G. W. Cogswell, 
" WiNSOR Drury, Jr., 
" Tlmothy B. Young." 



ELLSWORTH lies in the central part of the county, in lat. 43° 54', and 
long. 71° 48', bounded north by Woodstock, east by Thornton and 
Campton, south by Rumney, and west by Warren. It was originally 
granted to Barlow Trecothick, May i, 1769, and bore the name of Trecothick 



242 TOWN OF ELLSWORTH. 



until its incorporation, June 16, 1802, when its present name was substituted. 
In the charter deed the township is bounded as follows : — 

" Beginning at a beach tree standing at the northwest corner of the town- 
ship of Campton, thence running west 5" east by the township of Thornton five 
miles and three quarters, to a red birch tree standing at the southeast corner of 
the township of Pealing ; thence north 59" west to a red birch tree standing at the 
northeast corner of the township of Warren ; thence running south 24° west 
six miles to a maple tree standing at the northwest corner of the township of 
Rumney; thence turning off and running south 64" east seven miles and 
210 rods by said township of Rumney, to a beach tree standing at the 
northwest corner of the township of Campton, the place of beginning." 

These boundaries thus gave the town an area of 24,957 acres, considera- 
bly more than it has now, its area only being about 16,606 acres. Topograph- 
ically considered, this is but a romantic hamlet situated high up in a great 
basin among the hills, isolated from the rest of the world, and full of tarns, 
brooks and mountains. Ellsworth pond, in the southeastern part of the 
town, contains about one hundred acres, and affords a fine mill stream called 
West Branch brook. Moulton brook, from Warren and Buzzell brooks, flows 
into this pond. One of the three Glen ponds is on the western boundary, 
and a portion of Stinson pond on the south line. Stinson brook flows 
through the west part, and in the northern part is Kineo brook and Hubbard 
brook, an afSuent of Hubbard pond, in Woodstock. Mt. Kineo, 3,557 feet 
high, so-called from an Indian chief, is in the center, and Black hill, formerly 
a great place for Moose, is in the valley between Mt. Kineo and Mt. Carr. 
In the south part is a portion of Stinson mountain. 

Ellsworth, though a popular resort for the summer tourist, hunter and fish- 
erman, affords little good farming land, its soil being hard and untilable, and 
the greater part of the territory covered with forest. It has no village, and 
has no postofifice. 

In 1880 Ellsworth had a population of 209 souls. In 1885 the town had 
two school districts and two common schools. Its two school-houses were 
valued, including furniture, etc., at $605.00. There were sixty-four children 
attending school, taught during the year by four female teachers, at an aver- 
age monthly salary of $21.50. The entire amount raised for school purposes 
during the year was $177.03, while the expenditures were $181.60, with 
David R. Buzzell, superintendent. 

The first permanent settlement was made here by Jonathan T. Downing, 
from Gilmanton, in 1790. He located off road 10, upon the farm now 
occupied by his grandson, Ira C. Downing, and his son Jonathan was the 
first white child born in the town. In the spring of 1791 the settlement 
was increased by the arrival of Benjamin Hill, Francis Avery and Gideon 
Hill, and in the autumn by Daniel Craig. From this ti.i.e, however, the set- 
tlement must have been slow, for in 1800 the census report only shows a pop- 
ulation of forty-seven souls. 

This vicinity was a favorite hunting resort of the Indians, as the frequent 



TOWN OF ENFIELD. 243 

discovery of relics testifies. The chief Kineo, from Kunnawa, meaning the bear, 
it is said, hunted upon the mountain which now bears his name. In the 
neighborhood of Stinson pond are found numerous ores and minerals, and 
on some of the streams gold has been found. 

John Buzzell, from Thornton, came to Ellsworth about 1811 and settled 
on road 4. In the following year he moved to road 2, where David R. now 
lives, and where he reared a family of five children — Lucy, Silas, Sally, John 
and David R. The latter, who still occupies the homestead, is one of Ells- 
worth's most influential citizens. 

The Ellsworth Free Will Baptist church ^2.% organized about 1799, ^'^^ 
Rev. Israel Blake was its first pastor. In 1824 a church building was erected, 
which, with repairs made in i860, is now valued at $r, 000.00^ and will seat 
200 persons. The society has thirty-eight members, with no regular pastor 



ENFIELD, one of the southern frontier towns of the county, lies in lat, 
43"^ 36' and long. 72° 7', bounded north by Canaan, east by Grafton, 
south by the county line, and west by Lebanon. As the causes which 
led to the granting of this and several townships in the vicinity on the 4th of 
July, 1761, are reviewed in connection with the sketch of Lebanon, we will 
simply recapitulate here that after the destruction of Louisburg, in 1758, 
William Dana and three companions, Connecticut soldiers, came across 
Maine to the Connecticut river, designing to follow it down to their homes. 
In passing through the region in the vicinity of Lebanon they found so 
much to admire and covet that Mr. Dana determined to secure a home here. 
Accordingly, on his return home he became instrumental in having a number 
of persons in the towns of Norwich, Lebanon and Mansfield, Conn., associ- 
ate themselves together to procure a charter of townships in the new terri- 
tory of the Connecticut valley. They formed two companies, though com- 
posed mainly of the same persons. One sought a charter of a town to be 
called Lebanon, the others proposed to call their town Enfield. The proper 
steps were taken, and on the 4th of July, 1761, the charter of Enfield was 
issued to the following proprietors : — 

Jedediah Dana, Samuel Murdock, Jr., Lemuel Barrows, 

Nathaniel Turner, Philip Turner, Jr., Constant Southworth, 

Ehsha Clark, Jabez Baldwin, Jr., Benjamin Hank, 

Tephaniah Nichols, John Birchard, Jonathan Strickland, 

Uriah Hanks, James Lathrop, Andrew Campbell, 

William Henpets, John Gilbert, John Lopell, 

Joshua Handee, John Saltere, Jonathan Dana, 

Samuel Foster, Rufus Baldwin, Jr., Jabez Barrows, Jr., 

Ebenezer Lathrop, Jr., Huckins Storrs, Silas Waterman, 



2 44 TOWN OF ENFIELD. 



Elias Birchard, Oliver Clark, Jedediah Dana, Jr., 

Skiff Freeman. Isaac Dana, John Tracy, 

Rev. Richard Saltere, Asa Leffingwell, Nathan Dennison, 

Andrew Able, Daniel Allen, Samuel Esterbrooks, 

Joseph Turner, Jr., James Dana, Joseph Esterbrooks, 

Judah Moore, Silas Hide, Jeremiah Leffingwell, 

Samuel Butters, Ebenezer Baldwin, Uriah Rogers. 

James Hall. Andrew Storrs. 

Aside from these there were ten others, favorites of Governor Wentworth, 
living in Portsmouth and vicinity. In the charter deed the name is spelled 
" Endfield," though it was undoubtedly named after Enfield, Conn. As we 
have intimated, these proprietors were well-to-do inhabitants of Eastern Con- 
necticut, most of them of Windham county ; but only three of them be- 
came actual settlers of the town. The Governor in this, as probably in his 
other charters, secured to himself the lion's share — a select 500 acres, as 
marked on the charter map — and among other conditions required, under 
penalty of forfeiture, that the proprietors should "plant and cultivate" about 
2,000 acres in the first five years, a condition that, interested as many of 
them were in the settlement of other new townships, they found themselves 
unable to perform. 

In 1766, a few months before the five years expired, they dispatched John 
Salter, from Connecticut, to Portsmouth, to apply " to the Governor and 
Council of New Hampshire for a continuation of their charter, and also for 
an addition to said township," and renewed their exertions to settle the 
township. But it seems both their mission and their efforts substantially 
failed; for two years afterwards, August 8, 1768, the Governor and Council, 
treating the Enfield charter as forfeited, re-granted " all that tract or parcel 
of land, known by the name of Enfield, to be known by the name of Relhan," 
to an entirely new set of ninety proprietors, most of whom resided in and 
around Portsmouth. And now began the " war of the charters." 

The validity of each charter being stoutly asserted on the one side, and 
denied on the other, the consequence was that titles under either were ren- 
dered uncertain and insecure, and feuds and coUisions occurred between the 
claimants under the one, and those under the other, in attempting to reduce 
to possession, and occupy the same land. The Relhan faction succeeded in 
securing an act of incorporation for the town under that name, passed 
August 18, 1778. This state of things was finally put an end to, however, 
mainly through the efforts of Jesse Jonson, Esq., who, in 1779, in connection 
with other owners under the Enfield charter, by equivalents, purchase and 
compromises, succeeded in extinguishing the entire claims under the Relham 
charter, thus leaving the Enfield charter undisputed and ending the "war of 
the charters," which had disquieted the town during eleven years, and retarded 
its settlement. By an act passed March 28, 1 781, Jeremiah Page, Henry 
Gerrish and WiUiam Chamberlain were authorized to "run out and settle the 



TOWN OF ENFIELD. 245 



lines of the township of Enfield, alias Relhan." On July 9th, or the same 
year, the committee sent in the following report : — 

"Whereas, By an act of the General Assembly of the State of New 
Hampshire, passed on the 28th day of March, last, Jeremiah Page, Esq., was 
appointed with us, the subscribers, a committee to settle the lines and bound- 
aries of the township of Enfield, alias Relhan, and those lines and boundaries 
of the townships of Canaan and Grafton, which are, or may be, contiguous 
thereto, or dependant thereupon — pursuant to said appointment the sub- 
scribers have attended said business, and by and with the consent of all the 
parties, have performed said service in the following manner, viz.. Beginning at 
the southerly corner bound on the township of Lebanon, which is the south- 
westerly corner of the township of Enfield, alias Relhan, commonly called 
Sumner's bounds, and running south fifty-eight degrees east six miles and 
three-fourths of a mile, to a hemlock tree marked H. G. W. C. & C.; thence 
running north forty degrees and forty-five minutes east about five miles and 
a half, to a spruce tree marked as aforesaid, which is the dividing line between 
Enfield and Grafton, and is the northeasterly corner of Enfield, alias Relhan, 
and the southeasterly corner of Canaan; thence running north fifty-eight degrees 
west seven miles and sixty rods, to a birch stump, which is also the north- 
easterly corner of Lebanon, and the southwesterly corner of Canaan ; thence 
by the township of Lebanon to the bounds first mentioned. 
"Boscawen, July 9th, 1781. 

"Henry Gerrish, ) p „ 

"William Chamberlain, j °"'' 

This report was not officially adopted by the legislature, however, until 
June 18, 1802, nearly a quarter of a century after the committee was 
appointed. On January 3, 1774, the act incorporating the town by the name 
of Relhan was repealed. Little change has been made in the town's 
boundaries as established by the committee of 1781, except that by an act 
passed January 13, 1837, a tract of land from Grantham, on the south, was 
annexed to Enfield. The town thus has an area of 24,060 acres, about 2,500 
of which is covered by water. 

The surface of Enfield is rather rough and broken, though not so much so 
as that of some of its neighboring towns; neither is this roughness of contour 
sufficiently pronounced to seriously retard cultivation of the soil, as most of the 
hills are cultivated to their summits. But the town is noted for its diversified 
and beautiful scenery — its rivulets, lakelets, valleys and hills blended in a 
picture of beauty rarely excelled in its character. The northwestern and 
southwestern sections of the township are broken into quite abrupt hills, 
while diagonally through the center, between these broken sections, lies the 
broad valley embosoming Mascoma lake. High up upon the highlands of 
the southern part of the town lie three small lakelets, and just south of Mas- 
coma lies a fourth. In the southeastern part lies George pond, connected 
with Mascoma lake by Knox river. Crystal lake, about two miles in length, 
lies in the eastern part, between Choate hill and East hill, and at its outlet is 
the village of East Enfield. In the extreme northwestern part of the town, 
partly in Grafton, is Spectacle pond. Nearly all of the streams flow a north- 



246 TOWN OF ENFIELD. 

westerly course, their waters finding their way ultimately into Mascoma river, 
which receives the waters, remarkable to state, of no less than twenty-five 
lakes and ponds. 

Mascoma lake and the unrivaled water-power to which it serves the pur- 
pose of a reservoir, is fully described in connection with the sketch of Leba- 
non. From marks of a former shore running around it, and logs found a 
dozen feet below the surface of the plain, extending about a mile south, this 
beautiful lake would seem to have been anciently considerably longer, and 
some thirty feet higher than it now is, at high water mark, and its fall is sup- 
posed to have been caused by a disruption and lowering of its outlet in Leb- 
anon. At its head it receives, as we have said, a brook running from George 
pond through the Center village, on which stream are mills and factories. 
The other principal brooks are Bicknell's, flowing into, and Johnson's, flowing 
out of Crystal lake, on both of which are saw-mills. Mt. Calm, in the southern 
part of the town, is the highest elevation, while the others of note are East, 
Choate's, Jones, Shaker, Goodhue and George hills. The Northern railroad 
crosses the northwestern section of the town, with a station at Enfield vil- 
lage. 

In 1880 Enfield had a population of 1,680 souls. In 18S5 the town had 
fifteen schools districts, sixteen common schools, and one graded school. 
Its fifteen school-houses were valued, including furniture, etc., at $5,553-oo. 
There were 260 children attending school — twenty-six of whom were pur- 
suing the higher grades — taught during the year by five male and seventeen 
female teachers, at an average monthly salary of $29.20 for males, and 
$23.10 for females. The entire amount raised for school purposes during 
the year was $2,192.31, while the expenditures were $3,277.00, with George 
F. Pettingill, superintendent. 

Enfield is a handsome post village located on Mascoma lake and the 
Northern railroad, in the northern part of the town. It has a good water- 
power, furnished by the inlet to the lake. The principal manufactories are 
the grain mills of the Wyman Pattee, the tannery of Leviston Bros., and 
Huse & Berry's furniture shop. The village contains three churches (Con- 
gregational. Universalist and Methodist), a public library, about a half dozen 
stores of various kinds, the usual complement of shops, one hotel, a summer 
boarding house (Day Dawn House), and about two hundred dwelling 
houses. Its pleasant and picturesque surrounding hill and lake scenery 
makes it a pleasant summer resort. The trim and tidy little steamer, " Nina," 
during the season makes daily trips from the village to the Lake View House, 
situated in a shady grove on the bank of Lake Mascoma, a mile or two away. 
The lake and streams in the vicinity aff"ord good fishing. The hills in the 
vicinity afford grand views, and the well-made road pleasant drives. 

Enfield Center, a small post village on Knox river, near the outlet of 
George pond, has one church (Union), one hotel, two general stores, a saw- 
mill, grist-mill, the Shaker sock and woolen factory, a carriage and paint 
shop, marble shop, broom factory and about 200 inhabitants. 



TOWN OF ENFIELD. 247 

East Enfield is a hamlet nestled at the foot of Crystal lake. At this point 
there are fine mill-privileges — one of the finest water-powers in the county. 
The village was long known as Jonson's Mills, and was once the center of 
business of this and adjoining towns. Here were erected the first grist-mill 
and tlie first store in the town ; here resided Judge Jesse Jonson, and his 
old mansion, erected in 1803, is yet standing. Here, also, resided two other 
of the town's early and worthy citizens — George Conant, justice of the peace, 
the town's first clothier, and Capt. Richard Currier, whose residence, erected 
in 1800, is also standing. The village now has only half a dozen dwelling 
and one church, used occasionally by all denominations. 

Montcalm (p. o.) is a hamlet in a little valley among the hills in the west- 
ern part of the town. It contains a blacksmith shop and six or eight 
flwellings. 

Shaker Village is located on the western shore of Mascoma lake. This 
village is divided into what is termed three families, viz.: North, Center or 
Church, and South families. The village is located about midway between 
the two extremes of the lake, and they own all the land on the lake for nearly 
two miles. The plain where the village is situated is very narrow between 
the lake and the hill (which rises quite abruptly), but the soil is very rich and 
productive. Their real estate in lands embraces some 2,500 acres, and their 
fields and gardens give evidence of blessings, arising from their industry and 
care. The fraternity are agriculturists and mechanics. Aside from the 
common productions of New England farms for the comforts of the people, 
their products are garden seeds, medicinal roots and vegetables for the mar- 
ket, and from their work-shops thousands of brooms, pails, tubs, sap-buckets, 
hose and under garments are manufactured for sale, with a choice article in 
butter from their dairy, and from their medical department for sanitary pur- 
poses, several very useful medicines which have the sanction of the medical 
fraternity. Their buildings are modestly neat and built more for conven- 
ience and durability than beauty, although some of them have an expensive 
appearance, which is the fact. In 1837, the Middle family built a large 
stone building, four stories high, one hundred feet long and fifty-six feet wide. 
It is surmounted by a cupola, in which is a bell weighing 800 pounds. Every 
stone in the building is cemented and further fastened together with iron 
trunnels. The whole expense of the building was $35,000.00, and at the 
time of its erection it was considered the most expensive building in the 
state, except the State House. It is devoted to family use. There are some 
other very good buildings, among which is a large barn, one of the most con- 
venient in the State. 

As to the origin of this society in Enfield, tradition has it that one Will- 
iams,* a convert to this modified Quakerism, then living in Grafton, the 



* The leading men of the Shakers at Enfield at the present time claim that this version, 
in every particular, is not correct. They claim that Ebene/,er Cooley and Israel Chauncy 
voluntarily, without invitation from Williams, came to Hartland, Vt., and from thence, 



248 TOWN OF ENFIELD. 

town adjoining Enfield on the east, went to New Lebanon, N. Y., and in- 
duced two of the preachers of the Shaker society there, named Cooley and 
Chauncy, to return with him. We have the fact from a record made at the 
time, that on the 6th of September, 1782, these two men came to Joseph 
Flint's, Canaan, South road, and there preached ; but gaining no adherents 
in that town, they went into the adjoining one, Enfield, and there succeeded 
in making converts of some of the staid and respectable farmers and me- 
chanics and their families — among whom were James Jewett, Ezekiel Stevens, 
Asa Pattee, Benjamin Merrill and Zadock Wright, hving on Jones hill, and 
the hill afterwards called after them, Shaker hill, on the northerly side of 
Mascoma lake. They remaincvi on these hills, gaining some new believers, 
about ten years, till about 1792, when, effecting an exchange of land, they 
removed to the more fertile spot they have ever since occupied, with large 
additions on the southerly side of the same lake. For the first ten years 
they were not by their garb distinguished from the "world's people," as they 
termed outsiders. Six years after their advent, they are called in the town 
records of 1788, "Shaking Quakers," and the selectmen are instructed to 
petition the legislature, stating " their conduct," and the situation of the 
town, and asking for a remedy. At the start, like other new sects, the Shakers 
were exceedingly wild, enthusiastic and extravagant in their beliefs and relig- 
ious exercises. But after a time they gradually settled down into the sober, 
temperate and rational people they now are and long have been. They have 
always been remarkable for honesty and industry. Like the same sect else- 
where they hold their property in common, take on themselves vows of per- 
petual chastity, rejecting even the institution of marriage, and making dancing 
a part of their religious exercises. William Williams is said to be the person 
who introduced the two preachers. He was an honest, but eccentric man, 
who, after living many years in the society, left it, and continued to reside 
near it with his son William, a man of wit and worth, a deputy sheriff, land 
surveyor and town clerk. The old gentleman died at an advanced age, many 
years ago. 

It is only for convenience and for better subserving, according to their 
ideas, the purposes of life, that they are divided into families, there being at 
the present time numbered in the society about one hundred and fifty souls. 
Their form of government is patriarchal ; there being one common and ac- 
knowledged head and center of authority, vested in their oflficers. males and 
females, both sexes having equal voice and equal rights as counselors, teach- 
ers and directors in all pertaining to things spiritual and things temporal. 



with one Zadock Wright, journeyed to Enfield, and called upon James Jewett, a resident 
of what is now called Shaker Hill, arriving September ist, 1782, and the first Shaker meet- 
ing ever held in New Hampshire was at the house of Asa Pattee, near Mr. Jewett's house. 
In 1793 the frame of a church was raised, on the west shore of Mascoma lake, which 
house now stands, and is occupied as a place for their public worship. 



TOWN OF ENFIELD. 249 

whose duty consists in dealing kindly, impartially and parentally with all 
the members, who have equal claims and equal rights with those in places 
of care. 

Huse 6^ Berry, jnanufaciurers of bedsteads, have their mills and shops 
on the Mascoma river, just above the lake of the same name, in the vil- 
lage of Enfield. This industry gives employment to about twenty men, 
and turns out from $3,000.00 to $4,000.00 worth of manufactured goods 
per month. The business was established by Cambridge & Folsom, in a 
small way, about 100 rods above the present commodious buildings, about 
1850. In 1852 the firm of Cambridge & Huse was formed, a*nd contin- 
ued about twelve years, when Mr. Berry purchased the interest of Mr. Cam- 
bridge, and the present firm of Huse & Berry was formed. The Shakers 
erected the buildings now occupied by the firm, about thirty years ago, and 
rented them to Cambridge & Huse, and next to Huse & Berry, until 1869, 
when the firm purchased the property. 

The Shaker ttiills are located in the village of Enfield, on the Mascoma 
river. In 1841 the buildings were constructed by the Church family of 
Shakers, for the purpose of manufacturing flannels, and the machinery was 
placed in the buildings by a company who contracted with the Shaker family 
to make their flannels. These goods were taken to the Shaker village and 
made up into underware and sold in New York, the first in market of the 
famous Shaker flannels. This trade was continued until about 1855, when 
they discontinued making up their goods, and sold the flannels in whole 
pieces. About this time, also, they commenced the manufacture of the 
equally famous Shaker hosiery, and D. L. Davis, one of the present proprie- 
tors of these mills, sold the first case of socks of this kind to C. F. Hovey, of 
Boston, during that season. The manufacturing of the Shaker goods by the 
Shakers, under contracts, continued until 1855, when the bmldings were 
rented by other parties up to this date. The present firm, engaged in manu- 
facturing the same grade of flannels and selling to the same jobbers, consists 
of J. W. Dodge, David L. Davis and Henry C. Whipple, under the firm name 
of Dodge, Davis & Co. The manufactory gives employment to thirty-five 
operatives, and turns out about $85,000.00 worth of goods annually. These 
mills have been run, with stops for repairs or other purposes not to exceed 
two months, since 1841. The firm of Dodge, Davis & Co. are also operat- 
ing n.ills on the same grade of goods in Bristol, in conjunction with these at 
Enfield. 

The Shaker stockiiigyarn and soek manufactory, on George pond brook, or 
Knox river, was built by a man by the name of Clough, thirty or forty years 
ago. It was purchased by a Mr. SuUoway, who sold to Herbert Bailey, and 
he to Millen & Gordon, the present firm, in 1878. They manufacture about 
fifty dozen pairs of Shaker socks per day. They also make stocking-yarn, and 
do custom carding, doing a business of $24,000,00 per year, and giving em- 



TOWN OF ENFIELD. 



ployment to from twelve to fifteen hands in the mill, besides having a great 
amount of finishing done outside. 

The Etijield tanneries, located at the village of Enfield, were built by 
Alpheus Richardson, in the autumn of 1859. The first set of buildings were 
burned before they were quite finished, June 13, 1850, but were immediately 
rebuilt by Mr. Richardson, and the business was continued by him until his 
death, when his heirs sold to the Church family of Shakers, January 18, 1853. 
They, in turn, on the 21st ot the same month, sold to Godfrey & Conant, 
who rented the property to other parties, who used it for tanning and wool- 
pulling. On September 8, 1856, Kennedy & McConnell bought the prop- 
erty. McConnell deeded his interest to Kennedy, November 4, 1863, and 
Kennedy deeded to Marden & Johnson, November 6, 1863, who deeded to 
H. W. French, September 4, 1866. On February 19, 1869, the property was 
deeded by French to William and Robert Leviston and Jabez T. Young. On 
June 20, 1872, J. T. Young deeded his interest to the Leviston Bros., the 
present owners and operators, who have also purchased from S. R. Stocker the 
premises adjoining, formerly used as woolen mills, and known as the Stocker 
property, one of which buildings is now used as a machine shop, and the 
other as a store-house, in connection with the tannery. They manufacture 
upper-leather, the capacity being 1,000 sides per week, with a full corps of 
men. 

John F. Spaieiding's provender-mill was built by John C. Clough, about 
1864. He sold to Smith Marston, and Marston sold to George W. Jonson, 
who sold to John F. Spaulding, in March, 1884. The mill has two runs of 
stones for grinding feed and meal. Mr. Spaulding also manufactures brooms 
and brushes. 

The Shaker flour and grist mil Is, \oQ.2XtA at Enfield, VVyraan Pattee, pro- 
prietor, were built by the Church family of Shakers, in i860. They have five 
runs of stones, with the capacity for grinding 800 bushels of grain per day, 
and give employment to five men. 

Frank B. Morse's saw and shi?igle-?nill, and lath and broom-handle matin- 
factory, at Enfield Center, were established by Smith Marston, in 1874, and 
purchased by Mr. Morse February 17, 1884. They have a circular-saw, cut 
500,000 feet of lumber and 200,000 to 300,000 shingles per year, while the 
slabs are manufactured into broom-handles and lath, giving employment to 
six men. 

Edwin F. Foster's sazv-mill, on Stony brook, road 39, was rebuilt in 1868. 
It has a circular-saw, and cuts from 125,000 to 200,000 feet of lumber per 
year. 

IVclls and F lander'' s sa7v atid cider-mill, on Mascoma river, road 5, cuts 
1,000,000 feet of lumber, and makes from 500 to 600 barrels of cider per 
year, employing about seven to eight men. 

George F. Andrew's fnarble-shop, on road 2)Zi ^'^s established by him April 
I, 1861, where he does all kinds of marble work. 



TOWN OF ENFIELD 25 I 



John G. Flanders established the business of broom-making at Enfield 
Center, in 1862. He manufactures about 1,200 dozen brooms per year. 

The first proprietors' meeting, under the original charter, was held at the 
house of Aniariah Storrs, " inn holder," at Mansfield, Conn., September 5, 
1 76 1, when Jedediah Dana was chosen moderator. The meeting was ad- 
journed to September 9, when Andrew Storrs was chosen proprietors' clerk, 
Judah Moore, collector, and Constant Southworth, treasurer. At this meet- 
ing, also, Jedediah Dana, Ebenezer Baldwin, Rev. Richard Saltere, James 
Hall, Judah Moore, Moses Hibbert and Nathan Denison were appointed a 
committee to make the first division of lots, and Ebenezer Lathrop was ap- 
pointed surveyor. The meetings of the proprietors were held here for the first 
twelve years, or till December, 1773, after which they took place in Enfield 
or vicinity. The book containing their proceedings from December, 1773, to 
April, 1781, has been lost. 

The settlement of the town was began by Jonathan Paddleford, Nathaniel 
Bicknell and Elias Bingham ; and Elias, son of the latter, was the first male 
child born in the town. The settlement progressed but slowly, however, for 
in 1775, fourteen years after the charter was granted, the population was only 
fifty, and probably there were not over ten male heads of families. In the 
following year only thirteen male adults signed the Declaration of Loyalty, 
none refusing. In 1790, eleven years after the close of the charter difficul- 
ties, the population had increased to 750, or about 100 families. Most of 
the early settlers came from Connecticut, Haverhill and Chibano, a point 
near Salem, Mass., and Hampstead, Plaistow, and South Hampton, N. H. 

Jonathan Paddleford was, if not the first, among the very first settlers. 
He came to Enfield with an adult family of sons and daughter, from Ashford, 
Windham county, Conn., where, as early as 1765, he had purchased several 
pieces of land from the original proprietors under the Enfield charter, and 
removed to Enfield between that year and 1772. He erected the second 
grist-mill in the town, afterwards known as FoUansbee's mills, on Mascoma 
river, near where the Shaker mills now stand. He died July 13, 1783. 

Elisha Bingham was born in Windham county. Conn., and settled in En- 
field about 1772. Though illiterate, he seems to have been a man of good 
capacity, his name often occurring as a town officer. He had a large family. 
His son Elias, born August 29, 1772, as we have stated, was the first male 
child born in the town, and his daughter Phebe, born January 7, 1778, was 
probably the first female child. In 1787 Mr. Bingham removed, with his 
entire family, to Jay, Essex county, N. Y. 

Capt. Nathan Bicknel came to the town, with his wife and six children, in 
the spring of 1777, from Ashford, Conn., and resided east of Crystal lake, 
where his son Isaac afterwards lived. Bicknell's brook was named after him. 
He died in Enfield. 

Jesse Jonson was from Hampstead. He made his first purchase in En- 
field in 1778, and in the next six years became the owner of nearly a quarter 



252 TOWN OF ENFIELD. 

of the township under its two charters. He passed much of his time in En- 
field, superintending the clearing of his land and erecting mills, from 1778 to 
March, 1 787, when he removed his family here and resided here until his death, 
March 11, 1800, in his sixty-eighth year. In Enfield he was made a magis- 
trate and representative, and discharged the principal town offices. Hon. 
Jesse Jonson, oldest son of Jesse by his first marriage, was born in Hamp- 
stead, in 1762. In 1779, in his seventeenth year, he walked to Enfield, 
through the wilderness, to aid in clearing his father's lands. The year after 
he became of age he was appoined a justice of the peace, an office he held 
thirty-two years, till his death ; was proprietor's clerk thirty years, one of the 
town's earlier land surveyors, its first magistrate and representative, a delegate 
to the convention that in 1792 formed the present state constitution, judge 
of probate, judge of the court of common pleas, and, in 18 12, nominee of 
his party for Congress. He died September 23, 1816, in his fifty-fourth year. 
His son George W. early removed to the vicinity of Buffalo, N. Y., where 
he acquired wealth and eminence in the legal profession. He used to occupy 
the "white house," the old homestead, as a summer resort, and here, in 1869, 
he secured the organization of the Enfield Historical Society. The object of 
this society, of which he was the first president, is to preserve the facts of 
Enfield's history and to eventually place them in print. Mr. Jonson left at 
his death, about 1800, a legacy to the society to aid in this enterprise, which 
has been augmented by membership fees. He also left a legacy of $500.00 
to the town to be used in aid of deserving poor who are not town charges. 

Thomas Kidder came to the town, from Alstead, in 1786, with his wife and 
children, who were all of the Shaker church. He was the father of Jason, 
born in 1781, long a prmcipal man among the Shakers, and a gentleman of 
refined manners, good talents and sterling worth. 

Joseph Merrill came to the town about 1795, from South Hampton, was a 
justice of the peace,- deputy sheriff, representative, etc. He was a man of 
enterprise and much influence. 

Johnson Gile came to Enfield with his wife and two children in 1779, and 
settled upon the farm where his great-grandson, L. Hazen Gile, now hves. 
He was the father of six children — four suns and two daughters. His sons, 
Thomas, Daniel, Samuel and Ebenezer, all settled near him. 

Joshua Stevens came to Enfield from Hamstead, in 1780, and settled 
upon the farm where his grandson, David M. Stevens, now resides, on road 
15. He married three times, first, Hannah Harriman, who bore him twelve 
children, and died in 1802; second, Sarah Marshall of Hamstead who 
died in 1821; and third, Sarah French. Eleven of his children lived to old 
age, viz.: Ruth, Jeremiah, Hannah, Mehetable, Susannah, Jotham, Samuel, 
Sarah, Mary, Judah and Joshua. Mr. Stevens died in 1827, aged seventy- 
seven years. His widow survived him till 1844. Samuel, son of Joshua, Sr., 
succeeded his father on the homestead, where he lived a bachelor till he was 
seventy-five years old, after which he married twice. He died on the home- 



TOWN OF ENFIELD. 



'■53 



stead, aged ninety-three years. David M., son of Joseph, Jr., came to live 
with his r.ncle Samuel, when seventeen years of age, and was bequeathed the 
homestead, where he now resides. 

Theophilus Clough was among the early settlers, locating here over a cen- 
tury ago, upon a place adjoining and south of the South family of Shakers. 
His farm of about 500 acres was a wilderness. He cleared this, and, at his 
death, it was divided between his two sons, Theophilus, Jr., and Henry. He 
was also the father of several daughters. The sons continued on the home- 
stead during their lives. Theophilus, Jr., had three sons and seven daughters. 
The sons were Theophilus, Wingate and John. The third Theophilus now 
resides on the homestead, aged eighty-four years, and is unmarried. Wingate 
was a manufacturer and died in Saxonville, Mass., about twenty years ago. 
He was the father of three sons and two daughters, one of whom, Bartlett 
W., resides in this town, on road 8. The others who survive reside in Massa- 
chusetts, John, son of Theophilus, Jr., settled upon a place adjoming the 
homestead. He was the father of one daughter, Emeline Clough, who now 
resides with her mother on the homestead. Abigail C, daughter of The- 
ophilus 3d, born in 18 16, married J. G. Perley, who died soon after, when she 
with her infant son, Joseph F., returned to the old home to live. Joseph F., 
is now an energetic business man, the general agent of a large manufacturing 
company, 

Rowell Colby, one of the pioneer settlers^ came to Enfield, from Salisbury, 
N. H., in 1779, and settled upon George hill, where his grandson, Lewis T. 
Colby, now lives. He came to the town in March, with a pair of cattle and 
a sled, camping one night in the woods, where he was entertained with a 
free concert by a pack of wolves. The roads were indicated by marked 
trees. He frequently made journeys back to Salisbury, and, on one occasion, 
he brought sixty young apple trees on his back, which he planted and lived 
to eat the fruit they produced. One of these trees is still living, and meas- 
ures nine feet in circumference. He served in the Revolutionary war, and 
was at the battle of Bennington. He was the father of eleven children, only 
one of whom, the youngest daughter, is living, over eighty years of age, in 
Texas. Mr. Colby is represented in town by several grandchildren, viz.: 
Alstead Brownell, James Edwards, Mrs. Nancy Flanders,William B. Cochran, 
Wyman P. Colby, Lydia J. Colby, Lewis T. Colby and Mrs. Mary C. French. 
He lived on the place where he first settled until his death, aged seventy- 
three years. He held several of the offices of the town. He commenced 
with very small means, but added to his possessions until he owned over 
1,000 acres of land. 

Joseph Cogswell came to Enfield from Ipswich, Mass., with his wife and 
two children, and settled in the eastern part of the town about 1790. He 
built a log house in the woods, where he lived till about 1801, when he built 
a more commodious dwelling. He married Hannah Burnham and was 
the father of seven children. His five daughters moved to Moria, N. Y. His 



254 TOWN OF ENFIELD. 



two sons, Joseph and James, remained on the homestead. Joseph died in 
J 866, leaving two daughters and a son. His widow still survives him. James 
died in 1878, aged seventy-eight years, and left three children, namely, 
John R., of Marshall, la., Emily A. (Mrs. Eben R. Dustin), who resides on 
the Smith homestead, and Frank S., who lives in Concord, N. H. The 
widow of James Cogswell is living, and resides with her daughter, Mrs. 
Dustin. 

Joseph Johnson, an early settler in Enfield, located in the western part of 
the town and owned the farm there, built the fine house where Mr. Miner 
Purmort now lives. Late in his life he lived in Enfield Center, and finally 
died at the residence of his son, David F. Johnson. The place is now the 
home of his grandson, Hon. J. W. Johnson, proprietor of the Quincy House, 
Boston. 

At the age of fifteen years Mr. Johnson enlisted into the army and was a 
soldier during the Revolutionary war, and afterwards a pensioner. He died 
November 7, 1848, aged eighty-eight years. His wife, Polly, died June 5, 
1849, aged eighty-one years. Their children were Sally, Moses, John, Mary, 
Betsey, Martha C, Jesse, James R. and David F. None are now living. 
Sally married Oliver Hardy, of Bradford, Vt.; Mary married Johnson Hardy, 
of Lebanon ; Betsey married Ziba Hamilton, of Lebanon; Martha C. married 
Mr. Brock, of Newbury, Vt.; John was a tanner and for many years engaged 
in tanning at East Enfield village ; Jesse died while quite young ; James B. 
was a merchant and carried on business in Springfield and Enfield up to the 
time of his death; and David F. was engaged in building for several years, and 
at the commencement of the building up of " Center Village," in Enfield, he 
engaged in the manufacture and sale of furniture and sleighs, and also began 
the sale of general merchandise, which he continued till 1857, when he re- 
moved to Tilton, N. H., where he was station and express agent for several 
years. Afterwards he engaged in the insurance business, which he continued 
till his death. 

The grandchildren of Joseph and Polly Johnson, now living, are Har- 
riet, daughter of Sally, who resides in Hopkinton, N. H. ; James W. and 
Mrs. S. M. French, children of Moses ; Calista, daughter of John and wife 
of T. H. Hfield, resides in Valparaiso, Ind.; the children of David 
F., viz. : Lovin E., wife of J. F. Bryant, a merchant of Enfield Center ; 
Mary I., wife of Rev. R. W. Humphries, resides in Philadelphia, Pa. ; and 
Paul B., who resides in Massachusetts ; and the children of Betsey, George, 
Hot ace and Charles Hamilton, all residing in Massachusetts. 

Moses, oldest son of Joseph and Polly Johnson, was born in Enfield, Jan- 
uary 18, 1789. He commenced life as a laborer, without any means. In 
1812 he married Lovinia Hardy, of Lebanon, and commenced business with 
his brother John, in a tannery at the httle hamlet of East Enfield, where he 
remained a few years, and then removed to a farm, the estate of Esq. Fogg, 
which estate he settled during the ensuing two years, when he finally settled 



TOWN OF ENFIELD. 255 

on a farm in Enfield Center, where he continued the remainder of his Hfe, 
His extensive farm of over 200 acres was nearly all wood-land, wiiich he 
immediately commenced to improve, giving employment to many of his 
neighbors in his operations of clearing and lumbering. When he first settled 
on this place he had only two neighbors in what soon became a thrifty vil- 
lage ; but to induce others to join him to build up the place, he liberally gave 
to any who had the energy and enterprise to undertake it, several weeks' 
board, and both he and his most amiable wife always welcomed travelers to 
their home. In addition to his farming business, which became large in a 
few years, he became one of foremost dealers in live-stock, cattle and sheep 
being his leading trade. These were purchased of the farmers by traveling 
over large portions of New Hampshire and Vermont and collecting several 
hundred into an immense herd or " drove," which were driven on foot to 
Brighton market, Boston, employing about half a dozen drivers and requiring 
several days to complete the journey, always herding the cattle one night en- 
route in his pastures and providing food and lodging for the drivers at his 
house. 

He always accompanied his herds on horseback. This business he con- 
tinued until the exposure on the road undermined his hardy constitution, and 
he was, much against his will, obliged to give it up. In these journeys on 
horseback, with saddlebags and spurs, armed with a heavy black whip and a 
pair of pistols, which he considered as a necessary safeguard, especially in 
passing throughthe " five mile woods " of Boscawen Plain, when returning 
to his home from market, as these " woods " were infested by robbers. On 
one occasion when he was carrying a large amount of money, by fortunately 
overhearing the bandit just in time, he put spurs to his horse and escaped. 

In all his dealings with his fellowmen, Mr. Johnson was called "the hon- 
est man," and at all times, in all places, under all circumstances, his motto 
which he successfully inculcated and instilled into the hearts of his children, 
was the trite one, " Honesty is the best policy." He gained a fair fortune, 
but by reverses it was all swept away. He died at the homestead — " the 
little red house on the hill" — June 9, 1857. His wife, who was most truly 
his help-meet, survived him until July 35, 1879, living to the great age of 
ninety.one years and six months. She was a very remarkable woman of her 
day, possessing great strength of mind, tempered with gentle and tender solici- 
tude and warm affection for her family and friends, which extended in good 
works to the sick and afflicted. Those suffering found her first at their bed- 
side. Suffice it to say "her husband praised her, and her children rise up 
and call her blessed." Their surviving children are Susan Matilda and 
Hon. James Willis Johnson. 

Susan Matilda Johnson, born at East Enfield, September 20, 1S16, mar- 
ried Amos French, of Lebanon, August 9, 1837, who was then a farmer. 
Later they removed to Enfield Center, where Mr. French engaged in mer- 
cantile pursuits the next two years, held the office of justice of the peace and 



256 • TOWN OF ENFIELD. 



selectman, was a prominent Republican, an uncompromising anti-slavery man, 
and a radical advocate of temperance. 

After leaving his store he again engaged in farming the next fifteen years, 
at the Currier Stand, and finally removed to a farm in Hartford; Vt., where 
he died November 5, 187 1, aged fifty-eight years. Mrs. French then returned 
to the " red house on the hill," where she kindly took upon herself the duti- 
ful care of her worthy and aged mother, which she faithfully and gladly per- 
formed until her mother's decease. 

Mr. and Mrs. French had born to them four sons, viz.: John J., who, at 
the age of fifteen entered the book-store of his uncle, James French, of 
Boston, next went into mercantile business with others in Galesburgh, III, and 
for fourteen years was station agent on the Suncook railroad, at Pittsfield, 
N. H., which position he recently resigned on account of ill health. 

WilUam W., at the age of twenty years, enlisted in the Union army, served 
about fifteen months, when he was wounded, at the battle of Fredericksburg. 
He has since been a great sufferer by blood poison from a bullet which he 
carried imbedded in his thigh more than seven years. He now receives a 
pension for entire disability. He resides at Enfield Center. George B- 
French, who at about twenty-three years of age engaged as baggage-master 
at the depot at Concord, N. H., for six years, and has been messenger of the 
United States Express Company the last nine years, resides in Concord. 
Charles F. French was employed by L. Pease & Co., hardware dealers in 
Hartford, Vt., two years, then was the proprietor of a hotel in Lebanon two 
years, where he died March 31, 1881, aged nearly twenty-seven years. 

Hon. James Willis Johnson, the only son of Moses and Lavinia (Hardy) 
Johnson, was born in Enfield, February 24, 1826. He received a limited 
education, and his occupation until the year 1851, when he was twenty-six 
years of age, was that of a clerk in a country store. He early evinced a de- 
cided inclination for trade, and in 1852 commenced buying potafoes and pro- 
duce for the Boston market, a car-load of "long red" potatoes being his 
first venture. He soon increased his business by buying cattle in Canada 
and northern New York, which he took in droves to New Hampshire and sold 
to the farmers. He was also an extensive dealer in wool, which business he 
increased from year to year. 

At the commencement of the late civil war, Mr. Johnson, with comprehen- 
sive sagacity, foresaw that our great armies must be clothed as well as fed, 
and that wool would be in demand. Consequently, he boldly entered the 
trade on a large scale, extending his field of operations over New Hampshire, 
Vermont and Canada. From that time, 1861 or 1862, up to 1876, he was 
one of the largest, boldest and most successful dealers in wool and produce 
in the New England States. In one day his neighbor, James F. Bryant, dis- 
bursed in currency for him between $60,000.00 and $70,000.00 for wool re- 
ceived. Early in his transactions in barley, of which he became one of the 
largest shippers from northern New York and Canada, he called on a noted 





sy<L 



TOWN OF ENFIELD. 257 



and wealthy brewer of Boston, Mr. Souther, and exhibited a sample which he 
carried in a small bag and solicited a trade, giving his price. Mr. Souther 
quietly said, " Yes, I want your barley, and will take 10,000 bushels." Mr. 
Johnson concluded the contract and left at once to make the necessary pur- 
chase to fill it. but was astonished at the magnitude of his trade, and the great 
amount which he would realize, it being more than he ever expected to be 
worth. In this trade he was successful, and has had general success in all 
his business undertakings. 

Mr. Johnson was not born rich, and the following incident, which is indel- 
ibly stamped on his memory, will give some idea of the straitened circum- 
stances he underwent in his boyhood. At the age of seven or eight years he 
went to the store, a distance of a mile and a quarter, barefooted, through 
snow an inch deep, and purchased, with a little money his mother earned by 
weaving for a neighbor, one pint of molasses, three cents worth of tea, and 
what flour he could buy for a quarter of a dollar. Contrast this with the 
following incidents, showmg something of the magnitude of his transactions 
in his manhood. In the presence of his neighbor, Wyman Pattee, in five 
minutes time he made five thousand dollars in the sale of 50,000 bushels of 
barley. On another occasion a man from a neighboring town went into the 
bank at Lebanon and informed James H. Kendrick, the cashier, that Mr. John- 
son was about to fail. Mr. Kendrick, with characteristic loyalty to Mr. John- 
son, and entire confidence in his ability, asked him if Mr. Johnson owed him 
anything. To this he replied "No." "'Do you know of anyone he does owe?" 
he next asked, and again '"No." "Well, if he fails," Mr. Kendrick rephed, ''you 
certainly will be no loser." This obligation to the bank of $45,000,000 was 
promptly paid as soon as due. 

He purchased and took possession of the Quincy House, of Boston, in 
1874, and has been since then its proprietor. His ambition from the first has 
been to make it one of the best in the city, and to that end he has re-built it 
from the foundation, occupying all the space of the old Quincy, the cite of the 
Central Hotel, and several stores, so that now the Quincy House has grown 
from three stories to seven stories in height. It is now a palatial structure, 
substantially built ol fine granite, and the largest hotel in New England. Mr 
Johnson has invested in this purchase and the attending improvements a 
round million dollars. 

Mr. Johnson is a sturdy and pronounced Republican, and notwithstanding 
his great business affairs, takes great mterestin the welfare of his native town? 
of which he continues to be a citizen, and has the confidence of his townsmen* 
He was elected to the popular branch of the legislature in i860, re-elected 
in 1865 and in 1866, and again in 1875. Was railroad commissioner in 1878 
and 1879, and State senator in 1876 and 1877, and was Greenback cantli. 
date for Congress in the third district, in 1878. Mr. Johnson loves and 
cherishes his native village, and the old home where he was born. The little 
"red house on the hill," which he still owns intact as it was in his boyhood, 
17* 



258 TOWN OF ENFIELD. 

allowing nothing to be changed in appearance, and when re-painted the same 
red hue is reproduced. His modern, convenient and more pretentious resi- 
dence stands near by. 

Mr. Johnson owes his great success in life to no fortunate aid or accidental 
and favorable circumstances. He started poor, and all he has he has earned. 
What he is, he has made himself. Possessed of a strong and comprehensive 
mind and much physical power, he stops for no discouraging impediments. 
His indomitable persistence and energy will not allow him to repose in ease. 
He will choose to wear out rather than rust in idleness. What he attempts 
he expects to accomplish. 

On December 20, 1846, Mr. Johnson married Susan Smith, daughter of 
Rev. Uriah Smith, of Barnard, Vt. Their children are Ella H., who married 
William W. Hill, a hotel-keeper, and now resides in Concord ; Carrie E., 
whose husband is Dr. Otis Marrion, a successful practicing physician, resides 
in AUston, Mass.; Belle f ., whose husband, Otis Fellows, is a grain merchant 
of Boston ; and Miss Helen S. Johnson, who resides with her parents. 

Samuel Jackman came to this town, from Massachusetts, with his wife, at 
a very early day, and settled upon George hill, where his grandson, James G. 
Jackman, now resides. He married Ruth Woodrage, and had born to him 
three children. He built a log cabin, in which he lived several years. In 
clearing his land, like many others of his time, he burned the timber and 
saved the ashes, from which he made potash to pay the taxes and buy provis- 
ions. He finally built a more commodious dwelling, which is now well pre- 
served, and known as Elm cottage, and is opened every season for summer 
boarders, by James G. Jackman. Samuel, Jr., married and settled in Enfield 
and was the father of three sons, only one of whom is living. Samuel, Jr., 
finally removed to Claremont, where he died, aged seventy years. William, 
second son of Samuel, Sr., married and settled on the homestead. His four 
children are as follows: William C, who resides in Iowa, and has three chil- 
dren ; James G., who resides on the homestead, married Lorietta A. Child, 
of Pomfret, Vt., and has five children, they being the fourth generation 
who have lived on the homestead ; Eucy A. (Mrs. Fifield) resides in Ando- 
ver, N. H. ; and Samuel H., a graduate from Dartmouth college, is a teacher 
in CaUfornia. 

Phineas Gage, a native of Massachusetts, came to Enfield about 1796, 
and settled in the eastern part of the town, where John Dresser now 'lives. 
He was the father of twelve children, three of whom are living, but not in 
this town. His son Calvin located as a farmer on the old place, but finally 
removed to, a farm about a mile and a half from the homestead. He died 
h^reijunei7, 1876. He had born to him three children, Hiram, Lucy 
(Mrs. John H. Morse), and Julius, two of whom are living. They are Hiram, 
who resides on 'road 10, and Lucy (Mrs. Morse), who resides at Enfield 
Center. 

Timothy Day was born at Cape Ann, Mass., about 1760, came to Enfield 



TOWN OF ENFIELD. 



259 



about 1790, and married Judith Webster, of Chester, N. H. He served in 
the Revolutionary war, and died here aged eighty-seven years. Mrs. Day, 
widow of John, and daughter-in-law of Timothy, at the age of ninety-four 
years, lives with her son Lorenzo. The latter was captain of Co. F, 125th 
C. T., entering the service August 28, 1862, and was mustered out in Decem- 
ber, 1867. His commission was received from General Thomas. Mr. Day 
is proprietor of the Day Dawn House, for summer boarders, from whence, on 
High street, the view of lake and mountain scenery is very fine. 

David Day, son of Timothy, was a native of this town, and reared a fam- 
ily of six children, three sons and three daughters. 

Nathaniel Purmort located in this town at an early day. and reared a family 
of five children. His son Hiram was a native of this town, and had born to 
him two sons, Nathaniel and Minor T. The former died March 20, 1864. 
Minor T. married Hannah C, daughter of David Day. and resides on road 36. 

Richard Currier came from Southampton, Mass., to Enfield, and settled on 
Shaker hill. He lived here until a few years before his death, when he re- 
moved to Manchester, where he died at the age of sixty-seven years. James, 
son of Richard, was a farmer, and a native of this town. He was a pilot on 
the Connecticut river for twenty years. He died here in March, 1873. L. 
W., son of James, is a native of this town, and has held the office of super- 
visor two years, and represented the town from 1883 to 1885. 

Daniel Heath, of EngUsh descent, was one of the first settlers on George 
hill. He located in the wilderness, in a log cabin, where he remained until 
1804, when he built a frame dwelling, and lived here till his death. He was 
a soldier in the Revolutionary war, where he served seven years. He mar- 
ried Sarah March, of Newburyport, N. H., and had born to him nine chil- 
dren, as follows : Jonathan, who has amassed a large fortune, and resides in 
Boston; Daniel and Eben went to New York, where they died; David, Hol- 
land and Ichabod settled in Enfield, as farmers ; Lydia and Sarah married farm- 
ers and settled in Vermont ; and Dorset, the youngest son, who succeeded 
his father on the homestead, was born in 1800 and died in 1872. Mr. 
Heath's second wife bore him two daughters, who died young. He also sur- 
vived his third wife, and died in 1827, aged seventy-two years. The home- 
stead farm, after being in the possession of the family for three generations, 
has passed into other hands. 

Wyman Pattee, son of James, grandson of Daniel, and great-grandson of 
Capt. Asa Pattee, the pioneer of Canaan, was born in Canaan in August, 
1826. Reared on the farm of his father, and early discipUned to hard, physi- 
cal toil, he developed the brain, muscle and blood-power to work the brain 
machine which gives the country-bred boy a decided advantage, ordinarily, 
over his city-bred rivals. And to-day, by dint of perseverance, industry and 
well conceived and comprehensive plans successfully executed, this farmer's 
son ranks among the successful busines men of Grafton county. Mr. Pattee 
received his education in the common schools of his district and in Canaan 



26o TOWN OF ENFIELD. 



Union academy. In 1848 he went into trade and the lumber business, in 
his native town, where he continued until 1859. In 1855 and 1856 he rep- 
resented Canaan in the legislature, being the colleague of Hon. Jonathan 
Kittridge, and the youngest member of the house. In 1859 he removed to 
Enfield, where he now resides. He is now and has been for the past twenty- 
two years an extensive manufacturer and dealer and shipper of grain, flour 
and feed. In his adopted town he is not without honors. In i860 he was 
appointed by the Governor and Counsel to the office of sheriff of Grafton 
county, which position he resigned about four years after. In 1875 and 1876, 
by the suffrages of his appreciating townsmen, he was s^nt to represent them 
in the legislature ; was treasurer thirteen consecutive years, and has presided 
as moderator at the town meetings a long series of years. On account of 
his business experience and ability, his aid has been sought by several cor- 
porations, and he is serving as an auditor of the Northern railroad, which 
important position he has held the last fifteen years ; is a director of the 
Peterboro & Hillsboro railroad, a director of the Mascoma Fire Insurance 
company, and at the organization of the National Bank of White River 
Junction, February 6, 1886, was elected a director thereof. His business 
transactions have given him an extensive circle of acquaintances. In his 
town his influence is great, and his liberality is equal to his financial abilities. 
In politics he is a RepubHcan ; in religion, decidedly liberal, a regular at- 
tendant of the Universalist church, and a liberal supporter of all its financial 
affairs. In 1857 he m.arried Mary Jane Burley, and their children are James 
W. Pattee, who is now engaged in business with his father, and John H. Pat- 
tee, a student preparing for college at Goddard Seminary, in Barre, Vt. 

David L. Davis, son of David L. and Alma (Smith) Davis, was born in 
Hanover, May 3, 1822, and raised on his father's farm, in his native town. 
He came to Enfield in 1847, and was clerk for A. & G. W. Conant for the 
next three years, in the general merchandise business. He then formed a 
partnership with A. Conant, in the manufacture of Shaker flannels and cassi- 
meres, under the firm name of Shaker Mills Co. About 1854 they added to 
their business the manufacture of the celebrated Shaker socks, the first made 
in the country. This continued until i860, when Mr. Davis retired from the 
firm, and during the ensuing five years he was in the lumber trade, and dealt 
in wool. In 1865 he entered the present firm of Dodge, Davis & Co., and 
re-entered the Shaker mills. In December, 1884, they removed their manu- 
factory to Bristol, and are still manufacturing Shaker flannels, with five sets 
of machinery. Mr, Davis represented his town in the legislature in 1881 and 
1882, and was chairman of the board of selectmen in 1875. He declined 
re-election. In 1857 he married Miss Lizzie R. Peabody, of Lebanon. Aside 
from his manufacturing, he has been engaged in farming and fattening cattle 
since 1875, and by judicious management and the use of a silo (the first built 
in his town) he produces, from twenty-three acres, all the food for fifty head 
of cattle, and in addition, raises and sells to the Shakers, medicinal roots to 



TOWN OF ENFIELD. 26 1 

the value of from $200.00 to $300.00 annually. His grandfather, Bazaliel 
Davis, and maternal grandfather, John Smith, were both donors to Dartmouth 
college at its organization. 

John W. Dodge was born in Hanover, September 4, 1815, and was the 
youngest of the family of ten children of Daniel and Sally (Wright) Dodge. 
Mrs. Dodge was a daughter of Deacon John Wright, a pioneer, who emi- 
grated from Lebanon, Conn., and came to Hanover to assist in the location 
of Dartmouth college. Mr. Dodge was raised on his father's farm, and at the 
age of seventeen years assumed its management on account of his father's 
ill health, and finally became its owner, continuing a tiller of its soil until he 
was thirty- two years of age. When about thirty-five years of age, associated 
with others, he opened a country store, which was continued until about 1865, 
and after about two years' service with Mr. Alpheus Conant, manufacturer of 
Shaker flannels, at Enfield, he became one of the firm of Dodge, Davis & 
Williams, successors of Mr. Conant. In 1873 Mr. WiUiams retired from the 
firm, and the present firm of Dodge, Davis & Co. was formed. This firm 
consists of Mr. Dodge, David L. Davis and Henry C. Whipple, son of Mrs. 
Dodge, by her former husband, David C. Whipple. In 1883 this firm bought 
the Holden mills, in Bristol, containing two sets of woolen machinery. Mr. 
Dodge gave to this enterprise his personal attention, and from May, 1883, up 
to November, 1884, he put extensive repairs in the Holden mills, built an 
entire new mill seventy-two feet long, fifty-two feet wide, and three stories 
high, a store-house, dye-house, and picker-house. In March, 1885, they 
removed their machinery from Enfield to these mills, where all of their man- 
ufacturing business is now done. Mr. Dodge is a Democrat, and was elected 
to the legislature in 1878, and returned again in 1879 and 1880. In social 
and religious views Mr. Dodge is among the most liberal, an attendant of 
the Universalist church, and a liberal contributor for its support. July i, 
1855, Mr. Dodge married Mrs. Clemantine Whipple, daughter of Henry 
H. Chandler, of Hanover, who was then mother of two children, Henry C. 
Whipple, before mentioned, and Margaret P., wife of A. R. Brewer, of New 
York. Mr. and Mrs. Dodge had born to them, April 30, 1859, a daughter, 
Fannie L., who was recently married 

Rev. Uriah Smith entered the ministry of the Baptist church, and preached 
in the churches of Woodstock, Barnard, and other places. In 1836 he 
removed to Enfield, where he made a permanent home. Being very generous 
in his views, he concluded that the doctrine of everlasting punishment was 
untenable, and finally believed and preached the final restoration of the whole 
human family. He continued in the ministry over forty years, and gave his 
voice and influence to all the reforms of his day, and labored to place his 
people on a higher plane, in mori^.ls, religion, and general intelligence. In 
1839 he gave the first temperance address, and organized the first temperance 
society in Enfield. The friends of temperance celebrated its anniversary, 
August 9th, for many years. He lived to the advanced age of eighty-six years, 



262 TOWN OF ENFIELD. 

honored and beloved by a large circle of acquaintances. His children now- 
living are Mrs. Catharine Cox, of Barnard, Vt.; Elias Smith, and Miss Me- 
linda Smith, members of the society of Shakers ; Mrs. Amanda Snow, of 
Mound City, Minn.; and Susan A. (Mrs. J. W, Johnson), of theQuincy House, 
Boston, Mass. 

Nathaniel Howe, born in Hopkinton, N. H., married Elizabeth Fitz, of 
South Hampton, N. H., in 1800, and immediately after moved to Enfield 
and located upon the place where his son Nathaniel now resides. His farm 
consisted of only forty acres and was but partially cleared. He however 
added to it from time to time. He was the father of six children, 
three now living, only one of whom, Nathaniel, resides in this town. 
The latter settled on the homestead which now contains 165 acres. 
He married twice, first, Mary Jane Choate, vvho bore him two children, 
Eliza J. and Sarah P., and died August, 1850 ; and second, in Septem- 
ber, 1851, Susan E. Sargent, who was the mother of one child, who died in 
infancy. Eliza J. (Mrs. David Noyes), resides on the homestead, and Sarah 
B. (Mrs. B. C. Leach), lives in this town. 

Matthew Bryant was born here about 1800, was a farmer, and lived in the 
northeastern part of the town till 1855, when he moved to Enfield Center. 
He had born to him five children, viz.: George H., James F., Betsey H., 
Amos M. and Matthew, Jr., all living, excepting Betsey H. and Matthew, Jr. 
Mr. Bryant was selectman several years, and also held the office of county 
commissioner for several years. He died in 1866, aged sixty-six years. His 
son James F. is postmaster and general merchant, represented the town in 
1856-57, held the office of town clerk twenty years, and is a justice of the 
peace for the State, which office he has held twenty-nine years. 

Gideon Morse moved to Canaan, from Haverhill, Mass., about 1795, and 
in 1803, to Enfield. He married Hannah Johnson, and had born to him 
two sons and two daughters. One son, Edward, died at the age of twenty- 
one years. Henry, son of Gideon, was born in Canaan, and came to Enfield 
with his parents in 1803. He married Eleanor Doton, of Canaan and had 
born to him six children, two of whom, John H. and Frank B., are living, 
both residing in this town. He died September 9, 1884, aged eighty five 
years. He was an excellent penman as the town records of Canaan show. His 
son John H. is proprietor of Mont Calm House, and Frank B. is a farmer 
and a lumber manufacturer and dealer. 

John Smith, Jr., was born in Ipswich, Mass., in 1771, and remained there 
until he was thirty-four years of age. He followed a seafaring life, engaging 
in the cod fisheries up to that time. In i ^05 he removed with his father, 
mother, wife and three children, to Enfield, and settled upon the farm where 
his grandson, Eben R. Dustin, now lives. His father, John Smith, Sr., died 
in 1818, aged eighty-six years, and his mother died in 1828, aged eighty- 
seven years. John Smith, Jr., married Betsey Burnham, and had born to 
him eight children, namely, Betsey Ann, Lucy, Daniel L., Ziba H., John B., 



TOWN OF ENFIELD. 263 



George W.. Lucy W. and Joslina P. Betsey Ann, born in 1799, married 
Nehemiah Dustin, and was the mother of four children. Three son are 
hving and reside in this town, viz.: David G., a farmer, Hves in the western 
part of the town ; Ziba H., is a painter at Enfield Center, and Eben R., a 
farmer, resides on the homestead. Mrs. Dustin died August 8, 1884, aged 
eighty-five years. Lucy, daughter of John Smith, Jr., died aged twelve years. 
Daniel L. Smith settled in the western part of Enfield, and died in April, 
1881. Ziba H. Smith died in 1828, aged twenty-one years. John B. died 
in 1854, aged forty five years. George W., a farmer, resides in Plainfield, N, 
H. Lucy W. unmarried, resides at Enfield Center. Joshua P., a retired 
farmer, resides in Warren, N". H. John Smith, Jr., remained on the farm 
where he settled when he first came to town, until his death in 1854, aged 
eighty-three years. Mrs. Smith died in 1844, aged sixty-eight years. 

Matthew Pettingill, of Salisbury, N. H., purchased a tract of 400 acres of 
the original proprietors, where his son Jonathan C. settled about 1809. 
Matthew, Jr., and Zacheus came some years previous and nearly all of their 
land has passed out of the family. A portion of that occupied by Jonathan 
C. is now owned by his grandson, Ephraim H. Pettingill. 

Leonard Woodbury, of Croydon, N. H., moved to Lebanon many years 
ago, and died at Bradford. His son David, born in Lebanon, lived there till 
twelve years of age, when he went to Piermont, where he lived twenty-five 
years. From here he moved to Orford, where he remained two years, and 
then came to this town, where he now resides. 

Aaron Nichols was born in Enfield and died in the town of Canaan. His 
son, Benjamin T., a native of this town, lived here till twenty-one years of 
age, when he moved to Canaan, where he resided about twenty years. He 
then returned to Enfield, where he died, in Ma)', 1874, aged fifty-eight years. 
He had born to him four children, namely, Henry A., Helen A., Mandana, 
and Elvin A., all living but Mandana. 

R. VV. Currier, a native of Enfield, built and kept the Grafton House, 
which stood opposite the present Mont Calm House. He married Lucinda 
W. Willis, of East Lebanon, and had born to him three children, namely, 
David W., who died in infancy, Mary L. and Kate W. Mr. Currier died in 
1858, aged thirty-six years, and his widow died in 1866. aged forty-two years. 
Mary L. married Albert J. Merrill, a clothier in Boston, Mass., and Kate M. 
married John H. Hayes, who is in the dry goods business also in Boston. 
Both families have summer residences in this town. Mrs. Merrill and Mrs- 
Hayes are granddaughters of the late James Willis, of East Lebanon, who 
was known as an enterprising man. He was a merchant, a manufacturer 
and a hotel-keeper, and at the time the Northern railroad was built, took 
100 shares at $100.00 each. 

Thomas Merrill, a native of Enfield, was a merchant of this town, and held 
most of the town offices. He was selectman, represented the town several 
times, was State senator, and a member of the governor's council. He died 
in 1863 or 1864. 



264 TOWN OF ENFIELD. 



Daniel M. Cummings was born in Cornish, N H., May 16, 1810. His 
father, Warren Cummings, was a farmer, and Daniel M. remained with him 
until he attained his majority. He then commenced business as a millwright. 
He married Emily M. Hamilton, of Sharon, Vt., and removed to Woodstock, 
Vt., when twenty-two years of age. He remained there, engaged at his trade, 
till 1841, when he located for a short time at East Lebanon. He came to 
Enfield in 1842, where he continued his millwright work up to the time of 
his death, which occurred recently. In 1856 he purchased a machine-shop, 
and added the business of machinist to his former occupation. In 1882 he 
invented and patented a valuable fodder-cutter, adapted especially to cutting 
and ri^ducing corn-stalks and sugar-cane. He has had ten children, seven of 
whom are living. During the Rebellion all his sons, four in number, were at 
the same time soldiers in the Union army. 

Jacob Lovejoy moved to Hebron, from HoUis, N. H., and remained there 
until his death, which occurred at the age of ninety-six years. Isaac, son of 
Jacob, was born in Hebron, where he lived till 1820, when he moved to Han- 
over, and remained until he came to Enfield, about 1873, to live with his son, 

A. C. He died here in 1877, aged eighty-eight years. Augustus C, son of 
Isaac, was born in Hebron, February 7, 181 o, lived there until the age often 
years, when he moved with his parents to Hanover, where he remained until 
1838. He then moved to Canaan, and, in 1859, came to Enfield, and located 
on Shaker hill. In April, 1880, he removed to the place where, until his death, 
he resided, on road 5. He held the office of selectman six years. 

Samuel Williams was born in Canaan and lived there until thirty-five years 
of age. He married Ursula Day, of Enfield, and had born to him five chil- 
dren, viz.: Jennie, Lewis M., Mirriam Elizabeth, Susan Augusta and Frank 

B. Lewis M. lives in Ka::sas, and Jennie married Rev. Francis Parker, and 
resides in Craftsbury, Vt. The others live in this town. Mr. Williams died 
here February 4, 1878, aged fifty-eight years. 

Eben Clough was born in Grantham, N. H., where he lived till about fifty 
years of age. He was a wool-carder and cloth-dresser, carried on a saw and 
grist-mill, and was a land surveyor. He moved to Sutton, Vt., where he 
remained eleven years, and came here in 1871. He has held the office of 
justice of the peace more than forty years, and was notary public m Vermont 
ten years. 

John Carlton was a life-long resident of Canaan. His son Henry, a native 
of Canaan, lived there until sixteen years of age, when he moved to Maine, 
where he lived thirty-seven years. He came to Enfield in 1880, and is a 
quarryman and farmer. 

Capt. Converse G. Morgan, born in Canaan, married Helen A. Bridgman, 
of Hanover. He enlisted as a captain in 1861, and was discharged for disa- 
bility about April, 1862. April i, 1863, he was appointed to a clerkship in 
the paymaster-general's office, at Washington, D. C, where he remained until 
the autunm of 1867. He died here November i, 1880, in his fifty-second 
year. 



TOWN OF ENFIELD. 265 



Dr. F. C. Manchester, the only child of Dr. C. W. Manchester, of Leba- 
non, studied medicine with his father, and at Dartmouth medical college, 
where he graduated in 1884, and located at Enfield January i, 1885. 

Alfred A. Cox located in Enfield in i860, coming from Northwood, N, H. He 
erected the building where the postoffice now is, in which he established the 
manufacture of boots and shoes, employing about twenty hands in the shop, 
and putting out work in the surrounding towns, employing about fifty more. 
He continued this until 1864, when he engaged in the lumber business, and, 
with A. H. Hayes, of Enfield, and W. A. Batchelder, of Lynn, Mass., in the 
manufacture of flannel in the Mascoma mill. He is now a partner in the 
firm of Parker, Cox & Co., employing 100 hands in the manufacture of shoes, 
at Laconia, N. H. He has represented Enfield in the legislature of 1865- 
66, was senator from 1881 to '8;^, sheriff of the county, and has served on 
the governor's staff. 

T/ie Congregational church of Enfield. — It is stated in the New Hamp- 
shire Gazetteers, that Rev. Edward Evans was the first minister of the Con- 
gregational church in Enfield. This is not correct. Mr. Evans was the first 
settled minister in Enfield, being settled in December, 1799, by a small coun- 
cil of Congregational ministers, (Rev. M. Burrroughs, of Hanover, and Rev. 
Mr. Page, of Hebron,) and obtained the land in the town appropriated to the 
benefit of the first settled minister. Mr. Evans was dismissed in 1805, but 
continued to preach in the town a number of years longer. He was quite 
popular, and collected a church of not far from one hundred members. But Mr. 
Evans was not an Orthodox Congregationahst, nor was his church an Ortho- 
dox church of that order. Aged people who knew him well have said that 
in sentiment he was always a Methodist, and no one of his church ever united 
with the Congregational church, subsequently organized in Enfield — and so 
far as is known with any other Congregational church. After a while Mr, 
Evans discontinued the duties of the clerical office, directed his attention 
more to civil and political affairs ; was appointed judge of probate, which 
office he filled for several years, but eventually left the town. His church 
became extinct. The only real Congregational church in the town of Enfield 
was organized May 30, 1826, consisting of fouiteen members, all of whom, 
or nearly all, belonged to the family of Col. Benjamin Choate, or were con- 
nected with that family by marriage. Of this church located at Enfield Cen- 
ter, Nathan Choate and George W. Fifield were appointed the first deacons, 
June 27, 1826. From 1827 to 1838 twenty-one were added to the church, 
and Rev. S. Arnold, Amos Foster, Hobart Langley and John Clark, supplied 
them a part of the time. In 1836 the church purchased one-half of the new 
meeting-house erected near the center of the town. The society is at pres- 
ent without a pastor. 

Shakers. — The founding of this sect in Enfield has already been detailed. 
In a religious point of view the Shakers claim that their church is organized 
and established after the pattern of the first Christian church at Jerusalem,. 



2 66 TOWN OF FRANCC 



founded by the apostles. Hence, in their possessions they hold all 
things in common, distributing to the necessities of the members as they 
stand in need. Or, to quote from a letter of Elder Perkins to us on the sub- 
ject : "The faith and doctrines of the Shakers were promulgated in Enfield, 
September, 1782, when many individuals embraced their reHgious views, and 
until the year 1793 lived in and looked after the interests of their own private 
families. They then brought together their several personal interests and 
established one common fund, dedicating it unto the Lord for charitable and 
religous purposes, and for nearly one hundred years have maintained peace- 
fully and successfully communistic relations, having in their church no rich or 
poor, possessing all things and yet possessing nothing, no one claiming or 
saying ' that aught of the things which he posessed vvas his own ; but they 
had all things common.' — Acts iv. 32." 

The Methodist Episcopal churchy located in the northeastern part of the 
town, was organized in 1837. Their church building was erected in 1858, a 
wooden structure capable of seating 350 persons and valued, including 
grounds, at $3,000.00. The society how has eighty-three members, with Rev. 

E. F. P. Dearborn, pastor. 

The First Uiiiversalisf c/mrch of Enfield, located at Enneld village, was 
organized by S. C. Hayford, January 24, 1856, with twenty-six members, Rev. 

F. S. Bliss being the first pastor On Novembet 7, 1874, the church was re- 
organized, Rev. Eli Garfield being the first pastor. The church building, 
erected 1852, will seat 200 persons, and is valued at $1,500.00. The society 
has twenty members, with Rev. Walter Dole, pastor. 



FRANCONIA, one of the most picturesque ot the famous White Moun- 
tain towns, lies in the northern part of the county, in kt. 44" n and 
long. 71° 40', bounded north by Bethlehem, east by Livermore, soutli 
by Lincoln and Easton, and west by Lisbon. It was originally granted to 
Jesse Searle and others, under its present name, February 14, 1764. But as 
no steps were taken towards making a settlement, another grant was issued, 
June 8, 177 2. which covered all of this town and a part or all of the township of 
Lincoln, to " Sir Francis Bernard, Bart.," and twelve other notables, among 
whom were " His Excellency Thomas Hutchinson " and " The Honorable 
Corbyn Morris, Esq." This new township was given the name of Morris- 
town, in honor of the last mentioned gentleman. These conflicting grants 
led to much litigation, and greatly retarded the settlement of the town, as 
both sets of grantees claimed a right to the territory, though the original 
grantees came out victorious in the struggle. The following extract from a 
petition for redress, sent the legislature in 1793, by John Taylor, an inhabit- 
ant of the town, gives one a fair idea of this controversy, and which we may 



^ 








TOWN OF FRANCONIA. 267 



add, was not an isolated example of troubles of this class, which were usually 
resultant from the cupidity of the crown's officers, who, in granting lands, 
often looked only to the fee for making out the necessary papers : — 

" Many years since the tract of land covered by Morristown charter had 
been granted in two parcels & under the names of Franconia & Lincoln 
with the usual conditions annexed — -that after the period had elapsed in which 
said conditions were to have been fulfilled viz in the year 1772 the govern- 
ment, finding that no part of said conditions had been fulfilled, & in con- 
formity to received ideas of the operations of law in such cases regranted the 
said tract of land by the name of Morristown — that the proprietors of Mor- 
ristown grant went on immediately at a great expense &: cut a road through 
the woods fifteen miles in length tj get on to said tract — carried mill irons 
from Exeter to Morristown (not being able to purchase any nearer)— built mills 
— allotted the town — put on settlers — & paid in taxes to the State of New 
Hampshire Prior to the year 1782 seven pounds seven shillings and three 
pence in specie, one hundred & eighty nine pounds five shillings in new emis- 
sion money, and three thousand seven hundred & twenty pounds in old emis- 
sion bills equal at the time of payment of said old emission to ^79,, 18,, to 
in specie & that since the year 1782 they have paid to David Webster Esqr 
Sheriff of the county of Grafton in specie Eight hundred & twenty dollars & 
thirty eight cents for State taxes and charges — & thirty nine dollars & twen- 
ty nine cents for county taxes & charges that after all their labours & ex- 
penditures they are unable to retain by law one single foot of the land grant- 
ed to them — that the settlers under them have been obliged to purchase their 
lands again of the Franconia & Lincoln proprietors — that they have been 
defeated in the possession of the land granted to them by an alteration in our 
judicial determiuatio7is — & that they felt themselves obliged to pay the taxes 
before & since ye year 1782 in conseq^iejice of being recognized 6^ taxed by the 
General Court oj Neiv Hampshire — " 

Just at what period the controversy was finally settled we are unable to 
state ; but on the tax books of the treasury, the first mention of " Morris- 
town" was in the year 1777, and "Franconia" is not named from the year 
1775 to 1781, inclusive. 

The surface of Franconia is so richly diversified as to present all phases of 
beautiful scenery — the wild and picturesque, the grand and sublime. It has 
an area of 32,938 acres, only 5,369 of which is improved land. The moun- 
tain streams in the eastern part of the town unite in forming Franconia 
Branch, a tributary of the east branch of the Pemigewasset. In the western 
and northern parts of the town the streams unite in forming the South 
Branch of the Ammonoosuc, while m the southern part the Pemigewasset 
has its source. The principal elevations are Mt. Lafayette, Mt. Lincoln, 
Haystack mountain, Twin mountains, and Profile and Bald mountains. Its 
great curiosities, the Franconia Notch, Echo lake and Old Man of the 
Mountain, are among the most noted in the country, are visited by thou- 
sands of tourists each season, and a^e far too well known to require a detailed 
description here. Aside from its wonders of scenery and curiosities of nature, 
Franconia has many points from which superb views may be obtained, en- 
compassing the entire horizon. Commencing at the northeast, many miles 



268 TOWN OF FRANCONIA, 



away, with Mt. Starr King and its neighboring heights, the eye, wandering to 
the right until it has taken in every point of the compass, embraces in its 
vision the monarchs of the Presidential Range, Mt. Lafayette rnd its neigh- 
bors and Moosilauke ; and after crossing the Connecticut valley is impressed 
with a broad panoramic view of the Green Mountains of Vermont, ex- 
tending a hundred miles along the horizon — the circuit terminating with 
the Canadian Heights visible in the dim distance — the scene in its mag- 
nitude and grandure, being unsurpassed by any in the White Mountain re- 
gion. The extensive iron works which formerly flourished here are spoken 
of in connection with the sketch of Lisbon. 

In 1880 Franconia had a population of 550 souls. In 1885 the town 
had five school districts, and five common schools. Its five school-houses 
were valued, including furniture, etc., at $2,025.00 There were eighty- 
seven children attending school, eight of whom were pursuing the higher 
grades, taught during the year by seven female teachers, at an average 
monthly salary of $21.14. The entire amount raised for school purposes 
during the year was $674.00, while the expenditures were $706.75, with Mrs. 
Lydia K. Gould, superintendent. 

Franconia is a post village pleasantly located in the western part of the 
town. It has three churches (Adventist, Free Will Baptist and Congrega- 
tional), two stores, five hotels and summer boarding-houses, a fine high school 
building, the Dow academy, a saw-mill and bobbin shop, and about forty 
dwellings. 

Do2v Academy, founded in 1884 by Moses A. Dow, is situated in Fran- 
conia. In beauty of scenery and healthfulness of location it is unsurpassed 
by any institution in Northern New England. The design of this academy is 
to promote the higher education of young men and women, and to afford a 
thorough preparation for college for those who desire it., The instruction, 
discipline and influences are such as, it is believed, will secure the highest 
development of character, and be the best preparation for a life of future use- 
fulness. Every facility and encouragement is given to the ambitious student 
to obtain a liberal education. The board of trustees aim to provide the best 
advantages at very moderate rates of tuition, so that none, however limited 
their means, shall be debarred the privileges of this institutio.n. The building 
stands in a sightly position, commanding on every side remarkable mountain 
views. It is heated throughout by steam, handsomely furnished, and supplied 
with every modern convenience. The success of the academy thus far has 
been phenomenal, and no labor or expense will be spared to make this school 
the peer of any in the State. The trustees are F. V. D. Garretson, presi- 
dent ; F. W. Ernst, secretary ; W, F. Parker, treasurer ; Osnian Parker and 
Stephen Eaton. Its corps of instructors are F. W. Ernst, principal; W. H. 
Weisman, professor or arts ; Carrie Latie and Effie Bartlett, assistants. 

The Forest Hills Hotel, Harry W. Priest and James W. Dudley, proprie- 
tors, is a spacious summer hotel affording ample accommodation for 150 




Eaw Academyj Francaniaj N, H, 



TOWN OF FRANCONIA. 269 



guests, and complete in all modern conveniences — steam, open fires, hot and 
cold water, electric bells, and gas in every room. The location is cool, dry, 
and central, upon the summit of Pine Hill, the house being immediately sur- 
rounded by a beautiful lawn, shaded by a grove of aftcient pines. The broad 
piazzas, extending 500 feet, afford views unsurpassed in grandure, including 
Mt. Washington with its ascending trains, and the entire Franconia range. 
This hotel was built in 1882. 

Elmwood House is another fine hotel, opened for the first time June 15, 
1885, by its present proprietor, S. D. Morgan. The house has ample accom- 
modations for forty guests. The rooms are spacious, well lighted, and fitted 
with all modern conveniences. The house is surrounded by a broad veranda, 
from which extensive views may be obtained, while the location is in close 
proximity to churches, postoffice and stores. 

Kendairs steam grist-mill, George H. Kendall, proprietor, was built in 
1855 for the grinding of provender. Its capacity is about 150 bushels per 
day. 

Stephen Eaton &• Co.'s bobbin factory and saiu-tnill, located on road 6, was 
built in 1875, and gives employment to seven hands. 

Brooks &= W/iitnef s grist-mill, on road 13 corner of 14, was purchased by 
them in 1857. It has three runs of stones. 

VV. A. Brootis's saw and shingle-mill, on road 6, cuts about 100,000 feet of 
lumber and 250,000 shingles per annum. 

The first permanent settlement of the town was made in 1774, by Capt. 
Artemas Knight, Lemuel Barnett, Zebadee Applebee and others. But the 
settlement did liOt increase rapidly, probably owing, in a great measure, to 
the controversy over land titles. As late as 1790 the census reports show the 
population to have been only seventy-two souls. Among the early settlers 
were the following: Bigford Spooner, who came in 1781, William Aldridge 
and Ebenezer Streeter, in 1782, George Howland and Rue Aldrich, in 1785, 
George Jesseman, Jr., in 1786, Nathaniel Snow, Ona Snow and Dr. Joshua 
Harris, in 1787, Jacob Aldrich and Thomas Spooner, in 17S8, and Timothy 
Taylor and Alexander Jesseman, in 1789. In 1797 there were in the town, 
aside from those already mentioned, the following: Benjamin, Zebedee, Jus- 
tin and Josiah Applebee, John and David Aldrich, Capt. John, Lawson and 
Buckminster Drury, Henry Gale, George Jesseman, Nicholas Powers, John, 
John, Jr., Michael and David WalHs, Caleb Baker, Oliver Harris, Timothy 
and Luke Brooks, Nathan Wheeler, John Hatch, Amos Wheeler, Thomas 
Hatch, Benjamin Brown, Nathaniel Wheeler, Jr., Jonas Warren, Ezra Tay- 
lor, Jonas Baker, Edward Oaks, Abraham Taylor, and Amos Baker and 
perhaps some others. 

Captain Artemas Knight, a soldier of the Revolution, was one of the 
earliesi settlers in Franconia, and owned at one time nearly the whole of 
the township. He married Tabitha Saunders, of Worcester, Mass., and 
moved to this town a few years after his marriage. Their eldest son, 
Thomas, born in 1783, was the first male child born in the town. Ar- 
temas erected a large house on the hill east of the village, and reared a 
family of three sons and four danghters. To each of his sons he gave 



270 TOWN OF FRANCONIA. 

a farm, as they became of age. He owned the water privilege which he sold 
to a Boston firm, who put in a foundry, furnace, and other manufactories 
to work the iron ore which was discovered in the western part of the 
town. About these factories the village grew up, and the Knight House 
was moved into the village and became the first hotel in Franconia. 
Artemas, after selling the property, removed with his two younger sons 
to Westmoreland, N. H., thus leaving Thomas the only representative of 
the family in Franconia. Thomas spent his life in the town, honored by his 
townsmen, reared twelve children, and died at the age of sixty-one years. 
Eight of his children are now living, as follows: Oliver, James and 
Horace, in Franconia, Dr. Luther M.. in Franklin, Thomas, in St. 
Johnsbury, Vt., George R., in Chelsea, Mass., Mrs. John Wilson, in Woods- 
ville, and Mrs. A. K. Hoit, in St. Johnsbury, Vt. 

Simon Oakes was an early settler of Franconia and was engaged in 
the iron works. His son Ebenezer spent his life in the town, as an iron- 
worker. In 1852-53 he represented Franconia in the legislature, being 
elected by an unanimous vote. He married Philinda, daughter of Simeon 
Spooner, .reared eight children, and died in 187 i, aged seventy-six years. His 
son John E. resides in Benton. 

Priest Young was born in Lisbon, October 6, 1797, and came to this town 
when twenty-one years of age, settling on the place where his son Charles B. 
now lives, on road 11, where he cleared the farm and built a log house. He 
married Mary Oakes, in 18 18, and reared twelve children, seven of whom 
lived to maturity, viz.: EHza, Adaline, George, Harriet, Charles B., Herbert 
and Adelaide. Of these, Martha, George, Charles B. and Adaline live in 
town. Priest Young was one of the leading citizens of the town, held all the 
offices in the gift of his townsmen, served as representative in 1847-48, and 
died in December, 1869. George and Charles B. have held many of the town 
offices, the latter being at the present time one of the selectmen. 

Manning Whitney came to this town from Stowe, Mass., in 1818, locating 
on road 22. He married Dolly Brooks, in 18 18, and reared a family of six 
children, namely, Emeline^ Daniel, Henry B., Lydia, Jane and Sally H. He 
died in Alabama, in 1841. Henry B. and Daniel still live in the town. 

Benjamin Applebee, a native of Rhode Island, came to this town as an early 
settler, locating on the place where Daniel Whitney now lives, on road 13. 
Here he resided until 1 825, when he moved to Easton, where he died. He reared 
a family of eight children, of whom five were sons — Justice, Emer, James, 
David and Minot. Minot remained on the homestead several years, then 
moved to Easton, but returned to this town in 1842, locating on the place 
where his son David H. now lives. He married Rhoda Howland and reared 
a family of six children, as follows : Jerome, Lydia, Sally, Mary, George H. 
and David H. The last mentioned is the only one of the family now living 
here. 

William Quimby came to this town, from Whitfield, in 1832, and located 
on the place where Peter Godard now lives, on road 20. He married Martha 



TOWN OF FRANCONIA. 270' 



Richard Taft. — The mountain region of New Hampshire is one of the 
most dehghtful, health-giving and accessible of the summer resorts of the 
country. Forty years ago, the business, which is now the most important in 
a number of towns lying among the mountains and about their base, was in 
its infancy. At the White Mountain Notch the Crawfords kept a small 
hostelry, principally for the accommodation of farmers making their annual 
prilgrimage to Portland. The Rosebrooks had been succeeded by Horace 
Fabyan, at the stand now known by his name. A score or two of visitors 
from the cities made the ascent of Mt. Washington each summer. In the 
Franconia Notch, near where the Profile House now stands, Stephen C. and 
Joseph L. Gibb kept the Lafayette House, furnishing entertainment for not 
more than fifty guests. Limited as was the capacity of these houses, they 
were ample for the patronage of that time. 

Richard Taft, then landlord of the Washington House, Lowell, Mass., had 
visited the Franconia Notch, was attracted by the loveliness and grandeur of 
its scenery, and with prophetic instinct saw the vast possibilities it afforded as 
a summer resort. In 1849 ^""^ became proprietor of the Flume House, a 
small hotel built the previous year, and from this period dates his career as the 
most famous and successful of mountain landlords. Mr Taft was born in 
Barre, Vt., March 14, 1812. From boyhood he had to make his own way in 
the world, and when but nine years of age, he went to Alstead, N. H., where 
he was employed for nine years on a farm, his educational advantages being 
limited to the usual winter term of the district school. He began hotel life 
as an employee in a tavern at North Chelmsford, Mass., in 1830. Two years 
later he became one of the proprietors, a relation which lasted three years, 
when he became landlord of the Washington House, Nashua, N. H. He was 
afterwards in the same business at Tyngsboro, Mass , and at Lowell, Mass. 
When Mr. Taft came among the mountains, the entire receipts of his house 
for the first year were hardly equal to the salary which a competent landlord 
now commands, yet it was considered a fairly remunerative season. Within 
a decade and a half, the annual profits were wont to reach many tunes that sum. 
When the Gibbs went to the New Crawford House, in 1852, Mr. Taft and a 
partner purchased the Lafayette House property, and began the erection of the 
Profile House, of which he was principal proprietor and landlord to the time 
of his death. This house, built on a generous scale, was thought to be suffi- 
ciently large for the requirements of the business for years to come, yet the 
increasing popularity of its ideal landlord, and the growing fame of the region, 



270^^ TOWN OF FRANCONIA. 



required its frequent enlargement, until it became one of the most extensive 
and best equipped establishments of its kind in the land. Over this vast 
hostelry, with its hundreds ot guests, its varying interests, and its constant 
cares, Mr. Taft was the presiding genius. Every department felt his im- 
press, but his unobtrusive manners and somewhat infirm health, led him to 
avoid the publicity incident to his position. He seldom came in personal 
contact with his guests, but those who enjoyed his intimacy found him not 
only the watchful landlord, but the cultivated, genial gentleman. May 23, 
1839, he was married to Miss Lucinda Knight, of Hancock N. H. She was, 
in every way, especially fitted for the work and position of a landlady, and 
it was often his remark that she had done more than her share to establish 
his reputation as a hotel-keeper. 

Mr. Taft gradually acquired a title to the vast tract of land extending from 
the Profile farm in Franconia, by Bald mountain, through the vally to and 
beyond the Flume House, a region that for quiet and romantic beauty can- 
not be surpassed by another of equal extent on the Continent. 

Mr. Taft had a natural aptitude for his chosen business, and his rare 
sagacity brought him uniform success. It was of such magnitude as to re- 
quire his constant attention, and he seldom ventured to engage in enterprises 
not contributory to it. He was largely instrumental in constructing the nar- 
row gauge railroad from Bethlehem Junction to the Profile House, and was its 
first president. To him, more than to any other person, is due the marvel- 
ous growth of the mountain business. He saw what it might become, and 
led the way in the development of all the adjuncts required to hasten the full 
tide of its success. He lived to see the fulfillment of his anticipations, and 
harvest their rewards. 

His methods were practical, methodical and always well considered, and he 
was equal to every emergency imposed upon him by the demands of liis busi- 
ness. He was a close observer of human nature, and in nothing did he dis- 
play more sagacity than in the selection of his assistants and subordinates. 
They seldom failed him He was charitable, just and considerate in all 
things. His word, like his friendship, was as much to be relied upon and as 
stable as the hills he loved so well. His honor, in all the relations of life, re- 
ceived that highest of tributes — it was never brought under suspicion. Being 
an invalid for many years he became a great student. He was familiar with 
the poets, was well read in history and in the arts and sciences. He was es- 
pecially fond of poetry, and nothing pleased him more than those descriptive 




^^ 




^i;S'€«^^i^2>T^ 



T.na Hy 



UBBalXs Sans, l<iew"Sric 



TOWN OF FRANCONIA. 270' 

passages of Byron, which applied with such force and beauty to the scenery 
of his mountain home. He died in Littleton, N. H., February 14, 1881, 
leaving a wife and one daughter, Mrs. Charles F. Eastman, of that town. 

Rev. F.V. D. Garretson* was born in New Brunswick, New Jersey, Decem- 
ber TO, 1839. At the age often he was clerk in the leading dry goods and 
grocery store at Perth Amboy, N. J. Began teaching school when sixteen, at 
Woodbridge, N. J., and taught the same school for three years and a half. At 
the end of this period he was offered a most flattering position as principal 
with a large salary. This was declined, however, and in i860 he entered 
Kimball Union academy at Meriden, N. H., and graduated after a three years' 
course with the highest honor. Was graduated at Yale in 1866, and Union 
Theological seminary in 1869, having completed a ten years' course of study. 
While in New Haven he was extensively known in connection with '• Scatter 
Good" and Bethany mission Sunday-schools, acting as superintendent of both 
at the same time. His services were in great demand at Sunday-school con- 
certs, conventions and other convocations of Sunday-school workers, and se\- 
eral of his vacations were spent in such work in Maine, New Hampshire, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware, under the auspices of the American Sunday- 
school Union. It was at this time that he compiled and edited the "Car- 
mina Yalensia," which had the largest immediate sale of any collection of 
college songs ever published. As a member of the college choir and "Yale 
Glee Club " he planned and successfully managed the famous yachtmg tour 
of the club in 1866, when concerts were given in most of the principal cities 
of New England, also in Steinway Hall, New York, and the Academy of 
Music, Brooklyn. He took a prominent part in the college gymnasium, 
and shared the honor with Prof. Wood in training the "Yale University" 
crew in one of her successful contests with Harvard. His trmmph in 
walking went the rounds of the papers when he and the " university stroke" 
walked from New Haven to Hartford (37 miles) in less than eight hours. In 
the society debates he took the first prize and also was awarded the first honor 

[♦This sketch of Mr. Garretson, and the portrait accompanying it, is published by the 
request of a friend from another state. We join with him and others in the hope that many 
young men may be stimulated by the success achieved by Mr. Garretson, to such earnest 
endeavor that as a result the world will be better for their having lived in it. The Dow 
academy, of which Mr. Garretson is presiilent, and of which mention is made on another 
page, will, by its advantages, afford aid to those who desire reaching so successful a career as 
that enjoyed by Mr. Garretson. — PuBLlSHF.u.] 



270' TOWN OF FRANCONlA. 



in elocution. During the War of the Rebellion he was a member of the ex- 
ecutive committee of the U. S. Christian Commission for Connecticut, and 
for a time its business agent at City Point, Virginia. 

Immediately after graduating he sailed with his wife for Europe, and spent 
over a year in Great Britain and on the Continent. Bearing letters of intro- 
duction from the prominent Sunday-school workers of America to those of 
Europe, he was invited to preach in many of the important foreign pulpits, 
and was soon commissioned for active service among the Sunday-schools and 
Protestant churches of Switzerland and Italy. Daring this trip he founded a 
Sunday-school paper which at this writing has the largest circulation of any 
Protestant publication in Italy. At the same time he edited and published 
a volume of hymns and tunes in Italian for children and youth. 

On his return to America he organized the Foreign Sunday School Associ- 
ation, auxiliary to the American Sunday School Union, and was chosen its 
first secretary. He acted in this capacity until called simultaneously to the 
pastorate of the Harlem Presbyterian church and Grace chapel. New York. 
He accepted the latter and was pastor in New York city until called to the 
Congregational church, Ellsworth, Me, in 1873. Since 1876 his time has 
been largely devoted to evangelistic work, preaching in the Eastern, Middle 
and Western states and territories, making bis home in Bangor, Me, and 
Pennacook, N. H., until in 1881, when he moved -to Franconia. Since his 
residence in this latter place the town has been materially, intellectually, mor- 
ally and spiritually revolutionized. Through his personal instrumentality the 
Congregational church was built, and the marked and rapid improvements 
since have largely devolved on him. Next to his church work in Franconia 
his name will ever stand intimately connected with " Dow academy." 

For the encouragement of young men without pecuniary advantages, de- 
sirous of an education, it ought to be stated that the subject of this sketch 
began his studies with less than $100.00, met all his bills, relying solely upon 
his owji resources and energies, with a surplus at graduation, enabling him- 
self and wife to spend over a year in foreign travel. His motto was and is, 
" The Lord of hosts is with us, the God of Jacob is our refuge," which may 
be seen in an alliteration on the l^y-leaf of his Bible as follows : — 

" The Lord of Hosts is with us 



P 



RESENCE 

By His l.^'^o^^^s^s 

•^ ■ ROVIDENCE 

OWER." 



TOWN OF FRANCONIA. 27 I 

Jesseman, and reared three children, Mary Ann, James and Phebe. Mr. 
Quimby died July i, 1804, aged eighty-four years. 

Moses Arnold Dow, the veteran publisher of the IVaverly Magazine 
was born m Littleton, N. H., May 20, 1810, and is now, consequently, 
seventy-six years of age. His remarkably successful career is a most striking 
illustration of the old adage "blood will tell," for he comes of an ancestry 
socond to none in inherent ability or high moral qualities. His grandfather. 
General Moses Dow, was one of tlie most eminent men of the Grafton county 
bar; register of probate thirty-four years ; State senator, and president of the 
Senate ; councilor ; judge of the court of common pleas ; major-general of 
State militia; acting attorney-general, and during the Rt volution an earnest 
patriot. In these times of political chicanery and greed for office, it is well to 
note one act of his, which alone would reflect the highest honor upon the 
purity of his motives. He declined the office of member of Congress, to 
which he had been elected by the general assembly of New Hampshire. "His 
letter of declination, (Hammond's N. H. Town Papers, Vol. 12, p. 182,) con- 
tains evidence of the high character of the man, and of his refined literary 
attainments." His son, Joseph E. Dow, a graduate of Dartmouth college, the 
first lawyer of Littleton, was a town official and magistrate for years, and 
never was a shadow cast upon his integrity. Joseph married Abigail, daugh- 
ter of Hon. Jonathan Arnold. (He was an early member of the Continental 
Congress from Rhode Island, and, it is said, at one time owned all the land 
now constituting the towns of Lyndon, Sutton and St. Johnsbury, Vt.) Abigail 
(Arnold) Dow was a lady of strong character, refined manners, and excellent 
worth. Governor Arnold, of Rhode Island, was her half brother ; Freelove 
Arnold Davis, wife of Noah Davis, of Haverhill, and mother of Judge Noah 
Davis, of New York City, was her half-sister. When but eleven years old, 
by the death of her father, Abigail became a member of the family of Hon. 
Charles Marsh, of Woodstock, Vt., and the adopted sister of Hon. Charles 
P. Marsh, the noted author and diplomate. Joseph E. Dow, and Abigail 
Arnold, his wife, were residents of Grafton county for many years, the greater 
part of that period being passed at Franconia. where they are buried, and 
where the fifial devotion of their son, Moses A., has erected an elegant 
memorial monument. 

When Moses was three years old, in 1813, his parents moved to Franconia, 
where his early education was acquired, more from the instructions of his 
excellent mother than from school attendance. At the age of fourteen he 
went to Haverhill, N. H., and for three years gave diligent attention to the 
acquisition of the printer's trade, in the office of the New Hampshire Intel- 
ligencer, then conducted by a Mr. Goss. The attractions of home and the 
remembrance of its joys were so strong as to cause him to drop the compos- 
ing stick for a time, and return to Franconia, where he passed a few months 
pleasantly, when the news came of the failure of Mr. Goss and the Intel- 
ligencer^ and the establishment of a new paper in its stead, by Moses G. 



272 TOWN OF FRANCONIA. 



Atwood. Mr. Dow secured a position on the new paper, and remained one 
year ; then, in August, 1829, he went to Boston. How many premonitions 
of the anxious struggles and aspirations to be experienced there in after 
years, and the briUiant successes there to be obtained, came to the mind of 
the country youth in this his first visit to a great city, we cannot tell; but, per- 
haps, vague and dim, they were ever present with him, constantly urging him 
on from place to place, until the time and conditions were ripe for his great 
Hfe-work. The next spring, tired of city life, he returned to Haverhill, where 
he studied a year, and attended the academy for three months, after which 
.he worked for his brother James, in a printing-office in Boston. In 1832 he 
established a political paper, the Maine Recorder, in Lemington, Me., which 
existed only three months. Once more in Boston, he passed two or three 
years as journeyman, when he again went to Maine, and, with a partner, 
Daniel P. Marble, established a political paper, the National RepJiblican, at 
Saco. After three months he gave his interest to his partner, borrowed ten 
dollars, and returned to Boston. It is unnecessary to give a minute account 
of the events of the life of Mr. Dow for the next few years, suffice it to say 
that before he was thirty years old, he had established nine different periodi- 
cals — all failures, except in the experience acquired, which subsequently was 
of inestimable value. 

In 1849, while a compositor on the Daily Traveler, he planned the IVav- 
erly Magazine, which he fonnded in 1850, with less than five dollars as capi- 
tal. And now the indomitable will, which had been striving for so many 
years toward the accomplishment of a purpose that must be brought some 
time to a fullness of completion, had its final and successful struggle with 
adversity. The many cognizant of the plan pronounced it a "visionary 
scheme," the few shared Mr. Dow's earnest faith in its ultimate success. 
From its inception he would not have parted with his publication for $10,000. 
The labor was performed by type-setters who acquired enthusiasm from the 
proprietor, and worked to aid in the success. For four months Mr. Dow 
sank money at the. rate of $40 per week, but his untiring assiduity, perse- 
verence and nerve continued, and won success beyond his expectations. 
Reducing expenses to the lowest possible point, at the commencement of the 
fifth month he found that he was making twenty-five dollars a week, double 
the wages of a journeyman. The progress now was steadily upward. l^ie 
Waverly Magazine took a fixed position in the world of periodicals, and met 
with great favor from the people. The price was increased from six to eight, 
ten, and, during the great civil war, fifteen cents per copy. During the war, 
and for a subsequent period of five years^ the circulation attained the very 
satisfactory number of 50,000 weekly, and the Waverly gave Mr. Dow the 
handsome income of $150,000 per year. In 1868 he erected, at an expense 
of $500,000.00, the Waverly House, in Charlestown, Mass., which comprises 
his publishing house and a large hotel. 

In business operations Mr. Dow has been original, far-seeing, sagacious. 




''''k^^^ .4-'^M^-^ 



TOWN OF FRANCONIA 273 



His successes have been attained when he alone has planned, directed and 
controlled. From his untiring labors of over half a century, wealth has come 
to him beyond the dreams of his youthful aspirations. He married, October 
20, 1835, Elizabeth T. Houghton, of Andover, Mass. Their two children are 
Mary, who married Rev. G. R. W. Scott, and Emma (.Mrs. Leonard F. 
Cutter). 

Mr. Dow is a self-made man in the highest sense. With the acquisition of 
wealth there has been no change from the simple-hearted cheerfulness and 
kindliness of his original nature; severe afflictions have not chilled the 
warmth of his heart or his desire to secure the happiness of others. He has 
ever extended the "helping hand," and his kindness, force and industry have 
been sources of encouragement to all with whom he has been associated. 
In private life he is especially marked for his modest and unassuming man- 
ners, strong social feeling, and watm attachment to his numerous friends. 
It is useful to give the salient points of the life of such a man. They show 
what perseverence, enterprise, courage and fidelity will accomplish, and fur- 
nish an instructive lesson which we commend to young men as a worthy exam- 
ple. Mr. Dow has actively aided all liberal, reform, and educational move- 
ments. He has loyally retained his affection for the home of his early life. 
The town clock of Littleton, and the beautiful Dow academy in the lovely 
village of Franconia, are permanent and valuable proofs of this. He has 
already devoted $20,000.00 to the establishment of this educational institution, 
an excellent engraving of which is given in this work. 

" Men may come and men may go," but the work they do lives after them, 
and the institutions they plant go on after they are gathered to their fathers, 
and when generation after generation shall have passed away, and this good 
year of grace become one of the dates of antiquity, the blessing of this gift 
will yet continue, and the majestic mountains of the Franconia Range look 
down upon this school, and happy children honor the memory of the wise 
benefactor whose fatherly care was mindful of them before their lives 
began. 

John Callahan, of this town, proprietor of "Echo Faim," has erected an 
observatory on his place, from whence a magnificent view of the mountain 
scenery in this vicinity may be had. 

Jonathan Bowles was born in Rochester, Mass., in 1776. In his early 
days he moved with his father to Richmond, N. H., where he subsequently 
married Phebe Parker, of Richmond. Mr. Bowles moved from Richmond to 
Lisbon about the year 1799. He was the father of thirteen children, four of 
whom survive him, viz. : Sally (Bowles) Quimby, fohn Bowles, George P. 
Bowles, and Esther (Bowles) Parker. John