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Full text of "Gazetteer of Scotland; arranged under the various descriptions of counties, parishes, islands .."

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National Library of Scotland 

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&M&BTTEEU 



SCOTLAND 



ARRANGED 



Under the Various descriptions of 



COUNTIES, 
PARISHES, 
ISLANDS, 
CITIES, 
TOWNS, 
VILLAGES, 
LAKES, 
RIVERS, 
MOUNTAINS, 
VALUES, 
,LOCAL SITUATION, 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS, 
CIVIL GOVERNMENT, 
CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS, 

AND CHURCHES, 
MANUFACTURE & COMMERCE; 
NAVIGATION AND CANALS, 
MINERAL SPRINGS. 
SINGULAR CUSTOMS, 
LITERARY CHARACTERS, 
AMUSEMENTS, AND 
POPULATION. 



AND WHATEVER IS WORTHY THE 

ATTENTION OF THE TRAVELLER, 

WHETHER REFERRING TO 

The Scenery of the Country, or the particular Places which have been 
distinguished by the Valour or the Genius of Scotsmen. 



% $efo (fftrttton, 

CAREFULLY REVISED AND CORRECTED. 



THOMAS TURNBULL AND SONS, 
EDINBURGH, 



THE 

GAZETTEER 

OF 

SCOTLAND 



ABE 



A BBAY, or ABBEY of St BATH ANS ; 
a parish in Berwickshire, situated in 
the midst of the Lammermuir hills, about 
6 miles in length, and three in breadth. 
The soil is light and dry, and, on the banks 
of the Whittader, fertile and well culti- 
vated; but the hilly district is barren, 
and covered with heath. Here are the 
remains of an ancient abbey of Bernar- 
dines, founded in 1170, for which Ada, 
Countess of March swore fealty to Edward 
I. of England, in 1296. The .Earl of 
Weymss has lately built an elegant villa,, 
called the Retreat, about a" mile from the 
Kirktown of Abbey. Population in 1811, 
154. 

ABBEY, a small village in the parish of 
Logie, about one mile N. E. of Stirling, on 
the banks of the Forth, adjoining the ruins 
of Cambuskenneth Abbey. It is chiefly 
inhabited by weavers and salmon fishers. 

ABBEY-CRAIG, a rock of considerable 
height in the parish of Logie, and county 
of Stirling ; on the top is to be seen the 
form of a battery, said to have been erect- 
ed by Oliver Cromwell, when he laid siege 
to the Castle of Stirling without effect. 



ABBEY-GREEN, a village in Lanark- 
shire, in the parish of Lesmahagoe ; so ite- 
med from being built along the remains of 
a monastery, dependent on that of Kelso t 
founded by King David I. in 1140, and de- 
dicated to St Macule. All that remains of 
the monastery is a square tower, with bat- 
tlements, now converted into a steeple to 
the church of Lesmahagoe. The village 
lies 12 miles S. of Hamilton, and 4 from 
Lanark. It contains about 430 inhabitants. 
ABSEY-HILL, a small village in the 
parish of South Leith, suburbs of E- 
diriburgh, on the E. of the city, through 
which the new entrance by the Regent's 
Bridge passes. Population, 550. 

ABBEY PARISH of PAISLEY. See 
PAISLEY. 

ABBOTRULE, once a parish in Roy- 
burghshire, now suppressed, and divided 
between theparishes of Bedrule and South* 
dean^ 

ABBOTS-HALL t a village and parish 
in the S. coast of the county of Fife. The 
parish is small and irregular, being In its 
utmost extent not more than 2 miles each 
way. Its general appearance is very plea^ 
A 



ABE 

Bitot, rising gradually from the coast north- 
ward, into pretty high grounds. The soil 
is thin but exceedingly fertile, particu- 
larly in warm showery summers. Mr Fer- 
guson of Raith, one of the chief proprie- 
tors of the parish, has lately made out some 
extensive plantations around his seat, and 
erected a fine observatory on the highest 
ground in the parish, which has a very com- 
manding prospect. The district abounds 
■with coal and lime-stone. In a quarry' of the 
latter, at Innertiel, are found some beauti. 
ful specimens of petrified patell*-, erttro- 
chi, cornua ammonis, and other marine 
productions. The village of Abbots-hall 
has long been noted for the manufacture 
of checks. Population 3,000. 

ABB'S (St) HEAD; a promontory well 
irnown to seamen, lying in the parish of 
Coldingham, and county of Berwick, about 
1G miles N. W. of Berwick, and the same 
distances. E. of Dunbar. 

ABDIE, a parish in the county of Fife, 
of considerable extent, but greatly inter- 
sected by other parishes. It lies on the S. 
bank of the river Tay, amongst those high 
lands, which to the westward acquire the 
appellation of the Ochil hills. The surface 
is remarkably uneven, but the soil is in ge- 
neral fertile. It possesses three quarries of 
jcranife, of" which considerable quantities 
a re shipped for paving tlie streets of London. 
T. wo bills, viz.. Clatchart Craig and Norman's 
Law, are remarkable for their height and 
precipitous fronts. Population 7S2. 

ABERARGIE, a village in Perthshire, a 
mile W. from Abernethy. 

ABERBROTHOCK,or ARBROATH, a 
sea-port town in the county of Angus or 
Forfar, situated at the mouth of the river 
Brothock, which flows inte the German 
Ocean. It consists of two parishes^ Aber- 
brothock and St. Vigean's, surreunded on 
the VV. N. and E. sides by eminences, in the 
form of an amphitheatre. It lies 56 miles 
N. N. E.from Edinburgh. The Town, ex- 
cepting the new streets, exhibits little re- 
gularity. The town-house, which is mo- 
dern, contains several public offices, and a 
small Subscription Library. Besides the 
established churches, it contains an Epis- 
copal chapel, and othor places of worship 
for dissenters. Fifty-six vessels belong to 
the port, whose united burden is about 4000 
Ions. Tbeharbouris small, butwell slultir- 
rd, and is defended by a battery mounting 
f> guns. A grent quantity of sail cloth is 
manufactured here for the use of t be na- 
vy, besides other manufactures in llax nnd 
tanning. The principal exports are stones 



ABE 

for pavement, and grain ; the imports, hemp, 
flax, linseed, tallow, and ashes. The Ab- 
bey, founded in 1178. by William I. is a 
venerable ruin, well worth the attention of 
the traveller. Aherbrothock is a very an- 
cient royalty, it being the general opinion 
that it was erected into a royal burgh by 
William the Lion, in 1180, and confirmed" 
hi its privileges by a writ of novodamusfrom 
James VI. in 15S9. It is governed by a 
provost, 2 bailies, a treasurer, and 15 coun- 
cillors ; and has 7 incorporated trades. The 
revenue is upwards of L.900 Sterling. It 
unites with Aberdeen, Montrose, Inver- 
bervie, and Brechin, in sending a repre- 
sentative to parliament. The PARISH 
is of small extent, being an erection, 
about two centuries ago, of the town 
and royalty into a separate parish from St. 
Vigean's, in which it was formerly includ- 
ed. Around the town tfie soil is rich and 
fertile; but towards the N. W. there is a 
considerable extent of waste ground, the pro- 
perty of the community, which contains a 
chalybeate springof considerable celebrity. 
Population, including that part of the town 
situated in the parish of St Vigean's, about 
,U000. 

j ABERCORN, a parish and village in 
Linlithgowshire. The parish is of a rect- 
angular figure, about <£ miles long, andf3 
broad, lying on the S. bank of the Forth, a- 
bout 12 milss W. from Edinburgh. The 
whole is arable ;.- about two-thirds are occu- 
pied by plantations and the policies around 
Iiopetoun-house, the princely seat of the 
family of Hopotoun, which never frilsto de- 
light the stranger by its external grandeur, 
its tine paintings, its charming walks, and 
tine prospects. The ruins of tl\e ancient re- 
sidence of the Earls of Linlithgow, near 
Hopetoun-house, are worthy, the traveller's 
notice. The village nud' church of Aber- 
corn are pleasantly situated. The monas- 
tery of Abercom was ene of the most an- 
cient in Scotlaud, and the Castle, now a 
complete ruin, was one of those stations or 
forts which the Romans occupied between 
Antoninus' wall and Ciamond, below Black- 
ness Castle, vide BLACKNESS. Abercom 
gives the British title of Marquis, and the 
Scottish title of Earl, to a branch of the fa- 
mily of Hamilton. The minerals of the pa- 
rish are limestone, freestone, coal, and iron 
stone; but (he limestone only i.\ wrought. 
Population S8.0. 

ABEHDAI.GY, a parish in Perthshire, 
conjoined with that of Duplin. The united 
parish is 2 nnd n half miles in length, nnd 

nearly as much in ' breadth. The Eiifc 



•washes it on the S. side; and the soil is in 
general fertile- —A bout a mile from the river 
stands Duplin Castle, the seat of the Earl of 
Kinnoul. Population .513. 

ABERDEENSHIRE.— This extensive 
county is hounded on the N. and E. by the 
German Ocean ; on the S. by the counties 
of Kincardine, Forfar, and Perth; and on 
the W. by Banff, Moray, and Inverness- 
shires.— Its extreme length from E. to W. 
Is S5 miles, and 40 miles in breadth from 
north to south. Its circuit is 2S0 miles, and 
its superficial area 19S6 square miles, or a- 
bout 1,270,744 English acres. It compre- 
hends the districts of Marr, Garioch, For- 
martin, Strathbogie, and greatpart of Buch- 
an. Wild as this region is, it exhibits some 
of the most interesting scenes to be met 
with in Sootland. The district of Marr, 
■which may be considered as the centre of 
Scotland, is wild, rugged, and mountainous ; 
some of the hills rising 4000 feet above the 
level' of the sea. The boilers or bullers of 
Buchan, arrest the attention of all strangers 
by their' rugged and stupendous precipices. 
The rivers of Aberdeenshire are, the Dee, 
trie Don, the Ythan, the Bogie, the Urie, 
the Ugie, and the Cruden : the Deveron al- 
so, for many miles, forms its boundary with 
the county of Banff. These rivers are cele- 
brated for the salmon with which they a- 
bound, the revenue of which is rated at 
1.36,000 annually. — The fisheries on the sea 
coast are also prosecuted with great success. 
Aberdeenshire contains many excellent 
granite quarries. From those in the neigh- 
bourhood of Aberdeen, upwards of 12,000 
tons are annually exported to London, which 
produces about L.8,400. It possesses anum- 
ber of minerals and mineral waters ; but 
those of Peterhead and Glendee are the 
most celebrated. Agriculture is making 
considerable advances in Aberdeenshire, 
and a greater number of cattle are probably 
reared here than in any other county of 
Scotland, about 12,000 being annually sent 
to the south and to England. The princi- 
pal manufactures of the country are in wool- 
len, cotton, and linen cloth; also hosiery, 
cordage, and yarn. The first gives employ- 
ment to about 7000 persons; about 4000 
are occupied in the manufacture of-cotton ; 
and 3000 families are maintained by that of 
flax. The quantity of linen made in 1S0S, 
amounted to 314,556' yards; about 50 years 
ago, the mere knitting of stockings brought 
L.120,000 annually into Aberdeenshire. A- 
berdeenshire contains three royal bo- 
roughs, viz. Aberdeen, Kintore, and Inve- 
rury ; and aeveval handsome towns, as Pc- 



A'B E 

terhead, Frazerhurgh, Huntly, Keith, and 
Old Meldrum. It is divided into 85 pa- 
rishes, which in 1S11 contained 13S,15l> 
inhabitants. The chief seats are, Huntly 
Lodge, the seat of the Marquis of Huntly ; 
Stain's Castle, Earl of Enrol; Keith Hall, 
Earl of Kintore ; Aboyne Castle, Earl of 
Aboyne; Marr Lodge, Earl of Fife; Phi- 
lorth House, Lord Saltoun ; Putachie, 
Lord Forbes ; Ellon Castle, Earl of Aber- 
deen. Besides these, Monymusk, Fintry 
House, Fyvie Castle, Invercauld, Pitfour, 
Logie, Elphinstone, Leith Hall, Free-field, 
Abergeldy, Skene House, and Cluny, are 
elegant residences. Aberdeenshire sends 
one member to Parliament. The valued 
rent of the whole county is, in Scottish mo- 
ney, L.241,931 Ss. lid. and the real land 
rent is estimated at L.200,000 Sterling. 
The weights and measures are, avoirdu- 
pois, or English, for English goods, and 
groceries, and salt butter, in the shops. 
Likewise for flesh, butter, cheese, tallow, 
hog's lard, and wool, in wholesale, reckon- 
ing 2S lb. to a stone In some parts of the 
county, 26 lb. in others 22 lb. go for a stone 
of cheese and butter. Flesh, butter, cheese, 
tallow, hog's lard, and wool, in retail, are 
sold by the Scots Troy, or Dutch, 17 and a 
half ounces to the lb. Meal by the same, 
8 stone per boll, and eoals 36 stone to the 
boll. Butter and cheese by a lb. of 2S oz 
avoirdupois. Hay and feathers, by the 
tron stone of 21 lb. Dutch, and 21 Scots 
Troy oz. to the lb. Hi the town of Aber- 
deen, they use a pint stoup, which contains 
nearly a gill more than the Stirling jug or 
legal standard. Plaiding and other coarse 
home stuffs, are sold by an ell of 38 and 
1-1 2th inches. Wheat, rye, pease, beans, 
meal, seeds, are measured by a firlot of 
2,688*504 cubic inehes, and contains 1 firlot 
4 pints 3 mutchkins, Linlithgow, or stan- 
dard measure. The boll is 22,353 per- 
cent, better than standard. Oats, bear, 
and malt, by a firlot of 3,515,736 cubio 
inches, and contains 1 firlot 3 pints, stan- 
dard measure, and the boll is 9,677 pep 
cent, better than the standard. The weights 
and measures arc now changed by Act ofPar, 
liament, and are the same over Scotland. 

ABERDEEN (OLD), olim Aberdon ; air 
ancient burgh in the county of the same 
name, and formerly an episcopal see. It 
is situated on an eminence on the river 
Don, about a mile N. of the city of New A- 
berdeen, and nearly the same distance from 
the sea. It is a place of great antiquity ; 
but no authentic records are extant prior to 
1154, in which year it was erected by Davui 



I. into a free burgh of barony, holding di- 
rectly of the crown. This charter has been 
renewed by successive sovereigns, and was 
lastly established by a charter from George 
I. by which the power of electing their own 
magistracy is vested in the burgesses. The 
magistrates are, a provost, 3 bailies, a trea- 
surer, and council, with the deacons of 6 in- 
corporated trades. Here there are 3 small 
hospitals, one founded by Bishop Dunbar in 
1531, for twelve poor men, a Trades' hos- 
pital for decayed freemen and their widows ; 
and Mitchell's hospital for the support of 10 
indigent females, opened in 1801. But the 
chief ornament of this place is the King's 
College, a stately fabric, situated on the E. 
side of the town. It was founded by Bishop 
Klphinstone in 1506, and dedicated to St. 
Mary ; but, being taken under the immediate 
protection of the king, it was denominated 
King's College. But though this is the date 
of the erection of the present building of 
the College, it appears that Pope Alexan- 
der, by a bull, dated in 1594, instituted in 
Aberdon an University for the different 
branches of Philosophy and Literature. The 
building contains a chapel, library, museum, 
common-hall and lecture rooms ; with a long 
uniform range of modern houses, for the 
accommodation of the professors and stu- 
dents. Behind is the garden of the college 
The library and museum are well furnish- 
ed. There are a number of bursaries for 
poor students, the funds for the support of 
which amount to L.700. The session lasts 
five months, beginning in November. The 
officers are, a chancellor, a rector, a princi- 
pal, a sub-principal, and a procurator, who 
has charge of the funds. The professors 
are, of Humanity, Greek, Oriental Langua- 
ges, Civil Law, Divinity, Medicine, and 3 of 
Philosophy. The numberof students in the 
winter ofisifi-181 7, was 1S7. Hector Boe- 
thius was the first principal of the College, 
and was sent for from Paris forthat purpose, 
on a salary offorty merits Scots. The crown 
Is superior of both colleges ; having suc- 
ceeded to the King's College upon the aboli- 
tion of episcopacy, and to the latter on the 
attainder of the late Earl Marischal — There 
was formerly a magnificent cathedral in this 
town, dedicated to St. Machar ; but this, a- 
long with the Bishop's palace, fell asacrifice 
to tbe indiscreet zeal of the reformers. Two 
antique spires, and an aisle, now used as the 
parish church, are its only remains.— The 
PARISH of Old Aberdeen, or Old Machar, 
is of considerable extent, being about S miles 
long from E. to W. and from 4 to 5 broad, 
comprehending the space (except thatoccu- 



i ABE 

pied by the town of New Aberdeen,) which 
lies between the rivers Dee and Don. Over 
the Don there is a fine bridge of one Gothic- 
arch, built by Bishop Cheyne in 1281. The 
arch is 97 feet span, and 34 1-2 feet high. 
A rich vein of magnanese has been lately 
opened near the banks of the Don, which 
promises to turn out to much advantage. 
Population of the town and parish 13,731. 

ABERDEEN (NEW), the capital of A- 
berdeenshire, is situated on a rising ground 
near the aestuary of the river Dee into the 
German Ocean, 127 miles N. E.from Edin- 
burgh, 14 N. E. of Stonehaven ; 33 N. W. 
of Peterhead; 118 S. by E. of Inverness; 
and 36 S. E. of Huntly ; 57 9 N. lat. and 1 
45 W. long. It is a large and handsome 
city, having many spacious streets, lined on 
each side by elegant houses, generally four 
floors in height, built of granite from the 
neighbouring quarries. The market-place, 
in the centre of the city, is a large oblong 
square. On the N. side of it is the town- 
house, with a handsome spire ; and adjoin- 
ing to it the prison, a square tower, 120 feet 
high, also surmounted with a spire ; so that 
the whole has a very lofty appearance. 
Close to this is an elegant mason-lodge ; 
and opposite to the town-house, the Aber- 
deen Banking Company have erected an 
elegant office of polished granite, which 
gives to this part of the town an air of pe- 
culiar splendour. In the middle of Castle 
Street is the cross, the most complete, per- 
haps, of any of the kind in the kingdom. It 
is an octagon stone building, highly orna- 
mented with neat bas-relievos of the kings 
of Scotland, from James I. to James VI. 
with a Corinthiau column in the centre, on 
the top of which is an unicorn. Two ele- 
gant streets, one forming an entrance from 
the N. the other from the S. the latter passes 
over an arch of cut granite, the span of 
which is 132 feet, its height 29 feet, and its 
width within the parapets 40; these two 
have been opened, besides several lesser 
ones, by virtue of an act of Parliament, by 
which the communication has been greatly 
improved. In the Upper Kirkgate is a 
church which formerly belonged to the 
Franciscans, founded by Bishop Elphing- 
stone, and finished by one of his successors. 
The Marischal College and University was 
founded, and richly endowed, by George 
Earl Marischal of Scotland, by a charter, 
dated 2d April 1593. The original founda- 
tion was a principal, and two professors of 
philosophy ; but, by some munificent do- 
nations, there have been since added ano- 
ther professorship of philosophy ; one of di- 



ABE 7 

vinity, and others for mathematics, chemis- 
try, medicine, and Oriental languages, and 
many bursaries for poor students. The 
buildings are situated in the Broad-street 
of New Aberdeen, and contain, besides lec- 
ture rooms for the different classes, the pub- 
lic school for the conferring of degrees, a 
common hall, ornamented with some fine 
paintings by Jamieson and others, the lib- 
rary, and a small museum of natural history 
and antiquities. The college also contains 
an observatory, well furnished with astro- 
nomical apparatus. The officers are, the 
chancellor, the rector, the dean of faculties, 
the regent, who is also professor of Greek, 
and the principal. The number of students 
at both colleges is generally about 500 or 
400. Various attempts have been made to 
■unite the two colleges of New and Old A- 
berdeen, but without effect. The Crown 
is superior of both colleges, having succeed- 
ed to the King's College upon the abolition 
of episcopacy, and to the Marischal College 
on the attainder of the late Earl Marischal ; 
but has never interfered in the election of 
their chancellors or rectors. The Grammar 
School is a low but neat building, under a 
rector and 5 teachers, who have good ap- 
pointments. There are a number of chari- 
table institutions, of which the chief are, 
1st, The Poor House, a large building, ap- 
propriated to the reception of aged poor, 
and destitute children, supported by its 
ownfunds, contributions from the town and 
kirk-sessions, and voluntary donations : 2d 
Till lately, there was a Guild Brethren'; 
Hospital ; but it was found more agreeable 
for the lodgers to receive an annual pen 
sion, and it was accordingly sold, and the 
charity put on that footing : 3d, Lady 
Drum's Hospital, for old unmarried women, 
founded in 1665, by Lady Mary, daughter of 
the Earl of Buchan, and widow of Sir Alex- 
ander Irving of Drum : 4th, Gordon's Hos- 
pital, founded in 1733, and the governors 
incorporated by royal charter in 1672; it 
has a good revenue ; and from 60 to 66 
boys are maintained and educated. 5th, 
The Infirmary, a large plain building, esta- 
blished in 1742, and supported by subscrip- 
tions, collections, and donations ; the num- 
ber of patients annually relieved is about 
900: 6th, The Lunatic Hospital, built by 
subscription, about half a-mile from town, 
in 1800 : 7th, The Dispensary, also support- 
ed by voluntary contributions, and having 
from 200 to 500 patients annually. Besides 
these, every incorporated trade has a fund 
for decayed members ; and there are many 
friendly societies, A Bridewell has been 



ABE 

lately erected at the expence of 1 0,0001. A 
little to the E. of the town are the barracks, 
erected in 1794, on the site of afortification 
built by Oliver Cromwell. They are ele- 
gant and commodious, and capable of ac- 
commodating upwards of 600 men. The 
ancient religious establishments in the city 
were numerous; but only four have been 
handed down to us by history. 1st, A Convent 
of Mathurines, or the order of the Trinity, 
founded by King William the Lion : 2d, 
The Dominican, or Blackfriars monastery, 
founded by Alexander II. 3d, The Obser- 
vantine Priory, founded by the citizens and 
other private persons: And 4 th, the Car- 
melite, or White Friars monastery, founded 
in 1350, by Philip de Arbuthnot. The trade 
is considerable, but it might be greatly ex- 
tended by the prosecution of the White fish- 
eries. The harbour, which is formed by the 
Dee, was long a detriment to its trade, and 
occasioned the loss of many lives and much 
property. It was much interrupted by a 
bar of sand, which shifted its situation so 
often, that a vessel could never depend on 
finding it as it was left. This inconveni- 
ence is now removed, by a new pier, on the 
N. side of the river, erected according to a 
plan by Mr Smeaton. It is 1 200 feet long, 
and gradually increases in thickness and 
height as it approaches the sea, where the 
head or rounding is 60 feet diameter at the 
base, and the perpendicular elevation 58. 
The harbour has lately been still further 
improved, by carrying out the N. pier, 
forming a wet dock, and other improve- 
ments, which adds greatly to its security 
and capacity. These improvements have 
been executed at an expense of 120,0001. 
The whole is built of granite. Near the 
great pier are two batteries, mounting ten 
12 pounders, erected in 1781-2, for the de- 
fence of the harbour. Aberdeen once en- 
joyed a great share of North American 
trade; its chief imports are now from the 
Baltic ; a few merchants trade to the Le- 
vant and the West Indies. Its exports are 
stockings, thread, salmon, grain, and meal. 
From 1810 to 1811, there were entered in- 
wards 65 vessels from foreign ports, con- 
taining 9,017 tons, and 1,100 coasters of 
78,676 tons. During the same period, there 
were entered outwards SI vessels for foreign 
ports, containing 15,424 tons, and 750 coas- 
ters of 44,798 tons. The manufacture of 
fine thread is carried on to a considerable 
extent ; brown linen, osnaburgs, and can- 
vas, are also manufactured. The salmon 
fishings of the Dee and the Don form a va- 
luable branch of trade; the annual average 



of exported salmon being 2000 barrels. A- 
berdeen also exported a considerable quan- 
tity of pickled pork, which has a high repu- 
tation for being well cured, and for keeping 
on long voyagas. It is remarkable, that 
there is not a single-decked vessel fitted out 
from this port for the herring or white fish- 
eries. Aberdeen has two private banking 
companies who issue their own notes; and 
an insurance company against tire has been 
lately established on a respectable plan, and 
with a large capital. Aberdeen is said to 
have been erected into a royal borough as 
early as 893 ; but the most ancient charter 
now extant is from King William the Lion, 
of which the date is wanting; but it must 
have been between 1165 and 1214, the pe- 
riod of his reign. This is not to be wondered 
at, as the city was wholly burnt down by Ed- 
ward III, in 1556, the inhabitants massa- 
cred, and the records destroyed, in revenge 
for their having killed an English garrison 
who oppressed them. Many other charters 
have been given by successive monarchs. 
Its civil government is vested in a provost, 
4 bailies, a dean of guild, treasurer, a town 
council, and 7 deacons of the incorporated 
trades. An act of parliament was also pas- 
sed in 1795, empowering the inhabitants to 
elect 13 commissioners of police, and for 
raising an assessment, pro re nata, for pav- 
ing, lighting, and cleaning the streets, sup- 
plying the city with water, &c. Aberdeen 
enjoys parliamentary representation, uniting 
with Aberbrothock, Brechin, Inverbervie, 
and Montrose, in sending a member to Par- 
liament. Its fairs are on the 2d Tues. of 
June, 1st Tues. of May, last Thurs. of Aug. 
1st Tues. of Oct. and 1st Tues. of Dec. 

ABERDEEN, (NEW) or ST NICHOLAS, 
a parish in Aberdeenshire, of small extent, 
being confined to the limits of the town on 
every side, except the S. E. where it ex- 
tends to the sea, including Footdee, a con- 
siderable village, having in it a neat chapel 
of ease. There is a fine bridge of 7 arches 
over the Dee, built in 1530 by Bishop Dun- 
bar, and rebuilt in 1724. Amongst the ma- 
ny eminent characters bornin thisplace, we 
shall only mention Jamieson, the celebra- 
ted painter, afterwards named the Scottish 
Vandyke. Several works of this artist may 
be seen in both the colleges of Aberdeen. 
Population of the city and parish, 3S.540. 

ABERDOUR, a Parish in Aberdeen- 
shire, in the district of Buchan, extending 
along the Moray Firth, from E. to W. 6 1-2 
miles, and from N. to S. its greatest extent 
h nearly 10.— Upon a rocky precipice, on 



( A B H 

the beach of the coast, is the rum of the an- 
cient castle of Dundargue. The greater part 
of the parish is mossand moor, interspersed 
with small patches of cultivated land. It is 
watered by 5 rivulets, the Troup, the Auch- 
meddan, and the Alierdour, which emply 
themselves into the Frith : at their uestuarics 
3 fishing villages have been built. The only 
plantations are around Aberdour-house. Po- 
pulation 1445. 

ABERDOUR, a parish ami town in Fife- 
shire, forming a square of about 3 1-2 miles, 
and lying along the north bank ef the Firth 
of Forth. It is divided into 2 districts by a 
small ridge of hills running from E. to W. ; 
of these the N. district is poorly cultivated 
and altogether unsheltered by enclosures; 
while the S. is fertile, and agriculture is well 
attended to. The small island of Inchcolm, 
is in this parish. The old castle of Aberdour, 
the property of the Earl of Morton, stands 
on the eastern border of the parish, on the 
banks of a rivulet, which winding beautiful- 
ly in front, falls into the Firth of Forth. 
Towards the N. of the castle is the elegant 
mansion of Hillside. The town has a good 
harbour on the Forth, about 10 miles N. W . 
of Edinburgh. It is a place of considerable 
antiquity. In the 12th century it belonged 
to the family of the Uiponts; from which it 
went tothe Mortimers by marriage, and after- 
wards to the Douglasses, one of whom, in 1457, 
was created Lord Aberdour and Earl of 
Morton. Population 1S20. 

ABERFELDIE, a small village in the 
parish of Dull, in Perthshire, situated on 
the Tay, about 6 1-2 miles N. E. from Ken- 
more. Near it is a very complete druidical 
temple. It lies on the great Highland road, 
77 miles from Edinburgh. 

ABERFOIL, or ABERFOYLE, a parish 
iu Perthshire, 11 miles long, and 5 broad; 
forming the S. W. comer of the county, and 
the extreme precinct of the Highlands. It 
consists of along valley, and the surround- 
ing hills, forming together a great variety 
of landscape and mountain scenery. The 
bottom of the valley is occupied by the 
beautiful expanse of water forme d by the ri- 
ver Teith, which has its rise on the borders 
of this parish. The chief of these lakes are 
Loch Catherine, Loch Ard, and Loch Con ; 
all of which abound with trout and pike; 
and the chief mountains are Benivenow and 
Benchochen. Limestone, coarse marble, and 
some good slate are wrought in the parish. 
On the banks of t he lakes the soil is early and 
fertile, but is little cultivated. The' hills 
afford excellent sheep pasture, and many of 



them arc covered with oak woods of great 
value. Population 711. 

ABERLADY, a parish and village In 
Haddingtonshire, bordering the Frith of 
Forth, about 15 miles E. from Edinburgh. 
It is watered by the small river Puffer, which 
at spring tides is navigable for vessels of 60 
or 70 tons, as far as the village of Aberlady, 
which contains about 390 inhabitants. A- 
long the sea coast there is a considerable ex 
tent of sandy links or downs; above this the 
soil is light and early. The middle district 
is unproductive; but towards the S. there is 
a fertile bank extending the whole length 
of the parish. Gosford, (one of the finest and 
most superb edifices in the kingdom) a seat 
of the Earl of Womyss; and Ballincrieff, a 
seat of Lord Elibank, are in this parish. 
Population '912. 

ABERLEMNO, a parish inthe county of 
Angus, tying on the banks of the South' Esk, 
about 6 1-2 miles long, and 5 broad. The 
surface is various, some parts hilly and co- 
vered with heath ; but the greater part 
flat and fertile. Here are two obelisks, one 
inthe churchyard, and the other on the 
road from Brechin to Forfar, erected to com- 
memorate the total defeat of the Danes. 
Thej are about 9 feet high, covered with 
rude hieroglyphics. Population 975. 

ABER.LOUR, a parish situated on the S. 
banks of the Spey, in the western part of 
the county of Banff. It is nearly of the form 
of a wedge, being 9 miles long, and 7 broad 
at the longest end. The soil is in general 
fertile. It is watered by the Fiddich and a 
few other rivulets, which abound in trout 
and eel. In the middle of the Parish stands 
the hill of Belrinnes, elevated 11 00 feet above 
the level of the sea. Population 923. 

ABERNETHY, an ancient town in 
Perthshire, formerly the capital of the Pic- 
tish kingdom. It is said to have been found- 
ed about the year 460. It was intended as 
a retreat for St. Bridget, and 9 other virgins, 
who were introduced by St. Patrick to Nec- 
tan I. the Pictish monarch. Shortly after 
it was erected into an episcopal see, and was 
the residence of the metropolitan, if not of 
all Scotland, at least of that part which was 
subject to the Pictish kings. But when 
Kenneth II. had entirely subdued the Picts, 
he translated both to St. Andrew's, in 854. 
The town is a burgh of barony, of which 
Lord Douglas is superior. Its government is 
vested in 2 bailies aud 15 councillors. The 
church, so remarkable for its antiquity, and 
supposed to be the cathedral that was found- 
ed at the time the town was built, is now 
pulled down, and one of a more elegant fa- 



ABO 

shion erected in its stead. In the church 
yard is one of these towers ^of which this 
and another at Brechin are the only ones 
in Scotland) which have puzzled antiqoa- 
rians to find their use. This one consists of 
61 coursesofhewn stone, laid regularly. The 
height is 7 1 feet, and the circumference 4S. 
—The PARISH of Abernethy is of an ir- 
regular figure, extending about 4 miles 
each way. It is situated a little below the 
conflux of the Earn with the river Tay. A- 
griculture is yet in its infancy in this parish, 
and bat a fe w enclosures are to be seen. A 
small island in the Tay, called Mugdrum'i 
isle, belongs to this parish. Baiv-aird castle 
stands among the hills, the property of the 
Earl of Mansfield. Population 1 635. 

ABERNETHY and KINCARDINE, an 
united parish, nearly equally divided betv een 
the counties of Moray and Inverness. It is 
about 15 miiesin length, and from 10 to 12 
in bfeadUi. The surface is partly level, and 
partly mountainous. The soil is as various. 
Along the bank of the Spey there is a large 
space of meadow ground liable to be over- 
flown by the river.-The Nethy is the only 
rivulet of any note. Loch Aven and Glen- 
more are the chief lakes. The Cairngorum 
mountain, celebrated for its well known to- 
pazes, stands in this parish. There are 
some very extensive forests of natural wood. 
An ancient structure, (of which even tradi- 
tion can give no account) 90 feet long, 60 
wide, and 30 in height, stands in the neigh- 
bourhood of the church. Castle Grant, the 
seat of Sir James Grant, is an elegant seat. 
Population 1709. 

ABERNYTE, a parish In the county of 
Perth, among those hills that rise gradually 
from the Carse of Gowrie to the top of Dun- 
sinnan- It is of an irregular oblong form, 
being 3 miles in length, and 2 in breadth . 
The low grounds are light, dry, and fertile, 
but the more elevated are of a loose, poor, 
and gravelly soil. The tops of the hills are 
bare and rocky. There is a remarkable fall 
of water, nearly 60 feet perpenJicular, at 
the head of a den which extends to the 
Carse of Gowrie. Part of the hill of Duu- 
sinnan is in this parish. Population 262. 

ABERTARFF.— Vide Boleskine and A- 
bertarfF. 

ABINGTON, a village in the parish of 
Crawfordjohn, Lanarkshire, on the road 
from Glasgow to Carlisle. 

A BOY NIT., a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
composed of the districts of Aboyne and 
Glentanar. The cultivated part of the 
parish extends on both sides of the Dee, a- 
bout 1 miles in length, and three in breadth ; 



AIR 

but the mountains and forests of Glcntanar 
extend nearly 10 miles farther. The soil is 
very sandy and thin, particularly on the 
banks of the Dee, where, in dry seasons, the 
crop is very scanty. Charlestownof Aboyne 
ts a pleasantly situated little town, pretty 
much frequented by invalids for the benefit 
of the goat whey. It is a burgh pf barony, 
of which the Earl of Aboyne is superior, 
and has a weekly market. Population 905. 

ACHESON'S HAVEN, a small harbour 
and village near Prestonpans, in the county 
of East Lothian. It is often named Mori- 
Son's Haven. It v?as known as a port long 
before Leith ; the remains of an ancient 
fort at the head of the harbour, destroyed 
hy Cromwell, are still to be seen. 

ACHILTY (LOCH), a lake in the parish 
of Contin, in Ross-shire, of considerable ex- 
tent. It is remarkable that, except in the 
time of very high rains, there is no visible 
running water issuing from it, though a 
great quantity runs into it. It probably dis- 
charges itself, by subterraneous passages, 
into the river Rassay, distant about a mile. 
There is an artificial island, with the ruins 
of a house upon it. 

ACHN AR, a small island of the Hebrides, 
Jyingonthe south side of Islay. 

ACHRAK1N (LOCH), a small arm of the 
sea on the west coast of Ross- shire. 

AD, a river in Argyleshire ; has its source 
in the marshes, in the northern extremity 
of the parish of Glassary, and falls into the 
sea at Crinan. 

MBVDJEand EMODiE.— Vide Western 
Isles and Hebrides. 

AFFULA, a small island at the mouth of 
Loch Broom. 

AFTON, a small river in Ayrshire, a 
tributary stream qf the Nith. It gives its 
name to a barony or district in the parish of 
New Cumnock. 

AGAISH,or AIGASH, a small island in 
Inverness-shire, formed by the waters of the 
Beaulie. It is of an oval figure, about a 
mile and a half ja circuit, and covered with 
natural wood. 

AIRDRIE, a small town in the parish pf 
EastMonkland, in the county of Lanark, si- 
tuated between two rivulets, on a beautiful 
vising ground on the high road between E- 
dinburgh and Glasgow, from which last it 
is distant 10 miles. It is regularly built, 
with fine wide streets, extending nearly a 
mile in length- It was, by act of Parliament 
in lb')3, erected into a market town, with 
the privilege of holding a weekly and live 
annual markets. Population 1S00. 

A1HLY, a parish iu.the county of Angus, 



I A L F 

extending about 6 miles in length, and from 
3 to 4 in breadth. It lies partly in the vale 
of Strathmore, and partly in the Grampian 
hills, which bound the strath on the north. 
The surface, even of the lower part, is by 
no means level. Of the 5900 acres which 
the parish is supposed to contain, 4000 are 
arable; the rest being mpor and moss, (in 
which there are inexhaustible beds of rock 
and shell marie) and a small part occupied 
by plantations. Airly-castle, the residence 
of the Earl of Airly, a line modern house, 
e rectcd on the ruins of an ancient castle of 
the same name, is situated on a promontory 
at the confluence of the rivers Isla and Mel- 
gums. The population 928. 

AIRTH, a parish in Stirlingshire, about 
6. miles in length, and 2 in breadth. The 
soil is a strong clay, abundantly fertile. It 
lies on the banks pf the Forth, and has 3 
harbours for small vessels. In Dunmore 
hill, a few years ago, an anchor was found, 
at least half a mile from the present course 
of the river. The whole parish, with the 
exception of the hills of Airth and Dunmore, 
is a plain. Population 2000. 

AISLA, or AILSA, an insulated rock on 
the western coast of Scotland, bet wixt the 
shores of Ayrshire and Kintyre. It is about 
two miles in circumference, and rises to a 
great height, in a conical form. Its top is 
covered with heath and grass ; goats, rabbits, 
solan geese, and other sea fowl, are its only 
inhabitants. On its top is a small edifice in 
ruins, whose origin or use is not ascertained. 
It belongs to the Earl of Cassilis, who draws 
for it about L.30 annually. 

AITHSTING. Vide Sandsting. 

ALBANY.or ALBAIN, the ancient name 
of the interior of Scotland, which formerly 
gave the title of Duke to a branch of the 
royal family of Scotland. 

ALCLUID, or ALCLUITH, the ancient 
name of the castle of Dunbarton, (supposed 
to be the Balclutha of Ossian), the capital 
of the kingdom of Strath-Clyde. 

ALE, a small rivulet, which takes its rise 
from Alemour loch, on the borders of Selkirk 
and Roxburgh shires ; and holding an eas- 
terly course, after joining with other rivulets, 
falls into the Tweed a little above Kelso. It 
abounds with trout. There is anothersmall 
river in Berwickshire of the same name, 
that fallsinto the Eye a little above Eye- 
mouth. 

ALEXANDRIA, a village on the west 
bank of the Lcveii, about 4 miles N. of Dun- 
barton, it contains 600 inhabitants, chiefly 
pmploycd in the neighbouring nrintficids. 

ALFOllD, u pariah in Aberdeenshire, on 



ALL 



A L V 



the banks of the Don, 15 miles from Aber- 
deen, S miles in length and from 4 to 5 
miles in breadth. It contains SOOO Scotch 
acres; of which 1000 are arable; .1000 hill, 
moor, and moss; and 1000 in plantations. 
The arable soil lies mostly on the banks of 
the Don, and is generally fertile. In no part 
of Scotland is agriculture in a more back- 
ward state than in this parish. There are 
two cairns of very great extent in this parish ; 
and a man in armour, on horseback, was 
lately discovered in one of the mosses. Po- 
pulation 714. 
ALFRAY, a district in Ross-shire, abound- 
ing with fir wood. 

ALGRISTON-HEAD, a promontory on 
the W. coast of Ross-shire. 

ALLACHY, a small river in Aberdeen- 
shire, which joins the Tanar, near the junc- 
tion of that river with the Dee. 

ALLAN, a small river in Perthshire, which 
takes its rise at Gleneagles, in the parish of 
Blackford, and, passing by Dumblane, falls 
into the Forth, near Stirling. 

ALLANTOWN, a small -village in Ber- 
wickshire, in the parish of Edrom, at the 
junction of the rivers Whittadder and Black- 
adder. 

ALLOA, a sea-port town and parish in 
the county of Clackmannan, on the north 
bank of the Forth, about 30 miles from E- 
dinburgh. The town is pleasantly situated, 
has a safe and commodious harbour adjoin- 
ing, to which is a dry dock capable of receiv- 
ing large vessels. A great quantity of coal 
is raised in the neighbourhood, which affords 
employment to a great number of people, 
andproduces about 35,000 tons yearly for 
export. Extensive distilleries are carri- 
ed on in this quarter, from which above 
1,000,000 gallons of spirits are some- 
times shipped in a year. There are also 
some extensive breweries, whose ales are 
in much repute in most parts of Scot- 
land. There is likewise a glass manufactory 
and an extensive iron foundery in the neigh- 
bourhood. Steam-boats run daily during the 
summer betwixt this and Newhaven, which 
makes Alloa much resorted to during these 
months. (Vide DEVON RIVER, DOLLAR.) 
There is a custom-house -which compre- 
hends, under the port of Alloa, the creeks 
on both sides of the Forth from Stirling to 
Kincardine inclusive. The established 
church is a very ancient building, partly in 
ruins. An elegant new church in the gothic 
style is just finished. There are 3 dissenting 
chapels, an excellent grammar school, as- 
sembly room, and well selected subscription 
library ; water is broughtinto Alloafrom the 



river, filtered through a bed of sand of 70feet 
surface. The town is governed by a baron 
bailie. Near the town stands the tower of 
Alloa, built about the 13th century. It is 
about 90 feet in height, and the walls are 
1 1 feet thick. The tower and lands of Alloa 
were exchanged in 13C5 by David II. with 
Lord Erskine, for the estate of Stragarthney, 
in Perthshire. Here the descendants of the 
Earls of Marr, once a powerful family, resid- 
ed, until the adjoining mansion was lately 
burnt, and along with it some relics of royal 
donations. Further north lies the estate of 
Tullibody, the scat of the family of Aber- 
cromby; also Shaw Park, a seat of the Earl 
of Mansfield. The PARISH is conjoined 
with that of Tullibody, and extends about 4 
miles in length, and 2 in breadth. It is wa- 
tered by the Devon, which is its northern 
boundary, and falls into the Forth a little 
above the town. Population 5G9G. 

ALLOWAY, a small parish in Ayrshire, 
now of classic celebrity, by having given 
birth to Robert Burns. The " Aufd Kirk - * 
arid the "Brig" at a small distance from it, 
the principal scene in his Tarn O'Shanter, 
are situated on the Doon. 

ALMOND, or AMON, a river in Perth- 
shire, which rises in (lie top of the Narrow 
Glen in the Grampians. It runs through 
the parishes of Monzic and Foulis ; and con- 
tinuing its course between Logie Almond, 
Methven, and Bedgortan, falls into the Tay 
above Perth. Its banks are rocky and pic- 
turesque. It possesses many waterfalls, on a 
number of which extensive machinery has 
been erected. 

ALNESS, a parish in the county of Ross, 
situated on the coast of the Frith of Cromar- 
ty, about 12 niiles in length, and from 2 to 
4 in breadth. Near the sea the surface is 
flat, and the soil arable ; the rest of the pa- 
rish is mountainous, and more fit for pas- 
ture. There are two beautiful lakes in this 
parish, which discharge themselves by rivu- 
lets through two fertile vallies. Alness pos- 
sesses a rich iron mine, and a fine vein of 
silver was lately discovered. The principal 
seats here are Novarand Feaninich. Popu- 
lation 1038. 

ALSVIG, an island on the N. W. coast of 
the Isle of Sky, about 2 miles in circum- 
ference. 

ALTIVAIG, a small island on the coast 
of the Isle of Sky, with a good harbour. 

ALVA, a village and parish in Stirling- 
shire. It extends over a part of the Ochil 
hills, and the valley on the banks of the ri- 
ver Devon. The highest of the Ochil hills, 
Bcnclock, Is partly in this parish. The soil 



is various, and tolerably fertile. The sides 
of the lulls are richly clothed with verdure, 
which afFords excellent pasturage. A very 
valuable vein of silver ore was wrought some 
time ago j and silver to the value of L.40,008 
or L.50,000 was computed to be raised. 
Considerable quantities of native maleable 
silver have been dug out. Population SSO 

ALV AH, a parish in the county of Banff. 
Its length is about 6 miles, and Us greatest 
breadth nearly the same. ' The river De- 
veron divides the parish Into two parts, 
winding at the bottom of a beautiful valley. 
— The scenery, which is naturally pictur- 
esque, has been greatly embellished by the 
proprietor,, the Karl of Fife, The soil on 
the sides of the river is fertile ; but as we 
recede, the surface becomes hilly and barren. 
Thshill of Alvah rises majestically to a con- 
siderable height^serving as a land-mark to 
mariners Population 991. 

ALVES,aparishin Morayshire, contain- 
ing nearly 21 square miles. The surface is 
agreeably uneven, and the soil is fertile and 
well cultivated- The road from Elgin to 
Forres passes through it. It possesses seve- 
ral inexhaustible quarries of freestone. Po- 
pulation 922. 

ALVIE, a parish in Badenoch, Inverness- 
shire, about 16 miles in length, and from 2 
to 3 in breadth. The hills in this parish are 
very lofty ; and the vallies afford excellent 
pasture. There is a small lake, which, with 
the other rivulets, contain trout ; and the 
Spey contains salmon. The great military 
road to Fort George passes through this pa- ; 
rish. An artificial cave, 60 feet long, 9 j 
broad, and 7 high, covered with large flat I 
stones. Is within a few yards of the road. ; 
Population 9GK 

ALYTH, a village and parish in the 
county of Perth, on the N. side of the valley ' 
ofStrathmore, and N. bank ofthelsla. The | 
part off the parish along the Isla is flat and 
fertile ;, but towards the N. it is more hilly. 
The rivulet Alyth, which rises in the upper 
part of the parish, runs through the town, 
andfalls. into (lie Isla a little below. Mount 
Blair, with a base of 5 miles circumference, 
rises in a conical form to the height of 1300 
feet. Population 2363. The village, which 
was erected into a burgh of barony by James 
III. is pleasantly situated, and carries on a 
considerable trade in the linen manufac- 
ture. 

AMALP-IE, or AMULIUE, a small vil- 
lage in Perthshire, on the road from Stirling 
to Inverness, about 06 miles from Edin- 
burgh. 
AXON, or AMOND, a river which forms 



T2 AND 

the boundary between the shires of Mid 
Lothian and Linlithgow. It rises in the pa- 
rish of Whitburn, and after a precipitous 
course, nearly N., falls into the Forth at Cra- 
mond. 

ANCTRUM, a parish and village situated 
nearly in the centre of the county of It ox- 
burgh. It stretches 6 miles in length along 
the N. side of the river Teviot ; but it* 
breadth dees not exceed 4 miles. The wa- 
ter of Ale runs through the parish. The 
soil is rich, consisting of clay and sand, and 
in some places of a loam. The site of An- 
crum House is very picturesque. The Ro- 
man road from York to the Forth passes 
through this parish. There are also the re- 
mains of a Roman encampment. The ba- 
rony of Langnewt on is annexed to this pa- 
rish. Population 1509. The village of An- 
crum is situated on the right bank of the 
Ale, 3 miles N. of Jedburgh. 

ANDERSTON, a populous village in the 
neighbourhood of Glasgow, and one of the 
suburbs of that city, containing, in 1791 
4000 inhabitants. 

ANDREWS (St.) a parish In Fifeshire, a- 
bout 10 miles in length, and 3 in breadth;, 
bounded by Leuchars on the N., on the N. 
E. by the German Ocean, on the S. E. by 
Kingsbarns, on the S. by Denino, and on the 
W. by Cameron aud Kembaclc. Along the 
coast, the soil consists of a deep loam ; it is 
fertile, and produces excellent crops, and it 
is in a high state of cultivation, fn the 
higher parts of the parish, there is a good 
deal of thin bare soil, and some moor cover- 
ed with heath. Agriculture is well under- 
stood, and husbandry carried on upon scien- 
tific principles. A considerable number of 
cattle are reared in the parish, but few 
sheep. Population in ISfll, 4203—4311. 

ANDREWS (St.) a royal burgh of great 
antiquity in the above parish , sometime the 
seat of regal government, Tong an archiepis. 
copal see, metropolitan of all Scotland, and 
still the seat of the oldest university. It 
lies in 56 19 N. lat. and 2 50 W. long, from 
Greenwich, "9 miles N. N.E.from Edin- 
burgh, 9 E. of Cupar, 10 N. W. of Crail, lO 
N. of Anstruther, and 10 1-2 S. E. of Wood- 
haven. St. Andrews is about a mile in cir- 
cuit, pleasantly situated on a ridge of rocks 
projecting into the sea, at the bottom of the 
bay to which it gives its name. It has a 
fine southerly exposure, and the ridge on 
which it stands, terminating in an abrupt 
precipice, towards the E. N. and N. W. 
gives the town an appearance of great ele- 
vation and grandeur ; and it is seen to great 
advantage in approaching it cither from Ut* 



AND 

Crail or Cupar roads. St. Andrews consists 
of 3 principal streets and a few lanes ; South- j j 
street extends from the cathedral on the E. 
to the W. port ; is hroad, straight, and spa- 
cious, and contains a number of elegant 
new houses; still, however, there are a 
number of ruinous oldbuildings init. Mar- 
ket-street is in the centre ; is narrow at the 
E. end : the town-house and jail stand in 
the middle of the street, a nuisance and dis- 
grace. North-street, in which is St. Salva- 
dor's college, is broad and spacious, but the 
houses are mean, ruinous, and wretched. 
To the N. of this was Swallow street, now 
called the Scores, said to be the chief resi- 
dence of the Merchants: not a house is here 
now ; but vestiges of doors and windows are 
visible in the walls which enclose the gar- 
dens and corn fields. It is not easy to con- 
jecture what might be the extent and popu- 
lation of this city anciently ; but from the 
ruins which appear all around, and being 
the seat of an archbishop and his courts, the 
abbeys, priories, and religious houses which 
it contained, and the university, as well as 
having an extensive commerce-— it will not 
be going too far to suppose the population 
then might be from 20 to 30,000. St. An- 
drews is a place where some of the most me- 
morable events recorded in Scottish history 
were transacted. In 1298, Edward I., after 
defeating Wallace at Falkirk, summoned a 
Parliament to attend him at St. Andrews, 
where he compelled all its members to swear 
allegiance to him. In 1309, Robert Bruce 
convened a Parliament here, who recognised 
his title to the crown. In 1337, the town, 
being in possession of the English, under- 
went a siege by the Earls of Fife and March, 
■who made themselves masters of it in 3 
■weeks. In 1401, David Duke of Rothesay, 
making his escape from the cruelty of the 
Duke of Albany his uncle, then governor of 
the kingdom at Falkland, fled here to take 
possession of the Castle for the safety of his 
person ; but was overtaken on the road, 
made a prisoner, and confined in that very 
castle he was flying to as a place of security. 
Here he was confined for some days, until 
he was taken back to Falkland, where he 
was immured in a horrible dungeon, and 
starved ta death. St. Andrews has often ex- 
hibited scenes of religious persecution, and 
of the sanguinary temper of its ecclesiastics. 
In 1407, John Resby, an Englishman, was 
burnt alive, for disseminating the doctrines of 
Wickliffe. About 24 years afterwards, Paul 
Craw, a Bohemian, suffered the same fate, 
for propagating the tenets of Jerome and 
Huss. In 1527, Mr Patrick Hamilton, ab- 



13 AND 

hot of Feme in Ross-shire, a young man of 
great accomplishments, and related to some 
powerful families, was burnt before the gate 
of St. Salvador's college. In 1545, the fa- 
mous Mr Wishart was burnt before the cas- 
tle on the 2d of March, with circumstances 
of peculiar barbarity. Thefront of the great 
tower was hung with rich tapestry, and 
cushions of velvet were laid in the windows 
for the cardinal and prelates to repose on, 
while they beheld this most inhuman spec- 
tacle. The execution of Wishart, and some 
others of inferior note, display the ferocious 
I temper of the priesthood of those days ; and 
j that religion, which, they say, is so well qua- 
lified for softening the ferocity of our nature, 
seems only to have inflamed theirs to a 
pitch of cruelty almost beyond belief. The 
cardinal was so infuriate, that he forbade, 
' by proclamation, the inhabitants of St. An- 
, drews to pray for him under the severest 
ecclesiastical censures ; and, in his haste to 
get Wishart burnt, the civil power was not 
i consulted at the trial, and he was executed 
! by Beaton's own authority. By his unbound- 
ed ambition, relentless cruelty, and insup- 
portable arrogance, he raised up against 
himself powerful enemies, who determined 
on his destruction. A conspiracy was form- 
ed against his life, at the head of which 
were Norman and John Lessley, sons of the 
Earl of Rothes, who, with 14 persons more, 
assembled in the church-yard on Saturday 
the 29th of May, 1546, at three o'clock in 
the morning. Having gained admittance 
into the castle by small parties at a time, 
which was then repairing, they turned every 
one out, to the number of 150, and thus got 
possession of the place. They then pro- 
ceeded to the Cardinal's room, who was still 
in bed, and knew nothing of the matter ; 
but being awakened by their knocking at 
the door, he soon became sensible of his situ- 
ation. Being refused admittance, they for- 
ced open the door ; the cardinal sitting in 
his chair, said, " Fy ! Fy 1 I am a priest, yon 
will not kill me." They upbraided him in tbe 
most opprobrious terms for the actions of his 
past life, particularly for the death of Mr 
Wishart. When Mr Melville, one of the 
conspirators, addressed him, " That it was 
not out of hatred to his person, or desire of 
his wealth, but for his manifold crimes, and 
because of his hatred and opposition to the 
gospel of Christ, that they were instigated 
to take away his life ;" he then stabbed him 
to the heart three times with a dagger. By 
this the townsmen were alarmed, and came 
running to the castle in great numbers, de- 
manding to see " My Lord Cardinal ;" whea 



AND 14 

the conspirators brought the body to that 
very window where he sat with so much un- 
feeling pride to witness the burning of 
Wishart, and exposed it to the view of the 
people with every mark of ignominy. The 
body was then well salted, and let down in- 
to that horrid dungeon in the sea tower, 
which he formerly used as a prison for he- 
retics. Thus Beaton met a fate he very 
justly merited; and it is to be recollected, 
that in the case of Wishart he usurped the 
supreme power of the state, which was high- 
treason. The fate of this haughty prelate 
ought to be a lesson to all tyrants not to out- 
rage the feelings of humanity. It is true, 
they can always procure discourses to be 
made in favour of passive obedience and non- 
resistance; but the history of every country, 
and of all times, gives us sufficient proof, 
that there are spirits who will never submit 
to injustice, and that tyranny has limits it 
cannot pass. The conspirators were shortly 
after joined by 120 of their friends, and held 
out the castle for more than a year; they at 
last capitulated on honourable terms, after 
a siege of 4 months. In 15.58, St. Andrews 
witnessed another of these inhuman " auto 
defes." Walter Mylne. an infirm old man, 
above 80 years of age, priest of Lunan, near 
Montrose, was burnt in the spring of this 
year for heresy. So strongly was the resent- 
ment of the populace expressed on this oc- 
casion, thathe was the last victim of Popish 
cruelty in Scotland.— The ruins of antiquity 
are grand and magnificent, and give us a 
Tiigh idea of the splendour of the city in for- 
mer times. The chapel and tower of St. 
Regulus is by far the most ancjent structure 
in the place; the date of its erection is un- 
certain ; but it is unquestionably more than 
1000 years of age. The chapel is a small 
"building adjoining the E. side of the tower, 
31 1-2 feet long, and 25 broad; the walls 
are still entire, but it has no roof. The 
tower is of the same dimensions with the 
breadth of the chapel, 25 feet each side, and 
rises to the height of lOSfeet; there is an 
inside stair by which it is ascended with ease. 
The cathedral was founded in 11.59 by Bi- 
shop Arnold, and finished in 13X8 by Bishop 
Lamberton, 160 years after its foundation. 
Its length from R." to W. was 370 feet with- 
in the walls, 65 broad, the transept ISO from 
N. to S. at the distance of 230 feet from the 
W. end. It had high towers, one on each 
corner oftbe church, one on the S. gable of 
the transept, and one in the centre of the 
church. Three of these towers still remain, 
each 100 feet high, that in the centre must 
have been considerably more. This magni- I 



AND 

ficent structure was demolished by the de- 
forming mob in 1559. John Knox preached 
a violent sermon against the monuments of 
idolatry, in the town church, on Sunday the 
•5th of June that year, wherein he observed 
that "pulling down the nests would make 
the kays flee aff." This discourse, so well 
suited to the capacities of a rude populace, 
whose minds had been prepared by the cru- 
elties and vices of the priesthood, set them 
to work instantly, in the demolition of 
all the religious fabrics in the city. In 
justice, however, to the reformers, it ought 
to be observed, that the destruction of this 
cathedral was not the work of a day nor a 
month ; the inhabitants of St. Andrews have 
been piously engaged in its overthrow for 
two centuries, not through hatred of idola- 
try, but for the love of the stones. Stran- 
gers viewing the magnificent ruins of this 
city are struck with abhorrence at the re- 
ligious zeal which caused the demolition of 
such splendid fabrics. But we should also 
look at the horrible dungeon in the sea- 
tower of the castle, where heretics were 
confined, and remember t he bonetires that 
were made of human beings, to glut the 
vengeance of a rampant priesthood, im- 
mersed in the most profligate debauchery. 
These considerations ought to moderate 
our censures of the reformers, and ought to 
be a lesson to those in power. The reve- 
nues of this see in 15G1, were in money 
L.2901 7s. 2d. Scots ; 50 ch. 9 bolls of 
wheat; 41 ch. 10 bolls of bear, and b'7 ch. 
of oats, besides landed estates ; so that the 
revenues of the archbishopric could not be 
worth less than L.10,000 of our present mo- 
ney. The Augustine priory was situated 
to the S. W. of the cathedral, and founded 
in 1120 by Bishop Robert, in the reign of 
Alexander I. The prior of this church 
wore, in all public meetings, and in solemn 
services on festival-days, the pontifical or- 
naments, viz. a mitre, gloves, ring, cross, 
crossier, and sandals; and in Parliament 
had precedence of all abbots and priors. 
The priory was very rich, and its revenues 
equal to, if not greater than the archbisho- 
pric. In 1561, the revenues of this house 
were as follows : Money L.2257 ISs. Id. 
wheat 3.8 ch. 1 boll ; bear 152 ch. 7 bolls; 
meal 114 ch. 3bolls; oats 1.51 ch. lObolls; 
beans and pease 3 ch. 7 bolls. All that re- 
mains of this large edifice is a vault or two, 
part of the gate, and the wall which sur- 
rounded the premises is still almost entire; 
it has 16 round and square towers, and ex- 
tends S70 yards in length, 22 feet high, en- 
closing 18 acres of ground. The Domini- 



AND V. 

cans had a convent in this city, without the 
W. port of the Northgate, founded by 
William Wishart, bishop of that see, in 
1274; the convents of Cupar and St Mo- 
nance were annexed to this place by 
James V. nothing at present remains of 
this house but a small part of the garden 
wall. No rental of it is preserved that we 
know of. The Observantines or Greyfriars 
had a convent in this city, founded by Bi- 
shop Kennedy, and finished by his succes- 
sor Patrick Graham, about the year 117S, 
and dedicated to St. Francis. This convent 
stood in the South Street, where the Gram- 
mar school now stands. The only remains 
of these buildings is a small fragment with 
an arched roof, in the Gothic style, ex- 
tremely elegant, supposed to have been the 
north crossaisle of thechapel. No account 
of the revenues are to befound. There was 
another religious house, called the Provostry 
of Kirkheugh, situated on the high ground 
above the harbour, said to be the most an- 
cient religious establishment in St. An- 
drews, now wholly destroyed. It consisted of 
a provost and 9 prebendaries : the revenues 
in 1561 were, in money, L.176 14s. Sd. 
bear 5 ch. 9 bolls; meal 9 ch. 11 bolls, 
oats 1 ch. 6 bolls; kainfowls5 doz. To the 
N. of the town stand the ruins of the cas- 
tle, said to be built by Bishop Roger, about 
the year 1200 ; it was repaired and en- 
larged by Bishop Lamberton, about 1328. 
It sustained several sieges in the wars with 
England, and continued in a ruinous state 
for a long period, until it was repaired by 
Bishop Trail, about the end of the 14th 
century, who died here in 1401. He was 
buried in the cathedral church, with this 
singular inscription over him : 

" Hie fuit ecclesia? directa columna, fe- 
nestra 
Lucida, thuribulum redolons, compana 



" He was the church's upright pillar, lucid 
window, sweet smelling censer, and sound- 
ing bell '." It appears to have been a quad- 
rangular building, surrounded by the sea on 
the E. and N., and defended on the land 
side by a fosse. The sea hath made great 
encroachments on it, and part of the E. wall 
was washed away by the sea in 1801. In 
IheN.W corner is the dungeon or keep of 
the castle; you enter through two vaults, 
in the innermost of which is a hole in the 
floor, about 7 feet diameter, which descends 
perpendicularly 7 orSfeet.and then gradual- 
ly widens to 1 7 at the bottom, which is 22 feet 



AND 

deep, and wholly cut-out of the solid rock. 
And into this infernal hole were heretics and 
other victims of Popish tyranny immured. 
When it was discovered, several cart loads 
of human bones were found in it. James III. 
was bom in this castle. The university was 
founded by Bishop Wardlaw in 1411, and 
confirmed by Benedict XIII. in 1412. For 
61 years after the foundation, lectures were 
read in a building which formerly went by 
the name of the Pedagogy, where St. Mary's 
College now stands ; and notwithstanding 
the amazing number of students, the pro- 
fessors had no fixed salaries, and the scho- 
lars lived entirely at their own expense. In 
1455, the celebrated Bishop Kennedy found- 
ed St. Salvador's College, in North-street. 
The buildings of this college form three sides 
of a square, with a handsome steeple and 
spire, 156 feet high over the gateway, in 
which is a clock. The chapel of this col- 
lege serves as a parish-church to St. Leonards; 
it had a fine Gothic roof, which was remov- 
ed about 70 years ago, and the beautiful 
tomb of the founder much injured by the 
ignorance of the architect who conducted 
the repairs. In this tomb were discovered, 
in 1 683, six silver maces of very elegant 
workmanship; one was presented to each 
of the other Scotish universities, and 5 are 
still retained by this; one of which is of 
much superior workmanship, and a model 
of the tomb. In this college are to be seen 2 
silver arrows, which were annually shot for 
about half a century ago, with a great num- 
ber of medals appended to them, on which 
is engraven the name,&c. of the victor. St. 
Leonards, founded in 1512. by Prior Hep- 
bum, stands at the E. end of South-street; 
the buildings have been sold and converted 
into other purposes since the union of this 
college with St. Salvadors in 1747 ; and the 
two thus united go by the name of the Unit- 
ed College. In the United College there are 
a principal, and professors of Latin, Greek, 
logic and rhetoric, moral philosophy, na- 
tural philosophy, mathematics, civil history 
and medicine. It has 16 foundation bur- 
saries, which entitle the possessor to board 
during the session ; these are disposed of by 
competition ; and 23 other bursaries in the 
gift "of individuals, of different values. The 
session in this college continues rather more 
than 6 months. This college is patron of 8 
parish-churches. St. Mary's, or Divinity 
College, is in South-street; something to- 
wards the erection of this college was done 
by the two Beatons. Their successor, Arch- 
bishop Hamilton, was the first who intro- 
duced lectures there, about the year 1557. 



A N^ 16_ 

It has a principal, and professors of divinity, 
church history, and oriental languages. It 
has 8 foundation bursaries belonging to it, 
and 8 others in the gift of individuals of dif- 
ferent values. The session in this college 
lasts only 4 months; the number of students 
at both colleges, is about 160. Adjoining to 
St. Mary's, on the E. is the university library, 
a room about 76 feet long, and 28 broad, 
and the same height. It contains 20,000 
▼olumes. Immediately below the library is 
the room where the parliament met that 
condemned to death Sir Robert Spotiswood, 
and 5 other royalists, after the battle of 
Philip-haugh in 1645. The town-church 
was builtabout 1112, but almost rebuilt in 
1 797 : it is a large lump of a building with a 
steeple and clock, well fitted up within ; 
but its external appearance has nothing at- 
tractive. In the S. aisle is the magnificent, 
tomb of Archbishop Sharp, who was killed 
by some of the covenanters in Magus moor, 
on the 3d of May 1679. It is indeed a piece 
of exquisite workmanship, with a very flat- 
tering epitaph inscribed. But who need 
want a tomb and epitaph that can afford to 
pay for them ? If our information be cor- 
rect, the heirs of Sharp could not get the tomb 
erected until they mortified a sum to the 
poor of the parish, 21. 10s. yearly, which is 
still paid. The town-house and prison stand 
in the middle of Market-street ; the build- 
ing is a disgrace to the town, and a nuisance 
on the Street. St. Andrews had anciently a 
very extensive foreign trade, and at a fair, 
which commenced in the beginning of A- 
pril, and lasted 15 days, there have been be- 
tween 2 and 300 vessels in the port. At pre- 
sent 9 vessels belong to it, from 40 to 250 
tons, employed in the wood and coasting 
trade. The harbour is narrow and of diffi- 
cult access ; but a plan has been lately given 
in by Mr Rennie for enlarging and deepening 
it. The estimate is L.18,000. should the 
plan be adopted, the advantage arising from 
it would be great, both to the place and to 
the coasting trade in general, as frequent 
accidents happen to vessels in the bay for 
want of a proper harbour. A suit of baths 
was erected lately, to the west of the castle, 
which will draw company hither in the sum- 
mer season ; and a new square has been laid 
out in North-street, to the east of the united 
college.— The manufactures of this place are 
inconsiderable, some weaving of osnaburgs 
and linen, with a canvas manufactory on a 
very good principle, whicii employs about 40 
•looms. St. Andrews was erected into a roy- 
al burgh by David I. and its privileges con- 
firmed by Malcom II. in a very laconic chai- 



A_N_G 

ter still preserved in the town-house. It is 
governed by a provost, 4 bailies, a dean of 
guild, a treasurer, and council. It has 7 
incorporated trades, and joins with Cupar, 
Dundee, Perth, and Forfar, in sending a 
member to parliament. It has 5 annual 
fairs, 2d Thurs. April, 1st Tues. July, 1st 
August, 29th September, and 50th Novem- 
ber, all O. S. There is alsoa united Secession 
meeting-house. Population in 1S01, 3263. 
ANGUS, or FORFARSHIRE. This 
county and that of Kincardine wereformer- 
ly a part of the Pictish kingdom, and an- 
ciently known under the general name of 
Horestiu or Forestia. Angus-shire lies on 
the N. bank of the river Tay, and is bound- 
ed on the N, E. by the Northesk river, which 
separates it from Kincardineshire ; by the 
German Ocean on Ihe E.and S. E. ; the Tay 
on the S. ; Perthshire on the W. ; and on 
the N. it is separated from Aberdeenshire 
by the Grampian hills for the space of 26 
miles. Its utmost extent, from the eastern 
coast to the Grampians, is about 48 miles ; 
and from Mount Petie, on the boders of 
Perthshire, to the mouth of the Northesk ri- 
ver, about 42. It contains 1016 square miles, 
or 512,064 3cres. The county isdivided in 
many places by hills of considerable eleva- 
tion, forming vallies or glens between them. 
At the foot of the grampians lies (he exten- 
sive valley of Strathmore, which extends 
from Dunbartonshire to Aberdeen, nearly 
the whole breadth of the kingdom. Be- 
sides Strathmore, there are other vallies of 
less note, which receive their names from 
the rivers which run through them; as Glen- 
isla, Glenprossin, Glenesk, &c. The Mel- 
gum, Carrity, Moran, Lunan, Elliot, Dichty, 
&c. are rivers of inferior note. All the ri- 
vers of the county rise in the northern parts ; 
and all (except Isla, which runs W. in the 
valley of Strathmore to fall into the Tay,) 
empty themselves into the German Ocean, 
towards the S. and E. The coast of this coun- 
ty is bold and rocky, presenting dreadful pre- 
cipices tothesea. About 12 miles 6. E.of 
Arbroath, is the Bell-rock or Cape, upon 
which so many vessels, previous to the re- 
cent erection of the light-house, were wreck- 
ed. The Red Head, a well known promon- 
tory, upwards of 200 feet perpendicular, ter- 
minates this rocky front. The principal har- 
bours on this coast are those of Dundee, A- 
berbrothock, and Montrose. A considerable 
number of vessels belong to these ports, 
which arc mostly employed in bringing flax 
and hemp from the Baltic, and in exporting 
sail-cloth and brown linens, tlu: chief ma- 
nufacture of the county. Angus-shirc con.- 



ANN 

tains 5 royal boroughs, viz. Dundee, Ar- 
broath, Montrose, Brechin, and Forfar ; 
with the small towns ©f Glammis and Kir- 
riemuir, which are all occupied in the linen 
manufacture. It is subdivided into .53 pa- 
rishes, and sends a representative to parlia- 
ment. The soil of the low country is various, 
but generally fertile. There are a number 
of black cattle reared in the county, and a 
few sheep are pastured on the mountains. 
The inhabitants on the coast are well sup- 
plied with coal; but peat, turf, and furze, 
foim the principal fuel in the more inland 
parts. The county is interspersed with ma- 
ny fine seats of nobility and gentry ; the 
principal of which are Brechin Castle, Pan- 
mure House, Glammis Castle, Ethie House, 
Kinnaird, and Airley Castle. Freestone a- 
bounds in most parts ; and there are several 
limestone quarries. The valuedrent of the 
county is stated in the books of the shire at 
L. 17 1,636 ; and the real land rent is estima- 
ted at L 122,000. Population 107,264. 

ANNAN, a royal burgh sea-port town, 
and parish in Dumfries-shire. The town is 
situated near the discharge of the river An- 
nan into the Solway Frith; and is one of 
the most ancient in Scotland, having re- 
ceived its charter from Robert Bruce. It 
has been of late much improved by new 
streets and buildings. At its east end is a 
fine new church, and on the west are the 
town house and market places. There is a 
bridge of 5 arches over the Annan at this 
place ; and not far from it are the ruins of 
a castle built by the family of Bruce. The 
mouth of the river forms an excellent har- 
bour, having water sufficient to permit ves- 
sels of 300 tons to approach within half a 
mile of the town, where a commodious quay 
has been lately erected. The town is go- 
verned by a provost, 2 bailies, a treasurer, 
dean of guild, and 9 councillors. It joins 
with Dumfries, Lochmaben, Sanquhar, and 
Kirkcudbright, in sendinga member to Par- 
liament. The revenueofthe burgh is about 
L-700 Sterling per annum ; and the popula- 
tion about 2,500. The PARISH of Annan 
is about 8 miles in length, and from 1 to 3 
in breadth, containing 171-2 square miles. 
The surface is mostly level, and the soil a 
rich clay. Though there arelarge tracksof 
barren heath-covered moor, the elevated 
parts of the parish are ornamented with 
planting. It abounds with lime, granite, 
and freestone.— There is an excellent sal- 
mon fishery on the Annan. Population of 
the town and parish 3341. 

ANNAN, a river' which rises in Peebles- 
shire, and flowing through Dumfries-shire, 



A N W 

discharges itself into the Solway Frith, after 
/ j a course of nearly 30 miles. It abounds with 
salmon and excellent trout. 
I ANNANDALE, a stewartry or district of 
I Dumfries-shire, anciently a part of the Ro- 
| man province of Valentia. It became a 
J lordship under the Bruces, who took their 
I title from it. After several revolutions in 
I the succesion of its superiors, it is now in 
j possession of the Hopetoun family. Loch- 
maben castle was the chief fort in this dis- 
trict, and formerly was deemed almost irh- 
I pregnable. Annandale is a fertile vale, ly- 
j ing on both sides of the Annan, about 23 
miles long, and 14 broad. It is bounded on 
the N. by the shires of Lanark and Peebles ; 
on the W. by Nithsdale; on the S. by the 
Solway Frith; and on the E.by Eskdale. 
From its having bet^n a Roman province, it 
abounds with Roman stations and antiqui- 

ANN AT, or C AMBUS, a small rivulet in 
the parish of Kilmadock, county of Perth. It 
joins the Teith at the church of Kilmadock. 
ANNOCK, a small river in Ayrshire, 
which, after a course of about 12 miles, 
falls into the Irvine, near the town of that 
name. 

ANSTRUTHER EASTER, aroyalburgh 
in the county of Fife, 25 miles east from 
Kinghorn. It possesses the bestharbour on 
the east coast of Fife. Though formerly a 
place of some importance, it is now little 
more than a paltry fishing village.— The pa- 
rish is small, and the soil sandy and unpro- 
ductive. Population 1000. 

ANSTRUTHER WESTER, a royal burgh 
in Fifeshire, adjoining to that of Anstruther 
Easter. It was constituted a royal burgh in 
1583, and still enjoys a parliamentary repre- 
sentation. The parish is small, and does not 
contain more than 600 acres. Population 
405. 

ANTONINUS' WALL, a barrier erected 
by the Romans to protect their conquests in 
the south of Scotland. It was constructed 
by Lollius Urbicus, the lieutenant of the 
Emperor Antoninus, about the year 138, to 
connect the chain of forts, formerly erected 
by Agricola, between the Friths of Forth 
and Clyde. It afterwards received the ap- 
pellation of Graham's, or as some will have 
it, Grim's Dyke, of the origin of which name 
nothing is now known with certainty. 
Though nownearly demolished, its vestiges 
in several places can be distinctly traced. 

AN WORT H , a parish in the stewartry o f 

Kirkcudbright. Its extent is about 6 1-2 

miles in length, and 3 1 -2 in breadth. The 

river Fleet runs on the borders of the parish 

C 



A P P ] 

for 7 miles, and the sea bounds it on the 
•south for about 3 miles. The sea coast is 
rocky ; but the Fleet is navigable to small 
vessels for three miles. The surface has in 
general a hilly appearance, one of the hills, 
Carmharrah, rising to the height of 1100 
feet. There is a bridge over the Fleet at 
Gatehouse ; and a small village has been e- 
rected on the Anworth side of the river. 
There are several relics of antiquity in the 
parish, of which the town of Rusco and the 
castle of Cardoness are the chief. Popula- 
tion 740. 

AOREIDH, or ARA Y, a river in Argyle- 
shire. It rises among the mountains at the 
back of Inverary, and, after a course of 9 
miles, falls into the sea at the head of Loch- 
Fine. 

APPIN, an extensive highland district, 
on the mainland of Argyleshive, lately unit- 
ed to the parish of Lismore. The extentof 
Appin is not ascertained ; but it cannot be 
estimated at less than 50 miles in length, 
and on an average 10 in breadth. Glencoe 
lies in this district ; the water of Coe, and 
the rirulets Coinich, Dorror, Eallychelish, 
Laroch, and Leven run through it. There 
are several fresh water lakes, and extensive 
arms of the sea, which bear the name of 
lochs, viz. Lochs Linnc, Creran, Ell, and 
Leven. Black and white marble are found 
in different parts ; and at Eallychelish is a 
quarry of fine blue slate. Castle Stalkir, a 
ruin of great beauty, stands upon a small 
island in Loch Linnet and on an island in 
Loch Leven are the ruins of a chapel dedi- 
cated to St. Mungo. Airds, the seat of Mr 
Campbell, is- pleasantly situated on Loch 
Creran. Inverscadle House, the seat of 
Macdonaldof Glencoe, is a fine building. 
In this district, more attention is paid to 
sheep farming than to agriculture. For 
the population, see Lismore and Appin. 

APPLECROSS, a parish in Ross-shire, 
extending at least 25 miles along the coast. 
Its surface is mountainous and rocky, in- 
terspersed, however, with several fertile 
valleys, and some natural woods. Breeding 
of cattle is the principal employment of the 
farmer. The rivers, of which Firdon and 
Applecross are the chief, abound -with 
trout and salmon ; and the sea contains 
plenty of excellent fish. — There is a rich 
copper mine in the northern district of the 
parish. Population 2297. 

APPLEGARTH, a parish on the banks 
of the Annan, in the county of Dumfries. 
Its length is about 6, and its greatest 
breadth nearly 5 miles. The great road 
from Carlisle to Glasgow and Edinburgh 



A R D 

passes through it. It contains 17 1-2 
square miles. The lands are in general 
good, and well manured with lime. Po- 
pulation 85S. 

ARBROATH. Vide ABERBROTH- 
OCK. 

ARBIRLOT,asmall parish in Angus- 
shire, about 4 miles in length, and 2 .in 
breadth.— -The little river Elliot runs 
through the parish, the sides of which are 
very romantic. The ancient castle of Kel- 
ly is much admired for its picturesque si- 
tuation. The soil, with the exception of 
the sandy district along the sea coast, is a 
fine and fertile lcam. Population 1014. 

AR.BUTHNOT, a parish in Kincardine- 
shire, of an irregular triangular form, near- 
ly 5 miles in length. Its surface is unequal, 
having 2 vallies, with their corresponding 
ridges. In one of them runs the water of 
Bei-vie, whose banks are adorned with the 
elegant mansions of Arbuthnot and Allar- 
dyce. The parish contains 9433 acres. It 
possesses some excellent free stone quar- 
ries. Population 9GS. 

ARCHAIG LOCH, a fresh water lake in 
the county of Inverness, 1G miles long, and 
1 1-2 broad. It abounds with severalkinds 
of trout. It discharges itself by the river 
Arch?. : g into Loch Lochy, which is about a 
mile distant. 

ARD (LOCH), a lake in the parish of A- 
berfoyle, Perthshire. It is the last of a chain 
of lakes, through which the river Forth 
passes, at a short distance from its source, 
and which contributs to form it into a ri- 
ver. At the lower extremity of Loch Ard 
it bursts forth with great magnificence o- 
ver a rock near 30 feet high. Loch Ard is' 
about 3 miles In length, and 1 in breadth. 

ARDARGIE, a small village in Perth* ^ 
shire, in the parish of Forgandenny, situa- '• 
ted amongst the Ochil Hills. N 

ARDCHATTAN and MUCKAJRN, a • 
united parish in Argyleshire, about 21 miles , 
in length, and on an average 20 in breadth. , 
The surface is mountainous, and approprl- ^ 
ated to the pasturing of sheep. Tha, most 
considerable rivers are, the Aw, the^Kinloss, 
and the Etie. Ben Cruachan, one of the 
highest hills in Scotland, is in this parish, 
Loch Etive, an arm of the sea, is a fine sheet 
of water, with ornamented banks. In this 
district stood the celebrated city of Bere- 
gonium, for many ages the capital of Scot- 
land, and said to have been founded by Fer- 
gus II. Tradition reports that this city was 
destroyed by fire from heaven. There is still 
standing a part of the walls of an old priory, 
founded in the 13th century; and the drut- 



A R D 19 

clical monuments are so numerous that it 
■would be almost endless to enumerate 
them. Ardmucknage is the only mansion 
of any note in the district. Population 1415. 
ARDCLACH, a parish situated on each 
side of the river Findhorn, in the extremity I 
of the county of Nairne. It is a hilly, moun- j 
tainous district, extending in length 12, 
and in breadth 7 miles. A few black cattle 
and sheep are reared in the parish. The 
Findhorn contains salmon and trout. Po- 
pulation 1275. 

ARDEKSIER, a parish in the county of 
Inverness. Its length is 2 1-2 miles, and 
its breadth the same. Its surface is flat, with 
a few eminences, and towards the sea it is 
bold and rocky The soil is various, but ge- 
nerally fertile, Fort George, which is situated 
in this parish, affords a ready market for the 
produce of the farms. Population 1 287. 

ARDLE a river in Perthshire, in the pa- 
rish of Kirkmichael, which after watering 
the valley of Strathardle, unites with the 
S hee or Black water in forming the Ericht. 
ARDMEANACH, orBLACK ISLE, adis- 
trict in Ross-shire and Cromarty, contain- 
ing eight parishes;, which form a peninsula. 
It has received that namefrom beingmost- 
ly a black uncultivated moor. The ridge of 
hills called Mulbuy extends nearly the 
■whole length of the district. 
ARDNAMURCHAN, an extensive parish 
of Argyle and Inverness-shires, being form- 
ed by the annexation of five several parishes 
under this general name. Its extent may be 
reduced to the superficies of a square of 20 
miles, comprehending aboul 275,280 acres, 
of which it is ;upposed 200,000 are land. 
Part of the parish is a peninsula, formed by- 
two arms of the sea, called Loch Sunart and 
Loch Sheil ; in the last of which is a little 
island, named St. Finan, where formerly a 
church was erected. The Ru, or extremity 
ofthe peninsula above mentioned, is the 
most westerly point of the mainland of Great 
Britain, and the most remarkable headland 
froni Cape Wrath to the Mull of Kintyre, 
between which it is centrically situated. 
At Strontian, is this parish, a new mineral 
was discovered, the properties of which 
wereanalysed by Dr Hope, who distinguish- 
ed it by the titles of Strontites. Lead mines 
are wrought at Strontian to the value of 
L. 4-000 annually. Population 5151 

ARDOCH.asmall village in the parish 
of Muthil, Perthshire, through which the 
great road from Stirling to the Highlands 
passes. Near it is the most complete Roman 
camp in Scotland. It is 1 0S0 feet in length, 
snd 900 in breadth, and could contain 



R G 



26,000 men. There is a communication 
with a smaller encampment, at a short dis- 
tance, in which several helmets, spears, &c. 
have been found. From this place the 
great Roman highway runs eastward nearly 
to Perth, where the Roman army passed 
over the Tay into Strathmore. 

ARDOCH, a small river in Perthshire, 
which rises f;om Loch Maghaig, in the 
parish of Kilmadock, and runs into the 
| Teath, at the castle of Doune. 

ARDROSSAN, a parish in Ayrshire, 
i extending alongthe western coast, in length 
about six miles, and about 4 in breadth. 
The surface is a mixture of hilly and flat 
country, in most places lit for the plough ; 
though even the best lands of the parish are 
under pasture. The town of Saltcoats is 
partly in this parish, and the new town of 
Ardrossan. There are some remains of 
Danish encampments on a hill on the North 
side of this parish. The ruins of the castle 
of Ardrossan shew it to have been a place 
of considerable strength. Population in 
1311,2526. 

ARDROSSAN, a village in the above pa- 
rish, begun by the Earl of Eglinton about 
10 years ago. It is situated on a promon- 
tory 1 mile N. of Saltcoats, and 28 S. W. of 
Greenock. A strong pier 900 feet long is 
already finished, and when the one on the 
N. is built, it will form by far the most se- 
cure and capacious harbour in the mouth 
of Clyde, where vessels of any draught of 
water can go in and out with all wind:.. 
When the canal is completed, it will airbrd 
communication with the interior of the 
country as far as Glasgow. A large and 
elegant hotel , and a suit of warm and cold 
baths, are already built, so that Ardrossan 
has become a place of genteel resort in the 
summer season. The town is built on a 
regular plan, and as stone and lime are to 
be had on the spot, it is rapidly advancing- 
ARDROSSAN CANAL, (Vide CANAL). 
ARDSTINCHAR, or STINCHAR, a 
river of considerable size, which takes its 
rise in the eastern part of Ayrshire ; and 
continuing a rapid course for the space of 
26 or 27 miles, falls into the Atlantic at 
Ballantrae. 

ARGYLESHIRE, anciently called AR- 
GATHALIA, is said to have been a part of 
the ancient Caledonian kingdom, while the 
Romans and Picts were in possession ofthe 
greaterpart of Scotland. li extends about 
114 miles in length, and 53 in breadth, ex- 
cluding the isles. It contains 2 royal 
boroughs, and 49 parishes. It is divided 
into 5 districts, viz. Kintyre, Knapdale, 



A R R 



'20 



R T A 



Cowal, Lorn, and Argyle proper; bounded 
on the S. by the Irish sea and the Clyde ; on 
the E. by Perth and Dunbartonshires ; on 
the N. by Inverness-shire ; and on the W. 
by the Atlantic ocean. Argyleshire was 
much infested, in ancient times, by preda- 
tory intruders, and was in consequence the 
scene of many engagements. Many monu- 
ments of the remotest antiquity still remain 
to demonstrate the warlike spirit of the for- 
mer inhabitants. The surface of this 
country is, like the other parts of the High- 
lands, mountainous, bleak, and uncomfor- 
table to the view ; covered with heath, and 
in some places exhibiting rugged and bare 
rocks, piled on one another in dreadful dis- 
order. The coast is rocky, but indented 
with navigable bays and lakes, affording 
safe harbour for shipping. The lakes 
abound with fish; the mountains afford 
pasture to numerous herds of black cattle 
and sheep; the heaths are stored with 
game ; and copper, iron, and lead mines 
are found in many places. A number of 
islands are attached to this county, of which 
the chief are Tyrie, Coll, Mull, Isla, Jura, 
StafFa, and Icolmkill. Argyle gives the 
title of Duke and Earl to the chief of the 
family of Campbell ; and sends one member 
to Parliament.- -The valued rent of Argyle 
is L. 149,595 10s. Scots, and the real rent 
L.112,752 sterling. — In 1811, the popula- 
tion of the whole county, including the is- 
lands, amounted to 85,585. 

ARISAIG, a promontory on the western 
coast of Inverness-shire, in the district of 
Glenelg. 

ARM DALE, a village in the parish of 
Farr, in Sutherlandshire, seated on a bay of 
the same name, which is an excellent fish- 
ing station. 

ARNGASK, a parish nearly circular, 
having a diameter of about 4 miles. Three 
counties join in this parish, viz. Perth, 
Kinross, and Fife, and the road from Perth 
to Queensferry passes through it. The soil 
is various ; on some of the hills it is light 
and shallow ; but many fields are rich and 
fertile, and capable of producing almost 
any crop. There is, however, more pasture 
than tillage in the parish. Population G57. 

ARNOT, a small river in Perthshire, 
which runs through the valley ofGlenfer- 
nat, and uniting with the Briarachan, 
forms the Ardlc. 

ARNTILLY, a village in Perthshire, in 
the parish of Kinclaven, containing a po- 
pulation of about 300. 

A RR AN , an island in the Frith of Clyde. 
t>etw«en Ayrshire and Kintyre. It was by 



the Romans called Glotta, or Glotta JEs- 
tuarium. Its form is in some degree oval, 
and extends from N. to S. nearly 24 miles, 
and from E. to W. about 14. From the 
time this Island was ceded to the Norwe- 
gians by Donald Bane, it has undergone 
several changes of proprietors, and is now 
in the possession of the Hamilton family. 
It afforded to Robert the Bruce an asylum 
during his distresses. The coast is indent- 
ed with various harbours ; in particular, 
at the S. E. quarter, is the commodious 
harbour of Lamlash, covered by an islet, 
where 500 vessels may ride at anchor. To 
the northward of Lamlash is Loch Ransa, 
another spacious harbour. The face of the 
country is rugged and mountainous. Goat- 
field, or Gaoilbhein, the highest hill, rising 
2840 feet above the level of the sea, is near- 
ly in the centre of the island. The Cock 
of Arran, towards the northern extremity, 
is a famous sea mark. The lakes in the 
island are about five in number ; and from 
two of them issue fine rivers. It is divid- 
ed into two parishes, and forms part of the 
shire of Bute. From Arran a number of 
black cattle are annually exported.— The 
higher parts of the island are either bare 
rocks, or covered with heath. On the sides 
of the hills, and borders of the lakes, the 
soil is excellent; but the practice of a 
wretched system of agriculture renders 
them comparatively unproductive. The ri- 
vers contain salmon, the hills wilddeer, and 
the coast abounds with herrings and other 
fish in abundance. Arran possesses coal, 
limestone, freestone, ironstone, and mar- 
ble. The ruins of many fortresses, and a 
number of natural caves, are worth the at- 
tention of the antiquary and naturalist. 
Population 5704. 

ARROQUHAR, a mountainous parish 
in Dunbartonshire, about 16 miles long, 
and 3 broad. It lies on the E. side of Loch- 
lomond, the banks of which are covered 
with thriving plantations. The rearing 
of sheep occupies the chief attention of the 
inhabitants. Population 420. 

ARTHUR-SEAT, a hill (or more pro- 
perly a ridge of hills,) in the immediate 
vicinity of Edinburgh on the S. E. Its 
summit is conical, and its height is 810 feet. 
On the S. side it is in many places a per- 
pendicular rock, exhibiting a range of ba- 
saltic columns, of a pentagonal or hexagonal 
form, from 50 to 60 feet in height, and of 
5 feet diameter. On the W. are Salisbury 
Crags, which present to the city the ap- 
pearance of a lofty terrace, forming an am- 
phitheatre of solid stone, overtopped by a 



A T H 

■continued precipice of broken rock. From 
the craggy top it gradually descends into a 
valley. The rock, in digging, affords ores, 
spars, zeolites, haematites, jaspers, and, it is 
said, agates, besides an inexhaustible sup. 
ply of granite for paving the streets of the 
city. At the bottom of Arthur Seat is the 
lake of Duddingston; and on the N. the 
ruins of St. Anthony's chapel. From its 
top the view is grand and striking. The 
spectator may from thence look down on 
the metropolis as on a map ; while the 
German Ocean, the course of the Forth, 
the Grampian mountains, and a large por- 
tion of the most populous and best culti- 
vated part of the kingdom, form a land- 
scape which cannot any where be surpas- 
sed. Arthur Seat, when viewed from the 
west, presents to the eye a very exact pic- 
ture of a Lion couchant. It was once in 
agitation by the friends of the Dundas fa- 
mily and Mr Pitt's measures, to erect up- 
on its summit a monument to the memory 
of the late Lord Melville. 

ASHKIRK, a parish lying partly in 
Roxburgh and partly in Selkirkshires. It 
is about 7 miles long, and 3 broad. The 
surface is mostly hilly, but free of heath. 
The soil is light and fertile. It contains 
four small lakes, which, with the river Ale, 
abound in trout. Population 558. 

ASSINT, an extensive parish in the 
county of Sutherland, 25 miles long, and 
about 15 broad. Its surface presents 
an assemblage of lofty mountains, huge 
barren rocks, precipices, extensive heaths, 
lakes, mosses, and rivers. Scarcely one 
acre in 100 is under tillage. Marble and 
ironstone are wrought and exported to a 
considerable extent. It contains no coal ; 
and the common fuel of the inhabitants is 
peat moss. It abounds with temples and 
other remains of antiquity. This parish 
contains a lake of the same name, C miles 
long, and 1 1-4 broad. It lies on the W. N. 
W. coast of Sutherland, and has a number 
of islands annexed to it. The rearing of 
cattle and fishing is the principal employ- 
ment of the inhabitants. The coast is 
rough, and presents dreadful precipices 
to the sea. Population in 1811, 2479. 

ATHOL, the most northern district of 
Perthshire, extending in length about 45 
miles, and in breadth 30 ; bounded on the 
N. by Eadenoch ; on the W. byLochaber; 
on the E. by Marr and Gowrie; and on the 
S. by Stormont, Perth proper, and Breadal- 
bane. The country is rough and mountain- 
ous, and contains a great part of the ancient 
Caledonian forest. The mountainous sur- 



A U C 

face is, however, interspersed with fertile 
vallies. There are no towns of any note in 
this district ; but several populous villages 
are scattered over the country. Blair Cas- 
tle, the seat of the Duke of Athol, is pleas- 
antly situated on the Tilt, near itsconflus 
with the Garry. About 4 miles from it is 
the pass of Killikrankie. 

ATHELSTANEFORD, a village and 
parish in Haddingtonshire. The parish 
i extends about 4 miles in length, and 2 1-2 
I in breadth. From the Garleton hills, 
I which bound it on the S. the land, by a 
gentle declivity, extends to the shore of the 
Frith of Forth. Almost the whole parish 
is finely cultivated and enclosed. The 
village of Athelstaneford stands on the 
side of the Garleton hills, and commands a 
beautiful prospect of the Frith of Forth and 
adjacent places. Blair, the author of" The 
Grave," was a native of this parish; and 
here the celebrated author of the tragedy 
of" Douglas" held for a while his pastoral 
charge. Population 867. 

AUCHENAIRN, a village in Lanark- 
shire, in the parish of Cadder, 4 miles from 
Glasgow. 

AUCHENCRAW, a small village in the 
parish of Coldingham, Berwickshire, 4 
miles N. VV. from Ayton. 

AUCHENLOCH, a village in Lanark- 
shire, in the parish of Cadder, about 4 
miles from Auchinairn. 

AUCHENKEOCH, a village in the pa- 
rish of Buittle, stewartry of Kirkcudbright. 
AUCHINBLAY, a village in the parish 
ofFourdoun, Kincardineshire, containing 
about 300 inhabitants. 

AUCHINDINN Y, a village in the coun- 
ty of Mid-Lothian, about 7 1-2 miles S. 
from Edinburgh. 

AUCHINDORE, or AUCHINDOIR, a 
parish in Aberdeenshire, about 7 miles 
long and 5 broad, exhibiting in general & 
mountainous appearance. About 2500 a- 
cres are under crop. It abounds with free- 
stone. The only river ofnoteinthe parish 
is the Bogie. There are a few antiquities 
here, such as tumuli, barrows, cairns, and 
the remains of an extensive fortification. 
Population 780. 

AUCHINLECK, aparish in the county 
of Ayr, about 18 miles long, and, on an 
average, 2 broad. It has a bleak naked 
appearance; an extensive district named 
Glenmore, about 6 miles in length, is en- 
tirely covered with heath. Salmon and 
Pike are caught in the rivers Ayr and Lu- 
gar, which run through the parish. The 
few farms which were arable are now con- 



A U C 

. Terted into sheep pasture. Coal and free- 
stone abound every where. The parish 
also contains a lead mine, said to be rich 
in silver, but it has not yet been wrought. 
The ruins of the ancient castle of Auchin- 
leck stand on the banks of the Lugar. Near 
thj old castle is the new house of Auchin- 
lejk. Population 13S2. 

ATJCHINLECK, a hill in Dumfries- 
shire, in the parish of Closeburn, 1500 
feet'high. 

AUCHMITHY, a fishing village on the 
coast of Angus-3hire, about 3 1-2 miles N. 
E. of Arbroath. It is situated on a high 
rocky bank, rising about 120 feet above 
the level of the sea. It contains about 200 
inhabitants. 

AUCHNACRAIG, a village in the is- 
land of Mull, at which there is a Post Of- 
fice, and a regular ferry to Oban on the 
mainland. 

AUCHTER ARDER, a parish and village 
in Perthshire. The parish lies on the S. 
hank of the river Earne, and extends about 
5 o; 6 miles in length, and nearly the same 
in breadth. The hilly part produces good 
pasture ; and the low ground is arable, with 
a good soil. The Ruthven, a small beauti- 
ful river, which contains fine trout, runs 
through the parish. It contains neither 
coal nor lime, but abounds with stone, and 
has a few slate quarries. The ruins of an 
old castle lie a little to the N. W. of the 
village. 

The VILLAGE of Auchterarder, which 
once enjoyed the privilege of a royal burgh, 
extends nearly a mile in length. It em- 
ploys about 400 looms, chiefly for the 
Glasgow manufacture. It lies 9 miles 
S. E. of Crieff. Population 250.3. 

AUCHTERDERRAN, a parish in the 
county of Fife, 4 miles long and 5 broad. 
The soil is moist and not very fertile. The 
greater part of the parish lies above coal. 
About a third is under tillage, and the rest 
is under pasture; but the inhabitants, ap- 
plying themselves more assiduously to agri- 
culture, are rapidly improving the condition 
and appearance of the district. It contains 
plenty of limestone. Easaltes, and other 
Tolcanic productions are often to be met 
with in this parish. Population 113S. 

AUCHTERGAVEN, a parish in the 
county of Perth, on the turnpike road from 
Perth to Dunkeld, extending about 9 miles 
in length, and 5 in breadth. A great pro- 
portion of it is covered with muirs, hills, 
and mosses; but for 20 years past agricul- 
ture has been so rapidly improving, that 
the face of the district has undergone a 



A U G 

thorough change. A large cotton spinning 
mill was lately erected in the village of 
Stanley in this parish. Population 2557. 

AUCHTERHOUSE, aparish in the coun- 
ty of Angus, on the S. side of the Sidlaw 
hills. It contains nearly 4000 acres. The 
soil, though thin and muirish, produces to- 
lerable crops. It has plenty of peat moss, 
rock marl, and freestone. There are three 
small villages, Dronlaw, Kirkton, and New- 
ton, the largest of which contains 112 in- 
habitants. Population C55. 

AUCHTERLESS, a parish in the county 
of Aberdeen, about 7 miles long, and 3 
broad. The soil is good, and in general 
productive. A small river, called the 
Ithan, passes through the parish. It con- 
tains neither coal, lime, nor marl. The 
profile of an extensive fortified camp, the 
inclosed area of which is computed at 120 
acres, is well worthy the attention of the 
antiquary. Population 1257. 

AUCHTERMUCHTY, a burgh and pa- 
rish in the county of Fife, extending about 
2 miles in length, and 1 and a half in 
breadth. The surface is various ; towards 
the S. low and flat ; and towards the N. and 
W. it is hilly, and covered with heath. The 
Town was constituted a royal burgh by 
James IV. and it still retains all the privi- 
leges of a royal burgh, except that of send- 
ing a member to Parliament. It is governed 
by 2 bailies, a treasurer, and 15 councillors. 
Brown linens and Sillesias are here manu- 
factured to the value of L.30,000 annually, 
Population of the town and parish 2103. 

AUCHTERTOUL, a small inland parish 
in the county of Fife, extending about 2 
miles in length, and 1 in breadth. The si- 
tuation is elevated, commanding an exten- 
sive prospect. From a small lake called 
Camilla loch, the Teel, or the Toul, takes 
its rise. On the side of the loch are the 
ruins of Camilla Castle, or Hallyards. The 
parish contains a small village of the same 
name, 4 miles N W. from Kirkcaldy. Po- 
pulation 2403. 

AUCHUIRN, a place in Ross-shire, in 
the parish of Kintail, where there was for- 
merly a considerable and populous town, 
which was completely destroyed in 1745 by 
a mountain torrent, called in Gaelic Serid- 
dan. 

AUGUSTUS (FORT), situated at the 
extremity of Loch Ness, 144 miles distant 
from Edinburgh. It is a regular fortifica- 
tion with four bastions, and barracks capa- 
ble of accommodating 400 soldiers, with 
lodgings for the officers. Though the fort 
is in good repair, it is so commanded by the 



AVE 

hills on every side, that it is by no means a 
place capable of resistance. It is a very 
neat looking place; and the surrounding 
plantations, and the river TariF which runs 
by it, give it very much the appearance of 
an English country seat. It was taken by 
the rebels in 1746, who deserted it, after 
demolishing what they could. 

AULD-DATIE, a rivulet in Aberdeen- 
shire, tributary to the Ythan. 

AULDEARN, a parish and village in the 
county of Nairn, extending 4 miles along 
the Moray Firth, being in length about 6 
and a half miles, and in breadth about 5 
and a half. In a deep moss have been found 
fir trees 60 feet in length. The village of 
Auldearn is a burgh of barony, under the 
superiority of Colonel Brodie, containing 
200 inhabitants. It lies 20 miles E. from 
Inverness. — Population 1406. 

AULD-TOWN, a village in Ayrshire, in ] 
the parish of Loudon. 

AULTGRANDE, a river in Ross-shire, 
in the parish of Kiltearn, which rises from 
Loch Glass, about 6 miles from the sea, and 
after a winding course, falls into the Frith of 
Cromarty. For a considerable way it runs 
through a vast chasm called the Craig- 
grande, or Ugly-rock, which cannot be 
contemplated without emotions of admir- 
ation and wonder. 

AULTMORE, a considerable rivulet in 
Banffshire, in the parishes of Keith and 
Grange, which falls into thelsla. 

AULTRAN, a rivulet in Cromartyshire, 
near which a bloody battle was fought be- 
tween the Scots and Danes. 

AVEN, a river which issues from a lake 
of the same name, at the foot oi the Cairn- 
gorum mountain, in the county of Banff, 
and after a course of 20 miles, falls into the 
Spey at Inveraven. 

AVEN, or AVON, a river in Lanark- 
shire, which rises on the border of Galston 
and Sorn, from Loch Aven, and, after re- 
ceiving many tributary streams in its course 
falls into the Clyde near Hamilton. Its 
banks in most places are covered with na- 
tural wood. 

AVEN, a river in Stirlingshire, which 
rises in the 'parish of Cumbernauld, from 
Loch Fanny-side, and, after receiving con- 
siderable additions to its streams, falls in- 
to the Forth near Borrowstounness. 

AVENDALE, or STRATHAVEN, a pa- 
rish or barony in the county of Lanark, 12 
miles in length, ana 5 or 6 in breadth. The 
face of the country is open, rising gradual- 
ly from both sides of the Aven , and termi- 
nating in hills. A number of smaller n- 



23 AYR 

vers intersect the parish. Coal and fee- 
stone are scarce, but it has abundance of 
limestone.— -The crops on the low grounds 
are generally good, but on the borders of 
the moor it is precarious. A Roman road 
can be distinctly traced for several miles on 
the S. of the Aven. Here are also three 
ancient chapels. The castle of Avendala 
exhibits an interesting ruin on a rocky em- 
inence. Population 4353. 

AVICH (LOCH), Vide Luina(Loch). 

AVICH, a river which runs from Loch 
Avich into Loch Aw. 

AVIEMORE, a small village in Inver- 
ness-shire, on the great Highland road, 125 
miles from Edinburgh. 

AVOCH, a parish in Ross-shire, about 
4 miles in length, and 2 1-2 in breadth. It 
enjoys all the variations of soil and surface, 
and is reckoned in general fertile. It is 
watered by afew small rivulets, which con- 
tain a particular species of red trout. Rose- 
haugh-house, with its extensive plantations 
is much admired. The herring fishery is 
here successfully prosecuted, GOOO barrels 
being annually cured. The interior pos- 
sesses some excellent freestone quarries, 
which furnished the stone with which Fort 
George is built. Population 1560. 

AVONDOW, the name of the river Forth 
near its source, which it retains till it en- 
ters the parish of Port of Monteith. 

AW (LOCH), a lake in Argyleshire, a. 
bout 30 miles long, and from 1 to 2 broad, 
reckoned the most picturesque of any in 
the Highlands, and possessing many pret- 
ty islands, tufted with trees, among which 
are seen the ruins of several old casties. 
At the north-eastern extremity of this lake 
rises the mountain of Ben-Cruachan, ele- 
vated 3390 feet above the lake ; from the 
top of which descends the river which forms 
this beautiful expanse of water. The lake 
abounds with salmon, trout, and eel, and 
discharges itself into Loch Etive, a branch 
of the Atlantic Ocean, at Bonaw. 

AYRSHIRE. This county is bounded 
on tbe N. by Renfrewshire ; on the E. by 
the shires of Lanark and Dumfries ; on the 
S. by Galloway ; and on the W. by the Irish 
Channel and the Frith of Clyde. Its ex- 
tent in length is about 65 miles, and about 
36 in breadth. It is divided into 3 great 
bailiages, or stewartries, which bear the 
names of Kyle, Cunningham, and Carrick. 
These divisions are not altogether artifi- 
cial ; the river Ayr forming the separation 
between Carrick and Kyle (or Ay rsh ire pro- 
per), and the river Irvine is the limit be- 
tween Kyle and Cunningham. These <h> 



AYR 24 

tricts are very different from each other in 
their appearance. Carrick, and the interior 
parts of Kyle are mountainous, and more a- 
dapted to pasture, while the coast of Kyle, 
and the greater part of Cunningham, exhi- 
bit a fine level country, interspersed with 
numerous Tillages and towns. The sea 
coast is mostly sandy, with sunk rocks, hut 
possesses several good harbours.— The rock 
of Aisla belongs to this county. From the 
ridge, of which the mountains of Carrick 
are a part, rise almost all the rivers of the 
S. of Scotland. The Tweed, the Esk, the 
Nith, the Annan, the Urr, &c. flow to the 
E. and S. while the Stinchar, the Girvan, 
the Doon, the Ayr, and the Lugar, pour 
their water into the Irish Channel. Be- 
sides these, the Irvine and other small ri- 
vulets water the more northerly parts of 
the county.— The agriculture of Ayrshire 
has been much improved of late years, and 
fine crops, are raised, particularly along 
the coast. The county, however, on the 
whole, is more adapted to pasture than til- 
lage. Ayrshire has 2 royal burghs, viz. Ayr 
and Irvine; and several populous towns 
and villages, of which Kilmarnock, Beith, 
Saltcoats, Kilwinning, Largs, Girvan, and 
Ballantrae are the chief. Besides the in- 
exhaustible seams of coal with which it 
abounds, it possesses several valuable mi- 
nerals, as freestone, limestone, ironstone, 
and several rich ores of lead and copper. 
In the parish of Stair, antymony and mo- 
lybdiena have been found ; and in several 
places of the county is found that species 
of whetstone known by the name of Ayr- 
stone. There is plenty of marl inmost of 
the lakes, the chief of which is Loch Doon, 
from which the river ofthat name takes its 
rise. All the rivers of Ayrshire abound 
with salmon; and the coasts are admirably 
adapted for white fishing. The valued 
rent of Ayrshire is 149,595 Scots ; the real 
rent for 1808 was L.314,673, 7s. Sterling. 
Population 104,001. 

' AYR, a royal burgh of great antiquity, 
and the county town of Ayrshire. It lies 
34 miles S. from Glasgow, and 75 S. W. 
from Edinburgh. It was erected into a 
royal burgh by William the Lion, about the 
year 1 200 ; and the privileges granted by 
that charter are still enjoyed by the town. 
It is pleasantly situated on a point of land, 
between the influx of the rivers Doon and 
Ayr into the Atlantic Ocean. The princi- 
pal street is broad and spacious. Its shape 
is somewhat of the form of a crescent, hav- 
ing the prison and town-hall in the centre, 
with a fine spire 135 feet high. The sea I 



AYR 



shore is flat and shallow ; and the entrance 
of the river Ayr, which forms the harbour, 
is subject to the inconvenience of a bar of 
sand, which is often thrown quite across 
the river, especially with a strong N. W. 
wind. There are erected two reflecting 
light-houses, to conduct vessels safely into 
the harbour. The principal trade carried 
on is the exportation of coal to Ireland, in 
which nearly 2000 tonnage of vessels are 
annually employed. It exports also pig- 
iron, coal tar, brown paint, lamp-black, 
soapers' salts, and w ater of- Ayr stone. The 
town has an Academy in which all the ne- 
cessary branches of education are taught- 
It has generally about 500 pupils. Ayr is 
governed by a provost, 2 bailies, 12 council- 
lors, a dean of guild, and treasurer, and 
joins with Irvine, Rothsay, Inverary, and 
Campbeltown, in sending a member to Par- 
liament. Ayr was, in ancient times, dis- 
tinguished for military strength. Herethe 
heroic exploits of Sir William Wallace be- 
gan ; and here Edward I. fixed one of his 
most powerful garrisons. Oliver Cromwell, 
too, judging it as a proper place to build a 
fortress, took possession of the old church, 
and converted it and the neighbouring 
ground into a regular citadel. On one of 
the mounts within the walls of this fortress 
stcod the old castle of Ayr, mentioned in 
ancient histories ; and the old church, the 
tower of which still remains, noted for the 
meeting of the Scottish Parliament, when 
Robert Bruce's title to the throne was una- 
nimously confirmed. Here are two church- 
es of the established religion, besides seve- 
ral places of worship for dissenter6. A thea- 
tre, capable of drawing L.40, was recently 
erected. Ayr is a gay and fashionable 
place. It has well attended races, and is 
sometimes the seat ofthe Caledonian Hunt- 
The PARISH of AYR extends about 4 
miles in length, and 3 in breadth. The 
surface is flat and sandy; but interspersed 
with many beautiful seats and plantations. 
There are two small lakes, well stored 
with pike and trout. Tradition reports an 
engagement to have taken place, in the 
valley of Dalrymple, between two kings, 
Fergus and Coilus, in which engagement 
both these monarchs fell . Besides the cele- 
brated Robert Burns, Johannes Scotus, and 
the Chevalier Ramsay, were natives of this 
parish. Its population including that of 
the town, is 6,291. 

AYR, (NEWTOWN of.) This small 
parish lies on the N. side ofthe river Ayr. 
Its extent is about 3 miles long, and 1 1-2 
broad. Lying on the banks ofthe Ayr and 



AYR 

the sea coast, the surface is mostly flat, and 
soil sandy. The town is a burgh of consi- 
derable antiquity, and received its privi- 
leges from King Robert Bruce. It has ba- 
ronial jurisdiction ; and is governed by a 
magistracy elected by the freemen of the 
town, who are limited to 48, each of w hom 
possesses a lot or freedom of about 4 acres 
of arableland. It has a pretty good har- 
bour. Population of the town and parish 
2,S09. 

AYR, a river which rises in the parish of 
Muirkirk, in Ayrshire; and, after a course 
of about 30 miles, falls into the sea at Ayr, 
where its Eestuary forms a fine Harbour. It 
is for a considerable course only a small ri- 
vulet ; but, joined by the tributary streams 
of Greenock and Garpel, it becomes a large 
body of water. It is also augmented by 
the Luggan and the Kill. Its steep and 



A Y T 

, romantic banks are occasionally adorned 
with beautiful seats, among which are par- 
ticularly noticed Sorn Castle, Auchincrui ve, 
and Auchinleck. This river forms the 
boundary between the districts of Ayrshire 
denominated Kyle and Carrick. 

AYTON, a parish and village in the 
county of Berwick, extending about 4 miles 
in length, and 4 in breadth. The soil is 
in general fertile; and its vicinity to the 
village of Eyemouth and the town of Ber- 
wick affords a ready market for the produce 
of the farms. On the hills are the remains 
of 2 camps, in which urns, and broken 
pieces of armour have been found. Popu- 
lation in 1811, 1379. The village is situ- 
ated on the N. bank of the Eye, 7 miles N. 
W. of Berwick. It contains about 600 peo- 
ple. 



B 



B A L 



B A L 



TJADENOCH, the most easterly district 
■*^ of Inverness-shire. It extends 53 
miles in length, and 27 in breadth. It 
is mountainous, barren, and but thinly 
inhabited. It is watered by the river 
Speyanda few rivulets. There are also 
several lakes, some of which are of consi- 
derable extent. The mountains abound 
with game ; and in many places are cover- 
ed with natural wood. 

BALAGICH, a mountain in Renfrew- 
shire, in the parish of Eaglesham, 1000 
feet in height. This was also the ancient 
name of the hill on which the castle of 
Stirling is built. 

BALBIRNIE, a village in the parish of 
Markinch, Fifeshire, containing 250 inha- 
bitants. 

BALBROGIE, a small village near Cu- 
par of Angus, containing about 160 inhabi- 
tants. 

BALCHRISTIE, an ancient village in 
Fifeshire, near Largo Bay, where, accord- 
ing to tradition, the first Christian Church 
in Scotland was founded. It was given to 
the Culdees by Malcom III. 

BALDERNOCK, a parish in Stirling- 
shire. The surface and soil are various; 
part being flat and fertile, especially 5 on 



the banks of the river Kelvin, while the 
back part is hilly, and covered with heath. 
It abounds with lime, freestone, and coal. 
A small lake, covering about 70 acres, cal- 
led Baldowie, abounds with pike and perch. 
In this parish are the ruins of the mansion 
of Baldernock, and several cairns and dru 
idical monuments, the most curious of 
which is a structure called the Auld Wife's 
Lift, near a mile N. from the church. Po- 
pulation in 1811, 806. 

BALERNO, a village in Mid-Lothian, 
in the parish of Currie, situated on the Wa- 
ter of Leith, 7 miles S.W. from Edinburgh. 

BALFRON, a parish in the county of 
Stirling, extending about 8 miles in length 
and nearly two in breadth. The surface 
of the ground is on a gentle declivity from 
the banks of the river Endrick. It abounds 
with lime and freestone, but it wants coal. 
It is only of late that agriculture has been 
prosecuted to advantage. The VILLAGE 
of Balfron contains about 1400 inhabitant's, 
who are mostly employed in the cotton 
manufacture. Population of the parish and 
village 1986. 

BALGONIE, a village in Fifeshire, in 
the parish of Markinch, containing about 
250 inhabitants, 



B A L 2 

BALLANTRAE, an extensive parish in 
Ayrshire, being nearly 10 miles square. It 
lies on the sea coast ; and the surface is 
much diversified, rising gently from the 
shore to the tops of that range of moun- 
tains which extend across the country 
to the Frith of Forth. The soil is ge- 
nerally poor and thin. The village of Bal- 
lantrae is situated at the mouth of the ri- 
ver Ardstinchar, 1C 1-2 miles N. from 
Stranraer. Population 9S0. 

BALLEDGARNO, a village in the 
Carse of Gowrie, in the Parish of Inchture, 
about 9 miles W. from Dundee. 

BALI.INGRY, a parish of the extent of 
3 milesin length, and 1 in breadth, in the 
county of Fife. The soil is tolerably good : 
but only about one-fourth part of the parish 
is under crop. The remainder is occupied 
in pasturage. It produces some marl, and 
lime and coal in abundance. Population 
269. 

BALLYCHELISH, a village in the pa- 
rish of Appin, in Argyleshire, where there 
js a ferry over Loch Leven to the county of 
Inverness. It has an excellent slate quar- 
ry. 

BALMACLELLAN.a parish in the stew- 
artry of Kirkcudbright. Its general appear- 
ance is moor ; and the surface is level, with 
a gentle rising towards the N. Only a 
fourth of the parish is arable. On the 
banks of the rivulets which intersect it, 
there are about 60 acres of natural wood. 
A great number of sheep are reared on the 
moors. Population 754. The village of 
Balmaclellan is situated 23 1-2 miles N. 
N. W. of Kirkcudbright. 

BALMAGHIE, a parish in the Stewart - 
ry of Kirkcudbright, about 8 miles long, 
and from 5 to 6 broad. The greater part 
of it is composed of heath with barren rocks. 
It has, however., some good arable land, 
and fine meadows, with a number of plan- 
tations and some natural wood. There are 
several lakes, which contain pike, perch, 
and trout in abundance. A powerful cha- 
lybeate spring, called Lochenbreck well, 
j8 much resorted to ; besides which there 
are several other mineral wells. The river 
Dee bounds the parish on the N. Popula- 
tion in 1811, 1110. 

BALM KRINO, a parish in the county of 
Fife, on the S. bank of the river Tay, ex- 
tending on an average about 3 1-2 miles in 
length, and 2 1-2 in breadth. The surface 
slopes gently to the side of the river. The 
harbour of Balmerino is small and incon- 
venient; but a considerable quantity of 
grain U annually exportedfrom it. — Agri. 



BAN 

culture is here systematically and success- 
fully prosecuted, though the soil in gener- 
al is thin and sandy. The ruins of the 
Abbey of Balmerino, built in the year 1229. 
are much admired. Population 921. 

BALNAHUAIGH, a small island, be- 
longing f o Argyleshire. It lies near the N. 
side of the island of Jura. 

BALQUHIDDER, aparish in Perthshire, 
extending about 15 milesin length, and 7 
in breadth. The surface is hilly and moun- 
tainous, and scarcely any of it is under crop. 
Benvoirlich, and part of the ancient Cale- 
donian forest, are in this parish. There 
are many fine streams and lakes; of which 
the principal are, Lochdoine, Lochvoil, 
part of Lochlubnaig, and part of Lochearne. 
The military road from Stirling to Fort 
William passes through the parish. Popu - 
lation 1353. 

BALVAG, a river in Perthshire, in the 
parish of Balquhidder, which connects Lcch- 
doine, Lochrail, and Lochlubnaig, ar.d 
forms one of the most considerable branch - 
es of the Teith. 

BANCHORY DAVINICK, aparish ly- 
ing in Aberdeen and Kincardineshires. It 
is situated on both sides of the river Dee, 
near its discharge into the ocean. It ex- 
tends about four miles aloi.g the sea coasts 
and from 6 to 7 along the banks of the Dee. 
— The general appearance of the country 
is rugged : and the hills are mostly covered 
with heath. Population 1S67. 

BANCHORY TARNAN, a parish in 
Kincardineshire, on the banks of the Dee, 
8 1-2 miles long and 1 1-2 broad, contain- 
ing nearly 20,000 square acres. — There are 
2or3small lakes in it; in one of which, 
Loch Leys, is an artificial island, with the 
ruins of a house upon it. Population in 
1811,1559. 

BANFFSHIRE. This county is bound- 
ed on the N. by the ocean ; on the W. 
by Moray and Inverness-shires; and on the 
S. and E. by Aberdeenshire. It extends 
in length about 36 miles, but its average 
breadth is little more than 16. It contains 
about 7000 acres in cultivation, 35,000 in 
ley and summer fallow, 40,000 in pasture, 
15,000 in plantations and natural wood, 
and about 300,000 in hill, moor, and moss. 
It contains 2 royal burghs, and 24 parishes, 
and comprehends part of the districts of 
Buchan, Strathdovern, Strathaven,Boyne, 
and Balvenie. The surface of the country- 
is agreeably diversified with hill and dale, 
well watered with rivers, and ornamented 
with many seats and extensive plantations. 
The S. part of the county is very moun- 



A R 



A S 



tainous; but the northern district is level, 
and the soil fertile. The rivers are, the 

Deveron and the Spey, the Isla, Conglass, 
Avon, and Fiddich. There are several re- 
markable mountains in the county, of 
which Cairngorum is the chief. At Port- I 
soy is a line vein of serpentine, called Port- I 

soy marble; and a species of granite, | 
which, when polished, exhibits the resem- j 
blance of Hebrew characters. Along the 
whole coast ate frequent tumuli and Dan- 
ish monuments. The valued rent of the 
whole county is L.79,200 Scots, and the 
real land rent L. 43,490 Sterling. — Popu- 
lation 36,6GS. 

BANFF, orBAMFF, a royal burgh, sea- 
port town, and capital of the county of 
that name, is pleasantly situated at the 
mouth of the river Deveron. Tradition 
says it was founded by Malcolm Canmore, 
m 1165. It was erected into a royal burgh 
by Robert II. in 1372. It gives the title 
of baron to the Ogilvie family. The streets 
are well built; but the harbour (which is 
protected by a battery of 8 guns) is incom- I 
modious, owing to the shifting of the sand at 
the mouth of the river. The principal ma- 
nufactures are thread, linen, and tanning. 
Slup-building is also carried on. A fine 
bridge of 7 arches crosses the Deveron. A 
town-house, extending 70 feet in frcnt, 
was erected in 1798, and anew prison has 
been built on them st approved principle. 
Here are several good seminaries for edu- 
cation. In the neighbourhood is Du'.f 
House, the magnificent mansion of the 
Earl of Fife. Banff lies lb'5 miles north 
from Edinburgh,— The Parish ofBanffis 
about 6 miles in length, and 2 in breadth. 
The surface is beautifully diversified, and 
the soil in general good. The sea coast is 
bold and rocky. Population of the town 
and parish 5603. 

BANK HEAD, a mountain in the pa- 
rish of Kirkconnel, in Dumfries-shire. 

BANNOCKBURN, a village in Stirling- 
shire, celebrated for the battle between 
Robert Bruce and Edward II. in which the 
latter, with every superiority in point of 
numbers, was completely defeated. It 
was fought on Monday, June 24, 1514. 
The manufactures are tanning, carpet, and 
tartan, which are carried on to a consider- 
able extent. 

BAR, a hill in Renfrewshire, in the pa- 
rish of Kilbarchan. 

BARGARRAN, a village in the parish 
of Erskine, in the county of Renfrew. 

BARHEAD, a village in Renfrewshire, 
aear Paisley, containing 439 inhabitants. 



BARNS (EAST and WEST), two vil- 
lages, near Dunbar, in Haddingtonshire. 

BARNYARDS, a village in Fifeshire, in 
the parish of Kilconquha.-, containingabout 
200 inhabitants. 

BARO, a parish in Haddingtonshire, 
united to that of Gaivaid. Vide GAR- 
VALD and BARO. 

BARONY parish of Glasgow. Vide 
GLASGOW. 

BARR, a large parish in Ayrshire, the 
extent of which is not well ascertained. 
It is situated on the banks of the river 
Stinchar. The soil is partly arable ; but 
the principal attention of the fai mer i* 
paid to the rearing of catLle. Population 
72S. 

BARR, a village in Argyleshire, in 
Kintyre, about 15 miles N. from Campbell- 
town. 

BARRA, or BARA, one of the western 
Isles. It is a small rock, about l-4tii of a 
mile in circumference, beir.g one of a clus- 
ter of small isles which appear joined at 
low water, ai d are named Long Island. 

BARRA. or BARRA Y, one of the wes- 
tern Isles, annexed to Inverness-shire. It 
is about 8 miles in length, and 4 in breadth, 
and containsabout 1604 inhabitants. 

BARRIE, a parish in the county of For- 
far, extending 4 miles in length and 3 in 
breadth, along the North coast of the 
Frith of Tay. The soil is various ; but it 
is in general fertile. Two light houses are 
erected on the side of the river, to guide the 
mariner through the sand banks, which 
are very numerous at the mouth of the Tay. 
At Camuistie is distinctly traced a camp 
of great extent, where the Danes under 
Camus were totally defeated by the Scot- 
tish army under Malcolm II. Population 
1046. 

BARRY, a hit! in Perthshire, in the 
parish of Alyth, 6SS feet in height. 

BARVAS, a parish in Ross-shire, in the 
island and district of Lewis, about 56 miles 
long, and, on an average, 15 broad ; occu- 
pying the northern extremity of the island. 
The ground is pretty level, but the soil 
is moory and ill cultivated. The extent 
of sea coast is about 45 miles. Population 
2165. 

BAR VIE, a small river in Perthshire, 
which falls into the Earn near Crieff. 

BASS, an insulated rock, about a mile 
in circumference, situated in the mouth of 
the Frith of Forth, about 5 miles from 
North Berwick. It is steep and inac- 
cessible on all sides except the S. W. ; and 
even there it is difficult to climb up with 



b e i a 

the assistance of a rope and ladder. The 
castle, which was once the state prison of 
Scotland, is now in ruins. There is a spring 
of excellent water on the top of the rock. 
This rock, St Kilda, and Aisla, are the only 
places in Scotland where the solan geese 
breed. It contains a small warren for rab- 
bits, and affords pasture to a few sheep. 
A subterraneous passage, through which a 
boat may pass, runs in a northerly and 
southerly direction. 

BATHGATE, a parish and village in 
the county of Linlithgow. The parish is a- 
bout 7 miles long, and 2 broad. It is level 
towards the S. but on the N. E . it is hilly. 
—The VILLAGE lies on the declivity of a 
hill, 18 miles W. from Edinburgh. The 
chief occupation of its inhabitants is weav- 
ing.— Population 2919. 

BEATH, a small inland parish in the 
county of Fife, about 4 miles in length, and 
3 in breadth. The surface is rugged and 
uneven ; but the soil is fertile, and the 
fields mostly enclosed. It is watered by 
two small rivulets. It abounds in coal 
and limestone. Population 668. 

BEAULY, a village in the parish of Kil- 
morack, Inverness-shire, situated at the 
mouth of the nver Beauly, 18 miles W.of 
Inverness. 

BEAULY, a river in Inverness-shire, 
formed by the union of the small rivers 
Farrur, Canich, and Glass, near Erkless 
castle ; it then takes its course easterly, 
and after forming the falls of Hilmorack, 
and other beautiful cascades, falls into an 
arm of the sea, to which it gives its name. 
At one part the river divides, and forms 
the beautiful island of Aigash. 

BEDRULE, a parish situated in the cen- 
tre of the county of Roxburgh. It is a- 
bout 4 miles in length, and from 2 to 3 in 
breadth. It is almost oval, and consists 
nearly of equal divisions of arable, pasture, 
and moor land. The soil is fertile, and is 
much improved by the great quantity of 
marl which the parish contains. The road 
from London to Edinburgh passes through 
it. The rivers Tiviot and Rule form the 
boundaries on the N. and W. Population 
235. 

BEIN-ACHAOLAIS, one of the moun- 
tain* of the island of Jura, in height 2476 
feet. 

BEIN-AN-LOCHAN, a high mountain 
in Argyleshire. 

BEIN-AN-OIR, one of the Paps of 
Jura. 

BEIN-ARDLANICH, a mountain in 



BE L 

Perthshire, in the district of Rannock, 
3,500 feet high. 

BEIN-BHARFHION, a lofty moun- 
tain, nearly in the middle of the isle of 
A nan. 

BEIN-CHONZIE, a mountain in the 
parish of Monivaird, in Perthshire, rising 
2922 feet above the level of the sea. 

BEIN-DEIR.G, a mountain in Athol, 
3550 feet high. 

BEINGLO, a mountain in Athol 3725 
feet high. 

BEIN-MORE, a lofty mountain in the 
island of Mull. 

BEITH, a town and parish in the dis- 
trict of Cunningham, Ayrshire. Thetown 
is pretty regularly built, and was lately or- 
namented with an elegant new church, si- 
tuated on an eminence on the S. side of the 
town, whose tower is seen at a great dis- 
tance. The number of inhabitants amounts 
to nearly 1S00. — The PARISH of Beith 
lies on the border of Ayrshire ; and a small 
part of it is in the county of Renfrew. It 
extends about 5 miles in length, and 4 in 
breadth. The surface rises gradually to 
the elevation of about 400 feet, where the 
town is built. It abounds in freestone, and 
coal is wrought in many places. Several 
rich veins of ironstone were lately disco- 
vered. This, and the neighbouring parish 
of Dunlop, have long been famous for a 
particular kind of cheese, which is called 
Dunlop cheese. Population 3755. 

BELHAVEN, a village in Haddington- 
shire, near Dunbar, and within the royalty 
of that town. 

BELHELVIE, a parish on the sea coast 
of Aberdeenshire. Its appearance is very 
unfavourable, especially at a distance from 
the sea coast, where it exhibits nothing but 
heath and stones. Population 1323. 

BELL'S MILLS, a village near Edin- 
burgh, on the Water of Leith, where the 
road to Queensferry crosses that river. 

BELMONT, one of the Sidlaw hills, in 
the parish of Meigle, 759 feet in height. 

BELL ROCK, or CAPE, a dangerous 
ridge of sunk rocks, lying about 12 miles 
from Fife-Ness, between the openings of the 
friths of Tay and Forth. The ridge extends 
about a mile in length, and about half a 
mile in breadth, the tops of the rocks be- 
ing only seen at low water.— On this rock, 
formerly so fatal to navigators, a perma- 
nent light-house has at length been esta- 
blished, on a plan similar to that of the 
Eddystone. 

BELLIE, a parish situated partly in 



E N 



29 



Banff and partly in Moray -shires. It lies on 
the left bank of the river Spey, and is in 
extent about 6 miles in length, and nearly 
■1 in breadth. On a rising ground stands 
Gordon Castle, the seat of the Duke of Gor- 
don, surrounded with elegant and exten- 
sive policies. The front of this castle is 
56S feet in length ; and perhaps no palace 
in Britain can vie with it in elegance. Po- 
pulation 1904. 

BELKINNESS, a mountain in Banff- 
shire, 1 850 feet high. 

BENACHALY, a mountain in Perth- 
shire, 1800 feet high. 

BENALDER, a large mountain on the 
borders of Inverness and Perth-shires, on 
which was a romantic building called the 
Cage, where the unfortunate prince, Char- 
les Stuart, lay concealed several weeks, till 
the arrival of the French vessels which con- 
veyed him from this country. 

BENBECULA, one of the Hebrides, ly- 
ing between the islands of N. and S. 
Uist, from the last of which it is separated 
by a narrow channel, nearly dry at low wa- 
ter. It extends about 9 miles each way. 
The soil is sandy and unproductive. 

BENCAIRN, a mountain in Kirkcud- 
brightshire, parish of Rerrick, 1200 feet in 
height. 

BENCHOCH AN, a mountain in the pa- 
rish of Aberfoyle, Perthshire, 3000 feet in 
height. 

BENCLOCH, or BENCLEU CH, the high- 
est of the Ochil hills, is situated in the pa- 
rish of Tillycoultry, in Clackmannanshire, 
2420 feet in height. 

BENDCCHY, a parish in Perthshire, in 
the valley of Strathmore, near the borders 
of the county of Angus, in length about 12 
miles, and in breadth from 6 to 8. Popu- 
lation 748. 

BENNEVIS, the highest mountain in 
Britain, is situated in the parish of Kilma- 
lie, Inverness-shire. It elevates its rugged 
front to the height of 4570 feet above the 
level of the sea. Its summit and broken 
sides are covered with eternal snow. The 
prospect from Eennevisis grand and magni- 
ficent. It comprehends the whole breadth 
of the island from the Atlantic to the Ger- 
man oceans. Its red granite is said to be 
the most beautiful in the world. T here is 
a hne vein of leadore, very rich in silver, 
found embedded in the granite. 

BENHOLMF, a parish in the county of 
Kincardine, forming a square of nearly 5 
miles. The surface is considerably diver- 
sified, and the soil is fertile. John's-ha- 
ven, a fishing village about 8 miles froin \ 



Montrose, is in this parish. The town of 
Benholme has been anciently a strong place 
of defence. Population 1546. 

BEN'HOPE, a mountain in Sutherland- 
shire, upwards of a mile of elevation above 
the level of the sea. 

BENIVAS, a mountain in Ross-shire, in 
the parish of Fodderty, nearly 4000 feet 
high. 

BENIVENOW, a mountain in the parish 
of Aberfoyle, Perthshire, nearly 5000 feet 
in height. 

BENLAWERS, a mountain near Ken- 
more, in Perthshire. It is situated on the 
banks of Loch Tay, and rises in a conical 
shape to the height of 4015 feet above the 
level of the sea. 

BENLEDI,"thehillofGod,"amountam 
in the parish of Callender, in Perthshire. 
It rises from a small base to the height of 
3009 feet above the level of the sea. On 
the top are the remains of adruidical tem- 
ple, and a small lake called Lochauan- 
corp. 

BENLOMOND, a mountain in the parish 
ofBuchannan, in Dunbartonshire, is situat- 
ed on the borders of Loch Lomond, from 
the level of which it rises majestically to 
the height of 5240 feet, and5262feet above 
the level of the sea. Its height is surpas- 
sed by Bennevis, Benlawers, and some o- 
ther mountains ; but the difference is 
more than compensated by the magnifi- 
cence of its insulated situation, with re- 
spect to the neighbouring hills. Its form 
is a truncated cone ; and its sides, parti- 
cularly towards the lake, are finely cover- 
ed with natural wood. The ascent is easy 
on the S. W. side ; but the N. side is ex- 
ceedingly steep, having at one place a per- 
pendicular precipice, nearly 500 fathoms 
deep. The view from the summit is most 
extensive. Benlomond produces a num- 
ber of very rare plants. On the N. E. side 
is the source of the river Forth. 

BENMORE, a mountain in the parish of 
Killin, in Perthshire. It is situated by the 
side of Loch Dochart, in the pass between 
Glendochart and Strathfillaur ; 5905 feet in 
height. 

BENNACHIE, a mountain in Aber- 
deenshire, in the district of Garrioch, about 
2000 feet in height. 

BENREISIPOLI, a mountain in Ar- 
gyleshire, in the parish of Ardnamurchan, 
2661 feet high. 

BENUAISH, a mountain of great height, 
in the parish of Killearn, in the county of 
Ross. Its top is constantly covered with 
snow. 



B E R 



K R 



BENV0IRL1CH, a mountain in Bal- 
quhidder parish, in Perthshire, elevated 
5300 feet in height. 

BERNERA, one of the Western Isles, is 
a beautiful and fertile island, about 5 miles 
in circumference. It was formerly a drui- 
dical sanctuary ; and has still a wood of 
yew trees, with which the groves were plan- 
ted when devoted to religious purposes. 
In the centre of the island is afresh water- 
lake, called Loch Bruist, diversified with 
small islets. The soil, though sandy, is 
rendered very productive by manuring it 
with sea weed. 

BERNERA (GREAT), an island on the 
N. side of Lewis, in Loch Roag, about 12 
miles long, and 4 broad. 

BERNERA (LITTLE), another island 
near Lewis, in Loch Roag, about 12 miles 
long, and 1 broad. 

BERNERA, a small fortress, or rather 
barracks, in Inverness-shire, in the parish 
of Glenelg. It is now occupied by a Ser- 
jeant's guard for the suppression of smug- 
gling. It lies 17S miles N. W. of Edin- 
burgh. 

BERVIE, or INVERBERVIE, a royal 
burgh and parish in the county of Kincar- 
dine. It is situated at the mouth of the 
small river Bervie, which forms a harbour 
for fishing boats. A fine bridge was lately 
thrown over the water of Bervie. Bervie 
was constituted a royal borough by a char- 
ter from King David, in the year 1312. The 
place on which he landed, when forced 
in here by stress of weather, is still called 
Craig David. James VI. renewed the char- 
ter in 1595. It is governed by a provost, 3 
bailies, a dean of guild, treasurer, and 9 
councillors. It sends a member to parlia- 
ment in conjunction with Aberdeen, Mon- 
trose, Brechin, and Arbroath. It appears 
to have been formerly a considerable fish- 
ing station, but all the fishermen are now 
removed to the village of Gourdon, a more 
eligible situation, about 2 miles farther S. 
The revenue of the burgh does not exceed 
L.38 per annum. Its population is about 
(107.— The PARISH of Bervie is two miles 
in length, and 1 1-2 in breadth. Popula- 
tion 927. 

BERVIE, a parish and village in Angus, 
united to that of Liff. 

BERVIE BROW, or CRAIG DAVID, a 
bold promontory on the N. side of Bervie 
■water ; it is a conspicuous landmark for 
Mariners, and is seen at sea at the distance 
of 15 leagues. 

BERVIE, a small river in Kincardine- 



shire, which falls into the German ocean 
near the burgh of Bervie. 

BERWICKSHIRE is of an irregular 
square form) bounded on the N. by East 
Lothian ; on the S. by the river Tweed and 
the English border ; and on the W. by the 
counties of Roxburgh, Peebles, and Mid 
Lothian. Its extent in length may be 
stated at 51 miles, and breadth 19. It 
contains 470 square miles. This county 
is nominally divided into three districts, 
Lauderdale, Lammermuir, and Merse or 
March. The first is that opening or valley 
in the Lammermuir hills, through which 
the river Leader runs. Lammermuir com- 
prehends that ridge of hills which separate 
this county from East Lothian, extending 
from the head of Leader water to the sea 
below the town of Berwick. The Merse 
includes that fertile and populous plain, 
stretching from the hills along the banks 
of the Tweed. Berwickshire contains one 
royal burgh, viz. Lauder, and several other 
large towns and villages, as Dunse, Cold- 
stream, Coldingham, Ayton, and Eye- 
mouth. It is divided into 22 parochial dis- 
tricts. Thechief rivers are, the Tweed, the 
Leader, the Eye, the Whittadder, and the 
Blackadder. The two roads to London pass 
through the county. In no part of Scot- 
land has agriculture made more rapid pro- 
gress than in Berwickshire, particularly in 
the Merse ; nor does Scotland possess a more 
intelligent and industrious tenantry. They 
export above 80,000 bolls of victual from 
the ports of Berwick and Eyemouth; and 
the same quantity is yearly carried to the 
weekly markets of Edinburgh, Dalkeith, 
Haddington, and Dunbar. The celebrated 
mineral well, called Dunse Spa, is situated 
about a mile from the town of Dunse. The 
rivers contain trout and salmon, of which 
last, a great quantity is annually exported 
from Berwick to London. The county con- 
tains but few minerals. Coal has been 
found in small quantities near Eyemouth, 
copper in the neighbourhood of Lauder, 
and ironstone in the parish of Mordington. 
The principal residences in the county 
are Hirsel, Maichmont- House, and several 
other elegant seats. The valued rent of 
Berwickshire is L. 178,365 Scots, and the 
real land rent may be estimated at up- 
wards of L. 200,000 Sterling. Population 
30,779. 

BERWICK, a royal burgh on the bor- 
ders of England and Scotland, and a coun- 
ty of itself, standing on the N. or Scots side 
of the river Tweed. It was originally a 



51 



L A 



Scots town, and still is a liberty of itself 
distinct from England, having a small dis- 
trict attached to it, called Berwick Bounds, 
■which runs about 5 miles N. on the sea 
shore, and about the same distance up the 
Tweed. It was formerly the chief town of 
Merse. It is pleasantly situated on a gen- 
tle declivity, close by the sea, and surroun- 
ded by high walls, regularly fortified, hav- 
ing a ditch on the N. E. ; the river serving 
for a moat on the S. side. It is joined to 
England by a bridge 947 feet long, with 15 
arches. The town is -well built, and go- 
verned by a mayor, recorder, town-clerk, 
and 4 bailies. It had a strong castle, which 
is now in rums. Though this town is not 
acknowledged either to be in England or 
Scotland, its church is a rectory in the dio- 
cese of Durham. The English judges also 
hold assizes here ; and it sends two mem- 
bers to Parliament. It has barracks suffi- 
cient to accommodate 2 regiments of foot. 
Its principal trade is the exportation of the 
salmon caught in the Tweed to the Lon- 
don market. The fishing commences on 
10th January, and finishes 10th October. 
From the river mouth to Norham, a dis- 
tance of 7 miles, the fishing is rented for 
I.. 1 0,000, besides paying the ty the. Popu- 
lation 8187. 

BERWICK (NORTH), a royal burgh, in 
the county of Haddington, of very ancient 
erection ; but its old original charter being 
lost or destroyed, it obtained a new one 
from King James VI. It is governed by 2 
bailies, a treasurer, and 9 councillors ; and, 
along with Haddington, Dunbar, Lauder, 
and Jedburgh, sends a member to Parlia- 
ment. It has an annual revenue of about 
L.100. The PARISH extends along the 
sea coast about 5 miles, is about 2 1-2 miles 
in breadth, and is wholly arable, with the 
exception of a beautiful conical eminence, 
called N. Berwick Law, and about 80 acres 
of Downs. The fine ruins of the ancient 
castle of Tantallan, (formerly one of the 
strong holds of the Douglas family,) stands 
about two miles distant from N. Berwick, 
on a high rock, surrounded on three sides 
by the sea, and nn the fourth by a deep fosse, 
■with a draw bridge. Population 1727. 

BIEL, a small river in the county of Had- 
dington, which falls into the Frith of Forth 
near Dunbar. 

BIELD, a small village in Peebles-shire, 
on the road from Edinburgh to Dumfries. 

BIGGAR, atown and parish of Lanark- 
shire, extending in length about 6 miles, 
and 3 1-2 in breadth. The surface is partly 
billy and partly level, with heathy moors 



and fertile fields, interspersed. A large tu- 
mulus, and the vestiges of 3 Roman camps 
are in the parish.— The TOWN lies 27 
miles S. W. from Edinburgh. It is small, 
and the houses in general mean. The 
church, however, is worthy of notice; it 
was built in 1545 by Malcolm Lord Flem- 
ing. The chief occupation of its inhabi- 
tants is weaving and carrying lead from 
Leadhills. Population 1576. 

BIGGAY, one of the small isles of Shet- 
land, lying between Yell and the main- 
land. 

BIN of CULLEN, a hill in Banffshire, a- 
bout 1 mile S. W. from the town of Cull en, 
and 2 miles from the sea, 1050 feet in 
height. From its conical shape it forms a 
conspicuous landmark. 

BINN-NA-BA1RD, and BINN-NA- 
MUICK-DUIDH, two mountains in Aber- 
deenshire. They furnish the same species 
of topaz which has got the name of Cairn- 
gorum stone. 

BIRNAM, a hill in the parish of Little 
Dunkeld. It rises with a rude and striking 
magnificence to the height of 1580 feet 
above the level of the sea. Near the foot 
of the hill is a round mount, called Dun- 
can's hill, where it is said that unfortunate 
monarch held his court of justice; higher 
up is the ruin of a strong square fortress, 
with circular turrets at each corner. Bir- 
nam was anciently a forest, and a part of 
the royal domain of Scotland. It is distant 
about 12 miles from Dunsinnan, once the 
seat and fortress of Macbeth. 

BIRNIE, a parish in the county of Elgin, 
5 miles in length, and 2 in breadth. It is 
intersected by three rivulets, viz. Lennock, 
Borden, and Rushcrook, which fall into 
the Lossie. The arable land lies princi- 
pally on the banks of these rivulets. Its 
soil, though in general sandy and poor, has 
been much improved, owing chiefly to the 
patronage of the late Earl of Findlater. 
Several natural caves, and a cairn, whose 
circumference at the bottom is 300 feet, 
are worth the attention of the antiquary. 
Population 557. 

BIRSE, a parish in Aberdeenshire, lying 
on the S. bank of the Dee, and forming 
nearly a square of 10 miles. Population 
1257. 

BLACKBURN, a small river in the pa- 
rish of Castletown, in Roxburghshire, cele- 
brated for its romantic falls and cascades, 
but chiefly for a bridge of stone which na- 
ture had thrown overthe river, and which, 
in the year 1S10, yielded to the corrosion 
of the elements. It stretched across the 



L A 



L A 



water, uniting the opposite hills. It was 
55 feet long, 10 1-2 broad, and the thick- 
ness of the arch was 2 1-2 feet of soiid 
stone. The height of the arch from the 
water was 31 feet, and had every appear- 
ance of seveial square stones being united. 
BLACKBURN, a small village in the 
parish of Whitburn, about 3 miles W. of 
Livingstone, and 3 E. of Whitburn ; the 
Glasgow road passes through it. 

BLACKFORD, a parish in Perthshire, of 
a circular figure, having a diameter of 
nearly six miles. Its soil is in general mar- 
shy and wet. The northern part is moor- 
land ; a ridge of the Ocliils is within its 
southern boundary. It contains a village 
of the same name, 3 1-2 miles W. from 
Auchterarder. In this parish are a few 
small lakes, from which the Ruthven and 
Allan take their rise. The remains of se- 
veral ancient chapels are still extant; and 
the site of a Roman camp is easily disco- 
vered. Population 16G6. 

BLACKFORD, a village in the above 
parish, on the road from Stirling to Perth 
by Sherifrmuir, about 10 miles N. E. of 
Dumblane, and 4 W. of Auchterarder. It 
contains a few weavers, and has an annual 
fair. 

BLACKFORD HILL, the hill most ad- 
jacent to Edinburgh on the S. distant about 
2 miles. Not more than 40 years ago, the 
greater part of it w as an unproductive and 
stubborn heath ; but under the manage- 
ment of an enterprising lessee, the whole 
of it has for many years been subjected to 
tillage. A finely romantic, though narrow 
glen, through which the water of Braid 
runs, separates it on the S. from the ridge 
called Braid Hills. 

BLACKHOUSE HEIGHTS, a ridge of 
hills in the county of Selkirk, the highest 
of which is 2373 feet. 

BLACKNESS, a village on the Forth, 4 
-miles N. E. from Linlithgow, and 6 W. of 
Queensferry. At a small distance from it, 
upon a peninsula, stands the Castle of the 
same name, a very ancient fortification, 
and one of the four in Scotland, which, by 
the articles of the Union, are stipulated to 
be kept in repair. 

BLACKSHIELS, a small village, 15 
miles from Edinburgh, on the great road 
to Coldstream. 

BLACKSIDE-END, a hill in Ayrshire, 
in the parish of Som, 1560 feet in height. 

BLACKWATER, or BLACKADDER, a 
river in Berwickshire, which takes its rise 
in the Lammcrmuir hills, and falls into the 



Whittadder, near the village of Allan, 
town. 

BLADENOCH, a river in the county of 
Galloway. It rises in the hilis which di- 
vide Galloway from Carrick ; an d after a 
winding of 24 miles, falls into the bay of 
Wigton. 

BLAIR-ATHOL, an extensive parish in 
Perthshire, to which that of Strowan is an ■ 
hexed. Its extent in length is about 50, 
and its breadth about IS miles. Its ap- 
pearance, surface, and soil, are exceeding- 
ly various. There are many lakes and ri. 
vers in the parish. Of the rivers, the Tum- 
mel, the Garry, Erochty, Bruar, and Tilt, 
are the chief. The principal mountains 
are Bein-deird, Beinglo, Strath-groy, Ra- 
tamhili, &c. Loch Tummel contains a 
small fortified island. Athol House, with 
the extensive policies and natural curiosities 
that surround it, is much admired. Popu- 
lation 2515. The VILLAGE of Blair-A- 
thul lies on the road from Edinburgh to 
Fort Aug ustus, 20 miles N. from Dun- 
keld 

ELAIRGOWRIE, a parish and village 
in the county of Perth. The PARISH is 
of an irregular form, and extends in length 
about 11 miles, and about 3 in breadth. 
It is divided into 2 districts by the Gram- 
pians, which form the northern boundary 
of the valley of Strathmore. Newton-house 
is a fine old mansion, and was the birth 
place of George Drummond, who was 6 
times lord provost of Edinburgh. The VIL- 
LAGE of Blairgowrie was erected into a 
burgh of barony in 1634. Population 1965. 

BLAIRINGONE, a village in Perthshire, 
in the parish of Fossaway and Tulliebole. 
It is a burgh of barony. 

BLANE, a small river in the county of 
Stirling. It had its source in one of 
the Lennox hills; and, after running 3 or 
4 miles S. W. is precipitated over several 
high falls. The most remarkable of these 
is the Spout of Eallagan, a cascade 70 feet 
high. After a course of 8 miles farther, it 
joins the Endiick, a short way before itfalls 
into Lochlomond. 

BLANTYRE, a parish in Lanarkshire, 
6 miles in length, and on an average one in 
breadth. Its whole surface is a plain. The 
soil is in general fertile. It is watered by 
the Calder ; and the Clyde forms the north- 
ern boundary. A very extensive cotton 
spinning machinery has of late increased 
the population one-half. Iron-stone, for 
the supply of the Clyde iron-works, is 
wrought to great advantage. The ruins of 



BON 

the ancient priory of Blantyre are situated 
on the top of a rock, which rises perpendicu- 
larly from the Clyde. Blantyre gives the 
title of Earon to the family of Stewart.— 
The VILLAGE of Blantyre is situated 7 
miles S. E. of Glasgow. Population 2092. 

BODDOM, a village on the sea coast of 
Buchan, near Peterhead, chiefly inhabited 
by fishermen. 

BODOTRIA, the ancient name of the 
Frith of Forth. 

BOGIE, a river in Aberdeenshire. It 
rises in the parish of Auchindoir, and, after 
running through a beautiful valley or strath 
to which it gives its name, falls into the 
Deveron a little below the town of Huntly. 

BOHARM, a parish, situated partly in 
Banffand partly in Moray shires. Its fi- 
gure is so irregular, that no accurate idea 
can be given of its extent. The rivers Spey 
and Fiddich run at the bottom of an exten- 
sive valley, which is surrounded witli high 
mountains, of which the hill of Benlageen 
is the most remarkable. The house of Airn- 
dilly is delightfully situated on the banks 
of the Spey. The ancient castle of Gal vail 
is worthy the attention of travellers. Po- 
pulation 1190. 

BOLESKINE and ABERTARFF, an 
united parish in the county of Inverness, 
about 24 miles in length, and 12 in breadth. 
The soil is various. Its western part is le- 
vel ; the eastern, which affords pasturage 
to a great number of black cattle and sheep, 
is mountainous. There are a number of 
lakes in this parish ; and it is intersected 

by several rivers Fort Augustus, and the 

Fall of Foyers, are situated in this parish. 
Near the latter is the seat of Fraser of 
Foyers. Population 1748. 

BOLTON, a parish in Haddingtonshire, 
about C miles in length, and 1 1-4 broad. 
The surface is level, with the exception of 
a gentle rising about the middle of the pa- 
rish. The soil is generally fertile- Popu- 
lation 265. 

BONHILL, a parish in Dunbartonshire, 
forming a square of about 4 miles. It is 
watered by the Leven. The parish is all 
enclosed, and is well cultivated. It has 2 
villages, Bonhill and Alexandria, whose in- 
habitants are chiefly employed in the Print- 
fields. Population 2,460 

BONKLE and PRESTON, a united pa- 
rish in Berwickshire, forming a square of 
nearly 6 miles. The soil on the high lands, 
towards the Lammermuir hills, is thin, dry, 
and poor ; but by the application of lim e 
and marl, (the latter of which is found in 
great quantities on the banks of the VVhit- 



B O R 

tadder,) it has lately been much improved - 
The rest of the parish, particularly on the 
banks of the Whittadder, is a fertile loam. 
Population 766. 

BONNINGTON, a village in the parish 
of Ratho, county of Mid-Lothian. 

BONNINGTON, a small village near 
Edinburgh, on the water of Leith, on the 
road from Edinburgh to Newhaven. 

BOOSHALA, a small island S. of the 
island of Staffa, from which it is separated 
by a stormy channel, about ."0 yards wide. 
It is of an irregular pyramidal form, entire- 
ly composed of basaltic columns, inclined 
in every direction, but principally pointing 
towards the top of the cone. 

BORERAY, a small fertile island of the 
Hebrides, lying northward of N. Uist. 

BORfiUE, a parish in the Stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, about 10 miles in length, 
and 7 in breadth ; its superficial contents 
are not more than 40 square miles. In 
some places of the coast.it presents a per- 
pendicular cliff to the sea, upwards of 300 
feet high. In this parish are the ruins of 
the tower of Balmangan, and Plunton cas- 
tle. Population 85S. 

BORROWSTOWNNESS, a barony and 
parish in the county of Linlithgow, extend- 
ing about 4 miles in length, and 2 1-2 in 
breadth. It lies on the banks of the Forth. 
The surface is various ; inclining gradually 
to the Frith on the N. and on the W. to the 
river Avon. Borrowstownness is a burgh 
of barony, governed by a bailie appointed 
by the Duke of Hamilton. It has two main 
streets running from W. to E. which at 
last terminate in one. A vitriol manufac- 
tory, a pottery, a soap work, and some ship 
building are carried on ; and the trade of 
the town is considerably augmented by the 
exportation of the coal dug in the parish. 
Three Greenlandmen belong to the port, 
and it employs a few vessels in the Baltic 
trade. In the immediate vicinity of the 
town are extensive salt works. The harbour 
is the safest and most commodious in the 
Frith. Population 2790. 

BORTHWICK, a parish in the county of 
Edinburgh, about 6 miles in length, and 4 
in breadth. Its soil, though varied, is in 
general fertile ; and agriculture is prosecu- 
ted to much advantage, to w hich the con- 
tiguity of Dalkeith as a ready market has 
greatly contributed. There are two small 
villages in the parish, viz. Ford and Middle- 
ton ; at the last of which is a post-office. 
About a mile and a half from the church 
stand the ruins of Borthwick Castle, built 
in 1 136 by Lord Borthwick. It is an ama- 



o u 



zing mass of building, seemingly of great 
strength, and surrounded on every side 
with water, except the W. where the en- 
trance was defended by two towers^ The 
church-yard contains a Roman altar; and 
in the choir of the old chureh the effigies 
of Lord Borthwick and his lady are finely 
cut iB stone.— Oliver Cromwell besieged 
this castle in 1 650; and it was surrendered 
to him on his summons. Here also the 
Earl of Bothwell, and the unfortunate Ma- 
ry, took refuge till after the battle of Car- 
berry hill. This parish has produced many 
eminent men, among whom may be named 
the late Principal Robertson. Population 
3745. 

BORTHWICK, a river in Roxburghshire, 
which has its rise in the parish of Rober- 
town, on the borders of the county of Dum- 
fries, and falls into tho Tiviot, about a 
mile above Hawick. 

BOSWELL'S (ST), aparishin Roxburgh- 
shire, generally named Lessuden. 

BOSWELL'S (ST) GREEN, a place in 
the above parish, 13 miles S. of Lauder, and 
7 N. of Jedburgh, where one of the largest 
fairs in Scotland is held, on the ISth July. 

BOTH-KENNAR, a small parish in the 
county of Stirling, forming a square of about 
1 1-2 mile. It is perfectly level through 
its whole extent, and every acre is inclosed 
and cultivated. The river Canon intersects 
It, over which there is a bridge. Population 
821. 

BOTHWELL, an ancient barony and pa- 
rish on the banks of the Clyde, in the coun- 
ty of Lanark, S 1-2 miles in length, and 4 
in breadth. It is intersected by the Calder, 
whose banks are beautifully skirted with 
wood. The road from Edinburgh to Glas- 
gow passes through the parish. Bothwell 
Castle, the seat of the family of Douglas, is 
an extensive and noble structure ; and the 
ruins of the chapel and the old castle of 
Bothwell are much admired by all visitors. 
Woodhall, a seat of Colonel Campbell, is al- 
so an elegant house, The VILLAGE of 
Bothw ell is pleasantly situated on the banks 
of the Clyde, 8 miles from Glasgow. Not 
far from it is Bothwell Bridge, near which 
place the Covenanters were defeated by the 
Duke of Monmouth. Population 3745. 

BOTRIPHNIE, a parish in Banffshire, ex- 
tending in length 4 1-2, and in breadth 
three miles. Population 577. 

BOURTRIE, a parish in the county of 
Aberdeen, about 4 miles long and 2 broad. 
On the hill of Bana are vestiges of an ex- 
tensive circular .camp, which occupies near- 
ly 3 acres, and is surrounded by 3 ditches. 



BRA 

Tradition reports, that here Thomas de 
Longueville, the brave associate of Sir 
William Wallace, was killed. Population 
442. 

BOWDEN, a parish in the county of Rox- 
burgh, extending in length about 6 and in 
breadth 4 1 1-2 miles. The soil is fertile, 
and aboutthree-fourths of the parish is un- 
der tillage- There are here the ruins of 
the castle of Holydean, once the residence 
of the Dukes of Roxburgh; and the family 
of Carre of Cavers have their residence in 
this parish. Population S56. 

BOWER, a parish in the county of Caith- 
ness, about 7 miles in length, and 3 in 
breadth. There are several cairns and re- 
mains of Druidical circles in the parish. 
Population 147S. 

BOWMONT, a small riverin Roxburgh- 
shire,, which rises on the English border, 
and falls into the Till, near the village of 
Morebattle. 

BOWMORE, a village in the island of 
Islay, in the parish of Killarrow. It con- 
tains 700 inhabitants. 

BOYNDIE,a small parish in Banffshire, 
extending in length 5 miles, and from a 
mile to a mile and a half in breadth. A 
bout one half is arable ; the rest being hilly 
and fitter for pasture. The sea bounds the 
parish for 3 miles ; and a fishing town call- 
ed, Whitehills, which contains nearly 500 
inhabitants, chiefly fishermen, is built on 
one of the creeks. Population 1 1 22. 

BOYNE, a district and small river of 
Banffshire. 

BRACADALE, a parish of Inverness- 
shire, on the west side of the isle of Sky, 
about 25 miles-long, and from 7 to 1 1 broad. 
The shore for the most part is bold and 
rocky, and is intersected by several bays and 
harbours, of which the chief are, LochsBra- 
cadale, Harport, Eynort, and Britil. The 
islands are Haversay, Vuiay, Soay, and Or- 
ansay, which last is a peninsula at low wa- 
ter. The surface of the parish is hilly, with 
some level fields near the sea ; it is chiefly 
adapted for grazing. Population 1869. 

BRADEN, (LOCH), a small lake in Ayr- 
shire, with an island and ancient castle. 

BR AIDWOOD, a populous village in the 
parish of Carluke, Lanarkshire, about 8 
miles distant from the town of Lanark. 

BRAEMARR, a mountainous district of 
Scotland, in the county of Aberdeen. Here 
the Earl of Marr raised the standard of re- 
bellion in 1715. 

BRAID HILLS, a continuation of that 
ridge of hi Us of which those of Pentland form 
a part. They are situated about 2 miles Ss 



B R E 

of Edinburgh, and are noted for the mi- 
nerals with which they abound. They are 
separated from Blackford hills by a small 
rivulet named Braid's Burn, near which 
Mr Gordon, the proprietor, has erected a 
retired villa. The most elevated point of 
Braid hills is about 700 feet above the level 
of the sea. 

BRAIDALBANE, a district of Perth- 
shire, bounded on the N. and E. by Locha- 
ber and Athol ; on the S. by Stratherne 
and Monteith ; and on the W. by Lochaber, 
Lorn, and Knapdale. Its extent in length 
is about 33 miles, and in breadth 31. It is 
a very mountainous country, lying amongst 
the Grampian hills. Its valleys are fertile ; 
the springs, however, are remarkably late, 
but the summer advances with such rapi- 
dity, that the seed has been sown and rea- 
ped in the course of nine weeks. It has 
several extensive lakes. Kenmore, Killin, 
and Clifton, are the principal villagesin tlie 
district. Braidalbane gives the title of 
Earl to a branch of the family of Camp- 
bell. 

BRAINSFORD, or B AINSFORD, a vil- 
lage in Stirlingshire, upon the great canal, 
■near Falkirk. It is situated a mile N.from 
Falkirk, and contains SOO inhabitants. 

BRAN, a small river, whichfalls into the 
Tay near Dunkeld. It passes through the 
pleasure grounds of the Duke of Athol, 
where it forms one of the finest cascades in 
the kingdom. Here the Duke has erected 
an elegant boudoir, named Ossiah's Hall, 
from whence the cascade is seen to the 
best advantage. It falls into the Tay at 
Invar, opposite to Dunkeld. 

BREACAN (Gulf of). SeeCORYYREC- 
KAN. 

BRECHIN, a parish in the shire of An- 
gus, nearly 7 1-2 miles each way, bounded 
•on the N. by Strickathrow, on the E. by 
Dun, on the S. by Fernell, on the S. W. by 
Aberlemno, on the W. by Careston, and on 
the N. W. by Menmuir. The ground rises 
gradually from the banks of the South Esk, 
which runs through the middle of the pa- 
rish. The soil is in general fertile, and a- 
griculture is making rapid advances ; while 
its vicinity to the town of Montrose gives 
the farmer a near port for the exportation 
of his surplus grain. The South Esk a- 
bounds with salmon and trout. In the 
northern part of the parish are the remains 
of a Danish camp. Brechin castle, the 
seat of the Hon. W. R. Maule, is built on a 
perpendicular rock, overhanging the South 
Esk, half a mile S. of the town. It sustain- 
ed a siege of 20 days in 1303 by the English 



B R E 

army under Edward I. ; and, notwithstand- 
ing he used every effort to compel the be- 
sieged to a surrender, the brave governor 
Sir Thomas Maule, still held out, until he 
was killed by a stone thrown from an en- 
gine, when the place was instantly given 
up. A descendant of this brave man was 
in 161G created Lord Maule of Brechin, and 
Earl of Panmure. William Maitland, au- 
thor of tlie histories of London and Edin- 
burgh; Dr Gillies, the historian of Greece ; 
Dr Tytler, the translator of Callimachus ; 
and his brother James Tytler, wlio had so 
large a share in compiling the Encyclopae- 
dia Britannica and other works, were na- 
tives of thisparish. Population of thetown 
and parish in 1SG1, 5466- 55.59. 
j BRECHIN, a royal burgh and parish 
of the county of Angus, which was in for- 
mer times an episcopal see, and the coun- 
ty town. The town is situated on the side 
j of a hill, the foot of which is washed by Hie 
; river Southesk. Trie royalty extends half 
I a mile every way from the cross, but the 
' suburbs extends a considerable way farther. 
| Towards the S. and E. are the Tenements, 
i as they are called ; they are independent 
i of theourgb, and held in feu of Carnegie 
! of Southesk, At the end of the Tenements 
j is a stone bridge over the Southesk, of two 
large arches. Brechin consists of ahandsome 
stre 3t, with bye-lanes ; and is supplied witfc 
water by means of leaden pipes. It was a 
rich bishopric, founded in the year 1 159 by 
David I. and richly endowed. The cathe- 
dral is an ancient Gothic pile, supported by 
42 pillars; the length is 116 feet, and the 
breadth 61 ; arid is ornamented with a 
handsome square steeple, 120 feet high. 
Near the church is one of those round tow- 
ers, of which there is only another in Scot- 
land, at Abernethy. Antiquarians have 
been long divided with regard to" the erectors 
of their towers, or their use ; while some 
attribute their construction to the Picts ; 
others suppose them to have been subser- 
vient to the purposes of religion ; and others 
are of opinion, that they have been intend- 
ed for the purposes of war.— The tower of 
Brechin is a circular column, with a stair- 
caseto the top, its height is SG feet, and 
the octagonal spire which covers it 23 feet 
high, making in all 103 feet ; its diameter 
at the bottom is 16 feet. Mr. Grose has 
noticed that the regular courses of stone 
amount exactly to 60 ; upon the whole, 
the proportion gives to the building a look 
of great elegance.— The soil of the parish 
is generally fertile. Brechin Castle, a seat 
of the Hon. W. R. Maule, is built on tie 



B R O 

brink of a perpendicular rock, overhanging 
the Southesk, a little to the S. of the town. 
The vicinity to Montrose is of muchadvan- 
tageforthe exportation ofits extra produce. 
Population 5466, 

BRESSAY, one of the Shetland isles, a- 
bout 4 miles long and 2 broad. It is famous 
for excellent slates. Population 700. 

BRESSAY SOUND, a capacious bay in 
Shetland, one of the finest harbours in Bri- 
tain, the Rendezvous of the English and 
Dutch busses employed in the herring fish- 
ery ; and is often resorted to by the whale 
ships, on the passage to Greenland and Da- 
vis' Straits. 

BRESSAY, BURR A, and QUARFF, an 
united parish in Shetland, comprehending 
a part of the mainland, and the islands 
Bressay, Burra, House, Haveia, and Noss, 
•with other small islets or holms. Popula- 
tion 1330. 

BRIARACHIN, a river in Perthshire, 
■which rises in the parish of Moulin, and 
running through Glenbriarachan, forms 
the Ardle, by its junction with the Arnot. 

BRIDE-KIRK, a village in the parish of 
Annan, 4 miles N. of that town, lying on 
the W. bank of the river of that name, on 
the road from Langholm to Dumfries. An 
woollen manufactory is established here, 
■which seems to do well. It was only begun 
in 1800, and at present contains nearly 
300 inhabitants. 

BRIDGE-END, a small village in the 
parish of Crieff, and county of Perth, at the 
end of the Bridge over the Earn. 

BRIDGE-END, a large village on the 
banks of the Nith, in the parish of Troquair. 
It is separated from the town of Dumfries 
by a narrow bridge of nine arches. 

BRIDGETOWN, a small village in Fife- 
shire, adjoining Linktown of Kirkcaldy on 
the W., in the parish of Kinghorn. 

BRIDGETOWN, a village in the barony 
parish of Glasgow, and a suburb of that 
city. 

BROADLAW, a mountain in Peebles- 
shire, 2S00 feet high. 

BROADSEA, a small fishing village in 
Buchan, a little W. from the town of Fras- 
erburgh, containing 160 inhabitants. 

BROOM (LOCH), an extensive salt wa- 
ter lake or arm of the sea in Ross-shire, 
noted for excellent herrings. It contains 
many fine harbours, on one of which the 
newly erected village of Ullapool is situ- 
ated- 

BRORA, a small village on the sea coast 
of Sutherlandshire. 

BRORA (LOCH), a beautiful lake in the 



B R U 

county of Sutherland, extending 4 miles in 
length, and near a mile broad. It abounds 
with salmon, and has an artificial island 
in the centre, 1 40 feet long and 70 broad. 

BRORA, a river which rises from the 
lake of that name, and after forming sever- 
al beautiful cascades, falls into the ocean a 
little below the village of Brora. 

BROTHER ISLE, a small island of Shet- 
land, on the south coast of Yell. 

BROTHER (LOCH), a small lake in 
Renfrewshire, about 3 miles in circuit. 

BROTHOCK.a small river in the coun- 
ty of Angus, which takes its rise in the pa- 
rish of Inverkeilor, and, after being joined 
by several small rivulets, falls into the sea 
at the burgh of Aberbrothock, about 6 miles 
from its source. 

BROUGH, a fishing village in Caithness, 
near Dunnet-head, where there is a safe 
harbour. 

BROUGH-HEAD, a village in the pa- 
rish of Duffus, county of Moray, containing 
400 inhabitants, 

BROUGHTON, a parish in the district 
of Tweedale, which consists of 2 ridges of 
hills, with a valley betwixt them, about 4 
miles in length, and 3 in breadth. There 
are the remains of ten castles or towers, 
which'appear to have been of great strength. 
In one of these Macbeth is said to have liv- 
ed, and it still retains his name. The 
small river of Biggar runs through the pa- 
rish. It contains a small village of the 
same name, through which the road from 
Edinburgh to Dumfries passes. Population 
231. 

BROXBURN, a village in Linlithgow- 
shire, in the parish of Uphall, seated on a 
rivulet of the same name. 

BROXBURN, a rivulet of Haddington- 
shire, which rises in the parish of Spott, 
and falls into the sea near Dunbar. 

BRUAR, a small turbulent stream in A- 
thol, celebrated for the romantic beauty 
of its cascades. The upper fall is supposed 
to be nearly 200 feet, It joins the Garry a 
short distance below Pitagowan. 

BRUCEHAVEN, a small village in the 
parish of Dunfermline, Fifeshire, adjoining 
the village of Limekilns, where there is a 
brewery and a quay. 

BRUIACH (LOCH), a lake in Inverness - 
shire, about 2 miles long and 1 broad. It 
abounds with trout and char ; and there is 
a small island with ruins in the middle of 
it. 

BRUNSWARK, a hill in Dumfries. shire, 
famous for two rectangular encampments, 
still very entire. From this hill the great 



U I 



U R 



military roads go off in all directions 
throughthe southern parts of the kingdom. 

BUCCLEUCH, a village in Selkirkshire, 
from which the family of Scott takes the 
title of Duke. 

BUCHAN, a district on the east coast, 
comprehending part of Banffshire, and 
part of the county of Aberdeen. It con- 
tains 21 parishes, 450 square miles, and 
36,172 inhabitants. Its surface, though 
in some places fertile and well cultivated, 
is generally barren, of a bleak appearance. 
It formerly belonged to the Earls of Bu- 
chan; but upon the attainder of that fami- 
ly in 1320, Robert Bruce divided the lands 
among his friends. 

BUCHANNESS, a cape or promontory 
in Aberdeenshire, near Peterhead. 

BUCHANAN, a parish on the N. side of 
Lochlomond, in the county of Stirling, 18 
miles in length and 6 in breadth. With 
the exception of the two fertile valleys of 
Glendow and Glendochart, its surface is 
mountainous. The Forth has its rise in 
ttie upper part of it. The river Endrick 
runs through the parish. Some of the is- 
lands in Lochlomond belong to this parish; 
on one of which, Inchcalloch, lately stood 
the parish church. There are besides 3 
small lakes, which abound with trout and 
pike ; and also some very extensive ^oak 
woods. On theside of Lochlomond stands 
the house of Buchanan, the seat of the 
Duke of Montrose. At Inversnaid is a 
small fort, on which a guard is mounted 
by a detachment from Dunbarton castle. 
Population 627. 

BUCHAN Y, a small village of Perth- 
shire, in the parish of Kilmadock, contain- 
ing 174 inhabitants. 

BUCHLYVIE, a village in Stirlingshire, 
in the parish of Kippen. Population 510. 

BUCK, a mountain in Aberdeenshire, 
2377 feet above the level of the sea. 

BUCKHAVEN, a fishing village in the 
county of Fife, in the parish of Wemyss, 4 
miles E. of Kirkcaldy. Population 950. 

BUCKIE, a considerable fishing village 
in the parish of Rathven, county of Banff, 
4 miles E of Speymouth, containing about 
700 inhabitants. 

BUDDO, an insulated rock on the coast 
of Fife, about 2 miles E. from St. Andrews. 

BUIAY (Greater and Lesser), two small 
islands about 2 milles S. of Sky. 

BUITTLE, a parish on the banks of the 
Sol way Frith, in the stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright. Its extent in length is about 8 
miles, and its breadth 3 miles. Its surface 
is unequal, but the soil is fertile. The ri ■ 



ver Urr, which bounds it sn the E. is navi- 
gable for small vessels. The ruins of Buit- 
tle castle are very considerable. There is 
also a vitrified fort on the top of one of the 
hills, Population 932. 

BULLERS of BUCHAN, a small fishing 
village in Aberdeenshire, in the parish of 
Cruden ; situated on the sea coast, near the 
stupendous rocks called by the same name. 
It has a circular basin of great depth, into 
which a boat may sail through a long vault- 
ed arch 30 or 40 feet high. 

BUN-AW, a village in Argyleshire, at 
thejunction of the river Aw with Loch 
Etive, 13 miles from Dalmally, and 16 from 
Oban. 

BURGH-HEAD, a promontory of Wig-- 
tonshire, in the parish of Whithorn, sup- 
posed by many to be the most southern 
land in Scotland; being a few seconds far- 
ther S. than the point of the Mull of Gallo- 
way. 

BURNTISLAND, a royal burgh and pa- 
rish in the county of Fife. The town is plea- 
santly situated on the banks of the Frith 
of Forth, upon a peninsula, surrounded by 
hills towards the N. in the form of an am- 
phitheatre. These lie about half a mile 
from the town, and shelter it from the 
northerly blasts. It was constituted a roy- 
al burgh by James VI. It. is well supplied 
with excellent water, and possesses a har- 
bour inferior to none in Scotland, and a dry 
dock having 17 1-2 feet water at spring 
tides. Burntisland has 7 incorporated 
trades. It is governed by a provost, 3 bai- 
lies, a dean of guild, treasurer, and 21 
councillors. Herring curing and cooper- 
age are the chief branches of its business. 
Along with Kinghorn, Kirkcaldy, and Dy- 
sart, it sends a member to Parliament. 
There is regular ferry to Leith at full and 
half tide. — The parish of Burntisland forms 
a square of nearly 3 miles. The soil ot the 
lowerground is rich and fertile ; but the rest 
of the parish is of an inferior quality. To 
the W. of the town the shore is rocky ; and 
for a quarter of a mile E. as far as Petty- 
cur, it is sandy. The hills in the neigh- 
bourhood of the town exhibits many ap- 
pearances of volcanic fire. There are seve- 
ral basaltic columns, particularly on the N. 
sides of the hills, and the remains of an 
encampment, called Agricola's camp. On 
some of the others there are tumuli of great 
size. Population 2000. 

BURRA, a small island of Shetland, a. 
bout 3 miles in circumference, affording ex- 
cellent pasturage. 

BURRA Y, one of the Orkney islands, a- 



BUT : 

t>out 4 miles long, and 1 broad. The in- 
habitants, whose chief employment is fish- 
ing, are nearly 400 in number. 

BUTE, an island in the Frith of Clyde, 
separated from Cowal, a district of Ar gyle- 
shire, by a narrow ; channel. It extends in 
length about 18 miles, and from 4 to 5 in 
breadth. The northern parts of the island 
are rocky and barren, but the southern ex- 
tremity is more fertile. This island, along 
■with the islands Arran, Greater and Lesser 
Cambray, and Inchmarnock, form a coun- 
ty under the name of the shire of Bute. 
This shire and that of Caithness sends a 
•member to Parliament alternately. It has 
one royal burgh. Rothesay, which is also 
the chief town of the shire. The island of 
Bute contains two parishes. The coast is 
rocky, but indented with several safe har- 
bours, from which are annually fitted out a 
number of busses for the herring fishery. 
There are several remains of antiquity on 
the islands, in particular near Rothesay, 
the ruins of an ancient Castle, with a fort, 
barracks, and drawbridge, which was for- 
merly the residence of the Scottish Kings, 



B Y R 

and gave the title of Duke to the heir-appa- 
rent of the crown of Scotland. Bute give* 
the title of Marquis to a branch of the family 
of Stewart. The Marquis is Admiral of the 
county, by t virtue of a commission from the 
king, and is no way dependent on the 
Lord' High Admiral of Scotland. Mount 
Stewart, a seat of the Marquis of Bute, 
and from whence he takes his second title, 
is an elegant house, situated about 200 
yards from the E. shore, having a fine view 
of the Frith of Clyde. Around the house 
there is a forest of fine trees. Population 
5824. 

BUTTERSTONE LOCH, a small lake In 
the parish of Cluny, in Perthshire, adjoin- 
ing to the loch of the Lows, on the road 
from Dunkeld to Blairgowrie. 

BUTTON-NESS, or BARRY SANDS; 
a sandy promontory in Forfarshire, on the- 
North side of the mouth of the river Tay. 

BYRE-BURN, a rivulet in Dumfries- 
shire, in the parish oi'Canoby, which joins 
the Esk at a place called Byre Bum-foot, 
where the Duke of Bucclcuch has a coal- 
liery. 



c 



CAD 



^P*AAF, a rivulet in Ayrshire, which takes 
^"^ its rise in the high moor grounds, se- 
veral miles above the village of Dairy, and 
after a course of 10 or 12 miles, falls into 
the Garnock near its junction with the 
sea, a little above which it exhibits a fine 
cascade 40 feet in height. 

CABRACH, a parish in Aberdeen and 
Banff shires, extending 5 miles in length, 
and about 3 in breadth. Its surface is 
mountainous, and more adapted for pas- 
ture than cultivation. The Deveron and 
the Fiddich streams water this parish. Po- 
pulation 756. 

CADDER, or CALDER, a parish in the 
county of Lanark, extending 13 miles in 
length from E. to W., and between 3 and 
4 miles in breadth. The great canal be- 
tween the Forth and Clyde runs through it 
for 5 miles. The Bishop's loch, a small 
lake, one mile in length, and a quarter of 
a mile in breadth, is occupied as a reser- 
voir fax supplying the canal with water. 



The roads from Edinburgh to Glasgow, and 
from Glasgow to Falkirk, by Cumbernauld, 
pass through the parish. The river Kel- 
vin forms its northern boundary for nearly 
12 miles. Antoninus' wallcan be distinct- 
ly traced for 4 miles, and one of the watch 
towers on it is still very visible. At Rob- 
roystone, on the 13th September, 1303, 
Sir William Wallace was betrayed to Ed- 
ward I. Population 2487. 

C AERKET AN CRAIG, one of the Pent- 
land Hills, 1150 feet above the level of the 
sea. 

CAERLAVEROCK, a parish in the coun- 
ty of Dumfries, on a kind of peninsula for- 
med by the river Nith, Lochar water, and 
the Sol way Firth. It contains 1014 square 

miles The middle and western part is 

hilly, but towards the E. the surface is low 
and level. The Nith and Lochar abound 
with fish. Near the mouth of the Nith are 
to be traced the vestiges of a moated trian- 
gular castle, supposed to be the Garbunto- 



C A I J 

rigum of Ptolemy. To the N. E. of these 
remains is the venerable ruin of the ancient 
castle of Caerlaverock, built about the year 
1424, and long the residence of the family 
of Maxwell. Population 1170. 

CAIRN, a village in Wigtonshire, in the 
parish of Kirkcolm; on the coast of Loch 
Ryan. It has a good harbour and a safe bay, 
it lies 6 1-2 miles S. from Stranraer. 

CAIRN, a river -which has its source 
in Che higher parts of Dumfries-shire, and 
running S. E. forms the boundary between 
that shire and the stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright. It falls into the Nith about 3 miles 
above Dumfries. 

CAIRNCHUICHNAIG, a mountain in 
Ross shire, in Kincardine parish, upon 
which are found topaze similar to those of 
the Cairngorum. 

CAIRNDOW, a village in Argyleshire, 
In the parish of Loch-goil-head. It is a 
stage on the military road, 94 miles from 
Edinburgh, 36fromDunbarton,and 9 from 
Inverary. 

CAIRN EILAR, (i. e. HILL OF EAG- 
LES,) a high mountain at the junction of 
3 counties, Perth, Aberdeen, and Inver- 
ness, and where the districts of Marr, Ba- 
denoch, and Athole meet. It is 4000 feet 
above the level of the sea. 

CAIRNEY-HILL, a village in the parish 
of Darnock,Fifeshire, 2 miles W. of Dun- 
fermline, and 1 mile E. of Torryburn. It 
Is situated on the road leading from Dun- 
fermline to Alloa and Stirling, and con- 
tains about 400 inhabitants, who are prin- 
cipally employed in the manufacture of ta- 
ble linen. 

CAIRNGELLIE, a mountain in Perth- 
shire, 8 miles N. of Crieff. 

CAIRNGORM, or BLUE MOUNTAIN, 
one of the highest cf the Grampian hills, is 
situated betwixt the counties of Banff and 
Moray. Its height is 4050 feet above the 
level of the sea, and 1780 feet above Loch 
Avon, though this lake is only a mile from 
its base. It is of a conical shape. The 
sides and base are clothed with extensive 
fir woods, while its top is covered almost 
the whole year with snow. It is celebrated 
for these beautiful rock crystals of various 
tints, which are called Cairngorm stones. 
They are in general of a regular hexagonal 
form. Besides these stones, fine specimens 
of asbestos, covered with calcareous crystal • 
lizations, talc, zeolite, crystallized quartz, 
and spars are frequently found. 

CAIRNHARRAH, a mountain in the 
stewartry of Kirkcudbright, parish of An- 
worth, elevated 1 100 feet in height. 



C A I 

CAIRN-O'MOUNT.oneoftbe Grampian 
mountains in Kincardineshire, near the ri- 
ver Dee. Over this mountain there is an ex- 
cellent road, opening a communication be- 
tween the S. and N. parts of the coun- 
try. 

CAIRNMONEARN, one of the Gram- 
pians in Aberdeenshire, 1020 feet in height. 

CAIRNNAPLE, a mountain in Linlith- 
gowshire, 1498 feet in height. 

CAIRNSMUIR, a mountain in Kirkcud- 
brightshire, supposed to be the highest in 
the S. of Scotland. Its height is 1737 feet 
above the level of the sea. 

CAIRN Y, a parish in the county of A- 
berdeen. It extends along the banks of 
the river Logie, in the neighbourhood of 
the thriving town of Huntly. The surface 
is hilly, but on the low grounds the soil is 
deep, and fertile. Population 1765. 

CAIRNEY-HILL, a village in the parish 
of Carnock, Fifeshire, situated on the road 
leading from Dunfermline to Stirling, con- 
taining 400 inhabitants. 

CAITHNESS, otherwise called the shire 
of Wick, is the most northerly county of 
Scotland. It is bounded on the N. and E„ 
by the Pentland Frith, and the German O- 
cean ; on the W. and S. W. by the county 
of Sutherland; and on the S. terminated 
in an extremity called the Ord. It extends 
35 miles, from N. to S. and about 22 from 
E. to W. The coast is rocky, and remarka- 
ble for a number of bays and promontories. 
Of the latter, the chief are, Land- head, 
Holbom-head, and Dunnet-head, towards 
the Pentland Frith and Dungisbay-head; 
and the Ord running out into the German 
Ocean. There are also 2 smaller promon- 
tories, Clytheness and Noss-head, near 
which the sea is remarkable for the great 
impetuosity of the waves, even in the calm- 
est weather. The principal bays are Scri- 
bister and Rice bays, and the bay of Thur- 
so. The only island annexed to Caithness 
is Stroma, in the Pentland Frith; Caith- 
ness is well watered with small rivers, and 
contains a few woods of birch. It contains 
one royal burgh, Wick ; the town of Thurso, 
a barony under the superiority of Sir John 
Sinclair of Ulbster, and 10 parishes. It 
sends a member to Parliament alternately 
with the county of Bute. The ruins of 
Cast!. Sinclair and Germengo, of Auch- 
navern, Dirlet, and Lochmore, exhibit 
much of the grandeur of the noblest edifi- 
ces ; and the tumuli, duns, and cairns, shew 
it to have been often the scene of warlike 
exploits. Caithness is peopled by a hardy 
and industrious race, who apply themselves 



C A L 

chiefly to fishing and the rearing of black 
cattle and sheep ; of the former they send 
out in some years 20,000. The valued rent 
is L.37, 256 Scots ; and the real land rent 
is estimated atL.19,950 Sterling. Popula- 
tion 23, 729. 

CALDER, a parish chiefly situated in 
the county of Nairn, but a small part lies 
in that of Inverness. Its figure is irregu- 
lar. It contains 26,000 acres, of which 
18,000 are moor and moss. The lands are 
liable to be overflown by the rivulet of Cal- 
der and the water of Nairn. Besides these, 
the rapid river of Findhorn, abounding 
with salmon, runs through the upper part 
of the parish. Calder castle is in this pa- 
rish. It has been a place of great strength ; 
and the drawbridge is still to be seen ; 
but there is no water in the moat. The 
tower is very ancient ; its walls are of great 
thickness, arched at top with stone, and 
surrounded with battlements : the rest of 
the house is later, though far from modern. 
Population 1091. 

CALDER, anciently the name of a dis- 
trict in the county of Edinburgh, is now 
divided into the parishes of West and Mid- 
Calder; East-Calder being joined to Kirk- 
newton. 

CALDER (MID), a parish in the county 
of Mid-Lothian, extending in length about 
7 miles, and about 5 in breadth. The sur- 
face is generally level, and the soil tolera- 
bly fertile.—The TOWN of Mid-Calder is 
pleasantly situated near Calder wood, and 
contains about 650 inhabitants. A little 
to the W. of the town stands Calder House, 
the seat of Lord Torphichen. The picture 
of John Knox is hung up in the same hall 
where he dispensed the sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper for the first time in Scotland 
after the Reformation. The house of Green- 
bank, near the village, is celebrated as the 
birth-place of John Spottiswood, arch- 
bishop of St. Andrew's Population 140S. 
CALDER (WEST), a parish in Mid-Lo- 
thian, extending in length 10, and in 
breadth 51-2 miles. The southern part, 
which borders on Lanarkshire, consists of 
high and moorish ground, interspersed with 
mosses of considerable extent. In the sou- 
thern extremity stands an old castle, said 
to have been fortified by Cromwell ; and at 
Castle Craig arc the remains of a R .nan 
camp in a pretty entire state. Population 
1435. 

CALDER (WEST), a small village in the 
above parish, 4 miles S. W. of Mid-Calder, 
and 7 N. of Wilsontown, on the road from 
Edinburgh to Lanark. 



40 



C A L 



CALDER, a small river in Renfrewshire, 
has its rise in the moorlands, on the borders 
of Ayrshire, and running an easterly course 
of some miles, intersects the parish of Loch- 
winnoch, and falls into the loch of that 
name, after giving motion to two large 
spinning-mills at the village. 

CALDER (SOUTH), a small river in 
Lanarkshire, which rises in the parish of 
Shotts, and running a S. W. course, falls 
into the Clyde nearCambusnethan. 

CALDER, (NORTH), another rivulet in 
Lanarkshire, which issues from Black Loch 
in the parish of E. Monkland, and falls into 
the Clyde, about 5 miles above Glasgow. 

CALDER (LOCH), a lake in the county 
of Caithness, and parish of Halkirk, 2 miles 
long, and three quarters of a mile broad. 

CAIFA, a small island of the Hebrides; 
near Tirey. 

CALLADER (LOCH), a small lake, a. 
bout 2 or 3 miles in circumference, in the 
parish of Crathy, Aberdeenshire. It a- 
bounds with trout, and contains a few sal- 
mon and eel, it discharges its water by the 
river Eidh, a tributary stream of the Dee. 
CALLANDER and DENN1STOWN, 
two villages in the neighbourhood of Glas- 
gow, containing, in 1793, 60S inhabitants. 
CALLENDER, a village and parish in 
the district of Monteith, county of Perth.— 
From the banks of the Teith, one of the 
most considerable branches of the Forth-, 
the parish extends among the Grampian 
hills about 16 miles in length ; its greatest 
breadth ueing about 10. The appearance 
of the country on the W. andN. is moun- 
tainous, and covered with heath. At the 
village of Callenderis a beautiful valley, in 
which is situated another village called 
Kilmahog. Callender is remarkable for the 
wild and romantic scenery of its prospects, 
which no pen or pencil can give an ade- 
quate idea of. The Trossachs, Loch Ca. 
therine, and the other lakes which are 
formed by the waters of the Teith, are vi- 
sited by those who are desirous of seeing 
nature in her grandest state. Above the 
Trossachs, Benledi, Benvenu, and other 
lofty mountains, raise their rocky heads. 
Strangers who visit this neighbourhood 
should have with them " Scott's Lady of 
the Lake," in which our Scottish bard so 
beautifully describes many of the roman- 
tic scenes in this parish. Vide Trossachs ; 
Catherine, Loch. Near Loch Lubnaig the 
scenery is charming, and is ornamented by 
the woods and pleasure grounds of Kin- 
naird, the seat of the late Mr. Bruce, the 
Abyssinian traveller. On the rivulet of 



CAM 

Kelly is a cascade 50 feet high. — The Vil- 
lage of Callender is built on a regular plan, 
and lies on the banks of the Teith. A set- 
tlement for the soldiers discharged after 
the German war was established here by 
government in 1763.— -Population, includ- 
ing the villages of Callender and Kilmahog, 
2049. 

- CALLIGRAY, one of the Western Isles, 
in the district of Harris. The inhabitants 
live principally by fishing. 
1 CALNAR, a rivulet in Lanarkshire, tribu- 
tary to the Aven. 

CALTON, a suburb of Glasgow. (See 
Glasgow.) 

CALTON, a suburb of Edinburgh. (See 
Edinburgh.) 

CALVE, a small island on the coast of 
Mull, near the village of Tobermory. 

CALWAR and CUREEN, two moun- 
tains in Aberdeenshire, elevated 1200 
feet above the level of the Don, which flows 
at their base. 

CAMBRAY, CUMERAY, or CIM- 
BRAES, an island in the Frith of Clyde, 
distant from the coast of Ayrshire about 2 
miles ; from the island of Bute, (to which 
it is attached in the county division), a- 
bout 3 miles ; and separated from the Lit- 
tle Cambray, upon the S. by a channel of 
3-4th of a mile broad. Its surface con- 
tains 2500 acres, the third part of which is 
arable. The soil is in general a gravelly 
loam, in some places it has a mixture of 
day. The village of Mullportis situated 
on the S. W. The Earl of Glasgow is the 
principal proprietor. Population 605. 

CAMBRAY, (LITTLE or LESSER,) an 
island, situated 3- 4th of a mile from Grea- 
ter Cambray, about a mile in length, and 
1-2 in breadth. Upon the S. side are a few 
dwelling-houses, and an old Gothic castle. 
There are several caves in the island, two 
of which are very remarkable. The Earl 
of Eglinton is proprietor of the island. 

CAMBUS, a small village in the parish 
of Alloa, and county of Clackmannan, 2 
miles W. of Alloa, and 1 S. of Tullibody. 
It is situated at the confluence of the De- 
von with the Forth, and has an extensive 
distillery. 

CAMBUSLANG, a parish in the county 
of Lanark, on the South bank of the river 
Clyde, about Smiles square. The surface 
is beautifully diversified with hill and dale, 
consisting of a ridge of about half a mile 
broad, formed by Dickmount and Surnlea 
hills. The Clyde is here about 250 feet broad, 
and generally overflows a part of the parish 



3 or 4 times a year. The principal occupa- 
tion of its inhabitants is the weaving and 
spinning of cotton. Coal has been wrought 
foe upwards of 300 years. It contains also 
vast beds of excellent freestone, and a stra- 
tum of Marble, 6 to 12 inches thick.-Latrick 
and Gilbertfieldare in this parish. Popu- 
lation 20S5. 

CAMBu SMICHAEL, a parish in Perth- 
shire, united to St. Martins. See St. Mar- 
tins. 

CAMBUSNETHAN, a parish and vil- 
lage on the banks of the Clyde, in the mid- 
dle ward of the county of Lanark, 12 miles 
in length, and 3 in breadth. The ground 
on the banks of the Clyde and Calder is 
rich and well cultivated. It contains abun- 
dance of coal, ironstone, and freestone.— 
The village of Cambusnethan is situated 
on the road leading from Glasgow to La- 
nark. Population 2 6L'l. 

CAMELON, a village in Stirlingshire, on 
the line of the great canal near Falkirk. 
The road to Glasgow and Stirling passes 
through it. Population 56S. 

CAMERON, a parish and village in Fife- 
shire, 4 miles square. It has a bleak nak . 
ed appearance, being almost a continued 
tract of heathy moor. The village lies a- 
bout 4 miles S. W. from St. Andrew's. Po. 
pulation 1005. 

CAMILLA (LOCH,) a small lake in the 
parish of Auchtertool, Fifeshire. It takes 
its name from the old house of Camilla in 
its neighbourhood. 

CAMLACHIE, a village in the barony 
and parish of Glasgow, 2 miles E. from the 
city, containing about 1000 inhabitants. 

CAMPBELLTOWN.— It was erected 
into a royal burgh in 1701. It is situated 
in that district of Argyleshire called Kin - 
tyre, of which it is the presbytery seat. The 
harbour is about 2 miles long, and 1 broad, 
in the form of a cresent, and is surrounded 
by high hills on each side, with an entrance. 
Campbelltown is a large and flourishing 
town, and is daily increasing. It was the 
capital of the ancient Scottish or Dalreue- 
dinian kingdom. The parish of Campbell- 
town is in length about 11 miles, and its 
breadth varies from 6 to 10. It contains 
43,750 acres. It is narrowed in the mid- 
dle by the bay of Machir-hanish on one side, 
and the loch of Kilkerran, or harbour of 
Campbelltown, on the other, running in- 
land a considerable way. The space be- 
tween these bays forms a fine plain of 4 
miles in length, and 3 in breadth. From 
this plain both ends of the parish gradually 



CAN 



become hilly, rising to the height of 1200 
feet. The soil is various, and in general 
well cultivated. Population 7807. 

CAMPBELLTOWN, a village in Inver- 
ness-shire, in the neighbourhood of Fort 
George. 

CAMPLE,arivulet,tributarytotheNith, 
in the county of Dumfries. 

CAMPSIE, a parish and village in the 
county of Stirling, 8 miles in length, and 
7 in breadth. It consists of 2 ridges of 
hill, with a considerable valley running E. 
W. between them ; the S. ridge being a 
continuation of the braes of Kilpatrick, on 
the N. being known by the name of Camp- 
sie Fells. The surface of the valley is un- 
even, except on the banks of the Kelvin and 
Glazert. The road from Kippen to Glas- 
gow, and from Glasgow to Edinburgh, pass 
through the parish. The village of Camp- 
sie consists of an old and new town ; the 
latter of which is increasing rapidly, since 
the printfields and other manufactures 
have been introduced. Population 3618. 
CAMPSIE FELLS, or HILLS, runs in a 
bold ridge along the whole of the valley of 
Campsie. The face of the hills is broken 
with crags and glens. On the summit and 
back part is a deep moor ground, inter- 
spersed with moss. The hills have the ap- 
pearance of volcanic origneous origin. In 
many places rude basaltic pillars are to be 
seen, particularly on the road which slopes 
down the hill above the village of Campsie. 
The highest ridge is 1500 feet. 

CANAL (FORTH and CLYDE), a navi- 
gable canal, which connects the eastern 
and western seas by the rivers Forth and 
Clyde. Scotland is almost divided into two 
parts by these two rivers ; the Forth falling 
into the eastern sea below Leith, and the 
Clyde falling into the Atlantic Ocean be- 
low Greenock. This circumstance early 
suggested the idea of forming a communi- 
cation across the kingdom, by dividing the 
narrow neck of land between these rivers, 
and thereby saving the long and dangerous 
navigation round the Land's End, or the 
more dangerous passage of the Pentland 
Frith. So early as the reign of Charles II. 
this idea was indulged, and afterwards re- 
vived at different times, but met with many 
obstructions. At last, however, it received 
the sanction of Parliament ; L. 150,000 
was subscribed for as the estimated ex- 
pense ; and in 1768 the ground was broken, 
under the direction of Mr Smeaton. In 
1775 it was rendered navigable as far as 
Stockingfield, the point from which the 
side branch to Glasgow goes off. The ca- 



nal remained in this state till 1784, when 
the company, having received L.50,000 
from the forfeited estates, prosecuted the 
plan with vigour and attention ; and in 
July 1790, the navigation was opened from 
sea to sea. The whole length of the 
canal is 55 miles, beginning at Carron- 
mouth, and ending at Dalmure burn foot, 
on the Clyde, 6 miles below Glasgow, ris- 
ing and falling 160- feet, by means of 39 
locks. In its course it passes over rocks, 
precipices and quick-sands. In some places 
it passes through a deep moss ; in others it 
is banked 20 feet high. It crosses many 
rivulets, as well as 2 consfilerable rivers, 
the Kelvine and Luggie, over which are 
large aqueduct bridges: that over the for- 
mer is 420 feet long and 6^high. To sup- 
ply the canal with water, there is one reser- 
voir of 50 acres, 22 feet deep, and another 
of 70 acres, 24 feet deep. Vessels of 19 
feet beam, drawing 8 feet of water, and 
not exceeding 73 feet in keel, can navigate 
it with great ease. Track boats with goods 
and passengers go regularly thrice a day 
between Glasgow and the Lock No. 16. 

CANAL, (EDINBURGH AND GLAS- 
GOW UNION.) This canal is now o- 
pened, and is intended to complete the in- 
land communication between the two ci- 
ties from which it derives its name, and to 
afford to the Scottish metropolis an abun- 
dant and cheap supply of coals from the 
extensive collieries of Stirlingshire. The 
project of a canal for these purposes, was 
first brought forward in the year 1789; but 
all the lines then surveyed were so encum- 
bered with locks, that it was for the time 
abandoned. In 1 797, Mr John Rennie, ci- 
vil engineer, surveyed the country, and 
pointed out a practicable linefrom Brunts- 
field Links to Hillhead, near Glasgow, on 
one level. Considerable interest was ex- 
cited by this at various times ; but the ex- 
pense of so extensive a work, and the doubt- 
ful policy of carrying it the whole way to 
Glasgow, in place of the Forth and Clyde 
Canal, close to which it was proposed to 
run for 7 miles, added to the much insidi- 
ous opposition, effectually lulled it for near- 
ly 20 years. In 1815, Mr Hugh Baird, 
civil engineer, was employed by a commit- 
tee of gentlemen to resurvey the country, 
with a view to ascertain the practicability 
of making a level canal from Edinburgh to 
join the Forth and Clyde navigation near 
to Falkirk, and on the level of lock No. 16, 
of that navigation. After much pains this 
proved to be lower than the country ad- 
mitted of; but Mr. Baird found the desired 



CAN 

line of levels about 110 feet above the level 
of Lock 16. The committee of subscribers 
approved of that line as the best ; and hav- 
ing published the engineer's report on the 
subject, a subscription was opened, and the 
iv hole sum of L. 240,000 was rapidly sub- 
scribed. In 1815, the necessarybill was in- 
troduced in parliament ; but which, from 
arevivalofthe former interested opposition, 
■was thrown out on the second reading by a 
majority, A subscription was afterwards 
opened for executing the other line survey- 
ed by Mr Kennie ; and after a year had 
elapsed, during which a fourth of the esti- 
mate had not been subscribed, a compro- 
mise was effected between the parties, and 
Mr. Baird's line was again broughtforvard, 
and the funds were speedily re-subscribed. 
Every means were again used by those 
■who thought their interests likely to be in- 
jured, in order to defeat the measure ; but 
after a contest in London, seldom equalled 
in the case of a private bill, the utility of 
the measure became so apparent, that 
the bill passed the second reading in the 
House of Commons, on the 12th May, 1S17, 
by a majority of 139 to 63, and finally 
passed the House of Lords on the l'Jth of 
June following. 

The line runs from the Lothian road at 
Edinburgh, by the villages of Slateford, 
Ratho, Broxburn, and Winchburgh, and 
passes close to Linlithgow and Falkirk, 
through one of the richest coal fields in 
Scotland, andjoins the Forth and Clyde Ca- 
nal at Lock 16, by a descent of 9 locks. The 
length is about 29 miles. There is a 
stupendous and elegantiron aqueduct erect- 
ed at Slateford. A number of passage and 
luggage boats are daily plying ; and a con- 
siderable profit is derived from the coal 
trade which is carried on by means of this 
canal to a great extent. 

CANAL (ABERDEEN and INVERA- 
RY), extends along the side of the Don 
IS 1-4 miles. It is 32 feet wide, 3 feet 9 
inches deep; it has 17 locks, 5 aqueduct 
bridges, 56 accommodation bridges, and 20 
culverts for conveying streams under the 
canal. 

CANAL (CR1NAN), a navigable canal, 
connecting Loch Crinan, a small arm of 
the sea, on the W. coast of Argyleshire, 
with Loch Gilp, an arm of Loch Fyne. 
It is 6 miles in length, and 9 feet in depth. 

CANAL (CALEDONIAN). This canal 
Is now completed, intended to join that 
chain of lakes which stretch across the 
country from Inverness to Fort William. 
jL.20,000]w as originally granted by govern - 



I CAN 

ment for carrying it~into execution, and 

several additional sums have since been 
given. The Caledonian Canal is 20 feet 
deep, 50 wide at the bottom, and 110 wide 
at top, calculated (o navigate frigates of 32 
guns. Thelocksare 170 feet long, and 40 
broad. 

CANAL (ARDROSSAN), this Canal, 
which is intended to open a communica- 
tion between Glasgow and Ardrossan in 
Ayrshire, is finished from Glasgow to 
Johnston, a distance of 12 miles. It is 
4 1-2 feet deep, and 30 wide at the sur- 
face. 

CANISBY, the most northern parish in 
Great Britain. It is situated in the county 
of Caithness, and is somewhat of a triangu- 
lar figure, each of the sides being nearly S 
miles in length. Thesurface is rather level 
than hilly. The E. coast is exceedingly 
bold and rocky; Dungisbay-head, the N. 
E. promontory of the district, presenting 
one continued precipice to the sea. West 
from Dungisbay-head the coast become» 
level, having fields of the most fertile soil 
and luxuriant verdure approaching to the 
very beach. The island of Stroma, in the 
Pentland Frith, belongs to this parish. 
The principal seats in this parish are Fres- 
wick, Barrogil Castle, and Brabster Castle. 
John o' Groat's house, so often visited bv 
travellers, is situated about a mile and half 
from Dungisbay-head. Population 1,936. 

CANNA, one of the 4 islands ofthe He- 
brides which form the parish of Small Isles, 
and is annexed to the county of Argyle. Jt 
lies about 4 miles in length, and 1 in breadth. 
On the S. E. side of Canna lies Sand Island, 
separated by a channel, which is dry at low 
water. Between this island and Canna lies 
the harbour of that name. A great many 
basaltic pillars are to be seen in Canna; 
and one of its hills is remarkable for its ef- 
fects on the mariner's compass. Popula 
tion 300. 

CANNICH, a stream in Inverness-shire, 
which, united with other streams near Erk- 
less castle, forms the river Beauty. 

CANNOR (LOCH), a small lake in Aber- 
deenshire, in the parish of Glenmuick, a- 
bout 3 miles in circumference, and contain- 
ing several small islands ; on the largest of 
which, about an acre in extent, there for- 
merly stood a small fortress, built, and oc- 
casionally occupied as a hunting-seat, by 
Malcolm Canmore, 

CANOBY, a parish in Dumfries-shire, 9 
miles in length, and 6 in breadth. The 
central part is intersected by the Esk ; and 
Ihe great road from Edinburgh to London 



passes in the same direction. Besides the 
Esk, the parish is watered by the Liddel, 
■which divides it from England, and the 
Tarras, remarkable for its romantic scenery. 
A Roman camp and military road are dis- 
stinctly to be traced ; and the ruins of a pri- 
ory are still visible, about half a mile from 
the church. Population 2,904. 

CANONMILLS, a village near Edin- 
burgh, on the water of Leith, where there 
are extensive flour mills, and a distillery. 

CANONGATE, a suburb of Edinburgh, 
occupying the eastern district of that city, 
and comprehending the chapel and Holy- 
rood-house, and the adjacent parks. It is 
a burgh of barony, under the superiority of 
Edinburgh, and is governed by a baron- 
bailie, and two resident bailies, appointed 
by the town-council of that city. While 
Edinburgh was the seat of royalty, the Can- 
ongate was the place of residence of most 
of the noble families who attended the 
court; and there are several old houses which 
retain the names of the noble owners ; but 
it is now chiefly inhabited by trades people, 
and those of the lower order. 

CANSEA, a small fishing village, on the 
Moray Frith, in the parish of Dairny. 

CAOLISPORT (LOCH), an arm of the 
sea on the W. coast of Knapdale. 

CAPELAW, one of the Pentland hills, e- 
levated 1550 feet. 

CAPUT H, a parish in Perthshire called | 
Stormont. It comprehends part of the vale 
of Strathmore, nearly 13 miles in length, 
varying in breadthfrom 1 to 6. The Tay, 
the Isla, and Lunnan water this parish. 
The last of these in its course forms a suc- 
cession of small lakes, and at last falls into 
the Isla. There are 5 or 6 small villages 
in the parish, in one of which a stamp-of- 
fice is established, where there are usually 
stamped 100,000 yards of linen. There are 
also several Druidical circles and cairns. 
Population 2,333. 

CARA, a small island of Argyleshire. 
It lies 3 1-2 miles W. from the peninsula of 
Kintyre, and about 2 miles S. from the Is- 
land of Glgha, to which it is attached. 1 1 is 
about a mile in length, and half a mile in 
breadth. The shore is high and rocky, ex- 
cept at the N. E. end, where there is a land- 
ing-place. 

CARALDSTON, or CARESTON, a 
small parish in the county of Angus, extend- 
ing about 3 miles in length, and 1 in 
breadth. The surface is beautiful, and 
the soil is fertile and well cultivated. The 
banks of the rivers Southesk and Norm are 



beautifully ornamented with plantations 
Population 271. 

CARDEN, a hill in the county of Peebles, 
about 1,400 feet above the level ofthe 
Tweed. 

CARDROSS,a parish in the county of 
Dunbarton, about 7 miles in length, and 
from 3 to 4 in breadth. It is washed on 
the eastern border by the Leven, and on 
the S. by the Clyde. On the shore, the soil 
is gravelly, and the lands adjacent to the 
Leven are ofthe nature of carse. It pro- 
duces a great deal of natural wood, besides 
plantations. The printrields of Dalquhurn 
and Cordale, in this parish, are the most 
extensive in Scotland. The village of Ren- 
town is rapidly increasing ; and another vil- 
lage has lately been built on the estate of 
Graham of Garthmore. This parish con- 
tains a village of the same name, 3 miles 
and a half VV. from Dunbarton. In the old 
mansion-house of Dalquhurn, near the vil- 
lage of Rentown, was born DrT&bias Smol- 
let. Adjacent to the place of his nativity, 
MrSmollet of BonhiIl,his cousin, has erect- 
ed a lofty column to his memory. Popula- 
tion 2859. 

CARGILL, a parish in the county of 
Perth, in the valley of Strathmore, about 
6 miles in length, and from 4 to 5 in breadth. 
The surface is finely diversified with wood 
and water, and variegated by gentle as- 
cents and declivities. Near the W. end of 
the parish, the Tay forms what is called 
the Linn of Campsey, by falling over a rug- 
ged basaltic dike, which crosses the river 
atthis place. The Isla runs into the Tay 
about a mile above the village of Cargill. 
Near the confluence of the Tay and Isla are 
discovered distinct traces of a Roman en- 
campment ; and on a romantic rock, which 
rises perpendicularly over the Linn of Camp- 
sey, are the ruins of an ancient religious 
house. Stobhall, a seat of the family of 
Perth, is an old fabric, fancifully situated 
on a narrow peninsula, on the banks ofthe 
Tay. There are 3 villages in this district. 
Population 1521. 

CARITY, a small river, which takes its 
rise in the parish of Lintrathen, county of 
Angus, and, after a course of 5 miles, falls 
into Southesk. 

CARLETON HILL, situated in the pa- 
rish of Colmonell, in Ayrshire, 1554 feet in 
height. 

CARLIN SKERRY, an insulated rock 
in Orkney, about 2 and a half miles S. of 
Pomona island, well known to seamen by 
the name ofthe " Barrel of Butter." 



CARLINWARK, a village in the stew- . 
artrv of Kirkcudbright. See Castle Doug- I 
las." 

CARLINWARK (LOCH) a lake in the 
parish of Kelton, in the stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright, along the W. side of which runs 
the military road. It formerly covered 116 
acres of land, but has been drained, so that 
only 80 acres are now underwater. It has 
been a great source ofimjrrovement in the 
neighbourhood, containing an inexhausti- 
blefund of shell marl ; it also abounds with 
pike, perch, and eel. 

CARLUKE, a parish and village in the 
county of Lanark. The parish is about 7 
miles in length, from the Clyde to its boun- 
dary on the E., and fully 4 1-2 miles in 
breadth. In the parish of Carluke, apples 
and pears are produced in more abundance 
than perhaps any other district in Scotland. 
The orchards extend in length 5 miles, and 
are supposed to comprehend nearly SO a- 
cres. Coal, freestone, ironstone, and lime, 
are every where abundant. — The TIL- 
LAGE of Carluke is about 5 miles from 
Lanark, on the road leading to Glasgow. 
It is a pretty large village, increasing rapid- 
ly in size and population. Mauldsie, the 
elegant seat of the Earl of Hyndford, is si- 
tuated near the village. The Roman road, 
called Watling's street, passes through the 
village of Bradwood, which is situated in 
the N. W. corner of the parish. Popula- 
tion 3121. 

CAP-MICHAEL, a parish in the county 
of Lanark, on the banks of the Clyde, about 
5 miles in length, and from 5 to 4 in 
breadth. The surface is diversified with 
several hills of considerable height, cover- 
ed for the most part with short heath. The 
soil towards the Clyde is gravelly; but in 
the higher parts is a wet clay. The Earl of 
Hyndford, the chief proprietor, has inclos- 
ed and planted a great part of the parish. 
It has coal and limestone of excellent qua- 
lity. Population 952. 

CARMUNNOCK, a parish in Lanark- 
shire. It extends about 4 miles in length, 
and 3 in breadth. Of 2500 acres which it 
contains, 1000 are laid out in pasturage, 
the rest is generally inclosed. The great- 
er part is elevated, and commands a most 
extensive prospect. The river Cart runs 
along its western boundary ; and the great 
road from Glasgow to England, by Muir- 
kirk and Dumfries, passes through the eas- 
tern part of it. In the estate of Castlemiik 
are the remains of a military road, near 
which have been found various pieces of 



CAR 

Roman armour and antiquities. Popula- 
tion 070. 

CAR?.! YLEFIELD, a village in the pa- 
rish of Old Monkland, in the county of La- 
nark. It is washed by the Clyde, and has 
a fine exposure to the S. 

CARMYLE, a parish in the county of 
Forfar, extending about 4 miles in length, 
and about 3 in breadth. It is a hilly tract 
of country; but the hills are in general ca- 
pable of cultivation. It possesses inexhaus- 
tible quarries of grey slate and pavement 
stone, which have been wrought for centu-' 
ries. The small river Elliot, which takes 
its rise in Dilty moss, runs through the 
whole length of the parish. Population in 
1S01, S92. 

CARNBEE, a parish in the county of 
Fife. It is nearly cf a square form, exten- 
ding 4 miles each way. A ridge of hills 
runs E. and W. through the middle of the 
parish; one of which, Kellie Law, is eleva- 
ted to the height of 810 feet above the le- 
vel of the sea. The southern part of the 
parish is a rich and fertile soil, but towards 
the N. it is more adapted for pasture. The 
castle of Kellie, the seat of the Earl of Kel- 
lie, is fitted up in a most elegant manner. 
Sir Robert Anstruther of Balcaskie, also 
possesses a fine seat. Population 1098. 

CARNIBURGH, (Greater and Lesser,) 
two of the Trieshnish isles, lying W. of the 
island of Mull, 
i CARNOCK, a parish and village in the 
■ western extremity cf the county of Fife, is 
nearly a square of 3 miles. The surface is 
level towards the E. ; but has a gentle de- 
clivity towards the S. The rivulets of 
' Carnock and Pitdennies have their banks 
; covered with extensive plantations. It 
I possesses 5 excellent coal mines, with a- 
i bundance of ironstone and freestone.— The 
I TILLAGE of Carnock is pleasantly situat- 
I ed on the banks of the rivulet of Carnock. 
j It contains nearly 200 inhabitants. There 
is another village m the parish called Cair- 
neyhill, which lies along the road from 
Dunfermline to Culross. Population 884. 

C A R N WAT H , an ext ensiveparish in the 
county of Lanark, forming nearly a regu- 
lar oblong square, 12 miles long, and 8 
broad. Its soil is various ; the hollows or 
meadows on the Clyde have a deep clay ; on 
the Medwins the soil is sandy; there is a 
very considerable extent of moorland. 
Two Merchants of the name of Wilson have 
lately erected an extensive iron foundery, 
and have built a village, called Wilson- 
town, for the accommodation of the work. 



CAR 46 

men and their families. The Clyde, Med- 
wins, and Dippool, are the principal rivers 
in the parish. There is likewise a small 
lake, about a quarter of a mile from the 
village of Camwath. In this parish are the 
ruins of r"he ancient castle of Couthally, a 
seat of the noble family of Somerville. The 
VILLAGE of Carnwath lies 25 miles S. W. 
from Edinburgh, and the high road from 
that city to Lanark passes through it. Po- 
pulation 3789. 

CARRICK, the southern district of Ayr- 
shire. It is bounded on the N. by Kyle, or 
Ayr proper ; on the E. by Dumfries-shire, 
and the stewartry of Kirkcudbright; on the 
S. by Wigton ; and on the W. by the Atlan- 
tic Ocean. Its surface is hilly; and the 
mountains, particularly on the N. W. are 
merely a continuation of that great ridge, 
which extends from the confines of Eng- 
land, through the shires of Selkirk, Pee- 
bles, Lanark, and Dumfries, and meets the 
Western Ocean between the districts of 
Carrick and Kyle. The chief rivers in Car- 
rick are the Girvan and Stinchar, at the 
mouths of which are situated the villages 
of Stinchar and Ballantrae. There are se- 
veral lakes ; and a great part of the coun- 
try is still covered with natural wood. Its 
extent in length is about 32 miles, and its 
breadth about 20. Carrick fell into the 
hands of King Robert Bruce, by marraige 
•with the heiress of Duncan, the last of the 
ancient Earls of Carrick; and the title is 
still retained by the royal family, the Prince 
of Wales, as Prince of Scotland, being born 
Earl of Carrick. 

CARRIDEN, or CARRIN, a parish in 
the county of Linlithgow, on the S. side of 
the Frith of Forth, extending about 2 miles 
in length, and 1 in breadth. There are 4 
villages in the parish, Grangepans, Cam- 
den, Brignies, and Blackness, the last of 
■which have tolerable harbours. The soil 
is light, early, and very productive, and the 
whole parish is arable and inclosed. The 
Roman wall called Graham's dyke termi- 
nates in this parish. Blackness castle be- 
ing generally understood to be its extreme 
point. Population 1493. 

CARRINGTON or PRIMROSE. Vide 
PRIMROSE. 

CAR RON , a small but remarkable river 
in Stirlingshire. It rises in the parish of 
Fintry, nearly in the centre of the isthmus 
betwe.-n the Forthand Clyde. The stream 
is not large, and the length of its course 
not above 14 miles. It formed the boun- 
dary of the Roman conquests in Britain; 
for the wall of Antoninus runs parallel to 



CAR 

it for several miles. The Canon, after it 
leaves its source, waters the Carron bog in 
its progress; leaving which it forms a cata- 
ract called the Auchinlilly linn spout. 
From this it continues its course eastward, 
winding through the carse of Falkirk ; pas- 
ses near the hills of Dunipace, and the site 
of the ancient Roman structure called Ar- 
thur's Oven ; and falls into the Frith of 
Forth a few miles below Falkirk. About 
half a mile from it lies the field where a 
battle was fought by the English and the 
Scots under Sir William Wallace, in the 
beginning of the 14th century.— The great 
canal enters from the Forth at this river, 
which is navigable for several miles near 
its mouth. 

CARRON, a village in Stirlingshire, on 
the banks of the river Carron, about 3 miles 
from its entry into the Forth, and 2 miles 
N. of the town of Falkirk, celebrated for 
the most extensive iron foundery in Europe. 
These works employ about 1GU0 workmen, 
and, on an average, the furnaces consume 
weekly 800 tons of coals, 400 tons of iron- 
stone and ore, and 100 tons of limestone. 
It has 5 smelting furnaces, 3 cupolas, 15 
air furnaces, with a steam engine of a 90 
horsepower, besides other machinery dri- 
ven by water. All kinds of cast-iron goods 
are manufactured here ; and in time of 
peace great quantities of cannon are ex- 
ported to the different European states. 
These extensive works are carried on by 
a chartered ftimpany with a capital of 
L.150,000, divided into shares. 

CARRONSHORE, a village lying partly 
in the parish of Larbart, and partly in the 
parish of Bothkennar, 2 miles below Car- 
ron-works. Here the Carron company have 
wharfs, and a dry dock for repairing their 
vessels : it is properly the company's port. 

CARRON, a rivulet in Dumfries-shire. 
It rises at the foot of the Lowther hills, and 
falls into the Nith at Carron foot. 

CARRON, a small river in Ross-shire, 
which falls into an arm of the sea called 
Loch Carron. 

CARRON, a small rivulet in Kincardine- 
shire, which falls into the sea at the town 
of Stonehaven. 

CARSE of FALKIRK. That tract of 
low land, lying along the Firth of Forth, 
from Bo-ness westward as far as Airth. It 
comprehends a great part of the parishes 
of Polmont, Falkirk, and Bothkennar, be- 
ing mostly a fine rich clay soil, producing 
the most abundant crops. 

CARSE of GOWRIE, a district of Perth- 
shire, extending 15 miles in length, and 



CAR 

from 2 to 4 in breadth. It is situated be- 
tween the N. bank of the river Tay, and the 
footof the Sidlaw hills. Thistractof land, 
which is a rich plain, seems to have been 
at one period covered with water. Some 
elevated spots in the carse are named In- 
ches, equivalent to islands; and of these 
the soil is totally different from the lower 
grounds. The parish of St. Madois too, 
which is now in the Carsc of Gowrie, is 
said to have been, in some ancient records, 
on the southern side of the river. The Tay 
has been supposed to have formed a cir- 
cuit round the carse, washing the foot of 
the Sidlaw hills, and entering its present 
channel at Invergowrie. The Carse of 
Gowrie possesses several good harbours, the 
chief of which is at Errol, nearly in the cen- 
tre of the district. 

CARSE of STIRLING, that tract of low 
ground, extending from the moss of Kin- 
cardine to the mouth of the Devon, on both 
sides of the Forth. 

C ARSE-FERN, a parish in the stewart- 
ry of Kirkcudbright. The surface is all hil- 
ly, except a small plain on which the 
church is situated, and a few spots on the 
sides of the rivulets. Population 459. 

CARST AIRS , a parish and village in the 
county of Lanark. The length of the pa- 
rish is G miles, and its breadth 3. It is di- 
vided into two districts,by a ridge of ground 
so uniform, that it appears as if it were ar- 
tificially formed. The soil is in general 
good, but agriculture here is not prosecut- 
ed as it ought to be.— The VILLAGE of 
Carstairs lies nearly equidistant from Edin- 
burgh and Glasgow, being 27 miles W. of | 
the former, and 26 E. of the latter. Near 
the village is the house of Carstairs. On a ! 
rising ground near the Clyde are the re- I 
mains of a Roman camp. Population 875. 

CART, a small river in Renfrewshire, ! 
which takes its rise in Castle Semple loch, j 
and, after a circuitous course of about 14 I 
miles, falls into the Clyde near Renfrew, j 
It is joined by the Gryfe at Walkinshaw, I 
and by the White Cart at Inchinan bridge. ' 
The White Cart rises in the parish of Ea- ] 
glesham, and takes a course of 20 miles be- \ 
fore its junction with this river, which is j 
distinguished by the name of Black Cart. 

CARTSDIKE.orCRAWFURDSDYKE, 
a village in Renfrewshire, adjoining to the 
town of Greenock ; from which, however, 
it has a distinct magistracy and civil go- 
vernment, having been erected into a free 
burgh of barony in 1033, by a charter from 
King Charles II. It has a good harbour 
and bay. 



J CAS 

CASSLY, a small river which issues froni 
the hills in the N. W. extremity of Criech, 
in the county of Sutherland. It takes a 
course nearly S. and falls into the Frith or 
Kyle of Tain , about 12 miles from its 
source. 

CASTLE-DOUGLAS, or CARLIN- 
WARK, a village in the stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright, at the N. corner of Carlinwark 
Loch. It was lately erected into a free 
and independent burgh of barony under 
the superiority of William Douglas, Esq. of 
Castle-Douglas. It contains about 750 in- 
habitants, and carries on a considerable 
manufacture of cotton. The road from E- 
dinburgh to Kirkcudbright passes through, 
it. 

CASTLE SEMPLE LOCH, a beautiful 
piece of water in the parish of Lochwin- 
noch, Renfrewshire. It covers about 401) 
acres, and contains plenty of pike and 
perch. It abounds also with swans, geese, 
and other aquatic fowls. The beauty is 
much increased by the fine plantations 
which surround it, and by a small island, 
on which is an old castle called the Peel, 
which appears to have been a place of con- 
siderable strength. The river Calderflows 
into this lake, and the Black Cart is the 
outlet from it. 

CASTLETOWN, an extensive parish in 
the county of Roxburgh, being upwards of 
IS miles in length, and 12 in breadth. It 
occupies that direction which was ancient- 
ly called Liddisdale, from the river Liddel, 
which runs through it, and contains 52,160 
acres. The generalappearance of the coun- 
try is mountainous and bleak, except on 
the banks of the rivers, which are covered 
with natural wood, and extensive planta- 
tions, which have a fine appearance. Some 
of the hills are elevated 2000 feet above the 
level of the sea. In the midst of these hills 
is an extensive morass, from which the ri- 
vers Tyne and Liddel take their rise. Be- 
sides these, this parish is watered by the 
Hermitage, Tweeden, Kershope, the Tin- 
nis, and Blackburn. There are many ruins 
of castles and fortified places in this dis- 
trict ; in particular, a circular camp, of 100 
yards diameter, on the top of Carby hill. 
Dr. Armstrong, the author of the elegant 
classic poem on " Health," was a native of 
thisparish. -The VILLAGE of Castletown, 
built since 1793, according to a regular 
plan , already contains 900 inhabitants. It 
lies 20 miles S. from Hawick. Population 
1887. 

CASTLETOWN of BRAEMAR, a small 
village in Aberdeenshire. It lies on the- 



CAT 

banks of the river Dee, on the great road to 
Fort George, by the Spittal of Glenshee, 
from which last place it is 15 miles distant. 

CATERTHUN, a hill in the parish of 
Menmuir, Angus-shire, about 5 or 4 miles 
N. of Brechin. It is remarkable for a for- 
tification on its summit, consisting of an 
immense quantity of loose stones, ranged 
around the summit in an oval or elliptic 
form. Within the area is a fine spring of 
■water; and near the E. side are the remains 
of a rectangular building, of which the dike 
and ditch are easily to be traced. 

CATHCART, a parish situated about 2 
miles S. W. from Glasgow, partly in the 
county of Lanark, and partly in that of 
Renfrew. It extends in length, about 6 
miles, and in breadth about 2 and a half. 
The surface is agreeably diversified -with 
hill and dale, presenting to the eye those 
alternate risings and falls which are sup- 
posed to constitute picturesque beauty. 
Through these hills the river Cart winds in 
an irregular and romantic course. The 
field of Langside, remarkable for being the 
scene of the last effort of the unfortunate 
Mary to regain her crown and authority, 
is in this parish. There are also the re- 
mains of a Roman military station, and the 
ruins of the castle of Cathcart. Popula- 
lation 1501. 

CATHEL (LOCH), a small lake in the 
parish of Halkirk, in the county of Caith- 
ness, 3 miles long, and upwards of 2 in 
breadth. It empties itself by a small 
stream into the river of Thurso, which falls 
into the Pentland Frith, at the town of the 
same name. 

CATHERINE, or KETTERIN (LOCH), 
a beautiful lake in the parish of Monteith, 
Perthshire, about 10 miles in length, and 
1 and a half in breadth, exhibiting the most 
romantic scenery that imagination can sup- 
pose. It is formed by the river Teath, in 
its passage among those rugged masses 
•which are called the Trossachs, some of 
which appear on its level surface in the form 
of bold and rugged islands and promonto- 
ries. Towards the Trossachs the view is ve- 
ry grand ; the rocky islands are seen rising 
boldly from the smooth expanse ; and, at a 
short distance, the mountains of Benvenu 
and Benledi are seen rearing their lofty 
summits far above the surrounding hills. 
At the end of l his lake, and at proper dis- 
tances on its banks, Mrs. Drummond of 
Perth has erected some huts of wicker-work, 
for the convenience of strangers who visit 
this rude and picturesque scene. See Tro- 
sachs and Callender. 



C H A 

CATLAW, one of the Grampian moun- 
tains, situated in the county of Angus, 
2,263 feet above the level of the sea. 

CATRINE, a village in Ayrshire. It is 
beautifully situated on the N. side of the 
river Ayr, in the western extremity of the 
parish of Sorn. It is of a regular oblong 
form, iii the middle of which is a square of 
500 feet, with streets, leadingfrom it to the 
E. S. and W. and these are intersected with 
other cross streets at right angles. This 
village is newly erected, and owes its e- 
stablishment to the flourishing state of the 
cotton manufacture in this county. From 
the time of its erection in 17S7 it has in- 
creased considerably, and now contains 
nearly 1500 inhabitants. Catrineis distant 
14 miles from Ayr. 

CAVA, a small island of Orkney, 2 miles 
S. of Pomona, and belonging to the parish 
ofOrphir. It is about a mile long and a 
quarter of a mile broad. 

CAVEKS, aparish in the county of Rox- 
burgh, upwards of 20 miles long from £. to 
W. and from 7 to 2 broad. The rivers Rule 
and Tcviot are the boundaries on the N. E. 
and S. E. joining their streams at the ex- 
tremity of the parish. There is a small vil- 
lage called Denholm, on the estate of the 
Duke ofEuccleugh. Cavers the seat of 
George Douglas, Esq. is an elegant mansion. 
Population 1,582. 

CAVERTOWN, a small village in Te- 
•viotdale, about 6 miles from Kelso. 

CEL1ARDYKES, a village in Fifeshire, 
on the coast of the Frith of Forth, between 
the burghs of Xilrenny and Crail. 

CERES, a parish and village in Fifeshire. 
-—The PARISH is in length about S miles 
and in breadth from 1 to 4 miles. The sur- 
face is hilly, and all thehillsare in general 
cultivated. The Eden and Ceres, with 2 
or 3 small rivulets, water the parish. Po- 
pulation 2,407. The VILLAGE of Ceres 
is situated 2 1-2 miles from Cupar. 

CESSFORD, a small villagein Teviot- 
dale. Near it is the ancient castle of Cess- 
ford, which gives the title of Baron to the 
Duke of Roxburgh. 

CHANNELKIRK, aparish in Berwick- 
shire, nearly of a circular form, having a di- 
ameter of 5 1-2 miles. It is situated among 
the Lammermuir hills, where they border 
with the counties of East and Mid-Lothian. 
On the banks of the rivulets which, united, 
form the river Lauder, or Leader, are about 
2,000 acres in tillage. Thehillsare most- 
ly bleak, and covered with heath. Popu- 
lation 707. 

C H ANONR Y, a small town in the coun- 



CHI 49 

ty of Ross, situated about a mile from the 
burgh of R osemarkie, to which it was uni- 
ted by a charter granted by King James II. 
anno 1,444, under the name of Fort-ross. 
Vide Rosemarkie. It was called Chanonry 
from being the canonry of Ross, and the re- 
sidence ofthe bishop. It is now a presby- 
tery seat. Chanonry contains about 450 
inhabitants. 

CHAPEL of GARIOCH, a parish and 
presbytery seat, in the district of Garioch, 
in Aberdeenshire, in length about 8 miles, 
and 7 in breadth. The appearance is hilly, 
and the soil various, but in general capa- 
ble of cultivation. The river Don, which 
forms the southern boundary, and the Urie, 
abound w ith trout. Near the old castle of 
Balquhain, is adruidical temple, and one 
ofthe finest echoesin Scotland. Beside the 
church is a large upright stone, called the 
Maiden Stone, 10 feet high, 4 broad and 1 
thick. Near this village the battle of Har- 
law was fought, in 1,411. Population 
1207. 

CHARLESTOWN, a village in the pa- 
rish of Dunfermline, in the county of Fife, 
pleasantly situated on the N. coast of the 
Frith of Forth, built by the Earl of Elgin, 
for the accommodation ofthe workmen at 
the extensive lime- works on his estate. It 
has a tolerable harbour, where, during the 
summer, from 40 to 50 vessels are usually 
loading lime shells. It contains nearly 
£00 inhabitants. 

CHARLESTOWN of ABOYNE,.a plea- 
sant little town in the parish of Aboyne, 
50 miles W. from Aberdeen. It is a burgh 
of barony, of which the Earl of Aboyne is 
superior. 

CHARLOTTE (FORT), a small fortifi- 
cation near the town of Lerwick, in Shet- 
land, said to have been built in the time of 
Oliver Cromwell. It was repaired in 1781, 
under the direction of Captain Frazer, chief 
engineer for Scotland. It is now garrison- 
ed by a company of soldiers, and commands 
the entrance to Bressay Sound. 

CHIRNSIDE, a parish and village, situa- 
ted in that division of Berwickshire, called 
Merse or March.— The VILLAGE lies 9 
miles N. W. from Berwick, consisting of two 
streets, running over the summit of Chim- 
sidehill, nearly half a mile in length ; but 
the houses are generally mean. As a burgh 
of barony ithas the privilege of holding an 
annual fair. It is the seat of a presbytery, 
and contains upwards of 500 inhabitants.-- 
The PARISH of Chiniside is of an oblong 
figure, the length of which is about 4, and 
the breadth 3 miles. The surface is flat, 



C L A 



I wilh the exception of'Chiroside hill; and 
| the soil is a loam, abundantly fertile; Po- 
I pulation 1,239. 

CIMBRAES. Vide CAMERA Y. 
CLACKMANNANSHIRE, a small coun- 
*?, bounded on the W. N; and E. by Perth- 
shire, and on the S. and S. E. by the Frith 
of Forth and Stirlingshire. Its greatest ex- 
tent is about 9 miles, and its breadth does 
not exceed 8. It is a plain and fertile 
country towards the Forth, producing abun- 
dance of corn, as well as pasture; and the 
coast possesses many valuable and safe har- 
bours for ships, and creeks forlhe reception 
of boats employed in the fisheries. From 
the shore the surface rises into the Ochil 
hills, the highest of which, Bencleuch, lies 
in the parish of Tillicoultry. Clackman- 
nanshire has 2 considerable villages, Alloa, 
and Clackmannan the county town, and 2 
parishes. This county joins with that of 
Kinross, in sending a member to Parlia- 
ment. The valued rent is about L.26,482 
Scots, and the real land rent is about 
L.14,200 Sterling. Population 12,100. 

CLACKMANNAN, the county town is 
beautifully situated on an eminence, gently 
rising out of a plain, from E. to W. to the 
height of 190 feet above the level of the 
Forth. On each side of the town the groun d 
has a gradual descent, but towards the 
W. itisboldandrocky, where the old tower 
of Clackmannanis placed ; said to have been 
built by Robert Bruce. In it is preserved 
his great sword and casque, also a large two 
handed sword, said to have belonged to Sir 
John de Graham, one ofthe faithful cham- 
pions of the great Wallace. The scenery 
beheldfrom this tower is uncommonly beau - 
tiful, and is viewed with delight by every 
traveller. The town of Clackmannan it- 
self, however, by no means corresponds with 
the beauty of its situation. The sheriff 
sometimes holds his court in this town ; and 
here the election of a member of Parlia- 
ment takes place. Clackmannan contains 
about 640 inhabitants. — The PARISH of 
Clackmannan is of an irregular figure, ex- 
tending about G miles in length, and nearly 
5 in breadth. The whole is arable, none of 
the eminences being so steep as to prevent 
the culture of the land. It is watered by 
the rivers Forth and Devon, the last of 
which is noted for its falls and cascades. 
There are in this parish two extensive dis- 
tilleries, at Kilbagie and Kennetpans ; at 
trie last of which is a tolerable harbour. In 
this parish the Devon iron company have e- 
rected extensive furnaces and machinery; 
near which the thrivirg village of New. 
G 



CLU 5 

lonshaw was lately built. Population 

3G05. 

CLATT, a village and parish in the dis- 
trict of Garioch, Aberdeenshire. It is situa- 
ted very high, and is surrounded with lofty 
hills. A small rivulet, Gadie, takes its rise 
here, and afterwards becomes a branch of 
the Urie — The VILLAGE ofClattis erect- 
ed into a burgh of barony, with power to 
hold a weekly and annual market. The 
superiority belongs to the family of Gordon 
of Knockespock.— Population 494, 

CLAYHOLE, a village in Wigtonshire, 
in the parish of Les wait, but lying so near 
the town of Stranraer as to be considered as 
a part of that town. It contains about 500 
inhabitants. 

CLEISH, a parish of Kinross-shire, situa- 
ted along the N. side of these lulls which 
bound that county on the S. extending in 
length about 6 miles, and in breadth more 
than 1. There are several fine lakes a- 
mongst the hills, which abound with pike, 
perch, eels, and a few trout; the rivulets 
which proceed from them have numerous 
small cascades. It abounds in excellent 
freestone ; coal is also found here. Popu- 
lation 004. 

CLEMENT'S WELLS, a village in Had- 
dingtonshire, in the parish of Tranent, 2 
miles S. from Musselburgh, where there is 
- an extensive distillery. 

CLIFTON, a village in Breadalbane, near 
Tyndrum, where isa lead mine. 

CLOSEBU RN, a parish in the district of 
Nithsdale, county of Dumfries, between 9 
and 10 miles in length, and the same in 
breadth. The river Nith forms the W. 
boundary. The principal hills are Queens- 
berry, Carrick, and Auchinleck. Besides 
the Nith, the small rivulet Crichup, noted 
for the romantic fall r called Crichup Linn, 
runs through the parish. The castle of 
Closeburn is a ancient building, surround- 
ed by a fosse, which communicated with a 
lake a quarter of a mile in length. Near 
this castle is a mineral well, strongly im- 
pregnated with sulphur. Coal is not to be 
had nearer than 14 miles ; but the exten- 
sive lime-works of Closeburn have proved 
most beneficial to the country. Popula- 
tion 17C2. j 
CLOVA. Vide COBT ACHY. 
CLUDEN, a river in Dumfries-shire, 
■which takes its rise near the base of the 
Criffel mountains, and after a course of a- 
bout 14 miles, falls into the river Nith, 
nearly opposite to the college of Lincluden. 
It abounds with excellent trout. 

CLUNAIDH, a small river in Aberdeen 



C L Y 

shire, which runs into the Dee, in the pa- 
rish of Crathy. 

CLUNIE, a parish in Perthshire, 9 mile9 
in length, from the top of the lower tier of 
the Grampians towards the valley of Strath, 
more, and 4 miles in breadth. Thesurface 
is mountainous, the lower parts being a- 
boutlSO, while the highest are not less 
than 1800 feet above the level of the sea. 
About l-4th part is arable; the rest being 
mountain, moor, and moss. Benachally is 
the highest mountain ; at thefoot of which, 
on the N. side, is a lake of the same name, 
about a mile long, and half a mile broad, 
abounding with trout and pike. About 4 
miles S. and 700 feet lower than this lake, 
is the Loch of Clunie, about 2 1-2 miles in 
circumference, having a beautiful little is- 
land, on which is an old castle, the occa- 
sional residence of the Earl of Airly. For- 
neth, and Gourdie, are in this parish. In 
the castle of Clunie, in the island above 
mentioned, is said to have been born the 
Admirable Crichton. Population 10G0. 

CLUNY,a parish in Aberdeenshire, situ- 
ated between the rivers Dee and Don. Its 
length is 10 miles, and its breadth 2. It 
lies very low, and is intersected by many 
rivulets, which descend from the neigh- 
bouring hills. Agriculture is muchattend- 
ed to, and the crops are productive. The 
only fuel is peat and turf, which is now 
nearly exhausted. Knitting of Stockings, 
in which all the women, old men, and boys 
are employed, is the only branch of manu- 
facture. There are in this parish 3 d-ruidi- 
cal temples, and several cairns of great size. 
Population 825. 

CLYDE, a large river in Lanarkshire. 
It takes its rise from Clydeslaw, in the pa- 
rish of Crawford, one of those hills which 
separate Lanarkshire from the district of 
Annandale, near to the sources of the An- 
nan and the Tweed; and, dividing the 
county of Lanark through its whole length, 
nearly 55 miles, falls into the Frith of 
Clyde, opposite to the district of Argyle- 
shire called Carval, and the island of Bute. 
Next to the Tay, it is the largest river in 
Scotland, and is navigablefor vessels draw- 
ing 8 feet water, as far as Glasgow. At 
Dunmure burnfoot, G miles below the city, 
it is joined by the great canal from the 
Forth. The romantic falls of the Clyde, 
principally interest the stranger. The up- 
permost one is somewhat above 21-2 miles 
from Lanark, and, from the estate on which 
it is situated, is called the Bonniton fall or 
linn. From Bonniton House, a very neat 
and elegant modem house, you arrive at 



C L Y 

the linn by a most romantic walk along the 
Clyde, leaving Corra linn on your right 
hand. At some little distance from the 
fall, the walk, leading to a rock that jets 
out and overhangs the river, brings you all 
at once within sight of this beautiful sheet 
of water. But no stranger rests satisfied 
with this view ; he still presses onward a- 
long the walk, till, from the rock imme- 
diately above the linn, he sees the whole 
body of the river precipitate itself into the 
chasm below. The rock over which it falls 
is upwards of 12 feet of perpendicular 
height, from which the Clyde makes one 
precipitate tumble or leap into a hollow 
den ; whence some of it again recoils in 
froth and smocking mist. Uoth sides are 
environed by rocks, from whose crevices, 
choughs, daws, and other wild birds, are 
incessantly springing. About half a mile 
below this, is Coria linn, so called from an 
old castle and estate upon the opposite 
bank. The old castle, with Corra House, 
and the rocky and woody banksof the Clyde, 
form of themselves a beautiful and grand 
prospect; but nothing can equal the striking 
and stupendous appearanceof the fall itself, 
which, when viewed from any of thedilf'er- 
ent seats placed here and there along the 
walk, must fill every unaccustomed behol- 
der with astonishment. The tremendous 
rocks around ; the old castle upon the oppo- 
site bank ; a corn mill on the rock below; 
the furious and impatient stream foaming 
over the rock ; the horrid chasm and abyss 
underneath your feet ; heightened by the 
hollow murmur of the water, and the 
screams of wild birds, form a spectacle both 
tremendous and pleasing. A summer house 
or pavilion is" situated over a high rocky 
bank that overlooks the linn, built by Sir 
James Carmichaei of Bonniton in 1708. 
From its uppermost room it affords a very 
striking prospect of the fall ; for all at once, 
on turning your eyes towards a mirror on 
the opposite side of the room from the fall, 
you see the whole tremendous cataract 
pouring as it were upon your head. The 
Corra linn is S 4 feet in height. The river 
does not rush over in one uniform sheet like 
the Bonniton linn, but in 5 different, 
though almost imperceptible, precipitate 
leaps. A little below New Lanark is ano- 
ther beautiful and romantic fall, called 
Dundaff linn. This fall is about 5 or 4 
feel high ; and trouts have been observed 
to spring up and gain the top of it with 
ease. The next fall of consequence is the 
Stonebyrcs linn, situated about 2 miles be- 
low Corra linn. It is so named from the 



4 C Q_C 

neighbouring estate of Stonebyres. This 
cataract, which is about SO feet in height, 
is the limit of the salmon fishing, as none 
can possibly get above it, although t heir en - 
deavours, in the spawning season, are in- 
cessant and amusing. It is equally roman- 
tic with the others ; and, like the Corra 
linn, has three distinct, but almost im- 
perceptible falls. Wild rugged rocks are 
equally visible here, and they are equally 
fringed with wood. The trees, however, 
are by no means so tall and stately, being 
composed of coppice wood. Salmon, pars 
(samlets,) horse muscles, or the pearl oys- 
ter, though numerous below, are never seen 
above this fall. After passing Lanark, the 
Clyde proceeds by Hamilton to Glasgow, 
receiving in its course many tributary 
streams, of which the Avon, the South and 
North Calders, are the chief. At Glasgow 
it becomes navigable, receiving the river 
Leven at Dunbarton, and the Cart near 
Renfrew. Opposite New Port- Glasgow the 
stream is about 2 miles broad. After pas- 
sing Greenock, it falls into the arm of the 
sea to which it gives its name, opposite the 
island of Bute. 

CL YT HESDALE, or STRATHCL YDE, 
one of the 3 wards into which Lanarkshire 
is divided, having the river Clyde running 
through and dividing it into 2 nearly equal 
parts. It gives the title of Marquis to the 
eldest son of the Duke of Hamilton. 

CLY DESLAW, a high hill in the parish 
of Crawford, in Lanarkshire, from which 
the river Clyde takes its rise. 

CLVNE, a parish in the county of Suth- 
erland, extending in length about 24, and 
in breadth from 4 to 8 miles. It is situat- 
ed on the east coast, from which the shore 
rises gradually to the mountains. Loch 
Brora, in this district, is a beautiful piece 
of water, which discharges itself into the 
sea by a rivulet of the same name, at the 
mouth of which is a tolerable harbour. Po- 
pulation 1639. 

CLYTHENESS, a promontory of Caith- 
ness. 

COALSNAUGHTON, a village in Clack- 
mannanshire, in thepansh of Tillycoultry, 
containing upwards of 200 inhabitants. 

COALTOWNS (EAST and WEST), two 
adjacent villages in Fifeshire, in the parish 
of Wcmyss, containing about 400 inhabi- 
tants ; lie 4 miles N. E. of Kirkcaldy. 

COCKBURN LAW, a mountain in the 
parish of Dunse, Berwickshire. It rises 
from a base of at least 6 miles in circum- 
ference to a conical top. The elevation is 
about t>00 feet. On the north side are the 



c o c 

ruins of a very old building, culled Woden's 
or Edwin's hall. It is remarkable in this 
structure that the stones are not cemented 
by any kind of mortar. They are chiefly 
•whinstone, and made to lock into one a- 
nother with grooves and projections, exe- 
cuted with vast labour. It is supposed to 
have been a building similar to Coles cas- 
tle, and Dun Dornadilla in the county of 
Sutherland, and afterwards used as a mili- 
tary station. 

COCKBURNSPATH, a parish on the sea 
coast in the county of Berwick. It consists 
of two parts ; one high and mountainous, 
the other comparatively low and even. 
The upper division makes part of the Lam- 
mermuir hills, which approach within 3 
miles of the shore towards the W. ; the low- 
er division on the sea coast is light and san- 
dy, interspersed with deep fields of rich 
clay. The shore is high, presenting a set 
of cliffs about 100 feet above the level of 
the sea. Behind the cliffs the ground rises 
gently towards the hills, having many deep 
dens or ravines, whose sides are sometimes 
sLoping and covered with verdure, but the 
general appearance is rocky, with overhang- 
ing woods. Over one of these ravines is 
thrown the Peaths or Pease Bridge. This 
bridge is 123 feet from the surface of the 
water to the parapet, 300 feet in length, 
and 15 feet wide, and is.looked upon as a 
masterpiece of architecture.— About Dun- 
glass, the seat of Sir James Hall, there are 
a great deal of fine wood and valuable trees. 
Pemmishiel wood contains nearly 100 acres 
of fine natural oak. This parish has been 
frequently the scene of war ; this appears 
from the camps still visible on the rising 
grounds, and the marks of military en- 
trenchments in the glens. About 60 years 
ago an attempt was made to clear a basin 
and form a harbour at the mouth of the 
small rivulet called the Cove ; aft or the work 
was considerably advanced, it was destroy- 
ed by a storm, and has never been renewed. 
A road was at that time cut through the 
rock, by which carts pass under ground for 
the space of 60 or 70 yards. The greatest ad- 
Tantage has attended the use of the sea 
■ware as a manure. It is found to make 
the harvest earlier, and the barley raised 
by that manure brings at least Is. per boll 
more than the current price. The beds of 
coal, which were formerly wrought, seem 
to be completely exhausted. Population 
904.— The VILLAGE of the same name 
lies on the road from Dunbar to Berwick. 

COCKENZIE, a village in Haddington- 
shire, ia the parish of Tranent , 1 mile E. 



52 COL 

of Prestonpans, near the harbour of Port- 
Seton, containing with that village, 430 in- 
habitants. 

COCKPEN, a parish in the county of E- 
dinburgh, about 2 miles long and 1 1-2 
broad. The soil is a strong clay, which is 
very fertile, and in general well cultivated. 
Coal is to be found in every part, and has 
been wrought to great advantage. The 
river South Esk divides the parish. At its 
southern extremity its banks are bold, and 
covered with natural wood, and over it is 
thrown an elegant bridge. Dalhousie cas- 
tle is a building of great antiquity, plea- 
santly situated on the banks of the river. 
The grounds are well laid out and orna- 
mented. The mansion of Cockpeu, lately 
purchased by the Earl of Dalhousie, is ad- 
mired for its delightful situation, and the 
romantic beauty of the surrounding scen- 
ery. Population 1681. 

COE.or CON A, a celebrated river in Ar- 
gyleshire, which runs through the vale of 
Glencoe.— See GLENCOE. 

COICH, a small river in Aberdeenshire, 
which runs into the Dee in the parish of 
Crathy. 

COILTIE, a rivulet of Inverness-shire, 
in the parish of Urquhart, which falls into 
Loch Ness. 

COINICII, a small river in Argyleshire, 
which runs into the sea at the head of 
Loch Linnhe. 

COLDINGHAM, a parish in Berwick- 
shire. It is of an irregular square figure, 
of 7 or 8 miles. The general appearance is 
flat; but there is a considerable portion of 
rising grounds, of easy ascent and gentle 
declivity, which are, with a few exceptions, 
accessible to the plough, and are of a rich 
fertile soil, except about 600 acres of moor, 
of which the soil is altogether barren and 
unfit for culture. St. Abb's Head is in this 
parish. The coast is in general dangerous 
and rocky. There is a considerable extent 
of natural and planted wood, especially on 
the banks of the river Eye, which waters 
the parish. About a mile W. of St. Abb's 
Head, 'is a beautiful piece of water, called 
Coldingham Loch, which is about a mile 
in circumference, and of considerable 
depth. There are besides the town of Col- 
dingham, three or four small villages in the 
parish, the inhabitants of which are chiefly 
farmers or weavers. The remains of a 
church are still visible on the heights of St. 
Abb's Head, and Fast Castle, surrounded 
on all sides by the sea. Population 2424. 
—The Town of Coldingham lie3 IS miles 
S. E. of Dunbar. It stands in a retired dry 



.•alley: having 



rivulet of excellent 



water running upon each side of it, and is 
about a mile distant from the sea. It is a 
burgh of barony. It appears to have been 
of considerable antiquity; for its monastery- 
was one of the most ancient, and flourish- 
ing on the east of Scotland. The back 
wall and east gable of the parish church, 
with a vault or two, and some detached 
ruins, are all that remain of this edifice, 
which appears to have been extensive. It 
contains about 720 inhabitants. 

COLDSTREAM, a parish in Berwick- 
shire. It extends along the Tweed 7 or S 
miles, and is about 4 in breadth. The ge- 
neral appearance of the country is flat ; the 
eminences not deserving the name of hills. 
The soil is mostly rich and fertile; on the 
banks of the Tweed light; inclining to 
clay backwards. A broad strip of barren 
land, called the Moorland, divides the pa- 
rish, running through it from K. to YV. 
There are no natural woods, but some 
thriving plantations have been laid out. 
Shell and rock marl are found in many 
parts. Hirsel, the seat of the Earl of Home; 
and Kersfield, of Mr Morrison, are great or- 
naments to the neighbourhood. Lord 
Home has erected two tine obelisks in me- 
mory of his son, Lord Dunglas, who was 
killed in the American war. Several tu- 
muli in the parish are said to contain the 
bones of those who fell in the border wars. 
Population 25S4,--The Town of Coldstream 
is situated on the N. side of the river 
Tweed, 10 1-2 miles S. from Dunse. It 
was anciently the seat of a priory or abba- 
cy of the Cistertian order, founded by Cos- 
patrick, Earl of March, and Derder his la- 
dy. It is pleasantly situated. The num- 
ber of inhabitants is about 1162. Here Ge- 
neral Monk fixed his headquarters before 
he marched into England to restore Charles 
II. and here he raised that regiment which 
is still called the Coldstream regiment 
of Guards. The roads from Edinburgh to 
London, from Berwick to Kelso, and from 
Dunse to England, pass through the town. 
The excellence of the wool, from the 
neighbouring district, points the manufac- 
ture as being adapted to the place. No 
extensive trade, however, is carried on. A 
neat bridge of live arches over the Tweed, 
unites the two kingdoms at this town. 

COLIXSBURGH, a village in Fifeshire, 
in the parish of Kilconquhar, 10 miles S. of 
Cupar ; the load to Anstruthcr and Cra: 
passes through it. It contains about 476 it 
habitants. 

COLL, one of thewcstern isles, annexed 



C O L 

m the division of counties to Argyleshire, 
and making part of the parish ofTiry. It 
is about 14 miles in length, and 2 1 2 in 
breadth, on an average, containing 50 
square miles, or 15,000 acres. Two thirds 
of this extent are hills, rocks, blowing sands, 
lakes, and morasses; the other third is 
pasture, meadow, or corn land. Its surface 
is much diversified with eminences, and co- 
vered with a thin stratum of earth, which 
in many places is wanting, discovering the 
bare stone. The uncultivated parts, which 
are nearly seven-eighths of the whole, are 
covered with heath. Coll abounds with 
lakes, of which several contain trout and 
eel. Babbits are very numerous; and 
hares, which were lately introduced, are 
becomingso. The castle of Coll is strong, 
and square built, with turrets, Say. situated 
on a rock. It is still in tolerable repair. 
There are a great many black cattle fed on 
, the island, 200 head of which are annually 
exported. The two ends of the island be- 
long to the Duke of Argyle, and the middle 
is the property of Mr. M'Lean of Coll. The 
inhabitants employ themselves chiefly in 
fishing. Population 1162. 

COLLACE, a parish in the valley of 
Strathmore, county of Perth, forming a 
square of nearly 2 miles. The northern 
division is tolerably uniform, and rises gent- 
ly towards the hills, having a light black 
loamy soil, intermixed with clay, and mos- 
sy tracts of small extent ; the district to- 
wards the S. takes in the N. side of the Sid- 
law hills, the sides of which are in some 
places inclosed and improved ; but towards 
the top, with the exception of Dunsinnan, 
are covered with heath. Dunsinnan house 
is in the N. W. comer of the parish, about 
7 miles from Perth. The most noted piece 
of antiquity is the castle of Macbeth, on 
the top of Dunsinnan hill. Population 
S63. 

COLLESSIE, a parish in the county of 
Fife, S miles in length and 6 in breadth. 
The S. part of the parish is remarkably flat, 
but the N.is rather hilly. The arable land 
is very fertile. A large lake, which was 
drained some time ago, is now covered with 
natural hay, and affords pasture to 120 
head of cattle. Not far from the church are 
the remains of two castles or fortifications. 
Population 964. 

COLL1NGTON, a parish in the county 
of Mid-Lothian, which approaches within 
2 miles of the metropolis. It extends 4 
miles E. and W. and 5 in a S. and N. di- 
rection, and takes in part of the Pentland 
ridge, The arable lands slope gently from 



COL 

the skirts of the hills to the level of the ri- 
ver, and are all inclosed and highly culti- 
vated. The river of Collingtou, or rather 
the Water of Leith, abounds with much 
romantic scenery, and in a course of 10 
miles drives no fewer than 71 mills. On 
the lands of Comiston there are the vestiges 
of a very large and ancient encampment. 
Not far from this are two large cairns and 
an upright stone, of a flat shape, 7 feet 
high above the surface of the ground, and 
above 4 feet below it, called the Kelstone, 
a British word which imports the " stone 
of the battle." It has also passed imme- 
morially by the name of Camus stone, 
■which would seem to intimate its connec- 
tien with some Danish commander. Po- 
pulation 1605. Collington Village is 4 
miles S. W. from Edinburgh. 

COLLISTOWN and OLD CASTLE, two 
adjacent fishing villages in Aberdeenshire, 
in the parish of Slains, containing about 
330 inhabitants. 

COLMONELL, a parish in the district 
of Carrick, Ayrshire. It is 14 miles in 
length, and on an average 6 in breadth. 
•From the sea, which bounds it on the W. 
for 4 miles inland, the surface is hilly ; the 
rest of the parish, though elevated, is pret- 
ty level. The soil is thin and light; that 
on the banks of the Stinchar, and some of 
its- tributary streams, is loamy and fertile ; 
and, through their whole course, is a con- 
spicuous landmark to vessels when they en- 
ter the Frith of Clyde. A great part of the 
parish is inclosed, and agriculture is now 
greatly attended to. There are a great 
tiumber of ancient forts and cairns, con- 
'cerning which tradition itself does not 
•even hazard a conjecture. Population 
*304. 

COLLONS AY, one of the Hebrides, be- 
longing to Argyleshire. As it is separated 
■from Oronsay only by a narrow sound, 
which is dry at low water, we may consider 
these two as the same island. They lie 
nearly 9 miles N. by W. from the nor- 
thern extremity of Islay ; and from the S. 
end of Oronsay to the N. end of Colon- 
say, 12 miles long, and from 1 to 3 broad. 
The surface is unequal, having a consi- 
derable number of rugged hills covered 
with heath; but none of the eminences de- 
serve the name of mountains. It contains 
about 9000 acres, of which 6000 are ara- 
ble. The soil is light, and along the shores 
it inclines to sand, producing early and 
tolerable crops. Oflate, great attention 
has been paid, to the improvement of these 
islands; roads have been made, the land 



54 COM 

i drained and cultivated, and a quey built ; 
in short no expense has been spared by the 
enlightened proprietor to ameliorate the 
conditionof the soil, and of the inhabitants. 
The breed of cattle is so excellent, that 200 
guineas have been offered for a bull, and 
refused. The system of converting arable 
land into pasture has prevailed; and a 
great part of the two islands is covered 
with black cattle. The remains of several 
Romish chapels are to be seen in Colonsay. 
The priory of a monastry, w hich wasfound- 
ed by St. Columbay, the walls of which arc 
still standing, was in Oronsay ; and, next 
to Icolmkill, it is esteemed the finest relic 
of religious antiquity in the Hebrides. 
There is a great quantity of fine coral on 
the banks around these islands ; and a con - 
siderable quantity of kelp is annually made 
from the sea-weed thrown upon the coast. 
M-r. Macneil is the principal proprietor. 
The number of inhabitants amounted in 
lS01to805. 

COLONSAY (LITTLE,) a small island 
of the Hebrides, situated betwixt the isles 
of Staff "a and Gometra. It in many places 
exhibits specimens of basaltic pillars, simi- 
lar to those of Staffa. 

COL VEND and SOUTHWICK, a parish 
in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, extends 
along the banks of the Solway frith, about 
S miles in length, and 4 in breadth. The 
surface is rough and irregular, much broken 
and interrupted by rocks, heaps of stones, 
and impenetrable copses of thorns, furae, 
and briars. For two miles along the coast 
the country becomes rather smooth, and in 
many places arable ; but farther up, parti- 
cularly towards the N. E. extremity, the 
surface is occupied by the chain of the Crif- 
fel or Grawfel mountains. From the ap- 
pearance of the ground, it is evident that 
pasturage is more proper here than tillage. 
The sea coast is remarkably bold and rocky, 
forming high and tremendous precipices, 
from the bottom of which the tide ebbs, 
leaving an extensive flat sand,from whence 
the beholder may view the dreadful scene- 
ry. The small river of Southwick forms a 
convenient harbour, where it falls into the 
Solway frith. All the mosses contain large 
trunks of oak and other trees ; the moun- 
tains are composed entirely of granite, in- 
terspersed with veins of quartz and spars. 
The polypus, or animal flower, is found 
here. Many of the springs in the CrifTel 
mountains contain, in solution, a quantity 
of calcareous matter, which gives them a 
petrifying quality. Population 1298. 

COMRIE, a parish in the county of Perth, 



about 13 miles long and 19 broad. It con- 
sists of the strath or flat ground at the head 
of Strathearne, and of 4 gleus, with rivulets 
at the bottom, which pour their waters into 
the Earne. The soil in the low grounds is 
in general light and gravelly ; but in some 
parts, especially in the glens, it is deeper 
and swampy. On the sides ofthe strath, to 
the E. of Lochearne, and even along the 
loch itself, is a continued ridge ofhills, some 
of them elevated to a great height. Loch- 
earne, and several smaller lakes which a- 
bound with trout, are in this parish. The 
hilly part is covered with flocks of sheep, 
of which there are annually reared about 
16,000. Few districts afford more variety 
of wild Highland scenery than Comrie. 
There is a good slate quarry near the forest 
of Glenairtney, and an excellent limestone 
quarry at the W. end of Lochearne, which 
has been of immense service in the im- 
provement ofthe lands. There are the re- 
mains of three Druidical temples, and the 
distinct profile of a Roman camp in the 
plain of Dalgincross, in the neighbourhood 
of Comrie. This parish has for several 
years felt shocks of earthquakes. Popula- 
tion 2689.— The VILLAGE of Comrie is 
delightfully situated on the left bank ofthe 
Earne, at the junction of the Lednock, 6 
miles and a half West of Crieff. It is a 
thriving place, has a distillery, and carries 
on a small trade in spinning of yam. 

CON, or CHON (LOCH,) the uppermost 
of the chain of lakes formed by the Forth 
in passing through the parish of Aberfoyle, 
in the county of Perth. It is about 2 miles 
and a half in length, and possesses the same 
romantic scenery for which Loch Catherine 
and Loch Ard are distinguished. 

CONAN, a river in Ross-shire, which 
falls into the firth of Cromarty. It abounds 
with salmon, and formerly pearls of great 
value were found near its mouth. 

CONTIN, a parish in Ross-shire. The 
surface is very mountainous, but there is a 
considerable quantity of good corn lands in 
the vallies. A great number of hills are 
covered w ith forests of natural wood. There 
are many lakes and rivers, which abound 
with salmon and other fish. Black cattle, 
horses and sheep, are reared on the hills, 
which also afford plenty of game to the 
sportsman. Shell and rock marl, and lime- 
stone of good quality, abound. The Rasy 
is the principal river in the parish. On the 
farm of Kinnellan, is a very remarkable 
echo. Population 1844. 

COPINSHAY. See CUPINSHAY. 
COPPAY.a small island ofthe Hebri- 



C O R 

des, 2 miles S. W. from the island of Lewis. 
COQUET, a river which takes its rise in- 
the county of Roxburgh, in those moun- 
tains which separate England from Scot- 
land, and, after receiving a vast number of 
streams from the sides of the mountains, 
it enters England, and falls into the ocean 
betwixt Alnwick and Coquet isle. 

CORNHILL, a small village in the parish 
of Ordiquhill. Banffshire, near which there 
is annually held a well frequented cattle 
market. 

CORREEN, a hill in the parish of For- 
bes, Aberdeenshire, the height of which is 
nearly 2000 feet. It contains excellent 
limestone. 

CORRtE. SeeHUTTONandCORRIE. 

CORRIF, a smallriver in Dumfnes-shire, 

which has its source in a glen of the same 

name, and, after a rapid course of about 6 

miles, falls into the Milk at Balstack. 

CORRY ARRACK, an immense moun- 
tain in the parish of Laggan, in Inverness- 
shire, over which the great Highland road 
passes between Garvimore and Fort-Au- 
gustus. The road is formed along the wes- 
tern bank of the TarfF, along which the 
road winds through stately trees in the deep 
groves of Inverisha, which are terminated 
as the valley rises into the mountain, by 
lofty naked cliffs of picturesque and varied 
form : a number of torrents streaming from 
the higher parts of the mountain, are pour- 
ed with impetuosity over theprecipice, and 
dashing down from shelve to shelve, bro- 
ken with all the wild varieties ofthe rock, 
and foaming in their fall, exhibit some of 
the most romantic cascades that can be 
imagined. 

CORSTORPHINE, a parish in the coun- 
ty of Mid Lothian, 4 miles at its greatest 
length, and on an average 2 1-2 miles in 
breadth. The surface is in general level, 
rising to a few eminences, and these in- 
considerable. Over a great part of its ex- 
tent it spreads into a smooth plain. --The 
grounds of highest elevation are those 
which are called Corstorphine hills, forming 
a diversity highly conducive to the beauty 
ofthe country. On the S. and W. sides they 
rise from the plain, by an easy and gradual 
ascent, to the height of 470 feet : on the N. 
and E. they are more rocky and precipitate. 
The appearance on the S. side is remarka- 
ble for its beauty ; decorated with the beau- 
tiful seats of Belmont and Beechwood, and 
having the whole lands cultivated and in- 
closed, it forms a pleasant rural landscape. 
The soil i5 generally a rich loam, diversified 
with clay and sand. Agriculture, in its dif- 



COR 56 

ferent departments, is conducted upon the 
most improved principles of husbandry,; 
and the farmer takes advantage of his local 
situation to procure dung from Edinburgh. 
Corstorphine is watered at one corner by 
the Water of Leith, and by a small rivulet 
called Gogar burn. There is but little 
wood in the district. Except sandstone, 
whinstone, and a species of stone composed 
of schistus and sandstone, intermixed with 
micaceous fragments, no mineral of any 
note has been discovered. Population 1 159. 
CORSTORPHINE, avillagein the above 
parish, 4 miles W. of Edinburgh, on the 
great road to Glasgow and Falkirk : it lies 
low, and is said to have a damp atmos- 
phere ; but disorders are more prevalent 
than in the neighbourhood. The church of 
Corstorphine is an ancient Gothic building 
in the form of across, dedicated to St. John 
the Baptist. It was founded by Sir John 
Forrester of Corstorphine, in 1429, for a 
provost, 5 prebendaries, and 2 singing 
boys. The churches which belonged to 
this college were, Corstorphine, Dalmahoy, 
andHatton; the teinds of Ratbo, half of 
thetiends of Addiston, and half of the teinds 
of Upper Gogar, belonged to this church. 
The population has very much decreased 
within the last century : one cause of bring, 
ing people to the place on a transient visit 
has some years ago been removed. The 
hepatic mineral spring, which was much 
resorted to, has fallen into total disrepute, 
for a number of years, owing, it is said, to 
a drain passing near the place, by which its 
virtues were impaired. Before that period, 
Corstorphine was a place of fashionable re- 
sort from Edinburgh, and had its balls and 
other amusements of watering places. 

CORTACHY and CLOVA. These unit- 
ed parishes occupy a very extensive por- 
tion of the county of Angus. The soil is 
in general poor, with a wet and cold bot- 
tom. A part however, of the haugh ground 
on the banks of the Esk, the only river in 
the district, is a light early soil, intersper- 
sed with frequent patches of moss. The 
parishes include a part of the Grampian 
mountains, and from this circumstance are 
calculated principally for pasture. Some 
of the hills are of great height, and many 
places are beautifully romantic and pictu- 
resque. In the small part of the parishes 
which is capable of cultivation, the farmers 
follow a regular system of agriculture. 
Marl, which is procured in great plenty at 
the distance of 3 miles, is the only manure. 
There are two small lakes in the district, 
which abound with trout and pike. The 



CO V 

common fuel is peat, turf, or heath, which 
are abundant in every part. Cortachy 
castle, the property of Lord Airly, and 
Clova House, are the only seats. Whinstone 
is found in great quantity; but no freestone 
or any valuable mineral has yet been disco- 
vered. Population 1000. 

CORY-BRECKAN, a dangerous gulf or 
whirlpool between the islands of Jura and 
Scarba, on the coast of Argyleshire. It is 
nearly as much dreaded by sailors on those 
coasts as the Gulf Charybdis was by the 
seamen of old. The sound is about a mile 
broad where narrowest, and the whirlpool 
is on the Scarba side. Soon after the flood 
| has entered the sound, the sea at this place 
appears in great disorder. It boils, foams, 
and passes away in successive whirls. The 
commotion increases till near the fourth 
hour. 

COULL, a parish in Aberdeenshire, si- 
tuated at the head of a strath, or valley, 
j which is called Cromar. Its shape is near- 
ly triangular, the longest side of which is 
about 5 miles, and the other two about 3 
and a half, Coull, and the rest of the strath 
of Comar, is flat, but much sheltered by 
high hills on each side. The soil is excellent, 
being composed of clay and sand. The pa- 
rish takes in also part of the hills, which 
are bleak and barren, affording pasture to 
a few sheep. A considerable bog, in rainy 
seasons, is completely converted into a lake, 
and covered with aquatic fowls. About a 
mile and a half West from the minister's 
house, is a small Druidical circle, on some 
of the stones of which is the appearance of 
hieroglyphics and figures of men. It is cal- 
led Tamnavrie, or " hill of worship." Se- 
veral pieces of old Scottish silver coin have 
been dug up amongst the ruins of the cas- 
tle of Coull, an ancient edifice of vast di- 
mensions. The great disadvantage of this 
parish is the distance from a sea-port, Aber- 
deen, the nearest, being distant upwards of 
30 miles. Population 721. 

COULTER (LOCH,) a small lake in the 
parish of St. Ninians, Stirlingshire, about 2 
miles in circumference, which discharges 
its water into Bannockburo. 

COUP-LIN ISLES, two small islands, ly- 
ing between the isle of Sky and the main- 
land of Scotland, 4 miles from the isle of 
Scalpa. 

COVINGTON, a parish in the county of 
Lanark, extending in length about 3 miles, 
and in breadth rather more than 2, bound- 
ed on the E. by Libberton, on the S. by 
Symington and Wiston, on the W. by Car- 
michael, and on the N. by Pettynain. The 



CO Y 



C R A 



surface is partly meadow ground on the i 
banks of the Clyde, and partly mountain- 
ous. Tinto, the highest point, is elevated 
to the height of 1720 feet above the level 
of the Clyde. The hilly part of the parish ; 
is covered with heath, but the rest of the j 
soil is fertile and well cultivated. There 
is a small village, called Thankerton, 
beautifully situated on the banks of Clyde, 
over which river there is a bridge at this 
place. Within this small district nume- 
rous relics of antiquity are to be met with, 
particularly four circular camps, and a large 
cairn on the summit of the hill of Tinto, 
where a fire was constantly kept up, whence 
its name, which signifies " the hill of fire." 
There is also a fine ruin of a fortification, 
built by Lindsay of Covington, in the year 
U12. Population 43S. 

COWAL, a district of Argyleshire, is a 
peninsula stretching N. E. and S. W. be~ 
tween the Frith of Clyde and Loch Fyne. 
The N. E. partof the district, which bor- 
ders with Perthshire, presents a rugged and 
broken surface. The mountains become 
gradually lower, and the surface less rug- 
ged, as you advance to the S. W. and to- 
wards the extremity, comparatively speak- ' 
ing. the land is low and level. The hills 
afford excellent pasture for sheep and 
black cattle ; they are gradually growing 
green since the introduction of sheep. The 
soil has so great a tendency to produce 
heath, that land laid out in fallow will be- 
come covered with it in six or seven years. 
This district is intersected by three arms 
of the sea, Loch Ridden, Loch Streven, and 
Loch Eck, and is watered by the rivers Cur 
and Eachaig. The coast possesses many 
creeks and harbours, which afford shelter 
to the busses employed in the herring fish- 
ery. Here are the ruins of the royal cas- 
tles of Dunoon and Carrick. Campbell of 
Strachur, Campbell of South-hall, and La- 
mont of Lamont, have elegant houses and 
extensive estates in this district. 

COWCADDENS, a village in the imme- 
diate -vicinity of Glasgow and Port Dun- 
das. 

COWIE, a small river in the county of 
Kincardine, which falls into the ocean at 
Stonehaven. 

COYL, a small rivulet in Ayrshire, which 
falls into the Lugar near the village of 
Ochiltree. 

COYLTON, a parish in the district of 
Kyle, in Ayrshire. It extends about 2 
miles in breadth, and 7 in length. The 
surface is flat, and the soil is a rich fertile 



clay, particularly productive on the banks 
of the rivers Ayr and Doon. There are se- 
veral new plantations and natural woods. 
In the parish are three lakes, which abound 
with trout. Coal, freestone, lime, and marl, 
are found in every part of the parish. Po- 
pulation 1159. 

CRAIG, a parish situated in the county 
of Angus, at the discharge of the South. 
Esk into the ocean, which separates it from 
Montrose on the N. It extends along the 
sea coast about 4 miles, presenting a rocky 
craig or precipice to the sea. Its length 
is about 6, and its breadth about 21-2 miles. 
The soil is good, producing excellent crops. 
There are two fishing villages in the parish, 
viz. Usan and Ferryden. There was for- 
merly a very productive salmon lishmg on 
the South Esk, but of late it has greatly 
fallen off. Enclosures are now general. 
There were formerly several castles in the 
parish, which are now demolished : but, if 
there are few monuments of ancient gran- 
deur, we have several beautiful modern 
seats. Dunninald and Usan are fine man- 
sions, with ornamented pleasure grounds; 
and the elegant castle of Rossie, lately built, 
is a noble specimen of modern architec- 
ture. Mr. Ross, the proprietor, has lately 
at his own expense built a neat church, 
with a handsome square tower, to termi- 
nate the vista from his castle. NearRossie 
is a mineral spring, strongly impregnated 
with iron, of considerable service in relax- 
ed habits. The parish has also extensive 
limestone quarries. Population 1465. 

CRAIG ANN, a mountain in Ereadal- 
bane, 16 miles N. W. from Perth. , 

CRAIG-BEN YON, a mountain in Perth- 
shire, in Monteith, 3 miles N. E. of Cal- 
lender. 

CRAIG-ENDIVE, a small island in 
the sound of Jura, 4 miles from that is- 
land. 

GRAIG-GAG-POINT, a promontory on 
the E. coast of Sutherlandshire, in the pa- 
rish of Loth, S miles S. W. from the Ord 
of Caithness, and 18 miles N. N. E. of Dor- 
noch. 

CRAIGIE, a parish in the district of 
Kyle, in the county of Ayr. The surface 
is hilly, and from the top of some of the 
hills the prospect is very extensive. The 
greater part is arable, well enclosed, and 
very productive. The hills are covered with 
verdure, and afford pasture to a great num- 
ber of cattle. The extent of the parish is 7 
miles in length, and 11-4 mile in breadth. 
Many parts of it contain coal. One seam 



CRA 

is composed of what is here called Caimel 
coal. There are also two or three great 
limeworks- Population 767. 

CRAIGIE-BARNS, a hill in Perthshire, 
near Dunkeld, 1000 feet in height. On 
the top the prospect is extremely rich and 
diversified. To the S. is the vale of the 
Tay as far as the Ochils, with the hill of 
Birnam in the foreground; to the east- 
ward is the valley of Stormont, with a beau- 
tiful chain of lochs, sis in number. To the 
W. and N. is seen the Tay flowing in ma- 
jestic grandeur through a narrow vale, 
with the high mountains of Athole, Sechal- 
lion, and Being'.o, on the N. 

CRAIG-LEITH, a small island in the 
Frith of Forth, about a mile N. of North 
Berwick, to which it belongs. It supports 
a few rabbits. 

CRAIG-LOCKHART, a hill about 2 
miles S. TV. of Edinburgh. It is beautiful- 
ly wooded, and forms a romantic and most 
charming situation for the country resi- 
dence of the proprietor. Towards the N. 
TV. the rock exhibits lofty basaltic columns, 
and on the S. E. side another set of basaltic 
pillars appear more distinct than the for- 
mer, but of small diameter; the columns 
are inclined towards the E. forming 
an obtuse angle. — The summit is 540 feet 
high. 

CRAIG -LOGAN, a promontory ofWig- 
tonshire, on the N. W. extremity of Loch 
Ryan, 10 miles N. N. TV. of Stranraer. 

CRAIG-LUSH (LOCH,) a lake in the 
district of Stormont, in Perthshire, from 
which the riveT Lunan takes its rise. 

CRAIG-NISH, a parish situated on the 
western coast of Argyleshire, 7 miles long, 
and 2 broad, containing 7000 acres..— The 
surface is low and flat ; tlis soil inclines to 
clay, and is tolerably fertile ; but the cli- 
mate, on account of its vicinity to the At- 
lantic, is so moist and variable, as often to 
blast the farmer's hopes. There are many 
fortified eminences in the parish, supposed 
to be Danish. In the vale, many rude mo- 
numents record, in the most artless man- 
ner, the battles of ancient times. A clus- 
ter of these rude obelisks is to be seen close 
to the house of Craignish. There are also 
the remains of cairns and other tumuli. 
Coal is touch wanted ; but since the open- 
ing of the Crinan canal, this evil has been 
less severely felt. Population S26. 

GRAIG-OWL, one of the Sidlaw hills, in 
the parish of Tealing, Angus-shire, elevat- 
ed 1S00 feel. 

CRAIG-PHATRIC, a steep and rugged 
hill in the' neighbourhood of Inverness. 



CRA 

The elevation of the highest part is 115CT 
feet above the river Ness, which flows at its 
foot. It is noted for the remains of one of 
those fortifications, which from the vitri- 
fied appearance of the stones, and the marks 
of fusion which they exhibit, have received 
the name of vitrified forts. — That on the 
summit of Craig-Phatric is by far the most 
complete and extensive one in Britain. It 
is in the form of a parallelogram, the length 
of which is about SO yards, and the breadth 
30 within the wall. The stones are all firm- 
ly connected together by a kind of vitrified 
matter, resembling lava, or the scoria or 
flag of an iron foundery, and the stones 
themselves in many places seem to have 
been softened and vitrified. On the outside 
there is the appearance of a second ram- 
part, but not so regular as the first. With- 
in the area is a hollow, with a small spring, 
of water. The opinions concerning these 
ruins are very different ; some maintain 
that the vitrification is the effect of a vol- 
cano ; others, the work of art. But Mr. 
Fraser Tytler, in the second volume of the 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh, endeavours to establish that the 
vitrification is the result of accident, the 
ruins of ancient forts destroyed by fire. 

CRAIG-ROSSIE, one of the Ochil hills, 
in the parish of Auchterarder. 

CRAIL, a parish in Fifeshire, which oc- 
cupies the S. E. corner of that county, ex- 
tending in length about 6 miles, but of 
very unequal breadth. Its general appear- 
ance is flat and naked; the exposure to the 
sea winds being very unfavourable to the 
growth of trees. The soil is various, being 
found of all kinds, from the richest black 
loam to the poorest thin wet clay. From 
the attention paid to husbandry, they have 
generally plentiful crops.— In former times, 
coal used to be wrought in most parts of the 
parish. Limestone is also found in a few 
quarries.— There is plenty of freestone, 
but the quality is not good, A short way 
E. of Balcomie house, is a small cave in a 
freestone rock on the sea shore, where Con- 
stantine II. was beheaded by the Danes, 
after his defeat at Crail, in the year 872. 
Airdrie and Wormiston are two fine modern 
houses. The remains of a priory, and the 
ruins of an old castle, where David I. re- 
sided, are the only relics of antiquity.-- ■> 
The Town of the same name is a royal 
burgh of great antiquity, 4 miles E. of King- 
horn. It was anciently called Caryle or 
Cahraile, andis mentioned by old historians 
as a town of considerable note, as early as 
the middle of the 9th century. The church,. 



C R. A 59 

is an ancient fabric, still entire, erected 

1517. The celebrated James Sharp, arch- 
bishop of St. Andrew's, was once minister 
of this church, and his hand-writing is still 
shewn in the Session records. A little to 
the east of the harbour, on the top of the 
clifF, are the ruins of the castle where Da- 
vid I. resided. The town consists of two 
streets, and two or three lanes ; the north- 
most street is broad and spacious, and con- 
tains some good houses, but the wholeplace 
bears evident marks of antiquity, and hav- 
ing seen better days. The harbour is small 
and incommodious, and besides is not 
safe. Crail was formerly a great ren- 
dezvous for the herring-fishery, but scarce- 
ly any have been caught there of late 
years, although the white fishing has been 
tolerably successful. A coal pit was late- 
ly, opened in the neighbourhood of the 
town, from which coal of an excellent qua- 
lity is procured. Crail received its charter 
from King Robert Bruce, which was suc- 
cessively confirmed, with several new 
grants, by Robert II. Mary, James VI. and 
Charles I. It is governed by 5 bailies, a 
treasurer, and from 11 to 15 councillors. 
It has seven incorporated trades, and joins 
■with Kilrenny, E. and VV. Anstruther, 
and Pittenweem, in returning a member 
to Parliament. Population 1600. 

CRAILING, a parish in tbe district of 
Teviotdale, of Roxburgh. Its form is near- 
ly circular, having a diameter of about 4 
miles. Its surface represents a valley, with 

the river Teviot running in the centre 

The soil, though various, is excellent, and 
•very fertile. Towards the S. there are con- 
siderable plantations of wood. Besides the 
Teviot, the small river Oxnam -waters the 
parish. Agriculture is more attended to 
here than perhaps in any part in Scotland. 
Marl, lime, and gypsum, are used for ma- 
nure. The turnpike road from Hawick to 
Kelso passes through the village of Crailing, 
which is 7 miles W. from Kelso, and 13 E. 
from Hawick. Mount Teviot Lodge, a seat 
of the Marquis of Lothian, is finely situated 
on the borders of a romantic glen, the sides 
of which are covered with natural wood. 
At the foot of the glen is Crailing house. 
A Roman road, or causeway, runs through 
the parish; near which are «everal fortifi- 
cations, which are also said to be Roman. 
Population 695. 

CRAKENISH-POINT, a promontory on 
the W. coast of the isle of Skye. 

CRAMOND, a parish situated on the S. 
side of the Frith of Forth, partly in the 
county of Linlithgow, but the greater part 



in Mid-Lothian. It is watered by the A - 
mon, which is the boundary of the shires. 
The sides of this river are beautifully orna- 
mented, from about Craigiehall to where 
it falls into the Forth. The whole extent 
of the parish is from six to seven miles in 
length, while the breadth varies from one 
to two. The road from Edinburgh to 
Queensferry passes through towards the N. 
and E. crossing the A mon at Cramond 
bridge, 5 1-2 miles W. of Edinburgh. The 
surface is flat, interspersed with gentle e- 
minences. Its vicinity to Edinburgh, affords 
j a very ready market for the produce, and 
I furnishes plenty of excellent manure for the 
farms.- The Southern and wesieni part of 
I the parish is more hilly and broken ; Cor- 
| storphine-hill is partly in this parish. To 
' it also are annexed the two small islands of 
Cramond and Inchmickery. The oyster 
beds on the coast, and about these two is- 
lands, are almost destroyed from over fish- 
ing ; and the Anion, w hich formerly abound - 
ed with salmon and trout, is now nearly 
deserted. The principal -manufacture car- 
ried on is the forging of iron and working of 
steel. Freestone abounds in many places, 
as also whinstone and granite. Ironstone 
is found along the coasts and there are rqa- 
lri - seams of coal; but, though pits have 
been frequently sunk, they haveshcrtly been 
given up, on account of the badness of the 
coal. In Corstorphine-hill there is a spe- 
cies of stone, seemingly composed of schis- 
tusand quartz, which is so hard that, when 
' heated and pulverized, it has been found to 
answer most of the purposes of emery. 
; There is a mineral spring on the lands of 
I Marchfield, called the Spaw, containing a 
; sufficient quantity of sulphate of Magnesia 
| to render it highly purgative. The Parish 
of Cramond has given birth to several men 
who have become eminent by their talents 
or their virtues. Of these may be mention- 
ed, John, second Lord Balmerinoch, noted 
for his spirited opposition to Charles I., Sir 
Thomas Hope of Grantoun, a celebrated 
lawyer at the Scottish bar ; Sir George Mac- 
kenzie, first earl of Cromarty ; and. Dr Cleg- 
horn, professor of anatomy in the universi- 
ty of Dublin. To these may be added John 
Law of Lauriston, one of the most remark- 
able characters this or any other country 
has ever produced. Population 1653. — 
The VILLAGE of Cramond lies 5 1-2 
miles W. of Edinburgh, and 1 N. of Cra- 
mond bridge. It is situated on the river 
Amon, where it discharges itself into the 
Frith of Forth. It contains upwards of 310 
inhabitants, who are mostly employed in 



cr a e 

the ironworks carried on in the neighbour- 
hood. The Amon is navigable for small 
vessels nearly a quarter of a mile from the 
Forth, forming a safe and commodious 
harbour. To this harbour belong 8 or 10 
sloops, employed by the Cramond Iron- 
work Company. 

CRANSHAWS, a small parish situated 
in the midst of the Lammermuir hills, in 
the county of Berwick. The surface con- 
sists mostly of high hills covered -with heath, 
and is therefore better adapted for pasture 
than tillage. Every farm , however, possesses 
a considerable portion of arable land, which 
is generally cultivated and sown with tur- 
nip, for the support of the sheep during the 
severity of winter.- -Lime has been of the 
greatest service in meliorating the soil.— 
The rivers Whittadder and Dye water this 
parish., The general appearance is naked 
and bleak, having few trees of any kind. 
Cranshaws castle is a strong ancient build- 
ing, of small extent, but still very entire. 
Population 1S6. 

CRANSTON, a parish in the county of 
Edinburgh, extending about rive miles in 
length, and three in breadth. The surface 
is unequal, but the gentle swellings of the 
hills, adorned with fine seats and extensive 
plantations, are extremely beautiful. The 
soil is excellent, and the whole parish is a- 
xable. The staple commodity is corn, of 
"which a considerable quantity is exported. 
Freestone, limestone, and pit-coal abound 
here. There are three neat villages in it, 
•viz. Cranston, Cousland, and Preston. Near 
Cousland are some ruins, said to be of a 
nunnery. The river Tyne, as yet a rivulet, 
runs tlirough it. The elegant structures of 
Oxenford castle and Preston hall, the pic- 
turesque banks of the rivulet, and the lux- 
uriant crops which adorn the fields, present 
to the eye as rich a landscape as the most 
fertile spot of England could furnish. Po- 
pulation 960. 

CRATHY and BRAEMARR. These 
extensive united parishes are situated in 
that district of Aberdeenshire called Marr, 
in the middle of the Grampian mountains, 
and are supposed to be more elevated above 
the level of the sea, and farther removed in 
every direction of the coast, than any other 
parochial district in Scotland. Taking in 
the mountainous and waste district, the 
•whole will cover an extent of 40 miles in 
length 'and 20 in breadth. In the low 
grounds the soil is various, but when pro- 
perly cultivated, and in a favourable sea- 
son, it produces good crops. By far the 
greater part is covered with high moun- 



C R A 

tains. Nearly the whole of Crathy and Brae- 
marrhasbeen originally covered with wood, 
and was called the forest of Marr. This fo - 
rest, with those of the Duke of Athol in 
Perthshire, and the Duke of Gordon in Ba- 
denoch and Glenaven, constituted theprin- 
cipal part of the great Caledonian forest. In 
the deepest mosses there are found large 
logs and roots of trees, which afford incon- 
trovertible proof that they have formerly 
been full of timber. In Braemarr, a great 
part of the wood still remains. These woods 
are well stocked with deer. Besides the 
natural wood, there are extensive planta- 
tations of fir and larch ; of the former of 
which, one proprietor alone has planted up- 
wards of 14 millions of trees. The river 
Dee takes its rise in the forest of Eraemarr, 
and runs through the whole extent of the 
district. The principal lakes are Loch Cal. 
lader and Loch Brotochan, which contain 
trout, salmon, and eels. The great milita- 
ry road from Blairgowrie to Fort George, 
passes through the whole extent ; the vil. 
lage of Castletown of Braemarr is situated 
on that line of road. Near this village are 
the ruins of an old castle, said to have been 
the seat of King Malcolm Canmore. At a 
short distance is the castle of Braemarr. It 
was once occupied as a garrison by King 
William, and wasburnt in thecontest which 
took placebetwcen the royal forces and the 
Earl of Marr. Near the line of the military 
road is a large cairn, called Cairn-na-cuim- 
hne, or " Cairn of Remembrance." The 
mountains produce emeralds, topazes, ame- 
thysts, similar to the precious stones of 
Cairngorum. Granite of a fine polish also 
abounds, and there are inexhaustible quar- 
ries of limestone, and of fine slate. Popu- 
lation 1965. 

CRAWFORD, a parish in Lanarkshire, 
in length about 18 miles, and 15 in breadth. 
The hill of Lauders, of which the elevation 
is 5150 feet, is chiefly in this parish. The 
greater part of the district consists of hills 
and moors, some of which are fit for pasture, 
but many are bleak, and scarcely exhibit 
marks of vegetation. In the vallies the soil 
is generally light and spongy ; but in some 
places there is clay. The situation and 
climate, however, even of the best grounds, 
are unfavourable for agriculture- Minera- 
logists would find great field for research 
in the grounds here, Leadhills, containing 
the most extensive mines in the kingdom, 
is in this parish. The Earl of Hopetoun 
has in his possession a mass of lead ore 
weighing 5 tons, and a piece of native gold 
found here of 2 ounces. The Daer, the 



C R A 



61 



Clyde, the Elvan, and Glengonar, intersect 
this parish. Population 1773.— The VIL- 
LAGE of the same name lies 17 miles S. 
from Lesmahago, and 5 N. from Elvanfoot 
inn. It is of considerable antiquity, and 
has freedoms granted to thefeuars by the 
neighbouring proprietors. Each freedom 
consists of 6 acres of croft land, and the pri- 
vilege of feeding a certain number of horses, 
cows, or sheep, on the hill or common. It 
is governed by a Birley Court, in which each 
freeman has a liberty to vote. The houses 
are at such a distance from each other that 
they have the appearance of having been 
dropped on the road. 

CRAWFORD-JOHN, a parish in Lan- 
arkshire, of an oblong figure, extending 15 
miles in length, and generally to about 6 [ 
in breadth. The appearance of the parish i 
is hilly, adapted for sheep pasture, with a i 
few patches of arable land in the vallies | 
between the hills. Round Gilkerscleuch I 
and Glespine, two gentlemen's seats, are I 
some thriving plantations. On Glendorch 
estate, the property of the Earl of Hope- 
toun, there is a valuable lead mine. This 
mineral has also been found upon Gilkers. 
cleuch eslate, on which property there are 
also an excellent limestone quarry, abun- 
dance of whiti' frct'i-ione, and an appear- 
ance of coal. In other parts of the parish 
are the marks of former mines, which, re- 
port says, were wrought in search of gold, 
and that a considerable quantity of that 
1-ecious metal was found here. On the 
top of Netherton hill, opposite to the house 
of Gilkerscleuch, are the vestiges of an ex- 
tensive encampment, and in other parts of 
the parish are the ruins of two ancient cas- 
tles. A small river, ijamed Duneaton wa- 
ter, runs through the whole parish ; besides 
which, there are several smaller rivulets. 
Population 858. 

CRAWFURDSDIKE. See CARTS- 
DIKE. 

CRAWICK, a small beautiful river in 
Dumfries, shire, which rises just within the 
boundaries of Lanarkshire, and dividing 
the parish of Sanquhar from Kirkconnel, 
after a S. VV. course of about 8 miles, falls 
into the Nith, near Sanquhar manse. 
This river scarcely emerges from its parent 
bog until it receives two more streams far 
more copious than itself, — the Wanlock 
from the S. E. which is nearly met by the 
Spango,from the N. W. from whence it 
•winds for some miles, between pleasant 
green hills, till the scenery gradually chan- 
ges to fine wooded banks and cultivated 
lawns. The small village of Crawick Mill 



on this stream is a little way N. of San- 
quhar. 

CREACH-BEIN, a mountain in Argyle- 
shire, in the parish of Ardnamurchan, 2439 
feet above the level of the sea. 

CREE, a river which takes its rise in the 
northern parts of the county of Wigton, and 
stewartry of Kirkcudbright. Itisfoi sever- 
al miles very small, but is considerably in- 
creased by tributary streams. It now chan- 
ges its appearance, and instead of rocks and 
moors, it holds its course nearly S. through 
a beautiful valley, till it empties itself into 
the hay of Wigton. It forms the boundary 
between the counties of Wigton and Kirk- 
cudbright. It abounds with salmon, and 
is navigable for several miles. 

CREETOWN, or FERRYTOWN of 
CREE, a village in the parish of Kirkrna- 
breck, and stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 
7 1-2 miles S. E. of Newton Stewart. It is 
beautifully situated near the mouth of the 
river Cree, where it falls into Wigton bay. 
The houses are set clown without plan, and 
without arrangement. It is supported by 
a small coasting trade, and a few vessels be- 
long to the place. It has a good anchorage 
a small distance from the town, where ves- 
sels of 500 tons may lie in safety. Cree- 
town was lately erected into a burgh of ba- 
rony by the pruprietor and superior, whose 
elegant seat is in the neighbourhood. It 
contains upwards of 400 inhabitants. 

CRERAN (LOCH), an arm of the sea in 
Argyleshire, going off from Loch Linnhe, 
in the district of Appin. 

CRICHTON, a village and parish in the 
county, of Edinburgh. The village is situa- 
ted 11 miles S. E. from the metropolis, on 
the middle road to London by Comhill, 
It is a thriving place, and contains, with 
the adjoining village of Path- head, 750 in- 
habitants. The parish contains about 5900 
acres, of which two-thirds are well adapted 
for tillage, and have a rich deep soil, capa- 
ble of producing heavy crops. The remain- 
der is little capable of improvement, being 

overgrown with moss The pasture is 

scanty and bad. The proprietors have late- 
ly begun planting, and the trees seem to 
thrive well on this heretofore barren spot. 
There is a limestone quarry wrought to a 
considerable extent. Coal has been disco- 
vered, but hitherto no pits have been open- 
ed. At Longfauch is a circular camp, or 
entrenchment, the vallum of which is very 
distinct. The castle of Crichton is a very 
ancient and magnificent building. It was 
I once the habitation of Chancellor Crichton, 
I joint guardian with the Earl of Callender 



C R I 62 

to King James II. a powerful aad spirited 
statesman in that turbulent age, and the 
adviser of the bold but bloody deeds against 
the too potent Douglas. During the life of 
Crichton this castle was besieged, taken, 
and levelled to the ground, by William 
Earl of Douglas. It was afterwards rebuilt, 
and part of this new work is uncommonly 
elegant. Population 10S2. 

CRICHUP, a rivulet in the parish of 
Closeburn, Dumfries-shire. It takes its 
rise from a moss, near the N. E. extremity 
of the parish, and, not far from its source, 
forms a beautiful cascade, by falling over a 
precipice nearly 90 feet in height. Half a 
mile below this, the water has hollowed 
out for itself a strait passage through a hill 
of red freestone, forming a very romantic 
linn. This linn, from top to bottom, is a- 
bout 110 feet, and, though 20 feet deep, is 
bo close at the top, that one might easily 
leap across it, if his imagination could be 
abstracted from the tremendous abyss be- 
low, and the noise of the falling water, in- 
creased by the echoes from the surrounding 
xocks. Sis miles below, the Crichup joins 
its waters to the Nith. 

CRIECH, a parish in the county of Fife, 
extending in length about 5, and in breadth 
about 2 miles. Its surface is nearly level, 
and the soil sandy and thin ; but agricul- 
ture is making rapid improvements. 

Limestone is plenty at the distance of 10 
miles. On a little eminence, near the 
church, are the vestiges of a Roman camp, 
■with two lines of circumvallation. There 
is another of the same kind on a higher 
hill, W. of the former. Not far from the 
church is a castle which belonged to Car- 
dinal Beaton, and where it is said, his emi- 
nence kept a country seraglio! Popula- 
tion 403. 

CRIECH, an extensive parish in the 
county of Sutherland. It stretches from 
Dornoch on the E. coast to Assint on the 
W. coast, at least 40 measured miles. The 
length of the inhabited patt of the district 
is reckoned about 21 miles, the breadth is 
unequal, varying from 2 to 10 miles. — A- 
bout one-thirtieth part of the district only 
is cultivated, the rest being hilly, and co- 
vered with moory ground. The arable soil 
is light and thin, except at the E. end, 
where there is a deep loam. There are 
some meadows on the banks of the frith, 
and the rivulets which run into it. The 
seasons are generally early, and the crops 
heavy. The two rivers Shin and Cassly 
run through the parish, which is also wa- 
tered on the S. by the Ockel. There are 



also several lakes abounding with trout, of 
which the largest are ca^ed I.och MigdoJ 
and Loch Elst. A ridge of hills runs paral- 
lel to the frith, the highest of which, in 
the western extremity, is called Beinmore 
Assint. There is a great deal of natural 
wood, principally oak and birch ; and there 
are several plantations of fir. The great 
quantity of moss with which this district a- 
bounds furnishes plenty of fuel. A vast 
number of sheep and black cattle are rear- 
ed on the heathy grounds. Near the church 
is an obelisk, S feet high, and 4 broad, said 
to have been erected in memory of a Danish 
chief interred here. On the top of tbie 
Dun of Criech is a fortification, erected a- 
bout the beginning of the 12th century by 
an ancestor of Ross. 

CRIEFF, a parish of Perthshire, in the 
district of Strathearne. The parish is na- 
turally dividedinto Highland and Lowland, 
of which the latter division is completely 
surrounded by rivers. The Pow, the Ma- 
derty, the Turrot, and Earne, all abound 
with trout and salmon. The Highland di- 
vision abounds with all sorts of game. The 
soil is mostly light and gravelly ; in the vi- 
cinity of the town it is loam. The parish 
is well cultivated, and the greater part 
inclosed. There is a good bridge over the 
Earne at the town j at the other end of 
which a thriving village, Bridgend, has 
been lately built.— Population of the town 
and parish 5530.— The TOWN of CRIEFF 
lies 18 miles W. from Perth, and 22 N. 
from Stirling. It is built on a risingground, 
half a mile N. from the Earne, and near 
the foot of the Grampians. It has a fine 
southern exposure, and a delightful pros- 
pect of hills, woods, vallies, and rivers, to 
the W. Criert'is the second town in Perth- 
shire, and is much resorted to in the sum- 
mer months for its healthy situation. It 
has a tolbooth, with a decent spire ; it has 
also a large and elegant assembly-room, 
which is sometimes honoured with the pre- 
sence of the nobility and gentry of Perth- 
shire. Although it has no regular govern- 
ment, the different trades have erected 
themselves into corporations for the sup- 
port of decayed members and widows. The 
chief manufacture carried on is making 
Silesias, and weaving cotton goods for the 
Glasgow manufacturers; there are about 
400 weavers' looms in the place. The town 
has greatly increased of late ; a number of 
new houses have been built on the S. and 
W. sides of the town ; and two paper-mills 
have been lately erected. It contained, in 
1811, nearly 3000 inhabitants. 



C R O 



c n o 



CRIFFEL, or CROWFEL, a ridge of 
mountains in the county of Dumfries, the 
highest of which, Douglas Cairn, is eleva- 
ted 1 900 feet. The soil on its sides affords 
rich pasture for numerous flocks of sheep. 

CRIMOND, a parish in the district of 
Buchan, in Aberdeenshire. Tt lies on the 
coast, nearly at an equal distance from the 
towns of Frazerburgh and Peterhead. The 
figure is triangular, the base being nearly 
3 miles, and the height of the triangle a- 
bout 5 1-2. -It contains 4600 acres, of 
which 3000 are arable ; the remainder is 
occupied by mosses, links, or downs, and 
the lake of Strathbeg. About a quarter of 
a mile from high-water mark, there is a 
steep hill along the shore, almost perpendi- 
cular, and nearly 200 feet in height. From 
the summit of this ridge, the ground gra- 
dually descends into a low flat valley, at 
the bottom of which is the lake of Strath- 
beg. By far the greater part of the parish 
is a cold, damp, mossy soil, on a clay bot- 
tom. Green crops and fallow are seldom 
practised, and the fields are often ruined by 
over cropping. But the shortness of the 
leases is the chief bar to improvement. Po- 
pulation 806. 

CRINAN (LOCH), a small arm of the 
sea, on the W. coast of Argyleshire, lately 
connected with Loch Gilp (an arm of Loch 
Fyne), by the Crinan Canal. 

CROE, a district in the parish of Kintail, 
Ross-shire, watered by the small river 
€roe. 

CROMAR, a division of the district of 
Marr, in Aberdeenshire, comprehending 
the parishes of Coul, Tarland, and Migvy, 
of Coldstone and Logie, and part of the 
parish of Tullich. 

CROMARTY (COUNTY OF). This 
small county is a peninsula, washed on 5 
sides by the friths of Cromarty and Moray, 
and bounded on the W. by the county of 
Ross. Its extreme length is about 16 miles, 
■and on an average about 6 and a half or 7 
in breadth. But this part is intersected by 
a large common called Malbuie, in Ross- 
shire, and the district of Ferintosh, in the 
county of Nairn. The whole peninsula has 
the name of the Black Isle; and the Cro- 
marty part is called the old shire of Cromar- 
ty. The rest of this county consists of nine 
detached portions, scattered up and down 
in -various parts of Ross-shire, containing in 
allabout 344 square miles, or 473,5S7 acres. 
It was erected into a distinct county about 
the end of the 17th century, at the request 
of Sir James Mackenzie, Earl of Cromarty, 
to whom it almost entirely belonged. A 



great part of it now belongs to the Ander- 
sons of Udal, and the family of Ross of Cro- 
marty. The face of the country ispleasant; 
a long ridge of hills extend the whole length 
in the middle of the county, having a fine 
declivity on either side towards the shores 
of the friths. The higher grounds are most- 
ly covered with heath, but towards the 
shores, the soil is light and early. A great 
many plantations have been lately laid out, 
which will shortly be a great ornament and 
shelter to the country. Cromarty has much 
to gain in agricultural improvements. Were 
the new system of husbandry adopted in 
this quarter, there is eve"ry reason to expect 
great returns to the farmer. Cromarty con- 
tains only one town, (from which the coun- 
ty takes its name, and which was formerly 
a royal burgh,) and five parishes. The lan- 
guage is generally Gaelic ; but many speak 
that broad Scottish, which iscommonly cal- 
led the Euchan or Aberdeenshire dialect. 
The farmers are industrious in their profes- 
sion ; but uninformed in matters of science, 
exceedingly tenacious of their old prejudic- 
es in agriculture, and averse to new prac- 
tices. Freestone, granite, and reddish 
coloured porphyry, are almost the only mi- 
nerals ; topazes, similar to those of Cairn- 
gorum, are found in the parish of Kincar- 
dine. Fisheries are very successfully car- 
ried on ; and pearls of considerable value 
are sometimes found in the frith of Cromar- 
ty, where the river Conal falls into that bay. 
The valued rent of Cromarty is L.12,S97 
Scots, and the real land rent may be esti- 
mated at L.7000 Sterling. Population 3052, 
CROMARTY, a parish in Cromarty- 
shire, which extends about 7 miles in length 
and from 1 to 4 in breadth ; bounded by the 
frith of Cromarty on the N. On the banks 
of the frith, the surface is level, and covered' 
with verdure. A bank, about two mileg 
from the coast, extends the whole length 
of the parish, above which the ground is 
covered with heath and moss. The soil is 
every where wet and moorish, which makes 
the seasons late, and the crop uncertain. 
The coast towards the E. is bold and rocky; 
the rest is flat and sandy. After every 
storm a great quantity of sea weed is thrown 
ashore, which is partly used as a manure,. 
and partly burnt into kelp.— The TOWN 
of CROMARTY lies 19 1-2 miles N. E. of 
Inverness. It is small, and situated upon 
a rock or point of land which overhangs the 
sea in a romantic manner. It was former- 
ly a royal burgh, but was disfranchised by 
an act of the privy-council of Scotland. It 
is now under the baronial jurisdiction of 



CRO 

the Earl of Cromarty. The harbour of Cro- 
marty is inferior, perhaps, to none in Bri- 
tain for safety, where vessels of 350 or 400 
tons may lie in perfect security ; and a com- 
modious quay was lately built, at the joint 
expense of government and the proprietor 
of the estate of Cromarty. A considerable 
trade in the hempen or sackcloth line has 
been long established in Cromarty and the 
neighbourhood. Lately a rope-work and 
ship building were commenced. A large 
rocky cavern, called Macfarquhar's Bed, 
and a cave, which contains a petrifying well 
called the Dripping Well, are great natural 
curiosities. The hill of Cromarty is visit- 
ed by travellers of the first rank and taste, 
who never fail to speak of its beauties with 
admiration. Population of the town and 
parish, 2413. 

CROMARTY FRITH, called by Bu- 
chanan the Port us salutis, is one of the fin- 
est bays in Great Britain. It is divided 
from the Moray frith by the county of Cro- 
marty, and washes the southern shore of 
the county of Ross. It is about 16 miles in 
length, and sometimes 3 in breadth. The 
entrance is between two promontories or 
headlands, called the Sutors of Cromarty, 
■which are about a mile and a half distant. 
There is the finest anchoring ground after- 
passing the Sutors, for several miles up the 
bay, with deep water on both sides, almost 
close to the shore, where, in most places, 
the coast is so smooth, that, supposing a 
vessel to part her cables (a thing scarcely 
probable,) she might run aground without 
sustaining much damage. Such is the ex- 
tent of sea room in the baj, and such is the 
capacity, that almost the whole British na- 
vy might lie here in safety. A ferry boat 
is established across the bay from the Ross 
to the Cromarty side. 

CROMDALE, a parish, nearly equally si- 
tuated in the counties of Inverness and Mo- 
ray. Its extent is considerable, being in 
length fully 20, and in some places the 
breadth is 11 or 12 miles. The soilis in 
general dry and thin, with the exception 
of the low grounds, or haughs, on the banks 
of the river Spey, which in point of fertili- 
ty, are equal to any in the neighbourhood. 
Not an hundredth part of the lands of 
Cromdale is arable, or even green, so as to 
render it good pasturage for black cattle or 
horses. The hills and level grounds are ge- 
nerally covered with heath, which, though 
formerly barren and unproductive, are now- 
rendered of great benefit, by the flocks of 
sheep which they maintain. The planta- 
tions of nr, which are numerous and thriv- 



CRO 

ing, will soon be a great shelter and orna- 
ment to the district. Sir James Grant of 
Grant is sole proprietor of the parish ; 
and Castle-Grant, the seat of his family, 
is within its bounds — Grantown, a village 
erected about 40 years ago, is in the parish. 
Thereisafortalix at Lochindorb, where a 
thick wall of mason- work, 20feet high, sur- 
rounds an acre of land within the lake, with 
strong watch towers at every corner. The 
entrance is by a magnificent gate of hewn 
freestone ; and the foundations of houses 
are to be distinctly traced within the walls. 
Population 2010. 

CRONS AY, a small flat island of Suther- 
landshire, on the coast of Assint. 

CROOK of DEVON, a small village in 
Perthshire, in the parish of Fossaway and 
Tulliebole, seated on the river Devon, on 
the road from Stirling to Kinross. 

CROSS, one of the smaller Shetland isles. 
CROSS, a parish in the island of Sandy, 
county of Orkney, to which are annexed the 
parishes of Bumess and N Ronaldsay. Po- 
pulation in 1814, 1519. See SANDY. 

CROSSFORD, a village in Fifeshire, 2 
miles W. from Dunfermline. The road to 
duress and Alloa passes through it. 

CROSSGATES, a village in Fifeshire, 
." miles E. from Dunfermline, and 5 N. 
from Queensferry. The road from Perth 
to Edinburgh passes through it, and the 
road from Kirkcaldy to Dunfermline, which 
intersect each other here. 

CROSSMICHAEL, a parish in the stew- 
artry of Kirkcudbright. It is of a rectangu- 
lar form, extending in length about 5, and 
in breadth about 4 miles. It is bounded on 
the E. by the river Urr, and on the W. by 
the river Dee, which divides it from Bal- 
magie, and on the S. by Buittle and Kelton. 
From these rivers the ground rises into a 
ridge, which is beautifully diversified with 
gentle eminences, entirely arable. To- 
wards the northern border there is a small 
part covered with heath. The soil is various, 
as loam, clay, till, sand, and along the ri- 
vers extensive meadows or holms. There 
are two lakes in the parish, abounding with 
excellent pike and perch. The Urr has a 
harbour, which admits vessels of small bur- 
den. By a canal lately cut from Calinwark 
loch, which joins the Dee at this parish, 
marl is furnished at a cheap rate to the far- 
mers in the district. The shallows at the 
mouth of the Dee prevent vessels coming 
so far up ; but a small expense might ren- 
der it navigable for near l r > miles. There 
are two ferries over therivers in this parish, 
and the great military road to Port Patrick 



passes through it. Like the rest of Gallo- 
way, considerable attention is paid to the 
rearing of cattle. There are several Pic- 
tish monuments of antiquity, and the re- 
mains of ancient fortifications. Population 
1227. 

CROVIE, a small fishing Tillage in the 
parish of Gamrie, Banffshire, containing 
about 100 inhabitants. 

CROY, a parish, situated partly in the 
county of Nairn, and partly in that of In- 
Terness. Its extreme length is about 16 
miles, but it is so intersected by other pa- 
rishes, that its extent in breadth cannot 
be exactly ascertained. The river Nairn 
runs through it for S miles, on which is a 
tolerably productive salmon fishing. The 
banks of the river are well cultivated, and, 
where they do not admit of cultivation, co- 
vered with wood, natural or planted ; 
which, with the seats of Kilravock, Holmes, 
and Cantray, forms a scene of true rural 
amenity and beauty ; the remainder is in- 
differently cultivated, and has a bleak and 
naked appearance. The proprietors of the 
parish have done much towards improving 
their lands, and introducing a regular sys- 
tem of agriculture. Population 1456. 

CRUACHAN, orCaUACHAN EEINN, 
a lofty mountain situated at the head of 
Loch Aw, in Argyleshire, 5590 feet high, 
and the circumference at the base exceeds 
20 miles. It is very steep towards the N. 
E. and slopes gently down on the S. but 
rises with an abrupt ascent near the sum- 
mit, which is divided into two points, each 
resembling a sugar loaf. The sides of the 
mountain are covered with natural wood 
of birch, alder, oak, and fir, which abound 
with roes and red deer. On the summit of 
this mountain is the spring, from which is- 
sues Loch Aw. Cruachan is the weather 
gage of the people within view of its lofty 
summit. Before a storm, its head and 
sides are enveloped in clouds. It is mostly 
composed of reddish porphyry, but near the 
bottom is found argillaceous schistus, in- 
tersected with veins of quartz and lapis ol- 
laris. On the top of the mountain the sea- 
pink grows luxuriantly, and sea shells have 
been found on the very summit. 

CRUACH LUSSA, a mountain in the 
district of Kna]'dale, in Argyleshire. The 
height is thought to exceed 5000 feet above 
the level of the sea. 

' CRUDEN, a parish in thatdistrict of A- 
berdeenshire caded Buchan. It is a regu- 
lar compact field, extending about 8 or 9 
miles along the British ocean towards the 
S. and about 7 or 8 miles inland towards 



C U L 

the W.— The soil is various. A large por- 
tion of it is a deep rich clay ; the rest is light 
and gravelly : but, except the mosses, and 
a few banks, all of it could easily be made 
arable. An immense quantity of peat mcsJ 
extends along the N. boundary. There 
are 4 fishing villages in the parish, at one 
of which, Ward, a tolerable harbour might 
be made. Husbandry is only in its infancy, 
but a few farms in the parish are in good 
order. Thread manufactures are earned 
on to a great extent. Slains castle, the 
seat of the Earl of Errol, is in it. The 
Bullers of Buchan, and ohter stupendous 
rocks and precipices, are much admir- 
ed for the awful grandeur they exhibit. 
Dunbuy, a small insulated rock near the 
Eullers, is frequented by innumerable sea. 
fowls. There are also several very exten- 
sive caves in the neighbourhood. About a 
mile VV. of the church are the remains of a 
Druidical temple. Population 1967. 

CRUGLETON, a promontory in Wigton- 
shire on the frith of Cree. 

CULAG, a rivulet of Sutherland, which 
runs into the seaat Loch Inver, where there 
is an excellent fishing station, and a small 
village of the same name. 

CULLEN, aparishinthe county of Banff, 
extending about 4 miles in length from the 
sea southward, and 5 miles in breadth. 
The fields in general have a gentle slope 
towards the N. and E. ; only one eminence, 
the Bin-hill of Cullen, deserving the name 
of a mountain. The soil is generally of a 
rich deep loam, but some fields are of a 
strong clay, and near the shore, sand mix- 
ed with gravel. The farms are in general 
small, enclosed, and well cultivated. The 
Bin-hill lies about a mile S. W. of the 
town of Cullen, about 2 miles from the sea, 
from which it is elevated to the height of 
1050 feet. It was lately planted to the 
very summit with trees of various kinds. 
Cullen house, the chief residence of the 
Earl of Findlater and Seafield, is founded 
on a rock, about 50 feet perpendicular a- 
bove the burn of Cullen, over which there 
is an excellent stone bridge of one arch, 84 
feet wide, and 64 feet high, making an easy 
communication with the parks and woods, 
where the ground admits i.f endless beauty 
and variety. Cullen is surrounded with 
most extensive plantations, laid out about 
40 years ago by Lord Findlater, there being; 
no fewer than 8000 Scots acres of waste 
ground now covered with trees. Near the 
town of Cullen is the foundation of an an- 
cient castle, on a small eminence called 
the Castle-hill, overhanging the sea; and 
I 



C U L 66 

the ruins of a house are still shown, where, 
It is said, Elizabeth, Queen of King Robert 
Bruce, died. Population 1C70. 

CULLF.N, (BURGH OF) liesS miles and 
ft half W. of Portsoy, and 08 and a half N. 
W. of Aberdeen. The Earl of Findlateris 
hereditary preses or provost, and the go- 
vernment of the town is vested under him 
in 3 bailies, a treasurer, dean of guild, and 
13 councillors, and joins with Elgin, Banff, 
Kin tore, and Inverury, in sending a mem- 
ber to Parliament. With a small excep- 
tion, Lord Findlater is proprietor of the 
■whole town. The houses are in general 
mean and ill built, and the streets have an 
irregular and dirty appearance. Notwith- 
standing its situation on the sea coast, no 
■vessels can venture to take in or deliver a 
cargo for want of a harbour. The -want of 
•water is also a great disadvantage to the 
place, there being only one good spring in 
the parish. There is a considerable manu- 
facture of linen and damask, established 
about 60 years ago. There are two fishing 
Tillages in the neighbourhood, viz. Cullen 
and Portnockies, which employ about 14 
or 15 boats.- -By these the town and coun- 
try around are amply supplied with fish ; 
and, besides what is sold daily, the fishers 
cure and dry a considerable quantity, which 
they carry to Montrose, Arbroath, Dundee, 
and Leith. 

CULLODEN, a moor situated about 3 
miles E. of Inverness, memorable for the 
total defeat of Prince Charles' army, on the 
16th April, 1746, by the Duke of Cumber- 
land, which put an end to the attempts of 
the Stuart family to regain the British 
throne. The country people often find, in 
the field of battle, bullets and pieces of ar- 
mour, which are anxiously sought after by 
the virtuosi as curiosities, and preserved as 
relics. 

CULROSS, a parish in Perthshire, lying 
on the N. side of the frith of Forth, forming 
nearly a square of 4 miles, containing 8145 
acres. It abounds with freestone, iron- 
stone, ochre, and a species of clay, highly 
valued by potters and glass manufacturers. 
Coal was wrought here at a very remote 
period by the monks of the abbey, to whom 
It belonged.— Colville, commendator of the 
abbey, let the coal to Sir George Bruce of 
Blair-hall in 1575, who resumed the work- 
ing of it at that period. This gentleman 
was the first in the island who drained coal 
pits by machinery. Below the house of Cas- 
tlehill, about a quarter of a mile W. from 
Culrots, are some remains of the masonry 
where mi Egyptian wheel, commonly called 



chain and bucket, was erected for draining 
the pits. A pit was sunk, which entered 
by the land, and was carried nearly a mile 
out into the sea. At this sea pit vessels 
loaded their cargoes, which was 40fathoms 
below high watermark; this pit was rec- 
koned one of the greatest wonders in the 
island, by an English traveller who saw it 
in the beginning of the 17th century. This 
great pit was destroyed by a violent storm 
in 1625, which washed away the stone bul- 
wark, and drowned the coal. This pit was 
nearly opposite the house of Casttehill. 
The Culi-oss coal consists of no less than 27 
different strata, some of which are 9 feet 
thick. Thehou5eof Castlehillis built on 
the site of an ancient castle of the Mac- 
dufFs, where it is said Macbeth murdered 
the wife and two children of that noble- 
man — There are also the vestiges of two 
Danish camps in the parisli. Population 
1611.— The BURGH of CULROSS lies 4 
miles E. of Kincardine, and 23 W.by N. of 
Edinburgh. It is a place of considerable 
antiquity, having been erected into a royal 
burgh hy James VI. in 15S8. It is govern- 
ed by 5 bailies, a dean of guild, treasurer, 
and 15 councillors, and has six incorporat- 
ed trades. It joins with Dunfermline, In- 
veikeithing, Queensferry, and Stirling, in 
returning a member to parliament. Part 
ofthetownis built on the acclivity of a 
hill, the principal street running N. from 
the shore. It formerly carried on a great 
trade in salt and coal ; at present its trade 
is wholly annihilated. At one period there 
were above 50 salt-pans going here, which 
made about 100 tons weekly. Before the 
Union there have been 170 foreign vessels 
in the roads at a time, loading coal and 
salt.--- About 35 years ago, the Earl of Dun- 
donald erected very extensive work3 for 
the extraction of tar, naphtha, and volatile 
salt, from coal ; but, being an unproduc- 
tive concern, it was given up, and the works 
are now in ruins. Culross enjojed the ex- 
clusive privilege of making girdles, by vir- 
tue of two royal grants from James IV. and 
Charles II. At the N. end of the town is 
the parish church, which was formerly the 
cha|iel of the monastery; the chancel and 
tower are still entire, but the transept and 
body of the church are in ruins. Adjoining 
to the N. wall of the church is an aisle, the 
burial-place of the Bruce family, in which 
is a fine monument of Sir George Bruce, his 
lady, and eight children, all cut out of white 
marble. In this aisle was lately found, en- 
closed in a silver box, the heart of Lord 
Kinloss, who was killed in a duel in Flan» 



C U X 

tiers by Edward Sackville, as related in the 
Guardian, No. 133. A small distance to 
the eastward of the church stands the ab- 
bey-house, built by Lord Kinloss in 1500. 
It is a very large building, in the most de- 
lightful situation imaginable, commanding 
an extensive prospect of the frith of Forth, 
Stirlingshire, and the Lothians.-This house 
was lately inhabited by the Earl of Dun- 
donald, but it is nearly demolished since 
it has become the property of Sir Robert 
Preston. The burgh of Culross had the 
custodv of the coal measures of Scotland, 
by act 1663, Charles II. The abbey of Cul- 
ross was founded in 1217, by Malcolm Earl 
Of Fife, and dedicated to the Virgin Mary 
and St. Serf. The last abbot of this place 
■was Alexander, son of Sir James Colville of 
Ochiltree. Sir James, brother to the said 
Alexander, was raised to the dignity of Lord 
Colville of Culross in 1604, at which time 
the king made him a grant of this dissolved 
abbey. The town has been long going to 
decay ; and now the county turnpike be- 
tween Newmills and Kincardine runs to 
the north of it. C ulross in respect of trade 
Inay be considered as at an end. 

CULSALMOND, a parish in the county 
of Aberdeen, the extent of which is about 
3 miles and a half in length, and 3 in 
breadth. New-ton house is the only edifice 
of note. Population 754. 

COLTER, a parish in the county of La- 
nark, about 8 miles in length, and on an 
average 4 in breadth. On the banks of the 
Clyde, a fine fertile plain extends for two 
miles to the foot of the hills, which occu- 
pies the southern part of the parish, hav- 
ing a rich loamy soil, well enclosed and 
cultivated. From this plain towards the 
south, the ground rises into high moun- 
tains. This hilly district is partly covered 
with a rich verdure, and partly occupied by 
a forest of natural wood. The whole ap- 
pearance of the parish is beautiful, being 
covered with thriving plantations and or- 
namented farms. Culter water falls into 
the Clyde after passing through this parish. 
Ironstone of excellent quality abounds, and 
most of the springs are impregnated with 
mineral. Population 413. 

CULTER, a rivulet in Aberdeenshire, 
■which rises from a lake in the parish of 
Skene, and falls into the Dee, near the 
church of Peterculter. 

CULTERFELL, a hill in the parish of 
Culter, Lanarkshire, elevated 1700 feet. 

CULTS, a parish in the centre of the 
county of Fife, extending in length about 
2 miles and a quarter, and in breadth 1 



CUM 

and a half. Its general surface is flat, de-. 
clir.ing from the S. where there are a few- 
hills. The soil is light, and in some places 
gravelly, but. towards the S. it is a strong 
lay. The village of Pitlessie is in this pa- 
ish, and the river Edeii passes through it. 
There are numerous freestone and lime- 
stone quarries, of excellent quality; and 
plenty of coal. Several remains of Roman 
encampments may be seen ; and many urns 
have been dug up, containing human bones. 
The celebrated Wilkie, the painter, son cf 
the late Rev. Mr Wilkie, is a native of this 
parish. Population 765. 

CUMBERNAULD, a parish in the coun- 
ty of Dunbarton, extending about 7 miles 
in length, and 4 in breadth. The surface 
has a romantic appearance, being beauti- 
fully diversified with small hills and fertile 
dales. The highest part is called Fanny- 
side moor, producingnothingbutheath and 
furze. On the S. side are two lakes, about 
a mile long, and a quarter broad. The re- 
mainder of the parish is mostly arable, with 
a deep clay soil, tolerably fertile. There is 
abundance of coal, though none is at pre- 
sent wrought. Lime and freestone also 
abound. Considerable remains of Anto- 
ninus' wall are to be seen here, nearly in 
the course of which runs the great canal 
which connects the Clyde and the Forth.— 
The VILLAGE of Cumbernauld, which lie* 
13 miles E. of Glasgow, is pleasantly situa- 
ted in a valley almost surrounded with the 
pleasure grounds of Cumbernauld House, 
the seat of Lord Elphinstone. The road 
from Glasgow to Edinburgh passes through 
it, near which is a good inn. The inhabi- 
tantsare chiefly employedin weaving. Po- 
pulation 2334. 

CUMINESTOWN, avillage in Aberdeen- 
shire, in Montquhitter parish, founded in 
1760 by the late Mr Cumine of Auchry. 
Population 404. 

CUMMERTREES, a parish in the coun- 
ty of Dumfries, extending about 4 miles in 
length, and 3 in breadth ; bounded on the 
N. by St. Mungo's and Hodham, by Annan 
on the E. the Solway Frith on the S and 
Ruthwelland Dalton on the W.— It con- 
tains 6S72 Scots acres. The surface is level, 
and the soil in general good ; in the centre 
of the parish it is excellent. The parish 
lies on the banks of the Annan, which 
bounds it on the E. There are several ex- 
tensive flow mosses utterly incapable of im- 
provement; these, however, furnish excel- 
lent peat, which is the onlyfuel. Agricul- 
ture is rapidly advancing in improvement, 
and enclosure* are becoming general. Frec~ 



CUM 



CUP 



stone is abundant ; and limestone of excel- 
lent quality is found in an inexhaustible 
quarry near the centre of the parish ; the 
great drawback is the want of coal for 
burning it. The military road through 
Dumfries-shire, intersects the parish. The 
castle of Hoddam is ancient, but is still in 
good repair. Besides the minerals men- 
tioned above, is a limestone quarry at Kil- 
head. Several veins of a beautiful dark- 
coloured marble have appeared, which ad- 
mit of a fine polish. Population 1633. 

CUMNOCK, or OLD CUMNOCK, apa- 
rish, (from which New Cumnock was dis- 
joined about the beginning of the last cen- 
tury), situated in the county of Ayr. It is 
of an oblong figure, aboutlO miles in length, 
and 2 in breadth. The surface is partly flat, 
and partly hilly; the soil in general is a 
deep clay, but the low grounds are inter 
mixed with sand and gravel. There are 
several rivulets, all of which fall into the 
Lugar, a stream which empties itself into 
the river Ayr near Barskimming. The 
hills exhibit frequent marks of volcanic 
fire, many of them being composed of ba- 
saltic columns of irregular crystallization. 
Several specimens of calcareous petrifac- 
tions offish and mosses are to be found in 
the bed of Lugar ; and in a limestone quar- 
ry belonging to the Earl of Dumfries is 
found a species of red coral. A vein of 
lead ore also runs through it. Freestone a- 
bounds; and a great part of the parish lies 
upon coal. The ruins of the castle of Ter- 
ranzean, the mansion of the barony of that 
name, stands in this parish. Population of 
the parish and village 1991.— The VIL- 
LAGE OF CUMNOCK, which lies 15 miles 
E. from Ayr, is situated on the banks of 
the Lugar, at its confluence with the Glis- 
nock. It has a manufacture of earthen 
■ware. It contains nearly 900 inhabitants, 
and gives the title of Baron to the family of 
Dumfries. Near the village are the re- 
mains of a moat or courtrield, where an- 
ciently the baronial courts were held, al- 
most surrounded by the Lugar, noted for 
its picturesque and romantic scenery. The 
great roads from Ayr and Glasgow to D urn- 
fries, and from Ayr by Muirkirk to Edin- 
burgh, pass through the village. 

CUMNOCK (NEW), a parish in the 
county of Ayr. Its form is somewhat of 
an oblong square, 12 miles long, and S 
broad. Its general appearance is hilly, af- 
fording excellent pasture for sheep ; but 
there are many spots of arable land, with 
an excellent clay soil. The river Nith 
.takes its rise in the S. W. end, and runs 



through the middle of the parish. It has 
several lakes, the sources of the Lugar and 
Afton. There are various mines of coal 
and lime, which supply the neighbourhood. 
A lead mine was lately opened on the ba- 
rony of Afton, which employs from 20 to 
30 miners. Population 1381. 

CUNNINGHAM, the northern district 
of Ayrshire; bounded on the E. by Ren- 
frewshire, on the N. and W. by the Frith 
of Clyde, and on the S. it is separated from 
Kyle by the river Irvine. Its length from 
N. to S. is about IS miles, and its breadth 
from E. to W. 12 miles. Cunningham is 
pleasantly diversified with hill and dale; 
but cannot be said to have any mountains. 
It is watered by numerous streams, the 
chief of which are the Garnock, Caaf, Rye, 
Annock, and the Irvine, which forms its 
southern boundary. In it are several po- 
puloustowns and villages — Irvine, Kilwin.- 
ning, Saltcoats, Ardrossan, Dairy, Beith, 
Largs, &c. The whole district abounds 
with coal, limestone, and freestone. It is, 
however, most in the hands of a few great 
proprietors, and is consequently ornament- 
ed with few seats ; Eglinton castle and Kel- 
burn are the chief. 

CUPAR, a parish partly in Perthshire, 
partly in Angus, extends about 5 miles in 
length from S. W. to N. E. and is from one 
to two miles in breadth. It is divided 
lengthways by an elevated ridge. A con- 
siderable extent of haugh or meadow 
ground lies on the banks of the Isla, which 
is frequently swelled by the rains, laying 
nearly 600 acres under water. The soil in 
general is a clayey loam ; but, whereever 
the ground rises into eminences, a gra- 
velly soil makes its appearance. The lands 
are mostly inclosed with thorn hedges, and 
agriculture is well attended to. Besides 
the town of Cupar, there are several vil- 
lages, of which the largest contains about 
100 inhabitants. There are still visible at 
Cupar the vestiges of a Roman camp, said 
to have been formed by the army of Agrico- 
la in his 7th expedition. On the centre of 
this camp Malcolm IV. in 1174. founded 
and richly endowed an abbey for Cistertian 
monks. Its ruins shew that it must have 
been a house of considerable magnitude. 
Population, including the town of Cupar, 
2.590.— The TOWN of CUPAR in ANGUS 
lies 15 miles N. W. of Dundee, 12 and a 
half E. by N. of Perth. Though designat- 
ed in Angus, by far the greater part is in 
the county of Perth. It is situated on the 
Isla, and is divided by a rivulet into two 
parts; that part which lies S. of the rivulet 



being all that belongs to the county of An- 
gus. The streets are well paved and light- 
ed, and the town has much improved of 
late years. There is a steeple, which 
serves as a town house and prison, on the 
spot where the prison of the court of rega- 
lity stood. The linen manufacture is car- 
ried on to a considerable extent, nearly 
20,000 yards of different kinds of cloth be. 
ing annually stamped here. There is al- 
so a considerable tannery, and in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood a large bleachfield 
has been laid out. Population in 1795, 
1604. 

CUPAR, a parish in Fifeshire, is an ir- 
regular square of 5 miles, divided into two 
parts by the river Eden. There is not an 
acre of common or waste land in the parish, 
the whole being either planted or employ- 
ed in tillage, except one large field, kept 
for the purpose of pasturing the cows be- 
longing to the inhabitants of the town. A 
considerable proportion of the grounds are 
inclosed. Carslogie is an ancient mansion. 
. — Garlie-bank is celebrated for the treaty 
concluded on the 13th of June 1559, be- 
tween the Duke de Chatelherault, on the 
part of Queen Regent, and the Earl of Ar- 
gyle, commanding the forces of the Congre- 
gation. Population of the town and parish 
4758.— The TOWN of CUPAR in FIFE is 
a royal burgh, and the county town of Fife- 
shire. It lies 22 miles N. E. of Kinghorn. 
It is finely situated on the N. bank of the 
Eden, on a dry soil, with a southern expo- 
sure. This town boasts of great antiquity. 
The Thanes of Fife, from the most remote 
period, have held their courts of justice 
here, and names of commissioners from 
Cupar are found in the rolls of parliament ' 
in the reign of David II. The castle of! 
Cupar is frequently mentioned in history as 
having sustained several sieges ; and on the j 
Castlehill were exhibited the plays of Sir 
David Lindsay. The present grammar- 
school is built on the site of the old castle. 
At the S. foot of the Castlehill was a con- 
vent of Dominicans, with a fine chapel. 
The town consists of a number of streets ; 
the Bonygate and Millgate are broad and 
spacious, and contain a great number of 
elegant houses. A new street has been 
lately opened on a line with the Bonygute, 
in which are situated the new county-hall 
and other public rooms ; the jail is remov- 
ed from the street across the Eden. The 
church is a fine modern building ; but the 
steeple, which is detached from it, is an- 
cient, with an eliptical spire. The streets 
are «lean, well paved and lighted. It is 



CUR 

governed by a provost, three bailies, a 
dean of guild, and 21 councillors, and joins 
with St. Andrews, Dundee, Forfar, and 
Perth, in sending a member to Parliament. 
Its revenue is about L.500 annually. Cu- 
par has a considerable manufacture of 
brown linen, 500,000 yards having been 
stamped in one year. There is a tanwork, 
a brick and tile work, and two large brew- 
eries ; also two printing offices, one of which 
has produced several excellent editions of- 
the classics. 

CUPINSHAY, one of the Orkney islands, 
about a mile long, and half a mile broad. 
It contains two or three families. Adjoin- 
ing to it lies the Kirkholm of Copinshay, 
separated by a reef, dry at low water, on 
which are the ruins of an ancient chapel, 
and other religious houses. 

CUR, or CHUR, a river in the district of 
Cowal in Argylesliire. It takes its rise in 
the mountains which border on Lochgoil- 
head. Its course for 2 miles is rough and 
rapid, forming, as it descends from the 
mountains, several fine cascades, and mak- 
ing a number of beautiful turns ; but the 
crops are frequently much damaged by the 
sudden rising of its waters. After a course 
of about 9 or 10 miles, it falls into Loch 
Eck. 

CURGHIE, a small port and village on 
the bay of Luce, 3 miles N. from the Mull 
of Galloway. 

CURRIE, aparish in Mid-Lothian, about 
6 miles VV. from Edinburgh. Its extent 
is 5 or 6 miles in ever)' direction ; but from 
E. to W. it advances to 9 miles in length. 
The situation is elevated ; Ravelrig, about 
the middle of the parish, is 800 feet above 
the sea. This height, and its vicinity to 
the Pentland hills, renders it cold and 
damp. The soil is a tough clay, which re- 
quires much cultivation. About one-third 
of the whole is hill and moss. The manure 
employed is often brought from Edinburgh, 
but lime is more generally used. The ri- 
ver Leith takes its rise in the western ex- 
tremity of the parish. Limestone is abun- 
dant, but is not wrought, as there is no 
coal at a nearer distance than 8 or 9 miles. 
Freestone abounds with plenty of iron- 
stone, and a rich vein of copper. On an 
elevated situation above the banks of the 
river Leith is an old castle, called Lennox 
tower, said to have belonged to the family 
of Lennox, and to have been occasionally 
the residence of Queen Mary in her youth. 
It has a subterraneous passage to the river, 
and has been a place of considerable 
strength ; the circumference of the rampart 



C U S ', 

or outwall which goes round the brow of 
the lull, is 1212 feet. Not far from this 
castle, on the opposite side of the river, are 
the ruins of another ancient edifice, the 

mansion of the Skenes of Curriehill The 

VILLAGE of CURRIE lies 6 miles S. W. 
of Edinburgh, on the N. bank of the Water 
ofLeith. The road to Lanark passes through 
it. Population of the village and parish 
3 321. 

CUSHNIE a small parish in Aberdeen- 
shire. Its surface is mountainous and roc- 
ky. The soil is very different. The hills 
are covered with heath, and abound with 
game. There are two small rivulets in 
the parish, which are well stored with 
trout. The women are employed in knit- 
ting stockings for the Aberdeen market, 



C Y Ii 

besides which there is no other manufac- 
ture. This parish was, in 1798, annexed 
to the neighbouring one of Leochel, (q. v.) 
so that they now form one parochial 
charge. 

CUTHEERT'S (St.) or WEST CHURCH, 
a parish of Mid-Lothian, lying on the N. 
and W. sides of the metropolis, and" com- 
prehending a great part of its suburbs, and 
a large tract of very valuable land in its 

CUTTLE, a village adjoining to Pres- 
tonpans. It has an extensive potfery, a 
salt-work, and a magnesia manufactory, 
and contains about 290 inhabitants. 

CYRUS (ST.) a village .5 miles N. from 
! Montrose. The parish is often called St. 
I Cyrus, from this village. 



D 



DAI 



DAL 



DABAY, a small island of the Hebrides, 
annexed to the county of Inverness. 
It is about a mile long, and half a mile 
■broad; fertile in corn aril grass, but liable 
to be blasted by S. W. winds. 

DAFF, a village in Renfrewshire, in the 
parish of Innerkip, about 3 miles W. from 
'Greenock, containing upwards of 4000 in- 
habitants. 

DAILLY, a parish in Ayrshire, situated 
an the centre of Carrick, along the banks of 
the Girvan. It consists of a vale stretching 
in the direction of the river, about 6 miles 
in length, bounded on both sides by hills of 
moderate height, the breadth varying 
■from 4 to 6 miles. The lower part of the 
valley is beautifully diversified with mea- 
dows, woods, and plantations ; the sides of 
the hills, and the country beyond them, 
especially towards the south, are bleak, 
henthy, and uncultivated. Numerous 
streams pour from the hills, through deep 
and woody glens, tojoin the Girvan. These 
glens are much admired for picturesque and 
romantic beauty. The parish abounds 
with coal and limestone. Population 1756. 

DAIR.SIE, a parish in the county of Fife. 
It is of an irregular figure, extending near- 
ly 3 miles in every direction. The centre 
of the parish is elevated intotwo hills, ara- 
ble to the top, the sloping sides of which 
constitute the parish. The soil is rich and 
fertile. There are several good whinstone 



quarries ; and freestone of excellent quali- 
ty is to be had at a short distance.-—Over 
the Eden, which forms the boundary on 
the S. and E. is a neat bridge of 3 arches. 
Population 553. 

DALAROSSIE, a parish in Inverness- 
shire, united to that of Moy, (q. v.) 

DALAVICH, a parish in Argyleshire, 
united to that of Kilchrenan, (q. v.) 

DALBEATTIE, a village in Kirkcud- 
bright stewartry, in the parish of Urr, built 
some years ago, on the estates of Copland 
of King's Grange, and Maxwell of Munshes. 
It is admirably situated for trade, the river 
Urr being navigable so far for small vessels, 
and a considerable stream, called Dalbeaty 
burn, running through it, well adapted for 
driving machinery. 

DALGAIN, a village in Ayrshire, in the 
parish of Sorn, seated on the road from Ayr 
to Muirkirk, on the banks of the river Ayr. 
It is regularly built, and, in 1797, consisted 
of 50 neat houses, inhabited by 200 per- 
sons. 

D ALGETY, a parish in the western dis- 
trict of the county of Fife ; bounded on the 
N. by Beath and Auchtertool, on the E.by 
Aberdour, on the S. by the Frith of Forth, 
and on the W. by Inverkeithing and Dun- 
fermline. The figure is irregularly triangu- 
lar, eachl side extending about 4 miles in 
length. It is bounded on the S. by the 
Frith of Forth, from which the ground 



DAL 7 

rises considerably; but the surface in ge- 
neral is level, and. in many places covered 
■with furze and swamps. The soil is vari- 
ous ; in some parts consisting of a light dry 
loam ; but the greater part is a deep strong 
loam, mixed with clay, naturally wet and 
stiff, but in general productive of heavy 
crops. There are several extensive pits 
of excellent coal, of which a great quanti- 
ty is annually exported from the port of 
St. David's in this parish. Dunibristle, the 
Beat of the Karl of Moray ; Fordel, the seat 
of Sir John Henderson; the house of Ot- 
terstown and Cockairny, are of great orna- 
ment to the surrounding country. Near 
the church of Dalgety, which is an ancient ] 
building, are the ruins of a seat of the Earl 
of Dunfermline. Population 816. 

DALKEITH, a parish in the county of 
Mid-Lothian, only about 2 miles square, ly- 
ing on the banks of the North and South 
Esk rivers. The whole parish might be con- 
sidered as a plain, did notthe steep banks of 
the rivers give it an uneven and broken ap- 
pearance. The soil is various, being light 
and sandy on the lower grounds, and in the 
higher a pretty deep clay, well adapted for 
raising either fruit orforest trees, which ar- 
rive here to great perfection. In no part of 
Scotland is agriculture better understood 
or more attended to, and for several years 
bypast an association of the most respecta- 
ble farmers in the county, under the deno- 
mination of the Dalkeith Farming Club, 
has existed for the encouragement of every 
discovery connected with agriculture. Ad- 
joining to the town is Dalkeith house, the 
principal seat of the Duke of Euccleuch. 
This elegant and extensive building was 
erected about the beginning of the last cen- 
tury, on the site of the old castle of Dal- 
keith. The beauty of the situation is great- 
ly heightened by the serpentine windings 
of the two rivers, which unite about half a 
mile below the house, and the fine woods 
with which it is surrounded. There is a 
beautiful bridge of white stone over the N. 
Esk, within sight of the house, and the banks 
of both rivers are cut into extensive walks 
with great taste. The park contains a num- 
ber of venerable oaks, and is well stocked 
with deer. Population 4709.— The TOWN 
ef DALKEITH lies 6 and a half miles S. E. 
of Edinburgh, on the great south country 
road from the metropolis. It is situated on 
a narrow stripe of land between the two 
Esks, the banks of which are beautifully 
•wooded and embellished with seats of fami- 
lies of the first distinction. The principal 
street is broad and spacious, and the whole 



DAL 

town may be considered as well built. One 
of the greatest markets in Scotland for grain 
is held here every Monday and Thursday. 
All the corn trade done here is for ready 
money; a circumstance of great importance 
to the farmer. A few manufactures have 
been introduced ; but these have not been, 
carried to great extent. The grammar- 
school of Dalkeith has been long in high re- 
pute ; and several of the brightest ornaments 

j of literature here received the rudiments of 
their education. The church is a Gothic 
fabric, founded by James Douglas, Earl of 

: Morton, in the reign of James V. The 
town is governed by a baron bailie under 
the Duke of Buccleuch. 

I DALLAS, a parish in the county of Elgin, 
about 12 miles in length, and 9 in breadth. 
Its form is somewhat oval, being surround- 
ed with hills, so as to form a valley or 
strath, in the middle of which runs the ri- 
ver Lossie. The soil on the banks of the 
river is light and sandy, subject to frequent 
inundations; the rest of the soil is black 
and mossy, and the surrounding hills are 
covered with short heath.— The harvests 
are late, and the crops are seldom sufficient 
for the consumpt of the district. The pa- 
rish possesses inexhaustible quarries of light 
grey slate, and some good freestone. Po- 
pulation S72. 

DALMALLY, a small village in Argyle- 
shire, situated at the head of Loch Awe, \& 
miles N. from Inverary, and 11 W. of Tyn- 
drum. 

| DALMENY, a parish in the county of 
Linlithgow, on the S. coast of the Frith of 

| Forth. It is nearly 4 miles long, and from 

: 2 to 5 in breadth. The surface is beautif ul- 
ly diversified with hill and dale, and from, 
the eminences the prospect is remarkably- 



extensive and beautiful. The soil is i 



gen- 



| eral a poor clay, bordering on till ; but there- 
i are some spots of sandy ground. Much at- 
\ tention is paid to regular farming, and ro- 
tation of crops. Ironstone is found on the 
shore, and the parish possesses excellent 
quarries of freestone and limestone. There 
are several marl pits in the parish, and coal 
has been recently raised on the estate of 
Lord Hopetoun. There are a few antiqui- 
ties, of which the church may be consider- 
ed as the chief. It is a small elegant fa- 
bric, of Saxon architecture, apparently 800 
years old; and lately underwent a thorough 
repair. Barnbougle castle, the seat of the 
Earl of Roseberry, is a very ancient edifice. 
A new and most elegant house is just now 
building, nigh the site of the castle. In the 
parish are several very ancient families, who 



DAL 72 

have possessed estates in uninterrupted he- 
reditary succession for 700 years. Craigie- 
hall, Dundas castle, and Duddingstone, are 
the chief seats in the parish. Pop. 996. 

DALNACARDOCH, a stage inn in Perth- 
shire, on the great Highland road to Inver- 
ness, 85 miles from Edinburgh, and 70 from 
Inverness. 

DALRY, a parish in the county of Ayr, 
of an irregular figure, nearly 9 miles from 
S. to N. and about the same distance from 
E. to W. The surface rises gradually from 
the banks of the Caaf, Rye, and Garnock. 
The flat ground on the banks of these ri- 
vers is a deep loam, apparently composed 
of slime and sand deposited from the over- 
flowing of the waters. The greater part of 
the soil is clay, intermixed with patches of 
mossy ground, which have of late been 
much improved by the use of lime as ma- 
nure. Dairy gives the title of Baron to the 
eldest son of the Earl of Glasgow. Lime- 
stone and ironstone abound, and there are 
three valuable coal pits within a mile ofthe 
■village. Lately, in boring for coal, a very 
strong sulphureous spring was raised, which 
has been much used in scrophulous and 
scorbutic cases. At Auchinskitch, 2 miles 
from Dairy, in a limestone crag, there is a 
remarkable cave scooped by the hand of 
nature. It is about 183 feet in length, and 
the breadth and height vary from 5 to 12 
feet. Over the entrance, which is to the 
■west, projects a smooth stone, 22 feet long 
by 18 broad. The roof affords many fine 
specimens of stalactical petrifaction. Po- 
pulation 2815. The VILLAGE of Dairy 
lies 5 miles W. of Berth, and 4 N. of Kil- 
winning. It is beautifully situated on a 
rising ground, almost surrounded by wa- 
ters, and these run in their different direc- 
tions so near the village, that when the 
streams are swelled by heavy rains, it has 
the appearance of an island. Near the E. 
end of the town is one of these earthen 
mounds where justice was formerly admi- 
nistered. This is called the Court-hill. The 
cotton manufacture is the principal branch 
of trade in the parish. It contains about 
1000 inhabitants. 

DALRY, a parish in the stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright. Itslength from N. to S. is 
about 15, andits breadth about 10 miles. 
Towards the B. the soil is arable, and ca- 
pable of cultivation ; but by far the greater 
part is hilly, and only tit for pasture. Along 
the river Ken, which is the boundary on the 
W. for 9 miles, there are some natural 
■woods of considerable extent. There are 



D A 



several small 1 akes ; and, besides the Ken, 
1 the parish is watered by the rivulets Gar- 
pool, Blackwater, Earlston, and Stonrig- 
gan. In Lochinvar are the remains of an 
ancient fortified castle, with a draw-bridge. 
There are also several moats and ruinous 
places of defence. A village called St John's 
Clauchan, the property ofthe Earl of Gal- 
loway, is finely situated on the Ken. Po- 
pulation 1061. 

DALRYMPLE, a parish in the county of 
Ayr. It extends along the banks of the ri- 
ver Doon from 6 to 7 miles in length, and 
about 2 in breadth. The lower grounds 
are delightfully situated, surrounded on all 
sides with little green hills. Near the Doon 
the ground is beautiful and diversified. 
The soil is partly clay, and partly sand. The 
state of agriculture is much improved of 
late years, and enclosures are becoming 
general. There is plenty of limestone, marl, 
and some freestone. Population 811. 

DALSERF, a parish in the county of La- 
nark. It is situated on the S. bank of the 
Clyde, extending in length about 5 miles, 
and on an average o in breadth. The holms 
on the banks of the river, which are of ir- 
regular breadth, are very fertile, but liable 
to be overflown. From these plains the 
ground rises by ahold and precipitous ridge 
to a considerable height. Here the soil be- 
comes clay, or rather argillaceous loam, 
with a till bottom. The lower grounds are 
well cultivated, but the rest of the parish, 
being more sterile, is but slightly improv- 
ed. There are several extensive planta- 
tions in the parish, and on the Clyde some 
large orchards. The rivers Avon and Cal- 
nar run through it. There are three neat 
villages, viz. Dalserf, Millheugh,and Lark- 
hall ; the last of which is now considerable, 
and is daily increasing. There are pits of 
excellent coal, and lime has been found in 
small quantity. There is great plenty of 
freestone, and ironstone is also abundant. 
There are several mineral springs. Dalserf 
house and Broomhill, with the ruins of two 
small chapels, are the most distinguished or- 
naments ofthe parish. Population 1560. — 
The VILLAGE of Dalserf stands in a low- 
situation on the banks ofthe Clyde, on the 
road to Lanark, 7 miles below that place, 
and 7 above Hamilton. 

DALTON, a parish in Annandale, Dum- 
fries-shire, about 4 miles in length from 
N. to S. and 5 in breadth. The banks of 
the Annan, which bounds the parish on 
the E. have a light loamy soil, very capable 
of improvement : in the places farther from 



DAL 

the river the soil is clay, on a cold till hot 
torn, which, by retaining the moisture, ren 
ders it unfavourable for vegetation.. Of late 
several commons have been brought into 
culture, and the appearance of the country 
in general is much improved. It contains 
11 square miles. Population 691. 

DALWHINNIE, a stage-inn in Inver- 
ness-shire, on the great Highland road to 
Inverness, 99 miles and a half from Edin- 
burgh, and 56 and a half from Inverness. 

DALZIEL, a parish in the county of La- 
nark, about 4 miles in length, and 2 in 
breadth. Its surface is even and regular, 
rising gradually from the rivers Clyde and 
Calder, by which it is bounded, to a ridge, 
■with a declivity just sufficient to carry off 
the superfluous water. The banks of the 
Clyde are low, except at one place, where 
there is a bold rocky bank for 3U0 yards, 
commanding a line prospect of Hamilton 
and the surrounding country. The banks 
of the Calder are beautifully diversified 
with coppices, and several plantations i>f 
thriving trees heighten the beauty of the 
scenery. The soil of the parish is a rich 
loam, and strong marly clay, capable of a i 
high state of cultivation. There is a sal- I 
mon fishing on the Clyde. Coal abounds I 
in the parish, and freestone of excellent : 
quality. Upon a most picturesque spot : 
stands the mansion house of Dalziel, at- : 
tacbed to the old tower of che manor, which ; 
is kept in repair solely on account of its 
antiquity. The roads from Lanark to Glas- ' 
gow, and from Edinburgh to Hamilton, 
pass through the parish.— Population 758. [ 
DALMELINGTON, a parish in the coun- j 
ty of Ayr. It extends about 8 miles in j 
length, and from 2 to 3 in breadth. — The j 
surface rises gradually from the river Doon, ; 
and the soil varies from a strong, rich, deep ,' 
clay, to a dry gravel ; but towards the hilly 
parts it becomes barren and rocky. There : 
is a large morass near the village, which j 
has lately been drained. Partof Loch Doon, | 
from which issues the river of that name, I 
is in this parish. There is great abundance 
of excellent coal, freestone, and ironstone ; j 
and some veins of lead ore have been dis- 
covered in the hills, but they have never j 
been wrought to any extent. There is a 
beautiful moat above the village, surround- 
ed with a deep dry fosse. Several cairns are j 
to be seen in different parts, besides the 
remains of three ancient castles, one of j 
which stands on a small island in Loch 
Doon. Population of the village and pa- 
rish 787. 

DALJIELINGTON, a village in the 



5 D A V 

above parish, has of late much increased, 
the number of inhabitants being above 500, 
and its vicinity to coal, freestone, and ex- 
cellent water, has induced several compa- 
nies to erect machinery for the cotton and 
woollen manufactures. To the village be- 
long two extensive commons, each of which 
gives pasturage to from 25 to 30 cows. 

DAMSAY, a small island of Orkney, in 
the parish of Stenness, about 2 miles from 
the island of Pomona. 

DANESHALT, a small village in the pa- 
rish of Auchtermuchty, Fifeshire, distant 
about a mile S. from the town of Auchter- 
muclity. The road to Falkland, Kirkcaldy, 
and Kinghorn, lies through this village. 

DARUEL, a fine limpid stream in the 
district of Cowal, Argyleshire, has its rise 
at the hill of Barnish, and after a course of 
some miles, falls into the head of Loch Stri- 
ven, opposite the N. end of Bute. 

DAVEN (LOCH), a small lake, about 3 
miles in circumference, in the parish of 
Logie-Coldstone, in Aberdeenshire. 

DAVID'S (St.), a village in the parish of 
Dalgety, on the N. coast of the Frith of 
Forth, 2 miles E. from Inverkeithing. It 
carries on a considerable manufacture of 
salt, and exports an immense quantity of 
coal. The harbour of St. David's is spa- 
cious, where vessels of 500 or GUU tons can 
load in safety. 

D AVIOT, a parish in Aberdeenshire, ex- 
tending nearly 5 miles in length, and 4 in 
breadth. The surface is level, having an 
exposure to the S. and S. K.— The soil is 
partly a rich fertileloam, and partly a strong 
clay, producing tolerable crops. Very little 
ot the parish is enclosed; its distance from 
lime, the nearest place where it can be got 
being nearly 20 miles, is a great drawback 
to improvement. It has two druidical tem- 
ples, one of vchichformspart of the church- 
yard. Population 693. 

DAVIOT, a parish in the county of In- 
verness. It wasin 161Sunitedlo Duniich- 
ty, which now forms a parochial district of 
great extent, being about 23 miles in length 
en both sides of the Nairn, its breadth va- 
rying from 2 to 4 miles. The appearance 
is wild and romantic in the highest degree, 
the hills being either bare rocks, or very 
sparingly covered with coarse grass; and 
in the low grounds there are many large 
tracts of peat moss, incapable of cultiva- 
tion, but which seem in general well cal- 
culated for trie growth of forest trees, and 
many acres have been laid out in that way. 
Among the mountains are several lakes, of 
which Loch Ruthven and Loch Dundel. 
K 



DEE 



74- 



chack are the chief. Limestone has been 
found on the banks of the Nairn; the vein 
contains numerous cubical crystallizations, 
which have been found to contain lead. 
Population 1654. 

DEAN, a deep running river in the coun- 
ty of Angus. It takes itsrisefrom the lake 
of Forfar, and, receiving the water of Gai- 
rie, near Glammis castle, falls into the Isla 
about a mile N. of Meigle. 

DEE, a large river in Aberdeenshire, 
•which takes its rise from two sources, the 
northern on theN. side of Cairntoul, where, 
running a course nearly due S. through 
Glen-garachy for 4 miles, it is there joined 
tiy another small stream called the Guisa- 
chan, when it receives the name of the Dee. 
Flowing on in the same direction for 6 
miles further, it is joined by the Geauly; 
the southern branch, at Dubrach, which 
has its source from the base of Cairn-eilar. 
After the junction of the two waters, the 
Dee becomes a considerable stream, and 
bends its course eastward, where it runs 
with astonishing rapidity through the whole 
breadth of the county, and empties itself 
into the German Ocean at New Aberdeen, 
at the distance of 90 miles in a direct line 
from its source. In its course it receives 
many small rivers, and forms several wa- 
terfalls, which are noted for their magnifi- 
cence. It abounds with salmon ; and the 
most valuable fishings in Scotland, (the 
Tay scarcely excepted,) are on this river, 
the produce of the Dee being estimated at 
nearly L.8000 Sterling per annum. Its es- 
tuary forms the harbour of Aberdeen. For 
about 20 or 30 miles, it forms the boundary 
between the counties of Aberdeen and 
Kincardine. 

DEE, a river in the Stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright. It takes its rise from Loch Dee, 
a small lake which is situated at the bottom 
of those hills which separate Carrick from 
Galloway. After running many miles in a 
serpentine course, and receiving the water 
of the great river Ken at Parton, it flows a 
considerable way, till it reaches the parish 
of Kirkcudbright. It then runs from N. E. 
to S. W. and empties itself into the Solway 
Frith about 6 miles below the town of 
Kirkcudbright, and is navigable for vessels 
of 200 tons, for 2 miles above that town. 
It is a large and rapid river. For a great 
part of its course its bottom is rocky, and 
its banks steep and rugged, adorned with 
natural wood of various kinds In its course 
it receives besides the Ken, the rivers Tarff 
and Twyneholm, and the Grange burn. It 
abounds with salmon. Opposite the church 



D E E 

of Tongland, the bottom of the river is very 
rough, which in large floods forms it into 
beautiful cascades of broken water. A lit- 
tle below this is a high bridge of two arches. 
The whole length of the course of the Dee, 
following the serpentine turns which it 
makes, is about 40 miles. 

DEER, a parish partly in Aberdeenshire, 
partly in Banff, situated almost in the 
centre of Buchan, extending in length 10 
miles from N. to S. and in breadth 5 and a 
half. The high road from Aberdeen to 
Fraserburgh cuts it longitudinally, and it 
is intersected by the road from Banff and 
Old Meldrum to Peterhead. It is watered 
by two rivulets, Deer and Strichen, which 
afterwards form the Ugie. The surface 
consists of irregular ridges of rising ground, 
forming a number of vallies of unequal ex- 
tent. The tops of some ridges are covered 
with heath, some with plantations, and 
many of them cultivated : the lower parts 
are more susceptible of cultivation. Around 
the village is a plain of considerable extent, 
ornamented by the woods and pleasure 
grounds of Pitfour. A considerable quan- 
tity of home grown flax, spun into fine 
yarn, is annually exported, and a large 
bleachfield with extensive machinery is in 
the neighbourhood of Stewartfield. Besides 
the village of Deer, there are two other po- 
pulous villages, Stewartfield andFetteran- 
gus. There are inexhaustible quarries of 
excellent limestone, of which nearly 20,000 
bolls are annually sold. On the S. W. of 
the parish is great abundance of rombic 
quartz or feldtspar, and pieces of the purest 
rock crystals are met with occasionally. A 
fine dark blue, and a very white granite, 
are used for building. There are several 
druidical circles, and the ruins of a small 
irregular village, supposed to have been in- 
habited by the Druids. Population 3646. 
The VILLAGE of Deer, is situated 1 miles 
and a half W. from Peterhead. Not far 
from the village stand the remains of the 
abbey of Deer, built in the beginning of the 
13th century by William Cummine Earl of 
Buchan. Ithasbeenanextensivebuilding, 
but is now very much in ruins. 

DEER (NEW,) an extensive parish in 
Aberdeenshire. It is of an oblong form, 
extendingfrom N. to S. 14 miles, and 7 at 
a medium from E. to W. The surface is 
flat, there being scarcely a place that de- 
serves to be called an eminence. Towards 
the N. E. and S. E. the appearance for 7 
or 8 miles is almost one continued corn 
field, interspersed with pieces of sown grass 
and turnip, and terminated by a gentle ri- 



DEN 



D E V 



sing ground in the form of an amphithea- 
tre ; towards the W. the soil is shallow , and 
the surface covered with heath. The pub- 
lic road from Aberdeen by Udny and Tar- 
ves divides the parish from N. toS. Lime- 
stone abounds on every farm, and it is 
burnt in considerable quantities with peat. 
About 2 miles from the church stands an 
old castle called Fedderatt, which appears 
to have been a place of considerable 
strength. Thereare a few remains of Brui- 
dical temples ; and several tumuli have 
been opened, and found to contain urns 
enclosed in stone coffins. Population 3100. 
DEER, a small river in Aberdeenshire, 
which takes its rise in the parish of New 
Deer, and, after a course of about 1G miles, 
unites with the water of Strichen. About 
5 miles from the sea, it acquires the name 
of the Ugie, and falls into the ocean at Pe- 
terhead. 

DEER ISLAND, or MULDONICH, one 
of the Hebrides near to the island of 
Barry. 

DEERNESS, a parish in Orkney, united 
to that of St. Andrew's. It is situated in 
the eastern extremity of Pomona Island, 
and extends 10 miles in length, and from 2 
to 6 in breadth. The soil is chiefly loam, 
and moss intermixed with sand, which is 
tolerably productive ; but the cultivated 
land bears a small proportion to that which 
lies waste and uncultivated. Several ruins 
of ancient buildings may here be seen. Po- 
pulation 1410. 

DELTING, a parish in Shetland, on the 
N. coast of the Mainland. The surface is 
hilly, bleak, and barren; but the small part 
on the coast which is under culture pro- 
duces tolerable crops of oats and barley. 
Population 1624. 

DENHAM, orDENHOLM, a village in 
the parish of Cavers, county of Roxburgh, 
5 miles from Jedburgh, on the road to 
Hawick. 

DEN1NO, a small parish in the eastern 
district of Fife. Its figure is nearly a par- 
allelogram, the length being about 5 miles, 
and the breadth about 1 and a half. It is 
beautifully intersected by a variety of small 
rivers, abounding with excellent trout. 
The soil is in general wet and spongy, and 
is principallj fitted for pasturage. Coal 
was formerly wrought, but no pits are open 
at present; freestone abounds of excellent 
quality. There are also several mineral 
springs containingiron. Kingsmoor, an ex- 
tensive tract of wild uncultivated ground, 
is attached to the parish. Population 294. 
DENNY, a parish in Stirlingshire, about 



4 miles in length, and 2 and a half in 
breadth. The surface is agreeably diversi- 
fied, having a soil partly clay, and partly 
sand. It is in general fertile, and well 
cultivated. The great canal frcm Forth 
to Clyde passes through it. Freestone is 
plenty, and coals are got insufficient quan- 
tity. Population 2654.— The VILLAGE 
of Denny, lies 5 miles W . from Falkirk. It 
isapopulous and thriving place, being in the 
immediate vicinity of 5 paper-mills, a wool 
spinning mill, and 2 large printfields on 
the N. bank of Carron, in the parish of Du- 
nipace. The road from Stirling to Glasgow 
passes through it. 

DERNOCK, or DARNICK, a pleasant 
little village in the parish of Melrose, and 
county of Roxburgh, situated on the S. 
bank of the Tweed, 1 mile and a half W. 
from Melrose. 

DERVILLE, a thriving manufacturing 
village in the parish of Loudon, county of 
Ayr. Near it are the remains of a Danish 
fort. The lands of Derville in old times 
belonged to the Knights Templars, and it 
is remarkable that these lands hold of no 
superior, not even of the crown. The vil- 
lage contains about 400 inhabitants. 

DE5XFORD, a parish in the county of 
Banff. Its length from N. to S. is about 5 
miles, and its extreme breadth about 3. 
It consists of a strath or valley, between a 
range of hills, through which runs a small 
river, the banks of which are covered with 
natural wood. The soil along the lower- 
parts of the strath is generally a rich loam, 
with a strong clay bottom, producing hea- 
vy crops of grain ; towards the hills the soil 
is a light black mould, on a cold tilly bot- 
tom. The lower grounds seem peculiarly 
adapted for planting. The ruins of the 
tower of Deskford, and of the castle of 
Scuth, with the surrounding woods, forms its 
most picturesque ornaments.— There is a 
small bleachfield at the N. end of the pa- 
rish. There are several quarries of lime- 
stone, and 2 hills which afford abundance 
of peat and turf for fuel. Population 631. 

DEUCALEDON1AN SEA, the name 
given by Ptolemy and the ancient geogra- 
phers to the ocean which washes the wes- 
tern coasts of Scotland. 

DE VERON, a river which has its source 
in the parish of Cahrach, in Aberdeenshire, 
and after a course of about 50 miles, falls 
into the ocean at Banff.— It forms the 
boundary betwixt Aberdeen and Banff- 
shires for many miles, and in its course re- 
ceives many rivulets, particularly the Bo- 
gie, which falls into it at Huntly, and the 



D E V 



Isla at Rothiemay. It contains plenty of 
trout and salmon, which yield a revenue 
of L.2000. 

DEVON, a river which takes its rise in the 
parish of Blackford, and running an easter- 
ly course of some miles to the Kirktown of 
G'endevon, it runs in a S. E. direction to 
the Crook of Devon, when it turns round, 
and flows in a westerly direction until it 
falls into the Forth at Cambus, two miles 
above Alloa. In its course it forms some 
striking and romantic waterfalls and cas- 
cades, known by the names of the Devil's 
Mill, the Rumbling Bridge, and the Cal- 
dron Linn. " The first we visited (says Dr. 
Garnott in his Tour) is what is called the 
Caldron Linn, about 9 miles from Kinross. 
Here the Devon suddenly enters a deep 
linn or gully, and there finding itself con- 
fined, by its continual effort against the 
sides has worked out a cavity resembling a. 
large caldron, in which the water has so 
much the appearance of boiling that it is 
difficult to divest one's self of the idea that 
it is really in a state of violent ebullition. 
From the caldron, through a hole below 
the surface, the water slowly finds its way 
under the rock into a circular cavity, in 
■which it is carried round and round, though 
with much less violent agitation: this se- 
cond caldron is always covered with a foam 
or froth.— From this boiler the water runs 
in the same manner by an opening in the 
rock below its surface into another, which 
5s larger than either of them, the diameter 
being 22 feet. The water in this cavity 
is not agitated like the other, but calm 
and placid. From this cavern the water 
rushes perpendicularly over a rock into 
a deep and romantic glen, forming a 
fine cascade, particularly when viewed 
from the bottom of the glen. This cascade 
is 44 feet in height, and the rocks which 
compose the linn are about twice as high, 
so that it appears as if the water had worn 
its way from the top to its present situa- 
tion, which most probably has been the 
case. It falls in one unbroken sheet, with- 
out touching the rock ; and the whiteness 
of the dashing water is finely opposed to the 
almost black colour of the rocks, which are 
formed of coarse grained basaltes. Leav- 
ing the Caldron linn, we walked about a 
mile, or rather more, up the banks of the 
Devon, and came to another linn or ravine, 
over which an arch is thrown. The rocks 
on each side approach so near, that an 
arch,of 22 feet span is sufficient to form a 
communication between the different banks 



of the river; but the depth from the bridge 
to the water is no less than 86 feet, but the 
want of a parapet prevents even the steadi- 
est head from looking down this fright- 
ful chasm, without a degree of terror, (a 
handsome new bridge is lately finished.) 
The water, both above and below the 
bridge, rushing from rock to rock, and form- 
ing a number of little falls, produces a con- 
stant rumbling kind of noise, which is 
much increased when the water is swollen 
by rains ; on this account the people call it 
the Rumbling bridge. When this bridge is 
viewed from the river below, it is a very sub- 
lime object. The sides of the chasm are 
formed by bold irregular rocks, consisting of 
a kind of pudding-stone, which are in many 
places finely covered with brush-wood ; a- 
bove the bridge, the water is seen running 
along, in some places concealed from the 
eye by the jutting rocks and foliage, and in 
others appearing again. In short, the whole 
forms a very romantic scene- About 200 
yards above the Rumbling bridge, we came 
to another fall, though but a small one, 
with a kind of caldron, in which the water 
has the appearance of boiling. In this ca- 
vity the water is continually tossed about 
with great violence, constantly dashing a- 
gainst the sides of the rock; this produces 
a noise somewhat similar to that made by a 
mill, and on this account it is called by 
the common people the Devil's mill, be- 
cause it pays no regard to Sunday, but 
works every day alike. At Crook of Devon 
is a good inn, where a guide will be pro- 
cured ; here the roads from Stirling and 
Alloa, to Kinross unite, 20 miles from 
Stirling, 6 from Alloa, and 6 from Kinross. 
DEVON (BLACK), or SOUTH DEVON, 
a small river in Clackmannan-shire, which 
has its rise in the Saline-hills, and, after a 
circuitous course of some miles, falls into 
the Forth at Clackmannan harbour. 

DICHMOUNT LAW, a hill in the pa- 
rish of St. Vigean's in the county of Angus. 
It is about 670 feet in height. 

DICHTY, a rivulet in the county of An- 
gus. It takes its rise amongst the Sidlaw- 
hills, and, after a course of about 12 or 13 
miles, falls into the frith of Tay, near the 
village of Monifieth. 

DICKMOUNT-HILL, in the parish of 
Cambuslang, in the county of Lanark, ele- 
vated about 700 feet above the level of the 
sea, and commands a most extensive and 
varied prospect. It appears to have been 
anciently a place of strength. 

DILTY-MOSS, an extensive mois in 



DIN 



D O L 



Forfarshire, in the parishes of Carmylie and 
Guthrie, about 2 miles long, and 1 and a : 
half broad. 

DINART, a river in Sutherlandshire, 
which takes its origin from Loch Dovlass. 
After a northerly course of 15 miles, it falls 
into Durness bay between Far-out-head 
and Cape Wrath. It produces plenty of 
salmon. 

DINGWALL, a parish in the county of 
Ross, forming nearly a square of 2 miles ; 
bounded on the E. by Kiltearn, on the S. E. 
by the river Conan, which separates it from 
Urquhart, on the S. and W. by Fodderty, 
and on the N. by a range of high mountains. ! 
It occupies a fine valley, with part of the 
sloping sides of the hills which form the 
valley, a great proportion of which is in a 
high state of cultivation.— There is little 
•waste land, and the whole forms a beauti- 
ful diversified scene of hill aad dale, wood 
and water, corn fields and meadows. The 
soil is a rich loam, which in dry seasons af- 
fords luxuriant crops ; but, from the fatness 
of the ground, and the steepness of the 
hills, wet seasons frequently frustrate the 
hopes of the farmer. The river Conan runs 
through the parish, in which a few trouts 
are occasionally caught. On it also is a 
very productive salmon fishing. There are 
a few plantations which are in a thriving 
state. Population of the town and parish 
1500.— TheBURGH of DINGWALL, lies 
19 miles N. of Inverness by Beauly. It is 
pleasantly situated on a fertile plain at the 
W. end of the frith of Cromarty, which is 
navigable to small vessels as far up as the 
town. It was erected into a royal burgh by 
Alexander II. in the year 1326. It is go- 
verned by a provost, 2 bailies, a dean of 
guild, treasurer, and 10 councillors, and 
joins with Tain, Dornoch, Wick, and Kirk- 
wall, in sending a member to parliament. 
It would appear, that anciently the town 
was much greater than at present. Cause- 
ways and foundations of houses have been 
found some hundred yards from where the | 
town now stands. It is, however, much I 
improved of late, and the streets, which are I 
well paved, may be called neat, and even 
elegant. It is well situated for trade, but ' 
as yet no particular branch of manufacture 
has been introduced. Dingwall contains 1 1 
nearly S00 inhabitants. Near the town < < 
are the ruins of the ancient residence of the | j 
Earls of Ross. It was built close to the 
shore, and almost surrounded by a rivulet, 
into which the tide flowed at high water. 
Near the church is an obelisk, 57 feet high, 
though only 6 feet square at the base. It 



was erected by George first Earl of Cromar- 
ty, and was intended to distinguish the 
burying-place of the family. 

DIRLETON, a parish in the county of 
Haddington. It is situated where the Frith 
of Forth opens into the German ocean ; its 
extent is nearly 6 miles square. The wes- 
tern part of the parish, along the frith, is 
sandy and barren for nearly 3 miles; but 
towards the E. the soil becomes better, be- 
ing a fine level plain. There are two small 
islets on the coast, on one of which, called 
Fidrie, is the ruin of a lazeret. A consider- 
able quantity of sea weed is thrown ashore 
after a storm, part of which is used as a ma- 
nure, and part burned into kelp. Inclo- 
sures are general, and there has been of 
late years a great improvement in the 
mode of farming. Nisbet of Dirleton, the 
chief heritor, has lately made extensive 
plantations. Gulan-ness, from which pas- 
sage-boats formerly sailed for Fife, is in 
this parish. Population, 1211. — The TIL- 
LAGE ofDIRXETON, nearly in the cen- 
tre of the parish, built upon a rocky ground, 
rising as it recedes from the sea, -l miles W. 
of North Berwick, and 4 E. of Aberlady.— 
Immediately adjoining to it are the ruins 
of the ancient castle of Dirleton, once a 
place of considerable strength. 

DIVIE, a small river in the county of 
Moray. Its principal branch rises in the 
borders of Strathspey, and, after a most 
rapid course, it falls into the Findhorn ri . 
ver. 

DOCHART (LOCH), a lake in Perthshire, 
in the parish of Killin. It is about 5 miles 
in length from E. to W. and contains a float- 
ing islet, 51 feet long, and 29 broad. It 
appears to have been gradually formed by 
the natural intertexture of the roots and 
stems of some water plants. It moves be- 
fore the wind, and may be pushed about 
with poles. Cattle going unsuspectingly to 
feed upon it are liable to be carried on a 
voyage round the lake. On another, but 
stationary island, stand the ruins of a castle, 
the ancient residence of the Knights of 
Lochow. The river Fillan runs into the 
lake at Killin. 

DOCHART, a river which issues from the 
east end of loch Dochart, and running E. a- 
bout 8 miles through Glen Dochart, joins 
the Lochay at Killin, when both falls into 
Loch Tay. 

DOLLAR, a parish in the county of Clack- 
mannan. It consists chiefly of an exten- 
sive and gently sloping plain, beautifully 
interspersed with small villages, farm hous- 
es, and enclosures; about 5 miles long, and 



POL 78 

1 and a half in breadth. Besides the plain, 
it takes in a part of the Ochils, which are in 
general covered with a beautiful green, af- 
fording excellent pasturefor sheep. At the 
foot of the hills, and the greater part to the 
plain, the soil is light and gravelly, causing 
a quick vegetation. On the banks of De- 
von, wluch nearly divides the parish into 
two equal parts, the ground is chiefly haugh, 
■with an intermixture of clay. The village 
of Dollar is very small and mean, situated 
on the road from Stirling to Kinross, from 
■which it is equi-distant about 12 miles. 
There is a finebleachfield on the banks of 
the Devon, where the practice of Bleaching 
■with muriatic acid was early introduced. 
About a mile N. of the village is the ven- 
erable ruin of Castle-Campbell, anciently 
the occasional residence of the Argyle fa- 
mily. It is situated on the top of a small 
round hill, on each side of which is a deep 
glen, watered by two streams, which unite 
immediately below the castle. The castle 
has been defended on the N. by a fosse and 
draw -bridge. The keep, or tower, is still 
entire, and two apartments have been so 
far repaired as to contain a family who re- 
side here. This castle was taken by the 
Marquis of Montrose, in 1641, and burnt; 
the marks of the fire are still visible. The 
place is surrounded by high hills of a som- 
bre appearance, which is the reason why it 
was formerly called the castle of Gloom, 
surrounded by the glen of Care, and the 
burn of Sorrow, and looking down on the 
town of darkness, for so the Gaelic names of 
the places are said to signify. No travel- 
ler of taste will ever regret bestowing a few 
hours in visiting this ancient fabric. In the 
parish of Dollar there are several coal- 
works. Ironstone likewise abounds, and 
there are several valuable freestone quar- 
ries. A vein of lead was some years ago 
found near the town of Dollar. Silver has 
been found in the glen of Care, near Castle- 
Campbell ; and on the top of a hill, called 
the White Wisp, beautiful agates are found. 
Population 743. 

DOLLAR-BURN, a hill in the parish of 
Manor, county of Peebles, elevated 2840 
feet. 

DOLPHINGTON, a parish in the county 
of Lanark, extending about 5 miles from E. 
to W. and 2 and a half from N. to S. The 
great road from Edinburgh to Lead-hillsby 
Biggar passes through it. The soil is for 
the most part a light black mould, on a red 
clay bottom, inclining to till, which makes 
it generally wet and the harvest late. On 
the top of one of the hills are the remains 



• of an encampment or fortification, enclos- 
ing about 4 acres of ground ; and on ano- 
ther hill called the Kip is a cairn, on the top 
of which fires were anciently kindled to 
warn the country of invasion or predatory 
incursion. — Population 26S. 

DON, a river in Aberdeenshire. It takes 
its rise in the mountains of Curgarff, and 
takes acourse nearlydue E.,beingaugment- 
ed by thebuckct and other tributary streams. 
At AU'ordit is joined by the Laschel, and 
atlnerary, by the Ury, and falls into the 
German ocean on the N. side of the old 
town of Aberdeen, about 2 miles from the 
mouth of the river Dee. It abounds with 
salmon, and the fishing of a small space of 
its banks, not more than 500 or 400 yards 
in length, has been known to rent at near- 
ly L.2000 per annum. It is navigable to 
small vessels up to the bridge, which was 
thrown over it by Bishop Cheyne, in 1323, 
on the high road from Aberdeen to the 
northward. 

DOON, a lake and river of Ayrshire. 
The lake is situated chiefly in the parish 
of Straiton, and is about 7 miles in length. 
On an island are the remains of an old cas- 
tle, belonging to the Earl of Cassilis. The 
river issues from the N. W. end of the lake, 
and, after a circuitous course of upwards 
of IS miles, falls into the Atlantic, 2 miles 
S. from Ayr. Its banks are very beautiful. 
Both lake and river abound with trout and 
salmon. The river forms the N. E. boun- 
dary of Carrick. 

DORES, a parish in Inverness- shire, si- 
tuated on the banks of Loch Ness, which 
bounds it on the W. side, extending 20 
miles in length, and 3 in breadth. The 
surface is mountainous, having a narrow 
valley running nearly the whole length of 
the parish. The soil is light, but not much 
cultivated, the greater part of it being fit 
only for sheep pasture. Besides Loch Ness, 
there are two or three smaller lakes which 
abound with trout. Extensive plantations 
of fir ornament this district. Population 
1314. 

DORNOCH, a parish in the county of 
Sutherland, extending 9 miles from E. to 
W. along the coast of the frith of Dornoch, 
and from N. W. to S. about 15 measured 
miles. The shores are flat and sandy, and 
the lands contiguous in general level, but 
are gradually elevated as they approach the 
hilly districts towards the north. The soil 
is sandy, approaching to loam as it recedes 
from the coast. The river E velicks, which 
falls into the frith at the Meikle-ferry, af- 
fords a few salmon and trout. In the hilly 



DOR 

district there are 5 or 4 small lakes. Fal- 
lowing of land is unknown, and the use of 
lime as a manure is but lately introduced. 
There are several quarries of whinestone, 
and one of excellent freestone, near the 
town. Population of the town and parish 
2681.— The BURGH of DORNOCH is si- 
tuated on the N. coast of the frith of Dor- 
noch, neariy opposite to the burgh of Tain, 
•which lies on the S. side of the frith. The 
town is small and going fast to decay, al- 
though it is the county town. It is govern- 
ed by a provost, 4 bailies, a dean of guild, 
treasurer, and 8 councillors ; and along 
with Tain, Dingwall, Wick, and Kirkwall, 
unites in sending a member to parliament. 
Dornoch was formerly the seat of the Bi- 
shop of Caithness, and the W. end of the 
cathedral is still kept in repair as the pa- 
rish church. It was erected in the 11th 
century, and enlarged in 1280, burnt in 
1570, and repaired in 1650. The ruins of 
the bishop's castle, which appears to have 
been a stately and sumptuous edifice, still 
remain. 

DORNOCH FRITH, or the Frith of Tain, 
an arm of the sea which divides the south- 
em parts of Sutherland from the county of 
Ross. Its entrance is nearly 15 miles wide, 
but gradually becomes narrower, till, about 
3 miles W. from the town of Dornoch, its 
breadth is not more than 2 miles, \\ here 
there is a ferry called the Meikle-ferry. Af- 
ter this it becomes much wider, forming an 
inner harbour or bay, where another ferry 
is established, called the Little-ferry. At 
this ferry is an excellent roadstead, where 
■vessels of considerable burden can lie at 
anchor. Vessels of 500 tons are said to have 
water on this bar at spring tides. On the 
Sutherland coast, too, in calm weather, 
vessels of small burden may lie in safety; 
but a formidable bar extends from this 
coast almost to the S. side of the frith, cal- 
led, from the incessant noise, the Gizzing 
Brings ; but vessels may enter with safety 
under the direction of a pilot. The shores 
produce shell-fish, and the banks abound 
■with cod and haddocks. 

DORNOCK, a parish in the county of Dum- 
fries. It is nearly a square of 2 and a half 
miles, extending along the banks of the 
Solway Frith. The surface is remarkably- 
flat, and the soil loamy, upon a strong clay 
bottom. The small river Kirtle runs through 
a part of it. The fishings in the Solway 
Frith employ a great number of the inha- 
bitants. A large peat-moss furnishes plen- 
ty of fuel. There are the remains of a Ro- 
man military road through the parish ; al- 



D O U 

so a draidical temple, an entrenchment, 
and a strong square tower on the estate of 
the Marquis of Annandale. The great road 
from Carlisle to Portpatrick passes through 
it. Population 788. 

DOUGLAS, a parish in Lanarkshire, a- 
bout 12 miles long, and from 4 to 7 broad. 
Along the banks of the river Douglas the 
soil is good; farther up it becomes spouty 
and wet, and the back grounds are -chiefly 
a cold till. On the holms of the river are a 
few arable farms ; but these bear a small 
prcportion to what is laid out in sheep pas- 
ture.— There is very little natural wood ; 
but Lord Douglas has planted^ upwaids of 
1200 acres with a variety of trees. The pa- 
rish abounds with coal, lime, and freestone; 
many of the seams of coal are 7 feet in 
thickness, and will be inexhaustible for ma - 
ny centuries. Besides the Douglas, the pa- 
rish is watered by three small streams. 
The VILLAGE of DOUGLAS is situated 
nearly in the middle of the parish, and is 
in a line of the great Glasgow roads from 
Glasgow to England, and from Edinburgh 
to Ayr. It lies 6 miles S. of Lesmahago. 
It has a small manufacture of cotton, and 
another cotton-work has been lately erected 
in its vicinity. The old castle of Douglas 
was burnt down about 60 years ago ; but 
part of the new castle has been built in 
the most elegant style. Population 1873. 

DOUGLAS, a river which takes its rise 9 
miles above the village of Douglas, and 
falls into the Clyde about 7 miles below the 
same village. 

DOUGLASDALE, the name cfthe mid- 
dle ward of Lanarkshire. Lord Douglas is 
the principal proprietor. 

DOUNE, a small town in the parish of 
Kilmadock, Perthshire, 8 miles N. W. of 
Stirling. It is pleasantly situated on the 
bank of Teith, near the confluence of the 
Ardoch with that river. It consists of 5 
streets uniting, in the centre of which a 
neat market cross was lately erected. The 
town is plentifully supplied with springs of 
excellent soft water. The introduction of 
the cotton manufacture has greatly contri- 
buted to the improvement of the town. 
For some time past Doune has been noted 
for excellent slaters. This town has also 
been long celebrated for the manufacture 
of Highland pistols, which art was introduc- 
ed here in 1646. There are three great 
cattle markets in the year. — The old and 
the new town of Doune contains (including 
the labourers at the Deanston cotton-works) 
upwards of 1 630 inhabitants. Towards the 
S. E. of the town, on a peninsula formed 



DEE 



D R U 



at the junction of the Teith and Ardoch, 
stand the ruins of the castle of Boune. 
Nature has pointed out this spot as a place 
of strength. The castle is a huge square 
building, the walls of which are 40 feet 
high, and about 10 feet thick; what re- 
mains of the tower is at least 80 feet in 
height. It is quite uncertain when this cas- 
tle was built : the first mention of it in any 
record is Sir James Stuart of Eeath being 
made constable thereof, in the reign of 
James V. hut as it was the family seat of 
the Earls of Monteith, it is with great pro- 
bability conjectured to have been built by 
one of that family about the 11th century. 
It is now the properly of the family of Stu- 
art, giving the second title of Baron Doune 
to the Earls of Moray. 

DOWALLY, See DUNKELD. 

DOW ALTON (LOCH,) in the county of 
Wigton, and parish of Sorbie, is about 2 
miles long, and 1 and a half broad. 

DOWNE-HILL, in the parish of Eden- 
killie in Morrayshire ; a fortress of great 
antiquity. It is a conical shape, around a 
considerable part of which runs the rapid 
river of Divie, in a deep rocky channel ; 
and, where not defended by the river, it is 
encircled by a deep ditch or fosse, with a 
strong rampart. 

DRAINY, a parish in the county of Mo- 
ray, is a peninsula formed by the Moray 
frith and the loch of Spynie. It extends in 
length about 4 miles, and from 2 to 5 in 
breadth. The general appearance of the 
country is low and flat. Scarcely one half 
of the surface is arable, the greater part be- 
ing barren moor ground, covered with heath 
and coarse grass. The land under cultiva- 
tion is fertile . It is watered by the river 
Lossie, at the mouth of which a fishing nil- 
lage is built, called Lossie-mouth. There 
are 2 small eminences, which are quarried 
for the excellent freestone of which they 
are composed. Near Cansea, a small fish- 
ing village in the parish, the shore is bold, 
having an uninterrupted mass of freestone. 
Population 911. 

DREGHORN, a parish in the district of 
Cunningham, Ayrshire, hounded on the W. 
N. W. and N. by the water of Annock. It 
extends nearly 9 miles in length, and varies 
from 1 to 3 in breadth. The surface is le- 
vel, having a gentle declivity from the east- 
ern limits to the sea. The upper and mid- 
dle parts of the parish have a deep clay soil, 
which towards the sea becomes intermixed 
with sand and gravel ; the holms on the 
banks of the Annock and Irvine are a fine 
deep loam. Almost the whole of the pa- 



rish is arable. It is mostly inclosed, and 
well sheltered by belts of planting. A con- 
siderable quantity of fine cheeses are made 
here. There is a coaliery in the W. end of 
the parish, yielding annually 11,000 tons of 
coal.— The VILLAGE of DREGHORN is 
beautifully situated on the side of the An- 
nock, 2 miles E. of Irvine, and 5 W. of 
Kilmarnock, and is well adapted for manu- 
factures, though none are at present car- 
ried on. Population 797. 

DREINICH, a small island in Argyle- 
shire, in Loch Linnhe. 

DRON, a parish in Perthshire. It ex- 
tends in length between 3 and 4 miles, and 
about 3 in breadth, stretching in a sloping 
direction from the Ochil hills to the vale of 
Stratherne. In many piacesthe faceof the 
hills exhibit a broken and irregular surface, 
roughened by projecting rocks, and over- 
grown with furze ; but in other places there 
are considerable patches of com land on 
the very tops of craggy precipices. Several 
small streams pour down the sides of the 
hills, and fall into the Earne. Several 
springs contain metallic substances in so- 
lution. Freestone abounds, and the ap- 
pearances of coal are flattering. On the 
southern descent of the hill, opposite to the 
church, stands a large mass ofwhinstone, 
of an irregular figure, called The Rocking 
Stone of Dron ; it is about 1 feet in length 
and 7 in breadth. On a gentle pressure 
with the finger, it has a perceptible motion, 
and the vibration continues for some mi- 
nutes after the pressure is removed. This 
with similar stones in different parts of 
Scotland, is conjectured to have been used 
by the Druids in the superstitious ceremo- 
nies of former times. Population 499. 

DRUMLADE, a parishin Aberdeenshire, 
from 5 to 6 miles in length, and from 4 to 
5 in breadth. The surface is composed of 
small hills and vallies. Some of the for- 
mer are covered with firs, but by far the 
greater part is uninclosed. There has late- 
ly been discovered a fine species of clay 
marl, which promises to be of considerable 
service in improving the land. There is 
plenty of coarselimestone, freestone, whin- 
stone, and some slate. There are three tu- 
muli, near one of which are the remains of 
an encampment of King Robert Bruce, af- 
ter he had defeated Cummine Earl of Bade- 
noch. Population 7S0. 

DKUMLANRIG, a small village in the 
parish of Durisdeer, Dumfries-shire, situat- 
ed upon the Nith, about 15 miles N. W. of 
Dumfries, ornamented by a noble seat of 
the Duke of Queensberry ; it is nearly a 



D B Y 



D U P 



square, and adorned attha top with I2tur- 
reU. 

DRUMMTHIK, a considerable manu- 
facturing village in Kincardineshire, in the 
parish of Glenbervie, on the road from Lau- 
rencekirk to Stonehaven. 

DRUMMELZIER, a parish in Peebles- 
shire. It is about Smiles in breadth, and 12 
miles in length, chiefly on the banks of the 
Tweed. The surface is beautifully varied 
with hills, rivulets, and plains, and the soil 
is of a fertile sandy loam. In the church- 
yard is pointed out the burial place of the 

celebrated Merlin The VILLAGE OF 

DRUMMELZIER is pleasantly situated 
on the banks of the Tweed. Population 
iWZ. 

DRUMMOCHY, a village Immediately 
adjoining Nether Largo, at which there is 
a flax spinning mill. 

DRUMMOND, a village in Ross-shire, 
in the parish of Kiltearn, seated on a level 
field near the river Skiack. It is increas- 
ing rapidly in extent and population. It is 
situated on the post road from Dingwall 
to Novar Inn. 

DRDMNADIAL, a high mountain in In- 
verness-shire, on the S. side of Loch Lochy- 
DRUMOAK, a parish partly in Aber- 
deenshire, partly in Kincardine, in extent 
about 4 miles and 2 broad. The surface is 
hilly, a great part being only fit for sheep 
pasture. The arable soil produces only- 
spare crops of barley and oats. The tower 
of Drum is a very ancient edifice. Popula- 
tion 6 28. 

DROMSTURDY MUIR, a small village 
in the parish of Monifieth, Angus-shire. It 
contains about MO inhabitants. 

DRUMUACHDER, a high hill about 3 
miles N.from the castle of Blair in A thole. 
DRYBURGH, a small village on the 
banks of the Tweed, in the parish of Mer- 
ton, Berwickshire, where are the re- 
mains of an ancient abbey, founded by 
Hugh MoreviHe, constable of Scotland in 
the reign of King David I. The fine 
ruins of the abbey are the property of the 
Earl of Buchan, whose elegant seat, cal- 
led Dryburgh Abbey, is in the immediate 
neighbourhood ; and at whose expense is 
just finished a chain bridge over the T weed. 
The appearance of this bridge is uncom- 
monly light and elegant, and, connected 
■with the fine scenery of Dryburgh, it is 
beautiful and Interesting. It consists of a 
platform of wood, supported by chains sus 
pended from pillars on each side of the 
liver, at the height of 18 feet, and has no 
suppsrt under it ; the extreme length is 



261 feet, I] and a half feet at each end, and 
5 in the centre In breadth. 

DRYFF, a river in Dumfries-shire, which 

Ices its rise in the northern district of the 

irish of Hultoi), and, after a course direct- 
ly S. of about 11 miles, empties itself into 
the Annan, about midway between Lock- 
;rbie and Lochmaben. 

DRYFESDALE, or DRVSDALE, a pa- 
-ishin the centre of the district of Annan- 
dale, Dumfries.shire. It extends about 7 
miles in length from N. to S., and varies in 
breadth from 1 to 6 ; containing 15 and a 
I half square miles. The southern parts are 
generally flat and well cultivated ; but the 
upper or northern parts are hilly, and chief- 
ly appropriated for sheep pasture. It i» 
watered by the Annan, the Dryfe.Jlie Milk, 
and the Currie, all of which abound with 
| trout and salmon. There are ." or I small 
lakes, which afford abundance of excellent 
marl. The town of Lockerbie is situated 
on the banks of the Dryfe, in this parish. 
From the top of White-wynd, or While- 
woollen-hill, the only eminence in the pa- 
rish, is an extensive prospect of the Sol- 
ray Frith and the English border. W.hiir- 
stoneis quarried near the town of Locker- 
bie, and there is great abundance of lime- 
stone. It contains a great number of Ro- 
il and British encampments, and ves- 
tiges of many old castles and strong towers. 
The great Roman road can he distinctly 
traced near the town of Lockerbie, and ori 
the other side of the Dryfe. Population 
1H93. 

DRYMEN, a parish in the county of 
Stirling. The utmost length of the inhabi- 
ted part is 15 miles, but the moors extend 
much farther; the greatest breidth is '.» 
miles. In some places, the country is rug- 
ged and mountainous ; in others, flat and 
level ; but for the most part, it is an irregu- 
lar slope, intersected by a number of small 
rapid streams, of which the Duchray, the 
Enrick, and the Forth, are the chief. Near 
the church is the village of Drymen. Pp- 
pulation 1500. 

DUBIESIDE, a village in the parish of 
Markinch, Fifeshire,,on the Frith of Forth, 
at the mouth of the Leveu. Population 
200. 

DUCHRAY, a rivor in Stirlingshire, 
which joins the Forth nearly opposite to 
the church of Abnrfoyle. 

DUDDINGSTON, a parish in the coun- 
ty of Edinburgh, bounded on the N. by the 
Forth. It extendsfromthefoot of Arthur's 
Seat, about 1 miles in length, gradually in- 
creasing in breadth to the eastern extremi- 
L 



DUF 

iy, which is nearly 2 miles hroad. There 
is not a more highly cultivated spot in Scot- 
land. It contains the villages of Easter 
and Wester Duddingston, Portobello, and 
Brickfield. Salt has been long manufac- 
tured in this parish; from six pans, 18,000 
bushels of saltare annually delivered. Coal 
abounds every-where; the quality is in ge- 
neral excellent, and procures a ready mar- 
ket in the metropolis. Clay is found near 
the village of Brick-field, of so pure a kind, 
that it has been made into crucibles capa- 
ble of resisting a great degree of heat ; and , 
from its excellence, a manufacture of stone- 
ware has been set on foot there. Near the 
limestone strata, curious and rare petrifac- 
tions of plants and trees have been found. 
Marl abounds in Duddingston Loch, and is 
occasionally wrought. The botanist, in 
this district, will find great scope for the 
gratification of his taste; the base of Ar- 
thur's Seat, and borders of Duddingston 
Loch, contain many rare and curious plants. 
Population 1553.--The VILLAGE of DUD- 
DINGSTON is situated at the foot of Ar- 
thur's Seat, and surrounded by the loch of 
that name on the S. and W. sides. Its si- 
tuation is charming, and the prospect de- 
lightful, though notextensive. The church 
is an ancient neat fabric. It has a few 
good modern houses, as villas for such as 
choose to retire herefrom Edinburgh dur- 
ing the summer season.— EASTER DUD- 
DINGSTON is two miles distantfrom this ; 
it is inhabited chiefly by Colliers. 

DUFFUS, a parish in the county of Mo- 
ray, bounded on the W. and N. by the Mo- 
ray Frith ; 6 miles in length, and from 2 
to 3 in breadth. Except a small rising 
ground in the middle of the parish, it is a 
continued plain, which is every where ara- 
ble. Along the coast there is a. san dy plain 
of half a mile in breadth, . covered with a 
meagre, green, benty pasture. The rest is 
a fertile clay soil, capable of producing any 
sort of grain. Agriculture is now attend- 
ed to, and the country is assuming an im- 
proving aspect. The fishing village of 
Burgh-headis situated on the coast. On 
the S. and W. boundaries, there are many 
acres of thriving plantations. Along the 
coast arequarries of limestone, a treasure 
in agriculture which is unfortunately lock- 
ed up for want of fuel. There is an obe- 
lisk near the small village of Kairn, said to 
have been erected on account of the vic- 
tory gained by Malcolm II. over the Danish 
general Camus ; and on the N. W. border 
of the lake of Spynie, on an av( ificial 
pound, are still standing the walls of the 



D U M 

castle~of~01d "buffus.— ThfTviLLAGE of 
DUFFUS is regularly built, having a 
square, with a church in the centre, and 
four streets leading to it, regularly paved. 
Population 3623. 

DUIRNISH, a parish in Inverness-shire, 
in the isle of Skye, about 2.3 miles long, and 
13 broad. The extent of-sea coast is about 
80 miles, the district being intersected by 
large arms of the sea, the chief of which ,?re 
Loch Bay, Loch Pottech, Loch Dunvegan, 
and Loch Harlosh. The promontories or 
headlands are exceedingly high and rocky. 
The shores afford annually about 100 tons 
of kelp. The whole parish affords excel- 
lent pasture, and there are many fertile 
arable spots on the coast. The remains of 
ancient fortifications, similar to those in 
other parts of the Hebrides, axe to be seen 
on almost every headland ofthe parish. Po- 
pulation 3561. 

DULL, an extensive Highland parish in 
Perthshire, about 30 miles in length, and 
12 in breadth. It is divided into five disr 
tricts, one of which, Appin, is an open flat 
haugh on the banks ofthe Tay ; the rest of 
the parish exhibits a mountainous appear- 
ance, Interspersed, however, with many 
tracts of rich arable ground. There are 15 
lakes in the parish, all of which abound 
with trout, pike and eel. Of these Loch 
Tummel is the most considerable. The 
rivers Tay and Tummel run through the 
district. Sheep-farming is chiefly attend- 
ed to. Fuel is exceedingly scarce, as the 
peats are bad and at a great distance, and 
no coal has yet been discovered. The mi- 
litary road from Stirling to Inverness pas- 
ses through the whole length of the parish. 
It contains many Druidical temples, and a. 
number of castles, or watch-towers. Po- 
pulation 432.9. . 

DULNAN, a river of Inverness-shire, 
which, after watering the extensive parish 
of Duthil, falls into the Spey, opposite the 
kirk of Abernethy. 

DUMBARNY, a parish of Strathearne 
in Perthshire. It extends 4 miles in length, 
and 3 in breadth ; takes in the most beau- 
tiful part of the strath, and is enclosed, as 
it were, on all sides, having the Ochils on 
the S. the hill of Mordun .or Moncrief on 
the N., and is bounded on the VV. by rising 
grounds, intersected by the river Earne in 
its various windings. The grounds are e- 
very where covered with plantations, ave- 
nues, and hedgerows. The view from the 
top of the hill of Moncrieff is so grand, ex- 
tensive, and various, that Mr Pennant has 
given it the name of " the glory of Scot- 



1) U M 

land." The soil Varies from clay to a loam 
ami light sand, hut is in general very fer- 
tile. There is a small village at the bridge 
of Earne, which, from its situation, pro- 
mises to become considerable. Pitcaithly, 
30 famous for its mineral waters, is in the 
parish.— Population 1037. 
' DOMBENAN, a parish in Aberdeen- 
shire, lately united to that of Huntly. (q. v.) 
DUMFRIES-SHIRE, is bounded on the 
N. by Lanarkshire, on the E. by the coun- 
ties of Peebles, Selkirk, and Roxburgh, on 
the S. by the Solway Frith and the mar- 
ches of England, and on the W. by the 
stewartry of Kirkcudbright and the county 
of Ayr. It extends in length from N. W. 
to S. E. about 60 miles, and is about 30 
at its greatest breadth, containing 100G 
square miles. It contains four royal burghs, 
Dumfries, Sanquhar, Annan, and Lochma- 
ben, several small towns and villages, and 
is divided into 42 parochial districts, con- 
taining 62,960 inhabitants. It compre- 
hends 3 districts or stewartries, viz. An- 
nandale, Eskdale.and Nithsdale. A great 
part of the country is mountainous, over- 
spread with heath, and well stocked with 
game; but the valleys, through which the 
Esk, the Annan, the Nith, and other rivers 
run, are fertile and pleasant. The highest 
mountains border with Lanarkshire and 
Peebleshire. These are of great extent, 
forming a waving ridge across the countiy, 
from the one coast to the other. These 
"hills afford pasture to innumerable flocks 
of sheep and black cattle, many thousands 
of Which are annually sentto England. De- 
scending into the vales, the surfacebecomes 
more agreeable, and the country is in a 
high state of cultivation : its face is diversi- 
fied with lofty swelling knolls, level mea- 
dows, gentlemen's seats, farm houses, cot- 
tages, open lawns, and wooded eminences ; 
the greater part is enclosed with hedgerows 
or stone walls, and the produce in wheat, 
oats, and barley, is farmore than sufficient 
for the consumpt of the inhabitants. In 
this county the use of lime as a manure has 
been of the most material advantage, and 
has turned the attention of the farmer more 
to agriculture than to pasturage. Much 
of the land which was formerly waste and 
unprofitable, has of late years assumed a 
verdant and fruitful appearance. In an- 
cient times, Dumfries-shire was inhabited 
by the Selgovae, a tribe of the Cumbri, the 
most ancient inhabitants of the middle and 
southern parts of the island. They were 
found by the Romans in this part of the 
country, when they established the pro- 



; D U M 

vince of Valentia. Dumfries-shirecontains 
many elegant seats, of which Drumlanrig 
is the chief. Few countiejin Scotland pos- 
sesses more valuable minerals. The hills 
which border with Clydesdale contain 
mines rich in silver. The veins of Wan- 
lockhead vary from a few inches to 15 feet, 
the ore yield from 74 to 80 per cent . Silver 
is extracted' from the lead in the propor- 
tion offro-.n C tol2ouncesintheton. Wan- 
lockhead produces about 1000 tons annual- 
ly, worth L.20 per ton. Gold is found in 
these mountains, in veins of quartz, or 
washed down into the sand of the rivulets, 
which from the heaps remaining on their 
banks, appear to have been formerly search- 
ed with great care. There is a mine of an- 
timony at Glendinning, the only one in 
Britain, From 1793 to 179S, it produced 
100 tons of the regulus of antimony, worth 
L.S4 per ton. Coal and limestone are found 
in most parishes, and excellent freestone is 
also abundant.^ In the parishes of Pen- 
pont, Kirkmichael, and Canoby, are indica- 
tions of iron; in Langholm, copper is 
wrought. Besides the mineral springs of 
Moffat and Hartfell Spaw, there are a great 
many wells which contain mineral impreg- 
nations. The rivers abound with trout and 
salmon, and on the snores of the Solway 
Frith, the polypus is frequently found. The 
valued rent of Dumfries-shire is L.15S;627, 
10s. Scots, and the real rent may be esti- 
mated about L. 109,700 Sterling. 

DUMFRIES, a parish in the above coun- 
ty in the district of Nithsdale, 6 miles in 
length, and from 2 to 3 in breadth, lying 
on the E. bank of the Nith. It contains 15 
square miles. The tract of country may be 
considered as an extensive vale, spreading 
from the N. W. towards the Solway Frith. 
Near the confines, on the N. E. lies Lochar 
moss, an extensive morass, intersected by 
Lochar water. It is a dead flat, extending 
to the Solway Frith, 10 miles in length ; 
and appears to have been once an inlet 
from that arm of the sea, for a stratum of 
sea sand is found at a certain depth, and 
pieces of vessels and anchors have been 
dug up. The improvements in agriculture 
of late years have been very great ; and 
several plantations of oak, elm, and other 
trees, have been lately laid out. Around 
the town are numerous enclosures, sur- 
rounded with trees. In the middle of 
Lochar moss is a strong chalybeate spring, 
called Crichton's well ; and, about a mile 
E. of the town, is a craig or rock, curiously 
hollowed, known by the name of the Maid» 
enbbwer Craig. Population 9262. 



UUM 8 

DUMFRIES, a royal burgb, and the 
county town of the shire, is distant 26 miles 
N. E. of Kirkcudbright, and 75 S. W. of 
Edinburgh. Itis situated on the left bank 
of the river Nith, about Smiles above where 
it discharges itself into the Solway Frith. 
In the 12th century, it was a place of some 
consideration. It was in the church of this 
town, that Robert Bruce killed the traitor 
Cumiue, who bad betrayed his secrets to 
the English. A bridgeoverthe Nith, some 
religious houses, and a castle, with the fish- 
ings of the river, contributed to form it in- 
to a town- While England and Scotland 
were separate kingdoms, Dumfries was a 
place of strength, where the Scots border- 
ers retired from the hostile incursions of 
the English. Since the beginning of the 
last century, it has made gradual advances 
in wealth and population. The principal 
street extends full three quarters of a mile, 
The whole length of the town, in a direction 
parallel to the Nith. Towards the middle 
of the town it is nearly 100 feet in width. 
Besides this, there are 8 other streets, with 
bye-lanes, making the breadth of the town 
from a quarter to a third of a mile. Dum- 
fries has two handsome churches, with 
spires ^ind clocks, a large Catholic, an Epis- 
copal, -a. Relief, a United Secession, a Me- 
thodist, and a Missionary meeting-house. It 
has a tine town-house and guild-ball, a new 
prison on an improved plan, an infirmary, 
arid house of correction. Here are two 
bridges-over the Nith. The lower consists 
of 9 arches, and is said to be 500 years old ; 
the other is an elegant structure, erected a 
lew years ago. The industry of the place 
isemployed chiefly for the accommodation 
of the inhabitants and the circumjacent 
country. It possesses no considerable ma- 
nufacture, nor extensive commercial tran- 
sactions, though almost every branch of 
mechanical and commercial industry is 
practised. On the other side of the Nith is 
a large village called Bridgend, which is 
connected with the town by two bridges. 
Dumfries is governed by a provost, 3 bailies, 
a dean of guild, a treasurer, and la mer- 
chants and 7 trades councillors; and joins 
with Lochmaben, Annan, Sanquhar, and 
Kirkcudbright, in sending a member to 
parliament. Its revenue is about L.1C00 
annually. The Circuit Court of Justiciary 
for the county of Dumfries and the Stew- 
artry of Kirkcudbright is held in the town 
twice a year. Dumfries is perhaps a place 
of higher gaiety and elegance than any 
other town of its size in Scotland. The 
•citizen* of Dumfries are fond of polite a- 



D U N 

musements. They have a well attended 
theatre, and regular assemblies. The a- 
musements of the town, the advantages 
which its excellent schools afford for edu- 
cation, and Its convenient and healthy si- 
tuation, invite many of the inferior gentry 
from the neighbouring counties, to spend 
in it a great part of the year. The Dum- 
fries and tiall.iw.iy hunt meet here annu- 
ally, and the Caledonian hunt occasionally. 
King James presented to the trades of Dum- 
fries a small silver tube, like a pistol bar- 
rel, called the silver gun, with his royal li- 
cense to shoot for it eTery year. At that 
festival they are mustered in bands, under 
the colours of their respective corporations, 
and the day concludes with a social enter- 
tainment. Dumfries gives the title of Earl 
to the chief of the family of Crichton. la 
the N. W. comer of the church-yaid is in- 
terred the celebrated Robert Burns, to 
whose memory there is now erected a splen- 
did monument. Population 7120. 

DUN, a parish in the county of Angus. It 
is situated on the road from Brechin to Mon- 
trose, from which towns it is nearly equi- 
distant. Its extent in length and breadth 
is about 4 miles.— The surface is level, and 
the soil rich and fertile. The river South- 
esk runs through it, over which there is a 
handsome bridge of three arches, erected 
in the year 17S7. Population 6H0. 

DUNAN POINT, a promontory ou the 
S. VV. coast of the isre of Skye. 

DUNBAR, a parish in "the county of 
Haddington, extending 9 miles along the 
coast, and a medksm nearly 2 miles in 
breadth. The face of the country is very 
pleasant, rising gradually from the coast, 
which is generally low and sandy. The 
soil is rich and fertile, partly a deep loam, 
partly clay, and partly a light motsld. Most 
of the fields are enclosed with stone dikes 
or thorn hedges. The farmers are generally 
opulent and respectable, and are always, 
ready to adopt any plan which tends to im- 
provements. The parish is watered by two 
small rivers, the Tyne and the Biel, which 
fall into the sea near the town. Besides 
the town and its suburbs Belhaven, there 
are two considerable villages, West Bams, 
and East Bams. There is plenty of lime- 
stone in theparish. On the shore peetiles 
are frequently found, and near the harbour 
is a fine specimen of martial jasper, which 
takes a very fine polish. Here are frequent- 
ly found those beautiful specimens of geodes 
or septaria, (iron ore,) generally termed the 
geodes of Dunbar. Population of the town 
and parish 3982.-- The BURGH OF DU N- 



DUN 



85 



BAR is 27 miles E. from Edinbuigh, and 
the same distance N. W. from Berwick. 
It stands on a gentle eminence at the bot- 
tom of the bay on a dry soil. — The princi 
pal street is broad and spacious, contain- 
ing a number of well built houses. It has 
no public buildings worth notice, excepting 
the church, which is an ancient fabric at 
the E. end of the town, founded in 1392. 
The town is well supplied with tine water 
brought two miles in pipes. Dunbar was 
erected into a royal buvgh by David II. 
sometime about the middle of the 14th 
century. It is governed by a provost, 3 
bailies, a treasurer, and 15 councillors, and 
joins with Haddington, N. Berwick, Jed- 
burgh, and Lauder, in sending a Member 
to Parliament. Its revenue amounts to 
L. 1000 per annum, arising from shore-dues, 
customs, and other casualities — The har- 
bour was originally of Belhaven, which is 
within the royalty, although nearly a mile 
W. of the town. The E. pier of the present 
harbour was begun under Cromwell, who 
contributed L.300 towards the expense. 
Another pier on the W. has been built since, 
and many improvements executed. It is 
small, and the entrance very difficult, as it 
is amongst rocks, and cannot be taken in 
bad weather. It has a dry dock, and ship- 
building is carried on to some extent. It 
is defended by a small fort of 12 guns, but 
its own situation is the surest defence. 
Dunbar carries on but little trade at pre- 
sent, except the exportation of corn and the 
importation of kelp for the manufacture of 
soap. It has a few fishing boats, and is 
the seat of a custom house. A little to the 
W. of the harbour are the ruins of the cas- 
tle, situated partly on the land, and partly 
on rocks surrounded by the sea — The date 
of its erection is unknown. On that side 
surrounded by the sea, part of a high wall 
remains, in which is a coat of arms much 
injured, which appears to have been plac- 
ed over the door of a hall or chapel 

The whole is, however, in so ruinous a 
state, that no adequate idea can be formed 
of its former state. Before the use of ar- 
tillery it was deemed impregnable, and 
was always a place of great national 
importance, being looked upon as the 
key of the kingdom on the E. border. It 
has sustained many sieges. In 1337 it was 
roost gallantly defended by the countess of 
March for 19 weeks, against the English un- 
der the Earl of Salisbury, who was obliged 
to raise the siege in disgrace. In it Ed- 
ward II. took refuge, after his defeat at 
Bannockburn ; here also the Earl of Both- 



_V U N 

well fled, leaving the unfortunate Mary in 
the hands of the associated lords at Car- 
berry-hill. It was demolished by order of 
the Scottish parliament. 

DUNBARTONSHIRE, (or, as it was an- 
ciently called, the shire of Lennox,) extends 
in length about 40 miles, and in breadth 
12. Itis bounded on the N.by Perthshire, 
on the E. by the counties of Stirling and 
Lanark, on the S. by the river Clyde and 
Renfrewshire, and on the W. by an arm of 
the sua called Loch Long. It contains 280 
square miles, or 1 16,000 acres. The great- 
er part of the county is covered with heathy 
hills, which are now assuming a more lux- 
uriant appearance since the introduction 
of sheep. Many of the mountains are ele- 
vated to a great height. The ridge of 
which Benlomond is a part, is the begin- 
ning of that extensive range which crosses 
the country from this place to the E. coast 
of Aberdeenshire, called the Grampians. 
The lower grounds, which lie on the banks 
of Loch Lomond, the Clyde, and the Le- 
ven, are not so fertile as the corresponding 
parts of some of the neighbouring coun- 
ties, notwithstanding which, it is agreeably 
diversitied, and inhabited. The banks of 
the Leven, in particular, are covered with 
numerous bleachfields, printfields, and cot- 
ton. works, with villages erected for the ac- 
commodation of the workmen, hamlets, and 
elegant seats. Upwards of 12,000 .acres 
are covered with natural wood, and there 
are many line lakes or lochs, of which Loch 
Lomond is the chief. Dunbaitonsliire con- 
tains only one royal burgh, and several 
thriving villages ; itis divided into 12 pa- 
rishes, which contain 21,729 inhabitants. 
Dunbartonshire contains few valuable mi- 
nerals. Freestone and slate are abundant ; 
and in some places limestone, ironstone, 
and coal, are found. Many of the moun- 
tains are apparently volcanic, in particular 
the rock on which the castle is built. The 
manufactures carried on in this country 
are very extensive. The valued rents of 
Dunbartonshire is L.33,327 Scots, and the 
land rent is about L.56,000 Sterling. 

DUNBARTON, a parish in the above 
county, is nearly circular, having a diarne-"" 
ter of about 2 miles and a half. The sur- 
face is flat, and the ground well cultivated. 
The Clyde washes it on the S. and the Le- 
ven on the W. The castle of Dunbarton 
is situated at a small distance from the 
town, on the point of land formed by the 
junction of the Clyde and Leven. It stands 
on the top of a rock, which divides about 
the middle, and forms two summits. The 



DUN 

sides are craggy, and the buildings upon 
it, though not very fine, have a good effect. 
The venerable Bede inforriis us, that it was 
the strongest fortification' in the kingdom 
in his time, and deemed almost impregna- 
te. It was reduced by famine in the year 
756, by Egbert, king of Northumberland, 
and taken by escalade on the 2d April, in 
the year 157 1. The'rock sterns to havebeen 
anciently a volcano. The sides are com- 
posed of rude basaltic columns, df which 
huge masses havebeen broken off, and fal- 
len to the bottom by the injuries of time. 
Many parts of the rock are strongly magne- 
tic, causing the compass to vary at a con- 
siderable distance.' i The plant, generally 
supposed the true Scots thistle, is found 
here in great abundance. The castle of; 
Dunbarton, is one of the 4 forts which are 
kept in repair by the articles of Union. It 
is garrisoned by a governor, lieutenant-go- 
"vernor, a fort-major, subaltern officers', and 
brie company of invalids. ■ Population of 
the town and parish 27 l OO.--tThe BURGH 
of DUNBARTON, the county town of the 
shire, lies 15mi!es W . of Glasgow* Itissi-j 
iuated on a peninsula, almost surrounded 
by the Lewn, about half u mileabove lis ; 
junction with the Clyde. It is a very an- 
cient place; and supposed to be the Alcuid- 
or Balclutha of the Britons, and capital of! 
the Stralhclydeneses'. It was erected into' 
a royal burgh by Alexander II. in the year; 
1221, and its ancient privileges confirmed 
by a charter of Novodamus from" James 
VI. in 1609. By this charter it possesses a 
rbmmon of some miles 'extent, and " a 
right to fish in Leven, from Balloch to the 
•castle," and " to the haill fishing in Clyde, 
from Kelvin to Loch Long." It is govern- 
ed by a provost, 2 bailies, a dean of' guild, 
treasurer, and 15 councillors, and has 5 
incorporated trades. It joins with'Ken- 
frcw, Glasgow, and Rutherglen, in sending 
a member to parliament. The revenue is 
about L.600 per annum. Dunbarton con-; 
sists principally of one street, and a few 
lanes or wynds, with pretty large suburbs: 
on the W. side of the Leven, in the parish 
ofCardross. • At nearly the E. end :of the' 
town, fronting the street, a handsome new 
church with a fine spire and clock, has been 
built within these few years. The town 
house is a mean fabric. ' This town suf- 
fered greatly from an inundation of the ri- 
vers Clyde and Leven; 'Some time- prior to 
1607 ; for in that year -the king and parlia- 
ment granted to Dunbarton 57*000 merks 
Scots for raising bul-riarks to resist the in- 
undations of the two rivers, with a right to 



> D-U--N- 

all the drowned land they should thus re- 
cover. At nearly the W. end of the town, 
there is a fine bridge, and the only- one over 
the Leven, consisting of 5 arches, the larg- 
est of which is 62 feet span. It is 25 feet 
above low water mark, and 300 feet long. 
Dunbarton has a good harbour, with a com- 
modious quay, and carries on a considera- 
ble trade ; but the entrance is much ob- 
structed by a ledge of rocks. A number of 
looms are here employed by the Glasgow 
manufacturers in the weaving of cotton 
manufacture ; but the chief business of the 
town is the glass works. Two tan- works of 
no great extent, and some other business of 
small import.constitute the rest of its trade. 
It has a respectable grammar school, and 
one for mathematics,and accounts. 

DUNBE ATM, ariver of Caithness, which 
rims into the German Ocean, 8 miles N. 
E. oftheOrd. ■' 

DUNBLANE, a parish in Perthshire, in 
the district of M oriteith. It extends about 
9 miles in length and 6 in breadth. The 
ground in general has a gradual declivity 
from the surrounding hills to the river Al- 
lan, which runs through the parish. Up- 
wards'of one-half of the parish is moorland. 
The arable land lies principally on the banks 
of the Allan, and the Ardoch, which run 
along thewestern border. Thereisagreat 
extent of natural wood, and several plan- 
tations of •fir. There are several pits of ex- 
cellent marl, and lime and coal are distant 
about 8 or 10 miles. A mineral spring 
has been lately discovered, which is much 
resorted to by invalids. Dunblane is a 
peerage, by the title of Viscount, in the 
iperson of the Duke of Leeds. Population 
of the town and parish 2755. The TOWN 
of DUNBLANE is C miles N. from Stirling. 
It is pleasantly situated on the banks of the 
river Allan, on a gently rising ground, and 
consists of one street, with some lanes. It 
was first a cell of the Culdees, and after- 
wards erected into a bishopric by David I. 
The cathedral, which overlooks the town, 
is on the E. bank of the Allan, and -was 
founded by that monarch in 1142; the 
steeple or tower i»a more modern build- 
ing, detached from the church. The choir 
is kept in repair, and used as the parish 
church. ■ Dr. Leighton, who was made Bi- 
shop of the see- in 1662, and afterwards 
Archbishop of Glasgow, bequeathed his 
library for the use of the clergy of the dio- 
cese of Dunblane, with a small fund for its 
support; since that time it has received 
many additions, and is now a good collec- 
tion. ■ Dunblane has a tolbooth, in which 



the sherilf and justice of, peace courts are 
held for the district of Monteith, and the 
commissary court for the bounds of the 
diocese., • • **m • 

DUNBOG,a,parishin Fifeshire, bound- 
ed on the N. by the Tay. It lies in a valley 
between two -hills, having an extensive bog 
or morass, from -which it, takes its. name. 
The grouud is in general wet and cold, but 
the greater part is arable, and proper for 
the culture of wheat. The extent of. the 
parish is from 3 to 3 miles and a half in 
length, and about two in breadth. Popu- 
lation 1S5. ,. .,• 

DUNCHONNEL.a small island of the 
Hebrides, in Argyleshire, 3 miles N; W- ot ' 
Jura. ■ ■'■"•.' 

DUNCOVV, a village in Dumfries-shire,, in 
£he parish of Kirkmahoe. Population 200. 

DUNDEE, a parish. in the county of An- 
gus, 6 miles in length from E. \V. along 
the banks.of theTay, jts breadth varying 
from 1 to 4. It is bounded on the S. by the 
Tay. The soil is in general uneven, but 
many places are abundantly fertile. The 
Law, or hill of Dundee, is situated on the N. 
side of the town, rising in a conical shape 
to the height of 52 5 feet.- On its summit 
are the distinct vestiges of a fortification, 
which tradition ascribes to Edward I. On 
the lands of Balgray are large rocks of por- 
phyry... There are several quarries of sand- 
stone, of very hard texture, but the principal 
s,ton,e used in building is brought .from the 
Kingoodie quarry,, in the parish- of £on- 
fur-gan. . : Along. the shores of the Tay, 
Scots Pebbles are found in great variety. 
Population of the town and parish 29,61 6. 
-r-The BURGH of DUNDEE lies 42 miles 
N. E. from Edinburgh. ; It is seated on. the 
bank of the river Tay, about 12 miles from 
its mouth. It is a. large and well built 
town, consisting of four principal streets, 
diverging from the market-place or High 
Street, which is a spacious square, SCO 
long, by 100 feet broad,, besides several 
lesser streets. On, the S. side of this square 
stands the town-house,, an elegant struc- 
ture, with a handsome front, adorned with 
piazzas, and a spire 140 feet high. This 
building, which was finished in 1734, con- 
tains the guild-hall, the courtroom, town- 
clerk's office, with vaulted repositories for 
the town records, and apartments for the 
Dundee Banking Company's office. The 
prison occupies the .upper storey ; the rooms 
are well aired and commodious, and at the 
same.timeperfectly secure. At the E. end 
of the square the trades have erected an e- 
legant hall, with a front of Ionic pilasters, 
and a neat cupola : the under floor is occu- 



pied witlxshops, and the upper floor contains 
a room for each- incorporation, $. n d a large 
hall for general meetings, which is occu- 
pied as a, subscription coriee-ropm. At the 
S. E. corner of the: square, a fine spacious 
street, called Castle-street, opens to the 
harbour. In this street an elegant Episco- 
pal .chapel, and a fine new theatre, have 
been lately built. A small distance W. 
from the great square is the old church, in 
which were originally four places of. wor- 
ship, with a large Gothic tower or steeple 
156 feet high, at the W. end of the church. 
It is said to have been erected by David 
Earl of Huntingdon in 11S9. On an emi- 
nence near the street called the Cowgate, 
the trades, in conjunction with the kirk 
session, have built St. Andrew's churph. 
Dundee has also a Sailors' hall, which was 
often used for assemblies and as, a theatre, 
before the new one was built. An infirma- 
ry has lately been built for the reception of 
indigentsick; and many years ago a dis- 
pensary was established under the patron- 
age of Lord Douglas. This charity is now 
united to the infirmary, where the poor re- 
ceive medicines gratuitously, by presenting 
a recipe from the attendant physician. A 
spirit for literature and education mani- 
fests itself in Dundee; for besides the pub- 
lic, grammar-school, and the English school, 
there is an established academy for mathe- 
matics, the French and Italian languages, 
and the polite arts, .with proper professors 
in the different branches, and a large ap- 
paratus for natural and experimental phi- 
losophy. Most of the streets of Dundee are 
neat, and the houses well built. The Ne- 
thergate and Overgate run tothe westward 
from the square, and the Murraygate and 
Seagate to the eastward; the new streets 
are more spacious and elegant. The har- 
bour is advantageously situated for trade, 
admitting easily trading vessels of the 
greatest burden ; 154 vessels belong to the 
port, employing nearly 1300 seamen; of 
these vessels H are employed in the Green- 
land fi sheries, and 1 1 in the London trade, 
one of which sails every three or four days ; 
the remainder are employed in the Baltic 
and foreign trade, making a total of 15,000 
tons. Theharbour has lately been improv- 
ed and enlarged, so as to render it of easy 
access and commodious ; and at present a 
wet dock is now finished, and further im- 
provements going on, on an extensive scale, 
which will add great facilities to trade. 
The Tay opposite to Dundee is about 2 and 
a half miles broad, and, being sheltered bv 
the high land on each side, affords a safe 
road-stead to vessels of any burden, where 



DUN 

they may lie at anchor till the tide admits 
them into the harhour. The principal 
manufacture is linen of various kinds, Os- 
naburghs and other coarse linens for foreign 
markets. Besides these, a considerable 
-quantity of sackcloth and cotton bagging is 
annually made for exportation. Several 
cotton-works have been attempted, but 
have not been successful. The Dundee co- 
loured threads have been long in high re- 
pute. It was here that manufacture was 
first established. A Sugar-house was esta- 
blished some time ago, and is now carried 
on to good account. The great trade of 
Dundee has given rise to two private bank- 
ing companies, besides a branch of the bank 
of Scotland. Dundee was erected into a 
royal burgh by King William ; but as all the 
records and evidences of its ancient rights 
were destroyed or carried off by Edward [. 
Robert Bruce gave to the town an infeft- 
-ment and charter, granting " to the bur- 
gesses, their heirs and successors for ever, 
all the liberties and rights of which they 
were possessed in the time of Lord William, 
-King of Scots." These rights were finally 
confirmed by the great charter from Charles 
1. The town is governed by a provost, 4 
bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and 1.5 
councillors ; and joins with Forfar, St An- 
drews, Cupar, and Perth, in sending a 
member to parliament. Its revenues a- 
mount to L.4000. In ancient times Dun- 
dee was strongly fortified, and some re- 
mains of its old fortifications at the Cow- 
gate port, which is still kept up in respect 
forthe memory of Mr Wishart, who preach- 
ed from it to the people in the time of a 
plague. It had an old castle, which was 
demolished by Sir William Wallace, who 
ordered it to be destroyed, lest it should a- 
gain fall into the hands of the English. 
This circumstance so exasperated Edward 
I., that, taking the town by storm, he set 
fire to it, and many of the inhabitants who 
hid taken refuge in the churches were 
burnt, along with their most valuable ef- 
fects. It was again taken and burnt by 
Hichard II. and again by the English in 
the days of Edward VI. It suffered great- 
ly during the troubles of Charles II., and 
Cromwell, being sometimes under one 
master, and sometimes another. It was 
taken by storm by the Marquis of Montrose : 
•and the last and most destructive siege 
was, when taken by assault, and complete- 
ly pillaged by General Monk. At this 
time, so great were the riches of Dundee, 
that every soldier in Monk's army had L.60 
Sterling of plunder to his share. 



t DUN 

DUNDELCHACK(LOCH), a lake in the 
parish of Daviot, in the county of Inver- 
ness. It is about 6 miles long, and 1 and 
a half broad, containing abundance of the 
finest trout. It is remarkable that it ne- 
verfreezesin winter, but very readily in 
spring, by one night's frost, in calm wea- 
ther. It pours its waters by a small stream 
into the river Nairn. 

DUNDONALD, a parish in the county 
of Ayr. It extends from the harbour of Ir- 
vine about S miles along the sea coast. The 
surface is varied, being divided into a high- 
er and lower district by the Claven hills, 
which run through it directly N. and S. 
The higher district, being inland, is gener- 
ally of a fertile clay, inclining in some pla- 
ces to loam, consisting of gentle eminences, 
and adorned with clumps and belts of plan- 
ting. Below is a wide plain, extending to 
the coast, sandy and uncultivated. The 
Claven heights are many of them arable, 
and all afford excellent pasture. On the 
tops are many vestiges of encampments. 
The Troone is in this parish. Opposite to 
the village and castle is a beautiful bank of 
wood, surrounding the house of Auchans, 
a seat of the Earl of Eglintoun. Coal a- 
bounds in every part of the parish, of which 
a great quantity is annually exported. Po- 
pulation 1610.- The VILLAGE of DUN- 
DONALD is about 3 and a half miles S. of 
Irvine, situated at the N. W. edge of Cla- 
ven hills. It is a thriving place, having an 
extensive cotton manufacture. Near it is 
the ancient and royal castle of Dundonald, 
from which the noble family of Cochrane 
take the title of Earl. 

DUNDROICH, or " Druids hill," a 
mountain in the parish of Eddlestown, Pee - 
bles-shire, '2400 feet in height. 

DUNEARN, a high hill, a mile N. of 
Burntisland. It is remarkable for a small 
lake upon its summit, which is never dry ; 
supposed to be the crater of an extinguish- 
ed volcano. On the N. side it is steep, rug- 
ged, and frightful, from the projection of 
the stones, and the immense quantity of 
rubbish which has fallen down. 

DUNEATON, a small river in the parish 
of Crawfordjohn, which has its rise in Cam- 
table hill, and falls into the Clyde a mile 
above Clyde bridge. 

DUNFERMLINE, a parish in Fifeshire, 
of an irregular figure, the average length 
of which is about 8 miles from N. to S. 
The surface slopes gradually to the sea, the 
soil varying from a gravel to a rich loam a3 
we approach the coast, which ispartlyflat, 
and partly high and rocky. It possesses two 



DUN 



DUN 



harbours, Charlestown and Limekilns. The 
rivulet Lyne passes near the town, and 
there are several extensive lakes, some of 
which have been drained and improved. 
Many acres of waste land have been lately 
planted with fir and other kinds of wood. 
The parish abounds with valuable mines 
and minerals. Coal of the best quality is 
found in every part of it, great quantities 
of which are exported from Inverkeithing 
and Limekilns. In many places there are 
prodigious rocks of white freestone, and 
whinstone is also found for paving the 
streets. Limestone has been wrought to a 
great extent, the Earl of Elgin possessing 
here the most extensive limeworks in Bri- 
tain. Ironstone is also abundant, and is 
exported in great quantities to the Carron 
Company. Popul. 11,649. — The BURGH 
of DUNFERMLINE is situated on an emi- 
nence 6 miles N. from Queensferry, and 17 
N. VV. from Edinburgh. Dunfermline has 
one principal street, extending fiom E. to 
W. along the face of the hill, which is cross- 
ed at right angles by other streets, in which 
are a great number of well built houses ; 
the streets are in general broad and straight- j 
At the head of the Margate stand the town- 
house and prison, and nearly in the centre of j 
the High Street an elegantguildhall, with a 
steeple 132 feet high, containing assembly j 
rooms, and apartments for the meetings of j 
public bodies. The greater part of the town 
is situated on a hill or rising ground, having 
a pretty bold declivity towards the S. the 
ground, however, soon flattens to the Ne- ; 
ther-town, which stands on a plain. The 
prospect it commands is remarkably beau- 
tiful and extensive. The size of the town | 
is rapidly increasing, by the feuing of the 
estate of Pittencrieff, whichformsa large | 
suburb, connected with the town by an j 
earthen mound nearly 300 feet in length, i 
The burgh held of the monastery of Dun- 
fermline for nearly two centuries, and be- j 
came royal by a charter from King James j 
VI., dated 24th May, 1588. The govern- 
ment of the town is vested in a provost, 2 
bailies, a dean of guild, and 22 councillors, 
annually elected, and joins with Queens- | 
ferry, Culross, Inverkeithing, and Stirling, 
in sending a member to Parliament. The 
revenue is about L.1500 per annum. Dun- 
fermline has been long distinguished for the 
manufacture of diaper and damask table 
linen. There are nearly 1200 looms em- 
ployed. At an early period Dunfermline 
became a royal residence ; Malcolm Can- 
more usually resided at a tower or castle, 



built on an isolated hill, in a valley near 
the town. A palace was afterwards built, 
not far from the tower, in a most romantic; 
situation ; the S. W. wall still remains a 
monument of the magnificent fabric of 
which it was a part. The monastery was 
one of the most ancient in Scotland, being 
founded by Malcolm Canmore. It was a 
magnificent and extensive building, but 
fell an early sacrifice to the plundering ar- 
my of Edward I. The remains of the ab- 
bey are now inconsiderable. The parish 
church and steeple are large and ancient, 
being part of the old abbey built by Mal- 
colm Canmore. Here the founder, hi.i 
queen, and 7 other Scottish monarchs, 5 
queens, and several of the most eminent 
men of the kingdom, lie interred. Popula- 
tion of the town of Dunfermline and the 
adjoining suburb of PittencriefF, 7,000. 

DUNGISB AY-HE AD, said to betheBe- 
rubium of Ptolemy, is situated in the coun- 
ty of Caithness, and forms the N. E. corner 
of the island of Great Britain. 

DUNIAN, a hill in the county of Rox- 
burgh, on the borders of the parishes of 
Bedrule and Jedburgh. 1031 feet in height. 

DU NIP ACE, a parish of Stirlingshire. 
(SeeLarbert.) 

DUNKELD and DOWALLY form one 
parish, yet the circumstances of each aro 
so different, that it is better to give an ac- 
count of them separately : 

I. DUNKELD, a town in the above unit- 
ed parish, and county of Perth, is situated 
on the N. bank of the Tay , 1 5 miles N. from 
Perth. The scenery which surrounds it 
has long been the subject of admiration, as 
romantic and delightful ; and the improve- 
ments of the Duke of Athole, conducted 
on an extensive scale, with great taste, hav« 
given an additional ornament to the whole. 
Dunkeld is a place of great antiquity ; it 
was the capital of ancient Caledonia; and. 
about the dawn of Christianity, a Pictish 
king made it the seat of religion, by erect- 
ing there a monastery of Culdees, which 
King David I. in 1130, converted into a 
bishopric, and ranked it the first in Scot- 
land. It is a burgh of barony, under the 
Duke of Athole. The principal manufac- 
ture is linen and yarn, for carrying on which 
it is conveniently situated. It is the chief 
market town of the Highlands. Lately a 
fine new bridge of 7 arches has been thrown 
over the Tay ; a new street of elegant mo- 
dern houses, on aline with the bridge, ha? 
been built, through which the Highland 
road passes, and the road by the west end 



90 



D U N; 



of the town is now shut up. The town is 
surrounded by a high wall, which incloses 
the Duke of Athole's property the hous- 
es are crammed together in a corner, with- 
out garden ground, and the poorer class of 
inhabitants live in small dirty closes. Not- 
withstanding their vicinity to the Tay , they 
have not the privilege of a bleaching green ; 
and every necessary of life is dear. The 
■cathedral, which is about 200 feet long, 
and 60 wide, has once been a fine pile of 
building, though now much dilapidated. 
The choir is still entire, and converted into 
the parish church : it was built in 1350 by 
Bishop Sinclair, who is buried here. On 
the N. side of the choir is the charter-house, 
built by Bishop Lauder in 1469, the vault 
of which is now used as the burying place 
of the family of Athol ; and the upper room 
ia occupied as a charter-room by the Duke. 
The tower, which stands at the W. end of 
the N. aisle, is very elegant. Not far from 
the cathedral is the mansion of the Duke, 
a plain neat house, without any of the mag- 
nificence generally seen in a ducal resi- 
dence. The gardens abound with fruit, j 
which arrive at great perfection. Within 
the last 60 years, very extensive plantations 
have been made around the town. Dun- 
keld and its immediate vicinity , contained 
in 1811, 1360 inhabitants. 

II. DOWALLY. This district is situat- 
ed to the westward of Dunkeld, and may 
properly be considered as the country part 
of that parish. It extends in length about 
6 miles along the N. bank of the Tay. The 
rocky hills of Craigy Barns and King's Seat 
are situated on the lower boundary of Dow- 
aily ; the latter rises with a very sudden as- 
cent from the brink of the river ; and the 
road from Athol, which passes through 
Dowally, ha»been cut with great labour 
and expense along the bottom of it. The 
road overhangs the river so closely, and at 
such a height, that the timid traveller, who 
looks over the wall which has been built 
for security, is disposed to hasten on his 
way; but the range of tall and thick trees, 
while they conceal the terror's of the scene, 
add at the same time to its singular beau- 
ty. The soil on the hills is very shallow, 
but affords pasture to numerous flocks of 
sheep ; and many of them are covered with 
natural forests, well stocked with red and 
roe deer. The soil of the haughs is light 
and sandy; that of the higher fields on the 
brow of the hills is stronger and deeper, 
with ah intermixture of clay. In the back 
parts of the parish is Loch Ordie, which a- 
boundl with trout and eel. Pop. 553. 



DUNKELD (LITTLE,) a parish in the 
county of Perth. Its figure is a kind of ir- 
regular triangle, the longest sides of which 
are about 16 miles. Nature has divided it 
into 5 districts. 1st, the district of Murth- 
ly, which extends from the neighbouring 
parish of Kinclaven to a small village cal- 
led Inver. The second extends from In- 
ver for 10 miles along the banks of the Taj 
to Grantully ; and this district, from having 
belonged in former times to the see of Dun- 
keld, stillretains the name of the Bishop- 
ric. The cultivated lands form the south 
bank of the Tay ; the fields are level, and 
the new system of agriculture has given 
the whole the appearance of an almost con- 
tinued series of beautiful gardens. The 
remaining district is separated from the 
Bishopric by a hilly tract of considerable ex- 
tent. It is a valley 9 miles in length, hav- 
ing the river Bran winding at the bottom 
till it falls into the Tay opposite Dunkeld. 
This district is generally of a fertile clay 
or loam. The hilly part of the whole pa- 
rish occupies nearly 4000 acres. On the 
river Bran is a fine cascade, near which the 
Duke of Athole has built an elegant bou- 
doir. The military road from Perth to 
Inverness passes through the parish. The 
ancient castle of Trochie, and some exten- 
sive cairns, are the principal monuments 
of antiquity which this parish contains. 
Population 2982. 

DUNLICHTY, a parish in Inverness- 
shire, vide Daviot. 

DUNLOP, a parish in the comity of Ayr. 
It is of an oblong figure, 7 miles long, and 
2 and a half broad. Its surface consists of 
a great variety of hills. None of these are 
high, but many of them afford beautiful 
and extensive prospects of the surrounding 
country.. The ground is well adapted 
either forpasture or Cultivation. The soil, 
in the western parts of the parish is a light 
loam or thin clay ; and towards the E. the 
prevailing soil is deep and heavy, with a 
cold wet bottom. The greater part is in- 
closed and well cultivated. This district 
has been long famous for that kind of 
cheese, which is named after the parish, 
Dunlop cheese. This parish is also noted 
for the spinning of fine yarn. It has a small 
villjge of the same name, which lies & 
miles S. of Beith. Population 998. 

DUNNET, a parish in the county of 
Caithness. It extends about 10 miles in 
length, and on an average 2 and a half in 
breadth. It is the most northerly parish in 
Great Britain. Except Duniiet-head, there 
is scarcely an eminence in the parish. The 



DUN 91 

soil is in general flight, with little clay or 
deep loam, and by far the greater part is 
uncultivated, and incapable of cultivation. 
—The coast is in general bold and rocky, 
but from Dunnet-head it is flat, and af- 
fords safe anchorage to vessels in several 
bays and harbours. Population 1398. 

DUNNET-HEAD is an extensive pro- 
montory, running into the Pentland Frith, 
on the western border of the parish of Dun- 
net. It consists cf several hills interspers- 
ed with vallies. Through its whole extent 
Dunnet-head presents a front of broken 
rocks to the sea, the height of which varies 
from 100 to 400 feet. It is joined to the 
land by a narrow neck or isthmus, about a 
mile and a half broad. 

DUNNICHEN, aparishinthe county of 
Angus, extending in length 4 miles, and 
2 to 3 in breadth. It is mostly arable, 
though the surface is hilly. The soil is to- 
lerably fertile, and it is watered by 2 small 
brooks, which rise from a neighbouring 
moss. There are several extensive marl pits. 
Mr Dempster, the chief proprietor, has late- 
ly feued part of his ground for a village cal- 
led Letham, where there is a stamp-office, 
and a weekly market for the sale of yarn 
and brown linens. About a mile from the 
village is DUnnichen-house, the residence 
of that gentleman. There is plenty of ex- 
cellent freestone. Population 1233. 

DUNNING, a parish in the county of 
Perth, situated at the northern extremity 
of the Ochil hills, where they terminate in 
Strathearne. The high and moorland 
parts, which aire elevated 1000 feet a- j 
bove the level of the sea, are laid out for 
sheep pasture- The declivities are in some 
places gentle, and admit of the plough; 
but the produce is scanty. In the lower parts 
the soil is arable, and partakes of the na- 
ture of carse land. Mr Graham of Orchil 
lately fued out the village of New Pitcairn 
or Dragon's Den. Duncruib, the residence 
of Lord Rollo, holds a distingcished place in 
the parish. The house of Keltie, is an an- 
cient edifice. Population 1 723.— The VIL- 
LA.GE OF DUNNING, lies 9 miles W. S. 
W. from Perth. It is well situated on the 
banks of Dunning-water, and contains a 
number of modern built houses, which 
have a good appearance. There was for- 
merly a printfield here, and a goad deal of 
weaving is still carried on. This village 
was burnt down by the Earl of Man's army 
in 1715, in their retreat from Sheriff-muir 
to Perth. 

DUNNQTTAR, a parishin the county 6f 
Kincardine, of a triangular figure, extend- 



ing about 4 miles each side. It is situated 
on the coast, at the beginning of the great 
how or hallow of the Mearns. The sur- 
face is uneven, with frequent risings. To- 
wards the coast the soil is a kind of clay 
loam ; but as it recedes, it degenerates in- 
to a wet gravelly moor. The sea coast is 
very bold. There are many deep caves in 
the rocks, which are much frequented by 
gulls and other sea fowls. At the N. E. cor- 
ner, where the small rivulet Carron runs 
into the sea, is situated the town of Stone- 
haven, having a fine natural harbour. The 
turnpifc.; road from Montrose to Aberdeen 
passes through the town of Stonehaven, 
and another road runs directly from that 
town to Perth, through the valley of 
Strathmore. Thecastle of Dunnottar.now 
in ruins, is situated on a perpendicular 
rock, 150 feet above the level of the sea, 
on a plain about 3 acres in extent, and 
almost separated from the land by a 
deep chasm. It forms one of the most ma- 
jestic ruins in Scotland, and before the in- 
vention of the artillery, must have been im- 
pregnable. It was often used as a state 
prison, and several of the non-conforming 
Presbyterian clergy were confined in it. It 
was built during the contest between Bruce 
and Baliol; and so great was its reputation 
for strength, that in 1651 it was used for 
the deposit of the regalia of Scotland, td 
preserve them from the English army. Po- 
pulation 1S86. 

DUN-O-DEER, a hill in Aberdeenshire-, 
upon which are the ruins of a vitrified fort 
or castle. 

DUNOON, a parish in Argyleshire, situ- 
ated in the district of Cowal, on the W. 
Side of the Frith of Clyde. It extends a- 
bout 24 miles hi length, and on an average 
2 in breadth. The general appearance 
of the country is flat and agreeable, bavin* 
n few eminences covered with natural wood 
in the back parts of the parish. Formerly 
the village of Dunoon was very considera- 
ble, and- a place of resort on account of 
a ferry, which was the principal inlet to the 
district ; but a new road being opened by 
Loch Lomond, around the head of Loch 
Long, has contributed to its decay. The 
castle of Dunoon, in the neighbourhood of 
the village, was once a royal residence, of 
which the family of Airgyle were hereditary 
constables. Population 2130. 

DUNREGGAN, a village in the county 
of Dumfries, 1G miles and a half N. W. 
from Dumfries. 

DUNROSSNESS, a parish in Shetland, 
to which the parishes of Sandwick *n& 



DUN 



92 



Cunning9burgh are united. It lies in the 
southern extremity of the Mainland. Po- 
pulation 3498. 

DUNSBORE, a parish in the district of 
Nithsdale, Dumfries-shire. It extends 
from the river Nith across the country to 
the Urr, nearly 12 miles in length, its 
breadth varying from half a mile to 4 miles. 
It contains 12,091 Scots acres. It is level 
along the Nith, but in general it is hilly, 
and towards the upper end, rocky and 
.mountainous. Some parts of the soil are 
deep and fertile, but by far the greater pro- 
portion is light and shallow. A great num- 
ber of sheep and black cattle are reared for 
•the English market. Besides the Nith and 
Urr, the parish is watered by the river Cairn. 
•In this parish, the poet Robert Burns 
rented a farm for some years, off Riddel of 
Glenriddel, where he established a Library 
for the instruction of the peasantry and 
tenants. Population 1525. 
. DCNS|| a parish in Berwickshire, is an 
oblong square of 8 miles by 5 ; extending 
over a part of the district of Lammermuir, 
and over the head of that fertile plain called 
the Merse. That part, which lies in Lam- 
mermuir is hilly, and much covered with 
heath. Some of it, however, is unculti- 
vated. The rest of the parish, or that 
which lies in the district of MerBe, is ex- 
ceedingly fertile, and in general inclosed. 
In this parish, the improvements in agri- 
culture have proceeded with great rapidity. 
The river Whittadder runs through the 
whole extent of the parish. Dunse Law and 
Cockburn Law, two considerable hills, are 
also situated in it. About half a mile from 
the town is Dunse castle, the family resi- 
dence of Hay of Drumraelzier. It is sur- 
rounded by several hundred acres of thriv- 
ing plantations. Nearly a mile and a half 
from Dunse, is the celebrated mineral well 
called Dunse Spa. Population 3082.— 
The TOWN OF DUNSf^ies 42 miles S. E. 
from Edinburgh. It is finely situated in 
the centre of the county ; encompassed on 
the W.N. and E. by the Lammermuir hills. 
The ancient site of the town was on the 
W. side of Dunse Law; but being burnt 
down, it was afterwards rebuilt at the S . 
W. side of the hill. The streets are regular 
and broad, and in general well paved and 
clean. It has a spacious market-place, or 
•quare. In this square is a small Doric co- 
lumn, erected to the memory of Joannes 
Duns Scotus, who was born in Dunsu. in the 
year 1274. Duns.; has but little trade. 
There is a woollen manufacture on a small 
tcale, and some linen of n good fabric is i 



made here. It has a good grammar school, a 
church, (a tolerable good building, with a 
neat spire,) 2 United Associate, and Relief 
meeting house, and about 2500 inhabitants. 

DUNSINNAN, one of the Sidlaw hills, 
in the parish of Collace, and county of 
Perth, 6 miles N. E. from that town; it 
rises in a conical form, with a flat ar.d ver- 
dant summit. At one place is to be traced 
a winding road cut into the rock ; on the 
other sides it is steep, and of difficult ac- 
cess. It was defended by a strong ram- 
part, which went quite round the upper 
part of the hill. The area within the ram- 
parts is of an oval form, 210 feet long, 130 
broad, and a little lower than the ruins of 
the rampart that surrounds it. The origin- 
al height of this rampart cannot be ascer- 
tained ; but from the immense mass re- 
maining that overtops the interior summit 
of the hill, it must have been great. It it 
noted for being the seat of the castle of 
Macbeth. Dunsinnan is 1024 feet above 
the level of the sea. 

DUNSKERRY, a small island of Suther- 
land, 4 miles N. of the promontory of Far- 
out-Head. 

DUNSTAFFNAGE, an ancient castle in 
Argyleshire, remarkable for being one of 
the first seats of the Scottish princes. It is 
situated on a promontory, almost insulated, 
in an arm of the sea, called Loch Etive, a- 
bout 2 miles from Connel, and about the 
same distance from the site of the ancient 
Beregonium. In this castle was long pre- 
served the famous stone chair or seat, the 
palladium of North Britain, which was us- 
ed as the coronation chair. At a small dis- 
tance from the walls of the castle, which 
are all that remains of its former grandeur, 
is a small roofless chapel, of exquisite work- 
manship and elegant architecture, where 
many of the kings of Scotland are said to 
lie interred. 

DUNSYRE, a parish situated at the 
eastern extremity of Lanarkshire, about 5 
miles in extent each way. Besides the ara- 
ble part of th<f district, which is a valley, 
there is a considerable extent of hilly coun- 
try, fit only for sheep pasture. The soil is 
poor, and the general appearance of the 
country is naked. Dunsyre is equidistant 
from the German and Atlantic Oceans; 
and in this parish, two rivulets take their 
rise, one of which runs eastward to the 
Tweed, while the other, mixing with the 
waters of the Clyde, empties itself into the 
western sea.— Population 345. 

DUNVAGAN, a bay and headland on 
the W. coast of the Isle of Skye. Near it 



D U R 

is a small tillage of the same name, with a 
post-office. 

DUNWAR, a hill in the parish ofEagle- 
tham, Renfrewshire, in height 1000 feet. 

DUPLIN, a parish in Perthshire, united 
in 1618, to that ot'Abergaldy. (q. v.) 
DURISDEEK,aparishin Dumfries-shire, 
K miles long, and 5 br;>;:d. It is almost 
surrounded by hills, having a pleasant o- 
pening towards the S. and S. W. It is di- 
vided by the river Nith ; and the Carron 
also runs through it. Except the surround- | 
ing hills, the general appearance of thepa- 
rish is flat, and the soil tolerably fertile. It 
contains 14,636 Scots acres, of which there 
are about 3000 acres arable, and 11,000 
pasture and plantations. The VILLAGE 
of DURISDEER is pleasantly situated on 
the banks ofthe Nith, over which there is 
a handsome bridge of 3 arches. Several 
ruins of old towers, forts, and chapels, are 
to be seen here.— Population 1429. 

DURNESS, a parish in the county of Su- 
therland, 1£> miles in length, and 13 in 
breadth. The greatest part is a peninsula, 
formed by Loch Eribole and the bay of 
Durness. The scenery of the parish is wild 
and mountainous ; but, towards the shore, 
especially where the peninsula terminates 
in Far-out-head, there are several beauti- 
ful fields and rich pastures. Cape Wrath 
is situated at the N. W. corner of the pa- 
rish ; besides which there are two other re- 
markable promontories, viz. Far-out-head 
and White head. Loch F.rribole is a safe 
and spacious harbour. A great quantity of 
kelp is burnt on the shores. There are se- 
veral very remarkable caves, of which that 
ofSmoorSmoah is the largest and most 
magnilicent. A short way within the 
mouth ofthe cave is an aperture, through 
•which a stream of water descending forms 
a subterraneous lake, the extent of which 
has never been ascertained. In this cave 
is a remarkable echo. The whole parish 
rests on a bed of limestone. The river 
Hope contains a few trout and salmon. 
The most remarkable monument oS" anti- 
quity is the famous tower, Dun Domtdilla, 
situated in the valley of Strathmore, in a 
remote and picturesque spot, full 7 miles 
fiom the sea. It has been built, like Co- 
les castle, and other edifices of the kind, 
without any cement, when the use of iron 
was unknown. This building is unques- 
tionably the most ancient remains of anti- 
quity in the island. Population 1 155. 

DURRIS, a parish in Kincardineshire, 
extending about 8 miles in length, and 5 
and a half iu breadth, containing 16,000 ' 



95 D Y K 

acres. It lies on the S. bank of the Dee, 
from which the ground rises, and termi- 
nates in the ridge ofthe Grampian moun- 
tains. A great part ofthe parish has been 
lately enclosed, and great improvements in 
agriculture are going on. There are sever- 
al high mountains, of which Caimmonearu 
is the highest. Population 724. 

DUTHILandROTHIEMUKCHUS.two 
united parishes, situated partly in Moray 
and Inverness shires, 20 miles long, and 
nearly 1 7 in breadth . The general appear- 
ance is hilly. The Spey runs between the 
two parishes, and the river Dulnan inter- 
sects Duthil for upwards of 1 5 miles. The 
soil on the hanks of both rivers is fertile. 
There are two small lakes in Rothiemur- 
chus ; one of them, Lochnellan, has an is- 
land and a ruinous castle, noted for a re- 
markable echo. The military road from 
Dalnacardoch to Inverness passes through 
the parish. In the district of Rothiemur- 
chus is a quarry, or rather mountain, of 
excellent limestone, much used for ma- 
nure. Population 1613. 

DYCE, a parish in Aberdeenshire, of 
considerable extent, lying along the side 
ofthe river Don. The ridge of hills called 
Tyre-beggar runs directly through the pa- 
rish. On the top of one of th« highest is a 
Druidical temple. The whole of the hills 
are covered with heath and plantations. 
The rest ofthe parish produces line crops. 
Population 498. 

DYKE and MOY, an united parish in 
Morayshire. It runs up the Moray Frith 6 
miles, stretching from the coastward near- 
ly the same. Along the coast is that ex- 
tensive sandy desert, called the Maviston- 
sand hills, which Boethius mentions as be- 
ing produced by the same inundation ofthe 
sea which swept away the estate of Earl 
Godwin in Kent, and leftthe Godwin sands 
in its room. Above this desert lies an ex- 
tensive moor. The rest of the parish is 
cultivated. It contains three small villa- 
ges. The river Findhorn is of considera- 
ble value for its salmon fishings. The ba- 
rony of Culbin, called in former times " the 
Granary of Moray," has been entirely co- 
vered with sand blowing from the Maviston 
hills. Another effect of the blowing of the 
sand is the change made about 120 years 
ago in the bed and mouth of the river, 
which has occasioned the removal of the 
town and harbour of Findhorn at least three 
quarters of a mile down the frith ; and, 
where the ancient town of Findhorn stood, 
nothing appears but sand and benty grass. 
At Darnaway isan old castle, command- 



D Y S 94 

*ng a great extent of prospect. Adjoining 
to it is a princely hall, built by Thomas 
Randolph, regent of Scotland. Population 
1427. 

DYSART, a parish in Fifeshire, 4 miles 
in length, and nearly 3 in .breadth. The 
ground rises gradually from the sea, above 
a mile northward, and then slopes down to 
the river Orr, which forms the boundary 
on the N. E. The soil is generally light, 
find near the coast, fertile and well culti- 
vated ; but in the N. W. a tract of land ex- 
tends of wet cold soil, encumbered with 
large stones. Besides the burgh of Dysart, 
the parish contains 4 villages. Path-head, 
St. Clairtown, Galatown, and Borland. Its 
chief mines are coal and ironstone. Dysart 



coul was amongst the first wrought in Scot- 
: land: upwards of 300 years ago, the pit is 
! recorded to have been on fire. The iron"- 
j stone is very rich, yielding about 12cwt. of 
| metal per ton of ore. Population 6506. — 
| The EURGH of DYSART lies 1 mile R. 
N. E. from Kirkaldy, on a gentle declivity 
towards the sea. It consists of three nar- 
row streets, with a kind of square in the 
I centre. The Earl of Rosslyn has bis seat 
j here. Dysart was made a royal burgh in 
the beginning of the 16th century. It is 
! governed by two bailies, a treasurer, ami 
j '11 councillors, and joins with Kirkcaldy, 
Kinghorn, and Burntisland, in sending a 
member to Parliament. The revenue isa- 
| bout L.200 a year.— Population 157S. 



E A L 



F. A S 



Tj'ACHAIG, a small river in Argyleshire, 
-which has its rise from Loch Eck, and 
runs into the Frith of Clyde. 

EAGERNESS, a promontory of Wigton- 
ihire, on the Frith of Cree. 

EAGLESHAM, a parishin Renfrewshire, 
about 6 miles long, and 5 broad. From 
the banks of the Cart, which are loamy and 
fertile, the ground rises gradually towards 
the western border, which is moory, and 
covered with heath. Several rivulets in- 
tersect the parish, in their course from the 
high inoory ground to the Cart. The hills 
of Dun war and Balagk-h are nearly 3000 
feet in height. It possesses several chaly- 
beate wells, and at Balagich-hill, are found 
many pieces of Barytes, or ponderous spar. 
On the Cart, a few miles from its source, 
there is still standing a part of the old cas- 
tle of Dunoon, built in 1388. Population 
1424.— The VILLAGE of EAGLESHAM 
lies 9 miles S, from Glasgow. It is situat- 
ed on a plain, having a fine clear rivulet 
■running through the middle. Popul. 460. 

EALAN-A-GHARIN, and EALAN- 
AN-DU, two small islands on the VV. N. 
W. coast of Sutherlar.dshire, 

EALAN-NAN-ROANS, an island on 
the north coast of Sutherlandshire, about 
2 miles in circumference, and inhabited by 
four or five families. About the year 17S3, 
the centre of the land sunk considerably, 
leaving a pool of water where there was 
arable land before. 

EALLANGHEIRRIG, a small island in 
Argyleihire, situated at the mouth of Loch 



Ridden. It was here that the unfortunate- 
Earl of Argyle, in 1685, deposited his arms 
and ammunition, and rendezvoused his ar- 
my, which soon after were forced to sur- 
render. 

EARLSFERRY, an ancient town in the 
parish of Kilconquhar, Fifeshire, 6 mileB 
E. from Largo. It was at one period a roy- 
al burgh, having parliamentary representa- 
tion which it lost through inability to pay 
the expense of a commissioner. Tempm-a 
mutantur. It is governed by 3 bailies, 15 
councillors, and a treasurer. It Ires on the 
W. side of Ely bay. Population 374. 

EARLSTOUN, a parish in that district 
of Berwickshire, called Lauderdale. It is 
6 miles in length, and from 3 to 4 in 
breadth; washed on the E. border by the 
Eden, and on the TV. by the Leader. To. 
wards the banks of the Eden, the Surface is 
level, and the Soil light and dry ; on the 
western border it is more uneven, and the 
soil inclines to a strong tough clay. There 
are several villages, of which Earlstoun and 
Mellerstain are the larpest. Population 
1528.— The VILLAGE of EARLSTOUN 
lies 7 miles S. from Lauder. It is famous 
as the birth-place of Sir Thomas Learmont, 
commonly called Thomas the Rhymer, part 
of whose house is still standing, called Rhy- 
mer's Tower. 

EARLSTOWN, a village in Clackman- 
nanshire. Population 220. 

EARSAY, a considerable lake in the is- 
land of Arran. 

EASDALE, a imall illand of the He- 



E C C 

bride*, annexed to Argyllshire. It is nearly 
circular, about 1 mile and a half in diame- 
ter. Slate has been quarried here upwards 
of 100 years, which employs about 300 
workmen. 

EASTWOOD, a parish in Renfrewshire ; 
its greatest length is 4 miles, and its breadth 
nearly 3. It presents a'ftne variety of land- 
scape. The lands areallinclosed.and each 
farm affords ample proof of the great in- 
crease in agricultural knowledge and indus- 
try. Several manufactures, particularly- 
weaving of muslin, and the manufacture of 
cotton, are carried on in the thriving vil- 
lage of Pollockshaw ■„ In the neighbour- 
hood of Thornliebank there is a stratum of 
echistus, deserving the attention of the na- 
turalist. Population 4846. 

ECCLES, a parish in Berwickshire, 8 
miles long from E. to VV\, and nearly 6 in 
breadth; and containing about 11,000 
acres, scarcely one of which is waste. The 
soil is in general good, and the farms are all 
enclosed in the bc^t manner. I n fe w pfeunss 
have improvements been carried on to equai 
advantage, and with such rapidity. There 
is a valuable salmon fishing on the Tweed, 
the property of the Earl of Home. Popu- 
lation 1820. 

ECCLEFECHAN, a village in the parish 
of Hoddam, Dumfries-shire, 15 miles N. E. 
of Dumfries. It is a considerable market 
town, and one of the stages on the .London 
road from Edinburgh and Glasgow, by Car- 
lisle. It contains upwards of 6U0 inhabi- 
tants. 

ECCLESGREIG, or St. CYRUS, a pa- 
rish in the southern extremity of Kincar- 
dine-shire; bounded on the S. by the North 
Esk river, extending 5 miles in length, and 
3 in breadth. The surface is pretty level, 
but intersected with several dens and rivu- 
lets. More than three-fourths of the whole 
is arable. The ruins of the Kame of Ma- 
thers, the ancient residence of the Barclay 
family, stands on a peninsulatcd perpen- 
dicular rock, the base of which is washed 
by the sea. The Castles of Morpliy and 
Laurieston are also ancient buildings. 
There are two villages, Milton and St. Cy- 
rus, the former of which is situated on the 
coast, and contains 1 SO inhabitants. There 
is plenty of excellent freestone, as well as 
hrne. Population 1664. 
EGCLESMACHAN, a parish in Linlithgow- 
shire, about 4 miles long and 1 broad, inter- 
sected by the parishes of Linlithgow and 
Uphall. The whole is aflat corn country. 
There is-abuffldance of excellent freestone ; 
and near the church is a weak sulphureous 



> E D D 

spring, called the Bullion well, which is re- 
sorted to in scrophulous affections. Popu- 
lation 267. 

ECHT, aparishin Aberdeenshire, about 
10 miles W. from the county town. Itcon- 
tains 1 1,000 acres. Few of the hills are of 
great height, and many of them are under 
tillage to the very summit. The soil is in 
many places highly susceptible of improve- 
ment. Housedale is an elegant teat, sur- 
rounded with extensive plantations. On 
the top of the Barmekin, one of the highest 
hills, is an ancient fortification. There are 
also several cairns and Druidical cdilice». 
Population 932. 

ECK (LOCH), a lake in the district of 
L'owal, in Argyieshire, about 6 miles long, 
and half a mile broad. 

ECKFORD, aparishin Roxburghshire, 7 
miles lung, and 4 and a half broad, watered 
on oi,e side by the Teviot, and intersected 
by the Kail water, which joins the former a 
little below the church. It has been origi- 
nally covered, with heath, but by proper 
cultivation is now rendered green and (it 
for pasture, except a moor called Cavertown 
Edge, where the Kelso jacts are held. A 
lew plantations have been laid out. There 
are two small villages in the parish, Caver- 
town and Cessi'ord, near which is the ruins 
of tile old castle of Cessford. Population 
1007. 

KDAY, one of the Orkney isles, 5 and a 
half miles long, and 1 and a half" broad. 
It affords excellent pasture, and possesses* 
two good harbours or road-steads, where 
vessels of any burden may ride in safety. 
Population 600. 

KDDERACHYLIS, a parish in Suther- 
laudshire, occupying the N. W. corner of 
the island of Great Britain, and extending 
from Cape Wrath southward 20 miles in 
length, and about loin breadth. It is in- 
tersected by several arms of the sea, which 
affords good harbours fursmall vessels. The 
face of the country is mountainous and 
rocky, and the more inland part, which 
constitutes part of Lord Reay's deer forest, 
presents a vast group of rugged mountains, 
with their summits enveloped in clouds, 
and divided from one another, by deep and 
narrow glens; yet in these wilds are reared 
many black cattle, the pasture they afford 
being rich and luxuriant. There are a 
number of lakes in the parish,, of which 
Lochmoir and Lochstaik are the chief, and 
a few small rivers. Lord Rcay is the sole 
proprieior. Population 1147. 

KDDERTOWN, a parish in Ross-shire, 
10 mileslong, and 7 broad, washed on the 



E D I 

N. by the Frith of Tain. The soil ii in 
general good ; but the climate is cold, and 
the harvest late. Here are the remains of 
several encampments, and many rude stones 
and cairns. Population 846. 

KDEN, a river in Fifeshire, which takes 
its rise about 4 miles W. from Strathmiglo, 
and falls into tin German Ocean at the 
bay of St Andrews. 

EDEN, a small river in Berwickshire, 
which has its rise on the confines of the 
sounty of Selkirk, and falls into the Tweed 
4 miles helow Kelso. 

EDENDON, a river in Perthshire, which 
takes its rise in Blair-Athole, and falls into 
the Garry near Dalnacardoch. 

EDEN HAM, a parish in Roxburghshire, 
attending 3 miles and a half each way. 
Watered by the Eden, and bounded by the 
Tweed on the S. and S.E. Its surface is 
beautifully varied. The soil is exceedingly 
fertile and well cultivated. Thomson, 
author of the '"Seas jus," was born at Eden- 
h-im manse. Population 553.— The VIL- 
LAGE of EDENHAM lies2 miles and a 
half N.E. from Kelso, pleasantly situated 
on the Eden water. Population 300. 

EOENKEILLIE, a" parish in Morayshire, 
12 miles long and 10 broad. Its surface is 
hilly. On the banks of the Findhorn and 
Davie is much old natural wood, and the 
most varied and romantic scenery. Besides 
the natural woods, there are extensive 
plantations, particularly on the estate of 
the Earl of Moray. In the upper part of 
the parish is the lake of Lochindorb, in 
which, on an island stand the ruins of the 
castle of the same name. The castles of 
D-mphail, and of the Downehill of Relu- 
gas, are also celebrated remains of anti- 
quity. Population 1215. 

EDINBURGHSHIRE, OR MID-LO- 
THIAN, is bounded on the N. by the Frith 
of Forth and the river Almond, which lat- 
ter divides it, at one part, horn Linlith- 
gowshire; on the E. by Haddingtonshire, 
on the S. by the counties of Lanark, Pee- 
bles, Selkirk, and Berwick, and on the VV. 
by the county of Linlithgow. It extends 
about 30 miles in length, and varies from 
10 to 20 in breadth ; and includes the is- 
lands of Inchkeith, Cramond, and Inch- 
mickery. It contains about 3fi6 square 
miles, or 250,400 English acres ; one third 
hill, or ground incapable of tillage; the re- 
mainder is under tillage, pasture, or wood. 
It is divided into 31 parishes, which con- 
tain 148. COT inhabitants. Thevaluedrent 
is Ll!H,054-3:9d. Scots, and the real 
rent L. 151,500 Sterling. The surface of 



i EDI 

thin county is much diversified. The cli- 
mate, though extremely variable, is ia 
general good ; but the cold fogs, which the 
east wind brings from the German ocean, 
during spring, are often very prejudicial to 
the fruit. Mid-Lothian has no considerable 
rivers, but the banks of the several streams 
of water here present the most beautiful 
scenery, and afford numerous facilities for. 
theestablishment of various manufactories. 
The Water of Leith takes its rise in the . 
Pentland hills, and after a course of 14; 
miles, falls into the frith at Leith. It drives 
about 100 mills, and suppliesseveral bleach- 
fields, distilleries, ski.meries, and other 
works. On the Esk, which falls into the 
sea at Musselburgh, a considerable number 
of paper-mills have been established, be-, 
sides bleachfields, &c. There are two lakes 
In the immediate neighbourhood of Edin- 
burgh, at Duddingston and Lochend. The 
former is about 80 feet in depth in some 
places, and about a mile and a quarter in 
circumference. This county abounds with 
coal, lime, freestone, and iron ore. The 
hills are objects of great interest : Arthur's 
seat, on one side, exhibits a beautiful range 
of basaltic pillars, nearly 50 feet in height. 
At the bottom of a rock, of lower elevation, 
a little to the northward, is a remarkable 
echo. Adjoining to this hill, are Salisbury 
Crags, forming a kind of amphitheatre. 
There is a valley between the hills, which 
has much the appearance of a crater, long 
ago filled up in part ; the next side, which 
forms the crags, having sunk down. In 
these crags the great mass of whinstone it 
incumbent on girt and clay, which being 
thought to be of posterior formation makes 
the arrangement be considered singular. 
In a wider circle, the hills of Corstorphinc, 
Braid, and Craigmillar, surround the capi- 
tal; and at about four miles distance the 
range of the Pentland hills commences. 
From the materials which composes Braid 
and Blackford hills, they may be considered 
as a continuation of the Pentlands. On the 
north part of the summit of the Pentland 
range, the face of the rock appears ,of a 
pretty lively white. This stone has got the 
name of Petunse pentlandica, from its re- 
semblance to the materials (clay and sand) 
which are employed in China for the ma- 
nufacture of porcelain. It is the only ex- 
ample of this kind of stone in the island, 
and perhaps in Europe. In these hills some 
specimens of terra ponderosa, and of zeolite, 
have been found. None of the hills are re- 
markable for their elevation. The Moor- 
foot hills comprehend about 52 square miles, 



97 



EDI 



are 1850 feet above the level of the sea, and . 
afford excellent pasture. The loftiest of the | 
Pentland hills is about 1700 feet; Arthur's j 
Seat 822; Braid hills 690 ; Liberton Tower I 
-590; Corstorphine 476; Craigmillar 560; 
and the Calton hill 550. From the various ; 
important improvements which are now 
projected, it is probable that this county will I 
speedily receive a great increase of popula- 
tion and wealth. A Canalfrom Edinburgh, 
which joins the Glasgow Canal at Falkirk, 
has been finished for some years, and it is 
now in contemplation to extend it to Leith. 
A railway is now in progress from Dalkeith 
to Edinburgh, for which a Tunnel is now 
excavating at the west side of Arthur's Seat ; 
and it has been proposed to extend surveys 
into East Lothian, Roxburghshire and Sel- 
kirkshire, with the view of forming railway 
communications from these counties with 
Edinburgh, and Leith. Besides Edinburgh 
and Leith, the towns and villages in this 
county are Dalkeith, Musselburgh, Porto- 
bello, Lasswade, Pennycuick, Midcalder, 
and Gilinerton. 

EDINBURGH, the Metropolis of Scot- 
land, is situated in the northern part of the 
County of Edinburgh or Mid-Lothian ; 
■nearly a mile and a half south of the Frith 
of Forth, and about the same distance from 
Leith, the sea port of Edinburgh. It is 16 
miles west of Haddington, 42 east of Glas- 
gow, 12S south south westof Aberdeen, and 
156 south of Inverness. It is distant 590 
miles, north by west of London, and 92 miles 
and a half from Carlisle. This City is more 
than two miles long, is about the same in 
breadth, and the circumference ofthe whole 
is nearly eight miles, it is rapidly increasing 
in all directions. It stands upon three dis- 
tinct hills or elevations. The old town oc- 
cupies chiefly the centre elevation, extend- 
ing, nearly in a straight line, from the per- 
pendicular rock on which the Castle is built, 
at the western extremity, to the palace of j 
Holyrood House on the. east. The High 
Street occupies the flat surface of this cen- 
tral ridge, and measures from the gate of ] 
the Castle to the Palace-gate, 5570 feet in 1 
length, and in general 90 feet in breadth. 
From the High Street descend numerous 
lanes or closses on the declivities, north and | 
south of this central ridge. Parallel to the I 
High Street, in the valley on the south, runs i 
a street called the Cowgate, about 20 feet i 
in breadth; the rising ground in this direc- 
tion is covered with buildings; forming a I 
mixture of the ancient and modern archi- 
tecture, extending in streets, squares, and 
villas, to a distance of one mile and a | 



: half. The northern valley, called the North 
i Loch, is laid out in ornamented grounds on 
] the west, and the whole of this valley is in 
| progress of being laid out in the same man- 
ner. A Mound of earth crosses this valley 
to the westward, which was formed with 
the earth dug from the foundations of buil- 
dings in the new town, and is nearly 1000 
feet long, about 200 in breadth, and 80 feet 
high above the surface of the valley. At 
the north end of this Mound, there has late- 
ly been erected a beautiful square building, 
appropriated to the Royal Institution for 
the encouragement ofthe Fine Arts. Near 
the eastern extremity of this valley, it is 
crossed by a beautiful Bridge, called the 
North Bridge, founded in the year 1763. 
This Bridge consists of three great central 
arches of 72 feet each, with two smaller 
ones at each end. The length ofthe bridge 
is 1270 feet, the breadth 50 feet, and the 
height 6S feet. North Bridge Street is ter- 
minated on the north by Princes Street 
crossing it at right angles, and the Register 
Office, one of the most elegant edifices in 
Edinburgh. The southern valley is crossed 
by a Bridge called the South Bridge ; this 
Bridge was opened in 17SS, and consists of 
22 arches, one of which only is visible ; which 
is the centre arch over the Cowgate. This 
bridge is on a line with the North Bridge, 
and crosses the High Street at right angles ; 
forming an elegant street of nearly equal 
length with the High Street, and dividing 
the old town into nearly two equal half's. 
The New Town stands upon the horizontal 
ridge, on the north side of the old town, 
having an inconsiderable elevation on the 
south, declining to the sea on the north, 
and may be divided into two parts, viz. the 
New Town designed in 1767, which is com- 
pleted ; and the other additional buildings, 
streets, and squares, erecting on the east, 
west, and north, of the former. Edinburgh 
is naturally divided by the North Loch into 
the Old and New Town, communicating 
by the North Bridge, and Earthen Mound. 
The New Town having been laid out on a 
regular plan in 1767, is one ofthe finest ci- 
ties in Europe. The whole has been built 
within the last 60 years, of beautiful free- 
stone, superior to any in the kingdom. A 
plan for building, whst may be termed an 
additional New Town between Edinburgh 
and Leith, and on the east and w est of Leith 
Walk, is in progress and rapidly extending, 
and that in a few years Edinburgh will be 
joined to its ancient sea port. Edinburgh 
being noted for learning and the fine arts, 
and from its general magnificent appearance 



E D 



EDI 



has been justly called the Modern Athens. 
This " Romantic Town," situated on three 
separated and distinct rising grounds, is 
surrounded in all directions, except the 
north, by a succession of beautiful hill s. In 
the immediate vicinity of the town, on the 
east is the Calton Hill, ornamented by a lof- 
ty Monument to the memory of Nelson, the 
Observatory, New Jail, Bridewell, &c. and, 
there is laid the foundation of the grand 
National Monument. On the south side of 
this Hill, the Royal High School is built, 
which was opened by a grand procession, 
June 23, 1829 ; and new streets are rising on 
the declivities. The various viewsfrom the 
•walks are noble and extensive, commanding 
both the Old and New Towns, the Frith of 
Forth, and adjacentcountry,— the Shipping 
in Leith Roads, and the mouth of the Frith, 
with the German Ocean, and Fife hills in 
the distance; altogether presenting a com- 
bination of rich scenery, which has been 
compared to the famed view of the Bay of 
Naples. Near the City, on the east, rises 
Arthur's Seat, to the height of 822 feet a- 
bove the level of the sea, and from its pecu- 
liar shape called the Lion. On the south 
side of this hill, is a perpendicular rock, ex- 
hibiting a grand range of Basaltic columns 
of a pentagonal or hexagonal form, 50 to 
60 feet high, and 5 feet in diameter. Ad- 
joining to this hill on the west, Salisbury 
Crags present to the city, a green sloping 
declivity, crowded by a lofty terrace with a 
front of broken rocks and precipices, presen- 
ting one of the finest natural ornaments of 
this romantic town. The beautiful emi- 
nence of Corstorphine Hill, finely wooded, 
risingin the midst of rich vallies, rears its 
i ummit on the west ; near to this on the 
south-west, is the beautifully wooded hill of 
Craig Lochart. The hills of Braid and Craig- 
millar are in the neighbourhood, on the 
south, and south-east ; and the extensive 
range of the Pentland Hills, at a distance 
of five miles on the south, rear their lofty 
summits to the height of 1450 : to 1700 feet 
above the level of the sea. These hills form 
a magnificent amphitheatre, in which stands 
the Metropolis of North Britain. The a- 
bundance of building materials found in 
the immediate vicinity of the City, particu- 
larly stone and lime of superior quality, 
have in an eminent degree, given a beauty 
and stability to the edifices of Edinburgh, 
nowhere excelled, and justifies the appel- 
lation bestowed upon it, of the " City of Pa- 
laces " From the facility afforded by the 
natural declivities of both Old and New 
"Eown, in making sewers, and underground 



works, for carrying off the soil, the former 
has now got free of its old reproach, and 
the latter is one of thp cleanest Cities in 
Europe. In the year 1 753, Edinburgh oc- 
cupied nearly the same extent of ground 
which it had done for centuries before. 
Since that period, it has been enlarged to 
three times its bulk. During the last thirty 
years, particularly, the improvements both 
in the Old and New Town, have been as- 
tonishing. Streets, Squares, Churches, and 
public fdifices, have risen in rapid succes- 
sion ; old and inconvenient buildings have 
been removed, and replaced by elegant 
houses ; and the pavements and foot paths 
improved and renewed. It would besuper- 
fluous to attempt a description of all the 
improvements and public buildings that 
have been made and finished within the 
last fifty years. The Regent Bridge is the 
most splendid of the recent improvements 
in Edinburgh ; this bridge is in aline with 
Princes Street, and by a road cut into the 
rock on the east side of the Calton hill, look- 
ing down upon the Old Town, forms a new, 
elegant, and romantic approach to the City, 
from the east. This bridge was founded in 
1819. In this street are situated, the 
Post Office, Stamp Office, Waterloo Hotel, 
&c. built in the first style of architectural 
elegance, and affording an easy communica- 
tion with the beautiful walks and terraces, 
around the Calton Hill. The College when 
completed, will be,for elegance and magni- 
tude, superior to any building of its kind in 
the world. The new buildings for the ac- 
commodation of the Courts of Law, in the 
Parliament Square, are on a grand scale ; 
and when completed, by the additions in- 
tended to be made on the space left vacant 
by the great fires in 1824, will be the most 
magnificent suit of buildings in Edinburgh. 
The venerable and stately Church of St 
Giles, forming the north side of the Parlia- 
ment Square, is also to be improved. The 
County Hall, Advocates' Library, &c. is an 
extensive and beautiful group of buildings. 
Edinburgh is not a Manufacturing Town,., 
in the general meaning of the term. It has 
a few manufactures of Silk, Linen, Shawls, 
Stockings, &c— these may be stated as em- 
ploying six to seven hundred looms. There 
are several Castlron Foundries, Brass Foun- 
ders, Mill Wrights, Machine Makers, &c. 
The Printing and Publishing of Books, are 
important branches of trade.---This trade, 
with its attendants of Book-binding, Book'- 
selling, and Stationary, is now carried oi 
to a great extent. In the year 1763 there 
were only six Printing Houses in Edirs. 



EDI 

burgh, the number now is about 50, employ- 
ing nearly 200 Presses, and the works exe- 
cuted here, are not surpassed in elegance 
and correctness by any in Europe. The 
Courts of Law, and the University, are the 
chief supports of the City, and the great re- 
sort of families from all parts of the island, 
attracted hither by the fame of its acade- 
mies and schools, are the principal depen- 
dance of the tradesmen, and shop-keepers. 
The commerce of Edinburgh, is not so con- 
siderable as might be expected in the me- 
tropolis of Scotland; yet from its being the 
resort of the opulent and gay from all quar- 
ters, the diffusion of the circulating medium 
is extensive, and its money transactions are 
numerous and important. There are rive 
public Banking Companies, namely, the 
Bank of Scotland, the Royal Bank of Scot- 
land, the British Linen Company, the Com- 
mercial Bank, and the National Bank ; be- 
sides a number of private Banks of great re- 
spectability. All the public Banks issue 
promissory notes of various value, but none 
under one Pound Sterling, payable on de- 
mand, either in specie, or Bank of England 
notes. Two of the private Banks only, is- 
sue notes, viz. Sir William Forbes and Com- 
pany, and Ramsays, Bonars and Co. The 
•other private banks, seven in number, dis- 
count Bills, and employ their capital in all 
the various branches of the banking busi- 
ness. No city of its size contains more li- 
terary men than Edinburgh, whose reputa- 
tion stands pre-eminent in every branch of 
literature, and it has long been famed over 
the world, for its Medical School and esta- 
blishments. It possesses also numerous So- 
cieties and Institutions, Religious, Philoso- 
phical, and Literary, and many for the im- 
provement of the arts and sciences, and o- 
thers which embrace every object of nation- 
al utility and interest. The education of 
the poor is amply provided for, by the many 
establishments for that purpose ; and in no 
city are charitable institutions more nume- 
rous ; these comprehend receptacles for the 
alleviation, or cure, of everyform of human 
misery. The Royal Infirmary is a noble 
building, founded in 173S; and exclusive of 
its great utility as an hospital for patients, 
from both town and country, it has in an 
eminent degree, contributed to the celebri- 
ty of the Medical School of Edinburgh. The 
river, or Water of Leith, takes its rise in the 
Pentland Hills, and after a course of four- 
teen miles, falls into the Frith of Forth at 
Leith, forming the harbour of Leith at its 
junction. This being the only river in the 
immediate vicinity of the metropolis, the 



natural beauties of its banks, have been in- 
creased by the erection of numerouselegant 
seats, and extensive plantations. Short a» 
the course of this river is, yet within that dis - 
tance, it gives motion to the machinery of 
upwards of one hundred mills, in its course 
to the sea. Besides corn, meal and flour, 
snuff, lint, and spinning mills, there are 5 
large, and 4 smaller Paper manufactories; 
Eleachfields, Distilleries, Skinneries, Tan. 
works, and Saw-mills. The Water of Leith 
runs through apart of the New Town on the 
north, and is there crossed by two stone 
bridges. The river north Esk, at a distance 
of from 6 to 9 miles of Edinburgh on the 
south, has also numerous falls occupied by 
machinery ; amongst others, there are nine 
extensive paper manufactories, for writing 
and printing papers. Almost all of these 
mills employ the new method, or patent, 
or web machine, by which three-fourths of 
the former manual labour is saved in the 
first formation of the sheet. The neigh- 
bourhood of Edinburgh, is the chief seat of 
the paper manufacture in Scotland, from 
whence large quantities are sent tothe Lon- 
don Market. The origin of Edinburgh is 
lost in the obscurity of ages. The etymolo- 
gy, and the early history of the City are in« 
volved in equal obscurity ; the most proba- 
ble conjecture, is that which derives the 
name from the compound Gaelic word, Dun- 
Edin, or Edwinsburgh ; a name by which it 
is still known in the Highlands of Scot- 
land. The Castle of Edinburgh is men- 
tioned in Scottish History, as the place 
where Queen Margaret, widow of Malcolm 
Canmore, died in the year 1093. The first 
traces of Edinburgh as a town, are found 
in a charter granted by David the First, in 
112S, in favour of certain Canons Regular, 
for whom he founded the Abbey of Holy- 
rood-house; whereit is styled Burgo meo 
de Edwinesburg. The first Parliament 
held here, was in the year 1216. Edward 
the First having carried off, or destroyed the 
records of the country in 1295, render this 
period of its history dark and uncertain. In 
the year 1392, Robert the First granted to 
Edinburgh, the town of Leith, with its har- 
bour and mills. The City of Edinburgh in 
the thirteenth century, was confined to a 
very limited space, around the Castle Hill, 
where the houses were crowded together, 
more for the sake of being under the pro- 
tection of the Castle, than from choice of 
situation, and appears to have been extend- 
ed gradually to the east and south west of 
the fortress. It was for the first time.'sur- 
rounded by a wall in 1450, when James the 



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E I) 



Second granted the inhabitants a charter 
to fortify the Town; and about the same 
time, presented the incorporated trades 
■with a standard, which still exists, known 
by the name of the Blue Blanket ; this wall 
was again built, and the circuit extended, 
in 1571. Ail the houses in the old town 
are of a great height; eight flats, or stories, 
as they are here called, are common, and 
some are ten, and even twelve stories high. 
This uncommon elevation seems to have 
arisen from the confined space on the mid- 
dle rjdgeformmg the High Street, andfrom 
the desire to be near to the Castle. The 
lands or houses in the wynds or lanes, on 
the declivities on each side of this street, 
are also very high; these lands have a com- 
mon stair, giving access to the separate 
lodgings or flats, and it is not uncommon to 
find from 18 to 24 families in the same 
building ; thus rendering these crowded a- 
bodes, not only unhealthy and uncomforta- 
blebut dangerous from fire. The land in the 
neighbourhood of the capital is in the high- 
est state of cultivation, and rents high for 
garden ground and villas. The modern 
mansions and gentlemen's seats are nu- 
merous and splendid. In the immediate 
neighbourhood may be noticed the houses 
of Belmount, Beechwood, Clermiston, and 
others ; Collington House and Dreghorn, 
Redhall, Hailes, and Spylaw; Dalmahoy, 
the principal seat of the Earl of Morton; 
and Hatton, formerly belonging to the Earl 
of Lauderdale. To the east of the metro- 
polis is Prestonfield, and the House of Dud- 
dingston, the elegant mansion of the Earl 
of Abercorn. Duddingston Loch is a beau- 
tiful and romantic sheet of water, near this 
mansion, at the foot of Arthur's Seat. One 
of the most remarkable of the recent events 
in our national annals, is the visit of His 
Majesty George the Fourth to Scotland, 
and honouring the Palace of his ancestors 
with his presence. On the 14th August 
1822, the Royal George, having His Majes- 
ty on board, anchored in Leith B.oads. | 
■While here His Majesty received the me- 
lancholy intelligence of the death of the 
Marquis of Londonderry. The weather be- 
ing unfavourable His Majesty did not land 
till the 15th about noon. He was dressed 
in an Admiral's uniform, with a thistle 
and sprig of Heath on his hat; and a superb 
St Andrew's Cross, presented to him by 
Sir Walter Scott, in name of the Ladies of 
Edinburgh. This evening the town of 
Leith was most superbly illuminated. The 
procession to Kdinburgh by Leith Walk was 
magnificent ; and at Gayfield Place His Ma- 



jesty was received by the Lord Provost and 
Magistrates, who at a temporary barrier, 
delivered to h : .m the Keys of the City. The 
cavalcade, after traversing a part of the new 
town, arrived, by the Regent^ Bridge, Cal- 
ton and Abbey Hill, at the ancient Palace 
of the Scottish Kings; which His Majesty 
entered, amidst the deafening shouts of tri- 
umph of a population remarkable for loyal- 
ty and attachment to their Kings,.— of dis- 
charges of canon placed upon the Calton 
Hill and the Crags, on both of which the 
Royal Bannerproudly waved, as well as by 
a royal salute from the Castle ; after a short 
stay, His Majesty went to Dalkeith House, 
the Palace of his Grace the Duke of Buc- 
cleuch, about six miles south of Edinburgh, 
which had been fitted up for his residence. 
On the 15th the King remained at D.dkeith 
House, where he repeatedly expressed him- 
self highly delighted with his residence, 
with the reception he had met with on his 
landing, and the orderly and decorous ap- 
pearance of his Scottish subjects, and the 
intellectual dignity of their manner. A 
most brilliant illumination took place in 
Edinburgh this evening, never exceeded 
on any former occasion. On Saturday the 
17th His Majesty held a Levee— the atten- 
dance on which was most numerous and 
splendid. The King, in compliment to the 
Country, appeared in complete Highland 
costume, made of the Royal Stuart Tartan. 
The company of Royal Archers did the duty 
of Body Guards. AttheLeveenot less than 
2000 persons were presented. On Monday 
the 19th His Majesty held a Court, and Clo- 
set Audience at Holyrood Palace, when ma- 
ny loyal addresses were presented. On the 
20th the King held a Drawing Room, which 
was attended b? about 500 ladies of the 
most distinguished rank, fashion and beau- 
ty in Scotland. On the 22d His Majesty 
visited the Castle. On this occasion the 
streets presented a scene of extraordinary 
animation. The Regalia of Scotland ( which 
had been previously removed to Holyrood 
from the Castle), was carried in procession, 
and afforded to the dflighted populace a 
sight of their long lost Crown and Sceptre. 
The procession was most impressive, — it 
was splendid without being gaudy; and 
while the variety of the different costumes 
was admirably calculated for effect, the ju- 
dicious mixture of the Clans with their tar- 
tan habiliments, and of the assembled 
troops, formed a happy relief to the official 
splendour which marked the other parts of 
the pageant. His Majesty was dressedin a 
Field Marshall's uniform. The King as- 



cended the upper platform placed upon the ( . from all partsof thekingdom, was estimated 
half moon battery, where he gate three j at 30O,0OU. Sir William Arbuthnot, Lord 



cheers, waving his hat; and was cheered 
by the immense multitude who occupied 
the Castle Hill, the streets, and the sur- 
rounding elevations. On the 23d Kis Ma- 
jesty reviewed the whoie Volunteer Caval- 
ry and Yeomanry of the principal lowland 
districts, on the Sands of Portobello. In 
the evening the King attended a splendid 
Ball, given by the Peers, in the Assembly 
Rooms, George Street. On the '24th His 
Majesty honoured the City by his presence 
at a splendid Banquet, given by the Lord 
Provost, Magistrates, and Town Council, in 
the Parliament House. On Sunday the 25th, 
the King attended Divine Service in the 
High Church of St Giles. In his way from 
the Palace to Church, he was received by 
the Populace of Edinburgh, with that reve- 
rence and respect which the Scotch pay to 
the Sabbath,— the people reverently took 
off their hats, but not a voice was raised to 
hail his appearance ! Great as their exulta- 
tion must have been to behold their Sove- 
reign in the midst of them, the sentiment 
of piety alone predominated ; and of the 
great multitude collected, not one of them 
for a moment forgot the divine precept, to 
keep the Sabbath-day holy. On the 26th 
His Majesty paid a private visit to the Pa- 
lace of Holyrood, for the purpose of inspec- 
ting its apartments; —same evening he at- 
tended a Ball given by the Caledonian Hunt. 
On the 27th the foundation stone of the 
National Monument was laid on the Cal- 
tonhill, with a splendid Masonic Proces- 
sion, by Commissioners representing His Ma- 
jesty. On the same day the King visited 
Melville Castle, the seat of Lord Viscount 
Melville. His Majesty dined alone at Dal- 
keith House ; and in the evening visited 
the Theatre. On the 28th His Majesty en- 
tertained a large party at dinner in Dalkeith 
House, and on the 29th he took his depar- 
ture from Port Edgar near Queensferry, 
after visiting Hopeton House, the princely 
mansion of the Earl of Hopeton. It would 
be difficult to determine, whether the re- 
ception which His Majesty met with, from 
his Scottish subjects, was more flatteringto 
the King, or honourable to the people. His 
Majesty remarked to Lord Lyndoch, after 
he arrived at the Palace, " that he had of- 
" ten heard the Scotch were a proud na- 
*' tion ; and they had reason to be so, for 
" they appeared to be a nation of Gentle- 
"men; he himself was proud of them." 
The multitude who witnessed the memo- 
rable spectacle of His Majesty's landing, 



Provost of Edinburgh, was Kru;;!utd at the 
Banquet; and Captain Adam Ferguson, 
and Mr Henry Raeburn, the celebrated por- 
trait painter, • were Knighted at Hopeton 
House. The antiquities of Edinburgh and 
its vicinity, are numerous, and consist chiei- 
ly of the remains of religious establishments, 
from the number and variety of these ruins, 
they cannot be described in a work like this. 
The Castle of Craigmillar is a rum of great 
antiquity, about two miles south from Edin- 
burgh: it wasfounded'in 1312, and was at 
times the residence of Mary Queen of Scots, 
—it is seated on a rock 274 feet above the 
level of the sea, and commands a most ex- 
tensive view. A small room in one of the 
upper turrets, is shewn here as Queen Ma- 
ry's Bed room, and it is worthy of remark, 
that in all the places where she resided the • 
rooms which she occupied are of very small 
size, this one is seven feet by live, yet has 
two windows, and a fire place. A Village 
in the vicinity still retains the name of Lit 
tie France,from having been the residence 
of Queen Mary's attendants. Although the 
increase of the population of Edinburgh, 
within the last SO years, has been great 
and rapid, yet it has not kept pace with 
the increase and extent of the buildings, 
during the same period. This may be ac- 
counted for, by remarking the rapid strides 
of improvement made in the comfor ,.» of 
life anu reiinement, demanding more do- 
mestic accommodation than was required 
half a century ago. To this cause may be 
added, the great and constant demand for 
lodgings, or temporary accommodation for 
students and occasional visitors to the City, 
—these lodging houses consist of a number 
of apartments, which must be rented, al- 
though they are only partially occupied for 
the whole year; and there are many houses 
now possessed by one family, which fifty 
years ago, would have accommodated a 
dozen. Edinburgh has fourteen Churches, 
and seven Chapels of Ease, belonging to the 
Establishment, and one Gaelic Chapel ; 
there are six Chapels belonging to the 
Church of England. The Dissenters are 
very numerous,- -there are nine places of 
worship belonging to tbe United Associate 
Synod, one Original Burghers, two Original 
Antiburghtrs, six Keliet Congregations, one 
Cameraman, two Independents, four Bap- 
tist, two Methodist, one Roman Catholic, 
one Berean, one Unitarian, one Glas- 
site, one Society of Friends, one New Jeru- 
salem Temple, and one Jews' Synagogue. 



L 



I L 



The population of Edinburgh, including 
the parishes of South and North Leith, 
is thus stated at the following periods. 
In the year 1755, 57,220, in the year 1775, 
69,039. These results were taken from a 
calculation of the number of families, rec- 
koning six as the average of each family. 
Uutfrom an accurate survey made in 1791, 
the number of families were found to be 
18,654, and the number of Inhabitants 
74,886, which gives an average of four to 
each family only ; this comes nearer to the 
truth, and agrees with the calculations of 
l>r Price, and those of the statistical ac- 
count of Scotland. In the year 

1801, the Population, including Leith, 
was - - - 82,560. 

1811, - - - 102.9S7. 

1821, - - - 138,235. 

Edinburgh has a weekly market on Wed- 
nesday, for Corn, Cattle and Horses, and 
an annual Fair, h ;1 on the second Monday 
of November, called All Hallow Fair. 

EDDLESTON, a parish in Peeblesshire, 
18 miles in length from N. to S., and in 
bfead'.h about 7 miles. Being hilly, it is 
■well fitted for sheep and cattle. A lake, 2 
mites in circumference, gives rise to the 
South Esk.— The VILLAGE is situated on 
the water of Eddleston, 17 miles S.of Edin- 
burgh. Population 91S. 

EDilOJI, a parish in Berwickshire, 10 
miles long, and 6 broad, extending along 
the foot of the Lammermuir hills into the 
Merse. A great part is fertile, and produ- 
ces excellent corn; but towards the hills is 
moorish and shallow. It is watered by the 
Blackadder and Whitadder, which unite at 
AHantown. The mineral spring, called 
Dunse Spa, is on the borders of this parish. 
Great part of the land is well inclosed. Po- 
pulation 1360. 

EOZELL, a parish, partly ;n"Angu;-shire, 
and partly in Kincardineshire. It is nearly 
surrounded by two rivulets, which here u- 
nite, forming the North Esk. The soil is 
of an inferior quality. The castle of Edzell 
is a magnificent ruin. There are three 
Druidical temples; the largest incloses an 
area of an elliptical form, 45 feet by 36. 
Population 1052. 

EGLISHAY, one of the Orkney islands; 
having a small Gothic church in the West 
pa.'t, dedicated to St. Magnus, the tutelar 
saint of Orkney. Population 190. 

EIGG, one of the western isles. It is 6 
miles and a half long, andfrom 2 to 3 broad ; 
diitantabout Smilesfrom Airsaig, the near- 
est part of the main land. Population 442, 
EiLDON HILLS, throe conical hills near 



, Melrose, in Roxburghshire. West Eildon 
is 1 310 feet above the level of the sea, bui 
I the N. E. hill is chiefly noted for the vesti- 
! ges of a regularly fortified Roman camp. 
ELGIN, a parish in the county of Moray, 
10 miles by 6. It is flat, rising gently to- 
wards the Black-hills. In the back parts 
the soil is in general sandy, but many places 
are of a rich loam and clay, very fertile. 
Near the town of Elgin, on an eminence, 
called Ladyhill, are the remains of a fortifi- 
cation, which is known to have existed in 
the reign of William the Lion. The ruins 
of the priory of Pluscardineare very magni- 
ficent. It was founded by Alexander II. 
The beautiful glen in which this fine ruin 
is situated, is the property of the Earl of 
Fife. Population of the town and parish 
4602.— The BURGH of ELGIN, the county 
town, lies 63 miles anda-balfN. W. of A.' 
berdeen, and 144 miles N.from Edinburgh. 
It is pleasantly situated en the banks of the 
Lossie, about 5 miles above its influx into 
the German ocean. Elgin is said to have 
been built by Helgy in 927. Alexander II. 
in 1234, granted to the burgesses of Elgin 
a guild of merchants, with other privileges. 
Andrew, bishop of Moray, in 1224, tran- 
slated the bishopric from Spynie to the 
church of the Holy Trinity near Elgin, but 
the cathedral was destroyed by the Lord of 
Badenoch, (called the Red Wolf of Bade- 
nocb,)son to Robert II. in 1390. About 
the year 14 1 4 it was rebuilt, and, from what 
still remains, it appears to have been a large 
and splendid edifice in the Gothic taste, 264 
feet by 35. The chapter-house, which is 
still entire, is a beautiful apartment. The 
cathedral formed one of the most superb 
structures in the kingdom. Elgin is a well 
built town, and consists of one principal 
street, about a mile from E. to W., which 
widens so much towards the middle, as to 
afford room for the church and town-house, 
clumsy old-fashioned buildings. It is go- 
verned by a provost, 4 bailies, and 12 coun- 
cillors ; has a dean of guild and six incorpo- 
rated trades, and joins with Banff, Cullen, 
Kintore, and Inverury.in sending a mem- 
ber to parliament. The revenue is about 
L.2000 per annum. The trade isnot exten- 
sive, and scarcely any manufacture is car- 
ried on for exportation. Lossie-mouth is 
the property of the town. It admits no ves- 
sels of any burden. Elgin contains nearly 
4000 inhabitants. 

ELLIOT, a small river in the county of 
Angus. Near its confluence with the Ger- 
man ocean, stands the ruinous castle of Kel- 
ly. 



ELLON, a parish in Aberdeenshire, about | 
9 miles from N. to S.andabout5broad. In | 
the low grounds, on the banks of the Ythan, | 
the soil is dry, but in the northern parts wet 
and mossy. There are a few small planta- 
tions.— The VILLAGE of ELLON is plea- 
santly situated on the Ythan, 17 miles N. 
by W. of Aberdeen. Hereis aconsiderable 
saimon-fishing, and the Ythan is navigable 
for large boats within half a mile ofthe town. 
Population ofthe parish and village 2194 

ELVAN, a small river in Lanarkshire, fa- 
mous for the particles of gold found in its 
sand. 

ELVANFOOT, a stage inn on the road 
from Glasgow to Carlisle, 12 miles N. W. 
from Moffat. 

ELY, a small parish in Fifeshire, about a 
square mile. The whole is inclosed, and is 
the property of Sir John Anstruther, who 
has here an elegant residence. Rubies of a 
brilliant lustre have been found near the 
shore. Population 900.— The TOWN of E- 
LY lies 6 miles E. of Largo. It has an old 
and antiquated appearance, and its trade 
is confined to an inconsiderable manufac- 
ture ofticks and checks. The only article 
of exportation is grain. Ely possesses an 
excellent harbour, which has the deepest 
water in the Frith of Forth, except Burnt- 
island. 

ENDRICK, a river which has its source 
in the parish of Fintry, Stirlingshire. It 
runs E. and S. for about 3 miles, and then 
turns W. rushing over the Loup of Fintry, 
and forming a cataract of 90 feet. After 
receiving the river Blane and other streams, 
it loses itself in Loch Lomond. 

ENS AY, one ofthe southern divisions of 
the Harris isles. It is about two miles long 
and one broad. It has an excellent soil well 
cultivated. 

EORAPIE-POINT, or Butt of tewis ; 
the northern promontory of the island of 
Lewis. 

EORSA, a small island of the Hebrides, 
between Mull and Icolmkill. It contains 
two families. 

EOY. a small island of the Hebrides, be- 
tween Barry and South Uist. 

ERIBOLE (LOCH), an arm of the sea, in 
the parish of Durness, Sutherlandshire. It 
is a spacious harbour, with excellent anchor- 
age. 

ERICHT.alakein Perthshire, the larg- 
est in the county, except Loch Tay, being 
?4 miles long, but scarcely a mile broad. It ; 
lies at the head of the district of Rannoch, '• 
and extends some milesinto Inverness-shire, 
situated in the very heart ofthe Grampians. I 



E R S 

ERICH T, or EROCHT, a river in the 
district of Stormont, formed by the union of 
the Ard:e and Blackwater, or Shee, at Roch- 
alzie; and, after a course of 15 or 14 miles 
S.E. falls into the Isla near Cupar. In ii« 
passage through thevalley of Strathmore, it 
is a very rapid river, frequently overflown g 
its banks ; its channel is in general rocky ai d 
uneven. About a mile below Blairgowrie 
is the Keith, a fine natural cascade. The 
scenery on the banks of this rivei is pecu- 
liarly beautiful anduieturesque. It abounds 
with salmon and trout. 

ERISAY, one of the smaller Hebrides, 
lying between North Uist and Harris. 

ERISKAY, a small island ofthe Hebri- 
des, on the 3. side of South Uist. 

ERNE (LOCH,) a lake in Perthshire, S 
miles long, and 1 and a half broad at the 
head of Stratherne. Near each end of it 
are two small islands, evidently artificial, 
on one of which are the remains of an an- 
cient castle. Near the upper part of the 
lake, Benvoirlich rears its majestic summit. 

E RN E , a river in Perthshire, issuing from 
the E. end of Loch Erne, about 5 miles and 
a half above the village of Comrie. It a- 
bounds with salmon and trout, and is navi- 
gable for small sloops as far as the bridge, 
about four miles from its junction with the 
Tay. 

ERNE, (BRIDGE OF) a village in the 
parish of Dunbarney, Perthshire, 3 miles 
S. of Perth. 

ERROL, a parish in the Carse of Gowrie, 
Perthshire, 5 and a half miles in length, 
and nearly 3 in breadth, stretching across 
the Carse from the foot cf the hill to the bank*- 
of the Tay. The soil being favourable for 
orchards, a considerable extent is covered 
with fruit trees. The country is intersected 
with small tracks of water, called Pows, col- 
lected chiefly from the trenches opened for 
draining the grounds. As the tide and cur- 
rent in the Tay were making great en- 
croachments, the proprietors of the land 

found it necessary to build stone walls 

The VILLAGE of ERROL lies 10 miles E. 
from Perth, pleasantly situated, and rising 
by a gradual ascent above the level of the 
country, about a mile N. from the Tay. 
The inhabitants are chiefly employed in the 
linen manufacture. Population 2G86. 

ERSKINE, a parish in Renfrewshire, 
bounded by the Clyde on the N.; from E. 
to W. six miles long, and from three to 
four broad. From the Clyde, the ground 
rises gradually towards the S. in gently 
swelling ridges, of inconsiderable height. 
The soil is in general light and shallew, 



.Fruit and forest trees thrive well, particular- 
ly on the banks of the Clyde. There are se- 
veral valuable fishings on the Clyde. Lord 
Elantyre's estate possesses two or three ex- 
cellent freestone quarries, and there are 
some appearances of coal ; Erskine, a seat 
of Lord Blantyre, is a fine building, sur- 
rounded with extensive parks and planta- 
tions. Population 963. 

ESK (BLACK), a river of Dumfries-shire, 
■which rises in the parish of Eskdalemuir, 
and after a southerly course of some miles, 
falls into the White Esk, at Kingpool, in 
the parish of Westerkirk. 

ESK (WHITE), rises in the same parish, 
on the high ground near the junction of the 
county with Selkirk. At Kingpool, the Esk 
.keeps a S. E. direction to its confluence with 
the Liddel ; it then takes a S. W. direction, 
and forms the boundary of the two King- 
doms for some miles : it enters England at 
the Scots Dyke, and flowing by Langton, is 
joined by the Lyne, which then falls into 
the Solway Frith. 

ESK (NORTH), a river in Forfarshire, 
which has its source amongst the Grampian 
mountains, from a small lake called Lee, 
and running eastward forms the boundary 
between Angus and Mearns, falling into the 
German Ocean, about 3 miles N. from Mon- 
trose. 

ESK (SOUTH), a river in the same coun- 
ty, which takes its rise in the Grampians, 
and passing the town of Brechin, falls into 
the Ocean at Montrose. About 2 miles from 
its mouth it expands into a large basin. 
There are several valuable salmon fishings 
on the river. The Banks are ornamented 
by many elegant seats, of which Brechin 
castle, Bossie, and Kinnaird, are the chief.' 
ESK (NORTH), a river of Mid- Lothian, 
which takes its rise in the parish of Linton, 
county of Peebles. It is joined by the wa- 
ter of Glencross at Auchindinny, and by the 
S. Esk about a mile below Dalkeith. No- 
thing can exceed the rich scenery on this id, 
ver; winding its course through a deep and 
sequestered vale, it passes the village of Pen- 
nycuick, passes Roslin, Hawthornden, Las- 
swade, and Melville castle and Dalkeith, un- 
til it reaches the sea at Musselburgh. 

ESK (SOUTH), takes its rise from a small 
lake in the parish of Eddleston, Peebles- 
shire, and running by Dalhousie and New- 
battle, joins the North Esk below Dalkeith. 
—From this river the district through which 
it runs acquired the name of Eskdale. 

ESKDALE, the eastern district of Dum- 
friesshire, through which theriver Esk runs; 
bounded by Annandaleon the W. Selkirk - 



e t_t 

shire on the N. Roxburghshire on the E. 
and Cumberland on the S. It contains the 
parishes of Eskdalemuir, Westerkirk, Lang- 
holm, and Canoby. 

ESKDALEMUIR., a parishin Eskdale, 11 
miles long, and S broad, extending along 
the two rivulets, which united, form the Esk. 
It contains 66 square miles. The surface is 
mountainous, and only adapted for sheep 
pasture ; but on the banks of the rivers 
there are a few meadows, which admit of 
culture. On almost every hill there are 
marks of encampments, the principal of 
which is that which lies on a tongue of land 
between the Esk and Raeburn. Population 
561. 

ESSIE and NEVAY, an united parish in 
Angus-shire, occupying part of the northern 
declivity of the Sidlaw hills, and part of the 
valley of Strathmore, containing about S 
square miles, about one half of which is cul- 
tivated. It is washed by the river Dean, 
and by two small rivulets. The soil is vari- 
ous. A great part is inclosed and well cul- 
tivated; and there is an excellent freestone 
quarry at the foot of Sidlaw. Population 
63S. 

ETIVE (LOCH), a navigable inlet of the 
sea, in Argyleshire, 20 miles long, but of un- 
equal breadth. Its shores are pleasant, be- 
ing indented with creeks and bays, which 
afford safe anchorage in any wind. The ex- 
tremity of Loch Etive takes a north-easterly 
direction, till it receives the waters of the 
Etie, running through Glen Etie. In Loch 
Etive is a small island, termed EalanUsnach, 
" the island of Usnath." About 7 miles 
from the sea, the lake contracts into a nar- 
row channel. A ridge of rugged rocks here 
runs across two-thirds of the channel, and 
occasions, at particular times of the tide, a 
current flowing with dreadful rapidity ; and 
when swelled unusually, it discharges itself 
with a violence and noise unequalled by the 
loudest cataract. There is a ferry, which is 
safe at particular times of the tide. About 
2 miles below, on a promontory almost in- 
sulated, is the ancient regal residence of 
Dunstaffnage. • 

ETTR ICK, a parish in Selkirkshire, about 
10 miles square. The appearance is hilly; 
the river Ettrick winds through it. The 
soil in the vallies is deep and fertile ; but 
very few good crops are raised, from the e- 
levation of the land, and the frequency of 
rain. The hills are fit only for pasturage. 
There are two lakes contiguous, partly in 
Yarrow, called the Loch of the Lows, and 
St Mary's Loch. Population 440. 

ETTRICK, a river in Selkirkshire, rising 



EWE 

in the parish of the same name, and, after 
winding about 50 miles, in a N. E. direc- 
tion, receives the Yarrow near Philiphaugh, 
and falls into the Tweed, 3 miles above 
Melrose. 

ETTRICK FOREST, comprehends a 
great part of Selkirkshire, it belongs to 
the crown. 

EU (LOCH), an arm of the sea on the W. 
coast of Ross-shire, in the parish of Gairloch. 

EUCHAR, a rivulet in Argyleshire. It 
rises in Loch Scamnadale, and, after a ra- 
pid course N. W. fails into the ocean at the 
Sound of Mull. 

EVAN, a small river in Dumfries-shire, 
in the parish of Moffat; takes its rise at 
Clydesnan, near the source of the Clyde, 
and, after a course of 12 or 11 miles south- 
erly, falls into the Annan, 2 miles below 
Moffat. 

EVELICKS, a river in Sutherlandshire, 
which falls into the Frith of Dornoch. It 
abounds with trout and salmon ; and a fish- 
ing village of the same name is situated at 
its mouth. 

EVIE and RENDALL, an united parish 
in the mainland of Orkney, about 10 miles 
long, and the inhabited part in breadth a- 
bout one and a half. The soil is tolerably 
fertile, considering the variable climate and 
mode of culture. Many of the inhabitants 
are employed in the fisheries. Pop. 1227. 

EVORT (LOCH), a harbour on the E. 
coast of North Uist. 

EWES, or EWESDALE, a parish in the 
district of Eskdale, about 8 miles in length 
from N. to S. Its medium breadth is 5 
and a half, and contains 54 and a half square 
miles. It is watered by the river Ewes. 
Though hilly, it is mostly covered with ver- 
dure, and fringed with thriving plantations, 



j E Y N 

exhibiting some finescenery. Only a small 
part is under cultivation. Population 338. 

EWES, a small river in Dumfries-shire, 
in the parish of Ewes; rises at Moss-paul, 
and joins the Esk at Langholm. 

EYE (LOCH), a small lake in the parish 
of Fearn, Ross-shire, about 2mileslong, and 
half a mile broad. From it proceeds the 
rivulet Eye, forming in its course a succes- 
sion of smaller lakes, which are much fre- 
quented by aquatic fowls. It fallsintothe 
Moray Frith, near the village of Balin- 
tore. 

EYE, a river in Berwickshire, which 
rises in the parish of Cockburnspath, and, 
after being joined by the Ale, falls into 
the sea at Eyemouth. 
EYEMOUTH, a parish in Berwickshire, on 
the sea coast, containing about S0O square 
acres. The soil is good, producing every sort 
of grain. On a small promontory aiethere- 
mainsofaregularfortificalion. Population 
962.— The TOWN of EYEMOUTH lies 
7 miles N. W. of Berwick-on-Tweed. 
This town is a burgh of barony, of which 
Mr Home of Wedderburn is proprietor. 
At the beginning of last century, Eye- 
mouth was a small fishing village; but, 
shortly after the Union, the gentlemen of 
the comity took advantage of the excellent 
natural harbour, and erected piers by sub- 
scription. It lies at the corner of a bay, in 
which ships can work in and out at all times, 
or lie at anchor secure from all winds, ex- 
cept the N. and N. E. Trade has since in- 
creased ; and corn and meal have been 
shipped to the extent of 20,000 bolls annu- 
ally, and in some years more than double 
that quantity. 

EYXORT (LOCH), a harbour on theE. 
coast of S. Uist. 



F A I 



J7AIRAY, one of the Orkney islands, a- 
bout a mile long, and half a mile broad, 
Separated by a narrow sound from the is- 
land of Eda'y. It affords excellent pastur- 
age.' 

FAIR ISLE, an island between Orkney 
and Shetland, the inhabitants of which are 
almostinastate of nature. Fair Isle is up- 
wards of 5 miles long, and nearly 2 broad, 
rising into three lofty promontories, and 



encompassed with precipitous rocks. The 
soil is tolerably fertile, and the sheep pas- 
ture on the hills is excellent, and noted for 
improving the wool. It is reckoned one 
of the Shetland isles, and is annexed to 
the parish of Dunrossness, 25 miles dis- 
tant. Population 220. 

FAIRLEY, a sea-port village in Ayr- 
shire, in the parish of Largs, 18 miles S. W. 
of Greenock. Population 130. 



F A L 



106 



A R 



&"Af,A and SOUTKA, an united parish 
in the Lothians, of which Fala lies in Edin- 
burghshire, and Soutra in Haddingtonshire. 
It eomprehends part of the Lammermuir 
ridge, of which Soutrahill is the N. W. 
point. It is 4 miles long, and about 5 
broad. From the foot of the hill, the sur- 
face is nearly level, and is tolerably fertile. 
The lands are in a state of cultivation. 
There are the ruins of an hospital on Sou- 
tra-hill, founded in 1164 by Malcolm IV., 
for the relief of pilgrims and poor sickly 
people. Population 561. 

FALKIRK, a parish in Stirlingshire, be- 
tween 7 and 8 miles long, and 4 broad. 
From the Carron, which forms its bounda- 
ry on the N. to the ridge on which the 
town stands, the ground is level, of a rich 
clay soil, of great fertility. To the south- 
ward, the ground is more elevated and un- 
equal, but mostly arable. This parish con- 
tains the town and port of Grangemouth, 
the villages of Camelon, Laurieston, Gra- 
hamston, and Bainsford. The great canal 
intersects it, and vestiges of the Roman 
wall are still visible at the S. part, of the 
town. Population 10,395.—The TOWN 
of FALKIRK lies 24 miles West of Edin- 
burgh. It is situated on an eminence, com- 
manding an extensive and delightful pro- 
spect. Falkirk consists principally of one 
street, about three-quarters-of a mile from 
E. to W., from which run a number of 
•wynds. The street is in most places broad 
and spacious, though not very uniform. 
The town was once a burgh of barony un- 
der the Earl of Linlithgow ; since the fall 
of that family, it is under no municipal go- 
vernment. The late church was founded 
by Malcolm III. in 1057. A large and 
commodious new church is erected on its 
site. In the middle of the street, an ele- 
gant steeple, 130feet high, has been lately 
erected. Falkirk has few manufactures ; 
but, being situated in the heart of a popu- 
lous country, it has a good inland trade. 
It has four great trysts, or cattle fairs. 

FALKLAND, a parish in Fifeshire, of a 
square form, about 10,000 acres. Towards 
the N. is a plain or flat, called the Park of 
Falkland, about a mile and a half square, 
from which the surface gradually rises on 
the S. to that hilly ridge which forms the 
Lomonds. The ridge affords, in most pla- 
ces, excellent pasture, though interspersed 
with abrupt and rugged masses of freestone 
rock, and loose heaps of blue moorstone. 
The soil is partly a light brown loam, part- 
ly sand an* grave! ; but the greater part is 
%de«p most, containing the roots of oak and 



other trees. Besides the town of Falkland, 
and the contiguous suburbs of Ballinbrae, 
the parish contains two other villages, New- 
ton and Freuchie. Population of the town 
and parish, '2320.— The TOWN of FALK- 
LAND lies 8 miles W. of Cupar. It is situ- 
ated so near the N. side of the E. Lomond, 
that for more than a month in winter the 
sun is never seen. It was erected into a 
burgh by James II. in 145S; the revenue 
is about L130 per annum. Falkland con- 
sists chiefly of one street, in which is the 
town-house, a modern fabric. The palace 
stands at the E. end, on the N. side of the 
street; it is now wholly ruinous except the 
front, in w hich a family resides. This pa- 
lace was for many years the occasional re- 
sidence of the royal family of Scotland, and 
James V. died here in 1542. The vault in 
which the Duke of Rothesay was starved to 
death is still to be seen. Falkland has a ve- 
ry large common, including the whole E. 
Lomond. 

FALLOCH, a riverin the parish of Killin, 
Perthshire, partly in Dunbartonshire. It rises 
at Coilater More, and after a rapid course 
through Glenfalloch, falls into Loch Lo- 
mond. 

FANNICH (LOCK), a lake in Ross-shire, 
9 miles long, and from 1 to 1 and a half 
broad. It discharges itself by a small river 
called Grudie, into Loch Lichart. 

FAR, a mountainous parish in Suther- 
landshire, 50 miles long from N.toS., the 
breadth varyingfrom 3 to 14: bounded on 
the N. by the ocean. The soil is in gener- 
al barren and shallow j. but on the banks of 
the rivers Naver and Borgie it is deep, and 
tolerably fertile. The extent of sea coast 
is 11 miles; the shore is high and rocky. 
The whole coast is excavated into extensive 
caves, affording retreat to immense num- 
bers of seals. Loch Naver is the principal 
lake in the district. There are a few Pictish 
castles, and a ruin on the promontory of 
Far-head. Population in 1801, 2408. 

FARA, a small island of the Hebrides, 
lying between Barray and South Uist. 

FARA, one of the small Orkney islands, 
a mile S. E. of Hoy. 

FARA, an island of Orkney, between 
Eday and Westray. 

FARE-HILL, a hill in the parish ofMid- 
Marr, Aberdeenshire, rising from a base of 
16 miles in circumference, to 1793 feet a- 
bove the level of the sea. 

FARG, a small river in Perthshire. It 
takes its rise in the Ochil hills, and loses it- 
self in the river Erne at Culfargie. 

FAR-OUT-HEAD, a conspicuous pro 



107 



F E T 



montory in the paiuh uf Durness, Suther- 
landshire. 

FARRAR, a small river in Ross-shire, 
one of the principal branches ot'the Beauly. 

FEACHAN (LOCH), an arm oftiie sea, 
in Argyleshire, in the district of Lorn. 

FEACHORY, a small river in Athole, 
Perthshire, which rises on the borders of 
Fortingal, andt'alls into the Gairy. 

FEARN, a parish in Ross-shire, forming 
a square of about 2 miles. The surface is 
nearly flat. In the centre, the soil is a deep 
loam; towards the S. and VV.it is a rich 
clay; the N. and E. is graveliish and san- 
dy. Loch Eye occupies the central district. 
The coast of the Moray Frith is flat and 
sandy for about a mile ; on it are the small 
fishing towns of Balintore and Hilltown. 
Freestone abounds in several places. Tbe 
VILLAGE of FEARN is situated near the j 
old abbey, which is a ruin of great antiqui- ; 
ty, founded by Ferguard, the first Earl of 
Ross, in the reign of Alexander II. Near 
the abbey, a high square column is erected, 
covered with Saxon characters, but illegi- 
ble.. The castle of Lochlinis also a remarka- 
ble building. It has stood upwards of 500 
years, and before the invention of artillery- 
must have been impregnable. There is a- 
nother very ancient ruin at Cadboll, of 
which nothing remains but a few vaults and 
the side walls. Population 1508. 

FENWICK, a parish in Ayrshire, 9 miles 
long from E. to W., and 6 broad. The sur- 
face is broken, though none of the eminen- 
ces are considerable. The whole soil is mos- 
sy ; but, towards the western border, toler- 
ably fruitful and well cultivated. It is wa- 
tered by two rivulets, which run into the ri- 
ver Irvine, near the sea. — The VILLAGE 
of FENWICK is pleasantly situated on the 
banks of one of these, 4 miles E. of Kilmar- 
nock. It contains nearly 200 inhabitants. 
The Kirktown, another village, contains a- 
bout 220 inhabitants. Population 1489. 

FERGUS (ST.), a parish in that part of 
the district of Euchan which belongs to the 
county of Banff". There is a succession of 
rising grounds and valleys, having a^ch 
fertile clay soil. The coastis bold and rocky. 
There is a salmon fishing on the Ugie. A 
bleachfield at Inverugie employs a number 
of hands. A considerable quantity of fine 
yam is spun. Population 1378. 

FERN, a parish in Angus, 5 miles long 
from N. to S. and 2 broad at the foot of the 
Grampian hills. The farms in the hills af- 
ford excellent pasture. It is washed by the 
rivulets Cruichand Noran. There isablue 
slate quarry here. Population 419. 



FERRELL, a parish in Angus, 3 miles 
long, snd 2 broad, situated on the S. bank of 
the South Esk. The low ground near tbe 
river is fertile, having a fine clay and loamy 
soil, capable of producing all kinds of grain,; 
the higher grounds are inferior, except an 
estate of about 100 acres. The parish be- 
longs to the family of Carnegie of South Esk, 
who have a residence at Kinnaird castle. 
Near the church is an old castle, once the 
residence of tiie ancestors of the family of 
Airly. Populatiflti'5S2. 

FERNESS, a promerrtory of Orkney, on 
the W. coast of the isle of Ed'ay. 

FERRINTOSH.a village and barony in 
the parish of Urqubart, RossrShire, about a 
mile E. from Dingwall. 

FERROGAN-BEIN, a mountain in 
Perthshire, 8 miles S. of Blair-Athole. 

FERRY, a village in Forfarshire, seated 
on the frith ofTay, about 3 miles E. from 
Dundee. It is divided into two .•■districts., 
the East and West Ferries; the former ij; 
the parish of Monifieth, and the latter Ik 
that of Dundee. 500 inhabitants. 

FFRRY (LITTLE and MEIKLE), villa- 
ges in Ross-shire, on the Frith of Dornoch. 

FERRY DEN, a village in Forfarshire, in 
the parish of Craig, on the S. bank of the 
South Esk, and nearly opposite to Montrose, 
As it formerly was the ftrry to Montrose, the 
erection of the bridge has materially injured 
it. It has a good harbour and a safe road- 
stead. Population 400. 

FERRY-PORT-ON-CRAIG, a parish, in 
Fifeshire, stretching along the S. bank of 
the Tay, Smiles lone, and from a half to a 
mile broad. It is generally well cultivated. 
- The VILLAGE of FERRY-PORT-ON- 
CRAIG is situated at the mouth of the Tay, 
about 4 miles below VVoodhaven. It has a 
small harbour ; and a number of houses 
has beenlately built. Population of the pa- 
rish and village 1164. 

FETLAR, one of the most northerly of 
the Shetland isles, about 4 miles long, and 
3 and a half broad, with a tolerably fertile 
soil of loam and sand, producing barley, 
oats, and other corn abundantly. Popula- 
tion about 800. 

FETTERANGUS, a village in the parish 
of Old Deer, Aberdeenshire, the property 
of Mr Ferguson of Pitfour. About 200 in- 
habitants. 

FETTERCAIRN,aparishin Kincardine- 
shire. It lies at the foot of the lower range 
of the Grampian mountains, extending con- 
siderably into the M earns, and containing 
14,359 English acres. The ground on the 
W. is light and lharp, with a small mixtura 



F I F 108 

of moss; on the E. it becomes deeper, of a 
fertile clayey loam. The greater part is in- 
closed, and a great quantity of trees were 
planted by the late Lord Adam Gordon, 
■who built an elegant house, at a small dis- 
tance from the North Esk, where he has 
laid out some extensive walks. A roman- 
tic bridge, called Gannachy bridge, is 
thrown over the North Esk,thefoundations 
of which stand on two stupendous rocks. 
About a mile W. from Fettercairn is a ruin 
called Fennella's Castle, where, it is said, 
Kenneth III. King of Scotland, was mur- 
dered. Population 1502. 

FETTERESSO, a parish in Kincardine- 
shire, about 10 miles long, and nearly 6 
broad ; containing 24,914 square acres, 8000 
of which are arable, the rest moor or moss, 
which is now planted with thriving trees. 
It is watered by the small rivers Cowie and 
Carron, near the former of which stands the 
house of Urie.— About 2 miles S. W. from 
Urie, is the house of Fetteresso. The coast 
possesses only one bay where fishing boats 
can lie in safety. Near Stonehaven, which 
lies on the border of the parish, Mr Barclay 
has a village, consisting of two parallel and 
cross streets, with a square of two acres in 
the middle. Its inhabitants resort to the 
harbour of Stonehaven. Population 4252. 
FIDDICH, a river in Banffshire, which 
has its rise between the parishes of Kirk- 
michael and Mortlach, and joins the Spey, 
about a mile below Elchies. 

FIDDRIE, a small island in the mouth 

of the Frith of Forth, opposite to Dirleton. 

FIFE-NESS, the eastern point of land in 

Fifeshire, which projects into the German 

Ocean. 

FIFESHIRE. This extensive and popu- 
lous county is a sort of peninsula, lying be- 
tween the Friths of Tay and Forth, and the 
German Ocean bounds it on the E. It is, 
on an average, 3G mites long, and 14 broad, 
comprehending a superficies of nearly 504 
square miles. The face of the country is 
agreeably diversified; towards the W. it is 
mountainous, and a ridge of hills extends 
eastward almost its wholelength, occupying 
the central district ; towards the N. and S. 
the surface gradually descends to the friths, 
exhibiting the most beautiful prospect of 
fertile and well cultivated fields. Woods 
and plantations abound, and the hills are 
covered with sheep, whose wool is in high 
estimation. Great improvements have been 
lately made in agriculture ; and the farms, 
especially on the N. declivify, are rented 
exceedingly high, It is watered by several 
•♦reams, none of which deserve the name of 



N 



rivers, except the Eden and Leven ; the fish- 
ings, the coal mines, the harbours, and other 
advantages, must have early attracted set- 
tlers on the coast. James V. compared this 
county to a grey mantle with a gold fringe. 
The whole coast is covered with small 
burghs, which that monarch regarded with 
particular attention. He granted them 
many privileges and immunities, and en- 
deavoured to encourage the inhabitants, to 
prosecute the advantages which they pos- 
sessed. It contains 13 royal burghs, which 
possess parliamentary representation, and 
several which have lost that privilege, 
from inability to defray the expense which 
attended the sending a commissioner to the 
Scottish parliament. Of those which retain 
all their privileges, except that of sending a 
member to parliament, we may mention 
Auchtermuchty, Strathmiglo, Newburgh, 
Falkland, Earlsferry, &c. To this county 
also belong the small islands of May, Inch- 
colm, and Inchgarvie. There are few large 
estates in Fifeshire. From the minute di- 
vision of the land, in no county in Scotland 
is land of greater value. It is divided into 
63 parochial districts, and contains 101,272 
inhabitants, being upwards of 201 to the 
square mile ; a larger proportion than exists 
iu any other country to the northward of 
the Forth. It was anciently an earldom in 
the Macduff family. The ruins of the resi- 
dences of that powerful family are still evi- 
dent in many parts. The whole of the S. 
side lies upon coal ; in many places is excel- 
lent limestone ; and ironstone is found in the 
western and middle quarters.— Lead ore Js 
found in the Eastern Lomond. In Kemback 
parish, also, it has been wrought. Pebbles, 
agates, and rubies of uncommon beauty, 
are procured in several places. The valued 
rent is L. 362,584, 7s. 5d. Scots, and the re:il 
land rent is estimated at L.174,000 Sterling. 
FILL AN, a river in Perthshire, in the 
parish of Killin, it takes its rise on the bor- 
ders of Argyleshire, and, winding a circui- 
tous course of S or 9 miles through a valley, 
to which it gives the name of Strathrillan, 
falls into Loch Dochart. 

FINANjST.) a small and beautiful island 
in Argyleshire, in loch Shiel, upon which 
are the ruins of a church. 

FINNIN.ariverin Invernes«-shire, which 
gives name to Glenfinnin, and falls into the 
eastern extremity or* Loch Shiel. 

FINUHAVEN, a hill in the parish of Oath- 
law, in Angus-shire, about 1500 feet above 
the level of the adjacent country. On its 
summit are the remains of an extensive 
fortification, which appears to have beet. 



F I N 1 0'J 

built without mortar, and in several places 
discovers marks of vitrification. 

FINDHORN, a rapid river that rises in ! 
the hills betwixt those districts of Inverness- | 
shire, called Stratherrig and Strathearn, a- 
bove 50 miles from the sea, and discharges 
itself into the Moray Frith, about 4 miles 
below Forres. It abounds with trout and 
salmon, and is navigable for small vessels as 
far as the tide flows. 

FINDHORN, a village and seaport in 
the parish of Kinloss, Morayshire, 4 miles 
N.from Forres. It is situated at the mouth 
of the bay and river of Findhom. It exports 
salmon, corn, and yarn. It has been long 
famousfor curing and drying haddocks. The 
village formerly stood a mile to the N. W. of 
the present one, but was swallowed up in 
one tide by an inundation of the sea and 
river in 1701, and the place where it then 
stood is now the bottom of the sea. 

FINDOCHTIE, a village in the parish of 
Ruthven, Banffshire. It was settled as a 
fishing station in 171G. It contains about 
170 inhabitants. 

FINDON, a small fishing village in Kin- 
cardineshire, near Girdieness. 

FINLAGAN (LOCH), a lake in the cen- 
tre of the island of Isla, about 3 miles in 
circumference. It abaunds with salmon 
and trout, and discharges itself into the 
ocean at Lagan bay, by arivulet of the same 
name. On an island within the lake are 
the ruins of an ancientcastle, which belong- 
ed to Macdonald, Lord of the Isles. 

FINNIS BAY, a harbour on the E. 
coast of the isle of Harris. 

FINTRAY, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
nearly 5 miles long, and from 3 to 4 broad, 
containing about 10,000 acres; is hilly, but 
in the low grounds, particularly on the 
banks of the Don, the soil is rich and fertile. 
Nearly 500 acres are covered with planta- 
tions. Population 864- 

FINTRY, a parish in Stirlingshire, 5 
miles long, and 4 broad, situated in that 
range of hills which reaches from Stirling to 
Duabarton. The only inhabited parts ace 
two valleys on the Garron, and Endrick. 
Near the southern extremity, the Carron 
bog or meadow commences, the largest per- 
haps in Scotland, containing about 500 acres 
in one plain, affording excellent meadow 
hay in summer, and in winter assuming the 
appearance of a beautiful lake. The arable 
soil is light, quick, and fertile, and produces 
excellent crops. A village has been lately 
erected for the accommodation of tne peo- 
ple employed in the cotton-works on the 
banks of the Endrick. The Endrick and 



F L I 



Carron, which take their rise in this parish, 
form several romantic falls. At the Loup 
of Fintry, the Endrick falls 90 feet. Near 
the village of Fintry is a hill called the 
Dun, in which is a fine range of basaltic co- 
lumns, of 70 pillars in front, 50 feet in length. 
Population 1003. 

FIRMONTH, the highest mountain in 
the forest of Glentannar, in Aberdeenshire, 
about 2500 feet high. 

FIRTH and ST ENNES, an united parish 
in the mainland of Orkney, about 2 miles in 
length. It contains many moors and hilly 
ridges, covered with heath and peat-moss 
to the summit. The soil is various; inmost 
places shallow upon a tilly bottom. Popu- 
lation 1062. 

FISHERROW, a sea-port in the parish of 
Inveresk, and county of Mid-Lothian, 5 
miles E. from Edinburgh, and adjoining 
Musseibuigh, on the E. from which it is se- 
parated by the river Esk. It consists prin- 
cipally of one street, which is broad and spa- 
cious, and in which a number of good houses 
have been lately built. Fisherrow has but 
little foreign trade, except the importation 
of wood, and some Baltic produce. The 
home trade is confined to a starch manufac- 
tory, a tan-work, and three breweries. Fish- 
errow is conjoined with Musselburgh in mu- 
nicipal government. 

FITHIE (LOCH), a beautiful lake, about 
a mile in circumference, in the parish of 
Forfar, Angus-shire. 

FLADDA, an island of the Hebrides, 6 
miles from the isle of Sky, about 2 miles in 
circumference. 

FLADDA, one of the Trieshnish isles, 
near the isle of Mull. 

FLADDA, three isles between Barray 
and Sanderay. 

FL A D D A Y, -a large flat island in the dis- 
trict of Harris, near the isle of Scarp. 

FLANNAN ISLES, 7 or 8 in number, 
uninhabited, about 12 miles N. W.from the 
isle of Skye. 

FLA.TTA, two of the smaller Western 
Isles. 

FLEET, a river in the stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright. It takes its rise from a lake of 
the same name, in the parish of Girthon, 
and, after a meandering course through the 
vale of Fleet, passing the village of Gate- 
house, falls into Wigton bay in the Solway 
Frith, near the church of Tyneholm. 

FLISK, a parish in Fifeshire, on the river 
Tay, opposite to the Carse of Gowrie, about 
3 miles long, and 1 broad. The surface is 
level, with the exception of one hill called 
Norman's Law. The soil is fertile, and 



F O R 1 

well adapted for the culture of wheat. In 
the western district stands the Castle of 
Banbriech, an ancient edifice, approaching 
fast to ruin. Population 518. 

FLOTA, one of the Orkney isles, 5 miles 
long and 3 and a half broad, mostly en- 
compassed with high rocks. Its heaths af- 
ford excellent sheep pasture. Flota con- 
tains, with 3 small adjoining islands, 250 
inhabitants. 

FLOTTA, one of the Hebrides, on the 
N. W. coast of Lewis. 

FOCHABERS, a town in the parish of 
Bellie, Morayshire, 9 miles east of Elgin, on 
the E. bank of the Spey, on a plain, having 
a square in the centre, and streets entering 
it at right angles. The town is a burgh of 
barony. It is a very thriving town, and 
yearly increasing. It contains 1000 inhabi- 
tants. 

FODDERTY, a parish in the counties of 
Ross and Cromarty, chiefly situated in a 
valley, intersected by the small river Peffer, 
faim which the valley derives the name of 
Strathpeffer. Benivas is one of the most 
elevated hills, and on Knockfallaric is a vi- 
trified fort. The soil is tolerable, but the 
old method of cropping is generally follow- 
ed by the farmers. Population 1900. 

F0GO, a parish in Berwickshire, 6 miles 
long from E. to W. and between 5 and 4 
-broad. It is intersected by the river Black- 
adder, and some of its tributary streams. 
The whole is arable, except a few acres of 
swampy ground. At Chesters are the traces 
of a Roman encampment. Population 450. 

FOOTDEE, a village contiguous to New 
Aberdeen. 

FORBES, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
united to that of Kearn. They are about 6 
miles and a half long, and 2 broad, lying on 
;the banks of the Don and Bogie. The 
greater part is moor and uncultivated, and 
several of the mountains rise to a consider- 
able height. Calwar and Coreen are near- 
ly 1200 feet above the Don. Population 

too. 

FORD, a village in Mid-Lothian, parish 
of Borthwick, 10 miles S. E. from Edin- 

FORDICE, a parish in Banffshire. It 
lies on the sea coast, in a triangular figure, 
each side being nearly 6 miles long. It is 
in general flat, with some rising grounds or 
hills. Except the two small hays of Portsoy 
and Sandend, the coast is very bold and 
rocky. The Kirktown of Fordice was erec- 
ted into a burgh of barony in 1499. Besides 
this village, Portioy is a considerable trad- 
ing and fishing town, situated at the bot- 



i FOR 

torn of a bay of the same name ; and at the 
bay of Sandend is a tolerable fishing village. 
At Portsoy is found that species of jasper 
called Portsoy marble, which is manufactur- 
ed into chimney pieces, funeral ornaments, 
&c. The hill of D urn seems to be compos- 
ed entirely of marble, and a very white 
quartz. On the hill of Durn area triple 
foss and rampart, which appear to have sur- 
rounded it ; and there are remains of seve- 
ral tumuli and Druidical temples. Popula- 
tion 2767. 

FORDOUN, a parish m Kincardine- 
shire, of an oblong form, in length from E. 
to W. 10 miles, the greatest breadth about 
7. The S. part is level, making a part of 
the continuation of the valley of Strath- 
more, called the How of the Mearns ; the 
N. district is mountainous, with a thin soil, 
and inferior in fertility. Besides the vil- 
lage of Auchinblae, there are the ruins of 
the county-hall, the only vestige that now 
remains of the ancient town of Kincardine, 
which was the county town till 1660, when 
the courts were removed to Stonehaven. 
There are distinct vestiges of a Roman en- 
campment to be seen near the mansion 
house of Fordoun ; also the ruins of an old 
castle, said to have been a palace belonging 
to Kenneth III. Population 2535. 

FORFAR (COUNTY OF,) See ANGUS- 
SHIRE. 

FORFAR, a Parish in Angus-shire, 6 
miles long, from N. to S. and 5 broad. It 
is generally level, with the exception of the 
hill of Balnashinar. The soil towards the 
N. and S. is light and sandy, about the mid- 
dle of a spouty clay. There are several 
lakes, viz. Forfar, Restenet, and Fithie, 
which have been almost drained for the 
moss and marl with which they abound. 
Population of the Town and parish 5877.— 
The BURGH of FORFAR is the county 
town of Angus-shire, and lies 13 miles and 
a half N. of Dundee. Theoriginal charters 
at the erection of Forfar into a royal burgh 
are lost ; but in 1669, all the ancient char- 
ters were confirmed. It is governed by a 
provost, 2 bailies, and 19 councillors, annu- 
ally elected. The revenue, arising from 
lands, customs, &c. is upwards of L.1000 
per annum. Forfar joins with Perth, Dun- 
dee, St Andrew's, and Cupar-Fife, in'send- 
ing a member to Parliament, the streets are 
irregular, but many of the houses are well 
built. Nearly opposite, on the N. side of 
the town, is an eminence, on which Mal- 
colm Canmore had a castle, and resided oc- 
casionally ; somefragments of the walls are 
still to be seen on the W\ side. The ma- 



FOR 1 

gistrates lately removed the cross from the 
street to the top of this lieight, to mark the 
place where the king resided. The town- 
house is newly rebuilt ; but the rooms for 
prisoners are dark, and the utility of the 
whole fabric seems to have been sacrificed 
to the attainment of a large upper room 
for public meetings and amusements. A 
considerable manufacture of Osnaburgs and 
coarse linens is carried on in Forfar ; and 
the making of coarse shoes, or brogues, em- 
ploys a considerable number of hands. The 
great drawback on the manufactures here 
is the scarcity of fuel, and the distance 
from a sea-port, Dundee being the nearest. 
The town contains about 4150 inhabitants. 

FORFAR, a loch in the above parish, a- 
bout a mile long, and half a mile broad in 
some places : it is a fine sheet of water, ly- 
ing on the N. W. side of the town. 

FORGAN, or ST. PHILLAN'S, a parish 
in Fifeshire, on the S. bank of the Tay. It 
is 4 miles long, and about 2 broad. The 
surface is elevated in the middle, declining 
towards the river on the N.the rest having 
a south exposure of nearly 3 miles. The 
soil is for the most part a light loam, highly 
susceptible of cultivation. There are two 
small harbours at Newport and Woodhaven, 
from which there are ferry-boats to Dundee. 
Population 916. 

FORGANDENNY, a parish in Perth- 
s-hire, about 5 miles long, and 2 broad, con- 
taining about 8000 Scots acres. The lower 
division, which extends from the Erne to 
the foot of the Ochil-hills, is a fine level 
country, similar in soil to the most fertile 
land in the Carse of Gowrie. The upper 
er hilly part is rocky, but mostly covered 
with heath or furze . Besides the Eme, the 
small river May intersects the parish. 
There are a great number of fine trees in 
the low district; and the sides of the hills 
are covered with plantations of fir.— The 
VILLAGE of FORGAN, situated about 
half a mile from the Erne, is neatly built, 
having a small clear stream dividing it into 
two parts. Besides this village there are 
threa others, called Ardargie, Newton, and 
Path of Condie, which together contain 
nearly 400 inhabitants. This parish con- 
tains vestiges of several encampments, par- 
ticularly on the summit of a hill called Cas- 
tle Law. Population 939. 

FORGLEN, a parish in Banffshire, of a 
rectangular figure, 3 miles and a half long, 
by 2 and ahalf broad. The surface is beau- 
tifully varied with gentle rising grounds, 
having a gradual slope towards the S. where 
the river Dcveron forms the boundary. ••- 



FOR 

The soil is light and fertile, and the greater 
part is under cultivation. Forglen and 
Carnousie are elegant mansions. P. 628. 

FORGUE, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 9 
miles long, its greatest breadth being about 
6. It is intersected by two rivulets, the 
Fondraught and Forgue. The' soil in the 
low er parts produces heavy crops ; towards 
the S.the ground is mostly covered with 
heath. Upon the estates of several proprie- 
tors, much has been done in planting and 
improving the barren ground. Population 
1871. 

FORMAN, one of the Grampian moun- 
tains in Aberdeenshire, upwards of 1000 
feet above the Deveron, which runs at its 
base. 

FORMARTIN, a district of Aberdeen- 
shire, containing 16 parishes, 280 square 
miles, and 16,760 inhabitants. 

FORRES, a parish in the county of Mo- 
ray, 4 miles by 2 and a half. It is mostly 
arable and fertile, but there are some parts 
of it covered with heath. The Findhorn is 
navigable within 2 miles of the town. On 
a rising ground, to the southward, stands 
the house of Burdsyards, surrounded with 
extensive plantations. Population of the 
town and parish, 2925.— The BURGH, of 
FORRES lies 92 miles N. W. from Aber- 
deen. The street is about a mile in length 
from E.to W., and near the middle is the 
town-house and jail. It is neatly built, on 
a rising ground, near the bay of Findhorn, 
the mouth of which, 3 miles distant, is its 
seaport, with a small village dependant on 
the town. It is governed by a provost, 2 
bailies, a dean of guild, and 12 councillors, 
annually elected. It joins with Fortrose, 
Nairn, and Inverness, in sending a mem- 
ber to Parliament. The revenue is about 
L100 yearly. There is a grammar-school.in 
the town, where Latin, Greek, French, and- 
the branches of the Mathematics, are 
taught. Near the town, is a pillar called 
Sueno's stone, 25 feet high, covered with 
antique sculpture, erected in memory of a 
victory over the Danes in 1008. Popula- 
tion 2400. 

FORSA, a small island of Argyleshire, 
adjacent to the island of Easdale. 

FORSE, a river in Caithness, which rises 
in the parish of Halkirk, andfalls into the 
Pentland frith, at the village of Forse. 

FORTEVIOT, a parish in Perthshire, 
stretching across the level of the strath, and 
comprehending part of the Ochil hills. It 
is 8 miles long, by 2 broad. It is intersected 
by the Eme and Slay. Here is situated In- 
vermay, one of the moet romantic and 



FOR 



119 



FOR 



pleasant scats in Stratherne. Population 
835. 

FORTH, one of the most considerable 
rivers in Scotland'. It takes its rise from a 
spring in the N. side of Benlomond moun- 
tain, in Stirlingshire, and running from W. 
to E. nearly the whole breadth of the king- 
dom, forms that frith or arm of the German 
ocean to which it gives its name It tra- 
verses Stirlingshire for 10 miles, under the 
name oft he water of Duchary, augmented 
as it proceeds by a number of streams. It 
then enters Perthshire, where it unites with 
the water from Lochard in Aberfoyle. The 
northern branch issues from a beautiful lake 
called Loch Chon, from which it is precipi- 
tated in full stream oyer a perpendicular 
rock ; it then forms another expansion, a 
third, and a fourth, before it descends into 
the low country, to unite with the other 
branch. When united, it assumes the name 
of the Avendow, or Black River, and, after 
a course of about 5 miles, it becomes the 
boundary of Stirlingshire at Gartmore, 
where it assumes the name of the Forth. 
It is augmented by the Goodie at the bridge 
of Frew, and about 2 or 3 miles above Stir- 
ling, by the rivers of Teath and Allan; then 
it enters that extensive plain which is term- 
ed" the Carse of Stirling and Falkirk- Thro' 
this valley its meanders are so extensive 
and frequent, as to form a great many pe- 
ninsula;, on one of which, immediately op- 
posite to Stirling, stands the ruinous tower 
of the abbey of Cambuskenneth, the only 
remnant of that venerable pile. The sce- 
nery here is truly interesting. By land the 
distance from Stirling to Alloa is only 6 
miles, while by water it is no less than 24. 
After passing Alloa, it expands into a con- 
siderable bay, upwards of 20 miles in length, 
but of unequal breadth. At the Queens- 
ferry it contracts considerably, being not 
more than two miles over; in the middle of 
which is the small island of Inchgarvie, 
with its fortifications. For 3 or 4 miles it 
continues contracted, till, passing the isiand 
of Cramond and Inverkeithing bay, it ex 
pands gradually into a frith, which, oppo- 
site to Leith, is 7 miles in breadth. It con- 
tinues to expand gradually for several miles, 
forming many safe harbours and bays on 
the Fife coast, till it loses itself in the Ger- 
man ocean. The mouth of the Forth con- 
tains several small islands, particularly the 
isle of May, the Bass, the islands of Fiddrie 
and Inchkeith, and, farther up, are the is- 
lands of Cramond, Inchgarvie, Inchcolm, 
and Inchmickery. The Forth is navigable 
for vessels of 80 tons as far as Stirling bridge, 



,j and vessels of 300 tons as far as Alloa. 1 At 
! j Grangemouth it is joined by the great canal 
of communication from the Clyde. It pos- 
sesses many good harbours; and, above 
Queensferry, the whole river may be consi- 
dered as one of the safest road-steads in Bri- 
tain. Inverkeitliingbay, Burntisland roads. 
Leith roads, the Ely, &c. are places of safe 
anchorage. It abounds with white fish of 
all kinds ; and higher up, there are many 
valuable salmon fishings, particularly at 
Stirling, Alloa, Kincardine, &c. It is ge- 
nerally visited by an annual shoal of her- 
rings. On the shores of the frith every where 
are established salt works ; and the greater 
part of the coasts of the counties of Perth, 
j Fife, Stirling, and the Lothians, abound 
I with inexhaustible repositories of coal, lime- 
stone, and ironstone. Since the completion 
of the great canal between the two seas, the 
tonnage which entered the frith of Forth 
has increased greatly. The length of its 
course in a direct line is upwards of 90 miles, 
but, calculating all the turns and windings, 
for which it is so remarkable, it cannot be 
estimated at less than 259 miles. 

FORTINGAL, a parish in Perthshire, 
conjoined with Kilchonan, 37 miles long, 
and 17 broad, occupying the N. W. part of 
the county. It comprehends 3 districts, 
viz. Fortingal, Glenlyon, and Rannoch, be- 
sides an estate of 1G ploughgates, S. of 'fay- 
bridge, 8 miles from the church. The dis- 
trict of Forbingal is about Smiles in length, 
is a fertile valley, with the river Lyon run- 
ning through the bottom, containing a few 
villages, and finely ornamented with wood. 
Glenlyon is a narrow glen, 23 miles long, 
scarcely more than a gun-shot broad, the 
sides being formed of a ridge of the highest 
mountains in Perthshire. This district con- 
tains many small villages, some of which 
have no sunshine for some months in win- 
ter. Kannoch is also surrounded with 
high mountains, having Loch Rannoch 
in the middle of the valley. The soil 
of this district is very indifferent. Many 
large woods of birch, and an extensive 
fir wood, still remain, of that immense fo- 
rest which occupied the N. district of Perth- 
shire, and the county of Inverness. Besides 
Loch Rannoch, there are other extensive 
lakes, of which Loch Errack and Loch Lyon 
are the chief. From each of these Lakes 
issue riveis of considerable size. The hills 
of Glenlyon and Bein-aidlanich, in Ran- 
noch, are the chief mountains. Besides a 
great many forts throughout the district, 
there is an extensive Roman encampment , 
| of which the area is about SO acres. The 



F O U 



fosse anil vallum are much broken down by ;, 
the^pNou-jh, but theprartoriuinisquitecom- jj 
plete. In the church yard of Fortingai are j j 
the remains of a yew tree, 52 feet in cir- i| 
cumtereuoe, through the trunk of which I. 
tiie funetals pass. Population o'^j'j. 

FORTROSE, a royal burgh in Ross-shire, j; 
and parish of Rosernarkie, on tiie Moray i : 
Frith, 2 miles and a ban from Fort George. 
It is composed of two hums, l.user.iaikie, 1! 
er.vieii in:o a rov.il burgh by Alexander II. R 
and Chanonry. TheW«-weBj united by ,; 
a charter of James II. in 1411. Fortrose lj 
is at that time spoken of as a tou n t'.ju.idi- \< 
ing in the nrls and science , having been ; ! 
then the seat of divinity, law. and physic, in j j 
this corner of the kingdom. At present the i| 
town is small, and owes its consequence !i 
chiefly to the establishment cf an academy. | 
Two small parts of the ancient cathedral [j 
still remain, one of which isuied as a hurl; 
j>l;iC!-.!i the Mackenzie family, and the otiit 
is oc .-upied as a court-house, with the vau. 
ted.prisons below. From this place is a re- j I 
gular ferry to Fort George. The town con- | 
tains about T-KI inhabitants. It joins with I 
the northern district ofburghs in sending a 1 1 
member to parliament. 
, FOSSAWA Y and TULLIBGLE. These j| 
united parishes lie, the first in Perth, and j j 
the other in Kinross-shire. They occupy a 
considerable extent of the Ochil hills and 
the valley below, from the Devon to within 
(i miles of Kinross. - The hills afford good 
sheep pasture. Several extensive planta- 
tions have been lately made. There aie 
two villages, which are both burghs of ba- 
rony, the Crook of Devon and Blairgow rie. 
Coal, lime, and ironstone, are found in 
great abundance. Population 1340. 

FOULDEN, a parish in Berwickshire, 1 
containing about 6 square miles. There is I j 
an oid ruin called Foulden, which appears j j 
to have been a place of strength and secu- i j 
rityinthc border wars— -The VILLAGE, jj 
which was formerly considerable, is a burgh 
of barony, under the superiority of Mr Wil- 
kie of Foulden. Population 3GS. 

FOULIS EASTER, a parish in Perth 
shire, lately united to Lundie, (q. v.) 

FOULIS WESTER, a parish in Perth- 
shire, in the district of Stratherne, 8 miles 
long, and 6 broad. It is watered by the Al- 
mond. A very small portion is inclosed, 
the greater part being fitted for pasture. ! 
Abercaimey house is a large and commo- 
dious building, surrounded with extensive 
plantations.--The VILLAGE of Foulis con- 
tains about 140 inhabitants. About 2 miles 
W. of ths village, ia the ancient mansion of 



F R A 

Curtoquhey. The rums of the ancient re- 
sidence of the Earls of Stratherne are about 
a mile K. from the church. Popula. 1615. 

FOVERAN, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
4 miles long from E. to W. and 2 broad. 
The general appearance is level, but. the 
ground rises by a gradual ascent from the 
:>ea ; tiie whoie is arable. The river Ythan 
forms the boundary on the N. which is na- 
vigable for nearly 3 miles. In the parish 
are tile rui:is cf several castles and chapels. 
Population 1400. 

FOWLA, orFULF., one of a.e northern 
isles, supposed to be the Ultima Thule of 
the ancients. It is about 3 miles long, and 
I andahal, broad, nearly 20 miles distant 
from any land to the westward of the clus- 
ters of Orkney and Shetland, to which last 
it is politically annexed. It affords good 
pastuiage for sheep, and is inhabited by 26" 
or 2 7 families. 

FOYERS, or FYERS, a smalV river in 
Inverness-shire, which takes its rise a- 
mongst the lofty mountains in the parish of 
Boleskine and AbertarfK, and pouring 
through the vale of Foyers, falls into Loch- 
ness, a mile above the General's Hut. Tha 
banks of the river, and the sides of the 
mountains, are coveredwithweepingbirch; 
bat the mountains occasionally present 
their naked precipitous fronts, from which, 
huge fragments have been hurled down,. 
The upper Fall is about a mile and a half 
from General's Hut, and nearly half a mile 
above the lower fall. Here the liver, being 
confined on each side by steep rocks, pre- 
cipitates itself with great velocity, forming 
a very line cataract. A little below the 
fall, abridge has been thiown over. At 
the distance of about 20 yards, appears the 
first part of the fall ; the second and most 
important break is a few yards nearer, and 
the lowest almost under the arch. From 
the arch of the bridge to the surface of the 
water, after the lowest part of the fall, the 
height is -00; the height of the fall is 70 
feet. Thefollowiig are the dimensions of 
the lower fall :— From the top of the rocks 
to the su.f lC e of the water, 470feet; height 
of the fall in one continued stream, 207 
feet; from the surface of the smooth water 
above, to the beginning of the uninterrupted 
fail, 5 feet ; so that the height of the fall 
may properly be called212feet.— Down this 
precipice the river rushes with a noise like 
thunder, into the abyss, forming an unbro- 
ken stream as white as snow. A spray- 
arises, whicii envelopes the spectator, and 
spreads to a considerable distance. 

FRASERBURGH, a parish in Aberdeen- 



FRE 

Shire, S miles by 3 and a half, Containing 
10,009 acres. It -stretches 4 miles along 
the coast. Kinnaird's-head is a high pro- 
montory, projecting into the sea. The-wa- 
*er <if Philorth separates this parish from 
ftathven for several miles. Along the shore 
tlie soil is in general good, but the interior 
parts-are gravelly. Except the hill of Mor- 
mond, It is flat and level. Besides the old 
College, there are the remains of several 
ancient towers and religious structures. 
Near the town stands Philorth-house, sur- 
rou*«led by 'extensive plantations. Popu- 
lation 2271.—The TOWN of FRASER- 
BURGH, whichlies42 miles N. by E. of 
Aberdeen, is situated on the S. side of Kin- 
naird's- head. The houses are neatly built. 
The streets are spacious, and cross each 
other nearly at right angles. Near the cen- 
tre are the prison and town-house. The 
cross is a fine structure. Fraserburgh pos- 
sesses a small but excellent harbour, allow- 
ing vessels of 300 tons to enter. Contigu- 
ous to the harbour is a road for shipping, in 
a bay nearly 3 miles long, arid upwards of 
one broad, with good anchorage. Adjoin- 
ing is the village of Broadsea. F*aserburgh 
was erected into aburgh ofregalityin 1613. 
The government is vested in Lord Saltoun, 
as superior, % bailies, a dean of guild, and 
council. The revenues-are nearly L.60 per 
annum. The only manufacture is linen 
yarn. Population 1000. 

FRESWICK, a small river In Caithness, 
■which runs into the German Ocean near 
Wick. 

FREUCHIE, a manufacturing village fa 
t he-parish of Falkland, Fifeshire, containing 
480 inhabitants. 

FREUCHIE (LOCH), a small lake in the 
parish of Dull, Perthshire, from which the 
river Bran-has its source. 



114 



F Y V 



FUDIA, a small fertile Island- of the He- 
brides, 2 miles and a half N. of Barray. 

•FURA, a small island on the W. coast of 
Ross-shire. 

FYNE (LOCH), an extensive lake or arm, 
of the sea, in Argyleshire. Itextendsfiom 
the Clyde, between the isles of Bute and 
Arran, in a north-westerly direction, form- 
ing the boundary between the districts of 
Cowal and Kintyre. It is about 32 mile* 
long, and the breadth varies from 12 to 3. 
Its -coasts are adorned with many elegant 
seats. It receives many small streams, and 
the river Aray at its northern extremity. 
There it spreads out into a noble bay before 
Inverary, forming an irregular circle of a- 
bout 12 or 14 miles in circumference, beau- 
tifully indented w ith a variety of peninsula*, 
and surrounded by mountains. On the bants 
of the lochistheelegantmansion of Ardkm- 
lass, the residence of Sir Alexander Camp- 
bell, surrounded with extensiveplantations. 
Loch Fyne is noted for its herrings. The 
fishery begins in July or August, and con- 
tinues till January, during which time the 
lake is frequented by innumerable shoals. 
It is calculated that there are annually 
caughthere upwards of 20,000 barrels, va- 
lued-at 25s. each. 

FYVIE, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 13 
miles long, and 8 broad, containing about 
20,00aacres, 800 of which are under cul- 
ture; the remainder occupied by plantation!, 
natural woods, and coarse heathy pasture 
The small river Ythan intersects it the 
whole length. The surface is uneven : tha 
soil is various, but in general fertile. Fyvie 
castle, the seat of General Gordon, is an 
elegant mansion. Near the church, on the 
banks of the Ythan, are the ruins of a pri- 
ory, founded by Fergus, Earl of Buchan, In 
1179. The road from Aberdeen to Banff 
passes through this parish. Popula. 2594. 



G 



€ A I 



^Zj.ADlE, a small river in Aberdeenshire, 
whieh rises in the borders of the Ga- 
jioch district , and discharges itself in to-the 
Ury.near its junction with the Don. 

GAIR (LOCH), an arm of the sea, on the 
Vf . coast of Ross-shire. It has also an island 
of the same name. 

GAIR (LOCH), a branch of the Frith of 



Clyde, extending in a northerly direction 
about 12 miles into Dumbartonshire, form- 
ing the E. side of the peninsula of Rose- 
neat h. 

GAIIUE, a rivulet in Angus-shire, which 
has its rise in the parish of Kirriemuir, and 
joins the Dean near Glammis castle, after a . 
course, of nearly 12 miles. 



G A L 



G A L 



GAIRLOCH, a parish in Ross-shite, on 
tlie W. coast, 32 mil«i long, and nearly IS 
" broad. It it very hilly, and atlbrdsaseanty 
pasture. The valleys are tolerably fertile. 
In this parish lies Loch Mari, a large fresh 
water lake, containing many beautiful is- 
land!. The coast of Gairloch is famous for 
the cod and herring fishery. Population 
41755. 

GAIRNEY, a small stream, which rises 
amongst the Cliesh hills in Kinross-shire, 
and discharges itself into Loch Leven. 

GAIRSAY, one of the Orkneys, about 4 
miles' in circuit, lying 2 miles S. of Pomona 
island. 

GALA river takes itsrise In the E. end of 
the parish of Heriot, Mid-Lothian, and after 
being joined by the Heriot, runs S. and, 
passing the villages of Stow and Galashiels, 
disembogues itself into the Tweed. Its 
whole course is singularly romantic. 

GALASHIELS, a parish of an irregular fi- 
gure, about 5 miles and a half in breadth, in 
the countiesof Roxburgh and Selkirk; the 
Tweed divides it into two parts. The sur- 
face is billy ; the liighest point, Meghill, is 
elevated 1.480 feet. The hills are mostly 
green, and furnish excellent 3heep pasture. 
The soil is various. Considerable attention 
is paid to the rearing of sheep and the im- 
provement of the wool. Besides the Tweed, 
the parish is intersected by the Ettrick and 
Gala waters. Population 986—The TOWN 
of GALASHIELS, lies 30 miles S. from 
Edinburgh. It is situated mostly on the 
right bank of Gala water; it has a street, in 
which are a number of good houses ;, the 
church stands in the centreof the town. The 
lower part, in which most of the manufac- 
turers live, is scattered along the banks of 
the river. Galashiels has been long famous 
for the manufacture of woollen cloth, which 
is here carried on to a great extent. A great 
quantity of woollen yam is spun ; and there 
is also a considerable manufacture of stock- 
ings. *t contains 1000 inhabitants. 

GALATON, a village in the parish of Dy- 
sart, Fifeshire, on the great N , road. Popu- 
lation 769. 

GALLOWAY, comprehends the stewart- 
ry of Kirkcudbright, and the county of Wig- 
ton. This district, with Dumfries-shire, 
appears to have been peopled by that nation 
which the Roman writers term the Selgovae 
and Novantae; and the Roman province of 
Valentia must have included this district. 
It is probable, that colonies from the N. of 
Ireland frequently visited Galloway, and J 
became incorporated with the natives, in- j 
-twducing every where the Celtic, tongue ! 



and manners. The names justify that idea 
for writers of this period st\lo them the 
Gaelwegenses, and their country Gaelweg, 
the country of the Gaels, a term synonymous 
with the Celts. This political distinction, 
and the diversity of character, were suffi- 
cient to make them appear in the eyes of 
the old writers a distinct race, and procured 
them the appellation of Wild Scotsof Gallo- 
way, from their ferocity and impetuous un- 
disciplined mode of lighting. Galljway was 
anciently famous for a particular breed, of 
small horses, which are now mixed with the 
Irish and Knglish breed-:, but retain the 
same name. The bl^k cattle are still noted 
for their excellent species ; and the Galloway 
sheep afford the best flavoured mutton. A 
considerable numberof swine are also fed 
for the English markets. The district has 
been divided into Upper Galloway, which 
includes the northern parts of Kirkcud- 
bright and Wigton ; Lower ,Gallow.ay, the 
southern part of the same, shires ; and, the 
Rinns of Galloway, that peninsula; or. djs- 
trict of Wigton which lies W. of the isthmus 
formed by the bays of Luce ami Ryan. 

GALLOWAY (MULL of), the southern 
point of tiie Rinns, is a promontory in ihe 
parish of Kirk-maiden, and county of Wig- 
ton. It extends several miles into tho sea, 
and is excavated into several caverns. 

GALLOWAY (NEW), a royal burgh, in. 
the parish of Kill's, in the stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright, 19 miles N. by W. of that town,. 
It is situated in the vale of Glenkens. The 
houses are neat, and regular, but it possesses 
no manufactures. It was erected into a 
royal burgh by Charles I. ; is governed by a 
provost, 2 bailies, and 14 councillors; and 
joins with Wigton, Stranraer, and Whitliorn, 
in sending a mem-be! to parliament. The 
town is the property of Mr Gordon, the re- 
presentative of the Kenmure family. Ken 
mure castle is situated in the neighbourhosd. 
It contains about 500 inhabitants. 

G ALSTON, a parish in the county of Ajr-, 
about 13 miles in length, and from 4 to r y 
in breadth. It is diversified with hills, ma- 
ny of which, tbpugh elevated, are arable. J,t 
is bounded on the N. by the river Irvine, and 
watered by several of its tributary streams. 
There are two considerable lakes, Gait and. 
Bruntwood ; from the former of which the 
Aven takes its rise. The old castle of Cess- 
nock, and old Bar castle, are surrounded 
with wood. Population 3009.— The VIL- 
LAGE of GALSTON, lies 22 miles a. by W . 
of Glasgow, on the road from Edinburgh to 
Ayr, and from Glasgow to Dumfries. Pofiu.. 
lationeOQ. 



gar : 

GAMRIE, a parish in the county of Banff. 
It is about 4 miles broad, and extends 9 and 
a half miles along the sea coast, which is 
very bold, and consists of an almost continu- 
ed front of stupendousrocks, in many places 
200 or 500 feet perpendicular. On the W. 
the boundary is the river Deveron, the soil 
varies from a fertile loam to a barren benty 
heath, part of which is now improved ; and 
part has been planted with trees. In the 
villages on the coast, the inhabitants are 
chiefly fishers. There are several caves and 
other curiosities in the rocks. Pop. 5052. 

GARAN, a small island on the N. coast 
of Sutherlandshire. 

GARANHILL, a village in Ayrshire, pa- 
rish of Muirkirk. 

GARDEN9TON, a village in the parish 
ofGamrie, Banffshire, 8 miles K. of Banff, 
the property of Mr Garden of Troup. It 
possesses a tolerable harbour. P. about 300. 
GARGUNNOCK, a parishin Stirlingshire, 
on the S. bank of the Forth, extending from 
N. E, to S, W. about 6, and in breadth 5 
miles and a half. The ground rises gradual- 
ly from the river, forming a natural division 
into 5 kinds of soil ; carse, where the soil is 
of a strong rich clay or loam, intermixed 
with sand shells, indicating that it has for- 
merly been covered by the river; the dry- 
field, occupying the middle space, which, 
until cultivated, was covered with heath, 
furze, and tooora ; and the moor, which is 
covered with heath, and only affording a 
scanty pasture for sheep ; this last occupies 
nearly 5U0U acres of the higher district. 
Great improvements in agriculture have 
been made in thisdistrict. — The VILLAGE 
of GARGUNNOCK is about 6 miles VV. of 
Stirling, on the great road from thence to 
Dunbarton. It is situated on the side of a 
hill, and commands a beautiful prospect of 
the windings of the Forth. Pop. S96. 

GARIOCH, a district of Aberdeenshire, 
containing 150 square miles, and IS parish- 
es. It used formerly to be called the gra- 
nary of Aberdeenshire ; but, since the in- 
troduction of lime as a manure, the farms 
on the coast, though not naturally so fertile, 
have been much improved ; while the Ga- 
rioch, being an inland district, was not e- 
qually improved till lately, that the Inveru- 
ry canal was made. Population 12,522. 

GAPvLETON HILLS, a ridge of hills in 
Haddingtonshire, a mile N. from Hadding- 
ton. 

GARLIESTON, a village in Wigtonshire. 
It was founded by the Earl of Galloway. It 
is pleasantly built, in the form of acrescent, 
at the head of a bay which bears its name, 



i GAR 

affords safe anchorage for vessels, and is an 
excellent fishing station. Pop. 500. 

GARMOUf H, or GARMACH, a village 
in Morayshire, and parish of Speymouth, i 
miles N. from Focii ibe.s. It is situated at 
the mouth of the Spey, wliich here forms a 
good harbour. It is a burgh of barony, of 
1 which the Duke of Gordon is superior, and 
| containing about 700 inhabitants. The 
i quantities of wood floated down the Spey 
I from the forests of Strathspey and Badenoch 
has rendered Garmouth a place of some 
i consequence. The English merchants who 
i rent the forests have here established their 
I large sales, a great number of vessels have 
' been built at this place, from 50 to 500 tons 
1 burden, of home lt own wood, and the Glen • 
; more, a frigate of 52 guns in the royal navy. 
, Two saw mills have been erected, and about 
,' 30 ship-carpenters are employed. The sal- 
mon fishing is also a means of increasing 
the trade. 

GARNOCK, a river in Ayrshire, takes its 
; rise in the parish of Kilburnie, from the 
Misty Law, and, taking a course W. wash- 
ing the towns of Dairy and Kilwinning, 
pours its waters into the sea at Irvine, after 
receiving the waters of the Irvine, the Rye, 
and the Caaf. Thespout of Garnock, a most 
beautiful cascade, is nearly 2 miles above 
Kilburnie. 

GAiUY, a lake in Perthshire, of. consi- 
derable extent, wliich, after taking a south 
easterly course, joins the Tuminel below 
Fascaly. 

GARRY, a lake and river in Inverness- 
shire, which disharge their waters into Loch 
Oich, and give name to the district of Glen- 
garry. 

G ARTLY, a parish in Aberdeen and 
Banff-shires, ofau invgular oval form, about 
12 miles long, and G in breadth at the mid- 
dle. Itlies'in t be district of Strathbogie, 
having the river Bogie running through it. 
The hills, which lie on the borders, are most- 
ly covered with heath, and afford plenty of 
mo;s. Several brooks run into the Bogie, 
and the valleys which they water are ex- 
ceedingly fertile, and well cultivated. The 
Duke of Gordon is proprietor. Pop. SS5. 

GARULINGA Y, a small island between 
Barry and S. Uist. 

GARVALD and BARO, an united parish 
in Haddingtonshire; from E. to W. miles, 
and 5 from N. to S. It takes in a conside- 
rable extent of the Lammermuir hills, the 
soil of wliich is thin and gravelly, covered 
with heath, and abounding with marshes. 
The grounds which lie to the N. are of a 
deep rich clay soil, capabla of raising an/ 



G A U 117 



kind of crop. The villageof Garvald is fine- 
ly situated on the small river Hopes, and 
contains upwards of 200 inhabitants. Nun- 
raw, belonging to the Marquis of Tweed- 
dale ; Hopes, surrounded with extensive 
plantations; a great part of the pleasure 
grounds of Yesterhouse; the ruins of White- 
castle and castle of Yester, lie in this pa- 
rish. There is plenty of freestone. Popu- 
lation 676. 

s GARVIEMORE, a stage on the road from 
■Stirling to Fort Augustus, 126 miles N. 
from Edinburgh. 

GARVIE, a river in Ross-shire, which rises 
•near Loch Broom, and joins the Conon, se- 
veral miles before it falls into the Cromarty 
frith. 

GARVOCK, a parish in Kincardineshire, 
S miles long, and -I broad, containi.ig about 
8000 acres, of which near 2600 are arable. 
The uncultivated ground lies high, and is in 
general covered with heatu and furze. Po- 
pulation 4S5. 

GASK, a parish in the county of Perth. 
It is nearly a square, having a superficies of 
about 3 miles and a half. A Roman cause- 
way runs through the middle of the parish. 
This occupies the highest ground, and there 
is a gentle declivity on both aides, the N. 
being covered wich a tine plantation, and 
the other is cultivated to tne banks of the 
true, which bounds it on the S. Pop. 453. 

GASKIER, a small island of the Hebri- 
des, in the district of Harris, frequented by 
vast flocks of geese. 

GATEHOUSE of FLEET, a village in the 
parish of Girthon, stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright, IS miles and a half S. E. from New- 
ton Stewart. The first house was built a- 
bout SO years ago as an inn for travellers 
from Dumfries to Portpatrick. It lies in a 
beautiful and fertile vale, by the side of a 
fine river, near the Solway frith ; and is 
•built on a regular plan, consisting of three 
streets running parallel to the river Fleet, 
over which there is a handsome bridge, coin- 
municating with a suburbs. Several cot- 
ton works are established, and 10 or 12 ves- 
sels belong to the port. Gatehouse was e- 
rected into a burgh of barony in 17y5, 
Mr Murray the superior. It is governed by a 
provost, 2 bailies, and -1 councillors. It has 
a public library, to which most of the inha- 
bitants are contributors. Population 1200. I 

G ATTONSIDE, a village in the parish of 
Melrose, on the left bank of the tweed, 4 
miles and a half E. from Galashiels. 

GAU1R, a river in Perthshire, which is- 
sues from Loch Lydoch, and talis into Lt>ch 
Rannoch at Kenaiachar. . . 



it-laud on the coast of 



GAVIN,: 
Argyleshirj. 

GAVl.NGTON, a village in Berwickshire, 
lately erected in the parish of Langcowu, 
containing 150 inhabitants. 

GEORGE (FORT), a strong and regular 
fortress, in the parish of Ardersicr, lnver- 
ness-shire, 12 miles N. from Inverness, si- 
tuated on a peninsula running into the Mo- 
ray Frith, and commanding the entrance 
of the harbour of Inverness. It is generally 
garrisoned with one or two regiments. 

GEORGE-TOWN, asmril village, or ra- 
ther military barracks, in Perthshire at the 
W. end of Loch Rannoch. 

GIF FORD, a village in East Lothian, in 
the parish of Ye-ter, four miles 3. from Had- 
dington, delightfully situated on a rivulet 
of that name, containing 400 inhabitants. 

GIGAY, a small inhabited island of the 
Hebiides, on the E. coast of Barray. 

GIGHA, one of the Hebrides annexed to 
Kintyre, Argyleshire, from which it is dis- 
tant 5 miles and a half. It is 7 miles long, 
and 2 and a half broad, containing about 
0000 Scots acres, of which 1600 are arable. 
The coast on the W. is boid and rocky ; on 
the E. side tnere are several points jutting 
out, and a few sunk rocks, which render the 
navigation dangerous. Between these are 
several bays or creeks. Gigha is low and 
tlat, except towards the W. A great part 
is arable. The soil is a light loam, with a 
mixture in some places of sand or clay.— 
Some parts of the island having been drain- 
ed and inclosed, now produce excellent 
crops. There are several caves which are 
great curiosities. The island is well sup- 
plied with springs, which atlbrd water suf- 
ficient to turn two corn-mills. Twenty-six 
boats, having 4 tod men each, are employ- 
ed in the fishing. Gigha and Cara form one 
parochial district. Population .S50. 

GILLISAY, one of tue smaller Hebrides, 
in the district of Harris. 

G1LMERTON, a village in Mid-Lothian, 
in the parish of Libberton, about 4 miles S. 
from Edinburgh. Here are extensive coal 
audlime works. There are above 20 seams 
of coal, from 2 andahalfto 10 feet in thick- 
ness. Tne lime quarries at this place, which 
are objects of great curiosity, yield about 
70,000 boils annually ; and it is calculated, 
that nearly L.2OO0 a year is received for 
sand of a yellow colour, which is conveyed 
in carts to Edinburgh, and retailed to the 
inhabitants, who strew it ou the stairs and 
pasi ;ges of their houses. Another conside- 
rable source of proot is found in the sale of 
an argillacioas earth, which is no* very jje- 



GLA X 

nerally used in cleaning and whitening the 
approaches to dwelling-houses in that city. 
At the N. end of this village are a suite of 
apartments cut out of the solid rock, by one 
Paterson a blacksmith, about 1720. Popu- 
lation about 1000. 

GILP (LOCH), asmall arm of the sea in 
Argylesbire, running off from Loch Fyne in 
a N. W. direction. It is the pointfrom which 
theCrinan Canal goes of to join the Atlan- 
tic. 

G1RDLENESS, apromontory on the coast 
<jf Kincardineshire. 

GIRTHON, a parish in the stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, extending from N. to S. a- 
bout 20 miles, and from 3 to 5 in breadth. 
The surface and soil are remarkably varied ; 
the northern half, and all along the eastern 
boundary, being bleak, hilly, and covered 
with heath, there are several lakes, which 
fall into the river Fleet, the boundary of the 
parish on the W. Near thisvillageisCally, 
the beautiful residence of Mr Murray. Po- 
pulation 1780. 

GIKVAN.a parish in Ayrshire, in the 
district of Carrick, extending about 9 miles 
along the coast of the Atlantic ocean, and 
the breadth varies from 2 to 6. It abounds 
with coal and lime-stone. TowardstheS. 
the surface is hilly, but the eminences are 
chiefly covered with short grass, affording 
■excellent sheep pasture. The low grounds 
are fertile and well cultivated. Population 
3097— The VILLAGE of GIRVAN lies 
12 miles and a half S. W.frotn Maybole, at 
the mouili of the river Girvan, and appears 
*o have been a place of considerable anti- 
-qAity. The road from Ayr to Portpatrick 
jpassos through it. The harbouris commo- 
dious. It is governed by 2 bailies and 10 
councillors, annually elected. It contains 
about 1000 inhabitants. 

GIRVAN, a river in Ayrshire, which 
rises in the parish of Dailly; and, running 
N . W. C miles, takes a course S. W. through 
the district of Carrick, at the town of Gir- 

GLADSMUIR, a parish in Haddinjfton- 
shire, containing about G00O acres, of 
which one half is under tillage. The 
ground vises in the middle to a ridge, which 
is a heathy barren moor, but gradually on 
each side improves in fertility. The whole 
parish abounds with coal. Population 
1616* 

GIi.VISCHOIREN BElN, a mountain in 
Argyleshire, elevated 1920 feet. 

GLAMMIS, a parish in Forfarshire, 12 
miles long, and about 9 broad. It occu- 
pies the middle of the fertile valley of Strath- 



GLA 

more, and part of the ridge of Sidlaw hills. 
The soil of the lower parts is in general 
good and well cultivated. Improvements 
in agriculture have been greatly accelerated 
by the discovery of marl there. The loch 
of Forfar, borders with the parish, from 
which runs the river Dean through the 
whole extent till it falls into the Isla. Be> 
sides excellent freestone, there are severed 
fine grey slate quarries. Population- 1931. 
-The VILLAGE of GiAMMIS lies 5 miles 
and a half VV. from Forfar. It contains 
about 500 inhabitants ; and the adjoining 
suburb, oalledthe New Town, contains a- 
bout 150. The chief manufactures are 
yarn and linen cloth. Near the town is the 
castle of Glammis, the seat of the Earl of 
Strathmore. It is situated on the banks of 
the Dean, commanding an extensive pro- 
spect of the beautiful vale from which its 
owner takes his title. 

GLASGOW is a large and populous City, 
in the Nether Ward of Lanarkshire, on the 
hanks of the River Clyde ; it lies 44 miles 
west of Edinburgh, 22 east of Greenock, 
34 north of Ayr, and 2S miles south-west 
of Stirling. Glasgow is one of the most an- 
cient towns in Scotland ; there is no authen- 
tic record in existence, by which the date 
of itsorigin can be ascertained. Many con- 
jectures have been formed, but fortunately 
these speculations are more a matter of cu- 
riosity than utility. It is certain, that m tha 
year 560„ a bishopric was founded here by 
St. Mungo, or St. Kentigern, who died in 
601, and was burled at the end of the 
ground where the Cathedral now stands, 
and whera his tomb isyetto be seen ; if this 
date be assumed as the probable origin of 
the town,, it may surely satisfy the most 
stubborn stickler fbi the antiquity of tha 
place. This bishopric was erected into an 
Archi-episcopal See in the yeai 1484. 
Glasgow is said to have been, erected into a 
royal burgh, by William the Lion in 1172. 
It however appears, from an old document 
extant, that this Town was governed by a 
Provost and Magistrates in the year 126£i, 
and that they then held Courts of Justice. 
In 1611 the City received a Charter from 
James the Sixth, and another from Charles 
the First in 1636,— and 1690. The Trade 
and industry of the City at a very early pe- 
riod, seems to have been confined chiefly to 
the produce of the Fishery in the Clyde ; so 
early as the year 1420, this trade was con- 
ductcd to a considerable extent, by ex- 
changing with France* their cared Salmon 
and Herrings, for Wine, Brandy, and Saltj 
and they possessed some shipping so early 



TtX A V 

as 1546, which made.captiires of.the ships 
of England. In 1667a company was form- 
ed for the prosecution of the Whale Fish- 
ery; and the Soap manufacture was intro- 
duced about the same period. About the 
year 16S0, we find that the merchants of 
Glasgow continued to export considerable 
quantities of cured Salmon and Herrings to 
France ; this commerce must have been 
carried on in hired vessels from some of the 
English ports, as, previous to the Union 
(1707) the town possessed .no Shipping of 
their own, andDunbarton was their harbour, 
—then Greenock and New Port Glasgow. 
The first vessel built on the Clyde, the pro- 
perty of Glasgow, which_crossed the Atlan- 
tic, was in the year 1718, from which pe- 
riod may be dated the rise in the Tobacco 
trade. The Union of the kingdom had laid 
open the trade to America and the West 
India Islands ; and a small trade to Virginia 
and Maryland was begun, by sending out 
jgoods for the use of the Colonies, and re- 
turning with cargoes of Tobacco. The 
great increase of this trade into the Clyde 
for a number of years, had raised the jea- 
lousy of the merchantsof London, and other 
English ports engaged in the same trade, 
who accused the Glasgow merchants of 
fraud upon the revenue; this accusation 
was followed up by a number of new re- 
strictions and vexatious regulations being 
laid upon the trade, — these impositions 
were the cause of a considerable falling off 
In the importations to the Clyde, till the 
year 1735. . The commerce with America 
continued to advance till the year 1750. 
when a new system commenced by opening 
warehouses in the New World, managed by 
partners in.tbe mercantile establishments 
of Glasgow ; this plan not only increased 
the extent of their transactions, but open- 
ed up new sources of trade, so that before 
the unfortunate war which separated these 
colonies from the mother country, the trade 
of Glasgow with Americahad attained its 
greatest hejgb,t,— the annual importations 
of Tobacco were from 35 to 49,000 hogs- 
heads. In the year immediately preceding 
the war, 57,145 .hogsheads were imported, 
of which 12,000 only were for. home con- 
sumption. Such was the extent of the im- 
ports of Tobacco into the Clyde, as to en- 
: gross more than the.half of that article im- 
ported in Britain. In one year, out of 
90,000"hogsheads imported, Glasgow alone 
•engrossed 40,000. The American war was 
,a severe blow to the trade of Glasgow and 
Greenock--,it unfortunately happened that 
the balances due by America to Glasgow 



were uncommonly great ; and as this trade 
then employed nearly the whctie.ef the capi- 
taland enterprise of the City, many of the 
most opulent Merchants were ruined, who 
had every reason to believe themselves in- 
dependent of the fluctuations of commerce. 
But although the favourite commerce of 
the City was thus for a time destroyed, the 
spirit which had been successfully roused 
wasnot extinguished,— new sources of trade, 
and industry were sought for,—the West 
India trade, partially begun in 1732, was- 
extended and vigorously prosecuted,-— the 
Continent of Europe presented a wide field, 
for exertion, and this partial cheque given 
to commerce was amply compensated, by. 
the great increase of Manufactures which . 
had been on the advance foryears past, and 
to which the loss of trade, gave.an addition- 
al stimulus. The trade of Glasgow with A- 
merica, and the West Indies, is now equal 
in extent to that of any Port in the King- 
dom. The coasting trade is also very great, 
and their commerce with the continent of 
Europe, and with all quarters of the globe, 
correspond with the wealth, enterprise and 
spirit of the inhabitants of the western Me- 
tropolis of Scotland. The Manufacture of 
Linen, Lawns, and similar articles were 
introduced into Glasgow, about the year 
1725, and continued to be the staple Manu- 
facture, until almost superseded by .the in- 
troduction of that of Cotton, about the be- 
ginning of the War with America; since 
which period this Manufacture has made 
the most rapid improvement, and has been 
prosecuted with vigour, attended with the 
greatest'succesf, and now unrivalled in any 
part of the Kingdom. 1 he capital employ. . 
edin the .Cotton Trade is immense; Ma- 
chineryjias been.introduced into every de- 
partment, and new inventions, and im- 
provements have rapidly followed each 
other. Every Article of Cotton Manufac- 
ture is made here; the Muslins, Printed- 
Calicoes, Shawls, and Policates of Glasgow* . 
are known and admired in every quarter of 
the Globe, for beauty, variety of Pattern, and. 
cheapness. The late invention of the Pow- 
er Loom, has given a facility to the Manu- 
facture of the coarser species of Cotton 
Goods hitherto unknown. These Looms 
are numerous, and occupy many large and 
elegant buildings in the City, and are. driv- 
en by Steam. In 1827, there were 11,000, 
Hand Looms. In the early stage of the Cot- 
ton Manufacture, the principal Spinning 
Mills .were in the country, where falls of 
water could be obtained, some of them at 
very considerable distances ; hut since the 



G_Lj\ 1 

amplication of Steam Engines, to the pur- 
pose of driving Machinery, these works 
have been transferred to the City and Su- 
burbs, and Steam Engines, from two to fif- 
ty horse power, are now universally em- 
ployed wherever Machinery is required. 
The extension of the Cotton Manufacture 
naturally led to the establishment of Bleach- 
fields, Printfields, Dye-Works, &c. and 
these works have kept pace with the rapid 
increase of that Trade. The Incle weav- 
ing was introduced into Glasgow in the year I 
1759, having then been surreptitiously ob- \ 
tained from Harlaem, and was the first of 
these machines in Britain. The manufac- j 
ture of green glass Bottles was established 
on a very limited scale in the year 1730, 
and that of Flint Glass, &c. about 50 years 
afterwards— a small manufactory of Pottery 
■ware, the first in Scotland, was carried on j 
here about the same period.— The first ' 
in the vicinity of Glasgow was established 
at Pollock-shaws about the year 1742; and j 
Brewing at this period was chiefly confined j 
to private families. Type Founding was 
early established in Glasgow, and the Types j 
of this Manufactory have long been famed i 
over Europe and America for their neat i 
and elegant formation. The manufacture 
of Cudbear, a Dye stuff prepared from a 
species of lichen, or rockmoss, is carried on 
here to a great extent, and unequalled per- 
fection. The Staple Manufacture of Glas- 
gow (Cotton), gives employment to a num- 
ber of Chemical Works, Dye Works, Calen- 
dering Works, &.C., and the great quantity 
of Machinery necessary in the construction 
of the numerous Spinning Mills, Power 
Looms, Steam Engines, and other works in 
the City and neighbourhood ; besides the 
making of machinery, for all parts of the 
kingdom, employ a vast number of Mill 
Wrights, Engineers, Boiler-Builders, Iron 
and Brass Foundries,Smiths,Plumbers,&c. 
The Sugar Refining is here an extensive 
business; the Distillation of Spirits, is car- 
ried on in the vicinity on a very large scale ; 
and the Breweries are many and extensive. 
To the various articles belonging to the Cot- 
ton Manufacture, may be added those of 
Linen, Damask, Carpeting, Hats, Leather, 
Shoes, Saddlery, Gloves, Glass and Pottery 
Ware, Bricks, Tiles, Tobacco-Pipes, Ropes 
and Twine, Wire drawing and Wire work, 
Hair Cloth, Soap and Candle making. The 
Silk Manufacture has recently been intro- 
duced into Glasgow, with every appearance 
of success. There are several Paper Mills 
in the vicinity of Glasgow, where Writing, 
Printing, and coarse Papers are manufac- 



G L A 

lured. Printing in all its branches is car- 
ried on, and the Book Trade is extensive.— 
Book-binding, Book-selling and Stationary,- 
are principal articles of trade. The exports 
of Glasgow consist of every description of 
Cotton Goods, Shawls of Silk and Cotton, 
and of Cotton only; Silks. Glass, Whisky, 
Soap, Saddlery, and the various Manufac- 
tures of this City, and Paisley. The princi- 
pal imports, are Sugars, Bum, Cotton, Cof- 
fee, &c, the produce of the West India Is. 
lands, Wine, Brandy, Fruits, &c. from the 
Continent of Europe, and all the various 
productions of the United States of Ameri- 
ca , the British settlements of Canada, and 
Nova Scotia, the Continent of South Ameri- 
ca, and the East Indies. The City of Glas- 
gow is chiefly built upon the North Bank 
of the Clyde, on an activity rising gently to 
the north, the River skirts the south side of 
the River, forming the Parish of Gorbals 
is also extensive ; these Suburbs contain 
nearly one half of the population of the Ci- 
ty, and a large portion of the manufactu- 
ring Establishments and public works. Tha 
communication with the southern Suburb 
is by two elegant Stone Bridges, and a 
wooden one; the most ancient of these 
Stone Bridges has eight, and the other seven 
Arches ; the Wooden Bridge supplies the 
place of a Stone one, which was destroyed 
in the great storm of 1792. To describe 
the City of Glasgow cannot be attempted in 
a short account like the present ; this is ren- 
dered superfluous by a reference to Cleland's 
Annals of Glasgow, which furnish the most 
complete and minute details of the rise and 
progress of this City. Glasgow, although 
reckoned the second City in Scotland, is first 
in point of population and manufacturing 
interest, as well as trade. The principal 
Street, running east and west, acquires the 
names of the Gallowgate, Trongate, Ar- 
gyle Street, and Anderson's Street, and ex- 
tends in length one mile and three quar- 
ters ; the principal Street-running north and 
south, called the Salt-Market, High Street, 
Kirk Street, and Castle Street, is nearly one 
mile long; a fine Street runs parallel to 
the first mentioned, on the north, called 
Duke Street, and George Street, and near- 
ly a mile in length ; and from all these 
Streets a number ofothers branch off to the 
north and south. From Argyle Street, and 
the Trongate, three Streets lead to the 
Bridges, and River Side, viz. the Salt Mar- 
ket to the Wooden Bridge ; and Stockwell 
Street to the Old Bridge; and Jamaica 
Street, to the new Bridge. The houses in 
all the streets, are substantially bcilt, with 



G L A 



121 



fronts of Hewn Stone ; the Streets are spa- 
cious and well paved, kept clean, with foot 
paths on each side ; the City and Suburbs 
are abundantly supplied with water, and the 
Streets and Shops are lighted with Gas. 
There are three large Squares, the largest 
is George's Square, in which stands the 
Statue of General Sir Jol.n Moore, a na. 
tive of this City, who fell at Corunna in 
1809. St Andrew's is a spacious Square, 
in the centre of which stands the elegant 
Church of that name ; St Enoch's Square, 
encloses St Enoch's Church. The City , 
and Suburbs occupy a space of ground of 
700 acres. The Green of Glasgow is on 
the north bank of the River, to the Town; 
this public park is of essential benefit to 
the inhabitants, and adds much to the 
beauty of the City. This beautiful Green 
is laid out with gravel walks, andhas always 
been a favourite promenade of the inhabi- 
tants, and the admiration of strangers; 
this Park contains upwards of 100 acres, 
and is certainly one of the finest public 
parks in the kingdom ; here stands, a mo- 
numental obelisk erected to the memory of 
Lord Nelson, in 1S06 ; and heie, on the 
Bank of the River, is situated the Humane 
Society House, where an apparatus for re- 
storing suspended animation is kept, with 
boats, drags, &c. in case of accidents on 
the River. On the Green stands the pub- 
lic Washing H ouse, an extensive establish- 
ment, where upwards of one hundred per- 
sons can be employed in washing at the 
same time ; there are two other similar e- 
stablishments in the north quarter of the 
City. A Ride and Drive round the Green, 
two and a half milas in length, is now in 
course of finishing, under the direction of 
Mr Cleland. The Sweeps in the interior of 
the Park, and on the Banks of the River 
Clyde, are beautiful, and do great credit to | 
his taste. This bids fair to be one of the 
finest Rides in the kingdom, connected 
■with a great Town. Glasgow possesses 
numerous magnificent public buildings. 
The Cathedral or High Church, deserves to 
be first mentioned, it was founded by John 
Achaius, Bishop of Glasgow, in the reign 
of David the First, in whose presence it is 
said to have been consecrated. This mag- 
nificent and venerable edifice stands on 
the high ground at the upper, or north end 
of the High Street, and is one of the most 
elegant and entire specimens of Gothic Ar- 
chitecture in this country,— it had been 
intended to be finished in form of a cross, 
but the tranverse part has never been built. 
Itis2S4feet long from east to west, 56 



broad, and 90 feet high within the walls, 
with two large towers, on one of which, 
near the centre, a Spire was built about 
the year 1420, ascending to the height of 
220 feet,— it is lighted by 157 windows, 
and supported by 147 pillars. This build- 
ing is occupied as two parish churches, 
the Inner and outer High Church—in the 
Choir are some remarkable ancient mo- 
numents ; below the Inner Church is a vault- 
ed Cemetry, used as a place of worship for 
the barony Parish, till the year 1S01, when 
it was converted to its original purpose. 
The Cathedral is surrounded by an exten- 
sive Burying Ground. This noble monu- 
ment of the taste and splendour of the Ro- 
mish Church, made a narrow escape from 
the destructive rage of the Goths and Van- 
dals of the Beformation.— The Magistrates 
had received orders to pull down all the 
monuments of idolatry, — workmen were 
assembled by beat of drum, to raze the 
Cathedral, but it was saved by the spirited 
opposition of the deacons and craftsmen of 
the City, whose names ought to be record- 
ed, and revered, while a stone of this beau- 
tiful structure remains. There are many 
other Churches, whose names only can be 
mentioned here; they are all of them hand- 
some buildings, and most of them in an 
elegant stile of Architecture. Blackfriars, 
or College Church, was built in 1699, 
the Tron Church erected in 1794, upon 
the site of the Old Church of that name, 
built in 1637, the Steeple cf which remains ; 
the Rams-horn Church, built in 1720, St 
Andrew's Church, anelegantbuilding erect- 
ed in 1756, St Enoch's built in 17S0, the 
Barony Church, built in the year 1798, St 
George's, an elegant Gothic fabric, with a 
fine Steeple 162 feet high, built in 1807, 
Gorbals Old Church, built in 1 729, and Gor- 
bals New Church, built in 1S00, St John's 
Church, a chaste Gothic building, with a 
Tower 13.8 feet high, erected in 1819, and 
St James's Church built in 1S16. A neat 
Episcopal Chapel was erected in the year 
1751 ; an elegant Catholic Chapel was erect- 
ed in 1815, on the banks of the Clyde, which, 
cost L. 13,000. Glasgow supports the fol- 
lowing places of Divine Worship. Besides 
12 Churches, and 6 Chapels of Ease, belong- 
ing to the Established Church, there are 8 
Relief Meeting-Houses, 8 Chapels belong- 
ing to the Secession Church, 4 Gaelic 
Churches, two Scotch Episcopal Chapels, 2 
Baptist Chapels, 1 Cameronian, 3 Indepen- 
dent, 2 Original Burghers, 1 Reformed Pres- 
byterian, 1 New Jerusalem, 3 Methodist, 1 
Seamen's, 1 United Chapel, and 1 Catholic 
Q 



GLA 

Chapel. The City of Glasgow has long been 
renowned for its numerous and valuable 
tablishmentsfor Literature and Education. 
In no City in the world has superior atten- 
tion been paid to the acquirement of useful 
knowledge, the study of Literature, and of 
all the arts and sciences which improve or 
adorn society. The University of Glasgow, 
next to that of St Andrews, is the oldest in 
Scotland. This celebrated seminary was 
founded in the the year 1450, by William 
Turnbull, Bishop of Glasgow, and the same 
year Pope Nicholas V. granted a Bull of 
Constitution at the request of James the 
Second, who in the year 1453, conferred 
upon it many immunities, besides being am- 
ply endowed by the founder. The Refor- 
mation in Religion in 1560, almost anni- 
hilated the College; the members who 
were ecclesiastics dispersed themselves to 
avoid the fury of the populace, and it thus 
continued in a low state till James the 
Sixth granted a new charter of erection, 
and bestowed upon it some valuable pro- 
perty ; from that time it increased in repu- 
tation, until it has attained its present cele- 
brity. In this University there are a Lord 
Chancellor, Lord Rector, Dean of Faculty, 
Principal, and Professor of Divinity, Church 
History, Logic, Anatomy, Mathematics, 
Theory and Practice of Physic, Moral Philo- 
sophy, Civil Law, Practical Astronomy, Na- 
tural History, Greek, Humanity, Surgery, 
Chemistry, Botany, Oriental Languages, 
Midwifery, and Materia Medica. The Col- 
lege is a venerable building, and fts % antique 
Gothic Ornaments towards the Street, pre- 
sent a singular contrast to the modern 
buildings in its vicinity. It is divided into 
four courts, with ample accommodation for 
the Professors and Class Rooms, &c, and 
occupies a space of nearly 10,000 square 
yards. The number of Students average a- 
bout 1200 annually, attending the different 
classes. The Library contains a large and 
valuable collection, to which, all the stu- 
dents have access. In the Parks or Gardens 
of the University, which are »f large exent, 
stands the Observatory, well fitted up, and 
largely supplied with the most improved 
Astronomical Instruments, for the use of 
the Professor of that science. The Hun- 
terian Museum is a most noble acquisition 
to the college, — it was bequeathed by the 
celebrated Dr. William Hunter of London. 
The building for its reception was erected 
in the College garden in 1S05, — it is in.the 
form of a Grecian Temple, in the purest 
stile of that Architecture, with a colonade 
in front. The Collection consists of rare 



Books and Manuscripts in every depart- 
ment of Science, but particularly Medicine ; 
an invaluable collection of Anatomical pre- 
parations,--of Coins, Medals, rare Paintings, 
Birds, Quadrupeds, and Reptiles ; and a 
large collection of natural and artifi- 
cial curiosities. This bequest also contains 
the collection of the late Dr. Fothergill, 
who died in 17S0, and by whom a large col- 
lection of Shells, Insects, Corals and Fossils 
was made, and purchased by Dr. Hunter. 
The Collection of Coins contains those of 
every age and country, some of them struck 
eight hundred years before the Christian 
sera ; the Medals consist of a series in gold 
silver, and copper, of all countries and 
states, ancient and modem,— many of them 
are unique, and this collection is considered 
to^be the most complete in Europe, — they 
are valued at upwards of L.40,000. The 
Andersonian Institution was founded in 
1796, by the late Mr Anderson, Professor of 
Natural Philosophy in Glasgow, who left to 
Trustees his valuable Apparatus, his Lib- 
rary and Museum, and other property.--- 
From his funds, aided by a liberal public 
subscription, a handsome building was 
erected, containing a lecture-room and 
other apartments. The intention of the 
founder was to afford the means of instruc- 
tion in Natural Philosophy and Chemistry, 
to Mechanics, and others, who do not in- 
tend to enter any of the Universities. Po- 
pular Lectures are regularly delivered on 
Natural and Experimental Philosophy, 
Chemistry, as applicable to the useful arts, 
— Botany and Natural History. From the 
Andersoniau Institution, the Mechanics' 
Institution is certainly derived.- -This esta- 
blishmentcommenced in the year 1S24, and 
is solely appropriated to the purpose of in- 
structing the operatives employed in the 
various branches connected with the staple 
trade of the City. In this institution, Lec- 
tures on Chemistry and Mechanics are re- 
gularly delivered ; and occasional Lectures 
on other branches of science.---The fees are 
so trifling, that attendance on these Lec- 
tures is within the reach of every one. The 
utility of such establishments werespeedily 
appreciated, and have become general over 
the kingdom. A complete knowledge of 
Chemistry and Mechanics are essentially 
necessary in every manufacturing City ; and 
it may be affirmed, that in no city in Europe 
is the knowledge of these branehes of sci- 
ence more universally diffused than in the 
City of Glasgow. The Public Grammar 
School is of very ancient origin, — it is 
known to have existed previous to the Uni- 



versity. The present Schools are large and 
commodious, in which are taught Greek 
and Latin, Grammar, Geography, Writing 
and Arithmetic ; the establishment consists 
of a Rector and four Masters, and there are 
in general about 600 pupils. The acade- 
mies and seminaries, established for pri- 
vate tuition, Boarding Schools, &c, are nu- 
merous and respectable ; there are several 
public Libraries, Literary and Scientific 
Establishments. Among the many gratis 
establishments for the education of the 
children of the poor, may be named the Ge- 
neral Session's School for the educating 
300 boys and girls in reading, writing and 
accounts; and the Glasgow Highland So- 
ciety Schools, for the education of 340 boys, 
descendants of Highlanders.— -30 of whom 
are annually apprenticed to trades, and 
clothed for the first three years of their ap- 
prenticeship ; and three other schools, sup- 
ported by the same Society, for children of 
both sexes. The number of children edu- 
cated at the Charity Schools, Sunday- 
Schools, and other similar institutions, with- 
in the royalty, amount to upwards of 10,000. 
No city in the kingdom is more distinguish- 
ed than Glasgow for liberality to the indi- 
gent, and for its charitable institutions,— 
the Town's Hospital, or Poor House, built 
in 1733, for the maintenance and support 
of the aged poor, the funds support about 
1600 Paupers;-— Hutchison's Hospital, is a 
beautiful building with a Spire and Clock ; 
this Hospital, was founded in 1639, by 
George Hutchison, a Writer, and Thomas 
Hutchison, a Preacher, in Glasgow, for 12 
poor Men, and 12 Boys. From the increase 
of the funds by donations and otherways, 
the-number of Pensioners on the funds are 
upwards -of 200, and 80 Boys are clothed 
and educated. The Trades have an Hos- 
pital for the maintenance of their poor, and 
the different incorporations have also esta- 
blished funds for the support of their decay- 
ed members and widows. The Royal Infir- 
mary is an elegant building, situated on a 
large and well aired spot of ground to the 
north-east of Kirk Street, near the Cathe- 
dral, on the site of the Archbishop's palace. 
It was erected in 1794, by public subscrip- 
tion. The management is excellent, and 
the arrangements are commodious and ap- 
propriate. The Lunatic Asylum was built by 
subscription in 1S10, it standson an eligible 
situation, about half a mile west of the In- 
firmary, it is on an excellent plan, and has 
apartments for 136 patients, besides other 
rooms. Near this is the Magdalane Asy- 
lum, built by subscription in 1812, for the 



reception of unfortunate females, who are 
employed in washing, dressing, and needle- 
work. In the class of benevolent institu- 
tions, must be ranked as none of the least, 
the Deaf and Dumb Institution ; this phi- 
lanthropic establishment was commenced 
in 1816, upon a small scale; since which 
time, buildings have been erected by sub- 
scription on a piece of ground near the 
Monkland Canal Basin, which accommo- 
dates 50 Pupils, who are taught Reading, 
Writing, and Arithmetic, and their profi- 
j ciency is equal to the most sanguine hopes 
of the projectors. In this class also must be 
j placed the Lock . Hospital, Dispensary, and 
i many other similar establishments on a 
I smaller scale. From the abundance of Free 
j Stone in the immediate vicinity of Glasgow, 
i and other building materials, all the houses 
are handsome, and the Public Buildings 
I have an elegance of Architecture, not in- 
ferior to many in the Metropolis of Scotland, 
: even those buildings erected solely for ma- 
I nufacturing purposes, are substantial, and 
I many of them elegant. Among the public 
buildings worthy of notice, may be narrated 
J the Town Hall, built in 1636, Assembly 
| Rooms, Exchange Buildings, the Coffee 
Room, the most elegant in Britain, Ton- 
tine Hotel, Merchant's Hall, Trades' Hall, 
Custom House, Bonding Warehouse, Weigh 
House, Post Office, elegant Barracks for 
1000 men, Cavalry Barracks, the New- 
Court House and Jail, which cost L.34,000, 
and is considered the most elegant building 
in the City, Bridewell, Police Office, &c. 
the public Markets and Bazaar, the new- 
Theatre, built in 1804, at an expense of 
L.20,000, is one of the largest provincial 
Theatres in the kingdom, the old, or Minor 
Theatre, Concert Room, Circus, the Botanic 
Garden, Willow Bank Baths, the Dairy of 
200,Cowj, perhaps the largest in the king- 
dom, the Glasgow Gas Company, and two 
Water Companies, large establishments. 
The stupenduous Aqueduct Bridge over 
the river, and valley of Kelvin, is a 
little to the north of the City, and is 
worthy of the attention of the traveller. -- 
The city of Glasgow being situated nearly 
in the centre of Scotland, and communicat- 
ing witfi the German Ocean, by the great 
Canal, and with the Atlantic by the Clyde, 
enjoys extraordinary advantages as a sea-port 
town, and at the same time, conveniently- 
situated for an extensive inland trade. The 
commercial relations of the city, with every 
quarter of the globe, are important, and the 
manufacturers have establishments in Lon- 
don, most of the principal towns in England, 



and almost in every country in Europe. The 
larger vessels belonging to the city load and 
discharge their cargoes at the sea-ports of 
Greenock and Port Glasgow, from, and to 
which, heavy goods are conveyed by lighters, 
dragged by steam vessels up and down the 
liver. The Quay at the Broomielaw is the 
place or birth of these lighters, as well as 
the rendezvousforthenumerous steam boats 
which ply regularly for passengers and goods, 
to Ireland, Liverpool, and the north of Scot- 
land, and its Islands; as also for the sailing 
vessels, or regular traders from the Irish 
ports, the west coast of England, and for the 
shipping from the islands and western coast 
of Scotland. Port Dundac is the station for 
passage boats and trading vessels, to, and 
from the Frith of Forth, &c. by the Canal ; 
it has two commodious basins, with exten- 
sive warehouses for grain, &c, a Custom, 
house, and shore-dues office. The maritime 
affairs of the river are managed by an officer 
appointed by royal charter, with power to 
exercise a civil and criminal jurisdiction, 
from the bridge of Glasgow to the Clough, 
near the mouth of the Clyde, 26 miles below 
the town. The municipal government of 
the town is vested in a Lord Provost, three 
Merchant Bailies, and two Trade's Bailies, 
a Dean of Guild, Deacon Convener, Trea- 
surer, Master of Works, twelve Merchant 
Councillors, and eleven Trade's Councillors, 
annually elected at Michaelmas. There are 
fourteen Incorporated Trades. Glasgow 
joins with Dunbarton, Renfrew and Ruth- 
erglen, in returning a member to parlia- 
ment. The magistrates have the aid of a 
well regulated and active Police. The Ba- 
rony parish has a separate magistracy, con- 
sisting of a Provost, four Bailies, a Treasur- 
er, and Dean of Guild, annually chosen. 
The Gorbals is also a burgh of Barony, and 
governed by a Provost, two Bailies, and four 
Councillors, chosen annually; both of these 
burghs have a separate Police Establish- 
ment. Nothing has contributed more to 
the rapid increase of this City, than its fa- 
vourable situation in the midst of an exten- 
sive coal country, and the consequent cheap 
and abundant supply of that indispensible 
article in a manufacturing district ; add to 
this, the local advantage of communicating 
directly by water carriage, with almost e- 
very quarter. These favourablecircumstanr 
ces have made Glasgow one of the very first 
manufacturing towns in the kingdom ; and 
there is not, perhaps, another that has ex- 
tended so much, and doubled its population, 
in the short period of twenty years. Glas- 
gow has three banks belonging to the city, 



i G L A 

- -the Glasgow Bank Company, the Thistle 
Bank, and the Ship Bank; and Branches of 
the Bank of Scotland, British Linen Co., 
Commercial Bank, and Royal Bank of Edin- 
burgh, and fifteen branches of nearly all 
the Provincial Banks of Scotland ; a branch 
of the Belfast Bank, and an Exchange and 
Deposit Bank. The market days are Wed- 
nesday and Saturday ; and annual fairs are 
held on the second Monday in January, 
Thursday before Easter, Monday after Whit- 
sunday, second Monday, and five following 
days of July, and Wednesday after Martin- 
mas. Population, in 1821,147,045. 

GLASS, a parish situated on both sides 
ofthe Deveron, in Aberdeen and Banffshires, 
about 5 miles long and 4 broad. The sur- 
face is varied with a number of fine mea- 
dows, which afford pasture to cattle and 
sheep. The soil is in general a deep loam. 
Population 823. 

GLASS (LOCH), a lake in the parish of 
Kiltearn, Ross-shire, 5 miles long, and one 
broad. It discharges itself by a river of the 
same name, which, uniting near Erkless 
castle with the Farrar and Cannich, forms 
the Bsauly. 

GLASS ARY, a parish in Argyleshire, 19 
miles long, and 10 broad, containing 75,000 
acres. Its form is nearly rectangular, rising 
gently from both sides to the middle, which 
is occupied by a considerable extent of moor 
land, covered with heath. On the banks of 
the river Ad, the soil is a deep rich loam, 
and ob the shore of Loch Fyne, which 
bounds it on the E. it is generally a black 
loam, lying on limestone rock. The canal 
from Loch Gilp to Loch Crinan intersects 
the southern part of this parish. P. 5400. 

GLASSERT, a small river which has its 
rise in the Campsie fells; and after a course 
of 6 or 7 miles, falls into the Kelvin above 
Kirkintilloch. 

GLASSERTON, a parish in Wigtonshire, 
on the eastern coast of the bay of Luce, a- 
bout 7 miles and a half long, and its breadth 
varies from 1 to 2 and a half- The aspect 
of the country is rugged and hilly. The 
lower tracts are loam, gravel, clay, or moss, 
generally wet and marshy. Great numbers 
of black cattle are fed. Sheep are also rear- 
ed, and Swine fed;in considerable numbers 
for the English markets. Physgill, Castle- 
Stewart, and Glasserton, are the only villas 
of any note. Population 1047. 

GLASSFORD, a parish in Lanarkshire, 
about S miles long, and 2 broad. The sur- 
face is level, and in general produces good 
crops. The eastern part is well inclosed 
with hedge-rows and ditches; but in the 



G L E 



G L E 



west, where the soil is light and mossy, no 
trees thrive. There is a small village, con- 
taining about 200 inhabitants. The parish 
is supplied with fuel from the neighbour- 
ing coal pits, and from an extensive moss 
on the western border. Population 1215. 

GLENALMOND, a picturesque vale in 
Perthshire, watered by the river Almond. 

GLENALOT,avalleyinSutherlandshire, 
15 miles N. of Dornoch. 

GLENARAY, a vaie in Argyleshire, in 
the parish of Inverary. 

GLENARGLET, a valley in Stirlingshire. 

GLENARTNE Y, a valley in Perthshire, 
near Callender of Monteith. 

GLENBEG, a district in Inverness-shire. 

GLENBERVIE, a parish in Kincardine- 
shire, about G miles and a half long, and 5 
broad, containing 13,963 English acres. The 
soil in the upper part is a blue clay, and in 
the lower a dry loam, very fertile. Much 
has lately been done in agricultural im- 
provement, particularly on the estates of 
Mr Barclay of Urie, and the late Lord Mon- 
boddo. The villages of Drumlithie and 
Glenbervie are in this parish. Pop. 1227. 

GLENBRAWN, a valley in Inverness- 
shire, in the united parishes of Abernethy 
and Kincardine. 

GLENBRIARACHAN, a valley in In- 
yerness-shire, in the parish of Moulin. 

GLENBUCKET, a parish in Aberdeen- 
shire, 4 miles long and 1 broad, lying on 
the banks of a stream of the Don, called the 
Bucket. The soil is mostly a light loam, in 
some places mixed with clay. The parish I 
belongs to the Earl of Fife. Pop. 420. 

GLENCAIRN, an extensive parish in 
Duinfries-shire, in length about II miles, 
but its breadth varies from 3 to 5. It con- 
tains 21,795 Scots acres, or 42 and 3 quar- 
ters square miles. Besides the Cairn river, 
it is watered by several small rivulets, of 
which the chief are the Castlefern, Craig- 
darroch, and Dalwhat, which unite near 
Minechive, Dunreggan is the only other vil- 
lage in the parish. The land in general is 
good: the holms and meadows on the sides 
of the rivers are fertile; and, next to these, 
the rising grounds are of a light, warm, and 
kindly soil. In the higher parts there is ex- 
cellent pasture. At the S. E. side of the 
parish there is a lake called Loch Orr, or 
Urr, from which the river of that name 
takes rise. Ferguson of Craigdarroch has 
a fine seat in this neighbourhood. P. 1S6C. 
GLENCARREL, a valley in Sutherland, 
near Glenalot. 

GLENCOE,a vale in Argyleshire, near 
the head of Loch EtiTe, noted for the cruel 



massacre of its unsuspecting inhabitants, in 
1691, when 3S persons, including the Chief 
of the clan, were butchered in their beds by 
a military party under Campbell of Glenlyon. 
Glencce is also famous as the birth-place of 
Ossian, as appears from many passages ii» 
his poems. Many of the places are accurate- 
ly named and described. In the middle of 
the vale runs the stream of Cona. The 
mountain of Malmor, rises on the S ; and 
the celebrated Con Fion, the hill of Fingal, 
is situated on the N. side of the same vale. 
GLENCROE, a vale in Argyleshire, one 
of the passes to the Higlands, near the N. 
E. extremity of Loch Long. The scenery 
is wild and sublime in the highest degree; 
on each side are mountains, steep and rug- 
ged, with overhanging rocks, many of 
which have fallen to the bottom of the glen, 
while others threaten the traveller with in- 
stant destruction. In some parts the crag- 
gy summits appear to meet over the road ; 
in others the valley opens, and the sides ex- 
hibit patches of vegetation, covered with 
sheep. In the middle of the glen runs a 
considerable brook, near which the road is 
earned, and hundreds of rillsthatpourfrom 
the mountains, form in their descent in- 
numerable cascades. There are a few mi- 
serable cottages on the sides of the road. The 
length of Glencroe is between 5 and 6 miles. 
The road ascends gently through the whole 
of it, excepting the last mile, where it is 
very steep, and carried in a zigzag form to 
the top of the hill. The road then turns in- 
to Glenkinlass. This last valley is termin- 
ated by the house and pleasure grounds of 
Ardkiulass, on the borders of Loch Fyne. 

GLENCROSS, a parish in Mid-Lothian, 
about 3 miles square. The roads to Dum- 
fries, Biggar, and Moffat, pass through it. 
A part of the Pentlarxi hills is in this parish, 
and the soil in general is better adapt- 
ed for pasture than tillage; but the low 
grounds produce excellent crops. The mi- 
nerals are whiustone and freestone, and a 
vein of silver was discovered in a hill on the 
S. side of Glencross water. Lime and coal 
are also found. In the vale on the N. side 
of the water, are the ruins of a chapel. The 
estate of Belhvood is finely cultivated, and 
the mansion is surrounded with thriving 
plantations. Inthis parish is Bullion Green, 
noted for a battle between the covenanters 
and the royal army under Dalziel. Within 
an inclosure, a monument is erected to the 
memory of the Rev. Mr Cruickshanks, Mr 
M'Curmic, and about SO'otUers who fell in 
tliis action. In 1813, buildings were erect? 
ed to contain 6000 prisoners. Pop. 455. 



G L E ] 

GLENDARUEL,a vale in Argyleshire, 
in the parish of Kilmodan. 

GLEN DERBY, a vale in Perthshire, near 
Blair-Athol. 

GLENDOCHART, a valley in Perthshire, 
in Breadalbane, through which the Dochart 
runs to Loch Tay. 

GLENDEVON, a parish in the county of 
Perth, about 6 miles, by 4 and a half. The 
general aspect is hilly, but the hills are 
green and smooth. The windings of the ri- 
ver Devon, with the plantations and sur- 
rounding scenery, form a highly picturesque 
prospect. The soil of the arable land is in 
general fertile ; but the greater part is ap- 
propriated to sheep pasture. Popula. 170. 

GLENDOW, a valley in the counties of 
Dunbarton and Stirling. 

GLENDUCE, a village in Sutherland- 
shire, on the sea coast, near Loch Scowrie. 
GLENELCHAIG, a district in Ross-shire, 
in the parish of Kintail. Here is the cas- 
cads of Glammach, a considerable waterfall, 
the view of which is rendered strikingly aw - 
ful from the darkness occasioned by the sur- 
rounding hills a-.d thick woods. 

GLENELG, a parish in Inverness-shire, 
which also gives name to a division of 
the same county, comprehending Glenelg, 
Knowdort, and North Morror. The whole 
extent is about 20 miles in every direction. 
The two farmer have a light fertile soil, but 
Morror is rocky, moantainous, and fit only 
for pasture. The great road from Fort Au- 
gustus to the isle of Sky passes through the 
parish; and, at the termination of the road, 
are the ancient barracks of Bernera. There 
are many castles and round towers, built 
without mortar, two of which are very en- 
tire. Population 2611. 

GLENELL Y, a village in Inverness-shire, 
on the coast of the sound which separates 
the isle of Sky from the mainland. 

GLENESK, a district in Forfarshire, 
through which the North Esk runs. 

GLENFERNAT, a valley in Perthshire, 
in the parish of Moulin, watered by the Ar- 
not. 

GLENFICHAN, a valley on the W. coast 
of Lorn, Argyleshire. 

GLENFIDDICH, a fertile vale in Banff- 
shire. 

GLENFINNIN, a narrow vale in Inver- 
ness-shire, at thejiead of Loch Shiel, into 
which the river Finnin runs. 

GLENFYNE, a valley in Argyleshire, at 
the head of Loch Fyne. 

GLENCAIRN. See GLENMUICK. 
GLENGARREL. a vale in Dumfries-shire. 
GLENGARY, a district of Inverness shire, 



> G L E 

occupying tbe central part of the great val- 
ley which extends from Inverness to Fort 
William. Glengary is the property of the 
chief of the clan of Macdonell. 

GLENGONAR, a vale and river in the 
southern extremity of Lanarkshire, near 
Lead-hills, in which some particles of Jgold 
dust is found. 

GLENGRUDY, a vale in Ross-shire, near 
Loch Fannich. 

GLENHOLM, a parish in Peebles-shire, 
taking its name from the rivulet Holm, 
which passes through it, and here falls into 
the Tweed. The parish is about 3 or 4 
miles long, and nearly 2 broad. The hills 
afford good sheep pasture. The arable soil 
in the valleys is capable of high cultivation. 
There are six old castles, or towers, which 
are now in ruins, but appear to have been 
strongly built. There are also the remains 
of several military stations, both circular 
and rectangular. The post-road to Dum- 
fries runs through the parish. Popula. 213. 
GLENISLA, a parish in the county of 
Forfar, in a valley through which the river 
Isla runs. Its length is 18 miles, and near- 
ly 2 broad. The soil is in general of a light 
nature, full of stones : in some places it is a 
strong loam, capable of great improvement 
from the limestone, which is found in great 
abundance in the northern part of the pa- 
rish. Considerable attention is paid to the 
rearing of sheep and black cattle. Here are 
the ruins of two castles, Forter and New- 
ton, which belonged to the Ogilvies of Air- 
ly. Population 12G9. 

GLEN KENS, the northern district of 
Kirkcudbrightshire, comprehending the 
valley watered by the river Ken, and part 
of the high lands which divide Galloway 
from Carrick. It is divided into four parish- 
es. The Glenkens breed of Sheep and black 
cattle is much famed. 

GLENKINLAS, a vale in Argyleshire. 
GLENLEDNOCK, a vale in Perthshire. 
GLENLIVET, a district in Banffshire. 
GLENLOCHAY, a vale in Argyie and 
Perth shires, near Loch Tay. 

GLENLOCHAY, a valley in Perthshire, 
in Breadalbane. 

GLENLOCHAY, a valley in Inverness- 
shire. 

GLENLOTH, a vale in Sutherlandshire. 
GLENLUCE, a district of Wigtonshire, 
watered by the river Luce. It is now di- 
vided into two parishes, called Old and New 
Luce. Glenluce is still the name of a con- 
siderable village in that district, situated 
at the discharge of the river Luce into the 
; : bay of the same name, containing upwards 



6tE 



127 



of 200 inhabitants. The beautiful seat of 
Balcail is situated immediately N. of the 
village. 

GLENLYON, a long narrow vale in 
Braidalbin in Perthshire, watered by the 
river Lyon. (See FORTINGAL.) 

GLENMORE, a valley in Perthshire, 13 
miles N. of Blair- Athol. 

GLENMORE, a district of Moray and In- 
verness-shires, abounding with wood, which 
is of excellent quality, and is floated down 
the Spey to Garmouth, (q. v.) 

GLEN-MORE-NA-HrALABIN, " the 
great glen of Caledonia," is aname applied 
to that valley which runs from N. E. to S. 
W. the whole breadth of the kingdom, from 
the Moray frith at Inverness to the Sound 
of Mull, below Fort William, and which is 
almost filled with extensive lakes. The 
distance in a direct line is little more than 
50 miles, and of this the navigable lakes, 
Loch Ness, Loch Oich, and Loch Lochy, 
make near 40. It is through this tract that 
the Caledonian Canal is now cutting. 

GLENMORISTON, a valley in Inver- 
ness-shire. 

GLENMOY, a vale in Angus-shire, near 
Brechin. 

GLENMUC-CLEUGH, a ridge of hills in 
Dumfries-shire, composed entirely of lime- 
stone. 

GLENMUICK, a large parish in the dis- 
trict of Marr, Aberdeenshire, formed by the 
union of the parishes of Glenmuick, Tul- 
loch, and Glengairn. It lies about 40 
miles W. from Aberdeen. It is about IS 
miles long, and 1 5 broad, intersected by the 
Dee, and several of its tributary streams. 
The soil is shallow and early, producing 
goodgrain. The hills are of considerable 
elevation ; many of them covered with 
wood to the summit. The lake of Kan- 
nor is about 3 miles in circumference, in 
which are several islands, with ruins upon 
them. There are several other ruinous 
castles in the parish, particularly the cas- 
tle of Cnoe, Dee castle, and Glengairn. In 
this district are the mineral wells of Pan- 
nanach, on the banks of the Dee. There 
is a vein of lead ore near the castle of Glen- 
gairn. Limestone abounds in this district. 
Population 1781. 

GLENNEVIS, a valley of Inverness-shire, 
near Fort William. 

GLENORCHAYandlNISHAIL, an un- 
ited parish, situated in the county of Ar- 
gyle, on the bordersof Perthshire, upwards 
of 24 miles long, but of an unequal breadth- 
The whole district is mountainous and hil-- 
ly, excepting the vale of Glenorchay. The 



G L E 

river Orchay glides through the middle, dr* 
viding it into two parts. The church and 
manse are situated on a beautiful oblong 
islet, formed in the bed of the Orchay, up- 
wards of a mile in circumference, every 
where bordered with Coppices and natu* 
ral woods to the river side, The hills and 
moors, which some years ago were covered 
with heath, are, since the introduction of 
Sheep, gradually getting a rich sward, and 
afford excellent pasture. There are still 
some traets of natural wood in Glenorchay. 
The banks of Loch Aw are covered with 
plantations of various kinds of wood. At 
the east end of Loch Aw stands the ruins- 
ofthe Castle of Kilchurn. On a small is- 
land, called Fraoch Elan, are the ruins of 
a castle. There is another ruinous castle 
at Auchallader, in the upper part of the 
parish. In the island of Inishail the re- 
mains of a small monastry, with its chapel, 
are to be seen. The chief hills are Bein- 
doran, Beinlaoi, and Chruachan. Besides 
Loch Aw there are several lakes, and ma- 
ny rivulets which abound with trout, and 
some salmon. The military road from Stir- 
ling to Inverary and Fort William passes 
through the parish. Cobalt, talc, asbestine 
filaments, and a beautiful green jasper, 
have been found in the fragments of the 
mountains, which are most of granite, 
with porphyry and a mixture of feldspar. 
Limestone is quarried in several parts of 
the parish. Population 1743. 

GLENPROSSEN, a valley in Forfarshire, 
in the parish of Kirriemuir. 

GLENQUIECH, a valley in Angus-shire, 
near Kirriemuir. 

GLENQUIECH, a valley in Perthshire, 

GLENROY, a valley in Inverness- shire, 
in which are the celebrated parallel or Fin- 
galian roads. (See K1LMANIVAIG.) 

GLENSBEE (SPITTAL of), a pass into-' 
the Highlands, near the head of the Black 
water, or Shee. It is a stage on the mili-- 
tary road to Fort George, 77 miles from' 
Edinburgh. 

GLENSHIEL, a parish in Ross-shire, a 
Highland district, extending from the N, 
W. side of Loch Duich, 16 miles long, and 
from 1 and a half to 4 miles in breadth. It 
consists chiefly of two valleys on the sides 
of which the hills rise to a prodigious 
height, almost by a perpendicular ascent. 
The interjacent valleys are covered with 
grass and some natural wood ; but the pro- 
portion of arable ground is inconsiderable. 
The shores abound with fish, and Loch 
Duich is annually visited by shoali of Her- 
ring. In the heights of the parish is the 



GOI 

pass of Glenshiel, famous for a battle be- 
tween the English troops and the Highland 
adherents of King James, led by the Earl 
of Seaforth, in which the latter were de- 
feated. Population in 1801, 728. 

GLENTANAR, a parish in Aberdeen- 
shire, united to that of Abovne. (q. v.) 

GLENTILT, a pass in the Highlands of 
Athole, famous for the warriors which it an- 
ciently produced, and the dangerous road 
■which runs through it. It is several miles 
in length, bounded on each side by moun- 
tains of an amazing height. On the S. is 
the great hill of Beinglo. The sides of ma- 
ny of these mountains are covered with fine 
verdure, and are excellent sheep walks. 
The road (says Mr Pennant) is the most dan- 
gerous and horrible I ever travelled. 

GLENTRATHEN, or LINTRATHEN, 
a parish in Forfarshire, about 8 miles long, 
and 4 broad, elevated on the skirts of the 
Grampian mountains. It has a bleak and 
barren aspect. The surface is composed of 
hills, valleys, and mountains ; possesses few 
spots which admit of culture, and even these 
spots are of a thin moorish soil, yielding an 
inferior quality of grain. It is watered by 
the Isla. Here are the ruins of a castle. A 
lake about a mile in diameter, gives rise to 
one of the principal streams of the Melgam. 
Population 958. 

GLENTURRET, a romantie vale in 
Perthshire. 

GLENURQUHART, a valley In Inver- 
ness-shire. 

GLEN WHURRYCLEUGH, a hill on the 
"N. of Dumfries-shire. 

GLIMSHOLM, one of the smaller Orkney 
isles, nearly 2 miles S. of Pomona. 

GLITNESS, one of the smaller Shetland 
isles, 11 miles N. by E. of Lerwick. 

GOATFIELD, or GAOILEHEIN, a lofty 
mountain in the island of Arran. It is ele- 
vated 2S 40 feet. 

GOIL (LOCH), a small arm of the sea in 
Argyleshire, which strikes off from Loch 
Long. 

GOLSPY, a parish in Sutherlandshire, ex- 
tending along the coast about 10 miles, and 
from 1 to 2 in breadth, divided by the rivu- 
let of Golspy, at the mouth of which is the 
village, containing nearly 300 inhabitants. 
Dunrobin castle is situated on an eminence 
near the shore. Near Craigton, a subterra- 
neous building has been discovered, having 
an entry from the surface by a hole 2 feet and 
a half square, and leading to an apartment 
1 1 feet square, and 9 feet high, covered with 
flag stones. The arable soil is in general 
light, but of good quality, and tolerably fer« 



i::s 



GOT 



tile. The shores abound with all sorts of 
fish. Freestone and grey slate are abundant. 
Population 1391. 

GOMETRA, a small basaltic island of the 
Hebrides, between Mull and Staffa, Cattle 
and horses are reared, and kelp manufactur- 
ed. 

GOODIE, a.small river in Perthshire, issu- 
ingfrom the loch of Monteith, andfallsinto 
the Forth at the bridge of Frew. 

GORBALS of Glasgow. (See Glasgow.) 
GORDON, a parish in the district of Lau- 
derdale, Berwickshire, about 7 miles long, 
varies from 2 to 4 in breadth. The surface 
is uneven, but most of the hills are under 
cultivation. The parish is watered by the 
Eden and Blackadder, and the great road 
I from Edinburgh to London by Greenlaw runs 
| through it. Population 851.— The VIL- 
| LAGE of GORDON lies on the road from E- 
dinburgh to Kelso, 8 miles N. W. from the 
latter. 
j GOULDIE, a village in the parish of Mo- 
nikief, Forfarshire. Population about 200. 
j GOU RDON, a fishing village in the parish 
of Bervie, Kincardineshire. It lies about 2 
miles S. of the burgh of Inverbervie. P. 200. 
! GOUROCK, a small town in Renfrewshire, 
parish of Innerkip, pleasantly situated on a 
bay of that name 3 miles W.from Greenock. 
It is a great resort in the summer season fo* 
those who frequent the seabathing. 
I GO VAN, a parish in Lanark and Renfrew 
; shires, about 5 miles long, and from 3 to 4 
; in breadth. The Clyde, which is here navi- 
I gable to vessels drawing 8 feet water, divides 
I it nearly into two equal parts. On each side 
of the river a fine plain extends about a mile 
| and a half in breadth, adorned with beauti- 
ful plantations and villas. The Kelvin, in 
passing through this parish, is of great ser- 
vice in the working of machinery, and wa- 
ters 5 or 6 extensive bleachfields. There is 
plenty of freestone ; and brick and clay, and 
coal have been wrought for many years, A- 
bout 2 miles S. of the church, are the re- 
mains of an old castle, of Gothic architec- 
ture, built in 1585 ; and near the Kelvin 
are the remains of an edifice, erected in 
1G11, for the country residence of the bi- 
shops of Glasgow. Population 3500, exclu- 
sive of that part which is considered as sub- 
urbs of Glasgow.- -The VILLAGE of GO- 
VAN is situated on the S. bank of theCIyde, 
2 miles and a half below Glasgow. It con- 
tains 800 or 900 inhahitants. 

GOWRIE. (See Carse of Gowrle and 
Blairgowrie.) 

GR^MSAY, one of the Orkney islands, a 
mile and a half long, and I broad. A great 



SEA 3 

part is arable, and only a few sheep are 
reared in the hilly district. Pop. 190. 

GRAHAM STON, a village in the parish 
of Falkirk, Stirlingshire, a mile and a half 
N. of that town. The road to Carron pass* 
es through it. 

GRAHAMSTON, a village in the ba- 
rony parish of Glasgow, (q. v.) 

GRA1TNEY, a parish and village in 
Dumfries-shire, 6 miles along the Solway 
Frith, and three broad. It is in general 
fiat. The soil is fertile and well cultivated. 
There are several harbours on the Solway 
Frith, where vessels of considerable bur- 
den can unload, particularly at the small 
villages of Sarkfoot, Reidkirkpoint, Brow- 
houses, &c. The Sark and Kirtle rivulets 
intersect the parish for several miles. The 
new village of Springfield, lately built, pro- 
mises to be a thriving manufacturing sta- 
tion. The village of Graitney is the first 
stage in Scotland, on the road from Eng- 
land by Moffat to Edinburgh, and has been 
long famous in the annals of matrimonial 
adventure, for the marriages of fugitive lo- 
vers from England. Graitney-hall has been 
lately 'fitted up as a commodious stage inn, 
bytheEarl of Hopetoun, the proprietor. In 
the neighbourhood of the village is the ele- 
gant mansion-house of Springkell. At Grait- 
ney Mains are the remains of an oval Drui- 
dical temple. Population 1749. 

GRAMPIAN MOUNTAINS, that chain 
of hills which extend across the island, 
from the district of Cowal in Argyleshire, 
on the Atlantic, to Aberdeen on the Ger- 
man ocean; and there forming another 
ridge in a north westerly direction, extends 
through Aberdeenshire to Moray and the 
borders of Inverness. The southern front 
of the first ridge has in many places a gra- 
dual and pleasant slope into a champaign 
country, of great extent and fertility ; and, 
notwithstanding the forbidding aspect of 
the mountains, withtheir coverings of heath 
and rugged rocks, they are intersected by 
winding valleys, watered by rivers and 
brooks of the most limpid water, clad with 
the richest pastures, sheltered by thriving 
woods thatfringe the lakes, and run on each 
side of the streams, and are accessible in 
most places by excellent roads. The rivers 
in the deep defiles struggle to find a pas- 
sage ; and often the opposite hills approach 
so near, that the waters are precipitated 
with incredible force and deafening noise. 
Beyond these, plains of various extent ap- 
pear, with villages and cultivated fields. 
The N. side of the Grampians is more rug- 
ged in its appearance, and the huge masses 



are seen piled on one another in the most 
awful magnificence. The height of these 
mountains varies from 1400 feet. Along the 
S. base lies Strathmore, or " great vale," a 
term which is often given to the strath from 
Dunbarton to Aberdeen. Many of the hills 
are evidently volcanic, and composed of ba- 
saltics and lava. Precious stones abound 
in the Aberdeenshire mountains, and the 
cairngorum topazes are well known. 

GRANGE, a parish in Banffshire, about 
6 miles long, from N. to S. and 5 broad. It 
extends N. from the banks of the river Is- 
la, in three long but low ridges, terminat- 
ing in the mountains called the Knock-hill, 
the Lurg-hill, and the hill of Altmore. The 
low ground is in general well cultivated, 
and has extended nearly half way up the 
neighbouring hills. On the banks of the Is- 
la, the ground is tolerably dry and early ; 
but the N. district is cold, wet, and unpro- 
ductive. There are inexhaustible q uarries 
of the best limestone. It is intersected by 
j roads in every direction from Banff, Cullen, 
and Aberdeen, &c. Here is the ruinous 
castle of Grange, once the residence of the 
! abbots of Kinloss; much of ancient magni- 
. ficence still remains. Population 1529. 
| GRANGEMOUTH, a village in the pa- 
rish of Falkirk, Stirlingshire, 5 miles E. 
by N. of Falkirk, at the junction of the 
great canal with the Carron, and consists 
chiefly of one street and some lanes. It was 
begun by Sir Lawrence Dundas in 1777, 
and is now a place of considerable impor - 
tance. It has a dry dock, a rope work, and 
a custom-house, with spacious warehouses 
for goods. It carries on a considerable 
trade with the Baltic and Norway, and has 
also a good coasting trade. Population 800. 
GRANTOWN, a village in "the parish of 
Cromdale, in Morayshire, 12 miles S. of 
Forres. It is neatly built, with a Town- 
house and prison of elegant architecture. 
Besides the parish school there is another 
where Latin, French, &c. are taught. 
Here is also an hospital for Orphans, which 
maintains 30 poor children. It lies on the 
great road to Inverness, and contains about 
400 inhabitants. 

GREENHOLM, one of the'Orkneys, a mile 
and a half S. W. of the Island of Eday. 

GREENHOLM, one of the Shetland is- 
lands, lying 10 miles N. N. W. of the town 
of Lerwick. 

GREENLAW a parish in the county of 
Berwick, 7 or 8 miles long, and on an ave- 
rage 2 broad. The surface is in general le- 
vel. The soil in the S. part of the parish 
\ it exceedingly fertile, but, towards the N, 



G R B 1 

of a very inferior quality ; and, on the 
northern borders, is only fit for sheep pas- 
ture. The house of Marchmont, is situat- 
ed about a mile or two from the town. 
There are the remains of two religious, 
houses which were dependent on the priory 
of Kelso. Popu. 1 260.— The TOWN OF 
GREENLAW lies 7 miles and a half W. of 
Dunse. The town is situated nearly in the 
centre of the county, and is a burgh of ba- 
rony, held in feu, from the Earl of March- 
mont. After the town of Berwick was 
taken by the English, the Courts of Justice 
were removed to Dunse, and shortly after 
established in the town of Greenlaw, which 
is still the county town. It contains a- 
bout COO inhabitants. 

GREENOCK, a parish in Renfrewshire, 
It extends about 4 miles and a half along 
the'Frith of Clyde, indented by several bays, 
where there is safe anchorage. Excepting 
a stripe of level ground along the shore, the 
surface is hilly, agreeably diversified, and 
watered on the S. by the river Gryfe. The 
•village of Crawford's-dike, nearly adjoining 
to the town of Greenock, is a burgh of ba- 
rony, erected in 1653 by King Charles II. 
The mansion-house of Greenock is a large 
modem building, situated on a considera- 
ble eminence S. from the town. Popula- 
tion 19,042—The TOWN of GREENOCK 
lies 22 miles W. of Glasgow. It is situated 
on a narrow strip of land, between a high 
bank to the S. and the sea on the N. The 
principal street extends from E. to W. near- 
ly a mile, and there are other parallel streets 
along the quays. It contains a number of 
elegant buildings. In the centre of the 
town is a square, on the S. of which is a 
neat church ; a theatre, an infirmary, a 
bridewell ; and a large house for a Coffee- 
room, assembly-rooms, &c. have been late- 
ly built. Greenock was erected into a burgh 
of barony by Charles I. It is governed by 
two bailies and nine councillors ; the reve- 
nue is about L.2000 per annum. The har- 
bour is very spacious and commodious ; 
within these few years the quays have been 
removed farther out to a greater depth of 
water, and new quays have been built to 
the eastward of the old harbour, at which 
there is from 16 to 20 feet water, and from 
6 to 7 at low water. It is now capable of 
containing 500 sail of ships, and has been 
completed at the expense of L. 60,000. The 
trade of this port is so considerable, that 
Greenock is-now the first port in Scotland. 
The great canal has opened to it an exten- 
sive trade to the E. coast of the kingdom, 
particularly London, Leith, Dundee, and 



I G R O 

Aberdeen. Greenock is also deeply engag- . 
ed in the herring and Newfoundland fishe- 
ries. It has five houses for refining sugar, 
and four large rope works, besides a few on a 
small scale; two dry docks, in which ships 
of 500 tons can be repaired; 5 Ship-buil- 
ders' yards, where vessels of 800 tons have 
been built, a tan-work, the largest in Scot- 
land ; and two iron foundries ; and also two 
banking companies. It contains three pa- 
rish churches, a Gaelic chapel of ease, 2 
United Secession, Relief, and Missionary 
meeting-houses. Population of the town 
and parish 25,000. 

GREENOCK, a small tributary stream of 
the river Ayr, which it joins near the vil- 
lage of Catrine. 

GRIMSAY, an island of the Hebrides, 
valuable only for its kelp, lying between N. 
Uist and Benbecula. 

GRIMSHADER (LOCH), an arm of the 
sea, in the island of Lewis, near the town 
of Stornaway. 

GROAT'S HOUSE(JOHNO*),amemora- 
ble place in the parish of Canisbay, in'Caith- 
ness r which, perhaps, owes its fame less 
to the circumstances of its local situation, 
at the northern extremity of the island, 
than to an event which it may not be im- 
proper to relate. In the reign of James IV. 
three brothers, Malcolm, Gavin, and John 
de Groat, (supposed to have been originally 
from Holland,) arrived in Caithness, with a 
letter from that prince, recommending them 
to the protection of his loving subjects in 
the county of Caithness. These brothers 
purchased some land near Dungisbay-head, 
and, in a short time, by the increase of their 
families, 8 different proprietors of the name 
of Groat possessed these lauds, in equal di- 
visions. These 8 families having lived 
peaceably and comfortably for a number of 
years, established an annual meeting, to 
celebrate the anniversary of the arrival of 
their ancestors on the coast. In the course 
of the festivity on one of these occasions, a 
question arose respecting the right of tak- 
ing the door, the head of the table, &c. 
which increased to such a degree as would 
probably have proved fatal in its conse- 
quences, had not John de Groat interfered. 
He expatiated on the comfort they had here- 
tofore enjoyed, and assured them, that, as 
soon as they appeared to quarrel amongst 
themselves, their neighbours, who had till 
then treated them with respect, would fall 
upon them, and expel them the country: 
he therefore conjured them, by the ties of 
blood, and their mutal safety, to return 
quietly to their several homcs,.and pledged 



GRY 



GUT 



himself that he would satisfy them on all 
points of precedency, and prevent the pos- 
sibility of such disputes at their future anni- 
versary meetings. They all acquiesced, and 
departed in peace. In due time, John de 
Groat, to fulfil his engagement, built a 
room, distinct from all other houses, in an 
octagon figure, with S doors, and having 
placed a table of oak of the same shape in 
the middle, when the next meeting took 
place, he desired each of them to enter by 
his own door, and tositatthe head of the 
table, he himself occupying the last. By 
this ingenuous contrivance, the harmony 
and good humour of the company were re- 
stored. The building was then named John 
©' Groaf s House; and, though nothing re- 
mains but the foundation of the building, 
the place still retains the name. 

GRUGAG, a river in the parish of Edder- 
town, in Ross-shire, which falls over a pre- 
cipice nearly 300 feet high. 

GRUNNOCK (LOCH), a lake in the pa- 
rish of Girthon, in Kirkcudbrightshire,about 
5 miles in length, and 1 in breadth, remar- 
kable for the vast numbers of charr it con- 
tains. 

GRYFE, a considerable riverin Renfrew- 
shire. It has its source in the high moors 
in the parish of Greenock, and runs a very 
rapid course through the parishes of Kilma- 
colm, Houston, and Kilbarchan, to the low 
country at Fullwood, after which it moves 
slowly, in a serpentine course, receiving the 



Black Cart at VValkinshaw, and the White 
Cart at Inchinan-biidge, and falls into the 
Clyde about a mile below Renfrew. It a 
bounds with trout and perch, and near its 
mouth salmon are plenty in the proper sea 
sons. It also gives motion to several cotton 
mills. This river anciently gave the name 
of Strathgryfe to the district which is now 
termed Renfrew. 

GOLAN, a small straggling village in the 
parish of Dirleton, county of Haddington. 
The promontory called GULANNESS, is 
the point where the Frith of Forth opens 
into the German ocean. 

GUMSCLEUCH, a mountain in Peebles- 
shire, parish of Traquair, elevated 2200 feet 
above the level of the sea. 

GUNNA, a small island of the Hebrides, 
lying in the sound betwixt the islands of 
Coll and Tiry. 

GUTHRIE, a parish in Angns-shire, one 

lit of the parish is separated at least 6 
miles from the other, and lies directly S. 
from it. Its superficial contents are about 
2700 acres, of which 500 are moor. The 
remainder, with the exception of 80 acres 
loss, and 00 under plantations, is arable., 
or under pasture. From the hill of Guth- 
rie, the surface gradually descends towards 
the S. and S. E. The castle of Guthrie is a 
strong building, still very entire. In the 
southern district of the parish is part of a 
Roman camp, the vallum and fosse of which 
are very distinct Population 556. 



H 



HAD 



HAD 



HADDINGTONSHIRE, or EAST LO- 
THIAN, is bounded on the W. by 
Edinburghshire, on the N. by the Frith of 
Forth, on the E. by the German Ocean, 
and on the S. by the great ridge of the Larn- 
mermuir hills. It extends about 25 miles 
in length, and from 12 to 16 in breadth. It 
is one of the most fertile counties in the 
kingdom. Towards the S. the surface is 
rugged and mountainous, but well adapted 
for the pasturage of sheep. The county is 
intersected by many streams of clear water, 
none of which deserve the name of river, 
except the Tyne. Agriculture is well un- 
derstood here. The inhabitants on the sea 
coast employ themselves in the fishery and 
salt-making. In the inland parts, several 
branches of the linen and woollen manu- 



facture have been established. A t Preston- 
pans, a great manufacture of vitriol has 
been established ; and near the same place 
the manufacture of sal-ammoniac has been 
for some time carried on. Haddingtonshire 
contains three royal burghs, viz. Hadding- 
ton, North Berwick, and Dunbar; and se- 
veral populous towns and villages, as Tra- 
nent, Prestonpans, Aberlady, Dirleton, &c. 
It abounds with excellent coal, freestone, 
and limestone. Ironstone is also found in the 
parish of Humbie. Belonging to this coun- 
ty are the islands of Bass and Fiddrie. The 
whole county is divided into 24 parishes, 
containing 51,0.57 inhabitants. 

HADDINGTON, a parish in the above 
county, 6 miles square, containing 12,00t) 
acres. Towardsthe \V. the soil is barren 



HAL 



HAM 



and unproductive ; but the rest of the parish 
is arable, well enclosed, and in a high state 
of cultivation. The Tyne intersects the 
parish. It contains several elegant seats. 
About a mile below the town, on the N. 
bank of the Tyne, stood the abbey of Had- 
dington, founded in 117S. A small frag- 
ment of one of the walls is all that now re- 
mains of this fabric. Population 4370 

The BURGH of HADDINGTON, the coun- 
ty town of East Lothian, lies 16 miles E. of 
Edinburgh. It is situated on a plain on 
the left bank of the Tyne, and consists of 4 
streets, which intersect each other. The 
S. or High-street, is bread and spacious, 
containing many fine and elegant houses ; 
the other streets are clean and handsome, 
having many good houses. On the S. side 
of the town is the church of the Franciscans. 
The W. end of the church was repaired 
within these few years, in a style of great 
magnificence, in the Gothic taste. The 
great tower and choir are unroofed, and 
fast going to ruin. This church was an- 
ciently called " theLamp of Lothian, "from 
its magnificence. On the E. side of the 
Nungate is the ruins of St Martin's chapel. 
Haddington has a good grammar school ; 
a school for English, writing, and accounts ; 
and a school for mathematics and geogra- 
phy. In 1224, it was consumed by fire; in 
1355, it was burnt by Edward III. ; and in 
1698, it was almost again consumed. In 
1548, it was taken by the English, and eva- 
cuated in 1549. In 1421, on St Ninian's 
day, it suffered greatly by an inundation; 
and on 4th Oct. 1775, the Tyne rose 17 feet 
perpendicular, and laid half the town un- 
der water. Haddington is governed by a 
provost, 3 bailies, a dean of guild, a trea- 
surer, and 19 councillors, and ha3 9 incor- 
porated trades. It joins with Dunbar, 
North Berwick, Jedburgh, and Lauder, in 
sending a member to parliament. Its re- 
venues amount to upwards of L. 1400. On 
Friday it has a weekly market for all kinds 
of grain, said to be the greatest in Scotland. I 
In the town are a woollen manufactory and j 
three tan-works. On the opposite bank of I 
the Tyne is the Nungate, a suburb of the j 
town, connected with it by a bridge of 3 | 
arches. Haddington gives the title of Earl 
to a branch of the Hamilton family. (See 
THORN ABBEY.) Population 4370. 

HADDO, a small town in the parish of 
Methlick, Aberdeenshire, 9 miles N. N. E. 
from Inverury. 

HALBORN-HEAD, a promontory in 
Caithness, on the VV. side of Thurso bay. 
HALFMORTON.a district in Dumfri«i. 



shire, in the parish of Langholm. See 
LANGHOLM. 

HALKIRK, a parish in Caithness-shire, 
bounded on the N. by Thurso, is 24 miles 
long, the breadth varies from 7 to 12. The 
soil is in general good. The surface is ge- 
nerally flat, though there are several rising 
grounds. Great numbers of sheep are rear- 
ed ; but the greatest attention is paid to the 
raising of oats and barley. A great part, 
however, is still waste, and covered with 
lakes and swamps. There are 24 large and 
small lakes, which give rise to numerous 
streams, among which are the rivers of 
Thurso and Forse. There is limestone and 
marl. Of antiquities, the castle of Braal 
claims the first notice. It is one of the fin- 
est places in Caithness, and of the strongest 
massive construction. The castles of Dirlet, 
Lochmore, and Auchnavern, are also an- 
cient edifices. Population 2532. 

HALADALE, a river which takes its rise 
at the base of the Bein-Griam mountains, 
and, after a course of 20 miles, falls into the 
Pentland Frith at Bighouse bay. It forms 
the boundary for several miles between the 
counties of Sutherland and Caithness. 

HALAVAILS, two mountains in the isle 
of Sky, elevated about 2000 feet, and within 
a mile of each other, affording a good land- 
mark. 

HAMILTON, a parish in Lanarkshire, 6 
miles square, in the centre of the middle 
ward. It is watered by the Clyde and Avon, 
over which there are 3 bridges. On the 
banks of the Clyde lie extensive meadows 
and holms, with a rich fertile soil. The 
ground rises gradually to the S. W. ; the 
highest parts are about 600 feet above the 
level of the sea, but without forming any 
hills, or becoming remarkably uneven. The 
land is all arable, except the steep banks of 
the Avon, some swampy meadows, and 
those parts which are covered with natural 
wood. The soil is in general good; but, 
upon the whole, this parish is rather a beau- 
tiful than a fertile country. Coal is wrought 
in several places in the neighbourhood of 
the town. Limestone has been wrought for 
upwards of a century. Freestone and Iron- 
stone abound, and many springs contain 
iron in solution. There are several beds of 
steatites, or rock soap ; and clay of the finest 
kind, fit for the making of earthen ware. 
Population 6455.— The TOWN of HAMIL- 
TON lies 11 miles S. E. of Glasgow. It is 
handsome, though irregularly built, and 
noted for the palace of the noble family of 
Hamilton. It lies along the bottom of a 
rising ground, extending nearly a mile in 



H A R 1 

length. It has a neat town-house and pri- 
son, a parish church, and commodious build- 
ings for the market-places. It has 3 hospi- 
tals, where 21 old men are maintained. It 
is uncertain when the town was built, but 
it was erected into a burgh of barony in 
1456. In 1548, it was erected by Queen 
Wary into a royal burgh ; but the rights and 
privileges thus acquired from the crown 
were resigned into the hands of William 
Duke of Hamilton after the Reformation, 
■who, in 1670, restored to the community its 
former privileges, and erected it into a 
burgh of regality, dependent on him and 
his successors, in which state it still re- 
mains. The residence of the family of 
Hamilton necessarily renders it a gay 
place; indeed, its race3 are amongst the 
best attendedin the west of Scotland. The 
women have been long famous forthe spin- 
ning of linen yarn. In the cotton manu- 
facture, S00 looms are employed. Hamil- 
ton contains about 4000 inhabitants. A 
fine square of barracks for cavalry has been 
lately erected in the vicinity of the town. 
Hamilton house, or palace, forms 3 sides of 
a quadrangle, and appears to have been built 
at different periods. Several of the rooms 
are very large, particularly the gallery, 
which contains a collection of pictures, one 
of the best in Scotland. On a rock over- 
hanging the W. bank of the Avon, stand 
the ruins of Cadzow castle, the ancient ma- 
nor-house. Opposite to these ruins, on the 
other side of the Avon, is a building, said 
to have been a representation of the castle 
of Chatelherault in Normandy, from which 
the family of Hamilton have the title of 
Duke of Chatelherault in France. A little 
below Cadzow is Barncluith, or rather the 
remains of it. It is much resorted to by 
strangers for the fine prospect it commands 
of the wooded banks of the Avon, and the 
fertile vales on the sides of the Clyde. The 
roads from Glasgow to Edinburgh, and from 
Edinburgh to Ayr, pass through the town. 

HANDA, a small island on the W. coast 
of the county of Sutherland, separatedfrom 
the mainland by a narrow sound. It is a 
mile square, affording excellent pasture for 
a few sheep. 

HANGINGSHAWLAW, a mountain in 
the county of Selkirk, elevated 19S0 feet. 

H ARL AW, a place in Garioch, Aberdeen ■ 
shire, where a great battle was fought in 
1411, between the royal forces under the 
Earl of Marr, and the forces of Donald, 
Lord of the Isles. 

HARPORT (LOCH), a safe harbour on 
the S. W. coast of the Isle of Skye. 



i H A R 

HARRAY, a parish in the island of Po- 
mona, in Orkney, united to the parish of 
Birsay. It is 7 miles and a half long, and 
of irregular breadth, containing about 20 
square miles. Population 691. 

HARRIS, a district of the Hebrides, 
comprehending the southern part of Lewis, 
and the small islands which surround it, 
of which Eemeray, Calligray, Ensay, Pab- 
bay, Taransay, Scalpay, and Scarp, only are 
inhabited ; besides a vast number of pas- 
ture and kelp isles, holms , and high rocks, 
which are also distinguished by particular 
names. The mainland of Harris is separ- 
ated from Lewis by a narrow isthmus of 
about 6 miles, formed by the approximation 
of the two harbours of Loch Resort and Loch 
Seaforth. The whole length, from the isth- 
mus to the southern end of Harris, where 
the sea separates it from North Uist, may 
be estimated at 25 or 26 miles. Its breadth 
is extremely various, intersected by several 
arms of thesea, but it generally extendsfrom 
6 to 8 miles. Harris is again naturally di- 
vided into two districts by two arms of tha 
sea, called East and West Loch Tarbert, 
which approach so near each other as toleave 
an isthmus of not more than a quarter of a 
mile in breadth. The northern district, be- 
tween Tarbert and Lewis, is termed the 
Forest, though without a tree or shrub. A- 
long the eastern and western shores there 
are a number of creeks or inlets of the sea, 
most of them commodious harbours; at 
each of which a colony of tenants contrive, 
by a wonderful exertion of industry, to raise 
crops from a soil of the most forbidding as- 
pect. The surface of the ground S. of Tar- 
bert is much of the same appearance as the 
northern district; but the hills are not so 
elevated, and the coasts are better adapted 
for culture, and consequently better peopled. 
Kelp is the staple, and excepting the few 
cows sold to the drovers, the only valuable ar- 
ticle of exportation which the country pro- 
duces. On the mainland of Harris there are 
many monuments of druidism, and several 
religious edifices. The different branches of 
the family of Macleod, and of Harris, are pro- 
prietors of the island. Population of Har- 
ris and its islands 3569. 

HARRIS (SOUND of), a navigable chan- 
nel between the islands of Harris and N. 
Uist, 9 miles in length, and 9 in breadth. 
It is the only passage for vessels of burden 
passing from the E. to W. side of that long 
cluster of islands called the Long Island. 
A remarkable variation of the current hap- 
pens in this sound, from the autumnal to 
the vernal equinox ; the current in near> 



HAW 

'tides passes all day from E. to IV., and all 
night in the contrary direction; after the 
vernal equinox, it changes this course, going 
all day from W. to E., and the contrary at 
night : at spring tides, the current corres- 
ponds nearly to the common -course. 

HARTFEL, a mountain in the parish of 
Moffat, in Dumfries-shire, noted for the 
mineral spring called the Hartfel Spa. It 
it 3900 feet above the level of the sea. The 
spring is found at the base of tile mountain, 
in a deep and narrow linn or ravine, the 
sides of which are laid bare to the very top, 
and form a very interesting object to the 
mineralogist, as all the strata are distinctly 
seen. The mountain abounds with iron- 
stone of a rich quality, and there are sever- 
al appearances of lead and copper. 

H ARTFIELD, a mountain in the district 
of Tweeddale, elevated 2S00 feet. 

HAVEN (EAST and WEST), two fish- 
ing villages, about a mile distant from each 
other, in the parish of Panbride, in the coun- 
ty of Forfar. The East Haven contains a- 
bout 120 inhabitants, and the West Ha- 
ven nearly 250. 

H AW 1CK, a parish in the county of Rox- 
burgh, nearly 16 miles long, and 4 and a 
half broad. The general appearance is 
hilly ; but none of the lulls are of remarkable 
size, and all are green, and afford excellent 
sheep pasture. The arable soil is inconsi- 
derable compared with the pasturage. 

HAWICK, is a thriving Town, in the pa- 
rish of that name, and County of Roxburgh, 
on the great road from Edinburgh to Lon- 
don, by Carlisle. It liesj 49 miles south of 
Edinburgh, 44 north of Carlisle, 20 west of 
Kelso, 10 west by north of Jedburgh, and 
11 miles south of Selkirk. The Town stands 
chiefly upon the east bank ofthe river Ti- 
viot, where the water of Slitridge falls into 
that river, and consists principally of the 
High Street, which runs nearly parallel to 
the Tiviot, about half a mile in length, 
with a large market-place at the south end 
of the street. The other parts ofthe Town 
lie upon the south and west sides of the 
Slitridge, over which, there are two stone 
Bridges of communication— one of which 
is very ancient; over the Tiviot, a hand- 
some Bridge forms the communication with 
the country to the north. The High Street 
is broad, regular, and spacious, and con- 
tains many good and handsome buildings, 
the south-west part of the Townl, is more 
irregular. The Town-Hall in the High 
Street, is a commodious plain erection, in 
which arc apartments for transacting the 
uumiupal business of the Town, Justice of 



4 HAW 

Peace Courts, &c. A very handsomebuild- 
ingin Buccleugh Street, called the Sub- 
scription Rooms, was finished in 1821, and 
is a great ornament to this quarter ofthe 
Town. The Academy at the west end of 
the Town, is a handsome and commo- 
dious building, and is most appropriately 
and delightfully situated, for the purpose 
of an extensive seminary of education. The 
Parish Church standsbetween the southern 
and western banks of the Slitridge, on a 
beautiful circular eminence, formed by a 
turn of that river, at the south end of the 
High Street, or market-place, near to the 
two Bridges, which cross that water, and 
form thejunction ofthe two divisions of 
the Town. The Crescent is on the eastern 
bank ofthe Slitridge water, in this quarter 
of the Town, and is a beautiful row of ele- 
gant modern houses. Besides the Parish 
Church, there are in Hawick, twojChurches 
belonging to the United Secession, one 
Relief, one Baptist Meeting House, anda ve- 
ry neat plain Meeting House, in Buccleuch 
Street, belonging to the Society of Friends. 
Hawick is a Burgh of Barony, independent 
ofthe Lord of erection, and appears to have 
existed free from a very early period. But 
the rights and documents of the Burgh, 
having been either lost or destroyed, during 
the inroads ofthe English Borderers, a char- 
ter was granted in 1545, by James Doug- 
las, Comes de Drumlanark, confirming to 
the Burgesses, such rjghts and lands as 
they formerly possessed. This charter was 
confirmed, in toto, by another, granted 
by Queen Mary, in the month of May, of 
the same year. In consequence of these 
charters, the Burgesses elect their Magis- 
trates annually, viz. two Bailies, and two 
representatives of each ofthe seven incor- 
porated trades, which, with fifteen stand- 
ing councillors, elected for life, manage 
the affairs of the Town. Hawick posses- 
es all the immunities and privileges of a 
Royal Burgh, except that of sending Mem- 
bers to Parliament. The revenue of the 
Town, amounts to 4 or L.500 per annum. 
The whole oftheTownis well paved and 
lighted, and most abundantly supplied with 
excellent spring water, conveyed to every 
part ofthe Town by leaden pipes. Hawick 
carries on a very extensive manufacture 
of stockings, which employ between 500 
and 600 stocking frames. In the spin- 
ning and carding of wool, chiefly lamb's 
wool, much business is done. There are 
eight or ten carding and spinning mills, 
some of them on a large scale, wrought by 
water, containing machinery of the most 



improved construction. It is computed, 
that from eight to nine hundred thousand 
pounds weight of wool, is annually carded 
and spun into yarn, and of this quantity, one 
half is made into hose in Hawick, and the 
remainder sold in Glasgow, and other ma- 
nufacturing towns m England ; carpets and 
blankets are also manufactured here, to a 
considerable amount. The tanning of lea- 
ther, and the dressing of sheep and lamb 
skins, are important branches of trade ; and 
the making of gloves and thongs employ a 
number of hands. Corn and flour mills are 
on the banks of the rivers, and there is a 
large brewery in the town. A branch of 
the British Linen Company's Bank, has long 
been established here. There are two pub- 
lic libraries in Hawick, and two reading 
rooms, amply supplied with the London and 
provincial newspapers. A mechanics* in- 
stitution, or school of aits, has lately been 
established, which promises to be of the 
utmost utility. The agricultural society, or 
farmers' club, instituted here in 1776, was 
among the first establishments of the kind 
in Scotland. Hawick may be considered 
as the first trading and manufacturing 
town in the South of Scotland. Hawick 
and its environs are the admiration of eve 
ry stranger. The banks of the Tiviot are 
extremely picturesque and delightful, and 
the approach to the town from the south, 
can no where be surpassed in beauty. The 
extensive nursery grounds, which are in 
the immediate vicinity of the town, contain 
a most extensive collection of all the fruit 
and forest trees, flower plants, roots, &c. 
which have been naturalized in this coun- 
try. These extensive grounds add much 
to the embellishment of the surrounding 
romantic scenery. The fanners, or win- 
nowing machine, which maybe said to have 
been the first attempt to abridge agricultu- 
ral manual labour by machinery, was the 
invention of Andrew Rodger, a farmer in 
this parish, in the year 1737, and at that 
period met with great opposition, as setting 
aside the good old way ! The celebrated 
Gavin Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld, the 
Scottish poet, and translator of Virgil, was 
sector of Hawick. The weekly market day 
is Thursday, and four annual fairs are held 
here, viz. on the 17th of May, 17th of July, 
21st of September, and the Sth of Novem- 
ber. A cattle tryst is held on the 3d Tues- 
day in October, to which immense num- 
bers of black cattle are brought to sale, in 
passing from Falkirk tryst, to Carlisle and 
Newcastle fairs. Population of the town 
and parish, by the census of 1821, 4387. 



H E B 

H E B R I D E S, nr the WESTERN IS- 
LANDS. These islands are nearly 200 in 
number, lie scattered in the Atlantic, to the 
W. of the mainland of Scotland. The small 
islands or holms amount to about 160, of 
which a fourth are sometimes inhabited in 
the summer. In superficial extent, the He- 
brides rather exceed 3184 square miles, or 
1,592,000 Scots acres, or 2,037,760 English 
acres, nearly a 12th of Scotland, or a 50th 
of Great Britain. They are named by an- 
cient writers the Hebrides, iEbudae, or JE- 
modsB, but were never accurately known or 
described till the beginning of the 16th cen- 
tury, when a description of them was pub- 
lished by Donald Monro, High Dean of the 
Isles. The ancient history of these islands 
is involved in great obscurity ; and many 
I fabulous stories are told by Boethius and 
I Buchanan concerning the ancient inhabi- 
I tants of the Ebndas. They appear to have 
• been under their own princes, and subject 
I to the Scottish monarchs, until the Sth cen- 
tury, when the Danes and Norwegians, who 
had made frequent descents on these is- 
lands, got possession of the greater part of 
them. After a succession of revolutions, 
i however, in which they were sometimes 
claimed by one sovereign, and sometimes 
under the domination of another, they were 
! finally ceded to Scotland, by the successor 
of Hacho, after the battle of Largs, for the 
annual tribute of 100 merks. The inhabi- 
tants of these isles observe the same cus- 
toms, wears the same dress, speak the same 
language, and are in every respect similar 
to the Highlanders of Scotland. These is- 
lands were lately possessed by 49 proprietors, 
| 19 having estates from L.50 to L.500 in va- 
lue; 22fromL.500toL.3000, and 8 from 
L.3000toL.lS,000. These islands are di- 
vided into 31 parishes. Every variety of soil 
known in Scotland, occurs in them. Very 
great advances are making in agriculture ; 
but the chief dependence of the inhabitants 
is upon their livestock, the fisheries, and the 
manufacture of kelp. There are generally 
about 1 10,000 head of cattle, of which l-5tb 
is annually exported to the mainland. The 
number of sheep is estimated at 100,000, 
The fisheries bringinto these isles L. 200,000 
per annum, attheexpense of about 120,0001. 
The kelp shores yieldfrom 5000 to 5500 tons r 
of which the Long island furnishes 400O 
tons. The average price is L.16 per ton. 
The total value of the imports, including 
the fisheries, amounts to about L.400,000. 
Potatoes are cultivated so much here, as to 
form4-5ths of the food of the inhabitants. 
Sand-drift is so extensively injurious in some- 



instances, as to destroy one-half of the ara- 
ble land. Broom, whins, and bent grasses, 
are cultivated to prevent the shifting of the 
sand. Population 90,000. 

HEISKER, a small island ofthe Hebrides, 
lying about two leagues westward of North 
Uist. It is only valuable for its kelp shores. 

HELENSBURGH, a village in the pa- 
rish of Row, 8 mile3 W. of Dunbarton. 
It is pleasantly situated on the N. bank of 
the Clyde, opposite to Greenock, at the en- 
trance of the Gair Loch. About half a 
mile E. ofthe village is a suit of cold and 
warm baths, elegantly fitted up. There 
are few manufactures carried on. Popu- 
lation 450. 

HELL'S CLEUGH, a bill in the parish of 
Kirkurd, in Peebles-shire, '2100 feet high. 

HELL'S SKERRIES, a cluster of small 
islands of the Hebrides, about 10 miles W. 
from the island of Rum, so named from the 
violent current which runs through them. 

HELMSDALE, a river of Sutheriandshire. 
It takes its rise from Loch Coyn and several 
other lakes in the parish of Kildonan, and 
running in a S.E. direction, about 20 miles, 
falls into the German Ocean, about 5 miles 
S. of the Ord of Caithness. 

HERIOT, a parish in Edinburghshire, a- 
bout 10 miles in length, and 6 in breadth. 
Towards the N. E. the surface is level, and 
on the banks ofthe Gala and Heriot waters 
there are some fertile meadows, but the ge- 
neral appearance is mountainous. There 
are the remains of several ancient fortifi- 
cations, generally of a circular form. Popu- 
lation 500. 

HERIOT, a small river in Edinburgh- 
shire, which rises at the west end of the 
parish of Heriot, and, after a course of a 
few miles, loses itself in the water of Gala, 
below Haltrees. 

HERMATFA, one ofthe uninhabited 
Harris islands. 

HERMITAGE, a river in the parish of 
Castletown, in Roxburghshire. It falls in- 
to the Liddal, near the English border. 

HKSTON, a small island of Kirkcud- 
brightshire, situated at the mouth ofthe 
river Urr. 

HIGHLANDS, one ofthe two greater di- 
visions of Scotland, applied to the moun- 
tainous part of the country to the N. and N. 
W. in contradistinction to the Lowlands, 
which occupy the E. and S. E. district. The 
Highlands are generally subdivided into 2 
parts, the West Highlands, and the North 
Highlands ; the former of which contains 
the shires of Dunbarton, Bute, part ofPerth 
and Argyle, with the islands belonging to 



136 II I G 

them, and the latter comprehending the 
counties of Inverness, Ross, Sutherland,the 
districts of Athol, Rannoch, and the isles 
of Sky, Lewis, belonging to Inverness 
and Ross; Breadalbane, Marr, and Mon- 
teith, forming a third or central division. 
The extent of this great district from Dun- 
barton to the borders of Caithness, is up- 
wards of 200 miles, and its breadth varies 
from 80 to 100. The whole is wild, rugged, 
and mountainous in the highest degree. 
Many of these mountains are elevated to a 
great height. The vales at their bases are 
generally occupied by lakes, or the precipi- 
tous rivers which pour in torrents from the 
hills. The great rivers of the country have 
their rise in these wilds, descending to the 
ocean with great rapidity. Of these the 
Tay, the Spey, and the Forth, are the chief. 
Until the beginning ofthe last century, no 
regular roads and bridges had been made 
in the Highlands, and the entries from the 
Lowlands were often impassable for the 
greater part ofthe year.--Hence the inha- 
bitants, being prevented from commerce 
and acquaintance with the more cultivated 
part of the country, were likely long to con- 
tinue attached to their ancient customs 
and manners, unless some expedients were 
found to introduce trade and industry a- 
mong them. To produce this desirable ef- 
fect, General Wade, in 1724, being ordered 
by a commission from George I. travelled 
over the most difficult and dangerous pass- 
es of the mountains, and, in his progress, 
projected the bold undertaking of making 
smooth and spacious roads in that confused 
and rugged district. In 1726 he began the 
work, which he completed in 17.37, employ- 
ing in it only 500 soldiers, under proper offi- 
cers. Wherever the hills permit, they run 
in straight lines, notwithstanding the rocks 
and bogs which often interpose. The large 
stones which were raised out of the ground 
by means of an engine, are set up by the 
road side, to serve as guides in deep snows; 
and, at every 5 measured miles are pillars, 
to i nform the traveller how far he has pro- 
ceeded. The roads enter the mountains 
at 3 different parts of the low country; one 
at Crieff, another at Dunkeld, and the last 
goes along the side of I ochlomond by Luss. 
The general met with many difficulties in 
the prosecution ofthe work, but at length 
had the satisfaction to see them completed. 
Since that period, the military roads have 
been farther extended, opening a ready 
communication with every part of the coun- 
try. In the Highlandsthe feudal system long 
continued ; and, until the year 1748, when 



h o i> 15: 

heritable jmlsdictions were finally abolish-" 
ed, every baron might be said to here the 
power of life and death over his vassals. 
T;he Highlanders, about the middle, of the 
Eccond century, seemed to live chiefly in a 
hunting state, and in a state of warfare with 
the surrounding powers. After this they 
appear to have turned their attention to 
the pastural life, as affording a less preca- 
rious subsistence; but till of late, neither 
in the practice of husbandry, nor the ma- 
nagement of cattle, had they made great 
progress towards improvement. The lan- 
guage of the Highlanders is still the Gaelic, 
which has been secured to them by their 
mountains and almost impenetrable fat- 
nesses, amidst the many revolutions which 
have agitated the rest of the island and pro- 
duced the mixed and varied language of 
the low country. Their dress is different 
from that of the other parts of the country, 
bearing a great resemblance to that of the 
ancient Romans. The Highlanders are on- 
ly beginning to avail themselves of their 
mines, their woods, their wool, and their 
iiiherk s ; and there is every reason to sup- 
pose, that by continuing their exertions, 
with due encouragement from government, 
the Highlands will soon become one of the 
most valuable districts of the British isles. 

HILTOWN, a village in Ross-shire, in 
the parish of Fearn, It is situated on the 
Moray Frith, is a good fishing station, and 
Contains upwards of 100 inhabitants. 

HOBKIRK, a parish in the county of 
Roxburgh, about 12 miles in length, and 3 
in breadth. It is watered by the river Rule, 
on the banks of which the soil is a de-ep fer- 
tile clay, in some, parts mixed with small 
gravel. At a distance from, the river the 
soil is thin and sandy, on a cold till bottom, 
exceedingly barren. Here the surface is 
exceedingly mountainous. The parish a- 
boundswith freestone, and contains three 
excellent limestone quarries. Pop. 709. 

HODD AM, a parish in the district of An- 
nandale, Dumfries-shire. It contains 11 
and a half square miles. Its extent is a- 
bout 5 miles by 2 and a half. It is compos- 
ed of the united parishes of Hoddarn,Line, 
and Ecclefechan. The surface consists of 
high and low ground, and extensive holms 
or meadows on the banks of the Annan, the 
Milk, and the Mein, which water the dis- 
trict. Except a few acres of marshy ground, 
thewhole is arable, and in a state of im- 
provement. The banks of the Annan are 
covered with a large wood of oak, ash, and 
birch trees. On the hill of Brunswark are 
vestiges of a Roman camp. Pop. 142S. 



~ H Q U 

" HOTAY, one of the" smaller Hebrides 
near Harris. 

HOLME, a parish on the S. E. coast of 
Pomona, in Orkney, extending 9 miles in 
length, and 2 in breadth, along the sound 
to v> hi h it gives its name. The soil is to- 
lerably fertile, producing more barley and 
oats than is sufficient for the consumpt of 
the inhabitants. The shores of this parish 
are generally rocky, and about 50 tons of 
kelp are annually manufactured. P. S71. 

HOLME SOUND, a beautiful Frith in 
the Orkneys, lying opposite to the parish of 
Holme- 

HOLOMIN, a small island of the Hebri- 
des, near Mull. 

HOLY ISLE, an islet on the S. E. coast 
of Arran, covering the harbour of Lamlash. 
HOLYWOOD, a parish in the district of 
rfithsdale, Dumfries-shire. It occupies the 
middle of a long and spacious valley, extend- 
ing about 10 miles in length, and on an a- 
verage one and a half in breadth. It con- 
tains 14 and a half square miles. The soil 
is mostly arable and fertile ; and the few- 
eminences which are not under culture 
produce excellent pasture. There are, in 
the church-yard, vestiges of the old abbey 
of Eolywood, built in the 12th century. 
Population 850. 

HOPE, a river in the parish of Tongue, 
in Sutherlandshire, which has its rise from 
Loch-in-Dailg. It runs a course of about 
11 miles due N. when it enters Loch Hope, 
whence, after a course of 1 mile, it falls in 
to the sea, on the E. side of Loch Eribole. 

HORDA, one of the smaller Orkney is- 
lands, lying in the Pentland Frith, between 
South Ronaldsay and Swinna. 

HORSE, a" small island in the Frith of 
Clyde, near the coast of Ayrshire. 

HORSESHOE, a safe and commodious 
harbour in the island of Kerrera, near Oban . 
HODNA, a cape on the coast of Caith- 
ness, 2 miles W. from Dungisbay-head. 

HOUNAM, a parish in Roxburghshire, 9 
miles and a half in length, and 6 in breadth . 
It borders on the S. with England, where 
the top of the Hounam fell is the march. 
The surface is hilly and mountainous, but 
the pasture is excellent ; and this parish is 
noted for a particular breed of sheep, call- 
ed the Kalewater breed. The Roman road 
from Borough-bridge ia Yorkshire, towards 
the Lothians, can be distinctly traced in 
this parish for 5 miles. Population 573. 

HOUNSLOW, a small village in the pa- 
rish of Westruther, Berwickshire, 50 miles 
Ifrom Edinburgh. 
HOURN (LOCH), an extensive arm of 



HUM 

the sea, on the western coast of Inverness- 
shire, extending 20 miles inland from the 
sound of Sky. 

HOUSE, a small island in Shetland, u- 
jiited by abridge to the island of Barra. It 
contains nearly ICO inhabitants. It is 3 
miles long, and half a mile broad. 

HOUSTON and KILLALLAN. These 
united parishes lie in the county of Ren- 
frew, and extend 6 miles in length, and 3 
in breadth. The surface is considerably 
broken with rocky eminences; the low 
ground is in general fertile, being partly 
loam and partly clay. An extensive moss 
of many hundred acres, occupies the west- 
ern district. There is a neat village called 
New Houston, which contains about 300 
inhabitants. An extensive bleachfield is 
lately erected in the neighbourhood of the 
village. The mansion houses of Houston, 
Barrochan, and Elderslie, are in the parish. 
There is abundance of limestone, and se- 
veral quarries of excellent freestone. Be- 
sides the old ca3tle of Houston, there are 
many remains of antiquity, particularly se- 
veral sepulchral monuments in an aisle ad- 
joining the church. Population 3044. 

HOUTON HOLM, a small pasture island 
of the Orkneys, about 2 miles S. of Pomona 
Island. 

HOWAN SOUND, a strait ofthe Orkneys, 
between the islands of Eglishay andRousay. 

HOY, a considerable island of the Ork- 
neys, lying S. ofthe mainland, and W. from 
S. Ronaldsay. It is about 6 or 10 miles 
long, and in general is about 6 broad. Its 
surface is very hilly: the great employment 
ofthe inhabitants is the breeding and rear- 
ing of sheep. Population 282. 

HOY and GRiEMSAY, a parish in Ork- 
ney, comprehending the islands of Hoy and 
Grserosay. 

HUMBIE, aparish in the county of Had- 
dington 9 miles in length by 4 in breadth. 
The surface is uneven, but the high grounds 
are well adapted for sheep pasture. The 
low ground is generally cultivated with 
great attention and ability. About 300 acres 
are covered with plantations in a very thriv- 
ing condition. The parish is watered by se- 
veral rivulets. There is abundance of iron 



188 HUT 

ore ; and many places indicate the existence 
of coal. Population 837. 

HUME, a village in the united parishes 
of Stitchell and Hume, in the county of Ber- 
wick, 3 miles S. of Greenlaw, containing 
about 180 inhabitants. 

HUNISH, or RU-HUNISH, the northern 
promontory ofthe isle of Sky. 

HUNTER'S BAY, a bay on the E. coast 
of Wigtonshire. 

HUNTLY, a parish in Aberdeenshire, a- 
boiit 9 miles in length, and 4 in breadth, 
formed by the annexation ofthe parishes of 
Dumbenan and Kinmore. The surface 
is exceedingly rough and rocky, containing, 
however, many acres of fine arable land; 
and many of the hills and eminences are 
covered with plantations of firs, oak, elm, 
birch, &c. giving it a beautiful appearance. 
It is watered by the Bogie and DeVeron. 
There is a limestone quarry, some of the 
stones of which approach to the nature of 
marble, and take a very high polish. Popu- 
lation 2764. The TOWN of HUNTLY is 
18 miles S. E. of Fochabers, and 123 from 
Edinburgh. The town is situated on a point 
of land formed by the confluence ofthe Bo- 
gie with the Deveron. It is neatly built, 
having two principal streets crossing each 
other at right angles, andforming a spacious 
square or market-place. The town has in- 
creased much of late years. Near it, on the 
banks ofthe Deveron, is the elegant resi- 
denceof Huntly Lodge, the seat of theMar- 
quis of HUntly, and to the bridge of Deve- 
ron, stand the remains of Huntly castle. 

HUTTON, a parish in Berwickshire, 4 
miles in length. Its general appearance is 
level. It is bounded on the S. by the T weed, 
and intersected by the Whittadder. There 
are two villages, Paxton and Hutton, which 
together contain about 500 inhabitants. 
Population 1030. 

HUTTON and CORRIE, an united pa- 
rish in Dumfries-shire, and district ofAn- 
nandale, 12 miles long, and about 3 broad, 
containing about 1 9,000 acres. It is water- 
ed by the Milk, the Dryfe, and the Corrie 
rivers. The chief object of the farmer is 
sheep pasturage, and the raising of green 
crops sufficient for the support of theirflocks. 
Population 677. 



JAMES (ST.), a parish in Roxburghshire, 
united to that of Kelso. <q. v.) 
JAMES' TOWN, a pleasant village in 
the parish of Westerkirk, in Dumfries-shire. 
It was built by a Mining Company, on the 
banks of the river Megget, for the miners. 
I-COLM-KILL, or I-COLUMB-KILL, 
one of the Hebrides,lyingtothe VV. of Mull, 
from -which it its separated by a narrow- 
channel, called the Sound of I» It is a small, 
but celebrated island; " once the luminary 
of the Caledonian regions," as Dr. Johnson 
expresses it; " whence savage clans and 
roving barbarians derived the benefits of 
knowledge, and the blessings of religion." 
—By Monkish writers it has been named 
lona. The island is 3 miles long, and the 
average breadth very littlemore than 1, con- 
taining about 1500 Scots acres. On the E. 
side it is flat, in the middle it rises into 
small hills, and on the W. side it is rugged 
and rocky. There is a small village, contain- 
ing about sixty houses, near a small bay, 
calledjthe Bay of Martyrs, where the illus- 
triras dead were landed for interment. 
This island furnishes many valuable mine- 
rals, particularly a beautiful yellow serpen- 
tine granite. The soil is light -and sandy 
along the shores, except where cultivation 
and manure have converted it into a dark 
loam. There are some pleasant and fertile 
plains along the sea side, which produce 
good crops of barley and oats. The hills 
are generally covered with a fine verdure; 
but the island is chiefly interesting to the 
antiquarian. It was once the retreat of 
learning, while Western Europe lay buried 
in ignorance and barbarity. The religious 
edifices, of which the ruins now only re- 
main, were established by St Columba, 
about the year 565, who left Ireland, his 
native country, with the intention of 
Preaching Christianity to the Picts. The 
Danes dislodged the Monks in S07, and the 
monastry became depopulated ; but, on the 
retreat of the Danes, the building received 
a new order, the Cluniacs, who continued 
there till the dissolution of monastic esta- 
blishments, when the revenues were unit- 
ed to the see of Argyle, and, on the aboli- 
tion of episcopacy, it became the property 
«f the duke. The Cathedral is built in tbe 



form of a cross, 194 feet long without, and 
34 broad. The east window is a beautiful 
specimen of Gothic workmanship.— In the 
middle of the Cathedral rises a tower 22 
feet square, and between 70 and 80 high, 
supported by 4 arches, and ornamented 
with bas reliefs. Near where the altar 
stood, on the N. side, is a tomb-stone of 
black marble, on which is a fine recumbent 
figure of the Abbot Macfingone, exceeding- 
ly well executed, as large as life. Opposite 
to this, on the other side, is the tomb- stone 
of Abbot Kenneth, executed in the same 
manner. On the right of the cathedral, 
are the remains of the college. A little to 
the N. of the cathedral are the remains of 
the bishop's house; and on the S. is a cha- 
pel 60 feet long, and 22 broad within tho 
walls. In this are many tomb-stones of mar- 
ble, particularly of the great lords of the 
isles. S. of the chapel is " the burying- 
place of Oran," containing a great number 
of tombs, but so overgrown with weeds as 
to render few of the inscriptions legible. In 
this inclosure lie the remains of 4S Scotch 
kings, 4 kings of Ireland, S Norwegian mo- 
narchs, and 1 king of France. S. from the 
cathedral and St. Oran's chapel, are the 
ruins ofthe nunnery and the church of 
which is pretty entire, being 51 feet 
by 20 on the floor. It is thickly covered 
with cow dung, except at the E. end, 
which Mr. Pennant caused to be cleared, 
and where the tomb ofthe last prioress is 
discernible, though considerably defaced. 
Betwixt the nunnery and the cathedral a 
broad paved way extends, called the Mam- 
Street, which is joined by two others, one 
from the bay of Port-nacurrach, and the 
other from the Bay of Martyrs. In this way 
is an elegant cross, called Maclean's cross, 
the only one remaining, according to Mr, 
Sacheverel, of 360, which weredemolished 
at the Reformation. In the court of the 
cathedral, also, are two elegant .crosses, de- 
dicated to St. John and St. Martin. Near 
the cathedral is a cell, saidto be the burial 
place of St Columba. Boethius tells us, 
that Fergus II., who assisted the Goths un- 
der Alaric at the sacking of Rome, brought 
away, as part ofthe plunder, a chest of 
MSS. which he presented to this monastry ; 



JED 1 

and the archives of Scotland and valuable 
papers were kept here. Of these, many it 
is said, were carried to the Scots college of 
Douay in France, and the Scots College at 
Rome at the Reformation. Other ruins of 
Monastic buildings and Druidical edifices 
can be traced ; and many places are point- 
ed out, noted for particular acts of St. Co- 
lumba. The population of this small is- 
land, in 180S, was 586. The island is the 
property of the Duke of Argyle. « 

JED, a river in Roxburghshire. It takes 
Its rise in Carterhill, on the borders of Eng- 
land, and running by the town of Jedburgh, 
falls into the Teviot, about 2 miles below. 

JEDBURGH, a parish in Roxburghshire, 
13 miles long, and 6 or 7 broad, bounded 
by England on the S. The arable land, 
reckoned nearly a fifth of the whole, lies on 
the banks of the Jed and Teviot. The 
quarries afford abundance of excellent free- 
stone. 

JEDBURGH is a Royal Burgh, in the 
Parish of the same name, and the County 
town of Roxburghshire. Itis 45 miles S. of 
Edinburgh, 11 W. of Kelso, 10 E. of Haw- 
ick, and 12 N. of the English Border. The 
local situation of Jedburgh is delightful ; 
it is situated on the banks of the river Jed, 
from whence its name, on the declivity of 
a Hill, and surrounded on all sides, by hills 
of a considerable elevation. It is a very 
ancient Burgh, and was a place of some 
importance, in the year 1165, as appears 
from a charter of William the Lyon, grant- 1 
ed upon founding the Abbey of Jedburgh, 
or Jedwarth, as it is there sometimes called; 
It has the honour of Parochial precedency, 
being the oldest Parish in Scotland, of 
which any historical record has been trans-' 
mitted to posterity. Jedburgh continued 
to be a place of considerable importance, 
and early in the seventeenth century, was 
one of the principal towns on the English 
Border. There are four principal Streets in 
Jedburgh, which cross each other, at right 
angles, terminating in a large square or 
Market-place ; the High Street runs paral- 
lel to the river, and that from the Castle 
Hill to the New Bridge, is broad, well pav- 
ed, and clean. Within these few years, 
many new houses, in a fine style have been 
built, and many other improvements made, 
which have added greatly to the beauty 
of the town. The comity gaol and Bride- 
well, built about 5 years since, is a fine 
building, it stands upon the site of the old 
Castle, and is called Jedburgh Castle. The 
arrangements and acoommodationa of the 
interior of the building, are well suited to 



JED 

the purposes for which it wasbuilt, andfrom 
its elevated situation, forms a grand object 
in the approach to the town The town 
hall, founded by the Marquis of Lothian in 
18 1 1 , is an elegant and spacious building. 
It contains rooms for transacting the busi- 
ness of the Burgh and county, the Sheriff 
and Justiciary Court Rooms, &c. The 
English and Grammar Schools, under trie 
patronage of the Magistrates and the Heri- 
tors, are conducted upon the best principles, 
and supplied with able teachers. There 
are also three public libraries. A dis- 
pensary was here established in 'the 
year 1810, which has been a great bene- 
fit to the town and county. Jedburgh, 
like the other border towns, suffered 
a temporary decline, in consequence 
of the union of the two kingdbms in 
the year 1707. Previous to this period, 
the town of Jedburgh, as well as all the 
border towns, carried on an extensive con- 
traband trade with England, by introduc- 
ing various articles, such as malt, skin9, 
and salt, which at that time, paid no duty 
or tax in Scotland, and were therefore ad- 
vantageously exchanged for English wool, 
which they exported from the Firth of Forth 
to France, and the returns from thence 
yielded a very great profit. The loss ofthis 
source of gain, was followed by the depo- 
pulation and consequent decay of the place 
to a considerable extent ; and it is only of 
late years, by the introduction of a few ma- 
nufactures, particularly those of woollen, 
that the town has revived. At present, 
the manufacture of Narrow Cloths, Car- 
pets, Flannels, Blankets, and Stockings, 
are carried on to a considerable amount, 
and are upon the increase. The tanning 
of leather, and the dressing of sheep skins, 
are also considerable branches of trade. 
But the want of coal, is ah insuperable ob- 
stacle to the extensive introduction, and 
progressive advance of manufactures In the 
town and neighbourhood of Jedburgh. 
There are several large peat-mosses in the 
neighbourhood, which supply the inhabi- 
tants with fuel, who are unable to pur- 
chase coal, an article that sells here at a 
higher price, than in any other place in 
Scotland. Besides the Parish Church, there 
are three places for divine worship, belong- 
ing to dissenting congregations, viz. two to 
the United Secession, and a Relief chapel. 
A branch of the British Linen Company's 
Bank wascstablished here in the year 1791, 
and from that period, may be dated the ra- 
pid enlargement of the town, and the in- 
crease of manufactures, A bank for the 



J_£ D 1 

savings of the poor, was established in 1S16, 
under the management of a committee, 
-which has heen eminently successful, and 
done much good to the lower classes, by in- 
ducing habits of industry and economy, by 
furnishing the means of securing and ac- 
cumulating their small savings, upon a 
^principle heretofore unknown. Jedburgh 
• is governed by a provost, four Bailies, and 
a dean of Guild, and a treasurer, assisted by 
a select council of the principal citizens, and 
along with Lauder, North Berwick, Had- 
dington, and Dunbar, returns a Member to 
■ parliament. Jedburgh is the seat of a pres- 
bytery; and the courts of the southern cir- 
cuit of the Lord3 of Justiciary, and the 
Lords Commissioners of the Jury court, are 
held here. Tie southern circuit, includes 
the counties of Roxburgh, Berwick, Selkirk, 
and Peebles, and are held in the months of 
April and September. The Sheriii court 
is held here once a fortnight, the Justice of 
Peace eourt, for the Jedburgh district, is 
held on the first T uesday of every month, 
and the Magistrates hold a court every Sa- 
turday. The general Quarter Sessions of 
the Peace are also held here. The river 
Jed takes its rise on the Carter Fell, and 
runs along the south-east side of the town; 
there are seven bridges upon this river, 
■within a mile of the town of Jedburgh. The 
town is abundantly supplied with excellent 
water, coveyed to it by leaden pipes. The 
neighbourhood of the town, is noted for its 
fine Orchards. Theold Castle of Jedburgh, 
situated on an eminence at the town head, 
(now occupied by the.new Gaol), was a place 
of great strength and consequence in an- 
cient times, it was retaken from the Eng- 
lish in 1409, by the Duke of Albany, who 
demolished it ; the keys ofthis castle., were 
lately found, in digging near to the spot on 
which it stood. The abbey of Jedbur_rh, 
founded by David I. for canon regulars, is 
situated on the banks of the Jed, on the S. 
side of the town, and has been a large and 
magnificent fabric, in form of a cross. Part 
of the west end is fitted up for the pa- 
rish church, which has a fine circular win- 
dow in the gable. Itruni from east to west, 
and appears to have been originally three 
stories high, in the first and second stories 
there are nine arches in each. The west 
end from the steeple, and the south front 
are the most entire part of the ruins, the 
steeple is also nearly entire, and about 1 20 
feet high. To preserve, as far as possible, 
this venerable fabric from total ruin, a sub- 
scription was set on foot, to repair the ab- 
bey in such a manner as not to interfere 



with, or alter the oriainal Gothic, a strong 
proof of the good taste of the projectors of 
thispraise-worthy undertaking. For a num- 
ber of years past, the lofty pile of quadran- 
gular building, or tower, had been observ- 
ed to discover ?yraptons of serious decay, 
which if not checked, might one day prove 
fatal to the whole structure. To provide 
against this, the gaps have been filled up, 
and huge iron bars, have been employed to 
unite more firmly the opposite sides of 
the quadrangle, and "to impart a greater 
degree of strength to the whole fabric. The 
ancient narrow stair, which reached from 
the bottom to the top of the tower, but 
which from its decay in some parts, render- 
ed the ascent rather perilous, has been re- 
paired, so that now, the visitor has it in tua 
power to enjoy from a great elevation, a 
most interesting view, as the country a- 
lound abounds srith rich andromantic scen- 
ery. The ancient chapel, where theservice 
of the catholic church was wont to be per- 
formed, and which was appropriated to the 
interment of the more remote ancestors of 
the Marquis of Lothian, has been covered 
in. The effect of the whole repairs is such, 
as fully realizes the expectations of the ori- 
ginal projectors, and to compensate for the 
labour and expense which has been bestow- 
ed upon this venerable pile. There was 
also a convent of Franciscans in this town, 
founded by the citizens in 15 13. but besides 
their houses, they had no revenues, being 
mendicants. The market-day is Tuesday, 
and there are four annual fairs, namely, the 
n rst T uesday after Vf hitsunday, the second 
Tuesday in August, O. S. on the 25th of 
September, and the first Tuesday in No- 
vember, O. S. There are also two public 
hirin g markets, on the Tuesday immediate- 
ly before the 26th day of May, and the 22d 
day of November. Population of the town 
and parish 4454. 

IFFERT, a small island on the W, coast 
ofLewis. 

ILA, or ISLAY, one of the Hebrides, ly- 
ing to the S. W. of Jura, and belonging to 
the county of Argyle. It is 51 miles long, 
from N. to S., and 21 broad from E. to W. 
containing about 154,000 acres, of which 
22,000 are arable. On the E. side the sur- 
face is hilly, but the greater part of the is- 
land is flat, and, where uncultivated, co- 
vered with a tine green sward. The coast 
is rugged and rocky, but indented by nu- 
merous bays and harbours, and at Lochin- 
dall is a harbour for ships of considerable 
burden, with a quay at the village of Bow- 
more. There are several lakes; and the 



INC 1 

island is well watered by numerous streams, 
which abound with trout and salmon. In 
the centre of the island is Loch Finlagan, 
about 3 miles in circuit, with the islet of 
the same name in the middle. The island 
was formerly divided into four parishes, viz. 
Kilchoman, Kildalton, Kilarrow, and Kil- 
meny ; but the two last are now united. In 
Islay agricultural improvements have pro- 
ceeded with rapidity within these 30 years, 
a great many roads made, and bridges built, 
and a new system of husbandry adGpted. 
It now produces good crops of barley, oats, 
pease, flax, and some wheat ; and excellent 
crops of potatoes are here raised, great quan- 
tities of which are exported. Formerly, 
during winter, the cattle were almost starv- 
ed; now hay is produced in great abun- 
dance, and turnips and other green crops 
cultivated to a considerable extent, suffi- 
cient to support their stock in winter. 
Coarse yarn, to the value of L. 5000, is an- 
nually exported. About 200 tons of kelp 
are made annually. The island exports 
from '250 to 500 horses of different descrip- 
tions annually. But the great staple arti- 
cle of exportation is black cattle, of which 
nearly 3000 head are sold yearly. The cli- 
mate is moist, and agues are pretty fre- 
quent. The Gaelic is the general language 
of the common people, yet English is well 
understood. The Highland dress is very 
little worn. Islay abounds with mines of 
lead and copper, which are very rich, and 
have been long wrought. There are also 
vast quantities of that ore of iron called bog- 
ore, of the concrete kind, and below it large 
strata of vitriolic mundic. Near the veins 
of lead are found specimens of barytes and 
excellent emery. A small quantity of quick- 
silver has been found in the moors. Lime- 
stone and marl are abundant. Islay be- 
longs to Campbell of Shawfield. P. 1 1,500. 

ILA SOUND, the narrow channel be- 
twixt Ha and Jura, the navigation of which 
is very dangerous. 

ILERAY, one of the Hebrides, about 3 
miles long, and 1 and a half broad, lying to 
the westward of the island of North Uist. 

INCH, a parish in Inverness-shire. (See 
KINGUSSIE.) 

lNCII,aparishinthe county of Wigton, 
occupying a great part of the isthmus form- 
ed by the bays of Luce and Ryan. The 
southern part is flat and sandy ; but, to- 
wards the E. and N. E. there is a beautiful 
range of hills. Except the sandy plain to 
the 8., the soil is a good loam. The pas- 
lure lands are of considerable extent; up- 
wards of 2500 head of black cattle, and a- 



INC 

bout 5000 sheep, are reared. There are a- 
bout 15 or 1 6 fresh water lakes, with a small 
island in each, one of which is about 600 
yards in circumference- and vestiges of a 
religious edifice are still ^maining upon it. 
The village of Cairn i3 finely situated for 
trade, on the E. of Loch Ryan, and has an 
excellent harbour. The ruins of Castle 
Kennedy show it to have been a strong and 
massy building. Population 1831. 
INCH-BRA YOCK, or INCH-BROYOCK, 
a small island, at the mouth of the South 
Esk, in Forfarshire. It contains about 34 
acres, and has lately been of importance 
from its two bridges on the turnpike-road, 
which passes across this isle. One bridge 
of stone communicates with the parish of 
Craig; and another of wood, with a draw- 
bridge, connects the island with Montrose. 
Streets have been formed, on which some 
houses have been built. 

INCH-CAILLOCH, " the island of old 
women," an island of Loch Lomond, in 
Stirlingshire. It is about a mile in length, 
elevated and covered with trees. It is the 
property of the Duke of Montrose, is inha- 
bited, and produces good wheat and oats. 

INCH-CLEAR, a small island of Loeh 
Lomond, entirely covered with wood. 

INCH-COLM, a small island in the Frith 
of Forth, in the parish of Dalgety, about 2 
miles from the village of Aberdour. On It 
are the remains of a famous monastry of 
Augustines, founded in 1123 by Alexan- 
der I. 

INCH-CRUIN, a small island of Loch 
Lomond. 

INCH-FAD, a small inhabited island in 
Loch Lomond, about half a mile in length, 
and very fertile. 

INCH-GALBRAITH, an island in Loch 
Lomond. 

INCH-GARVIE, a small island in the 
Frith of Forth, nearly in the middle of the 
passage over the Forth at Queensferry. 

INCH-GRANGE, an island in Loch Lo- 
mond, half a mile in length, covered with 
oak-wood. 

INCH-INNAN,aparish in Renfrewshire, 
about 3 miles long, and 1 and a half broad. 
The soil is in general fertile, and particu- 
larly excellent on the banks of the Cart, 
Gryfe, and Clyde. Although the surface is 
generally level, yet the ground rises into 
several beautiful eminences, which are 
arable to the top. The parish contains a- 
bout 2400 acres, of which not more than 
200 are uncultivated, and 100 of these are 
planted with firs. North Barr is a fine 
old building. The road from Glasgow to 



I N C t 

Greenock passes through the parish. Po- 
pulation 641. 

INCH-KEITH, a small rocky island in 
the Frith of Forth, halfway betwixt Leith 
and Kirkcaldy. It derives its name from 
the gallant Keith, who, in 1010, so greatly 
signalized himself at the battle of Barrie, 
in Angus, against the Danes; after which 
he received the barony of Keith, in East- 
Lothian, and this little i9le. There is a 
spring of fine water on the top of the 'rock. 
In ancient times it was used asa'p' ace or " 
banishment. On Inch-keith there is a 
light-house, for the security of vessels sail- 
ing up the Frith of Forth. 

INCHKENNETH, a small island of the 
Hebrides, between Mull and I-colm-kill. 

INCH-LOANIG, an island of Loch Lo- 
mond, noted for its great number of yew 
trees. 

INCH-MARNOCH, a beautiful little is- 
land in the Frith of Clyde, a few miles S. 
W. of the isle of Bute. It is about a mile 
long. 

INCH-MICKERY, an islet in the Frith 
of Forth, near Cramond, noted for oyster 
beds near it. 

INCH-MOAN, a small island of Loch 
Lomond, which is almost entirely peat 
moss. 

INCH-MURIN, or INCH-MARIN, the 
largest and most southerly island in Loch 
Lomond. It is about two miles long, and 
one broad, finely wooded, and affording ex- 
cellent pasture. 

INCH-TAVANACH, an island in Loch 
Lomond, It is about three quarters of a 
mile long, and half a mile broad, contain- 
ing 150 acres, chiefly covered with wood 
and heath, the latter growing to a great 
size. 

INCH-TORR, or TORREMACH, a small 
island in Loch Lomond. 

INCH-TURE,a parish in the Carse of 
Gowrie.in Perthshire, united to the parish 
of Rossie. It is 3 miles broad along the 
banks of the Tay, and 4 miles from S. to N. 
and contains about 3000 acres, the soil of 
which is exceedingly rich and well improv- 
ed. The VILLAGE of Inchture is situated 
on the turnpike road from Perth to Dun- 
dee, from the former of which it is 9 miles 
distant, and 13 from the latter. It con- 
tains nearly 400 inhabitants. There are 
five other villages. Balindean, the seat of 
Sir John Wedderbum, is delightfully situ- 
ated at the foot of the rising ground, which 
bounds the Carse of Gowrie on the N. 
Moncur, the ruins of an ancient castle, ad- 
joins to Lord Kinnaud's park. There are 



INN ____ 

several freestone quarries. Population 754. 

INCHYRA, a small village in Perthshire, 
in the parish of St Madois, situated on the 
Tay, about 8 miles below Perth. It has a 
good harbour. 

INHALLOW, a small bat pleasant is- 
land in Orkney, about 3 and a half miles 
from Kirkwall. 

INIS-CONNEL, an island in Loch Aw, 
in Argyleshire, on which are the majestic 
ruins of an ancient castle. 

INIS-FRAOCH, or FRAOCHELAIN, a 
small but beautiful island in Loch Aw, Ar- 
gyleshire, on which are the ruins of a cas- 
tle, granted, along with the island, in 12G7, 
by Alexander III. to the chief of the clan 
of Macnaughton. 

INIS-HAIL, a beautiful picturesque is- 
land in Loch Aw, Argyleshire. 

INIS ERAITH, a small island in Loch 
Aw, in Argyleshire. 

INNERKIP, a parish in Renfrewshire, 
extending along the Clyde 7 miles from E. 
to W. and about 6 in breadth. From the 
shore towards the S. E. is a gradual and ir- 
regular ascent, beautifully varied. On the 
S. E. the parish is surrounded by lofty 
mountains, covered with heath; on the N. 
and W. the Frith of Clyde exhibit a delight- 
ful scene, which is terminated by the tow- 
ering summits of Beinn-barran and Goat- 
field, in the isle of Arran. The arable 
laud, which is less than one half of the sur- 
face, is generally inclosed, and well culti- 
vated. Besides the Kirktown of Innerkip, 
there are two villages, Daff and Gourock, 
each of which contains nearly 400 inhabi- 
tants. Ardgowan, an elegant mansion, is 
delightfully situated on the shore. Popu- 
lation 1632.— The VILLAGE of INNER- 
KIP lies 6 miles W. of Greenock. It is a 
place of considerable resort for sea-bath- 
ing. 

INNERLEITHEN, a parish mostly in 
Peebles-shire, but,a small part is in Selkirk- 
shire. It is situated on the N. bank of 
the Tweed, and watered by the Leithen. 
It contains 22,270 Scots acres. The appear- 
ance of the country is broken, rugged, and 
precipitous, rising abruptly from the brink 
of the two rivers lo the height of 1000 feet. 
The arable soil is not more than 1000 acres. 
The craggy sides of the glens, and the bro- 
ken rugged surface, are better calculated 
for sheep farming. There are generally a- 
bout 90 horse, 200 head of black cattle, and 
15,000 sheep in the parish—The VILLAGE 
of INNERLEITHEN is pleasantly situated 
near the mouth of the Leithen. A wool- 
len manufacture is carried on. The castle 



I N V 1 

of Itorsburgh is an. ancient building, on tho 
banks of tho Tweed. There is a sulphure- 
ous mineral spring, .similar to Harrowgate, 
muchresortcd to in the summer season. 
There are the ruins of fortified toweri at 
the mouth of every defile, and, on a rising 
ground near the village, are ve9tiges of a, 
strong encampment. Population G77. 

INNERPEFFRAY, or INCH-HAFFE- 
RA.Y, an ancient abbey in Perthshire, m 
the parish of Madderty, on the banks of the 
Erne. 

INNERWELL,a sea-port village in Wig- 
tonshire. 

INNERWICK, a parish in Haddington- 
shire, lying on the sea-coast, eastward from 
Dunbar, about 12 miles long, and from 2 to 
6 broad. The coast is rocky, but the face 
of the country is in general level, and the 
soil fertile. On the borders, however, far- 
ther removed from the sea, the land rises 
into considerable eminences, which are in 
part covered with heath. The greater part 
is well inclosed, and sheltered. A great 
quantity of sea- ware is thrown ashore, which 
is used for manure, and about 20 tons of kelp 
are annually prepared. There are tire re- 
mains of a chapel near the coast ; and seve- 
ral military encampments and tumuli are 
met with in this quarter. Limestone and 
freestone are abundant. Population 899. 

INSCH or INCH, a parish in the district 
of Garioch, in Aberdeenshire. It is 5 miles 
long by 5 broad, containing nearly 7500 
Scots acres, of which only one-third is under 
cultivation. The town of Insch, which is 
situated near tho chureh, is a burgh of ba- 
rony. It lies 20 miles from Aberdeen, be- 
tween which and Insch a canal has lately 
been cut. Population 918. 

INVER (LOCH), a small arm of the sea, 
on the W. N. W. coast of Sutherlandshire. 

INVER, a village in Perthshire, in the 
parish of Little Dunkeld, situated at the 
confluence of the Bran with the Tay. 

IN VER ARY , a parish in Argyleshire, ex- 
tending about IS miles in length, and on 
an average 5 in breadth. Its appearance 
is hilly, though interspersed with several 
tracts of flat ground, particularly about the 
town, and the vale of Glenshira, which is 
nearly 5 miles in length. The whole of 
the flat ground is arable. The most im- 
proved system of agriculture is followed on 
many farms, particularly those of the duke. 
The parish lies along the coast of Loch 
Fyne, and is watered by the rivers Aray and 
Shira, which fall into that arm of the sea 
near the town ; the latter, in its course, 
forms an expanse of water, called Loch 



| I N V 

Duah, from the darkness of its bottom. In 
high tides, the sea flows as high as this lake. 
Not far from the town is the castle of Inve- 
rarv, the principal seat of the Duke of Ar- 
gyle. The plantations.in the parish are ex- 
tensive, and finely laid out. Population of 
the town and parish 1113.- -The TOWN of 
INVERARY is the county town, GO miles 
W. of Glasgow,. It is situated on a small 
bay at the head of Loch Fyne, where the 
river Aray falls into the sea. It is a small, 
town, consisting chiefly of one row of hous- 
es facing the lake, built with great unifor- 
mity. It was erected into a royal burgh by 
a charter from Charles I. dated" I G40. It is. 
governed by a provost, 2 bailies, and a coun- 
cil nominated by the duke, and joins with 
Ayr, Irvine, Rothesay, and Campbelltown 
in sending a member to parliament. Its 
revenue is only about L.50 per annum. The. 
chief support of the place is the herring fish- 
ery. Its harbour was anciently called Sloehk 
Ichopper ; and the arms of the town repre- 
sent a net with a herring. In 1754, a com- 
pany from Lancashire erected a furnace 
not farfromthe town, for smelting iron pre 
by means of wood charcoal, but this estab- 
lishment has been lately broken up. 

INVERARIT Y, a parish in the county 
of Forfar, 5 miles square. The surface is 
uneven, and a great part of the soil moory 
and unimprovable. The principal manure 
employed is marl. Population S65. 

INVERAVEN, a parish on the banks of 
the Aven, near the confluence of that river 
with the Spey. It is situated partly in El- 
ginshire, but the greater part is in the coun- 
ty of Banff. It is 14 miles long, and 9 
broad ; besides the Aven and Spey, it is wa- 
tered by the Livet. The surface is irregu- 
lar, but not mountainous. The district of 
Glenlivet is remarkably fertile. The sides 
of the rivers abound with copses of birch 
and alder; and on the banks of the Spey 
there is a considerable extent of oak 
wood. Ballendalloch, tha seat of General 
Grant, is an elegant house. There are 3 
Druidical temples. Population 2260. 

INVERBERVIE. (See Bervie.) 

INVERCHAOLAIN, a parish in the die. 
trict of Cowal, Argyleshire, intersected for 
8 miles by Streven, an arm of the sea, and 
watered by a small rivulet, which joins the 
lake at this place. The surface is for tha 
most part rugged. In some places there are 
small flat fields nigh the shore ; but, for the 
most part, the ascent from the sea is imme- 
diate ; and about half a mile inland, the 
soil is only adapted for pasturage. All the 
mountains formerly were covered with 



I N V 14 

heath, hut many of them are now clothed 
with a rich sward of grass, since the intro- 
duction of sheep. The small island of Eal- 
langheirrig is in this parish. Population 
5.02. 

INVERESK, a parish in Mid-Lothian. 
It is situated on a bay of the Frith of Forth, 
where the Esk falls into the sea. It con- 
tains 2571 acres. On the banks of the river 
the soil is naturally fertile ; towards the S. 
E. and S. W. the soil is more of a clayey na- 
ture, Capable of raising great crops, espe- 
cially of wheat : the low part of it is cnlv 
a few feet above the level of the sea; be- 
tween which, and the towns of Musselburgh 
and Fisherrow, lies the plain called Mussel ■ 
burgh Links. Behind, there Is a rising 
ground, which begins at the western extre- 
mity of the parish, and extends in a swel- 
ling course to the hill of Inveresk, on which 
is situated the village. The hill on which 
the village is situated is nearly surrounded 
by the Esk ; and the sloping gardens, be- 
longing to the inhabitants, approach to the 
brink of the river. There is plenty of free- 
stone, and likewise of limestone; but the 
most valuable mineral is coal, which has 
been wrought in many places. Pop. 6393. 
INVERGORDON, a village in Ross-shire, 
in the parish of Rosskeen, situated on the 
N. side of the Frith of Cromarty, over 
•which there is a regular ferry to the town of 
Cromarty. 

INVERGOWRIE, a village in the parish 
ofLiff, Carseof Gowrie, en the banks of the 
Tay, 20 miles E. of Perth, and 2 W. of Dun- 
dee. It is noted for having been the first 
place of Christian worship in Scotland N. 
of the Tay ; a church having been founded 
here in the 7th century, by Boniface, a leg- 
ate from Rome. 

INVF.RKEILOR, a parish in Angus- 
shire, of an oblong figure, extending about 
6 miles from E. to W. and about 2 miles 
and a half in breadth. Almost the whole 
surface is arable, and the soil, which varies I 
from clay to sand or gravel loam, is in ge- I 
neral fertile. It is divided in nearly its 
whole length by the river Lunan, and wa- 
tered by a small stream called Keilor, which 
falls into the sea about a mile and a half 
from the church. The sea coast towards 
the E. is flat and sandy, being part of that 
bay into which the Lunan discharges it- 
self, and to which it gives its name ; but 
towards the W. the shore rises to a bold 
rocky promontory, 250 feet perpendicular, 
called the Red Head. There a is fishing 
village called Ethiehaven.at the mouth of 
Keilor, and a considerable number of hous- 



I N V 

es near the church, on the turnpike road 
betwixt Arbroath and Montrose. 

INVERKEITHING, a parish in Fife- 
shire, about 5 miles W. and 3 miles and a 
half N. from the town. The surface, ex- 
j cept the hills at the north Ferry, is either 
flat, or gently rising grounds; the greater 
part is strong, rich, clay soil , yielding plen- 
tiful crops, and a great part of the Ferry- 
hills is arable, and produces good crops. 
Towards the northern extremity the soil is 
cold and moory. In this parish are the 
harbours of North Ferry and Brucehaven; 
at the former is a village containing 300 
inhabitants. Popu. 2400.— The BURGH 
of INVERKEITHING lies 2 miles N. of 
the North Ferry. It is pleasantly situated 
npon a rising ground, on the N. coast of the 
Frith of Forth. It consists of one street, of 
considerable length, with bye-lanes crossing 
it at right angles. The houses have an an- 
cient appearance, and almost every one has 
a piece of garden ground belonging to it. 
There is a neat town-house, built in 1770, 
containing a prison, rooms for the town 
clerk and bailie-courts and for public meet- 
ings and entertainments. It is a very old 
burgh, having received its first charter from 
William the Lion. It is governed by a pro- 
vost, 2 bailies, a dean of guild, and trea- 
surer, annually elected by the councillors 
and deacons of the trades. The number 
of councillors is so unlimited, that the whole 
burgess inhabitants might be made council ■ 
lors ; and, what is more singular, they con- 
tinue in office during life and residence. 
It joins with Dunfermline, Culross, Queens- 
ferry, and Stirling, in sending a member to 
parliament. Before the entrance of the 
harbour is the bay of Inverkeithing, afford- 
ing safe anchorage to vessels of any burden 
in all winds. The exportation of coal is the 
chief employment of the vessels. There are 
also several salt pans. 

INVERKE1THNY, a parish in Banff- 
shire, situated on the S. bank of the ri- 
ver Deveron. It is from 5 to 6 miles in 
length, and from 4 to 5 broad. Popu. 533. 
INVERKIRKAG, a river of Sutherland- 
shire, which runs into Loch Inver. 

INVERLOCHY, an ancient town in the 
parish of Kilmanivaig, Inverness-shire. It 
is called by the old Scottish writers the em- 
porium of the W. of Scotland. The castle 
of Inverlochy is adorned with large towers, 
which, by the mode of building, seem like 
the structures raised by the English in the 
reign of Edward I. 

INVERNESS-SHIRE, is bounded on the 
N. by Ross-shire, and part ofthe Moray 
T 



I N V 1 

Frith; on the E. by the shires of Elgin, 
Moray, and Aberdeen : on the S. by Perth 
and Arglye ; and on the W. by the Atlantic 
Ocean. A small insulated district between 
thsshires of Banff" and Moray is annexed to 
if ; wifch several of the Hebrides. It compre- 
hends the districts of Badenoch, Lochaber, 
and Glenelg; with several smaller districts 
or glens. The islands annexed to it are 
Harris, North and South Uist, Benbecula, 
Sky, Barra, Eigg, and the smaller islets 
which are situated on its coasts. It is sub- 
divided into 31 parochial districts. The 
mainland, excluding the isles, extends in 
length from the point of Arisaig on the W. 
to the point of Ardersier on the E. where 
Fort George inbuilt, about 92 miles, and its 
greatest breadth is nearly 50 miles. Ben- 
nevis, the highest mountain in Britain, is 
4370 feet above the level of the sea ; and 
many other mountains approach nearly to 
that elevation. The county is every where 
intersected by numerous rapid currents, 
which, uniting, form several large rivers. 
The most noted of these are the Spey, Ness, 
L'ochy, Garry, Glass, &c. The small ri- 
ver of Foyers, noted for its tremendous 
cataract, is also in this county. The wes- 
tern shore, particularly of the districts of 
Moidart, Arisaig, Morror, and Knoydart, 
are indented with numerous bays, creek3, 
and arms of the sea, w hich might be render- 
ed excellent fishing stations. The fir woods 
ofGlenmore and Strathspey, are supposed 
to be far more extensive than all the other 
natural woods in Scotland together. - Of 
late, considerable attention has been paid 
to agriculture ; and-great numbers of black 
cattle, and sheep, and goats, are reared. 
The mountains and forests are inhabited 
by immense herds of red and roe deer ; the 
alpine and common hare, and other game, 
are also abundant. This county contains 
only one royal burgh, Inverness, and sever- 
al small villages. The Gaelic is the language 
of the people in the northern , western , and 
southern borders ; but, in the neighbour- 
hood of Inverness, the better class use the 
English. When the feudal stystem existed 
in the Highlands, it was necessary to erect 
some military stations to keep the Highlan- 
ders in subjection. Accordingly Fort 
George, Fort Augustus, and Fort William, 
were erected. By the spirited exertions of 
the gentlemen of this populous county, 
commerce and industry have of late been 
greatly increased; to facilitate the commu- 
nication with the most remote parts, roads 
and bridges are now formed under the di- 
rection of government, through every dis- 



I N V 

trict. In the district of Glenroy, or King's 
Vale, are seen the famous parallel roads,, 
called by the common people Fingallian 
roads, and attributed to that hero. Lime- 
stone is found in every district of the coun- 
ty, in many places approaching to the na- 
ture of marble. Most of the mountains 
are composed of a reddish granite, which, 
according to Williams, is the most beauti- 
ful of any in the w orld. Veins of silver, and 
lead and iron ore, have been found, but not 
in sufficient quantity to render these an ob- 
ject of manufacture. Inverness-shire con- 
tained, in 1811, 78,356 inhabitants, includ- 
ing its islands. 

INVERNESS, aparish in the above coun- 
ty, is 8 miles in length, and 6 in breadth. 
The general appearance is varied, part be- 
ing flat, and part hilly, rocky, and moun- 
tainous. It is unequally divided into two 
parts by the lake and river Ness. Nearthe 
town, on the W. side, is " the hill of Fai- 
ries," a beautiful insulated hill, covered 
with trees. Culloden-moor, so fatal to the 
hopes of the Stuart family, lies a few miles 
S. E. of Inverness. Population of the town 
and parish 10,757 — The BURGH of IN- 
VERNESS, the county town, lies 61 miles 
and a half N. E. of Fort William, and 156 
N. of Edinburgh,. It is situated on both 
sides of the river Ness, where it discharges 
its waters into the Moray Frith. It is a 
large and well-built town, having many 
elegant houses. On the High-street, near- 
ly in the centre of the town, stands the 
court-house, connected with the tolbooth, 
a handsome modern building. The Aca- 
demy is also a spacious and elegant building. 
There is a fine stone bridge of seven arches 
over the Ness ; also a timber bridge, uniting 
the two sides of the town, of which the S. 
is by far the most populous and extensive. 
It is a royal burgh of great antiquity, hav- 
ing received its first charter from Malcolm 
Canmore. It is governed by a provost, 4 
bailies, a dean of guild, and treasurer, as- 
sisted by 14 other councillors, composing a 
town-council of 21. The old council an- 
nually elect a new, and the new council 
immediately elect their office-bearers out 
of the number. There are four incorporat- 
ed trades, two of whose deacons and con- 
vener are members of the council. It is 
now almost wholly rebuilt, and its limits are 
yearly extending on every side. The prin- 
cipal manufacturesarc hemp and flax. The 
harbour is safe and commodious, allowing 
vessels of 200 tons to unload at the quay; 
and about a quarter of a mile below, a small 
harbour^ capable of receiving larger vessels, 



has just been finished. Vessels of 500 tons 
can ride at safety in the frith, within a mile 
of the town. The ships which belong to 
Inverness arc employed chiefly in carrying 
to London the produce of the salmon fish- 
ery of the Ness, and the skins of otters, roes, 
&c. caught in that neighbourhood. A great 
increase of trade maybe expected to accrue 
from the Caledonian canal, which is now 
finished, at the expense or about L.S00,000. 
There are two weekly newspapers published 
here, which have been productive of the 
highest advantage. 

INVERNF.THIE, a small harbour in A- 
berdeenshire, near Peterhead. 

INVERNOCHTIE. See STRATHDON. 

INVERSNAID, a fort in the parish of 
Buchannan, in Stirlingshire. 2 miles E. of 
Loch Lomond, where barracks were erect- 
ed about the beginning of the 17th century, 
to repress the depredations of freebooters. 
A detachment from Dunbarton Castle still 
mounts guard here. 

INVERUGIE, a small village in the pa- 
rish of St Fergus, Aberdeenshire, seated on 
the Ugie, where that river discharges itself 
into the oce"an. 

INVERURY, aparish in Aberdeenshire, 
extending W. from the confluence of the 
rivers Don and Ury. The land near the ri- 
vers is generally very early, producing ex- 
cellent crops in light showery summers. 
From this ground it rises gradually to the 
skirts of the mountain of Benochie. Popu- 
lation 907. — The BURGH of INVERURY 
is seated on the point of land formed by 
the confluence of the Don and Ury, 15 miles 
N. W. of Aberdeen. Itis a small town. By 
the spirited exertions of the Earl of Kintore 
and provost Thom, a bridge upon the Don 
was finished in 1791, at the expense of 
L.2000. A fine bridge over the Ury was 
lately built. These improvements, with 
the canal from this place to Aberdeen, have 
given an impulse to industry. Tradition 
reports that it was erected into a royal burgh 
by King Robert Bruce. The oldest charter 
is a novodamus by Queen Mary. It is go- 
verned by a provost, 3 bailies, a dean of 
guild, a treasurer, and 13 councillors. It 
joins with Kintcre, Cullen, Banff, and El- 
gin, in sending a member to parliament. 
Inverury gives second title of baron to the 
Earl of Kintore. 

JOCK'S LODGE, or PIERSHILL, about 
a mile S. E.from Edinburgh, where cavalry 
barracks were some years ago erected in a 
most elegant style, sufficient to accommo- 
date a regiment 

JOHN'S (ST), or ST JOHN'S CLAU- 



CHAN, a considerable village in the parish 
of Dairy, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 
21 miles N. W. of Kirkcudbright, it is the 
property of the Earl of Galloway. It contains 
about 500 inhabitants. 

JOHN'S-HAVEN, a sea-port town irt the 
parish of Benholme, in Kincardineshire, a- 
bout 9 miles N. by E.from Montrose. P. 839. 

JOHNSTON, aparish in Annandale, a- 
bout 4 miles in length, and 3 in breadth, 
containing 20 and a quarter square miles, 
watered on the E. by the river Annan. The 
western district is hilly, and chiefly appro- 
priated to the paslurage of sheep and black 
cattle. Population 904. 

JOHNSTOWN, a neat manufacturing 
village in R.enfrewshire, about 4 miles W. 
of Paisley. It was begun tobefeued in 1782, 
when it contained 10 persons; in 1801, 
2301; and in 1811,3647. Cotton-spinning 
is the only business carried on here. 

IRVINE, a parish in Ayrshire, about 5 
miles in length along the river of the same 
name. Its greatest breadth is not more 
than 2 miles. On the coast ana the banks 
of the river, the surface is flat and sandy; 
about the town the soil is a light loam, in 
some places mixed with gravel, both of 
which soils are abundantly fertile. Towards 
the N. E. extremity the situation is more 
elevated. Besides the Irvine, it is watered 
by the Annock and Gamock. Population 
of the town andparish 5750. -The BURGH 
of IRVINE is a sea-port town in the bai- 
liery of Cunningham, and county of Ayr, 
12 miles N. of Ayr. It stands on a rising 
ground on the N. side of the Irvine, the 
asstuary of which forms the harbour.— The 
situation is dry and well aired, having a 
broad street running from the S. E. to N. 
W. the whole length of the town. On the 
S. side of the river, but connected to the 
town by a bridge, there is a row of houses on 
each side of the road leading to the har- 
bour, on an uniform plan, chiefly inhabit- 
ed by seafaring people. None of these sub- 
urbs are within the royalty, but are locally 
situated in the parish of Dundonald. The 
church is an ornament to the place, being 
situated on a rising ground betwixt the 
town and the river, and surmounted by an 
elegant spire. And at the N. end of the 
town a fine new academy has been lately 
finished. The town-house stands in the 
middle of the street. It is governed by a 
provost, 2 bailies, a dean of guild, a trea- 
surer, and 12 councillors, and joins with 
Ayr, Campbelltown, Inverary, and Rothe- 
say, in sending a member to parliament. 
They have an ample revenue arising from 



j u a 



the customs, and from a large tract of land 
which rents at L.500 per annum. The har- 
bour is commodious, with 10 or 12 feet wa- 
ter on the bar at spring tides. A number 
of brigs are employed in the coal trade. 
The imports are iron, hemp, flax, wood, and 
grain. Population 4500. 

IRVINE, a river in Ayrshire, which takes 
its rise in the E. side of Loudonhill, in the \ 
parish of Loudon, and falls into the Frith 
of Clyde, at the town of Irvine. This river 
forms the boundary betwixt the bailiwicks 
of Cunningham and Kyle. 

ISAY, a smallisland of the Hebrides, in 
West Loch Tarbert. 

ISHOL, a smallisland of Argyleshire, in 
Loch Linnhe. 

ISHOL, an island on the south-west coast 
of Hay. 

ISLA, or ILA, a river in Forfarshire, 
which rises in the Grampian mountains, 
several miles northward of Mount Blair. 
Washing the foot of that hill, it turns east- 
ward, traverses the long narrow vale of 
Glenisla, below which it forms a cascade, 
70 or SO feet perpendicular, called the 
Reeky Linn. After passing the linn, it 
forms a deep pool of water, called Corral. 
It then divides into two branches, which, 
uniting again, form a pleasant island, called 
the Stanner Island. It afterwards proceeds 
westward through the valley of Strathmore, 
receiving the Dean at Glammis castle, 
Mclgam at Airly castle, and Ericht near 
Cupar. By these rivers its size is consider- 
ably increased, and, now flowing with a 
smooth and gentle course, it falls into the 
Tay at Kinclaven. In rainy seasons it 
proves very prejudicial to theadjacent fields, 
and sometimes sweeps away whole harvests. 
Near its junction with the Tay, it possesses 
several valuable salmon-fishings. 

ISLA, the name of a river in Banffshire, 
which takes its rise on the borders of In- 
verness-shire, and empties itself into the 
Deveron, after a short and rapid course of 
about 12 miles. 

ISLE MARTIN, a fishing station in Loch 
Broom, on the W. coast of Ross-shire, with 
a custom-house. It lies 5 miles N. of Ul- 
lapool. 

ISLE TANERA, a fishing station and 
village in Ross-shire, 3 miles N. of Isle of 
Martin. 

ISLE of WHITHORN, a good harbour 
and village in Wigtonshire, near the royal 
burgh of Whithorn. P. 390. 

JURA, one of the Hebrides, lying oppo- 
site to the district of Knapdale. It extends 
UG miles in length, and is on an average 



US J U R 

seven broad. It is the most rugged of the 
Western Isles, being composed chiefly of 
huge rocks, irregularly piled on one ano- 
ther. The chief of these mountains extends 
in the form of a ridge from S. to N. nearly 
in the middle of the island. They are four 
in number, which are termed the Paps of 
Jura, and are conspicuous at a great dis- 
tance. The southern one is named Beimi • 
achaolis; the next and highest, Beinn-an- 
oir; the third, Beinn-sheunta; and that to 
the north, Corra-bhein. Beinn-an-oir is 
composed of large stones, covered with 
mosses near the base ; but all above is bare 
and unconnected. From the W. side of 
the hill runs a narrow stripe of rock into 
the sea, called the slide of the old hag. 
Jura itself displays a stupendous front of 
rock, varied with innumerable little lakes, 
of the most romantic appearance, and cal- 
culated to raise grand and sublime emo- 
tions in the mind of the spectator. To the 
S. the island of Hay lies almost under his 
feet, and beyond that the N. of Ireland ; to 
the E. Gigha, Kintyre, Arran, and the Frith 
of Clyde, bounded by Ayrshire, and an 
amazingtrack of mountains as far as Ben- 
lomond. Over the Western Ocean are seen 
Colonsay, Oransay, Mull, Iona, Staffa, and 
the neighbouring isles ; and, still further, 
the long extended islands of Coll and Tyrie. 
Beinn-an-bir is elevated 2420 feet above 
the level of the sea. All the inhabitants 
live on the E. side. The only crops are 
oats, barley, potatoes and flax; the chief 
manure is the sea-weedwhich is cast ashore. 
There are two fine harbours on the E. coast 
of the island; there are also some anchor- 
ing places on the W. coast. At the N. end 
of Jura are situated three inhabited islands, 
viz Scarba, Lunga, and 3alnahuaigh. Be- 
tween Scarba and Jura is that famous gulph 
called Coryvreckan. There is only one 
small village, called Jura, on the E. coast 
of the island. There is a great abundance 
of iron ore, and a vein of the black oxide 
of manganese. On the shores of tbeW. 
coast there are found great quantities of a 
fine kind of sand, which is carried away for 
the manufacture of glass. TheGnelicisthe 
only language spoken in the island. Popu- 
lation 1157. 

JURA and COLONSAY, a parish of Ar- 
gyleshire, composed of nine islands, of 
which Jura is the largest. The islands of 
Colonsay and Oransay, of Scarba, Lunga, 
Balnahuaigh, with three small uninhabi- 
ted isles on the N. of Jura, form the rest 
of the district. Population 1913. 



KAIL, or KALE, a river in Roxburgh- 
shire. 
KAIM, a small village in the parish of 
Duffus in Morayshire. 

KATTERLINE, a parish in Kincardine, 
shire, united to Kinneff'. Also a small har- 
bour on the coast of that parish. 

KEARN, a parish in Aberdeenshire. 
Vide FORBES and KEARN. 

KEIG, a parish in Aberdeenshire, of near- 
ly a circular figure, from 3 to 4 miles in 
diameter. It is watered by the river Don. 
Population 465. 

KEILLESAY, a small island of the He- 
brides, 5 miles N. E. of Barray. 

KEIR, a parish in D umfries-shire, S miles 
in length, on an average from 2 and a half 
io3 in breadth. The soil is in general 
light, dry, and fertile; more than one third 
of the surface is hilly, affording excellent 
sheep-pasture. Population 993. 

KEITH, a parish in the county of Banff, 
of nearly a circular figure, with a diameter 
of 6 miles. It lies in the district of Strath- 
isla, in the middle of the county ; is wat- 
ered by the Isla, and is is general fertile. 
There are several flourishing villages. The 
principal manufactures are flax-dressing, 
spinning, and weaving ; and a bleachfield 
has lately been established on an extensive 
scale. There are also a tannery and dis- 
tillery. Near the old village of Keith, the 
Isla, precipitating itself over a high rock, 
forms a line cascade, called the Linn of 
Keith. The town of Keith is divided into 
Old and New Keith. Population 3352. 

KEITH-HALL and KINKELL, an uni- 
ted parish in the district of Garioch, Aber- 
deenshire, extending about 6 miles long, 
and 5 broad. The district is hilly and 
mountainous; the soil partly fertile, and 
partly barren and unproductive. It is wa- 
tered by the risers Don and Dry. Popu- 
lation SS3. 
- KEITH-INCH. Vide PETERHEAD. 

KELLS, a parish in the stewartry of 
-Kirkcudbright, and one of the four which 
form the district of Glenkens. It is nearly 
of the form of an isosceles triangle, the base 
of which, at the N. end, is about 6 miles, 
gradually diminishing for 15 mile3 to the 
point where the river of Dee and Ken unite. 
These rivers bound it on the E. and W. 



sides ; and one of the streams of the Ken is 
its boundary on the N. forming it into a 
sort of peninsula. Besides Loch Ken there 
are about 80 acres covered with lakes. 
There is a rich lead mine on the Glenlee 
estate, and the appearance of a copper 
mine in the vicinity. The Royal burgh 
of New Galloway is situated in this parish. 
Population 941. 

KELLS RANGE, or RH YNS, a ridge of 
hills in the parish of Kells, extending in a 
N. and S. direction about 8 miles. It is 
reckoned the highest in Galloway. Kells 
Range is almost entirely composed of gran- 
ite. On, one of these hills is a rocking 
stone of 8 or 10 tons weight. 

KELSO, a considerable town in Rox- 
burghshire, pleasantly situated at the con- 
fluence of the rivers Teviot and Tweed, on 
an extensive plain, bounded on all sides by 
rising grounds, covered with plantations, 
forming a most beautiful amphitheatre. It 
is built in the manner of a Flemish town, 
with a large square, and 6 streets going oil* 
from it at regular distances. In the square 
stands the town-house, with the principal 
houses and shops. The parish church and 
episcopal chapel are elegant buildings, and 
add much to the beauty of the town. The 
bridge over the Tweed was carried away in 
17 l )8, but it has since been rebuilt on an 
elegant plan. There is a dispensary, with 
rooms for the reception of a few sick ; and 
a public subscription library. The Duke 
of Roxburgh is lord of the. manor of Kelso. 
It is governed by a baron-bailie, appointed 
by the Duke, and 1 5 stent masters. Kelso 
was three times burnt down by the English. 
It was totally destroyed in lGSG by an acci- 
dental fire; and nearly so about 90 years ago. 
The principal trade is the manufacture of 
woollen cloth, and the dressing of sheep and 
lambskins, of which a considerable quan- 
tity is exported. The parish, which for- 
merly contained three parishes, Kelso, Max. 
well, and St James', is of an irregular tri- 
angular figure, each side of which is 4 and 
a half miles in length. The soil, for a con- 
siderable tract on the banks of the Tweed 
and Teviot, is a rich deep loam, producing 
early and luxuriant crops. A considerable 
part is iiilly ; and though the greater part 
is arable, it is kept under sheep pasture. A 



K 15 N 150 

considerable part of the abbey of Kelso, for- 
merly an immense edifice, still remains, 
and exhibits a venerable monument of the 
magnificence of ancient times. It was 
built by David I. Roxburgh castle, which 
has been in a ruinous state ever since the 
reign of James III. is equally admired for 
its strength as a fortress, as the abbey is for 
its extent and magnificence. Ofthe many 
elegant seats in this parish, the Fleurs, 
the magnificent seat of the Duke of Rox- 
burgh, is the chief. P. 4408. 

KELTIE, a river in Perthshire, -which 
rises in the western border of the parish of 
Callander, and, taking a S. E. direction, 
falls into the Teith. 

KELTON, a parish in the stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, about 6 miles long, and on 
an average 3 broad. It consists of 3 united 
parishes, Kelton, Gelston, and Kirkcormick; 
and is bounded on the W. by the river Dee. 
The principal attention is paid to the rear- 
ing of black cattle ; but heavy crops of 
grain are raised, particularly on the banks 
ofthe river. The great road from Dum- 
-fries to Portpatrick runs through the parish, 
on which are situated the two villages of 
•Castle Douglas and P-honhouse, or, as it is 
■often named, Kelton hill. P. 2263. 

KELTY,a village of Kinross-shire, in 
the parish of Cliesh. 

KELVIN, a river which rises in the pa- 
lish of Kilsyth, Stirlingshire, and falls into 
the Clyde at the village of Govan. In pas- 
sing through the parish ofE. Kilpatrick, it 
flows under the aqueduct bridge of the 
great canal. 

KEMBACK, aparish in Fifeshire, 4 miles 
long, and 1 broad. The soil is generally 
fertile, particularly on the banks of the ri- 
ver Eden, which bounds it on the N. It is 
also watered by asmall rivuletcalled Ceres. 
Freestone, coal, and limestone abound 
here; and on the estate of Blebo, there is a 
vein of lead ore. P. 626. 

KEMNAY, aparish in Aberdeenshire, 
4 miles and a halflong, and 3 broad. The 
surface is hilly, having the ridge called the 
Kembs running through it from S. E. to N. 
W. The soil, for the most part, is a light 
mould, stony, lying upon a bed 'of sand. 
Population 541. 

KEN, a river in Galloway, rising in the 
mountains of Kirkcudbrightshire, and flows 
in a direction towards New Galloway, be- 
low which it expands into a fine lake, call- 
ed Loch Ken, 4 and a half miles long, and 
1 and a half broad. After this it joins the 
Dec, and falls into the Sohvay Frith at 
Kirkcudbright. 



K E T 



KEN-EDAR, a parish in Aberdeenshire. 
Vide KING EDWARD. 

KENLOWIE, a rivulet in Fifeshire, 
which, after a course of about 6 miles, falls 
into St Andrew's bay. 

KENMORE, a parish in Perthshire, in 
Breadalbane, lying on both sides of Loch 
Tay. It is S miles long, and 7 broad; but 
the vale of Glenorchy extends much far- 
ther, and some places of it are no less than 
■ 28 miles from the church. Glenquaich 
I also lies at a considerable distance, separa- 
ted from the parish by a lofty mountain, 5 
miles over. Benlawers, the third moun- 
tain in Scotland, rises abruptly from the 
banks of the lake. The soil on the banks of 
Loch Tay is a rich loam, and the arable 
parts of the hills are of a light mossy nature, 
not unfriendly to vegetation. P. 3624.-- 
The VILLAGE of KENMORE is neatly 
built, and delightfully situated on an isth- 
mus projecting into the eastern extremity 
of Loch Tay, from which point is thrown 
over an elegant bridge of 5 arches. 

KENNETHMONT, a parish in Aber- 
deenshire, about 6 miles long, and 3 broad. 
The soil in general is a light loam, capable 
of producing luxuriant crops. The parish 
is watered by -several rivulets. Population 
S88. 

KENNET-PANS, a village in the coun- 
ty and parish of Clackmannan. 

KEMNOWAY, a parish in Fifeshire, 3 
miles long, and 2 broad. The soil is all a- 
rable, and generally fertile. The VILLAGE 
of KENNOWA Y is built at the top of a 
beautiful and romantic den, the sides of 
which are steep and rocky, and contain 
some remarkable caves. Population 1521. 

KERERA, an island of Argyleshire, 8 
miles from the island of Mull, and 1 from 
the mainland ofthe district of Lorn. It is 4 
miles long, and 2 broad. There are 2 good 
harbours, Ardintrave and Horseshoe bay. 
" KERLOACK, one of the Grampian hills, 
elevated 1890 feet. 

KERSHOPE, a small river in Roxburgh- 
shire, rising in the parish of Castletown, 
and forms for several miles, the boundary 
betwixt Scotland and England. 

KET, a small river in Wigtonshire, which 
falls into the sea at Port-Yarrock. 

KETTINS, a parish in Forfarshire, about 
4 miles long, and 3 broad, lying on the N. 
side of the Sidlaw hills, and on a part of 
the valley of Strathmore. There are seven 
villages, of which Kettins is the largest. 

KETTLE, a village and parish in Fife- 
shire. The parish is about 9 miles square. 
The greater part lies in the course of that 



strath which extends from Kinross to St 
Andrews. The village is situated on the 
low and wet part of the valley, and is liable 
to be overflowed by the Eden. Pop. 19CS. 

KILBAGIE, a village in the county and 
parish of Clackmannan. 

KILBARCHAN, a parish in Renfrew- 
shire, 9 miles long, and from 3 to 5 broad, 
bounded on the S. and E. by the Elack Cart 
river. The VILLAGE of Kilbarchan is si- 
tuated on the N.W. side of Loch Winnoch, 
and has several extensive bleachfields in its 
vicinity. Besides Kilbarchan there is ano- 
ther village near Linwood mill. P. 3563. 

KILBIRNY, a parish in Ayrshire. On 
the borders is a fine lake, 2 miles long, and 
nearly half a mile broad. The 'VILLAGE 
of Kilbirny contains about 300 inhabitants, 
chiefly employed in the silk manufacture. 

KILBRANDONandKILCHATTAN,an 
united parish in Argyleshire, consisting of 
5 farms on the mainland of Lorn, opposite j 
the sound of Mull, and 5 islands, Luing, | 
Seil, Shuna, Forsa, and Easdale. There 
are several good harbours. Pop. 1253. 

KILBRANNAN SOUND, anarrow sound, 
between the peninsula of Kintyre and the 
isle of Arran. 

KILBRIDE, a parish in the isle of Arran, 
4 miles long by 7 broad. There are 2 safe 
harbours, Loch Ranza and Lamlash. 

KILBRIDE (EAST), a parish in Lanark- | 
shire, about 10 miles long, and from 2 to 5 
broad. It consists of the united parishes of , 
Kilbride and Torrance. Pop. 2906. 

KILBRIDE (WEST), a parish in Ayr- ' 
shire, extending 6 miles long, and from 2 
to 3 and a half broad, bounded on the W. 
by the Frith of Clyde. In this parish is a 
small village of the same name, S miles S. 
S. E. from Glasgow. Population 1015. 

KILBUCHO, a parish in Peebles-shire, 
4 miles and a half long, and 3 broad, 

KILCALMONELL and KILBERRY, an 
united parish in Argyleshire, on the borders 
of E. and W. Lochs Tarbert. It is 16 miles : 
long, andfrom 3 to .5 broad. There are se- | 
veral harbours with fishing villages. Po- 
pulation 2265. 

KILCHOMAN, a parish in Argyleshire, 
in the island of Hay, 30 miles loug, and 6 
broad. There is one lake which covers 100 
acres. Population 3131. 

KILCHRENAN, a parish in Argyleshire, 
united to that of Dalvich. It lies on both 
sides of Loch Aw, extends 12 miles, and is 
8 in breadth. Population 626. 

KILCONQUHAR, a parish in Fifeshire, 
on the coast of the Frith of Forth, extend- 
ing about 8 miles, and is 2 in breadth. The 



villages of Colinsburgh, Earl's-ferry, Kil- 
conquhar, and Barnyards, are in this parish. 
Near the town of Kilconquhar is a small 
lake, with two islands on it. Pop. 2218. 

KILDA (St.), or HIRTA, the most re- 
mote of the Scottish Western Isles, the 
nearest land to it being Harris, from which 
it is distant 60 miles in a W. N. W. direc- 
tion ; and it is about 140 miles from the 
mainland of Scotland. It is 9 miles and a 
half in circumference. The whole island 
is fenced about with one continued perpen- 
dicular face of rock, of prodigious height, 
except a part of the bay or landing-place, 
lying towards the S. E. The bay is also dif- 
ficult of access. The surface is rocky, ris- 
ing into 4 high mountains. There are se- 
veral springs, which form a small rivulet, 
that runs close by the village. In this vil- 
lage, which is about a quarter of a mile from 
the bay on the S. E, all the inhabitants re- 
side. Their houses are built in two regular 
rows, facing one another, with a street run- 
ning in the middle. The laird of Macleod 
is the proprietor. 

KILDALTON, a parish in Argyleshire, 
in the island of Hay, situated on the S. E. 
end of the island, extending 15 miles, and 
is 6 in breadth. There are several harbours, 
particularly Loch Knock, on which is situ- 
ated the village of Kildalton, containing a- 
bout 100 inhabitants. Population 2269. 

KILDONAN, aparishinSutherlandshire, 
about 20 miles long, and 8 miles broad at 
one end, but not half a mile at the other. It 
lies on both sides of the river Helmsdale. 
The general appearance is mountainous. 
There are 10 small lakes which abound 
with trout. Population 1 574. 

KILDRUMMY, a parish in Aberdeen- 
shire, from 2 to 3 miles square, situated in 
a valley, and watered by the river Don. . 
The soil is a deep rich loam. Pop. 404. 

KILFINAN, a parish in Argyleshire, 15 
miles long, and from 3 to 9 broad. The 
surface and coast are very rugged, and the 
soil thin and poorly cultivated. There are 
several small lakes, which abound with 
trout. Population 1282. 

KILFINICHEN and KILVICEUEN, a 
large united parish in Argvleshire, in the 
island of Mull, now generally termed the 
parish of Ross. It extends 22 miles, and 
its greatest breadth is 12. The general ap- 
pearance of the parish is barren, and the 
mountains are elevated to a great height. 

KILL, a rivulet in Ayrshire, which falls 
into the river Ayr, m the parish of Stair. 

KILLARRO W, a parish in Argyleshire, 
in the island of Hay, united to Kilmeny, 



KIL 3 

and frequently termed Bowmore, from the 
name of the village in which the church is 
situated. It is IS miles long, and S broad. 
The surface is partly low, and partly hilly. 
Bowmore is situated on the banks of an arm 
of the sea called Lochindaal. into which the 
river Killarrow discharges itself. The pa- 
rish is also watered by the Luggan, which 
empties itself into a bay of that name. Po- 
pulation 2956. 

KILLASAY, one of the small Hebrides, 
on the W. coast of Lewis. 

KILLEAN and KILCHENZIE, an unit- 
ed parish in Argyleskire, and district of 
Kintyre, I 8 miles long, and 4 broad. The 
soil along the coast is sandy, but when well 
manured produces good crops. Pop. 2934. 

KILLEARN, a parish in Stirlingshire, in 
the western extremity of Strathblane. It 
is 12 miles long, and about 1 and a half 
broad. It is watered by the Blanc and 
Endrick, on the latter of which is the vil- 
lage of Killeam, containing about 230 in- 
habitants. This parish gave birth to George 
Buchanan, the celebrated poet and histo- 
rian, to whose memory a beautiful monu- 
ment has been erected by subscription in 
the village of Killeam. Population 997. 

KILLEARNAN, a parish in Ross-shire, 
5 miles long, and 2 broad. The soil is in 
general good. Population 1396. 

KILLICRANKIE, a noted pass in the 
Highlands of Athole, near the junction of 
the Tummel with the Garry. It is formed 
by the lofty mountains impending over the 
Garry. The river is in most places invisi- 
ble ; but at one place is seen pouring over 
a precipice, forming a scene of awful mag- 
nificence. Nearthe N.end of thispass was 
fought the battle of Killicrankie, in 16S9, 
in which the forces of King William were 
defeated by the adherents of King James. 

KILLIN, a Highland parish of Perthshire, 
in Breadalbane, 18 miles long, and in most 
places from 6 to 8 broad. It comprehends 
Glendochart and Strafhfillan, and part of 
Glenfalloch and Glenlochy. The surface is 
unequal, but the valleys are mostly arable, 
and capable of a high state of cultivation. 
It lies along the S. bank of Loch T ay, and 
is watered by various rivers. Benmore is 
the highest mountain in the parish. The 
situation of the village of Killin, at the W. 
end of Loch Tay, is singularly picturesque 
and pleasant. Besides Killin, which con- 
tains about 150 inhabitants, Clifton con- 
tains nearly 200. Population 2160. 

KILMADAN, a parish in Argyleshire, 12 
miles long, bat not half a mile broad, being 
sealed in a narrow glen, surrounded by high 



KIL 

hills. The soil is deep and fertile. Popu . 
lation 502. 

KILMADOCK, a parish in Perthshire, 
sometimes called Doune, from the town 
in which the church stands. It compre- 
hends a considerable portion of the ancient 
stewartry of Monteith, and has an area of 
94 square miles. The surface is diversified, 
and the soil exhibits all varieties, from the 
richest carse clay to the poorest moor. It is 
watered by the rivers Forth, Teith, and the 
Ardoch, Keltie, and Annat, which joins 
them . From these rivers the surface rises 
considerably. Besides the town of Doune, 
there are two small villages, Buchany, and 
J Burn of Camhus, which are nearly united to 
j the town of Doune. Population 3134. 

KILMAHOG, a village in Perthshire, in 
the parish, and within a mile' of the town of 
Callander. Population 200. 

KIL?»lALCOLM, a parish in Renfrewshire, 
about 6 miles square. It is watered by the 
Gryfe and Duchal, and bounded on the N. 
by the Clyde. The surface is rocky and di- 
versified with frequent risings. The vil- 
lage or Kirktown of Kilmalcolm is situated 
nearly in the centre of the parish. P. 1474. 

KILMALIE, an extensive parish in the 
counties of Argyle and Inverness, intersect- 
ed by three arms of the sea. Its extreme 
points are at least GO miles distant, and its 
breadth is not less than 50. The greater 
part of the parish consists of high mountains 
and hills, covered with heath, affording ex- 
cellent pasture for numerous flocks of sheep. 
Amongst these is Bennevis, the highest 
mountain in Britain. In the valleys, upon 
the banks of the Lochy and Nevis, and in 
several other places, there is some arable 
ground, of different qualities ; but in gener- 
al the soil is shallow and sandy. In several 
of the valleys lies extensive lakes, of which 
Loch Archaig and Loch Lochy are the chief. 
The rivers and lakes abound with salmon. 
Fort William, and the adjoining village of 
Maryburgh, are situated in this parish, at 
the E. end of Lochiel. There are several 
extensive caves, particularly one 30 feet 
long, and 1 1 broad. Opposite to this cave, 
is a beautiful cascade, on a small rivulet, 
which, falling down the side of Bennevis, 
forms an uninterrupted torrent for half a 
mile, before it joins its waters to the Nevis 
in the valley. Population 4645. 

KILMANIVAIG, a parish in Invemess- 
shire, 60 miles in length, and 20 in breadth. 
Its surface is much diversified with ranges 
of lofty mountains, intersected by extensive 
glens and rapid rivers. Great numbers of 
black cattle and sheep are reared. In this 



Kit, 1 

district is the ancient Castle of Inverlochy, 
the only remnant of the ancient burgh of 
that name. It was the seat of royalty, for 
here, King Achaius signed, in 790, the 
league with Charlemagne. Tins city was 
destroyed by the Danes ; and of it there 
are now no remains, except some paved 
work, which are supposed to have been the 
streets. Population '2407. 

KILMANY, a parish in Fifeshire, about 
6 miles long, and 4 broad, in a line valley, 
watered by the river Mot ray. The VIL- 
LAGE of KILMANY is pleasantly situat- 
ed on an eminence on the old road from 
Dundee to Cupar, about 5 miles from the 
latter, and 3 miles and a half from Baloie- 
rino on the Tay. Population 781. 

KILMARNOCK, a town of Ayrshire, si- 
tuated in a valley on each side of a rhulet, 
which is a tributary stream of the Irvine. 
It is very irregularly built.few of the Streets 
being laid out on a fixed plan. Kilmarnock 
is a burgh of barony, governed by 2 bailies, 
a council of 1 2 of the merchants, and the 
deacons of the 5 incorporated trades. It is 
one of the principal manufacturing towns 
in Ayrshire, and carries on a considerable 
trade in making carpets, serges, and other 
woollen cloths The PARISH of KIL- 
MARNOCK, extends 9 miles in length, 
and 4 in breadth, along the banks of the ri- 
ver Irvine. The surface is level, and the 
soil deep, strong, and fertile. Population 
of the town and parish 10,148. 

KILMARONOCK,a parish in Dumbarton, 
shire, 6 miles long, and from 2 to 4 broad, 
watered by the Endrick. On the banks of 
the river, the soil is a deep rich loam ; but, 
on the rising ground, it gradually degener- 
ates into a moor or moss. There are the 
remains of two Romish chapels ; and at 
Catter is a large artificial mound of earth, 
where, in ancient times, the baronial courts 
were held. The castle of Kilmaronock, and 
the castle of Batturet.both in ruins, appear 
to have been formerly magnificent edifices. 
Population 898. 

KILMARTIN, a parish, 12 miles long, 
and 5 broad, lying on theW. coast of Ar- 
gyleshire, and bounded on the E. for 6 
miles by Loch Aw. The valley in which 
the church and village of Kilmartin are si- 
tuated, is one of the most beautiful in the 
Highlands. — Through this vale is the line 
of road from Kintyre to Fort William, on 
which the village is a stage, with a commo- 
dious inn. Loch Crinan is the principal 
harbour in this parish. Population 1453. 

KILMAURS, a parish in Ayrshire, about 
6 miles long, and 5 broad. Craig and Cav- 



3 EU 

mel bank are the chief seats in this parish. 
Bushby castle is now unroofed, and falling 
to ruin. The parish is watered by several 
rivulets. The TOWN of KILMAURS is a 
buigh of barony, erected by James V. It is 
pleasantly situated on a gentle ascent, and 
consists of one handsome street, with a 
small town-house and spire in the middle. 
It is governed by 2 bailies, annually elected 
by the majority ofthe portioners of the 
town. Population 1432. 

KILMENY, a parish in Argyleshire, in 
the island of Hay, united to Killarrow. 

KILMORACK, a parish in Inverness- 
shire, extending about 60 miles, and from 
10 to 50 miles in breadth. It lies on the 
banks of the Beaulie, and exhibits every 
variety of surface, scenery, and soil. There 
are many lakes. Loch Uain, or the green 
lake, is about 40 miles W. of Beaulie, sur- 
rounded by lofty mountains, and in sum- 
mer and winter, covered with ice ; but, in 
the middle of June, when the sun is verti- 
cal, a very little of the ice in the centre is 
dissolved. Population 2528. 

KILMORE and KILBRIDE, an united 
parish in Argyleshire, situated in the dis- 
trict of Lorn, on the coast, and compre- 
hending the island of Kerera. There i9 a 
considerable lake inthe parish, called Loch- 
nel, from which a small rivulet discharges 
itself into Loch Feachan, an arm ofthe sea. 
The coast is high and rocky, possessing, 
however, two excellent harbours; one at 
the village of Oban, and another at Dun. 
staffnage ; besides two in the island of Ke- 
rera. There are three ferries, Connel ferry, 
over Loch Etive; Port Kerera, between 
the mainland and that island ; and Mull 
ferry. Population in 1801, 2729. 

KILMORICH. VideLOCHGOILHEAD 
and KILMORICH. 

KILMORY,a parish inB uteshire, and i9le 
of Arran, extending 30 miles, in a semicir- 
cular form. The coast is rugged and bold, 
and the surface uneven and hilly. Beinbhar- 
fhionn, the highest hill, has its top covered 
with snow the greater part of the year. 
Loch Earsay is a considerable lake, nearly 
in the centre ofthe island. Pop. 3430. 

KILMUIR, a parish in Inverness-shire, 
at the northern extremity of the isle of Sky. 
It extends 16 miles, and is 8 in breadth. 
Along the coast, it is flat, with gently ris- 
ing eminences, affording excellent pasture ; 
but the interior is mountainous, and cover- 
ed with heath. The shores are in general 
high and rocky ; and towards the N. point 
terminate in a lofty promontory called 
Hunnish, near which is a dangerous and 
U 



KIL 



15 4 



rapid current. The harbour of Duntulm 
the safest in the island. P. in 1801, '275 
' KILMUIR, (EASTER), aparish situated 
in Ross-shire, and partly in that of Cromar 
ty, about 10 miles long, and on an average 
4 miles and a half broad. P.inl801, 1703. 
KILMUIR (WESTER) andSUDDY.an 
united parish in Ross-shire, now more ge- 
nerally named Knockbain, (q. v.) 

KILNINIAN, a parish m Argyleshire,is- 
land of Mull. It is in the form of a penin- 
sula, lying in the N. W. extremity of the 
island, about 12 miles square. To it be- 
long the islands of TJIva, Gometra, Little 
Colonsay, and Staffa : and the small unin- 
habited cluster called the Treishnish, or 
Treshiunish isles. It has an excellent har- 
bour at Tobermory, where a village was e- 
rected about 25 years ago by the British so- 
ciety for encouraging the fisheries. At 
Aros, on the sound of Mull, there is also a 
harbour. Population 4064. 

KILNINVER and KILMELFORT, an 
united parish in Lorn, Argyleshire, forming 
nearly a square of 1 2 miles. It is bounded 
on the W. by the sound of Mull. The low- 
er parts of the parish are smooth, with a 
gentle declivity to the sea ; and consists of 
a light loamy soil, yielding in favourable 
seasons, good crops. The upper district is 
hilly and mountainous, covered with exten- 
sive natural forests and plantations. In 
this hilly district lie two considerable lakes, 
Loch Scammadale, and Loch Tralig, from 
whence issue the river Euchar and Oude. 
Population 953. ' 

KILPATRICK (NEW or EAST), a pa- 
rish situated partly in Stirling, and partly 
in Dunbartonshire, disjoined from Old Kil- 
patrick about the end of the 17th century. 
The river Kelvin runs through it ; and the 
great canal is carried over that river by 
aqueduct bridge of 4 arches. The soil is 
clayey, and difficult of culture. The only 
village is Melguy, which contains about 200 
inhabitants. Population 2608. 

KILPATRICK (OLD or WEST), a 
rish in Dunbartonshire, on the N. bank of 
the Clyde, 10 miles below Glasgow. It is 8 
miles long, and from 3 to 4 broad. The 
surface is partly flat, partly hilly and moun- 
tainous, and in many places covered with 

natural wood. Population 3428 The 

VILLAGE of KLLPATRICK lies 10 miles 
W. from Glasgow, and eontains 500 inha- 
bitants. 

KILRENNY, a royal burgh and parish in 
Fifeshire, on the N. coast of the Frith of 
Forth. The town owes its charter to James 
VI. The parish, which is of a circular 



form, has a diameter of about 2 miles. The 
coast is one continued ridge of rocks, with 
two small creeks, the harbour of Kilrenny, 
and the port of Cellardykes. Pop. 1300. 

KILSPIND1E, a parish in Perthshire, 
partly in the Carse of Gowrie, and partly 
amongst the Stormont hills, about halfway 
between Perth and Dundee. It is of an ob. 
long form, about five miles by 3 miles and 
a half. Population 762. 

KILSYTH, a parish in Stirlingshire, in 
the southern extremity of the county, about 
7 miles by 3 miles and a half. The Carron 
and Kelvin are the principal rivers, and one 
of the reservoirs for the great canal is in 
this parish—The VILLAGE of KYLSYTH 
is a considerable manufacturing place, on 
the old road from Glasgow to Edinburgh. 
It is a burgh of barony, entitled to hold a 
weekly market and 4 annual fairs. P. 3206. 
KILTARLITY, a mountainous parish 
in Inverness-shire, formed by the union of 
the parishes of Kiltarlity and Conveth. It 
is 30 miles long, and about 6 broad. There 
are 5 lakes, Biruach, Gorm, and Neattie j 
and it is watered by the Beaulie, and the 
3 streams which form it. P. about 3000. 

KILTEARN, aparish of considerable ex- 
tent in Ross-shire, on the N. side of the> 
Frith of Cromarty. Along the coast it is 
arable ; but the remainder is wild and 
mountainous, and uncultivated. Benuaish, 
whose top is constantly covered with snow, 
is the most lofty mountain in the parish. 
Besides the river Skiace, there are several 
other rivers, which takes their rise from 
lakes among the mountains, and descends 
to the sea with amazing rapidity, forming 
several fine cascades. Population 1552. 

KILWINNING, a considerable town and 
parish in Ayrshire,— The town is situated 5 
miles N. N. W. of Irvine, and contains 
1260 inhabitants. It is noted for being the 
seat of the first mason lodge in Scotland, 
from whence all the other lodges have 
their rise.— The PARISH of KILWIN- 
NING is 9 miles long, and in many places 
of the same breadth. The surface rises 
gently from the S. and W. to the N. and E. 
and is beautifully diversified. The whole 
is inclosed, and in a state of improvement. 
The parish is watered by the Garnock river, 
and the Lugton, one of its tributary streams. 
Population 3291. 
KINBATTOCK, Vide Towie. 
KINCARDINE, or MEARNS. This 
county is bounded on the N. by Aberdeen- 
shire ; on the E. by the ocean ; and on the 
S. and W. by the county of Angus. Its. 
form is nearly triangular, about 50 miles in. 



K I N 



length along the coast. It is said to have 
received the name of Mearns from a bro- 
ther of Kenneth II. called Mearnia. The 
name of Kincardine is derived from a small 
village in the parish of Fourdoun, which 
was anciently the county town : but the 
courts were removed flom thence to Stone- 
haven. The sea coast is partly flat, and 
partly rocky, rising inwards to a fine level 
country, about 100 or 150 feet above the Ie- 
"vel of the sea, intersected by numerous 
streams, the Bervie, Cowie, and Carron, and 
divided from Angus by the North Esk. A 
part of the Grampian ridge runs through 
the county, forming the N. side of the How 
of the Mearns, the N. E. extremity of Strath- 
rhore. South of the Grampians the surface 
is in general fertile. The N. W. part of 
the shire is mountainous, and chiefly adap- 
ted for pasture. Kincardine contains only 
one royal burgh, Inverbervie; but there 
are several populous towns and villages, of 
which Stonehaven, Johnshaven, and Lau- 
rencekirk are the chief. In many places 
there are fine quarries of limestone. Kin- 
cardineshire is divided into 19 parochial 
districts, which contain 27,509 inhabitants. 

KINCARDINE, a parish in Perthshire, 
in the strath or valley of Monteith. It is 
about 10 miles long, surrounded on every 
side, except the S. by lofty mountains; on 
the E. by the Ochils, towering amongst the 
clouds. It contains somewhat more than 
<i000 acres, of which 4000 are carse lands, 
lying along the Forth, and the remainder 
dry-field, along the Teith. Besides the 
Teith and Forth, the parish is watered by 
the small river Goody. There are two vil- 
lages, Forriestown and Thornhill, now 
nearly united. Population 2260. 

KINCARDINE, a parish in the counties 
of Ross and Cromarty, above 30 miles long. 
At its E. end it is very narrow, but it gra- 
dually widens, till at the western extremi- 
ty, at the great forest or Balnagown, it is 
20 miles broad. It consists of glens, in 
which run several rivulets, with mountains 
of great extent. The coast of the Frith of 
Dornoch, which bounds the parish on the 
N. and E. is flat and sandy, affording safe 
harbours for small vessels. The village of 
Kincardine is situated on the coast, with a 
small harbour, about 14 miles W. of Tain. 
Population 1666. 

KINCARDINE, a town in the parish of 
Tullialan, Perthshire, of considerable ex- 
tent, lying on the northern bank of the 
Forth, between the burghs of Clackmannan 
and Culross, from both of which it is dis- 
tant about 3 miles. It was; at first named 



West Pans, from the salt pans which were 
wrought in it. Its staple article of employ- 
ment is ship building, for which it is much 
celebrated, particularly for vessels intend- 
ed for the coasting trade. Of late too, the 
rope manufacture has been introduced, and 
is carried on with great spirit and advan r 
tage. A pretty productive fishing of sprats 
or garvies has been long carried on here by 
means of cruives. Its harbour is commo- 
dious, and a good quay wasbuilt afew years 
ago. Opposite to the town is an excellent 
road-stead where vessels can ride in safety, 
The houses are in general well built; and 
within these 30 years the town has been 
greatly enlarged by the erection of several 
handsome streets regularly planned. It 
contains nearly 500 inhabitants. 

KINCARDINE, a decayed village in 
the parish of Fourdeun, in Kincardine- 
shire, the capital of the county, till Kiiig 
James VI. removed the courts to Stone- 
haven. In 1792, it contained only 73 in- 
habitants. 

KINCARDINE O'NEIL, a parish In A- 
berdeenshire, 7 miles long, and 5 broad. 
The village, which surrounds the church, 
is finely situated on the banks of the Dee, 
and is much resorted to in summer by in- 
valids. Population 1S45. 

KINCHARDINE. Vide Abernethy and 
Kinchnrdine. 

KINCLAVEN, a parish in Perthshire, in 
the district of Stormont, lying upon the S. 
and W. banks of the Tay. The surface is 
diversified with a few rising grounds, all of 
which are accessible to the plough. P. 1066. 

KINCRAIG POINT, a promontory of 
Fifeshire, in the Frith of Forth, forming 
the W. boundary of Largo bay. 

KINDAR (LOCH), a small lake in Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, in the parish of Newabbey. 

KIN FAUNS, a parish in Perthshire, at 
the eastern extremity of the Carse of Gow- 
rie, 5 miles long, and 2 and a half broad. 
Population 621. 

KINGARTH, a parish in thecounty and 
island of Eute, 7 miles long, and 2 broad, 
in the S. extremity of that island. P. 854. 

KING EDWARD, anciently called Ken 
Edar ; a parish in Aberdeenshire, 1 2 miles 
long, and varying from 2 to 5 in breadth, 
bounded on the W. by the Deveron. The 
village of Newbyth was begun to be feued 
in 1764, and contained in 1795 about 200 
inhabitants. Population 18S7. 

KINGHORN, a royal burgh in Fifeshire, 
on the coast of the Frith of Forth, nearly 
opposite to Leith, between which towns 
there are regular passage boats. It was 



kin : 

invested with the privileges of a royal burgh 
by King David I. and about that time is 
said to have been a royal residence. The 
town is pleasantly situated on the side of a 
hill fronting the Forth, and consists of a 
main street, intersected by bye-lanes. An 
ancient building, called St. Leonard's Tow- 
er, in the middle of the town, is used as a 
court-house and prison. The parish of King- 
horn is about 4 miles in length, and 3 and 
a half in breadth ; and the island of Inch- 
keith is generally considered as belonging 
to it. The surface isbeautifully diversified, 
and the soil exceedingly fertile. The coast 
is about 3 miles in extent, and has 2 har- 
bours, one below the town, and the other 
about half a mile W. at Pettycur, for the 
convenience of the passage-boats. About 
half way betwixt the town of Kinghorn and 
Pettycur, is a basaltic rock, running into 
the sea. Population 2204. 

KINGLAS3IE, a parish in Fifeshire, 4 
miles long, and 2 broad. It is bounded on 
the N. by the Leven, and watered by two 
of its tributary streams, the Lochtie and the 
Ore. The whole of it is arable, but only 
one third of it is undertillage. The village 
of Kinglassie is situated on the banks of the 
Leven, 2 miles S. W. of Leslie. Pop. 9S3. 

KINGOLDRUM, a parish in Forfarshire, 
situated at thebase of the Grampian moun- 
tains. It is 7 miles long, and 2 and a half 
broad. T he soil is in general fertile. Cat- 
law, a hill elevated 2264 feet is in this pa- 
rish. Population 537. 

KIN GOODIE, a village in Perthshire, in 
the parish of Longforgan. 

KINGSBARNS, a parish in Fifeshire, a- 
bout 4 miles square. The soil is various, 
but generally produces good crops. The 
village of Kingsbarns lies 9 miles S. E. of 
St Andrew's, and carries on a considerable 
manufacture of Osnaburgs, Shirtings, &c. 
for the Dundee market. Population 860. 

KING'S-SEAT, a hill in Perthshire, on 
the borders of the parishes of Aberny te and 
Alyth. Its height is 1238 feet. 

KINGUSSIE and INCH, an united pa- 
rish in Inverness-shire, in the district of 
Badenoch, about 20 miles long, and 17 
broad. It is mostly allotted ( o the pastur- 
age of sheep. It is intersected by the Spey. 
There are other streams, which arise from 
several small lakes in the parish, and emp- 
ty themselves into the Spey. The largest 
lake is Loch Inch, from which one of the 
districts takes its name. Population 1981. 

KINLOCU, a parish in Perthshire, 9 miles 
long, and 2 and a half broad. The surface 
is finely diversified. The lakes are Drume 



N 



lie, Rae,andFenzies. The soil is in general 
fertile. Population 340. 

KINLOSS, a parish in the county of El- 
gin, situated at the head of the bay of Find- 
horn, about 3 and a half square miles. The 
surface is level, and the soil tolerable. Find- 
horn is in this parish. Population 1052. 

KINLOSS, a small river in Argyleshire, 
which runs into Loch Aw, near the moun- 
tain of Cruachan. 

KINNAIRD, a parish and village in 
Perthshire, 2 miles E. and W. and 3 N. and 
S. comprehending part of the hilly lands on 
the N. side of the Carse of Gowrie. P. 445. 

KINNAIRD'S HEAD, a promontory in 
Aberdeenshire, about a mile N. of Fraser- 
burgh. On the top of the promontory a 
light-house is erected. 

KI N N EFF, a parish in the county of Kin- 
cardine, extending from the mouth of the 
river Bervie northward about 5 miles. The 
surface is interspersed with rising grounds, 
mostly covered with heath j but the soil, 
particularly along the shore, is tolerably fer- 
tile. The coast is bold and rocky, possess- 
ing only two small creeks for boats, as Ca- 
terhne and Gap-hill. Population 952. 

KIN NELL, a parish in Angus-shire, con- 
taining nearly 3000 acres. The soil is va- 
rious, but tolerably fertile. Population S04. 

KINNELL, a river in Dumfries-shire, 
which falls into the Annan near Lochmaben 

KINNELLAR, a parish in Aberdeen- 
shire, containing 4000 acres, somewhat hil- 
ly, but susceptible of cultivation. P. 325. 

KINNESSWOOD, a village of Kinross- 
shire, in the parish of Portmoak. P. 300. 

KINNETTLES, a parish in Forfarshire, 
forming nearly a square of 4 miles. The 
greater part is enclosed and well cultivated. 
Population532. 

KINNOUL, a parish in Perthshire, on 
the E. side of the Tay, 1 and a half or 2 
miles square. The surface is irregular, ris- 
ing from the banks of the river to the sum- 
mit of the hill of Kinnoul, the elevation of 
which is 632 feet. The village of Kinnoul, 
commonly called Bridge-end, is a burgh of 
barony, holding of the Earl of Kinnoul. 
Population 243!. 

KINPURNIE, a hill in Perthshire, in 
the parish of Meigle, about 1151 feet in 
height. 

KINROSS-SHIRE is bounded on the N. 
E., E. and S. by Fifeshire, and on the other 
sides by Perthshire. It is almost circular, 
and about 30 miles in circumference. The 
middle part is occupied by Loch Leven. 
From its banks, the ground rises gradually 
towards the N. with a gentle ascent; but, 



on the S., the rise is more abrupt and rug- 
ged. It is divided into 4 parishes, the po- 
pulation of which is about 7000. Kinross- 
shire, alternately with Clackmannanshire, 
sends a member to parliament. There are 
abundance of limestone and coal; andiron- 
stone is also met with. The hills are mostly 
composed of a coarse whinstone, in some 
of the fissures of which are small veins of 
lead ore. 

KINROSS, the county town of the shire. 
It is pleasantly situated on a plain, at the 
W. end of Loch Leven, upon the great road 
from Queensferry to Perth, from each of 
which it is distant 15 miles. It carries on 
a considerable m inufacture of coarse linens. 
The PARISH of Kinross extends about 3 
miles in every direction round the town, 
except towards the E. where Loch Leven 
forms the boundary. The surface is fiat, 
and the soil is pretty fertile. It is watered 
by 3 small streams, the North and South 
Quiech, and the Gairney. 

KINTAIL, a parish in Ross-shire, 13 miles 
long, and in general o' broad, comprehend- 
ing 3 districts, viz. the side of Croe, Glenel- 
chaig, and Glassletter. The whole is inter- 
sected by the arms of the sea, Loch Long 
and Loch Duich, and is wild and mountain- 
ous. The hill ofTullochard is elevated to 
a great height ; and the cascade of Glonach 
is a remarkable waterfall. Pop. 105S. 

KINTORE, a small burgh in Aberdeen- 
shire, seated on the Don, about 15 miles 
W. of the county town. It is governed by 
a provost, 2 bailies, a dean of guild, and a 
treasurer, assisted by a council of 8 burgess- 
es. It has a neat town-house and prison. 
It contains about '250 inhabitants, and u- 
nites with Banff, Cullen, Elgin, and Inver- 
ury, in sending a member to parliament. 
The PARISH is nearly 6 miles in length, 
and 3 in breadth, gradually rising from the 
banks of the Don to the hills on its borders. 
Population about 1000. 

KINTYRE.the S. division of Argyleshire. 
It is a peninsula, lying between the Frith of 
Clyde and the Atlantic Ocean, and joined 
to Kfiapdale at the narrow isthmus of Tar- 
bert. It extends about 35 miles in length, 
and 7 in breadth. There are several villa- 
ges in the district ; but the only town of 
consequence is the royal burgh of Campbell. 
town. Population 1S.2S5. 

KINTYRE (MULL OF), the S. point of 
the peninsula of Kintyre. 

KIPPEN, a parish lying on the S. bank of 
the Frith of Forth, but situated partly in 
Perthshire, and partly in the county of Stir- 
ling. It is 8 miles in length, and from 2 to 



4 in breadth. It contains 2 -villages, viz. 
Kippen and Bucklyvie. Population 1893. 

KIRKCALDY, a royal burgh and sea-port 
in Fifeshire, situated on the coast of the 
Frith of Forth, 3 miles E. of Kmghom. It 
stretches along the foot of a bank, and is 
properly but one street, about a mile long, 
with a few narrow lanes opening at each 
side. The town-house is a plain building, 
with a tower and spire, situated nearly in 
the middle of the town ; and the church, a 
building in the Gothic style of architecture, 
stands on an eminence at the back of the 
town. The harbour is safe and commo- 
dious. Manufactures of various kinds are 
here carried on to a considerable extent. 
It is governed by a provost, 2 bailies, a dean 
of guild, and a treasurer, with a council of 
21 members. It joins with Kinghorn, Dy- 
sart, and Burntisland, insendinga member 
to parliament. The PARISH is of an irre- 
gular oblong figure, between 2 and 3 miles 
in length, and about 1 in breadlh, rising 
gradually from 1 he coast to the northern ex- 
tremity. The prospect from the heights is 
magnificent. The parish contains freestone, 
ironstone, and coal. Population 4452. 

KIRKBEAN, a parish in the stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, 6 miles long, and 3 broad, 
occupying a promontory in the S. E. corner 
of Galloway. The surface rises into a ridge 
of hills called the Criffel. There are 5 
small villages, viz. Kirkbean, Preston, and 
Salterness. Population 800. 

KIKKBOST, a small island of the Hebri- 
des, lying on the W. coast of North Ulst. 

KIRKCOLM, a parish in VVigtonshire. It 
is a sort of peninsula, formed by the bay of 
Lochryan and the Atlantic Ocean, 6 miles 
by 4. The coast affords several safe places 
of anchorage, particularly at the Wig. p . 
pulation 14b5. 

KIRKCONNEL, a parish in Dumfries- 
shire, in Nithsdale, from 10 to 14 miles in 
length, and from 7 to 8 in breadth. It con- 
tains 40 square miles and a half. The hil- 
ly part of the parish is well stocked with 
sheep aud black cattle. The Glenmuleugh 
hills are composed entirely of limestone. 
Coal is found in different places. It also a- 
bounds with freestone and many mineral 
springs. Population 1017. 

KIRKCUDBRIGHT. Thisshire.orstew- 
artry, comprehends the eastern district of 
Galloway, and extends from N. W. to S. E. 
about 45 miles in length, and 30 in breadth. 
It is bounded on the N.E. and E. by Dum • 
fries-shire, on the S. by the Solway Frith 
and the Irish sea, on the W. by Wigtonshire, 
{ and on the N. VV. by the county of Ayr. 



KIR 

The face of the country exhibits the appea- 
rance of one continued heath. This shire, 
especially toward the N. is rugged and hil- 
ly, and is intersected by numerous streams, 
•w hich, uniting, form four considerable ri- 
vers ; the Cree on the W. the Fleet, the Dee, 
formed by the union of the Ken and Dee, 
and the Orr, or Urr. These rivers, all of 
which have their rise in the N. empty them- 
selves into the Sol way Frith and Irish sea. 
This shire contains two royal burghs, Kirk- 
cudbright and New Galloway, and several 
considerable villages, most of which have 
been built within these 70 years. It has 
neither coal nor lime, and but little free- 
stone. Kirkcudbright sends a member to 
parliament. It is divided into 28 parishes, 
and contains 33.6S1 inhabitants. 
KIRKCUDBRIGHT, a parish in the above 
county, 7 miles from N. to S. and from 3 to 
4 in breadth. It is somewhat hilly; but 
the soil produces tolerable crops. The ri- 
ver Dee, which bounds the parish on the W. 
forms a peninsula called St Mary's isle. Po- 
pulation 2763. The BURGH of Kirkcud- 
bright, and county-town of the stewartry, 
is pleasantly situated on the Dee, about 4 
miles above where it pours its wateis into 
the Solway Frith, 28 miles S. W. of Dum- 
fries. The town consists of two streets, u- 
niting nearly at right angles. About the 
middle of the town is a large and elegant 
court-house. The harbour is well sheltered. 
It is a port of the custom-house. The go- 
vernment is vested in a provost, 3 bailies, a 
treasurer, and 11 councillors. It joins with 
Dumfries, Annan, Sanquhar, and Lochma- 
ben, in sending a member to parliament. 
Population 1S41. 

KIRKDEN, a parish in Forfarshire, about 
5 miles long, and 2 broad. It is watered by 
the Lunny and the Vinny. Pop. 735. 

KIRKGUNZEON, a parish in the stew- 
artry of Kirkcudbright, 5 miles long, and 3 
broad. The general appearance is hilly, 
but there is a good deal of level ground. 
Population 659. 

KIRKHILL, a parish in Invemess-shire, 
formed of two parishes, Wardlaw and Farna. 
It extends about 8 miles, and from 1 to 3 in 
breadth. It is watered by the river Beau- 
lie, which falls into the frith at this place. 
Population 1477. 

KI-RKINNER, a parish in Wigtorishire, 
14 miles by 6. It lies on the W. coast of the 
bay of Wigton, and along the river Blade- 
noch, which forms the N. boundary. P. 1433 
KIRKINTILLOCH, a parish and burgh 
in Dunbartonshire. It is of a triangular fi- 
gure, in no place extending more than 5 



J K I R 

miles and a half. The river Kelvin passes 
through it, and in its course receives seve- 
ral considerable streams, particularly the 
Skinna and the Luggie. The Forth and 
Clyde canal also passes through the whole 
extent. The TOWN of Kirkintilloch is 
pleasantly situated on each bank of the Lug- 
gie, near its junction with the Kelvin. It 
is neatly built. It is governed by two bai- 
lies, annually elected by freemen. P. 3740. 
KIRKLAND, a village in the parish of 
Wemys.i,in Fife, in which is a most exten- 
sive flax spinning mill. 

KIRKLISTON, a parish on each side of 
the river Amond , partly in the county of 
Edinburgh, and partly in Linlithgowshire. 
It is 5 miles and a half long, and 3 and a 
half broad. The whole parish is under til- 
lage. The village of Kirkliston, contains 
about 600 inhabitants. Population 1682. 

KIRKMABRECK, a parish in the stew- 
artry of Kirkcudbright, about 8 miles long 
and 4 broad, lying upon the E. side of Wig- 
ton bay and the river Cree. The Ferry-town 
of Cree, now generally termed Creetown, 
is situatedin this parish. Population 1264. 
KIRKMAHOE, a parish in Dumfries- 
shire. There are 4 or 5 villages, the largest 
of which, Duncow, contains nearly 200 in- 
habitants. Population 1494. 

KIRKMAIDEN, a parish in Wigtonshire, 
occupying the extremity of the peninsula 
which is termed the Rhins of Galloway. It 
extends from the Mull of Galloway 10 miles 
long, and about 2 and a half broad. The 
general appearance is hilly. The coast, par- 
ticularly near the Mull, is bold and rocky; 
but on each side there are several safe an- 
choring places. Population 1719. 

KIRKMICHAEL, a parish in Ayrshire, 9 
miles long, and 4 broad. The water of Gir- 
van runs through it, and the Doon is its 
boundary for several miles. P. 1693. 

KIRKMICHAEL, a parish in Barrffshire, 
in the western extremity, 10 miles long, 
and 3 broad at the middle. It is hilly; 
and, in its western extremity, the moun- 
tain of Cairngorum raises its lofty head. It 
is intersected by numerous torrents, which 
pour on every side from the hills to join 
the Avon. Here are extensive beds of pure 
white marl. Tammtoul is the only village, 
and containr about ISO inhabitants. Po- 
pulation 1386. 

KIRKMICHAEL, a parish in Dum- 
fries-shire, of an elliptical figure, nearly 10 
miles long, and 4 broad in the middle. 
The general appearance is barren, being 
interspersed with extensive uhimproveahle 
heathy tracts and mosses, which supply 



KIR 



159 



the country with fuel. It is watered by 
the Ae, Kinnel, and Glenkill. Population 
1035. 

KIRKMICHAEL, a parish in the N. E. 
comer of Perthshire, 17 miles in length, 
and from 6 to 7 in breadth. It comprehends 
the greater part of Strathardle, and the 
whole of Glenshee is watered by the Ardle 
and Shee, which run through these valleys. 
The military road from Cupar Angus to 
Fort George passes along the Ardle, and 
through Glenshee. P. 1460. 

KIRKMICHAEL, a parish in the coun- 
ties of Ross and Cromarty, to which are ad- 
ded the two parishes of Cullcudden and St I 
Martin's. It lies along the S. coast of the 
Frith of Cromarty, and extends about 8 
miles in length, and 3 in breadth. Popu- 
lation 1234. 

KIRKNEWTON, a parish in the county 
of Mid.Lothian, to which the parish of 
East Calder is annexed. It is 6 miles long, 
and 4 broad, bounded on the N. by the ri- 
ver Amond, and on the H. by the water of 
Leith. Population 1300. 

KIRKOSWALD, a parish in the district 
of Carrick, Ayrshire. It extends about 6 
miles along the coast, and contains nearly 
11,000 Scots acres. The surface is hilly 
and unsheltered ; but the soil on the coast 
is generally a rich loam, mixed with clay . 
Population 287. 

KIRKURD, a parish in Peebles-shire a- 
bout 5 miles and a half long, and from 3 to 
4-broad. The surface is finely diversified, 
and the arable land is nearly equal in point 
of extent to the pasture land. Population 
1689. 

KIRKCOWAN.aparish in Wigtonshire, 
15 miles in length, and from one to six in 
breadth, watered by the rivers Bladenoch 
and Tarf. The surface is partly moor land, 
and partly arable. Population 1006. 

KIRKPATRICK-DtJRHAM, a parish 
and village in the stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright. The parish is 9 miles in length, and 
from 3 to 4 in breadth , lying along the east- 
em bank of the river Urr. The northern, 
or upper part of the parish, is covered with 
heath ; but the lower part is enclosed, and 
almost entirely arable. P. 1156. 

KIRKPATRICK-FLEMING, a parish 
in Dumfries-shire, about 6 miles long, and 
3 broad. The surface, which rises gently 
from the S.to the N. presents a pleasing 
variety, and striking contrast; in several 
parts the lands are in a high state of cul- 
tivation, partly covered with heath. The 
soil of the arable land varies considerably ; 
but it is in general fertile, and produces 



tolerable crops. It lswatered by the small 
river Kirtle ; and the Black and White 
Sark have their sources here. Population 
1664. 

KIRKPATRICK-IRON-GRAY, a pa- 
rish in Kirkcudbrightshire, 9 miles long, 
and 2 broad. The eastern extremity is le- 
vel, and the soil dry and fertile; the rest 
of the parish is hilly, except a tract of low 
land on the banks of the Cluden and Cairn. 
Or the river Caim there is a bridge over a 
romantic waterfall, called the Routing 
Bridge. P. 841. 

KIRKPATRICK- JUXTA, a parish in 
Dumfries-shire, a triangular figure, each 
side being about 8 miles long, bounded on 
the N. and E. by the river Annan. The ge- 
neral appearance isbleak, interspersed with 
moss and moor. From the water side, 
which is flat and populous, the ground 
rises to the summit of the hill of Queens- 
berry on the W. border, elevated 3000 teet 
above the level of the sea. P. 582. 

KIRKTOUN, a parish in the county of 
Roxburgh, 8 miles long, and from 1 to 2 
miles and a half broad. The face of the 
country presents a continued range of hills, 
separated only by small rivulets, and gra- 
dually ascending from E. to W. The soil 
is poor and shallow. Population 287. 

KIRKURD, a parish in Peebles-shire, a- 
bout 5 miles and a half long, and from 3 
to 4 broad. The surface is finely diversi- 
fied, and the arable land is nearly equal in 
point of extent to the pasture land. Po- 
pulation 3S7. 

KIRKWALL, a royal burgh, and chief 
town of the stewartry of Orkney, situated 
in the parish of Kirkwall and St Ola, in the 
island of Pomona. It is built en a neck of 
land, washed on one side by the bay of 
Kirkwall, and on the other by a pleasant 
inlet of the sea, which flows by the back of 
the gardens at high water. It is nearly a 
mile long, but is of inconsiderable breadth, 
having only one street running the whole 
length. It was anciently possessed by the 
Danes and Norwegians, who named it 
Kirkivog. It was erected into a royal burgh 
by James III. It is governed by a provost, 
4 bailies, a treasurer, dean of guild, and 
council, annually elected by the burgesses. 
The cathedral of St Magnus is a large Go- 
thic pile, said to have been founded by 
Rognwald, Count of Orkney, in the year 
1138. It is still very entire, and a part of 
it is occupied as the parish church. Here 
are also the ruins of an extensive and ele- 
gant building, erected, in 1607, by Patrick, 
Earl of Orkney, called the Earl's palace; 



K N A 



160 



and almost adjoining to it is the Bishop's 
palace, a ruin of very great antiquity. 
The harbour is excellent, with an outer 
road affording safe anchorage; and the 
■whole is commanded by a fortification, 
built by the English in tne time of Oliver 
Cromwell. Kirkwall joins with the burghs 
of Wick, Dornoch, Dingwall, and Tain, in 
sending a member to Parliament. — The 
PARISH of KIRKWALL and ST. OLA 
comprehends the town of Kirkwall, and 
the district for about miles round. Po- 
pulation 22S5. 

KIRMUNDIE (NETHER), a village of 
Aberdeenshire, in the parish of Longside, 
on the banks of the Ugie. 

KIRRIEMUIR, a considerable town and 
parish in Augus-shire. The town is situa- 
ted near the foot of the braes of Angus, on 
the S. W. side of a hill, near a romantic 
den, through which flows the small river 
Gairie. It lies 10 miles from Dundee. It 
is a burgh of barony, of which Lord Dou- 
glas is the superior.— The PARISH ex- 
tends 7 or 8 miles in length, and upwards 
of 6 in breadth, and is watered by the Esk, 
the Carity, the Gairie, and the Prosen. 
The surface is beautifully diversified. The 
hills, however, those of Glenprosen except- 
ed, are of no great elevation, and are either 
cultivated, planted, or afford tolerable pas- 
ture. Population 4969. 

KIRTLE, ariverin Dumfriesshire, which 
has its source in the parish of Middlebie, and 
running past Kirkpatrick-Fleming, falls in- 
to the Sol way Frith, a little below Gretna- 
Green. 

KLETT, a small rocky island, about 3 
miles W.from the W. coast of Sutherland. 

KLOACHNABANE, a hill in the parish 
of Strachan, Kincardine-shire, elevated 
2570 feet. 

KNAPDALE, a division of Argyleshire, 
about 20 miles long, and 16 broad. It isin- 



K Y P 

tersected by the lakes of Caolisport and Cas- 
tle-swen. A cluster of small islands on the 
W. coast belongs to it. The greater part 
of the district is mountainous, with fertile 
fields interspersed. 

KNAPDALE (NORTH), a parish in the 
district of the same name. It extends 12 
miles, and 5 broad, over a tolerably fertile 
tract of land on the coast of the Atlantic. 
Population 21S4. 

KNAPDALE (SOUTH), a parish, extend- 
ing 20 miles in length, and 16 broad, along 
the W. coast of Loch Fyne. Pop. 1720. 

KNOCKANDOW, a parish in the county 
of Moray, about 10 miles long, by 2 broad, 
bounded on the S. and S. W. by the river 
Spey. Population 1332. 

KNOCKBAIN, a parish in Ross-shire. 
It extends from (i to 7 miles by 5 or 6, and 
is divided by the bay of Munlochy. P. 1766. 
KNOCKDOLIAN, a hill in Ayrshire, ele- 
vated 1950 feet. 

KNOCKFALLARIC, a hill in the parish 
of Fodderty, Ross-shire. 

KNOCKFARR1L, a mountain in Inver- 
ness-shire. 

KNOCKIRN Y, a hill in Ross-shire, part- 
ly in the parish of Assint, and partly in that 
of Kincardine. 

KNOCKRHEACADAN, a lofty hill in 
Sutherlandshire, in the parish of Tongue. 
KNOCKSHINAN, a village in Perthshire. 
KOOMB, a small island on the N ..coast 
of Sutherlandshire, upon which are the re- 
mains of a chapel and burial ground. 

KYLE, a district of Ayrshire. It is se- 
parated from Carrick by the river Ayr, and 
from Cunningham by the river Irvine. The 
surface is various ; towards the coast being 
flat and sandy, but rising in the interior to 
considerable hills. It contains 21 parishes. 
KYPE, a small stream in Lanarkshire, 
which falls into the Avon, a few miles a- 
bove its junction with the Clyde. 



LAD 



LAG 



T AD Y-ISLE, a small islet in the Frith of 
*4 Clyde. 

LADYKIRK,a parish in Berwickshire, 
«n the banks of the Tweed. P. in 1801, 535. 

LADYKIRK, a parish in the isles of San- 
day, in Orkney, comprehending 8 square 
miles, and containing 550 inhabitants. 



LAGGAN, a parish in Inverness-shire, 
in the district of Badenoch, about 20 miles 
in length. The river Spey takes its rise 
from a lake of the same name, in the wes- 
tern extremity of the parish, and running 
in a N. E. direction, intersects it the whole- 
length. 



LAGGAN (LOCH), a lake in Inverness- 
shire, in the parish of Laggan, 15 miles 
long, and 1 mile and a half broad, at the 
E. end it receives the small river Pattack ; 
at the W. end it falls into the Spian, which 
runs W. to join Loch Lochy near Fort 
William. 

LAIRG, or LARIG, a parish in Suther- 
landshire, 24 miles long, and 8 broad, in- 
cluding Loch Shin, which intersects it for 
20 miles. Population 1354. 

LAMBHOLM, a small isand of the Ork- 
neys, in Holma Sound, three miles in cir- 
cumference. 

LAMERTON, a parish in Berwickshire, 
annexed to that of Mordington. In the 
church of this place, in 1503, James IV, 
married the daughter of Henry VII. of 
England, which paved the way for the un- 
ion of the two kingdoms. 

LAMMERMU1R HILLS, a ridge of hills 
in the S. of Scotland, which begins at Dun- 
glass in E. Lothian, and at Coldingham in 
Berwickshire, and runs W. for 30 or 40 
miles, terminating at Soutrahill. Itforms 
one of the 3 districts of Berwickshire. 

LAMINGTON, a parish in Lanarkshire, 
extending 9 miles along the E. bank of the 
Clyde, and is from 3 to 4 in breadth. It is 
forme J by the parishes of Lamington and 
Wandel. The small town of Lamington is si- 
tuated on the banks of the Clyde, nearly op- 
posite to the hill of Tinto, and contains a- 
bout 100 inhabitants. Population 365. 

LAMLASH, an excellent harbour, on the 
S. E< side of the island of Arran, where ves- 
sels of any size may safely lie at anchor. It 
is sheltered by the islet of Holy Isle. There 
is a small village of the same name at the 
bottom of the bay. 

LANARKSHIRE, sometimes called 
Clydesdale, is about 58 milesfrom N. to S. 
and 36 from E. to W. It is bounded on 
the N. W. and N. by Renfrew and Dunbar - 
ton shires ; on the the N. E. and E . by Stir- 
ling and Linlithgow shires; on the S. E. by 
Peebles-shire ; on the S. by Dumfries-shire, 
and on the W. by Ayrshire. In the south- 
ern border the Clyde has its source, and 
runs N. and W, dividing it nearly into 2 
equal parts. It was anciently divided into 
three wards of jurisdictions, Clydesdale, 
Douglasdale, and Avendale ; but it is now 
divided into two ; the shire of Lanark, of 
which Lanark is the chief town, and the 
barony of Glasgow. It was formerly one of 
the kingdoms into which Scotland was di- 
vided, at the time of the Roman invasion. 
This Kingdom, which also included a great 
part of the shires of Stirling, Dunbavton , 



LAN 

and Renfrew, was denominated Strath* 
clyde ; and Alcluid or Dunbarton is men- 
tioned as the capital. The surface is moun- 
tainous and hilly, especially on the S. To • 
wards the Clyde the face of the country is 
agreeably diversified; and about Lanark 
the scenery is peculiarly interesting, from 
the falls of the Clyde. Lanarkshire con- 
tains two royal burghs, viz. Glasgow and 
Lanark, and many considerable towns and 
villages, as Hamilton, Douglas, Biggar, 
Carnwath, &c. There are, besides, several 
considerable villages, particularly Leadhills 
and Wilsontown, which owe their existence 
or prosperity to the valuable metals with 
which this county abounds. Lanarkshire 
is divided into 41 parochial districts, which 
contain 191,752 inhabitants. 

LANARK, a parish in Lanarkshire, be- 
tween 4 and 5 miles long, and 3 broad, 
stretching along the eastern bank of the 
Clyde, and containing 6000 acres. The 
greater part is flat, and capable of culture, 
along the Clyde, for about 3 miles, the 
banks are high, precipitous, and rocky. Po- 
pulation 5827. 

LANARK, a royal burgh, and county 
town of Lanarkshire, is situated 24 miles S. 
E. of Glasgow, and 30 W. of Edinburgh. 
It stands on a rising ground near the Clyde. 
There are 5 neat streets, besides lanes ; and 
since the introduction of the cotton manu- 
facture, many new houses have been built. 
It is a very ancient burgh, having received 
its charter from Alexander I. It is govern- 
ed by a provost, 2 bailies, a dean of guild, 
13 merchant councillors, and 7 deacons of 
trades. It appears to have been, in former- 
times, a place of considerable note ; for we 
find that, in 978, Kenneth II. held in it an 
assembly or parliament, the first mention- 
ed in Scottish history. Lanark was the 
Scene of Sir Wilbam Wallace's first mili- 
tary exploit ; having in this town defeated 
and put to death William de Hesilrig.jWho 
had murdered his wife. Lanark unites 
with Linlithgow, Selkirk, and Peebles, in 
sending a representative to parliament. 
Population 2260. 

LANARK, (NEW) adjoining to the 
burgh of Lanark, was built in 1785, to ac- 
commodate the work people (amounting to 
upwards of 1 500) at the cotton mills erect- 
ed there by Mr Dale. 

LANGHOLM, a town and parish in Dum- 
fries-shire, situated in the middle of the 
district of Eskdale. The PARISH is near- 
ly 6 miles and a half square, and contains, 
exclusive of Halfmorton, about 14,320 acres, 
of which 1000 are under cultivation. The 
X 



LAR I 

surface along the banks of the Esk, which 
intersects it from N. to S. is level, and pro- 
duces the most luxuriant crops. The dis- 
trict called Halfmorton belonging to this 
parish, is completely separated from it by 
the intervention of the parishes of Mid- 
dlebie and Canobie, This district is water- 
ed by the Logan and the Sark, both of 
which are overhung with beautiful copses 
of natural wood. The town of Langholm 
is a burgh of barony. About half a mile 
from it is the village of New Langholm. 
Population 2535. 

LANGTON, a parish in Berwickshire, in 
the district of Merse, containing about 7000 
acres. The surface rises from the E. and S. 
towards the N. to the high gronnd named 
Langton Edge. The whole is inclosed and 
•well cultivated. The ancient village of 
Langton was along straggling town; but 
it has been removed to a pleasant situation 
about half a mile distant, and named Ga- 
vintown, from Mr. Gavin, the late proprie- 
tor. Population 428. 

LANGWALL, a river in Caithness, which 
falls into the sea near the Ord, or southern 
extremity of the county. 

LAOGHAL (LOCH), a lake in Sather- 
landshire, about 4 miles long, and 1 broad. 
From it the river Torrisdale takes its rise. 

LARBERT, a paiish in Stirlingshire, u- 
nited to that of Dunipace, extending about 
8 miles from E. to W. and 2 miles from N. 
to S. The surface is level, and the soil is 
exceedingly fertile. The manufactures are 
very considerable. In Dunipace there are 
a printfield and cotton spinning manufac- 
ture on an extensive scale ; and in the dis- 
trict of Larbert are the Carron works, the 
greatest iron foundry in the world. On a 
moor in this parish is held the famous cat- 
tle market called Falkirk Tryst. Besides 
the village of Larbert, there are two other 
Tillages at Carron-shore and at the colliery 
ofKinnaird. Population 5000. 

LARGO, a parish in Fifeshire, 5 miles 
long, and of unequal breadth, containing 
5469 acres. It is bounded on the S. by the 
German Ocean, which here forms a finebay. 
The whole parish is enclosed and well cul- 
tivated, the town of Largo is situated at 
the influx of the rivulet of Keil, where its 
aestuary forms the harbour. Besides the 
town of Largo. There is a small village on 
the coast called Drumochy, chiefly inhabit- 
ed by fishermen. Population 1973- 

LARGO BAY, a bay at the opening of 
the Frith of Forth, extending from Kin- 
craig point, to the point of Methil, making 
a diameter of nearly 7 miles. This forms a 



>. L A V 

safe road-stead for vessels of every descrip- 
tion. 

LARGO LAW, a hill in the parish of 
Largo, about 800 feet above the level of the 
sea. 

LARGS, a pariah in Ayrshire, on the 
coast of the Clyde, opposite to the isle of 
Bute, 9 miles from N. to S. and S miles 
from the coast to that ridge of hills which 
separates it from the rest of Ayrshire- The 
soil is light and shallow, but tolerably fer- 
tile. There are two small sea-port towns, 
Largs, containing 500 inhabitants, and 
Fairly, containing 130. Population 1800/ 

LARKHALL, a village in thepaiish of 
Dalserf, in "Lanarkshire, situated on the 
great roadfrom Glasgow to Carlisle, and 
containing upwards of 400 inhabitants. 

LAROCH, a small river in Argyleshire, 
which runs into Loch Creran, in the district 
of Appin. 

LASWADE, a parish in Mid Lothian, a- 
bout 8 miles long, and from 2 to 4 in 
breadth. The greater part is arable, and 
the soil is rich. There are some exten- 
sive bleach fields, and paper mills. The 
North Esk runs through the whole length 
of the parish ; and on its banks there are 
several beautiful seats. Population 3723. 

LATHERON, aparish in Caithness-shire, 
extending 27 miles N. from the Ord, along 
the coast, and is 13 to 15 miles broad. It 
is partly flat, and mountainous, intersected 
by several valleys, in which are small rivers, 
running from the high lands to the sea* 
The principal rivers are Dunbeath, Lang- 
wait, and Barridale, all of which contain 
salmon. There are 3 large hills, Morven, 
Scarabine, and Maiden Pap, the elevations 
of which are nearly a mile perpendicular a- 
bove the level of the sea. The coast is bold 
and rocky, but possesses several harbours. 
Population 3926. 

LAUDER, a royal burgh in Berwickshire, 
seated on the river Lauder or Leader, about 
15 miles before it falls into the Tweed. It 
is a royal burgh of very ancient erection, . 
and was often the seat of the Scottish par- 
liament. Lauder joins with Haddington, 
Jedburgh, Dunbar, and North Berwick, in 
sending a representative to parliamsnt. It 
lies 25 miles S. of Edinburgh, and 24 W. of 
Berwick. The PARISH of LAUDER ex- 
tends 3 miles from N. to S. and 4 in breadth. 
The soil is light and sandy, but has been 
highly cultivated. About 9 square miles 
are under crop, and the remainder of the 
parish affords pasturage to sheep. Popula- 
tion 1742. 

LAUDER or LEADER, a river in Ber- 



LEI 

wickshire, which takes its rise in the Lam- 
mermuir bills, and, after a winding course 
through the valley to which it gives its 
name, falls into the Tweed near the abbey 
of Melrose. 

1AUDERD ALE, one of the greater divi- 
sions of Berwickshire. 

LAUDERS, a hill ofthat ridge which se- 
parates Lanarkshire from Annandale, ele- 
vated 5510 feet. 

LAURKNCEKIRK, aparish in Kincar- 
dineshire, 4 miles long, and from 1 to 5 
broad. A ridge of hills stretches through 
its whole extent from E. to W. It is water- 
ed by the small river Leuther, and its tribu- 
tary streams. The VILLAGE of Laurence- 
kirk lies in the middle of the county, S miles 
N.W.from Montrose, and 7 W. from Ber- 
vie. Population 1309. 

LAURIESTOWN, a village in the parish 
of Falkirk, containing 860 inhabitants. 

LAXFORD, a river in Sutherlandsliire, 
which takes its rise from Loch Stalk, in the 
parish of Edderachylis, and falls into the 
bay of Laxford. 

LEADHILLS, a village in the parish of 
Crawford, Lanarkshire. The rich mineral 
treasures which the hills contain, have, by 
the concourse of miners, formed two consi- 
derable villages, Leadhills and Wanlock- 
head. Gold has been found in these moun- 
tains, and inexhaustible veins of rich lead 
ore are now wrought. The lead ore dug 
from these mines affords a very liberal pro- 
portion of silver. Leadhills contains 1000 
inhabitants. 

LECROPT, a parish lying at the union of 
Teith and Allan with the Forth, two-thirds 
of which he in Perthshire, and one third in 
Stirlingshire. Its form is nearly an equila- 
teral triangle, each side of which is 3 miles. 
Population 508. 

LEET, a small river in Berwickshire, 
which runs into the Tweed at Coldstream. 
LEGERVVOOD, a parish in Berwick- 
shire, bounded by Lauder on the N. andVV. 
and by Westruther and Gordon on the E. 
and by Earlston on the S. Pop. 560. 

LEITH is a large town in the county of 
Edinburgh, anciently called Inverleith, and 
the sea-port of Edinburgh. . It is about two 
miles N. E. of the metropolis, on the banks 
of the Water ofLeith, at its confluence with 
the Frith of Forth, which forms the harbour, 
and divides the town into the two districts 
of North and South Leith. Although the 
distance from Edinburgh is two miles, yet 
the splendid road to it, on both sides, Is so 
much covered with elegant buildings, that 
it appears rather an extensive street, than 



the road to the port. North and South Leith 
are joined by two elegant draw-bridges a 
cross the harbour, and a bridge to the West 
of the harbour forms a junction with the 
new streets and buildings of North Leith, 
the Docks, and with Leith Walk. Within 
the last 50 years Leith has made rapid im- 
provements in its buildings and trade.— 
from a place of comparatively small conse- 
quence it has arisen to be a port of the first 
rank for foreign commerce and domestic 
trade- The Exchange buildings, one of the 
largest public edifices in Leith, are a very 
handsome suit of buildings; the assembly 
rooms are lofty and spacious, and splendid- 
ly fitted; the Coffee-room is also in the first 
stile of elegance. The Custom-house and 
Excise Office is a large and handsome build | 
ing, erected in 1812, at an expense of 1 2 to 
13,000 pounds. The Trinity house in the 
Kirkgate was built in 1817, and is a very 
handsome building in the Grecian stile. 
Nearly opposite to this building stands King 
James' Hospital, founded by the Kirk-ses- 
sion of Leith in 1648, for the reception of 
aged women. The Grammar or High School 
was built by subscription in 1805, it is a neat 
building surmounted with a small spire and 
clock. The Old Church of North Leith was 
founded in 1493. This venerable fabric was 
in 1826 converted into a granary, after hav- 
ing been dedicated to thepurpose of religion 
for upwards of 330 years ! A new and ele- 
gant Church for North Leith was founded 
in 1814. South Leith Church was founded 
in 1496, built in the Gothic stile, with a 
steeple and clock. A convenient chapel of 
ease was erectedin 1773. There was a neat 
Episcopalian chapel built in 1816, called St 
James', in Constitution Street. Besides 
these, there are three meeting-houses be- 
longing to the United Secession Church, 
one Methodist, one Relief, and one Inde- 
pendent chapel. The new Jail was built in 
1826, on the site of the old Jail, in the Tol- 
booth Wynd— It is of Saxon architecture. 
An elegant suit of Baths were erected at 
Seafield, a little to the east of the town, in 
1813, at an expense of L.8000. Few towns 
in Scotland can exhibit a greater number 
of ancient buildings than Leith, or of hous- 
es, in whose history are involved a great- 
er number of Antiquarian notices. 

Leith has four incorporations. The most 
ancient record in which Leith is named, is 
in a charter of foundation of the abbey of 
Holyrood, in the year 1128, by David the 
First, where Leith was granted, with other 
places, for the support of that abbey. Mary 
Queen of Scots landed at Leith, from 



1G4 



LEI 



France, on the 20th August 1561. James 
VI. with his young Queen, landed here from 
Denmark in 1590. A plague desolated 
Leith in the year 1580, and the same pesti- 
lence caried of 3000, or nearly three-fourths 
of the inhabitants, between the months of 
April and December 1645. The town was 
laid under contribution by Cromwell in 
1650, and here he built fortifications and 
established a powerful garrison. Amongst 
the memorabilia of Leith, we must not o- 
mit the landing of His Majesty George the 
Fourth, on the 15th August 1822, a period 
that will long be remembered by the inha- 
bitants of Leith ; the preparations for this 
august ceremony, were conducted with all 
the shew and magnificence which the occa- 
sion demanded, and which the people, at all 
times remarkable for loyalty, could exhibit. 
The harbour of Leith has nine feet water at 
neap, and sixteen feet at spring tides, but 
the Roads, which lie about a mile from the 
mouth of the harbour, afford excellent an- 
choring ground for ships of any size. In 
the beginning of the last century, the town 
council of Edinburgh improved the harbour 
at a great expense, by carrying out a 
stone pier a considerable way into the 
sea, at the extremity of which is a light 
house, and there is another at Inch Keith, 
a small island in the middle of the Frith 
of Forth,— and in 1777, they erected anew 
quay on the N. side, widening and deepen- 
ing the harbour at the same time,— the old 
harbour has two dry Docks for building 
and repairing ships. The eastern wet dock 
was begun in 1810, and finished in 1817. 
Each of these docks are 250 yards long, and 
1 00 yards wide, covering an area equal to 
ten and a fourth English acres, and suffi- 
cient to contain 150 vessels of the ordinary 
classes, which frequent the Port. On the 
north side of these, are three graving docks, 
each 136 feet long, and 45 wide at the bot- 
tom, and 150 feet long, by 70 wide at the 
top, the width of the entrance is 36 feet. 
The proposed dock, to the W. of those al- 
ready finished , is to be 500 yards long, by 
100 [wide, extending to the deep and spa- 
cious tide harbour of Newhaven. The ship- 
ping interest of Leith is very great, --an ex- 
tensive Foreign trade is carried on. Sever- 
al vessels are employed in the whale fishery, 
and the trade is very extensive. The num. 
ber of vessels, foreign and coasters arriving 
at the Port of Leith, in 1826, was 3628, 
and the sailings for the same year, 2056. 
There are a number ofshipping companies. 
The London Trade alone, employs upwards 
pf 20 Smacks, which sail regularly at stated 



periods, three times a week, besides four 
steam vessels in the same trade, which sail 
twice a week, during the summer season. 
There is also a Liverpool, Hull, Hamburgh, 
&c. shipping companies; and vessels em- 
ployed by various other Companies, in the 
coasting trade with all parts of Scotland. 
An Australian company was formed in 
1S22, who have four vessels of about 400 
tons each, employed in conveying Goods 
and passengers to New South Wales, and 
Van Dieman's Land. Ship building, sail 
cloth manufactories, rope making, &c. are 
carried on on a great scale ; and there are 
several Saw-Mills, on the water of Leith. 
The ferry to the opposite coast of Fife, em- 
ploys a number of sailing and steam boats. 
There are seven glass houses which make 
bottles, and crown Glass, and one where 
crystal only is manufactured and cut. 
There are also soap works, candle works, 
distilleries, Breweries, iron foundries, a 
card manufactory, and many other domes- 
tic manufactures. Printing is also carried 
on. There is a " Leith Bank," built in 
1 SOS ; previous to this date, there was only a 
branch of the British Linen Company bank, 
but from the increase of trade, these esta- 
blishments have grown with the prosperity 
of the port, so that now (1829), there are 
five banking establishments, viz. the Leith 
bank, and branches of the British Linen 
Company, the bank of Scotland, the Com- 
| mercial bank, and the National bank of 
Scotland. Leith has a merchant company, 
i whose exertions have been of the greatest 
advantage to the shipping trade of the port. 
There is a company of Solicitors, Insurance 
Companies, &c. Leith is governed by a 
baron bailie with the title of Admiral of 
Leith, appointed by the magistrates of E- 
dinburgh, with three deputies, who have 
the title of resident bailies, with an assessor 
| and town clerk, who hold courts for the pu- 
nishment of petty offences. A bastion is 
built close by the new docks, and the har- 
bour is defended by a Martello tower rising 
from the sea, at the black rocks, about three 
quarters of a mile from the present pier, to 
which it is intended to carry out the pier 
which is now in the course of execution. 
Soon after Paul Jones made his appearance 
in the Frith of Forth, 16th September 1779, 
a battery of nine guns was erected to the 
westward of the Citadel, between Leith and 
Newhaven, which has now become the 
head guarters of the royal Artillery in North 
Britain ; two companies being here station- 
ed under the command of a field officer. 
The barracks can accommodate 250 men, 



LEO ] 

and 150 horses Leith possesses many va- 
luable institutions. The chief of the chari- 
table establishments is the Trinity House 
or Mariner's Hospital, founded in 1555, by, 
Mary of Lorraine, Queen Regent of Scot- 
land; and supported by a small poundage 
on Seamen's wages, and on the tonnage of 
the shipping. There is a Seamen's Friend 
Society, a Society for relief of the Destitute 
Sict, a Female Society for Indigent Sick 
women, a Sympathetic Society, Leith boy's 
Charity School, Female Charity School, se- 
veral Missionary and Bible societies, Friend- 
ly societies, &c. There are two public Li- 
braries, and a Reading room, a Literary So- 
ciety, instituted in 1814, society of High 
Constables, &c. &c. In 1771, an act of 
parliament was obtained, appointing cer- 
tain persons commissioners of police, and 
authorizing a levy of sixpence per pound, 
upon the valued rent of the town. Since 
that period vast improvements have been 
made in paving, cleaning, and lighting 
the streets, (ultimately with Oil Gas,) 
removing nuisances, &c. The town has 
now an abundant supply of water. The 
police are vigilant, and the whole of this de- 
partment is well conducted, and judicious- 
ly executed. A new and elegant Town 
Hall is now finished, erected by the Magis- 
trates and Masters of Leith, in Constitution 
Street, the ground floor of which is used as 
the polise office. In IS 1 9, a neat and com- 
modious suit of markets were built, remar- 
kably elegant and spacious ; they contain 
butcher, fish and vegetable markets, all 
connected, and plentifully supplied with 
every article in season. Population 26,000. 

LEITH, a river which takes its rise in 
the western extremity of the parish of Cur- 
rie, in Mid-Lothian, and, receiving various 
additions in its progress in a course of a- 
bout 14 miles, discharges itself into the 
Frith of Forth at Leith. 

LEITHEN, a river in the county of Pee- 
bles, which falls into the Tweed at the vil- 
lage of Innerleithen. 

LENNOX, an ancient shire or district, 
now divided between the counties of Stir- 
ling and Dunbarton. 

LENNOX HILLS, a ridge extending 
from Dunbarton to Stirling, beyond which 
it is continued from the Forth to the Tay. 
under the name of the Ochils. The moun- 
tains of this ridge rise gradually from the E. 
and are nearly perpendicular on the W. of 
Strathblane. 

LEOCHEL and CUSHNIE, an united 
parish in Aberdeenshire, 5 miles long, and 4 
abroad. The surface is hilly; but none of 



the hills are of great elevation, except 
the hill of Corse. The arable land in the 
valleys is abundantly fertile. Population 

LEOCHEL, a small river in Aberdeen- 
shire, which takes its rise in the parish of 
Leochel, and empties itself into the Don, 
27 miles W. from Aberdeen. 

LERWICK, a town on the mainland of 
Shetland, and the seat of the courts of that 
stewartry. It is situated on the spacious 
harbour called Bressay sound, and contains 
about 900 inhabitants.— The PARISH of 
LERWICK extends 6 miles along the sea 
coast, and no where above a mile in breadth. 
On the E. and N. E., it is bounded by the 
sea, which separates it from Bressay island, 
and forms an excellent harbour called Bres- 
say sound. The surface is rocky and moun- 
tainous; but there are many fine arable 
fields on the sea coast, the soil of which is 
tolerably fertile. Population 1706. 

LESLIE, a parish in Aberdeenshire, in 
Garioch, comprehending 4 square miles. 
Its general appearance is hilly ; but the 
soil on the low grounds produces good crops. 
Population 388. 

LESLIE, a parish in Fifeshire, on the N. 
bank of the Leven,from which the surface 
rises almost imperceptibly to the N. bound- 
ary. It is entirely arable. The TOWN of 
LESLIE, which is situated on the Leven, 
is a considerable manufacturing place. 
Population 1892. 

LESMAHAGOE.a parish in Lanarkshire, 
of an oval figure, 14 miles long by 12 broad. 
It lies on the S. W. bank of the river Clyde, 
which runs along it, and in this course are 
the stupendous falls of the river at BonnU. 
ton, Corra, and Stonebyres. The surface 
is uneven, and the soil various.— The PA- 
RISH is watered by the Logan, the Nethan, 
the Kype, and the Ponicle, all of which fall 
into the Clyde. Coal is wrought in several 
places, and it abounds in excellent lime- 
stone, freestone, and slate. P. 4404. 

LESSUDDEN, or ST BOSWELL'S a pa- 
rish in Roxburghshire, on the banks of the 
Tweed, about 5 miles long, and from 1 to 2 
broad. The village of Lessuden is situated 
10 miles from Kelso, and contains about 
300 inhabitants. Population 508, 

LES WALT, a parish in Wigtonshire, 7 
miles long, and from 3 to 6 broad. It forms 
part of the peninsula called the Rinns of 
Galloway, lying on the bay of Loch Ryan. 
The surface is much diversified, and the 
soil is various. There are 2 small rivulets, 
one of which empties itself into the bay of 
Luce. Population 1705. 



LEW 

IETHAM, a village in Fifeshire, in the 
parish of Monimail. 

IETHAM, a village in the parish of 
Dunniehen, Forfarshire. 

LETHENDY, a parish in Perthshire, 5 
miles long, and 1 mile and a half broad. 
Population 349. 

LETHNOT and NAVAR, an united pa- 
rish in Forfarshire. The cultivated land 
is about 5 miles long, and 3-4ths of a mile 
broad; but the moors and waste lands ex- 
tend much farther. Population 511. 

LEUCHARS, a parish in Fifeshire, 9 
miles long, by 5 broad, bounded on the E. 
by the German ocean, and watered by the 
Eden on the S. and S. W. The VILLAGE 
of LEUCHARS is pleasantly situated about 
a mile from the coast, 6 miles miles from 
St Andrews, on the road from that town 
to the ferry of Dundee. The inhabitants 
(about 600) are chiefly employed in the lin- 
en manufacture. Population 1672. 

LEUTHER, a small river in Angus-shire, 
which rises in the Grampians, and, after 
passing the village of Laurencekirk, falls 
intj the North Esk. 

LEVFN,a village in the parish of Scoonie, 
Fifeshire, at the mouth of the river Leven. 

LEVEN(LOCH), a beautiful lake in the j 
counties of Kinross and Fife, about 1 2 miles \ 
in circumference, bounded on the E. and 
S. by the Lomond bills, and on the W. and 
N. by the plain of Kinross. In this expanse 
■of water there are four islands, the largest 
of nJiich St Serf's, contains about 48 acres. 
The -castle of Loch Leven, anciently a roy- 
al residence, stands on another island in j 
the lake, and is encompassed by a rampart 
of stones. It was here that Queen Mary, 
after she was madecaptive by the confede- 
ate lords, at the battle of Pinkie, was con- 
fined. The other two islands are called 
the Paddock bower, and the Reed bower. 

LEVEN, a river in Fifeshire, which runs 
from the E. end of Lochleven, and, after a 
course of about 14 miles, falls into the sea j 
at the village of Leven. 

LEVEN, a river in Dunbartonshire, which 
issues from Loch Lomond at Balloch, and 
falls into the Clyde at Dunbarton Castle. 

LEVEN, an arm of the sea projecting 
from Loch Linnhe. 

LEVEN SEAT, a mountain of the pa- 
rish of Carnwath, in Lanarkshire, 1200 feet 
high. 

LEWIS, one of the largest of the Hebrides, 
about 60 miles long from N. to S., and from 
15 to 15 broad, parted by two arms of the 
sea into two divisions ; the southern called 
Harris, and thenorthern Lewis. Lewis be- 



>6 L I L 

longs to Ross-shire, but Harris is annexed 
to the county of Inverness. Besides the 
town of Stornoway, there are several small 
villages. Lewis is divided into 4 parishes, 
Barvas, Lochs, Stornoway, and Uig. 

LHANBRYD, a parish in the county of 
Elgin, 4 miles long, and 3 broad. There 
are 3 lakes on the confines of the parish, 
Spynie, Cots, and Nabee. The only river 
is the Lossie. Population 869. 

LIBBERTON, a parish in Lanarkshire, 
united to that of Quothan, 7 miles long 
from N. to S., and 4 broad. Towards the 
W. the surfaceis level, lying upon the banks 
of the Clyde. Towards the E. the surface 
is irregular. It is watered by two branch- 
es of the Methven, which unite and fall in- 
to the Clyde in this parish. The only hill 
is Quothquan Law, 600 feet high. P. 770. 

LIBBERTON, a parish in Mid-Lothian, 
contiguous to the metropolis. It contains 
4140 acres, which are very fertile. There 
are 4 villages, Gilmerton, Libberton Kirk, 
Nether Libberton, and Greenend. In this 
parish there are several elevated ridgps 
runningfrom W. to E. On the top of one 
is the parish church. The old tower of 
Libberton, situated about half a mile to the 
westward, is 590 feet above the level of the 
sea. The front of another ridge, about a 
mile to the southward, is composed of lime- 
stone, where begins those extensive fields 
of coal which extend over such a considera- 
ble portion of the county of Mid- Lothian. 
Population 4033. 

LICHART, a lake in Ross-shire, on the 
borders of the parish of Garloch, about 4 
miles long, and from half a mile to a mile 
in breadth. 

LIDDAL, a river in Roxburghshire, which 
runs from N. E. to S. W., forming the 
boundary with England, for 4 to 5 miles, 
till it joins the Esk, several miles before it 
falls into the Solway Frith. 

LIDDISDALE, a district in Roxburgh- 
shire, watered by the Liddal, and compre- 
hending the southern angle of the county. 
The face of this district is wild and moun- 
tainous, it is chiefly adapted for pasture. 

LIFF'and BEN VIE, an united parish in 
Forfarshire, about 5 miles square. The sur. 
face rises with an easy ascent from the Tay, 
except towards the S. W. where it joins to 
the parish of Dundee. It is watered by the 
stream of Dichty, and 2 other rivulets, 
which unite near Invergowrie, and falls in- 
to the Tay. There are several villages, viz. 
Locheye, Millhouse, Lift", Benvie, and In- 
vergowrie. Population 2442. 

LILLIES-LEAF, a parish in Roxburgh- 



UN 1 

shire, 5 miles and a half long, and from 
a half to 2 miles broad. The soilis partly 
a light sand, partly a rich loam, and clay. 
—The VILLAGE of LILLTES-LEAF issi- 
tuated on the great road through the S. of 
Scotland, and contains upwards of 400 in- 
habitants. Population 755. 

LIMEKILNS, a considerable village and 
sea-port in Fifeshire, on the coast of the 
Forth, in the parish of Dunfermline. It 
contains 700 inhabitants. It has a good 
harbour. 

LIN ADIL, a small island of the Hebrides, 
near the coast of Sky. 

LINBORES(LOCH), a lake in the parish 
of Abdie, Fifeshire, about a mile square. 

LINGAY, a small island of the Hebrides, 
belonging to Inverness shire. 

LINKTOWN of KIRKCALDY, a long 
straggling village adjoining Kirkcaldy, but 
lying in theparishof Abbot's-hall. 

LINLITHGOWSHIRE, or WEST LO- 
THIAN. This county is of an irregular 
form, about 20 miles long from E. to W., 
and from 10 to 13 broad. It is bounded on 
the N. by the Forth ; on the E. and S. E. 
by the river Almond, -which separates itfrom 
Mid-Lothian ; on the S. W. by Lanarkshire, 
and on the W. by the small river Avon, 
which forms its boundary with Stirlingshire. 
It contains 2 royal burghs, Linlithgow and 
Qneensferry,and the small towns of Borrow- 
stounness, Bathgate and Kirkliston. It is 
divided into 13 parochial districts, contain- 



ing 



19,451 inhabitants. The Avon and Al- 



mond are the only streams. Ironstone, 
which is found in almost every parish, is 
wrought to a great extent at Bathgate. 

LINLITHGOW, a royal burgh and coun- 
ty town. It consists of one street, about 3 
quarters of a milelong, from E. to W. with 
bye-lanes. As a royal burgh it existed as 
early as the reign of David I. The govern- 
ment is vested in aprovost, 4 bailies, a dean 
of guild, a treasurer, 12 merchant council- 
lors, and the deacons of the 8 incorporated 
trades. Linlithgow was anciently a place 
of great trade and opulence, and had first 
the harbour of Blackness, and afterwards 
Queensferry assigned to it as its port ; but, 
when the union took place, it declined. The 
palace, built on the site of a Roman station, 
forms a square, and stands on an eminence 
to the N. of the town. On the E. side of 
this street, almost adjoining to the palace, 
stands St Michael's church, a noble piece of 
Gothic architecture. The town-house isal- 
so an elegant building, erected in 1668 ; and 
immediately opposite to it is the cross well, 
built in 1C20, with 8 spouts of water from 



BOA 

grotesque figures. This grotesque figure has 
lately been renewed after the model of the 
ancient one, andhas an elegant appearance. 
Linlithgow is distant about 1G miles W. of 
Edinburgh. It joins with Lanark, Selkirk, 
and Peebles, in sending a member to par- 
liament. The Duke of Hamilton is heredi- 
tary keeper of the palace. The PARISH 
of Linlithgow is about 5 miles long, and 3 
broad. Towards the S. the surface being 
hilly, it is better adapted for pasture than 
tillage. Population 3596. 

LINNHE (LOCH), an arm of the sea, 
which separates the counties of Inverness 
and Argjle, extending in a N. E. direction 
from the Sound of Mull as far as Fort Wil- 
liam, where it takes a northerly direction, 
and takes the name of Lochiel. Another 
branch, in a S. E. direction, is called Loch 
Leven. The island of Lismore lies in the 
mouth of Loch Linnhe, with several smaller 
islands. 

LINTON, a parish in Peebles-shire, con- 
taining 25 square miles. It lies among the 
hills which border on Edinburghshire, and 
is watered by the rivers Lyne and North, 
Esk. The surface is generally mountain- 
ous; but many spots on the banks of the 
rivers are highly fertile. The VILLAGE of 
LINTON contains about 350 inhabitants. 
Considerable sheep markets are held here 
in June, Population about 1 200. 

LINTON, a parish in the county of Rox- 
burgh, about 9 miles long, by 3 broad. The 
surface is finely diversified, and the soil,, 
though various, is generally productive. Po 
pulation 462. 

LINWOOD, a village in the parish of Kil- 
barchan, Renfrewshire. 

LISMORE, an island of the Hebrides, in 
Argyleshire, situated at the mouth of Loch 
j Linnhe. It is about 10 miles long, and from 
1 to 2 broad. The surface is rugged and un - 
even, and the soil is a rich loam, extremely- 
fertile. Population 1323. 

LISMORE and APPIN, an united parish 
j in Argyleshire, 63 miles in length, by 10, 
and in some places 16 in breadth. It is in- 
j tersected by several considerable arms of 
the sea, and comprehends the districts of 
Airds, Strath of Appin, Durror, Glencreran,. 
Glencoe, Kingerloch, and the island of Lis- 
more. Population 3407. 

LI VET, a small river in Banffshire, a tri- 
butary stream of the Avon. 

LIVINGSTONE, a parish in Linlithgow- 
shire, about 5 miles long, and from one to 
one and a half broad. Population S70. 

LOANHEAD, a small village 5 miles S_ 
S.E. of Edinburgh. 



L O C 1 

LOCH ABER, a district of Inverness shire, 
bounded on the E. by Badenoch ; on the S. 
by Atholl, Rannoch, and Argyleshire ; on 
the W. by Moidart ; and on the N. by the 
lakes and rivers which occupy the middle of 
Glenmore-na-h'alabin. The only cultivat- 
ed lands to be seen are around the huts. 

LOCHALSH, a parish on the W. coast of 
Ross-shire, the inhabited part is computed 
to be 20 miles long, and 5 broad. The ge- 
neral appearance is hilly, but not so moun- 
tainous as the other districts in the neigh- 
bourhood. On the coast the soil is rich, 
and a great part of it lies on a bed of lime- 
stone. Population 2034. 

LOCHAR MOSS, an extensive tract of 
moss in Dumfries-shire, 12 miles long, by 
2 or 5 broad, extending down to the Solway 
Frith, and divided into two parts by the Lo- 
char water, which falls into the Solway, 2 
miles E. from Dumfries. 

LOCHAY, a river of Perthshire, which 
rises on the borders of Argyleshire, and, 
running through Glenochay, joins the Do- 
chart, at the western extremity of Loch Tay. 

LOCHBROOM, a parish in Ross shire, so 
named from an arm of the sea which inter- 
sects it. It is computed to be 36 miles long, 
and 20 broad. The greater part consists of 
uncultivated moss and heath. There is a 
considerable extent of fine arable land, 
chiefly on the coast and in the valleys. In 
this parish there are three fishing stations 
established by the British Society. P. 3754. 

LOCHCARRON, a parish in Ross-shire, 
situated on an arm of the western ocean, 
into which the river Carron falls. It is up- 
wards of 14 miles long, and 5 or 6 broad. 
The arable soil is pretty fertile. P. 1485. 

LOGHEYE, a village in Angus-shire, in 
the parish of Liffand Benvie, about 3 miles 
N. from Dundee. 

LOCHGELLIE, a villagein the parish of 
Auchterderran, in Fifeshire, containing a- 
bout 450 inhabitants. 

LOCHGOIL-IIEAD, a parish in Argyle-' 
shire, to which that of Kilmorich is united. 
It is 30 miles long, and from 6 to 20 broad, 
exclusive of a district belonging to it of 5 
miles long, annexed to the parish of Inver- 
ary. It lies along the western coast of Loch 
Long, and receives its name from the local 
situation of the church, at the head of Loch- 
goil. It is bounded on the VV. by Lochfyne. 
The surface is in general rugged, the wes- 
tern extremity of the Grampians being si- 
tuated in this district. The soil on the 
coast is well cultivated. Besides the hous- 
es around the church, there is a small vil- 
lage called Cairndow. Population 1072. 



! L O C 

LOCHLEE, a parish in Forfarshire, situ- 
ated amongst the Grampian mountains, a- 
bout 12 miles long, and C broad. The hills 
are for the most part steep, rocky, and co- 
vered with heath. The extent of the culti- 
vated land is considerable. The principal 
branches of the North Esk, called the Lee, 
the Mark, and the Tarf, have their source 
from lakes of the same name in this parish. 
Population 521 . 

LOGHMABEN, a royal burgh in Dum- 
fries-shire, and district of Annandale. It is 
governed by a provost, 3 bailies, a dean of 
guild, treasurer, and 9 councillors, and 
joins with Annan, Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, 
and Sanquhar, in sending a representative 
to parliament.— The PARISH extends a- 
long the banks of the Annan 10 miles, and 
is 3 in breadth. There are 7 or S small 
lakes, the largest of which is the Castle 
Loch ; and 3 small rivers, the Ae, Kinnel, 
and Dryfe, which fall into the Annan. The 
barony of Lochmaben, or the four towns, 
(as it is called,) is a fertile district, and is 
held by the same tenure as the crown 
lands of Orkney and Shetland. P. 2336. 

LOCH-NA-GARAIDH, a lofty mountain 
in the parish of Crathy, Aberdeenshire, up- 
on which the snow lies through the whole 
year. 

LOCHRUTTON, a parish in the stew- 
artry of Kirkcudbright, 4 miles and a half 
long by 3 broad. The lake, from which it 
received its name, is situated in the centre 
of the parish, and is a mile long, and about 
half a mile broad. The extremities of the 
parish are hilly, but the rest of it lies in a 
valley of arable land. Population 514. 

LOCHS, a parish in Ross-shire, in the is- 
land of Lewis, so named from the great 
number of lakes scattered over its surface. 
It is 19 miles long, and 9 broad. Along the 
coast, it has a bold and rocky appearance ; 
in the interior, the surface is moory and in- 
hospitable. Thegreaterpart of the inhabi- 
tants are employed in the fisheries on the 
coast. Population 1927. 

LOCHTOWN, a village in the parish of 
Longforgan, Perthshire. Pop. about 100. 

LOCH VVINNOCH, a parish in Renfrew- 
shire, forming a square of 6 miles. The 
surface is irregular, rising towards the N. 
to the top of the Misty Law. The soil is 
also various. There are two considerable 
lakes, Castlesemple and Queenside Lochs ; 
and the principal rivers are the Calder and 
the Black Cart.--The VILLAGE of LOCH- 
VVINNOCH is situated on the side of Cas- 
tlesemple Loch, and is a considerable ma- 
nufacturing place. Population 3514. 



LOG 

LOCHY (LOCH), a late in Inverness- 
shire, 14 miles long, and from 1 to 2 broad. 

LOCHY, a river which has its rise from 
the lake of the same name in Inverness- 
shire, and after a course of about 10 miles, 
discharges itself into the sea near Fort Wil- 
liam. 

LOCH Y, a lake in Breadalbane, in Perth- 
shire, which discharges itself by a river of 
the same name into Loch Tay. 

LOCKERBIE, a considerable town in 
the parish of Dryftdale, Dumfries-shire. 
The parish church of Dryfsdale stands on 
an eminence at the head of the principal 
street. Lockerbie lies 12 miles E. from 
Dumfries. 

LOGAN, a river in Lanarkshire, which 
takes its rise in the hills which separate the 
parishes of Lesrnahagce and Muirkirk, and, 
running eastward for 8 miles, falls into the 
Nethan. 

LOGAN, a small pastoral stream of Mid- 
Lothian. 

LOGIE, a parish in Fifeshire, 2 miles and 
a half long, and 1 broad, lying about mid- 
way betwixt Cupar and Woodhaven, the 
ferry to Dundee. Population 569. 

LOGIE, a parish 4 miles square, situated 
in the counties of Perth, Stirling, and 
Clackmannan. One half of the parish is a 
strong carse soil, producing excellent crops, 
the other is hilly, and affords excellent pas- 
ture. Population 2227. 

LOGIE and PERT, an united parish in 
Forfarshire. It is situated on the North 
Esk, and is 4 miles long by 3 broad. The 
LawsofLogie are three remarkable emi- 
nences. Population 90S. 

LOGIE- AMON, a district in Perthshire, 
called the New Parish, being lately dis- 
joined from the parishes of Foulisand Mon- 
zie, and annexed f o that of Monedie. It 
lies on the N. bank of the Anion, and is a- 
bout 3 miles square. 

LOGIE-BUCHAN, a parish in Aberdeen- 
shire, in the district from which it receives 
its name, 4 miles long., and from 1 and a 
half to 2 and a half broad, divided into two 
parts by the river Ythan. Ythan is navi- 
gable to small vessels for 3 miles. P. 539. 

LOGIE-COLDSTONE, a parish in Aber- 
deenshire, in the district of Cromar, 6 miles 
long, and 3 and a half broad, i It is inter- 
spersed with a number of small hills, and 
large heathy tracts ; and the cultivated land 
is in general fertile. Population 861. 

LOGIE-EASTKR, a parish in the coun- 
ties of Ross and Cromarty, 7 miles long, ! 
and in some places about 2 broad. P. 1928. i 

LOGIERAIT, a parish in Perthshire, a- | 



) L O N 

bout 7 miles square, occupying the point of 
land formed by the junction of the Tum- 
mel with the Tay. The village of Logierait 
contains about 200 inhabitants. P. 3001. 

LOGIE WESTER. Vide URQUHART 
and LOGIE WESTER. 

LOIGH, a river in Ross-shire, which falls 
into Loch Long. 

LOMOND HILLS, two conical hills in 
Fifeshire, situated nearly in the centre of 
that county. The eastern Lomond is 1650 
feet above the level of the town of Falk- 
land, which is situated at its base. On its 
summit is a small lake, which has the ap- 
pearance of the crater of a volcano. The 
Western Lomond, which is considerably 
higher, has on its top a large cairn. 

LOMOND, (LOCH) a lake in Dunbarton- 
shire, about 30 miles long, and in some 
places S or 9 broad ; its surface contains 
upwards of 20,000 acres of water. It has 
about 50 islands scattered over it, eleven 
of which are of considerable size. The 
whole scenery of Loch Lomond is highly 
delightful. The banks are clothed with 
natural wood. A more charming situation 
than the environs of this lake is not to be 
found in Britain. 

LONCARTY. Vide REDGORTON. 

LONG, (LOCH) an extensive arm of the 
sea, which strikes off from the Frith of 
Clyde, first in a N. and afterwards in a N. 
E. direction, separating the counties of Ar- 
gyle and Dunbarton. It is about 24 miles 
long, and about its middle it sends off Loch 
Goil, a small branch, in a N. W, direction. 

LONG, (LOCH) an arm of the sea in 
Ross-shire, which forms the S, boundary of 
the peninsula of Kintail. 

LONGANNAT, a village in Perthshire, 
in the parish of Tulliallan. 

LONGFORGAN, a parish in the Carse of 
Gowrie, in the S. E. corner of Perthshire. 
Its greatest length is 7, and its greatest 
breadth 3 and a half miles. It is bounded 
by the river Tay on the S. for nearly 3 miles. 
The village of Longforgan is a straggling 
town, on the road from Dundee to Perth, 
.about 4 miles from the former. It is situ- 
ated on the rising ground which bounds the 
Carse of Gowrie on the E. and commands 
a fine prospect of the course of the Tay. It 
was erected into a free burgh of barony 
in 1672. Besides Longforgan, there are 
the village of Kingoodie, and a small ham- 
let near the hill of Lochtown. Pop. 1809. 

LONGFORM ACUS, a parish in Berwick- 
shire, 12 miles long, and 6 broad. The 
surface is hilly, being in the midst of the 
great Lammermuir ridge. There are two 
Y 



LOU 1 

beautiful conical hills, called the Dirring- 
ton Laws, which are seen at a great dis- 
tance. Population 444. 

LONG-ISLAND, a name applied to that 
district of the Hebrides which extends from 
the island of Lewis on the N. to the island 
of Barray on the S., comprehending Lewis, 
Harris, Benbecula, North and South Uist, 
Barray, &c. 

LONGSIDE, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
in the district of Buchan, containing 19 
square miles. It is so level, that when the 
Ugie, which runs through it, overflows its 
banks, it lays almost the whole parish un- 
der water. Population in 1S01, 2077. 

LONMAY, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
10 miles long, and nearly 4 broad. The 
soil is various, but in general fertile, and 
well cultivated. It is separated from the 
parish of Crimond by the lake of Strathbeg. 
It is also watered by a considerable branch 
of the Ugie. There are two considerable 
fishing villages. Population 1627. 

LORN, a district in Argyleshire, 50 miles 
long, and 9 broad, bounded on the E. by 
Breadalbane ; on the S. by Loch Etive ; on 
the W. by the Ocean and the Sound of 
Mull; and on the N. by Lochaber and 
Moydart. This district, watered by many 
lakes and rivers, is the most pleasant and 
fertile district in Argyleshire. 

LOSSIE, a river in Morayshire, which 
takes its rise in the parish of Edenkellie, 
and, passing Dollas and Elgin, falls into the 
sea at Lossiemouth. 

LOSSIEMOUTH, a villagein Morayshire, 
i n the parish of Drainy, at the mouth of the 
Lossie. It belongs to the town of Elgin, 
from which it is distant 6 or 7 miles. 

LOTH, a parish in Sutherlandshire, ex- 
tending along the coast 14 miles, and about 
one half of a mile in breadth. It is watered 
by the livers Loth and Helmsdale, which 
fall into the ocean-at this place. The coast 
possesses several good harbours. P. 1330. 

LOTH, a small river in Sutherlandshire, 
which rises in the interior, and, after a 
course of 15 or 16 miles, falls into the ocean 
in the parish of the same name. 

LOTHIAN, an extensive and fertile dis- 
trict, lying along the S. shore of the Frith 
of Forth. It is now divided into Hadding- 
ton, Edinburgh, and Linlithgowshires. q. v. 

LOTHOSCAIR, a small island of Argyle- 
shire, in Loch Linnhe. 

LOUDON, a parish in Ayrshire, in the 
bailiewick of Cunningham, about 9 miles 
long, and from 3 to 7 broad. There are 4 
villages, viz. Loudon, New Milns, Derval, 
and Auldtown. Population 3107. 



> L U I 

LOUISBURGH, a modern fishing village 
near the town of Wick, Caithness. 

LOWLANDS, one of the greater divi- 
sions of Scotland, applied to the E. S. E. 
and S. W. parts, in contradistinction to the 
Highlands, which occupy the northern and 
western parts of the country. The princi- 
pal rivers of this division are the Forth, the 
Clyde, the Tweed, and the Annan. The 
manners of the inhabitants of the low coun- 
try are as different from those of the High- 
landers, as the aspects of the countries are 
dissimilar. 

LUBNAIG LOCH, a lake in Perthshire, 
in the parishes of Callendar and Aberfoil, 
about 5 miles long, and nearly three quar- 
ters broad. 

LUCE, (BAY of) or GLENLUCE BAY, 
a spacious bay in Wigtonshire, surrounded 
on 3 sides by the land, and about 20 miles 
wide at the entrance, from the Mull of Gal- 
loway to the Burrowhead of Whithorn, and 
nearly the same extent up the country. It 
affords safe anchorage to vessels of consi- 
derable burthen. 

LUCE, a river in Wigtonshire, which 
takes its rise in the hills which separate 
Galloway from Carrick, and, taking a S. 
easterly direction, falls into the sea at the 
Bay of Luce. 

LUCE, (NEW) a parish in Wigtonshire, 
10 miles long, and 5 or 6 broad. The sur- 
face is irregular, rising from the banks of 
the Luce, which are arable, to the high 
lands, which occupy by far the greater part 
of the parish. Population 453. 

LUCE, (OLD) a parish in Wigtonshire, a- 
bout 10 miles long, and from 2 to 7 broad. 
It lies on the bay at the mouth of the river 
of the same name, and possesses several 
harbours. The surface is hilly. The vil- 
lage of Glenluce is situated at the mouth of 
the river. Population 1536. 

LUGAR, a river in Ayrshire, which takes 
its rise in the Cumnock lakes, and discharges 
itself in the river Ayr at Barskimming. 

LUGG1E, a river in Stirlingshire, which 
joins the Kelvin. The great canal between 
the Forth and Clyde is carried over it by 
an aqueduct bridge. 

LUGTON, a river which rises in the pa- 
rish of Neilston, Renfrewshire, and, taking 
a S. E. course, falls into the Gamock, in the 
parish of Kilwinning. 

LUINA LOCH, or LOCH AVICH, a 
lake in Argyleshire, about 8 miles in circum- 
ference. This lake discharges itself into 
Loch Aw by the rivulet of Avich. 

LUING, a small island in the parish of 
Kilbrandon, Argyleshire. 



L U N V 

LUMPHANAN, a parish in Aberdeen- 
shire, G miles long, and 4 broad. It lies in 
a valley, surrounded with hills In the 
southern extremity there is a considerable 
lake called Loch Auchlossen. Population. 
680. 

LUNAN, a parish in Forfarshire, lying on 
the bay of Lunan, where the river of that 
name Jischarges itself into the German O- 
cean. It is 2 miles long, and 1 broad. It 
is distant 5 miles and a half from Mpntrose. 
Population 300. 

LUNAN BAY, a bay on the coastof For- 
farshire, situated at the mouth of the river 
Lunan. It comprehends an extent of coast 
of 4 miles, with a fine sandy bottom, and 
safe anchorage. 

LUNAN, a river in Forfarshire, which 
rises from a spring called Lunan Well, a 
little above a chain oflakes, viz. Restennet, 
Rescobie, and Balgaves, through which it 
passes, and receives some tributary streams, 
and, after various windings, falls into the 
sea at Red-castle. 

LUNAN, a river in Perthshire, which 
rises amongst the Grampians, in the parish 
of Caputh, and at Meiklour falls into the Is- 
la, 2 miles above its junction with the Tay. 

LUNDIE, a parish in Forfarshire, united 
to Foulis-Faster, whish is situated in the 
county of Perth. The united parish extends 
7 miles and a half in length, and 1 mile and 
a half in breadth. There are several lakes, 



L Y O 

the chief of which is Lundie Loch. Popu- 
lation 791. 

LUNG A, one of the Hebrides, in Argyle- 
shire, and in the parish of Jura and Colon- 
say. 

LUSS, a parish in Dunbartonshire, 8 miles 
and a half long, and from 2 miles and a 
half to o broad, lying on the W. of Loch Lo- 
mond. Scarcely one-twelfth part is arable, 
the rest being hilly. The village of Luss is 
situated on a plain projecting into the lake, 
through the middle of which the small wa- 
ter of Luss runs. Four of the larger islands 
of Loch Lomond belong to the parish of 
Luss, viz. Inch Tavanach, Inch Conagan, 
Inch Moan, and Inch Loanig. Pop. 965. 

LUTHERMOOR, a village in the parish 
of Marykirk, in Kincardineshire. Pop. 200. 

LYNE, a river in Peebles-shire, which 
runs in a S. E. course, and falls into the 
Tweed, 3 miles above Peebles. 

LYNE and MEGGET, 2 parishes in Pee- 
bles-shire, united under one charge, though 
they are far distant from each other. Lyne 
is 4 miles long, and 5 broad, and the soil is 
thin and sharp. Megget is situated in the 
extremity of the county, and is 7 miles long, 
and near 6 broad. Population 194. 

LYON LOCH, a loch in the W. borders 
of Perthshire, which discharges itself by a 
river of the same name, and, running 
through the long and narrow vale of Glen- 
lyon, falls into Loch Tay, near Kenmore. 



M 



M A 



MAALMORIE, a promontory and small 
island on the S. E. of the" isle of Hay. 

MACBEARY, (LOCH) a small lake jn 
Wigtonshire, between the parishes of Pen- 
ningham and Kirkowen. The lake dis- 
charges itself by the river Bladenoch into 
the Bay ofWigton. 

MACDUFF, a considerable town in the 
county of Banff, the property of the Earl of 
Fife. 

MACHA IG LOCH, a lake in Perthshire, 
in the parish of Kilmadock, about a mile in 
diameter. 

M ACHAN Y, a small rivulet in Perthshire, 
in the parish of Muthil, which falls into the 
Allan, near Dunblane. 

MACHAR, (NEW) a parish in thedistrict 
of Buchan, situated chiefly in Aberdeen- 



shire, but a small part in the county of Banff, 
bout 9 miles by 2 miles and a half. There 
is a small lake, called the Bishop's loch, in 
which is an island. Population 923. 

MADDERTY, a parish in Perthshire, 
near the head of the vale of Stratherne. 
The surface is level, and the soil is in ge- 
neral good. Population 702. 

MADDIE (LOCH), an extensive arm of 
the sea on the E. coast of North Uist. 

MADOES (St.) a parish in Perthshire, si- 
tuated at the western extremity of the Carse 
of Gowrie, on the N. bank of the river Tay. 
Its surface comprehends a square mile. 
Population 312. 

MAGNUS (St.) BAY, a safe and com- 
modious bay of the mainland of Shetland. 

MAIDEN-PAP, a hill in Caithness-shire, 



MAR 1 

in the parish of Lathorn, elevated nearly 
2000 feet above the level of the sea. 

MAINLAND of SHETLAND is 60 miles 
long, and in some places 16 broad, project- 
ing into the sea with many irregular pro- 
montories, and indented by numerous bays 
and harbours. The hills are mostly covered 
■with heath. Eagles, hawks, ravens, and 
other birds of prey, are numerous and de- 
structive in this district. Mainland is di- 
vided into 8 parochial districts, containing 
about 12,885 inhabitants. 

MAINS, or MAINS of FINTRY, a pa- 
lish in Forfarshire; formerly named Strath- 
dighty, being part of the valley through 
■which the Dighty runs in its course towards 
the Tay. It is about 4 miles long and 3 
broad at the middle, but is considerably 
narrower at the extremities. The whole 
is arable, and the soil fertile. Popu. 112S. 
MAKERSTON, a parish in the county of 
Roxburgh, 5 miles and a half long, by 4 
miles and a half broad. It lies on the N. 
bank of the Tweed. The arable land is 
rich, fertile, and adapted for every kind of 
grain. Population 352. 

MANOR, a parish in the county of Pee- 
bles, 9 miles long and 3 broad. The nor- 
thern parts are hilly and rocky ; but towards 
the S. upon the banks of the Tweed, the 
soilis excellent, and very productive. Two 
of the hills, the Scrape and Bollarbum, are 
of considerable height. Population 308. 

MARI (LOCH), alakein Ross-shire, in 
the parish of Gairloch; about 16 miles long, 
and from 1 to 2 broad. There are in it 24 
islands. The lake discharges itself into an 
arm of the sea called Loch Ew. 

MARLIE (LOCH), a small lake in the 
parish of Blairgowrie adjoining to Loch 
Clunie. 

MARKINCH, a parish in Fifeshire of an 
irregular form, comprehending about 7000 
acres. The surface is much varied; the 
valleys being divided from each other by 
hills of considerable height. It is watered 
by the Leven, and the Lochty and Orr, two 
trihutary streams of the Leven. The road 
from Kinghorn to Dundee passes through 
the parish. There are 6 or 7 villages ; of 
which Markinch is the principal, contain- 
ing about 700 inhabitants. The parish con- 
tains marl and freestone, and abundance of 
coal. Population 3981. 

MARNOCH, a parish in Banffshire, a- 
bout 10 miles by 4 or 5, bounded on the S. 
by the river Deveron. The surface is level . 
Population 2018. 

MARR.adistrictin Aberdeenshire, com- 
prehending that part, which lies betwixt 



: M A u 

the river Dee and Don, containing 900 
square miles, 39 parishes, and 53,000 in- 
habitants. The three great divisions oi'thij 
extensive district are Braernar, Cromar, and 
Mid-Mar. There are some remarkable 
mountains in the forest of Marr, which are 
partly in Banff, Inverness, and Aberdeen - 
shires, and are supposed to be the most dis- 
tant from the sea of any in Scotland. 

MARTIN, or ISLE MARTIN, a fishing 
Tillage in Ross-shire, on the western coast, 
about 5 miles N. from the village of Ulla- 
pool. 

MARTIN'S (ST), a parish in Perthshire, 
to which that of Cambusmichael is annex- 
ed. It is somewhat of a rectangular form, 
4 miles long by 1 broad, lying on both sides 
of the Tay, 5 miles N. from the town of 
Perth. The surface is muchdiversified, and 
the soil is mostly cultivated and improved. 
Limestone, marl, and freestone, are the on- 
ly valuable mineral productions. P. 1076. 
MARTIN'S (ST), a parish in Rcss-shire, 
united to Kirkmichael and Calicudden. 

MARTORHAM (LOCH), a lake in the 
parish of Cojlton, in Ayrshire, about a mile 
long, and nearly half a mile broad, and falls 
into the river Ayr. 

MARYBURGH, a smaU village in In- 
verness-shire, situated at a small distance 
from Fort William, on the S. sideofLocheil. 
MARYBURGH, a small village in Kin- 
ross-shire, in the parish of Cleish, about 5 
miles S. of Kinross. 

MARY CULTER, a parish in Kincardine- 
shire, situated on the S. bank of the Dee, 
and extending from that river to the Gram- 
pians, of an oblong form, 6 miles by 2. Po- 
pulation 700. 

MARYKIRK, a parish in Kincardine- 
shire, of an irregular square form, compre- 
hending 7591 Scots acres, and ljing on the 
N. bank of the North Esk. Its surface is 
level. There are two villages, Luthermoor, 
and Harykirk, each of which contains up- 
wards of 200 inhabitants. Pop. 1574. 

MARY PORT, a small port on the'coast 

of Wigtonshire, in the parish of Kirkmaiden. 

MARYTON, a parish in Forfarshire, on 

the S. bank of the South Esk, containing 

about 3000 acres. Population 473. 

MAUCHLINE, a parish in Ayrshire, wa- 
tered by the river Ayr, from the banks of 
which the surface rises towards the N. E. 
where it is bounded by the parish of Tarbol- 
ton. The town of Mauchline is situated on 
an eminence near the river, and contains 
upwards of 1000 inhabitants. Pop. 1871. 

MAULDSLIE LAW, a hill in the parish, 
of Carluke, in Lanarkshire. 



MEG n 

MAUL FLANNAN, a small island on 
the N. W. coast of Sutherlandshire. 

MAVISTON, an extensive tract of sandy 
ground in Morayshire, formerly one of the 
richest districts of that county. 

MAXTON, a parish in Roxburghshire, 
on the S. bank of the Tweed, nearly 4 miles 
long, and 3 broad. The soil is partly a strong 
clay, and partly a light loam. Pop. 45S. 

MAXWELL, a parish united to that of 
Kelso. 

MAY, a small island in the mcuth of the 
Frith of Forth, 6 miles S. from Crail. It is 
about a mile long, and three quarters of a 
mile broad. It has a well of fine water, a 
small lake, and affords excellent sheep pas- 
ture. It has alight-house, which was for- 
merly a coal light, but is now changed to a 
revolving oil light. 

MAY, a river in Perthshire, which rises in 
the Ochil hills, in the parish of Dunning, 
and, after a circuitous course of S or 9 miles, 
falls into the river Eame, nearly opposite to 
the parks of Dupplin-castle. The May, in 
its course, forms several romantic waterfalls, 
particularly the Humble-bumble, so named 
from the noise it makes, and the linn of 
Mackarsey, where the water is precipitated 
over a perpendicular rock about 30feet high. 

MAYBOLE, a parish in Ayrshire, in the 
district of Carrick, about 1 1 miles long, and 
7 broad, watered by the rivers Doon and Gir- 
van. The town of May bole is situated on a 
small eminence, around which the hills rise 
in the form of an amphitheatre. It was e- 
rected into a burgh of barony in favour of 
the Earl of Cassilis, in 1516. The principal 
business is the blanket manufacture, in 
which upwards of 300 persons are constant- 
ly employed. Population 3162. 

MEAGLE, or MEGHILL, a hill in the 
parish of Galashiels, in Tweeddale, elevat- 
ed 1480 feet above the level of the sea. 
ME ALFOURM'HONIE, or MEALFOUR- 
VONIE, a mountain in Inverness-shire, 
•which rises on the W. side of Loch Ness to 
the height of 3060 feet above the level of 
the sea. 

MEARNS, a parish in Renfrewshire, a- 
bout 6 miles long, by 5 and a half broad, 
midway betwixt the towns of Glasgow and 
Paisley. The surface is beautifully diversi- | 
tied. There are 3 small lakes, the largest ! 
of which is nearly 2 miles and a half in cir- I 
cuit. Population 1 94 1 . 

MEDWIN, a small river in Lanarkshire, ] 
■which has its rise in the parish of Dunsyre. i 

MEGGET. Vide Lyne and Megget. 

MEGGET, a river in Peeblesshire, which | 
runs through the parish of Megget, and falls 



MEL 

into St Mary's Loch, after a course of Smiles. 

MEIG, a river in Ross-shire, which takes 
its rise in the western parts of the county, 
near the borders of the parish of Lochcvr- 
ron, andfalls into the Lichart, about 5 mile3 
before its junction with the Connon. 

MEIGLE.a parish in Perthshire, in the 
centre of Strathmore, about 4 miles and a 
half long, and from 1 to 2 broad. It is wa- 
tered by the Isla and the Dean, which unite 
about half a mile N. W. of the town of Mei- 
gle, which is pleasantly situated in the mid- 
dle of the parish, on a small rivulet of the 
same name, 12 miles N. W. from Dundee, 
6 and a half N. E. of Cupar, and 5 and a 
half S. W. of Glammis. It contains about 
300 inhabitants. It has two well attended 
annual fairs. Population 946. 

MEIKLY LOCK, a lake in the parish of 
Urquhart, in Inverness-shire, about a mile 
long, and half a mile broad. It discharges 
itself into Loch Ness by the small river En- 
nerick. 

MELDRUM, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
about 5 miles long, and from 2 to 4 broad. 
In the S. part of the parish, the soil is ex- 
ceedingly fertile; in the N. part, the soil 
is thinner and lessfertile. Pop. 1584. 

MELDRUM (OLD), a considerable town 
in the parish of Meldrum, situated about 
17 miles from Aberdeen, on the road from 
that place to Banff. It is a burgh of baro- 
ny, governed by 2 bailies. 

MELGAM, or MELGUNS, a considerable 
stream in Angus-shire, which takes its rise 
in the N. W. boundary ofthe parish of Glen - 
trathan, and falls into the Isla under the 
■walls of Airly castle. 

MELLERSTAIN, a village in Berwick- 
shire, in the parish of Earlstoun, near which 
is a ridge of hills ofthe same name. 

MELROSE, a considerable town in Rox- 
burghshire. It is pleasantly situated on the 
N. sideofthe Eildonhills. Ithaslongbeen 
famed for the manufacture of linens. It is 
a free burgh of barony, with a magistracy 
elected by the burgesses. The PARISH of 
Melrose b 7 miles long, and from 5 to 7 
broad. The surface and soil are various, 
being flat and fertile on the banks of the 
Tweed, and hilly and covered with heath 
in the parts farther removed from that ri- 
ver. About a mile S.from the town, is the 
site ofthe old abbey of Melrose, which was 
founded in 674. The bridge of Drygrange 
is thrown over the Tweed at its confluence 
with the Lauder. Near the town, on the 
S. side ofthe Tweed, is the abbey of Mel- 
rose, one ofthe largi-st and most magnificent 
in the kingdom. Population 2G25. 



^_^ mid : 

MENGALLY, one of the Hebrides, lying 
82 miles from the island of Barray, to which 
parochial district it belongs. 

MENMUIR, a parish in Forfarshire, a- 
bout 5 miles long, and about 2 in breadth. 
The general appearance is flat, especially 
to the S. and E. but towards the N. it is ve- 
ry hilly, and covered with heath. The ara- 
ble soil is tolerably fertile. It is watered by 
numerous small streams. Population 949. 

MERSE, or MARCH, one of the three 
greater divisions of Berwickshire. This dis- 
trict is more fertile than the other two, oc- 
cupying that part which extends from the 
foot of the Lammermuir hills on the N.to 
the English border. 

MERTAICK, a small island on the W. 
coast of Ross-shire, in Lech Broom. 

MERTOUN, aparish in Berwickshire, ex- 
tending 6 miles in length along the N. bank 
of the Tweed, and from 2 to 3 in breadth. 
The western district is elevated, but the 
surface slopes gradually towards the S. Po- 
pulation 555. 

METHILL, a small sea-port town in Fife- 
shire, on the coast of the Frith of Forth, in 
the parish of Wemyss. 

METHLICK, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
6 miles long, and 5 broad. It is watered by 
the Ythan, which falls into the sea 10 miles 
below. Population 1215. 

METHVEN, a parish in Perthshire, about 
.5 miles long, and 4 broad. The surface is 
agreeably varied by hollows and rising 
ground. The Almond, which bounds the pa- 
rish on the N. and E. possesses many water- 
falls, upon which a great deal of machine- 
ry is erected. Population 2073. 

MET H VEN, a small river in Lanarkshire, 
which rises by two branches in the high 
lands which divide Clydesdale from East 
Lothian, and in the parish oi'Libberton falls 
into the Clyde. 

MEY LOCH, a lake in the county of 
Caithness, in the parish of Canisbay, about 
3 miles in circumference. 

MID and SOUTH YELL, an united pa- 
rish in the island of Yell, in Shetland, about 
10 miles long, and 6 broad. Pop. 1576. 

MID-CALDER. Vide Calder Mid. 

MIDDLEBIE, a parish in Dumfries shire, 
9 miles long, by 4 broad. The surface is di- 
versified with small eminences, and the 
soil is tolerably fertile. Population 1507. 

MIDDLETON, a small village of Mid-Lo- 
thian, in the parish of Borthwick, about 12 
miles from Edinburgh. 

MID-MARR, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
about G miles and a half long, by 5 and a 
half broad. The surface is in general level, 



t M I N 

the only eminence deserving notice being 
the hill of Fare, which is elevated 1793 fee^ 
above the level of the sea. Pop. 803. 

MIGDOL LOCH, a lake in Sutherland- 
shire, in the parish of Criech, about 2 miles 
long, and 1 broad. 

MIGVIE or MIGVY, a parish of Aber- 
deenshire, united to that of Tarland. 

MILK, a small river in Dumfries-shire, 
which takes its rise in the parish of Hut- 
ton, and falls into the Annan near to the 
church of St Mungo. 

MILLENWOODFELL, a mountain in 
Roxburghshire, in the parish of Castletown, 
elevated about 2000 feet above the le\el of 
the sea. 

MILGU Y, a considerable village in Stir- 
lingshire, in the parish of East Kilpatrick, 
containing upwards of 200 inhabitants. 

MILLHEUGH, a small village in the pa- 
ish of Dal serf, and county of Lanark. 

MILLHOUSE, a village in Forfarshire, 
3 miles from Dundee. 

MILNATHOE.T, a considerable village 
in Kinross-shire, in the parish of Orwell, 
about 3 miles from the town of Kinross. 

MILNPORT, a small village on the S. 
W. side of the isle of the greater Cambray, 
with a good harbour. 

MILTON, a fishing village in the county 
of Kincardine, and parish of Ecclesgreig. 

MINCH (THE), that arm of the Deuca- 
ledonian sea which separates the isle of Sky 
from the Long Island. 

MINCHMOOR, a mountain in Peebles- 
shire, in the parish of Traquair, elevated 
2000 feet above the level of the sea. 

MINIGAFF, a parish in the stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, 24 miles long, and 12broad. 
The greater part is moor, or hills covered 
with heath. On the banks of the river Cree, 
which is here navigable, the soil is rich, and 
in many places covered with fine wood. 
Population 1609. 

MINNIEHIVE, a village in Dumfries- 
shire, on the small river Dalwhat, opposite 
to the village of Dunreggan, with which it 
is connected byabridge. The two villages 
contain about 400 inhabitants. 

MINTO, a parish in Roxburghshire, ex- 
tending 5 miles and a half in length, by 2 
and a half in breadth. The soil, towards 
the river, is alight loam; farther N. it is 
a strong clay, upon a tilly bottom. The 
VILLAGE of Minto is situated near the Te- 
viot, and contains about 140 inhabitants. 
The scenery upon the banks of the Teviot 
is very beautiful in this neighbourhood 
The elegant and ancient seat of Lord Min- 
to; the picturesque rocks, called Minto 



M O N 



M O N 



crdigs ; the house of Teviot Bank, Hassen- 
deanburn, with the serpentine windings of 
the river, unite in forming a grand and de- 
lightful landscape. Population 477. 

MIST Y LAW, a hill in Ayrshire, in the 
garish, of Traquair, elevated 2000 feet above 
the level of the sea. 

MOCHRU M, a parish in Wigtonshire, 1 
miles long, and from 4 to 5 broad, on the 
shores of the bay of Luce. The soil is in 
general various. There is a small harbour 
at the fishing town of Port William, which 
admits vessels of 200 tons burden. P. 1113. 

MOFFAT, a parish situated chiefly in 
Dumfries-shire, but a small part lies in the 
county of Lanark. It is about 15 miles long, 
and 9 broad. Upon the banks of the rivers 
Annan and Moifat, which water the parish, 
there is a considerable extent of meadow 
and arable laud. The surface is in gene- 
ral very rugged, and the mountains high ; 
that of Hartfel being S300 feet above the 
level of the sea. The village of Moffat is 
situ ited at the head of a plain or valley on 
the banks of the Annan. The principal 
street is spacious, with two good inns and 
lodging-houses, which are let to invalids 
during the summer. Moffat has been long 
celebrated for its mineral waters. P. 1619. 

MOIDART, a district in Inverness-shire, 
situated in the S. W. corner of the county. I 

MOL-MOUNT, a hill in the parish of ' 
Galston, Ayrshire. 

MONANCE (ST.) formerly named Aber- 
crombie; a parish in Fifesbire, 1 mile and 
a half long, and 1 broad. It is washed by 
the sea, above which the land rises sudden- 
ly, but to no great height. The TOWN of 
St. Monance possesses a tolerable harbour, 
and was formerly a considerable fishing 
town. Population 522. 

MONCRIEF, or MORDUN, a hill in I 
Perthshire, in the parish of Dumbarny. 

MONEDIE, a parish in Perthshire, about ] 
6 miles N. W. from the town of Perth, and 
about 3 miles square. The soil is various, 
but tolerably fertile. To the parish of Mo- 
nedieis annexed the New Parish, or Logie 
Almond. Population 1157. 

MONIFIETH, a parish in Forfar»hire, 
situated on the Frith of Tay. It is 6 miles 
long, and 3 and a half broad at its S. W. 
extremity. It is watered by the river Dich- 
ty, and several of its tributary streams, 
■which fall into the Frith of Tay, at the vil- 
lage of Monifieth. There are 3 villages, 
the East Ferry, Monifieth, and Drumstur- 
dymuir. Population 1407. 

MONIKIE, a parish in Forfarshire, of a 
triangular form, 6 miles long, and 4 broad 



at its northern extremity, from which it 
gradually lessens in breadth. The surface 
is diversified with several large hills; and 
a ridge running from E. to W. divides it 
into two districts, which vary considerably 
in fertility and climate; the southern part 
being rich and early, and the northern moist 
andcold. Another village, Gouldie, con- 
tains about 170 inhabitants. P. 1236. 

MONIMAIL, a parish in Fifeshire, about 
4 miles long, by 3 broad. The surface is in 
general level, and the soil fertile. P. 1066. 

MONIVAIRD, a parish in Perthshire, to 
which that of Strowan is united. The un- 
ited parish is situated in the upper part of 
Stratherne, and is of a triangular form, 8 
miles long by 6 broad. The general ap- 
pearance is mountainous; Benchonzie ris- 
ing 2922 feet, and Torleum 1400 feet above 
the level of the sea. Population 1013. 

MONKLAND, a district in Lanarkshire. 
It waslong but one paroLhial charge; but 
in 1840, it was divided into two, called E. 
or New Monkland, and West, or Old Monk- 
land. 

MONKLAND (NEW), the most norther- 
ly parish of Lanarkshire, is about 10 miles 
long, and 7 broad. The surface is tolera- 
bly level, rising gently to a ridge in the 
middle from the rivers Calder and Luggie, 
which are its boundaries on theS. andN. 
In this parish is situated the town of Air- 
drie. Population 4618. 

MONKLAND (OLD),aparish in Lanark- 
shire, about 10 miles long, and 3 and a half 
broad. The soil is in general fertile; and 
the whole is enclosed, and well cultivated. 
The minerals are coal in great abundance, 
ironstone, and plenty of freestone. The 
Monkland canal from Glasgow.in this dis- 
trict, has been of material service in pro- 
moting trade and manufactures. P. 5409. 

MONKTON-HALL, a village in Edin- 
burghshire, in the parish of Inveresk. 

MONKTON and PRE3TICK, an united 
parish in Ayrshire, extending about 4 miles 
in length, and in general about 3 in breadth. 
There are 2 villages, Monkton and Prestick. 
containing about 250 each. P. 1300. 

MONTBATTACK, one of the Grampian 
mountains, in the parish of Strachan, in 
Kincardineshire, elevated 3410 feet above 
the level of the sea. 

MONTEITH, a district, or former divi- 
sion of Perthshire, comprehending the S. 
W. part of the county. 

MONTEITH LOCH, a beautiful expanse 
of water, in the district of the same name, 
about 5 miles in circumference. It has 
two islands. 



M O N ] 

MONTQUHITTER, a parish in Aber- 
deenshire, about 9 miles from N. to S. 6 
from E. to W. about 10 and a half in a dia- 
gonal direction. It is watered by 2 consi- 
derable rivulets. By the side of these 
streams, the soil is deep and fertile ; but the 
seasons are generally late. There is one 
village in the parish, called Cuminestown. 
In this parish was fought the battle of Len- 
drum, in whi h Donald, Lord of the Isles, 
received a final overthrow. Population 

1710. 

MONTROSE, a royal borough, and sea 
port town of Angus-shire, sealed on a pen- 
insula, formed by the South Esk river. It 
isneatly built. consisting ofa spacious street 
with bye lanes. The houses, if not elegant, 
are, upon the whole, well built and regular. 
The principal buildings are, the Old Town- 
house, repaired as a prison ; the New Town- 
house; the parish church, the Episcopal 
chapel, and the lunatic hospital. The har- 
bour is very commodious, admitting vessels 
of large burden; and, in the river below 
the town there is safe anchorage. The 
principal manufactu e is linen yarn and 
thread ; and the sheeting and sail cloth ma- 
nufacture have been carried on to a consi- 
derable extent. Montrose has enjoyed the 
privileges of a royal borough for about 600 
years. It is governed by a provost, 3 bailies, 
a dean of guild, treasurer, hospital master, 
10 merchant councillors, and 2 councillors 
from the trades. It joins with Aberdeen, 
Aberbrothock, Bervie, and Brechin, in 
sending a member to parliament; and it 
gives tiile of duke, as it did formerly of earl 
and marquis, to the chief of the noble fa- 
mily of Graham. Montrose contains about 
5200 inhabitants. The PARISH of MON- 
TROSE is about 3 miles long, and 2 and a 
half broad, lying betwixt the mouths of the 
rivers North and South Esks. A very fine 
bridge was built in 1775 over the N.Esk, 
consisting of 7 arches, and lately a fine 
wooden bridge has been constructed over 
the S. Esk, by the island of Inchbrayock, 
which gives an open communication with 
the south part of the country. The surface 
is level, and the lands are well cultivated. 
Population 7974. 

MO N YMU i; K, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
in the district of Garioch, about 7 miles 
long, and from 4 to 5 broad. The arable 
land lies mostly upon the banks of the Don. 
The remainder is hilly. Population 900. 

MONZIE, a parish in Perthshire, about 
12 miles long, and 7 broad, lying about 14 
miles from the town of Perth, and 3 from 
Crieff". It is very mountainous. It is wa- 



tered by the Amond, the Keltie, and the 
Shaggie. Population 1120. 

MOONZIE, a small parish in Fifeshire, 
being only 2 and a half miles long, by 1 and 
a half broad, containing 1 100 acres. It lies 
about 2 miles from Cupar, the county town. 
Population 200. 

MOORFOOT HILLS, a range of moorish 
hills in the southern boundary of Mid-Lo- 
thian. 

MORAY, or MURRAY, (COUNTY of,) 
formerly comprehended the shires of Nairn, 
Moray Proper, or Elgin, and a great part of 
the shire of Banff. It was anciently ac- 
counted the granary of Scotland. It gives 
title of Earl to a branch of the noble family 
of Stuart. 

MORAYSHIRE (PROPER), or Elgin- 
shire,^ the middle district of the ancient 
county of Moray. It is bounded on the N. 
by that branch of the German Ocean cal- 
led the Moray Frith ; on the N. and S. E. by 
Banffshire ; on the S. W. by Inverness-shire 
and on the W. by the counties of Inverness 
and Nairn. It extends about 42 miles in 
length, and its average breadth is about 20. 
The southern part, called the district of 
Braemoray, is rocky and mountainous. The 
lower parts, towards the N. are rich 
and fertile. The principal rivers are the 
Spey, Findhorn, and Lossie, all of which a- 
bound with Salmon. It contains two roy- 
al burghs, viz. Elgin, the county town, and 
Forres ; and several considerable towns, as 
Grantown, Garmouth, and Lossiemouth. 
Except freestone, limestone, and marl, no 
mineial substanceof value has been disco- 
vered. Morayshire is divided into 18 pa- 
rochial districts, which contained, in 1811, 
28,108 inhabitants. 

MORAY FRITH, a considerable inlet 
of the German Ocean. From betw een Tar- 
betness in Ross-shire, on the N. and Kin- 
naird's head, in the district of Buchan, on 
the S. it extends in a westerly direction as 
far as Inverness. Its breadth, opposite to 
the point of Arderseir, on which Fort 
George is built, is contracted to about two 
miles, above which it expands into a consi- 
derable bay, with safe anchorage. At its 
extremity it receives the rivers Ness and 
Beauly. 

MORBATTLE, a small parish in the 
county of Roxburgh, watered by the rivers 
Bowmont and Kail. The village of Mor. 
battle, which contains about 200 inhabi- 
tants, lies about 8 miles E. from Jedburgh. 
Population 785. 

MORDINGTON, a parish in Berwick- 
shire, situated in the S. E. corner of the 



H O K 



M U 



county. It is about 4 miles long, and 2 
broad at the extremities ; but in the middle 
it is not above a furlong in breadth. It is 
bounded by the Whittadder on the S. the 
banks of which are flat, and of a fertile clay 
soil j but towards the N. the soil is thin aud 
moory. In 1650, the parish of Lamerton 
•was annexed to that of M ordington. P. 530. 

MOKEY, a small island of Argyllshire, 
near Lismore. 

MORHAM, a parish in Haddingtonshire, 
one of the smallest in Scotland, containing 
only 1000 acres. Population 254. 

MORISON'S HAVEN. Vide Acheson's 
Haven. 

MORISTON, a river in Invemess-shire, 
■which rises in Glenshiel, and, passing 
through Loch Cluani, falls into Loch Ness. 
It gives its name to the vale through which 
it runs. 

MORMOND HILL, a small hill in the 
district of Buchan, situated partly in the 
parish of Fraserburgh, and partly in that 
of Rathen, elevated 810 feet. 

MORROR, a district of Inverness-shire, 
lying on the W. coast of the county, be- 
tween Moidart andGlenelg. 

MORTLACH, a parish in Banffshire, of 
an irregular figure, 12 miles long, and at 
one place nearly as much in breadth. It is 
•watered by the Fiddich and Dullan, two 
rivulets, which are tributary to the Spey, I 
The Deveron also bounds it on the S. BaU j 
veny House is a large and elegant modern ! 
mansion. Peat is found here, as well as in ; 
almost every other district of Banrl'shire. I 
Population 1876. 

MORTON, a parish in Dumfries-shire, 
about b miles long, and 3 and a half broad, 
containing 6010 Scots acres. The arable J 
soil is in general fertile, and well inclosed. 
It is watered by the rivers Nith, Carron, 
and Cample. The village of Thornhill is 
pleasantly situated near the river Nith. 
Population 1570. 

MORVEN or MORVERN, a parish in 
Argyllshire, extending about 20 miles in 
length along the Sound of Mull, and 10 
miles at its greatest brea th. The general 
appearance is hilly. The inhabited part is 
mostly along the coast, where the ground 

is under culture. The coast is indented 

with many fine bays. Population 18S3. 

MORVEN, a hill in the parish of Lather- 
en, in Caithness, elevated about a mile a- 

bove the level of the sea. 

MORVEN, a high hill in Aberdeenshire, 

on the borders of the parish of Logie Cold- 

stone, supposed to be upwards of 3100 feet 

above the level of the sea. 



| MOTRAY, a small river i 

which takes its rise in the hill called Nor- 
I man's Law, in the parish of Abdie, and 
' joins the Eden, about half a mile before it 
, falls into the bay of St Andrew's. 
I MOULIN, a parish in Perthshire, situa- 
ted at the junction of theTummel and'Gar- 
ry. It comprehends two districts, King in 
Athcle and Strathardle ; the first about 7 
j miles in length, and from 4 to 6 in breadth, 
! and the other nearly 6 miles and a half 
I square. The greater part of the parish is 
j mountainous. The village of Moulin con- 
l tains about 200 inhabitants ; and the small 
' village of Pitlochry, on the military road, 
J contains about 100. Population 1903. 
! MOUSS, a small river in Lanarkshire, 
I which rises in the parish of Pettinain, and, 
j after a circuitous course from E. to W, falls 
into the Clyde about a mile below the town 
| of Lanark. 

I MOUSWALD, a parish in Dumfries-shire, 

between 4 and 5 miles in length, and 2 in 

I breadth, lying on the side of the Lochar 

: moss and river. Population 705. 

j MOY and DALAROSSIE, an united pa- 

! rish in the district of Badenoch, in Inver- 

i ness-shire, about 30 miles in length, and 

[ upwards of 5 in breadth. The lake of Moy 

is nearly 2 miles long, by three-fourths of a 

mile broad. Population 1483. 

MUCK, one of the Hebrides, belonging 
to Argyleshire, and in the parish of Small 
Isles. It lies 4 miles \V. from the island of 
Eigg, and measures 3 miles in length by 1 
in breadth. On the N. side of the island 
lies Elannan-each, " the island of horses." 
MUCKART, a parish in Perthshire, of a 
triangular figure, 5 miles in length, and 
from 2 to 3 in breadth. Itlies on the bank* 
of the Devon, where that river forms the 
romantic falls of the Caldron Linn, &c. 
Population 538, 

MUGDRUM, asmallisland in the river 
Tay, nearly at the point where the Erne 
joins that river. 

MUICK, a small river in Aberdeenshire, 
rising from a considerable lake of the 
same name in the Grampian mountains, 
and, taking a course through Glenmuick 
parish, falls into the Dee about 10 miles 
I from its source. 

| MUIRAVONSIDE, a parish in Stirling- 
I shire, situated on the W. bank of the Avon, 
i about 6 miles long, and 2 broad. The 
i greater part is inclosed, and the ground is 
1 in general well cultivated. Pop. 1070. 
I MUIRHOUSE, a parish in Forfarshire, 
{ about 5 miles from Dundee, on the road 
| from that plaee to Brechin. It is of small 
Z ' 



M U L 1 

extent, and the greater part is arable. Po- 
pulation 591. 

MUIRKIRK, a parish in Ayrshire, in the 
district of Kyle. Its general appearance is 
hilly, and the surface is mostly covered with 
heath. The only village is a neat street, at 
a small distance from the church, situated 
on the brow of a rising ground, called Ga- 
ran-hill, which gives its name to the place. 
Population 2.560. 

MULL, a large island of the Hebrides, of 
an irregular form, so much indented by 
arms of the sea, that although its greatest 
diameter does not exceed 35 English miles, 
its circumference, following the high sea 
water mark, is upwards of 500. The aver- 
age breadth is about 12 miles. The sur- 
face is generally rough and unpromising, 
though there are some fine spots in the 
sheltered valleys, and at the heads of the 
salt water lochs, with which the island a- 
bounds. There are several high mountains, 
the most elevated of which is Benmore, con- 
jectured to be upwards of 5000 feet above 
the level of the sea. There are two stated 
ferries across the sound of Mull ; one from 
Aros to Morven, andthe other from Achna- 
craig to the island of Kerrera, and thence 
to Oban. The only village of any consider- 
able size is Tobermory, at the northern ex- 
tremity ; but there are small villages with 
inns at Achnacraig and at Aros. Mull 
is divided into three parochial districts, viz. 
Kilfinichen, Kilninian, andTorosay, which 
also comprehends the adjacent isles of I- 
colmkill, StarTa, Gometra, &c. containing 
altogether 9220 inhabitants. 

MULL (SOUND of,) a narrow arm of the 
sea, lying between the island of Mull and 
the mainland of Argyle and Inverness- 
shires. It is in general from 2 to 10 miles 
broad, and affords safe anchorage for vessels 
of any burden. From the sound of Mull, 
LochLinnhe goes off in aN. E. direction, 
to Locheil at Fort William. 



r M U T 

MULLBUY, an extensive ridge of bar- 
ren bills, running about 16 miles in length 
through that district of the counties of Ross 
and Cromarty, which iscalled Ardmeanach- 

MUNGO (ST.) aparish in Dumfries-shire, 
in the district of Annandale, forming a 
square of about 4 miles. It is surrounded 
on the F. and TV. by high hills. It is wa- 
tered by the rivers Milk and Annan. Po- 
pulation 644. 

MUNGO (ST.) a small island in Loch 
Linnhe. 

MUNGO (ST.) a hill in Aberdeenshire, 
in the parish of Huntly, noted for its vol- 
canic appearances. 

MUNLOCHY, a village of Ross-shire, in 
the parish of Knockbain. 

MUSAY, one of the smaller Shetland 
isles, on the E. coast of the mainland. 

MUSSELBURGH, a town in the county 
of Mid-Lothian, at the mouth of the Esk, 
in the parish of Inveresk, about 6 miles E. 
from Edinburgh. The suburb of Fisherrow, 
which is united by two bridges over the 
Esk, is considered as forming a part of the 
burgh, and is under the same magistracy. 
Musselburgh is a very ancient burgh of re- 
gality, and was once named Musselburgh- 
shire. It is governed by a town-council of 
IS members, 10 of which are elected from 
Musselburgh, and S from ' Fisherrow. Out 
of these, 2 bailies and a treasurer are an- 
nually elected. Betwixt the town and the 
sea lie the extensive downs called Mussel- 
burgh Links, on which a race course has 
been constructed. 

MUTHIL,aparish in Perthshire, situated 
on the borders of the Highlands, between 
CnefFand Dumblane. It extends from 8 
to 10 miles in length, and from 6 to 9 in 
breadth. The surface is hilly, and the soil 
is various. Besides the Erne and theAllan, 
it is watered by the rivulets Machany and 
Knaik. The village is pleasantly situated 
in the valley. Population 2SS0. 



N 



NABEE LOCH, a small lake in Moray- 
shire, in the parish of St. Andrew's 
Lhanbryd. It is about 3 miles in circuit. 

NAIRN (County of,) apart of the ancient 
county of Moray ; 16 or IS miles long, and is 
only 1 at its greatest breadth. 1 1 is bound - 



ed on the N. by the Moray Frith, and on 
the other sides by the counties of Inverness 
and Elgin. The general appearance is very 
agreeable, rising into considerable moun- 
tains towards the S. but towards the N. it 
is level, and the soil abundantly fertile, it 



N E S 



N E W 



is watered by the Findhorn and Nairn, be- 
sides several smaller rivulets. It is divided 
into 5 parochial districts, containing 8257 
inhabitants. It sends a member to parlia- 
ment alternately with Cromarty. 

NAIRN, a royal burgh, and county town, 
is situated on the coast of the Moray Frith, 
at the confluence of the river Nairn. It is 
a neat town, with a small and convenient 
harbour. The government is vested in a 
provost, 3 bailies, a dean of guild, treasurer, 
and 11 councillors. The PARISH cf Nairn 
is 5 miles from N. to S. and li from K. to W. 
Along the coast the soil is sandy; on the 
river Nairn it is clay; and in the southern 
district it is a rich heavy loam. P. '221 5. I 

NAIRN, a river which rises in the high ! 
mountainous district of Badenoch, in In- ! 
verness-shire, and falls into the Moray Friih, | 
at the town of Nairn, about 50 milts from 
its source. 

- NANAUGH LOCH, an arm of the sea, 
on the W. coast of Inverness-shire, in the 
district of Moidart. 

NAOIMPH, a small island on the north 
coast of Sutherlandshire. 
- NAOSG, a small island on the 3. coast of 
the isle of Hay. 

NAVAR, a mountainous parish in For- 
farshire, united to Lethnot. 

NAVER, or NAVERN LOCH, a lake in 
Sutherlandshire, in the parish of Far, 6 
miles long by 3 broad ; from which rises the 
Navern river, and falls into the ocean near 
the promontory of Strathy-head. 

NEATTIE LOCH, a lake in Inverness- 
shire, in the parish of Kiltarlity, about a 
mile long and half a mile broad. 

NE ART AY, one of the smaller Hebrides, 
in the sound of Harris. 

NEAVIS LOCH, an extensive arm of the 
sea, in Inverness-shire, in the district of 
Glenelg. 

NELL LOCH, a small lake in Argyleshire, 
in the parish of Kilmore and Kilbride, about | 
2 miles long, and half a mile broad. 

NENTHORN, a parish in Berwickshire, 
about 4 miles long, and 3 and a half broad. 
Population 395. 

NESS LOCH, a beautiful lake in Inver- 
ness-shire, 22 miles long, and from 1 to 2 
and a half broad. Several rivers pour their 
waters into this lake. 

NESS, a river which rises from the eas- 
tern extremity of Loch Ness, and falls into 
the Moray Frith at the town of Inverness, 
of which its aestuary forms the harbour. 

NESS of Invergordon. Vide Invergordon. 

NESTING, a parish in Shetland, com- 
posed of the united parishes of Nesting, Lun. 



nesting, Whalsay, and the Skerries, contain- 
ing about 1941 inhabitants. 

NETHAN, a river in Lanarkshire, which 
rises in the hills between Lesmahagoe and 
Muirkirk, and falls into the Clyde near the 
village of Abbeygreen. 

NETH Y, a river in lnverness-shire, which 
rises in the high hills of Badenoch, and falls 
into the Spey near the church of Abernethy. 

NEVAY, a parish in Forfarshire, united 
to Essie. 

NEVIS, a river which rises near Benevis 
in Inverness-shire, and after a rapid course 
of S or 10 miles, falls into Lochiel, near 
Fori William. 

NEW ABBEY, a parishin Kirkcudbright- 
shire S miles long, and 2 broad. A consi- 
derable part is watered by the Nith, the 
banks of which are inclosed and well culti- 
vated, the soil being a light loarn upon gra- 
vel. There is a chain of hills which runs 
from south-west to south-east ; the highest 
is Criffel. These are, in general, steep and 
rocky. There are 3 small lakes, viz. Loch 
Kindar, LoGh End, and Loch Craigend. The 
VILLAGE of Newabbey is pleasantly built, 
on the great road from Dumfries to Kirk- 
cudbright. Population 831. 

NEWARK, a barony in Renfrewshire, 
now united to New Port-Glasgow. 

NEWBATTLE, a parishin Mid-Lothian, 
of an irregular triangular figure, each side 
of which is nearly 4 miles long. The great- 
er part lies in a vale, through which the 
South Esk runs. The soil, which is here in 
some places about 4 feet deep, is rich and 
fertile. Towards the south, the ground 
rises nearly 700 feet above the level cf the 
sea, and forms a ridge, which is continued 
on one side to the sea. Coal and limestone 
abound in this parish. In the vale stands 
Newbattle Abbey, a large and elegant mo- 
dern building, the seat of the Marquis of 
Lothian. Population 1651. The Village 
has been allowed to fall into decay, in con- 
sequence of a change of the line of road 
which passed through it. A new village has 
been built about a mile distant, near the 
new road, 

NEWBURGH, a parish and town inFife- 
shire, on the S. bank of the river Tay, in the 
N. W. corner of the county. The extent of 
the parish is inconsiderable, and its figure 
very irregular, one part being detached from 
the other by the interjection of the parish 
of Abdie. The soil is generally fertile. The 
TOWN of Newburgh is aplace of considera- 
ble antiquity ; in 1651, Charles I. granted 
a charter, erecting it into a royal burgh. 
The principal manufacture is the linen, 



NEW 1 

■» fetch is carried on to a considerable ex- 
tent* The harbour is commodious, and the 
Tay is navigable for vessels of 500 tons up 
to this town. The parish of Newburgh con- 
tains two ancient crosses, called the cross 
of Mugdrum and cross of Macduff. P. 1936. 

NEWBURGH, a small village of Aber- 
deenshire, in the parish of Foreran, seated 
at the mouth of the Ithan, 

NEW BURN, a parish in Fifeshire, on the 
coast of the Frith of Foith, 3 miles and a 
half in length, and 2 in breadth. The soil 
is in general fertile, and almost all arable 
and inclosed. Population 412. 

NEWBYTH, a village in Aberdeenshire, 
in the parish of King Edward. 

NEWHAVEN, a considerable fishing vil- 
lage in Mid-Lothian, about a mile N. W. 
from the harbour of Leith. It is much re- 
sorted to as a bathing, quarter; and many 
elegant houses have lately been erected. It 
has a convenient stone pier for the accom- 
modation of the passage boats, to the Fife 
coast, &c. and the London steam boats also 
take in and discharge passengers from it at 
full tide. There is an elegant chain pier 
at Trinity, immediately to the west of New- 
haven, supported by chains suspended on 
wooden piles ; it projects GOO feet into the 
sea, affording depth of water sufficient for 
the larger steam vessels to receive and dis- 
charge passengers at all times of the tide. 

NEVVHILLS, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
of an irregular hexagonal form, 6 miles and 
a half in diameter. The surface is diversi- 
fied, and the soil is tolerably fertile. The 
river Don forms the boundary on the N. E 
Population 1305. 

NEW KEITH, a manufacturing villag< 
in Banffshire, in the parish of Keith. 

NEWLANDS, a parish in the county of 
Peebles, situated on the borders of Mid- 
Lothian. The surface is diversified with 
hill and dale; and the arable land is tole- 
rably fertile. It is watered by the Lyne. 
Population 950. 

NEWMILNS, a considerable burgh of ba- 
rony in the parish of Loudon, Ayrshire, con- 
taining upwards of 1000 inhabitants. 

NEW PORT GLASGOW, a parish and 
town in Renfrewshire. The parish is about 
a mile square, lying on the banks of the 
Clyde, about i miles above Greenock. It 
■was formerly a small barony, called Newark, 
belonging to the parish of Kilmalcolm ; but 
it was erected into a separate parish in 1695. 
The Town is called New Port-Glasgow and 
Newark, owing to one part of the town be- 
ing built on the feus granted by the town 
council of Glasgow, and the other part be- 



I N I E 

ing built on the old barony of Newark. In 
1775, the town of New Port-Glasgow and 
Newark was, by an act of parliament, erect- 
ed into a burgh of barony, with a council of 
13 persons. Out of these 2 bailies are elect- 
ed. The harbour is excellent, and the trade 
carried on is very considerable. P. 5116. 
NEW STEAD, a small village of Roxburgh'- 
shire, in the parish of Melrose. 

NEWTON, a parish in Mid-Lothian, near- 
ly 3 miles in diameter, bounded on the N. 
by Duddingston, on the E. by Inveresk, on 
t he S. by Dalkeith, and the W. by Libberton. 
The surface is level, and the soil tolerably 
productive. The whole district lies upon 
coal, which has been wrought upwards of 
200 years. Employment is given to nearly 
300 men, who, as is usual at such works, em- 
ploy their wives and children in carrying 
the coal which is mined to the mouth of the 
pit. Nearly 1000 individuals are in this 
way supported by these works. Pop. 1 600. 

NEWTON, a village in Renfrewshire, in 
the parish of M earns. 

NEWTON, a village in Fifeshire, near 
Falkland, containing 180 inhabitants. 

NEWTON-DOUGLAS, or NEWTON- 
STEWART, atown in Wigtonshire, situat- 
ed on the river Cree, partly in the parish 
of Minnigaff, and partly in that of Pen- 
ningham. It lies on the highway from 
Dumfries to Port Patrick. The inhabitant* 
are principally employed in the cotton 
manufacture. Population 1500. 

NEWTONSHAW, a village in Clack- 
mannanshire near Alloa, inhabited by the 
work people, employed by the Devon Iron 
Company. 

NEWTOWN of NEWMILL, a village in 
Banffshire, in the parish of Keith. 

NEWTYLD, or NEWTYLE, a parish in 
Forfarshire, about 13 miles long, and 1 
broad, including a part of the Sidlaw hills, 
ThesurfaceN. of the Sidlaw hills is flat 
and fertile. The VILLAGE of Newtyle in 
situated on the road from Dundee to Mei- 
gle. Population 781. 

NIBON, a small pasture island in Shet- 
land, about a mile N. of the Mainland. 

NIELSTON, a parish in Renfrewshire, 
of an irregular form, 9 miles long, and a- 
bout 5 broad. The surface is tolerably le- 
vel, but is divided into districts by a range 
of hills. The low grounds are fertile, but 
the sides of the hills are barren, and cover- 
ed with heath and moss. There are two 
small lakes, called Lochilbo and Loch Long. 
Besides the village of Nielston, the parish 
contains 2 other villages, Barhead and Up- 
larcoor. — These villages are chiefly em- 



N I S 



181 



NUN 



ployed in the cotton manufacture. P. 379G. 

NIGG, a parish in Kincardineshire, at 
theN.E. extremity of the county. The 
coast is bold and rocfcy. The N. E. point, 
termed the Girdle Ness, is a remarkable 
promontory, forming the S. side of the aes- 
tuary of the river Dee. There is a small 
bay, called the cove or bay of Nigg. P. 1143. 

NIGG, a parish in Ross-shire, about 5 
miles long, and from 2 to 3 broad. The 
surface is for the most part level, but rises, 
towards the N. into a considerable emin- 
ence, called the hill of Nigg. P. 1 443. 

NINTAN'S (ST.), a town and parish in 
Stirlingshire. The PARISH, at a medium, 
extends 10 miles, and is 6 broad. The 
greater part of the arable land is inclosed 
and well cultivated. It is watered by the 
Trever, Forth, and Carron; and by a rivu- 
let rising from Loch Coulter, which gives 
its name to the village of Bannockbum, 
where Edward II. was defeated. The 
TOWN of St Ninian's lies about 2 miles S. 
E. from Stirling, and contains about 3500 
inhabitants. The minerals are coal, lime- 
stone, and sandstone. The manufactures 
carried on are chiefly tartan, carpets, tan- 
ning of leather, and making nails. Popu- 
lation 6S49. 

NIORT, a small island of Argyleshire, 
in the sound of Mull, near the island of 
Merrera, about half a mile in circuit. 

NITH, a river which takes its rise in the 
parish of Cumnock, in Ayrshire, and falls 
into the Solway Frith near Dumfries, where 
its cetuary forms a harbour. Its length, in 
a direct line, is upwards of 50 miles; but, 
including its windings, is 100. 

NITHSDALE, the western district of 
Dumfries-shire. 

NIsBET, a village in East Lothian, in 
the parish of Pencaitland. 



NOCHTIE, a rivulet in Aberdeenshire, 
which falls into the Don. 

NODESDALE, a river in Ayrshire, which 
falls into the Frith of Clyde, at Largs. 

NORAN, orNORIN, a rajiid stream in 
Forfarshire, which rises amongst the Gram- 
pians, and joins the South Esk, at the 
Church of Careston. 

NORMAN'S LAW, a hill in Fifeshire.on 
the borders of the parishes of Abdie and 
Criech. 

MORRIESTOWN, a village m the parish 
of Kincardine, in Perthshire, joined by a 
long street to that of Thornhill. 

NORTH BERWICK LAW, a conical hill 
in the parish of North Berwick, in East Lo- 
thian , elevated 800 feet above the level of 
the sea. 

NORTHFERRY, a village in Fifeshire, 
situated on the Forth, in the parish ofln- 
verkeithing, "opposite to Queensferry, to 
which there are regular passage boats. 

NORTHMAVEN, a parish in Shetland, 
situated at the northern extremity of the 
Mainland, about 20 miles long, and 12 
broad. Rona's hill, nearly in the centre, is 
elevated 3944 feet above tne level of the 
sea. Population 2045. 

NORTH YELL, a parish in Shetland, 
in the island of Yell, united to Fetlar. 

NOSS, a small island, lying in the S. E. 
of the island ofBressay. 

NOSS-HEAD, a promontory of Caithness, 
4 miles N. from the town of Wick. 

NOTH, a conical hill in Aberdeenshire, 
in the parish of Rhynie and Essie, elevated 
1000 feet above the level of the sea. 

NUNGATE, a suburb of Haddington. 
It is connected to Haddington by an ele- 
gant bridge of 3 arches, over the Tyne. 

NUNS (ISLE of), a small island of the 
Hebrides, near Icolm-kill. 



o 



QATHLAVV, a parish in Forfarshire, a- 
bout 5 miles long, and 2 broad, wa- 
tered by the South Esk river. The gener- 
al appearance is flat, rising towards the S. 
to the summit of the hill of Findhaven, 
which is elevated 1500 feet above the le- 
vel of the adjacent country. The soil is 
clayey and moory, and^the climate cold and 
moist. Population 384. 



OBAN, a village of Argyleshire, in the 
parish of Kilmore, situated on a fine bay, 
in the sound of Mull. It has a bay of a 
semicircular form, from 12 to 21 fathoms 
deep, large enough to contain upwards of 
500 sail of merchant vessels. There is a. 
regular ferry from Oban to Kerrera island, 
and from thence to Aehriacriag, in the U» 
land of Mull. 



ORB 

• OCHIL HILLS, a range of lofty moun- 
tains, which begin in the parish of Dun- 
blane, in Perthshire, and stretch for many 
miles in an eastern direction into Fife. 
The highest hill is Bencloth, 2420 feet a- 
bove the level of the sea. 

OCHIDTREE, apanshin Ayrshire, about 
6 miles long, and 5 broad, watered by the 
Lugar, and Burnock. The surface is pret- 
ty level, undulated by gently rising hil- 
locks; but towards the S. it swells into 
higher ridges. The VILLAGE of Ochiltree 
is situated about 1 1 miles S. E. from Ayr. 
Population 1308. 

OCKEL, a river which rises in the pa- 
rish of Assint, in Sutherlandshire, and, af- 
ter a course of upwards of 20 miles through 
Ross-shire, falls into the head of the Frith 
of Dornoch. 

OICH LOCH, a lake in Inverness-shire, 
about 4 miles long. 

OICH, a river which rises from the east- 
ern extremity of Loch Oich, and discharg- 
es itself into Loch Ness. 
OLA (St.) Vide Kirkwall and St. Ola. 
OLDCASTLE. Vide Collistown. 
OLDHAMSTOCKS, a parish situated 
partly in Berwickshire, and partly in Had- 
dingtonshire, about 6 miles long, and from 
2 to 3 broad. The ground rises gradually 
from the east coast towards the Lammer- 
muir hills. The VILLAGE is distant 7 
miles from Dunbar, on the road from thence 
to Berwick. Population 595. 

OLD MACHAR. Vide Aberdeen (Old.) 
OLDNF.y, a small island of Sutherland- 
shire, on the W. N. W. coast, belonging to 
the parish of Assint. It is about a mile long, 
and a quarter of a mile where broadest, and 
has two small harbours. 

OLRICK, a parish in Caithness-shire, a- 
bout 4 miles long, and on an average two 
broad. The surface is diversified with some 
inconsiderable eminences. The sea coast 
is rugged and shelving, but affords a safe 
harbour for shipping at the bays of Dunnet 
and Murkle. In the PARISH there is a 
Jake, called the Loch of Durran, about 3 
rhiles in circumference. Population 1127. 
OPSAY, a small island in the sound of 
Harris. 

ORONSAY, a small island on the W. 
coast of the isle of Skye, peninsulated at 
low water. 

ORB AN SAY, a small island of the He- 
brides, between Barry and South Uist. 
ORD, a river of the isle of Skye. 
ORDIE LOCH, a small lake in the parish 
of Dunkeld, Perthshire, about 2 miles in 
circumference. 



1 O R N 

~ ORDIQUHILL, a parish In Banffshire, 
about 4 miles long, and 3 broad. P. 510. 

ORINSAY, a small island of the Hebri- 
des, betwixt the islands of Boreray and 
North Uist. 

ORKNEY ISLANDS, the Orcades of the 
ancients, forming the southern division of 
the Northern Isles. They are separated 
from the mainland of Scotland by the Pent- 
land Frith. These islands are about 30 in 
number, divided into IS parishes, contain- 
ing about 24,000 inhabitants. Pomona, or 
Mainland, is the largest. The next in size, 
are Ronaldsay, Swinna, Flota, Stronsay, 
Sanda, &c. Several of the others are small 
and uninhabited. The numerous straits 
have exceedingly rapid and dangerous 
currents; and near the small island of Swin- 
na, are the two great whirlpools called the 
Wells of Swinna, which are particularly 
dangerous to mariners. The general ap- 
pearance of the islands is hilly and rocky. 
The climate in summer is moist and cold ; 
in winter there is little snow, which lies 
but for a short time. In the Orkneys, dur- 
ing the months of June and July, the inha- 
bitants can see distinctly to read at mid- 
night ; but in the same degree, the days in 
December and January are short; there is 
scarce a tree or plant to be seen, but this 
barrenness cannot be attributed to the po- 
verty of the soil or the climate, as many 
trunks of large oaks are to be found in all 



the mosses, the whole district is well 



sup- 



plied with lakes and rivulets. The quad- 
rupeds are, small horses, black cattle, sheep, 
swine, rabbits and red deer. The heaths 
abound with the usual game found in the 
Highlands. The wild fowl are eagles of 
various kinds, wild geese and ducks, herons, 
hawks, gulls, solan geese, swans, gannets, 
&c. The sea coast swarms with seals, and 
otters, and is visited by whales, cod, ling, 
haddocks, tusk, and many other kinds of 
fish. The manufacture of kelp, is the most 
valuable, and considered the staple commo- 
dity of Orkney. The supplying the ships 
with fresh provision forms a great part of 
the trade. The women are mostly engage 
ed in the straw manufacture for the Lon- 
don market. The isles of Orkney and Shet- 
land compose one stewartry, and send one 
member to parliament. P. about 24,000. 

ORMISTOUN, a parish in Haddington- 
shire, about 5 miles long, and 3 miles and 
a half broad, lying on a branch of the river 
Tyne. The VILLAGE of ORMISTOUN 
consists of two rows of houses, parallel to 
each other. Population 766. 

ORNASAY. a small island on the S- 



O R W 



o y n 



coast of the isle of Sky, covering a fine har- 
bour of the same name in the parish of 
Sleat. 

ORNAY, one of the smaller Shetland 
isles, lying between Yell and Mainland. 

ORONSAY, a small fertile island of the 
Hebrides, in the parochial district of Jura 
and Colonsay. 

ORPHIR, a parish in the island of Po- 
mona, in Orkney, about S miles long, and 
from 2 to 3 broad. There is a lake called 
the Loch of Kirkbister, about 3 miles in cir- 
cuit, situated at the N. Western extremity. 
The small island of Cava belongs to this pa- 
rish. Population 764. 

ORR, a rivulet in Fifeshire, which rises 
in the parish of Beath, and falls into the 
Leven. 

ORRIN, a river in Ross-shire, rising in 
theS. W. borders, and falls in the Connan 
at the church of Urray. 

ORRICK, a hill in Fifeshire, near Burnt- 
island. 

ORWELL, a parish in Kinross-shire, 
sometimes called Milnathort, from the 
principal village, in which the church is si- 
tuated. It is nearly 5 miles square. The 
soil is fertile, and more'.than one half is in- 
closed. Population 2036. I 



OS RIM, a small island on the S. coast of 
the isles of Hay. 

OUDE, a small river in Argyleshire, 
which takes its rise from Loch Trailig, in 
the braes of Lome, and falls into Loch Mel- 
fort, in the parish of Kilninver. 

OVERSAY, a small island of the He- 
brides, about 2 miles S. from the isles of 
Colonsay. 

OXNA, a small inhabited island of Shet- 
land, in the parish of Tingwall, about 4 
miles W. from the town of Scalloway. 

OXNAM, a parish in Roxburghshire, of 
an irregular rectangular figure, 9 miles 
long by 4 broad. It is watered by nume- 
rous rivulets, particularly the Coquet, the 
Jed, the Kail, and the Oxnam. Pop. 688. 

OXNAM, a river in Roxburghshire, 
which rises in the parish cf Oxnam ; and, 
after a course of about 12 miles, falls into 
the T eviot. 

OYNE, a parish in Aberdeenshire, in the ■ 
district of Garioch, of an irregular square 
figure, the extreme points of which are 3 or 
4 miles distant in every direction. It is 
watered by the Don, the Ury, the Shevock, 
and the Gadie, all of which contain trout. 
The parish is in general fertile. Popula- 
tion 5 1 S. 



P A I 



P A 



JJ AB A Y, a small island of the Hebrides, 
-*- about 8 miles from Barray, I mile and 
a half long, and 1 broad. 

PABBA, a small island, 2 miles from the 
isle of Skye, about a mile long, and three- 
fourths of a mile broad. 

PABBAY, one of the isles which com- 
pose the district of Harris. It is nearly cir- 
cular, and about 2 miles and a half in dia- 
meter. 

PAISLEY, a manufacturing Town, in 
Renfrewshire, seated on the banks of the 
river White Cart about three miles above its 
junction with the river Clyde. It has ac- 
quired great celebrity, as being the seat of 
most extensive and flourishing manufac- 
tures. Paisley is 7 miles W. from Glasgow, 
16 miles and a half S. E. of Greenock, 3 S, 
of Renfrew, the county town, and 51 miles 
W. from Edinburgh. This very flourishing 
town, distinguished as one of the principal 



seats of Scotch Manufactures, has only of 
late years risen to importance. It is now 
(1829), the fourth in rank as to population, 
of the Towns in Scotland. The Burgh, or 
old town of Paisley, stands on the W. bank 
of the river Cart, and runs in a direction 
from F-. to W. upon the southern slope of a 
ridge of hills, affording a delightful pros- 
pect of the City of Glasgow, and the adja- 
cent country. The new town , consisting 
of many streets, occupies a level surface on 
the eastern side of the Cart ; it is laid out 
on a regular plan, and contains a great 
many handsome buildings. To the E. W. 
and N. of the town, are suburbs with dis- 
tinct names, as Will iamsburgh, Charleston, 
Maxwellton, &c. Besides the abbey church, 
Paisley contains four other churches belong- 
ing to the Establishment, Tiz. the High 
church, on the Oxshaw Head, a large and 
elegant fabric, with a spire 161 feet high. 



P A I 184 

The middle church, St George's church, a 
new and elegant building, and the Gaelic 
church. It contains also places of worship 
belonging to the following Dissenters, viz. 
an English chapel, 5 churches of the united 
Secession, 2 relief, 1 reformed presbytery, 3 
independent, 1 original burgher, 1 metho- 
dist, and J Roman catholic chapel. The 
Charity house is a large building opposite to 
the Quay, in an open situation, supported 
by a small assessment on the inhabitants. 
The Castle is an extensive public building, 
containing spacious and elegant rooms for 
county and burgh meetings, public offices, 
&c. acountyjail, a debtor's jail, a bridewell, 
and prison chapel. The coffee-room at the 
Cross, is an elegant building here also stands 
the steeple of the former town house. The 
public coffee-room is a most elegant apart- 
ment, amply provided with all the London 
and provincial newspapers, magazines, and 
other periodicals : this elegant room is libe- 
rally thrown open to strangers. The public 
buildings and institutions in Paisley are too 
numerous to be described. Besides the 
town's hospital, there is a house of recovery, 
a grammar School, which is a royal founda- 
tion, 4 established Schools, Hutchison's 
free school, and 4 charily schools, supported 
by legacies and subscriptions. There are 
public subscription libraries, one of them 
entirely theological, a philosophical Insti- 
tution, a mechanic'sinstitution, with an ex- 
tensive library, medical and surgical socie- 
ties, a number of sabbath schools, a roman 
catholic school, several bible societies, and 
other benevolent institutions. There are 
many friendly societies, and a merchant, 
and an episcopalian benevolent society. 
The abbey of Paisley, of which the abbey 
church and the aisle are almost the only re- 
mains, was founded in the year 1160, by 
Walter, great steward of Scotland, as a pri- 
ory for monks of the order of Clugni. It 
was afterwards raised to the rank of an Ab- 
bey, and the lands. belonging to it were, by 
Robert the Second, erected into a regality, 
under the jurisdiction of the Abbot. Af- 
ter the reformation, the Abbey was secular- 
ized, and in 1588, erected into a temporal 
lordship, in favour of Lord Claude Hamil- 
ton, third son of the Duke of Chatelherault, 
who was created Lord Paisley. The build- 
ings of the Abbey were greatly enlarged 
and beautified in 1481, by George Shaw, 
then Abbot, who surrounded the whole pre- 
cincts with a noble wall of hewn stone. This 
wall stood till 1781, when the garden be- 
ing feued by the late Earl of Abercorn for 
building upon, the wall was used by the 



P A I 

fuers in the construction of their houses. It 
had a stone with an inscription, which is pre- 
served in one of the houses in Lawn Street- 
The abbey church is one of the most 
interesting public structures of whish Pais- 
ley can boast, and serves as the parochial 
church of the abbey parish ; it contains ma- 
ny ancient monuments, and sepulchral in- 
scriptions. The choir is levelled to within 
a few feet of the ground, but the N. tran- 
sept is more entire, and exhibits in its large 
northern window, a venerable relic of an- 
cient ecclesiastical magnificence. This 
church was repaired about 37 years ago. At 
the S. E. corner of the church is an Aisle, 
probably the private oratory of the Monks, 
now the burying place of the family ofA- 
bercorn; it is 48 feet by 24, and in the opW 
nion of Mr Penant, " is by much the great- 
est curiosity in Paisley;" this he says in 
allusion to its remarkable echo, which was 
in his time one of the finest in the world. 
The revenues of this abbey were the rich- 
est in Scotland, comprehending a great deal 
of property in every part of the kingdom, 
besides the tythes of 2S different parishes. 
The Chronicon Clugniense, or the black 
book of Paisley, so often referred to in Scot- 
tish history, was a chronicle ofpublic affairs 
and remarkable events, kept by the monks 
of this abbey. The municipal government 
of the town is vested in 3 bailies, a treasur- 
er, to\vn-c!erk, and 17 councillors, annually 
elected. The bailies are, ex officio, justices 
of the peace. Paisley enjoys all the privi- 
leges of a royal burgh, except that of par- 
liamentary representation; the freedom is 
more easily procured than in royal burghs, 
which is one great cause of its astonishing 
increase aud rapid extension. It received 
its first charter of erection, from James IV. 
in the year 14SS, having at that period been 
erected into a burgh ofbarony. There is a 
well regulated police establishment for both 
old and new town, and many distinguished 
improvements have been introduced ; the 
lighting of the streets with gas was effect- 

■ ed in 1S24, and the town has now a better 
supply of water than formerly, by means of 
pipes. The river White Cart, on the banks 
of which Paisley is situated, runs from south 

I to north, and falls into the Clyde, after join- 
ing the rivers Gryfe and Black Cart at Inch- 
innan bridge, about 3 miles below thetown. 
From some obstructions in the river, which 
could not be removed, it was found neces- 
sary to construct a small canal to obviate 
these inconveniences. This work was com- 
pleted in 1791, at an expence of L.4000, 
and so great has been the advantages of 



PAL 

this canal, that vessels of from 40 to50tonB 
burthen can come up to the town, where 
there are two commodious quays. The Ar- 
drossan canal passes along; the south side of 
the town, and has a basin and wharfs; it 
crosses the White Cart, about a mile above 
Paisley, by a beautiful aqueduct bridge of 
one arch. Paisley has long been celebrated 
for its manufacture of all kinds of fancy 
goods, and at this period is the acknowledg- 
ed and unrivalled seat of this manufacture. 
In delicacy of texture,— -variety and ele- 
gance of pattern, the goods of Paisley have 
no competitor in the market, and are well 
known and appreciated all over Europe. 
Silk, Cotton, Wool, Src. and admixtures of 
these materials, are here made in endless 
■variety, and to a boundless extent. Soon 
after the union of the kingdoms, the trade 
of Paisley began to be considerable, in the 
manufacture of bengals, coarse checks and 
handkerchiefs, which found a ready mar- 
ket, and were much esteemed in England ; 
at this time the trade was chiefly managed 
by pedlars. About the year 1 7G0, these ar- 
ticles were succeeded by the manufacture 
of muslin, lawn, linen, gauze, and white 
thread. About the same time the silk ma- 
nufacture was introduced ; since the decline 
of this last article, about the year 1784, the 
cotton manufacture has been carried on to 
an extent unknown before. The cotton 
spinning mills are numerous, and weaving 
by hand and power looms, employs a great 
proportion of the population. The calico 
printing works, bleachrieMs, and dye works, 
are many, and upon a large scale ; there are 
two large distilleries, breweries, tan- works, 
soap, allum, and copperas works, &e. There 
is a greatquantity of printing andbookwork 
carried on in Paisley; there are two well 
conducted weekly newspapers, the Paisley 
Advertiser, and the RenfrewshiieChronicle, 
and lately, small periodicals have been 
printed and issued in shoals from the Pais- 
ley press. There are two banking compa- 
nies in the town, viz. the Paisley Banking 
Company, and Paisley Union Banking Com- 
pany, a branch of the Commercial Bank of 
Scotland. Theweekly market-day is Thurs- 
day, and annual fairs are held on the third 
Thursday in February and May, on the se- 
cond Thursday in August and November ; 
St James's Fair of Paisley is the greatest of 
these fairs, and each of them is held for 5 
days successively. Population of the town 
and the abbey parish, about 51,000. 

PALDIE, or PALDIEKIRK, a small vil- 



lage in the parish of Fordou 
diueshire. 



Kincar- 



185 PEE 

PANBRlDEVa parislTin Forfarshire, si- 
tuated at the mouth of the Frith of Tay, a- 
bout 5 miles and a half long, and 2 broad.' 
The appearance is flat, with a considerable 
declivity from the N. to the sea. It is wa- 
tered by a stream, which runs at the bottom 
of a valley called Battle's Den. There are 
several villages. Population 15S3. 

PANNANACH, a village in Aberdeen- 
shire, in the parish of Gleninuick, noted for 
its mineral waters. These waters are said 
to resemble the Seltzter water in Germany. 

PAPA-STOUR, a small island of Shet- 
land, about a mile W. of the Mainland, in 
the parish of Walls and Saddness. It is a- 
bout two miles long, and one broad. 

PAPA-STRONSAY, a smaii isiand of 
Orkney, about 3 miles in circumference. 

PAPA-WKSTRAY, an island of Orkney, 
of an oval form, about 4 miles long, and I 
broad. 

PAPS of JURA, 4 mountains in the is- 
land of Jura, which are conspicuous at a. 
great distance. Their names are, Beinn- 
achaolais, Beinn-anoir, and Corra-bheinn. 

PARTON, a parish in the stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, of a square form, compre- 
hending about 20 square miles. The ground 
is very unequal, and the surface is covered 
with heath and furze. The cultivated lands 
are on the banks of the Ken, which unites 
with the Dee about half a mile from the 
village. 

PARKHE"VD, a village near Glasgow. 
Population 700. 

PARKHOUSE, a -village near Glasgow. 
Population 500. 

PATHHEAD, a village in Fifeshire, in 
the parish of Dysart. It is situated on the 
face of a hill, and nearly extends to Kirk- 
caldy, and is divided into two districts, cal- 
led Bunnikier and Sinciairtown. 

PAXTON, a village on the banks of the 
Tweed, in Berwickshire. Pop. 270. 

PEATHS.orPESE, a bridge in the pa- 
rish of Cockburnspath in Berwickshire, on 
the road betwixt Berwick and Dunbar, built 
in the year 1786. It is 300 feet long, 15 
wide, and measures from the top of the rail- 
ing to the bottom of the burn 126 feet. 

PEEBLES-SHIRE, or TWEEDDALE, 
extends 36 miles in length, and in general 
10 in breadth, in one place extending to 16. 
It is bounded on the E. and S. E. by Berwick, 
and Selkirkshires ; on the S. by Dumfries- 
shire; on the W.by Lanarkshire; and on the 
N. by Mid-Lothian. It is a hilly country, 
well watered by the rivers Tweed, Yarrow, 
I.eithen, and a number of other streams, on 
the banks of which the soil is fertile, and 
A A 



PEE 1 

adapted [for any kind of husbandry. The 
county contains only one royal burgh, Pee- 
bles, and is divided into 16 parishes, contain- 
ing 9935 inhabitants. 

PEEBLES is an ancient royal burgh, and 
the county town of Peebles-shire, delight- 
fully situated on a fine plain on the north- 
em bank of the river Tweed, over which is 
an ancient stone bridge of five arches. A 
little to the west of this bridge, the Tweed 
is joined by the Eddlestoneor Peebles water, 
from the north, (over which there is also a 
bridge), which divides the old from the new 
town. Peebles lies 22 miles south of Edin- 
burgh. It consists of one principal street, 
and the Northgate. The public buildings 
are handsome structures, andelegant beyond 
what is often met with in small towns. The 
church erected in the year 1782, on the site 
of the old castle, stands on an eminence at 
the west end of the High street ; it is built 
of hewn stone, and has a lofty spire. The 
town hall contains commodious apartments 
for the sheriff court, county meetings, &c. 
The tontine is a very handsome building of 
modern date, and has a spacious assembly, 
room, fitted up with great taste. The jail, 
Mason's lodge, two meeting houses belong- 
ing to the Secession church, and the gram- 
mar schools, are likewise handsome build- 
ings. Of the ancient buildings of Peebles, 
there remains the ruins of the Church of St 
Mary, with its steeple entire, standing in 
the centre of the church-yard, and the ruins 
of Crosskirk, built by Alexander III. in 1257, 
dedicated to the Holy Cross, and St Nicho- 
las; the steeple of this church is also entire. 
The approach to Peebles from the north, is 
by the street called the Northgate. Eddie- 
stone water runs along the south side of 
the town on the east, and its junction 
■with the Tweed, forms an angular point of 
land, which is the termination of the new 
town to the west. Here stands the parish 
church, jail, and town mills. The old town 
is also situated on the northern bank of the 
Tweed, divided from the new town by Ed- 
•dlestone water. A few years ago, Sir John 
Hay bart. of Smithfield and Hayston, erect- 
ed an elegant wire bridge over the Tweed, 
in a most romantic glen, about a mile be- 
low the town, which facilitates the commu- 
nication with his estate, lying on both sides 
of the river, and is, at the same time, a much 
admired ornament to the grounds. There 
is no charter extant, by which the date of 
the erection of Peebles into a royal burgh 
can be ascertained, but the probability is, 
that it was early in the reign of Alexander 
II. the munificent patron of the town. So 



PEN 

late as the reign of the James's, there -was a 
mint here, where Scotch gold was coined 
to a considerable amount. The site of the 
mint is still distinguished by the name of 
the Cunzie Neuk, i. e. money comer. The 
government of the town is vested in a pro- 
vost, 2 bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, 
and 12 councillors, annually chosen on the 
first Monday after the 29th of September. 
It joins with Lanark, Linlithgow, and Sel- 
kirk, in returning a member to Parliament. 
Peebles is a presbytery seat; and Sheriff 
courts are held every Tuesday. The free- 
holders of the county meet annually oh the 
30th April, and on the 30th of Septernber, 
for the dispatch of public business; and the 
lieutenancy meet hereannually in the month 
of September, for filling up, and correcting 
the militia lists of the county. The town of 
Peebles has been long and deservedly cele- 
brated for the excellence of its schools, and 
still maintains its reputation. The manu- 
factures of Peebles consist chiefly of stock- 
ings, and a number of weavers are employ- 
ed by the Glasgow manufacturers. There 
is an extensive brewery in the vicinity of the 
town, long famous for the excellence of its 
ale. There is a well managed library, seven 
benefit or friendly societies ; and a thriving 
bank for savings, under the management of 
the magistrates. The royal company of ar- 
chers, or King's body guard of Scotland, 
meet here annually, to contend for the prize 
of an ancient silver arrow, given to the best 
marksman by this burgh. The weekly mar- 
ket is held on Tuesday, and annual fairs 
are held on the second Tuesday in March, 
the second Wednesday in May, the first 
Tuesday in July, the Tuesday before the 
24th day of August, the first Tuesday in 
September, the 17tb day of October, and the 
first Tuesday before the Pith day of Novem-" 
ber. Population in 1821,2705. 

PEFFSR, a rivulet, which rises in the pa. 
rish of Athtlstaneford, Haddingtonshire, and 
falls into the Frith of Forth, near Aberlady. 
PEFFER, a river in Ross-shire, in the pa- 
rish of Fodderty, which falls into the Frith 
of Cromarty. 

PENCAITLAND, a parish in Hadding- 
tonshire, 4 miles long, and 4 broad. The 
soil is in general wet and clayey. It is wa- 
tered by the Tyne, -which divides it into two 
equal parts. There are four villages, con- 
taining about 180 inhabitants each. P. 925. 
PENNELLHEUGH, a hill in the parish 
ofCraiiing, Roxburghshire. A monument 
has lately been erected on it, in memory of 
the battle of Waterloo by the Marqius of 
Lothian. 



P E 



is; 



PER 



PENNINGHAM, a parish in Wirtonshire, 
at the N. Eastern extremity. It is abcut 16 

iles long, and from 5 to C miles and a half 
road. The greater part of the parish is moory 
a nd uncultivated. Upon the Cree, which 
bounds the parish on the E. stands the thriv- 
ing village of Newton-Douglas. There is a 
beautiful bridge over the Cree at the N. end 
of the town, which connects the shires of 
Wigton and Kirkcudbright. Population 
2567. 

PENNYCUICK, a parish in Mid-Lothian, 
about 9 miles S. VV.of Edinburgh, on the 
borders of Peebles-shire. It is from 1 1 to 1 2 
miles long, and 6 broad, watered by the river 
Esk, which, rising in its western extremity, 
runs through its whole extent. Towards 
the N. border, the parish includes a consi- 
derable part of the Pentland hills. The vil- 
lage of Pennycuick is situated on the Esk. 
In the vicinity there is a cotton mill and 2 
paper mills. Population 1705. 

PENPONT, a parish in Dumfries-shire, 
21 miles long, and on an average 5 broad. 
The surface rises with a gentle ascent from 
the S. E. towards the N. W. where its ele- 
vation is 3500 feet above the level of the sea. 
The whole district is mountainous, and di- 
rided by 4 steep ridges, forming three nar- 
row glens, in each of which run 3 large 
streams : of which the Scarr and the Shin- 
nelarethe most remarkable. The village 
of Penpont contains about 110 inhabitants. 

PENTLAND FRITH, the strait which 
separates the main-land of Scotland from 
the Orkney Isles. It is only 12 miles over, 
but in it the sea runs with such force by the 
meeting of so many tides, that no wind is 
able to support a vessel against the current. 
In the Frith are several whirlpools, called 
the Wells of Swinna, near the island of Swin- 
na. The navigation is rendered more ha- 
zardous by the island of Stroma and the 
Pentland Skerries, which lie near its middle. 
Near the N. side of the former island there 
is a dangerous whirlpool, called the Swalchie 
of Stroma. At the S. side of the same isle 
is another dangerous place, in which the 
waves are dreadfully agitated, called the 
Merry Men of May. To render the naviga- 
tion more safe, a lighthouse is erected on 
the Pentland Skerries, which lie nearly in 
the middle of the E. end of the Frith. 

PENTLAND HILLS, a ridge of hills, 
■which begin about 4 miles W. of Edinburgh, 
and extend a considerable way towards the 
western borders of Mid-Lothian. In the 
valleys between them run several romantic 
streams, particularly the North Esk, Glen- 
eross, and Logan waters. 



PENTLAND SKERRIES, several small 
islands at the E. end'of the Pentland Frith^ 
on the largest of which is a lighthouse. 

PERTHSHIRE, one of the largest coun- 
ties of Scotland, extending 77 miles in a 
straight line, from Blairgowrie on the E. to 
the top of Benloi on tbe W. and 68 miles be- 
twixt the Frith of Forth at Culross, on the 
S. and the boundary of the Forest of Athole 
on the N. at the source of the Tilt. It is 
bounded on the E. by the eountj of Forfar ; 
on the S. E. by the Frith. ofTay, and the 
counties of Kinross and Fife ; on the S. by 
the Forth, and the counties of Clackmannan 
and Stirling; on the S. W. by Dunbarton- 
shire; on the W. by the county of Argyle; on 
the N. W. by the county of Inverness ; and 
on the N. by a part of the same county, and 
that of Aberdeen. It comprehends the dis- 
tricts of Athole, Breadalbane, Monteith, 
Stratheme, Stormont, Balquidder, Gowrie, 
Rannach, and Perth Proper; all which di- 
visions, previous to the jurisdiction act of 
1 748, were stewartries, andunderthe here- 
ditaryjurisdiction of the great proprietors. 
Like all Highland Countries, Perthshire a- 
bounds with lakes and rivers, which occupy 
extensive valleys, lying between lofty moun- 
tains. The 2 greatest rivers are the Tay and 
Forth, which collect many streams in their 
course to the German Ocean. Some of the 
highest mountains in Scotland rear their 
cloud-capt summits in this county. There 
are only two royal burghs in this large coun- 
ty, Perth and Culross. There are many con - 
siderable towns which formerly enjoyed 
these privileges, besides several burghs of 
barony, and about 60 other considerable vil- 
lages. Coal is found in the southern parts 
of it, and limestone is wrought in many parts 
of the Highland district. The mountains 
on the N. and W. are chiefly granite. Free- 
stone of the best quality is abundant. A 
copper mine has been wrought in the parish 
of Logie, on the banks of the Forth ; and a 
lead mine was carried on some years near 
Tyne-drum in Breadalbane, and another in 
Glenlyon. Perthshire is divided into 76 
parochial districts, which contain about 
156,000 inhabitants. 

PERTH, or St Johnston's.'is a large and 
very ancient Royal Burgh, the capital of 
Perthshire, and the ancient capital of Scot- 
land. It is situated on the W. bank of the 
Tay, at the opening of an extensive plain, 
surrounded in the vicinity by the most pic- 
turesque hills, to the S. and W. and having 
in the distance to the N. a view of the sub- 
1 ime amphitheatre of the Grampians. It is 
43 miles and a quarter N. of Edinburgh, by ' 



^tteenrferry, 21 miles and 5 quarters W. by 
S. of Dundee, 61 miles N. by E. of Glasgow, 
and 15 S. of Dunkeld. Perth is more regu- 
larly built than any old town in Scotland ; it 
has 4 principal Streets, running E. and W. 
these are crossed by others at right angles, 
but the pricipal Streets from N. to S. leads to 
the Bridge. The extensive grounds ancient- 
ly belonging to the monastery of Black Friars 
has been laid out within the last SO years, 
on a regular plan, for a new town, and is 
rapidly rilling up with handsome houses. 
Rose Terrace is a beautiful range of build- 
ings, in the centre of which is the academy, 
with the river and north Inch in front. To 
the S. of the old town, new Streets are also 
laid out. The City of Perth is regularly and 
substantially built, the principal streets are 
broad, well paved, cleaned, and lighted with 
Gas. The public buildings are al 1 handsome, 
and many of them possess a high degree of 
architectural ornament. Most of the very 
. old parts of the burgh have recently been re- 
built, and the Streets improved and embel- 
. lished by the erection of handsome modern 

• houses. In fact, the city of Perth is the 
neatest, and most regular built town in Scot- 
land, if we except the new town of Edin- 

• burgh ; the town occupies a space of about 
1 mile and a half in circumference- The 
church of St John the Baptist, situated be- 
tween the High Street and the South Street, 
Is a very ancient structure, originally built 

. in the form of a cross ; it has been almost en- 
tirely rebuilt at different periods. It has a 
high tower and a clock; in the tower, there 
is a set ofmusical bells, covered by a portico, 
and an antique spire surmounts the whole. 
This church is fitted up for 3 places of wnr- 

, ship, called the E. W. and middle churches. 
It was in this Church that John Knox 
preached his first Sermon against Idolatry, 
before some of the nobles, on Thursday the 
11th May 1559; and by the indiscretion of a 
Priest, a mob was raised which destroyed all 
the Monasteries and religious houses in the 
town and neighbourhood. A weekly Ser- 
mon has been regularly preached upon 
Thursday ever since that time. At the W. 
end of the High Street, stands a very elegant 
Chapel of Ease, called St Paul's Church ; 
these 4 churches, with the Gaelic Chapel, be- 
longing to the Independents, 2 in connexion 
with the United Secession, 2 Relief, I Asso- 
ciate Synod, 1 Original Burgher, 1 Metho- 
dist. The English Chapel in Princes Street, 
is a small, but neat building. The academy 
in Rose Terrace, is a large and elegant 
building, adorned with massy pillars in 
front ; here are taught mathematics, natu- 



ral philosophy, chemistry, arithmetic, geo- 
graphy, logic, and the principals of univer- 
saljjrammar; these are taught by the Rec- 
tor and his assistant, french, Spanish, italian, 
and german languages : writing and book- 
keeping, and drawing and painting. The 
High School has long been a renowned Se- 
minary of classical education. There are 3 
English schools, themasters of which liavesa 
laries, arid are appointed by the Magistrates. 
The new county-rooms, and Jail, are among 
the most prominent of the public building* 
of Perth; the architecture is grecian, and 
the front to the river is considered one of the 
most handsome in Scotland; the whole is 
built of beautiful free stone. It contains the 
Justiciary Hall, the Sheriffs Court, and 
Clerk's Rooms, and an arched fire-proof 
room, for security of the Town's records, 
&c. and an elegant Assembly or Ball-room. 
Immediately to the westward, and in the 
rear of this edifice, is the new prison honse ; 
it contains two Jails; the southern division 
is fitted up as a debtor's jail, with suitable 
conveniences ; the northern division is ap- 
propriated for a felon's jail, embracing all 
the late improvements in prison discipline. 
The Coaler's house is at the entrance gate, 
from which a subterraneous passage con- 
ducts the prisoner to the bar of the court 
room. The exchange coffee room is situat- 
ed in George Street ; it is a very spacious 
room, andelegantly fitted up. It is liberal- 
ly supplied with the London, Edinburgh, 
and provincial newspapers, magazines, re- 
views, and periodicals. The Free-mason's 
Hall, built in 1818, on the site of the old 
parliament house in the High Street, is a 
handsome building. An elegant little thea- 
tre has been lately erected in Athole Street, 
it ia neatly and appropriately fitted up with 
great taste. At the top of George Street, 
near the Bridge, a most elegant monument 
has been recently erected to the memory 
of the tate worthy provost Marshall of Perth. 
The interior contains the public Library 
rooms, and the Museum of the Literary and 
Antiquarian Society; this building was e. 
rected by private subscription. The Royal 
Lunatic Asytum is a large oblong building, 
now open for the reception of patients. It 
is situated in a park of 12 acres, on the a- 
clivity of Kinnoul hill, with a delightful 
vie w of the Grampians, the Tay, and the 
surrounding country. The funds for its e- 
rection, was bequeathed by a Mr Murray, a 
native of Perth, and will contain one hun- 
dred patients. The town's hospital, or 
poor house, situated near to the west end 
of South Street, was founded and endowed 



by King James the sixth, by charter under 
the ereat seal, dated 29th July 1 587, out 
of the lands, houses, and duties, belonging 
to the popish religious establishments; it 
stands upon the site of the ancient Carthu- 
sian monastery. There are three charita- 
ble establishments, called the Lethendy 
mortifications; the first in 1660, provides 
for the maintenance of four persons of sixty 
years of age, belonging to the burgh of 
Perth; the second in 1686, to support one 
poor person of the name of Jackson, failing 
a poor relation of the Lethendy family ; and 
the third is a burthen on the same lands for 
special purposes. Perth contains several o- 
ther valuable and well supported charitable 
institutions, viz. the Perth dispensary, a so- 
ciety for the education of the deaf and 
dumb, a destitute sick society, a female so- 
ciety fir the relief of indigent old women. 
--Perth bible society, was begun in 1812. 
There is also several male and female 
schools for educating the children of the 
poor, all conducted on liberal and enlight- 
ened principles. Perth is among the first 
provincial towns in Scotland, for literature 
and the fine arts. There are many valua- 
ble institutions for these purposes, of the 
most respectable description. The " liter- 
ary and antiquarian society of Perth," was 
founded in 1784. The society possess a 
large collection of valuable coins, medals, 
and manuscripts, besides a variety of na- 
tural curiosities. The bridge of Perth forms 
the communication with the burgh of Kin- 
noul, commonly called Bridge-end, from its 
local situation. The palace of Scoon, which 
lies on the banks of the Tay, above Perth, 
■was the ancient residence of the Scottish 
kings, the place of their coronation, and 
the scene of many splendid actions. Here 
■was the famous stone seat, used as the co- 
ronation chair of the pictish monarchs, pri- 
or to the reign of Kenneth II., who brought 
it to Scoon, where it remained as the co- 
ronation chair of the succeeding Scottish 
kings, till 1296, when Edward I. carried it 
to England. The bridge was begun in 1766, 
and finished in 1772, it consists of ten ar- 
ches, one of which is a land arch ; the whole 
length is upwards of 900 feet, its breadth is 
22 feet ; it is founded upon piles of wood, 
ten feet below the bed of the river. At the 
■west end of Athole Street, are the barracks, 
built in 1795, fitted up originally for 200 
cavalry, but now converted into infantry 
barracks, capable of containing a regiment 
of 1000 men. The town is governed by a 
provost, who is also sheriff" and coroner, a 
dean of guild, three merchant,' and one 



• P E K 

trades bailie, treasurer, eight merchant 
councillors, four trade's councillors, the 
eight deacons of the incorporated trades, 
town clerk and chamberlain. The town 
court sits every Tuesday and Saturday, and 
the town council meet on the first Monday 
of every month. Perth joins with Forfar, 
Dundee, Cupar, and St Andrew's, in re- 
turning a member to parliament. Perth 
is the second in rank to the metropolis, and 
the seat of a Synod and Presbytery. It was 
erected into a royal burgh, by William the 
Lion ; the charteris dated at Stirling, 10th 
October 1250; at that period it was reckon- 
ed the capital city of the Scottish kingdom, 
and it is called the City of Perth, in several 
public documents in the reign of James the 
Sixth. Prior to the reign of the Stuart fa- 
mily, Perth was the usual residence of the 
Scottish monarchs. Fourteen parliaments 
were held here between the years 1 '^10, and 
1459. King James I. was murdered here, 
in the monastery of the Black Friars, on the 
21st February 1157, by Robert Graham, 
who gave him 28 wounds, and his Queen 
two, in defending him. In 1 545, five men, 
and a woman, were burnt here for heresy. 
The tide from the German Ocean, flows up 
the Tay, two miles above the town. At 
spring tides, vessels of 100 tons burden can 
come up to the quay. The shipping inter- 
est is very considerable, and upon the in- 
crease; ship-building, rope making, &c. is 
carried on. There are several shipping 
companies, whose vessels are engaged in the 
coasting trade with Glasgow, Dundee, Leith 
and Newcastle, eight of these vessels are in 
the London trade. Perth is a port of the 
Custom house. Great improvements are 
projected upon the river, by forming a ba- 
sin and canal to convey goods to the town ; 
when the state of the river, from swells or 
low tides, prevents the regular approach, — 
as also by deepening the river, and remov- 
ing obstructions. These improvements are 
much wanted. The salmon fishings on the 
Tay, in the vicinity of Perth, are extensive, 
producing an annual rent of L.7000; the 
salmon are sent to London, either packed 
in ice, or pickled, the latter method is most 
common. Linen was formerly the staple 
manufacture of Perth, but has of late years 
given place to that sf cotton ; nearly 5000 
looms are employed on ginghams, shawly, 
muslins, and other cotton fabrics, exclusive 
of those looms employed in the neighbour- 
hood, whose produce are sold in the Perth 
market. There are several large manufac- 
tures of leather, boots, shoes, and gloves; 
for which articles Perth has long beenenul 



PET 190 

nent. A newspaper called the Perth Cou- 
rier, was begun here in 1810, and continues 
to maintain its reputation. There are two 
banking companies in Perth, ---the Perth 
bank, and the Perth Union bank, besides 
branches of the bank of Scotland, and the 
British Linen Company. The weekly mar- 
ket-day is Friday, and a cattle market is 
held on the South Inch, same day, from the 
third Friday in December, to the middle of 
June. A horse market is held also on the 
South Inch, on the first Friday of May an- 
nually. Fairs are held on the first Friday 
in March, the first Friday in April, first 
Friday in July, first Friday in September, 
the third Friday in October, and the second 
Friday in December. Population by the 
census of 1821, was 19,068. 

PETER CULTER, a parish in Aberdeen- 
shire, about 8 miles long, and 6 broad. The 
surface is rugged and uneven, with hills and 
valleys, rocky eminences, and marshy flats 
interspersed. On the banks of ihe Dee, and 
the rivers which join their waters to it, the 
soil is tolerably good. Population 871. 

PETERHEAD, a considerable sea-port 
town and parish in Aberdeenshire, in the 
district of Euchan. The town is situated 
on a peninsula, about 1 mile S. of the mouth 
of the river Ugie, and is the most easterly 
point of land in Scotland. The peninsula I 
on which the town is built is connected with 
the country on the N, W. by an isthmus 
only 800 yards broad. The town is built j 
nearly in the form of a cross, and is divided 
into four districts, which are connected with 
each other by continued streets; these dis- 1 
tricts are called the Kirktown, Ronheads, j 
Keith Inch, and the town properly called 
Peterhead. The houses are commodious 
and elegant. Near the head of the princi- 
pal street is an elegant town-house. The 
Keith Inch divides the harbour into a N. 
and S. haven. Upon the Keith Inch there 
are many elegant houses ; and on the S. side 
an old castle, built in the beginning of the 
16th century, by George Earl Marischal. 
Near it is a small fort, with 8 guns. Peter- 
head is a burgh of barony, holding of the 
Governors of the Merchant Maiden Hospi- 
tal of Edinburgh as superiors. The govern- 
ment is vested in a bailie and eight coun- 
cillors, Peterhead is much frequented in 
Rummer for its opportunities of sea-bathing, 
and the mineral wells, which havelong been 
justly famed. The strongest is called the 
Wine Well, from the water sparklingin the 
glass like Champagne. The parish of Peter- 
head extends around the town to the S. of 
the Ugie, comprehending about 7000 acres. 



of which 5000 are arable, and 2000 moor of 
moss. The sea-cost extends about 4 miles, 
and comprehends the two bays of Peter- 
head and Ivernettie, and three promontor- 
ies of Sattie's-head, Boddom-head, and Keith 
Inch. Besides the fishers who reside in the 
town of Peterhead, there is a considerable 
fishing village at Boddom. There are two 
old castles, viz. Old Craig, or Raven's Craig, 
and Boddom Castle, situated on apeninsn- 
lated rock, perpendicular tq the sea, which 
washes its base. Population of the town 
and parish 449]. 

PETTINAIN, a parish in Lanarkshire, a 
miles long by 2 broad, lying on the banks of 
the Clyde. About 1700 acres are arable, and 
the remainder is hill and pasture. The vil- 
lage of Pettinam, which contains about 100 
inhabitants, lies on the Clyde. P. 430. 

PETTY, a parish in Inverness-shire, ly- 
ing on the S side of Moray Frith, about S 
miles long, and 4 broad. The greater part 
is flat and level, but rises by a gentle slope 
towards the S. The arable soil, which is 
nearly two thirds of the parish, is in general 
light and sandy. Population 15S5. 

PHILLAN'S, (ST.) VideForgan. 

PITCAIRN-GREEN, a village in the pa- 
rish of Redgorton in Perthshire. 

PTTCAIRN(NEW), a village in Perth- 
shire, in the parish of Dunning. 

PITCAITHLY, or PITKEATHLY, a 
village in the parish of Dumbarny, in Perth- 
shire, noted for its mineral waters. It is si- 
tuated in a sequestered corner of the vale of 
Stratherne, surrounded with rich and fertile 
fields. The accommodations for the inva- 
lids are good. There are 5 mineral springs, 
all of the same quality, but of different de- 
grees of strength. 

PITLOCHRY, a village in Perthshire, jn 
the parish of Moulin, situated on the great 
military road from Perth to Inverness, about 
6 miles from the famous pass of Killierankje. 

PITSLIGO, a parish in Aberdeenshire, a- 
bout 3 miles and a half long, and 3 broad, 
lying along the coast of the Moray Frith. 
The face of the country is level ; the soil 
partly clay, and partly a light loam, both ex- 
tremely fertile. There are two fishing vil- 
lages, Pittaly and Rosehearty. Pistligo, 
Castle is an ancient building. P. 1256. 

PITTALY, a fishing village on the coast 
of the Moray Frith, in the parish of Pitsligo 
containing about 120 inhabitants. 

PITTENWEEM, a royal borough and sea 
port in Fifeshire, situated on the coast of the 
Frith of Forth. It was constituted a royal 
borough in 1547, by a charter from King 
James V. The parish i,s about a mile and 



FOR 1 

a quarter long, and half a imle broad. The 
surface is flat, and the soil a fertile black 
loam. Population 1072. 

PLADDA, a small island on the E. side of 
the island of Arran, upon which alight house 
has been lately erected. 

POLGAVIE, a village in the parish of 
Iliehture, in the Carst of Gowrie. 

POLLOCKSHAVVS, a populous village in 
Renfrewshire, about 3 miles and a half 
from Glasgow. 

POLMONT, a parish in Stirlingshire, a- 
boat 5 miles long, and 2 broad, bounded on 
the N. by the Forth, by the Avon „n the E. 
and intersected by the gTeat canal. A con- 
siderable extent of the parish is a rich carse 
ground, rising towards the 6. into dry field. 
The VILLAGE of POLMONT contains a- 
bout 250 inhabitants, and gives the title of 
Baron to the Duke of Hamilton. P. 2194. 

POLWARTH, a parish in Berwickshire, 
of atriangularform, each side ofwhichisa- 
bout 5 miles in length. The VILLAGE of 
Polwarth contains about 200 inhabitants. 
Population 291. 

POMONA, or MAINLAND, the largest 
of the Orkney islands, being 30 miles long, 
and from S to 10 broad, but intersected by 
numerous arms of the sea. The soil is in 
general fertile, but unsheltered by either 
plantations or enclosures. It has one royal 
burgh, viz. Kirkwall, the head town of 
the stewartry, and the large village of Strom- 
ness, at both of which places are safe har- 
bours. 

PONICLES, a small river in Lanarkshire, 
which falls into the Douglas, a few miles 
above its junction with the Clyde. 

PORT, or PORT of MONTEITH, a pa- 
rish in the district from which it takes name. 
In the northern parts, the surface is rocky, 
mountainous, and covered with heath; but 
the southern parts are more level, and to- 
wards the banks of the Forth, exceedingly 
fertile. Population 1569. 

PORT-ALLAN, a small village and har- 
bour in Wigtonshire, in the parish of Sorbie. 

PORTEAS V, a fishing village in the pa- 
rish of Ruthven, Banffshire. 
PORT-DUNDAS, a village in Lanarkshire, 
3 miles from Glasgow. 

PORT-KESSOCK, a small port on the 
coast of Wigtonshire, in the parish of Kirk- 
maiden. 

PORT LEITHEN, a small fishing village 
in Kincardineshire, near the promontory of 
Girdleness. 

PORT-MAHALMACK, a small harbour 
'in Ross-shire, in the parish of Tatbat. 

PORTMOAK.a parish -in Kinross-shire, | 



P O R 

of an irregular figure, 7 miles, long, and in 
some places 5 broad. The surface is vari- 
ous. There are two villages, viz. Portmoak 
and Kinnesswood; the former containing 
300, and the latter 170inhabitants. P. 1151. 

PORT-NA-HAVEN, a fishing village in 
the island of Hay, in theparishof Kilchomau. 

PORTNOCKIE, a fishing village in Banff- 
shire, in the parish of Rathven. 

PORTOBELLO, a considerable village, in 
the parish of Duddingston, three miles E. of 
Edinburgh, on the coast of the Frith of 
Forth. This village is situated in a beauti- 
ful surrounding country, sheltered from the 
west by Arthur's Seat and Salisbury Crags, 
which have a gradual slope to the sea. The 
agreeable softness of the sandy beach, the 
purity of the air, the convenient distance 
from Edinburgh, the advantage of a post 
three times a day, and the facility of com- 
munication by means of the numerous 
coaches constantly passing and re-passing, 
have rendered it one of the most desirable 
places of resort for summer fashionables, as 
well as for the valetudinarian. It has ac- 
cordingly been much frequented for sea-ba- 
thing; and, of late years, the demand for 
lodgings, which are well suited for the ac- 
commodation of bathers of all ranks, has 
been on the increase. The building for hot 
and cold baths is very commodious, and well 
adapted for the purpose to which it is ap- 
propriated. A neat chapel belonging to the 
Established church, was erected in 1810; 
and recently, there have been added, two 
Episcopal chapels, and a chapel in connexion 
with the United Associate Synod, all hand- 
some edifices. Excluaively of the brick and 
tyle works, there are manufactories for ear- 
then-ware, various preparations of lead, 
blacking, varnishes, mustard, &c. The sta- 
tionary population, which, in 1821, was 
1912, has since increased, and with the ad- 
dition of summer residents, may be reckon- 
ed upwards of 3000. 

PORT-PATRICK, a town and parish in 
Wigtonshire, situated on the coast of the 
Irish sea. Jt is the nearest point of Great 
Britain to Ireland, the distance being only 
21 miles. The passage from it to that king- 
dom being the best, is much resorted to. 
The parish is about 4 and a half miles square. 
The surface is uneven and hilly, the highest 
eminence, Cairnpat, being elevated 800 feet 
above the level of the sea. The town of 
Port-Patrick is delightfully situated, with a 
fine southern exposure, and surrounded on 
the other side by a ridge of small hills in the 
form of an amphitheatre. The castle of 
Dunskey stands on the brink of a trcrrten- 



PRE 192 

dons precipice on the coast of the Irish Sea. 
Population 1090. 

PORTREE, a parish in Invemess.shire, 
in the island of Sky, including the islands 
of Raasay and Ronay, 9 miles in length, 
and 3 in breadth. The surface is agreeably 
diversified with hills, valleys, and plains. 
The coast on the sound which separates 
Sky from the mainland is very rugged, ris- 
ing towards the N. to a stupendous height. 
The principal hill is called Fingal's sitting 
place, which rises in a conical shape to a 
great elevation. The town of Portree is 
admirably adapted for trade, and prosecut- 
ing the fisheries. Its harbour is excellent 
and well sheltered. Population '2216. 

PORTSE TON, a sea-port village in Had- 
dingtonshire, on the Frith of Forth, lying 
between Prestonpans and Musselburgh. 

PORT-SKERRY, a village and harbour 
on the N. coast of Sutherlandshire, in the 
parish of Reay. 

PORTSOY, a considerable sea-port town 
in Banffshire, in the parish of Fordyce, about 
7 miles from Banff. It is situated on a point 
of land projecting into the Moray Frith, 
-which forms a safe harbour for vessels of con- 
siderable size. It contains about 1000 in- 
habitants. 

PO RT- WI LLI AM, a small village in Wig- 
tonshire, in the parish of Mochrum. 

PORT YARROCK, a harbourin Wigton- 
shire, in the parish of Whithorn. 

POTTECHLOCH, an arm of the sea, on 
the W. coast of the isle of Sky. 

PREMNAY, apariihin Aberdeenshire, 
in the district of Garioch. Pop. 486. 

PRESS, a village in Berwickshire, and a 
sta"e on the road from Edinburgh to Eng- 
land, 14 miles S. of Dunbar, and 12 N.from 
Berwick. 

PRESTICK, or PRIESTWICK, a burgh 
of barony in the county of Ayr, in the united 
parish of Monktown and Prestick. The 
charter erecting it into a burgh of barony 
was renewed and confirmed by James VI. 
in 1600. 

PRESTON. Vide Bonkle and Preston. 

PRESTON, a village in the parish of Kirk- 



bean, in Kirkcudbrightshire, and was for- 
merly a burgh of regality. 

PRESTON, a village in the parish of Pres- 
tonpans, in Haddingtonshire. 

PRESTONK1RK, a parish in the county 
of Haddington, about 7 miles in length, and 
from 2 to 4 in breadth, watered by the river 
Tyne. The surface is agreeably varied, and 
the soil is fertile and well cultivated. 

PRESTONPANS, a town and parish in 
Haddingtonshire, on the coast of the Frith 
of Forth, about 5 miles long, and 1 broad. 
The town of Prestonpans, named Salt Pres- 
ton in the beginning of the last century, is 
a burgh of barony, and a port of the custom- 
house. It received its charter of erection 
in 1617, in favour of Sir John Hamilton, by 
which the village of Preston, about a mile 
distant, is included in its privileges. It is 
noted for its extensive manufactures, parti- 
cularly salt, stone and earthen ware. The 
revenue arising from the manufacture of 
salt in Prestonpans, Cockenzie, and Cuthel, 
amounts to about L. 18,000 annually. The 
oysters of Prestonpans have long been held 
in great estimation, particularly those dredg- 
ed near the salt pans, and from thence call- 
ed Pandore oysters. The town consists of 
a street about a mile and a half in length, 
but the houses in general have an antiquat- 
ed appearance. The harbourof Prestonpans, 
called Morrison's haven, is situated a little 
to the W. of the town. Near the ancient 
village of Preston, a battle was fought in 
September 1745, with great success on tha 
part of the rebel army. Population 1995. 

PRIMROSE, orCARRINCiTON, aparish 
in Edinburgh shire, about 3 miles and a half 
long, and 2 broad. It is bounded on the S. 
and S.E. by the South Eskriver.from which 
the surface rises with a smooth ascent to 
the Pentland hills, which bound it on the 
N. The village of Primrose is pleasantly si- 
tuated, and contains about 150 inhabitants. 
PROSEN, or PROSSIN, a riter in An- 
gus-shire, which takes its rise in the N. W. 
extremity of the parish of Kirriemuir, and 
joins the Carity about half a mile from tha 
castle of Invercarity. 



Q 



QU AI R , a stream in the county of Peebles, 
v. men rises and hasits whole course in 
the parish of Tiaquair. 



QUARFF, aparish in Shetland, on the 
Mainland, united to the islands .of Bresiay, 
' Buna, Havera, House, and Noss. 



QUE 193 

QUARRELTOWN.a village in theneigh- 
bourhood of Paisley, in Renfrewshire. 

QUARRY-HEAD, a promontory on the 
N. E. coast of Aberdeenshire. 

QOEENISH, a" small village in the island 
of Mull, on the estate of Mr Maclean. 

QUEENSBERRY HILL, a hill in the pa- 
rish of Closeburn, Dumfriesshire, elevated 
2000 feet above the level of the sea. It gives 
the title of Duke to the family of Douglas. 
QUEENSFERRY, sometimes called South 
Queensferry, a royal burgh in Linlithgow- 
shire, on the coast of the Frith of Forth, a- 
tout 9 miles W. of Edinburgh. It received 
its name from Margaret, queen of Malcolm 
Canmore, who frequented the passage of the 
Frith, at this place, and was the great pa- 
troness of the town. The Town consists of 
one irregular street, with small houses, chief- 
ly inhabited by seafaring people. It derives 
its consequence from the ferry over the Frith 
of Forth. The breadth of this passage is a- 
bout 2 miles. Queensferry is a royal burgh, 
and unites with Stirling, Dunfermline, In- 
verkeithing, and Culross, in sending a mem- 
ber to parliament. Population 558. 



Q U O 

QUEENSIDELOCH, asmalilakein the 
parish of Lochwinnoch, in Renfrewshire. 

QUEICH LOCH, a small lake in Inver- 
ness shire, which discharges itself by ariver 
of the same name into Loch Garry. 

QUEICH, or QUEEGH (North and South), 
two small rivulets in Kinross-shire, which 
discharge themselves into Loch Leven. 

QUENDAL VOE, a safe harbour near the 
southern extremity of the mainland of Shet- 
land. 

QUINZIE, a small rivulet in Stirlingshire, 
which joins the Kelvin in the parish of Kil- 
syth. 

QUIVOX (ST.) a parish in Ayrshire. la 
this parish is the village of Wallace town, 
containing about 1000 inhabitants. There 
are 2 elegant mansions, Auchincruive and 
Craigie. Population 2070. 

QUOTHQUCN, a parish in Lanarkshire. 
Vide Libberton. 

QUOTHQUON LAW, a hill in the pari»h 
of Libberton, in Lanarkshire. On it is a 
large rough stone, hollowed in the middle, 
called Wallace's chair. 



R 



RAN 



TJA, or BEINN REAY, a mountain in 
f* Sutherland, in the parish of Reay, 
elevated about a mile above the level of the 
sea.. 

RAASAY, a considerable island of the 
Hebrides, lying between the mainland of 
Scotland and the Isle of Sky, about 12 miles 
long, and from 2 miles and a half to 5 broad. 
The coast on the W. rises with a gentle as- 
cent t» a great height, but, on the E. side, it 
is high, and nearly perpendicular. The is- 
land is hilly, and better adapted for pasture 
than tillage ; but there are several spots fer- 
tile and well cultivated. At the N. end, on 
the E. coast, stands Castle Broichin, a well 
known land-mark to sailors. The rock on 
■which it stands is nearly round, covering an 
area of little more than 70 feet square. It 
is 40 feet high, except at the place where 
the stair leads up to it. The base of the 
Tock is about 60 feet above the level of the 
sea. This island is annexed to the parish of 
Portree, and the county of Inverness. 
RAFFOKD, a parish in Elginshire; S 



miles long, and from 3 to 5 broad, lying on 
the E. bank of the river Findhorn. The 
chief mansions in the parish, are Blervie, 
Altyre, and Burgee. The only piece of an- 
tiquity worthy of remark, is the standing 
pillar near Forres, commonly called Swen- 
iio's stone. It is allowed to surpass in ele- 
gance and grandeur all the other obelisks in 
Scotland. It is 3 feet 10 inches broad, and 
1 foot 3 inches thick; the height above 
ground is 23 feet ; below, as it is said, 12 oc 
15. Population 1030. 

RAIT, a village in Perthshire, in the pa- 
rish of Kil spindie, in the old road from Perth 
to Dundee. 

RAMS A, a small island of Argyleshire, in 
Loch Linnhe, near Lismore. 

RANNOCH, a mountainous district in 
Perthshire, lying betwixt A thole and Breads 
albane, noted for its extensive fir woods. 

RANNOCH (LOCH,) a lake in the < is- 
trict of Rannoch, about 12 miles in length, 
and from 1 to 2 broad. It receives the wa- 
ters of the Gair at its western extremity, 



1>J4 



and discharges itself by the Tummel, which 
passes through the district of Athole, and 
falls into Tay at Logierait. 

RANSA (LOCH>, a safe harbour on the 
N. E. coast of the isie of Arran. 

RASAY, a small river in Ross-shire, 
which discharges itself into the Conon, in 
the parish of Contin, about 8 miles before 
that river discharges itself into the Frith 
of Cromarty. 

RATHEN, a parish in Aberdeenshire, a- 
bout 7 miles long, and at a medium 2 broad. 
It possesses two creeks, on which are built 
2 fishing villages, each of which contains a- 
bout 2(10 inhabitants. Population 1588. 

RATHO, aparish in Mid-Lothian , about 
4 miles long, and 3 broad, lying in the mid- 
dle between the Pentland hills and the 
Frith of Forth. The E. part is flat and fer- 
tile, but the ground rises gradually towards 
theWV Population 987. 

RATHVEN, a parish in Banffshire, ox- 
tending 19 miles in length, along the Mo- 
ray Frith, and from 3 to 5 miles in breadth. 
There are 4 considerable fishing villages, 
viz. Buckie, Porteasy, Findochty, and Port- 
xiockie. Population 1734. 

RATTRAY, a parish in Perthshire, a- 
bout 4 miles long, and 2 broad, lying on the 
N. bank of the river Ericht. The village of 
Rattray is pleasantly situated on the Ericht, 
and contains about 200 inhabitants. Tothe 
S. E. of the village, on a rising ground cal- 
led the Castlehill, are the vestiges of the an- 
cient castle of Rattray j and about 2 miles 
N. of the village is Craighall, seated on a rock 
100 feet perpendicular. Population 880. 

RATTRAY-HEAD, a dangerous promon- 
tory in Aberdeenshire, in the parish of Cri- 
mond. It lies about 7 miles E. from Kin- 
riaird's-head, upon which a light-house has 
lately been erected. Near it formerly stood 
the burgh of Rattray. — There are now no 
remains of this ancient burgh, except the 
shapel, around which it was built. 

R AYNE , or RAIN, a parish in Aberdeen- 
shire, in the district of Garioch, of nearly a 
square figure, each side of which is about 2 
miles. The parish is watered by the river 
Ury. Population 1220. 

RAYNE, or RAIN (OLD) a small post 
town in the parish of Rayne, in Aberdeen- 
shire, on the road from Aberdeen to Huntly. 

REA"V a parish situated partly in the 
county of Sutherland, but the greater part 
lies in the county of Caithness, 17 miles in 
length, and from 8 to 9 in breadth. It is 
■watered by the river Halladale and Forse.--- 
Bopulation 240G. 

aBDGORTON, or REGORTON, a parish 



in Perthshire, about 6 miles long, andon an 
average 2 broad ; extending in an irregular 
figure along the rivers Tay and Almond. In 
this parish the famous battle of Loncarty 
was- fought, at the end of the 10th century, 
betwixt the Scots and the Danes, in which 
the latter w ere completely defeated. Popu- 
lation 2009. 

RED-HEAD, a remarkable promontory 
in Angus-shire, in the parish of Inverkeilor, 
which rises on the W. side of Lunan bay, to 
the height of 550 feet perpendicular to the 
sea. 

RENDALL, a parish in Orkney, united 
to Evie, situated on the Mainland. Popula- 
tion 1415. 

RENFREW-SHIRE. This county ex- 
tends about 28 miles in length from E. to 
W. and is from 10 to 24 in breadth. It is 
bounded on the E. by Lanarkshire ; on the 
S. by the county of Ayr; and, on tbe remain- 
ing sides, is washed by the Frith of Clyde, 
which, sweeping round its extremity, forms 
several beautiful creeks and bays, on 3 of 
which are situated the port towns of Green- 
ock,- Gourock, and Port-Glasgow. Besides 
the Gryfe the county is watered by the 
White and Black Carts, which- 3 rivers unite 
at Inchinan-bridge, about 3 miles from Pais- 
ley. Renfrewshire contains 1 royal burgh, 
viz. Renfrew the county town; several large 
towns, as Paisley, Greenock, and Port Glas- 
gow ; and a number of villages. The coun- 
ty is dividedinto 17parochial districts,which 
in 1811, contained 92,596 inhabitants. 

RENFREW, the county town, is pleasant- 
ry situated on the river Cart, about 5 miles 
W. of Glasgow, and 3 N. from Paisley. It 
consists of 1 narrow street, about half a mile 
in length, with bye-lanes. The principal 
branch of trade is the thread, but there are 
also extensive soap and candle works. Ren- 
frew was erected into a royal burgh by King 
Robert II. who had a palace there. It is 
governed by a provost, 2 bailies, and 1 6 coun- 
cillors. In conjunction with Glasgow, 
Dumbarton, and Rutherglen, it sends a 
member to Parliament. It contains up- 
wards of 1500 inhabitants. The parish of 
Renfrew is of an irregular figure, extending 
3 or 4 miles in length in every direction. 
All the lands are inclosed, and well culti- 
vated. Population 2305. 

RENINGAY, a small island near the W. 
coast of the isle of Mull. 

RFNTOWN, a large manufacturing vil- 
lage in Dunbartonshire, in the parish of 
Cardross, sontaining about 1200 inhabitants. 
RERRICK, a parish in the stewarty of 
Kirkcudbright, about 10 miles long, and 6 



RIG 



195 



R O S 



broad, lying on the coast of the Solway 
Frith, at the mouth of the river Urr. The 
-surface is very rugged and uneven. On the ; 
N. stands Bencaim, a lofty mountain, sur- 
rounded with small ones, Population 1224. I 
RESCOBIE, a parish in Forfarshire, of an j 
irregular figure, comprehending about 16 
or 18 square miles. Population 920. 

RESORT (LOCH,) an extensile arm of 
the sea en the W. coast of the island of i 
Lewis, forming the division between Lewis 
and Harris. 

RESTALRIG, an ancient barony and pa- 
rish in Mid-Lothian,now united to S. Leith. 
The church of Restalrig stands in a hollow 
plain, about a mile E. of the city of Edin- 
burgh. 

RESTENET (LOCH,) a small lake in the 
county of Angus, in the parish of Forfar. 
On its banks, or rather on an island, stood a 
priory and church, dependant onthe monas- 
tery of Jedburgh, where papers and effects 
-of value were secured from the English. 
The steeple andchancel are still entire ; the 
former is about 70 feet high. The chancel 
is unroofed, and serves as a burying place 
for the family of Dempster. 

RHOE (MICKLE,) one of the Shetland 
Isles, situated on the S. of the Mainland, and 
belonging to the parochial district of Delt- 
ing. It is about 24 miles in circumference. 
RHOE (LITTLE,) a small island in the 
neighbourhood of Mickle Rhoe. 

RHONHOUSE, or RONE-HOUSE, a vil- 
lage in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, in 
the parish of Kelton . 

RHYNE and ESSIE, an united parish in 
Aberdeenshire, of nearly asquareform, com- 
prehending a superficies of 30 square miles. 
-It lies in the district of Strathbogie, being 
watered by the river which gives name to 
that lordship. Population 6.76. 

RHYNS.or RINNS of GALLOWAY, a 
peninsula of Wigtonshire, formed by the ap- 
proximation of the bays of Loch Ryan and 
Glencoe. 

RICCARTON, a small village in West 
Lothian, about 5 miles S. from the town of 
Linlithgow. 

RICCARTOUN, a parish in Ayrshire, a- 
liout 6 miles long, and 2 broad. The surface 
is level, and the whole is arable and well in- 
closed. It is watered by the river Irvine, 
and by a small tributary stream, called the 
Cessnock. The village of Riccartoun is al- 
most separated from the suburbs of Kilmar- 
nock by the Irvine. Population 1840. 

RIGGor HUNTER'S BAY, a small bay 
on the coast of Wigtonshire, in the parish of 
Sorbie. 



RINARY, a small island, on the S. coaft 
of the isle of Hay. 

ROAG (LOCH,) an extensive arm of the 
sea on the W. cocst of the island of Lewis. 

ROAN, or ROHN (LOCH,) a small lake, 
in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, and pa- 
rish of Crossmicbae!. 

ROAN. VideEALAN NAN ROANS. 
ROBERTON, a parish in the counties of 
Roxburgh and Selkirk, at the western ex- 
tremities of these shires, about 13 miles long, 
and 6 broad, watered by the small river 
Borthwick, and the river Ale, besides sever- 
al small lakes which give rise to these 
streams. Population 647. 

ROBERTOUN, a parish in .Lanarkshire. 
Vide WISTOWN. 

ROBERTOUN, a village in the parish of 
Wistown, on the W. bank of the Clyde. 

ROGART, a parish in the county of Suth- 
erland, about 10 miles square. The surface 
is very irregular, being composed of two val- 
leys, Strathfleet and Strathbrora, about 5 
miles distant from each other, the interja- 
cent space being a group of rocky hills. Po- 
pulation 2148. 
I RONA, a small island in the northern o- 
cean, supposed to be the farthest to the N. 
; W. of any part of Europe, being situated 16 
' leagues N. W. from the Butt of Lewis. It is 
I about a mile long, and half a mile broad. 
] RONA, a mountain in Shetland, on the 
Mainland, in the parish of Northmaven. 

RONA, a small island of the Hebrides, ly- 
ing between Benbecula and North Uist. 

RONALDSHAY (NORTH,) a small is- 
land of the Orkneys, about two miles long, 
and 2 broad, 2 leagues N. from the isle of 
Sanday. It belongs to the parish of Cross 
and Burness. 

RONALDSHAY (SOUTH,) the most 
southern of the Orkney islands, 6 miles long 
and 5 broad. It possesses several excellent 
harbours, particularly Widewall bay on the 
W. side, and St. Margaret's Hope at the 
northern extremity. At the latter of these 
is a considerable village. 
. RONALDSHAY (SOUTH) and BUR- 
RAY, an united parish in Orkney, compre- 
| bending the islands of South Ronaldshay, 
Burray, and Swinna, besides^ uninhabited 
islets, viz. Gilmtholm, Horda, and the Pent- 
land Skerry. Population 1S-S1. 

RONAY, an island of the Hebrides, lying 
between the Mainland of Scotland and the 
Isle of Sky, belonging to the parish of Por- 
tree. It is about 4 miles long and 2 broad. 

ROSEHEARTY, a fishing village in A- 
berdeenshire, in the parish of Pitsligo, t 
miles W. from Fraserburgh. 



R O S 



196 



R O U 



ROSEMARKIE, a parish in Ross-shire, 
about 6 miles long, and 3 broad, lying on 
the shore of the Frith of Cromarty. The 
Town of Rosemarkie was erected into a 
royal burgh by Alexander II. but, in 1744, 
ft was united to the town of Chanonry. Po- 
pulation 1512. 

ROSENEATH, the most westerly parish 
of Dunbartonshire, about 7 miles long, and 
2 broad, formed by Loch Long on the W . by 
the Frith of Clyde on the S. by Loch Gair 
on the E. and united on the land side to the 
parish of Row. The soil is various, and on 
the coasts well cultivated, but the higher 
grounds are covered with heath. There are 
2 bays, Callwattie and Campsoil. Pop. 74S. 
ROSLIN, a small village in Mid-Lothian, 
in the parish of Lasswade, about 7 miles S. 
by W. of Edinburgh, a place of general re- 
sort for the inhabitants of Edinburgh during 
the summer season. Roslin is remarkable 
for an ancient chapel and castle. The out- 
side of the chapel is ornamented with a va- 
riety of ludicrous sculpture. The inside is 
69 feet long, by 34 broad, supported by two 
rows of clustered pillars, about 8 feet high, 
with an aisle on each side. The capitals of 
the pillars are enriched with foliage, and a 
variety of iigures ; and amidst a heavenly 
concert appears a cherubim blowing the 
highland bagpipe. The Prentice Pillar, as 
it is called, is a piece of matchless workman- 
ship, for "which, as the story goes, he had his 
brain's beat out by his master. This chapel 
Ras never been finished, only the chancel 
and part of the transept was built. Roslin 
castle is situated on a peninsulated rock, on 
a deep glen, andis accessible only by abridge 
of great height. Roslin was sometime ago 
created a British Earldom in the person of 
the late Lord Loughborough. A new chapel 
of Ease, belonging to the establishment, was 
erected a few years ago. 

ROSS-SHIRE, one of the most extensive 
counties in Scotland, being 80 miles long, 
and nearly the same broad ; expending from 
the eastern to the western seas, taking in 
the whole breadth of tbe island, and having 
theinsular district of Lewis politically an- 
nexed to it. It is bounded by the county of 
Sutherland on the N. ; by the ocean, and 
the small county of Cromarty on the E. ; by 
Inverness shire on the S. ; and by the ocean 
on the W. It comprehends the districts of 
Gairloch, Kintail, Glenshiel,Loch Alsh, Loch 
Carron,Glenelchaig, &c. Its form is very ir- 
regular, being much indented by numerous 
lakes and friths, particularly the Friths of 
Cromarty and Dornoch on the E. coast, and 
by Loth Carron, Loch Broom, &c. on theW. I 



The whole aspect of the country is rugged 
and mountainous. The principal rivers are 
the Conon and the Orrin ; the Beaulie, which 
forms its boundary with Inverness-shire, and 
the Ockel, which is the boundary with Suth- 
erland. This county contains 3 royal burghs, 
viz. Dingwall, Tain, and Fortrose. It is di- 
vided into 50 parochial districts, (including 
the island of Lewis,) and contains 53,525 
inhabitants. Ross-shire sends one member 
to parliament, and gives the Irioh title of 
Earl to the family of Gore. 
ROSSIE. VidelNCHTURE. 
ROSSKF.EN, a parish in Ross-shire, the 
inhabited part of which extends about 10 
miles in length, from the coast of the Frith 
of Cromarty, and about 6 miles in breadth ; 
but the mountainous district extends much 
farther. There is a considerable village at 
the Ness of Invergorilon, from whence there 
are regular ferry boats over the Frith to Cro- 
marty. Population 2390. 

ROTHES, a parish in Morayshire, lying 
on the N. bank of the Spey. The soil is in 
general dry and sandy, degenerating into 
moor in the northern parts of the parish. 
The VILLAGE of Rothes, on the Spey, con- 
tains about 300 inhabitants. Pop. 1605. 

ROTHESAY, or ROTHSAY, a royal 
burgh and parish in the county of Bute. The 
town is excellently situated for trade, hav- 
ing a fine harbour at the bottom of an ex- 
tensive bay. The burgh of Rothesay was 
enfranchised by King Robert III. in the year 
1 400, when its castle was the royal residence. 
It unites with Ayr, Irvine, Inverary, and 
Campbelltown,in sending a representative 
to parliament. The PARISH of Rothesay 
is about 10 mileslong, and from 3 to 4 broad, 
occupying tbe N. end of the island of Bute, 
and indented with 4 bays, viz. Rothesay, 
Kaimes, Keils, and St. Ninians, all of which 
afford safe anchorage. Rothe-ay gives the 
Scottish title of Duke to the heir apparent of 
the crown. Population 4970. 

ROTHESHOLM, or RODNUM-HEAD, 
a promontory on the S. W. coast of the is- 
land of Stronsay. 

ROTHIEM AY, a parish in Banffshire, a- 
bout 8 miles long, and 6 broad, watered by 
the Deveron. Population 1067. 

ROTHIEMURCHUS. Vide DUTHIL. 
and ROTHIEMURCHUS. 

ROUCAN, a small village of Dumfries- 
shire, in the parish of Torthorwald. 

ROUSAY, one of the Orkney islands, a- 
bout 9 miles long, and 4 broad, lying to the 
N.W. of the Mainland. 

ROUSAY and EGLISHAY, an united 
parish of the Orkneys, comprehending the 



islands Rousay, Eglishay, Weir, and Inhal- 
low, with 2 small holms or uninhabited is- 
lets. Population 1061. 

ROW, a parish in Dunbartonshire, lying 
upon Loch Gair and the Frith of Clyde. It 
is about 14 miles Jong, and 5 broad. The 
surface is in general hilly, but the soil, when 
properly cultivated, is abundantly fertile. 
Population 970. 
ROXBURGHSHIRE is an irregular figure, 
the greatest extent of which, in every direc- 
tion, is about 30 miles. It is bounded on 
the N. by Berwickshire, on the E. and S. by 
the English border, and on the W. by Dum- 
fries and Selkirk shires. It comprehends 
the ancient districts of Teviotdale and Lid- 
disdale; so named from the rivers Teviot 
and Liddle, which run through them. The 
N. and W. divisions of the county are moun- 
tainous; but the E. and S. are, upon the 
•whole, flat and fertile. The whole abounds 
•with the most romantic scenery, exhibiting 
in every part, hills, mosses, and mountains, 
interspersed, however with vallies. It is re- 
markably well watered by the Tweed, Tiviot, 
Ale, Kab, Liddle, Slittrick, and many other- 
small streams. The Tyne and Coquet also 
take their rise in this county, and, running 
south, soon enters upon English ground. 
The chief hills are the Cheviot, which runs 
through the whole county from east to west. 
Roxburghshire contains one royal burgh, viz. 
Jedburgh, and several considerable towns, 
as Kelso, Hawick, Melrose, Castletown, and 
the small but ancient town of Roxburgh. 
This cc-unty is divided into 31 parochial dis- 
tricts, which contain 37,230 inhabitants. 
Roxburghshire is ornamented with many 
fine seats. Roxburghshire sends one mem- 
ber to parliament, and gives the title of Duke 
to the noble family of Kerr. 

ROXBURGH, a parish in Roxburghshire, 
about 8 miles long, and 4 broad, at its ex- 
tremities. The general appearance is flat 
and sloping, and the soil is mostly a rich 
loam. It is watered by the rivers Tweed 
and Teviot. The old city of Roxburgh stood 
over against Kelso, on a rising ground, at 
the west end of a fertile plain, peninsulated 
by the Tweed and Teviot, where these li- 
fers unite their waters. Near it stood the 
town, and at the point of the peninsula stood 
the castle of Roxburgh, so often the scene of 
mortal contention between the Scots and 
English, and before which King James II. 
unfortunately perished by the bursting of a 
cannon. About two miles W. from the cas- 
tle stands the present village of Roxburgh, 
pleasantly situated on the banks of the Te- 
net. Population 949. 



RUT 

RU AIL, a river in Argyieshire, m Cowal, 

which discharges its waters into Loch Long. 

RU-ARDNAMURCHAN, a promontory 

of Argyleshire, the most western point of 

the mainland of Scotland. 

RUBERSLAW, a hill in Roxburghshire, 
in the parish of Bedrule, elevated 1419 feet. 
RUCHIL, a river in Perthshire, which, 
rises in the hill of Glenartney, above Strath- 
erne, and falls into the Erne near Comrie. 

RUDANAY, a small rocky island on the 
W. coast of the Isle of Mull. 
RU HUNISH, VideHUNISH. 
RULE, a river in Roxburghshire, which 
rises on the borders of the parish of South- 
dean and England, and after a course of a- 
bout 20 miles, falls into the Teviot, in the 
parish of Cavers. 

RUM, an island of tha Hebrides, about 7 
miles VV. of the island of Eigg, lying in the 
parish of Small Isles, and politically annex- 
ed to the county of Argyle. It is about 8 
miles long, and nearly the same broad. It* 
surface is hilly, and is much better iittedfor 
pasture than tillage. 

RU STOIR, a promontory in Sutherland- 
shire. 

RUTHERGLEN, contracted Ruglen, a 
royal burgh in Lanarkshire, situated about 
2 miles and a half S. E. of Glasgow, and 9 
W. of Hamilton. It is of great antiquity, 
and was erected into a royal burgh by King 
David I. in 1 126. It consists of one princi- 
pal street, and a few lanes. Rutherglen, in 
conjunction with Glasgow, Renfrew, and 
Duubarton, sends a member to parliament, 
and gives title of Earl to the Duke of Queens- 
berry. The parish of Rutherglen extend* 
on the S. bank of the Clyde, 3 miles in 
length, and 1 in breadth. The surface i» 
level, the soil fertile, and the whole is en- 
closed, and well cultivated. The beautiful 
mansions of Shawheld, Farme, Hamilton 
farm, and Rosebank, ornament the parish. 
Population 3625. 

RUTHVEN, a parish in Forfarshire, si- 
tuated on theN. side of the valley of Strath- 
more, at the foot of the Grampian moun- 
tains. It is of small extent, containing only 
1700 acres. The river Isla runs through it, 
forming some remarkable cascades. Isla- 
bank is pleasantly situated near the site of 
the old castle of Kuthven. Population 240. 
RUTHVEN. a small river in Perthshire, 
which rises in the parish of Blackford, and 
falls into the Erne near the village of Auch- 
terarder. 

RUTH WELL, a parish in Dumfries-shire, 
extending about 6 miles in length alongthe 
Solway Frith, and 3 miles where broadest. 



R Y A 



198 



R Y N 



The village of Rutbwell, has been lately re- 
built on both sides of the road from Port- 
Patrick to England, at the expense of the 
Earl of Mansfield. Comlongan Castle is a 
■venerable building. Population 1184. 
. RYAN (LOCH), a considerable bay in 
Wigtonshire, which extends in a S. E. direc- 
tion from the Atlantic, forming with the ' 



bay of Luce, the peninsula called the Rinns 
I of Galloway. 

RYND, a parish in Perthshire, atthe con- 
fluence of the Erne with the Taj, about 4 
miles long, and 1 broad. In general flat, 
and the soil fertile. The ruins of a nunnery 
remain near the castle of Elcho, close to the 
Tay. Population 403, 



A N 



SAN 



Q« AARTA Y, a small island of the Hebri- 
^ des in the sound of Harris. 

SADDEL and SKIPNESS, an united pa- 
rish in Argyleshire, situated on the E. coast 
of the peninsula of Kintyre. It is about 25 
miles long, and on an average 2 broad. Here 
is the ruinous abbey of Saddel, and an old 
castle of the same name. Population 1767. 

SAGA Y, a small island of the Hebrides 
near Harris. 

SALINE, aparishin Fifeshire, about 7 
miles long, and 6 broad at the middle, gra- 
dually becoming narrower towards the ex- 
tiemities. The soil is in general thin, and 
the parish is but little enclosed. The village 
of Saline is a neat rural place. P. 945. 

SALISBURY CRAG, a remarkable rock, 
lying on the E. side of thecity of Edinburgh. 
Tide ARTHUR'S-SEAT. 

SALTCOATS, a considerable sea port 
town in Ayrshire, about 5 miles N. W. from 
Irvine. The harbour is excellent, admitting 
vessels of 220 tons burden. 

SALTERNESS, a sea-port village in the 
parish of Kirkbean in Kirkcudbrightshire. 

SALTON, a parish in Haddingtonshire, 
about 4 miles S. W. of the county town, 
comprehending a superficies of about 2000 
acres. It is bounded on the W. by the ri- 
vers Salton and Tyne, which here unite, and 
separate the parish from that of Pencaitland. 
There are two small villages, named from 
their relative situations* East and West Sal- 
ton. Salton-hall, the seat of the Fletcher 
family, is an elegant building. P. 768. 

SANDA.asmall island on the coast of 
the peninsula of Kintyre, near the Mull of 
Kintyre. 

SANDA, a small island of the Hebrides, 
in the district of small isles, about half a 
mile from Canna. 

SANDY, one of the Orkney Isles, 1 2 miles 
long, varying in breadth from 1 too miles. 



It lies to the N. E. of the isles of Eday and 
Stronsay, from which it is separated by a 
channel from 2 to 3 miles broad. About 
1 -5th of the kelp produced in Orkney is ma- 
nufactured here. Population 1800. 

SANDEND, a small sea-port village in 
the parish of Fordyce, in Banffshire. 

SANDERRAY, a small island of the He- 
brides, in the district of Barray, annexed 
to the county of Inverness. 

SANDNESS, aparishin the western parti 
of the Mainland of Shetland united with 
Walls, Papastour, and Fowla. Vide WALLS 
and SANDNESS. 

SANDSTING, a parish of Shetland, unit- 
ed to that of Aithsting. The united parish 
is situated in the middle of the Mainland, 
and is about 9 miles long, and 6 broad. Po- 
pulation 1493. 

SANDWICK, aparishin Shetland, united 
to Dunrossness and Cunningsburgh. The 
united parish lies at the southern extremity 
of the Mainland. Population 3201. 

S ANDV/ICK and STROMNESS, an unit- 
ed parish in Orkney, situated al the W. end 
of the island of Pomona, about 9 miles long, 
and from 2 and a half to 5 miles and a half 
broad ; the soil varies, a great part is arable 
and pasture. The coast is bold and rocky, 
but possesses a safe harbour, at the town of 
Stromness, which is situated at the S. W. 
part of the parish. Population 3193. 

SANDYHILLS, a village near Glasgow, 
in the Barony parish, containing 341 inha- 
bitants. 

S ANDQUHAR , a royal burgh in Dumfries- 
shire, on the river Nith, about 27 miles from 
Dumfries, and 23 from Ayr. Sandquharhas 
long been famous for its woollen manufac- 
tures. The Town of Sandquhar, which con- 
tains about 100 inhabitants, was erected in- 
to a royal burgh in 1596, by King James 
VI. It is governed by a provost, 3 bailies. 



SCO 1 

a dean of guild, treasurer and 1 1 councillors. 
It joins with Dumfries, Annan, Kirkcud- 
bright, and Lochmaben, in electing a repre- 
sentative to parliament. The general ap- 
pearance is rugged and mountainous. The 
hills are partly green, and partly covered 
with heath. Not more than 70 acres are 
under culture. Lead ore is found in the hills, 
which is wrought by the miners in Wanlock- 
head. Population 2709. 

SARK, a small river in Dumfries-shire, 
whichfalls into the Solway Frith, near where 
the Esk runs into that arm of the sea. 

SARKFOOT, a small village in Dumfries- 
shire, in the parish of Graitney, at the mouth 
of the river Sark. 

SATIE'S HEAD, a promontory of Aber- 
deenshire, near Peterhead. 

SCALLOWAY, a small town, with an ex- 
cellent harbour, on the S. coast of the Main- 
land of Shetland. 

SCALPA, a small island of the Hebrides, 
in the sound between the isle of Sky and the 
Mainland, about 5 miles long, and from 2 
to 5 broad. 

SCALPA, a small island of the Orkneys 
near the Mainland of Orkney. 

SCALPA FLOW, a large expanse of wa- 
ter among the Orkney isles, about 50 miles 
in circumferenee. It abounds with nume- 
rous safe roads and harbours for vessels of 
the largest size. 

SCALP AY, one of the Harris isles. Its 
extreme points may be about 5 miles distant. 
On the eastern extremity a light-house is e- 
rected ; and near its western extremity are 
two of the best harbours in the Hebrides. 

SCARABINE, a mountain in Caithness, 
in the parish of Latheron. 

SCARBA, or SKARBA, a small island of 
the Hebrides belonging to Argyleshire, and 
the district of Jura and Colonsay, lying at 
the N. end of the island of Jura. 

SCARP, one of the Harris isles, of which 
the diameter is about 3 miles. 

SCARR, a river in Dumfries-shire, which 
rises on the borders of Ayrshire, and, after a 
eourse of 25 miles, unites with the Nith. 

SCARVAY, a small island of the Hebri- 
des, near Harris. 

SCONSER, a small village in the isle of 
Sky, 8 miles S. of Portree, where there is a 
Post Office. 

SCOON, or SCONE, a parish in Perthshire. 
It is nearly a square of 3 miles. It lies on 
the banks of the Tay, above Perth; and the 
■whole parish has a beautiful appearance. 
The village of Scone lies nearly in the cen- 
tre of the parish, about a mile N. of the town 
9f Perth, on the E * bank, of the Tay. It is 



' S E L 

noted for its palace , anciently the residence 
ofthe Scottish kings, the place of their co- 
ronation, and the scene of many splendid ac- 
tions. In the church ofthe abbey was pre- 
served the famous stone, which was used as 
the coronation seat of every Scottish mo- 
narch, till the year 1296, when Edward I. car- 
ried it to England ; and it continues one of 
the appendages to royalty in Westminster 
abbey. The present Earl of Mansfield has 
erected a new palace on the site of the old, 
the front is 240 feat, and the large gallery 
180 feet long. It is pleasantly situated on 
an extensive lawn, sloping gently to the Tay, 
and surrounded by fine plantations. About 
70 yards N. of the palace, is a small emi- 
nence, commonly called Boothill. Tradi- 
tion ascribes its formation to Kenneth II. 
who from this place promulgated his edicts, 
called the Macalpme laws. The village of 
Scone is regularly built, having two broad 
streets with bye-lanes, and containing 446 
inhabitants. Population 1953. 

SCOONIE, a parish in the county of Fife, 
otherwise called Leven, from the principal 
village, which is situated at the mouth of 
the Leven. The parish is about 5 mile* 
long, and 2 in breadth ; bounded on theS. 
by the Frith of Forth, from which the sur- 
face rises gently to the northern extremity. 
Population 1761. 

SCRAPE , a high hill in the county of 
Peebles, and parish of Manore, elevated 280O 
feet above the level of the sea. 

SEAFORTH (LOCH), an arm of the sea 
on the S. side ofthe island of Lewis, whidh 
separates Lewis (properly so called) from 
Harris. 

SEAMADALE (LOCH), a small lake irt 
Lorn, which discharges itself by the Euchar, 
into the sound of Mull.- 

SEAMMADALE, (LOCH), a small laker 
in Argyleshire, in the parish of Kilninver, 
about a mile and a half long, and a mile 
broad. 

SEATON, a fishing village in Ross-shire r 
on the coast ofthe Moray Frith, containing; 
about 400 inhabitants. 

SEIL, one ofthe Hebrides, belonging to 
Argyleshire. It is about 3 miles long, and 
2 broad, separated from the main land by 
a narrow strait, over which a bridge was. 
thrown. 

SELKIRKSHIRE. This county is of an 
irregular figure, extending 20 miles in 
length, and 10 at its greatest breadth, bound- 
ed on the N. by Peebles shire ; on the E. by 
Berwickshire; on the S. E. and S. by Rox- 
burghshire; on.theS. W, by Dumfries-shire;, 
and on the W, by Peebles. This county wa&- 



S^frE 

formerly named the sheriffdom of Ettericfc 
forest, being covered with an extensive wood, 
The country is mountainous, and intersect- 
ed by numerous streams. Besides the Tweed 
it is watered by the Etterick and Yarrosv, 
two pastoral streams. Selkirkshire contains 
2 towns, viz. Selkirk, which is a royal burgh, 
and Galashiels. In the division of parochial 
districts, it is very irregular, only 2 parishes 
lying entirely within its bounds, while 5 or 
6 lie partly in it, and partly in the neigh- 
bouring shires. 

SELKIRK, a royal burgh and county 
town of that district to which it gives its 
name, is pleasantly situated on a rising 
ground, on the banks of the Etterick. The 
town is but poorly built, and does not con- 
vey an idea of its former importance. Sel- 
kirk is a royal burgh, united with Lanark, 
Linlithgow, and Peebles, in sending a mem- 
ber to parliament. It is governed by 2 bai- 
lies, a dean of guild, treasurer, and 10 coun- 
cillors. The extent of t he parish is about a 
square of 10 miles, and it lies partly in 
Selkirk, and partly in Rox'ourghshires. The 
highest hills are Peatlaw, and Three Breth- 
ren ; the former elevated 19(i4,and the lat- 
ter 1978 feet above the level of the sea. 
Selkirk gives the title of Earl to a branch of 
the family of Douglas. Pbpulation 2466. 

SELLAY, a small island of the Hebrides, 
in the district of Harris. 

SELLER-HEAD, a promontory on the E. 
coast of Lewis, near Stbrnoway. 

SERF'S (ST.) ILSE, a small island of Loch 
Leveh, on which are the ruins of a priory. 
SETON, Vide Portseton. 
SHAINT or HOLY ISLES, three small 
Islands of the Hebrides, lying in the chan- 
nel betwixt the isles of Lewis and Sky, and 
in the district of the former. 

SHAPINSHAY, one of the Orkney is- 
lands, about 3 miles N. of the Mainland. 
It is about 7 miles long, and 5 broad. The 
harbour of El wick is the only one of the is- 
land. Shapinshay forms a parochial district 
ofitself. Population 726. 

SHECHALLION, a mountain in Perth- 
Shire, in Rannoch. It rises in a conical form 
from a broad and circular base, to the height 
of 3564 feet. 

SHETLAND, or ZETLAND ISLES, the 
northern division of the Scottish Northern 
Isles, lie about 15 leagues N. of the Ork- 
neys. The nearest part of the continent 
of Europe is Bergen in Norway, from 
which they lie 44 leagues W. The islands be- 
longing to this division are about 86 in 
number; 40 are inhabited, of which the 
principal are, the Mainland, Zell, Unit, 



200 



S H O 



Whalsay, Bressay, Burray, House, Trondray, 
Fetlar, Papastour, Mickle and Little Rhoe, 
Skerries, Noss, Sec. with the small islands of 
Fowla and Fair Isle, which lie in the strait 
between the cluster of Orkney and Shetland. 
The climate in these islands is far fr6m be- 
ing agreeable. The longest day in the island 
of Unst is 19 hours and 15 minutes; and, of 
consequence the shortest day 4 hours and 45 
minutes. The spring is late, the summer 
short, and the autumn wet and foggy. The 
winter sets in about the end of October, and 
lasts till April. The coasts afford numerous 
bays and harbours for the vessels employed in 
the fisheries. Near the coast there are ma- 
ny level spots, very fertile both in pasture 
and corn. The property in Shetland is di- 
vided into three divisions, of crown lands, 
kirk lands, and udal lands; holding by the 
same tenures as in Orkney. As to the 
manufactures, a coarse cloth is made for 
home use, and a little linen. Stockings 
wrought of Shetland wool, some of which 
are so tine, as to be equal in price with silk, 
are exported to a considerable extent. The 
chief trade is to Leith, London, and Ham- 
burgh ; and a barter is carried on with the 
Dutch fishermen who visit the islands. The 
whole district is divided into 12 parochial 
districts, containing 22,915 inhabitants. 
Shetland unites with Orkney in forming a 
stewartry, wuich sends cne member to par- 
liament. 

SHETTLESTOWN, a village in Lanark • 
shire, in the Barony parish of Glasgow, and 
a suburb of that city. 

SHEVOCK. a small rivulet of Aberdeen- 
shire, which joins the Gadie near its con- 
fluence with the Ury. 

SHIEL (LOCH), a lake in Inverness-shire, 
about 10 miles long, and 2 broad, in the pa- 
rish of Ardnamurchan. It discharges itself 
into the western Sea at Castle Tioram, by 
the river Shiel. 

SHIN LOCH, a lake in Sutherlandshire, 
about 20 miles long, and from 1 to 2 broad. 
It discharges itself, in its eastern extremi- 
ty, by the rever Shin, and falls into the Frith 
of Dornoch at the village of Invershin. 

SHINNEL, a romantic and picturesque 
stream in Dumfriesshire, in the parish of 
Penpont, which joins its waters to the Scarr. 
SHIRA, a small river in Argyleshire, 
which rises in the mountains behind Inver- 
ary ; and, after forming a small deep lake, 
called Loch Dubb, falls into Loch Fyne. 

SHOCHIE, a small river of Perthshire, 
which rises in the parish of Vo ledie, and 
falls into the Tay at Lonearty. 

SHOTTS, a parish in Lanarkshire, of a 



SKY '21 

rectangular form , 10 miles long by 7 broad. 
It is watered by the North and South Cal- 
ders ; and the Cramond and Avon have 
their sources in it. Population 21 27. 

SHUNA, a small island of Argyleshire, 
■which contains a quarry of excellent slate. 

SHURIRY LOCH, a small lake in Caith- 
ness-shire, which givesrise to the river Forse. 
8IDLAVV HILLS, a ridge of hills which 
extends in a direction from VV.to E. through 
the counties of Perth and Angus, beginning 
at Kinnoul, and terminating near Brechin. 
This ridge forms the S. side of the valley of 
Strathmore. Sidlaw, the highest of these 
mountains, rises 1466 feet above the level 
of the sea. 

SIGRAMMA.2 small islands on theW. 
coast of the isles of Lewis, near Loch Roag. 
S1MPRIN, a parish in Berwickshire. 
Vide Swinton. 

SKAGGIE, a small river in Perthshire, 
which rises in the parish of Monzie, and 
joins the Erne near Crieff. 

SKEAHOLM, an islet on the N. coast of 
the mainland of Shetland. 

SKEEN (LOCH), a small lake in Bum- 
fries-shire. 

SKEILAY, a small island of the Hebrides, 
near Harris. 

SKENE, aparish in Aberdeenshire, of an 
oval form, 6 miles long, and 3 and a half 
broad. The Loch of Skene is about a mile 
long, and somewhat more than 3-4ths of a 
mile broad. Population 1140. 

SKEOTISVA Y, an island of the Hebrides, 
about a mile long, lying in E. Loch Tarbet, 
in Harris. 

SKERRIES, three small islands of Shet- 
land, 15 miles N. E.from Whalsay, and 20 
from the Mainland. 

SKIACH (LOCH), a small lake in Perth- 
shire, in the parish of Little Dunkeld. 
SKIPNESS. Vide Saddle and Skipness. 
SKIPORT (LOCH), an arm of the sea, on 
the E. coast ofS.Uist. 

SKIRLING, a parish in Peebles-shire, a- 
bout 2 miles and a half square, and some- 
what hilly. The village of Skirling is situ- 
ated on the road from Edinburgh to Lead- 
hills. Population ^0S. 

SKURR-CHOlNICH.andSKURR-DHO- 
NUIL, 2 mountains in Argyl eshire, in the 
parish of Ardnamurchan ; the former 2564, 
and the latter 2730 feet above the level of 
the sea. 

SKY or SKYE, one of the Hebrides, be- 
iongingto the county of Inverness. Itis 54 
miles long, and varies in breadth from 35 to 
3 miles, the average being 13. It is separ- 
ated from the mainland of Scotland.by a 



channel, about 3 leagues broad; but at the 
ferry of Glenelly, it is not half a mile from 
the nearest port of Invemess-shire. The 
country is mountainous ; but the sides of the 
hills are covered with heath and grass, 
which afford good pasture to sheep and 
black cattle. VV hales and sun. fi.ih are some- 
times caught in the bays; but the princi- 
pal attention is paid to the white and her- 
ring fisheries. Population IS, 975, about 
1 S acres and a half to each individual. 

SLA'INS, a parish in Aberdeenshire, on 
the sea-coast of B urban, of a triangular 
form, about 5 miles long and 2 broad. The 
sea-coast is rocky, and indented with im- 
mense chasms, excavated in many places to 
a great extent. Population 970. 

SLAMANNAN, or ST. LAWRENCE, 
aparish in Stirlingshire, situated in the S. 
W. corner of the county. It is about 5 
miles long, and from 5 to 4 broad, lying on 
the banks of the Avon. Population 923. 

SLEAT, a parish in Inverness-shire, in 
the island of Sky, 1 7 miles long, and from 1 
to 5 miles and a half broad. Isle Ornasay 
is an excellent harbour. Population 1903. 

SLEITAL (LOCH), a lake in Sutherland- 
shire, noted for its excellent red trout. 

SLIABH-GAVIL, a mountain in Argyle- 
shire, in the district of Knapdale. 

SLITTRICK, a small river in Roxburgh- 
shire, which unites with the Teviot at the 
town of Hawick. 

SMALLHOLM, a parish and village in 
the county of Roxburgh. The parish is 
of an irregular triangular form, the [length 
of which from E. to W. is about 4 miles, 
and from N. to S. about 3. The village of 
Smallholm is situated on the turnpike road 
from Edinburgh to Kelso, about 5 miles 
from the latter. Population 446. 

SMALL ISLES, a parish of the Hebrides, 
comprehending the islands of Eigg, Rum, 
Canna, and Muck; of which Eigg is politi- 
cally annexed to the county of Inverness, 
and the other 3 belong to that of Argyle. 
Population 1339. 

SNIZORT, a parish in Inverness-shire, in 
the Isle of Sky, about IS miles long, and 9 
broad. There are several cairns, tumuli, 
and druidical temples ; but the greatest cu- 
riosity is a natural obelisk, or perpendicular 
stone, of uncommon magnitude, being 360 
feet in circuit at the base, and gradually ta- 
pering to a short point, which is calculated 
to be 300 feet of altitude from the base. 
Population 2750. 

SOA, a small island of the Hebrides, a- 
bout a mile in circumference, lying near the 
remote island of St. Kilda. 

c c 



8 P E ! 

SOAY, a small pasture island on th 
coast of Sutherlandshire, in the parish of 
Assint, 

SOAY, a small island on the S. W. coast 
ofthelsleof Sky. 

SOAY, 2 small islands on the W. coast of 
Harris. 

SOLWAY FRITH, a navigable arm of 
the sea, which extends eastward from the 
Irish sea, forming the boundary between 
England and Scotland for upwards of 50 
miles. The shore, particularly on the Scot- 
tish coast is flat and sandy, with a few 
sunk rocks ; but almost every part affords 
safe landing places for small vessels. 

SORBIE, a parish in Wigt on shire, on the 
coast of the bay of Wigton, about 6 miles in 
length, and at an average 2 in breadth. The 
headlands are Crugleton and Egerness ; and 
the chief bays are Garliestown and Rigg, 
■with the ports of Allan, Whaple, and Inner, 
well. There are 2 villages, viz. Garliestown 
and Sorbie, in which the church is situated. 
Population 1265. 

SORN, a parish in Argylcshire, of nearly 
a square form of 6 miles and a half. It is 
watered by the river Ayr. The only consi- 
derable hill is Blackside-end, the height of 
which is about 1600 feet. The parish con 
tains about 23,000 acres. The village of 
Catrine, containing 1350 inhabitants, is si- 
tuated in this parish. There is also a small 
village called Dalgain, containing 192 in- 
habitants. Population 3348. 

SOT A-BRITIL, an island of the Hebrides, 
about 5 miles in circumference, lying half a 
mile S. of the island of Sky. 

SOUTHDEAN, a parish in Roxburgh- 
shire, about 12 miles long, and 7 broad, ly- 
ing on the banks of the Jed. The surface 
is variegated, and the soil in the valleys is 
tolerably fertile. Population 1 869. 

SOUTHWICK. Vide COL VEND. 

SOUTHWICK, a small river in the stew- 
artry of Kirkcudbright, which rises in the 
parish of Col vend, and falls into the Sol way 
Frith. 

SOUTRA. Vide FALA and SOTJTRA. 

SOUTRA HILL, the westermost hill of 
the Lammermuir ridge, elevated 1000 feet. 

SPEY, a large and rapid river, which 
rises in Badenoch, in Inverness-shire. Its 
waters, a few miles from its source, spread 
out to such an extent, as to become a lake 
of the same name; from which, resuming 
the form of a river, it proceeds with great 
rapidity towards the E. till, reaching the 
village of Rothes, it directs its course north- 
ward, and falls into the Moray Frith at Gar- 
mouth. The whole length of its course is 



S T A 

about 90 miles ; but, following all its wind- 
ings, it cannot be less than 120. The sal- 
mon fishing of this river had been, from the 
superstition of former times, chiefly gifted 
to religious establishments in Morayshire. 

SPEYMOTJTH, a parish in Morayshire, 
which takes its name from its local situa- 
tion, at the mouth of the river Spey. It is 
about 6 miles and a half long, and on an a- 
verage 1 and a half broad. The surface is 
flat and level on the coast, and the soil for 
the most part is light and fertile. P. 1156. 

SPIAN, ariverin lnvemess-shire, which 
rises from the western extremity of Loch 
Laggan, and after a rapid and precipitous 
course of 20 miles, joins the Lochy. 

SPOTT, a parish in East Lothian, about 
10 miles lony, and 5 broad. The village of 
Spott lies about 5 miles from Dunbar. Po- 
pulation 503. 

SPRINGFIELD, a village in Dumfries- 
shire, in the parish of Gairney, on the banks 
of the river Sark. 

SPROUSTON, a parish in Roxburghshire, 
about 6 miles long, and 4 broad. On the 
banks of the Tweed, which bounds it on the 
N. the surface is flat, and the soil fertile. 
Population 1195. 

SPYNIE, or NEW SPYNIE, a parish in 
Morayshire, about 4 miles long, and 2 broad, 
stretching along the banks of the Lossie. 
A ridge of moor extends the whole length 
of the parish, separating the cultivated 
land from an extensive natural oak wood. 
Population 824. 

SPYNIE LOCH, a lake in the parish of 
Spynie, about 3 miles long, and 1 broad. 

STAFFA, asmall island of the Hebrides, 
celebrated for its basaltic pillars. It lies a- 
bout 5 leagues W. of the island of Mull, and 
3 leagues from Icolm-kill. Its form is ob- 
long and irregular, about one mile in length, 
and half a mile in breadth . Its coasts are 
steep and craggy, exhibiting superb basal- 
tic columns, and hollowed by various caves, 
particularly those of Fingal and the Corvo- 
rant. Staffa is accessible only by a small 
entrance on the W. side, where the surface 
slopes towards the sea. The most elevated 
part of the island of Staffa is over the cave 
of Fingal, where it is 214 feet above the sea 
at ordinary tides. The surface of the large 
pillars are rough and uneven, full of cracks 
in all directions ; the pillars are jointed, 
and the upper surface of each joint is gene- 
rally concave, having a corresponding con- 
vexity in the inferior surface of the other ; 
but the reverse of this is often noticed, and 
many of the pillars exhibit a plain surface. 
The pillars near the landing-place are small, 



S T E 



203 



but increase in magnitude as they are near- 
er the cave of Fingal, where they are the 
largest, both in diameter and altitude. This 
remarkable cave is 55 feet wide at the en- 
trance, 1 1 7 feet high, and 250 feet long. 
The arch is composed of two unequal seg- 
ments of a circle, which form a natural pe- 
diment. The mass which crowns, or rather 
which forms the roof, is 20 feet thick at its 
lowest part. The bottom of the cave is fil- 
led with the sea, reaching to the very ex- 
tremity, where there is another small cave, 
which sends forth an agreeable noise every 
time the water rushes into it ; on which ac- 
count it has received the name of " the me- 
lodious cave." Besides the cave of Fingal, 
there is another which exhibits the same ap- 
pearances, though on a less scale. It is si- 
tuated on the N. side of the island, in the 
midst of a magnificent colonnade, and is 
named " the corvorant's cave." 

STAIR, a parish in Ayrshire, about 6 
miles long, by 2 broad, lying on the banks of 
the river Ayr. Population 643. 

STALK LOCH, a lake in Sutherlandshire, 
in the parish of Edderachylis, 2 miles long, 
and half a mile broad. 

STANLEY, a considerable village in 
Perthshire, lying partly in the parish of 
Auchtergaven, and partly inthatofRed- 
gorton. 

STAXIGOE, a small village with a har- 
bour, in Caithness, near Wick. 

STENHOUSEMUIR, a considerable vil- 
lage in Stirlingshire, about 3 miles from 
Falkirk. Here the greatest cattle market 
in Scotland is held in October. 

STENNESS, a parish in the island of Po- 
mona, in Orkney, united to that of Frith. 
Population of the united parish, 1272. 

STENTON, a parish in Haddingtonshire, 
about 3 miles and a half long, and 3 broad. 
Population 620. 

STEVENSTON, a parish in Ayrshire, ly- 
ing on the northern coast of the bay of Ayr. 
It forms an irregular square of about two 
miles and a half. The whole extent of the 
coast is flat and sandy, affording no harbour 
except at Saltcoats and Irvine. The Town 
of Stevenston is situated nearly in the cen- 
tre of the parish ; and at the northern bor- 
dor stands the thriving town of Saltcoats, 
lying partly in the parish of Ardrossan. Po- 
pulation 2146. 

STEWARTFIELD, a small village in the 
district of Buchan, Aberdeenshire, about 
13 miles from Peterhead, and contains 
nearly 800 inhabitants. 

STEWARTON, a parish and considera- 
ble town in Ayrshire, The parish is ab ¥ Y6 



10 miles in length, and in some plaees about 
4 in breadth. The Town of Stewarton is 
situated on the water of Annock, about 6 
miles N. from the town of Irvine, and con- 
tains about 1500 inhabitants. P. 5049. 
STINCHAR. Vide ARDSTINCHAR. 
STIRLINGSHIRE.formerly a part of the 
shire of Lennox, is about 26 miles long, and 
on an average 1 2 broad; bounded on the N. 
by Perthshire and the river Forth ; on the 
E. by Clackmannanshire and West Lothian ; 
on the S. by Lanarkshire ; and on the W. 
• by the county of Dunbarton and Loch Lo- 
mond. An extended plain stretches towards 
the N. W., terminated by the mountain of 
Benlomond, and washed by the Forth, wind- 
ing with placid dignity, and forming the 
beautiful links for which it is so remarka- 
ble. From this level a bank of considerable 
height rises to the southern border, where 
the surface becomes hilly. The eastern dis- 
trict is fertile ; but there are several exten- 
sive mosses on the banks of the Forth. In 
former times the greater part of this county 
was covered with wood. At Stirling out 
kings frequently resided. The castle with- 
stood some of the closest and most length- 
ened sieges which are recorded in the his- 
tory of Scotland. Stirling is the only royal 
burgh in this county. There are several 
towns and villages of considerable conse- 
quence in it; Larbeit, Kippen, Kilsyth, 
Airth, and Campsie. It is divided into 
22 parochial districts, containing 58,174 
inhabitants. The county abounds with 
coal, ironstone, freestone, and limestone J 
and veins of silver, copper, cobalt, and lead, 
have been discovered. Stirlingshire sends 
one member to parliament. 

STIRLING, an ancient town in the coun- 
ty to which it gives its name, situated upon 
the river Forth, 35 miles N. W. of Edin- 
burgh. Its situation, like the Old Town of 
Edinburgh, is of the sloping ridge of a rock, 
the percipipitous end of which, towards the 
W. is occupied by a fortress. The great 
street on the summit of the hill isbroad and 
spacious, but the other streets are narrow 
and irregular. On the north side of the 
town several new streets have been planned 
out ; and a number of houses in the old 
town has been rebuilt within the last 20 
years. An elegant building has been erect- 
ed, with a spire 120 feet high, in which is 
a clock, for an assembly room and a public 
library. The town-house is a large build- 
ing, with convenient apartments for the 
town and coun ty courts ; and there has been 
lately erected a new jail, upon an approved 
plan, and a spacious and elegant hall fea 



204 



the Circuit and Sheriff-courts. There are 
three hospitals, the first endowed by Ro- 
bert Spittal, tailor to James IV. in 1530, 
for the support of poor tradesmen. The 
revenue in 1810 amounted to L.541. The 
second was founded by John Cowan, in 1659 
for 12 decayed guild brethren. It is situa- 
ted to the south of the church, and has a 
steeple and bell, and apartments for the 
Guildry to meet in. The revenue amounts 
to L.5000 per annum. The third was 
founded by John Allan, for the mainten- 
ance and education of the children of de- 
cayed tradesmen. The revenue amounts 
to nearly L.500. In 1808 Alexander Cun- 
ingham, a merchant, left L.3000 as a fund 
for educating the children of poor freemen 
mechanics, and augment the pensions to 
their widows. There are two churches, 
called, from their situation, the East and 
West Kirks. The former is a fine building, 
erected by Cardinal Beaton ; the latter is 
also a beautiful piece of architecture, but 
of much older date, having been founded 
in 1594 by James IV. as a chapel for a 
monastery of Franciscans, There are se- 
veral other religious houses. The grammar 
school has long been conducted by masters 
of the first eminence. Besides the Stirling 
Banking Company, who issue their own 
notes, there is a branch of the Bank of Scot- 
land. The town is supplied with excellent 
markets. Stirling is a place of considerable 
antiquity, having received its charter from 
Alexander I. in 1120. It is governed by a 
provost, 4 bailies, a dean of guild, treasurer, 
and 14 councillors. The castle is of great 
antiquity. In the 12th century it was one 
of the most important fortresses in the king, 
dom, and was one of the four which were 
delivered up to tl e English as part of the 
ransom of William the Lion. It was the 
birth place of James II. who stabbed his 
kinsman, the Earl of Douglas, in an apart- 
ment which still goes by the name of Dou 
las' room. James III. who also resided here 
built within it a magnificent hall for the 
meeting of Parliament, which is now con- 
verted into a riding school. Adjoining to 
the parliament-house is the chapel-royal, 
now converted into a store-room and ar- 
moury. James V. was crowned here ; and 
the palace was the work of that prince. It 
is a stately building, in the form of a square 
■with a small court in the centre. The 
ground storey of the oalace is now convert- 
ed into barracks for the soldiers of the gar- 
rison. The town is well supplied with wa- 
ter, which is brought in pipes from Gillies 
kill, about 3 mile* distant. Stirling bat a 



considerable inland trade. Vessels of GO or 
70 tons burden come up to the quay. Steam 
boats, which are elegantly fitted up for pas- 
sengers, run daily betwixt Stirling and New - 
haven. The parish is confined to the burgh, 
and a small field called the King's Park. 
Population 5820. 

STITCHELand HUME, an united pa- 
rish in the counties of Roxburgh and Ber- 
wick, of an irregular figure, 5 or 6 mileg 
long, and between 3 or 4 broad. The lands 
are almost all enclosed and under tillage. 
The village of Stitchel lies about 4 miles 
from Kelso, and the village of Hume is not- 
ed for the old castle of the same name, 
which was often the scene of contest dur- 
ing the border wars. Population 921. 

STOBO, a parish in Peebles-shire, about 
6 miles long, and 4 broad. The greater 
part of the parish is mountainous, and fit 
for pasture ; but a considerable part is sus- 
ceptible of cultivation. The river Tweed 
runs through the parish. Population 436. 

STONEHAVEN, orSTONEHIVE, a sea- 
port town in Kincardineshire, in the parish 
of Dunnotar, about 15 miles S. of the town 
of Aberdeen. It consists of two considera- 
ble streets of houses which are tolerably well 
built. Stonehaven is a burgh of barony, of 
which the jurisdiction is, by the charter, 
vested in magistrates chosen by the superi- 
or and feuars. It is separated from Aldul- 
bie, or New Stonehaven, by the small river 
Canon. Population of both 231 C. 

STONEHOUSE, a parish in Lanarkshire, 
5 miles long, and on an average 2 broad, 
containing about 6000 acres. Of these there 
are about 12 acres of mo*, and 24 of moor. 
The remainder is arable. In the centre of 
the parish is the village of Stonehouse, which 
lies 18 miles from Glasgow, and 7 miles and 
a half from Hamilton. Population 1655. 

STONYKIRK.more properly Stephen- 
kirk, a parish in Wigtonshire, composed of 
the united parishes of Stonykirk, Clashank, 
and Toscarton . It lies on the W. coast of 
the bay of Luce, and contains about 17,009 
acres. Population 1S48. 

STORMONT, a district in Perthshire, 
lying on the E.bank of the Tay. 

STORMONT, a small lake in the parish 
of Bendoth, Perthshire. 

STORNAWAY, a town and parish in 
Ross-shire, in the island of Lewis. The pa- 
rish is of very great extent; but the inha- 
bited parts are somewhat of the figure of an 
isosceles triangle, 2 of the sides of which 
are about 10 miles, and the other 7 miles 
long. The general appearance is a flat 
moor, with a small extent of cultivattd land 



T R 



S T R 



on the coasts. The shores are partly rocky. 
There are several bays, -which afford toler- 
able anchorage for vessels employed in the 
fisheries; but Loch Stornaway is particu- 
larly excellent. At the head of this bay is 
built the town of Stornaway, which, from a 
small origin, has of late arrived at a con- 
siderable size and extent. Population 3500. 

STOURHOLM.a small island of Shet- 
land, lying on the N. side of Mainland, and 
in the parish of Northmaven. 

STOW, a parish in Mid-Lothian, extend- 
ing about 15 miles in length, 5 in breadth, 
and containing 37,500 square acres. The 
surface is hilly, and intersected by numer- 
ous streams, which fall into the Gala and 
the Tweed. Population 1876. 

STRACHAN. Vide STRATHEN. 

STRACHUR and STALACHLAN, an 
united parish in Argyleshire, in the district 
of Cowal, about 17 miles long, and from 3 
to 6 broad, lying on the S. W. bank of Loch 
Fyne, and watered by the river Chur. The 
general appearance is hilly, but there are 
considerable fields of arable land on the 
banks of Loch Fyne. Population 1079. 
STRAGLASS, adistrictin Inverness-shire. 

STRAITON, a parish in Ayrshire, about 
15 miles in length, and 5 in breadth. The 
greater part of the parish is only fit for pas- 
ture. The village of Straiton is pleasantly 
situated on the banks of the Girvan. Popu- 
lation 1026. 

STRANRAER, a royal borough of con- 
siderable antiquity, in Wigtonshire, situated 
at the head of the bay of Loch Ryan. It is 
the seat of a presbytery, and the chief town 
of the district of Galloway, called the Rinns 
cr Rhyns. It is a port of the custom-house, 
of which all the harbours of the Rhinns are 
members. The harbour of Stranraer affords 
excellent anchorage. It is governed by a 
provost, 2 bailies, a dean of guild, and 15 
councillors, and joins with Wigton, New 
Galloway, and Whithorn, in electing a re- 
presentative to parliament. P. 1925. 

STRATH, a parish in Inverness-shire, in 
the isle of Sky, about 19 miles long, and 5 
and a half broad, lying on the sound which 
separates Sky from the Mainland. It also 
comprehends the small islands of Seal pa and 
Pabba. The coast is rocky ; but there are 
3 small and safe harbours. P. 1748. 

STRATHAEN, now generally called 
Strachan ; a parish in Kincardineshire, on 
the N. side of the Grampian ridge, extend- 
ing from the top of the Cairn-o'-mount to 
the banks of the Dee, about 11 miles, and 
comprehending 40,230 English acres. Po- 
pulation 730. 



STRATHALLADALE, a vale in the 
county of Sutherland. 

STRATHALLAN, a vale in Perthshire. 

STRATHARDLE, a valley in Perthshire. 

STRATHAVEN, a district in Banffshire, 
which gives second title of Baron to the 
Earl of Aboyne. 

STRATHAVEN. Vide AVENDALEj 

STRATHAVEN, a considerable town in 
the parish of Avendale, Lanarkshire, plea- 
santly situated on the Aven. It is 7 miles 
E. of Hamilton, and contains 1610 inhabi- 
tants. 

STRATHBEG (LOCH), a small lake in 
Aberdeenshire, in the parishes of Crimond 
and Lonmay, about a mile in length. 

STRATHBLANE, a beautiful vale in 
the counties of Stirling and Dunbarton. 

STRATHBLANE, a parish in Stirling- 
shire, in the valley of the same name, 5- 
miles long, and 4 broad. The general ap- 
pearance is agreeably picturesque, and the 
land in the valley is exceedingly fertile. The 
river Blane, in this parish, forms the cascade 
called the Spout of Ballagan. P. 734. 

STRATHBOGIE, a district of Aberdeen- 
shire, formerly one of the great divisions of 
that shire. 

STRATHBRAN, a valley in Perthshire, 
l the parish of Little Dunkeld. 

STRATHBRON, a valley in Sutherland- 
shire. 

STRATHCLYDE, an ancient Scottish 
nation or principality, the capital of which 
was Alcluid or Dunbarton. 

STRATHDEVON, a district in Aberdeen- 
and Banff'shires, being a continuation of 
the valley of Strathbogie. 

STRATHDIGHTY, a valley in Angus- 
shire, watered by the river Dichty. 

STRATHDON, a parish in Aberdeen- 
shire, about 28 miles long, and 8 broad, oc- 
cupying the head of the valley in which the 
river Don pursues its course to the German 
ocean. The general appearance of the 
country is hilly, and covered with heath, 
affording pasture to large flocks of sheep. 
Population 1351. 

STRATHERIN, a valley inMorayshire. 

STRATHERNE, or STRATHEARNE, 
a beautiful valley in Perthshire, watered by 
the Erne. 

STRATHERROCK, a vale in Inverness- 
shire. 

STRATHFILLAN, a vale in Perthshire, 
on the borders of Argyleshire. 

STRATHFLEET, a valley in Sutherland, 
shire. 

STRATHGARTNEY, a valley In Pertb 
shire. 



STRATHGRYFE, the ancient name of 
the county of Renfrew, so named from the 
Gryfe, the principal river. 

STRATHMARTIN, a parish in Forfar- 
shire, about two miles square, lying in the 
pleasant and boautiful vale which is water- 
ed by the Dighty. The surface is pretty le- 
vel, and the soil light and sandy. In 1796, 
this parish was united to that of Mains of 
Fintry. Popula. of the united parish 1442. 
STRATHMIGLO, a parish in Fifeshire, 
about 5 miles and a half long, and 3 and a 
half broad, lying on the small water of Mig- 
lo, one of the tributary streams of the Eden. 
The surface is paitly flat, and partly hilly, 
and the soil is equally various. A considera- 
ble part is enclosed, and the whole is well 
cultivated. The village of Stralhmiglo is 
distant 4 miles from Falkland, and 15 from 
Cupar Fife. Population 1697. 

STRATHMORK, or the Great Strath; 
that valley which traverses the kingdom j 
from Stonehaven in Kincardineshire on the 
E. to the district of Cowal in Argyleshire 
on the W. 

STRATHMORE, a river of Sutherland- 
shire, which falls into an arm of the sea 
called Loch Hope. 

STRATHNAIRN. Vide Nairn. 
STRATHNAVER, a district in Suther- 
landshire, which gives second title of Baro- 
ness to the Countess of Sutherland. 

STR ATHPEFFER, a vale in Ross-shire, 
near the town of Dingwall. 

STRATHSPEY, a district in Inverness 
and Moray shires, celebrated for its great 
forests of firs. 

STRATHY (LOCH), a lake in Suther- 
landshire. 

STRATHY HEAD, a promontory in Su- 
tiierlandshire, forming the W. boundary of 
Strathy bay. 

STRATHYLA, a district in Banffshire, 
often called Stryla. 

STRELITZ, a village in Perthshire, in 
the parish of Cargill, so named in honour of 
her Majesty. It was built in 1763, by the 
commisioners for managing the annexed 
estates, and was intended as a place of re- 
sidence for the discharged soldiers at the 
conclusion of the German war. 

STRICHEN, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
in the district of Buchan, comprehending a- 
bout 8000 acres. The face of the country 
is much improved by plantations. The vil- 
lage of Strichen contains about 200 inhabi- 
tants. Population 1520. 

STRICKATHROW, a parish in Forfar- 
shire, about7 mileslong and 2 broad, stretch- 
ing across the valley of Strathmore. Very 



S U T 

little of the parish is enclosed. Popula 
tion 593. 

STROMA, a small island, situated in the 
Pentland Frith, about 3 miles from the 
shore of Caithness, about a mile long, and 
half a mile broad. 

STROMAY, a small island of the He- 
brides, in the sound of Harris. 

STROMNESS, a considerable town in the 
island of Pomona, in Orkney, in the united 
parish of Sandwick and Stromness, possess- 
ing an excellent harbour, and enjoying a 
considerable foreign and coasting trade. 

STRONSAY, one of the Orkney islands, 
7 miles and a half long, and 4 broad, but so 
indented by long and narrow bays, that no 
place is above a mile and a half distant from 
the sea. There are two safe harbours on the 
island, Ling Bay and Papa Sound .Here is 
a mineral spring, called the well of Kildin- 
guie, containing a great quantity of aerial 
acid. 

STRONSAY and EDAY, aparish in Ork- 
ney, comprehending the islands of Stronsay, 
Eday, Papa Stronsay, Fairy, and nine holms 
or pasture isles. Population 1642. 

STROVVAN, a parish in Perthshire. Vide 
Blair-Athol 

STROVVAN, a parish inPerthsbire. Vide 
Monivaird. 

STRYLA. Vide Strathyly. 

STUIC-A CHROIN, a hill in Perthshire, 
in the parish of Callender. 

SUDCY, a parish in Ross-shire, united 
to Kilmuir Wester. Vide Knockbain. 

SULISKER, a small insulated rock in the 
northern district of the Hebrides. 

SUMBURGH-HEAD, the southern pro- 
montory of the mainland of Shetland. 

SUNART LOCH, a navigable inlet of 
the sea, between the shires of Argyle and 
Inverness, about 20 miles long, and 2 miles 
broad. 

SUNART, a district of Argyleshire, in 
the parish of Ardnamurchan. 

SUTHERLANDSHIRE is one of the 
most northerly counties of Scotland, extend- 
ing the whole breadth of the island. It is 
about SO miles long from N. W. toS. E. and 
40 miles broad, bounded on the N. E. by 
Caithness ; on the E. and S. E. by the Ger- 
man ocean and the Frith of Dornoch ; on 
the S. and S. W. by Ross- shire ; on the W. 
by the Atlantic ocean ; and on the N. by the 
great North sea. It comprehends the dis- 
tricts of Strathnaver, Assint, and Suther- 
land ; the former of which was formerly a 
county of itself. The face of the country is 
mountainous and rocky, the more inland 
parts presenting nothing to the eye but vast 



S U T S 

groups of mountains, partly covered with 
forests, and partly bleak and barren heaths ; 
but the valleys are occupied by numerous 
pleasant lakes and rivers. The coasts, for 
the most part, on the N. and W. are bold 
and rocky, indented by numerous bays of 
great extent, and having many promonto- 
ries extending into the ocean. The princi- 
pal arms of the sea are Lochs Eribole, Dur- 
ness, Laxford, Inchaid, Lowie, Brora, &c. 
End the chief promontories are Cape Wrath, 
Point Assynt, Far-out-head, Whiten head, 
and Strathy-head. A number of small is- 
lands are scattered along the coast, few of 
which are inhabited. The soil, where it ad- 
mits of culture, though various in its quali- 
ty, is in general superior to the arable lands 
of Ross-shire ; but the state of agriculture 
is far behind. The mountains afforH pas- 
ture to numerous flocks of sheep and herds 
of black cattle, which constitute the chief 
branch of commerce. There are 3 great 
deer forests, and the other kind of game are 
found in great plenty. Sutherland contains 
only one town, viz. Dornoch, which is a royal 
borough, and the county town, and several 
small fishing villages. It is divided into 13 
parochial districts, containing 13,629 inha- 
bitants. Freestone, limestone, ironstone, 
and slate are abundant; within these few 
years coal has been found here. Rock crys- 



' S Y M 

ta!s and pceules are found in many parts ; 
and beautiful garnets are found on the coast, 
in the parish of Tongue. Sutherland has 
been an earldom in the Sutherland family 
since the year 1 057. 

SUURSAY, a small island of the Hebri- 
des, in the sound of Harris. 

SUTORS of CROMARTY, two rocky pro- 
montories, one on each side of the Frith of 
Cromarty. 

SWINN A, a small island, lying nearly in 
the middle of the Pentland Frith. 

SWINTON, a parish in Berwickshire, to 
which that of Simprin is united. The unit- 
ed parish extends 4 mdes in length, and 3 
in breadth. The surface is varied, and the 
soil is in general deep and fertile. The on- 
ly stream of importance is the Leet. There 
are two villages, viz. Swmton and Simprin. 
Population 875. 

SYMINGTON, a parish in Ayrshire, in 
the district of Kyle, 4 miles long, and 1 and 
a quarter broad. It contains about 2100 a- 
cres. The village of Symington contains a- 
bout 294 inhabitants. Population 668. 

SYMINGTON, a parish in Lanarkshire, 
of nearly a circular figure, 3 miles in diame- 
ter. The greater part is inclosed and well 
cultivated. The small village of Symington 
is situated on the Clyde. Population 508. 



TAR 



n^AASKEIR, a small island on the S. coast 

* of the isle of Hay. 
! TAIN, a royal borough and county town 
of Ross-shire, seated on the S. of the Frith 
of Dornoch. It is old, and irregularly built. 
The church is an old but elegant fabric, built 
in 1471, and dedicated to St. Duthus. Tain 
unites with Dingwall, Dornoch, Kirkwall, 
and Wick, in sending a representative to 
Parliament. It contains about 1250 inha- 
bitants. The parish of Tain extends along 
the Frith of Dornoch 8 miles, and is 2 in 
breadth. The surface is in general flat, and 
the arable land, which is about one-fifth of 
the whole, is tolerably fertile. P. 2384. 

TAMMTGUL, a small village in Banff- 
shire, in the parish of Kirkmichael. 

TANAR, a river in Aberdeenshire, which 
falls into the Dee near the church of Aboyne. 



TANAST, an islet near the N. coast of 
Hay. 

TANNADICE, a parish in Forfarshire, 
about 12 miles long, and on an average 4 
broad, though in some places, its breadth ex- 
tends to 8 or 10. The river South Esk runs 
through it, as well as the Noran, which here 
joins the former nver. The greater part of 
the parish is hilly and mountainous; but 
the soil is in general good. The only re- 
markable mountain is St. Arnold's Seat, on 
the top of which is a huge cairn. Near the 
eastern extremity of the parish is a small 
valley, called the Devil's Hows. Pop. 1373. 

TARANSAY, one of the northern Har- 
ris isles, about 4 miles long, and 1 broad. 

TARBAT, a parish, partly in Ross-shire, 
and partly in that of Cromarty, occupying 
the extremity of the peninsula formed by 



tne Friths of Cromarty and Dornoch, about 
7 miles and a half long, and 4 and a half at 
its greatest breadth. There is a safe har- 
bour at Portmaholmack. The surface is ir- 
regular, and the soil is in general fertile. 
Population 1343. 

TARE ATNESS, the extremity of the pa- 
rish of Tarbat, being the point of landforni- 
ed by the Friths of Cromarty and Dornoch. 

TARBERT (EAST and WEST LOCHS), 
two arms of the sea in Argyleshire, which, 
by their approximation, peninsulatethe dis- 
trict of Kintyre. 

TARBERT (EAST and WEST LOCHS), 
two arms of the sea, which penetrate a con- 
siderable way into the island of Harris ; one 
from the E. side, and another from the W. 
peninsulating the southern part of the is- 
land. 

TARBOLTON, a parish in Ayrshire, in 
the district of Kyle, about 7 or S miles long, 
and 6 broad. Its surface is diversified with 
many inequalities interspersed with marsh- 
es and heath covered eminences; but the 
greater part is well cultivated. The village 
ofTarbolton contains about 450 inhabitants. 
Population 17G6. 

TARF, a river in the stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright, which rises from a small lake 
called Lochwinnoch, in the parish of Gir- 
Shon. 

TARFF LOCH, a small lake in Inver- 
ness-shire. 

TARFF, a river in Inverness-shire, which 
issues from Loch TariF, and falls into Loch 
Ness. 

TARLAND, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
to which that of M igvy is united. The uni- 
ted parish forms a most irregular and dis- 
jointed district, lying on the western bor- 
ders of the county . The village of Tarland, 
which is a burgh of barony, is situated near- 
ly in the centre of the district of Cromarty. 
The lands about the village are mostly le- 
vel ; but the greater part of the parish is 
mountainous, and the seasons cold. The 
water of Dersky runs by the village of Tar- 
land ; and a disjointed part of the parish is 
watered by the Don. Population 922. 
T ARRAS, a small river in Dumfries-shire, 
which rises in the parish of Ewes, and falls 
into the Esk 3 miles below the town of 
Langholm. 

TERTH, a small stream in the county of 
Peebles, which falls into the Lyne near the 
Drochil castle. 

TARVES, a parish in Aberdeenshire, a- 
bout 9 miles long, and 6 broad, watered by 
the Ythan. The general appearance is le- 
vel, and the soil is fertile. Popula. 1756. 



| T E M 

TAY LbcH7in~Breadafbane, Perthshire, 
About 15 miles long, and from 1 to 2 in 
breadth, receiving at its S. W. extremity, 
the united streams of the Dochart and Lo- 
chay, and pouring forth its waters at the N. 
E. end by the river Tay. 

TAY. This noble river, which pours in- 
to the ocean a greater quantity of water 
t han any other river in great Britain, rises 
in Breadalbane, on the frontiers of Lorn 
in Argyleshire. At its source it has the 
name of Fillan, about 10 miles from which 
it diffuses itself into Loch Dochart. Issu- 
ing from that expanse of water, it loses the 
name of Fillan, and gives the name of Glen- 
dochart to the vale through which it runs. 
At the eastern extremity of this vale, it, be- 
sides other streams, receives the waters of 
the Lochay, and, shortly after, the united 
streams are lost in Loch Tay. About 2 
miles after leaving this lake, it receives a 
considerable addition to its size from the 
Lyon. At Lqgierait it is joined by the unit - 
ed streams of the Garry and Tummel. Here 
it turns towards the S. and receives the wa- 
ters of the Bran near Dunkeld, the Isla at 
Kinclaven, the Shochie at Loncarty, and the 
Almond about 2 miles above Perth. A lit- 
tle below this town it turns to the S. and 
receiving the waters of the Erne near Elcho 
Castle, it becomes nearly 3 miles tiroad, 
but contracts to 2 miles at Dundee ; about 
8 miles below which it unites with the Ger- 
man ocean. There are fewer great falls of 
water on the river Tay than in other rivers 
which rise in a Highland district ; but it pos- 
sesses several cascades of considerable 
height, particularly in the Linn ofGampsie, 
near its junction with the Isla, where the 
river is precipitated over a basaltic dike 
into a pool of great depth. The salmon fi- 
shery on the Tay is very extensive. 

TAYNUILT, a village in Argyleshire, on 
the S. of Loch Etive. 

TEALING, a parish in Forfarshire, on 
the S. side of the Sidlaw hills, about 3 miles 
long, and from 1 to 2 broad, watered by the 
small river Fithie, a tributary stream of the 
Dighty. The surface slopes gradually from 
the mountains towards the S. and the soil 
it tolerably fertile. The highest of the Sid- 
laws, in this district, is Craig Owl, elevated 
HOOfeet. Population 753. 

TEATH, or TEITH, a river in Perth- 
shire, which takes its rise from Loch Cathe- 
rine, in Balquidder, and receiving many tri- 
butary streams, joins the Allan, and falls in- 
to the Forth about 3 miles N. W. of Stir- 
ling. 

TEMPLE, a parish in Mid-Lothian i> 



bout 9 miles long, and about 5 broad, The 
arable land is tolerably fertile, The hilly 
part affords good pasturage. Pop. 853. 

TEONA, a small island of Inverness-shire, 
at Loch Moidart. 

TERR.EGLES, a parish in the Stewartry 
of Kirkcudbright, about 5 miles long, and 5 
broad. The surface is level, andthesoilin 
general a light loam or sand. Pop. 510. 

TEVIOT, or TTVIOT, a river in Rox- 
burghshire, which has its rise on the Eng- 
lish border; and, taking a course nearly N. 
E., being joined by the Slitrick at Hawick, 
the Rule at Cavers, the Jed near Jedburgh, 
the Oxnam near Crailing, the Kale at Eck- 
ford, and other streams, unites with the 
Tweed at Kelso. 

TEVIOTDALE, a district in Roxburgh- 
shire. 

TEXAY, a small island on the S. coast of 
the isle of Hay. 

THORNHILL, a village in the parish of 
Kincardine, Perthshire, nearly joined to the 
village of Norriestown, 10 miles W. from 



su- 



ing. 



THORNLIE-HTLL, a manufacturing vil- 
lage in Renfrewshire, in the parish of East- 
wood. 

THRIVE, a small island in the stewartry 
of Kirkcudbright, formed by the river Dee. 

THURSO, a town in Caithness, at the 
head of a spacious bay, irregularly built, and 
containing r.o edifices of any note, except 
the church, a Gothic building, in good re- 
pair. It is a burgh of barony. There is a 
bank established here, which issues notes. 
The harbour admits vessels of 10 feet 
draught at spring tides. Thurso contains 
about 1612 inhabitants. The parish extends 
about 3 miles around the town in every di- 
rection except towards the N. W. where it 
is bounded by the sea. Its figure is irregu- 
lar, and it contains, besides commontries, 
4000 acres of arable land. The sea coast 
in general is rocky; but the bay of Thurso 
is sheltered on the W. by Holburnhead, and 
and on the E. by Dunnethead, from the 
tremendous waves of the Pentland Frith. 
The Clett, a precipitous rock, nearly 400 j 
feet high, is insulated from tbe land by a 
deep channel, only 80 yards broad. P. 3462. 

THURSO, a rapid river which has its 
source in Loch More, and falls into the Pent- 
land Frith at the town of Thurso. It a- 
bounds with salmon and trout. 

TIBBERMUIR, a parish in Perthshire, 
about S miles long, and from 1 to 3 broad. It 
contains about 4670 Scots acres. This pa- 
rish is noted for the extensive printtields 
and bleachfields. These are well supplied 



with water by a canal from the Almond to 
Perth, which was formed previous to the 
year 1244. Population 1306. 

TIFTALA, a small barren islaDd in the 
Pentland Frith, belonging to Orkney. 

TILLYCOULTRY, a parish in Clack- 
mannanshire, 6 miles long, and from 1 to 2 
broad, containing about 6000 Scots acres. 
The soil is in general dry and fertile; and 
the high grounds afford pasture for sheep. 
The minerals found are chiefly granite and 
basaltes, with coal on the low grounds, of a 
good quality ; and the metals are silver, 
lead, copper, cobalt, antimony, and arsenic. 
Ironstone is very abundant, with septaria, 
which are worked by the Devon Iron com- 
pany. There are 3 villages in the parish, 
Earlstown, Coalsnaughton, and Wester- 
town. The village of Tillycoultry has a 
manufacture of Scots plaiding, serges and 
blankets. Population 916. 

TILLY LOCH, a small lake in Fifeshire, 
lying between the parishes of Beith and 
Dunfermline, about a mile long, and half a 
mile broad. 

TILT, a small rapid stream in Athole, in 
Perthshire, which rises on the borders of 
M.irr, and falls into the Garry near Blair 
Castle. 

TINGWALL, WF.ISDALE, and WHITE- 
NESS. These united parishes lie in the 
mainland of Shetland, and extend 10 miles 
in length, and 7 in breadth; but are so 
much intersected by numerous voes or 
friths, that no part of the district is upwards 
of 2 miles from the sea. The principal 
harbours are the bays of Laxforth and Scal- 
loway ; at the latter of which is the ancient 
village of the same name. At the S. end 
of the village is the ruinous castle of Scal- 
loway. Several small islands belong to thi3 
parish. Population 1863. 

TINNIS,a mountain in R oxburghshire, 
in the parish of Castletown. 

TINKIS, a small rivet in Roxburghshire, 
which falls into the Liddal. 

TINTO, a ridge of hills in Lanarkshire, 
between the parishes of Carmichael and Sy- 
mington. 

TINWALD,?. parish in. Dumfries-shire, 
to which that of Trailflat is united. The 
united parish i j of a rectangular figure, 6" 
miles long, and 4 broad, lying on the E.side 
of Lochar moss, which separates it from 
Dumfries, and watered by the small river 
Ae. the greater part is arable. Pop. 980. 

TIR-Y, or TYREE, an island of the He- 
brides, about 21 miles W. of the island of 
Mull. It is 11 miles long, and nearly 2 
miles and a half broad. About one half is 
D D 



TOR 2 

arable, interspersed with small rocks and 
rising grounds. In theinterior are 24 small 
lakes. There is a regular ferry from this is- 
land to Coll, 3 miles distant. Popu. 2416. 

TIR-Y a parish of the Hebrides, compre- 
hending the islands ofTir-y, Coll, andGun- 
na, besides several uninhabited islands. 

TIUNPAN-HEAD, a promontory on the 
K. of Lewis. 

TOBERMORY, a village in the island of 
Mull, built by the British Society for the en- 
couragement of fisheries. 

TOFTINGALL (LOCH), a small lake in 
the count of Caithness, and parish of Wat- 
tin. 

TONDERGARTH, aparish in Dumfries- 
shire, about 14 miles long, and 1 and a half 
broad. It is in general level, with a good 
deal of arable land. Population 4S4. 

TONGLAND, aparish in the stewartry 
of Kirkcudbright, of a triangular figure, 8 
miles long, and 4 broad at its northern ex- 
tremity, gradually decreasing in breadth to 
its southern extremity, where the rivers 
Tarffand Dee unite. The middle of the 
parish is occupied by a ridge of mountains, 
running N. and S. On the banks of the ri- 
vers the surface is level, and the soil a fer- 
tile loam. Population 656. 

TONGUE, aparish in the county of Su- 
therland, about 11 miles long, and nearly 
the same breadth. The general appearance 
is hilly, a ridge of high mountains passing 
nearly through the middle of the parish. 
The chieflake is Loch Laoghal. The coast 
is high and rocky, indented by the bays of 
Tongue and Torrisdale, and having the pro- 
montories of Whitenhead and Torrisdale 
projecting a considerable way into the sea. 
The rocks along the coast are excavated in- 
to many caves, the largest of which is 20 
feet wide at the entrance, and penetrates 
nearly half a mile under ground. There 
are several small islands, of which Ealan- 
nan-Roan only is inhabited. Popu. 1348. 

TORLEUM, a mountain of Perthshire, in 
the parish of Monivaird, elevated 1400 feet. 

TOROGAY, one of the smaller Hebrides, 
in the sound of Harris* 

TOROSAY, aparish in Argyleshire, on 
the E. side of the island of Mull. It extends 
12 miles in length in every direction ; and 
the sea coast is indented by numerous small 
bays, which afford good anchorage, particu- 
larly at Auchnacraig, from whence there is 
a regular ferry to Oban in Lorn, by the is- 
land of Kerrera. The general appearance 
is rugged, mountainous, and covered with 
heath, but excellently adapted for sheep 
pasture. Population. 1764. 



T R A 

~ TORPHICHEN,. a parish in West Lo- 
thian, about 9 miles long, and on an aver- 
age 2 and a half broad. The general ap- 
pearance is hilly, particularly at the E. 
end, where the hill of Cairn Napleis situat- 
ed, the altitude of which is 159S feet above 
the level of the sea. There is a small lake, 
about a mile in circumference. The great- 
er part of the parish is enclosed. Po. 1028. 

TORRISDALE, a river in Sutberland- 
shire, which risesfrom Loch Laoghal or Lo- 
yal, in the parish of Tongue, and falls into 
the Northern Sea at the village of Torris- 
dale. 

TORRY, a small fishing village in Kin- 
cardineshire, near the Girdleness. 

TORRYBURN, a parish in Fifeshire, 
formed by the union of the baronies of Tor- 
ry and Crombie,about 5 miles in length, and 
2 in breadth. The village of Torryburn 
contains about 1200 inhabitants, and pos- 
sesses an excellent harbour. Pop. 1461. 

TORTHORWALD, aparish in Dumfries- 
shire, lying on the E. side of Lochar Moss. 
It contains about 4400 acres. The inhabit- 
ed part forms a square of about 2 miles, in 
the midst of which is the village of Torthor- 
wald. There is another small village called 
Roucan, containing 143 inhabitants. Po- 
pulation 703- 

TORTASELLER-HEAD, a promontory 
on the E. coast of the isle of Lewis. 

TOUGH, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 5 
miles long, and 3 broad. The surface is ir- 
regular, but mostly all the hills are arable. 

TOWIE, or TOWIE-KINBATTOCK, a 
parish in Aberdeenshire, about 3 miles and 
a'half long, and 2 broad, watered by the Don. 
The general appearance is hilly ; but by the 
river side the soil is tolerably fertile. P. 528. 

TRAILFLAT, aparish in Dumfries-shire. 
Vide TINWALD- 

TRALIG (LOCH), a small lake in Ar- 
gyleshire, in the parish of Kilninver, which 
discharges its waters by the Oude into the 
sound of Mull. 

TRANENT, a parish in Haddingtonshire, 
about 6 miles by 3, on the shore of the Frith 
of Forth, The surface is level, and except 
a small extent of downs, and 100 acres of 
commonty, the whole is cultivated. To- 
wards the coast it is flat and sandy, except 
the rocky ground where the villages of Port- 
seaton and Cockenzie are built. The town 
of Tranent is pleasantly situated on the 
great E. road from Edinburgh, about 9 
miles distant from the Metropolis. P. 3036. 

TRAPRENE LAW, a small comical hill 
in East Lothian, about a mile and a half N. 
W.i from the village of YVbitingham. 



T U M 



211 



Y N 



TRAQUAIR, a parish in Peebles-shire ; 
on the S. bank of the Tweed, and watered 
by the river Quair, about miles long, and 
from 4 to 5 broad, containing 17,290 acres. 
The surface is rocky and mountainous. 
Minchmoor is elevated 2000 feet above the 
level of the sea, and G umscleugh is at least 
200 feet higher. Popul ation 613. 

TREISHNISH ISLES, a cluster of is- 
lands of the Hebrides, belonging to Argyle- 
sbire, about 4 leagues W. of Mull. 

TRINITY-GASK.aparish in Perthshire, 
in Stratherne, composed of the united pa- 
rishes of Kinkell and Wester Gask. It 
stretches for several miles on both sides of 
the Erne, the banks rising gradually to the 
H. Population 769. 

TRONDA, or TRONDRAY, an island of j 
Shetland, about 5 miles and a half long, 
and 2 broad. 

TROON, a promontory in Ayrshire, pro- I 
jeering about a mile into the Frith of Clyde. 

TROQUIRE, or TROQUEER, a parish 
in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, about 
7 miles and a hclf long, and 4 and a half 
broad. Population 2774. 

TROSACHS, rugged and stupendous i 
mountains in Perthshire, about 15 miles W. ' 
from Callander. 

TROSTRIE, a small but beautiful lake 
in the parish of Twynehomle, Kirkcud- 
brightshire. 

TROUP, a village of Banffshire, on the 
sea coast near Gardenston. 

TRUIM,"a small river in Inverness-shire, 
which falls into the Spey near the church 
of Laggan. 

TUDHOPE FELL, a mountain in Rox- 
burghshire, on the English border. 

TULLIALLAN, a parish in Perthshire, 
of an irregular figure, about 4 miles long, 
and 4 broad, having a pretty level surface, 
gently declining to the S. where the Forth 
forms its boundary. The parish contains a- 
bout 2760 acres. The town of Kincardine 
lies in this parish. Population 3S00. 

TULLOCH, a parish in Aberdeenshire. 
Vide GLENMUICK. 

TULLOCH-ARD, a lofty mountain in 
Ross-shire, in the district of Kintail, 

TULLYNESSLE, a parish in Aberdeen- 
shire, about 4 miles long, and 2 and a half 
broad, lying on the N. bankofthe river Don, 
mountainous towards the N. and W. Tire 
arable soil is a light loam. Population 5~>(). 

TULM, an isle of the Hebrides, near the 
N. coast of Sky. 

TDM1IEL, a large river in Perthshire, 
vhich issues from Loch Rannoch, and, tak- 
ing an easterly course it expands into a small 



lake. The whole course of the Tummel is 
rapid and furious, forming every where the 
most romantic and picturesque cascades. 

TURREFF, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
about 4 miles and a half nearly round the 
town of the same name. On the N. W. it 
is bounded by the Deveron. The soil is in 
general light and fertile. The town of Tur- 
ret!', which is situated on the banks of the 
Deveron, is a free burgh of barony. P. 2090. 
TURRET, a small lake in Perthshire, in 
the parish of Monivaird and Strowan. 

TWEED, a large river, which has its 
source in Tweedsmuir, near where the 
counties of Peebles, Dumfries, and Lanark 
join, and near the sources of jthe Clyde and 
Annan. It takes a course nearly N. E. re- 
ceiving many small streams, till it reaches 
Peebles, when running nearly E., its stream 
is augmented by the Ettrick near Selkirk, 
the Gala at Galashiels, the Leader near Mel- 
rose, and the Teviot at Kelso. A few miles 
below this town, it leaves Roxburghshire, 
and forms, for many miles, the boundary be- 
tween England and Scotland, until it falls 
into the German ocean at Berwick. It re- 
ceives the Whittader about 5 miles from its 
mouth. 

TWEEDDALE, that district of Peebles 
and Berwickshires, watered by the river 
Tweed. 

TWEEDEN, a small river in Roxburgh- 
shire, which joins the Liddal near its aestu-. 
ary on the Solway Frith. 
TWEEDSMUIR, a parish in Peebles-shire, 
It is about 9 miles long, and in many pla- 
ces of the same breadth. The surface is hil- 
ly, Hatfield and Broadlaw rising about 2S00 
feet above the level of the sea. Pop. 2o„'9. 
TWYNEHOLME, a parish in the stew- 
artry of Kirkcudbright, united with that of 
Kilchrist. Theform of the united parish is 
oblong, about 9 miles by 2, on the W. banks 
of the rivers Dee and Tarff, and watered by 
the sea on the S. and W. Population 685. 
TYNDRUM, a small village in Breadal- 
bane, in Perthshire, upon the western mi- 
litary road. 

T YNE, a small river in Haddingtonshire, 
which rises on the borders of the county of 
Mid-Lothian, and falls into the Frith of 
Forth in the parish of Tynninghame. 

TYNNINGHAME,a parish in Hadding. 
tonshire, to which that of Whitekirk is u- 
nited. The united parish extends nearly 6 
miles long, and ,5 broad, bounded on the N. 
and E. by the Frith of Forth. The surface 
is level, and the soil is in general a rich 
loam. The river Tyne intersects the south- 
em part of the parish. Population 9^5. 



T Y N 2 

TYNKON, a parish in Dumfries-shire, a- 
bout 15 miles long, and on an average 4 
broad. The greater part of the parish is 
calculated for pasturing sheep; and the 
small proportion of arable land has a thin 
saady soil. It is watered by the rivers 
Scarr and Shmnel. The Doon of Tynron is 
a beautiful pyramidal hill. Pop. 5G3. 



T Y R 

TYREBEGCtAR, a ridge of hills in Aber- 
1 deenshire, in the parish of D>ce. 

T YRIE, a parish in Aberdeenshire, about 
10 miles long, and 4 and u half broad. The 
surface is agreeably diversified, and the soil 
is generally fertile. Population 1044. 

TYRIE. VideTir-y. 



uv 



V I G 



U N S 



■y AAKSAY, one of the smaller Hebrides, 
in the sound of Harris. 
UAIGHMOR, a hill in Perthshire, parish 
of Kilmadock. 

VAILA, an island of Shetland, W. of the 
Mainland. 

VALLAFIELD, a hill in the island of 
Unst, in Shetland. 

VANNACHOIR LOCH, a small lake in 
Perthshire, between the parishes of Port of 
Ttlonteith and Callander. 

VATERNISH POINT, a remarkable pro- 
montory on the N. W. coast of the isle of 
Sky. 

U DN Y, a parish in Aberdeenshire, about 
7 miles and a half square. The general ap- 
pearance is level, with small eminences. 
The soil is in general a deep loam, with a 
considerable proportion of marshy ground. 
UDRIGILL-HEAD, a promontory on the 
IV. coast of Ross- shire. 

VENNY, or FINNY, a small rivulet of 
Angus-shire, -which rises in the neighbour- 
hood of Forfar. 

UGlE.ariverin Aberdeenshire. Ittakes 
its rise about 20 miles from the sea, in two 
different streams, the Stricken and Deer, 
which unite about 5 miles from the sea, at 
Peterhead, and then take the name of Ugie. 
UIG, a parish in Ross-shire, in the S. W. 
district oftheislandof Lewis, about 1.5 miles 
long, and 13 broad. Loch Roag is an exten- 
sive arm of the sea, ahout 6 or S miles broad, 
and IS or 20 long, interspersed with islands, 
the largest of which, called Bernera, Is no 
less than 12 miles long. The whole lake a- 
bounds with safe places of anchorage. Po- 
pulation 208C. 

VIGEAN'S (ST.) a parish' in Forfarshire, 
on the coast to the E. and N. of Arbroath, 
and comprehending a great pact of the sub- 
urbs eft hat town. It is 7 miles long, and 



rivtr DruUio.k. I'oou.J'a; 



deul.vt: 



UIST (NORTH), an island of the Hebri- 
des, belonging to Inverness-shire, between 
Harris on the N., and Benbecula on the S., 
about 20 miles long, and from 12to 18broad. 
That part of the coast which is washed by 
the Atlantic is inaccessible to vessels, or e- 
ven to fishing boats, except in the calmest 
weather, on account of rocks and shoals. 
The E. coast also is bold, except where it is 
intersected by several inlets of the sea. 
There are a great number of fresh water 
lakes. The parish of North Uist compre- 
hends, the adjacent isles of Boreray, Orin- 
say, Vallay, Heisker, Kirkbost, lleray, Grim- 
say, and several small holms. Pop. 3010. 

UIST (SOUTH), one of the Hebrides be- 
longing to Inverness-shire, in the district 
called the Long Island, between the isles of 
Benbecula on the N., and Barray on the S. 
It is about 32 miles long, and from 9 to 10 
broad. The principal harbours are, Loch 
Skiport, Loch Eynort, and Loch Boisdale. 
The parish of South Uist comprehends the 
adjacent islands of Benbecula, Rona, Eris- 
kay, and several smaller islets. Pop. 459.0. 
ULLAPOOL, a village on the W. coast of 
Ross-shire, on Loch Broom. It is one of the 
fishing stations of the British Society. 

ULLAPOOL, a small riveriii Ross-shire, 
which rises in the mountains, on the bor. 
ders of Sutherland, and falls into Loch 
Broom. 

ULVA, a small island of Hebrides, 2 miles 
W. from Mull, between that isle and Staff a. 
UNST, the most northern of the Shetland 
isles. It is of an irregular oblong figure, 
1 2 miles long, by 3 or 4 broad. 1 1 is diver- 
sified by several extensive ridges of hills, 
and there are several fresh waterlakes The 
shores of Unst are indented with bays and 
creeks, and have many pasture islands and 
small holms scattered around. The two 
principal harbours are Uya sound, on the S. 
;::id Hallo sound on the K. The soil is to- 



u 



U Y A 



Ierably fertile. Unst forms a parish, which, 
in 1801, contained 2259 inhabitants. 

VOIL LOCH, a lake in the parish of Bal- 
quidder, Perthshire, about 4 miles long, and 
1 broad; the source of the river Balvag, a 
branch of the Teith. 

VORD, a hill ra the island of Unst, in 
Shetland. 

VOTERSAY, one of the Hebrides, in the 
sound of Harris. 

UPHALL, or STRATHBROK, a parish 
in Linlithgowshire, containing 3120 Scots 
acres. It is watered by the rivulet of Brox- 
burn, upon which is a village of the same 
name. Population 78G. 

UPLAMOOR, a village in Renfrewshire. 

URCUAY, or URQUHAY, a river which 
rises on the borders of Perthshire, near the 
source of the Tay, and after a course of 10 
or 12 miles, falls into Loch Ow. 

UR1E, a stream in Aberdeenshire, which 
rises in the district ot Garioch, and falls in- 
to the Don at Inveruiy. 

TRINE LOCH, in Ross-shire, about 3 
miles long, and 1 broad 

URQUHART, a parish in Elginshire, a- 
bout 4 miles by 2, on the coast of the Moray 
Frith, between the rivers Spey and Lossie. 
There is only one lake, called the Loch of 
Cotts, about a mile in circuit; and Loch 
Nabeau forms the boundary between this 
parish and that of St. Andrew's Lhanbryd. 
Population 1023. 

URQUHART and GLENMORISTON.a 
parish in Inverness-shire, about 30 miles 
long, and from 8 to 13 broad. The surface 
is mountainous, comprehending the two 
vallies of Urquhart and Glenmoriston, 
which extend in a westerly direction from 
Loch Ness, parallel to, and separated from 
each other by a ridge of lofty mountains. 
The rivers are Moriston, Enneric, and Coil- 
tie, all of which fall into Loch Ness. Po- 
pulation 2733. 

URQUHART andLOGIE-WESTER, an 



united parish in Ross-ahire, extending 9 of 
10 miles in length, and from 3 to 4 broad, 
along the head of the Frith of Cromarty, 
where the Conon discharges itsel