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The minuteness and variety of detail which will be found in the Gazetteeb of 
Scotland, removes the necessity of giving any lengthened general descrip- 
tion ; and perhaps there is little statistical information relating peculiarly to 
Scotland, which may not be gathered from some of the copious articles con- 
tained in the body of the work. There are yet some details bearing reference 
to the whole country, which cannot be separated into individual parts, and 
others which, although essential to the proper elucidation of the state of por- 
tions of the country, can only be properly appreciated in combination. 
We deem it, therefore, requisite to give a succinct account of those general 
matters which either could not be introduced in particular articles, or which 
require to be exhibited in connexion. 

Scotland is popularly that part of the island of Great Britain which lies to 
the north of the river Tweed, though this river forms a very small portion of 
its boundary with England. The line of boundary is only partly physical ; 
to the west it consists of the Solway Firth, and throughout its extent pur- 
sues successively the course of the Esk, the Liddel, and the Kershope Wa- 
ter ; and running along the southern declivity of the Cheviot Hills, in some 
parts in an indefinite and ideal line, it joins the Tweed near Birgham. 
On every side except the south-east, Scotland is bounded by the sea ; on the 
north by the great North Sea ; on the east by the German Ocean ; on the 
west by the Atlantic ; and on the south by the Irish Sea. The mainland of 
Scotland extends from the Mull of Galloway in 54° 38' to Far-Out-Head, in 
59° 36' north lat., a distance of 275 miles ; but the longest interval between 
any two parallels of lat. is between the former point and Dunnet-Head, 284 
miles; the greatest breadth is from Buchan-ness to Ardnamurchan Point, 160 
miles ; the least is from the Firth of Dornoch to Loch Broom, 36 miles : but 
the form of this part of the island is so irregular, and it'is so indented by 
arms of the sea, that its breadth is exceedingly various. 

Coasts. — From Berwick-upon-Tweed, the south-east angle, tho shore 
bends to the north-west, terminating in the Firth of Forth, which penetrates 



inland to a considerable extent. Fife-ness, or the promontory of Fife, jutting 
out into the sea, forms the division between the Firth of Forth and the Firth 
of Tay. From the mouth of the Tay to Buchanness the coast stretches in 
a waving direction to the north-east. It then tends to the north, running 
into a large triangular bay, the south side of which, extending upwards of 
eighty miles inland, is termed the Moray firth ; its northern side is indented 
by the firths of Cromarty and Dornoch. From the latter firth the shore 
winds to the north-east, till terminated by Duncansby-head ; from this, the 
most north-easterly point of Scotland, the coast proceeds to the promontory 
of Dunnet-head, and thence in a south-west direction to Thurso-bay. It 
then again tends to the north-west as far as Strathy-head, where it changes 
to a south-west direction, being indented by two arms of the sea, Loch 
Tongue and Loch Eribole. Stretching north-west to Far-out-head, and 
again south-west to Durness bay, it thence proceeds north-west to Cape 
Wrath, the most north-westerly point. The northern coasts are generally 
bold and dangerous — jutting out into formidable rocky headlands, while the 
Pentland firth, which divides the mainland from the Orkneys, is narrow and 
tempestuous. From Cape Wrath the coast turns to the south ; it seems 
in its whole extent torn and shattered by the fury of the waves, and every- 
where indented by large lochs, and the sea studded by innumerable islands, 
appearing as if detached from the mainland by some convulsion of nature. 
About thirty or forty miles west from the coast, a range of islands called the 
Long island stretches above 100 miles from north to south. Near the coast 
is the isle of Skye, and to the south the isle of Mull. . -Still farther south 
lie the great isles of Islay and Jura and many others. Near the sound of 
Mull the great navigable firth called Loch Linnhe extends north-east to Fort 
William, approaching within fifty miles of the Moray firth. South of this 
loch, the long and narrow peninsula of Cantire terminates in the Mull, 
which is only about twenty miles distant from Ireland. Between the Mull of 
Cantire and the coast of Ayrshire, is the great entrance into the firth of Clyde, 
in which are situated the islands of Arran, Bute, &c. This estuary divides 
at the isle of Bute into two openings, the first, Loch-Fyne, penetrating in- 
land into Argyleshire, and the second, the firth of Clyde, extending easterly 
to within thirty miles of the firth of Forth. From the Firth of Clyde the 
shore proceeds south to the Mull of Galloway, and thence in an easterly di- 
rection to the Sol way firth. 

Surface. — The distinguishing characteristic of the surface of Scotland is 
variety. The country is mountainous to the extent of two-thirds; and even of 
the remaining third there is little that can be denominated level land, except 
the alluvial tracts along the courses of the greater rivers. Scotland is naturally 
divided into Highlands and Lowlands. The Highland mountains are se- 
parated from the middle and low district by a tolerably distinct line traced 
along the declivities of the Grampians ; commencing at the Mull of Can- 
tire the boundary is the sea, and successively the Clyde to Dumbarton. 
Hence it may be conceived to proceed by Callander, Crieff, Dunkeld, and 
Blairgowrie, and along the great plain of Strathmore, till it is lost near 
Stonehaven. The boundaries of another natural division into three parts 
are likewise distinctly marked. The first or northern is cut off from the 
middle or central division by the chain of lakes occupying the Glenmore-nan- 


albin, or " Great glen of Caledonia, 11 stretching from Loch Linnhe to 
the Moray firth, now connected together by the Caledonian canal. The 
middle division is separated from the southern by the firths of Forth and 
Clyde, now united by the Great canal. 

In the northern division little is to be seen but a vast congeries of lofty 
mountains ; these hills are bordered however on the north-east and east coasts 
by level tracts of considerable fertility — this physically low country, though 
politically included in the Highland district, forms a tract ranging from In- 
verness, along the sea-shore as far south as Aberdeen or Stonehaven, where 
it terminates for a short space to be again renewed on a broader scale. The 
tract, indeed, which commencing by an eastern margin, extends hence to the 
Lammermoor range southwards, and then crosses westward to Glasgow, may 
be esteemed the proper lowland tract of Scotland, though even this affords 
little continuous plain country, being everywhere interspersed with or inter- 
rupted by ridges. 

Of the two distinct tracts of mountain land or high country, the north- 
western forms the district of the Highlands above traced out and minutely 
described under this title in the alphabetical arrangement. The southern 
comprises the great pastoral district or dales, the former seat of those bor- 
derers who resembled the Highlanders in their predatory habits, and main- 
tained an almost perpetual warfare with England. Its boundary is less dis- 
tinctly marked than the northern, but generally it may be conceived to com- 
mence on the east with the Lammermoor ridge, and passing along the Pent- 
lands, Tinto, &c, to terminate near Creetown in Galloway ; it thus leaves a 
considerable tract of irregular low country to the westward. 

The particular physical properties of the subdivisions of these great dis- 
tricts as well as their agricultural and statistical condition, are sufficiently 
described in the body of this work ; it remains only to show connectedly their 
relative proportions to each other, and the extent of the whole country. 

The following table, constructed from Arrowsmith 1 s large map of Scotland 
by Mr. Jardine and Sir George Mackenzie, enables us to present the nearest 
approximation to the truth on this point which has yet appeared, and con- 
sidering the care taken, and the scientific character of these gentlemen, per- 
haps as close an approach to it as the data will allow. 

To this table we have added the annual value of houses and lands, (in- 
cluding mines, fisheries &c.) as assessed for the property tax in 1815, col- 
lected from the county returns, published in the parliamentary paper, " Re- 
sults of the Census of 1831," just printed, and also a column from Sir J. Sin- 
clair's General Report, showing what proportion of the annual value in 1811 
was derived from houses, the rest being land, mines, fisheries, &c. 

The term water in the table is understood to indicate only the fresh water 
of considerable lochs, that of rivers, salt water, and firths not being included. 

We need scarcely add that the actual superficies of any country, more 
especially of such a hilly country as Scotland, must considerably exceed the 
result obtained by a mode of measurement which proceeds on the supposition 
that the whole is a flat plain surface. The surface presented by a hill must 
evidently always exceed the superficies of the area on which it stands. 





Square Miles. 

English Acres. 

Scottish Acre* 

Annual Value 
of Houses and 

which Houses 
formeil of the 


Lands in 1815. 

whole in 1811 

., . 

per cent. 








f Mainland, 





-< Islands, 



398,645 I 



C Water, 



16,395 j 

Ayr . - 







Banff - 













3 £ 









f Land, 
( Water, 



374,360 \ 
3,273 / 



J Land, 
\ Water, 




4,848 } 
















f Land, 
( Water, 




124,909 ) 
16,511 f 









Elgin - 














Forfar - 







Haddington - 






3 2 

f Mainland, 





■< Islands, 



525,167 C 

1 85,565 


C Water, 



42,496 ) 







5 h 


f Land, 
| Water, 




42,536 7 
39,106 t 



























i 25,856 




Orkney - 

f Land, 
\ Water, 



159,199 ■) 



4,643 ( 



Shetland Islands 





Peebles - 

- . 






Perth - 

f Land, 
\ Water, 














1 Mainland, 





■s Islands, 



284,742 C 



t Water, 



20,002 ) 























J Land, 
\ Water, 

I 865 


946,585 \ 











f Land, 
t Water, 














* In this table fractional parts of a mile are omitted 


As the numerous mountains, rivers, lakes, and other natural objects, as 
well as canals and antiquities, are fully described in their proper places, it 
would be idle repetition here to give .a mere enumeration of names or a 
meagre description. It may be sufficient to present in the following Tables 
the extent of country from which the principal rivers derive their waters, and 
the superficial extent of the great lakes. 



sq. miles sq. miles 

Tay - »2396 Ness - - 850 

Tweed - - 1870 Forth - - . - 840 

Spey - - - 1300 Lochy - - 530 

Clyde - - 1200 Nith - 504 

Dee - 900 Findhorn - - .500 



sq. miles sq. miles 

Loch Lomond 45 Loch Tay - 20 

Loch Awe - - 30 Loch Arkaig - 18 

Loch Ness . . 30 Loch Shiel - - 16 

Loch Shin - 25 Loch Lochy - - 15 

Loch Maree - - 24 Loch Lac;gan - - 12 


Granite. The most extensive tract of this rock in Scotland, is that which 
forms the great mountain groupe Cairngorm and Ben Avon, with the neigh- 
bouring mountains on both sides of the Dee ; ramifying into Perthshire and 
Inverness-shire. Smaller tracts of granite are the following. One to the 
south of Banff ; one approaching near to the eastern coast of Sutherland and 
extending to a considerable distance in the interior of that county ; two 
patches near Stromness in Orkney ; several small patches in the Shetland 
Isles ; one in Kintail in Ross-shire ; one on the western promontory of Mull ; 
one including the base of Ben Nevis and the moor of Rannoch ; one near 
Comrie ; one in the north of Arran, and one in Galloway, forming the Crif- 
fel and Cairnmoor range. 

Gneiss, with the other primary rocks, as mica slate, quartz rock, clay- 
slate, chlorite slate, and primary limestone, occupies a tract of country which 
embraces in it all the granite north of the Firth of Clyde and south of the 
Pentland Firth. This large portion may be called the gneiss field, as that 
mineral is by far the most predominant, and is the material of which most 
of the high mountains are composed. The south east boundary of this great 
field may be represented by a line slightly incurvated with its convexity 
northward, passing from the Island of Bute to near Stonehaven. All north 
of this line may be reckoned the district of gneiss, excepting a portion along 
the western shores of Ross and Sutherland, a portion along the north-east 
and the east shore of Caithness, Sutherland, and Ross, and a small portion 

• These rivers are arranged in the order of the extent of country from which they derive 
their waters, and not in the order of their relative size or importance. 


on both sides of the Moray Firth. The Islands Coll, Tiree, Rona, and 
Iona, nearly all Long-Island, and the south-east oart of Skve are also of 

Primary Limestone has been wrought as marble at Assynt in Sutherland, 
and in the islands of Skye and Tiree. It also occurs in the Shetland isles ; 
in Badenoch, and in Glen Tilt. 

Mica Slate and Clay Slate abound in many parts of the primitive forma- 
tion, the latter having been wrought as roofing slate at Easdale, Callander, 
near Loch Lomond, Comrie, Dunkeld, Blairgowrie, and near Banff. 

The Old Red Sandstone appears in Bute, Arran, Foula, the Mainland of 
Shetland, various of the Orkneys, on the west coast of Sutherland, and 
Caithness, the north-east and east parts of Caithness, the east coasts of Suther- 
land, Ross, Cromarty, and Inverness, terminating at the mouth of the Spey. 

To the west of Dunnet, in Caithness, the red sandstone passes into strong 
layers of grey argillaceous slate, so plain and smooth as not to require hewing 
on the surface. 

The most extensive tract of red sandstone in Scotland, is that which is ex- 
tended across the whole island, from Stonehaven to the Firth of Clyde. It 
is separated on its north-west side from the gneiss district, by an intervening 
narrow stripe of primary schistus, and its southern margin is formed partly by 
the northern shore of the Firth of Tay, thence by the trap rocks near to the 
southern coast of Fife, thence it passes near to Stirling, thence in a south- 
westerly direction, passing to the north of Glasgow, crossing the Clyde to 
where it joins trap rocks, near Greenock. In many parts of this tract stones 
for building are wrought, but in most cases they are found to be inferior in 
beauty and durability to the sandstone of the coal formation. In Angus-shire, 
red sandstone is largely wrought for paving. Like other sandstones, it im- 
bibes water, and from its slaty structure, exfoilates by freezing. 

On the south of the Forth, a tract of red sandstone stretches along the shore, 
from near Dunbar to the margin of Berwickshire, passing westward along the 
Lammermoor ridge, and extending in breadth to the westward, where it en- 
ters the Upper Ward of Lanarkshire. 

The most southerly tract of red sandstone commences north of Berwick, 
embraces the lower positions of the Tweed and the Tiviot, winding into Eng- 
land by the south of the Cheviot Hills, and re-entering Scotland where it oc- 
cupies a large space of the basin of the Solw^y Firth. There seems to be rea- 
sons for believing that the red sandstone of the south of Scotland is of the 
superior rocks. 

The transition rocks have been described as those occupying nearly the 
whole of the hilly part of the south of Scotland, which consists of greywacke, 
greywacke-slate, and clay-slate, with masses of whinstone, granite, felspar, flint- 
slate, &c. interspersed. This tract extends all across the island, from St. 
Abfrs Head to Portpatrick, and is irregular in breadth, as from New Cum- 
nock to the upper part of the Nith, from Middleton to the eastern extremity 
of the Cheviot Hills, and from Cockburnspath to near Eyemouth. 

The great coal field is of the floetz formation, and includes the southern 
part of Fife, a large proportion of the three Lothians, the Lower Ward of 
Lanarkshire, with most of the Middle Ward, a great proportion of Renfrew- 
shire, and of Ayrshire. In calling this part of the country the coal field, it 


is not meant that workable coal is found in every part of it, but that the 
strata of the whole is such as usually accompanies beds of coal. Besides the 
large field just noticed, there are smaller detached beds of coal, as at Brora in 
Sutherland, Campbelltown in Argyleshire, and near Sanquhar in Dumfries- 

Porphyry occurs in Glencoe. It forms the summit of Ben Nevis, and va- 
rieties of it appear associated with trap rocks, in various situations. 

Trap. Rocks of this class are so frequent and so widely diffused, that an 
enumeration of all the known localities would be too tedious. The follow- 
ing are thought sufficient in this place. It occurs in the islands of Papa- 
Stour in Shetland, St. Kilda, Skye, Canna, Eigg, Rum, Muck, Mull, Arran, 
Cumbray, and AUsa. On the main land at Ardnamurchan, Morven, the 
Sidlaw Range, near Perth, in the Ochills, Campsie Hill, the northern shores 
of Fife, Cullelo Hills and westward to Stirling, North Berwick Law, Inch- 
keith, Arthur's Seat, Braid Hills, in the Pentland Hills, on both sides of the 
Clyde west of Glasgow, and continuously by Greenock, through part of Ren- 
frewshire to Ayrshire. 

Without the aid of a geological map, it may be impossible to convey an 
adequate view of the distribution of the rocks of Scotland, nor do our limits 
permit us to point ovit the subjects that have furnished the materials for many 
interesting speculations on the theory of the earth. 

The mineralogy of a country so diversified in its materials and structure 
as Scotland, cannot be generally treated in a work like the present. It is 
therefore thought expedient merely to point out the localities in which 
some of the valuable and useful metallic ores occur. 

Copper Ore, at Blair Logie, Airthrie and at Fetlar in Orkney. 
Antimony, at Langholm. 

Silver, has been wrought at Alva in Stirlingshire, and at Leadhills in 

Lead, (the sulphuret,) at Leadhills, at Wanlockhead in Dumfries-shire, 
Strontian in Argyleshire, Dollar in Clackmannanshire, Belleville in Inver- 
ness-shire, and Leadlaw in Peebles-shire. 
Cobalt, at Alva in Stirlingshire. 
Arsenic, in the Ochill hills in Clackmannanshire. 

Clay- Ironstone, abounds in many parts, particularly in the coalfield. It 
is smelted at Carron, at Calder near Airdrie, at Shotts, at Wilsontown, at 
the Clyde iron-works, at Muirkirk, and at Glenbuck. 

Climate. Situated in the midst of a great ocean and in a high northern 
latitude, Scotland has naturally an extremely variable climate. The cold in 
winter, however, from its insular situation, is not so intense as in similar lati- 
tudes on the Continent, and the same cause moderates the summer heat. 
The annual average temperature may be estimated at from 44° to 47° of 
Fahrenheit, the ordinary greatest range of the thermometer is from 84° to 8°, 
and the greatest extremes which have ever been observed were 92° and 3° 
below zero. 

The general annual quantity of rain is from 30 to 31 inches. On an ave- 
rage of 12 years it has been estimated that it rained or snowed on the west 
coast 205 days, leaving 160 fair, and on the east coast that it rained or snow- 
ed 13o days, leaving 230 fair. 


The winds are very variable both in force and direction, and in the more 
elevated districts this is greatly heightened by the intervention of lofty moun- 
tains with their adjacent glens and valleys. 

Soil, <Sfc. — The nature of the soil of Scotland is exceedingly varied, but 
generally inferior to that of England. There are, however, even in the most 
mountainous districts, many valleys or straths which are highly productive ; 
and in the three Lothians, Berwickshire, Fifeshire, the carses of Stirling, 
Falkirk, and Gowrie, in Clydesdale, Strathearn, and Strathmore, the province 
of Moray, Easter Ross, &c. &c, are tracts of land equal to any in the island. 

A great proportion of the soil is uncultivated, and much even of the 
cultivated portion, notwithstanding the immense improvements in agricul- 
ture, is still comparatively unproductive. 

The following tables on this subject were digested by Sir John Sinclair from 
his Statistical Account. 



Number of acres fully or partially cultivated 

Acres uncultivated, including woods and plantations 

Total extent of Scotland in English acres 


Extent of Plantations - 

Extent of Natural Woods 

Eng. Acres. 




Eng. Acres. 

Total 913,695 


Sandy soils 


Improved mossy soils 

Cold or inferior clays 

Rich clays 


Alluvial, haugh, or carse land 

Eng. /vcres. 




«... 510,265 





Extensive tracts of waste lands, particularly in the interior, have been of 
late years planted with wood, and many smaller plantations, clothe the more 
cultivated parts of the country. The Scottish fir, larch, and other pines are 
the most common trees, while the ash, elm, plane, beech, oak, and other 
forest trees flourish and grow to a great size. The forests which, in former 
ages, everywhere covered the country, have nearly disappeared, leaving, how- 
ever, in situations inaccessible to either land or water carriage, remains extend- 
ing sometimes to 30 or 40 miles in length. 

The domestic animals are the same as those of England, with some varie- 
ties in the breeds. The wild animals and birds are also nearly similar. 
Game fowls are abundant both in the extensive heathy districts and in the 
low country. 


The coasts abound in various sorts of fish, the rivers in salmon, trout, &c. 
while the lakes afford pike, perch, eels, &c. Shell-fish are plentiful and in 
great variety. 


The vast extension of the commerce and manufactures of Scotland since 
the period of the Union, and the rapidity of this increase within a compara- 
tively recent period, are too well known to call for a lengthened description. 

In 1755, when this rapid increase commenced, the imports amounted to 
L.465,411, and the exports to L.535,576. The following table of the 
official value of imports and exports, exhibits the great increase which has 
since taken place. 


Official Value of the Exports from, and Imports into Scotland, 
from 1790 to 1825. 




Years. ■ 









































1,322, 23 






































































Shipping. — The coasting trade to the south is carried on from Leith 
and other eastern ports, the Baltic and northern trade ; as well as the whale- 
fishery from Dundee, Aberdeen, Leith, Kirkaldy, &c. &c. ; while Glasgow, 
through Greenock and Port-Glasgow, is the great emporium of commerce 
with the West Indies. . So late as 1656, the vessels belonging to Scotland 
from 300 to 250 tons burden, amounted only to 137, carrying 5,736 tons. A 
parliamentary paper published in 1828, gives the following account of the 
number of vessels with their tonnage registered in Scotland. 




Number of Ships, with their Tonnage, Registered in Scotland. 


Number of 

ships above 100 


Number of 

ships below 100 


Total amount 

of registered 




























Campbeltown - 



Glasgow - 

Grangemouth - 







Lerwick - 



Port- Glasgow - 



















































The number of British ships which entered the ports of Scotland during 
1825, was 1,468, carrying 2,144,680 tons, and 123,120 men ; and the num- 
ber of foreign ships during the same period was 6,967, carrying 958,950 
tons, and 520,630 men. 

Corn Trade. — The quantity of corn shipped at ah the ports of Scotland (in- 
cluding Berwick) in the four years ending October 1827, was 2,353,000 quar- 
ters, or averaging 588,000 quarters, per annum. The quantity landed at all 
the ports was 3,448,000, or 862,000 quarters per annum. Scotland was 
recently, therefore, an importing country to the extent of probably one fif- 
teenth of her whole consumption (exclusive of foreign grain.) The meal and 
flour exported and imported nearly balanced each other. The three principal 
kinds of grain stood thus : 

Imported and exported annually, coastwise, at all the ports of Scotland : — 




Imported - 
Exported - 

:' qrs. 
1 305,000 
1 185,000 | 



About four-fifths of the oats imported were from Ireland, and three-fourths 
of the barley from England. 

Consumption of Malt and Spirits. — In the year ending 5th April 1829, 
there were 3,711,412 bushels of malt manufactured in Scotland, and in the 


same year the quantity of strong beer brewed amounted to 84,902 barrels, and 
of table beer to 179,660 barrels. In 1708, the quantity of spirits distilled was 
only 50,844 gallons ; in 1791 it amounted to 1,696,000 gallons ; in the year 
ending 5th January 1828, there were 4,752,199 gallons paid duty for home 
consumption, and in the year ending January 1831, the malt drawback was 
allowed on 6,021,556 imperial gallons, there were 149,849 gallons of malt 
suirits exported to England. 

Manufactures. — This branch has been so repeatedly noticed under the 
descriptions of the towns where the particular branches of manufactures are 
carried on, that we do not require to enter into, any detail. 

Revenue.— The revenue of Scotland at the period of the Union, was 
L. 110, 694. The increase in the amount of taxes levied has fully kept pace 
with the increasing prosperity of the country, both in the absolute amount 
and in its relative proportion to England. The whole revenue of Scotland 
in 1788, was L.1,099,148 ; in 1813 it amounted to L.4,204,097 ; and in 
1831, to L. 3,525,114, 10s. 4d. One-fourteenth part of the revenue of the 
empire, including Ireland, was thus drawn from Scotland ; at the time of the 
Union its quota was one thirty-sixth part of the revenue of Britain. 

Constitution. — Little need be said of the political institutions of the coun- 
try. These are now almost universally admitted to require alteration ; and 
as it is likely that those now existing will soon be matters of history, it is 
deemed unnecessary to enter into a description of them. 

Scotland now sends 45 members to Parliament, 80 elected by what are 
called freeholders of counties, and 15 by delegates of the self-elected town- 
councils of clusters of burghs. 

Education. — The facility of obtaining education in Scotland, and its con- 
sequent almost universal diffusion, at least in the Lowlands, is everywhere 
known and appreciated ; this is owing to the establishment by law of at 
least one school in every parish for the purpose of teaching the ordinary or 
elementary branches. The emoluments of the schoolmaster are derived from 
an annual salary — free house and garden provided by the heritors or 
landed proprietors, and moderate school fees. 

It is to be regretted that the remuneration afforded to this useful and la- 
borious class of men is not what the liberality displayed in such an admirable 
institution, would warrant us to expect. In many instances the illiberalify 
o? blundering of a recent act in limiting the schoolmasters accommodation to 
very small dimensions, is rigidly acted on, and frequently the salary and 
school-fees together do not elevate the teacher, except in occupation, much 
above the condition of a peasant. 

Besides the parochial institutions, burgh and private schools, or subscrip- 
tion academies, in almost every district, furnish the means of acquiring the 
elements of classical education, modern languages, mathematics, &c. The 
universities have been sufficiently noticed in the body of the work. 

Sunday Schools everywhere established by private benevolence, are admira- 
ble assistants to the parish schools. In the Highlands much has recently 
been effected by the schools of the Society for the support of Gaelic Schools, 
and those under the patronage of the General Assembly. 

Religious Establishments. — Mention has so frequently been made of the 
various orders of monastic institutions which at one time prevailed, that it is 
necessary to furnish the reader with some account of them. Our limits, how- 
ever, do not permit us to describe them at any length. 


All the churches formerly belonged either to Regulars or Seculars ; the 
Regulars lived, slept and took their food under the same roof. They were 
either canons, monks or friars ; and their houses were called abbacies, priories 
or convents. The Seculars lived separately in their cloisters, or in private 
houses, near to their churches. They were governed by a dean or provost. 

The Canons-Regular of St. Augustine were first established at Scone in 
the year 1114, at the desire of King Alexander I. They had 28 monasteries 
in Scotland. 

The order of St. Anthony had only one monastery, at Leith. Their houses 
were called hospitals, and their governors Preceptors. 

The Red Friars, who are likewise called Trinity Friars or Mathurines, 
were established by St. John of Malta, and Felix de Valois. 

Their houses were named hospitals or ministries, and their superiors min- 
isters, [Ministri.] Their substance or rents were divided into three parts, 
one of which was reserved for redeeming Christian slaves from amongst the 

The Praemonstratenses were so named from their principal monastery, 
" Praemonstratum," in the diocese of Laon in France. This order is al- 
so called Candidus ordo, because their garb is entirely white. There were 
of this order six monasteries in Scotland. 

The Benedictines, or Black Monks. — St. Benedict, or Bennet, founder 
of this order, was the first who brought the monastical life to be esteemed 
in the west. His followers were sometimes called Benedictines, from the proper 
name of their founder, and sometimes Black Monks, from the colour of their 

The Tyronenses. — These monks had their name from their first abbey, 
called Tyronium, [Tyron,] in the diocese of Chartres. They likewise fol- 
lowed the rule of St. Bennet, and had six monasteries in Scotland. 

The Cluniacenes. — The Cluniacenes were so called from the abbacy of 
Cluny in Burgundy. The monks of this institution had four monasteries in 
this kingdom. 

The Cistertians or Bernardines. The Cistertians were a religious or- 
der, hegun by Robert abbot of Molesme, in the diocese of Langres in 
France, in the year 1098. They were called Monachi Albi, White Monks, 
to distinguish them from the Benedictines, whose habit was entirely black ; 
whereas the Cistertians wore a black cowl and scapular, and all their 
other clothes were white. The were named Cistertians from their chief 
house and first monastery, Cistertium in Burgundy, and Bernardines, from 
St. Bernard, who founded above 160 monasteries of this order. They had 
thirteen monasteries in this country. 

Monks of Vallis Caulium. — The monks of this order of Valliscaulium, 
Vallis-olerum, or Val-des-chaux, are named from the first priory of that con- 
gregation, which was founded by Virard, in the diocese of Langres, in Bur- 
gundy, in 1 1 93. They were a Reform of the Cistertians, and followed the rule 
of St. Bennet. They were obliged to live an austere and solitary life, none 
but the prior and procurator being allowed to go out of the cloisters for any 
reason whatsoever. They were brought to Scotland by William Malvoisin, 
[de malo vicino,~\ bishop of St. Andrews, in the year 1230, and had three mo- 

The Carthusians. — These monks were established by Bruno, a doctor of 


Paris, in 1.086, in the wild mountains of Grenoble in France. They came 
into Scotland in the year 1429- They had only one establishment among 
us, near Perth, called " Monasterium Vallis Virtutis, 11 which James I. 
founded after his captivity in England. 

The Gilberti?ies — The order was established by one Gilbert, who was 
born in the reign of William the Conqueror. Having received holy orders, 
he spent all his substance and patrimony on the poor and in actions of piety, 
and took a particular care of distressed girls, who were ashamed to make 
known to the world their poverty and condition. The nuns observed a con- 
stant silenee in the cloister, and were not admitted to their novitiate till 
they were fifteen years of age, and could not be professed unless they had 
perfectly by heart the psalms, hymns, and antiphona, that were sung during 
divine service. 

The Templars. — There were likewise among us two orders of religious 
knights, one of which was the Templars, or Red Friars, established at Je- 
rusalem, in the year 1118. Baldwin II. king of Jerusalem, gave them a 
dwelling near the temple of that city, from which they were called Tem- 
plars ; their office and vow being to defend the temple and city of Je- 
rusalem, to entertain Christian strangers and pilgrims charitably, and guard 
them safely through the Holy Land. There was one general prior that had 
the government of this Order in Scotland and in England. They came into 
Scotland in the reign of King David I. 

The Knights of St. John of Jerusalem. — The Johannites, or Knights of 
Jerusalem, had their first beginning from certain devout merchants of the 
city of Melphi in the kingdom of Naples, who, trading to the Holy Land, ob- 
tained of the Calif of Egypt a permission to build a church and monastery at 
Jerusalem, for the reception of the pilgrims that came to visit the Holy Land, 
and paid yearly a tribute upon that account. Afterwards they built a church 
in honour of the Virgin Mary, and another consecrated to the memory of 
Mary Magdalene, the one being for men and the other for women, who were 
received there with great demonstrations of charity. When this city was 
taken by Godfrey of Bouillon, Gerard of Martiques, a native of Provence in 
France, built there a larger church, with an hospital for the sick and for pil- 
grims, in the year 1104, in honour of St. John, where he placed these knights, 
who took their names from that hospital. 

The same cross with that of the Templars was likewise ordered to be put 
upon all houses that were feued out by these knights.* 

The Dominicans, or Black Friars. — The Mendicants were distin- 
guished from the monks, in that these last were confined to their cloisters, 
whereas the others were allowed to preach, and beg their subsistence abroad ; 
and were distinguished from one another by the colour of their habit. 

The first of these was the Dominicans, or Black Friars, called also Fratres 
Proedicatores, because of their frequent preaching. 

The Franciscans, or Grey Friars. — The second order of the Mendi- 
cants are the Franciscans, so called from their patriarch St. Francis, a mer- 
chant of Assise in Italy. They were also called Minorites (Fratres minores) 
or Grey Friars, from their habit. They were established by that saint in 

* The superiority of the greater part of the extensive possessions of the Knights Templars 
and the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem in Scotland, is now vested in John B. Grade, 
Esq. W. S. who is possessed of much curious information regarding these religious orders, of 
v, hkh we regret that our limits will not permit us to avail ourselves. 


the year 1206. Their superiors are called wardens, (Custodes.) They came 
into Scotland in the year 1219, and had eight convents. 

The Observantines. — The Observan tines had nine convents in this kingdom. 
These friars possessed nothing, the places on which their houses stood only 
excepted. They were allowed to go constantly about with wallets or pocks on 
their shoulders, to beg their subsistence from well-disposed people ; from 
which they were called Mendicants ; and from their wearing clothes, Grey- 
Friars, their habit being a grey gown, with a cowl, and a rope about their 
middle. They went bare-footed. They had nine convents in Scotland. 

The Carmelites, or White Friars. — The third order of the Begging- 
Friars was the Carmelites, who had their beginning and name from Mount 
Carmel in Syria. St. Lewis, king of France, returning from Asia, brought 
along with him some of this Order, and bestowed upon them a dwelling-place 
at the end of Paris, where the Celestines are now established. They were 
called White-Friars, from their outward garments. They came into this 
kingdom in the reign of Alexander III., and had nine convents. 

The Collegiate Churches. — Besides these regulars, we had several Col- 
leges erected for secular canons. They were called Prteposituree, or Collegiate 
Churches, and were governed by a dean or provost, who had all jurisdiction 
over them. 

These churches consisted of prebendaries, (Prcsbendarii,) or canons, 
(Canonici, ) where they had their several degrees or stalls, and sat for sing- 
ing more orderly the canonical hours, and, with their dean, or provost, made 
up the chapter. They were commonly erected out of several parish churches 
united for that effect, or out of the chaplainries that were founded under the 
roof of their churches. 

Presbyterian Church. — In 1560 all these establishments, with the whole 
Roman Catholic hierarchy, were swept away, and various successive acts 
of the Scottish parliament and the General Assembly, through various 
vicissitudes, established the present form of Presbyterian Church Government. 
This form precludes all pre-eminence of order, all ministers being equal in 
rank and power. Scotland is divided into 917 parishes, each of which has 
one minister, or in some few instances in towns two. The pastor is assisted 
in parochial duties by elders selected from among the most religious and dis- 
creet of the parishioners — they, with the minister, form the Kirk-session, 
which court has cognizance in matters of ecclesiastical discipline. 

From this court there is an appeal to the Presbytery, which is composed of 
the ministers of an indefinite number of contiguous parishes, and a ruling 
elder from every kirk-session. 

Presbyteries are impowered to grant licence to preach to candidates for the 
pastoral office, but preachers are not ordained until they obtain a living. 
Presbyteries also judge their own members, but an appeal lies from their judg- 
ments to the Synodal Court in whose bounds they are situated. 

Synods are composed of several Presbyteries ; they review the proceedings 
of presbyteries, but their decisions are again reviewed by the General As- 
sembly, the highest Ecclesiastical Court, from which there is no appeal. The 
Assembly meets annually, and is composed of 200 ministers, 89 elders, re- 
presenting Presbyteries, 67 representing Royal Burghs, and 5 representatives 
of Universities, in all, 361. It has power to make laws concerning the 
discipline and government of the church. 


There are in Scotland 917 parish churches, and 972 ministers. Each of 
them is entitled to a house, offices, and a portion of glebe-land, averaging about 
L.40 a-year, and an income from the tithes of the parish, or, in case of deficiency 
from that sourcj, made up from the Exchequer to L.150 a-year ; some have 
considerably more, but their stipends, with the glebe and manse, probably 
average from L.260 to L.300 a-year. 

There are 63 Chapels of Ease connected with the Establishment, and 
70 Chapels, erected and paid by Government, in remote districts of the 
Highlands : of the various bodies of Dissenters, by far the greater number ad- 
here to the doctrines and discipline of the Church of Scotland, — though, in 
most cases, more rigidly enforced : The principal cause of dissent from the 
church is the practice of lay or Crown patronage, and there are various 
grounds of difference among themselves. 

The other bodies of Independents, Baptists, Episcopalians, Catholics, &c. 
dissent on various grounds peculiar to each. 

The number of congregations, of all denominations respectively, stands 
thus : — 


Parish Churches - - - - - 917 

Chapels of Ease ------ 63 

Parliamentary Churches in Highlands and Islands - 40 

Chapels in the Highlands, &c. depending upon Royal Bounty 30 
Depending on the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge 7 

United Associate Synod of the Secession Church - 305 

Associate Synod of Original Seceders ... 32 

Original Burgher Associate Synod - 47 

Synod of Relief ------ 92 

Reformed Presbyterian Synod - - - - 33 

Episcopalians - - i- - 74 

Independents, or Congregational Union - 82 

Roman Catholics - 47 

Other Sects uncertain, but probably not exceeding - 80 

The incomes of the dissenting clergy are wholly derived from their congre- 
gations, — they average probably from L.120 to L.130 a-year, including the 
yearly value of a house and garden. In many cases, however, the income is 
considerably larger. 

The management of the poor, is vested in the ministers and elders of the 
parish. The funds for supplying their necessities are derived from collec- 
tions at the church doors, voluntary contributions and legacies. Where these 
are inadequate, the deficiency is supplied by an assessment laid on by the 
heritors and kirk-session. Assistance is in general only given to the aged 
and feeble, and averages probably 5s. a month to each individual relieved. 

The Courts of Law and Justice, with many other national institutions, will 
be found minutely described in the article Edinburgh. 

Population. — The population has been for upwards of a century at least 
gradually augmenting. The number estimated by Dr. Webster, in 1755, 
was 1,265,380 ; it has now increased to 2,365,807- 

On the following page will be found a comparative table of the population 
of the counties of Scotland in 1801, 1811, 1821, 1831 ; with the rate of 
increase per cent, in the last thirty years. A detailed alphabetical list of the 
parishes, with the returns of 1831, will be found in the Appendix. 



1801, 1811, 1821, AND 1831, 














Argyle ; 










































■ 7,656 










52 ! 

























Edinburgh . . 








Elgin or Moray 



31 162 





































Kincardine . . 






























1 316,819 


















Orkney and Shetland 
























|Renfrew i 








Ross and Cromarty 































42 ; 

Sutherland • . 
















'Totals . 








The average rate of increase at each of the above periods was, in 1811, 14 ; 1821, 16 ; and 

1831, 13 percent. 


ABBEY ST. BATHAN'S, a parish in 
the north of Berwickshire, stretching into the 
Lammermoor hills, from six to seven miles 
in length, and from south to north about 
three miles. Most of it is of a mountainous 
heathy character ; but around the church-town 
there is a beautiful little valley, through which 
the river Whittader winds its course, and which 
contains a neat little seat of the Earl of 
Wemyss, called the Met? eat. The only objects 
of general interest in the parish, are the few re- 
mains of the religious structure which gave its 
name to the district. This was a nunnery de- 
dicated to St. Bathan, which was founded by 
one of the countesses of March, in the twelfth 
century. The inmates were of the order of 
Bernardines, called Cistertians, from the name 
of the chief monastery at Cistertium in France. 
The precincts of this sacred institution are now 
arable land Population in 1821, 150.* 

ABBEY, (The) a name often used in old 
Scottish history, and still common in vulgar 
parlance, for the palace of Holyrood, which was 
built within the precincts of such a religious 

ABBEY, (The) a village in the parish of 
Logie, Clackmannanshire, on the north bank 
of the Forth, nearly a mile north-east of Stir- 
ling, taking its name from its proximity to the 
Abbey of Cambuskenneth. 

ABBEY, (The) a village two miles east of 
Haddington, so called from a monastic esta- 
blishment which formerly existed in its neigh- 

ABBOTRULE, formerly a distinct parish 
in Roxburghshire, now divided between the pa- 
rishes of Hobkirk and Southdean. 

ABBOTS FORD, the seat of Sir Walter 

Scott, Bart, in the county of Roxburgh, stand- 
ing on a slip of level ground at the foot of an 
overhanging bank on the south, or more proper- 
ly speaking, the east bank of the Tweed, which 
here makes a bend towards the north. It is a 
house of very extraordinary proportions, mak- 
ing an approach to the irregular manor-houses 
of England. It is surrounded by some tracts 
of flourishing plantations, and overlooks a beau- 
tiful haugh on the opposite bank of the river. 
The house and its woods have been entirely 
the creation of the late illustrious proprie- 
tor j and the name is altogether new, as the 
previous title of the place, when covered by a 
small and mean farm-stead, was Cartley Hole. 
The external walls of Abbotsford, and those of 
the adjoining garden, have been enriched with 
many anticpie carved stones, proem ed from va- 
rious old churches, castles, and mansion-houses 
in the course of their demolition or decay. The 
interior consists mostly of very small and com- 
fortable apartments, which are likewise enrich- 
ed with innumerable curiosities. The painting 
of these apartments, particularly of the library 
and vestibule, is in such exceedingly fine taste 
as to be worthy of notice ; it was, we under- 
stand, the work of an ingenious artist, Mr. D. 
R. Hay of Edinburgh. Abbotsford is thirty- 
four and a half miles south from Edinburgh, 
and fifty-nine north from Carlisle, being situ- 
ated on the cross road between Selkirk and 
Melrose, and only about two miles from the 
village of Galashiels. 

ABBOT'S HALL, a parish in the coun- 
ty of Fife, to the west of the parish of Kirk- 
aldy, and like it, stretching along the coast of the 
Firth of Forth. It derives its name, as has 
been said, from an abbot of Dunfermline hav- 

For the population returns of 1831, see Appendix. 



ing once resided on the spot. In extent it is 
only about two miles each way. It is one of 
three parishes on the coast of Fife through 
which the town of Kirkaldy stretches its end- 
less length. The village is populous, and the 
inhabitants are mostly tradesmen. Manufac- 
tures of different kinds have been successfully 
carried on here for many years. The land has 
been much improved by Mr. Ferguson of Raith, 
who is the sole proprietor. — Popidation in 
1821, 3267. 

a foreland jutting out into the German ocean, 
in the parish of Coldingham, and county of 
Berwick, about sixteen miles N.W. of Ber- 
wick, and the same distance S.E. of Dunbar, 
lat. 55° 56' N. long. 1°56' W It consists of 
two tall hills, which are divided from the rest 
of the promontory by a cut so deep, as to 
have caused the common people to say, that the 
Picts had attempted and nearly accomplished 
an entire separation from the main land. On 
the western hill there is an observatory, useful 
in the preventive service ; and on the eastern 
there are shown the remains of a monastery 
and church, which were, it is understood, dedi- 
cated to Ebba, a pious abbess, and sister of one, 
of the kings of Northumberland, from whom 
the name of Abb is derived ; but as there are 
a number of conflicting traditions existing on 
this point, and hardly any documentary evi- 
dence, little can be written on it satisfactorily. 
Of the ruin, hardly any part is now discern- 
ible above the sod ; and were it not for the 
somewhat more luxuriant vegetation which in- 
dicates the burial-ground, the eye might fail to 
perceive that any thing of the kind had ever 
been there. When this monasteiy existed, its 
situation, on the brink of a precipice, at least 
three hundred feet above the level of the sea, 
must have been extremely romantic. On the 
other hand, its appearance from the sea could 
not be less so. There is an old rhyme regard- 
ing the building of this and other two churches 
of the same district of country, which, childish 
as it is, may bring music to some ears. 

St. Abb, St. Helen, and St. Ttey, 
They a' built kirks which to be nearest to the sea : 
St Abb's upon the nabs, 
St. Helen's on the lee ; 
St. Ann's upon Dunba; sands, 
Stands nearest to the sea. 

The idea of three female saints competing for 
the distinction of which should build a church 
rearest to the sea, is curious enough ; but it 

has probably arisen in the public mind from 
the extraordinary circumstance of three 
churches on that tract of coast all being built 
in so strange a situation. St. Helen's lies be- 
tween Cockburnspath and St. Abb's Head, and 
still shows a good deal of building above ground. 

ABDIE, a parish in the county of Fife, 
lying among the Ochil hills, and scattered 
into three separate parts. It lies between 
Abernethy and Monimail, on the south of the 
river Tay. The parish is bare of wood, has 
no rivers, but is well watered by lochs, the 
chief of which is the lake of Lindores, about a 
mile in length, and of irregular breadth. This 
piece of water is w 7 ell stored with fish, and, be- 
ing surrounded by some romantic scenery, it is 
a beautiful object in the view of the country. 
There exist a number of decayed mansion- 
houses in the parish. The highest hills are 
Clutchart-crag and Norman's Law, on the 
tops of which traces of fortifications are still 
visible.— Population in 1821, 834. 


ABERCORN, a parish situated on the 
south bank of the Forth, in the county of Lin- 
lithgow, bounded on the west by the parish of 
Linlithgow, and the east by Dalmeny. The 
country here is rich, arable, and well wooded. 
The Marquis of Abercorn takes his title from 
an estate in the parish. The house and estate 
of Binns, the property of the family of the 
Dalyells, whose ancestor, Sir Thomas Dal- 
yell, was commander of the forces in Scotland, 
and distinguished for his fidelity to Charles I. 
are also in this parish. The monastery of 
Abercorn was one of the most ancient in Scot- 
land, and is noticed by Bede. The remains of 
Roman forts exist along the coast from Cra- 
mond for the defence of the south shore against 
the incursions of Caledonians from the oppo- 
site side. The castle of Abercorn, now ut- 
terly destroyed, was originally a Roman sta- 
tion. It was latterly a seat of the family of 
Douglas, and was dismantled in 1455. A 
battle took place in the parish of Abercorn, 
between the forces of James III. and the in- 
surgent chiefs, previous to his last fatal encoun- 
ter with them at Sauchie, where he was slain. 
The parish is now distinguished by the prince- 
ly mansion and pleasure-grounds of Hopetoun 
House, the seat of the Earls of Hopetoun. 
It occupies a pleasant situation on the brow of 
an eminence fronting the Forth, three miles from 
Queens ferry and twelve from Edinburgh. Some 


very fine woods surround it. When George 
IV. visited Scotland he paid a visit to this 
splendid residence, where he was hospitably 
entertained, and from whence he was conduct- 
ed to the place of his embarkation. — Popula- 
tion in 1821, 1044. 

ABERDALGY, a parish in the county of 
Perth, (now united with that of Duplin) wash- 
ed on the south by the Earn, which here affords 
excellent fishing. The parish abounds in free- 
stone. Much of the land is under plantations. 
Duplin castle, a seat of the Earl of Kinnoul, is 
in the united parish. The greater part of this 
splendid edifice, which contained a most exten- 
sive collection of books of all ages, and a good 
gallery of paintings, was burnt down, Septem- 
ber 1827. It has since been rebuilt in a style of 
great magnificence. — Population in 1821, 490. 

ABERARGIE, a village in the parish 
of Abernethy, Perthshire, a mile west of 

ABERDEENSHIRE, a large and im- 
portant county in the north-east part of Scot- 
land, having the Moray Firth to the north, 
the German Ocean to the east, the shires of 
Banff and Inverness on the west, and those 
of Perth, Forfar, and Kincardine on the 
south. Towards the sea, the country is level 
and fertile ; but a great part of the coun- 
ty lies amidst the wildernesses of the central 
Highlands. Its extreme length inland is 85 
miles ; and its breadth, at the broadest, 40 miles. 
It is estimated that it comprises 1950 square 
miles. Popularly, it is divided into four chief 
districts, to wit, Marr, Formartin, Garioch, 
and Buchan. If we divide the county into two 
parts, by a line from the mouth of the Don 
along its course to the mountains on the north- 
eastern boundary, the more inland and smaller 
half may be taken as comprehending Marr. 
This district is again divided into three small- 
er portions. The most inland part, where the 
county becomes narrow, is designated Brae- 
Mar ; Mar-Proper, ox Mid-Mar, is the mid- 
dle division ; and Cro-Mar, or Loioer Mar, 
is that portion next the sea, in which stands the 
city of Aberdeen. Marr altogether is the most 
barren part of the county. Its upper parts are 
wild, rugged, and mountainous, and in the lower 
a savage bleakness often prevails in spite of the 
%i eat exertions made by the inhabitants to re- 
claim the land from its desert character. That 
part of the county east of the Don, or the 
larger half, comprehends the other divisions. 

The division called Formartin extends along 
the coast from the Don to the Ythan, and is 
bounded on the coast by a ridge of low hills 
near Old Meldrum, which separates it from 
Garioch. In this district there are no hills, 
but many rising knolls. Near the Don, it is 
of the same stony and barren nature as Marr, 
and is much intersected with mossy bogs ; but 
on approaching the Ythan it becomes more 
uniform, and consists of an excellent clayey 
soil, everywhere capable of a high degree of 
improvement. Garioch is a continuation in- 
land of Formartin, and chiefly consists of one 
extensive vale, bounded on every side by a range 
of hills of moderate height, beginning near Old 
Meldrum, and extending westward twenty miles. 
This vale is in general from eight to ten miles 
in breadth, and is interspersed with little knolls, 
some of which have a beautiful and picturesque 
appearance. The vale is, in general, good 
arable land, of a sharp loamy soil ; and being 
sheltered by the surrounding hills, it has a warm 
and comfortable appearance. At the head of 
Garioch is the inferior district of the vale or 
strath of the bogie, called Strathbogie, equally 
beautifid, cultivated, and wooded. The last 
great division is that of Buchan, which is the 
peninsular part of Aberdeenshire, and consists 
of all that part of the county east of the Ythan. 
A small part of it belongs to Banffshire. It is 
in general level ; the only rising ground of 
any note being the hill of Mormond ; but on 
the whole is bleak and comfortless. It abounds 
in extensive wastes, destitute of trees or living 
inclosures, and is only cultivated in some places, 
though supposed to be of a fertile nature, and 
susceptible of great improvement. Recently 
it has been considerably altered for the better. 
Anciently this extensive domain was the proc 
perty of the Earls of Buchan, on whose afc 
tainder in 1320, King Robert Bruce partition- 
ed the land among his adherents. Subse- 
quently the title was revived in the Erskine 
family, but without a restoration of the lands, 
and the present Earl has very little property in 
that quarter. The sea-coast of the county is 
very bold and rocky. The general appearance 
of this part of Scotland, though with many 
pleasing exceptions, is rather bleak and unin- 
viting, on account of the deficiency of wood 
round the hamlets, the imperfect culture of the 
fields, and the too frequent marshy appearance 
of the low grounds. Here however, as every 
where else in Scotland, improvements in agri- 


culture are progressing, a circumstance not on- 
ly productive of wealth and comfort to the 
community, but of a superior climate. The 
chief rivers of Aberdeenshire are, the Dee, 
the Don, the Ythan, the Ugie, and the De- 
veron ; but, though comparatively large, they 
are too rapid to admit of navigation to any 
great extent. Their great value depends on 
the immense quantity and fineness of their 
salmon. The sea-coast also abounds in fish 
of great variety and richness, and the river 
and sea-fishing together, form a great source of 
wealth to the inhabitants. Aberdeenshire is 
also famous for the abundance and excellence 
of its stone, adapted for house and bridge- 
building. There are several quarries of gra- 
nite, from whence are exported to London and 
elsewhere not less than 1 2,000 tons annually. 
Of limestone there is also abundance ; but 
from the general absence of coal it is next to 
useless, except in a few places. In the mi- 
nerals of a peculiar nature, it is not deficient ; 
but such are of no importance in the aggre- 
gate. In the recesses of the country, there 
is abundance of natural pines of stupendous 
height, fit for masts of the largest size ; yet, from 
the scantiness and rapidity of the rivers, and the 
badness of the roads, they remain in a great 
measure useless. The country possesses a few 
excellent mineral waters, the principal one at 
Peterhead. The manufacture of linens, woollens, 
and stockings, occupies a large share of atten- 
tion. The shire comprises three royal burghs, 
Aberdeen, Kintore, and Inverury, with some 
other towns, such as Peterhead, Frazerburgh, 
Huntly, Turriff, and Old Meldrum. It con- 
tains eighty-five parishes. By the latest 
county roll Aberdeenshire has a hundred and 
ninety freeholders, who send a member to par- 
liament. A very great proportion of the land- 
holders reside permanently or occasionally on 
their estates, and countenance by their presence 
many beneficial improvements. The rearing 
of plantations and fences, the introduction of 
better breeds of cattle, and better modes of agri- 
culture, have for some time engaged their at- 
tention, to the infinite improvement of the 
district. In these objects the county has been, 
and soon will be more particularly, assisted by 
the patronage of the Highland Society, and 
other associations of a similar kind. Small 
farms are gradually giving way, much to the 
bettering of the condition of the peasantry. 
The people of this district of country are 

generally persevering in their industry, and 
open to improvement. On the sea-coasts they 
have a distinct difference of physiognomical 
appearance from other inhabitants of Scotland, 
and attest by this, as well as by their peculiar 
dialect, that they are the descendants of those 
races of men which originally came from the 
northern regions of Europe, and fixed them- 
selves down in this part of Scotland. In 
natural quickness and sagacity, the people of 
Aberdeenshire are scarcely equalled. To say 
of a man, indeed, that he is Aberdeenawa, that 
is from the district of Aberdeenshire, is held 
in Scotland to be the same thing as to say that 
he is more acute and ingenious than the rest 
of his countrymen. In the eyes of such 
Englishmen as know this country commercial- 
ly, Aberdeenshire is describable as Scotland 
double refined. Habits of industiy prevail 
here among the lower orders to an amazing 
extent. Man, woman, and child — every one 
works in Aberdeenshire. On the sea-coast, 
for instance, while it is the man's duty to work 
the boat, and catch the fish, it is the woman's 
to bring the fish ashore, carry them to the 
market, and afterwards to prepare the bait and 
lines for the next adventure . And even while 
carrying their heavy baskets upon their backs 
these poor women will be found employing 
their hands in knitting stockings, or some other 
light species of digital labour. Perhaps this 
is all referable to the early rise of manufactures 
in this part of Scotland, or, more particularly, 
to the employment afforded for the last century 
and a half to the women of the lower orders 
by those merchants of Aberdeen who deal in 
hosiery. A taste for literary and scientific 
pursuits is at present only in the course of dis- 
semination. Aberdeenshire, as well as the 
adjacent districts, differs in its religious sta- 
tistics from counties more to the south. 
Presbyterian dissenting communions have few 
of their body in this part of Scotland. From 
the reign of Charles I. to the present day there 
has been a strong leaning towards episcopacy ; 
and, what is singular in Scotland, this has been 
the case not only with the higher orders, but 
with a great number of the lower classes. In 
this quarter therefore religious dissent assumes 
the character of a large and respectable episco- 
pal communion. In the diocese of Aberdeen, 
which extends only a little beyond the county, 
there are upwards of twenty episcopal chapels, 
under a bishop resident at Aberdeen. Withm 


















these few years the Roman Catholics of Aber- 
deenshire have heen increasing in consequence. 
At Blair's, on Dee side, a few miles above 
Aberdeen, there is an important eleemosynary- 
institution for the education of young persons 
in this faith ; and it is remarked that the greater 
proportion of Scottish Roman Catholic priests 
are natives of the district. 

The chief seats of nobilitv and gentry in 
Aberdeenshire are Ellon Castle, Hon. W. 
Gordon ; Huntly Lodge, Duke of Gordon ; 
Slains Castle, Earl of Errol ; Keith Hall, 
Earl of Kintore ; Aboyne Castle, Earl of 
Aboyne ; Mar Lodge, Earl of Fife ; Phil- 
orth House, Lord Saltoun ; Castle Forbes, 
Lord Forbes ; Monymusk, Grant, Bart. ; 
Fintray House, Forbes, Bart. ; Fyvie Cas- 
tle, General Gordon ; Pitfour, Ferguson ; 
Craig, Gordon ; Cluny, Gordon ; Stricken, 
Frazer ; Cairness, Gordon ; Mormond ; 
Invercauld : Logie Elphinstone ; Leith 
Hall ; Freejield ; Abergeldie ; Skene 
House ; Straloch ; Halton ; Clova ; Gor- 
don Lodge ; Castle Frazer ; Craigston ,■ 
Ifeivton ; Rattray; Adan ; Seton; Drum; 
Pittodrie; Meldrum ; Parhhill ; Pitcaple , 
Kernnay ; Foveran House, &c. 

Table of Heights in Aberdeenshire. 

Feet above 
the sea. 

Feet above 
the sea. 



Firmouth ' 








Ben Aven 
















. Population of Aberdeenshire in 1821, males 
72,383; females 83,004 ; total 155,387. 

ABERDEEN, the capital of the above 
county, to which it gives its name, and a city 
which is considered the third in point of impor- 
tance in Scotland, lies on a slightly elevated 
ground on the north bank of the river Dee, near 
its efflux into the sea, and about a mile and a half 
from the mouth of the Don. It is situated in 
lat. 57° 9' 0" north, and long. 2° 8' 20" west; 
127 miles nearly north from Edinburgh, and 
115^ south-east by east of Inverness. The 
name is understood to be derived from a 
Gaelic compound, signifying a town situated 
on a space of ground between two rivers. 
Anciently the name was Aberdon or Aber- 
doen, and the natives are still known by the 

title of Aberdonians. The town was known 
to the Romans in the seventh and last campaign 
of Agricola, about the year 84. The earliest 
notice of its local situation is in the geogra. 
phical work of Claudius Ptolomeus, where it 
is distinguished by the name of Devana. This 
is corroborated by Richard of Cirencester. 
The lower parts were built first, and the houses 
subsequently spread along the rising ground of 
the Broadgate and Gallowgate. If we are to 
believe Hector Boece, not the best authority, 
although he long enjoyed an ecclesiastical dig- 
nity in Aberdeen, the town was honoured with 
something like burgal privileges by King Gre- 
gory, who reigned in the ninth centtuy. But 
if the town was really honoured with the coun- 
tenance of this monarch, it is certain that the 
favours he bestowed on it could be nothing ap- 
proaching in character to such immunities, for 
even in England there was no such thing 
known till after the Conquest. It was not 
till the reign of William the Lion, and pro- 
bably about the year 1179, that Aberdeen be- 
came a royal burgh. As this was the first 
Scottish monarch that granted burgal privi- 
leges, Aberdeen must be understood as one of 
the most ancient institutions of the kind in the 
countiy. Alexander II. built a palace in 
Aberdeen, in which he occasionally resided ; 
which shows that the place was of some im- 
portance in the early part of the succeeding 
century. This sovereign gave the town a va- 
riety of privileges, and among the rest the right 
of holding fairs every Sunday. Our surprise 
at such a circumstance is lessened by the re- 
membrance, that in the reign of William the 
Lion, a convocation of clergy, held at Perth, 
ordained that the Sabbath should commence 
on Saturday at noon. Alexander III. also 
resided here, and gave the burgh additional 
privileges. In 1244, Aberdeen was one of 
eight towns in Scotland which were burnt by 
accidental fires within the period of twelve 
months. From this disaster it soon recovered. 
At this period and in later times the town was 
guarded by gates at the opening of the streets 
and alleys, and by a castle, the inhabitants 
were remarkable for their bravery. In the 
wars following the death of Alexander III., 
the castle was seized and occupied by the troops 
of Edward of England. Wallace attempted 
its reduction, but failed, and some time after- 
wards, on his unhappy execution, one of his 
quarters was exhibited here. The citizens as* 


uisted Bruce in 1308, and having aided in van- 
quishing the English betwixt Old Meldrum 
and Inverury, they returned and put the gar- 
rison to the sword. For these and other ser- 
vices Robert Bruce gave some valuable pri- 
vileges to the town, and donations of land 
and a right of fishing. A charter which he 
gave them in 1319 is the basis of the present 
burgal privileges. In Edward's expedition to 
the north, a band of his forces landed at Dun- 
notar, and being opposed by the Aberdonians, 
a battle ensued in which the latter were de- 
feated, and their town sacked and burnt. 
Likeas in the former case of conflagration, the 
town soon recovered this calamity, and grew 
in importance. At this era it carried on 
a considerable trade with England, Holland, 
Flanders, and Brabant. Its export was chief- 
ly dried fish and salmon packed in barrels. 
It traded also in corn and bacon. It is a 
curious fact, that in 1299, Edward I. partly 
victualled the army with which he intended to 
subdue Sir "William Wallace, with fish im- 
ported into England from Aberdeen. Fifty 
years before this, Aberdeen was known in 
Norway as a commercial port. In the four- 
teenth century the dialect spoken in the town 
was a singular mixture of Gaelic, Saxon, Da- 
nish, British, and French, and it was not till a 
subsequent epoch that the English language 
assumed a complete superiority. It is pro- 
bably from this circumstance that the present 
disagreeable patois prevails, wherein there is a 
continual substitution of the letter e for o. 
The prevalence of French at the time of Ed- 
ward's invasion is attested by a circumstance 
connected with the motto of the city arms, 
which is " Bon Accord." This was given by 
Robert Bruce in commemoration of a deed 
performed by the citizens in his cause, the de- 
struction, to wit, of the whole English that 
garrisoned their town in one night, on which 
occasion Bon Accord was the watchword. At 
the battle of Harlaw, eighteen miles from 
the town, in 1411, the citizens are known to 
have fought so bravely as to turn the fate of 
the day against Donald of the Isles. The 
wealth of Aberdeen at this precise period is 
indicated by its being one of the four burghs, 
Dundee, Aberdeen, Edinburgh, and Perth, 
which became security for the ransom of King 
James I. to England. From the days of the 
Bruce to the times of James VI., almost 
every Scottish king visited or resided for a 

short time in Aberdeen. In 1448 James II. 
visited it in a ceremonious manner, when he ! 
was presented on his entrance into the town 
with a " propine," consisting of two tuns of 
Gascony wine, six lights of three stones of 
wax, and six pounds of sweetmeats. James 
IV. repeatedly visited it, and on one occasion, 
his queen, Margaret, daughter of Henry VII., 
entered it in a grand cavalcade, when she too 
received a handsome " propine." In the reigns 
of James I. II. and III., Aberdeen was the 
seat of a royal mint at which were coined 
silver groats. James V. also visited Aber- 
deen. In 1530 the town was spoiled by a 
great body of Forbesses under Lord Forbes, 
who had been enraged on account of the ma- 
gistrates refusing to give him an annual pre- 
sent of a tun of wine, in requital for his pre- 
servation of the fishings. His adherents were 
repelled with slaughter. In 1547 the town 
contributed its complement of men to repel the 
invasion of the English under the Duke of 
Somerset. The men took with them a piece 
of cannon called the " great falcone." Nearly 
all perished at Pinkey. Aberdeen, and the 
shire of which it is the capital, were slow in 
receiving the reformed mode of faith, a cir- 
cumstance to be partly attributed to the kind- 
liness of feeling which generally subsisted be- 
tween the clergy and laity of the town for some 
time prior to the convulsions of the Refor- 
mation. The churchmen of Aberdeen were 
distinguished in history for their public spirit 
in carrying through local improvements, and for 
public virtue in general. Few names in the 
Scottish annals will match with those of 
Elphinstone and Dunbar, who were suc- 
cessively bishops of that see. It appears 
that the clergy were great patrons of amuse- 
ments, and countenanced them 'with their pre- 
sence. In particular, they encouraged thaf 
species of dramatic representations so well de- 
scribed in the tale of " the Abbot," by the au- 
thor of Waverley, under the title of the Abbot 
of Unreason. They constituted two mock 
priests, called the Prior and Abbot of Bon 
Accord, under whose sanction all the diver- 
sions went forward. In 1440 they played for 
the first time the drama of Halyblude at the 
Windmillhill, and then and on all similar oc- 
casions the whole inhabitants turned out to 
witness the spectacle, dressed in their finest 
garments. The magistrates so far encouraged 
these plays as to ordain that they should take 


place on the first Sunday of May and the Tues- 
day after Easter. On these two great occa- 
sions the festivities in the town were carried 
to a great height. Whether from these causes 
or otherwise, Aberdeen became a town noted 
for the convivial character of its citizens, as 
well as for their taste in dress. It is recorded 
that at no time did they indulge to such an ex^ 
tent in carousing, as at baptisms. So far was 
this carried, that at last, in 1623, the magis- 
tracy passed a law allowing only " four gossips 
and four cummers" to meet on baptismal oc- 
casions. Two years afterwards, they passed 
another law prohibiting any one from com- 
pelling his guest to drink more than he chose, 
under the penalty of £40 Scots for every 
offence. It is highly probable that these ha- 
bits had been primarily engrafted by the Ro- 
mish clergy, who not only superintended the 
people in a clerical capacity, but actually lived 
among them. Each corporation in the town 
had its patron saint and its altar in the church, 
and the officiating priest of each lived with 
liis constituents alternately from day to day. 
On the outbreaking of the reformation, Aber- 
deen was invaded by bands of wild reformers, 
whom the magistrates had the address to turn 
aside from their destructive intentions, so far as 
to restrain them to the unroofing of some mo- 
nastic buildings. The magistrates next seized, 
for the common good of the burgh, all the va- 
luable plate, vestments, and ornaments of the 
church and chapels. The list of the articles 
so secured is still preserved, and, among other 
things, the following appear : The eucharist 
of silver, weighing 4 lb. 2 oz. ; the chalices of 
our Lady of South Isle, of St. Peter, of St. 
John, of our Lady of the Bridge of Dee, of 
St Duthac, of St. Nicholas, of St. Clement, 
of the Rood, and of the Hospital; two pairs of 
censers, four cruets, a little ship, the cross with 
silver crucifixes, two silver crowns of our Lady, 
and her Son, tunicles of flowered velvet, caps 
of gold friezed with red velvet, a red damask 
frontal of the high altar, a white veil of linen, 
cushions, eighteen brazen chandeliers, two 
chandeliers for the great altar, with the sacra- 
ment chandelier, the great chandelier with the 
images and three cats, a layer of brass, &c. 
Queen Mary visited the town in 1562, in the 
course of an expedition for quelling disturb- 
ances in the north. The execution of Sir 
John Gordon, who had been made prisoner, 
excited a great commotion in Aberdeen. He 

was put to death in Castle Street, by a maiden 
or guillotine, part of which is still preserved 
in the town's armoury. The Queen at this 
time lodged in the house of the Earl Maris~ 
dial, on the south side of the street ; and it is 
said that she was forced to the window to be- 
hold the execution, by Murray, who had been 
mainly instrumental in bringing the unfortunate 
gentleman to the scaffold. On the falling of 
the axe she covered her face with her handker- 
chief, to conceal her emotion, and burst away 
from those who surrounded her. James VI. 
frequently visited Aberdeen before the year 
1600. At the coronation of Charles I. the 
burgh sent delegates to attend the ceremony at 
Edinburgh, and the town indidged in loyal fes- 
tivities on the occasion. During the commo- 
tions excited in Scotland by the famous cove- 
nant of 1638, Aberdeen kept itself very much 
aloof from the popular mania. On the com- 
missioners from " the Tables " appearing 
amongst them to induce an acceptance of the 
covenant, they declined doing so with a de- 
cided firmness, for which they were afterwards 
thanked by Charles I. As a reward for the 
loyalty of the burgh, the unfortunate king con- 
firmed and greatly extended its privileges, and 
even entertained some thoughts of making it 
the capital of Scotland. We find the Marquis 
of Montrose, at this period, describing Aber- 
deen as being a kind of little London, from its 
high commercial character, and the wealth of 
its citizens. In 1647, a dreadful pestilence 
broke out in Aberdeen, which was attended 
with a grievous famine. About 1600 persons- 
died in one year, and it appears, by one of the 
town accounts, that the burgh was charged for 
37,000 turfs to cover their graves. Print- 
ing was first established in Aberdeen so 
late as 1621, under the patronage of Bish- 
op Patrick Forbes, a warm friend of learn- 
ing, and one of the greatest theologians 
which Scotland ever produced. The first al- 
manacks ever printed in Scotland were pub~ 
lished at Aberdeen, by a printer named John 
Forbes. He began them in 1677, under the 
title of a " New Prognosticator, calculated 
for North Britain." He sold 50,000 copies 
every year, and the price of each was only a 
plack, or the third part of a penny sterling. 
His success induced the publication of pirated 
editions at Edinburgh ; but this was put down 
by the Court of Session, and for many years 
the town had a complete monopoly in the sale 


of almanacks. Till this day, the common 
penny almanacks, printed at Edinburgh and 
other places, and hawked through the streets, 
receive the title of Aberdeen Almanacks, 
from this early monopoly. From the middle 
of the 17th century, Aberdeen does not figure 
in Scottish history ; but since that period it 
has gone on steadily improving its condition, 
and extending its manufactures and commerce. 
The first newspaper set on foot north of the 
Forth was the Aberdeen Journal, established 
1748. Its first commencement was in 1746, 
(the first number containing an account of the 
battle of Culloden) ; but it was not regularly 
published till two years afterwards. The pro- 
prietor was Mr. James Chalmers, son of the 
professor of Divinity in Marischal College. 
Though only a weekly print, the Aberdeen 
Journal is understood, from the number of its 
advertisements, to be the most lucrative news- 
paper now in Scotland. There is another 
paper of established character, the Aberdeen 
Chronicle, which is also published weekly. 
A third newspaper was begun in 1829, under 
the title of the Aberdeen Observer. A branch 
of the Bank of Scotland was established 
at Aberdeen, about the end of the seven- 
teenth century, immediately after that nation- 
al institution commenced, but was soon with- 
drawn from want of success ; (the money was 
returned to Edinburgh on horses' backs. ) In 
1 752, a bank was established in a quiet way, 
by the citizens of Aberdeen ; but it was also 
soon given up for want of business. A branch 
of a Glasgow bank was then tried with suc- 
cess ; and in 1766, another native establish- 
ment was attempted, under the name of the 
Aberdeen Banking Company. This was suc- 
cessful, as the times were now more propiti- 
ous. It is now a highly flourishing concern. 
Another bank was set on foot in 1788, under 
the title of the Commercial Banking Com- 
pany, which is also a prosperous concern. 
It is a curious particular in the history of 
Aberdeen, that it had a grammar school so 
very early as 1418, which is unusual antiquity 
for such an institution in Scotland. What is 
still more wonderful, a school for teaching 
music existed in Aberdeen from a period an- 
tecedent to 1475, until 1758. Such circum- 
stances say more for the old-established pro- 
sperity and intelligence of the town, than 
many of greater apparent importance. In 1 667, 
a regular post was first established between 

Aberdeen and Edinburgh, under the patron- 
age of the magistracy. It went thrice a-week, 
and the postage of a single letter was two 
shillings, and for a double one four shillings. 
Government soon after engrossed all the posts. 
In the age just past, Aberdeen, like almost every 
other town in Scotland, has made an immense 
advance in all that can give dignity or opulence 
to a city. Its ancient tortuous and mean en- 
trances have given way to broad and magnifi- 
cent streets ; public buildings have been re- 
constructed in a style little inferior to those of 
Edinburgh ; and enormous sums have been 
expended in improving the harbour by docks, 
quays, and piers. What adds not a little to 
the external dignity of the city, is the stone oi 
which both the public and private buildings 
are composed — a hard species of granite, which, 
smoothed by the chisel, glitters in the sun, 
and conveys ideas at once of beauty and 
durability. Much of this stone, which is the 
exclusive produce of the district, is now ex- 
ported. In travelling from the south, Aber- 
deen is approached either by an old stone bridge 
across the Dee, one mile above the town, or 
by a new suspension bridge further down the 
river, opposite the town. The old bridge of 
Dee was first erected in 1530 by Bishop Dun- 
bar, and rebuilt in its present shape in 1718-22. 
It was, in 1640, the scene of a bloody skirmish 
between the northern cavaliers and the southern 
covenanters, hence called the Battle of the 
Bridge of Dee. At one period it was pro- 
vided with a chapel at the north end dedicated 
to Our Lady, in which travellers might stop 
and offer up their petitions for a blessing on 
their journey, or thanks for their safe return. 
This chapel was ransacked at the Reformation. 
The new bridge across the Dee is a beautiful 
sti L.^ture, suspended by chain work, and gives 
a road across to the town from the south. It 
has just been opened, and along with the roads 
of approach is expected to cost L.8000, a sum 
chiefly made up by subscriptions from the town, 
the heritors, and the incorporated trades. The 
bridge is of one arch and supports a carriage 
way. From these bridges, the entrance to 
the city is by a grand way, called Union 
Street, which, though upwards of a mile in 
length, has been nearly all built since the 
conclusion of the French revolutionary war. 
This street is one of the handsomest, and 
certainly the most regular for its size, in the 
kingdom. It contains many fine shops, a 


hotel of the first order, and several public build- 
ings. A ravine (with a rivulet at the bottom) 
which intersects this street, is crossed by a 
bridge of one arch, 130 feet in span, with the 
amazingly slight rise of 29 feet ; which may, 
from these circumstances, be describedas de- 
cidedly the most surprising architectural curi- 
osity of the kind in the world ; the only thing 
approaching to it being the arch of the Pont- 
y-Pridd in Wales, which is 140 feet in span, 
with a rise of 35 : in every respect, as we are 
informed by an intelligent traveller, the bridge 
which crosses the Den burn at Aberdeen is su- 
perior to the celebrated Rialto at Venice. The 
central and most important part of the town, 
" the place where merchants most do congre- 
gate," is Castle Street, a fine oblong square, 
or place, as the French would call it, so styled 
from a fort built by Oliver Cromwell in its 
neighbourhood, which is now the site of a bar- 
rack. Castle Street, having at all times been 
the market-place and cynosure of Aberdeen, 
has an appearance of antique dignity highly 
pleasing. It is adorned by a market-cross near 
the western extremity, which cannot be too 
highly admired, whether as an architectural 
object or as an antiquarian wonder. It is a 
hexagonal edifice, with a pillar springing from 
the centre. In a cornice around the upper 
part of the building, are twelve compartments 
for figures cut in relief. Ten of these contain 
the portraits of Scottish monarchs : the last of 
the series being James VII. in whose time, 
(1686,) the building was completed. It will 
surprise any one who sees this fine object to 
know, that it was once removed by the magis- 
trates as a nuisance, and only afterwards re- 
stored by another set of civic dignitaries, who 
happened to have a better taste. In the centre 
of the north side of Castle Street are situ^ti 
the town-house and court-house, the latter a 
new structure, built and fitted up within in the 
finest style, being chiefly used by the Justiciary 
judges of Scotland in holding here one of their 
circuit courts. The prison connected with 
this court-house is the best in Scotland north 
of Edinburgh. It used in former times to be 
popularly called the Mids o' Mar, an alle- 
gorical phrase equivalent to the " Heart 
o' Mid-Lothian," Mar being the district 
in which Aberdeen is situated. The town- 
house is surmounted by a tower, from 
which springs a conspicuous spire. In this 
building is the town-armoury, which, among 

other curiosities, contains the banner borne by 
the citizens at Harlaw. King Street, a new way, 
almost as magnificent and spacious as Union 
Street, and which is rapidly filling up with chaste 
and elegant buildings, leads off from Castle 
Street to the north. To the south is another 
street descending towards the harbour. Eesides 
these, a fine old street, which was formerly 
the next best in Aberdeen to the market-place, 
and therefore named, par excellence, Broad 
Street, (though the appellation seems now a 
little mal-a-propos), leads off to the north. 
Almost all the other streets are of a meaner 
or more antique character, and not worthy 
of particular notice. Lord Byron, previous 
to his tenth year, resided with his mother in 
Broad Street ; the house is the second to the 
south of the entry to the Marischal College, 
and it was the second flat which the youthful 
poet occupied. The more amiable bard Dr. 
Beattie, lived a considerable time, and died in 
a self-contained house, behind one of these 
antique streets. Among modern public struc- 
tures, the new County Buildings are entitled 
to the first attention. This is properly one 
edifice, though from custom honoured with a 
plural designation. It projects upon Union 
Street, is built of beautiful granite, and, in 
shape and size, very much resembles the Royal 
Institution at Edinburgh. The internal deco. 
ration is exceedingly splendid. This building 
was erected, in 1820, at the expense of the 
counties of Aberdeen and Banff, and is used 
for the public assemblies and festive meetings 
of the nobility and gentry of these two shires. 
It comprises a spacious ball-room, a tea-room, 
and other apartments. It cost L. 11,500. On 
the same line of street, but not so near the car- 
riageway, is a large modem building, in the 
castellated style, which is used as a Bridewell ; 
about a mile to the north-west, in the outskirts 
of the town, is a Lunatic Asylum. In St. Ni- 
cholas Street is an elegant building erected by 
the Commissioners of Police for a cistern, to 
accommodate the inhabitants of this part of 
the town with water. Up to the year 1828, 
Aberdeen constituted only one parish, which 
bore the name of St. Nicholas, from the an- 
cient town-church of that title. The excessive 
population at length rendering it necessary to 
break up this system, ths Court of Ttinds 
sanctioned its partition into six parochial di- 
visions, which are called the East parish, the 
West parish, the North parish, the South 



parish, the Greyfriars' parish, and St. Clement's 
parish, each of which comprises a certain por- 
tion of the town. In consequence of this 
arrangement two new churches have been built, 
one in King Street, of passing elegance and sur- 
mounted by a spire 154 feet high, the other in 
Belmont Street, of little inferior appearance, 
with four ornamented buttresses, the pinnacles 
of which are 1 10 feet above the ground. These 
beautiful structures were from designs by Mr. 
John Smith, architect, Aberdeen, and are com- 
posed of the usual granite. The former, which 
can hold 1600 persons, may be described as a 
perfect pattern of all that a presbyterian church, 
erected in a wealthy town, ought to be. The 
original church of St. Nicholas, who was the 
patron saint of the city, was an ancient Gothic 
structure, and was remodelled into its present 
condition about the middle of the last century. 
Within this structure may be yet seen the mon- 
ument of Sir Henry Davidson, " the provest of 
braif Aberdene," who fell leading on his band 
of stalwart citizens at the battle of Harlaw, in 
1411. Besides the places of worship belong- 
ing to the establishment, including chapels of 
ease, one of which is Gaelic, there are three 
chapels belonging to the United Secession 
church, one to the Original Seceders, one to 
the Relief body, three to the Congregational 
Union ; besides several others. There are 
two chapels belonging to the Episcopal church 
of Scotland, in one of which officiates the 
Right Rev. Dr. Skinner, the bishop of the 
diocese, and a Roman Catholic chapel. There 
is also a congregation which uses the liturgy 
and services of the Episcopal church, but is 
under no bishop. The chapel of Bishop 
Skinner is a handsome Gothic structure in 
King Street. The town is the seat of a 
presbytery and synod. The annual fast days 
of the kirk in Aberdeen, are the Wednesdays 
before the first Sundays of April and September. 
A notice of the universities of Aberdeen may 
here be appropriately introduced. Of these 
there have hitherto been two, one designated 
King's College, and the other Marischal Col- 
lege. King's College is situated in the conti- 
guous parish of Old Machar, and locally be- 
longs to Old Aberdeen ; but it i« considered 
more consistent with a proper view of the 
educational institutions of Aberdeen to bring 
it here into notice. King's College was the 
third institution of the kind erected in Scot- 
land. It was set on foot at the instance of Bi 

shop Elphinstone, who incited James IV. to 
apply for a bull from the Pope, to carry it into 
execution ; such then being the etiquette in 
erecting universities. In the year 1494, Pope 
Alexander VI. issued a bull agreeable to 
the application, instituting a university, or 
studium generate et universitas studii gene- 
ralis, for theology, canon and civil laws, medi- 
cine, the liberal arts, and every other lawful 
faculty. The grand moving cause of the erec- 
tion of this institution, was the earnest desire 
of King James to introduce civilization into 
the northern part of his dominions. In his 
letter to the Pope, he gives a most deplorable 
account of the barbarous state of the north, 
stating " that th e inhabitants were ignorant of 
letters, and almost uncivilized ; that there were 
no persons to be found fit to preach the word 
of God to the people, or to administer the 
sacraments of the church ; and, besides, that 
the country was so intersected with mountains 
and arms of the sea, or distant from the uni- 
versities already erected, (at St. Andrews and 
Glasgow), and the roads so dangerous, that the 
youth had not access to the benefit of educa- 
tion in these seminaries. But," adds the king 
" the city of Old Aberdeen is situated at a. 
moderate distance from the highland country, 
and northern islands ; enjoys an excellent tem- 
perature of air, abundance of provisions, and 
the conveniency of habitation, and of every 
thing necessary for human life." In allusion 
to these representations, the bull states, that 
notwithstanding there were already two uni- 
versities in Scotland, a third could in no sense 
be injurious, as " science has this distinguish- 
ing quality, that the diffusion of it tends not to 
diminish, but increase the general mass." 
Those who accuse the Catholic religion of an 
inherent conspiracy against the increase of 
knowledge, would do well to consider this 
remarkable sentiment, which is in the genuine 
language of an actual pope. The bull, accord- 
ing to custom, constituted the bishops of the 
diocese chancellors of the university, and em- 
powered Bishop Elphinstone forthwith to com- 
mence a proper edifice for the new college. At 
first the university was dedicated to St. Mary, 
whose name it bore, but subsequently it re- 
ceived the title it still possesses. The college 
buildings, afterwards to be noticed in their 
proper place, were begun in 1506. The consti- 
tution of the University of Paris was the mo- 
, del of that of King's College. It is needless 



to recount the different steps taken by the 
learned chancellor and James to make the new 
university complete in all its educational ar- 
rangements. Both paid particular attention 
to the obligation of a study of the laws. Bi- 
shop Elphinstone himself was considered at 
the time one of the most erudite scientific 
lawyers in Europe, and he has left vast com- 
pilations which are still preserved in the library 
of the university. He instituted two pro- 
fessorships in that honourable faculty, and it 
is understood that he was mainly instrumental, 
at a period somewhat earlier, in urging the king 
to pass that remarkable law, which has been 
for ages considered one of the most curious 
acts of the Scottish parliament, by which it is 
"statute and ordained throu all the realme, 
that all burrowes and freeholders, that are of 
substance, put their eldest sonnes and aires 
to the schules, fra they be six or nine yeires 
of age, and till remaine at the grammar schules 
quhile they be competantlie founded, and have 
perfite Latine, and thereafter to remaine three 
yeirs at the schules of arts and jure, swa that 
they have knowledge and understanding of the 
lawes : Throu the quhilks justice may re- 
maine universally throu all the realme ; swa 
that they that are schireffs or judges ordinaries 
under the king's hienesse, may have know- 
ledge to doe justice, that the puir people 
sidd have na neede to seek our soveraine 
Lordis audi tour for ilk small injurie : and what 
barroun or freeholder of substance that holdes 
not his sonne at the schules, as said is, hav- 
and na lauchfull essoinzie [or excuse], bot 
failzies herein fra knowledge may be gotten 
thereof, he sail pay to the king the summe of 
twentie pound." Bishop Elphinstone and 
James jointly endowed the university in a 
very liberal manner. The revenues and tithes 
of various hospitals and parishes were bestow- 
ed upon it. The bishop purchased twent)'- 
four acres of land for gardens and sites of 
houses for the professors, and at his death in 
1514, he bequeathed to it L. 10,000 Scots. 
What Bishop Elphinstone left unfinished was 
carried forward by Bishop Gavin Dunbar, 
who, during the thirteen years he filled the see, 
expended nearly his whole revenue in pious 
and charitable uses. From this period the 
university became the most flourishing college 
in Scotland. It was dignified by the best 
professors, and placed under an excellent ju- 
risdiction. Hector Boece, the eminent bio- 

grapher and historian, was its fust Principal. 
At the Reformation, many of its functionar- 
ies were expelled, and in 1578, it received a 
new charter of foundation from parliament. 
But King's College did no good after the Re- 
formation. Up to 1619, it was an object of 
general spoliation. Its principals sold the or- 
naments, alienated the revenues, feued off the 
manses and glebes, and enriched themselves 
at the expense of the corporation. With the 
revival, however, of the episcopal system, 
came good times once more, to the education- 
al institutions. By dint of incredible exer- 
tions, Bishop Forbes recovered part of the re- 
venues and other college property, and restor- 
ed various professorships which had been given 
up, from the penury of the age or the greed 
of the principals. He indeed restored the 
university to its original condition, under the 
deduction of offices rendered useless by the 
Reformation. It is strange to find the his- 
tory of this university confer so much lustre 
on systems which are now supposed to be 
attended with so much evil. If any thing 
could make such systems tolerable, the pa- 
triotic and enlightened conduct of Bishops 
Elphinstone, Dunbar, and Forbes must have 
done it. About the year 1620, a professor- 
ship of divinity was added to the number of 
functionaries, and the office was afterwards 
filled by Dr. Forbes, son of the bishop. The 
institution continued to flourish in its remo- 
delled condition, till the period of confusion 
consequent on the subscription of the national 
covenant. Several members were expelled 
for refusing to sign this new bond of faith, 
and among these were Dr. Leslie, principal, 
and Dr. Forbes, both of whom rendered them- 
selves famous by maintaining a controversy 
with Henderson, and other commissioners, 
and on whose learning and loyalty Lord Clar- 
endon has bestowed a deserved encomium. 
The expulsion of Dr. Forbes was attended 
with circumstances of peculiar hardship. He 
had purchased a house in Old Aberdeen for 
himself and his successors in office ; and as 
no clause had been inserted in the deed, re- 
serving the use of it for his lifetime, he was 
obliged to relinquish his own house in favour 
of a successor, with whose sentiments he was 
at variance. The new professors, appointed at 
the instance of the covenanters, were in their 
turn ejected by Cromwell, five of whose co- 
lonels, Desborough, Fenwick, Moseiey, Owea 



and Smith, were sent by Monk, to visit and 
reform the colleges. These military commis- 
sioners expelled the principal and several pro- 
fessors ; not for want of learning or diligence, 
but for want of conformity to the standard 
of theological opinion then in fashion with the 
army. In other respects they treated the col- 
lege not unkindly. They, on the contrary, 
assisted by subscription the erection of a build- 
ing for the accommodation of the students. On 
the restoration of monarchy in 1660, the bi- 
shops of Aberdeen resumed all their original 
authority, as chancellors, and reformed the dis- 
orders created during the interregnum. Under 
the mild and intelligent superintendence of 
Bishop Scougal, the state of the university seems 
to have been uncommonly prosperous, and the 
offices were filled with men well qualified for 
their stations. In 1716, because of a suspi- 
cion that some of the members were disaffect- 
ed to government, the college was visited by 
a royal commission, and the principal and three 
professors were removed. In 1753 the plan 
of discipline and education was altered, at the 
instance of the celebrated Dr. Reid. The 
students were obliged to board in the college, 
end be subjected to a very vigorous discipline. 
In a short time this was abandoned, in conse- 
quence of the diminution of the number of 
students, and since that period they may live 
where they choose. King's College has a 
great number of bursaries in the gift of the 
corporation and private individuals. They are 
of incalculable benefit to young men in the 
noith of Scotland, who, but for their cheering 
influence, would never have received a classic 
education. Since the final abolition of epis- 
copacy in 1689, there have been lay chancellors 
in this as well as in every other Scottish col- 
lege. These functionaries are usually noble- 
men, who in no instance interfere to correct 
abuses or to regulate the modes of education ; 
and the consequence of this deficiency is now 
apparent in the necessity for a rigorous inquisi- 
tion into the state of the colleges. Besides a 
chancellor and rector of this description, King's 
College has a principal and professor of divi- 
nity, civil law, medicine, oriental languages, hu- 
manity, Greek, natural philosophy, mathema- 
tics, and moral philosophy. It is chiefly known 
as a preparatory school for young men intend- 
ed for the church, or inferior legal pursuits. 
It possesses a large and valuable library, which 
is enriched by a copy of every book published 

in the empire, entered at Stationers' Hall. 
Marischal College has a joint interest in the 
library. This latter institution, which more 
properly belongs to Aberdeen, is of compara- 
tively modern erection. It was founded and 
endowed in 1593, by George Keith, fifth Earl 
Marischal, the nobleman who was sent to Den- 
mark by James VI., and there espoused the 
princess Anne in the name of his majesty. 
The Earl conveyed to the principals and mas- 
ters of his new college, the houses, garden, 
church, &c, which had belonged to the Fran- 
ciscan or Grey Friars, lying on the east side 
of the Broadgate of Aberdeen ; also the lands, 
tenements and feu-duties, formerly belonging 
to the Dominican or Black Friars, and the 
Carmelites or White Friars of Aberdeen, 
whose convents were respectively situated in 
the streets called the School-hill and Green, 
but demolished about the period of the refor- 
mation. The property of the Franciscans 
being in an entire state, was constituted the 
college buildings. The original members con- 
sisted of a principal, three masters in philoso- 
phy and languages, six bursars, a steward and 
cook, which was a meagre establishment com- 
pared with that of King's. The foundation 
was confirmed by parliament in 1593, and af- 
terwards in 1661. This college, in a like 
manner, has a number of bursaries, which are 
generally more valuable than those of King's. 
Dr. Gilbert Burnet, bishop of Salisbury, 
was educated at the Marischal college, in re- 
membrance of which he bequeathed the sum 
of 20,000 merks, as a fund for the education 
of four bursars in philosophy, and two in di- 
vinity ; the patronage of them belongs to the 
family of Burnet of Leys, of which he was a 
cadet. Four bursaries in philosophy of L.15 
sterling each, and four in divinity of L.25 each, 
were also endowed in 1723, by the Rev. Gil- 
bert Ramsay, rector of Christ Church, island 
of Barbadoes, the patronage of which is vested 
in the family of Ramsay of Balmain. There 
are upwards of fifty bursaries altogether, ten 
or twelve of which become vacant every ses- 
sion. The functionaries of this college, are 
at present, a chancellor, rector, dean of facultyj 
and principal, with professors of divinity, moral 
philosophy and logic, natural philosophy, civil 
and natural history, Greek, mathematics, medi- 
cine, oriental languages, chemistry, humanity, 
and Scots law- There are lecturers to both 
colleges in anatomy and physiology, surgery, 



materia medica, medicine and midwifery. In 
point of popular respectability, this institution 
occupies a higher station than King's. The 
buildings of Marischal College are arranged 
round a square court, which is accessible by 
a portal opening from the east side of Broad 
Street. Upon the top of the west wing there 
has been elevated an observatory which con- 
tains some valuable instruments. In the prin- 
cipal hall, which is adorned with portraits, 
(some of them by the famous Jamieson,) there 
is an extensive museum of curiosities, com- 
prising, among other things, an excellent mum- 
my. Considering the extent of the arrange- 
ments for educating young men at these uni- 
versities, they are not well attended. The 
average number is at present only about 600 
annually. The crown is superior of both, 
having acquired the patronage of Marischal s 
by the forfeiture of that noble family in 1716. 
It has been long contemplated to unite the 
two under one roof. A very satisfactory union 
was established by Charles I. in 1641, when 
he granted the revenues of the see of Aber- 
deen to the united college, which he designated 
the Caroline University. This junction was 
confirmed by Cromwell in 1654. Unfortunate- 
ly the general rescissory act of Charles II., and 
the act restoring episcopacy, operated to abolish 
the union, and at the same time to take away the 
revenue of the see. Since this disjunction 
different attempts have been made to have the 
two kindred bodies again united, but without 
effect. The chief objection raised against the 
proposal has in general been with regard to 
the locus, or seat of the university, whether it 
shall be in New or Old Aberdeen. The stu- 
dents of the Marischal College may likewise 
live where they choose. Red gowns are worn 
by the students at both places, the same as at 
Glasgow. Among the most remarkable al- 
umni of this college, may ba mentioned, Dr. 
Arthur Johnstone ; Bishop Burnet, already 
mentioned ; Dr. Arbuthnot, the fiend of 
Pope and Swift ; Colin Maclaurin ; Dr. Camp- 
bell ; Dr. Beattie ; Dr. Gerard ; and the late 
Dr. Reid of Glasgow. At the time when 
Dr. Johnson visited Aberdeen, he found, as in 
Edinburgh, a constellation of men in pos ses- 
sion of the chairs, almost all of whom lad 
distinguished themselves by their publications. 
Aberdeen is in no way remarkable for having 
been the birth-place of men distinguished 
in the annals of their counr.ry. The only 

two men of notoriety it has produced, are 
George Jamieson, a portrait-painter of emi- 
nence, who flourished at the beginning of the 
seventeenth century, and James Gregory, 
professor of mathematics in the university of 
Edinburgh, inventor of the reflecting telescope, 
and the great-grandfather of the celebrated 
Dr. Gregory, professor of medicine. Jamie- 
son went abroad at an early age to study under 
Rubens, with whom he made great progress. 
He returned to Scotland in 1620, and was 
immediately noticed by the court and aristo- 
cracy, and his style was admired all over the 
kingdom. By a published list of his works, 
it appears that he painted nearly a hundred 
portraits of the most remarkable personages of 
the time. He painted a full length portrait of 
James VI, and two of Charles I. It is said 
that he won the favour of the latter monarch, 
who, on one occasion, while he was sitting for 
his portrait, ordered him to keep on his hat. 
Owing to this circumstance, or perhaps in 
imitation of Rubens his master, he is repre- 
sented, in all the pictures of himself, with his 
hat on. Many of Jamieson 's portraits are still 
to be found in the collections of Scottish no- 
bility, especially the extensive gallery at Tay- 
mouth. Aberdeen gives the title of Earl to 
a branch of the noble family of Gordon, which 
was distinguished for its extreme loyalty to 
the crown in the seventeenth century. Sir 
George Gordon of Haddo, the first cadet, " 
was a warm adherent of Charles I, and for 
holding out his castle of Haddo, in 1644, 
against the parliament army, was taken pri- 
soner, condemned, and executed at Edinburgh. 
During his imprisonment, he was confined in 
a strong upper dungeon in the fabric of St. 
Giles' Cathedral at Edinburgh, now remodell- 
ed, and the particular place of worship con- 
nected with his prison was long called Had- 
do' s Hole. Sir John, his eldest son, received 
the baronetage and estates after the restoration. 
On his death he was succeeded by his bro- 
ther George, who was by Charles II, in 
1682, made a Lord of Session, president 
of the privy council, afterwards chancellor 
of Scotland, and create 1 Earl of Aberdeen. 
The trade and manufactures of Aberdeen next 
require attention. The first indication of 
manufactures was about the end of the six- 
teenth century, when a Fleming was permit- 
ted to settle and exercise his occupation of a 
manufacturer of programs, worsted, and stam- 



ings, on condition of taking an apprentice of 
the town to be taught the profession. In the 
seventeenth century, the manufacturing of 
woollen goods became very prevalent. The 
chief articles made for exportation were stock- 
ings and mits, which were knit mostly by wo- 
men in the town and neighbouring country, 
and woollen plaiden, of which article alone, in 
1651, there were 73,358 ells made and sent 
abroad. These goods were generally sent to 
Dantzic, and Campvere in Holland. This 
woollen manufacture, from the introduction of 
machinery, has altered its character, and ex- 
tended its influence. By a late computa- 
tion, the manufacture and sale of woollen goods 
of different kinds, gave a direct support to 
twenty thousand individuals in the county of 
Aberdeen. Linen manufactures were introduced 
by a company in 1749, and very soon became 
considerable. There are now some very large 
establishments for the manufacture of sail- 
cloths, brown linens, Osnaburgs, threads, 
tapes, &c. Cotton-spinning has also been in- 
troduced with good effect. The making of 
ropes and twine engages likewise a good num- 
ber of hands. Three paper manufactories be- 
long to persons in and about the town, and 
there is the same number of iron foundries ; 
besides these there is a variety of manufac- 
tories of miscellaneous goods, among which 
may be noticed the article of quills, which have 
been long prepared, and exported to a consi- 
derable extent, bv the verv respectable house of 
Duncan and Son. The tanning of leather is 
likewise carried on in the town. There are 
several distilleries, and a considerable number 
of breweries. An idea of the extensiveness of 
these concerns may be obtained from the fact, 
that they employ twenty-six steam engines, 
the aggregate horse power of which is 515, re- 
quiring a daily consumpt of 250 bolls of coal. 
It is calculated that the value of the goods ex- 
ported from Aberdeen annually, coastwise and 
to foreign ports, is not less than L. 1,200,000, 
wlule the imports are valued at L. 600,000. 
The custom-house duties on imports amount 
to upwards of L. 20,000. The harbour revenue 
for the past year, (1829-30), was L.12,347. 
The port now trades with Russia, Sweden, 
Norway, Denmark, Prussia, Germany, and 
Holland in the north, and with Italy, Spain, 
Portugal, and Gibraltar in the south of Eu- 
rope, and with America and the West Indies. 
There are six ship-building yards, from which 

some very fine Vi,c»els are launched yearly 
The number of vessels of different kinds be- 
longing to the port is 217, having a united bur- 
den of 30,395 tons. The port has now a regu- 
lar communication with London, Edinburgh, 
and Inverness, by means of steam yachts, a 
species of conveyance which has done more to 
lay open the north-east shore of Scotland to 
improvements from the south, than any institu- 
tion, however great. The Duke of Wel- 
lington steamer, belonging to Aberdeen, is 
esteemed the finest sailing vessel of the kind 
that belongs to the seas around Britain. 
Aberdeen has long been famous for its con- 
veyance to London by means of the vessels 
called Smacks, which at one time were so 
cheap, that it was possible to travel from Edin- 
burgh to Aberdeen, and thence to London, at 
less expense than if a voyage had been made 
directly from Leith. About a dozen coaches 
leave Aberdeen daily for Edinburgh, Inver- 
ness, and other places, besides the regular mail 
coaches. The fishing trade of Aberdeen is 
very extensive, and consists of the three 
branches of whale fishing, white fishing, and 
salmon fishing. About a dozen of vessels 
are employed in that first mentioned. Great 
quantities of white fish are caught on the 
coast, and brought to the market daily. Sal- 
mon fishing is the most lucrative to the pro- 
prietors, and is of long standing. The ave- 
rage number of barrels of salmon caught in 
the Dee is from 800 to 1200, and in the Don 
800 to 1000. In 1794, which was a good 
year, the Dee produced 1890| barrels of 4 cwt. 
each, and the Don 1667 barrels. The annual 
rent of the Dee fishings from the bridge 
downwards, is computed at about L.8000, 
and that of the Don from the cruives down- 
wards, L.2700. The fishing season lasts 
from December to September. The sal- 
mon are packed in ice in a very ingenious 
manner, and exported to London and other 
places. A good deal of popular celebri- 
ty attaches to Aberdeen on account of its 
half-dried haddocks, which are used at break- 
fasts and suppers, and have a peculiarly fine 
flavour. They are occasionally exported by the 
coaches to Edinburgh, but it is remarked that 
they are apt to lose their flavour by the way. The 
port of Aberdeen is particularly well situated 
for commerce with the north of Europe. Origi- 
nally the harbour was merely a shallow creek 
formed by the efflux of the Dee, but improve- 

A 13 E It D E E N. 


merits made upon it in the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 
the present century have made it quite accessible 
and safe. On the north side of the entrance 
h magnificent solid stone pier projects into the 
sea, to the distance of 1206 feet; and to pro- 
tect the harbour from swells, a remarkably fine 
breakwater has been laid down, extending about 
800 feet from the land on the opposite side, 
and which lies partly across the entrance. 
The cost of the pier and other improvements 
was upwards of L. 140,000. On the south 
side of the interior of the harbour, there is an 
excellent quay upwards of 900 feet in length. 
Betwixt the harbour and the town stands the 
fishing and sea-port village of Futtie or Foot- 
dee, which is a suburb under the jurisdiction 
of the city magistracy, and is connected with 
the city by an ascending street. The im- 
provements which have been instituted in and 
about the harbour in 1830, and which are 
not yet finished, are very extensive. A wet 
dock is now forming of one thousand yards in 
length, which will be completed in 1831, and 
have one of the finest quays in Scotland. A 
canal was finished in 1808, connecting the 
harbour with a point on the river Don, at 
Inverary, a distance of 18| miles. It has an 
ascent of 168 feet, which is surmounted by 
17 locks. The total expense of this under- 
taking was about L. 44,000. Hitherto it has 
returned no adequate profit to the share-hold- 
ers, but has been of infinite benefit to the 
country through which it passes. A very sen- 
sible improvement has indeed been effected on 
the face of the country through its means. 
The burgal constitution of Aberdeen has un- 
dergone various alterations since its first esta- 
blishment. The original magistracy consisted 
of an alderman, four bailies, and a common 
coimcil chosen by the inhabitants. In after- 
times this arrangement gave way before the 
gradual and perfect introduction of a self- 
electing system, and latterly the bench of bur- 
gal magistrates was precisely of the same 
wretched kind, which continues to disgrace 
the greater part of Scottish towns. Owing to 
the evil management of a number of expensive 
undertakings, the corporation of the town be- 
came bankrupt in 1815, at which time, but 
not till then, the magistrates declared that 
there was a necessity for immediate reform 
in the constitution. Till the year 1826, the 
city revenues were gathered and dispensed 
by a trustee, for behoof of creditors. They 
are now increasing very fast ; for one article. 

the shore-dues of 1829 exceeded those of 
1828 by L. 700. The credit of the burgh may 
now be considered as good as that of any other 
in the kingdom. In 1830, its revenues produ- 
ced a surplus of no less than L.2500, being 
a greater sum than the entire revenue thirty 
years before. Aberdeen joins with Arbroath, 
Brechin, Bervie, and Montrose, in sending a 
member to parliament ; which is manifestly too 
narrow a representation, when its population and 
high commercial character are considered. The 
town magistracy consists of a provost, four bail- 
ies, a dean of guild, and treasurer, with a council 
of seven deacons of the incorporated trades, and 
the old system of election still continues. The 
town is watched, lighted and cleaned, by a 
city police, similar to that of Edinburgh, which 
is conducted in a satisfactory manner by com- 
missioners. Gas light was introduced some 
years ago, and after being applied to all the 
streets and most of the shops, is now about to 
be used for the illumination of the city clocks 
during the night. Recently the town has been 
greatly benefited by the introduction of water 
in a greater profusion than formerly, from the 
Dee, whereby service pipes have been led into 
the different dwellings. Recently three branch- 
es of the Post Office have been established in 
different quarters, in and about the town, for 
the convenience of the inhabitants. Aber- 
deen is distinguished for the excellence and 
variety of its public institutions of a useful, 
a pious, and humane tendency. The trades 
have an hospital for decayed members. A poor- 
house is supported by its own funds, contribu- 
tions from the town and kirk-sessions, and vo- 
luntary donations. Lady Drum's Hospital is 
a charity founded by a gentlewoman of the dis- 
trict, for unmarried women. Gordon's Hos- 
pital founded 1 733, by an eminent miser, is 
governed by a chartered company, has a good 
revenue, and supports and educates about se- 
venty boys.* The Aberdeen Infirmary is a 
large building at the west end of the town. It 
was established in 1742, and is maintained by 
subscriptions, collections, and donations. It 
relieves about 900 patients annually. The 
Lunatic Asylum, already alluded to, was built 
by subscription, and has been of great benefit 
to the district. There is also a private luna- 
tic asylum, a public dispensary, and a vaccine 

* The increased revenue and recent donations have 
enabled the directors to complete the original plan of the 
building, which will be a handsome structure, and afford 
accommodation for from 400 to COO boys. 



institution. The Bridewell of Aberdeen was 
erected at an expense of L. 10,000, and the 
barracks are spacious and elegant, and com- 
petent to accommodate 600 men. The gram- 
mar school of Aberdeen is a neat modern 
building, situated on the school hill. As al- 
ready mentioned, the city has possessed an in- 
stitution under this title since 1418, an era 
only eight years posterior to the foundation of 
St. Andrews' University, and upwards of a 
century earlier than the establishment of any 
seminary of its own kind in Scotland, that of 
Edinburgh not excepted. Besides this insti- 
tution, which enjoys a high and merited re- 
putation, there is one more modem, styled 
the Academy, and there are other public and 
private schools of all kinds, and some good 
charity schools. There is a variety of insti- 
tutions for the relief of the indigent, and the 
sick. Of religious societies, for aiding the 
diffusion of the bible and works of piety, as 
well as for sending missionaries abroad, includ- 
ing branches, there are at least twenty-five. 
Of friendly societies and mason lodges, there 
are about twelve. There are several respecta- 
ble literary societies, and some good reading and 
news rooms. Of public associations there are 
the Honourable, or County Club, for the pur- 
pose of promoting social intercourse and aiding 
the distressed ; the Golf Club ; the United 
Meeting of the counties of Aberdeen, Forfar, 
Banff, and Kincardine ; agricultural associa- 
tions ; the Northern United Sendee Club, &c. 
From the extent of comity business of a legal 
nature, there is a considerable number of 
writers practising before the local courts. 
These professional gentlemen are known by 
the title of Advocates, which is not enjoyed 
by attornies in any other town. They have 
been possessed of this title about two hundred 
and sixty years ; and it is unknown how they 
acquired it. They were incorporated by royal 
charter in 1774. The corporation has a good 
library. From what has been said relative to 
Aberdeen, it will be comprehended that the 
town is in a very prosperous condition. So 
great and so varied, indeed, s>re the improve- 
ments now going forward, that it woidd be 
with some diificulty they could be sufficiently 
made known in the present compendious work. 
Besides these alterations in progress, there 
are others contemplated, which will be both 
highly usefid and ornamental to the city. One 
of the chief' ornamental erections yet to be 
raised is a very splendid facade or screen to 

the church-yard of St. Nicholas, in the line 6'f 
Union Street. In the centre will be an elegant 
gateway and pediment with a row of pillars on 
each side, extending altogether 159 feet. It 
is to be wholly built of granite. In the middle 
of the walk of the church-yard, opposite the 
gateway, is to be erected, of fine red granite, an 
obelisk fifty-two feet in height, to the memory 
of the late John Forbes, Esq. of New. The 
designs are by Mr. John Smith, architect, and 
are highly creditable to his talents and taste. 
The improvements made on the town of Aber- 
deen are not greater and more surprising than 
the very great change which has been made for 
the better on the country around. From being 
a bleak waste fifty years ago, the soil is now 
productive, and the surface put under the finest 
state of cultivation, either for yielding farm 
produce or garden stuffs. Within these few 
years the value of lands in the vicinity of Aber- 
deen has risen very considerably. Being 
the capital of an extensive district in the 
north of Scotland, and on that account the 
centre of attraction to a large population of 
landed gentry, the society to be met with in 
Aberdeen is of a refined and superior descrip- 
tion, and only second to what is found in the 
metropolis. Balls, musical assemblies, masque- 
rades, and races, the significant tokens of an 
opident and polished people, are of frequent 
occurrence. The town has a very neat and 
commodious small theatre in Marischal Street, 
(erected at an expense of upwards of L.3000,) 
in which dramatic representations are regularly 
performed, and in which London stars some- 
times show themselves. In political sentiment 
the Aberdonians have been ever famed for a 
warm-hearted loyalty, even while such a feel- 
ing was not the most profitable or safe. In 
modern times their allegiance has been trans- 
ferred with undimmed lustre, from the house 
of Stuart to the family of Brunswick, with 
this creditable reservation, that they will by no 
means be silent under any encroachment on 
their privileges, or be dead to necessary altera- 
tions on their political institutions. Few towns 
in Scotland have made a firmer stand for the 
reform of abuses in their parliamentary and 
municipal connexions than Aberdeen, and none 
can be more worthv of reaping the first fruits 
of a general and local renovation.* In 1821 

* It is a circumstance not altogether to be overlooked 
in summing up the elegancies of this city, that its local 
history has been published in a style of splendour uu- 

A B E R D E E N. 


the population of Aberdeen with its suburb:? 
amounted to 26,484 persons. Including a 
population of 18,312 in the parish of Old 
Machar, (comprehending the city of Old 
Aberdeen) the total amount of inhabitants 
was 44,796. 

ABERDEEN, (OLD) a small town in 
Aberdeenshire, lying at the short distance of 
a mile to the north of the above city of Aber- 
deen, and situated on an eminence on the south 
bank of the river Don. The parish of which 
it is the capital is called Old Machar, having 
been originally a Deanery of St. Machar, but 
erected, at the reformation, into a separate pa- 
rish. It lies in the peninsula betwixt the Deeand 
the Don, where they join the ocean. Its length 
may be seven or eight miles, and its greatest 
breadth four. The parish rises in a gentle slope 
from the sea, and is beautifully diversified by 
rising grounds. The windings of the Dee and 
the Don, the manufactories and the woods on the 
banks of the latter, interspersed with a num- 
ber of gentlemen's seats and villas, together 
. with the various prospects of the sea, give a 
pleasant variety to the general appearance of 
this parish. Great improvements in agricul- 
ture, at an enormous expense, have been in- 
stituted. The town of Old Aberdeen, in the 
present day, is a poor, dull, and miserable 
place, subsisting chiefly by its college, and a 
few trifling manufactures. It was formerly, 
however, the seat of the bishop of Aberdeen. 
The cathedral seat was removed thither, in 
1137, from Mortlach in Banffshire; and at 
the same period Old Aberdeen was created a 
burgh of barony ; its charter was renewed and 
confirmed by George I, by which a power of 
electing magistrates was conferred on the bur- 
gesses. The magistrates are now, a provost, 
three bailies, a treasurer, and council, with the 
deacons of six incorporated trades. The prin- 
cipal curiosity in the neighbourhood is the old 
bridge over the river Don, a spacious Gothic 
arch, stretching from the rock on one side to the 
rock on the other., and the only building of the 
kind in Scotland, if not in Britain. This cu- 
rious structure, which is pointed at top, exactly 
like a Gothic window, is generally supposed to 
have been built by Bishop Cheyne, in the reign 

exampled in Scotland : to Mr. Kennedy's Annals of 
Aberdeen, one of the most lucid and accurate topogra- 
phical narratives with which we are acquainted, we have 
to acknowledge great obligations in the composition of 
the above article. 

of Robert Bruce, but is more credibly state 1 by 
Mr. Kennedy, in his Annals of Aberdeen, to 
have been erected by Robert Bruce himself. In 
old writings it is called the bridge of Polgown, 
which may be an ancient spelling of its modern 
title of Balgownie. Formerly, as in the case of 
the bridge of Dee, a chapel was attached to it, 
which was endowed with a small fund for its 
support. The bridge is of uncommonly stout 
architecture, sixty-seven feet in span, and 
thirty-four and a half feet above the river. 
Under the title of the Brig o' Balgownie, 
which arises from the vicinage of a little vil- 
lage so called, it is celebrated by Lord Byron, 
who gives the following popidar stanza regard- 
ing it:— 

Brig o' Balgownie, though wight be your wa ; 
Wi' a wife's ae son, and a meare's ae foal, 
Down ye shall fa'. 

This prediction is now set in a great measure 
at nought, by the formation of a new cut of 
road, and the erection of a new bridge, to the 
east; by which travellers from Aberdeen to 
the northward are diverted from the " auld 
brig ;" though, we understand, it is still to be 
kept up as a curiosity. This new bridge con- 
sists of five arches, all built of fine Aberdeen 
granite, and is a remarkably fine and commo- 
dious structure. It has been raised chiefly by 
the assistance of a fund established in the 
reign of James VI- by Sir Alexander Hay, 
one of the principal clerks of the Court of 
Session, for the support of the old bridge, and 
which, from the small sum of L.2, 5s. 8d., had 
latterly amounted, by means of judicious and 
honest management, to L. 200,000. Such a 
singular instance of what may be accomplished 
by the careful curatory of small endowments, 
is well worthy of attention. There is a Trades' 
Hospital in Old Aberdeen, for the support of 
twelve poor men, founded by Bishop Dunbar 
in 1532. Old Aberdeen is honoured in the 
possession of the very magnificent stately fa- 
bric of King's College, noticed in the forego- 
ing article, and the remains of the cathedral of 
the diocese. The college buildings occupy an 
agreeable site, apart from the town, and con- 
sist of a large quadrangular suite of erections, 
with a court in the centre. The buildings 
were raised at different times, and possess an 
antique striking appearance. So fiir as we 
recollect, they are the only instance of a secu- 
lar building of date prior to the Reformation, 
still iu use in Scotland. Besides every uccoiiu 



modation for classes, there is a chapel at the 
south-west corner with a lofty square tower, 
terminated at the top with an imperial crown. 
This ancient chapel is fitted up within in the 
finest old taste, and is really an object worthy 
of inspection. Contiguous to the college is a 
handsome range of houses for the residence of 
the professors. King's College, has been re- 
cently very much repaired, and rendered next to 
new in appearance, by a facing of fresh stone in 
the front. The cathedral, which was founded in 
1357 by Bishop Alexander Kinninmonth, and 
took eighty years in building, is still pretty en- 
tire — owing, probably, to the comparative ex- 
emption of this province from the fuiy of the 
reformers. The nave, probably all that ever 
was built, is now used as the parish church. 
It possesses a noble western window, over 
which rise two sharp-pointed steeples, while 
above the choir of the building there is a very 
massive and dignified tower. Within, the de- 
corations are still wonderfully entire. The 
ceiling is composed of oak, cut into forty-eight 
compartments, each displaying, in strong co- 
lours, which were recently renewed, the armo- 
rial bearings of some eminent person, whose 
name is given below in the Latin language, 
and in the old Gothic character. The coats 
are arranged in three columns, the first con- 
taining kings, the second ecclesiastical digni- 
taries, and the third noble laymen. The whole 
has an effect no less beautiful than interesting, 
though the original cost is said to have been 
only L.8 Scots. This old cathedral contains 
60me very fine monuments. Near the door is 
that of Dr. Patrick Scougal, the father of Henry 
Scougal, a clergyman of the episcopal period 
of the Scottish church, who wrote the excel- 
lent treatise, called " the Life of God in the 
Soul of Man," ttie first religious work, not of a 
controversial nature, published in Scotland. 
On another is the strange inscription, " They 
say — what say they? let thaim say!" proba- 
bly the self-dictated epitaph of some eccentric 
wag of the fourteenth centiuy. Around the 
church is the public burying-ground of the pa- 
rish. — Population of the town and parish in 
1821, 18,312. 

ABERDOUR, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
extending about six miles along the coast of 
the Moray Firth, and taking its name from the 
streamlet which falls into the sea in its bounds. 
The shore is here bold, and is so generally pre- 
c\ itous, that there are only three places whore 

boats can land, and the rocks have been exca- 
vated by the sea into innumerable caves, one 
of which is ninety feet long by twenty-two feet 
broad. On a promontory stand the ruins of 
Dundargue castle, which was besieged by An- 
drew Murray, regent of Scotland, 1336, when it 
was unsuccessfully held out by Henry de Beau- 
mont, the English Earl of Buchan, daring the 
captivity of King David Bruce. There are two 
mill-stone quarries in the parish. It has a fish- 
ing village of a few hundred inhabitants. — Po- 
pulation in 1821, 1495. 

ABERDOUR, a parish in the county of 
Fife, overlooking a fine bend of the Firth of 
Forth, and bounded on the east by Kinghorn 
and Burntisland. The word Aberdour is 
from the Gaelic, and signifies the mouth of 
the water Dour, a small rivulet which is here 
emptied into the Forth. Formerly the grounds 
here were bleak, and the writer in the Statistical 
Account of Scotland speaks despondingl'yof the 
soil and climate. Now, the appearance of the 
ground, which consists of irregular slopes, 
stretching up from the water, is totally chang- 
ed, and the scenery may vie in beauty and rich- 
ness with any on the sea-coast. The lands 
are well wooded with thriving plantations, mos* 
of which have been begun by Mr. Stuart of 
Dunearn. The laurel shrubberies, around this 
gentleman's house of Hillside, are so extensive 
as to be quite a local wonder. The village of 
Aberdour, lying a few hundred yards from the 
coast, is now a pleasant summer resort of the 
citizens of Edinburgh and then- families, there 
being good bathing-ground here, and the expo- 
sure being sunny and warm. The chief caiise, 
ho\A ever, of its popularity as a retreat for ba- 
thers, is the ready access which is obtained to 
it by steam -vessels and other means of convey- 
ance from the opposite shore. The parish for- 
merly belonged to the monastery of Inchcolm j 
— see Inchcolm. Close to the village stands 
the old castle of Aberdour, the property of the 
Earl of Morton, which was burnt down by 
accident, upwards of a century ago. The Carle 
or Gudeman of Aberdour is a popular title of 
this nobleman, and as such is to be found' m 
the ancient dredging songs of the fishermen of 
the Firth of Forth, — see Lawrie and Syming- 
ton's Collection of Songs, 1792. — Population 
in 1821, 1489. 

ABERFELDIE, a village in the county 
of Perth and parish of Dull, situated on the 
banks of the Tay, about six miles arid, a half 



north- east from Kenmore, and sixteen and a- 
half from Dunkeld. Aberfeldie is best known a3 
rlie centre of one of the most beautiful scenes 
on the Tay, and for its proximity to the ro- 
mantic falls of Moness. It stands on the 
great Highland road, seventy-four miles from 

ABERFOYLE, a parish and the name of 
a celebrated pass or long valley between the 
Highlands and Lowlands in the lower part of 
Perthshire : in length eleven miles, and in 
breadth five. The duke of Montrose is nearly 
sole proprietor, and the land is chiefly pastoral. 
It is bounded on the north by Callander, on 
the east by Port of Monteith, on the south by 
Kippin and Buchanan, and on the western ex- 
tremity by Buchanan. This is esteemed 
among the most lovely and picturesque valleys 
in Scotland. The great attraction of the dis- 
trict is the continued series of lakes and water- 
courses along its bottom. As far as the village 
or clachan of Aberfoyle, which is the scene of 
some fictitious adventures in the novel of Rob 
Roy, the pass is not very interesting ; but some 
wild and pleasing scenes are also found in the 
neighbourhood of the Duchray, a river falling 
into the Forth or Avon-dhu, (the Black river) 
as it is here called, from its dark colour. At 
the head of the valley lies Loch Ard, a bright 
and placid basin, imbedded in surrounding 
woods, over which rises the graceful form of 
Benlomond. The best view of it is obtained 
from a wooded promontory, jutting out into 
the water, and scarcely leaving loom to the 
road which passes onwards to the westward, 
and which was possibly meant as the scene of 
the skirmish described in Rob Roy, in which 
Helen Macgregor makes her first appearance. 
The character of Loch Chon, includingits mini- 
ature associate Loch Dhu, is utterly distinct 
from that of Loch Ard, and though small it is 
a very picturesque lake — rocky and wild, with 
bold and steep boundaries. On the banks of 
the lakes the soil is early and fertile. The 
hills afford excellent sheep pasture ; and many 
of them are covered with oak of great value. 
The rocks are chiefly composed of micaceous 
granite, and, besides limestone and coarse 
marble, there is some good slate. The coun- 
try here abounds in rare plants suited for the 
researches of the botanist. — Population in 
1821, 730. 

ABERLADY, a parish in the county of 
Haddington, lying on the south coast of the 

mouth of the Firth of Forth, bounded on the 
south by Gladsmuir and Haddington, and on 
the east by Dirleton and Haddington. The 
beach is here so eligible as a place for the dis- 
embarkation of an invading host, that at the 
time when Britain was threatened with an inva- 
sion by France during the last war, serious fears 
were entertained in all the southern districts of 
Scotland, lest Bonaparte should have thought 
proper to select it as one of his chief points of 
attack. In the parish there are four baronies 
— namely, Aberlady, Gosford, Ballanerief and 
Luffness. When David I. erected the bishop- 
rick of Dunkeld, he bestowed upon it the chief 
land of the parish, over which the bishops ob- 
tained a regality, and till within these few 
years, on that account, the parish of Aberlady 
was considered within the commissariot of 
Dunkeld. Gavin Douglas, the well known 
bishop of Dunkeld, who died 1522, granted 
Aberlady with the estate of Kilspindie, on 
which was a fortalice, now erased, to his 
only brother Archibald Douglas. James VI. 
erected the land into a temporal barony. The 
village of Aberlady is of considerable size, 
and is a clean but dull-looking place. It lies 
at the head of a long flat sandy beach, several 
miles in breadth, and about a mile west of 
Gulane links. The beautiful enclosed grounds 
of the Earl of Wemyss stretch for about two 
miles west from Aberlady, along the shore of 
the Forth. Within them stand the old and 
new house of Gosford, seats of that nobleman. 
The modern edifice is a large structure facing 
the sea, and can be seen from great distances 
along the shores of the Firth of Forth. It is 
most unfortunately built of wet sea stones, 
which no art can ever dry, and is therefore 
totally uninhabitable. The second flat con- 
sists of a suite of three large rooms, in which 
there is a most valuable collection of rare 
paintings, mostly by Italian and Flemish art- 
ists. They are exposed in a very liberal 
manner to visitors. In the old baronial man- 
sion, a little to the south, there are also some 
good pictures. A little stream called the 
Peffer runs into the sea from this parish, 
about a quarter of a mile below the village of 
Aberlady, but there is no harbourage for ship- 
ping. The soil is sandy, light, and early. — 
Population in 1821, 1033. 

ABERLEMNO, a parish in Forfarshire, 
lying on the banks of the south Esk, where it 
is joined by the rivulet called the Lemno, and 


A II £ R N L T H Y. 

about twelve miles from the sea coast. It is 
six miles long, and five broad, and is of a trian- 
gular shape, bounded on the north by Carres- 
ton and Tannadice, on the north-west by Oath- 
law, and on the east by Brechin. The land 
js undulating and fertile, but is occasional- 
ly subjected to inundation by the south Esk. 
There are two antique obelisks in the parish, 
erected to commemorate the total defeat of the 
Danes, which occurred near this place. They 
are about nine feet in height, and are covered 
with hieroglyphics, chiefly consisting of the 
figures of birds and beasts, with double circles 
connected by straight lines, but carrying no 
meaning to the present generation. One is 
situated in the old road from Breclnn to For- 
far, and the other stands in the parish church- 
yard.— Population in 1821, 1040. 

ABERLOUR, a parish in the county of 
Banff, on the south bank of the Spey, and at 
the mouth of a small burn called the Lour, 
about twelve miles in length, from east to west, 
and from two to five in breadth. The soil is 
fertile. The hill of Belrinnes, elevated 2747 
feet above the level of the sea, stands in the 
centre of the parish. Besides the Spey, the 
parish is watered by the Fiddieh and many 
small streamlets, all of which yield good trout 
and eel fishing. The village of Aberlour is 
the seat of a presbytery. — Population in 1821, 
J 059. 

ABERNETHY, a parish lying partly in 
the county of Fife and partly in Perthshire. 
It is bounded by the river Earn on the north, on 
the east by Newburgh and Abdie, on the south 
by Auchtermuchty and Strathmiglo, and extends 
about six miles in length and breadth. The 
village of Abernethy is situated near the con- 
fluence of the Earn with the Tay, about seven 
miles from Perth. This place is connected 
with the early history of Scotland. Its name 
is derived from Obair Neachtain, signifying in 
Gaelic, the work of Nethan or Nectan, who 
was a Pictish king, A. C. 456, and constituted 
this town the capital of his dominions. He 
f uncled a church dedicated to St. Bridget. 
'I he town subsequently was created an archi- 
episcopal see, but, on the Picts being subju- 
gated by Kenneth II. king of Scots, he re- 
moved the episcopate to St. Andrews, 840. 
After this the cathedral became a collegiate 
church, and an university for the education of 
youth, in the possession of the Culdees, that class 
o'i Christians who were in the island prior to 

the assumption of universal power by the 
bishop of Rome. The glory of Abernethy is 
altogether gone. The whole of its ecclesias- 
tical structures, once so eminent, are now 
utterly obliterated, and a single round tower of 
about seventy-five feet in height, and forty-eight 
in circumference, built of solid hewn stone, 
only remains as an evidence of the Pictisb 
reign. It stands in an angle of the church- 
yard, and serves the purpose of a steeple for a 
clock and bell to the adjacent plain modern 
church. On the side of the tower, has been 
attached during the times of religious severity, 
an iron collar and chain ready for the pillory- 
ing of persons convicted by the kirk-session of 
infractions of church rules. Abernethy is a 
burgh of barony, and occupies a pleasant site 
on the south verge of the beautifid flat vale of 
Strathearn, where it is bounded by the range 
of hills from Fife, on the road betwixt New- 
burgh and the Bridge of Earn. It consists 
mostly of thatched houses, and is more irregu- 
lar and duty than any other inland town in 
this part of Scotland. It is supported chiefly 
by weaving linen goods. — Population in 1821, 

are two parishes united under the first of 
these names, in the counties of Moray and 
Inverness. Abernethy here signifies on the 
mouth of the Nethy. The word Kinchar- 
dine imports the head of friends. The parish 
is about fifteen miles in length, nearly twelve 
in breadth, and is about thirty miles from the 
sea at Inverness. It is bounded on the north 
by Duthil and Inverallan, on the east by 
Kirkmichael, and is separated on the south from 
Braemar, by the hill called Cairngorm. Part 
of the parish lies low on the banks of the 
Spey, which here seems smooth and deep, 
and is dangerous in cases of high floods. 
There are a few lochs in the parish, the prin- 
cipal of which is Loch Aven, from whence 
the river of that name issues, containing 
plenty of trout, though of a poor dry quality. 
In the valley of Glenniore there are two lochs, 
one of which is called the Green loch, full of 
small fat green trouts. The parish is now 
remarkably full of wood, the property of Sir 
J. Grant and the Duke of Gordon, and great 
quantities have been cut down and floated 
down the Spey to Garmouth. This wood is 
considered the oldest and the best in Scotland. 
Thehills here possess inexhaustible stoics of 



freestone and granite. For a description of 
Cairngorm, see Cairngorm. The village of 
Abernethy is tbe seat of a presbytery. — Po- 
pulation in 1821, 1968. 

ABERNYTE, a parish in the county of 
Perth, of an irregular shape, three miles long, 
and two broad ; bounded on the north and east 
by Long Forgan, south by Inchture, and west by 
Kinnaird. The parish village lies in a valley, and 
the adjacent braes are of a light dry soil ; on the 
tops of the hills the ground is rocky and wild. 
There is a remarkable ravine in the parish 
leading to the Carse of Gowrie, terminated at 
the head by a fall of water ten feet in height. 
On the edge of the ravine King Edgar built a 
castle, which gives the name King's Seat to 
the place. It has long since been levelled with 
the ground, and a farm house is built on its 
site. From this height an extensive view may 
be had southwards as far as the Firth of Forth. 
Population in 1821, 269. Abemyte would 
seem to have formerly been a convivial sort 
of place — witness the popular rhyme : 

Grace and peace cam by Collace, 

And by the doors o' Dron ; 
But the caup and stoup o' Abemyte 

Mak mony a merry man. 

ABERTARFF, a parish now united to 
that of Boleskine, in Inverness-shire. See 

ABHER, a river in the parish of Loggie 
Easter, in the counties of Ross and Cro- 

ABINGTON, a village in Lanarkshire, in 
the parish of Crawfordjohn 

ABOYNE, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
composed of the joint parishes of Aboyne and 
Glentanar. The church is thirty miles south- 
west of Aberdeen, and nearly the same dis- 
tance north-west from Brechin. The parish 
lies on both sides of the river Dee, and it is 
bounded on the south-west by the parish of 
Lochlee and the braes of Angus. The low 
grounds are under cultivation, and the upper 
parts of the parish are covered by the woods 
of Lord Aboyne. The forest of Glentanar 
is extensive, and yields some excellent large 
oak timber. The parish is celebrated for its 
goat whey, which is used by persons afflicted 
by consumptions, — see Charlestown. There 
are some high hills in the parish which can be 
seen from a great distance. The parish is 
watered by the Feuch, the Tanar, and the 
Allachy, which, when heavy rains have fallen 

among the hills, come down impetuously, and 
sometimes cause great damage. The earldom 
of Aboyne was created by Charles II. 16CC, 
and bestowed on a member of the noble house 
of Gordon, to wit, Charles, third son of George, 
Marquis of Huntly, in recompense for his 
sendees and loyalty during the civil war and 
usurpation. — Population in 1821, 1051. 

ACHRAY LOCH, a little and very 
beautiful lake which connects Loch Vennachei 
with Loch Katrine, and receives the waters of 
that Loch. 

ACHILTY LOCH, a lake in the county 
of Ross and parish of Contin, about a mile 
in length, and in some places very deep. Not- 
withstanding that this loch is supplied with a 
continued accession of water, it has no visible 
outlet, but is imagined, correctly we believe, 
to have a subterranean channel communicat- 
ing with the river Rosay, from which it lies 
somewhat less than a mile. It has an artifi- 
cial island made for safety, with the ruins of a 
house and garden upon it, the access to which 
is by a draw-bridge. 

the county of Caithness, and parish of Lathe- 
ron. There is a curious tradition mentioned, 
illustrative of its demolition. It was built 
and possessed by John Beg, third son of one 
of the Earls of Sutherland, and a courageous 
man. In the time in which he lived the coun- 
try was infested by roving bands of freebooters, 
and a party having once come to Achaistal 
Castle, insisted that the founder and possessor 
should pay a certain sum in the name of 
black mail or tribute, otherwise they would 
plunder his house and cany away his cattle. 
John Beg seemed very passive on receiving 
the order, and entertained them very sump- 
tuously, until he got them all intoxicated, and 
fast asleep, by strong ale mixed with the juice 
of nightshade, when he ordered them to be 
conveyed to the upper apartments of his castle. 
He then removed his family and furniture, 
and put them on board a vessel at the water- 
mouth of Berrydale ; and having collected a 
great quantity of straw and brushwood into 
the lower part of his house, he set it on fire, 
which, in a short time, destroyed the robbers, 
and consumed all the castle excepting a part 
of the walls. Alter this exploit, John Beg 
returned with his family to Sutherland. 

tuated on a strong natural position in the pa- 


A I L S A. 

rish of Kirkpatrick Juxta, county of Dum- 

ACHRAKIN, (Loch) an inlet of the 
sea, on the west coast of Ross-shire. 

ACHUAR, one of the smallest of the 
islands of the Hebrides, lying south from 

ACKERGILL TOWER, a strong keep 
or castle, once the residence of the Earls 
Mareschal, built near the sea, in the parish 
of Wick, and county of Caithness. 

AD, a river in the county of Argyle, rising 
in a marsh at the west extremity of the parish 
of Glassary. In its course through the moor- 
lands it is joined by several rivulets, and be- 
comes a great body of water by the time it 
emerges upon the low grounds. In its wind- 
ings and curves it exhibits a beautiful object 
through the whole strath, but it is occasionally 
very destructive by overflowing its banks in 
rainy seasons. It discharges itself at Crinan, 
on the west coast of Argyleshire, and it 
abounds with sea and moor trouts, salmon, 
flounder and eel. 

AE, a small river in the county of Dum- 
fries, which rises at the foot of the Queens- 
berry hill, runs south for some miles to Kirk- 
mahoe, then bending in its course eastward, 
joins the Kinnel at Esby, which falls into the 

JEBUDM, or .EMODiE. See Hebrides. 

AFFULA, a small island of the Hebrides, 
at the mouth of Lochbroom. 

AFT ON, a small river in Ayrshire, a 
tributary stream of the Nith, into which it 
falls near New Cumnock. It gives a name to 
a barony, and is celebrated in a song by 

AIGASH, a small island formed by the 
dividing of the river Beauly in Inverness-shire, 
of an oval figure, and about a mile and a-half 
in circumference. It is principally formed of 
hard whinstone, rising in a sloping manner about 
a hundred feet above the level of the water, 
and is beautifully covered with natural oak, 
birch, alder, and hazel. The view of the slop- 
ing sides of islet, with tbe surrounding rocks 
and a fall of water, near the east end thereof, 
is remarkably fine and picturesque. An ex- 
tensive wood saw-mill is erected on the 

AILSA, or AILSA CRAIG, an in- 
sulated rock in the Firth of Clyde, opposite 
to the centre of the bending coast of Ayrshire, 

from which it is distant fifteen miles ; two 
miles in circumference, and rising sheer out of 
the water to the height of a thousand feet. 
This rock causes StafFa, and other similar rocky 
islets, to sink into insignificance beside it. 
To compare great things with small, it resem- 
bles a boy's. top inverted, or a heaped measure 
of grain, the upper part rising into an obtuse 
cone. For about four hundred feet from the base 
it is cliffy and precipitous, and on the western 
side from south to north it is columnar and mag- 
nificent in structure. It is only at some parts 
there is any shore on which a landing can be 
effected, and the summit can only be reached 
with great difficulty. At the base north of the 
highest cliff, in a recess between two promon- 
tories, there is a cave twelve feet in width, 
thirty in height, and about fifty in depth, ex- 
hibiting a dark gloomy entrance, which consider- 
ably enhances the effect of the general picture. 
It can only be scaled on the side next the 
Ayrshire coast. The conical top is covered 
with a most luxuriant crop of heath, grass, 
and other plants, which feed an enormous 
number of goats and rabbits. The growth 
and extent of these vegetables, we are told by 
Macculloch, a recent intelligent traveller, excite 
the astonishment of the naturalist. In one 
place the nettles form an impenetrable forest 
six feet in height, and all the other plants 
also grow to a gigantic size. The two chief 
flowers, says he, are the Lychnis dioica and 
the Silene amaena ; and the profusion and in- 
termixture of their crimson and white blos- 
soms, with their extraordinary size, and the 
solid continuous patches in which they grow, 
render one stage of the ascent like a brilliant 
garden. Two sparkling and beautiful springs 
are found at a considerable height, not far in- 
deed beneath the summit ; one of them form- 
ing a small marshy plain covered with plants 
of the Hydrocotyle vulgaris, of the most gi- 
gantic dimensions, the leaves being as large as 
tea-saucers. It is impossible to account for 
such a profusion otherwise than by attributing 
it to the quantity of dung deposited by the 
fowls. On a long terrace or shoulder of the 
rock, at the height of two hundred feet from 
the base, stands a deserted square tower or 
castellated house, still very perfect as a ruin. 
The three stories of which it consists, contain 
each but one apartment, vaulted at the top, 
and in the lowest there is still an oven. Pen- 
nant alludes to the ruins of a chapel on Ailsa, 

A I R D R I E. 


but of these there is now no appearance, and 
by whom tins castle was built or inhabited, no 
one can explain, but it was probably an ere- 
mitical cell dependent on the adjacent monas- 
tic institution at Lamlash in Arran. There 
are however a number of conjectm'es regarding 
it. All around on the precipitous sides Ailsa is 
constantly covered with vast numbers of solan 
geese, puffins, and gannets, which flutter about 
and produce an incessant deafening noise. It 
is rented from the Earl of Cassilis at L.30 
per annum, which is paid by the feathers of 
the fowls and the rabbit skins. Naturalists 
and Botanists would find a visit to Ailsa of 
value in increasing their knowledge of the ve- 
getable world. 

AIRD POINT, the most northerly ex- 
tremity of Skye. 

AIRD, (The) a district in Inverness-shire. 

AIRD, (The) a peninsula, joined by the 
isthmus of Stornoway to the island of Lewis 
on its east side. 

AIRDRIE, a town in Lanarkshire, in the 
parish of New Monkland, on the great, or 
middle road from Edinburgh to Glasgow, at 
the distance of thirty-two miles from the 
former, and ten and three-fourths from the 
latter. It occupies a rising ground with its 
principal slope to the west. The rise of Air- 
drie has been very rapid, and it is one of the 
most flourishing inland towns in Scotland. 
About a century ago it consisted of little more 
than a solitary farm-house, and it now numbers 
about 6000 inhabitants ; thus coming into im- 
portance more like an American city than any 
thing usually witnessed in this country. It 
consists of one long street, through which the 
public road passes, with several branching and 
side streets, and bye lanes. It is built on a 
regular plan, and has many excellent houses, 
among which is a capacious good inn. The 
town owes its origin to the proximity of vari- 
ous iron works and collieries. The Monkland 
canal touches it, and receives the produce of 
the pits and iron- mines by means of rail-ways. 
The Calder iron-works alone employ a great 
number of the inhabitants. The weaving of 
cotton goods for the Glasgow manufacturers 
also engages the attention of a considerable 
portion of the people. The distillation of 
spirits is likewise a staple trade in Airdrie. 
The increase of the town led to its erection 
into an independent burgh of barony in the 
year 1821, and it is now governed by a regular 

bench of magistrates, consisting of a provost, 
three bailies, and twelve councillors, with a 
treasurer and town-clerk. The streets have 
also been improved, by being lighted with gas. 
Several fairs are held annually, and there is a 
market for grain every Thursday. Besides 
the traffic carried on by means of the canal, 
which communicates with that of the Forth 
and Clyde, there is an incessant intercourse 
with Glasgow and Edinburgh by coaches and 
other vehicles. A branch of the National 
Bank has been sometime settled. Besides a 
chapel of ease, there are three meeting-houses 
of presbyterian dissenters, and a baptist chapel. 
The parish church stands about a mile and a 
half to the north of the town. There are 
several useful beneficiary institutions in Airdrie, 
and the population is generally of an intelligent 
and industrious character. In the neighbour- 
hood are many neat modern villas, and at a 
short distance to the west is Airdrie House, 
standing within some fine pleasure grounds. 

AIRE'S MOSS, a large dismal morass, 
extending several miles in every direction, be- 
twixt Cumnock, Mauchfine, and Muirkirk, 
in Ayrshire, and interesting as being the scene 
of a skirmish between a party of covenanters 
and a detachment of dragoons, 1 686, in which 
Richard Cameron, the preacher, from whom 
the sect of Cameronians take their title, and 
some other men were slain. On the spot 
where this skirmish took place, about a quarter 
of a mile from the public road, between Cum- 
nock and Muirkirk, lies a large flat stone, in- 
scribed to the memory of the unfortunate vic- 
tims of persecution, and bearing many pious 
sentences besides. It was erected by some 
adherents of the sect in the early part of the 
last century, and was of course, one of those 
desert monuments on which the genius of Old 
Mortality was so long exercised. The people 
call it Cameron's Stone, and pilgrimages are 
occasionally made to the spot. 

AIRD LINN, a deep fall of water in the 
Shinnel. a small stream in Dumfries-shire. 

AIRLY, a parish in Forfarshire, in length 
between five and six miles, and from three to? 
four in breadth, bounded on the west by Alyth, 
situated in the vale of Strathmore, and partly 
among the Grampian mountains. The great- 
er part of the parish is cidtivated and of a rich 
appearance. On a promontory at the conflu- 
ence of the Isla and Melgam stands the Castle 
of Airly, the residence of the Earls of Air- 



ly. It is an elegant modern mansion, and 
stands on the site of the ancient castle of the 
family, which was destroyed in 1640 by the 
Marquis of Argyle : the " Bonnie House of 
Aii-lie," of Scottish song. It was a strong and 
secure fortress, elevated 100 feet at its base 
from the rivers. The serpentine windings of 
the streams, the trees and shrubs starting from 
the brows of the steep rocks, and lining the 
sides of the deep dens, with other natural 
beauties, render tliis spot one of the most pic- 
turesque and romantic in the country. The 
ruin of the castle of Balrie in Strathmore still 
stands, which, along with the neighbouring 
estate, was the property of the last Viscount 
Fenton, whose eldest daughter married into the 
family of Strathmore. The earldom of Airly 
was created by Charles I. 1639, and bestowed 
on James, eighth Lord Ogilvy, who was de- 
scended from the house of Angus, and left a 
family which was distinguished for its adher- 
ence to the cause of royalty. The title was 
attainted, 1746, in the person of David, Earl 
of Airly, who joined the insurrection under 
Prince Charles, and escaped to France after the 
battle of Culloden ; but restored, or rather re- 
acknowledged, 1826, in the person of David 
Ogilvy, son of Walter Ogilvy of Airly. — Po- 
pulation inT821, 981. 

AIRTH, a parish in Stirlingshire, about 
six miles in length, and fully more than two 
in breadth, lying on the south banks of the 
Forth, bounded on the west by St. Ninians, 
and on the south by Bothkenuer and Larbert. 
In its exposure to the Forth it possesses much 
beauty. The hills of Airth (which signifies 
high) and Dunmore rise out of the parish, 
both of which are beautiful and well wooded. 
On the Dunmore property great improvements 
have been made, and in particular a large tract 
of valuable land has been cleared of moss or 
peat, which formerly covered up the fertile 
soil. In the parish there are three ancient 
towers, one at Airth, another at Dun-more, and 
a third at Pcwi'ouls. That at Airth is of a 
very early date, and is called Wallace's tower. 
According to Elind Harry, that hero came 
privily into the tower, slew the captain and 
100 men, and reliev a his uncle, who was a pri- 
soner in it. The tower is still in tolerable pre- 
servation. There are two excellent ferries here 
across the Forth, (which is from half a mile to 
a mile broad,) at which, there are boats for the 
ti'iiiisport of cattle, carriages, &c. to Alloa and 

other places on the Fife side. The village of 
Airth, situated on the Forth, nearly opposite 
to Kennet Pans, eight miles east from Stir- 
ling, and five north-east from Falkirk, is de- 
cayed, but it possesses a handsome new church, '. 
which, when seen from the Forth, half hid 
amidst the surrounding trees, presents a scene 
of much rural beauty. A few small vessels 
belong to the port, and salmon-fishing is carried 
on with success. — Population in 1821, 1900. 

AIRTHRIE, a noted watering-place, 
situate about two miles north-west of Stir- 
ling. Within these few years it has become 
celebrated for a spring of very strong mineral 
water, which is resorted to by persons having 
complaints in the stomach and bowels. The 
water-drinkers reside either at Stirling, or at the 
pretty little village of Bridge of Allan, from 
which the well is distant only about a quarter of 
a mile. 

AITHSTING, a parish in the mainland 
of Shetland, to which the parish of Sandsting 
has been united. It lies near the centre of the 
island, is hilly, and only calculated for pasture 
land. It is about nine miles long and six 
broad.— Population in 1821, 1884. 

ALBANY, Albain, or Alhyn, an an- 
cient name for Scotland, and which is still us- 
ed by the Highlanders as the designation of 
their peculiar district. JBread-albane, a district 
of Perthshire, is supposed to be so designated 
from its being the highest part of Albyn, or 
Scotland ; and the long strath in which the Ca- 
ledonian Canal has been formed, is called by 
the natives Glen Mlwr nan Albyn, the Great 
Glen of Scotland. Some old authors inform 
us that Albion was the first name by which 
the whole island was known, being so called 
fror. - . the white appearance of the cliffs near 
Dover ; and it does not seem improbable that 
some such word as this was really in use, as 
the name of the country, among the abo- 
riginal Celts, and by them carried into the 
north, as they latterly became confined to that 
district. It is certain that the word Scotland 
was transferred from Ireland to this country, 
by the wandering tribe of Scots, who emigrat- 
ed from the one country to the other in the 
sixth century, and latterly became the lords ot 
the soil ; a process exactly the same as lha' 
by which the Angles or Saxons fixed their 
name upon England. Albany, though a word 
applicable to no distinct place, has beenlong used 
as a ducal title in the royal family. Robcit, a 



younger son of Robert II. was the first who 
bore it. It became extinct in Murdoch Duke 
of Albany, his son, who was beheaded by his 
cousin James I. James II. revived the title 
in favour of his second son Alexander, who 
was destined to cause so much distiu'bance to 
the government of his brother, James III. It 
became again extinct in the son of that prince, 
who was governor of Scotland in the minority 
of James V. Since the union of the crowns, 
it has always been borne by the king's second 
son, along with the title of York. The un- 
fortunate Prince Charles Stuart, for a long 
time during the latter part of bis life, used the 
title of Count d' Albany as an incognito. 

ALDCLUID, or Aldcluith, an ancient 
title of the castle of Dumbarton, the capital of 
the British kingdom of Strath Clyde, and sup- 
posed to be the Balclutha of Ossian. 

ALDIE, a baronial residence and estate in 
the parish of Fossaway and county of Perth, 
the property of Lady Keith. Before the abo- 
lition of the heritable jurisdiction, a man was 
hanged here for the slight offence of stealing a 
caupfiC corn, and when brought to the gallows, 
is said to have uttered a malediction upon the 
family, to the effect that the estate of Aldie 
should never be inherited by a male heir for 
nineteen generations ; which has already so 
far taken effect, the present proprietrix being 
the daughter of an heiress, who was the grand- 
daughter and successor of another heiress, and 
being herself the mother of daughters only. 

ALE, a stream in Roxburghshire, fknving 
from Alemoor Loch, in Selkirkshire, and 
holding an easterly direction, falls into the Ti- 
viot, a little below Ancrum. The proper name 
-is Aln, and Ancrum is a composition of Aln 
and crum, signifying the crook of the Aln. The 
Tiviot abounds with trout of the best quality. 

ALE, a small river in Berwickshire, rising 
in the parish of Coldingham, and after run- 
ning in an easterly direction for some miles, 
'"oins the Eye, fully more than a mile above 

A L E M O O R L O C H, a small lake situated 
in the northern quarter of the parish of 
Roberton, Selkirkshire, nearly two miles in cir- 
cumference, and abounding in perch and pike. 

ALEXANDRIA, a small village situated 
on the west bank of the Leven in the county 
of Dunbarton, from which it is distant four 
miles, inhabited principally by workmen en- 
gaged at the neighbouring printfields. 

ALFORD, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
lying on the right bank of the Don river, 
extending about seven miles in length by 
from two to three in breadth ; bounded by 
Tough and Keig on the east, Cushnie and 
Leochel on the south and partly on the 
west, and Forbes and Tullynessle on the 
north. In popular phraseology it is occa 
sionally called a country. The district, which 
is now partly planted on the banks of the 
Don, is flattish, varied by gentle swells 
and eminences, which in the upper parts rise 
to a great height. Agriculture is still in a low 
state, and the soil is rather light and loamy. 
The only native fuel is peat, and coal has to 
be brought from Aberdeen, a distance of about 
thirty miles ; various ancient curiosities have 
been dug out of the mosses and lands in this 
parish. It was in this district in which was 
fought the battle of Alford, July 2, 1645, by 
the Marquis of Montrose, who defeated Gen- 
eral Baillie, one of the generals of the coven- 
anters, but sustained an irreparable loss in 
the death of Lord Gordon, eldest son of the 
Marquis of Huntly, who fell by a random shot, 
in the pursuit, near a stone on the field of bat- 
tle, which is still pointed out by the country 
people. About SO years since, some men, 
in casting peats, dug up the body of a man 
on horseback, and in the armour of the age of 
Charles I, who must have been drowned in 
the rout which succeeded this engagement ; 
and formerly the country people occasionally 
found balls, pieces of money and other articles, 
significant of the turmoil which had at one 
time occurred. On the top of a low hill call- 
ed Cameveran there is a cairn of 120 yards in 
circumference and of proportionable height. 
There were other cairns at one time in the 
paiish. Besides the Don, there are other and 
smaller streams watering the parish. Patrick 
Forbes, bishop of Aberdeen from 1652 to 
1680, and one of the greatest divines that 
Scotland ever produced, though little known 
in his own country, was the son of the pres- 
byterian incumbent of this parish. The vil- 
lage of Alford is the seat of a presbytery. 
Population in 1821, 826. 

ALFRAIG, a district in Ross-shire. 
ALGRISTON HEAD, a jutting point 
of land on the west coast of Ross-shire. 

ALINE, (LOCH) a small and beautiful 
lake in the district of Morven, Argyllshire, o. 
the sound of Midi. The celebrated Jenny 



Cameron, in her latter days, resided on a spot 
of ground at the head of this lake, her cottage 
being built principally of twisted osiers or 
wicker-work, neatly wainscotted on the in- 

ALL ACHY, a small river in the parish of 
Aboyne, Aberdeenshire, which falls into the 
Tanar, and along with it is poured into the 
Dee, about a mile above Aboyne. 

ALLAN, a beautiful little river rising at 
Gleneagles, parish of Blackford, in Perth- 
shire, and a tributary of the Forth, into which 
it flows about two miles above Stirling, after 
having been joined by some other streamlets. 
The valley of this stream is called Strathallan, 
and gives the title of Viscount to a branch of 
the family of Drummond. Near the bottom 
of the vale is the ancient episcopal city of 
Dumblane, with its accompaniments of bold 
black rock, partially covered with thick and 
varied foliage, and the frequent mills placed 
on its banks. The river at this part of its course 
presents a variety of highly romantic and pic- 
turesque scenery, worthy of the admiration of 
the tourist on his way to the Trosachs and the 
Highland lakes. Allan water is famed in 
Scottish song. The name, Uke that of many 
Scottish as well as English streams, signifies 
river in the Celtic or original language of the 
country. It possesses fine trout. 

ALLAN, (BRIDGE OF) a small viUage 
on the banks of the above stream, three miles 
north-west of Stirling, and partly in the parish 
of Logie. This is one of the most beautiful 
rustic villages in Britain. It is eveiy thing 
which a village ought to be, soft, sunny and 
warm, — a confusion of straw-roofed cottages 
and rich massy trees ; possessed of a bridge and 
a mill, together with kail yards, bee-skeps, 
colleys, callants, old inns with entertainment 
for men and horse, carts with their poles point- 
ing up to the sky, venerable dames in drugget, 
knitting their stockings in the sun, and young 
ones in gingham and dimity, tripping along 
with milk pails on their heads. Besides all 
these characteristics as a village, the Bridge 
of Allan boasts of a row of neat little villas, 
for the temporary accommodation of a .num- 
ber of fashionables who flock to it in sum- 
mer, on account of the neighbouring mineral 
well at Airthne. 

ALLAN or EL WAN, a streamlet rising 
in the northern boundary of the parish of Mel- 
rose, Roxburghshire* and which falls into the 

Tweed at a short distance above the chain 
bridge at Melrose. On the banks of this 
little river, are to be found the ruins of an 
old border tower, called Hilslack, supposed to 
be that described under the name of Glendearg 
in the Monastery, as also a recess or dean, cor- 
responding with the residence ascribed to the 
Fair Maid of Avenel in the same novel, and 
which is still supposed to be under supernatur- 
al domination. The rains here occasionally 
wash down curious little stones from the scaur 
or broken ground on the face of the hill, which, 
being shaped in a thousand various, but ap- 
parently systematic forms, are thought by the 
country people to be the manufacture of a 
subterraneous race of fairies. 

ALLANDER, a burn in the parish of New 
Kilpatrick, which, after turning several mills, 
runs into the Kelvin above the aqueduct bridge 
which spans that stream. 

ALLANTON, a village in the county 
of Berwick, parish of Edrom, situated at the 
confluence of the Whittader and the Black- 
ader, five miles east from Dunse, and one south 
of Chirnside. 

ALLOA, a parish in Clackmannanshire, 
on the north bank of the Firth of Forth, with 
a town of the same name. The parish of 
Tullybody has been united to it, and they are 
jointly four miles in length and two in breadth, 
bounded on the north by Alva, on the east by 
Clackmannan, on the south by the Forth, and 
on the west by the Devon and parish of Lo- 
gie. The greater part consists of braes descend- 
ing to the edge of the water, and the crops 
produced are good. It is intersected by the 
burn of Alloa. This parish has produced some 
eminent men of the family of Mar, also Gen- 
erals Sir Ralph and Sir Robert Abercrombie ; 
the celebrated James Fordyce, author of ser- 
mons to young women, was at one time min- 
ister of the parish. 

Alloa, the capital of t'he above parish, 
lies on a flat at the bottom of a gentle 
declivity, close on the Forth, at the spo* 
where it ceases to be a river and becomes 
a filth. The water is, nevertheless, deep 
enough for six miles above this spot to ad- 
mit of vessels of seventy tons. The quay 
stretches along the bank, and large vessels or 
steam-boats can thus lie close up to the 
thoroughfare, much to the convenience of 
passengers, and the more worthy of apprecia- 
tion, as this is the only port on the Firth at 

A L L O A. 


which such can be done with perfect ease at 
any tide. Of late years the trade of Alloa has 
greatly increased. It now sends out great 
numbers of vessels to the Baltic, and Holland, 
Besides having a considerable coasting trade. 
Like most of the small towns on the Forth, it 
flourishes partly on the ruin which is taking 
place in the Leith trade, on account of the 
enormous dues levied at that port. One of 
the chief articles of export is coal, which is 
found in the parish in large fields, and of an 
excellent quality. By railways from the pits 
it is cheaply and easily brought to the vessels 
lying for its reception. There are two yards 
for ship-building, and a dry dock, fit for the 
repairing of vessels of four hundred tons bur- 
den. In the town there are five breweries 
carrying on an extensive trade, besides a large 
glass or crystal-work, together with a brick 
and tile manufactory. There is also a number 
of cotton and linen weavers, who work for the 
Glasgow manufacturers, and for home con- 
sumers. The ale made here has been long 
famous, but it cannot compete with that made 
at Edinburgh. The glass-work established 
by the exertions of a joint stock company, 
formed during the mania for these dangerous 
institutions in 1825, produces every article in 
ihe fine and bottle glass line, of a quality equal 
to the goods of Newcastle ; but the establish- 
ment has been a decided failure, so far as the 
yielding of profits to shareholders is concerned. 
At present the shares are held at a loss, and 
many of the proprietors would be glad to part 
with them at any price, however low. The 
streets of Alloa are very irregular, though 
generally clean. Around the town, but espe- 
cially on the rising ground behind it, there are 
some neat, if not elegant, country houses, en- 
closed in little gardens and shrubberies, with a 
pleasant exposure to the south, and command- 
ing a fine view of the rich lands of the carse of 
Stirling on the opposite shore. The church 
of Alloa, standing on the rising ground, is a 
handsome modern structure, in the Gothic 
taste, which has lately become so prevalent, 
and it is adorned by a fine steeple. The 
inhabitants, we believe, were chiefly indebted 
to the late John Francis, Earl of Mar, for this 
ornament to their town. Alloa is twenty-seven 
miles from Edinburgh and about seven and a 
half from Stirling by land. It was a town of 
note as early as the reign of Robert I, but it 
has no burgal privileges. It is governed by a 

baron bailie. The justice of peace and sheriff 
courts of the shire are held here ; the county 
town (Clackmannan) having long been out of 
a court-house, and too poor to build one. The 
town has a good market on Wednesday and 
Saturday ; and has cattle fairs on the second 
Wednesday in February, May, August, and 
November. The town has a public assembly- 
room, some religious associations, and a good 
subscription library. There are three meeting- 
houses of presbyterian dissenters, and one Epis- 
copal chapel of old establishment. The fast- 
day of the kirk is generally the Thursday be- 
fore the second Sunday of June, and the first 
or second Sunday of November. One of the 
chief ornaments to the environs of Alloa, is 
Alloa House, the ancient seat of the Mar 
family, and the theme of a fine Scottish air. 
The modern and principal part of this edifice 
was destroyed by accidental fire about thirty 
years ago ; but there still remains a tall slender 
tower of the thirteenth century, ninety feet in 
height, which, as it was the first erection on 
this spot, seems to have been destined also to 
be the last. Standing in desertion and soli- 
tude in the midst of a fine secluded park, this 
lofty remnant of a former age is an object of 
uncommon interest to the traveller, especially 
if he be Scotchman enough to appreciate the 
historical associations connected with it. This 
property, with the town, came into the family 
of Lord Erskine, (which has since inherited 
the peerage of Mar,) in the year 1865, that 
nobleman having received it in exchange from 
David II, for the estate of Strathgartney, in 
Perthshire. The Lord Erskine of the time of 
James V. becoming one of the guardians of 
the infant Queen Mary, it is probable that 
memorable personage spent part of her early 
years here. It is certain that, when reigning 
in Scotland, she cultivated the closest friend- 
ship with the family. This tower was the first 
house she visited after having been delivered 
of her son James. On that occasion she 
spent two nights in it, along with Damley, to 
whom she was for the time reconciled by 
means of the French ambassador. Her son, 
being committed by her to " the Earl of Mar, 
was occasionally brought to Uve here, during 
his boyhood, though his more general residence 
was the royal castle of Stirling, of which Lord 
Mar was hereditary keeper. The subsequent 
Earl of Mar standing in the same relation to 
Prince Henry, son of King James, that amiabla 


A L L O W A Y. 

and most accompiis hed youth also spent a con- 
siderable part of his time, during boyhood, in 
Alloa tower, occupying, perhaps, the same 
cradle, and using the same implements for his 
childish games. A cradle, of rude but massive 
construction, formed to rock upon semicircular 
curves, together with a baby's chair of equal 
homeliness of appearance, were long shown in 
Alloa House, as the cradle and chair of the 
infant Solomon. There was also a golf said 
to have belonged to Prince Henry. The 
former of these curiosities, and almost all the 
family pictures, are now in the possession of 
Lady Frances Erskine, Brunswick Place, 
Edinburgh, daughter of the venerable earl 
above mentioned. The family of Mar, which 
had thus the custody of three generations of 
the royal family in childhood, and which, dur- 
ing that period, gave one regent to Scotland, 
and various high officers of state, was much 
injured in fortune during the civil war. Hence 
the difficulties which are supposed to have 
caused John, the tenth Earl, to take a promi- 
nent part in the insurrection of 1715. During 
the course of that national convulsion, Alloa 
House was frequently threatened with fire 
by the royal army, which occupied all this part 
of the country. This unfortunate nobleman, 
during his subsequent exile, was able to enrich 
his paternal house with a very great curiosity, 
to wit, a picture of Mary Queen of Scots, on 
copper, which had been gifted by that unfortu- 
nate sovereign at her execution to one of her 
maids of honour, was carried by her abroad, 
and finally placed at her request above her 
tomb in the cathedral of Antwerp. The Earl 
obtained this most interesting object — it is not 
remembered by what means — and sent it home 
to Alloa House. It was believed in its time 
to be the only genuine original of Queen 
Mary existing in her own country. Un- 
fortunately, it was destroyed in the fire of 
Alloa House, being too unwieldy to be re- 
moved in time from its place. Lady Frances 
Erskine possesses a miniature copy. The 
park surrounding this ancient castle, which 
must have so frequently been the scene of royal 
sports, and all kinds of courtly exercises, is 
about forty acres in extent, and adorned by 
beautiful copses. In the parish of Alloa, in 
the carse or valley of the Devon, lies the estate 
of Tullibody, which is a barony, along with a 
small village of the same name. The union 
of the parishes of Tullibody and Alloa took 

place about the beginning of the Reformation, 
at which time it is related that the church of 
the former place was unroofed on a very re- 
markable occasion. In 1559, when Monsieur 
d'Oysel commanded the French troops on the 
coast of Fife, they were alarmed by the arrival 
of the English fleet sent to succour the Re- 
formers by Elizabeth, and they thought of no- 
thing but a hasty retreat. This was in the 
month of January, and, unfortunately for them, 
at the breaking up of a great storm of snow, 
by which the rivers pouring down into the Firth 
were swollen so as to be unfordable. Kirkaldy 
of Grange, attentive to these circumstances, 
marched with great expedition, and broke down 
the bridge which then spanned the Devon, to 
prevent the retreat of the French, who, coming 
up, and finding themselves thus obstructed, saw 
no other means of escape, but to take the whole 
roof bodily off the parish kirk, and lay it care- 
fully down, to supply the place of the bridge. 
This they accomplished successfully, after- 
wards marching over quite safe, and continu- 
ing their retreat to Stirling. The church 
continued in a dismantled condition upwards 
of two hundred years, when it was again cov- 
ered in by George Abercrombie Esq. of Tul- 
libody, and is now the burying aisle of the 
family. In the north-east corner of the par- 
ish of Alloa is Shaw Park, a seat of the Earl 
of Mansfield, ornamented with thriving plan- 
tations, and commanding an extensive pros- 
pect. — Population of the parish of Alloa in 
1821, 5577. 

ALL O WAY, once an independent parish 
in the district of Kyle, Ayrshire, now joined 
to Ayr, and a barony. The walls of the par- 
ish kirk, roofless and in ruins, now only stand 
a monument of its former separate condition, 
and as the scene of the poem of Tarn o' Shan- 
ter. The bell of the kirk still hangs at one 
end ; an attempt of the magistrates of Ayr to 
remove it having been frustrated by the physi- 
cal opposition of the peasantry, who very pro- 
perly refused to allow this rehc of the sacred 
edifice to be torn down. The kirk is situated 
a little way from the bridge over the river 
Doon, on the road leading from Maybole to 
Ayr. On an eminence between the kirk and 
the bridge, a monument has recently been er- 
ected by public subscription to the memory of 
the illustrious man whose name is so insepar- 
ably associated with the localities of the dis- 
trict, It is a costly edifice of pure white 



stone, in the shape of a Grecian temple, and 
surrounded by a little plot of flowers. In the 
interior, a portrait of the poet and other curi- 
osities are exhibited to strangers. The style 
of the building is ornate and elegant in the ex- 
treme, having been erected after a design by 
the ingenious Hamilton of Edinburgh. The 
title of Lord Alloway was assumed by David 
Cathcart, a late distinguished member of the 
College of Justice. 

ALMOND or AMOND, a small river in 
the county of Mid-Lothian, and, for a certain 
length, its boundary with Linlithgowshire. It 
rises in the high grounds of Lanarkshire, and 
pursuing a north-easterly course, falls into 
the sea at Cramond. At its mouth it appears 
like a little loch or arm of the sea, running 
up the bottom of a woody ravine, and for a- 
bout a furlong is navigable by boats and small 

ALMOND or AMON, a river in Perth- 
shire, rising in the upper part of a glen in 
the Grampians, in the parish of Kenmore. It 
traverses the parishes of Monzie and Foulis ; 
and proceeding between Logie Almond and 
Redgorton, falls into the Tay two miles above 
Perth, after a course of eighteen miles. It is 
remarkable for fine white trouts ; its banks are 
bold and rocky, and exhibit much picturesque 
scenery. It has many waterfalls, at a number 
of which mills for different purposes have been 
erected, and there are several bleachfields on 
its banks. The vale through which it in 
some parts flows in a serpentine course is 
known by the name of Glen Almond. 

ALMORNESS, a promontory on the coast 
of Galloway. 

ALNESS, a parish in Ross-shire, stretch- 
ing along a river, formerly called Averon, and 
now known by the name of the Water of Ness, 
to a promontory called Alness Point, in the 
firth of Cromarty. The literal signification 
of the name is " the brook of the headland." 
From this point to its opposite extremities in 
the upper country, the parish is twelve miles 
long, and in some places is nearly four broad. 
The lower parts are alone arable. The high- 
er part of the parish consists of straths and 
glens, and adjoining these stn.ths are two 
beautiful fresh water lochs, which abound in 
trout, and discharge themselves into the vallies. 
There is a very rich ore of iron in the parish, 
and a vein of silver has also been discovered. 
—Population in 1821, 1270. 

ALSH (LOCH), the twin loch with loch 
Duich in Invemess-shire, at the head of the 
gut which separates Sky from the mainland. 

ALSTAY, a small port on the north side 
of Loch Ness. 

ALSVIG, a small island of the Hebrides, 
on the north-west coast of Sky, nearly two 
miles in circumference, and very fertile. 

several islets on the coast of Sky, flat and 
uninteresting. An old traveller mentions 
that there was once a chapel on the larger 
Altavig, dedicated to St. Turos, but if ever 
there were such a building it is now altogether 

ALTMORE, a rapid stream rising beside 
the hill of Altmore, county of Banff, and run- 
ning from north to south, falls into the Isla. 

ALVA, a parish, a barony, and a village, 
in the beautiful vale of Devon. The parish 
belongs politically to Stirlingshire, though lo- 
cally detached from that county, and surround- 
ed on all sides by Clackmannan. It is bounded 
on the east by Tillicoultry, and by Alloa on 
the south. The lands of Alva extend over a 
portion of the Ochil Hills, and the remaining 
grounds lie in the valley at then- foot, watered 
by the Devon. The length from east to west 
is only two miles and a half, and from north 
to south four miles. The village of the pa- 
rish is seven miles north-east of Stirling, and 
stands at the foot of the Ochils, from whence 
there issues a rivulet which turns several mills 
and adds to the beauty of the place. The pa- 
rish affords excellent pasture, and is in some 
places well cultivated. The hills abound with 
precious ores, and there are fields of coal in 
he vicinity. The Ochils here are divided 
into three separate hills, called the Wood-hill, 
Middle-hill, and West-hill of Alva. On the 
brow of the east rises a high and perpendicular 
rock, which has obtained the name of Craig 
Leith, and was once famous for its breed of 
falcons, which were, at one time, generally de- 
voted to the use of the King of Scotland. In 
a hollow near this, the snow frequently lies far 
into the summer ; the people give it the pic- 
turesque name of Lady Alva's Web. The 
house of Alva, the residence of a respectable 
branch of the family of Johnstone, stands on 
an eminence, projecting from the base of the 
Woodhill about 220 feet above the bed of the 
Devon, and 1400 feet below the apex of the 
mountain. From the top a most extensive 


A N C R U M. 

-\iew is had of the whole course of the Firth 
of Forth, the coast of Fife, and East-Lo- 
thian. — Population in 1821, 1150. 

AL V AH, a parish and barony in the coun- 
ty of Banff, bounded on the north by Banff, on 
the south-west by Marnoch, on the south by 
Forglen, on the south-east by Turiff, and on 
the east and north-east by King Edward and 
Gamrie. In length it extends about four 
miles, and in breadth it varies from two to six. 
The river Deveron intersects the parish, and 
after many beautiful windings through a very 
fertile valley, leaves it about two miles from 
the sea. The grounds here are fertile, and 
they have been much embellished by the Earl 
of Fife, who is proprietor. Population in 
1821, 1079. 

ALVES, a parish in the county of Elgin, 
about five miles in length, and the same in 
breadth, bounded on the north by the Murray 
Firth, on the east by Duffus, Spynie, and El- 
gin, and on the west by Kinloss. The face 
of the country is of an agreeable appearance 
and generally flat ; and the soil is distinguished 
for its fertility— Population in 1821, 947. 

ALVIE a parish, mostly pastoral, in the 
district of Badenoch, Inverness-shire. The 
principal inhabited divisions lie along the livers 
Spey and Feshie, and are computed at four- 
teen miles in length, by about three in breadth. 
Including the hills, the length is upwards of 
twenty miles. The parish is bounded on the 
south by the Grampians, and on the west by 
Kingussie. There is a little lake in Alvie, 
which may be considered a jewel in this barren 
country. — Population in 1821, 961. 

ALYTH, a parish in the counties of Perth 
and Forfar, but belonging principally to the 
former, situated on the north side of Strath- 
more, bounded by Ruthven and Airly on the 
east, and the water of Isla on the south. The 
parish is divided into two considerable districts 
by the hills of Alyth, Loyal, and Barry. The 
southern district lying in the strath, is about 
four miles long and three broad, and this, as 
well as the tract of lands toward the hills, is 
fertile and verdant. The town of Alyth, 
which is pleasantly situated at the foot of one of 
the hills on a little river of the same name, is a 
burgh of barony, in virtue of a charter of James 
III. The inhabitants are chiefly supported by 
weaving linens. It lies fifteen miles north of 
Dundee, and twelve west of Forfar. It has a 
weekly market on Tuesday, and several annual 

fairs. Besides the parish church, there are all 
episcopal chapel, and two meeting-houses. — 
Population in 1821, 2387. 

AMISFIELD CASTLE, a tall slender 
square tower at the back of a more modern 
mansion, about half a mile to the right of the 
road from Edinburgh to Dumfries, and five 
miles from the latter town. This house de- 
rives considerable interest from its being the 
seat of the ancient family of Charteris, which 
is understood to have been founded in this 
country by Longueville, the lied JRever, a 
French pirate, who was taken by Sir William 
Wallace, on a voyage of .that hero to France, 
and afterwards became one of the chief assert- 
ors of Scottish liberty. — See " Blind Haiiry." 
The family is said to have first been located 
at Kinfauns, in Perthshire, now the property 
of Lord Gray, but to have afterwards removed 
hither, where it has since continued, aown to 
the present time. Various members of this 
family have distinguished themselves in high 
official situations in Scotland. It gave a victim 
to the Maiden, in the time of the civil war. 
The celebrated and too much defamed Colonel 
Cltarteris, was another scion of the family. 
Through his daughter, the noble family of 
Wemyss acquired its name of Charteris, to- 
gether with immense wealth. King James is 
said to have visited the old tower of Amis- 
field, on his return to England in 1617, and 
to have exclaimed, on first observing its tall 
and formidable appearance, that the man tfeat 
built it, though externally and habitually ho- 
nest, " must have been a thief in his heart." 
The house is surrounded by a grove of fine old 
trees, inhabited by an ancient colony of rooks. 
In the garden is a singularly large holly, fash- 
ioned in such a way by the ait of the gardener, 
that a large family coidd sit at tea amidst its 
branches. In the neighbourhood of the house, 
also, is a Roman camp. 

ANCRUM, a parish in Roxburghshire, on 
the north bank of the Tiviot, along which it 
stretches about five miles, by a breadth of four, 
and intersected by the Ale water. On the 
opposite side of the Tiviot is the parish of Jed- 
burgh. The modern parish of Ancrum com- 
prehends the abrogated parish of Langnewton, 
which was attached to its northern side at the 
end of the seventeenth century. The old bury- 
ing-ground of Langnewton church is still used. 
Ancrum is an abbreviation of Aln-crum, the 
ancient name of the village, which it derived 



from its local situation in a bend of the river 
Aln, now called Are. The parish of Ancram 
was anciently a possession of the bishops of 
j Glasgow, who, it appears by their charters 
and ordinances, frequently resided here, as a 
delightful retreat in the midst of sylvan scen- 
ery, and in near neighbourhood with the ab- 
beys of Jedburgh and Melrose. The small 
village of Ancrum is pleasantly situated on the 
west bank of the Ale, on the road which pro- 
ceeds aiong the left bank of the Tiviot. In 
1549, it was sacked by the English, under the 
conduct of the Earl of Rutland. Some years 
earlier, the parish was subjected to the horrors 
of a sanguinary battle between the Scotch and 
English. Henry VIII. having sent his two 
influential leaders, Evers and Latoun, into the 
Merse and Tiviotdale, with 5000 men, to de- 
stroy the country, in revenge of the rejection 
of his offers to marry his son Edward to the 
young Queen of Scots, they were met by the 
forces under the Regent Arran, chiefly com- 
posed of border clans. The conflict took place 
on the brow or edge of a rising ground in the 
parish of Ancrum, on the 14th December, 
1544. The English were completely routed 
with dreadful slaughter, and the loss of a thou- 
sand prisoners. Tradition mentions, that a 
young Scottish woman, called Lilliard, follow- 
ed her lover into the battle ; and that when 
she saw him fall, she rushed forward, and, by 
her gallantry, helped to turn the fight in favour 
of her countrymen. It seems that she was 
slain in the engagement, and the spot on which 
she fell is still pointed out. It was long dis- 
tinguished by a stone, now broken and defaced, 
and the old people repeat its obliterated in- 
scription as follows : — 

Fair maiden Lillyard lies under this stane, 
Little was her stature, but great was her fame ; 
Upon the English louns she laid many thumps, 
And, when her legs were smitten off, she fought upon her 

From her interference, the fight has been term- 
ed the battle of Lilliard's Edge. The most 
remarkable fragment of antiquity in the parish 
is the ruin, now almost gone, of a fortalice or 
strength, called popularly Maltan Walls, situ- 
ated on a rising grotmd at the bottom of the 
village of Ancrum. From the similarity of 
name, and from tradition, antiquaries have been 
led to consider this the remains of a house be- 
longing to the Knights of Malta, or Knights 

Hospitalers of St. John of Jerusalem. On 
the opposite banks of the Ale, below Ancrum 
house, there are several caves or recesses, still 
entire, which, from a variety of appearances, 
must have been places of shelter in trouble- 
some times. In the early part of last century 
i e banks of the Tiviot and Ale, at this spot, 
were the favourite haunt of Thomson, the poet 
of the Seasons. He spent much of his time 
with Mr. Cranstoun, minister of the parish ; 
and one of the ancient caves is still pointed 
out, where he is said to have frequently in- 
dulged his reveries, and which is, on that ac- 
count, called Thomson's cave. His name is 
carved on the roof, probably by his own hand. 
The parish of Ancmm is generally under an 
excellent system of cultivation, and is enrich- 
ed by many fine plantations. On the top of a 
gently sloping hill, called Penelheugh, the late 
Marquis of Lothian, at an expense of L.2000, 
erected a pillar, in excellent taste, to the me- 
mory of one, who, least of living men, needs 
such a monument — the Duke of Wellington. 
It is upwards of a hundred feet in height, and 
from its summit are beheld the counties ot 
Roxburgh, Rerwick, Selkirk, Peebles, Dum- 
fries, Wigton, and two of the Lothians. The 
title of the Earl of Ancrum was conferred on a 
cadet of the noble family of Ker, by Charles I. 
1633, but for want of heirs, it soon devolved 

on the Marquisses of Lothian Population 

in 1821, 1386. 

ANDERSTON, a populous suburb of the 
city of Glasgow. — See Glasgow. 

ANDREWS, (St.) a parish on the east 
coast of Fife, ten miles in length, by about 
three in breadth ; bounded by Leuchars on the 
north, Denino on the south, and Cameron and 
Kemback on the west. A portion of the dis- 
trict lies high, and the ground declines in finely 
cultivated slopes to the sea towards the north 
and east. Near the coast the land is flat and 
sandy. Within the town of St. Andrews, 
there is a small independent district called the 
parish of St. Leonards. 

Andrews, (St.) a royal burgh, the ca- 
pital of the above parish, and a~ town of more 
than ordinary interest, occupies an exceeding- 
ly agreeable situation on a gentle eminence, 
which rises from the flat part of the parish 
above alluded to, on the sea-shore. It lies 
thirty-nine miles north-east of Edinburgh, and 
| ten miles to the east of the great thoroughfare 



through Fife into Forfarshire. St. Andrews 
is a town of vast antiquity. Its history is 
mingled with the civil and ecclesiastical an- 
nals of Scotland ; but especially the latter. 
As a seat of learning and Christianity its age 
surpasses that of any other existing town in 
North Britain. From these peculiar qualifi- 
cations, it demands, from the topographical his- 
torian, more than the space usually allotted by 
him to descriptions of cities of a greater mag- 
nitude, as regards population and extent of 
building. It is considered expedient to com- 
mence with an outline of its rise and progress, 
and its distinction as an archiepiscopal see. 
The history of the origin of this venerable 
city is dependant on the uncertain tr ditionary 
records of ecclesiastical writers. 1 1 the total 
absence of accredited annals, we are compelled 
to resort to the suspicious legends of the Ro- 
mish church. It is recorded by every writer, 
that it originated in a miraculous event. Some 
time after the martyrdom of the apostle St. 
Andrew, which took place, A. D. 69, by 
prefixion to a wooden cross, in the man- 
ner usually represented, at Patrae, a city of 
Achaia in Greece ; his remains were hon- 
oured by being deposited in a shrine, and 
placed under the care of a priest called Re- 
gulus. It seems that in the year 370, the 
Emperor Constantine contemplated the seiz- 
ure of the sacred relics, to carry them to his 
city of Constantinople. This was displeasing 
to the divinity, who warned Regulus, by a 
vision in the night, to go instantly to the 
shrine, and after taking therefrom certain 
portions of the apostle's body, that he should 
carefully preserve and carry them with him, 
into a far distant island in the western ocean. 
Regulus accordingly arose, and took from 
the shrine an arm bone, three of the fingers, 
and three toes of the apostle. Putting these 
relics in a box, he went to sea, taking with 
him Damianus a presbyter, Gelasius and Cuba- 
culus, two deacons, with eight hermits, and three 
devout virgins. These persons were, it is 
said, exposed to innumerable hardships and 
dangers for two years, while they coasted 
along the shores of the Mediterranean sea, 
through the Straits of Gibraltar, around the 
whole extent of the Spanish and French 
coasts, and up the English Channel into the 
German Ocean. At length, by a violent 
storm, they were shipwrecked in the bay of 
St. Andrews. Their vessel was dashed to 

pieces, and it was w'th difficulty they saved 
themselves and the valuable box under their 
charge. The country was at this time cover- 
ed with wood and infested with wild beasts, 
particularly with boars. On this account this 
part of it was called by the Picts, 31uck-ross 
which signifies the peninsula of swine. Her- 
gust the king of the Picts, was at the time re- 
sident at Abernethy in Strathearn, but no 
sooner did he hear of the arrival of the strang- 
ers, than he went to see them. On being 
ushered into the presence of the chief, Regu- 
lus and his companions speedily impressed 
him in their favour and actually accomplished 
his conversion. To signalize his favour for 
the holy men, and his conviction of the truth 
of their mission, he caused a chapel to be built 
for Regulus, which is still in existence and 
bears his name. He subsequently changed 
the name of the place from Muckross to Kil- 
rymont, an appellation which it bore till about 
the middle of the ninth century, and which is 
understood to mean " the cell of the King's 
mount." Regulus lived thirty-two years, en- 
joying the beneficent patronage of the Pictish 
sovereign, and spreading the knowledge of 
Christianity in this part of the kingdom. In 
popidar language he was called St. Rule, un- 
der which designation he is to this day more 
generally known than by any other, and from 
this circumstance the Highlanders still call St. 
Andrews, Kilrule, or the cell of Ride. He 
was buried in the church of which he had 
been so long incumbent. If the above ac- 
count be correct, it will follow that Regulus 
and his religious attendants were among the 
very first persons who introduced Christianity 
into Scotland, as it was not till about the year 
560, that Columba arrived from Ireland, and 
established his monastery at Iona. At this 
period and for several centuries later, all the 
religionists in Scotland were of the order of 
the Culdees, who, though partaking of many 
of the peculiarities of the Church of Rome, 
did not belong to that communion. As soon 
as Kenneth the King of Scots had destroyed 
the Pictish sway, he transferred the seat of 
royalty from Abernethy to this place, which 
was by him first called St. Andrews, in com- 
pliment to the relics of the apostle there de- 
posited. At what precise epoch St. Andrew 
was constituted the tutelar saint of Scotland, 
is quite uncertain. According to tradition, it 
was about the year 819, when a Pictish sover- 



eign had been victorious in an expedition 
against the Saxons, from having invoked the 
aid of the saint, and to show his gratitude, 
obliged himself and his followers, by solemn 
oaths, to adopt in future no other sign on their 
banners than the cross of St. Andrew. In 
consequence of the fame which the shrine of 
St. Andrew obtained, and the sanctity of the 
religious establishment, St. Andrews gradually 
grew ill greatness. From being one of the first 
places in which there was a regular ecclesiasti- 
cal institution, it became, in one sense, the 
metropolitan see of Scotland, on the division of 
•the country into dioceses in the reign of Mal- 
colm III. The head churchman of the esta- 
blishment was entitled episcopus primus, or 
chief bishop, (a title kept up by the Episcopal 
church of Scotland to the present day,) and he 
was assigned the superintendence of Fife, Lo- 
thian, Stirlingshire, and the Merse. The con- 
sequence of St. Andrews was enhanced in the 
reign of Alexander I. (about the year 1120,) 
by the building of a priory, which became an 
important institution. The prior, by an exer- 
cise of royal power, was entitled, in all public 
meetings, and in solemn church services, to 
wear the pontifical ornaments, to wit, a mitre, 
gloves, a ring, cross, crosier, sandals or slippers, 
the same as the bishops ; and in parliament he 
had the precedence of all abbots and priors. 
The priory of St. Andrews was endowed with 
extensive revenues, and had five cells or sub- 
priories which were respectively situated at 
Pittenweem, Loch-Leven, Portmoak, Mony- 
musk, and the Isle of May.* In 1 140, David 
I. elevated the village, which had grown up in 
the neighbourhood, to the condition of a royal 
burgh. The year 1159 was distinguished by 
the commencement of the building of the ca- 
thedral church under Bishop Arnold, a per- 
sonage noted in the history of the period for 
having been a legate of Pope Alexander III., 
and who had formerly been Abbot of Kelso. 
He died while the work was scarcely begun, 
and it was not finished till one hundred and fif- 

* To save repeated explanations, under different heads, 
in referring to the religious establishment of Scotland 
prior to the reformation, a Dissertation is given among 
other prefatory matter, exhibiting a succinct account of 
the various constitutions of abbeys, priories, monasteries, 
collegiate churches, and other religious houses, with a 
description of the different orders of clergy of the C'ul- 
dean and Romish Churches. In all cases where readers 
are not conversant with these curious particulars, such 
an illustrative sketch will be found, it is hoped, a use- 
ful addition to topographical details. 

ty-nine years thereafter, during which space of 
time, it engrossed the assistance of fourteen 
successive bishops, as well as contributions 
from all parts of Europe. Bishop Lamberton, 
who had the honour of concluding the work, 
was a zealous and effective partizan of Robert 
Bruce. The castle of St. Andrews was built 
about the same time by Bishop Roger, a son of 
Robert the third Earl of Leicester, and a cousin 
of William King of Scotland. In 1274, aeon- 
vent of Dominicans, or Blaekfriars, was found- 
ed by Bishop William Wishart, which, in the 
reign of James V. had annexed to it the similar 
priories of Cupar and St. Monan's. Edward 
I., after gaining the battle of Falkirk, in 1298, 
summoned the Scottish parliament to attend 
him at St. Andrews, and there compelled every 
member of it to swear allegiance to him. 
Eleven years afterwards, the same estates met 
in the same place, and recognised the right of 
Robert Bruce. In the course of the conquests 
of Edward III., in 1336, he garrisoned the 
castle of St. Andrews, which next year was 
besieged and successfully stormed by the Earls 
of March and Fife. In the year 1401, David 
Duke of Rothesay, a brother of James I., hav- 
ing been falsely accused of treason against 
his uncle the regent, Duke of Albany, fled to 
St. Andrews, to defend himself from the re- 
sentment of that overgrown subject, and on 
his way was taken prisoner and confined in the 
very castle to which he was betaking himself 
for safety. From this place, the unhappy 
prince was carried to Falkland, and there 
starved to death in a dungeon. About the 
year 1407, the religionists of St. Andrews 
seized and put to death one John Resby, an 
Englishman, for propagating heretical opinions, 
the chief of which was calling in question the 
vicarial character of the pope. Twenty-four 
years afterwards, Paul Craw, a Bohemian, was 
also put to death here, for disseminating the 
doctrines of Jerome and Buss. The city of 
St. Andrews, in 1410, first saw the establish- 
ment of its university, which was the earliest 
of the kind in Scotland. The first idea of 
universities was formed about the twelfth cen- 
tury. Previous to this period, the only semi- 
naries of education were in monasteries, and 
conducted by monks, on a meagre scale. New 
plans of education arose. Societies were form 
ed of learned men for the education of youth. 
Such associations were called Studia Gene- 
ralia, or general studies. In the beginning of 



the thirteenth century, those designations were 
changed to Universities. It is worthy of re- 
mark, that the popes and sovereigns of the age 
were the warm encouragers of those institutions. 
The people seized with avidity these means 
of education. In 1262 there were 10,000 
students attending the university of Bologna, 
and in 1340 there were three times that number 
in the university of Oxford. The introduction 
of the new system did not take place in Scotland 
till, as above noticed, the year 1410. By the 
patronage of Bishop Wardlaw, a magnificent 
and liberal minded prelate,* an association of 
learned scholars was, in 1411, endowed with 
a charter, granting all the powers and privi- 
leges conferred on foreign universities. On 
the 3d of February 1413, bulls arrived from 
the pope, sanctioning this important measure. 
On the arrival of the pope's messenger, the 
city was thrown into a state of extravagant re- 
joicing, and it is related by Fordun, a contem- 
porary, that four hundred clergy went in pro- 
cession to the cathedral, where they and the 
whole assemblage chaunted the Te Deum, and 
afterwards knelt, while the Bishop of Ross 
pronounced his blessing. The crowd dispersed 
with ringing of bells, the sounding of organs, 
and the joyous warblings of the clergy, novi- 
ciates, and lay brothers. On James I. regain- 
ing his liberty, six years after, he was delighted 
with the university, and bestowed on its mem- 
bers many substantial marks of his royal fa- 
vour. In 1431, he granted them a charter, 
freeing them from all tolls, taxes, or sendees, 
in every part of the kingdom. Under his fa- 
vourable auspices, the university flourished and 
increased exceedingly, insomuch that it had 
thirteen doctors of divinity, eight doctors of 
law, and many other professors. A second 
university was founded, about the year 1455, by 
Bishop Kennedy, a nephew of James I. and one 
of the most venerable names in Scottish history. 
In the first foundation charter, which was con- 
ferred by Pope Nicholas V. the college is said 
to be built for theology and the liberal arts. 
It was dedicated to the honour of God, of our 

* Bishop Wardlaw was so hospitable as seriously to em- 
barrass his income. His chamberlain, at length, thought 
proper to impose some restraint upon the liberality of 
the bishop, and proposing to make out a list of persons 
who should have the privilege of dining at pleasure at 
the episcopal table, asked his lordship what names he 
would wish put down ? " Fife and Angus in the first 
place," answered the incorrigible bishop, meaning the 
two large districts so called. 

Saviour, and the Virgin Mary, and named St. 
Salvator's College. The constitution of this 
new university differed somewhat from the 
other, but it is needless to recite its peculiari- 
ties. It was endowed, from time to time, by 
royalty, with a variety of beneficial privileges. 
In the year 1512, a third college was founded 
at St. Andrews, imder the title of St. Leon- 
ard's College, by prior John Hepburn, who is 
remarkable for having added many beautiful 
pieces of architecture to the priory. He found- 
ed and endowed the new institution out of the 
revenues of the hospital, which had been built 
for the reception of pilgrims, who formerly 
repaired hither in great numbers, to kiss the 
relics of St. Andrew, and from property of 
his own. The cause of this alienation out ot 
the revenues of the hospital, we are told, lay 
in the ceasing of the miracles which had been 
wrought by the apostle's arm bone, and the 
consequent loss of its popularity. The college 
was intended chiefly for the education of the 
members of the convent. Up to the begin- 
ning of the 16th century, the system of eccle- 
siastical ride remained undisturbed, unless by 
the feeble attempts of Resby and Craw. The 
doctrines of the continental reformers now be- 
gan to annoy the episcopate. The first victim 
was Mr. Patrick Hamilton, a young man of 
noble family, who was burnt for heresy, March 
1, 1527, before the gate of St. Salvator's col- 
lege. Not many months after, a man of the 
name of Forrest, was condemned and burned 
also, at the north stile of the priory, for assert- 
ing that Hamilton died a martyr. Other two 
persons, named Gourlay and Straiton, were 
next burnt, 1534, for denying the pope's su- 
premacy. About the same time, the celebrat- 
ed George Buchanan was imprisoned in the 
castle of St. Andrews, and put in immi- 
nent peril of his life, for having written 
a satire against the Franciscan friars. He had 
the good fortune to escape from his prison. 
Prior to the erection of the first university, 
there had been, for a considerable period, in 
St. Andrews, a pedagogy, or school of a su- 
perior kind, and it continued, long after the 
colleges were reared. At length, in 1538, 
Archbishop James Beaton, uncle and prede- 
cessor of the infamous Cardinal Beaton, aug- 
mented the pedagogy by a variety of endow- 
ments, and afterwards converted it into St. 
Mary's College. Archbishop Hamilton, the 
successor of the cardinal, completed its foun- 



fiation on a liberal plan. In 1579, this college 
was remodelled by Buchanan and Archbishop 
Adamson, and appropriated solely to the de- 
partment of theology. During the sway of 
the notorious Cardinal Beaton, the execution 
of the famous Wishart took place here, March 
2, 1545. It will be remembered by those con- 
versant in Scottish history, that within fifteen 
months of this violent procedure, Beaton was 
himself slaughtered in his castle, by Norman 
Leslie, and a band of conspirators. In the 
spring of 1558, Walter Mill, an old decrepit 
spriest of the parish of Lunan, ceased to per- 
form mass, and, being tried for the offence, 
he was also brought to the stake. This was 
the last ease of the kind which disgraced the 
jurisprudence of the age. The Reformation 
was now working to a crisis. On Sunday, 
May 29, 1559, John Knox preached a ser- 
mon at Crail, against the system of the Ro- 
mish church, and the people being previous- 
ly prepared to listen to his very just invec- 
tives, they, with more zeal than discretion, 
arose and demolished all the churches in this 
part of the country. Next Sunday he deliver- 
ed another sermon in St. Andrews, which had 
the effect of causing a more violent scene. 
The mob which he incited instantly commenc- 
ed the destruction of the cathedral ; and the 
splendid work of a hundred and fifty-nine years 
was undone in one day ! The other religious 
establishments of the city were also pillaged 
and destroyed. The episcopate was at this 
time in the hands of James Hamilton, a natu- 
ral brother of the Ex-Regent Chastelherault, 
and one no way able to oppose the intentions 
of the Lords of the Congregation. In June, 
1583, James VI. escaped from the thraldom 
of Gowrie, Glencairn, and others, by shutting 
himself up in the fortress of St. Andrews, by 
connivance of the governor. During the age 
succeeding the Reformation, the Scottish 
church vacillated between Presbytery and 
Episcopacy, and the university of St. An- 
drews, the chief and wealthiest foundation for 
theological learning in the kingdom, naturally 
partook of the same alterations. In the month 
of December, 1580, while the church was 
presbyterial. Mr. Andrew Melville, became 
lecturer on divinity and principal of the univer- 
sity. The effect produced upon the succeed- 
ing age of the church, by a man of such power- 
ful mind and character, was very great : pro- 
bably to this cause maybe traced much of that 

vigorous spirit which was instrumental in re- 
sisting the innovations attempted by Charles I. 
With the exception of brief intervals, Mel- 
ville was connected with the university till 
the year 1G06, when he was condemned to 
imprisonment in England, by a sovereign 
whose plan for remodelling the church go- 
vernment of Scotland no man had ever been 
so successful in thwarting as this sturdy 
apostle of the Genevan discipline. In 1609, 
St. Andrews was the scene of the state trial 
of Lord Balmerinoch, secretary of James VI., 
and the progenitor of the person of the same 
title, who was executed for rebellion in the 
succeeding century. In 1617, St Andrews 
was visited by James, on his paying a visit 
to Scotland. He was the last royal person- 
age who ever honoured the town Avith his 
presence. During the troubles of Charles L 
St. Andrews was the theatre of many vexati- 
ous proceedings. The last event which took 
place near it, worthy of our notice, was the 
murder of Archbishop James Sharpe. This 
occurred on Saturday, May 3, 1679, at a spot 
on Magus Muir, about four miles west of 
the city. Five covenanters, who had been 
taken at Bothwell Bridge, were executed four 
months afterwards on the spot. There were 
only two archbishops of St. Andrews, between 
the death of Sharpe and the Revolution, at 
which period its history ceases to be interest- 
ing. From the settlement of an episcopacy 
here in 840, till the Reformation, there were 
forty bishops ; and from the Reformation till 
the Revolution there were seven. Of the lat- 
ter none was so distinguished as John Spottis- 
wood, the last bishop, before the introduction 
of the presbyterial order of 1639. This dis- 
tinguished prelate was a native of Midcalder, 
in the county of Edinburgh, having been the 
son of the ministerial incumbent of that pa- 
rish, and the Superintendent of Lothian. In 
1610, he was consecrated a bishop in London. 
He sat in the see of Glasgow till 1615, when 
he was translated to St. Andrews. In 1 635, 
he was made chancellor of the kingdom, by 
Charles I. While in the archiepiscopal see of 
St. Andrews, he was honoured by a visit from 
Laud, on his journey into Scotland. After 
the Assembly of 1638 had extinguished Scot- 
tish episcopacy for a time, he fled into Eng- 
land, where he died next year, and was buried 
in Westminster Abbey. He has left a valua- 
ble history of the Church and State of Scot« 



land, and the name of being one of the most 
learned and amiable churchmen that Scot- 
land ever possessed. Although from the first 
the bishop of this eminent see had been es- 
teemed of a somewhat superior authority, it 
was not till 1471 that the Pope conferred upon 
him the rank of archbishop, in order to secure 
the Scottish church from coming under the 
sway of the archbishop cf York, who, for 
several ages, troubled this kingdom with his 
pretensions. The power of this prelate was 
very great, both spiritually and temporally. He 
was a civil and criminal judge within his rega- 
lities, of which he had three. He had the pri- 
vilege of officiating at the coronation of the 
kings, and he took precedency of all noblemen 
in the kingdom, if not of the princes of the 
blood. His revenue, if it had been preserv- 
ed entire, and were reckoned by the present 
value of money, woidd amount to nearly 
L. 10,000. So great were the alienations, how- 
ever, for the founding of hospitals and co- 
leges, and seizures by the crown, that, in 
Spottiswood's time, the stipend of the arch- 
bishop was not more than L. 100 sterling. It 
sustained a great loss in 1633 by the disjunc- 
tion of that part of the diocese which was 
constituted the see of Edinburgh. With the 
decay of its ecclesiastical supremacy, St. An- 
drews declined in temporal wealth. Within a 
century after the Reformation, we find its ma- 
gistracy lamenting the impoverished condition 
of the town, by reason of the total decay of 
shipping and trade, and the removal of the 
most eminent inhabitants, and deprecating the 
" assessments and quarterings" laid upon them 
by General Monk. It is exceedingly proba- 
ble that the university was also very consider- 
ably injured by the erection of the university 
of Edinburgh in the end of the 16th cen- 
tury. Previous to this latter period, almost 
all men of historical or literary eminence in 
Scotland had been educated in St. Andrews. 
From the revolution till a recent epoch, the 
town was gradually reduced in size, or stinted 
in its extension. In the present day it is be- 
ginning to exhibit many signs of improvement. 
As formerly noticed, it has a site on an emin- 
ence on the edge of the sea. At this place 
there is an extensive bay in front, into the 
north side of which are poured the waters of 
the Tay. When approached from the south, 
by the road from Anstruther, it is not seen 
tilj the traveller comes to the brow of a low 

hill, which screens it in this direction. The 
view of the city from thence is very agreeable. 
It seems environed by ancient walls, and em- 
bowered in shrubberies and gardens, while 
the number of its spires and pinnacles, and the 
large public buildings which are seen overtop, 
ping the rest, give it, notwithstanding every in- 
dication of decay, a kind of metropolitan look, 
not enjoyed by any other Scotch town of even 
double or triple the size. The modern town 
is about a mile in circuit, and contains three 
principal streets, South Street, Market Street, 
and North Street, lying nearly parallel with 
each other, and intersected at right angles by 
others of narrower dimensions. Besides these, 
there are a few back lanes. To the north of 
North Street, there was once another street, 
where the merchants used to reside, named 
Swallow Street. It is now called the Scores, 
and is used as a public walk. The three main 
streets incline to a point at the east, where 
stood the cathedral and priory. The castle 
stood on the north side of Swallow Street, 
close upon the sea, which washes the pre- 
cincts of the town on the north and east. 
St. Andrews is a town of a very trim and 
handsome appearance. The houses are gen- 
erally well built and of considerable height. 
The best of the three streets is South 
Street, which, from the respectable appear- 
ance of the houses, and the fine long ex- 
panse of causeway, resembles a metropoli- 
tan thoroughfare, more than that of a pro- 
vincial town. On the west, the town melts 
away into the country, and leads to a 
broad expanse of unproductive sandy downs, 
which closes up the west end of the bay, and 
spreads for many miles to the north. Along 
the south-west end of these links, a road leads 
from the town to join the road to Dundee. It 
proceeds through some beautiful grounds, and 
at the distance of three miles crosses the Eden 
by a long narrow bridge, called the Guard 
Bridge, birilt originally by Bishop Wardlaw, 
the founder of the first university, but remo- 
delled within these few years. The chief ob- 
ject of attraction in St. Andrews is the ruin of 
the cathedral, which, as already mentioned, 
stands at the east end of the town. It is en- 
closed within an extensive burying ground, 
which is entered by a wide gateway, the archi- 
trave of which (an immense log of wood) is 
said to have been furnished by one of the 
vessels of the Spanish Armada, wrecked 



on the coast. It is impossible to advance 
within the threshold of the sacred precincts 
without being impressed with an indescri- 
bable awe. Though the ground in front be 
an open space, the bases of the broken down 
pillars, the portions of the standing walls, and 
the half seen sepulchral pavement, lead the 
contemplative tourist to suppose himself in an 
actual temple. From the entrance, or Golden 
Gate, as it was called, to the east end, the 
length appears very great. When entire, the 
fabric was 370 feet in length, 65 feet broad, 
with a nave or transept 180 feet long, pro- 
portions which have no parallel in Scotland. 
This magnificent structure stood in a com- 
plete condition two hundred and forty years. 
In this state it had five pinnacles or tow- 
ers, and a great steeple. Two of the tow- 
ers, with the great steeple over the centre, 
have long since disappeared. The two east- 
ern pinnacles spring from the corners of the 
gable, and are joined by an arch forming 
the great eastern light of the church. The 
rubbish has been recently removed, and the 
area is now very discernible, showing the flat 
monumental stones of abbots and others who 
repose beneath. The only parts standing are 
the east gable, and a piece of the south wall. 
The style is a mixture of Saxon and Gothic. 
The roof was covered with sheets of copper. 
The present pier at the harbour, it is believed, 
was mostly constructed of materials taken from 
the edifice, and there are few stables or even 
houses in the town, but owe their erection to a 
similar process of spoliation. The attention 
of the visitor to the cathedral is attracted by a 
lofty square tower and part of a chapel, stand- 
ing within a few yards of the east end of the 
remaining gable. Such is the chapel of St. 
Regulus or Rule, mentioned as having been 
erected soon after the arrival of that pious 
monk. All writers agree in admitting this to be 
among the most ancient pieces of existing eccle- 
siastical architecture in Scotland. It cannot be 
less than fourteen hundred years old, and yet 
it seems in a very entire, firm condition. Its 
length is thirty one feet and a half by a breadth 
of twenty-five feet. It has four windows, and 
is covered in. The turret at the western end 
is 108 feet in height, and it may be ascended 
to the top by a narrow stone stair of 152 steps. 
The view from the leaden roof of the tower is 
remarkably fine, and amply repays the toils of 
the ascent. What remains of the various 

edifices is taken under the especial care of the 
Scottish Exchequer. It appears that the 
cloisters and other religious edifices, now de- 
molished, were on the south and south-west 
of the cathedral. In this quarter still stands 
a great part of the magnificent wall reared by 
Prior John Hepburn, in 1516. It runs along 
the south side of the town, and contains fourteen 
round and square towers, each having a niche 
on the outside for a saint. The wh le length 
of the wall is about eight hundred and seventy 
feet, and appears one of the most interesting 
relics in the place. Some of the houses in the 
neighbourhood are pointed out as having per- 
tained to the ecclesiastical establishment. 
Among these is shown the barn which held the 
teind sheaves. The Hospitium Vetus, or 
house of the prior ; the Senzie House, or re- 
sidence of the sub-prior; the Dormitory ; the Re- 
fectory ; and the Great Hall, are all obliterated. 
In the latter edifice the pilgrims, or visitors of 
the convent, were freely entertained for four- 
teen days before they were questioned as to 
the purport of their visit. At no great dis- 
tance from the cathedral, to the north-west, 
once stood the provostry of Kirkheugh. This 
was a religious establishment, of which there 
are very uncertain traditions, and of the build- 
ings of which there are almost no remains. It 
was called Prcepositura Sanctce Maria de 
Rupe ; and from this is understood to have 
been connected with a chapel dedicated to 
Our Lady on a rock within sea-mark, of which 
there is now no vestige. On the south side 
of South Street, about the middle, still stands 
a large fragment of the monastery of the Obser- 
vantines, founded by Bishop Kennedy, 1448. 
This convent was the noviciate of the order in 
Scotland. A single aisle, with a groined roof, 
remains, a rare specimen of pure and elegant 
Gothic architecture. It is enclosed by a wall 
from the street. Of the Dominicans' convent, 
which was founded by Bishop Wishartin 1274, 
at the west part of the North Street, there 
are now no remains. After the religious edi- 
fices, the visitor is attracted to the ruins of the 
castle, the history of which is already mention- 
ed. It is situated on a rocky peninsula on the 
edge of the sea, and is enclosed by a low wall. 
It continued to be the palace of the archbi- 
shops till the murder of Cardinal Beaton, 
when it was kept possession of by his assas- 
sins. It was then besieged for four months by 
the French commander, with two uncommonly 



large pieces of artillery, called Crook Mou and 
Deaf Meg. The garrison surrendered in 
July 1547, and weFe mostly transported to 
France ; after this the castle was demolished 
by an order from the privy council. Arch- 
bishop Gladstone, (about 1606,) resigned the 
castle and its yard to George, Earl of Dunbar, 
and by the extinction of that family, 1689, the 
property devolved to the crown. The main 
building is of a massy oblong figure, and has 
been long an open ruin. Its garrulous keeper 
shows the window at which the body of the 
cardinal was exhibited, though it is well known 
that the front was altogether remodelled after 
the event he mentions. An arched way be- 
neath the building ushers the visitant into a 
smooth green court-yard behind, destitute of 
the greater part of its boundary walls. On 
the south-west corner of the area rises a 
pile of building, in which is the chief lion 
of the place. A low-browed passage leads - 
down to a low part of the interior, from which 
there is a small doorway opening upon a 
dreadful dark cavern cut out of the solid rock, 
and shaped like a common bottle. The 
neck of the orifice is seven feet wide, by about 
eight in depth, after which it widens till it be 
seventeen feet in diameter. The depth of the 
■whole is twenty-two feet. This fef* r ul tomb 
was once used as the dungeon of the castle. 
Recusant victims were put therein, and pos- 
sibly left to die of cold and famine. Some 
years since it was cleared out to serve as a 
powder magazine, when a great quantity of 
bones were removed. The existing universities 
now require our attention. From four col- 
leges the number was in the course of time 
diminished to three, and in 1747 the colleges 
of St. Salvador and St. Leonard were joined 
by act of parliament, under the designation, 
the United College of St. Salvador and St. 
Leonard. This, with St. Mary's or New 
College, is all that remains of the exten- 
sive educational institutions of the place. 
The buildings of the United College stand 
on the north side of North Street, seclud- 
ed from the thoroughfare by an ancient cha- 
pel in front. Until lately the only houses 
set apart for education were cold dungeon- 
looking edifices on the inside of the court. 
Some of the old fabrics still remain, a monu- 
ment of a slovenly curatorship and of a dismal 
routine of study. In the lower part of that on 
the west side is a long damp cellar, till lately 

UBed as a public hall, at one end of which 
is exhibited a gaunt spectral pulpit, said to have 
been on one or more occasions used by the 
reformer Knox. On the east side of the 
quadrangular court an exceedingly handsome 
edifice has been just erected at the expense of 
government, containing two flats with four 
excellent lecturing rooms. It is very neatly 
fitted up in the interior, and will supersede the 
wretched dens on the opposite side of the 
square. The chapel of the institution, which 
bounds the square next the street, is that of St. 
Salvador, and was founded by the pious Bishop 
Kennedy. This structure has not a parallel 
in Scotland. It is built in an exquisite Gothic 
style, and is of a bght elegant construction. 
Unfortunately it has been allowed to go into 
the most disgraceful decay, so as to seem, 
at the present time, as if dropping to pieces. 
It is nevertheless used as the chapel of the 
college, and as the parish church of St. 
Leonards, of which a professor of the col- 
lege is ministerial incumbent. Its mis- 
erable benches and wild appearance inside 
would astonish and nauseate one accustom- 
ed to the trim perfection of similar build- 
ings in Oxford or Cambridge. On the 
north side of the interior, is a monument 
in dark marble over the tomb of the founder, 
and partly in the shape of a recess in the wall. 
This tomb is said to have cost L. 10,000 ster- 
ling, though, judging from present appearances, 
we should be inclined to doubt the fact. Bi- 
shop Kennedy was grandson of Robert III. by a 
daughter, and is remarkable in Scottish history 
for having broken the power of the house of 
Douglas in 1 455, and thereby saved the crown 
to his mother's family. During the latter part 
of the reign of James II. and a portion of the 
minority of James III. he was the chief po- 
litical adviser of royalty ; and Buchanan tells 
us that, at his death, every one mourned for 
him as if the nation had lost its father. His 
tomb is now a dilapidated ruin. About the year 
1683, six silver maces were discovered in it, 
of the finest workmanship. Three of them 
are dispersed to different universities, and the 
other three are kept in the college. With 
these curiosities are shown two silver arrows 
which used formerly to be shot for, every year, 
at the west end of the town. The united 
weight of the arrows and the thin flat medals 
attached to them amounts to two hundred and 
twenty ounces. The United College has a 

ANDR E W S. (S T.) 


chancellor, rector, and principal, with profes- 
sors of Greek, logic, natural philosophy, moral 
philosophy, humanity, civil history, mathema- 
tics, medicine, and a lecturer on natural his- 
tory. Five of the professorships are in the 
gift of the corporation. The United College 
has sixteen bursaries, four of winch at least, 
fall vacant every year. Formerly there were 
three classes of students, to wit, Primers, 
Seconders, and Terners, but the first and the 
last are now in desuetude. The inferior fees 
of the Terners are abolished, all now paying 
the fees of Seconders ; a measure which has 
had the effect of reducing the number of 
students. All the students lodge privately 
$n the town, and wear red frieze gowns. 
Besides the sixteen foundation bursaries, 
there are twenty-three in the gift of pri- 
vate patrons. Of these there are five of 
L.21, (in the gift of the family of the Ram- 
says of Balmain) ; one of L.14; three of 
about L.llj five of L.10; five of about 
L.8 ; two of L.6, and others of grain, &c. 
The college of St. Mary's is an institution of 
far less consequence than the above, though its 
buildings are in a more public situation, and 
stand on the south side of South Street, a 
short way east, of the ruin of the Observantine 
monastery. The edifice on the line of the 
street is a handsome stone structure, recently 
renovated and extended, with a row of elegant 
shields of coats of arms between the first and 
second storey. This is used solely as a library, 
and is disposed in different large rooms, not 
kept in the best of order. An entrance beneath 
leads to a small back court, on the west side of 
which is an oblong house of three stories in 
height, containing a variety of large and small 
chambers. St. Mary's college is appropriated 
solely to the study of theology, and, as now 
constituted, consists of a principal, and profes- 
sors of divinity, church history and divinity, 
and oriental languages. No student is admit- 
ted until he lias undergone a course of study 
at the United, or some other Scottish college. 
Regular attendance is not compulsory, which, 
though suitable to the impoverished condition 
of Scottish divinity students, is attended with 
the most serious evils. The college has six- 
teen bursaries, nine of M'hich entitle the holder 
to a seat at the college table for five years 
during the sessions; one entitles to L.15; 
boarding is now commuted ; and six are 
money bursaries of different values. The stu- 

dents do net wear gowns. The two colleges 
are independent of each other, except in five 
cases, namely, in the election of a chancellor, 
a rector, and a professor of medicine, in con- 
ferring degrees, and in the management of the 
university library. A Senatus Academicus, 
or meeting of professors, is held in general 
every week during session. On the rising of 
the session in the beginning of Maj', the stu- 
dents of both colleges are examined in a very 
creditable manner in a public hall. The uni 
versity library is open to students at both col- 
leges. It consists of a very extensive collec- 
tion of classical, theological, and general liter- 
ature, and is enriched with a copy of every 
book entered at Stationers' Kail. Before 
leaving the library, it may be mentioned that 
in the lower large room sat the covenanting 
parliament, which, in 164.5, tried and condemn- 
ed Sir Robert Spottiswood, son of the arch- 
bishop ; with Colonel Nathaniel Gordon ; 
Murray, brother to the Marquis of Tullibar- 
dine ; and Andrew Murray, son of the bishop 
of Moray, for having been concerned in the 
royal cause at the battle of Philiphaugh. 
These unfortunate gentlemen, of whom at least 
Sir Robert Spottiswood could be accused of 
no crime but that of taking the side of Charles 
I. against the Scotch presbyterians, were exe- 
cuted by the old instrument called the Maiden, 
in the principal street of St. .Andrews. Be- 
sides the two colleges, the town possesses a 
good grammar and English school, and there 
is a number of private classes and boarding 
schools. Nearly opposite St. Mary's, on the 
north side of the street, stands the town church, 
erected m the twelfth century. It is in good 
preservation, and is crowded with seats and 
galleries. Within the do^r, and on the right 
side, is the splendid monument of Archbishop 
Sharpe, erected by his son in 1679. It is com- 
posed of white marble, and is placed, like that 
of Kennedy, against the wall. Above, is a large 
figure of the prelate in the attitude of kneeling. 
Below is a representation, in relief, of the 
assassination. The archbishop appears struck 
down, and surrounded by nine different figures 
who are actively engaged in putting a period 
to his existence by pistol and sword. The- 
sculpture is clumsy, and the whole is inferior, 
in point of excellence, to the monument of the 
Earl of Dunbar in the church of that town. 
It was executed in Holland, and a sum was 
bequeathed for its preservation. It exhibits a 



long and very flattering epitaph. Recently its 
curators have tried to preserve its white colour 
by a varnishing of white paint ! The church- 
bell tolls the passing knell at every funeral 
which takes place in the town, a relic of unre- 
formed times which, so far as we are aware, is 
not found elsewhere in Scotland. Besides 
the two parish churches, St. Andrews has 
a Secession meeting-house and an Episcopal 
chapel. The latter is an exceedingly neat 
little edifice, built in the form of a St. George's 
Cross, and standing adjacent to the chapel of 
Bishop Kennedy. It cost about L. 1200, which 
sum was principally raised through the activity 
of the present intelligent incumbent, the Rev. 
Robert Young, by subscriptions from England, 
and in particular from the Rev. Dr. Andrew 
Bell, a native of the town, a prebend of West- 
minster, and the patron of a system of educa- 
tion which goes by his name. St. Andrews 
is the seat of a presbytery. The west end of 
South Street is terminated by an ancient portal 
which, in the case of a stranger entering in this 
direction, communicates a gloomy and rever- 
ential impression, such as the entry of no other 
town in Scotland is adequate to convey. The 
public authorities deserve much praise for pre- 
serving so curious an architectural relic of past 
times. As formerly noticed, St. Andrews is 
a royal burgh, in virtue of a charter of David I. 
It possesses also a charter from Malcolm II., 
the unfortunate monarch who was slain in 
Glammis Castle, 1034. Its constitution is pe- 
culiar. It is governed by a provost, dean of ' 
guild, four bailies, with a treasurer. The dean 
of guild has precedence of the bailies. The 
provost need not reside on the spot, and he may 
be re-elected every year for life. The other 
office-bearers can be elected for three years 
successively. There are seven incorporated 
trades in the town. St. Andrews is a sea- 
port, but it seems to have lost all its maritime 
trade. At a creek south of the town, there is 
a commodious harbour and pier, and vessels 
can be admitted of three hundred tons burden ; 
but the caprices of commerce have, in modern 
times, distracted shipping to other ports. In 
the offing may be seen long trains of vessels 
proceeding into the Tay, engaged in traffic with 
Dundee, which, like a wealthy flourishing shop- 
keeper, doing business on new principles, is 
prospering on the ruin of its antiquated neigh- 
bours. In former times, when St. Andrews 
was in what may be called its glory., the fair 

used annually to bring three hundred ves&els 
to the harbour and roadstead, from Flanders, 
France, and the north of Europe. The com- 
mercial order of the inhabitants now depend 
for subsistence, directly or indirectly, on the 
university, or upon the genteel families who 
live in the town for the education of their 
children, and a certain proportion of the lowei 
classes are engaged in weaving. The only 
article manufactured for exportation is golj 
balls. The historian of St. Andrews, to whom 
we are indebted for some valuable informa- 
tion in this article, informs us, that about a 
dozen of men are constantly at work in this 
trade. The consumpt of the town amounts 
to three hundred dozen of balls annually, and 
there are exported every year, to Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, Aberdeen, Perth, and other places, 
upwards of eight thousand six hundred and 
forty balls. A man makes about nine balls in 
a day. It may well astonish any one not aware 
of the character of the place, how such a pro- 
digious quantity of these balls should be con- 
sumed. But it may be noticed, that the game 
of golf is a prime occupation in the town, — 
that, indeed, the people employ the whole of 
their spare hours, which are not few, in this 
recreation. There is a company of golfers, 
instituted in 1754, consisting of noblemen, gen- 
tlemen, and professors, of which always some 
are engaged. The members are distinguished 
by red coats from those of a plebeian society, 
who wear jackets of a green colour. In wind- 
ing up our account of this interesting town, 
we may be permitted to lament the deciy 
which has taken place, not only in its build- 
ings but in its institutions. Notwithstanding 
of its transcendent qualifications as a universi- 
ty town, its delightful retired situation, the 
excellence of its society, and the cheapness of 
provisions, it is a matter of deep regret that the 
number of students seldom averages more than 
two hundred. Such a striking fact leads to the 
concession that there must be something ra- 
dically bad in the system of its education, 
worthy of instantaneous revisal. The present 
extensive improvements going forward will 
be of no avail in restoring the character of the 
place, unless followed by an unscrupulous re- 
vision of that antiquated process of tuition, 
under which the greater part of the Scottish, 
universities have long laboured, as under an 
incubus. Even in its present condition, St. 
Andrews forms a pleasant residence for the 



country gentry or others who have sons and 
daughters to educate. Much of the excellence 
of Edinburgh society may be obtained here 
without its heavy expense. The town is dis- 
tinguished for its quiet evening parties, where 
whist, music, and conversation are the alternate 
sources of amusement ; a system exactly cor- 
responding with what obtained in the me- 
tropolis sixty years since. There continually 
hover over its neat and orderly streets, courts, 
classic shades, and decorous walks, the genii 
of silence and meditation. The air which 
surrounds it superinduces habits of study, and 
all about it has a tendency to polish the every- 
day feelings of common life. It is even ob- 
servable that the commercial and working 
classes have a quiet, tamed, respectful tone of 
behaviour, as if they were always under the 
fear of a reproving look from some great man 
of letters who is a good customer. The town, 
to quote another work by one of the present 
authors, " has a clean, trim, pale, emaciated 
look ; a cloistered seclusion and quiet ; an ap- 
pearance of decorous propriety ; by which the 
mind of a stranger, on entering it, is absolute- 
ly oppressed by a kind of awe, as a boy is 
sobered down on coming into the presence of 
6ome awfully austere and clean-linened grand- 
aunt." — Population of the town and parish, 
including St. Leonard's parish, in 1821, 5412. 

ANDREWS, (ST.) Orkney; see St. 

St. Andrews Lanbride. 

ANGUS, a district, in modern times called 
Forfarshire. — See Forfarshire. With the 
contiguous county of Kincardine on the north, 
it anciently formed the country of the Horesti, 
and a portion of the Pictish kingdom. On the 
dissolution of that government by Kenneth II., 
about the end of the ninth century, he is said to 
have divided it between his two brothers, An- 
gus and Mearns, from whom the two counties 
still derive their popular appellation. The dis- 
trict gave the title of Earl to two different fa 
milies. On the extinction of the first, the earl- 
dom was conferred on a relation of King David 
Bruce, and in 1477, it merged in the family of 
the Douglasses. It has since devolved on the 
Duke of Hamilton. In ecclesiastical matters, 
Angus and Mearns form a synod of the esta- 
blished church, comprehending six presbyteries. 
ANNAN, a second rate river, which rises 
in the hollow of a huge hill dividing Dum- 
fries-shire from Peebles-shire, known by the 

strange name of the Devil's Beef Statiti, and 
flows altogether about thirty miles. In its 
course it receives an accession of waters from 
innumerable rivulets, bums, and springs, which 
pour into it from the vales and glens on either 
side. It is successively augmented by the 
Evan and Moffat waters below Moffat ; the 
Wamphray, a few miles further on upon the 
left ; the Kinnel, composed of the Ae and oth- 
er waters, at Broomhill ; the Dryfe at Lady- 
ward, Milk Water at Broklerig, Mein Water 
at Meinfoot, and some lesser streamlets. The 
whole form a succession of the best trouting 
waters in Scotland, and are well worthy of the 
attention of those wishing to go on a piscatory 
expedition. The Annan finally falls into the 
upper part of the Solway Firth. 

ANNANDALE, the vale of the above 
river Annan, an extensive and fertile tract of 
country, forming one of the three grand divisions 
of Dumfries-shire ; about twenty-five miles in 
length, and fourteen in breadth. It forms the 
central district of the county, became a lordship 
under the family of Bruce, and was an inde- 
pendent stewartry until the abolition of the 
heritable jurisdictions. It contains twenty 
parishes, and many beautiful lateral vales ter- 
minate in it ; of these the most considerable 
are Moffat and Dryfe ; others of less import- 
ance are the Ae, Kinnel, Wamphray, and Evan. 
The whole district is rich in scenes of interest 
from historical association, and of romantic 
beauty ; but the chief objects worthy of notice 
are introduced under their appropriate heads. 
Annartdale at one time gave the title Of Mar- 
quis to an ancient warlike family of the name 
of Johnston. This family were frequently 
wardens of the western marches, and were 
noted for their expertness in putting down the 
thieves and marauders who infested the border 
districts. On this account they adopted for 
their crest a winged spur, which denoted their 
diligence, and took for their motto Alight 
thieves all, which was afterwards changed to 
Nunquam nonparatus. For several centu- 
ries they were simply baronets. Charles I. at 
length, in 1633, created Sir James, Lord John- 
ston,'and in 1643, Earl of Hartfell. Charles II. 
in 1661, created the then earl, Earl of Annan- 
dale, and this earldom was elevated to a Mar- 
quisate by WiUiam III. 1701. The lineal fa- 
mily became extinct in 1792 by the death of 
George, who had been confined as a lunatic 
from the year 1745. Since this period, the 
peerage has been dormant. It is now claimed 



by J. J. Hope Johnstone of Annandale, Cap- 
tain Johnstone of Sackville Street, Dublin, 
Stewart Souter Johnstone, George Greig John- 
stone, and John Henry Goodinge, Esqrs. The 
name of Johnstone prevails in Annandale. 

ANNAN, a parish lying on the north shore 
of the Solway firth, intersected by the river 
Annan, bounded on the east by Kirk- Patrick- 
Fleming, on the west by Cummertrees, and on 
the north by Hoddam and Middlebie. The 
surface is generally flat, and consists both of 
rich well-cultivated land and heathy ground. 

ANNAN, a royal burgh, the capital of the 
district of Annandale, and of the parish, is com- 
modiously situated on the east bank of the 
river Annan, rather more than a mile above 
i*s influx into the Solway Firth. It is dis- 
tant 79 miles from Edinburgh, 89 from Glas- 
gow, 16 from Dumfries, 43 from Kirkcud- 
bright, and 27 from Moffat. The river here 
forms a natural harbour, to which the town 
owes its rise. The name of Annan is de- 
rived from the river, whose name is traced to 
the Celtic radical An, signifying simply water. 
Annan is a town of considerable antiquity, 
though it never was of any particular impor- 
tance in national history. The Bruces, who 
were lords of Annandale, built a castle at this 
place for the protection of the town and port, 
and this fort was kept as a border strength till 
the union df the crowns. It is understood 
that some of the coins of Alexander II. were 
struck at Annan. From its vicinity to the 
English borders, this town suffered much dur- 
ing the border wars ; being frequently plunder- 
ed and sometimes burnt. In 1298 the Eng- 
lish made an inroad into Annandale and burnt 
the town of Annan with its church. This 
was only the commencement of a series of 
injuries which Annan suffered during the wars 
of the succession. In the subsequent hostilities 
with England, and in the vexatious forage of 
the English borderers, this town was frequently 
plundered. The union of the crowns put an 
end to those injuries ; yet Annan was then in 
a state of great poverty. A grant of James 
VI. to this town, 1609, states that it had been 
" so miserably impoverished," that the com- 
munity were unable to build a church; and 
therefore he granted to the town and parish 
the old castle of Annan to serve for a church, 
and they were empowered either to repair the 
castle for that purpose, or to pull it down, and 
use the materials for building a new church, 

when they should find themselves able to per- 
form these operations. It seems that the in- 
habitants had been necessitated to apply for a 
grant of this nature, on account of the former 
parish church and its steeple being batter- 
ed down by the English, for having often been 
places of defence to the people. In the course 
of the civil wars of Charles I., this unfortunate 
town suffered additional evils, after which pe- 
riod it was left in peace to recover and forget 
its injuries. Since the middle of last century 
it has been going on steadily in improvement, 
and nearly all trace of its ancient warlike con- 
dition is obliterated. The town is now well 
built, and consists of several good streets and 
buildings. At the east end is a fine new 
church and spire ; and on the west at the 
market place stands the town-house. In 
Edmond Street is an Academy or classical 
seminary, which is well attended. Some 
years since the old bridge across the river was 
removed, and a very handsome new one has 
been erected on its site, at the expense of the 
government and the county. A small mari- 
time trade is carried on by vessels of fifty tons 
burden, which can approach a quay, half a mile 
from the bridge, and by others of a larger size, 
which come within a mile of the town. The 
exports are bacon, hams, and corn. Branches 
of the Commercial and British Linen Bank- 
ing Companies are established here, and a cot- 
ton manufactory is now settled. A good 
market is held every Thursday, and several 
fairs take place annually. The town has a 
subscription library, and several benevolent 
and religious societies. Annan was a royal 
burgh as early as the accession of Bruce, in 
1306 ; but its privileges were not defined until 
James V., in March 1538-9, granted a char- 
ter to the bailies, burgesses and community of 
the burgh of Annan, the freedom of a burgh 
in fee and perpetuity, with all its possessions 
and property. The burgh obtained from 
James VI. in July 1612, a charter, which 
states that the old grants to it had been burnt 
in time of war by enemies ; and thereupon he 
incorporated the town of Annan, as a royal 
burgh, with the usual powers and privileges. 
According to the form which was thus esta- 
blished, the burgh is governed by a provost, 
three bailies, a treasurer, a dean of guild, and 
thirteen councillors. Its revenue is upwards 
of L.300 annually. The burgh joins with 
Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, Lochmaben,and San- 



quhar, in sending a member to parliament. 
Besides the parish church, there is a meeting- 
house belonging to the United Secession body. 
The town is the seat of a presbytery in the 
synod of Dumfries. The fast day of the kirk 
is the Friday before the first Sunday of Au- 
gust. — Population of the burgh and parish in 
1821, 4486. 

ANNAT, or CAMBUS, a rivulet in 
Perthshire remarkable for its beautiful cas- 
cades. It flows into the Teith nearly a mile 
above the town of Doune. 

ANNOCK, (or water of) a small river in 
Ayrshire, which takes its rise in the Mearns 
Moor, parish of Stewarton, and passing that 
town in the form of a semicircle, falls into the 
sea a little below Irvine, after a course of about 
twelve miles. 

ANSTRUTHER, Easter and Wester, 
two contiguous parishes in Fife, each contain- 
ing a royal burgh of its own name, which is at 
the same time a sea-port. The two towns lie 
closely together on a low piece of ground at the 
bottom of a small bay on the edge of the Firth 
of Forth, near its mouth, and only divided by 
a stream bearing the name of Dreel. Easter 
Anstruther parish is bounded on the east by 
Kilrenny, and extends only a few acres round 
the town, which is mean, dirty, and old-fashion- 
ed. It is however dignified by a regular 
burgal government, consisting of three bailies, 
a treasurer, and fifteen councillors ; and joins 
with Wester Anstruther, Pittenweem, Kil- 
renny and Crail in sending a member to par- 
liament. Its revenue is exceedingly trifling. 
— Popidation of the burgh and parish in 1821, 
1090. The parish of Wester Anstruther con- 
sisting of less than four hundred acres of land, 
is bounded on the west by Pittenweem, and on 
the north by Carnbee. The town or burgh of 
this small district is of still less importance 
than the preceding. — In 1821 the population 
of the burgh and parish amounted to only 429. 
Its harbour is inferior to that of its neighbour. 
It is separated from the town of Pittenweem, 
on the west, by only a corn field, but from the 
low situation, little of it is seen but its old 
fashioned church steeple. It is also governed 
by three bailies, a treasurer, and from six to 
eleven councillors, which amounts to about a 
functionary for every six houses. Ever since 
the union of 1707, these, as well as other small 
towns on the east coast of Fife, have under- 
gone a gradual decay and impoverishment. 

Except upon electioneering occasions they are 
never heard of, and any jurisdiction exercised 
by the benches of magistrates could be con- 
signed, without injury to the public weal, to a 
couple of constables. A minister of Easter 
Anstruther, towards the end of the eighteenth 
century, used to say of the magistrates of 
Wester Anstruther, that, instead of their being 
a terror to evil doers, evil doers were a terror 
to them. In the present day the word An- 
struther, is, on nearly all occasions, written and 
spoken Anster, for the sake of brevity. Under 
this title it is alluded to in the popular song of 
" Maggie Lauder," the heroine of which was 
an actual personage, who, it seems, lived in the 
East Green of Easter Anstruther, a low street 
connecting the town with the contiguous fish- 
ing village of Cellardykes, and the spot on 
which her house stood is still pointed out. 
Anster Fair was at one time a festival of great 
concernment, and the sports were such as are 
so well described in the poem of Mr. Tennant. 
It was held on a piece of ground called Anster 
Loan, to the north of the town, and close be- 
side the present turnpike road to St. Andrews. 
For several years past the whole has degenerated 
into insignificance. James V. the monarch 
known to have travelled so often incognito 
through his dominions, is understood to have 
visited Anster in the course of a tour through 
the Fife burghs. In allusion to an adventure 
which he is said to have met in this neighbour- 
hood, there has been instituted at Anster, a 
club or convivial association, under the name 
of " The Sovereign and Knights of the Beg- 
gars' Bennison (or Blessing) ;" from which a 
number of other similar lodges have been de- 
rived. The founder of this extraordinary club 
was one Macnaughton, a collector of customs 
at Anstruther about sixty years ago, and yet 
remembered for his singular powers of humour 
and conviviality. The maintenance of such 
an association in this out-of-the-way town, 
proves that, notwithstanding its insignificance in 
point of burgh government and general wealth, 
it has always been inhabited by a certain 
number of beaux esprits, and is entitled to a 
certain degree of credit in an intellectual point 
of view superior to what is claimed by the 
neighbouring towns. This is farther confirmed 
in its favour by the circumstance that not many 
years ago there existed in the town, a club of 
poetical humourists, called the Muso-rtaniac 
Society, 6ome of whose transactions Tim 



printed, and attracted considerable attention, 
The manse of Easter Anstrather is a some- 
what remarkable building; it was built as a 
gift to the parish, at the end of the sixteenth 
century, by James Melville, who was then 
minister of the parish, and an eminent figurant 
in the turbulent councils of the Scottish 
church, and nephew to the more celebrated 
Andrew Melville. 

ANTONINUS' WALL, the name given 
to the wall erected by the Romans, to connect 
a chain of forts betwixt the firths of Forth and 
Clyde, and protect their conquests from the 
incursions of the Caledonians and other savages 
in the north. While Agricola was in Britain, 
as governor under Domitian in the first cen- 
tury, he constructed these forts or stations, and 
the intermediate spaces were closed in, in the 
year of our Lord 140, by Lollius Urbicus, the 
lieutenant of Pius Antoninus, then emperor of 
the Roman territories. Originally the wall 
was composed of a turf or earthen rampart 
erected on foundations of stone. In rearing 
it the first thing done was to cut a ditch fifteen 
feet wide at top, and sloping down at an angle 
of 45 degrees. The earth cast out was placed 
on the inner side, and assisted in raising the 
height of the embankment or wall to about 
twenty-four feet. In some exposed and other 
places it was faced with stone, and along the 
inner side for a length of forty miles, which 
was its whole extent, there was constructed a 
paved way of nearly six feet broad for the con- 
venience of sentinels, and the march of the 
legions hurrying hither and thither in cases of 
emergency. Its extreme point in the east is 
generally supposed to have been near Aber- 
corn, on the south shore of the Firth of Forth, 
and its western termination at Dunglass Castle, 
or OH Kilpatrick, on the Clyde, both of these 
strengths being of Roman architecture, and 
built to defend the boundaries of the rampart. 
The wall so formed and so curiously defended was 
the northern boundary of that wonderful empire 
which extended from thence southward to the 
foot of Mount Atlas in Africa, a distance of 
two thousand miles. Subsequent Roman 
generals improved the wall of Antoninus, which 
came to be called by the name of Graham's 
dyke, a title it still possesses to the exclusion 
of the other. How it should have acquired 
such a designation has puzzled antiquaries, 
some of whom, with more ingenuity than feasi- 
bility, deduce it from the word grim, because it 

was first repaired and strengthened by the empe- 
ror Septimus Severus, that is Septimus the se- 
vere or grim. The popular tradition of the wall 
having received the name of Graham's dyke 
from a Caledonian hero called Graham being 
the first to break through it in the early part 
of the fifth century, seems the more correct 
mode of explanation. This explanation is 
countenanced by a comparatively modern and 
ungrammatical inscription discovered on a block 
of black marble, which came to light in the 
pulling down of the old church of Falkirk : 






a. c. 415. 

R. SCO. 

Throughout the district of country through 
which the wall of Antoninus stretches its 
straight line, nearly heedless of impediments, 
scarcely a vestige of it now remains, and its loca- 
lity has only in many instances been establish- 
ed by the discovery of its foundations and other 
vestigia, in the progress of modern agricultural 
improvement. Fragments of armour, coins, 
arms, and weapons evidently of Roman origin 
have been from time to time dug up. During 
last century a still more significant trace of the 
Roman power was exposed in the discovery of 
a stone whereon was the following inscription : 


the reign of the Emperor Casar Titus Au- 
lius Antoninus, the pious, and the father of 
his country, the first cohort of the Tungri 
made a thousand paces [of this rampart]. The 
Tungri were one of those continental tribes 
whom the Romans had conquered and pressed 
into their service as auxiliaries. There were 
three cohorts of them in Britain, according to 
Tacitus, and it is understood that they were the 
progenitors of the Ligeois of the present time. 
In the course of cutting the Forth and Clyde 
Canal, which follows a line parallel with, 
and at no great distance from the wall, a 
greater curiosity was discovered in the shape 
of a Roman granary or cell, which, when open- 
ed, contained about a hundred bolls of wheat. 
The grain was of a blackish colour but not de- 



composed, so closely had it been preserved. 
The writers of the present article have procured 
a small portion of it. This corn could not 
have lain less than sixteen hundred and twenty 
or thirty years in the ground. 

ANWOTH, a parish in the stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, divided by the river Fleet on the 
east from Girthon, bounded on the south by the 
sea, and on the west by Kirkmabreck. It extends 
about six and a half miles north-east to south- 
west, and is three and a half broad. The sea- 
coast here is generally flat and rocky, and the 
surface of the land is hilly. The hill of 
Cairnharrah, elevated 1100 feet above the level 
of the sea, rises partly out of this parish, and 
is the most prominent object in that part of 
the country. The village of Anwoth stands 
on the road from Creetown to Gatehouse, at a 
6hort distance from the Fleet. The celebrated 
Samuel Rutherford was ministerial incumbent 
of the parish of Anwoth. — Population in 
1821, 843. 

A OREIDH, or ARA Y, a streamlet which 
rises in the mountains behind the town of In- 
verary, and falls into the sea at the head of 
Lochfine. It runs a tumultuous course of 
about eight miles, and forms several cascades. 

APPIN, a district of country in that part 
of the county of Argyle bordering on the east 
side of Loch Linnhe, where that long sinuous 
arm of the sea is crowded with the isles of 
Lismore, Shuna, and others ; in length about 
fifty miles inland, and ten in breadth, and in- 
terspersed with numerous beautiful valleys, 
pastoral hills, and rocky glens, among which 
Glencoe is the most celebrated. Appin house 
stands on the borders of Loch Linnhe, at the 
foot of the district. It belongs ecclesiastically 
to the parish of Lismore. There is anothei 
district of the same name in Perthshire. 

APPLECROSS, a parish in Ross-shire, 
situated on the west coast, and forming a pe- 
ninsula by the jutting in of Lochs Torridon 
and Taniff on the north, and Loch Carron on 
the south. The parish extends at its broadest 
part to about twenty-five miles, and the whole 
surface is mountainous and wild, with a few 
fertile bottoms among the hills. A few farms 
in the centre belong to the adjoining parish of 
Loch Carron. The village of Applecross lies 
on a rivulet at the head of a small bay, called 

Applecross Bay Population in 1821, 2793. 

a parish in Annandale, Dumfries-shire, divided 

on the west from Lochmaben and Johnston by 
the Annan, bounded on the north by Wam- 
phray, and separated on the south from Drys- 
dale by the Dryfe, the parish thus lying in the 
fork betwixt the Waters of Dryfe and Annan, 
which join about a mile below the church, 
making the length six miles, and the breadth, 
in some parts five. The village of Apple- 
garth lies on the banks of the Annan, about 
eleven miles from Dumfries. Sir William 
Jardine, Bart, is the chief proprietor, and has 

a fine seat in the parish Population in 1821, 


a promontory in Inverness-shire, on the west- 
ern coast, formed by the indentation on the 
south of Lochananougal sea, and the lesser 
salt water lake on the north called Loch-na- 
Gaul, and opposite the island of Eig. The 
village of Arasaig lies a little way beyond the 
last mentioned loch. The surrounding district, 
for several miles, also receives the name of 
Arasaig. The ground here is completely 
broken up and diversified with the most roman- 
tic scenery. Arasaig is considered the most 
convenient port in sailing to Eig and Rum. 
ARAY. See Aoreidh. 
ARBIRLOT,aparisb in Forfarshire, conti- 
guous to St. Vigeans at Arbroath, on the north, 
and bounded on the south-east by the Ger- 
man ocean, extending four miles in length, by 
three in breadth, with its town of Arbirlot si- 
tuated on the east bank of the little river El- 
liot, from whence the name is derived, which 
was formerly Aber-elliot. It is fertile in the 
inland parts. — Population in 1821, 1062. 

ARBROATH. Until recent times, the 
usual appellation of this place was Aberbrch- 
tJwck, from its situation on the mouth of a 
small turgid river called the Brothock, which 
is here poured into the sea. The present 
name is a commodious abbreviation of the 
word. Arbroath is a town in Forfarshire, 
pleasantly situated on a small plain on the coast 
of the German ocean, surrounded on the west, 
north, and east, by eminences in the form of 
an amphitheatre. It has a free exposure to 
the south, with an extensive prospect of the 
east end of Fife, and the entrance to the friths 
of Tay and Forth. It lies 18 miles from Dun-, 
dee, 12 from Montrose, 15 from Forfar, 13f 
from Brechin, and 59 from Edinburgh. It is 
the seat ol a presbytery of eleven parishes. 
Arbroath is a town of early origin ; chiefly 



owing its rise to an important monastic insti- 
tution planted here by William the Lion, about 
the year 1178. The building was consecrated 
to the memory of Thomas a-Becket, who was 
at the time an exceedingly popular saint, and it 
was furnished with monks from the Abbey of 
Kelso, who were of the order of the Tyronen- 
ses, and followed the rule of St. Bennet, or 
Benedict. William endowed it with various 
privileges and revenues for its support, and it 
appears that King John of England, impress- 
ed with its dignified character, in 1182, grant- 
ed to its inmates or their lay vassals the same 
right of trading within his dominions, as was 
enjoyed by his own subjects. Pope Pius II., 
by a bull dated 1461, exempted the abbot 
from attending the yearly synods of bishops, a 
duty sometimes found to be of a troublesome 
nature. At a later period, Pope Benedict is- 
sued a bull, permitting the abbot of Aberbro- 
thock, to wear a mitre and other pontifical 
ornaments. As an additional privilege, Pope 
Martin authorized the abbot and his successors 
to confer the minor orders on the clergy of the 
convent. The last ecclesiastical abbot was Car- 
dinal Beaton, at the same time archbishop of 
St. Andrews. Little is distinctly known of 
the origin of the burgal privileges of the little 
sea-port town which arose in the immediate 
vicinity of the Abbey, on account of the loss 
of charters in the troubles during the minority 
of James VI. It is generally understood that 
the town was constituted a royal burgh by the 
same monarch who founded the abbey. It 
appears by an indenture betwixt the abbot and 
burgesses, dated 1394, that he and his succes- 
sors obliged themselves to maintain the pier 
raised on the shore. This, it seems, was not 
the only instance of a beneficent deed done 
by the abbots fov the prosperity of the little 
port, or the welfare of mariner?. To the 
dangerous insulated reef, at the distance of 
twelve miles from the coast, called the Inch 
Cape Rock, and in more modern times the Bell 
Rock, one of the abbots attached a bell, which, 
at high water, when almost hidden by the break- 
ers, was rung by the lashing of the waves, and 
warned, by its tolling, the seamen who were 
sailing near its dangerous vicinity. The inge- 
nuity and science of modern times have ren- 
dered the Bell Rock one of the most service- 
able light-house stations on the east coast of 

Scotland (See Bell- Rock.) But, at the 

period to which we refer, the abbot's bell was 

all that indicated the existence of the dangerous 
rock. It is related by tradition, that the bell 
was wantonly cut away by a pirate, for the pur- 
pose of annoying the abbot, and that afterwards 
his vessel, in a stormy night, drifted on the 
rock, and as a retribution for his crime, he 
perished with all his crew. By one version of 
the story, a Dutchman is said to have been the 
perpetrator, and that he took the bell out of a 
sordid desire for the metal ; however, his fate 
is said to have been the same. Mr. Southey 
has caught up the former outline of the transac- 
tion, and from it has elaborated one of his most 
beautiful poetical pieces, consisting of the fol- 
lowing lines : — 

No stir on the air — no swell on the sea, 

The ship was still as she might be ; 

The sails from heaven received no motion ; 

The keel was steady in the ocean, 

With neither sign nor sound of shock, 

The waves flowed o'er the Inch-Cape Rock ; 

So little they rose, so little they fell, 

They did not move the Inch-Cape bell. 

The pious abbot of Aberbrothock 

Had placed that bell on the Inch-Cape Rock : 

On the waves of the storm it floated and swung. 

And louder and louder its warning rung : 

When the rock was hid by the tempest swell, 

The mariners heard the warning beU, 

And then they knew the perilous rock, 

And blessed the Abbot of Aberbrothock. 

The sun in heaven shone bright and gay, 

All things looked joyful on that day ; 

The sea-birds screamed as they skimmed around, 

And there was pleasure in the sound. 

The float of the Inch-Cape bell was seen, 

A darker spot on the ocean green. 

Sir Ralph the Rover walked the deck, 

And he fixed his eye on the darker speck, 

He felt the cheering power of spring, — 

It made him whistle — it made him sing : 

His heart was mirthful to excess, 

But the Rover's mirth was wickedness. 

His eye was on the bell and float, — 

Quoth he, " My men, put down the boat, 

And row me to the Inch-Cape Rock, — 

I'll plague the priest of Aberbrothock !" 

The boat was lowered, the boatmen row, 
And to the Inch-Cape Rock they go. 
Sir Ralph leant over from the boat, 
And cut the bell from off the float. 
Down sunk the bell with a gurgling sound ; 
The bubbles rose, and burst around. 
Quoth he, "Who next comes to the rock 
Wont bless the priest of Aberbrothock." 

Sir Ralph the Rover sailed away ; 

He scoured the sea for many a day ; 

And now grown rich with plundered store, 

He steers his way for Scotland's shore. 

So thick a haze o'ersprcad the sky, 

They could not see the sun on high; 

The wind had blown a gale all day; 

At evening it hath died away. 

On deck the Rover take* his stand. 

So dark it is they see no land. 



Quoth he, " It will be brighter soon. 
For there's the dawn of the rising moon." 
"Canst hear," said one, " the breakers roar 1 
For yonder, methinks, should be the shore. 
Now, where we are, I cannot tell, — 
I wish we heard the Inch-Cape bell." 
They heard no sound — the swell is strong, 
Though the wind hath fallen they drift along; 
Till the vessel strikes with a shivering shock,— 
"Oh heavens ! it is the Inch-Cape Rock !" 

Sir Ralph the Rover tore his hair, 
And cursed himself in his despair, 
^nd waves rush in on every side, 
The ship sinks fast beneath the tide.— 
Down down, they sink in watery graves 
The masts are hid beneath the waves. 
Sir Ralph, while waters rush around, 
Hears still an awful, dismal sound ; 
For even iu his dying fear 
That dreadful sound assails his ear, 
As if below, with the Inch-Cape bell. 
The devil rang his funeral knell. 

The monastery of Aberbrothock was the scene 
of one of the most remarkable incidents in the 
early history of Scotland. Edward II. having 
endeavoured to procure the favour of the Pope 
to his claims upon the sovereignty of the coun- 
try, the nobility met here, June 1320, and 
drew up a letter of remonstrance, in a style 
which, for spirited and exalted sentiment, is 
perhaps unequalled in the annals of diplomacy. 
It was despatched to Rome, in the keeping 
of a monk of this abbey, no person of higher 
rank, or a less sacred character, daring to car- 
ry such a document through England. On the 
outbreak of the reformation, the abbey was 
among the first religious houses which suffer- 
ed. It was savagely attacked by a mob, who, 
as the readiest mode of destroying it, applied 
fire to the internal wood-work, which, gradual- 
ly spreading to the roof, the whole was soon in 
a blaze. It had been covered with lead, as 
was then usual with such fabrics, and it is said 
that so intense was the heat that the metal 
poured down and deluged the streets below. 
Much of what was spared has since been de- 
stroyed by the effects of the weather on the 
soft red stones of which it has been built. 
Enough however remains to convey an idea of 
its original extent and superb architecture. 
Some years ago the rubbish which lay in heaps 
beside its walls was removed, so that the de- 
sign of the building may now be traced. The 
buildings were of an irregular figure, all inclos- 
ed with a strong wall. On the south side 
stood the chapel, which seems to have heen the 
most noble part of the structure. It was cru- 
ciform. West of the transept, it was divided 

into a middle and two side aisles, by a doubts 
row of columns supporting the arches. The 
length inside was 270 feet ; the breadth of the 
middle aisle thirty-five feet ; and the breadth 
of the side aisles, each sixteen and a half feet. 
The height of the walls was about sixty-seven 
feet. The ruins are now exceedingly pic- 
turesque and impressive. The towers, windows, 
cloisters, and pillars, all attest by their un obliter- 
ated carvings and tracery the gorgeous masonry 
of the buildings of which they are the shattered 
remains. The eastern window, which threw 
down its light on the high altar, is yet entire, 
and, in the summit of the gable, there still ex- 
ists a circular hole or window, which, from its 
altitude above the houses of the town, may be 
seen from a great distance at sea. By seamen 
it is commonly called the round O of Arbroath. 
The site of the ground and its ruins forms the 
burying-ground of the parish. Some parts of 
the sewers for the conveyance of water to the 
monastery are still extant. Some idea may 
be entertained of the ancient riches, hospitality, 
and charity of this monastery, from attending 
to the ordinance for the yearly provision of the 
house in 1530. In that year an order was 
issued for buying 800 wedders, 180 oxen, 1 1 
barrels of salmon, 1200 dried cod fish, 82 
chalders of malt, 30 of wheat, 40 of meal ; all 
which appears additional to the produce of its 
land, or the provision of different species paid 
in kind by tenants. This profusion of stores 
would appear very extraordinary, as the number 
of monks did not exceed twenty-five ; but the 
ordinance acquaints us, that the appointments 
of that year exceeded those of 1528, notwith- 
standing in the last the king had been enter- 
tained twice in the convent and the archbishop 
of St. Andrews thrice. From this it is evi- 
dent that the house was open to all ; that the 
poor as well as the great partook of its hospi- 
tality ! The historian of Arbroath may well 
ask what has become of those endowments 
which once allowed an open table to be kept 
daily for the benefit of all the poor who chose 
to seek sustenance within the hospitable walls 
of the abbey. His inquiry is easily answered. 
At the Reformation the abbey was a waif to 
John Hamilton, a son of the duke of Chastel- 
herault, afterwards Marquis of Hamilton. It 
subsequently belonged to the Earl of Dysart, 
from whom it was purchased with the patron- 
age of thirty-four parish churches, by Patrick 
Maule of Panmure, one of the ministers of 



James VI. Some of the most valuable records 
of the abbey are now in the Advocates' Library, 
at Edinburgh. From being a place of insig- 
nificant importance, Arbroath, like some other 
towns in Forfarshire, gradually rose into con- 
sequence from its manufactures and exports. 
From being a quiet little country town, it has 
become, in recent times, a bustling place of 
business. It consists of one street running 
from north to south towards the sea, of about half 
a mile in length, and another street of small di- 
mensions running to the west; with cross streets 
intersecting both these thoroughfares. To the 
east of these, two elegant modern streets and 
houses have been built, which are situated 
within the parish of St. Vigeans. The first 
mentioned part of the town constitutes the 
parish of Arbroath, which is under two clergy- 
men, and was at one period a portion of St. 
Vigeans parish. There are also some streets, 
chiefly of small houses, in the west side of 
the Brothock. Arbroath is generally well and 
neatly built, and has a very clean and thriving 
appearance. It is well lighted with gas, manu- 
factured by a joint-stock company. It has a 
modern town-house, in the centre of the High 
Street, built of red stone, with a handsome 
Grecian front, which adds to the beauty of the 
town. The trades and guildry have both ele- 
gant halls in the neighbourhood. It also pos- 
sesses public reading-rooms and a library, 
which are well supported. The library con- 
sists of about 6000 volumes. Arbroath has 
an excellent Academy, divided into four depart- 
ments, under a rector and three other teachers, 
all gentlemen of high professional character. 
Latin, Greek, French, mathematics — theoreti- 
cal and practical, natural philosophy, navigation, 
geography, chronology, ancient and modern 
history, arithmetic, English reading, and gram- 
mar are taught. The Academy building is a 
new erection in an open healthy part of the 
town, and comprises several large and commo- 
dious apartments. The harbour of the port is 
small and well sheltered. It is provided with 
a neat signal-tower, for communicating wi-tb 
the Bell Rock. Prior to the year 1 736 the town 
had little or no commerce, unless a little 
traffic in fish and a kind of contraband or 
smuggling trade deserve the name. It had no 
manufactures ; and any piece of cloth that was 
made was carried to Montrose and sold there. It 
imported nothing, except now and then a small 
cargo of wood from Norway. Flax, iron, and 

other commodities, Were purchased by tire in- 
habitants from the merchants in Montrose and 
Dundee. A few years subsequent to the above 
period, several gentlemen of property jointly 
undertook to establish the manufacture of Os- 
naburghs, and other linens, here, and to im- 
port their own materials. They laid out con- 
siderable sums of money in different kinds of 
machinery, which were executed on a very com- 
plete and extensive scale. Success attended 
their spirited exertions ; and, at that time, the 
Arbroath fabrics procured a superiority, and 
commanded a sale, in preference to any other 
of the kind. From this establishment, the 
rise and progress of the trade and manufactures 
of Arbroath are to be dated. In this branch 
of manufactures Arbroath very much resem- 
bles Dundee ; both places seeming to have hit 
on the same means of drawing wealth from the 
fabrication of coarse linen goods. The town 
now contains seventeen spinning-mills, and a 
great number of manufactories, some of which 
are very extensive. All the mills in the town 
are driven by a steam power ; but in the adja- 
cent country, where there are many similar esta- 
blishments, the mills are turned partly by water 
and partly by steam. The manufactory of 
linens is almost the only one carried on. The 
only other article manufactured is leather, which 
employs two establishments. There are also 
works for recovering the ashes used in bleach- 
ing. The latter process is a curious recent in- 
vention, by which about one half of the ashes 
is restored, after being apparently useless. 
There are between seventy and eighty vessels 
belonging to the port, whose aggregate burden 
may be about 6500 tons. The imports con- 
sist chiefly of flax from the Baltic and other 
places. Of this material about 2000 tons are 
imported annually. The import of potashes, 
vitriol, and manganese, for the bleaching- works ; 
and coals from Newcastle and the Firth of 
Forth, for the spinning-mills and private houses, 
engages from twenty to thirty vessels, averag- 
ing from 40 to 60 tons each. Bark for the two 
extensive tan-works, is also imported in consi- 
derable quantities ; and since 1827 about 1000 
tons of bones to be ground for manure have 
been imported. All the salt consumed in the 
town and neighbourhood is now also imported 
by sea, to the amount of from four to five 
thousand tons annually. Before the repeal of 
the salt duties, there were two large salt- 
works close to the town, but they have - 



been since given up. The exports are brown and 
bleached sail-cloths, and linen of various fabrics, 
for which three vessels of ICO tons each trade 
regularly to London, exclusive of three smaller 
craft in the Glasgow, and two in the Newcastle 
trade. Arbroath derives great celebrity from 
the peculiar kind and quantity of paving stones 
which it exports. These stones are quarried 
from the estates of the Honourable Mr. Maule 
of Panmure, and W. F. Carnegie, Esq. of Spy- 
nie and Boysick. They are procured in thin 
slabs or liths of a considerable size, and being 
roughly hewn into oblong squares, are in that 
state exported to Edinburgh and other places. 
At present, from 400,000 to 500,000 superfi- 
cial feet of these stones are exported annually, 
and the trade is increasing. Large shipments 
in barley and potatoes are regularly made dur- 
ing the winter months. Not less than from 
five to six thousand bolls of the latter were in 
the season 1829-30 sent to Newcastle alone. 
Of fish and pork there are nearly BOO barrels 
exported annually. The revenue of Arbroath 
amounts to about L.3000 annually, of which 
nearly one half is drawn from shore dues. Of 
the eleven or twelve thousand inhabitants of 
the joint parishes of Arbroath and St. Vige- 
ans, it is computed that about a half are em- 
ployed in weaving, spinning, flax-dressing, and 
bleaching. A great proportion of the spin- 
ners are children from seven to fourteen years 
of age ; and a considerable number of the 
weavers, spinners, and bleachers are women. 
As a royal burgh, Arbroath is governed by a 
provost, two bailies, a treasurer, and fifteen 
councillors, and it has seven incorporated 
trades. In conjunction with Aberdeen, Mon- 
trose, Inverbervie, and Brechin, it sends a 
member to parliament. Three fairs are held 
annually, and there is a general market on Sa- 
turday. Arbroath has a native joint-stock 
banking company, which was established in 
1S25, and has paid good annual dividends. 
There are, besides, branches of the Royal 
Bank of Scotland, and of the British Linen 
Company's Bank. The town and suburbs have 
eleven houses used solely as places of public 
worship. Until lately, Arbroath had a spire or 
turret, which was part of the remaining ruins of 
the monastic buildings, and rose from the south- 
west corner of the enclosed grounds of the 
Abbey near the modern kirk. This spire has 
been removed, and a new steeple, from a plan by 
Mr. John Henderson of Edinburgh, is about 

to be erected, close to the end of the church. 
It is to be an exceedingly elegant erection, in 
the Gothic style, rising 150 feet in height, and 
from its tasteful construction, will do great 
credit to the artist who designed it. The 
other places of public worship are three meet- 
ing-houses of presbyterian dissenters, and cha- 
pels belonging to Independents, Glassites, Me- 
thodists, &c. including an Episcopal chapel, 
which is a handsome modern structure. Be- 
sides these there are a number of nondescript 
sects which meet in schoolrooms, and who ge- 
nerally have mechanics as their preachers; A 
printer, a millwright, and a trades-officer re- 
spectively command in this way large audiences 
The fast days of the kirk are generally the second 
Thursdays of April and August. The town 
has few beneficiary institutions, and these are un- 
worthy of particular notice. — Population of 
the burgh and parish in 1821, 5817; popula- 
tion of the parish of St. Vigeans, 5583 ; total 

ARBUTHNOT, (anciently written Aber- 
buthenotli), a parish in Kincardineshire, of an 
oblong triangular form, bounded on the west 
by Fordoun or the great hollow of the Mearns, 
the rivers Bervie and Forthy forming this line 
of division, and on the north-east side by Glen- 
bervieand Kinneff, in length six miles. The 
ground is hilly, and in one of the valleys in 
which the Bervie river runs stand the man- 
sions of Arbuthnot and Allardyce, with the 
church situated between them. The cele- 
brated Dr. Arbuthnot, physician to Queen 
Anne, and one of the triumvirate with Pope 
and Swift, derived his birth and early educa- 
tion from this parish. Arbuthnot gives the 
title of viscount to an ancient family of the same 
name, which became distinguished in the 
twelfth century. Sir Robert Arbuthnot, for 
loyalty to Charles I., was created a baron and 
viscount by that monarch, in 1644 — Popula- 
tion in 1821, 928. 

lake of fresh water, sixteen miles long and only 
one broad, in the parish of Kilmallie, Inver- 
ness-shire, discharging itself into the north side 
of Loch Lochy. 

ARD, (LOCH) a lake in the valley of 
Aberfoyle, between two and three miles in 
length, and about one in breadth j the waters 
of which, after falling at the eastern extremi- 
ty over a rock, and forming a cataract of thirty 
feet in height, form the river Forth. 



ARDARGIE, a village in the parish of 
Forgandenny, Perthshire, a mile and a half 
south of Pitcaithly. 

ARDCHATTAN, a parish in Argyle- 
shire, incorporating that of Muckairn ; of twenty- 
four miles in length,and twenty in breadth. This 
district lies like a peninsula betwixt the salt 
water lakes of Loch Etive on the south, and 
Loch Creran on the north, which is its division 
from Appin, and has the usual appearance of 
Highland pastoral scenery. It is watered by 
the Awe, the Etive, the Kinloss, and other 
small streams. Ben Craachan, celebrated in 
Scottish history for an encounter between Ro- 
bert Bruce and John of Lom, which took 
place at its base towards Loch Etive, and 
in which the king was victorious, rises from 
the centre of the parish, and towers aloft, one 
of the highest and most magniricient of Scot- 
tish mountains. For a notice of this hill and 
the numerous antiquities, real or imaginary, said 
to be in the parish of Ardchattan, we refer to 
the articles Cruachan, Dunstaffnage, and 
Beregonium. A part of the walls of the old 
priory of Ardchattan, founded in the thirteenth 
century by John M'Dougall of that ilk, is still 
standing. The present proprietor's dwelling- 
house was formerly a part of the monastery, 
and his offices occupy a great part of the ground 
upon which it stood. — Population in 1821, 

ARDCLACH, a parish in the county of 
Nairn, lying in tlie south-east extremity of the 
shire, on the river Findhorn. The district is 
bleak and mountainous, and possesses no in- 
terest. The village of the same name lies on 
the north bank of the river several miles be- 
low the bridge of Dulsie Population in 1821, 


ARDERSIER, (formerly Ardnaseer), a 
parish in Inverness-shire, lying on the south 
shore of a remarkable strait in the Moray 
Firth, about twelve miles east of Inverness. 
On the tongue of land forming the south part 
of the strait stands Fort George. The parish 
is about two and a half miles in length and 
breadth. The church stands at the bottom of 
a small bay indenting the land. — Population 
in 1821, 1387. 

ARDIESCAR, an islet in the Sound of 

ARDGOWER, a district partly in the 
county of Inverness and partly in Argyle, di- 
vided from Moidart on the north-west by Loch 

ShieL and bounded on the south-east and part 
of the north by Loch Eil. 

ARDLE, a tributary river in Perthshire, 
running through Strathardle, and formed by 
the junction of the Briarchan and the Arnot, 
which afterwards joining the Black water at 
Roshalzie, the name of Ericht is assumed ; 
the Ericht next losing itself in the Isla, and 
the Isla, some miles farther on, mingling its 
waters with the Tay. 

a tract of ground in Cromartyshire, nearly en- 
closed by the Cromarty Firth on the west, and 
the Moray Firth and Loch Beauly on the 
south, comprising eight parishes, and receiv- 
ing this name from its bleak moorland cha- 
racter. In this district lies the celebrated 
Fairntosh, formerly celebrated for its whis- 
ky, and belonging politically to the county of 

ARD-MERIGIE, a spot of ground on 
the south bank of Loch Laggan, district of 
Badenoch, Inverness-shire, of a reputed sacred 
character, from having, as it is said, been the 
place of sepulture of some Scottishkings, when 
that dynasty was driven northwards by the 
Picts. The tradition regarding it rests on no 
sure foundation. 

MURCHAN, a headland on the west coast 
of Argyleshire, lat. 56° 43', long. 60° 7' west, 
which gives its name to the parish from which 
it juts out, and in a general sense to the dis- 
trict in which it is situated. The parish or 
district is a peninsula formed by Kinira bay 
on the north, and Loch Sunait on the south, 
and composing a square surface of about 20 
miles. A portion of the parish belongs to 
Inverness-shire. This part of Scotland has 
been as yet little opened up by roads. It 
is a territory of wild mountain and moor 
land scenery, interspersed with lakes, glens, 
dashing rivulets, and hills, though not of an 
altitude to be sufficiently imposing. It has 
been discovered by industry and science, that 
these mountains are pregnant with valuable 
ores of different kinds, as well as curious min- 
erals and stones. On the Loch Sunart side 
there stand the ruins of several castles. For- 
merly this district comprehended five parishes, 
all of which are now in one, under the name 
of Ardnamurcban. The district is populous, 
and in 1821 contained 5422 persons. 

ARDOCH, a village in the parish of Mu- 



thih county of Perth. For antiquities here, 
see Muthil. 

ARDOCH, a stream running through the 
western part of the parish of Dumhlane, 
Perthshire, which falls into the Teith at 

ARDROSSAN, a parish in Ayrshire, bor- 
dering on the firth of Clyde, bounded on the 
north by Kilbride, on the east by Dairy, and 
on the south by Stevenston. The medium 
length, from north to south, is about six miles, 
and the breadth from three to five miles. 
The surface is a mixture of hilly and flat 

ARDROSSAN, the capital of the above 
parish, is a populous thriving village, of mo- 
dern erection, chiefly indebted for its recent 
existence to the patriotic exertions of the 
Eglintoune family, who had formerly a castle 
in the vicinity, of great strength and extent, 
but which is now in ruins. A rdrossan posses- 
ses the capability of being yet a great sea-port. 
It lies 28 miles south-west of Greenock, on a 
very accessible point of the coast, and only a 
mile west of Saltcoats, which occupies an- 
other promontory. Already a pier 900 feet 
in length has been constructed at an enor- 
mous expense, which will form a spacious and 
6ecure harbour fit for the reception of vessels 
of every burden, and approachable by every 
wind. Some years ago a canal was projected 
to be cut betwixt Glasgow and Ardrossan. It 
was begun, but, from particular reasons, was 
only finished from Glasgow to Johnstone in 
Renfrewshire. However, a rail-way was op- 
ened between the latter place and Ardrossan 
in October 1830, chiefly for the conveyance of 
coal for shipment. This line of road opens 
up the centre of Ayrshire to the trade of 
Glasgow. Ardrossan has become a favourite 
resort in the sea-bathing season for the gen- 
teel families of Ayrshire and other places, 
who can be accommodated with neat and 
commodious houses. A large and elegant 
hotel, with a suit of warm and cold baths, 
was erected by the late Lord Eglinton, 
at an expense of not less than L. 10,000. 
The same nobleman also fitted up two good 
lodging-houses. Fortunately some taste is 
displayed in laying out the town on a regular 
plan, which is rapidly filling up with good 
stone houses. There is an agricultural socie- 
ty and different useful associations in the town. 
Steam packets ply regularly to and from Glas- 

gow, Greenock, Largs, and other places. 
There are also regular sailing vessels to Ar- 
ran — Population in 1821, 3105. 

ARDSTINCHAR. See Stinchar. 

ruins on the north shores of the sound of 
Mull in Argyleshire, in which a treaty be- 
twixt the then lord of the isles and Edward 
IV. was subscribed. 

ARDVARE LOCH, a bay difficult of 
entrance, on the west coast of Sutherland- 

SHIRE, a large county in the south-western 
extremity of the Highlands, partly composed 
of a number of peninsulas on the mainland, 
and partly of an archipelago of small islands, 
scattered along its margin, and in the bosom 
of its salt and fresh water lakes, with others 
of larger dimensions divided from it by straits 
and sounds. The continental part is situated 
between 55° 21' and 57° north latitude; is 
bounded on the north by Inverness-shire, on 
the east by that county, by Perthshire, and 
Dumbartonshire, and on the south and west by 
different bays and straits of the Atlantic 
Ocean. Its extreme length is 115 miles, its 
breadth 33, on an average, and it has altogeth- 
er not less than 600 miles of coast washed by 
the sea. The mainland, including the pen- 
insula of Kintyre, has been computed to con- 
tain 2735 square miles, while the islands con- 
nected with it are supposed to comprise 1063 
more, whereby the whole extent of land in 
Argyleshire will be 3800 square miles. In 
popular phraseology, and on the county maps, 
Argyleshire is divided into districts each com- 
prehending several parishes. These districts, 
or countries, as the natives call them, are de- 
fined by mountain ranges or arms of the sea, 
which in all cases receive the name of lochs, 
that term being applied indiscriminately to 
fresh and salt water lakes. In this way there 
are five districts in Argyle. First, there is 
Cowal, divided from Dumbartonshire by Loch 
Long, and bounded by Loch Fine on the 
west. Next, betwixt Loch Fine and Loch 
Linnhe, and stretching away to the north, is 
Lorn, or Argyle proper, as it is termed from 
its central compact character. From Lorn 
on its south-west quarter, there stretches out 
in a southerly direction, like a feeler into the 
Irish sea, the peninsula of Cantire or Kintyre, 
the extreme point of which is on the same 



parallel of latitude with Alnwick in Northum- 
berland. Opposite the upper or northern 
quarter of Lorn, across Loch Linnhe, is the 
district of Morven, beyond which to the north- 
west is Sunart. These are the five chief dis- 
tricts ; but there are many of an inferior size 
within them, — such as Ardnamurchan, the 
most westerly point of Sunart ; Appin, a piece 
of Lorn bordering on Loch Linnhe ; Glenorehy, 
another piece of Lorn, on its eastern or Perth- 
shire side ; and Knapdale, lying in the throac 
of the peninsula of Cantire. Besides these 
there are the islands of Mull, Jura, and Islay, 
which are only divided from the continent or 
each other by narrow sounds, and may be es- 
teemed from their accessibility as little else 
than portions of the mainland surrounded by 
salt water rivers. The island of Bute seems 
so mixed up with the mainland at Cowal, that 
it might be noticed as a part of Argyleshire, 
but for its political separation. There are few 
towns in Argyleshire. The inhabitants mostly 
live in little fishing villages on the shores of 
the sea and its various branches : the greater 
part of which congregations of huts are so 
mean, as to be unworthy of particular notice. 
In the interior there are scattered hamlets, 
equally poor, and the only good houses are the 
seats of the different proprietors, or residents 
of the upper classes, and the public inns, near- 
ly all of which are of recent erection, on the 
lines of road. The shire contains only two 
royal burghs, Inverary at the head of Loch 
Fine, and Campbelton in Cantire, the former 
of which is a station of the Circuit Court 
of Justiciary. The remaining towns may 
be thus enumerated in order, according to 
their population ; Oban in Lome, Bowmore 
in Islay, Lochgilphead, Tobermory in Mull, 
and Ballahulish in Appin. The county 
has eighteen annual fairs, but has not a sin- 
gle weekly market. The Duke of Argyle, 
whose seat is at Inverary, is the proprietor 
or feuar of a large portion of the territory. 
He is the chief of the family of Camp- 
bell, a surname which is found over the whole 
region, among high and low. Some writers 
deduce the name Campbell from the Gaelic, the 
import of which is crooked mouth, but it is 
more probably a Gothic or Roman compound, 
and, at any rate, it is doubtful if the head fa- 
mily, like that of almost eveiy other of the dif- 
ferent clans, be of Highland extraction. It 
first came into distinction in the time of Ro- 

bert Bruce, Sir Nigel Campbell being one of a 
small band of patriots who adhered to that 
monarch ; for which he obtained much land, 
and the hand of the king's sister in marriage. 
The family has since been conspicuous in al- 
most every stage of the history of British free- 
dom. The lordship of Campbell was elevated 
to the earldom of Argyle in 1457, by James 
III. ; to a marquisate in 1641, by Charles I. ; 
and to a dukedom in 1701, by William III., 
whom Archibald, the then occupant of the 
family honours, was particularly instrumen- 
tal in helping to the throne. The Argyle 
family has been long the supreme patron of the 
county, and all that pertains to it, the nomina- 
tion of a member of parliament included. This 
has been of some disadvantage to Argyleshire, 
for the duke being constantly in the opposi- 
tion, it follows that the county gentlemen are 
not brought into connexion with the state in 
any respect, and, therefore, sink into a politi- 
cal apathy, which extends itself, with fatal in- 
fluence, to their general conduct. It has only 
been of late years that the least attempt has 
been made by any portion of the gentry to assert 
their independence of the duke, so long has the 
sentiment of clanship, (for it is little else), con- 
tinued to exert its sway over even the most in- 
telligent part of this Highland community. By 
the latest printed county roll there are a hun- 
dred and thirty freeholders in Argyleshire. Be- 
sides the single county representative sent by 
these, the two burghs join with Rothesay in 
Bute, and Ayr and Irvine in Ayrshire, in 
electing another. The county altogether 
abounds more in romantic scenes than in fertile 
plains. It is composed principally of long 
chains of hills, and uninteresting brown moun- 
tains, with shores often precipitous and dan- 
gerous to the mariner, but equally characterized 
by indentations of the sea, forming internal 
harbours wherein vessels may take refuge in 
boisterous weather. In the lower parts the 
land is in very many cases merely moorish 
waste with very little cultivation, and hardly 
any living fences. In ancient times it was co- 
vered with a forest, of which the mosses show 
the remains. So late as the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, much of the natural wood 
was standing, but it was unadvisedly cut up 
and sold by the proprietors for the merest 
trifle, and plantations are only now in the 
course of general introduction. It may be 
noted at this place, that a greater boon than 



any that ever the Duke of Argyle bestowed, 
or could bestow upon it, has, within the last 
few years, been conferred by steam-boats ! It 
is evident, from the peculiar form of Argyle- 
shire, that it will always owe as much of the 
benefit arising from a ready communication be- 
tween its near and distant ports, to improve- 
ments in water carriage, as to any extension of 
that by land. The difficulty, indeed, of form- 
ing roads in a district so serrated by the sea, 
and so blocked up by chains of hills, is almost 
insurmountable ; hitherto there have been only 
two or three roads in the county, skirting along 
the banks of the lochs. The very barrier, 
however, which mainly prevented communica- 
tion in the days of our fathers, has turned out 
to be the highway in our own. By the never- 
to-be-sufficiently-admired spirit of the city of 
Glasgow, about twenty steam-vessels are now 
constantly employed in conveying passengers 
and goods to and fro, throughout the country, 
and in transporting the country produce to mar- 
ket at that city. The effect of this grand engine, 
even after so brief a period, is incalculable. It 
happens that, notwithstanding the immense ex- 
tent of the country, there is not a single dwell- 
ing-place more than ten miles from the sea, 
nor a gentleman's seat, (excepting those on 
the banks of Lochawe), more than ten minutes 
walk from it. Every farmer, therefore, every 
gentleman, finds occasion to employ steam na- 
vigation. When this mode of conveyance was 
in its infancy, it was generally supposed that 
the little wealth, bold shores, and scattered po- 
pulation of the county, kept it without the 
circle in which its adoption was to become be- 
neficial. It came, however, to be attempted, 
and there is not now a loch, bay, or inlet, but 
holds a daily, or at least commands a weekly 
communication with the lowlands and the se- 
veral districts of the country. By this means, 
the farmers, even upon the smallest scale, are 
encouraged to fatten stock which they would 
never otherwise think of fattening ; the fatten- 
ing of stock, again, causes them to improve 
their arable land ; the extra profits enable them 
to buy luxuries, which, in their turn, commu- 
nicate sentiments of taste, and open the mind 
to liberal ideas. The comparative frequency, 
moreover, of their visits to the Lowlands causes 
the speedier introduction of modern and im- 
proved systems of agriculture. Steam-boats are, 
m short, at once the heralds and the causes of 
every kind of improvement in Argyleshire ; it 
is no hyperbole to say, that they have in ten 

years raised the value of land within the coun- 
ty twenty per cent. Every thing connected 
with this invention, so far as Argyleshire is 
concerned, bears a degree of romantic wonder 
strangely in contrast with its mechanical and 
common-place character. It accomplishes, in 
this district, transitions and juxta-positions al- 
most as astonishing as those of an Arabian 
tale. The Highlander, for instance, who 
spends his general life amidst the wilds of 
Cowal or upon the hills of Appin, can des- 
cend in the morning from his lonely home, and 
setting his foot about breakfast-time on board a 
steam-boat at some neighbouring promontoiy, 
suddenly finds himself in company, it may be, 
with tourists from almost all parts of the earth ; 
he sits at dinner between a Russian and an 
American ; and, in the evening, he who slept 
last night amidst the blue mists of Lorn, is 
traversing the gas-lighted streets of Glasgow, 
or may, perhaps, have advanced to Edinburgh 
itself, the polished, the enlightened, the temple 
of modern intelligence. Reversing this won- 
der, he who has all his life trod the beaten 
ways of men, and never but in dreams seen 
that land of hill and cloud, whence of yore the 
blue-bonneted Gael wont to descend, to sweep 
folds or change dynasties, can stand in the light 
of dawn amidst the refined objects of a capi- 
tal, and when the shades of night have descend- 
ed, find himself in the very country of Ossian, 
with the black lake lying in imperturbable se- 
renity at his feet, and over his head the grey 
hills that have never been touched by human 
foot. Steam-boats, it may be said, bring the 
most dissimilar ideas into conjunction, make 
the rude Gael shake hands with the most re- 
fined Lowlander, and cause the nineteenth and 
the first centuries to meet together. No such 
lever was ever introduced to raise and revolu- 
tionize the manners of a people or the resources 
of a country. — The manufactures of Argyle- 
shire are yet in so feeble a state as to be un- 
worthy of notice. The only article made on a 
great scale for exportation is whisky, which is 
of a remarkable fine quality. There are now 
distilleries at Campbellton, Islay, Lome, CowaL 
and Mull, for which Glasgow is the depot. 
The climate of the lower parts of Argyleshire is 
mild and temperate, but in the upper inland 
districts the atmosphere is severe. On the 
tops of many of the hills the snow often lies 
for months, chilling the air, and giving the 
country a wintry aspect even in tolerably mild 
opening weather. In the sinuosities of the 



valleys the air is of a more bland nature, 
these places being protected from the north 
and south-west winds, and having generally a 
southerly exposure. The central districts are 
commonly more subject to rains than the coast 
on account of the proximity to the high hills, 
whose summits attract and break the clouds 
from the Atlantic. Out of an area of 1 ,367,500 
acres in the shire, little more than 100,000 
are cultivated, the remainder consisting of hill 
and dale, pasture, wood, fresh and salt water 
lakes, rivers, &c. In agriculture, changes are 
yearly witnessed in the different districts, from 
the modern improvements in husbandry. 
Green crops and a rotation in cropping are now 
generally introduced. Black cattle and sheep, 
the staple of the county, are improving in size 
and symmetry. Several spirited proprietors 
are doing much towards improving the waste 
lands upon their estates, and in enclosing and 
planting. Tasteful mansion-houses, carriages, 
furniture, and the other wants of proprietors, are 
also in the course of introduction. A corres- 
ponding change may be remarked among the 
working classes. Farmers are now encouraged 
to improve their lands by getting leases, and 
superior houses and steadings are given them. 
It must be confessed that that very hardiness 
of nature, that disregard of personal gratifica- 
tion, that power of enduring the extremes of 
heat and cold, which formerly were the High- 
lander's characteristic and his boast, still operate 
a little to prevent the spread of luxuries and 
conveniences, and, of course, to retard the pro- 
gress of improvement. Nothing, however, 
can stand against the steam-boats ; the change 
is proceeding. In many cases, the house is 
still found the same mud-floored, strongly 
walled, low-roofed, pile of turf and stone that 
ever it was ; but even in these, the goodman is 
found improving the texture of his clothes, the 
good- wife uses tea, and the daughter goes to 
church in a Leghorn bonnet and cloth pelisse, 
not forgetting her umbrella; and we need 
no farther data to assure us that the house 
will soon be changed too. The principal 
hills, lakes, and other characteristics of the 
county, being noticed under their particular 
heads, need no mention here. The coun- 
try already is greatly enriched by its valu- 
able fishings ; and its mines of slate and metals 
are only becoming known. In the estimation 
of Scotsmen in general, and Highlanders in 
particular, Argyleshire is rich in historical and 
poetical associations. The first Scots — a raoe 

of people from Ireland — landed in Cantire in 
the sixth century, and gradually became the 
masters of the lowlands to the discomfiture of 
their predecessors the Picts and Romanized 
Britons. The etymology of the word Argyle 
is supposed to signify " the land of the stran- 
gers," and hence also, it is supposed, the word 
Gael. While the whole of the isle of Great 
Britain lay in heathen ignorance, some little 
spots and islands in Argyle were illumed by 
the Christian religion and science. Here also 
took place the exploits recounted in the songs 
of Ossian. And here, in a recent age, the 
gallant and unfortunate Charles Edward first 
landed in Britain to attempt the recovery of a 
throne lost by the imprudence of his ancestors. 
This extensive region is divided ecclesiasti- 
cally into forty-nine parishes, which, if taken 
at an average, contain each about seventy-eight 
square miles. That there should be so few 
parishes may well be accounted surprising, for 
the country has never been destitute of popu- 
lation. Such an arrangement is the result of 
the unseemly revolution of ecclesiastical juris- 
dictions at the Reformation. Prior to that 
event the whole of Argyleshire and the adjacent 
isles were covered with religious establish- 
ments of every description, and there were 
not perhaps fewer than double the number of 
parishes, each provided with one or more 
clergymen. But, on the destruction of the 
system then in existence, all minor ecclesiasti- 
cal establishments vanished, and, in some in- 
stances, four and five parishes were formed in- 
to one, while nearly all the revenues devoted 
to their support were either eaten up by lay im- 
proprietors, or measured out to the poor pres- 
byters with a grudging hand. This abuse has 
never been remedied in Scotland, and no part 
of the country has suffered so severely as 
Argyleshire by the withdrawal of the ample 
religious instruction existing before the Refor- 
mation, which, instead of being extirpated, 
should only have been changed in character. 
The present intelligent generation can only 
regret such an irremediable mischief, and en- 
deavour in some measure to supply the defi- 
ciency. By means of the royal bounty, and 
the Society for Propagating Christian Know- 
ledge, a few missionaries in connexion with 
the Kirk of Scotland are settled in the remote 
districts, and in some of the isles, and by the 
exertions of a committee of the General As- 
sembly and the public munificence, school- 
masters are similarly settled. T/ie long dearth 



of religious Instruction in this Higldand dis- 
trict, as well as most others, has had the natu- 
ral effect of preventing the presbyterian 
church from getting that entire ascendency it 
has done in the low countries. In Appin, 
there is a number of Episcopalian families, 
who have a chapel and a clergyman. In Lis- 
more there was till lately a Catholic esta- 
blishment ; and in many of the glens and 
islands are scattered families of both persua- 
sions, who are periodically visited by their re- 
spective orders of clergymen. Prior to the 
establishment of presbyterianism, Argyle was 
a distinct see, and the seat of the bishops was 
on the island of Lismore, in Loch Linnhe. 
It acquired this honour from having been the 
place in which were interred the bones of St. 
Molucus, who lived about the year 1160, and 
was considered the patron saint of the diocese. 
Argyleshire aboimds in interesting scenes con- 
secrated in the estimation of the antiquary ; 
but being noticed at length in their appropriate 
places, they do not require here to be pointed 
out. Argyleshire comes also under notice in 
the article on the Highlands. 

The chief seats in Argyleshire are Inver- 
ary Castle, Duke of Argyll ; Ardgarton, 
Campbell ; Ardkinlas, Campbell, Bart. ; 
Askinsh, Campbell ; Largie, Macdonald ; 
Dunderraw, Campbell ; South Hall, Camp- 
bell ; Strachu?; Campbell, Bart. ; Kilmar- 
tin, Campbell; Craignish, Campbell; Ardin- 
caple ; Saddle; Kilfinan ; Sanda; &c. 

Table of Heights in Argyleshire. 

Feet above 

the Sea. 







Scur Choinich, 


Beinima, . . , 


Creach Bein, . 


Paps of Jura, 




Buchael Etive, 






Scur Dhonuil, 






RMADALE, a village i 

n the parisl 

Farr, county of Sutherland. 

ARMADALE, a village and inn on the 
main road from Edinburgh to Glasgow, about 

half way betwbct the two cities, and taking its 
name from the estate of Sir W. Honeyman in 
the neighbourhood, whose predecessor was a 
Senator of the College of Justice with the title 
of Lord Armadale. 

ABNGASK, a parish lying between Aber- 
nethy and Forgandenny, and partly in the 
counties of Perth, Kinross, and Fife. Its 
length and breadth are about four miles. The 
country here is hilly and more pastoral than 
arable — Population in 1821, 680. 

ARNIFORD, (Loch), a salt water lake 
of small dimensions in the west coast of the 
isle of Skye. 

ARNOT, a streamlet in Perthshire, which 
joins the Briarchan, and forms the Ardle. 

tered village in Perthshire, nine miles north of 

AROS, a village in Mull, on the north 
bank of a stream running from lock Erisa, into 
the sound with a small harbour. A ruin called 
Aros castle stands in the neighbourhood. 

ARRAN, an island lying betwixt the mouth 
of the firth of Clyde and the peninsula of 
Cantire, and forming a very considerable com- 
ponent part of the shire of Bute, from which 
island it is distant about three miles south-west. 
While Bute is mostly low and green, Arran is 
lofty and brown. It is an island of heathy 
mountains, some of which exceed 3000 feet in 
height, but are extremely symmetrical. The 
lofty serrated outline which these inequalities 
give to the island, as seen from the neighbour- 
ing seas, is exceedingly fine, and something 
quite original in landscape scenery. The 
country rises from the edge of the waters, with 
the exception of a belt of low ground which 
surrounds the island. On this belt of ground 
is a good road, which, at one place, strikes in- 
to the interior. In shape, Arran is almost a 
perfect oval, extending from north to south 
twenty-four miles, and in breadth about four- 
teen. Li no part of its shores has it any par- 
ticular indentations of the sea, except on the 
side presented to the firth of Clyde, where 
there is a semicircular basin called Brodick 
Bay, which is a good roadstead for vessels. A 
little further south the sea goes inland, cutting 
off a small island called Holy Island. The 
basin so formed is designated Lamlash Bay, 
which forms a spacious and commodious har- 
bour for vessels driven thither by stress of 
weather. This salt water loch, which appears 
quite land-locked, is very beautiful, though its 



banks are baxe of wood, and the general aspect 
of the scenery wild. The small island pro- 
tecting it from the outer sea resembles the 
hill of Arthur's seat at Edinburgh, in appear- 
ance. The small flat island of Pladda, where- 
on is a light-house, lies on its southern extre- 
mity. The interior of Arran abounds with 
beautiful Highland scenery, and is a valuable 
mine wherein the curious mineralogist may 
quarry, or the botanist pursue his delightful 
employment. It is said to possess coal, free- 
stone, and ironstone. Some of the lower parts 
are now cultivated ; but the whole island is 
distinguished only as pastoral. It possesses a few 
small lochs. It is particularly famous for the 
excellence of its fine flavoured whisky. The 
island has innumerable reliques of heathen, and 
probably of druidical superstition, among which 
are high erect columns of unhewn stone, and 
cairns. Arran belongs chiefly to the Duke of 
Hamilton; and his Grace has an ancient, though 
somewhat modernized seat, termed Brodick 
castle, at the head of the above noticed bay. 
It was formerly a place of some strength, and 
was captured by King Robert Bruce, and a 
small party of followers, during his unhappy 
wanderings through the Western islands ; it 
was from its battlements that he saw the flame 
on the coast of Carrick, which induced him to 
go over prematurely to the mainland, for the 
assertion of his rights, as related in so interest- 
in a manner by Barbour. This castle was also 
repaired and garrisoned with considerable care 
by the Marquis of Hamilton, at the commence- 
ment of the religious troubles of 1638-9, as a 
stronghold for the royal service. Arran gave 
the title of earl to the chief of the house of 
Hamilton, who was regent during the minority 
of Mary Queen of Scots, and who succeeded 
to the earldom on the fugitation of its previous 
possessor, Thomas Boyd. He received the 
island of Arran as a gift from James IV., 1 503, 
for having negociated the king's marriage with 
the princess Margaret of England. The 
island comprehends two parishes, and its vil- 
lages are Lamlash and Brodick, at both of 
which there is an inn. There are three places 
of public worship, and three schools. Steam 
packets in summer generally touch in passing 
to and from Campbleton, and the Clyde. Sail- 
ing vessels trade regularly with Ardrossan. 
The island has some annual fairs. Two jus- 
tices of peace are the only magistracy.. — Popu- 
lation of the island in 1821, 6541. 
ARROCHAR, a parish in Dumbarton- 

shire, lying between Loch Lomond and Loch 
Long, bounded on the south by Luss, extend- 
ing nearly sixteen miles in length by three in 
breadth. The land is hilly and pastoral. At 
the head of Loch Long, on its eastern side, 
stood the inn of Arrochar, well known to 
travellers m these mountainous romantic re- 
gions. This district used to be termed the 
Land of the Macfarlanes. — Population in 
1821, 376. 

ARTHUR'S OVEN, the ruin of a Ro- 
man temple or other edifice, which, in the early 
part of last century, existed in tolerably good 
preservation in the parish of Larbert, Stirling- 
shire, near the bank of the Carron river, and 
almost within the precincts of the present 
Carron iron works. The site of this unac- 
countable fabric was at no great distance from 
the forts and wall of Antoninus ; and every 
dispassionate antiquary has been of opinion, 
that it was in some way connected with these 
Roman barriers. In appearance, it resembled 
a common bee-hive, to which the entrance was 
by an arched doorway, 9 feet in height. There 
was a circular aperture at the top 1 1 ^ feet in 
diameter, a little below which in the side of 
the building there was a square opening like a 
window. The building was 88 feet in cir- 
cumference, 194 feet diameter within, and 22 
feet in height ; exclusive of a stone basement 
4g feet in height, on which it stood. At the 
bottom the wall was four feet thick, and was 
entirely built of layers of hewn freestone, 
held together without lime, by being morticed 
into each other. Around the interior there 
were two shelves of stone sloping downwards, 
each eleven inches broad. The lower was 
four feet from the ground and the higher two 
feet above it. The floor was paved with 
square stones, a«d on the south side was a 
stone altar. On a stone which was above the 
door-way, there was a circular figure, exhibit- 
ing the following letters, J. A. M. P. M. P. T. 
Antiquaries have supposed that these letters 
may be interpreted thus : — Julius Agricola 
Magnae Pietatis Monumentum Posuit. Ed- 
ward I. is said to have carried off" the stone 
altar. Antiquaries are greatly divided in opi- 
nion about the uses of this fabric. An ancient 
author informs us that Carusius built a round 
house on the banks of the Carron, in comme- 
moration of his victory. Stukely supposes it to 
be a temple, in imitation of the Pantheon, and 
dedicated to Romulus. Sibbald took it for a 
temple of Terminus, built by Severus. B11- 



chanan conceived it to be a trophy or tomb. 
Horsley thought it was a mausoleum. Gor- 
don supposed that it was a sacrarium, or shrine 
dedicated to the gods, in which the eagles and 
vexilla of the legions were deposited during 
the cessation of hostilities in the winter season. 
In the time of Boece, figures of eagles could 
still be traced on several of the stones. Much 
learned research and argument have been wast- 
ed on this curious monument, and as the au- 
thor of Waverley has observed, it would have 
turned the heads of half the antiquaries in the 
island, had not Sir Michael Bruce, the pro- 
prietor, with true Vandal barbarity, destroyed 
this interesting relic in 1742, for the despica- 
ble purpose of repairing a dam dyke. It may 
be satisfactory to add, that a flood of the Car- 
ron, in a short time, punished the sacrilegious 
violation of the temple which had for ages 
adorned its vicinity, by sweeping away the 
stones in a flood. Dr. Stukely is said to have 
been so much enraged against the destroyer 
of this ancient work, that he drew Sir Mich- 
ael Bruce, carrying off a load of stones, and 
the devil goading him along. 

ASHKIRK, an upland parish, situated on 
the Ale water, partly in the county of Selkirk 
and partly of Roxburgh, (a piece of the for- 
mer shire here lying like a patch in the lat- 
ter,) bounded by Selkirk on the north, and by 
Lillie's Leaf, Minto, and Wilton on the east. 
— Population in 1821, 544. 

AS KM ORE, an islet lying near the south- 
west coast of Skye. 

ASSINT, or ASSYNT, a parish, or more 
properly speaking, an extensive district in the 
county of Sutherland, twenty-five miles in 
length, and fifteen in breadth, lying on the 
west coast, with a promontory jutting out into 
the sea, (or Minch, as it is here nautically de- 
signated,) called Assint point ; bounded on the 
north by Loch Ardvar and Kyle Scow, and on 
the south by Loch Broom, and other fresh 
water lakes. It would require little less than 
a volume to describe minutely the number and 
appearance of the lakes and indentations of 
the sea in this wild territory. It exhibits a 
surface literally dotted with lakes, the largest 
of which are lochs Assint (six miles long, and 
more than one broad,) Camas, and Urgil, with 
the bays or lochs of Ardvar, Inver, and Enard. 
The land part is mountainous, moorish, and 
rugged to the last degree, without being re- 
deemed by traits of beauty or grandeur. The 

shores are precipitous and dangerous, but pos- 
sess some good natural harbours for anchorage, 
and the sea in the offing swarms with fish. 
There is scarcely a road in the district ; no 
coal ; the common fuel is peat, and the climate is 
dismal and rainy. — Population in 1821, 2803. 

ATHELSTANEFORD, a parish in 
Haddingstonshire, lying on the north-east 
boundary of Haddington parish, and separated 
on the north by Dirleton, from the mouth of 
the Firth of Forth. The form of the parish 
is regular, is about four miles square, and lies 
with an agreeable exposure to the north, on 
the descending braes from the Garleton hills. 
The village of Athelstaneford is situated 5^ 
miles south of North Berwick, and 3 4 north- 
east of Haddington. It has a neat modern 
church and an extensive brewery. The dis- 
trict is eminently agricultural. Without any 
substantial attractions, this parish, or rather 
its church-yard and manse, is so often visited 
from motives of mere sentiment, that it may 
be termed one of the modern pilgrimages of 
Scotland. This place was so fortunate, in the 
early part of last century, as to have for its 
ministers, successively, two men of poetical 
genius — Blair, author of " The Grave," and 
Home, the author of " Douglas." The manse 
occupied by the former, stood opposite the 
present modern manse, near the west end of 
the church-yard. The site is now comprised 
in the minister's garden, where an apple tree 
is pointed out, as having stood close to the 
window of the room or study in which he com- 
posed his poem. On the author of Douglas 
leaving his pastoral charge, which he did out 
of disgust of the proceedings instituted against 
him by his presbytery and the kirk in general, 
for the publication of a work of so secular and 
impious a nature, he built and retired to an 
elegant mansion in the neighbourhood, still 
shown as a pattern of his taste — Population 
in 1821, 909. 

ATHOL, or ATHOLE, a district of 
country in the north of Perthshire, which is 
approached on passing through the Pass of 
Killicrankie ; bounded on the north by Bade- 
noch, on the west by Lochaber, on the east 
by Mar, and on the south by Stormont, Perth 
Proper, and Breadalbane ; and is forty-fi^ve 
miles in length, and thirty in breadth. The 
word Athole signifies pleasant land, and 
Blair of Athole, which is the name of its 
principal valley, signifies, the field or vale of 


A U C H I N L E C K. 

Athole. The district is rough and mountain- 
ous, interspersed with woods and valleys, but 
beautifid and romantic. On its western quarter 
is the forest of Athole, celebrated for its excel- 
lence as a hunting-ground for deer and other 
animals. The Atholemen, at one time, were 
considered among the best and most spirited 
warriors within the Highland line. They 
were frequently at feud with the men of Ar- 
gyle, and the last drawn battle fought between 
these two courageous septs, was in the reign 
of Charles II. They encountered each other 
in Breadalbane, near the west end of Loch 
Tay, where the conflict was most desperate, 
and a great number of slain were buried in 
a small knoll, now included in the parks of 
Taymouth. Athole is destitute of towns. In 
Blair, amidst a wilderness of noble old woods, 
stands Blair Castle, the principal seat of the 
Duke of Athole. The people of this country 
mix up and quaff a beverage, which obtains 
the name of Athole Brose, and is a potent 
medicine in Scotland for colds, when taken 
over night. It is simply composed of a mix- 
ture of honey and whisky well amalgamated 
into a syrup. Athole gives the title of duke to 
an ancient family of the name of Murray, 
which obtained an early settlement in the 
county of Perth. Sir John Murray was 
created Lord Murray, by James VI. 1592, 
and Earl of Tullibardine, 1606. The sixth 
earl was created a marquis in 1676, and the se- 
cond marquis a duke in 1703. The family has 
been distinguished in different reigns for its 
loyalty. William, afterwards second earl of 
Tullibardine, assisted in rescuing James IV. 
at Perth, on the attempt at Ins assassination 
by the Earl of Gowrie. 

AUCHABER, a mountain in the parish 
of Forgue, Aberdeenshire. 

long a residence of the WaHaces of Dundon- 
aid, now the property of the Eglinton fa- 
mily, in the parish of Dundonald, Ayrshire, 
and celebrated for a particular species of pear 
produced in its garden, from a French plant, 
to which it has given the name of the Auch- 
ans Pear. 

AUCHANSKAICH, a place in Mar, 
in the south-west extremity of Aberdeenshire, 
ngar Castletown of Brae Mar, at which a large 
cattle fair is held annually. 

AUCHENAIRN, a village about 4 miles 
north of Glasgow, in the parish of Cadder. 

AUCHENREOCH, a village in the pa* 
rish of Buittle, Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. 

AUCHINBLAE, a thriving village on the 
banks of the Luther water, parish of Fordoun, 
Kincardineshire. A market for black cattle is 
held weekly from Michaelmas to Christmas. 

AUCHINCRAW, (vulgo Edincraw), a 
village in Berwickshire, parish of Coldingham 

AUCHINDINNY, a village in the coun- 
ty of Edinburgh, about 7^ miles south from 
Edinburgh, on the old road to Peebles, situat- 
ed in a romantic dell, through which flows the 
North Esk ; long known as a place for the 
manufacture of paper, if not the first place in 
which a paper-mill was erected in Scotland. 
This manufacture was introduced into North 
Britain little more than fifty years ago ; pre- 
viously, all stationery articles were imported 
regularly from Holland, as a number are to 
this day from England. 

a parish towards the western quarter of Aber- 
deenshire, on the east side of one of the 
Grampian ranges, seven miles in length, by five 
in breadth, bounded by Clatt on the east, and 
of a hilly and bleak nature. The abrogated 
parish of Kearn is incorporated with it. — Po- 
pulation in 1821, 889. 

AUCHINLECK, (invariably pronounced 
AFFLECK), signifying a field of roch, a 
parish lying in the centre of Ayrshire, 18 
miles in length and only about two in breadth, 
and nearly the most rocky, mossy, unproduc- 
tive part of the shire. It is watered by the 
Air water on its northern extremity, and the 
Lugar on the south. Aird's Moss lies like a 
dismal swamp in its centre. The ruins of 
Auchinleck castle stand in an angle formed 
by the Dupol burn and the Lugar, and in the 
neighbourhood is situated the Place of Au- 
chinleck, a modem mansion, built last century 
by Lord Auchinleck, senator of the College of 
Justice, and father of the amiable and ingeni- 
ous James Boswell, Esq., the friend and bio- 
grapher of Johnson. The house is still the 
property of the much respected Boswell fami- 
ly. There are inexhaustible mines of free- 
stone and coal in the parish. — Population in 
1821, 1524. 

AUCHINLECK, a bill at the head of 
Nithsdale, Dumfries-shire, elevated 1500 Let 
above the level of the sea. 

AUCHLOSSEN, (LOCH of), a lake 
in the parish of Lumphanan, county of Aber- 



deen, about a mile in length by half a mile 
in breadth, and stored with fish. 

AUCHMITHY, a village inhabited by 
fishers, on a high rocky bank at an inlet of the 
sea, upon the coast of Forfarshire, about 3^ 
miles north of Arbroath. 

AUCHNACRAIG, a village on the east 
coast of the island of Mull, from whence there 
is a ferry across the mouth of Loch Linnhe 
and through the isle of Kerrera to Oban on the 

AUCHRY, a streamlet in Buchan, Aber- 
deenshire, falling into the Ythan, near its 

AUCHTER, a stream rising on the east 
border of the middle ward of Lanarkshire, 
flowing to the north west, and falling into the 
Clyde above Bothwell Bridge. 

AUCHTERARDER, a parish with a 
town of the same name, in Perthshire, lying 
on the south bank of the Earn, and bounded 
on the south by Glendevon. The line which 
divides Menteith from Strathearn passes 
through it. A part of the parish lies high 
among the Ochil lulls. Formerly a part 
of the parish formed a parish called Abe- 
ruthven, from its situation on the mouth of 
the Ruthven water. The village of Auch- 
terarder, which is the seat of a presbytery, lies 
on the road from Dumblane to Perth, it is in- 
habited chiefly by weavers. At a former per- 
iod, as appears by the rolls of the old Scottish 
estates, this was a royal burgh, but how or 
when it lost that privilege is entirely unknown. 
It was one of two or three villages in this dis- 
trict, which the Earl of Mar found it neces- 
sary to bum, January 1718, in order to inter- 
rupt the advance of the Duke of Argyle with 
the royal army from Stirling, when the former 
found it necessary to lead off his forces from 
Perth, and disband them in the northern coun- 
ties. This severe measure was the more to be 
lamented, as it failed in having the expected 
effect, the royalist troops advancing notwith- 
standing, and even bivouacking for a night a- 
midsc tne ruined walls of this very village — the 
ground being then covered by deep snow Po- 
pulation in 1821, 2870. 

AUCHTERDERRAN, a parish in Fife 
lying in that part of the county between 
Burntisland on the coast and Loch Leven, 
bounded on the west by Beath and Ballingry, 
Abbotshall and Auchtertool on the south, 
and Kinglassie on the east, four miles in 

length by three in breadth, and containing the 
village of Lochgellie. A great deal of coal is 
here raised annually. — Population in 1821, 

GOVAN, a hilly moorish parish in Perth- 
shire, on the south-west bank of the Tay, and 
the south-east side of Birnam hill, 9 miles 
long and 5 broad. The church and village are 
situated on the road from Perth to Dunkeld. 
The minor and ancient parish of Logiebride is 
now a component part of this parish. The 
thriving village of Stanley, in which there is 
a cotton spinning-mill, lies partly in the par- 
ish, in a bend of the Tay. — Population in 
1821, 2478. 

AUCHTERHOUSE, a parish in the 
south-west corner of Forfarshire, seven miles 
north-west of Dundee, lying with an exposure 
to the south, on the declivity of the Sidlaw 
lulls, which here separate Strathmore from the 
Carse of Gowrie, and comprising above 4000 
acres, of which the greater part are arable. — 
Population in 1821, 632. 

AUCHTERLESS, a parish in Aberdeen- 
shire, partly of a moorland character, but gen- 
erally productive, about half way on the road 
betwixt Aberdeen and Banff; 7 miles long 
and 3 broad, and bounded on the east by Fyvie. 
The Ythan runs through its eastern extremi- 
ties. The tolerably perfect boundaries of a 
large Roman encampment are here visible. — 
Population in 1821, 1538. 

AUCHTERMUCHTY, a parish in 
Fife, with a town of the same name. The 
parish stretches from among the Ochil hills 
southward into the Howe of Fife. On the 
west is the parish of Strathmiglo, on the south 
Falkland, and on the east Collessie. The 
land becomes gradually more productive and 
arable as it descends into the great hollow 
vale of the county. The town of Auchter • 
muchty lies on the road from Kinross to 
Cupar, from which it is distant 9 miles. It 
occupies rather an elevated situation on the 
north edge of the valley, with a rapid streamlet 
called Leverspool running down from the hill, 
on its northern side, towards the Eden, and 
separating it into two parts. This rivulet 
turns a number of mills, and sweeps past a 
beautiful little bleaching-green at the bottom of 
the town. Auchtermuchty is very irregularly 
built. Many of the houses are thatched and 
low, but a greater proportion are good sub- 



stantial edifices, and occupy in some cases 
pleasant sites in the outskirts, amidst little 
gardens. The chief employment of the in- 
habitants is weaving cotton and linen goods . 
The workmen are generally well lodged in 
neat cottages on the road side. There is a 
flax spinning-mill, and a saw-mill. The town 
has three good inns, a branch bank, a saving's 
bank, and a variety of associations. The es- 
tablished church is an old respectable edifice 
with a spire, standing environed by the town. 
There are three dissenting places of worship. 
Auchtermuchty is a royal burgh, though des- 
titute of the very transcendant, and in reality, 
the only valuable privilege of such a distinc- 
tion, to wit, the interference in nominating a 
member of parliament. It is governed by three 
bailies, a treasurer, and fifteen councillors, in 
virtue of a charter of James IV. — Population 
of the town and parish in 1821, 2754. 

AUCHTERTOUL, or more properly, 
AUCHTERTEEL, from its situation on a 
small rivulet called the Teel, which falls into 
the Firth of Forth, a parish in Fife, directly 
north of Aberdour. The village of Auchter- 
toul stands four miles north-west of Kirkaldy, 
on the Camilla loch, a small lake which feeds 
the above mentioned Teel. — Population in 
1821, 536. 

AUGUSTUS, (FORT) the central fort 
of a chain of three such establishments erected 
since the Revolution, across the Highlands, to 
overawe those inimical to the government. It 
is situated in the centre of a beautiful plain or 
opening in the hills, in the heart of Inverness- 
shire, at the western extremity of Loch Ness, 
and on the south bank of the Caledonian canal. 
The spot, from an early time, seems to have 
been occupied by a Mttle hamlet, called Kil- 
cummin, or Killiewhemen, being so styled 
from its having been the burial-place of one of 
the great family of Cumin, which formerly 
held sway over the central Highlands. Fort 
Augustus has always been the weakest of the 
three forts mentioned. Hence it was easily 
taken and destroyed by the Highland insur- 
gents in 1745, while Fort William, the only 
other then existing, held out successfully against 
the same assailants. Here the Duke of Cum- 
berland established his camp after the battle of 
Culloden, making it the focus of that wide 
scene of devastation and cruelty which he con- 
jured up around him, by way of punishing the 
Highlands for their attachment to an opposite 

dynasty. The ruina of a sod-house, which he 
occupied personally, are still pointed out with 
inexpressible loathing by the natives. Fort 
Augustus resembles a gentleman's house more 
than a military strength, and is now garrisoned 
sufficiently by three veteran artillerymen, 
though capable of accommodating 400 soldiers. 
Having long since accomplished the purpose 
of its erection, like Fort George and Fort 
"William, it is perfectly useless, and might very 
properly be sold by government. 

AULD-DA VIE, a small tributary of the 
Ythan, Aberdeenshire. 

AULDEARN, (anciently Erin), a parish 
in the county of Nairn, with the Moray firth 
on its northern side, and the Nairn river and 
paiish of Nairn on the west, occupying four 
miles along the coast. Near the sea lie two 
small lakes — loch Lity and loch Loy. Auld- 
earn village is situated twenty miles west oi 
Elgin, and the same distance east of Inver- 
ness. It is a burgh of barony, and has several 
annual fairs. In the immediate neighbourhood 
of the village, is the scene of an important 
victory gained by the Marquis of Montrose, in 
1645, over the covenanting forces. — Popula- 
tion in 1821, 1523. 

AULDTOWN, a village in the parish of 
Loudon, district of Cunningham, Ayrshire, 
not far distant from Loudon hill. 

ten written only Grad, a river in Ross-shire 
which runs in a southerly direction a short but 
exceedingly troubled course, amidst terrific 
chasms and rocky dells, from its parent, loch 
Glass, to the upper and narrow portion of the 
Cromarty firth. 

AULTMORE, a tributary rivulet of the 
Isla, Banffshire. 

AULTRAN, a rivulet in Cromartyshire. 

AVEN, or AVON, a tributary streamlet 
of the Spey, drawing its source from a small 
loch in the extreme south-westerly point of 
Banffshire, in Glen Aven, and the Forest of 
Glen Aven which are named from it, and in- 
creased by a number of small brooks on either 
side, especially the Lirot and Tervie, falls in- 
to the Spey at Inveraven. 

AVEN or EVAN, (pronounced AivonJ 
a considerable stream in the middle ward of 
Lanarkshire, rising in the high grounds on the 
borders of Ayrshire, and running through the 
valley to which it gives the name of Avendale, 
in a northerly direction ; it is increased in its 



coarse by the Givel, Calder, Lockaxt, Knipe, 
Pomilion, and many smaller rivulets, and 
finally issues into the Clyde, a little way above 
Hamilton Palace. The scenery of the vale 
of Avon is extremely fine for several miles 
above its confluence with the Clyde, being full 
of gorgeous old wood, and abounding in ancient 
and modem mansions, among which, the ruins 
of Cadyow, the first seat of the Hamilton 
family, is not the least conspicuous. The 
natural beauties of the district excited the poetic 
ardour of Burns in the composition of his song 
entitled " Evan Banks." 

A VEN or A VON, a river which, through- 
out nearly its whole course, divides Stirlingshire 
from Linfithgowshire, and is crossed by the road 
from Edinburgh to Stirling at the village of 
Linlithgowbridge. About a mile up the vale 
from this point, the river is crossed by a con- 
spicuous aqueduct bridge of the Union Canal, 
consisting of several tall arches. The Avon 
falls into the Firth of Forth, betwixt Grange- 
mouth and Borrowstownness. 

the valley above noticed in the middle ward of 
Lanarkshire, and a parish, twelve miles in 
length, along both sides of the Aven, by about 
five or six in breadth, bounded by Kilbride on 
the north, and Muirkirk on the south. This 
beautiful inland parish derives its chief inte- 
rest from historical associations. At its up- 
per extremity, on an extensive heathy and ver- 
dant fell, was fought the battle of Drumclog, 
betwixt Colonel Graham of Claverhouse, and 
an armed congregation of Covenanters, on 
Sunday the 3d of June, 1679, in which the 
former was ingloriously defeated. Out of the 
immense waste, which is scarcely more irre- 
gular than the surface of the ocean when under 
the influence of a subsiding storm, the strange, 
wild, abrupt, craggy eminence, Loudon hill, 
rears itself, like a seal raising its inclined head 
above the waters. It was upon a small knoll, 
called the Harelaw, near Loudon hill, and 
which is now distinguished by a shepherd's 
house, that the conventicle of country people 
was held, which called forth the unfortunate 
visit of Colonel Graham, and the conflict took 
place upon a piece of ground directly betwixt 
the adjacent farm-steads of High Drumclog 
and Stobbieside, one mile west of the high 
road from Strathaven to Kilmarnock, and two 
miles east of Loudon hill. The Covenanters 
stood, at the moment they saw their enemies, 

upon a field gently declining from Stobbieside 
towards a narrow marsh. The dragoons, who 
had ridden direct from Strathaven, came within 
sight of the insurgents on passing the farm- 
stead of High Drumclog, and arriving at the 
ridge of a declivity corresponding to that upon 
which the others were posted. The encounter 
took place almost precisely as related in the 
tale of Old Mortality. After an ineffectual 
attempt to charge the insurgents across the in- 
termediate morass, the dragoons fled, leaving 
thirty-six of their number on the field, while 
the loss of the successful party was only six. 
The latter, including William Dingwall, who 
had helped, a few days before, to assassinate 
the archbishop of St. Andrews, were buried 
in the church-yard of Strathaven, where a mo- 
nument to the memory of this assassin, repre- 
senting him as a martyr to the faith of Christ, 
yet remains, a curious memorial of the confu 
sion which a time of civil strife introduces into 
moral phraseology. The insurgents afterwards 
moved down Avendale to Hamilton. The 
only town in the parish is Strathaven, an irre- 
gular old village, full of long lanes and short 
streets, in the midst of which stands the ruin 
of Avendale Castle, formerly a seat of the 
Hamilton family. The estate to which it be- 
longed was created a barony in 1456, in favour 
of Andrew Stewart, grandson of Murdoch, 
Duke of Albany, and a distinguished states- 
man in that age, who hence received the title 
of Lord Avendale. The barony subsequently 
came into the Hamilton family, who still re- 
tain it, and appoint a bailie to govern the little 
burgh. Strathaven is supported chiefly by 
weaving cotton. It is also remarkable for 
rearing calves, the herbage around the town 
being of a fine quality and excellently adapted 
for improving the flesh and milk of cattle. In 
consequence of this " Stra'ven veal" has ob- 
tained the reputation of being the best in Scot- 
land. — Population of the parish, including 
Strathaven, in 1821,5030. 

AVICH, (LOCH) a fresh water lake in 
Lorn, Argyleshire, on the north of Loch Awe, 
into which its waters flow by a stream called 
Avich river. It is about eight miles in cir- 
cumference, and its appearance is enriched by 
some beautiful little islands. It is sometimes 
called Loch Luina. 

A VIE MORE, an inn in Morayshire, 
and a stage on the great Highland Road, 
distant about thirty miles from Inverness. 


AWE. (L O C H) 

AVOCH, (pronounced AUCH,) a parish 
in that part of Ross-shire called the Black Isle, 
bordering on the Moray Firth, bounded on the 
north by Rosiemarkie, in which is situated 
Fortrose, and consisting chiefly of two ridges 
of hills, of a moderate altitude, and pretty 
broad on the top, running nearly parallel to 
each other, in a direction from east to west, 
with a gentle sloping vale on the north side of 
each, including the northern slope of the high 
hill of Mulbuy, and thus altogether presenting 
three banks or declivities to the beneficial in- 
fluence of the southern sun. The village of 
Avoch stands on a considerable rivulet of the 
same name, which falls into the firth, called 
Avoch bay. The inhabitants of the district are 
chiefly supported by the excellent herring fish- 
ings in the sea at this place. The port at Avoch 
is visited by regular traders from London, 
Leith, Aberdeen, Dundee, &c. — Population in 
1821, 1821. 

AVON "WATER, a small tributary of the 
Annan, falling from the heights on the borders 
of Peebles-shire, and joining the Annan on its 
west bank below Moffat. 

given to the river Forth, when composed of 
the water of Duchray and that from Loch 
Ard, until it enters theparish of Port of Men- 
teith> where it receives the name of Forth. 
It is so called from its black colour. 

AWE, (LOCH) pronounced O, a fresh 
water lake in Argyleshire, extending thirty 
miles in length, and from one to two in breadth, 
dividing the district of Cowal from the 
south portion of Lorn, and abounding in 
lovely woody islets or inislies. Its most in- 
teresting part is from its northern extremity to 
the place where it makes its exit by the river 
Awe, which runs from its side in a north- 
westerly direction to Loch Etive, at Bunaw 
Ferry. The name of one of its islands is 
Inishail, or " the beautiful island," on which 
at one time there was a convent of Cistertian 
Nuns, venerable from the sanctity of their lives, 
and the purity of their manners. At the re- 
formation, when the innocent were involved 
with the guilty in the sufferings of the times, 
their house was suppressed, and the temporali- 
ties granted to Hay, Abbot of Inchaffray, who 
abjured his tenets and embraced the cause of 
the reformers. Pubfic worship was performed 
in the chapel of this convent till the year 1 736 ; 

but a more commodious building having been 
then erected on the south side of the lake, i* 
has since been entirely forsaken, and a small 
part of the ruin is now all that is visible. But 
that veneration which renders sacred to the 
Highlander the tomb of his ancestors, has yet 
preserved to the burying-ground its ancient 
sanctity. It is still used as a place of inter- 
ment, and is approached by boats, whose dismal 
funeral procession, with the accompanying wail 
of the bag-pipe, is sufficiently productive of 
melancholy feelings. On the neighbouring isle 
of Fraoch Elan, " the isle of heather," the 
Hesperides of the land of Argyle, are still vi- 
sible the castellated ruins of a hold of the 
Macnaughtans. It was given by Alexander 
III. 1276, to Gilbert Macnaughtan, the chief 
of his clan, on condition that he should enter- 
tain the King of Scotland whenever he passed 
that way ; and it is worthy of remark, that the 
proprietor, in 1745, influenced no doubt, as 
warmly by loyalty to the house of Stuart as a 
desire to fulfil the expression of the charter, ac- 
tually made private preparations for entert«in- 
ing the Prince in the castle of Fraoch Elan, 
had he passed in this direction. On one side 
of this beautiful island, the rock rises almost 
perpendicularly from the water. The lower 
part of the shore is embowered in tangled shrubs 
and old writhing trees. Above, the broken 
wall and only remaining gable of the castle 
looks out over the boughs ; and in the south 
side a large ash-tree grows from the founda- 
tions of what was once the hall, and over- 
shadows the ruin with its branches. This, Uke 
all the other islands in Loch Awe, is the haunt 
of a variety of gulls and wild fowl, which come 
hither, a distance of twenty-six miles from the 
sea, to build nests and hatch their young. 
On the top of the remaining chimney of the 
castle, a water eagle long took up its family re- 
sidence. There is another island called Inish- 
connel, lying amidst a cluster of other islets, on 
which there is also a ruin of a very strong 
castle, once a residence of the Argyle family. 
Near this lies Inish-eraith, supposed to be the 
place to which the traitor Eraith beguiled Du- 
ara, as recounted in one of the songs of Sel- 
ma, and in which there is also a burying-ground 
and the ruins of a chapel, all which relics are 
significant of the warlike and pious character 
of this district of Scotland, which, in reality, 
seems the wreck of a kingdom once inhabited 



by a powerful race of people. At the east end 
of the lake, on a rocky point projecting into 
the water, stand the ruins of Kilchum Castle, 
built in 1440, by the lady of Sir Colin Camp- 
bell, called the Black Knight of Rhodes, who, 
at the time, was engaged as a crusader, and was 
the ancestor of the Breadalbane family, by 
whom it was occupied as a seat. This is un- 
doubtedly the stronghold which the novelist 
had in his eye in sketching the residence of the 
fictitious Duncan Campbell of Ardenvohr, in 
the tale of the Legend of Montrose. From 
this great seat of the clan Campbell, so distant 
from all other places, arose the proverb former- 
ly used by persons of that name, in defiance of 
their neighbours, " It's a far cry to Loch O." 
The Highlanders of Argyleshire possess a cu- 
rious tradition regarding the origin of Loch- 
awe, which has furnished a topic in one of 
the wild songs of Ossian. The circumstance 
is connected with the existence and death of 
a supernatural being, called by the coun- 
try people Calliach Bhere, " the old wo- 
man." She is represented as having been a 
kind of female genie whose residence was on 
the highest mountains. It is said that she 
could step with ease and in a moment from 
one district to another ; when offended, that 
she could cause the floods to descend from the 
mountains, and lay the whole of the low ground 
perpetually under water. Her race is described 
as having lived for an immemorable period 
near* the summit of the vast mountain of Cru- 
achan, and to have possessed a multitude of 
herds in the vale at its foot. Calliach Bhere 
was the iast of her line, and, like that of her 
ancestors, her existence was blended with a 
fatal fountain which lay in the side of her 
native mountain, and had been committed to 
the charge of her family since its first exist- 
ence. It was their duty at evening to cover 
the well with a large flat stone, and at morning 
to remove it again. This ceremony was to 
be performed before the setting and rising of 
the sun, that his last beam might not die upon 
the waters, and that his first ray should illu 
initiate their bosom. If this care was neglect- 
ed a fearful and untold doom was denounced 
to be the punishment of the omission. When 
the father of Calliach Bhere died, he committed 
the office to his daughter, and declared to her, 
in a solemn charge, the duty and the fatality 
of the sacred spring. For many years the 
solitary woman attended it without intermission ; 

but on one unlucky evening, 6pent with the 
fatigues of the chase and the ascent of the 
mountain, she sat down to rest beside the 
fountain, and w*iit for the setting of the sun, 
and falling asleep did not awake until next 
morning. When she arose she looked abroad 
from the hill ; the vale had vanished beneath 
her, and a wide and immeasurable sheet of 
water was all which met her sight. The ne- 
glected well had overflowed while she slept ; 
the glen was changed into a lake ; the hills 
into islets ; and her people and her cattle had 
perished in the deluge. The Calliach took but 
one look over the ruin which she had caused : 
the spell whichbound her existence was loosened 
with the waters, and she sunk and expired be- 
side the spring. From that day the waters 
remained upon the vale, and formed the lake 
which was afterwards called Loch Awe. 

AYRSHIRE or AIRSHIRE, an exten- 
sive county on the western coast of the Low- 
lands of Scotland, stretching upwards of 
seventy miles along the shore of the firth of 
Clyde, from Kelly-bum on the north, to Gal- 
loway-burn, which enters Loch Ryan on the 
south. I* is bounded on the north and north- 
east by the county of Renfrew ; on the east 
by the counties of Lanark and Dumfries ; by 
the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright on the south- 
east ; and on the south by Wigtonshire. In 
figure the county resembles a crescent with 
the hollow presented to the sea. The middle 
part is broadest, and may extend to twenty- 
five miles across. At the two ends the shire 
diminishes almost to a point, or at least to a 
few miles in breadth. The whole county con- 
tains a superficies of 1060 square miles, 01 
665,600 statute acres, which, by the latest 
census of population, gives about 124 persons 
to a square mile. In Celtic times the county 
was divided into three large divisions : Carrick, 
lying on the southern side of the Doon ; Kyle, 
lying between the rivers Doon and Irvine, but 
divided into two sections, namely King's Kyle, 
lying on the south, and Kyle Stewart on the 
north side of the river Ayr ; and Cunningham, 
comprehending the whole of the county north 
of the river Irvine. Whatever may have been 
the ancient authorities corresponding with 
these divisions, they were superseded by the 
statute abolishing the heritable jurisdictions. 
By a recent calculation it appears that the 
extent of the several kinds of soil in Ayrshire 
is as follows: of clay soil 261,960 acres- of 


sand or light soil 120,110 acres; and of moss 
and moorlands 283,530 acres. About a half 
of the whole is now under cultivation. The 
most fertile part of the shire is the great vale 
of Cunningham, which is comparatively level, 
and comprises 244 square miles and sixteen 
parishes. Kyle contains twenty-one parishes, 
with a superficies of 403 square miles. It pos- 
sesses much valuable land towards the coast, 
but its interior lies high, and is a rough moiin- 
tainous. territory. Carrick comprises 393 
square miles, and only nine parishes. It is a 
hilly wild region throughout, and is only of 
value or interest in its northern angle betwixt 
the rivers Doon and Girvan, which form a sort 
of Delta with the sea. The whole district of 
Ayrshire is shut out in a general sense on its 
eastern boundary from the adjacent counties 
by high ridgy land, and with little variation 
the surface inclines either to the sea or to the 
rivers which flow towards it. From the 
narrowness of the country and its unequal 
surface, there are no large rivers in Ayrshire, 
but they are very numerous ; no county, in- 
deed, seems to abound so much in streams. 
There are only six rivers of any note. From 
north to south there occur successively the 
Rye water ; the Irvine, increased by the Kil- 
marnock waters ; the water of Ayr, which is 
the largest ; the Doon ; the Girvan ; and the 
Stinchar. None of its mountains deserve par- 
ticular notice. Excepting in Carrick the hills 
are not remarkable for height. The coast on 
the two extremities is generally high, rocky 
and dangerous in the offing, and possesses but 
a very few good harbours. In the centre, the 
beach is sandy and so shallow that it is equally 
disadvantageous in navigation. From these 
circumstances, more particularly described un- 
der different heads, Ayrshire is not and never 
will be a county having an extensive import or 
export trade by sea. The dangers of the " Car- 
rick shore," — which is assailed by all the 
weight and force of the Atlantic, enhanced in 
violence by being directed through the channel 
betwixt Scotland and Ireland, are too well 
known to be here minutely detailed, and 
have more than once furnished a theme to ex- 
cite the poetry of Burns. There are a num- 
ber of fresh water lakes in the shire, principal- 
ly in Carrick, of little moment, the most ex- 
tensive being Loch Doon, from whence the 
Doon river flows. Ayrshire is possessed of 
inexhaustible fields of coal, quarries of free- 

stone, and mines of ironstone ; with several 
rich ores of lead and copper. Marble has 
been found, and black-lead has been discover- 
ed, as well as gypsum and marie. Near Wal- 
lace-town there is a quarry of black fire-proof 
stone, which is carried into the neighbourhood 
and abroad for making ovens. On the river 
Ayr there is a quarry of whet-stone, which 
has been exported in great quantities. In 
such a country there must exist many petrifac- 
tions. In the midst of so many minerals, it is 
to be expected that there will be many springs, 
impregnated by them ; and, of course, almost 
every parish has its appropriate mineral water, 
though none have risen to the dignity of spas. 
Before noticing the state of agriculture and 
trade in this important county, it may be 
of use to give a glance at its early history, 
as well as its rise into a state of prosperity. 
In common with the other districts in this part 
of Scotland, Ayrshire was originally inhabited 
by the British tribe called the Damnii, a 
branch of the Celtic nation, who survived the 
period of the Roman yoke, and were, in the 
course of time, overrun and amalgamated with 
the Scoto-Irish from Cantire. In 750, these 
again were partly conquered by a body of 
Northumbrians, who settled in Kyle. The 
overthrow of the Picts by Kenneth in 843, 
procured the suppression of the various con- 
tending septs in the district, and made the 
whole an integral portion of the Scottish na- 
tion. From 843 to 1097 the inhabitants of 
Ayrshire were governed as a Celtic people, 
upon Celtic principles. The accession of 
Edgar, in 1097, is the date of a new era in 
Scottish history. The jurisprudence of the 
country was changed, and an active coloniza- 
tion began, which filled every district with a 
new people from England. Barons sprung 
up, who built castles and churches, and towns 
arose with mercantile inhabitants. Not- 
withstanding many alterations of a foreign 
quality, it is worthy of remark that Gaelic 
was spoken in Ayrshire at the end of five 
centuries from 1097. The nobles who settled 
and acquired land in the district were Hugh 
Morville, who came into Scotland, under 
David I. ; became constable of Scotland, and 
acquired a grant of Cunningham. Under him 
settled as his vassals many persons from 
England, and .from one of these sprung the 
family of Loudon, as well .as many families of 
the name of Cunningham. The numerous 



family of the Roses also settled here in a 
similar manner. The family of Montgomery 
came originally from Shropshire, and settled 
in Renfrewshire before they became distin- 
guished in this shire. The Campbells, who 
by marriage came into the family of Loudon, 
and acquired the title, were from Argyle, and 
were not very ancient. The Boyds were an- 
other people who settled in Ayrshire, but 
they cannot show very distinctly either the 
origin of their name or family. The Ken- 
nedies, who were raised to an earldom in 1509, 
were of Irish origin, and long held a very power- 
ful sway in Carrick. There were other 
families settled in the county of nearly equal 
rank, but who were either not so ancient or 
who have left fewer descendants. Of these 
may be noticed, the Cochrans, the Colvilles, 
the Stewarts, the Kerrs, the de la Chambres, 
tie Dunlops, the Crichtons, and the Dalrym- 
ples. Ayrshire was the scene of perpetual 
turmoil during the wars of Bruce and Edward. 
The son of the first Bruce marrying the Coun- 
tess of Carrick, became Earl of Carrick in her 
right, and it was their son who, on the expul- 
sion of Baliol, formed pretensions to the throne, 
which he obtained by his fortitude and pru- 
dence. Ayrshire had thus the honour of 
giving birth to the illustrious restorer of the 
Scottish monarchy. Some of the singular 
exploits of Wallace, in supporting the national 
independence, were performed in Ayrshire, 
from which it has additional honour. When 
Robert III., in 1404, established the princi- 
pality of Scotland, as an appanage, for his 
eldest son, like that of Wales of the eldest 
sons of English sovereigns, he annexed to it 
the barony of Cunningham, the barony of 
Kyle Stewart, the lands of Kyle Regis (or 
King's Kyle), the smaller Cumbray island, 
and the whole of the earldom of Carrick. 
Almost no division of Scotland was so long 
under the torments of the baronial system as 
Ayrshire. For several centuries the chiefs 
were perpetually engaged in feuds and re- 
bellions, and so weak were the laws that it 
was seldom redress or punishment followed. 
The Boyds of Kilmarnock, and the Dalrym- 
ples ; the Campbells and the Colvilles ; and 
the houses of Eglinton and Glencairn, had 
their respective quarrels of long standing, 
which occasionally ended in the most sanguin- 
ary slaughters. We find that a great propor- 
tion of these disturbances arose from contests 

regarding heritable jurisdictions, such as 
stewardships and bailiewicks of particular dis- 
tricts. Besides the feuds of these doughty 
barons, the country was frequently distracted 
by the pride or the crimes of the Kennedies. 
So late as the reign of James VI. this potent 
clan was involved in a feud of more than ordi- 
nary importance, which originated in the violent 
and cruel treatment of Allan Stewart, the 
commendator of Crossraguell, in 1570, by 
the Earl of Cassillis and his brother Thomas 
Kennedy of Culzean. In the months of 
August and September in that year, these mon- 
sters, with a cruelty almost unexampled in 
Christendom, seized the above Stewart, in order 
to make him give leases of part of the property 
of the monastery, and, on the failure of fair 
means, to accomplish their ends, they put him 
to the torture by placing his person over a 
blazing fire. The resolution which enabled 
the commendator to bear repeated applications 
of this odious torture rather than resign the 
property he had legally acquired, (or, at the 
least, acquired by a process then considered 
sufficiently correct), is recorded in very elo- 
quent terms by the historian of the house of 
Kennedy, and leads us to give the utmost cre- 
dit to the rectitude of purpose and strength of 
mind of the unfortunate victim. When Ken- 
nedy, the laird of Bargenny, heard of this 
treatment of his friend, he obtained the autho- 
rity of government to liberate the commendator, 
under pain of rebellion. As the Earl disobeyed 
this charge, the laird assembled his retainers, 
and took the earl's castle of Dunure, wherein 
Stewart was confined. The Earl, enraged at 
this capture, assembled his vassals at Carrick, 
and in West Galloway, and besieged his own 
castle of Dunure, which was bravely defended 
by Bargeny, who, by the authority of govern- 
ment, called out the king's lieges in Kyle and 
Cunningham to his aid. This caused the Earl to 
raise the siege, and the gallant Bargeny kept pos- 
session of the castle for some time. It however 
gave rise to a feud between Bargeny and the 
head of the Kennedies, which remained unex- 
tinguished for many years, and produced at last 
a battle in Carrick, in 1601, between the Earl 
of Cassilis and Gilbert Kennedy of Bargeny, 
in which the latter was killed, and which sub- 
sequently caused the assassination of the Earl's 
uncle. A subordinate feud rose between Sir 
Thomas Kennedy and John Mure of Auchin- 
drain, which led to the murder of the former, 



and to the execution of the latter and his sons. 
The feud which had lasted so long between the 
families of Eglinton and Glencairn, produced 
Sjnany acts of violence, and in 1586, terminated 
in the atrocious murder of Hugh Earl of 
Eglinton, by the Cunninghams of Robertland, 
at the private instance of Glencairn, the son of 
that earl who obtained so much distinction in 
the history of the reformation. The laxity of 
the administration of James VI. suffered this 
infamous matter to be remitted, and the earl's 
friends to be released from the pains of rebel- 
ion awarded against them. The vexations 
which the people of Ayrshire so long suffered by 
such an ill organized system, seems to have 
impressed them with an extraordinary warm 
desire for those political liberties which they 
believed were to flow from the institution of 
the Covenant. The consequence was, that 
during the heats of the seventeenth century, 
few took so active a share in the insurrections 
which were opposed to the royal authority. In 
1666, the county contributed its people and its 
purse, towards the unhappy route at Rullion 
Green. A committee of that base junto, the 
privy council, sat at Ayr, in 1678, for directing 
the military execution to its proper objects. 
By way of spoiling the land on a great scale, 
the Highland host was let loose on this as well 
as other parts in the west, whereby the coun- 
ty, according to Wodrow, lost the value of 
L. 137,499 Scots. In July 1680, a conflict 
occurred at Airds-moss. wherein several in- 
surgents were taken, and the rebellion on this 
occasion quelled. Proceedings of this dis- 
agreeable nature induced a ready accession to 
the government of William III., and the con- 
duct of the people who went armed to Edin- 
burgh to wait upon the Estates, was very mag- 
nanimous. On the 6th of April 1689, they 
received thanks from the convention for their 
seasonable services, and they were offered some 
remuneration, but they would receive none, say- 
ing, that they came 10 save and serve their 
country, but not to enrich themselves at the 
nation's expense. It need hardly be mention- 
ed, that the turmoils which had from the very 
first kept Ayrshire in a warlike attitude, and 
ever ready for tidings of disaster and spoliation, 
had the natural effect of keeping its agricul- 
tural capacities long shut up, and its energies 
of a useful tendency long untried. It was not 
till the lapse of about seventy years after the 
swords of the Ayrshire men had been return- 

ed to their sheaths, tliat the spirit of a genial 
improvement began to operate, in developing 
the latent capabilities of the country. The 
inhabitants sat for a very long period in a state 
of apathetic indifference to the comforts and 
conveniences of a new order of things. Till 
about the middle of last century there was 
scarcely a tangible trace of the least improve- 
ment. The farm houses continued to be mere 
hovels ; having an open hearth, or fire-place, 
in the middle of the floor ; the dunghill at the 
door; the cattle starving; and the people 
wretched by the effects of poor fare and poor 
clothing : There were no fallows, continues 
an intelligent author from whom we quote ; 
no green crops ; no artificial grass ; no carts 
or waggons ; no straw yards ; few or no en- 
closures; and hardly a potato, or any es- 
culent root. The farms were small, and 
generally divided between the outfield and in- 
field. The one received the whole manure ; 
the other was almost relinquished in despair. 
The year 1757 has been deemed the epoch of 
efficient improvements ; being also the epoch 
of the settlement of Margaret, Countess of 
Loudon, in Sorn Castle. This uncommon 
and spirited woman, the daughter and wife of 
an earl, who, in her younger days, had adorn- 
ed courts by her elegance, in her widowhood 
sat down in a solitary castle, amidst rudeness 
and ignorance, and, by great assiduity, encour- 
aged, by precept and example, the agricultural 
improvements of the district. In a short time 
the nobility and gentry of Ayrshire began in 
earnest to improve their estates, upon syste- 
matic principles, under the skilful direction of 
intelligent stewards. Farmers were even in- 
vited by them, from the more southern shires, 
to show the husbandmen the practice of the 
best principles of genuine farming. The 
clergy, also, much to their credit, taught their 
parishioners how much they might benefit their 
families by departing from old prejudices, and 
adopting new knowledge. The landlord and 
tenants now began to drain their fields, which 
were overcharged with moisture ; to apply 
much lime, as the most efficacious manure ; and 
to cultivate grass rather than corn, in so wet a 
climate. It is not the duty of the topographer 
to detail step by step the progress of agricul- 
tural improvement. It is his more delightful 
task to mention the result of an honourable 
course of industry exerted on the soil. The 
cultivation of grasses, and the peculiarity of 



the climate, have induced the farmers of Ayr- 
shire, to carry the practice of the dairy be- 
yond example in Scotland, and nearly equal 
to that of England. The value of these 
dairies in milk, butter, cheese, and cattle, is 
veiy considerable, and on this account Ayr- 
shire may now be called the Cheshire of 
Scotland. With agricultural improvement 
came a variety of excellent roads through the 
county, which were much wanted, and these 
have been followed, in recent times by the 
laying down of several railways, for the trans- 
port of coals and heavy goods. At the same 
time that agricultural improvement took place, 
a spirit for manufacturing arose to super- 
sede the homely arts of a domestic fabrication 
of woollen and linen cloths. Every thing 
conspired to render the establishment of manu- 
factories easy and lucrative. Fuel was in 
abundance ; the necessaries of life were plen- 
tiful ; the materials for building were at hand ; 
the channels of communication were open and 
free ; the materials of manufacture were either 
produced in the district, or easily to be obtain- 
ed ; the vicinity of such towns as Glasgow 
and Paisley, inspired all orders with industry, 
and supplied them with employment. The 
useful manufacture of stockings, carpets, cloths, 
and bonnets, extended itself to different corners 
of the shire, and in particular, to Kilmarnock, 
Dalmellington, and Cumnock. The business 
of a dyer and fuller was introduced everywhere. 
The manufacture of linen has not been attend- 
ed with the same success. Unless it be the 
making of thread, goods of this nature are not 
made to a great extent. The cotton manu- 
facture was introduced in 1787, about the same 
time it was established at Glasgow and Pais- 
ley. The works at Catrine are the principal 
in this line. In the same year great iron 
works were established at Muirkirk with much 
advantage. One of the principal causes of so 
much prosperity and improvement, was the es- 
tablishment of banks. The first was settled 
in 1763, by John M'Adam and Company, and 
it was followed by the famous bank of Doug- 
las, Heron, and Company, known by the name 
of the Ayr Bank. This bank was settled in 
1769, and it only lasted till 1772. By gross 
mismanagement and ignorance of banking bu- 
siness, its directors brought nun on the share- 
holders, who were of the most opulent and 
dignified ranks in the country ; but the public 

lost nothing. They rather gained by the im- 
prudent liberality of the bank, which supplied 
the country gentlemen, farmers, traders, and 
manufacturers, with capital. Upon the disso- 
lution of the Ayr Bank, another on a better 
organization was begun, under the firm of 
Hunter and Company, to which was soon 
added a branch of the Bank of Scotland. By 
these aids to a country in a low condition, and 
all the other means since adopted by the re- 
spectable and active inhabitants of the district, 
common to the rest of Scotland, the county 
may now be considered, in the aggregate, as in 
a secure state of agricultural prosperity, and 
commercial wealth. Ayrshire contains only 
two royal burghs, Irvine and Ayr, which con- 
tribute two-fifths of a member of parliament. 
Of thriving and populous towns and villages 
the county has a great number, as, Largs, 
Beith, Ardrossan, Saltcoats, Kilwinning, Kil- 
marnock, Mauchline, Catrine, Tarbolton, Old 
Cumnock, New Cumnock, Muirkirk, May- 
bole, Girvan, Colmonell, Ballantrae, &c. none 
of which has any parliamentary representa- 
tion. The whole of Ayrshire was formerly 
comprehended in the bishoprick of Glasgow, 
and it formed three deaneries, corresponding 
with the three divisions of Cunningham, Kyle, 
and Carrick. The forty-six parishes in the 
county, with the addition of one from the 
county of Bute, and the loss of two, which 
have been joined to Stranraer presbytery, now 
form two presbyteries, in the Synod of Ayr 
and Glasgow. The county has only one 
chapel of ease, but it possesses about thirty 
meeting-houses belonging to the more rigid 
presbyterian communions, and to the Relief 
body. As marking the religious character of 
the district, it may be noticed, that it does 
not comprehend a single Episcopal chapel. By 
the latest county roll, Ayrshire had two hun- 
dred and seven freeholders, who eJect a mem- 
ber of parliament. 

The chief seats in Ayrshire are Kelburn 
House, Earl of Glasgow ; Eylinton Castle, 
Earl of Eglinton ; Culzean Castle, Earl of 
Cassilis ; Loudon Castle, Marchioness of 
Hastings ; Dalquharran, Kennedy ; Blair- 
quhan, Hunter Blair, Bart. ; Bargeney, Hamil- 
ton Dalrymple, Bart. ; Fullerton House, Duke 
of Portland; Dumfries House, Marquis of 
Bute ; Auchinleck, Boswcll, Bart. ; Barskim 
I wing, Miller, Bart. ; Kilherran, Fcrgusson, 


A YR. 

Bart. ; Kilbirnie Castle, uninhabited ; Logan 
House, Alison ; Auchincruive, Oswald ; Crau- 
furdland, Craufurd ; Craigie, Campbell ; Rose- 
mont, Fullarton ; Brisbane, Brisbane ; Sorn 
Castle, Somerville ; BaUochmyle, Alexander ; 
Faiiley Castle, Cunningham, Bart ; Sundrum, 
Hamilton, &c. 

Table of heights in Ayrshire : 

Feet above the sea. 











Population in 1821, males 61,077, females 
66,222; total 127,299. 

A Y R or A I R, a river in Ayrshire, falling into 
the sea at the town to which it gives its name, 
rising in the high grounds which bound the 
shire on the east from Lanarkshire, and pur- 
suing a course to the sea on the west, nearly 
at right angles with the line of coast It 
crosses the county at its broadest part, and di- 
vides it into two nearly equal portions ; the 
volume of its waters is not large, and is of no 
use in navigation, but it supplies an adequate 
supply of fish of various kinds. It is remark- 
able for its clearness, and from such a distinc- 
tion, has been endowed with the name of Air, 
a word in the British tongue signifying bright- 
ness. It produces some fine yellowish stones, 
suitable for whetstones, which are exported in 
considerable quantities. 

AYR or AIR, a parish in Ayrshire, in- 
cluding the old parish of Alloway, which was 
annexed to it in 1690, is bounded on the west 
by the firth of Clyde, on the north by the 
river Ayr, on the east by the parishes of 
Coyleston and Dalrymple, and on the south 
by the Doon. The land rises very gradual- 
ly from the sea-shore to the western bound- 
ary. Near the sea the soil is naturally a light 
shifting sand, which has, however, in most 
cases been reclaimed by means of inclosures. 
The holms on the Ayr and the Doon, and the 
stripes of land along the small burns which 
intersect the parish are in general fertile. 
Originally the whole of the land was either 
comprised within the " common good" of the 
burgh of Ayr, or the barony of Alloway, which 
held of it The soil 6e«ms cultivated to the 
height of its capability. 

Ayr or Air, a royal burgh, the capital o! 
Ayrshire and the parish of Ayr, is situated in 
the north-west angle of the parish, where the 
river of the same name flows past it on the 
north into the sea. It is distant seventy-six 
miles west-south-west of Edinburgh, twelve 
south-south-west of Kilmarnock, and thirty- 
four south-south-west of Glasgow. The spot 
has been inhabited from a very remote anti- 
quity. It was the site of a Roman station, 
and it is generally understood that a hamlet 
remained here up to the reign of William the 
Lion, in 1197, when that monarch engrafted 
a new town upon the older settlement ; indeed 
this is tolerably evident from the words of the 
account of its establishment found in the 
Chronicle of Melrose, " Factum est novum 
oppidum inter Don et Ar," which implies that 
there was then an old town of Ayr. The 
object of William in patronizing the erection 
of a new town at the mouth of the Ayr river, 
seems to have been the cultivation of the land 
between the waters of Doon and Ayr, which 
was at that period in its pristine wild wood- 
land condition. So well did the settlers exe- 
cute their task, that not a century later we 
find legislative measures rendered necessary to 
prevent the sand, which was no longer fixed 
by trees, from overwhelming the town. About 
the year 1202, William constituted the town a 
royal burgh. The ancient church of Ayr was 
probably founded at the same time with the 
town ; and it was dedicated to St. John the 
Baptist, who was regarded as the patron saint 
of the town till the period of the Reformation. 
The parish attached to the church was an in- 
dependent rectory, till the fourteenth century, 
when it became a prebendal benefice of Glas- 
gow, and was served by a vicar or curate. The 
church had also a number of chaplains to 
officiate at the different altars, with a number 
of choristers, or singing boys, and an organist 
at their head, who played on the organ, sung 
in the choir, and who taught a singing-school 
in the town. The four principal altars in the 
church of Ayr, were those dedicated to the 
Holy Trinity, to the Holy Cross, to the Holy 
Blood, and to the Virgin Mary : There were 
other five altars of less importance, dedicated 
to St. Michael, to St. Nicholas, to St. Peter, 
to St Ninian, and a fifth, which was the foun- 
dation and property of the craftsmen of the 
town, dedicated to St. Anna, St Eloy, and 
other saints who were the patrons of the trades. 



Tbe Reformation, of course, swept out these 
popish insignia, but before this period the 
church was the theatre of several stirring 
scenes. In particular, on the 16th of April 
1315, or the Sunday before the festival of St. 
James, a parliament was held in it which fixed 
the succession to the Scottish throne in the 
family of Bruce. James IV. was often at 
Ayr, and made numerous offerings in St. John's 
kirk. In 1497 his treasurer gave twenty shil- 
lings to say a trentale of masses of St. John 
for the king. Besides this church there were 
two monasteries in the town, one of Domini- 
can, or Preaching, or Blackfriars, founded in 
1230 by Alexander II. ; and another of Fran- 
ciscan or Grayfriars, founded in 1472, by the 
inhabitants of the town, in which there was 
a statue of the Virgin, famed for the miracles 
it wrought. The convent of the Blackfriars, 
with their church and gardens, was situated 
on the side of a lane called the Friars' Ven- 
nel, and they had a pigeon-house in the vicin- 
ity. Not a vestige of these edifices remains. 
The convent of the Grayfriars stood near that 
of the Blackfriars. It is also entirely gone, 
and on its site the parish church was built in 
1654. At an early period there had been 
a fortlet at Ayr, which by additions was 
made a place of some strength, while the war 
raged between the Edwards and the Braces. 
In July 129S, it was burnt by Bruce on hear- 
ing of the loss of the battle of Falkirk ; but 
being again repaired by the English in 1307, 
it gave a place of refuge and defence to Ralph 
de Morthermer who had been defeated by 
Bruce. Ayr being an important point of con- 
centration on the west, it was held with great 
tenacity by Edward. According to Blind 
Harry, a numerous body of English of rank, 
having met here in a house called the Barns 
of Ayr, they were attacked by Wallace in the 
night, who set fire to the buildings and con- 
sumed the whole in the flames. Tradition 
still points out the spot were the barns stood ; 
and a farm on the heights of Craigie, called 
Burn-weel, is said to derive its name from the 
hero's exhortation to the flames to do their 
duty, as he turned to take the last look of the 
conflagration. The town of Ayr was in these 
times exposed to great danger from the blow- 
ing of the sand by violent winds. This ap- 
pears to have created great alarm during the 
reign of Robert II., when the bones of the 
cemetery of St. John were exposed by the 

blowing away of the eoik In order to incite 
the ingenuity and exertion of individuals to 
stop this ravage, Robert II., in 1380, granted 
a charter to any one, who would prevent the 
blowing of the sand, the right of property of 
all the waste land, where the sand should be 
settled, and the place rendered habitable. At 
an early period the burgh of Ayr attained to a 
considerable degree of opulence. We find 
that early in the sixteenth century the guild 
brethren carried on a regular trade on the coasts 
of France, in their own vessels. Some of 
the more enterprising attempted to dispose of 
their wines to the chiefs of Cantire ; and a 
process is recorded in the books of the burgh, 
which was raised at the instance of one of the 
traders against one Mac Ian, who had been for 
years in the habit of receiving wine from him, 
but had never paid for the liquors. It seems 
that the merchant on his last voyage to Can- 
tire, refused to have any more dealings with 
such a customer, whereupon, according to 
Highland rules of justice, Maclan seized the 
whole of his cargo. The case being called 
in court, we are told a " fairspeaker" appear- 
ed on behalf of the thief; nevertheless, a sen- 
tence was properly given against him. How 
the payment was obtained is unknown. After 
this no more is heard of the Cantire trade, in 
the records of the town. The fatal battle of 
Flodden was disastrous to Ayr and the adja- 
cent country. Some of the best nobles in the 
shire were slain, with the provost of the town 
and the flower of the inhabitants. Such losses 
were rendered more unfortunate by the crimin- 
al ambition of many surviving families of rank, 
who violently took possession of the property 
of their deceased neighbours, and it was with 
difficulty that the privy council dislodged them. 
It appears from the burgh records that in the 
year 1519, Maister Gawane Ross, one of the 
chaplains of St. John's church, received a 
salary to officiate as burgh schoolmaster. 
This is one of the earliest instances of provi- 
sion being made by magistrates for the instruc 
tion of the community found on record, 
though certainly much posterior to that of 
Aberdeen. That there had been some species 
of schools in Ayr, even so far back as the 
thirteenth century, not many years after the 
establishment of the town, is evident from the 
chartulary of the abbey of Paisley, where- 
in is recorded the settlement of a law-suit, 
in 1224. in pursuance of a mandate of the 


A Y R. 

Tope, by the deans of Carriek and Cun- 
ningham, " et magister scholarum de Are." 
As marking the state of manners in the six- 
teenth century, it is worth while to introduce 
a list of the goods of a citizen of the town of 
Ayr, in the year 1548, as stated in the records 
of the burgh : — " Ane fedder bed, bowster, 
shete, and playd ; ane furrit cussat gown ; ane 
dowblat of worsat ; ane pair of brown [hose] ; 

ane ledderan cote ; and ane irne ; 

quhilk entendis in hale to viij lib. iij s. iiij d. 
Ane black cote with slevis ; ane black bonit ; 
ane pair of taffete gartains; ane serk sewit 
with black werk ; ane nycht curtain, ane belt 
of taffete, ane furnish whingear, and ane purse ; 
ane stele jack ; ane stele bonit, with ane black 
cording and tippat ; ane spere ; ane bow of 
yew, with ane arrow bag ; ane cross bow, with 
windas and ganzeis ; ane brasin chandeleir ; 
ane sword and ane bucklare ; ane pair of blan- 
kattis of Irche playdis ; and ane lyning tow- 
all." The town of Ayr took an early and de- 
cided part in the Reformation, but not to the 
foolish extent of destroying the ancient church. 
About a century later, when Cromwell over- 
ran Scotland, he fixed upon Ayr as the site of 
one of the four forts, which he built to com- 
mand the country. To the horror of the peo- 
ple, he took possession of the church, which 
he converted into a storehouse ; and built, at 
a vast expense, a regular fortification around 
it This fortification enclosed an area of ten 
or twelve acres, and was surrounded by a wet 
ditch, which had a draw-bridge over it on the 
north side next the town. Being thus depriv- 
ed of a place of worship, the inhabitants were 
assessed for the building of a new church, and 
to appease discontent, Cromwell granted 1000 
merks, to aid in the undertaking. As already 
noticed, the new church was built on the site 
of the convent of the Grayfriars. It cost alto- 
gether, L.20,827, Is. Scots. After the Re- 
storation, the Earl of Eglinton obtained a 
grant of Cromwell's fort, which was called the 
Citadel, and included the church of St. John. 
This grant was made to compensate the Earl 
for the loss he said he had sustained during 
the Commonwealth. The property afterwards 
passed into the family of Cassilis. The church 
of St. John was allowed to fall into ruins ; 
but the cemetery belonging to it was still used 
as a burying-place in the eighteenth century. 
The tower of the ecclesiastical edifice, which 
has survived so many civil broils, now stands 

alone, in the midst of the nearly obliterated 
ramparts. Within the same enclosure may 
also be seen a long vaulted passage, now an 
ale-cellar, which formerly served as a covered 
way leading into the fort. Upon a mound 
not far from either of these edifices near the 
shore, once stood the castle of Ayr, formerly 
alluded to. The town of Ayr forms a toler- 
ably regular parallelogram, with one side pre- 
sented to the left bank of the river Ayr, and 
the west end verging on the sea. A water- 
mill at the head of the town, and a coal pit at 
the very mouth of the river may be considered 
as marking the utmost extent of the town from 
west to east. The harbour extends up the 
river about half this distance. At a few yards 
above the spot where the quay terminates 
stands the New, and two hundred yards fur- 
ther up is the Old Bridge. A wide and 
handsome street called the Sandgate extends 
from the New Bridge at right angles with the 
river. At a point in this street, about a hun- 
dred yards from the bridge, where once stood 
the town cross, the High Street commences, 
and stretches in the same direction as the river, 
conforming to its sinuosities towards the town 
head. At a short distance from its extremity 
it separates into two branches ; the one lead- 
ing to the east, the other to the south- 
east. From the termination of the latter, a 
back lane leads westward down to Barnes 
Street, which runs parallel to the main street, 
and terminates in an elegant square, called 
Wellington Square, which also receives the 
termination of the Sandgate. This is figurative- 
ly, as well as literally the " west end" of the 
town. The houses in the square, and in one 
or two unfinished streets adjacent, are built in 
a style of modest elegance. In the old part of 
the town also good houses are occasionally 
met with. The principal streets have side 
pavement. The two thoroughfares which 
penetrate the town from the bridges, branch 
off into three roads leading southward, and one 
eastward up the river. Bordering on those to 
the south there are some fine pleasure grounds, 
villas, and gardens. One of the chief public 
establishments in Ayr is the Academy, which 
is a handsome building in an airy situation 
near the citadel. It is under the government 
of a chartered company, and is managed by 
directors. There are five teachers ; one for 
Latin and Greek, one for French end other 
modern languages, one for arithmetic, one fot 

A Y E. 


writing and drawing, and one for English. 
At the head of the institution is a rector, who 
aJso teaches mathematics, geography, and na- 
tural science. The academy is attended by 
children for the purpose of obtaining element- 
ary instruction, and also by young men, with a 
view to preparing themselves for the universi- 
ties. It is also attended by many who wish to 
have the grounds of a liberal education, without 
prosecuting studies at college, and in this and 
other respects the academy of Ayr has ob- 
tained a well-merited reputation. The cha- 
racter of the town, as a place of education, is 
enhanced by the possession of several well- 
conducted ladies' and boys' boarding schools. 
Another public building, recently erected at 
a considerable expense, is what is termed 
the County Buildings. They form the side 
of Wellington Square next the sea, and con- 
tain extensive accommodation for the circuit 
and provincial courts, and the various local au- 
thorities. There is also a large hall occasionally 
used for public dinners, and as a ball-room. 
The jail stands behind these buildings towards 
the sea. It is a well arranged and well man- 
aged establishment. A very elegant To^vn- has just been erected at the junction of 
the main street with the Sandgate, and pos- 
sesses a spire of 218 feet in height, after 
a design by Mr. Thomas Hamilton, which 
is considered the finest structure of the 
kind in the west of Scotland. A little be- 
low where the main street branches into 
two, stands the Wallace Tower, formerly a 
defence to one of the town gates. This an- 
tique edifice, which, every one will remember, 
is alluded to by Burns, is at present undergo- 
ing repair upon the principle of the Highland- 
er's gun, and is to be raised to the height of 
120 feet. The Auld and New Brigs of Ayr 
must be familiar to the readers cf Burns. The 
Auld Brig is said to have been built so far 
back as the reign of Alexander III. It is 
nke all old bridges, very narrow, and consists of 
several low-bowed arches. It must be men- 
tioned, with whatever regret, that, notwith- 
standing the manful boast made by the ancient 
structure, in the poem, regarding its strength 
and durability, it has been necessary to reduce 
it from a carriage-way to a mere conveniency 
for foot passengers, on account of some appre- 
hensions entertained regarding its capability of 
supporting any considerable weight. The 
New Brig is a more commodious and elegant 

structure, crossing the river, ns already noticed, 
about two hundred yards below the former. 
The citizens of Ayr are mainly indebted for 
k to the patriotic exertions of the late John 
Ballantyne, Esq. provost of the town, an inti- 
mate friend of Bums, and in whose house the 
poet wrote the clever jeu-d'esprit, in which the 
two structures are made to canvass their respec- 
tive merits in so amusing a manner. The 
cross of Ayr, an elegant structure in the form 
of a hexagon, which stood at the western ex- 
tremity of the main street, was removed in 
178S, in consequence of the improvements at- 
tendant on the erection of the New Bridge. 
The ancient gates at the two extremities of 
the town had been removed a generation ear- 
lier, though spacious enough to occasion nc 

So fades, so perishes, grows dim and dies, 
All that the world is proud of. 

The cottage in which Burns was bom is situ- 
ated in the way-side about a mile and a half 
from Ayr. It is, as the poet has described it, 
" an auld clay biggin," consisting only in two 
apartments. The edifice was constructed by 
his father's own hands ; and such was its origi 
rial frailness, that a part of the walls gave way 
a few days after the poet was bom. It is now 
the property of the incorporation of shoe- 
makers at Ayr, and let by them, along with a 
small piece of ground adjacent, which formed 
the whole of William Burness's farm, to a man 
who uses it as a house of public entertainment. 
Strangers are shown a recess in the wall of the 
meaner apartment, which contained the bed 
in which Robert Bums was born. The scen- 
ery of Tarn o' Shanter lies in the immediate 

neighbourhood of the cottage The trade of 

the port of Ayr, from the bar at the harbour, 
and shallowness of the water, which never 
rises more than twelve feet, is limited to ex- 
portation and importation in small vessels. In 
these, of which there are upwards of sixty 
belonging to the place, an extensive export 
of coal, iron, brown paint, coal tar, casks, 
lamp black, soaper's salts and water of Ayr 
stone, and an import of hides, tallow, beef, 
butter, barley, yarn, linen, spars, deals, hemp 
and iron, from South America, the colonies, 
and Ireland are carried on. Two reflecting 
light-houses are erected to guide the entrance 
to the harbour. During the summer months 
there is a regular steam-boat conveyance to 
and from Glasgow, and there are regular 


A Y T N. 

traders with Glasgow, Greenock, Liverpool, 
and the Isle of Man. There is a regular 
daily communication by coaches with Glasgow 
and Edinburgh. Ayr supports a single news- 
Daper called the Ayr Advertiser, which is 
published weekly, on Thursday. The town 
possesses two native banking establishments 
and a branch of the Bank of Scotland. The 
streets and shops are lighted by gas, which is 
manufactured by a joint-stock company es- 
tablished in 1826. Ayr has a small, neat 
theatre, which is opened occasionally. There 
are annual horse-races, which are generally 
good, and attract spectators and visitors from 
a very great distance. The excellence of the 
races, we believe, has in a great measure to be 
attributed to the exertions of the " Western 
meeting." The Caledonian Hunt sometimes 
meets here, and there is a subscription pack 
of harriers kept by a number of gentlemen in 
the town and neighbourhood. The Ayr troop 
of yeomanry cavalry, not having been disbanded, 
musters here annually. Besides the church 
built in 1654, which is a plain Gothic edi- 
fice, standing a little way above the old bridge, 
in the midst of the parochial burying-ground, 
there is a more modern church in the town at 
the front of the old fort, near the tower of St. 
John's. The charge of these places of wor- 
ship is collegiate ; the clergyman who officiates 
in the one cburch in the forenoon, performing 
the service m the other in the afternoon. 
There are three meeting-houses of presby- 
terian dissenters, one of methodists, one of 
moravians, and one of independents, and a 
Roman Catholic chapel ; but some of these 
are built on the opposite side of the river, 
in the district of Newton-upon-Ayr. Ayr 
is the seat of a presbytery of the establish- 
ed church. The fast days of the kirk are the 
Thursdays before the fourth Sundays of April 
and September. Ayr has numerous charitable 
institutions. There is a poor-house of great util- 
ity, assisted by funds and donations. There is a 
sailors' society, on the principles of a friendly in- 
stitution, which was establishedin 1581. A mer- 
chant society, instituted in 1655 has a fund for 
decayed members, widows, and orphans. On the 
scheme of a wide and mutual friendly associa- 
tion, there is the Ayr Universal Society, which 
is of much benefit. Besides these usefid in- 
stitutions, there is an establishment of great va- 
lue, called the Ayr, Newton, and Wallace- 
town Dispensary, which was institued in 1817, 

for dispensing medicine and medical advice to 
the indigent sick, and inoculating children. 
Subscribers paying annually 10s. 6d. each, are 
entitled to recommend one patient successive- 
ly. It is under a committee of management. 
The town has an excellent and extensive sub- 
scription library. Several years ago a very excel- 
lent mechanics' institution with a library, was es- 
tablished, which isnowina flourishing condition, 
and is of great benefit to the working and other 
classes. As a royal burgh, Ayr is govern- 
ed by a provost, two bailies, a dean of guild, 
a treasurer, and ten merchant and two trades 
councillors. There are nine incorporated 
trades. We find that prior to 1507, the bai- 
lies of Ayr were called aldermen, which was 
the case with the magistrates of several other 
towns. The burgh joins with Irvine, Rothe- 
say, Inverary, and Campbelton, in electing a 
member of parliament. Ayr is a town in 
which the Circuit Court of Justiciary is held. 
The town has a good weekly market on Fri- 
day, with a subordinate one on Tuesday. A 
cattle market is held on the latter day, and 
there are three annnal fairs. The inhabitants 
of this ancient provincial town are characterized 
as being of a liberal temperament, hospitable, 
and intelligent Of late there has been an in- 
flux of economising landed proprietors into the 
town, who form a sort of aristocracy, and give 
an air of fashion to the place. At present ex • 
tensive improvements are carrying on, which 
promise, ere long, to leave few traces of " A.uld 
Ayr," though we believe the town is still as 
remarkable, as in the days of Bums, for 

" honest men and bonnie lasses." 

Population of the burgh and parish in 1821, 

AYR, (NEWTON UPON) a parish 
and town in Ayrshire, lying on the right bank 
of the river of Ayr, opposite the above town 
of Ayr. See Newton-upon-Ayr. 

A YTON, a parish in Berwickshire, bound- 
ed by Mordington and Foulden on the south, 
and Coldingham on the north, and watered by 
the river Eye, from which it takes its name- In 
length it extends about four and a half miles, 
by nearly four in breadth. It has about two 
miles of sea-coast. Within the last forty years 
the improvements in the district have been 
great. There are now some remarkably fine 
plantations, especially on the estate of Ayton, 
and the lands are well cultivated and enclosed. 
The adjacent ports of Eyemouth and Berwick 

B A D E NO C H. 


afford ready means of exporting produce. There 
is a paper manufactory in the parish. The vil- 
lage of Ayton occupies a delightful situation on 
the left bank of the Eye, on the high road be- 
tween London and Edinburgh, forty-nine miles 
east south-east of the latter, and eight north-west 
of Berwick. It has a Secession meeting-house. 
There was formerly a small fort at Ayton, 

which was taken by the Earl of Surrey, in 
1498. A seven years truce, between the 
Scots and English was soon after signed with- 
in the parish church of Ayton, on the south- 
bank of the river. Several vestiges of Roman 
encampments are shown in the parish. — Po- 
pulation in 1821, 1481. 

BADEAT, (LOCH) a small arm of the 
sea at Edderachylis, with some islands op- 
posite its entrance, en the south-west coast of 

BADENOCH, a district in Inverness- 
shire, so called from a word signifying bushy, 
being a territory originally, and still in some 
places, covered with natural forests, and all 
the other characteristics of a rough uncultivat- 
ed country. It extends thirty-three miles in 
length, by twsnty-seven in breadth, from about 
Loch Lochy, the mid lake of the Caledonian- 
Canal, in an easterly direction, till it is hemmed 
in by the braes of Aberdeen and Moray. On 
the south and west it is bounded by Athole and 
Lochaber, and on the north by Inverness and 
Nairn. It is nearly altogether mountainous 
and of a meagre population. Badenoch was in 
early times a lordship of the Cummins. After 
their forfeiture, Robert Bruce comprehended 
it in the earldom of Moray, from which it was 
detached by Robert II., who gave it to his 
son Alexander, (the famed Wolf of Badenoch), 
and, his issue failing, it remained in the crown 
till 1452, when it was granted to the Earl of 

BAHAASH ISLAND, an islet lying off. 
the south-east point of North Uist. 

BA HIRAVAH, a sound on the east 
side of Barra. 

BAINSFORD.— See Brainsford. 

BALB1RNIE BURNS, a small vil- 
lage in the parish of Markinch, county of 
Fife, now in course of extinction for the 
purpose of adding to the policy of General 
Balfour. It may here be noticed as a 
piece of information applicable to a num- 
ber of the ensuing heads, that Bal in Cel- 
tic signifies a village or town; wherefore, it 

may be generally understood that all places 
having this for the initial syllable of their names, 
are of a date at least coeval with the posses- 
sion of that part of the country bv the Celts. 
The word is still more common in Ireland 
than in Scotland. 

BALCARRAS, an estate with a large and 
elegant mansion-house, in the neighbourhood ' 
of Colinsburgh, parish of Kilconquhar, coun- 
ty of Fife, a short way north-west of Ely. 
The estate of Balcarras has been for many cen- 
turies the property of a branch of 

" The Lindsays light and gay," 
which was first raised to the degree of Lords, 
and afterwards to the title of Earls of Balcar- 
ras, in the seventeenth century, by Charles I. 
and II. 

BAL CARRY, a small bay off the south- 
west side of the large bay of Achencairn, coast 
of Kirkcudbright. 

BALCHRISTIE, (interpreted by some 
the town of the Christians,') formerly a village 
in the parish of Newburn and county of 
Fife, at the head of Largo bay. It is said 
to be built on the site and ruined founda- 
tion of a monastic institution of the Culdees, 
who here first planted Christianity in Scotland. 

BALDERNOCK, (anciently Batherrwch, 
from a barony of that name in the district), a 
parish on the southern extremity of Stirling- 
shire, where it is bounded by the river Kelvin, 
which runs from thence towards the Clyde. 
On the south-west lies the loch of Burdowie, 
about seventy acres in extent. Upon a high 
ground, at the north-west corner of the 
parish, stands an old ruinous tower, being all 
that now remains of the house of the Gal- 
braiths of Bathernock, a fabric at one time 
of great magnitude. This parish abounds in 



cairns, and similar memorials of the strife 
practised by our early forefathers. The most 
remarkable of its antiquities is a structure 
called the Auld wife's lift, which stands on 
a flat piece of ground, surrounded by an 
ascent of a few yards in height, in the form 
of an amphitheatre, on a high ground. It con- 
sists of three stones, two of which are laid on 
the earth close by the side of each other ; and 
upon the top of these the third is placed in 
the same direction, with their ends pointing 
north and south. The two undermost are of 
a prismatical shape ; but the uppermost seems 
to have been a regular parallelopiped, and still 
approaches that figure. The whole are eighteen 
feet in length, by eleven in breadth, and seven 
in depth. They lie parallel with the horizon, 
but inclining a little to the north ; the upper 
surface is pretty level. Owing to the pris- 
matic shape of the two undermost, there is a 
triangular opening between them and the upper, 
of about three feet in depth, and somewhat 
wider. Through this opening superstition 
once directed that every stranger who visited 
the place for the first time, should creep, for 
the purpose of averting the sad calamity of 
dying childless. In the surrounding ground 
the roots and stumps of oak trees have been 
dug up, and there can be no doubt of this 
having once been a Druidic grove, and place 
of worship. — Population in 1821, 892. 

BALESHARE ISLAND, a small island 
off the south-west corner of North Uist. 

BALERNO, a village in the parish of 
Currie, county of Mid-Lothian, on the water of 
Leith, about six miles west from Edinburgh ; 
at which there are some mills for the manu- 
facture of coarse paper, and a freestone quarry. 

BALFRON, a parish in the western part 
of Stirlingshire, west of the Campsie hills ; 
on the banks of the Endrick, a river running 
westward to Lochlomond ; bounded on the 
north by Dryinen and Kippin, and on the east 
by Gargunnock and Fintry. The village is si- 
tuated on the declivity of a hill, and is clean and 
neatly built. It is distant nineteen miles 
north from Glasgow, and the same from Stir- 
ling. The Ballindalloch cotton mills, in the 
vicinity, give employment to a vast number of 
hands. A considerable number of weavers of 
cottons are also employed in the village for 
the Glasgow manufacturers. Besides the parish 
church there are two dissenting meeting-houses. 
—Population in 1821, 2041. 

BALGAY, a hill and a rivulet flowing 
from it of the same name, near the town of 

or BALLYCHELISH, a sea-port village, 
mostly of modem erection, in Argyleshire, in 
the district and parish of Appin, on the bor- 
ders of Loch Leven, which is an arm of Loch 
Linnhe stretching to the east. This place has 
obtained a considerable celebrity from its ex- 
tensive quarries of slate for house roofing.* 
Its slates are exported to everyplace on the 
west as well as the east coast of Scotland, by 
means of the Caledonian and Forth and 
Clyde canals. From Ballahulish to the oppo- 
site side of Loch Leven, in the shire of Inver- 
ness, there is a regular ferry. 

BALLATER, a modern village, in Aber- 
deenshire, parish of Glenmuick. — See Glen- 

BALLANDALLOCH, a post-town m 
Morayshire, on the river Spey. 

BALLANTRAE, a parish in the south- 
ern nook of the district of Carrick, Ayrshire, 
nearly ten miles square, bounded on the north 
by Colmonell, and on the west by the sea. It 
is a wild district of country with a bold rocky 
coast, and veiy little penetrated with roads. 
The river Stinchar or Ardstinchar runs into 
the sea, at the village of Ballantrae. Anciently 
the name of this parish was Kirk-cuthbert, or 
Kirkcudbright, a title also bestowed on some 
other parishes in Scotland, from the church 
being dedicated to St. Cuthbert. To distin- 
guish it, however, from places of the same 
name, it was given the cumbrous designation 
of Kirk-cuthbert Inver-Tig, from the place of 
worship being situated on the efflux of a small 
rivulet called the Tig into the Stinchar. In 
the course of time a new village was reared 
on the shore, and, in the Scoto-Irish tongue, 
called Bail-an-trae', the town on the shore. 
This little town rose into the character of a 
barony under the patronage of the Lords of 
Bargeny, M r ho were cadets of the noble family 
of Hamilton, and who had here a fortalice ef 
considerable strength, the ruins of which pic- 
turesquely overhang the village, on the right, 
near the bridge over the river. The baron 
having, by his influence, constituted Ballantrae 
the head town in the parish, the old name was 
dropped, and the church erected here. Re- 

* There is no slate wrought in Scotland adapted iox 
school slates. 



cently a neat churcli has been built in the 
plain Gothic style. Ballantrae depends for 
support on the salmon fishing, and by the 
weaving of certain kinds of coarse linen and 
plaids. A native some time ago bequeathed 
L.400 to endow a free school in the village, 
which has done much service to the poorer 
inhabitants. Ballantrae lies 105 miles south- 
west of Edinburgh, 24 north-east of Port- 
patrick, 18 north of Stranraer, 13 south by 
west of Girvan, and 34 south by west of Ayr. 
There are few towns in the south of Scotland, 
so far from all others as Ballantrae. Behind 
it rises the chain of wild and pathless hills 
which constitutes the district of Carrick, and 
extends into Dumfries-shire and Galloway. 
In that direction there are no towns, and 
scarcely any villages, or even hamlets, for 
many miles. The inhabitants of this part of 
the country were, till within the last twenty 
or thirty years, almost as wild and rude as the 
remote Highlanders of Ross-shire, though no 
doubt a great deal wealthier. And what the 
natural circumstances of the district gave rise 
to, was greatly influenced, at one period, by 
the lawless state into which much of the popu- 
lation was thrown by smuggling. It is not 
yet more than forty years, since the immense 
bands of people, who, in this district, attend 
funerals, would fall out on the road to the 
parish town, where the church-yard is situated, 
and, without regard to the sober character of 
their duty, set down the corpse and fight out 
their quarrel, with fists, sticks, and such other 
rustic weapons as they happened to be pos- 
sessed of, till, in the end, one party had to 
quit the field discomfited, leaving the other to 
finish the business of the funeral. Brandy, 
from the French luggers that were perpetually 
hovering on the coast, was the grand inspira- 
tion in these polymachia, which, it is needless 
to say, are totally unknown in our own dis- 
creeter times. Another fact maybe mention- 
ed, as evincing the state of barbarity from 
which Ballantrae has recently emerged, that 
previous to the end of the eighteenth century, 
there was not a single individual connected 
with the three learned faculties, not so much 
as a justice of the peace, in the whole district, 

nor within twelve miles of it Population of 

the town and parish in 1821, 1280. 

a village in the parish of Inchture, in the Carse 

of Gowrie, Perthshire, fourteen miles cast 
from Perth, and nine west from Dundee. 

nounced Binyrey,) au upland parish in the 
county of Fife, three miles in length by one 
in breadth, separated from the south shore of 
Loch Leven by a piece of the parish of Port- 
moak ; bounded by Auchterderran on the 
east and south, and by Beith and Cleish on 
the west. The Orr water rises in the district. 
—Population in 1821, 287. 

BALLO, a hill in the east corner of Perth 
shire, near the firth of Tay, elevated 992 feet 
above the level of the sea. 

BALLOCHMYLE, a seat on the banks 
of the Catrine, near Mauchline, Ayrshire, the 
scene of one of Burn's songs. 

BALMACAPLICH, (Loch) a sound 
betwixt the north end of Benbecula, and 
Grimsay island. 

BALMACLELLAN, a parish in East 
Galloway, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, of which 
the river Ken forms the western boundary. 
The parish is of a moorish character, inter- 
spersed -with some small lakes. It is one oi 
the four parishes in the northern district or 
Kirkcudbright, commonly known by the name 
of Glenkens — that is, straths or dales by the 
side of the Ken. The small village of Bal- 
maclellan stands on the opposite side of the 
Ken to New Galloway, not far from its em 
bochure into the head of Loch Ken, twenty- 
three and a half miles north-west of Kirkcud- 
bright and twelve south-west of Minniehive 
The origin of the name is the residence of the 
Maclettans. — Population in 1821, 912. 

BALMAGHIE, a parish in Mid-Gal- 
loway, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, bordered 
on the north by the river Dee, which, at its 
north-east comer joins Loch Ken, bounded 
on the south by Tongland, and on the west by 
Girthon. Its length may be about eight or 
nine miles, and its breadth from three to six. 
It is a heathy and wild district. It has several 
small lakes, and a number of mineral springs. 
The origin of the name signifies the residence 
oftlie Maghies, that family having been once 
powerful here Population in 1821, 1361. 

BALMANGAN BAY, a small natural 
and safe harbour, in Kirkcudbright Bay, on 
the Galloway coast, 

(pronounced Ba'mirnie,) a parish on the north 



side of the county of Fife, bounded by Forgan 
on the east and Flisk on the west. The 
ground slopes down and undulates from the 
hills to the edge of the Tay. The land is 
well cultivated and enclosed, and there are 
some beautiful plantations. The kirk and 
little hamlet lie on the road along the high 
ground, from the ferry opposite Dundee to New- 
burgh. To the west, and on a slip of ground in- 
truding upon the waters of the Tay, stands the 
ancient village of Balmerino, now a residence 
of hinds, and adjacent to which are the ruins 
of the once famed abbey. This Habitaculum 
ad mare, as Fordoun calls it, was an abbey of 
a beautiful structure, begun by king Alexander 
II., and his mother Emergarde, daughter of 
the Earl of Beaumont, in 1229. This lady 
bought the lands of Balmerinoch, on which she 
reared the monastery, and richly endowed the 
institution, which was furnished with Cis- 
tertian monks. It was dedicated to St. Ed- 
ward and the Virgin. On her death in 1233 
she was buried in the church, " ante magnum 
altare," before the great altar. At the refor- 
mation the edifices were of course dismantled 
and the revenues given to a man of rank. 
James VI. erected Balmerinoch into a tem- 
poral barony, which he bestowed on Sir 
James Elphinston, his secretary, who at the 
time was esteemed a man of great abilities 
as a lawyer. His descendant, Arthur sixth 
Lord Balmerinoch, forfeited both the pro- 
perty and the title in 1746, for his concern 
in the expedition of Prince Charles Stuart. 
He was beheaded along with Lord Kilmar- 
nock on the 18th August 1746. The church 
of the abbey was used as a parish church, till 
1595, when it became unfit for public worship. 
Since that period the whole of the religious edifi- 
ces have gone into complete ruin ; of the clois- 
ters nothing remains above ground but a vault, 
which, along with a contiguous aisle of the 
chapel, is now in a state of almost hopeless 
decay. The latter part still shows a groined 
roof with some supporting pillars, and is de- 
voted to the purpose of a cart-shed for the 
neighbouring farm-stead. These ruins are 
richly enveloped in ivy, and surrounded with 
some fine tall trees growing out of the sacred 
precincts. Recently much of the rubbish has 
been cleared off for the useful purpose of 
building drains and park dikes ; among other 
desecrations, the site of the " magnum altare" 
has been trenched, and the bones of queen 

Emergarde dispersed as curiosities thiough 
the country.-— Population in 1821, 965. 

BALNAGOWAN. See Kilmuir Eas- 

BALNAHUAIGH, an island of about a 
mile in circumference, at the northern extrem- 
ity of Jura, belonging to Argyleshire, and com- 
posed altogether of slate. 

BALQUHIDDER, (in the Celtic lan- 
guage signifying "a village in the centre of five 
glens,") is an inland Highland parish of fifteen 
miles in length, and seven miles at its greatest 
breadth, lying in the western extremity of 
Perthshire, among the Grampians; bounded on 
the north and west by Killin, on the east by 
Comrie, and on the south by Callander. This 
parish is altogether mountainous and pastoral, 
and from the number of declivities of its sides, 
has obtained the popular title of the Braes of 
Balquhidder, by which it is celebrated in 
Scottish song. It comprises several lofty 
mountains, among which Benmore towers 
supereminent, and possesses many beautiful 
lakes, among which Lochdoine, Lochvoil, and 
part of Lochlubnaig, and part of Lochearn are 
the chief. It is also watered by the river 
Balvag. The village of Balquhidder lies at 
the east end of Lochvoil, and is remarkable 
as the last residence of the famous Rob Roy, 
whose grave is pointed out in the church-yard. 
— Population in 1821, 1224. 

BALREGAN HEAD, a small promon- 
tory near Balregan House, in the parish of 
Stoneykirk, at the north-west corner of the 
bottom of Luce Bay. 

B ALTA, a small oblong island off the east 
side of Uist island, which is nearly the north- 
ernmost of the Zetland range. The sea be- 
twixt Balta and Uist is called Balta Sound. 

BALVAG, a river in Balquhidder, Perth- 
shire, connecting Loch Doine, Loch Voil, and 
Loch Lubnaig; after which it flows in a 
southerly direction, and being joined with the 
waters of Loch Venacher at Callander, forms 
the Teith river. 

BALVAIRD, a castle in the south-east 
corner of Perthshire, situated among the hills 
of Abernethy. This was the prima sedes, or 
first possession of the present flourishing fa- 
mily of Mansfield, who were originally the 
lairds of Balvaird, afteiwards Lords Scoon, 
next viscounts of Stormonth, and, finally, 
Earls of Mansfield. It is needless to say, that 
the last title came into the family through its 



distinguished cadet, the late Lord Chief Justice 
of the King's Bench. 

BALVENIE, one of the districts of the 
county of Banff. 

BANCHORY-DAVINICK, a parish ly- 
ing on both sides of the river Dee, partly in 
Aberdeenshire, and partly in Kincardineshire, 
bounded at the one extremity by the sea, and 
extending about six miles along the river. The 
district is rugged, heathy, and stony. There 
is nothing worthy of particular remark in 
the parish. The kirk of Banchory is on the 
north bank of the Dee. — Population in 1821, 

BANCHORY-TERNAN, a parish in 
the counties of Kincardine and Aberdeen, far- 
ther up the Dee than Banchory-Davinick, 
bounded by Strachan on the south, Durris on 
the east, and Mid- Mar on the north. The 
village lies on the north side of the Dee In 
general, this and the preceding place are writ- 
ten and called Banchory ; a word which signi- 
fies in the Gaelic, " an opening between two 
hills."— Population in 1821, 1729. 

BANFFSHIRE, a county of no great ex- 
tent, lying in a longitudinal slope betwixt a 
range of the Grampian hills and the Moray 
firth, and respectively bounded on the east and 
west by Aberdeenshire and the county of Mo- 
ray. The inland extremity of Banffshire is 
sharpened to a point at the head of Glen- 
Avon. This district was at one time a com- 
ponent part of the large province of Moray, 
which altogether forms one of the finest tracts 
of ground in the northern part of Scotland. 
On the eastern side of the Deveron, in the 
district of Buchan, the parish of Gamrie and 
some other spots of ground belong to Banffshire. 
That part of the country bounded by the sea 
is computed at twenty-four miles in length, 
and from the shore to the head of Glen- Avon 
the distance is fifty miles. In all it presents 
a superficies of 1015 square miles. It con- 
tains two royal burghs — Cullen and Banff, and 
three or four thriving villages of considerable 
size. It comprehends twenty-four parishes ; 
and the country, in popidar phraseology, is 
divided into districts agreeable to local config- 
uration. Bristling at its interior extremity is 
the forest of Glen- Avon, from whence pro- 
ceeds, in a north-easterly direction, the Strath 
of Glen-Avon on the left, and Strath Dever- 
on on the right. Betwixt these, like a bond 
of connexion, is Glen-Livet, from whence, in 

a north-easterly direction, again diverges Glen- 
Fiddich. Nearly in continuation of this val- 
ley runs the Strath of Balvenie. In the lower 
part of the shire are Strath Islay, Strath Boyne, 
and, crossing the Deveron, a part of Buchan. 
By such an intermixture of valleys and flat 
ground among the ranges of hills, the country 
is agreeably diversified, and possesses many 
beautiful fertile braes productive of the finest 
crops, or serviceable for the excellence of their 
green pasture. Its waters are the Spey, the 
Livet, the Avon, the Fiddich, the Deveron, 
the Isla, the Conglas, and several more minute 
streams. The Deveron is not navigable, but 
this, as well as the Spey (which is properly an 
Inverness-shire river, though running along 
part of the border of Banffshire,) yields excel- 
lent salmon-fishing, and is thus the source 
of great comfort and wealth to the inhabi- 
tants. Along the coast there are a number 
of small waters, which fall with a quick des- 
cent, and are useful in turning machinery 
in different little towns, where manufac- 
tures have been begun. Limestone is plen- 
tiful in Banffshire, and from the district of 
Balvenie -hones or whetstones are dug in great 
quantities. The county contains many lofty 
mountains, among which Belrinnes on the 
Spey, and Knockhill, a hill disjointed from 
the Grampians at their northern termination, 
are the principal. The climate of Banffshire 
is precarious. In the hilly districts all the 
evils of cold and rain are often felt, and as 
frost and snows frequently set in without any 
interval of good weather, the harvests are not 
only endangered, but the operations of hus- 
bandry are suspended for many of the winter 
months. The lower part of the shire from 
Duff House to Forglen, and Kinnairdy, a tract 
of about twelve miles along the river side, and 
from Banff to Gordon Castle, including the 
districts of Boyne and Enzie, must be except- 
ed, being nearly equal to the climate of Mor- 
ay, and greatly surpassing the most part of the 
country in the fertility of the soil, the improve- 
ments of its agriculture, and the richness of its 
productions. The proprietary of Banffshire 
is very Umited. Nearly the whole of the 
lands belong to the Duke of Gordon, the Earl 
of Seafield, the Earl of Fife, and Lord 
Banff, all of whom have elegant seats, though 
unfortunately, here as elsewhere, the district 
is abandoned to the miseries of absenteeism. 
A part of Banffshire suffered serious injury by 



the great flood of August 1829. Under the 
auspices of Parliamentary commissioners, the 
county has been recently much improved and 
opened up by new roads. By the latest coun- 
ty roll, there were fifty-one freeholders in the 
shire, who return a member to parliament. 

The chief seats in Banffshire are Gordon 
Castle, Leicheston, and Glenfiddich, Duke of 
Gordon, Letterfourie, and Durn, Gordon, Bart. 
Cairnfield House, Gordon ; Duff House, Ro- 
thiemay, and Balvenie Castle, Earl of Fife ; 
Kinairdy, Duff, Bart. Carnousie, Duff; May- 
en, Duff ; Haddo, Duff, Troup, Garden ; Bir- 
kenbog and Forglen Castle, Abercrombie, Bart. 
Banff Castle, Cullen House, and JRannas, Earl 
of Seafield; Ardbrask; Frendraught ; Auch- 
hilonl ; ^Rossieburn ; Netherdale ,■ Balderny ; 
Airnd'dly ,■ Kinnivie ; Lesmurdy ,• Auchincart ; 

Table of Heights in Banffshire. 

Feet above 
the Sea. 

Buck or Cabrach . . 2377 
Knockhill . . 2500 

Corryhabbie . . 2558 

Belrirmes. . . 2747 

Cairngorm . • 4244 

Population in 1821, Males 20,193, Fe- 
males 23,368 ; Total 43,501. 

BANFF, a parish in the above co-unty, ly- 
ing in the western angle formed by the Deve- 
ron and the sea into which it falls ; bounded 
by Boyndie on the west, and Alva on the 
south ; extending six miles in length, by two 
in breadth. The parish is finely diversified, 
and a good part of it is devoted to pasture. 
The shore is bold and rocky. In this parish 
was born Dr. James Sharpe, Archbishop of 
St. Andrews, whose father was sheriff-clerk of 
the county. The parish is in the presbytery 
of Fordyce. 

Banff, the capital of the foregoing county, 
to which it gives its name, and of the above 
parish, is situated on the side of a hill over- 
looking the west bank of the Deveron, and 
its confluence with the sea. It lies 165 
miles north-east of Edinburgh, 45 north-west 
of Aberdeen, and 80 east of Inverness. Banff 
is exactly such a town as might be expected 
from such a situation, and from the capital of 
a small county. It comprises several well- 
built streets ; is, in general, old fashioned in 
appearance, but remarkably clean and neat. It 
has a good modern town-house, with an ele- 

gant spire, and possesses also a fine new church, 
and an academy. The better sort of houses 
have generally stones in front, whereon are 
carved inscriptions, indicating the builders and 
date of erection. Its harbour is bad, and not 
visited by much shipping ; the chief trade of 
an export nature being in salmon, herrings, 
and other fish. With this exception, Banff is 
a town destitute of commerce, but it contains 
an immense number of wealthy and respecta- 
ble inhabitants, chiefly genteel annuitants, who 
contribute considerably to the support of the 
piace, and shed the lustre of fashion over its 
society. The river Deveron is here crossed 
by a handsome bridge of seven arches, which 
gives access to a modern sea-port, called Port 
Macduff, a place possessing much more trade 
than Banff. From the bridge a splendid view 
is obtained in looking up the water ; having 
Duff House, the seat of the Earl of Fife, ris- 
ing sheer out of a beautiful green park, and 
surrounded by an interminable wilderness of 
trees. The front of this elegant mansion is 
elaborately decorated with sculptures, and in 
the interior there are some excellent pictures, 
which no traveller of taste ought to pass with- 
out seeing. Banff was erected into a royal 
burgh by Robert II., 1372, and its charter 
was confirmed by the latter princes of the 
house of Stuart. It is governed by a pro- 
vost, four bailies, and twelve councillors ; and 
takes its turn with Elgin, Cullen, Inverury, 
and Kintore, in giving its casting vote for a 
member of parliament. Banff is a barony, 
and, as such, gives a title to the family of 
Ogilvie. About a century ago, the town was 
the scene of the execution of the noted robber 
named Macpherson, who had long " held 
the country side in fear," but was at length 
taken by an intrepid ancestor of the present 
Lord Fife. When this man was brought 
out to the place of execution, he carried with 
him his fiddle, on which instrument he was a 
great proficient. He played his own funeral 
march, which had been composed by himself 
in prison, and then held out the instrument, 
offering it to any person who dared to accept 
such a parting gift from such a character. No 
one presumed to come forward and take it ; 
whereupon he broke it upon his knee, and with 
an indignant countenance submitted to his fate. 
A ballad was soon after published, commemo- 
rating his exploits and noble character, and 
sung to the tune which he had played going to 



the gallows. This Burns has subjected to a 
happy revised, under the title of " Macpherson's 
Farewell." In the course of the great floods 
of August 1829, the town of Banff was sub- 
jected to all the horrors and evils of a destruc- 
tive inundation. The lower grounds around 
Duff House were filled to the height of four- 
teen feet with water ; but this was of trifling 
moment in comparison with the inundation of 
the low streets in the town, and the most se- 
rious apprehensions were entertained of the sta- 
bility of the bridge. By the foolhardiness of 
the coachman and guard of the royal mail 
coach, that vehicle was attempted to be driven 
through the flood in one of the streets, and 
was completely swamped, with the loss of three 
of its horses. A number of the houses were 
on this occasion undermined, and carried away 
by the waters, and in general, the damage done 
was considerable. Banff has a weekly market 
on Friday, and four annual fairs. There are 
four branch banks in the town. The places 
of worship are the established kirk, and meet- 
ing-houses of independents, seceders, and me- 
thodists. There is also a Roman catholic and 
an Episcopal chapel. The latter is a hand- 
some edifice, and the number of episcopalians 
is considerable. The fast-days of the kii'k are 
generally the Thursday before the last Sunday 
of April and first Sunday of November. — Po- 
pulation of the burgh and parish in 1821, 3855. 
BANKHEAD, a mountain in the western 
extremity of Dumfries-shire. 

BANK-NOCK, a considerable colliery 
in Stirlingshire, from whence a great quantity 
of coal is imported by the canals to Edinburgh. 
BANNOCKBURN, a village, in the pa- 
rish of St. Ninians, Stirlingshire, situated on 
both sides, (but chiefly the east side), of the 
rivulet called Bannockburn, which here runs 
through a glen, and after a course of a few 
miles drops into the Forth on its south bank, 
at a place called Manor. The village of Ban- 
nockburn, which partly lies along the road 
from Stirling to Edinburgh, by the way of Fal- 
kirk, is one of the most industrious and thriv- 
ing villages in Scotland. For many years its 
inhabitants have devoted themselves to the ma- 
nufacture of tartan cloths, and such peculiar 
woollen fabrics, as well as carpets of an excel- 
lent quality, and other articles in the woollen 
line. A considerable trade is here carried on 
also in the tanning of leather. It has two an- 
nual fairs. The country in this district con- 

sists of long descending braes with a northern 
exposure to the Firth of Forth, and it was on 
one of those uplands, betwixt the villages of 
Bannockburn and St. Ninians, that, on Mon- 
day the 24th of July 1314, was fought the me- 
morable and important battle of Bannockburn, 
by which the independence of the kingdom of 
Scotland was permanently secured against the 
ambition of the English monarchy. Bruce's 
forces were stationed in three divisions, alongthe 
front of an eminence called the Gillies' Hill, 
extending from south-west to north-east between 
the farm of Greysteil and the village of St. 
Ninians. About half a mile south from St. 
Ninians, upon the top of an eminence called 
Caldan Hill, and close by the side of the old 
road from Stirling to Kilsyth, is a large earth- 
fast granite, called the Bored Stone, having a 
hole in the top, in which the Scottish king in- 
serted his standard. The very great veneration 
in which this stone is held by the Scottish peo- 
ple, has of late endangered its existence, many 
persons having chipped off large pieces to be 
formed into brooches and other trinkets, 
which are worn as memorials of one of Scot- 
land's proudest days. The hole — the sacred 
hole, has thus become so much defaced, as to 
be scarcely observable. The English army 
advanced from the heights on the east, and 
crossed the burn of Bannock before joining in 
the conflict. After having passed the burn, 
they stumbled in a series of concealed pits, 
which had been dug by order of Bruce, and 
were finally defeated with a loss of 30,000 men, 
and 700 knights. In the lower extremity of a 
lawn which fronts a villa near the neighbouring 
village of Newhouses, are seen two upright 
stones, erected in commemoration of a noted 
skirmish fought upon the spot between Ran- 
dolph, Earl of Murray, and Sir Robert Clif- 
ford, the commander of an English party which 
Edward had despatched on the eve of the battle 
of Bannockburn to the relief of Stirling Cas- 
tle. This place is still popularly termed Ran- 
dal's Field, and is only about half a mile from 
the town of Stirling. About a mile from Ban- 
nockburn in another direction, the destruc- 
tion of a party of English, who had attempted 
to rally, and were completely cut off, has given 
the name of Bloody Field to the spot where 
they fell. There is also a place in this neigh- 
bourhood called Ingram's Crook, which is sup, 
posed to have derived its name from Sir In- 
gram Umfraville, one of the English command. 


B A R A. 

ers. The Gillios' Hill above noticed, derives 
its name from an incident which occurred dur- 
ing the battle, and is said to have contributed 
greatly to the discomfiture of the English. 
Westward of this hill is a valley, where Bruce 
had stationed his baggage, under the charge of 
the gillies or servants and followers of the camp. 
At the critical moment when the English line 
was wavering, and confusion reigned on the 
left flank, these gillies, either from curiosity to 
behold the battle, or with the design of assist- 
ing their countrymen, advanced to the summit 
of the hill, and being taken for a reinforcement 
of the Scottish army, caused th.e English to 
give way in a panic. About a mile westward 
from the field of Bannockburn, was fought in 
1488 the battle which occasioned the death of 
James III. ; see Saughieburn. 

name of a considerable island in the Hebrides, 
and also applied generally to a little cluster of 
islets amidst which that island is situated ; the 
whole forming the most southerly group of 
those entitled the Western Islands, and con- 
stituting a parish in the county of Inverness. 
Barra Proper is about eight miles in length, 
(excluding a narrow long peninsula jutting out 
from the north-west corner,) and from two to 
four in breadth. In all parts it is very much 
indented by the sea. The principal other 
islands in the range, are Watersay, Sanderay, 
Dabay, Mengalay, and Berneray on the south ; 
Flodday, Hellesay, Gigay on the east; be- 
sides a number of smaller islands not inhabit- 
ed. The island of Watersay is separated from 
the main island by a channel of one mile in 
length, and in some places a mile and a half 
broad. The next is Sanderay, distant five 
miles south of Barra. It is about two miles 
in length and breadth. Pabbay, eight miles 
from Barra, is one mile and a half in length by 
one in breadth. Betwixt it and Sanderay, the 
water is called Pabbay Sound. The next is 
Mengalay, at the distance of twelve miles, 
three miles in length, and two in breadth. 
The last is the small island of Berneray six- 
teen miles from Barra, the southern point of 
which obtains the name of Barra Head. 
These islands are fertile in corn and grass, but 
liable to be blasted by the south-west winds, 
which frequently prevail here. They are very 
difficult of access, on account of the strong 
currents running between them. They feed 
cattle for exportation to the lowland markets, 

and the shores yield good fishing, as well as 
kelp. Barra has been long the seat of the 
chief of the clan M'Neill, a sept supposed to 
be of Irish origin, and perhaps the most un- 
mixed of all the Highland clans. In ancient 
times, nothing could exceed the conceit and 
consequence of the great M'Neill, the head of 
his clan ; he conducted himself like the inde- 
pendent sovereign of a great kingdom, instead 
of the proprietor of a few mountainous islets, 
with a dismal climate. It is related, that it 
was the usual custom in remote periods, when 
" the family" had dined, for a herald to sound 
a horn from the tower of the castle, and make 
the following proclamation in the Gaelic lan- 
guage, " Hear, O ye people ! and listen, O ye 
nations ! The great M'Neill of Barra, having 
finished his dinner, all the princes of the earth 
have liberty to dine !" The family of M'Neill is 
now in possession of all those qualities which 
distinguish the upper classes of society in 
Great Britain. At the south-east end of Barra, 
on an insulated rock half a mile from the shore, 
stands the extensive ruin of Chisamil Castle, 
still tolerably entire. It consists of an irregu- 
lar four-sided . area within a high wall, con- 
taining many distinct buildings. One of the 
angles is filled by a high and strong tower, 
which must have been the keep, and on the 
opposite corner is a small tower, which seems 
to have been the prison. The walls are em- 
battled on one side, and provided with a covered 
way and loopholes, so as to render the defence 
in that quarter very complete. It is altogether 
a work displaying more art than most of 
the Highland castles. The highest of these 
islands ranges from 800 to 1000 feet, and 
some of them are continually altering their 
appearance by the shifting and blowing of sand 
from the shores. Barra has a good harbour 
on the north-east side. — Population in 1821, 

BARBAUCHLAW BURN, a rivulet in 
the western part of Linlithgowshire, running 
northwards to the Avon Water. 

BARD EN, a streamlet tributary to the 
Lossie, in the county of Moray. 

BARGARRAN, a village in the county 
of Renfrew. 

BARHEAD, a village occupied chiefly by 
weavers, in Renfrewshire, on the Lavern 
water, three miles south-east of Paisley. 

BARNS (WEST), a village on the road 
from Haddington to Dunbar, and one mile and 

BASS. (T H E) 


three quarters from the latter town, — chiefly 
supported by a large distillery. 

BARNS, (EAST) a village two miles to 
the south-east of Dunbar. 

BARNYARDS, a village in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood of Kilconquhar, which 
lies north of Ely, in Fife. 

BARO, a parish in Haddingtonshire, now 
united to Garvald. 

BARR, a parish in Ayrshire, district of 
Carrick, formerly a part of the parishes of 
Girvan and Dailly, but separated in 1653. In 
this parish, on the bank of the Stinchar, stand 
the ruins of a chapel dedicated to our Lord, 
commonly called Kirk Dominae, at which there 
is held a great annual fair on the last Saturday 
of May. The village of Barr is on the public 
road, on the south side of- the Stinchar. — Po- 
pulation in 1821, 837. 

BARR, a hill in the parish of Kilbarchan, 

BARR, a small sea-side village on the west 
6ide of Cantire, about the middle of the penin- 
sula, and thirteen miles south from Campbel- 
ton. Barr House is in the vicinity. 

BARRACK HILL, a high hill near the 
north-west point of Caithness, facing the Pent- 
Zand Firth. 

BARRIE, a parish in Forfarshire, lying in 
an angle of land jutting out into the sea at the 
mouth of the Firth of Tay, the point of which 
is called Buddon Ness ; bounded on the north 
and north-east by Monikie and Panbride. The 
village of Barrie is on the road from Broughty 
to Arbroath. The parish is sandy, and abounds 
in tumuli, significant of the visits and con- 
flicts of the Danes on this coast. On the shore 
there are light-houses to guide the entrance into 
the Tay. The manufacture of brown linens 
here, as in most of the adjacent country, occu- 
pies the attention of a great portion of the 
inhabitants. — Population in 1821, 1357. 

BARRY or BARTIE HILL, parish of 
Alyth, Perthshire, conspicuous from its height 
of 688 feet, on the summit of which are the 
remains of some military works of an ancient 
rude character. 

southern promontory of South Ronaldsha 
isiand, Orkney, from whence there is a ferry 
across the Pentland firth. 

BARVAS, a parish in the island of Lewis, 
one of the Hebrides ; belonging to the county 
of Ross. It occupies the whole northern half 

of Lewis, being thirty-six miles long, by thir- 
teen broad, bounded on the land side by Storn- 
oway. It is a poor desolate region, with a 
bold rocky coast, and exhibits the remains of 
many old Romish chapels, and other antiqui- 
ties Population in 1821, 2568. 

BARVIE, a tributary stream of the Earn, 
Perthshire, parish of Monzie. 

BASS, (THE) an insular rock or island 
in the mouth of the Firth of Forth, lying with- 
in two miles of the coast of East-Lothian, 
opposite the ruin of Tantallan Castle, and 
about three miles from North Berwick, in 
lat. 56° 4 53", and long. 2° 37' 57" west. It 
is a mile in circumference, and rises 400 feet 
above the surface of the sea ; but from the 
depth of the water, which varies from thirty 
to forty fathoms, the total height of the island 
may be estimated at 600 feet. The channel 
betwixt it and the land is deep, and is ordinarily 
taken by steam-vessels to and from London 
and Leith. The Bass is cliffy, and inacces- 
sible on all sides except by a narrow passage 
on the south-west towards the land, where the 
precipice is less abrupt and high. In its gene- 
ral aspect and character, the Bass resembles no 
insular rock in Britain so much as Ailsa Craig, 
in the firth of Clyde. It is, however, less co- 
nical than that islet. Its top slopes down on 
the south side like the roof of a house, and the 
whole resembles in shape one of those coffers, 
which, in the last age, were to be seen on all 
sideboards for the reception of knives and 
forks. A fearful caverned passage penetrates 
through below the rock from east to west, which 
may be explored at low water. It is dark in 
the centre, where there is a deep pool. Im- 
mediately commanding the landing-place is a 
small fortalice now in ruins, which at one time 
consisted of a curtain and four square towers. 
At one period of its history this castle could 
only be reached by means of ladders, or a 
bucket and chains, so securely was it guarded. 
In the fort there was accommodation for up- 
wards of 100 men. Behind the ramparts, which 
still remain, the ascent is by three flights of 
stairs, each of which is protected by a strong 
gate. About half way up the acclivity there 
are the remains of a small chapel with a bap- 
tismal font. In this place the garrison kept 
their ammunition. Behind the chapel there is 
the appearance of a garden. It is reported by 
tradition, that in early times the Bass was 
honoured by being the residence of St. Bald- 



red, a disciple of Kentigern, and the apostle of 
East-Lothian. We have in vain searched for 
an authentic record of this circumstance, though 
we are far from doubting that this holy man 
had a cell on the island. It is indisput- 
able that he had a residence at Tynningham, 
which is at no great distance, from whence he 
proceeded at intervals over the adjacent coun- 
try, as a missionary of Christianity. Baldred 
flourished at the beginning of the seventh cen- 
tury, and died the6th of March 608. It appears 
by the catalogue of Scottish saints, that he was 
the successor of St. Kentigern, commonly 
called St. Mungo, at Glasgow. As the bishop 
of Rome had no shadow of power in Scotland 
for several centuries after the death of Baldred, 
readers will comprehend, that that venerable 
apostle was not of the Romish church ; but 
was, in verity, a bishop of those pure princi- 
ples, for which the protestant episcopal church 
is yet distinguished. The name of Baldred is 
connected with many localities on the coast 
opposite the Bass. Near Whitberry Point, 
there is a rock, which, projecting into the sea 
in an oblique manner, causes a sort of creek, 
into which the waves flow with turbid and im- 
petuous violence. This creek, by reason of 
its being a deep hollow, is caaed JBaldred's 
cradle,- the common people say, with great 
elegance of imagination, that Baldred's cradle 
is " rocked by the winds and waves." When 
St. Baldred died, such was the veneration in 
which he was held, that three neighbouring 
parishes of Auldhame, Tynningham, and Pres- 
ton, laid claim to his remains. It being im- 
possible to satisfy the multitude without su- 
pernatural agency, the enraged embassy were 
on the point of deciding their right by blows, 
when a Pictish sage judiciously advised them 
to spend the night in prayer, that the bishop 
of the diocese might have an opportunity of 
settling their dispute in the morning. " When 
day dawned," says Holinshed with becoming 
gravity, " there were found three biers, with 
three bodies, decently covered with clothes, so 
like, in all resemblance, that no man might 
perceive any difference. Then by command- 
ment of the bishop, and with great joy of all 
the people, the said several bodies were carried 
severally unto the three said several churches, 
and in the same buried, in most solemn wise, 
where they remain to this day in much honour 
with the common people of the countries near 
adjoining." Whether the hermitage of St. 

Baldred continued to be a place of residence 
of some religionist, until the Reformation, is 
not satisfactorily known. It is at least certain, 
that the island was inhabited at the beginning 
of the fifteenth century; for, in 1406, King 
Robert III. placed his son James (afterwards 
James I.) here, to remain till a vessel was 
prepared to convey him to France ; and here, 
accordingly, the prince embarked on that voy- 
age which was so unfortunately interrupted by 
a nineteen years captivity in England. The 
Bass was the property of an old family which 
took its territorial appellation from it — Lauder 
of the Bass — one of whom was a compatriot 
of Wallace. The knight of the time of the 
civil war, was a great royalist, and Maggie 
Lauder, celebrated under an imaginary charac- 
ter in Scottish song, was his daughter. For 
an anecdote of her masculine character, see 
Introduction to " Scottish Songs," by one of the 
authors of the present work. The residence 
of the family appears to have not been upon 
the Bass, but at the neighbouring town of 
North Berwick. After the Restoration, when 
the cruel persecutions of the Covenanters 
began to fill the hands of the state with rather 
unruly prisoners, Charles II. purchased the 
Bass from Sir Robert Lauder, and erected a 
state-prison upon it — though not without great 
reluctance upon the part of the proprietor, who 
even expressed to his majesty a determination 
to "haethe auld craig back again." After 
having served, during the reigns of the two 
last Stewarts, as a state-prison, and guarded the 
bodies of many scores of stout westland whigs, 
this fortress became distinguished, in the early 
part of the reign of William III., for the per- 
severing fortitude with which its governor held 
it out against the new dynasty. It actually 
defied every effort to reduce it for several 
years ; gaining, in the end, the lamentable dis- 
tinction of having been the last spot of British 
ground which acknowledged the sway of a 
constitutional and defined monarchy as the sub- 
stitute of a despotism. The prison and forti- 
fications were afterwards dismantled ; but the 
walls and dungeons are still, in a great mea- 
sure, entire. Like Ailsa Craig, the Bass is 
peopled by inconceivable myriads of sea-fowl, 
especially solan-geese, which are produced in 
no other part of Scotland, except in the isle 
just mentioned. This is a large white bird, 
remarkable for producing only a single egg, 
(which it hatches on the bare rock,) whence, 



it is supposed, the word solan is derived. Its 
flesh is liked by some old-fashioned Scottish 
tastes, though it has too fishy a flavour to be 
agreeable to general palates. King Charles II., 
to whom one was presented at table, when he 
was in Scotland, is said to have remarked, 
after tasting it, that there were just two things 
he did not like in Scotland — a Solan Goose, and 
the Solemn League and Covenant. We could 
take it upon us to affirm that he could not re- 
lish the one worse than the other. The island 
affords food for about a score of sheep, the 
flesh of which is in great request among epi- 
cures. Bass mutton, like Loehfine herrings, 
is scarcely to be procured genuine. We have 
heard of an Edinburgh butcher, who used to 
brag under the rose to his friends, that he us- 
ually found means to dispose of a hundred 
carcasses of Bass mutton annually ; that is, 
five times more than the whole of the real 
annual produce. The Bass is now the pro- 
perty of the family of Dalrymple, Baronet, 
North Berwick. Its annual rent for birds 
alone, is L.30, and the pasturage is let for 
L.10. It pays, annually, twelve geese to the 
church of North Berwick, as part of the mi- 
nister's stipend, and two to the schoolmaster. 
The best season for visiting the Bass is during 
ihe incubation of the geese, in the months of 
June and July ; and the most propitious time 
is shortly after sunrise, when the waves are 
calm and the greatest variety of birds is to be 
seen. Boats usually put off from the little 
village of Canty-Bay, nearly two miles east of 
North Berwick. During the summer months, 
coaches proceed from Edinburgh daily to the 
latter place. Drummond, in his Polemomid- 
dinia, celebrates the Bass under the designa- 
tion of " Solangoosifera Bassa," and Home, 
in his Douglas, alludes to its situation in these 
lines : — 

The fierce Dane, 
Upon the eastern coast of Lothian landed. 
Near to that place where the sea-rock immense, 
Amazing Bass, looks o'er a fertile land. 

BATHGATE, a parish in Linlithgow- 
shire, extending seven miles in length by two 
in breadth, bounded on the north by Torphichen 
and Linlithgow, and on the south by Whitburn. 
The land is hill and dale ; is tolerably well 
wooded, and the best parts of it are in a high 
state of cultivation. To the south, the south- 
west, and west, a considerable portion of the 
surface is level, cold and wet. Of late much 

has been done by draining, planting and en- 
closing. Silver was anciently wrought to a 
great extent in the hills to the north of the 
town of Bathgate, and the vast workings still 
attest the fact. The mines were wrought by 
Germans, and tradition mentions that they 
lost the great vein on the very night they had 
met in solemn festival to dedicate the mine to 
a tutelar saint. The proprietor, the Earl of 
Hopetoun, rescued the works, after the lapse 
of nearly a century, but the vein so mysteri- 
ously lost, was never again discovered. Free- 
stone, ironstone, coal and moss abound in the 
parish, and there is an abundance of limestone, 
which is wrought to a great extent, and sup- 
plies the whole of this district of country. 

Bathgate, the capital of the above parish, 
lies in the middle road betwixt Edinburgh and 
Glasgow, eighteen miles distant from the 
former, twenty-four from the latter, and about 
five from Linlithgow. It is pleasantly situated 
near the southern base of a great ridge of hills 
extending across the county from north-west 
to north-east. To the south of the town the 
country is undulating and well wooded. Bath- 
gate lays claim to considerable antiquity. 
Malcolm IV. granted to the monks of Holy- 
rood the church of Bathket, with the land be- 
longing to it. During the reign of Robert I. 
the church, with its tithes, lands, and per- 
tinents, were transferred by the abbot and 
monks of Holyrood, to the abbot and monks 
of Newbotle, near Dalkeith, in satisfaction of 
a long arrear of rent, which was then due for 
some salt-works and estates in the Carse of 
Callander. From this period to the Refor- 
mation the parish church of Bathgate was 
served by a vicar from Newbotle. At one 
period Bathgate and its adjoining lands formed 
part of the ample possessions of Robert Bruce, 
which, in 1306, he gave in dowry with his 
daughter Marjory, to Walter Stewart. This 
marriage introduced the Stewart family to the 
sovereignty of Scotland. Walter himself died 
here, in 1328, at one of his principal resi- 
dences, the remains of which may still be 
traced near the town, along with some narrow 
causeways which led to it through the soft 
ground. The inhabitants of the town and 
parish took an active part in the troubles during 
" the persecution," and suffered in proportion. 
A conical hill in the neighbourhood is pointed 
out on which they held their illegal conventi- 
cles. In consequence of some participation 



in the murder of two of the king's officers and 
party at a place in the neighbourhood called 
Swinabbey, all the inhabitants of this and two 
adjoining parishes, above the age of twelve 
years, were carried prisoners to Edinburgh, 
where the greater part were confined in the 
Grayfriars' church-yard; the jails being so 
crowded that they could not be received into 
them. They were not liberated till after the 
battle of Bothwell Bridge. The town of Bath- 
gate consists of a new and an old part. The 
old town consists of several narrow crooked 
lanes built on a steep ridge. The new town 
is tolerably well, though not closely, built, on 
a regular plan. Some years since it was 
governed by a bailie appointed by the pro- 
prietor of the barony. By an act of parliament 
in 1824, it was created a free burgh of barony, 
and placed under the control of a provost, 
three bailies, twelve councillors, a treasurer, a 
town clerk, and a procurator fiscal. The 
election of the magistrates takes place annu- 
ally, in September, by a free vote of the bur- 
gesses. Six annual fairs are held, two of 
which are of considerable importance, and take 
place at Martinmas and Whitsunday. A 
weekly market is held on Wednesday. A jus- 
tice of peace court sits monthly. A branch of 
the National Bank is settled, and is of much 
use in the district. Besides the parish church, 
which is a clumsy awkward edifice, there are 
three dissenting meeting-houses. The annual 
fast day is the Thursday before the second 
Sunday of July. Of late Bathgate has been 
distinguished for the excellence of an educa- 
tional institution, endowed by the late Mr. 
Newlands of Jamaica, a native of the town. 
The endowment maintains five teachers, from 
whom all the children in the parish receive an 
excellent education. Within these few years 
Bathgate has acquired a large population, prin- 
cipally supported by the adjacent lime and 
coal-works, and by the weaving of cotton goods 
for the Glasgow manufactures. The town 
has a very useful subscription library. — Popu- 
lation of the town and parish in 1821, 3283. 

BAVELAW BURN, a trouting rivulet 
in Mid-Lothian, falling into the Water of 
Leith at Balerno. 

BEATH, a parish in Fife, four miles long 
and three broad ; bounded by Cleish on the 
north, Ballingrey on the east, Dalgety and 
Auchtertoul on the south, and Dunfermline on 
the west. The land is moorish, and the surface 

is very irregular. This is eminently a coal dis- 
trict, and from a place called Halbeath, great 
quantities are exported. The kirk of Beatfy 
distinguished in Scottish history as the intend- 
ed scene of an ambuscade projected by the 
Earl of Moray, and other malcontent nobles, 
against Queen Mary and Daniley, stands ort 
the south side of the small lake called Loch- 
end, from Whence a rivulet flows into the 
Orr. Improvements, in the shape of drains, 
and otherwise, have been prosecuted to a con- 
siderable extent here. — Population in 1821, 

BEAULY, a village lying on the north 
side of the river of the same name, as it pours 
into Loch Beauly, an inner branch of the Mo- 
ray Firth, Inverness-shire. The situation of 
this place is beautiful from the windings of the 
river and appearance of the country, and thence 
its name, Beau-lieu, fine place. The village is 
small but picturesque, and is reached by a hand- 
some new bridge from the village of Kirkhill. 
Close by its side, and verging upon the extre- 
mity of the firth, stand the ruins of the prio- 
ry, foimded in 1230, and peopled by monks 
from France, who gave the place its name. 
This religious establishment has never been dis- 
tinguished to a great degree by the architec- 
tural graces, while the redness of the stone de- 
prives even the ruins of that venerable and sad- 
dened beauty which generally attaches to such 
remains of antiquity. Some effect, however, 
is given to the place by a few large sombre 
trees springing from the area, which is now 
used as a burying-ground. 

BEAULY RIVER, above noticed, is 
chiefly composed of three lesser streams, the 
Farrar, the Carrick, and Glass, which give 
names to as many glens. It runs about eight 
miles before entering the Firth at Beauly. On 
this track are the falls of Kilmorack, a scene of 
great natural beauty, much resorted to by tour- 
ists. Its banks are bold and rocky, and in the 
course of its windings it divides in such a way 
as to form the beautiful island of Aigash. 
There is excellent salmon fishing in the Beau- 
ly, and at the falls a number are caught oc- 
casionally by their leaping on the dry banks in 
their efforts to surmount the cataract. No- 
ticing the frequency of this mistake of the sal- 
mon, the last Lord Lovat once performed a 
curious experiment here. He made a fire on 
the rocky brink, and placed on it a large pot 
filled with water. Speedily a salmon, making 

B E I T H. 


a leap in a wrong direction, (from the frothi- 
ness of the water), tumbled into the pot, where 
it was soon boiled and eaten by his Lordship 
and attendants. This was done, that he might 
boast in the south of the wonders that existed 
in the Highlands, which were then little known, 
and to say that in his country provisions abound- 
ed so much, that if a fire was made, and a pot 
set to boil on the bank of a river, the salmon 
would of themselves leap into the pot to be 

BEDRULE, a parish in the centre of the 
county of Roxburgh, four miles in length by 
two in breadth, bounded by Jedburgh on the 
east, by Abbotrule, now annexed partly to 
Southdean, on the south, and separated on the 
west from Hobkirk and Cavers by the Rule 
water. The land is fertile and well cultivated 
in the lower parts. Rule is a common appel- 
lation in the district. In the estimation of the 
historian, the manner in which the parish, ori- 
ginally called Rule, received the adjunct of 
Bed, is worthy of notice. In the early part of 
the twelfth century, this district was the pro- 
perty of an heiress named Bethoc, who gave 
her name to the parish. This lady was the 
ancestress of a long line of heroes and heroines. 
She was the wife of Rudulph the son of Du- 
negal, and from her were descended Ran- 
dolph Earl of Moray, who supported the 
crown on the head of Bruce, and his daughter 
Black Agnes, who with so much honour de- 
fended her husband's castle of Dunbar. Rule- 
Bethoc was the name of the parish before it 
was changed to Beth or Bedrule. — Population 
in 1821, 366. 

BEE, (LOCH) an irregular straggling 
inlet of the sea, at the north end of South 

BEEMER ISLAND, a small rocky islet 
in the Firth of Forth, lying opposite Queens- 

may here be mentioned, that Bein, Ben, and 
Pen, are varieties of the Celtic word for hill. 
BEIN-AN-INI, a mountain in Mull. 
BE IN-AN-LO CHAN, a mountain in the 
county of Argyle. 

BEIN-ARDLANACH, a lofty hill in 
the county of Perth, district of Rannoch. 

BEIN-BHARFHION, one of the high- 
est hills in Arran. 

BEIN-CHONZIE, a mountain in Perth- 
shire, parish of Monivaird, 2922 feet in height. 

BEIN-CHROMDAL,ahigh hill in the 
district of Cromdale, Banffshire. 

BEIN-DEIRG, (the red hill,) a lofty hill 
in Athole, 3550 feet in height. 

BEIN-DIANABHAIG, one of the high- 
est hills in Sky. 

BEIN-DONICH, a high hill in Argyll- 
shire, at the head of Loch Goil. 

BEIN-DORAN, one of the highest hills 
on the east side of Argyleshire, parish of Glen- 
orchy, and the place in which the last wild 
deer of these solitary regions was seen and 

BEIN-EIDEN, a mountain in Morven, 

BEIN-GHIELLIEN, a mountain at the 
head of Glenshee, Perthshire. 

BEIN-GLO, a mountain in Athole, the 
highest point of which, designated cairn-an- 
gour, reaches a height of 3725 feet. 

BEIN-LAO, a high hill near Bein-doran, 
east side of Argyleshire. 

BE IN-MORE, a high mountain in Mull. 
BEIN-MOR-ASSYNT, a mountain in 
the district of Assynt, Sutherlandshire. 

BEIN-THIOLAIRE, a mountain near 
the head of Loch Goil, Cowall, Argyleshire. 

BEIN-UARICH, a mountain in the pa- 
rish of Kildonan, eastern quarter of the county 
of Sutherland. 

BE IN- VIE R, a mountain in the district 
of Appin, Argyleshire. 

BE IN- UNA, a mountain near the head of 
Loch Goil, Cowal, Argyleshire. 

BEITH, a parish in the western part of 
Cunningham, Ayrshire, and belonging partly 
to Renfrewshire. The parish lies chiefly 
on the east side of the Rye water, bound- 
ed on the south by Dunlop; extending five 
miles in length by four in breadth. It is a 
rich, fertile district, and, with Dunlop, is 
famous for the excellence of its dairy pro- 
duce. The town of Beith lies eleven miles 
west of Paisley, and is pleasantly situated on 
an eminence. The weaving of cotton, and 
the manufacture of fine thread, engage the at- 
tention of a great proportion of the inhabi- 
tants. The town has risen from a few houses 
since- the beginning of last century. It has an 
annual fair, and a weekly market on Friday. 
The town has a good parish school, a news- 
room and a subscription library. A modern 
church with a spire stands in an elevated situa- 
tion. Beith has also a well built town-house. 



Besides the parish church, it has several meet- 
ing-houses of dissenters. Two branch banks 
are settled in the place. Witherspoon, the 
well-known writer of various works of a pious 
nature, was clergyman of this parish in the 
year 1745, when he raised a company of vo- 
lunteers for the king's service, and appeared 
with it at the battle of Falkirk, where he was 
taken prisoner Population in 1821, 4472. 

BELHAVEN, an exceedingly neat village 
about a mile west from Dunbar, on the road 
to Edinburgh. It is within the jurisdiction of 
the burgh of Dunbar. A brewery is esta- 
blished here. Lying at the head of a small bay 
of the sea, in former times it was the haven of 
the town, and is mentioned in charters under 
the title of la belle haven. It gives the title of 
Lord to a branch of the family of Hamilton. 
The elevation to the peerage took place in the 
person of Sir John Hamilton of Broomhill, 
who, for his loyalty in taking up arms in de- 
fence of Charles I. was, in 1647, created Lord 
Belhaven and Stenton. He was succeeded by 
Sir John Hamilton of Biel, a person of a 
very different political and religious sentiment, 
but a warm patriot. The speech which be 
made before the Estates in opposing the union 
of the kingdoms, was long remembered for its 
fervency, and is still alluded to by the people. 

BELHELVIE, a parish in the district of 
Formartin, Aberdeenshire, lying on the sea- 
coast, in that part of the country between the 
Don and the Ythan. The land is generally 
flat, and, though partly improved, is yet of a 
bleak appearance. The distance from Aber- 
deen is about eight miles Population in 

1821, 1391. 

BELL-ROCK. Under the head of Ar- 
broath, a short notice is given of the Bell- 
Rock, or more properly Inch Cape Rock, 
with the tradition of an abbot of the monastery 
having in former times piously attached a bell 
to it as a warning to mariners ; and hence the ori- 
gin of its name. This rock is situated in the 
German ocean, about twelve miles in a south- 
eastern direction from the town of Arbroath, 
in Forfarshire ; about thirty miles in a north- 
western direction from St. Abb's Head, in 
Berwickshire ; in lat. 56° 29' north, and long. 
2° 22' west. It consists of a reef of shelving 
rocks of a reddish sandstone, scarcely uncover- 
ed at the low water of common tides ; but in 
spring tides when the ebbs are greatest, is 
exposed to a length of 427 feet, by a breadth 

of 230, with a height of four feet at most 
The reef is altogether more than 1000 feet in 
length. At high water the whole is covered 
to a depth of about twelve feet. This rock 
lies so very much in the way of vessels enter- 
ing either the firths of Tay or Forth, or in 
passing along the east coast of Scotland, that, 
from a very remote period, it has been the 
cause of a vast number of wrecks. Till with- 
in the last twenty years, such a dangerous rock 
remained quite undistinguished by any light or 
signal to scare the mariner from its fatal 
vicinage. At length a bill was brought into 
parliament, 1803, by the Commissioners of the 
Northern Light-houses,* for the purpose of 
having a light-house stationed on the rock. 
On the bill being passed in 1806, they receiv- 
ed a loan of L. 25,000 from government to 
assist an accumulated fund of L.20,000. 
Plans were laid before them of different kinds, 
and they adopted that of Mr. Rennie, which 
was on the principles of the Eddystone Light- 
house. Operations were commenced in the 
summer of 1807. Stones for the building 
were collected of different kinds. The out- 
side stones of the first thirty feet were brought 
from Rubeslaw in Aberdeenshire. Stones for 
the hearting and for the higher parts were got 
from Mylnefield quarry, near Dundee. Those 
on the top were finer and came from Craig- 
leith near Edinburgh. At Arbroath a work- 
ing yard was fitted up for the artificers, and 
boats were engaged to go to and fro with and 
for materials, &c. A small vessel was also 
moored near the rock as a depot. The most 
curious part of the work at the outset, was the 
erection of a place of refuge on the reef for the 
artizans, in the event of an accident befalling 
any of the attending boats. It consisted of 
a wooden tower of several stories, fixed on 
beams of wood planted into the rock, and se- 
cured with iron rivets. It was fitted up with 
sleeping-places, a cooking-room, and a place 
for a smith's forge. Into this erection the 
workmen were in the habit of retiring with 
their tools, as soon as the rock began to be 

* This is a body of men associated by an act of parlia- 
ment, 1786, for the purpose of erecting and maintaining 
Light-houses on the coast of Scotland ; a duty they have 
well performed. The houses they have erected are found 
by name in this work. The association is composed of 
the Lord Advocate, the sheriffs-depute of counties, and 
the chief magistrates of certain royal burghs. They are 
empowered to levy a tonnage on vessels for the mainte- 
nance of their funds. 



covered with water. The cutting of a site for 
the foundation was attended with a prodigious 
deal of trouble ; as the tide permitted work- 
ing for a very short time every day only, and 
as no work coidd be done in stormy weather 
or in the winter months. Besides, each day 
the water had to be pumped out of the site, 
before the men could resume their work where 
it had been left off. After overcoming almost 
impossibilities, by the 10th of July, 1808, the 
first stone was laid. In the following spring 
the works were proceeded in with much dili- 
gence, but not till a great deal of apparatus 
had been landed and fixed for the heaving of 
stones, and an iron railway laid along the reef, 
for the easy transport of materials. By the 
month of September, 1809, the first thirty feet 
were built. Next season, the works were 
again resumed, and, by a train of fortunate 
circumstances, the building was completed in 
October, 1810. In the course of the winter 
the internal fittings went forward, and on the 
1st of February, 1811, the beacon was first 
lighted. The expense of the whole was about 
L.60,000. The Bell- Rock Light-house, thus 
reared, is a circular edifice, the foundation- 
stone of which is nearly on a level with the 
surface of the sea at low water of ordinary 
spring tides ; and consequently, at high water 
of these tides, the building is immersed to the 
height of about fifteen feet. The two first 
courses of the masonry are very curiously 
dovetailed and joined with each other, in a 
way so as to resemble nothing so much as the 
pieces of a dissected map, forming one con- 
nected mass from the centre to the circumfer- 
ence. The successive layers of stone are also 
attached to each other by joggles of stone. 
The cement used was a mixture of pozzolano, 
earth, lime, and sand, in equal proportions. 
The individual stones weigh from one to two 
tons. The ground course measures 42 feet 
in diameter, and the building diminishes to a 
thickness of 13 feet. The total height is 100 
feet, but including the light room, the total 
height is 115 feet. The building is solid to a 
height of 30 feet, where the entry door is si- 
tuate, to which the ascent is by a ladder with 
wooden steps. Strangers are carried up and 
down by a chair and crane. At first the walls 
are seven feet thick, and they diminish to a 
single foot. From the door-way to the top, 
there are six flats, each having an apartment, 
and a communication from one to the other is 

had by a wooden ladder. The first floor is for 
holding water, fuel, or other bulky articles ; 
the second for oil-cisterns, glass, and other 
light-room stores ; the third is occupied as a 
kitchen ; the fourth is the bed-room ; the 
fifth the library, or stranger's room ; and the 
upper apartment forms the light-room. 
The floors are of stone. There are two 
windows in each of the three lower apart- 
ments, but the upper rooms have each four 
windows. The light-room is of an octagonal 
figure, measuring twelve feet across, and fif- 
teen feet in height, formed with cast iron sash- 
es, or window-frames glazed with large plates 
of polished glass, measuring two feet six in- 
ches by two feet three inches, each plate being 
a quarter of an inch thick. The light-room 
is covered with a dome roof of copper, termin- 
ating in a gilded ball. Round the fight-room 
there is a railed terrace on the outside. The 
light is from oil, with argand burners placed 
in the focus of silver plated reflectors, mea- 
suring twenty-four inches over the lips, being 
hollowed to the parabolic curve. That the 
light may be distinguished from all others on 
the coast, the reflectors are ranged upon a 
frame with four faces or sides, which by a 
train of machinery, is made to revolve upon 
a perpendicular axis once in six minutes ; 
moreover, by the interposition of coloured glass 
between the light and the observer, in the 
course of evefy revolution two appearances 
are produced ; one is the common bright light, 
and the other is of a red colour. Asa fur- 
ther warning to the mariner, in foggy weather, 
two large bells are tolled day and night by the 
same train of machinery which moves the 
lights. The establishment of light-keepers at 
the Bell-rock, consists of a principal light- 
keeper, a principal assistant, and two other 
assistants. They each receive salaries varying 
from fifty to sixty guineas, with clothes, and 
board while at the rock. At Arbroath a suite 
of buildings has been erected, where each 
keeper has three apartments for his family. 
Connected with these buildings there is a sig- 
nal-tower erected, with a telescope, and a set 
of corresponding signals is arranged and kept 
up with the light-keepers at the rock. Three 
of the keepers are always at the light-house, 
while one is ashore on liberty, whose duty it is 
for the time to attend the signal-room ; and 
when the weather will admit of the regular 
removal of the keepers, they are alternately six 



weeks on the reek, and a fortnight ashore with 
their families. A cutter of fifty tons burden is 
kept in constant occupation attending the Bell 
Rock, the Isle of May, and Inchkeith light 
houses. The construction of the light-house 
took place under the direction and by the ar- 
rangements of Mr. Robert Stevenson, civil 
engineer, Edinburgh, in a way which did him 
much honour. In 1824 the same gentleman 
published " an account of the Bell-Rock 
Light-house," with a view of the institution 
and progress of the Northern Light-houses, 
in the form of a splendid quarto volume, 
which will be of great use in future under- 
takings of the kind. The Bell- Rock Light- 
house is now one of the most prominent 
and serviceable beacons on the Scottish 
shores, and has been the means of preventing 
innumerable wrecks. In summer it is occa- 
sionally visited by parties of pleasure from 
Leith and other places, when every attention 
is shown by the keepers. Though perched in 
a situation the most awful during commotions 
of the elements, these men feel no alarm for 
their safety. In cases of very heavy gales 
blowing from particular directions, they mention 
that they feel the fabric yield or tremble a 
little ; but nothing to excite any disquietude. 
la fine weather at low tides they can walk out 
upon the reef, and indulge in the amusement 
of fishing for cod, haddocks, and all the other 
kinds of white fish of these seas, of which 
there is here great abundance. They keep an 
album, in which the names and impromptua of 
visitors are inscribed. On one occasion Sir 
Walter Scott, baronet, honoured this Pharos 
of the Scottish seas with a visit, and left the 
following beautiful lines : 

Pharos loquitur. 
Far on the bosom of the deep, 
O'er those wild shelves my watch I keep : 
A ruddy gem of changeful light, 
Bound on the dusky brow of night : 
The seaman bids my lustre hail, 
And scorns to strike his tim'rous sail. 

BELL'S MILLS, a village in the neigh- 
bourhood of Edinburgh, on the Water of 
Leith, and through which the road passes to 
Queensferry. There are some flour mills 
here, and a number of the inhabitants are en- 
gaged in feeding pigs for the metropolitan 

BELLIE, a parish partly in Moray and 
partly in Banffshire, situated on the east bank 

of the river Spey at its mouth, six miles in 
length by four in breadth, bounded by the sea 
on the north, and on the south-east by Rath- 
ven and Boharm. The county of Moray 
comes here east of the Spey to a small extent, 
and on this piece of ground, which is in the 
parish of Bellie, stands the town of Fochabers. 
When William Duke of Cumberland was on 
his march to fight Prince Charles at Culloden, 
he slept a night in the manse of Bellie. This 
is a very fine and fertile district, but it suffered 
severely by the inundation of 1829, and will 
not soon recover its former appearance. 
Fochabers is now the kirk-town of the 
parish, and we refer for further particulars to 
that head. 

BELRINNES, a lofty hill in Banffshire, 
on the side of the Spey, partly in the parish 
of Aberlour. It gives a name to the battle of 
Glenlivet, fought at its base, in 1595, between 
the forces of the Catholic lords, Huntly, Errol, 
and Angus, and those of the government un- 
der the Earl of Argyle. 

BENACHALLY, a hill in the eastern 
extremity of Perthshire, parish of Clunie, 
computed at 1800 feet in height. At the foot 
of the hill, on its north side, lies the lake of 
Benachally, about a mile in length by half a 
mile in breadth, and the surface of which is 
supposed to be about 900 feet above the level 
of the sea. 

BENACHHAN, (Loch) a small lake 
near the southern border of Ross-shire. 

BENBECULA, one of the islands of the 
Hebrides, lying betwixt North and South Uist, 
and from eight to nine miles in length and 
breadth. This island is mostly fiat and sandy, 
with protruding rocks, and has attracted the 
curiosity of different tourists. In the interior 
it possesses several fresh water lakes, and its 
shores, especially on the east, north, and south, 
are indented with an endless variety of bays or 
salt water lochs, as well as fringed with islands 
of a small and large size. " The sea," says 
Macculloch, " is all islands, and the land all 
lakes. That which is not rock is sand, that 
which is not mud is bog, that which is not 
bog is lake, and that which is not lake is 
sea ; and the whole is a labyrinth of islands, 
peninsulas, promontories, bays, and channels." 
It is an ancient property of the Chiefs of Clan- 
ranald, and the chief value consists in the kelp 
which is manufactured on its shores. 



BENCHOCHAN, a hill nearly 3000 feet 
in height, in the parish of Aberfoyle, over- 
looked by the superior altitude of the adjacent 

lying in the lower parts of Strathmore, Perth- 
shire, a few miles east of Cupar- Angus, twelve 
miles in length, and from six to eight in breadth, 
bounded on the east by the Isla, which after 
passing Bendothy joins the Tay at Kinclaven. 
The Erroch divides the parish into two equal 
parts. There are several small lakes in the 
parish, which is partly pastoral and partly 
agricultural. — Population in 1821, 766. 

BENE G AN, a mountain in Banffshire, 
round which the Spey makes a detour, about 
four miles from Fochabers. 

BENELACH, a mountain on the north 
side of Loch Venacher, Perthshire. 

BENE VIAN, a mountain in the northern 
part of Inverness-shire. 

BENE VIAN, (Loch) a longitudinal fresh 
water lake at the northern base of the above 

BENHAR, a small district on the south- 
west of Lirdithgowshire, on a high ground, 
near Polkemmet, at which there are most ex- 
tensive fields of coal, of the finest quality, on- 
ly two or three fathoms from the surface. It 
is carted at present fifteen miles to Broxburn, 
from whence it is brought to Edinburgh by 
the Union Canal, and is esteemed the best 
brought to Port Hopetoun. It is under pro- 
position to lay down a railway from the pits to 
the canal. 

BENHOLM, a parish in Kincardine- 
shire, lying on the shore of the German ocean, 
bounded on the north by Bervie, and on the 
south by St. Cyrus. The land is level on the 
coast, and the interior consists of hill and dale. 
The sea-port of the district is John's-haven, a 
thriving fishing village, half way along shore 
from the mouth of the North Esk to the 

mouth of the Bervie Population in 1821, 


BENHOPE, a mountain in the parish of 
Tongue, Sutherlandshire. 

BENIVENOW, a mountain in the south- 
ern boundary of Perthshire, parish of Aber- 
foil, computed at 3000 feet in altitude. 

BENLAGEEN, a mountain in the upper 
parts of the county of Banff, by the foot of 
which runs the Fiddich. 

BENLAOGHALS, a mountain beside 

Benivas, Sutherlandshire, at the foot of which 
lies Loch Laoghal. 

BENLAWERS, a huge pyramidal moun- 
tain in Breadalbane, Perthshire, on the north 
bank of Loch Tay, 4015 feet above the level 
of the sea. It possesses the rare attribute of 
being so easy in the ascent as to permit riding 
to the summit. The range of the view from 
the hill is more extensive than that from Ben- 
Nevis, as it has no such lofty neighbours. 
Ben Lawers, at the beginning of the fifteenth 
century, was partly the property of a family of 
the name of Chambers, one of whom forfeited 
it by his concern in the assassination of King 
James I. in 1437. The hill afterwards fell 
into the hands of a branch of the family of 
Gampbell, which took from it a baronial title, 
afterwards merged in the Earldom of Loudoun. 
It exhibits a perfect botanical garden of Alpine 
plants. Rutile, an ore of Titanium, a scarce 
metallic mineral, is found here. 

BENLEDI, a mountain lying north-west 
of Callander, Perthshire, reaching to the height 
of 3009 feet above the level of the sea. It is 
reared considerably in altitude over all the 
other hills in this district, and from its summit 
a view may be obtained of the whole of Stir- 
lingshire and the Forth. It was one of the 
chief places of public worship of the Druids. 
On its top there is a small loch. 

BENLOMOND, a mountain on the west- 
ern extremity of Stirlingshire, on the east bank 
of Loch Lomond, of a longitudinal shape, and 
consisting more of a collection and pile of 
swelling knolls than of a single hill. It is di- 
vided into three great stages in the ascent, each 
rising above the other to the top, which has 
an elevation of 3262 feet above the level of 
the sea. On the south-eastern side it presents 
a sheer precipice of about 2000 feet. From 
the inn of Rowardennan on the east shore of 
the loch, to the summit, the distance is six 
miles of a continued ascent, which in general 
requires three hours. The lower part of this 
mountainous cluster is well wooded and ver- 
dant, and the upper regions afford excellent 
heathy pasture. It commands a most exten- 
sive prospect of the vale of Stirlingshire, the 
Lothians, the Clyde, Ayrshire, Isle of Man, 
Hills of Antrim, and all the surrounding High- 
land territory. Like Ben Lawers, this is one 
of the botanical gardens of the Highlands. 

BENMORE, (the great mountain), a co- 
nical hill betwixt Loch Dochart and Loch 



Voil, western part of Perthshire, among the 
braes of Balquhidder. It rises to an elevation 
of 3903 feet above the level of the sea. 

BEN NEVIS, generally supposed to be 
the most lofty mountain in Great Britain, is 
situated on the south-western extremity of In- 
verness-shire, immediately east of Fort William 
and the opening of the Caledonian canal into 
loch Eil. It rises from the brink of the latter 
piece of water to the height of 4370 feet. In 
clear weather a view can be obtained from its 
summit athwart nearly the whole of the north 
of Scotland from sea to sea. It is generally 
enveloped in a mantle of clouds, and is toil- 
some in the ascent. It consists principally of 
a fine brown prophyry, and contains red granite 
of such a beautiful grain, as to be unmatched 
in any other part of the world. Being cleft 
in many places to the very base, by rents and 
glens, its precipices are of prodigious altitude. 
One of them, the inaccessible eyrie of eagles, 
is nearly five hundred feet perpendicular ; and 
in the fissures, the snow remains unmelted, 
even in the warmest weather. It is said to 
contain veins of silver and lead. Around its 
southern base flows the streamlet of the Nevis, 
through the glen of the same name. It was 
at the opening of this valley that the Marquis 
of Montrose achieved the brilliant victory of 
Inverlochy See Inverlochy. 

BENNOCHIE, a lofty mountain in the 
southern part of Aberdeenshire, district of 
Garioch, near the braes of Mar. There is a 
very curious popular rhyme regarding some 
early battle upon this hill. It runs as follows^ 

The Grole o' the Garioch, 

The Bowmen o' Marr, 
Upon the hill o' Bennochie ; 

The Grole wan the war. 

What the Grole signifies, unless it be a mere 
popular name for the men of the Garioch, 
we cannot tell. But the gist of the thing is, 
that the final word may be either war or waur-^ 
i. e. worse, so that it is quite a riddle which of 
the two parties was successful. 

BENREISIPOLL, a mountain in the 
district of Sunart, Argyleshire, 2661 feet in 

BENTALUIDH, a mountain of a conical 
Bhape in the island of Mull. 

BENTESKERNEY, a lofty hill in Glen 
Lochay, Perthshire. 

mountain in the parish of Kiltearn, Ross-shire, 

hitherto understood to be the second, as to 
height, in Britain. This hill, from its lying 
in the midst of a mountainous region, and 
being rather bulky than conical in shape, does 
not seem nearly so much elevated as Ben 
Nevis, which has the advantage of starting 
straight up from a plain by the sea shore. 
Such, nevertheless, is the great height of Ben 
Wyvis, that it is quite conspicuous, even from 
the distance of Inverness, where it looks like 
a large hay-sow, placed amidst a multitude of 
corn-stacks in a barn-yard. The top of Ben 
Wyvis was never known to be free of snow 
till the singularly hot summer of 1826, when 
at length the ancient ice, that had been crust- 
ing upon it since the Deluge, was all cleared 
away. Hereby hangs a curious tale. The 
baronet of Foulis, whose property it is, holds 
it from one of the kings of Scotland, upon the 
condition that he shall bring his majesty a 
snowball from its top every day in the year, 
if required. Of course, the condition indicates 
that the hill of Ben Wyvis was never known 
to be free of snow, as, if it had been thought 
possible that the terms could not, at all times, 
be fulfilled, they could have never been impos- 
ed. Two things are, therefore, to be learned 
from this fact — that the hill has, in all record- 
ed time, had a covering of this kind, and that 
the summer of 1826 was the warmest ever 
known in this country. It might have been 
a good subject of amusement at court, had our 
late gracious sovereign, King George IV., 
suddenly called upon Sir Hector Monro of 
Foulis to bring him a snowball from the top 
of Ben Wyvis, the said hill being, at the time, 
as bare of snow as the roof of Sir Hector's 
castle, or the back of his hand. 

BENVOIRLICH, a mountain, compre- 
hended in the cluster of Grampians in the 
north -western part of Perthshire, at the head 
of the valley of the Garry, a river which springs 
from its base. It rises to an elevation of 
3330 feet above the level of the sea. 

BEREGONIUM, the name of a place 
about two miles to the north of Oban, in Ar- 
gyleshire, pointed out by tradition, ignorance, 
or knavery, as the precise site of what was once 
a flourishing large city, and the capital of Scot- 
land ; in other words, the seat of empire of 
Fergus the First, in the year 330 before 
Christ ! ! Of the actual existence, the locality, 
the apparent remains, the name, the kind of 
inhabitants it once had, or the period of its 



destruction, says Macculloch, no two Scottish 
antiquarians agree, and it has now been ascer- 
tained that the whole is either a fabrication, or 
a subject of the most barefaced exaggeration 
and fanciful description. The ground on which 
this Utopian town, this Formosa of the West 
Highlands, is imagined to have rested, lies 
between two low hills, one called Dun Mac 
Sniochain, (the hill of the son of Snachan), 
and the other Dunbhail an-righ, (the King's 
own hill). The name of the town itself in 
Gaelic is Balanree, (the town of the King). 
The idea of a town once having been -.on this 
spot of ground has been generated and fostered 
from the circumstances of these eminences be- 
traying the marks of ruined vitrified forts, or 
supposed pieces of wall, (which prove nothing), 
the remains of a paved causeway communicat- 
ing with the bottom of the two hills, though 
nothing of the kind is now visible, further 
than some longitudinal mounds, and the dis- 
covery in the moss, of what antiquaries have 
been pleased to term a piece of a bored wood- 
en pipe for conveying water, but which was in 
reality only the trunk of a rotten tree, decayed 
in its centre. It is here needless to go farther 
into detail, for if the truth of the tradition 
rests only on these slender memorials, and 
especially on the wooden pipe, while it is well 
known that two thousand years since, the 
country had no knowledge of hydrostatics, the 
falsehood of the story of Beregonium is beyond 
a doubt. There is a legend in the neighbour- 
hood, to the effect that some buildings here 
were destroyed by fire from heaven, and it is 
obvious that the crags of some of the rocks have 
undergone a vitrification, which alone counte- 
nances such a tradition. 

BERNERA, a small rocky island, the most 
southerly of the Hebrides, the south point of 
which is called Barra Head. 

BERNERA Y, a fertile island about five 
miles in circumference, lying in the sound of 

BERNERA, or BARNERA, an island 
within the island of Lewis, on its western side, 
where Loch Bemera, Loch Burglow, and 
Loch Roag, inlets of the sea, enclose a piece 
of beautiful fertile land, of about twelve miles 
in length by four in breadth, called the island 
of Bernera. The above arms of the sea are 
crowded with small islands, one of which is 
called Little Bernera, and indent the main land 
of Lewis with long salt water lochs. On the 

Great Bernera, there exists a tolerably entire 
circle of large upright stones, only paralleled 
by those of Stonehenge and Stenhouse, the ori- 
gin and the meaning of which have been keen- 
ly contested, and in the absence of historical 
notice, as in similar abstruse cases, have been 
generally conceived to be of Druidic origin. 

BERNERA, a disused military station in 
the parish of Glenelg, on the great road from 
Fort Augustus westward to Skye. 

B'ERRYDALE, a village on the east coast 
of Caithness, the first a traveller meets in go- 
ing northward in the county. Beside it, on a 
high crag, stand the remains of Berridale 
Castle, once the residence of the Sutherlands 
of Langwell, the ancient lords of the district, 
and, according to tradition, a very gigantic race. 
Here the river or water of Berridale pours in- 
to the sea immediately after it is joined by the 
water of Langwell. The shore here obtains 
the name of Berridaleness. 

BERTHA, the name of a place in an 
angle of land formed by the junction of the 
Tay and the Almond, four miles above Perth, 
reported to have been the site of a city of the 
ancient Caledonians at the time of their inva- 
sion by the Romans. ^ 
\ BERVIE, a small village on the road be- . .; • 
twixt Dundee and Cupar Angus, from which 
it is distant about twelve miles ; once the ca- 
pital of a parish of the same name, now incor- 
porated with the adjacent parish of Liff. 

BERVIE, a small parish of only two miles 
in length, by one and a half in breadth, on the 
coast of Kincardineshire, bounded on the south 
by Benholm, and on the north by Kinneff, of 
which it was once a part. It possesses no- 
thing worthy of remark. The capital of the pa- 
rish, and the chief town for many miles, is 
Bervie, or Inverbervie, which is situated on the 
coast road northward, and is one of the most ir- 
regular towns in Scotland. Its northern side is 
bounded by the river Bervie, which, after a 
course of sixteen miles, falls into the sea at 
this place. It is a small river yielding some 
trout and salmon fishing. Its mouth forms a 
poor harbour for small vessels and boats. It 
is crossed by a modern bridge of a single arch. 
Bervie has the honour of being a royal burgh, 
in virtue of a charter of David II. dated 1362, 
and renewed by James VI. in 1595. The 
cause of the first of these exertions of royal 
patronage in its favour, was the kindness whicb 



the poor fishermen living here displayed to the 
second David, when he landed on their beach 
from France under the distress of a shipwreck. 
There is an old tradition among people of the 
name of Guthrie, who abound very much 
in this part of the country, that they acquired 
their name on this same occasion. The King, 
wet, weary, and hungry, came up to a small 
party of fishermen who were roasting fish by 
the shore for their own meal. On his request- 
ing a share of their repast, one individual gutted 
two fishes, and put them on the fire, when a 
companion, still more benevolent, exclaimed 
" Gut three." The monarch, touched with the 
kind fervour of the poor man, cried to him, in 
a kind of rhyme, 

" Then Gut-three 
Your name shall be." 

The reader will please to take this story as 
it is told by tradition, for there is no better 
authority for it. Bervie, which evidently was 
never designed by nature to become worthy of 
the King's kindness, is governed by a provost, 
three bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and 
nine councillors, elected annually. At parlia- 
mentary elections, it joins with Aberdeen, 
Montrose, Brechin, and Aberbrothwick, in 
nominating a member. Its burgal revenue 
would hardly liquidate a public dinner to the 
magistracy. — Population of the burgh and pa- 
rish in 1821, 1092. 

BERVIE BROW, called in the neigh- 
bourhood Craig David, on account of King Da- 
vid having landed here, a promontory on the 
north side of Bervie Water, seen from a great 
distance at sea. 

BERWICKSHIRE, the most south-east- 
erly county in Scotland. In form it resembles 
an oblong square. On the south-east end it 
is bounded by the German ocean, beginning at 
a little rivulet, called Dunglas Burn, on the 
north-west, and terminating at a place called 
Lamberton, where the enclosures of some 
fields divide it from the liberties of Berwick. 
On the south it is separated from the counties 
of Durham and Northumberland by the river 
Tweed. On the west it is divided from Rox- 
burghshire, in general, by the Leader water. 
And on the north the range of Lammermoor 
hills separate it from the county of Hadding- 
ton. A portion of Roxburghshire is on the 
north side of the Tweed, to the extent of the 
two parishes of Kelso and Edenham. The 
extreme length of the shire, from east to west, 

is thirty-one miles ; and its utmost breadth is 
nineteen miles. Its area comprehends 446 
square miles. In popular phraseology, the 
county is partitioned into the districts of Merse, 
Lammermoor, and Lauderdale. The Merse, so 
called from the word March, or boundary, is 
the largest and most valuable district. It is 
remarkable for being the largest and most com- 
pact piece of level ground in Scotland. It 
comprises 129,600 statute acres. In appear- 
ance it resembles a piece of some of the Eng- 
lish fertile counties ; and being well enclosed, 
and enriched with trees and plantations, when 
seen from any of the very slight eminences 
into which it here and there swells, it looks 
like a vast garden. The district of Lammer- 
moor takes its name from the hills of that 
title, which, in our opinion, they doubtless re- 
ceived from the words La mer — the sea, in 
consequence of their rise on its margin, though 
antiquaries have never thought of such an ety- 
mon, and puzzled themselves with endless un- 
intelligible investigations into the ancient Teu- 
tonic, for the meaning of the term." Lam- 
mermoor is a hilly pastoral district, with gene- 
rally a wild brown aspect, and rises on the 
northern border of the Merse, so as to divide, 
in a very effectual manner, the fine vales of 
the counties of Edinburgh and Haddington 
from the beautiful valley of the Tweed. But 
for this chain of blackish hills the prospect 
from Edinburgh would be carried the length 
of the Cheviots. Lammermoor comprises 
88,640 statute acres. Lauderdale, the third 
district, which takes its name from the Lead- 
er Water, on which it lies, is a mixture of hill 
and dale. In the lower part it is arable. It 
contains 67,200 statute acres. The whole of 
the agricultural portion of the county — includ- 
ing that part of the Merse pertaining to Rox- 
burghshire — is now in a high state of cultiva- 
tion. Within the last thirty years, very great 
exertions have been made to improve the agri- 
cultural character of the shire ; and, in this 
respect, it differs nothing from the neighbour- 
ing territory of East- Lothian. Great alter- 
ations for the better have been made in the 
residences and comforts of every class. The 
country is thickly, but not over-abundantly, 
populated with a most intelligent, active pea- 
santry and farming class. Gentlemen's seats, 

« A rocky islet on the side of the harbour of Dunbar, 
now joined to the land by a pier, is called Lammer is- 
land, from the same root. 



hamlets, farm-steadings, and cottages, of mo- 
dem erection, are scattered over the district. 
Berwickshire is strictly pastoral and agricul- 
tural. As yet it has neither been enriched 
nor debased by manufactures ; and, from its 
situation, the want of coal, and the fertility of 
its soil, it is not likely that such an event will 
ever take place. It exports great quantities of 
corn, sheep, and eggs, and this is the extent of 
its commerce. Minute investigation has fail- 
ed in discovering minerals and fossils, which 
can be of any great public service. Some coal 
has been found in the parishes of Mordington 
and Cocksburnpath, and limestone, as is gene- 
rally the case, has been discovered in its prox- 
imity. Marl and gypsum have likewise been 
found and used. Freestone and whinstone of 
various kinds abound in every part of the shire. 
As coal is introduced from the palatinate of 
Durham, by an easy land carriage, the Merse 
does not feel the absence of coal very severely. 
In other parts of the shire, as throughout the 
upper district of the vale of Tweed, this article 
is deai - . The waters of Berwickshire flow in 
general either to the south or the north-east. 
The Tweed, which is here an imposing stream, 
and the most lovely of Scottish rivers, from 
its sparkling clearness, and its soft sylvan 
banks, receives all the waters which are pour- 
ed down from the northern eminences. The 
Tweed is not susceptible of navigation ; but 
it is of great value from its salmon fisheries, 
which are under a strict system of water police. 
It receives the Leader, the Eden, and the united 
waters of the Blackadder and Whitadder. The 
Eye is the only other stream, and it falls into 
the sea. Berwickshire comprehends thirty-two 
parishes. The towns in the county are Dunse, 
Lauder, Coldstream, Greenlaw and Eyemouth. 
Its villages are Ayton, Gordon, Longforma- 
cus, Earlston, Birgham, Chirnside, Colding- 
ham, &c. Lauder is the only royal burgh. 
Greenlaw is the county town, agreeable to an 

arrangement shortly to be noticed At the 

period of the Roman invasion, Berwickshire 
was inhabited by tribes of British called the 
Ottadini. It was afterwards invaded and 
peopled by bands of Saxons from Germany, 
about the middle of the fifth century, who 
engrafted their language and manners on those 
of the original inhabitants. The conquests of 
these foreigners extended a considerable way 
along the shores to the east and west, and in 
the course of time they gave the land which 

they secured the title of Lothian, which it 
still possesses in the western division. The 
whole area of Berwickshire was comprehend- 
ed in this Saxon territory, which for distinc- 
tion's sake, received the name of Saxonia, 
and superseded the designation it formerly 
possessed, and which, according to Bede, wag 
Bernicia. That the town of Berwick owes 
its origin to these Saxons is exceedingly pro- 
bable, though there is no existing record which 
can certify the conjecture. The etymology of 
its name is as doubtful as its origin. Mait- 
land, the historian of Edinburgh, entered into 
a dissertation to prove that the title was con- 
ferred by its Saxon founders from a town of 
note of the same name in their own country, 
in the like manner as European emigrants fix 
the names of cities and towns in the continent 
of America. Others, and among the rest, 
Cambden, allege that the word Berwick is 
deduced from Barwica, signifying " a village 
belonging to a manor," while a third party, 
with more feasability, bring it from bar and 
wick — a castle on the bend of a river. In 
whatever manner Berwick, the chief town of 
the district, arose, or received its appellation, 
it was not long in becoming a fortified garri- 
son, and a place which was the scene of many 
important transactions. Until the year 1020, 
this district of country was included within 
the kingdom of Northumberland. In that 
year it was ceded to King Malcolm II. by 
Cospatrick the Earl of Northumberland, who 
settled in Scotland, and was created Earl of 
Dunbar. In the year 1097 Edgar the son of 
Malcolm acquired the sovereignty of Berwick- 
shire, which on his death he bequeathed, along 
with part of Cumberland and Lothian, to his 
brother David. Under this personage Berwick- 
shire rose into consequence, and the town of 
Berwick came to be a seat of merchandise, and 
known for the value of its fisheries. It was 
likewise honoured with being constituted one 
of the few Scottish burghs in which was held 
a court of commercial jurisdiction under the 
king's chamberlain. About this epoch many 
Norman and Anglo-Saxon families settled in 
Berwickshire, as well as in other parts of Scot- 
land, and laid the foundation of a number of 
noble houses, still ranked in the peerage of the 
country. It appears likewise that the town 
of Berwick became a settlement of Flemish 
and other foreign tradesmen. As significant 
of the mercantile and trading character of the 



places most probably superinduced by this am- 
algamation of intelligent men from the low 
countries, it may be mentioned as a fact 
somewhat curious, that it was at Berwick the 
first laws were framed and applied in Scot- 
land for the regulation of burghs and their 
guild associations. Being the threshold of the 
Scottish kingdom in entering from England, 
Berwickshire suffered in the succeeding cen- 
turies in all the wars between the two hostile 
nations, and was occasionally involved in dis- 
putes with its opposite neighbour the palatine 
bishop of Durham.* Berwick and its bridge 
across the Tweed were in general the chief 
objects of dispute. In 1199 the bridge was 
carried off by floods, and this gave rise to dis- 
putes between William the Lion and the bi- 
shop regarding its re-erection. In the four- 
teenth century the passage became the property 
of the lordly churchman. It was not till the 
reign of Elizabeth that the present fine stone 
bridge was built. Henry II. in 11 74, wrench- 
ed Berwick and its castle from his captiye 
William. Richard I. again restored them to 
Scotland. In 1216 this part of the country 
suffered severely from the fury of king John, 
as he retired to England. The disputes re- 
garding the succession to the crown, after the 
death of Alexander III., involved Berwick in 
many miseries. In 1291 it was given up to 
Edward I. In the following year this ambi- 
tious sovereign received the oaths of fealty 
from its civic functionaries, and in the hall of 
the castle, as lord paramount, put Baliol in 
possession of the Scottish crown. In a few 
years afterwards, Berwick renounced its allegi- 
ance, and in 1296 was taken by assault by 
Edward, and its inhabitants butchered. In 
the same year a parliament of Edward was 
held here, where he received the allegiance of 
a vast number of persons of distinction. In 
1297 Edward constituted Berwick the Eng- 
lish metropolis in Scotland, the depository of 
the records and the tribunal of his authority. 

• Palatine bishops had the secular authority of barons, 
and were endowed with the power of sovereigns within 
the bounds of their spiritual jurisdiction. They were en- 
titled to wear coats of mail along with their clerical gar- 
ments, and in this guise often led out their followers to 
battle. At the Reformation the palatine bishop of Dur- 
ham was despoiled of these powers to the full extent ; 
nevertheless he has still a variety of peculiar privileges. 
As for instance, he is the superior in law courts within 
the palatinate, and can either sit in the dress and charac- 
ter of a baron or of a bishop in the House of Lords. 

The town was, however, soon taken by Wal- 
lace, who kept it for a short time. After the 
defeat of the English at Falkirk, they retained 
Berwick for twenty years. In 1305 the 
mangled limbs of the illustrious Wallace Avere 
exhibited on the bridge of Berwick, and in 
the following year, the captive Countess of 
Buchan, who had placed Bruce in the inau- 
gural chair, was exhibited as a spectacle on 
the walls of the castle confined in a wooden 
cage. Berwick was once more, and for the 
last time, attached to the Scottish monarchy, 
in the year 1318. Its subsequent loss was 
occasioned by an untoward event. During 
the reign of James III., the crown was covet- 
ed by the Duke of Albany, who, to support his 
pretensions, introduced an English army into 
North Britain, under the infamous Duke of 
Gloucester, afterwards Richard III. The af- 
fair ended in compromise j but Gloucester re- 
fused to withdraw his forces unless Berwick 
was delivered into his hands. After a perse- 
vering diplomatic struggle, the Scotch had to 
accede to the dishonourable terms, and at 
length on the 24th of August 1482, this oft- 
contested town and castle were resigned to 
England. The English now took it under 
their special care. It was made the mart of 
Scottish trade in this part of the country, and 
the place of export of the produce of the 
Merse. In 1551 it was made a free town, 
independent of both England and Scotland, 
which it still remains, with many privileges 
peculiar to itself and its citizens. It still con- 
tinues in a walled state, and a very perfect 
specimen of the fortified towns of Britain. It 
has a little district of land attached to it, 
which is mostly the property of burgesses in 
succession, and receives the title of Berwick 
bounds. Its description does not come within 
the scope of the present work. After it ceased 
to be the county town, the affairs of the shire 
were administered at Dunse or Lauder, foi 
about a hundred and twenty years. On Green- 
law becoming the property of Sir George Home 
of Spot, in 1596, by the approval of James 
VI., it was declared the most fit to be the 
shire town, and this important arrangement 
was ratified by parliament in November 1600. 
On account of particular dissensions, it how- 
ever did not become the head town of the 
county, in every particular, till 1696. — From 
the variety of successes and disasters which 
Berwickshire underwent for so many centu- 



ries, and from its settlement by different mixed 
nations, the people of this part of Scotland 
have not that distinct Scottish character found 
in other places more to the north. By their 
language and personal appearance, especially 
the former, the inhabitants of Berwick, and 
its neighbourhood, are easily recognised, and 
in common with the Northumbrians, they 
speak with that remarkable burr which is found 
no where else in the kingdom. The women 
are famed for their beauty ; the men for their 
gallant bearing in times of warlike strife. 
" The men of the Merse," with less of the 
hereditary character than the rest of the bor- 
derers, were formerly more remarkable for dis- 
cipline and steady valour. They behaved with 
great spirit at Flodden, and in many other 
bloody fields, under the command of LordHome; 
and there is a tradition, that a party, led to the 
Holy Land by some of their feudal chiefs, ob- 
tained there the highest credit for their conduct. 
When Charles I. paid his first visit to Scot- 
land in 1633, Lord Home met him at Berwick 
with a train of 600 Merse gentlemen gallantly 
arrayed on horseback. The present genera- 
tion has seen that the yeomanry of the Merse 
have lost no portion of their ancient military 
spirit. By the latest county roll, Berwick- 
shire has a hundred and fifty freeholders, who 
elect a member of parliament. 

The chief seats in Berwickshire are, Tliirl- 
stane Castle, Earl of Lauderdale ; Dryburgh 
Abbey, Earl of Buchan ; MeUerstain, Baillie ; 
Lees, Marjoribanks, Bart. ; Hirsel, Earl of 
Home ; Marchmont ,■ Paxton ; Ladykirk ; 
Swinton; Elackadder ; Stitchell ; Lennel House ; 
Mordington ; Foulden ; &c. The heights in 

the county do not require particular notice 

Population in 1821 : males, 15,976 ; females, 
17,409; total, 33,385. 

BERWICK, (NORTH) a parish in the 
county of Haddington, lying on the coast at 
the mouth of the Firth of Forth, along which 
it extends for three miles, with a breadth in- 
land of two and a half miles. It is bounded 
by Dirleton on the west, and Whitekirk on the 
south-east. The land is generally flat, or of a 
gently sloping kind, similar to the lower parts 
of East-Lothian, and is under a fine system of 
cultivation. On the side near the sea, and 
about a quarter of a mile south from the town 
of North Berwick, rises the conspicuous conical 
mount called North Berwick Law. On the 
west and south sides this hill is nearly precipi- 

tous and difficult of ascent. On the east side 
it declines more gently and falls away in a 
sloping ridge. On this side it is wooded, and 
near the base is enclosed as pasture-land. From 
the bare arid top an extensive view is ob- 
tained on all sides. At a little distance to the 
south-east is the beautiful seat and pleasure- 
grounds of North Berwick House, the pro- 
perty of Sir Hew Dalrymple. In proceeding 
along the shore to the eastward, the coast be- 
comes nigged, and at last precipitous. At the 
distance of two miles, on the verge of the 
lofty clifFs, stands the huge ruin of the once 
important castle of Tantallan, and two miles 
from whence rises in the sea, the rocky islet 
of the Bass. The position of Tantallan is 
one excellently chosen for the site of a warlike 
strength. On the south the land is flat and 
undulating, and is now laid out in corn-fields. 
The castle is seated on a piece of ground 
which is almost an island, by the intersection 
of a rivulet running through a ravine toward the 
east. On the north brink of this defile there 
has been a very strong wall, terminating in circu- 
lar turrets, and enclosing a spacious court-yard. 
Betwixt the north side of this open space or 
the fortalice, there has been another ravine, 
now partly filled up. Drawbridges crossed 
both of the hollows. The fabric of the castle 
is of an oblong shape, and is evidently compos- 
ed of buildings put together at different times. 
The semicircular Saxon arched doorways pre- 
vail. The outward structure is almost entire, 
and will remain so for centuries. The thick- 
ness of the walls is enormous, and there are 
very few holes for outlook or windows. The 
length of the front and back is a hundred and 
twenty paces. Behind there is a pleasant 
open court, similar to that in front, which 
might be rendered a beautiful garden, and on its 
outer sides it has been also bounded by thick 
walls and some outhouses. In all probability 
this has been the stableyard of the keep. The 
ground on which the buildings and their out 
works stand is encompassed on the west, north, 
and east, especially the two latter, by the sea, 
which frets and fumes on a rocky shore, at a 
depth which it makes one dizzy to look down. 
In the case of storms proceeding from the 
north-east, when the weight of the German 
ocean is pressed on the waters of the firth, 
and urged forward by the winds, the waves are 
struck against the rocks with terrific fury, and 
the spray from the cliffs is dashed in clouds to 



the summit of the castle. The interior of the 
edifice exhibits a labyrinth of inaccessible bro- 
ken vaulted chambers, staircases, and passages. 
Within the last fifty years a progress through 
the house has become impossible, unless by the 
aid of ladders. A few years back the lower 
vaults were the resort of a band of smugglers, 
and the depot of cargoes of contraband gin, 
brought from the coast of Holland. And the 
rooting out of such desperadoes led to the dis- 
covery of some subterranean dungeons. The 
most dismal of these is one on the outside of 
the house, at the south-west angle. It may 
have been the dungeon-keep of the guardhouse. 
In the present day the edifice is in some mea- 
sure secured from further dilapidation by a 
retaining wall and iron gate, and the neigh- 
bouring farmer, at Castleton, is appointed its 
keeper by the proprietor. There exists no 
tradition or record sufficient to determine the 
date of the erection of Tantallan. Its origin 
is matter of pure conjecture. It is however 
certain, that it rose with the power of the 
house of Douglas, to whom it belonged. This 
family gained a settlement in East-Lothian, in 
the reign of Robert II., on whose accession to 
the crown, William, Earl of Douglas, acquired 
the barony of North Berwick by an arrange- 
ment of a private nature with Robert, Duke 
of Albany, and the influence of the family was 
strengthened in this quarter, in the year 1372, 
by the marriage of James Douglas of Dal- 
keith with a sister of the Earl of March, with 
whom he received the lands of Whittingham. 
For more than two centimes Tantallan was 
the grand place of defence of this potent and 
haughty family. It was rendered so defensi- 
ble by art, that no military ingenuity of the 
age could work its destruction. Its demolition 
was thought as hopeless as the uprooting of a 
mountain, and from this common traditionary 
feeling arose, in the country, the phrase, — 

Ding down Tantallan 
Mak a Brig to the Bass. 

each being deemed equally beyond the power 
of human skill. In 1455, the barony of North 
Berwick and Tantallan Castle were forfeited 
by the Earl of Douglas. In 1479, the lands 
and castle of Tantallan were given by James 
III. to Archibald, fifth Earl of Angus, after- 
wards known under the name of BeU-the-Cat. 
In the reign of the succeeding monarch, James 
IV., Angus was one of the most powerful 
Scottish chiefs, and, when an old man, he ear- 

nestly dissuaded his sovereign from the war 
with England. On the eve of the battle of 
Flodden, he remonstrated so freely upon the 
impolicy of fighting, that the King said to him 
with scorn and indignation, " if he was afraid 
he might go home." The Earl burst into 
tears at this insupportable insult, and retired 
accordingly, leaving two of his sons to com- 
mand his followers. They were both slain 
with two hundred Douglasses. The incidents 
connected with this transaction have furnished 
a theme for Sir Walter Scott in his poem of 
Marmion. The Earl is there described as 
having retired to Tantallan Hold, where, with 
a few remaining followers, he made his defence 
secure against an expected incursion of the 
English, and gave a temporary residence to an 
English knight, sent into Scotland on an errand 
similar to that mentioned in the tale. The lo- 
calities and character of the fortalice bear a 
close resemblance to the descriptions in the 
poem. The parting scene of Marmion and 
Angus will readily recur to the remembrance 
of the visitors of this interesting ruin : 

" And, Douglas, more I tell thee here, 

Even in the pitch of pride, 
Here in thy hold, thy vassals near, 

I tell thee thou'rt defied. 
And if thou saidst I am no peer, 
To any lord in Scotland here, 
Lowland or Highland far or near. 

Lord Angus, thou hast lied !" — 
On the Earl's cheek the flash of rage 
O'ercame the ashen hue of age. 

Fierce he broke forth ; — " and dar'st thou then 
To beard the lion in his den, 

The Douglas in his hall ? 
And hop'st thou hence unscathed to go .' 
No, by Saint Bryde of Bothwell, no ! 
Up drawbridge, grooms — what, Warder, ho ! 

Let the portcullis fall." — 

Lord Marmion turned, — well was his need! 
And dashed the rowels in his steed, 
Like arrow through the arch-way sprung, 
The ponderous grate behind him rung ; 
To pass there was such scanty room, 
The bars, descending, razed his plume. 

As soon as the succeeding Earl of Angus lost 
his power over the person of James V. he 
retired and threw himself into his castle of 
Tantallan, where he defied the force of the 
whole kingdom. The king attempted the re- 
duction of the fort, but without avail. It 
seems that he appeared before it in person, in 
September, 1528, with a feeble force, and 
assisted by two cannons, called, according to 
Pitscottie, " Thrawn-mou'd Mow and her 
Marrow," also, " two great botcards, and two 
moyan, two double falconer, and four quarter- 



falcones," wliich he borrowed from the neigh- 
bouring castle of Dunbar. So bad was the 
credit of the king on this occasion, that he had 
to leave three of his lords in pawn for the safe 
delivery of the instruments. In a few months 
afterwards the castle was given up by com- 
promise, when it again became royal property. 
The siege is thus spoken of by Angus in a 
letter to the Earl of Northumberland. " At 
the quhilk he [the king] and his army, with 
artillierie of his awng, and of Dunbar Castle, 
in great quantitie, hes layne and assegit rycht 
sharply, baith be gunns and ingeniouss men, 
baitli Scottis and French; that myndit the 
wallis in sic sort, that as can be rememberit 
there never was sa mekil pane, travill, expensis, 
and diligence, done and maid for the wynnyng 
of ane houss, and the samyn eschaip, in Scot- 
land, sen it was first inhabite." MSS. Brit. 
Mus. Caligula, B. VII. 99. In 1537, 
James V. visited Tantallan in order to ex- 
amine its capabilities of defence. On his 
death, and the return of the Earl of Angus 
from banishment, the latter once more obtain- 
ed possession of Tantallan, which he rendered 
stronger than ever. It does not appear that 
Tantallan was molested either during the in- 
vasion of the Earl of Hertford in 1544, or of 
the Protector Somerset in 1547 ; though in 
the latter expedition, Dunbar castle endured a 
siege. What had been a terror for several 
centuries at length sunk before the fervid war- 
fare of the Covenanters. During the troubles of 
Charles I. he was sided with the Marquis of 
Douglas, the then proprietor of Tantallan, which 
was besieged, captured, and dismantled, in 1639. 
The castle and lands were sold in the beginning 
of the eighteenth century by the Marquis of 
Douglas to President Dalrymple of North 
Berwick, whose descendants now inherit them. 
Nothing in the present day remains about this 
once stately fabric to attest its former proprie- 
tary but the hardly definable blazon of the 
Bloody Heart sculptured in " a stony shield," 
in the wall above the entrance — the well 
known cognizance of the Douglas. — The parish 
of North Berwick possesses another ruin of 
an interesting but different kind. On the face 
of a low eminence a short way west of the 
town, and about a furlong south of the road to 
Dirleton, stand the ruins of a monastery, which 
was founded by Duncan, Earl of Fife, in the 
year 1154. It was endowed with some lands 
in the manor of North Berwick, and drew 

revenues from different sources in Berwick- 
shire, Mid and West-Lothian, Fife and Ayr- 
shire. It was used as a convent of Cistertian 
nuns, and was consecrated to the Virgin. It 
was governed by a prioress, who, it appears, 
was generally one of the family of Home, 
in the Merse. At the Reformation it con- 
tained eleven nuns, whose income was about 
L.20 sterling each, per annum. On its de- 
struction all its endowments which remained 
undilapidated were given by James VI. to Sir 
Alexander Home. The monastery is now 
reduced to some tall massive fragments of wall 
embosomed in the midst of some fine trees and 
shrubbery. Near the harbour of North Ber- 
wick also stand the shattered remains of what 
is imagined to have been a chapel belonging to 
the convent, or to some hospital now obliter- 
ated. A vault above ground continues almost 
entire. In all likelihood this was a burying- 
place of the Douglas family in the fourteenth, 
century. In 1788, a seal with the inscription, 
" Sigillum Willielmi Domini de Douglas," was 
found in one of the vaults. 

Berwick, (North) the town above alluded 
to, lies in a low situation on the edge of the 
sea, twenty-two miles north-east of Edin- 
burgh, eleven north-west of Dunbar, and 9J 
north from Haddington. It is considerably 
out of the thoroughfare with Edinburgh, and 
is a dull melancholy-looking town with no 
manufactures. It consists of a long street 
running east and west, and of another in which 
it terminates on the east, proceeding in a con- 
trary direction towards the sea. On the sides 
of this latter-mentioned street are some houses 
of a superior kind, with a few trees in front. 
There are also several bye lanes. The har- 
bour is formed by a tolerably good pier, but it 
is dry at low water — the common misfortune 
of all the harbours on the south side of the 
firth — and is difficult of access. In the offing 
there are several bleak islets, only of value as 
rabbit warrens. In recent times warehouses 
have been built for storing corn, which is al- 
most the only article of export. The town 
has a good inn, and a reading-room. North 
Berwick is a royal burgh in virtue of a writ of 
confirmation of former privileges by James 
VI. It is governed by two bailies, a treasur- 
er, and nine councillors. The burgh joins 
with Haddington, Dunbar, Jedburgh and Lau- 
der, in electing a member of parliament. The 
inhabitants have a common for cows near the 


B I G G A R. 

town Population of the burgh ana parish in 

1821, 1694. 

BHROTACHAN, (Loch) a small fresh 
water lake in the parish of Crathy, district of 
Marr, Aberdeenshire. 

JBIEL, a rivulet in Haddingtonshire, running 
into the sea at the bay of Belhaven, about two 
miles west of Dunbar. 

BIELD, a small village on the western part 
of Peebles-shire, and a stage on the principal 
road from Edinburgh to Dumfries. 

BIGGAR, a parish on the east side of the 
upper ward of Lanarkshire, bounded by the 
Peebles- shire parishes on the east, and on the 
west by Libberton. Its extreme length is six 
miles, by a breadth of three and a half, 
and it generally consists of moorland ground, 
with some fertile fields. The river Clyde 
runs past its western boundary. The town of 
Biggar, which is of small extent, lies on the 
road from Lanark to Peebles, at the distance 
of twelve miles from the former, and fifteen 
from the latter. Its distance from Edin- 
burgh is twenty-seven miles. It consists prin- 
cipally of a main street, which is spacious and 
neatly built, and is supported chiefly by weav- 
ing cotton goods. Besides the parish church, 
there are two meeting-houses of Dissenters. 
The town is the seat of a Presbytery in the 
Synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. It was 
created a burgh of barony by a charter of 
James II., to Sir Robert Fleming of Biggar, 
in 1451-2. The origin of the name of Biggar 
is very doubtful. In all likelihood it is from 
the Scoto-Irish big-ther or bigger, signifying 
soft land. During the reign of David I., 
Baldwin, a Flemish leader, obtained a grant 
of the manor of Biger, as the word was then 
spelled. The descendants of this foreign set- 
tler dropped the name of Baldwin, and took 
the designation of Fleming. A branch of the 
family became Earls of Wigton, and, by the 
male line becoming extinct, in 1747, the barony 
of Biggar was carried into the family of Elphin- 
ston, by Lady Clementina Fleming. In the 
year 1545, Malcolm, Lord Fleming, founded 
and endowed a collegiate church at the town of 
Biggar, for a provost, eight prebends, four 
singing boys, and six poor men. It was built 
in the form of a cross, in a plain Gothic style, 
but its spire was not finished, most probably 
from the Reformation taking place in 1560, 
while it was in progress. This place of wor- 
ship is now the parish church,, and is the only 

object worthy of attracting the notice of the 
stranger. Of the anti-reformation parochial 
church, which, it seems, was unconnected with 
the collegiate foundation, there are no remains, 
but an anecdote regarding it is reported by an 
authentic tradition worthy of notice. On the 
1st of November, 1524, as John, Lord Flem- 
ing, the chamberlain of Scotland, was taking 
the diversion of hawking, he was attacked and 
barbarously murdered by John Tweedie of 
Drummelzier, James, his son, and several ac- 
complices. In that turbulent and lawless 
age, legal punishment for such an outrage 
very rarely took place. After the lapse of 
several years, the above Malcolm, son of the 
murdered lord, and Tweedie, the principal 
assassin, submitted the decision of this odious 
affair to certain arbiters, who decreed that a cer- 
tain assythement, or manbote, in lands, should 
be given to Lord Fleming, and that Tweedie 
should grant, in mortmain, L.10 yearly from 
the lands and barony of Drummelzier, for the 
support of a chaplain to celebrate divine sendee 
perpetually in the parish church of Biggar, 
for the salvation of the soul of the late John, 
Lord Fleming ; and this was confirmed under 
the great seal, December, 1531. — At the dis- 
tance of a mile south of the town, in the mid- 
dle of a plain, formerly a morass, are the re- 
mains of an extensive fortification, called Bog 
Hall. According to Blind Harry, a sanguin- 
ary conflict took place here between the Eng- 
lish under Edward, and the Scots under Sir 
William Wallace, in which the latter discom- 
fitted the invaders of the country with im- 
mense slaughter. But no other historian con- 
firms the dubious tale Population in 1821, 


BIGA, or BIGGAY, a small island lying 
between the mainland of Shetland, and the 
island of Yell on the north. 

BIN HILL, a lofty hill standing about a 
mile south of Cullen, in Banffshire, which 
serves as a landmark at sea. 

BINNING or BINNY, a suppressed pa- 
rish in Linlithgowshire, joined to the parish of 
Linlithgow. In the reign of James VI. the ba- 
rony of Binning was acquired by Sir Thomas 
Hamilton, who was created Lord Binning, 
November 30, 1613, and Earl of Haddington 
six years afterwards. The title of Lord Bin- 
ning is taken by the eldest son of the family. 
In the early part of last century, the Earl of 
Haddington planted a forest near his seat of 



Tymiinghame in East- Lothian, which receives 
the name of Binning Wood, and is now one of 
the finest forests of hard-wood in Scotland. 

BIRGHAM, a small ancient village on the 
north bank of the Tweed, a few miles below 
Kelso, opposite Carham, in Northumberland. 
Here, in 1291, the twelve competitors for the 
Scottish throne met the commissioners of Ed- 
ward I., to represent their claims to him, ac- 
knowledge his paramouncy over their country, 
and submit to his decision as to their preten- 
sions. A late tourist suggests, that the place, 
from this circumstance, became obnoxious to 
the contempt of all Scotsmen, and that the 
feeling with which it was contemplated, is still 
to be traced in the popular expression, " Go 
to Birgham !" which is addressed to a frivolous 
person whom one wants to get quit of. 

BIRNIE, a parish in Morayshire, lying 
betwixt Elgin and Rothes. Its average 
length is four miles, and its breadth three 
miles. It contains upwards of 6,000 acres, 
2130 of which were under cultivation in 1829. 
On the hilly part the soil is gravelly, or con- 
sists of gravel mixed with clay. About 100 
acres on the banks of the Lossie present a 
deep rich loam incumbent on sand. Over the 
whole parish there are interspersed tracts of 
peaty soil. It is divided into forty compact 
farms. Previous to the commencement of the 
present century the parish lay in a very rude 
unproductive state ; but, since that period, 
great improvements in the modes of cultivation 
have been introduced, chiefly by the bountiful 
exertions of the Earl of Seatield, who has 
given premiums to his tenants for bringing 
land into cultivation. At present, the parish 
is in a thriving condition. — Population in 
1821, 384. 

BIRNAM, a hill familiar to all who have 
read the story of Macbeth, as related in the 
old Scottish Chronicles, or in the play formed 
therefrom by Shakespeare. It is situated in 
the parish of Little Dunkeld, on the south 
bank of the Tay, and twelve miles to the south- 
west of Dunsinnan. It is elevated to a height 
of 1580 feet above the level of the sea, exceed- 
ing that of Dunsinan by 556 feet. Near the bot- 
tom of Birnam hill, there is a circular mount, 
called " Duncan's Hill," where, it is said, that 
unfortunate monarch was wont to hold his 
-court, and higher up are the remains of a 
square fortress, with circular towers at the 
corners. Birnam was anciently covered with 

a forest ; but, as Pennant remarks, the trees 
seem never to have recovered the march which 
their ancestors made to Dunsinan. It is now 
almost bare. The property appears, from 
Spottiswood's Church History, to have been 
part of the domain of the bishopric of Dun- 
keld. That historian mentions that, having 
been previously alienated from the see for 
some time, it was restored by Bishop Brown, 
who flourished at the end of the fifteenth 

B IRS AY— See Haray. 

BIRSE, a parish in Aberdeenshire, situat- 
ed on the south side of the Dee ; bounded on 
the south by Aven, which separates it from 
Kincardine and Forfar shires. It extends ten 
miles in length, and, including a part of the 
Grampian mountains belonging to it, its 
breadth is nearly as much. The parish church 
is distant about twenty-seven miles from Aber- 
deen. It is divided into three straths or dis- 
tricts; through each of which runs a rivulet 
giving a name to the valley. The names of 
these streams are the Feugh, the Chattie, and 
the Birse. The country is here woody, with 
a large proportion of hill and moss, and there 
is an inexhaustible store of limestone, which 
has been of much benefit. — Population in 
1821, 1506. 

BISHOP'S LOCH, a beautiful little lake 
in the parish of New Machar, Aberdeenshire ; 
so called from a house belonging to the 
bishops of Aberdeen, which is situated on its 

BISHOP'S LOCH, a small lake near 
Monkland, Lanarkshire, from whence flows a 
tributary of the North Calder river. 

a tributary stream of the Whitadder, in the 
district of the Merse, Berwickshire. It rises 
in some mossy ground in the Lammermoor dis- 
trict, and runs in an easterly direction, past 
Greenlaw, through the centre of the Merse, 
till it falls into the Whitadder below Allan- 
bank. It is an excellent trouting stream, but, 
from its impregnation of mossy matter, it is un- 
suitable to the existence of salmon. The name 
is a corruption of Blachcater, which it receives 
from its dark colour ; a hue extending, it may 
be remarked, to the trouts. 

BLACKBURN, a streamlet in Liddes- 
dale, falling into the Liddel, and which, in its 
course, forms several beautiful cascades. Some- 
times it rushes over a perpendicular rook in 



one unbroken sheet of water ; at other times 
it is darted over tremendous precipices, and 
rages furiously among the huge masses of the 
rock below. In this wild and romantic scene 
nature appears in various forms, now beautiful, 
now awful, sometimes sublime, and frequently 
terrible. One of the fidls is about forty feet 
in height, and may be twenty in breadth. This 
stream, up to the year 1810, was crossed by 
what was generally considered to be a natural 
arch, composed of rough but compactly placed 
stones, and the span of which was 31 feet, the 
breadth 104,, the length 55 feet, and the height 
above the water 31 feet. Unfortunately this 
great natural curiosity fell in the year men- 

BLACKBURN, a tributary streamlet of 
the Almond, Linlithgowshire. 

BLACKBURN, avillage in the parish of 
Livingston, situated on the north bank of the 
above water, and on the south road from 
Edinburgh to Glasgow. It has a large cotton 
mill, a wool- carding mill, and a flax mill. 

BLACKFORD, a parish in the county 
of Perth, district of Strathearn, bounded by 
Glendevon and Auchterarder on the east ; 
Alloa, Tillicoultry, and Alva on the south ; 
and by Dumblane and Muthil on the west. 
The bottom of the parish is a dead flat, water- 
ed by the Allan. The most southerly part is 
occupied by a ridge of the Ochil hills, which 
upon the south side, towards the Devon, is 
somewhat steep, and, in some places, craggy, 
afFording excellent pasture. Upon the north 
side, the declivity is more gentle, and laid out 
in several farms. Upon the north of the 
Allan, the ground rises and forms a group of 
sandy hills, with a number of vast hollows, 
some of them round, and others extending in 
length, forming little valleys, through which, 
for the most part, run small brooks. The pa- 
rish possesses, also, some small lakes. The 
village of Blackford lies on the road from 
Doune to Perth, 9| miles north-east of Dum- 
blane, and 3| west of Auchterarder. — Popu- 
lation in 1821, 1892. 

BLACKFORD-HILL, a romantic height, 
only arable on its north-eastern side, the first 
eminence lying to the south of Edinburgh, 
from the outskirts of which it is distant fully 
more than a mile. On the south it is pre- 
cipitous, and has been opened as a quarry of 
whinstones, usefid for metal to the roads, as 
well as for furnishing the materials of bilkers' 

ovens. It is divided from Braid-hill on the 
south by a ravine, through which runs Braid 

of hills dividing the upper part of the vale of 
Yarrow from Tweeddale. 
BLACK-ISLE. See Ardmeanach. 
BLACK LOCH, a small lake immediate- 
ly south of Brother Loch, on the south-eastern 
extremity of Renfrewshire. 

BLACKNESS, a small sea-side village in 
Linlithgowshire, parish of Carriden, four 
miles east of Borrowstounness, and five west of 
Queensferry. At the time when Linlithgow 
was a flourishing inland town, Blackness was 
its port, as Leith is that of Edinburgh ; and 
accordingly, although hardly any trace of a 
harbour is now discernible, some large houses 
yet remain, which were used as granaries and 
warehouses for the convenience of traders. 
The village is now quite inconsiderable. The 
very ancient castle of Blackness stands at the 
point of a small peninsula projecting from the 
village. Some suppose this, instead of Aber- 
corn, to be the site of the Roman fortress at 
the east end of Antoninus' wall. During the 
reign of King James VI. Blackness Castle 
was the principal state-prison in Scotland, and 
as such received within its gloomy walls many 
distinguished persons. One of the most re- 
markable of its prisoners was Lord Ochiltree, 
who, for a false accusation against the Marquis 
of Hamilton, alleging that he aspired to the 
Scottish crown, was here confined during near- 
ly the whole reign of Charles I upwards of 

twenty years — and was not liberated till the 
country fell under the dominion of Cromwell. 
At the Union, Blackness was one of the four 
fortresses agreed to be kept up in Scotland, as 
a chain of forts for the defence of the Low- 
landers against their unruly Highland neigh- 
bours ; and it is still kept in a degree of repair, 
though all its utility has passed away since the 
suppression of the rebellion of 1745. It is 
now garrisoned by a master-gunner and bar- 
rack-master, who seem, amidst its tall gaunt 
towers, grass-grown court- yard, and gunless 
batteries, like Caleb Balderstone and Mysie, 
left to people the solitude of Wolf's Crag, in 
the tale of the Bride of Lammermoor. The 
fortress, however, served very well as a bar- 
rack during the last war, when every part of 
the government property was stuffed full of 
soldiers ; and as such it may serve again. The 

E L A N E. 


expense of maintaining it being very trifling, it 
is certainly worth while to keep it in use for that 
purpose, however remote the prospect of a 
revival of hostilities may he. The defences 
are altogether unworthy of notice, being simply 
a wall with a few port holes, surrounding two 
lofty towers, like those of the ordinary Border 
castles, and which are placed irregularly in re- 
gard to each other. Blackness suffers, in com- 
mon with all the places along the south coast 
of the Firth of Forth between Queensferry 
and Stirling, from being untouched by any im- 
portant road. 

BLACKSHIELS, a small village and a 
stage in posting, sixteen miles south-east of 
Edinburgh. The adjacent bog has been once 
or twice used as a place for prize-fighting, in 
consequence of its situation on the borders of 
the county of Edinburgh. 

BLACKSIDE-END, a hill in Kyle, Ayr- 
shire, parish of Sorn, rising to the height of 
1560 feet above the level of the sea. 

BLACKWATER, a rivulet in Perthshire, 
which being joined with the Ardle, the Ericht 
is formed. 

BLADENOCH, a river in Wigtonshire, 
rising in Carrick, and which, after running a 
course of twenty-four miles, falls into Luce 

BLAIR-ATHOLE, (the plain of Athole,) 
a parish and a subordinate district, in the sub- 
division of Athole, Perthshire. A part of the 
parish at the confluence of the Garry and 
Erocbty, was formerly an independent parish 
called Strowan (or, of the streams,) since joined 
with Blair- Athole. The parish is not less 
than thirty miles in length, by about eighteen 
in breadth. The boundary on the north is the 
high ridge dividing Inverness-shire from Perth- 
shire ; on the east He the parishes of Kirk- 
michael and Moulin, on the south the parish of 
Dull, and on the west Fortingall. The district 
[ is very rugged and bleak in the mountainous 
parts, but very beautiful in that part which is 
| more properly Blair Athole — namely, the val- 
I ley around Athole House, which is situated on 
the bank of the Tilt, near its confluence with 

the Garry See Athole. The view of the 

) country from the opening of the Pass of Kil- 
liecranky is one of the finest in Scotland, com- 
prising a striking variety of mountain and val- 
ley, forest and meadow, noble country seats 
with their lordly environs, and, above all 
things, that fine dashing stream the Garry, 

which, at every little interval, breaks over 
some rocky and bosky precipice, lighting up 
the landscape with its lustrous waters, and so- 
lacing the ear with its lively natural music. 
The village of Blair-Athole stands to the 
north of Athole House, on the road from Edin- 
burgh to Fort Augustus, from which a road 
diverges at this point to Brae-Mar. It is 
twenty miles north of Dunkeld, and ten and a 
half south-east of Dalnacardoch Inn. In the 
church of Blair-Athole lie the remains of 
John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dun- 
dee, celebrated for so much good and ill, and 
who fell at the battle of KilKecranky, July 
26, 1689.— Population in 1821, 2493. 

BLAIR- GOWRIE, a parish in the east- 
ern part of Perthshire, of an irregular form 
extending eleven miles in length by a breadth 
of eight miles in some places, having Rattery 
on the east, Bendothy on the south, and Kinloch 
on the west. It is divided into two districts 
by a branch of the Grampian mountains, which 
is the northern boundary of this part of the 
beautiful valley of Strathmore. The southern 
district which lies in the strath is about four 
miles long, and from one to two miles broad. 
The greater part of the remainder of the parish 
is hilly and moorish. The district is well 
watered by streams which bound and pass 
through it. Among these are the Isla, the 
Ericht, the Ardle and the Black Water. The 
village of Blair- Gowrie is considerable, and 
lies on the west bank of the Ericht in the low 
part of the parish, five miles north of Cupar 
Angus, six west of Alyth, and twelve east of 
Dunkeld. It is a thriving little town, and is 
governed by a baron bailie. It has three an- 
nual fairs. — Population in 1821, 2253. 

BL AIRING ONE, a small village in the 
parish of Fossaway, Perthshire. 

BLAIR-LOGIE, a small village in the 
parish of Logie, Stirlingshire, lying, with its, 
neat little church, and an old castle in its 
neighbourhood, under one of the Ochil hills, 
at the entrance to Glendevon, and presenting 
a singularly pleasing scene of natural beauty. 

BLANE, a small river, having its source in 
Earl's Seat, one of the Lennox hills, and run- 
ning through the valley to which it gives the 
name of Strathblane, in the south-west corner 
of Stirlingshire. In its course, it forms seve- 
ral beautiful cascades, one of which, the spout 
of Bal lagan, is seventy feet in height. In some 
places its banks are cliffy and romantic. After 



joining the Endriek it falls finally into Loch 
Lomond. Blane is a Gaelic word, signifying 
warm. The hanks of the stream have an in- 
terest, as the scene of the youth of George 
Buchanan, who was a younger son of the far- 
mer of Moss, in this district of country. 

BLANTYRE, a parish in the county of 
Lanark, lying on the south hank of the Clyde. 
On the east it is bounded by Hamilton, on the 
south by Glassford ; and on the west by Cam- 
buslang. It has a front to the Clyde of about 
two and a half miles, and reaches six miles in 
length. It is chiefly surrounded by rising 
grounds, and, from its low sheltered situation, 
the name of Blantyre has been acquired, which 
signifies " a warm retreat." It is one entire, 
rich, fertile district of the middle ward of Lan- 
arkshire. Ironstone is here dug to a consider- 
able extent. A great part of the population 
are engaged at cotton-mills, or in weaving. 
The village of Blantyre stands on the road 
from Hamilton to Kilbride, four miles distant 
from the former, and seven from Glasgow. 
On the south bank of the Clyde, directly op- 
posite to Bothwell Castle, on a rocky emin- 
ence, stand the remains of the Priory of 
Blantyre, which was founded before the year 
.1296. It was erected for the habitation of 
canons-regular of St. Augustine, a species of 
monks who were settled in Scotland in the 
year 1114, under the patronage of Alexander I. 
and who had twenty-eight houses in Scotland. 
The parish church of Blantyre, with all its 
property and revenues, was annexed to the 
priory by Alexander II. At the Reformation 
the priory was demolished, and its revenues, 
with the patronage of the parish church, were 
given by James VI. to Walter Stewart, a de- 
scendant of Sir Thomas Stewart of Minto, and 
a person whom he held in especial favour, from 
having been educated, along with him, unuer 
George Buchanan. After being made com- 
mendator of the priory, (that is, the recipient 
of its spoils,) he was made keeper of the privy 
seal, and lord treasurer of Scotland, and, in 
1608, was created a baron, with the title of 
Lord Blantyre. The descendants of this 
person still enjoy the title and church property 
of Blantyre. The family is distinguished in 
Scottish and British history; and none of its 
members were held in more esteem than the 
late Major- General Lord Blantyre, who was 
so lucklessly slain in the tumults at Brussels 
in 1830— Population in 1821, 2630. 

BLUMEL SOUND, a strait dividing 

Unstand Yell islands, Shetland. 

BODDOM, a fishing village, south of 
Peterhead, on the coast of Buchan, Aberdeen- 
shire, at which there is a promontory jutting 
into the sea, known as Boddom Head, or 
Buchan Ness. 

BOGIE, a rivulet rising in the Lower 
Grampians, between Aberdeen and Banff- 
shires, and running through the beautiful val- 
ley of Strathbogie, falls at length into the De- 
veron, a little way below the town of Huntly. 
This stream, among others in the district, was 
flooded to a great height in August 1829, and 
on the lower part of its course did much se 
rious damage. 

BOHARM, a parish partly belonging to 
the county of Banff, and partly to that of 
Moray, across the Spey. It consists chiefly 
of a piece of ground, surrounding nearly three 
parts of the hill of Benegan. The water of 
Fiddich runs into the Spey, at the west end of 
the parish. The large ruin of the castle of 
Gallvale, or Castelhim de Buchairn, as it was 
denominated in a public writ of the thirteenth 
century, occupies a good situation on the north 
side of the valley. A suspension bridge wa- 
lately thrown across the Spey at the old ferry 
of Boat-of-Bridge — Population in 1821, 1208. 

BOISDALE, (LOCH) a deep inlet of 
the sea at the south-east end of South Uist. 

form a united parish in Invemess-shire, lying 
on the south side of Loch Ness, twenty-four 
miles in length, and from ten to twelve in 
breadth. In the western parts the land is 
mountainous, but towards the east it is flat, 
though not very productive. The district 
abounds in small lakes. The only thing 
worthy of attention in the parish is the cele- 
brated Fall of Foyers. — See Fall or Foyers. 
The military road from Inverness passes along 
the south bank of Loch Ness, or Caledonian 

Canal, through this parish Population in 

1821, 2096. 

BOLITTER, a rocky narrow pass in the 
Highlands of Braemar. 

BOLTON, a parish in Haddingtonsnnt, 
of a poor soil, but under considerable agri- 
cultural improvement, lying immediately south 
of the parish of Haddington ; of six miles 
in length by less than two in breadth. The 
village of Bolton stands on the road from 
Haddington to East Salton. Bolton comes 

B O R G U E. 


occasionally Into notice in Scottish history. 
William the Lion granted the manor of Bol- 
ton to William de Vipont, the son of an Eng- 
lish baron, and this person gave the church of 
Bolton, with its lands, tithes, and pertinents, 
to the canons of Holyrood. From Vipont, 
Bolton went to other proprietors. Having 
faUen into the hands of Lord Halliburton of 
Dirleton, in the reign of James II., he pawn- 
ed it to the king for about L.8 of our present 
money, and afterwards redeemed it. About 
the end of the fifteenth century, it was wrong- 
fully seized by the Hepburns, the most infa- 
mous of Scottish families. John Hepburn of 
Bolton was executed as the associate of the 
Earl of Bothwell, his chief, in the murder of 
Darnley. Being forfeited, it was given to 
Maitland of Lethington. It afterwards pass- 
ed from the Lauderdale family into that of Sir 
Thomas Livingston, and then into the pos- 
session of the lords of Blantyre. — Population 
in 1821, 315. 

BONHILL, a parish in Dumbartonshire, 
of about four miles square, lying on both sides 
of the river Leven in Dumbartonshire, which 
flows out of Loch Lomond, and after a course 
of about six miles, falls into the Clyde at 
Dumbarton. The parish of Dumbarton ad- 
joins to Bonhill, on its southern quarter. It 
is all enclosed and mostly under tillage. The 
village of Bonhill lies on the east side of the 
river, three miles from Dumbarton, on the road 
to Drymen. It now possesses a handsome 
modern church. On the opposite bank stands 
the village of Alexandria. Both are inhabited 
chiefly by persons employed at the numerous 
printfields along the Leven. About two miles 
above Dumbarton, on the left side of the road, 
a monumental stone, with an inscription, has 
been erected to the memory of Tobias Smol- 
• lett, (born in this neighbourhood,) by his cou- 
sin, the late John Smollett, of Bonhill, Esq. 
This memorial of affection, interesting from 
so many causes, is, we are sorry to say, fast 
hurrying to decay from mere neglect. — Popu- 
lation in 1821, 3003. 

TON, a united parish in Berwickshire on the 
south-eastern confines of Lammermoor, bound- 
ed on the north by Abbey St. Bathans, and by 
Coldingham and Chirnside on the east. The 
uplands are poor, but the low ground on the 
banks of the Whitadder, which runs through 
the parish, has a fertile soil. During the 

thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the lands 
in the parish of Bonkle were in the posses- 
sion of a family of the same name. Sir Alex- 
ander de Bonkill is frequently noticed in the 
wars of the Bruce. One of his female de- 
scendants marrying Sir John Stewart, had a 
son, who was created Earl of Angus, in 1329. 
In 1377 this title merged in the family of 
Douglas. Along with the title of Earls of 
Angus, they sometimes, from this circumstance, 
styled themselves Lords of Bonkill. — Popu- 
lation in 1821, 787. 

BONNINGTON, a small village with 
flour mills, situated on the road from Edin- 
burgh to Newhaven, by the banks of the Water 
of Leith, which is here crossed by a stone 
bridge. On the east it is overlooked by the 
large distillery of T. Haig, Esq. and the works 
of the ingenious Mr. J. W. Anderson, manu- 
facturing chemist. On the edge of the river 
below the village, a mineral spring was dis- 
covered and enclosed with a small pump-room 
some years since, and the water is now drunk 
by the citizens of Edinburgh for various ail- 

BONNINGTON, a small village lying 
about two miles west of Ratho, county of 

BONNY, a tributary streamlet of the 
Carron, Stirlingshire. 

BONNYRIG, (pronounced Bannarig,) a 
coal village about seven miles south from 

insular cluster of basaltic pillars, lying thirty 
yards south of the isle of Staffa, of which it is 
a disjointed segment. 

BO RE RAY, a small island of the Hebri- 
des, extending a mile and a half in length by a 
mile in breadth ; lying westward of Berneray, 
at the north end of North Uist. 

BO RE RAY, another of the Western is- 
lands, of a small size, lying about two miles 
north of St. Kilda. 

BORGUE, a parish in the Stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, comprehending the two abo- 
lished parishes of Kirkandrew and Sandwich. 
The united parish is about ten miles in length 
by seven in breadth, and lies in the peninsular 
piece of land which has Kirkcudbright bay on 
the east and the sea on the south. It is bound- 
ed on the west by Girthon. There are some 
tolerably good natural harbours on the coast. 
The district is both agricultural and pastoral. 



The old parish of Sandwick or Sanwich forms 
the southern part of the present parish. The 
ruins of its old church may be perceived on 
the side of the bay. It is mentioned by tra- 
dition that it was sacrilegiously plundered of 
its plate by French pirates, at some time pre- 
vious to the Reformation ; but that a storm 
wrecked the vessel on a rock, which is nearly 
opposite the church, where the pirates perished. 
It has since been called the Frenchman's rock. 
The church of Kirk- Andrew originally be- 
longed to the monks of Iona ; and when the 
devastations of the Danish pirates left them 
without an establishment, William the Lion 
transferred it, along with their churches and 
estates in Galloway, to the monks of Holyrood. 
It afterwards fell into the hands of the prior 
and canons of Whithorn. The ancient kirk, 
which was dedicated to the patron saint of 
Scotland, stands in ruins on a creek of the 
Solway, which from it is called Kirk- Andrews 
Bay.— Population in 1821, 947. 

BORLAND, a small village lying half a 
mile north of Dysart in Fife. 

BORLAND PARK, a small village south 
of the Earn, parish of Auchterarder, Perth- 

BOLEY, (LOCH) a small fresh-water 
lake in the north of Sutherlandshire, parish of 
Durness, containing great abundance of a spe- 
cies of trouts called Red Bellies, which are 
only fished for in October. 

BORROWSTOWN, a fishing village on 
the north coast of Sutherlandshire, parish of 

rally pronounced BO'NESS,) a parish lying 
on the south shore of the Firth of Forth, 
county of Linlithgow, bounded by Carriden on 
the east, Linlithgow on the south, and Pol- 
mont on the west, extending four miles in 
length by two and a half in breadth. The 
land is fertile, and declines to the sea on the 
north, and the river Avon on the west, Kin- 
neil House, the property of the Duke of Ha- 
milton, lately inhabited by the venerable Du- 
gald Stewart, is a handsome edifice, with a 
beautiful exposure to the firth. Kinneil is 
supposed to signify " the head of the wall," in 
allusion to the wall of Antoninus, which ter- 
minates in its vicinity. " Penval," the only 
surviving word of the Pictish language, which 
must have been a dialect of the Celtic, is be- 
lieved to be a various designation of the place, 

signifying the same thing. Kinneil is an an- 
cient seat of the Hamilton family, and having 
generally been their residence, when politics 
demanded that they shoidd not be far from the 
capital, is very frequently mentioned in Scot- 
tish history. The -village of Borrowstoun 
lies about a mile inland, but the principal 
town in the parish is called Borrowstounness, 
or Bo'ness, which is situated on a piece ot 
low ground on the coast. This is one of the 
most ancient sea-port towns in Scotland, and 
the greater part of its houses seem to be of a 
very old date. From the number of works 
in and about it, from whence smoke is profuse- 
ly emitted, the streets, lanes, and houses ap- 
pear dirty, mean, and saturated with soot. 
It is a burgh of barony. The place possesses 
a good safe harbour, but this not being a ma- 
nufacturing district, there is little trade, import 
or export, except of a local nature. A patent 
slip is erected, and is of great use to shipping. 
The port has three vessels employed in the 
Greenland trade. Bo'ness is the chief salt- 
making place in the Firth of Forth, and, it is 
understood, exports upwards of 30,000 bushels 
of this article yearly. Besides these works it has 
two distilleries, an earthen-ware manufactory, 
and vitrioland soap-work. Besides the establish- 
ed church, there is a dissenting meeting-house. 
The fast-days are generally the Wednesdays 
before the second Sundays of February and 
August. Prior to the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, Kinneil was the name of the 
parish, but the inhabitants of Borrowstoun- 
ness having built a church for themselves, 
the town was created a separate parish. In 
1669, the Duke of Hamilton procured an act 
of parliament for uniting the two districts, and 
since that time the old landward church of 
Kinneil has been neglected, and is now gone, 
though the burying-ground remains. The liv- 
ing of the joint parishes is now among the 
best in the Kirk of Scotland, chiefly by reason 
of a small farm having been endowed for the 
use of the ministerial incumbents. — Popula- 
tion in 1821, 3018. 

BORTHWICK, a parish in the south- 
eastern part of the county of Edinburgh, aver- 
aging six miles in length by four in breadth, 
bounded on the north by Crichton, on the east 
by Fala, on the south by Heriot, and on the 
west by Temple. The ground here is of an 
irregular swelling nature, and is highly culti- 
vated. The road from Edinburgh to the 

B O R T H W I C K. 


south-east, by Fushie Bridge, passes within a 
short distance to the west of the kirk of Borth- 
wick, which, with the manse, stands on the 
brow of a pleasant eminence with a northern 
exposure. Adjoining the kirk on the east, on 
the same level, stands the celebrated Borth- 
wick Castle, in perfect external preservation, 
and still surrounded by a pretty entire barbican 
wall, with towers at the corners. This strong- 
hold is placed in a very commanding situa- 
tion ; there being a vale on two of its sides, 
through which meanders a small rivulet call- 
ed the Gore. The castle is a single tower of 
great strength, built of polished freestone, 
measuring ninety feet high, exclusive of the 
battlements, a sloping stone roof, and a watch- 
tower at the top, which perhaps add twenty 
feet to its height. In breadth it measures 
seventy-four feet on one side and sixty-eight 
on the other. At the bottom the walls are 
thirteen feet thick and at the top nine. On 
its western side from bottom to top there is a 
recess, into the sides of which the windows 
of the principal apartments are made to open ; 
a very ingenious expedient for defence. There 
are three storeys in the building, all vaulted and 
exceedingly dingy inside, from the meagre light 
admitted by the small windows. The hall oc- 
cupies the second storey, and is a large cham- 
ber with a huge chimney at the south end. 
The floor is entirely gone, but the Avails still 
exhibit traces of a former kind of elegance. 
From one of the ends of the hall a door leads 
into a small apartment or rather stone gallery, 
from whence, on looking down, the lady of the 
mansion might have commanded a complete 
view of what was going on in the large kitch- 
en beneath. From another part of the hall 
a small apartment is reached, said to have been 
the room in which Queen Mary slept, on be- 
ing kept here by Bothwell, June 1567, imme- 
diately before the battle of Carberry hill, by 
which she was for ever separated from that 
infamous personage. This castle, which is 
well worthy of a visit, more especially as it is 
only about two miles west from Crichton 
Castle, was built in 1430 by Sir William de 
Borthwick, afterwards created Lord Borth- 
wick. This personage bought the lands from 
Sir William Hay, who at that time retired to 
his estate of Yester. The castle was built 
on the site of the very ancient castle of Loch- 
erworth ; which, till the Reformation, was the 
name of the parish, and is still in some shape 

kept up in the adjacent hamlet of Lochwarret. 
The name of Borthwick was taken from the 
barons who settled in the parish, and who 
came from a place called Borthwick in Sel- 
kirkshire. In 1650, under its proprietor John, 
eighth Lord Borthwick, it was held out very 
manfully against Oliver Cromwell, till it was 
damaged by artillery; it then surrendered upon 
condition that its proprietor should have fif- 
teen days to transport his effects from the 
castle. The peerage of Borthwick became 
extinct or dormant in the reign of Charles II., 
by the death of the ninth Lord Borthwick. 
It is now claimed by Mr. Borthwick of 
Crookstone, a neighbouring gentleman, who 
has by purchase become proprietor of this 
venerable monument of the power and wealth 
of his ancestors. The father of Dr. Robert- 
son, the historian, was minister of Borthwick, 
and here, 1721, that elegant writer was born. 
At present the ministerial incumbent is the 
Rev. Thomas Wright, author of " The Morn- 
ing and Evening Sacrifice," and some other 
distinguished works of a devotional nature. 
TheDundassesof Arnistonwere natives of this 
parish, and the district also gave birth to Mr. 
James Small, an eminent mechanic, well 
knows for his invention in the modern im- 
proved plough, and other agricultural imple- 
ments. The villages of Fushie and Middleton 
are in the parish. — Population in 1821, 1345. 
BORTHWICK WATER, a stream in 
Roxburghshire, rising in the heights on the 
south-west boundary of the county, and flow- 
ing eastward till it falls into the north side 
of the Tiviot about a mile above Hawick. 

BOSWELL'S, (ST) a parish in Rox- 
burghshire, sometimes called Lessudden. It 
lies on the south bank of the Tweed, opposite 
Dryburgh and to the east of Melrose, and is 
about three miles in length by one and a half 
in breadth. The land is beautifully enclosed, 
planted, and cultivated. On the west rise the 
Eildon hills. On the east and north the 
ground spreads away in an undulating form. 
On the north, beyond the lovely woods of 
Dryburgh, rise some hills which bound the 
prospect, and proceed up Lauderdale. In the 
centre of this sylvan and fertile territory, at 
the distance of about ten miles from Kelso, 
and five from Melrose, stands the hamlet of 
St. Boswell's, consisting of little else than a 
single public house. In front, to the nortii 
and east, is a spacious flat green, on which is 



held an annual fair on the 18th of July, for 
the sale of black cattle, horses, sheep, and 
wool. This fair was once one of the largest 
in Scotland ; hut it has recently declined, like 
most other markets of a similar kind. It is 
held under the authority of the Duke of Buc- 
cleugh. Fallen off, as it is allowed to be, St. 
Boswell's fair is yet an occasion of great mer- 
riment in the pastoral district of country in 
which it takes place. It is the resort of many 
salesmen of goods, and in particular of tinkers. 
Bands of these very peculiar people, the direct 
descendants of the original gypsies, who so 
much annoyed the country in the fifteenth 
century, haunt the fair for the disposal of 
earthen ware, horn spoons, and tin culinary 
utensils. They possess in general horses and 
carts, and they form their temporary camp by 
each whomling his cart upside down, and form- 
ing a lodgment with straw and bedding be- 
neath. Cooking is performed outside the 
craal in gypsy fashion. There coidd not per- 
haps be witnessed in the present day in Bri- 
tain a more amusing and interesting scene, 
illustrative of a rude period, than is here an- 
nually exhibited. At the east end of the 
green stands the small village of Lessudden, 
which is now esteemed the capital, as it is the 
kirk-town, of the parish. The names of both 
places are derived from churchmen. The 
word Lessudden is deduced from Les, signi- 
fying a residence, and Aidan, who was a bishop 
of Lindisferne, and is said to have resided 
here. St. Boswell's is, with more certainty, 
derived from Boisil, a disciple of the venera- 
ble St. Cuthbert, and a monk of Melrose, 
who was canonized for his extreme piety. The 
English of the middle march, under Sir Ralph 
Sadler, in November, 1544, burnt Lessud- 
den, wherein at the time were " sixteen strong 
bastel houses." — Population in 1821, 636. 

BOTHKENNAR, a parish in Stirling- 
shire, lying in the carse of Falkirk, on that flat 
extensive piece of ground washed on the north- 
east by the river Forth, and on the south by 
the river Carron. This is a rich fertile district, 
and possesses some excellent orchards. A 
part of the village of Carronshore lies within 
its bounds, the other part being in the parish 
of Larbert.— Population in 1821, 895. 

BOTHWELL, a parish eight and a half 
miles long, and four broad, lying on the north 
bank of the Clyde, opposite Blantyre, bound- 
ed on the north by Old Monkland, and on the 

south by Dalziel. The land is chiefly flat, with 
rising grounds towards the north and east, and 
is rich and fertile as well as wooded and warm. 
It is intersected by the Calder water, which 
falls into the Clyde above Bothwell Bridge. 
The village of Bothwell, with its ancient Go- 
thic church, lies on the road from Glasgow to 
Hamilton, eight miles east of the former, and 
three north-west of the latter. About a mile 
further on, towards the south-east, the road to 
Hamilton is carried over the Clyde by means 
of Bothwell Bridge, a name famous in Scot- 
tish history, from this being the spot on which 
the Duke of Monmouth, assisted by Generals 
Graham of Claverhouse and Dalzell, fought 
and routed a formidable army of the Coven- 
anters, June 22, 1679. The aspect of the 
scenery and bridge has been entirely changed 
within these few years. Formerly the bridge, 
as mentioned in the accounts of the battle, 
rose with an acclivity of about twenty feet, and 
was of a narrow construction, fortified with a 
gateway near the south-east end. The breadth 
of the passage was then exactly twelve feet. 
The gateway and gate have been long remov- 
ed, as well as the house of the keeper, and in 
1826, a thorough and violent change was effect- 
ed upon all that remained of its ancient fea- 
tures. Twenty-two feet were added to the 
original breadth of twelve, by a supplemental 
building on the upper side, and the hollow on 
the south bank was filled up. Other improve- 
ments were made, so that an irregular danger- 
ous way has been transformed into a broad and 
easy mail-coach road. The adjacent fields 
have also been much changed in appearance. 
They are now well enclosed and cultivated, 
and embellished with plantations. Bothwell- 
haugh, which once formed the patrimonial 
estate of David Hamilton, the assassin of the 
Regent Murray, stretches along the north-east 
bank of the river. Near the village of Both- 
well, towards the west, on the side of Clyde, 
lies the plain modern mansion of Lord Doug- 
las, among shrubberies and plantations, near 
which, on an eminence, is the magnificent ruin 
of Bothwell Castle. This was once a most 
important Scottish fortress, consisting of a vast 
oblong quadrangle, presenting a bold front 
to the south, where it is flanked by two enor- 
mous circular towers. Underneath, the river 
makes a beautiful sweep, and forms the se- 
micircular declivity called Bothwell Bank, 
which is embalmed in the tones of a beauti- 



ful Scottish melody, Directly opposite, on 
the south bank of the Clyde, stand the ruins 
of Blantyre Priory. Bothwell is believed, 
from well-authenticated experiment, to be the 
part of Scotland where most rain falls in the 
course of a year. The place derives consider- 
able notoriety from having given a title to a 
series of families distinguished for both good 
and evil, in the annals of Scotland. Bothwell 
is one of the most ancient baronies in the 
kingdom. The first who possessed the lord- 
ship was a cadet of the noble family of Moray, 
the descendant of a Flemish gentleman who 
came into Scotland in the reign of David I., 
and settled in the lower parts of the province 
of Moray. The male line of this family be- 
came extinct in 1361. The lordship was re- 
vived in the person of Sir John Ramsay, a 
person who became a favourite of James III., 
and was the only one who escaped the massa- 
cre of Lauder Bridge. He sat in parliament 
in 1484, by the title of Lord Bothwell, but he 
enjoyed the lands and barony only a very short 
time. His attachment to James III. caused 
his prescription in the reign of James IV., 
1488, and the barony was conferred on Patrick, 
third Lord Hailes. This personage was head 
of the ancient house of Hepburn, a family 
which had come from Northumberland in the 
time of David II., and had received lands in 
East Lothian. Four days after he was 
created Lord Bothwell, his title was raised to 
the rank of an Earldom. On James IV. 
coming of age, he loaded this man with addi- 
tional benefactions and lordships, and from 
this period the Earls of Bothwell played a 
distinguished part in history. ] Of this line 
was James, the fourth earl, who justly forfeit- 
ed his possessions and titles, by his criminal 
and audacious conduct during the reign of 
Queen Mary. The male line of the Hep- 
burns was now extinct, but an only daughter 
of Patrick, third earl, called Lady Jean Hep- 
burn, survived, and she was married in 1561-2 
to John Stewart, an illegitimate son (after- 
wards legitimized) of King James V. A son 
and daughter were the result of this marriage, 
and the son Francis, was, by James VI., cre- 
ated Earl of Bothwell, of the lordship of 
Hailes, &c. The king was exceedingly ill 
requited for such a promotion. Francis was 
fully a more desperate man than his kinsman 
James, the fourth earl. He was accused of 
arts to raise storms on the sea, to procure the 

death of his sovereign, and on a charge of such 
a grave nature was confined to Edinburgh 
castle. His turbulent spirit coidd not brook 
an indignity of this nature. He effected his 
escape ; for years troubled the court with his 
designs on the king's person ; was attainted 
1592; and fled to Spain, where he closed his 
career in obscurity and indigence. He left 
two sons, Francis and John, in Scotland, who 
made no figure in history. Francis received a 
small portion of the family patrimony, and left 
a son called Charles Stewart, who, it is said, 
served as a trooper in the civil wars. John 
had a son called Francis, who, in a similar 
manner, was a private gentleman in the Horse- 
Guards in the reign of Charles II., and, from 
this circumstance, he is understood to be the 
prototype of the fictitious character of Ser- 
geant Bothwell, in the story of Old Mortali- 
ty.— Population in 1821, 4844. 

BOTRIPHINIE, a parish in Banffshire, 
situated about twenty-four miles west from 
the county town, and consisting chiefly of a 
beautiful strath of about three miles in breadth, 
running across the narrow part of the county 
from Aberdeenshire to Morayshire. The 
mountain stream called the Isla flows through 
the valley, on its progress to the Deveron — Po- 
pulation in 1821, 572. 

BOURTIE, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
four miles in length and two in breadth, gene- 
rally cultivated. It lies between Meldrum 
and Inverury. About the middle of the pa- 
rish there are two ranges of hills, mostly green, 
and the remains of fortifications are seen. — 
Population in 1821, 463. 

BOWDEN, a parish in Roxburghshire, 
lying to the south of the parish of Melrose, 
bounded on the east by St. Boswell's, and on 
the west by Selkirk. The parish includes a 
portion of the Eildon hills, from whence the 
land gently declines, in well cultivated and en- 
closed fields. The meagre vestiges of a Ro- 
man military road, with circular stations or 
camps, at the distance of two or three miles, 
can here be traced. The small village of 
Bowden lies in a low situation or dean, through 
which a rivulet passes to the Tweed. The 
ancient name was Botheldene or Bouldene. 
Botel, in the Anglo-Saxon, signifies a dwell- 
ing-place, and hence the meaning of the name. 
Prior to the Reformation, the parish church 
and its revenues belonged to the monks of the 
Abbey of Kelso, in virtue of a charier of 



David I. These churchmen enjoyed the 
manor of Bouldene, and many valuable ser- 
vices from the peasantry. In the village they 
had thirty-six cottages, with a dozen acres of 
land adjoining, which they rented. They had, 
likewise, four breweries in the village, each of 
which they rented for ten shillings yearly ; but 
reserving this remarkable privilege, that the 
abbot had a right to buy from the brewers 
as much ale as he chose, at the rate of a flag- 
gon and a half for a penny. The monks had 
a chapel in the parish, at a place called Holy- 
dean, where they kept a grange or farm for 
raising corn and feeding cows and sheep. 
Walter Ker of Cessford, ancestor of the ducal 
house of Roxburghe, got a grant of the lands 
of Holydean, for border services. It is still re- 
membered among the people of the district, 
that the ancestors of the family, now so highly 
ennobled, were, at one time, only " the gude- 
men o' H alydean." There is a small village 
in the parish called Middleholm or Midlem. — 
Population in 1821, 954. 

BOWER, a parish in the county of Caith- 
ness, stretching seven miles inland from the 
German Ocean, by three in breadth ; bounded 
by Halkirk on the west, Dunnet on the north, 
and Wattin on the south. The land lies ge- 
nerally low, and that which is subjected to 
cultivation is a long extended vale from west 
to east, formed by a gently rising ground on 
the north and south, but intersected about the 
centre by a ridge of green hills. On one of 
the highest grounds stands what is called Stone 
Lud, about eight feet out of the earth, sup- 
posed to be connected with the ancient wor- 
ship of the Scandinavian deities — Population 
in 1821, I486- 

BOWMONT WATER, a small river in 
the south-east corner of Roxburghshire, which 
passes through the parish of Yetholm, and 
flowing, in an easterly direction, into North- 
umberland, drops into the Till below Wooler. 

BOWMORE, a sea-port village in the is- 
land of Islay, Argyleshire, situated on Loch 
Indal. See Killarrow. 

BOYNDIE, a parish in Banffshire, of five 
miles in length, by a mile to a mile and a half 
in breadth, situated betwixt the towns of Banff 
and Portsoy, on the sea coast. It is partly 
hilly and pastoral, and partly agricultural. 
There is a thriving fishing village called White- 
hills belonging to it Population in 1821, 

J. 290. 

BOYNE, a rivulet in Banffshire, flowing 
through a district called by its name, and fall- 
ing into the sea to the west of Banff. 

BRACADALE, a parish lying on the 
west side of the Isle of Sky, county of Inver- 
ness, twenty-five miles in length, by seven to 
eleven in breadth. It is hilly and pastoral, 
with bold rocky shores, and several inlets of 
the sea. Of these lochs, Britil and Eynort 
are comparatively small. Loch Bracadale, at 
the head of which is the kirk of Bracadale, is 
a larger and longer inlet, with an inner con- 
tinuation bending to the south-east, called 
Loch Harport.— Population in 1821, 2103. 

BRAE-MAR, an inferior district in the 
district of Mar in the south-west extremity 
of Aberdeenshire. 

BRAID HILLS, several low hills, in con 
tinuation of the Pentland range, lying two 
miles south of Edinburgh, immediately be- 
hind Blackford hill, from which they are di- 
vided by Braid Burn, running through a wood} 
dell and valley. These eminences contain va 
rious rare minerals, which, however, are not 
wrought. Formerly, the Braid hills were 
covered with whins, and were generally unpro- 
ductive, but now they are cultivated all over, 
except in craggy places. They are traversed 
from west to east by a good carriage road, 
which is now one of the many pleasant walks 
of the citizens of Edinburgh. On the banks 
of Braid Burn, in the secluded low ground, 
stands the mansion called Braid Hermitage, 
and a little way further up the rivulet, where 
the old road passes from Edinburgh to West 
Linton, is a hamlet called Braid's Burn. 

BAINSFORD, a village in the parish of 
Falkirk, Stirlingshire. It lies contiguous to 
Grahamston, on the banks of the Forth and 
Clyde Canal, a mile to the north of Falkirk. 
Part of the inhabitants are employed at the 
Carron Iron Works. It is said to derive its 
name from the circumstance of a knight, named 
Brian, having been slain here at the battle of 
Falkirk. At Grahamston, an iron foundry 
has been established, under the name of the 
" Falkirk Foundry," which promises to do 

BRAN, (LOCH) a small lake, parish of 
Contin, Inverness-shire. 

BRAN, a small tributary of the Tay, issu- 
ing from Freuchie Loch, and running, in a 
north-easterly course, past Amulrec, till it at 



length falls into the Tay, at Inver, near Little 
Dunkeld. It passes through the beautiful 
pleasure grounds of the Duke of Athole, 
where it forms a romantic cascade, improved 
by the taste of the late noble proprietor. The 
valley through which it flows has obtained the 
name of Strathbran. 

BRAND IN, (PASS OF) a pass situat- 
ed near the head of Loch Awe, district of 
Cowal, Argyleshire. 

BIN, a district in the western part of Perth- 
shire, in the centre of the Grampians, which 
here cover a large tract of the county in length 
" and breadth ; bounded on the north by Loch- 
aber and Athole, on the south by Strathearn 
and Menteith, and on the west by Lochaber, 
Lorn, and Rnapdale. This district is a com- 
plete mixture of high and low hills, yielding 
pasture for large flocks of sheep or shelter for 
game, with intermediate valleys, some of which 
are susceptible of cultivation, while others are 
merely mosses of peat and heath. In the ex- 
treme point lies Loch Lyon, from whence 
flows the Lyon river through a sinuous valley, 
till it falls into the Tay. In the centre of the 
district lies Loch Tay, an inland lake about 
sixteen miles long, surrounded by the most 
splendid natural scenery. In winter the dis- 
trict is cold, wet, and uncomfortable, and in 
summer the heat in the close valleys is exces- 
sive. The whole country abounds in lime- 
stone, and minerals of different kinds are 
found. It is now traversed by several good 
roads. There are no towns in the district, and 
Kenmore, Killin, and Clifton are the only 
villages worth noting. Here the genuine 
Highland character was once found in per- 
fection, and it is only in comparatively recent 
times that industry and the lowland habits 
have been introduced. The Earl of Breadal- 
bane is the chief proprietor. His estate, 
which supports about 14,000 persons, com- 
mences two miles east of Tay Bridge, and 
extends westward ninety-nine and a half 
miles, to Easdale, in Argyleshire ; varying in 
breadth from three to twelve and fifteen miles, 
and interrupted only by the property of three 
or four proprietors, who possess one side of a 
valley or glen, while the Earl of Breadalbane 
has the other, so that, varying his direction a 
little to the right or left, he can travel nearly 
one hundred miles from east to west on his 

property.* In 1793 the Earl raised from his 
Highland property, 1600 able bodied men, 
who composed two of the best Fencible re- 
giments then brought in to aid the govern- 
ment. The Earls of Breadalbane are de- 
scended from Sir CoHn Campbell, third son 
of Sir Duncan Campbell of Loehawe, a family 
connected with the house of Argyle, and one 
which was distinguished in the battle of Flod- 
den. In consideration of the loyalty of his 
ancestors and his own personal merit, Sir 
John Campbell, who flourished at the end of 
the seventeenth century, was created Earl of 
Breadalbane, in 1677, by Charles II. This 
personage was a privy councillor of William 
III., and his memory has been subjected to 
contumely for the share he is acknowledged 
to have had in the massacre of Glencoe. In 
later times the Earls of Breadalbane have 
been noted for their attention to the improve- 
ments and prosperity of the Highlands. 
Their chief seat is Taymouth, (formerly Bal- 
loch) near Kenmore. 

BRECHIN, a parish in Forfarshire, lying 
on both sides of the South Esk, a few miles 
above Montrose. It is bounded on the north 
by Menmuir and Stricathro, on the east by 
Dun, on the south by Farnell and Aberlemno, 
and on the west by Careston. The extent 
each way is about seven miles, and from its 
peculiar shape, it is no more than three miles 
broad in some places. The grounds in the 
parish rise gradually to a considerable height 
on either side of the river, and descend again 
to the middle of the succeeding valleys. The 
soil is in general light, but produces good 
crops. Freestone abounds. The river occa- 
sionally inundates and injures the low cultivat- 
ed lands. 

Bkechin, the capital of the above parish, 
is romantically situated on the left bank of 
the Esk, near the centre of the parish, at the 
distance of twelve and a half miles north- 

* The following anecdote is told as illustrative of the 
extensive possessions of the Breadalbane family : — The 
Earl of Breadalbane, of the past age, was in habits of in- 
timacy with the Duke of Rutland, and one day when 
the former was visiting the latter at Belvoir Castle, his 
Grace talked of visiting the Earl in return at Taymouth, 
but objected greatly to the distance. " 1 wish," said his 
Grace, " your estates were in my county." " I should be 
very sorry," said Lord Breadalbane, " my estates would 
almost cover the whole county of Rutland : I fear youj 
Grace would not have many acres left for yourself." 



east of Forfar, and eight west of Montrose. 
The principal street is about a mile in length, 
extending from the north part southward to 
the bridge over the river, which is an old 
fabric of two large arches. Another street 
branches off this, about the middle of the town, 
and stretches in a south-easterly direction for 
more than half a mile. These two streets ex- 
tend considerably beyond the jurisdiction of 
the burgh, and are then called the Upper and 
Lower Tenements. There are also several 
cross streets and bye-lanes about the upper 
part of the town, through one of which passes 
the great road to the north. Some parts of 
the main streets are very steep, particularly 
about the cross. Brechin is a very ancient 
royal burgh, governed by a provost, two bail- 
ies, a dean of guild, treasurer, hospital master, 
and five merchant councillors, with two coun- 
cillors from the six incorporated trades. The 
burgh joins with Montrose, Arbroath, Aber- 
deen, and Bervie, in sending a member to par- 
liament. Formerly the town was walled, but 
the gates, the last relics of such a state of 
things, have been some time removed. At 
present the town presents a well built thriving 
appearance. The trade carried on in and 
about Brechin, consists chiefly of the manu- 
facture of bleached linens, and the neighbour- 
hood exports a considerable quantity of grain. 
The town has a weekly market and two an- 
nual fairs at Whitsunday and Martinmas. 
The great cattle fair of Trinity Muir is held 
within a mile of the town. In ancient times 
there was an abbey of Culdees in this place, 
and in 1150, when Brechin was constituted 
an episcopal see by David I., it is supposed 
that the site of this establishment was that 
chosen for the foundation of the cathedral. 
The cathedral church of St. Ninian, which 
now forms the parish church, is situated on 
the north edge of a precipitous ravine, which 
separates the burgh-lands from those of Brechin 
Castle. It was originally a stately Gothic fa- 
bric, but its architectural symmetry has been 
greatly injured by the bad taste displayed in 
modem repairs. The north and south tran- 
septs have been removed, and one roof has 
been made to stretch both over the nave and 
side aisles, thereby totally eclipsing the win- 
dows of the former, as well as the handsome 
cornice carved with quatre-feuils and brackets, 
which ran round under the eaves of the nave. 

Instead, therefore, of an elegant Gothic fabric, 
it wears all the appearance of a huge ugly 
barn, loaded with a quarry of slates. The 
fine mouldings and carving of the porch door 
are considerably defaced by the ravages of 
time, but the large Gothic window over the 
door is quite entire, and has been much ad- 
mired by architects for the ease and elegance 
of its mullions and tracery. At the left side 
of the porch door is a niche, in which at one 
time stood the image of the Virgin. The 
steeple is a square edifice seventy feet in 
height, surmounted by a hexagonal spire, of 
fifty feet. It rises at the north angle of the 
west front. Contiguous to it, at the south 
angle, stands the tall slender tower of Bre- 
chin, which, like its prototype at Abernethy, 
has puzzled so many antiquaries. It is gener- 
ally imagined to have been a place of look-out 
of the Picts. It is an unadorned turret ot 
freestone, eighty-five feet in height to the 
cornice, and fifteen feet more to the pinnacle 
of the modern spire on its top. The outside 
diameter at the base is sixteen feet, the inside 
eight feet. It has several windows, and four 
in particular at the top facing the cardinal 
points. Neither this tower nor that at Aber- 
nethy has any stair within. The present en- 
trance to the tower is by the church, but there 
is also a door near the ground on the outside, 
although it has been for many years built up. 
The sideways of this door are adorned with 
sundry figures in an antique style of carving, 
and the archway gives a rude representation 
of the crucifixion. These figures are said to 
have been inserted after the introduction of 
Christianity. Notwithstanding the apparent 
stability of this edifice, it has been seen fre- 
quently to vibrate in high winds. The side 
walls of the choir and chancel are still stand- 
ing at the east end of the cathedral. The 
windows are very narrow, but executed in the 
richest style. Some parts of this venerable 
building still preserve their pristine strength 
and beauty, particularly the great tower or 
steeple, with its spire, in which not a decayed 
stone is to be found, although it has been ex- 
posed to the storms of nearly 700 years ; the 
joints are in some places so close as to be 
scarcely perceptible. The cathedral of Bre- 
chin was one of the few places in Scotland in 
which liturgical worship was for some time 
performed without interruption, after its pro- 



mulgation in July 1637. The bishop was a 
man of singularly strong and daring character, 
and went up to the pulpit with a pair of pis- 
tols under his gown, determined to carry the 
behests of royalty into execution at whatever 
risk. In another part of the town the ancient 
chapel or Maison Dicu is still standing. In 
modern times it has been allowed to be 
converted into a slaughter-house. Its revenues 
are, however, more appropriately applied, be- 
ing enjoyed by the Rector of the Grammar 
School. An hospital was founded here by 
William de Brechin, and confirmed by James 
III. in 1477, to which ample endowments 
were communicated for pious uses. Of this 
house there are now no remains, but its reven- 
ues are still applied to the purpose originally 
designed, under the management of a member 
of the town council, who is styled Hospital 
Master. Between the town and the river, 
and only separated from the former by the be- 
fore-mentioned ravine, stands Brechin Castle, 
the ancient seat of the Maules of Panmure. 
The castle is built on a precipitous rock, over- 
hanging the stream. The south front towards 
the river presents a confused mass of buildings, 
consisting of some remains of the original struc- 
ture, with some more recent erections. The 
west front forms a regular building, in the 
style of the seventeenth century,, with round 
towers at the angles. Till recent years it 
was considered a great ornament to the town 
and neighbourhood. Its beauty is now much 
diminished by the destruction of its fine woody 
avenues and venerable old trees. The castle 
of Brechin was formerly a fortress, and under- 
went a siege of twenty days in 1303, from the 
English army under Edward I. ; but Sir 
Thomas Maule, its proprietor, being killed, it 
surrendered. Brechin more than once suf- 
fered by the incursions of invaders and the 
broils of civil war. It was burnt by the Danes 
in 1012, and in 1645 it was again subjected to 
this severe calamity by the Marquis of Mon- 
trose. Two years afterwards, it was depopu- 
lated by that dreadful malady, the plague. 
Brechin has given birth to various men of 
genius and literary distinction : — Maitland the 
laborious historian of Edinburgh and London ; 
Dr. Gillies, the historian of Greece ; and James 
Tytler, an eccentric and unfortunate person, 
well known for his contributions to the first 
edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. In 
Brechin, as in most of the towns north of the 

Tay, there is a handsome Episcopal chapel, 
which has been recently erected in the Gothic 
style of building, and is attended by a numerous 
and highly respectable congregation, among 
whom may be numbered almost the whole of 
the landed proprietors in the district. Brechin 
is still a see of the Episcopal church of Scot- 
land, the present incumbent of which (1830) 
is Dr. George Gleig, the esteemed editor of 
the works of Robertson, Mosheim, and others, 
and father of the no less eminent author of 
" the Subaltern." There are three meeting- 
houses of Dissenters in the town. Brechin is 
the seat of a Presbytery. Its fast days are the 
Thursdays before the second Sundays of May, 
and nearest fidl moon in October. — Popula- 
tion of the burgh and parish in 1821, 5906. 

BREELAN, (LOCH) a small lake in 
the parish of Straiton, Ayrshire, tributary to 
the river Girvan. It has an islet, on which 
are the remains of a castle. 

BRESSAY, a parish in Shetland, in which 
the parishes of Burra and Quarff are incor- 
porated. It is composed of a part of the north- 
ern part of the mainland, with the islands of 
Bressay, Burra, House, Noss, and other smaller 
islands. — Population in 1821, 1585. 

BRESSAY, the island above noticed, is 
about four miles long and two broad, yielding 
good pasturage, peat for fuel, and slates. It 
lies on the south-east corner of the mainland, 
opposite Lerwick, and the gut which separates 
them is called 

BRESSAY SOUND. This bay and 
land-protected harbour forms one of the best 
natural basins in the world for the safe riding 
of vessels. It is much resorted to by the nu- 
merous craft employed in the herring fishery, 
and by all vessels trading with Lerwick. It 
may be entered either by the north or south. 

BR1ARCHAN, a small river in the 
north-eastern district of Perthshire, which 
rises in the parish of Moulin, and runs through 
the vale called Glen Briarchan, and on joining 
the Arnot at Tombane, forms the Ardle, a 
sub-tributary of the Tay. 

BRIDE-KIRK, a modern village, in the 
parish of Annan, from which town it is distant 
four miles north, and lying on the west bank 
of the Annan river. 

called Maxwell town, a burgh of regality in the 
stewartry of Kirkcudbright, lying on the oppo- 
site side of the Nith from Dumfries, and ap- 



preached by a bridge from that town. It be- 
longs to the parish of Troqueer. 



BRIDGETOWN, a small village in the 
parish of Kinghorn, Fife, lying on the western 
outskirts of Kirkcaldy. 

BRIDGETOWN, a suburb of the city of 

BRIMS NESS, a headland on the north- 
western coast of Caithness, on which is situat- 
ed Brims Castle. 

BRITIL, (LOCH) an indentation of the 
sea on the south-west coast of Skye. 

BROAD BAY, or Loch Tua, a capacious 
bay on the west side of Lewis, formed by the 
peninsula called the Aird. 

BROADLAW, a mountain rising 2800 
feet above the level of the sea, in the southern 
part of Peebles-shire, on the boundaiy of the 
parishes of Tweedsmuir and Megget. 

BROADSEA, a small village lying on the 
sea coast of Buchan, Aberdeenshire, betwixt 
Fraserburgh and Pitsligo. 

BROLUM, (LOCH) an inlet of the sea 
on the south-east side of Lewis. 

BROOM, (LOCH) a capacious bay from 
whence there extends a narrow salt water lake, 
on the north-western coast of Ross-shire. At 
its mouth lie Priest and Summer Islands ; at 
its head is situated Martin Island ; about half- 
way up the northern shore of the narrow inlet 
stands the newly created village of Ullapool ; 
and at the head of this inlet stands the small 
village of Loch Broom. 

another and a smaller arm of the sea, immedi- 
ately on the south of the above loch, running 
in a parallel direction inland. 

BRORA WATER, a river in Suther- 
landshire, rising in mountains at the centre of 
the county, and running in a south-easterly 
course, till it is joined by Strathbeg water ; 
after which it falls into and forms Brora Loch. 
This lake extends four miles in length by near- 
ly one in breadth, and in one of its parts there 
is an artificial island, in two divisions, one of' 
which is solely occupied by a house of defence, 
and the other by a small garden. The banks 
of the lake are beautifully wooded, and are sur- 
rounded by mountain scenery. In the lake there 
are excellent salmon and other fish. From 
the south end of Brora Loch, the water flows 
once more as a river, falling in its course over 

some romantic lins, and finally drops into die 
Murray Firth. 

BROTHER ISLE, one of the smallest 
Shetland islands, lying betwixt the north part 
of the mainland and Yell. 

BROTHER, (LOCH) a lake in Ren- 
frewshire of about three miles in circumference, 
lying eight miles south-west by south from 
Glasgow, in the parish of Mearns. 

BROTHOCK, a rivulet in Forfarshire,, 
which runs about six miles, and falls into the 
sea at Aberbrothock or Arbroath. 

BROUGH, a fishing village on the north 
coast of Caithness, near Dunnet Head, where 
there is a safe natural harbour for shipping. 

BROUGH BAY, a small bay on the west 
side of Sanda Island, Orkney. 

BROUGH-HEAD, a promontory on the 
coast of the county of Moray, in the parish of 
Duffus, which is named from a Danish fort or 
burgh at one time distinguishable on the head- 
land. Brough-Head gives its name to a sea- 
port village lying on its south-west side, the 
property of William Young, Esq. of Maryhill. 
The village lies eight miles north-west of Elgin, 
and has a fine exposure to the Moray Firth. 
Nature has done much for it, and seems to 
have marked it out as the chief and best point 
of intercourse with the counties on the oppo- 
site side of the firth. It has a very excellent 
natural harbour or roadstead in front, and only 
requires some artificial erections to render it 
one of the best ports on the coast. Since Mr. 
Young became the lord of the manor, he has 
done much to improve the condition and ap- 
pearance of the village. It now consists of 
two principal streets, each of about a quarter 
of a mile in length, crossing each other at right 
angles. From these diverge several streets of 
minor importance. Nearly the whole are laid 
out on a regular plan, and the houses are sub- 
stantially built with fine freestone, and slated. 
Brough-Head is now the principal herring-fish- 
ing station in the county of Moray, and about 
ninety boats are engaged in this profitable 
trade. Within these few years there have 
been many vessels or sloops built here. Be- 
sides the fishing trade, the only other traffic as 
yet carried on to any extent, is the export of 
grain to Leith and London. For the accom- 
modation of farmers and shippers there have 
been several large granaries erected. Brough- 
Head possesses many recommendations as a 
bathing-place, and is accordingly resorted to in 



the summer months by many respectable fa- 
milies from Elgin and Forres. There is a 
very excellent inn in the village, and also a 
reading-room. There are two places of pub- 
lic worship, namely a chapel of Ease of the 
established church, and a meeting-house of 
presbyterian dissenters. — The population of 
the village may be estimated at about 600. 

BROUGHTON, a parish in the western 
part of Peebleshire, four miles in length by 
three in breadth, bounded on the west by 
Skirling, on the north by Kirkurd, on the 
east by Stobo, and on the south by Kilbucho 
and a part of Glenholm. The district is both 
agricultural and pastoral. The village of 
Broughton stands on the road from Edinburgh 
to Dumfries, and from Peebles to Biggar by 
way of Stobo. It is remarked for its neat- 
ness by strangers, having been rebuilt in the 
English fashion by the late James Dickson of 
Kilbucho, Esq. Biggar water runs through 
the parish. Ecclesiastically, the adjacent 
parishes of Glenholm and Kilbucho have been 
recently incorporated with Broughton parish. 
The ministerial incumbent has for many years 
been the Rev. Hamilton Paul, editor of an 
edition of the poems of Robert Burns, and 
well known for his unaffected simplicity of 
manner, poetical abilities, and kindliness of 
disposition. We have learnt with satisfaction 
that there is only one poor person requiring 
aid in this parochial district of Peebles-shire. 
There exist the remains of a number of an- 
cient peel-houses and castles. Prior to the 
Reformation, the parish was a vicarage of the 
church of Stobo. — Population of the united 
parishes of Broughton, Kilbucho, and Glen- 
holm in 1821, 827. 

B R O U G H T O N, an ancient village, at one 
time a burgh of regality, lying on the north 
side of the New Town of Edinburgh, now al- 
most obliterated by the encroachments of the 
new streets, and giving its name to the street 
passing on its eastern side towards Newhaven. 

BROUGHTY-FERRY, a considerable 
modern village on the north shore of the 
firth of Tay, about four miles east from Dun- 
dee. Directly opposite, on the coast of Fife, is 
Ferry-port-on- Craig, with which there is in ge- 
neral, a communication every hour by a ferry- 
boat. Locally the two places obtain the name 
of the North and South Ferries. Broughty- 
Ferry has risen into importance, as a sea- 
bathing residence, within the last twenty years. 

It is now the great resort of the fashionables 
of Perth, Dundee, and other places in that 
quarter. By an exercise of good taste of the 
lord of the manor, the town is laid out in 
parallel and cross streets, on a regular plan, 
and when filled up, the thoroughfares will have 
a handsome appearance. The soil is here a 
deep dry sand, which sucks up all moisture, 
and renders a residence very healthful. The 
place takes its name from the old ruined casthj 
of Broughty or Burgh- Tay, (the defence of 
the Tay,) situated at its eastern extremity on 
a rocky eminence jutting into the water. The 
town is nearly altogether in the parish of 
Monifieth. It has a Chapel of Ease and bury- 
ing-ground, and a school chiefly supported by 
the liberality of a neighbouring land proprietor. 
To the east of the town, are extensive sandy 
downs, covered partly with whins, and the bur- 
row of a great number of rabbits. At the head 
of these links, near the town, there is an ice- 
house, for preserving and furnishing ice to ex- 
porters of salmon. Broughty has a good inn, 
two resident surgeons, and some butchers' 
shops. Though inhabited partly by fisher- 
men, who supply the Dundee market with fish 
daily, it is itself singularly ill off for this ar- 
ticle, the fishers, as usual, preferring to carry 
their cargoes past their own doors in expecta- 
tion of getting better prices. The road be- 
twixt Broughty and Dundee is not yet under 
the general turnpike act, and, consequently, is 
not very good. During the bathing season, 
coaches run to and fro several times a-day. 
Steam vessels also come down this length from 
Perth, as long as the exotic inhabitants remain. 
At the distance of half a mile north from the 
town, near the road which passes from Dun- 
dee eastward to Arbroath, stands the castle of 
Claypotts, an edifice of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, said to have been, at one time, the pro- 
perty of General Graham of Claverhouse. It 
consists of a single fabric, three storeys in 
height, built in the form of three narrow edi- 
fices joined together, so as to have a variety 
of angles and comers. The interior is vault- 
ed, and the different flats are now inhabited by 
servants of the adjacent farmer. The rising 
village of Broughty can be safely recommended 
as a veiy agreeable watering place. It contains 
many veiy excellent dwelling-houses, which 
are hired by the season. On the face of the 
eminence, overlooking the village and the Tay, 
there is a variety of delightful cottages ornees, 



suitable for the residence of the more fastidi- 
ous valetudinarians. 

BROXBURN, a village and stage from 
Edinburgh, on the road to Glasgow, in the 
parish of Uphall, Linlithgowshire. A small 
rivulet of the same name passes through it, 
and it is crossed, at its western extremity, by 
the Union Canal. 

BROXBURN, a rivulet in Haddington- 
shire, rising in the parish of Spott, and, after 
running in a northerly direction, falls into the 
sea at the grounds of Broxmouth, about a mile 
east from Dunbar. 

BRUAR WATER, a streamlet in the 
district of Athole, Perthshire, a tributary of 
the Garry, which it joins near Pitagowan. It 
is celebrated for the romantic beauty of some 
of its falls, one of which is about 200 feet in 
height, and has been rendered of some note by 
the visit of Robert Burns, who wrote a small 
poetical piece on the occasion. The Duke of 
Athole has erected some convenient little 
grottoes, and cut paths on its banks for the 
use of tourists. 

BRUCEHAVEN, a small village in Fife, 
on the coast of the Firth of Forth, in the pa- 
rish of Dunfermline. 

BRUIACH, (LOCH) a fresh water lake 
about two miles long, by one in breadth, pa- 
rish of Kiltarlity, Inverness-shire ; it abounds 
in char, which is a rare fish in Scotland. 

BRUNSTAIN MILLS, a hamlet lying 
on the road from Musselburgh to Edinburgh, 
distant from the latter about four miles. The 
mills here were, some years since, employed in 
the manufacture of thick shamoy leather for 
soldiers' belts, by which much money was re- 
alized. Brunstain castle or house stands on 
the high ground to the west. It was formerly 
the patrimonial residence of a family of Creich- 
ton, who took an active share in the Refor- 
mation. At the time when a Catholic govern- 
ment, under t'he Regent and Cardinal Beaton, 
carried on a war against Henry VIII., to pre- 
vent the marriage proposed between the infant 
Queen Mary and Prince Edward of England, 
the laird of Brunstain, and another gentleman 
of similar rank and fortune, Cockburn of Or- 
miston in East-Lothian, were almost the only 
men in the country who ventured to declare 
openly for the English interest. In Brunstain 
and Ormiston castles, John Knox, and other 
reformers, always found a welcome and a 
shelter. At a later period of Scottish history, 

Brunstain was occupied by a very different 
person, John, Duke of Lauderdale. It is now 
tenanted by a private family. 

BIRRENS WARK, a conspicuous hill in the 
parish of Tundergarth, towards the foot of 
Annandale, Dumfries-shire, lying south-east of 
Lockerby, and about eight miles north from 
Annan. It is oblong, and at the base is gentle 
in the ascent, but towards the top it is rocky 
and very steep. On the summit there is an 
irregular plain, 300 yards in length, and about 
1 50 yards in breadth, and here there are differ- 
ent remains of Roman fortifications and en- 
trenchments. On the sides, similar vestiges are 
observed, and from the hill there diverge several 
Roman roads to different parts of Scotland. 
Standing in a country nearly level, a most ex- 
tensive prospect can be obtained of Annandale, 
from Moffat to the Solway Firth, and of the 
lower parts of Northumberland and Cumber- 

BUCHAN, a district in Aberdeenshire, — 
see Aberdeenshire. It gives a title to a 
branch of the noble family of the Erskines, 
Earls of Mar. 

BUCHAN-NESS, a headland on the 
coast of Buchan, Aberdeenshire, the most 
easterly point of the mainland of Great Bri- 
tain, on the south side of the bay of Peter- 
head. It is distinguished by a light-house, 
the light of which flashes, or emerges from a 
state of darkness, and exhibits a momentary 
light, resembling a star of the first magnitude, 
every five seconds of time. 

BUCHANAN, a parish in the western 
extremity of Stirlingshire, lying between 
Aberfoyle, Loch Lomond, Drymen, and Bon- 
hill, extending eighteen miles in length, by six 
in breadth. It is mountainous and moorish. 
The river Forth rises here at the north back 
of Ben Lomond, and the parish is intersected 
by the Endrick water. Buchanan House, the 
seat of the Duke of Montrose, stands on the 
eastern margin of Loch Lomond. The fort 
of Inversnaid, — see Inversnaid, — stands at 
its northern extremity near the head of the 
loch Population in 1821, 763. 

BUCHANY, a small village, a short dis- 
tance from Doune, on the road to Callander. 

BUCKLYVIE, a village in Stirlingshire, 
parish of Kippen, from which it is distant five 
miles in a westerly direction. It is noted for 
annual fairs of black cattle, &c. and is a 



burgh of barony. Buddy vie is condemned to 
the traditional celebrity of having been once 
in 6uch a state of poverty as to call forth tins 
objurgatory popular rhyme : 
Baron of Bucklivie, 
May the foul fiend drive ye, 
And a' to pieces rive ye, 
For building sic a town, 
Where there's neither horse meat, nor man's meat, 
nor a chair to sit down. 
BUCK HILL, a hill elevated 2377 feet 
above the level of the sea, standing on the 
boundary between Aberdeen and Banffshire. 

BUCKHAVEN, (vulgo Buchhyne,) a 
fishing village on the coast of Fife lying about 
two miles south-west from Leven, in the par- 
ish of Wemyss. It is by far the most re- 
markable of the Fife towns, in regard to both 
its site and its population. It consists of a 
perfect confusion of mean cottages arranged 
on the face of a steep promontory, in such a 
manner that neither street nor road can pass 
through them. With the exception of a few 
weavers, the inhabitants are all employed in 
fishing, and they are distinguished by a pecu- 
liar rudeness of manners and speech, from 
those of other villages^in the neighbourhood. 
They have all the appearance of being a 
distinct race of people, and are generally al- 
lowed to be descended from the crew of a 
Brabant vessel, which was wrecked on this 
part of the coast, in the reign of Philip II. 
For upwards of a century they have been lam- 
pooned as the most grossly ignorant and cre- 
dulous of any class of the lower Scotch, and 
have been made the objects of several humo- 
rous pamphlets, and broadsides, though on 
clear examination they do not appear more 
dirty, ignorant or repulsive, than other people 
engaged in catching or selling fish on either 
side of the Firth of Forth. 

BUCKIE, a large fishing village on the 
coast of Banffshire, betwixt the mouth of 
the Spey and Cullen Bay, parish of Ruthven, 
having a good harbour and a few small vessels. 
It is famed for the curing of haddocks. 

BUDDO ROCK, a dangerous insulated 
rock off the coast of Fife in the bay of St. 
Andrews, about two miles from land. 

BUDDON NESS, a sandy headland of 
Forfarshire on the north side of the mouth of 
the Firth of Tay. On this long flat sandy 
reach, have been erected two light-houses to 
guide the mariner into the river. These lights 
are stationary, and appear like stars of the 

first magnitude. When seen in one line they 
bear from each other N.N.W. half W. and 
S.S.E. half E. 

ER) two islets off the south coast of Skye. 

BUITTLE, a parish on the coast of 
Kirkcudbright, bounded on the east by the 
water of Urr, on the south by the Solway 
Firth, and on the west by Kelton ; extending 
eight miles in length by three in breadth. It 

is a fertile agricultural district Population 

in 1821, 1023. 

fishing village on the coast of Buchan, Aber- 
deenshire, lying adjacent to the singular na- 
tural wonder from which its name is derived. 
The Buller or Bullers of Buchan, is situated 
twenty-eight miles north from Aberdeen, and 
six south from Peterhead. At this place the 
coast consists of bold stupendous rocks, sub- 
jected to the eternal fretting and dashing of 
the ocean waves. By a constant commotion of 
this kind, the rocky precipices are pierced with 
natural chasms and caves frightful to look up- 
on, the chief of which is designated the Bul- 
ler (or Boiler) of Buchan. It is a capacious 
cavern, from which the sea never recedes, and 
the only ingress to which is by a boat, through 
a rocky arched passage. Within, a wild am- 
phitheatre of rock and water is seen, as sub- 
lime as it is terrific. But the most remarka- 
ble point in its character is an opening in the 
roof, like the shaft of a well, no less than 
nearly 50 feet in diameter and 150 feet in 
height, and from the brink of which, tourists 
who visit the scene usually look down. It 
is considered one of the principal curiosities 
in Scotland, and as such has been visited by 
innumerable strangers. On an adjacent crag 
stands Slaines Castle, the seat of the Earl of 

BUNA WE, a village and ferry station, on 
the south side of Loch Etive, Argyleshire, 
where it is joined by the water from Loch 
Awe ; distant sixteen miles from Oban. 

BURDIEHOUSE, a village about four 
miles south of Edinburgh, on the Peebles road, 
the name of which has been corrupted from 
Bourdeaux, the title given by the person who 
built the first cottage at the place, some time 
during the last century. 

BURGH-HEAD. See Brough-Heai>, 
HEAD, a promontory on the east side oi 



Luce Bay, Wigton shire, being the southern 
point of that part of the county which is deno- 
minated the Machars, and nearly on the same 
parallel of latitude as the opposite Mull of 
Galloway. With Luce Bay between, these 
headlands form a figure something like the ne- 
ther points of the letter W. From the circum- 
stance of a similar headland in Moray bearing 
the same name with this, we are tempted to 
suppose that the word burgh, which radically 
signifies hill, but by reflection has come to 
imply a town, (because all towns were origin- 
ally on hills), has in it something peculiarly 
applicable to a piece of territory of this kind. 
At the burgh-head there exists a very singular 
natural curiosity. Precisely at the point of 
the headland, which is very high, there is a 
flat rock, measuring about a hundred feet in 
every direction, which projects from the general 
mass into the sea, and is only visible at low 
water. This rock, like the general mass, is a 
very hard granite or whinstone, so much so 
that a man could not perhaps detach as much 
in a day, by any means, as to fill his bonnet, 
yet, strange to say, its surface bears distinct 
impressions of human footsteps ! The foot- 
steps are of many different sizes, some as small 
as those of children, others so large that they 
can only be supposed to have been impressed 
by a race of men more gigantic than the pre- 
sent species. In every one of them, the heel, 
the hollow of the foot, and the toes, are all 
alike distinct. As the rock is much below the 
general level of the headland, and can only be 
seen at low water, some difficulty may be ex- 
perienced in approaching it. But it is certainly 
a curiosity of so wonderful a sort as to repay 
any extraordinary pains which the traveller may 
take in order to behold it with his own eye. It 
is part of the property of Hugh Hathorn of 
Castlewigg, Esq. and belongs to the parish of 
Whithorn, from which burgh it is distant about 
five miles. The common people, who invaria- 
bly assign supernatural reasons for every na- 
tural curiosity, give it the epithet of " The 
Devil's Steps." 

BURNTISLAND, a parish on the coast 
of Fife, lying opposite Edinburgh, about three 
miles in length and breadth, bounded by King- 
horn on the east, and Aberdour on the west. 
Here, as in the adjacent parishes, the shore is 
high, not very generally cultivated or fertile, and 
consists of declivities from the hills, facing the 
south. In some parts the shore is rocky, and 

vitrified looking, as if it had once been subject- 
ed to the ravages of fire, and hence the name. 
At other places the shore is composed of a 
fine sandy beach. 

Bukntisland, the capital of the above pa- 
rish, a royal burgh, and which, at one time 
was called Wester Kinghorn, is situated on a 
piece of high ground, with a rocky front to the 
sea, and an eminence overhanging it on the land 
side. It is slightly peninsular, but it is not 
likely that it ever was surrounded by the waters 
of the Firth of Forth. It is well sheltered, and 
possesses a harbour on its western quarter, 
which is reckoned the best in the Firth, being 
both capacious and of considerable depth of 
water. It has also an excellent dry dock capable 
of admitting large vessels to be repaired ; and is 
undergoing altogether a regular improvement 
in respect of the interests of trade and naviga- 
tion. A small light-house is erected on the 
right hand in entering the harbour. Its light 
is stationary, and may be seen at the distance 
of two or three leagues. By the aid of go- 
vernment, the ferry from thence to Newhaven 
has been greatly extended in its usefulness. 
This port now possesses several coasting and 
other trading vessels, and here water is fre- 
quently taken on board vessels outward bound 
from ports in the Firth, on account of its su- 
periority and retention of freshness. Burnt- 
island is a dull, but tolerably clean, and well 
built town, with one large and long main 
street, and a back street, with diverging 
thoroughfares. On the east it is bounded by 
a common or links, and some cottages for 
the residence of sea bathers of the higher 
classes. A neat row of cottages, within an 
enclosure, has been built on the knolls which 
lie between the links and the sea. This is a 
very pretty retired spot, called Lamerlaws, a 
name importing " hills on the sea," A good 
number of respectable mansions are situated in 
the town and its neighbourhood. Burntisland 
was once surrounded by a wall, the vestiges of 
which, and a fort, are still extant. It was 
besieged by CromweU, and only capitulated 
on condition that he was to pave the streets and 
repair the harbour, which he faithfully per- 
formed. A place is shown in the neighbour- 
hood as his camp. In 1715, the insurgent 
troops of the Earl of Mar took possession of 
Burntisland, and used it to their great advan- 
tage for several months, as a Port for the re- 
ception of stores from abroad. It was consti- 



tuted a royal burgh by James VI. and its ma- 
gistracy consists of a provost, three bailies, a 
dean of guild, a treasurer, and twenty-one 
councillors. The number of its corporations 
is seven. It joins with Kinghorn, Kirkcaldy, 
and Dysart, in electing a member of parlia- 
ment. There is a large distillery here, and 
shipbuilding is carried on to some extent. The 
parish church is a commodious modern edifice, 
overlooking the sea- There is a dissenting 
meeting-house in the town — Population in 
1821, 2136. 

BURRA FIRTH.aninletof the sea at the 
north-west corner of Uist island, Shetland. 

BURRA ISLAND, an island of about 
four miles in length by one in breadth, lying 
on the west side of House Island, which is 
divided by Cliff Sound, from the northern ex- 
tremity of the mainland of Shetland. 

BURRA VOE, an inlet of the sea on the 
south end of Yell, Shetland. 

BURRAY ISLAND, one of the Ork- 
ney islands of about four miles long, lying on 
the north of South Ronaldsha. 

BURRO WMUIR-HE AD, ahamlet with 
a post office, within a mile of Edinburgh, on 
its south-west quarter, taking its name from 
its situation at the head of what was once the 
borough-moor of the metropolis, but which is 
now beautiful enclosed pleasure-grounds and 
the town links. The borough-moor may be 
considered classic ground. Here a sanguinary 
skirmish took place in the year 1336, between 
a leader of the forces of Edward of England 
and the Earl of Moray, with a band of Scot- 
tish patriots, in which the former were defeat- 
ed, and pursued through the city. At the 
same place, and on a spot somewhat nearer 
Blackford hill, James IV. mustered his large 
army, preparatory to his ill-fated expedition to 
Flodden, 1513, when, in the language of Sir 
Walter Scott, Baronet, a 

Thousand pavilions, white as snow, 
Spread all the Borough-moor below, 

Upland, and dale, and down : 
A thousand, did I say ? I ween, 
Thousands on thousands there were seen, 
That chequered all the heath between 

The streamlet and the town ; 
In crossing ranks extending far, 
Forming a camp irregular ; 
Oft giving way, where still there stood 
Some relics of the old oak wood, 
That darkly huge did intervene, 
And tamed the glaring white with green 
In these extended lines there lay, 
A martial kingdom's vast array. 

Highest and midmost was descried, 

The royal banner floating wide ; 

The staff, a pine-tree strong and straighti 

Pitched deeply in a massive stone, 
' Which still in memory is shown, 

Yet, bent beneath the standard's weight, 

Whene'er the western wind unrolled, 

With toil, the cumbrous fold, 
And gave to view the dazzling field, 
Where, in proud Scotland's royal shield, 

The ruddy Lion ramped in gold. 

The stone from which, on this and other 
occasions, the Scottish standard was displayed, 
is still extant. It is of an oblong shape, and 
built into the wall on the east side of the pub- 
lic road leading from Burrowmuir-head to 
Morningside. Sometimes it is called the 
Hare or Har Stane, from the British word 
Har, signifying an army ; and as often it is 
called the Buck-stane. It is mentioned by 
Maitland in his History of Edinburgh, that the 
laird of the estate of Pennycuick holds certain 
privileges, on condition of standing on the 
Buck-stane, while the king passes that way, 
and at the time saluting him with three blasts 
of a horn. Most probably, in allusion to such 
a curious provision, the crest of the arms of 
the present proprietor of Pennycuick (Sir 
George Clerk, Bart.) is the bust of a hunts- 
man sounding a horn, while the motto is, 
" Free for a blast." The borough-moor was, 
at an early period, covered with a forest of 
large trees, in which condition it was so great 
a nuisance, that the inhabitants of Edinburgh 
had permission granted them of building wood- 
en galleries or fronts to their houses, and 
extending them into the street, in order to en- 
courage them to consume the timber. 

BUST A, a place on the north-west point 
of the Great Barnera island, west side of 

BUTE, an island, the southern part of 
which forms the western shore of the mouth of 
the Firth of Clyde. With the adjacent islands, 
it is reckoned one of the Hebrides, though far 
separated from the real western islands. The 
northern end of the island is projected into 
the district of Cowal, Argyleshire, and the 
water division between the island and the lat- 
ter is often so slender, that vessels find a dif- 
ficulty in navigating the straits, which obtain 
the title of the Kyles of Bute. The length 
of the island is eighteen miles, and its breadth 
averages five. About the middle it is nar- 
rowed by the indentation of bays on either 
side. Towards Cowal it is bleak and moun- 


C A AF. 

tainous, but on the southern parts it consists 
of green fertile eminences or low hills, either 
affording excellent pasture, or capable, with 
the low grounds, of being cultivated so as to 
produce excellent crops of barley, oats, &c. 
The island is distinguished altogether for pic- 
turesque beauty and salubrity of climate. 
Neither mists nor thick crawling fogs — the 
curse of the east of Scotland — infest it ; snow 
never lies on its hills ; and the only evil of its 
climate is a liability to sudden severe rains. 
Here, as in all the west of Scotland, there is 
little or no extent of sea-beach, in comparison 
.vith other coasts. The sea continually 
washes the base of the green or heathy 
mountains. The shore is in most places 
rocky, with several good natural harbours. 
On the south-eastern side it is now covered 
with the plantations raised by the taste of the 
Marquis of Bute, whose seat of Mount Stew- 
art, an elegant modern mansion, lies on the 
woody slope facing the entrance to the Clyde. 
The view of the island from the sea is enliv- 
ened by several other cottages in the different 
g reen declivities. In the interior, in a seclud- 
ed situation, is erected the cottage of Kean, 
the eminent tragedian, whose taste has been 
manifested by the selection of this charming 
island as a retreat from the world. Bute has 
for many years been the place of summer re- 
sort, for seabathing and realization to the 
fashionable mercantile gentry of the west, who 
congregate chiefly in and about Rothesay, its 
capital. There is no coal dug in the island. 
The large island of Arran, which lies betwixt 
it and the peninsula of Cantyre ; an islet call- 
ed Inchmamoch on its western side ; and the 
Cumbray islands which lie betwixt it and the 
Ayrshire coast, in the mouth of the Clyde, 
with Bute itself, compose the county of Bute. 
By the latest county roll, the shire had twenty- 
one freeholders, independent of the Marquis 
of Bute, who is Lord Lieutenant and High 

Sheriff, and a vice Lieutenant. These elect 
a member of parliament alternately w T ith the 
freeholders of Caithness. The whole county 
contains 161 square miles of land, 4 square 
miles of lakes, and by a late calculation, about 
30,000 acres of cultivated, and upwards of 
70,000 of uncultivated land. The only royal 
burgh in the county is Rothesay. On each 
of the islands there is one or more villages. 
The island of Bute at one period comprised 
ten or twelve parish churches, and about thirty 
hermitages of religious men. The ecclesiasti- 
cal establishment of the island is now reduced 
to only two parishes. The county altogether 
has only five parishes, each of which may con- 
tain on an average fully more than two thou- 
sand two hundred inhabitants. Gaelic is 
spoken by a great part of the population. 
Bute gives the title of Marquis to a family of 
the name of Stewart, a branch of the royal fa- 
mily of Scotland. The Marquis of Bute is de- 
scended in a direct line from Sir John Stewart, 
a son of Robert II., who by his father's grant 
became possessed of the island of Bute, with 
the heritable jurisdiction of the county, in which 
he was confirmed by a charter of his brother 
Robert III. The family was elevated to an 
earldom in the person of Sir James, a privy 

councillor of Queen Anne, in the year 1703 . 

Population of the county of Bute in 1821, 
Males 6474, Females 7323; Total 13,797. 
BUTTERSTON LOCH, a small fresh 
water lake three miles north-east of Dun- 

BUTT OF LEWIS, the northern point 
of the island of Lewis, the chief of the He- 

BUY, (LOCH) an inlet of the sea on the 
west coast of Mull. 

BYRE BURN, a rivulet in the parish of 
Canoby, Dumfries-shire, a tributary of the 
Esk. There is a colliery at its foot belong- 
ing to the Duke of Buccleuch. 

CAAF, a rivulet in Ayrshire, a tributary 
of the Garnock, which it joins nearly a mile 
below the village of Dairy. In its course it 
has a fall of forty feet in height. 

CABRACH, a parish, belonging partly to 
Banffshire, and partly to Aberdeenshire, and 
lying in the hilly district which divides the 

two counties. It extends five miles in length 
by three in breadth, and is about forty miles 
west of Aberdeen. It is a bleak pastoral dis- 
trict — Population in 1821, 1113. 

CADDER, or CALDER, a parish thir- 
teen miles in length, and between three and 
four in breadth ; extending along the northern 



boundaries of Lanarkshire, and pertaining also 
partly to Dumbarton and Stirlingshires ; bound- 
ed on tlie north by Campsie, on the east by 
Kirkintulloch, on the south by the barony pa- 
rish of Glasgow, and on the west by New 
Kilpatrick. The river Kelvin runs six miles 
along the northern boundary. The grounds 
are generally level and well cultivated. The 
Forth and Clyde Canal passes through the 
parish.— Population in 1821, 2798. 

CAERKETON CRAIG, a steep emin- 
ence in the Pentland range of hills, above 

CAERLAVEROCK, a parish in Dum- 
fries-shire, occupying a sort of peninsula, form- 
ed by the Solway Firth, the river Nith, and 
Lochar water, the lower part of which is very 
fertile. The middle and western or upper 
parts are hilly but in general productive. Kel- 
ton and Glencaple are small sea-ports on the 
Nith. The only object of curiosity is the mag- 
nificent ruin of Caerlaverock Castle, situat- 
ed on a level plain on the east side of the de- 
boucheof the Nith, about eight miles from 
Dumfries. It is an ancient possession of the 
Maxwells, once a powerful family in this part of 
Scotland, and wardens of the western marches. 
It was besieged in 1300, by Edward I., 
who captured it, and appointed three barons 
for its keepers. Subsequently it underwent 
innumerable misfortunes, and has been often 
taken, retaken, dismantled, and destroyed. 
It was ultimately taken by Cromwell, 1651, 
when one Finch gave a receipt for its 
furniture, in which, among other particulars, 
mention is made of eighty beds ; a proof, ob- 
serves Pennant, of the hospitality and splen- 
dour of the place. After this it ceased to be 
a tenable fortress ; it fell into decay, and now 
presents a massive and picturesque ruin to the 
inspection of the tourist. According to Chal- 
mers, the meaning of the word Caerlaverock 
seems to be — the castle, with a rotundity, or 
buttress, swelling out. A more fanciful anti- 
quary might suggest that it signifies the castle 
of the laverock ; an Anglo-Saxon word for the 
lark. This ancient fortalice was the scene of 
a foul and remarkable murder, about the middle 
of the fourteenth century, which has furnished 
the theme of a very beautiful ballad by Charles 
Kirkpatrick Sharpe, Esq. published in the 
Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border. The tra- 
gical event was connected with the assassina- 
tion of the Red Cumin, (a powerful chief- 

tain, who had formerly held the regency cf 
Scotland,) in the Dominican church of Dum- 
fries, by Robert Bruce, in the year 1305. On 
this occasion Bruce was attended by Kirkpa- 
trick and Lindsay, two barons who were faith- 
ful to his cause. Having accomplished the 
rash act, he rushed out of the church with the 
bloody poniard in his hand, and to the anxious 
inquiries regarding his emotion, he answered, 
" I doubt I have slain the Red Cumin. '"— - 
" Doubtest thou?" exclaimed Kirkpatrick, 
" I mak sicker." Accordingly, with Lindsay 
and a few followers, he rushed into the sanc- 
tuary, and dispatched the woimded man. From 
the superstitious history of the period, it is 
learned, that the body of the slaughtered ba- 
ron was watched during the night by the Do- 
minicans, with the usual rites of the church. 
But at midnight the whole assistants fell into a. 
dead sleep, with the exception of an aged father, 
who heard, with terror and surprise, a voice, 
like that of a wailing infant, exclaim, " How 
long, O Lord, shall vengeance be deferred?" 
It was answered, in an awful tone, " Endure, 
with patience, until the anniversary of this 
day shall return for the fifty-second time." In 
the year 1357, fifty-two years after Cumine's 
death, James of Lindsay was hospitably feast- 
ed in the castle of Caerlaverock, belonging to 
Roger Kirkpatrick. They were the sons of 
the murderers of the regent. In the dead of 
night, from some unknown cause, — though, 
according to the ballad, out of revenge for the 
successful rivalship of Kirkpatrick in his mar- 
riage, — Lindsay arose, and poniarded in his 
bed his unsuspecting host. 

He louted down — her lips he prest — ■ 

O ! kiss, foreboding woe ! 
Then struck on young Kirkpatrick's breast, 

A deep and deadly blow. 

Sair, sair, and meikle did he bleed, 

His lady slept till day, 
But dream't the Firth flow'd o'er her head, 

In bride bed as she lay. 

Lindsay then mounted his horse to flee ; but 
guilt and fear had so bewildered his senses, 
that after riding all night, he was taken, at 
break of day, not three miles from the castle, 
and was afterwards executed by order of King 
David II. The story is corroborated by 
Wintoun. The church of Caerlaverock be- 
longed, in former times, to the collegiate church 
of Lincluden. Prior to the Reformation, 
there was also a chapel in the parish, which 
was dedicated to St. Columba, the remains 



whereof still appear on the hanks of the Nith, 
ahout two miles north-east from Caerlaverock 
Castle. Near it, there was a consecrated well, 
the resort, in superstitious times, of many vo- 
taries, who each, it is said, sacrificed some- 
thing to the health-giving saint, or, in plainer 
terms, left a mouthful of victuals for the 
subsistence of the chaplain. The district 
has some excellent endowed schools, and 
enjoys many other benefits from the libera- 
lity of Dr. Hutton, a native of the parish, 
and an eminent physician at the beginning of 
last century. From being a poor shepherd 
lad, under the Episcopal minister of the pa- 
rish, he was removed to be a companion to a 
gentleman's son, who had taken a fancy to him, 
and along with this person he acquired the ru- 
diments of a liberal education. At 
he studied physic, and going abroad in pursuit 
of that science, happened to be in Holland a 
little before the Revolution. While in that 
countiy, it happened that Mary, princess of 
Orange, being thrown from her horse at a 
hunting party, Hutton was the first to present 
himself, when a surgeon was wanted to bleed 
her. This put him in the road to preferment. 
He came over at the Revolution of 1688 ; was 
made first physician to King William and 
Queen Mary, and physician-general to their 
armies and hospitals. In these stations he 
acquired an ample fortune, and died in 1712, 
leaving L.1000 to his native parish, and his 
library to the presbytery of Dumfries. — Popu- 
lation in 1821, 1206. 

CAIRN, a small village lying on the east 
coast of Loch Ryan, in Wigtonshire, parish of 

CAIRN, a river in Dumfries-shire, a tribu- 
tary of the Nith, into the west bank of which 
it falls, a little way above Dumfries. It rises 
in the high grounds on the west border of the 
county, and runs in a south-easterly direction 
past Glencairn, Dunscore, and other places. 

CAIRNAPLE, a mountain in the parish 
of Torphichen, Linlithgowshire, said to be ele- 
vated 1498 feet above the level of the sea. 

CAIRNDOW, a village in Cowal, Argyle- 
shire, parish of Lochgoilhead. 

CAIRN-EILAR, a mountain elevated 
4000 feet above the level of the sea, at the 
south-west angular point of Aberdeenshire, 
where it is joined by the counties of Perth and 

CAIRNGELLIE, a hill in the centre of 
Perthshire, eight miles north of Crieff. 

CAIRNGORM, (signifying "Blue Moun- 
tain,") one of the loftiest of those, mountains 
which stand in the Grampian desert, partly in 
the parish of Abernethy, in the southern part of 
the county of Moray. It rises 4050 feet above 
the level of the sea, and 1750 feet from the 
surface of Loch Avon, which lies about a mile 
from its base. It stands in the midst of a 
bleak territory, and has nothing to recommend 
its own appearance. Around the base, and 
on part of its sides, it is wooded with sombre 
firs, and in hollows near its summit, the snow 
is never altogether thawed away. This moun- 
tain has obtained considerable celebrity from 
having furnished large quantities of a particu- 
lar species of topaz used for seals, bracelets, 
and other ornaments, and which are now ge- 
nerally called Cairngorms. These stones are 
now nearly exhausted, and they are only rarely 
found among the debris washed from the 
mountain by the torrents ; but this is no evil. 
Great Britain has long been supplied by Bra- 
zil with stones of a similar and more beautiful 
kind, at a thousandth part of the price sought 
for these baubles by the avaricious inhabitants 
of the district. 

CAIRNHARRAH, a conspicuous hill in 
the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, near the coast, 
at Wigton Bay. It is elevated 1 100 feet above 
the level of the sea. 

CAIRNIE-HILL, a small village in Fife, 
two miles west of Dunfermline, inhabited by 
linen weavers. 

MOUNT, a lofty Grampian mountain, lying 
on the south bank of the Dee, Kincardine- 
shire, celebrated in Scottish history and song, 
on account of the road between the great dis- 
tricts of Angus and Moray, which passes over 
it. It is occasionally designated " the Mount" 
or " the Mounth," in old writings. 

CAIRNMONEARN, a Grampian moun- 
tain, elevated 1050 feet above the level of the 
sea, situated in Aberdeenshire. 

CAIRN OUR, a lofty mountain on the 
western side of Morayshire. 

C AIRNSMUIR, one of the highest moun- 
tains in the south of Carsphairn, Kirkcudbright, 
elevated 1737 feet above the level of the sea, 

CAIRNY, a parish lying partly in Aber- 
deenshire and partly in the county of Banff 



situated at the termination of the Grampian 
range. It is chiefly a pastoral district, and 
extevds partly along the Bogie river, above the 
village of Huntly.— Population in 1821, 1854. 
CAITHNESS, the most northerly county 
of Scotland, and consequently of Great Bri- 
tain, having the German Ocean on the east, 
the Pentland Firth, which separates the main- 
land from the Orkney Islands, on the north, 
and Sutherlandshire on the south and south- 
west. The shire extends about thirty-five 
miles by a breadth of about twenty-two at the 
middle. Altogether it comprehends 487 
square miles of land, 10 square miles of lakes, 
and by a late computation, 92,333 acres of 
land cultivated, and 347,347 acres uncultivat- 
ed. The county is in general level, with a 
few elevated mountains on the borders of 
Sutherlandshire, and of some low eminences 
throughout. It consists for the greater part of 
dismal flats, occasionally green and cidtivated, 
but more ordinarily swarthy and moorish. 
The soil is almost entirely argillaceous heavy 
land, lying upon horizontal clay-slate, which 
keeps up water on its surface in wet seasons. 
To the eye of a Lowlander, or one accus- 
tomed to see either fertile enclosed fields, or 
warm woody valleys, the appearance of Caith- 
ness is frightful, and productive of melan- 
choly feelings. When this is enhanced by 
the consideration that the climate is of a 
very unfavourable kind, ideas of all that is 
comfortless are conveyed. Wood there is 
none, and the few enclosures are of a very 
rude quality. Till lately the cottages of the 
peasantry were generally hovels of a most 
miserable description ; but their houses are 
now somewhat improved, and there are many 
farm houses of recent erection, the cost of 
rearing which individually varies from L.500 
to L.1000; and these are rapidly increasing. 
Besides the evils of a bad soil and unkind 
climate, the county has to struggle against 
the apathy of the landowners to improve- 
ments which tend to better the condition 
of the lower classes. As in other parts of the 
north of Scotland, the country here labours 
under the complicated misery of being held 
by large proprietors, whose vast estates are 
afflicted by the searing influence of entails. 
Another evil worthy of immediate correction, 
is the vicious system of letting farms only on 
yearly terms, which strikes at the root of all 
improvement. Collaterally with the correc- 

tion of such an error, should be the abolition 
of numerous and indefinite servitudes as part 
of rent, which still prevail to such an extent 
in some places, as to make it appear that the 
act for extinguishing heritable jurisdictions, has 
not, as yet, operated with full practical effect 
in the northern part of the kingdom. Although 
improvements have certainly been instituted, 
much remains to be done to elevate the condi- 
tion of Caithness to that of the adjacent and 
better-managed counties. It may sound like 
a reproach, but it is a well-known fact, that 
the improvements and modern comforts of 
Caithness have been brought about almost en- 
tirely by wealth drawn from the seas. The 
fisheries have indeed scattered many blessings 
in this distant territory, and the money annually 
spent from this source alone, is at present doing 
much to meliorate the condition and prospects 
of the people. Unfortunately, the county has 
few harbours useful in navigation ; the only two 
which are tolerable, being those of Wick on 
the east coast, and Thurso on the west. Of 
late, the number of roads through the county 
has been augmented. Besides a good road 
winding round the county, there are now vari- 
ous cross roads. In the interior there are up- 
wards of thirty small fresh water lakes ; and 
from these there flow a number of streamlets, 
and also four waters of a greater magnitude. 
The chief rivers in the county are Forss and 
Thurso Waters on the north-west, and Wick 
and Berrydale Waters on the south-east. The 
only bays of any note are Sinclair Bay on the 
north-east, and Cannes Bay on the north. The 
real annual rental of the shire is now about 
L. 35,000, and this sum is increasing, chiefly 
by the enhanced value of lands near the fish- 
ing stations ; as, for instance, farms which were 
let thirty years ago for L.30 per annum, in 
the neighbourhood of Wick, are now rented at 
L.200, and a similar proportion is observed in 
other places. Since the year 1809, a better 
system of farming has here been introduced. 
Many thousand bolls of oats and bear of a good 
quality are annually exported. Besides an ex- 
port of cattle, corn, kelp, salmon, cod, herrings, 
bacon, and some butter and cheese, there is 
now also a considerable exportation of wool, in 
consequence of the new system of sheep farm- 
ing introduced into the county. The district 
abounds in game of various kinds. The county 
has no coal, and the principal fuel of the inha- 
bitants is peat. Freestone and limestone 


C A L D E R. 

abound. Stroma island, in the Pentland Firth, 
belongs to the county. The shire has only 
one royal burgh, to wit, Wick, and a burgh of 
barony, which is Thurso. Caithness was an- 
ciently a bishoprick, the earliest traces of which 
refer its origin to the twelfth century. At 
present it contains ten parishes which consti- 
tute a presbytery. Caithness is an earldom in 
the family of Sinclair. This peerage is of re- 
mote antiquity. Before the year 1450, ife was 
enjoyed by three successive families, who lost 
it either by forfeiture or extinction. At length 
it was renewed in the person of William Sin- 
clair, Earl of Orkney, a great-grandson, by the 
female line, of Robert II. He was made 
Chancellor of Scotland in the reign of James 
II. and received a grant of the Earldom of 
Caithness. The Earldom of Orkney having 
been derived from the King of Norway, though 
confirmed by a Scottish monarch, was resign- 
ed to the crown in the reijjn of James III. 
The title was long after revived, but not 
in the family of the Sinclairs of Caith- 
ness. The ancient history of the county of 
Caithness is of little or no interest from its 
distance from the central part of the kingdom. 
The names of the different places and monu- 
mental remains point it out as having been the 
theatre of innumerable petty exploits of Danes 
and Norwegians. By the latest county roll, 
the shire has fifty-one freeholders, who, alter- 
nately with the freeholders of Bute, elect a 
member of Parliament. The Earl of Caithness 
is Lord Lieutenant and Lord High Sheriff. 

The chief seats in the county are Barogil 
Castle, Earl of Caithness ; Thurso Castle, 
Sinclair, Bart. ; Duribeath Castle and Freswick, 
Sinclair, Esq. ; Murkle, Sinclair, Bart. ; Hemp- 
rigys and Akergill, Lord Duffus ; JBarrock ; 
Forse ; Castle Hill ,■ Sweeny ; Watten House ,■ 
Brabster ; Hopewell ; Sandside ; Banniskirk ; 
Olrick; Thura; Pennyland ; . Stempster ; Scu- 
thd ; Standstil, &c. 

Heights in Caithness. 

Feet above the sea. 
Ord of Caithness, 1250 

Scarry Hills, . 1876 

Maiden Paps, . 2000 

Population of the county in 1821, — Males, 
14,196, Females, 16,042. Total, 30,238. 

C ALDER, formerly a district in the west- 
ern part of the county of Edinburgh, compre- 
hending two parishes. One of these was en- 
titled Calder-Clere, from one Randulph de 

Clere, who obtained the manor from Mal- 
colm IV. This Randulph gave the parish 
church and its revenues to the monks of Kelso, 
whose vicarage it continued till the Reforma- 
tion. • It was dedicated to St. Cuthbert. In 
1 751 the parish was united to the small parish 
of Kirk- Newton. Long before this era, the de- 
scendants of Randulph lost the manor or ba- 
rony by forfeiture, and it was given, by Robert 
Bruce, to James Douglas of Lothian, the pro- 
genitors of the Earls of Morton. The other 
district was called Calder-Comitis, from 
being a possession of the Earls of Fife, who 
held it till the reign of David II. It subse- 
quently became a possession of Sir James de 
Sandilands, in 1349, and from this new owner 
sprung the family of Sandilands, who were 
afterwards raised to the peerage of Torphichen ; 
See Torphichen. Before the Reformation, 
there was a chapel in the upper part of Calder- 
Comitis, which gave a name to a small village 
called Chapeltoun. In 1646, this large parish 
was divided into two parishes, with the names 
of Mid and West Calder. It may be noted, 
that the word Calder signifies a place of wood 
and water, and is expressive of the ancient 
sylvan character of the territory. 

CALDER, (EAST) a village in the 
county of Edinburgh, in the above mentioned 
district, lying a mile east of the town of Mid 
Calder, on the south road from Edinburgh to 

CALDER, (MID) a parish in the west- 
ern part of the county of Edinburgh, within 
the presbytery of Linlithgow, extending seven 
miles in length by three in breadth ; bounded 
on the north by Kirk-Liston, and on the south- 
west and west by West Calder and Livingston. 
It is a flat, fertile, well cultivated district, 
adorned with plantations. On Muirhouseton 
water, before it drops into the Almond, stands 
Calder House, the seat of Lord Torphichen. 
At the time of the Reformation, this mansion 
afforded entertainment to John Knox, who here 
administered the communion, for the first time 
in Scotland, after the protestant form. A 
large room, now the drawing-room of the 
house, is shown as the scene of this transac- 
tion ; it is appropriately adorned with an ex- 
cellent portrait of the great reformer, supposed 
to be an original, and from which all the com- 
mon engravings are taken. At the other end 
of the apartment is a portrait of Queen Mary. 
Prior to the division of the large parish of 

C A L D E R. 


Calder- Comitis, it was distinguished as the 
ministerial charge of John Spottiswood, Super- 
intendent of Lothian, a son of Spottiswood of 
Spottiswood in Lauderdale, and the father of 
the historian Archbishop Spottiswood, who 
was born here in 1565. — (See St. Andrews.) 
The town of Mid Calder is situated on the 
south road from Edinburgh to Glasgow, about 
twelve miles from the former city, in a south- 
westerly direction. It is pleasantly situated 
on a peninsular eminence between the small 
water of Linnhouse and the Almond. It pos- 
sesses an old Gothic church of elegant archi- 
tecture, which appears to have been left in an 
unfinished condition. There is also a dissent- 
ing meeting-house in the town. Calder wood 
overhangs it on one side. Tbere are two 
paper mills in the neighbourhood, and lime- 
stone is abundant. Two annual fairs are held 
here.— Population in 1821, 1410. 

CALDER, (WE ST) a parish in the south- 
western extremity of the county of Edinburgh, 
of a triangular shape, and often miles in length ; 
bounded on the south and west by Carnwath, 
on the east by Mid Calder, and on the north 
by Livingstone and Whitburn, from which it 
is divided by the Breich water, a tributary of 
the Almond. The original character of this 
high-lying district was bleak and unpromising, 
but much has been done to improve the soil 
and climate, and a great deal of wood has been 
planted by Mr. Young of Harbuni, the late 
Lord Hermand, Mr. Moubray of Hartwood, 
and others. The parish abounds in coal and 
ironstone, and has some quarries of fimestone. 
The parish town is a small village on the road 
from Edinburgh to Lanark, lying seventeen 
miles from the former. Besides the parish 
church, it has a dissenting meeting-house. — 
Population in 1821, 1458. 

CALDER, a parish in the counties of 
Nairn and Inverness, four miles in length, with 
a general breadth of two miles, except at one 
place where it is seven or eight miles. It lies 
at the distance of five or six miles from the 
sea, bounded by Nairn on the north. The 
greater proportion of it is moorish, and the 
low grounds are very liable to be overflowed 
by the river Nairn and the Calder water. The 
river Findhorn passes the parish on its south- 
eastern extremity, and the hilly country is 
partly covered with natural woods. Calder 
or Cawdor castle, still in considerable preser- 
vation, stands in this parish near a small lake. 

It furnished the second title to Macbeth, and 
was, at one time, when defended with a draw- 
bridge and moat, a place of great strength, 
The romantic grounds around it are now beau- 
tifully planted with shrubbery. The estate of 
Calder has long been in the possession of a 
branch of the family of Argyle, which has 
latterly been ennobled, under the title of Lord 
Cawdor, which was changed into an earl- 
dom in the year 1827. An accurate and 
minute description of Cawdor castle has been 
given by Mr. Fraser Tytler, in the second vo- 
lume of the Edinburgh Philosophical Trans- 
actions. " The whole of Cawdor castle is 
peculiarly calculated to impress the mind with 
a retrospect of past ages, feudal customs, and 
deeds of darkness. Its iron-grated doors, its 
ancient tapestry, hanging loosely over secret 
doors and hidden passages, its winding stair- 
cases, its rattling draw-bridge, all conspire to 
excite the most gloomy imagery in the mind. 
It was indeed a fertile spot for the writers of 
our modern romances. The mysteries of 
Udolpho would vanish in contemplation of the 
less perspicuous intricacies in the castle of 
Cawdor. Among these must be mentioned, 
the secret apartment which so effectually con- 
cealed Lord Lovat from the sight of his pur- 
suers. Never was any thing so artfully con- 
trived. It is impossible for the most discern- 
ing eye, without previous information, to dis- 
cover the place of his retreat. And even after 
being told that a place of this nature existed 
in the castle, I doubt whether it could be dis- 
covered. It is placed immediately beneath the 
rafters in one part of the roof of the castle. By 
means of a ladder you are conducted by the 
side of one part of a sloping roof into a kind of 
channel between two ; such as frequently 
serves to convey rain-water into pipes for a 
reservoir ; by proceeding along this channel, 
you arrive at the foot of a stone staircase, 
which leads up one side of the roof to the 
right, and is so artfully contrived, as to appear 
a part of the ornaments of the building, when 
beheld at a distance. At the end of this 
staircase is a room with a single window near 
the floor. It is said Lord Lovat used to be 
conducted to this place when his pursuers 
approached, the ladder being removed as soon 
as he ascended. When the search was over, 
and the inquirers gone, the ladder was replaced, 
by which means he lived comfortably with the 
family, and might long have remained secure, 



if he had not quitted the place of his retreat. 
A remarkable tradition respecting the founda- 
tion of this castle is worth notice, because 
circumstances still remain which plead strong- 
ly for its truth. It is said the original pro- 
prietor was directed by a dream to load an 
ass with gold, turn it loose, and, following its 
footsteps, build a castle wherever the ass rest- 
ed. In an age when dreams were considered 
as the immediate oracles of heaven, and their 
suggestions implicitly attended to, it is natu- 
ral to suppose, the ass, as tradition relates, re- 
ceived its burden and its liberty. After strol- 
ling about from one thistle to another, it ar- 
rived at last beneath the branches of a haw- 
thorn tree, where, fatigued with the weight 
upon its back, it knelt down to rest. The 
space round the tree was immediately cleared 
for building, the foundation laid, and a tower 
erected : but the tree was preserved, and re- 
mains at this moment a singular memorial 
of superstition attended by advantage. The 
situation of the castle accidentally proved the 
most favourable that could be chosen : the 
country round it is fertile, productive of trees, 
in a wholesome spot ; and a river, with a clear 
and rapid current, flows beneath its walls. 
The trunk of the tree, with the knotty pro- 
tuberances of its branches, is still shown in a 
vaulted apartment, at the bottom of the prin- 
cipal tower. Its roots branch out beneath the 
floor, and its top penetrates through the vault- 
ed arch of stone above, in such a manner, as 
to make it appear, beyond dispute, that the 
tree stood as it now does, before the tower 
was erected. For ages it has been a custom 
for guests in the family to assemble round it, 
and drink, ' Success to the hawthorn,' that is 
to say, in other words, ' Prosperity to the house 
of Cawdor!' "— Popidation in 1821, 1120. 

CALDER, (SOUTH) a rivulet in the 
eastern side of Lanarkshire, which falls into 
the Clyde near Bothwell. At a certain 
point of its course near Orbiston, there is a 
very entire arch of Roman architecture span- 
ning its little channel, but without any para- 
pets ; being the bridge by which the Roman 
road between Carlisle and Paisley crossed this 

CALDER, (NORTH) a rivulet further 
north in Lanarkshire, which flows from a small 
lake called Black Loch, in the parish of East 
Monkland, and joins the Clyde, nearly oppo- 
site Blantyre, about five miles above Glasgow. 

CALDER WATER, a rivulet in Ren- 
frewshire, rising in the hilly country adjacent 
to Kilmalcolm moss, and running in a south- 
easterly direction, passes through Lochwinnoch, 
and afterwards falls into the loch of Castle 
Semple, from whence flows the Black Cart. 

CALFO, one of the smallest Western is- 
lands adjacent to Tiree. 

CALLADER, (LOCH) a small inland 
lake, in Mar, Aberdeenshire, about three miles 
in circumference, abounding in trout. Its waters 
are tributary to the Dee, by the Eidh streamlet. 

CALLANDER, a parish in Menteith, 
the south-western division of Perthshire ; 
bounded by Balquhidder and Comrie on the 
north, Kilmadock on the east, Port- Menteith 
and Aberfoyle on the south, and by Buchanan 
on the west. The length of the parish is six- 
teen miles, and its breadth ten. It lies partly 
among the Grampian mountains, and partly 
consists of the beautiful valley through which 
the Teith river flows. The low grounds are 
arable and fertile ; the upper country is wild 
and heathy. The town or village of Callan- 
der is situated in the above valley on the north 
side of the Teith, sixteen miles north-west 
of Stirling. It is a neatly built modern vil- 
lage, with a remarkably good inn, at which 
vehicles are procured for visiting the neigh- 
bouring scenery, and a handsome church, 
standing on one side of a species of square, on 
one side of the village. Part of the little town 
lies on the south side of the Teith, which is 
here crossed by a bridge of three arches. The 
scenery around Callander is uncommonly beau- 
tiful. Immediately above the village, there is 
a peculiarly lovely spot, formed by the junc- 
tion of the two little rivers issuing respective- 
ly from Loch Luhnaig and Loch Vennachar, 
which, when united, form the Teith. Cal- 
lander may be reckoned the threshold of the 
Highlands in this quarter. Two miles west of 
the village is the pass of Leny, which affords 
access to a splendid range of mountain scenery. 
The bridge of Braeklin is another capital point 
in the scenery immediately round Callander. 
Ten miles to the west are the famed and now 
classic scenes, Loch Katrine and the Trosachs. 
Everywhere around the village, and especial- 
ly towards the east, are villas and seats deeply 
embowered in the lustrous and abundant foli- 
age of the vale. The hill of Ben Ledi closes 
the prospect on the north-west, overshadowing 
Callander and its immediate vicinity. Lna> 



gination has discovered the vestigia of a Ro- 
man camp in the plain of Callander at the end 
of the village ; but the supposed works are 
only the terraces which the Teith has left in 
changing its channel. Callander has two an- 
nual fairs and a market on Thursday. Be- 
sides the parish church there is an Independent 
chapel.— Population in 1821, 2031. 

of the smallest western islands in the sound of 
Harris, part of which is wild and mossy and a 
portion cultivated. 

CALNAR, a tributary rivulet of the Aven, 
in the western parts of Lanarkshire. 

CALTON, a mean suburb, enjoying the 
dignity of a barony, at the base of the Calton 
Hill, Edinburgh. There is a suburb in the 
e astern part of Glasgow of the same designation. 
The name of both is obviously derived from 
words signifying the dwelling in the wood. 

CALWAR, a lofty mountain in Aberdeen- 
shire, on the banks of the river Don. 

C AMBUS,* a small village in Clackman- 
anshire, on the west bank of the Devon, near 
its confluence with the Forth. It is situated 
about two miles west of Alloa. 

CAMBUS-BARRON, a village in Stir- 
lingshire, situated about two miles west from 
St. Ninians, and inhabited chiefly by tartan 
and carpet weavers. 

CAMBUSLANG, a parish in Lanark- 
shire, on the west bank of the Clyde. It is 
beautifully diversified with hill and dale ; but 
there are no high lands in the parish, except 
Dichmount and Tumlea Hills, which form a 
ridge of almost half a mile broad. From this 
ridge the ground declines gently, with many 
beautiful swellings to the Clyde and to Calder 
Water, which bounds the parish for several 
miles. A considerable part of the land is 
cultivated and well sheltered with plantations. 
There are abundance of freestone and coal in 
the district. East Coats, West Coats, Sauch- 
le Bog, and Kirkhill are the villages it con- 
tains, which are inhabited almost entirely by 
colliers and weavers. Prior to the Refor- 
mation, the church of Cambuslang belonged 
to a prebend of Glasgow cathedral. There 
was at that time also a chapel dedicated to 
the Virgin Mary. In 1565 the chaplain was a 
Sir John Miller, who made grants of the pro- 

* When this adjunctive is found attached to anotncr 
word, in expressing the name of a place, it refers to local 
situation on a Crooked Stream, 

perty endowed for its support. The lands 
are still called chapel lands. Cumbuslang has 
obtained a notoriety in Scottish ecclesiastical 
history, by the extraordinary religious efferves- 
cence which occurred in the years 1741-2, yet re- 
membered popularly under the title of " Camb's- 
lang Wark."— Population in 1821, 2301. 

CAMBUSNETHAN, a parish situated 
in the middle ward of Lanarkshire on the 
north-east bank of the Clyde, from which it 
stretches in an easterly direction to the verge 
of the county, a distance of thirteen miles by 
three in breadth. It is bounded by Carstairs 
and Carluke on the south, and Dalziel on the 
west. The country here consists of rich 
haughs or meadow lands, well enclosed, with 
beautiful plantations, and the uplands are 
mossy and pastoral. There are many fine 
orchards in the district, and the apples of 
Cambusnethan have been long famed. The 
parish abounds in freestone, ironstone and 
coal. The village of Cambusnethan is situat- 
ed on a cross road to the east, near by 
the road from Glasgow to Lanark, from the 
former of which places it is distant fifteen 
miles. Its inhabitants, who are chiefly weav- 
ers, are intelligent and fond of reading. In 
the neighbourhood stand the Omoa iron 
works. The little town of Cambusne- 
than is sometimes styled the New Town 
of Wishaw. It has now an extensive distillery. 
—Population in 1821, 3086. 

CAMEL ON, a village in Stirlingshire ly- 
ing on the road from Falkirk to Stirling, and 
distant about a mile west from the former, 
at a place where the road to Glasgow diverges 
to the south-west. It contains about 1000 
inhabitants, who are chiefly employed in the 
manufacture of nails. It originated about fifty 
years ago, and its name was conferred from 
a place about half a mile to the north-west, 
which is supposed to have been the site of an 
ancient city called Camelodunum, or in mo- 
dern language Camelon. It is alleged that this 
was a city built by Vespasian, which, when 
subsequently possessed by the Picts, had twelve 
brazen gates. Scarcely a vestige of this mag- 
nificent place remains, though, in Buchanan's 
time, the ruins were considerable. One small 
upright fragment of a wall is yet visible from 
the Glasgow road which passes near it ; and 
a few straggling trees are seen to indicate its 
extent. The site adjoins to the valley through 
which the Carron runs, and which in formei 



times is believed to have been an arm of the 
sea, rendering Camelon, what the early writ- 
ers represent it, a maritime city. In support 
of this theory, fragments of anchors, and even 
a whole ancient boat have been found imbed- 
ded in the soil ; and the plough has more than 
once turned up, upon the edge of a bank which 
is pointed out as the quay of Camelon, stones 
with rings attached to them, such as might be 
used for mooring' the vessels lying in the har- 
bour. The sea is now about three or four 
miles distant from Camelon, and if conjecture 
be correct regarding the formation of the 
meadow land between it and the Firtb of 
Forth, our theory is sustained relative to the 
alluvial creatioii of the Carse land in this 
part of the country. — See the article Carse. 

CAMERON, a parish in Fife lying be- 
twixt that of St. Andrews and Carnbee, oc- 
cupying a square of about four miles. The 
country here Ues high, and is generally bleak 
and moorish, but is undergoing improvement. 
Coal is raised in considerable quantities. 
Cameron village hies four miles south of St. 
Andrews. — Population in 1821, 1068. 

CAMERON BRIDGE, a hamlet on 
the road from Edinburgh to Dalkeith, about 
a mile from the outskirts of the city. 

CAMILLA, (LOCH) a small lake in the 
southern part of Fife, parish of Auchtertool. 
Near it stands the old house of Camilla. 

CAMLACHIE, a large populous village, 
lying near the eastern suburbs of Glasgow, on 
the middle road to Edinburgh. 

TON, a parish occupying the middle part of 
the peninsula of Cantire, in Argyleshire ; in 
length eleven miles, and in breadth from six to 
ten. The centre is narrowed by the indenta- 
tion of Campbelltown loch (or Loch of Kilker- 
ran, as it formerly was called,) on the east 
side, and Mahir-hanish bay on the west coast. 
The country is bleak, and, though partly culti- 
vated, consists mostly of low wild hills, desti- 
tute of interest. — See Cantire. 

Campbelltown, a royal burgh, the ca- 
pital of the above parish, is as pleasantly si- 
tuated as any in Scotland. It lies at the bot- 
tom of a beautiful salt water lake, or inlet of 
the sea, of about two miles in length by less 
than one in breadth, which appears quite land- 
locked, by reason of two conical insular hills 
lying in the mouth of the bay, and intercepting 
the view of the sea. The passage into the 

loch is by the east side of the most easterly 
island, — which is called Island-Devar. The 
other islet may be approached by the sands at 
low water. This pretty green lake is, at the 
proper season, enlivened with numbers of small 
herring fishing vessels, sometimes with a king's 
cutter, or other vessel, and in general a few 
pleasure boats, kept by gentlemen for the 
amusements of sailing, and fishing with lines, 
or dredging for oysters. A quay projecting 
into the bay at the town answers as a place of 
loading and unloading. The town of Camp- 
belltown itself is mostly of modern erection, 
and lies like a semicircle round the head of 
the bay, with a number of gentlemen's seats or 
cottages scattered at either end along tbe de- 
clivities. The place is well protected from 
the weather. Heights overhang the town in 
nearly all directions, and the only low part of 
the back ground is that in the direction of 
Mahir-hanish bay, which has some appearance 
of being alluvial. Besides the side streets, 
Campbelltown has one main street, rising from 
the waters, intersected at right angles by an- 
other which goes through the town. The . re- 
mains of the old ruined parish church are still 
extant near the common burying-ground, on a 
pleasant mound on the south side of the bay, 
almost close to the water. Prior to the year 
1700 this town was a mere fishing village. In 
that year it was erected into a royal burgh, 
through the interest of the Argyle family. 
It has a magisterial government, of a provost, 
two bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, a wa- 
ter bailie, and twelve councillors, but no incor- 
porated trades. It joins with Ayr, Irvine, 
Rothesay, and Inverary in the election of a 
member of parliament. The name of Camp- 
belltown was conferred in compliment to the fa- 
mily of Argyle. Anciently the town was 
called Dalruadhain, (pronounced Dalaruan,) 
from having been the capital of the pristine 
Scottish kingdom, and the spot in which the 
first Scots settled on their emigrating from 
Ireland. Nothing now exists to signify such 
distinguished antiquity; but the place must 
still be acknowledged to have a high abstract 
interest, when it is considered that the ancestof 
of the present king of Great Britain, now 
ruler of nearly a hundred millions of people, 
here first set up his throne, a mere military 
adventurer, in command of a few followers. 
The only curiosity of an ancient date shown 
to the stranger is a flat stone cross, on which 

C A M P S I E. 


are a variety of figures in relief, with the fol- 
lowing inscription in the Saxon character : — 
FLfEC : EST : CRUX : Domini : YVARI: M: 
H EACHYRNA: quondam Rectoris: de 
KYREGAN : et Domini ANDRE : nati: 
ejus : Rectoris de KIL : Coman : qui : 


may be interpreted : This is the cross of Mr. 
Edward M. H. Eachran, once Rector of 
Kyregan, and Master Andrew, his son, Rector 
of Kilcoman, who erected the cross. No date 
appears on the slab, and it is only from popular 
tradition that it has been referred to the 12th 
century. It was brought from Icolmkil, and 
is now inserted in an elevated pedestal at the 
market place. The name of Dalaruan has 
been given to the distillery of Messrs. Colvile 
and Company, whose whisky, made here, is 
hardly exceeded by any produced in Scotland, 
in the qualities of purity and strength, with an 
absence of all disagreeable flavour or smell. 
There are five distilleries in the town. The 
trade of Campbelltown consists chiefly in the 
export of whisky and potatoes, of which great 
quantities are shipped for Ireland. The 
whisky is sold wholesale, principally by means 
of agents in Glasgow. Near Campbelltown 
there is a coal work, from whence coals are 
brought to the town by a small canal ; but this 
article is of inferior quality. All the ordinary 
trades are now pursued in Campbelltown, and 
the town has a thriving appearance. One of 
the chief causes of its prosperity is the resi- 
dence of a great number of very respectable 
retired families, or others of easy circumstan- 
ces, who inhabit handsome cottages in the 
midst of small pleasure grounds along both 
sides of the loch. These, with the upper 
classes in the town, form a genteel society of a 
very agreeable kind, though perhaps a little 
too aristocratic. The salubrity of the climate, 
the quantity and cheapness of fish and other 
viands, offer substantial inducement for taking 
up a residence in this somewhat remote part of 
Scotland. As steam vessels ply regularly 
from Glasgow to Campbelltown, the commu- 
nication has been rendered both cheap and 
convenient. There is a bookseller's shop in 
the town, where the modern periodical publi- 
cations may be obtained. Branches of the 
Commercial and British Linen Company's 
Banks have been some time established. The 
town has two established churches, in one of 
which the service is conducted in the Gaelic 

tongue. They stand on the rising ground 
overlooking the town, and are very plain 
buildings. There are likewise meeting-houses 
of the Relief body and Independents, and a 
Roman Catholic chapel. Besides the parish 
school, there are two charity schools, and one 
Sunday school. — Population of the burgh and 
parish in 1821, 6445. 

CAMPBELLTOWN, a small village 
on the Moray Firth, in Inverness-shire, 
parish of Ardersier. It lies near Fort George, 
and arose only from the residence of the hang- 
ers-on of the garrison. 

CAMPLE, a stream in Dumfries-shire, 
rising in the heights which divides the county 
from Lanarkshire, and running in a straggling 
southerly direction, falls into the Nith below 

CAMPSIE, a parish lying in the middle 
of Stirlingshire, towards the north side, of 
eight miles in length by seven in breadth, 
bounded on the north by Fintry, on the east 
by Kilsyth, on the south by Kirkintulloch 
and Calder, and on the west by Baldernock 
and Strathblane. The parish consist of a 
fertile strath or valley, bounded by ranges of 
the Campsie Hills or Fells on the north, 
which are elevated about 1500 feet above the 
level of the sea. The village or clachan of 
Campsie is pleasantly situated on the low 
grounds, about a mile and a half north of 
Lennoxtown. This latter place is a modern 
village inhabited chiefly by persons employed 
at the printfields, advantageously established 
in this quarter ; the distance being only nine 
miles from Glasgow, with abundance of coal 
and water. There is an extensive distillery 
at Milton, and another at Lillybum. — Popula- 
tion in 1821, 4927. 

CANALS. From the irregular nature of 
the ground in Scotland, the country is not well 
adapted for inland navigation, a circumstance 
which certainly must continue to impede the 
extension of trade and manufactures, to the 
amount to which they are carried on in the 
flat districts of England. Luckily the same 
objection cannot be offered against the intro- 
duction of railways for general and local pur- 
poses, more particularly the latter. These 
may be constructed with advantage often 
where, from the acclivity of the siuface, water 
could not possibly rest. "Where minerals are 
to be conveyed from a high to a low level, as 
is the case very generally in Scotland, railways 



are found more advantageous than any other 
conveyance. At present different lines of 
railroads are projected, and in the end they 
may go far to supersede those few canals now 
in use, and immediately to be noticed indivi- 

LNVERURY) extends from the quay at 
the harbour of Aberdeen in a north-westerly 
direction to Inverury on the Don, a line of 
eighteen and a half miles, and at its highest 
level it is 168 feet above low water mark. 
In breadth it is twenty-three feet, by a depth of 
three feet nine inches. It requires seventeen 
locks, five aqueduct bridges, fifty-six bridges 
for the accommodation of passengers, and 
twenty culverts or sub-bridges for the passage 
of streams underneath the canal. It was fin- 
ished in 1808 at an expense of about L. 44,000. 
It has been of great use in bringing inland 
produce to a port, but it has never remunerat- 
ed the share-holders, and at present is in a de- 
cayed condition. 

CANAL. (ARDROSSAN) This canal 
was projected many years since for the purpose 
of carrying goods and coals from Glasgow and 
Renfrewshire to the port at Ardrossan. From 
a variety of circumstances it was never cut 
further than from Glasgow to the town of 
Johnstone, from whence a railway proceeds to 

nal, or chain of lakes, connected with the sea 
on either side of the island by artificial water- 
courses and locks, stretches across Inverness- 
shire in a direct south-westerly course, being 
at an exact angle of 45 degrees with the paral- 
lel of latitude of the country. The configura- 
tion of the land here has eminently adapted 
this line for a canal. From Liverness on the 
Moray Firth, to Loch Eil on the west coast, 
there is a natural hollow or great strath, call- 
ed anciently, Glenmore-nan-Albin, or the 
Great Glen of Caledonia, in the bottom of 
which, with little intermission, there are long 
straight fresh water lakes, and at the end the 
sea protrudes a considerable way. The extent, 
from side to side, is 59^ miles, in which Loch 
Ness, Loch Oich, and Loch Lochy, occupy 
thirty-seven miles ; other twenty-two miles 
are rivers connecting these ; and two miles of 
land. To connect the whole by navigable 
waters, (the lakes being already navigable,) 
was an undertaking often thought of, and at 

length the undertaking was commenced by go- 
vernment in 1803-4. After a labour of about 
eighteen years, and at an expense of upwards 
of L. 800,000, the line was opened for the 
admission of vessels in 1822. Up to 1830, 
the total expense was L. 987,000. The canal 
part is twenty feet deep, fifty feet wide at 
bottom, 110 feet wide at top, which affords 
sailing to frigates of 32 guns, or merchant ves- 
sels of a similar size. The highest level is 
ninety-four feet, at Loch Oich — the small cen- 
tral lake — which is gained from the east coast 
by thirteen locks ; and from Loch Oich down 
to Loch Eil, the descent is by twelve locks. 
These locks are twenty feet deep, forty feet 
broad, and 1 70 feet long. The most rapid de- 
scent is on the west side, where, from the 
closeness of the locks to each other, they are 
called Neptune's Staircase. Magnificent as 
this national work truly is, it is lamentable to 
think, that it is held in little estimation by 
traders. Notwithstanding that it saves the 
dangers of the Pentland Firth to vessels going 
or coming from one side of the island to the 
other, this is a benefit not supposed to be com- 
mensurate with the expense of the dues charg- 
ed as toll. These dues have been even re- 
duced to a non-paying price, as to the outlay of 
the money, but this has had little effect, and it 
is possible that it will be abandoned or left to 
the free ish and entry of vessels. At present 
it is chiefly sailed upon by steam-boats, in 
communication with Glasgow and Inverness, 
and the amount of annual dues is only L. 2,575. 
It may be remarked, that in the event of war 
with France, the Caledonian Canal might 
turn out to be of prodigious benefit to the na- 
tion. During the late war, fleets of merchant 
vessels, bound for America, were detained in 
the Downs for weeks together, exposed to 
capture by French privateers, the risk of which 
would now be increased by steam navigation. 
These fleets might have passed through the 
Caledonian Canal, and reached their destina- 
tion in safety, within the period during which 
they were thus wind-bound. 

CANAL, (CRINAN). The navigation 
of steam and other vessels from Glasgow to 
Inverness is wonderfully assisted by this mi- 
nor canal. Without it, all vessels going or 
coming from or to the west coast of Argyle- 
shire, and the embochure of the Caledonian Canal, 
would have to navigate round the south coast 
of Arran, and the promontory of Cantire. 



Prom Loch Gilp, a small inlet off the west 
side of Loch Fyne, a canal has been cut across 
the neck of Cantire or Knapdale, to the Sound 
of Jura, which is a spacious bay from whence 
Loch Linnhe and Loch Eil are obtruded, to 
meet the Caledonian Canal. The width of 
the neck of Cantire at this cut is only six 
miles ; and the canal dug is only nine feet 
deep- It belongs to a joint stock company. It 
is of great convenience to tourists visiting the 

Inasmuch as the Caledonian Canal intersects 
the northern part of Scotland, and leaves the 
northern division in the situation of an island, 
so does this, by connecting the eastern and 
western seas at another great strath or valley, 
near the line of country from Edinburgh to 
Glasgow, make the middle part another island, 
and thus leave Scotland in two insular and one 
peninsular divisions. Various times before, 
and in the course of last century, the project of 
cutting a navigable canal between the Firths 
of Clyde and Forth was started j but it was 
not till 1768 that parliament sanctioned the 
measure. The business was set on foot by a 
subscription for L. 150,000. In this year the 
cutting commenced ; the sum, however, was 
inadequate, and it was only by a present of 
L.50,000 from the forfeited estates, made by 
gevernment, that the whole length of the canal 
was finished. On the 28th of July 1790, the 
navigation was opened from sea to sea- The 
line of the canal is not far off the way in which 
the wall of Antoninus was placed. It is 
thirty-nine miles in length, its highest level is 
160 feet; with twenty locks on the eastern ac- 
clivity, and nineteen on the western. Vessels 
drawing eight feet water and having nineteen 
feet beam, with a keel of seventy-three feet, 
may pass and repass. This canal was con- 
structed with great labour, notwithstanding the 
apparent susceptibility of the land for a work 
of this nature. Besides a great deal of bank- 
ing, it requires to cross several streams of 
greater or less magnitude. Over the Kelvin 
it is carried by an aqueduct bridge of four 
arches, and over the Luggie by a single arch of 
ninety feet span. It is also carried over the 
road from Falkirk to Stirling. The loss of 
water is supplied by six reservoirs, covering 409 
acres of ground. It commences on the east at 
Grangemouth, and pursuing a south-westerly 
course past Falkirk, Kilsyth, and Kirkintil- 

loch, proceeds alongside the Kelvin River, 
till it drops into the Clyde at Bowling Bay, 
near West Kilpatrick, and a short way above 
Dumbarton Castle. The canal is connected 
with Glasgow by a side cut, which brings the 
navigation to a place now called Port-Dun- 
das, and from this point another canal proceeds, 
called the Monkland Canal, immediately to be 
noticed. The Forth and Clyde Canal has 
been exceedingly successful, and by good ma- 
nagement the shares soon became of great va- 
lue. By the junction of the Union Canal from 
Edinburgh, near its east end, the trade upon it 
was increased some years since, and it pro- 
mises to continue in a flourishing condition. 
This canal is of great use for the sailing of ves- 
sels of a moderate burden from Leith to 
Greenock, Liverpool, or other parts, and the 
reverse, by means of the Firths of Forth and 
Clyde. The canal company have boats which 
sail daily with passengers to and from the six- 
teenth Lock, a distance of twenty-five miles, 
and lately, the sailing of steam track-boats of a 
peculiar construction has been tried with suc- 
cess. The revenue which the canal produced 
in 1826, was upwards of L.32,000. 

CANAL. (MONKLAND) This canal 
was begun in 1 790 by a company, and was in- 
tended to furnish a cheap conveyance for coal 
from the Monkland collieries to the city of 
Glasgow, an object which it has fully accom- 
plished. It extends about eighteen miles in 
length and terminates on the east at a place 
about a mile and a half south of Airdrie. The 
canal is thirty-five feet broad at the top and 
twenty-six feet at the bottom. The depth 
of the water is generally five feet. The level 
is preserved by means of four locks of two 
chambers. This canal has been among the 
most successful in Britain both as regards its 
serviceableness to the inhabitants of Glasgow 
and the profit of the shareholders. 

CANAL. (UNION) This canal was 
instituted in order to connect the Forth and 
Clyde canal with the city of Edinburgh. A 
company of shareholders obtained an act of 
parliament for it in 1817 ; the work was begun 
in March 1818 ; and the whole fine was com- 
pleted in May 1822. No public useful work 
ever met with such opposition as this. It had 
for its object the importation of coal from the 
western districts to the metropolis, from which 
that article had hitherto been excluded, to the 
benefit of the monopoly of the Mid -Lothian 



coal proprietors ; as well as the clieap transport 
of heavy goods to and from Glasgow. The 
public spirit of the metropolitans at last carried 
a bill in its favour. It was completed at an 
enormous expense, in consequence of its hav- 
ing to be carried over a ravine and the Water 
of Leith at Slateford, by a bridge sixty-five 
feet in height and 500 feet in length, and over 
the Avon about a mile above the bridge of 
Linlithgow, by another aqueduct bridge still 
more stupendous. Beyond this, to the south 
of Callendar-house, the canal was carried 
through an excavation or tunnel of 600 yards 
long. Besides these very expensive under- 
takings, there were many of smaller moment. 
Altogether the length of the Union Canal is 
thirty-one miles ; its breadth, including towing- 
path, thirty yards ; where the boats turn 100 
yards, with a depth of five feet throughout. 
It required considerable cutting and banking, 
but having taken a sinuous course to avoid 
ascents, it is quite level, and requires no locks, 
except where it descends to the Forth and 
Clyde canal. The great basin or harbour of 
the canal is at its eastern termination, at Edin- 
burgh, not far distant from the back of the 
castle, from whence the line proceeds west- 
ward by Slateford, Ratho, Broxburn ; makes 
a wide detour to the north, and again turns 
westward to Linlithgow. It passes Falkirk 
on the south, and finally joins the Forth and 
Clyde Canal at the sixteenth lock, above the 
mouth of the latter at Grangemouth. At the 
outset it was anticipated that much might be 
done by sailing track-boats with passengers 
upon the canal to and from Edinburgh ; but 
experience has decided the fallacy of this ex- 
pectation. Track-boats with goods and pas- 
sengers sail backwards and forwards daily, but 
the excessive tediousness of the voyage, which 
takes thirteen or fourteen hours, has stopped 
general travelling this way. At present it is 
projected to put a steam vessel upon this as 
well as the Forth and Clyde canal, and in the 
event of that being successfully done, the 
transport of passengers may be more attended 
to. The grand benefits accruing to the com- 
munity by the opening of the Union canal in 
connexion with that of the Forth and Clyde 
are tripartite : First, heavy goods are now 
brought to Edinburgh, from Glasgow and the 
west of England this way at comparatively a 
very trifling expense : Second, new fields of 
coal, formerly sealed up, are now laid open to 

the Edinburgh consumers, and by this device 
coal in the metropolis is about half of the price 
formerly charged : Third, those boats bringing 
coal, stones, &c. are loaded with the police 
and other dung of Edinburgh, and carried to 
any distance on the Union Canal at a very low 
charge, by which means the wild, heathy, and 
sterile grounds in Linlithgow and Stirlingshire 
are easily fertilized by the profusion of cheap 
manure so transported. While the benefits to 
the public arising from this canal have been 
confessedly very great, it is unfortunate that 
the shareholders have been serious losers by 
the speculation. The company, indeed, has 
been the most unfortunate of any which have 
engaged in commerce by conjunction of stock. 
The greatevil of the undertaking, so far as re- 
gards profits, has consisted in its being insti- 
tuted at all, as it is a certain truth that it can- 
not command a sufficient remunerating traffic. 
At the outset the public were very egregiously 
abused by the fallacious and sanguine state- 
ments of engineers and schemers. The origi- 
nal expense was calculated by engineers at 
L.235,167, and the actual expense up to 1826 
was no less than L. 482,256 14s. 4|d., which, 
by the loss of interest, was advanced to 
L. 600,000. By a report of the engineer the 
annual revenue was to have been at least 
L. 55,000, while the revenue actually drawn 
during the seventh year from the opening of 
the canal, including feus and rents, amounted 
only to L. 16,977, 19s. 4d. The miscalcula- 
tions made on this point have been very re- 
markable. The carriage of coal, the staple 
article of trade, was to have produced L. 20,893, 
13s. 4d. In 1828 this article brought in 
only L. 8,839, 9s. 4^d. Goods conveyed be- 
tween Edinburgh and Glasgow were calculat- 
ed to produce L.7,407, 6s. 8d. In 1828, 
they produced only L.2,1 19, 0s. 10Jd. Pas- 
sengers were calculated to produce L. 9,250. 
In 1828, they produced only L.1390, 10s. 2d., 
or little more than the seventh of what was pro- 
mised. With respect to the return which the 
canal was to make to shareholders, the follow- 
ing statement was given by Mr. Baird, the en- 
gineer, and other proprietors. We quote from 
a writer in a late Edinburgh newspaper :— 
" The revenue will be equal to 25| per cent, 
on the outlay. For expense of management, 
officers' and servants' salaries, repairs of works, 
and annual damages, allow the liberal sum of 
L.7727, 18s. 4d., leaving a net revenue of 

a ANAL S. 


L. 45,000, being nearly 30 per cent, on the out- 
lay. According to this statement, the canal 
ought to have repaid to the shareholders, by 
1828, the whole sum of L.235,167, which they 
had laid out upon it. Have they then received 
back this sum ? What will you think when I 
tell you that the whole amount of dividends de- 
clared on canal stock to the end of 1828, seven 
years after the canal had been opened, amount- 
ed only to L.3607, 10s. or 15s. per share ; and 
be it remarked, that these dividends, though 
declared, have not been received by most of 
the shareholders, though they have paid the 
full amount of their original shares — L.50 ; 
for, in consequence of the expense of the canal 
having so far exceeded the original estimates, 
it became necessary, in order to liquidate the 
debt of the company, to allocate on each share 
the sum of L. 46 ; and till this sum is paid, the 
shareholders can receive no dividends, but any 
dividends that may be payable, must be placed 
to their allocation account with the company. 
Now, when the dividends may amount to L.46 
no man can tell ; not, perhaps, for twenty or 
thirty years to come. Such are the miserable 
results of the splendid promises held out by Mr. 
JBaird and the Projectors of the Edinburgh and 
Glasgow Union Canal." Bad as are the pros- 
pects of this unfortunate undertaking, they will 
assuredly be much worse, should a railway be 
laid down between Edinburgh and Glasgow, 
and such is likely soon to be accomplished, 
when the revenue drawn from passengers and 
all light goods will be totally withdrawn. Some 
farther particulars regarding the Union Canal 
are given in our article Edinburgh. 

parish on the north-eastern point of the coun- 
ty of Caithness, where the sea-boundaries are 
the Pentland Firth and the German Ocean, 
and those by land the parishes of Bower, 01- 
rick, and Dunnet. Duncansby-head is in this 
parish, and here, as in most parts, the coast 
is bold and precipitous. The interior is flat- 
tish, and consists of green fields, which are re- 
freshed by showws of spray from the raging 
seas around. The celebrated John o' Groat's 
House is situated in the parish of Cannisbay ; 
and the opposite island of Stroma also belongs 
to it. The sand of the tshores is of the purest 
white, and the beauty of the beach is enhanc- 
ed by the quantity of white bleached shells 
lying in the utmost profusion. In the interior 
stands Brabster Castle, the residence of the 

Sinclairs of Brabster. Barrogil Castle, a 
seat of the Earl of Caithness, an old venerable 
pile, stands on the north-eastern shores of the 
Pentland Firth. The only other residence of 
note is Freswick, an elegant modern mansion, 
which is situated on the east coast betwixt 
Freswick Hill and Freswick Bay. The re- 
mains of several ancient strongholds are ex- 
tant on different headlands Population in 

1821, 2128. 

CANNA, one of the western islands, 
lying about three miles to the north-west of 
Rum, and forming one of the four islands 
constituting the parish of Small Isles, county 
of Argyle. Canna is nearly four miles long 
by one in breadth, and produces excellent pas- 
ture for black cattle. A short way from it on 
the south-east lies the small fertile isle of 
Sandy or Sand, a name belonging to some 
other islands in the west, which can be ap- 
proached by land from Canna at low water. 
Part of the shores of Canna is composed of 
basaltic pillars, and one of its highest eminen- 
ces exercises a wonderful influence on the 
compass of the mariner when brought near it, 
by reversing its poles and rendering it useless 
for the time. 

CANNICH, a tributary stream of the riv- 
er Beauly, Inverness-shire which it joins at 
Erchless Castle. 

CANNOR, or KANNOR, (Loch) a 
small lake of three miles in circumference in 
the northern Highlands of Marr, Aberdeen- 
shire, parish of Glenmuick, in which are sev- 
eral islands, on one of which are the ruins of 
a castle supposed to have been once the re- 
sidence of Malcolm Canmore. 

CANNOBY, or CANNOBIE, a parish 
on the borders of Dumfries-shire, bounded on 
the south-east by the Liddel, which divides it 
from Cumberland, and intersected by the Esk 
river. On the north it is bounded by Lang- 
holm. In length it is nine miles, and in breadth 
six. Excepting the beautiful and fertile haughs 
on the banks of the Esk, the parish is very 
uneven in its surface. The country here is 
rich and variegated with woody hills, pastoral 
scenes, and verdant fields ; and it is altogether 
one of the most lovely districts in Scotland, 
The great road to the south by Carlisle passes 
down the Esk in this quarter. Freestone, 
limestone, and coal are here found in abun- 
dance. The Duke of Buccleugh is the prin- 
cipal proprietor. The village of Caarj3>by 



stands pn the west side of the Esk by the 
roadside, and with its handsome new church 
on the opposite side of the river, and the vari- 
ous elegant villas scattered among gardens and 
shrubberies, forms a prospect of the most pleas- 
ing kind. In the reign of David I., one Tur- 
got de Rossedal, who then occupied the dis- 
trict on the lower Esk, founded a religious 
house here for canons-regular. He placed the 
monastery on the peninsula, which is formed 
by the junction of the rivers Liddel and Esk, 
and granted to it the adjoining lands, with the 
church of Kirk Andrews, and its pertinents. 
He afterwards granted the establishment to 
the monks of Jedburgh. At this period, and 
in later times, this house was called domus de 
religiosis de Liddal. In the course of time, 
however, it obtained the name of Canonby, the 
Canons' residence, which it subsequently com- 
municated to the parish church. For several 
centuries, this comfortable little priory formed 
an excellent and easy object of plunder to 
border marauders. In 1533, Henry VIII. 
claimed this monastery as having belonged to 
England of old, and on this false plea ordered 
an inroad to be made into Scotland. Having 
on this occasion somehow escaped the Eng- 
lish sovereign, who would have doubtless soon 
expelled its pious inmates, and secured their 
revenues, in eleven years afterwards it was de- 
stroyed by the English forces on the scandal- 
ous rout of the Scottish army at Solway Moss. 
Some remains of this canonry are still to be 
traced at Halgreen. The church of Canno- 
by was also destroyed on the above occasion. 
Some years ago, the Chrismatory,' a piece 
of very grotesque sculpture, was dug up 

in the church-yard Population in 1821, 


CANONGATE, a burgh of regality, con- 
nected with the city of Edinburgh, of which 
it forms a part. See Edinburgh. 

CANONMILLS, a squalid village con- 
nected with a series of flour mills, on the low 
ground at the north side of the New Town 
of Edinburgh, on the Water of Leith, from 
which a power for the machinery is derived. 
This little hamlet, which formerly stood at a 
considerable distance from the city, is now sur- 
prised in its solitude by the approach of new 
streets, which threaten speedily to overwhelm 
it. One road from Edinburgh to Newhaven 
passes through it. The place derives its name 
from the circumstance of the mills having 

once belonged to the canons of the Abbey of 

CANSEA, o* CANSIE, a small village 
on the Morayshire coast, a little way east of 
Brough Head, parish of Drainey. 

CANTIRE, or KINTYRE, a long pen- 
insula protruded southwards into the Irish sea, 
from the western side of Argyleshire. The 
upper part of the peninsula is called Knap- 
dale, and Cantire properly begins at the long 
narrow inlet, which almost cuts the peninsula 
in two, only leaving a small neck of land, 
called Tarbart, or the boat-carrying place. 
From thence to the southern extremity, the 
district of Cantire measures forty miles, and 
its breadth is, with little variation, about six 
miles. The word Cantire is from the Gaelic 
compound, signifying " the head of the land ;" 
and its southern point, which is called the Mull 
of Cantire, implies, " the bald head of the land." 
It was the country of the Epidii of the Ro- 
mans, and the Mull was called by them Epidii 
Promontorium. It is understood to have been 
the first conquest of the Scots on their inva- 
sion of North Britain from Ireland. For seve- 
ral centuries this stripe of land was deemed part 
of the possessions of the Macdonalds, Lords of 
the Isles, who, to constitute it an island, and con- 
sequently under their sway, in 1193 had a boat 
with its sails up, dragged across the isthmus at 
Tarbart — hence its name. These Macdon- 
alds were often at feud with the King of Scot- 
land, and the latter endeavoured to seize Can- 
tire, so as to overawe them, by building a for- 
tress at Campbelltown ; but this and all other 
attempts were fruitless on account of the weak- 
ness of the royal authority, till at length 
James V. granted the peninsula to the family 
of Argyle, in order that the latter might expel 
and punish the Macdonalds, a measure they 
soon accomplished. The Scottish Estates 
afterwards confirmed the grant, and since that 
period, Cantire has been one of the lordships 
of Argyle. The district of Cantire consists 
of a series of swelling low hills, covered with 
heath. The low grounds are bleak and rushy ; 
and there are few enclosures, except about 
Campbelltown. From Campbelltown loch to 
the opposite shore the land is low and marshy ; 
and it is not improbable that the ground here 
is entirely alluvial, as it has all that appearance, 
and is not more than forty feet above the level 
of the sea. From the ravines among the hills, 
several burns trickle down into the sea. The 



southern part of the peninsula constitutes the 
parish of Southend ; after which is the parish 
of Campbelltown. The island of Sanda, and 
two small sheep islands, lie off the promontory 
on the south-east side. On its west quarter 
lies the island of Gigha. The Mull is dis- 
tinguished by a light-house, erected in 1 788. 
It is situated immediately above the rocks 
known to mariners by the name of The Mer- 
chants, in lat. 55° 17', and long. 5° 42' west 
of London ; the eastern entrance to the Sound 
of Isla, bearing from the light-house, by com- 
pass, N. by E., distant 33 miles; the Mull of 
Rinho, in the island of Isla, N. N.W., distant 
25 miles ; and the northern extremity of Rath- 
lin Island, on the coast of Ireland, N. W. 4 W., 
distant 13 miles; the Maiden Rocks, S. by 
W. £ W., distant 21 miles ; and Copland 
Light-house, S. by W. 5 W., distant 40 miles. 
The light-room is elevated 240 feet above the 
medium level of the sea, and will be seen from 
N. N.E. to S. by W., and all intermediate 
points of the compass north of these points. 
The light is exhibited from the going away of 
daylight till its return. The shore here is 
bold and rocky. In various parts the sea has 
washed away the rocks into caverns, which are 
dry at low water. Others of these caves are 
always dry, and one or two appear as if they 
had been the cells of hermits, from the re- 
mains of building and carving on stones. In 
some may be seen the still more melancholy 
sight of the mouldering bones of persons 
who have been wrecked on the coast, and 
carried by the waves into these dismal re- 

CAPE DIFFICULTY, the headland on 
the south side of the Sound of Taransay, west 
shore of Harris. 

CAPE WRATH, or RATH, a bold and 
dangerous headland on the north-west corner 
of Sutherlandshire, lat. 58° 36' 30", long. 4° 
56' west of Greenock. Cape Wrath stands 
boldly out into the waves, as if separated from 
the shore ; a towering and noble pyramid of 
rocks, three hundred feet or more in height. 
The headland is now distinguished by a light- 

CAPUTH, a parish lying in the valley of 
Stormont, (part of the extensive vale of Strath- 
more,) Perthshire, through which it stretches 
for thirteen miles, varying in breadth from one 
to six miles. It lies principally on the north 

bank of the Tay, opposite Auchtergaven j 
having Blairgowrie on the north. There are 
some small villages in the parish. Besides 
the Tay, the land is watered by the Isla, and 
the water of Lunan. There are some small 
patches of land in different parts of Perth and 
Forfarshire belonging to this parish Popula- 
tion in 1821, 2348. 

CARR ROCK, (The) a reef of sunken 
rocks, which appear at low water, extending 
about a mile and three quarters from the shore 
of Fifeness, on the northern side of the en- 
trance of the Firth of Forth. For many 
years the propriety of having some distinguish- 
ing mark on this turning point of northern 
bound shipping from the firth was earnestly 
represented by mariners. From a calcula- 
tion made in 1809, it appeared that from 1802 
to that period no fewer than sixteen vessels 
had been lost or stranded on this dangerous 
reef; being at the rate of two wrecks in the. 
year. Under these circumstances, the light- 
house board was induced to erect a beacon of 
masonry on the rock. The rearing of this 
sea-mark was a business of great difficulty. 
The length of the reef from south to north 
measures 75 feet ; but its greatest breadth, as 
seen at low water of spring tides, being only 
23 feet, it was found impracticable to obtain a 
base for a building of greater diameter than 18 
feet. From the rugged nature of the rock 
and other circumstances a moveable cofferdam 
had to be used. The work of building a 
base of masonry occupied several years, so diffi- 
cult was the undertaking, and so much and so 
repeatedly were the works injured by gales. 
When completed in 1818, after six years la- 
bour, the beacon was of this formation : The 
lower part is a circular building of masonry, 
18 feet in diameter, from the top of which 
spring six pillars of cast-iron, terminating in a 
point, with a hollow ball of that metal, which 
measures three feet across, and is elevated 23 
feet above the medium level of the sea. It 
stands in lat. 56° 17', and long. 2° 35' west 
of London ; bearing by compass S. W. by W. 
from the Bell Rock, distant 1 1 miles ; and 
from the Isle of May light-house N. N. E. 4. 
E. distant 6 miles. The works here cost al- 
together about L.5000. 

CARA, a high rocky islet of about a mile 
in length, lying off the south point of Gigha, 
near the west side of Cantire. At the north- 



em end there is a precipitous cliff, rising 167 
feet in height. The shore is indented with 
caves. The interior is pastoral. 

parish in Forfarshire, extending three miles in 
length hy one in breadth, lying betwixt Bre- 
chin and Tannadice, on the north bank of the 
South Esk, and of the Noran Water. The 
land is composed of beautiful well cultivated 
braes, sloping to the south, with various plan- 
tations.— Population in 1821, 240. 

CARBERRY HILL, a hill rising to no 
great height, now partly cultivated and planted, 
to the south-east of Musselburgh, about seven 
miles from Edinburgh. On this eminence 
Mary Queen of Scots delivered herself up to 
Kirkaldy of Grange and Morton, prior to her 
imprisonment in Lochleven Castle. 

CARDROSS, a parish in Dumbartonshire, 
lying on the north shore of the Clyde, and di- 
vided from Dumbarton by the river Leven. 
On the west it is bounded by the parish of 
Rew or Row. The situation of the parish is 
excellent. The land rises gently from the 
edge of the Clyde for two miles, and is beau- 
tifully cidtivated and planted, with an exposure 
to the south and the bosom of the Clyde, here 
a noble river. This district is very populous 
on account of the number of printfields on the 
Leven, and the trading character of the neigh- 
bourhood. The village of Renton, rapidly in- 
creasing in size, is situated on the road on the 
west bank of the Leven. In the immediate 
neighbourhood of this place is the old man- 
sion-house of Dalquhurn, in which Tobias 
Smollett was born ; not in Bonhill House, on 
the opposite side of the Leven, as has gener- 
ally been represented. The village of Card- 
ross lies on the shore of the Clyde, four and 
a half miles east of the fashionable sea-bathing 
town of Helensburgh. It faces Port Glasgow 
on the opposite coast. Prior to the Reformation 
the church of Cardross was a rectory belong- 
ing to the cathedral of Glasgow, and was serv- 
ed by a vicar pensioner. It appears that it 
was then so poor a living that it did not yield 
L.10 a-year. The old church stood on a 
peninsular promontory formed by the Leven 
and Clyde. The name signifies " the Castle 
on the promontory." Henry, a son of John 
sixth Earl of Mar, was created Lord Cardross 
at the beginning of the seventeenth century; 
but the title was afterwards superceded by that 

of Earl of Buchan, which the family now bears, 
— Popidation in 1821, 3105. 

CARESTON See Caraldston. 

CARGILL, a parish lying on the east bank 
of the Tay and south bank of the Isla, in 
Perthshire, with the parish of Cupar- Angus, 
on the east, and St. Martin's on the south. At 
a former period it was called the West Parish 
of Cupar- Angus. The village of Cargill lies 
on the Tay about a mile below the junction 
with the Isla. The district exhibits a surface 
richly diversified with wood and water, and 
variegated by ascents and declivities. It rises 
gradually from the Tay till it reaches a 
plain of two miles in breadth, which with 
some unevenness it preserves till it comes to 
the Sidlaw Hills. Excepting the woodlands, it 
is nearly all under the best state of cultivation. 
The air here is extremely pure and salubrious. 
The Tay falls over a rugged basaltic dike, 
which crosses the water at this place, and the 
cascade is called the Linn of Campsie. Great 
quantities of salmon are annually caught in 
the rivers in this quarter. The manufactur- 
ing and bleaching of linen occupy the atten- 
tion of a great number of hands. There are 
two or three small villages of no note. — Popu- 
lation in 1821, 1617. 

CARITY, a tributary rivulet of the South 
Esk, Forfarshire, rising in the western up- 
lands of the comity, in the parish of Len- 

CARLETON HILL, a very conspicu- 
ous hill on the Ayrshire coast, near Col- 
monell, rising to an elevation of 1554 feet 
above the level of the sea, which washes its 

CARLIN SKERRY, an insulated dan- 
gerous rock in Scalpa Flow, off the south 
end of Pomona, Orkney, marked in the maps 
under the title of the Barrel of Butter. 

CARLINWARK LOCH, a small lake, 
much reduced in dimensions by draining, par- 
ish of Kelton, beside Castle Douglas, stewartry 
of Kirkcudbright. 

CARLOPS, a village within the northern 
verge of Peebles-shire, on the road from Edin- 
burgh to Dumfries, at the distance of about 
fourteen miles from the former. It originated 
in the year 1784, and takes its name from some 
localities in the neighbourhood, called Carting's 
Lowps, in allusion to a witch or carling, who 
once lived and " kept the countiy side in fear" 

C A R L K E. 


in those parts, and whose traditionary charac- 
ter is said to have furnished to Ramsay the 
idea of Manse in his Gentle Shepherd, a pas- 
toral whose scenery is in the vicinity. 

CARLUKE, a parish in Lanarkshire, 
lying on the north-east bank of the Clyde, 
immediately below Lanark, with Cambus- 
nethan on its northern boundary. It extends 
four and a half miles in breadth, to the verge 
of the county, a distance of seven miles. The 
lower parts near the Clyde are rich and arable ; 
higher up the land grows poor, and is latterly 
wild. Close by the Clyde there are exten- 
sive orchards, as is the case in the adjacent 
country, and apples and pears are produced 
in great profusion. The remains of ancient 
buildings are extant, as "well as the vestiges of 
a Roman road. The village or rather town 
of Carluke has rapidly increased in size within 
a short time. Its inhabitants are chiefly em- 
ployed in weaving cotton goods and stockings. 
It lies five and a half miles north-west of 
Lanark, and nineteen and a half from Glas- 
gow. Carluke derives its singular name from 
St. Luke, to whom its old parish church was 
dedicated. The adjunct car signifies a 
strength or castle. In the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries, the name of the parish 
was Eglis-Maol-luach, a Celtic appellation 
literally importing " the Church of the bald 
Luke." Maol, from being applied to a monk 
with a shaved head, has been given in a general 
sense to a saint. During the reign of 
Robert I., the barony of Carluke was in the 
crown ; and that prince granted the parish 
church to the monks of Kelso, who held it 
till the Reformation. The church had some 
valuable lands called Kirkstyle, which were 
afterwards created a barony by Charles II. 
Besides the church, there were two small 
chapels in the parish. The old church was 
ruinous before the Reformation, and another 
was built of substantial architecture. The 
parish at one time comprehended the lands of 
Moss-flat, which were detached from it and 
annexed to the parish of Carstairs. On the 
other hand the parish has been extended by an 
addition of the lands of Spitalshiels, which 
formerly belonged to the chapelryof St. Leon- 
ards in the parish of Lanark. — Population in 
1821, 2925. 

CARMICHAEL, a parish in the upper 
ward of Lanarkshire, five miles in length and 
from three to four in breadth, reaching from 

the high hill of Tinto to the Clyde, where 
that river is joined by the Douglas Water. It 
has Covington on the east. The country here 
begins to be beautiful and productive ; gradu- 
ally losing the wildness of the upper ward in 
the warmth and fertility of the middle. Coal 
is here prevalent. The late Earl of Hynd- 
ford, who was the principal landholder, did 
much to improve the district. The church 
and parish derive their names from Saint Mi- 
chael, the tutelar saint of the place. A spring 
of water which was consecrated to the saint, is 
still called St. Michael's Well. In some old 
records the name of the parish is sometimes 
Kirk- Michael. The territory of Carmichael, 
which adjoins to Douglasdale, was acquired by 
the family of Douglas about the reign of Ro- 
bert I. During the fourteenth century the 
lands were held, under the Douglasses, by a 
family who assumed the name of Carmichael 
from the appellation of the place. Sir James 
Carmichael was created Lord Carmichael, in 
1647 ; and his grandson, John Lord Carmi- 
chael, was created Earl of Hyndford, in 1701. 
Upon the death of the last Earl of Hyndford, 
without issue, in 1817, the estate of Car- 
michael, with the patronage of the church, 
went to Sir John Carmichael Anstruther, to 
whom they now belong. — Popidation in 1821, 

CARMUNNOCK, a parish in Lanark- 
shire, lying on the north-western confines of 
the county, on the east bank of the river 
White Cart, having Cambuslang on the east 
and Kilbride on the south. It is four miles 
in length by three in breadth. The ground is 
high, and is partly arable and partly pastoral. 
Castlemilk is in this parish. Some parts of 
the district, especially the banks of the Cart, 
which are now well wooded, are beautifid. 
During the reign of William the Lion, the 
lands of Carmunnock or Carmanoc were pos- 
sessed by Henry the son of Anselm de Car- 
manoc. Before the year 1189, this Henry 
granted the parish church and a portion of 
land in the same manor, with common pas- 
ture and other privileges, to the monks of 
Paisley, that they might " to the end of time 
pray for the souls of his father and mother ;" 
and he directed that when he and his wife 
died, the same religionists should have a third 
part of their goods. The church continued to 
belong to Paisley till the Reformation. — Po- 
pulation in 1821, 637. 



a village on the north bank of the Clyde, 
Lanarkshire, about four miles from Glasgow, 
erected in the last century for the residence of 
muslin weavers. 

CARMYLIE, a parish in the south-east- 
ern parts of Forfarshire, having the parishes 
of St. Vigeans and Arbirlot between it and 
the sea. It is a hilly and rather poor part of 
the shire, having a proportion of unproductive 
moss. In length it is four miles and in breadth 
three. Its great produce is pavement stones, 
which are exported in great quantities — Popu- 
lation in 1821, 1073. 

CARNBEE, a parish lying at the centre 
of that part of Fife which has St. Andrews 
Bay on the north, and the Firth of Forth on 
the south, having Kilrenny and Anstruther 
on the east, and Pittenweem on the south. 
It is nearly a square of four miles. The 
southern part consists of gently ascending 
fields, fertile and well cultivated, rising from 
the southern vale of Fife. At the back of 
the ridges which terminate the ascent, the 
ground is wild and declines into what is called 
the Moor of Carnbee. Many of the fields 
are occupied for the grazing of cattle. Castle 
Kellie, once the residence of the Earls of 
Kellie, stands in this parish, and occupies an 
exceedingly romantic and beautiful situation, 
on a rocky and wooded promontory on the 
north side of the above vale. Coal abounds 
in the district — Population in 1821, 1048. 

and small islet in the Treshinish cluster, off 
the west "coast of Mull. 

CARNOCK, a parish about three miles 
square, lying in the south-western parts of 
Fife, to the north-west of Dunfermline, and 
north of Torryburn, both of which separate 
it from the Firth of Forth. It has Saline on 
the north, and Culross on the west. Like 
other parts in this quarter of Fife, the ground 
is swelling and hilly, but highly productive, 
and affording excellent pasture. The lands 
are well protected by plantations. Carnock 
and Caimeyhill are the only two villages in 
the parish ; the former is pleasantly situated 
on a rivulet of the same name. Coal is ex- 
ceedingly abundant in the district. Tbis pa- 
rish has the honour of having produced John 
Erskine, Esq., author of the valuable work 
entitled the Institutes of the Law of Scot- 
land—Population in 1821, 1136. 

CARNWATH, a parish in Lanarkshire, 
lying about the middle of the county on the 
east side, stretching from the banks of the 
Clyde, in a northerly direction, to the borders 
of the county of Edinburgh, where it is joined 
by West Calder. It has Carstairs on the west, 
Dunsyre on the east, and Pettinain on the 
south. In extent it is twelve miles long by 
eight broad. The greater part of this parish 
is of a bleak moorland character. On the 
banks of the Clyde the land is more sheltered, 
and good. The Medwin, the Dippool, 
and other small trouting waters, fall into 
the Clyde in this quarter, and about a mile 
north-west of Carnwath, there is a small lake, 
in which perch are found. The village of 
Carnwath lies on the main road from Edin- 
burgh to Lanark, twenty-five miles from the 
former, and six from the latter. It was for- 
merly a curious old-fashioned piace, composed 
of thatched cottages, all arranged in an awk- 
ward manner. It is now a clean little town, 
or double line of neat stone and slated cotta- 
ges, stretching half a mile in length. Near the 
centre of the town is the tolbooth, a plain old 
building, in front of which is the cross, an obe- 
lisk, upon which the distances from Edin- 
burgh to various places in Clydesdale and 
Ayrshire are distinctly marked. The church 
is a new erection, and stands at the west end 
of the town, contiguous to a fragment of the 
former edifice, which, prior to the Reforma- 
tion, belonged to the cathedral of Glasgow, in 
virtue of a grant of Lord Somerville, and was 
the appropriate benefice of the bishop's trea- 
surer. The cure was served by a vicar pen- 
sioner. Near the church there is a large se- 
pulchral tumulus, now a knoll covered with 
firs, which, doubtless, gave the name to the 
district, which imports the "cairn of the battle." 
The manor of Carnwath was granted by Da- 
vid I. to William de Somerville, who died 
during the reign of Malcolm IV., and was 
succeeded by his son of the same name, the 
person who built and granted away the church. 
The family of Somerville was raised to a lord- 
ship in 1430, and continued proprietors of the 
barony till 1603, when it was sold to the Earl 
of Mar. This nobleman, in 1617, gave it to 
his son, James Erskine, the Earl of Buchan. 
In 1634, he sold it to Robert Lord Dalzell, 
who was created Earl of Carnwath, in 1 639. 
His great-grandson James, the fourth earl, 
sold the property to Sir George Lockhart, the 

C A R R O N. 


lord president of the Court of Session, who was 
assassinated, 1689, and whose descendants in- 
herit the harony and the patronage of the 
church. The title of Earl of Carnwath was at- 
tainted by the accession of Sir Robert Dalzell, 
sixth earl, to the rebellion of 1715. He was 
brought a prisoner from Preston in Lancashire, 
to London, and was condemned to be execut- 
ed, but his life was afterwards spared. The 
title was restored in 1826. A remaining frag- 
ment of the old church is now used as a se- 
pulchral aisle by the Lockharts of Lee. It 
contains, at the same time, the bones of the 
former lords of the manor, the Somervilles, 
and a tomb in which a Lord Somerville is re- 
presented lying in complete armour, along with 
a figure of his wife, in the complete costume 
of the fifteenth century. About a mile to the 
north-west of Carnwath are the ruins of Cow- 
dailly Castle, situated on a promontory of 
land projected into the morass. This was the 
seat of the Somervilles, who were frequently 
visited here by James IV., V., and VI. It 
is now a desolate ruin on the margin of that 
dismal district of country called Carnwath 
Muir, or more popularly the Lang Whang, 
which extends from Causeway-end in Lothian, 
to Carnwath, and by which the traveller from 
Edinburgh approaches this part of Clydes- 
dale. The modern village and iron-works of 
Wilsonton are in this quarter. Carnwath has 
a market on Friday, and three annual fairs. — 
Population in 1821, 2888. 

CARRICK, the southern district of Ayr- 
shire, having the central district of Kyle on the 
north, Kirkcudbright on the east, Wigtoun on 
the south, and the Irish sea on the west. It 
extends thirty-two miles in length, by twenty in 
breadth ; terminating in a point at Loch Ryan 
on the south. It is a wild, mountainous, and 
rude district. The Doon, which forms its 
eastern boundary, the Girvan, and the Stin- 
char, are its chief rivers, each having a great 
number of tributaries. The earldom of Car- 
rick came into the royal family by the mar- 
riage of Robert Bruce with the Countess of 
Carrick, and since that time it has been the 
patrimony of the eldest son of the king, who, 
as Prince of Scotland, enjoys the title of Earl 
of Carrick. — See Ayrshire. 

CARRIDEN, a parish in Linlithgowshire, 
lying on the south bank of the Firth of Forth, 
betwixt Abercorn on the east, and Borrows- 
townness on the west, with Linlithgow bound- 

ing it on the south. It is not more than two 
miles in length by one in breadth. It is all 
well enclosed and cultivated. Blackness and 
its castle, and the village of Grange-pans, be- 
sides that of Carriden, are in this parish. The 
manufacture of sea salt is here carried on to a 
considerable extent. The celebrated and un- 
fortunate Colonel James Gardiner was a na- 
tive of Carriden parish. During the middle 
ages, the name of the parish was Caer-Eden, 
which signifies, the " castle on the wing," or 
outwork, and from this circumstance it is un- 
derstood, that the first of the chain of Roman 
forts was here situated. The church of Car- 
riden was bestowed by William de Vipont, in 
the twelfth century, on the monks of Holy- 
rood. It afterwards was attached to the epis- 
copate of Edinburgh. — Population in 1821, 

parish in the southern part of the county of 
Edinburgh, lying on the descending braes which 
at their summit divide the district from the wilds 
of Peebles-shire. It is about three and a half 
miles long by two broad, having Cockpen on the 
north, and being well watered in the low grounds 
by the sinuosities of the South Esk. The 
village of Carrington is pleasantly situated on 
a high ground, nine and a half miles south-east 
of Edinburgh, and consists of a few houses and 
kirk. It is sometimes called Primrose, hav- 
ing been sold in the seventeenth century by the 
Earl of Dalhousie to Sir Archibald Primrose, 
the clerk of the privy council, afterwards Vis- 
count Primrose, and the progenitor of the 
Roseberry family. The purchaser gave it his 
own name, but it has never been generally 
used. Prior to the Reformation, this parish 
had the valuable peculiarity of being a rectory 

independent of any monastery -Population in 

1821, 550. 

CARRON, a river in Stirlingshire, render- 
ed classic by its connexion with incidents in 
Scottish history. It rises in the centre of 
Stirlingshire, from the Campsie hills, from the 
one side of which the waters flow westward 
to Loch Lomond and the Clyde, and from the 
other towards the Firth of Forth. The Car- 
ron is the principal stream following the latter 
course. It flows directly east, with various 
sinuosities, to the upper part of the south bank 
of the Firth, where it emerges from the cha- 
racter of a river. In its course it turns various 
mills, waters several bleachfields, supplies the 



iron-works of Carron with a profusion of water. 
The thriving sea-port of Grangemouth lies on 
its southern bank near its embochure, where the 
small river Grange and the Forth and Clyde 
Canal drop into it. It runs altogether about 
fourteen miles, and the country through which 
it passes is flat. No river in Britain has seen 
so many moving martial events take place in its 
neighbourhood. It assisted, along witb the 
wall of Antoninus, to restrain the northern 
barbarians, and a battle was fought near it, be- 
tween the Romans and the confederate army 
of the Scots and Picts, in the fifth century. 
Here are supposed to have taken place many 
of the incidents in Ossian. On the low ground, 
in 1298, was fought the bloody battle of Falkirk, 
in which Sir William "Wallace was defeated by 
Edward I. Not far distant from the same 
place, the second battle of Falkirk was fought 
in 1745, betwixt the insurgents under Prince 
Charles Edward and the troops of the family 
of Hanover, in which the latter were defeated. 
CARRON, a village at which the cele- 
brated iron-works are situated, lies in the 
parish of Larbert, on the low ground, on the 
north bank of the Carron river, about three 
miles from its mouth, and nearly two miles 
north of Falkirk. These works are the pro- 
perty of a chartered company, established in 
1760, with a capital of L. 150,000, divided into 
six hundred shares. They are employed in 
the smelting of iron ores, and the manufacture 
of all kinds of cast iron goods, whether for use 
in war or agriculture, domestic economy, or any 
other purpose. Cannon, mortars, howitzers, 
and carronades of every description, are here 
made in the greatest perfection. The car- 
ronade so much used in warfare, was first made 
here, from which it derived its name. Shot 
and shells of every sort and size are also made. 
These are manufactured not only for the ser- 
vice of Great Britain, but for any other power; 
hence the Carron Foundry rivals those of Ger- 
many and Russia. For the conveyance of 
their goods, the Company have a cut or canal, 
on which lighters ply from the warehouses in 
the interior of the work, to their harbour 
at Grangemouth, where they are shipped for 
London. A rail-way runs from the works to 
the Forth and Clyde Canal, where the vessels 
are loaded for Glasgow, Liverpool, and places 
on the west coast. The company's vessels 
also act as general carriers in the London, 
Liverpool, Leith, and Glasgow trade, and from 
the superior outfit of those vessels, they share 

largely in the trade. The works consist of 
five blast or smelting furnaces, twenty air fur- 
naces, four cupola furnaces, mills for grinding 
fire-clay, and for grindingand glazing smoothing 
irons, stove metal, &c. Each of the furnaces has 
a large water wheel, which moves the blast ma- 
chinery. In the drought of summer, an engine is 
employed in lifting water to supply these wheels, 
at the rate of four and a half tons per stroke, 
or forty tons in the minute. Another engine of 
ninety horse power, constructed by Watt and 
Bolton, which goes incessantly night and day, 
is used entirely in the production of blast. A 
third steam-engine for the above purpose, is in 
the course of erection, which, for power and 
durability of materials, will excel any in the 
kingdom. There are mills for boring cylin- 
ders, pipes, &:c. the machinery of which is al- 
lowed to be the finest in Europe. Two forges 
are employed, the one in making blocks of 
malleable iron from old scraps, the other in 
forming these blocks into anvils, sugar-mill gud- 
geons, axles, anchors, &c. There is an abun- 
dant supply of water obtained from a dam, 
about two miles up the river ; another dam 
contiguous to the works, supplies the lifting 
engine, and the wheels in the lower part of 
the works. Altogether, the reservoirs will 
cover between two hundred and three hundred 
acres of ground. The establishment is like- 
wise fortunate, in being placed in the midstsof 
a country possessed of inexhaustible stores of 
iron-stone and coal, and so flat on the surface 
that rail-ways can be laid down at a trifling 
expense. Besides these qualifications, the 
country round is rich in every species of pro- 
duce, and able to support a dense population. 
Including those employed in the works, and 
those engaged in the mines and pits, with the 
individuals employed in the coasting and carry- 
ing trade, the whole will amount to between 
2000 and 3000 persons, who subsist directly 
by the works. To a stranger, the approach to 
the establishment from the north, in a calm 
night, is striking and terrible, from the illu- 
mination of the atmosphere, the noise of the 
weighty hammers resounding upon the anvils, 
the groaning of blast machines, and the reflec- 
tion of the flames in the reservoir which bounds 
the works on the north, as in a large mirror. 
The scene is much admired and often resort- 
ed to, in " the calm summer e'en," even by the 
local inhabitants. The reflection of the fur- 
naces on the sky, in a cloudy night, is seen 
at an immense distance. Many people of dis- 

C "A R R O N. 


tinction visit these works ; but, in general, the 
utmost care is taken to oppose the intrusion 
of any person who might he supposed anxious 
to possess himself of any of the secrets of the 
work. It will be remembered, that Burns, 
and a travelling companion, were refused ad- 
mittance ; on which occasion he relieved his 
angry feelings, by writing the following im- 
promptu on the window of the adjacent inn : 

"We cam na here to see your warks, 

In hopes to be mair wise ; 
But only, if we gaed to Hell, 

It might be nae surprise. 

" But when we tirled at your pin, 

Your porter dought na hear us ; 
Sae may, when we to hell's yett come, 

Your billy Satan set" us." 

CARRON, a rivulet towards the western 
parts of Dumfries-shire, falling from the heights 
dividing the comity from Lanarkshire, and run- 
ning through the parish of Durisdeer to the 

CARRON, a stream in the south-west 
corner of Ross-shire, flowing in a south- 
westerly direction through a chain of small 
lakes till it falls into a long and spacious arm 
of the sea called Loch Carron. These waters 
abound in salmon. A considerable village 
called Jean Town has been recently erected on 
the northern shore of Loch Carron. 

CARRON, a small river in Kincardine- 
shire, flowing eastwards to the sea at Stone- 
haven, where it forms the harbour of that 

CARSE, a word signifying " a flat piece of 
ground," and which has been popularly and 
specially applied to three several tracts of 
country in Scotland, namely, the Carse of Fal- 
kirk, the Carse of Stirling, and the Carse of 
Gowrie. "We shall first notice the boundaries 
of these districts, and then say a word on their 
nature and origin. 

flat tract of land which stretches for nearly ten 
miles in a westerly direction, from about Bor- 
rowstownness to Airth, along the south shore 
of the Firth of Forth. Its breadth varies from 
one to two miles. On the margin of the sea 
the land is rich and productive, and rises on 
the south in well cultivated acclivities. Below 
Falkirk the vale is at its broadest, and it is 
here watered by the placid waters of the river 

tiful tract of flat land, in which there are onlv 

a few abrupt eminences, is in some measure a 
continuation westward of the Carse of Falkirk, 
and stretches from the Devon on the north side 
of the Forth, on both banks of that river, to be- 
yond Stirling, near which town it is at its broad- 
est. In the centre it is penetrated by the wind- 
ings of the Forth, and its ample bounds of several 
miles in length are hemmed in only by the cir- 
cumjacent frontiers of the Highland hills. This 
carse is in a fine state of cultivation, and sur- 
passes that of Falkirk in rural beauty. 

portion of the district of Gowrie in Perthshire, 
and consists of a rich level tract of ground on 
the north side of the Firth of Tay, from the 
neighbourhood of Dundee on the east till 
it rises into an eminence at the transition 
of the Tay to the character of a river. On 
the north side it is bounded by the range of 
Sidlaw Hills. It comprehends a breadth 
of from two to three miles by a length of fif- 
teen miles. It is celebrated for its rural love- 
liness, its fertility, and its high state of 
cultivation. To the south-west, on the oppo- 
site side of the Tay, there is a similar tract of 
land equally entitled to be called a Carse, but 
which receives the appellation of Strathearn, 
being the lower district of that extensive do- 

Modern investigation, assisted by the light 
of science, has discovered what was long a 
matter of justifiable conjecture, that these va- 
rious earses, or flat stretches of land, on the 
margins of great rivers, have been formed 
by the deposition of alluvial matter, and the 
capricious change of the water courses. By 
the discovery of the bones of large marine 
animals, imbedded many feet below the sur- 
face of the soil, it has been satisfactorily de- 
monstrated that such places must have 
been at one period, — and that an epoch long 
subsequent to the supposed general mixture at 
the deluge — within the flow of the sea. Some 
years ago the perfect skeleton of a whale was 
found at Airthrie in the Carse of Stirling 
many miles from the sea or the Firth of Forth, 
and a considerable distance from the present 
course of the river. Articles of artificial for- 
mation, such as anchors, have been from time 
to time exposed in the Carse of Falkirk, with- 
in the memory of men now alive, and many 
other circumstances prove that the whole of 
these two beautiful prairies have been gradual- 
ly formed from the alluvium of the adjacent 


C A R S E, 

stream. The very nature of the soils of these 
two carses is probative of the theory. The 
land is generally a reddish, or at least a colour- 
ed stiff clay, capable of producing certain kinds 
of crops in great abundance. The most re- 
markable changes in the physiognomy of the 
country have been produced in the Carse of 
Gowrie and Stratheam. Here the rivers Tay 
and Earn have doubtless altered their course, 
and circumscribed their limits in a number of 
ways. The traditions of the country people, 
although always suspicious, are generally wor- 
thy of some credit, especially when local ap- 
pearances give them countenance. It is a com- 
mon tradition that the Tay, instead of forming 
the southern boundary of the Carse of Gowrie, 
formerly bounded it on the north, running un- 
der the Sidlaw Hills, and it is related that rings 
for the tyingup of boats have been found attach- 
ed to the rocks near the supposed obsolete 
course. The usual tale is, that the Tay turned off 
from its present course about two miles below 
Perth, and, making the circuit described, fell 
into the Firth at the eastern extremity of the 
Carse ; the Earn occupied by itself the channel 
of the two (now) united rivers. They ran along 
all the way down the Carse, parallel to, and at 
no great distance from each other, winding 
round and almost isolating various rising 
grounds, which lay between them, and which, 
from that circumstance, were called Inches, or 
islands, as Inchira, Meginch, Inchmartin, Inch- 
michael, Inchture, and others. A countryman, 
having drawn a furrow with his plough from 
the Tay along a low field which he wished to 
irrigate, caused the whole river to take this 
direction, and to flow into the course of the 
Earn, leaving its former channel bare, and de- 
tracting from the Inches their pristine insular 
character. Another result has been, that the 
Tay now appears to flow into the Earn as a 
tributary, instead of sustaining its real charac- 
ter as a principal. Wild and improbable as 
this story may appear, it is borne partly out by 
local facts. It is the opinion of the present 
writers that the whole of that district of coun- 
try, or space forming the beds of the Tay and 
Earn, with the carses on their banks, from 
that part of the Tay where it becomes shallow, 
a few miles above Dundee, to the eminences 
which bound the carse of Stratheam on the 
west, was, at an early period, one immense 
lagoon, or jungle, such as is now seen on the 
continent of America, wherein was a trackless 

labyrinth of water courses, pools, brushwood 
and forest trees. How or when the aborigina/ 
forest disappeared, or the waters of the swamp 
betook themselves to defined channels, are ques- 
tions which no writer can answer. It is only 
a matter of certainty that the country continu 
ed in a condition far from reclaimed after the 
land became inhabited, because the etymologies 
of the names of places now in use are signifi- 
cant of the original nature of their respective 
localities. By these names we further discover 
that the district was the habitation of beasts ol 
prey and animals of the chase. Boars, wolves, 
and foxes, from such a deduction, must have 
been the common inhabitants of the thickets 
and wilds. It has been shown by the ingeni- 
ous naturalist, the Rev. Dr. Fleming of Flisk, 
that what is now the bed of the Tay was once 
a forest, and this is proved by the discovery of 
the roots of trees, still in their natural posi- 
tion, within low water-mark ; immense beds of 
clay, full of the leaves of fresh water plants ; 
also beds of peat, containing hazel nuts in great 
quantities ; deposits of shell-marl, and other 
remains equally significant. The process of 
forming dry arable land, out of the sludge of a 
shallow river, easily diverted from its course, 
has been pursued, first by Nature, and, in the 
second place, by Art. The cause of the wind- 
ings or links of the Forth may be referred to a 
something so trifling, that it is hardly worthy 
of belief. The fall of a tree has sent a stream 
in a new direction ; the slight opposition offer- 
ed by the edge of a stone, has directed the 
water into an opposite course. On a smaller 
scale, the whole operation may be seen in the 
case of a rivulet meandering through the bot- 
tom of a meadow. The growth of the land is 
likewise of no difficult solution. The grounds 
of the carse are the deposition of particles of 
earthy matter, washed down by the floods from 
the upper country, mingled with the residuum 
of forest trees and decayed vegetables. It is in- 
teresting to view the spectacle of the reclaim- 
ing of land from the Tay, now in operation, at 
the instance of both nature and art. This 
large and fine river is constantly bringing down 
from the recesses of the Highlands, an infini- 
tude of particles of sand or other matter, indi- 
vidually so small, that they cannot be seen by 
thenaked eye, and whose presence is only known 
by the colour they infuse in the water. These 
particles are not carried out to sea. They are 
arrested by the tides opposite the carse ground 

C A R S E. 


above noticed, and sinking to the bottom, they 
imperceptibly form a fine species of mire. In 
the course of time, this mire rises to the sur- 
face of the estuary. It is first left dry ut or- 
dinary high tides, and next becomes visible at 
the height of spring tides. For a very long 
while, it forms merely long bare reaches at low 
water, and at these ebbs of the tide, a person 
might, from appearances, be of opinion, that 
he could walk across the bed of the estuary 
with little difficulty. Floods and high impe- 
tuous tides, at last drift so much matter on 
these rising reaches and half-formed islets, that 
they remain, at all times, above water, and fin- 
ally, by the action of the winds in blowing 
thither the seeds of plants, or by other causes 
beyond the reach of human discovery, the land 
so formed is covered with a rich herbage, 
shrubs, plants of a various nature, and even 
trees. In the bed of the Tay there have risen, 
in this manner, Grange Island, Khind Island, 
Cairney Islands, Carpow Island, Chisbinny 
Island, and Mugdrum Island, and perhaps 
these islands may, at a future day, be joined 
to each other, or to the mainland on one 
side, so as to offer a complete specimen, in 
modern times, of the way in which the great 
body of the carses have sprung into existence. 
The ingenuity and wisdom of man are hasten- 
ing, though not with a very creditable rapidity, 
the extension of the dry land on the banks of 
the Tay, and gradually diminishing the unpro- 
fitable breadth of its channel. The work of 
creation is going on chiefly upon the Fife side, 
a short way below Newburgh. Rude piers or 
dikes are run out from the shore, to the length 
of a few yards, at certain distances from each 
other, and at every flux of the tide, a small por- 
tion of the mire is left betwixt them. Little 
by little, the margin of the land is protruded 
farther and farther into the water, and when it 
has reached the outer termination of the dikes, 
additional projections are made, and the same 
result follows of an increase of land. In this 
way many flat fertile fields have been added 
to this portion of Fife ; and, judging from a 
superficial calculation, it would seem to be no 
difficult matter to hem in the Tay to a narrow 
deep channel on the Perthshire side, thereby 
not only encreasing the quantity of productive 
land to a vast amount, but doing much for the 
benefit of navigation. An old writer on this 
part of Scotland, relates a circumstance, sig- 
nificant of the former maritime condition of 


Strathearn, and the superstitious feelings of 
the people. In this district, between the river 
Earn and the Ochils on the south, there is an 
elevation which receives the popular designa- 
tion of Ternave, a word, in all likelihood, de- 
duced from Terrae Navis, for the very good 
reason, that the hillock has the precise shape 
and appearance of a ship turned upside down. 
It seems, in fact, as if a ship had been laid on 
the ground with its keel uppermost, and then, 
by the caprice of an enchanter, changed to 
earth, with a coating of fine grass. The neigh- 
bouring inhabitants are not decidedly of opini- 
on that Ternave was ever a ship, which, like 
ordinary vessels, sailed upon the sea ; but they 
are firmly of belief that, whether an enchanted 
ship or not, there is something uncanny about 
it, and that it is under the special care of super- 
natural beings. To support such a position 
they give the following traditionary story. 
Many years ago, a poor man in the parish re- 
quired a few divots or turfs, to lay upon the 
" rigging" of his cottage, and having often re- 
marked the beauty and closeness of the sward 
of Ternave, he resolved, whatever might come 
of it, to cast from its surface the quantity of 
divots he required. Proceeding, therefore, with 
a spade suitable to his purpose, he soon arrived 
by the side of the hillock and commenced ope- 
rations. But, it is said, that he got no more 
than one incision made with impunity. From 
the opening beneath his spade, there issued 
the figure of an old man, dressed in the fashion 
of " ane auncient mariner," who, with violent 
gesticulations, motioned him to be gone, and 
forbade him ever again to attempt to injure the 
sides of his vessel, under a deadly penalty, and 
having done so, instantly disappeared within 
the opening of the half-lifted turf. It need 
scarcely be added, that the divot-caster requir- 
ed no second warning. He withdrew his 
spade in a qualm of terror and awe; and hav- 
ing come home and mentioned the circum- 
stance to his neighbours, from that day to this 
(continues the relator of the story,) no per- 
son in the parish, be the condition of the 
" rigging" what it may, has molested the en- 
chanted ship, or ruffled the beauty of its ver- 
dant covering. 

CARSPHAIRN, the most northerly and 
mountainous parish in the stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright, bounded on the south by Dairy and 
Kells. The aspect of the country here is as 
desolate as the wildest Highland tract. The 



clachan of Carsphairn consists "of a few scat- 
tered houses, with a kirk and modest white 
manse, and there is no other habitation ob- 
servable for ten miles around. — Population in 
1821, 474. 

CARS T AIRS, a parish in Lanarkshire, 
lying with a front to the north bank of the 
Clyde, and stretching for six miles to the bor- 
ders of the county of Edinburgh, betwixt Carn- 
wath on the east and Lanark on the west. It 
consists of a higher and lower district, divided 
by an elevated ridge. It is partly under culti- 
vation and partly pastoral. The village of 
Carstairs lies on the road from Edinburgh to 
Lanark, three miles east of the latter, and 
three west of Camwath. This parish was 
anciently a vicarage of the bishops of Glasgow, 
one of whom, after the demise of Alexander 
III. built a castle here, the vestiges of which 
are still observable near the village. The pa- 
rish has been augmented, since the Reforma- 
tion, by the annexation of the lands of Moss- 
flat Population in 1821, 937. 

CART, (BLACK) a river in the centre 
of Renfrewshire, rising in the loch of Castle 
Semple, and flowing in a north-easterly direc- 
tion till joined by the Gryfe Water on the 
left, shortly after which it falls into the Clyde 
at the same place as its twin river, the 

CART. (WHITE) This river runs 
double the length of the above. It rises at the 
very extreme south-east corner of the county 
of Renfrew, and pursues a zig- zag course, and 
enters the Clyde by the same embouchure as the 
Black Cart- To Paisley, which is situated 
on its left bank, it is navigable for vessels of 
about fifty or sixty tons, and further up it sup- 
plies water to a vast quantity of machinery and 
works of different lands. 

CARTLANE CRAGS, a rugged and 
bushy ravine in the immediate neighbourhood 
of Lanark, formed by the course of a little 
stream called the Mouse water, and in the re- 
cesses of which Sir William Wallace more 
than once took refuge while making reprisals 
on the English invaders under Edward. A 
particular cave is still shown, half-way up one 
of the banks, as a hiding-place of this illustri- 
ous personage. At the lower part, near the 
confluence of the Mouse with the Clyde, the 
road from Lanark to Glasgow passes over the 
profound chasm by a modern bridge, similar in 
construction to that of the Peaths in Berwick- 

CASSLY, a rivulet in the south-eastern 
part of Sutherlandshire, falling into the Bay of 
Tain or Dornoch firth. 

CASTLE DOUGLAS, a considerable 
village of modern growth in the parish of Kel- 
ton, Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, situated in a 
fertile district of the country, on the road from 
Portpatrick to Carlisle, and from Kirkcud- 
bright to Dumfries, at the distance of eighty- 
nine miles south- south- west of Edinburgh, 
eighteen west by south of Dumfries, and ten 
north-east of Kirkcudbright. Its name is de- 
rived from Threave castle, the ruins of which 
stronghold of the Dougias family stand on the 
south-west of the town. Prior to 1792 it 
was called Carlinwark, from a lake in the vici- 
nity, when it was erected into a burgh of ba- 
rony by the proprietor under its present title. 
Since that period it has gradually increased, 
and is now in a thriving condition, with an im- 
proved burgal jurisdiction. It consists of one 
principal street lying along the public road, 
and some back streets, composed of good hou- 
ses, and laid out in a neat manner. It has a' 
modern town-house, and other public build- 
ings. Lately its consequence has been in- 
creased by the transfer of the famous Kelton 
hill annual fair to its bounds. The town has 
a post office, one native bank, two branch 
banks, and a large grain market every Monday. 
The loch of Carlinwark is now connected by 
an artificial canal with the river Dee, and since 
this was done its dimensions have been much 
limited, though still extending to about a mile 
in length. It contains abundance of perch and 
pike, and has yielded a considerable quantity 
of shell marie. There is a meeting-house in 
the town. 

narrow lake in the southern border of Ren- 
frewshire, parish of Lochwinnoch, chiefly 
formed by the influx of the river Calder, 
which is principally an evacuation of Kilbirnie 
Loch, situated farther to the south. The 
waters of Castle Semple Loch, flow from its 
north end, and form the river Black Cart, a 
tributary of the Clyde. The banks of the 
lake are now beautifully wooded in some 
places, and it contains a small island on which 
stand the ruins of a castle, or old peel house. 
Of late the lake has been very much diminish- 
ed by draining, and about a third part of its 
former extent is now only flooded during win- 
ter; and produces fine grass crops in the sum- 



mer months. These improvements have been 
made for the greater part at the south end, 
and a great but very profitable outlay has here 
been made in banking its boundaries. 

CASTLETON, a neat and thriving vil- 
lage in Caithness, about five miles east of the 
town of Thurso. The prosperity of the vil- 
lage has of late been promoted from its prox- 
imity to Mr. Traill's extensive quarries of 
Castlehill, from whence large quantities of 
stone are now exported to London, Liverpool, 
Edinburgh, Glasgow, and other parts. This 
stone is remarkable for its strength, durability, 
and cleanliness as a paving material, and ob- 
tains the name of " Caithness Pavement." 

CASTLETOWN, the formal name of an 
extensive mountainous parish in Roxburgh- 
shire, which is more generally known under 
the popular and poetical title of Liddisdale, 
being simply the vale of the Liddal Water. 
The length of the parish is eighteen miles, by 
a breadth of fourteen. On the south-east it 
adjoins to England; on the north it is separat- 
ed from Tiviotdale by a long ridge of hills. 
This valley is the only part of the four south- 
ern counties of Berwick, Roxburgh, Selkirk, 
and Peebles, which does not send its streams 
to the German ocean. Liddle runs in a south- 
west direction, and falls into the Solway Firth. 
This stream is joined by several rivulets on 
either side ; the two principal of which are 
the Blackburn and Tinnis. On the south- 
east the boundary line with England is the 
Kershope Water, also a tributary. For se- 
veral centuries previous to the union of the 
crowns, this sequestered district of Scotland 
was the residence of a set of lawless tribes, 
who owned no allegiance to either country, but 
supported themselves chiefly by predatory in- 
cursions upon both. The principal races were 
the Elliots and Armstrongs, names intimately 
associated in a Scottish imagination with ideas 
of feud and spoil. The castles and peel houses 
in which the heads of the clans sheltered them- 
selves and stored their ill-got gains, are still 
seen in some parts of the country in a state of 
ruin ; while in other instances a green spot is 
only observed in their place, supplying a more 
luxuriant herbage to the peaceful sheep than 
the rest of the waste. The parish takes its 
name from a village which grew up beneath 
one of those strong-holds, but which has now 
fallen into decay. This castle, which was 
reared on the summit of a precipice, on the 

east bank of the Liddal, is understood to have 
been founded by Ranulph de Soulis, who re- 
moved hither from Northamptonshire in the 
time of David I. Besides the old church at 
the village of Castletown, which was dedicated 
to St. Martin, and was a vicarage of the priory 
of Jedburgh, the district now composing the 
parish had other two churches, with three 
chapels, and a monastery ; a fact which would 
lead us to suppose, that this desolate pastoral 
district was much more numerously peopled 
in the days of border warfare, than at present. 
In the south end of the dale at Ettleton, are 
still seen the ruins of one of the churches, 
around which is a burying-ground, still used, 
and which contains a great number of monu- 
ments, adorned with curious stiff carved figures 
in the dress of George the First's time. The 
remains of the other religious structures still 
stand in different remote parts of the parish, 
where almost the only living creature now to 
be seen is the sheep or crow. One of these 
churches is called the Wheel Church, from its 
proximity to the Roman way, which leads 
from Stanmore, and crosses the north-east 
corner of Liddisdale into Tiviotdale. This 
causeway received the name of the Wheel- 
road during the middle ages, when it was the 
only path in the district which could admit of 
the rolling of carrages on wheels. The most 
remarkable object in Liddisdale is the cele- 
brated Castle of Hermitage. This ruin raises 
its square, massive, stately form at the bot- 
tom of an extensive waste declining all round 
from the hills ; and the Hermitage Burn, 
which runs past it towards the Liddal, with 
its shining and noisy waters, is the only 
object of a lively nature in the whole of its 
bare and desolate vicinity. The fortress has 
been one of the largest on the border, and 
consists of a sort of double tower, with the 
remains of entrenchments and other fortifica- 
tions around. At a little distance is a desert- 
ed burying-ground, at one time distinguished 
by the baronial chapel. Hermitage Castle 
was erected in the thirteenth century by Co- 
myn, Earl of Monteath, and soon passed into 
the hands of the family of Soulis. It after- 
wards went, by forfeiture, into the possession 
of the Douglasses, whose representative, Arch- 
ibald, the sixth earl of Angus, exchanged it 
with Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, for the 
castle and lordship of that name in Clydes- 
dale. The possessions and title of the Hep- 



burns became the property of Francis Stewart, 
and on his forfeiture (See Bothvvell,) Her- 
mitage came into the Buccleugh family, who 
still retain it. The tradition of the country 
has loaded the memory of the Soulis family 
with many crimes ; and an idea prevails, that 
the ruin of the castle, oppressed, as it were, 
with a consciousness of the scenes of guilt 
transacted within its walls, is gradually sinking 
into the earth. They say that thirty feet of its 
original heightof ninety have already gone down, 
while thirty have fallen from the top, and only 
thirty now remain above the level of the ground. 
While Hermitage Castle was inhabited by 
Hepburn Earl of Bothwell, it was visited by 
Queen Mary, who, for that purpose, penetrat- 
ed the mountainous tract which lies between 
Tiviotdale and Liddisdale with a small band 
of attendants ; she returned on the same day to 
Jedburgh, whence she had set out in the morn- 
ing ; a journey of at least fifty miles, and ob- 
structed by every kind of local difficulty. 
Some miles to the south of Hermitage, Lid- 
disdale begins to be beautifully wooded, and to 
display every mark of cultivation. The coun- 
try has been much improved by the opening 
up of roads. In the centre of the lower and 
more arable part of the district, stands the 
large modern village of New Castleton, which 
has superseded the old parish village a little 
farther up the vale. It consists of two long 
streets of neat new houses, and occupies a 
haugh on the right bank of the Liddel, part of 
the possessions in former days of John Elliot 
of Park, the freebooter, who, by wounding 
Bothwell, caused Queen Mary to visit him at 
Hermitage Castle. The village owes its rise 
to Henry Duke of Buccleugh. It has no ma- 
nufacturing pursuits, and is not very prosper- 
ous. Every house has a small portion of land 
connected with it, a source of amusement and 
profit to the inhabitants. It is situated on the 
road which proceeds up Liddisdale, at the dis- 
tance of five miles east from Cannoby, twenty 
south from Hawick, and twenty- six from Jed- 
burgh. To the credit of the inhabitants they 
have two subscription libraries, and a friendly 
society. Three fairs or hiring days are held 
annually, which are well attended. Besides 
the parish kirk there is a dissenting meeting- 
house. — Population of the parish of Castle- 
town in 1821, 2038. 

small straggling village, scattered amidst rocks 

and rapid streamlets, lying In the wilds of 
Mar, in the south-west corner of Aberdeen 
shire, on the road which, after following the 
course of the Dee, turns southward to Fort 
George, and at the distance of fifty-seven miles 
west of Aberdeen. Within it are the remains 
of an old castle, said by tradition to have been 
founded by Malcolm Canmore, — a circum- 
stance much to be doubted from the appear- 
ance of its architecture. Near the village is 
the very picturesque castle of Braemar, once 
a seat of the Earl of Mar, and now a govern- 
ment station. The village has a large annual 
cattle market. 

CATERTHUN, a conspicuous hill in 
Forfarshire, standing nearly five miles north of 
Brechin, noted fcr the magnitude of the re- 
mains of ancient fortifications found on and 
round its summit. It is one of the many com- 
manding eminences which various antiqua- 
ries have conjectured to be the position of the 
Caledonians previous to their famous engage- 
ment with Agricola. 

CATHCART, (originally Caer Cart,— -the 
castle on the river Cart,) a parish partly in 
Lanarkshire, and partly in Renfrewshire, but 
principally in the latter, lying on the north and 
east side of the White Cart, as it turns west- 
ward towards Pollockshaws, bounded on the 
north by Govan, and Rutherglen, and on 
the east by Cambuslang. It is about six miles 
in length, by two and a half in breadth. Its 
surface is beautifully diversified with hill and 
dale, and nearly all under the best state of cul- 
tivation. The field of Langside, on which 
took place the final struggle betwixt Mary, 
Queen of Scots, and her subjects, and from 
which she fled to England, is in this parish. 
It is an eminence, within sight of Glasgow, 
rising gently from the neighbourhood of the 
Gorbals, on the south side of the Clyde, and 
declining more rapidly on the side next to 
Paisley. On the summit there is a small cir- 
cular camp, supposed to be of early formation, 
though incorrectly and vulgarly denominated 
Queen Mary's Camp. Murray the Regent, 
having drawn his forces from Glasgow, made 
a stand here, to intercept the Queen in her 
progress to Dumbarton ; when, a skirmish en- 
suing, her party, consisting chiefly of the Ha- 
miltons, was routed with considerable slaugh- 
ter. A place is yet pointed out, upon an op- 
posite eminence, fully in view of the field, and 
near the old castle of Cathcart, where Maiy 



stood till the affair was decided A hawthorn 
bush, commonly known by the name of " Queen 
Mary's Thorn," marked out the spot, till it 
decayed through age ; after which another was 
planted in its place, to preserve the memory of 
these circumstances. The old castle of Cath- 
cart, above alluded to, is a conspicuous ruin, 
situated on a commanding situation, with two 
sides defended by the Cart, to which there is 
an almost perpendicular descent of a tremend- 
ous depth. It belonged to the Lords Cath- 
cart, and was dismantled about eighty years 
since. This peerage was granted, in 1442, by 
James II., to Sir Allan Cathcart, a gentle- 
man of very ancient family Population of 

the parish in 1821, 2056. 

CATHEL, (LOCH) a small lake of 
about three miles long, in the parish of Hal- 
kirk, county of Caithness, abounding with a 
particular species of trout. It communicates 
its waters to the river of Thurso, which is 
emptied into Thurso Bay. 

trine (Loch.) 

C A TL AW, a conspicuous hill of the 
Grampians, in Forfarshire, elevated to a height 
of 2214 feet above the level of the sea. 

CATRAIL, a remarkable trench and wall 
formed by some of the earliest inhabitants of 
Scotland, along the centre of the border dis- 
trict, and probably intended to separate a na- 
tion occupying the counties of Berwickshire, 
Roxburghshire, &c, from one which possessed 
the more westerly district. Distinct traces of 
it are to be found from a spot near the junc- 
tion of the Gala and the Tweed, to the moun- 
tains of Cumberland. In construction, it is a 
ditch and rampart of irregular dimensions, 
supported by many hill forts and correspond- 
ing entrenchments, indicating the whole to 
have been an imitation of the fortified walls 
built across the island by Severus and Anto- 
ninus. Traces of it are chiefly to be found 
on the hills, over which it seems to have pass- 
ed in a straight line. A similar line of divi- 
sion, no doubt intended, like it, to preserve the 
interests of a rude tribe from some neighbour- 
ing one still more rude, extends in the same 
direction (north to south) along Berwickshire, 
and is called Harit's Dyke. Another is trac- 
ed between Portpatrick and a certain point in 

CATRINE, a village in the centre of 
Ayrshire, parish of Sorn, pleasantly situated 

on the north bank of the river Ayr, opposite 
Ballochmyle, by the proprietor of which estate, 
in partnership with the well-known David 
Dale of Glasgow, it was erected in the year 
1787, for the accommodation of working peo- 
ple, employed in the extensive cotton mills at 
the same time reared. It was constructed 
more in consonance with principles of expe- 
diency than of the picturesque. Its form is 
oblong, and consists of streets running parallel 
and at right angles with each other, with a 
square of 300 feet in the centre. It stands 
fourteen miles north-east by east of Ayr, 
thirty-two south of Glasgow, and twelve west 
of Muirkirk. The vast number of persons en- 
gaged here at the mills are under an excellent 
system of government, and are generally in 
comfortable circumstances. There are schools 
provided for boys and girls, Sunday-evening 
schools, and a good library. There is a 
chapel of ease, which is well attended. The 
population may amount to about 3000. 

CAVA, a small narrow oblong island in 
the entry to Scapa Flow from Kerston roads, 
two miles south of Pomona, Orkney, in the 
parish of Orphir. It is inhabited by two or 
three families. 

CAVERS, a large irregularly shaped pa- 
rish, lying on the east side of the Tiviot, 
Roxburghshire, twenty miles in extent from 
north to south, and from two to seven in 
breadth, having Castletown or Liddisdale on 
the south, and being chiefly the land lying be- 
twixt the Slitterick and Rule Waters. The 
upper end is hilly and pastoral, but the lower 
declines into rich arable fields. The only vil- 
lage in the parish is Denholm, which lies on 
the road between Jedburgh and Hawick, on 
the south bank of the Tiviot, five miles from 
each of the above towns- The principal estate 
in the district is Cavers, the property and resi- 
dence of James Douglas, Esq. the lineal de- 
scendant of the gallant chief of Otterbourne, 
and a gentleman distinguished for his benevo- 
lence and literary pursuits. At Carlinrig, in 
the upper district, there is a chapel of ease. 
—Population in 1821, 1504. 

CA VERTOWN, a small village in the pa- 
rish of Eckford, Roxburghshire, lying about 
five miles south from Kelso, where there is a 
moor on which the Kelso races are run an- 

CELLARDYKES, a fishing village to 
the east of Easter Anstruther. It has some 



tourgal privileges, and, with the adjacent town 
of Kilrenny, forms a burgh, which joins with 
Crail, the two Anstruthers, and Pittenweem 
in sending a member to parliament. 

CELLAR HEAD, a promontory near 
the north end of Lewis, on its east side. 

CERES, or CYRUS, an inland parish 
in Fife, having Cupar on the north, from which 
it is divided by the river Eden, Cameron on 
the east, Largo on the south, and Cults on the 
west- The surface is hilly, but in general it 
is subjected to agriculture. It is eight miles 
long and from one to four in breadth. There 
are some ancient ruins in the parish. The 
village of Ceres is considerable, and lies two 
and a half miles south-east of Cupar. It is 
supported chiefly by weaving. Besides the pa- 
rish church there are two dissenting meeting- 
houses. The old house of Scotstarvet, once the 
family residence of the Scotts, one of whom 
wrote that remarkable little work, the Stagger- 
ing State of Scots Statesmen, is within the 
parish of Ceres, and occupies a very con- 
spicuous situation on the top of the high 
grounds which bound the Howe of Fife 
on the east. It contains a museum of cu- 
riosities and antiquities. — Population in 1821, 

CESSFORD, a small village in the east- 
ern part of Roxburghshire, parish of Eckford, 
on the south side of the Kail Water. It is a 
barony of the Duke of Roxburgh. 

CHANNELKIRK, a parish in the upper 
part of Lauderdale, Berwickshire, of about five 
and a half miles in diameter. The country 
here is high, and of a bleak pastoral nature, and 
cultivation is only attended to in the low 
grounds. It is contiguous to Lauder on the 
east. The veiy small village of Channelkirk 
is the first inhabited place which the traveller 
meets after issuing from the Lammermuir 
range of hills, and descending southwards into 
the vale of the Leader. The word Channel- 
kirk is usually pronounced Jinglehirk, which in 
reality is as correct as the other, if the original 
name be consulted. In old records, the parish 
is called Chyldingchirche, which signifies " the 
chapel at the fort," and was doubtless given to 
distinguish the place of worship from other two 
chapels once in the district. The adjunct of 
chirche is pleonastic. The fort here meant 
was a Roman camp, the traces of which are 
still visible near the hamlet and church. — Po- 
pulation in 1821, 730. 

CH ANONRY, a village on the north shore, 
of the Moray Firth, near Fortrose, with which 
it is conjoined in burgal jurisdiction. It was 
anciently the seat of the Bishop of Ross, 
whence its name is derived. 

CHAPEL OF GARIOCH, a parish in 
the centre of Aberdeenshire, of eight miles in 
length by seven in breadth. The River Don 
divides it on the south from Kemnay, and the 
parishes of Rayne and Daviot bound it on the 
north. The ancient name of the district was 
Logie-Durno or Durnoch, which signifies a hol- 
low plain. The district is now well planted, 
and in some parts cultivated advantageously. 
Here was fought the celebrated battle of Har- 
law, in 1411, between Alexander Earl of Mar 
and Donald Lord of the Isles — Population in 
1821, 1616. 

CHARLESTOWN, asmall sea-port town 
on the north shore of the Firth of Forth, in 
the parish of Dunfermline, from which it is dis- 
tant three miles. It is the property of the Earl 
of Elgin, who reared it for the residence of 
workmen employed at his extensive lime-works 
in the neighbourhood. From hence enormous 
quantities of lime in stones and shells are ex- 
ported annually. 

small town in the parish of Aboyne, in Mar, 
Aberdeenshire, and a burgh of barony under the 
Earl of Aboyne. It stands thirty miles west 
of Aberdeen, on the north bank of the Dee. 

CHARLOTTE, (FORT) a small forti- 
fication on the mainland of Shetland, on Bres- 
say sound, close to Lerwick on the north, 
which it is designed to protect from foreign in- 
sult. It was originally built by Oliver Crom- 
well, and was made again defensible in 1781. 
It is now garrisoned by a single veteran. 

lar range of lofty hills, dividing the county of 
Roxburgh from Northumberland, one of which, 
about six miles to the south-east from Yetholm, 
is considered to be the chief. They are a very 
bold and sufficient dividing boundary of the two 
kingdoms, along the line of border from near 
the Tweed, westward to the opposite side of 
the island. Various roads have been made 
across them, the chief of which is over Carter 
Fell, above Jedburgh. They feed immense 
flocks of sheep of a particularly strong kind, 
known from thence as Cheviots. 

CHIRNSIDE, an inland parish in the east- 
ern part of the Merse, Berwickshire, lying on 



the north side of the Whitadder, bounded by 
Coldingbam on the north, and by Aytoun and 
Foidden on the east. Its length is four miles, 
and its breadth about three. Chirnside Hill 
is the only eminence in the parish. Nearly 
the whole of this district is richly cultivated, 
and in some places it is covered with beauti- 
ful plantations. The view from Chirnside 
Hill may match with any in Scotland, from 
the impression it conveys of rural wealth 
and comfort. The village of Chirnside, 
which is a burgh of barony, lies along the 
brow of the hill, at the distance of nine miles 
north-west of Berwick. It consists of two 
mean long streets. Besides the parish church, 
there is a dissenting meeting-house. Less than 
a mile to the west of the village is the pretty 
little village of Chimside-Bridge, where there is 
a good bridge across the Whitadder, and where 
a paper and lint-mill are established. — Popula- 
tion in 1821, 1189. 

the smallest and most insignificant county in 
Scotland, and its political distinction leads us 
to regret that a new and more convenient di- 
vision of districts is not instituted. Anciently 
the whole of that valuable territory lying be- 
twixt the Rivers Forth and Tay, and bounded 
on the north-west by the chain of the Ochil 
Hills, was called Ross, as being a sort of pe- 
ninsula, terminating at Stirling. In the course 
of time, the district of Ross was broken up in- 
to the shires of Fife, Kinross, and Clackman- 
nan, with the introduction of a slip of Perth- 
shire on the edge of the Forth, in which is si- 
tuated the town of Culross. The reason that 
a regular division did not take place can be re- 
ferred to the influence of political events and 
different circumstances now hid from our com- 
prehension. Clackmannanshire consists of a 
piece of ground nine miles in length by eight 
in breadth, with a flat or gently declining sur- 
face from the Ochils on the north, towards the 
Firth of Forth. The higher grounds are partly 
pastoral, but the whole of the lower parts ad- 
jacent to the Forth are rich, arable, and beau- 
tifully enclosed. Throughout the whole dis- 
trict there are numerous collieries. Ironstone 
is also abundant, and is wrought to advantage. 
Silver has likewise been found. The shire con- 
tains only four complete parishes and part of 
another. Its only towns are Alloa and Clack- 
mannan, the former of which has been selected 
by the sheriff as the situation of his court. On- 

ly one sheriff-depute is appointed to the two 
counties of Clackmannan and Kinross, but each 
has a resident sheriff-substitute. By the la- 
test county roll, Clackmannanshire has six- 
teen freeholders, who, alternately with those 
of Kinross-shire, send a member to parliament. 

The chief seats in the county are Shaw 
Park, Earl of Mansfield; Tullibody, Lord 
Abercromby ; Clackmannan House, Bruce of 
Kennet ; Alloa House, Earl of Mar. The chief 
height is Bencleugh, the summit of the Ochils, 
which is 2000 feet above the level of the sea. 
—Population in 1821,— Males, 6356, Fe- 
males, 6907; Total, 13,263. 

CLACKMANNAN, a parish in the fore- 
going shire, lying on the north shore of the 
Forth, of six miles in length by from two to 
five in breadth, having Dollar and Tillicoultry 
on the north, and Alloa on the west. It con- 
sists of the richest arable land in the shire, and 
is under the best state of cultivation. The 
greater part of it lies low. 

Clackmannan, the capital of the above 
shire and parish, is pleasantly situated on an 
eminence, gently rising out of a plain from 
east to west, to the height of 190 feet above 
the level of the Forth. It is a miserable 
town, not without some curious points. It 
consists of one long unpaved street, which runs 
up the acclivity to the gate of the park sur- 
rounding Clackmannan tower. In the middle 
stands the steeple, to which a jail was formerly 
attached. Since its removal, debtors and cri- 
minals are carried to Stirling, the prison of 
which town the shire partly sustains. At the 
east end of the site of the quondam prison of 
Clackmannan, there lies a huge, shapeless blue 
stone, which having been broken into three 
pieces, is now bound with iron. This is a sort 
of burgal palladium or charter-stone, like the 
Clachnacuden of Inverness, the privileges of the 
town being supposed to depend, in some mys- 
terious way, upon its existence, on which ac- 
count it is looked upon by the inhabitants with 
a high degree of veneration. Its legendary his- 
tory is curious. When king Robert Bruce 
was residing in Clackmannan tower, and before 
there was a town attached to that regal man- 
sion, he one day, in passing near this way on a 
journey, happened to stop a while at the stone, 
and, on going away, left his glove upon it. 
Not discovering his loss till he had proceeded 
about half a mile towards the south, he desired 
his servant to go back to the clack, (for king 



Robert seems to have usually spoken his na- 
tive Carrick Gaelic), and bring his mannan, or 
glove. The servant said, " If ye'll just look 
about ye here, I'll be back wi't directly," and 
accordingly soon returned with the missing ar- 
ticle. From this trivial circumstance arose 
the name of the town which was subsequently 
reared about the stone, as also that of a farm at 
the place where the king stopped, about half a 
mile south, on the way to Kincardine, which 
took its title from what the servant said, name- 
ly, Look about ye, and is so called at this day. 
It is customary for people visiting Clackman- 
nan to chip off a small piece of the stone 
whereon lay the glove of Bruce, and carry it 
away with them as a curiosity. The church 
of Clackmannan, situated a little to the south 
of the principal street, is a handsome modern 
structure in the Gothic taste, with an elegant 
tower, being from a design by Gillespie. 
Clackmannan tower, situated at the top of the 
hill, is a tall and impressive structure, though 
now deprived of its interesting appendage, the 
palace of Robert Bruce, and family house of 
Bruce of Clackmannan, as well as the gardens 
and shrubberies which once adorned the spot. 
The tower is unfurnished, and will probably 
soon go to decay on account of a dispute re- 
specting the property. — Popidation of town 
and parish in 1821, 4056. 

CLATT, a parish situated in the western 
extremity of the district of Garioch, Aberdeen- 
shire, and near the centre of the county. It 
lies high, is surrounded by a bleak hilly coun- 
try, and its climate is cold and searing. 
The village of Clatt is situated on the rivulet 
called the Gadie, which afterwards joins the 
Urie. The road traversing the shire from the 
Dee to Huntly passes through it, and it is dis- 
tant from the latter place ten miles. It is a 
burgh of barony, and is under the special pa- 
tronage of the Gordons of Knockespock. — 
Popidation in 1821, 551. 

CLAYHOLE, a small village suburban to 
Stranraer, at the head of Loch Ryan, Wigton- 

CLEISH, a parish in Kinross-shire lying 
on the descending braes from the range of low 
hills which bound the county on the south, 
extending six miles in length by about one in 
breadth. The uplands are pastoral and the 
lower grounds arable. The soil in general is 
of a middling quality. The parish contains 
four lakes among the hills, the largest about a 

mile and a half in circumference. The river 
Gairney is the boundary of the parish on the 
north, on the south it is bounded byBeath and 
Dunfermbne. Freestone is here found in 
great abundance. The remains of Roman 
forts on the hills are here common. The 
pretty church of Cleish, embowered in planta- 
tions, occupies a beautiful sequestered situa- 
tion at the north base of the hills, with an open 

exposure to the vale of Kinross Population 

in 1821, 564. 

CLEMENT'S WELLS, a small village 
within the western border of Haddingtonshire, 
lying on the brow of Carberry hill facing the 
firth of Forth, two miles south-east from Mus- 
selburgh ; here is one of the most extensive 
whisky distilleries in Scotland. 

CLIFTON, a small highland village in the 
western district of Braidalbane, Perthshire, 
near Tyndram. 

CLOSEBURN, an inland parish in Niths- 
dale, Dumfries-shire, having the Nith dividing 
it from Keir on the west, bounded by the 
heights of Lanarkshire on the north, by Kirk- 
patrick-juxta and Kirkmichael on the east, 
and Kirkmahoe on the south. It has incor- 
porated with it the parish of Dalgarno, and is 
about ten miles square. The lower grounds 
are well cultivated and planted. In the upper 
and eastern districts, which are hilly, the 
grounds are bleak, moorish, and pastoral. The 
origin of the word Closeburn is understood to 
be derived from Cella Osburni, or the cell of 
Osburn, the name by which the place was 
called in ancient times, from having had a 
saintly tenant of the name of Osburn. In the 
parish of Closeburn, there was formerly a. 
chapel, which was dedicated to St. Patrick, 
and which gives the name of Kirkpatrick to a 
farm, whereon stand its ruins. Dalgarnock 
derives its name from a word signifying the 
plain abounding in underwood. Besides the 
Nith, the parish is watered by several rivulets, 
the only one of which worthy of notice is Cri~ 
chup or Creekhope, which is remarkable for its 
irregular, romantic course, and for a cataract ot 
ninety feet, called Creekhope Linn, where the 
water seems to have sawed through a red 
freestone hill, and formed so strait a passage 
that a person could leap across it. Within its 
caverned recesses the hunted Covenanters 
used to take up their abode to evade pursuit j 
and it is undoubtedly the place alluded to by 
the author of Waveiley, in his description of 

C L U D E N. 


the cave occupied by Balfour of Burley. The 
remains of Closeburn Castle still exist. It 
was formerly the patrimonial property of the 
ancient family of Kirkpatrick. The parish of 
Closeburn is remarkably well supplied in 
scholastic education. A free school was most 
amply endowed, in 1723, by one John Wal- 
lace, a native of the parish, who had real- 
ized a fortune by mercantile pursuits in Glas- 
gow ; it is placed under the government of 
the presbytery of Penpont. Here all the 
children in the parish are taught the elements 
of education free of expense ; and the semin- 
ary has, in various respects, obtained no small 
celebrity in the country. There are several 
mineral springs in the parish. The chief pro- 
prietor has established some large lime-kilns, 
which have been of great benefit to the district. 
—Population in 1821, 1682. 

erected on a point of land on the south shore 
of the firth of Clyde in the county of Ren- 
frew, about five miles below the port of 
Greenock. The ligkt exhibited is stationary, 
and appears like a star of the first magnitude 
at the distance of three or four leagues, or less- 
er distances. 

CLOVA. See Cortachy. 

CLUNIE, (LOCH) a small lake in the 
middle of the western part of Inverness-shire, 
from which flows the river Moriston to Loch 

CLUDEN, a small river on the borders of 
Dumfries-shire and Galloway, rising from the 
Criffell mountains, and a tributary of the Nith, 
which it joins a short way below the ruins of 
the collegiate church of Lincluden. These, 
with the beautiful scenery amidst which they 
are placed, are by far the most attractive and 
interesting objects in the neighbourhood of 
Dumfries. Within these few years, the origi- 
nal buildings have been dreadfully dilapidated, 
and the richly ornamented tombs completely 
mutilated and destroyed. Enough remains to 
show that the whole had been reared in a style 
of exceeding splendoiu-, and enriched with 
much ornate decoration. At the Reforma- 
tion, the religious body, consisting of a pro- 
vost and twelve beadsmen, were turned adrift ; 
the endowments confiscated ; and the institu- 
tion converted into a temporal barony, in fa- 
vour of the Nithsdale family. The genius of 
Burns has rendered the locality still more 
classic, by his allusions to " Cluden's silent 

towers," and its " waves that sweetly glide," 
as they flow on to the Nith. 

CLUNAIDH, a tributary rivulet of the 
Dee, in Mar, Aberdeenshire, parish of Crathie. 

CLUNIE, (from a word signifying "mea- 
dows interspersed with rising grounds,") a pa- 
rish in the centre of the eastern part of Perth- 
shire, district of Stormont, separated from the 
north bank of the Tay by Caputh, and having 
Blairgowrie and Kinloch on the south-east. 
The surface is hilly, and the ground lies ge- 
nerally high. A small portion only is culti- 
vated, the greater part being pastoral, moorish 
land. The lofty hill of Benachally lies in the 
parish, in which there are huge caverns, while 
its surface displays the remains'of military sta- 
tions. About four miles south east from its 
base lies the beautiful lake of Clunie, which is 
about two and a half miles in circumference, 
and in which there is a little island, having an 
old castle at its centre, the property of the 
Airly family. It is reported by tradition that 
the Admirable Crichton was born on this is- 
land ; and it is at least certain, that he was 
the son of its then proprietor, Sir Robert 
Crichton of Elliock, who had it from his 
brother, a bishop of Dunkeld. There is a 
good deal of natural wood still in the parish. 
There are two mineral springs, valuable in 
modifying scorbutic diseases. — Population in 
1821, 942. 

CLUNY, a parish consisting of a stripe of 
land, of from two to three miles broad, and 
about ten miles in length from east to west, 
separated by Monymusk from the southern bank 
of the Don, in Marr, Aberdeenshi re. It partakes 
of the character of a strath ; its grounds being 
mostly low and well sheltered and cultivated. 
It has no coal, but is rich in granite. The 
ancient and strong castles of Frazer and Cluny 
are in the district. — Population in 1821, 867. 

CLYDE, a river in the western side of 
the lowlands of Scotland, the third in point of 
magnitude in the country, but the most valua- 
ble for commerce. It is usually understood 
that this river rises from the same hill, at the 
southern point of Lanarkshire, from whence 
also flow in different directions the Annan and 
the Tweed ; but this is only partly correct. 
The common notions regarding the sources of 
rivers are frequently altogether fanciful, almost 
every stream having a number of heads, often 
not one of which can be justly selected as the 
chief. Such is the case with the Clyde. It 



is formed by a concentration of a variety of 
straggling burns and rivulets, rising amidst the 
mountains and wastes which separate Lanark- 
shire from the counties of Peebles and Dum- 
fries. The chief of these tributaries are the 
Powtrail Water, the Crook Burn, the Avon 
and Elvan Waters, which coalescing, form a 
stream which after flowing about two miles 
receives an accession first from Glengonar 
Water, and next from Duneaton Water, which 
constitute it properly the River Clyde, at a 
distance of upwards of twelve miles from the 
highest springs of its fountains. Pursuing a 
northerly course from its origin to the mouth 
of Duneaton Water, it continues in the same 
direction, with a slight tendency to the east as 
far as Biggar, by which time it has received 
some more rivulets from the adjacent uplands, 
when it at once alters its course to the north- 
west by north. It keeps this direction in al- 
most a straight line to its estuary, except when 
it makes a considerable semicircular bend to 
the right a little way below Biggar, till it is 
joined by Douglas Water on the left. The 
Douglas Water nearly doubles it in size. It 
afterwards receives a number of other streams, 
generally on the left or westerly bank. The 
Mouse, the Nethan, the Avon, the Calder, the 
North Calder, the Kelvin, the White and Black 
Cart, the Forth and Clyde Canal, and the 
Leven, are its principal tributaries on either 
side from Lanark to Dumbarton. The impe- 
tus of its waters is very variable. In the 
upper parts it is rapid, but it soon becomes 
almost stagnant ; winding its path amidst broad 
rich meadows, in a manner intimately resem- 
bling some of the sleepy-looking dull rivers in 
England. On approaching Lanark it begins 
to hasten on its way, in an expanded stream, 
over a stony bottom, till it approaches the 
falls, when it proceeds with great deliberation. 
Of these celebrated falls, two are above and 
one below Lanark. The uppermost is Bon- 
niton Linn, a cascade of about thirty feet. 
The next below is Corra Linn, where the wa- 
ter takes three distinct leaps, each apparently 
as high as that of Bonniton. Between these 
two falls the course of the water is prodigious- 
ly rapid and perturbed. Its channel is con- 
tracted, among rocks and precipices, and in 
some places it struggles through a chasm of 
not more than four feet in width. Its sides 
consist of walls of rock, equidistant and won- 
derfully regular, the jutting points of which 
are covered with natural shrubbery, and in 

whose crevices nestle numerous flocks of birds. 
Upon a rock above Cora Linn, on the south- 
em bank of the river, stands a ruined castle, 
behind which is a middle-aged mansion, and 
behind which again, there is a still more mo- 
dern and splendid mansion-house. This seat is 
called Corehouse, and is the seat of George Cran- 
ston, Esq. to whom it gives a senatorial title. 
Corehouse is embowered in the trees and shrub- 
bery which add such grace to the whole of this 
wild scene. A pavilion, erected above a cen- 
tury ago, stands on the opposite bank of the 
stream, as a station for observing the fall. A- 
bout a mile down the stream from Corra Linn, 
at New Lanark mills, there is a fall of about 
four feet in height called Dundaff Linn. Four 
miles below Corra Linn, and two below Lan- 
ark, is Stonebyres' Fall, which, like that of 
Cora, consists of three distinct falls succeed- 
ing each other, altogether measuring about 
seventy feet in height. This is not less ro- 
mantic than the other falls ; wild rugged rocks 
are equally visible here, and they are equally 
fringed with wood ; but the trees in the neigh- 
bourhood are not so tall and stately. There 
are foot-paths for the use of tourists, along the 
river at these falls. After a confinement of 
six miles, in a deep and rocky, but wooded 
glen, the course through which the Clyde flow* 
gradually opens, the river expands, and instead 
of being agitated among rude and steep rocks, 
it flows over a pebbled bed, through alternate 
tracts of sloping banks and fertile valleys, a- 
dorned in some places with a mixture of or- 
chard and coppice wood, and at others with 
tufts of forest trees. Thus it proceeds for 
twelve miles, through the lower part of the 
parish of Cambusnethan, and the parishes of 
Dalzu'l West Monkland, and Bothwell on 
the north side ; and those of Dalserf, Hamil- 
ton and Blantyre, on the south. Here, along 
the banks of the river, the lands ascend gently 
on both sides, exhibiting sloping banks and a 
pleasing well cultivated territory. The ap- 
pearance of its vicinity alters in the parishes 
of Blantyre and Bothwell, where the banks 
are bold and richly wooded. From thence 
they expand and contract alternately to the 
extremity of the county. Numerous villages, 
hamlets, orchards embosomed in woods, gen- 
tlemen's seats, and the remains of rude magni- 
ficent castles and religious fabrics, contribute 
to enrich the scenery on the Clyde, and the 
presence of a number of mills of different kinds 
attests the trading and agricultural wealth of 



this beautiful district of Scotland. As soon 
as the river reaches Glasgow, its character is 
at once altered from that of a rural simple 
etream, to that of a natural canal, suited to the 
purposes of navigation. At and beneath this 
city it has been in many places hemmed in and 
deepened, and for twelve miles or thereby, it 
flows through beautifully wooded meadow land. 
As it approaches Dumbarton it gradually wid- 
ens into the character of a firth, from a mile to 
two miles in width. Below Greenock, it 
continues to be about two miles in breadth, 
with a hilly region on both banks, but especial- 
ly on the Argyleshire side. It shortly takes a 
sharp turn to the south, and after flowing 
through the pass betwixt Bute, the Cumbray 
islands, and the coast of Ayrshire at the Largs, 
it is emitted into the broad expanse of the sea 
between the west coast of Scotland and Ire- 
land, and which partly obtains the title of the 
Firth of Clyde. Salmon ascend as far as the 
fall of Stonebyres, and the lower bridge of 
Glasgow is the first obstacle to the sailing of 
boats or vessels. From its sources to Bute, 
its length js fully one hundred miles. In con- 
clusion, we add a recent calculation regarding 
the waters of this important river. The 
breadth of the Clyde at the New Bridge, 
Glasgow, is 410 feet, and its mean depth 3k 
feet. The velocity of the water at the surface 
is 1.23 inch, and the mean velocity of the whole 
water is 0.558,132 inch per second. From 
these data it may be inferred, that the quan- 
tity of water discharged per second is 76f cu- 
bic feet. This amounts to 2,417,760 cubic 
feet, or 473,017,448 imperial gallons, or 
1,877,053 tuns. The river Clyde drains about 
l-30th of Scotland, or about l-83d part of 
Great Britain. Hence, if the waters discharg- 
ed into the sea by the Clyde afforded a fair 
average of the whole island, the total amount 
of the water discharged annually by all the ri- 
vers in Great Britain would be only 155,795,399 
tuns, which does not amount to one hundredth 
part of the excess of the rain above the eva- 

CLYDESDALE, the vale through which 
the river Clyde flows, from its sources to its 
mouth. The designation is merely popular, 
but supplies a secondary title to the Duke of 

CLYDE SLAW, a mountain at the upper 
extremity of Clydesdale, from whence one of 
the chief tributaries of the Clyde rises. 

CLYNE, a parish in Sutherlandshire, lying 
on the shore of the Moray Firth, and on the 
north bank of Brora Water, having the parish of 
Loth on its north-eastern quarter. In consists 
of braes declining sea-ward, and takes its name 
from a word signifying an inclining bank. It is 
from four to eight miles in breadth, and about 
twenty-four in length, extending inland to 
Strathbeg, through which flows a tributary of 
the Brora. The rearing of cattle is the chief 
employment. — Population in 1821, 1874. 

COALSNAUGHTON, a smaU village 
in the parish of Tillicoultry, Clackmannan- 

two of the straggling long villages lying 
along the road, verging the shore of the 
Firth of Forth in Fife, within a mile of West 
Wemyss on the west, and four miles east of 

COCKBURN LAW, a hill on the north- 
eastern extremity of Dunse parish, adjacent to 
Abbey St. Bathans in that direction, of 900 
feet in height. It exhibits the remains of a 
strong military station. 

COCKBURNSPATH, (corruptly Cop- 
persmith, formerly and properly Colbrands- 
path,) a parish in Berwickshire, at its north- 
western extremity on the German Ocean, with 
which, at a very early period, was incorporat- 
ed the small parish of Auldcambus ; bounded 
on the south and west by Coldingham and 
Abbey St. Bathans. It consists of two parts, 
one high and mountainous, and another low 
and even. The upper division makes part of 
the great ridge of the Lammermuirs, which, at 
the western extremity of the parish, approach- 
es to within three miles of the shore, and 
which runs into the sea in the rocky promon- 
tory of Fast Castle, a little beyond its eastern 
limit. The shore is rocky, and the surface of 
the country is, in many places, broken into ra- 
vines. The lower part is agricultural. The 
celebrated Peas, Peeze, or Peath^ Bridge is 
in the parish, carrying the old road to Berwick 
over a very deep ravine. This bridge was 
built in 1786, before which time the road went 
by a dangerous pass along the shore. The 
road-way of this bridge is 120 feet from the 
bottom of the Peas Burn, which flows be- 
neath ; it is 300 feet long, and with the para- 
pet wall fifteen feet wide. It has two arches 
jointly resting on a tall, slender pier, in the 
middle of the glen. This is a work often vi- 



sited from curiosity ; it being understood to be 
tbe highest bridge in the world. In former 
times, this place was an important pass, which 
could be easily defended. The remains of mi- 
litary encampments are conspicuous in the dis- 
trict. Dunglas, the seat of Sir James Hall, 
Baronet, is in the parish. The village of Cock- 
burnspath is adjacent, and partly on the road 
from Dunbar to Berwick, nine miles to the 
south-east of the former. The title of Col- 
brand's-path was derived from some person of 
the name of Colbrand, who, it is understood, 
once lived in a tower in the parish, near Dun- 
glas, and now standing in ruins on the left side 
of the road in passing to the south. So early 
as 1073, this fortress belonged to the Earls of 
Dunbar ; and, from its situation, it was con- 
sidered one of the keys of the kingdom. In 
the abrogated parish of Auldcambus, on the sea 
shore, stood the church of St. Helen, the 
mother of Constantine, and which was a cell 
of Durham. The tourist in this quarter of' 
Scotland should visit, in passing, the Cove 
Shore, below the village of Cockburnspath. 
Here the sea is hemmed in by very high sand- 
stone precipices, and in one place the only 
approach to the coast is by a long descending 
passage, cut out of rock, wide enough to admit 
a horse and cart. The nature of the stone 
admits of perforation to any extent. On that 
part of the shore opened upon by the passage, 
a pier is at present constructing for the use of 
fishing-boats. Vast quantities of sea-ware are 
here daily carted off, for the purposes of agricul- 
ture. Dunglas Castle, the seat of Sir James 
Hall, Baronet, is a place of great interest, 
and should also be seen by tourists. It was 
originally a stronghold of the Earls of Home, 
on whose attainder it fell into the hands of the 
Douglasses. It lodged James VI. and his 
whole retinue, when on his journey to Lon- 
don in 1603, and on his return in 1617, he 
was welcomed by the Musce Dunglasides. — 
Population in 1821, 966. 

COCKENZIE, a village in the parish of 
Tranent, county of Haddington, lying on the 
shore of the Firth of Forth, east from Preston- 
pans, composed chiefly of salt-pan erections 
and the houses of workmen and fishermen. 

COCKPEN, a parish in the county of 
Edinburgh, lying in a southerly direction from 
the metropolis, between the parishes of Car- 
rington and Lasswade, and chiefly on the left 
bank of the South Esk. The surface of the 

parish is undulating, but highly cultivated, en- 
closed, and planted. The banks of the Esk 
are here rather steep and picturesque ; the 
river is crossed by a fine stone bridge. Cock- 
pen derives its name from words in the British, 
signifying the red height ,- the church, (now a 
very handsome semi- Gothic structure,) having 
been placed on an elevated situation, and the 
soil being of a reddish appearance. The church 
was a rectory during the Scoto- Saxon period, 
but afterwards came into the hands of the Cis- 
tertian Monks of Newbottle. From the twelfth 
century to the present, the parish has consisted 
of little else than the barony of Dalhousie. 
The Castle of Dalhousie, or, as it was ancient- 
ly spelled, Dalwolsie, stood on a rising ground 
on the left bank of the Esk, at the distance of 
eight miles from Edinburgh. Originally it 
was a magnificent structure, of a square form, 
with a turret at each corner, and besides other 
means of defence, a strong wall encompassed 
it, so as to render it one of the most secure 
fortresses in this part of the country. In the 
course of time it was either entirely renewed 
or very much altered to suit more peaceable 
times, but still it presented a fortified appear- 
ance. Latterly, the fort has been again de- 
molished, and turned into a house slightly cas- 
tellated in its aspect. It is, and has long been, 
the property of the ancient family of Ramsay, 
one of whom was created Lord Ramsay, in 
1618, by James VI. and Earl of Dalhousie in 
1633, by Charles I. The present Lord Dal- 
housie has seldom resided here, from his hon- 
ourable employments in foreign countries ; but 
he has been at considerable expense in keeping 
the estate in order and the house in repair. 
The very extensive gunpowder manufactory of 
Stobbs is in the parish. — See Stobbs. The 
country here abounds in coal. — Population in 
1821, 1925. 

COICH, a small tributary rivulet of the 
Dee, in the parish of Crathie, Aberdeenshire. 

COILTIE, a rivulet flowing into the west 
side of Loch Ness, parish of Urquhart. 

COINISH, a small streamlet in Argyle- 
shire, falling into the upper part of Loch 

COLD INGHAM, a parish in Berwick- 
shire, lying on the coast of the German ocean, 
bounded by Cockburnspath on the north-west, 
and by Eyemouth, Ayton, and Chirnside on 
the east and south ; of between six and seven 
miles in length and breadth, though of an ir- 



regular figure. The face of the country is un- 
dulating, with a quantity of flat lands, most of 
which are agricultural and inclosed. The noted 
foreland called St. Abb's Head is in this parish, 
and the Eye water intersects it. About a mile 
west from St. Abb's is Coldingham Loch, of a 
triangular figure and about a mile in circum- 
ference. It abounds in perch of a poor quali- 
ty. The sea-coast is productive of excellent fish. 
There are several hamlets in the district. The 
village of Coldingham, which is a burgh of barony, 
is delightfully situated upon a small eminence in 
the centre of a fine valley, at a short distance from 
the sea. It consists of two or three humble 
streets, with a cross in the centre. The ruins 
of the once magnificent and well-endowed 
priory of Coldingham lie on the south side of 
the town. All that now remains of this edifice 
is the east gable and north side, which form 
part of the modern parish kirk, with a few 
straggling fragments, including a small Saxon 
arch, part of the palace said to have been built 
here by the royal founder of the priory. Some 
years since the ruins were very extensive, and 
they have only disappeared from the rapacity 
of the common people in taking away stones 
for the purpose of rearing cottages in the vil- 
lage, a practice which has been too common in 
Scotland to excite inquiry or comment. The 
utter extinction of the priory of Coldingham, 
and the neglected state of its ruins, furnish a 
useful lesson on the perishable nature of all 
human institutions. At one time this reli- 
gious house stood at the head of such esta- 
blishments in Scotland, and was- famed far and 
wide for its wealth and importance. So early 
as the seventh century a nunnery was settled 
here, but of what order is unknown, in which 
St. Ebb, the daughter and sister of kings, be- 
came abbess, 670. Historians inform us that 
this lady and her nuns disfigured themselves by 
cutting off their noses and upper lips, to en- 
sure themselves against being violated by the 
Danes on one of their invasions, who thereaf- 
ter burnt the house with its virtuous inmates. 
Bede notices the institution under the title of 
Coludi urbs, and it is noted as being the very 
first monastery of the kind in Scotland. The 
nunnery continued in ruins till 1098, when it 
was rebuilt by King Edgar, the son of Malcolm 
Canmore, who bestowed it on the Benedictine 
monks of St. Cuthbert of Durham, of whom 
it continued to be a cell. The liberality of 
Edgar is said, by Fordun, to have been excit- 

ed by the appearance of the sainted Cuthbert, 
promising him victory as he marched into 
Scotland. Edgar and subsequent monarchs 
endowed the establishment with a great variety 
of lands, charters, and privileges, and, what was 
then of great consequence, an exemption from 
the jurisdiction and taxation of the diocesan, 
viz. the Archbishop of St. Andrews. The 
house was furnished with monks from Dur- 
ham, and so eminent was the office of prior, 
that he had a retinue of seventy functionaries, 
unequalled in the kingdom. Among these 
were the eleemosinarius or almoner, the mares- 
callus or keeper of the horses, the schenescallus 
or manager of the household, the hostiarius or 
receiver of guests, the cellarius or keeper of 
the cellar, the enunciator or messenger, the bra- 
ciator or brewer, also a cook, a smith, a carpen- 
ter, &c. The priors themselves were men who, 
in most instances, were deeply concerned in the 
political intrigues of the state, and are often 
mentioned in history. Powerful, however, as 
they generally were, they never could pro- 
tect the wealth of their house from the gripi 
of the nobility, and least of all from the pope 
or the king, when it suited the purpose of ei- 
ther to molest them. Benedict XL bestow- 
ed upon Hugh, Bishop of Biblis, who had 
been expelled from the Holy Land by the 
Saracens, the profits and revenues of the priory 
for fife. Luckily, Edward I., who took the 
establishment under his protection, interfered 
and prevented such injustice. James III. af- 
terwards suppressed the monastery, and attach- 
ed the revenues to a chapel-royal which he 
founded at Stirling, yet it also escaped this 
apparent close of its career. It had been seiz- 
ed by pure robbery, some twenty years before, 
by the Homes of Berwickshire, who appropriat- 
ed its riches and kept the institution on a very 
meagre footing, and, as we suppose, reduced 
the monks to be their own servants. These 
powerful barons leagued with the Hepburns, 
and being countenanced by the Earl of Angus, 
the whole entered into a conspiracy to dethrone 
the king, whose death they actually accom- 
plished in a conflict near Stirling on the 11th 
of June 1488. After this the institution rose 
and fell in its consequence and means of sup- 
port. For many years it continued the prey 
of the Homes, and in 1509, by the pope's au- 
thority, it was withdrawn from the superiority 
of Durham and placed under the abbey of Dun- 
fermline. Alexander Stewart, a natural son of 



James IV., who was already archbishop of St. 
Andrews and abbot of Dunfermline, was now 
chosen piior, but he did not long possess these 
dignified offices ; he fell at Flodden, while 
fighting by the side of his infatuated father. 
The priory was next conferred on David Home, 
the seventh brother of Lord Home, who pos- 
sessed it until his assassination by James Hep- 
burn of Hailes. He was succeeded by Ro- 
bert Blackadder, who was, with six domestics, 
likewise assassinated by Sir David Home in 
the village of Lamberton. It is needless to 
enter into the story of the feuds which caused 
these barbarous murders. They are already 
known to the reader of Scottish history. 
Blackadder was succeeded by William Doug- 
las, a brother of Angus, who became prior by 
mere intrusion, and retained the office and emo- 
luments till his death in 1528, about which 
period the priory afforded a temporary asylum 
to the Earl of Angus on his flight to England. 
From 1528 to 1541 Adam was prior ; he was 
removed to Dundrennan to make way for John 
Stewart, an infant son of James V. During 
the infancy of this prior, or rather commenda- 
tor, for all semblance of the ecclesiastical func- 
tion was by this time banished the house, the 
king enjoyed the revenues, but he de- 
fend the sacred edifices from warlike intrusion. 
His attempts were fruitless ; the English seiz- 
ed the abbey, fortified the church and steeple, 
which resisted all the efforts of the regent Ar- 
ran. In 1545, the Earl of Hertford burnt the 
abbey, after it had stood five hundred years and 
endured many violent assaults. Its timely de- 
struction by the English perhaps only saved it 
from the contumely of desecration by the re- 
formers a few years afterwards. The office of 
commendator, or drawer of the revenues, was 
next held by John Maitland, who resigned it 
in 1568. James VI. now conferred it on 
Francis Stewart, the former prior's eldest son, 
and subsequently created Earl of Bothwell, 
abbot of Kelso, constable of Haddington, she- 
riff of Berwick, bailie of Lauderdale, and lord 
high admiral of Scotland. On the expatria- 
tion of this turbulent noble, the king conveyed 
the estates of Coldingham to the Earl of Home, 
on whose death in 1619 they were given to 
John, the second son of Francis, the banished 
earl, and the last who bore the title of com- 
mendator. The original charters of this re- 
markable priory are still preserved at Durham. 
The history of no religious house in Scotland 

would throw so much light on the bloody 
scenes and wretched government of the coun- 
try from the fourteenth to the seventeenth cen- 
tury as this, were it carefully written.. Of such 
importance was the jurisdiction of the priors 
over their adjoining territory, that in many an- 
cient records the district receives the appella- 
tion of Coldinghamshire. When the church 
of the priory was destroyed, its fine-toned bell, 
according to tradition, was carried to Lincoln, 
where it still is in use.— Population in 1821, 

COLDSTREAM, a parish in Berwick- 
shire, lying about the middle of the district of 
the Merse, on the northern bank of the Tweed, 
where that river begins to be the border bound- 
ary, having Ladykirk and Swinton on the 
north, and Eccles on the west ; extending seven 
or eight miles along the Tweed, and being four 
in breadth. This is among the best cultivat- 
ed and productive parishes in Scotland ; and it 
is well enclosed and planted. The ancient 
name of the parish was Lennel, and the vesti- 
ges of the kirk of Lennel are still shown, about 
a mile and a half below the town of Cold- 
stream. The little town of Lennel was en- 
tirely destroyed by the border wars. There 
are several handsome modern seats in the dis- 
trict, among which may be noticed Hirsel, the 
property of the Earl of Home, Lennel, a 
seat of the Earl of Haddington, and Lees, the 
seat of Sir John Marjoribanks, Baronet. 

Coldstream, a town in the above parish, 
stands upon the north bank of the Tweed, 
having the rivulet called the Leet flowing past 
it on its western quarter. It is nearly nine 
miles east from Kelso, and fourteen west from 
Berwick. It is a thriving irregularly-built 
town, quite Scottish in its appearance, not- 
withstanding its proximity to England. It for- 
merly derived importance from a ford on the 
Tweed, the first of any importance which oc- 
curs in traversing the stream upwards from 
Berwick. By this passage, Edward I. entered 
Scotland with his overpowering host in 1296. 
Many other Scottish and English armies, be- 
fore the union of the Crowns, made their way 
by this passage, to ravage the country of their 
respective enemies. It was last used by a 
Scottish army, as an entrance into England, in 
1640, when the Covenanters found it necessary 
to take that extreme measure against Charles I. 
When Prince Charles Stewart invaded Eng- 
land by the western border, in 1745, he sent a 

C O L L E S S I E. 


sman detachment from Kelso to proclaim his 
father on the English ground opposite Cold- 
stream, that being the nearest point of the 
southern kingdom to his line of march ; by this 
expedient he had the gratification of perform- 
ing the ceremony a few days earlier than was 
otherwise practicable. The Tweed is now 
crossed here by a strong bridge of red free- 
stone, consisting of five arches. The expense 
of its erection and perpetual repair was liqui- 
dated by a toll bar, which was lately removed, 
the purpose of its institution having been ac- 
complished ; this is, perhaps, the only instance 
on record, at least in Scotland, of a toll-bar or 
pontage having been removed, after it was once 
planted. The bridge of Coldstream is placed 
at the distance of a furlong from the east end 
of the town, and from it a very delightful view 
up and down the woody banks of the river is 
obtained. A few neat villas, significant of the 
vicinage of England, have of late years sprung 
up in the environs of Coldstream ; some of 
these enter delightfully into the composition of 
this river-side landscape. The repair to and 
fro at Coldstream is considerable, this being 
the chief thoroughfare from Edinburgh to 
Newcastle, and parts in that direction. Cold- 
stream seems to subsist principally on this 
thoroughfare, and on the trade created by the 
opulent agricidtural country around it. On 
the first Thursday of every month, there is a 
great cattle market, chiefly resorted to by deal- 
ers from the north of England. There is 
also a corn market every Thursday. Cold- 
stream enjoys part of that matrimonial trade 
which has become so notorious at Gretna 
Green. The person keeping the chief inn 
shows, with some pride, the room in which 
Lord Chancellor Brougham submitted to hy- 
meneal bonds. * Previous to the Reformation 
this place could boast of a rich priory of Cis- 
tertian nuns ; but of the building not one 
fragment now remains. The fabric stood upon 
a spot a little eastward from the market-place, 
where there are still some peculiarly luxuriant 
gardens, besides a small burying-ground. Be- 
sides the parish church of Coldstream, there are 
two meeting houses of Presbyterian Dissenters. 
General Monk resided at Coldstream, at the 
time when he waited for a favourable oppor- 

• It is a remarkable circumstance, that three Lord Chan- 
cellors of England, out of four in succession, were mar- 
ried in this clandestine manner. We need scarcely men- 
tion that the other guilty persons were Erskine and Eldon. 

tuiuty to spring into England, and effect the 
restoration. During the winter of 1659-60, 
which he spent here, he raised a horse regi- 
ment, which was therefore, and has ever since 
been, denominated the Coldstream Guards. 
We beg to recommend to the attention of all 
travellers who may happen to be unmarried, 
the following popular rhyme regarding the 
places around Coldstream - : — 

Bught-rig and Belchester, 

Hatchet-knows and Darnchester, 
Leetholm and the Peel ; 

If ye dinna get,a wife in ane o' thae places, 
Ye'H ne'er do weel. 

— Population of the town and parish in 1821, 


COLINSBURGH, a village in Fife, pa- 
rish of Kilconquhar, lying two miles inland 
from the coast of the Firth of Forth, at Largo 
bay, and five miles west of Pittenweem. It is 
a thriving village, with a handsome and con- 
spicuous dissenting church. 

COLL, an island, lying off the west coast 
of Midi, Argyleshire, from which it is distant 
about seven miles, and forming part of the pa- 
rish of Tiree, from which it is divided by a 
narrow rocky sound. It is fourteen miles long 
and about two and a half in breadth. There 
is little appearance of cultivation. The island 
is so covered with bare rocks, scarcely to be 
called hills, that when viewed from a low po- 
sition, nothing but a continuous, grey, stony 
surface is visible, the whole conveying the no- 
tion of a wide rude pavement on a gigantic 
scale. The intervals are filled with green 
pastures, pools, lakes, and morasses. The 
inhabitants are exceedingly poor, and their cot- 
tages are more like the wigwams of savages 
than the dwellings of civilized people. The 
grounds feed black cattle, and the inhabitants 
employ a great part of their time in fishing. 
The coast is a mixture of rocks and sands. 

COLL ACE, a parish in Gowrie, Perth- 
shire, of about two miles square, having 
Cargill on the north and Kinnaird on the 
south. The northern division rises gently to- 
wards the Sidlaw Hills. The higher parts are 
pastoral ; the lower are devoted to agriculture. 
The hill of Dunsinnan is in the parish. The 
parish is midway betwixt Perth and Cupar 
Angus. — Population in 1821, 691. 

COLLESSIE, a parish in Fife, lying east 
of Auchtermuchty, on the north side of the 
Hoive or vale in the centre of the county; ex- 
tending eight miles in length by five in breadth ; 



%nA generally consisting of fine enclosed lands, 
rising from the Eden to the hills on the north. 
Very considerable improvements have been 
made on the character of the soil, which in 
many places is naturally mossy. On the es- 
tate of Mr. Wallace of Newton- Collessie, in 
a conspicuous situation, there is a large cairn 
of stones, the evidence of a battle in rude 
times, which is carefully preserved by its re- 
spectable proprietor. Near it some warlike 
metal instruments have been dug up. The 
village of Collessie lies on the face of the braes 
descending to the vale, on the old road from 
Auchtermuchty to Cupar. It is a little con- 
fused thatched town. About a mile to the west 
is the modern hamlet of Trafalgar- Inn, at which 
the post stops Population in 1821, 1080. 

rish in the county of Edinburgh, lying in a 
south-westerly direction from the city, at the 
base of the Pentland Hills, part of which it 
includes. Currie lies on the west. The 
parish is five miles in length by four in breadth. 
The grounds rise beautifully from the vale of 
Corstorphine, and are finely cultivated, enclos- 
ed, and planted. The water of Leith passes 
through them, and its banks are here romantic 
and wooded. The elegant house of Sir John 
Forbes, Bart., is the principal seat. The vil- 
lage of Collington lies a little westward from 
thence in a hollow on the river, at the distance 
of four miles from Edinburgh. It possesses 
some extensive paper manufactories. Besides 
the church, there is a dissenting meeting, 
house in the parish. The ancient name was 
Hailes, from a Celtic word signifying a moor 
or hillock, and on the spot where stood the old 
church, when under that name, there is a gen- 
tleman's residence, which maintains the same 
designation. Prior to the Reformation, the 
church belonged to the Canons of St. Anthony 
in Leith, but the lands were under the superi- 
ority of the abbots of Dunfermline, one of 
whom granted them to the family of Forrester. 
—Population in 1821, 2019. 

COLLIESTON, a fishing village on the 
east coast of Buchan, parish of Slaines, Aber- 

COLMONELL, a parish in the district of 
Carrick, Ayrshire, lying on the sea-coast near 
the mouth of the Stinchar, having Ballantrae 
on the south-west ; fourteen miles in length by 
about six at an average in breadth. The 
grounds are hilly and poor, except on the banks 

of the streams, where agriculture is well at- 
tended to. The district abounds in the re- 
mains of ancient forts and cairns. The small 
village of Colmonell lies on the north bank of 
the Stinchar, about five miles above Ballantrae.. 
Anciently there were several chapels in this 
parish, one of which in the eastern part of the 
district was dedicated to St. Ninian, and call- 
ed in Gaelic, Kil-an-Ringan. A gentleman's 
seat on the spot maintains the appellation. 
Such a strange name doubtless, suggested to 
the author of Waverley the Kippletringan of 
Guy Mannering. The name of the parish is 
derived from a Scoto-Irish saint called Col- 
monell, who had a cell here. — Population in 
1821, 1980. 

COLONSA, a flat uninteresting island, ly- 
ing betwixt Staffa and Gometra, which feeds a 
few sheep. 

COLONSAY, one of the western islands 
belonging to Argyleshire, lying about seven or 
eight miles west from Jura. The smaller is- 
land of Oronsay is joined to it at low water, on 
its southern extremity. The length of both 
together is about seven miles, and the breadth 
from one to two. The exterior aspect of 
Colonsay is rude and unpromising ; but after 
passing a hilly barrier on the west, a fertile 
and pleasing valley, containing a fresh water 
lake is entered upon. The remains of four 
chapels, and monumental stones can be dis- 
tinguished. Oronsay possesses no other inter- 
est than that which arises from the ruins of its 
priory, which was an establishment for canons 
of the order of St. Augustine. The dimen- 
sions of the church are about 60 feet by 18, 
and there are the remains of a cloister which 
has formed a square of forty feet. Among 
other ruinous buildings, there is a chapel con- 
taining a tomb belonging to an Abbot Mac- 
DufHe, together with a handsome sculptured 
cross. Kelp is manufactured on the shores, 
and the interior of both islands affords excel- 
lent pasture for a fine breed of cattle. 

COLT BRIDGE, a hamlet with a bridge 
across the Water of Leith, about a mile west 
from the outskirts of Edinburgh on the Glas- 
gow road. Here the troops of Prince Charles 
Edward encamped in September 1745, prior 
to their seizure of Edinburgh, and here they 
routed two regiments of dragoons and other 
forces, sent to oppose their progress. 

COL VEND, a wild, pastoral, and hilly 
parish, occupying a sort of peninsula in the 



stewartry of Kirkcudbriglit, formed by the sea 
on the east and the water of Urr on the west ; 
extending eight miles in length and four in 
breadth. Along the north-east extremity run 
the Criffel mountains. The abrogated parish 
of Southwick is incorporated with it. The 
church belonged to the Benedictine nunnery 
of Lincluden before the Reformation. At 
Fairgarth, in the east end of the parish, there 
was once a chapel dedicated to St. Laurence, 
and subordinate to the mother church. The 
vestiges of this chapel,, with its appropriate 
cemetery, are still visible ; and there is near 
them a copious spring, called St. Laurence's 
Well, in great repute in former times, and 
arched over. — Popidation in 1821, 1322. 

COMRIE, a parish in Strathearn, Perth- 
shire, thirteen miles in length by ten in breadth, 
having Balquhidder on the west, and Crieff 
on the east. It consists of the upper part of 
the valley of the Earn, with four contiguous 
glens. The mountain ranges which bound 
these low grounds are lofty, and afford excellent 
sheep pasture. The country here is exceed- 
ingly beautifid and romantic. Loch Earn lies 
at the western extremity of the parish, and from 
it flows the beautiful river Earn, along which 
there is a public road through the valley of 
Strathearn. The parish town of Comrie is a 
neat, respectable-looking place, in a thriving 
condition, pleasantly situated on the north bank 
of the Earn, where it is joined by the Lednock; 
six and a half miles west from Crieff, and fifty- 
eight from Edinburgh. A handsome church 
with a spire has been recently erected. The 
grounds of Dunira and many other delightful 
spots are in the neighbourhood. Five an- 
nual fairs are held in Comrie — Population in 
1321, 2614. 

CON or CHON, (LOCH), a small lake 
in the western extremity of the valley of Aber- 
foyle, the first of a series of lochs formed by 
the Forth, and extending about two and a half 
miles. It is a very picturesque lake ; amidst 
rocky and wild scenery, with bold and steep 
boundaries. Its waters flow eastward to Loch 

CONAN, or CONON, a river in the 
south-eastern part of Ross-shire, running into 
the head of the Cromarty Firth. 

CONAN, (BRIDGE OF) a flourishing 
modern village, close to a bridge over the above 
river, on the road between Inverness and Ding- 
wall. ' 

CONTIN, a parish in the south-eastern 
part of Ross-shire, contiguous to the above 
river. The district is a mixture of hills and 
dales, with glens and valleys, watered by dif- 
ferent streams and a number of lakes. A very 
improved system of farming having been here 
introduced, it comprises much good com land. 
—Population in 1821, 1930. 

PINSHAY, one of the Orkney Islands, of a 
mile in length, and half a mile in breadth, ly- 
ing to the south of Pomona, above Newark 
Bay. There are two small islets contiguous 
to it, one of which, called the Kirkholm of Co- 
pinshay, is approachable at low water. 

COPPAY, a very small island lying about 
a mile from Lewis, on its south-western 

COQUET, properly an English river, 
which rising in the heights dividing Roxburgh- 
shire from Northumberland, and being joined 
by various streamlets, falls into the sea near 
Alnwick. It bounds the parish of Oxnam, for 
about a mile on the south, and this is the ex- 
tent of its connexion with Scotland. 

CORNHILL, a small village in the lower 
part of Banffshire, parish of Ordiquhill. 

CORRYARRACK, a large and lofty 
mountain in Inverness-shire, parish of Laggan, 
along which the great military road to Fort- 
Augustus was carried by Marshal Wade. It 
appears as one in the range of high hills di- 
viding Badenoch from the valley of the Cale- 
donian Canal on the north. In the history of 
the famed insurrection of 1745, Corryarrack is 
celebrated as having caused Sir John Cope to 
turn aside from his purpose of seeking out and 
fighting the Highlanders under Prince Charles 
Stewart. The hill being ascended by a series 
of zig-zag traverses, which afforded excellent 
opportunities to the Highlanders of laying am- 
buscades for the royal army, Sir John thought 
it advisable to march in another direction, 
namely, to Inverness. By this movement on 
his part, the insurgents were enabled to march 
into the Lowlands, where they did not meet 
any enemy till he again brought up his forces 
against them at Prestonpans. We must there- 
fore calculate that, but for the danger and dif- 
ficulty of a march over this hill, a very different 
turn might have been given to this extraordi- 
nary domestic war. As an illustration of the 
nature of this road, it may be mentioned that 
the distance from the bottom of the hill on tha 



south side to the summit is about a quarter of 
a mile in perpendicular ascent, while, by the 
zig-zag direction of the road, it is more than 
four times that distance. The sides of the hill 
at various places show profound and dismal 
chasms, into which the sun never penetrates. 

a headland, on the north-west coast of Wigton- 
shire, on which a light-house was placed in 1 81 6, 
for the directing of vessels on the Scotch side 
into the Irish Channel. The light-house is si- 
tuated in lat. 55° 1', and west long. 5° 5'. It 
bears by compass, from Millour Point, on the 
western side of the channel, leading into Loch 
Ryan, "W. by S. distant about two miles; from 
Turnberry Point, S. W. twenty-one miles j 
from the Craig of Ailsa, SS. W. fifteen miles; 
from the Mull of Cantire, S. E. by S. thirty-one 
miles ; from Copeland light-house, near the 
entrance of Belfast Loch, N. E. half E. 
twenty-two miles ; and from Laggan Point, in 
Galloway, N. E. distant three and a half miles. 
It is known to mariners as a revolving light, 
with colour, exhibiting from the same light- 
room a light of the natural appearance, alter- 
nately with a light tinged with a red colour. 
Those lights, respectively, attain their greatest 
strength or most luminous effect at the end of 
every two minutes. But, in the course of each 
periodical revolution of the reflector frame, the 
lights become alternately fainter and more ob- 
scure, and, to a distant observer, are totally 
eclipsed for a short period. The light-room is 
glazed all round, but the light is hid from the 
mariner by the high land near Laggan Point, 
towards the south, and by Turnberry Point 
towards the north. This light is elevated 112 
feet above the medium level of the sea, and 
its most luminous side may be seen like a 
star of the first magnitude, at the distance of 
five or six leagues. 

CORSTORPHINE, (pronounced Cor- 
bterphine,) a parish in the county of Edinburgh, 
lying immediately to the west of St. Cuthberts 
parish, of about four miles in length, and 
two and a half in breadth, having Cramond on 
the north, Collington on the south, and Ratho 
on the west. The parish chiefly occupies the 
hollow of a beautiful and highly cultivated 
valley, which stretches westward from the 
outskirts of Edinburgh. The land, which was 
once marshy, is now the richest in Mid-Lo- 
thian, and it is well enclosed with plantations, 
especially on the gentle eminences to the north, 

where, of late, a number of gentlemen's seats 
have been erected adjacent to the road from 
Edinburgh. The village of Corstorphine is 
among the best in the county. It lies on the 
road from Edinburgh to Glasgow, about four 
miles from the former. The air is here pure 
and salubrious, and the situation is fully warm- 
er and better sheltered than any in the shire. 
At one time it was much larger in size, vari- 
ous streets having been taken away, and their 
sites converted into gardens. In those days it 
was. a summer resort of the families of metro- 
politan tradesmen, who came hither for the 
benefit of country lodgings, and a mineral well 
in the neighbourhood. Balls and other amuse- 
ments were then common in the place, which 
wore an appearance of great gaiety. All this is 
now gone, and Corstorphine has suffered by 
the emigration of valetudinarians — real and 
imaginaiy — to more fashionable and more mo- 
dern watering-places. The village, in those 
olden times, was celebrated for the excellence 
of a peculiar preparation of cream, which was 
brought for sale to the city on horses' backs. 
Such an article has likewise long since disap- 
peared- The name of Corstorphine is general- 
ly deduced from Cors or Cross -Torfin, — the 
cross of Torfin ; but where such a cross was 
erected, or who Torfin was, no one can now 
explain. In the twelfth centuiy, the manor of 
Corstorphine had a chapel subordinate to the 
church of St. Cuthbert. The district remain- 
ed a chaplainry during the reign of Alexander 
II., after which, as appears by the chartulary 
of Holyrood, it was disjoined from St. Cuth- 
berts, and erected into a separate parish, by 
the archbishop of St. Andrews. As the chapel 
declined, another ecclesiastical establishment 
arose. In the year 1429, Sir John Forrester 
of Corstorphine, Lord High Chamberlain of 
Scotland, under James I., erected a chapel in 
the church-yard, which he dedicated to St. 
John the Baptist, and, in a short time, consti- 
tuted it a collegiate church, with a variety of 
functionaries, among whom were a provost, 
five prebendaries, and two singing boys. This 
church was built in the form of a Jerusalem 
cross, of solid architecture, and having been 
spared at the Reformation, it has remained in 
good condition since that time, and was re- 
cently much improved in the interior. Till 
the Reformation, the church belonged to the 
monks of Holyrood, and it seems that one of 
the five prebends did duty in a subordinate 



chapel at Gogyr or Gogar, then a sort of pa- 
rish church to a small district now united to 
Corstorphine. It is understood that the re- 
maining prebends did duty at similar subordi- 
nate chapels at Cramond, Hatton, Dalmahoy, 
and Collington. The collegiate church of 
Corstorphine had then a superiority over, and 
a right to draw tithes from many lands in the 
neighbourhood. While it remained inviolate, 
it was one of the best endowed establishments 
of the kind in this part of Scotland. Be- 
sides the functionaries appointed by the foun- 
der, it had chaplains, who were supported by 
endowments of a private nature, each of whom 
had the charge of a particular altar in the sa- 
cred building. One of the saints, who was 
honoured with an altar in this way, was St. 
Ninian. The church has all the appearance of 
having been a favourite establishment of the 
Foresters, then an important family in this 
part of Mid-Lothian. All over the building, 
till this day, their arms are blazoned in stone, 
and, within decorated niches, their effigies, in 
exquisite sculpture, are still extant. Curious 
as it may seem, these and other memorials of 
a past age are still very entire, and from their 
variety are worthy of a visit. In former times, 
when the establishment was in all its glory, 
the country immediately round about, and espe- 
cially to the east, south, and west, lay quite in 
the condition of a wilderness. A dismal unsafe 
morass spread itself in every direction, and the 
road to and from the metropolis, which is now 
as good as any in the kingdom, was little better 
than a perpetual quagmire, winding its uncer- 
tain way through brakes and forests of shrubs. 
The repairing of such a road was not in ac- 
cordance with the spirit of the age. It is ex- 
ceedingly probable, that some neighbouring 
personages drove a profitable trade in waylay- 
ing passengers while toiling through the ob- 
scure paths, and who would have rebelled 
against any signs of improvement. In this 
state of things, the church of Corstorphine 
was made to serve the purposes of a light-house 
to passengers. Its munificent patrons endow- 
ed a shrine in the east end of the edifice with 
a lamp, which, it was ordained, should be kept 
continually burning from sunset to sun rise, 
for the double purpose of illuminating the 
altar of St. John, and of acting as a safe 
guide to the unwary traveller. For about two 
hundred years the kindly lamp of the Baptist 
was, therefore, regularly lighted up at sun- 

down, in the eastern gable of this venerable 
fabric. Tradition is silent regarding the pre- 
cise period of its extinction ; but we are per- 
fectly warranted in supposing that its light was 
put out at the period of the Reformation. It 
is likely that the office of guardian of the lamp 
was committed to some ancient lay brother ; 
and if such were the case, how painful must 
have been his feelings on seeing the object of 
his attention rudely destroyed, or when he was 
obliged for the first time to forbear the anti- 
quated duty of lighting it up. We are soothed 
under the relation of this catastrophe, by the 
consideration that the endowment for the support 
of the lamp was not abused, as was too often 
the case in these unruly times. The endow- 
ment consisted of an acre of very fine meadow 
land, lying on the bank of the Water of Leith, 
to the west of Coltbridge. At the Reforma- 
tion, this slip of ground was suffered to remain 
untucked-in by neighbouring landholders ; and 
was conferred as a glebe on the schoolmaster of 
the parish. To this day it is the property of 
this useful functionary. It has still the de- 
signation of the Lamp acre, and its produce, 
from having illuminated the shrine of St. John, 
is now more serviceably directed to light up the 
lamp of education and useful knowledge. — Po- 
pulation in 1821, 1321. 

CORTACHY, a parish incorporating that 
of Clova, in the north-western and mountain- 
ous part of Forfarshire, lying on the north 
bank of the Prosen, and the south bank of the 
South Esk. The district is wild and pastoral. 
— Population in 1821, 990. 

dangerous sea passage of a mile in breadth be- 
twixt the south end of Scarba and the north 
point of Jura, on the west coast of Argyle • 
shire. Near the Scarba side, the sea appears 
to be in almost continual tumult. The lead- 
ing cause of the turbulence of the water is the 
narrowness of the passage, by which the tide 
has to flow in and out, to and from the Sound 
of Jura. To this must be added a pyramidal 
rock, rising with a rapid acclivity from the 
bottom, which is about a hundred fathoms 
deep, to within fifteen of the surface. The 
course of the tide-stream is thus diverted, so as 
to assume numerous intricate directions, while 
a counter-current being also produced, chiefly 
on the Scarba side, the return of this into the 
main stream produces these gyrations, resem- 
bling the wells of Swinna and Stroma, which 



romance has magnified into a whirlpool capa- 
ble of swallowing up ships. It is only when 
agitated by high tides and violent winds that 
the place assumes that frightful character so 
opposed to the security of vessels. In gene- 
ral, however, the vicinity is carefully eschewed 
by boats and small craft. 

C O TTS L O CH, a small lake about a mile 
inland from Spey Bay, Morayshire, parish 
of St. Andrews, Lhanbryd. It is supplied by 
two small rivulets and issues into the Lossie. 

COULL, a parish in Marr, Aberdeenshire, 
lying at the head of Strathcromar, and separated 
from the Dee on the south by Aboyne. It is 
a finely sheltered tract of land of a triangular 
shape, and generally fertile. The adjacent hills 
are bleak and pastoral. The ruins of the very 
ancient castle of Coull are distinguishable. 
The place is about thirty miles from Aber- 
deen. — Population in 1821, 701. 

COULTER LOCH, a lake in Stirling- 
shire, parish of St. Ninians, distant about six 
or seven miles from Stirling, towards the south. 
It abounds with eels and perches. The land 
round it is moorish. It is reported by tradi- 
tion that about fifty years since, by some con- 
vulsion of nature, a stone weighing a ton in 
weight was thrown from its bottom to the dis- 
tance of several yards on its banks. 

COURTIN ISLES, two small islets ly- 
ing betwixt Raasay and Ross-shire. 

COVE, a village on the Sea-coast of Kin- 
cardineshire, lying south of Nigg Bay, at the 
head of a small bay called Cove Harbour. 

COVINGTON, a parish in the upper 
part of Lanarkshire, having Carmichael on 
the south-west and Pettinain on the north- 
west. In the south-east quarter stands the 
high hill of Tinto. The parish is partly hilly 
and pastoral, and partly meadow land and agri- 
cultural. The little village of Covington lies 
on the right of the road from Biggar to Lanark. 
It has of late years been in a great measure re- 
built. Originally, part of this parish consti- 
tuted the now abrogated parish of Thankerton, 
—Population in 1821, 526. 

COWAL, a peninsular district in the south- 
east quarter of Argyleshire, containing six pa- 
rishes. It partakes of the common character 
of Argyleshire, being hilly and mostly pastoral. 
It is cut up by some long arms of the sea, and 
by the long fresh water lake called Loch Eck- 
COWCADDENS, a village suburban to 
Glasgow, on the road to Po.-t-P'iindas. 

COWIE, a river in Kincardineshire, rising 
in the high grounds at the centre of the 
shire, and falling into the sea to the north 
of Stonehaven, after a course of about tej> 

COYLSTON, a parish near the west bor- 
der of the district of Kyle, Ayrshire, lying to 
the east of Ayr, and bounded on the south- 
west by Dalrymple. It extends from the 
banks of the Doon to the Water of Ayr ; it 
is seven miles long and two broad. It has 
three small lakes. The surface is flat and 
arable, and it abounds with coal, lime, and 
marie. The parish derives its name from the 
village where the church stands, and it is stated 
by tradition that the village obtained its ap- 
pellation from a King Coyle, who is said to 
have been killed in battle in the neighbour- 
hood and buried at the church. The house of 
Coylesfield, which is nearly five miles north of 
Coylston, is also claimed by tradition as the 
scene of the valorous death of " Old King 
Coul," or, as he is termed in Scottish poetry, 
" Auld King Coyl," and a large stone is still 
venerated as the monument of this chieftain. 
The village and church stand on a rivulet call- 
ed the Coyle, which falls into the Ayr. The 
word Coyle or Kyle, in Gaelic, signifies a wood, 
hence the name Caledonia, which is merely a 
latinization of the epithet which the Romans 
must have found conferred upon the country 
by the savages who inhabited its woody re- 
cesses. Coilus, or Coil, being a fabulous per- 
sonage, or at least unacknowledged in authentic 
history, it is probable that Coylston, Coyles ■ 
field, Kyle, and Caledonia, are all alike deriv- 
ed from words applicable to the early sylvan 
character of the country. — Population in 1821, 

CRAIG, a parish in Forfarshire, occupying 
the peninsular corner of land between the sea 
on the east coast and the basin of Montrose on 
the north. It is about six miles in length by 
two and a half in breadth. The islet called 
Inch Brayock in the neck of water communi- 
cating from the basin to the sea belongs to the 
parish. It is generally arable, and abounds with 
limestone. — Population in 1821, 1545. 

CRAIG-ENDIVE, a small island lying in 
the Sound of Jura, between Jura and Knapdale. 
CRAIG-GAG-POINT, a headland on 
the north shore of the Moray Firth, Suther- 
landshire, eight miles south-west from the Ord 
of Caithness. 

C R A I L. 


CRA1GIE, a parish In the district of Kyle, 
Ayrshire, in that part of the country which 
lies betwixt the Ayr and Irvine Waters. It 
is seven miles in length by one and a quarter 
in breadth. The eminences are green and pas- 
toral, and the low grounds are fertile, arable, 
and well enclosed. It possesses several ex- 
tensive lime-works. A part of the suppressed 
parish of Barnwell belongs to this parish. Be- 
fore the Reformation, the church belonged to 
the monks of Paisley. — Population in 1821, 

CRAIGIE-BARNS, a conspicuous hill 
near Dunkeld, in Perthshire, from which a 
very extensive prospect is obtained. 

CRAIG-LEITH, a small islet at the 
mouth of the Firth of Forth, near North Ber- 
wick, to which it belongs. 

CRAIG-LEITH, a very extensive quarry 
of freestone, situated about two miles west 
from Edinburgh, on the road to Queensferry. 
It produces exceedingly fine cream-coloured 
stone, and has yielded blocks for building a 
very considerable part of the metropolis. This 
quarry is at length fashioned into an immense 
and profound amphitheatre, which many visit 
as a sight. Several fossil trees have been found 
in the course of the work. 

CRAIG-LOCKHART, a beautifully 
wooded eminence a short way west of Morn- 
ingside, in a south-westerly direction from 
Edinburgh, which slopes gently to the east, 
and is precipitous on its western side. On 
the slope, amidst some fine old wood, stands 
the ancient mansion of Craig-house. 

CRAIGLUSH, (LOCH) a small lake, 
parish of Caputh, Perthshire, from which rises 
the Lunan Water. 

CRAIGNISH, a parish lying on the west 
coast of Argyleshire, opposite Scarba and the 
Gulf of Coryvreckan. It is seven miles in 
length by two in breadth. The surface is flat, 
but bleak, and not very productive. Part of 
the ground is rendered a peninsula, (the ex- 
treme point of which is called Craignish Point,) 
by the indentation of Craignish Loch, an arm 
of the sea. Within and without the Loch, lie 
at least twenty islands, with many islets and 
rocks. Macfadgen, Rustantrue, Resave, Garv- 
risa, and Baisker are the principal. They are 
beautiful little islands ; beautiful from the 
brilliancy of their situation, from the intricate 
and picturesque arrangements of then - cliffs 

and shores, and from their ancient solitary 
trees, perched above the rocks, or high on their 
summits, or stuck in some fissure of a cliff, 
and hanging down their knotted and bending 
branches into the tea. In a fine summer even- 
ing, their labyrinths form a little watery para- 
dise. The circumstance of trees, and these 
oaks too, being found on this exposed coast, 
where every shrub is blasted by cold moist 
winds, has caused the surprise of every topo- 
grapher. Though abounding in much splen- 
did and romantic lake-scenery, this loch, from 
being not among the number of those usually 
visited by the tourists, is little heard of. — Po- 
pulation in 1821, 901. 

CRAIG-PHADRIC, a conspicuous rug- 
ged mountain, romantic and wooded, in the 
neighbourhood of Inverness, elevated 1150 
feet from its base, on the top of which is the 
ruin of a magnificent vitrified fort, partly over- 
grown with vegetable mould. Of these vitri- 
fied forts there are various specimens remain- 
ing in different counties, and it is now ascer- 
tained, that buildings found in this state of 
concretion, have been made so by the applica- 
tion of ardent heat on both sides of the walls 
after they were reared. The vitrification has 
the appearance of dark coarse glass cinders, 
fastened among the layers of stones, which are 
partly fused. Quarries yielding fusing ma- 
terials are generally found in their neighbour- 

CRAIL, a parish occupying that point of 
Fife, commonly called its East Neuk, or cor- 
ner ; extending six miles in length from Fife 
Ness, its prominent headland. The country 
is flat, meagre in its productive character, and 
destitute of interest. 

Crail, the parish town, and a royal burgh, 
lies four miles east of Anstmther, two from 
the above Ness, ten south-east of St. Andrews, 
and thirty north-east of Kinghorn. It is said 
to have been a town of note as early as the ninth 
century. David I. had a palace here, now en- 
tirely demolished, except a fragment of wall 
which helps to enclose a garden. It once pos- 
sessed a very eminent and richly endowed pri- 
ory, and a collegiate church, with a provost, 
sacrist, and several prebendaries. The priory 
was suppressed before the Reformation, and 
the church was similarly reduced in its esta- 
blishment on that event. The spoil of the en- 
dowments was shared by the Lisdsays and the 




burgh. Its revenues must have done these par- 
ties much good ; for they were very extensive. 
Among other objects of their institution, it 
appears that they supported no fewer than 
eight altars in the church. It was in this 
place of worship, on Sunday, May 19, 1559, 
that the mob, inflamed by the preaching of 
Knox, began the work of demolishing the mo- 
numents of idolatry in Fife, as their brethren 
had done at Perth a few days before. Having 
finished their operations here, they followed 
their zealous leader to St. Andrews, where 
they assisted in levelling its beautiful and su- 
perb cathedral to the ground. Archbishop 
Sharpe was, at one time, minister of the kirk 
of Crail. Like many other places on this side 
of the island, Crail suffered severely in trade 
by the Union. Many of its houses are of that 
massive and antique description which indicate 
past splendour. The principal street is spa- 
cious and regular j but in the utter dulness and 
decay of the town, it is constantly littered 
with all kinds of filth and rubbish, and, in 
many places, covered with rank grass and weeds. 
With great capabilities as a port, the harbour 
is small and incommodious, and at present 
possesses no trade. Fortunately for the inha- 
bitants, coal is plentiful in the neighbourhood. 
Altogether, Crail presents a veiy perfect spe- 
cimen of the decayed old burghs of Scotland, 
which are by no chance ever heard of, except 
when brought into notice by topographical 
works like the present, or by the newspaper 
details of an election, and whose only employ- 
ment seems to be the discussion of the paltry 
politics of the place, or the more substantial 
negociation of the return of a member of par- 
liament. Asa royal burgh, in virtue of char- 
ters from Robert Bruce, it is governed by 
three bailies, a treasurer, and from eleven to 
fifteen councillors. It has seven incorporated 
trades, and, in conjunction with Kilrenny, the 
two Anstruthers, and Pittenweem, sends a 
member to parliament. The only association 
in the town is a golfing club, which was begun 
in 1 760 ; the members of which pursue their 
delightful recreation on the adjacent links. 
Besides the parish kirk there is a dissenting 

meeting-house Population of the hurgh and 

parish in 1821, 1854. 

CRAILING, a parish in Roxburghshire, 
lying on both sides of the Tiviot, of a circular 
form, and nearly four miles in diameter j hav- 

ing Roxburgh on the north, Eckfordonthe east, 
Jedburgh on the south and Ancrum on the west. 
Oxnam Water runs into the Tiviot on its south, 
bank in this parish. The country here is rich 
and exceedingly beautiful. The low and ris- 
ing grounds are highly cultivated and enclosed, 
and in some places well wooded. The uplands 
are excellent pasture land. The parish is the 
lowest, the warmest, and the most fertile part 
of Tiviotdale. The village of Crailing lies 
seven miles south from Kelso, and thirteen east 
of Hawick. — The manse and benefice of the 
clergyman are among the best in Scotland. 
The parish comprehends the suppressed parish 
of Nisbet, which was that part on the north 
of the Tiviot. The origin of the word Crail- 
ing is supposed to signify the brisk pool, and 
may have been given from the ebullition of the 
mountain stream of Oxnam Water. In the 
days of David I., the parish of Crailing itself 
was divided into the two parochial districts of 
Upper Crailing and Crailing. The whole be- 
longed to the monastery at Jedburgh. — 'Popu- 
lation in 1821, 748. 

CRAKENISH POINT, a small head- 
land on the south side of Loch Eynat, west 
coast of Sky. 

CRAMOND, a parish of which the great- 
er part is in the county of Edinburgh, and the 
remainder in Linlithgowshire, lying on the 
south shore of the Firth of Forth ; bounded 
on the west by Dalmeny and Kirkliston, on 
the south by Corstorphine and St. Cuthbert's 
(or the West Kirk of Edinburgh). The 
western part of it is intersected by the river 
Almond, which falls into the sea at a creek, 
on the east side of which, on a declining bank, 
lies the small village of Cramond. The parish 
is either altogether agricultural and highly pro- 
ductive, or laid out in plantations and meadow 
pastures. The celebrated Law of Lauriston 
was a native of this parish, and his patrimonial 
residence is still standing, though altered great- 
ly for the better in appearance and accommoda- 
tion. Some stake-net fisheries are now insti- 
tuted on the sands, a little way below the vil- 
lage. There might be a most delightful walk 
for foot passengers, betwixt this place and 
Leith. At present the walls of the various 
proprietors almost meet the water, and passen- 
gers are occasionally overtaken by the tides. 
The village of Cramond is known to have been 
an important Roman station. On the oppo- 



site bank of the creek of the -Almond, on a 
craggy eminence, was placed a fortification, and 
from that circumstance the name is derived, — 
Car-Almond, which is simply " the Castle on 
the Almond." Within the parish of Cramond, 
on one of the slopes of Corstorphine Hill, lie the 
mansion-house and lands of Craigcrook. These 
were mortified as an eleemosynary endowment 
bytheirproprietor,John Strachan, Esq. in 1720. 
The then annual revenue was only L.300, 
which is now greatly increased. The amount 
is dedicated to the payment of annual sums of 
about L-8 each, to a great number of poor old 
men, women, and orphans in the city of Edin- 
burgh. It is one of the largest endowments of 
the kind in Scotland. The eminently distin- 
guished critic, Francis Jeffrey, Esq., has been 
many years tenant of the mansion. The ec- 
clesiastical history of Cramond parish is worth 
noticing. When David I. was studious to in- 
troduce English Barons into Scotland, he 
granted one half of the manor of Cramond, 
with the church, to Robert Avenel, who after- 
wards transferred both to the bishop of Dun- 
Keld. Nether- Cramond, where stood the 
church, was then called Bishop's Cramond ; 
while the other half of the parish, which long 
remained with the crown, was called King's Cra- 
mond. The bishops of Dunkeld occasionally 
resided at Nether Cramond, and in 1210 one of 
them died here, and was buried in the monas- 
tery of Inchcolm, to which he had granted 
twenty shillings a-year from the church of 
Cramond. Till the Reformation, the parish 
was therefore a mensal cure of the bishops, 
who served it by a vicar. In the church of 
Cramond, there were two altars, one of which 
was consecrated to Columba, the patron saint 
of Dunkeld ; and the other was dedicated to 
the Virgin. After the Reformation the en- 
dowments for the support of their chaplains 
were acquired by the first Earl of Hadding- 
ton, and the property of the bishops was ini- 
quitously procured by means of a very long 
lease from Bishop Rollock by Sir James 
Elphinston, afterwards Lord Balmerino. — Po- 
pulation in 1821, 1804. 

CRAMOND-BRIDGE, a village in the 
parish of Cramond, lying on the Almond river, 
rather more than five miles from Edinburgh, 
and supported chiefly by the Iron-works there 
established. The river is here crossed by a 
very fine stone bridge, connected with the road 
from Edinburgh to South Queensferry. 

CRANSHAWS, a wild pastoral hilly 
parish, in the northern part of Berwickshire, 
lying among the Lammermoor hills, and con- 
sisting of two distinct pieces of country, separ- 
ated by a part of the parish of Longformacus. 
The kirk stands in the most northerly part, in 
a vale through which the river Whittadder 
winds its course. To the north-west of the 
kirk stands the castle of Cranshaws, once the 
hold of a kinsman of the Douglasses, and one 
of a chain of towers built to defend this part of 
the country. It is the only one which is not 
in ruins, and seems to be the only house in 
Lammermoor which answers to the description 
of Ravenswood in the author of Waverley's 
beautiful tragic tale. It belongs to Mr. Wat- 
son of Saughton, and being kept in repair, it 
is occasionally used as shooting quarters Po- 
pulation in 1821, 156. 

CRANSTON, a parish on the eastern side 
of the county of Edinburgh, intersected by the 
river Tyne, having Dalkeith and Newbotle on 
the north and west, and Crichton on the south ; 
extendingfive miles in length by three in breadth, 
but very narrow in the middle. The land is 
high and undulating, but is well cultivated and 
enclosed, and abounds in beautiful planta- 
tions. A very fine Gothic church of white 
freestone has recently been erected on the 
south face of the hill, to the south of the town 
of Dalkeith. In early times the district was 
divided into the two manors of New- Cranston 
and Cfanston- Ridel, the name of the latter 
being derived from one Hugh Ridel, who be- 
came its possessor. This Hugh it seems af- 
terwards gave the church and its tithes to the 
monks of Kelso, in consideration of their 
praying for ever for the soul of King David 
I. The same monks acquired in the same 
manner the lands of Preston. From the Rid- 
els the lands passed to the family of Macgills, 
who were raised to the dignity of peers under 
the title of Viscounts Oxenford. They after- 
wards passed into the family of Dalrymple. 
At the village and on the manor of Cousland, 
stood a chapel, which is understood to have 
been dedicated to St. Bartholomew, as some 
land near it retains the name of Bartholo- 
mew's Firlot. There was another chapel at 
Cranston, which belonged to the monks of 
Dunfermline. At the Reformation the 
whole merged into one parochial ecclesiasti- 
cal establishment. The parish now posses- 
ses the three small villages of Cranston, Cous- 


C RE E. 

land, and Preston. — Population in 1821, 

CRATHY, an extensive mountainous pa- 
rish in the heart of Marr, Aberdeenshire, incor- 
porating the suppressed parish of Brae- Mar. 
Jointly they compose a territory forty miles 
in length by twenty in breadth, lying about fif- 
ty miles from the sea. The grounds lie high, 
and are composed of ranges of bleak pastoral 
hills, thinly inhabited, with a little cultivation in 
the valleys, and especially on the banks of the 
Dee, which intersects the district. One of the 
great military roads pursues its course through 
this wild region, nearly along the course of the 
Dee. The remains of ancient castles are ex- 
tant here and there. Slate abounds. Castle- 
town of Brae- Mar lies on the military road to- 
wards the head of the parish Population in 

1821, 1897. 

CRAWFORD, a parish occupying the 
southern corner of the county of Lanark, 
eighteen miles in length by fifteen in breadth. 
This is among the wildest and most unpro- 
ductive parishes in what is called the South 
Highlands. It is nearly altogether hilly, pas- 
toral, and moorish. Its only value lies in its 
mineral wealth. It has lead mines, which are 
the greatest in the world. See Lead Hills. 
The Powtrail, the Elvan, the Dear, the Glen- 
gonar, and other minor parental tributaries of 
the Clyde, water its lower grounds. The 
village of Crawford is composed of cottages 
built in a wide straggling manner, each being 
provided with a small piece of ground. It lies 
eighteen miles south from Lesmahago, A 
portion of the parish, on the north-west, was 
held during the reign of Malcolm IV. by John, 
the stepson of Baldwin de Bigger ; and from 
him it was called Crawford- John, and formed 
the parish of that name. The more extensive 
part, forming the parish of Crawford, was held 
during the reign of William the Lion, by Wil- 
liam de Lindsay, and his successors held it for 
several centuries, from which circumstance it 
came to be called Crawford- Lindsay. The fa- 
mily of Lindsay was ennobled in 1399, under 
the title of Earls of Crawford. David de 
Lindsay, the fourth Earl, lost the domain in 
1488, for having been a supporter of James 
III. in opposition to the faction which caused 
the overthrow and death of that monarch. It 
was then bestowed on Archibald Earl of 
Angus, and from liis family name it afterwards 
came to be called Crawford-Douglas. The 

word Crawford is by no means of Anglo-Saxon 
origin. It is derived from the British com. 
pound Craw-fordd, signifying the passage, or 
the road of blood, an appellation which may 
have arisen from some bloody contest, between 
the people of the country and their Roman in- 
vaders. This is the more probable, as the an- 
cient castle and church of Crawford stood on 
a part of the Clyde, where the great Roman 
road crossed the nver by a ford. Prior to the 
Reformation, the monks- of Newbotle, by grants 
from the Lindsays, possessed considerable pri- 
vileges of free-forest and right of property in the 
parish of Crawford Population in 1821, 1914. 

CRAWFORD- JOHN, a parish in the up- 
per part of Clydesdale, Lanarkshire, contiguous 
to the foregoing parish, of which, as above 
noticed, it was once a part. It extends about 
fifteen miles in length, is in general six in 
breadth, and lies on the banks of Duneaton Water. 
It is a hilly pastoral district, with a little cul- 
tivation in the low grounds, and in some places 
is beginning to be beautified by plantations.— 
Population in 1821, 971. 


CRAWICK, a tributary rivulet of the 
Nith, in the north-western part of Dumfries- 
shire, which rises in the high grounds dividing 
the county from Lanarkshire, and flowing in a 
southerly direction between Sanquhar and 
Kirkconnel parishes, falls into the Nith at San- 
quhar Manse. In the lower part of its course, 
its banks are beautifully wooded. 

CREE, a river serving as the boundary be- 
twixt the stewartry of Kirkcudbright and Wig- 
ton shire, throughout their whole length from 
north to south. The sources of this stream 
are found in Carrick, in Ayrshire, and in va- 
rious little lakes on the verge of that county, 
in different directions. At the head of Wig- 
tonshire it falls into Loch Cree, which is 
merely the river expanded into the character of 
a lake for about three miles in length ; from 
thence it renews its course as a stream, passing 
Newton Stewart on the east, and falling into a 
creek at the head of Wigton Bay. The latter 
part of its course is beautiful. For several 
miles up, it is navigable for small vessels. 
Smelts are found in its waters. 

CREE TOWN, a village standing on the 
east side of the creek of the above river Cree, 
at the head of Wigton Bay, in the parish of 
Kirkmabreck, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 
seven and a half miles south-east of Newton- 



Stewart, and eleven west of Gatehouse. It is 
a sea- side village of no interest. The view of 
the opposite peninsula, on which lies the town 
of Wigton, is very pleasing. In the neigh- 
bourhood there are several ornamental gentle- 
men's seats. 

CRERAN, (LOCH) a salt water lake, 
or small arm of the sea, stretching out from 
Loch Linnhe into Appin, Argyleshire. 

CRICHTON, a parish in the eastern part 
of the county of Edinburgh, having Cranston 
on the north and Borthwick on the west. The 
country hereabouts is hilly, or rather undulat- 
ing, being the- semi-upland part of Mid-Lo- 
thian, towards the south. The low grounds 
and braes are all arable, and very little remains 
uncultivated. There are also a variety of 
plantations. The village of Crichton lies near 
the road to Coldstream by Soutra Hill, at the 
distance of eleven miles south-east of the me- 
tropolis. It is almost contiguous with the 
long road-side village of Path-head- The kirk 
of Crichton stands apart from the village or 
any inhabited place, on a brae overhanging the 
Tyne, which is here a mere rivulet. At a 
little distance stands the manse, in a pleasant 
situation. Crichton Kirk has witnessed the 
p erformance of public worship according to the 
usage of three different establishments. It is 
a plain Gothic cruciform edifice, (mutilated in 
the chancel,) which was founded in 1449, as a 
collegiate church, by Sir William Crichton, 
Chancellor of Scotland, with a provision for a 
provost, nine prebendaries, and two singing 
boys, out of the rents of Crichton and Locher- 
wart. It is now very neatly fitted up in a modern 
taste, with pews and seats, and is among the 
cleanliest country kirks in Scotland. Along 
the descending bank on which it stands, at 
the distance of half a mile to the south, 
stand the venerable and imposing ruins 
of Crichton Castle. Two miles further on 
is Borthwick Castle, already noticed. Crich- 
ton Castle is a square massive building, 
with a court in the centre. It appears to be 
composed of parts built in different ages, yet 
the whole is upon a systematic plan. On the 
outside, defence has necessarily been more 
considered than elegance ; it is in the interior 
of the quadrangle that taste has been chiefly 
exercised. The walls exhibit the finest carv- 
ing in stone cut in facets, or square protuber- 
ances, and the principal staircase, now dread- 
fully broken down, is likewise covered with 

elaborate and curious work. Some of the 
rooms are still in a great measure entire, but 
rather in the general outline than the details, 
the Scottish spirit of destructiveness having, 
in this retired part of the country, wreaked it- 
self out with unrestrained licence on every 
thing susceptible of damage. Every thing 
beautiful within reach has been dashed in 
pieces ; the lower chambers are occupied as 
byres for cattle, and the bottom of the court 
is used as a convenient pen for " lazy steers." 
Very little attention could have kept the house 
in entire preservation. It was the patrimoni- 
al residence of the same distinguished man who 
founded the church. On his forfeiture, it was 
granted to Sir James Ramsay of Balmain, a 
youthful favourite of James III., from whom 
it afterwards passed by forfeiture to Patrick 
Hepburn, Lord Hales, ancestor of the cele- 
brated Earl of Bothwell, who spent here a 
great part of his time, while engaged in those 
dark enterprises which have so effectually 
blasted his reputation, and so nearly affected 
that of Queen Mary. On the forfeiture of 
this last nobleman in 1567, Crichton became 
the property of the crown, by which, however, 
it was granted nine years afterwards to Stewart, 
Earl of Bothwell, so noted for his conspira- 
cies. Since the forfeiture of that strange per- 
son, it has passed through the hands of almost 
a dozen proprietors, from one of whom Hep- 
burn of Humbie, a gentleman of the neigh- 
bourhood, who acquired it about the period of 
the civil wars, it has derived the designation 
by which it is generally known among the 
common people of the district — Humbie's 
Was. At the east side at the bottom of the 
edifice is the large dungeon or massie more. 
Apart from the castle, on the south, at a 
short distance, is the roofless ruin of a house 
which may have been a stable to the castle, 
or some other office. — Population in 1821, 

CRICHUP, a rivulet in Dumfries-shire, 
in the parish of Closeburn. 

CRIECH, a small parish in the north-east 
part of Fife, separated from the firth of Tay 
by the intervening parishes of Flisk and Bal- 
merino, with Kilmany on the east. The land 
is here of inferior quality, and the district is 
only distinguished for having been the birth- 
place of the Rev. John Sage, the first of the 
post-revolution bishops, in the Scottish epis- 
copal communion, and the author of that very 



remarkable production, — the Fundamental 
Charter of Presbytery. He was one of the 
clergymen of Glasgow who were turned out 
by the revolution settlement ; after which 
period he underwent such a variety of misfor- 
tunes, from being an object of dislike to the 
government, that he may be described as being 
all but a " martyr." If estimated by his learn- 
ing, his industry, his great talents, his constan- 
cy, and his zeal, it will be acknowledged that 
few such men have adorned the history of 
much more opulent and extensive churches. 
After receiving much friendly aid from the fa- 
mily of Sir William Bruce of Kinross-shire, and 
that of a Mr. Christie, he was suffered to die 
unmolested at Edinburgh, in 1711 — Popula- 
tion in 1821, 394. 

CRIE CH, an extensive Highland parish in 
Sutherlandshire, stretching along the southern 
boundary of the county, where the river Ockel 
divides it from Ross-shire, from Dornoch to 
Assint. In breadth it varies from two to ten 
miles or upwards, and in length, it extends a- 
cross the island, at least forty miles. It pos- 
sesses a great number of small lakes, and has 
several small streams. Altogether it is a hilly 
pastoral district, almost entirely devoted to the 
feeding of sheep and cattle. It has likewise 
some natural wood, and is not destitute of 
monuments of savage strife and slaughter. 
The parish church lies on the north shore of 

the firth of Dornoch Population in 1821, 


CRIEFF, a parish in Strathearn, Perth- 
shire, having Monzie on the north, separated 
from Comrie on the west by Monivaird, and 
having Muthil on the south. It lies on the 
north bank of the Earn ; and consists partly 
of Highlands and partly of Lowlands. The 
upper part is joined ecclesiastically to Mon- 
zie. The low grounds are beautifully culti- 
vated, planted, and enclosed. The Shaggie, 
the Peffray, and the Turret, are its minor 
streams, and they all afford excellent fishing. 
The last is rendered classic by the pen of 

Crieff, the capital of the above parish, in 
point of situation, is one of the most delight- 
ful places in Scotland, and stands eighteen 
miles west from Perth, twenty-one north from 
Stirling, and six and a half east from Comrie. 
It occupies the face of a gentle acclivity, ris- 
ing up from the north bank of the Earn, from 
which its market-place is distant about a mile. 

It lies at the mouth of an important pass into 
the Highlands of Perthshire, with a wild 
mountainous region on the one side, and rich 
soft vales on the other. It possesses a jail with 
a spire and town clock, a church, and elegant 
assembly-room. The trade carried on is the 
weaving of thin linens and cottons. It was 
formerly the scene of a prodigious annual fair, 
at which the Highlanders attended with some- 
times no fewer than thirty thousand head of 
their black cattle, which were bought by Low- 
land and English dealers. This traffic has 
been since chiefly transferred to Falkirk ; but 
the place has still two annual fairs, and a mar- 
ket on Thursday. Crieff is now a thriving 
and increasing town, its prosperity being un- 
manned by the curse of burgh politics. A 
popularly elected committee of its inhabitants 
manage its public affairs. It derives no small 
profit from its being a favourable summer re- 
treat for invalids and others, who are attracted 
by the beauty and salubrity of the place. The 
town has a news-room, and a handsome build- 
ing for a mason lodge. In and about Crieff are 
a number of distilleries, breweries, tanneries, 
and dye-works. Besides the parish church, 
there are several meeting-houses of different 
presbyterian dissenters and a Roman Catholic 

chapel Population in 1821, 4216. 

CRIMOND, a parish lying on the coast of 
Buchan, Aberdeenshire, between Peterhead 
and Fraserburgh, with a front to the German 
Ocean, of three miles in breadth, and declining 
away to a point inland, at the distance of five 
and a half miles. The surface is undulating, 
and mostly arable ; but the soil is poor, and 
the district has its full proportion of moor, 
moss, and unproductive sandy downs. In it is 
the small loch of Strathbeg, the church is in 
the centre of the parish, ten miles north-west 
of Peterhead— Population in 1821, 900. 

CRINAN, (LOCH) a small arm of the 
sea, on the west coast of Argyleshire, jutting 
in eastward from the head of the Sound of 
Jura, from whence a navigable channel has 
been cut, called the Crinan Canal, across 
Knapdale, to a similar arm of Loch Fyne, 
called Loch Gilp. 

CROE, a small river running into Loch 
Duich, parish of Kintail, Ross-shire, and giv- 
ing a name to a district. 

CROMAR, the lower part of the exten- 
sive district of Marr, Aberdeenshire, compre- 
hending the parishes of Coul, Tarland and 



Migvie, of Logie-Coldstone and part of Tu!- 

CROMARTY, a small county in the 
north of Scotland, the exact boundaries and 
dimensions of which are extremely ambiguous. 
It is so mixed up with Ross-shire, that there 
can hardly be a literary separation of the two, 
as there should certainly not be a political. 
The greater part of it lies in the Black Isle, 
or that peninsida which is bounded by the 
Cromarty Firth on the north, and the Moray 
Firth on the east and south. The length of 
this compact district is sixteen miles, with an 
average breadth of between six and seven. It 
does not, however, all belong to Cromarty, a 
piece of Ross-shire being thrust into the mid- 
dle of it, while a small portion of Nairn lies 
on its western side. The other portions of 
the counry are nine in number, which are scat- 
tered about Ross-shire in little bits, far apart 
from each other : four out of these lie 
like stepping-stones across the county, from 
the head of the Black Isle to Little Loch 
Broom on the west coast. The whole of these 
districts were, at one time, the property of Sir 
James Mackenzie, who, about the end of the 
seventeenth century, had them erected into an 
independent county, to suit his own conveni- 
ence in a variety of ways. Black Isle has been 
already partly described under the article Ard- 
Meanach. Throughout nearly its whole 
length, it is intersected by the range of Mul- 
buy hills, which are of a bleakish nature, and 
from thence the land declines into low grounds 
on the shores of the firths. It is computed 
that the superficies of land in Cromartyshire 
amounts altogether to 344 square miles, or 
2 - 20,586 English acres. Within the county 
there is only one entire parish. Originally, and 
not long since, the district was very moorish ; 
but in recent times, agricultural improvements 
have been instituted on an extensive scale. 
The air and climate are drier than in the more* 
northerly and westerly parts of the Highlands, 
and in general the crops are earlier. The 
farms have unfortunately been hitherto of the 
small kind, and such a practice is only begin- 
ning to be remedied. Plantations are in the 
course of introduction. Freestone and granite 
are the only minerals worthy of notice. The 
fisheries on the coast are the best sources of 
the public wealth and support. By the latest 
county roll the shire has nineteen freeholders, 
who, alternately with those of the small 

county of Nairn, elect a member of par- 
liament. The district is comprehended in 
the sheriffdom of Ross-shire, and a sheriff- 
substitute holds monthly courts at the town 
of Cromarty. Cromarty gave the title of 
Earl to a branch of the Mackenzies of Sea- 
forth. The family came into royal favour in 
the reigns of James VI., Charles I. and II., 
and after having been raised to a baronetcy, 
was, in the reign of James II., elevated to the 
viscountcy of Tarbet. Lord Tarbet was 
created Earl of Cromarty in the reign of Queen 
Anne, in the year 1 702, but the title was at- 
tainted in the person of George, the third 
Earl, on account of his having engaged him- 
self with 400 of his men in the rebellion of 
1745. He was surprised and defeated by the 
Earl of Sutherland's militia, near Dunrobin 
Castle, on the day before the battle of Cullod- 
en, and being sent to London, he was tried, 
and condemned to be executed, but by great 
intercession his life was spared, though his 
estate and honours were forfeited. At pre- 
sent the peerage is claimed by Sir Alexander 
Mackenzie of Tarbet, Bart Population in- 
cluded with Ross-shire. 

CROMARTY, the chief parish in the 
above county, lying in its north-east corner ; 
extending seven miles in length by from one to 
four in breadth ; bounded by the parish of 
Resolis on the west. Along the south side of 
the parish, there is a beautiful verdant beach ; 
extending from the eastern to the western ex- 
tremity of the parish : the bulk of the arable 
land hangs over this beach in a sloping man- 
ner, and presents one uninterrupted corn field. 
Other parts of the parish are generally moorish. 

Cromarty, the capital of the above county 
and parish, is one of the neatest, cleanest, 
and prettiest towns of the size in Scotland. 
It lies upon a promontory jutting into the neck 
of the sea communicating from the Moray to 
the Cromarty Firth, and the ground being 
slightly elevated, it has the advantage of a dry 
as well as a pleasant situation. Most of the 
houses were whitewashed in 1826, owing to 
the generosity of a candidate for the represen- 
tation of the county in parliament, who thus 
adorned the residences of all who were desirous 
of it ; from which circumstance it may be said 
that the town came cleaner out of the election 
than most others. The staple trade of Cro- 
marty is the catching, curing, and exportation 
of herrings, and other fish. A very great body 



of fishermen is engaged in catching, and the 
operation of gutting and salting is performed by 
women. The bustle created by these various 
employments is often very considerable. An 
excellent harbour and pier give easy access to 
the town. Vessels of 400 tons burden can 
come up to the quay, which was recently reared 
at the joint expense of government and the pro- 
prietor of the Cromarty estate. The shore is 
generally lined with boats, the pier with ship- 
ping, and the anchorage in the Firth is enliven- 
ed by northern traders and men-of-war. Should 
agriculture and manufactures accumulate a 
large population in the district, this port will 
become one of the wealthiest and best in the 
north of Scotland. A very respectable trade 
in the hempen or sackcloth line has been long 
carried on. Shipbuilding is now executed 
here. Cromarty is lucky in not being retard- 
ed by the manoeuvres of aburgal magistracy, or 
distracted by local politics. Anciently it was a 
royal burgh, but was disfranchised by an act of 
the Scottish Privy Council, in consequence of 
an application from Sir John Urquhart, proprie- 
tor of the estate of Cromarty ; and it is now a 
burgh of barony. The view from the hill of 
Cromarty is remarkably fine. An immense 
expanse of water, (the Cromarty Firth,) 
stretches far west among the mountains of 
Ross-shire, which in innumerable forms and 
tints bound the horizon. To the north, a 
shore, at first low, and covered with trees, 
houses, and cultivation, gradually rises before 
the eye, till it blends with the higher lands 
that surround the Firth of Tain. The narrow 
entrance between the two bluff wooded hills, 
called the Sutors, which almost meet and re- 
flect each other's form, completes the delight- 
ful picture. There is a profound chasm, form- 
ing a natural bridge under the South Sutor, 
called Macfarquhar's Bed, besides a petrifying 
spring, called the Dripping Well, which strang- 
ers make a point of visiting. Near the North 
Sutor are seven sunk rocks, never seen except 
at the recess of spring tides ; they are termed 
the Seven Kings' Sons, because, according to 
tradition, seven individuals who bore that re- 
lation to royalty were once shipwrecked, and 
drowned upon them, in coming home from 
France. There is a ferry of two miles in 
breadth across the firth. The town has a 
weekly market on Fridays, and an annual fair. 
Besides the parish church, there is a chapel of 

ease, in which service is performed in Gaelic. 
—Population in 1821,2649. 

CROMARTY FIRTH, the arm of the 
sea above alluded to, which goes off the 
north-western side of the Moray Firth, by a 
narrow channel of a mile and a half in width, 
the shores of which are overhung by two hills 
amazingly like each other in form, called respec- 
tively the North and South Sutor of Cromarty. 
The South Sutor is immediately contiguous to 
the town of Cromarty, and prettily wooded, 
the length of the strait is nearly two miles, 
after which the water expands into a spacious 
beautiful bay of an average length and breadth 
of six or seven miles. It afterwards degene- 
rates into a frith of from one to two miles in 
length ; thus serving as the boundary of the 
Black Isle on the north-west. For several 
miles up the bay, after passing the Sutors, there 
is very excellent anchoring ground, with this 
superior advantage, that so smooth and favour- 
able is the state of the coast on both sides, 
that were a vessel driven from her cables, and 
cast ashore, little or no damage would ensue. 
Buchanan, in his history, calls it Portus Sa- 
lutis. Such is the vast extent of sea-room in 
this bay, that almost the whole British navy 
might with the greatest safety ride within view 
of Cromarty. Accordingly, in all violent 
easterly storms, where no vessel can venture 
into any part of the east coast, from the Firth 
of Forth northwards, all vessels thus situated 
flock into this bay as a place of perfect safety. 

CROMDALE, a parish lying nearly equal- 
ly in the counties of Moray and Inverness, on 
the south-east side of the former, bounded by 
Knockando on the north, by Inveraven and 
Kirkmichael on the east, and by Abernethy 
on the south. There is a great confusion in 
its boundaries. In extent it may be twenty 
miles in length, and from eleven to twelve in 
breadth. There is only a very small propor- 
tion of the parish cultivated or fertile. With 
the exception of some fine meadows on the 
banks of the Spey, it is altogether heathy and 
hilly. That portion on which the church and 
manse are situated, is a fine level meadow or 
haugh, on the east bank of the Spey, of a 
semicircular form — and hence the name ; on 
this ground was fought the battle of Cromdale, 
in 1690, betwixt a small remnant of the ad- 
herents of the house of Stetvart, who kept in 
arms after the death of Dundee at Killicran- 



ky, and the soldiers of King William, in which 
the latter were victorious. This encounter 
has been rendered famous by a song entitled 
" the Haughs of Cromdale," which, however, 
presents a lamentable confusion of historical 
events. Grantown, a village on the opposite 
side of the Spey, and Castle Grant in its 
neighbourhood, are in the parish. — Population 
in 1821, 2907. 

CRONAY, an islet of a flat uninteresting 
nature, off the coast of Assint, west side of the 
county of Sutherland. 

CROOK OF DEVON, a small village 
lying on the upper part of the river Devon, 
parish of Fossa'wayand Tulliebole, in Kinross- 
shire, where the river Devon, after running al- 
most due east, takes a sudden turn or crook to 
the west. The village lies six miles west of 

CROSS ISLAND, a small island lying off 
the south point of the mainland of Shetland. 

CROSS, a parish in the island of Sanday, 
one of the most northerly of the Orkney is- 
lands, to which the parish of Burness on the 
same island, and the parish of North Ronald- 
shay, comprising an island adjacent on the 
north, have been joined. — Population in 
1821, 980. 

CROSS-FORD, a small village in Fife, 
lying within one mile of Dunfermline on the 
road to Alloa. 

CROSS-GATES, a village in the south- 
west part of Fife, at which the great north 
road is intersected by a road from Dunferm- 
line to Kirkaldy. It has several annual fairs. 
CROSSMICHAEL, a parish lying in the 
centre of the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, be- 
twixt the Urr water on the east, and the Dee 
water or Loch Ken on the west. It has 
Buittle and Kelton parishes on the south, and 
Parton on the north. Its surface is full of 
eminences, diversified with richly cultivated 
fields, plantations and green pastures. Two 
small lakes having an outlet to Dee water, 
furnish good perch and pike fishing. The 
patron saint of the church, prior to the Refor- 
mation, was saint Michael, and hence the name; 
though of the cross, there are neither remains 
nor traditions preserved. Up till the gener- 
al annexation act, in 1587, the parish belonged 
to Sweetheart Abbey. — Population in 1821, 

CROVIE, a small fishing village on the 
ehere of Banff Bay, parish of Gamrie. 

CROY, a parish lying in the counties of 
Nairn and Inverness, in that part of the coun- 
try betwixt the river Nairn and the upper arm 
of the Moray Firth, having the parish of Ar- 
dersier on the north. It is of an irregular in- 
comprehensible form, but extending altogether 
to about sixteen miles in length. It is inter- 
sected for about eight miles by the Nairn. 
The country is now beautifully wooded with 
plantations, and is arable for a considerable 
part. The high lands are still bleak and pas- 
toral. The numerous and elegant properties 
of Kilravock, (pronounced Kilrauk,) Holme, 
and Cantray are in the parish. It incorporates 
the suppressed parish of Dalcross. — Population 
in 1821, 1588. 

CRUACHAN, one of the largest and most 
conspicuous mountains of Argyleshire. situated 
in Lorn, with the base of its south end towards 
the head of Loch Awe. It rises to a height 
of 3390 feet, and is upwards of twenty miles 
in circumference. On the north-east it is 
steep and broken, and on the south side it in- 
clines with a gentle slope. Approaching its 
summit by this side, the ascent is tedious, bu 
not difficult, until near the top, when it divides 
into two mighty summits, presenting abrupt 
declivities. From the bold granite precipitous 
tops, some of the finest and most extensive 
mountainous views in Scotland can. be obtain- 
ed. The tourist looks down its red and fur- 
rowed sides into the upper part of Loch Etive, 
and over a magnificent group of mountains, as 
far as Appin and Glenco, and has opened up- 
on his sight the whole of the continental High- 
lands from Rannoch as far as Ben Lawers and 
Ben Lomond, and beyond them to lands which 
only cease to be visible, because they at length 
blend with the sky. So marked also are their 
characters, so rocky and precipitous their sum- 
mits, and so varied their forms, that this ocean 
of hills excels, in variety as in picturesque 
character, all other landscapes of mere moun- 
tains, excepting perhaps that from Ben Lair 
in Ross-shire. The view on the open 
country is also very inviting. While it 
looks down on the sinuosities of Loch Awe, 
and over the irregular lands of Lorn, bright 
with its numerous lakes, it displays all the 
splendid bay of Oban and the Linnhe Loch, 
with Jura, Isla, and all the other islands of the 
coast as far as Tiree and Coll, together with 
the rude mountains of Mull, and the faint 
blue hills of Rum and Skye. A considerable 



nart of the sides of Cruachan is covered with 
natural woods of birch and fir, as well as a 
variety of shrubs. Sea shells have been dis- 
covered at its very summit, — a significant tes- 
timony of the changes which have taken place 
in the limits of the waters, since the beginning 
of time. 

CRUDEN, a parish lying on the east 
coast of Buchan, Aberdeenshire, extending 
from eight to nine miles along the shore, and 
reaching about seven inland. The ground, 
which inclines gently to the sea, is bare, but 
susceptible of being profitably cultivated. A 
large part of the surface is mossy on the north- 
ern boundary. Slaines Castle, the seat of the 
Earl of Errol, a large quadrangular edifice on 
a precipice overhanging the sea, is in the pa- 
rish. At a place about a mile west of Slaines, 
was fought the very sanguinary and important 
battle between the Danes and the Scots, in 
the beginning of the eleventh century, by which 
the latter, being completely victorious, put an 
end to the Danish yoke in Scotland ; though 
Canute, the unsuccessful hero, afterwards in- 
vaded, and became king of England. Mal- 
colm II., the victorious king of the Scottish 
forces, generously buried the slain with great 
decorum, and built a chapel dedicated to St. 
Olaus, the tutelar patron of Denmark. The 
village afterwards reared near the place where 
the chapel was built, was called Crojer Dane 
or Cruden, which signifies Kill the Dane ; and 
there is a tradition, that during the confusion 
of the battle, the Danish military chest was hid 
near that place, and has never been found. 
There are several small and poor fishing vil- 
lages on the coast. At the small village of 
Cruden, there is an episcopal chapel, which 
is numerously attended. — Population in 1821, 

CRUGLETON, a foreland at the head 
of Wigton Bay, on the estuary of the Cree 

CULAG, a rivulet in Assint, Sutherland- 
shire, running into the sea at Loch Inver, on 
the west coast. 

CULL EN, (LOCH) a small lake at the 
centre of the isle of Lewis. 

CULL EN, a parish in Banffshire, lying on 
the sea-coast opposite Cullen Bay, which it 
bounds for about one mile, and reaching in- 
land two miles. It has Rathven on the west, 
Deskford on the south, and Fordyce on the 
east. The surface is undulating and fertile. 

The only high hill is the Bin Hill, which is 
a pre-eminent land-mark in the district. 

Cullen, the capital of the above parish, lies 
on the main road from Banff to Fochabers, near 
the sea-shore, at the distance of 168 miles from 
Edinburgh, fourteen west by north from Banff, 
six west of Portsoy, thirteen north-east of Foch- 
abers, and twenty-two east by north of Elgin. 
It is the second largest town in the county, 
and is a royal burgh. Till lately it consisted 
of three various and distinct towns ; the New 
Town, a tolerably well built place near the 
sea, with a harbour — the Auld Town, more in- 
land, and adjoining to the parks of Cullen 
House — and the Fish Town, a low village ex- 
clusively inhabited by fishermen. But the 
Auld Town is now destroyed for the extension 
of the park. In the neighbourhood of the 
town is an eminence called the Castle Hill, 
having been the site of an ancient fortress, in 
which, it is said, Elizabeth, wife of Robert 
Bnice, breathed her last. Cullen House, the 
seat of theEarl of Seafield, which lies imbedded 
in an umbrageous forest behind the town, is 
considered one of the most princely mansions 
in the north of Scotland, and contains a great 
variety of interesting and valuable pictures. 
The town itself, diminished as above, is a neat 
little place, situated on a commanding emin- 
ence over the sea. Its harbour is of little use. 
It enjoys a circle of genteel society, consisting 
of persons of moderate incomes, who are at- 
tracted by the cheap living. The Earl of 
Findlater is the chief proprietor of the domain. 
He is likewise hereditary provost of the burgh, 
in virtue of an ancient right. The acting ma- 
gistrates are three bailies, with a treasurer, dean 
of guild, and thirteen councillors. The burgh 
joins with Elgin, Banff, Kintore, and Inver- 
my, in sending a member to parliament. The 
town and district are exceedingly well supplied 
with fish, such as cod, skate, ling, and haddocks, 
The manufacture and bleaching of linen goods 
are now carried on with considerable success, 
and dried fish is exported to some extent. The 
town has a fair on the last Tuesday of Sep- 
tember. — Population of the burgh and parish 
in 1821, 1452. 

CULLECUDDEN.— See Kirkmichael 
and Cullecudden. 

CULLODEN, a place in Inverness-shire, 
the scene of the last fatal battle fought be- 
twixt the houses of Stewart and Hanover, 
April 16, 1746, in which the hopes of the for- 



mer were for ever extinguished. The field of 
battle is a vast tract of table land, covered with 
heath, over which are scattered a few wretched 
cottages ; it is situated about five miles east of 
the town of Inverness. A road, not the post 
one, traverses it longitudinally. To the south, 
on the further side of the river Nairn, is a 
range of hills ; towards the north is the Moray 
Firth. The whole plain is as desolate and 
blasted in appearance as if it suffered under a 
curse. The spot of ground where the heat of 
the battle took place, is marked by a number 
of green trenches, or mounds, under which the 
slain were buried, and which are situated ex- 
actly five miles from Inverness. There are 
some graves on the way-side, nearer the town. 
Prince Charles lodged, the night before the 
battle, in Culloden House, the seat of the bro- 
ther of Duncan Forbes, Lord President of the 
Court of Session, so celebrated for his activity 
in thwarting the measures of the house of 
Stewart. At this house, which is situated on 
the side of the moor, is shown the Prince's 
walking-cane, which he left behind him on 
going away. The house has been renewed 
since 1 745, in a very elegant style, and con- 
tains some good pictures. Bullets and other 
relics are occasionally picked up, (or said to 
be so,) on Culloden Moor, and sold to the 
curious who visit the scene. 

CULROSS, ('pronounced Cooross,) a pa- 
rish of about four miles square, situated on the 
north shore of the Firth of Forth, in what na- 
turally seems to be the shire of Fife, but 
which in reality is the county of Perth, of 
which there is a patch here inserted between 
Clackmannan and Fifeshire. It is bounded 
on the west by Tulliallan, on the north-west 
by Clackmannan, on the north by Saline, and 
on the east by Torryburn. The land rises with 
a quick ascent from the sea to the top of a 
range of low hills, down the back of which it 
declines to a valley. This valley, through 
which flows the small stream called the Blu- 
ther, is the chief and best part of the parish. 
The grounds are now well cultivated and en- 
closed. In the northern part there is a quan- 
tity of wood. The district abounds in free- 
stone, ironstone, and fine clay for potters, but 
its chief subterraneous product is coal, of which 
it has no fewer than twenty-seven strata, one 
of which is nine feet in thickness. Coal was 
dug here at a very early period, and, on that 
account, it appears to have been in former times 

the principal place for the manufactory of sea 
salt. About the epoch of James the Sixth's 
accession to the throne of England, the coal 
works were in a very flourishing condition. 
They were then wrought a considerable way 
under the sea, or, at least, where the sea over- 
flowed at full tide, and the coals were carried 
out to be shipped by an embanked or walled-in 
moat within the sea mark. There is a tradi- 
tion, that James, on revisiting his native coun- 
try, made an excursion into Fife, and resolving 
to take the diversion of hunting in the neighbour- 
hood of Dunfermline, invited the company then 
attending him to dine along with him at " a col- 
lier s house," meaning the Abbey of Culross, 
then belonging to Sir George Bruce. Being 
conducted, by his own desire, to see the works 
below ground, he was led insensibly to the moat 
above mentioned, it being then high water ; 
upon which, having ascended from the pit, and 
seeing himself, without any previous intima- 
tion, surrounded by the sea, he was seized with 
an immediate apprehension of some plot against 
his liberty or life, and hastily called out treason, 
treason ! But Sir George assured him there was 
none, and that he had nothing to fear. Pointing 
to an elegant pinnace that was made fast to the 
moat, he desired to know whether his majesty 
would feel it most agreeable to be carried 
ashore in it, or to return by the subterraneous 
route. The king preferred the shortest way 
back, and was consequently borne ashore in the 
vessel, all the time expressing his admiration 
of what he had seen. After this the royal 
guest was sumptuously entertained at the Ab- 
bey. Some of the glasses are still preserved in 
the family of his host, and the room in which 
he was feasted still receives the name of the 
King's Room. It is recorded that this curious 
pit was totally destroyed in March 1 625, o m 
the night of James's death, by a violent storm, 
which, washing away the rampart around the 
moat, deluged the works with water so irrepara- 
bly, that till this day they remain in a choked 
condition. Some of the stones of the rampart 
were afterwards sold for the purpose of repair- 
ing the old stone pier of Leith. The moat 
was nearly opposite the house of Castlehill. 

Whether from the above, or other causes, the 
coal of Culross is now little wrought. 

Culross, the capital of the above parish, 
and a royal burgh, lies on the face of a descend- 
ing brae to the Forth, at the distance of twen. 

ty-two miles from Edinburgh, s r xteen from 



Stirling, and six from Dunfermline. It is an 
ancient and exceedingly decayed town ; the 
different sources of its wealth have been dried 
up in the great changes which have been made 
in trade and manufactures in Scotland, within 
the last hundred years. In old times it pos- 
sessed considerable shipping and maritime com- 
merce, chiefly in salt and coal, but at present 
this traffic has altogether vanished, and the town 
is only rich in profitless recollections. By vir- 
tue of two grants from James VI. and Charles 
II. it has the exclusive privilege of making 
girdles, (thin circular plates of iron used by the 
people of Scotland for baking unleavened 
bread ;) but it is now a very long time since 
such a patent was of any service. Decayed as 
the trade of the town may be, it preserves an 
appearance of much beauty from the Forth, 
nd is environed by some elegant mansions 
and pleasure-grounds. It was erected into a 
royal burgh by James VI. in 1588, and joins 
with Stirling, Dunfermline, Inverkeithing, and 
South Queensferry, in sending a member to 
parliament. It has a chief magistrate, two 
bailies, a treasurer, with eight merchant coun- 
cillors, and six incorporated trades. The anti- 
quities in the vicinity of the town are worth 
noticing. At the east end of the town, on 
the sea-coast, once stood a chapel dedicated to 
St. Mungo or Kentigern, who it is said was 
born here, and left by his mother to be nurtur- 
ed by Servanus or St. Serf, who lived in a her- 
mitage at the place. After various peregrina- 
tions, Servanus died here, and became tutelar 
saint of the town, and so popular had he been, 
that till near the sixteenth century, the people 
were in the habit of holding an animal festival 
to his memory. In 1278, a monastery was 
founded at Culross, on a rising ground behind 
the town, by Malcolm, Thane of Fife, the 
church of which was dedicated to the Virgin 
and St. Serf. The monks were of the Cister- 
tian order. Considerable remains of the Ab- 
bey are still extant. On the north side was 
the Abbey Church, which had a tower or 
steeple in the middle, still entire, as is also a 
part of the church, now used for public ser- 
vice by the parish. On its north side is an 
aisle used as the burial-place of the above fa- 
mily of coal lords, and which contains several 
monumental objects of some interest. In a 
recess opposite the door- way, Sir George 
Bruce, who entertained James VI., is repre- 
sented in beautiful white marble, lying beside 

his lady. Along a low settle are arranged 
their seven children in kneeling postures, all 
in the same species of marble, but somewhat 
more mutilated. The curiosity of the ob- 
jects is much heightened by their faithful 
and most distinct representation of costume. 
From one side of the aisle projects a piece of 
unornamented stone-work, which was discover- 
ed some years ago to contain the heart of Ed- 
ward, second Lord Bruce of Kinloss, a young 
nobleman who figured at the English court of 
James VI., but was unfortunately cut off in 
the blossom of his youth, by a sanguinary duel, 
which he fought in 1614, near Bergen-op- 
Zoom, with Sir Edward Sackville, afterwards 
Earl of Dorset. The particulars of this ter- 
rible rencounter, one of the most melancholy of 
the real tales of history, are embodied in the 
Life of King James VI. by one of the authors 
of the present work. The heart of the unfor- 
tunate youth was brought home embalmed, and 
consigned in a silver case to this receptacle, 
amidst the bones of his kindred. It brings a 
mournful interest to the small lonely town of 
Cidross, which can scarcely fail to affect the 
stranger. Culross Abbey, formerly the seat of 
the Braces, is one of the finest mansions in 
Scotland. A great part of its architecture is 
after the taste of Sir Willam Bruce of Kin- 
ross, the renovator of Holyroodhouse, and the 
Christopher Wren of his time. It occupies a 
noble terrace overhanging the sea, a little way 
to the east of the town. Owing to certain cir- 
cumstances, it was deserted some time ago, 
and permitted to run partly to ruin ; but it has 
recently been re-built at a great expense, by 
the present proprietor, Sir Robert Preston of 
Valleyfield, Bart. About a quarter of a mile 
to the west are the ruins of the church used by 
the parish before the Reformation, and which, 
with the church-yard round it, is still used as a 
burial-ground. The parish church is collegiate, 
and has two ministers. It is very handsomely 
and comfortably fitted up in a modern taste. 
To the west of the town, on the banks of the 
Forth, is Castlehill, anciently called Dunne- 
marl Castle, that is, the castle near the sea. It 
was a strong-hold of the MacdufFs, whose ex- 
treme boundary it was on the west. Accord- 
ing to tradition, it was here that the cruel mur- 
der of Lady Macduff and her children was per- 
petrated by order of Macbeth. The fabric is 
now a total ruin. Cidross derives its name 
from words signifying the back of the penin- 



sula, and applying to its situation on the penin- 
sula of the district of Fife. — Population of the 
burgh and parish in 1821, 1434. 

CULS ALMOND, a parish of three and 
a half miles in length, by three in breadth, in 
Garioch, Aberdeenshire, lying near the cen- 
tre of the county, on the banks of the Urie 
river, a tributary of the Don. It has Forgue 
on the north, Rayne on the east? Oyne on 
the south, and Inch on the west. It is one of 
the most fertile parishes in the shire ; is now 
intersected with plantations, and shows symp- 
toms of improved modes of agriculture. The 
flat surface of the parish is only broken by two 
eminences at its centre, covered with heath 
and abounding in fine slate. — Population in 
1821, 838. 

CULTER, a parish in the south-east part 
of the Upper Ward of Clydesdale, Lanark- 
shire, of eight miles in length, by four in 
breadth, lying betwixt Biggar and Lamington. 
The south parts, which border on Peebles- 
shire, are wild and mountainous. One of the 
highest hills in this district is Culter Fell, which 
is elevated 1700 feet above the level of the sea, 
and almost rivals Tinto, standing about five or 
six miles further down Clydesdale. These 
uplands afford excellent sheep pasture. Near 
the Clyde the land declines into fertile mea- 
dows and cultivated land, well inclosed and 
planted. A rivulet runs through the parish in 
a northerly direction to the Clyde, called Cul- 
ter Water, which is a clear little stream a- 
bounding in trouf- Ironstone is found in great 
plenty. — Population in 1821, 467. 

CULTER, a rivulet in the south-east- 
ern parts of Aberdeenshire, rising in the 
Loch of Skene and the adjacent hills, and 
falling into the Dee on its south bank, about 
five or six miles above Aberdeen. It is some- 
times called the Burn ofLeuchar. 

CULTS, a small parish lying chiefly in the 
Howe of Fife, on the south bank of the Eden, 
having Ceres on the east, Kettle on the west, 
and Monimail on the north. The surface 
generally declines from the south, where the 
grounds are high, towards the Eden, and is 
well cultivated and enclosed. Pitlessie is the 
only village in the parish. Coal and freestone 
abound. The chief ornaments of the district 
are the mansion-house, and beautifully dispos- 
ed pleasure-grounds and plantations of Lady 
Mary Crawford, called Crawford Priory, which 
be on the west side of the road to Cupar. 

The ancient name of the parish was QuiU 
ques, which signifies a nook or corner ; 
it being generally disjointed from the large 
strath, which runs from east to west along the 
bank of the Eden. Wilkie, the justly cele- 
brated painter, is a native of the parish ; his 
father having been the Rev. Mr. Wilkie, mini- 
ster of Cults Population in 1821, 853. 

CUMBERNAULD, (from cumar '« aid, 
" a meeting of streams,") a parish in the east- 
ern limit of Dumbartonshire, of seven miles in 
length, by four in breadth ; having Kilsyth on 
the north, Falkirk on the east, New Monk- 
land on the south, and Kirkintilloch on the west 
The surface is diversified with hill and dale, 
is nearly all under cultivation, and well enclosed. 
Coal, lime, and freestone abound. It is water- 
ed on the north by the Kelvin river, and is in- 
tersected by the Forth and Clyde canal, near 
the line of which the vestiges of the wall of 
Antoninus are still extant. The village of 
Cumbernauld lies thirteen miles east of Glas- 
gow, nine west of Falkirk, and thirteen south 
of Stirling, on the new road betwixt Glasgow 
and Edinburgh. It is chiefly inhabited by 
weavers. Its situation is beautiful, being near- 
ly surrounded by the pleasure-grounds and plan- 
tations of Cumbernauld House. Prior to 
1659 the parish of Cumbernauld formed part 
of the old parish of Lenzie, which was then 
partitioned into this and the parish of Kirkin- 
tilloch.— Population in 1821, 2864. 

LESSER) two islands lying in the throat of 
the Firth of Clyde, betwixt the isle of Bute and 
Ayrshire ; belonging to the county of Bute, 
though lying nearer to the coast of Ayrshire, 
from which they are distant about two miles. 
The Greater or Meikle Cumbray lies highest 
up the firth, and the Lesser Cumbray seems 
merely a continuation of it to the south, with a 
division between, consisting of a channel three 
quarters of a mile broad. Betwixt the two 
there are two small rocky islets. In sailing 
down the Clyde, the Cumbrays appear to stop 
up the estuary, a circumstance not unnoticed 
by the author of the Lord of the Isles, who 
alludes to them in these words : 
In night the fairy prospects sink, 
Where Cumbray's isles, with verdant link, 
Close the fair entrance of the Clyde : 
The woods of Bute, no more descried, 
Are gone. 
The length of the Greater Cumbray is two 
and a half miles by a breadth of one and a 



half. The surface is hilly and verdant, but on 
the whole possesses a bare appearance, from 
the general want of plantations and enclosures. 
A great part is under cultivation, and the whole 
is partitioned into nearly a dozen farms. The 
capital, and the only town of the island, is 
Millport, a neat small place on the south side, 
with a harbour and tolerable anchoring ground, 
sheltered by a rocky islet. Freestone, lime- 
stone, and coarse linens are the exports. The 
life and bustle of this sea-port offer an agree- 
able variety to the tameness of the Cumbray 
scenery. The island forms a parish, to which 
the Lesser Cumbray belongs. This island is 
about a mile in length, by half a mile in 
breadth, and is a more romantic object. On 
the west side it is picturesque, and affords some 
good subjects for the pencil. It is high and 
rocky. On the Ayrshire side there is a dis- 
tinct flat tract, of an entirely different charac- 
ter, containing some farms, but more remark- 
able for a castle, consisting of a square tower, 
a rampart and ditch, in good preservation, 
perched on the very border of the sea, and 
which was surprised and burnt by the soldiers 
of Cromwell. The castle of Pencross, or 
Portincross, stands on the opposite continent, 
and they look like the joint guardians, the 
Sestos and Abydos, of the strait. Both enjoy 
the repute of having been royal residences. At 
the north end of the island, there are some re- 
mains of barrows, which are probably connect- 
ed with the battle of the Largs, a place facing 
the islands on the Ayrshire side. These Cum- 
brays were once in possession of the Norwe- 
gians, and were frequently the object of con- 
test with the Scots. Two-thirds of the Larger 
Cumbray belong to the Earl of Glasgow, and 
the remainder is the property of the Marquis 
of Bute. The Lesser Cumbray is the proper- 
ty of the Earl of Eglintoun. A lighthouse 
is erected upon the western side of the Lesser 
Cumbray, in lat. 52° 43', long. 4° 51' west. 
Its light is stationary, and appears like a star 
of the first magnitude. — Population of the two 
islands in 1821, 657. 

CUMINESTON, a village in the inland 
parish of Montquhitter, Aberdeenshire, rear- 
ed in 1760 by the active exertions of the late 
Joseph Cumine, Esq. of Achry, a gentleman 
who did much to improve tins part of the 

CUMMERTREES, a parish in Dum- 
fries-shire, of four miles in length, by about 

three in breadth, lying on the Sol way Firth 
and the west side of the Annan Water, bound- 
ed on the north by Dalton and Hoddam, and 
on the west by Ruthwell. It is in general a 
flat, fertile, well cultivated district, and is now 
well enclosed. In some parts it is mossy. 
Freestone and limestone abound. The upper 
part of the parish once formed a distinct parish 
or chaplainry, called Trailtrow, now abrogated. 
In the old burying-ground of this district 
stands the ancient tower of Trailtrow, more 
commonly known by the name of the Tower 
of Repentance. It was anciently used as a 
beacon, and the border laws directed a watch to 
be maintained there with a fire-pan and bell, 
to give the alarm when the English crossed or 
approached the river Annan. The cause of 
its erection and the origin of its name are thus 
related. A cctain Lord Hemes, some three 
or four hundred years ago, was famous among 
those who made forays into the English bor- 
ders. On one occasion, when returning with 
many prisoners, he was overtaken by a storm, 
while passing the Solway Firth, and in order 
to relieve his boat, cut all their throats and 
threw them into the sea. Some time after, 
feeling great qualms of conscience, he built 
this square tower, carving over the door, which 
is about half way up the building, and had for- 
merly a stair to it, the figures of a dove and 
serpent, emblems of remorse and grace, with 
the word Repentance betwixt them. It is said 
that two gentlemen, while riding near this 
place, saw a shepherd boy reading his Bible, 
and asked him what he learned from it '• The 
way to heaven," answered the boy. " And 
can you show it to me ?" said one of them in 
banter. " Yes," replied the shepherd, " you 
must go by that tower ; and he pointed to the 
tower of repentance. " But, suppose," added 
one of the gentlemen, " that we wanted to find 
the way to hell, how would you direct us ?" 
" On," answered the boy, " if you want the 
road to hell, ye maun just baud on the gate 
ye'er gaun e'enow !" The boy who was thus 
so acute in his answers was the great-grand- 
father of a considerable landed proprietor, at 
present living in Dumfries shire. The village 
of Cummertrees is one of the prettiest in this 
part of the country. The name is derived from 
the British words Cum- ber-ire, signifying the 
hamlet at the short valley, and is sufficiently 
descriptive of the local situation of the village. 
—Population in 1821, 1561. 



CUMNOCK, a district in Ayrshire, for- 
merly composing one parish, hut divided in 
1650 into the parishes of Old and New. 

Cumnock. The parish of Old Cumnock 
lies in the heart of the district of Kyle on 
the Lugar Water, a tributary of the Ayr on 
its south bank. It is of an oblong figure, be- 
ing about ten miles in length by two in breadth; 
is partly flat and partly hilly. The low grounds 
are finely cultivated. The village of Old 
Cumnock is large, and lies in a deep sheltered 
hollow at the confluence of the Glasnock and 
Logan "Waters. The principal part of the 
town is a triangular space, which was formerly 
the church-yard, and is now a sort of market- 
place. The church-yard is now a little to the 
northward of the town, occupying a piece of 
ground once used as the site of a gallows. 
The people, it seems, were only reconciled to 
this degrading change, by the circumstance of 
the body of Peden, a prophet and martyr of 
the Covenanting body, who are still held in 
high respect in Ayrshire, having been buried 
on the spot beneath the gallows, which was 
thus rendered consecrated ground. This town 
is celebrated for the manufacture of those 
beautiful wooden snuff-boxes, now so common, 
a species of trade carried on nowhere else in 
Scotland, except at Lawrencekirk and Mon- 
trose. It is little more than twenty years 
since some ingenious individuals commenced 
the making of these curious little cabinets. 
There are now upwards of a hundred persons, 
(men, women, and children,) employed in the 
trade, all of whom get more considerable 
wages by their labour than most other arti- 
sans ; and a good deal of money is thus caused 
to flow through and enrich the town. Plane- 
tree is the wood used in the manufacture, and 
great ingenuity is evinced in adorning the lids 
with devices. The veiy nice manner in which 
the hinges are constructed, so as to be almost 
invisible, is deserving of the highest credit. 
It is calculated that a piece of rough wood 
costing only twenty-five shillings, will make 
three thousand pounds worth of snuff-boxes ! 
The paintings are all done by the hand, and 
mostly by boys. The castle of Terrenzean, 
now in ruins, is in the neighbourhood. It 
gives the title of baron to the family of Dum- 
fries. Several of the principal roads cress 
each other here.— Population in 1821, 2343. 

Cumnock (New,) a parish on the eastern 
boundary of the above parish, lying more 

among the high lands at the upper part of 
Kyle, in Ayrshire. It is twelve miles in 
length, by eight in breadth, and is hilly and 
pastoral. It abounds in coal and lime, and 
has a lead mine. The village of New Cum- 
nock is small and destitute of interest. — Popu- 
lation in 1821, 1656. 

CUNNINGHAM, the most northerly and 
the most fertile district of Ayrshire, extending 
in length eighteen miles, by a breadth from east 
to west of about twelve. The water of Irvine 
divides it from Kyle. Irvine, Kilwinning, Salt- 
coats, Ardrossan, Dairy, Beith, and Largs are 
its chief towns and villages See Ayrshire. 

CUPAR, an inland parish in the county of 
Fife, extending about five miles each way; 
bounded by Moonzie and Kilmany on the north, 
Dairsie and Kemback on the east, Ceres and 
Cults on the south, and Monimail on the west. 
In point of situation, the parish of Cupar lies 
at the foot of the great vale or Howe of Fife ; 
its surface is generally uneven, but nearly the 
whole is subjected to an excellent state of cul- 
tivation, or is dispersed in plantations, pleasure- 
grounds, and pasturage. The little dull river 
Eden passes through the district. A part of 
the parish on the south of this river once form- 
ed the independent parish of St. Michael. 

Cupar, a royal burgh, the capital of the 
above parish and of the county of Fife, is 
pleasantly situated on the left bank of the 
Eden, at the distance of ten miles west from 
St. Andrews, and twenty-two miles north-east 
of Kinghorn. It is a place of considerable 
antiquity, but in the present day it possesses 
all the appearance of a modern thriving town, 
and has less of the usual aspect of a royal 
burgh than any other town of the same magni- 
tude, labouring under such a qualification. At 
an early period, the potent chiefs of the family 
of Macduff had a castle here, and under the 
protection of this fortlet, they founded and 
supported a convent of Dominicans, or Black 
Friars, which was afterwards attached to the 
religious establishment at St. Monans. All 
vestigia of these edifices are now completely 
gone, and their site is only known by the title 
of Castle-hill, given to a small eminence at the 
east end of the town, and by the name of St. 
Catherine Street, which has been bestowed on 
a row of handsome new houses, from the pa- 
troness of the ecclesiastical structure, as well 
as by the designation of Our Lady's Burn, a 
small rivulet which falls into the Eden near 



the spot. The verdant esplanade In front of 
the castle was appropriated, in 1555, for the 
performance, sub dio, of David Lindsay's satire 
of the Three Estates, a witty drama, principally 
levelled at the clergy, and supposed to have 
had great influence in bringing about the reli- 
gious revolution which soon after ensued. This 
very clever poet, the study of whose works 
formed, for a long time, part of the education 
of every Scotsman, lived at his patrimonial 
estate, called the Mount, about four miles 
north-west from Cupar, where, instead of a 
deserved monument to himself, a pillar has late- 
ly been raised to the memory of the Earl of 
Hopetoun. It would appear that the castle of 
Cupar was long a strength of importance. Be- 
ing the head quarters of the Thanes of Fife, the 
rude courts of justice of these chiefs were or- 
dinarily held here, and on this account the 
town early acquired the character of the capi- 
tal of the district under their government. 
From the vicinity of the castle the houses of the 
town spread towards the west, and in process of 
time the burgh extended to those limits it now 
possesses. Though originating in fortuitous cir- 
cumstances of this nature, the situation of the 
town could hardly have been better chosen. 
It lies on a slight elevation in a secluded vale 
open at the east and west, and overhung on the 
south by a range of hilly ground. To the 
north the country is beautiful and fertile, and 
gradually expands to a series of woody emi- 
nences. Immediately on the south, at the base 
of the superincumbent hill, which is beautified 
by plantations and enclosures, flows the Eden ; 
a river at this place seeming to partake as 
much of the character of an artificial canal, as 
of a natural stream, and which is lost in the 
sinuosities of the vale to the east. This 
brook is crossed by two bridges of stone, and 
one of wood. The town is composed of one 
principal and rather long street, running from 
west to east, which communicates with the 
road to Kinross, and another street projected 
from the south side of this, near its east end, 
which communicates with the road to Edin- 
burgh, by means of the upper and more ancient 
stone bridge. The centre of the town is at 
the junction of these thoroughfares, both of 
which are lined with good houses of from one 
to three stories in height. East from the 
junction of the streets, is a short street, called 
St. Catherine Street, composed of very elegant 
modern edifices of freestone, erected somewhat 

in the style of the secondary parts of the New 
Town of Edinburgh. Some spaces of the 
street are not yet filled up, but those already 
finished do great credit to the taste of the pro- 
prietors. On the south side are the county 
buildings, a large tontine, and some public 
offices and private houses. On the opposite 
side stands an episcopal chapel, built in the 
same Grecian style, and intended to fill up a 
space in the line of street. It almost oc- 
cupies the site of the Dominican Monastery 
mentioned above. The thoroughfare of 
St. Catherine Street leads eastward to the 
roads to St. Andrews and Dundee. Be- 
tween the different main streets there are 
connecting lanes or narrow streets, the whole 
of which are kept in a state of the most 
praiseworthy cleanliness. The sides of some 
of the streets have pavement, a luxury found as 
yet in few Scottish country towns, though stead- 
ily making its way among them, along with 
other improvements. The town and the chief 
shops are now lighted with gas manufactured 
by a joint-stock company established in 1830. 
Around the vicinity are a variety of hand- 
some villas and gardens, which add much to 
the beauty and respectability of the place. 
Nearly in the centre of the town, in a back 
street, is situated the church with the common 
burying-ground of the town and parish. The 
church is a plain building of the dark age 
of 1785, with a prodigious deal of internal 
accommodation, but destitute of all ele- 
gance. In a niche in the inside of the west 
gable, is the figure, in stone, of a knight in ar- 
mour, intended to represent a Sir John Arnot, 
a personage of distinction in the neighbour- 
hood, who was slain in the last crusade. The 
plainness of the structure is relieved by a fine old 
turret or spire, the only remaining portion of the 
ancient Gothic church, which was built in 1415, 
by the then prior of St. Andrews, and finished 
in its present condition in 1642, by the Rev. 
William Scott, minister of the parish- The 
school of Cupar is an unadorned edifice, situa- 
ed on the eminence at the east of the town, 
formerly occupied by the castle. Th,e second 
or upper flat is occasionally used as a theatre. 
The best public building in the town is 
the county jail. It stands within a slip of 
garden- ground on the south bank of the Eden, 
and being built in a neat Grecian style, with 
windows of the usual size, it resembles a gen- 
tleman's house much more than a common 



prison for debtors and malefactors. The 
chief trade in Cupar is the weaving of linens. 
There are also manufactories of leather, candles, 
ropes, bricks, and tiles, with several breweries 
and corn and wauk mills. There are eight an- 
nual fairs, and a weekly market is held every 
Thursday, which is well attended by the far- 
mers and others in the district. It is princi- 
pally known as a corn market ; but it is under- 
stood that the trade in this article is partly un- 
dergoing a decline in favour of Kirkcaldy, a 
town much nearer the metropolis, and very ad- 
vantageously situated for water conveyance. 
Cupar lies on the main, and almost the only 
road through Fife, from the county of Edin- 
burgh to Forfarshire, and being a chief stage, 
it possesses all the advantages to be derived 
from the perpetual passing and re-passing of 
coaches. It has two capital inns, with accom- 
modation on a large scale. Until lately the town 
had a native banking-house. The company 
has now withdrawn from business, and the 
trade of banking, in all its varieties, is carried 
on by three branches of metropolitan establish- 
ments. Cupar, and the adjoining district, sup- 
port a well-conducted weekly newspaper, in 
the proprietary of Mr. Robert Tullis, one of 
the most spirited and successful provincial 
booksellers and publishers in Scotland, and 
printer of certain editions of the classics, under 
the care of the venerable and erudite Dr. 
Hunter, which are well known for their beau- 
tiful and accurate typography. The town has 
several useful institutions, chiefly for the en- 
couragement of agricultural and horticultural 
improvements. In the neighbourhood, to the 
west, there is an excellent race-course, over 
which horse races are annually run, under the 
patronage of the noblemen and gentlemen of 
the Fife Hunt. The inhabitants of the town 
and neighbourhood possess an excellent Sub- 
scription Library, which is of extensive bene- 
fit to the middling and lower ranks, within the 
sphere of several miles round. As a royal 
burgh, Cupar is governed by a provost, three 
bailies, and a dean of guild, with a treasurer, 
and twenty-one councillors. In conjunction 
with St. Andrews, Dundee, Forfar, and Perth, 
the burgh elects a Member of Parliament. 
Its revenue is upwards of L.500, annually. 
Besides the parish church, which has two 
ministers, there are four meeting-houses of 
presbyterian dissenters, and a chapel belong- 
ing to the episcopal communion. The fast- 

day of the kirk is the Wednesday before the 
first Tuesday of July. The town is the seat 
of a Presbytery. From being the county 
town of Fife, Cupar possesses a considerable 
number of practitioners before the courts of 
the shire, and its society has an air of fashion 
and taste, which it most likely would not pos- 
sess, were its manufactures on a more extensive 
and engrossing scale. The only historical in- 
cident of note connected with Cupar, is the 
convention which was entered into, on a moor 
to the west of the town, between the Lords of 
the Congregation and the government of the 
Queen Regent, Mary of Guise, 1559. It ap- 
pears that horse races were anciently held at 
Cupar ; they were revived in grand style amidst 
the rejoicings which followed the restoration. 
There is an old saying, " He that will to Cupar 
maun to Cupar," implying, in a general sense, 
that he who is fatally determined upon any im- 
prudent action, will be sure to execute it ; the 
origin of the expression, as of other things of 
the same kind, is beyond the ken of modern 
inquirers. In general, the nam:' of this town 
is written and spoken Cupar-Fife, to dis- 
tinguish it from the small town of the same 

name in Angus Population of the burgh 

and parish in 1821, 5892. 

CUPAR- ANGUS, a parish within the 
eastern border of Perthshire, lying like a stripe 
on the east bank of the river Isla, extending 
five miles in length, by from one to two in 
breadth. A very minute portion of the parish 
belongs to Angus or Forfarshire, on which part 
the town of Cupar- Angus is built, and hence 
the name. The parish of Meigle lies on the 
north, Kettins on the east, Cargill onthe south, 
and Bendothy, on the opposite side of the Isla, 
on the west. The surface is arable and mea- 
dow land, and is now well cultivated and en- 
closed. The small village of Balbrogy lies in 
the northern part of the district, and the vil- 
lages of Coldham and Kethick in the southern. 

Cupar- Angus, the capital of the above pa- 
rish, is pleasantly situated on the Isla, a few 
miles above its junction with the Tay, at the 
distance of twelve and a half miles, east by 
north of Perth, and fifteen miles north-west of 
Dundee, on the main roads from Dundee to 
Blairgowrie, and from Perth to Forfar. A 
rivulet, tributary to the Isla, makes a bend 
through it, and that part which lies on the 
south of this rivulet is all that belongs to the 
county of Angus. In ancient times, this place 
2 a 


C U R R 1 £. 

was noted for an abbey of Cistertian monks, 
which was founded by Malcolm IV. in the 
year 1164, and endowed with considerable re- 
venues by that monarch, as well as by the Hays 
of Errol, who were its principal benefactors 
and patrons. At the Reformation, it was de- 
stroyed by a mob from Perth. After this 
event, James VI. created a second son of Se- 
cretary Elphinston, Lord Cupar, but he dying 
without issue in 1669, the title devolved on 
Lord Balmerino, the head of the family. The 
ruins of this once rich monastery are still visi- 
ble near Cupar, and stand within the limits of 
a Roman camp, formed by the army of Agri- 
cola in his seventh expedition. In modern 
times, Cupar- Angus is a neatly builtlittle town, 
with clean and well lighted streets. The 
church, which stands on the Angus side, is a 
neat building, with a steeple detached from it ; 
it comprises a town -house and jail. The 
town is governed by a justice of peace and con- 
stables. The inhabitants have an excellent 
coffee-room, with a public library, by subscrip- 
tion. The trade of the town consists of the 
manufacture of linen, tanning leather, and in 
the vicinity there are several bleachfields. A 
cattle market is held every Thursday, and there 
are five annual fairs. There are some good 
academies in the town, for the education of 
boys and young ladies. Besides tbe parish 
church, there are two meeting-houses of pres- 
byterian dissenters, and one episcopal cha- 
pel. The fast- day of the church is the Wed- 
nesday before the first Sunday of August. — 
Population of the town and parish in 1 821 , 2622. 

CUR, a small river in Cowal, Argyleshire, 
rising near Lochgoil-head, and passing through 
the low grounds on the east of Strachur, falls 
into the head of Loch Eck. Its banks are in 
some places romantic, and its course tortuous. 

CURGIE, a small village with a harbour, 
in Wigtonshire, on the west shore of Luce 
Bay, near Kirkmaiden. 

CURRIE, a parish in the county of Edin- 
burgh, lying in a south-westerly direction from 
the metropolis. It includes a tract of country 
from five to six miles in every direction, but 
its greatest extent is from east to west, where 
it approaches to nine miles in length. It is 
bounded by Corstorphine and Ratho on the 

north, and Colinton on the east. The ground 
is elevated, rising from the carse land, of 
which the parish of Corstorphine engrosses so 
large a portion. A considerable part of the 
district is hilly mossy land, and the whole has 
a bleak character. The Pentland hills skirt 
the parish on the south. Through the low 
ground runs the Water of Leith, and on its 
northern bank, six miles distant from Edin- 
burgh, stands the village of Currie, through 
which the road to Lanark passes. Currie is 
supposed to be the Koria of Ptolemy and Rich- 
ard of Cirencester ; but although this may be 
the case, the name is still of Celtic derivation, 
being from the word Cvire or Corrie, signify- 
ing a hollow, from the village lying in such a 
situation on the Water of Leith. The appli- 
cation of the name of Currie to the parish is 
modern, as in former times it was invariably 
called Kil- Leith, which imports, the cell or 
religious house on the Leith, and there is still 
a hamlet near Currie of this designation. 
James VI. annexed the parsonage of Currie 
to the college of Edinburgh in 1592 ; but the 
subsequent establishment of simple ministerial 
charges abolished such an arrangement. In this 
parish stands the house of Baberton, which is 
remarkable as having been used as a hunting- 
seat by royalty, at two distant eras, first by 
James VI. of Scotland, previous to his acces- 
sion to the English throne, and, secondly, by 
Charles X. of France, after his expulsion from 
his dominions in 1830. — Population in 1821, 

CUSHNIE, a small irregular parish in 
Man-, Aberdeenshire, lying betwixt Alford and 
Coul. Its surface is mountainous and rocky. 
The adjoining parish of Leochel was incorpo- 
rated with it in 1795- — Population of the con- 
joined parishes in 1821, 766. 

CUTHBERT'S, (ST.) a parish almost 
surrounding Edinburgh, a great part of which 
is now covered with the suburbs and new 
streets of the metropolis. Popularly it 
is called the West Kirk parish See Edin- 

CYRUS, (ST.) a village in the parish of 
Ecclescraig, in the southern extremity of Kin- 
cardineshire. — See St. Cyrp& 

D A L G E T Y 


I>AB B A Y, a small fertile island on the west 
coast of Inverness-shire, to which it belongs. 

DAFF, a village in the north-western part 
of Renfrewshire, parish of Innerkip, lying three 
miles west from Greenock. 

DAILLY, a parish in the district of Car- 
rick, Ayrshire, occupying a fine fertile valley, 
which stretches along the banks of the river 
Girvan, bounded on both sides by hills of mo- 
derate height. It extends six miles in length, 
by from four to six in breadth. Thj uplands 
are bleak and pastoral ; the lower parts well 
cultivated, enclosed, and planted. The Girvan 
is here fed by a number of small streams from 
the hills, some of which descend through deep 
and woody glens, admired for picturesque and 
romantic beauty. Coal and limestone abound. 
Anciently the name of the parish was Dal- 
maoUieran, which signified the meadow or dale 
of St. Keran, and the modern designation is, in 
all likelihood, corrupted and simplified from 
it. There is a mansion and old castle in the 
parish, which are called Kilkerran. — Popula- 
tion in 1821,2161. 

DAIRSIE, a parish in the county of Fife, 
to the east of Cupar, and having Logie on the 
north, Leuchars on the east, and Kemback on 
the south. The surface declines in braes from 
two hills lying in the centre of the parish. 
One of the hills is called Foodie, the other 
Craigfoodie. The district is nearly three 
miles each way, but is irregular in its outlines. 
Nearly the whole is fine arable land. Freestone 
and whinstone abound. The Eden is here 
crossed from the south by a good bridge of 
three arches, the erection of Archbishop Spot- 
tiswood, who was the proprietor of the valua- 
ble Dairsie estate. — Population in 1821, 589. 

DALBEATTIE, a modern village in the 
parish of Urr, Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, si- 
tuated on Dalbeattie Burn, a rivulet which 
falls into the Water of Urr, on its north bank. 
It is admirably placed for the enjoyment of 
maritime trade on a moderate scale. The 
water is navigable this length for small vessels. 
The village is built of granite, of a light and 
lively colour. The surrounding country is 
barren in the extreme, a circumstance which 
will frustrate all attempts to render the place 
wealthy by commerce. 

DAL GAIN, a village in the parish of Sorn, 
Ayrshire, situated on the road from Ayr to 
Muirkirk, on the north bank of the Ayr water. 

DALGARNOCK, a suppressed parish in 
Dumfries-shire, incorporated with Closeburn 
in the seventeenth century. Its name is de- 
rived from the Scoto-Irish, and signifies the 
plain abounding in underwood. The ruins of 
the church still stand on a beautiful plain on 
the east side of the Nith. From the time of 
William the Lion till the Reformation, the 
parish was held by the monks of Holyrood. 
Near the church, in former times, stood a vil- 
lage of the same name, and a burgh of barony, 
but of which there are now no remains. 
Burns, in his song beginning, " Last May a 
braw wooer," alludes to this place in the line, 

" I gaed to the tryste o' Dalgarnock," 
which imports, that a market or fair is still, 
or was lately, held on the spot. In combat- 
ing the objections of Thomson to the unpoe- 
tic name of Dalgarnock, the bard insists on 
retaining it, from its being " the name of a ro- 
mantic spot near the Nith, where are still a 
ruined church and burying-ground." 

DALGETY, a parish in the county of 
Fife, on the shore of the Firth of Forth, lying 
betwixt Aberdour on the east, and Inverkeith- 
ing on the west. It presents a front of about 
two miles to the sea, and has the parish of 
Beath on the north. The lands here swell up 
in low meagre-looking hills from the firth, and 
the soil is in general poor and wet. The 
district is rich in coal, of which great quanti- 
ties are exported from St. David's, a small sea- 
port in the parish. Dunnibristle, once the re- 
sidence of the abbot of the monastery of Inch 
Colm, and since, the seat of the Earls of 
Moray, lies on the shore on a small headland. 
The modern plantations reared around some 
other gentlemen's seats enliven the appearance of 
the country. About a mile from the coast there 
is a small lake called Otterston Loch, on the 
banks of which are several handsome country 
houses. A seat of the Earls of Dunfermline 
now entirely gone, stood near the parish church, 
on the shore. The church itself is understood 
to have been a pendicle of the monastery of 
St. Colm. An anecdote is related regarding 
the liberality of the ministerial incumbent of 
the parish during the predominance of Episco- 
pacy after the restoration of 1660. The pres- 
byterian divine, a Mr. Andrew Donaldson, 
having been ejected for nonconformity, his 
successor Mr. Corsar, pitying his condition* 
gave him the session-house of the kirk to ro- 



side in, and his moderate wants were supplied 
by his former parishioners. In this way he 
lived for at least twenty years, till the revolu- 
tion, when he was restored, by which time his 
benevolent brother clergyman had died. Such 
anecdotes afford a delightful relief to the pain- 
ful tale of civil and religious contention which 
extends over that part of our history. The 
old church of Dalgety stands in a romantic 
situation upon a knoll overhanging the sea- 
beach ; and with its time-worn walls, decayed 
furniture, and hemlock-overgrown cemetery, us- 
ed to be considered quite an antique curiosity. 
In 1830, the public spirit of the Earl of Moray 
supplied the congregation with a handsome 
new place of public worship, in the Gothic 
taste, about half a mile inland. A brave ca- 
valier of the name of Hay, and who took his 
territorial title from Dalgety, suffered in 1650 
with the Marquis of Montrose, in whose mili- 
tary glory he had largely participated, as he 
then partook of the same deplorable fate Po- 
pulation in 1821, 912. 

DALKEITH, a parish in the county of 
Edinburgh, having the parishes of Inveresk 
and Newlon on the north and north-east, Lass- 
wade on the west, and Newbotle and Cran- 
ston on the south and south-east parts. It 
extends about four miles in length, from east 
to west, and is from two to two and a half 
miles in breadth. The surface lies considera- 
bly above the sea level, but is generally flat or 
undulating, and is under the very highest state 
of cultivation. Hedgerows, trees, plantations, 
and gardens are very abundant, and are all in a 
thriving condition. On tbe south side of the 
parish is a high hilly ridge rising in East-Lo- 
thian, and tending to a westerly course. At 
the base of this hilly ground flows the South 
Esk, and about half a mile to the north is the 
North Esk. Both these beautiful little streams 
are overhung by high woody banks, and their 
waters are joined in the pleasure-grounds of 
the Duke of Buccleuch, about half a mile 
below the town of Dalkeith. The peninsular 
character of the land lying between the rivers 
has induced in Celtic times the present name 
of the parish, which is from the words Dal- 
caeth signifying literally the Confined Dale. 

Dalkeith, a populous town, the capital of 
the above parish, occupies an exceedingly de- 
lightful and dry situation on the centre of the 
peninsidar ridge of ground just alluded to, at 
ihe distance of rather more than six miles 

south of Edinburgh, on the mail road to Kel- 
so. The town of Dalkeith has to refer its 
origin to a respectable antiquity, when it gra- 
dually arose into existence from the proximity 
of a castle, long known as one of the chief baron- 
ial strong-holds south of the Forth. Like many 
other towns in this country, it consisted at first 
of nothing more than a mean hamlet, which in 
the course of time assumed the distinction of a 
burgh of barony in the proprietary of the lord 
of the manor. Some centuries ago, the castle 
of Dalkeith was a place of vast strength and 
importance. It stood on the site of the mo- 
dern mansion, on the edge of the high bank 
overlooking the North Esk, which at one time 
flowed also through a deep chasm on its south 
side, constituting the rocky mount on which it 
was situated an island. By a grant of the lands 
of Dalkeith from David I., they came into the 
possession of the opulent family of the Grahames, 
from whom, in the reign of David II. , the castle 
and property passed by a daughter in marriage 
into the hands of a Sir William Douglas, a 
person sprung from the original stock of the 
Douglasses in Lanarkshire; Sir William Dou- 
glas was succeeded by his nephew James 
Douglas, who died in 1420. Froissart, the 
chronicler of the chivalry of the fourteenth 
century, in the course of his tour into Scot- 
land, was entertained at Dalkeith by these 
Douglasses, and probably obtained from them, 
at this very place, the materials of his account 
of the battle of Otterbourne, which was fought 
some years before by their celebrated kinsman. 
He very oddly Frenchifies the name of the 
place into D'Alquest. To think of this gay 
old historian arriving at Dalkeith Castle on his 
sleek ambling palfrey, behind which ran his 
greyhound in leash, and to suppose him here 
sitting in hall, alternately telling and hearing 
tales of knightly enterprize, are ideas calculated 
to endear this scene to a romantic mind. 
James, the son of the last mentioned Dou- 
glas, inherited the estate, and was made 
a lord of parliament in the reign of James 
I., under the title of Lord Dalkeith; and 
his grandson, James the third Lord Dal- 
keith, was in 1457-8 created Earl of Morton 
by James II. The dark and stern politician 
of that name resided, during the period of his 
administration, and after he had retired from 
public life, in the castle of Dalkeith, which, 
from the general idea entertained of his cha- 
racter, acquired at that time the expressive nama 



of " the Lion's Den." When Morton was ex- 
ecuted, the barony of Dalkeith was included in 
his attainder; and although the whole was finally 
restored to the Earl of Morton, yet the castle 
seems long to have been considered crown pro- 
perty, and used as such. It was frequently 
the residence of James VI., who spent here the 
term of his mourning for his mother, Mary, in 
1587. In the eventful year 1638, the Mar- 
quis of Hamilton, as royal commissioner, occu- 
pied Dalkeith House, during his unavailing 
endeavours to pacify the Covenanters ; and it 
appears that he had conveyed thither the Re- 
galia of Scotland, either in order to secure 
them from the insurgent nobles, or perhaps 
with a view to their removal into England. 
Charles L, on visiting Scotland in 1641, spent 
Borne time here. Dalkeith House was for a 
long while the residence of General Monk, 
during hi9 government of Scotland, under 
Cromwell. A building still called his 
guard-house is pointed out in the town. 
In the meanwhile, in the year 1642, the estate 
was purchased by Francis, Earl of Buccleugh, 
from William, Earl of Morton. The estate 
underwent many improvements under this fa- 
mily, but it did not become their residence till 
the time of Anne, Duchess of Buccleugh and 
Monmouth, who substituted the modern for the 
ancient building, filled up the fosse, and made 
many other alterations. After the execution 
of her husband, the rash and unhappy Duke of 
Monmouth, (a natural son of Charles II., who 
was put to death for attempting to seize the 
royal authority held by his uncle, James VII.) 
this high spirited woman lived here in the style 
of a princess, with pages to wait upon her, a 
throne and canopy, and other insignia of royal 
dignity, believing herself entitled to do so in 
consequence of the pretensions of her husband. 
Throughout the eighteenth century till the 
present time, Dalkeith House, or palace, as the 
neighbouring inhabitants are pleased to call it, 
has been the chief place of residence of the 
Dukes of Buccleugh, though the mansion is 
very inferior in point of comfort or accommo- 
dation, and is only recommended by its proxi- 
mity to Edinburgh, and the beauty of its en- 
virons. Not having been built all at once, its 
interior plan is intricate and far from commo- 
dious. Among other peculiarities, a very great 
number of the apartments are entered from one 
another without the use of corridors, a charac- 
teristic of many houses in Scottish country 

towns, but one of so disagreeable a nature as 
not to be countenanced in the metropolis, or in 
gentlemen's seats of modern erection. For the 
sake of warmth the main door is in the corner 
of one of the wings, while the centrelobby is fitted 
up as a museum of British birds. The main 
staircase, in the west wing, is spacious, and one 
of the very finest things of the kind in Scot- 
land. Both above and below there are' some 
large rooms, and a variety of smaller apart- 
ments, most of which are pannelled with wood 
in the old fashion. The whole house, lobbies, 
staircase, and passages, are lined with pictures, 
some of which are by old masters, and very va- 
luable, while the great proportion are merely 
family portraits. The house abounds in fine 
old cabinets richly inlaid, and among other ar- 
ticles exposed to visitors, is the bed and chair 
used by his late majesty George IV. while re- 
siding here on the occasion of his visit to Scot- 
land in 1822. We believe it is in contempla- 
tion to remodel the house on a better plan. 
The grounds around are remarkably fine, and 
are enriched by large stripes and clumps of tall 
massive trees. The gateway leading into the 
policy is a little to the west, and from its out- 
side commences the chief street of the town of 
Dalkeith. In leaving the subject of Dalkeith 
House, it is with much pleasure we make pub- 
lic mention of the invariable attention shown 
gratuitously to strangers visiting it for the pur- 
pose of seeing the paintings, a liberality some- 
times very ill requited. Dalkeith has been very 
much improved in appearance within the last 
thirty years. The streets and principal shops are 
now lighted with gas, manufactured by ajoint- 
stock company. The environs of Dalkeith are 
beautiful, and exhibit a great variety of cot- 
tages enclosed in gardens and luxuriant shrub- 
beries ; and, in the neighbourhood, to the south- 
west and west, are the mansions and grounds 
of Newbotle and Melville, the properties of the 
Marquis of Lothian and Viscount Melville. 
The gardens of the town decline to the water 
on either side, and add much to the rural 
beauty of the place. At the head of the ris- 
ing ground, on the north side of the North 
Esk, stands the small hamlet of Lugton, said 
to have been a merry place in days of yore, 
and the seat of a barony. In 1633, the barony 
of Lugton was taken from the parish of Mel- 
ville and added to that ot Dalkeith. Of late, 
this small village has been undergoing a pro- 
cess of extinction, with no other view than 



that the already overgrown pleasure-grounds of 
the Buccleugh family may he extended in this 
direction, Dalkeith is the largest country 
town in the county of Edinburgh. It is sup- 
ported chiefly by a great and industrious popu- 
lation in the near neighbourhood, employed in 
agriculture, or at the numerous collieries. Of 
works of this latter description, those of Sheriff- 
hall are within the north part of the parish, 
and are the most important in Mid-Lothian. 
Besides all the common trades, there are 
manufactories of candles and leather, an iron 
foundry, and a brewery. The town is noted 
for the great number of its bakers and public 
houses. There are also several flour mills. 
Every Thursday a market is held for the sale 
of grain, and, occasionally, no fewer than five 
hundred carts are here seen, loaded with sacks 
from all parts of the south and east of Scot- 
land. It is distinguished above all others as a 
ready money market, and this may have led to its 
present prosperity. It is understood that the 
quantity of grain sold here weekly is greater 
than at any other market in Scotland. An- 
other large market is held on Mondays for the 
sale of oatmeal. On the third Tuesday of 
October a large cattle fair is held ; and in 
May, after the Rutherglen fair, there is a con- 
siderable horse market. The town has two 
large inns. Dalkeith is a burgh of barony under 
the Duke of Buccleugh, who appoints a bailie 
to superintend its affairs. The peace is pre- 
served by about fifty special constables, who 
are respectable inhabitants, sworn by the she- 
riff, and act gratuitously in suppressing disorders. 
The streets are lighted and cleaned, and water 
is brought to the public wells in pipes, at an 
expense liquidated by the produce of manure 
gathered daily from the thoroughfares, and by 
an impost on ale and beer, to the extent of 
twopence per pint, (both Scots), introduced 
into the town. The persons who regulate 
these matters are parliamentary trustees, or 
rather their deputies, who relieve the inhabi- 
tants of all trouble. The Duke of Buc- 
cleugh has the right of levying customs on 
goods, to a rather grievous extent, and this 
is the only burden, in the way of local taxes, 
the inhabitants have to complain of, with the 
exception of the payment of certain fees, on 
renewing charters of property on the incoming 
of heirs of the baronial superior. These out- 
lays are, however, exceedingly trifling in the 
aggregate, and do not injure the community. 

The very quiet and efficient manner in which 
the affairs of the place are managed is exceed- 
ingly striking ; and if we compare the opu- 
lence, the comfort, the respectable appearance, 
and the total freedom from burgal debt and 
the distractions of local politics, enjoyed by this 
town, with the poverty, the decayed character, 
the burdensome debts, and wearisome disturb- 
ances of most royal burghs, we certainly have a 
vivid practical illustration of the evils incident 
to corporate bodies of magistracy as compared 
with the benefits of simpler jurisdictions. The 
town rejoices in the number and quality of its 
religious establishments, and it is the seat of 
a Presbytery. Besides the established church, 
there are two congregations belonging to the 
United Secession church, one of Original 
Burghers, one of Independents, one of Metho- 
dists, and one of the Relief body. The fast- 
day of the town is the Wednesday before the 
second Sunday of August. The church of the 
town and parish stands on the north side ot 
the main street, and is a conspicuous object in 
entering the town. It is an old Gothic edifice, 
partly ruined. Originally the chapel of the 
castle, it was raised, in 1406, by Sir James 
Douglas, to the dignity of a collegiate church, 
and endowed for a provost and other function- 
aries, under the jurisdiction of the Dean of 
Haddington. After the Reformation, it be- 
came the parish kirk- The eastern extremity, 
which is in ruins, is now occupied as the bu- 
rial aisle of the Buccleugh family. The town 
has an excellent Subscription library, though a 
complaint is arising, that it is outread by its 
supporters, and hence the great use of itinerating 
libraries is very obvious. There are likewise 
a number of beneficiary and religious asso- 
ciations, as well as a poor-house for the des- 
titute. It has also an excellent grammar school. 
It is the appointed depot of the Edinburgh 
militia. The trade of the town is assisted by 
branches of the National, the Commercial, 
and the Leith Banks. The communication 
with Edinburgh is very easy, by means of a 
very excellent, though frequently a very dis- 
orderly road. Coaches run to and fro almost 
every hour. Dalkeith is noted in the annals 
of superstition ; and its fame in this respect is 
enhanced by the consideration, that the infa- 
mous Major Weir had a house within its pre- 
cincts. In that very strange little book en- 
titled, " Satan's Invisible World Discovered,' 
a story is told of a person who was condemn- 



ed to be hanged for murdering a man in Dal- 
keith, but could not be strangled, and that at 
last, wearing out the patience of his execution- 
ers, he was buried alive, when " there was 
such a rumbling and tumbling in his grave, 
that the very earth was raised, and the mools 
[mould] were so heaved up that they could 
hardly keep them down. After this his house 
at the east end of the town [as a matter of 
course] was frequented with a ghost." At 
the present day, the people of Dalkeith, though 
far from superstitious, are firmly of belief that 
the town is haunted by a spirit or some species 
of preternatural being. Nothing, certainly, is 
now seen, but something is often heard. The 
spirit is called Bittling Kate, from sounds being 
emitted in the night-time, resembling those 
made by a woman beating clothes with a bittle. 
The noises are not continuous. They are 
quite intermittent, and seem to flit to different 
parts of the town. The householders are 
now so accustomed to this strange visitant, that 
it has ceased to be cared about even by child- 
ren. It is impossible for us to deny the exis- 
tence of Bittling Kate, for the soimd of her 
m allet nightly disturbs the silence of the town, 
and her fame is extended over a large district 
of country; but we maybe pardoned in the 
supposition, that her vagaries may be attribut- 
ed simply to the evolutions of subterraneous 
water and air, intermittent, and taking new di- 
rections according to the pressure, while the 
noises so produced are only heard in the night 
season, when quietness prevails. — Population 
of the town and parish in 1821, 5169. 

DALLAS, a parish in the centre of the 
county of Moray, twelve miles in length by 
nine in breadth, consisting chiefly of a valley, 
through which the Lossie winds in a norther- 
ly direction. The hills are heathy and pas- 
toral Popidation in 1821, 1015. 

DALMALLY, a small village beside 
Glenorchy Kirk, at the head of Loch Awe, 
Argyleshire, lying ten miles west of the inn of 
Tyndrum, and sixteen north of Inverary. 

INGTON, a parish in Ayrshire, eight miles 
in length, by from two to three in breadth, lying 
on the north bank of the river Doon, from 
which the land gradually rises. The low 
grounds are generally cultivated, and the high 
lands are pastoral. A part of Loch Doon is 
in the parish. Coal, limestone, and ironstone 
are in great abundance. The village of Dal- 

mellington is a neat thriving place, lying in a 
secluded low situation on the north bank of 
the Water of Doon, about sixteen miles south- 
east from Ayr. It has now several cotton and 
woollen manufactories. Close to the town, 
and almost within its precincts, is one of those 
artificial pyramidal mounts which are so com- 
mon in Scotland, under the name of Moot-hills, 
having been used in early times as places for 
dispensing law — Population in 1821, 976. 

DALMENY, a parish in Linlithgowshire, 
on the shore of the Firth of Forth, lying im- 
mediately west of Cramond, bounded on the 
south by Kirkliston, and on the west and north- 
west by Abercorn and South Queensfeny. 
In length it is four miles, and in breadth from 
two to three. The surface is undulating. By 
good farming, the land is well cultivated and 
productive. It is well enclosed and planted. 
The parish has excellent quarries of freestone. 
The small district of Auldcathie,once an inde- 
pendent parish, lying apart from it on the 
west, is now incorporated with it. On the 
shore, the plantations of the Earl of Roseber- 
ry enrich the landscape. His ancient castle 
or tower of Barnbougle, originally the seat of 
the Mowbrays, stands within sea mark, and is 
a striking object from the Forth. A little to 
the east, embosomed in trees, is situated 
his modern mansion-house. Besides this 
sea% the parish is adorned by Craigie Hall ; 
Dundas Castle, which has been in the family 
of Dundas since the year 1 120 ; Duddingstone, 
and others. The church of Dalmeny is a 
very ancient structure, and is one of the very 
few in Scotland which exhibit any traces of the 
Saxon style of architecture. Perhaps it is 
worthy of remark, that the church of the next 
parish, (Kirkliston) also exhibits a Saxon or 
circular door-way. — Population in 1824, 1495. 

DALNACARDOCH, an inn forming a 
principal stage on the great road from Edin- 
burgh to Inverness, situated on the river Gar- 
ry, in the north-west of Perthshire, at the dis- 
tance of eighty-five miles from Edinburgh, 
and seventy from Inverness. 

DALRY, a parish in the stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright, lying on the east bank of the river 
Ken, having Carsphairn on the west, Sanquhar 
on the north, and Balmaclellan on the south- 
east. It extends to a length of fifteen miles, 
and its breadth is about ten. The district is 
nearly altogether pastoral and hilly. Planta, 
tions are on the increase, and proper cultiva- 



tion is beginning to be appreciated. The 
Black-water, and the burns of Earlston and 
Stonriggan, are the only rivulets worth men- 
tioning. There are several small lakes in the 
parish ; the largest, called Lochinvar, covers 
an area of fifty acres. In the lake stand the re- 
mains of an ancient castle, formerly belonging 
to the Gordons, knights of Lochinvar, and lat- 
terly Viscounts of Kenmure. There is a 
small vUlage, pleasantly situated on the banks 
of the Ken, called St. John's Clachan, in 
which is, or was lately, shown a stone called 
St. John's chair, which is understood to have 
belonged to a church here dedicated to St. 
John the Apostle. The name of the parish 
signifies the Dale of the King. — Population in 

1821, 1151. 

DALRY, a parish in the district of Cun- 
ningham, Ayrshire, lying to the south of the 
parish of Largs and Kilbirny, .bounded by 
Beith on the east, Kilwinning on the south, 
and Ardrossan and Stevenston on the west. 
It extends in an irregular manner about nine 
miles each way. It is well watered by rivu- 
lets flowing in a southerly course. The vil- 
lage of Dairy is pleasantly situated, nine miles 
north of Saltcoats, on a rising ground, nearly en- 
compassed by the waters of Caaf, Rye, and 
Garnock. It is inhabited chiefly by weavers. 
On the banks of the various streams the land 
is flat and arable. Coal, limestone, and iron- 
stone abound. The name of the parish, when 
it occurs elsewhere, signifies the dale of the 
king ; here it imports the dale on the Rye. 
At this place first broke out in Scotland the 
insurrection of 1666, against the infamous 
measures adopted by the privy council to erect 
episcopacy Population in 1821, 3313. 

DALRY, (WESTER) a hamlet, once a 
populous village, about a mile west from Edin- 
burgh, on the Lanark road. It stands on the 
western boundary of the enclosures of the 
estate of Dairy. The hamlet of Easter Dai- 
ry is now diminished to two or three cottages, 
and stands nearer the city. 

DALRYMPLE, a parish in the district 
of Kyle, Ayrshire, occupying some beautiful 
undulating and flat land, mostly arable, on the 
north bank of the river Doon, along which 
the parish extends for six or seven miles. 
On the north it is bounded by Ayr and Coyle- 
ston. The origin of the word Dalrymple 
is understood to be Dalrymole, which signifies 
" the dale on which the king was slain ;" and 

it is supposed that Coilus, a king of the Bri- 
tons, was killed in battle at this place. The 
small village of Dalrymple is pleasantly situ- 
ated on the banks of the Doon, six miles south- 
east of .Ayr, and five from Maybole — Popu- 
lation in 1821, 933. 

DALSERF, a parish in the middle ward 
of Lanarkshire, lying on the west bank of the 
Clyde, and having the Avon Water on its 
western boundary for about two miles. The 
parishes of Cambusnethan and Carluke lie on the 
opposite side of the Clyde. It extends five miles 
in length by three in breadth. The land is 
here rich, and generally in a high state of cul- 
tivation, abounding in orchards and beautiful 
plantations. Coal, freestone, and ironstone 
are in abundance. There are two villages be- 
sides that of Dalserf, to wit, Millheugh and 
Larkhall. Dalserf village stands in a low snug 
situation, under the banks of Clyde, having a 
large fertile valley, called Dalserf- Holm, to 
the eastward, round which the river makes a 
circular sweep. The village is one of the 
neatest in Scotland, and decidedly among 
the most pleasing in appearance, if situation 
be taken into account. There are seve- 
ral elegant villas in the district. In early 
times, the parish was merely a chapelry be- 
longing to the church of Cadzou, and at a 
period somewhat later, it became the appro- 
priate benefice of the dean of Glasgow cathe- 
dral. At that time it was called the chapelry 
of Machan, from a word signifying a plain. It 
was made a barony in the fourteenth century, 
and was occasionally entitled the barony of 
Machanshire. — Population in 1821, 2054. 

DAL TON, a parish in the lower part of 
Annandale, Dumfries-shire, comprehending 
the two ancient parishes of Meikle Dalton and 
Little Dalton, extending four miles in length 
by three in breadth, lying chiefly on the south- 
west bank of the Annan to the north of 
the parish of Ruthwell, which separates it 
from the sea. It is now under good cultiva- 
tion, and tolerably well enclosed. — Population 
in 1821, 767. 

DALWHAT WATER, a rivulet in the 
south-western part of Dumfries-shire, and a 
tributary of the river Cairn. 

DALWHINNIE, a stage at which an inn 
is established, on the Highland road to Inver- 
ness from the south. It is situated in the 
heights of the forest of Badenoch, within the 
bounds of Inverness-shire, near the north end 



of Loch Ericht, at the distance of ninety-nine 
and a half miles from Edinburgh, and fifty-six 
and a half from Inverness. It is the next 
stage north from Dalnacardoch Inn. 

DALZIEL, a parish in the middle ward of 
Lanarkshire, lying on the north-east bank 
of the Clyde, betwixt Hamilton on the 
south, and Bothwell on the north, and hav- 
ing the Calder Water flowing on its east- 
ern boundary. The surface is composed of 
gently inclined plains, diversified with corn 
fields, rich plantations, and meadow lands. On 
the picturesque banks of a small brook, stands 
the mansion house of Dalziel, attached to the 
old tower of the manor. It is a high Gothic 
building with battlements and loop holes. A 
6mall part of a Roman road remains entire in 
the parish. The parish church is a conspicuous 
object, standing on the summit of a ridge. The 
name of the district is derived from the Gaelic 
words Dal-gkeal, which signifies the White Mea- 
doio, there being naturally a whitish scurf on the 
surface of the clay soil, at the place where the old 
parish church stood near the Clyde. St. Pa- 
trick was the patron saint of the church before 
the Reformation, and there is still a spring with 
the name of St. Patrick's Well. There are 
other two consecrated springs in the parish call- 
ed Our Lady's Well and St. Catherine's Well. 
The parish formerly belonged to the abbey of 
Paisley Population in 1821, 955. 

DAMSAY, a small island in the west 
branch of Kirkwall Bay, Orkney. 

DANE SHALT, (pronounced DUN- 
SHE LT,) a small village near the head of 
the Howe of Fife, (half a mile south from 
Auehtermuchty,) which is supposed to have 
been the place where the Danes halted and 
sheltered themselves, after having been dis- 
comfited at Falkland Moor, in one of their 
invasions of Scotland. It is inhabited entirely 
by weavers. 

DARWEL, a rivulet in Cowal, Argyle- 
shire, running into Loch Ridon, an arm of 
the sea going off from the Kyles of Bute. 

DAVEN, (LOCH) a small lake in the 
parish of Logie-Coldstone, district of Cromar, 

DAVIDS (St.), a sea-port village in the 
parish of Dalgety, lying on the north shore of 
the Firth of Forth, about a mile and a half east 
of Inverkeithing. It exports great quantities 
of coal, which is brought from the pits to the 
quay by a rail-way ; salt is also exported. 

DAVIOT, a parish in the district of Ga- 
rioch, Aberdeenshire, contiguous to Meldrum, 
on the north-west, and lying near the north-east 
bank of the river Urie. It extends five miles 
in length by four in breadth, including portions 
of the parishes of Chapel of Garioch and of 
Fyvie, joined to it in ecclesiastical matters. 
The land is undulating and lies low, but it is 
not very productive, and is poorly enclosed. — 
Population in 1821, 651. 

DAVIOT, an extensive parish in the north- 
eastern part of Inverness-shire, comprehending 
the abrogated parish of Dunlichty. The parish 
now extends twenty-three miles in length by 
from two to four in breadth. It is a wild 
pastoral district, stretching from about the east 
side of Inverness to the heights of Badenoch, 
in a course nearly north and south alongthe river 
Nairn. It comprises Lochs Ashley, Dundel- 
chack, and Ruthven, all of which abound in trout 
of a fine flavour — Population in 1821, 1750. 

DA WICK, a suppressed parish in Peebles- 
shire, which was dismembered in 1742 and di- 
vided between the parishes of Stobo and Drum- 
melzier. A hamlet named EasterDaivick lies 
in the adjacent parish of Manor on the south 
side of the Tweed, and the similar hamlet of 
Wester Dawick is situated in the parish of 
Drummelzier. The church of Dawick stood 
on Scrape Burn, about a quarter of a mile 
southward of New Posso. 

DEAN, a deep running river in Forfar- 
shire, rising from the lake of Forfar, and re- 
ceiving the water of Gairie, near Glammis, 
after which it falls into the river Isla about a 
mile north from Meigle. 

DEAN, (THE) a hamlet near Edinburgh, 
contiguous to the village of the Water of Leith 
on the north. 

DEE, a river of great note in Aberdeen- 
shire, principally formed by a number of small 
streams which fall from the heights of Brae- 
mar, and the bosom of the Cairngorm moun- 
tains, and coalesce as they approach Crathy. 
From its sources to its mouth, the Dee pur- 
sues an irregular course from west to east of 
ninety-seven miles. It receives the accession 
of innumerable streams on both sides, but of 
none of any import. For about a third of its 
length upward it forms the southern boundary 
of Aberdeenshire. In general, it runs with 
celerity, and in most seasons it has a clear ap- 
pearance, tinged slightly with brown, from the 
mossy water mixed up with it. Its banks are 



frequently bold and rocky, but in other places 
bo level, that the river sometimes inundates 
whole farms. For the greater part of its 
course, its banks are overhung with fine natural 
forests and plantations, chiefly of birches, inter- 
mixed with wild shrubs, extremely grateful to the 
traveller, who is thus led to overlook the gene- 
ral sterility of the soil in other respects. To- 
wards its source large woods of natural pines 
of stupendous size, add a gloomy magnificence 
to the scene. At proper seasons, large rafts 
of trees are constructed and floated to the sea, 
though, from the changes of the river, this 
cannot always be done with safety. A few 
miles above Braemar, is what is generally called 
the Linn of Dee. It is scarcely a waterfall, 
the descent of the river being only about five 
feet, and that with a gentle slope. The chan- 
nel is here so contracted between two rocks, 
that it may be leaped across with ease ; the 
feat, however, is somewhat terrific, and few 
heads can bear the stunning effect of the eter- 
nal noise produced by the confined waters. In 
general the hills press so close upon the Dee, 
as to leave little flat ground upon its sides, till 
within five or six miles of its mouth, where 
the hills become lower, and recede a little far- 
ther from the river, so as to give place to some 
level fields or haughs. The near vicinity of 
the elegant bridge of Dee adds to the beauty 
of the prospect. This river abounds with sal- 
mon, and yields among the most valuable 
fishings in Scotland ; the produce being esti- 
mated at about L.8000 per annum. In mak- 
ing a comparison of the soil of the banks of 
the Dee and the Don, the two principal rivers 
in Aberdeenshire, the latter has manifestly the 
advantage. Hence the old rhyme : — 

A rood o' Don's worth twa o' Dee, 
Unless it be for fish and tree. 

This river committed great havock during the 
floods of August, 1829. 

DEE, a river in the stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright, the sources of which are in Dry Loch, 
Loch Long, Loch Dee, and some small rivu- 
lets, among the hills, in the western part of the 
stewartry, on the borders of Carrick in Ayr- 
shire. It pursues an irregular course to the 
east till it falls into Loch Ken opposite Par- 
ton. Here its character is entirely changed. 
The Ken, before forming the long narrow lake 
which takes its name, is a much larger river 
than the Dee, and as it never alters its course 
from north to south — sinuosities excepted — it 

ought to have maintained its name throughout. 
Public taste has, however, decided this matter, 
and the Dee, on coming in upon the west side 
of the Ken, gives its name to the water, till 
it terminates at the town of Kirkcudbright. 
For two miles from its mouth it is navigable 
for vessels of 200 tons burden. Its course is 
generally rapid, flowing over a rough rocky 
bottom, between steep romantic banks adorned 
with natural wood and plantations. At the 
head of the navigation at Tongland, it is cross- 
ed by a magnificent bridge, which consists of 
a single arch, having a span of 1 10 feet. It is 
built of vast blocks of freestone, brought from 
the isle of Arran, and cost about L.7000, 
which was paid by the gentlemen of the stew- 
artry. A short way above the bridge, are some 
cascades, the effect of which is very good when 
the water is large. Altogether, the Dee of 
Kirkcudbright runs about forty miles. 

DEER, or OLD DEER, a parish in 
Buchan, Aberdeenshire, having the parish of 
New Deer on the west, Strichen on the north, 
and separated from Peterhead on the east by 
the parish of Longside. Its greatest extent is 
ten miles, and its mean breadth five and a half. 
One branch of the river Ugie runs through its 
centre ; the other branch enters it for a short 
way on the north-east. The surface is undu- 
lating. The higher parts are covered with 
heath or plantations, and the low grounds are 
generally arable. The pleasure-grounds and 
woods of Pitfourare the only objects of attrac- 
tion. There are a number of mills of differ- 
ent kinds in the parish ; and the manufactur- 
ing and bleaching of fine linen is a great source 
of employment. The parish is bleak, except 
the parts laid out as pleasure-grounds ; but it 
is generally productive of good corn crops. 
The district abounds in lime, of which great 
quantities are exported. The villages are, 
Stewartfield, Fetterangus, and Deer. The 
latter stands ten and a half miles west from 
Peterhead, and twenty-eight north of Aberdeen. 
It is populous and thriving. Not far distant, 
upon the north bank of the Ugie, stand the 
remains of the Abbey of Deer, which was 
built in the beginning of the thirteenth century, 
by William Cumming, Earl of Buchan, who 
brought some monks to it from the Abbey of 
Kinloss in Moray. Its lands were erected 
into a temporal lordship in 1587, in favour of 
Robert Keith, the person created commenda- 
tor of Deer at the Reformation, and son of 



William, sixth Earl Marischal. The fabric of 
Deer Abbey has been extensive, but of inele- 
gant architecture. — Population in 1821 , 3359. 

DEER, (NEW) a parish in Aberdeen- 
shire contiguous on the west to the parish of 
Old Deer, of which it formed a portion till the 
beginning of the eighteenth century. It lies 
almost at the centre of the district of Buchan, 
extending fourteen miles from north to south 
by about seven in breadth. The church 
stands thirty miles north of Aberdeen. The 
surface is flat and arable. — Population in 

DEER, a very small stream in Buchan, 
Aberdeenshire, rising in the above parish of 
New Deer, and which, after running in an 
easterly direction for about sixteen miles, joins 
the Water of Strichen ; which, being in its turn 
thrown into the Ugie, reaches the sea by that 
channel at Peterhead. 

DEER ISLAND, a small islet of the 
Hebrides, lying off the coast of Bara. 

two parishes in Orkney, now united under the 
title of Deerness. This extensive parish occu- 
pies a large peninsulated tract of land, lying to 
the east of Kirkwall, on the main island of 
Pomona. A portion of the peninsula at 
its extreme east point is nearly cut off by 
the sea : this forms Deerness Proper. The 
whole is generally flatfish, and partakes 
of the usual character of Orkney land, being 
wild, marshy, and unproductive. Some im- 
provements have been recently made. On the 
north the peninsula is indented by two long 
irregular arms of the sea called Inganess Bay 
and Deer Sound. On the east side lie Horse 
and Copinshay islands, south from which is 
Newark Bay, and from thence there is a com- 
munication to Scalpa Flow by Holm Sound. 
^Population of both parishes in 1821, 1548. 

DELTING, an extensive hilly barren pa- 
rish in Shetland, occupying the whole of the 
mainland north of Olanafrith and Deal Voes. 
This large tract of land is so cut up on all sides 
by Voes or arms of the sea, that only the inspec- 
tion of a minute map can give an idea of its 
dimensions and figure. It adjoins the parish of 
North Maven. Weesdale and Nesting bound 
it on the south ; Yell Sound lies on the north. 
Along some parts of the coast there is a little 
cultivation.— Population in 1821, 1818. 

DENHOLM, a village pleasantly situated 
on a rivulet falling into the south side of the 

Tiviot, on the road from Hawick to Jedburgh, 
in the parish of Cavers, Roxburghshire. It is 
distant from Jedburgh five miles, and is inhabit- 
ed principally by weavers of stockings, employed 
by the Hawick manufacturers. It possesses 
a dissenting meeting-house : and a subscription 
library has long been supported in the place. 
The population is about 500. 

DENINO, a small parish in the eastern 
part of Fife, having St. Andrews on the north, 
Kingsbarns on the east, Crail on the south, 
and Cameron on the west. It extends three 
miles in length by one and a half in breadth. 
The land is wet, moorish, and rather unproduc- 
tive. A good deal of it is under pasture. Be- 
tween this parish and Crail there is an extensive 
tract of wild moorish land called King's Muir, 
parcelled out into small farms, which does not 
properly belong to any parish, but its few inha- 
bitants prefer to consider themselves pari- 
shioners of Denino. It consists of 1000 
acres, and was a gift of Charles II. to Co- 
lonel Borthwick, a person who faithfully at- 
tended him in his exile, as a reward for his 
services and attachment. — Population in 1821, 

DENNY, a parish in Stirlingshire, lying be- 
tween Falkirk and Kilsyth, bounded by St. 
Ninians on the north. Its surface is undulat- 
ing, and the soil is cultivated upon the improv- 
ed systems of agriculture. Freestone and coal 
abound. It is intersected by the Forth and 
Clyde canal, which is of great benefit to agri- 
culturists. The village of Denny lies on the 
south bank of the Carron, on the road directly 
west from Falkirk through the centre of the 
county, five miles distant from that town and 
eight south-east of Stirling. The road from 
Stirling to Glasgow also passes through the 
village, which is rising into a thriving country 
town from its proximity to several paper mills, 
printfields, and other large works. — Popula- 
tion in 1821, 3364. 

DERNICK, or DARNICK, a smal 
village in Roxburghshire, lying on the western 
base of the Eildon hills, near the south bank 
of the Tweed. The road from Selkirk to 
Melrose passes through it, and it is distant 
one and a half miles west from the latter place. 
It was one of the villages of the halidom, or 
church property of Melrose ; and some ruin- 
ous towers, which must have been occupied by 
the better vassals of that establishment, still 



DERVILLE, or DERVAL, a large 
modern village upon a regular plan, at the head 
of Irvine Water, Ayrshire, parish of Loudon. 
The road into Lanarkshire by Drumelog 
passes through it, and it is becoming a thriving 
manufacturing place. 

DESKFORD, a parish in Banffshire, ly- 
ing betwixt Cullen and Grange, extending five 
miles in length by three in breadth, through a 
fine fertile valley, bounded by hills, and water- 
ed along the bottom by a small river. It has 
now some thriving plantations. — Population in 
1821, 693. 

DESKRY WATER, a rivulet in the 
parish of Tarland, western part of Aberdeen- 
shire, a tributary of the Don. 

DEVERON, or DOVERAN, a river 
of Banff and Aberdeenshires. Its sources lie 
in very opposite directions ; one branch, bear- 
ing the name of Deveron, rises near the middle 
of the western boundary of Aberdeenshire, in 
the parish of Cabrach, and pursues a tortuous 
northerly course by the town of Huntly, where 
it is joined by the Bogie. Above Rothiemay, it 
is joined by the river Isla, which comes run- 
ning in an easterly direction from the centre 
of the lower part of Banffshire, where it is 
formed by a number of small streamlets. The 
chief tributaries being now joined, the water 
flows in a north-easterly course to Turriff, 
where it turns by a sharp angle towards the 
north-west, and after describing a small semi- 
circle, falls into the sea at Banff. As far up 
as Rothiemay. or a little farther, it is chiefly the 
boundary between the two counties. Altoge- 
ther it runs fifty miles. It receives a number 
of small streams, and is valuable for its salmon 
and trout fishing. Its banks are, in general, 
beautiful, flat, and fertile. During the floods 
of August 1829, it committed dreadful havock 
near Huntly, where it rose twenty-two feet, 
and destroyed and injured many pleasure- 
grounds and farms. It also did considerable 
mischief at Banff. 

DEVON, a beautiful little river on the 
boundary of Stirling and Clackmannanshires. 
Its course is very irregular. Its principal 
source is near Sheriffmuir, at the western base 
of the Ochil Hills, through which it finds its 
way in an easterly direction into Glen De- 
von at the southern side. Here it passes 
through a narrow glen, scarcely extending to 
two furlongs in breadth, to the Crook of De- 
von, where all at once it makes a turn to the 

south-west. Pursuing this direction, it passes 
Dollar, Tillicoultry, and Alva, and after 
making another bend towards the south-east, 
falls into the Forth, two miles above Alloa, 
precisely where that river assumes the cha- 
racter of a Firth. The Devon forms several 
beautiful falls, and possesses much romantic 
scenery visited by tourists. The place possess- 
ing the greatest interest is a little above Dol- 
lar, where it forms a series of cascades, one 
of which is called the Caldron Linn. Pre- 
viously in a smooth state, it suddenly enters a 
deep gulph, where, finding itself confined, it 
has, by continual efforts against the sides, 
worked out a cavity resembling a large caldron, 
in which it has so much the appearance of 
boiling, that it is difficult to divest oneself of 
the idea that it is actually in a state of violent 
ebullition. From the caldron the water finds 
its way through a hole beneath the surface in- 
to a lower cavity, in which it is carried round and 
round, though with much less violent agitation ; 
this second caldron is always covered with foam. 
The water then works its way out in a similar 
manner into a third caldron, out of which it is 
precipitated by a sheer fall of forty-four feet. 
About a mile farther up the vale, the banks of 
the stream are contracted in such a manner, 
that an arch of twenty-two feet span connects 
them at the height of eighty-six feet above the 
water. On account of the roughness of the 
channel, the water here makes a violent noise, 
and occasions the said arch to get the name of 
the Rumbling Brig. About two hundred 
yards further up, there is another, but inferior 
cascade, where the water vibrates from one side 
to another of the pool below, causing an inter- 
mittent noise, like that of water working upon 
a milk The country people call it the Devil's 
Mill, because it pays no regard to Sunday, and 
works every day alike. The whole scenery 
of these singular cascades is extremely roman- 
tic, and, together with the general charms of 
Glen Devon, renders the country on the banks 
of the river one of the most delightful' dis- 
tricts in Scotland. The river, as will be re- 
membered by almost every reader, is celebrat- 
ed by Burns. The works of the Devon Iron 
Company lie on the banks of the river about 
four miles inland. 

VON, a river much smaller than the reced- 
ing, rising in the western part of the county of 
Fife, and which, after flowing in a south-east- 

D I R L E T O N. 

erly course through Clackmannanshire, falls 
into the Firth of Forth below the town of 

DICHMOUNT HILL, a conspicuous 
mountain in the parish of Cambuslang, Lan- 
arkshire, elevated about seven hundred feet 
above the level of the sea. 

DICHMOUNT LAW, a hill near Ar- 
broath, elevated 670 feet above the level of the 
sea, on the top of which certain barons an- 
ciently held their courts. 

DICHTY WATER, a small river in the 
southern part of Forfarshire, rising from se- 
veral small lakes among the Sidlaw hills, pa- 
rish of Lundie, and which, after running about 
twelve miles in an easterly course, and driving 
several nulls, falls into the Firth of Tay be- 
tween Broughty and Monifieth. 

DILTY-MOSS, a large morass in the 
southern part of Forfarshire, parishes of Car- 
mylie and Guthrie, giving rise to the Elliot, 
a small stream which falls into the sea a little 
to the west of Arbroath. 

DINART, a river on the north-western 
part of Sutherlandshire, rising in Loch Dowl, 
and which, after flowing in an irregular north- 
erly course of fifteen miles through Strath 
Dinart, falls into the sea at the head of Dur- 
ness Bay. 

DINGWALL, a parish in the eastern and 
more champaign part of Ross-shire, lying at the 
head of the Cromarty Frith, and having Fod- 
derty on the south and west, and Kiltearn on 
the north-east. The river Conan runs through 
the parish. This is among the richest, the 
best cultivated, and most beautiful parts of 

Dingwall, a royal burgh, the capital of 
the above parish and of the county of Ross, 
lies in a low situation at the mouth of a 
glen opening into the north side of the Cro- 
marty Firth, near the western extremity of that 
beautiful estuary, distant 178 miles from Edin- 
burgh, 25 S.S.W. of Tain, 20 S. W. of Cro- 
marty, and 20 N.N.W. of Inverness. The 
town, which is rather neat, and built in the 
Dutch fashion, consists of one main street, and 
a few smaller ones, or alleys, branching from 
it . The town house is a curious old building, 
With a spire and clock, near the centre of the 
town ; and the church is a plain edifice on the 
north side of the town, with an obelisk in its 
neighbourhood, fifty-seven feet in height, erected 
to the memoryof George, first earl of Cromarty, 
who. eccentric in death as in life, was buried 

here. The only fault of Dingwall is its im- 
perfect police regulations, which permit every 
house, even upon the main street, to collect a 
small dunghill in front. It possesses a small 
harbour, in the neighbourhood of which for- 
merly stood the mansion of the powerful fami- 
ly of Ross. Of all that princely structure only a 
small shapeless fragment is now to be seen, in 
the garden attached to a villa which has been 
built at the place. Dingwall is surrounded by 
some of the most beautiful scenery in Scotland. 
The valley of Strathpeffer, at the head of which 
there is a celebrated mineral well, recedes to 
the westward, and is as lovely as any lowland 
vale, while the mountains at its head have all 
the grandeur of the Highlands. The hill on 
the north side of the town, a beautiful woody 
declivity, reminds the traveller of the more 
celebrated hill of Kinnoul, near Perth. On 
the top of a hill called Knockfarrel, about two 
miles from the town, is a very good specimen 
of the curiosity called a vitrified fort. Ding- 
wall was created a royal burgh by Alexander 
II., and its charter was renewed by James IV., 
when it was endowed with the same privileges, 
liberties, and immunities as were possessed by 
the burgh of Inverness. Its civic governors 
are a provost, two bailies, a dean of guild, trea- 
surer, and ten councillors. It joins with Tain, 
Dornoch, Wick, and Kirkwall in contributing 
a member to parliament. Dingwall does not 
possess the undivided privileges of a county 
town, as district meetings, and the courts of 
the sheriff are held also at Tain. There is 
a weekly market on Friday, and two yearly 
fairs. — Population of the burgh and parish in 
1821, 2031. 

DIRLETON, aparish in Haddingtonshire, 
occupying that part of the county which pro- 
jects farthest into the mouth of the Firth of 
Forth, and extending about six miles in length, 
by four and a half in breadth ; bounded on the 
east by North Berwick, on the south by Athel • 
staneford, and on the west by Aberlady. The 
land is quite low, and, with the exception of 
a sandy stripe along the shore, which is used 
as a rabbit-warren, is fertile to a degree not 
surpassed even in East-Lothian, yielding ex- 
cellent green crops and pasture. The village 
of Dirleton is delightfully situated at the head 
of a low meadow, extending about a mile and 
a half towards the sea ; the houses are most- 
ly well built, lining two sides of a triangular 
green, which is interspersed with trees. On 
the third or south »ide of this open space stands 



the venerable and magnificent ruin of Dirleton 
Castle, embosomed among evergreens, and 
overgrown with ivy. The garden in which it 
is situated is surrounded by a modern wall 
built in the style of a barbican with turrets, 
and nearly the whole of the improvements in 
its vicinity are done in the very best taste. An 
air of the antique or partial Gothic prevails in 
most of the buildings and cottages in and about 
the village. At the back of this little rural 
town, towards the sea, is the parish church, the 
steeple of which is a handsome modern erection, 
relieved by the umbrageous scenery around it. 
Altogether, Dirleton may be termed one of 
the prettiest villages, if not actually the prettiest, 
in Scotland. From the various beneficial and 
tasteful improvements going on, under the care 
of Mr. and Mrs. Ferguson of Raith, the latter 
of whom is proprietrix of the estate by de- 
scent, it bids fair in a short time to surpass any 
thing of the kind in Britain, and we are certain 
that it cannot long remain undiscovered as a high- 
ly eligible place for summer rustication. It 
stands two miles west of North Berwick on 
the road from Edinburgh. The village of 
Gulane, two miles west of Dirleton, prior to 
1612, was the capital of the district, and the 

place at which the parish church stood See 

Gulane. The origin of Dirleton Castle is lost 
in the darkness of the middle ages. It seems 
that in the thirteenth century it belonged to the 
noble family of de Vallibus or de Vaux, from 
whom it was taken, after a tedious siege, by 
Edward I. on his invasion by the eastern bor- 
ders in 1298. It however did not pass from 
the possession of this family till the reign of 
Robert I. when John Halyburton obtained it 
by marrying a daughter of William de Valli- 
bus. In 1440, Sir Walter Halyburton, Lord 
High Treasurer of Scotland, was created a 
peer, under the title of Earlof Dirleton. From 
that family the estate and castle passed, by 
marriage, into the family of Ruthven, Earl of 
Gowrie ; and it is evident from the letters of 
Logan of Restalrig, that this property was the 
bribe held out to induce him to join in the Gow- 
rie Conspiracy. The old baron says, in his se- 
cond letter — and the impression marks that this 
part of the country must have been enriched by 
culture at an early period — " I cair nocht for 
all the land I hev in this kingdome, in case I get 
a grip of Dirleton, for I esteme it the plesaunt- 
est dwelling in Scotland. " After the ruin of the 
Ruthvens, in consequence of that strange plot, 
Dirleton is found in possession of a scion of 

the house of Maxwell, a zealous royalist, who, 
was created Lord Dirleton, but lost every thing 
in the civil war. Soon after the restoration, 
the property came into the possession of the 
family of Msbet, whose descendant now pos- 
sesses it. The castle continued in a good con- 
dition till the year 1650, when it was reduced 
and dismantled by the Parliamentary General 
Lambert. It appears, by an old act of parlia- 
ment and other documents, that there was a 
collegiate chinch founded at Dirleton in 1444, 
by Sir Walter Halyburton ; but little is known 
of its character or situation, and it must have 
been on an inconsiderable scale, as at the 
Reformation its revenue was but L.20 a-year. 
The parish contains the villages of Gulane, Fen- 
ton and Kingston — Population in 1821, 1315. 

DIVIE, a small river at the centre of Mo- 
rayshire, which rises in Loch-in-Dorb, and 
other small lakes, and after running a rapid 
course to the north past Edenkeillie, falls into 
the Findhorn. It has some small tributaries 
originating in the Knock of Brae Moray. 

DO CHART, a small lake in the western 
parts of Perthshire, parish of Killin, extend- 
ing about three miles in length. It has its 
sources in several tributary streams rising in 
the heights west of Strath Fillan, through 
which they flow into it. Its waters issue by 
the river Dochart, from its east end, and after 
a course of eight miles, fall into the west end 
of Loch Tay. Loch Dochart lies in a naked 
tract of country, and possesses a small degree 
of interest from having two islands, one of 
which has been formed by vegetable substan- 
ces, and is moveable. On the other, embow- 
ered in natural wood, stand the ruins of a 
castle, once a residence of the Campbells of 
Loch- Awe. There is a little port on the shore, 
which appears to have been their landing-place. 

DOLLAR, a parish in the county of Clack- 
mannan, lying at the bottom of the Ochil hills, 
on the banks of the river Devon, bounded by 
Glendevon on the north, and by Tillicoultry 
on the west. It is only three miles in 
length by one and a half in breadth. The 
land is rich, well cultivated, and enclosed. 
Till within these few years the village of Dol- 
lar was mean and insignificant. The erection 
of an Academy, by an endowment, gave quite 
a new turn to its affairs. A person named 
MacNab, a native of the parish, who had re- 
alized a large fortune in London, by furnishing 
transports to government and other mercantile 
pursuits, died and bequeathed a large sum 



to found an institution in his native district, 
for the education of young persons. A very 
handsome edifice was consequently reared, 
in 1819, and furnished with several good 
masters, for teaching languages, plain branches 
of education, and some of the more elegant 
and useful arts. The branches at present 
taught, are Latin, Greek, and Oriental lan- 
guages, French and other modern languages, 
Mathematics, and Natural Philosophy, Draw- 
ing, English, Writing and Arithmetic, and 
Geography. There are ten teachers, includ- 
ing assistants. There is likewise a female 
teacher, and a surgeon connected with the 
institution. Much was anticipated at first 
from this establishment ; but after a fair trial, 
it does not seem to have accomplished anything 
like what was expected from it. By a most 
unfortunate and hopeless arrangement, the 
" minister and kirk-session of Dollar" are the 
constituted governors and patrons, which in 
effect leaves the whole management in the 
hands of a single clergyman. The erection of 
the academy, has, however, attracted a great 
number of residents to the place, which now 
possesses many handsome villas. The acade- 
my itself is a very elegant Grecian building, 
and is connected with some pleasant garden- 
ground for the use of the students. A library is 
attached to the establishment, also for their use. 
The village lies on the road to Stirling from 
Kinross at the distance of thirteen miles from 
each of these towns, and seven from Alloa. In 
the neighbourhood is the remarkable ruin of 
Castle Campbell, occupying the top of a 
high and almost insulated rock, which as- 
cends within a hollow in the bosom of the 
Ochil Hills, with mountain rivulets brawling 
on all sides around it. All around this mount, 
and along the steeps opposite to it, are thick 
bosky woods, which cast a perpetual gloom 
over the scene. The only access to the castle 
is by an isthmus connecting the mount with 
the hill behind. Here some ancient and noble 
sycamores, the remains of an avenue, add much 
to the picturesque effect of the building. From 
the very narrow area around it, the views are 
fearfully sublime, while it is almost impossible 
to quit its walls but for a few yards, without the 
risk of being hurled into the unknown depths 
of the surrounding valley. A frightful chasm 
in the hill itself, guarded by an outwork, ap- 
pears once to have served the purpose of giving 
access to the waters below. It is called 

Kemp's Score, and still bears some marks of a 
staircase. This romantic castle is of great 
antiquity. The date when the donjon-keep 
or great square tower was built, is so far back 
as to be beyond the research of the antiquary. 
The buildings, even in their present ruinous 
state, form a quadrangle, some parts of which 
are of elegant workmanship. Originally the 
castle is believed to have been in the hands of 
the crown ; and the tradition is that the va- 
rious melancholy names which still exist around 
it, were given by a royal princess who was 
there confined. The ancient name of the cas- 
tle, says the traditionary account, was the 
Castle of Gloom, and the hill immediately be- 
hind it still retains the same appellation. The 
mountain streams that flow on the different 
sides, are still called the one the Water of Care 
— the other the Burn of Sorrow; and after their 
junction in front of the castle, they traverse 
the parish or valley of Dollar or Dolour. 
We believe it to be more likely that Chleume, 
or Coch Leume, the original name of the cas- 
tle, is Gaelic, and means the place of the Mad 
Leap, that the Water of Care was the glen of 
Caer or Castle, and that Dollar is Dal or, the 
liigh field : the Burn of Sorrow might easily 
be added by fancy — if not the Burn of Care 
also. At what precise time the castle and 
surrounding land came into the possession of 
the Argyle family, is not certainly known ; but 
it is conjectured that they were included in the 
splendid grant which was made by King Ro- 
bert Bruce to Sir Neil Campbell of Lochawe, 
on his marriage with Lady Mary Bruce, the 
sister of that monarch. In 1493 an act of 
parliament was passed for changing the name 
of " the Castle called the Gloume, pertain- 
ing to our cousing Colin, Earl of Argyle," 
to " Castle Campbell," and it continued in 
the possession of the Argyle family until the 
year 1807, when it was sold to the present 
proprietor. Castle Campbell was the scene of 
several remarkable events, and it is said that it 
was one of the first places where John Knox 
openly dispensed the sacrament of the holy 
communion, according to reformed practice. In 
1645, as the Marquis of Montrose was passing 
through this district towards Kilsyth, where he 
achieved his greatest victory, the clan Maclean, 
part of his army, insisted upon destroying this, 
as well as every other part of the Campbell 
property in the district, in revenge for the ra- 
vages committed by that family on their own 



property in the Western Islands. It is said 
by tradition, that the Scottish parliamentary 
army burnt the Marquis's castle of Kincardine 
on the other side of the Ochil Hills, on the 
same day. — Population in 1821, 1295. 

DOLLAR BURN, a small rivulet in the 
southern part of the parish of Manor, Peebles- 
shire, a tributary of Manor Water. 

DOLPHINGTON, (pronounced Dowfin- 
ton,) a small parish on the east side of the 
upper ward of Lanarkshire, lying to the south 
of Dunsyre, at the head of the Medwin Water. 
The country here is wild and poorly cultivated. 
The district derives its name from a person 
called Dolfin, the elder brother of Cospatrick, 
the first Earl of Dunbar, who lived here dur- 
ing the reigns of Alexander I. and David I. 
Dolphington is now a barony in the family of 
Douglas Population in 1821, 236. 

DOLPHINGSTON, a hamlet in the pa- 
rish of Prestonpans, lying on the main road 
from Edinburgh to London. It takes its 
name from a ruined castle in the neighbour- 
hood, and it is most probable that this was 
once a residence of the same Dolfin who is 
noticed above. In Linlithgow and Roxburgh- 
shires, there are also places called Dolphing- 
ton or Dolfinton. 

DON, a large river in Aberdeenshire, next 
in magnitude to the Dee, from which it is not 
far distant to the north. The sources of the 
Dee lie in opposite directions. The main 
branch of the river, to which the name of Don 
is attached, rises from the lofty range of hills 
which divides the county from the head of 
Strath Deveron in Banffshire, and from thence, 
increased by a variety of little tributaries, takes 
an easterly course through Strath Don. This 
branch takes several wide turns, till joined by 
the Urie at Tnverury. The Ury branch rises 
not far from Huntly. The junction being 
made, the Don, very much increased in size, 
flows in a south-easterly course, till it drops 
into the sea at Old Aberdeen, little more than 
a mile from the mouth of the Dee. It is na- 
vigable only for a small distance, namely, to 
the bridge at the above town. Many parts of 
its banks are steep and rocky, but more gene- 
rally it flows through fertile level fields, which, 
in cases of heavy rains, it often completely 
floods, committing the most serious damage. 
The havock it made in August, 1829, will be 
long remembered. It has some valuable sal- 
mon fishings, though not so valuable as those 

of the Dee. Its windings give it a course of 
sixty-two miles ; but the straight line of coun- 
try it intersects is not above two-thirds of that 

DOON, a river in Ayrshire, which serves 
as the boundary betwixt the districts of Kyle 
and Carrick. The sources of Doon are pri- 
marily formed in Loch Enoch, a small lake in 
the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, and in some 
other lakes of trivial dimensions in that district. 
From these is formed Loch Doon, which is 
a lake nearly seven miles long, and of irregular 
breadth, partly lying within the stewartry, and 
partly in Ayrshire. The scenery hereabouts 
is beyond conception sterile, gray, and wild. 
Yet where is there throughout Scotland a dis- 
trict so miserable, that man has not thought it 
worth his while to battle for it with his fel- 
low-man ? The memorabilia of unchronicled 
conflicts are here as rife as elsewhere, in large 
heaps of stones and other objects of a similar 
character. On a small island within this lake 
are the remains of an old castle, which, at one 
time, during the wars of the succession, at the 
beginning of the fourteenth century, was of 
sufficient importance to be garrisoned by Ed- 
ward Bruce, the heroic and fiery brother of 
King Robert. In the minority of David II., 
when Edward III. overran Scotland, for the 
purpose of reducing it once more under the Ba- 
liol dynasty, and rendering it thereby a mere fief 
of England, the same islet-fortress was held 
out by a brave warrior of the name of John 
Thomson, who some years before had been 
intrusted by King Robert with the task of 
bringing back the remains of the Scottish ar- 
my from Ireland, after all prospect of estab- 
lishing a sovereignty in that country was lost 
by the death of Edward Bruce. It is a his- 
torical fact that, on this occasion, Loch Doon 
Castle had the distinction of being the last 
strength in Scotland which gave in to the in- 
vader. It was at a later period part of the 
extensive possessions of the house of Cassillis. 
From the north-west end of Loch Doon issues 
the river Doon, which, after pursuing a north- 
westerly course, with the exception of a sharp 
bend to the south which it takes at Dalrymple, 
falls into the sea about two miles south of Ayr. 
The beauty of its banks at the lower part of 
its course has been celebrated by Burns, and 
certainly without exaggeration. The road from 
Ayr into Carrick crosses the river at a point 
about a mile above its confluence with the sea, 

D O R N O C K. 


where still stand, upon an eminence on the 
right bank, the classic ruins of Alloway Kirk, 
together with a most elegant monument to 
Burns, noticed in the article Ayr. The 
" auld brig o' Doon" is in the immediate 
neighbourhood of these objects, a narrow old- 
fashioned structure of one arch ; now rendered 
of little use except as a matter of curiosity, by 
a modern and more convenient bridge, which 
has been erected a little way further down the 
stream. The endeared name of this river must 
be traced to the castle above-mentioned, which 
has evidently given a title in the first place to the 
loch, (Doon signifying castle or fortification) 
and afterwards to the stream issuing out of it. 

DORES, a parish occupying a narrow 
stripe of land along the east side of Loch 
Ness, from Inverness to Boleskine, a distance 
of twenty miles. Daviot bounds it on the 
east. Its surface is chiefly that of a valley 
among rude Highland hills, and it is nearly al- 
together pastoral. — Population in 1821, 1573. 

DORNOCH, a parish in the south-east 
corner of the county of Sutherland, lying be- 
tween the Firth of Dornoch on the south, and 
Loch Fleet on the north-east, bounded on the 
east by the sea, and on the north-west by the 
parish of Kogart. The land is here lower and 
more of an arable nature than any other part 
of the shire. The surface rises gradually to 
the north. The length of the parish is eleven 
miles, and its breadth about four. On a low 
sandy, meagre beach, half sand half moss, the 
episcopal city of Dornoch rears its steeple, its 
town, and its mud chimnies. Dornoch was 
formerly the seat of the bishopric of Caith- 
ness, which comprehended Sutherland, but is 
now a mere hamlet, boasting only of the ruins 
and vestigia of such a lofty dignity. A small 
part of the cathedral has been preserved entire 
to serve as the parish church; underneath 
which is the family sepulchre of the house of 
Sutherland. A small entire part of the bi- 
shop's palace now serves as the county court- 
room and jail ; for Dornoch, although to ap- 
pearance a mere Highland village, is a royal 
burgh, and the seat of the county courts. The 
situation of this unfortunate little town has in 
it a good deal of the fate of Tantalus j the sea 
approaches very near to it, without conferring 
on it the advantages of a sea-port, while, on 
the other hand, the post road is within sight, but 
cannot, for some peculiar local reason, be made 
to pass through it. Before the rise of the fish- 

ing villages established on the coast towards 
the north, by the Marchioness of Stafford, 
Dornoch is said to have been somewhat more 
prosperous ; it could then boast of no fewer 
than thirteen ships, now it possesses only five. 
Indeed, it may be said that the advantages con- 
ferred upon the country and district by the im~ 
provements of this public spirited peeress have 
all redounded to the disadvantage of Dornoch. 
The town may now be said to exist for no other 
end than to support the persons who have the no- 
minal and apparent privilege of electing a mem- 
ber of parliament, namely, the individuals whom 
the neighbouring aristocratic influence appoints 
to act in that capacity. Its periodical contribu- 
tion to the creation of an M. P. may be called 
the sole manufacture of the place. In this 
duty it joins with Tain, Dingwall, Wick, and 
Kirkwall. The town was constituted a royal 
burgh by Charles I., in 1628, but it was en- 
titled to the appellation of a city from the period 
of the twelfth century, when it became the 
seat of the bishopric of Caithness, instituted at 
that time. It is supposed that Dingwall and 
Dornoch were the earliest settlements of a col- 
lected population in this end of the kingdom ; 
though what reason there could have ever been 
for planting a town on such a spot, is to us 
quite inexplicable, unless we suppose, what is 
not improbable, that the sea originally reached 
to the place and gave it capabilities as a port. 
The following legend is told by tradition with 
respect to the name of the town. About the 
year 1259, the Danes and Norwegians having 
made a descent on this coast, were attacked by 
William, Thane or Earl of Sutherland, a 
quarter of a mile to the eastward of the town. 
Here, fortunately, the Danish general was 
slain, and his army beaten, and forced to retire 
to their ships, which were not far distant. The 
Thane of Sutherland greatly signalized him- 
self on this occasion, and appears by his per- 
sonal valour and exertions to have contributed 
very much to determine the fate of the day. 
While he singled out the Danish general, and 
gallantly fought his way onward, being by some 
accident disarmed, he seized the bone of a 
horse's leg, which happened to lie on the ground, 
(being probably part of the skeleton of a dead 
horse,) and with that dispatched his adversary. 
In honour of this exploit, and of the weapon 
with which it was achieved, this place received 
the name of Dorneick, or Dornoch, as it is 
now called, a word signifying a horse-hoof. In 



commemoration of the event, a stone pillar 
was erected on the spot, supporting at the top 
a cross, encompassed by a circle, which went 
by the name of" CroiskeWorwarre," the Earl's 
or Great Man's Cross. Many years since, it 
was undermined by the winds, and having 
tumbled down, the vestiges of it are not very 
distinguishable. The burgh of Dornoch has, 
however, preserved the tradition of the circum- 
stance, by having a horse-shoe incorporated in 
the common arms of the burgh. With respect 
to the correctness of this tradition, there is no 
certainty, and, but for the blazon of the burgh 
arms, we should be led to derive the name of 
the place from Dornochd, signifying the bare, 
or naked water. The burgh of Dornoch is 
managed by a provost, (generally a member of 
the Sutherland family,) four bailies, a dean of 
guild, and a treasurer, besides eight councillors. 
A weekly market is held on Friday, and there 
are several annual fairs. Besides the Gram- 
mar School of the parish, there is a seminary 
of young girls endowed by the Pious Lady 
Glenorchy, as she may be called for distinc- 
tion's sake, who was maternal aunt to the pre- 
sent Marchioness of Stafford, (Countess of 
Sutherland in her own right. ) — Population of 
the burgh and parish in 1821, 3100. 

DORNOCH FIRTH, an arm of the 
sea, on the east coast of the Highlands of 
Scotland, serving as the boundary between 
the counties of Ross and Sutherland for seve- 
ral miles. At its mouth it is more a bay than 
a firth, and here it is upwards of twelve miles 
in breadth. On the south side it juts a little 
into Ross-shire, and this indentation receives 
the name of the Bay of Tain. About three 
miles west of Tain it closes to a breadth of less 
than two miles, where there is a regular com- 
munication, called the Mickle Ferry, to dis- 
tinguish it from the Little Ferry, some miles 
farther north in Sutherlandshire. Westward 
from the Mickle Ferry, the firth widens and 
straitens alternately to its head, and for seve- 
ral miles it has all the appearance of an inland 
lake. There are several different ferries across 
the firth, besides that just mentioned, and near 
its head it is crossed by an iron bridge, along 
which the mail runs. Dornoch Firth is fed 
by the waters of the rivers Oickel and Shin, 
which come in at its head. Tt does not form 
an advantageous anchoring harbour, on account 
of bars of sand lying across it, which inter- 
cept the navigation at low tides. The town 

of Dornoch lies three miles to the north-east 
of the Mickle Ferry. 

DORNOCK, a parish in Dumfries-shire, 
lying on the shore of the Solway Firth, between 
the parishes of Gretna and Annan. It mea- 
sures a square of two and a half miles. The 
surface is low and under good cultivation. The 
road from Carlisle to Dumfries passes through 
it — Population in 1821, 743. 

DOUGLAS, a parish in the western part 
of the Upper Ward of Lanarkshire, stretching 
for twelve miles from the verge of the county 
of Ayr to the Clyde, having a breadth of from 
four to seven miles. It has Lesmahago on the 
north, and Crawford- John on the south. From 
west to east, throughout the district, runs 
Douglas Water, one of the largest tributaries 
of the Clyde. The vale formed by this stream, 
called Douglasdale, is extremely fertile and 
beautiful. It is crossed by the road from Glas- 
gow to Carlisle, at a point called Douglas Mill, 
two miles below the old fashioned town of 
Douglas. On the low ground the land is 
under cultivation and partly adorned by plan- 
tations, but the greater part of the parish lies 
high, and is only useful for sheep pasture. 
Coal, limestone, and freestone, are found in 
abundance. Several small tributaries of the 
Douglas Water add beauty and a higher vegeta- 
tion to the district. Douglas, the capital of the 
parish, is a place of great antiquity, and has now 
one or two manufactories of cotton. It lies on 
the south side of the Douglas Water, on the 
road from Edinburgh to Ayr. It is chiefly 
celebrated for a great annual fair, which is held 
in the church-yard, on which occasion the 
shoemakers of Lanark, and other places, ex- 
hibit their shoes, as other merchants display 
their respective wares, upon the flat grave- 
stones, instead of the more temporary stalls 
used elsewhere. In the vicinity of the town, 
on the bank of the stream, stands Douglas 
Castle, surrounded by extensive plantations. 
This edifice was built in a very elegant style, 
about the middle of last century, in the room 
of a former castle then destroyed by fire. Some 
ash trees are pointed out in its neighbourhood, 
as those upon which the powerful Earls of 
Douglas used to hang such persons as fell un- 
der their displeasure. The parish of Douglas 
takes its name from the stream that flows 
through it ; the British words JDu glas, sig- 
nifying the dark blue stream, and this is de- 
scriptive of the colour of the water, which is 



tinged with the dark moisture of the mossy 
uplands. From such an etymology is derived 
the once dreaded and still noble name of 
Douglas, as this was the district in which 
the progenitor of the Douglas family first set- 
tled. The first of the Douglasses was one 
Theobald, a Fleming, who, about the middle 
of the twelfth century, received a grant of a 
tract of land in Douglasdale from the monks of 
Kelso, and whose descendants, in a short time, 
as surnames came into use, assumed the appel- 
lation of Douglas. The family did not make 
any particidar figure in history till the eventful 
epoch of the wars of Bruce, when it became con- 
spicuous for its adherence to the interests of that 
monarch. It was raised to an earldom by David 
II. in 1357, but before this period, the chiefs 
of the family went occasionally by the name of 
the Lords of Douglas. Prior to its elevation 
to an earldom, the family possessed some dis- 
tinguished men, of which none rose to such 
.eminence as James de Douglas, the sixth 
chief of his house, who became justly celebrat- 
ed in Scottish history, under the title of " the 
Good Sir James," and was one of the princi- 
pal associates and friends of Robert Bruce, in 
bis arduous attempt to restore the liberties of 
Scotland. His own castle of Douglas having 
been secured and garrisoned by the troops of 
Edward L, he resolved on re-taking it, and 
inflicting a signal punishment on its intruders. 
On the 19th day of March, 1306-7, being 
Palm Sunday, and employed by the English 
soldiers in devotion, he surprised them in 
church, and put the greater part to the sword. 
As he had not sufficient force to retain the 
fortress, he retired, but not till he had caused 
all the barrels, containing flour, meal, wheat, 
and malt, to be knocked in pieces, and their 
contents mixed on the floor; then he staved 
the hogsheads of wine and ale, and mixed 
the liquor with the stores ; and last of all, 
he killed his prisoners, and flung the dead 
bodies among this disgusting heap, which his 
men called, in derision, the Douglas Larder. 
Sir James then flung the dead horses into the 
well to destroy it — after which he set fire to 
the castle, and finally marched away with his 
followers. In 1312-13, he took Roxburgh 
castle, and next year he commanded the centre 
of the Scottish army at Bannockburn. In 
1317, he defeated the English under the Earl 
of Arundel ; and, in the succeeding year, along 
with his compatriot Randolph, Earl of Mur- 

ray, he made himself master of Berwick In 
1319, these illustrious noblemen entered Eng- 
land by the west marches, with 15,000 men, 
routed the English under the Archbishop of 
York, eluded Edward II., and returned with 
honour to Scotland. After this he was dis- 
tinguished for a variety of similar exploits. 
In 1329, when Robert Bruce was on his 
deathbed, he requested the Good Lord James, 
his old and faithful companion in arms, to re- 
pair with his heart to Jerusalem, and humbly 
to deposit it at the Sepulchre of Our Lord. 
Accordingly, on the death of his royal master, 
Douglas prepared to put his dying request in 
execution ; and it appears, that in doing so, he 
received a passport from Edward III., dated 
September 1, 1329. It was expressed in these 
words, to " Sir James de Douglas, versus ter- 
ram sanctam in auxilium Christianorum contra 
Saracenos, cum corde Domini Roberti, Regis 
Scotiae, nuper defuncti." Douglas sailed from 
Scotland in 1330, with the heart of his dear 
master, and a numerous and splendid retinue. 
Anchoring off Sluys, he learned that Alphon- 
so XL, the young king of Leon and Castile, 
waged war with Osmyn, the Moorish com- 
mander in Granada. He therefore resolved 
to visit Spain, and combat the Saracens in 
his progress to Jerusalem. Douglas and his 
companions were honourably entertained by 
Alphonso ; and they encountered the Sara- 
cens at Theba, on the frontiers of Andalusia, 
August 25, 1330. The Moors giving way, 
Douglas eagerly pursued them. Taking the 
casket which contained the heart of Brace, he 
threw it before him, and cried — " Now pass 
thou onward as thou was wont, and Douglas will 
follow thee or die." The fugitives rallied, and, 
surrounded and overwhelmed by superior num- 
bers, Douglas fell. After the battle, his few 
surviving companions found his body on the 
field, together with the casket, and reverently 
conveyed them to Scotland. The heart of 
Bruce was destined to mingle with the dust 
of that territory he had so nobly gained. It 
was deposited at Melrose, while his body lay 
in the royal tomb of Dunfermline. The 
remains of Douglas were interred in the se- 
pulchre of his forefathers, at Douglas, where 
his son, Archibald, erected a monument to his 
memory. The personal appearance of this 
truly great and good man, the ornament of his 
country, is pleasingly drawn by Barbour ; and 
Hume of Godscroft's epitaph on him is well 



known. To return to the house of Douglas. 
During the reign of David II. and Robert II. 
and III., as well as the usurpations of the 
two Dukes of .Albany, the Scottish nobles 
gained much in power and wealth, on account 
of the weakness of the crown ; and no one 
gained more than the Earl of Douglas. It 
was at length remarked, says an old historian, 
that " nae man was safe in the country, unless 
he were either a Douglas, or a Douglas's man." 
The chit .f of the family often emulated the 
royal authority, went abroad with a train of 
two thousand armed men, created knights, 
had his councillors, and even constituted a kind 
of parliament. In the fourteenth century, the 
family engrossed, for a short time, the earldom 
of Mar, and, in 1424, Archibald, the fourth 
Earl of Douglas, became possessed of the 
J)uchy of Touraine in France, for his sendees 
to the French crown, then borne by Charles 
VII. In the person of William, sixth Earl 
of Douglas, and third Duke of Touraine, the 
power of the family rose to a most formidable 
■ height. Their estates in Galloway, Annan- 
dale, Douglasdale, and other districts of Scot- 
land, together with the Duchy of Touraine and 
the county of Longueville in France, yielded 
them revenues perhaps equivalent to those of 
the Scottish monarch ; and certainly their 
Scottish territories could raise them a better 
standing army, Earl William, however, was 
inveigled into Edinburgh castle, and subjected 
to a mock trial for treason, and beheaded, along 
with his brother David, and Malcolm Flem- 
ing, a faithful adherent, November 24, 1440. 
The Duchy of Touraine now reverted to the 
French king. After a short period of depres- 
sion, the family rose to greater power than 
ever, in the person of William, the eighth earl. 
He was at first a favourite of James II., but 
afterwards becoming unwelcome at court, he 
went abroad, and, in his absence, his depend- 
ents behaved so insolently, that the castle of 
Douglas was demolished by the king's orders. 
On his return, he came under obedience 
to the sovereign ; but this was a mere pre- 
tence. He attempted to assassinate Crichton, 
the chancellor, and hanged John Hemes, in 
contempt of the king's prohibitory mandate. 
He entered into formidable conspiracies, and 
at length became so dangerous an enemy to the 
country, that the king took advantage of his 
visit to Stirling, 1451-2, to assassinate him with 
his own dagger. He was succeeded by his bro- 

ther James, ninth Earl, who was fully a more 
troublesome subject than theformer. He levied 
open war against the king, but being deserted 
by his associates in their camp, near Falkirk, 
he fled before the royal power, his castles were 
besieged and taken, among the rest that of 
Abercorn, and the overgrown strength of his 
family was d