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Full text of "The gazetteer of Scotland. [With plates and maps.]"



National Library of Scotland 

lllUIINIIIlllllllllll 

*B000031990* 



# 









Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

National Library of Scotland 



http://archive.org/details/gazetteerofscov21838cham 






- 



THE 



GAZETTEER 



OF 



SCOTLAND. 



BY 



ROBERT CHAMBERS, 

AUTHOR OF "THE PICTURE OF SCOTLAND," " TRADITIONS OF EDINBURGH,. 
" HISTORIES OF THE SCOTTISH REBELLIONS," &C. &C. 



WILLIAM CHAMBERS, 

AUTHOR OF " THE BOOK OF SCOTLAND." 



VOL. II.— GLENBANCHOR— ZETLAND. 



BLACKIE AND SON, QUEEN STREET, GLASGOW, 

SOUTH COLLEGE STREET, EDINBURGH, 

AND WARWICK SQUARE, LONDON. 



BALFOUR AND JACK, PRINTERS, EDINBURGH. 






'." ~-o- 



125 



G L E N C O E. 



497 



GLENBANCHOR, a small but beauti- 
ful glen in Badenoch, in the parish of Kingussie, 
watered by the Calder, a stream which joins 
the Spey on the left, about three miles west of 
the Inn of Pitmain. Of old, the inhabitants 
of this vale did not rank high in the estima- 
tion of their neighbours for honesty, — and it is 
recorded, that upon one occasion, the parson, 
desirous to impress upon his audience the en- 
ormity of the offences of the two thieves men- 
tioned in Scripture, could not hit upon a more 
apposite illustration of their character, than by 
comparing them to his honest parishioners in 
Glenbanchor. Next day the whole effective 
population of the glen were seen marching to 
inflict summary vengeance upon their indiscreet 
minister, when they were met by the laird, 
who, upon learning their errand, diverted them 
from their purpose, by assuring them, that so 
far from the worthy parson intending to pass a 
reflection injurious to their character, he had 
only alluded to the antiquity of their clan, by 
carrying it back to the period and occasion 
which had formed the subject of his address to 
his flock. 

GLENBEG, a district in the county of 
Inverness. 

GLENBERVIE, an inland parish in Kin- 
cardineshire, extending upwards of six miles 
in length by an average breadth of three miles, 
bounded by Durris on the north, Fetteresso 
and Dunnotar on the east, Arbuthnot on the 
south, and Fordoun on the west. The northern 
part lies partly among the Grampian hills. 
The lower parts are fertile, and pertain to the 
Howe of the Mearns. The river Bervie 
bounds the district partly on the west, and the 
river Carron originates within it. The ham- 
let of Glenbervie, which stands in the vicinity 
of the former river, is a barony of the Douglas 
family. Dramlithie, lying about a mile to the 
east of the road betwixt Laurencekirk and 
Stonehaven, is a village chiefly inhabited by 
linen weavers — Popidation in 1821, 1277. 

GLENBRAUN, a vale in the eastern side 
of Inverness-shire, partly in the parish of 
Abernethy. 

GLENBRIARCHAN, a Highland vale 
in the parish of Moulin, district of A thole, 
Perthshire. 

GLENBUCKET, a small Highland parish 
in the district of Marr, Aberdeenshire, lying 
on both sides of the Bucket, a tributary stream 
of the Don. It extends four miles in length, 



by about one in breadth, and has only a small 
part cultivated, On the north lies the parish 
of Cabrach. The Earl of Fife is sole pro- 
prietor. The ruin of Badenyon or Badniaun 
House, the place alluded to in the Scotch song 
of " John of Badenyon," is in the parish, at 
the base of the Grampian ranges — Population 
in 1821, 479. 

GLENCAIRN, a parish in Nithsdale, 
Dumfries-shire, bounded by Tynron on the 
north, Keir on the east, and Dunscore on the 
south, and extending eleven miles in length, by 
from three to five in breadth. The district 
exhibits a beautiful intermixture of cultivated 
and pasture lands, plantations, waters, green 
eminences, and gentlemen's seats. The waters 
are the Cairn river, which flows through a 
beautiful vale in the centre of the district, and 
its different tributaries, among which are the 
Castlefern, Craigdarroch, and Dalwhat waters. 
In the parish are the villages of Minnihive and 
Dunreggan. On the south-west verge of the 
parish is the small lake called Loch Urr. The 
district gave an earl's title to an ancient branch 
of the family of Cunningham, ennobled in 
1488." This peerage, which is now dormant, 
was borne by several very distinguished his- 
torical characters, especially the fifth earl, who 
took an active part in the introduction of the 
reformed religion into Scotland. — Popidation 
in 1821, 1881. 

GLEN CARREL, a vale in the south- 
east part of Sutherlandshire, near Glenalot. 

GLENCOUL, a vale in the western part 
of Sutherlandshire, extending inland from the 
head of Kyle Scow. 

GLENCOE, a Highland vale in the 
northern part of Argyleshire, district of Lorn, 
extending from Ballachulish on Loch Leven, 
in a south-easterly direction, a distance of ten 
miles. It is with justice celebrated as one of 
the wildest and most romantic specimens of 
Scottish scenery. The western line of the 
Highland military roads passes through this 
vale, which is therefore conveniently accessible 
to tourists in search of the picturesque. It is 
a narrow stripe of rugged territory, along which 
hurries the wild stream of Cona, celebrated by 
Ossian, who is said to have been born on its 
banks. On each side of the narrow banks of 
this stream, a range of stupendous hills shoots 
perpendicularly up to the height of perhaps 
two thousand feet, casting a horrid gloom over 
the vale, and impressing the lonely traveller 
3 s 



493 



GLENCROSS. 



with feelings of awful wonder. The military 
road sweeps along the north-east side of the 
glen. From the sides of the hills an immense 
number of torrents descend. From the one 
end to the other only one human habitation 
can be seen ; and as it is not a road much fre- 
quented, the traveller may pass through it 
without meeting a single human being. On 
the north side rises Con Fion, the hill of Fin- 
gal. Glencoe was formerly occupied by a 
tribe of Macdonalds, whose chief was usually 
termed Mac Ian, to distinguish him from 
other Highland proprietors of the same name. 
This tribe was, in 1691, almost exterminated 
by a cruel massacre, which is too generally 
known to require particular relation. The 
place where the execrable deed was committed, 
is at the north-west end of the vale. 

GLENCROE, a wild Highland vale in the 
east part of Argyleshire, district of Cowal, 
stretching westwards from the north end of 
Loch Long, and serving as the chief pass into 
the county in that quarter. In lonely magni- 
ficence, and all the attributes of Highland val- 
ley scenery, Glencroe can only be considered 
inferior to the vale which it so nearly resem- 
bles in name, above noticed. Its sides are 
covered with rude fragments of rock ; and a 
little stream runs wildly along the bottom, 
receiving accessions on both sides from 
numerous descending rivulets. Glencroe is 
only about six miles in length. The traveller 
ascends to the head of the vale by a steep and 
painful path, at the top of which there is a 
stone seat, with an inscription indicating that 
the road was constructed by the soldiers of the 
22d regiment, and also inscribed with the ap- 
propriate words, " Rest and be thankful." 
From this point the distance to Cairndow on 
the banks of Loch Fyne is seven miles, and 
from Dumbarton twenty-nine miles. 

GLENCROSS, or GLENCORSE, a 
parish in Edinburghshire, formed in 1616 out 
of parts of the parishes of Pennycuick and 
Roslin (Lasswade). It is of a square form, 
about four miles each way, and consisting of 
fine undulating arable land and grass parks 
descending from the Pentland hills to the 
south. The district has been vastly improved 
in recent times, and is now well cultivated and 
planted. Lasswade generally bounds it on the 
north and east, and Pennycuick on the west. 
From the centre of the Pentland range rises 
the rivulet called Glencorse burn, which is 
21. 



dammed up by a stupendous artificial em- 
bankment, so as to form a very extensive lake. 
This expensive work was made by the "Water 
Company of Edinburgh, in compensation to 
the millers upon the river Esk, who were then 
deprived of some of their principal feeders in 
order to supply the citizens with water. In 
times of drought, when the Esk runs low, the 
Compensation Pond, as it is called, discharges 
water sufficient to keep the mills in work. 
The machinery for regulating this discharge is 
under the care of a keeper. The waters of the 
lake cover the ruins of an ancient chapel and 
burying-ground, dedicated to St. Catherine, 
whose cross gave a name to the district. The 
Glencorse burn, which is emitted from this 
fountain, falls into the north Esk near the 
village of Auchindinny. The parish possesses 
some charming grounds with an exposure to 
the south, and none are more attractive from 
their beauty than those around the mansion of 
Woodhouselee, the property of the family of 
Tytler. In the latter end of last century it 
was in the possession of William Tytler, Esq. 
a gentleman well remembered for his amiable 
qualities, and for his knowledge of music and 
antiquities. His chief works were an Inquiry 
into the Evidence against Queen Mary, and a 
Dissertation on Scottish Music. The pleasant 
hamlet of upper Howgate lies on the road south 
of the domain of "Woodhouselee. Rullion 
Green, where the covenanters were defeated 
by the king's troops under Dalziel in 1666, is 
within the parish, at the base of the Pentland 
hills. A stone has been erected with an in- 
scription commemorative of this skirmish, in 
which upwards of fifty persons were slain. — 
Population in 1821, 661. 

GLENDARUEL, a vale in Cowal, Ar- 
gyleshire, parish of Kilmadan. 

GLENDEERY, a Highland vale in the 
northern part of Perthshire, near Blair- 
Athole. 

GLENDEVON, a parish belonging to 
Perthshire, lying in the midst of the Ochil hills, 
and taking its name from the beautiful river 
Devon which passes through it. It extends 
about six miles in length by four and a half in 
breadth, and is bounded by Muckart and Dol- 
lar on the south. The district is hilly, but 
generaUy green, and partly cultivated. — Popu- 
lation in 1821, 139. 

GLENDO CHART, a Highland valley in 
the western part of Perthshire, through which 



GLENGARRY. 



flows the river Dochart, from the loch of the 
same name to the head of Loch Tay. 

GLENDOW, a vale partly in Stirlingshire 
and partly in Dumbartonshire. 

GLENDUCE, a small village on the west 
coast of Sutherlandshire, parish of Edder- 
achyhs. 

GLENELCHAIG, a district in the south- 
west corner of Ross-shire, parish of Kintail. 

GLENELG, a parish occupying the north- 
west corner of Inverness-shire, on the main- 
land, and extending about twenty miles each 
way. The Bay of Glenelg divides it from 
Sleat or the east end of Skye. The parish is 
divided into three sections by arms of the sea 
projected inland from the bay. These arms 
are Loch Morrer, Loch Nevish, and Loch 
Hourn. Each of the peninsulas thus formed 
has a particular name. The most northerly 
is Glenelg, the next is Knoydart; and the 
most southerly is North Morrer. There is 
little cultivated land in the whole, and the pa- 
rish is chiefly hilly and pastoral. The shores 
are thickly studded with small villages. The 
kirktown of Glenelg is near the ferry from 
Skye to the mainland. — Population in 1821, 
2807. 

GLENELLY, a village in Glenelg, In- 
verness-shire, at which is the ferry mentioned 
at the end of last article. 

GLENESK, the vale through which the 
river North Esk flows, county of Forfar. 

GLENFARG, a romantic vale or pass in 
the Ochil hills, leading from Kinross-shire to 
Perthshire, through which the great north 
load proceeds. 

GLENFERNAT, a vale in the parish of 
Moulin, district of Athole, Perthshire, through 
which flows the small river Arnot. 

GLENFICHAN, a vale in the west part 
of Argyleshire, district of Lorn. 

GLENFIDDICH, a large vale at the cen- 
tre of the county of Banff, partly watered by 
the Fiddich, a tributary of the Spey. 

GLENFINNIN, a vale at the head of 
Loch Shiel, in the west part of Inverness- 
shire, through which runs the small river Fin- 
nin. This loyely valley derives some interest 
from having been the place in which Prince 
Charles first reared his standard in 1745. 
The spot is now distinguished by a monumen- 
tal pillar, erected by the late Mr. Macdonald 
of Glenaladale — a young gentleman of the dis- 
fcri'.f^ * hose grandfather, with the most of his 



clan, had been engaged in the unfortunate en- 
terprise which it is designed to commemorate. 
It rises from a meadow closed by the bank of 
the estuaiy of Loch Shiel, and is surrounded 
on all sides by hills of the most lofty and pre- 
' cipitous nature. It is in the shape of a co- 
lumn about fifty feet high, with an internal 
stair, leading from a lodge at the bottom. On 
three sides are inscriptions in Latin, Gaelic, 
and English, all to the same purpose. That 
in English is as follows : — " On the spot where 
Prince Charles Edward first raised his stand- 
ard, on the 19 th day of August 1745, when he 
made the daring and romantic attempt to re- 
cover a throne, lost by the imprudence of his 
ancestors, this column was erected by Alexan- 
der Macdonald, Esq. of Glenaladale, to com- 
memorate the generous zeal, the undaunted 
bravery, and the inviolable fidelity of his fore- 
fathers, and the rest of those who fought and 

bled in that unfortunate enterprise This 

pillar is now, alas ! also become the monument 
of its amiable and accomplished founder, who, 
before it was finished, died in Edinburgh on 
the 4tb day of January 1815, at the early age 
of twenty-eight years." 

GLENFYNE, a vale at the head of Loch 
Fyne, Argyleshire. 

GLENGAIRDEN.-See Glenmutck. 

GLENGARREL, a small vale in Dum- 
fries-shire. 

GLENGARRY, a vale and district in In- 
verness-shire, lying south-west from Fort- 
Augustus- A wild mountain stream traverses 
Glengarry, and natural forests of birch, of 
great luxuriance, cover the slopes of the hills. 
On the north-west bank of Loch Oich, which 
forms the mid-lake in the Caledonian Canal, 
stands Invergarry House, the residence of the 
chieftain of Glengarry. 

GLENGONAR, a vale at the head of 
Clydesdale, near Leadhills, through which 
flows the Gonar, a rivulet tributary of the 
Clyde. It is distinguished for the mineral 
wealth of its banks. Gold was at one time 
found here, and such was the excitement re- 
garding it, that Queen Elizabeth actually sent 
a person thither to gather it. It is not report- 
ed that more than a few particles ever were 
discovered. The lead mines in the neighbour- 
hood are very extensive. 

GLENGRADIE, a vale in Ross-shire, 
through which the river Gradie flows from 
Loch Fannich to Loch Luichart. 



500 



GLENLUCE. 



GLENHOLM, a pastoral district in the 
western part of Peebles-shire, formerly an 
independent parish, but now united to 
Broughton. 

GLENISLA, a parish in the north-wes- 
tern part of Forfarshire, lying to the west of 
Lentrathen, and extending about twenty-one 
miles in length. A great part of it is the vale 
through which flows the river Isla. In gene- 
ral it is from six to seven miles in breadth, 
and a great part is pastoral. The Kirktown 
of Glenisla lies on the left bank of the river. 
Population in 1821, 1144. 

GLENKENS, the upper or northern dis- 
trict of the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, com- 
prehending the parishes of Kells, Balmaclel- 
lan, Dairy, and Carsphairn. The river Ken, 
from which the name is derived, runs through 
its centre in a southerly direction. The dis- 
trict is noted for its pastoral character and pe- 
culiarly fine breed of sheep. 

GLENKINLAS, a subsidiary vale of 
Glencroe, Argyleshire. 

GLENLEDNOCK, a vale in Strathearn, 
Perthshire, through which the Lednock flows 
in its course to the Earn, which it joins near 
Comrie. 

GLENLIVET, a vale or particular dis- 
trict in Banffshire, south-west from Glen Fid- 
dich. Glenlivet is a barony of the family of 
Aboyne. It is rendered famous for the ma- 
nufacture of a particularly fine flavoured High- 
land whisky, which goes by its name. 

GLENLOCHAY, a valley in the district 
of Breadalbane, in the south-western part oi 
Perthshire. 

GLENLOCHY,-a vale in the county of 
Inverness, deriving its name from the river 
Lochy, which flows through it. 

GLENLOTH, a vale in the east side of 
Sutherlandshire. 

GLENLUCE, a vale at the head of Luce 
Bay, Wigtonshire, through which flows the 
river Luce. It gives its name to a thriving 
village, which by the census of 1821 con- 
tained 800 inhabitants. It stands in the pa- 
rish of Old Luce, on the public road at the 
head of the bay, which here forms a tolerably 
good harbour for small vessels. There is a 
meeting-house of the United Associate Synod. 
The scenery around is very beautiful, espe- 
cially from the ornamented grounds of Balcail, 
in the vicinity. Farther up the vale stand the 
ruins of Luce abbey. See Luce. 



GLENLYON, a vale of considerable ex- 
tent in Breadalbane, Perthshire, through which 
runs the river Lyon. Its extreme length is 
twenty-eight miles by only about one mile in 
breadth. On both sides rise romantic high 
hills, and in different parts along the bottom 
are little villages, so secluded amidst alpine 
scenery, as to be without the rays of the sun 
for a third part of the year. It belongs to the 
parish of Fortingal. 

GLENMORE, a vale in the northern 
Highlands of Perthshire, near the forest of 
Badenoch. 

GLENMORE, a large woody vale, lying 
partly in Inverness-shire and partly in Moray- 
shire, and belonging to the parish of Kincar- 
dine. It has a small lake, called Loch Glen- 
more, which abounds in fine green trout. 
Glenmore has produced much valuable timber, 
which has been rafted down the Spey to Gar- 
mouth. 

GLENMORE-NAN-ALBIN, " the 
great glen, or vale of Caledonia," is that won- 
derful natural hollow, whic>- stretches straight 
as a furrow from south-wcHr'to north-east, 
athwart the mainland of Scotland, beginning 
at the sound of Mull, and ending at Inverness. 
Its extreme length is fifty miles. The greater 
part of its bottom is filled with a chain of 
fresh water lakes, which have been joined by 
an artificial water course, and form what is 
termed the Caledonian Canal. See Canals. 
This vale, and that of Strathmore, in the east- 
ern district of Scotland, form singular feature? 
in the external configuration of the country, as 
they are not, like other hollows, filled by the 
course of a regular river, but seem to have 
been formed upon quite a different principle, 
being quite straight, and only here and there 
affording a receptacle for either running or 
standing water. There is indeed an artifi- 
ciality in their appearance, a departure from 
the usual wavy outlines of nature, that is cal- 
culated to excite deep surprise. This great 
hollow seems to have been adapted by na- 
ture for the purpose to which it is now ap- 
plied. Its capacity for the easy introduction 
of an inland navigable canal did not escape the 
notice of the Highlanders many centuries ago ; 
some of whose seers, by a mere exertion of 
the understanding, predicted the transit of 
white-sailed ships along the lovely glen of lakes. 

GLENMORISTON, a vale in Inver- 
ness-shire, west of Loch Ness, which gave a 



G L E N M U I C K. 



501 



name to a parish, now united to that of Ur- 
quhart- 

GLENMOY, a vale in Forfarshire, near 
Brechin. 

GLENMUICK, an extensive parish in the 
district of Marr, Aberdeenshire, in which have 
been incorporated the parishes of Tulloch and 
Glengairden. Strathdonand Logie Coldstone 
lie on the north, and Aboyne and Glentanner on 
the east. The parish, since its union with 
the above, is of an irregular form. A large 
portion lies on the south or right side of the 
Dee ; and a part, fully as extensive, lies on its 
left bank, and stretches considerably to the 
west. Through the former the water of 
Muick flows, from a lake called Loch Muick, 
I in a northerly direction, till it joins the Dee ; 
and through the other district the water of 
I Gairden runs in a south-easterly course also 
towards the Dee. There are a variety of 
I smaller streamlets in the parish, the whole 
I forming a series of the best trouting waters 
! in this part of Scotland. The parish is mostly 
of a pastoral and hilly character, and abounds 
J in fine romantic scenes y» Once outlying and 
■ little visited, it is now the resort of an im- 
| mense concourse of persons in the summer 
: and autumn months from Aberdeen and other 
places, who flock thither to enjoy the benefits 
of certain mineral wells at a place called Pan- 
nanich, or to recreate in pleasant country 
| lodgings in the modern village of Ballater. 
Pannanich lies on the right side of the Dee ; 
and at the distance of a mile and a half far- 
I ther up on the left bank stands Ballater, which 
is forty-one and a half miles west of Aberdeen. 
Ballater, the most fashionable watering-place 
in the northern part of the kingdom, is of very 
recent origin, and consists of a series of neat 
streets and houses, built on a regular plan. 
The houses have been chiefly fitted up for the 
accommodation of summer lodgers. There 
are two excellent inns, at one of which there 
is generally an ordinary during the stay of 
visitors. The village is provided with a hand- 
some church, standing in the centre of an open 
square. The D£e is here crossed by a good 
bridge, permitting a free thoroughfare with 
Pannanich. At the wells at the latter place 
there is a lodging-house, and baths of various 
kinds are fitted up in the best style. The 
water 'of one of the springs is celebrated for 
curing scrofulous complaints, and that of an- 
other, from its diuretic properties, has frequent- 



ly afforded great relief, and sometimes effected 
cures, in cases of gravel. Consumptive pa- 
tients obtain great benefit from the fine pure 
air, and goat's milk, which is to be had at the 
well-house. Coaches in communication witri 
Aberdeen and Ballater run daily during the 
summer months. The beauty of the sce- 
nery round Ballater, and the salubrity of 
the climate, well suit it for the resort of vale- 
tudinarians and others fatigued with the close 
anxieties of city life. Like Innerleithen 
in the south, its walks are agreeable; its so- 
ciety choice and respectable ; and for those 
fond of trouting excursions there could hardly 
be a better temporary residence. One of the 
most favourite promenades is that to the sum- 
mit of Craigindarroch, a romantic hill in the 
vicinity, disposed with pleasant walks. The 
Muick water, at the distance of four and a half 
miles from Ballater, possesses a tolerably good 
fall, to which there is a good road along the 
south side of the rivulet. The stream dashes 
over a rock of about forty feet in height into 
a basin below, and forms a beautiful cascade. 
Four miles below Ballater there is a wild ro- 
mantic spot, called the Vat, formed in the 
fissure of the rocks, through which a small ri- 
vulet runs. The entrance is by a natural aper- 
ture intoalarge circular space, shaped something 
like a vat — the rocky sides being from twenty 
to thirty feet high. Loch Cannor or Kan, is 
more immediately in the neighbourhood, and 
measures three miles in circumference. On a 
small island within it are the ruins of a castle, 
said to have been once a hunting- seat of Mal- 
colm Canmore. The lake is beautiful and 
romantic in its appearance, and skirted with 
birch, hazel, and other wood. An agreeable 
excursion may be made to Loch Muick, at a 
distance of eight miles, where there is excel- 
lent trout-fishing. The scenery here is wild 
but pleasing, and a mile below may be seen 
some good views of the high and nigged cliffs 
of Lochnagar, which stands a few miles west- 
ward from Loch Muick, on the verge of the 
parish. From the summit of this dark and 
lofty mountain, which has been sung by Byron, 
who spent his infancy in its vicinity, and which 
is 8800 feet above the level of the sea, may 
be obtained a view almost unexampled in ex- 
tent and grandeur. Should the weather be 
favourable, and the air pure and serene, the 
spectator is presented with a view bounded on 
the south by the Pentland Hills in Mid-Lo- 



502 



G L E N R O Y. 



thian, and on the north by Benwyvis in Ross- 
shire, by Benlomond on the west, and the 
German Ocean on the east, the intermediate 
space being spread out as a map of Nature's 
own formation, interspersed with mountains, 
vales, rivers, firths, villages, and towns Po- 
pulation of the united parishes in 1821, 
2223. 

GLENNEVIS, a vale in Inveraess-shire, 
near Fort- William. 

GLENORCHAY, or GLENORCHY, 
and INISHAIL, a united parish in the east 
side of Argyleshire, on the borders of the 
county of Perth. The conjunction of the two 
parishes took place in 1618. The extent of 
both is about twenty-four miles. Glenorchay 
takes its name from the vale through which 
flows the river Orchay into the head of Loch 
Awe. Inishail signifies the beautiful island, 
the church of the district having formerly been 
situated on an island of that name in Loch 
Awe — See Loch Awe. This large parish is 
generally pastoral, and partakes of the common 
Highland character of grandeur and wildness 
of scenery. The vale or plain of the Orchay 
is beautiful and verdant. The church and 
manse occupy an agreeable situation on an islet 
formed by the bendings of the river. The 
hills are in many places covered with wood ; 
and in different directions there are great im- 
provements in the appearance of the country. 
A good road, on which stands the village and 
inn of Dalmally, proceeds through the district 
from Inverary to Tyndrum and Glencoe. The 
ruins of Kilchum Castle stand on the point of 
a rocky promontory at the north end of Loch 
Awe. On the little island of Fraoch Elan 
6tand the romantic ruins of a castle. The 
highest and most celebrated hills are Benlaoi, 
Beindoran, and Cruachan. Glenorchay was at 
one time the property of the warlike clan Mac- 
gregor, who were gradually expelled from the 
territory, through the influence of the rival clan, 
Campbell. The Gallow Hill of Glenorchay, 
famed in Highland tradition for being the place 
of expiation of many criminals obnoxious to the 
summary justice of Macgregor, is an eminence 
opposite the parish church. The ancestors of 
the late Angus Fletcher of Berenice, author 
of a well-known political work upon Scotland, 
were, according to the traditions of the coun- 
try, the first who raised smoke or boiled water 
on the braes of Glenorchay. — Population in 
1821, 1122. 



GLENPROSEN, a vale in the north-west. 
part of Forfarshire, through which flows the 
river Prosen, a tributary of the South Esk. 

GLENQUHARGEN, a rocky eminence 
in the parish of Penpont, Dumfries-shire. 

GLENQUIEGH, a vale in Forfarshire, 
near Kirriemuir. 

GLENQUIECH, a vale in the western 
part of Perthshire. 

GLENROY, a valley in Lochaber, the 
south-eastern part of Inverness-shire, parish of 
Kilmanivaig, through which flows the river 
Roy. The scenery of Glenroy is both pleas- 
ing and picturesque, being richly ornamented 
with scattered wood, and distinguished for 
simplicity and grandeur of style. Its up- 
per extremity is terminated by Loch Spey, 
the summit of the eastern-flowing waters. 
This extensive vale is celebrated for hav- 
ing certain unaccountable parallel roads, or 
long narrow paths, marked distinctly on the 
face of the bounding hills. They consist 
of three separate lines at different heights, 
each line following the sinuosities of the hills, 
and having one on the opposite bank at pre- 
cisely the same height and of the same appear- 
ance. They continue for about eight miles. 
The common tale regarding these curious ap- 
pearances, or, as they are generally styled, the 
Parallel Roads of Glenroy, is, that they were 
formed by Fingal, as paths by which he might 
pursue the chase through the woods. Modern 
geologists have inquired into their origin with 
a greater regard to probability; and perhaps 
the best theory yet started upon the subject is 
that of Dr. Macculloch, author of a large work 
on the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, who 
suggests that they must have been the succes- 
sive margins of a lake which had been at diffe- 
rent times reduced by convulsions of nature.* 
" The parallel roads," says this writer, " are 
the shores of ancient lakes, or of one lake, oc- 
cupying successively different levels ; for, in an 
existing lake among hills, it is easy to see the 
very traces in question produced by the wash of 
the waves against the alluvial matter of the 
hills. Ancient Glenroy was therefore a lake, 
which, subsiding first by a vertical depth of 
eighty-two feet, left its shore to form the up- 
permost line, which, by a second subsidence of 



* This theory is countenanced by the circumstance, 
that various small glens branching from Glenroy have 
the same appearances, and at corresponding levels. 



G O L S P Y. 



503 



212 feet, produced the second, and which, on 
its final drainage^ left the third and lowest, and 
the present valley such as we now see it. If 
this deduction should arouse the indignation of 
a Fingalian, he ought to be satisfied in the 
proud possession of one of the most striking 
and magnificent phenomena of the universe ; 
singidar, unexampled, and no less interesting to 
philosophy, than it is splendid in its effects, 
and captivating by its grandeur and beauty." 

GLENSHEE, the vale of the river Shee, 
lyingbetween the higher parts of Forfarshire and 
Perthshire, but chiefly in the latter. It is a 
pass into the Highlands of Brae Mar, and near 
its head is a stage on the great military road 
to Fort George, called the Spittal of Glen- 
shee. It is situated fifteen miles south from 
Castletown of Braemar, and seventy-seven 
north from Edinburgh. 

GLENSHIEL, a Highland pastoral pa- 
rish in the south-west part of Ross-shire adja- 
cent to Kintail, and lying on the south-west 
side of Loch Duich, an arm of the sea. In a 
narrow pass in the highest part of the parish, 
a skirmish was fought in 1719, by the Earl of 
Seaforth, for the cause of the Stewarts, and 
the Hanoverian forces, in which the former 
were defeated Population in 1821, 768. 

GLENSHIRA, a glen in the parish of 
Laggan, in the upper or western part of Bade- 
noch, forming the basm of the river Spey for 
the first twelve miles of its course. Its prin- 
cipal feature is the imposing grandeur of the 
mountains which rise around, sending down 
numberless torrents, particularly on the north- 
ern side, to swell the waters of the Spey. Not- 
withstanding the unpromising aspect of this 
part of the country, which is increased by the 
almost total absence of trees, the hills furnish 
excellent pasture for sheep, while the low 
ground by the river-side yields crops in suffici- 
ent abundance to supersede the necessity of 
importation. 

GLENSHIRA, a picturesque glen about 
five miles long, at the head of Loch Fyne, near 
Inverary, consisting of a deep and fertile soil. 

GLENSPEAN, a beautiful glen of con- 
siderable extent in the parish of Kilmanivaig 
in the district of Locbaber, Inverness-shire, 
commencing near the lower end of Loch Lag- 
gan, where it marches with Badenoch, and 
following in a westerly direction the course of 
the Spean, from which it receives its name. 
This glen in many places presents appear- 



ances of the operation of water similar to 
those described in Glenroy, and confirming by 
their levels the theory entertained of their 
formation. — See Glenroy. 

GLENTANAR, a woody district in Marr, 
Aberdeenshire, once a separate parish, but 
now united to Aboyne. 

GLENTILT, a vale or pass in a wild part 
of Athole, Perthshire, through which runs the 
river Tilt. The glen is narrow and bounded 
by lofty mountains, covered with a fine ver- 
dure. On its south side is the enormous hill 
of Beinglo. 

GLENTRATHEN See Lenteathen. 

GLENTURRET or GLENTURIT, 
a vale north of Crieff, Perthshire, through 
which flows the water of Turit, from a loch of 
the same name. The glen is famed for its 
romantic beauties, and is noticed in Scottish 
song. 

GLENTURRIT, a small glen branching 
off in a westerly direction from Glenroy. 

GLENURQUHART, a vale in Inver- 
ness-shire, west of Loch Ness, in the parish 
of Urquhart. 

GLETNESS, two or three small islets of 
Shetland, five miles north-east of Lerwick, in 
the mouth of Catfirth Voe. 

GLIMSHOLMor GLIMPSE HOLM, 
a small island of Orkney, in Holm Sound, 
lying between Burry island and Pomona. 

GLUSS, an islet on the north coast of 
Shetland. 

GOATFIELD or GAOLBHEIM, a 
mountain in the isle of Arran, parish of Kil- 
bride, elevated 2840 feet above the level of 
the sea, and famed for different kinds of rare 
stones found upon it. 

GOGAR BURN, a rivulet in the coun- 
ty of Edinburgh, parish of Corstorphine, a 
tributary of the Water of Leith. It takes its 
name from a hamlet on its banks called Gog- 
ar, at which there was a chapel before the 
Reformation. 

GOIL, (LOCH) one of the terminating 
arms of Loch Long in Argyleshire, which it 
leaves in a north-westerly direction. 

GOLSPY or GOLSPIE, a parish lying 
on the south-east coast of Sutherlandshire, 
north of Loch Fleet. It is in length about 
ten miles by about two in breadth. A prodi- 
gious improvement has been effected within 
these few years in this part of the country, at 
the instigation of the Marquis and Marchioness 



304 



GORDON. 



of Stafford, the latter of whom, as Countess 
of Sutherland in her own right, inherits nearly 
the whole of this county from a long and illus- 
trious line of ancestors. In prosecution of an 
extensive design of improvement, rendered ne- 
cessary by the altered circumstances of the 
Highland population, this noble pair have ex- 
pended immense sums in transferring the na- 
tives of their estates from the inner part of the 
country to the shore, where they now prosper- 
ously pursue the herring fishery, and other oc- 
cupations, in a series of villages, of which 
Golspie is perhaps the best specimen. Gols- 
pie lies at the mouth of a small river of the 
same name, at the distance of nine miles from 
Dornoch, and consists of one neatly built 
street, with a handsome little church, and an 
inn, which reminds the traveller, by its neat 
appearance, of the delightful honey-suckled 
hotels of merry England. During the fishing 
season, and also during those fairs into which 
a good deal of the business of the place is 
concentrated, Golspie presents a very bustling 
appearance. The general effect of the altera- 
tion, as far as regards the people, is, that they 
now enjoy the tastes and cultivate the compa- 
ratively refined habits of the Lowlanders, in- 
stead of living, as formerly, in the Boeotian 
ignorance and sloth and poverty of Highland 
crofters. The land near Golspie is now in- 
closed and well cultivated, and agriculture is 
even seeking its way up into the hills behind 
the town. A little to the north of the village 
is Dunrobin castle, the ancient seat of the 
Earls of Sutherland, and supposed to have 
been built by the second baron of that title 
about the year 1100. It is surrounded by 
some fine old wood, besides extensive modern 
plantations. From Golspie all the way to 
Brora, five miles, the road is skirted with 
neat cottages, surrounded by shrubberies, and 
covered with honey-suckle. These abodes 
have been recently peopled by mechanics from 
the south. —Population in 1821, 1036. 

GOMETRA, a small island of Argyle- 
shire, lying on the west coast of Mull, from 
which it is separated by an arm of the sea 
called Loch Tua. It is of basaltic formation, 
and devoted to the pasturing of cattle. 

GOODIE, a small river in the south- 
western part of Perthshire, formed by the 
discharge of the water of Lake Menteith. 
It falls into the Forth at the fords of 
Frew. 



GORBALS, a suburb of Glasgow, built 
on the south bank of the Clyde. It has an 
independent parochial jurisdiction, and is go- 
verned by magistrates nominated by the town- 
council of Glasgow. — See Glasgow. 

GORDON, a parish in the western part of 
the Merse, Berwickshire, lying between Leger- 
wood and Greenlaw, and extending seven miles 
in length, by from two to four in breadth. The 
surface is uneven, and lies higher than the 
Merse toward the east. Recently it contained 
much moorish land, and in general the aspect 
was bleak ; in the present day it is undergoing 
many improvements and is in many places 
finely enclosed and planted. The parish is 
somewhat remarkable, as having contained the 
earliest possessions acquired in this country by 
the great historical family of Gordon, who took 
their name from the place. Two farms with- 
in the parish are called Huntly and Huntly 
Wood ; and it is understood, that when the 
family removed to the north of Scotland, where 
for three or four centuries they have possessed 
more territorial influence than any other, they 
carried the names of these localities, as well as 
their own name along with them, and conferred 
the designation of Huntly upon a place in 
their new domains, from which they afterwards 
took the titles of lord, earl, and marquis, in 
succession. On being raised to a dukedom 
in the year 1684, the parish now under review 
was resorted to for a new title, though for 
centuries they had no seignorial connexion with 
it. The river Eden intersects the parish. 
The village of Gordon lies on the road from 
Edinburgh to Kelso, nine miles distant from 
the latter. The people of Gordon were re- 
cently a very primitive race, some of them 
having lived in the same farms from father to 
son for several centuries. It was perhaps on 
this account they were stigmatized as "the 
Gowks o' Gordon," in a popular rhyme run- 
ning thus : 

Huntly-wood — the wa's are doun. 

Bassandean and Barrastoun, 

Heckspeth wi' the yellow hair, 

Gordon gowks for evermair. 

Population in 1821 , 740. 

GORGIE, a village lying about two miles 
west from Edinburgh on the road to Glasgow, 
by way of Mid- Calder, at which there is an 
extensive establishment for preparing and 
dressing skins. 

GOULDIE, a village in the south part of 
Forfarshire, parish of Monikie. 



G O W It I E. 



505 



GO URDON, a fishing village on the coast 
of Kincardineshire, lying about a mile south of 
Bervie. 

GOUROCK, a small sea-port town and 
burgh of barony, of a remarkably clean ap- 
pearance, in the parish of Innerkip and county 
of Renfrew. It is pleasantly situated on the 
south shore of the Firth of Clyde, about three 
miles below Greenock. It possesses a neat 
chapel of ease. Gourock is a fashionable re- 
sort in the summer months of families from 
Glasgow and other places to enjoy the advan- 
tages of sea-bathing. Its regular inhabitants 
are chiefly fishers ; and here, it seems, red her- 
rings were prepared for the first time in Great 
Britain. There is an extensive rope-work in 
the place. — Population in 1821, 750. 

GO VAN, a parish in Lanarkshire, with a 
small portion belonging to the county of Ren- 
frew, lying on both sides of the Clyde imme- 
diately below Glasgow. By the erection of 
the village of Gorbals into a separate parish, 
1771, and the subsequent disjunction of land 
quoad sacra, its limits are reduced, and now it 
extends about five miles from east to west by 
a breadth of from three to four. The lands on 
the south side of the Clyde form a most beau- 
tiful plain, extending in breadth for nearly two 
miles, embellished with rich corn fields, planta- 
tions, pleasure-grounds, and gentlemen's seats. 
The village of Govan lies on this side of the 
river at the distance of about two miles from 
Glasgow. It is rather a straggling place, 
chiefly inhabited by weavers ; but it occupies 
a pleasant site amidst hedgerows and planta- 
tions. It forms the terminating point of an 
agreeeble walk by the river-side from Glasgow, 
and is noted for its preparation of salmon. A 
ferry boat, or rather a floating scaffold, guided 
by chains, connects the two sides of the river 
at the mouth of the Kelvin. This stream, 
whose romantic banks and groves are famed in 
song, is the eastern boundary of that portion 
of the parish which lies on the north side of 
the Clyde. It is of great utility in turning a 
vast number of mills. The outskirts of Glas- 
gow, with its various works, reach almost to 
the Kelvin. In this quarter stands the small 
village of Partick, near which in an elevated 
situation stand the ruins of a castle or country 
residence of the former prelates of Glasgow. 
—Population in 1821, 4325. 

GOWRIE, a district of Perthshire, gene- 
rally describable as the alluvial plain at the 



lower part of the course of the river Tay. Its 
boundary Line on the north proceeds from near 
Alyth to Little Dunkeld, from whence it pro- 
ceeds to the south, with a tendency to the east, 
till it reaches the Tay below Perth, (which it 
includes,) the Tay is then the boundary to 
Longforgan in the east, and from thence it pro- 
ceeds westward along the verge of the shire. 
In this large tract of country is to be found 
every variety of hill and dale, and every thing 
that constitutes rural beauty. The Carse of 
Gowrie, noticed at length under its appropriate 
head, is that portion which lies on the north 
bank of the Tay, opposite to the coast of Fife. 
It is a rich flat territoiy formed by the subsid- 
ence of the river, and, in adaptation to evert/ 
agricultural purpose, is only second in point of 
value to the fertile holms of East Lothian. 
Gowrie, at the end of the sixteenth century, 
supplied the title of earl to an ancient Scottish 
family, previously ennobled as barons of Ruth- 
ven, which was also their surname. The 
title sunk with John Earl of Gowrie, the third 
occupant, who was attainted in 1 600, on ac- 
count of the famous conspiracy bearing his 
name. The inhabitants of the Carse of 
Gowrie were formerly noted in popular oblo- 
quy for their stupidity and churlishness ; and 
" the carles of the Carse" used to be a com- 
mon appellation for them, said to be not more 
alliterative than true. Pennant records apro- 
verb regarding them, which supports the same 
theory — namely, " that they wanted fire in the 
winter, water in the summer, and the grace of 
God all the year round." Whether there be 
now, or ever were, any real grounds for such 
charges against the people of this blessed and 
beautiful spot, we shall not take it upon us to 
determine ; but shall relate an anecdote, to 
prove that examples of retributive wit are not 
unknown among them. A landed proprietor 
in the Carse used to rail in unmeasured terms 
against the people, alleging that their stupidity 
was equally beyond all precedent and all cor- 
rection : — in short, said he, I believe I could 
make a more sensible race of people out of the 
very soil which I employ them to cultivate. 
This expression got wind among the people, 
and excited no little indignation. Soon after, 
the gentleman in question had the misfortune 
to be tumbled from his horse into a clayey hole 
or pit, from which, after many hours struggling, 
he found it totally impossible to extricate him- 
self. A countryman came past, and he called 
3t 



506 



GRAMPIANS. 



for assistance. The man approached, took a 
grave glance at his figure, which presented a 
complete mass of clay; and coolly remarked 
as .he passed on, " Oh, I see you're making 
your men, laird ; I'll no disturb ye." 

GRAEMSAY, a small island, generally 
arable, in the Orkney group. It lies between 
the north end of Hoy and the Mainland. 

GRAHAMSTON, a populous and thriv- 
ing village in Stirlingshire, in the parish of 
Falkirk, on the road to Carron, standing on 
the spot where the unfortunate patriot, Sir 
John the Graham, was slain in the battle of 
Falkirk, July 22, 1298. From its vicinity 
to the Forth and Clyde Canal, considerable 
traffic is carried on in wood, and on a small 
basin derived from the Canal, is an iron work, 
called the Falkirk Foundry. The village may 
now be considered a suburb of Falkirk, the in- 
tervening ground being almost entirely occupi- 
ed by a double row of handsome freestone 
cottages. 

GRAHAMSTON, a suburb of Glasgow 
in the Barony parish. 

GRAMPIAN MOUNTAINS, a series 
of very irregular ranges and groups of lofty 
hills, which, with more or less continuity, oc- 
cupy the whole north-western side of Scot- 
land, with part of the northern, advancing 
branches to the eastward in a straggling man- 
ner, and intersected by valleys which preserve 
no fixed or common direction. In almost 
every description of the Grampian Mountains 
hitherto written, they are described as a chain 
of hills stretching between the counties of 
Aberdeen and Argyle, or almost from sea to 
sea. Recent investigation has made it obvious 
that the direction of " the Grampian range" is 
exceedingly indistinct : that " the chain" is 
very imperfect. It is unfortunate that a pro- 
per survey was not in former times taken of 
the vast masses of hills which are found in this 
portion of Scotland ; and that the term Gram- 
pian was not confined to a particular group or 
range. In ordinary language, all the hills 
between the Sidlaws in Forfarshire and the 
Spey are called Grampians, much to the con- 
fusion of topographical illustrators, and of the 
understanding of their readers. Adhering, of 
necessity, to the usual explanatory term, there 
is a range of Grampians which separates the 
county of Banff from Aberdeenshire ; there is 
another range hemming in the district of Marr 
on the south-west, and coming round to Kin- 
22. 



cardineshire ; from the east end of this chain 
single and double Grampian hills are detached 
towards Stonehaven ; at the head of Forfar- 
shire there is an immense clump of Grampians : 
on the boundaries of Argyleshire there are dif- 
ferent ranges of Grampians ; and, as above 
stated, in the whole north-west of Scotland, 
there are groups and chains of Grampians. 
The general height of the Grampians is from 
1400 to 3500 feet above the level of the sea ; 
but some rise to a height far above this eleva- 
tion. The southern boundaiy of the whole is at 
Strathmore. The etymology of the word 
Grampian is as confused as the geographical 
boundaries of the mountains to which the name 
has been fixed. Every antiquary has had his 
own explanation. Whether it be of an origin 
antecedent to the incursion of the Romans, or 
first conferred by their historian Tacitus, has 
never been" cleared up. The phrase at first 
seems to have been attached to only one hill, 
or a single range of hills. In describing the 
battle between Galgacus and Agricola, Tacitus 
says that it was fought " ad montem Gram- 
pium." In another place, in noticing the pro- 
vince of Vespasiawa, he says that the "horren. 
dum Grampium jugum" divides it in two parts. 
And, again, he says that part of the " Gram- 
pius Mons" forms a promontory extending far 
into the German Ocean, near the mouth of the 
Dee. The exact locality of the battle might 
probably have been settled at Stonehaven, 
from these imperfect notices, but for the error 
which the Roman historian commits in the 
map which he made of the country, wherein a 
range of Grampians — " Montes Grampii," ap- 
pears in a part of Scotland where there are no 
hills of any kind, at least in the present day. 
In seeking out the etymon of Grampian, the 
words Grans-ben, Grant-ben, Grants'-bain, 
and Garv-ben, have been indifferently ad- 
vanced as the original. A new elucidation has 
been more recently given by the Rev. Mr. 
Small, author of a work on Roman Remains, 
who alleges that the Lomond hills in Fife are 
the true Grampians, for they resemble the 
walloping of a great fish or grandis piscis in the 
sea, which he tells us is the real origin of the 
phrase of Tacitus. It is almost needless to 
say that these points, which have turned the 
heads of every antiquary from Richard of Cir- 
encester down to that argute personage Jona- 
than Oldbuck, are such as mist for ever be a 
subject of profitless contest. 



GRANGEMOUTH. 



507 



GRAMRY, an islet in Loch Linnhe, to 
the south of Lismore. 

GRANGE, a parish in the county of Banff, 
lying in the lower district of the shire, and ex- 
tending in three long ridges from the north 
banks of the Isla, a tributary of the Deveron. 
The length of the parish is six miles by a 
breadth of five. The parish of Keith lies on 
the south-west. The Knock-hill, Lurg-hill, 
and the hill of Altmore, bound it on the north, 
separating it from the fertile countries of Boyne 
and Enzie. The low grounds and parts of 
the hills are finely cultivated and enclosed. 
The name is derived from a country residence 
or grange in the parish, once belonging to the 
abbots of Kinloss. Part of the ruins is still 
seen Population in 1821, 1682. 

GRANGE-BURN, a rivulet in Stirling- 
shire, which unites with the Carron, a short 
way above the junction of the latter, with the 
Firth of Forth, where it is also joined by the 
Forth and Clyde Canal, — at the point of junc- 
tion stands the thriving village which forms the 
subject of the following article, from which 
circumstance it derives its name. 

GRANGEMOUTH, a sea-port in Stir- 
lingshire, parish of Falkirk, situated on the 
Carron river, a short way from its embou- 
chure into the Firth of Forth. It was com- 
menced in 1777 by the late Sir Laurence 
Dundas, in the prospect of its future conse- 
quence by the complete navigation of the 
Forth and Clyde canal, which here passes into 
the river. Since that period it has risen into 
considerable importance. It has spacious ware- 
houses for goods, commodious qtaays for ship- 
ping, and a diy dock. Vessels bring into 
this port timber, hemp, and tallow, deals, 
flax, and iron, from the Baltic, Norway, and 
Sweden ; besides grain from foreign parts, and 
from the coasts of Scotland and England. Of 
late years it has derived a considerable acces- 
sion of trade, by being found a cheaper landing 
place than Leith, the shore-dues of which are 
extravagantly high. The Carron Company 
has a wharf here for its vessels, which bring 
additional trade and commerce to the port. 
Rope-making and ship-building are carried on 
to a considerable extent. A new school-house 
has lately been erected, to which a library has 
been attached by the exertions of its excellent 
teacher. It possesses also a custom-house. 
On the right bank of the Canal, a little to the 
south-west, stands Kerse House, the seat of 



Lord Dundas. During the summer months, 
a steam-boat plies daily between this place and 
Newhaven. A small steam-vessel has lately 
been established for the purpose of carrying 
goods from Alloa and places adjacent along the 
Canal to Port-Dundas. An extensive trade 
is carried on in timber and corn. — Population 
in 1821, 1500. 

GRANTOWN, a modern village in the 
parish of Cromdale, Morayshire, lying about a 
mile south of Castle Grant, on the left side of 
the Spey, on the roads from the south to Fort- 
George, and from the lower to the higher part 
of the country, at the distance of twenty-two 
miles south from Forres. It was begun about 
the year 1774, under the patronage of the 
Grant family, who have been its continual be- 
nefactors. It has an excellent school, with 
an hospital for poor orphans ; and a town- 
house, with a jail, under the jurisdiction of the 
sheriff of the county. A branch of the Na- 
tional Bank is settled. — Population in 1821, 
500. 

GRASHOLM, an islet of Orkney, lying 
on the south of Shapinshay. 

GRAVE, an islet on the coast of Lewis. 

GREENHOLMS, a larger and smaller 
islet of Orkney, lying in Stronsay Firth, one 
mile and a half south of Eday. 

GREENHOLM, a small island of Shet- 
land, on the east side of the mainland, four miles 
north from Lerwick. 

GREENLAW, a place in the parish of 
Glencross, county of Edinburgh, on the road 
from Edinburgh to Pennycuick, (from which it 
is distant about two miles,) at which are most 
extensive barracks for prisoners of war and sol- 
diers ; they have been unoccupied since the 
conclusion of the war. 

GREENLAW, a parish in the centre of 
the Merse, Berwickshire, extending seven or 
eight miles in length from north to south, and 
on an average of about two miles in breadth. 
It is bounded by Polwarth on the north-east. 
The surface of the land is generally level, only 
rising here and there into slight detached emi- 
nences. The north-west part of the parish is 
chiefly composed of moor, sound sheep walks, 
and soil adapted to turnips. Near the farm of 
Greenlaw Dean, also in this part of the parish, 
are the remains of a small but remarkably 
strong camp or military position, defended on 
all sides except one by a precipitous bank. 
On this moor, also, are seen the remains of an 



508 



GREENOCK. 



ancient wall, called Harit's Dyke, which, tra- 
dition says, reached from the town of Berwick 
to Legerwood in Lauderdale, and which must 
have been a boundary between two hostile 
tribes at an early and unrecorded period of our 
history. In the parish were two religious 
houses belonging to the Abbey of Kelso. 

Greenlaw, the capital of the above pa- 
rish, and the county town of Berwickshire, 
is situated seven and a half miles west of Dunse, 
ten north of Coldstream, twelve east of Lau- 
der, and thirty-seven south by east of Edin- 
burgh. It lies in a valley upon the north bank 
of the Blackadder, over which there are two 
bridges, and consists of one long street, with a 
square market-place receding from the south 
side. In the centre of this square formerly 
stood the market- cross, a neat Corinthian pil- 
lar, surmounted by a lion presenting the coat- 
armorial of the Earl of Marchmont, who erect- 
ed it. The upper side of the square is formed 
by a line of buildings comprising the church, the 
steeple, and a disused court-house, all surround- 
ed by a burying-ground. The steeple seems as 
if inserted between the other two ; and the 
circumstance of its having been used as the 
county jail, with its dark and dungeon-like ap- 
pearance, suggested to a waggish stranger the 
following descriptive couplet : 

Here stand the gospel and the law, 
Wi' hell's hole atween the twa. 

Hell's hole is now vacated, and there is a hand- 
some new county jail at a little distance. An 
elegant county-hall, just erected by Sir W. 
P. H. Campbell, Bart., now occupies the site 
of the cross, in the centre of the square. The 
town of Greenlaw was formerly situated upon 
the top of an eminence, about a mile to the 
south, where a farm onstead is still denominated 
Old Greenlaw. Being afterwards removed to 
its present situation, it rose into some degree 
of importance under its baronial superiors, the 
family of Marchmont, whose influence in po- 
litical affairs, after the Revolution, was of great 
service to it. The town, which is a burgh 
of barony under Sir W. P. H. Campbell, the 
successor of this extinct race of peers, has 
since then (except during a space in the reign 
of Charles I.) been the seat of the county 
courts and other jurisdictions, though Dunse is 
a much larger and equally central town. Before 
the Reformation, the kirk of Greenlaw belong- 
ed to the monks of Kelso. In the twelfth 
s-nd two succeeding centuries, the kirk town of 



Greenlaw was dignified by the residence of the 
Earls of Dunbar, from whom the family of 
Home is descended. The town now contains, 
besides the parish church, two dissenting con- 
gregations — one of the Associate Synod and 
another of the Old Light Burghers. It has 
a carding machine and a wauk mill both well em- 
ployed ; and there are two annual fairs, May 
22, and the last Thursday of October. A 
subscription Library was established in the 

town in 1820 Population of the town and 

parish in 1821, 1349. 

GREENOCK, a small river, a tributary of 
the Water of Ayr, in the parish of Muirkirk. 

GREENOCK, the first sea-port in Scot- 
land, and the sixth town in point of population, 
is situated in Renfrewshire, upon the south 
shore of the Firth of Clyde, twenty-two miles 
below Glasgow; lat. 55", 57', 2" N. long. 4°, 45', 
30" W. The site of the town is eminently beau- 
tiful. At this part of the south bank of the 
Clyde, the land rises in a picturesque ridge of 
about eight hundred feet in height, at a little 
distance from the shore, leaving, therefore, 
only a narrow stripe of low ground by the 
water-side. Greenock occupies the whole of 
this low stripe, and even ascends a consider- 
able way up the ridge ; the beauty of the situa- 
tion being further enhanced by a fine bay hi 
front, (anciently styled St. Laurence's Bay, 
from a religious house,) and by the splendid 
Highland scenery which bounds the opposite 
side of the Firth. There are various defini- 
tions of the name Greenock, and among the 
rest, one which refers it to a green oak, which 
once spread its umbrageous branches upon the 
shore. But the word is evidently derived from 
some circumstance connected with the worship 
of the sun, practised by the Celtic aborigines, 
or perhaps from the sunny bay in front of 
the town, this being the Erse word for the sun. 
What renders this theory the more probable, 
is, that numerous places in Scotland are named 
from the sun, or the early worship paid to it. 
Greenan Castle, near Ayr, and a farm of the 
same name above Loch Tummel in Perth- 
shire, are instances ; besides the Perthshire 
locality alluded to in the following sonorous 
popular rhyme : — 

" Between the Camp at Ardoch 

And the Greenan hill o' Keir, 
Lie seven kings' ransoms, 

For seven hunder year." 

Greenock is entirely indebted for its present 




(f ? a.Si35Sf©SlK 




PuMuhcll&yTfcS-eZanrlJiinrSl Sozr, i firidat ■ 



GREENOCK. 



509 



commercial importance to the trade wliieh was 
opened up by the West of Scotland with the 
Colonies, after the Union. Previous to that 
era, it was a mere fishing hamlet, connected 
with a barony under the family of Shaw. 
Thus, in common with Glasgow, Paisley, and 
other citadels of human industry in the west 
of Scotland, the rise and advance of Greenock 
to its present condition, forms a theme not 
only of local wonder, but of national interest. 

Previous to the Reformation, the few inha- 
bitants scattered along this narrow stripe of 
alluvial territory, derived the consolations of 
religion from three small chapels, placed at in- 
tervals along the country, one of which, dedi- 
cated to St. Laurence, gave its name to the 
beautiful bay in front of the present town. 
The ground upon which Greenock now stands 
was then part of the parish of Innerkip, the 
church of which was situated six miles off, 
with a river between. Of course, after the 
destruction of the chapels at the Reformation, 
the people had to walk all that distance to join 
in the celebration of public worship. In 
1589, however, in consideration of this incon- 
venience, and also seeing that the inhabitants 
of the barony of Greenock were of " a res- 
sounable nowmer," King James VI. granted 
leave to John Shaw, the baron, to erect a 
church for the use of his own people, em- 
powering him to maintain a clergyman therein 
by the quota of teinds which he formerly paid 
to the minister of Innerkip. This arrange- 
ment, which resembled the erection of a chapel 
of ease in our own times, was further confirm, 
ed in 1594, when the whole of John Shaw's 
estates, Greenock, Finnart, and Spangock, 
were erected into an independent parsonage 
and vicarage. Afterwards (1636), this was 
again further confirmed by their erection into 
a separate parish, to be called the parish of 
Greenock. These circumstances, though 
partly owing no doubt to the interested views 
of a powerful proprietor, all indicate an in- 
creasing and thriving population, even under 
the unfavourable circumstances in which Scot- 
land was then placed. In the same year, 
moreover, with the erection of the lands into 
a parish, the baron began to grant feus upon 
his property, an indication of the rise of a 
better order of inhabitants. In 1651, when 
John Shaw marched with his sovereign into 
England, he led two hundred men: the dis- 
tinction which he acquired by his behaviour in 



the fatal battle of Worcester, procured him, 
in a subsequent reign, the honour of a baronet- 
cy. In 1684, though as yet no harbour was 
built, a vessel sailed from Greenock with a num- 
ber of the persecuted religionists of the West of 
Scotland, who were sentenced to transportation 
to the American Colonies. Next year, a party 
connected with the Earl of Argyle's invasion 
landed here ; the bay probably affording some 
facility for such a purpose, notwithstanding 
the want of works. Greenock now consisted 
of only a single row of thatched houses, 
stretching along the bay ; and the neighbouring 
little town of Cartsdyke, which Greenock now 
regards with supreme contempt, seems to have 
been a place of much greater consideration. 
Great hope, however, of the future prosperity 
of Greenock, lay in the vigilant activity of the 
baronial family of Shaw, which, through a 
mixture, perhaps, of interested and public- 
spirited views, omitted no opportunity of ad- 
vancing the interest of the village. In 1696, 
with the hope apparently of rendering Green- 
ock a depot for the trade of the Darien Com- 
pany, Sir John Shaw made application to the 
Scottish Parliament for public aid to build a 
harbour, but was unsuccessful. To the great 
chagrin, no doubt, of his worship, as well as 
the feuars of Greenock, part of that company's 
expedition, in 1697, was fitted out at the rival 
hamlet of Cartsdyke. However, the increasing 
spirit of the people soon got over every diffi- 
culty, and, in 1707, a harbour of about ten acres 
in extent was laid out, the people agreeing to 
discharge the cost by an assessment of 1 s. 4d. 
sterling upon every stack of malt which should 
be brewed into ale within the village. The 
work was finished in 1710, at an expense of 
L.5555 ; and it affords a proof, either of the 
great trade carried on for some years after, or 
of the extreme thirstiness of the inhabitants, 
that the whole of this immense sum was liqui- 
dated before the year 1740. In 1707, the in- 
habitants of Greenock and Cartsdyke together, 
amounted only to about 1000 : in 1755, those 
of Greenock alone were 3800. About this 
time, moreover, the houses began to be covered 
with slate, instead of thatch. In 1716, there 
were four so distinguished. The harbour was 
at first established in the regulations of the 
Custom-house, as a branch of Port- Glasgow. 
The Union having now opened up its full 
prospects to Scottish commerce, Greenock 
came rapidly forward into importance as a har- 



510 



GREENOCK. 



bour, being 9 ibsidiary in some measure to Glas- 
gow, the vessel* belonging to which were unload- 
ed here and at Port- Glasgow, on account of the 
shallowness of the river higher up. The first 
vessel which sailed from the Clyde to America 
on a commercial enterprise, left Greenock in 
1719; an incident already noticed under Glas- 
gow. About this time, the rising prosperity 
of the place excited the jealousy of London, 
Liverpool, and Bristol, to such an extent, that 
they falsely accused the merchants of Green- 
ock and Port- Glasgow of fraud against the 
revenue, first to the Commissioners and after- 
wards to the House of Commons ; this was 
triumphantly refuted ; and Greenock, unimped- 
ed in its career, continued to prosper exceed- 
ingly. The gross receipt of the customs, in 
17-28, was £15,231, 4s. 4^d. The import of 
tobacco from the colonies, and its re-trans- 
portation to the Continent, from which goods 
were taken in exchange, was at this time, and 
up to the period of the American war, carried 
on to a great extent. In 1752, the Greenland 
whale-fishery was also established, though 
not carried on with much spirit till some few 
years after. It is now abandoned. 

Though the people thus took such large 
advantage of the trade-wind which set in upon 
Scotland after the Union, it is remarked by 
Dr. Leyden, in his publication entitled " Scot- 
tish Descriptive Poems," that they did not ad- 
vance passibus cequis in an attention to litera- 
ture and science. A most notable instance of 
their Gothic barbarity was particularly pointed 
out by this writer, and has since excited much 
remark. In 1767, when the ingenious Wilson, 
author of " Clyde, a Poem," applied to the 
magistrates for the situation of master in their 
grammar school, those dignitaries, inspired 
partly by religious prejudice and partly by 
mercantile prudence, stipulated with him that 
he should abandon what they styled " the pro- 
fane and unprofitable art of poem-making." 
They thus effectually repressed in this man of 
genius and honour all the aspirations which 
had animated his soul in youth, and condemn- 
ed him, in his own words, " to bawl himself 
to hoarseness to wayward brats, to cultivate 
sand and wash Ethiopians, for all the dreary 
days of an obscure life, the contempt of shop- 
keepers and brutish skippers." After his un- 
happy arrangement with the magistrates, he 
never ventured, says Leyden, " to touch his 
forbidden lyre, though he often regarded it with 



that mournful solemnity which the harshness 
of dependence, and the memory of its departed 
sounds could not fail to inspire." How many 
souls have existed, and at this moment exist, 
in the condition of poor Wilson, animated with 
all the energies and sensibilities of genius, but 
obliged, for the paltry bread which nature re- 
quires, or for the sustenance of beings more 
dear than self can ever be, to toil in the low 
pursuits of a common-place and unkindly 
world ! 

Previous to 1751, Greenock had been ma- 
naged, like other burghs of barony, by the baron 
himself, or his deputy. The town was now, 
by a charter from Sir John Shaw, enabled to 
elect a regular magistracy, consisting of two 
bailies, a treasurer, and six councillors, with 
power to make laws for the advantage of the 
burgh, and maintaining of peace and order 
within the same, and also to admit merchants, 
and all kinds of tradesmen, and others, to be 
burgesses within the said burgh. By the same 
constitution it is now managed ; the represen- ' 
tative of the baronial family, Sir Michael Shaw 
Stewart, having no other connexion with the 
town than what arises through the immense 
revenue he derives from the feus and the pa- 
tronage of one of the parish churches. 

The blow given to commerce by the Ameri- 
can colonial war was severely felt by Greenock, 
which, like Glasgow, was then obliged to look 
out for other objects of enterprise. These 
were found in various quarters, and the pro- 
sperity of the place was quickly resumed. Up 
to this period great improvements had been 
progressively wrought upon the quays, and a dry 
dock was now built (1785) at an expense ot 
£4000. The progressive increase of the trade 
of the port may be indicated by the advance of 
the Custom-house receipts, which in 1770 
were L.57,336; in 1794, L.77,680; in 1798, 
L.141,853; in 1802, L.211,087; in 1814, 
L.376,713; and in 1828, L, 455,596 ; or by 
the multiplication of the inhabitants, who, in 
.1755 amounted to 3800, in 1791 to 15,000, 
in 1801 to 18,400 in 1S11 to 20,580, in 1821 
to 23,500, and in 1829 to 27,000. Through- 
out this space of time, the old harbourage ac- 
commodation has been almost entirely renewed 
upon a splendid scale, at an expense of about 
L.20,000 ; and the result has been, that 
whether the depth of water be considered, or 
the conveniency of entry and egress, or the 
riding ground offered bv the firth, which at 



GREENOCK. 



ill 



this place is completely land-locked, and re- 
sembles a large inland lake, Greenock is now 
decidedly the best port in Scotland. The 
following measurements will show the extent 
of the quays and their accommodation : 

Feet. 
East quay . . 531 

Entrance to harbour . 105 

Custom house quay . 1035 

Entrance to harbour . 105 

West quay . . 425 

Extreme length from east to west 2201 
Breadth of piers . 60 

The management of the harbour is vested in 
its commissioners, (along with the town coun- 
cil,) who are elected annually ; and every ship- 
owner, paying L.12 per annum of shore-dues, 
is eligible to be elected, while paying L.3 qua- 
lifies for giving a vote. 

The trade in Greenock consists of foreign 
and coasting. Indeed, it may be said, that 
there is no place where British enterprise has 
opened a market, but Clyde vessels are to be 
found. At present Greenock has trading ves- 
sels to every part of the world, the whole 
amounting in 1828 to 249, or 31,929 of ton- 
nage, and employing 2210 men. The West 
and East Indies, and North American trades, 
may be considered the principal. Newfound- 
land and South America have also employed 
a considerable portion of shipping from this 
port. It is said that the coasting trade has 
somewhat declined since 1812, in consequence 
of the introduction of steam-vessels, which tow 
small vessels to Glasgow againot wind and 
tide. In the herring-fishery, Greenock annu- 
ally does business to the extent of 19,000 bar- 
rels at an average ; and the port has long been 
in almost exclusive possession of that melan- 
choly trade, which consists in facilitating the 
emigration of the poor people of Scotland to 
North America. 

Greenock, in external appearance is a neat 
town, though somewhat too much huddled to- 
gether in its older districts. Of late years, a 
number of very clean and regular, and even 
elegant streets have been erected towards the 
west, for the accommodation of the more re- 
fined inhabitants ; and a tendency has also been 
displayed by this class of society to rear streets 
and detached villas along the heights behind 
the town, where the view of the firth and of 
the Highland scenery beyond is a source of 



neverfailing pleasure. One of the most re- 
markable circumstances connected with Green- 
ock is the proximity of the Highlands. But 
a few miles off, across the Firth of Clyde, this 
untameable territory stretches away into Al- 
pine solitudes of the wildest character ; so that 
it is possible to sit in a Greenock drawing- 
room, amidst a scene of refinement not sur- 
passed, and of industry unexampled, in Scot- 
land, with the long-cultivated Lowlands at 
your back, and let the imagination follow the 
eye into a blue distance, where things still ex- 
hibit nearly the same moral aspect as they did 
a thousand years ago. It is said that when 
Rob Roy haunted the opposite coasts of Dum- 
bartonshire, he found it very convenient to sail 
across, and make a selection from the goods 
displayed in the Greenock fairs ; on which oc- 
casion the ellwands and staves of civilization 
would come into collision with the broad- 
swords and dirks of savage warfare, in such a 
style as must have served to show the ex- 
tremely slight hold which the law had as yet 
taken of certain parts of our country. From 
the same cause, an immense proportion of the 
population of Greenock is of Highland ex- 
traction ; and a late writer remarks that it is 
scarcely possible to walk the streets without 
hearing a rough blast of Gaelic rush past the ear. 
Among the public structures of Greenock, 
decidedly the first place is due to the Custom- 
House, which is situated on a tongue of land 
projecting into the harbour, and fronts towards 
the full expanse of the Clyde. The beautiful 
Grecian style of this building does justice to 
its felicitous situation ; we have heard a tra • 
veller declare that it woidd do honour to any 
city in the world. The portico is remarked 
to be extremely beautiful. This building was 
erected in 1818, and cost L.30,000. The 
Tontine next deserves notice. This is a splen- 
did hotel, erected in 1801, at an expense of 
L. 10,000, which was provided in the course of 
two days by four hundred subscribers to the 
amount of D.25 each. It contains a large 
hall, with twelve sitting-rooms, and thirty bed- 
rooms. Nearly opposite this elegant house 
are the Exchange Buildings, which were fi- 
nished in 1814, at an expense of L.7000, and 
contain, besides two spacious assembly-rooms, 
a coffee-room, where newspapers, periodical 
publications, and works giving information on 
commercial subjects, are read at an annual ex- 
pense to each subscriber of 35s., strangers be- 



512 



GREENOCK. 



ing admitted for six weeks gratis. The 
Greenock Bank, which was instituted in 1785, 
and has ever since issued notes, occupies the 
other part of the building ; and near it is a 
small theatre, built by the late Mr. Stephen 
Kemble, but which is rarely opened, and never 
effectively patronised. The Town-hall and 
public offices, situated in Hamilton Street, 
were erected in 1766, after a plan by the cele- 
brated James Watt. A police-office is con- 
nected with this structure. Greenock boasts 
of an excellent academy, under the control of 
the magistrates, and has numerous private 
schools. In 1809 an hospital or infirmary 
was added by the charity of the inhabitants to 
the list of public buildings ; it is a neat edifice, 
and its utility is universally acknowledged. In 
1810 a jail and bridewell were erected. In 
1820 was reared a new coffee-room, in conse- 
quence of a difference having arisen between a 
number of the subscribers and the proprietors 
of the Exchange Buildings. It imitates the 
urbane regulation of the parent establishment, 
in admitting strangers gratis for six weeks, 
without introduction. A gas work, for sup- 
plying the town with that necessary article, 
was erected in 1828, at the expense of L.8731. 
Besides the banking establishment above al- 
luded to, there are the Renfrewshire" Bank, 
which was commenced in 1802, and now oc- 
cupies a substantial house in Shaw Place — and 
a branch of the Glasgow Union Bank. 

Greenock is now divided into three pa- 
rishes, respectively termed the west parish, the 
mid parish, and the east parish, all being form- 
ed out of the original parish of Innerkip. The 
first, which may be styled the mother parish 
of the three, comprehends the western part of 
the town, and the greater part of the country 
district. Its clergyman is remarkable for the 
extent of his salary, which is supposed to be 
not surpassed by any other in Scotland. This 
arises chiefly from his glebe, which he was 
permitted to feu by an act of parliament in 
1801. Hence the stipend, which, in 1796, 
was only L.96 in money, with a glebe worth 
L 30 yearly, is now understood to amount 
nearly to a thousand pounds ! The church 
stands near the shore, and is surrounded by an 
old burying-ground. The Mid Parish, which 
was formed out of the above in 1741, com- 
prises the central parts of the town, and the 
church is situated in a small square fronting 
along a street which descends to the quay. 



The minister's stipend is L.295. The East 
Parish, erected in 1809, boasts only of a 
humble place of worship, near Rue End, 
which was originally erected in 1774 as a cha- 
pel of ease. The salary is L.200. 

The oldest dissenting place of worship is 
the Original Burgher Associate Synodmeeting- 
house at Cartsdyke, built in 1745, and re-con- 
structed in 1828. A meeting-house of the 
United Associate Synod was erected in Market 
Street, 1758, but abandoned in 1802, for a more 
commodious house in Innerkip Street. An- 
other in the same communion was reared in 
1791 ; and a Gaelic chapel of ease was erected 
in the same year. The other meeting-houses 
or chapels are one Congregational Union, com- 
menced in 1806, a Relief in 1807, a Methodist 
in 1814, a Roman Catholic in 1815, a Baptist 
in 1821, a Chapel of Ease in 1823, and an 
Episcopal in 1824. 

Greenock is, besides all its commercial im- 
portance, a manufacturing town to a consider- 
able extent, though it must be confessed the 
principal articles are connected with the com- 
mercial pursuits of the port. Ship-building 
was commenced in 1764, and has since been 
carried on with much success. There are 
now five establishments in this line, one of 
which, belonging to Messrs. Scott and Sons, 
is allowed to be the most complete in Britain, 
excepting those which belong to the crown. 
The yard has a fine extent of front from West 
Quay to the termination of West Burn, and 
a large dry dock. All the stores and differ- 
ent lofts are entirely walled in; and, inde- 
pendently of the building premises, there is an 
extensive manufactory of chain cables. An 
immense number of vessels have been launch- 
ed from this place ; the largest ever built here, 
or in Scotland, was the Caledonian, of 650 tons, 
in 1 794, for the purpose of supplying the royal 
navy with masts, &c. Boat-building is also 
carried on to a great extent in Greenock ; one 
builder, Mr. Nicol, in 1819, endeavoured to 
give the author of the History of Greenock an 
idea of the number of boats he had built, by 
stating that, if put together end long, they 
would reach twenty-four miles in length. In 
connexion with the above works, are several 
extensive roperies and manufactories of sail- 
cloth. One of the most prominent branches 
of manufacture in Greenock is sugar-refining, 
which is here carried on to a greater extent 
than anywhere else in Scotland. The first 



GREENOCK. 



513 



house was erected about the year 1765, and 
there are now seven. The straw -hat manu- 
facture has been prosecuted with much eclat 
by two most deserving individuals, Messrs. 
James and Andrew Muir, who first began bu- 
siness in 1808. To such an extent has this 
branch of business been carried, that the 
straw, after arriving from England, is sent 
in large quantities to Orkney and the High- 
lands, where it is plaited by women and 
children ; and afterwards it is returned to 
Greenock to be wrought into bonnets. In 
1826 the Highland Society's medal and 
premiums were conferred upon the Messrs. 
Muir for their imitations of Leghorn bonnets, 
one of which was described as comprehending 
164 yards of plait, 414,720 turnings, and 
410,500 stitches, the rows within an inch 
being 10. The number of workers was com- 
puted (1829) at from 200 to 300 in Greenock, 
and about 2000 in Orkney, besides those since 
employed in the west of Argyle -shire. 
Other manufactories in Greenock are, — two 
of silk and felt hats, a pottery, a work for flint- 
glass, two manufactories of steam engines, 
carried on to a large extent, an extensive 
brewery, four distilleries, a bottle-work, a 
chain cable work, two extensive tanneries, two 
soap and candle-works, a steam saw-mill, va- 
rious foundries, sail lofts ; besides which there 
are numerous smaller concerns, of too common 
occurrence in towns of this size to require 
particular notice. 

Greenock has recently been the scene of an 
extraordinary exertion of mechanical power in 
the formation of a series of waterfalls for 
mills along the heights above the town. An 
ingenious engineer, Mr. James Thorn of Rothe- 
say, had perceived the possibility of collect- 
ing the water of a considerable number of 
small mountain streams into one channel, 
which he proposed to conduct forward to the 
town in such a way as, within the space of 
little more than a mile, and upon a descent of 
live hundred and twelve feet, should give power 
to no fewer than thirty-two water mills ! 
A company under the title of the " Shaws 
Water Company," having been formed to 
carry this design into effect, with a capital of 
L. 31, 000, the whole was completed in April 
1827. The whole length of the aqueduct is 
about six miles and a half, and, to ensure a sup- 
ply of water in seasons of the greatest drought, 
a large reservoir is formed upon its course. 



A flax-mill, (which is a novelty in the manu- 
facturing system of this district) a paper-mill, 
and various flour-mills are already set a-going. 
The design is also rendered subservient to 
the supply of the town with water for domestic 
use, a necessary with which it was formerly 
but ill provided. This splendid public work 
has opened up magnificent prospects to manu- 
facturing enterprise in Greenock, and, whether 
considered with reference to its external won- 
ders, or in the above more interesting light, is 
fitted to impress a stranger with a high sense 
of the character of the inhabitants of Greenock. 
It must be mentioned that Greenock is the 
birth-place of the illustrious Watt, the perfecter 
of the steam-engine, who was born in 1736. 
The birth of a man of genius in a small place 
which was evidently unable to educate him, or 
by any other means to inspire him with the 
ideas which in another scene gained him the 
applause of mankind at large, is no honour ; 
and when we find the magistrates, thirty years 
after, binding down Wilson from the employ- 
ment of his leisure hours in a harmless literary 
amusement, there is even less than the usual 
reason to allow any credit to Greenock on this 
account. It is but justice, however, to this 
enterprising town to mention, that it is not by 
any means uncharacterised by an attention to 
literature and science. It supports various con- 
siderable libraries, and the advantages of an 
observatory have long been at the command of 
such individuals as take pleasure in astronomi- 
cal observations. Various societies for the 
cultivation of literary and scientific discourse 
have been established, but invariably without 
success. Printing was instituted in 1765, and 
a newspaper in 1802. This journal continues 
to be published twice a week, under the title 
of the Greenock Advertiser, and is conducted, 
like almost all the other provincial papers in 
Scotland, by a gentleman of literary taste and 
accomplishment. Among the hterary produc- 
tions of Greenock, is to be mentioned a " His- 
tory" of the town, by Mr. Daniel Weir : to 
which work we have been indebted for a 

great part of the matter of this article 

Population in 1821, 22,088. 

GREINORD, (LOCH) a bay on the 
north-west coast of Ross- shire, in which lies 
a small island. 

GRESSALLACH, (LOCH) a bay of 
the sea on the east coast of Harris, south of 
East Loch Tarbet. 

3 u 



514 



GRETNA. 



GRETNA, or GRAITNEY, a parish in 
the south part of Dumfries-shire, lying on the 
west side of the small river Sark, and conse- 
quently the first Scottish ground in entering 
the country from Cumberland. It extends 
about six miles along the shore of the Sohvay 
Firth, and is intersected by the river Kirtle. 
In breadth it is three miles, and is bounded on 
tlie north by Kirkpatrick Fleming. The land 
has a very gentle acclivity, and is generally 
well enclosed and cultivated. The present 
parish comprehends the old parishes of Gretna 
and Redpatrick or Redkirk, which were united 
in 1 609, by the penurious policy of the Refor- 
mation. The village of Old Gretna stands in 
a hollow, upon the east side of the river Kirtle, 
about half a mile from the Firth .of Solway. 
It is understood that the name originated in 
the local situation of the village ; the Anglo- 
Saxon words Gretna- how signifying the great 
hollow or howe. There are other two and 
more famed villages in the parish, namely, 
Gretna-green and Springfield. The former lies 
north of Old Gretna, and Springfield stands in 
a very eligible situation on the great road from 
the south into the centre of Dumfries-shire. 
Gretna-green has been long noted for the cele- 
bration of clandestine marriages. For some 
time back the trade has been altogether carried 
on at Springfield, which, being the first stage 
on the public road from Carlisle, is better suit- 
ed for such a purpose. Springfield was begun 
to be reared in the year 1791, under the pa- 
tronage and superiority of Sir William Max- 
well. It is neatly and regularly built, and sur- 
rounded with cottage gardens and well trimmed 
fields. The little sea-port of Sarkfoot is dis- 
tant about a mile. It is now upwards of seven- 
ty years since the infamous traffic alluded to 
was commenced by a person of the name of 
Joseph Paisley, a tobacconist by profession, 
and not a blacksmith, as is usually supposed. 
After a long life of profanity and drunkenness, 
he died so late as 1814. There are now, or 
were lately, two rival practitioners, one of 
whom married Paisley's grand-daughter, and 
fell heir to his office. He enjoys, therefore, 
the greatest share of the trade ; still the other 
has a good deal of custom. In nearly all cases 
it depends on the chaise-drivers from Carlisle, 
•which shall have the job. Upon an average 
800 couples are married in the year : and the 
fee charged varies from half a guinea to L.40. 
This traffic, little elevated as it is above the 
22. 



office of Pandarus, forms a chief support of 
the village, though smuggling has lately be- 
come a rising and rival means of subsistence. 
In its legal effects, the ceremony performed 
at Gretna or Springfield merely amounts to a 
confession before witnesses that certain per- 
sons are man and wife ; such an acknowledg- 
ment being sufficient to constitute a valid mar- 
riage in Scotland. By a certificate being sub- 
scribed by the officiating priest and witnesses, 
the marriage becomes quite indissoluble. In 
general, the service of the church of England 
is read ; but this, and indeed the whole cere- 
mony, is only done to stifle the qualms of the 
lady. An attempt was made in the General 
Assembly of the kirk of Scotland in 1826, to 
have this shameful system of fraud and pro- 
fanity suppressed, but without effect. Until 
a judicious equalization shall take place in the 
marriage laws of the two kingdoms, now so 
absurdly discrepant, or till the improved morals 
of England shall cause young persons to start 
with proper horror at the indecency of a clan- 
destine union, we apprehend that the system 
is incorrigible — Population in 1821, 1945. 

GREY MARE'S TAIL, a noted cata- 
ract in the northern wilds of Dumfries-shire, 
nearly ten miles north-east from the village of 
Moffat. It is formed by a small stream, run- 
ning between Loch Skene, a lonely mountain 
tarn, and the Moffat Water. The stream, in 
descending to the vale of Moffat, is precipi- 
tated over a rock 300 feet in height, impeded 
in the fall only by slight projecting ledges, 
which produce the appearance indicated by 
the name. 

GREINBUSTERHOLM, a small islet 
of the Orkneys, near Stromness. 

GRIMS AY, a small island of the Hebrides, 
situated west of Rona Island, between North 
Uist and Benbecula. 

GRIMSHADDER, (LOCH) a narrow 
arm of the sea on the east side of Lewis, south 
of Loch Stornoway. 

GROAY, an islet on the coast of Harris. 
GROINARD, a small island on the west 
coast of Ross-shire. 

GRUGAG, a small river in the north- 
eastern part of Ross-shire, parish of Edderton, 
on which there is a cataract of 300 feet in 
height. 

GRANNOCH, (LOCH) a small lake in 
the parish of Girthon, in the stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright. It abounds in charr. 



GULANE. 



5Ifl 



GRYFE, a river in Renfrewshire, which 
has its sources in the western part of the coun- 
ty, among the hills south from Greenock, and 
receives, in its course to the east, various ac- 
cessions from both sides, but especially from 
the extensive moss of Kilmalcolm on the south 
border of that parish. Its course is serpentine, 
but generally smooth. Formerly Renfrew- 
shire received from this stream the general 
name of Strathgryfe, which, however, is now 
confined to the vale immediately formed by the 
stream, and is used only in popular parlance. 
In the latter part of its course it tends to the 
north, and joins the Black Cart at Walkinshaw. 
The united stream finally unites with the 
White Cart at a creek on the left bank of the 
Clyde. It yields good trout and perch, and is 
serviceable to different large works. 

GULANE, or GOOLAN, a small vil- 
lage in the parish of Dirleton, Haddington- 
shire, near the sea coast. It is irregularly 
built, but possesses several good modern 
houses. Its name is derived from the British 
word Go-Lyn, signifying a little lake or pool ; 
and till this day there is a pond near the vil- 
lage. Gulane is famed for the extensive sandy 
downs slightly covered with herbage, which 
spread away from it in a south-westerly direc- 
tion towards Aberlady. These links are the 
habitation of vast numbers of gray rabbits, and 
are farmed as a warren at a considerable rent. 
In consequence of the excellence of these downs 
for coursing, Gulane is considered one of the 
best places in Scotland for rearing and training 
race or fine riding horses, and of these animals 
from eighty to a hundred are trained annually. 
At one period Gulane was the capital of the 
parish to which it gave its name. On the 
east side of the links stand the ruins of 
the ancient kirk, which- was dedicated to St. 
Andrew, and was well endowed. In 1612 the 
seat of worship was removed by act of par- 
liament to Dirleton, at which place a chapel 
had been erected in the reign of Alexander 
III. by the family of De Vallibus or Vaux. 
It is mentioned by Grose, that the last vicar 
of the church of Gulane, before its abandon- 
ment, was deposed from his living by James 
VI. for no other misdemeanour than that of 
smoking tobacco, a custom which the king 



held in abhorrence ; but we take the liberty, 
like that cautious and erudite antiquary George 
Chalmers, of doubting the correctness of such 
a tradition. Besides this ecclesiastical esta- 
blishment, there was in early times in its 
neighbourhood a small monastic institution, 
said to have been a cell of the Cistertian nuns 
of Berwick-upon-Tweed. The piety of an- 
cient times erected yet another religious house 
in this vicinity. On the small bleak island of 
Fidra, lying off the coast, was once an eccle- 
siastical structure, but by whom peopled is 
now unknown. It has however been ascer- 
tained, that it acted as a Lazaretto in times of 
severe plague. Its windows were likewise 
serviceable to mankind in acting as beacons to 
warn the unwary mariner from the dangers of 
an unsafe shore. At one time there was a 
passage boat which sailed regularly to the op- 
posite coast of Fife, but such a convenience 
has been long in desuetude. At a place at 
Gulane Ness — the most prominent part of tlie 
shore — ironstone was in recent times wrought 
to a considerable extent for the Carron works. 

GULBEIN, a mountain stream in Locha- 
ber, flowing northward and joining the Spean 
about a mile below the place where the latter 
issues from Loch Laggan. In the triangle 
formed by these rivers and the end of Loch 
Laggan, there is a very considerable extent of 
table land, evidently of the same formation as 
the parallel roads of Glenroy, with one of 
which it is understood exactly to correspond in 
level. 

GUNNA, an islet belonging to Argyle- 
shire, lying between Coll and Tiree. 

GUTHRIE, a parish in Forfarshire, lying 
between Aberlemno on the south-west and 
Kinnel on the south-east. It is divided in a very 
incommodious manner into two parts, lying 
six miles apart from each other. The surface 
is only partly arable, and from the top of the 
hill of Guthrie the land generally descends to 
the south and south-east. The parish had a 
collegiate church prior to the Reformation, 
with a provost and three prebendaries. It 
is under the patronage of the Guthries of 
that ilk, one of whom was slain at the battle 
of Flodden.— Population in 1821, 555, 



516 



HADDINGTONSHIRE. 



HA A, an islet on the north coast of Suther- 
landshire. 

HAAY, an islet of the Hebrides on the 
coast of Harris. 

HABBIE'S HOWE, a locality alluded to 
in the Scottish pastoral comedy of Ramsay, 
is a secluded natural hollow on the banks of a 
rivulet called Monk's-burn, a tributary of the 
North Esk, within the northern verge of 
Peebles-shire. The scenery all around this 
spot coincides with the allusions to different 
places in the above charming production. It 
is annually visited, in the summer months, by 
parties from Edinburgh, from which it is dis- 
tant about twelve miles, by a road along the 
south base of the Pentland hills. 

HADDINGTONSHIRE, or EAST 
LOTHIAN, a county in the south-east part 
of Scotland, bounded by Berwickshire on the 
south, Edinburghshire, or Mid-Lothian, on the 
west, and the Firth of Forth upon the north 
and east. The rivulet of Dunglas separates 
it for about two miles from the county of Ber- 
wick, and a similar streamlet, Ravenshaugh 
burn, separates it for about half a mile from 
Edinburghshire. The mean length of the 
county is twenty-three miles. Its breadth 
at the west end is twelve miles, in the middle 
sixteen, and at the east end ten miles. By 
the most accurate measurements, its surface 
presents an area of two hundred and eighty 
square miles. The early history of this agree- 
able county is so intimately associated with 
that of the shire of Edinburgh, which has been 
already patiently elucidated, that to avoid 
repetition little may here be said. . Its origi- 
nal inhabitants, both before and after the intru- 
sion of the Romans, were the British Gadeni, 
as is everywhere signified by the names of 
streams, hills, and hamlets. These people at 
length sunk under those Anglo-Saxons, whose 
head-residence was the castle of Edinburgh. 
During the sixth century, the Saxon settlers 
and the more obscure aborigines were chris- 
tianized through the exertions of the pious 
Baldred, whose cell was at Tyningham. The 
Saxons of this part of Lothian were sometimes 
overcome by the Picts, after the battle of Drum- 
nechton, and they were finally overpowered by 
the Scots, after the suppression of the Pictish 
power. With other parts of the Lothians, the 
district was ceded in 1020 to Malcolm II. In 
succeeding centuries, the shire suffered the hoi'-" 



rors of pillage and conflagration, on all occasions 
of the armies of England being sent to in- 
vade the country, and to molest or punish the 
capital. Presenting an excellent theatre of 
warfare for contending forces, and being rich 
in agricultural produce, it gave frequently an 
advantageous field of battle to the English 
and Scots. In 1296, and again in 1650 the 
sanguinary battles of Dunbar were fought 
within it, and in 1745 it was the scene of 
the battle of Prestonpans, since which pe- 
riod it has enjoyed the utmost repose. The 
county of Haddington is divided into high- 
lands and lowlands — the former being inland, 
and the latter adjacent to the coast. The 
highland territory is part of the extensive 
range of mountains called the Lammermoor- 
hills. These hills are chiefly brown heaths, 
fit only for sheep pasture, and at other times, 
especially near their northern boundaries, they 
are susceptible of cultivation, and .yield toler- 
ably good crops, though generally late. From 
the Lammermoor hills, the land, with few inter- 
ruptions, declines in the most pleasing and 
gentle manner towards the shore of the Firth of 
Forth. In the south-eastern part of the 
county, the ground, after descending the hills, 
is flat for several miles, and here its productive 
powers are greatest. On the western confines, 
the Lammermoor hills decline into the rich vale 
of the Tyne, between which and the sea there 
is a low swelling hilly range, proceeding out of 
Edinburghshire, which fades away near the 
town of Haddington on the east, while a branch 
leaves it near its termination, called the Garle- 
ton hills, and pursues an easterly course. This 
latter range shuts out the view of the eastern 
part of the county in looking from Edinburgh. 
Besides these hills the shire possesses two con- 
spicuous conical mounts, one near the centre, be- 
low Haddington, called Traprain Law, and the 
other near the sea, called North-Berwick Law, 
being close upon the town of that name. The 
appellation of Traprain hill we accept as an 
evidence of the former condition of the shire. 
The higher country was at one period abun- 
dantly covered with wood and shrubberies, as 
were the higher parts of Edinburghshire, and 
nothing can be more significant of such a fact 
than the great number of names throughout 
the district composed of the word wood, oak or 
shaw — as Wood-hall, Wood-house, Oaken-gill, 
Cran.^ n?( . ; gj C< jjy t ] lc etymology of the term 



HADDINGTONSHIRE. 



517 



Traprain, or Traprene, which means " beyond 
the trees" in the Cam bro- British tongue, we are 
enabled to conjecture, with a probability of be- 
ing correct, that the low country in this quarter 
was uncovered by such primeval forests. The 
next most conspicuous elevation is the Bass, a 
huge rocky islet, about two miles from the 
shore, and sufficiently described in its proper 
place. So commodiously has nature disposed 
the surface of East Lothian into ranges of 
hills and fertile dales, that some tourists, from 
topographical retrospection, have declared Had- 
dingtonshire to be the Northampton of North 
Britain. Haddingtonshire has few waters, and 
none of particular import. Its chief river is the 
Tyne, which flows through the flat part of the 
county to the sea, at Tyningham. It is easily 
flooded, and on such occasions sometimes com- 
mits great havock upon the crops. The shire 
has no natural lakes, but this destitution of wa- 
ters seems no way injurious to the district, and 
is amply made up by the Firth of Forth, which 
yields a large supply of iish and sea ware. The 
greater part of the shire lies upon a bed of 
granite, and nearly the whole is full of pit-coal. 
This useful mineral was here dug as early as the 
beginning of the thirteenth century, if not earlier. 
Limestone and marie are also abundant. Sand- 
stone is likewise plentiful, but, though durable, 
is generally of an ugly red colour. We learn 
from George Chalmers, who had consulted the 
charters, that during the reigns of David I. Mal- 
colm IV- and William the Lion, the large area 
of Haddingtonshire was the possession of only 
a few barons, who at their pleasure disposed 
of not only the lands but the men who lived 
upon them, without any hinderance — (" cum 
nativis, et eorum sequela.") In these times 
the kings, the nobles, and the churchmen were 
all agriculturists in East Lothian, every manor 
having its hamlet, its church, its mill, its kiln, 
and its brewhouse — all attributes of a country 
teeming with rural wealth. The monks, in 
particular, were keen husbandmen, and by 
their skill gave the county its first character 
for agricultural superiority. They were also, 
as has been seen in Edinburghshire, the pa- 
irons of horticulture, and by their taste and 
activity operating on a kindly soil, there were 
excellent gardens and orchards in the county as 
early as the twelfth century — an amazing an- 
tiquity for such things in Scotland. Pulse 
seems to have been an article of cultivation in 
the shire in the thirteenth centurv, as is attest- 



ed by the fact of the English soldiers, during 
their siege of Dirleton castle in 1298, having 
subsisted on the pease which grew in the ad- 
jacent fields. The thriving state of the agri- 
culture of the shire in the fourteenth century, 
is gathered from a casual expression of For- 
dun. He tells us that in 1336 East-Lothian 
was involved in warfare, and its agriculture 
impeded, by the outrage committed by Alan 
of Wyntoun, in carrying off, by violence, one 
of the daughters of the Earl of Seton. So 
great was the ferment on this occasion, says 
he, that in one year it suspended the labour of 
a hundred ploughs. The fertility of East- 
Lothian in the seventeenth century is ascer- 
tained by a passage in Whitelock's Memoirs, 
where it is told that the English soldiers 
who accompanied Cromwell in his expedition 
into Scotland in 1650, were astonished to find 
in that district " the greatest plenty of corn 
they ever saw, not one of the fields being fal- 
low," although the grain was much trodden 
down and wasted by the march of the army, 
and by the dragoons giving the wheat to their 
horses. Notwithstanding these commenda- 
tions, it may be honestly allowed, that at this 
and a later period the agriculture of the shire 
was still in a primitive rude state, while 
all the old clumsy instruments of culture were 
prevalent. The era of georgical improvement 
in the shire has been placed at the Union of 
1707. At this auspicious period the county 
was fortunate in possessing some men distin- 
guished as much for their patriotism, and desire 
of promoting the melioration of the soil and 
climate, as for their eminent rank. The first 
park or pleasure-ground in the shire was one 
containing 500 acres, which was formed by the 
Duke of Lauderdale, during the reign of 
Charles II., in the parish of Haddington. He 
surrounded it by a wall twelve feet in height, 
and, through the wealth he had accumulated 
by the plunder of the country, embellished it 
in an extraordinary degree. At the dawn of 
the improving era, Lord Belhaven endeavoured 
to induce agricultural experiments and better 
modes of farming ; but it was left for Thomas, 
the sixth Earl of Haddington, to lead the way 
as an operative improver. This nobleman's 
wife, Helen, the sister of Charles, the first 
Earl of Hopetoun, had the merit of discover- 
ing that trees might be raised on the low 
grounds round the seat of the Hadding- 
ton family at Tyningham. Lord Hadding- 



518 



HADDINGTONSHIRE. 



ton, in his Treatise on the raising of forest 
trees, relates the circumstances attendant on 
this event, in so satisfactory and unaffected a 
manner, that we give place to his own words : 
" When I came," says he, " to live in this 
place [Tyningham], there were not above four- 
teen acres set with trees. I believe the rea- 
son was, that it was a received notion, in this 
country, that no trees would grow here, be- 
cause of the sea air, and the north-east winds. 
My grandfather came late to the estate, and 
the civil wars of Charles I. did not permit him 
to stay at home ; but when they were over, he 
tried to raise some trees, which he planted 
round the house and garden. My father suc- 
ceeded him, who, as I have been told, both 
loved and understood planting : he began to 
plant, to drain, and to enclose his grounds to 
very good purpose ; but his father-in-law dying, 
he went to take possession of the estate, in 
right of my mother, who was heiress, and set- 
tled at Leslie, (in Fife), where he planted a 
great deal. [This was Margaret, the eldest 
daughter of John, Duke of Rothes, who died 
in 1681 ; and his heiress died in 1700.] As 
I was then very young, I staid at Leslie, with 
my mother, and Tyningham was let to tenants : 
They pulled up the hedges, ploughed down 
the banks, and let the drains fill up ; so that 
when I came to reside here, every thing of 
that kind was in ruins, except the thickets to 
the east and west of the house. As I was not 
then of age, I took pleasure in sports, dogs, 
and horses ; but had no manner of inclination 
to plant, enclose, or improve my grounds ; but 
being at last obliged to make some enclosures, 
for grazing my horses, I found the cropping of 
hay very expensive ; this made me wish to 
have enough of my own ; yet, I did little or 
nothing of that kind for some years. But as 
my wife was a great lover of. planting, she did 
what she could to engage me in it ; but in 
vain. At last she asked leave to go about 
it, which she did : And I was much pleased 
with some little things that were both well 
laid out, and executed, though none of them 
are now to be seen — for when the designs 
grew more extensive, we were forced to take 
away what was first done. The first Marquis 
of Tweeddale, [who died 1697,] my Lord Ran- 
keilor, [who died 1707,] Sir William Bruce 
and my father, with some others, had planted 
a great deal. Yet I will be bold to say, that 
planting was not well understood in this coun- 



try till this century began [1701.] I think it 
was the late Earl of Mar that first introduced 
the wilderness way of planting amongst us, 
and very much improved the taste of our gen- 
tlemen, who very soon followed his example. 
I had given over my fondness for sport, and 
began to like planting better than I had done ; 
and I resolved to have a wilderness." This 
account was dated at Tyningham in 1733 ; and 
whatsoever may be the merit due to the in- 
dividuals his lordship mentions, looking to the 
result, it was he who was the first great 
planter in the shire. The trees he reared are 
all of the hard-wood kind, and now form the 
most magnificent forest in the lowlands of 
Scotland. The shire, since his time, has very 
much progressed in the amount of its planta- 
tions, and by a late computation, it owned 
about 6000 acres under natural and artificial 
woods. The same Earl, farther, through the 
means of some English servants he had with 
him, introduced the practice of sowing grass- 
seeds. After the Union, Cockburn of Ormis- 
ton, by his example, and the encouragement 
he gave to enterprising tenants, in introducing 
long leases, did much to promote (he agricul- 
tural interests of the county. About the 
same time the famed Fletcher of Salton, after 
his political career was terminated by the 
Union, did also much to improve the hus- 
bandry of his native district. A very con- 
spicuous improvement was brought about 
in the year 1710, by this individual. Pa- 
tronizing a mill-wright of the name of Meikle, 
he carried him to Holland, to pick up inven- 
tions, and from thence introduced the fanners, 
Meikle also formed a mill at Salton, on a new 
plan, which manufactured decorticated barley, 
which was thenceforth known as Salton bar- 
ley. The introduction of the barley-mill turn- 
ed out to be a vast improvement in this and 
other shires. Throughout the last century, there 
seems to have been a series of individuals of 
high and low rank in the shire, who emulated 
each other in the introduction of improved 
modes of husbandly. We learn that fallowing 
was made known for its usefulness at the be- 
ginning of the century by John Walker, tenant 
in Beanston ; that in 1736, Mr. Wight, Ormis- 
ton, an enthusiastic agriculturist, introduced 
horse- hoeing husbandry, in all its vigou:, 
raised excellent turnips and cabbages, and fed 
cattle and sheep to perfection ; that the pota- 
to was introduced into the shire in 1740, 



HADDINGTONSHIRE. 



519 



which was an unproductive year, but that this 
useful root was first raised in fields about the 
year 1 75<t, by a farmer named Hay, of Aber- 
lady ; that Patrick, Lord Elibank, and Sir Hew 
Dalrymple, have equally the credit of making 
known the practice of hollow draining ; that two 
farmers of the name of Cunningham were the 
first to level and straighten ridges ; and that 
John, Marquis of Tweeddale, and Sir George 
Suttie, were the earliest and most successful 
essayists of turnip husbandry. Through such 
means, and the rise of prices consequent on the 
wars of the French revolution, East Lothian 
might have been pronounced at the beginning of 
the present century, as standing at the very head 
of the improved districts. This honourable 
distinction, which it seems determined to main- 
tain, as well as to lead the way in the adoption 
of improvements relative to rural affairs, has 
been considerably enhanced by the institution 
of agricultural societies. Before the year 1743, 
there was a farming society established at 
Ormiston ; yet it was not till the establish- 
ment of a similar institution in 1804, that such 
were of extensive utility. In that year the 
late General Fletcher of Salton set on foot 
and patronized a farmers' society, which was 
supported by several of the most respectable 
and intelligent of the tenantry. It held its 
meetings at Salton, where questions were dis- 
cussed, and prizes given for the best essays on 
agricultural subjects. After the death of its 
patron, it fell into decay, the place of meeting 
being found inconvenient to the generality of 
members. The field being thus left open, a 
new society was instituted in 1819-20, by the 
exertions of the most influential and talented 
agriculturists in the county, and having effect- 
ed a junction with the members of the original 
Salton Society, it assumed the name of the 
" United East Lothian Agricultural Society." 
It has for its presidents the Marquis of 
Tweeddale, and the Earls of Wemyss, Hadding- 
ton, and Lauderdale, while many other county 
noblemen and gentlemen appear in the list 
of its vice-presidents, &c. The chief objects 
of the society are the encouragement of an im- 
proved system of cropping, the introduction of 
a superior breed of horses, cattle, and sheep, 
&c. and for these purposes, prizes chiefly in 
pieces .of plate of considerable value are 
occasionally awarded, and public shows of 
animals of different kinds are held at stated [ 
periods. The head-quarters of the society are 



in Haddington; but it has one meeting at 
Gifford and another at Salton, in the course of 
the year. The funds of the society arise from 
the yearly contributions of the members, and 
the interest of L.500, originally bequeathed by 
General Fletcher. Within the last seventy 
years, no individuals have done so much for 
accelerating the agriculture and improving the 
breeds of cattle as the Rennies of Phantassie. 
Mr. James Rennie (who died 1766) was 
esteemed one of the most active and intel- 
ligent men of his time ; and, among the far- 
mers of the old school, was considered a 
pattern of good management. He kept strong 
and powerful horses, ploughed his land sub- 
stantially, straightened all his ridges, built 
the largest corn-stacks in the country, and, in 
short, carried on all his operations with a de- 
gree of energy and precision which few of his 
neighbours were capable of imitating. After 
his death his example was emulated by his son 
George Rennie, who was born in 1749. The 
success of the second Rennie as a practical 
agriculturist soon came to be generally known ; 
and the accurate arrangements of his farm 
were a theme of praise, as well as an incentive 
to emulation, among the most discerning of 
his neighbours. His property was completely 
fenced, thoroughly drained, well manured, and 
most perfectly cleaned of every kind of annual 
weed. This was effected by drilled crops, which 
were horse-hoed, hand-hoed, and thereafter, if 
necessary, hand-picked. In short, his whole 
operations were conducted in such a masterly 
style, and the culture of his farm in every re- 
spect so perfect, that it was not only vastly in- 
creased in productive quality, but had the ap- 
pearance of a well-kept garden. Mr. Rennie, 
moreover, caused the introduction of the drum 
thrashing-mill, which was made by Andrew 
Meikle, from a copy of an imperfect machine at 
Wark. This active improver died only a few 
years since. The late Robert Brown, Markle, 
author of a Treatise on Rural Affairs, and 
original editor of the Farmers' Magazine, dis- 
tinguished himself not only by his writings, but 
by his practical operations; and many other per- 
sons, whose names our limits preclude the ad- 
mission, have been also remarkable as the friends 
of agricultural improvement in this shire. 
Summing up our remarks, it may now be ad- 
mitted that Haddingtonshire is pre-eminent as 
a district, whose excellent agriculture may 
challenge that of any other place in the whole 



520 



HADDINGTONSHIRE. 



world ; and whether we consider its fair ex- 
panse of fertile fields, its thriving fences and 
plantations, or its intelligent and industrious 
population, we are equally delighted with the 
prospect. In recent times the farms have been 
extended in size ; at present they vary from 
two to five hundred acres, while many exceed 
that amount. Steam, as an agent for moving 
thrashing-mills, is extending in its operation, 
and there are already, we believe, upwards of 
twenty such engines employed. Notwith- 
standing the productive qualities of the shire, 
and the advantages we have attempted to enu- 
merate, it is a fact no less accurate than painful 
to relate, that many of the tenants in the county 
are not in a prosperous condition, a circum- 
stance which, we are informed, is to be traced, 
first, to extravagantly high rents, which were in 
many cases fixed prior to the decline of the 
war prices, or were heightened by the mad 
competition of the farmers themselves ; second, 
to the lamentable failure of the East Lothian 
Banking Company, which was rained by the 
knavery of its principal functionary ; and, 
third, to the insufficiency of the wheat crop 
for several years. This staple product of 
the shire, and on which the tenants of all the 
lower part of the district rely for the means of 
paying their landlords, has been destroyed for 
three years by the ravages of the wheat-fly, an 
insect whose progress can neither be seen nor 
prevented by any known means. The pro- 
duce has thus been often diminished one-half, 
and in some cases two-thirds. This pest, 
which seems to have first settled in this coun- 
ty, has, for the last two years, been more 
widely diffused through Scotland, and, we un- 
derstand, it has now considerably abated in 
East Lothian. The intelligence and public 
spirit of the farmers of Haddingtonshire, we 
are glad to find, is not unsupported by the pea- 
santry and body of working classes in towns 
and villages, who likewise secure the willing 
commendations of the present writers for their 
sobriety and industry. By the subsequent ar- 
ticle, Haddington, it will be perceived that at 
that place there sprung up a mechanics' institu- 
tion at a period earlier than was the case any- 
where but in Glasgowand Edinburgh, anditcon- 
tinues, as well as a similar establishment at Dun- 
bar, to be conducted on the best principles. It 
is not, however, to this, but to another and yet 
more obscure, though equally useful institu- 
tion, of general application, that we wish to 



direct the attention of the reflective part of 
our readers. We allude to the establishment of 
what are styled itinerating libraries. To whom 
the merit is due of inventing this almost ma- 
gical mode of circulating books we have never 
heard, but whoever he was, his name deserves 
to take its place alongside of the inventors of 
paper and of printing. With an obscurity 
hanging over this circumstance, we can state 
with precision that the practice was first made 
known in East Lothian, and very gready 
improved by the indefatigable and philanthropic 
Mr. Samuel Brown, merchant in Haddington, 
son of the late Rev. Dr. John Brown of that 
place. Itinerating libraries consist of a series of 
parcels of books, each parcel containing different 
works, which are stationed on a ramified scheme 
throughout a given number of villages or ham- 
lets ; and when the parcel is outread at one 
place, it is moved on to another station, whose 
parcel goes to the next place, and so on in an 
endless chain. The advantages of this pro- 
cess of multiplying libraries is at once observ- 
ed. Hitherto the fault of all country libra- 
ries has been, that the readers, in time, perused 
the whole stock of books, and then the insti- 
tution declined for lack of a sufficient supply 
of fresh materiel. Here this evil is complete- 
ly obviated, for there is procured a permanent 
juvenescence in the establishments, at the 
most moderate expense. Accoiding to Mr. 
Brown's mode, there is a head station, where 
the books lie for some time, after which they 
are sorted and put in operation. The system 
pursued by this gentleman we give by an ex- 
tract from a communication with him on the 
subject. " The plan of itinerating libraries 
was introduced in 18! 7, and it has been at- 
tended with a degree of success unexampled in 
the history of reading associations. It com- 
menced with five divisions of fifty volumes 
each; and there are now (1830) upwards of 
2000 volumes belonging to the institution. 
The new books are kept for a few years at the 
head library at Haddington for the use of sub- 
scribers, and afterwards they are arranged into 
divisions of fifty volumes, and stationed in the 
towns and villages of the country for two 
years, when they are removed and exchanged. 
The regular removal and supply of new divi- 
sions has excited and kept up such a disposi- 
tion to read, that in several stations there is 
frequently not a volume left in the library-box. 
To persons acquainted with the issues from 



HADDINGTONSHIRE. 



521 



the usual settled libraries of 2000 volumes, or 
even of a much smaller number, and of thir- 
teen years' standing, the following statement 
will appear almost incredible. The issues of 
books at Haddington to the subscribers have 
been nearly eight and a half times per annum 
for every volume kept for them. The gratui- 
tous issues at Haddington have been seven 
and a half times every volume ; at Gifford, 
Saltan, Aberlady, North Berwick, Belhaven, 
and Spott, they have been seven times every 
volume ; and the issues of the whole establish- 
ment, so far as reported, have been on an 
average five times for every volume, or 10,000 
issues of 2000 volumes." It may farther be 
stated that the divisions of books are all kept 
in boxes, or presses, and deposited with care- 
ful individuals. In all cases these librarians 
have acted gratuitously. It is suggested that the 
presbyterial divisions of the country might with 
advantage be chosen for the establishing of a 
round of divisions, and that the parochial school- 
masters, in many cases, might be the best indivi- 
duals to commit them to. Mr. Brown continues 
— " Some years ago I printed a statement, show- 
ing that a society with L.300 a-year, would, in 
twenty years, furnish two libraries for every 
parish in Scotland, by lending a division at 
L. 1,5s. a-year, and applying the proceeds, with 
their income, in purchasing new divisions. I 
am about to publish a calculation, to show that 
a British and Foreign Itinerating Library So- 
ciety in London, with an annual income of 
L.5000, would by its assistance and example 
supply Europe, or the reading part of the 
whole world, with such libraries. With the 
assistance of some Jamaica proprietors, and 
the Scottish Missionary Society, I am about 
to send out four divisions to Jamaica, so as to 
prove the suitableness of the plan to our colo- 
nies. Already twelve divisions were got up 
last summer, chiefly by the exertions of an 
Edinburgh lady, and sent to our North Ame- 
rican colonies. A few years ago a society 
was formed in Edinburgh for supplying Mid 
Lothian; but not having been supported, it 
did not commence operations." We need say 
no more of these institutions, which, if pro- 
perly managed, and supported by donations 
from gentlemen who have large libraries of 
books, many of which go to wreck on the 
shelves, while they might be diffusing their 
concentrated knowledge ove* - the country, we 
have no doubt would soon be propagated over 



every shire in the kingdom. We shall be grati- 
fied to learn that these observations have led to 
a trial, in other places, of the practicability and 
efficacy of such establishments. We have rea- 
son to believe that Mr. Brown, whose zeal 
deserves the highest praise, will readily give 
every information on the subject Hadding- 
tonshire comprehends twenty-four parishes; 
three royal burghs, namely, Haddington, Dun- 
bar, and North Berwick ; and the populous 
towns and villages of Prestonpans, Tranent, 
Aberlady, Belhaven, Ormiston, Dirleton, Sten. 
ton, Tynninghame, Cockenzie, East Linton. 
Gifford, Saltan, &c. The trade and manufac- 
tures of the district, which are not extensive, 
are carried on in these places, and we refer to 
the individual heads for information on this 
topic. The valued rental of the lands in the 
shire in 1811 amounted to L. 180,654, and ot 
houses, L.6870, all sterling money. The po- 
pulation in 1821 amounted to 16,828 males, 
18,299 females; total, 35,127. Of these, 
there were 3009 families chiefly employed in 
agriculture, -2947 families chiefly employed in 
trade, manufactures, or handicraft, and 1978 
families not employed in any of these classes. 
Haddington, a parish in the above county, 
extending seven miles in length from west to 
east, by a general breadth of about five, though 
in one part, at the middle, its breadth is not less 
than eight miles; bounded on the north by part 
of Gladsmuir, Aberlady, and Athelstaneford, 
on the east by Preston-kirk and Morham, on 
the south by Yester and Bolton, and on the 
west by Gladsmuir. This inland part of the 
county lies higher than the flat lands further to 
the east, but it is generally fertile anS of great 
beauty, as regards its luxuriant plantations and 
enclosures, its well-cultivated fields, and its 
verdant parks. It is intersected from west to 
east by the Tyne, a small river, whose banks 
within the parish are ornamented by the seats 
of Clerkington, Amisfield and Stevenston. In 
the southern part of the parish stand the seats 
of Lennox Love or Lethington, and Cols- 
toun. The former is the principal curiosity 
in the neighbourhood of Haddington, and is 
situated in a fine plain, a mile to the south. It 
consists in a massive old tower, and a modern 
addition. The ancient part was erected by the 
Giffords ; and as a specimen of the strong and 
lofty, is matched by no fortalice in Scotland, 
with, perhaps, the exception of Cassillis in 
Ayrshire. It came bv purchase into the hands 
3x 



522 



HADDINGTON, 



of the Lauderdale family about the end of the 
fourteenth century, and was the chief residence 
of that family during the period when its re- 
presentatives were so noted for their state ser- 
vices. It was here that Sir Richard Maitland, 
when blind with age, dictated his poetical pieces 
to his daughter Mary, and here that Secretary 
Lethington laid the crafty plans which have so 
distinguished his name in Scottish history. 
Their relative John, Duke of Lauderdale — 
the infamous Lauderdale — also was born and 
spent many years of his life in this castle, which 
he only ceased to occupy as his country house, 
on enlarging Thirlstane Castle at Lauder, to- 
wards the end of his career. Lethington Cas- 
tle must have always derived more beauty than 
strength from its situation. It rises from 
ground perfectly level, and thus is surrounded 
not by the cliff or the moat, but by the more 
agreeable features of a garden domain. A 
grove of lofty aged trees, mingled with the 
minuter beauties of shrubbery and flower-plots, 
hems it closely round ; at a greater distance, it 
is fenced from the less lovely and lordly part of 
the world by an extensive park, protected by a 
vast rampart-like wall. Its orchards, which 
produced the fruit famed under the name of 
Lethington apples ; its alleys green, one of 
which is still called the Politician's Walk, from 
having been used by the secretary; its "knottis" 
and arbours ; its " bow-buts" and its thousand 
" pleasours ma," have all been commemorated 
in an ancient poem preserved by Mr. Pinkerton 
in his " Ancient Scottish Poems." The finest 
sight at Lennox Love is a full length portrait 
of Frances Theresa Stuart, Duchess of Lennox, 
the most admired beauty of the court of Charles 
II., and the object of the passion of that sove- 
reign himself, who endeavoured for her sake to 
divorce his queen, and disgraced Lord Claren- 
don for not preventing her marriage to his 
cousin. It is reported by Grammont, that the 
king caused this lady's person to be immor- 
talized, by having it represented as the emble- 
matical figure Britannia on the copper coin of 
the realm. She was a daughter of Walter 
Stuart, M.D., a son of the first Lord Blan- 
tyre ; and Lethington got the additional name 
of " Lennox Love," from being a compliment 
to ber from her husband, by which means it 
came into the family of Blantyre. The portrait 
mentioned, which is by Lely, represents a tall 
woman, with that voluptuous completeness of 
feature and person which seems, perhaps from 
22. 



the taste of the painter or of the times, to 
characterise in so peculiar a manner the beau- 
ties of this reign. Besides this bewitching 
portrait there are other excellent ones of Queen 
Mary, the admirable Crichton, the Marquis of 
Montrose, and Lord Belhaven. To the south, 
within sight of Lethington, stands the mansion- 
house of Colstoun, the seat of the ancient family 
of Brown of Colstoun, now in the posses- 
sion of its representative, the Countess of Dal- 
housie. This place is chiefly worthy of atten- 
tion, on account of a strange heir-loom with 
which the welfare of the family was formerly 
supposed to be connected, namely, a pear which 
has existed in all probability five hundred years, 
and which is disposed in some secure part of 
the house, so as to be out of the reach of all 
danger. The story connected with the " Cols- 
toun Pear" is mentioned in Crawford's Peer- 
age, and is also a matter of popular tradition. 

Haddington, a royal burgh, the capital of 
Haddingtonshire, and the above parish, is com- 
modiously and pleasantly situated on the left 
bank of the Tyne, on the great road betwixt 
the English and Scottish capitals, at the dis- 
tance of sixteen and a half miles from Edin- 
burgh, eleven from Dunbar, and thirty eight 
from Berwick-upon-Tweed. It is reported to 
be a town of great antiquity ; and by our more 
cautious antiquaries is presumed to have been 
the place of settlement of a Saxon chief, named 
Halden or Haden, the son of Eadulph, from 
whom its designation has been derived. Others 
have deduced the name from Ada, the daugh- 
ter of the Earl Warren, who was married in 
1139, to Henry, the son and heir of David I., 
as this territory was settled on her ; but this 
etymon, we suspect, is advanced without the 
consideration that the name of Hadintun — the 
Hadina of Cambden, and the Hadintona of 
Fordun — was in use when this lady entered on 
possession of the lands. There is, or was, a 
place in Lincolnshire with the same name, and, 
as we suppose, having its title from the same 
origin. Haddington comes into notice in re- 
cords in the twelfth century as a demesne 
town of the Scottish king. David I. occupied 
it as his burgh, with a church, a mill, and other 
apurtenances of a manor. Ada, who afterwards 
possessed it, was attentive to its interests, and 
influenced by her piety, founded here, in the 
year 1178, a convent of Cistertian nuns, which 
she consecrated to the Virgin, and endowed 
with the lands of Clerkington. The lands 



HADDINGTON. 



52S 



commonly called the Nunlands, now named 
Huntington, belonged likewise to the nuns of 
this place, together with the churches of Ath- 
elstaneford, and Crail in Fife, with their tithes. 
Eve, prioress of Haddington, is one of the 
subscribers to Ragman's roll in 1296. The 
fine manors and wealth of this monastery tempt- 
ed the cupidity of the neighbouring barons, and 
it appears that in 1471, the lairds of Yester and 
Maker ston actually seized, without the least 
pretence of justice, the lands called the Nun- 
hopes, which they retained till compelled by 
the privy council and parliament to restore them 
to their helpless female owners. Such was the 
anarchy of the times, that some time after- 
wards the nuns had to raise fortifications round 
their different granges, to protect them from 
the aristocratic thieves in the vicinity. In 
1548 the Scottish estates, under Arran, met in 
the nunnery, and resolved on sending the young 
queen to France. When the Reformation 
took place, the prioress, who was dame Eliza- 
beth Hepburn, was ordered to give a statement 
of the monastic estates, with a view to their 
confiscation and the suppression of the house. 
In February 1561, this lady, the last of the 
prioresses, complied with this imperative man- 
date. She reported her revenues to be L.308, 
17s. 6d. annually, besides seven chalders and 
eleven bolls of wheat, and stated that there 
were eighteen nuns in the convent who were 
each allowed L.4 yearly for clothes, four bolls 
of wheat, and three bolls of meal, with eight- 
pence a-day for flesh and fish. The queen 
conferred the greater part of the lands on her 
secretary, William Maitland, Sir Richard's eld- 
est son. There was also a monastery of Francis- 
can or Grey friars at Haddington, where the 
first Lord Seton was buried 1441, who it 
seems was one of its chief benefactors, as he 
gave the monks a right to take six loads of 
coals weekly from his coal-pit of Tranent, and 
the value of three pounds annually out of the 
Barns. The monastery was defaced by Edward 
I. The choir of the church, which is now in 
ruins, was anciently called Lucerna Laudoniae 
• — the Lamp of Lothian, because of its beautiful 
structure, and on account of its being kept con- 
stantly lighted, and therefore rendered visible 
from a great distance by night. Fordun thus 
describes the edifice as it existed in his time — 
the fourteenth century : " Opus certe quod 
sumptuosum erat, ac totius patrke illius sola- 
tium singulare, cujus chorus quidem, ob lumi- 



nis claritatem, Lucerna Laudoniae vocabatur." 
On the east side of the Nungate stand the 
ruins of a chapel dedicated to St. Martin. 
To return to the history of the town. On the 
demise of Ada, the kind patroness of Had- 
dington, it became the property of her son, 
William the Lion ; and here, says the minute 
George Chalmers, in 1180, was decided the 
famous controversy between the monks of 
Melrose and Richard Morville, the constable, 
about the forest and pasture on the Gala and 
Leader, before William with his brother Earl 
David, and many clergy and laymen, who set- 
tled the dispute in favour of the Monks. In 
1198, was born at Haddington, to William and 
Ermengard, their son, Alexander, (II.), who 
succeeded to the Scottish throne. During 
those joyous times, throughout the three reigns 
of David I., Malcolm IV-, and William, 
Haddington seems not to have felt the miseries 
of war. It was first involved in warfare, after 
Alexander II. had taken part with the Eng- 
lish barons against their unworthy sovereign. 
In 1216, it was burnt by King John. In 
1242, it was the scene of the assassination of 
Patrick Earl of Athole, whose house was 
burnt at the same time- In 1244, the town 
was again burnt, but by accident, and in the 
same year, a number of Scottish burghs suffered 
a similar fate. Haddington has also to deplore 
the devastation of water at different times. 
The Tyne, which is fed by streams from the 
Lammermoor hills, seems to have been parti- 
cularly liable to overflow its banks. One of 
its most disastrous inundations was that of 
1358, when whole villages were swept off, be- 
sides trees, out-field moveables, and human 
beings, and the very existence of Haddington 
was imminently threatened. On the flood ap- 
proaching the monastery, it is related that a 
nun taking up the statue of the Virgin, 
threatened to throw it into the water, unless 
Mary protected her house from destruction ; 
on which the water, says Bowmaker, the 
Monkish continuator of Fordun's History, 
retired and gradually subsided within its former 
limits. An equally perilous inundation hap- 
pened since the Blessed Virgin ceased to ex- 
ercise any influence in this country — namely, 
in the year 1775, when the river rose seven- 
teen feet above its ordinary bed, overwhelmed 
the suburb called the Nungate, and laid the 
whole of the town under water. Haddington 
was taken possession of by the English aiftfit 



5-24 



HADDINGTON. 



the battle of Pinkie, and next year endured a 
siege from the Scots, which makes a consider- 
able figure in history. The last great confla- 
gration the town endured was accidental, and 
happened about two hundred years ago. It 
was occasioned by the carelessness of a nurse- 
ry-maid, who had placed a screen containing 
clothes too near a fire during the night. In 
commemoration of the incident, the magis- 
trates ordered the following quaint and curi- 
ous lines to be recited through the town by 
the bellman every evening during some of the 
winter months, a custom which is kept up till 
this day. The ceremony got the name of 
" Coal and Can'le." — 

A' guid men's servants whae e'er ye be, 
Keep coal an' canle for charitie, 
Baith in your kitchen an' your ha', 
Keep weel your fire whate'er befa'. 
In bakehouse, brewhouse, barn, and byre, 
I warn you a' keep weel your fire ; 
For often times a leetle spark 
Brings mony hands to meekle wark ; 
Ye norricesthat has bairns to keep, 
See that ye fa' na o'er sound asleep, 
For losing o' yer'e gude renown, 
An' banishing o' this barous toun." 

The situation of Haddington, so near the 
frontier of the kingdom, required that it should 
be well fortified against assault. It was ac- 
cordingly surrounded by walls of considerable 
strength, and had gates or ports flanked with 
pieces of cannon. It is only in recent times 
that these emblems of a turbulent age have 
been removed. Although, as we have seen, 
frequently a royal residence, the town has long 
ceased to show any very significant traces of a 
palace or castle ; the only relics of what tradi- 
tion points out as having been an edifice of 
this kind, are found at a short distance from 
the western port of Haddington, within the 
walls. The town has been much improved 
and renovated within these few years, and is 
now one of the best built, the most comforta- 
ble, and well conditioned towns in Scotland, 
and bears a marked resemblance to some of the 
old respectable country towns in England. It 
consists of a main or High Street, lying in the 
direction of east and west, with a Back Street 
parallel to it on the north, and two cross streets 
at their eastern extremity. The High Street, 
which is a continuation of the s - oad from 
Edinburgh, is a spacious and handsome street, 
with excellent high houses on each side, and 
some elegant buildings. The Town -house 
and County-hall is a respectable fabric, stand- 



ing by the point where the High and Back 
Streets separate. It is now distinguished 
by a handsome spire, after a plan by Mr. 
Gillespie Grahame, of very recent erection, 
which rises to 150 feet in height. The 
apartments used as a jail for the town and 
county are connected with this edifice. In the 
High Street are the George and Bell Inns, 
which have been long known on the road by 
travellers for the extent and quality of their 
accommodations. The principal shops, some 
of which would not demean the metropolis in 
their appearance, are also situated in this 
thoroughfare. In the Hardgate and North 
Port, by which the road to the east leaves the 
High Street, there are also many good houses, 
some of which are in the villa style, and of re- 
cent erection. The different thoroughfares 
were some years ago, principally by the exer- 
tions of Provost Dunlop, greatly improved by 
the laying down of side pavement, a luxury 
which, when found in a provincial town, at once 
marks the taste and wealth of its inhabitants. A 
bridge of four arches connects the town with the 
ancient suburb of Nungate, which lies on the 
right bank of the Tyne, and carries across the 
roadtoDunse. The most beautifid characteristic 
of Haddington consists in its possession of a 
number of charming and luxuriant gardens, and 
a considerable number of villas in the out- 
skirts, chiefly along the road from Edin- 
burgh. On a piece of level ground to the south, 
but on the same side of the river, stands the 
already mentioned Franciscan church, still a 
noble Gothic building, though partly desolated. 
It is no less than 210 feet long, and is sur- 
mounted by a square tower, ninety feet in 
height, and of beautiful architecture. The 
chancel, or west end of the cross, was some 
years ago thoroughly repaired, and now forms 
a very handsome and tasteful parish church, — 
the whole edifice, once filled with praying 
monks and religious pageants, being found 
much too large for the exercise of the reformed 
religion. Around, is the spacious cemetery of 
the parish, in which lie the remains of various 
persons eminent in their time, — among others, 
in an aisle of the Maitland family, in which is 
a monumental structure of alabaster, the 
Duke of Lauderdale and the Rev. John 
Brown, a celebrated dissenting clergyman at 
Haddington, and the author of some learned 
and pious works. Haddington had the honour 
of giving birth to John Knox the Scottish Re- 



II A D P I N G T O N. 



525 



former. This celebrated man was born about 
a hundred feet to the east of the church, in a 
street on the other side of the river, called the 
Giffordgate. The house in which he first saw 
the light does not now exist ; but the people 
still point out the field to which it was attached, 
and from which it would appear that the Re- 
former's father was a small crofter, a man main- 
tained in the good old way by tilling a few 
acres of land. Being situated in the heart 
of a populous and rich agricultural district, 
Haddington has grown into prosperity by serv- 
ing as the depot of the inland trade in this part 
of the country, and more particularly from being 
a favourite place for the sale and purchase of 
grain in open market. In this latter respect 
it can only be called second to Dalkeith ; as 
to the sale of oats, its only other rival is 
Edinburgh, in the whole of the south-east 
part of Scotland. The market-day is Friday ; 
oats and barley being exposed at half past 
twelve, and wheat at one o'clock. In the 
morning there is a butter, egg, and poultry 
market. On this day the town is the centre 
of attraction to the numerous and very intelli- 
gent body of East Lothian farmers, who here 
meet with a great number of corn dealers and 
others from Edinburgh, Leith, and various 
other quarters, attending to purchase grain. 
The town possesses no great manufactories ; 
but has a number of traders who carry on an 
extensive business in their different depart- 
ments. Branches of the Bank of Scotland 
and British Linen Company are settled in the 
town. There are daily coach conveyances to 
and from Edinburgh and Berwick. The 
county courts of the sheriff are held here every 
Thursday during session time, and a sheriff 
6mall debt court every alternate Thursday. A 
justice of peace court is held on the first Tues- 
day in every month, except March, May, and 
August, in which months the court is held on 
the first Thursday. At one time the court of 
justiciary used to make Haddington a station 
in one of its circuits, but all business requiring 
its settlement is now carried to Edinburgh. 
As a royal burgh, its civic government is vested 
in a provost, two merchant bailies, a trades 
bailie, a dean of guild, a treasurer, eleven mer- 
chant and one trades councillors, and seven 
deacons of trades. There are nine incorporated 
trades, which are represented in council by the 
trades bailie, trades councillor, and seven dea- 
cons above mentioned. In former times of 



burgh misrule, a great part of the extensive 
property in land of the burgh was alienated. 
In later days, unsuccessful searches after coal 
have sometimes proved as efficacious in di- 
minishing the funds as the peculations of the 
town-council, though perhaps, from the com- 
parative freedom of the " set," the civic rulers 
have generally exhibited a greater sympathy with 
the people than in most other burghs. The 
expenses of the town are defrayed out of the 
revenue arising from the remnant of the burgal 
property, — fees of burgesses, entrance, &c. 
without any assessment upon the inhabitants. 
The burgh joins with Jedburgh, Lauder, Dun- 
bar, and North- Berwick, in electing a member 
of parliament. Besides the parish church, which 
is collegiate, there are in the town two meeting 
houses of the United Secession church, one of 
Original Antiburghers, one of the Congregation- 
al Union, and an Episcopal chapel. Haddington 
is the seat of a presbytery. Its fast days are the 
Wednesdays before the first Sunday of March 
and last Sunday of June. The town has an 
excellent academy or high school under the 
patronage of the magistrates ; a parochial 
school, besides some private teachers. For 
some years the active inhabitants of this thriv- 
ing town have been zealous in supporting and 
encouraging one of those institutions called 
schools of arts, which has obtained a well- 
merited reputation. Something of the kind 
was begun so early as 1816, but the institu- 
tion did not assume its present name and cha- 
racter till a later date. It opened about the 
same period as the Edinburgh School of Arts, 
and commenced its tenth session in December 
1830. An annual payment of three shillings 
constitutes a subscriber a member of the so- 
ciety, and entitles him to the benefits of the 
lectures and library. The funds are further 
augmented by donations. Besides lectures on 
chemistry and other sciences useful in their 
application to mechanical and agricultural arts, 
arrangements have been made for lectures on 
ethics, the physiology of man, astronomy, mi- 
neralogy, &c. A museum is in progress com- 
prising a veiy considerable number of specimens 
in natural history, mineralogy, &c. and the 
library of the institution now contains upwards 
of two hundred and twenty volumes, treating 
of different branches of science, philosophy, 
and useful knowledge. There is likewise a 
collection of apparatus for performing experi- 
ments in chemistry, galvanism, pneumatics, as- 



526 



HADDINGTON. 



tronomy, mechanics, &c. The institution was 
originally, and has been throughout, much in- 
debted to the fostering care of Mr. Samuel 
Brown, the establisher of the itinerating, lib- 
raries in East Lothian, and also owes much to 
the gratuitous and meritorious lectures on dif- 
ferent branches of science and philosophy, by 
some young gentlemen of the town. The in- 
structions communicated by this excellent in- 
stitution have had the most beneficial effect, 
not only in making the artizans of the town 
more skilful in their various professions, but 
in cultivating mental faculties hitherto lying in 
worse than profitless neglect, and to be found, 
when sought for, alike in the lower and upper 
classes. A gratifying result of the degree of 
order and prudence produced by the exertions 
of the society, is now witnessed in the estab- 
lishment of a mutual assurance or friendly so- 
ciety, suited to the circumstances of the work- 
ing classes, for granting benefits during sick- 
ness, paying deferred annuities after the as- 
surers have attained sixty years of age, and 
making payments at death. This institution 
is patronized by the members of the school of 
arts, out of which it originated at the end of 
the year 1830, with the best prospects of 
success. Besides this there are many friendly 
societies, and the amount of money annually 
collected by them gives a very favourable view 
of the providence of the working classes of the 
town. The other institutions are as follows : 
— The United Agricultural Society of East 
Lothian, which meets several times in the year 
at Haddington and Salton. The East Lothian 
Horticultural Society recently established, with 
every prospect of success, a Gardener's Socie- 
ty; the East Lothian Society for propagat- 
ing the knowledge of Christianity ; the East 
Lothian Bible Society, which, we believe, has 
the merit of being the first auxiliary to this 
Society established in Scotland ; and a public 
dispensary, at which medical advice and medi- 
cines are given to the poor ; a dispensary for 
clothing, &c. ; a savings bank ; a public library, 
left to the town by Mr. John Gray ; and a 
subscription library. Haddington is too near 
Edinburgh to be able to support a native news- 
paper; but there occasionally issue from its 
press pamphlets of a respectable order, chiefly 
relative to rural affairs, and it now sustains a 
monthly periodical. Fairs are held on the se- 
cond Tuesday of July, and on the second 
Thursday in October ; and there are lour 



trysts annually. There is an extensive distillery 
adjoining the town, and another in the Nungate, 
a brewery, and several tan -works. Haddington 
gives the title of Earl to a branch of the an- 
cient family of Hamilton. Thomas Hamil- 
ton, son of Hamilton of Priestfield, was emi- 
nent as a lawyer in the reign of James VI. 
who constituted him a senator of the college 
of justice, secretary of state, baron of Binny 
and Byres in 1613, and Earl of Melrose in 
1619. With Ins Majesty's approbation, he 
changed the title to Earl of Haddington ; 
recently, however, the present earl, while heir 
apparent, was created a British peer by the 
renovated title of Baron Melrose. The fami- 
ly seat is at Tyningham, in the parish of 
Whitekirk, about eight miles to the east. — 
The population of the town of Haddington in 
1821 was 3600, and including the parish, 
5255. 

HALADALE, a river in the parish of 
Reay in the north part of Sutherlandshire, 
rising from the heights twenty miles inland, 
and which, after flowing in a northerly course 
through Strath Haladale, falls into the Pent- 
land Firth at Tor or Bighouse, near the pro 
montory which is .named from it, Haladale 
Head. 

HALA VAILS, two lofty and very similar 
mountains, standing within a mile of each 
other, in the parish of Kilmuir, Isle of 
Skye. 

HADDO, a place in the parish of Meth- 
lick, Aberdeenshire, nine miles north- north- 
east of Inverury, on the right bank of the 
Ythan. It gives a second title to the Earl of 
Aberdeen, whose ancestor was Gordon of 
Haddo. 

HALFMORTON, a district in Eskdale 
Dumfries-shire, being the half of the abrogated 
parish of Morton, now attached to the parish 
of Langholm, which it joins on the north ; it 
lies between Cannoby and Kirkpatrick- Flem- 
ing. The Sark divides it from the former. 
The old church of Morton stood near a ham- 
let of the same name on the eastern side of that 
river ; it became ruinous after the annexation. 
There is now a dissenting meeting-house here. 
— Population in 1821, 553. 

HALKIRK, a parish in the county of 
Caithness, bounded by Thurso on the north, 
Watten and Latheron on the east, and Latheron 
also on the south. From the south-west end, 
where it is separated by a ridge of hills from 



HAMILTON. 



527 



Sutherlandshire, to the place where it is connect- 
ed with Thurso parish, it extends about twenty- 
one miles, by a breadth of from seven to eight. 
The surface is generally flat, there being at 
least no hills of very considerable height. It 
is generally uncultivated, and feeds a great 
number of sheep and black cattle. It possesses 
several small straths, where the soil is good 
and under cultivation. It has also a number 
of small lakes, the largest of which is three 
miles long by one broad. From this one of 
the main tributaries of the Thurso water is 
emitted, and intersects the district. On the 
right bank of the stream, at the very northern 
extremity of the parish, stand the kirk and 
village of Halkirk. On the opposite side of the 
water, within the parish of Reay, is situated 
the ruined castle of Braal, an ancient seat of 
the Earls of Caithness. A mission chapel is 
situated about the centre of the district. — 
Population in 1821, 2646. 

HAMILTON, a parish in the middle 
ward of Lanarkshire, lying on the left bank of 
the Clyde, opposite Dalziel and Bothwell ; 
bounded by Blantyre on the north, Glassford 
on the west, and Stonehouse and Dalserf on 
the south. The district is of a square compact 
form, extending from five to six miles each 
way. A small portion lies on the right bank 
of the Clyde enclosed by Dalziel, and extend- 
ing to the village of Motherwell. A still 
more minute portion lies detached on the north 
of this, at a place called Broadhurst. The 
main part of the parish is a beautiful territory, 
richly wooded, well cultivated and enclosed, 
and abounding in hamlets and gentlemen's 
seats. It is watered by a number of small 
tributaries of the Clyde, the chief of which is 
the Avon, which flows through the south-east 
part of the district in a northerly direction, and 
falls into the Clyde a little way above Hamil- 
ton palace. The surface of the land has un- 
dergone many beneficial improvements in re- 
cent times. Coal abounds throughout, and 
limestone is found in the upper part of the pa- 
rish. The district was anciently named Cad- 
you, though upon what etymology is uncer- 
tain, and the ruins of a castle of that name still 
stand on a romantic situation, on the summit 
of a precipitous rock, the foot of which is 
washed by the river Avon, and surrounded by 
the remains of a forest of very fine aged oaks. 
Cadyou was originally a royal possession, as 
Alexander III. is found to date charters from 



" castrum nostrum de Cadohow." It was then 
the seat of a barony. On the opposite or 
right bank of the Avon stands Chatelherault, 
once a seat of the Hamilton family, and 
now a summer-house of the Duke. It is sur- 
rounded with a fine old park, embellished 
with ancient trees. In the reign of Robert 
Bruce, the property fell into the possession of 
the Hamilton family, who have ever since re- 
tained it. In 1445, when this race first came 
prominently forward in state history, Cadyou 
and some of the neighbouring baronies were 
erected into one lordship, in favour of Sir 
James Hamilton, who conferred upon it his 
own name, and from it took the rank of a lord 
of parliament. A slight sketch of the history 
of this family will be very serviceable in illus- 
trating topographical details in different parts 
of the present work. It is represented by 
genealogists, though upon very defective evi- 
dence, that the first man of the family was one 
Bernard, a near kinsman of Rollo, first Duke 
of Normandy, who flourished in that coun- 
try at the beginning of the tenth century. 
The great- great grandson of this personage was 
Roger de Bellomonte, lord of Pont Audemar, 
who accompanied William the Conqueror to 
England in 1066. His son, Robert de Bello- 
monte, arrived in England on the same occa- 
sion, and having conducted himself with an ex- 
ceeding degree of valour, he was rewarded by 
William with ninety-one lordships and manors ; 
and afterwards was created Earl of Leicester 
by Henry I. His grandson, Robert, the third 
earl, had three sons, the youngest of whom was 
called William de Hambledon or Hamilton, 
because of being bom at the manor of Ham- 
bledon, in the parish of Barkby, hundred of 
East Goscote, county of Leicester. He had 
a son named Sir Gilbert Hamilton, who was 
the first of his race that settled in Scotland. 
He removed thither, according to the same 
questionable authority, in the reign of Alex- 
ander II., 1214-49, by whom he was kindly 
received, and married a sister of Thomas 
Randolph, first Earl of Moray. The more 
authentic history of the family commences in 
the reign of Robert Bruce, with a Sir Gilbert 
Hampton or Hamilton, an English knight who 
sought refuge in Scotland, as is said, on ac- 
count of the following circumstances : — One 
day, while at court, he happened to speak fa- 
vourably of King Robert Bruce, whereupon 
John de Spenser, an officer in waiting, and a 



528 



HAMILTON. 



favourite of Edward, thinking the discourse re- 
flected on his master, gave him a blow, which 
he resented so highly, that, next day, he fought 
and killed his antagonist. His friends, well 
knowing that Edward would resent the death 
of his favourite, advised him to fly into Scot« 
land; which he accordingly did. He was, 
however, pursued in his flight, and being near- 
ly overtaken in a wood, he and his servant 
changed clothes with two wood-cutters, and, 
taking their saw, were cutting through an oak 
tree when the pursuers passed by. Perceiving 
his servant to take notice of them, he hastily 
called out to him " Through," which word, 
with the oak and saw through it, he took for 
his motto and crest, in memory of his happy 
deliverance. It would appear that this knight 
became a favourite courtier and fellow- warrior 
of King Piobert, and that he was gifted by that 
sovereign with the barony of Cadyou, which, as 
already mentioned, had previously been a royal 
demesne. An old manuscript now in our pos- 
session mentions, among the services performed 
by Sir Gilbert in behalf of Bruce, that he was 
one of seven knights who " kept the king's per- 
son" in the battle of Bannockburn ; a fine trait 
of chivalric history. The MS. further adds, that 
he " continued with the. said King Robert till 
liis death, [i. e. the king's death,] and was at 
his burial at Dumfermling, and made ane sin- 
gular oration, in manner of deploration, in his 
lawd and commendation ; for he was ane natur- 
al orator in English, and could exprime maist 
mater in little room." Sir James Hamilton, 
the sixth knight in descent from Sir Gilbert, 
was " a bold and cunning man, and by shifting 
of sydes made himself great." He was origin- 
ally a dependant of the powerful family of 
Douglas, a name which at one time deprived 
majesty of half its allegiance, and threatened it 
with utter extinction. In 1455, when the 
King and the Earl of Douglas drew up their 
respective friends to fight out their quarrel in 
a pitched battle, Sir James is found to have 
ranked as an important adherent of the latter 
person. Being on this occasion prevailed to 
desert to the king, his example was so contagi- 
ous, that Douglas suddenly found himself al- 
most friendless, at a moment when he had ex- 
pected to overthrow the whole force of his so- 
vereign. For this good service, Hamilton was 
rewarded by the king with broad lands and a 
peerage. He married for his second wife, in 
1474, Marj', eldest daughter of the king, 



(James II.) and widow of Thomas Boyd, 
Earl of Arran, by which princess he had a son, 
James, second Lord Hamilton, who was created 
Earl of Arran by James IV., and received a 
grant of the island of that name. By the lack 
of heirs in that line of the royal family, the son 
of this earl had only betwixt him and the 
throne, Mary, the daughter of James V, af- 
terwards queen. In consideration of his pro- 
pinquity to royalty, the Scottish estates created 
him regent during the minority of the young 
queen. For accomplishing the marriage of this 
princess to the dauphin, in opposition to the 
wishes of Henry VIII., the French king con- 
ferred upon him the title of Duke of Chatel- 
herault, with a pension of 30,000 livres a-year. 
Under this name he took an active part in the 
transactions which mark the history of Queen 
Mary's reign, and died 1574-5, his title of 
Duke of Chatelherault being resumed by the 
French crown. A series of misfortunes over- 
took his two sons and heirs. The family 
titles were attainted in the person of his eldest 
son James, third Earl of Arran, for openly 
aspiring to the hand of Queen Mary, and other 
misdemeanours, and he died without issue. 
His brother, Lord John Hamilton, commen- 
dator of Aberbrothock, in 1567, entered into 
an association to rescue Queen Mary from 
the castle of Lochleven, and on her escape, 
flying to his estate of Hamilton, she there 
held her court, and proceeded from thence to 
Langside, where her forces were defeated ; the 
castle of Hamilton was besieged and taken, and 
Lord John went into banishment. He was, 
however, recalled with other banished lords by 
James VI. ; was restored to the family estates, 
and created, in 1599, Marquis of Hamilton. 
His grandson, James, the third Marquis, was 
a devoted partizan of Charles I. during the 
national troubles, and for his services, was, in 
1643, created Duke of Hamilton, Marquis of 
Clydesdale, Earl of Arran and Cambridge, 
Lord Avon and Innerdale, and, in 1646, had 
a grant of the hereditary office of keeper of 
the palace of Holyrood. Unfortunately for 
himself, he promoted to the utmost of his 
power " the Engagement" to raise forces 
for the relief of the king ; h is troops, as the 
reader of history will remember, were defeated ; 
he was brought to trial before the same court 
by which the king had been condemned ; was 
tried and sentenced to be beheaded for the 
crime of levying war against the people of 



HAMILTON. 



529 



England, and submitted to his doom in Pa- 
lace Yard, Westminster, on the 9th of March 
1649. The estates and titles were again for- 
feited, but William, the brother of the last 
duke, being taken into favour by Charles II. 
when in his exile, was restored to the honours 
of his family. He was slain at Worcester in 
1651, and the Hamilton title descended to his 
niece Anne, eldest surviving daughter of 
James, the first duke. By this lady the sur- 
name of Douglas was introduced into the fa- 
mily, in consequence of her marriage to Lord 
William Douglas, eldest son of the first Mar- 
quis of Douglas, by his second wife ; who, at 
the Restoration, through the interest of his 
wife, was created duke of Hamilton, being 
thus the first duke in the Douglas line, and 
the third of the title. This peer performed 
the noted service in the cause of liberty, of sit- 
ting as president of the Convention Parliament, 
which settled the crown upon William and 
Mary. From him there has been a regular 
succession of dukes till our own times ; the 
family having been farther dignified, in the year 
1711, by the additional British title of Duke 
of Brandon (in the county of Suffolk.) In the 
roll of titles, that of Duke of Chatelherault 
still finds a place, as the family never formally 
abandoned their right to it, though, of course, 
it is not of the least efficacy either in this 
country or in France. From junior branches 
of the Hamilton family have sprung different 
noble and ' gentle ' families in Ayrshire, Had- 
dingtonshire, and other places in Scotland ; 
and whether from its being the premier peer- 
age of the kingdom, the figure which the fami- 
ly has made in history and politics, or the 
circumstance that, failing the Brunswick line, 
it is the next protestant branch of the Royal 
Family in succession to the crown of Scotland, 
it is certain that no title carries with it more of the 
veneration of the country than that of Hamilton. 
Hamilton, a town in the middle ward 
of Lanarkshire, and the capital of the above 
parish, occupies a pleasant situation, at the dis- 
tance of ten miles and a half from Glasgow, fif- 
teen from Lanark, seven from Strathaven, 
eight from Airdrie, and thirty-six from Edin- 
burgh, and lies on the roads betwixt Glasgow 
and Carlisle, and Edinburgh and Ayr. It 
originated in the fifteenth century under the 
protecting influence of the lords of Hamilton, 
who, on being elevated to that condition, con- 
stituted a place called the Orchard, between 



this point and the Clyde, the principal mes- 
suage of the "barony, and which till this day is 
the chief seat of the Hamilton family. There 
may, however, have been a hamlet here prior 
to this transaction. The church of the parish 
was situated in its vicinity, and was a house of 
some note. David I. granted it with its perti- 
nents in perpetual alms to the church and bi- 
shops of Glasgow, and the gift was ratified by 
several popes. John, the first regularly esta- 
blished bishop of Glasgow, (1115-47) consti- 
tuted the church a prebend of the cathedral, 
and the cure was served by a vicar. In 1451 
the first Lord Hamilton elevated the church 
to the character of a collegiate foundation, the 
vicarage being annexed to the benefice of the 
provost. This establishment comprehended 
a provost and eight prebends, to each of whom 
his lordship gave a manse and garden, with a 
glebe upon the haugh of Hamilton. The Refor- 
mation terminated these ancient ecclesiastical 
arrangements, and the church lands, tithes, or- 
chards, houses, and pertinents belonging to it, 
were restored, almost as a matter of course, 
to the noble family which had originally gifted 
them away. Fortunately, the church itself 
was not destroyed or abandoned. Originally 
a fine Gothic building of the date 1451, raised 
by Lord Hamilton, with a choir, two cross 
aisles and a steeple, all highly ornamented, it 
continued to be kept in repair, and used as the 
parish church till 1732, when, a new church 
being built, it was almost entirely pulled down. 
It was situated near the present palace, and the 
only part preserved is an aisle which covers the 
burial-vault of the family of Hamilton. East 
from the modern church, which occupies an 
eminence, and is an elegant structure, the pre- 
sent town of Hamilton has been reared. In 
former times the town encompassed the resi- 
dence of the Hamilton family ; but in order to 
extend the parks round the mansion, the houses 
were gradually purchased and cleared away, and 
the new buildings were erected more to the 
south and west. The situation of the town 
is now along the base of a rising ground, 
extending nearly a mile in length. It consists 
of several streets of substantial well-built 
houses, not very regularly disposed, but hand- 
some in appearance, and the whole town has 
an air of respectability, comfort, and activity, 
much superior to that of Lanark, notwith- 
standing that the latter has long had the ad- 
vantage of higher political privileges. Ha- 
3 Y 



500 



HAMILTON. 



milton lias a number of resident gentry, and 
from its proximity to the establishment of the 
duke at the palace, it derives a considerable 
share of its support. It is also the capital of 
the middle ward of the county, and the centre 
of the inland trade of a populous agricultural 
district. Its moderate distance from Glasgow 
has caused the introduction of weaving cotton 
goods to a large amount. Seven hundred men 
are employed in this profession, out of a popu- 
lation of about six thousand. A branch of the 
British Linen Company's bank is established. 
The general nature of the trades carried on may 
be understood by the following list made up a few 
years ago, and since increased, — thirteen agents 
to manufacturers, two auctioneers, fourteen 
bakers, six blacksmiths, three booksellers and 
stationers, fifteen boot and shoemakers, two 
brewers, three cart and wheelwrights, three 
china and glass dealers, two coopers, six fire 
insurance agents, eight fieshers, twelve grocers, 
thirty grocers and spirit dealers, six inns and 
taverns, three ironmongers, four land-surveyors, 
eight linen and woollen drapers and haber- 
dashers, one muslin manufacturer, two millers, 
nine milliners and dressmakers, three nailers, 
four painters, thirteen physicians and surgeons, 
twenty-seven public houses, four saddlers, three 
seedsmen, two stocking manufacturers, four- 
teen tailors, two tallow chandlers, two tanners, 
eight teachers, two timber merchants, two 
tin plate workers, three watch and clock 
makers, seven wrights and carpenters, one 
coach builder, ten writers and notaries, besides 
other miscellaneous professions. There are 
regular daily coach conveyances to and from 
Glasgow. The town has two academies, and 
besides the parish church there are two meet- 
ing-houses of the United Secession church, 
and one of the Relief body. Hamilton is the 
seat of a presbytery. The charitable institutions 
are, an hospital endowed by the Hamilton fa- 
mily for the reception of eight old men, who 
enjoy a house, with coals, and L.5 yearly j an 
hospital endowed by Mr. James Robertson 
for nine old men, who have each L.4 yearly, 
and a suit of clothes every two years. There 
are also some friendly societies and two mason 
lodges. The town has a neat town-house and 
prison, and a commodious market-place. The 
municipal authorities had formerly a privilege 
of levying a custom or pontage upon all per- 
sons passing by Bothwell- Bridge, but this is 
no* abrogated. A weekly market is held on 
23. 



Friday, and there are four annual fairs. At 
the commencement of the town in the fifteenth 
century, its patron, Lord Hamilton, erected it 
into a burgh of barony. Queen Mary created 
it a royal burgh, but this privilege afterwards 
merged in tbe hands of the Hamilton family, 
who constituted it a burgh of regality. It is 
now governed by two bailies and ten council- 
lors. The justices of peace hold regular 
courts, and the town has a stamp-office, tax- 
office, and post-office. In the vicinity to the 
west, on the road to Bothwell, a very spacious 
square of barracks for cavalry was some years 
ago erected. The great objects of a-ttraction 
in this quarter of Lanarkshire are the palace 
of the Duke of Hamilton and its surrounding 
pleasure grounds. This princely mansion, 
which was built anew in the years 1695-6, is 
delightfully situated on a flat expanse of mea- 
dow or haugh betwixt the town and the Clyde. 
Recently the house has been greatly modern- 
ized and increased in size and accommodations, 
after a plan by Mr. David Hamilton of Glas- 
gow. A splendid portico in front, formed 
of a double row of immense Corinthian pillars, 
surmounted by a lofty pediment, has a very 
striking effect, and harmonizes finely with the 
other decorations. Hamilton Palace enjoys 
the distinction of possessing the best gallery of 
paintings in Scotland; it comprehends many 
excellent pictures by Italian and other masters. 
The parks around the mansion are reckoned 
the largest and finest in Scotland, measuring 
1400 acres in extent, and being adorned with 
stately trees. In the part north-west of the 
house, on the banks of the Clyde, is an ex- 
tensive race-course, on which horse races 
have occasionally taken place, noted as being 

among the best in Scotland Population of 

the town in 1821, 6000, and including the 
parish, 7085. 

HAND A, a small pastoral island, of about 
a mile square, on the west coast of Sutherland- 
shire, opposite the northern part of the parish 
of Edderachylis. It is precipitous on its north 
side. 

HARLAW, a place in Aberdeenshire, dis- 
trict of Garioch, at which a battle was fought 
in 1411, between the royal forces under the 
Earl of Marr and Donald, the potent lord of 
the Isles. The slaughter in this contest was 
very great, and the former party was victorious. 

HARPORT, (LOCH) an arm of the sea 
on the west coast of Skye, projected inland in 



HARRIS. 



531 



a south-easterly direction from the bay called 
Loch Bracadale. It forms a safe harbour for 
shipping. 

HARRAY and BIRSAY, aunited parish 
in the north-western part of the mainland of 
Orkney. Birsay is the part presented to the 
coast j Harray being of smaller dimensions, 
lying to the east of the Loch of Stennis. — 
Population of Harray in 1821, 719, and of 
Birsay 1526. 

HARRIS, a district of the Hebrides, form- 
ing, with the larger district of Lewis, one con- 
siderable island. In some maps, Harris appears 
as if separated by a water boundary from Lewis ; 
but this is very erroneous. The political divi- 
sion is by an imaginary line drawn betwixt 
Loch Resort on the west coast, and Loch Sea- 
forth on the east ; some little streamlets, how- 
ever, descend to these arms of the sea on either 
side, and, by the proximity of their origin, 
countenance the idea that Harris and Lewis 
are distinct islands. Harris, in one part, is 
nearly divided into two parts, by the similar 
approximation of West Loch Tarbet and East 
Loch Tarbet, which leave only a neck of land 
of about half a mile in breadth. At the head 
of West Loch Tarbet is situated the solitary 
village of Tarbet. Harris has several fresh 
water lakes ; its shores are indented by a 
number of small bays ; and in its vicinity there 
are a variety of islands which belong to it. The 
district of Harris is a joyless desert of bare rock, 
black bog, and dismal mountains, being, even 
in its low sheltered spots, productive of only a 
very scanty herbage. That part of it north of 
Tarbet is entitled the Forest of Harris, though 
totally destitute of trees. The length of the 
whole is twenty miles, by a breadth of eleven 
miles in the northern part, and from six to 
seven in the southern. On the shores there 
are patches of cultivated land ; the rearing of 
cows and black cattle further tends to support 
the inhabitants ; but the chief source of profit 
was, till very lately, the manufacture of kelp. 
The lowering of the duty on barilla having con- 
siderably reduced this trade, the people, as in 
other parts of the Hebrides, are left in great mi- 
sery, which, it is to be hoped, however, may only 
be temporary. Harris is an independent parish 
in the presbytery of Uist, and its kirktown and 
capital is Rowadill or Rowdill, a small village 
at the south-east corner of the island at the 
head of Loch Rowdill. Here was founded in 
early times by Macleod, the lord of the dig 



trict, a monastery of Canons Regular of St. 
Augustine, dedicated to St. Columba. It is 
mentioned by tradition that there were at one 
period no fewer than twelve chapels through- 
out this desolate territory and its islands, de- 
pendant on the monastery of Rowadill, — a 
proof only of the devotion of that age, for the 
population must then have been much smaller, 
and at present a single church is all that is ne- 
cessary for the religious interests of the inhabi- 
tants. The church of Rowadill is that which 
was in use by the Canons, and is an object of 
curiosity, as being the only Roman Catholic 
structure which remains entire in the whole of 
the Western Islands. It is rendered still more 
curious by some extraordinary sculptures on its 
front which do not bear description. Between 
Harris and North Uist is the Sound of Har- 
ris, a chaos of rocks and islands, intricate in its 
navigation.— Population in 1821, 3909. 

HARTFELL, a mountain in Dumfries- 
shire, near the town of Moffat, at the base of 
which is the mineral well for which Moffat is 
reputed. 

HASCOSAY, a small island in the Shet- 
land group, lying in Colgrave Sound, between 
Yell and Fetlar. 

HAVEN, (EAST and WEST) two 
villages in Forfarshire, parish of Panbride, 
lying on the sea shore on the coast road to 
Arbroath. They are chiefly inhabited by 
fishermen. 

HAVERSER, an islet in Loch Bracadale 
Isle of Skye. 

HAWICK, a parish in Roxburghshire, ex- 
tending about sixteen miles, by a breadth of 
two in the upper part, and fully three in the 
lower. It has W ilton on the north, Cavers and 
Kirktown on the east, and Robertonon the west. 
A very considerable part of the district is hilly 
and pastoral. But another portion, lying along 
the banks of the Tiviot, is either cultivated or 
planted, the whole of it being well enclosed. 
In this district of Tiviotdale, the scenery is 
soft and pleasing, and, among the most de- 
lightful rides in Scotland, is that by the Car- 
lisle road from Hawick, up the banks of the 
river, and from thence along the courses of the 
Ewes and Esk to Langholm. The district is 
productive of historical and poetical associa-. 
tions, and abounds in objects of an attractive 
kind. After passing Hawick, at the distance 
of two miles, on the right bank of the Tiviot, 
the tourist will observe the ancient tower of 



532 



H A W I C K. 



Goldielands, one of the most entire now ex- 
tant upon tbe Border, and over the gate of 
which itslast laird (a Scott) is said to have been 
hanged for march treason. The old and fa- 
mous house of Branxholm, the principal scene 
of the " Lay of the Last Minstrel," and during 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the resi- 
dence of the Buccleugh family, stands about 
a mile further up the river, on the opposite 
bank. Little of the original castle remains, 
the whole has now the appearance of an or- 
dinary manor-house, and is the seat of the 
chamberlain of the Duke of Buccleugh. 

Hawick, a thriving populous town in the 
above parish, occupying an agreeable situation 
on the right bank of the Tiviot, at the distance 
of forty-nine miles from Edinburgh, twenty 
from Kelso, eleven from Selkirk, and forty- 
five from Carlisle. Its name is partly descrip- 
tive of its site. A stream called the Slitter- 
ick, poured from the uplands on the south, is 
here received into the Tiviot, and in a bend or 
wick which it makes before entering the river 
once stood a Hall or HcC — the earliest house 
erected in the town. In 1214, the church of 
Hawick was dedicated to St. Mary, and was 
long made use of as a court-house, even after 
the Scotican canons had prohibited such an 
abuse of the sacred edifice. While it was thus 
made to serve temporal, as well as spiritual 
purposes, it was stained with one of the foulest 
of crimes. In it the sheriff of Tiviotdale held 
his court, while the English possessed the cas- 
tle and town of Roxburgh, and in June 1342, 
while Sir Alexander Ramsay, one of the most 
gallant and honest men of that age, was sitting 
in judgment, he was seized by William Doug- 
las, the knight of Liddisdale, who was incensed 
against him for having been invested with an 
office which he considered to belong to himself 
as a right. This ferocious knight, transport- 
ing his victim to Hermitage Castle, plunged 
him into one of the dungeons below that dreary 
castle, (see Castletown) where he perished of 
hunger. David II. granted to Maurice de Mo- 
ravia, Earl of Strathearn, the barony of Haw- 
ick, and at the beginning of the fifteenth cen- 
tury it became the property of Douglas of 
Drumlanrig, the ancestor of the Queensberry 
family. In the year 1545, one of the descen- 
dants of this superior conferred a charter on the 
inhabitants of the town, confirming them in 
those rights and lands they had previously pos- 
sessed. In this charter is found the following 



curious specification. One James Blair was 
taxed with " one penny of the kingdom of 
Scotland, upon the ground of his half particate, 
for finding and furnishing one lamp, or pot, of 
burning oil, before the altar of the parish church 
of Hawick,, in time of high mass and vesper 
prayers, all holidays of the year, in honour of 
our Saviour Jesus Christ, and praying for the 
souls of .the barons of Hawick, the founders of 
the lamp, and their successors." The charter 
of Douglas is confirmed by one from Queen 
Mary, dated in the same year. By these char- 
ters the town was constituted a free burgh of 
regality. From its propinquity to the border, 
Hawick generally suffered severely from the 
incursions of the English, and was more than 
once burnt. One of its severest conflagra- 
tions was in 1570, when it was set fire to by 
the English under Lord Sussex. This caused 
a species of architecture to prevail in the 
houses, some specimens of which yet exist. 
The houses were built like towers, of hard 
whinstone, and very thick in the wall ; vault- 
ed below ; no door to the street, but an arched 
entry giving access to a court-yard behind, from 
which the second flat of the building was ac- 
cessible by a stair ; and the second flat com- 
municated with the lower only by a square 
hole through the arched ceiling. The present 
head inn, called " the Tower," was a fortress 
of a better order, belonging to the superior of 
the burgh, and the only house not consumed 
by the forces of Sussex. It was, at a late 
period, the frequent residence of Anne, Duchess 
of Buccleugh and Monmouth, (for an account 
of whom see Ettrick,) and there were persons 
lately alive who remembered the princely style 
of living of that dignified noblewoman. From 
the vexatious and destructive fires raised by 
the English, the town invariably recovered 
through the exertions of its active inhabitants, 
who, on occasions of border strife, frequently 
behaved with great bravery. In the present 
day the town chiefly consists of a single long 
street, on the right bank of the Tiviot, which 
is here crossed by a stone bridge. In this 
spacious thoroughfare, and the subsidiary 
streets, there are many excellent houses, regu- 
larly built. On the" left bank of the river 
lies also a portion of the town, but built in a 
more irregular manner. The Slitterick inter- 
sects the main part of the town, and is crossed 
by two bridges, one of which was built in early 
times, and is of a particularly antique construe- 



II A WICK. 



533 



tion. The approach to the town by the south 
or Carlisle road is exceedingly beautiful, pur- 
suing its way along the flat banks of the Tiviot, 
which are ornamented in no small degree by 
the extensive nurseries of Messrs. Dickson 
and Company, which were established here 
under the auspices of the same firm, or at least 
the same family, upwards of a century ago. 
The streets of Hawick are well paved, and 
are now lighted with gas. "Water is also in- 
troduced by leaden pipes. Hawick has been 
long celebrated for the extent of its manufac- 
ture of goods formed from wool, especially 
lambs' wool. Although, like the natives of 
Galashiels, the inhabitants of this place had to 
contend against the great distance from coal, 
and an extensive inland carriage, they long 
since essayed manufactures on a liberal scale, 
and their efforts have been crowned with that 
success which must always attend a persevering 
and intelligent body of artizans. The expe- 
rience of nearly a century has directed industry 
into those channels which it has discovered to 
be the most profitable and the most apposite to 
the region in which its operations are carried 
on. The carpet manufacture was established 
in 1752, the inkle manufacture in 1783, and 
the manufacture of cloth in 1787 ; but these 
branches ultimately merged in that of the stock- 
ing manufacture, which was begun in the year 
1771. The person who first engaged in it was 
Bailie John Hardie, who for some time em- 
ployed four looms, which, on an average, pro- 
duced annually about 2400 pairs of stockings, 
mostly of the coarser kind. He is understood 
to have been the first manufacturer of stockings 
in this part of Scotland ; and by persons taught 
in his shop, the manufacture was planted in 
Wooler, Kelso, Jedburgh, Langholm, Melrose, 
Selkirk, and other places. In consequence of 
family distress, Mr. Hardie abandoned the 
trade, after carrying it on for ten years, when 
it was taken up by Mr. Nixon. Since that 
period the number of manufacturers of stock- 
ings has increased to upwards of twenty, who 
employ between five and six hundred looms ; 
and it was calculated that there were lately 
about 900,000 pounds weight of wool spun into 
yarn, three-fifths of which was wrought up into 
hose, &c, and the remainder sold to manufac- 
turers of stockings in Leicester, Derbyshire, 
Glasgow, &c. Some of the stocking manu- 
facturers are at the same time yarn-spinners. 
There are various carding mills, with full sets 



of machinery, all wrought by water. The ma- 
nufacturers are in some cases their own sales- 
men ; and it is remarked by retailers in Edin- 
burgh and elsewhere, that almost no class of 
commercial men possess such a degree of acti- 
vity and perseverance. The manufacture of 
blankets and gloves, the tanning of leather and 
dressing of sheep skins, also engage attention. 
Hawick has likewise a very respectable domes- 
tic retail traffic, and altogether it may be es- 
teemed the principal manufacturing and trading 
town in the south of Scotland. Placed in the 
centre of the wild border country, Hawick 
must, in some measure, be considered an ano- 
maly. The people have all that propensity to 
political speculation, and that jealousy of the 
power of their rulers, which usually character- 
ise persons habituated to trade and intercourse 
with the world. This is ingrafted on the old 
primitive spirit of the Border, and gives a very 
strange cast to what yet remains of that ori- 
ginal character. One of the most curious pe- 
culiarities of the inhabitants is one not uncom- 
mon in parts of the country where there are 
many individuals with the same surname, 
namely, a custom of giving every person, be 
his station what it may, a to-name, or soubri- 
quet, in conformity with the well-known an- 
cient practice of the frontier clans. To such 
an excess has this usage been carried, that 
it often happens that a man is better known 
by his nickname than his real designation ; in- 
deed we have heard it mentioned as a fact, that 
strangers have occasionally felt a difficulty in 
discovering the individuals they were inquiring 
for by their real appellations. The soubriquets 
are generally conferred from some personal pe- 
culiarity or quality of the mind, and, however 
ridiculous, are sometimes very amusing. The 
people of Hawick and the neighbouring district 
speak with a remarkably strong patois, differing 
from all other intonations in the provinces ; but 
it is, upon the whole, mellifluous, and soon 
ceases to be disagreeable. Hawick is noted 
among topers for its " gill." A Hawick gill is 
understood, by the universal courtesy of Scot- 
land, to imply half-a-mutehkin, or two gills, 
although we have never met any person able to 
elucidate the cause of so lucky an exception to 
the general rule. It will be remembered that 
of the mistress of Andrew wi' the Cuttie Gun 
the old song says, 

Wed she loo'ed a Hawick gill, 
And leuch to see a tappit hen; 



534 



HEBRIDES. 



the latter phrase signifying the equally joyous 
appearance of a frothing measure of claret. 
The inhabitants of the town, which is thus as- 
sociated with the materials of conviviality, are 
well known for their social habits, their absence 
of affectation and ceremony, and their blunt 
open sincerity of behaviour. Here nearly all 
classes mingle in common intercourse in public 
and private life ; and there prevail a tone of in- 
dependence and an ease in manners, which will 
in vain be sought for in the generality of Scot- 
tish towns of this size, where small annuitants 
and the civic magistracy form the only aristo- 
cracy. The desire for a knowledge of public 
events has caused the institution of two of the 
best reading and news-rooms to be met with 
anywhere in the country, and which are con- 
ducted on liberal principles. The town has 
several booksellers' shops and libraries ; and 
from the press of Mr. Robert Armstrong there 
has issued a variety of useful and agreeable 
publications. A school of arts was established 
some years ago, which has been of essential be- 
nefit to the community. There is a farmer's 
club, which was instituted as far back as 1776, 
and which meets once a- month for the discus- 
sion of questions connected with agriculture. 
The town has a good grammar school, and va- 
rious private teachers. In approaching Haw- 
ick, its most conspicuous object is a tall square 
turret, rising from the centre of the town, 
which is the steeple of the old church of the 
parish. Besides this place of worship, there 
are two meeting houses of the United Se- 
cession Church, and one of the Relief body. 
The annual fast day of the church is the 
"Wednesday before the last Sunday of June- 
The prosperity of Hawick has been much 
indebted to the spirit of its civic govern- 
ment, which has all the privileges of a royal 
burgh without the abuse of self- election, 
and the right of sending a member to parlia- 
ment. As a free burgh of regality, the magis- 
trates are elected annually by the burgesses ; 
there being two bailies and two representatives 
of each of the seven incorporated trades, which, 
with fifteen standing councillors, elected for 
life, manage all municipal affairs. A weekly 
market is held every Thursday ; and there are 
four annual fairs, with a cattle tryst in October, 
to which great numbers of black cattle are 
brought for sale, in passing from Falkirk tryst 
to Carlisle and Newcastle fairs. — Population 



of the town in 1821, about 3000 ; including 
the parish, 4387. 

HEBRIDES (THE), or WESTERN 
ISLES, a series of islands and islets lying on 
the western coast of the Highlands, at a greater 
and lesser distance from land, though with lit- 
tle certainty as to the right which many of 
them have to be placed under this denomina- 
tion. Generally speaking, every isolated por- 
tion of rock and soil, between the north lati- 
tude of 58° 35' southwards to the extreme 
point of the Mull of Cantire, has been reckon- 
ed one of the Hebrides — the Hebudes, iEbu- 
dse, or .<Emodae of the ancients. Arran, Bute, 
the Cumbrays, even the Isle of Man, and 
Rathlin Isle on the coast of Ireland, have re- 
ceived this appellation ; but by a modern and 
more limited comprehension, the term is only 
applicable to the direct series of western isles, 
ranging within Lewis, Uist, Benbeeula, Barra, 
and Mingalay on the north, and Skye, Raa- 
say, Canna, Rum, Eigg, Coll, Iona, Tiree, 
Mull, Colonsay, Jura, and Islay, upon the 
south. Politically, they pertain, according to 
situation, to the shires of Ross, Inverness, and 
Argyle. Altogether, they are computed at 
300 in number, 86 of which are inhabited. 
The peculiar character and condition of these 
interesting islands being noticed in our article 
on the Highlands, as well as under individual 
heads, it is here unnecessary to enter into any 
special description of them. The history of 
the Western isles, which for many centuries 
had little or no political connexion with the 
mainland, is involved in a considerable degree 
of obscurity, and almost the only fact which 
the chroniclers can establish is, that they were 
long under the domination of petty chiefs, 
sometimes independent, and at other periods 
under the superiority of the kings of Norway, 
and latterly subject to the Scottish monarchy. 
According to Macculloch, unknown Celts, 
Irish pirates, Galwegian kings, Vikingr, Nor- 
wegian viceroys, chiefs and chieftains, sea-fights 
and land- fights, plundering, burning and slaugh- 
ter, usurpation and rebellion, are the objects 
and ideas which compose their history. In 
the twelfth century, the petty kings or lords of 
the isles began to disturb the peace of Scot- 
land. One of them, named Somerled, in ] 153, 
invaded the mainland, and made an attempt to 
dethrone Malcolm IV. but was defeated by an 
army under Gilchrist, Earl of Angus. In & 



HEBRIDES. 



535 



subsequent descent in 1163, be was defeated 
and slain near Renfrew. In 1188 the people 
of the isles chose Reginald to be chief, but 
doubtful of his right, in 1204, he did homage 
to John of England, in hopes of eventual pro- 
tection. Olave, a competitor for the chief- 
tainship, was possessed of the isle of Lewis, 
and married a daughter of the Earl of Ross, 
which was the first alliance betwixt a lord of 
the isles and those Highland families of rank. 
Olave subsequently became king of the whole 
isles, including Man, and seems to have been 
the most powerful chief of his race, being de- 
pendent on Norway by a very slight tenure. 
After his death in 1237, the separate jurisdic- 
tion of the outer and inner Hebrides began to 
be shaken, his sons Harold, Reginald, Magnus, 
and Godrid, not being possessed of that power 
which could secure the existence of so rude a 
sway. Alexander II. king of Scotland, set on 
foot negotiations with Haco, king of Norway, 
to treat for the cession of Bute, Arran, and 
the Cumbrays, but without effect. His suc- 
cessor, Alexander III. in 1261, renewed these 
negotiations ; and being equally unsuccessful, 
he attacked, ravaged and took the islands by 
force. An expedition of Haco to relieve his 
afflicted dominions having failed, through his 
defeat at Largs, Alexander sent the Earls of 
Buchan and Moray, with Allan of Atholl, to 
the islands ; where they acted with great cru- 
elty. Magnus the third son of Olave, and 
the last independent chief, died in 1265, and 
with him terminated the Norwegian kings of 
the isles. Another Magnus, the son and feeble 
successor of Haco, could not maintain the tot- 
tering power of his father. In 1266 he enter- 
ed into negotiations with Alexander for the 
cession of his isolated territories, and by a 
treaty signed at Perth, be resigned all future 
claim on the Hebrides, in consideration of 
4000 merks to be paid annually for four years, 
and an annual payment of 100 more for ever. 
By this memorable event the western isles and 
the isle of Man were attached to Scotland, but 
the latter was subsequently lost during the con- 
tests for the Scottish crown. Notwithstanding 
this extinction of the power of the Norwegians, 
the western isles were long exempted from the 
jurisdiction of the Scottish kings. The descen- 
dants of the chiefs, real or pretended, claimed 
still the title of Lords of the Isles, and the 
Macdougals, the Macdonalds, and other heads 
of septs, were frequently at feud for feudal su- 



premacy among themselves, and in their exter- 
nal wars often gave the crown considerable 
uneasiness. Instead of quenching these al- 
most independent barbarians by force of arms, 
the kings of Scotland, who were seldom with- 
out need of allies, purchased their good will 
by grants of territory, and confirmations of 
the titles of Lords of the Isles, and even 
by greater concessions. John, the son of 
Angus Og, Lord of Cantire, received in 
marriage a daughter of Robert II., by which 
alliance to the royal family his descen- 
dants rose in their pride and consequence. 
One of his sons, Donald, invaded and plun- 
dered Ross-shire, at the head of 10,000 men, 
and after ravaging the country, was defeated, 
or at least received a severe infliction at the 
battle of Harlaw, in 1411. The anarchy 
produced by this and similar events in the 
south of Scotland, induced James I. to com- 
mence a regular war against the more turbu- 
lent chiefs, many of whom he captured and 
hanged, and finally he defeated Donald of the 
Isles, who fled to Ireland, where he was put 
to death. Throughout the fifteenth century, 
there were, however, repeated aggressions on 
the part of other men equally turbulent, and 
unwilling to acknowledge any sovereign. It 
was not till the reign of James V. that the 
Lords of the Isles came into complete subjec- 
tion to the crown. As the sixteenth century 
advanced, the power and the number of claim- 
ants to the distinction of that title became nar- 
rowed within a more and more limited circle. 
At length, the Macdonald, the last authorized 
Lord of the Isles, died ; and though, since that 
period, there have not been wanting claimants 
to superiority and antiquity, of the surname of 
Macdonald, Maclean, Macneil, Mackintosh, 
Macleod, and Mackenzie, some of whom have 
been as fierce with the pen as their ancestors 
were with the sword in their attempts to 
establish their right to the title of Lord of the 
Isles, the appellation has not been restored. 
Most of the possessions of the ancient Lords 
of the Isles were secured by the crown, which, 
to strengthen its authority, parted with the 
islands to different heads of clans on the main- 
land, of which that of the Campbells of Ar- 
gyle was the most favoured. In 1589, the 
island of Lewis, the chief of the outer He- 
brides, was granted to some gentlemen of Fife, 
for the purpose of being civilized, but with- 
out profiting these lowlanders, as it fell into 



HEBRIDES. 



the hands of Mackenzie of Kintail. Few to- 
pographers have hitherto concerned themselves 
with the etymologies of the names of the 
islands of the Hebrides, which are certainly 
the subject of a most excusable curiosity, espe- 
cially as they illustrate the early history of 
these distant isles, and often substantiate 
their primary possession. On this matter we 
consider it sufficient to lay before the reader 
the substance of a disquisition and catalogue 
of names by Dr. John Macculloch. Although 
we haye occasionally given the etymology where 
the island happened to be treated of, it will, 
to use the Doctor's own words, " be advantage- 
ous to see the whole in one collective view ; as 
that will convey a notion, both of the principles 
of nomenclature adopted, and of the proportion 
which were relatively named by the Northmen 
and by the natives. While we have," says he, 
" distinguished the conjectural or doubtful from 
the certain, and further classed them according 
to certain analogies, we must also remark, that 
where the number of names appears less than 
the number of the islands, it is partly because 
a few of the most insignificant, particularly 
where they appeared hopelessly corrupted, have 
been passed over, but chiefly on account of the 
frequent occurrence of the same name for 
many different islands. Thus there are no less 
than four called Rona; as many called Flota, 
Berneray, Glas, Fladday or Flattay ; while 
there are duplicates or triplicates of Soa, Wiae, 
Ghia, Boreray, Linga, Longa, and others. 
Hence you will perceive that very few of the 
whole number of names remain unexplained. 
We have seldom thought it necessary to distin- 
guish the Scandinavian terms according to the 
different dialects or languages of the Moesogo- 
thic radical. The following catalogue is de- 
rived from saints, to whom there were churches 
or chapels dedicated in some of the islands, and 
who seem to have been mostly of Irish extrac- 
tion, as were all the followers of St. Columba. 
They may thus be considered chiefly of Gaelic 
origin, being only modified or corrupted by the 
Scandinavian ey, which has passed successive- 
ly into ay and a. 



Elannan 
Barra 
Colonsa 

Kerrara, Kiarara 
Mul Don-ach 
Oransa 



from St. Flann. 
St. Barr. 
St. Columba. 
St. Kiaran. 
St. Duncan. 
St. Oran. 



Besides Marnoch, Martin, Chenzie and 
Inch Kenneth, St. Cormac's Isles, and St. 
Kilda. In the Scandinavian, we find a divi- 
nity, which may rank with these; Taransa, 
from Taran or Thor ; and in the Gaelic there 
are Gigha and Gia, a corruption of Dia ey, 
God's Island ; as is proved by the Norwegian 
name, which is written Gud ey in the account 
of Haco's expedition. Animals are a frequent 
source of these names, and among them there 
are both Scandinavian and Gaelic etymologies. 
In the first are the following : 



Soa 


the isle of swine. 


Raasey, 


from Raa, 


of roes. 


Tirey, 


Tiur, 


of bulls. 


Jura, 


Diur, 


of deer. 


Canna, 


Kanin, 


of rabbits. 


Orsa, Oersa, 






Eorsa, 


Joor, 


of horses. 


Ulva, 


Ulffur, 


of wolves. 


Haversey, 


Hafur, 


of he-goats. 


Levenish 


Lava nish, 


of birds. 



Calva, Calve, or Calf, a common Norwegian 
name, found in Mull and Man, is not named 
exactly from the animal, but from being re- 
lated to the main island as the calf is to the 
cow. Cara, Kyr ey, the Island of Cows, and 
Handa, Hynd ey, that of Hinds, appear ra- 
ther possible than certain. In the Gaelic, 
there are, from the same source : 
Rona, ron the isle of seals. 

En say, eoin of birds. 

Mullagroch, Mul grach, 

or graich a stud of horses. 

Inish Capel the isle of mares. 

Eilan an each of horses. 

Tanera, tan of the herd. 

Muck, muc of swine. 

Whether Eilan na Monach, na Clearach, 
and Inch Cailleach, the Isles of Monks, Cler- 
gy, and Nuns, are to be adopted in this divi- 
sion, under Muc, or in that of the Saints, we 
do not pretend to determine. Trodda, from 
the Scandinavian Trolds, may be put in the 
same ambiguous company. Names derived 
from qualities, or resemblances, or compari- 
sons, are the most common of all, and tbey 
occur in both languages. In the Scandinavian 
there are the following : — 
Sky . • • mist. 

Rum . . • spacious. 

Back ... an eminence. 
Egg ... an edge. 



HEBRIDES. 



537 



Staffa, staf 
Seil and Suil 
Luing and Linga 
Torsa, torst 
Scarba, \ R 
Scarpa, f bcalp 
Uist 

Sanda, Sandera 
Vatersa 
Hellesa, helle 
Flota 

Fladda . i 
Pladda 
Schillay, skil 
Fiaray, fiar 
Sursay, siu - . 
Blada, blad 
Narsey, nar . 

Groay, grooa 
Tahay, taa . 
Opsay, op 
Maltey, mallt 
Isa, is 
Ransey, ran . 



the isle of pillars. 

a sail. 

long. 

the dry island. 

a precipice. 

west. 

sand islands. 

water island 

the island of rocks. 

the island of fleets. 

the flat island. 

a plate. 

a division ; divided. 

a shore. 

sour. 

a leaf, leafy, grassy. 

a carcass, a burying 
place. 

to grow, fertile. 

a toe, a headland. 

a hole, a cavern. 

meal, fertile. 

ice island. 

rapine, thieves' is- 
land. 



The last eleven seem rather probable, but are 
not so clear as the former ; they are all from 
the Icelandic. Eriska seems a corruption of 
Erics ey. Ailsa is similarly an apparent cor- 
ruption of Hellesa ; peculiarly appropriate. 
Isla is the island, xar ^o^vv, as a principal seat 
of government. In the same class the Gaelic 
has the following : 



Arran . 


. the land of moun- 




tains. British. 


Scalpa 


a cave. 


Pabba . 


. stubble. 


Coll . 


a wood. 


Mull . 


. a hill. 


Eysdill • 


dale island. 


Garveloch 


. the rough rock. 


Lismore . 


the great garden. 


Glas . 


. green or grey. 


Bernera 


the serrated island. 


Mingala . 


. the beautiful. 


Longa and Lunga 


the isle of ships. 


Craig Daive 


. ox's isle. 


Freaichland 


the isle of heath. 


Ree . 


. the king's isle. 


Choum 


hell. 



Neave . 

Drum 

Gillisay 

Dana 
Crowlin 
Iona 
Shiant . 
Ulleram, ulla 
Tesca, tec . 

Borrera, bor 
Biilg - . 
Shuna 
Bute, buta . 



heaven. A monas- 
tery probably. 

Scandinavian and 
Gaelic, a ridge. 

servants' island, ser- 
vants of God. 

the isle of Danes. 

the red. 

the isle of waves. 

sacred. 

a burying place. 

a bone, a similar al- 
lusion. 

a knob. 

a bulge. 

lovage. 

a ridge. 



Among these, some of the latter are question- 
able. Shaw is said not to be good authority. 
It is unnecessary to give the other Gaelic ra- 
dicals. Lewis, Liodhus, the residence of Liod 
(Macleod), is Norwegian; but does not well 
fall into any of the preceding divisions. Nor 
does Cumbray, from Cumr ey, the islands of 
the Cumbrians, who once occupied this dis- 
trict. In the names compounded of Scandi- 
navian and Gaelic, we find Altwig, a moun- 
tain bay, Garveilan, rock island, and Kiarna- 
borg or Cairnburgh, sufficiently obvious. The 
compounds from Skerscar, a rock, are occa- 
sionally of this nature ; and are Skerry, with 
Sulisker, Dusker, Hysker, Baisker, Carmis- 
ker, Hartasker, Kelisker, and Skernamull ; 
which require no further explanation. Whe- 
ther the isles of Macfadyen, Macphaill, and 
Macalken belonged to saints or chiefs, no one 
seems to know. Of the few that remain, 
little can be said. Harris is corrupt beyond 
hope ; though the Gael say it is from Earrann, 
a portion. It is more probably from Aras, 
a habitation or settlement. Wia, Valay, and 
Huna, should be Scandinavian, because they 
occur in Shetland ; but their meaning is ob- 
scure. Vi, vvith the plural Uiou, Ubh in 
Gaelic, is an egg; a derivation applicable 
enough. Lamlash seems just such an inver- 
sion of Molass, the old name, as gallon is of 
Lagena. Of Gometra, Fadia, Vacasey, and 
the bicla part of Benbicla, or Benbecula, no- 
thing can be made. Harmetia may be deriv- 
ed from Armunn, a chief. The total result is 
that there are about forty-six names of Scan • 
3 z 



538 



HELMSDALE. 



dinavian derivation, comprising the principal 
islands, and about forty of a Gaelic or British 
origin, of which nine only are of any note, and 
among which Arran, Bute, Mull, Coll, and 
Lismore, are the only ones that can be con- 
sidered principal. If we include those named 
after saints, who were rather Irish than Gaelic, 
it would add twelve to the list, of which three 
oidy are conspicuous ; namely, Barra, Colonsa, 
and St. Kilda. The Skers being little more 
than rocks, are hardly worthy of notice, and 
are, besides, pretty equally divided. If we 
now consider the great disproportion which 
the Scandinavian bears to the Gaelic, as far 
as the principal islands are concerned, it will 
appear probable that the aboriginal population 
was very scanty before the Norwegian inva- 
sions and settlements." The Hebrides were 
visited by Dr. Samuel Johnson in the autumn 
of 1773, whose tour through Scotland thither 
excited sufficient discussion at the time and 
since. 

HEISKER ISLANDS, three islands of 
the Hebrides lying about eight miles westward 
from North Uist. One of them is of small 
size and lies between the other two, each of 
which is nearly two miles long and of various 
dimensions. 

HELDAZAY or HILDUSAY, a small 
island of Shetland lying in the inner part of 
Scalloway bay. 

HELENSBURGH, a modern town in 
Dumbartonshire, parish of Row, lying on the 
firth of Clyde opposite Greenock, twenty-three 
miles west north-west of Glasgow, eight north- 
west of Dumbarton, and five north of Green- 
ock. The town, which is a perpetual feu 
from Sir James Colquhoun, baronet, of Luss, 
was commenced in 1777 ; since which period 
it has risen into notice as one of the most con- 
venient and agreeable sea-bathing places on the 
Clyde, and now consists of a series of hand- 
some houses and streets, laid out on a neat 
plan. A quay was built in 1817, and has been 
found of great utility. Being created a burgh 
of barony in 1802, Helensburgh is placed un- 
der the government of a provost, two baihes 
and four councillors. The town has a spaci- 
ous elegant inn, with baths at its east end, and 
there are other houses for the temporary recep- 
tion of visitors, besides a great variety of lodg- 
ing houses. The parish kirk is at two miles 
distance', but there are here a missionary chapel 
and a meeting-house of dissenters. It possesses 
23. 



also a good school. The distillation of whisky 
is almost the omy manufacture carried on. 
There are four annual fairs. The situation of 
Helensburgh is eminently suited for a place of 
summer recreation ; the prospects around, and 
especially that towards the spacious land-locked 
bay of Greenock, are very beautiful, and the 
country is very healthful. There are various 
gentlemen's seats in the vicinity, the chief of 
which is Ardincaple, the seat of Lord John 
Campbell, standing west from the town, near 
the Gare Loch, an inlet of the Clyde, which 
penetrates some miles inland. Opposite are 
the mansion and beautiful pleasure-grounds of 
Roseneath. A number of steam-vessels call 
at Helensburgh daily, in going to and from 
Glasgow ; and it will perhaps be pointed out 
with greater curiosity a century hence than at 
present, that here resided the ingenious Henry 
Bell, when he first applied this important spe- 
cies of navigation to a practical use. — Popu- 
lation in 1821 computed at 600. 

HELL'S SKERRIES, a cluster of islets 
of the Hebrides, lying about ten miles west 
from the island of Rum. 

HELMSDALE, a river in Sutherland- 
shire, rising in the parish of Farr and upper 
parts of Kildonan, and flowing through the 
latter past Kildonan kirk, after which, passing 
through the parish of Loth, it falls into the 
sea about three miles south from the Ord of 
Caithness. The river is valuable for its sal- 
mon fishing. 

HELMSDALE, a large and thriving mo- 
dern village or town, situated in the parish of 
Loth, Sutherlandshire, at the mouth of the 
above river, from which it takes its name. It 
is built on the property of the Marchioness of 
Stafford, upon a principle which we have ex- 
plained under the head Golspie. In this case, 
the efforts of the benevolent proprietor have 
been attended with success. A considerable 
number of substantial houses have been built, 
and an excellent harbour has been finished, to 
which immense fleets of fishing-boats resort 
during the herring season ( September). The 
town is increasing rapidly, and its various ele- 
ments are gradually settling down into com- 
fortable maturity. Some thousands of barrels 
of herrings are now prepared annually, and the 
small port is further made the point of trade 
and export to the produce of the interior, as 
wool, &c. The coast-road northward passes 
through the village. 



HIGHLANDS. 



530 



HE RIOT, a parish in the south-eastern 
and hilly part of the county of Edinburgh, 
lying between Temple on the north-west and 
Stow on the south-east. Innerleithen bounds 
it on the south. With the exception of some 
fields on the banks of the Gala and Heriot 
waters, and at a few other places, the whole 
territory, which comprehends a length of near- 
ly ten miles by a breadth of five, is a confused 
mass of brownish pastoral hills and vales, with 
small rivulets flowing through the latter. The 
only regular opening into the district is by 
Heriot water, a small trouting stream which 
rises among the hills and drops into the Gala 
nearly opposite Crookston. On the Heriot 
water stands Heriot kirk. Lately a new road 
was formed between Innerleithen and the head 
of one of the vales of this parish, with a design 
of carrying it forward to Edinburgh, so as to 
establish a direct communication between that 
thriving village and the capital ; but it has not 
been continued by the trustees of the roads in 
Edinburghshire. Some of the hills are high 
and command extensive prospects, occasionally 
showing the remains of ancient encampments. 
At the Reformation, the church and lands of 
Heriot or Heryeth, which had previously be- 
longed to the monks of Newbotle, fell into 
the hands of Mark Ker, the commendator of 
that abbey. The name of the parish imports 
'* the fine paid to the lord of a manor on the 
death of a tenant." By the division of the 
land into large farms, the population has been 
decreasing since 1801, when it amounted to 
320 ; in 181 1 it was 300 ; and in 1821, 298. 

HERMITAGE, a rivulet tributary to the 
Liddel, parish of Castletown, with a castle of 
the same name. — See Castletown. 

HESTON, a small island in the mouth of 
the bay into which the river Urr is poured, 
stewartry of Kirkcudbright. 

HIGHLANDS, a division of Scotland, 
extending to more than the half of its whole 
surface, and though much inferior in popula- 
tion and wealth to the remainder, yet highly 
interesting on many accounts, particularly from 
the peculiar character of the inhabitants, and 
the mixture of sublime and beautiful, which 
characterises the surface of the ground. Ge- 
nerally speaking, the Highlands form the north- 
ern division of the kingdom, although it hap- 
pens that the boundary line, extending between 
Nairn on the Moray Firth, and Dumbarton on 
the Firth of Clyde, pursues, though somewhat 



irregularly, a direction varying between south 
and south-west. The district includes the en- 
tire counties of Sutherland, Ross, Inverness, 
Perth, Argyle, and Dumbarton, upon the main- 
land, together with Bute, and other islands, 
besides a considerable part of the counties of 
Nairn, Elgin, Banff, Aberdeen, and Forfar. 
Caithnessis, in one sense, apart of the Highland 
division ; but, being a level country through- 
out, cannot be strictly considered as such. The 
general character of the Highlands is implied 
by the name which has so long distinguished 
it from the Lowlands. It is a country full of 
lofty hills, some of which are covered with 
pasture, while a great proportion are rugged 
and bare, varying in height from one thousand 
to upwards of four thousand feet, and having 
generally narrow vallies between, or else inland 
or marine lakes. Round the bleak summits of 
these mountains, the wild eagle is still seen 
occasionally hovering, a sublime emblem of the 
savage native of the district. In the bottoms 
of the vallies, there are generally small impe- 
tuousstreams, which receive accessions at every 
short distance from the torrents that descend 
the hills, and in the end join strength in such 
a way as to form large rivers. The country 
being much higher at the west side of the is- 
land than towards the east, the rivers, with 
hardly any exception, run towards the German 
Ocean. — The Highlands are subdivided into 
two districts, termed the North Highlands and 
the West Highlands, — the former phrase being 
applicable to all beyond Fort- William, while 
the other may be considered as exclusively ap- 
propriated to what remains. The Western Is- 
lands, as characterised by the same peculiari- 
ties of population and surface, must also be 
esteemed as a subdivision of the Highlands. 

The Highlands, till an era almost within 
the recollection of the present generation, were 
peopled exclusively by a race essentially differ- 
ent from the inhabitants of Lowland Scotland ; 
speaking a peculiar language, wearing a pecu- 
liar dress, and exhibiting a frame of society, 
and a set of manners and customs, altogether 
different. In numbers, this race is not believ- 
ed to have exceeded a hundred thousand, or 
about a twelfth part of the co-existent popula- 
tion of the rest of Scotland ; but yet they were 
able, occasionally, to affect the prospects of 
their numerous fellow-countrymen in no small 
degree. Surviving as a remnant (though not- 
altogether unmixed) of the Celtic people, who 



540 



HIGHLANDS. 



were the first inhabitants of the west of Eu- 
rope, and who gradually gave way to Roman 
and Scandinavian adventurers, they hardly ever 
ceased to regard the adjacent people as intrud- 
ers and enemies. In the early ages of Scottish 
history, we find them living under their own 
chiefs, and quite independent of the sovereign. 
Gradually, by the efforts of various monarchs, 
especially James I. and James V. they were 
induced to yield a nominal obedience. Till 
the reign, however, of Charles I. they remain- 
ed comparatively little known, being only oc- 
casionally heard of when some dreadful tale of 
savage cruelty reached the Lowlands, or some 
predatory excursion was made by one of their 
clans into the valleys of their now civilized 
fellow-countrymen. The danger of such a 
neighbourhood was first brought fully before 
the eyes of the Lowland population, when the 
Marquis- of Montrose engaged them in his 
singular campaign against the Scottish parlia- 
mentary forces, 1644-5, on which occasion, 
though he had not at first above fifteen i hun- 
dred half-armed and half-clad mountaineers, he 
gained five victories in succession, over much 
more numerous and better appointed armies, 
and at last obtained possession of Scotland. 
The Highlanders, arguing from their own pa- 
triarchal system, were disposed, at this period, 
to regard King Charles as an injured chief, 
and of course, as they could make no allow- 
ance for those notions of civil liberty which 
actuated the general population, much less for 
the religious interests of the time, they eager- 
.y threw themselves into the scale in favour 
of distressed royalty. Fortunately for the 
conductors of the popular cause in the civil 
war, Montrose was surprised and defeated at 
Philiphaugh, at a time when almost the whole 
of his Highlanders were absent ; and thus their 
strength was for a time neutralized. They 
were afterwards, with great difficulty, reduced 
to subjection by Cromwell, who placed a fort- 
ress at Inverness, and another at Fort William, 
in order to keep them in check. In 1678, 
they again, under the name of the Highland 
Host, became known to the oppressed and di- 
spirited inhabitants of the western counties, as 
an authorized banditti, whose robberies had 
been previously legalized by Charles II. As 
no resistance was then offered by the people, 
the only opportunity of displaying their prowess 
was on their return, when the students of 
Glasgow university kept the bridge of that 



city, and forced a party of two thousand of 
them to surrender their plunder. After the 
Revolution, when their notions of hereditary 
right were once more violated, they joined the 
Viscount of Dundee in an attempt to procure 
the restoration of James VII. and were suc- 
cessful at Killiecranky in July 1689, though 
the death of their leader prevented them 
from prosecuting the war any farther with 
advantage. From this period, the chiefs of 
the various names or clans into which the po- 
pulation was divided, kept up a close corres- 
pondence with the exiled royal family, and, in 
many cases, their sons were brought up in 
France, under the eye and influence of that 
unfortunate race. Being also supplied with 
judicious presents of money, and with ship- 
ments of arms, they kept themselves constant- 
ly in a state of readiness to rise in favour of 
the house of Stewart. From the chief himself, 
who was either influenced by political enthu- 
siasm or less worthy motives, down to the 
humble serfs, who glowed with martial ardour, 
over the songs of bards regarding the exploits 
of their fathers, under Montrose, one common 
spirit prevailed,; and only in very rare in- 
stances was a chieftain ever bought off by the 
existing government. The benighted igno- 
rance of the people, the prevalence of the Ca- 
tholic religion, the inaccessibility of the coun- 
try to the virtues of peace, were all alike fa- 
vourable to this state of things. Hence, at the 
instigation of the Earl of Mar in 1715, the 
clans arose, to the amount of ten or twelve 
thousand men, and descended towards the low 
country, where, from the paucity of the national 
troops, and the comparatively peaceful charac- 
ter of the lowland population, it seemed at 
one time as if there were nothing to prevent 
them from re-establishing the son of James 
VII. upon the throne. Being eventually de- 
feated in this enterprise, they afterwards be- 
came a subject of serious consideration to 
the government, and some attempts were 
made during the reigns of George I. and II. 
to break up their military power. An act 
passed for disarming them succeeded to a cer- 
tain extent, though, it is said, the clans friend- 
ly to government were thereby rendered power- 
less, while the disaffected tribes either retained 
a great part of their weapons, or were after- 
wards supplied with more. Something was 
also done by the re- erection of Cromwell's 
fort, and the addition of one or two more, in 



HIGHLANDS. 



54' 



which considerable garrisons were placed, for 
the purpose of overawing the country. But 
the most effectual expedient was the cutting of 
two lines of road, from Crieff to the two chief 
*brts, which was done by the garrison soldiers, 
tnder General Wade. These roads, which 
were finished in 1737, and amounted altogether 
to 250 miles in aggregate extent, destroyed, in 
a great measure, that impregnable and fortress- 
like character which had formerly belonged to 
the Highlands. Yet, long ere any particular 
effect was observed to result from these mea- 
sures, another insurrection took place.* Un- 
der the direction of Prince Charles Stuart, an 
army of Highlanders descended upon the Low- 
lands, September 1745 ; and having defeated a 
body of national troops at Prestonpans, marched 
into England, where they reached a point only 
a hundred miles from the capital ere any ade- 
quate force could be assembled to oppose them. 
This army was ultimately defeated at Culloden, 
and the terrors of military law were freely let 
loose over a country which had so often of- 
fended against the rest of the state. Yet, 
though depressed and dejected, the Highland- 
ers were still formidable. It was now seen 
necessary to take various decisive measures in 
order to bring the people into the great fold of 
ordinary civilized life. An act for abolishing 
hereditary jurisdictions, passed in 1748, was 
aimed at the arbitrary power which the chiefs 
had heretofore exercised over their people. 
Another act decreed the abolition of the tartan, 
a peculiar chequered and coloured cloth with 
which they had hitherto been in the habit of 
attiring themselves, .and which, from its anti- 
quity and nationality, was of course intimately 
associated with those feelings which the go- 
vernment desired to eradicate. The disarming 
act was now also carried into practice with ex- 
treme rigour. In short, the Highlanders were at 
once reduced fr6m the condition of a patriarchal 
people, having customs, dress, and habits, differ- 
ent from their neighbours, into the same state 

* A most notable signification of the state of the High- 
lands in the oarly part of the reign of George II. occurs 
in Keith's History, which was published in 1733. After 
describing the banditti who infested the borders and re- 
mote Hebrides in the reign of James V., the right reve- 
rend author observes, with great coolness, " Something 
of this kind is to be found in the Highlands at this day," 
—rather an awkward admission, if we consider that " Ro- 
bert Macgregor, alias Rob Roy," the chief of all the agi- 
tators and depredators of that time, appears as one of the 
subscribers for the book, amidst a host of Highland lairds 
who afterwards joined in the insurrection of 1745. 



with the Lowlanders, the only external differ- 
ence that remained being the original Erse lan- 
guage, which they had spoken for thousands of 
years, and which no act of parliament could 
well root out. The jacobite chiefs being now 
expatriated and severed from their lands by at- 
tainders, the general proprietory body of the 
Highlands became friendly to government. 
A totally different direction was by and bye 
given to the military ardour of the people. 
Regiments for the service of government were 
raised in the country, and led by the sons of 
the proprietors, who acted as officers, into 
scenes of danger in Canada, which it was 
found that no less hardy race could well en- 
counter. Afterwards, in the American war 
of. independence, still larger levies were tran- 
sported to the colonies, where they generally 
acted with greater boldness than other soldiers, 
and were found better fitted to move in the 
rugged defiles of the country, on account of 
their previous habits of life. At one time, 
ten thousand were at once raised for this ser- 
vice, which, though odious to the more en- 
lightened classes of the British people, was re- 
garded with no peculiar feelings by the poor 
Highlanders. In a later and more glorious 
contest, the same people served with such well 
known bravery and effect, as to need no eulogy 
in this humble record. 

Through the influence of the above circum- 
stances, and several others which must now be 
particularized, the population of the Highlands 
has undergone a greater change during the laai 
century than any other branch of the British 
people. Previous to the insurrection of 1745, 
the same system of life which had obtained 
for ages was still entire. The country at 
large was divided into a number of compart- 
ments, each of which was inhabited by a par- 
ticular tribe assuming a peculiar name. Thus, 
upon the Lowland frontier, there were the 
Buchanans, the Grahames, the Stewarts, the 
Robertsons, &c. ; in the West Highlands, the 
Campbells, M'Dougals, and M'Leans ; in 
the central parts of the territory, the M'Don- 
alds, Camerons, Macphersons, Macintoshes, 
Grants, and Frasers. And in the north, 
were the Mackenzies, the Mackays, and the 
M'Leods. These tribes were of different nu- 
merical power, and enjoyed larger or smaller 
tracts of country. Some clans were broken 
down into certain subdivisive septs, which 
were headed by chieftains ; but in general the 



542 



HIGHLANDS. 



tribe had one chief, or kean-kinnhe, (head of the 
family) who was understood to be the lineal 
representative of the founder of the family, 
and was at once the landlord, lawgiver, leader, 
and father of his people. Certain individuals 
called doaine-uailse, who could trace kindred to 
the chief, and were not very remote in degree 
from the succession, formed a species of gen- 
try in the country of the . clan, of which they 
were generally assigned the management of a 
certain portion. Below these was a promis- 
cuous set of commoners, who lived merely up- 
on the bounty of their superiors, performing 
labour in peace and military service in war, in 
return for their subsistence. The various 
clans were frequently at feud with each other, 
and on such occasions, as well as when an ex- 
pedition was undertaken against the Lowland 
whigs, the latter order of men formed the mass 
of the army, while the doaine-uailse acted as 
officers under the chief. Upon the death of 
a chief, when any difficulty was found in trac- 
ing the proper heir, the minor heads of the 
tribe have been known to elect a provisional 
leader under the title of Captain. The hus- 
band of an heiress could also assume the bear- 
ing of a chief. The clan has sometimes been 
known, by a still greater anomaly in so dispo- 
tic a system, to depose an unworthy chief and 
adopt the next of kin. These were Celtic 
fashions, surviving through the force of nation- 
al manners, the introduction of the regular feu- 
dal system of property, which may be said to 
have taken place about the time of Robert 
Bruce. The chiefs, in late times, were a 
brave and spirited set of men, with a strange 
mixture of the native Highlander and the 
French gentleman-soldier. The dress of the 
people throughout was simply a piece of tar- 
tan, which was wrapped round the body in 
such a way as to encircle the knees like a pet- 
ticoat, and leave a piece loose at the top, to be 
drawn occasionally over the arms. The fasten- 
ing at the top was by a large metal brooch. 
The better order of the clansmen, including the 
chief, perhaps wore a dress more intricate and 
compound than this ; but it is at least certain 
that the attire in which Highlanders are now 
generally painted, and which gentlemen wear 
from fancy, is chiefly taken from the military 
uniform assumed by the Highland regiments." 

* In Windsor Palace, there is a painting by Lely, dated, 
if 1 recollect rightly, in 1071. representing the celebrated 
sctor John Lacy in three characters, one of which is 



We have had repeated occasion to notice in 
Scottish history, that the appearance of the 
dress of a Highland army was such as to 
give to strangers the impression of a troop of 
naked savages. The chiefs were entitled to 
wear an eagle's feather in their bonnets ; and 
each clansman wore in the same place a sprig 
of some particular shrub, or tree, which was 
sacred to his tribe. A train of official persons 
was attached to the person of the chief, com- 
prising, in particular, a bard to commemorate 
and recite the deeds of the clan, a piper to 
play before him as he marched, and a hench- 
man or valet, to run messages and attend to 
any little personal want. The homage paid by 
the tribe to their chief was as great as his power 
over them was unlimited. The Highland duine 
uasal, when fully armed, carried a basket-hilted 
broadsword, a dagger, a pair of pistols, and a 
target. The inferior class were seldom armed 
very perfectly, but generally had at least broad- 
swords and targets, besides carrying muskets 
when such could be procured. Their custom 
was to fire the muskets first, and to rush for- 
ward, under the smoke, to charge with sword 
and targe. The vices of the Highland char- 
acter, in its native and original state, were 
haughtiness and irritability ; they regarded the 
Lowlanders, whom they called Sassenach 
(Saxons), as mean tame creatures compared 
with themselves, and entertained a general 
contempt for the domestic arts and the com- 
forts of peace. Their utter want of occupa- 
tion, and the constant contemplation of a re- 
nowned ancestry, caused them to look upon 
themselves, in comparison with the commer- 
cial and manufacturing Lowlanders, as,gentle- 
men ; and they were scrupulous in endeavour- 
ing to maintain their pretensions to that char- 
acter by several evil as well as virtuous pro- 
perties. They are even said to have carried 
this feeling so far that, when they had occasion 
to allude to any of the humbler artizans, they 
would use some apologetic expression — such as 
" a tailor, saving your presence" — and so forth. 
Their irascibility was such as to be considered 
by the Lowlanders a peculiarity of the blood : it 
is still common for a Lowlander, on observing 



Sandy in the Taming of the Shrew. It is perhaps wor- 
thy of remark, that he appears in a pair of tartan panta- 
loons and a tartan plaid; a circumstance which provci 
that this cloth was looked upon by the English, in the 
reign of Charles II., as the characteristic dress erf a 
Scotsman. — R. C. 



HIGHLANDS. 



543 



a man of Highland extraction getting angry, to 
say, " there, your Highland blood is getting 
up !" Their virtues were of the opposite char- 
acter. They were hospitable to strangers, to 
an extent often ruinous. In all kinds of en- 
gagements, they were scrupulously faithful to 
their word. Their bravery has been proved 
on many a bloody field, and their disinterested 
attachment to the cause which they thought 
right, exhibited in every species of suffering. 

Since the year 17-15, all the above peculiari- 
ties of the Highlanders as a nation have been 
undergoing a gradual process of extinction, 
jnsomuch that the people are now less dis- 
tinguishable from the Lowland peasantry, than 
the latter are from the English. The principal 
change has taken place in the number and em- 
ployment of the population. It is evident that 
in the former state of things, it was the inter- 
est of the chief to have his lands as numerous- 
ly peopled as possible, in order that he might 
enjoy the higher political distinction. After- 
wards, when the strength and sinews of men 
came to be of less use to the proprietor, as he 
might then rather be called, it became an ob- 
ject of some importance to reduce the number 
of superfluous retainers, and stock his lauds 
with a different species of cattle, which he 
could sell for money in the Lowland markets. 
Thus for many years a process of deportation 
has been kept up ; the poor clansmen, who, 
in one sense, had a right to the soil as well as 
their chiefs, have been carried in thousands from 
the glens of their fathers, where every object 
spoke to them of some endeared tale of family 
history, to clear a still ruder home for them- 
selves amidst the wilds of Canada. To such an 
extent is this system carried that, in 1830, no 
fewer than 3000 emigrants sailed from Green- 
ock.* The population has been much reduc- 
ed, but hard as the case appears, it is perhaps 
rot to be regretted, as the country, by climate 
and intractable ruggedness, is really better cal- 
culated for the support of cattle than of hu- 



* The difficulty and trouble with which these poor 
people effect their own transportation may not be un- 
worthy of notice. The circulation of money is very 
limited among them, and their whole property may be 
said to consist of a few black cattle and small horses, all 
of which are made over to the emigrant's agent at his 
own price, and which he sends to the south markets at 
his own risk ; the roofs of their huts, their boats, in 
short, every thing they have, must be converted by him 
into money, before the necessary sum for defraying the j 
freight can be realized. 



man beings. It is even to be desired that 
many of those who remain could also be en- 
abled to emigrate, as their style of living is of 
so miserable a character as to offer the very re- 
verse of a premium for human existence. They 
generally occupy small patches of ground, just 
enough to support life, and from which they 
can scarcely afford to pay any rent. Their 
cottages are the most wretched hovels ima- 
ginable, and notwithstanding the general kind- 
ness of the landlords, their mode of life is very 
miserable. Resides this class, there is just 
one other of any note in the Highlands, con- 
sisting of the small farmers, drovers, factois, 
innkeepers, &c. who manage what may be call- 
ed the business of the country, that is, the 
rearing of live-stock for the Lowland and Eng- 
lish shambles. As for the landlords, who are 
now much more numerous than the chiefs of 
old, they reside chiefly in London or in 
Edinburgh, and are not distinguished by any 
peculiarity whatever from those of the rest of 
Scotland. 

It is very common to hear the alteration of 
things in the Highlands lamented, either on the 
mere principle of antiquarianism, or as having 
been productive of much misery to the country 
itself, and much loss to the rest of the state, in 
so far as concerns the decrease of population. 
But, though we regret as heartily as any one 
to see the vestiges of an ancient, if not prime- 
val, people perishing from the face of the earth 
— though we sympathize most acutely in the 
pains of a compulsory emigration — and though 
we are anxious to maintain the population of 
the country at its highest possible pitch, — we 
still think, that the change, upon the whole, 
besides being practically unavoidable, is ab- 
stractly fortunate for the interests of humanity 
at large. The truth is, that the existence of 
so large a body of uneducated and uncivilized 
people, who could be turned to any purpose 
theirsuperiors willed, was exceedingly danger- 
ous at all times to the peace of the more in- 
dustrious and cultivated community. It was 
found that Highlanders would fight in causes 
however adverse to civil bberty, as in the case 
of America, when Lowlanders hung back; and 
it is to be supposed that they would do so again. 
The clearing out of the population of the High- 
lands, or at least the thinning of it, has been 
therefore a fortunate event for the growth of 
civil liberty in Britain. The very humane 
measures now adopted by various religious bo- 



544 



HIGHLANDS. 



dies — one of which (the Society for the Diffu- 
sion of Christian Knowledge in the Highlands) 
was instituted by the Church of Scotland as 
early as 1703 — to enlighten the remnant of the 
population, will, in the course of time, smooth 
down what asperities of character are yet re- 
maining, and, at length, with other causes con- 
spiring, place the Highlanders on a level of 
education and comforts with their neighbours, 
when there will be no longer any fears on this 
score. It appears, from an essay recently pub- 
lished under the patronage of the Highland 
Society, and by the census of 1821, that the 
counties of Argyle, Inverness, Nairn, Ross, 
Cromarty, Sutherland, Caithness, Orkney, and 
Shetland, and the Gaelic district of Perth and 
Moray, comprehending 171 parishes, contained 
416,852 persons, forming 78,609 families. Of 
this mass, the number living in towns of above 
1000 inhabitants does not make one-tenth of 
the whole; and it is chiefly on the eastern 
coasts that these towns occur. The extensive 
shires of Inverness and Argyle comprehend 
nearly one-fifth of the whole surface of Scot- 
land, yet they contain only one-eleventh part 
of its population. Three-fourths of the popu- 
lation of the Highlands and islands still speak 
the Gaelic language ; the number of persons 
understanding English better than Gaelic be- 
ing 133,699, that of persons more proficient in 
Gaelic, 303,153. The only means of religious 
instruction for this population, including forty 
appointments to chapels of ease by government, 
are provided by 264 parish ministers and mis- 
sionaries of the establishment, eight Episcopal 
clergymen, and about thirty of other persua- 
sions. There are about ten Roman Catholic 
priests within the Highland limits, chiefly in 
the counties of Inverness and Argyle. About 
12,000 persons in the western districts profess 
the Roman Catholic faith. At Lismore there 
was formerly a college, presided over by a 
bishop, which has now merged in that of Blairs, 
near Aberdeen, recently founded and endowed 
by Mr. Menzies of Pitfoddels. This'is now the 
only seminary for the instruction of the Catho- 
lic priesthood in Scotland. In Appin and some 
other places in the Highlands, there are great 
numbers of Episcopalians, who have sometimes 
been classed as Roman Catholics. The num- 
ber of schools in the Highlands belonging to 
parishes and instituted by associations is, by a 
late calculation, 495. About one-half of the 
Highland population is unable to read ; and a 



third are so far distant from schools, that they 
are unable to attend those which have been 
erected for their instruction. Vast numbers 
of Bibles and pious works have been distribut- 
edfor some years back by different societies; still 
the Bibles are in the proportion of only one 
for every eight persons. In general there is 
one person in every family who can read the 
Bible, either in Gaelic or English. The 
Church of Scotland deserves great credit for 
its exertions in aid of the religious instruction 
and education of the poor Highlanders. A 
society has just been instituted, under the Epis- 
copal Church of Scotland, for the establish- 
ment of a number of lay itinerating catechists, 
and the distribution of religious works in the 
Gaelic tongue, in order to preserve Episcopal- 
ians from, being induced to come within the 
pale of the Presbyterian or the Roman com- 
munions. The singular lukewarmness of the 
Episcopalians, and the want of a hearty co- 
operation between the clergy and laity, in fa- 
vour of missionaries, have hitherto been the 
means of allowing the power of the bishops to 
be in many places nearly lost sight of. There 
are exceedingly few towns in the Highlands. 
Along the whole of the western coast, includ- 
ing the inland tract, there are only two towns 
and two or three villages, with a variety of 
wretched fishing hamlets. On the east coast, 
where the country is in few places sterile or 
otherwise unfavourable to population, they are 
more numerous. The only printing establish- 
ment in the Highlands is at Inverness. Ideas 
of feudal attachment are extinguished almost 
everywhere, except in some parts of Ross and 
Inverness- shires ; and the natives of all the 
districts are daily losing their characteristic 
hereditary features. The Highlanders of both 
the upper and lower classes are seldom alive 
to the value of improvements ; and according- 
ingly it is remarked, that the country has been 
indebted for a great part of the most valuable 
to persons not connected with it by birth. 
National beneficence has done much for the 
Highlands, as may be learned by turning to the 
article Caledonian Canal, and to the excel- 
lent letter by Mr. Joseph Mitchell, which con- 
cludes the present disquisition. For many 
years there has been a gradual and steady in- 
crease of Lowland store-farmers into the 
Highland districts, and by these intelligent 
men the estates have been greatly enhanced in 
value. The kind of sheep formerly pastured 



HIGHLANDS. 



545 



have given place to those of a different quality. 
Within these forty years, the Cheviot has su- 
perseded the original black-faced breed, and in 
consequence the value of sheep farms has been 
nearly doubled. To put this in a stronger 
light, it may be mentioned, that the two first 
prizes given by the Highland Society in 1830 
were gained by Sutherlandshire farmers. The 
new roads have been of immense benefit to the 
sheep farmers. Till 1809, Sutherland and 
Caithness were nearly destitute of roads. 
Now that these have laid the country open, 
the exports from the barren districts amount 
annually to 80,000 fleeces of wool, and 20,000 
Cheviot sheep ; and from the sea-coast, several 
cargoes of grain, the produce of three consi- 
derable distilleries of Highland whisky, many 
droves of cattle, and from 30,000 to 40,000 
barrels of herring, besides cod and ling. The 
greater part of the sales of the sheep and cattle 
of the Highlands take place at Amulree Tryst 
in May, the Dumbarton market in June, the 
Falkirk Trysts in August, September and Oc- 
tober, and the Doune Trysts in November. 
In all the islands and along the northern and 
western coasts, a very large proportion of the 
food of the people is derived from the shores. 
In the outer Hebrides, from Whitsunday till 
the potato crop becomes available in the begin- 
ning of September, the people live almost ex- 
clusively upon shell-fish of various kinds, toge- 
ther with sand-eels and occasionally sea-weeds 
Should a fish be found upon the shore, mang- 
led by gulls, or even in an incipient stage 
of putrefaction, it is seized upon. Milk 
and oatmeal form the food of those in good 
circumstances. The great evil under which 
the Highlands now labour, is the want of ca- 
pital to put in operation the latent industry of 
the natives. Though the present improving 
system be advantageous to the proprietors, it 
leaves vast numbers of the expelled inhabi- 
tants, as has been said, to live in this degraded 
manner on the coasts ; and until emigration 
carry them off, or they be attracted to some 
profitable course of labour, such as fishing, 
there will be much individual suffering. Suth- 
erlandshire has been the most extensive theatre 
of this removal of the population to the sea- 
coast yet witnessed, and its interior has be- 
come one vast solitude. The instruments of 
culture used in the Highlands were, till lately, 
rude, and little was known of improved modes 
of farming. There is a great want of manure. 



Lime abounds, but there is no coal to burn it. 
Fuel of any kind in some districts can hardly be 
got. Cottage gardens are nearly unknown, and 
the people, except in a few praise-worthy in- 
stances, are not encouraged in constructing 
or tending them. The sole manufacture of 
the maritime Highlands is, or rather was, kelp ; 
and if this be taken totally from the people by 
the introduction of a foreign article, the utmost 
misery will be endured for many years, till in- 
dustry can be made to pursue some new chan- 
nel. The number of boats engaged in the cod 
and haddock and in the herring fishery, in the 
proper season, along the Inverness, Cromarty, 
and Tain Firths, and belonging to the dis- 
trict, is 319. The number of men and boys 
employed in the boats is 1200, and fully as 
many men and women on shore. Various 
attempts have been made to introduce manu • 
factures, but they have failed ; and in like 
manner the erection of new villages has also 
been attended with little success. There is a 
considerable quantity of plaiding and coarse 
stockings made by poor people in Inverness- 
shire and Wester Ross, and sold at the markets 
for home consumpt. Cattle, sheep, wool, whis- 
ky, pork, and fish, are the chief exports from 
the Highlands. In concluding this desultory 
sketch, it ought to be mentioned, that for some 
years the Highlands and Islands have been 
benefited beyond calculation by the use of steam 
vessels, which have exposed the coasts to the 
visits of strangers, and given natives oppor- 
tunities of carrying to market many things for- 
merly nearly valueless ; and, as has been al- 
ready stated in the article Argyleshire, have 
raised the value of property in many places, 
fully twenty per cent. 

Notices of the Improved State of the Highlands 
since the commencement of the Public Works, 
executed under the direction of the Parliament- 
ary Commissioners ; in a Letter addressed to 
Lord Colchester by Mr. Joseph Mitchell, 
Superintendent under the Commission — From 
the Fourteenth Highland Roads and Bridges 
Report, 1828. (Parliamentary Paper. J 

In March 1799, colonel Anstruther, superin- 
tendent of the military roads in the Highlands 
of Scotland, in a memorial to the Lords of the 
treasury relative to these roads, states, that 
"they passed through the wildest and most 
mountainous parts of the Highlands of Scot- 
4a 



54G 



HIGHLANDS. 



land, where the people were poor and the 
country thinly inhabited, and totally unable to 
keep in repair either the roads or bridges by 
statute labour, or any other means." The dis- 
trict to which this observation referred, was si- 
tuated more immediately in contact with the 
low countries, the military roads extending no 
further northwards than the Moray Firth and 
the fortresses along the Caledonian glen ; and 
the wide and extensive country beyond, com- 
prising the counties of Ross, Cromarty, Su- 
therland, and Caithness, with the greater part 
of Inverness-shire, and the whole of the Wes- 
tern Islands, intersected as it was by arms of 
the sea, dangerous ferries, deep and rapid rivers, 
and innumerable lesser streams, subject to fre- 
quent and sudden floods, without the accomo- 
dation of bridges, piers, or other facilities, was, 
as may be conceived, in a much worse condi- 
tion. The internal communication was at- 
tended with the utmost difficulty and danger, 
and any considerable intercourse with the low 
countries was rendered almost impracticable ; 
which was, no doubt, the principal cause that 
the Highlands, thus insulated, remained in 
their unimproved condition, while the southern 
parts of the kingdom were in all directions 
making rapid advances in every species of in- 
dustry and civilization ; and to such a degree 
did the want of safe and easy intercourse be- 
tween the northern counties affect even the or- 
dinary administration of justice, .that, until of 
late years, the. counties of Sutherland and 
Caithness were not required to return jurors 
to the northern circuits at Inverness. Such 
may, in a few words, be described as the state 
of the Highlands previous to the year 1803, 
when the parliamentary commissioners com- 
menced their operations. Since that period 
the progress of these works bas gradually laid 
open the most inaccessible parts of the coun- 
try ; and the commissioners, by combining the 
efforts of all the counties in the prosecution of 
one great general measure of improvement, 
have succeeded in effecting a change in the 
state of the Highlands, perhaps unparalleled 
in the same space of time in the history of any 
country. Before the commencement of the 
present century, no public coach, or other re- 
gular vehicle of conveyance, existed in the 
Highlands. In the year 1800, it was attempted 
to establish coaches between Inverness and 
Perth, and between Inverness and Aberdeen ; 
but, from the state of the roads at that period, 
23. 



and the little intercourse which then took place, 
it was found necessary to discontinue them 
after a short trial ; and it was not until 
1806 and 1811, that coaches were regular- 
ly established in these directions, being the 
first that ran on roads in the Highlands. 
Since the completion of the parliamentary 
works, several others have successively com- 
menced ; and during the summer of last year 
no less than seven different stage coaches pass- 
ed daily to and from Inverness, making forty- 
four coaches arriving at, and the same number 
departing from that town in the course of every 
week. Three of these, including the mail, run 
between Inverness and Aberdeen ; one be- 
tween Inverness and Perth, along the High- 
land road ; two between Inverness and Ding- 
wall, Invergordon, Cromarty and Tain ; and 
the mail coach along the northern coast road 
from Inverness to Wick and Thurso, extend- 
ing from the capkal of the empire, in one di- 
rect line, above 800 miles. This latter coach 
was not established until 1819, and much doubt 
was entertained at that time of its success. 
Indeed, some assistance was at first required 
from the counties to support it This was, 
however, soon afterwards withdrawn, and the 
encouragement it has since met with has en- 
abled the contractors to increase its original 
speed to eight miles an hour, and latterly to 
employ four horses for the first fifty miles 
north of Inverness, notwithstanding the oppo- 
sition of the two other coaches above mention- 
ed. There has also been established, within 
the last two years, a stage coach from Inve- 
rary to Oban in Argyleshire, over a considera- 
ble part of the improved military line in that 
district of the Highlands : and when it is stat- 
ed that, in connexion with these coaches, 
more than 13,000 passengers went last year 
through the Crinan Canal, that three steam- 
boats plied regularly for the conveyance of pas- 
sengers along the Caledonian Canal, and five 
others from Glasgow, along the west coast, 
and to the different islands of Skye, Mull, Islay, 
&c. as well as one occasionally from Leith, 
along the east coast to Inverness, some idea 
may be formed of the increased intercourse 
that has taken place between the remotest parts 
of the Highlands and the southern counties 
within the last few years. 

It deserves notice also, that, along the roads 
constructed by the commissioners (extending in 
length upwards of 900 miles,) excepting in one 



HIGHLANDS. 



S47 



instance, * suitable inns, affording accommo- 
dation superior to what could be expected, 
considering their recent introduction, have been 
erected or fitted up at regidar stages ; while for- 
merly, even had other facilities existed, the 
total want of accommodation for travellers 
would of itself have presented a serious ob- 
stacle to all internal intercourse. 

Post-chaises and other modes of travelling, 
have, during the same period, increased pro- 
portionally ; and instead of five post-chaises, 
which was the number kept in the town of In- 
verness about the year 1803, there are now up- 
wards of a dozen, besides two establishments for 
the hire of gigs and riding horses, all of which 
find sufficient employment. Post-chaises and 
horses have also been kept up, for the last two 
or three years, at all the inns on the great High- 
land road, and also at Dingwall and Tain, and 
at Inverary. The number of private carriages 
in Inverness and its vicinity has likewise in- 
creased remarkably during the last twenty-five 
years, and no less than one hundred and sixty 
coaches and gigs may now be seen attending 
the Inverness yearly races ; whereas, at the 
commencement of that period, the whole ex- 
tent of the Highlands could scarcely produce 
a dozen ; and at no very distant date previous- 
ly, a four-wheeled carriage was an object of 
wonder and veneration to the inhabitants. In 
1715, the first coach or chariot seen in Inver- 
ness is said to have been brought by the Earl 
of Seaforth. In 1760 the first post- chaise 
was brought to Inverness, and was for a con- 
siderable time the only four-wheeled car- 
riage in the district. There are at present 
ibur manufactories of coaches in Inverness. 
I may state also, that on all the principal roads 
which have been constructed in the Highlands, 
regular carriers, for the conveyance of goods, 
now pass at all seasons of the year from In- 
verness to Tain, Skye, Loch- Carron, Loch- 
Alsh, Elgin, Nairn, Campbelltown, Aviemore, 
&c. ; and others from Glasgow to Ballachu- 
lish, &c. in the western district. Perhaps in 
no instance has the beneficial influence of the 
parliamentary works been more perceptible in 
ite result, than in the speedy and certain con- 
veyance of intelligence to the remotest quarters 
of the Highlands. Through their whole extent 
this department is now conducted with as much 



* Tim Logman road. 



regularity and despatch us in any part of the 
kingdom ; and when I state that the following 
extract from a letter, which I have received 
from a gentleman in the Island of Skye, is 
equally applicable to the other districts in 
which roads have been constructed, it will be 
unnecessary for me to add any thing further on 
this part of the subject. " The communica- 
tion of our letters and newspapers by the mail, 
is very different now to what it was about 
twenty years ago. Previous to the completion 
of the roads, we had first only one, . and after- 
wards two mails a-week ; and these were only 
carried on runners' backs. There was only 
one runner from Inverness to Janetown ; and 
there being no piers or landing places, or in- 
deed regular ferry-boats, the detention at the 
ferries must have been occasionally very consi- 
derable. We are now very differently situated. 
We have a regular communication three times 
a-week with Dingwall, with a change of horses 
at different stations to the Ferry of Kyle- 
haken ; and, as an instance of the facility of 
communication, I receive a London Sunday 
newspaper regularly here (Portree) every 
Thursday morning ; a circumstance which must 
appear to a stranger almost incredible, and 
which of course is solely attributable to the 
roads made under the authority of the Parlia- 
mentary commissioners." Not less remark- 
able, though more indirect, has been the im- 
pulse given to agricultural improvement 
throughout the Highlands. The construction 
of the parliamentary roads having in the first 
instance opened the means of access through 
the districts generally, and also the intercourse 
with the low countries, a desire was naturally 
excited among the proprietors and tenantry 
more or less remotely situated, to connect 
themselves immediately with the general lines 
of communication, and thus avail themselves 
of the facilities which they afforded for im- 
provements is Agriculture. Hence, numerous 
lines of district road have been constructed 
during the progress and since the completion 
of the parliamentary works, in every part of 
the Highlands, by means of statute labour; 
and the rapid and important increase in the 
extent of cultivation, which has uniformly been 
the consequence, proves in a striking degree 
the favourable effects resulting from the works 
of the commissioners. Their roads being ex. 
ecuted without reference to any individual in- 
terest, they were made in lines most calculated 



548 



HIGHLANDS. 



for the general good, and necessarily pointed 
out the proper direction of those subsidi- 
ary branches which were required to be made 
by the statute labour and out of private 
funds. The public aid afforded for the par- 
liamentary works kept the local funds, in a 
great measure, entire for such separate pur- 
poses; and the knowledge gained from ob- 
serving the works of the commissioners sav- 
ed much expense, and furnished the assistance 
of skilful engineers and experienced workmen. 
Upon this subject I have received the follow- 
ing communication from good authority : " In 
illustration of the spirit which these public 
works have excited, and the incalculable bene- 
fits which they have produced already, and 
may produce more extensively hereafter, it 
may be sufficient to refer to the recent act for 
regulating the statute labour of the.county of 
Sutherland, by which the services in kind were 
converted into a money payment. The coun- 
ty having been divided by this act into four 
districts, in the first of them, the Dornoch dis- 
trict, nineteen miles of new road have been 
made with requisite bridges, by the joint means 
of composition for statute labour and contri- 
bution from Lord Stafford the principal pro- 
prietor ; in the second, or Sutherland district, 
seventy-five miles of road have been made by 
the like means, besides a line of twenty-five 
miles from Tongue down Strathuahaver to 
Altnaharrow, and a direct line of thirty seven 
miles from Helmsdale on the east coast, to 
Bighouse on the north coast, both of which 
have been effected by statute labour funds ex- 
clusively ; in the third, or Reay district, there 
is now constructing a road of thirty-four miles 
from Altnaharrow to Durness ; and in the 
fourth, or Assynt district, several roads and 
bridges also have been constructed, and one 
line of forty-four miles in length from the east 
coast up Strath- Ordil to Loch-Inver on the 
west coast, intersecting this portion of the 
island at right angles to the Helmsdale road ; 
this important line has been made partly by 
the statute labour funds, partly at Lord Staf- 
ford's expense, and four miles of it entirely by 
the late Lord Ashburton. One immediate 
result of making these roads has been the sub- 
stitution of carts instead of ponies for the com- 
mercial intercourse of the country ; and the 
saving in point of time, and labour and expense 
in this respect is beyond all calculation, giving 
* new impulse to the improvement of the coun- 



try. The people are extending their smaller 
roads in all directions for their carts to bring 
sea-weed from the shore, or their fuel from the 
peat mosses ; and activity, energy and industry 
have taken place of their former indolence, 
sloth, and idleness ; raising everywhere more 
comfortable and better-built cottages, with the 
addition of gardens, an accommodation and 
source of supply to such heretofore unknown, 
but now getting into very general use." With 
regard to the state of husbandry, the following 
extract from the letter before mentioned will 
suffice, as applying with equal, and in many 
cases with greater, force to all parts of the 
Highlands : — '•' With the exception of a few 
carts, which were in the possession of a very 
few individual principal tenants, paying a rent 
of from L.200 to L.700 a-year, there were 
none to be found in the island of Skye. There 
are now numerous carts in every quarter ; and 
their introduction has in like manner been the 
means of introducing other useful implements, 
such as the plough and iron-teethed harrows ; 
neither of which were much used, excepting 
by the principal tenants, not many years ago. 
These improvements have, without doubt, 
been caused solely by the roads made under 
the authority of the parliamentary commis- 
sioners, as without roads there could of course 
be no carts ; and although it may be true that, 
by having roads made on different farms, cer- 
tain advantages might have been derived, still, 
as these roads would be merely local, no great 
general good could be derived from them, as 
they could not possibly open up the communi- 
cation from one place to another." At the 
commencement of the present century, from 
the difficulty of conveyance for exportation, 
cultivation was almost entirely confined to nar- 
row stripes of land situated along the sea-coast, 
and in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
few sea-port towns ; and even here, was not 
brought to that state of perfection which, since 
the introduction of implements of a less defec- 
tive description than those formerly used, it 
has of late years attained. As an instance of 
the improvement that has taken place in Ross- 
shire, now the most beautiful and highly cul- 
tivated county in the Highlands, I may men- 
tion, that there is at present in the service of 
Major Gilchrist of Ospisdale, in Sutherland, 
as farm manager, the individual who first in- 
troduced the ploughing of land into regular 
ridges, and the division of fields into any thing 



HIGHLANDS. 



.549 



like systematic arrangement in that county ; 
the fields being formerly detached pieces of 
land, ploughed irregularly, as the ground with 
the least labour suited. The carts generally 
used were of the poorest description, with a 
kind of tumbler or solid wheel, and wicker 
conical baskets ; little or no lime was used for 
sigricultural purposes. " I succeeded to a ferm 
in this country about thirty years ago (says 
Major Gilchrist), when the working strength 
consisted of sixteen oxen and twenty-four 
small horses called garrons ; this farm is now 
laboured by three pair of horses." The total 
amount of wheat then raised in the county was 
not equal to what is now produced on many 
single farms. It was not until 1813 that the 
first barley mill, north of the Cromarty Firth, 
was erected, and in 1821 the first flour mill 
(at Drummond on the estate of Fowlis) by 
the same individual. To such an extent, how- 
ever, has cultivation of late years been carried, 
that the growth of wheat alone is now estimat- 
ed at 20,000 quarters annually, and the exporta- 
tion of grain to London, Leith, Liverpool, &c. 
.luring the last year, amounted to upwards of 
1 0,000 quarters ; besides the supply of the ex- 
tensive and populous pastoral districts of the 
county, and the towns of Dingwall, Tain, In- 
verness, &c. to which places I am credibly in- 
formed upwards of 10,000 bolls of flour are 
now annually sent for the consumption of the 
inhabitants. Among other exports may like- 
■wise be mentioned, the produce of various ex- 
tensive whisky distilleries situated in different 
parts of the county, and a considerable quanti- 
ty of salted pork, bacon, &c. from the ports of' 
Cromarty and Invergordon. I understand, that 
in the year 1819 the sum estimated to have 
lieen expended in the purchase of the latter 
amounted to about L. 30,000. Indeed, a mark- 
ed improvement in domestic animals of every 
description has taken place in the northern 
counties since the improved communication 
With the south. I need hardly allude to the 
introduction of Cheviot sheep, to the pains 
taken in improving the breed of cattle by the 
importation of the most improved sorts from 
the West Highlands, and of cows from Ayr- 
shire. Considerable attention has been re- 
cently paid to the breed of horses, both for the 
purposes of agriculture and draught, and in 
some instances those of the finest description 
have been successfully reared. Nor has the 
breed of pigs been neglected, several valuable 



species, both pure and crosses, having been in- 
troduced. In short, a general spirit of approxi- 
mating these counties, in as far as the soil and 
climate will permit, to the more advanced 
counties in the south, seems everywhere to 
prevail. The improvements in many parts of 
Inverness-shire have been scarcely upon a less 
extensive scale than in the county of Ross, al- 
though the field for agricultural operations in 
that county is naturally more limited. In the 
county of Sutherland, the objects of the com- 
missioners have been promoted in an extraor- 
dinaqr degree, by the liberal exertions of the 
Marquis of Stafford, and other heritors, who 
have effected a complete revolution in the state 
of that extensive district of the Highlands. 
-Agriculture is there conducted on the most 
approved plans, and farm buildings, and other 
establishments of husbandry, have been erect- 
ed on a scale equally extensive and complete 
as in the most improved parts of the kingdom. 
This is the more remarkable, as not twenty 
years ago nothing of the kind existed ; and un- 
til that period, the great body of the inhabi- 
tants were confined to the upper parts of the 
county, and had undergone little change from 
their primitive and uncultivated habits, living 
in huts of the most wretched description, and 
strangers to every species of industry or com- 
fort. Latterly, however, crofts or small por- 
tions of ground were gradually lotted out for 
them near the coast, in such positions as were 
best calculated to employ their labour with ad- 
vantage to themselves and to the country ; and 
every encouragement was given for the im- 
provement of the lands, and the erection of 
comfortable and suitable cottages ; while the 
upper parts were converted into extensive farms 
for the rearing of cattle and sheep, to which 
they are naturally adapted, and in which way 
only they can prove valuable to the proprietors 
or to the community. That the first impulse 
to these important changes has been given by 
the operations of the commissioners, is no more 
than is uniformly acknowledged in the state- 
ments of those individuals, under whose direc- 
tions the improvements have been conducted, 
In confirmation of these remarks, I have 
received a letter from a gentleman residing 
in Sutherland, from which the following is 
an extract: — " When I came to the High- 
lands in 1809, the whole of Sutherland and 
Caithness was nearly destitute of roads. This 
county imported com and meal in return for 



5,30 



HIGHLANDS. 



the small value of Highland kyloes (cattle,) 
which formed its almost sole export. The 
people lay scattered in inaccessible straths and 
spots among the mountains, where they lived 
in family with their pigs and kyloes, in turf 
cabins of the most miserable description ; spoke 
only Gaelic ; and spent the whole of their 
time in indolence and sloth. Thus they had 
gone on from father to son, with little change 
except what the introduction of illicit distilla- 
tion had wrought, (and this evil was then chief- 
ly confined to the vicinity of Caithness ;) and 
making little or no export from the coShtry 
beyond the few lean kyloes, which paid the 
rent, and produced wherewithal to pay for the 
oatmeal imported. But about this time the 
country was begun to be opened up by the 
parliamentary roads, — by one road, from Novar 
to Tongue, through the barren mountains of 
which that district is composed, and by an- 
other, passing along the east shore towards 
Wick. Certainly, a more striking example 
of what roads do effect, — and effect too in 
an extremely poor country, — has rarely been 
seen ; such a quick exhibition of what na- 
tural wealth lay latent in such a country, is 
unexampled. Your roads were opened, when 
the agricultural distresses were just beginning. 
In the face of that distress we now annually 
export from the barren district about 80,000 
fleeces of wool, and 20,000 Cheviot sheep ; 
and from the sea-coast several cargoes of grain, 
the produce of three considerable distilleries of 
Highland whisky, a good many droves of well- 
fed cattle, and from 30,000 to 40,000 barrels 
of herrings, besides cod, ling, &c. But the 
most happy result, in my opinion, is its effect 
upon the people. The fathers of the present 
generation of young men, were a great many 
of them brought, by compulsion to the coast ; 
others, after they came to substitute carts and 
wheels for their former rude contrivances, have 
drawn down to the road-side of themselves. 
The effects of society upon human nature ex- 
hibit themselves: — the pigs and cattle are 
treated to a separate table ; the dunghill is 
turned to the outside of the house ; the tartan 
tatters have given place to the produce of 
Huddersfield and Manchester, Glasgow, and 
Paisley ; the Gaelic to the English ; and few 
young persons are to be found who cannot both 
read and write." Another well-informed cor- 
respondent writes to me thus : — " About the 
year 1809, the fifty miles of country between 



Sutherland and Inverness was first began to b« 
laid open by roads to the south. There was^ 
till then, no regularly formed road in that part 
of the country, — no harbour, no attempt to 
drain the land, — turnips and wheat were little 
known ; and when Lord Stafford and his ten- 
ants originally began their improvements, a 
well-constructed plough had never been seen 
in Sutherland, and the inhabitants were entire- 
ly unacquainted with using ploughs in a work- 
manlike manner. At that time nothing could 
have led me to believe, that in the short space 
of ten years, I should, in such a countiy, see 
roads made in every direction, the mail-coach 
daily driving through it, new harbours construct- 
ed, in one of which upwards of twenty vessels 
have been repeatedly seen at one time taking 
in cargoes for exportation ; coal, and salt, and 
lime, and brick-works established ; farm-stead- 
ings everywhere built ; fields laid off, and sub- 
stantially enclosed; capital horses employed, 
with south-country implements of husbandry 
made in Sutherland ; tilling the ground, secun- 
dum artem, for turnips, wheat, and artificial 
grasses ; an export of fish, wool, and mutton, 
to the extent of L.70,000 a-year ; and a baker, 
a carpenter, a blacksmith, mason, shoemaker, 
&c. to be had as readily, and nearly as cheap 
too, as in other countries." The same corres- 
pondent informs me that — " "When the line of 
road from the Fleet Mound to the Ord of 
Caithness was commenced, the object of every 
one was to get it carried as far from their door 
and arable lands as possible. It was carried, 
therefore, generally speaking, at the outside of 
the cultivated district, at the base of the moun- 
tains. Bitterly do the present possessors la- 
ment the blindness of their predecessors. The 
effect, however, has been extremely advanta- 
geous to the countiy ; it has forced the occu- 
piers to cultivate carefully all the uncultivated 
corners of their arable land below the road ; 
and this line has served as a new base to stall 
from for the cultivation of all that lies above 
it, and that is fit for the plough. The old 
track which communicated with Caithness, lay 
along the beach, close by the sea. But being 
since carried into the interior, the consequences 
have been, a village built at Bonar Bridge, a 
great tract of country planted by Messrs- 
Houston of Criech and Dempster of Skibo ; 
the whole of the arable part of the Creech 
estate, subdivided with the best enclosures, 
trenched to a great extent, and all under the 



HIGHLANDS. 



,1 



best system of modern husbandry ; a distillery 
erected, and a new farm torn from the moun- 
tain's side at Skibo. The effects produced by 
the Parliamentary Roads in Caithness, I can, 
from experience, state to have been very great ; 
having had to ride into it, the first time I knew 
it, in 1813, and having visited it. in 1826, in a 
carriage. About Wick, the additional cultivation 
is very great, and all along the road-side con- 
siderable symptoms of improvement are every- 
where seen ; the same is still more conspicuous, 
I understand, from Wick to Thurso. They are 
making a shorter road to the latter place, called 
the Kerseymire Road, which will bisect the 
county; but though Caithness is capable of 
vast agricultural improvement, yet that must 
necessarily be slow, as many of the lands are 
fettered most strictly by their entails." I have 
not been able to acquire more specific infor- 
mation regarding the county of Caithness ; 
but it is only necessary to contrast the state of 
the districts immediately bordering on the 
Parliamentary Roads passing through it, with 
that of the more unconnected portions, to 
perceive the important effects that have at- 
tended them ; and as this county is naturally 
more susceptible of agricultural improvement 
than any of the others, the most beneficial con- 
sequences may reasonably be expected from 
still further opening the interior by additional 
roads. As an instance of the present condi- 
tion of some parts of this county along the 
Parliamentary Roads, I need only mention, 
that one farmer, in the year 1826, exported 
grain, the produce of his own farm, to the value 
of not less than L.2000. Indeed I may state 
generally, as equally applicable to the whole 
of the Highlands, that in my various journeys 
to the different parts of the country, I notice 
improvements extending in every direction ; 
and during my short recollection, a considera- 
ble extent of moor-land in various places has 
been enclosed and converted into cultivated 
fields. It may also seFve to show how syste- 
matic farming has become, that societies for 
the promotion of agriculture and the rearing of 
stock have been established in all the North- 
ern counties. Nor have plantations been be- 
hind in this general state of improvement. 
Many thousands of acres have within the last 
twenty five years been planted ; upon the Dun- 
robin estate alone, there have been planted with- 
in the last twenty-five years above nine millions 
of trees ; and although the climate is somewhat 



unfavourable for the growth of large trees, yet 
the attempts made promise to be attended with 
profit and advantage in many situations inca- 
pable of any other species of culture. The 
rapid improvements in agriculture have been 
accompanied with a corresponding change in 
the habitations of all ranks in the Highlands. 
Proprietors have expended large sums in the 
erection and ornamenting of suitable mansion- 
houses ; and, in the houses of gentlemen tacks- 
men, every species of comfort and convenience 
is to be found ; while the cotters are gradually 
exchanging their huts of mud or turf for neat 
and substantial cottages. To aid this benefi- 
cial change in the circumstances of the latter, 
great encouragement has, in various instances, 
been given by the heritors in granting timber, 
windows, lime, &c. ; and I am enabled to state, 
that in the island of Skye alone, no less a sum 
than L. 100,000 has been expended by the late 
Lord Macdonald, in the erection of buildings 
and other improvements. I may here also 
mention a fact, from which the general state of 
the Highlands before the Parliamentary works 
were undertaken, may be inferred ; namely, that 
at the period of his Lordship's accession, in 
1797, to his estates in that island, comprising 
nearly five parishes, there were throughout 
their whole extent no churches, only one manse, 
two or three small slated houses, and only one 
slated inn. To this island, and to the other 
Islands and Highlands of Scotland, by a recent 
act of parliament, passed in the reign of his 
present Majesty, the benefit of additional 
places of worship has been extended ; and sub- 
stantial churches, with suitable manses, have 
been erected in more than forty .places where 
none existed four years ago, from Islay and 
Iona to the Orkneys and Shetland. It will 
naturally be inferred that a great increase in 
the value of property must have arisen from 
the foregoing circumstances ; and a few facts 
will serve to place the change that has here 
been effected in its strongest Ught. In In- 
verness and its vicinity, the increase has been 
in several instances nearly tenfold; for in- 
stance, the lands of Merkinch, situated be- 
tween the town and the canal, rented twenty- 
five years ago between L. 70 and L. 80, while 
the rental for the last year amounted to L. 600. 
In 1790, the property of Redcastle, on the op- 
posite shore of the Beauly Firth, was sold for 
L. 25,000, and in 1824 was again sold to Sir 
William Fettes, Bart, for L. 135,000. Nor 



HIGHLANDS. 



has the change been less striking in the dis- 
tricts of the Highlands more removed from the 
influence of the northern capital — it is suffi- 
cient to refer to what has been done by capi- 
talists from the Lothians and Northumberland 
on the Stafford estates in Sutherland. The 
beneficial influence of the operations in that 
quarter has also been felt through the most in- 
accessible parts of Lord Reay's country, where 
enclosures have been made, farm-houses erect- 
ed, and the rental largely increased. The 
estates of Chisholm, situated in the romantic 
district of Strathglass, have risen since 1785 
from L.700 to be now upwards of L.5000 
per annum. When Dd. Macdonell of Glen- 
garry died in 1788, his yearly income did not 
exceed L.800 ; the same lands now yield from 
L.6000 to L.7000 a year. I have little 
doubt that a corresponding increase has taken 
place in most parts of the Highlands, but the 
present is a very unfavourable period for bring- 
ing forward instances, particularly in the pas- 
toral districts, owing to the depreciation of 
wool, sheep, cattle, &c, which has in a parti- 
cular degree affected the value of property in 
this part of the kingdom. This may well be 
inferred from the fact, that wool, which a few 
years ago was sold at from thirty-five shillings 
to two guineas per stone, produced at the last 
Inverness wool market no more than twelve or 
thirteen shillings. There cannot be a doubt 
that the increased facilities of communication, 
as leading to increased comforts, have naturally 
brought to market a greater variety, and to a 
larger amount of produce and manufacture, 
than was heretofore customary in the High- 
lands. Formerly Inverness supplied with 
foreign commodities almost all the Highlands, 
including Tain, Dingwall, Sutherland, and part 
of Caithness. Since, however, the means of 
communication with the south have been more 
extended, and suitable harbours erected at 
other places, the supply to the several districts 
has been direct ; and packets have been esta- 
blished from London and Leith to Wick, 
Thurso, Helmsdale, Brora, The Little Ferry, 
Tain, Dingwall, Invergordon, &c. Yet not- 
withstanding this division, the trade of Inver- 
ness has increased very considerably since the 
commencement of the present century. About 
twenty-five years ago, there were only four 
vessels, averaging ninety-six tons, that sailed 
once in every six weeks between London and 
Inverness; there are nowfive vessels of 130 tons, 



which sail every ten days. Since the opening 
of the Caledonian Canal, also, three regular 
traders from Liverpool have been established, 
besides a steam-boat for goods from Glasgow. 
In the Leith trade, only three vessels existed 
twenty-five years ago ; there are now six regu- 
larly employed, and sailing twice every week. 
Thirty years ago, there was only one vessel of 
forty tons trading between Inverness and 
Aberdeen ; there are now four of sixty or 
seventy tons each. These vessels are princi- 
pally employed in the importation of foreign 
commodities and manufactures; but the in- 
crease of general trade will best be seen by 
comparing the present amount of shore-dues 
with that in the year 1802. At that time 
they produced only L. 1 40 annually ; while in 
1816, with some advance in the rates for the 
improvement of the harbour, they amounted to 
L.680. In 1817, the lower part of the canal 
was opened ; and from the accommodation af- 
forded in its basin, part of the trade was car- 
ried on there, which reduced the rates, in. 1 820, 
to L.470. Since that period, however, the 
annual rent has again risen to L.560. The 
increasing wants of the inhabitants of Inver- 
ness sufficiently prove their increasing wealth ; 
and since their closer connexion with the 
southern counties, a rapid change has taken 
place in the general state of society- The 
manufacture of hempen and woollen cloths has 
been commenced ; churches and chapels of 
various sects built ; Missionary and Bible so- 
cieties established ; schools endowed ; an in- 
firmary erected; reading rooms established; 
subscription libraries set on foot ; two news- 
papers published weekly ; and a horticultural, 
a literary, and various other professional and 
philanthropical institutions founded. Two 
additional banks have likewise been instituted, 
three iron foundries, and three rope and sail 
manufactories have successively commenced; 
an additional bridge has been constructed ; the 
harbour has been enlarged and improved ; the 
town lighted with gas ; and all within the last 
twenty-five or thirty years. But in no instance 
is the benefit arising from facility of communi- 
cation more apparent than in the establishment 
(in 1817) of the great annual sheep and wool 
market at this central point of the Highlands, 
to which all the sheep farmers resort from the 
remotest parts of the country, to meet the 
wool-dealers and manufacturers of the south. 
Here the whole fleeces and sheep of the north 



II D D A M. 



5£S 



of Scotland are generally sold, or contracted 
for in the way of consignment ; and in 1818, 
upwards of 100,000 stones of wool and 150,000 
sbeep were sold at very advanced prices. This 
circumstance affords a striking proof of the ad- 
vantage of lines of communication in facilitat- 
ing the exportation and sale of the staple com- 
modities of the country. It wall not be unim- 
portant to remark here, that banking offices 
have likewise been of late years established at 
Thurso, Wick, Golspie ; two at Tain, and one 
at Fort William and at Inverary. The fore- 
going observations, it will be understood, apply 
more particularly to those districts which have 
been opened and accommodated by the various 
works of the commissioners; and although 
their influence has, in some degree, been felt 
through the whole extent of the Highlands, 
yet I have already explained how desirable and 
necessary various improvements, yet unaccom- 
plished, are for the still further melioration of 
this extensive country. 

Jos. Mitchell. 

Office of Highland Roads and Bridges, 
Inverness, 6th March 1828. 

To the Lord Colchester. 

By way of sequel to this extended article on 
the Highlands, and for the purpose of preserv- 
ing what some may consider a curious document 
illustrative of the ancient character of the dis- 
trict, we present an alphabetical list of all the 
known clans of Scotland, with a description of 
the particular badges of distinction anciently 
worn by each. 



Names. 
Buchanan 
Cameron 
Campbell 
Chisholm 
Colquhoun 
Cumming 
Drummond 
Farquharson 
Ferguson 
Forbes 
Fraser 
Gordon 
Graham 
Grant 
Gunn 
Lamont 
M'Allister 
M'Donald 



Badges 
Birch 
Oak 
Myrtle 
Alder 
Hazel 

Common Sallow 
Holly 

Purple Foxglove 
Poplar 
Broom 
Yew 
Ivy 

Laurel 

Cranberry Heath 
Rosewort 
Crab Apple Tree 
Five-leaved heath 
Bell Heath 



M'Donell 

M'Dougall 

M'Farlane 

M' Gregor 

M'Intosh 

M'Kay 

M'Kenzie 

M'Kinnon 

M'Lachlan 

M'Lean 

M'Leod 

M'Nab 

M'Neil 

M'Pherson 

M ; Quarrie 

M-Rae 

Munro 

Menzies 

Murray 

Ogilvie 

Oliphant 

Robertson 

Rose 

Ross 

Sinclair 

Stewart 

Sutherland 



Mountain Heath 

Cypress 

Cloud Berry Bush 

Pine 

Boxwood 

Bull Rush 

Deer Grass 

St. John's Wort 

Mountain Ash 

Blackberry Heath 

Red Wortle Berries 

Rose Black Berries 

Sea Ware 

Variegated Boxwood 

Black Thorn 

Fir Club Moss 

Eagle's Feathers 

Ash 

Juniper 

Hawthorn 

The Great Maple 

Fern, or Breckans 

Briar Rose 

Bear Berries 

Clover 

Thistle 

Cat's- tail Grass 



The chief of each respective clan was, and 
is, entitled to wear tw* eagle's feathers in his 
bonnet, in addition to the distinguishing badge 
of his clan. 

HILTON, a parish in Berwickshire united 
to that of Whitsome. — See Whitsome. 

HILLTOWN, a fishing village, parish of 
Fearn, Ross-shire, on the Moray Firth. 

HOBKIRK, anciently and properly Hope- 
KmK, a parish in Roxburghshire, lying betwixt 
Cavers on the west, and Abbotrule and South- 
dean on the east, and extending about twelve 
miles in length by three in breadth. The 
district for the greater part rises from the left 
bank of the Rule water, and contains much 
well-cultivated land. — Population in 1821,652. 

HODDAM, a parish in Annandale, Dum- 
fries-shire, comprehending the three united 
parishes of Hoddam, Luce and Ecclefechan, 
which were joined in the year 1609. Hod- 
dam (originally Hod-holm, the head of the 
holm) extends five miles in length by a breadth 
at the middle of three and a half, and is bounded 
by the river Annan on the south, which partly 
separates it from Cummertrees and Annan, by 
St. Mungo on the west, Tundergarth on the 
4b 



554 



HOPE. 



north, and Middlebie on the east. The surface 
is beautifully diversified with meadow and culti 
vated lands of a varying elevation, finely en- 
closed and planted, forming one of the most 
delightful spots in Annandale. Its lower 
parts are watered by the Milk and Mein wa- 
ters, both tributary to the Annan. On the 
northern boundary of the parish is the hill of 
Brunswark. The first place of note which is 
reached in travelling up the district from An- 
nan, is the castle of Hoddam, the seat of the 
old and respectable family of Sharpe. This 
is a strong square keep of the antique castel- 
lated fashion, and one of the few such edifices 
on the border still kept in repair. It is said 
to have been built between the years 1437 and 
1484, by John, Lord Herries, of Herries, with 
the stones of a more ancient castle of the 
same name which stood on the opposite side 
of the river. This report concerning the 
builder is partly confirmed by the arms of 
Herries, cut on the top of the staircase ; but 
there is no date on the building. During the 
border wars it was a strength of considerable 
importance. It came into the family of Sharpe 
in 1690, and is at present inhabited by Lieu- 
tenant- General Matthew Sharpe. — Population 
in 1821, 1640. 

HOLBORN HEAD, a promontory on 
the northern coast of Caithness, west from 
Thurso Bay. 

HOLM, a parish in the south-eastern 
part of the mainland of Orkney, lying on the 
shores of that beautiful and well-frequented 
firth called Holm Sound, leading from the 
open sea on the east to ScalpaFlow and Strom- 
ness. It extends upwards of five miles in 
length by about two in breadth at the widest 
part ; the parishes of St. Andrews and Deer- 
ness bound it on the north. — Population in 
1821, 773. 

HOLOMIN, an islet of the Hebrides near 
the island of Mull. 

HOLY ISLE, a small island covering the 
harbour of Lamlash on the south side of Ar- 
ran. It is hilly, and bears a resemblance to 
Arthur's Seat at Edinburgh. 

HOLY WOOD, a parish in Nithsdale, 
Dumfries-shire, extending westward from the 
right bank of the Nith for ten miles, and hav- 
ing the Cluden on its south side- The ge- 
neral breadth of the parish is from two to 
three miles, and it is bounded by Kirkmahoe 
on the east and north, and Dunscore on the 
24. 



north and west. The surface is generally level, 
with some rising grounds on the northern extre- 
mity, and the soil is arable and fertile. The dis- 
trict derives its name from a sacred grove which 
had existed here during the time of the druids.* 
The temple of these pagans was succeeded by 
the cell of a hermit, and his cell was changed 
into a house for monks of the order of Pre- 
monstratenses, soon after the year 1 120. An 
hospital was also founded here by Archibald, 
Earl of Douglas, in the reign of Robert II. 
A part of the abbey which escaped the vio- 
lence of the Reformers, served as the par- 
ochial church, till 1779, when the mins of the 
whole were used as materials for building a 
new church. — Population in 1821, 1004. 

HOPE, a river in the parish of Tongue, 
northern part of Sutherlandshire, which has its 
origin in the hilly territory of the parish of 
Edderachylis, chiefly from Loch-an-dallag. 
After a course of about twelve miles, passing 
in its course Dun Dornadilla, it forms Loch 
Hope, which is a fine sheet of water of about 
seven miles in length by about one in breadth, 
but destitute of claims to picturesque beauty 
from the general want of wood in the adjacent 
high grounds. Its waters are emitted at the 
north end, and, after a course of a mile, fall 
into the east side of Loch Eribole at a place 
called Innerbope. 

HORSEHOE, a safe harbour in the island 
of Kerrera, near Oban, in Argyleshire. 

HORSE ISLE, a small island in the firth 
of Clyde, off Ardrossan, in Ayrshire. 

HORSE ISLAND, a very small islet of 
Orkney, lying east from Deerness on the main- 
land, and north from Copinshay. 

HO UNA, a place in the parish of Canis- 
bay, Caithness, on the northern point of the 
island of Great Britain, three miles west from 
Duncansby Head, and about half that distance 
west from John O' Groat's House. From 
Houna, ferry boats sail to Orkney, and in the 
mean hamlet which has arisen on the spot, there 
is an " Inn" for the accommodation of travellers. 

HOUNSLOW,or HUNTSLOW.aham- 
let in the parish of Westruther, Berwickshire. 



* A gentleman, proceeding upon this idea, styled a 
new box which he built in Holywood parish, by the ela- 
gant name of Druidville. In the course of a few short 
years, by dint, partly, of the usual process of softening 
proper names, and partly in consequence of a wish to de- 
grade such an attempt at fineness, the.people had this de- 
signation fused down into the word Drcodle, which the 
plase yet bears. 



HOURN (LOG H). 



555 



HOURN, (LOCH) an arm of the sea on 
the west coast of Inverness-shire, projected 
from the sound of Sleat, opposite the south- 
east end of Skye. Macculloch's account of 
this unfrequented salt water loch is among the 
hest we have, and we give it almost in his own 
words. This inlet forms three distinct turns, 
nearly at right angles to each other, penetrat- 
ing into the country to a distance of ahout 
eleven miles, and, at its extremity, meeting an 
excellent new road that joins the western mili- 
tary road at Glengarry. The characters of 
these three parts are different, and it is the 
most interior which contains the peculiar 
scenery that renders Loch Hourn so remarka- 
ble. For nearly half the distance from the 
entrance, it can only be said that the views are 
grand, as, with such mountain boundaries, they 
could not fail to be. About the middle, it ap- 
pears to ramify into two branches ; but the 
one soon terminates in something like a deep 
and spacious bay, wild, bold, and deserving ex- 
amination. There is much character in the 
mountains that enclose this bay, in which 
Barrisdale is situated ; and above, in particular, 
they display a degree of rude and rocky deso- 
lation, almost unequalled in Scotland, and 
not less grand than rude. The other branch 
is continued for some miles, terminating at 
length in a deep glen ; and, from one end to 
the other, it displays a rapid succession of 
scenes no less grand than picturesque, and not 
often equalled in Scotland ; but of a character 
so peculiar that it would be difficult to find a 
place to which they can be compared. The 
hind, on both sides, is not only very lofty, but 
very rapid in the acclivities ; while, from the 
narrowness of the water, compared to the al- 
titude of the boundaries, there is a sobriety in 
some places, and, in others, a gloom thrown 
over the scenery, which constitutes, perhaps, 
the most peculiar and striking feature, if fea- 
ture it can be called, of this place. From the 
general magnitude of the scenery, the colour- 
ing is more atmospheric than local, and is con 
sequently always harmonious. In the terrific 
and sublime it has few rivals; and while the 
landscapes are invariably grand, they are al- 
most innumerable. Where this loch te' ini- 
tiates, a wild and deep glen conveys the 
road up to that level, on which it proceeds 
afterwards towards Glengarry, from which 
point all beauty disappears for a long 
s^aee. 



HOUSE ISLAND, an island of Shetland, 
belonging to the parish of Bressay, lying be- 
tween Cliff Sound and Burray Island, west 
from which is the Bay of Scalloway. It extends 
about three miles in length by one in breadth. 

IIOUSE-OF-MUIR, a hamlet on the 
southern sloping base of the Pentland-hills, 
in the county of Mid-Lothian. It is about 
ten miles from Edinburgh. In the year 
1612 the magistrates of Edinburgh gave Lord 
Abernethy of Salton the superiority of the 
three husband lands of Salton, in exchange for 
a right of holding fairs or markets at the 
House-of-Muir, since which period a very 
large market has been held annually on 
the last Monday of March, at which the bur- 
gesses of Edinburgh have the privilege of pay- 
ing lower customs than others. This market 
is only remarkable from the exhibition of sheep 
for sale, and especially of grit or stock ewes. 
Being the chief market of the kind before 
Whitsunday, and being held in an accessible 
part of the country to the southern pastoral 
shires, it is generally well attended. 

HOUSTOUN and KILLALLAN, a 
united parish now generally called Houstouk 
in Renfrewshire, bounded by Erskine on the 
north and east, Kilmalcolm on the west, and 
Kilbarchan on the south, extending about six: 
miles in length by four in breadth. The ori- 
ginal boundaries of the two parishes were 
so inconveniently intermixed, that in 1760 
both were united, the kirk of Houstoun being 
constituted the place of public worship for the 
district. Houstomi, named from Hew or Hugo 
de Padynan a proprietor who flourished in 
the time of Malcolm IV., was once entitled 
Kilpeter, being a cell of St. Peter, the tutelary 
saint. Killallan, which is in the north-western 
part of- the present parish, according to an in- 
scription on a church bell, seems to be a cor- 
ruption of Kilfillan — the cell of St. Fillan, a 
celebrated Scottish saint and churchman, (see 
Fillans, St.) whose fame had shone conspi- 
cuous in this quarter, and whose miraculous 
powers had been communicated, as in the case 
of the pool at St. Fillans in Perthshire, to a 
spring-well near the church, to which the su- 
perstitious mothers in the neighbourhood used 
to bring their sickly children for immersion. 
On doing so they generally left shreds of their 
clothes on the overhanging bushes, as oiferings 
to the saint, and strange as it may seem, such 
was the force of ancient prejudices, that the 



556 



HOY. 



custom continued till about the beginning of 
the eighteenth century, when the minister of 
the parish put a stop to the practice by filling 
up the well. The river Gryfe bounds the 
parish on its south side, and is crossed by a 
bridge at the village of Crosslee, and also 
at a place about a mile to the west, called the 
Bridge of Weir, which is a village built partly 
in this, but principally in Kilbarchan parish, 
and has risen as a residence of cotton spinners 
since the year 1780. Houstoun village or town 
lies partly on both sides of the rivulet of Hous- 
toun Burn, at the distance of fourteen milee 
from Glasgow, seven from Paisley, and seven 
from Port- Glasgow. It is formed by two 
long streets, one on each side of the stream. 
At the west end of the town is a considerable 
bleachfield, and at the other end a cotton fac- 
tory. The houses are of good mason-work, 
generally two storeys in height, and covered 
with blue slate. Its inhabitants, who are in- 
dustrious weavers of silk and cotton, are now 
about 700 in number. We learn from Fowl- 
er's Commercial Directory of the towns and 
villages of the upper ward of Renfrewshire — 
an exceedingly useful little work, published 
annually at Paisley — that the town is partly 
built of the stones which once composed the 
castle of Houstoun, an ancient mansion, the 
residence of the Knights of Houstoun, in 
the neighbourhood to the east, which was de- 
molished in 1780. The person who commit- 
ted this deed was a parvenu proprietor, whose 
father received the property in a way worth 
mentioning. In the latter end of the seventeenth 
century there lived in Ayr a destitute orphan 
boy, named Macrae, whose means of subsistence 
were derived from running messages for a half- 
penny to any one who would employ him. At 
length he was taken off the streets by one 
Hugh M' Quire, a fiddler in Ayr, who gave 
him his education and fitted him out for sea. 
Going to the East Indies, he rose to be gover- 
nor of the presidency of Madras, and realizing 
a fortune, he returned to this country, where 
he died in 1 744, but not till he had erected a 
statue of King William III. in Glasgow, and 
bequeathed his whole fortune, including the es- 
tate of Houstoun, which he had purchased, to 
his former benefactor Hugh M' Quire. On 
the son of this person becoming owner of the 
estate, he changed his name to Macrae, and, 
in the course of improvements, pulled down 
the castle of the original possessors, applying 



the stones to the erection of the village, as 
above stated. The market place of the vil- 
lage is ornamented by a pedestal of considerable 
antiquity ; it consists of an octagonal pillar, 
nine feet in length, having a dial fixed on the 
top, crowned with a globe ; the stone is reached 
by three steps around the base. The lands in 
the parish, originally poor, are now greatly 
improved and ornamented. — Population in 
1821, 2317. 

HOUSTON HOLM, a small pastoral 
islet of Orkney, off the mainland, near Or- 
phir. 

HO WAN SOUND, a strait of the sea at 
Orkney, between Rousay and Egilshay. 

HOWGATE, a village in the county of 
Edinburgh, parish of Pennycuick, on the old 
road from Edinburgh to Peebles, at which 
is a meeting-house of the United Associate 
Synod. 

HOWNAM, or HOUNAM, a parish in 
Roxburghshire, extending seven miles in length 
by four and a half in breadth, bordering on 
the south with England, and bounded by Mor- 
battle on the north and east, and Eckford, 
Jedburgh, and Oxnam on the west. That 
part adjacent to the borders is mountainous 
and pastoral, Hownam-fell being the march 
betwixt the two kingdoms. The lower parts 
are arable, and the district from south to north 
is intersected by the Kale water, which has a 
variety of tributary rivulets. The village of 
Hownam is on the right bank of the Kale 
near the northern verge of the parish. In the 
district are seen the traces of the Roman way 
into Scotland. It appears that Hownam de- 
rives its name from one Howen or Owen, a 
Saxon settler in early times, whose ham 
or residence it was. During the twelfth cen- 
tury there were a number of distinguished per- 
sonages in Roxburghshire of this appellation. 
—Population in 1821, 327. 

HOY, an island of the Orkneys, lying on 
the south-west of Mainland, to which it is 
second in point of magnitude. It is bounded 
on the east by Scarpa Flow and some small 
islands therein, on the south by the Pentland 
Firth, on the west by the Ocean, and on the 
north by the strait of Hoymouth, which di- 
vides it from the parish of Stromness on the 
mainland. It measures about twelve miles in 
length from north to south, by a general breadth 
of rive miles. At the south end a portion is 
almost detached by a large indentation of the 



H U M E. 



557 



sea called Long Hope, which forms what 
is designated Aith- Wards. In the neck of 
land joining this portion with the chief part of 
the island stands Melseter House. Hoy 
contains the highest land in Orkney, and is 
generally mountainous and pastoral. A great 
part of it is occupied by three huge hills, 
relatively situated in the form of a triangle, 
that to the north-east being the largest and 
conspicuous to an immense distance. Ex- 
cept along the north shores, which are bor- 
dered by a rich meadow and loamy soil, 
the island has a soil composed of peat and 
clay, of which the former, black, wet, and 
spongy, commonly predominates. There are a 
variety of alpine plants on the hills ; and among 
them some delightful valleys, intersected with 
rivulets, whose banks are decked with flowers, 
and sheltered by shrubs, such as the birch, 
the hazel and the currant, which are sometimes 
honoured with the name of trees. Birch-trees 
of a large size are known to have once been 
common. The climate of Hoy is healthful, 
and the natives are said to be long-lived. The 
only object of curiosity in Hoy is the celebrat- 
ed Dwarf or Dwarfie Stone. This stone 
measures thirty-two feet in length, sixteen and 
a half feet in breadth, and seven feet five in- 
ches in height. Human ingenuity and perse- 
verance at some early period, has excavated 
the mass and rendered it a species of dwelling. 
It is entered by a small doorway, and is divided 
into three distinct apartments ; in one end 
there is a small room, and in the other there is 
an apartment with a bed five feet eight inches 
long, and two broad ; and in the middle part 
there is an area, where there has been a fire- 
place, and a hole at the top to let out the 
smoke. This very strange memorial of an age 
long since past, is the object of a variety of 
traditionary legends. The island is divided 
into two parochial districts, the south half being 
the parish of Walls, and the north being that 
of Hoy, with which is included the island of 
Graemsay (once an independent parish,) lying 
in the strait which separates Hoy from the 
mainland. The kirk of Hoy is on the coast 
opposite Graemsay. — Population of the parish 
of Hoy and Graemsay in 1821, 508. 

HULMAY, an islet off the west coast of 
Lewis. 

HULMITRAY, one of the smaller islands 
of the Hebrides, lying near Harris. 

HUMBIE, a parish in the south-western 



part of the county of Haddington, having Sal- 
ton and Ormiston on the north, part of Bolton 
and Gifford on the east, and Fala and Soutra 
on the west. The southern part lies high on 
the brown summits of the Lammermoor range 
of hills adjoining Berwickshire, and from these 
eminences the land first descends in a tolerably 
steep dedivity to the lower grounds, and then 
spreads away towards the rich vale of the 
Tyne. The parish is of a square form, mea- 
suring about five miles in length, by rather 
more than three in breadth. It originally con- 
tained much poor, at least unproductive land, 
but we ascertain, by recent examination, that a 
very considerable part is under an excellent 
system of cropping. The arable lands have 
been extended a good way up the face of 
the Lammermoors, and in the low grounds 
the fields are beautifully enclosed and culti- 
vated. There is now also a large share of 
plantations, especially in that part contiguous 
to Salton parish, where there is a thick wood 
of oak, birch, and other trees, covering some 
hundreds of acres. The northern part of the 
parish, previous to the Reformation, form- 
ed the parish of Keith, which, from an early 
period, had been a barony belonging to the fa- 
mily of Keith, hereditary knight marischals ot 
Scotland. — Population in 1821, 837. 

HUME, a parish in the district of Merse, 
Berwickshire, now joined to Stitchel, in the 
county of Roxburgh. — See Stitchel. 

HUME, a village in the above abrogated 
parish, standing on a rising ground, three miles 
south from Greenlaw, three north from Stit- 
chel, and about six north-west from Kelso. 
This village was once much more extensive 
than it is now, stretching to a considerable dis- 
tance all around the ancient castle of the Earl 
of Home, and inhabited by the numerous re- 
tainers of that nobleman. Hume Castle is 
one of the chief objects of interest in the west- 
ern part of the Merse. The castle properly 
does not exist ; but the late Earl of March- 
mont raised the walls from the ruins into 
which they had fallen, and, by battlementing 
them, produced something like a castle, or 
what at least may pass for such at a distance. 
It is, from its situation, a conspicuous and in- 
deed a picturesque object. Being placed on 
a considerable eminence, it commands a view 
of the whole district of the Merse and a great 
part of Roxburghshire. The space within 
the exterior wall, at least half an acre, is now 



558 



H IT N T L Y. 



fitted up as a kitchen-garden. Traces of the 
vaults are yet distinguishable, and the well 
still exists. The date of the original erection 
of this structure is of unknown antiquity ; but 
it is known to have been for many centuries a 
strong-hold of the powerful border family of 
Hume or Home, who sprung from a son of 
the third Earl of Dunbar and March, a per- 
sonage descended from the petty Princes or 
Earls of Northumberland. The territory of 
Hume, which gave its name to this influential 
family, occurs as early as the year 1240, in a 
donation to the monastery of Kelso, and con- 
tinued through a long succession of descend- 
ants, among whom we find many gallant sol- 
diers, ambassadors, privy councillors, statesmen 
and others, possessing the title of Hume or 
Home. The barony was raised to an earldom 
in 1604, by James VI., and the peerage yet 
exists ; the family seat being now at Hirsel. 
Hume Castle was a place of considerable 
strength, and more particularly su from its 
elevated situation. In 1547 it was besieged 
by the English under the Duke of Somerset, 
when, after having stood out for some time 
under the command of Lady Hume, (her lord 
having been slain a few days before in a gen- 
eral engagement,) it was delivered up on fair 
terms. In 1549, it was retaken by strata- 
gem by the Scots, who on this occasion put 
the English garrison to the sword. A hun- 
dred years later it was again the object of 
contest. During the time of the common- 
wealth, in 1650, and immediately after the 
taking of Edinburgh Castle, Cromwell 
sent Colonel Fenwick, with his own and 
Colonel Syler's regiments, to capture it. On 
arriving in the vicinity, Colonel Fenwick drew 
up his men, and sent the governor the follow- 
ing summons : " His Excellency the Lord 
General Cromwell, hath commanded me to re- 
duce this castle you now possess, under his 
obedience, which if you now deliver into my 
hands for his service, you shall have terms for 
yourself and those with you : if you refuse, I 
doubt not but in a short time, by God's assist- 
ance, to obtain what I now demand. I expect 
your answer by seven of the clock to-morrow 
morning ; and rest your servant, George Fen- 
wick." The governor, whose name was Cock- 
burn, being, it seems, a man of some fancy, 
returned this quibbling answer : " Right Hon- 
ourable, — I have received a trumpeter of 
yours, as he tells me, without a pass, to sur- 



render Home castle to the Lord General 
Cromwell : please you, I never saw your Ge- 
neral. As for Home castle, it stands upon a 
rock. Given at Home castle this day before 
seven o'clock. So resteth, without prejudice 
to my native country, your most humble ser- 
vant, T. Cockburn." Soon after he sent the 
English colonel a postscript, in the following 
well-remembered doggrel lines : 

«• I, Willie Wastle, 
Stand firm in my castle, 
And a' the dogs in your town 
Will no pull Willie Wastle down." 

But this doughty and humorous governor soon 
had reason to come down in his pretensions. 
Fenwick planted a battery against the castle, 
and, having made a breach in the walls, the 
English soldiers rushed forward to the esca- 
lade. A parley was now beat by Cockburn, 
and the lives of the garrison being spared, the 
whole marched out to the amount of seventy- 
eight individuals. The castle was thereupon 
entered by Cromwell's troops, and committed 
to the charge of Captain Collinson, in keeping 
for the parliament. Hume castle and the 
neighbouring territory latterly became the pro- 
perty of the Earls of Marchmont, a branch of 
the family which for a long time greatly sur- 
passed the main stock in fortune, but at length 
became extinct in the male line towards the 
end of the last century. 

HUNIE, an islet of Shetland, about a mile 
from the island of Unst. 

HUN1SH, the northern promontory of the 
isle of Skye. 

HUNTLY, a parish in the northern part 
of Aberdeenshire, extending six miles in length 
by four in breadth ; bounded by Cairny on 
the north, Glass on the west, and part of 
Gartly on the south. The district formerly 
composed the two distinct parishes of Dum- 
benan and Kinore, the latter being on the 
east. A junction was formed in 1 727, and the 
new parish was called Huntly, in compliment 
to the eldest son of the Duke of Gordon. 
The country here is rough and hilly, but 
though originally bleak, it is now vastly im- 
proved, and exhibits many fine plantations and 
arable fields. The finest part of the territory 
is on the banks of the rivers Deveron and 
Bogie. The former passes from west to east 
through the parish, and is joined by the Bogie, 
which comes flowing from the south, a short 
way below the town of 



H U T T O N. 



559 



Huntly. This pleasing modern town, the 
capital of the above parish, occupies a dry and 
salubrious situation near the termination of the 
peninsula formed by the confluence of the De- 
veron and Bogie rivers, at the distance of eigh- 
teen miles south-east of Fochabers, twenty-one 
south-west of Banff, thirty- six north-west of 
Aberdeen, and 145 north of Edinburgh. Hav- 
ing arisen since the beginning of last century, 
it has had the advantage of being disposed on a 
neat plan, and now consists of several well- 
built streets, lying parallel to and crossing each 
other at right angles, with a spacious market- 
place. There is a number of detached houses, 
or villas, in the environs, and the whole place 
possesses an air of elegance and comfort. The 
chief manufacture here is linen thread, both 
wbite and coloured, and there is a bleachfield 
on the banks of the Bogie. There is also a 
brewery, and distillation to a considerable ex- 
tent is carried on in the vicinity. The coun- 
try in this quarter exports large quantities of 
butter, cheese, eggs, and pork to the London 
market. The town market is held on Thurs- 
day, and there are several annual fairs. Huntly 
is a burgh of barony under the Duke of Gor- 
don, whose beautiful mansion of Huntly Lodge, 
standing in the midst of plantations and plea- 
sure-grounds, is in the neighbourhood on the 
opposite side of the Deveron. This river is 
crossed by an ancient bridge of a single arch, 
which luckily withstood the great floods of the 
river in August 1 829. On this occasion the 
water rose at the spot twenty-two feet above 
the ordinary level, and only six feet of the arch 
were left unoccupied. Standing upon this 
bridge an agreeable view is obtained, whether 
looking downward to the spot where the rivers 
join, or up the river, which is seen gliding 
through spacious and fruitful fields on each 
side. Across the Bogie, and leading from the 
south-east side of the town, is a good bridge 
of three arches. The river Bogie was also 
flooded at the above melancholy period, and by 
the great increase of the two rivers at once, 
Huntly was almost surrounded with water. 
Fortunately, except destroying some malt at 
the distillery at Pirie's mill on the Bogie, and 
slightly damaging some fields, it did not do any 
particular injury. The interesting ruin of the 
old castle of Huntly, standing near the end of 
the peninsula on the Deveron, is the chief ob- 
ject of curiosity in the neighbourhood. It was 
built at the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 



tury, and, though now quite dilapidated, still 
affords a striking proof of the grandeur and 
hospitality of the ancient family of Gordon. — 
Population of the town of Huntly in 1821, 
2000— including the parish, 3349. 

HUTTON, a parish in the district of the 
Merse, Berwickshire, lying to ths west of Ber- 
wick bounds, from which it is chiefly divided by 
the river Whitadder, bounded by Tweed on the 
south, Ladykirk, Whitsome, and Edrom on the 
west, and Chirnside and Foulden on the north. 
It extends three and a half miles from north 
to south, by four miles from east to west at the 
middle part. The parish is level, beautifully 
enclosed, planted and cultivated, being one of 
the very finest parts of the rich plain of 
the Merse. There are two villages, Hut- 
ton, which is the kirk-town, in the northern 
part of the parish, and Paxton in the eastern 
part. Paxton is understood to have been the 
locality of the song entitled " Robin Adair." 
In the neighbourhood is Paxton- House, the 
seat of William Forman Home, Esq. ; it 
is remarkable for a splendid collection of 
paintings, chiefly by Italian masters, which 
a late proprietor purchased when abroad some 
years ago. Hutton Hall, a fine mansion, is 
in the northern part of the parish, on the banks 
of the Whitadder. This river and the Tweed 
yield excellent salmon and trout-fishing. The 
Tweed is crossed by a beautiful suspension- 
bridge, called the Union Bridge, extending 
from a point near Paxton to a place a little 
way below the village of Horncliff, in the 
county of Durham. This very convenient 
bridge, forming the only connexion of the 
two sides of the river between Coldstream 
and Benvick, is one of the best yet erect- 
ed in the island. It has been of prodigious 
service in facilitating the introduction of coal 
and lime into Berwickshire from the works 
near Etal and Ford ; it is frequently visited 
by parties of pleasure from Berwick. It ad- 
mits two carriages abreast, besides foot passen- 
gers, and is one of the most interesting objects 
of an artificial nature to be seen in the south 
of Scotland — Population in 1821, 1118. 

HUTTON and CORRIE, a united pa- 
rish in the district of Annandale, Dumfries- 
shire, extending twelve miles in length from 
north to south by a general breadth of three 
miles. In the northern part the parish draws 
to a point. Eskdalemuir lies on the east, 
Wamphray and Applegarth on the west, and 



560 



I C O L M K I L L. 



Tundergarth on the south. The parish is se- 
parated from the latter by the Milk-water. 
The Corrie water, a tributary of the Milk, 
next intersects the parish, and farther north 
the Dryfe-water pursues a course through the 
district from its northern point. There are 
a variety of burns tributary to these rivulets. 
This extensive parish is chiefly hilly and pas- 
toral, the holms on the banks of the streams 
being only cultivated. There is a number of 



remains of antiquity in the district, as in most 
other parts of this border county ; the princi- 
pal being the Moat- hill on the farm of Nether 
Hutton, and from which holt or hut the name 
of the parish is derived. Much of the district 
is the property^ of the Hopetoun family, by 
whom many beneficial improvements in the 
breed of sheep were introduced during last 
century. — Population in 1821, 804. 



ICOLMKILL, or I-COLMB-KILL, or 
IONA, or I, (pronounced Ee,) one of the 
islands of the Hebrides, belonging to Argyle- 
shire, in the parish of Kilfmichen, lying off the 
south-west promontory or ross of Mull, from 
which large island it is separated by the sound 
or strait of IcoliMkill, about a mile and a half 
in breadth. Icolmkill is about three miles in 
length from north to south, and, where wid- 
est, only a mile in breadth. The highest ele- 
vation in it is 400 feet, and the surface is di- 
versified with rocky hillocks and patches of 
green pasture, or of moory and boggy soil. At 
the southern extremity, with the exception of 
a low sandy tract, it is a mere labyrinth of 
rocks. There is a small village or miserable 
collection of huts, inhabited by a population of' 
about 450 individuals. There is no doctor or 
midwife in the island ; after many ages of be- 
nighted ignorance, a church and school-house 
have been recently erected by the society for 
the diffusion of Christian knowledge. The 
Bay of Martyrs is a small creek near the vil- 
lage, and is said to be the place where the 
bodies brought hither for interment ware 
landed. Port-na-currach, the Bay of the Boat, 
is on the opposite side of the island, and here, 
according to tradition, Columba first landed, 
in token of which there is a heap, of about 
fifty feet in length, supposed to be the model 
and memorial of his boat. The remains of a 
celebrated marble quarry are near the southern 
extremity, and the shore still affords those 
pebbles of green serpentine, which are now ob- 
jects of pursuit to visitors, as they were formerly 
esteemed for anti-magical and medicinal vir- 
tues. Along the shores opposite Mull there 
are some pleasant arable plains, producing some 
good crops of oats and barley. Peat for fuel 



has to be brought from Mull. Icolmkill is the 
most noted of all the western islands, and is 
indeed distinguished above all other islands be- 
longing to Britain for its historical associations 
and works of art. To the historian and an- 
tiquary it furnishes matter of most inte- 
resting inquiry. By the Highlanders the 
island is called I, (or ee) signifying the island, 
by way of pre-eminence. Colm or Columb is 
a mere contraction of Columba, the classic 
name of Colon the saint, who first rendered 
the place of consequence by his residence. 
Kill simply imports cell or chapel. The de- 
signation of lona is Celtic, and means " the 
island of waves ;" and being the most eupho- 
nious, it has been used by monkish and poetic 
writers. Descended from a family which was 
allied to the kings of Scotland and Ireland, and 
a native of the latter country, Columba com- 
menced his career in 563, or, according to 
Bede, in 565, and in the forty-second year of 
his age. He derived his education from The- 
lius, who, with several other Welsh bishops, 
had been consecrated by the patriarch of Jeru- 
salem ; and from this circumstance he followed 
the Oriental or original apostolic rule of faith, 
both as regarded doctrinal points and public 
forms of worship. It appears that Columba de- 
parted from Ireland under circumstances of poli- 
tical dissension, or from some difference between 
his religious opinions and those promulgated 
by the minions of the polluted Romish church 
It is recorded by the Irish annalists, that he was 
accompanied in his self-expatriation by twelve 
or thirteen pious priests or saints ; and that 
the whole, directing their course towards Scot- 
land — till then in the lowest state of barbarian 
and pagan superstition — landed first at Oransa, 
one of the smaller Hebrides, and then at lona. 



ICOLMKILL. 



561 



Making a settlement on this island, he com- 
menced a system of propagating Christianity, 
both by his own active endeavours in most 
fatiguing and dangerous exercises on the 
mainland, and by sending out his assistant 
clergy as missionaries. In the execution of 
these arduous and transcendent duties, the 
pious Columba met with an astonishing suc- 
cess. In a few years the greater part of the 
Pictish kingdom was converted to Christiani- 
ty, and hundreds of churches, monasteries, and 
cells, were founded and supported. The mis- 
sionary clergy of Iona did not confine their la- 
bours to Scotland ; they entered the northern 
parts of England, or the Northumbrian king- 
dom, and there spread the Christian religion 
among the Anglo-Saxons, having previously 
studied the language of that people.* The in- 
fluence of Iona in England, says Macculloch, 
to whose notes we are indebted, did not cease 
with its first success ; many of its religious 
establishments having, long after, been pro- 
vided by teachers or monks from this remote 
spot, which was thus destined to extend its in- 
fluence far beyond the bounds of its own nar- 
row and stormy region. It seems that the 
zeal of the monks of Iona required a still wider 
range of action than that offered by the main- 
land of Britain ; during the life of Columba 
they undertook voyages to the surrounding 
islands and the Norwegian seas, for the pur- 
pose of propagating the gospel in countries 
which it had not yet reached. St. Columba 
is said to have made a voyage himself to the 
north sea, in his currach, and to have remained 
there twelve days. Few circumstances con- 
nected with the early history of the church in 
Scotland have produced so hot a disputation as 
that regarding the exact order of Christians 
to which Columba and his clergy belonged. 
In examining this obscure matter of contro- 
versy, it appears to us as a fair conclusion, 
that the clergy of Iona, while partaking of 
many of the minor errors of the church of 
Rome, were still by no means allied to papis- 
try, and approached nearest in their doctrines 
and formula to those distinguished as Culdees. 
The prejudices of Bede, or perhaps of his self- 
constituted editors, have inclined them to la- 
ment over the departure of Columba from the 
pale of Roman Catholicism, his neglect of the 



* The Lothians were at this time a part of the North- 
umbrian kingdom.— See Edinburghshire. 



tonsure, and his irregularity respecting the 
proper time of keeping Easter ; yet this vene- 
rable author, and others who have followed 
him, bear ample testimony to the correctness 
of the morals, the purity of the doctrine, the 
zeal, and the simple mindedness of the mis- 
sionary clergy of this Hebridian isle. As to 
Columba himself, who was sainted by the de- 
votional excess of the primitive period in which 
he lived, every writer is found in the lists of 
his eulogists ; and in mentioning his religious 
fervour, they seldom fail to relate that his 
Christianity was of a practical as well as of a 
speculative kind ; for, not contented with in- 
culcating the truths of the gospel, he went 
about instructing his barbarous disciples in the 
sciences of gardening, agriculture, and other 
arts fully as useful. It is further stated, 
that this beneficentandleamed priest was skilled 
in medicine, and his knowledge of sacred and 
profane history is admitted by all. The rules 
of the order of Columba did not prohibit ma- 
trimony to the priests, who are known, more- 
over, to have engaged in worldly employments 
for their subsistence. The death of Columba 
took place in the year 597, at the ripened age 
of seventy-seven ; and he left behind him a 
name which will remain for ever unobliterated 
in the pages of ecclesiastical history.* While 
in life, he founded some of those edifices on 
the island of Iona which were enriched by fu- 
ture princes, and whose ruins are now hardly 
observable. According to the suspicious 
history of Bede, the clergy who succeeded 
Columba differed from the church of Rome 
till the year 716, when they were engrafted 
upon it. From this period throughout those 
dark ages of our history in which the He- 
brides were affected by the invasions of the 
Norwegians, Iona was frequently pillaged by 
these northern warriors, who destroyed the 
library belonging to the ancient establishment, 
which, as it is alleged, contained many valuable 
classical works, now entirely lost. After com- 
ing under the sway of the Pope, the mona- 
stery became, in subsequent years, the dwell- 
ing of the Cluniacenses, a class of monks who 
followed the rule of St. Bennet, and who, in 



* Sir William Betham, Ulster king of arms, and author 
of a respectable work on Irish antiquities, possesses a. 
psalter written by Columba, in the Erse character. The 
psalter is in Latin, is written on vellum, in the Irish 
uncial character, and must be considered the oldest Irish 
manuscript in existence. 

4c 



562 



I C O L M K I L L. 



the reign of William the Lion, lost all their 
benefices on the main land, which they had hi- 
therto held by curates, and which benefices 
were bestowed on the monks of Holyrood. 
At the Reformation they lost Iona also, and 
their abbey was annexed to the bishopric 
of Argyle by James VI. in the year 1617. 
The Argyle family has been the ultimate 
recipient of their insular property. The 
first structure of note reared in Iona seems 
to have been what was termed St. Oran's 
chapel. It has been referred to the date of 
the sixth century, though this is very likely to 
be incorrect, and it is more probable that it 
was built after the Romish church foisted 
itself upon that of the more unpresuming order 
of Columba. It is a rude and small building 
of about sixty feet in length by twenty-two in 
breadth ; now unroofed, but otherwise very en- 
tire. The sculpture of the door-way is in 
good preservation, and the cheveron moulding 
is repeated many times on the soffit of the 
arch, in the usual manner. Rut the style, 
which is of Norman execution, is mean, and 
there are few marks of ornament on the 
building. There are some tombs within it 
of different dates ; and there are many carved 
stones in the pavement; one of them being 
ornamented with bells in an uncommon style. 
One of the tombs lies under a canopy of three 
pointed arches ; it is for this place rather 
handsome, and evidently far more modem 
than the building itself. This is called St. 
Oran's tomb. North from St. Oran's chapel 
is the ruin of a nunnery, or rather the chapel 
belonging to it, which is usually reckoned to 
be the next oldest building in the island, though, 
as Macculloch says, " we are sure that there 
were no monastic establishments for females 
during the time of Columba's discipline. The 
proper monastic establishment of Iona belongs 
to the age of Romish influence ; and thus the 
date of this building is brought down to a 
period, later, at least, than 1200. Were it 
not that style is here no test of dates, this 
chapel might be referred to a prior period, the 
architecture being purely Norman, without a 
vestige of the pointed manner, or of any orna- 
ment indicating that age. It is in good pre- 
servation, and the length is about sixty feet, 
by twenty in breadth. The roof has been 
vaulted, and part of it remains. The arches 
are round with plain fluted soffits. The 
other buildings that appertained to the nun- 
24. 



nery can now scarcely be traced ; but there 
is a court, and something is shown which 
is said to have been a church, and was pro- 
bably the Lady chapel. The nuns were not 
displaced at the reformation, but continued 
a long time after that event to live together. 
They followed the rule of St- Augustine, and 
were of the Chanonenses. The tombstone of 
the princess Anna, dated in 1511, is still ex 
tant, and exhibits the figure of the lady in a 
barbarous style, with the usual words " Sancta 
Maria, ora pro me," under her feet, and the 
black-letter inscription round the edge, " Hie 
jacet Domina Anna Donaldi Ferleti filia, 
quondam prioressa de Iona, quee obiit anno M. 
D. ximo, cujus animam altissimo commenda- 
mus" — whose soul we commend to the highest 
[place.] The figure of the princess is in the 
attitude of praying to Sancta Maria, who holds 
an infant in her arms; having a mitre on 
her head, and the sun and moon above it. 
" Pennant," continues Macculloch, " mistook 
a sculpture above the head of the princess her- 
self, for a plate and a comb : It is the looking- 
glass and comb ; an emblem of the sex, which 
appears to have been originally borrowed from 
ancient Greek or Roman art." The last and 
chief edifice is the cathedral of the bishops of 
Iona or the Abbey church, it having, as is 
said, answered both purposes. This interest- 
ing structure has been reared at two distinct 
periods, that part of it east of the tower being 
evidently of the era of the chapel of the nun- 
nery, and the other much earlier. " At pre- 
sent its form is that of a cross; the length 
being about 160 feet, the breadth twenty-four, 
and the length of the transept seventy. That 
of the choir is about sixty feet. The tower is 
about seventy feet high, divided into three 
storeys. It is lighted on one side, above, by a 
plain slab, perforated by quatre-foils, and on 
the other by a catherine-wheel, or marigold 
window, with spiral mullions. The tower 
stands on four cylindrical pillars of a clumsy 
Norman design, about ten feet high and three 
in diameter. Similar proportions pervade the 
other pillars in the church ; their capitals being 
short, and, in some parts, sculptured with ill- 
designed and grotesque figures, still very sharp 
and well-preserved ; among which that of an 
angel weighing souls (as it is called by Pen- 
nant,) while the devil depresses one scale with 
his claw, is always pointed out with great 
glee. This sculpture, however, represents an 



ICOLMKILL. 



563 



angel weighing the good deeds of a man against 
his evil ones. It is not an uncommon feature 
in similar buildings, and occurs, among other 
places, at Montvilliers ; where also the devil, 
who is at the opposite scale, tries to depress 
it with his fork, as is done elsewhere with 
his claw. The same allegory is found in de- 
tail in the legends ; and it may also be seen 
in some of tl I works of the Dutch and Flem- 
ish painters. The arches are pointed, with a 
curvature intermediate between those of the 
first and second styles, or the sharp and the 
ornamented, the two most beautiful periods of 
Gothic architecture ; their soffits being fluted 
with plain and rude moulding. The corded 
moulding separates the shaft from the capital 
of the pillars, and is often prolonged through 
the walls at the same level. The larger win- 
dows vary in form, but are everywhere inele- 
gant. There is a second, which is here the 
clerestory tier; the windows sometimes ter- 
minating in a circidar arch, at others in trefoil 
bends ; the whole being surmounted by a corbel 
table. This church or cathedral was dedicated 
to St Mary. There is a mixture of materials 
in all these buildings. The granite, which is 
red, and resembles the Egyptian, may have been 
brought from Mull, but the gneiss, hornblende 
slate, and clay slate, which are intermixed with 
it, are the produce of Iona itself. A fissile 
mica slate' has been used for the roofs. Pen- 
nant found the last remains of the marble altar- 
piece ; but it is now vanished. It was describ- 
ed by Sacheverell as six feet by four in dimen- 
sions ; and tradition says that it was brought 
from Skye. Unluckily for its preservation, a 
fragment of it was esteemed a charm against 
fire, shipwreck, murder, and ill fortune ; and the 
whole was, therefore, soon carried off. The 
font remained entire a few years since. Round 
the cathedral are various fragments of walls 
and enclosures, which are nearly unintelligible. 
Two of them are said to have led to the sea ; 
others are thought to have been chapels ; and 
some are unquestionably parts of the mo- 
nastery. It is easy enough to conjecture what 
may have been the cloister and the hall ; but 
there is neither ornament nor interest in any 
of these ruins. Four arches of the former re- 
main, and three walls of what was probably 
the refectory. The remains of the bishop's 
house are just as little worthy of notice. Bu- 
chanan says, that there were several chapels, 
founded by kings of Scotland and insular chiefs, 



all of which is very probable. The cathedral 
itself was dismantled by the effects of time, 
only a few years ago. The remains of an an- 
cient causeway are sufficiently perfect in some 
places ; but in others it has been dilapidated, 
like every thing else, to build cottages and 
make enclosures, the stolen materials of which 
betray themselves everywhere." It has been 
recorded, that there were, at one time, three 
hundred and sixty stone crosses in different 
parts of the island of Iona ; but those relics, 
four only excepted, are now, like the above 
chapels, no longer in existence. We are told 
by tradition, that the Synod of Argyle ordered 
sixty of them to be thrown into the sea. How 
the remainder were disposed of is unknown ; 
in the present day there are only traces of four. 
Two are very perfect, and one of them is 
beautifully carved ; the third has been broken 
off at about ten feet ; and of the last the foot 
only remains, fixed in a mound of earth. Sun- 
dry fragments are, nevertheless, to be found, 
which have been converted into grave-stones ; 
and which, from the sculptures and inscriptions 
on them, have certainly been native. Pennant 
says, that the cross at Campbellton has been 
transferred from this place. One of those 
remaining is called after St. Martin, and the 
other after St. John ; and, like the rest, they 
were probably of native origin. Adam and 
Eve, with the forbidden tree, are represented 
on one side of the former. It is surprising to 
see the accuracy and freedom of the workman- 
ship and design, in such a material as mica- 
slate ; a substance as ill-adapted to sculpture 
as it is possible to imagine. While yet in an 
undecorated condition, the cathedral of Iona 
exhibited a great variety of monuments erected 
to commemorate different abbots, bishops, and 
other ecclesiastics of distinction, who seem to 
have bestowed considerable pains and expense 
during their lives, in decorating their last rest- 
ing places. The spirit of destruction which 
reached this isle at the time of the Reforma- 
tion, and the degree of culpable carelessness 
in protecting the ruins of the religious build- 
ings observable since that period, have operat- 
ed in wasting and canying off nearly every relic 
of the tombs of those dignitaries. Among the 
most conspicuous of those remaining, is that 
of John M'Kinnon abbot of Iona, who died 
in the year 1500. " It is," says a cotempo- 
rary writer, " a truly rich and elegant piece 
of sculpture, and does credit to the state of the 



564 



ICOLMKILL. 



arts at that period. It is said that the letters 
composing the inscription were originally run 
full of melted silver, which being kept always 
bright by frequent and careful cleaning, pro- 
duced a most brilliant appearance, particularly 
when the rays of the sun fell upon it. The 
precious metal, however, was too great a temp- 
tation to escape the rude hands of the popu- 
lace. The monument in its present dilapi- 
dated state may be still seen near the site of 
the high altar." The greatest collection of 
tombs is adjacent to the chapel of St. Oran, 
in an enclosure of no great extent, called Re- 
lig Oran, or, " the burying place of Oran." 
This place has evidently been the chief bury- 
ing ground or Polyandrium of Iona. Of the 
names and numbers of those who were here 
interred there prevail many contradictory tra- 
ditions, at least such as are at variance with 
accredited histories. Buchanan and Monro 
mention that here are deposited the remains 
of forty-eight kings of Scotland, beginning 
with Fergus II. and ending with Macbeth, 
the eighty-fourth Scottish monarch, in the 
eleventh century ; while it has been substan- 
tiated that ten in this list of kings never existed, 
and that even if they had, it would make Iona 
the place of sepulture of princes long before 
it was consecrated by the landing of Columba. 
Besides these sovereigns, it is said that there 
lie here four Irish, one French, and eight Nor- 
wegian kings. The only thing which appears 
certain as to Iona being a royal burial place, is 
that, for some centuries after the island began 
to be renowned for the piety and learning of 
its religious inhabitants, it was chosen as a 
preferable place of sepulture by a considerable 
number of the petty chiefs or lords of the 
isles, Norwegian sea kings, some Irish chief- 
tains, and of Duncan, one of the kings of Scot- 
land. With Dunstaffnage, in all probability, 
it divided the glory of receiving the remains of 
some of the predecessors of this unfortunate 
monarch. Now that there has been such an 
extent of destruction among the tombs, and so 
many carried away, it is impossible to discover 
the tombs of any of the kings, so often spoken 
of; the inscriptions and sculpture are nearly 
gone ; and no one possesses any record of those 
which have disappeared. Monro, dean of the 
isles, who visited them in 1549, has bequeath- 
ed a fanciful account of the tombs of Iona, 
A'hich, without examination, has been received 
by most topographers as correct, but which 



modern discovery has exposed as in many in- 
stances exceedingly fallacious. In 1830, Mr. 
Rae Wilson, author of various esteemed works 
descriptive of his own travels, busied himself 
in clearing away the rubbish from the ruins of 
the religious edifices, for the purpose of bring- 
ing to light every thing like a relic of their 
former magnificence and the piety of their in- 
mates. In this search, besides the advantage 
obtained by clearing out the interesting remains 
of antiquity, and leaving them plain before the 
eye of the visitor, a great many statues and 
monuments were discovered. Perhaps in this 
or some future search those black stones of 
Iona by which the people of the Hebrides at 
one time swore, may be also discovered, as they 
are said to be concealed in the island. Dr. 
Samuel Johnson, in the course of his tour to 
the Hebrides in the autumn of 1773, accom- 
panied by Boswell, visited Iona, whose words 
on landing, though already quoted a thousand 
times, we may be allowed to quote once more. 
" At last," says he, " we came to Icolmkill, 
but found no convenience for landing ; our boat 
could not be forced very near the diy ground, 
and our Highlanders carried us over the water. 
We were now treading that illustrious island 
which was once the luminary of the Caledo- 
nian regions, whence savage clans and roving 
barbarians derived the benefit of knowledge 
and the blessings of religion. To abstract the 
mind from all local emotion would be impossi- 
ble, if it were endeavoured, and would be 
foolish, if it were possible. Whatever with- 
draws us from the power of our senses ; what- 
ever makes the past, the distant, or the future, 
predominate over the present, advances us in 
the dignity of thinking beings. Far from me 
and my friend be such frigid philosophy, as 
may conduct us indifferent and unmoved over 
any ground which has been dignified by wis- 
dom, bravery, or virtue. That man is little to 
be envied, whose patriotism would not gain 
force upon the plains of Marathon, or whose 
piety would not grow warmer among the ruins 
of Iona!" On his departure from this inte- 
resting spot he says, " We now left those il- 
lustrious ruins, by which Mr. Boswell was 
much affected, nor would I willingly be 
thought to have looked upon them without 
some emotion. Perhaps in the revolutions of 
the world, Iona may be sometime again the 
instructress of the western regions." There 
js, we think, little chance of this being ever 



INCH. 



565 



the ease ; which is almost as unlikely as the 
fulfilment of a celebrated Gaelic prophecy, 
which has thus been translated by Dr. Smith 
of Campbellton : 

" Seven years before that awful day, 

When time shall be no more, 
A watery deluge will o'ersweep 

Hibernia's mossy shore; 
The green-clad Isla, too, shall sink, 

While, with the great and good, 
Columba's happy isle will rear 

Her towers above the flood." 

IFFERT, an islet of the Hebrides, lying 
off the west coast of Lewis. 

ILANMORE, an islet of the Hebrides, 
lying off the north side of Coll. 

ILANROANandILANTERACH,two 
islets of the Hebrides, lying to the 'south and 
east of Oransay. 

ILERAY, an island of the Hebrides, of 
about three miles in length by one and a half 
in breadth, lying to the westward of North 
Uist. 

IMERSAY, an islet of the Hebrides, lying 
off the south-west coast of Islay. 

INCH. There are many places in Scot- 
land of this name, or having such an adjunct to 
their designations, as maybe seen below, some 
of which are too minute for notice in this 
work. In all cases when it occurs, either by 
itself or attached to another word, it signifies 
an island, being derived from Ynjjs in the Bri- 
tish, or Inis in the Irish or Gaelic tongue. In 
the Highland districts the pure term of Inis 
still remains in use. 

INCH, a parish in the county of Inverness, 
merged in that of Kingussie. 

INCH, aparishin Wigtonshire, lying on the 
east shore of Loch Ryan, bounded by Ballan- 
trae in Ayrshire on the north, and New Luce 
on the east ; extending nine miles in length by 
a breadth nearly as great. About one-half of 
the parish consists of flat and low land, form- 
ing an extensive plain, which stretches from 
Loch Ryan nearly to the Bay of Luce. On 
the east and north-east of the plain rises a beau- 
tiful range of hills, reaching from one end of 
the parish to the other. The face of these is 
partly green pasture and partly arable. In the 
last century the district underwent extensive 
improvement, through the active exertions of 
the Earl of Stair, who has an elegant mansion 
in the parish. In the lower part of the parish, 
south-east from Loch Ryan, there are now 



inany beautiful plantations. The present pa- 
rish comprehends the suppressed parish of 
Saulseat, which lay on the south. In the old 
parish of Inch there were two chapels, namely, 
St. John's Chapel, which stood at the south 
end of Loch Ryan, and at the east end of the 
burgh of Stranraer. This chapel was in ruins 
in 1684, but a modern castle stood near it, and 
was called the Castle of the Chapel. The 
eastern half of the burgh of Stranraer, on the 
east side of the rivulet that intersects the 
town, was popularly called " the Chapel." 
A spring within flood-mark was called St. 
John's Well. The site of the castle is now 
within the parish of Stranraer. The second 
chapel was called Chapel- Patrick, being dedi- 
cated to St. Patrick, and situated on the west 
coast. The district in which it stood was de- 
tached from the parish of Inch in 1628, and 
was erected into the parish of Port- Patrick. 
The church of Inch stands on the margin of a 
lake, in which there is a small beautifully wood- 
ed island or inch, six hundred yards in circum- 
ference. This lake is that of Castle- Kennedy. 
It is nearly divided by a neck of land, on which 
stands the ruin of the castle, formerly a seat 
of the Earls of Stair. The edifice is said to 
have been burnt by accident in 1715. There 
are some smaller lakes in the parish. A road 
from Stranraer pursues the line of the east 
coast of Loch Ryan into Ayrshire. On the 
same side of this inlet of the sea is the sea- 
port village of Cairn, with a good harbour, from 
three to eight fathoms deep at low water. — 
Population in J 821 , 2386. 

INCH-ABER, an islet in Loch-Lomond, 
lying in the mouth of the river Endrick. 

INCH-AFFREY.— See Innerpeffuay. 

INCHARD, (LOCH) an arm of the sea 
on the west coast of Sutherlandshire, projected 
into the northern part of the parish of Edder- 
achylis. 

INCH-BRAYOCK, an islet of about 34 
acres in extent, lying in the mouth of the South 
Esk, Forfarshire, and belonging to the parish 
of Craig. It is situated in that part of the out- 
let of the river betwixt the Bay of Montrose 
and the sea, and it is joined to the mainland on 
both sides by bridges, which carry the public 
road across from the south to the town of Mon- 
trose. The islet has been built upon. 

INCH-CAILLIACH, " the island of old 
women," situated in Loch-Lomond, near its 



566 



INCHCOLM. 



south end on the east side, about a mile in 
length, and covered with trees- This is one 
of the most lovely of the islets in this beauti- 
ful lake. It is the property of the Duke of 
Montrose, is inhabited, and produces good 
wheat and oats. Here was anciently a nun- 
nery, which was afterwards used as the parish 
church of Buchanan. The name of the islet 
is allusive to the inmates of that religious build- 
ing. 

INCH-CLEAR, or CLARE-INCH, a 
small woody islet in Loch-Lomond, lying to 
the south of the above. 

INCH-COLM, a small island in the Firth 
of Forth, belonging to the county of Fife, pa- 
rish of Dalgetty,and lying about two miles dis- 
tant from Aberdour. Li measurement it is un- 
der a mile in length, and is of a poor bleak ap- 
pearance, but partly arable- Though thus des- 
titute of beauty, it is rich in the production of 
historical and antiquarian associations, and ex- 
hibits, for the satisfaction of the curious, the 
ruins of one of the most extensive monastic 
establishments in this part of Scotland. The 
cause of the foundation of this religious house 
is thus related by Fordun : " About the year 
1123, Alexander I., having some business of 
state which obbged him to cross over at the 
Queen's Ferry, was overtaken by a terrible 
tempest, blowing from the south-west, which 
obliged the sailors to make for this island, [then 
called iEmona,*] which they reached with the 
greatest difficulty. Here they found a poor 
hermit, who lived a religious life, according to 
the rules of St. Columba, and performed ser- 
vice in a small chapel, supporting himself by the 
milk of one cow, and the shell-fish he could pick 
up on the shore ; nevertheless, on these small 
means he entertained the king and his retinue 
for three days, the time which they were con- 
fined here by the wind. During the storm, 
and whilst at sea and in the greatest danger, 
the king had made a vow, that if St. Colum- 
ba would bring him safe to that island, he 
would there found a monastery to his honour, 
which should be an asylum and relief to 
«avigators ; he was, moreover, farther moved 



* A Gaelic antiquary will detect in this euphonious 
Latin name " the isle of the Druids," which shows that, 
like many other Catholic institutions, the monastery of 
Inchcolm must have been planted on a place of heathen 
worship. 



to this foundation, by having, from his child- 
hood, entertained a particular veneration and 
honour for that saint, derived from his pa- 
rents, who were long married without issue, 
until, imploring the aid of St Columba, their 
request was most graciously granted." The 
monastery founded by Alexander in virtue of 
this vow, was for canons-regular of St. Au- 
gustine, and being dedicated to St. Colm or 
Columba, was richly endowed by its royal 
patron. Allan de Mortimer, knight, Lord of 
Aberdour, gave also to God, and the monks 
of this abbey, the entire moiety of the lands 
of his town of Aberdour, for a burying 
place to himself and his posterity, in the 
church of that monasteiy. Walter Bowmak- 
er, abbot of this place, was one of the conti- 
nuators of John Fordun's Scoti-Chronicon, as 
is to be seen in the Liber Carthusianorum de 
Perth, in the Advocate's Library. He died 
in the year 1449. James Stewart of Beith, 
a cadet of the Lord Ochiltree, was made com - 
mendator of Inch Colm on the surrender of 
Henry, Abbot of that monastery, in the year 
1543. His second son, Hemy Stewart, was, 
by the special favour of King James II. creat- 
ed a peer, by the title of Lord St. Colm, in 
the year 1611. Fordun records several mira- 
cles done by St. Columba, as punishments to 
the English, who often pillaged this monastery. 
The first was in the year 1335, when the Eng- 
lish, ravaging the coast along the Forth, one 
vessel larger than the rest, entered this island, 
and the crew landing, plundered the monastery 
of all its moveables, as well secular as eccle- 
siastical ; among divers statues and images 
carried off, was a famous one of St. Columba, 
which was kept in the church. It seems as 
if that saint did not relish the voyage, for he 
raised such a storm that it threatened immediate 
destruction to the sacrilegious vessel, by driv- 
ing it on the rocks of Inchkeith. The sailors, 
on their near approach to these rocks, were ter- 
ribly alarmed, cried peccavi, asked pardon of 
the saint, promised restitution of their plunder, 
and a handsome present into the bargain. On 
this the vessel got safely into port in that 
island, where, as if raised from the dead, they 
landed with great rejoicings ; they then disem- 
barked the saint and their other plunder, and 
transported them, with a handsome oblation of 
gold and silver, to certain inhabitants of King- 
horn, to whom they likewise sent payment 
for their labour, with directions that the whole 



INCHCOLM. 



5G7 



should be safely delivered to the monks from 
whom they were taken. No sooner was this 
done than a favourable wind sprung up, by 
which the vessel reached St. Abb's head be- 
fore the rest of the fleet, the men taking care 
to form a sincere resolution never more to 
meddle with St. Columba. It nevertheless 
appears that this example was forgotten by the 
next year, for, from the same authority, we 
learn, that in the year 1336, some other Eng- 
lish vessels plundered the church of Dolor, be ■ 
longing to the abbot of this house, and carried 
away a beautiful carved wainscot with which 
he had adorned the choir ; this they had taken 
down piece-meal, and shipped, so as it might 
be put up in any other place. It was put on 
board a particular barge, the sailors of which, 
rejoicing at their plunder, sailed away with 
pipes and trumpets sounding ; but St. Colum- 
ba in an instant turned their mirth into sorrow, 
for the vessel suddenly sunk to the bottom, 
like a stone or piece of lead, neither plank nor 
man being ever more seen. The remaining 
sailors of the fleet, terrified at this judgment, 
vowed in future they would not trespass on 
that saint, or on any person or thing belonging 
to him. This event gave rise to a proverb in 
England, the substance of which was, that 
St. Columba was not to be offended with im- 
punity. They likewise gave him the nick- 
name of Saint Quhalme. Notwithstanding 
the resolution here mentioned, in the year 1384, 
the English fleet being again in the Forth, 
plundered this monastery, which they attempt- 
ed to burn, and actually set fire to a shed near 
the church ; but when the destruction of the 
whole monastery seemed inevitable, some pious 
persons addressing themselves to their guardian 
saint, he suddenly changed the wind, which 
blew back the flames. The plunderers re- 
turned to their ships with their booty, and 
afterwards landed at the Queen's Ferry, and 
began to pillage the coast of the cattle, when 
they were suddenly attacked by Thomas and 
Nicholas Erskine and Alexander de Lindsay, 
having with them about fifty horsemen from 
the east, and William Conyngham, of Kil- 
maures, with thirty from the west ; these en- 
gaging the robbers, slew and wounded some, 
took others prisoners, and drove a number of 
them to their vessels ; of these above forty, 
and those some of the forwardest among the 
incendiaries, for safety, hung to the anchor, 
when a sailor, dreading the attack of the Scots, 



cut the cable with an axe, whereby all those who 
hung about the anchor were drowned. But 
what was most wonderful, was, that the per- 
son who had planned this sacrilege, and been 
the most active in setting fire to the buildings, 
was taken prisoner by William de Conyngham, 
and whilst on the way with him, was seized 
with the most frantic madness, accusing him- 
self of the above offences, testifying that he 
had been the most active in burning the shed, 
and that whilst so employed, he saw St. Co- 
lumba extinguishing the fire, when that saint 
caused some volatile flames to dart upon him, 
which destroyed his beard and eye-brows ; his 
fury increasing, he was killed, and buried in a 
cross way near the town of Dunipace. In the 
Duke of Somerset's expedition, 1547, this mo- 
nastery was, after the battle of Pinkie, occu- 
pied as a post commanding the Forth. The 
circumstance is recorded by Patin, in the fol- 
lowing words : " Tuesday, the 13th of Sep- 
tember, in the afternoon, my Lord's Grace 
rowed up the Fryth, a vi or vii myles west • 
ward, as it runneth into the land, and took in 
his way an island thear called Sainct Coomes 
Ins, which standeth a iiii mile beyond Lieth, 
and a good way ner at the north shore than 
the south, yet not within a mile of the nerest. 
It is but half a myle about, and hath in it a 
pretty abbey (but ye monks were gone) fresh 
water enough, and also coonyes ; and is so na- 
turally strong, as but one way it can be enter- 
ed. The plot whearof my Lordes Grace con- 
sidering, did quickly cast to have it kept, 
whearby all traflik of merchandise, all commo- 
dities els comyng by the Fryth into their land, 
and utterly ye hole use of the Fryth itself, 
with all the havens uppon it shoold quyte be 
taken from them. Saturday, 17th of Septem- 
ber, Sir John Luttrell, Knight, having bene 
by my Lordes Grace, and the counsell, elect 
abbot, by God's suffraunce, of the monastery 
of Sainct Coomes Ins, afore remembered, in 
the afternoon of this day departed towardes 
the island to be stalled in his see thear accord- 
ingly ; and had with, him coovent of a C hak- 
butters and L pioneers, to kepe his house and 
land thear, and ii rowe barkes well furnished 
with amnicion, and lxx mariners, for them to 
kepe his waters, whereby it is thought he shall 
soon becum a prelate of great power. The 
perfytness of his religion is not ahvaies to tarry 
at home, but sumtime to rowe out abrode a 
visitacion, and when he goithe, I have heard 



568 



I N C H I N A N. 



say he taketh alweyes bis sumners in barke 
with bym, which are very open-mouthed, and 
never talk but they are harde a mile of, so that 
either for loove of his blessynges, or fear of 
his cursinges, he is like to be souveraigne over 
most part of his neighbours." The island of 
Inchcolm was visited by Grose, or some one 
for him, in 1789, and in his Antiquities of 
Scotland are presented different views of the 
religious houses. " Great part- of the monas- 
tery," says he, " is still remaining ; the cloisters, 
with rooms over them, enclosing a square area, 
are quite entire ; the pit of the prison is a most 
dismal hole, though lighted by a small window ; 
the refectory is up one pair of stairs ; in it, 
near the window, is a kind of separate closet, 
up a few steps, commanding a view of the 
monks when at table ; this is supposed to have 
been the abbot's seat ; adjoining to the refec- 
tory is a room, from the size of its chimney, 
probably the kitchen. The octagonal chapter- 
house, with its stone roof, is also standing ; 
over it is a room of the same shape, in all like- 
lihood the place where the charters were kept. 
Here are the remains of an inscription, in the 
black-letter, which began with stultus. The 
inside of the whole building seems to have 
been plastered. Near the water there is a 
range of offices. Near the chapter-house are 
the remains of a very large semicircular arch. 
In the adjoining grounds lies the old carved 
stone, said to be a Danish monument, engraved 
by Sir Robert Sibbald, in whose book it is 
delineated as having a human head at each 
end ; and at present it is so defaced by time or 
weather, that nothing like a head can be dis- 
tinguished at either end : indeed it requires the 
aid of a creative fancy, to make out any of the 
sculpture ; something like a man with a spear 
is seen (by sharp sighted antiquaries) on the 
north side ; and on the south the figure of a 
cross ; this stone has been removed from its 
original situation." The view from the sea 
shows the entry into the cloisters, the chapter- 
house, the tower of the church, and other en- 
tire parts of the building. In more recent 
times the place has been partly modernized, as 
a residence for a citizen of Edinburgh, who 
farms the island from the Earl of Moray, the 
proprietor. The island, which is fertile in 
some places and is reputed for the fineness of 
its crops of onions, was made a station for a 
battery of ten guns, for the protection of this 
part of the Firth of Forth, during the last war. 



INCH-CONAG, an island in Loch Lo- 
mond, lying on the east of Inch-Tannach. 

INCH-CROIN, an islet near the south 
end of Loch -Lomond. 

INCH-CRUIN, a small island at the mid- 
dle of Loch-Lomond, east from Inch-Conag, 
on which an asylum for insane persons has 
been erected. 

INCH-FAD, a fertile inhabited island of 
a mile in length in Loch- Lomond, near its 
east side, and north from Inch-Cailloch. 

INCH-GALBRAITH. an islet in Loch- 
Lomond near its west side, on which stands 
the mined castle of the ancient family of Gal- 
braith.. 

INCH-GARVIE, a small rocky island in 
the Firth of Forth, lying nearly in the middle 
of the strait at Queensferry. Having been 
anciently fortified, and used for a state prison, 
its fortifications were repaired and put in a 
state of defence during last war, but the works 
are now completely abandoned. 

INCH-GRANGE, a woody isletin Loch- 
Lomond. 

INCHINAN, anciently KILLINAN, a 
parish in Renfrewshire, lying on the banks of 
the Clyde, between the parish of Erskine on 
the west, and Renfrew on the east, and south, 
extending three miles in length from west to 
east, and from two to two and a half in breadth. 
The Gryfe and Cart rivers serve as the boun- 
dary on the south and east. The country is 
here generally level or abounding in beautiful 
eminences, and the whole is finely cuitivated, 
enclosed, and planted. The district is rich 
and verdant on the banks of the Clyde, Gryfe, 
and Cart. The church of Inchinan which 
stands near the coast, is said to have been built 
as far back as 1100. David I. granted it with 
all its pertinents to the Knights Templars, 
and it continued to belong to them till their 
suppression in 1312, when it was transferred 
to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem. 
With other property belonging to that order 
it fell into tlie hands of Sir James Sandilands, 
the first Lord Torphichen. The church was 
probably dedicated to St. Inan, whose name 
and an Inch, or long narrow island in the river 
Cart, make up the designation of the parish 
Near this spot once stood the castle of Inch- 
inan, one of the seats of the Dukes of Len- 
nox. North Bar is a fine old building on the 
Clyde ; south from this place is the ruin of 
Old Bar Castle. — Population in 1821, 583. 



1 N C H K E I T H. 



569 



INOHKEITH, an island in the Firth of 
Forth, lying four miles from Leith and three 
from Kinghorn in Fife, to which it belongs. 
It is of a long irregular figure, measuring a mile 
in length by the fifth of a mile in breadth, and 
comprising altogether about seventy acres. At 
its south-eastern or narrowest end lies a small 
rocky islet, called the Longcraig. Like all 
other islands in this arm of the sea, Inchkeith 
has a bleak and comfortless aspect, being to- 
tally destitute of trees, and almost wholly pas- 
toral. Its surface though irregular and rocky, 
is in many places productive of a rich herbage, 
well suited to the pasturing of cattle or horses, 
but too rank for the use of sheep. Where cul- 
tivation has been attempted, excellent crops 
have been produced. On the eastern and 
western sides the island is precipitous and a- 
brupt, while towards the north and southern 
ends, particularly the latter, it rises more gra- 
dually, to the height of 180 feet, calculating 
from high-water mark to the summit of the 
island, on which a light-house has been placed. 
Inchkeith possesses several abundant springs 
of the purest and most excellent water that is 
any where to be met with ; and since a boat- 
harbour and landing pier have been construct- 
ed, the water has been collected in the higher 
parts of the island, and conducted by a leaden 
pipe, from a large stone cistern to the harbour, 
where it is served out by the light-house keep- 
er. From this cistern the shipping in Leith 
Roads is supplied, and seamen remark that 
this water is better and keeps longer free of 
impurities, than any other with which they are 
supplied. The rocks of this island belong 
to the coal formation, and are distinctly stra- 
tified upon the great scale. The same strata 
of rocks, with a similar direction and dip, are 
observable on the Fife shores to the north. 
The island affords a good warren for a numer- 
ous tribe of the common grey rabbits, and there 
are also found a considerable number of the 
grey Norwegian rats, in all probability brought 
hither . originally by the shipping in Leith 
'Roads. Seals are common on the shores. 
This island was in early times a possession of 
the noble family of Keith, the first of whom, 
named Robert, received it from Malcolm II., 
along with the barony of Keith in East Lothian, 
(parish of Humbie,) as a reward for killing with 
his own hand, Camus a Danish chieftain, at 
the battle of Barry, in the year 1010. The 
barony of Keith hence communicating its name 



to the family, it was from them applied to 
their inch or island in the Forth. Under the 
head of Edinburgh it has been seen that the 
island was constituted a species of lazar-house 
for the recovery of those persons in the me- 
tropolis afflicted with a certain loathsome dis- 
temper, in 1497. Lindsay of Pitscottie re- 
lates an incident connected with this desolate 
isle, which has often been repeated. He tells 
us that that acute prince and lover of the 
sciences James IV., made it the scene of the 
following curious experiment. In order to 
discover, if possible, what was the natural and 
original language of the human race, he sent 
two infants under the charge of a dumb wo- 
man, to reside here ; and that there might be 
no occasion for any intercourse with others, 
caused them to be well provided with all the 
necessaries which their situation might require, 
till the children should arrive at maturity. 
The result of the experiment is not recorded. 
In that tumultuous age, it would be but little 
regarded ; and the wars in the end of his reign, 
and the confusion consequent on his death 
at Flodden, would cause it to be almost en- 
tirely forgotten. Lindsay speaks only of a 
vague report remaining in his time ; " Some 
say that they spoke good Hebrew, but as 
to myself, I know not but by the author's 
report." The English, after the battle of 
Pinkie, fortified this island and the town of 
Haddington, besides several other places, in 
order to maintain an interest in the country 
against the catholic powers then in possession 
of the Scottish government. After rearing a 
temporary fort upon it, they left four com- 
panies of their own nation, and one company 
of Italians, for its defence, under the command 
of one Cotteral. On the 29th of June, 1549, 
this garrison was attacked, and after a very 
gallant defence, was dislodged by the French 
auxiliary troops, then defending the town and 
citadel of Leith under M. Desse, who had 
seen the importance of this island as a military 
station from its commanding position, as a cover 
to Leith, and likewise offering a^good retreat 
in case of any sudden disaster. Hesse - had no 
sooner made himself master of thisrisland than 
the temporary works of the English were thrown 
down, and a regular fortification was erected 
by order of the regent, under the sanction o* 
her daughter Mary, and the dauphin of France, 
her husband. This fort consisted of several 
strong bastions, laid out for defence of the 
4d 



570 



INCHKEITH. 



place, with a strong wall of circumvallation, 
varying in height from a few feet to upwards 
of twenty feet, according to the situation of 
the ground. The principal parts of this work 
were executed in square or ashlar masonry; 
and from the inaccessible nature of the island, 
it must in those days have been considered an 
operation of no small magnitude and expense. 
While in the possession of the French the 
properties of the grass of the island as a nutri- 
tious food for horses were observed, and so 
great a number of those animals were placed 
upon it, that the name of L'lsle des Chevaux 
became attached to it. We are told by Bos ■ 
well, in his Tour to the Hebrides, that when 
Lord Hailes was crossing the Firth with Dr. 
Johnson, he mentioned this fact, and observed 
that the island would be a safer stable than most 
others of that time. Upon the part of the 
fortification which existed in the time of the 
above distinguished tourist, were the letters 
" M. R." for Maria Regina, and the date 1556. 
When the English fleet sent by Queen Eliza- 
beth for the relief of the Scottish Protestants, 
entered the Firth, January 1560, the French 
forces, who acted for Mary the Regent in Leith, 
thought proper to improve and strengthen 
this fortress, to which the English fleet imme- 
diately laid siege, but without effect. At the 
peace, which was afterwards ratified by the 
treaty of Edinburgh, it was stipulated, that 
six score French soldiers should remain in 
Scothttid, the one half in the castle of Dunbar, 
the remainder in the fortress of Inchkeith. 
Afterwards, the fortifications were cast down 
by act of parliament, in order to prevent public 
enemies from ever again taking advantage of 
them. The next period at which Inchkeith 
comes into notice in history, is in the year 
1639, during the troubles of the reign of 
Charles I., when the king sent a fleet with 
troops, for the reduction of the Scottish cove- 
nanters. Finding it impossible to effect a 
landing on the shores of the Firth, which were 
lined every where by a bold and enthusiastic 
people, the Marquis of Hamilton, who com- 
manded this expedition, had to disembark the 
troops upon the island of Inchkeith, for the 
sake of their health, the greater part of them 
being raw English recruits who had sunk un- 
der the hardships of the voyage. It is said, 
that on this occasion the Marquis's mother 
was among those who assembled to resist his 
landing, and bore a brace of pistols on her horse 
24. 



before her, wherewith she threatened to blow 
out her son's brains if he should attempt to put 
a hostile foot upon his native shores. After 
resting some time, and making no other hostile 
manifestations than what consisted in a few 
fire-works, which they let off to frighten the 
people, this miserable army went again on 
ship-board, and sailed back to England, the 
war being in the mean time concluded, by a 
treaty between Charles and his Scottish sub- 
jects at Berwick. From this period till the 
present day, Inchkeith has ceased to be an ob- 
ject of historical interest ; and it is now chiefly 
known as the station of one of the most im- 
portant light-houses on the coasts of Scot- 
land. The light-house board, aware of the 
advantages of the navigation of the Firth 
of Forth, and the great degree of pro- 
tection it yields to vessels during storms 
from the east, proceeded to its improve- 
ment as their funds would admit ; and com- 
menced with the building of a light-house on this 
island, forming an immediate guide to the roads 
of Leith. Upon an application being present- 
ed from the Trinity House of Leith, on the 
18th of May 1803, the foundation stone of this 
useful building was laid, and the light-fire ex- 
hibited on the evening of the 1 st of September 
1804. There then existed no pier or landing 
place, nor any road upon the island for the 
conveyance of heavy materials to the site of the 
building ; and if any such had existed in the 
early state of the island, which is indeed more 
than probable, they had been entirely destroyed 
along with the works of the fortifications, as 
not the slightest trace of these roads remain- 
ed in 1803, when the light-house opera- 
tions were begun. A small portion of the 
ruins of the fortifications, however, existed. 
The elevation or design of this light-house is 
considered to be in very good taste. It is a 
house of two storeys, with a platform roof, 
and parapet with embrasures, the light-house 
tower forming the staircase to the second floor 
and ligb*-room. The light-keepers are very 
comfortably lodged, the principal having three 
apartments and his assistant two. Besides (he 
main house, a court of offices is formed in con- 
nexion with the eastern wall of the old fort ; 
and, besides other conveniences, there is an oil 
cellar sunk under ground, in which the oil is 
always kept in a fluid state, and at an equal 
temperature. There is also a place fitted up 
without the gate as a watch-house for pilots, 



I N C H K E I T H. 



571 



where they have a guard-bed and fire-place. 
The establishment is in all respects very com- 
plete. Besides good salaries, the principal and 
his assistants have ten acres of the island en- 
closed, and a garden, which they possess or hold 
in common, with a sufficient allowance of coal 
and oil for family use. In justice to these per- 
sons, we have to state, that at all times they 
display the utmost politeness in showing the 
interior of the light-house to strangers. When 
the present light-house was completed, it was 
what seamen call a stationary or fixed light, 
and contained sixteen reflectors, made upon the 
parabolic curve, formed of copper, strongly 
coated or plated with silver, instead of the 
hollow or cavity of the reflector being lined 
with facets of mirror glass as formerly. Inch- 
keith light remained as a stationary light till the 
year 1815, the period when the light of the isle 
of May was altered from an open coal fire to a 
stationary light, with oil and reflectors; on 
which it became necessary to alter the charac- 
ter of Inchkeith light from a stationary to a 
revolving light ; and with this alteration, that 
seven reflectors, instead of the former number, 
are now found perfectly sufficient. The ma- 
chinery for making the light revolve, consists 
of a movement, or piece of strong clock-work, 
kept in motion by a weight, and curiously fitted 
with two governors, upon the plan of the 
steam-engine, instead of a fly wheel. The 
reflectors are ranged upon a horizontal frame, 
which is made to revolve periodically upon a 
perpendicular axis, exhibiting, to a distant ob- 
server, the alternate effect of light and dark- 
ness, in a very beautiful and simple manner. 
The reflectors are brought round in succession 
to the eye of the observer, and the angles, or 
interstices between them, produce the effect 
of darkness, by which this light is distinguished 
from the light of the isle of May, and also 
from the common surrounding lights on the 
opposite shores. The light has further the 
advantage of being elevated above the medium 
level of the sea about 235 feet ; and such is 
the powerful effect of the reflecting apparatus, 
that it is distinctly seen in a favourable state of 
the atmosphere, at the distance of four or five 
leagues, although it is impossible that more 
than a single reflector can be seen at a time.* 



* Edin. Encv., article Inchkeith, written, we believe, 
by Mr. Robert Stevenson, civil engineer, to which we 
have to acknowledge considerable obligations in the above 
description of the island. 



The mechanism which moves the lights is ex- 
ceedingly beautiful, and is kept in the highest 
order. To examine it as a matter of curiosity, 
or to view the island, the place is often visited 
by boating parties from the Edinburgh side of 
the fhrth, and it is generally selected by the 
Highland Club as a fit theatre whereon to ex- 
hibit their annual Olympic games. On this 
gala occasion, the island is crowded with ladies 
and gentlemen, who arrive in steam vessels to 
witness the pastimes. The island is now the 
property of the Buccleugh family. 

INCH-KENNETH, an islet of the He- 
brides, lying betwixt Mull and Icolmkill, and 
possessing the ruins of a small religious esta- 
blishment, once dependant on the adjacent is- 
land. 

INCH-LOANAG, an island in Loch Lo- 
mond, of about a mile in length, being that ly- 
ing furthest to the north, in the lower or wide 
part of the lake. It is celebrated for its yew- 
trees, which, during the period when the bow 
was in use in warfare, were of great considera- 
tion and value. 

INCHMAHOME, anciently INSCHE- 
MACHAME, an island of great historical 
and antiquarian interest in the lake of Men- 
teith in Perthshire, extending to the compass 
of about five acres, and forming now a varied 
wilderness of forest and fruit-trees, interspersed 
with underwood, and chequered with moss- 
grown ruins. Adjacent to it on the west, lies 
the islet of Talla, where are still to be traced 
the ruins of a castle, which was the principal 
seat of the Grahams, Earls of Menteith, a peer- 
age now dormant. At a very early period, the 
island of Inchmahome became the residence 
of some religious recluses, and in the year 
1238, the Pope granted to Walter Cumyine, 
Earl of Menteath, liberty to erect upon it a 
priory or abbey, for the reception of canons- 
regular of the order of St. Augustine, in con- 
nexion with the abbey of Cambuskenneth. It 
was afterwards united by King James IV. to 
his royal chapel of Stirling. Subsequently, it 
was separated from this chapel, and bestowed 
by King James V. upon John Lord Erskine, 
who became commendatory abbot. Accord- 
ing to returns made to government in 1562, 
the annual profits of the priory were L.234 in 
money, besides certain quantities of grain. 
The house had four chapels dependant upon 
it. The island of Inchmahome was visited by 
several distinguished royal personages ; amoiy 



572 



INCHTURE. 



the rest, by Robert Bruce, who went thither 
April 15th, 1310, and during his stay, execut- 
ed a writ, seizing the goods and lands of a re- 
bellious subject. When Scotland was invaded 
by the English in 1547, for the purpose of forc- 
ing the infant Queen Mary into a marriage with 
Edward VI. her four guardians, one of whom 
was the above John Lord Erskine, deposited 
her person in this safe retreat, where she re- 
mained with her four Marys,till she was sent 
to France. Inchmahome was also visited by 
James VI. and was the occasional place of 
residence of many noblemen. The ruins of 
the monastery, church, and cloisters, are very 
extensive, and exhibit many specimens of fine 
old architecture of a massive nature. The 
dormitory and vaults have been for many ages 
the place of sepidture of several noble and 
ancient families. The most remarkable sculp- 
tures in these depositories of the dead, are two 
figures in relief, representing the last Earl and 
last Countess of Menteith (of the Cumynes,) 
which may be seen in the choir of the church. 
The ruins of these interesting buildings are 
sequestered in overhanging woods of consider- 
able age and growth, which communicate an 
air of great sylvan beauty to the little isle. 
Some of the trees are said to be three cen- 
turies old, and one of them, a Spanish ches- 
nut, measures, near the ground, eighteen feet 
in circumference. The island and its priory 
have furnished the subject for a work by that 
accurate and well-informed antiquary, the Rev. 
Mr. Macgregor Stirling, extending to a quar- 
to volume. 

INCH-MARNOCH, an island of about 
two miles in length, lying on the west side of 
Bute, and having the ruins of a chapel de- 
dicated to St. Marnoch, near its eastern 
shore. 

INCH-MICKERY, an islet in the Firth 
of Forth, near its north shore, adjacent to the 
island of Inchcolm. 

INCH-MOAN, an islet in Loch Lomond, 
lying east from Inch-Tannoch; it is chiefly peat- 
moss. 

INCH-MURRIN, or INCH-MARIN, 
the largest island in Loch Lomond, near its 
south-west extremity, extending two miles in 
length. It is beautifully wooded, and is used 
as a deer-park by the Duke of Montrose, who 
has a hunting seat and offices upon it, near an 
old castle, the residence of the ancient proprie- 
tor, the Earl of Lennox. It is singular enough 



that this island is not included in any county 
or parochial division. 

INCH-TAVANACH, or INCH-TAN- 
NACH, an island in Loch Lomond, lying 
near the shore on its west side, extending three 
quarters of a mile in length and half a mile 4n 
breadth. It is the loftiest of the various 
islands in the lake, and is chiefly covered with 
wood and heath. 

INCH-TORR, or TORR-INCH, a small 
woody islandin Loch Lomond, near its south end. 

INCHTURE, a parish in the Carse of 
Gowrie, Perthshire, lying on the north bank 
of the Firth of Tay, opposite Flisk in Fife, 
bounded by Longforgan on the east, Errol and 
Kinnaird on the west, and Abemyte and 
Longforgan on the north. It extends only 
about a mile along the Tay, being broader 
inland, and is nearly four miles from north to 
south. The parish is one of the most pro- 
ductive and beautiful in this rich district of 
country. It possesses some fine seats and 
pleasure-grounds, among others those of Ball- 
indean, and Rossie Priory. The parish has 
several villages. That of Inchture is situated 
on the road from Perth to Dundee, distant 
from the latter nine miles, and thirteen from 
the former. The village of Ballerno or Balled- 
garno lies about a mile further to the north, and 
on the boundary of the parish from Errol is sit- 
uated the sea-port and thriving village of Pol- 
gavie, or Povvgavie- It is three miles north-east 
from the village of Errol, and from it ship- 
ments are made of corn and other native pro- 
ducts. It has some granaries, storehouses, 
and a pier, which can be approached by vessels 
of from thirty to sixty tons burden. The 
parish of Inchture incorporates the abrogated 
parochial district of Rossie, which was united 
to it in 1670. The original name seems to 
have been Inchtower, from a tower placed 
on one of those inches or islands with which 
the Carse of Gowrie once abounded, and which 
are now only rising grounds. — Population in 
1821,958. 

INCHYRA, or INCHIRY, a seaport 
village in Gowrie, Perthshire, situated in the 
parish of KinouL on the north bank of the 
Tay, about six miles below Perth. 

INGANESS BAY, a bay of about three 
miles in length in Orkney, indenting the 
mainland, nearly two miles to the east of 
Kirkwall Bay. The headland on its west 
side is called Inganess Head. 



INNERLEITHEN. 



573 



INHALLOW See Enhallow. 

INIS-CONNEL, an island in Loch-Awe, 

Argyleshire — See Awe (Loch). 

INIS-FRAOCH, or FRAOCH-ELAN, 
nn island in Loch- Awe, Argyleshire. — See 
Awe (Loch.) 

INIS-HAIL, an island in Loch-Awe, 
Argyleshire. — See Awe (Loch.) 

INIS-ERAITH, an island in Loch-Awe, 
Argyleshire — See Awe (Loch.) 

INNERKIP, a parish in Renfrewshire, 
occupying the north-west corner of the county, 
bounded by the Firth of Clyde on the north 
and west, by Largs in Ayrshire and Lochwin- 
noch on the south, and by Greenock, which 
once formed a part of it, on the east. It 
extends about six miles from north to south, 
by a breadth of four miles. The land ascends 
from the shores, and forms in general a hilly 
territory, intermixed with pleasing well-culti- 
vated fields and fertile meadows. In the 
southern part there is a good deal of moss. 
The parish has several considerable rivulets, 
the chief of which is the Kip Water, inter- 
secting the district from east to west, and 
falling into the Firth of Clyde. On this water 
is situated the village of Innerkip, formerly 
styled Inverkip, from being placed at the 
mouth of Kip Water. The village stands 
six miles west from Greenock, and besides 
the parish church it has a dissenting meeting- 
house. It is a place of resort for sea-bathing, 
and is inhabited by a number of fishermen. 
Three annual fairs are held. The neat small 
town of Gourock lies on the banks of the 
Firth of Clyde within the parish. There are 
several seats in the vicinity of the above estu- 
ary, among which is Ardgowan, an elegant 

mansion in the midst of pleasure-grounds 

Population in 1821, 2344. 

INNERLEITHEN, or INVERLEI- 
THEN, a parish in Peebles-shire, with a 
small portion belonging to the county of Sel- 
kirk, lying on the north or left bank of the 
Tweed opposite Traquair, bounded by Peebles 
and part of Eddleston on the west, Heriot and 
Temple on the north, and Stow on the 
east- It extends about seven miles from north 
to south, by a breadth of from four to five 
miles. The surface may be represented as 
altogether pastoral and mountainous, except on 
the banks of the Tweed, where there are some 
fine flat fertile fields, and on the banks of its 
tributary the Leithen, where cultivation is 



spreading and improvements going forward. 
The district is chiefly the basin of the Leithen 
Water and the small bums poured into it- 
This mountain-stream originates in the north- 
western corner of the parish, and after a course 
of about twelve miles falls into the Tweed 
nearly opposite Traquair House, the seat 
of the Earl of Traquair. The word Leitfien 
is significant of a water which overflows its 
banks. Improvements on a great scale have 
been made in the district exposed to the Tweed, 
especially on the estate of Glenormiston, which 
now shows some fine plantations. Westward 
from thence, near the -road to Peebles, and on 
a rising ground overhanging the Tweed, stands 
Horsburgh Castle, .now entirely in ruins. It 
was anciently the seat of the Horsburghs, and 
was used as one of the numerous peel-houses 
on the Tweed, (See Peebles- shire.) From 
it a pleasing view is obtained of the town of 
Peebles further up the Tweed, and Nidpath 
Castle beyond. It is mentioned that a natural 
son of Malcolm IV. was drowned in a pool 
near the foot of the Leithen, and that the first 
night after his decease his body was deposited 
in the parish church. Hence King Malcolm, 
in granting the church to the monks of Kelso, 
" in qua," says he, " prima node, corpus JUit 
mei post obitum suum quievit," ordained that it 
should have the power of giving a sanctuary to 
those fleeing from justice, " quantum habet 
Wedah aut Tyningham." In 1232, the church 
was confirmed to the monks, by their diocesan, 
William, the bishop of Glasgow. While the 
church, with its vicarage and rectorial property, 
continued with these churchmen, the village 
of Inverleithen, with the circumjacent district, 
continued a • part of the royal demesne, during 
the reign of Alexander II. In 1674, that part 
of the suppressed parish of Kailzie, lying north 
of the Tweed, was annexed to the parish of 
Inverleithen. 

INNERLEITHEN, a village in Peebles- 
shire, the capital of the above parish, situated 
at the distance of about twenty-eight miles 
from Edinburgh, and six east from Peebles. 
It stands on a flat piece of ground within a quar- 
ter of a mile of the left bank of the Tweed, 
environed on the east and west by high and 
partly wooded hills. The Leithen water pro- 
ceeding out of the vale on the north, passes 
through the village to the Tweed, and is crossed 
by a stone bridge carrying along the road 
from Peebles to Selkirk. By far the greater 



574 



INNERLEITHEN. 



part of the houses stand on the right bank of 
the Leithen, on the property of the Earl of 
Traquair, who has feued the ground on advan- 
tageous terms. The lands east from the Lei- 
then form part of the estate of Pirn. For 
many ages the village, or rather hamlet, of 
Innerleithen was among the smallest and most 
primitive of this pastoral and thinly populated 
district, consisting of little else than a few 
thatched houses near the Leithen, and a mill, 
with the church of the parish, situated a short 
way up the vale. Placed in a secluded part 
of Scotland, and out of the way of general 
traffic, it seemed to have every chance of re- 
maining for a long time in obscurity. While 
in this condition, during the last century, it 
was pitched upon as being well suited for be- 
ing a seat of woollen manufactures, chiefly 
in consideration of its site in the midst of an 
extensive pastoral county, and upon the brink 
of a rapid ninning brook, which offered a 
powerful fall of water. That which may have 
been observed by different individuals was seen 
with greater clearness by a native of the dis- 
trict, who had risen to great wealth by a course 
of successful industry in London. This pa- 
triotic person was a Mr. Alexander Brodie, who 
was by profession a blacksmith, and had origi- 
nally gone to the British metropolis in search of 
employment, having at the time only a few 
shillings in his pocket. In the course of a 
number of years, by great skill in his business, 
this person realized a very large fortune. Many 
years before his death, about the year 1 790, 
he bethought himself of raising the consequence 
of Innerleithen, by the establishment of a 
woollen factory, which was forthwith erected 
at a considerable expense, L.3000 being ex- 
pended on the works and machinery. This 
manufactory, which is a house of five storeys, 
attracted a number of settlers to the village, 
and scattered a good deal of money in the vici- 
nity, but till this day its success has been very 
limited, and various lessees have lost capital 
by carrying it on. The cloth produced is most- 
ly blue, and of a coarse quality. While the vil- 
lage acquired a more comfortable aspect under 
the influence of its cloth factory, it gradually be- 
came known for the possession of a salubrious 
mineral spring, held to be of great virtue in 
scorbutic and other affections. We understand 
that it was not till about the beginning of the 
present century that this spring attracted par- 
ticular notice. After it did acquire its character 



as a spa, it continued to be only administered 
from a simple pump to those country people 
who trusted in its healing properties. Little 
more than ten years ago, if not less, " Inner- 
leithen well," in a strangely sudden and unac- 
countable manner, acquired a very high degree 
of reputation among real or imaginary valetu- 
dinarians, all over the south of Scotland and 
especially in Edinburgh. The old primitive 
pump was disused, and an elegant structure 
being reared over the spring, by the late Earl 
of Traquair, the place was made to vie with 
some of the long established watering places 
in England. Its celebrity was further en- 
hanced in 1824, by the publication of the novel, 
by the author of Waverley, entitled St. Ronans* 
Well, of which place it was fondly imagined 
to be the prototype. This part of the vale of 
Tweed being simultaneously or previously 
opened up by the running of stage coaches 
from Edinburgh to Peebles, and of conveyances 
from thence to Innerleithen, there was now no 
hinderance to visitors, and the consequence has 
been, that every year since, the number of 
lodgers in the summer and autumn months has 
been on the increase. Much of this populari- 
ty has been owing to the proximity of the vil- 
lage to Edinburgh, and the ease with which it 
can be reached, in which peculiarities it is su- 
perior to Pitcaithly, Moffat, Dumblane, and 
other watering places. There are also various 
advantages connected with its locality which 
will not be overlooked. It is a fit place of 
temporary residence for those fond of angling, 
as, besides the Tweed, and the Leithen, it is 
near the Quair, and at no great distance from 
St. Mary's Loch in Yarrow, as well as other 
trouting waters. The climate is allowed to 
be dry and healthy, and the country is here 
so secluded that there is no disagreeable in- 
terruption in making extensive promenades. 
To accommodate the numerous transient re- 
sidents, a number of substantial houses have 
been built, forming a neat small street along 
the public road, with a variety of houses 
behind, which are let as private furnished 
lodgings. The village has now two public 
inns, one of which is provided with a ball- 
room or large dining apartment; some good 
shops, and a circulating library. Newspapers 
are taken in at the pump-room. At one of the 
shops, fishing tackle is sold and lent to anglers 
on moderate terms. During the season the en- 
joyments of the visitor are promoted by con- 



INNERWICK. 



575 



certs, balls, public readings, parties to St. 
Mary's Loch, shooting parties to Elibank and 
Horsburgh Wood, as well as by the exhibitions 
of a party of strolling players, &c. Thetrusteesof 
the roads in this quarter of Tweeddalehave been 
very assiduous in improving the thoroughfares 
near Innerleithen. A new road has been formed 
along the vales of the Leithen and Willanslee 
Burn, towards the head of the vale of Heriot, 
by which, as soon as the Mid-Lothian part is 
finished, a ready communication will be had 
with Mid and East-Lothian, and the districts 
producing coal and lime. Fully as beneficial 
and a much more beautiful improvement has 
been instituted in the erection of a handsome 
wooden bridge across the Tweed to Traquair, 
by which strangers have now an opportunity 
of visiting the classic shades of the " bush 
aboon Traquair," and the scenery on the right 
bank of the Tweed. The bridge is erected 
on strong piers in the water, and permits the 
passage of horses and carriages, a convenience 
of great moment as regards intercourse by carts 
to the head of the Yarrow, the fords being 
often impassable for days at a time. The vi- 
sitors who take an interest in the prosperity of 
the village, along with the regular inhabitants, 
have recently instituted an association, styl- 
ed the St. Roman's JBordar Club, which is 
composed of a great number of gentlemen con- 
nected with all parts of the country, under 
whose auspices is held an annual festival, for 
the exhibition of Olympic games or gymnastic 
exercises. Under the patronage of this body, 
there is also a competition in trout-fishing for 
one day in the year, — the person who catches, 
by the rod, the greatest aggregate weight of 
fish, being rewarded with a medal. The day 
of competition is usually the Edinburgh fast- 
day in May. The competitors in and patrons 
of these pastimes always dine together, and 
close the day in convivialities, which are ordi- 
narily enlivened by the presence of men emi- 
nent in different walks of literature. — Po- 
pulation of the parish and village in 1821, 
705. 

INNERPEFFRAY, or INCHAFF- 
REY, an ancient abbey in Perthshire, in the 
parish of Madderty, situated on the banks of the 
Earn. This religious building is now in ruins. 
Its abbot attended Robert Bruce on the day of 
Bannockburn, and administered the sacrament 
to the Scottish soldiery before the battle.— 
There is a small village near the ruins. 



INNERWELL, a sea-port village in Wig- 
tonshire. 

INNERWICK, a parish in the county of 
Haddington, bounded by Oldhamstocks on the 
east, Spott and' Dunbar on the west, the sea 
on the north, and Cranshaws and Longforma- 
cus in Berwickshire on the south. Extend- 
ing thus across East Lothian, it measures ten 
miles in length by a general breadth of from 
two to three miles. The parish comprises a 
considerable part of the mountainous and pas- 
toral district of Lammermoor, and towards the 
north declines into beautiful cultivated braes, 
and finally into that rich flat territory along 
the sea- coast east from Dunbar. The shore is 
here bold and precipitous, and there is gather- 
ed from the beach a considerable quantity of 
sea-ware, which is applied to purposes of ma- 
nure- The low fertile lands in this quarter of 
Haddingtonshire are let at exceedingly high 
rents, but only at rates commensurate with 
their productive qualities. There are now a 
variety of plantations in the uplands, and the 
fields are all well enclosed. The village of 
Innerwick lies with a northern exposure at the 
base of the hilly country, rather more than a 
mile to the west of the road from Dunbar to 
Berwick. In its vicinity stands the ruin of 
the ancient castle of Innerwick, of which a 
drawing is to be found in Grose's Antiquities. 
This castle originally belonged to the younger 
branch of the family of Hamilton, who from 
it were styled Hamiltons of Innerwick. It 
was one of those small fortalices built for the 
defence of the borders, in cases of sudden at- 
tack, or popular insurrections ; of which John 
Major says, there were two in every league. 
Its situation is rather secluded, and it is ro- 
mantically erected on the summit of a rocky 
eminence, overhanging a woody glen, which 
divided it from the fortlet of Thornton, a 
stronghold of a similar description now entire™ 
ly erased. The castle of Innerwick was 
besieged, taken and destroyed, by the troops 
under the Duke of Somerset, whose onfall is 
thus quaintly described by Patten : — While 
a body of miners were left to blow up the walls 
of Dinglas castle, the army marched on at the dis- 
tance of a mile and a half northward, and arrived 
at " two pyles or holdes, Thornton and Inder- 
wiche, set both on a craggy foundation, and 
divided a stone's cast asunder, by a deep gut 
wherin ran a little river. Thornton belonged 
to the Lord Hume, and was kept then by one 



576 



I N N E R W I C K. 



Tom Trotter ; whereunto my lord's grace 
overnight, for summons, sent Somerset, his 
herald, toward whom iiii. or v. of his captain's 
prikkers, with their gaddes ready charged, 
did right hastily direct their course ; but 
Trotter both honestly defended the herald, 
and sharply rebuked his men ; and said for 
the summons he would come speak with 
my lord's grace himself; notwithstanding he 
came not, but straight lockt up sixteen poor 
souls, like the soldiers of Douglas, fast within 
the house, took the keys with him, and com- 
manding them they should defend the house, 
and tarry within, (as they could not get out,) 
till his return, which should be on the morrow, 
with munition and relief, he with his prikkers 
prikt quite his ways. Innerwick pertained to 
the lord of Hambleton (Hamilton), and was 
kept by his son and heir, (whom of custom 
they call the master of Hamilton), and an viii. 
more with him, gentlemen for the most part, 
as we heard say. My lord's grace, at his com- 
ing nigh, sent unto both these pyles, which, 
upon summons, refusing to surrender, were 
straight assailed. Thornton, by battery of iiii. 
of our great peices of ordnance, and certain of 
Sir Peter Mewtus hakbutters to watch the 
loop-holes and windows on all sides, and In- 
nerwick by a sort of the same hakbutters alone, 
who so well bestirred them, that where these 
keepers had - rammed up their outer doors, clay- 
ed and stopped up their stairs within, and kept 
themselves aloft for defiance of their house 
about the battlements, the hakbutters gat in, 
and fired them underneath ; whereby being 
greatly troubled with smoke and smother, and 
brought in desperation of defence, they called 
pitifully over the walls to my lord's grace for 
mercy ; who, notwithstanding their great ob- 
stinacy, and the ensample other of the enemies 
might have had by their punishment, of his no- 
ble generosity, and by these words, making 
half excuse for them, (Men may sometimes do 
that hastily in a gere, whereof, after, they may 
soon repent them), did take them to grace, and 
therefore sent one straight to them. But ere 
the messenger came, the hakbutterhad got up te 
them, and killed eight of them aloft ; one leapt 
over the walls, and running more than a fur- 
long after, was slain without in water* All 
this while, at Thornton, our assault and their 
defence was stoutly continued ; but well per- 
ceiving, how, on the one side, they were bat- 
tered, aimed on the other, kept in with hak- 



butters round about, and some of our men 
within also, occupying all the house under 
them, (for they had likewise shopt up them- 
selves in the highest of their house,) and so to 
do nothing inward or outward, neither by shoot- 
ing of base, (whereof they had but one or two,) 
nor tumbling of stones, (the things of their 
chief annoyance,) whereby they might be able 
any while to resist our power, or save them- 
selves, they plucked in a banner that afore they 
had set out in defiance, and puts over the walls 
a white linen clout tied on a stick's end, crying 
all with one tune for mercy ; but having an- 
swer by the whole voice of the assailers, they 
were traitors, and it was too late, they pluck- 
ed in their stick, and sticked up the banner of 
defiance again, shot of hurled stones, and did 
what else they coidd, with great courage of 
their side, and little hurt of ours. Yet, then, 
after being assured by our earnesty, that we 
had vowed the winning of their hold before 
our departure, and then, that their obstinacy 
could deserve no less than death, plucked in 
their banner once again, and cried upon mercy ; 
and being generally answered, nay, nay, look 
never for it, for ye are arrant traitors ; then 
made they a petition, that if they should needs 
die, yet that my lord's grace would be so good 
to them as they might be hanged, whereby 
they might somewhat reconcile themselves to 
Godward, and not die in malice with so great 
danger of their souls ; a policy sure, in my 
mind, though but of gross heddes, yet of a fine 
device. Sir Miles Patrick being nigh about 
this pyle at this time, and spying one in a 
red doublet,- did guess he should be an Eng- 
lishman, and therefore came and furthered this 
petition to my lord's grace, the rather, which 
then took effect. They came and humbled 
themselves to his grace, whereupon, without 
more hurt, they were commanded to the pro- 
vost marshal. It is somewhat here to consi- 
der, I know not whether the destiny or hap of 
man's life, the more worthy men, the less of- 
fenders, and more in the judge's grace, were 
slain ; and the beggars, the obstinate rebels 
that deserved nought but cruelty, were saved. 
To say on now, the house was soon after so 
blown with powder that more than one half 
fell straight down to rubbish and dust ; the 
rest stood all to be shaken with riftes and 
chynkes. Innerwick was burned, and all the 
houses of office and stalks of corn about them 
both. While this was thus in hand, my lord's 



I N V E R A R V. 



577 



grace, in turning but about, saw the fall of 
Dunglas, which likewise was undermined and 
blown with powder." Near Branxton, in the 
parish of Innerwick, on a hill a little above 
the bridge vulgarly called Edinkens, but pro- 
perly Edwin's Bridge, stood four grey stones, 
to mark the burial-place of Edwin, prince of 
Northumbria, who was killed at this spot. 
These interesting memorials of the death of 
the Anglo-Saxon, whose name has been ren- 
dered imperishable by the title of Edinburgh, 
were some time ago removed for agricultural 
convenience. In a field near Dryburn-bridge, 
on the farm of Skateraw, two stone coffins 
were lately discovered, containing a dagger and 
a ring. — Population in 1821, 924. 

INSCH, or INCH, a parish in the district 
of Garioch, Aberdeenshire, extending five 
miles in length by three in breadth, bounded by 
Culsalmond on the east, Kinnethmont on the 
west, and separated on the north by the water 
cf Urie, from Drumblade arid Forgue. Only a 
small portion is arable. The Kirktown of 
Insch, which is a burgh of barony with a week- 
iy market, stands at the southern extremity of 
the parish, at the distance of twenty-six miles 
from Aberdeen. Part of the high hill of 
Foudland is within the district. — Population 
in 1821, 1059. 

INVER, or INVAR, a village in Perth- 
snire, in the parish of Little Dunkeld, standing 
on the right bank of the Tay, a short way 
above the junction of the Bran with that 
river. 

INVER, (Loch) an arm of the sea on the 
west coast of Sutherlandshire, projected into 
the parish of Assynt, and receiving at its inner 
extremity the waters of Inverkirkag, which 
issue from Loch Assynt. At the point where 
this water enters Loch Inver stands the village 
of Inver. 

INVERARY, a parish in Argyleshire, 
lying chiefly betwixt Loch -Awe and Loch- 
Fyne, extending eighteen miles in length, by 
an average breadth of three miles. The dis- 
trict is hilly, and is only arable in the lower 
parts, where the soil is of a productive nature. 
Near Loch Fyne, and along the bottom of dif- 
ferent vales, there are now many beautiful plan- 
tations. The two principal rivers in the pa. 
rish are the Ary or Aoreidh (which gives its 
name to the parish and town,) and the Shira. 
The Ary has a run of eight miles, and falls 
into Loch Fyne at the town of Inverary. It 



pursues a course partly through rugged and un- 
even ground, covered with wood, and forms 
several natural cascades of considerable beauty. 
The Shira is a smooth running water further 
to the north, which flows through the highly 
cultivated vale of * Glenshira, and discharges 
itself into the fresh water lake entitled Loch 
Dow, which is emitted into Loch Fyne. 

Inverary, a royal burgh in Argyleshire, 
the capital of the county, and of the above pa- 
rish, and the seat of a presbytery, and circuit 
court of justiciary. It occupies a delightful si- 
tuation on the west side of Loch Fyne, near 
its upper extremity, at the distance of one 
hundred and two miles west by north of Edin- 
burgh, sixty north-west from Glasgow, thirty- 
two south-east of Oban, and seventy-three 
north-north-east of Campbelltown. In front 
of the town is a small bay of Loch Fyne 
environed by romantic woody hills, and on its 
north side, within extensive and beautiful plea- 
sure-grounds, stands the castle of Inverary, the 
seat of the Duke of Argyle. Behind this 
splendid mansion the river Ary issues into the 
loch, and from its margin rises the pyramidal 
hill of Duinicoich to the height of seven hun- 
dred feet, embellished and wooded to the sum- 
mit in all the prodigality of nature and of art. 
The town of Inverary is of small dimensions 
and of irregular construction, consisting chiefly 
of one row of houses facing the lake. Within 
these few years many substantial residences 
have been erected, and the houses are all well 
built and slated- Originally the town — then a 
mere village — was situated on the north side 
of the bay, and partook of the usual squalor of 
Highland villages, but being removed to its 
present situation by its proprietor, the Duke 
of Argyle, considerable attention has been 
bestowed in giving the modern town an air 
of neatness and cleanliness. In the main 
street stands a comfortable modern church, 
in which the services are performed both in 
Gaelic and English ; on the shore is a sub 
stantial stone edifice, used as a jail and court- 
house, and in the neighbourhood are two 
good inns. The town possesses a grammar 
school, supported by the Duke of Argyle ; a 
female charity school, endowed by her Grace 
the Duchess; and the parish school. The 
principal trade carried on here is that of the 
herring fishery, and for the convenience of 
ships, in this and general traffic, a well-built 
quay projects-so far into the bay, as to enable 
4e 



578 



INVERARV 



vessels of considerable burden to load and un- 
load at low water. Races are occasionally 
held at Inverary, for horses bred in the county, 
and there are annual fairs in May and June. 
There are two nominal market-days — Tuesday 
and Friday, but they are not attended to. In- 
verary was an early seat of the Argyle family, 
under whose influence the town was erected 
into a royal burgh by Charles I. (when in 
Carisbrook castle,) in 1648. By this arrange- 
ment, its civic government consists of a pro- 
vost, two bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, 
and a council appointed by the Duke. The 
burgh joins with Ayr, Irvine, Rothesay, and 
Campbelton, in electing a member of parlia- 
ment. Its revenue arises from the petty cus- 
toms, the rent of a common, and an annuity of 
L.20 given by the late Duke Archibald. In- 
verary castle is the principal object of attrac- 
tion in this part of Scotland. It is a modern 
square edifice, built to replace one of an an- 
cient date, and is constructed with a tower at 
each corner. All travellers speak with rap- 
tures of the beauty of the scenery around this 
elegant mansion, as well as the splendour of its 
interior decorations. The Dukes of Argyle are 
said to have spent no less than L 30,000 in 
building, planting, improving, making roads and 
other works of utility and decoration, in and 
about the castle. The collections of old 
Highland armour to be found within the 
saloon, are worthy of the particular attention 
of the visitor. Strangers are freely admitted, 
the payment of a fee to the cicerone being 
of course expected. Till within the last six 
or eight years, Inverary was a town rarely 
visited by strangers, on account of its inacces- 
sibility. It is now daily visited every summer 
by scores of tourists, the most of whom come 
thither directly from Glasgow by one or other 
of the numerous vehicles, terrestrial and marine, 
which ply towards it from that city. Inverary 
being now a chief rallying point in these ex- 
cursions into the West Highlands, it may here 
be advantageous to notice the routes by which 
it can be approached from Glasgow. These 
routes are three in number, all of which are 
more or less calculated to delight the traveller 
in search of the picturesque. First, there are 
steam-boats which conduct him down the 
Clyde, touching at Greenock and Rothesay, 
then through the tortuous and beautiful strait 
called the ' Kyles of Bute," and finally up the 
long arm of the sea called Loch Fyne, near 
25. 



the head of which Inverary is situated. The 
advantages of this sail, which generally occu- 
pies a whole day, are, that the traveller sees, 
by the way, the whole of the lower part of 
Clyde, the beautiful little town of Rothesay, 
the fine scenery of the Kyles, and the dark 
lofty serrated outline of the isle of Arran, in 
addition to the general scenery of Argyleshire, 
a noble specimen of which is presented during 
the sail up Loch Fyne. The second route is 
more direct. The traveller pays a small sum 
at Glasgow, as his fare for the journey to In- 
verary, and embarks on board a steam-boat, 
which conducts him down the Clyde and into 
a small arm of the sea called Holy Loch. 
From this little gulf, which stretches north- 
ward from the Firth of Clyde, and which is 
surrounded by the finest scenery, he disembarks 
at the little parish-village of Kilmun, where he 
is provided with a coach which conducts him 
through a wild vale of four or five miles in 
length, to the bottom of a beautiful inland lake 
called Loch Eck. Here he is shipped on 
board of a steam-vessel and carried to the 
head of the loch, when, disembarking, he is 
once more transferred to a coach, and convey- 
ed across a grand isthmus of mountain land 
in a westerly direction, till he reaches Strach- 
ur. He has then only to cross Loch Fyne 
in another steam-boat in order to arrive at In- 
verary. This journey, which may be perform- 
ed with perfect convenience for a few shillings, 
and which lays open to view one of the finest 
tracts of scenery in Scotland, generally occu- 
pies altogether seven hours. The third route 
to Inverary involves the famous scenery of 
Loch Lomond and Glencroe, and is somewhat 
more circuitous than that just mentioned. 
This journey, like the other, though extending 
over both sea and land, may be performed by 
paying a certain sum, a very small one, at Glas- 
gow. The tourist is conducted to a place near 
Dumbarton by a steam-boat ; then crosses over 
a small piece of country by a coach to Balloch, 
at the foot of Loch Lomond. Embarking in 
a steam-boat on Loch Lomond, he sails four- 
teen miles northward to a place called Tarbet 
on its west side, from whence a coach conveys 
him over an isthmus to the head of Loch Long, 
which is an arm of the sea parallel to Loch 
Lomond. On reaching the head of this beau- 
tiful sheet of water, the road proceeds through 
an opening towards the west, and enters the 
vale of Glencroe. The traveller ascends to 



INVERE9K. 



579 



the head of this lonely and magnificent vale 
(described in its proper place,) by a steep and 
painful path, from the top of which he pro- 
ceeds to Cairndow, on the bank of Loch Fyne, 
where a boat is to be procured, to convey him 
down the loch to Inverary — Population of the 
parish and town of Inverary in 1821, 1137. 

IN VE RARITY, a parish in Forfarshire, 
bounded on the west by Glammis and Tealing, 
on the south by Muirhouse and Monikie, on the 
east by part of Guthrie and Dunnichen, and on 
the north by Forfar and Kinnettles. It is of 
a compact form, extending to a length and 
breadth of about four miles. The surface is 
uneven, and for the greater part of a poor soil, 
with much waste land. Extensive plantations 
and other improvements are in progress. The 
church stands on a rivulet tributary to the Dean. 
— Population in 1821, 966. 

IN VE RAVEN, a parish chiefly in Banff- 
shire, with a small portion belonging to the 
county of Moray, stretching from the Spey 
to the borders of Aberdeenshire ; bounded by 
AberlourandMortlacnon the north, Cabrach on 
the east ; and on the south and west by Crom- 
dale and Kirkmichael; extending fourteen miles 
in length by nine in breadth in some places. 
The river Aven, which proceeds out of Kirk- 
michael parish, runs through the district and 
falls into the Spey at Ballindalloch. A short 
way further down the banks of the Spey, stands 
the kirk of Inveraven. Within the parish, the 
Aven receives the water of Livet or Livat, 
which runs through a vale to which it gives 
the name of Glenlivet, — a district celebrated 
for the excellence of its whisky. This vale 
is remarkably fertile. The banks of the rivers 
are planted, and abound with copses of birch 
and alder, and on the banks of the Spey there 
is a considerable extent of oak-wood. The 
parish possesses various remains of antiquity. 
—Population in 1821, 2481. 

INVERBERVIE, more commonly called 
Bervie, see Bervie. 

INVERCHAOLAIN, or INVER- 
HALLAN, a parish in the southern part of 
Cowal, Argyleshire, intersected by an arm of 
the sea, called Loch Streven, which runs about 
eight miles into the country, the two sides of 
which, with the channel that divides the is- 
land of Bute from this part of Cowal, present 
a sea- coast in this parish of above three miles. 
The district is mountainous and pastoral. 



There are some gentlemen's seats along 
the shores. The parish kirk 6tands on the 
east side of Loch Streven. — Population in 
1821, 651. 

INVERESK, a parish in the county of 
Edinburgh, lying on the shore of the Firth of 
Forth, and bounded on the east by Preston- 
pans and Tranent, on the south chiefly by 
Dalkeith, and on the west by Newton, Liber- 
ton, and Duddingston. It extends fully three 
miles and a half from west to east, and two 
from north to south. The situation of this 
parish has with justice been called one of the 
most delightful in Scotland. The low part of it 
adjacent to the sea is only a few feet above the 
level of the highest tides, being in many places 
fertile downs formed by the subsidence of the 
water, and the increase of sand on the beach. 
Behind this low ground the land rises in rich 
arable fields, and inclines into the verdant vale 
through which flows the river Esk. On the 
east side of this beautiful valley, and within 
half a mile of the sea, there stands forward a 
fine rising ground, with a free exposure to the 
west and north, and on its summit has for 
ages stood the parish church of Inveresk. 
Though little more than fifty feet above the 
level of the sea, a most extensive and pleasing 
view can be obtained of this district of Mid- 
Lothian, the bay of Musselburgh, part of 
East Lothian, and the coast of Fife. The 
country here is under the highest state of cul- 
tivation, is well enclosed and embellished with 
plantations, and is more populous than any 
other part of the county out of the metropoli- 
tan district. The parish of Inveresk is not 
more remarkable for its beauty than for the 
salubrity of its climate, in which respect it 
is said so far to surpass other districts of 
the kingdom that its village has been styled 
the Montpelier of Scotland. Within the pa- 
rish are comprehended the towns of Mussel, 
burgh and Fisherrow, with a variety of ham- 
lets and detached buildings. Musselburgh 
and Fisherrow occupy a low situation at the 
mouth of the Esk betwixt the sea and Inver- 
esk, and are described under their appropriate 
heads. The beauty of the mount on which 
Inveresk stands, and its adaptation to the pur- 
poses of fortification, did not escape the vigi- 
lance of the Romans while fixing themselves 
in this part of the province of Valentia. His- 
tory informs us that they had a station here, 



680 



INVERESK. 



and repeated discoveries point out the spot 
where the Praetorium was reared. The first 
discovery of Roman antiquities at Inveresk 
took place in April, 1565, and the Scottish 
Antiquarian Transactions, Vol. II. contains 
two letters upon the subject, written by Ran- 
dolph, the English resident at the court of 
Queen Mary, to Sir Robert Cecil, the minis- 
ter of Queen Elizabeth. What was then dis- 
covered seems to have been a cave and an 
altar, the latter having the following inscrip- 
tion: — " Apollini Granno, [i. e. to the 
long-haired Apollo,] Quintus Lucius Sa- 
einianus, Proconsul Augusti, votum su- 
sceitum solvit, lubens merito." It is no- 
ticed particularly, and the inscription is given 
in the work of Camden, which was published 
not long after. It is also alluded to by the 
almost contemporary Napier of Merchiston, as 
follows : He says, besides in Rome itself, 
" In every part of that empire are there infi- 
nite of these temples, idols, and other monu • 
merits erected, and even at Musselburgh, among 
ourselves in Scotland, a foundation of a Ro- 
man monument lately found (now utterlie de- 
molished,) bearing this inscription dedicatoiy, 
" Apollini Granno," &c. — Plaine Discoverie, 
&c p. 210- Edinburgh, 1593, 4 to. If thus 
early demolished, it does not appear that the 
fault lay with the sovereign reigning at the 
time of the discovery, whose enlightened mind 
would naturally suggest that the utmost care 
ought to be taken of the monument, lest it 
should catch damage at the hands of the igno- 
rant and ruin-loving mob of those days. In the 
treasurer's books there occurs the following 
proof of Mary's anxiety to preserve it : — 
" Aprile, 1565, Item, to ane boy passand of 
Edinburgh with ane charge of the Queen's 
grace, direct to the baillies of Musselburgh, 
charging thame to tak diligent heid and attend- 
ance, that the monument of grit antiquity new 
fundin be nocht demolish't nor brokin down — 
xiid." that is a Scots shilling, or a penny Ster- 
ling. The second discovery, which was su- 
perintended by the Rev. Dr. Carlyle, minister 
of the parish, took place in January 1783, and 
is thus described by him in the Statistical Ac- 
count. " If there had," says he, " remained 
any doubt concerning the situation of this Ro- 
man fort, it was fully cleared up a few years 
ago, when, the proprietor of a villa haviig oc- 
casion to take two or three feet off the sur- 
face of his parterre, there were there disco- 



vered the floors and foundations of various 
buildings. The owner being absent, attend- 
ing his duty in parliament, the workmen were 
prevailed upon, by the author of this account, 
to clear the earth carefully away from one of 
them, and to leave the ruins standing for some 
time, for the inspection of the curious. It was 
found to be a Roman bath of two rooms. 
The superstructure had been thrown down 
and removed, but the floor remained entire, 
and about six inches high of the wall of the 
smallest room, which was nine feet long, and 
four and a half wide. There was a communi- 
cation for water, by an earthen pipe, through 
the partition wall. The other room was fifteen 
feet by nine. The floors of these, and of the 
other rooms, were covered with tarras uniform- 
ly laid on, about two inches thick. Below 
this coat there was a coarser sort of lime and 
gravel five inches deep, laid upon unshapely 
and unjointed flags. This floor stood on pil- 
lars two feet high, some of stone, and some of 
circular bricks. The earth had been removed 
to come to a solid foundation, on which to 
erect the pillars. Under the tarras of the 
smallest room there was a coarser tarras, fully 
ten inches thick, which seemed intended to 
sustain or bear a more considerable fire under 
it, than the Hypocaustum of the largest room. 
There appeared to have been large fires un- 
der it, as the pillars were injured by them, and 
there was found a quantity of charcoal in per- 
fect preservation. The Hypocaustum of the 
larger room, or space under the tarrassed 
floor, was filled with earth, and with flues 
made of clay, which were laid everywhere be- 
tween the rows of pillars, and were a little 
discoloured with smoke ; a smaller degree of 
heat having been conveyed through them than 
through those under the other room. But 
these contrivances under the floors seem only 
to have been intended to preserve heat in the 
water, which had been conveyed heated from a 
kettle, built up or hung on brick-work, on 
one side of the largest room. This brick- 
work w as four feet square, and much injured 
by strong fires. This seems to have been a 
kind of building used by the Romans only for 
temporary use. The cement, or tarras, suf- 
ficiently proves by whom it was made, as the 
Roman composition of that kind is superior to 
any of later ages. It is remarkable, that the 
tarras of the grand sewers under the city of 
Rome is o f the same kind ; and it is related 



INVERESK. 



381 



by travellers, that in the very ancient buildings 
in the kingdom of Bengal, the very same sort 
has been used. Two medals were found 
among the nuns, now in the possession of Ro- 
bert Colt, Esq., owner of the villa; one of 
gold, much defaced, which is supposed to be 
of Trajan ; another of copper, on which the in- 
scription is clear, Diva Faustina. There are 
traditional accounts, that in digging foundations 
of houses in Fisherrow, there have been found 
similar ruins of Hypocausta, which afford a 
proof that this station was not merely military, 
but was a Colonia Romana or Municipium ; 
that they had many houses and buildings near 
the sea, as well as their pratorium at Inver- 
esk ; and that one of their principal harbours on 
this side of the Frith was at Fisherrow. From 
that harbour, situated where there is one at 
present, there was a Roman causeway, (the 
traces of which remained within the memory 
of some still living,) which led to their camp 
at Sheriff Hall, three miles south-west and on- 
wards to Borthwick." The parish of Inver- 
esk possesses other localities, interesting from 
their connexion with the history of the country. 
Leaving the [antiquities of Musselburgh to be 
noticed under their proper head, we may here 
state, that at the east end of this town, within en- 
closed pleasure-grounds, stands Pinkie House, 
the seat of Sir" John Hope, Bart, and occupying 
a'site adjacent to^the field of the battle of Pin- 
kie, which was fought in the year 1547 between 
the Scots and English. This unfortunate battle 
took place in the field that lies between the vil- 
lages of Inveresk, Walliford and Carberryhill ; 
and was brought on by the usual impetuosity of 
the Scots, who would not wait till the English 
army, who were beginning to run short of pro- 
visions, had been obliged to retreat. The 
Scottish army were encamped on that large 
field west of the Esk, which went by the name 
of Edmonstone Edge ; the English lay at 
places now called Drummore and Walliford. 
As the Scots passed the bridge of Mussel- 
burgh, and marched to the field up the hill of 
Inveresk, on the west side of the church, there 
being then no village, and only two shepherds' 
houses on that hill, they were annoyed by can- 
non shot from the English galleys in the bay ; 
insomuch, that Lord Graham, eldest son of 
the first Earl of Montrose, with many of his 
followers, was killed on the bridge. To have 
crossed the river at any other place, would 
have been still more dangerous, as there was 



then a thick wood on the banks of it, all the 
way to Dalkeith. After passing the church 
of Inveresk, they must have been covered from 
the shot, as the ground slopes from thence down 
to the How Mire, (in those days a morass, 
though now drained and cultivated,) from 
whence it rises gently to the bottom of the 
hills of Carberry and Falside. Just over the 
field of battle there is a hill, which was still 
more fatal to Queen Mary, and has been known 
ever since by the name of the Queen's Seat. 
It is the top of the hill of Carberry, where 
that unfortunate princess sat on a stone, and 
held a conference with Kirkaldy of Grange, 
who had been commissioned for that purpose 
by the confederate lords. During this parley, 
Bothwell, who had taken leave of the Queen 
for the last time, rode off the field to Dunbar. 
As soon as he was out of danger, Mary suf . 
fered herself to be led by Kirkaldy to Morton 
and the Lords, who received her with due 
marks of respect, and ample promises of fu- 
ture loyalty and obedience. The sequel is well 
known. From that hour she was deprived of 
liberty for life, except for the few days that 
intervened between her escape from Lochleven 
Castle and her surrender to Elizabeth, after the 
battle of Langside. The late proprietor of Car- 
berry, John Fullarton, Esq. has marked the 
spot, by planting a copse-wood upon it. The 
parish of Inveresk abounds in freestone, but 
its chief mineral product is coal, which is dug 
to a vast extent, principally by Sir John Hope, 
as lessee of certain mines. Near the beauti- 
ful grounds of New Hailes, at a short dis- 
tance from the left bank of the Esk, this gen- 
tleman has erected a stupendous steam-engine 
for lifting water from the workings, as is no- 
ticed under the head Edinburghshire. A 
new rail-way passes in this quarter from the 
southern pits towards Edinburgh. Besides 
the manufactures* carried on in Musselburgh, 
there are considerable salt-works on the sea- 
shore, as well as a manufactory of earthen ware 
in the parish. This latter article and salt are 
made at the village of West Pans (being west 
from Prestonpans,) about a mile and a half 
below Musselburgh, and salt has been long made 
at the Magdalene Pans, which lie in the west- 
ern part of the parish, on the road to Edin- 
burgh. At Fisherrow there is a small har- 
bour, the only sea-port in this quarter. The 
village of Inveresk is of modern date, and con- 
sists of little else than a series of cottages or 



582 



INVERESK. 



ne*es, or large mansions, standing on both sides 
of the public way on the top of the afore-men- 
tioned mount, secluded within high walls, and 
embosomed among lofty trees. At the base 
of the hill towards Musselburgh, is a suburb 
styled Newbigging, and here, as well as in 
Inveresk, there are certain houses fitted up, 
and used as private asylums for lunatics, — the 
purity of the air, the mildness of the climate, 
and the beauty of the scenery, equally adapt- 
ing the place for the residence of persons so 
afflicted. At the west end of the village, on a 
most prominent situation, stands the church of 
Inveresk, built about thirty years since, to 
replace one of a very ancient date, then in 
frail condition. The old edifice had been de- 
dicated to St. Michael, and according to the 
conjectures of Dr. Carlyle, had been built soon 
after the introduction of Christianity, out of the 
ruins of the Roman fort. The stones, at least, 
appeared to have been the same with those dis- 
covered in the ruins of the Praetorium, and there 
were evidently many Roman bricks in the 
building. With the advantage of the very 
best situation in Scotland for the erection of a 
tasteful new edifice, the church which has sup- 
plied the place of the ancient fabric is not only 
ungainly in its appearance, but is absolutely 
insufficient in workmanship. When first put 
up, it consisted of only a barn-like house, 
and to relieve its deformity a steeple was after- 
wards added. Though of a low order of archi- 
tecture, the plan of the spire was that which 
was to have governed the erection of the stee- 
ple of St. Andrew's church in Edinburgh, 
from which it was fortunately rescued at the 
suggestion of, and by the improved model of- 
fered by Mr. John M'Leish. In the burying 
ground around the church, there are many ele- 
gant monuments ; and on the north side, on the 
brow of the eminence, and earthen mount or 
rampart is shown, called Oliver's mount, having 
oeen erected by Cromwell as the site of a battery 
to command the passage of the bridge across the 
Esk, a short way below. At the east end of 
the burying ground a similar mount was levelled 
in the course of extending the cemetery ; and 
bones having been found in good preservation 
eleven feet beneath the surface, it has been ar- 
gued with propriety, in opposition to the theory 
of Lord Hailes as to their having been Roman 
mounds, that these mounts must have been 
thrown up on the occasion above alluded to, 
especially as it is known that Cromwell had 



here a magazine of the munitions of war, du- 
ring his occupancy of this part of Scotland. 
The Highland army, in 1745, also fitted up a 
battery at Inveresk church-yard, which they 
abandoned on their marching into England.— 
Populatio'n of the landward part of the parish 
of Inveresk, in 1821, 564; including Mussel- 
burgh and Fisherrow, 7836. 

INVERGORDON, a village in Ross- 
shire, parish of Rosskeen, lying on the north 
side of the Cromarty Firth, and from whence 
there is a regular ferry to Cromarty. In the 
year 1828, an excellent harbour was formed 
here, by Roderick Macleod, Esq. of Cadboll, 
at an expense of L.5000, an instance of public 
spirit well worthy of commendation. The 
chief advantage of this harbour is, that it af- 
fords accommodation for vessels of large size 
loading and unloading, and thereby saves the 
expense and trouble of boating from Cromarty. 
This is now the most frequentedand centra] port 
of Easterand Wester Ross. A horse fair has re- 
cently been established annually, and the small 
sea-port is in a thriving condition. Its popu- 
lation in 1821 was about 500. 

INVERGOWRIE, a village in the parish 
of LifF, in the Carse of Gowrie. It lies on 
the banks of the Tay, twenty mfles east from 
Perth and two west from Dundee. 

INVERKEILOR, a parish in Forfar- 
shire, presenting a front of five miles to the 
sea at Lunan Bay, and stretching inland for six 
miles. Its average breadth is only two and a 
half miles. Lunan Water bounds it entirely 
on the north side, separating it from the pa- 
rishes of Kinnel and Lunan. On the west it 
is bounded by Kirkden, and on the south by 
St. Vigeans. The surface is for the greater 
part flat, and of great beauty and fertility, be- 
ing embellished with plantations, and the 
land improved and enclosed. The Keflor, 
a rivulet, runs through the parish to the sea, 
and near its embouchure is the fishing village 
of Ethiehaven. The coast is flat and sandy. 
There are several fine seats in the district, in 
particular, Ethie House, .Anniston, Kinblyth- 
mont, and Law ton. There are also a variety 
of hamlets. The parish church stands inland on 
the Lunan Water. At the mouth of the Lu- 
nan, on an eminence, stands an old venerable 
ruin, named Redcastle, which is said to have 
been built by William the Lion, and used as a 
royal hunting seat. In front of it, in the sea, 
is a small island called Redcastle island 



INVERKEITHING. 



683 



About a mile from Ethie House, eastward, 
nigh the sea, stand the remains of a religious 
house, called St. Murdoch's chapel, at one 
time a cell of Aberbrothock. The promon- 
tory of the Redhead lies a short way to the 

south Population in 1821, 1785. 

INVERKEITHING, a parish in the 
south-western part of the county of Fife, lying 
on the north shore of the Firth of Forth. A 
portion juts, as a peninsulated promontory, in- 
to the firth, west from which a part lies along 
the sea-shore. East from the promontory an 
equally large part stretches inland. The pa- 
rish of Dunfermline encompasses the district 
on the north and west, and Dalgetty bounds it 
on the east. With the exception of the above 
hilly promontory, nearly the whole territory 
consists of the same fine undulating fertile 
fields which have been noticed in characterising 
the parish of Dunfermline. The island of 
Inch Garvie, in the gut betwixt North and 
and South Queensferry, is esteemed a portion 
of the parish. The small village of North 
Queensferry is noticed under its appropriate 
head. The coast to the westward of this little 
sea-port is generally wild and moorish, and is 
distinguished by scarcely any object save the 
dreary tower called Rosyth Castle. This is a 
huge square turret, situated close by the sea, 
the waves of which encompass it at high wa- 
ter. There is something impressive, and even 
august, in the appearance of this ancient forta- 
lice, deserted as it is in these its days of ruin 
and decay by every thing but the wild sea-bird 
and the timid sheep. It was in its days of 
pride the seat of that branch of the Stuart 
family from which Oliver Cromwell was de- 
scended, the posterity, namely, of Sir James 
Stuart, uncle to King Robert II. There is a 
tradition that, as the Protector's grandmother 
was a daughter of the laird of Rosyth, and 
had been born in the castle, he visited it when 
encamped in the neighbourhood. It is also 
asserted that Queen Mary at one time resided 
in the castle ; which is not improbable, sinee 
her arms and initials are still discernible over 
the gate giving entry to the court-yard. On a 
stone in the south side of the tower, near the 
ground, is the following quaint inscription : 

In dew tym drau yis cord ye bell to clink, 
Quhais mery voic varnis to meat and drink.» 



* In due time, draw this cord, the bell to clink, 
Whose merry voice warns to meat and drink. 



The cord of the dinner-bell must have hung at 
this place, and the couplet may be accept- 
ed as a specimen of the poetry of the four- 
teenth century. Rosyth Castle is now the 
property of the Earl of Hopetoun. From 
this part of the coast to the ancient and most 
interesting town of Dunfermline, the distance 
is about three miles. The promontory, above 
alluded to, is called the Cruicks, and belongs 
to the burgh of Inverkeithing. It is of some 
historical interest. During the reign of Alex- 
ander III. when Scotland was in a very pros- 
perous condition and enjoyed much commerce 
with the continental countries, a project was 
formed by some wealthy Jews to establish a 
sort of New Jerusalem upon this piece of 
ground, which should become in some measure 
an emporium of commerce, and be a city of 
refuge and a rallying point to their wandering 
nation. They proposed to fortify it, which 
could have been very easily done, and the bays 
on each side were to have formed the harbours. 
The project was, however, given up, probably 
on account of some jealous act of interference 
on the part of the government. The Cruicks 
are further remarkable as the place where Oli- 
ver Cromwell first encamped on crossing the 
Forth, July 17, 1651. The bay between the 
promontory and Rosyth Castle is called St. 
Margaret's Hope, on account of Margaret, the 
Saxon princess, afterwards consort to Malcolm 
Canmore, having here been driven ashore by a 
storm in her flight from England, immediately 
after the Norman conquest. The bay to the 
east of the Cruicks is much deeper, and serves 
as the harbour of the town of Inverkeithing. 
In the neighbourhood of the Cruicks on which 
the forces of Cromwell landed, and on the north 
of the town, is the scene of a battle between 
the English parliamentary army and that of the 
Scottish loyalists, in which the latter were de- 
feated and almost cut off. One of the Scot- 
tish generals, Holbom, is supposed by histo- 
rians to have betrayed his trust ; and the peo« 
pie have a strange story about his standing on 
the East Ness, and inviting the English across 
the water by a trumpet. But the other gene- 
ral, whose name was Brown, displayed a high 
degree of fidelity and personal valour, and died 
soon after of grief for his defeat. A rill tra- 
versing the valley when the conflict took place, 
called the Pinkerton Burn, is said to have run.' 
red with blood for three days in consequence of 
the slaughter, which, according to all accounts, 



584 



IN V E RKEITHING. 



was prodigious. In the picturesque language 
of the old people of Inverkeithing, the plain 
was " like a hairst-field with corpses ;" that is, 
a field thickly strewed with newly cut sheaves 
of grain. The chief of the clan Maclean 
here lost six sons, each of whom came up 
successively to defend him, and was succes- 
sively cut down. Such memorabilia give a 
striking idea of the military character of the 
republican soldiery, and of the animosity which 
prevailed between them and the northern pres- 
byterians. 

Inverkeithing, a royal burgh, the capital of 
the above parish, and a town of the highest 
antiquity, occupies an agreeable site at the 
inner side of the above noticed bay of the Firth 
of Forth, at the distance of thirteen miles from 
Kirkcaldy, twenty-eight from Stirling, four 
from Dunfermline, and about fourteen from 
Edinburgh. It stands on the brow and face 
of a rising ground which has an acclivity from 
the margin of the bay, and consists of one 
main street of considerable length, with diverg- 
ing lanes and thoroughfares, and a number of 
houses skirting the harbour. The latter are 
mostly modern in the neat villa style, and in 
the town the houses are in general taller, and 
more ancient and dignified than is the case 
with most burghs. The first existing charter 
of Inverkeithing is one from William the Lion, 
confirming one of earlier but unknown date, 
and in virtue of this grant the burgh was en- 
dowed with a jurisdiction over the adjacent 
country to an extent of at least twenty miles 
each way. Within these bounds the magis- 
trates had the power of pit and gallows, and 
a right of levying customs. In some instances 
the latter privilege still prevails ; the burgh 
receiving customs at the Tulliebole and Kin- 
ross markets, and from all that crosses at the 
North Queensferry. It is not long since se- 
veral of the last-erected burghs within this 
wide jurisdiction bought up the burdens thus 
imposed upon them. The burgh received a 
confirmatory writ from James VI. in 1598. 
The civic government is exercised by a pro- 
vost and high sheriff, two bailies, a dean of 
guild, and treasurer, annually elected by the 
councillors and deacons of the trades. The 
number of councillors is unlimited, and after 
being once elected, they hold the office for 
life. The ancient family of the Hendersons 
of Fordel (chiefs of the clan Henderson) hold, 
by a grant from Queen Mary and King Henry 



Darnley, the right to the office of hereditary 
provost and sheriff; but though claimed by 
them, and particularly by the late Sir John 
Henderson, it was never exercised.* Inver- 
keithing is said to have been in early times the 
residence of many noble families, and even of 
royalty itself. David the First is known cer- 
tainly to have had a minor palace here ; and 
the people yet point out an antique tenement 
which they affirm to have been the abode of 
Queen Annabella Drummond, the consort of 
Robert III., and mother of the illustrious 
James I. This ancient palace is thus noticed 
in the Picture of Scotland. " It is situated 
on the east side of the main street, in a line 
with the rest of the houses, being a building 
of three storeys, the lowest of which, accord- 
ing to an old fashion, is a series of vaults. It 
is of the strongest architecture of the fourteenth 
century, and seems to have been calculated for 
defence as well as convenience. The com- 
mon people usually call it " the inn," which 
seems to indicate that it was at one period of 
its existence used as a house of public enter- 
tainment. It confers upon the people who live 
in it the privilege of being exempted from the 
restrictions imposed by the five incorporations 
of the town ; and an unfree joiner at this mo- 
ment exercises his trade in one of its apart- 
ments, to the great indignation of his fellow- 
citizens. The common tradition regarding the 
Palace is, that it was built for a repudiated 
queen, who wished, in her place of banishment, 
still to see the towers of Edinburgh Castle, 
which contained the person of her cruel but 
beloved husband. This story, however, though 
justified by the circumstance that it is possible 
here to see the distant spires of the capital, 
and though it be by far the most pleasing ver- 
sion of the matter, is not exactly true. Queen 
Annabella is affirmed, upon better evidence, to 
have adopted this place of residence during the 
periods when her consort was engaged in war, 
or when she desired the pleasures of sea-bath- 
ing. By Robert III.'s charter to the burgh, 
the magistrates were bound to pay her a hun- 
dred shillings every year at the Feast of Pen- 
tecost. She died at Inverkeithing in 1403, 



* It may be worth mentioning that, in the riding of 
the Scottish parliament, the provost of Inverkeithing 
always rode next to the Lord Provost of Edinburgh, in 
consideration of the contiguity of their jurisdictions, 
which marched with each other in the middle of the Firth 
of Forth. 



INVERKE1 THING. 



585 



and was buried at Dunfermline- Connected 
with this homely palace, there is an extensive 
garden, stretching down towards the bay. It 
is said that the house was provided with one 
of those ancient conveniences which are now 
known by the appellation, subterraneous pas- 
sages, and that it passed down below the gar- 
den and under the basin of the bay, over to 
the Ness or promontory on the other side, a 
distance of about a mile. There yet exists a 
6eries of vaults in the garden, resembling the 
cloisters of an ancient monastery ; and it is not 
long since the foundations of a building called 
the chapel were eradicated from the adjacent 
ground. A portion of the garden surrounding 
the site of this building is composed of blacker 
earth than the rest, and occasionally casts up 
fragments of human bones, having apparently 
been used as a burying ground. It is altoge- 
ther probable that the palace was only an ap- 
pendage to one of the numerous religious 
buildings known to have existed in Inver- 
kei thing before the Reformation." Inverkei- 
thing was honoured by being the place of 
meeting of the Court of the Four Burghs, 
{quatuor burgorumj authorized by James 
III. to form a set of mercantile regula- 
tions ; and before Edinburgh was appoint- 
ed, it was the town where the conven- 
tion of royal burghs was regularly held. 
The burgh is provided with a neat town-house, 
containing a jail, with apartments for courts. 
Besides the established church, an elegant mo- 
dern fabric, which replaced one of a very an- 
cient date, there is a meeting-house of the 
United Associate Synod. There is a public 
grammar school for the languages, mathema- 
tics, &c. with some private places of tuition. 
The architecture of the public school is chaste 
and elegant, combining neatness with internal 
accommodation. There are subscription lib- 
raries, and several societies for the propaga- 
tion of Christianity in the town. In recent 
times, the burgh has kept pace with the refine- 
ments of the age, and its general aspect is 
much improved. There are no manufactures 
carried on in the town, but there are, in the 
immediate neighbourhood, three public works 
on an extensive scale, namely, a distillery, a 
magnesia work, and some salt pans. The 
quays around the harbour generally exhibit a 
bustling appearance, in consequence of the large 
shipments of coal which take place here, and 
which form the chief traffic. For the con- 



venience of the exporters, there are railways 
laid from the pits to the harbour. The port 
of Inverkeithing is, by authority, a place for 
vessels riding quarantine, and for that purpose 
government stations here a body of officers, 
with a lazaretto on shore. Being on the 
line of the great thoroughfare by Queens- 
ferry to the north, the town receives its pro- 
portion of the general traffic through the 
county. Five fairs may be held annually.— 
Population of the burgh in 1821, about 1400, 
and including the parish, 2512. 

IN VE RKEITHN Y, a parish in the south- 
eastern comer of Banffshire, lying on the right 
or south bank of the Deveron, along which it 
extends about six miles, and measuring from 
one to four miles in breadth. Marnoch bounds 
it on the north, Turriff and Auchterless on the 
east, Forgue on the south, and Rothiemay on 
the west. The district is chiefly hilly and 
pastoral. There are plantations on the banks 
of the Deveron, on the side of which river, at 
the embouchure of the rivulet Keithny, stands 
the parish kirk and hamlet. — Population in 
1821, 577. 

INVERKIRKAG, a small river in Su- 
therlandshire, parish of Assynt, flowing from 
Loch Assynt to the arm of the sea called 
Loch Inver. 

INVERLOCHY, or INNERLOCHY, 
a place in the West Highlands, in the parish 
of Kilmanivaig, Inverness-shire, on the east 
shore of Loch Eil, near the spot where that 
arm of the sea is joined by the Caledonian 
Canal. Fort- William is contiguous on the 
south. There is no end to the legendary his- 
tory of Inverlochy, which has declared that it 
was the site of a town or rather city, once the 
greatest in Scotland, and that here King Acha- 
ius signed a treaty with Charlemagne. Irt 
corroboration of theories of this nature, the 
pavement of certain streets is ostentatious- 
ly pointed out, thus resting its character for 
ancient grandeur on the same basis as that of 
the equally fabulous Beregonium. If there 
ever was a town here, it has been gone for 
many ages, and there only remains, in lone 
magnificence, a huge quadrangular edifice, 
styled Inverlochy Castle, which has outlived 
all tradition regarding its origin. The build- 
ing, which forms a court, has round towers at 
the angles, of the most massive proportions, 
the whole fabric covering a space of 160O 
yards. It had once wet ditches around it, and 
4 F 



53G 



INVERNESS-SHIRE. 



must have been one of the strongest castles of 
the kind in Scotland. Inverlochy gives its 
name to one of the most brilliant victories of 
the Marquis of Montrose, which took place 
in February, 1645. The Campbells lay in 
full strength on the plain, in front of Inver- 
lochy Castle, and the Marquis came suddenly 
upon them, in the morning, through Glen 
Nevis, in the vicinity, after having, for that 
purpose, performed some marches of incredi- 
ble rapidity. Argyle, at the commencement 
of the battle, retired on board a galley, which 
lay in Loch Eil ; in consequence of which im- 
prudent conduct, the impetuous attack of the 
royal troops was completely successful over the 
dispirited Campbells, fifteen hundred of whom 
were slain. 

INVERNESS-SHIRE, a very extensive 
rounty in the north of Scotland, stretching 
completely across the mainland, and possessing 
a variety of islands. On the north it is bound- 
ed by the counties of Ross and Cromarty, on 
the east by the Moray Firth, Nairnshire, and 
Morayshire, on the south by Aberdeenshire, 
Perthshire, and Argyleshire, and on the west 
by the Atlantic ocean. Its inland boundaries 
are intricate, on account of the strange inter- 
mixture of counties so common in the north. 
It comprehends a variety of districts of local 
importance, as Badenoch in its south part, 
Lochaber on the south-west, Moidart on the 
west, Glenelg on the north-west, Glengarry in 
the central part, and others of less eminence. 
A series of islands on the west coast, forming 
part of the Hebrides, are politically attached 
to it, as Skye, Harris, North and South Uist, 
Benbecula, Earra, Eigg, Eriskay, and Ber- 
nera, besides a number of islets. The coun- 
ty, excluding the isles, extends in length, 
from the point of Arisaig on the west to 
the point of Ardersier on the east, about 
ninety-two miles, and its greatest breadth is 
nearly fifty miles. The surface of this large 
county exhibits a wild and irregular variety of 
huge mountains, some of which belong to the 
Grampian series, low green hills, vales of all 
dimensions, rivers and rivulets, lakes, pathless 
pastoral wildernesses, arable fields, and on the 
west coast, a number of deep indentations of 
the sea. One of the most remarkable circum- 
stances attending the county is, that it is di- 
vided almost into two equal parts by a valley 
which runs from north-east to south-west. 
This valley, which has already been noticed 



under the heads of Canal (Caledonian) and 
Albany, by the title of the Great Glen of 
Caledonia, is a huge natural strath or hollow, 
proceeding through the county from the Moray 
Firth to Loch Eil in a direct south-westerly 
course. It has been considered as dividing the 
Highlands into two portions, of which the 
northern is the larger ; and it may be regard- 
ed as the northern termination of that immense 
tract of mountainous country which begins at 
Dunkeld. It is, in truth, nothing else than a 
long and deep fissure between the chains of 
enormous mountains which here run from south- 
west to north-east. The valley, In the greater 
part of its length, is naturally filled with water, 
or a long chain of lakes succeeding each other, 
and which rise but a little above the lerel of 
the sea ; a circumstance which suggested the 
propriety of forming the whole, with the addi- 
tion of artificial cuts, into the Caledonian Ca- 
nal. For the exact dimensions, and an idea of 
the utility of this great national undertaking, 
we again refer to the article Canal (Cale- 
donian.) The following notes regarding this 
" great job," as Mr. Joseph Hume unjustly 
calls it, are by a correspondent : — " The canal 
(as well as the Highland roads and bridges,) 
was begun for the benefit of the country — the 
improvement of the Highlands. It was the 
alarming extent to which the spirit of emigra- 
tion had grown, that first suggested the expe. 
diency of constructing these public works, 
ivhich, by affording employment to part of the 
population, and circulating capital, might oper- 
ate as a check upon the evil. A permanently 
beneficial change was effected in the manners 
and habits of the uncultivated Highlands by 
the introduction of useful arts and industry. 
For eighteen years from the commencement of 
the works, the proportion of strangers to na- 
tives employed was as I to 74. No less than 
200 cargoes of birch and fir are annually ex- 
ported from the estates along the Glen. In 
the event of a war breaking out, it is almost 
needless to point out the importance of the se- 
curity that would be afforded to a great portion 
of our American and Baltic trade, as well as 
to the numerous traders between the east and 
west coasts and Ireland, rendering, in fact, the 
defence of a line of coast extending in length 
upwards of 300 miles totally unnecessary." 
Besides Lochs Ness, Oich, Lochy, and Eil, 
which lie in this vale, there are others of great- 
er or less magnitude scattered over the district, 



INVERNESS-SHIRE. 



587 



as Lochs Laggan, Treag, and Ericht in the 
south, Loch Ashley and some others in the 
north-eastern part, Lochs Affarie, Benevian, 
Clunie and others in the northern quarter, and 
in the west Lochs Quoich, Arkaig, and Shiel. 
The chief salt water lakes are Lochs Moidart, 
Morror, Nevish, Hourn, and Beauly. The 
principal river is the Ness, which flows from 
Loch Ness to the Moray Firth. The next is 
the Spey, which, though a much larger river 
in its lower parts, is about the same size while 
running through the shire. The smaller livers 
are the Beauly, the Foyers, the Garry, the 
Coiltie, the Glass, the Morriston, the Enneric, 
the Kinnie, and some others, and the whole 
abound in trout and salmon. On the Foyers 
is a celebrated waterfall. It would be vain to 
attempt a particular description of the scenery to 
be met with in this great county ; consisting, as 
already mentioned, of so many mountains, which, 
especially towards the west, are piled above each 
other in horrid magnificence ; and between all 
of which are deep glens, of a boundless variety 
of formation, each of which has its stream and 
its lake, and many of which abound in woods. 
One of the mountains is nevertheless too con- 
spicuous to be passed over in silence. We 
refer to the celebrated Ben Nevis, which is the 
highest mountain in the island of Great Britain. 
This remarkable pile stands to the south-east of 
Fort William, near the shore of an arm of the 
sea, and rises to the height of 4370 feet. There 
is also a range of huge lofty dark mountains 
further to the north in Badenoch and Lochaber. 
The principal natural or unaccountable curiosi- 
ties in the shire are the parallel roads of Glenroy, 
already noticed in their proper places. The 
north-eastern part of the county of Inverness, 
adjacent to the Moray Firth, is to be considered 
as a part of the Lowlands of Scotland, all the 
remainder forming part of the Highlands. The 
proportion of land in cultivation in the whole 
ehire, is supposed to amount to only eight parts 
in the hundred, the rest consisting of pasture 
and heath. Those districts in cultivation, along 
with those in the course of gradual adaptation 
to purposes of husbandry, are in the north-east 
or Lowland quarter, where there are to be seen 
many fine fields yielding good crops of wheat, 
barley, and oats. Potatoes are produced in 
great abundance. In the district in the vicinity 
of the Spey, near Castle Grant, a very improv- 
ed system of cultivation has for many years been 
introduced. The improvements in this direc- 



tion and in other places have been vastly assist- 
ed by the laying down of new roads, partly by 
government and partly by the county. In this 
shire, as in other counties in the north, the 
" weeding out" of the aboriginal poorer classes 
or small farmers by the landlords has thinned 
the population of the district, expatriated thou- 
sands, and reduced to the lowest conceivable 
depths of human suffering those who have been 
permitted to remain in rude hamlets on the sea- 
shore. In thus clearing the lands, farmers with 
capital and intelligence from the south of Scot- 
land have been introduced to the occupancy of 
farms sometimes twenty and more miles in ex 
tent, if for pasture, and of the ordinary size if 
for agriculture. These very active men, who 
are generally assisted by servants, male and 
female, from their own country, have greatly 
improved the rental of Inverness-shire, and 
now export to England and the Lowlands num- 
erous herds of cattle, flocks of sheep, and car- 
goes of grain. By exertions of this nature the 
rental of the county, as assessed for the pro- 
perty-tax in 1814, was L.152,243, of which 
the proportion under the fetters of entail was 
believed to be L. 77,794, a circumstance which 
acts as a serious drawback on improvement. 
It is told as an instance of the change of ren- 
tals in modern times, that when Macdonnell of 
Glengarry died in 1788 his estate was not worth 
more than L.800 per annum ; the same lands 
now yield from L.6000 to L.7000 a-year. 
There have been considerable plantations made, 
and the fir-woods of Glenmore and Strathspey 
are supposed to be far more extensive than 
all the natural woods in Scotland. The 
mountains and forests of Inverness-shire are 
inhabited by numerous herds of red and roe 
deer, w r hich here roam in safety, in recesses 
almost impenetrable to man. The hare and 
other small animals of the chase, or objects for 
the pursuit of the sportsman, are also abundant. 
Limestone, approaching to the hardness of mar- 
ble, is found in every district of the county. 
Many of the hills are composed of a fine Ted- 
dish granite. Some of the more valuable 
metals have been discovered, but have never 
been wrought with success. This comity is 
singularly destitute of towns, the only one it 
possesses being Inverness ; but it has a great 
variety of small villages, and isolated habita- 
tions. Fort George on the Moray Firth, 
Fort Augustus at the south-west end of Lock 
Ness, and Fort William on Loch Eil, are 



INVERNESS. 



within the county, the three forming a line of 
fortresses which were erected to overawe 
the Highlands, since the expulsion of the house 
of Stuart. They are now entirely useless, 
though kept in a good state of repair, and an- 
swering as barracks for a few soldiers. The 
Gaelic language is still common in the northern, 
western, and southern districts, almost to the 
total exclusion of English, but the latter is 
spoken by all the upper and educated classes, 
and by the inhabitants of Inverness. Inver- 
ness-shire is the country of the clans Macpher- 
son, Cameron, Grant, Fraser, Mackintosh, Mac- 
donald, and others. The Frasers, who are ex- 
ceedingly numerous in Inverness, were originally 
from the south, and the first of the name who 
got a possession in the north was a relative of the 
great Sir Simon Fraser of Tweddale, who ac- 
quired the estate of Lovat, in 1306, by mar- 
riage with the heiress of that property. The 
county, in common with other parts of the 
Highlands, has been much indebted for a know- 
ledge of letters and Christianity to the patriotic 
exertions of different bodies, associated for the 
purpose of stationing schools, and disseminating 
books of piety. Regular places of worship 
to about the number of twelve, have likewise, 
by the same means, been instituted in locali- 
ties wanting such establishments. The shire 
comprises thirty-seven parishes, but a portion of a 
number of these extend into the adjoining coun- 
ties — Population in 1821 , 42,304 males, 47,853 
females, total 90,157. 

Table of heights in Invemess-shire. 

Feet above the sea. 

Craig- Phadric, . 1150. 

Mealfourvonie . 3600. 

Scarsough . . 3412. 

Ben Nevis . . 4370. 

Inverness, a parish in the above county, ex- 
tending eight miles in length by six in breadth, 
bounded on the north by the upper part of the 
Moray Firth, on the east by Petty, on the 
south by Dores and on the west by Kirkhill. 
The loch and river Ness intersect it. The 
surface is uneven and varied, and the land is 
now finely cultivated, planted, enclosed, and 
otherwise improved. 

Inverness, a royal burgh, the capital of 
the above county and parish, a sea- port, the 
seat of a presbytery in the synod of Moray, the 
chief town of the Highlands of Scotland, and 
the cynosure of a wide district of country in the 
north, occupies an exceedingly advantageous 



and delightful situation in the low eastern part 
of the shire, chiefly upon the right bank of the 
river Ness, near the place where that river falls 
into the Moray Firth, at the distance of 156 \ 
miles north of Edinburgh, 88 1 west of Elgin, 
and 118* west-north-west of Aberdeen. In- 
verness is a town of the most remote antiquity, 
and if we believe Boethius and Buchanan, it 
may be represented as being founded by Even- 
us II., the fourteenth king of Scotland, who 
is said to have died sixty years before the 
birth of Christ. "Were this origin correct, 
which it cannot be, seeing that no such king 
ever existed, — the date would be earlier than 
has been assigned to any other town in Scot- 
land, being several years prior to the invasion 
of Britain by Julius Caesar, and about seven 
hundred years before the building of Edin- 
burgh castle. Divesting the town of such an 
apocryphal origin, it may, nevertheless, be re- 
marked, that from the numerous remains of a 
high antiquity existing around it, the district 
appears clearly to have been numerously peo- 
pled at a very remote age. Within a few miles 
there are several British hill forts, namely, 
at Craig Phadric, Dunarduil, Dunsgrebin, 
Knockfarril, Dunevan, Castle Finlay, and 
Cromal, a Roman fort at Bona, a number of 
sepulchral cairns, and many druidical circles. 
In a tract printed 1606, named, " A brief de- 
scription of Scotland," Inverness is called " the 
most anciente town ;" and so early as the reign 
of David I. who died in 1153, it is designated, 
in a legislative enactment, as one of the capital 
places in Scotland, — " Loca capitalia per to- 
tum regnum." Inverness and the territory in 
its vicinity, indeed, form one of the favourite 
debatable grounds of Scottish antiquaries, and 
there is no end to the conflicting evidence re- 
garding its early settlement. It has been ad- 
vanced by some writers, that the town is the 
site of a Roman fort planted by Lollius Urbi- 
cus, about the year 140, which station was 
named Pteroton, and was at the time a settle- 
ment of the aboriginal tribes. Others assert 
that Brough-head in Morayshire was the true 
Pteroton ; and that, although Inverness, or the 
river Ness, was the ultimate western boundary by 
land of the Roman territory, while the conquer- 
ing people were in the northern part of the island, 
the only station they had in this quarter was at 
Bona, at the eastern extremity of Loch Ness, 
under the name of Bonatia. Whichsoever of 
these theories be correct, it is at least cer- 



INVERNESS. 



560 



tain, that the Romans were obliged to with- 
draw from this district in the year 170. 
Among other traditions related of the early 
state of the country here, it is told in Inver- 
ness, as an authentic legend, that most of the 
space, now an arm of the sea, extending from 
Fort George to Beauly, was once dry land, 
through which the rivers Farrar, or Beauly, 
and Ness flowed, uniting their currents at the 
present estuary of the Ness. This curious 
tradition derives confirmation from the sepul- 
chral cairns to be seen at low water, far within 
flood-mark in the Beauly Firth, in some of 
which, urns, logs of oak, and pieces of wrought 
iron, have recently been found. The whole 
of the Firth above Fort George is remarkably 
shallow, a circumstance also countenancing the 
tradition. We may now proceed to detail a 
6eries of historical incidents connected with 
this ancient town, drawn from authentic sources. 
The earliest traces to be found of Inverness in 
any thing like credible or authentic history, re- 
present it as having been a Pictish capital, and 
as having lost that distinction in the union of 
the crowns of the Picts and Scots, in the per- 
son of Kenneth, in the year 843. Buchanan 
and Boethius unite in relating that King Dun- 
can was murdered in the castle of Inverness, 
by Macbeth, 1039, — " Per occasionem regem 
septimum jam annum regnantem, ad Enverness 
(alii dicunt Bothgofuane,) obtruncat." Boe- 
thius, lib. 12. — " Regem, opportunara insidiis 
ad Ennernessam nactus, septimum jam regnan- 
tem annum, obtruncat." Buchanan, lib. 7. 
Fordun speaks of the transaction as having ta- 
ken place near Elgin, — " Latenter apud Both- 
gofuane vulneratus ad mortem, et apud Elgin 
delatus occubuit." Shakespeare has followed 
Boethius and Buchanan in placing the murder 
at Inverness ; and the poet has done justice to 
the agreeable situation of the castle in which he 
supposed the assassination to have occurred : 

" This castle hath a pleasant seat; the air 
Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself 
Unto our gentle senses." 

This edifice, which in reality was the property 
and residence of the famed thane of Lochaber, 
but which, we fear, has no real pretensions to 
this historical and poetic honour, stood on an 
eminence to the east of the town, a spot well 
worthy of the above flattering description. It 
is now generally^allowed that the murder must 
have taken place at Bothgowan, (a place now 
unknown,) near Elgin. When Malcolm III., 



or Canmore, overthrew the murderer of his fa- 
ther, in detestation of the crime, he razed the 
castle of Macbeth, which stood on the hill 
called " the Crown," and built another fortress 
to serve as a royal residence, choosing for its 
site a lofty eminence, overhanging the town 
on the south. This latter edifice continued 
for several centuries to be a royal fortress, 
occasionally affording accommodation to the 
kings of Scotland, when they happened to visit 
this remote part of their dominions. David I. 
raised the town to the condition of a royal 
burgh ; and in the reign of that beneficent mo- 
narch, it was made the appointed seat of a she- 
riff, whose authority extended over the wholo 
of Scotland north of the Grampians. About 
the middle of the twelfth century, the name of 
Mackintosh originated at Inverness, in this man- 
ner. Shaw Macduff, son of Duncan, the sixth 
earl of Fife, or descendant of king Duff, who 
was killed at Forres, having come north in the 
expedition of Malcolm IV. and settled on lands 
acquired by his services, assumed the surname 
of Mackintosh — son of the thane, as significant 
of his high birth. He was, at the same time, 
appointed hereditary governor of the castle of 
Inverness ; and he and his descendants have 
usually been styled the chiefs of the clan Chat- 
tan. In 1214, William the Lion granted four 
charters to the burgh, containing many exemp- 
tions from burdens, a variety of privileges as to 
manufactures, and the appointment of a regular 
magistracy. In 1217, another charter was 
given by Alexander II. In 1229, during the 
reign of this sovereign, the town was plundered 
and destroyed by fire, by a turbulent and potent 
Highland ruffian, named Gillespick M' Scour- 
lane, who levied war against the king, and be- 
sides burning the town, spoiled the neighbour- 
ing crown lands, and put all to death who would 
not swear allegiance to him. Being defeated 
and taken, he was beheaded by command of 
the king's justiciary. It is shrewdly conjec- 
tured, that this melancholy incident was the 
moving cause of the town being built on a bet- 
ter site, and in a more regular manner. A mo- 
nastery of friars was founded in the town by 
Alexander II. 1233. The site and garden of 
this religious house became, at the Reforma- 
tion, the parish minister's glebe, and the site 
of its church became the burial-ground, called 
now "the Grey Friars' burial-ground." In 
1237, Alexander II. gave the town a charter 
of additional lands for its support. Edward L 



590 



INVERNESS. 



king of England, in Lis progress through Scot- 
land, advanced to Kildrummy near Nairn, and 
being deterred from proceeding in person far- 
ther, by the wild aspect of the country, he re- 
mained in Kinloss Abbey twenty days, while 
his forces were reducing the castles of Inver- 
ness, Urquhart, and other places. In 1330, the 
castle of Inverness surrendered to Robert Bruce, 
who besieged it in person, assisted by Sir James 
Fraser. In the year 1369, David II. granted 
a charter to the burgesses and community, con- 
firming certain rights to lands. About this pe- 
riod, and for many years after, the shire and 
town were frequently disturbed and injured by 
the rancorous quarrels and conflicts between the 
clans Chattan and Cameron, and other septs, 
as well as the inroads of the lords of the Isles. 
In 1400 a memorable incident of this kind oc- 
curred. Donald, lord of the Isles, having ap- 
proached the town with a body of men, threat- 
ened to burn it unless ransomed at a large price. 
The provost of the burgh, with an ingenuity 
which cannot be enough commended, pretend- 
ed to listen to the terms offered, sent a large 
quantity of spirits as a present to the chief, who 
had encamped with his men on the north side 
of Kessock Ferry. The islanders being high- 
ly delighted with the whisky, soon became in- 
toxicated, and the provost with his courageous 
burgesses, watching the event, now fell upon 
them with sword in hand, and, as tradition says, 
put the whole to an indiscriminate slaughter, 
excepting one person, whose descendants, from 
the manner of his escape, still retain the name 
of Loban. A number of cairns are still seen 
on the field of battle, pointing out the reposi- 
tories of the slain. In 1427, James I. pro- 
ceeded to the north, to repress the turbulence 
of the Highland chiefs. He held a parliament 
in the castle, to which he summoned all the 
northern chiefs and barons. He ordered three 
men of rank to be executed, and detained Al- 
exander, lord of the Isles, in custody for a year. 
About twelvemonths after the liberation of this 
person, he returned to Inverness with an army, 
and pretending friendship, was hospitably treat- 
ed; but, throwing off the mask, he gave the town 
to be sacked and burnt by his men, to avenge 
himself for the treatment he received here from 
the king. Luckily, his attempts to secure the 
castle were frustrated by its keeper, Malcolm, 
chief of clan Chattan. The readers of history 
will remember, that Alexander was subse- 
quently defeated in Lochaber, and being brought 



prisoner to Edinburgh, was compelled to beg 
his life on his knees, before the whole court, 
at the altar of the chapel of Holyrood. The 
humiliation of this chieftain did not prevent his 
successor, Donald, lord of the Isles, from vi- 
siting the town with his retainers, in 1455, 
taking the castle by surprise, and plundering 
and burning the town. In 1464 James III. 
visited Inverness, and gave it a new charter ; 
and it would appear, from the dating of a royal 
charter given to Mackay of Strathnaver, that 
James IV. was also at Inverness, in the year 
1499. In 1514 the previous charters of the 
burgh were confirmed by James V. In 1555, 
Mary of Guise, the queen regent, visited the 
town, and held a convention of estates, and 
courts for the punishment of caterans and other 
malefactors. . The Earl of Caithness was im- 
prisoned by her in the castle, for protecting 
robbers. A few years afterwards, in Septem- 
ber 1562, Inverness was honoured with a visit 
from Queen Mary, accompanied by the Earl 
of Murray. Being refused admission into the 
castle by its governor, a minion of the Earl of 
Huntly, she was forced to reside in the town, 
in a private house, still standing in Bridge 
Street. Her troops being soon joined by the 
Frasers, Mackintoshes, and Monroes, they re- 
duced the fortress, and hanged the lieutenant, 
its keeper. Huntly himself having levied war 
against the queen, was soon afterwards defeated 
and killed, in a fair battle. The queen's court, 
while in the town, was attended by most of the 
Highland chiefs ; and she kept a small squa- 
dron in the harbour, to ensure her safety. In 
1565, the regent Murray ordered the chief of 
the clan Gunn to be executed in the town, and 
we are told by Sir Robert Gordon, that the 
only crime he had been guilty of, was taking 
the " crown of the causeway" from the regent. 
A year afterwards, Murray was invested with 
the hereditary sheriffship, which had been for- 
feited by Huntly. James VI. tried various 
moderate measures to quell the disturbances 
in this part of the Highlands, and was a distin- 
guished friend of the burgh, to which he grant- 
ed a new charter, commonly called the Great 
Charter, in 1591, establishing and extending 
its privileges. In 1625, Duncan Forbes, the 
provost of, and a merchant in the burgh, bought 
the estate of Culloden from the laird of Mack- 
intosh, which is still in the family. News 
having been received in Inverness, in 1644, of 
a body of Irish having landed on the west coast 



INVERNESS. 



591 



in aid of the Marquis of Montrose, the whole 
of the inhabitants, being of the parliament 
party, were ordered to convene in their best 
weapons, and the castle and garrison were 
strengthened. Next year, Urry, the parlia- 
mentary general, being pressed by Montrose, 
retired to the castle, which was unsuccessfully 
besieged by the troops of the Marquis. In 
1649, the friends of the king were more fortu- 
nate, Mackenzie of Pluscardine, and others, 
with a body of men, taking the town and castle, 
and razing the fortifications. The troubles of 
Inverness, during the great civil war, terminat- 
ed in 1651, by Cromwell taking possession of 
the town in the name of the Commonwealth, 
and building a citadel, the materials of which 
were taken from the abbey of Kinloss, the mo- 
nastery of Inverness, and the cathedral of For- 
trose. For several years subsequently, a gar- 
rison of English soldiers was maintained here, 
being only withdrawn when a different policy 
came into effect at the Restoration. In 1664, 
Sir George Mackenzie, advocate, was appoint- 
ed the town's lawyer, with a salary of twenty 
merks Scots. It seems that, at the revolution 
of 1 688, the inhabitants of Inverness were ex- 
ceedingly disinclined to the establishment of 
presbyterianism. A presbyterian being appoint- 
ed in 1691, to the vacant parish church, the 
magistrates, who favoured episcopacy, for some 
time prevented his being placed. Duncan 
Forbes of Culloden, (father of the celebrated 
Lord President Forbes) a warm friend to the 
constitution, attempted to force his way into the 
church along with the new minister, on the 
day fixed for placing him, but was driven back 
from the doors, which were strongly guarded 
by armed men. Upon this, the government 
sent a regiment to the town, to support the 
presbyterians. At this period the magistrates 
were keen Jacobites, and took every means of 
favouring the cause of the Stuarts. They put 
the castle into the hands of this party, but it 
was re-taken, and for this and other reasons, 
the burgh was disfranchised, and the magi- 
stracy was only restored by a poll election. 
The civil war of 1745 brought the town once 
more within the scope of military aggression. 
Sir John Cope and the Earl of Loudon, in 
succession, occupied the town and castle on be- 
half of the government. Being, however, taken 
in 1746, by Prince Charles Edward, the fortress 
was destroyed by explosion, at the command of 
that famed adventurer ; on which occasion, 



it has been stated on good authority, that the 
French officer of engineers, who lighted the 
train, was blown into the air, and killed. 
Prince Charles' troops departed from Inverness, 
to meet those under the Duke of Cumberland, 
and after their defeat at Culloden, the town 
was entered by the army of the Duke, and here 
thirty-six of Charles' men were executed. As 
in many other cases, the Duke lived in the 
same house and slept in the bed which the 
Prince had previously occupied. The house 
in which they lodged was that of Catherine 
Duff, Lady Drummuir, the third below the 
mason-lodge in Church Street. The apart- 
ment in which the two princes successively 
slept, is the back room on the first floor, look- 
ing to the garden. This was the only house 
at that time in Inverness, which contained a 
sitting-room or parlour without a bed in it. 
The property has descended to Mr. Duff of 
Muirtown, who is Lady Drummuir's great- 
grandson. Of the castle of Inverness, which 
had been the theatre of so many interesting 
events from the days of Malcolm Canmore, 
only the wall of an exterior rampart remains, 
while the place where it stood is so smooth as 
to be used as a bowling green. The site has 
lately been gifted by the proprietor, the Duke 
of Gordon, to the town, for the erection of a 
new court-house, jail, bridewell, &c. The si- 
tuation is admirably adapted for the purpose, 
and must cause these buildings, when erect- 
ed, especially if in an appropriate taste, to 
be highly ornamental to the town. The re- 
mains of the fort which Oliver Cromwell built 
at Inverness, and which was one of the four 
such institutions erected by the Protector for 
the subjugation of Scotland, are to be seen be- 
low the town, at the place where the Ness joins 
the sea. It was destroyed immediately after 
the Restoration, at the desire of the Highland 
chiefs, who had writhed under its influence 
during the iron age of Cromwell. Its area is 
now chiefly occupied by the peaceful shops of 
a tribe of weavers. The revolution of man- 
ners seems to have overtaken Inverness more 
recently than the southern towns. It was not 
till the Union of 1707, that the first regular 
post to Edinburgh was established, and it was 
not till 1 755, that letters were carried any other 
way than by a man on foot. It is yet not 
above thirty years since any measures were 
taken for regularly cleaning the streets, which 
therefore lay in a perpetual state of fearful 



592 



INVERNESS. 



filth. The first coach ever eeen in or about 
the town, was one brought by the Earl of Sea- 
forth in 1715; when the country people, as 
ignorant of the uses and arrangements of such 
a vehicle as the remote Chinese, looked upon 
the driver as the most important personage 
connected with it, and accordingly made him 
low obeisances in passing. We find that in 
the year 1740 the magistrates advertised for 
a saddler to settle in the burgh, and that it was 
so late as 1778 that the common-shaped cart 
was first used in the town, one of these vehi- 
cles being introduced by subscription. About 
the middle of the last century, the father of 
the late Bailie Young flourished in Inverness. 
He was a deacon of the weavers, and remark- 
able for his early adoption of new fashions. 
He was the first burgher who changed the blue 
bonnet of the olden times for a hat, which 
piece of dress had formerly been confined to 
lairds and clergymen. This novelty excited 
the ridicule of his fellow-citizens to an into- 
lerable degree ; they were perpetually teasing 
him with their congratulations upon such a 
splendid accession to the dignity of his per- 
sonal appearance ; his constant reply to their 
observations was, " Well, after all, I am but 
a mortal man." It is a common tradition at 
Inverness, that, about eighty years since, a 
shilling could have bought a leg of mutton, a 
neck of veal, and a gallon of good ale. Ex- 
cept in one house there was not a room in the 
town without a bed — a usage, however, still 
quite common in Scottish provincial towns. 
Provost Phineas Macpherson, a late dignitary, 
whose fine old Highland manners might have 
ornamented a court, used to say that in those 
days he lived with great hospitality and plenty, 
sporting claret at his table, and yet never spent 
more than seventy pounds Sterling a-year. 
The vice of intemperate drinking is understood 
to have been carried to a great height in Inver- 
ness in these not very distant times. In the 
work usually called Burt's Letters, the writer 
gives a minute and animated account of the 
hospitality of the house of Culloden, in the 
days of the President's elder brother ; telling, 
among other things, that the servants would 
on no account permit a guest to walk to his 
bed, considering that an insult to the laird; 
every man had to sit till he became insensible, 
and then they brought spokes and carried him 
off, as in a sedan. Modernized and improved 
as we find the manners and appearance of the 



people of Inverness, a southern stranger on vi- 
siting the town would still have the feeling of 
being transplanted into a population quite dif- 
ferent, in aspect and language, from any thing 
to which he has hitherto been accustomed. 
The women of the lower ranks walk the 
streets, and even to church, the wives with- 
out bonnets, and the maidens without caps ; 
while the extreme simplicity of the rest of 
their attire is quite consistent with this strange 
and primeval fashion. The men of the same 
condition, at least the peasantry, wear garments 
of the coarsest material, as homespun blue 
short coats, stockings of the species called in 
Scotland rig-and-fur, and small blue bonnets ; 
some have plaids, but all of their garments 
display more or less of the Celtic fashion. 
Few of the neighbouring peasantry, when ad- 
dressed, are found to speak any thing but Erse. 
In point of language, the people of Inverness, 
laying the lower orders out of the question, 
may almost be said to transcend those of all 
other Scottish towns, the capital not excepted. 
The common solution of this mystery is, that 
they received a correct English pronunciation 
from the soldiers of Oliver Cromwell ; but it 
seems rather attributable to the simple circum- 
stance that the people here do not learn En- 
glish in their infancy through the medium of 
broad Scotch, but make a direct transition from 
Gaelic into pure English. In proportion as 
the colloquial English used in Scotland comes 
into use in the town, the tone of speaking will 
be found to be proportionably lowered in quali- 
ty. To turn from these particulars to a descrip- 
tion of the town as it exists in the present day. 
Inverness is now one of the finest towns of the 
size in Scotland, consisting chiefly of four well 
built streets, viz : Church Street, which may 
be esteemed the High Street, East or Petty 
Street, Castle Street, and Bridge Street. 
From these there branch off several smaller 
streets and lanes. There is also a suburb on 
the left bank of the Ness. This river is here 
of a very respectable breadth, and is crossed by 
two bridges, one of stone and another of wood. 
The stone bridge is the best public edifice con- 
nected with the town, and consists of seven 
arches. It was finished in the year 1681, at 
an expense defrayed by voluntary contribu- 
tions collected throughout the kingdom. The 
thoroughfare of Bridge Street is led across the 
river by this commodious bridge. The wooden 
bridge is near the Moray Firth, and in the vi- 



INVERNESS. 



593 



cinity are the quays, which are well construct- 
ed, and will admit large vessels of 200 tons 
burden. The harbour is very safe and spacious, 
and vessels of 500 tons may ride in safety in 
the firth. Not a mile from the town, nearly op- 
posite the quay, on the west side, toward the 
ferry, a small quay has been constructed, where 
ships of a great draught of water may discharge 
their cargoes. There is an excellent ferry at 
Kessock, near Inverness ; and the present pro- 
prietor, Sir William Fettes, has expended 
about L. 10,000 in the erection of piers, an 
inn, and offices. The few public buildings in 
the town are of a respectable architecture ; 
displaying, however, no striking points of beau- 
ty. The established church, which gives its 
name to the principal street, is a large plain 
building; adjoining it is the Gaelic church, 
and opposite to it the Episcopal cha- 
pel, a neat building surmounted by a cupola. 
The chapel of ease is also a handsome large 
building, in New Street. The town-house 
is a perfectly plain edifice nearly opposite 
the head of Church Street ; attaehed to it 
is the tolbooth, which has a handsome tower 
and steeple, the top of which received a 
severe twist from an earthquake in the year 
1816. The rooms for the northern meetings, 
assemblies, &c. at the top of Church Street, 
are contained in an extensive and handsome 
erection. The Athenaeum news-room is 
opposite the Exchange, and to this and another 
room of the same kind in the neighbourhood, 
all strangers are politely welcomed. The In- 
firmary, on the west bank of the Ness, forms a 
prominent feature among the public buildings 
of the town ; it consists of one large central 
front, with four elegant pilasters, and two 
wings, the whole enclosed in a spacious area 
with iron palisades. The Academy, situated 
in New Street, is an extensive erection, be- 
hind which is a large pleasure-ground for the 
recreation of the scholars. This institution 
has long been a distinguished seminary for the 
Highland youth, and is conducted upon a li- 
beral scale. Its funds, besides a sum of L.70 
paid annually by the town, consist of a capital 
of above L.6000, upwards of one-third of which 
was subscribed in sums of L.50 each at the 
contested election for the office of Latin teach- 
er in 1820. The town and neighbourhood 
have so much progressed as to be able to 
support two native weekly newspapers. Being 
the seat of the sheriff of the county, the courts 
of that functionary are held at stated periods. 



A justice of peace court for small debts is held 
on the first Wednesday of every month. The 
government of the burgh is administered by a 
provost, four bailies, a dean of guild, a trea- 
surer, and fourteen councillors, four of whom 
are from the trades. The burgh joins with 
Nairn, Forres, and Fortrose, in nominating a 
member of parliament ; and its annual revenue 
amounts to about L.2300. Before the open- 
ing up of the new views consequent on the 
civil war of 1745, and the abolition of the 
heritable jurisdictions, Inverness enjoyed a 
considerable commerce. It exported great 
quantities of malt and oat-meal, and enjoyed 
an exclusive traffic in skins with the north of 
Europe. Subsequently, the Highlanders of 
the western districts directed their trade to 
Greenock and Glasgow, and Inverness became 
no longer the depot of Highland produce. 
Latterly the trade has revived and increased. 
About the year 1803, an intercourse was 
opened up with London, and at present the 
town has four regular traders or smacks in 
communication with London ; three engaged 
in trading with Liverpool, three with Leith, 
and three with Aberdeen. Three steam-ves- 
sels also ply betwixt Glasgow and Inverness, 
by the Caledonian Canal; and during the 
summer months a steam-vessel arrives and 
departs weekly, in communication with Leith 
or Edinburgh. The general shipping of 
the port has altogether greatly increased. It 
has at present 142 vessels, (38 of which be- 
long to the town,) the aggregate burden of 
which amounts to 7104 tons. In 1802, the 
shore-dues produced only L 140 : in 1816 
they were L.680. Part of the trade has been 
transferred to the canal basin, but the dues are 
yet about L.560. The increase of trade has 
raised the value of property very considerably ; 
of which an instance is found in the property 
of Merkinch, situated betwixt the bridge and 
the canal, which, twenty-five years ago, rent- 
ed at from L.70 to L.80, and now lets for 
L.600. In recent times, the establishment of 
regular steam-vessels, sailing from the above 
ports, has been of much service to the trade 
and comfort of Inverness, which, from its 
great distance from the low countries, is diffi- 
cult of access by land, or, at least, a journey 
thither in that way is so fatiguing and expen- 
sive, that but for the new conveyances by water, 
many who now visit it would never have thought 
of doing so. Should nothing interfere to pre- 
vent the increase and capabilities of steam-ves- 
4g 



594 



INVERNESS. 



sels, it may be anticipated that such convey- 
ances for the transport of cattle, sheep, and 
wool, to ports in England, will soon be esta- 
blished here and elsewhere in the northern 
counties. Stage coaches were long in reach- 
ing this distant part of the empire. The first 
that arrived in the town was one established 
in 1806, which did not pay, and was soon 
after abandoned. It was afterwards reinstated 
on the Highland road, and has proved no bad 
speculation. It alternates between Inverness 
and Perth three times a-week. No mail coach 
came to the town for some years after that event ; 
and it was only in 1819, that, in consequence of 
the earnest solicitations of the gentlemen of 
Ross and Sutherland, that important instrument 
of civilization was conducted further northward 
— to Thurso, namely, the northern extremity of 
Great Britain, eight hundred and two miles 
from the capital, and one thousand and eighty- 
two from Falmouth, the opposite extremity of 
the island ; throughout which extent of coun- 
try there is now a continuous mail-coaeh 
road. There are several annual fairs held 
here, the chief of which is a great sheep 
and wool market, held on the first Tuesday 
after the third Wednesday of June. At this 
fair the whole fleeces and sheep of the north 
are generally sold, or contracted for in the way 
of consignment. No less than 100,000 stones 
of wool, and 150,000 sheep are yearly disposed 
of. The market is attended by the Dumfries- 
shire and other Lowland sheep-dealers, and by 
wool- staplers from Huddersfield. The only 
manufactures of the town are some hempen 
and woollen goods. The weekly market-day 
is Friday. The trade of Inverness and the 
surrounding district is aided by branches of the 
Bank of Scotland, British Linen Company, 
Commercial Bank, and National Bank, set- 
tled here ; and there are a number of agen- 
cies of Insurance Offices. The government 
offices are — a tax, customs, excise, and post- 
office. The town possesses a subscription 
library, two circulating libraries, two Bible 
societies, a Sabbath school society, a school 
library of select religious books, and two mason 
lodges. It is further the appointed seat of a 
society for the education of the poor in the 
Highlands, the Medical Society of the North, 
the Inverness-shire Farming Society, and the 
Northern Institution, whose place of meeting 
is above noticed. This body is composed of a 
considerable number of noblemen and gentle- 
men in the northern counties, associated for 



purposes of local utility. Horse races are run 
under theirauspices, and their meetinggenerally 
induces the temporary residence of the fashion- 
ables of the district. Besides the academy of 
Inverness, which is governed by a body of direc- 
tors, whose qualification is the payment of L.50 
to the funds of the institution, the list of schools 
in the town in 1830 exhibited the following : — 
Two boarding schools for young ladies ; Rain- 
ing's endowed school ; Education Society's 
central school ; female school of industry ; two 
musie schools; a dancing school; a ladies' 
day school ; and four private schools. The 
encouragement which is given by the burgh 
and the community to these seminaries, much 
to the credit of the place, gives a very differ- 
ent idea of the anxiety now displayed for the 
general promotion of education from that of- 
fered by certain records in the books of the 
town-council, by which it appears, that in 
1G62, the magistrates prohibited all persons, 
excepting the town teachers, from giving in- 
structions in reading or writing within the 
burgh; and in 1677, "enacted that Mary 
Cowie shall not teach reading beyond the Pro- 
verbs." The ecclesiastical establishments are, 
the parish church (with three clergymen,) a 
chapel of ease, a Seceder chapel, Episcopal 
chapel, Methodist chapel, Independent chapel, 
and a Roman Catholic chapel. The fast day 
of the church is generally a Thursday early in 
July. There have of late been various im- 
provements made in the town and neighbour- 
hood, which are well worthy of being made 
known. A very important step towards per- 
fecting the local establishments has been made 
in the institution of a joint stock company, 
having in view the double object of lighting 
the town with gas, and supplying it with water 
by means of pipes. In 1825, a company of 
this description was associated, by shares of 
L.10, creating a capital of L.12,000. In 
1826, the gas was introduced, and it is now 
reckoned the best and purest in Scotland. The 
supplying of the town with water by pipes, 
from the Ness was carried into effect in 1830. 
An act of parliament was recently obtained, 
empowering the levying of an assessment on 
the inhabitants for paving and causewaying the 
streets ; the works will be entered upon this 
year, and will be executed in the best manner. 
The want of some place of recreation in the 
open air was long felt in Inverness, but this 
can hardly be said to be now the case. Two 
long narrow islands in the Ness, above the 



INVERNESS. 



595 



town, have been planted and beautified in a 
variety of ways, so as to make them a most 
delightful place for promenading in fine 
weather. The lower island is connected with 
the right bank of the stream by a handsome 
suspension bridge. Another suspension bridge, 
to connect the latter island with the left side 
of the river, is now in progress, and when fi- 
nished, the whole will form one of the very 
finest things of the kind in Britain. The ex- 
pense consequent on these great improvements 
has been defrayed by subscriptions. The en- 
virons of Inverness, enriched by the fresh 
green foliage of these small islands, are per- 
haps not excelled in Scotland, and their beau- 
ties have even had the effect of drawing praise 
from the querulous Macculloch : — " "When 
I have stood in Queen Street of Edinburgh," 
says he, " and looked towards Fife, I have 
sometimes wondered whether Scotland con- 
tained a finer view of its class. But I have 
forgotten this on my arrival at Inverness. 
Surely, if a comparison is to be made with 
Edinburgh, always excepting its own romantic 
disposition, the Firth of Forth must yield the 
palm to the Moray Firth, the surrounding 
country must yield altogether, and Inverness 
must take the highest rank. Eveiy thing too 
is done for Inverness that can be effected by 
wood and by cultivation; the characters of 
which here have altogether a richness, a va- 
riety, and a freedom, which we miss around 
Edinburgh. The mountain screens are finer, 
more various, and more near. Each outlet is 
different from the other, and each is beautiful ; 
whether we proceed towards Fort George, or 
towards Moy, or enter the valley of the Ness, 
or skirt the shores of the Beauly Firth ; 
while a short and commodious ferry wafts 
us to the lovely country opposite, rich with 
woods and country seats and cultivation." 
A remarkable curiosity, called Tom-na-heu- 
rich (the hill of fairies,) which rises abrupt- 
ly out of the plain on the north side of the 
river, " and the hill of Craig Phadrig, add 
much variety to the valley of the Ness, nor do 
the extensive sweeps of fir wood produce here 
that arid effect which so commonly attend 
them ; contrasted and supported as they are, 
by green meadows, by woods of other form, 
and by the variety of the surface. Tom-na- 
heurich, not ill-compared to a vessel with its 
keel uppermost, is, or rather was, a reputed 
haunt of fairies ; and is plainly a relic of the 



ancient alluvium, the remainder of whiith has 
been carried forward to the sea." It is consi- 
dered by the country people to be the sepul- 
chral mound of Thomas the Rhymer; a per- 
sonage, by the way, as well known here as in 
Lauderdale. The walks all around it, and 
along the banks of the Ness, are extremely 
beautiful. It is near this place that the Cale- 
donian Canal terminates. At no great dis- 
tance, the singular hill called Craig Phadric 
rears its woody brow, coronetted by a splen- 
did vitrified fort, the wonder of travellers. 
The handsome house of Muirtown, embo- 
somed in the woods which cover the side of 
that hill, has a capital effect in the landscape, 
forming, it may be said, one of the finest points 
in the environs of Inverness — Population of 
the parish and burgh in 1821, 12,264, of which 
the burgh had 10,500. 

INVERNETTIE, a small harbour in 
Aberdeenshire, near Peterhead. 

INVERSNAID, a small fortress in the 
parish of Buchanan, Stirlingshire, two miles east 
from Loch Lomond. It was erected in the 
early part of the eighteenth century, to repress 
the depredations of the clan Macgregor and other 
turbulent Highlanders of the district. For many 
years it has not been possessed by a garrison. 

INVERUGIE, a small village, county 
of Banff, parish of St. Fergus, situated at the 
mouth of the river Ugie. The ruined castle of 
Inverugie, once a seat of the Marischal family, 
and which gave accommodation for a night to 
the chevalier de St. George, after he landed in 
1716, is adjacent. 

INVERURY, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
lying at the termination of the peninsula be- 
tween the river Urie on the north, and the 
Don on the south ; extending from west to 
east upwards of four miles ; bounded by Cha- 
pel of Garioch on the north and west, Kern- 
nay and Kintore on the south, and Keith- 
hall on the east. The area of the parish 
contains about 4000 acres, much of which in 
the western part is hilly arid pastoral. To- 
wards the banks of the above rivers the land is 
under cultivation. In the south-western part 
of the parish, near the Don, stands the Roman 
Catholic college of Aquhorties, which is a 
beautiful and pleasantly situated building, and 
in which the limited number of twenty-seven 
young gentlemen are educated in this religious 
persuasion. 

Inverury, a royal burgh, the capital of 



596 



IRVINE. 



tho above parish, is pleasantly situated in the 
angle of land near the confluence of the Urie 
and Don, at the distance of sixteen miles north- 
west of Aberdeen. It is related by tradition, 
that the town obtained the privileges of a royal 
burgh from Robert Bruce, on the occasion of 
a signal victory obtained by him there, over 
Comyn, Earl of Buchan, the king of Eng- 
land's general in Scotland, which proved the be- 
ginning of that good fortune that attended him 
ever after during the whole of his reign. The 
oldest charter is a novodamus by Queen Mary, 
narrating that Inverury had been a royal burgh 
time immemorial, but the charter of its erection 
had been lost in the civil wars. In virtue of 
this renewed charter, the burgh has been since 
governed by a provost, three bailies, a dean of 
guild, a treasurer, and thirteen councillors ; 
and joins with Kintore, Cullen, Banff, and 
Elgin, in sending a member to parliament. 
Inverury gives the title of Baron to the Earl 
of Kintore, who is one of the chief proprietors 
of the district. The town is small, and its 
trade is only in manufactures for local use. 
The road from Aberdeen is carried across the 
Don, a short way above its junction with the 
Urie, by a stone bridge, erected in 1791. Be- 
tween the bridge and the confluence of the 
streams, the Don receives the Inverury Canal, 
which here terminates ; the other extremity is 
near the harbour of Aberdeen. This artificial 
canal has been of much advantage in an agri- 
cultural point of view to this quarter of the 
shire, by permitting the cheap and easy intro- 
duction of lime, and the export of country pro- 
duce ; but it has yielded no profit to the capi- 
talists, at whose expense it was made. A 
cattle market is held at Inverury, once a-month 
in summer, and every fortnight in winter. Be- 
sides the parish church, there are chapels for an 
Independent and a Methodist congregation. — 
Population of the burgh in 1821, 750, includ- 
ing the parish, 1 129. 

IONA — See Icolmkiix. 

IRONGRAY See Kirkpatiuck-Iron 

GRAY. 

IRVINE, a parish in the district of Cun- 
ningham, Ayrshire, lying on the coast of the 
Firth of Clyde. At its greatest length it is 
about five miles, extending from the sea on the 
south-west, to the parish of Stewarton on the 
north-east. At its greatest breadth it is about 
two miles, being bounded on the south-east 
and east by the Annoek, which separates it 



from the parish of Dreghorn, on the north and 
north-east by the parish of Kilwinning, on 
the north-west by the river Garnock, and on 
the south by the river Irvine, which separates 
it from the parish of Dundonald. A small 
portion of the latter belongs to Irvine parish, 
in ecclesiastical matters. On the coast and 
banks of the river, the surface is flat and sandy, 
towards the north-eastern extremity the land 
is more elevated, and the whole, assisted by 
improvements, is fertile and pleasing in ap- 
pearance. This quarter of the country is much 
beautified by the plantations and pleasure- 
grounds of Eglinton Castle. 

Irvine, a royal burgh, the seat of a presbytery, 
a sea-port, and the capital of the above parish, 
is agreeably situated on the banks of the river 
of the same name, about a mile from its junc- 
tion with the sea ; at the distance of eleven 
miles north of Ayr, sixty-seven from Edin- 
burgh, twenty-five south-south-west of Glas- 
gow, thirty-four south of Greenock, seven 
south-east of Saltcoats, and six and a half 
west of Kilmarnock. It is a town of consid- 
erable antiquity, as appears by the records of 
the burgh, Alexander II. having granted a 
charter to ..the burgesses, confirming some other 
royal grants. From a charter granted by Ro- 
bert II. it appears that the burgesses of Irvine 
were in possession of the whole barony of 
Cunningham and Largs. Perhaps its early 
importance was enhanced by the establishment 
of a monastery of Carmelite or white friars, 
in the year 1412, which was consecrated to the 
Virgin Mary, and endowed with the lands of 
Fullerton. In the present times it is a small 
but thriving town, standing on a rising ground 
on the right bank of the Irvine, the estuary. of 
which forms its harbour. The situation is 
dry and airy, a broad street running from south- 
east to north-west, the whole length of the town, 
on the south side of the river, but connected with 
the town by a bridge"; there is a row of houses 
on each side of the road leading to the harbour ; 
these are built on a uniform plan, and are most- 
ly inhabited by sea-faring people. A number 
of the same kind of houses are built on the road 
leading to Ayr. None of these suburbs are 
within the royalty. The bridge of Irvine is the 
widest and handsomest in the county. At the 
centre of the burgh there is a town-house, which 
happens to bear a striking resemblance to that 
of Annan. The church is an ornament to the 
place, being situated on a rising ground betwixt. 



IRVINE. 



597 



the town and the river, and surmounted by a 
spire of extraordinary elegance. It commands 
extensive views of the Firth of Clyde, and of 
the stupendous mountains of Arran. There 
are three other places of worship, all of them 
neat structures. At the north end of the town 
an academy was erected in 1814, at an expense 
•of L.2250, of which sum the burgh gave 
L.1633. 4s. 6d; and the remainder was sup- 
plied by public subscription. In this useful 
institution, which is an ornament and honour 
to the town, are taught Latin, Greek, French, 
English, the mathematics, writing, arithmetic, 
&c. Besides these, there are a subscription free 
school, some private schools, and several Sab- 
bath schools. The town possesses a good news- 
room and subscription library. The trade of 
the port consists principally of the export of 
coals, of which 28,500 tons are said to be 
shipped yearly to Ireland. The imports are 
iron, timber, slates, limestone, and grain. The 
number of vessels employed was lately about 
ninety. The port has a regidar custom-house 
establishment. The trade of the town is as- 
sisted by some branches of banks. There are 
mills belonging to the burgh, which in point 
of architecture and machinery are unequalled in 
Ayrshire. Irvine, as a royal burgh, is governed 
by a provost, two bailies, a dean of guild, a 
treasurer, and twelve councillors. It joins with 
Ayr, Campbellton, Inverary, and Rothesay, in 
sending a member to parliament. A small 
market is held on Saturday, and there are some 
annual fairs, as well as occasional horse races. 
Resides the established church, there is a meet- 
ing house belonging to the United Associate 
Synod, one to the Relief body, and a Baptist 
chapel. The fast days of the kirk are the Wed- 
nesday before the second Sunday of June and 
the third or fourth Sunday of October. " Irvine 
is remarkable," says the Picture of Scotland, 
•" for having been the birth-place of two admir- 
ed living authors, and the temporary residence 
of an illustrious poet deceased; Mr. Mont- 
gomery, the poet, and Mr. Gait, the novelist, 
are natives of the town, and Burns once lived 
in it. The house in which Mr- Montgomery 
was born stands on the north side of the en- 
trance to an alley called the Braid close, in a 
Jong regular street leading to the harbour ; and 
the little chapel in which his father, a Moravi- 
an clergyman, long preached, is to be seen be- 
hind thg house, being now used in the capacity 
of a weaver's shop, though still known by the 



name of 'the Moravian Kirk.' The ingeni- 
ous author of the ' Annals of the Parish' first 
saw the light in a more respectable part of the 
town ; namely, in a goodly house of two storeys 
upon the south side of the main street, near to 
the west end of the town. Regarding Burns's 
place of residence in Irvine, there prevails con- 
siderable obscurity. The site of the house 
where he lived and worked as a flax-dresser, 
after a tedious inquiry, is conjectured with great 
probability to have been the spot now marked 
4, in a narrow street, called the Glasgow Ven- 
nel, being the second house from the main street 
on the right hand side. Another situation 
pointed out is in the Seagate, near an old 
castellated building formerly occupied by the 
dowagers of the Eglinton family." It will be 
recollected that while the poet was endea- 
vouring to establish himself in business here, 
his shop was unfortunately burnt, and his pros- 
pects blighted — Population of the burgh and 
parish in 1821, 7007. 

IRVINE, a river in Ayrshire, rising from the 
east side of Loudon Hill, parish of Loudon, 
on the eastern confines of the county, and pass- 
ing Derville, Newmills, Galston, and Riccar- 
ton, falls into the Firth of Clyde below the 
above mentioned town of Irvine. The course 
of the Irvine water is very direct from east to 
west, and throughout serves as the boundary 
betwixt Kyle and Cunningham. Its chief 
tributaries, which join it on the right bank, 
are the Kilmarnock, the Carmel, and the An- 
nock waters. 

IS AY, an islet of the Hebrides, in the west 
Loch Tarbet, in the district of Harris. 

ISHOL, an islet in Loch Linnhe, Argyle- 
shire. 

IS H OL, an islet on the south-west coast of 
Islay. 

ISLA, a river in Banffshire, having its 
origin in the parish of Keith, and adjacent 
districts, and pursuing an easterly or south- 
easterly course for about twelve miles, joins 
the Deveron above Rothiemay. The vale 
through which it flows is sometimes called 
Strathisla. 

ISLA, a river of Forfarshire, and the third 
in point of size in the county. It rises among 
the Grampian Mountains, in the northern part 
of Glenisla parish, through which it pursues a 
southerly, and latterly, a south-easterly course. 
After receiving the Back water, from the parish 
of Lentrathen, it makes several bends tending 



598 



I S L A Y. 



westward, and receiving the Dean water, at the 
south-west corner of Airly parish, it enters 
Perthshire. Its next and only tributary of con- 
sequence is the Ericht, near Cupar, and pur- 
suing a south-westerly course it joins the Tay, 
which it very much increases, above Kinclaven. 
Its banks throughout are generally beautiful, 
and it yields excellent salmon fishing. 

ISLAY, or ILAY, a large island belong- 
ing to Argyleshire, and the most southerly of 
those entitled the Hebrides. It lies in a 
westerly direction from the peninsula of Can- 
tire, distant from it about twelve miles, and is 
separated on the north from the island of Jura 
by a narrow channel. The island of Islay is 
shaped somewhat like a heart, with the inden- 
tation on the south side, caused by the bay of 
Loch Indal, and the apex of the figure towards 
the north. It measures twenty-eight miles 
long, and at the broadest part it measures about 
eighteen across. In ancient times this insulat- 
ed territory was the chief strong-hold of the 
Macdonalds, when Lords of the Isles, and it 
was here that, with rude patriarchal ceremo- 
nies, they were installed in their office of chiefs. 
Instead of a throne, the chieftains stood on a 
stone seven feet square, in which was a hollow 
to receive their feet. In this place, in presence 
of their vassals, they were crowned and anoint- 
ed by the Bishop of Argyle and seven infe- 
rior priests. After putting on their armour, 
helmet, and sword, they took an oath to rule 
as their ancestors had done ; that was, to govern 
as a father would his children. Their people, 
in return, swore that they would be obedient, 
as children pay obedience to the commands of 
their parents. The spot where these ceremo- 
nies were enacted is still pointed out. Near 
the end of the sixteenth century, this and other 
possessions were confiscated by the crown; 
and by grant or purchase, the whole is now in 
different hands. On the east side of the island 
the surface is hilly, and covered with heath ; 
but the greater part of the land is flat, and 
where uncultivated, is covered with a fine green 
sward. The whole is not very interesting to 
the stranger, unless as he may take pleasure in 
witnessing the rise and progress of agricultural 
improvement and wealth. It retains so few 
marks of Highland manners, as scarcely to 
excite any feelings different from the low coun- 
try. Opulent tenants, Lowland agriculture, and 
good houses and roads make the traveller for- 
get that he is in the ancient kingdom of the 



Norwegian Lords of the Isles. The coast is 
rugged and rocky, but indented by numerous 
bays and harbours, which are safe landing places 
for vessels. Loch Indal, on the south side, 
forms a spacious but shallow bay, much fre- 
quented by shipping, and the village or town 
of Bowmore on its east side is of a respecta- 
ble size and appearance. On the western 
shore, there is a very large and open cave called 
Uaimhmore, which, in the days of poverty, was 
inhabited by different families. The cave of 
Sanig, further to the south, is narrow, dark, 
wet, and uninteresting. Loch Greinord also 
on the west side, is a deep narrow indentation ; 
but shallow and marshy ; giving ample evidence 
of having been once united to Loch Indal, so 
as to have cut the island into a larger and 
smaller part. The sea banks, which it has 
long left dry, and the still progressive shoaling 
of both these inlets, are proofs that cannot be 
mistaken. The east coast is without interest. 
The island has several small lakes, which ori- 
ginate a variety of streamlets, all abounding 
with trout and salmon. Islay is rich in mi- 
nerals. Lead has been long wrought, and cop- 
per is nearly as abundant. The island also 
possesses abundance of limestone, and marie. 
The crops raised are principally of barley and 
oats, and much of the grain is Used in the dis- 
tillation of whisky. For this article the island 
has been long celebrated, and for many years 
there has been a contest among connoisseurs, 
whether that of Islay or Campbellton, in Can- 
tire, ought to carry the palm of superiority. 
There are at present, or were lately, fourteen 
distilleries on the island, constantly at work 
in the preparation of whisky for the Lowland 
market. The trade thus carried on has been 
the cause of many improvements, and the 
island now presents a spectacle of thriving in- 
dustry. Islay composes three parochial divi- 
sions, namely, Bowmore (see Killarrow), 
Kilchoman and Kildalton. The only town is 
Bowmore. — The population of Islay in 1821, 
11,008. 

ISLAY SOUND, the strait betwixt the 
above island of Islay and Jura. The tides run 
through it with the violence of a rapid river, by 
which the navigation is very dangerous. 

ISLE-MARTIN, an island in Loch 
Broom, Ross-shire, on which is a fishing station. 

ISLE TANERA See Tanera. 

ISSURTj an islet of the Hebrides, near 
Harris. 



JEDBURGH. 



5'J9 



JAMES' TOWN, a small village in the up- 
per part of the parish of Westerkirk, district of 
Eskdale, Dumfries-shire. It stands on the 
Meggot Water, and was built for the residence 
of miners in the vicinity. 

JED, or JED WATER, a small river in 
Roxburghshire, rising in Carter Hill, in the 
upper part of the parish of Southdean. After 
a tortuous course tending northward, it passes 
the town of Jedburgh ; and, about two miles 
below, drops into the Tiviot, the well known 
tributary of the Tweed. The Jed is an excel- 
lent trouting stream, and the scenery on its 
banks is reckoned very beautiful. The vale 
through which it flows is not spacious, and 
therefore presents no such view as that of the 
Tweed at Kelso. But, as it is serpentine and 
irregular, its views, if not so extensive or im- 
posing, are much more varied, infinite, and even 
picturesque. At eveiy step one takes along 
the banks of the stream, he discovers a novel 
and striking variety in the general tone of the 
landscape. On this account the tourist will 
find as much gross amount of good landscape 
in a walk of two miles along the Jed, as he 
will find it possible to obtain even in the High- 
lands, in a whole day's ride. If better authori- 
ty be wanting, reference may be had to Burns, 
who speaks somewhere of " Eden scenes on 
crystal Jed," and has expressed the highest 
satisfaction with this part of his tour through 
the Arcadia of his native land. Thomson al- 
so eulogizes the " sylvan Jed," on whose banks 
he spent the years of his boyhood and early 
youth, in the parish of Southdean. 

JEDBURGH, a parish in the county of 
Roxburgh, consisting of two detached por- 
tions, situated in the territory betwixt the Ti- 
viot and the heights of the border fells. The 
lower division lying on either side of the Jed, 
forms the great body of the parish. The se- 
cond, which is the smallest division, is the dis- 
trict of old Jedburgh. In this division there 
was anciently a chapel, opposite to Dolphin- 
ston Mill. In the upper portion of the 
parish, is the barony of Edgerston. The 
barony of Upper Crailing, attached to the east 
side of the lower division, was anciently a se- 
parate parish. At the elevated extremity of 
the upper part of the parish, is the Reid Swire, 
where a sanguinary border fight took place, on 
the 7th of July 1575. The two old parishes 
of Jedburgh are the most ancient parochial di- 
visions in Scotland, of which any record exists. 



The country here is for the greater part hilly 
and pastoral, with cultivation only in the vales, 
and chiefly on the Jed and Tiviot. The 
lower division is now finely planted in many 
places, and the district is generally under an 
excellent course of improvement. 

JEDBURGH, a royal burgh, the seat of a 
presbytery, and the capital of the above parish, 
as well as the county town of Roxburghshire, 
is agreeably situated on the left bank of the 
Jed water, at the distance of forty-six miles 
(by Lauder) south of Edinburgh, ten west of 
Kelso, ten east of Hawick, and twelve north 
of the borders of England. The town is of a 
very ancient date, and was originally entitled 
Jedworth, from Jed, the appellation of the river, 
and weorth, the Saxon term for a hamlet. In 
the course of time it has been perverted into 
its present designation ; but, throughout a very 
extensive district in the south, the old appella- 
tion is partly preserved in the name of Jeddart, 
or Jethart, which are exclusively used by the 
common people. The name of Jed has led 
some antiquaries to suppose that it was the ca- 
pital town of the people denominated the Gade- 
ni, who, in the period immediately subsequent 
to the dissolution of the Roman power in Bri- 
tain, possessed the central part of the marches, 
between Cumberland and Lothian. The con- 
sequence of the town was considerably enhanc- 
ed in the twelfth century, by the foundation of 
a monastery by David I., to the canons-regular 
of which establishment he gave the churches of 
the two parishes of Jedburgh, with the tithes 
and other dues. David also gave to the canons 
the chapel of Scarsburgh, lying in a recess of 
the forest, to the east of the Jed ; and in a 
later epoch, the monastery was put in posses- 
sion of the dependencies of Restennet in An- 
gus, and Cannoby in Dumfries- shire. Thus ere- 
riched by such a splendid religious establish- 
ment, the importance of the town was secured 
by the erection of a castle, the strongest and 
most extensive on the borders. In the year 1 285, 
Jedburgh was the scene of the festivities which 
attended the second marriage of Alexander III. ; 
when a masker, resembling the usual skeleton 
figure of death, joined in one of the dances, 
and had such a powerful effect upon the nerves 
of the queen, and the rest of the revellers, as 
to cause the ball to be suddenly closed. Though 
afterwards ascertained to be a mere jest, this 
strange apparition made a deep impression up. 
on the popular mind, and was afterwards held 



600 



JEDBURGH. 



to have been an omen of the childless bed of 
Alexander, his early death, and the consequent 
mishaps .which befel his country. Little else 
is heard of the town throughout the obscure 
era of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth 
centuries ; but after this period it frequently 
enters into the history of the wars carried on 
betwixt the Scots and English. Placed in a 
remote part of the country, so near the scene 
of constant strife, it had the misfortune to be 
seven times burnt, at least, so says tradition, 
but as regularly reviving from such a disaster. 
Before being burnt by the Earl of Surrey in 
1523, it was so important a place as to be thus 
described by that general, in a letter to his 
master, Henry VIII. " There was two times 
more houses therein than Berwick, and well 
builded, with many honest and fair houses in 
garrison, and six good towers therein." The 
castle of Jedburgh was at this time of great 
strength, as is testified by the circumstance, 
that on the Scottish gavernment determining 
to destroy it, it was meditated to impose a tax 
of two pennies on every hearth in Scotland, as 
the only means of accomplishing so arduous an 
undertaking. If the quality of self-sufficiency 
in the magistrates be any proof of prospe- 
rity in the town, Jedburgh must have 
been in a truly flourishing condition during 
this c'entury. In what are called " the 
Queen's Wars," Jedburgh had the hardi- 
hood to espouse the interest of King James 
and the Protestant faith, in opposition to Ker 
of Ferniehirst, their powerful neighbour, who 
stood out for the unfortunate Mary. This 
daring feud was accompanied with some ludi- 
crous, but fully as many tragical circumstances. 
When a pursuivant under the authority of the 
queen, and countenanced by Ferniehirst, was 
sent to proclaim that every thing was null 
which had been done against her during her 
confinement in Lochleven, the provost com- 
manded him to descend from the cross, and, 
says Bannatyne the journalist, " caused him 
eat his letters, and thereafter loosed down his 
points, and gave him his wages on his bare 
buttocks with a bridle, threatening him that if 
he ever came again he should lose his life." 
In revenge of this insult, and of other points 
of quarrel, Ferniehirst, having made prisoners 
ten of the citizens of Jedburgh, hanged them, 
and destroyed with fire the whole stock of pro- 
visions which had been laid up for winter. The 
distinction of the people of Jedburgh in arms 



at this early period, is indicated by their proud 
war-cry of " Jethart's here !" as well as by their 
dexterity in handling a particular sort of par- 
tisan, which therefore got the name of the 
" Jethart staff." Of this celebrated species of 
weapon, which is proverbial in the country, 
Mair, in his history, fortunately supplies us 
with a description, as also with the fact that 
it got its name from being made at Jedburgh : 
" Ferrum chalybeum quatuor pedes longum 
in robusti ligni extremo Jeduardiensis." It is 
said to have been the bravery of the burgesses 
of Jedburgh that turned the fate of the day at 
the skirmish of the Reidswire, already noticed, 
and one of the last fought upon the borders. 
The change of affairs produced upon the 
marches by the union of the crowns, caused 
Jedburgh to retrograde in prosperity for a cen- 
tury and a half; and it has only been within 
the recollection of the present generation that 
the town can be said to have recovered any 
part of its original prosperity. At the Refor- 
mation of religion the abbey was abolished, its 
revenues confiscated, and its property erected 
into a temporal lordship in favour of Sir An- 
drew Ker of Ferniehirst, ancestor of -the Mar- 
quis of Lothian. The citizens of Jedburgh 
founded a monastery for Franciscan or Gray 
friars, in 1513. As these religionists were of 
an order which obliged them to live by mendi- 
city, they could have little property to offer to 
the aristocratic spoilers at the Reformation. 
We mention this obscure convent for the pur- 
pose of saying that here lived and died Adam 
Bell, a monkish writer of considerable eminence 
in the sixteenth century, whose chief work was 
the History of the Scottish Nation from the 
beginning of the world till the year 1535, en- 
titled Rota Temporum. This literary curiosity 
is often alluded to by antiquaries, and it is un- 
derstood that the original copy was lost at Ros- 
lin, at the Revolution, when the mob spoiled 
the chapel. An imperfect copy, and we be- 
lieve the only one, was in the library of Sir 
George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh. — The town 
of Jedburgh, in the present day, has four prin- 
cipal streets, which cross each other at right 
angles, and terminate in a square or market- 
place. The Town- Head and High Street run 
parallel to the river. The street which crosses 
these is one running from the Castle-hill to 
the New Bridge, having a declivity to the 
water. In recent times the town has been 
generally improved, and many elegant and spa- 



JEDBURGH 



G01 



eious buildings have been erected. The prin- 
cipal object in the town is the abbey, which 
stands on a piece of ground betwixt the houses 
and the river. Though the west end of this 
venerable structure has been mutilated into a 
parish church in a style inconsistent with 
good taste, while the eastern extremity is 
partly ruinous, enough remains to impress 
the spectator with a high idea of its original 
beauty and magnificence. Some patriotic in- 
dividuals have lately expended a considerable 
sum upon such repairs as seemed calculated to 
prevent further dilapidation ; and these opera- 
tions have been conducted with the greatest 
taste and success. The great tower of the 
fabric is still in tolerably good preservation. 
Near the abbey formerly stood the cross, and 
there also were the court-house and jail. The 
court-house and jail of Jedburgh are objects of 
more than ordinary interest in the eyes of a 
south-country man, for Jedburgh is a transient 
seat of the court of justiciary, and these build- 
ings have proved fatal to many a stalwart bor- 
derer. It is on this account that the name of 
the town is constantly associated in the mind 
of a Merse, Tweeddale, or Tiviotdale man 
with ideas of sheep-stealing and hanging. 
Nor does the fearful import of the phrase 
'•' Jethart justice" alleviate the horrors of 
this concatenation of ideas. Jedburgh justice 
implies the circumstance of first hanging 
and then judging a criminal, and is a piece of 
popular obloquy, supposed to have taken its 
rise in some instance of summary and unce- 
remonious vengeance, executed here by either 
a feudal chief or a sovereign, in one of his 
justiciary tours through the borders. There 
is a new jail, denominated the castle, in con- 
sequence of its occupying the site of the an- 
cient fortress, and perhaps of its architecture 
being of that castellated description which has 
lately become so prevalent The elegance of 
the building is such as to disguise its real 
character as completely to the eye as its name 
does to the ear. The height of the situ- 
ation at the head of the town conduces great- 
ly to its fine appearance, and causes it to be 
seen from a distance all round the town. 
Executions have, from time immemorial, taken 
place on this eminence, from which a view is 
obtained so charming, and so calculated to 
make one in love with this world, that it seems 
almost an act of cruelty to add to the misery 
of the criminal's situation by depriving him 
of life in sight of such a prospect. In Jed- 



burgh may yet be seen the house in which 
Queen Mary lodged, after her visit to Both- 
well at Hermitage. " It is a large old house," 
says the author of the Picture of Scotland, 
from whom we quote, " with a sort of turret 
behind, more like a mansion-house of the reign 
of Charles II. than what it is said really to be, 
one of the bastel-houses, of which Surrey enu- 
merates six, as existing early in the sixteenth 
century. It is situated in a back street, and* 
with its screen of dull trees in front, has a 
somewhat lugubrious appearance, as if con- 
scious of its connexion with the most melan- 
choly tale that ever occupied the page of his- 
tory. Mary remained in Jedburgh several 
days, with a sickness contracted in her forced 
march, from which, for a time, she gave up 
hopes of ever recovering. The same appear- 
ance of entire antiquity which so strongly marks 
the Abbey Wynd or Close, prevails in a larger 
district of the town in a situation resembling 
the castle-hill of Edinburgh, and denominated 
the Town-heid. The Town-heid is compos- 
ed solely of very old houses, which seem to 
have never either needed or received any of 
that species of mutilation, called by antiqua- 
ries ruin, and by tradesmen repair. The se- 
cret is, that the inhabitants of the Town-hcid 
all possess their own houses, and being a quiet 
unambitious kind of people, not overmuch 
given to tormenting themselves for the sake of 
comfort, or killing themselves with cleaning 
and trimming, just suffer their tenements to de- 
scend peaceably from father to son, as they are, 
have been, and will be. The houses, therefore, 
are venerable enough in all conscience ; but it is 
impossible for them to be more old-fashioned 
than the people who live in them. The 
Town-heid folk, for such is their common ap- 
pellation, are in fact a sort of problem even 
to the other people of Jedburgh. They are a 
kind of knitters in the sun ; a race who exer- 
cise, from the morning to the evening of life, a 
set of humble trades which do not obtain in 
other parts of the town. For instance, one 
would not be surprised to find that the Town- 
heid boasts of possessing an ingenious artizan, 
who can make cuckoo clocks, and mend broken 
china. And the trades of the Town-heid, 
not less than the houses thereof, are hereditary, 
even unto the rule of primogeniture. A Town- 
heid tailor, for example, would as soon expect 
his eldest son to become chancellor of Great 
Britain, as he would form the ambitious wish 
of makng him a haberdasher in the lower part 
4 H 



602 



JEDBURGH. 



of the town. There was once a barber in the 
Town-heid, who lived seventy-one years with- 
out ever being more than two miles from Jed- 
burgh on any occasion except one, and that 
was a call to Oxnam, {three miles,) which he 
was only induced to attend to because it was 
a case, not of life and death, but of death it- 
self ; being to shave a dead man. There have 
not been more instances of Town-heid folk 
descending to the lower part of Jedburgh, than 
of Town-fit folk ascending to the Town-heid. 
The cause is plain. There is never such a 
thing in the Town-heid as a house to be let. 
The Town-heid is a place completely built, 
and completely peopled ; no change can ever 
take place in it ; fire alone could diminish the 
number of its houses, and the gates of life and 
death are the only avenues by which people 
can enter or go out of it." — As a royal burgh, 
whose charters of erection are as ancient as 
the dawn of record, Jedburgh is governed by 
a provost, four bailies, a dean of guild, a trea- 
surer, assisted by a select council of the prin- 
cipal citizens. Besides the courts of the ma- 
gistrates, there are justice of peace courts held 
at regular intervals. The town is also the 
seat of the sheriff-courts for the county of Rox- 
burgh ; and the circuit courts of justiciary, as 
above alluded to, are held at stated periods- 
The jurisdiction of this supreme judicature is 
extended over the whole of the vale of the 
Tweed, delinquents, witnesses, and juries being 
carried thither even from the upper part of 
Peebles-shire, by a most tedious and expensive 
route, while that district is within an easy 
half day's journey of Edinburgh ! Besides the 
established church, Jedburgh possesses two 
meeting- houses of the United Associated Sy- 
nod, and one of the Relief body, which latter 
denomination of Christians took its rise in this 
town. The dissenters here form a large and 
influential class. The chief trade of the town 
consists in the manufacture and sale of flan- 
nels, tartans, carpets and stockings, and in 
the spinning of woollen yarn ; it draws some 
additional wealth from fruit, which is pro- 
duced in greater quantities in the private 
gardens throughout the town than in any other 
part of Scotland, with the exception of Clydes- 
dale. There is reared in and about the town 
a peculiarly fine species of apple, which is be- 
lieved to have been introduced from abroad, 
by the inmates of the abbey, before the Refor- 
mation. The town has the right to hold four 
annual fairs and two hiring markets. Jedburgh 
26. 



possesses branches of the British Linen Com- 
pany and National banks. There is now an 
excellent grammar and English school, con- 
ducted on the best principles. The inhabi- 
tants support three public libraries, and there 
are letter-press printers in the town. In recent 
times Jedburgh has become noted for the manu- 
facture of a new description of printing presses, 
under a patent by the inventor, Mr. Hope, an 
iron-founder in the place, by whose name they 
are known. There is daily communication with 
Edinburgh, Newcastle, and intermediate places, 
by means of stage coaches. The appearance of 
the town has of late been much improved by the 
erection of a number of elegant villas on the 
eminences around. — Population of the burgh in 
1821, 2500, including the parish, 5251. 

JOCK'S LODGE ; see article Edin- 
burgh, under the head Environs. 

JOHN O'GROAT'S HOUSE, the most 
celebrated and extensively known house in 
Great Britain, but which now does not exist ; 
its site, however, being still known by the name. 
John o' Groat's House is supposed — for the 
fact only rests upon the suspicious legends of 
the north — to have been a small cottage of a 
peculiar form, which existed several ages ago, 
upon one of the most northerly points of the 
mainland of Scotland, in the county of Caith- 
ness. The accredited site of this famed domi- 
cile is still pointed out, on the flat shore of the 
Pentland Firth, in the palish of Canisbay, a mile 
and a-half from Duncansby-head on the east, 
and the inn of Houna on the west. Being thus 
at the very verge of the island of Great Britain, 
(though not so far north as Dunnet-head, lying 
fifteen miles to the west,) in popular collo- 
quy it is often mentioned as one of the extre- 
mities of the united kingdom, Penzance, at the 
Land's-end in Cornwall, being the other. John 
o' Groat's House is said to have been founded 
for the following reason. A lowlander of the 
name of Groat, along with his brother, arrived 
in Caithness, in the reign of James IV., bear- 
ing a letter from the king, which recommended 
them to the gentlemen of the county. They 
procured land at this remote spot, settled, and 
became the founders of families. When the 
race of Groat had increased to the amount of 
eight different branches, the amity which had 
hitherto characterised them was interrupted by 
a question of precedency or chieftainship. One 
night, in the course of some festivity, a quarrel 
arose, as to who should sit at the head of the 
table next the door ; high words ensued, and 



JOHNSTONE. 



603 



the ruin of the whole family seemed to be at 
hand by means of their injudicious dissension. 
In this emergency one of them, named John, 
■who was proprietor of the ferry over to Ork- 
ney, rose, and, having stilled their wrath by soft 
language, assured them, that at next meeting he 
would settle the point at issue. Accordingly, 
he erected upon the extreme point of their ter- 
ritory an octagonal building, having a door and 
window at every side, and furnished with a table 
of exactly the same shape ; and when the next oc- 
casion of festivity took place, desired each of 
his kin to enter at his own door, and take 
the corresponding seat at the table. The striking 
originality of the idea fairly overcame all scruples ; 
and, with perfect equality, the former good hu- 
mour of the fraternity was also restored. The 
foundations, or ruins of this house, which is 
perhaps the most celebrated in the whole island, 
are still to be seen. As to the above story of 
its origin and properties, there are different 
versions, all nearly alike, and all bearing a resem- 
blance to the fable of the knights of the round 
table. In all likelihood, the accounts have a 
foundation in fact, for among the ancient Gauls 
a custom of this nature, to prevent contests 
as to superiority, was very general, and might 
have been here enacted from a traditionary 
remembrance of its efficacy. Rabelais had 
been made acquainted with such an ingenious 
device, as he notices it in these words, in one 
of his productions : " Tous les chevaliers de 
la table ronde estoient pauvres gaigne-derniers, 
tirans la rame pour passer les rivieres de Oo- 
cyte, Phlegeton, Styx, Acheron, and Lethe, 
quand messieurs les diables se veulent ebattre 
sur l'eau." If this passage alluded to John 
o' Groat, it would lead us to suppose that 
the whole of the eight Groats were ferrymen. 

JOHN'S (St.) a modern village, in the pa- 
rish of Dairy, Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 
twenty-one miles north-west of the town of 
Kirkcudbright. It has been built on feus from 
the Earl of Galloway. 

JOHN'S-H A VEN, a thriving sea-port vil- 
lage, in the parish of Benholme, Kincardine- 
shire, situated nine miles from Montros> twen- 
ty-nine from Aberdeen, and four from Inver- 
bervie. It lies between the coast road and the 
sea, and is inhabited by fishers, and persons en- 
gaged in the manufacture of brown linens for 
the Dundee merchants. It possesses a meet- 
ing-house of the United Associate Synod. The 
population hi 1821 was estimated at 1020. 



JOHNSTON, a parish in the district of 
Annan dale, Dumfries-shire, bounded on the 
north by Kirkpatrick-Juxta, on the east by 
Wamphray and Applegarth, on the south by 
Lochmaben, and on the west by Kirkmiehael. 
It extends about six miles in length by three in 
breadth, and is formed like the figure of a heart, 
the apex of which points to the south. It is 
intersected by the Kinnel Water, is now gene- 
rally enclosed and cultivated, and ranks as one 
of the most fertile and pleasant parishes in the 
district. The river Annan runs along a great 
part of its eastern side. The parish kirk stands 
on its banks. The parish contains some re- 
mains of antiquity, in particular, the old and 
strong ruined castle of Lochwood — Population 
in 1821, 1179. 

JOHNSTONE, a modern and thriving vil- 
lage within the landward part of the A bbey parish 
of Paisley, Renfrewshire, situated on the right 
bank of the Black Cart river, at the distance 
of about three miles west from Paisley. In 
bringing this industrious little town under no- 
tice, we cannot do better than introduce the de- 
scription of its origin and character, given by 
Mr. G. Fowler, in that very serviceable ma- 
nual, the Commercial Directory for Renfrew- 
shire, published in 1830-1. " Few places in 
Britain exhibit so striking an illustration of 
the effect of manufactures in originating and 
increasing towns, in attracting, condensing, and 
augmenting population, as does this thriving 
seat of business. Forty-six years ago, near 
that bridge over the Black Cart, which, till 
lately, gave to the place the popular appellation, 
' Brig of Johnstone,' merely a few cottages 
[inhabited by ten persons] were to be seen, 
where now is a town consisting of two large 
squares, many considerable streets, and public 
works, with a population of about 7000 souls. 
It is probable that the town of Johnstone never 
would have existed, or at most been confined 
to the few cottages that were placed upon the 
ground near to the Brig, had not the late pub- 
lic-spirited Laird of Johnstone, by his influence 
and example, excited a spirit of industry among 
its inhabitants, and cherished and supported it 
by his fatherly care and protection ; and, we are 
happy to say, that the seed has. been sown in 
good ground, as it continues to manifest itself 
by the increasing wealth and prosperity of the 
enlightened and enterprising merchants and 
traders belonging to the place. Towards the 
end of October 1782, nine houses of the New 



C04 



JURA. 



Town of Johnstone had been built, two others 
were building, and ground on which forty-two 
more were to be built had been feued. In 1 792, 
the inhabitants were 1434 in number; in 1811, 
3647; in 1818, by computation 5000. As 
the introduction of the manufacture of cotton 
yarn by mill-machinery led to the founding of 
Johnstone, so has the extension of the same 
manufacture caused its rapid increase and pre- 
sent prosperity. There are now, within the 
precincts of the place, seventeen cotton mills 
of varied extent, some propelled by water, 
others by steam ; also, Elderslie, Cartside, and 
Linwood mills, in the neighbourhood of John- 
stone, making in all twenty mills. Total 
amount of spindles in these mills 151,203. 
There are also in the town two brass found- 
lies, and two extensive iron foundries ; five 
machine manufactories, and a public gas work. 
Johnstone is very regularly laid out. Besides 
Houstoun Square in the centre of the town, 
which is now built on every side, there is to 
the southward a large area, meant for a second 
square, as well as market-place, and which is 
also now beginning to be built round with neat 
houses. High Street, extending from the 
Bridge of Johnstone on the west, to Dick's 
Bridge on the east, is closely built ; as are 
several other streets branching at right angles 
from both its sides. It is in length three fur- 
longs, thirty-six poles. The houses are, for 
the most part, two stories high, substantially 
constructed, and roofed with slates — to many 
of them belong gardens. The shops are nu- 
merous, and well stocked with cheap, various, 
and excellent commodities. Besides the cha- 
pel of ease, (an octagonal fabric, to which, 
about five years ago, a neat spire, after a de- 
sign of Sir Christopher Wren, was added,) 
Johnstone contains a United Secession and 
Relief church, a Universalist, and a Methodist 
chapel. The Universalists' chapel is furnish- 
ed with an excellent organ. The inhabitants 
have formed themselves into a society for 
guarding the church-yard from the depreda- 
tions of resurrection men ; and this society, 
in all its labours, is aided by the venerable 
sexton, who has now held his place thirty-six 
years, and in that time has performed the last 
duty to upwards of 5200 of the villagers. In 
Johnstone are also a town-school, a subscrip- 
tion library, two news rooms, a mechanics' in- 
stitution and library, sundry religious and 
friendly societies, various Sunday schools, &c. 



The Ardrossan Canal from Glasgow termi- 
nates in a basin at the east end of the town, 
to the advantage of which it greatly contributes. 
Some years ago an act was passed, authorizing 
the formation of a rail-road from Johnstone to 
Ardrossan : active operations have now com- 
menced at Ardrossan ; and if the work be car- 
ried on with spirit, it will .soon be finished. 
Near Johnstone are four collieries, highly be- 
neficial to the public, and sources of consider- 
able revenue to their proprietors. The south- 
ern neighbourhood of this place is greatly beau- 
tified by Johnstone Castle, a stately mansion, 
after the antique, situated among extensive 
pleasure-grounds and valuable plantations. A 
similarly ornamental effect is produced by the 
house and pleasure-grounds of Milliken to the 
westward of the town. The former is the 
seat of Ludovic Houston, Esq. of Johnstone ; 
the latter, that of Sir William M. Napier, 
Bart, of Milliken." 

JOPPA, a village of modern growth in the 
parish of Duddingston, Edinburghshire, situat- 
ed on the public road and the shore of the Firth 
of Forth, at the distance of a quarter of a mile 
east from Portobello. At one time it had an 
extensive brick and tile work. A freestone 
quarry some years since was opened near it, 
and there was recently discovered a mineral 
spring, which induces the visits of valetudin- 
arians from Portobello. A number of neat 
villas have lately been built near the road. 
About half a mile further east is a suit of 
salt-works receiving the name of Joppa Pans, 

JURA, an island of the Hebrides, lying 
immediately north of Islay, from which it is 
separated by the narrow sound of Islay, and 
divided from North Knapdale, in Argyleshire, 
by the sound of Jura, a strait of about seven 
miles in breadth. On the north it is separated 
from Scarba by the gulf of Corryvreckan. It 
belongs politically to the county of Argyle. 
In extent it is fully twenty-six miles in length ; 
seven miles broad at the southern or widest 
part, and tapering to about two miles at its 
northern extremity. Jura is little else than a 
continuous mountain ridge, elevated to the 
southward into five distinct points, of which 
the three principal are called the Paps of Jura, 
and the flat land which it contains is of an ex- 
tent so trifling as scarcely to merit notice. 
The agriculture being thus very limited, the 
island supports but a scanty population. The 
different peaks of Jura, which are distinguished 



KATRINE (LOCH). 



GOo 



by particular names, have been the theme of 
various travellers, from their prominent ap- 
pearance. When Pennant visited the island, 
he ascended the most elevated, which is named 
Bein-an-oir. He tells us that it is composed 
of large stones, covered with mosses near the 
base ; but all above were bare, and unconnect- 
ed with each other: " the whole," says he, 
" seemed a vast cairn, erected by the sons of 
Saturn. The grandeur of the prospect from 
the top compensated for the labour of ascend- 
ing the mountain. From the west side of the 
hill ran a narrow stripe of rock into the sea, 
called " the Side of the Old Hag." Jura 
itself displayed a stupendous front of rock, 
varied with innumerable little lakes, of the most 
romantic appearance, and calculated to raise 
grand and sublime emotions in the mind of the 
spectator. To the south, the island of Islay 
lay almost under his feet, and, beyond that, 
the north of Ireland ; to the east, Gigha, Can- 
tire, Arran, and the Firth of Clyde, bounded 
by Ayrshire, and an amazing tract of mountains 
as far as Benlomond, and the mountains of 
Argyle Proper. Scarba terminated the north- 
ern view. Over the western ocean were seen 
Colonsay, Mull, Iona, Staffa, and the neigh- 



bouring isles ; and still further, the long ex- 
tended islands of Coll and Tirey." This huge 
peaked mountain is elevated 2420 feet above 
the level of the sea. Bein-acholais, is the 
name of another of these conspicuous peaks. 
The western shores of Jura are wild and rug- 
ged, intersected by many torrents which come 
rushh.g down from the mountains. The coast 
is here perforated with many of those caves 
which are so common in the Hebrides. About 
the middle of the same side the shore is indent- 
ed with the long narrow inlet of Loch Tarbet, 
which possesses no beauty. The whole of the 
west side of the island, from its mountainous 
and wilderness character, is, with hardly an 
exception, destitute of human habitations, the 
population being resident on the eastern shores. 
On this latter side is almost the only made 
road in the island. The country here is pleas- 
ing, being embellished with trees and laid out 
in arable fields. The little fishing village of 
Jura is on this side, and also the church of the 
district. Jura, and the islands of Colonsay, 
Ormsay, Scarba, Lunga, and four islets, com- 
pose but one parochial division — Population 
of the parish of Jura, including Colonsay, in 
1821, 1264. 



K AILE, or KALE, a rivulet in Roxburgh- 
shire, rising in the higher grounds on the bor- 
ders, in the parish of Oxnam, running through 
the parishes of Hownam and Morebattle, and 
falling into the Tiviot in the parish of Eckford, 
after a tortuous course of seventeen miles. It 
is reckoned an excellent trouting stream. 

KAIM, a small village in the parish of Duf- 
fus, Morayshire. 

KALLIGRAY.— See Calligray. 

KANNOR (LOCH)— See articles Can- 
nor and Gl.ENMUICK. 

KATTERLINE, or CATTERLINE, 
a suppressed parish in Kincardineshire, attach- 
ed to Kinneff. It gives its name to a small 
harbour on the coast, at the south comer of 
Dunnotar parish. 

KATRINE, (LOCH) a lake in the west- 
ern part of the district of Menteith, Perth- 
shire, forming, for a considerable space, the 
boundary between the parishes of Callander 
and Aberfoil, and extending, in a serpentine 



form, about nine miles from east to west, 
while the breadth is in no place so much as a 
mile. From its eastern extremity flows a 
stream, which, after widening into two minor 
lakes, called Loch Achray and Loch Venna- 
char, becomes the river Teith, a considerable 
tributary of the Forth. All along the banks 
of the three lakes is a range of beautiful sylvan 
scenery, enhanced by the rough and Alpine 
character of the country. Immediately to the 
east of Loch Katrine is the singular piece of 
scenery called the Trosachs, which may be 
described as a valley covered with large frag- 
ments of rock, and flanked with naked precipi- 
ces, amidst which grow many beautiful trees and 
shrubs, giving a delightful softness to what 
would otherwise be a scene of untamed and sa- 
vage magnificence. The banks of Loch Katrine 
consist of slopes descending from the neigh- 
bouring mountains, the most of which are co- 
vered with beautiful natural woods, and sup- 
ply innumerable picturesque points of view 



6oe 



KEITH. 



to the tourist. Formerly, the extraordinary 
beauty of this Highland paradise lay entirely 
concealed and unknown ; but since the publi- 
cation of Sir Walter Scott's poem, the Lady 
of the Lake, of which it was the scene, it has 
become a favourite object of tourists, and is 
daily visited by multitudes during the summer 
and autumn. A good road is now formed be- 
tween Callander and Loch Katrine, and also 
along its northern bank ; and the conveniency 
of a boat to traverse the lake from one end to 
the other, may at all times be procured by 
tourists, whether they approach from the 
east or west extremity. A tract of three 
or four miles of mountain road intervenes be- 
tween it and Loch Lomond. There is an ex- 
cellent inn at Loch Achray, near the east end of 
the lake. It affords a curious notion of the late 
indifference of the people of Scotland to then- 
own fine scenery, that a place of such tran- 
scendent loveliness as this should have con- 
tinued, till a recent period, to exist within 
sixty miles of the capital, and between twenty 
and thirty from Stirling, without being acces- 
sible by a road. Near the east end of Loch 
Katrine is a beautiful little island, which has 
evidently supplied the poet with the imaginary 
residence of his fair Naiad of the Lake. The 
neighbouring country was formerly possessed 
by the Macgregors. 

KEARN, a parish in Aberdeenshire, now 
united to Auchindoir ; see Auchindoir. 

KEIG, a small parish in Aberdeenshire, 
bounded by Alford on the west, and Mony- 
musk on the. east, being divided from the latter 
by an elevated hilly range. It extends from 
three to four miles in diameter, and is for the 
greater part hilly and pastoral. It has also 
some natural wood and moss. The river Don 
intersects it — Population in 1821, 562. 

KEILLESAY, an islet of the Hebrides, 
lying five miles north-east of Barray. 

KEIR, a parish in Nithsdale, Dumfries- 
shire, bounded on the north-west and north by 
Tynron and Penpont, on the east by Closeburn, 
on the south by Dunscore, and on the west by 
Glencairn. The parish is the smallest in this 
quarter, not extending much beyond five miles 
by two miles in breadth. It is hilly and pas- 
toral on the west side. On the east side the 
parish is bounded by the Nith, to which the 
land beautifully declines. On the banks of 
this river stands the church.— Population in 
1821, 987. 



KEITH, a parish in the county of Banff, 
with a portion belonging to the county of 
Moray. It is of an elliptical figure, and is 
bounded by Bellie and Rathven on the north, 
by Grange and Cairny on the east, by Cairny 
on the south, and on the west by Botriphnie 
and Boharm. It comprehends the greater part 
of the lands of Strath- Isla, granted by William 
the Lion to the abbots of Kinloss. Anciently, 
the parish extended from Malloch to Fordyce, 
and comprehended all the fertile lands on the 
Isla. That it was a large and rich parish is 
evident from the rental of the bishopric of 
Moray, for, in 1565, we find the Rentale Ec- 
clesice de Keyth, L.333, 6s. 8d., while that of 
Rothiemay was but L.40. The word Keith 
is derived from the Gaelic Ghaith, signifying 
wind. The remains of Druidical temples be- 
ing found in the district, it is evident that it has 
been inhabited previously to the introduction 
of Christianity. It is generally affirmed that 
Keith was the station of a Culdean establish- 
ment. Agriculture continued long in a back- 
ward condition in the parish, and it was not 
till the inspiriting times of the revolution- 
ary wars, that any activity or improvements 
were displayed in its husbandry. Almost 
every portion of the open waste land is now 
brought into cultivation, and in a few years 
all will be tilled. Those parts incapable of 
culture, belonging to the Earl of Fife, have 
been adorned by that nobleman with planta- 
tions of fir and other forest trees, and the Earl 
of Seafield and other proprietors have begun 
to follow that excellent example- In the 
parish of Keith there are three lime-works, a 
tan-work, three distilleries, a brewery, two 
mills for carding and spinning wool, three 
grain-mills, one of which is very extensive, and 
a snuff-mill, which, with the exception of one 
at Inverness, is the only one north of Aber- 
deen. At the lime-work of Maisly there is a 
vein of sulphurate of antimony, which was 
wrought for a short time, and the ore sent to 
London. Fluor spar, which is of rare occur- 
rence in Scotland, is also found here. In the 
eastern part of the parish there are indications 
of alum. About half a mile below Keith, 
besides the ruins of a castle, anciently a seat 
of the Oliphant family, there is a beautiful 
cascade formed by the Isla. A very few years 
ago the roads in the parish of Keith were 
almost impassable, during a great part of 
the winter and spring. There remained a 



KEITH. 



G07 



portion of an ancient way in the western sec- 
tion of the parish, which was once the main 
road from Edinburgh to Inverness, and which 
from being that chosen by royalty was still called 
the Court Road. It has now entirely disappear- 
ed, and the general thoroughfares are among 
the best in Scotland. At a place called Kil- 
liesmont, in this parish, there is one of those 
pieces of ground, sometimes found in Scotland, 
variously known by the name of the Guid- 
man's Craft, or the " GPen Rig, u that is, given 
or appropriated to the sole use of the devil, in 
order to propitiate the good services of that 
malign being. This piece of land is on the 
southern declivity of a lofty eminence. At 
the upper end of the ridge, there is a flat 
circular stone of about eight feet in diameter, 
in which there are a number of holes, but for 
what purpose tradition is silent. Like other 
crofts of this description in Scotland, the pre- 
sent remained long uncultivated, in spite of 
the spread of intelligence. The first attempt 
to reclaim it was made not more than fifty 
years since, when a farmer endeavoured to im- 
prove it ; but, by an accidental circumstance, 
it happened that no sooner had the plough en- 
tered the ground than one of the oxen dropped 
down dead. Taking this as an irrefragable 
proof of the indignation of its supernatural 
proprietor, the peasant desisted, and it remain- 
ed untilled till it came into the possession of 
the present occupant, who has had the good 
taste to allow the large flat stone to remain, 
a memorial of the idle fancies of preceding 
generations. James Ferguson, the celebrated 
astronomer, was a native of Rothiemay, and 
spent his earliest years in the parish of Keith. 
Keith, a town in the county of Banff, the 
capital of the above parish, and one of the prin- 
cipal towns in the shire, is situated in lat. 57° 
30' north, and in long. 3° west, at the distance 
of twenty miles south-west of Banff, seventeen 
east-south-east of Elgin, eight east by south 
of Fochabers, and twelve south of Cullen. It 
is divided into three distinct towns, namely, 
Old- Keith, New-Keith, and Fife- Keith, the 
whole lying on the banks of the Isla, in the 
centre of an amphitheatre of hills. Old- Keith, 
which stands on the south bank of the Isla, is 
of unknown antiquity, and by its trade and 
jurisdiction of regality was of superior conse- 
quence to Banff, Cullen, and Fordyce — at one 
period the only other towns in the county. 
The court of regality sat in the church, and 



here were judged all cnme3, including the four 
pleas of the crown. In early times, the mag- 
nitude of the town corresponded with the im- 
portance of its judicial authority, as it seems 
to have stretched a good way along the stream ; 
but being built in a most inconvenient irregular 
manner, it was gradually abandoned, and has 
latterly dwindled into a mean hamlet. On the 
south-west extremity of this antique village is 
the burial-ground of the parish, in which for- 
merly stood the parish church, a very ancient 
building, and coeval with those of Mortlach 
and Fordyce. It was removed in 1819. This 
old edifice and its contiguous town are not 
without connexion with some moving his- 
torical events. In the civil war of 1643, on 
the last day of June, the armies of Baillie and 
Montrose met near the church. Baillie had 
the advantage of being posted on ground capa- 
ble of defence, and where he could not be 
assailed without great risk. When Montrose 
learned the peculiarities of his adversary's posi- 
tion, he sent him a message, offering to fight 
him a set battle on fair ground. But the co- 
venanting general answered, that he would not 
receive an order to fight from an enemy. The 
church-yard was the scene of a desperate skir- 
mish, in the spring of 1667, between the in- 
habitants of the parish and a band of outlaws, 
under the command of one Patrick Roy Mac- 
gregor, a Highland freebooter. The peasantry, 
headed by Gordon of Auehinachy, and Gordon 
of Glengarrick, succeeded in defeating these 
banditti and capturing their chief, who was 
conveyed to Edinburgh, and there suffered on 
the gallows. In September 1700, the cele- 
brated James Macpherson, who was among the 
last of the Highland freebooters, was appre- 
hended at a fair in Old- Keith, and was exe- 
cuted at Banff, under circumstances narrated 
in that article. During the civil war of 1 745, 
a rencounter took place in Old- Keith, between 
Captain Glasgow, an Irish officer in the French 
service, and a party in the service of govern- 
ment, stationed there. Glasgow completely 
defeated the latter, and carried off 150 prison- 
ers, whom he presented to Prince Charles at 
the encampment on the banks of the Spey, 
where the insurgent troops then lay. To pass 
from Old to New- Keith : This modern town, 
which was feued out at the middle of the last 
century, is agreeably situated on the eastern 
declivity of a gentle eminence, to the south- 
east of Old- Keith, and consequently on the 



608 



KEITH. 



same side of the stream. The plan of this 
town is very regular, consisting of five princi- 
pal streets, three furlongs ninety-six yards in 
length. The distance between three of these 
is I "20 yards, and between the other two, sixty 
yards, the intervening spaces being appropri- 
ated for gardens. Three of the streets are 
complete, and a fourth is half built. The 
streets are intersected at right angles by lanes 
of twelve feet in width, and distant from each 
other thirty yards. Near the centre of the 
town is the market-place, a spacious square, 
712 feet in length, and 150 wide. In this 
square is the town-house, an inelegant mass of 
building. There are six places of public wor- 
ship in the place. The parish church, which 
is of Gothic architecture, finished in 1819, is 
the most conspicuous, and is perhaps the most 
tastefully-built church in the north of Scot- 
land. This church has a tower 10.4 feet in 
height, containing two bells and a very fine 
turret clock, with three dials. A handsome 
Roman Catholic chapel of Roman Doric ar- 
chitecture was lately erected. The plan of 
it was taken from the much -admired church of 
St. Maria de Vittoria at Rome, and is quite 
unique in Scotland. The interior is tastefully 
ornamented. A row of massy pilasters, sur- 
mounted by handsome Corinthian capitals, sup- 
ports a cornice of correct proportions, upon 
which rests a light arched roof. Charles X. 
of France, in 1828, ordered an altar-piece for 
this beautiful chapel to be painted by his princi- 
pal artist. It is a picture of great merit, repre- 
senting the incredulity of Thomas, and the figures 
are as large as life. Both the chapel and paint- 
ing are much admired by visitors. The other 
places of worship are two Secession meeting- 
houses and an Episcopal chapel, all plain build- 
ings. There is also a Methodist chapel, but it 
has had neither minister nor congregation for 
some years. Keith has four public libraries. 
The chief is the Subscription Library estab- 
lished in 1810, by the Rev. James Maclean, 
the then parish minister, and a number of 
other gentlemen. It consists of a very exten- 
sive collection of useful and amusing works, 
and the terms of subscription amount only to 
a guinea of entry-money, and eight shillings of 
future annual payment. Strangers are admit- 
ted in a very liberal manner, on recommenda- 
tion by a member. The other three libraries 
are chiefly of a religious nature. There are 
two public schools of good repute, besides the 



parochial one. A branch of the Aberdeen 
Commercial Bank has been in operation here 
for sixty years. A branch of the Aberdeen 
Town and County Bank was established in 

1825, and a branch of the National Bank in 

1826. There are some friendly and masonic 
societies in the town. Keith, at one time, car- 
ried on a pretty extensive trade in the yarn and 
linen manufactures ; but owing to the general 
introduction of cotton into this country, those 
branches of trade are now almost extinct. 
There are two establishments for the manufac- 
ture of tobacco. The Earl of Seafield, in 
1823, built a very commodious inn, con- 
taining a large hall in which the courts are 
held; There are four annual fairs held at 
Keith, two of which are large cattle-markets. 
Summer- eve fair, held in September, was at 
one time the largest fair in the north of Scot- 
land, and was attended by trading people and 
manufacturers from Glasgow, Perth, Dundee, 
and other towns in the south, who were met 
by all the merchants in the western Highlands 
and northerly part of the kingdom. For cattle 
and horses it is still by far the greatest fair in 
the north. A weekly market is held on Fri- 
day, for the disposal of agricultural and other 
produce ; grain is a staple commodity. Hav- 
ing thus described two of the Keiths, 
we now proceed to the third — Fife- Keith. 
This village lies on the north side of the Isla, 
opposite Old- Keith. It is of very recent 
growth, dating its origin only in the year 1816. 
It consists of a main street — lining the great 
road from Aberdeen to Inverness — three pa- 
rallel streets running south and north, and a 
crescent, in a line with the course of the Isla. 
There is a small neatly built square in the cen- 
tre of the town, and the houses are in general 
well built. It is joined to Old Keith by two 
bridges over the Isla; and as Old- Keith is 
connected with New- Keith by a street of 250 
yards in length, the whole appears like one 
town, extending in all to about a mile in 
length. The government of Keith is confided 
to a baron-bailie. — Population of the parish, 
including the above towns, in 1821, 3926. 

KEITH-HALL AND KINKELL, a 
united parish in the district of Garioch, Aber- 
deenshire, lying on the left banks of the Ury 
and Don, which unite opposite its centre, ex- 
tending about six miles in length by five in 
breadth, bounded by Fintray on the south and 
east, and Bourtie on the north. The district 



KELSO. 



609 



1 s- hilly, but not mountainous. The western part, 
having a fertile soil, produces good crops ; but 
the eastern is in general very unfruitful. Some 
parts of the parish are now under thriving plan- 
tations. We are informed in the Statistical 
Account that Johnston, next to Buchanan, the 
best Latin poet of modern times, was born in 
the parish, at a place called Caskiebean, which 
he celebrates. The high constable of Dundee, 
Scrymgeour, who fell at the battle of Harlaw, 
was buried at Kinkell, where there is an ill- 
preserved monument to his memory, with a 
Latin inscription. Many others who fell in 
that battle are said to have been buried at Kin- 
kell, which was the principal church in that 
part of the country at the time. It is related 
by tradition that in this part of Aberdeenshire 
a sanguinary and decisive battle was fought with 
the Danes, in which the invaders were routed. — 
Population of the united parish in 1821, 838. 

KEITH-INCH, a promontory in the pa- 
rish of Peterhead, Aberdeenshire, being the 
most easterly point of land in Scotland. 

KELLS, an extensive parish in the stewar- 
try of Kirkcudbright, in its north-west quar- 
ter, lying between the Ken on the east (which 
separates it from Dairy, Balmaclellan, and 
Parton,) and the Black Water of Dee, 
one of its tributaries, (separating it from 
Girthon and Minniegaff) on the south and west ; 
Carsphairn bounds it on the north. Its ex- 
tent is not less than sixteen miles, by a breadth 
of nine at the widest part. The district is 
altogether mountainous and pastoral, except 
along the banks of the rivers in the low 
grounds, where cultivation is attended to and 
where there are some fine plantations, and 
gentlemen's seats. Near the southern ex- 
tremity of the parish, Loch Ken is formed by 
the river of the same name, and from thence 
a good road proceeds along the river towards 
the north. In travelling in this direction there 
is much pleasing scenery and some interesting 
objects to attract notice- The first and most 
distinguished seat is Kenmure Castle, the re- 
sidence of Viscount Kenmure, an ancient cas- 
tle situated upon a lofty mount overlooking the 
head of Loch Ken, and approached by a noble 
avenue of old trees. The older parts of this 
castellated edifice are in the turretted style of 
the fifteenth century, and even the more mo- 
dern parts exhibit an antiquated taste. The 
Viscounts Kenmure are a respectable and an- 
cient branch of the family of Gordon, and were 



for a long time knights of Lochinvar. The 
title was granted by Charles I., in 1683, to 
Sir John Gordon of Lochinvar- It was for- 
feited in 1716 by William the seventh Viscount, 
who was beheaded on Towerhill for his con- 
cern in the insurrection of 1715. After being 
thus extinct for a hundred and eight years, it 
was revived in favour of the grandson of the 
above unfortunate Viscount, who now enjoys 
it. Near this mansion stands the royal burgh 
and small town of New Galloway, already no- 
ticed. A few miles further up the vale is si- 
tuated Glenlee-Park, the seat of Sir William 
Miller, Bart., a Senator of the College of 
Justice, who has hence assumed the title of 
Lord Glenlee- The lofty series of hills call- 
ed Kell's Range, the most elevated and con- 
spicuous mountains in Galloway, are within 
the northern part of the parish. A great na- 
tural curiosity is to be seen on the side of one 
of these hills, namely, a rocking stone of eight 
or ten tons weight, so nicely balanced on two 
or three points that it moves from one to the 
other by the pressure of the finger. Whether 
this stone be of natural or Druidic origin is 
uncertain. — Population of the parish in 1821, 
1104. 

KELLY- BURN, a rivulet separating the 
northern part of Ayrshire from Renfrewshire, 
and falling into the Firth of Clyde at the 
place called Kelly-bridge port. Kelly, a gen- 
tleman's seat, is in the vicinity, in Renfrew- 
shire. 

KELSO, a parish in the county of Rox- 
burgh, lying in two almost equal parts on both 
sides of the Tweed, bounded on the east by 
Ednam and Sprouston, on the west by Rox- 
burgh, Makerston, and Smaiiholm, and on the 
north by Nenthorn. On the south the parish is 
narrow, and adjoins Eckford parish. Its me- 
dium length is rather more than four miles, 
by a breadth of three at the widest. The 
present parish comprehends the three old pa- 
rochial districts of St. James, Maxwell, and 
Kelso, as well as a portion of that of Rox- 
burgh, including the ancient castle of Rox- 
burgh. The division of the parish on the 
left bank of the Tweed was within the dio- 
cese of St. Andrews, while that on the south 
side belonged to Glasgow, the river being here 
the boundary of these ecclesiastical jurisdic- 
tions. The modern parish of Kelso is one of 
the most beautiful and most productive in 
Scotland ; everywhere cultivation being on the 
4i 



610 



KELSO. 



best system, and the whole being enclosed and 
ornamented with the most exuberant planta- 
tions. The district is watered (sometimes in 
too great a degree) by the Tweed and the 
Tiviot, both excellent rivers for salmon and 
trout fishing. On the peninsula near the junc- 
tion of the streams, stands, or rather stood, 
Roxburgh Castle, one of the most interesting 
objects of historical and antiquarian disquisi- 
tion in the country, and noticed at length un- 
der its proper head. 

Kelso, a considerable town of great but 
unknown antiquity, the capital of the above 
parish, and the largest town in the county of 
Roxburgh, though not the seat of its various 
jurisdictions, occupies a most delightful situa- 
tion on the north bank of the Tweed, in the 
midst of a rich and picturesque district, at the 
distance of forty-two miles south-east of Edin- 
burgh, twenty- three west from Berwick-upon- 
Tweed, sixty-four from Carlisle, ten from Jed- 
burgh, and about five from the nearest point of 
the borders of England, which is at Carham 
on the Tweed. Before describing the present 
condition of this interesting place, it will be a 
matter of entertainment and instruction to of- 
fer a few particulars on its ancient and varied 
history.* The original title of Kelso seems 
to have been indifferently Calceo, Calcou, 
Kalchow, Kelcow, Kelsou, besides other varia- 
tions of the same word, whose etymology, ac- 
cording to Chalmers, is cede and how, — the 
chalk heugh, which is significant of its local 
situation. Situated on the borders, it was re- 
peatedly desolated by fire and sword, during 
those unhappy conflicts which devastated both 
countries for so many ages. Kelso, or its 
immediate neighbourhood, was the usual ren- 
dezvous of our armies on the eastern marches, 
when the vassals were summoned either to re- 
pel the invading enemy, or to retaliate on 
English ground the injuries which had been 
committed on their own. Kelso is also fa- 
mous as a place of negotiation ; and many 
truces, or treaties, were here concluded be- 
tween the two nations. It was likewise fre- 
quently honoured by the presence of the sove- 
reigns of both kingdoms ; and derived a consi- 



* To the topographical and historical account of Kel- 
so, from the pen of Mr. James Haig of the Advocates' 
Library, published as a goodly octavo in 1825, we have 
to acknowledge particular obligations in the composition 
of this article. 

26 



derable importance from being in the near 
neighbourhood of Roxburgh Castle, with 
which its history is intimately associated. 
The earliest incident in the history of the 
town worth mentioning, was the erection of an 
abbey at the beginning of the twelfth century, 
through the piety and munificence of David I. 
This establishment was first settled at Sel- 
kirk, but the monks not being pleased with 
the situation of that place, and appreciating 
the beauties of the sunny vale of the Tweed, 
long before consecrated by the erection of the 
Abbey of Melrose, induced David to remove 
their house to Kelso, a locality much nearer 
the royal residence at Roxburgh. The abbey 
of Kelso, agreeably to this arrangement, was 
finished in 1128, and dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary and St. John the Evangelist. The 
edifice was constructed in the form of a Greek 
cross, in a beautiful style of Saxon or early 
Norman architecture, with the exception of 
four magnificent central arches, which were 
of the Gothic order, and thus it differed in its 
appearance from the Abbeys of Melrose and 
Jedburgh, but in a style akin to the subse- 
quently erected Abbey of Dryburgh. When 
the latter was completed, in 1 150, no part of 
Scotland, within so small space, could boast 
of containing so many splendid religious 
houses, and it may be supposed that when in 
full operation the whole of this beautiful dis- 
trict would be a complete halidome, teeming 
with ecclesiastics, the only learned men of 
their times, a great part of whom were foreign- 
ers ; and that a society would be formed of a 
comparatively refined description. Such a con- 
centration of churchmen, we may conjecture, 
would be much enhanced by the occasional re- 
sidence of the bishops of Glasgow at Ancrum. 
The monks of Kelso were of a more useful 
class than the others, being of the order of 
Tyronenses, who, as may be seen at large in 
one of our preliminary dissertations, were ad- 
mitted only when instructed in some branch 
of science or art ; their house at this place was, 
therefore, a college of industrious artisans, 
among whom were found painters, sculptors, 
joiners, locksmiths, masons, vine dressers, 
horticulturists, &c. who were employed over 
a wide district of country, and brought 
their earnings into one common fund for 
general maintenance. By the rules of the 
society, the members were enjoined to po- 
verty; but luxury and the love of ease, in- 



KELSO. 



Oil 



herent in human nature, fostered by the 
endowments of pious princes, in time injur- 
ed the primitive character of the association, 
and ultimately tended to bring about the Re- 
formation of religion. David, the founder, 
gave to this house the monastery of Lesmaha- 
gow, with all its lands and all its men ; as also 
the privilege of sanctuary, which that monastery 
enjoyed ; and before the end of the thirteenth 
century, it had thirty-four parish churches, se- 
veral manors, many lands, granges, farms, mills, 
breweries, fishings, rights of cutting turf, salt- 
works, and other possessions, spread over the 
several shires of Roxburgh, Selkirk, Peebles, 
Lanark, Dumfries, Ayr, Edinburgh, Berwick, 
and even as far north as Aberdeenshire. David 
II, (1329-32) further granted to the monks the 
whole forfeitures of all the rebels within Ber- 
wick. Owing to the enormous wealth they 
thus enjoyed, the abbot was reputed to be more 
opulent than most of the bishops in Scotland, 
and he was, at least, nearly as powerful, as he 
had received a mitre from the Pope, in the 
year 1165. At the Reformation, after many 
previous injuries, this splendid establishment 
was violently broken up, and the edifice being 
destroyed, it is now in that ruinous condition 
we shall soon have occasion to describe. Its 
immense property was confiscated by the crown, 
and, in the year 1594, was parcelled among the 
greedy favourites of the court. No event of 
historical importance appears to have occurred 
at Kelso, prior to the reign of William the 
Lion, when, in 1209, the bishop of Rochester 
left his see in England, sod lame to take re- 
fuge in the town, the krngaoms of England 
and Wales having been laid under an interdict 
by the Pope, on account of the contumacy of 
King John. William de Valoines, Lord 
Chamberlain of Scotland, died at Kelso in the 
year 1219, and was buried at Melrose. In 
the course of the visit of Henry III. of Eng- 
land and his Queen, to their relative, Alexan- 
der III. at Roxburgh, these personages, with 
a splendid retinue, were introduced with great 
pomp into Kelso, and sumptuously banqueted 
in the abbey, in the company of most of the 
Scottish nobility. Truces between the kings 
of England and Scotland were made at Kelso 
in 1380 and in 1391. James II. on being 
unfortunately killed at the siege of Roxburgh, 
on the 3d of August 1460, by the bursting of a 
caunon,vvas carried to Edinburgh for interment, 
and his widowed Queen, the pious Mary of 



Gueldres, with her infant soli, being at the 
time in the camp, she brought him to the no- 
bles, who, availing themselves of the opportu- 
nity of their being assembled with the royal 
army, conducted him to the abbey, where he 
was crowned with great solemnity, and re- 
ceived their oaths of fidelity and allegiance. 
In 1487, commissioners met at Kelso to pro- 
long a truce then about to expire, in order to af- 
ford time for concluding a treaty of marriage 
between the eldest son of James III. and the 
eldest daughter of Edward IV. The fakal 
battle of Flodden, in 1513, does not seem 
to have been attended with injury to Kelso ; 
but we learn that the abbey, unprotected by 
the king, was seized on the following night by 
one Carr, a friend or dependant of Lord Hume, 
who turned the abbot out of the monastery, 
and took possession of it. This was the first 
of a series of troubles, which ended in the dis- 
solution of the house. During the subsequent 
minority of James V. the Duke of Albany, as 
governor of the kingdom, arrived in Kelso in 
the year 1515, in his journey through the coun- 
try, for the purpose of ascertaining the mea- 
sures proper to be adopted, in order to put a ' 
stop to the murders and robberies then so fre - 
quent. Here the people presented many 
heavy complaints against Lord Hume, the 
Earl of Angus, and others, who, by their feud8 
and oppressions, tormented this district of the 
kingdom. Seven years later, in 1522, Kelso 
and the adjoining district received the first 
shock of the war entered into by Henry 
VIII. in resentment for the continued do- 
mination of the Regent Albany. The fleet 
of the English sovereign, under the Earl of 
Shrewsbury, having arrived in the Forth, 
the forces were landed and marched into the 
interior, laying the country waste in their 
route ; and in their progress being joined by 
Lord Dacre, they entered Kelso, one half of 
which they destroyed by fire ; the other they 
plundered, and falling upon the abbey, they re- 
duced the vaults, the houses adjoining, and 
the chapel of the Blessed Virgin, (in which 
some beautiful Episcopal seats or stalls were 
constructed,) to a heap of ruins. They also 
burnt all the cells and dormitories ; and what 
is still worse, they unroofed all the houses of 
the monastery, carrying off the lead with 
which they were covered. From the interrup- 
tion to all kinds of work arising from those 
aggressions, the walls fell into a state of <?e- 



612 



KELSO. 



cay, and for some time continued to fall down 
piecemeal. During the time the abbey con- 
tinued in this state, the monks resorted to the 
adjoining villages, where they, reduced to a 
state of great poverty and want, celebrated 
divine worship. Kelso again suffered simi- 
lar misfortunes in the war of 1542, levied 
by Henry VIII. in his rage against the king 
of Scots. In the course of the march of 
the English forces through the district of the 
eastern marches, under the duke of Norfolk, 
they arrived at Kelso, which, in spite of the 
army of Huntly which hovered on the Lam- 
mermoor hills, they burnt along with the ab- 
bey, destroying at the same time several neigh- 
bouring villages. In the year 1545, Henry, a 
third time enraged at the Scots, on account 
of their refusing to give the young princess 
Mary in marriage to his son, afterwards Ed- 
ward VI., sent in a hostile army by the 
eastern marches, under the Earl of Hert- 
ford, who plundered and destroyed Jedburgh 
and Kelso, at the same time ravaging the 
neighbouring villages and hamlets. This 
Jamentable event once more brought ruin to 
'the abbey, which was again burnt, but not 
till it had held out a short siege ; being man- 
fully defended by three hundred Scotsmen, 
who were at length forced to yield to an over- 
powering force, after a great number had been 
slain. The towns and villages burnt on this 
occasion amounted to five score, and the ab- 
beys destroyed were those of Kelso, Jedburgh, 
Melrose and Dryburgh. In 1557 Kelso was 
again involved in a border war. The queen 
regent, Mary of Loraine, having collected 
a numerous army, it was marched to Kelso, 
under the command of the Earl of Arran ; 
where being joined by the French with their 
artillery, it crossed the Tweed, and encamped 
at Maxwell-heugh, a village about half a mile 
distant from the town, and afterwards proceed- 
ed to Wark castle, which, however, they were 
not able to reduce. It was therefore thought 
advisable to withdraw the army, leaving only 
a garrison at Kelso and Roxburgh, for the pro- 
tection of the Borders. An annoying war to 
both sides now ensued, and Kelso being near- 
est to danger, was put into a state of defence by 
Lord James Stuart, afterwards Earl of Moray, 
who along with the Queen Regent, and the 
French general D'Oysel, concerted measures 
here for the defence of the kingdom. The 
year 1560 witnessed the final destruction of 



the abbey by the reformers. Having expelled 
the monks, they first plundered the edifice of 
its most valuable materials, and then the great 
altar with all the images of a combustible na- 
ture were committed to the flames. One year 
after this event, Mary Queen of Scots, having 
now the reins of government in her own 
hand, commissioned Lord James, with James, 
Earl of Bothwell as his assistant, to be her 
lieutenant and judge over this border district, 
at that time open to every species of robbery. 
In 1566, Mary herself visited Kelso in the 
course of her expedition to repress disturbances 
on the borders, remaining two nights in the 
town. At a subsequent era, in the reign of 
James VI. (1594), Kelso and the border 
country around it were subjected to the vexa- 
tious marches and warlike operations carried 
on by the lairds of Cessford and Buccleugh 
against Francis Stewart, Earl of Bothwell, 
which ended in the expatriation of the latter. 
In the reign of Charles I. Kelso comes again 
into notice, having, in 1639, been made the 
quarters of a detachment of the covenanting 
army sent to oppose the king. According 
to Law's Memorials, Kelso was totally de- 
stroyed by an accidental fire in the month of 
March 1684. We believe that the town was 
assisted in being re- built by a general contri- 
bution throughout the country, as a public pro- 
clamation was made for that purpose. About 
eighty years ago, says Mr. Haig, it met with 
nearly a similar fate ; and since that period, it 
has suffered considerably at different times, 
from the acts of wilful incendiaries. So frequent 
at one time were the attempts at wilful fire- 
raising, that the inhabitants were put into a state 
of the utmost consternation, and it was deemed 
necessary to institute a nightly watch for their 
safety. The next historical incident connected 
with Kelso occurred in 1715, during the dis- 
turbances of the civil war. Invited by the pro- 
mising appearance of a rising in the north of 
England, Macintosh of Borlum, with his party 
in the Jacobite interest, departed from Seton 
house, whither they had come from Leith, 
and arrived at Kelso, where they effected a 
junction with the forces from Northumber- 
land and Nithsdale. Thus increased in mag- 
nitude, they remained in Kelso a few days, 
and proclaimed James VIII- at the market 
cross ; at length, hearing of the approach of 
General Carpenter, by way of Wooler, it was 
agreed to retire from the town, which was 



KELSO. 



r,i3 



speedily done, and taking the road to the south 
by Jedburgh, the whole proceeded to Preston, 
where they were surrounded by the govern- 
ment troops, and forced to surrender piisoners 
at discretion. On the occasion of the civil 
war of 1745, Kelso a second time sustained, 
against the inclinations of the inhabitants, 
a visit from an army of the house of 
Stuart. Prince Charles, on departing from 
Edinburgh southward, headed a division of 
4000 men, who took the route to England in 
this direction. After a stay of a single day, 
and having sent a small party down the 
Tweed to Carham, as the nearest English 
ground, to proclaim King James, he marched 
towards Carlisle by Hawick and Langholm. 
With the departure of this prince, the last of 
a long line of kings who had, in many in- 
stances, been munificent patrons of Kelso, 
closes its historical memoirs. Since this event 
it has steadily increased in size, opulence, and 
respectability, and has attained a high rank 
among the provincial Scottish towns. The 
beauty of the situation of Kelso, which is 
hardly excelled by any in this country, is not 
more striking than the cleanliness, the sub- 
stantiality, and the city-like appearance of the 
town itself. Built, as we have said, on a 
plain on the north or left bank of the Tweed, 
and indebted to the great fire of 1 684 and sub- 
sequent conflagrations for the restoration of 
its houses in a modern and uniform style, it 
consists of a spacious square or market-place, 
with four streets and some considerable wynds, 
diverging from it in different directions. The 
principal street, which bears the name of 
Roxburgh Street, is upwards of a quarter of 
a mile in length, and is esteemed the most 
healthy, as it certainly is the most pleasant, 
in the town, running in a parallel direction 
with the river. Bridge Street, though not 
equal to Roxburgh Street in extent, surpasses 
it in general appearance, as it contains many 
elegant houses. The market-place is chiefly 
composed of modern buildings, containing the 
principal shops, and from its aspect would not 
be unworthy of the metropolis. In very few 
towns are the houses built so lofty or with so 
dignified an air, and in still fewer is there 
seen such regularity and general neatness. 
Some handsome villas embellish the environs, 
and there are some pleasing residences close 
upon the Tweed, standing amidst luxuriant 
gardens and shrubberies. From the bridge 



across the stream, which is here of a much 
enlarged size, being just augmented by the 
Tiviot on its right bank, the view up or 
down is equally delightful, and can perhaps 
be only matched by the prospect from the 
bridge of Perth. The view up the stream to 
the west is met, on the south side, by the 
the woody locality whereon once stood the 
castle of Roxburgh, and, on the opposite side, 
by the plantations and pleasure-grounds of 
Fleurs, the princely seat of the Roxburghe 
family, which is seen on the face of a declin- 
ing bank. A pretty little verdant islet, orna- 
mented with a few shrubs, lies in the centre 
of the river, in the foreground, and assists in 
forming one of the most charming pictures. 
The bridge of Kelso, which was erected in 
the year 1800 to supply the place of the for- 
mer bridge, swept away by a flood in 1797, and 
which cost altogether with its approaches about 
L. 18,000, is the best on the Tweed, and is 
of the most elegant proportions. It consists 
of five elliptical arches, and is the model of 
Waterloo bridge over the Thames. Rennie 
was the architect of both. Unfortunately it 
has been necessary to subject the passage to 
a pontage both for carriages and foot passen- 
gers. Recently this toll let for L.900perannum. 
In entering Kelso by this thoroughfare from 
the south, the stranger passes on his right hand 
the conspicuous ruin of the abbey church, still 
noble in its decay. It stands almost close upon 
the street, but is secluded from intrusion by a 
rail. Of the very extensive erections little 
now remains but the .transept, and the great 
central tower, which rises to the height of about 
ninety feet. The arches are clustered with 
admirable strength and beauty, and those which 
support the lantern are more magnificent than 
any in the island, except those of York Min- 
ster. The building was begun to be used as 
a parish church, at an unknown period subse- 
quent to the Reformation, and continued as 
such till within the last sixty years, when pub- 
lic worship was discontinued in it, on account 
of its dangerous state. The modern additions 
which had been made, either to render it use- 
ful as a church or for some other cause, till 
lately greatly disfigured its ancient simplicity 
and beauty ; such were, however, removed by 
the two last Dukes of Roxburghe, and now 
the side arches and several windows are expos- 
ed to view- In consequence of an apprehen- 
sion that the ruin, from its decayed condition, 



614 



K E h S O. 



would soon fall, the heritors and others sub- 
scribed L.500 to keep it in repair, and it was 
rendered firm and durable in the most tasteful 
manner, under the professional and gratuitous 
superintendence of Mr. Gillespie Graham. 
Next to the ruin of the Abbey church, the 
most prominent object, in the character of a 
public edifice, is the Town House, a modern 
building in the Grecian style, of considerable 
elegance ; it has a good situation on the east 
side of the market-place, and is surmounted 
by a neat spire. The other public erections, 
as churches, &c. do not bear or require de- 
scription. The government of the town, 
(which was originally a burgh of regality,) is 
vested in a baron bailie, appointed by the Duke 
of Roxburghe, assisted by fifteen stent-masters 
or councillors, who act in conjunction with 
him in the assessment of the inhabitants. Of 
these stent-masters, his Grace has the nomina- 
tion of eight, who hold their appointment for 
two years ; the others are elected annually by 
the different corporations, of which there are 
five. The bailie holds a court eveiy Saturday, 
for the recovery of small debts within the ju- 
risdiction of the town ; and the justices of the 
peace sit here once a- month for the recovery of 
small debts within the county. The streets 
are kept in a very cleanly condition, a cart with 
a bell, taking away, as in Edinburgh, all the 
refuse of the domiciles. Though not ranking 
as a manufacturing or commercial town, Kelso 
enjoys a considerable trade, from being the 
chief seat of population in a wide agricultural 
district, which affords employment and support 
to a numerous body of the working classes. 
The first and principal branch is the dressing 
of lamb and sheep skins, the tanning of hides, 
and the currying of leather, all which are car- 
ried on to a great extent ; the number of lamb 
and sheep skins dressed annually, amounts, on 
an average, to not less than I00 ; 000. Pork is 
here cured to a great extent, and finds a 
ready sale in the English market. The manu- 
facture of flannel is pretty extensive, as is also 
that of different kinds of linen. Woollen cloth 
is likewise made here, but not in any great 
quantity. The manufacture of hats forms an 
important branch of the trade of the town, and 
the quantity of stockings made annually is con- 
siderable. Boot and shoe-making is carried 
on upon a very large scale, supplying not oidy 
the town and neighbourhood, but the different 
fair& Rnd maifeets in the nortit of England, 



where immense quantities are disposed of. 
The town has a great variety of respectable 
shops, dealing in nearly all kinds of goods for 
inland consumpt. A distillery upon a large 
scale was commenced shortly after the law was 
passed, allowing the introduction of whisky 
into England. A severe drawback upon 
nearly all manufactures, as well as the gene- 
ral comfort of the town, is the absence of coal 
in the neighbourhood, this article having to 
be carted from a great distance. Kelso 
has a weekly market on Friday for the sale of 
corn by sample, and is the best attended in the 
county. There are besides twelve monthly 
markets, or fairs, which, by a recent regulation 
of the Border Agricultural Society, are held 
on the third Friday after the Coldstream mar- 
ket, which is permanently fixed to take place 
on the last Thursday of each month. Besides 
these markets there are four annual fairs ; the 
first held on the second Friday of May ; the 
second, or Summer fair, on the second Friday 
in July; the third, St. James' fair, on the 
fifth of August ; and the fourth, or Winter 
fair, on the second of November. The privi- 
lege of holding St. James' fair was originally 
granted to the burgh of Roxburgh, but that 
town being now extinct, it is ranked with 
the Kelso fairs, although it is still held on 
the spot once occupied by Roxburgh, about a 
mile from the town. This fair is the largest, 
for its show of horses and cattle, in the south 
of Scotland — St. Boswell's excepted. Kelso 
has a neat butcher market, fitted up in the 
style of the high market at Edinburgh. The 
trade of Kelso, and its vicinity, is aided by 
branches of the Bank of Scotland and Com- 
mercial Bank ; the former was settled here as 
early as 1774 — a great antiquity for a Scot- 
tish Branch Bank. The town has also a 
Savings Bank. There are seven places of 
public worship in Kelso — the Parochial church 
(a very inelegant edifice) an Episcopal chapel, 
(a tasteful Gothic building on the banks of the 
Tweed) and a Relief, Burgher, Antiburgher, 
Cameronian, and Quaker meeting-house. The 
town possesses a good Grammar-school for 
the learned languages, and an English school, 
also some private schools, including those for 
female education, and two Sunday schools; — 
a charity school was instituted in 1816. The 
inhabitants support an excellent subscription 
library, of the date 1795, and some others 
less extensive. Some years ago one of those 



KELSO. 



G15 



valuable establishments, named Schools of 
Arts, was begun here with every prospect of 
success. Kelso has the credit of publishing 
a newspaper, which has a good circidation on 
the borders. It is entitled the Kelso Mail, 
and was begun in 1797. It is published on 
Mondays and Thursdays. There was at one 
time another paper, which has been lately 
discontinued. A public Dispensary was esta- 
blished in a healthy situation, at the head of 
the town, in 1 789, chiefly by the philanthropic 
exertions of Mrs. Baillie of Jerviswood, and, 
as it also answers the purposes of an Infirmary, 
it has been of great benefit to the place. Kelso 
owns several benefit societies, and two lodges 
of free masons, besides two or three clubs. 
An association composed of the noblemen and 
gentlemen residing in this quarter, styled the 
Bowmen of the Border, was instituted in 1768, 
by a diploma from the Royal Company of 
Archers. Kelso has been long celebrated for 
its horse-races. About ten years since a very 
suitable new course was opened at the request 
of the Duke of Roxburghe, and prepared by 
the voluntary labour of the inhabitants, at the 
distance of a mile to the northward of the 
town. There is an excellent stand on the 
model of that at Doncaster. Races are here 
run twice in the year — in Spring and Autumn, 
and never fail to attract a concourse of persons, 
of the upper ranks, from both sides of the bor- 
der. The Royal Caledonian Hunt meets 
occasionally, and during the stay of the noble- 
men and gentlemen of that association the 
town presents a more than ordinarily gay appear- 
ance ; and at this period, and while the races last, 
brilliant assemblies are held almost every even- 
ing. The town possesses a neat small thea- 
tre, in which scenic representations take place 
generally in the summer season. This place 
of public amusement was first fitted up by a 
body of French officers, who were here as pri- 
soners on parole, during the Jast war, and who, 
in gratitude for the polite attention and kind 
treatment they had experienced, left the whole 
standing, with all the scenery and decorations, 
as a present to the town. The beauty of the 
scenery around Kelso, and the neat city-like 
appearance of the town, are not more observa- 
ble by strangers than the polite manners of 
the inhabitants, which, as Mr. Haig says, may 
be traced to the place being " the resort of all 
the fashion in the vicinity, and of numerous 
visitors of the first rank in both kingdoms. 



The higher classes are allowed to be affable 
and courteous in their address, and benevolent 
and liberal in their dispositions. The middle 
classes are polite and obliging, hospitable and 
friendly. The poorer orders are, in general, 
sober, honest, and industrious. The upper 
ranks dress in the first style of fashion, and 
the balls and assemblies present an elegance of 
female attire not to be exceeded out of the me- 
tropolis." Notwithstanding the well-known af- 
fability and hospitality of the people of Kelso, 
whose peculiarities in this respect are by no 
means only of modern date, the town, by some 
strange fatality, is the subject of a popular pro- 
verbial expression of a contrary import. The 
phrase is " a Kelso convoy," which has been in 
use from time immemorial in the Lowlands of 
Scotland, to signify the circumstance of being 
accompanied by one's host no farther than the 
threshold, or rather, as it is commonly termed, 
" a step and a half ower the door-stane." The 
origin of this stigma upon the hospitality of 
Kelso is unknown; but, that the reader may 
the better understand the extent of satire which 
it implies, it is necessary to inform him, that 
at all old Scottish mansion-houses, there was a 
tree at some distance from the door, called the 
coglin tree, (variously the covan tree,) .where 
the landlord met his guests, and to which he 
always accompanied them uncovered, when 
they took their departure. In old society, ac- 
customed to such punctilio, and with whom 
any neglect of the laws of hospitality was held 
more heinous than at least two of the pleas of 
the crown, it is easy to conceive how the cold- 
ness of a Kelso convoy would be appreciated. — 
Population of the town in 1821, about 4000, 
including the parish, 4860- 

KELTIE WATER, a rivulet in the pa- 
rish of Callander, Perthshire, a tributary of 
the Teith. 

KELTON, a parish in the stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, somewhat of a triangular figure, 
with its apex to the north, having its western- 
side presented to the river Dee, which se- 
parates it from Tongland and Balmaghie, 
bounded on the north by Crossmichael, on the 
east by Buittle, and on the south by Rerrick 
and Kirkcudbright. The length of the parish 
is about six miles by a breadth nearly as great 
at the widest part. The present parish com- 
prehends the three ancient parochial divisions 
of Kelton, Gelston, and Kirkcormack. The 
surface is uneven, and in some parts hilly, but 



610 



KELVIN. 



in the northern district it is chiefly flat, though 
not characterised for its fertility. In this 
Quarter is situated the modem thriving town of 
Castle Douglas, which has been already no- 
ticed. From one to two miles south from 
thence is the Kirk of Kelton, and near it is 
the village of Keltonhill, a place once noted 
for its great annual horse-market, on the 17th 
of June O- S., now transferred to a more eli- 
gible locality at Castle Douglas. — Population 
in 1821, 2416. 

KELTON, a sea-port village on the east 
side of the embouchure of the Nith, Dumfries- 
shire. 

KELTY, a small village in the parish of 
Cleish, Kinross-shire, five miles south from 
Kinross. 

KELVIN, a river equally belonging to Stir- 
ling, Dumbarton, and Lanarkshires. It ori- 
ginates at a place called Kelvin- Head on the 
borders of the parishes of Kilsyth and Cum- 
bernauld, from whence it flows, a mere rivu- 
let, in a direct south-westerly course, not reck- 
oning small sinuosities, fifteen miles, dividing 
Stirlingshire from Dumbartonshire and Lanark- 
shire, when turning towards the south-east, it 
flows a few miles in that direction, and again 
wheeling into a south-westerly course, it flows 
into the Clyde about two miles below Glasgow. 
This river resembles the Leven in Fife, though 
not large, being of similar importance in 
communicating a water-power to mills, and of 
equal use to bleachfields. Having a natural 
tendency to overflow its banks, its channel has 
been in many places greatly improved by 
straightening and banking up. While entering 
the parish of New or East Kilpatrick, a few 
miles from its mouth, it passes beneath an 
aqueduct bridge of the Forth and Clyde Canal, 
which is 350 feet in length, 57 feet broad, and 
57 feet in height The bridge is of four 
arches, each 50 feet in span, and 37 feet high ; 
it is reckoned one of the chief objects of inte- 
rest in this part of the country. Before steam- 
power came so much into use, the Kelvin was 
chosen for the settlement of a great number of 
mills, mostly in the proprietary of houses in 
Glasgow. These and other trading character- 
istics on its banks have very much detracted 
from the original beauty and romantic appear- 
ance of the scenery through which it passes, 
which has furnished a theme for at least one 
beautiful Scottish song ; but still the Kelvin 
is not destitute of a variety of delightful land- 



scapes throughout its course, and is well 
worthy of the visits of the tourist. The 
above canal pursues a line parallel to and at a 
short distance from the Kelvin on its south 
side. 

KEMBACK, a parish in Fife, lying be- 
tween the parishes of St. Andrews and Ceres, 
and Cupar, and having Dairsie and part of Leu- 
chars on the north : The river Eden is the 
boundary with the two latter. Its length and 
breadth is about three or three and a half miles, 
being somewhat triangular in its figure, with 
the broadest side to the Eden. This parish 
is not very level in its surface, but it is one of 
the richest and most beautiful districts in Fife, 
having now many fine plantations, everywhere 
the best enclosures, and a variety of improve- 
ments. Freestone, coal, and limestone abound. 
—Population in 1821, 634. 

KEMNAY, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
lying with its western side on the Don, which 
separates it from Chapel- of- Garioch and Mo- 
nymusk. Inverury, also separated from it by 
the Don, lies on the north. It is bounded by 
Kintore on the east, and Cluny on the south. 
The length of the parish parallel with the 
Don is between four and five miles ; the 
breadth being not more than two. The dis- 
trict is arable adjacent to the river, and in the 
low parts. Kemnay house is pleasantly si- 
tuated among plantations and pleasure-grounds, 
near the centre of the parish. — Population in 
1821, 657. 

KEN, a river in the stewartiy of Kirkcud- 
bright, rising in the upper part of the north- 
west division of that district, and in its course 
separating it into two almost equal divisions. 
The Ken rises in the parishes of Carsphairn 
and Dairy, and its first tributary is the Dough 
water, or rather we may say the Ken is a tri- 
butary of the Deugh, for it appears the most 
direct fountain of the river. After this junc- 
tion the Ken flows in a south-easterly direc- 
tion for about eight miles, separating the pa- 
rish of Kells from Dairy and Balmaclellan, 
when it expands into a lake, termed Loch 
Ken, which extends four and a half miles in 
length, by half a mile in general breadth, and 
is continued nearly an equal length under the 
name of the Dee, in consequence of that 
water falling into it on the west side. The 
waters of the joint rivers fall into the Solway 
firth at Kirkcudbright. The vale of the Ken, 
and the district adjacent on both sides is usual ■ 



K E N M O R E. 



617 



ly 6tyled Glenkens, and enjoys a high reputation 
in the south of Scotland for its peculiarly fine 
breed of sheep. 

KENETHMONT, or KINNETH- 
MONT, a parish in Aberdeenshire, hav- 
ing Gartly on the north, Insch on the east, 
Leslie and Clatt on the southland Clatt on the 
west. It extends six miles in length from 
east to west, by three in breadth, and is six 
miles from Huntly. The surface is diversi- 
fied with hills and eminences, and is generally 
productive, with a variety of plantations. Ke- 
nethmont has a parish in whole, or in part, 
annexed to it, named Christ's Kirk, the 
church of which is in ruins. — Population in 
1821,974. 

KENLOWIE, a small stream in the 
eastern part of Fife, parish of St. Andrews. 

KENMORE, a parish in the Highland 
district of Breadalbane, Perthshire, surrounding 
the large beautiful lake called Loch Tay; 
bounded on the north by Fortingall, on the east 
by Dull, on the south and west by Comrie, 
Killin, and Weem ; twenty-one miles in length 
from east to west, by an irregular breadth of 
five to twelve. There is also a large detached 
portion of this parish, a considerable way to 
the west, in the beautiful and sequestered vale 
of Glenlochay. Kenmore signifies " the great 
head," and we must therefore suppose that 
the origin of the name is reflective. Loch 
Tay, which in some measure gives figure and 
character to the parish, is twenty- one miles 
long, a breadth of about one, and from that to 
two miles ; the great river Tay issuing from 
its north-east extremity. The banks of this 
loch are densely peopled by a race of small 
crofters, who, having been permitted to remain 
upon the paupera regna of their fathers, while 
the greater part of the country around is thrown 
into sheep farms, form a rather extraordinary 
feature in the population of the Highlands. It 
is to the benevolence of the earl of Breadalbane, 
the proprietor of the parish — we ought to say of 
the province — that we are indebted for this ex- 
isting memorial of a former state of things. The 
parochial church is situated at the village of Ken- 
more, at the north-east extremity of the parish ; 
but this disadvantage is now counterbalanced by 
the establishment of various subsidiary places of 
worship in different parts of the district With 
the exception of the banks of the lake, where 
the crofters have their little patches of potato 
ground and their humble clay-built cottages, the 



parish is generally mountainous ; Ben Lawers, 
which is 4015 feet high, rises on the north- 
east side of the loch. The waters of Loch 
Tay seldom or never freeze, and it is remark- 
able that they are occasionally liable to strong 
agitations, which only can be accounted for on 
the supposition that they are connected with 
earthquakes in other parts of the world. 
The loch abounds in salmon and other fish. 
The clean, elegant village of Kenmore, with 
its church, its inn, and its few white cottages, 
occupies a lovely eminence at the north-east 
end of the loch, close by the point where it 
opens into a river. Over that river is thrown 
a handsome bridge of three arches. Ken- 
more ranks unquestionably as among the most 
beautiful villages in Scotland ; a kind of ob- 
ject, it must be confessed, which Scotland does 
not as yet possess in great numbers, while it 
is decidedly one of the most remarkable fea- 
tures of the sister kingdom. It is a favourite 
point in a tour to the Highlands, and hence is 
much visited in summer. In the fine alluvial 
vale below the village, are the park and castle 
of Taymouth, the seat of the Earl of Bread- 
albane. The original name of this place was 
Balloch, from its situation at the bottom of a 
lake. It became the property of the Bread- 
albane branch of the Argyle family in the six- 
teenth century, ere it was as yet ennobled. 
Sir Colin Campbell, ancestor of the earls, built 
the castle in 1580. Within the last few years, 
the Earl of Breadalbane has improved the ori- 
ginal narrow residence of his fathers into a 
splendid modern castellated mansion, consist- 
ing of one huge square tower, with turrets at 
the corners, after the fashion of Inverlochy, 
together with several additional portions of 
less altitude, but equally beautiful architecture. 
The varied turretted outline of the building ren- 
ders it one of the most pleasing architectural 
objects in the whole kingdom. The park, 
which spreads away around the house till it 
meets the fine wooded hills which rise on 
all sides except towards the lake, is laid out 
in admirable taste, and has few equals in 
beauty. Within Taymouth castle is a large 
collection of portraits of the principal person- 
ages of the reign of Charles I., painted by 
the Scottish Vandyke, Jamieson of Aber- 
deen ; in addition to which, are many fine 
miscellaneous pictures and portraits, rendering 
" the Breadalbane gallery" one of the best in 
Scotland. At the opposite extremity of Loch 
4k 



613 



KERERA. 



Tay, near the village of Killin, is a little is- 
land, whereon Alexander I. founded a small 
priory, in 1 122 ; it was dependent on the abbey 
of Scone. Sybilla, consort of Alexander I., 
was buried there. The Earl of Breadalbane 
has, by his charters, liberty to fish for salmon 
upon Loch Tay at all seasons, without any 
regard to statutory restriction. The privilege, 
it is said, was intended for supplying the nuns, 
who lived in this convent with fish. — Popula- 
tion in 1821, 3347. 

KENNET, otherwise NEW KENNET, 
a neat small village, of modern growth, in the 
parish and county of Clackmannan, in the pro- 
prietary of the family of Bruce of Kennet — a 
seat in the vicinity. About a mile south from 
thence, at a place on the coast of the Firth of 
Forth called Kennet- Pans, there has long been 
a considerable distillery. 

KENNOWA Y, a parish in the county of 
Fife, extending from north to south about four 
miles, by nearly an equal breadth at the widest 
part, bounded on the north by Kettle, on the 
east by Scoonie, on the south by part of 
Wemyss and Markinch, and on the west alto- 
gether by Markinch. The whole parish lies 
with a pleasing exposure to the south, and is in 
the present day nearly altogether under the 
most productive tillage or thriving plantations, 
and is well enclosed. The village of Ken- 
noway, situated twelve miles north-east of 
Kinghorn, and eight south-west of Cupar, is 
built along the top of a Yery beautiful and ro- 
mantic den, the sides of which are steep and 
rocky, and contain some caves. Besides the 
parish church there is a meeting-house of the 
United Associate Synod. The inhabitants 
are chiefly employed as linen weavers ; the 
place has two annual fairs. Population of the 
parish and village in 1821, 1649. 

KERERA or KERRERA, an island 
belonging to Argyleshire, in the Sound of 
Mull opposite Oban, at the distance of five 
miles from Mull, and one from the mainland, 
on which Oban is situated. Kerera measures 
four miles in length by two in breadth ; " but," 
says an intelligent traveller who visited it, 
" excepting on its shores, it has no features of 
any kind to attract attention, unless it be the 
inequality and confusion of the surface, which 
is extreme. Not only is there nothing like 
level ground, but the hilly parts are so steep 
and frequent, the valleys so deep, and the 
whole so intermixed, that the toil of walking 
26. 



over it is incredible. Its want of beauty is 
however much recompensed by the noble pros - 
pects which it affords of the bay of Oban, and 
of that magnificent range of mountains which 
encloses the Linnhe Loch, with all the islands 
that are scattered about its variegated sea. The 
southern shore of the island affords one very 
wild and picturesque scene, of which Gylen 
Castle proves the chief object. On the mar- 
gin of a high cliff impending over the sea is 
perched this tall grey tower ; the whole bay, 
rude with rocks and cliffs, presenting no traces 
of land or of verdure ; appearing as if it had, 
for uncounted ages, braved the fury of the waves 
that break in from over the whole breadth of 
the inlet and far out to sea. A scene more 
savage and desolate, and more in character 
with the deserted and melancholy air of this 
solitary dwelling, that seems to shun all the 
haunts of man, is not easily conceived. This 
castle must have belonged to the Macdougalls, 
as it is of a date at least equal to Dunolly, and 
to the times when this family were lords of 
Lorn. It was in Kerera that Alexander II. 
died, (July 8, 1249,) when preparing to invade 
the western islands, then under the supreme 
dominion of Norway and of Haco. The tale 
has something of the superstition of the times, 
when there was a solution for every dream in 
its being a warning from the land of shadows. 
As his majesty lay in his bed, there appeared 
to him three men ; one of them dressed in royal 
garments, with a red face, squinting eyes, and 
a terrible aspect, the second being very young 
and beautiful with a costly dress, and a third 
of a larger stature than either, and of a still 
fiercer countenance than the first. The last 
personage demanded of him whether he meant 
to subdue the islands, and on receiving his 
assent, advised him to return home ; which 
warning he having neglected, died. The three 
persons were supposed to be St. Olave, St. 
Magnus, and St. Columba ; although what in- 
terest the latter could have in taking part with 
the two Norwegian saints, does not appear ; as 
the piratical invaders of that country had been 
early and bitter enemies to his monastery. 
There is a short ferry from this island, though 
an indirect one, to Oban, constituting a part of 
the greater ferry to Mull, and therefore well 
known to all tourists." 

KERSHOPE BURN, a rivulet belong- 
ing equally to England and Scotland, rising in 
the heights on the east side of the parish of 



KILBAHCHAN. 



619 



Castletown, Roxburghshire, and running a 
course of about eight miles, forms, from head 
to foot, with very small exceptions, the bound- 
ary of the two kingdoms. It falls into the 
Liddel about four miles below the village of 
Castletown, and abounds in trout of an excel- 
lent quality. 

KE T, a rivulet in Wigtonshire, which pass- 
ing Whithorn, falls into the sea at the bay 
termed Port Yarrock. 

KETTINS, a parish in the south-west 
corner of Forfarshire, extending three miles 
and a half in breadth from east to west, and 
four miles and a half in length, bounded on the 
east by Newtyle and Lundie, and on the 
west by Cupar- Angus in Perthshire. The dis- 
trict has a pleasant exposure to the valley of 
Strathmore, on the northern descent of the Sid- 
law hills ; the greater part is now well culti- 
vated, enclosed, and embellished with planta- 
tions. It possesses several fine seats and some 
villages, that of Kettins being the largest. It 
has also some bleachfields. The road from 
Perth to Forfar passes through the parish. The 
church of Kettins, prior to the Reformation, 
belonged to the ministry of the Red Friars at 
Peebles,— Population in 1821, 1215. 

KETTLE, a parish in the county of Fife, 
extending nearly eight miles from north-west 
to south-east, by a breadth of about three 
miles and a half in the middle part, bounded 
by Falkland on the west, Markinch, Kenno- 
way, and Scoonie on the south, Cults on the 
east, and by Collessie on the north. The pa- 
rish forms a large portion of that rich and 
beautiful territory on the north side of the 
Howe of Fife, and, whatever was its original 
condition, it is now under.an excellent system 
of cultivation. The small river Eden, with a 
slight exception, bounds the district on its 
northern side, and in this quarter the land is 
still moorish. The parish contains two vil- 
lages, styled Kettle and Hole-Kettle ; the 
latter is of small size, and lies on the main 
road through Fife to Cupar. Kettle, the ca- 
pital of the parish, is situated away from all 
thoroughfare, in the lower ground, about a mile 
to the north-west, at the distance of 6 J miles 
south-west from Cupar. It is inhabited chiefly 
by weavers, and besides the church has a Relief 
meeting-house. The strange name of Kettle 
is of very obscure etymology, and all that can 
be said of it is, that anciently it was called 
Katul ; in common phraseology it is invariably 



entitled the Kettle. At one period the pa- 
rish was denominated King's Kettle, from be- 
ing the property of the crown. — Population of 
the parish, in 1821, 2046. 

KIL, or KILL. When names of places 
begin with this adjunct, it is generally import- 
ed that the place was originally the cell or her- 
mitage of a saint, whose name is frequently 
found forming the second half of the appella- 
tion. In the Highland districts, Kil as often 
implies a burial-place. 

KILARROW See Killarrow. 

KILBAGIE, a place in the parish and 
county of Clackmannan, celebrated for the 
whisky which has been long manufactured at 
its extensive distillery. We feel inclined to 
suggest that it must have anciently been the 
spot on which stood the cell or residence of 
St. Bega, a pious virgin, who flourished in 
Scotland in an early age, and for a notice of 
whose life, Camerarius refers to the history of 
the Sinclairs and others. 

KILBARCHAN, a parish in Renfrew- 
shire, lying like a peninsula betwixt the river 
Gryfe (which separates it from Houston) on 
the north, and the Black Cart (which separates 
it from the Abbey parish of Paisley) on the 
south-east. Lochwinnoch chiefly bounds it 
on the south. It extends between six and se- 
ven miles in length, by a breadth of nearly 
four at the widest end. In the quarter near 
the junction of the above rivers, the land is of a 
mossy nature ; in other places, the parish has 
undergone various improvements as to cultiva- 
tion and planting. The parish contains some 
remains of antiquity, but they do not appear 
to be of much interest. It appears that John 
Knox, the Scottish reformer, was descended 
from a very ancient family in the parish, his 
ancestors having been originally proprietors of 
the lands of Knock, in the parish of Renfrew, 
from whence they assumed the surname of 
Knocks or Knock. They afterwards obtain, 
ed the lands of Craigends and Ranfurly in this 
parish. The family failed in the person of 
Mr. Andrew Knox, a clergyman of the mode- 
rate party in the reign of James VI., who 
gave him the bishopric of the Isles, and after- 
wards the see of Rapboe in Ireland. The 
Sempills of Belltrees, a family in which poeti- 
cal talent was long hereditary, were also at 
one time distinguished proprietors in the pa- 
rish. Besides the large village of Kilbarchan, 
the parish contains the thriving village of the 



620 



KILBARCHAN. 



Bridge of Weir, which is situated on the 
Gryfe, two miles north-west from Kilbarchan, 
and about a mile from Houston. The Bridge, 
or Brig' o' Weir, originated in 1790 as a seat 
for a cotton manufactory, and it has now four 
considerable cotton mills moved by the water 
of the Gryfe, besides a tany ard. The inhabitants 
are supposed to be about 1000 in number, and 
are said to be sober and industrious. The 
village has a dissenting meeting-house. 

Kilbarchan, a considerable village or town 
in the above parish, at the distance of four 
miles from Lochwinnoch, one mile and a half 
from Johnstone, five and a half from Paisley, 
and thirteen from Glasgow. It is delightfully 
situated on a southern declivity, sheltered on 
both sides by two large eminences rising to 
the height of nearly 200 feet above the valley 
in which the lower part of the town is built. 
Of these eminences, the one on the east side 
of the village is mostly within the policies of 
Milliken, and is tastefully adorned with fruit- 
trees. From a quarry of excellent freestone, 
on the west side of this hill, almost contigu- 
ous to the village, the houses are mostly built. 
The other eminence, which is called Bank- 
brae, is partly within the policies of Glentyan, 
and is similarly embellished. Kilbarchan, ori- 
ginally the settlement of an apostle of Christi- 
anity in this part of the country, who ap- 
pears to have been a foreigner, from not hav- 
ing his name noticed by Camerarius, has been 
long a place of great activity and trade. Linen 
weaving was introduced by the establishment 
of a large factory in 1739, but this branch of 
trade has completely given way before the cot- 
ton and silk manufacture, in which six hun- 
dred looms were lately engaged. The inhabi- 
tants, who are mostly weavers, are character- 
ised by their ingenuity in different branches of 
the trade ; and the young women are reputed 
as being among the most expert in the art of 
tambouring, embroidering, or making flowers 
on fine muslin and silk. Two annual fairs 
are held here, one on Lillia's day, the third 
Tuesday of July, O. S., the other on Bar- 
chan's day, the first Tuesday of December, 
O. S., the last, which was formerly a cele- 
brated fair for lint and tow, is now a noted 
horse market. Kilbarchan possesses, besides 
the parish church, a Relief Meeting-house, and 
a Baptist Chapel. We are informed by our 
authority, Fowler, that " there is a strong turn 
for letters, antiquities, and natural history, 



and especially a taste for poetry, among the 
inhabitants : many of them write good verses ; 
and some of them are acquainted with the 
learned languages." Perhaps such poetical 
qualifications might be traced to the example 
given to the people by the above-mentioned 
Sempills, one of whom, Robert Sempill, son 
of Sir James, the ambassador to England in 
1599, was the author of " the Life and Death 
of the Piper of Kilbarchan," a poem which 
has enjoyed its full share of celebrity, though 
now valuable merely as being the first of that 
popular race of hobbling elegies in which Scot- 
tish poets have taken such great delight, and 
which Burns carried to a state of perfection. 
Francis, the son of this poet, a zealous par- 
tizan of the Stuart family, exercised the poeti- 
cal talent of his own in panegyrics on James 
VII., addresses on the births of his children, 
and satires aimed at the Whigs. If these have 
little merit, his " Punishment of Poverty," and 
his well-known songs entitled " Maggie Lauder," 
and " She rose and loot me in," display no mean 
poetical genius. Habbie Simson, the piper so 
honourably alluded to in the former of these 
songs, it seems, was the town-piper of Kilbar- 
chan, and a personage of whom the inhabitants, 
from his notoriety, have had occasion to be 
proud. With that taste for popular antiquities 
which is noticed above, and which is now insen- 
sibly creeping upon people in authority, a statue 
of Habbie, copied from an original picture, has 
lately been affixed to the steeple of the school- 
house of the town. Kilbarchan is placed under 
a committee of town-management, with justices 
of peace resident in the neighbourhood ; the 
inhabitants have formed themselves into a va- 
riety of Friendly Societies ; a society for mu- 
tual protection against loss by fire ; a Curlers 
society; and the Kilbarchan and Neighbour- 
hood Agricultural Society, which has stated 
shows of cattle, when premiums are awarded. 
There is also a mason lodge in the town ; 
and there are two public libraries, containing 
several thousand volumes — Population of 
the parish, including the villages, in 1821, 
4213. 

KILBERRY, a parish in Argyleshire, 
united to Kilcalmonell. — See Kilcalmonell. 

KILBIRNY, a parish in the district of 
Cunningham, Ayrshire, bounded on the north 
by Largs, on the east by Lochwinnoch, on the 
south by Beith, and on the west by D;dry. The 
surface is uneven, and though at one time 



K ILB1A ND O N. 



621 



moorish to a considerable extent, is now under 
improvements, and in the lower parts adjacent 
to the Garnock water, is ornamented with 
plantations, and well enclosed. The Gar- 
nock, in its upper part, is the only river 
of any consequence, and intersects the parish. 
On its banks stands the village of Kilbirny, 
inhabited chiefly by weavers. Kilbirny House, 
a very ancient settlement of the Crawford 
family, situated amidst pleasant parks and 
plantations, is situated in the vicinity. At 
the distance of less than a mile east from 
the village lies the Loch of Kilbirny, which 
extends about two miles in length by half a 
mile in breadth, and is well stored with 
pikes, perch, trout, and eel. — Population in 
1821, 1333. 

KILBRANDON, a parish in Argyleshire, 
lying on the Sound of Mull, incorporating the 
abrogated parish of Kilchattan, and owning the 
islands of Luing, Seil, Shuna, Forsa, and Eas- 
dale. The total length of the united parish is 
ten miles, by a breadth of six, including the 
narrow sounds intersecting the islands. The 
greater part is of the usual hilly and pastoral 
character of Argyleshire, with some arable 
land. Kilbrandon appears to derive its name 
from having been a cell of St. Brandan, one of 
those early apostles of Christianity, whose 
names are found in so many of the local ap- 
pellations throughout Scotland, and who was 
a holy man of such distinction, that the people 
of Bute, over which island he peculiarly pre- 
sided, were frequently called by the epithet 
of Brandanes. We translate an account of 
St. Brandan from Camerarius : — " Saint Bran- 
dan, abbot and apostle of the Orkneys and 
Scottish isxes, who, when a boy, stuck close to 
the side of that erudite man, Bishop Hercus, 
from whom he derived the elements of learn- 
ing. His father was Finlag : his mother was 
called Cara. She one night dreamt that her 
lap was filled full of gold, that her breasts took 
fire, and shone with a great light ; which hav- 
ing told to her husband, he immediately relat- 
ed the case to Bishop Hercus, who, under- 
standing the mysterious dream, said, ' Finlag, 
your wife shall bring forth a son, in power very 
great, in holiness very illustrious ; wherefore 
I request that you will bring him to me to be 
nursed.' This was done, and, as we said, he ad- 
hered to the instructions of this holy bishop. One 
St. Peter's day, St. Brandan, seeing an immense 
multitude of fishes, commanded them to praise 



God, whereupon they leapt out of the water, 
and began to tune their voices. At another 
time, being brought to the grave of a young 
man, whose parents and friends were lament- 
ing him bitterly, the holy man, full of piety 
and faith, commanded him who was dead to 
become again alive, and the order was obeyed.'' 
St. Brandan appears to have lived in the sixth 
century. — Population of Kilbrandon in 1821, 
1492, and of Kilchattan, 1152. 

KILBRANNAN SOUND, an arm of 
the sea, between the peninsula of Cantire, and 
the isle of Arran ; and which most probably 
derives its name from the saint noticed in the 
above article. 

KILBRIDE, a parish in Argyleshire, 

united to Kilmore See Kilmore. 

KILBRIDE, a parish in the county of 
Bute, isle of Arran, being about one half of 
the island, on the east side, extending eighteen 
miles in length, by a breadth of from four to 
six. On the east side of the parish are Brodick 
Bay and Lamlash Bay ; Holy Island, which 
belongs to this parochial division, lying in the 
latter. Goatfield, and the other exceedingly 
high mountains of Arran, are within the 
parish. This parish and the places beneath 
of the same name are understood to have 
derived their title from St. Bride or Bridget, 
a pious virgin, who is said to have been coeval 
with King Congalus, and who, after a life of 
great piety, died and was buried at Abernethy, 
in the lower part of Strathearn, having wrought 
a great variety of miracles, both before and 
long after her death. The fame of this saint- 
ed Scottish female seems to have been ex- 
tended over the whole of Britain. — Popula- 
tion in 1821,2714. 

KILBRIDE, (EAST) a parish on the 
west side of Lanarkshire, extending nearly 
ten miles in length by from two to five in 
breadth, bounded by Carmunnock and Cam- 
buslang on the north, Blantyre and Glassford 
on the east, Strathaven on the south, and 
Ayrshire on the west. It comprehends the 
abrogated parish of Torrance. A considerable 
portion remains in a moorish state, especially 
in the southern quarter of the parish, while 
the other parts are generally arable. In the 
parish are some extensive lime works. The 
village of Kilbride lies on the road from Glas- 
gow to Muirkirk, eight miles south-south-east 
of the former, eight north of Strathaven, and 
six south west of Hamilton. Its inhabitants 



622 



KILCONQUHAR. 



are chiefly weavers, and, besides the parish 
kirk, it has a relief meeting house. The parish 
has produced several eminent men, among 
whom are found Dr. William Hunter, and his 
brother, Mr. John Hunter, the celebrated ana- 
tomist and physiologist. — Population of the 
village and parish in 1821, 3685. 

KILBRIDE, (WEST) a parish in the 
district of Cunningham, Ayrshire, lying on the 
shore of the Firth of Clyde, opposite the Cum- 
bray Islands, and bounded by Largs on the 
north ; Kilbirny and Dairy on the east, and 
Ardrossan on the south. In extent it stretches 
six miles along the shore by a breadth inland 
of from two to three miles. The whole is 
part of a mountainous tract of country, which, 
commencing at its southern boundary, extends 
all the way to Greenock. It, therefore, 
presents everywhere a broken, unequal sur- 
face, rising in many places into high hills, 
interspersed with a number of romantic rivu- 
lets. From the tops of these hills an exten- 
sive and varied view may be obtained. A 
great part of the parish is pastoral. The dis- 
trict, besides possessing the ruins of some old 
castles, has other objects of antiquity, and it 
may be remarked that near the shore of the 
parish one of the largest of the vessels com- 
posing the Spanish armada sunk in ten fa- 
thoms water. An attempt was made about 
eighty years since to examine the condition 
of this ship, and the operation succeeded so 
far, that a piece of ordnance was raised. 
The village of Kilbride is situated about four 
miles north-west from Ardrossan. —Popula- 
tion in 1821, 1371. 

KILBUCHO, a parish in the county of 
Peebles on its western side, now incorporated 
with the adjoining parish of Broughton. It 
is a pleasing pastoral district ; and its name 
has been traced to St. Bega, a Scottish saint 
of early times, noticed above under the head of 
Kilbagie. 

KIL C ALMONELL, a parish in the coun- 
ty of Ajgyle, incorporating the abrogated pa- 
rish of Kilberry, situated in the most norther- 
ly part of the peninsula of Cantire, and bounded 
on the north by the isthmus of Tarbert. For 
a short distance, it comprehends the whole 
breadth of the peninsula, from Loch Tarbert 
on the west to Loch Fyne on the east, till 
separated from the latter by the narrow but 
long parish of Skipness, whose northern ex- 
tremity once formed a part of Kilcalmonell. 



On the west, the parish stretches twelve miles 
along the shore. The face of the country has 
the greatest variety in its appearance, consist- 
ing of flats and hills, vallies, woods and lakes. 
The original character of the district has been 
considerably altered by improvements in cul- 
tivation, planting, &c, especially on the west 
coast — Population in 1821, 2511. 

KIL CH ATT AN.— See Kh-brandon. 

KILCHOMAN, a parish in the island of 
Islay, Argyleshire, extending twenty miles in 
length by six in breadth, and occupying the 
south-western corner of the island. The ge- 
neral description given of Islay under that 
head precludes the necessity of specifying the 
peculiarities of this district. — Population in 
1821, 3966. 

KILCHRENAN, a parish in Argyleshire 
incorporating the abrogated parish of Dalavich, 
extending twelve miles in length by eight in 
breadth, and lying on both sides of Loch Awe. 
The parish kirk stands on the west side of this 
beautiful lake, whose vicinity is now finely 
embellished and improved by a road along its 
banks. — Population in 1821, 591. 

KILCHRIST.— See Urray. 

KILCONQUHAR, a parish in the east 
part of Fife, extending, in an oblong form, al- 
most seven miles from north to south, and about 
five from east to west at the broadest, but more 
generally about two miles. It is bounded on 
the south by the Firth of Forth and the parish 
of Elie, on the east by the parishes of St. 
Monance, Carnbee, and Cameron, on the north 
by Ceres, and on the west by the parishes of 
Largo and Newburn. Its surface is somewhat 
irregular, being flat in the south for a mile and a 
half from the sea, and rising gently to the north 
for about two miles ; the rest being all of an 
upland character. The flat part to the south 
is a sandy soil and very fertile. There are a 
number of elegant seats in this parish ; Bal- 
carras, the seat of the Hon. Mr. Lindsay, and 
from which the family of that gentleman takes 
the title of Earl of Balcarras, Kilconquhar, 
the seat of Mr. Bethune, Newton, Lathallan, 
Kincraig, and Grange. The royal burgh of 
Earlsferry, and the villages of Colinsburgh, 
Kilconquhar, and Barnyards are in the parish. 
The village of Kilconquhar has an extensive 
tanwork, besides which there are a number of 
shoemakers and weavers. For some particu- 
lars regarding the neighbourhood of Earlsferry, 
see that article. Kilconquhar Loch is a fine 



KILDA (ST.; 



623 



sheet of water, three quarters of a mile in 
length, and nearly the same in breadth, with 
two small islands, which harbour a few swans. 
Coal and limestone are found in the parish. 
Besides the parish church at Kilconquhar, 
which is a remarkably elegant modern structure, 
with a fine tower, there is a dissenting meeting- 
house at the village of Colinsburgh. Kilcon- 
quhar might be supposed to imply the cell or re- 
ligious place of some holy man of the name of 
Conquhar; and such is the etymology suggested 
by the writer of the Statistical Account. The 
ordinary name it bears is Kinnuchar, which is a 
word so different from the above that we consi- 
der the one to have no relation to the other ; 
believing rather that Kinnuchar is of Celtic 
etymology, and is significant of the character of 

the locale Population in 1821, 2317. 

KILDA (ST.), or HIRTA, a solitary isle 
in the Atlantic Ocean, belonging to the range 
of the Hebrides, though removed to such a 
distance, as not only to seem distinct from 
them, but from Scotland itself. The nearest 
land to it is Harris, from which it is distant 
sixty miles in a west-south-west direction ; and 
it is about 140 miles from the nearest point of 
the mainland of Scotland. It belongs to the 
parish of South Uist, one of the district 
of the Long Island. It is about three miles 
long, from east to west, and two broad, from 
north to south. An island so solitary and re- 
mote, so small, and containing such a slender 
population, naturally excites a lively interest, 
and we shall therefore treat it more at large 
than some districts of greater political import- 
ance. The island consists of a lofty uneven 
ridge, fenced round on all sides by one conti- 
nued perpendicular face of rock, of prodigious 
height, except a part of the bay or landing- 
place, and even there the rocks are of great 
height ; and the narrow passage to the top is 
so steep that a few men with stones could pre- 
vent any hostile multitude from landing on the 
island. The bay is also of difficult access, as 
the tides and waves are so impetuous, that 
unless in a calm, it is extremely dangerous of 
approach. The surface of the island is rocky, 
rising into four eminences, the tallest of which, 
called Conachan, is ascertained by Dr. Mac- 
culloch to be 1380 feet above the level of the 
sea. The general surface of the ground is a 
black loam, six or eight inches deep, and pre- 
sents a nearly uniform, smooth, and green sur- 
face. Excepting some imperfect peat on the 



highest point, the whole i3 covered by a thick 
turf of the finest and freshest verdure. The 
sides of the island go sheer down to the sea, 
as at the Bass in the Firth of Forth, and thus 
there is clear riding ground for vessels all round 
The hill Conachan is cut down abruptly on 
one side into a steep-down precipice of about 
1300 feet high, being thus perhaps the highest 
cliff in Britain. " It is a dizzy altitude," says 
Macculloch, " to the spectator who looks from 
above on the inaudible waves dashing below. 
There are some rocky points near the bottom 
of this precipice, one of them presenting a 
magnificent natural arch, which in any other 
situation, would be striking, but are here lost 
in the overpowering vicinity of the cliffs that 
tower above them. In proceeding, these soon 
become low ; but at the north-western extre- 
mity, the island again rises into a hill nearly 
as high as Conachan, terminating all round 
towards the sea by formidable precipices, 
which are continued nearly to the south-east- 
ern point of the bay. Here, a rock, separat- 
ed by a fissure from the island, displays the 
remains of an ancient work ; whence it has 
derived the name of Dune. The island 
contains three principal springs, of which, 
one called Tober-nam-buy, rises by a large 
well, producing at once a considerable stream. 
Of St. Kilda, who communicated his name to 
the island, nothing seems to be ascertained. 
At least I have searched the Irish hagiology 
for him in vain. In Martin's time (1690) 
it appears to have been known by the name of 
Hirt or Hirta, a term derived from the parent 
of Terra by the same inversion as our own 
earth. It is a remarkable instance of the zeal 
or influence of the early clergy, that in a spot 
like this three chapels should have existed. 
They were extant in Martin's time, and the 
traces of two still remain." St. Kilda is the 
property of the chief, or laird of Macleod, and 
the island was formerly visited annually by his 
steward, to collect the rents, which used to be 
paid in sheep, butter, and wild fowl, particu- 
larly the solan geese. The property is now 
under the supervision of a tacksman, which 
must have occasioned a considerable change 
in that particular. The people who, in Mar- 
tin's time, amounted to 180 persons, and in 
1764 were reduced by an attack of small pox 
to 88, are at present a little above 100. They 
are evidently the same race with the natives of 
the other Hebrides j but, though the Gaelic is 



624 



KILD A (ST.) 



the vernacular language, they show no trace of 
tartan, or of that distinct fashion of clothes 
which is peculiar to the Highlands. They 
all live in a small village ahout a quarter of a 
mile from the bay, on the south-east, consist- 
ing of two rows of houses, with a pavement 
in the middle, and their habitations are nearly 
flat in the roof, like those of the Oriental na- 
tions, in order to avoid injury from the storms 
which sweep over the island. Excepting a 
small tract near the village, the whole island 
is in pasture, though the soil would admit of 
cultivation to any extent. But the violence of 
the west winds limits the agriculture to the 
south-east declivity where there is most shel- 
ter. This tract is held conjointly by all the 
village, on the system of run-rig, the ridges be- 
ing interchanged after three years, and the 
work is performed by the spade and caschrom, 
or hand-plough. The produce consists chiefly 
of bear, as in the Long Isle, which is said to be 
the finest in the Highlands. The oats are 
very inferior in quality, and are scantily cul- 
tivated ; nor are potatoes grown to nearly the 
extent which is usual in Highland farming. 
There is nowhere any attempt at a garden. 
A few horses are kept for the purpose of carry- 
ing peat, together with some goats, which are 
milked like sheep. But the pasture is princi- 
pally allotted to sheep and black cattle. In 
Martin's time the former amounted to about 
1000, and the latter to 90; a tolerable mea- 
sure, probably, of their present proportion. 
As the adjacent islets of Soa and Borera con- 
tain also from 400 to 500 sheep each, the 
whole amount of the flocks must be about 
2000. The breed of sheep is exclusively the 
Norwegian, distinguished by the extreme 
shortness of their tails — and the wool is both 
thin and coarse. They are occasionally of a 
dun colour, and are subject here, as in Ice- 
land, to produce an additional number of horns. 
The mutton is peculiarly delicate and high- 
flavoured. The cattle are small, and both the 
ewes and the cows are milked. The cheese, 
which is made of a mixture of these milks; is 
much esteemed ; forming one of the prevail- 
ing articles of export to the Long Island, the 
mart in which all their little commerce centres. 
Their other exports consist of wool and fea- 
thers, and with these they purchase the few 
articles of dress and furniture which they re- 
quire. The St. Kilda system of husbandry is 
quite original and peculiar. The soil, though 



naturally poor, is rendered extremely fertile by 
the singular industiy of the inhabitants, who 
manure their fields so as to convert them into 
a sort of garden. All the instruments they 
use, or indeed require, according to their sys- 
tem, are a spade, a mallet, and a rake or har- 
row. After turning up the ground with the 
spade, they rake it very carefully, removing 
every small stone, every noxious root or growing 
weed that falls in their way, and with the 
mallet pound down every stiff clod to dust. 
They then manure it with a rich compost pre- 
pared in the manner afterwards to be describ- 
ed. It is certain that a small number of acres, 
prepared in this manner, must yield a greater 
return than a much greater poorly cultivated, 
as in the other isles. The inhabitants of St. 
Kilda sow and reap much earlier than others 
in the same latitude. The heat of the sun, 
reflected from the high hills upon the culti- 
vated lands to the south-east, is very great, 
and the climate being rainy, from the attrac- 
tion which the hills exercise upon the clouds 
from the Atlantic, the com grows fast and 
ripens early. The harvest is commonly over 
before September; and if it unfortunately 
happens otherwise, the whole crop is liable to 
be destroyed by the equinoctial storms, which, 
in this island, are generally attended with 
the most dreadful hurricanes and excessive 
rains. Potatoes have been lately introduced, 
and cabbages and other garden-plants are now 
beginning to be used. The walls of the cot- 
tages are built of coarse freestone, without 
lime or mortar, but made solid by alternate 
layers of turf. The doors have bolts of wood, 
which, we should think, are scarcely necessary 
for security. In the middle of the walls are 
the beds, formed also of stone, and overlaid 
with large flag-stones, capable of containing 
three persons, and having a small opening to- 
wards the house. All their houses are divid- 
ed into two apartments, the interior of which 
is the habitation of the family; the other, 
nearest the door receives the cattle during the 
winter season. The walls of their houses are 
raised to a greater height than the cottages in 
the other western islands. This is done to 
allow them to prepare the manure for their 
fields, which they do in the following manner ; 
after having burnt a considerable quantity of 
dried turf, they spread the ashes, with the 
greatest care, over the apartment in which 
they eat and sleep; these ashes, so exactly 



K I L D A (3 T.) 



625 



laid out, they cover with a rich vegetable 
mould or Mack earth; and on this bed of 
earth they scatter a proportionate quantity of 
peat dust; this done, they water, tread, and 
beat the compost into a hard flour, on which 
they immediately kindle large fires, which they 
never extinguish till they have a sufficient 
quantity of new ashes on hand. The same 
operations are punctually repeated, till they 
are ready to sow their barley, by which time 
the walls of their houses have sunk down, or 
rather their floors have risen about four or five 
feet. The manure thus produced is excellent, and 
scattered every year over their fields causes the 
land to yield large crops. They speak highly 
in its praise, and call it a " commodity inesti- 
mably precious." Though cleanliness is high- 
ly conducive to health and longevity, yet, in 
spite of the instance of indelicacy already giv- 
en, and many more which might have been 
added, the St. Kildians are as long-lived as 
other men. Their total want of those articles 
of luxury which destroy and enervate the con- 
stitution, and their moderate exercise, keep 
the balance of life equal between them and 
those of a more civilized country. Besides 
the habitations we have mentioned, there are a 
number of cells or store-houses, scattered over 
the whole island. These are spoken of by 
Martin as pyramids, but are in reality of a co- 
nical form. They are used for saving the 
produce, — the peats, the corn, the hay, and 
even the birds. They are described by Mac- 
culloch as " round or oval domes, resembling 
ovens, eight or ten feet in diameter, and five or 
six feet in height. They are veiy ingeniously 
built, by gradually diminishing the courses of 
dry stone — affording free passage to the wind 
at all sides, while the top is closed by heavy 
stones, and further protected from rain by a 
covering of turf. No attempt is made to dry 
the grass or com out of doors ; but when cut 
they are thrown loose into these buildings, and 
thus secured from all risk. It is remarkable 
that this practice should have been alluded to 
by Solinus as common in the Western Islands, 
and that it should now be entirely unknown 
any where else. It is well worthy of being 
imitated on the western shore, where the hay 
and corn are often utterly lost, and generally 
much damaged by the rains, and by the sloven- 
ly method in which the process of harvest- 
ing is managed. " It would be a heresy 
worthy of Quemadero," continues this lively 



writer, " to suppose it possible that Ar- 
thur's Oven, the temple of the god Termi- 
nus, the never-to-be-forgotten cause of anti- 
quarian groans and remonstrance, had been 
one of Solinus's ovens ; a St. Kilda barn. 
Yet there is a most identical and unlucky re- 
semblance between them, in construction, form, 
and magnitude ; and, indeed, I have been long 
inclined to think that this Otho was only a bad 
halfpenny." The people of St. Kilda, placed 
thus far " amid the melancholy main,'' are a 
kind of moral phenomenon in our Scottish 
population. They have probably maintain- 
ed the same manners, customs, and general 
style of life for centuries. It very seldom 
happens that any one migrates either to or 
from the island ; and hence, the community is 
as essentially peculiar as any large nation liv- 
ing within the pale of continental Europe. 
Though it appears that there were three reli- 
gious buildings on the island before the Re- 
formation, the inhabitants continued for ages 
after that event unsolaced by the blessings of 
religion, being only connected with a parish 
by name. They were also unable to read and 
write. These disadvantages are now obviated 
by the establishment of a missionary and a 
schoolmaster, under the patronage of the So- 
ciety for Propagating Christian Knowledge. 
From the remoteness of the island, the people 
can scarcely be imagined to have any political 
connexion with Great Britain. They proba- 
bly never heard of the revolution of 1688 till 
this blessed hour. After the suppression of the 
insurrection of 1745, a rumour was propagated 
that Prince Charles had sought refuge in St. 
Kilda. General Campbell repaired to the 
island with a large fleet, which no sooner ap- 
proached, than the people fled to the caves and 
the tops of mountains ; and it was not without 
considerable difficulty that the general could 
procure a hearing among them. His men 
asked those whom they found, " what had be- 
come of the Pretender?" to which they an- 
swered, that " they had never heard of such a 
person." It turned out that all they had heard 
of the late troubles, by which the tranquillity of 
the mainland was so effectually shaken, was, 
that their laird (Macleod,) had been at war 
with a woman a great way abroad, and that he 
had got the better of her ! The land had been 
in arms for King George, and they probably 
supposed that if any other body was concerned 
on that side, it must have been under him. 
4l 



626 



KILDA (ST.) 



Clarke, who visited the island, gives an ac- 
count of the terror which had been inflicted 
upon them by a French privateer ; and Dr. 
Macculloch relates that though he visited the 
island in 1815, the people not having heard of 
the conclusion of the recent American war, 
thought his vessel a privateer from that quar- 
ter, and were with difficulty assured of the con- 
trary. A writer of the last century gives an 
account of a native of St. Kilda, who could 
conceive, though not write poetry ; and some 
specimens of his genius, which have been pre- 
served, are certainly found to throw the ideas 
that might be expected to enter an untutored 
mind amidst such a scene, into very poetical 
forms. But this person must have been a rare 
wonder in St. Kilda. The people live much 
upon the wild sea- fowl, with which the preci- 
pices abound, and their mode of catching them 
is very entertaining. The men are divided 
into fowling parties, each of which generally 
consists of four persons, distinguished for their 
agility and skill. Each party must have at 
least one rope, about thirty fathoms long, made 
out of a strong raw cow-hide, salted for the 
purpose, and cut circularly into three thongs of 
equal length. These thongs being closely 
twisted together form a threefold cord, able to 
sustain a great weight, and durable enough to 
last two generations. To prevent its receiv- 
ing injuries from the sharp edges of the rocks, 
it is covered with sheep skins, dressed in the 
same manner. This rope is the most valuable 
piece of furniture a St. Kildian can be possess- 
ed of : it makes the first article in the testa- 
ment of a father, and if it falls to a daughter's 
share, she is esteemed one of the best matches 
of the island. By help of these ropes, the 
people of the greatest prowess examine the 
fronts of rocks of prodigious heights. Linked 
together in couples, each having the end of the 
cord fastened about his waist, they go down 
and ascend the most dreadful precipices. 
When one is in motion, the other plants him- 
self in a stony shelf, and takes care to have so 
sure a footing, that if his fellow-adventurer 
makes a false step and tumble over, he may 
be able to save him. When one has arrived 
at a safe landing-place, he sets himself firmly, 
while the other endeavours to follow. Mr. 
Macaulay gives an instance of the dexterity of 
the inhabitants in catching wild fowl, to which 
he was an eye witness. One of them fixed 
himself on a craggy shelf, his companion des- 
'2 7. 



cended about sixty feet below, and, having 
darted himself away from the face of a most 
alarming precipice, hanging over the ocean, he 
began to play his gambols, sung merrily, 
and laughed very heartily ; at last, having af- 
forded all the entertainment he could, he re- 
turned in triumph, full of his own merit, with 
a large string of sea-fowls round his neck, and 
a number of eggs in his bosom. Upwards of 
20,000 solan geese are annually consumed by 
the natives of St. Kilda, besides an immense 
number of eggs. The following is from the 
ever vivacious Macculloch. " Swift, in his 
Tale of a Tub, describes a land of feathers, 
and perhaps he drew the hint from St. Kilda. 
The air here is full of feathered animals, the 
sea is covered with them, the houses are orna- 
mented by them, the ground is speckled by 
them like a flowery meadow in May. The 
town is paved with feathers, the very dung- 
hills are made of feathers, the ploughed 
land seems as if it had been sown with 
feathers, and the inhabitants look as if they 
had been all tarred and feathered, for their 
hair is full of feathers, and their clothes 
are covered with feathers. The women look 
like feathered Mercuries, for their shoes are 
made of a gannet's skin ; every thing smells 
of feathers ; and the smell pursued us over 
all the islands, for the Captain had a sack- 
ful in the cabin." " The rent of St. Kilda," 
says this writer, in reference to the island 
before the arrival of the tacksman, "was 
then extremely low, compared with the ave- 
rage of insular farms, being only L.40, or L.2 
per family; a sum far inferior to the value 
of the land, excluding all consideration of the 
birds. Independently of the food which these 
afford, that value is considerable, as the whole 
of the rent was paid in feathers, not in money, 
while a surplus of these also remained for 
sale. Thus the land was in fact held rent 
free ; the whole amount being also paid by a 
small portion of that labour which was more 
than compensated by the food it produced. 
It is evident that this rent might have been 
augmented without any refusal ; if, however, 
St. Kilda chose to refuse payment and rebel, 
it woidd not be easy to execute a warrant of 
distress or ejectment without a fleet and an 
army. All this may be pretty speculation for 
an economist ; but I shall be sorry to find that 
it has influenced the conduct of the proprietor. 
When we have been saddened at every step 



K I L D O N A N. 



627 



by the sight of irremediable poverty and dis- 
tress in all its forms, it is delightful to find 
one green place in this dreary world of islands, 
where want is unknown. I trust that St. 
Kilda may yet long continue the Eden of the 
western ocean. It is in a state of real opulence. 
Their arable land supplies the people with 
corn, their woods with game, and their cattle 
with milk. If this island is not the Utopia 
so long sought, where is it to be found ? Where 
is the land which has neither arms, money, law, 
physic, politics, nor taxes ? That land is St. 
Kilda. War may rage all around, provided it 
be not with America, but the storm reaches it 
not. Neither Times nor Courier disturbs its 
judgments, nor do patriots, bursting with he- 
roic rage, terrify it with contradictory anticipa- 
tions of that ' which will ne'er come to pass.' 
Francis Moore may prognosticate, but it 
touches not St. Kilda. No tax-gatherer's bill 
threatens on a church-door ; the game-laws 
reach not gannets. Well may the pampered 
native of the happy Hirta refuse to change his 
situation. His slumbers are late, his labours 
are light, and his occupation is his amusement, 
6ince his sea-fowl constitute at once his food, 
his luxury, his game, his wealth, and his bed 
of down. Government he has not, law he feels 
not, physic he wants not, money he sees not, 
and war he hears not. His state is his city, 
and his city is his social circle ; he has the li- 
berty of his thoughts, his actions, and his king- 
dom, and all his world are his equals. If hap- 
piness be not a dweller in St. Kilda, where 
shall it be sought ?" 

KILDALTON, a parish in Islay, Argyle- 
shire, occupying the south-east part of the is- 
land, extending fifteen miles in length by about 
six in breadth. Its ancient primitive character 
has been greatly improved. The kirk of Kil- 
dalton, now in a ruined state, is situated at 
Ardmore point, a foreland at the centre of the 
east side of the island, and the church in com- 
mon use is at Lagamhuilin, some miles to the 
southward, where there is a small village. — 
Population in 1821, 2427. 

KILDONAN, an extensive pastoral pa- 
rish in Sutherlandshire, near its east side, se- 
parated from the county of Caithness by the 
mountain range terminating at the Ord of 
Caithness, bounded by Loth on the south and 
south east, Clyne on the south-west, and Farr 
on the north. The centre part is the vale 
through which flows the water of Helmsdale, 



the lower part of which, wherein the church 
stands, being wooded, and in the upper part 
there is a variety of lakes, the sources of 
the stream. The parish is computed to ex- 
tend twenty miles in length, and though nar- 
row in the lower part, widens out to a 
breadth of eight miles. It contains some lofty 
mountains. The population, as elsewhere in 
this wild pastoral country, has prodigiously di- 
minished. In 1755, there was a population of 
1 433, which remained steady till within the 
last twenty years, when by the too well-known 
process of expulsion, it had sank to 565 in 
1821. The vale of Kildonan before this ex- 
patriation took place, was remarkable for pro- 
ducing the tallest and handsomest men in Su- 
therland. Among five hundred strapping fel- 
lows whom this district boasted of containing, 
scarcely one was found beneath six feet. They 
seemed, in fact, a distinct race from the rest of 
the dalesmen. It is affectionately remembered 
of the Kildonan men, many of whom are now 
over the Atlantic, that they were such hearty 
fellows -as to be able even to sup whisky with 
their porridge- 

KILDRUMMY, a parish in the upper 
parts of Aberdeenshire, intersected by the river 
Don, about twenty miles from its source, and 
having a valley of two or three miles square 
on its banks, bounded by Kearn and Auchin- 
doir on the east, and Towie and Cabrach on 
the west. In the vale of the Don stands the 
ruins of the once magnificent castle of Kil- 
drummy, anciently the property of David, Earl 
of Huntingdon and Garioch, and at one period 
a seat of Robert Bruce, whose queen enjoyed 
a retreat here in the winter of 1306. — Popu- 
lation in 1821, 496. 

KILFINAN, a parish in Cowal, Argyle- 
shire, lying on the east side of Loch Fyne, 
extending fifteen miles in length by from three 
to six in breadth. The parish church stands on 
the borders of the lake. The district is beau- 
tified by a considerable extent of natural wood 
and shrubs, and shows a variety of pleasing 
improvements — Population in 1821, 1839. 

KILFINICHEN and KILVICEUEN, 
a united parish in Argyleshire, island of Mull, 
of which it forms the south-western limb or 
Ross, which is peninsulated by the projection 
of Loch Seriden ; it has also a portion on the 
north side of this salt-water lake. Its super- 
ficies may be twenty- two miles in lengtl by 
twelve in breadth. The district is bleak »rd 



628 



K I L L E A It N. 



mountainous, and is only interesting as con- 
nected with the early history of Christianity 
in this part of Scotland. To the parish is 
attached the island of Icolmkill, already suffi- 
ciently described, Eorsa and Inch- Kenneth. — 
Population in 1821, 1839. 

KILL, a rivulet in Ayrshire, parish of Stair, 
a tributary of the water of Ayr. 

KILLALLAN.— See Houston. 

KILLARROW, a parish in the island of 
Islay, Argyleshire, occupying the central divi- 
sion and incorporating the abrogated parish of 
Kilmeny (in which is now a parliamentary 
church. ) The appellation of Killarrow is now 
almost sunk in the modern title of Bowmore, 
from the name of the chief or only town, where 
the parish church is situated. The parish ex- 
tends about eighteen miles in length by eight 
in breadth, and is of a hilly nature, but greatly 
improved, particularly on the shores of Loch 
Indal. On the east side of this arm of the 
sea, stands Bowmore, a thriving small town 
begun in 1768 on a regular plan. Besides the 
church, which is a circular building with a neat 
spire, there is an edifice of recent erection, con- 
taining a jail and an assembly room. There 
is likewise a large and excellent parochial 
school, built and liberally endowed by Camp- 
bell of Shawfield, a considerable proprietor in 
the island. It stands on an eminence at a short 
distance from the town, and commands a beau- 
tiful prospect of the lake and Islay House, en- 
vironed in plantations at its upper extremity. 
In the school, the learned languages, mathe- 
matics, geography, &c. are taught. Much to 
the credit of the patroness of this useful insti- 
tution, Lady Ellinor Campbell, she has award- 
ed thirty elegant prizes for distribution at the 
public examinations, and famishes books for 
the poorer pupils. Bowmore has a good pier 
for shipping at the harbour, with eight or nine 
feet of water at ordinary full tides. Distilla- 
tion is here carried on to a considerable extent. 
At the village of Bridgend, about three miles 
from Bowmore, a justice of peace court is 
held. A road leads across the island from 
near Bowmore to Port Askaig on the sound 
of Jura, at which steam-boats touch Popula- 
tion of the parish of Killarrow or Bowmore in 
1821, 3777— of Kilmeny district, 2001. 

KILLASAY, an islet of the Hebrides on 
the west coast of Lewis. 

KILLE AN and KILCHENZIE, a unit- 
ed parish in Cantire, Argyleshire, extending 



eighteen miles in length by about four in 
breadth, bounded on the south by the parish 
of Campbelton, on the north by Kilcalmonell, 
on the. east by the united parish of Saddel and 
Skipness, and on the west by the Atlantic 
ocean. — Population in 1821, 3306. 

KILLEARN, a parish in Stirlingshire of 
an irregular figure, but in a general sense con- 
sisting of a large portion of the south side of 
the vale of the Endrick, and altogether mea- 
suring twelve miles in length by two and a half 
in breadth. It is bounded by Fintry on the 
east, Strathblane on the south, Drymen on the 
west, and Balfron on the north. The beauti- 
ful, though small, river Endrick runs along 
the greater part of its north side, and on its 
banks and the adjacent district the land is 
finely cultivated and wooded. The scenery is 
justly esteemed as among the most picturesque 
and charming in " sweet Innerdale." The 
banks of the Blane, a tributary of the Endrick, 
likewise possess much beauty. In proportion 
as the land recedes from these waters, it rises 
higher, and finally is elevated in a lofty hilly 
range. The village of Killearn stands in the 
centre of the district in a pleasant part of the 
country, at the distance of 16f miles from 
Glasgow, and 20 from Stirling. The parish 
abounds in gentlemen's seats and pleasure- 
grounds, and contains localities consecrated by 
the birth or residence of men eminent in the 
biography of Scotland. In its more secluded 
recesses, Sir William Wallace is known to 
have occasionally found a retreat ; and in a 
much later age, Napier of Merchiston, inven- 
tor of the logarithms, when he was making his 
calculations, resided for some years at Gart- 
ness, a place on the Endrick, to the west of 
Killearn. The house in which this ingenious 
man resided adjoined a mill erected on the wa- 
ter ; and it is a tradition in these parts, that 
the rushing of the cascade, though very noisy, 
gave him no uneasiness, because of its non-in- 
termission, but that the clack of the mill, 
which was only occasional, greatly disturbed 
his thoughts. He was, therefore, when in 
deep study, sometimes under the necessity of 
desiring the miller to stop the mill, that the 
train of his ideas might not be interrupted. 
" No spot in the parish, or perhaps in Scotland," 
writes the author of the Statistical Account, 
" has a better claim to the attention of the pub- 
lic, than the indisputable birth-place of George 
Buchanan, the celebrated poet and histori- 



KILLIECRANKIE. 



620 



i an. This great man, whose name is deserved 
ly famous through Europe, was born at a 
place called the Moss, a small farm-house on 
the bank of the water of Blane, and about two 
miles from the village of Killearn. The farm 
was the property of George Buchanan's fa- 
ther, and was for a long time possessed by the 
name of Buchanan. The place is called the 
Moss, because it is situated in the vicinity of a 
peat-moss, which is part of the farm. The 
dwelling-house, considered as a building, is 
very far from being conspicuous ; although it 
is no worse, and probably never was worse, 
than the ordinary farm-houses in this part of 
the country. Its appearance of meanness 
arises from its being very low, and covered 
with straw thatch. Part of it, however, has 
been rebuilt, since George was born, in the 

. year 1506. Mr. Finlay is highly to be 
commended for preserving, as much as possi- 
ble, the ancient construction and appearance 
of this far-famed arid much-honoured house. 
The most superb edifice would sink into ob- 
livion when compared with the humble birth- 
place of George Buchanan. Long may the 
Moss of Killearn afford mankind a striking 
proof that the Genius of learning does not al- 
ways prefer the lofty abodes of the great and 
powerful. It must, however, be remarked, 
that the parents of Buchanan, although not 
very opulent, yet were not in abject or indi- 
gent circumstances. The farm, which con- 
sists of a plough of land, was able, by the aid 
of industry and economy, to keep them easy. 
A place in the neighbourhood is, to this day, 
called Heriot s Shiels, so denominated from 
Buchanan's mother, whose name was Agnes 
Heriot, and who first used that place for the 
shielding of sheep. It is reported, that he re- 
ceived the first rudiments of his education at 
the public school of Killearn, which was for a 
long time in great repute, and much frequent- 
ed. He afterwards, by the liberal assistance 
of his uncle George Heriot, after whom he 
was named, went to Dumbarton, Paris, &c. 
&c. to complete his studies. A considerable 
number of old trees yet remain adjacent to the 
house, and are reported to have been planted 
by George when a boy. A mountain ash, fa- 
mous for its age and size, was blown down a 
few years ago ; but care is taken to preserve 
two thriving shoots that have risen from the 
old stool. The gentlemen of this parish and 
neighbourhood, led by a laudable ambition to 



contribute a testimony of respect to their 
learned countryman, lately erected, by volun- 
tary subscription, a beautiful monument to his 
memory. By such public marks of approba- 
tion bestowed upon good and great men, the 
living may reap advantage from the dead. 
Emulation is thereby excited, and the active 
powers of the mind stimulated, by an ardour 
to excel in whatever is praiseworthy. Bu- 
chanan's monument is situated in the village 
of Killearn, and commands an extensive 
view. It is a well proportioned obelisk, 19 
feet square at the basis, and reaching to the 
height of 103 feet above the ground." — Popu- 
lation in 1821, 1126. 

KILLEARNAN, a parish in Ross-shire, 
bounded on the west by Urray, on the north 
by a range of common dividing it from Fer- 
intosh, on the east by Kilmuir-wester and 
Suddie, and on the south by the Firth of 
Beauly, along which it is pleasantly situated. 
Population in 1821, 1371. 

KILLIECRANKIE, a noted pass in the 
district of Athole, Perthshire, formed by a nar- 
row vale or chasm, through which flows the tu- 
multuous river Garry, a tributary of the Tay, 
and which, moreover, forms part of the great ac- 
cess to the Highlands between Perth and In- 
verness. Previous to the general revival of the 
Highland roads, this pass was the most wild 
in appearance, and the most dangerous, in the 
whole of the north of Scotland ; the road being 
led along a narrow tract by the left bank of 
the river, with a stupendous precipice rising 
almost perpendicularly above it. Here, ac- 
cording to the account given by one of the 
present writers in a former work (History of 
the Rebellion of 1689, Constable's Miscellany) 
the bold dark hills which range along the vale 
of the Garry on both sides, advance so near, 
and start up with such perpendicular majesty, 
that the eagles call to each other from their 
various tops, and the shadow of the left range 
lies in everlasting gloom upon the face of the 
right. The road (now) passes along the brink 
of a precipitous brae on the north-east side, 
the bare, steep face of the hill rising above, and 
the deep black water of the Garry tumbling 
below, while the eye and the imagination are 
impressed by the wilderness of dusky foliage 
which clothes the opposite hills. This road, 
formerly so difficult and dangerous, is now no 
longer terrible, unless to an imagination unac- 
customed to such wild scenes. The pass of 



6G0 



K I L L I N. 



Killiecrankie, which extends two or three miles 
in length, is remarkable as giving name to a 
battle fought upon the rough ground at its 
north-west extremity, July 27, 1689, between 
the forces of General Mackay, commander of 
the government troops for the protection of 
the Revolution settlement, and the Highland- 
ers, who assembled under Viscount Dundee, 
in behalf of King James VII. The former be- 
ing defeated, were driven back through the vale, 
amidst whose tortuous and contracted recesses 
great numbers were slain by the pursuing 
Highlanders. On the other hand, the cause 
of King James suffered more by the death of 
Dundee, who was killed by a musket bullet 
near Urrard House, while cheering on his men 
to victory. So dreaded was the pass of Kil- 
liecrankie by regular soldiers after this event, 
that, in 1746, when the Hessian troops fur- 
nished to this country to assist in the suppres- 
sion of the insurrection, were brought to enter 
the Highlands at this point, they started back 
and returned to Perth, declaring it to be the 
ne plus ultra of a civilized country. 

KILLIN, a parish in the Highland district 
of Breadalbane, Perthshire ; bounded generally 
on the south by Balquhidder, on the east by 
Kenmore, on the north by Fortingall, and parts 
of Weem and Kenmore, and on the west by 
Glenorchy in Argyleshire ; being in length 
about twenty-eight miles, and from six to eight 
in breadth. The parish consists chiefly of the 
vale of the Dochart, which is the principal 
feeder of Loch Tay ; and the church town, 
called also Killin, is situated at the eastern 
extremity of the parish, where that river falls 
into the lake. Glendochart is, upon the whole, 
an arid, moorish, and marshy valley, and does 
not support a great population. The High- 
land road from Stirling to Fort William passes 
through it. The mountains on both sides rise 
to a great height, the highest being the well 
known Benmore. The name Killin, which 
has extended from the town to the parish, sig- 
nifies the cell or religious building at the wa- 
terfall, an etymology justified by circumstances, 
as in the very centre of the village the river 
forms a series of beautiful, though gentle cas- 
cades. A small eminence in the neighbour- 
hood of the village is pointed out as the burial 
place of the famed Highland hero Fingal. It 
has been already noticed under Fillans (St.), 
that that celebrated saint, who died in 649, 
spent the latter part of his life and gave his 



name to a vale in this parish (Strathfillan), 
where a chapel and priory were afterwards 
erected to his honour by Robert Bruce, who 
gave the church of Killin to the Abbot of 
Inchaffray, on condition that one of the canons 
should always officiate in St. Fillan's chapel. 
The king was induced to pay this respect to 
St. Fillan, from gratitude for the hand, or ra- 
ther the arm, which his reverence was suppos- 
ed to have had in the battle of Bannockburn ; 
such a relic of the saint having been present in 
a box, and understood to be very powerful 
in bringing about the victory. It would ap- 
pear from these circumstances that Killin has 
been a seat of population, and a scene of pub- 
lic worship, from a very early period. At 
present, the village is famed for the picturesque 
beauty of its situation at the south-west end 
of Loch Tay, and is therefore, like Kenmore, 
from which it is distant sixteen miles, a fa- 
vourite point in the tour of the central High- 
lands. There is a good inn. Besides this 
village, there is another called Clifton, in the 
western part of the parish, which contains 
about 200 inhabitants, chiefly employed in 
working the lead mine of Cairndoom. — Popu- 
lation of the whole parish in 1821, 2103. 

KILMADAN, or KILMODAN, a pa- 
rish in Cowal, Argyleshire, extending twelve 
miles in length by one in breadth, consisting 
chiefly of a vale bounded by hills on the west 
and east. The parish of Kilfinnan lies on the 
west, separating it from Loch Fyne. The 
rivel Ruail pursues a southerly course through 
the vale and falls into Loch Ridon. The ex- 
tent of sea-coast is about three miles. The 
small village of Kilmcdan is situated in the 
vale of Ruail, on its left bank, and here an an- 
nual meeting of the Cowal Agriculture Asso- 
ciation takes place, on the last Wednesday of 
September, with a show of cattle and sheep. 
—Population in 1821, 731. 

KILMADOCK, or DOUNE, an exten- 
sive parish in the southern part of Perthshire, 
district of Menteith, bounded by a detached 
part of Strowan, united to Monivaird on the 
north ; Dumblane, and part of Lecropt on the 
east ; Kincardine and the Forth, which sepa- 
rates it from Gargunnock and Kippen on the 
south, and by a part of Kincardine and Callan- 
der on the west. The Teith intersects the dis- 
trict from the northwest to south-east. Alto- 
gether the parish consists of a superficies of about 
64 square miles. The original, and still legal, 



KILMANV. 



631 



title of the parish, Kilmadock, is derived from 
a locality in the district, once honoured by the 
residence of St. Madock or Madocus ; but 
this appellation has been gradually dropped 
since 1756, when the old parish church being 
removed, the seat of worship was transferred 
to the village of Doune, where a new kirk 
was erected. For a description of this thriv- 
ing village, with the Castle of Doune, and the 
scenery around them, we refer to the article 
Doune. The parish of Kilmadock and part 
of Kincardine parish on the south comprise a 
series of most beautiful rural and woodland 
scenes in the vale of the Teith, which is now 
highly cultivated and enclosed. This part of 
the country is populous, and has been enrich- 
ed by being made the settlement of certain ex- 
tensive cotton works at a place called Dean- 
Eton, which lies on the west bank of the 
Teith, opposite Doune. Adjacent to Doune 
are the small villages of Buchany and Burn of 
Cambus. — Population of the village of Doune 
in 1821, nearly 1000, including the parish, 
3150. 

KILMAHOG, a small village in Perth- 
shire, parish of Callander, situated on the left 
bank of the Teith, about a mile west from the 
village of Callander. Immediately to the west- 
ward is the celebrated pass of Leny. 

KILMALCOLM, a parish in the western 
part of Renfrewshire, having Port- Glasgow 
and the Clyde on the north, Erskine, Hous- 
ton, and Kilbarchan on the east, Lochwinnoch 
and part of Ayrshire on the south, and chiefly 
Greenock on the west. This district, which 
may be a square of six miles, is among the 
most moorish and unpromising in the county, 
a very great part of it in the south being a 
waste called Kilmalcolm Moss. It is not 
mountainous, though there are frequent risings 
on the surface, and some parts of it are rocky. 
The Gryfe and the Duchal, in their upper 
parts, intersect and water the parish, and have 
their banks cultivated, and in some places 
planted. The village of Kilmalcolm is situat- 
ed on the east side of the parish, on the road 
from the Bridge of Weir to Port- Glasgow. — 
Population in 1821, 1600. 

KILMALIE, an extensive mountainous 
parish in the West Highlands, partly belong- 
ing to Argyleshire, but the greater proportion 
to Inverness-shire, and being a part of the 
country of Locheil. It is intersected in three 
different places, by as many arms of the sea, 



and, measuring by straight lines, is sixty miles 
in length by thirty in breadth. Altogether, 
its superficies will be nearly 600 square miles. 
The chief indentation of the sea is Loch Eil, 
into which falls the Caledonian Canal. Near 
the junction of the latter with the Loch, and 
on the northern side, stands the parish kirk. 
On the other side of the canal and river is the 
castle of Inverlochy, the military strength of 
Fort- William, and the village of Maryburgh, 
all described_in this work in their proper places. 
Upon the banks of the rivers Lochy and Ne- 
vis, and in several other places, there is a good 
deal of arable land. — Popidation in 1821,5527. 

KILMANIVAIG, an extensive pastoral 
and mountainous parish in Inverness-shire, 
lying to the east of the above parish of Kilma- 
lie, having Fortingal on the south-east, Lag- 
gan on the east, Glenelg and Kintail on the 
north, and Boleskine on the north-east. Its 
appearance is very much diversified by ranges 
oflofty mountains towards the extremities, in- 
tersected by extensive glens in different direc- 
tions, and rapid rivers, which all discharge 
themselves into the river Lochy. The Kirk- 
toun of Kilmanivaig is situated at the south- 
western extremity of Loch Lochy. The chief 
natural curiosity of this district is the series of 
parallel roads in the vale of Glenroy ; — see 
Glenroy.— Population in 1821, 2842. 

KILMANY, a parish in the county of 
Fife, separated by Balmerino and Forgan 
from the Tay, having Logie, Dairsie, and Cu- 
par on the east and south, and Moonzie and 
Criech on the west. In figure, the district is 
very irregular, being six and a half miles in 
length by five in breadth at the west end, and 
tapering to two miles and less in the eastern 
part. The parish is wholly agricultural and 
highly productive. In modern times it has, in 
many places, been much improved by planta- 
tions, &c. The small village of Kilmany, 
with its kirk placed in a romantic and beauti- 
ful situation on the face of a bank rising from 
a small stream, is situated on the old road from 
Cupar to Dundee, about five miles north from 
the former, and three and a half from the har- 
bour of Balmerino on the Tay. Rather more 
than a mile westward is the village of Rathil- 
let, and near it is the house of Rathillet, the 
ancient seat of the Hackston family, one of 
whom obtained great distinction during the 
troubles in Scotland betwixt the Restoration 
and Revolution.— Population in 1821, 751. t 



632 



KILMARNOCK. 



KILMARNOCK, a parish in the district 
of Cunningham, Ayrshire, about nine miles 
long and four broad, bounded by Loudon on 
the east, by Fenwick and Stevvarton on the 
north, by Kilmaurs upon the west, and by the 
liver Inane, which divides it from Riccarton 
and Galston, on the south. The surface is 
level, or with only a slight declination towards 
the Irvine, and the whole is in a state of the 
highest cultivation. The name Kilmarnock, 
or Cellmarnock, evidently denotes a religious 
place originating in reference to St. Mar- 
noch, a holy man who is said to have died so 
early as 322, though it is hardly credible that 
he could have lived here. The Duchess of 
Portland, and the Marchioness of Hastings, 
(Countess of Loudoun,) are the principal pro- 
prietors of the parish. The most remarkable 
object in the parish is the ruin of Dean 
Castle, an ancient, extensive, and well defended 
house, formerly the property of the Earls of 
Kilmarnock. It stands in a dean or hollow, 
less than a mile north from the town of Kil- 
marnock, and is an august object. It was 
burnt down in 1735, in consequence of the in- 
attention of a servant girl, who, in preparing 
some lint for spinning, unfortunately let it take 
fire. There afterwards sprung up in one of 
its ruined halls, a large ash-tree, which verified, 
it was said, a prediction uttered in the time of 
" the Persecution." Half a mile north-west 
from the town is an extensive coal-field, whence 
coal is driven for the works in Kilmarnock, 
besides large supplies which are transmitted by 
a rail- way to Troon, where they are shipped 
for various places. 

Kilmarnock, a town in the above pa- 
rish — the principal one in Ayrshire, for po- 
pulation, wealth, and appearance, though neither 
a royal burgh nor the capital of the county. 
This large and flourishing town is situated on 
level ground near the debouche of the Kilmar- 
nock water into the Irvine, distant from Edin- 
burgh, (through Glasgow,) sixty-five and a- half 
miles ; Glasgow, twenty-one and a-half ; Ayr, 
twelve ; Irvine, six and a-half; Ballantrae, forty- 
six; Girvan, thirty- two; Maybole, twenty-one; 
Largs, twenty -eight ; and Mauchline, nine and 
a-half. The aspect of the town is agreeable, 
especially in its central parts, where the streets 
are regular, and the greater part of the houses 
are erected in an elegant style in freestone. 
Recently the town has extended considerably 
to the south and east, and in these directions 



has now many handsome edifices. Two cen- 
turies ago, Kilmarnock was a mere hamlet, 
depending upon the baronial castle in its neigh- 
bourhood. It received its first charter as a 
burgh of barony in 1591, a second in 1672, 
and in 1700, its magistrates were able to pur- 
chase, from its feudal superiors, the whole com- 
mon good and customs of the burgh. The five 
incorporated trades which now exist in the 
town, namely, the bonnet-makers, skinners, 
tailors, shoemakers, and weavers, have all been 
created -within the last two hundred years ; the 
bonnet-makers, in 1646, being the first incor- 
porated. For many years and generations, the 
place seems to have been only distinguished 
by the manufacture of the broad fiat bonnets, 
which so long were the characteristic wear of 
the Scottish lowland peasantry, as also the 
striped cowls which yet bear the name of the 
town. As this business increased, so grew the 
population; and in 1731, the number had 
swelled so much, that the parish church was 
found inadequate for its accommodation, and a 
new church was built- Some years later, ac- 
cording to the Rev. Dr. Mackinlay, in his 
Statistical Account of the parish, "the principal 
trade was carried on by three or four individu- 
als, who bought serges and other woollen arti- 
cles from private manufacturers, and exported 
them to Holland. When the demand after- 
wards increased, a company was formed, who 
erected a woollen factory for different branches 
of that business, which has ever since continu- 
ed in a very flourishing state. The shoe trade 
was introduced about the same time." At the 
time when this gentleman wrote (1791), the 
proportion of the produce of the chief manu- 
factures was as follows : — 

Carpets manufactured, - L.21,400 
Shoes and boots, - 21,216 

Tanning, - - 9000 

Gloves, - - 3000 

Bonnets, night-caps, and mits, 1706 

And the whole amount, including a variety of 
different articles, was L.86,850. The advan- 
tages of the place as a site of manufactures 
were coal, healthiness of situation, a populous 
country around, and abundance of provisions ; 
the chief disadvantage the distance from the 
sea, (six or seven miles,) -and the consequent 
expense of land carriage. It would appear 
that the former have been much too powerful 
for the latter ; for Kilmarnock, since the date 
of the above statement, has made prodigious 



KILMARNOCK. 



633 



advances in business, in all its former branches 
of manufacture. It is now a rival to Kid- 
derminster in the manufacture of carpets ; the 
number of firms in that line in 1826 being six. 
It continues to enjoy its pre-eminence as a place 
for making shoes, the number of professors 
of this art in the same year amounting to 
thirty-three. Since 1791, it has entered into 
and carried on to a large extent, the cotton 
manufacture ; the number of agents for the 
management of that branch of employment in 
1 826 was twenty. Shawls, gauzes, and mus- 
lins of the finest texture and most elegant pat- 
tern are here produced upon an extensive scale. 
Bonnets and plaids, now that they have become 
articles of fancy wear, are wrought in greater 
quantities than ever, no fewer than seventeen 
houses being employed in 1826 in making bon- 
nets alone. The tanning and dressing of leather, 
extensive dye-works, a large calico printing con- 
cern, breweries, together with several large 
nurseries, all add to the wealth and importance 
of the town. It must also be mentioned, that 
the whole of the different branches of business 
are carried on in an amazingly active and liberal 
spirit. A good idea of the value and extent 
of the manufactures of this thriving town may 
be gained from the following statistical facts, 
published in the newspapers in July 1831 : — 
" In Kilmarnock, about 1200 weavers and 
200 printers are engaged in the manufacture of 
harness and worsted printed shawls. From 
31st May 1830 to June 1, 1831, there were no 
less than 1,128,814 of these shawls manufac- 
tured, the value of which would be about 
L.200,000. In the manufacture of Brussels, 
Venetian, and Scottish carpets and rugs, the 
quality and patterns of which are not surpass- 
ed by any in the country, there are upwards of 
1000 weavers employed. The annual amount 
of this important branch of manufacture can- 
not be less than L. 100,000. About 2400 
pairs of boots and shoes are made every week, 
of which three-fourths are for exportation ; an- 
nual value about L.32,000. The manufac- 
ture of bonnets is also extensive, there being 
upwards of 224,640 yearly made by the cor- 
poration, the annual value of which is L. 1 2,000. 
The number of sheep and lamb skins dressed 
annually exceeds 140,000." The town, both 
in its public and private business, is a notable 
example of the negative advantage which is so 
often seen to attend the exemption from politi- 
cal privileges. Its magistracy, consisting of 



two bailies, a treasurer, and sixteen councillors, 
are in a great measure a committee of the in- 
habitants for the management of the town, and, 
being under no particular control or temptation, 
from neighbours anxious to obtain a place in 
parliament, they conduct public affairs simply 
with a regard to the general good, neither 
swerving to the right nor the left. The three 
magistrates, the baron bailie, and the convener 
of the trades, ex officio, together with sixteen 
ordinary commissioners, form a commission for 
the management of the police. There is, be- 
sides, an association entrusted with the im- 
provement of the town. Kilmarnock was 
lighted with gas in 1823, by a joint-stock com- 
pany formed of shareholders of ten pounds 
each share, the management being entrusted to 
a committee of twelve gentlemen. The shops 
throughout the town are filled with elegant 
assortments of goods, and a degree of ani- 
mation prevails among the inhabitants, which 
makes a favourable impression upon strangers. 
The trade of Kilmarnock is assisted by branch ■ 
es of the Commercial and Ayr banks. A hand- 
some new edifice at the east end of the town is 
in the course of erection for a new branch bank. 
The town-house, built in 1805, contains a 
court-room for the magistracy and public of- 
fices. In 1814, an elegant news-room was 
built in the centre of the town ; this serves the 
double purpose of a reading-room, and a place 
of general resort, and is supplied with most of 
the London, Edinburgh, and Scottish provincial 
newspapers. Kilmarnock possesses an excel- 
lent academy, in which a variety of branches 
of education are taught by four masters ; and, 
besides, there are nine private schools through- 
out the town. An association, under the title 
of a Society for Promoting Knowledge, has 
been established, and the town is furnished 
with a large subscription library, besides those 
which are managed by booksellers. There 
are three printers in Kilmarnock, one of whom 
prints a newspaper lately established ; and it 
is not to be forgotten in the literary history 
of the town, that here was put to press and pub- 
lished the first edition of the poems of Robert 
Burns. The town contains several respects 
ble and well-conducted societies, among which 
are the Procurators', the Merchants', with se- 
veral benefit societies and clubs. A very fine 
observatory, some valuable machinery, and ex- 
cellent telescopes have been constructed by the 
inventive genius of Mr. Thomas Morton, a 
4 M 



0S4 



KILMAURS. 



self-instrflcted mechanist residing in the neigh- 
bourhood. The religions culture of the peo- 
ple is superintended by three town clergymen, 
two of whom are colleagues in one church ; by 
two ministers of the United Secession ; and by 
one minister of each of the following denomi- 
nations : — Relief, Original Seceders, Original 
Burghers, Independents, and Reformed Pres- 
bytery. Almost the only antiquity in the 
town used to be a cross, called Lord Soulis' 
Cross, commemorating the assassination of this 
nobleman by one of the family of Boyd. This 
stood in one of the streets, till it gradually fell 
to ruin. The incident took place in 1444. 
At Kilmarnock, strangers should inquire for a 
museum of curiosities, the property of Mr. 
David Gray, vintner. It consists of coins, 
minerals, natural curiosities, arms, &c, and is 
well worthy of a visit. Kilmarnock was a 
modern earldom in the old family of Boyd, at- 
tainted in 1743. — Population of the town in 
1821, 12,500, including the parish 12,769. 

KILMARNOCK WATER, a consider- 
able rivulet in Ayrshire, rising in the upper 
parts of the parish of Fenwick (by whose name 
it is sometimes called) and after a course of 
eight or nine miles, and having intersected the 
above town of Kilmarnock, falls into the Ir- 
vine a short way to the east, at Riccarton. 

KILMARONOCK, a parish in Dumbar- 
tonshire, lying at the south end of Loch Lo- 
mond, by which and the Endrick water, it is 
bounded on the west and north ; Bonhill and 
Dumbarton lie on the south. From near Bal- 
loch on the west to Spittal on the Endrick, the 1 
direct distance is about seven miles, and from 
Loch Lomond to the boundary with Dumbar- 
ton, the distance is five miles. Within these 
dimensions, the parish is diversified with hill 
and dale, beautiful plantations and pleasure- 
grounds, and arable fields now in a good state 
of cultivation. Ardoch is one of the chief 
seats- The village of Kilmaronock is situated 
near the Endrick. — Population in 1821, 1008. 

K1LMARTIN, a parish in Argyleshire, 
lying on the west coast in Argyle Proper, ex- 
tending twelve miles in length by about three 
in breadth, bounded on the north-east for six 
miles by Loch Awe. The parish of Glassary 
or Kilmichael lies on the east. The district, 
like other parts of Argyleshire, in this quarter 
is hilly with arable fields intermixed. The pa- 
rish comprehends the Crinan canal. The 



church of Kilmartin is situated about four miles 
northward from thence, in a valley which pro- 
ceeds to Loch Awe, and is esteemed for its 
romantic beauty. — Population in 1821, 1452. 
KILMARTIN WATER, a small river 
in the parish of Kilmuir, Isle of Skye. 

KILMAURS, a parish in the district of 
Cunningham, Ayrshire, extending six miles 
from east to west, by at most three miles from 
north to south, and situated betwixt Kilmar- 
nock and Dreghorn. The surface consists of 
large flat fields, with many gentle risings and 
declivities interspersed. The summits of these 
are covered with trees, and the whole district 
has a pleasing appearance. The village or 
town of Kilmaurs, the capital of the parish, is 
situated on the right bank of a rivulet which 
rises in Fenwick parish, and is here called Kil- 
maurs Water, but which is more properly styl- 
ed the Carmel Water, at the distance of two 
miles north-west from Kilmarnock. " It was 
erected into a burgh of barony," says the author 
of the Statistical Account of the parish, " by 
James V., at the instance of Cuthbert, Earl 
of Glencairn, and William his son, Lord Kil- 
maurs. That noble family then resided in this 
parish, where they had a house, some small 
ruins of which yet remain on the farm, which 
is called Jock's Thorn, near to the road leading 
from Stewarton to Kilmarnock, and their 
house known by the name of the Place, was 
situated, where the late Lord Chancellor had 
laid the foundation of a very extensive build- 
ing. By a charter, written in Latin, and sign- 
ed by the said Cuthbert and his son at Glas- 
gow, 15th November 1577, it appears, that the 
five pound land of Kilmaurs, consisting of 
240 acres, was disposed to forty different per- 
sons in feu farm and free burgage, and to be 
held in equal proportions by them, their heirs 
and successors, upon the yearly rent of eighty 
merks for every fortieth part." The charter 
which thus erected the then village of Kilmaurs 
into a free barony, contains many remarkable 
clauses, and among the rest, one to the effect 
that " no woman succeeding to an inheritance 
in the said burgh, shall marry without the spe- 
cial licence of the Earl of Glencairn." It was 
the design of this nobleman to bring together 
into one place a number of tradesmen of dif- 
ferent professions, and to lay the basis of a 
manufacturing and commercial population ; but 
here, as almost everywhere, it was soon made 



27 



K1LM0RE. 



635 



evident that trade and manufactures can hardly 
be coerced with a chance of success. The 
feuars, instead of turning their attention to the 
arts, in time drew their entire subsistence from 
the soil, and ultimately the place became noted 
for its production of the best kail plants in the 
country. The only trade which settled in the 
little town was the manufacture of clasp knives 
or whittles, the sharpness of the edge of which 
instruments gave rise in Ayrshire to a form of 
speech yet in use through the country : A 
man of acute understanding and quickness of 
action, is said to be as sharp as a Kihnaurs 
whittle, a mode of expression once so common 
that it is known to have entered into the pul- 
pit eloquence of a certain old presbyterian cler- 
gyman, who, on one occasion, in addressing 
himself to his audience, upon rising to speak 
after a young divine, who had delivered a dis- 
course in flowery language and English pro- 
nunciation, said, " My friends, we have had a 
great deal of fine English ware among us the 
day, but aiblins my Kilmaurs whittle will cut 
as sharply as ony English blade !" In later 
times this species of manufacture was aban- 
doned, and trade has subsequently been direct- 
ed into the channel of weaving, &c. There is 
plenty of coal in the vicinity. The town now 
consists principally of one street, in the middle 
of which is a small town-house with a steeple 
and clock. It is governed by two bailies, cho- 
sen annually by a majority of the portioners, 
before whom debts may be recovered. Before 
the Reformation the church of Kilmaurs was 
a collegiate institution, founded in 1503, for a 
provost and several prebendaries, with two sing- 
ing boys, by Sir William Cunningham of Kil- 
maurs. Besides the present parish church, 
there is a meeting-house of the United Seces- 
sion body. In the cemetery of the Glencairn 
family, near the church, is a piece of beautiful 
ancient sculpture, erected as a monument to 
the memory of William, the ninth Earl, who 
was raised to the dignity of Lord High Chan- 
cellor of Scotland by Charles II. — Population 
of the town in 1821, 900, including the parish 
1660. 

KILMENY, an abrogated parish in the 
Isle of Islay, now united to Killarrow ; — see 
Kill arrow. 

KILMORACK, a parish in the north- 
eastern part of Inverness shire, bounded on its 
north-eastern quarter by Beauly Firth and the 
parish of Kirkhill, and on the south-west 



by Kintail and Lochalsh. This parish is among 
the largest in Scotland, and stretches from 
Farradale to the eastward of the village of 
Beauly, in a direction pretty nearly from east 
to west, till within a short distance of the Croe 
of Kintail, — a tract of ground upwards of six- 
ty miles in length, by ten, twenty, and even 
thirty in breadth. Pastoral mountains and hills, 
glens, rivers, some arable grounds, and water- 
falls enter into the description of this vast ex- 
tent of country. Adjacent to the Beauly Firth 
the district is exceedingly beautiful and produc- 
tive, and there are in this quarter large plan- 
tations of firs. The principal river is the 
Beauly, composed of three lesser ones, the 
Farrar, Canich, and Glass, which give names to 
as many glens. The falls of Kilmorack on 
the Beauly river, are noticed under the latter 
head — Population in 1821, 2862. 

KILMORE, a parish in Lorn, Argyle- 
shire, to which the abrogated parish of Kil- 
bride has been united, lying opposite the en • 
trance to Loch Linnhe on the sea-coast, ex- 
tending seven miles in length, by six in 
breadth, and including the island of Kerera. 
The country is hilly, but not mountainous. 
The hills, though low, are covered with heath. 
The valleys are generally arable. The parish 
includes the town of Oban, which, as well as 
Kerera, lying opposite to it, are described un- 
der their respective heads. The parish also 
includes the ruined Castle of Dunstaffnage, at 
the entrance to Loch Etive, a notice of which 
will also be found under its appropriate head. 
—Population in 1821, 804- 

KILMORICH, a parish in Argyleshire, 
united to that of Loch-goil-head ; — See Loch- 

GOIL-HEAD. 

KILMORY, a parish in the isle of Arran, 
county of Bute, occupying about the half of 
the island on its west side, — Kilbride parish 
forming the eastern division. The Kirk of 
Kilmory is at the southern extremity of the 
island Population in 1821, 3827. 

KILMUIR, a parish belonging to Inver- 
ness-shire, in the isle of Skye, occupying the 
most northerly portion of the island, and be- 
ing bounded by the sea on all sides but the 
south, where it has the parish of Snizort. 
Its length is computed at sixteen miles, by 
eight miles in breadth, and it is generally hilly 
and pastoral. The low grounds or habitable 
parts are arable. The palish church stands on 
the west coast, near the northern. extreiK >fy of 



036 



KILNINVER. 



the island. At a creek north from it is the 
ruin of the once magnificent Castle of Dun- 
tulm, the ancient residences of the M'Donald 
family. It is situated high on a rock, the foot 
of which is washed by the sea. A lofty 
mountain range terminates in this parish, and 
at its northern extremity there is, says the au- 
thor of the Statistical Account of the parish, 
" a most curious concealed valley. It is on 
all sides surrounded with high rocks, and ac- 
cessible to man or beast only in three or four 
places. A person seeing the top of the rocky 
boundaries, could never imagine that they sur- 
rounded so great a space of ground. In bar- 
barous times, when perpetual feuds and dis- 
cords subsisted between the clans, to such a 
degree that life and moveable property could 
not be secure, when the approach of an enemy 
was announced, the weakest of the inhabitants, 
with all the cattle, were sent into this secret 
asylum, where strangers could never discover 
them without particular information. It is so 
capacious as to hold, but not to pasture for any 
length of time, 4000 head of cattle, and is 
justly accounted a very great natural curiosity." 
There are a number of safe natural harbours 
on the coast, which is bold and precipitous, 
and a few small pastoral islands belong to the 
parochial districts. — Population in 1821, 3387. 
KILMUIR, (EASTER) a parish partly 
in Ross and partly in Cromartyshire, extend- 
ing ten miles by four and a half on an average 
in breadth, bounded on the east by the small 
river of Balnagown, and by the sands of Nigg 
and bay of Cromarty on the south. The situa- 
tion is highly delightful, having the best cul- 
tivated parts of six neighbouring parishes full 
in view. Beyond these, the eye extends over 
a prospect of thirty miles from east to west 
along the firth ; and, towards the south-east, 
a passage opens between the two rocks, called 
the Sutors or Saviours of Cromarty, through 
which a considerable part of the county of 
Moray is visible ; and all the vessels, small 
and great, that enter into the bay, and anchor 
in this Portus salutis, are seen from almost 
every house in the parish ; the whole forming 
one of the richest and most beautifully varie- 
gated landscapes in Britain. The soil of this 
parish is various ; along the shore, which is 
flat, it is generally light and sandy, but in rainy 
seasons very fertile ; and, even in the driest 
summer, it seldom fails of yielding a good crop. 
About a mile from the shore, and almost 



parallel to it, a sloping bank runs from east to 
west through the whole parish : here both the 
soil and the climate begin to change, though 
the bank at its utmost altitude is not more than 
thirty feet above the level of the sea Popu- 
lation in 182], 1381. 

KILMUN, a small village at the head of 
Holy Loch, district of Cowal, Argyleshire. 
Kilmun was formerly the capital of a parish of 
the same name, now incorporated with that of 
Dunoon; and here, in the year 1442, Sir 
Duncan Campbell of Lochawe ancestor of the 
Duke of Argyle, founded a collegiate church 
for a provost and several prebendaries, — " in 
honorem Sancti Mundi abbatis," — from whom 
the name of the place is derived. The burial 
vault of the Argyle family is still at the old 
church of Kilmun. 

KILMUIR, (WESTER) and SUDDY, 
a united parish in Ross-shire, now termed 
Knockbain — See Knockbain. 

KILNINIAN, a parish in Argyleshire, 
island of Mull, forming the northern division 
of that island, and rendered peninsular by the 
indentation of Loch-na-Keal on the west, and 
the bay of Aros from the sound of Mull on 
the east. In extent it measures nearly a square 
of twelve miles, but being a hilly pastoral dis- 
trict, it contains little to excite description. 
In Loch-na-Keal there are some islands be- 
longing to the parish, the chief of which are 
Ulva and Gometray, also Little Colonsay, 
Kenneth, and Eorsa- Farther out to sea is 
Staffa island, which is also ecclesiastically at- 
tached to the district. Between Gometray 
and Ulva and the main land of Mull is the 
sound called Loch Tua, and opposite this 
quarter, at some distance from land, is the 
Treishnish group of islets, also belonging to 
Kilninian. In the centre of the parish lies 
Loch Erisa. The modern town of Tober- 
mory is on the sound of Mull in this parish, 
but it as well as the above islands and lochs 
being sufficiently described under their particu- 
lar heads, do not here require notice. — Popula- 
tion in 1821,4357. 

KILNINVER, a parish in Lorn, Argyle- 
shire, incorporating the abrogated parish of 
Kilmelfort, lying on the west coast to the 
south of Kilmore, being of a square form, 
measuring twelve miles each way. The Kil- 
melfort part of the parish is south of Kilnin- 
ver. The lower parts of the district on the 
west are generally smooth sloping declivities 



KILPATRICK. 



637 



toivards the sea, yielding, when properly culti- 
vated, and in favourable seasons, good crops of 
corn and potatoes. The upper parts, towards 
the east and south, are mountainous. There 
is a good deal of natural wood, and planta- 
tions in a thriving condition. The parish has 
six miles of sea coast opposite Mull.— Popula- 
tion in 1821,685. 

KILPATRICK, (NEW or EAST) a 
parish belonging partly to Dumbartonshire and 
partly to Stirlingshire, having a portion of its 
south-eastern extremity bounded by the river 
Kelvin, bounded on the west by Old or West 
Kilpatrick, on the north by Strathblane, and 
on the east by Baldernock ; in extent it is up- 
wards of six miles from north to south, by a 
breadth of from two to four miles. The sur- 
face is generally uneven and hilly, but is now 
in a great measure cultivated and enclosed, 
and improved by plantations. The Forth 
and Clyde canal intersects the parish in its 
southern part, entering the district on crossing 
the Kelvin by a stupendous aqueduct bridge 
(see Kelvin.) The parish has a variety of 
gentlemen's seats, and a village called Millguy, 
with a number of bleachfields, and mills for 
different purposes. The district was separat- 
ed from Old Kilpatrick in the year 1649 — 
Population in 1821, 2530. 

KILPATRICK, (OLD or WEST) a 
parish in Dumbartonshire of a triangular form, 
lying with its base to the Clyde, bounded by 
Dumbarton on the west, and East Kilpatrick 
on the east ; in extent it presents a shore of 
eight miles to the above river, by a depth in- 
land, narrowing to ah obtuse point, of upwards 
of four miles. The surface is uneven and 
mostly hilly, being excellently adapted for 
cattle and sheep^pasture ; the lower parts are 
arable. The district has several small rivulets, 
which, from the number of the works erected 
upon them, have added very much to the 
wealth and population of the parish ; calico 
printing, bleaching, paper-making, and iron 
founding, and distilling, are the chief trades 
carried on upon a great scale. The Forth and 
Clyde Canal intersects the lower or southern 
end of the parish, and falls into the Clyde at 
Bowling Bay, a short way westward from 
West Kilpatrick. This village lies ten miles 
west from Glasgow on the road from thence 
along the Clyde to Dumbarton, from which it 
is five miles distant. It occupies a pleasant 
situation at the foot of the hilly country in 



view of the Clyde, and contained in 1821 
about 700 inhabitants. The village is not dis- 
tinguished by manufactories, but in the neigh- 
bourhood is an extensive paper manufactory, 
and two miles to the northward are two of the 
largest cotton mills in Scotland ; these and the 
other works in the parish give employment to 
some thousands of hands. The village has 
two good inns. At the entrance from Dum- 
barton stands the established church, a neat 
stone building with a handsome tower and a 
good clock. Kilpatrick has, besides, a Burghei 
and a Relief meeting-house. Contiguous to 
the village is the parochial school. The name 
Kilpatrick implies the Cell of Patrick ; and it 
is universally allowed that this was the birth- 
place of the celebrated tutelar saint of Ireland 
who, in the words of the song, 

" drove the frogs into the bogs, 

And banished all the varmint." 

According to the ancient monkish biographers 
of St. Patrick, he first saw the light about the 
year 372, near the town of Dumbarton. 
Scotland was then a Roman province, except- 
ing what lay to the north of the wall which 
ran through this parish ; and the father of St- 
Patrick was a Roman provincial, named Cal- 
purnius, his mother's name being Conevessa. 
Mr. Dillon, the late Secretary of the Scottish 
Antiquarian Society, in a paper published in 
the second volume of the Archaelogia Scotica, 
conjectures that the ancient, but now extinct, 
village of Duntocher, which stood on a hill in 
this parish, was the proper birth place of the 
frog-compelling saint, instead of Kilpatrick, 
which more probably was a religious place 
brought into existence in commemoration of 
him, or founded by himself. To support this 
theory, Duntocher is found to exhibit the re- 
mains of a Roman statue, while nothing of 
the kind is to be traced at Kilpatrick. At all 
events, the birth-place of the saint is certainly 
within the parish. When Patrick was six- 
teen years of age, a band of Irish pirates made 
a descent upon this civilized Roman district, 
and carried him off, along with other captives, 
to their own comparatively barbarous country. 
Thus commenced his connexion with Ireland. 
He was placed as a slave under Milcho, a 
petty king at Skirry, in the county of Antrim ; 
from whom, however, he afterwards made his 
escape in a ship that carried him to the Con- 
tinent; whence he subsequently rejoined his 



638 



KILKENNY. 



parents in bis native country. Having now 
acquired that gift of holiness for which he was 
so distinguished, he re-visited Ireland in the 
imposing character of an apostle of Christian- 
ity ; and after a most eventful and useful life, 
he died in 491, in the 120th year of his age. 
There is good reason to suppose that he was 
buried at Glasgow, on the spot which was 
subsequently occupied by the cathedral. In 
the river Clyde, opposite to the church, there 
is, or was, a large stone or rock, visible at 
low water, called St. Patrick's stone. As al- 
ready mentioned, the celebrated wall of An- 
toninus, which crossed the island from the 
Forth to the Clyde, terminated on the west, in 
this parish, at the place called Dunglas, and 
vestiges of this massive work of art are still 
visible. In much later times Dunglas was the 
site of a fortlet which being situated on a low 
rocky promontory on the Clyde, was service- 
able in commanding the passage up or down the 
river. It is now a complete ruin shrouded in 
ivy, and has a romantic appearance in the eye 
of the tourist. By a very excusable ignorance, 
the writer of the Statistical Account, Webster, 
and the common herd of topographers who 
have blindly followed their descriptions, have 
confounded this castle of Dunglas with another 
of the same name, on the borders of East 
Lothian and Berwickshire, (see Oldham- 
stocks,) seven miles below Dunbar, by men- 
tioning that it was blown up in the year 1 640, 
by the treachery of an English boy, when the 
Earl of Haddington and other persons of rank 
were killed. The Dunglas on the Clyde, 
which had no connexion with this event, was 
formerly the property of the Colquhouns of 
Luss, who likewise enjoyed the whole tract of 
country from that to Dumbarton, at one time 
known as the barony of Colquhoun. Adja- 
cent to Dunglas on the west, rises a strangely 
shaped basaltic hill, termed Dumbuck, which 
shoots up its fantastic head into the air, 
and bears a resemblance to the rock of Dum- 
barton Castle in the vicinity. From the 
propinquity and resemblance of these objects, 
has arisen the proverbial expression in this 
part of the country, that " after swallowing 
Dumbuck, it's needless to make faces at Dum- 
barton ;" a sentiment similar in moral signifi- 
cation to the elegant adage, " Eat a cow and 
worry at the tail." — Population of this parish 
in 1821, 3692. 



KILRENNY, a parish in the county of 
P'ife, of a triangular form, with its base, of froru 
two to three miles in extent, along the shore 
of the Firth of Forth, near its mouth, and 
having a depth inland of nearly the same di- 
mensions. It includes the fishing village of 
Cellardykes or Nether Kilrenny, on the coast 
contiguous to Easter Anstrutber. The parish 
of Crail encompasses the district on the north 
and east. The shore is bold and rocky, and 
is in some places perforated with caves. The 
country is here under the best processes of pro- 
ductive agriculture, and is well enclosed and 
embellished with plantations. 

Kilkenny, a royal burgh, the capital of 
the above parish, situated one mile east of 
Easter Anstruther, three west of Crail, and 
about three quarters of a mile north of Cellar- 
dykes or Nether Kilrenny. This latter place 
was included with Kilrenny in a charter from 
James VI., creating the town a royal burgh. 
In virtue of this imprudent grant, the burgh, 
unless when disfranchised by some informality, 
has joined with Crail, Easter and Wester An- 
struther, and Pittenweem, in electing a mem- 
ber of parliament. In the present day, Kil- 
renny may be said to be almost extinct, as it 
certainly is unknown, as a town, having had a 
population of only 630 individuals by the cen- 
sus of 1821. Its civic government is com- 
posed of a chief magistrate, two bailies, and a 
treasurer. Kilrenny derives its name from the 
ancient church of the parish, which was dedi- 
cated to St. Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons, whose 
fame for piety was in early times great through- 
out Christendom. By the ordinary custom 
of cutting down names in Scotland, St. Irenaeus 
was usually styled St. Irnie, and from that, the 
title was finally turned into St. Renny, which 
has been since in common acceptation. A 
tradition was till lately current in this part of 
Fife, that so much was St. Irnie held in es- 
teem previous to the Reformation, that the 
devotees of Anstruther, who could not see the 
church of Kilrenny till they travelled up the 
rising ground to what they called the Hill, on ■ 
arriving at the summit, pulled off their bonnets, 
fell on their knees, crossed themselves, and 
prayed to the saint to whom it was dedicated. 
Such an alteration in the name of St. Irenajus 
is countenanced by the change in the name of 
a contiguous estate, which, from being at one 
time called Imiehill, is now entitled Rennie- 



KILSYTH. 



639 



hill — Population of the burgh and parish in 
1821, 1494. 

KILSPINDIE,-a parish in Perthshire, ly- 
ing partly in the Carse of Gowrie, and partly 
among the Sidlaw hills ; it is nearly of a square 
form, measuring three and a half miles from 
east to west, by a breadth of about three miles, 
bounded by Kinnoul, Scoon, and St. Martins 
on the west and north west, Kinnaird on the 
north-east, Errol on the south-east, and Kin- 
fauns on the south. Except a portion on the 
south-eastern side which belongs to the beauti- 
ful and highly cultivated Carse of Gowrie, near- 
ly the whole is a hilly and generally a pastoral 
territory. The Kirktown of Kilspindie stands 
on a public road in the south-eastern part. A 
short way north from thence is the village of 
Rait, once the capital of the parochial division 
of Rait, now incorporated in the present pa- 
rish ; and in its immediate vicinity is Fingask 
castle, the elegant seat of Sir Peter Murray 
Threipland, baronet. — Population in 1821, 722- 

KILSYTH, a parish in the southern part 
of Stirlingshire, extending a length of seven 
miles chiefly along the north side of the Kel- 
vin water, by a breadth of four miles, and at 
the east end by a breadth of only two miles, 
bounded by Fintry and St. Ninian's on the 
north, Denny on the east, Cumbernauld in 
Dumbartonshire on the south, and Campsie 
on the west. The rivers Carron on the north, 
Bushburn on the east, Kelvin on the south, 
and Inchburn on the west, form, in a great 
measure, the boundaries. The surface is rough, 
being an almost uninterrupted succession of 
hill and dale, with a lofty mountainous range 
called the Kilsyth hills, a continuation of the 
Campsie fells, in the northern division. The 
district is chiefly arable and of a pleasing 
nature towards the Kelvin. The parish a- 
bounds in coal and iron ore, vast quantities of 
the latter being supplied to the Carron iron 
works near Falkirk. The village of Kilsyth 
is situated on the public road twelve and a half 
miles from Glasgow, eleven and a half from 
Falkirk, sixteen from Stirling, and five from 
Kirkintulloch. It is a straggling, irregularly 
built, but populous place, and the inhabitants, 
amounting to upwards of two thousand indivi- 
duals, are chiefly engaged in weaving for the 
Glasgow manufacturers. Kilsyth is a burgh 
of barony with the privilege of holding five an- 
nual fairs. Besides the parish church, there is 
a Relief meeting-house. Charles II. in 1661, 



elevated Sir James Livingston, a branch of the 
family of Linlithgow, to the dignity of Vis- 
count Kilsyth, Lord Campsie, &c- for his 
faithful services during the preceding civil 
wars ; but the title was lost in the person of 
William, the third of the rank, whose hon- 
ours were attainted and estates forfeited for 
joining the Earl of Mar in the insurrection of 
1715. In the burial vault, at Kilsyth, of this 
unfortunate family, the bodies of the last Lady 
Kilsyth and her infant son lie embalmed. Kil- 
syth is commemorated in the history of Scot- 
land by having given its name to by far the 
most brilliant victory of the Marquis of Mon- 
trose, over General Baillie and the parliament- 
ary forces, in the year 1 645. This battle was 
fought at a place about two miles east from 
Kilsyth, in a field so broken and irregular, 
that, did not tradition and history concur, 
it could hardly be believed that it had ever 
been the scene of any military operation. 
It lies around a hollow, where a reservoir is 
now formed for supplying the great canal, 
a little north of Shaw-end. Two or three 
of Baillie's regiments began, by attempting 
to dislodge a party from the cottages and 
yards, but meeting with a warm reception, were 
forced to retire. A general engagement then 
commenced, and the undisciplined and almost 
savage army of Montrose soon effectually rout- 
ed their opponents. Near the field of battle, on 
the south, lies a large morass, called Dullater. 
Bog, through the midst of which the Forth 
and Clyde Canal now stretches, and into this 
dismal swamp several of Baillie's cavalry in the 
hurry of flight ran unawares and perished ; 
both men and horses in good preservation hav- 
ing been dug up, according to the author of the 
History of Stirlingshire, in the memory of per- 
sons then alive. — Population of the parish in 
1821, 4260. 

KILTARLITY, a large mountainous pa- 
rish in Inverness-shire, incorporating the sup- 
pressed parish of Conveth ; extending at least 
thirty miles from the north-east to the south- 
west, by an average breadth of six miles, bound- 
ed on the north-east by Kirkhill, on the east 
by Dores, on the south by Urquhart, and on 
the west and north by Kilmorack. The church 
of Kiltarlity stands on the right bank of the 
Beauly, nearly opposite the Kirktown of Kilmo- 
rack. The lower grounds are arable, and the 
district is now well wooded. — Population in 
1821, 2429. 



640 



KILWINNING. 



KILTEARN, a parish in Ross-shire, in 
the district of Easter Ross, lying on the north 
side of the Firth of Cromarty, and extending 
ahout six miles in length. The breadth is va- 
rious ; that part which is well cultivated is 
ahout two miles broad from the sea-shore to 
the foot of the hilly ground on the north, but 
there are several grazings and Highland pos- 
sessions at the distance of five, ten, and even 
fifteen miles from the sea. It is bounded by 
Alness on the east, Contin and Lochbroom on 
the west, and by Dingwall and Fodderty on 
the south. The Highland district of this 
parish is, for the most part, wild and unculti- 
vated, consisting of high mountains separated 
from each other by rapid rivulets, and exten- 
sive tracts of moor and mossy ground. The 
low district of the parish, which inclines gently 
from the foot of the hills towards the sea, is of 
a very rich and beautiful nature, exhibiting 
well cultivated fields, plantations, and pleasure 
and garden grounds. The chief river in the 
parish is the Skiach, which falls into the Cro- 
marty Firth at Kiltearn. On its left bank 
stands the small village of Drummond. — Po- 
pulation in 1821, 1656. 

KILVICEUEN, a parish in the island of 
Mull, now incorporated with Kilfinichen. — 
See Kilfinichen. 

KILWINNING, a parish in the district of 
Cunningham, Ayrshire, extending about nine 
miles at the utmost each way, and bounded on 
the north by Dairy, on the east by Dunlop and 
Stewarton, on the south by Irvine, and on tbe 
west by Stevenston, which divides it from the 
coast of the Firth of Clyde. The parish lies 
upon a gentle inclination towards the east, 
with slight intermediate undulations, the tops 
of which are generally covered by beautiful 
plantations. Like the rest of this fertile dis- 
trict, it is in a state of the highest cultivation, 
and is everywhere well enclosed. It is water- 
ed by the Garnock water, and by the Lugton, 
a tributary of that rivulet. There are several 
large collieries in the parish, and freestone 
and limestone are found in great abundance. 
A great part of the parish is composed of the 
barony of Eglinton, which is one of the 
most beautiful pieces of cultivated territory in 
Scotland, as its seat, Eglinton Castle, is one 
•of the most elegant and distinguished mansions. 
For the early history of this family, see Eg- 
linton Castle. This spot has been the prin- 
cipal seat of the family for between four and 



live hundred years, and has conferred upon it 
its title. The ancient family house was re- 
built since the commencement of the present 
century, in the castellated style, and the result 
is well entitled to the description above bestow- 
ed upon it. It is surrounded by about two 
thousand Scotch acres of park and pleasure 
ground, laid out in the very best taste. The 
first efforts for the decoration of this spot 
were made by Alexander Earl of Eglinton, 
a most liberal and patriotic young nobleman, 
who unfortunately was shot in 1780, ere his 
plans for the good of his country had been half 
completed. Ayrshire, as already mentioned, 
owes much of its present advancement in 
agriculture to his exertions ; and it ought here 
to be mentioned that a great part of the culti- 
vated and wooded beauty of Kilwinning is also 
owing to him. The statist of the parish very 
properly characterises him in the well-known 
lilies: — 

Cui pudor et jnstitiae soror 
Incorrupta fides, nudaque Veritas 
Quando ullum inveniet parem ? 
Multis ille bonis flebilis occidit. 
Kilwinning, an ancient and now a consider- 
able and thriving town in the above parish, si- 
tuated on a rising ground about two miles from 
the sea, three miles north-north-west of Irvine, 
four south of Dairy, and four north-east of 
Saltcoats. Kilwinning depends chiefly on the 
weaving and manufacture of gauzes, muslins, 
&c- for the Glasgow and Paisley markets. 
With the contiguous village of Byres on the 
west, its inhabitants amounted in the year 
1821 to 1934. Two fairs are held in the town 
annually. Besides the parish church, there are 
two dissenting meeting-houses- This curious 
old-fashioned little town stretches westward 
from the right bank of the Garnock, and con- 
sists chiefly of one street and some bye-lanes, 
together with a few rows of modern houses. 
It is approached through long umbrageous 
paths, skirted by beautiful fields, and the tra- 
veller, on entering from the east, is reminded 
of the ancient sacred character of the place 
by ascending the Cross Hill, an eminence 
where, in former times, the monks of Kilwin- 
ning Abbey had established the revered ensign 
of Christianity, to receive the preliminary 
adoration of the pilgrims who flocked to visit 
their shrines. The Abbey of Kilwinning, 
from which the town has evidently taken its . 
origin, was one of the most wealthy and im- 
portant institutions of that kind in the king- 



KILWINNING. 



641 



dom, and was founded by Hugh de Morville, 
constable of Scotland, in the year 1 1 40, while 
the pious David was king of Scotland. As 
such buildings were frequently founded upon 
spots previously consecrated by the residence 
of holy men or the ceremonies of an earlier 
worship, this is believed to have been placed 
here, in consequence of the previous residence 
of St. Winning, a saint of the eighth cen- 
tury. The memory of this pious personage is 
preserved in the name of the place, Kilwinning 
signifying simply the cell of Winning. It is also 
commemorated by a well at no great distance 
from the present manse, being called Winning's 
Well; as also by a fair held annually on the 
first day of February, and called Winning's 
Day Fair. Either this fountain, or some 
other near Kilwinning, is said by the old 
monkish writers to have exemplified the miracle, 
in 1184, of running for eight days and nights 
with blood ; a portent which had formerly 
appeared, but never for so long a space. In 
the opinion of the people of the country, this 
prognosticated war. Probably a redness was 
given to the water by some natural cause. 
Hailes' Annals. — An old popular name of Kil- 
winning is Saig-town, which the statist of the 
parish conjectures to mean Saint's-town — an 
etymology, however, which we believe may 
be liable to correction. The abbey of Kil- 
winning was dedicated to St. Winning, and 
appropriated for the reception of monks of the 
Tyronensian order, a detachment of whom were 
brought from Kelso. King Robert Bruce, 
who appears to have been a most munificent 
benefactor of the church, probably in order to 
appease the clergy for the murder of Comyn 
before one of their altars, granted to the monks 
of Kilwinning the lands of Halland near Ir- 
vine, as also viginti solidos, quos annuatim de 
terra sua de Kilmernock heredibus de Balioh 
reddere solebant. Previous to the Reformation, 
through the gifts of various persons, the mo- 
nastery is supposed to have enjoyed a revenue 
equal to L. 20,000 of present money. The 
following is a list of the parish churches be- 
longing to it at that time : Kilwinning, Irvine, 
Kilmarnock, Loudon, Ardrossan, Kilbirnie, 
Kilbride, Beith, Dunlop, Dreghorn, Dairy, 
Stevenston, and Stewarton, in the district of 
Cunningham ; Dumbarton and Kilmaronock in 
Dumbartonshire ; South and North Knapdale 
in Argyllshire ; Kilmeny and Kilbride in the 
isle of Arran. The last abbot was Gavin 



Hamilton, a man of high historical note, 
on account of the vigorous resistance which 
he made to the progress of the Reformation. 
This zealous divine not only thought it ne- 
cessary to battle with the arms of the Spirit, 
but was induced by the exigency of the time 
to take up mortal weapons. He perished in 
a skirmish between the adherents of Queen 
Mary and those of James VI. fought near the 
Watergate of Edinburgh, June 28, 1571. At 
the general dissolution of the religious houses, 
Alexander, Earl of Glencairn, so noted for his 
zeal in promoting the Reformation, obtained a 
grant of the abbey of Kilwinning ; but the 
temporalities were afterwards (1003) erected 
into a lordship in favour of the Earl of Eglin- 
ton. The most remarkable circumstance con- 
nected with this monastery is, that its erec- 
tion is believed to have given occasion to the 
introduction of Free Masonry into Scotland. 
The foreign architect employed in building 
the house is supposed to have brought that 
inexplicable, but apparently trifling and unmean- 
ing mystery — art — craft — aut quocunque alio 
nomine gaudeat — and planted it in this place. 
It seems at least certain, that Kilwinning 
was the first place in Scotland, where Free 
Masonry was established. For centuries, 
Free Masonry seems to have made little 
impression in Scotland ; at least it scarcely 
rises into notice in history. It cannot there- 
fore be ascertained whether it was in those 
early ages employed for what appears to have 
been its original purpose, a communication 
of ideas and sentiments more free than what 
was sanctioned by the public authorities, or 
only what seems in later times to have been 
its chief and almost exclusive use, the promo- 
tion of a more decorous, but not less seductive 
species of conviviality. The first historical 
notice of it occurs in the reign of James I., 
that monarch having appointed that the Grand 
Master should be chosen by the brethren from 
either the nobility or the clergy, and that this 
officer, being approven by the crown, should 
receive an annual revenue of L. 4 Scots (6s. 8d. 
sterling) from each Master- Mason. From the 
early use of such titles, we should suppose 
that masonry at the first was a grotesque imi- 
tation, on the part of the class of artizans from 
which it takes its name, of the great asso- 
ciations instituted in the time of the Crusaders 
for the protection of the Holy Sepulchre, 
one of which survived till recent times in the 
4 N 



642 



KILWINNING. 



Knights of Malta. The dignity of Grand Master 
was afterwards granted as a hereditary office to 
the family of William Sinclair, Earl of Orkney 
and Caithness, who had testified his love of at 
least the operative department of masonry, by 
erecting the beautiful collegiate church of Roslin . 
The office having passed into the Roslin branch 
of this nobleman's descendants, they used to 
hold their principal annual meetings at Kilwin- 
ning ; and the lodge of that place, as the parent 
institution, was in the habit of granting con- 
stitutions and charters to other lodges through- 
out the country, all of which joined the word 
Kilwinning to their own name, in token of 
respect to the acknowledged birth-place of 
masonry. In 1771, William Sinclair of Ros- 
lin, finding himself to be the last of his race, 
resigned the office into the hands of the Edin- 
burgh and neighbouring lodges ; and since then 
it has been elective. In gratitude for this gra- 
cious act on the part of the old baron, his me- 
mory is still regularly toasted at the meetings 
of the Edinburgh, and perhaps also of other 
lodges. The statist of the parish of Kilwin- 
ning says, " The sobriety and decency of the 
brethren in all their meetings, the very peculiar 
and distinguishing harmony in which they 
lived, and their humanity and liberality to the 
sick and indigent, made the mother lodge highly 
respected in the sixteenth centuiy. An un- 
common spirit for masonry then exhibited it- 
self. Laws founded on the original acts and 
constitutions of the mother lodge, were renew- 
ed, and are still adhered to. The records yet 
extant at Kilwinning contain a succession of 
grand masters, charters of creation to other 
lodges, &c. as daughters of the mother lodge. 
The Earls of Eglinton have successively pa- 
tronized this lodge. Some years ago, the pre- 
sent Earl made a donation to the fraternity of 
a piece of ground for building a new and very 
elegant lodge, and, with many other gentlemen, 
anxious to preserve the rights of the very an- 
cient and venerable mother lodge, liberally con- 
tributed to its erection. There is a common 
seal, expressive of the antiquity of the mother 
lodge, and of the emblems of the ancient art 
of masonry, and by which charters and all 
other public deeds of the society are ratified." 
By the institution of the Grand Lodge of Scot- 
land, which is located at Edinburgh, the use 
of the Kilwinning mother lodge has been of 
late years in a great measure superseded ; but 
still we must acknowledge, with the author of 
27. 



the Beauties of Scotland, " that the humble 
village of Kilwinning, considered as the spot 
where this order was preserved while it was 
extinguished on the continent of Europe, and 
from which it was to rise from its ashes, and 
spread to the rising and setting sun, enjoys a 
singular degree of importance, which it could 
scarcely have obtained from any other circum- 
stance." Besides its distinction on account of 
free-masonry, Kilwinning is also remarkable 
for being the seat of a very ancient company 
of archers. This noble art is practised at differ- 
ent places in Scotland, as at Edinburgh, St. 
Andrews, Peebles, and Musselburgh • but no- 
where does it seem to have so long flourished 
as at Kilwinning. While archery seems to 
have been practised at those places only for 
amusement, and from no remote date, it would 
appear to have originated here, in consequence 
of the acts of the early Scottish kings for the 
encouragement of archery as a branch of the 
military system of the state. It is pretty well 
authenticated that the company existed in 1488. 
The members meet to practise their delightful 
and romantic recreation in June. " Two kinds 
of archery," says the statist so often quoted, 
" have been practised here from time immemo- 
rial. The one is a perpendicular mark, called 
the papingo. The papingo is a bird well 
known in heraldry : [the parrot.] It is on this 
occasion cut out in wood, fixed in the end of a 
pole, and placed 120 feet high on the steeple of 
the monastery. The archer who shoots down 
this mark is honoured with the title of Captain 
of the Papingo. He is master of the ceremo- 
nies for the ensuing year, sends cards of invita- 
tion to the ladies, gives them a ball and sup- 
per, and transmits his honours to posterity by 
a medal with suitable devices, appended to a 
silver arrow. The prize from 1488 to 1688 
was a sash, or as it was called a benn, consist- 
ing of a piece of taffeta or Persian, of different 
colours, chiefly red, green, white, and blue, and 
not less in value than L.20 Scots. This ho- 
nourable badge was worn and kept by the cap- 
tain, who produced another of equal value the 
following year. At the revival of archery in 
1 688, there was substituted a piece of plate, 
which continued to be given by every captain 
till 1723, when the present silver arrow was sub- 
stituted. The other kind of shooting is at butts, 
point blank distance (about twenty- six yards.) 
The prize at butts is some useful piece of 
plate, given annually to the society by the senior 



K INCA 11 DINES H ft E. 



643 



jurviving archer." It cannot have escaped the 
recollection of our readers, that the custom of 
shooting the papingo is introduced fictitiously 
into the tale of " Old Mortality," where, how- 
ever, it is called the Popinjay. Unless we are 
misinformed, this latter word is now generally 
used to designate the Kilwinning festival, and 
the mark is composed, not as formerly of a 
piece of wood, but of a bundle of feathers, ar- 
ranged in such a way as to resemble a parrot, 
and this is tied to the top of the pole by a 
6tring, like the pigeon shot for in the fifth 
book of the -ZEneid. The Society, or more 
properly the Company, is at present in a most 
respectable and flourishing condition. Kil- 
winning is superintended magisterially by a 
baron bailie. The parish church, with a fine 
modern spire, stands amidst the few remaining 
fragments of the once splendid abbey. — Po- 
pulation of the town and parish in 1821, 3696. 
KINCARDINESHIRE, frequently and 
familiarly styled the Mearns, a county on the 
east coast of Scotland, of a triangular form ; 
bounded by Aberdeenshire on the north, by 
Forfarshire en the south-west, and on the re- 
maining quarters by the sea ; extending in its 
greatest length from south-west to north-east 
82 miles, and in a direction, at right angles 
across, 22 miles. By a correct measurement 
taken in 1774, by Mr. Gardner, who surveyed 
it for a map, it was found to contain 243,444 
English acres ; which, by a very minute inves- 
tigation, made by Mr. George Robertson in 
1807, were found to be characterised as fol- 
lows : — 

In actual cultivation 74,849 

Improvable by tillage 27,816 

Woodland, natural or planted 1 7,609 
Mountains, &c. 123,170; 

occupied by the following descriptions of live 
stock : — 

Milch cows 6236 

Draft oxen 446 

Calves rearing 5280 

Other cattle 12,863 

Horses of all kinds 2887 

Sheep 24,927 

Swine, fully grown, 

chiefly brood swine 478 

The population in 1821, was 29,118, of whom 
only about 8000 lived in towns or villages. 
The valued rent of the county is L.74,921, 
Is. 4d. Scots; the real rent in 1804 .was 
L.67,748 Sterling, in 1811 L.159,875. It 



must now be much more. Kincardineshire is 
occasionally, in popidar parlance, called the 
Mearns ; but this phrase, after the strictest 
investigation, seems only properly applicable 
to the champaign and more populous district 
of the county. Part of this district is called 
the Howe (or hollow) o' the Mearns, from its 
being sunk between a large branch of the 
Grampians on the one hand, and a more gentle 
swelling territory which divides it from the sea 
on the other ; it is properly a continuation of 
the great valley of Strathmore. Mearns is 
probably a word of local meaning ; but it is 
generally said to have been affixed to this part 
of Scotland, from its having become the pro- 
perty of Mernia, a brother of King Kenneth 
II. ; another brother, called Angus, conferring 
his name upon the neighbouring county of For- 
far. The county is naturally divided into four 
districts, whereof the Howe of the Mearns, and 
the swelling ground between it and the sea, are 
the most important ; the third division, con- 
sisting of the detachment of the Grampians 
above mentioned, generally called the Braes of 
Fordoun, while the fourth lies in the northern 
part of the county, within the district of Mar. 
The term Mearns- shire, which is sometimes 
used, is a vulgar error. Kincardineshire has 
figured very little in history ; its peasantry, 
however, have always been considered an indus- 
trious and able race of men. " The Men of the 
Mearns," is a proverbial expression of old date : 
There is also another common saying, flatter- 
ing to this people — " I can do fat I dow (can J; 
the men o' the Meams can do nae mair." 
The Hollow of the Mearns being the only 
proper access to the north of Scotland, owing 
to the hills occupying uninterruptedly all the 
rest of the breadth except at this point, it has 
been the common passage for armies going to 
and fro, since the earliest periods of history; 
yet, unless the great battle between Galgacusand 
Agricola took place here, it has not been the 
scene of any great military achievements. The 
county is now almost exclusively of an agri- 
cultural character ; for though blessed with a 
sea-coast of thirty-five miles in extent, it pos- 
sesses no harbour of any eminence; neither 
have manufactures of any kind made a great 
progress in the district. The soil is of a 
very productive kind, and is cultivated in a 
style no where surpassed in Scotland; of 
which there is gcod evidence in the fact 
that of all the hads in tillage nearly a 



644 



KINCARDINE. 



seventh part is yearly in turnip. Much 
of this is owing to the example set by the 
landed gentlemen in the latter part of the last 
century, in the introduction of a more spirited 
system of cultivation ; an example readily 
adopted by an intelligent and industrious te- 
nantry. The county, in its more level parts, 
is highly embellished by the country seats of 
its numerous resident proprietors, each amid 
its own thriving woodland. Kincardineshire 
takes its name from Kincardine, formerly 
a small town in the parish of Fordoun, and 
which was the seat of the county courts, &c, 
till the year 1600, when they were removed 
to Stonehaven. Kincardine, which has now 
dwindled into a mere hamlet or farm- stead- 
ing, was connected with an ancient seat of 
royalty, called Kincardine Castle, of which 
only the foundations of the walls can now be 
traced. Kincardine signifies, in Gaelic, the 
clan of friends ; and the name is applied 
to several parishes and towns throughout 
Scotland, though it does not designate any 
parish in the county under notice. In Kin- 
cardineshire there is no coal or marl, and very 
little limestone, all of which circumstances 
bear hard upon agricultural improvement, — 
though it must be confessed they only seem to 
have excited more strongly the spirit of enter- 
prise in its husbandmen, who import lime in 
great quantities from England, and from the 
Firth of Forth. The county is divided into 
nineteen parishes, and it contains seven or 
eight small towns, as Stonehaven, the county- 
town, Bervie, a small royal burgh, Johnshaven, 
Lawrencekirk, Fettercairn, Fordoun, and Au- 
cbinblae, &c. The principal rivers connected 
with the county are — the Dee, which passes 
for eight or ten miles through the northern 
limb of Kincardineshire, the North Esk, which 
forms the boundary on the south-west for about 
ten miles, Cowie Water, which falls into the 
sea at Stonehaven, after a course of ten miles, 
Carron, which is describable in the same terms, 
Bervie Water, which, after a course of fourteen 
or sixteen miles, discharges itself into the sea 
at Inverbervie, and the Luther Water, a tribu- 
tary of the North Esk. The chief mountains 
are — the Cairn o'Mount, called of old the 
Muunth, (and perhaps the Mons Grampius of 
Tacitus,) a steep and barren mountain, 2000 
feet high, in the south front of the Grampians, 
and over which the direct road from Forfar- 
shire to Dee»side passes in a zig-zag fashion — 



Clachnabane, in the parish of Strachan, 2370 
feet high, remarkable for a protuberance of 
solid rock at the top, which projects about 100 
feet above the surface, and looks like the ruins 
of some ancient fort ; serving also, as a good 
land-mark at sea, fifteen or twenty miles off — 
Strathfenella, a detached Grampian in the vi- 
cinity of Fordoun, supposed to be from 1200 
to 1500 feet high — Mount Battoch, on the 
boundary line between Kincardine and Forfar- 
shires, stated in Garden's Map to be 3465 feet 
in height, and the most lofty of all the Gram- 
pians in this quarter — and the Hill of Fare, in 
that part of the county which lies to the north 
of the Dee, 1500 feet high. 

Kincardine, a parish in the counties of Ross 
and Cromarty, separated from Sutherlandshire 
on the north by the river Oickel. It extends 
upwards of thirty miles in length from east to 
west. At the east end it is very narrow, but 
widens gradually to the extent of nearly twenty 
miles at its western extremity, where the great 
forest of Balnagown is situated. It consists 
of several straths or glens, and abounds with 
hills and rivers. Craig- Chonichan, where Mon- 
trose fought his last battle, lies in this parish; 
the place is called the Rock of Lamentation, from 
this event. The village and small harbour of 
Kincardine are situated on the coast of the 
Firth of Dornoch Population in 1821, 1666. 

KINCARDINE, a parish in the southern 
part of Perthshire, district of Menteith, chiefly 
lying as a peninsula betwixt the Forth on the 
south, and the Teith on the north, these streams 
uniting at the south-east point of the parish. 
This division of Kincardine parish is bounded 
by Kilmadock on the west and north, Lecropt 
on the east, and Gargunnock on the south ; in 
its extent measuring upwards of four miles 
from east to west, and above three miles in 
breadth at the widest part. There is a second 
division of the parish of about half the size oi 
this, lying beyond Kilmadock parish on the 
west, adjoining Port-Menteith, and bounded 
by Kippen on the south. Altogether, the 
parish has been computed to contain 6000 
acres. The parish is situated in the widest 
part of the valley, called the Strath of Men- 
teith, and both on the Forth and Teith pos- 
sesses the most beautiful grounds, with planta- 
tions in the finest order, and cultivation on the 
best scale. Adjacent to the Teith, and on 
the road from Stirling to Doune by the right 
bank of that river, is the highly omameutcd 



KINCARDINE. 



645 



and improved estate of Blair-Drummond, 
whose moss has obtained a considerable noto- 
riety from the operations performed upon it. 
This moss, which for ages had been of no 
farther use than the production of peats to the 
neighbouring inhabitants, was begun to be im- 
proved in the year 1770, by the late Henry 
Home, Lord Kames, a senator of the college 
of justice, and the author of several eminent 
works, and continued by his son and successor, 
Mr. Home Drummond. Originally covering 
2000 acres, with a depth of from three to 
twelve feet of peat bog, this vast extent of 
moss has been for the last sixty years in the 
course of gradual diminution, by a process 
of cutting and floating away into the waters 
of the Teith and Forth. Many hundreds 
of acres of the superincumbent moss have 
been thus cleared, leaving a soil for agricul- 
tural operations similar to that of the Carse 
lands, and the ground is now under a course of 
regular farming. Such a violent system of im- 
provement has been frequently objected to as 
highly injudicious, and it has been often said 
that the reduction of the moss to ashes by 
burning would have been more to the purpose 
of creating a productive soil. This is, how- 
ever, one of the nicely disputed points among 
agriculturists. It has been asserted, probably 
erroneously, that the incessant pollution of 
the above rivers by the masses of floating 
mossy matter, has been the means of injuring 
the salmon-fishings in the Forth. As the 
pieces of moss neither sink nor decompose for 
a considerable space of time, they may be seen 
at all times floating over the whole of the 
Firth and for a great distance out to sea. The 
parish of Kincardine contains two villages, 
both in the western division, and now almost 
united, namely, Thornhill and Norrieston. 
The parish church being at the centre of the 
eastern division, there is a chapel of ease at 
Thornhill — Population in 1821, 2388. 

KINCARDINE, a considerable thriving 
town in the parish of Tulliallan, in the south- 
ern detached part of Perthshire, situated on 
the shore of the Firth of Forth, near its upper 
extremity, at the distance of five miles east 
from Alloa, four west from Culross, ten from 
Dunfermline, fifteen from North Queensferry, 
and twenty-five from Edinburgh. At one time 
the place used to be called West- Pans, from 
the salt- works carried on, and which, in the 
year 1780, were fifteen in number ; but these 



manufactories, as well as the name they induc- 
ed, are now gone. The houses of Kincardine 
are well built, but the streets are narrow, dirty, 
and irregular. The sea-port Kincardine is one 
of the most thriving towns on the Forth, having 
now a good quay and harbour, and there being 
a considerable trade in the building of vessels, 
chiefly for coasting. That predilection for being 
ship-owners, mentioned under thehead of Kirk- 
aldy, as being strongly characteristic of the in- 
habitants along the shores of Fife, is here par- 
ticularly observable. By a recent calculation, 
there were upwards of fifty ship-owners in Kin- 
cardine, which is a great proportion of the per- 
sons engaged in trade. A company is formed 
among the ship-owners for mutual insurance of 
their vessels, a complete protection against the 
danger of individual loss at sea being thus 
judiciously rendered. In the town there are 
works for making sails and ropes. Distilla- 
tion is carried on at Tulliallan in the neigh- 
bourhood. There is a brewery in the town. 
Kincardine is a burgh of barony under the 
government of several bailies. A fair is held 
on the last Friday in July. The established 
church is at Tulliallan, but there is a dissenting 
meeting-house in the place. — Population in 
1821, about 2500. 

KINCARDINE O'NEIL, a parish in 
Aberdeenshire, lying with its south-western 
side to the river Dee, and stretching north- 
wards from thence a distance of between seven 
and eight miles, by a breadth of seven in the 
southern division, and but three in the north- 
ern ; bounded by Aboyne and Lumphanan on 
the west, Tough and Cluny on the north ; Mid- 
mar and Banchory- Ternan on the east, and Ban- 
chory- Ternan and the Dee on the south. It is 
partly hilly and pastoral and partly arable, with 
a proportion of excellent plantations. The vil- 
lage of Kincardine O'Neil, which is the seat of 
a presbytery, stands on the public road on the 
left bank of the Dee, and commands an exten- 
sive prospect up the river towards the Gram- 
pian mountains. It is esteemed as an excel- 
lent place for the summer retirement of inva- 
lids Population in 1821, 1793. 

KINCHARDINE, a parish in Inverness- 
shire, incorporated with Abernethy — See 
Abernethy and Kinchardine. 

KINCLAVEN, a parish in the beautiful 
and fertile district of Stormonr, Perthshire, 
bounded by Caputh on the north and north- 
east, Cargill on the south-east, and Auchter- 



046 



K I N F A U N S, 



gaven on the south and west ; in form, it is 
oblong, being about four and a half miles long 
by little more than two broad. The Tay 
sweeps round the northern and eastern bound- 
ary of the district, and it is chiefly in the vici- 
nity of this noble river that the land is under 
good cultivation, enclosures and plantations. 
The principal village in the parish is Arntilly, 
situated in the south-western part, a few miles 
west from the church. Besides this, there are 
some small villages, all on the public roads. The 
fishings of the Tay are here valuable. The an- 
cient castle of Kinclaven stands in ruins on the 
banks of the river. — Population in 1821, 986. 

KINCRAIG POINT, a headland on the 
coast of Fife, immediately east of Largo bay. 

KINDER, (LOCH) a small lake in the 
parish of New-abbey, stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright, with an islet showing the ruins of an 
ancient chapel, and emitted by a streamlet to 
the estuary of the Nith. 

KINFAUNS, a parish in Perthshire, at 
the western extremity of the Carse of Gowrie, 
beautifully situated on the left bank of the Tay, 
bounded by Errol and St. Madoes on the east, 
part of Kinnoul parish and the Tay on the 
south, the larger division of Kinnoul on the 
west and north ; also on the north by Kilspin- 
die. In form it is very irregular, extending about 
five miles in length, by the average breadth of 
two and a half, and containing altogether 3780 
Scots acres. The parish lies chiefly in a hol- 
low or valley, which gradually opens in an east- 
erly direction, into the plain ef the Carse of 
Gowrie, and is partly encompassed by lofty 
eminences richly wooded. A part of the con- 
spicuous and romantic hill of Kinnoul is within 
the parish. The road from Dundee to Perth 
passes through the lower division of the parish 
near the Tay. In this quarter stands the an- 
cient seat of the family of Seggieden, who still 
possess their drinking horn, a vessel which has 
enjoyed a considerable celebrity. It is about 
fourteen inches deep, straight and tapering, 
with ornamental rings round it. The princi- 
pal use of this heir-loom seems to have been 
similar to that of the horn of Rorie More, as 
described by Dr. Johnson : every successive 
heir of the family, on his accession to the es- 
tate, had to prove his being a worthy represen- 
tative of his ancestors, by drinking its contents 
at a draught. There was a rhyme used on this 
occasion : " Sook it out, Seggieden ! though it's 
thin, it's wee! pledged ;" and the young laird 



had to sound a whistle at the bottom of the 
horn, after having sooked out the liquor, to 
signify that he had redeemed his pledge. The 
same ceremony was gone through, to prove 
the powers of the laird's guests. Nearly a 
mile west from Seggieden, stands Kinfauns 
Castle, the seat of Lord Gray. This re- 
markably fine edifice occupies a delightful 
situation on an elevation overlooking the Tay, 
and the Carse to the east. " In the Castle of 
Kinfauns," says the writer of the Statistical 
Account of the parish, " is kept a large old 
sword, probably made near five hundred years 
ago, and to be used by both hands. It is 
shaped like a broad sword, and is five feet 
nine inches long, two and a half inches broad 
at the hilt, and of a proportionable thickness, 
with a round knob at the upper end near eight 
inches in circumference. This terrible weapon 
bears the name of Charteris' sword; and pro- 
bably belonged to Sir Thomas Charteris, 
commonly called Thomas de Longueville, 
once proprietor of the estate of Kinfauns. 
Sir Thomas Charteris, alias Longueville, was 
a native of France, and of an ancient family 
in that country. If credit can be given to ac- 
counts of such remote date, when he was at 
the court of Philip le Bel, in the end of the 
thirteenth century, he had a dispute with, and 
killed, a French nobleman in the king's pre- 
sence. He escaped, but was refused pardon. 
Having, for several years, infested the seas as 
a pirate, known by the name of the Red 
Reaver, from the colour of the flags he carried 
on his ships, in 1301 or 1302, Sir William 
Wallace, in his way to France, encountered 
and took him prisoner. At Wallace's inter- 
cession, the French king conferred on him a 
pardon, and the honour of knighthood. He 
accompanied Wallace on his return to Scot- 
land, and was ever after his faithful friend, 
and aided in his exploits. Upon that hero's 
being betrayed, and carried to England, Sir 
Thomas Charteris retired to Lochmaben, 
where he remained till Robert Bruce began to 
assert his right to the crown of Scotland. 
He joined Bruce ; and was, if we may believe 
Adamson, who refers to Barbour, the first 
who followed that king into the water at the 
taking of Perth, January 8, 1313. Bruce re- 
warded his bravery, by giving him lands in the 
neighbourhood of Perth, which appear to have 
been those of Kinfauns, and which continued 
in the family of Charteris for many years. Il 



K I N G H O R N. 



647 



is to this ancient knight, and to the antique 
sword above-mentioned, that Adamson refers 
in these,, lines (Book VI.) of his Muse's 
Threnodie. 



Kinfauns, which Thomas Longueville 



Some time did hold, whose ancient sword of steel 
Remains unto this day, and of that land 
Is chiefest evident. 

About forty years ago, upon opening the 
burying vault under the aisle of the Church of 
Kinfauns, erected by this family, there was 
found a head-piece, or kind of helmet, made of 
several folds of linen, or some strong stuff, 
painted over with broad stripes of blue and 
white, which seems to have been part of the 
fictitious armour wherein the body of Thomas 
Longueville, or Charteris, had been deposited" 
—Population in 1821, 802. 

KINGARTH, a parish in the county and 
isle of Bute, occupying the southern part, to 
the extent of a third of the whole island. 
Loch Fadd is its boundary from the parish of 
Rothesay. The kirk is situated inland, op- 
posite Kilchatten Bay on the east coast. 
Mount- Stewart, the elegant seat of the Mar- 
quis of Bute, is within the parish, and occupies 
an agreeable site on the east side of the is- 
land, having an extensive prospect towards the 
Cumbray Islands and the Ayrshire coast. It 
is environed by extensive plantations. — Po- 
pulation in 1821, 890. 

KING-EDWARD, properly KEN- 
ED A R, a parish in the northern part of 
Aberdeenshire, extending twelve miles in 
length from east to west, by from two to five 
in breadth, having its western extremity lying 
on the river Deveron, and bounded by Gamrie 
on the north, Tyrie on the east, and Mont- 
quhitter and Turriff on the south. The surface 
is hilly, heathy, and only about one half arable. 
There are, however, large plantations, and the 
district is improving. The only village is 
New-Byth on the south-eastern extremity of 
the parish, situated about three miles north 
from Cumineston, both of which places arose, 
in the course of last century, by the exertions 
and patronage of their respective" proprietors. 
New-Byth was begun to be feued in 1764. 
A streamlet, tributary to the Deveron, flows 

I through the parish in a westerly direction, and 
on its right bank stands the nun of the ancient 
Castle of Ken-Edar, once the seat of the po- 
tent Earl of Buchan.— Population in 1821, 
1822. 



KINGHORN, a parish in the county of 
Fife, bounded on the south and east by the 
Firth of Forth, on the west by Burntisland and 
Aberdour, on the north by Auchtertoul and 
Abbotshall ; extending about three miles along 
the coast, and stretching rather more into the 
interior. The island of Inchkeith, in the Firth 
of Forth, is a detached part of the parish. 
There are two harbours, one at the town of 
Kinghorn, the other a little to the west at 
Pettycur : these form the ordinary landing 
places on the north side of the Firth of Forth 
for boats crossing by the ferry from Newhaven. 
On the coast about half way between the two 
ports, is a basaltic rock, composed of columns 
about twelve feet in height, of, different dia- 
meters, each having from four to seven faces. 
Within the parish, moreover, is a mineral 
spring, considered to be of a powerfully diur- 
etic quality, and calculated to give vigour to 
debilitated constitutions, as also to relieve 
difficulty of breathing, and allay inflammation 
both external and internal. An account of it 
was published in 1618 by the famous Dr. 
Anderson, inventor of the pills which go 
by his name. The surface of the parish is 
beautifully diversified by rising grounds, now 
generally under a high state of cultivation. 
About a mile to the west of the town, is Ihe 
fatal rock, a lofty and rugged eminence, which 
proved the death of king Alexander III. This 
monarch was pressing forward from Inverkeith- 
ing to Kinghorn, late in the evening. The 
night was dark, and the road wound dangerous- 
ly along some precipitous cliffs overhanging the 
sea ; his courtiers earnestly entreated him to 
delay his journey till the morning ; but he in- 
sisted on advancing ; and his horse, making a 
false step, stumbled over a cliff, and, falling 
with its rider, killed him in an instant. The 
place is still pointed out, in the tradition of the 
neighbourhood by the name of " the King's 
Wood-end," and a cross of stone was erected 
on the spot, which existed in the reign of 
James II. The fatal consequences of the 
death of this monarch, who had so long govern- 
ed Scotland " in luve and lee," are well known. 
The accident happened on the 16th of March 
1285. In England, if we are to believe the 
chronicler Knighton, the death of Alexander 
was considered as a judgment from heaven for 
his having broken the holy season of Lent by 
a visit to his queen ! The country hereabouts 
was at that early period entirely covered with 



648 



K I N G H O R N. 



wood. A farm in the neighbourhood of the 
scene of the accident is called Woodfield- 
park. At one period there was a regular 
royal residence on the high ground overlooking 
the town, and we observe that, previous to the 
death of Alexander III., it was frequently 
occupied by the kings or their relatives. When 
Alexander II. married the Princess Joan of 
England in 1221, she was secured in a join- 
ture rent of L.1000 upon the royal lands of 
Jedburgh, Lassudden, Kinghorn, and Crail. 
The royal house and demesne were afterwards 
gifted by Robert II. to Sir John Lyon, who 
had married the king's third daughter Jane by 
Elizabeth Mure ; hence, the family of Lyon, 
which first was advanced to the dignity of 
the baronage under the title of Lord Glammis, 
and was in 1606 elevated to a superior rank 
under the title of Earl of Kinghorn. This 
title was changed by the consent of Charles II. 
to that at present borne by the family ( Earl of 
Strathmore) in consequence, we have heard, 
of the dislike which Patrick, the third earl of 
Kinghorn, conceived against it. It is said by 
tradition that the title Kinghorn became ab- 
breviated into the mean and disagreeable epi- 
thet of " Hornie," and that as the earl was 
walking along the streets of Edinburgh, the very 
boys would cry that word after him in ridicule. 
Hence, as the place was at the best a rather 
homely seat for an earldom, his lordship made 
interest to obtain the more noble and sono- 
rous title of Strathmore. 

Kinghorn, an ancient town and royal burgh, 
the capital of the above parish, occupying an 
agreeable situation on the face of a sloping 
ground to the Firth of Forth, directly opposite 
Leith, at the distance of three miles south from 
Kirkaldy. Kinghorn is understood to be one of 
the oldest towns in Fife, and derives its name — 
not from any circumstance connected with a king, 
—but from the adjoining promontory of land, 
styled in Gaelic cean gorn or gorm, signifying 
the blue head. Such an etymology is found to 
be countenanced by the popular title kln-gorn, 
the name in use by the common people being 
here, as is often the case elsewhere, the more 
correct. The town had risen to some conse- 
quence in the reign of David I., in the twelfth 
century, when it was created a royal burgh, 
having all its privileges confirmed by Alexan- 
der III. Till within the last forty years we 
find Kinghorn to have been one of the most 
irregularly and meanly constructed towns in I 



the district, the greater part of the houses be- 
ing of two storeys, with outside stairs to the 
street, which was generally in a very dirty 
state. Several of these houses still remain, 
but in the present day the town has undergone 
a variety of beneficial improvements, and now 
possesses many modern substantial edifices. 
Formerly the court-house and jail were in an 
old building in the centre of the town, called 
St. Lawrence's Tower ; but there is now an ele- 
gant new edifice for these purposes. Besides this, 
the only other public erection worthy of special 
notice, is a handsome new school-house, en- 
closed within an extensive play-ground at the 
west end of the town. The plan for this erec- 
tion, which possesses a small spire, was fur- 
nished by Mr. Hamilton, and displays his usual 
taste for elegance combined with utility. It 
contains an infant school-room, a female school- 
room, a common school-room, and a library and 
museum. Towards this building the town's 
people subscribed L.200, the burgal corpora- 
tion gave the ground and L. 150, and the heritors 
of the parish also contributed L.150. The 
system of education pursued is that which Pro- 
fessor Pillans has laid down in his well-known 
work on that subject. By referring to the ar- 
ticle KntKALDY it will be seen that the town 
of Kinghorn is entitled to a portion of the mu- 
nificent endowment for education by the late 
Robert Philp, Esq. of that place, and in vir- 
tue of this grant a certain number of children 
aTe gratuitously taught the elementary branches. 
Kinghorn possesses a small and not very good 
harbour, and though nominally enjoying the 
importance of being the seat of the ferry across 
the Firth of Forth to Leith and Newhaven, 
all boats engaged in this thoroughfare land at 
Pettycur, a small village or hamlet, with a 
more accessible port, lying about half a mile 
to the west. The trade of Kinghorn, it is sa- 
tisfactory to remark, has not lagged behind in 
the general career of improvement and pros- 
perity, observable in most of the Fife towns. 
Like the rest, its chief trade is that connected 
with the spinning and preparation of lint for 
the linen fabrics for which the county is now 
so deservedly reputed. The town now pos- 
sesses two large spinning establishments, mov- 
ed by steam power, which employ a good num- 
ber of persons ; weaving by the hand is the . 
other chief trade in Kinghorn. Though la- 
bouring under the disadvantage of a poor har- 
bour, in which hardly any shipping is ever 



KINGLASSIE. 



649 



Been, and with the above exceptions, having 
little local traffic, Kinghorn exhibits a pleas- 
ing example of what may be done, under very 
discouraging circumstances, for the improve- 
ment and advancement of a town. These ob- 
jects, with the cultivation of their minds, seem 
to occupy a great part of the attention of the 
inhabitants- Though the burgh be possessed 
of a very small free revenue, yet, by strict eco- 
nomy, private subscription, and, what is most 
honourable to the working classes, their volun- 
tary labour after work hours, the burgesses are 
securing, as far as in their power, the comfort of 
good roads and streets, public libraries, and, in 
conjunction with the heritors and private sub- 
scribers of the parish, have founded a seminary 
and erected a school-house which would do ho- 
nour to any city. Altogether, a stranger might 
be astonished to learn the progress which has 
been made in this ancient little burgh during 
the last four years in all kinds of establish- 
ments that tend to the diffusion of knowledge : 
two large scientific libraries have been insti- 
tuted within a very short time. In searching 
for the cause of so creditable a taste for liter- 
ature, it is found that much has been owing 
to the free perusal of newspapers and periodi- 
cal works by the industrious artisans of the 
town, who, like most persons of their class 
engaged at large factories, are keenly alive to 
passing events. During the excitation of poli- 
tical feeling in 1830 and in the summer of 
1831, the magistrates of the burgh rendered 
themselves highly popular by their singularly 
independent tone in the election contests. The 
civic government is placed in a provost, two 
bailies, a treasurer, and town-clerk. The 
town-council in 1818, much to their honour, 
set an example of reforming themselves, and 
have since by their public acts and various im- 
provements shown what a reformed magistracy 
may effect. The burgh joins with Kirkaldy, 
Dysart, and Burntisland, in electing a mem- 
ber of parliament. Besides the parish church 
there is a Burgher meeting-house. The fast day 
of the church is the Thursday before the third 
Sunday of July. — Population of the town in 
1821, 1500, including the parish, 2443. 

KINGLASSIE, a parish in the county of 
Fife, bounded by Auchterderran on the west, 
Dysart on the south, Markinch on the east, 
and Leslie on the north, extending four miles 
in length by two in breadth at the east end, 
and four at the west. A hilly range separates 



the bulk of the parish from the vale of the 
Leven on the north, and from these uplands 
the grounds spread away into an arable vale of 
considerable length and breadth. Through the 
bottom flows the Lochty, a streamlet which 
joins the Orr, and on the former stands the 
confused village of Kinglassie, which is said 
to derive its name from being the " head of the 
grey moor," a signification pointing out the 
former condition of the vale. The village is 
situated at the distance of two miles arid a 
half south-west of Leslie, and seven north 
from Kinghorn. The road on which it stands 
is rather unfrequented. The inhabitants are 
supported principally by weaving, and the place 
is entitled to hold two annual fairs. Inch- 
dairnie, the seat of John Aytoun, Esq., is 
pleasantly situated about a mile east from the 
village, amidst some old plantations. — Popu- 
lation in 1821, 1027. 

KINGOLDRUM, a parish in Forfarshire, 
bounded by Lentrathen on the west, the upper 
division of Kirriemuir on the north, Cortachy 
and the lower division of Kirriemuir on the 
east, and Airly on the south. In length it 
extends seven miles by a breadth of two and a 
half. The Prosen water flows along a portion 
of its east side. The parish is hilly or moun- 
tainous, with small rivulets between the hills. 
In the north part of the district the mountains 
rise to a considerable height, especially one 
termed Catlaw. On this and the adjoining 
mountains there is excellent pasture for sheep, 
and Catlaw mutton is esteemed for its delicacy. 
The lower portions of the parish are in a high 
state of cultivation. The village of Kingol- 
drum lies in the southern part, a few miles 
north-west of Kirriemuir. — Population in 
1821, 517. 

KINGOODIE, a small village in the pa- 
rish of Longforgan, Perthshire, erected to ac- 
commodate the workmen of an adjacent free- 
stone quarry of the same name. 

KING'S-BARNS, a parish in the eastern 
part of Fife, lying with its east side to the 
German Ocean, and bounded by Crail on the 
south, Denino on the west, and St. Andrews 
on the north ; in form it is nearly a square of 
four miles. Originally the parish belonged to 
Crail, and it only became a separate cure in 
1631. The district is arable and of a very 
productive nature. Pitmilly, the seat of ona 
of the most ancient families in Fife, is in the 
northern part of the parish, near the sea. 
4 o 



650 



KINLOSS. 



The village of King's- Barns lies a mile to the 
south, on the public road, round the coast, 
and at a short distance, on the south-east, 
stands Cambo-House, the seat of Sir David 
Erskine. The parish, especially in this quar- 
ter, abounds in freestone. Limestone, and 
ironstone also prevail. The village of King's- 
Barns stands six miles south-east of St. An- 
drews, and three and a half north of Crail. 
The inhabitants are generally employed in the 
weaving of linen goods ; and the place is en- 
titled to hold two annual fairs. — Population in 
18-21, 998. 

KING'S KETTLE.— See Kettle. 

KING'S-MUIR, a district in Fife.— See 
Denino. 

KINGUSSIE and INCH, a mountainous 
pastoral parish in the district of Badenoch, 
Inverness- shire, extending twenty miles in 
length, by seventeen in breadth, bounded on 
the north by Moy and Dalarossie, on the east 
by Alvie, on the south by Blair in Athole, 
and on the west by Laggan. The district is 
intersected by the Spey, which pursues a sinu- 
ous course through the low country, and on 
its left bank, on the great road from Perth to 
Inverness, stands the beautiful village of Kin- 
gussie, at the distance of 43 miles from Inver- 
ness, and 72 from Perth. It possesses a 
small jail, with a court-room, in which justice 
of peace courts for the district of Badenoch 
are held. The village is entitled to hold 
five fairs annually. About four miles farther 
up the Spey is Spey-Bridge, which carries the 
road across towards the south. Some miles 
down the river on the right bank stands the 
small village of Inch. Rothiemurchus is the 
next village on the same side. The conjoint 
parish of Kingussie and Inch is well watered 
by a number of small streams — Population 
in 1821, 2006. 

KINLOCH, a parish in Perthshire, of an ir- 
regular long figure, extending nearly seven miles 
in length, by an average breadth of one and 
a half; bounded by Blairgowrie on the east, 
Cluny on the south and part of the west, a 
smaller division of Blairgowrie also on the 
west, and Bendothy on the north. The sur- 
face is finely diversified by lakes, woods, 
and gentlemen's seats, all uniting to render the 
scenery highly beautiful. There are three 
l<;kes, all in the southern division, namely, 
Drumelie loch, the Rae loch, and the Fenzies 

loch ; the first of these is the largest, and from 
9S_ 1 



their banks, the ground rises to the northward 
in well -cultivated fields for several miles. The 
kirk-town of the parish stands on the public 
road on the south-east verge of the district. 
— Population in 1821, 415. 

KINLOSS, a parish in the northern part 
of the county of Moray or Elgin, lying on the 
shore of the Moray firth, bounded on the east 
by Alves, on the south and south-west by 
Rafford and Forres. It is of a square form, 
and level surface, measuring ebout three and 
a half miles each way. It is well- cultivated 
and enclosed. The village of Findhorn, at 
the mouth of the river of that name, is in the 
parish. Before arriving at this small sea-port, 
the river Findhorn forms a lake of considera- 
ble magnitude, and at its south-east extremity, 
on a streamlet which enters it, stands the kirk- 
town of Kinloss, which, judging from the situa- 
tion, it is said, should be properly styled Kin- 
loch; but such an etymology is extremely 
doubtful, for in old writings the place is va- 
riously called Killoss and Kilfloss which are 
interpreted into, " the church on the water." 
The religious structure thus designated, we ima- 
gine either to have been an abbey of Cistertian 
monks, of considerable celebrity, which was 
founded here by David I. in the year 1 150, or 
some chapel which was then superseded, of a 
more remote antiquity. There prevailed at 
one time a popular tradition, to the effect 
that on one occasion the life of King Duffus 
was here preserved by concealing himself be- 
neath a bridge, and that a chapel was reared 
in thankfulness for his escape from those who 
sought his life. Dempster, following this 
story, gives the following account of it, and the 
reason for its foundation : " Killoss, in Mora- 
via, nomen habet a fiuctibus, qui, praeter am- 
nis naturam, derepente vicino in campo pullu- 
larent, dum Duffi Regis corpus revelaretur. 
Coenobium, post duo fere secula quam Duffus 
occubuit, fundatum in memoriam miraculi 
quod ibidem contigisse memoratur." Boethius 
speaks of the circumstance in a similar man- 
ner. Pursuing the relation of the event, he 
adds, " Nunc ibi ccenobium est, cum amplissi- 
mo templo, Divae Virgini sacro, atque augus- 
tissimo, aedibusque magnificae structurae pio- 
rum ccetu Cistertiensis instituti insigne, nulli 
in Albione religionis observatione secundum." 
One of the most distinguished abbots of the 
Cistertian monastery was Robert Reid, official 
of Moray in 1530, bishop of Orkney in 1557, 



K I N E L L A R. 



651 



•nd president for some time of the court of 
eession. He was employed in various state 
negotiations and assisted at the marriage of 
Queen Mary with the Dauphin of France. 
He has been much commended by Spottis- 
wood, for his integrity and care in the adminis- 
tration of justice, but though the primary en- 
dower of the Edinburgh University, which was 
begun from a legacy of his, amounting to 8000 
merks, specially for that purpose, his name has 
been completely forgotten in Scotland. The 
abbey of Kinloss owned property to the extent 
of upwards of L. 1200 per annum, and at the 
Reformation, when the whole was seized, 
Mr. Edward Bruce, commissary of Edinburgh, 
afterwards a lord of session, was made com- 
mendator of the establishment, and elevated to 
the condition of Baron Kinloss in 1604. His 
son, Thomas Bruce, received the increased 
dignity of Earl of Elgin in 1 633, from Charles I. , 
and his descendants still enjoythe title. — Popu- 
lation in 1821, 1071. 

KINNAIRD, a suppressed parish in For- 
farshire, now divided between the parishes of 
Fernell and Brechin. 

KINNAIRD, a parish in Perthshire, in 
the district of Gowrie, and partly within the 
carse of that name, lying betwixt Abernyte on 
the north-east, and Kilspindie on the south- 
west, Inchture an*? Errol on the south- 
east, and Collace on the north-west. In form 
it is nearly square, being three miles in length 
by two in breadth. The grounds in the hilly 
district on the north are pastoral ; those in the 
beautiful carse on the south are agricultural. 
In the parish, on the right of the road in passing 
northward, are slight remains of the ancient 
castle of Kinnaird, which, along with the 
barony lands of Kinnaird, belong to the noble 
family of that name. — Population in 1821, 465. 

KINNAIRD HEAD, a promontory on 
the coast of Buchan, Aberdeenshire, a short 
way north of Fraserburgh. Upon an old cas- 
tle, the property of Lord Saltoun, a light- 
house was erected in December 1787, in lat. 
57° 42', and long. 2° 19' west of London; 
Cairnbulg from the light-house bearing by com- 
pass south-east, distant two miles ; and Troup- 
head west north-west, distant nine miles. The 
lantern is 120 feet above the level of the sea 
at high water, and is lighted from the going 
away of daylight till its return. 

KINNEFF, a parish in the county of Kin- 
cardine, lying on the sea-coast south from Dun- 



notar, and bounded by Arbuthnot on the «vest, 
and Bervie on the south. From the water of 
Bervie, which is the southern boundary for a 
short distance, to the northern extremity the 
length is about five miles, and the whole su- 
perficies measures 6408 acres, of which 4023 
are in cultivation, 1 184 are capable of improve- 
ment, 17 in plantations, and 1184 hills and 
wastes. By computation, the parish lately 
possessed 1194 head of cattle, about 150 horses, 
202 sheep, and 30 swine, while the real rental 
was L.3406. The coast is here, as in Dun- 
notar parish, exceedingly bold and rocky. The 
parish, which incorporates the abrogated parish 
of Caterline, has probably taken its name from 
a castle, the ruins of which are still to be seen 
upon the margin of the sea, not above a hun- 
dred yards distant from the church. There is 
a vulgar tradition of this having been the resi- 
dence of one of the Scottish monarchs named 
Kenneth. — Population in 1821, 1036. 

KINNELL, a parish in Forfarshire, lying 
with its south side to the Lunan water, and 
separated from the sea by the parish of Lunan ; 
bounded by Fernell on the north, and Guthrie 
and part of Kirkden on the west, extending 
above four miles in length by three in breadth. 
Unless in one quarter on the Lunan water, 
which is hilly, the surface is generally flat and 
under a good state of cultivation. Plantations 
are now also in a thriving condition. The 
church stands on the left bank of the Lunan 
water, at the distance of six miles from Ar- 
broath — Population in 1821, 732. 

KINNEL or KINEL, a rivulet in Dum- 
fries-shire, rising in the parish of Kirbpatrick- 
juxta, and running in a south easterly direction, 
it receives the Ae at Esby, and falls into the 
Annan at Broomhill, in the parish of Loch- 
maben. 

KINNELL AR. a small parish in Aberdeen- 
shire, lying with its north end to the river Don, 
near which it is intersected by the Inverury 
Canal, bounded on the west by Kintore, on 
the south by Skene, and on the east by Dyce 
and Newhills. It extends about four miles 
from the Don, but unless at a wide part on tho 
south, is not more than a mile and a- half broad. 
The lands are generally enclosed and well cul- 
tivated.— Population in 1821, 996. 

KINNESSWOOD, a small sequestered 
and ancient village in the parish of Portmoak, 
Kinross-shire, situated on the north-east shore 
of Loch Leven, at the distance of five miles 



652 



KINROSS-SHIRE. 



east from Kinross, and one west from the vil- 
lage of Scotland-well. The situation of the 
village is somewhat romantic and pleasing, 
being beneath the shadow of the western ter- 
mination of the Lomond hills, and having a 
beautiful prospect in front, of the lake and its 
islands. Though otherwise obscure, it derives 
a slight fame from having been the birth-place 
of Michael Bruce, the Scottish poet, and au- 
thor of many much-admired and often-printed 
pieces. The house in which he first saw 
the light — a thatched one of two storeys — is 
pointed out on the left side of a wynd proceed- 
ing up from the main street towards the hills. 
There is a garden behind, which once contain- 
ed a bower formed by the youth's own hands, 
for purposes of study and poetical recreation. 
After a very brief, but pure and blameless ex- 
istence, he died of consumption, and was buried 
in the church- yard of Scotland-well, (Port- 
moak,) where there is an obelisk to his me- 
mory. 

KINNETTLES, a parish at the centre of 
Forfarshire, nearly of a square form, extend- 
ing two miles and a-half in length by two in 
breadth, bounded by the parish of Glammis on 
the west and north, Forfar on the east, and 
Inverarity on the south. The district is arable, 
and among the most beautiful and productive 
in the shire. — Population in 1821, 566. 

KINNOUL, a parish in Perthshire, lying 
with its western extremity to the Tay, oppo- 
site Perth, and extending from thence in a 
most irregular manner for three or four miles, 
by a general breadth of one mile. Besides 
this larger portion, there are two detached parts 
— one to the north between St. Martin's pa- 
rish and Kilspindie, and one on the Tay, 
encompassed by the parish of Kinfauns and 
St. Madoes. The surface of this parish is 
hilly, but romantic, and exceedingly beauti- 
ful, being clothed to a great extent with 
fine plantations, and having many gentlemen's 
seats. The hill of Kinnoul, rising from the 
Tay opposite, and within view of the town 
of Perth, is one of the very finest objects 
of the kind in Britain. It is crowned and 
highly embellished with wood, and has a va- 
riety of villas environed in shrubberies and 
gardens of the most exuberant description, the 
whole only paralleled in beauty and salubrity 
of situation by Richmond Hill. At the east 
end of the bridge which crosses the Tay from 
Perth, a large suburb or distinct town has 



arisen under the name of Kinnoul or Bridge- 
end, which is a burgh of barony under the Earl 
of Kinnoul, and is entitled to hold a weekly 
market and four annual fairs. The houses, 
which are substantial and handsomely built, 
chiefly line the public roads for a short distance. 
About the year 1767, a nursery was begun in 
this parish, opposite Perth, by Mr. James 
Dickson of Hassendean-burn, near Hawick, and 
it has continued ever since as a very extensive 
and useful establishment of the kind to this 
part of Scotland. The ancient church of the 
parish was long a rectory in the proprietary of 
the monastery of Cambuskenneth, and was de- 
dicated to rather a rare saint, Constantine, who 
was a king of Scots in the tenth century, and 
who became a Monk among the Culdees of 
St. Andrews. The modern church of Kin- 
noul is a neat edifice built on a bank over- 
hanging the Tay, south from the village. 
About a quarter of a mile south from the 
church once stood the old Castle of Kinnoul. 
This place has given the title of Earl to a 
branch of the family of Hay of Errol, the first 
of the title being ennobled in 1627, as Lord 
Hay of Kinfauns, and elevated to be Earl of 
Kinnoul, Viscount Dupplin, in 1633. — Popu- 
lation of the parish and village in 1821, 2674. 

KIN ORE, a parish in Aberdeenshire, now 
incorporated with the parish of Huntly. 

KINROSS-SHIRE, a small inland coun- 
ty, situated at the western extremity of the 
county of Fife, from which it was disjoined in 
the year 1426, and encompassed on its west 
and north sides by Perthshire, with Fife on its 
southern quarter. Its name is significant of 
its local situation, importing the " head of the 
peninsula." As now constituted, it measures 
from east to west, that is, from Auchmuir 
bridge at the bottom of the carse of Loch 
Leven to Fossaway kirk, eleven miles and a 
quarter in length ; and from Keltybridge, nearly 
due north to Damhead, nine miles and three 
quarters. The general figure of the county is 
somewhat circular, although the line of its 
boundary is very irregular, and its total super- 
ficies amounts to seventy-eight square miles, 
or about 39,702 Scots acres. The bounda- 
ries or outskirts of the county are generally 
hilly, and in point of fact the shire may be de- 
scribed as an open vale, or plain, environed in 
uplands and hills. The Ochil hills, which 
separate the district from Strathearn, are the 
northern boundary, the Lomond hills are the 



KINROSS-SHIRE. 



653 



eastern, Benarty hill the south-eastern, and 
Cleish hills the south and south-western. These 
hills are generally pastoral, and adapted for 
the rearing of cattle, but they are also suited in 
many places to cultivation, and exhibit many 
pleasing and productive arable fields. The origi- 
nal condition of this minute territory seems to 
have resembled that of the contiguous shire of 
Fife, having been of a moory, mossy nature, 
and most probably once bearing a forest of 
trees, the fit residence of wild boars and other 
animals usually found in savage countries. Up 
1o a comparatively recent epoch, the lands of 
Kinross-shire were bleak and unreclaimed, a 
circumstance partly attributable to a certain 
local characteristic worth mentioning. The 
district has the remarkable peculiarity in its 
proprietary of being very much divided into 
farms, each owned in feu by its tenant, 
wherefore there are more resident lairds in 
proportion in this part of the country than 
are to be found anywhere else, establishing 
a resemblance betwixt the proprietary of this 
county and that of Fife. The farms, it 
appears, were feued about the commence- 
ment of the eighteenth century from the 
Douse of Kinross, to the tenants then in pos- 
session, whose descendants inherit the proper- 
ties, paying for them an exceedingly trifling 
duty or quit rent. The marches of the vari- 
ous farms not having been well defined, and 
being distracted by the practice of run-rig, 
it was long before the county manifested very 
active signs of improvement. Within the re- 
collection of persons of middle life, few dis- 
tricts were worse cultivated or less profitable 
than Kinross-shire ; but the rack-rent taxes 
levied by Pitt, and other circumstances, among 
which is included tke good example shown 
by neighbours, ultimately induced a spirited 
change, and now, from less to more, the agri- 
culture, the mode of draining, enclosing, and 
planting, can vie with those of Fife or most 
other places. Draining on a great and effec- 
tual scale has been instituted on the carse east 
from Loch Leven and on its shore, there be- 
ing in all directions in this quarter productive 
arable fields, where, only a few years ago, there 
was nothing but desolate moors and mosses. 
The county possesses no running waters except 
a few small rivulets which are chiefly tributary 
to Loch Leven. This beautiful and large ex- 
panse of water, which is sufficiently noticed 
in its proper place, lies at the east end of the 



wide vale of the shire, and is emptied by a 
small river of the same name, which pursues an 
easterly course through Fife. By its recent 
partial drainage a considerable addition of land 
has been acquired, but generally of a poor qua- 
lity. The river Leven, from its source to 
Auchmuir bridge above alluded to, is the 
boundary with the shire of Fife ; Kinross-shire 
being on the north bank. Besides Loch Le- 
ven, there are a few small lakes or tarns on the 
hills above Cleish. The district is now in 
many places well sheltered by plantations. 
The mineralogy of the shire is a subject of lit- 
tle importance. Whinstone is found in a va • 
riety of situations ; and sandstone of the best 
quality abounds. Limestone likewise has been 
discovered in abundance, and wrought. There 
are no coal- works established in the county ; 
but coal is found in great quantities in the 
neighbourhood. The shire is now provided 
with good roads. The county comprises but 
four complete parochial divisions; and possesses 
only one town, namely, Kinross, with a large 
populous village, in its neighbourhood, called 
Mil-na-thort, vulgarly Mills-o'-forth. The 
county is joined with that of Clackmannan 
under one sheriff-depute ; but there is a resi- 
dent sheriff- substitute at Kinross. The real 
rental of the shire in 1811 was for lands 
L.22,752, houses L.6870.— Population in 
1821, males 3660, females 4102, total 7762. 

KINROSS, a parish in the above county, 
extending about three and a half miles in length 
from north to south, and nearly the same at 
its greatest breadth ; bounded by Loch Leven 
on the east, on the north by Orwell, on the 
south by Cleish, and on the west by Fossaway 
and Tulliebole. Stretching westward from the 
margin of Loch Leven, the parish consists of a 
large portion of the flat or undulating vale of 
Kinross, and though originally moorish and 
unproductive, is now improved and well en- 
closed, and yields tolerably good crops. There 
are three small rivers in the district, namely, 
the Gairney on the south boundary, the South 
Queich below the town, and North Queich on 
the north boundary, all of which discharge 
themselves into Loch Leven, and are stored 
with srnail trout. The small island in Loch 
Leven on which stands the ruined castle, be- 
longs to the parish. 

Kinross, the capital of the above county 
and parish, and a town of considerable antiqui- 
ty, occupies a pleasant situation at the foot of 



654 



KINROSS. 



the open vale to which it has given its name, 
on the north-western shore of Loch Leven, at 
the distance of 27 miles from Edinburgh, 17 
from Perth, and 19 from Cupar. Formerly 
the town consisted of a series of tortuous lanes 
of an antique appearance, bordering on the 
above beautiful lake, but in the present day 
there is a tolerably well built, though not very 
straight main street, bounding these lanes on 
their northern quarter, and lining the chief 
road to the north, which thus passes through 
the town. Originally, the locality was dig- 
nified by a castle of great strength, situ- 
ated on a promontory jutting into the lake, 
and of which the town was a dependance. 
This ancient stronghold, long the residence 
»f the Earls of Morton, was removed upwards 
of a century ago, and the promontory is now 
occupied by Kinross House, an elegant struc- 
ture, built and inhabited by Sir William 
Bruce of Kinross, the architect of the modern 
part of Holyroodhouse, and many other man- 
sions of the reign of Charles II. The envi- 
rons of Kinross are much indebted for their 
beauty to the pleasure-grounds and exuberant 
plantations around this edifice, which stands 
near the northern entrance to the town, and 
opposite the island and castle of Queen Mary ; 
for a description of which important objects in 
connexion with Kinross, we refer to the article 
Leven (Loch). Kinross has, in recent 
times, undergone many extensive improve- 
ments, in the building of handsome new 
houses on the main street, and otherwise, and 
now possesses a large splendid inn at the 
northern extremity of the town, which for ap- 
pearance and accommodation is perhaps not 
surpassed in Scotland. It is tastefully built on 
the plan of the old English manor-houses, and 
has an extensive suit of stables. There are 
other good inns in the town. The parish- 
church, which stands near the centre of the 
town, is a plain edifice, with an ordinary 
steeple. Besides this place of worship, there 
are two meeting-houses of the United Seces- 
sion church. As the capital of the county, 
the courts of the sheriff sit in Kinross, and 
justice of peace courts are likewise held at 
stated periods. The place is undistinguished 
by manufactories, and the chief trade of the 
working classes is the weaving of linen and 
cotton goods. The adjacent lake abounds in 
fish ; but being rented for the Edinburgh mar- 
ket, the town enjoys little benefit from it. 



Kinross is entitled to hold four fairs annually. 
A branch of the British Linen Company's 
Bank is of considerable use to the town and 
its vicinity. — Population of the parish and 
town in 1821, 2563. 

KINTAIL, a parish at the south-west 
corner of Ross-shire, so named from the words 
Cean-dha-haal, the " head of the two salt water 
lakes." The large indentation of the sea, op- 
posite the south-eastern corner of Skye, called 
Loch Alsh, divides itself into two branches, 
the most northerly of which is called Loch 
Long, and the most southerly Loch Duich. 
These two arms of the sea enclose the parish 
of Kintail, the church of which is situated at a 
point at the head of Loch Duich. Glenshiel lies 
on the south, Lochalsh parish on the north, and 
the parish of Kintail measures between the 
two, thirteen miles in length by six in breadth. 
The parish is mountainous, wild, and pastoral, 
and in popular language is divided into the 
three districts of Croe, Glenelchaig, and Glas- 
leter. There are two rivers, the Loigh and 
the Croe, which rise in small rivulets in the 
mountains ; the former runs into Loch Long, 
and the latter into Loch Duich. The cascade 
of Glomach lies in the heights of Glenelchaig, 
far from public view. The fall of water is 
very considerable, and rendered awful by the 
darkness of the surrounding hills and woods. 
Kintail is, in its inland quarter, surrounded 
with high hills ; the most eminent is Tulloch- 
ard, which commands a view of many of the 
Hebrides. This mountain claims particular 
attention, on account of the veneration in 
which it was held in ancient times. Like the 
temple of Janus at Rome, it indicated peace 
or war : when warfare commenced, a burning 
fire on the highest ridge was the signal ; and 
all the tenants of Seaforth appeared in arms 
next morning at the Castle of Donan, the usu- 
al place of rendezvous. This burning mount 
the family of Seaforth bear for their crest ; 
and those who relish the music of the bag- 
pipe, show no little regard to the rune of Tul- 
loch-ard, or Seaforth's gathering. The castle 
of Donan, just mentioned, was built in the 
reign of Alexander III., to resist the depreda- 
tions of the Danes. It commanded a very ex- 
tensive prospect, being situated in the western 
extremity of the parish, at the parting of Loch 
Long from Loch Duich, where there is now a 
ferry. It consisted of a tower and rampart, 
and at full sea was surrounded by water. It 



K I P P E N. 



655 



was demolished in the year 1719, after the 
battle of Glenshiel, by a ship of war, and 
some of the balls employed in battering it 
down are still found in the mossy ground in its 
vicinity. The author of the Statistical Ac- 
count informs us, that, in his day, (1793) an 
old inhabitant of the parish remembered of 
having seen the Kintail men under arms, 
dancing on the leaden roof of Castle Donan, 
just as they were setting out for Sheriff- Muir, 
where this resolute band were cut in pieces. 
By the same authority we learn that before the 
parish manse is a place called Downan Diar- 
mod, being the remains of an ancient fort, near 
which is shown the tomb of that Fingtdian 
hero, composed of large rough stones. Kin- 
tail was long known as the country of the 
MacRaes, a name importing " the sons of 
good fortune," who, it is said, emigrated thither 
from the braes of Aird, on the Lovat estate. 
—Population in 1821, 1027. 

KINTORE, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 
lying on the right side of the Don, opposite 
Keithhall and Fintray, bounded on the north 
by Inverury, from which it is separated 
by the Don, on the west by Kemnay, and 
on the south by Skene and Kinnellar. The 
surface rises gradually from the neighbour- 
hood of the river to the western quarter of 
the parish, which extends six miles in length 
by about three in breadth at the middle. 
The lower district is arable, and produces to- 
lerably good crops. There are also now some 
plantations. The road and Inverury canal 
from Aberdeen pass through the parish. An- 
ciently this part of the country was covered 
with a forest, a part of which, with a castle, 
were given, by Robert Bruce, to Robert de 
Keith, Marischal of Scotland, after the battle 
of Bannockburn, and the district still remains 
in the hands of his descendants, the family of 
Kintore ; having been bestowed, in the seven- 
teenth century by the Earl Marischal, on his 
son, Sir John Keith, who was afterwards 
(1677) created Earl of Kintore, by Charles II. 
on account of his instrumentality in preserving 
the regalia of the kingdom during the troubles 
of the civil wars. 

Kintore, the capital of the above parish, 
and a royal burgh, is situated on the public 
road near the Don, at the distance of twelve 
miles north-west of the county town, and 
three south-east of Inverury. We are inform- 
ed by the author of the Statistical Account, 



and his followers, that Kintore was created a" 
royal burgh about the beginning of the ninth 
century, — that is to say, nearly three hundred 
years before burgal privileges of that class 
were known in Scotland. And it can only 
now be conjectured that the town most proba- 
bly was elevated to be a royal burgh about 
the same period as Aberdeen, namely, the 
twelfth century. The only old charter it pos- 
sesses is one of James V., confirming some of 
an ancient date. It is governed by a provost, 
two bailies, a dean of guild, and treasurer, as- 
sisted by a council of eight other burgesses ; 
and unites with Banff, Cullen, Elgin, and 
Inverury in electing a member of parliament. 
The set of the burgh not requiring any periodi- 
cal change in the officials, the head of the 
Kintore family has been provost for about a 
hundred and fifty years. By a recent exami- 
nation before the House of Lords, it appears, 
that this royal burgh was in the most impover- 
ished condition of almost any town in Scotland. 
The town is of small size, with the parish 
church standing beside it. The Inverury 
canal passes it on the west — Population of 
the burgh in 1821, about 350, including the 
parish 1053. 

KINTYRE.— See Cantirk. 

KIPPEN, a parish, of which a third part 
belongs to Perthshire, and the remainder to 
Stirlingshire, lying on the right bank of the 
Forth, bounded by Gargunnock on the east, 
Balfron on the south, and Drymen on the 
west. The Forth separates it on the north 
from Kilmadock, Kincardine, and Port-Men- 
teith. In extent it measures nearly eight 
miles in length, by from two to four in 
breadth. The parish is divided into level 
carse ground and upland ; the former, which 
lies on the Forth, is of unequal breadth, and 
forms a part of that extensive plain which 
reaches from Gartmore on both sides of the 
river, as far eastward as Borrowstounness. 
Much of the land is of a mossy nature. From 
some of the higher grounds, an ample and va- 
riegated prospect presents itself to the eye of 
the spectator. At the head of the strath 
stands the house of Gartmore, commanding a 
view of the whole plain below, which through- 
out is a rich and beautiful valley, exhibiting 
an enclosed and well cultivated country, em- 
bellished with numberless farms and gentle- 
men's seats. Stirling Castle, and the roman- 
tic woody eminences adjacent, are seen on the 



650 



IRKALDY. 



east, like islands emerging out of the level 
carse land. In former times this district, 
from lying near the borders of the Highlands, 
was occasionally subjected to the predatory 
incursions of the nearest clans. At one time 
there were a number of places of strength in 
the district. In the western division of the 
parish stands the village of Bucklyvie, and in 
the eastern part, on the public road, at the 
distance of 9| miles west from Stirling, is si- 
tuated the village of Kippen, which is entitled 
to hold several annual fairs, and which derives 
no small distinction from having been for fifty 
years the seat of whisky distillation to a con- 
siderable extent. The manufacture of this 
article here was primarily encouraged by an old 
distillery act of parliament, which permitted 
the distillation on a very free scale within the 
Highland line, and as Kippen was, till a new 
act in 1793, reckoned within this imaginary 
boundary, it enjoyed its trade in whisky on fa- 
vourable terms. — Population of the parish 
and villages in 1821, 2029. 

KIRBISTER, a small lake in the parish 
of Orphir, Orkney. 

KIRKALDY, or KIRKCALDY, a 
parish in the county of Fife, bounded on 
the south by the Firth of Forth, on the 
west by the parish of Abbotshall, and by 
Dysart on all the remaining sides. In the 
southern extremity of this parish lies the 
town of Kirkaldy, from which it takes its 
name, and the landward part is merely a small 
stripe of territory stretching to the north for 
about two miles, and generally less than a mile 
in breadth. The beautiful estate of Dunni- 
keir' forms the principal part of the northern 
division of the parish. The parish of Abbots- 
hall, with the exception of three farms that 
belonged to Kinghorn, anciently formed part 
of Kirkaldy parish, but was separated in 1649, 
on account of the anxiety prevalent at that time 
to increase the facilities of attending public 
worship. The church of the parish of Kirk- 
aldy is situated at the town. In this parish 
were born several eminent individuals, though 
of very different estimations in life — namely, 
Michael Scott, the celebrated philosopher 
of the thirteenth century, [he first saw the 
light at Balweary, in that part of the parish 
now separated, under the name of Abbotshall] ; 
Oswald of Dunnikeir, the well known patriot 
and statesman ; and Dr. Adam Smith, author 
of the Wealth of Nations. 



Kirkaldy, a populous thriving sea- port 
town, a royal burgh, and seat of a presbytery, 
in the above parish, in the county of Fife, oc- 
cupying a somewhat incommodious situation 
between the shore of the Firth of Forth and 
the base of a range of rising grounds on the 
north, at the distance of three miles north from 
Kinghorn, two west from Dysart, thirty-one 
south-west from Dundee, and thirteen from 
Edinburgh, by way of Pettycur and Kinghorn. 
Besides stretching through the whole breadth of 
the parish of Kirkaldy, it also crosses through 
Abbotshall, and transgresses a little upon the 
parish of Kinghorn. Though a town of con- 
siderable antiquity, like most of those in Fife 
on the shores of the Forth, and at an early pe- 
riod enjoying a considerable trade, it is only in 
recent times that it has emerged from an obscure 
history, and, partly on the ruin of other places, 
has taken an honourable station at the head 
of all the towns in this rich and influential 
county. From the narrow dimensions of the 
ground on which Kirkaldy is situated, the in- 
habitants have been from the first necessitated 
to erect their habitations in a continuous line 
along the shore, though unluckily without 
much regard to the regularity of the buildings, 
and having thence stretched to a most dispro- 
portionate length, the place from an early 
period, has been styled " the lang town o' 
Kirka'dy" in familiar allusion to its appearance. 
From being a long straggling town of a single 
ill-arranged street, houses were in time planted 
on the ascent behind or near the shore in front, 
and in the present day, it comprises several 
well-built cross streets and a variety of detach- 
ed edifices, the residence of the more wealthy 
classes. The town has as yet, however, 
reached only a short way up the acclivity on 
its northern side, and when viewed from the 
sea it appears environed by finely enclosed 
productive fields, with the beautiful grounds 
and conspicuous tower of Raith and the verdant 
plantations surrounding the house of Dunnikeir 
crowning the heights. Long as the town is, 
it has bean in appearance drawn out to much 
greater extent by the close proximity of the 
village of Path-head on the east, which al- 
most connects it with Dysart. Kirkaldy 
is supposed to take its name from the Cul- 
dees (the Keldei, as they are often termed 
in old charters), of whom it is said to have 
been a cell. The first notice of it occurs 
in 1334, when it was mortified by David II. 



KIRKALDY. 



657 



to the abbots of Dunfermline successively, 
and thus became a burgb of regality. It con- 
tinued in the possession of these dignitaries 
till 1450, when the commendator and convent, 
by indentures made with the bailies and com- 
munity of Kirkaldy, disponed to them and 
their successors for ever the burgh and har- 
bour, burgh acres, the small customs, common 
pasture in the moor, &c. We are informed 
by the writer of the Statistical Account, that 
it was soon after erected into a royal burgh, 
with the customary privileges ; and these were 
specifically ratified by a charter of confirma- 
tion granted by Charles I. in 1644 ; when the 
burgh, for good and]gratuitous service done by it, 
was erected de novo into a free royal burgh and 
free port, with new and large immunities. It 
is probable that these privileges, instead of be- 
ing granted for good and gratuitous service, 
were given as a means of preventing the good 
burghers from continuing that hostility which 
they, in common with all the other burgh com- 
munities of Fife, had shown to his Majesty 
during the unhappy contest he carried on with 
a party of his people. Among the privileges 
enumerated in the new charter, were powers 
given to the bailies, councillors, and communi- 
ty of electing and constituting annual magi- 
strates for the administration of justice and 
the government of the burgb, of uplifting cus- 
toms and applying them to the public good ; 
of holding courts; of seizing, incarcerating, 
and punishing delinquents ; with which were 
conjoined various other privileges expressed in 
the barbarous language of the early feudal 
times, when they first became customary — 
such as herezelds, bludewits, merchetae mu- 
lierum, fork, foss, sok, sak, tholl, thame, wraik, 
vat, weth, wair, venyson, infangthief, out- 
fangthief, pit and gallows, &c. Kirkaldy ap- 
pears to have prospered in common with the 
other busy towns along the coast of Fife. 
Tradition relates that at the time when Charles 
I. erected it anew into a royal burgh, it had a 
hundred sail of ships belonging to it ; which 
is not improbable, as we learn from authentic 
documents that the port lost ninety-four vessels 
by the accidents of the troubled times between 
1644 and 1660. A proof of its prosperity at 
even an earlier age is found in the circum- 
stance that in 1622, when the General As- 
sembly of the Protestant churches of France 
deputed Boesnage to the king of Great Britain, 
to solicit aid to enable them to resist the op- 



pression of Louis XIII., the town and parish of 
Kirkaldy contributed, according to the good- 
will and permission of the king, a pecuniary aid 
of 1030 merks ; for which Boesnage's receipt 
is engrossed in the parish records. So many 
men did Kirkaldy send to resist the Marquis 
of Montrose at Kilsyth in 1645, that the 
slaughter which distinguished that defeat is 
said to have made two hundred widows in this 
town alone. At the sack of Dundee in 1651, 
by General Monk, the good presbyterians of 
Kirkaldy lost goods to the amount of about 
L.500, which they had deposited there for 
safety. Yet this is nothing to the value of 
the ships lost before the Restoration — which 
amounted to L.53,791 sterling. The town 
was at this time the seventh town in Scotland, 
only Edinburgh, Dundee, Aberdeen, Glasgow, 
Perth, and St. Andrews ranking above it ; 
and latterly this last falling below it, made it 
the sixth. For several years before and after 
1650, the monthly assessments laid on it, for 
the maintenance of the troops, exceeded L.400 
at an average. It contributed as 1 in 40 of 
the whole supplies levied from the burghs of 
Scotland. This, however, was the golden age 
of the early history of Kirkaldy. One of sil- 
ver — we might almost say of coppt.^ --soon 
ensued. The town seems to have become at 
length much reduced in wealth and the means 
of carrying on its trade, by the losses which it 
sustained in the course of the civil war. In 1 673, 
the number of ships belonging to it had fallen to 
twenty-five. And, in 1682, its distress was so 
great that an application was made to the con- 
vention of burghs to consider its poverty, and to 
take methods for easing it as to its public burdens. 
" But the burgh," says the writer of the Sta- 
tistical Account, " having fallen under the dis- 
pleasure of the court, on account of the oppo- 
sition given by its representative to the arbi- 
trary measures then carried on, the inhabitants 
were not only denied relief, but farther bur- 
dened with an addition of 2000 merks to their 
annual assessment. The application to the 
convocation was, however, renewed in 1687, 
when a visitation of the burgh was ordered. 
A committee appointed for that purpose met 
at Kirkaldy the following year; and on the 
evidence of the books and declarations both of 
the magistrates of the burgh and the officers of 
the customs, reported to the Convention, ' that 
the customs payable to his Majesty were not 
half of what they had been some years before : 
4p 



058 



KIRKALDY. 



that tin's was occasioned by the death of many 
substantial merchants and shippers, and loss of 
ships and decay of trade : that many of the in- 
habitants, some of whom were magistrates of 
the burgh, had fled from and deserted the same : 
that so great was the poverty of the inhabitants, 
that all the taxations imposed on the town 
could do no more than pay the eight months 
cess payable to the king yearly, and that with 
difficulty. Before the effect of this represent- 
ation could be known, the Revolution took 
place ; an event highly grateful to the Scots in 
general, and particularly to the whigs of Fife. 
The inhabitants of Kirkaldy entering warmly 
into the spirit of it, and anxious to distinguish 
themselves in the support of it, found means 
to apprehend the Earl of Perth, who was Lord 
Chancellor, and had managed the affairs of 
Scotland under James, and who, knowing that 
he was generally obnoxious as one of the in- 
struments of the late king, withdrew himself 
as soon as the public mind had declared in fa- 
vour of the Prince of Orange. After detain- 
ing that nobleman five days and nights in pri- 
son, under a constant guard of 300 men, they 
sent him under a convoy of three boats manned 
with 200 hands to Alloa, where they delivered 
him on receipt into the hands of the Earl of 
Mar. The guard of 300 men they found it 
necessary to keep up for four months, on re- 
ceiving information that a force was com- 
ing down from the Highlands to burn the 
town, in revenge for Perth's apprehension. 
These facts, and a particular account of their 
losses, having been stated in a petition to 
King William in 1689, they obtained an abate- 
ment of L.1000 Scots of their annual assess- 
ments." The prosperity of the town, which 
revived a little after this event, was soon again 
depressed in consequence of the Union, the 
effect of which was at first very different from 
what it has been since. " Taxes, which by the 
treaty of Union, were laid on many of the ne- 
cessaries of life, the duties and customs which 
were imposed on various articles of merchan- 
dise, and the numerous restrictions with which 
the English contrived, in the narrow spirit of 
commercial monopoly, to fetter the trade of 
Scotland in general, were quickly and severely 
felt over the whole of this part of the United 
Kingdom. Commerce everywhere declined ; 
in spite of the attempts which were made to sup- 
port it by the wretched resource of smuggling. 
It suffered particularly in the towns on the 
28. 



Firth of Forth ; many of which were quickly 
reduced to distress, and all of them languished. 
This town was involved in the common fate. 
Its shipping, on which it had till then entirely 
depended, fell rapidly into decay ; and the se- 
veral wars which followed each other for more 
than half a century, having continued the ef- 
fect which the disadvantageous terms of the 
Union had begun, the trade of this place was 
at length so much reduced, that, in 1760, it 
employed no more than one coaster of fifty 
tons, and two ferry-boats each of thirty. On 
the return, however, of peace in 1763, the 
shipping immediately revived. By the year 
1 772, it had increased to eleven vessels carry- 
ing 515 tons and forty-nine men ; and though 
its progress was retarded by the war with Ame- 
rica, it amounted at the close of that contest 
to twelve vessels, carrying 750 tons and fifty- 
nine men." The increase still continuing, the 
number of vessels in 1792, was twenty- six, 
carrying 3700 tons register, or about 5000 dead 
weight, and employing 225 men, being, when 
clear to sail, worth L. 30,000. From this pe- 
riod, the town has gradually increased in im- 
portance as a port and manufacturing town, as 
may be learned from the following particulars, 
which are all referable to its present state, 
(July 1831.) The trade of Kirkaldy bears 
an intimate resemblance to that of Dundee, 
consisting almost exclusively in the spinning of 
flax, and the weaving of coarse linen goods for 
home and foreign consumption. The town 
now possesses ten distinct establishments for 
the spinning and preparation of flax, in all of 
which steam-power is employed. There is 
one large establishment for weaving, in which 
steam is also the agent of movement. The 
rest of the flax prepared here is woven by the 
hand, and engages a great number of individu- 
als. The fabrics prepared and woven, are 
chiefly ticks, dowlas, checks, and sail-cloth. 
There are four bleachfields connected with the 
town for the whitening of the yarns. Kirkaldy 
has likewise a rope-work. In the town and en- 
virons, there are two breweries and a distillery, 
likewise two iron foundries, where the machine- 
ry employed in the spinning-mills is manufactur- 
ed. Salt was once made to a considerable ex- 
tent, but it is now manufactured on a very small 
scale. Besides these chief public works, there 
are many minor establishments incidental to a 
populous sea-port town. Within these few 
years the style of shop -keeping has been great- 



KIRKALDY. 



659 



ly altered and improved, there being now many 
elegant shops, with extensive stocks of fashion- 
able and other kinds of goods, which formerly 
used to be found only in cities such as Edin- 
burgh. Kirkaldy is the seat of a customhouse, 
having a control over a line of coast extending 
from Aberdour on the west to St. Andrews 
on the east, in which district are included the 
creeks of Aberdour, Kinghorn, Dysart, West 
and East Wemyss Leven, Largo, Elie, Pit- 
tenweem, West and East Anstruther, Crail, 
and St. Andrews. Anstruther is constituted a 
deputy port to Kirkaldy, with a supervision 
over those places to the east of it. By the 
politeness of the gentlemen connected with the 
customhouse establishment of Kirkaldy, we 
have been furnished with a list of the shipping 
belonging to the port and its creeks, which is 
highly illustrative ofthe character of these places. 
It appears that on the 1st of January 1831, the 
whole owned 191 vessels, having a burden of 
14,596 tons, and 1289 seamen. Out of this, 
Kirkaldy and its creeks, as far as Largo, had 
95 vessels, with 10,610 tons, and 831 seamen. 
The circumstance of such a number of vessels 
belonging to the small towns on the coast of 
Fife is very significant of the mode in which 
spare capital is employed in this ancient trad- 
ing district. We find that here many a one 
who realizes two or three hundred pounds in 
trade, lays the sum out — frequently staking his 
all, or next to it — in the purchase of a brig or 
sehooner, to be engaged in foreign or coasting 
traffic. There are even instances of persons 
with more humble means clubbing their earn- 
ings to enter into speculations of this kind. In 
no other part of Scotland, indeed, that we know 
of, is there exactly the same species of rage for 
being ship-owners ; and, on the opposite shores 
of the Lothians, such a desire is very faintly 
expressed. It will, of course, be understood, 
that the above number of vessels is by no 
means allied to the trade of the ports to which 
they belong, (though such may happen to be 
the case,) the ships being employed in the ge- 
neral carrying trade of the country. Among 
those vessels belonging to Kirkaldy are reckon- 
ed six which are engaged in whale-fishing, a 
trade in which the port has been exceedingly 
successful. A substantially constructed series 
of edifices for the preparation of oil, in con- 
nexion with the Greenland trade, was some time 
ago erected on the shore below Pathhead, near 
Ravenscraig castle, but the work having been 



interdicted by the Earl of Roslin till a recent 
period, it is not as yet in operation. The 
trade of the port has been considerably benefit- 
ed by the institution of a company having smacks 
sailing to and from London direct. At present 
there are two vessels engaged in this traffic, 
carrying goods and passengers, by which the 
sometimes tedious and expensive process of 
sending goods by Leith is avoided. Kirk- 
aldy is the only port in Fife having these 
smacks, and the circumstance argues a great 
deal for the enterprise and affluence of the in- 
habitants. To the regular sailing to and fro 
of steam-vessels in communication with New- 
haven, and which go and come at least three 
times a-day, much of the comfort and prospe- 
rity of the port is also owing. The harbour of 
Kirkaldy is situated at the east end of the 
town, and though of large dimensions, with a 
good stone pier at the east and west sides, 
it has the misfortune of being dry at low 
water ; and at such times of the tide the pas- 
sengers of steam- vessels have to embark by 
means of small boats. To obviate, as far as 
possible, so disagreeable an inconveniency, along 
moveable pier, or narrow scaffold, on wheels, 
has been erected, which bears the passengers 
from the sands to the boats. We would strongly 
recommend the use of a convenience of this 
kind to the other parts on the coast having no 
low water piers, where passengers have often 
to be carried out of and into the boats on the 
backs of the sailors. It is the custom of the 
different inn-keepers of Kirkaldy to send 
chaises to the water's edge, in order to convey 
gratuitously the strangers who may land to their 
respective hotels. The increase of the spin- 
ning trade has not been more remarkable in 
Kirkaldy within these few years than the 
steady improvement of the trade in corn, in 
which it now surpasses any other market in 
Fife. A weekly grain market is held on Sa- 
turday, which collects the produce ofthe farmers 
from a very extensive district in the counties of 
Fife and Kinross, and commands the attend- 
ance of corn factors from Edinburgh, Leith, and 
other places on the southern shores of the firth. 
Purchasers having here frequently the advan- 
tage of seeing their grain shipped for Leith, 
Glasgow — (by way of the Forth and Clyde 
canal) — or other ports, before they leave the 
market, there is held out a great inducement 
to attendance on the part of the dealers, who 
have further the benefit of the numerous steam- 



660 



K I R K A L D Y. 



vessels ©rt the firth for transporting themselves, 
with perfect certainty as to time, from side to 
side, at a moderate expense.* A prodigious 
revolution has been effected within the last 
forty years in marketing at Kirkaldy, by the 
institution of day instead of candle-light mar- 
kets, tne latter being once common, and held 
so early in the mornings, that during the win- 
ter all the articles were bought and sold before 
sunrise. This ridiculous practice has been 
long since abrogated. By a very recent ar- 
rangement, there are in future to be three cat- 
tle markets in the year, held respectively on 
the third Friday of February, the third Friday 
of July, and the third Friday of October. 
The first market, according to this programme, 
was held in July 1831. As illustrative of the 
flourishing state of the Saturday's stock mar- 
ket, it may be mentioned, that during the first 
year it was held, there were 8669 quarters of 
wheat brought for sale ; and that in the last or 
third year, recently closed, there were 16,393 
quarters. The trade of Kirkaldy and neigh- 
bourhood is assisted by branches of the Bank 
of Scotland, and the Commercial, National, 
and Glasgow Banks. The gradual but 
steady progress of trade in Kirkaldy, and 
the general advance of the inhabitants in man- 
ners and taste, have led to the improve- 
ment of the town, both in its public and pri- 
vate works. In 181 1 a bill was carried through 
parliament for widening, paving, and lighting 
the streets, and introducing a supply of water, 
and from that period may be dated the begin- 
ning of those extensive alterations for the im- 
provement of the appearance of the place, which 
have given Kirkaldy a lively and modern, in- 
stead of an antiquated and gloomy aspect. 
The chief alterations have been made from 
about the middle of the town to its eastern ex- 
tremity, there being now, within this division, 
many handsome stone edifices, while the street 

* Persons proceeding from the Edinburgh side of the 
firth to Kirkaldy, may either go by the ferry boats 
direct from Newhaven, or by those from Newhaven to 
Kinghorn ; going from thence eastward by the coaches 
which run through Fife. The fares charged at both 
ferries are alike, being at present two shillings for the 
best, and one shilling and sixpence for the second cabin, 
which, though in one sense moderate, are at all times 
complained of as being too high, considering that the 
voyage to Kinghorn occupies but forty — and that to 
Kirkaldy about seventy minutes. The ferries in this 
quarter are mostly in the hands of certain trustees, and 
it is seldom that there are not vexatious disputes among 
parties concerned. Both on the Fife and Mid-Lothian 
coasts there is the modt deplorable want of low water piers. 



has been rendered liere and there more straight 
by the removal of projecting old houses. The 
greatest alteration has taken place near the 
centre of the eastern half, the street being here 
lined with lofty good stone houses, among which 
are two or three excellent inns ; and, on the 
south side of the thoroughfare, is a new edifice, 
of large proportions, answering the various pur- 
poses of a hall for district and burgh meetings, 
and a jail. From the front of this erection 
rises a neat spire, in which is a conspicuous 
town clock. This substantial and elegant build- 
ing, which was finished in 1829, superseded ar. 
exceedingly old court-house and jail, which pro- 
jected on the thoroughfare, and was long a nuis- 
ance to the street. The improved condition 
of Kirkaldy is particularly marked by the use 
of side pavement on the main and chief cross 
streets, and the lighting of the town and shops 
with gas, the latter improvement being made 
in 1830. The inhabitants support two public 
reading rooms, and there is a mechanics' insti- 
tution, which differs from other establishments 
of the kind, inasmuch as it is little else than 
an association for the support of a library cal- 
culated for the instruction of the members. 
The town has no academy beyond the scale of 
a parochial school, which is a somewhat re- 
markable circumstance. Recently, the com- 
munity have had planted amongst them a cha- 
rity school, on such a principle of extensive 
philanthropy that it requires particular notice. 
A wealthy citizen designed Robert Philp of 
Edenshead, merchant in the town, died in 
1828, bequeathing property, which, after liqui- 
dating minor legacies, &c, may be estimated 
at nearly L. 70,000. This large sum was re- 
posed in the administration of certain general 
and local trustees for the purpose of erecting 
and sustaining four schools, namely one in 
Kirkaldy, for 100 children, one in Path- 
head or St. Clair-town for 150 children, one 
in the Linktown of Abbotshall (the western 
suburb of Kirkaldy), for 100 children, and one 
in Kinghorn for fifty children : the pupils to 
be of both sexes, and to be selected from among 
the very poorest inhabitants of those pJaces, 
from six to fifteen years of age, and the edu- 
cation to consist of only the plainest elemen- 
tary branches : thirty shillings to be allowed for 
clothing per annum to each pupil. In virtue of 
this munificent endowment, a school-house has 
been built at Kirkaldy, and in the other places 
they are in the course of erection, or about to be 



KIRKCONNEL. 



G61 



commenced, while the proper number of 
children have been for some time under the care 
of teachers. The civic government of Kirk- 
aldy consists of a provost, two bailies, a dean 
of guild and treasurer ; the council in whole 
consisting of twenty-one members, ten of whom 
are mariners, eight merchants, and three crafts- 
men ; eleven of whom form a quorum. On 
account of the expense of different public im- 
provements, the burgh is now in debt L.9800, 
while the revenue annually drawn is about 
L.2000. The town accounts are managed by 
a chamberlain. Besides the established church, 
which is conspicuously situated on the rising 
ground above the town, Kirkaldy has the ad- 
vantage of having the parish church of Abbots- 
hall, situated at a short distance to the west of 
the town church, on the same rising ground. 
There are also two meeting-houses of the 
United Associate Synod, one of Original 
Seceders, one of the Original Burgher Sy- 
nod, one of Independents, and one of Episco- 
palians, In closing this account of Kirkaldy, 
the present writers cannot take leave of the 
subject without expressing it as their belief, 
founded on what they consider an accurate ex- 
amination of the town — of the spirited indus- 
try of its intelligent inhabitants — of its local 
situation — and of its rising character, that 
at no distant day it will be found by topogra- 
phers occupying an honourable and distinguish- 
ed rank among what are styled the first-rate 
Scottish towns. — Population of Kirkaldy and 
the suburbs in its vicinity in 1821, 7000; — 
population of the burgh and parish, excluding 
suburbs not ecclesiastically belonging to them, 
4452. It is only by the former of these com- 
putations that a correct idea can be gained of 
the population of the place. 

KIRKBEAN, a parish in the stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, occupying the south-eastern 
corner of that division of Galloway on the 
Solway firth at the estuary of the Nith ; bound- 
ed by Colvend on the west and Newabbey on 
the north : on the east and south is the Sol- 
way. It is under five miles in length from 
north to south, by a breadth of about three and 
a half miles. Its south-eastern corner or pro- 
montory is called Southernes Point. From 
some high hills on its western quarter the land 
generally declines towards the shore in long 
pleasing expanses, presenting to the eye a rich, 
beautiful and extensive prospect, fields well 
enclosed, and in a high state of cultivation, with 



a variety of thriving plantations. The ground 
is exceedingly low on the southern sea-shore, 
and is here styled the Merse. There are three 
villages of very small size in the parish — Kirk- 
bean, Preston, and Southerness. The first of 
these, which stands in the public road from 
Dumfries, in the northern part of the parish, 
about a mile from the sea, enjoys a small dis- 
tinction from having been the birth-place of 
John Paul, otherwise Paul Jones, who was 
born here in 1745, and was the son of an honest 
gardener in the place. The only antiquities 
in the district are the utterly ruined castles of 
Cavens and Weatks, both of which were the 
property and occasionally the residence of the 
Regent Morton. The huge and conspicuous 
mountain called Criffel, stands partly within 
this parish and partly within that of Newabbey. 
—Population in 1821, 790. 

KIRKBOST, an islet of the Hebrides, 
lying on the west coast of North Uist. 

KIRKCHRIST.— See Twynholm. 

KIRKCOLM, a parish in Wigtonshire, 
occupying the outer extremity of the peninsu- 
la, bounded by the Irish channel on the west 
and north, and Loch Ryan on the east. On 
its inland boundary it has the parish of Les- 
walt. In extent it measures almost a square 
of five miles. The surface is undulating, and 
is under a good process of tillage. The 
church of Kirkcolm, which before the Re- 
formation be'onged to the monks of Sweet- 
heart Abbey, is pleasantly situated near the 
shore of Loch Ryan, north of the bay called 
the Wig. About two miles south from the 
present kirk, on the side of Loch Ryan, there 
was, in ancient times, a chapel called Kilmo- 
rie, signifying the Chapel of the Virgin Mary. 
This chapel was altogether ruinous upwards 
of a century ago, but the Virgin's Well, in the 
vicinity, still retained its celebrity, among the 
country people, for miraculous properties, as 
regarded the cure of sick persons. — Popula- 
tion in 1821, 1821. 

KIRKCONNEL, a parish in Dumfries- 
shire, occupying the north-west corner of 
Nithsdale, extending from west to east be- 
tween ten and fourteen miles by a breadth of 
seven and eight, boimded by Sanquhar on the 
south and east, and on the west and north by 
New- Cumnock. A large portion of the dis- 
trict is the vale through which the Nith flows 
from west to east, with minute vales on either 
side, and throLw which tributary rivulets run to 



662 



KIRKCUDBRIGHT (STEWARTRY OF) 



this beautiful river. From these low grounds 
the land rises into a mountainous terrritory on 
the northern and south-western confines. The 
low lying lands are now under excellent cultiva- 
tion, and the hills are devoted to the pasturing 
of black cattle and sheep. The public road 
from Sanquhar into Ayrshire pursues a west- 
erly direction through the parish, on the left 
bank of the Nith. On the entrance of the 
road into the parish stands the village of 
Whitehill ; and nearly three miles farther on 
is the Kirktown of Kirkconnel. The ancient 
parish church stood at a place called Old 
Kirkconnel, about two miles to the north of 
the modern edifice. The old church before 
the Reformation belonged to the monks of 
Holyrood. Tradition and record are equally 
silent regarding who St. Connel or Conel was, 
to whom this and several other churches in 
Dumfries-shire were dedicated ; and we are 
left to conjecture that he may have been St. 
Conwal, a disciple of St. Kentigernor Mungo, 
at Glasgow, and who flourished as early as 
612 — Population in 1821, 1075. 

KIRKCONNEL, a parish in Dumfries- 
shire, now merged in that of Kirkpatrick- Flem- 
ing. It is in this district in which is found the 
scene of the impassioned and pathetic tale of 
" Fair Helen of Kirkconnel Lee," which we 
notice under the head Kirkpatrick- Fleming. 

KIRKCOWAN or KIRKOWEN, a 
parish in Wigtonshire, bounded by Ayrshire 
on the north, Penningham on the east, Moch- 
rum on the south, and Old Luce and New 
Luce on the west; extending from north to 
south fifteen miles, by a general breadth of 
about five miles. ' The surface of this district 
is various, consisting of moorland interspersed 
with pieces of arable land. The parish is 
bounded on its west side by the Tarf water, 
which in the south intersects the district and 
joins the Bladenoch, a larger stream which 
similarly bounds the east side of the parish, 
and which, after passing Wigton, falls into 
Wigton Bay. The church of Kirkowen stands 
on the Tarf near its junction with the Blade- 
noch. A doubt prevails as to who St. Cowan 
was, to whom the old church was dedicated. 
Dempster, in his Menologium, claims him as an 
Abbot and as a Scot, who belonged to the 
western isles, and it is probable that he was 
the same personage commemorated there under 
the title of Keuin, in the parish of Kilvi- 
ceuen — Population in 1821, 1283. 



KIRKCUDBRIGHT, styled a stewartry, 
but to all intents and purposes a sheriffdom or 
shire, in the south of Scotland, being a portion 
of the ancient district of Galloway, situated 
betwixt Dumfries-shire on the east and north- 
east, Ayrshire on the north and north-west, 
Wigtonshire or Western Galloway on the 
west, and the Solway Firth on the south. 
Its boundaries are, on the east the Nith, 
the Cairn Water, on the north-east, and the 
water of Cree on the west. In extent it mea- 
sures from south-east to north-west forty-four 
miles, by a breadth of from twenty-one to 
thirty-one miles. It contains a superficies of 
855 square miles, or 547,200 statute acres. 
The ancient history of this portion of Gallo- 
way being included in the article Galloway, 
it need not be here recapitulated ; and it may be 
sufficient to state how it acquired the uncommon 
title of a stewartry. It appears that during 
the thirteenth century, this district formed part 
of the county of Dumfries ; but during this 
period there prevailed throughout Galloway a 
violent struggle between the Scoto-Irish usages 
of ancient times, and the municipal law of re- 
cent introduction. The influence of the 
Cumins, under the minority of Alexander III. 
established here an extraordinary change, by 
having had the address to erect regular justici- 
aries. The restoration of the monarchy under 
Robert Bruce altered the system which had 
been thus instituted. By the forfeiture of the 
possessions of the Baliols, the Cumins, and 
their various vassals, the district became the 
property of the crown, when it is understood 
to have been first put under the authority of a 
royal stewart. Owing to the weakness of 
David II., and the audacity of Archibald 
Douglas the Grim, the lordship of Galloway, 
with the stewartiy of Kirkcudbright, fell into 
the hands of that nobleman ; but on the for- 
feiture of the Douglases, in 1455, these pos- 
sessions once more became royal property. In 
subsequent times, the office of Stewart, in the 
appointment of the king, was one of much 
honour, and was often the subject of contest. 
For a considerable period after the establish- 
ment of a separate stewartship, the district was 
still in some measure esteemed to be politi- 
cally attached to Dumfries-shire; such a connex- 
ion, however, was totally abrogated before the 
civil wars of Charles the First's reign. From 
mere force of ancient usage, the appellation 
of Stewart instead of sheriff, has, till the pre- 






KIRKCUDBRIGHT. (STEWARTRY OF) 



663 



sent day, remained in constant use, although, 
by the civil arrangements of modern times, 
there is not the least difference in the two 
offices. The stewartry of Kirkcudbright dif- 
fers considerably from Dumfries shire in na- 
tural appearance, not having any extensive 
plain on the margin of the sea, and the whole 
being hilly to the very shores of the Solway. 
It only varies in the greater or less size of the 
hills, which are everywhere intermixed with 
valleys, forming the natural drains of this 
hilly and ridgy district. The general as- 
pect has been well described by Buchanan 
in the laconic expression, tumescit collibus- 
The most conspicuous mountain is Criffel 
or Crawfell, situated near the Nith, and rising 
to the height of 1831 feet above the level of the 
sea. It is seen at a great distance both on the 
Scottish and English side of the Solway Firth. 
Many of the hills of this district are of a fer- 
tile nature, and being of easy ascent, and not 
of too great height, are cultivated to their sum- 
mits. Those of a more lofty kind are adapted 
for pasturing sheep and cattle. The district 
possesses a variety of lakes. The principal rivers 
are the Dee, the Ken, the Cree, and the Urr, 
and the smaller streams are the Fleet, the Tarf, 
the Deugh, and the Cluden. The Ken is con- 
sidered the largest, receiving in its course all the 
rivulets which drain the neighbouring hills, and 
even receiving the Dee, although by some strange 
chance the latter assumes the appellative pri- 
vilege after entering the Ken. That the Ken 
was anciently held as the superior river in 
Galloway, is established by its name, which 
signifies the head or chief. The Solway 
Firth, in a circular form, washes the coast of 
the stewartry from the Nith to the Cree, a 
space of forty-five miles, and along the shore 
of this useful estuary the coast is bold and 
rocky, the cliffs rising sometimes to a great 
height. Besides the salmon fishings at the 
mouths of the rivers, the Solway affords every 
opportunity for catching sea-fish, but for what 
reason we know not, no part of the Scottish 
shores is so destitute of fishermen and their 
villages. The district is very nearly destitute of 
coal, which, as well as the greater part of the 
lime used, is brought from Cumberland. The 
soil of the country is chiefly a thin mould, or a 
brownish loam, mixed with sand, and is incum- 
bent sometimes on gravel, and in many places 
on rock. The whole is interspersed with mea- 
dows and mingled with moss. Anciently the 
land was covered with a forest, which is now 



completely gone, or seen in dwindled remnants 
on the banks of the streams. We learn from 
the patient researches of the erudite Chalmers, 
that as early as the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries this hilly territory was under a most 
productive process of agriculture, originated 
and improved by the assiduity of the numerous 
monks in the different abbeys in the district. 
It appears that in the summer and autumn of 
the memorable year 1300, when Edward I. 
subdued Galloway, he caused considerable 
quantities of wheat to be exported from the 
port of Kirkcudbright to Cumberland, and 
even to Dublin, to be manufactured into flour ; 
in this state it was brought back to victual 
the castles of Ayr, Caerlaverock, Dumfries, 
Lochmaben, and other strongholds. We 
should not, however, suppose from this that 
the district was without mills, for we find by 
Dugdale's Monasticon, that Edward fined a 
miller at the village of Fleet for some offence 
in his mill, and he thence perhaps distrusted 
the Scottish millers. In these times the staple 
products were wheat and oats ; barley, peas, 
and beans being only in small quantities. The 
English garrisons used a good deal of malt for 
their beer, but we find it was " brasium avenae" 
— the malt of oats. These remarks may be 
applied generally to Galloway, which, in point 
of fact, was in a much more flourishing condi- 
tion as regarded its agricultural wealth, in the 
thirteenth, than it was in the seventeenth cen- 
tury. Its age of prosperity was succeeded 
by destructive intestine wars, rapine, misery, 
fanaticism, sloth, and other follies, which last- 
ed four hundred years, and reduced the coun- 
try to a desert. At the beginning of the last 
century, the stewartry is known to have ex- 
hibited all the worst features of the system 
of crofting by small tenants and cottagers, 
who had neither the will nor the means to 
improve the district. The first step made 
towards a resuscitation of its agricultural cha- 
racter, and the first of a series of extensive 
improvements, was the enclosing of the lands 
with fences in the year 1724. This bene- 
ficial measure was viewed with the utmost 
hostility by the country people, who, inflamed 
by the harangues of a mountain preacher, ac- 
tually rose to the number of five hundred, 
and under the title of Levellers, proceeded to 
demolish the fences which had been erected. 
This tumultuous insurrection, which seems to 
have originated in some peculiar notions as to 
the general right of property, was suppressed 



664 



KIRKCUDBRIGHT. 



by six troops of dragoons. After this the 
country advanced in improvement, and when 
shell marl was first applied as manure in 1740, 
a great stride was made towards a better 
condition. The land was now " torn in" on 
a great scale, and after the year 1760, con- 
siderable exportations began to be made. The 
important changes which ensued have, with 
justice, been traced in a great degree to Wil- 
liam Craik of Arbigland, a person of original 
genius, the chairman of the Dumfries Farm- 
ing Society, who introduced new rotations of 
cropping, new methods of cultivation, new 
machinery, and new modes of treating cattle. 
Since 1790 the district has coped with Dum- 
fries-shire and other counties adjacent, in its 
agricultural improvements, and in the begin- 
ning of the present century, Colonel M'Dow- 
al of Logan, accomplished much in reclaiming 
moss-lands. Much has been effected by judi- 
cious planting by several noblemen and gentle- 
men of the stewartry, among whom Lord Daer, 
whose noble qualities Burns has made fami- 
liar to every one, is distinguished. In 1814 it 
possessed 6000 horses, 50,000 cattle, and 
178,000 sheep, besides swine to a prodigious 
extent ; these animals being now a staple com- 
modity in the usual produce, both for home 
consumpt and exportation. The real rental 
of the stewartry in 1811 was L. 83,487 for 
lands, and L-3549 for houses. The manufac- 
ture of linen, woollen, and cotton goods engages 
a great number of hands in the towns and vil- 
lages. The stewartry contains two royal burghs 
—Kirkcudbright and New Galloway ; and 
several considerable villages, as Maxwelltown, 
Castle Douglas, Gatehouse-of- Fleet, Cree- 
town, &c. most of which have been built with- 
in the last seventy years. It includes twenty- 
eight parishes. — Population in 1821, males 
18,506, females 20,037; total 38,903. 

KIRKCUDBRIGHT,aparishin the above 
stewartry, situated on the east side of the Dee, 
at its confluence with the Solway Firth, bound- 
ed by Tongland and Kelton on the north, 
and Rerwick on the east. On the south is the 
Solway. In extent it measures seven miles 
in length by from three to four in breadth, 
being a tolerably regular parallelogram in 
figure. It comprehends the three ancient 
parishes of Kirkcudbright, Dunrod, and 
Galtway, which were united in the seven- 
teenth century. The churches of the two 
latter have been since abandoned and ruin- 
ed, but their several burial-grounds remain 



in use. The district is billy, but the greater 
part is under cultivation, or laid out in grass 
parks. 

Kirkcudbright, a royal burgh, the capi- 
tal of the above stewartry and parish, the 
seat of a presbytery, and a sea-port, occupies 
a remarkable peninsular situation on the left 
bank of the Dee, about six miles from its en- 
trance into the Solway, at the distance of 100 
miles from Edinburgh, 60 from Portpatrick, 
and about 28 from Dumfries. Of the origin 
of Kirkcudbright nothing is certain, and it is 
only a matter of conjecture that it is as 
old as the church of St. Cuthbert, which, 
as it has given the name, may also be sup- 
posed to have given origin to the place. 
The church here spoken of was erected as 
early as the eighth century, and some time be- 
tween 1161 and 1174, it was granted by Uch- 
tred the son of Fergus, the lord of Galloway, 
to the monks of Holyrood, who retained it till 
the Reformation, and by the general annexa- 
tion act it was afterwards vested in the crown. 
There was also in Kirkcudbright a church 
dedicated to St. Andrew, which, after the 
Reformation, was conferred on the burgh ; and 
it appears that there was likewise a Franciscan 
monastery, of which the records are altogether 
silent. The establishment of St. Cuthbert's 
church was preceded or followed by the erec- 
tion of a small fort by the lords of Galloway, 
which became in later times a castle in the 
proprietary of the crown, and caused the place 
to be put under the government of a con- 
stable. During the domination of the Doug- 
lasses in Galloway, Kirkcudbright became a 
burgh of regality under their influence ; and 
on their forfeiture, James II. erected the town 
into a royal burgh, by a charter dated at Perth, 
the 26th of October, 1455. Hector Boece, 
referring to it soon after this period, calls it 
" ane rich town full of merchandise," a charac- 
ter it most likely deserved till injured by the 
troubles in the country. Kirkcudbright, as 
well on account of the castle as its prosperous 
condition, was visited by Edward I. with his 
queen and court, who spent some time here 
during the warfare of 1300. In 1455 it was 
visited by its patron, James II., in the course 
of his march through Galloway to crush the 
power of the Douglases. A few years later, 
in 1461, Henry VI. with his queen and court 
fled thither after his defeat at Towton ; and 
this unfortunate monarch resided here for 
some time, while Margaret, his queen, went 



KIRKCUDBRIGHT. 



665 



to visit the Scottish queen at Edinburgh. 
Next year Margaret sailed from Kirkcudbright 
to Bretagne, and in 1463 Henry returned to 
England in disguise. In 1508, the town was 
again cheered by royalty, in the temporary re- 
sidence of James IV., who was here hospi- 
tably entertained. In 1547, a party of the 
English army sent to revenge the broken 
treaty of marriage between Edward VI. and 
Mary queen of Scots, repaired to Kirkcud- 
bright, with the intention of causing the peo- 
ple to swear allegiance to their master ; but 
though early in the morning, the people were 
upon the alert, and shut their gates and kept 
their dykes j " for," says our authority, " the 
town was dyked on both sides, with a gate to 
the water-ward and a gate on the over end to 
the fell-ward ;" and this defence was effectual 
in preserving the town. It then consisted of 
a single street, at the extremity of which was 
the harbour. In more recent history, Kirkcud- 
bright does not make a very conspicuous figure. 
With the revival of prosperity in the stewart- 
ry, the capital arose from its original condition 
into that state in which we now find it. In 
the present day it is a town of remarkably 
pleasing appearance; within, it is regular, 
clean, and neat ; externally, it seems embosom- 
ed in the beautiful foliage of a fine sylvan 
country, and derives some degree almost of 
city-like grandeur from the towers of the jail, 
and of the ruined abode of the lords of Kirk- 
cudbright, which at a little distance are 
seen overtopping the ordinary buildings. It 
consists of six or seven distinct streets, built 
at right angles with each other, like those 
of the New Town of Edinburgh. The 
High Street, Castle Street, St. Cuthbert's 
Street, and Union Street are the principal 
thoroughfares. The western extremities of 
the High Street and Castle Street are to- 
wards the river. No town in Scotland pos- 
sesses such a proportion of new houses ; the 
cause of which is to be found in an arrange- 
ment among the inhabitants, by which a 
certain number of houses are built by sub- 
scription every year, and acquired by lot. In 
addition to the modern appearance which the 
town has acquired in this way, it is ornament- 
ed by the residences of many persons of good 
fortune, which, instead of being scattered in 
the suburbs of the town, as elsewhere, are 
placed in the streets, and that in considerable 
numbers. The town now possesses little or 



no trade, and has no manufactures except 
hosiery on a small scale and the weaving of 
cotton. There is also a brewery. Chiefly 
subsisting upon its resources as a county 
town, it is a very quiet and genteel-looking 
place. Several of the inhabitants are opulent ; 
and few have the appearance of living in ab- 
ject poverty. The stewartry buildings and 
jail, erected in 1816, have a highly respectable 
appearance ; and from the tall tower which sur- 
mounts the latter an extensive view may be 
obtained of the beautiful environs of the town. 
The former jail and court-house is a very eu- 
rious old structure, on the opposite side 
of the same thoroughfare, with the market- 
cross stuck up against it, and a pair of formi- 
dable jougs attached thereto. From an inscrip- 
tion, the date of its erection seems to have been 
1504. A large and elegant academy has like- 
wise been erected, containing a spacious room 
for a public subscription library. The esta- 
blished church is an old building erected on 
the site of the Franciscan monastery, near the 
harbour. In the High Street is a neat chapel 
belonging to a United Associate congregation. 
The annual fast day of the church is generally 
the first Thursday of May. The town is pro- 
vided with a news-room. The harbour is the 
best in the stewartry ; at ordinary spring tides 
the depth of the water is thirty feet, and at the 
lowest neap tides eighteen feet. It is well cal- 
culated for commercial purposes, but has no 
communication with any of the manufac- 
turing districts. There is as yet no bridge 
across the Dee at Kirkcudbright, and passen- 
gers and carriages have to be ferried over in a 
flat-bottomed boat of a very peculiar con- 
struction. The river is navigable for 
two miles above the town, to the bridge of 
Tongland, which is built of one arch of 110 
feet span. The erection of a draw-bridge at 
Kirkcudbright would be esteemed a great im- 
provement. The town is entitled to hold two 
annual fairs, and it has two weekly market- 
days, Tuesday and Friday. A branch of the 
Bank of Scotland is settled in the place. The 
original charter of the burgh was renewed in 
1633, by Charles I., and the town has since 
been under the government of a provost, two 
bailies, and thirteen councillors, with a trea- 
surer and chamberlain. The burgh joins with 
Dumfries, Annan, Sanquhar, and Lochmaben, 
in sending a member to parliament. The re- 
venue of the corporation is considerably in- 
4 Q 



666 



KIRKCUDBRIGHT. 



creased by salmon-fishings in the Dee. What 
is called the castle of Kirkcudbright is a large 
dingy house, partaking slightly of the fortified 
character, formerly the property and residence 
of the Lords of Kirkcudbright. Though 
bearing date 1584, the walls are still perfect- 
ly entire and very strong ; but the interior walls 
of the building have been removed, and the 
court now forms a wood-yard. The notice of 
this ancient house, which occupies a situation 
betwixt the foot of High Street and Castle 
Street, near the river, leads us to explain who 
the lords of Kirkcudbright were, and are ; for 
the reader may confound them with the Dou- 
glases, already mentioned as superiors in this 
part of the country. The family of Kirkcud- 
bright, which is surnamed Maclellan, traces its 
origin to Sir Patrick Maclellan of the barony 
of Bomby, who, having forfeited his posses- 
sions by illegal depredations on the Douglas 
lands in Galloway, they were recovered by his 
son Sir William, during the reign of James II., 
in the following manner. A powerful band of 
gipsies infesting the district of Galloway, that 
sovereign issued a proclamation offering the 
barony of Bomby as a reward to whoever should 
disperse them and bring their captain dead or 
alive. Roused by such a prospect of gaining 
back his patrimony, Sir William Maclellan 
succeeded in routing the marauders and in 
bringing the head of their chief on the point of 
his sword. The king accordingly rewarded 
him, by the restitution of the property of Bom- 
by ; and to commemorate this event the fortu- 
nate knight adopted as his crest a right arm 
erect, the hand grasping a dagger with a Moor's 
head couped, proper, on the point thereof, with 
the motto Think on — as significant of his form- 
ing a resolution to re-acquire the family posses- 
sions. Sir Robert, the sixth in the main line 
of the Bomby family, was a gentleman of the 
bed-chamber to James VI. and Charles I., and 
by the latter was created a baron, with the title of 
Lord Kirkcudbright, in 1 633. Dying without 
male issue, the family honours, by a second re- 
move, fell to John Maclellan of Burg, younger 
brother of the first lord. This was a strange 
personage who seems to have exemplified in 
real life the fictitious misfortunes assigned in a 
popular novel to another Galloway house. He 
was a violent opponent of Oliver Cromwell 
and the Independents, so long as they were in 
power, and lost not a little in the royal service. 
But such was this nobleman's felicitous knack 
28. 



of contradiction, that, when the Restoration 
seemed to have put him on the right side of 
the hedge, he was just as much in the wrong 
as ever. For opposing the introduction of an 
Episcopal clergyman into the church of Kirk- 
cudbright, or rather for helping the honest old 
women who took that matter in hand, he had 
four of his neighbours sent to inquire into his 
conduct ; a circumstance equivalent to an at- 
tainder, for these good gentlemen were by no 
means backward in finding reasons for sending 
the unfortunate presbyterian to jail, and far 
less in adjusting among themselves the parti- 
tion of his estates. From these losses and 
difficulties the family, however, arose, and after 
a period of dormancy, the title was revived 
in 1722, by a descendant of a collateral branch, 
whose successors have since enjoyed the dis- 
tinction of Lords Kirkcudbright. The castle 
of Kirkcudbright, the nominal seat of this fa- 
mily, has not been occupied since the fall of 
Lord Kirkcudbright's fortunes at the Restora- 
tion. Near the harbour of Kirkcudbright 
may be seen the remains of a battery which 
was erected by King William III., when 
forced to put into Kirkcudbright bay during 
a storm, on his voyage to raise the siege 
of Londonderry. A more ancient piece of 
fortification is pointed out at a little distance 
from the town, in the shape of some indistinct 
mounds, vulgarly called Castle- dykes, which 
are now all that remain of that fort belong- 
ing of old to the house of Douglas, and to 
the crown, and which was, as has been seen, 
the frequent residence of royalty. The burial- 
ground of Kirkcudbright is situated about half 
a mile north-east from the town, in a beautiful 
and sequestered spot, surrounded by fine old 
trees, being the precinct of the church of the 
worthy Cuthbert. The church has long dis- 
appeared ; but with a natural attachment to 
the graves of their fathers, the people scrupu- 
lously cling to the ancient place of sepulture, 
in preference to any which might be laid out 
in the more immediate vicinity of the town. 
St Cuthbert's sacred ground contains some 
very old monuments, which, owing to the laud- 
able enthusiasm of a citizen of Kirkcudbright, 
have been kept in singularly good order. 
Among the rest are those of several cove- 
nanters, who happened to be shot or hanged 
in the neighbourhood, and whose epitaphs, 
in rude gingling rhymes, unworthy of the 
subject, do not suit very happily with the 






KIRKCUDBRIGHT. 



667 



tranquil sorrow which seems to reign over 
the rest of the beech-shaded graves. The 
distinguishing ornament of Kirkcudbright is 
St. Mary's Isle, the seat of the Earl of Selkirk, 
which lies about a mile south from the town 
farther down the Dee. Originally an island 
between the waters of this river and the swel- 
ling tide, it is now a peninsula projecting into 
the bay, luxuriantly wooded with oak, chesnut, 
walnut, and all the finer species of forest trees ; 
and is, beyond all question, one of the loveliest 
spots in Scotland. The house is large and of 
respectable appearance. It was originally a 
priory, which was founded either in the reign 
of David I. or his successor Malcolm IV., in 
the twelfth century, by Fergus, lord of Gal- 
loway, and called " Prioratus Sanctae Mariae 
de Trayll." The monks were canons regular 
of the order of St. Augustine. Their prior, as 
usual, was a lord of parliament, and we observe 
that that dignitary held the office of royal trea- 
surer from 1559 till 1571. After the Refor- 
mation, this churchman, who was called Ro- 
bert Richardson, and the commendator William 
Rutherford, granted the greater part of the pro- 
perty of the house to a person styled James 
Lidderdail. The property in churches, &c. 
was vested in the crown in 1587. The priory 
of St. Mary was surrounded by high walls, 
which have long since disappeared, and the 
house itself was converted by many alterations 
into a private dwelling-house. The back-wall 
alone is said to be original, and the only other 
memorials of the monks that can now be shown, 
are, a richly ornamented font-stone with this 
inscription round its brim, " Hie jacet J. E. 
anno Domini 1404: Ave Maria! or a pro no- 
bis," and a fountain of the purest and finest 
water, shaded over with trees, called the 
Monks' Well. The outer gate of the priory 
stood at least half a mile from the house ; 
and the place where it stood is still called 
the Great cross. The inner gate led immedi- 
ately to a group of cells, where the monks 
lodged ; and is still denominated the Little 
cross. — The intrepid and redoubtable Paul 
Jones, the active partizan of America in the 
war which secured its independence — though 
still popularly remembered in Scotland only as 
a lawless bucanier — comes into notice in con- 
nexion with Kirkcudbright. His father, John 
Paul, was gardener to Mr. Craik of Arbigland, 
and young Paul was apprenticed to a ship- 
owner in Whitehaven. From his excellent 



character and talents he soon rose to be master 
of a trading vessel belonging to Kirkcudbright. 
When in command of an American ship, in 
1778, immediately after his attack on White- 
haven he appeared in Kirkcudbright bay, and 
made a descent at the extreme point of St. 
Mary's Isle, the seat of the Earl of Selkirk, 
with a view, as he afterwards explained, of car- 
rying off that nobleman as a hostage. Find- 
ing his lordship was absent from home, he re- 
turned to the boat with the design of leaving 
the island, but was induced by the murmurs of 
his crew to permit them to return to the house 
for the purpose of bringing away the silver- 
plate. He charged them, however, to take 
only what was offered, and to come away with- 
out making a search or demanding any thing 
else. On the sale of the plate, Jones pur- 
chased it and returned it at his own expense, 
with a letter to the Earl explaining his motives 
for the descent. From his Lordship's reply it 
appears the officers and men engaged in the 
affair behaved in the most respectful manner, 
and strictly in accordance with the injunctions 
of their commander. The plate was returned 
exactly as it had been taken away ; it is even 
said that the tea-pot which had been hastily 
taken from Lady Selkirk's breakfast-table, 
was found, on its return, to contain the tea- 
leaves that were in it when carried off. The 
news of an armed and inimical vessel hovering 
on their coast, and of a band having landed and 
attacked Lord Selkirk's house, soon reached 
Kirkcudbright, whose inhabitants were thrown 
into a dreadful panic by the event, though, as 
ultimately appeared, without any reason for 
their fears. — In the words of the author of " the 
Picture of Scotland," from which some ot 
the foregoing particulars are gleaned, this no • 
tice of Kirkcudbright should not be terminated 
without adverting to the excellent arrangements 
and successful system of education pursued in 
the high school or academy of the burgh, under 
the patronage and direction of the magistrates. 
Nor would the antiquary forgive us were we to 
forbear mentioning that the vestiges of ancient 
camps and fortresses are innumerable, indicat- 
ing that this quarter of the country was former- 
ly the scene of much greater activity than now. 
The town has some other attractions. It is a 
place where one could live very idly and very 
cheaply ; and, to sum up all, if we were asked 
to write out a list of the six prettiest and plea- 
santest places in our native country, Kirkcud- 



GC8 



K I R KI NN E a 



bright should occupy a conspicuoiis situation 
in the catalogue. — Population of the burgh 
in 1821 about 2000, including the parish 
3377. 

KIRKDEN,a paiish in Forfarshire, bound- 
ed by part of G'thrie, Rescobie, and Dunni- 
chen on the north, Dunnichen also on the west, 
and Carmylie on the south. By a most awkward 
arrangement, a large detached portion of Dun- 
nichen parish lies in the centre of Kirkden, and 
cuts it very nearly into two divisions. The 
western division is a square of about two 
miles ; the eastern is the same breadth, but ra- 
ther larger. The parish is watered by the 
L.unan water, and one of its tributaries called 
the Vinny. The district has some remains of 
antiquity, but of little interest. The lands are 
now well cultivated, enclosed, and planted. — 
Population in 1821, 813. 

KIRKGUNZEON,aparishinthesrewart- 
ry of Kirkcudbright, bounded on the north by 
Lochrutton, on the east by Newabbey, on the 
south by Colvend, and on the west by Urr; 
extending seven miles from south to west, by 
three and a half in breadth. The appearance 
of the parish is rather hilly, but there is a good 
deal of fine flat land adapted to agricultural 
purposes. There are three ancient buildings 
in the parish, Barclosh, Corrah, and Drumcul- 
tran, once the seats of distinguished families. 
The etymology of the name Kirkgunzeon has 
so puzzled Symson, author of an account of Gal- 
loway, that he is constrained to say it means 
" the kirk of unction," from the religious de- 
votion of former times ; but this is found to be 
mere nonsense ; the ancient title, of which he 
does not seem to have been aware, having been 
Kirk-ivinnyn, or the church of St. Winnyn, a 
saint who has similarly given a name to Kil- 
winning. Of old, the parish belonged to the 
abbey of Holm-Cultram in Cumberland. At 
the south-west corner of the parish, on Dal- 
beattie burn and enclosed by the parish of Urr, 
stands the village of Dalbeattie. — Population in 
1821, 776. 

KIRKHILL, a parish in Inverness-shire, 
lying immediately west from Inverness, on the 
shore of Loch Beauly, having Kilmorack and 
Kiltarlity on the north and west, and part of 
Inverness on the south, extending eight miles 
in length, by from one to three in breadth. For 
four miles it is a narrow stripe ori an inclined 
plane, facing the above indentation of the sea, 
with a south-west exposure. Beyond these 



four miles, the firth contracts, and the country 
enlarges ; but instead of forming a plain, a 
ridge of rising ground is projected and divides 
it into two valleys ; the summit of this ridge 
is Wardlaw or Mary's hill. The low grounds 
are fertile, and the country is here generally 
beautiful. The Kirktown of Kirkhill, is on the 
Beauly river, which bounds the district on the 
west. The parish is formed of the two ancient 
parochial divisions of Wardlaw and Farnua. 
—Population in 1821, 1572. 

KIRKHILL, a village in the parish of 
Pennycuick, Edinburghshire, situated on a 
height, on the left bank of the North Esk, 
nearly half a mile east from Pennycuick, and 
inhabited principally by weavers and paper- 
makers. 

KIRKINNER, a parish in Wigtonshire, 
lying with its east side to Wigton bay, bound- 
ed by Sorbie and Glasserton on the south, 
Mochrum on the west, and part of Kirkcowan 
and Wigton on the north ; extending about 
three miles along the sea-coast, and proceeding 
inland a distance of more than five miles ; the 
breadth of the parish in its inner part being 
nearly eight miles. The Bladenoch water 
divides it on the north from the parish of Wig- 
ton. The surface is uneven or hilly, but in a 
good state of culture, and embellished with plan- 
tations. On the south side of the parish it is 
touched by the lake of Dowalton or Longcas- 
tel. The Kirktown of Kirkinner is on the 
public road from Wigton to Garlieston.This 
parish comprehends the two old parochial dis- 
tricts of Kirkinner and Longcaster, or Long- 
castel. The ancient church of the former was 
dedicated to St. Kenneir, virgin and martyr, 
who suffered death at Cologne, with many 
others, in the year 450. Hence the name of 
the parish, and, most probably, also, the com- 
mon surname — Kinnear. This church was 
granted by Edward Bruce, the lord of Gal- 
loway, to the prior and canons of Whithorn. 
In 1503, being resigned by these monks to 
James V. in exchange for the church of Kirk- 
andrews, that monarch attached it to the chapel- 
royal of Stirling, and after this it formed the 
benefice of the sub-dean of that establishment. 
In 1591, James VI. granted the patronage of 
the church to Sir Patrick Vans of Bambarroch, 
and the representative of this person, Colonel 
Vans Agnew, still enjoys the gift. The south- 
ern part of the parish was that of Longcaster. 
a district obtaining its name from an ancient cas- 



KIRKLISTON. 



0G<) 



tie, the ruins whereof are still visible on an islet 
in the above-mentioned lake. The ruins of 
Longeaster church stand about a mile distant 
from the lake. The annexation took place in 
1630— Population in 1821, 1488. 

KIRKINTILLOCH, or Kirkintul- 
loch, a parish belonging to Dumbartonshire, 
though it, along with Cumbernauld, lies several 
miles detached eastward from the body of that 
county. Under the head Dumbartonshire, 
it has been mentioned that these two parishes 
were annexed to the shire to which they now 
belong, in the reign of Robert Bruce. The 
parish of Kirkintilloch is bounded on the north 
by Campsie, on the east by Cumbernauld, and 
on the south and west by Cadder ; it extends 
about six miles from east to west, having the 
Kelvin river chiefly on its northern border, by 
an average breadth of nearly two and ahalf 
miles. The Forth and Clyde canal passes 
through it on its northern side, near the Kel- 
vin. The lands are almost entirely arable and 
finely planted. The wall of Antoninus passed 
through this parish, and its remains may still 
here and there be traced. Originally, the dis- 
trict, including this parish and that of Cumber- 
nauld, formed but one parochial division under 
the name of Lenzie or Lenyie — a term supposed 
by the author of the Statistical Account to be 
a corruption of Linea, as applicable to the 
line of Roman wall intersecting this part of 
the country; The division of the parish took 
place in the seventeenth century, and for some 
time the divisions were called Easter and 
Wester Lenzie. Limestone, coal, and sand- 
stone are abundant. 

Kirkintilloch, or Kirkintulloch, a 
considerable town, the capital of the above 
parish, and a burgh .of barony, situated on 
the water of Luggie, near its junction with 
the Kelvin, at the distance of seven and a-half 
miles north-east of Glasgow, and five west of 
Kilsyth. It is understood to derive its name 
from its locality, the original title being, it is 
said, Caer-pen-tuUoch, which, in the Cambro- 
British, signifies the fort on the head or end 
of a hill, which is descriptive of the site of the 
town, as it stands on the extremity of a ridge, 
advancing from the south, into a plain on the 
banks of the Kelvin. Whether this etymo- 
logy be correct or not, the place was call- 
ed Kirkintulloch in the charters of the twelfth 
century. The ancient parish church was de- 
dicated to St. Ninian, and before the year 



1195 it was granted by William the son of 
Thorald, the lord of the manor, to the monks 
of Cambuskenneth, with whom it remained 
till the Reformation. The ruins of this pri- 
mary church, with a burying ground, are still 
extant, about a mile south-east of the town of 
Kirkintilloch. On its abandonment, the cha- 
pel of the Virgin Mary, at this place, became 
the parish church. Kirkintilloch was created 
a burgh of barony in the twelfth century, by 
William the Lion, in favour of William 
Cumyne, baron of Lenzie, and lord of Cum- 
bernauld ; and the latter barony is still held 
for payment of twelve merks Scots of feu-duty. 
The privileges of the burgh are extensive, and 
it is governed by two bailies, chosen by the 
freemen. Its inhabitants are chiefly artisans 
who weave cotton goods for the Glasgow ma- 
nufacturers. It possesses a modern town- 
house, with a spire and clock. A fair is held 
annually on the 20th of October. The po- 
pulation of the town has been much on the 
increase in recent times; in 1821 it amounted 
to about 2500 ; and, including the parish, 4580. 

KIRKLAND, an extensive establishment 
for the spinning and preparation of linen yarn, 
in the parish of Wemyss, county of Fife. It 
consists of a large spinning house, and a series 
of other erections, with residences for the 
working people and proprietor ; and lies in a 
secluded beautiful situation on the right bank 
of the river Leven, at the distance of a mile 
above the town of that name — See the article 
descriptive of the town of Leven. 

KIRKLISTON, a parish partly in the 
county of Edinburgh and partly in the county 
of Linlithgow, bounded by Dalmeny on the 
north ; Abercorn, a detached portion of Dal 
meny, and Ecclesmachan on the west ; Uphall 
and Kirk-newton on the south ; and Ratho 
and Corstorphine on the east. The form of 
the parish is irregular, but the length may be 
taken as being five and a half miles, and the 
breadth three and a half. The Almond inter- 
sects the district from south to north, that 
portion on its left bank, which.is two thirds of 
the whole, being in Linlithgowshire. The ori- 
ginal condition of this district of country, 
which is rather of an upland nature, was as 
wretched and unproductive as many other out- 
lying divisions of Mid-Lothian, but in process 
of time, by the application of capital, science 
and industry, has become one of the most thriv- 
ing and best cultivated parishes in this part 



670 



KIRKLISTON. 



of Scotland. The village of Kirkliston is 
situated on a high portion of the parish on 
the left bank of the Almond, within Linlith- 
gowshire, at the distance of eight miles from 
Edinburgh on the road to Falkirk. It is un- 
distinguished by any thing worthy of remark ; 
and has a plain modern edifice for a church, 
which succeeded one of an ancient date, for- 
merly belonging to the order of Knights- Tem- 
plars. Not the least interesting objects in the 
parish, are the house of Newliston and its 
pleasure-grounds, once the favourite residence 
of the Stair family, but now passed from them 
into other hands. The celebrated John, Earl 
of Stair, Field- Marshal to his Majesty's forces, 
a nobleman equally distinguished for enter- 
prise and capacity in the field, and for wisdom 
in the cabinet, inherited the estate of New- 
liston, and resided upon it for twenty years. 
The pleasure-grounds, which have been long 
known as a curiosity in their way, were, it 
seems, disposed by this nobleman in a fanciful 
manner, particularly by the planting of a va- 
riety of trees, in clumps and other figures, 
so as to bear, it is said, an exact resemblance 
to the disposition of the British troops, on the 
eve of the battle of Dettingen. By the growth 
of the wood, and other circumstances, the 
plan of the batik cannot be now distinctly trac- 
ed from the position of the trees, but they 
certainly have the appearance of such an ar- 
rangement, and they are still as nicely trim- 
med as any soldiers of Queen Anne's wars. 
The grandmother of Earl John was Dame 
Margaret Dalrymple, a daugher of Ross of 
Balniel, who, according to popular belief, 
purchased the temporal prosperity of her fa- 
mily from the Master whom she served, un- 
der a singular condition, thus narrated in the 
life of her grandson, and noticed by Sir Wal- 
ter Scott in the preface to the tale of the 
" Bride of Lammermoor," — (new edition 
1831). — " She lived to a great age, and at her 
death desired that she might not be put under 
ground, but that her coffin should be placed 
upright on one end of it, promising, that while 
she remained in that situation, the Dalrymples 
should continue in prosperity. What was 
the old lady's motive for such a promise, I can- 
not take upon me to determine ; but it is cer- 
tain her coffin stands upright in the aisle of the 
church of Kirkliston, the burial-place of the fa^ 
mily." Having instituted some inquiries as to 
the truth of this fact, the present writers have 



learned that the coffin of Dame Margaret is not 
standing ; and that it lies as flat as the others in 
the vault beneath the Newliston aisle in the 
church. Whether the estate of Newliston 
departed from the house of Stair, when the 
coffin was prostrated, is left to conjecture. 
This same Dame Margaret, or Lady Stair, is 
mentioned, by the author of " the Bride of 
Lammermoor," as having been the prototype 
of Lady Ashton, in that beautiful tale of fic- 
tion. John, Earl of Stair, was also interred 
in the above vault, and lies without a memen- 
to of any kind to mark the spot where he rests. 
To pass from this subject : Within a field on 
the east side of the Almond, in Cramond 
parish, but close on the boundary, stands a 
remarkable monument of antiquity called the 
Catstane. It consists of a single upright 
stone of a prismatic figure, about four feet 
and a-half high, and shows the remains of an 
inscription, evidently in the Latin language. 
The cutting is very rude, and somewhat 
damaged, from the circumstance of a farmer, 
some forty years since, having set fire to a pile 
of rack around it, but still shows these letters, 
in oc T 

VMVLO IACI 
VETTA D 
VICTA 

It is understood that this rude stone, and its 
dilapidated legend, are commemorative of some 
person or persons here interred, after being 
slain in a battle near the spot, which was 
fought in the year 995, between Kennethus, 
natural brother, and commander of the forces, 
of Malcolm II. King of Scotland, and Con- 
stantine, the usurper of the crown, wherein 
both generals were killed. But as this dis- 
trict abounds in stone coffins, tumuli, and 
other tokens of early strife, it is impossible 
now to say that the date given to this monu- 
ment is correct. A tradition exists in the pa- 
rish, that in this quarter of the country the 
plague raged very destructively at one time — 
(most probably when it afflicted Edinburgh, 
about the year 1649) — and a proprietor of a 
small estate, who was named Linn, happened 
most unfortunately to be smitten, after all his 
precautions, by coming in contact with his dog, 
which had gone into an infected house. Hav- 
ing sickened and died, it seems no one would 
attend his funeral, and one of his own servants 
had to bury him in his garden. The place 
where this took place is upon the Almond, 



KIRKMAIDEN. 



071 



and is called Linn's MilL Here the solitary 
grave of Linn is still shown, distinguished by 
a humble monumental stone, with the inscrip- 
tion : 

Here lieth William Linn, 

The rightful heir of Linn. 

Another object of antiquarian research in 
Kirkliston parish is Niddry Castle, which is 
now a deserted ruin. It has been said that it 
was in this house in which Queen Mary rest- 
ed on the night on which she made her escape 
from Loch Leven Castle. A short way north 
from Niddry Castle, on the road from Edin- 
burgh, stands the small village of Winchburgh, 
a place at which, it is traditionally mentioned, 
Edward I. rested in his flight from Bannock- 
burn — Population in 1821, 2213. 

KIRKMABRECK, a parish in the stew- 
artry of Kirkcudbright, lying on the east side 
of Wigton Bay, bounded by Anwoth and 
Girthon on the east, and Minnigaff on the 
north, extending eight miles in length by about 
four in breadth. The district is hilly, with 
some good arable valleys, and a few planta- 
tions in these places and on the shore. There 
are several elegant seats, of which Kirkdale- 
House and Barholm are the principal. The 
word Kirkmabreck, signifies in the Scoto- 
Irish speech,. " the kirk on the variegated 
plain," which is descriptive of the locale of 
the old church, which stood at a place near the 
shore in a plain abounding with granite stones, 
of a speckled appearance. The modern 
church stands at Creetown, a neat village, 
to the north, noticed in its appropriate place.— 
Population in 1821, 1519. 

KIRKMAHOE, a parish in Nithsdale, 
Dumfries-shire, lying on the left bank of the 
Nith, immediately north from Dumfries, 
bounded by Tinvvald and Kirkmichael on the 
east, on the north by Closeburn, and on the 
west by Holywood and Dunscore. It extends 
about eight miles from north to south, by five 
in breadth at the middle. On the south it 
tapers to a point. The northern and eastern 
parts are hilly, but there are no mountains of 
any note. Where the parish joins Tinwald, 
there are many little rising grounds. This 
district was not begun to be improved in 1750, 
and at that time it owned only two carts. 
The first improver was Mr. Johnston of Carn- 
calloch, whose example was quickly followed, 
and the spirit of imitation, with the intelligence 
of modern times, has now effected great meli- 



orations in the soil and climate. The lands 
are well cultivated, and there are several 
plantations. The largest estate in the parish is 
Dalswinton, long the property of a family nam- 
ed Miller, whose seat stands near the Nith. 
Besides a modern village on this estate, there 
are four others, among which is Duncow and 
Kirkmahoe. The latter, with the church, which 
is a handsome Gothic edifice of modern erection, 
stands on a rivulet tributary to the Nith, near 
the southern extremity of the parish. The 
name of the parish cannot be attributed to 
that of a saint, inasmuch as in the whole 
hagiology there does not appear a St. Maho ; 
and, therefore, George Chalmers has shrewdly 
conjectured that it imports the kirk on the 
plain near the water, from magh a plain and o 
water (hence Mayo, in Ireland). In the 
northern part of the parish there was formerly 
a church dedicated to St. Blane, a favourite 
confessor of the eleventh century ; which still 
gives the name of Kilblane to its site. — Po- 
pulation in 1821, 1008. 

KIRKMAIDEN, a parish in the county 
of Wigton, occupying nearly the whole of the 
western limb or peninsula of the shire, pro- 
jected southwards into the mouth of the Sol- 
way Firth. Luce Bay bounds it on the east ; 
Stonykirk parish is on its land boundary. 
From Chapel- Rosen bay, or Luce bay, where 
the line of division is, to the extreme south 
point of the land, the length is about ten miles, 
by a breadth of from two to four miles and 
a half. On the south the parish tapers to a 
point, with an inclination to the east. The 
southern termination of the parish is the most 
southerly land in Scotland, being advanced about 
two degrees more to the south than the latitude 
of Newcastle. Such a circumstance is the sub- 
ject of proverbial expression in the same man- 
ner as John o' Groats House is, in reference 
to the other extremity of Scotland. In such 
allusions the component parts of the name are 
transposed. Burns' lines will recur to remem- 
brance : 

Hear land o' Cakes and brither Scots, 
Frae Maiden-Kirk to Jonny Groats, &c. 

The parish of Kirkmaiden obtained its appel- 
lation from the church, which was dedicated to 
St. Medan, of whom little is now known. 
Of old, the church was a dependancy of the 
abbey of Saulseat. The modern church is 
situated on the road along the eastern side of 
the peninsula, near Drumore Bay. Farther 



672 



KIKKMICHAEL. 



south is the Maryport Bay or Haven, which 
takes its name from a chapel dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary, and which was in ruins when 
Symson wrote in 1684. The parish of Kirk- 
maiden has still a wild appearance, but pro- 
duces good crops of corn and potatoes, and 
feeds numbers of black cattle. The coast is 
generally bold and indented by caves created 
by the furious lashing of the sea during storms. 
There are several good anchoring grounds on 
both sides of the peninsula. The coast pro- 
duces great quantities of sea-ware. Sand- 
stone and whinstone abound, and the slate 
quarries are valuable — Population in 1821, 
2210. 

KIRKMICHAEL, a parish in Nithsdale, 
Dumfries-shire, consisting of the united pa- 
rishes of Kirkmichael and Garrel; bounded 
on the north by Kirkpatrick-juxta, on the east 
by Johnstone and Lochmaben,on the south by 
Tinwald, and on the west by Closebum and 
Kirkmahoe ; extending about eleven miles in 
length from north to south, by a breadth of 
nearly six miles. The river Ae bounds the 
parish on the west, and here and on Glenkill 
burn, which intersects the district, the land is 
arable. The lower or south-east parts are 
generally plain, interspersed with rising grounds. 
The district was in a poor condition forty years 
since, but is now considerably improved. The 
parish kirk is near the Ae. The old church 
was dedicated to St. Michael, as the name sig- 
nifies. The ancient church of Garrel or Gar- 
vald, was a mensal church of the bishops of 
Glasgow. The junction of the parishes took 
place in 1660.— Population in 1821, 1202. 

KIRKMICHAEL, a parish in the district 
of Carrick, Ayrshire, lying on the south side 
of the Doon water, opposite Dalrymple, and 
having Maybole on the west, separating it from 
the sea; extending nine miles in length, by a 
breadth of four miles. The surface is hilly, 
and towards the south and east mountainous 
and rocky. The ground is for the most part 
pastoral. The water of Girvan runs through 
the southern part of the parisb, and near it is 
the kirktown of Kirkmichael, and the seat 
called Kirkmichael House. There are now a 
few plantations Population in 1821, 2235. 

KIRKMICHAEL, a large parish in 
Banffshire, occupying the upper extremity of 
the county from beyond the mountain of Cairn- 
gorm, to near the confluence of the Livat 
with the Aven, a length of about twenty-five 



miles, by a variable breadth of from three to 
six. The parish is chiefly the great wild vale 
of the river Aven, from its source in Loch 
Aven near Cairngorm, to the spot just men- 
tioned. The water of Altnach forms the boun- 
dary with Inverness-shire for a considerable 
length, and the heights which separate Banff- 
shire from Aberdeenshire are the boundary on 
the other side. The parish adjoining further 
down the vale is Inveraven. The district is 
only in a small proportion arable. The church 
of the parish stands nearer the foot than head ot 
the parish, on the right bank of the Aven, at 
the small village of Tomantoul, of which the 
reverend statist of the parish presents some 
curious, and we must say, indelicate, particu- 
lars. He represents it as a place quite unfetter- 
ed by laws human or divine. " No monopo- 
lies are established here," says he, "no re- 
straints upon the industry of the community. 
All of them sell whisky, and all of them drink 
it. When disengaged from this business, the 
women spin yarn, or dance to the discordant 
tunes of an old fiddle. The men, when not 
participating in such amusement, sell small ar- 
ticles of merchandise, or let themselves occa- 
sionally for days-labour, and by these means 
earn a scanty subsistence for themselves or 
families. The village, to them, has more than 
the charms of a Thessalian Tempe. Absent 
from it, they are seized with the vial de pais ,- 
and never did a Laplander long more ardently 
for his snow-clad mountains, than they sicken to 
re-visit the barren moor and their turf-thatch- 
ed hovels. Here the Roman Catholic priest 
has got an elegant meeting-house, and the Pro- 
testant clergyman the reverse of it ; yet, to an 
expiring mode of worship, it would be illiberal 
to envy this transient superiority, in a countiy 
where a succession of ages has witnessed its 
absurdities. A school is stationed at the vil- 
lage." Since this notice was written, Toman- 
toul has been a good deal improved, and must 
have been by this time very properly cured of 
its free-trading system by a gentle application 
of the Excise laws. — Population in 1821, 1570. 
KIRKMICHAEL, a parish occupying the 
north-east corner of Perthshire, adjoining 
Aberdeenshire on the north, and Forfarshire 
on the east ; bounded by parts of Bendochy, 
Blair- Gowrie, and Cluny, on the south, and 
Logierait, Dowally, Moulin, and Blair- 
Athole on the west ; extending seventeen miles 
in length, and from six to se\ en in breadth 



KIRKOSWALD. 



673 



It comprehends the greater part of Strathardle, 
and the whole of Glenshee. The Ardle in- 
tersects its southern quarter. The Shee is in 
the north. The district is arahle on the banks 
of these waters, especially the former, and 
there are some neat seats with plantations. A 
good road passes along the left bank of the 
Ardle. The military road from Cupar- Angus 
to Fort- George proceeds through the northern 
part of the parish, by the Spittal of Glenshee. 
The kirk and village of Kirkmichael stand on 
the left bank of the Ardle. — Population in 
1821, 1551. 

KIRKMICHAEL and CULLECUD- 
DEN, a united parish in the counties of Ross 
and Cromarty, consisting of a portion of that 
peninsular territory called Ardmeanach or 
Black Isle, bounded by the Cromarty Firth on 
the north, and by the ridge of the Mullbuy, 
an extensive tract of common which stretches 
along the summit of the peninsula, on the 
south ; extending eight miles in length from 
east to west, and three milts in breadth from 
north to south. This common is now divided 
among the adjacent proprietors. — Population 
in the year 1793, 1234; no returns in 1811 or 
1821. 

KIRKNEWTON, a parish in the coun- 
ty of Edinburgh, including the abrogated 
parochial division of Calder Clere, extend- 
ing six miles in length, by about four in 
breadth. On the south and west it is bound- 
ed by Mid- Calder, on the east by Currie and 
Ratho, and on the north by Ratho and 
Kirkliston. The Almond river runs along 
its western boundary. The surface is very 
generally hilly, especially towards the north, 
but on the south and east it is of a level 
and fertile nature. In these latter directions 
there are many thriving plantations and well 
disposed arable fields. The villages in the 
parish are Kirknewton and East Calder, the 
latter, which is the principal, lies on the south 
road from Edinburgh to Glasgow. The pa- 
rish contains some fine seats and pleasure 
grounds ; one of these is Meadowbank, once 
the residence of a late Senator of the College 
of Justice, entitled Lord Meadowbank, who 
was one of the chief improvers in this quar- 
ter. The celebrated Dr. Cullen, who was 
proprietor of the estate of Ormiston-hill, and 
one of the most distinguished agricultural im- 
provers in this part of the country, lies inter- 
ed in the church-yard of Kirknewton. Dal- 



mahoy, a seat of the Earl of Morton, is also in 
the parish. The manner in which the proper- 
ty came into the possession of this family, and 
the reason for a part of the district being 
styled Calder- Clere, are explained under the 
head Calder. — Population in 1821, 1513. 

KIRKOSWALD, a parish in the district 
of Carrick, Ayrshire, lying on the sea-coast, 
along which it extends about six miles, imme- 
diately south of Maybole, and containing 
11,000 Scots acres. The sea-coast presents 
for the greater part a sandy beach, with a beau- 
tiful rich sward to the very sea-mark. The 
surface of the parish is hilly, but the hills, ex- 
cept in two instances, Mochrum and Craig- 
dow, never rise to a considerable height. Near 
Mochrum there is a loch which covers twenty- 
four Scots acres, and another nearly as large, 
near Craigdow. From these lakes and from 
the springs which rise out of every hill, flow 
many small streams, which wander through 
the district, towards the sea. Except the very 
tops of the above hills, nearly the whole pa- 
rish is arable. Of late years there have been 
raised various beautiful plantations, particu- 
larly near the coast around Culzean, the seat 
of the Marquis of Ailsa. In proceeding from 
Girvan to Maybole, by the coast-road through 
this parish, at the distance of five miles north 
from the former, the remains of Turnberry 
Castle may be seen upon the points of a 
rocky promontory which projects into the sea 
from a low sandy beach of several miles in 
extent. Turnberry was the property and 
residence of Robert Bruce, having been ac- 
quired by his father's marriage to Marjorie, 
Countess of Carrick. It was in the neigh- 
bourhood of this place that a kiln-fire, mis- 
taken by the hero for an appointed signal, 
brought him prematurely over from Arran 
with his followers, to attempt the deliverance of 
his country, as related by Barbour, Sir Wal- 
ter Scott, and others of his historians. Burns 
describes the place as " where Bruce ance 
ruled the martial ranks, and shook his Carrick 
spear." Though Turnberry is dreadfully dila- 
pidated, and worn by the action of the sea 
and weather, the vestiges of the drawbridge, 
several large vaults, or caves, and the extent 
of rock covered by the ruins, testify, in a very 
impressive manner, the former vast strength 
and importance of the fortress. Within sight 
of Turnberry, and not more than a mile 
from it, the farm of Shanter may be seen 
4 u 



674 



KIRKOSWALD. 



on the height which gently swells up from 
the shore towards Kirkoswald. This was 
the residence fifty years ago, sooner or later, 
of Douglas Graham, a rough-spun Carrick far- 
mer, who was in the habit of wearing a 
broad blue bonnet, riding a sturdy white mare, 
and getting regularly drunk at all the fairs and 
markets held within forty miles round. Burns, 
being on a visit for some months, when nine- 
teen years of age, at the farm of Ballochniel, 
Ihen occupied by a maternal relation, had con- 
s tant intercourse with this doughty hero, and 
ft ill leisure to observe all the peculiarities of 
his highly original and amusing character. He 
accordingly is made the hero of his poem, 
" Tarn o' Shanter ;" though we are not una- 
ware that the honour is disputed in favour of 
a person called Thomas Reid, another far- 
m<r in this part of the country. The pic- 
ture there given of the dissolute manners of a 
Carrick farmer is generally allowed in Ayrshire 
to have been by no means overcharged. Smug- 
gling having at that period wrought fearful 
changes in their primitive character, and in- 
volved them in all the evils of dissipation and 
idleness, it was nothing unusual for the whole 
family — men, women and children — to conti- 
nue in a state of intoxication for three days 
and nights without intermission. It is even 
said to have been by no means an unfrequent 
occurrence, at the farm of Shanter in particu- 
lar, for the servants to be so stupid with li- 
quor, as to boil the matinal meal of the fami- 
ly with brandy instead of water, a mistake the 
more natural, because all the domestic vessels 
were occasionally put in requisition to hold 
the generous fluids which had been hastily 
transferred from on board the passing luggers. 
The farm of Shanter is now annexed to another 
farm ; all the buildings of the steading have 
been taken away ; and a modern cottage, built 
out of the materials, and occupied by one poor 
family, alone exists to mark the place to the 
eye of the curious traveller. The relation 
with whom Burns resided at Ballochniel was 
Samuel Brown, his mother's brother ; and this, 
probably, was the scene of a love adventure, 
alluded to in his letters, as having overset 
his mathematical studies. Kirkoswald is 
a picturesque old village ;" and the school still 
stands which Burns attended when residing at 
Duwhat. The noble mansion of Culzean, the 
seat of the Marquis of Ailsa, is situated upon a 
bold part of the shore, about three miles north 
29 



from these last mentioned localities. This is 
the finest house in Ayrshire ; and whether its 
architectural elegance, its internal decoration, or 
its prospect sea-ward be considered, commands 
the admiration of all strangers. It was built 
about the year 1770. The rock underneath 
the castle is penetrated by deep caves, which 
the vulgar have peopled with supernatural be- 
ings, and which are known to have afforded 
shelter, after the Revolution, to Sir Archibald 
Kennedy of Culzean, who had rendered him- 
self offensive by his adherence to the cause of 
the exiled family. Between Kirkoswald and 
Maybole are situated, in a low valley, the re- 
mains of the abbey of Corsregal, Crossraguell, 
or Crosragwel. This once important religious 
house was founded by Duncan, the first Earl 
of Carrick, who died about, the year 1 240 ; 
it was dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Dun- 
can had granted to the monks of Paisley se- 
veral churches, and some lands in Carrick, 
upon condition that they should establish in 
that country a monastery of their order ; but 
they having failed to perform this, he founded 
the abbey now under notice, for Cluniac 
monks — (the order of those of Paisley) — and 
transferred to it the churches and lands which 
he had granted conditionally to the establish- 
ment at Paisley. Enraged at being thus de- 
frauded, as they thought, of the emoluments 
which they had received, the abbot and monks 
of that place endeavoured to claim the new 
establishment at Crossraguell, as a cell of their 
own monastery ; but, after a struggle of some 
duration, this controversy was decided against 
them. The endowment of Crossraguell, by 
the founder, was greatly augmented by addi- 
tional grants from his son Neil, the second 
Earl of Carrick, from his grand-daughter 
Marjorie, Countess of Carrick, and from his 
great-grandsons, Robert Bruce and Edward 
Bruce. The monks of the establishment ob- 
tained from Robert III. in 1404, a charter 
confirming to them all their churches and 
lands, to be held in free regality, with the 
mostamplejurisdiction, comprehending even the 
four points of law that belonged to the crown. 
The last abbot was the celebrated Quentin 
Kennedy, upon whose death, in 1564, George 
Buchanan obtained from the Queen a grant of 
a pension of L.500 yearly, from the revenues 
of the abbey, for life ; but the Earl of Cas- 
sillis seized possession, and it required all the 
authority of the queen and her council to 



KIRKPATRICK-FLEMING. 



675 



maintain the rights of the historian. Mr. Alan 
Stewart, a younger son of James Stewart of 
Cardonald, was appointed commendator on the 
ahhot's death ; but owing to the violence of 
the Earl of Cassillis, he found much danger, aad 
little profit, in his appointment. Impelled by 
;i diabolical rapacity, the Earl seized the com- 
mendator, who enjoyed the principal part of 
the revenues, and in order to make him sign a 
deed in his favour, roasted him before, or over, 
a slow fire, till pain obliged him to comply. 
Buchanan hearing of this horrible exertion of 
feudal power, put his person under the pro- 
tection of the state, lest he might have been 
caught and roasted on the same account. 
The brutal earl was one of the most zealous of 
the reformers, and like too many of his bre- 
thren in that holy cause, chiefly indebted for 
his hypocritical enthusiasm to a love of the 
good things of this world. The only good 
point we discover in his history, was the 
protection he yielded, at the Reformation, to 
the abbey itself, which he helped to preserve 
from demolition. Ruined, as it now is, the 
abbey is one of the most entire in the west of 
Scotland. Two towers, or castles, close to 
the ruins, and which were the houses occupied 
by the abbots, are yet but little injured ; and 
the chapter-house, as in the cases of Glenluce, 
Elgin, &c. is fortunately almost entire, being 
a small but beautiful apartment supported by 
one pillar in the centre. Grose has given 
three views of the ruins. — Population in 1821, 
1847. 

KIRKPATRICK-DURHAM, a parish 
in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, bounded by 
Dunscore, in Dumfries-shire, on the north, by 
Balmaclellan and Parton on the west, Cross- 
michael and Urr on the south, also by the latter 
with Kirkpatrick- Irongray on the east, ex- 
tending nearly ten miles in length, by an ave- 
rage breadth of three miles and a half. The 
upper part of the parish, which gradually rises 
to the north, is pastoral, and the lower or 
southern part arable. The parish is now con- 
siderably improved by the enterprise of diffe- 
rent proprietors. The Urr water skirts the 
parish on its west side. The old church was 
dedicated to St. Patrick, and the adjunct 
Durham in the name of the parish, is taken 
from the hamlet at which it stood. Durham, 
signifies the hamlet on the water, and the 
church and village stand on a streamlet which 
falls into the Urr. In the western part of the 



parish there was of old a church dedicated to 
St. Bridget, upon the bank of the Urr, at a 
place still distinguished by the name of Kirk- 
bride.— Population in 1821, 1473; in 1831, 
1487. 

KIRKPATRICK-FLEMING, a parish 
in the district of Annandale, Dumfries-shire, 
comprehending the old parishes of Kirkpatrick, 
Kirkconnel, and Irvin, which were united after 
the Reformation. The name of the lord of the 
manor, Fleming, during the fourteenth and fif- 
teenth centuries, was added to the name of the 
present parish to distinguish it from others of 
the same name. It is bounded on the north by 
Middlebie, on the west by Middlebie and An- 
nan, on the south by Graitney and Dornock, and 
on the east by Half- Morton. It extends from 
north to south nearly six miles, by a general 
breadth of two and a half. The Kirtle water 
bounds the district partly on the west, and cross- 
ing the lower division it enters the.parish of 
Graitney. The surface of the country rises from 
south to north by a gradual succession of wav- 
ing swells of a pleasing appearance. A great 
portion is now arable and finely planted. The 
parish abounds in freestone. The interest at- 
tached to the parish of Kirkpatrick- Fleming is 
derived more from moral than physical causes. 
Here stood, at a place called Redhall, on the left 
bank of the Kirtle, the baronial mansion of "the 
bold Flemings," who are noted in border history 
for the stand they often made in cases of English 
aggression in the lower part of Dumfries-shire. 
The lands which they enjoyed were, it seems, 
held by the tenure of defending the district at 
all times, and at all hazards, against the Eng- 
lish forces ; and the manner in which they kept 
possession of their castle shows that they 
steadily fulfilled the obligation of their char- 
ter. Towards the conclusion of Baliol's reign, 
in one of Edward's incursions into Scotland, 
the tower of Redhall was attacked by an Eng- 
lish army. It was at the time occupied by no 
more than thirty Flemings, who, in spite of 
every attempt, held out a close siege of three 
days. Offers were made of an honourable na- 
ture to induce the surrender; but all would 
not do. They swore to each other that they 
would hold out to the last extremity, whatso- 
ever might be the result. Fire was at length 
applied to the edifice, and while the smoke 
shrouded it partially from the foe, they were 
beheld standing in mute defiance of the Eng- 
lish on the topmost battlement. The flames 



676 



KIRKPATRICK-JUXTA. 



shortly reached them in this exalted situation, 
and they sunk at last in the midst of the roar- 
ing furnace, bequeathing a name for daring 
hardihood, which is still remembered with re- 
verence in the district. No vestige of the 
tower is extant ; but its site is still pointed out 
to the curious tourist. The parish contains 
certain interesting localities, consecrated by 
the Scottish muse. A rivulet called Logan 
water, with the " braes," which bound it in 
its course, have been celebrated by a ballad or 
song, by Mayne, from an old one well known 
in our national anthology. Within the vale of 
Logan once stood a chapel, alluded to in the 
ballad as a kirk : — 

" Nae mair at Logap-Kirk will he, 
Atween the preachings, meet wi' me, 
Meet, with me, and when it's mirk, 
Convoy me hame frae Logan-Kirk." 

We find by the chartulary of Glasgow, that 
Logan chapel, along with the church of Kirk- 
patvick, was the property of the monks of 
Giseburn, who conceded to the bishops of 
Glasgow the right of collation to both places 
of worship, but reserved to themselves the 
tithe of corn ; and it was stipulated that they 
should receive yearly a skepful of meal from 
the rector of Kirkpatrick. This transaction 
took place in the year 1223, so that Logan 
chapel was of considerable antiquity. It seems 
that it existed till the seventeenth century, 
and its site, which bears the name of Chapel- 
Know, is pointed out at a place called Logan- 
Mains. The river Kirtle traverses, in this 
parish, the scene of the impassioned and pa- 
thetic tale of " Fair Helen of Kirkconnel 
Lee," which has been embodied in so many 
and in such various forms of poetry. Fair 
Helen is said to have been a lady of the name 
of Irving, and to have lived about three cen- 
turies ago. She was the daughter of a person 
of rank, but beloved for her beauty only, by a 
gentleman named Adam Fleming. Another 
lover, whom she had rejected, entertaining the 
most fiendish emotions of revenge, stole one 
day upon their privacy, as they were conversing 
in a bower upon the banks of the Kirtle, and 
fired a carabine across the stream at the bosom 
of Fleming. Helen leapt before her lover, 
and, receiving the shot, immediately fell down 
and expired. Fleming then drew his sword, 
pursued the murderer, and is said not to have 
been satisfied with vengeance till he had cut 
his body into a thousand pieces. After this 



he went abroad and served as a soldier in 
some foreign army ; but, finding no peace of 
mind, he at last came home and laid himself 
down upon the grave of his mistress, from 
which he never again arose. The graves of 
both the lovers are pointed out in the church- 
yard of Kirkconnel, near Springkell; that of 
Fleming is distinguished by a stone bearing 
the figure of a cross and sword, with the in- 
scription " Hie jacet Adamus Fleming''' A 
heap of stones is raised on the spot where the 
murder was committed ; and the peasantry still 
point out the place where Fleming slew the 
murderer at a little distance, upon the oppo- 
site banks of the Kirtle. — Population in 1821, 
1696. 

KIRKPATRICK-IRONGRAY, a pa- 
rish in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, lying on 
the right or south bank of the Cairn Water, which 
separates it from Holywood in Dumfries-shire, 
bounded by Terregles on the east, Lochrutton 
on the south, and Kirkpatrick-Durham on 
the west. It is situated only a few miles 
west of Dumfries. On the west the dis- 
trict is hilly ; on the east and in the other low 
parts the land is now under excellent cultiva- 
tion. The adjunct Irongray is put to the 
name to distinguish it from other places of a 
similar name. Irongray is the local name of 
the place where the church was placed, and 
signifies " Gray's land ;" Iron, Em, Earan, 
and Arn, all meaning "land," in Scoto-Irish. — 
Population in 1821, 880. 

KIRKPATRICK-JUXTA, a large pa- 
rish in the upper part of the district of An- 
nandale, Dumfries-shire, of a triangular figure, 
each side measuring about eight miles in length ; 
bounded on the north and east by Moffat, on 
the south by Johnston, and on the west by 
Closeburn, as well as Crawford in Lanark- 
shire. It comprises thirty and a quarter square 
miles, or 15,430 Scots acres. The surface 
resembles that of the rest of the country in this 
quarter, being hilly, and only arable in the 
dales. Of late there have been various im- 
provements made, and there are now some 
thriving plantations. The Kinnel water in- 
tersects the district, and the Evan runs through 
its north-eastern part to join the Annan, which 
bounds the parish on the east. This upland 
parish was long in a backward condition, and 
the writer of the statistical account, to illus- 
trate this circumstance, mentions that seven- 
ty years before his time, there was not a pane 



KIRKWALL. 



677 



of glass in tbe parish, except in two houses ; 
"and now, (in 1792)," says he, "every house 
has at least one glass window !" In the fif- 
teenth century, the adjunct juxla was added to 
the name of the parish, in order to distinguish 
it from Kirkpatrick-Fleming in the same 
county. Judging from the following case in 
the records of the Scots parliament, it would 
appear that the parsons of the old church of the 
parish did not always enjoy peacefid possession 
of their property among the Annandale thieves : 
— On the 3d of July 1489, a cause was heard 
by the lords auditors in parliament, at the in- 
stance of Mr. Clement Fairlie, the parson of 
Kirkpatrick-juxta, and Robert Charteris of 
Amisfield, his lessee, against several persons, 
for the spoliation of the Pasch-reckoning, 
[Easter offerings,] of the said kirk, and the 
penny offerings on St. Patrick's day, amount- 
ing to ten merks ; and for the spoliation of 
two hundred lambs, which were valued at L. 18, 
and a sack of tithe wool, containing twenty- 
four stone that was valued at L.12, and for 
unjustly possessing and labouring the forty 
shilling land, belonging to the said kirk. The 
lords ordained the defenders to make full resti- 
tution and give satisfaction for the damages ; 
and they issued a precept to the Stewart of 
Annandale to enforce this judgment. — On the 
left bank of the Evan water, in this parish, 
stands the ruin of Auchancass Castle, originally 
a quadrangular edifice, measuring 130 feet each 
way. It is understood to have belonged to 
the family of Bruce, once lords of Annandale. 
—Population in 1821, 912. 

KIRKTOWN, a parish in Roxburghshire, 
lying like a long stripe between the parish of 
Hawick and part of Cavers on the west, and 
Hobkirk and another part of Cavers on the 
east ; extending eight miles in length, by from 
one to two and a half in breadth. The district 
is hilly and mostly of a pastoral nature. — Po- 
pulation in 1821, 315, being five less than in 
1801. 

KIRKURD, a parish in the western con- 
fines of Peebles-shire, bounded by Linton and 
Newlands on the north, part of Newlands and 
Stobo on the east, part of Stobo ani Brough- 
ton and Skirling on the south, and Dolphington 
on the west. In extent it measures five and a 
half miles in length, by from three to four in 
breadth. The sluggish Tarth river, a tributa- 
ry of the Tweed, bounds a great part of the 
parish on its northern side, and from this water 



the land rises in finely cultivated and enclosed 
fields, and then becomes of a hilly description, 
with eminences richly clothed in thriving plan- 
tations. The district is now much improved, 
chiefly by the principal landed proprietor in 
this quarter, Sir Thomas Gibson Carmichael, 
The modern church of Kirkurd stands near 
the road side on the thoroughfare from 
Tweeddale towards Glasgow by Biggar. The 
name of the parish imports " the kirk on the 
height," — urd, ord, or aird, all signifying an 
eminence of some kind. There are some 
farms in the parish with the same adjunct, as 
Lochurd, Leddyurd, Netherurd, &c. The an- 
cient church of Kirkurd belonged at an early 
period to the bishops of Glasgow, one of whom 
gave it to the hospital of Soltra, (for an ac- 
count of which, see Fala,) about the begin- 
ning of the thirteenth century, and it remained 
the property of this useful and pious institution 
till 1462, when Mary of Gueldres transferred 
the hospital to the Trinity collegiate church at 
Edinburgh ; though on condition tliat the 
sacrist of that establishment should keep in 
repair the kirk of Kirkurd. The urd so fre- 
quently found in connexion with names in this 
parish, would seem to have been derived from 
the very extensive domain or barony of Urd or 
Ord, (this being a high part of the country,) 
a great part of which was granted about 1 226, 
by Walter Murdak, its proprietor, to the 
Monks of Paisley, who hence included it 
within their regality. At a later date it pass- 
ed into the possession of the Scots of Buc- 
cleugh. — Population in 1821, 352. 

KIRKWALL and ST. OLA, a united 
parish on the mainland of Orkney, compre- 
hending the town of Kirkwall and a district of 
country around it, stretching from sea to sea, 
and measuring between four and five miles 
square ; bounded on the east by St. Andrews' 
parish, and on the west by Orphir and Sten- 
nis. An indentation of Scalpa Flow pene- 
trates the southern side of the parish, and a si- 
milar inlet called Kirkwall bay is protruded 
on the north side directly opposite it. Be- 
twixt the heads of the two inlets the distance 
is just two miles, and from one to the other 
the land partakes of the character of a strath. 
The rest of the parish is hilly and of a pasto- 
ral character ; the low_grounds, and especially 
the territory round Kirkwall, being arable, and 
by proper manuring and working, yielding good 
crops of big and oats. 



678 



KIRKWALL 



KIRKWALL, a town of great antiquity, 
a royal burgh, the seat of a synod and presby- 
tery, and the capital of the above parish and of 
the Orkney islands, is situated at the head of 
the bay of Kirkwall, with a northern exposure, 
at the distance of fourteen miles north-east 
from Stromness, fifty-eight from Wick, fifty- 
nine from Thurso, 334| from Edinburgh, and 
forty- one from Houna, the most northerly part 
of Great Britain. It stands in north latitude 
58° 33', and in west longitude 0" 25'. The 
direction of the town is that of the strath to- 
wards Scalpa Flow, and it extends nearly a 
mile in length, but consists of little else than 
a single street. This thoroughfare is exceed- 
ingly inconvenient from its narrowness, and 
particularly from its pavement, which was 
complained of, we perceive, by the statist of 
the parish in 1793, and which is now, if not 
very recently mended, in the worst possible 
state. By a fashion common in old Scottish 
towns, borrowed from a usage in the north of 
Europe, the houses are generally placed with 
their ends or gables towards the street, which 
gives the town an awkward appearance. Many 
of these houses bear strong marks of old age, 
as the doors and windows are very small, the 
walls uncommonly thick, and almost all the 
apartments narrow, gloomy, and irregular. To 
this form, however, there are also many ex- 
ceptions ; for such of them as have been lately 
repaired or rebuilt, and particularly such new 
ones as have been erected, may, both for ele- 
gance and conveniency, compare with those of 
any other town of the same extent in Scot- 
land. The time when, and the persons by 
whom Kirkwall was founded, are both lost in 
the darkness of antiquity. Previous to the 
junction of the western and northern islands 
with the kingdom of Scotland, it was under 
the rule of the Norwegians or Danes, by whom 
it was called Kirkivog, Kirkvaa, or Kirkwaa, 
words signifying " the Great Kirk," in allusion 
to the cathedral of St. Magnus, here planted, 
and from which the present name Kirkwall is 
derived. This venerable edifice, which still 
exists, is the chief object of curiosity in Kirk- 
wall, and is remarkable as the only structure 
of the kind, besides that of Glasgow, which 
survived the Reformation. It stands on the 
east side of the town, which it dignifies by its 
stately and ancient appearance, arid is said to 
have been founded by Reginald, Count of Ork- 
ney, in the year 1138, though there is no evi- 



dence to prove such an antiquity. It is never- 
theless probable that it was erected in the 
twelfth century, as it was in that epoch that the 
bishops of Orkney began to have a fixed resi- 
dence in their diocess. It is certain it was 
not all completed at once, as some of the later 
bishops made additions to what was previously 
erected. As it now stands, the length of the 
fabric outside is 226 feet ; its breadth fifty-six ; 
the height of the main roof seventy-one ; and 
from the level of the floor to the top of the 
steeple 133 feet. The roof is supported by a 
row of fourteen pillars on each side, besides 
four, the most magnificent of the whole, which 
support the spire. The window in the east is 
thirty-six feet high, by twelve broad, including 
a circular rose-window at the top, twelve feet 
in diameter. There is a window in the west 
end somewhat similar, but much smaller ; as 
also a rose-window on the south gable of the 
cross, of like form and dimensions with that 
on the top of the east window. The circum- 
ference of the pillars that support the roof is 
fifteen feet, and that of those on which the 
steeple rests is twenty-four feet nearly. Ed- 
ward Stewart, bishop, who died 1538, made an 
addition of three pillars and arches in the east 
end with a window, which for grandeur and 
beauty are far superior to any others in the 
edifice. Robert Maxwell, the second bishop 
in succession after Stewart, and a son of Sir 
John Maxwell of Pollock, highly ornamented 
the interior, by building the stalls for the in- 
ferior clergy, which were curiously engraven 
with the arms of several of his predecessors in 
the see ; he also furnished the steeple with a 
set of excellent bells, which were cast within 
the castle of Edinburgh, by Robert Borthwick, 
in 1528, as appears by an inscription on them 
to that effect. When James V. visited the 
isles in 1536, he was nobly entertained by this 
bishop at his own charges ; and at this time 
the king was pleased to give the town of Kirk- 
wall a confirmation of its royalty. The suc- 
ceeding and the last bishop under the Romish 
hierarchy, was Robert Reid, a munificent pa- 
tron of learning, and the originator of the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. Having been abbot of 
Kinloss in Moray, he is noticed under that 
head. This worthy prelate added three pillars 
to the west end of the cathedral, which were 
never completely finished, and which in point 
of elegance are much inferior to the former. 
He also adorned the entry by the erection ot a 






K I R K WALL. 



679 



magnificent porch, and, as will be immediately 
seen, made some other additions to the esta- 
blishment of a beneficent kind. The cathe- 
dral is built of red sandstone, and is covered at 
present with gray slate. Much to the credit of 
the kirk- session, it has been preserved in mo- 
dern times from decay, without any expense 
to the town or heritors. One end of the 
structure has been long used as the parish 
church, while the other division is liberally 
left open as a promenade for strangers or 
others, as is customary in foreign churches. 
The sides of the walls near the floor are covered 
with monumental slabs, in a slanting position, 
the memorials of sea kings, chieftains of note, 
and other personages once distinguished in 
this remote country, but whose names are now 
otherwise completely unknown. Opposite 
the cathedral of St. Magnus, on the west side 
of the street, stood the king's castle of Kirk- 
wall, which time and the ravages of war have 
long since laid in ruins. According to the 
statist, no tradition remains by whom it was 
founded; though it is probable, as Wallace 
observes, from a stone placed in the wall next 
the street, on which there was seen, in his 
time, the figure of a mitre of a bishop and his 
arms, that it was built by some bishop of 
Orkney. The walls of it are very thick ; the 
dimensions large ; and the stones with which 
it is Constructed are so firmly cemented to- 
gether, that it is more difficidt to dig them 
from the rubbish than it would be to cut stones 
from the quarry. This fortress seems to have 
been in good repair, and a place of no incon- 
siderable strength, in the days of the infamous 
Patrick Stewart. This man was son of Ro- 
bert Stewart, natural son of James V. who, 
in 1581, was raised to be Earl of Orkney. 
Patrick, who succeeded his father, was a man 
of a haughty turn of mind, and being of a cruel 
disposition, he committed not only many acts 
of rebellion against his sovereign, but many 
acts of oppression. In order to screen him- 
self from the punishment he justly deserved, 
he took refuge in the castle, which he main- 
tained with desperate valour for some time 
against the king's troops, till it was at last 
taken and demolished. On being captured, 
he was carried to Edinburgh, and, after trial, 
put to death for his crimes. It is mentioned 
in " The Histofie and Life of King James 
the Sext," printed for the Bannatyne Club, 
that " Erie Pate" used to live here in great 



pomp ; that he never went from his castle to 
the church, nor abroad otherwise, without the 
convoy of fifty musqueteers and other gentle- 
men as a guard; that at dinner and supper 
there were three trumpeters that sounded till 
the meat of the first service was set on the 
table, did the same at the second service, and 
also after the grace. It is likewise mentioned 
that from his practice of intercepting pirates, 
and collecting tributes of fishermen that 
came to these seas, he formed such a collec- 
tion of great guns, and other weapons of war, 
as that no house, palace, or castle in Scotland 
was equally well furnished in that respect. This 
same Earl of Orkney built an extensive mansion 
of solid but plain masonry on the east side of 
the town, known now by the name of the Earl's 
palace, and which, from the date above the prin- 
cipal door, still legible, appears to have been 
erected in 1607. This building, which is only 
of two storeys in height, has been uninhabited 
since 1688, and is now unroofed and deserted. 
Almost adjoining to this stands the much more 
interesting and ancient ruin of the Bishop's 
palace. Of the origin of this structure both 
tradition and record are alike silent. " So 
long ago," says the statist of the parish, (the 
Rev. George Barry, whose description is among 
the best of those in the Statistical Account of 
Scotland,) " as 1263, the year in which Haco, 
King of Norway, undertook an expedition 
against Alexander III. King of Scotland, on 
account of a dispute that had arisen about the 
Western Isles, it would appear to have been a 
place of consequence. This monarch, on re- 
turning from the mouth of the Clyde and the 
Highlands of Argyleshire, where he had spent 
the summer in waging war with the Scots, 
with little success, [see our article Hebrides, 
p. 535.] resolved to winter in Orkney ; and 
for this purpose stationed his ships in the 
harbours about the main land, and he himself 
took up his quarters in Kirkwall. Here he 
kept court in a hall in the Bishop's Palace for 
some time, till, worn out with disease, occa- 
sioned perhaps by disappointment, and the fa- 
tigues of his unsuccessful campaign in the 
south, he expired after a lingering illness. 
Bishop Reid repaired, we are certain, or, 
more properly, rebuilt, several parts of the 
Bishop's Palace ; for on more than one place 
there are to be seen engraven on stones in the 
wall, the first letters of his name, and below 
them his arms and mitre. A round tower, on 



680 



KIRKWALL. 



the north west, was raised by him ; and on the 
side that looks to the town, there is a small 
niche in the wall, occupied, even at present, by 
a rude stone statue of that very celebrated pre- 
late. Near to this palace, on the west, this 
beneficent churchman mortified to the town of 
Kirkwall a piece of ground for the purpose of 
building a college, for instructing youth in 
grammar and the various branches of philoso- 
phy, with a very considerable sum of money, 
for carrying his pious design into effect. But 
his death, which unfortunately happened soon 
after, on his returning from France, where he 
had been witnessing Queen Mary's marriage 
with the Dauphin, prevented any part of this 
excellent plan from being carried into execu- 
tion." We learn from Keith, that Bishop 
Reid, moreover, made a new foundation of the 
chapter, enlarging the number of canons, and 
settling ample provisions for their maintenance, 
although, from the almost immediate abroga- 
tion of the Roman Catholic church, such must 
be allowed to have scarcely had time to take 
effect. In terminating our allusions to this 
worthy and now forgotten man, whom we may 
not again have occasion to notice in this work, 
we may be permitted to say of him, in the Ian- 
guage of an epigrammatic poem written by 
Adam Elder, a monk of Kinloss, commemo- 
rative of his character : 

" Quid tentera augusto perstringere carmine laudes, 

Quas nulla eloquii vis celebrare queat? 
Clavis es eloquio, coelo dignissime prasul, 

Antiqua generis nobilitate viges : 
* * * 

Pauperibus tua tecta patent, tua prompta voluntas, 

Atque bonis semper dextera larga tua est. 
Nemo lupos melius sacris ob ovilibusarcet, 

Ne Christi lanient diripiantve gregem 
Ergo pia ob studia, et magna, durosque labores 

Ille Deus pacis, det tibi pace frui. 
Concedatque tuis succedant omnia votis, 

Et bona successus adjuvet aura tuos." 

Leaving the foregoing remains of antiquity, a 
description of which sheds a glow of romance 
over that of a town now dedicated entirely to 
purposes of trade, we may resume our notice 
of Kirkwall as regards its modern statistics. 
Originally created a royal burgh by James III., 
and its charter renewed by James V., as above 
noticed, the civic government consists of a 
provost, four bailies, a treasurer, dean of guild, 
and fifteen councillors, who are elected annu- 
ally. The burgh joins with Wick, Dornoch, 
Dingwall, and Tain, in sending a member to 
parliament. The burgh possesses a town-hall, 
which is a building of a good appearance, form- 



ing a piazza in front ; the first storey is divided 
into apartments for a common prison, the se- 
cond for an assembly hall, with a large room 
adjoining for courts of justice, and the highest 
is set apart as a lodge for freemasons. The 
sheriff, commissary, and admiralty courts of 
Orkney and Zetland are held in Kirkwall. All 
capital crimes are tried before the supreme 
courts at Edinburgh, whither offenders are 
transmitted. Justice of peace courts are also 
held here at short intervals ; as also the courts 
of the burgh. Besides the established church, 
in the old cathedral, which is superintended by 
two clergymen, there is a meeting-house of the 
United Associate Synod, and a meeting-house 
of Independents. The fast days of the church 
are the Thursdays before the last Sunday of 
April and November. The town possesses a 
grammar school, and some schools on charita- 
ble foundations, or instituted by societies. The 
inhabitants support a subscription library ; but 
some of the upper classes are supplied with 
books from the circulating libraries of Edin- 
burgh. There is a bookseller in the town who 
binds books and keeps a small printing-press. 
Some time ago it was the custom more than 
now for the shopkeepers of Kirkwall to have 
stocks of miscellaneous goods, and of the most 
opposite kind, but such a practice is wearing out 
or nearly abandoned, and there are now various 
shops with suitable assortments of articles be- 
longing to a special profession. By Piggot's 
Directory, of 1826, there appear to have then 
been about fifty resident gentry and clergy, four 
agents to Lloyds, three blacksmiths, fourteen 
boot and shoemakers, two brewers, one baker, 
one builder, one bookseller, one cooper, one 
dyer, two distillers, four earthenware dealers, 
three fieshers, two grocers and spirit-dealers, 
one straw-plait maker, six tailors, nine vint- 
ners, three watch and clock-makers, two wheel- 
wrights, five wrights, eight writers, besides 
others in less important businesses. Branches 
of the Commercial and National Banks are set- 
tled in the place. The gradual establishment of 
regular merchants and tradesmen in this distant 
town is understood to have injured the " Kirk- 
wall fair," a market of great antiquity, and not- 
ed for the variety and extent of the traffic in- 
duced by it. This fair is held on the first 
Tuesday after the 11th of August, and conti- 
nues that week and the following. Like the 
fair of Leipsic, to which alone it can be com- 
pared, it is attended by merchants and pur- 



KIRRIEMUIR. 



681 



chasers from a very great distance, and into 
the brief period in which it is held, a great 
proportion of the commerce of these northern 
islands is, as it were, concentrated. Dealers 
in cambrics, and printed calicoes, and muslins, 
from Glasgow and " the manufacturing dis- 
tricts," cloth and hard-ware merchants, book- 
sellers, and other tradesmen, all arrive with 
stocks of their respective goods by the packets 
from Leith or other ports, and the stranger 
should not even be surprised in discovering at 
the fair, a dealer in trinkets or jewellery from 
Hamburg, in the shape of a Jew, with a white 
beard, party-coloured garments, and a pair of 
yellow boots: While the market lasts, there 
is a prodigious stir and concourse of people in 
Kirkwall, for it is at this time that the fishers, 
kelp-makers, and other dealers in raw or native 
produce in the islands exchange their goods for 
money or articles of comfort and luxury. As 
we have just said, the settlement of regular 
tradesmen in Kirkwall, if not also in some 
other places in Orkney, has somewhat derang- 
ed the traffic carried on at the fair ; and we are 
oound to suppose that this great market must 
have either already received or will shortly re- 
ceive, a most severe blow through the reduc- 
tion of duties on foreign barilla, whereby kelp, 
which for about sixty years has been a staple 
article of manufacture in Orkney, and the 
means of subsistence to thousands, will be no 
longer purchased for transmission to the south ; 
at least, not on the scale it has hitherto been. 
The situation of Kirkwall well adapts it for 
the resort of shipping. The outer bay road- 
stead in front affords safe anchorage, and the 
harbour close on the town is excellent, having 
been made safe by means of two new piers. 
The port, however, does not lie so con- 
veniently for ships proceeding to or from 
North America as Stromness. It is a general 
belief that living is much cheaper in Kirkwall 
than in most places m Scotland, but it seems 
this is not so much the case as is supposed. 
If some articles be cheap, others are consider- 
ably dearer : all the coal used has to be im- 
ported, chiefly from Newcastle ; bread made 
from wheat flour is bad and exceedingly dear, 
and all grocery goods are likewise high-priced. 
Kirkwall has a constant intercourse with 
Leith, by means of vessels, which sail every 
week alternately, and are fitted up for the ac- 
commodation of passengers. The mail is brought 
(weather permitting) three times a-week from 



JJjuna, by a ferry boat.— Population of the 
parish of St. Ola, (the landward part of the 
united parish,) in 1821, 1034; population of 
Kirkwall, 2212. It appears from these returns 
that the population of the town has increased 
only about 200 in the space of sixty years, 
when Dr. Webster made up his popidation 
tables. 

KIRK-YETHOLM, a small village in 
the parish of Yetholm, Roxburghshire; see 
Yetholm. 

KIRRIEMUIR, a parish in Forfarshire, 
consisting of two detached portions, separated 
by an intervening part of the parish of Kingol- 
drum. The northerly portion is called Glen- 
prosen, being the vale of the river Prosen and 
its tributary burns ; it is hilly and chiefly 
pastoral ; it measures nine miles in length, by 
a general breadth of about two and a half; 
Clova bounds it on the north, and partly also 
on the east, along with Cortachy ; Lentrather 
and Glenisla bound it on the west. The 
southerly is the main district, and measures 
four and a half miles from north to south, by a 
breadth nearly of as much ; the Prosen bounds 
it partly on the north, and it has Tannadice, 
Oathlaw, and Rescobie on the east, a small 
part of Forfar with Glammis on the south, 
and Airly and Kingoldrum on the west. The 
face of the country is various. For about a 
mile to the north of the parishes of Glammis 
and Forfar it is almost flat. Then it rises 
gently about two miles more, forming almost 
one continued sloping bank, till within a few 
hundred yards of the town of Kirriemuir, which 
thus stands nearly in the centre of the south- 
erly division, and is separated by a narrow 
valley or den about 100 feet deep from the 
above bank. To the east and west of the town 
it is almost level. The rest of the parish is 
beautifully diversified with hills and dales, 
rivers, woods, and arable fields. It is now also 
embellished with thriving plantations, and is 
intersected by roads in all directions. Im- 
provements have now brought the district into 
a most productive and thriving state. The 
chief object of antiquarian interest in the parish 
is the ancient castle of Invercarity, which 
stands on the small river Carity as it enters 
the South Esk, on the north-east boundary of 
the southern division of the parish. It is a 
huge Gothic edifice in tolerably good repair. 

KIRRIEMUIR, a burgh of barony, and a 
town of considerable antiquity and size, the 
4 s 



682 



K N A P D A L E. 



capital of the above parish, is agreeably situat- 
ed near the foot of the braes of Angus, in the 
centre of a fertile populous district, at the dis- 
tance of five miles north from Glammis, five 
miles north-west from Forfar, sixteen' from 
Dundee, and fifty- eight from Edinburgh. It 
enjoys a very healthy and pleasant situation, 
partly on a flat, and partly on an inclined plane, 
on the south-west side of a hill of the same 
name, along the northern brow of a beautiful 
den, through which runs the small river Gairie. 
The prospect of the lower part of the town is 
bounded by the southern braes of the den ; but 
from the higher part is seen almost the whole 
vale of Strathmore. The appearance of Kir- 
riemuir has been much improved of late years ; 
it now is reckoned one of the most thriving 
and most industrious towns in the county. For 
a considerable time it has been the seat of ex- 
tensive manufactures, in the same branch of 
osnaburgs and coarse linens for which Dun- 
dee is now so celebrated ; and it appears, that 
so early as 1792, the value of these sorts of 
goods manufactured in one year was L. 38,000. 
Since that period, with the exception of fluc- 
tuations, the business of weaving linens has 
been steadily pursued by the inhabitants. The 
town is noted for the excellent fabric of its 
cloth, and the ingenuity of its manufactures ; 
about 25,000 pieces, consisting of 146 yards 
each, were lately said to be manufactured year- 
ly. The number of yards of linen stamped in 
one year, from November 1819 to November 
1820, was 2,376,711. The " Kirnemurians" 
are not more noted for their ingenious and 
persevering industry than for their intelligence 
and general knowledge. Much of their leisure 
time is devoted to reading or other means of 
improving the mind. They support an excel- 
lent news-room, well supplied with London and 
provincial newspapers. The town possesses a 
very handsomely built parish church, with a neat 
spire and clock. There is, besides, an Epis- 
copal chapel of good architecture with a spire, 
and of a size commensurate with the great body 
of individuals of the Episcopal communion in 
the town and surrounding district. There are 
also meeting-houses of the United Associate 
Synod and Independents. There are a variety 
of Friendly Societies. Besides the parish 
school, there are some private schools, and a 
very large Sunday school, which possesses an 
extensive and usefid library. The date of the 
barony of Kirriemuir is unknown, and it is 
29. 



OTily certain that the jurisdiction of its bailie 
was once extended over a large tract of 
country. The barony is under Lord Douglas, 
who appoints a bailie. The peace is preserved 
by a body of constables, chosen annually. An 
excellent weekly market is held on Friday, and 
there are four annual fairs. A branch of the 
British Linen Company Bank is settled in the 
town — Population of the town in 1821, 2150 ; 
including the parish, 5066; total, in 1831, 
6425. 

KIRTA, an islet of the Hebrides, near the 
west coast of Lewis. 

KIRTLE, a beautiful small river in Dum- 
fries-shire, rising in the heights of the parish 
of Middlebie, and running in a straggling, but 
generally southerly course, along the west side 
of the parish of Kirkpatrick- Fleming, and 
through the parish of Graitney; it falls into 
the Solway Firth, at the place called Kirtle- 
Foot. Its banks are, in many places, embel- 
lished with plantations, and the scenery through 
which it passes is pleasing. The vale of the 
Kirtle is a minor dale betwixt Eskdale and 
Annandale. 

KLETT, a rocky islet, lying about three 
miles from the west coast of Sutherland. 

KNAPDALE, a district of Argyleshire, 
lying betwixt Cantire and Nether Lorn, and, 
forming, in reality, the inner extremity of the 
peninsula of Cantire. It extends from the neck 
of land traversed by the Crinan canal, southward 
to the isthmus formed by Loch Tarbert, a 
length of twenty miles, by a breadth of from 
five to nine miles. On the west coast it is in- 
dented by Loch-Swein and Loch-Killisport. 
The district is of the usual Argyleshire cha- 
racter, and from its diversified appearance of 
hill and dale, it derives its name, which is sig- 
nificant of a territory so distinguished. 

KNAPDALE (NORTH), a parish in the 
above division of Argyleshire, disjoined from 
the parish of South Knapdale in the year 1734. 
It extends twelve miles long and three broad, 
and is bounded on the west by the Atlantic. 
The parish kirk is near Loch Fyne. The 
district is hilly, but the soil for pasturage and 
tillage is excellent ; and there is a very great 
proportion of arable ground. — Population va 
1821, 2545. 

KNAPDALE (SOUTH), a parish in 
Argyleshire lying south from the above parish ; 
extending fifteen miles in length and five and 
a half in breadth. It contains 37,000 acres 



LADYKIRK. 



688 



of land ; a small proportion only is arable. 
—Population in 1821, 1913. 

KNIACK, a rivulet in the parish of Mu- 
thil, Perthshire, which joins the Allan a mile 
below the bridge of Ardoch. 

KNOCKANDO, a parish in Morayshire, 
lying on the left bank of the Spey, between 
the parish of Rothes on the north and Crom- 
dale on the south ; extending ten miles in 
length, by two in breadth. The country is 
hilly and generally pastoral. During the 
great floods in Moray in 1829, the parish of 
Knockando suffered severely, twelve cases of 
families being rendered destitute by the cala- 
mity having occured, and the grounds being 
much injured. The burn of Knockando, a 
small rivulet, was on this occasion swollen to 
a size equal to that of the Spey in its ordinary 
state. — Population in 1821, J 414- 

KNOCKBA1N, a parish in Ross shire, 
formed by the junction, in 1756, of the parishes 
of Kilmuir Wester, and Suddy, and lying on 
the side of the Black Isle next the Moray 
Firth. It extends from six to seven miles in 
length, and from five to six in breadth, having 



Killearnan on its south-west side. It is in- 
dented by the bay of Munlochy, which is pro- 
truded from the Moray Firth, and near the 
head of this bay stands the church of Knock- 
bain. The surface of the country rises gra- 
dually from the firth, and is generally fertile, 
as well as embellished with plantations. — Po- 
pulation in 1821, 1973. 

KOOMB, an islet on the north coast of 
Sutherlandshire, upon which are the remains 
of a chapel and burying-ground. 

KYLE, the central district of Ayrshire, 
now unconnected with any political or judicial 
distinction. It comprehends the land betwixt 
the rivers Doon and Irvine, but is divided into 
two sections, namely, King's Kyle, lying on 
the south, and Kyle Stewart, on the north side 
of the river Ayr. It contains twenty-one 
parishes — See Ayrshire. 

KYPE, a streamlet in Lanarkshire, rising 
on the borders of Lesmahago parish, and which, 
after separating it from Avendale, falls into 
the Aven, a few miles above its confluence with 
the Clyde. 



LADY-ISLE,an islet in the firth of Clyde, 
lying about three miles from the shore, a little 
way south of Troon, at the distance of six 
miles south-west by south of Irvine, and five 
north-north-west of Ayr. Two pillars or bea- 
cons are erected upon it to guide the mariners 
sailing along the Ayrshire coast into the 
Clyde. 

LADYKIRK, a parish in Berwickshire, 
lying on the north bank of the Tweed between 
Hutton on the north-east and Coldstream on the 
south-west. On the west side it has the pa- 
rishes of Whitsome and Swinton. It extends 
about three miles along the margin of the 
Tweed, by a breadth inland of from one to two 
miles. The district partakes of the usually 
rich and beautiful appearance of the Merse. 
The parish church of Ladykirk stands near 
the Tweed, opposite Norham on the Northum • 
brian side of the river, and is remarkable as 
one of the few Gothic buildings of the kind 
which survived the Reformation. The legend 
connected with this church gives it an addition- 
al claim to notice. It seems that, when James 



the Fourth was crossing the Tweed at the head 
of his army by a ford in the neighbourhood, 
he suddenly found himself in a situation of 
great peril from the violence of the flood, which 
had nearly carried him away. In his emer- 
gency, he vowed to build a church to the Vir- 
gin, in case that she should be so good as de- 
liver him. The result was this edifice, which, 
being dedicated to " Our Lady," or the Vir- 
gin Mary, was denominated Ladykirk, a name 
which afterwards extended to the parish, for- 
merly designated Upsettlington. The ford it- 
self deserves some notice. It was one of the pas- 
sages by which the English and Scottish armies 
generally invaded the countries of each other, 
before the bridge of Berwick, which appears 
not to have been erected till the reign of Eli- 
zabeth, had its existence. It was, on this ac- 
count, a point of resort and conference, and 
the adjacent field called Holywell Haugh, was 
the place where Edward I. met the Scottish 
nobility, to settle the dispute betwixt Bruce 
and Baliol to the crown of Scotland. At the 
church of Upsettlington, or Ladykirk, in the 



684 



LAMBHOLM. 



reign of Queen Mary, a supplementary treaty 
to that of Chateau Cambrensis was settled by 
commissioners ; and Norham castle, on the 
opposite bank of the river, derived importance 
from its commanding this isthmus of conference 
between the two kingdoms.— Population in 
1821, 527. 

LADYKIRK, or LADY PARISH, a 
parish occupying the north-eastern limb of the 
island of Sanday, Orkney, which besides com- 
prehends the united parish of Cross and Bur- 
ness. The kirk is situated at the head of a 
small bay on the south side of the island. The 
district is sufficiently described under the ge- 
neral head Sanday. — Population in J 821, 880. 

LAGGAN, a parish in the district of 
Badenocb, Inverness-shire, extending from 
north-east to south-west upwards of twenty 
miles. The breadth of the inhabited part is 
about three miles; but taking its boundaries 
from south to north, it will measure more than 
twenty miles. It is bounded by Boleskine on 
the north, Kingussie on the east, by the moun- 
tains of Perthshire on the south, and by Kil- 
manivaig on the west. The boundary on the 
north is Monu-liec, or grey mountain, a prodigi- 
ous ridge of inaccessible rocks. The river 
Spey takes its rise from a very small lake of 
the same name in the western parts of the 
parish, and is formed by currents falling down 
from the mountains. It runs through the 
middle of the parish in an easterly direction, 
receiving in its progress the river Mashie and 
Truim, both having their rise in the Grampi- 
ans. The most remarkable natural object of 
a beautiful kind, is Loch Laggan, which, with 
its environs, forms a district by itself, and lies 
on the south-west extremity of the parish. This 
lake, which extends about eight miles in length, 
by one in breadth, is very deep, with a bold 
rocky shore, and surrounded by high woody 
mountains. On the south side is the coiU 
more or great wood, said to be the most con- 
siderable relic of the Caledonian Forest. 
This wood, which extends five miles along the 
loch side, is the scene of many traditions. The 
eastern extremity of the lake is somewhat 
picturesque, and the most remarkable feature 
is a rocky hill, split by a fissure of great mag- 
nitude, and conveying a strong impression of 
recent and sudden violence. Along the north 
precipitous bank of Loch Laggan, a road has 
been cut communicating with the west coast. 
The lake is chiefly fed by the river Pattaig at 



the east end, and discharges itself at the west- 
ern extremity, by the Spean, a tributary of the 
Lochy, near Fort- William. The lake pos- 
sesses two small islets, named Elan-na-Ri 
and Ehn-na-conn, — the island of the king, and 
the island of dogs. On the former is the ruin 
of some building, traditionally mentioned as 
having been a hunting-seat of one of the 
ancient Scottish kings, and it was on the other 
he is said to have kept his dogs for the chase. 
The parish is mountainous and principally 
pastoral, yet it contains some fertile lands in 
the low grounds, and it is substantiated that 
here is found the highest lying cultivated land 
in Britain. The vegetable produce is oats, 
barley, rye, and potatoes. At the east end of 
Loch Laggan stand the remains of an 
old church, dedicated to St. Kenneth, sur- 
rounded by a burying-ground, which is still 
more used than any other. The modern 
parish church is at the small village of 
Laggan, about four miles to the north-east, 
and situated on the left bank of the Spey, 
now a large stream. The village lies near to 
the gi eat road northward by Dalwhinnie and 
Garvamore, about half way between both. A 
road from Laggan proceeds north-eastward by 
Kingussie down the Spey. The writer of the 
Statistical account of the parish was the Rev. 
James Grant, minister of the district, whose 
wife — Mrs. Grant of Laggan — has been justly 
celebrated for her literary attainments.— Po- 
pulation in 1821, 1234. 

LAIRG, or LARIG, a large parish in 
Sutherlandshire, bounded by Farr on the north, 
Edderachylis on the west, Criech on the south, 
and Rogart on the east. Its extreme length 
is about twenty-four miles, by a breadth of 
eight and upwards. Like the rest of Suther- 
landshire, it is quite a mountainous pastoral 
district, and is for a great part the basin of 
Loch Shin, a large fresh water lake, lying in 
the direction of north-west and south-east, and 
whose waters are emitted into (he Dornoch 
Firth. The great road across Sutherlandshire 
proceeds through the parish, along the north side 
of this lake. There are a few small lakes also 
in the parish. The kirk of Lairg is at the foot 
of Loch Shin — Population in 1821, 1094. 

LAMBA, an uninhabited islet of Shet- 
land, on the north-east coast of the mainland, 
in the parish of Northmaven. 

LAMBHOLM, an islet of the Orkneys, 
situated in Holm Sound, of three miles in 



LANARKSHIRE. 



683 



circumference, and containing a very few in- 
habitants. 

LAMBERTON, a parish in Berwickshire, 
now incorporated with Mordington — See 

MoRDINGTON. 

LAMINGTON, a parish in the upper 
ward of Lanarkshire, lying on the right or 
south-east bank of the Clyde, along which it 
extends nine miles, having a breadth, at most, 
of four miles ; bounded by Wiston and Sym- 
ington on the north, Crawford-John on the 
west, Crawford on the south, and Culter on 
the east. The parish is hilly and mostly pas- 
toral or of an upland character, with fine 
haughs and arable lands adjacent to the Clyde. 
The present parish comprehends the two old 
parishes of Lamington and Hartside, or Wan- 
del, which were united in the seventeenth cen- 
tury. The old parish and district of Laming- 
ton obtained its name from a Flemish settler, 
who was called Lambin, and who obtained a 
grant of this territory, during the reign of 
David I. and gave the place where he settled 
the name of Lambinstoun. James, a son of 
this Lambin, obtained from Richard Morvile, 
the constable of Scotland, a grant of the ter- 
ritory of Loudon in Ayrshire, and was the 
progenitor of the family of Loudon, The 
barony of Lambinstoun passed, during the 
reign of David II. into the possession of Sir 
William Baillie, who obtained a charter of it 
from that king, on the 27th January, 1367-8. 
His descendants still possess the property. 
The account of this family in the Appendix 
to Nisbet's Heraldry, ii. 136, states that Sir 
William Wallace acquired the estate of Lam- 
ington, by marrying the heiress of a family, 
wnich was sumamed Braidfoot ; and that Sir 
William Baillie obtained it by marrying the 
eldest daughter and heiress of William. This 
statement, though agreeable to common tra- 
dition, is unsupported by any recorded autho- 
rity; and, according to George Chalmers, is 
certainly erroneous ; Sir William Wallace left 
no legitimate issue, but he left a natural 
daughter, who is said to have married Sir 
William Baillie of Hoperig, the progenitor of 
the Baillies of Lamington. Upon the south 
bank of the Clyde, near the little parish town, 
stands the tall and sheltered ruin of Laming- 
ton tower, the seat of this ancient family. 
The hill of Tinto overlooks the tower of 
Lamington on the north. The village of Lam- 
ington is small; it is situated on the road 



which traverses Clydesdale.— Population in 
1821, 359 

LAMLASH, a land-locked bay on the 
south-east side of the island of Arran, very suit- 
able for the reception of vessels driven by 
stress of weather from the Irish Channel. It 
is protected by a high rocky islet, called Holy 
Island, from the sea. The loch, as it is call- 
ed, is spacious and beautiful, though its banks 
are bare of wood, and the general aspect of 
the scenery is wild. On the inner side of 
the bay is the small village of Lamlash, at 
which there is an inn. 

LAMMERMOOR, or LAMMER- 
MUIR, a mountainous range of brown pas- 
toral hills, belonging to Berwickshire. — See 
Berwickshire, p. 92. 

LANARKSHIRE, a large, populous, and 
important county in the western part of the 
Lowlands, or south division of Scotland, bound- 
ed by Dumfries-shire on the south, Ayrshire 
and Renfrewshire on the west, Dumbarton 
and Stirlingshire on the north, and Linlithgow, 
Edinburgh, and Peebles-shire on the east. 
It lies between 55° 18' 40", and 55° 56' north 
latitude. Its extreme length from south-south- 
east, to north-north-west, is fifty-four miles, 
and the greatest breadth in the middle is thirty- 
two miles ; but it becomes narrower towards 
the extremities, even to less than ten miles. 
The superficial contents are 927 square miles, 
or 593,280 English acres. At an early period 
this extensive district was for convenience di- 
vided into two wards, called the over ward and 
nether ward ; Lanark being the chief town and 
seat of justice of the former, and Rutherglen 
of the latter. This arrangement was alter- 
ed during the last century, when the county 
was divided into three wards, namely, the up- 
per, middle, and lower wards ; the chief 
towns being Lanark, Hamilton, and Glasgow, 
at each of which there is a sheriff-substitute 
stationed. The central part of the county 
throughout is termed Clydesdale, or the vale of 
Clyde, from being the basin of that beautiful 
and useful river. Before entering on a des- 
cription of the natural products, and the agri- 
cultural and mercantile peculiarities of the 
shire, it may be proper to say a few words 
upon the history of the district : Under the 
heads Dumbarton and Glasgow, some slight 
notices of the ancient kingdom of Strath Clyde 
have been given ; and it is now our duty to 
present a connected historical outline of that 






686' 



LANARKSHIRE. 



British kingdom. The district of country 
known as the vale of Clyde, with its minor 
vales, at the time at which Roman writers de- 
scribed North Britain, was inhabited by the 
British tribe, called by them the Damnii, a 
people who designated their territory y-strad- 
clur/d, a compound name signifying the warm 
vale or strath. Of these hardy Britons or 
Celts, there are numerous remains in the dis- 
trict, as circular walls and fosses, sepulchral 
tumuli, and memorial stones of a warlike 
nature. The Damnii yielded to the Roman 
yoke towards the end of the first century, and 
the country became a part of the province of 
Valentia. The Romans secured this, like 
other possessions, by roads and camps, the re- 
mains of which, in different parishes, have en- 
gaged the attention of the topographers. The 
recession of the Romans — see Edinburgh- 
shire — in the fourth century left the inhabi- 
tants to re-form their original kingdom. From 
this period, arose a powerful demi- savage race, 
who held in thrall some adjacent districts ; and 
a few centuries later we find the kingdom of 
Strath- Clyde involving within its limits Liddis- 
dale, Tiviotdale, Dumfries-shire, all Galloway, 
Ayrshire, Renfrewshire, Strath- Clyde proper, 
part of Peebles-shire, the western part of 
Stirlingshire, and the greater part of Dum- 
bartonshire ; from which it seems to have 
been a kingdom, including nearly the whole 
of Scotland south of the Forth, with the ex- 
ception of ancient Lothian, which was in- 
habited by Ottadini, and afterwards by Sax- 
ons. Within this ample territory there were 
subordinate tribes, some of whom are no- 
ticed in this work, as occasion requires, by 
the name of Selgovse, Attacotti, &c. It is un- 
derstood that the capital of the Strath- Clyde 
Britons was at Dumbarton, which was at a most 
important pass into their kingdom from the 
west ; but with regard to this and other matters 
relative to their political condition, great 
obscurity prevails. This barbarous people 
were frequently attacked by the Picts, from 
the northern side of the Forth, by the Scoto- 
Irish from Cantire, by the Saxons of Northum- 
bria, and by the Cruithne of Ulster. At 
the death of Bede in 735, the Strath- Clyde 
Britons retained their beloved possessions in 
spite of all attacks, but, soon after, they began 
to decline in power from the union of the Pic- 
tish and Saxon forces, and their metropolis 
was taken in 756. It is most probable that, 



after the political union of the Picts and Scots 
in 844, through the intrepidity of Kenneth, all 
show of a separate kingdom in Strath Clyde was 
gone ; and soon after this period, it is likely that 
the petty chiefs or reguli were gradually over- 
powered, while their laws and usages melted 
away before those of a Scottish sovereign. The 
descendants of the Damnii seem to have deeply 
grieved the loss of their rude independence, and 
emigrated rather than submit to foreigners. 
Mournfully leaving the graves of their fathers, 
the first human beings who had roved through 
the forests of the west, they slowly departed 
from the warm vale, and pursuing a southerly 
course, crossed the Solway and the Mersey, 
and finally found a resting-place amidst a con- 
genial race among the hills and dales of Wales. 
The less adventurous Strath- Clyde Britons re- 
mained, and, by the encroachments of different 
races of Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Normans, Gae- 
lic-Scots, and Galloway, or Half-Irishmen, 
they were soon lost as a distinct people. * The 
extinction of the Saxon power, north of the 
Tweed, in 1020 — again see Edinburghshire 
— consolidated for the first time the Scottish 
dynasty, and levelled many trifling distinctions 
among the inhabitants of the country. Be- 
sides the above classes of foreigners who were 
introduced into the district of Strathclyde, we 
may here remark, what is well worthy of ob- 
servation, that a number of Flemish families 
of consideration settled in Clydesdale in the 
twelfth century, not a few of whom received 
grants of land from the abbots of Kelso, who 
had large possessions in this quarter. Of these 
families none became afterwards so distinguish- 
ed as the Douglasses, who have no higher 
an origin than a Flemish church vassal, al- 
though such is now attempted to be refuted. 
Lanarkshire was allowed to progress in civili- 
zation and rural wealth, with some brief inter- 
vals of war and waste, till the period of the 
national troubles consequent on the demise of 
Alexander III. Now 

" followed the dayis, 



Quen was gud Willeyham Walays," 
whose first exploit was to expel the English 
from the town of Lanark. We need not tell 

* Yet one of the editors of this work has been inform- 
ed by a Welchman, well qualified to judge, namely, the 
Rev. Mr. Williams, of the Edinburgh Academy, and 
author of the Life of Alexander the Great, that the 
peasantry of Clydesdale at this day bear a strong resem- 
blance, not only in features, but even in some points of 
cosU-ime, to the modern Welsh. 



LANARKSHIRE. 



687 



our readers that throughout the arduous strug- 
gle which followed for Scottish independence, 
Lanarkshire was the theatre of many miseries 
and military disturbances. Under the reign 
of James I., and the regency of Robert, Duke 
of Albany, a portion of Lanarkshire was cut 
off from the body of the county, and was form- 
ed into the distinct sheriffdom of Renfrew. 
At a subsequent date, the ambition and turbu- 
lence of the Douglasses, with the intrigues of 
the first Lord Hamilton, involved Lanarkshire 
in the various miseries of civil war. The fall 
of the house of Douglas, 1 455, was followed 
by an instantaneous herrying of the family pos- 
sessions. " In March 1455," says Gray's 
Chronicle, " James the second cast doune the 
castel of Inveravyne ; and syne incontinent past 
till Glasgow, and gaderit the westland men, 
with part of the Areschery [Irish], and passit 
to Lanerick, and to Douglas, and syne brynt 
all Douglasdale, and all Avendale, and all the 
Lord Hammiltounis lands, and herrit them 
clerlye ; and syne passit to Edinburgh, and fra 
them till the forest, with ane host of lawland 
men," &c. Such were the devastations sus- 
tained by the district on the rebellion of its 
principal baron. From this period till the 
comparatively recent epoch of the latter part 
of the seventeenth century, Lanarkshire does 
not make any remarkable figure in history. It 
then became the scene of a thirty years' civil 
war, carried on by Charles II. against the 
more zealous presbyterians of this district, every 
particular of which must be already known to 
the readers of Scottish history. During this 
unhappy period, the country suffered severely 
by military execution, but the Revolution of 
1688 brought it once more peaceful times, and 
it has ever since advanced in wealth and every 
species of improvement. To return to the 
physical character of Lanarkshire : The upper 
division of the county is very mountainous, 
one of the Lowther hills rising to a height of 
2450 feet above the level of the sea. Next in 
height is Culter Fell ; and Tinto, the loftiest 
hill on the frontier of the mountain district, is 
2236 feet above the sea level. From Tinto, 
looking northward, the face of the country is 
softened down to gentle elevations and gradual 
depressions. The upper ward, which may 
be deemed three-fifths of the county, is 
mostly hilly and moorish; and from the na- 
ture of the soil, and the elevation of the sur- 
face, cannot be deemed capable of much agri- 



cultural improvement. At the commence- 
ment of the middle ward, the elevation of the 
land is considerably diminished, while the de- 
clivity continues to fall towards the north- 
west. The surface is everywhere diversified 
by frequent inequalities, so as to leave no 
level space except the valleys along the river. 
The height of the middle ward may be re- 
garded as from 250 to 800 feet above the level 
of the sea ; and though reckoned a good agri- 
cultural district, it comprises 42,000 acres of 
moss, nearly a third of the whole. The 
lower ward is of very limited extent, and de- 
rives its importance from being the seat of a 
most abundant population. The county al- 
most everywhere abounds in coal. Sand- 
stone and whinstone are equally prevalent. 
Lime lies in the same tract of country as 
the sandstone. In the mountainous region 
at the head of Clydesdale, lead has been 
long wrought to advantage. Ironstone is also 
wrought in the shire. The mines of different 
descriptions lately yielded, on the whole ope- 
rations, an annual revenue of L. 222, 900. The 
waters of Lanarkshire may be described in 
brief terms. The county is watered and beau- 
tified by the Clyde throughout, and this river 
receives on either side a great variety of 
streams, nearly the whole being of extensive 
use in application to the machinery of mills. 
The principal tributaries within the shire, 
are the Douglas Water, the Mouse, the 
Nethan, the Aven, the Calder, the North 
Calder, and the Kelvin. A very complete 
account of the Clyde, its extent, and pro- 
perties, will be found under the article 
Clyde. Those who search deeply into the 
ancient history of Clydesdale, have reason for 
believing that the district was once much warmer 
that it is at present. The old British poets 
sing of the delicious summer heats of their 
native vale ; and Merthyn, one of their most 
distinguished bards, mentions with feelings of 
regret the orchards of Cluyd. We might be 
inclined to suggest that the fancies of these 
remote minstrels perhaps blinded them to the 
truth, had we not sufficient evidence of the 
former temperateness of the climate in the re- 
mains of cultivation upon hills now suitable 
only to pasturage. The climate of Lanark- 
shire is now moist and cold, a circumstance 
attributable to the proximity of the western 
seas, and to the very extensive masses of wet 
peat earth, which shed an unhappy influence 



688 



LANARKSHIRE. 



over the arable soil. Within the more shelt- 
ered and sunny vale through which the Clyde 
pursues its course, the climate is often much 
warmer, and in such cases such is the dif- 
ference of atmosphere, that while the wind 
blows with a keen blast over the waste moors 
of the exposed country, at a very short dis- 
tance, within the protection of the banks of 
the river, the air has all the genial mildness of 
an Italian summer. The commencement of 
improvements in soil and cultivation in this 
division of Scotland, is said to have taken place 
about the year 1758. From this period may 
be dated a series of meliorations, by draining, 
planting, and enclosing, equal in amount to 
such in other improved districts. Wheat, a 
still greater quantity of oats, and some barley, 
are in various proportions sown in different 
soils, in the county. Some flax is grown, 
which is spun by the women, who sell the 
yarn in the markets of Lanark, Carnwath, 
Biggar, and others. Potatoes are universally 
planted in great quantities. Turnips are sown 
pretty generally. Artificial grasses are every- 
where in use. Gardens and orchards were of 
early use in Clydesdale, and in the present 
day the banks of the river are embellished by 
fruit-trees of the most luxuriant growth. The 
orchards consist chiefly of apple, pear, and 
plum trees, and cover altogether about 300 
acres. The products are very numerous, and 
in fortunate years the whole produce has been 
valued at L.2000. The manufactures of 
Glasgow being treated of at length under that 
head, we do not require here to specify the 
trading statistics of the shire. It needs only 
be mentioned, that the cotton goods for which 
that city is celebrated, are to a great extent 
woven in different villages in the county, and 
that this branch alone yields support to a very 
large proportion of the inhabitants. Lanarkshire 
contains three royal burghs, Glasgow, Ruther- 
glen, and Lanark, and a variety of consider- 
able villages, as Hamilton, Douglas, Biggar, 
Strathaven, Carnwath, Bothwell, Airdrie, 
Lesmahago, &c. Including the city parishes 
of Glasgow, the shire comprises nearly fifty 
parishes, which form four presbyteries in the 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The valued rent 
of the shire in 1814 was, for land, L.298,019, 
and for houses, L.286,071. The increase of 
the population of Lanarkshire since the middle 
of the last century is very conspicuous. In 
1755 it was 81,781; in 1791, 126,354; in 



1801, 150, 690; in 1811, 192,097; and in 
1821, 244,766, of which 115,385 were males, 
and 129,002 females. 

LANARK, a parish in the above county, 
lying on the right or east bank of the Clyde, 
along which it stretches from four to five miles, 
by a breadth of three miles ; bounded by Car- 
luke on the north, Carstairs on the east, Car- 
michael on the south, and Lesmahago, on the 
opposite side of the Clyde, on the west. Th 
greater part of the parish consists of flat or un- 
dulating land, generally suitable to agriculture, 
but in some places moorish. In modern times 
the district has been greatly improved by plan- 
tations, enclosures, draining, &c The Mouse 
water, tributary to the Clyde, runs through the 
parish, cutting it into two nearly equal divi- 
sions. The chief objects of interest in the 
district are noticed in the following article. 

Lanark, a royal burgh, the capital of the 
above parish and county, to which it has given 
a name, and the seat of a presbytery, is situated 
on an elevated piece of ground half a mile from 
the right bank of the Clyde, at the distance of 
32 miles west from Edinburgh, 25 south-east 
of Glasgow, and 15 from Hamilton. Lanark 
is one of the most ancient towns in Scotland. 
It is understood to have been a seat of popula- 
tion in those early times when the British re- 
mained undisputed masters of the territory, and 
from them received the appellation it has 
maintained through a succession of dynasties 
and changes of language; The word Lanark 
is a favourite object of philological dispute 
among antiquaries, and has been by them tor- 
tured into the most strange significations. It 
is, we think, with good evidence derived from 
Llanerch, or Lanerch, signifying a green, a bare 
or open place ; in a word, a glade, a paddock, 
and with one or other such meanings is attach- 
ed to different names in Scotland and Wales. 
Merthyn, the ancient British bard, in his poem 
of the " Afallenau," or apple-trees, thus men- 
tions the place, — 

'* Afallen berena dyf yn TJanvrrch, 
Angerdd oi hargel rhag rhieu Rhydderch." 

A sweet apple-tree doth grow in Lanerch, 
Potent its shade against the chiefs of Rhydderch. 

In several charters of Robert I., David II., 
Robert II., and Robert III., the county and 
town are called Lanerk, and George Chalmers 
throughout pertinaciously adheres to such an 
orthography, although fashion, accident, orde- 



LANARK. 



(589 



sign has for ages induced the general adoption 
of Lanark. The town is said to have received 
a charter of burgal privileges from Alexander 
I., and it is certain that it was a royal town as 
early at least as Malcolm IV. (1153-65), who, 
in granting a toft in the place, says it is " in 
meo burgo." It is exceedingly probable that at 
this and a later period Lanark was chosen as a 
royal residence, as there was at one period a 
castle or fortification on an eminence south 
from the town, which has been for a long pe- 
riod demolished, and so cleared away as to leave 
a site for a bowling green.* Whether from 
its possession of this castle or the importance 
of the station, the English under Edward se- 
cured Lanark, and according to Blind Harry, 
it was the fate of Sir William Wallace to re- 
side in it with his bride, when the insolence of 
the English sheriff compelled the patriot to 
deal that personage such a blow as proved his 
death. Tradition points out a house, now an 
inn, at the head of the Castle-gate, opposite to 
the parish church, as occupying the site of 
that which was possessed by Wallace at the 
period of this incident. He fied from his 
house to a cave in the Cartland Crags, about 
a mile off, and only emerged from that conceal- 
ment to spread terror and destruction amongst 
all who bore the English name in Scotland. 
Miss Porter, previous to the publication of her 
work entitled " The Scottish Chiefs," visited 
this and other scenes in the neighbourhood of 
Lanark, sanctified by the name of Wallace. 
The consequence of Lanark will be supposed 
to have increased by the establishment of a 
monastery of Franciscan or Grey friars in the 
year 1314. Besides this institution, there was 
a chapel within the burgh dedicated to St. Ni- 
cholas, which had four altars, one of which was 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and was called 
" Our Lady's Altar ;" another, which was 
consecrated to the holy blood of Christ, was 
called " The Haly Bluid Altar : " a third was 
dedicated to St. Michael, and a fourth to St. 
Catherine. This chapel and its different al- 
tars were well endowed. At a spot about half 
a mile east from the town, there was a chapel 
dedicated to St. Leonard, with an hospital. 
We are not aware of the date of this establish- 
ment, but we learn that it was exceedingly well 



* By a strange coincidence, there are a number of 
towns in Scotland which have bowling-greens on the ex- 
act sites of old castles. Among others we may instance 
those of Inverness and Peebles. 



endowed with lands, and that in 1393 Sir 
John Dalziel obtained of Robert III. a gift of 
the whole revenue belonging to St. Leonards, 
within the town of Lanark, upon condition that 
he and his heirs should cause say three masses 
every week " pro salute Domini Ret/is et Anna- 
bellce Rcgina? proliumque eorumJ" The chapel- 
ry, however, as it would appear, was still well 
sustained by lands in the district, which con- 
stituted a species of independent parochial di- 
vision. By an act of parliament, in 1 409, St. 
Leonard's kirk was united to the parish of 
Lanark. The old parish church of Lanark 
was dedicated to Kentigern or Mungo, and 
with its tithes and pertinents was granted by 
David I. in 11 50 to the monastery which he 
then founded at Dryburgh, with the monks of 
which place it continued till the Reformation. 
At Clegorn, or Cleghorn, in the parish of Lanark, 
there was a chapel in the twelfth century, and 
at East Nemphlar, or, as it was once called, 
Nenfelar, the templars had some lands, and a 
chapel, the ruin of which is still extant, nearly 
a mile and a half north-west from Lanark. 
The number and variety of religious estab- 
lishments at one period in and about Lan- 
ark, must certainly have added considerably to 
its importance, and no doubt to its wealth. 
At the Reformation, all the different charter- 
grants, tithes, patronages, and land and proper- 
ty of every description, were seized by, or giv- 
en to, lay nobility and gentry, whose descend- 
ants still enjoy them-s-almost no spot in Scot- 
land having offered so much ready unpro- 
tected prey of this character. The old parish 
church, which stood at the distance of a quar- 
ter of a mile eastward from the town, has been 
deserted upwards of fifty years, and is now 
hurrying fast to decay. It has been of Gothic 
architecture, although never a fine building. 
It is said, that it was here, at public worship, 
that the Scottish hero, Wallace, first saw his 
wife. The church-yard around contains the 
grave of William Lithgow, the celebrated tra- 
veller of the reign of James VI., a strange 
compound of good sense, fanaticism, impu- 
dence, and pedantry, to which this parish had 
the honour of giving birth. Lithgow travelled 
over a great part of Europe and Asia, and 
came home miserably maimed and disfigured 
by the Inquisitors of Spain, whom he pro- 
voked by his insufferable boldness in regard 
to their religion. He settled in his native 
parish, where, till his death, he was known, as 
4 T 



690 



LANARK. 



he is now popularly remembered, by the name 
of Lugless Willie Lithgow. He left children 
and other relations, whose representatives are 
still in the place. Lanark has had the honour 
of giving birth to more than one man of note. 
The most distinguished, and we may now be 
permitted to say, the most infamous, was the 
late Lord Justice- Clerk Braxfield, whose 
brutality on the bench will not soon be forgot- 
ten in Scotland. Many good scholars, more- 
over, have been produced at its school, which, 
for more than fifty years during the last cen- 
tury, was conducted by Mr. Robert Thomson, 
brother-in-law to the author of the Seasons, a 
man of talents, and of great assiduity and suc- 
cess in his profession. The wife of this gen- 
tleman, displaying an activity and spirit very 
different from her illustrious brother, is said to 
have been peculiarly well qualified for her si- 
tuation as matron of a large boarding-school. 
The town of Lanark, of which it is now time 
to say something, consists of one main street, 
5n the direction of east and west. At the 
eastern extremity it branches into two thorough- 
fares, one leading to Edinburgh, and another 
to Hyndford Bridge. On the west it leads to 
the Clyde. Near the centre of the town 
stands the modern parish church, and at the 
corner of an adjacent lane caUed the Wellgate, 
leading to the south, is the town and county 
jail. From near this spot there are other two 
minor thoroughfares branching towards the 
river. The streets are well paved, but a great 
number of the houses are still very mean in 
appearance, being thatched with broom, heath, 
or straw, and exhibiting on the whole, the 
spectacle of a decayed Scottish burgh, desert- 
ed by trade, and injured by the distractions of 
local politics and petty interests. As a royal 
burgh, whose charters were finally confirmed 
by Charles I. in 1632, it is governed by a pro- 
vost, two bailies, a dean of guild, thirteen mer- 
chant councillors, and seven deacons of trades ; 
and unites with Linlithgow, Selkirk, and 
Peebles in sending a member to parliament. 
Besides the established church there is a Re- 
lief and Secession Meeting- House. Almost 
the only trade in Lanark is weaving, which en- 
gages a number of men in the employment 
of Glasgow manufacturers. In the neighbour- 
hood, higher up the Clyde, stand the cotton- 
mills and town of New-Lanark, noticed in 
next article. Lanark is much better known 
from the romantic beauty of the fills of the 
29. 



Clyde in its vicinity, and some other scenery 
in its neighbourhood, than from any tiling else. 
In the environs of the town there are many 
handsome seats, among which, Carstairs, the 
seat of Mr. Monteith, seems to be considered 
the most splendid. But these objects fail to 
interest the tourist in comparison with the 
celebrated falls. Of these two are above, and 
one below, the town. The uppermost is 
Bonniton Linn, a cascade of about thirty feet. 
The next below is Corra Linn, where the wa- 
ter takes three distinct leaps, each apparently 
as high as that of Bonniton, The third fall 
occurs at Stonebyres, about two miles below 
the town of Lanark. These falls are individ- 
ually described under the article Clyde. He 
who traverses this district for pleasure, or for 
the indulgence of sentiment and association, 
will visit Cartland Crags. This is a deep 
chasm, supposed to have been formed by an 
earthquake, through which the Mouse Water 
(remarkable a little farther up for Roman an- 
tiquities on its banks) seeks its way to the 
Clyde, instead of following a more natural chan- 
nel, which every body seems to think it should 
have followed, a little farther to the east. A 
bridge of three arches was thrown, in the year 
1825, across the narrow profound ; its two 
piers, being at least a hundred feet high, while 
the whole length is little more, the building 
has an exceedingly striking effect. At a little 
distance below may be seen one of those nar- 
row old bridges, with an arch precisely semi- 
circular, supposed to be of Roman structure. 
In the western face of the chasm of the Cartland 
Crags, a few yards above the new bridge, a 
small slit in the rock is pointed out by tradi- 
tion as having been the hiding-place of Wal- 
lace after he had slain Hesilrig. It is still 
termed Wallace's Cave. Still farther to the 
north-west, about three miles from the town, 
and within the verge of the parish, is the Lee, 
the patrimonial estate of the family of Lock- 
hart, so distinguished during the seventeenth 
century for their eminence in the Scottish 
Courts of Law. Lee House is a very fine 
mansion, lately modernized in the castellated 
style. It contains many good portraits, as 
well as a singular curiosity, or object of super- 
stition, called the Lee ■penny, a talisman of 
eastern origin, which it is said was brought 
from Palestine in the fourteenth century by 
Simon Locard, ancestor of the present fa- 
mily, and possesses medicinal virtues similar 



L A N G II O L M. 



691 



(o those detailed as belonging to " the Ta- 
lisman," in the tale of that name, by the 
author of Waverley. Being now visited by 
an incredible number of persons, whose cu- 
riosity has been excited respecting it, Sir 
Charles M'Donald Lockhart, the present pro- 
prietor, has recently adopted the idea of keep- 
ing an album in which their names are record- 
ed. The environs of the Lee comprise a re- 
markable natural curiosity in the shape of a 
large oak tree, which having become rotten 
through age, can hold in its hollow inside half 
a dozen individuals standing upright. It is 
called the Pease Tree. — Population of the 
burgh and parish, including New Lanark, in 
1821, 7085. 

LANARK, (NEW), a series of cotton 
factories and houses, in the parish of Lanark, 
occupying a secluded situation on the right 
bank of the Clyde, about a mile above the 
foregoing town of Lanark. This extensive 
manufacturing establishment was first insti- 
tuted in the year 1783, by Mr. David Dale, a 
man whose character is said to have been 
marked by almost Quixotic benevolence. It 
is now in the possession of a company which 
owns for its head the son-in-law of Mr. 
Dale, Mr. Robert Owen, so remarkable for 
his notions regarding the domestic polity 
of mankind. The village may be described 
as a series of huge square buildings con- 
nected with one or two streets of inferior 
magnitude, and stretching along the north or 
right bank of the river, which here rises so 
abruptly and so near the' stream as only to al- 
low room for two lines of edifices. The large 
buildings are cotton-mills, and the inferior 
streets contain the residences of the persons 
employed in them, amounting, it is said, to 
about two thousand. " The first mill," says 
a contemporary, " was begun in 1 785, and a 
subterraneous passage was formed through a 
rocky hill, nearly one hundred yards in length, 
for the purpose of an aqueduct. In 1788, a 
second one was built, and was nearly roofed 
in, when the first one was totally consumed by 
an accidental fire, but was again rebuilt in the 
ensuing year ; and the proprietor afterwards 
erected other two, the machinery of which is 
driven by the water brought in the same aque- 
duct. These mills have from 20,000 to 
30,000 spindles, and spin from 10 to 12 
tons of cotton wool weekly. In them fourteen 
hundred people, including women and children, 



are employed. The greatest attention is paid 
to cleanliness, and there is a public washing 
house and bleaching green." The communi- 
ty is of a singular description. No person is 
admitted into it except as connected with the 
manufactory. The inhabitants are a peculiar 
people, speak with an accent of their own, and 
dress themselves better on Sunday than their 
neighbours of the same rank. They are said 
to live harmoniously, and even to exhibit a 
considerable degree of esprit-de-corps. They 
are supplied with clothes and other necessaries 
by the proprietors of the works ; who very pro- 
perly devote the profits arising from this branch 
of business to the education of the children, 
none of whom are permitted to engage in la- 
bour till the age of ten. Mr. Owen has paid 
very considerable attention to the education of 
the children of this establishment, and has with 
praiseworthy, though perhaps, misdirected phi- 
lanthropy, tried a number of plans to train up 
youth in novel principles, the success of which 
can only be substantiated by time. The manu- 
factory of New Lanark, and the schools which 
are there established, are now interesting ob- 
jects of curiosity to all tourists, and strangers 
would do well not to leave this part of the 
country without paying them a visit. 

LANGHOLM, a parish in the district of 
Eskdale, Dumfrieshire, bounded on the north by 
Westerkirk and Ewes, on the east by Ewes 
and Cannoby, on the south also by Cannoby, 
and on the west by Middlebie and Tunder- 
garth. At the south-west corner it is touched 
by the district of Halfmorton, which is eccle- 
siastically joined to it. It contains, exclusive of 
Halfmorton, about 14,320 acres, of which by 
far the greater part belongs to the Duke of 
Buccleugh. This parish is hilly and chiefly 
pastoral, and may be described as comprising 
several miles of the vale of the Esk, which 
pursues a southerly course through it, and the 
inferior vale of Wauchope water, a tributary 
of that river on its western bank. The 
country here is exceedingly beautiful, the low 
grounds being well cultivated and sheltered by 
the most umbrageous green woods or planta- 
tions, the whole having a pleasing sylvan ef- 
fect 

LANGHOLM, a thriving small town of 
modem growth in the above parish, and the 
seat of a presbytery, situated on the left or 
east bank of the Esk, at the distance of twenty- 
one miles from Carlisle, twelve from Long- 



6D2 



L A N G T O N. 



town, eighteen from Annan, thirty from Dum- 
fries, and twenty-three from Hawick. The 
town owes its origin to a border-house or 
tower, which was formerly the property of the 
all-powerful Armstrongs, but is now only seen 
in a state of ruin. The curious stranger may 
also see here a place where several witches 
suffered in the century before the last. The 
witches of Eskdale are said to have played 
pranks beyond all example in the history of 
female necromancy. Some of them were mid- 
wives, and had the power of transferring part 
of the primeval curse bestowed upon our first 
mother from the gudewife to her husband ; so 
that the former underwent the actual process 
of labour without the least uneasiness, all the 
while that the gudeman was roaring with agony 
in his uncouth and unnatural pains ! Lang- 
holm was long famed for a curious iron in- 
strument, " called the Branks," which, fitted 
upon the head of a shrewish female, and 
projecting a sharp spike into her mouth, 
fairly subdued the more dreadful weapon 
within. It was formerly customary for hus- 
bands who were afflicted with scolding wives, 
to subject their heads to this instrument, and 
lead them through the town exposed to the 
eyes and ridicule of all the people ; and tradi- 
tion records, that the discipline was rarely un- 
productive of a complete reformation. A si- 
milar way of taming shrews formerly prevailed, 
it seems, in Staffordshire ; and Dr. Plot, the 
quaint old historian of that county, sagely ob- 
serves, that he looks upon it " as much to be 
preferred to the ducking-stool, which not only 
endangers the health of the patient, but also 
gives the tongue liberty betwixt every dip ; to 
neither of which disadvantages this is at all 
lyable." " Eskdale," says the author of the 
Picture of Scotland, " derives a more than com- 
mon charm from the memory of Johnie Arm- 
strong, whose name is associated with many 
of its localities." His tower of Gilnockie still 
stands, — though converted into a cow-house, — 
a few miles below Langholm, on the left bank 
of the Esk. It was on " Langholm Holm," 
that, when going to meet the king, he and his 
" gallant companie" of thirty-six men, " ran 
their horse and brak their spears ;" when, to 
pursue the picturesque language of the ballad, 

The ladies lookit frac their loft windows, 
Saying, God send our men well back again. 

Johnie terminated his mortal career at Car- 



lenrig, a place not far distant from Moss- Paul, 
on the road between Langholm and Hawick. 
The story of the judicial execution of this 
border thief and his companions by James V- 
is well known. The graves of the whole 
marauders are to be seen in a deserted church- 
yard at Carlenrig. In the present day, Lang- 
holm does not seem to partake of any of the 
peculiarities which distinguished the country in 
" the riding times," or in the age of supersti- 
tion ; being now one of the most thriving and 
industrious towns of its size in Scotland. The 
town is built in the bosom of a lovely wood- 
land scene, along the Edinburgh and Carlisle 
road, which pursues a line down the left bank 
of the Esk, and consists generally of good 
stone houses, covered with blue slate. A 
bridge is here built across the Esk, connecting 
the main part of the town with a more modern 
suburb on the opposite side, called New Lang- 
holm. At the market-place of the old town, 
stands the town-hall and jail, ornamented with 
a neat spire and clock. The church is built 
on a rising ground in the rear of the town. 
The chief trade in Langholm is the manufac- 
ture of cotton and woollen goods, as checks, 
stockings, &c. It also possesses a number of 
good shops, a brewery, a distillery, dye-houses, 
and other establishments. It contains likewise 
branches of the British Linen Company and 
National banks. There are two libraries, and 
a well-conducted parochial school. The Crown 
inn is a well known house of entertainment on 
the road. Besides the Established church, 
there is a United Secession church, and Re- 
lief chapel. The town is a burgh of barony 
under the Duke of Buccleugh, — a family to 
whom the people of this part of Scotland 
have been much indebted. That nobleman 
appoints a baron-bailie to govern the town, as 
in the case of Dalkeith. The weekly market- 
day of Langholm is Wednesday, and there are 
fairs on the 16th of April ; last Tuesday in 
May, old style ; 26th of July ; 18th of Sep- 
tember, and in November. At the July fair 
vast quantities of lambs are usually disposed 
of. There are two annual fairs for hiring 
servants. — Population of the town in 1821, 
1800, including the parish 2404. 

LANGTON, a parish in the centre of 
Berwickshire, with its northern part among 
the uplands of the Lammermuir division, and 
its opposite extremity in the low rich lands of 
the Merse ; bounded by Longformacus on the 



LARGO. 



G93 



west and part of the north, Dunse on part of 
the north and on the east, and Polwarth chief- 
ly on the south. Tlie figure of the parish is 
somewhat triangular, with the apex towards 
the south-east ; its mean length may be four 
and a-half miles, and its breadth two and a- 
half. From the east to the north-west limit 
the ascent is gradual ; from south to north the 
ascent is the same as far as the foot of the 
high ground, known by the name of Langton 
Edge. On this Edge or eminence, all the 
enclosed and cultivated part of the parish is 
presented to the eye, as well as the whole 
breadth of Merse and of Northumberland, as 
far as Wooler. The country is here now ex- 
ceedingly beautiful and productive, having been 
much improved during last century, and well 
planted. The ancient village of Langton, 
which stood in the lower part of the parish, 
was long a mean straggling place ; " it suffer- 
ed," we are told, " like the greater part of the 
border towns, from the incursions of the Eng- 
lish, having been burnt in 1558 by Sir Henry 
Percy and Sir George Bowes, and at other 
times by marauding parties from Berwick and 
Northumberland. Mr. Gavin, the late pro- 
prietor, (and, according to the author of the 
Statistical Account of the parish, a gentleman 
who effected very extensive and beneficial im- 
provements in this district, subsequent to 1758, 
the year he purchased his estate,) finding the 
village an obstacle to improvement, offered to 
feu the inhabitants on easy terms a piece of 
ground, in a pleasant situation, about half a 
mile distant. This was aerepted, and the old 
town of Langton in a short time disappeared, 
and the new and thriving village of Gavinton 
arose in its room." This neat village is situ- 
ated at the distance of about a mile and a-half 
west of Dunse.— Population in 1821, 477. 

LANGWELL, a small river in the parish 
of Latheron, Caithness, which joining the water 
of Berridale, falls into the sea at the village of 
Berridale. 

LAOGHAL, (LOCH,) a lake in the pa- 
rish of Tongue, Sutherlandshire, bounding the 
parish of Farr on its west side, extending 
about four miles in length and one in breadth. 
Jt is environed in rude mountain scenery, and 
on the west is overshadowed by the lofty 
mountain of Benlaoghal. At the north end 
the lake is emitted by the water of Borgie, or 
Torrisdale, a river flowing into the ocean at 
Torrisdale village and bay. 



LARBERT, a parish in Stirlingshire, in- 
corporating the abrogated parish of Dunipace, 
which lies on the west of Larbert. Jointly 
they occupy a central and productive part of 
the county, extending from east to west eight 
miles, and from south to north about two 
miles. St. Ninians is on the west and north, 
Airth and Bothkennar on the east, and Fal- 
kirk and Denny on the south. The river 
Carron is the boundary throughout on the 
south. The land is beautifully cultivated, en- 
closed, and planted ; and the district is popu- 
lous, from the manufactures within it. Of 
public works those of Carron are the chief; they 
are described in their appropriate place. The old 
parish of Dunipace is remarkable for two singu- 
lar conical mounts which it possesses, which 
are likewise mentioned under their proper 
head. The district has some gentlemen's 
seats of the first class, among which is Kin- 
naird, once the residence and property of 
Bruce, the Abyssinian traveller, who was 
born, died, and was buried in this parish. 
The site of Arthur's Oven, a curious monu- 
ment of antiquity, now removed, is in the pa- 
rish. It has been sufficiently described under 
its own head. The capital of the parish is the 
village of Larbert, which lies two miles west- 
north-west of Falkirk, and nine from Stirling, 
the road betwixt these towns passing through 
it. Besides this there are some other villages 
and hamlets in the district. Population of 
Dunipace in 1821, 1168, and of Larbert 
3491. 

LARGO, a parish in the county of Fife, 
lying on the shore of the Firth of Forth, be- 
twixt Newburn and Kilconquhar on the east, 
and Scoonie (Leven,) on the west. Ceres- 
bounds it on its inland quarter. It is some- 
what of a square form, the mean breadth being 
three miles, and the length inland about three 
miles and a half. The area of the whole con- 
tains 5469 acres. The ground rises in pleas- 
ing undulations or elevations to the north, of- 
fering a remarkably fine southern exposure. 
Cultivation is here at a very high pitch of per- 
fection ; the fields are well enclosed, and orna- 
mented with plantations. The most striking 
natural feature in the district is Largo Law, a 
conspicuous conical hill, showing a kind of 
double summit, and rising to the height of 1010 
feet above the level of the sea ; it can be seen at 
a great distance on both sides of the F'orth. 
The parish contains objects of interest to the 



G94 



LARGO. 



antiquary in what are called, " tlie Standing 
Stanes of Lundin." These are three tall up- 
right stones standing in the middle of a park, 
about half way betwixt the villages of Largo 
and Leven, on the north side of the road. 
Two of them measure about eighteen or twen- 
ty feet above ground, and the third is not so 
high. They stand so as to describe the figure 
of a triangle, but from the appearance of the 
place, and the knowledge that one has been 
prostrated, we would be tempted to say, that 
there must have formerly been others beside 
them, so as to form a Druidical circle. Though 
evidently sunk deep in the ground, they lean in 
different directions, and the weather has made 
sad havock upon their original appearance- They 
certainly bear the marks of great antiquity, 
and if, as w r e imagine, the remains of a British 
or Druidic people, they cannot have a later 
date than before the dawn of Christianity, or an 
age of two thousand years. It is impossible to 
be confident respecting the origin of these in- 
teresting stones, for they have no inscription, 
and it is the general opinion at the place — 
which, however, is of little value — that they 
are mementos of Danish generals slain here in 
battle. Some have conjectured them to be of 
Roman origin, which is the least likely. The 
parish of Largo contains two villages, one with 
the title of Upper, or Kirktoun of Largo, and 
another with the title of Nether Largo. It 
will be best to describe these without entering 
on a new article. Upper Largo, locally Kirk- 
toun of Largo, is situated a mile from the sea, 
on the road betwixt Leven and Anstruther, 
three miles east from the former. It is a re- 
markably agreeable little village. Here stands 
•the parish church, an ancient Gothic fabric, 
with a spire rising from the middle. This was 
the birth-place of the celebrated Scottish ad- 
miral Sir Andrew Wood, who, in the reign of 
James IV-, defeated the English fleet under 
Stephen Bull. Having been invested by the 
king in the barony of Largo, he retired thither ; 
and, according to the statist of the parish, it ap- 
pears that, like Commodore Trunnion, he 
brought on shore his nautical ideas and man- 
ners. From his house down almost as far as 
the church, he formed a canal, upon which he 
sailed to church ! Here is an Hospital 
founded by one of his descendants in 1659 
for old men of the name of Wood ; it has 
been handsomely rebuilt. Nether Largo is 
situated at the head of the indentation of 



the Firth, called Largo Bay. It stands at 
the influx of a rivulet named the Keil, 
whose estuary forms a poor harbour to the 
place. The weaving of linen goods is a source 
of emolument here and at Upper Largo. 
This village would have remained among the 
most obscure on the Scottish coasts, but 
for the fortuitous circumstance of its hav- 
ing been the birth-place of Alexander Sel- 
kirk, the accredited prototype of the ficti- 
tious Robinson Crusoe. The real history of 
this man has been often printed ; but the fol- 
lowing additional memorabilia respecting him, 
picked up by the author of the " Picture of 
Scotland," will perhaps be new to most read- 
ers. Alexander Selkirk was born in the year 
1676. His father, like almost all the rest of 
the people of Nether Largo, was a fisherman, 
and had another son, who carried on the line 
of the family. There are many people in this 
village of the rare name of Selkirk; but this 
particular family has ended in a daughter, who, 
being a married woman, has lost the name. 
Alexander is remembered to have been a youth 
of high spirit and incontrollable temper ; to 
which, in all probability, we are to attribute 
the circumstance which occasioned his being 
left at Juan Fernandez. To a trivial family 
quarrel, resulting from this bad quality on his 
part, the world is indebted for the admirable 
fiction which, for a century past, has charmed 
the romantic imaginations of its youth. After 
an absence of several years, during which 
he had endured the solitude of Juan Fernan- 
dez, he returned to Largo. He brought with 
him the gun, sea-chest, and cup, which he had 
used on the uninhabited island. He spent 
nine months in the bosom of his family ; then 
went away on another voyage, and was never 
more heard of. The house in which this re- 
markable person was born still exists. It is 
an ordinary cottage of one story and a garret 
and is situated on the north side of the princi- 
pal street of Largo. It has never been out of 
the possession of the family since his time. 
The present occupant is his great-grand-niece, 
Katherine Selkirk or Gillies, who inherited it 
from her father, the late John Selkirk, who 
was grandson to the brother with whom Alex- 
ander had the quarrel, and died so late as Oc- 
tober 1825, ab the age of 74. Mrs. Gillies, 
who has very properly called one of her child- 
ren after her celebrated kinsman, to prevent, 
as she says, the name from going out of the 



LARGS. 



GO- 



fannly, is very willing to show the chest and 
cup to strangers applying for a sight of them. 
The chest is a very strong one, of the ordi- 
nary size, but composed of peculiarly fine 
wood, jointed in a remarkably complicated 
manner, and convex at the top. The 
cup is formed out of a cocoa-nut, the small 
segment cut from the mouth supplying a 
stand. It was recently mounted anew with sil- 
ver, at the expense of the late Mr. A. Con- 
stable, the celebrated bookseller. The gun, 
with which the adventurer killed his game, and 
which is said to be about seven feet long, has 
been alienated from the family, and is now in 
possession of James Lumsdaine, Esq. of La- 
thallan.— Population in 1821, 2301. 

LARGS, always popularly called the Largs, 
a town and parish in the northern extremity of 
Ayrshire, beautifully situated on the Firth 
of Clyde. The parish is bounded by that es- 
tuary on the west, by Innerkip on the north, 
by Dairy on the south, and by Wester Kil- 
bride on the south-west. A range of hills 
backs it in such a way, that it may be consider- 
ed in a great measure cut off from all the 
neighbouring cultivated ground, except towards 
the south ; whence a proverbial expression 
which even survives the new and facile inter- 
course of steam-boats on the Clyde, " Out of 
Scotland into the Largs." It is a remarkably 
healthy and well sheltered district, and nothing 
can excel the beautiful views opened up in 
front by the Firth of Clyde, where so many 
picturesque islands and headlands stretch 
their lengthy forms upon the smooth green 
waters, ever animated by the white-winged 
ships, sailing out and in upon their various er- 
rands of profit and pleasure. The parish is in 
a state of high cultivation, and contains a num- 
ber of elegant seats and villages. Among the 
former may be noticed Fairlie and Kelburne 
Castles, the residences of the Earl of Glas- 
gow ; Brisbane House, the seat of Sir T. M. 
Brisbane, baronet; and Skelmorlie, the man- 
sion of ' Montgomery of Skelmorlay. 
The town of Largs is now one of the most fa- 
vourite retreats on the west coast for ruralising 
and bathing, being rendered accessible to Glas- 
gow and other large towns on this side of the 
island by means, as above mentioned, of steam • 
boats. It is now a pretty small town, con- 
taining many neat modern houses for the ac- 
commodation of visitors, besides some good 
inns. An elegant suit of baths was erected 



in 1816 by public subscription, four of them 
after the model of those at Seafield, near 
Leith, and one a vapour bath. Attached to 
these are a reading-room and library, supplied 
with many newspapers, and every popular work 
as soon as published. The parish church is a 
handsome building of stone, with a spire and 
clock, and is a great ornament to the town. 
There are several benevolent societies and two 
Sabbath schools, which form the principal 
charitable institutions. Various circulating li - 
braries afford literary amusement to the studi- 
ous, and a company of comedians generally at- 
tends during the summer. Considerable busi- 
ness is carried on in fishing. In the year 
1818, an account of the number of resident vi- 
sitors for the whole season, exclusive of casual 
ones for shorter periods, gave 1000 persons. 
The town is of considerable antiquity, and 
was once the scene of an extraordinary kind 
of fair, where the people used to come in boats 
from the neighbouring Highlands, on St. 
Colm's day, near midsummer, and exchange 
their produce with a like convention of the 
Lowland peasantry. It is governed by a baron 
bailie. In the church is an aisle built by Sir 
Robert Montgomery of Skelmorlie about two 
centuries ago, and which, both for sculpture 
and painting, does no discredit to those times. 
Under ground is a vault, where, among others, 
the body of Sir Robert lies in a leaden coffin ; 
on which is the following Latin inscription : — 

Ipse mihi prsemortuus fui, fato fimera praripui, uni- 
cum idque Cassareum exemplar, inter tot mortales, 
secutus. 

Signifying, " I was dead before myself; I an- 
ticipated my proper burial ; alone, of all mor- 
tals, following the example of Caesar," i. e. 
Charles V., who, it will be recollected, had 
his obsequies performed before he died. The 
explanation usually given of the strange con- 
ceits of the inscription is, that Sir Robert was 
a very pious man, and used to descend into the 
vaults at night for his devotions ; thus buiying 
himself, as it were, alive. Sir James Montgo- 
meryof Skelmorlie, a subsequent representative 
of this family, was a distinguished leader among 
the Scottish presbyterians at the revolution, 
and some years afterwards made himself 
strangely and most inconsistently conspicuous 
by a conspiracy with the ultra Jacobites for 
the restoration of King James. Among the 
antiquities of this parish may be mentioned a 



69G 



L A S S W A D E 



chair, preserved in Brisbane house, and con- 
sidered an heir-loom in the family of Brisbane ; 
it is made of oak, and on the back bears the 
date 1357, together with the arms of this an- 
cient family, and the initials J. B. and E. H. 
which must refer to the names of the first 
proprietor and his wife. The castle of Fairlie, 
which was formerly possessed by a family of 
the same name, and is beautifully situated, 
must be remembered as the scene of the fine 
modern ballad of " Hardiknute." But decid- 
edly the most remarkable antiquities in the 
parish are the vestiges and relics of the famed 
battle of Largs, which was fought on Tuesday 
the 2d of October 1263, between the forces 
of Haco, king of Norway, and Alexander III. 
king of Scotland. The cause of dispute in 
this case was the sovereignty of the western 
islands. Haco, to enforce his claims to 
that honour, approached the west coast of 
Scotland with a numerous fleet, and well-ap- 
pointed army, and cast anchor in the sound 
between the coast at this point and the Cum- 
bray islands. The king of Scotland having put 
in force every artifice to gain time, assembled 
about fifteen hundred well-appointed troops, 
and a considerable number of an inferior kind, 
whom he marshalled on the heights overlook- 
ing the sea. During the night of the 1st of 
October, a dreadful storm from the south-west 
did prodigious damage to the fleet of king 
Haco, and next morning, under great embarrass- 
ment, he was obliged to land about 900 of his 
men, all the rest being either sunk in the deep 
sound, or engaged in attending to the relics of 
the fleet. Of course, this little dispirited party 
stood no chance against the large numbers, 
perfect preparation, and keen patriotic feeling 
of the Scots. Part of it was immediately 
swept into the sea ; the rest retired to a place 
called the Kepping Burn, a little below Kel- 
burne, defending itself bravely all the way. 
Afterwards, king Haco was able to land a few 
more of his troops, and the united bands fought 
bravely against the overpowering force of the 
Scots during the whole day, night at length 
permitting them to draw off their shattered 
strength to their ships. The unfortunate 
Norse were afterwards permitted by the king 
of Scots to land and bury their friends. The 
cairns and tumuli erected over them are still 
visible on the field of battle, a little to the 
south of Largs. In the centre there once stood 
a large granite pillar ten feet high ; it fell 



down many years ago. On some of the heaps 
being opened, the bones of these stalwart fo- 
reigners have been found in them ; and Danish 
war-axes are occasionally picked up. King 
Haco, a few days after the battle, collected all 
that remained of his once noble fleet, and sail- 
ed to Orkney, which was then his undisputed 
property. Here he died in the ensuing De- 
cember, of a broken heart for his misfortunes. 
No writer can with justice assume any glory 
to his country on account of the victory of 
Largs, as circumstances were so much in favour 
of the defending party as to put defeat almost 
out of the question. Great credit, however, 
is due to Alexander III. for his address in 
protracting Haco's proceedings by negotiation, 
till his enemy was left to the mercy of the ele- 
ments ; a degree of address the more remark- 
able, as the king was only about three and 
twenty years of age — Population in 1821, 
2479. 

LARKHALL, a neat modern village in 
the parish of Dalserf, Lanarkshire, situated on 
the road from Glasgow to Carlisle, four miles 
south-east of Hamilton, and eight north w r est 
of Lesmahago. It is inhabited chiefly by 
weavers. 

LAROCH, a small river in Argyleshire, 
district of Appin, and tributary to Loch" Cre- 
ran. 

LASSWADE, a parish in the centre of 
Edinburghshire, bounded on the north by Lib- 
erton, on the east by Dalkeith, on the south 
by Pennycuik, and on the wast by Pennycuik 
and Glencorse ; extending in length about eight 
miles, and in breadth from two to four. The 
name of the parish is derived from the Kirk- 
town or village of Lasswade, which is said by 
Mr. George Chalmers, the learned author of 
the Caledonia, to signify a well-watered pasture 
of common use ; Laeswe, in Anglo Saxon, sig- 
nifying a common, and Weyde, in old English, 
a meadow ; a definition certainly justified by 
the situation of this beautiful village, though 
the common people go more directly to the 
point, and assert that here was stationed, in 
former times, a girl or lass, who supplied the 
place of a bridge or ferry-boat, by wading 
through the water with travellers on her back. 
The parish, with the exception of a part of 
the Pentland hills, which falls within its 
boundary, consists of a tract of fine level 
ground, in the highest state of cultivation. 
Throughout its whole length runs the river 



L A S S W A D E. 



097 



North Esk, for which nature has formed a 
channel of a very peculiar nature. This river 
does not run over a broad alluvial bed, like 
many other streams. Nature has formed 
for it a more splendid channel, by hollowing 
out, in the midst of the level upland country, 
a profound ravine or chasm, at the bottom of 
which the water pursues a most irregular 
course, over large rocks and under deep banks, 
the sides of which are everywhere clothed up to 
the very edge of the level country with trees 
in the most romantic arrangement. The va- 
rious angularities, recesses, and projections of 
this long ravine, afford situations of the most 
romantic beauty for a series of antique objects, 
and also of modern villas. These last are 
occupied chiefly by families connected with 
Edinburgh, who retire hither in summer, to 
forget the smoke and the cares of the city, in 
a climate which seems rather to belong to Italy 
than to Scotland, and amidst scenes of the 
most perfect loveliness. From its propinquity 
to the capital, and the fertility of its soil, Lass- 
wade parish has for many centuries been the 
seat of great baronial families. About the 
centre of the parish, and upon the north bank 
of the Esk, stands the ancient castle of Roslin, 
now in ruins, but formerly the princely seat 
of the proud family of Sinclair, Earl of Ork- 
ney. Adjacent, on the brow of the eminence, 
stands the venerable and beautiful ruin of Ros- 
lin chapel, or rather collegiate church. The 
village of Roslin, which is situated on the flat 
ground to the north, and other objects of in- 
terest at this charming spot, including the 
castle and chapel, are noticed at length under 
the more appropriate head of Roslin. Far- 
ther down the vale of the Esk, on the summit 
of the south bank, is perched the curious old 
baronial mansion of Hawthornden, the seat of 
William Drummond, the Scottish poet and 
historian, and which is still the property of his 
descendants. Drummond was a gentleman of 
moderate fortune, born in 1585. He cultivat- 
ed literature to an extent little known among 
his class in that age, and seems to have been 
the personal friend of all the contemporary 
English poets. He died in 1649, his end be- 
ing hastened, it is said, by grief for the death 
of Charles L, to whose cause he was zealously 
attached. His remains lie interred in the fa- 
mily vault at Lasswade church. His house of 
Hawthornden, which may be described as a 
mansion of the seventeenth century engrafted 



upon the ruins of an ancient baronial castle, 
has been deserted, but not disfumished by his 
representative, Sir Francis Walker Drum- 
mond, Bart, who designs to build a more 
commodious mansion in the neighbourhood. 
Within the house may still be seen a number 
of jacobite portraits and other relics, including 
a dress worn by Prince Charles Stuart during 
his Scottish campaign of 1745. In a walk ad- 
jacent to the house is a cool recess in the face 
of the precipitous freestone rock : this is call- 
ed the Cypress Grove, and it is said to have 
been a favourite retreat of the poet. From 
disappointments in life — in particular, the loss 
of a beloved mistress by death — Drummond's 
mind was rather of a melancholy cast ; a se- 
ries of his poems bears the name of the Cypress 
Grove, and expresses his melancholy feelings. 
Perhaps these elegies took their name from 
this arbour. Underneath the foundations of 
Hawthornden house there is a strange souterrain, 
consisting of different apartments, furnished 
with a draw-well, and lighted by apertures in 
the face of the precipice. This is supposed to 
have been an early British retreat, and to have 
more lately served as a place of concealment 
for the patriots who endeavoured to rescue their 
country from the sway of Edward III., par- 
ticularly Sir Alexander Ramsay. This arti- 
ficial wonder is styled " the caves of Haw- 
thornden," and attracts many visitors. It can 
never be forgotten in a notice of Hawthorn- 
den, that Ben Jonson walked from London 
on foot, and here spent a few weeks with 
the congenial intellect of Drummond. The 
walks along the banks of the Esk, both above 
and below this point, are the most delightful 
imaginable, opening up at every step some new 
arrangement of picturesque and romantic ob- 
jects. The parish of Lasswade was originally 
smaller ; but at the Reformation received the 
accession of a part of the parish of Pentland 
then suppressed, and in 1633 was further in- 
creased by the addition of part of Melville pa- 
rish. Even before these additions, the church 
was considered a veiy valuable living. In the 
ancient taxation, it is rated at 90 merks, which 
proves it to have been second only to St. Cuth- 
bert's in Mid- Lothian. The church and lands 
of Lasswade were granted to the bishop of St. 
Andrews so early as the twelfth century, and 
it thus became a mensal church of the bishop- 
ric : the parsonage belonged to the bishop, and 
the cure was served by a vicar. The church 
4v 



698 



LASSWADE. 



constituted one of the prebends of St. Salva- 
dor's college, St. Andrews, till, in the reign of 
James III. it was annexed to the collegiate 
church of Restalrig, after which the sacerdotal 
duty was performed by the dean of the latter 
establishment. In Bagimont's roll, formed in 
the reign of James V., the rectory of Lass- 
wade was taxed at L.20, and the vicarage L.2, 
13s. 4d., which evinces the great value of the 
church at the Reformation; The ancient pa- 
rochial church, which from first to last has wit- 
nessed all the different forms of public worship 
as they became successively triumphant, still 
exists as a feeble ruin, shrouded from pubKc 
notice amidst a cluster of trees, and within a 
few yards of the conspicuous modern edifice. 
An aisle of the old structure is appropriated 
as the burial-vault of the noble family of Mel- 
ville, and here lies interred the first Viscount 
of that title, whose eminent situation in the 
ministry of Mr. Pitt is too well known to re- 
quire particular notice. The barony of Mel- 
ville received its name from Male, an English 
baron, who came into Scotland during the reign 
of David I. at the beginning of the twelfth 
century, and became Justiciary under William 
the Lion. Together with the barony of Lug- 
ton, this property formed the distinct parish 
of Melville, which was suppressed in 1633. 
The family of' Malville, as it was at first 
styled, acquired more land in Mid-Lothian 
daring the thirteenth century. In the reign 
of Robert II. (1371-90,) it ended in a fe- 
male heir, Agnes, who married Sir John Ross 
of Halkhead. The descendants of this mar- 
riage acquired the peerage of Lord Ross in 1705. 
It was purchased in the last century by David 
Rennie, whose daughter carried it by marriage 
to Henry Dundas, created Viscount Melville in 
1802. Melville Castle, a seat built on the 
property of this eminent man, is a fine castel- 
lated edifice, occupying a secluded but charm- 
ing situation on a piece of low ground on the 
margin of the Esk, surrounded by high banks 
finely wooded and cultivated. "Within view, 
and a very short way to the west, stands the 
thriving and pleasant village of Lasswade, built 
on both sides of the river, which is here cross- 
ed by a good stone bridge. With its neat mo- 
dern white-washed church crowning the height 
on the north bank of the stream, and its thatch- 
ed cottages below, embosomed in luxuriant gar- 
dens and umbrageous trees, it may be esteem- 
ed one of the very prettiest and most pictur- 
30. 



esque villages in Scotland. Within a period 
of a few years it has been greatly improved by 
the erection of many substantial freestone 
houses, and has recently received the addi 
tion of a dissenting meeting-house, originat- 
ing in a split from one in the neighbouring 
town of Dalkeith. It now possesses a distil- 
lery, a paper-mill, a candle manufactory, and 
its oat-meal and barley mills have been long 
celebrated for their excellence. We believe 
that, through the recommendation of the late 
Lord Melville, the oat-meal used by the pre- 
sent royal family in their juvenile days was im- 
ported from the mills at this place. Within the 
parish are several bleachfields and paper manu- 
factories, all on the Esk, betwixt Lasswade and 
Roslin, and at the latter there is an extensive 
gunpowder manufactory. Springfield, a scat- 
tered hamlet, the residence chiefly of paper- 
makers, in a dell on the Esk, is reputed for its 
rural beauty. The parish also includes the po- 
pulous village of Loanhead, lying on the high 
ground between Lasswade and Roslin. Lass- 
wade is yearly increasing in size, and being 
situated within six miles south from Edin- 
burgh, it is considered by the citizens one of 
the best places for half a day's recreation 
during the summer months ; jaunting parties 
generally coming round this way from Roslin. 
Stage coaches in communication with Edin- 
burgh run several times every day — Popula- 
tion of the parish, its villages included, in 
1821, 4186. 

LATHERON, a large parish in the 
county of Caithness, occupying the south-east 
corner of the shire, and lying on the German 
Ocean. From the Ord of Caithness it ex- 
tends twenty-seven miles along the coast, by 
a breadth of from thirteen to fifteen miles. 
It is bounded by Halkirk on the north, and 
Watten and Wick on the north-east. The 
district is hilly and pastoral, with straths or 
vales, through which streams flow towards the 
sea, and the lower grounds are arable. In 
modern times a good road intersects the pa- 
rish along the shore, and on this road there are 
some pretty thriving little villages. The first 
in proceeding northward is Berridale. La- 
theron Kirk stands half way along the coast, 
near the spot where a road leaves the thorough- 
fare and crosses the country to Thurso. — Po- 
pulation in 1821, 6575. 

LAUDER, a parish in the western part 
of Berwickshire, in the district of Lauderdale. 



LAUDER. 



699 



It extends upwards of nine miles from south- 
west to north-east, by a breadth of from five 
to six miles. A very large portion is included 
in the hilly region of Lammermoor, and the 
productive, as well as mainly habitable, part 
of the parish lies in the vale of Leader water, 
a stream intersecting it, and from which this 
division of the country, as well as the parish and 
town, appear to have taken their names. The 
fields in this quarter are now greatly improved, 
and plantations ornament the ground. The 
parish of Channelkirk lies on the north-west, 
higher up the vale of the Leader. The next 
parish below is Legerwood. A small tract 
of ground belongs to Lauder parish, on the 
opposite side of the Leader from Legerwood. 

Lauder, a royal burgh, the capital of 
the above parish, the seat of a presbytery, and 
the chief town in this quarter of Berwickshire, 
is situated in the above mentioned vale of the 
Leader, at the distance of twenty-five miles from 
Edinburgh, thirty-two from Berwick, eighteen 
from Dunse, seventeen from Kelso, twelve 
from Greenlaw, twenty-one from Coldstream, 
twenty-one from Jedburgh, and seven miles above 
Earlstoun. It stands on the main road from Edin- 
burgh to Kelso, and consists of little else than a 
line of houses on each side of the thoroughfare. 
The street widens sufficiently about the centre 
to admit an additional line of houses, at the west 
end of which is the town-house. The build- 
ings of the town are plain and of an irregular 
appearance, and the place is one of the dullest 
in the county. The church stands near the 
street, to the south of the town-house. It 
was built in 1673, when the Duke of Lauder- 
dale removed the former church from the 
neighbourhood of his house. The building, 
though in the venerable form of a cross, is not 
remarkable for elegance. A market-cross 
formerly stood in front of the town-house ; but 
the spot is now only marked, as in the similar 
case of Edinburgh, by a radiated pavement. 
As a royal burgh, and of a very ancient date, 
Lauder is governed by two bailies and fifteen 
councillors. The qualification of a burgess of 
Lauder is very peculiar. There is attached to 
the town a quantity of land divided into up- 
wards of a hundred portions called burgh acres, 
though varying in size, and generally above a 
Scottish acre. The possession of one of these 
acres constitutes the claim to be admitted a 
burgess. The burgh common consists of a 
considerable quantity of outfield land, includ- 



ing some neighbouring hills ; this is divided 
into shares, which are apportioned by lot among 
the burgesses, for each rotation of crops, a pos- 
sessor of the infield acres receiving a pro- 
portionate extent of the common. It joins 
with Haddington, Dunbar, North-Berwick 
and Jedburgh, in sending a member to parlia- 
ment. The town is entitled to hold five an- 
nual fairs. Besides the parish church, there 
is a United Secession meeting-house. The 
most conspicuous object in and about Lauder 
is Thirlstane castle, a stupendous and spa- 
cious house, surrounded by a park and some 
fine trees, and the seat of the family of 
Lauderdale. It stands between the Leader 
and the town, on a fine lawn. The nu- 
cleus of this edifice was a strong tower called 
Lauder Fort, originally built by Edward I., 
as a check to the Scots in this quarter. The 
Duke of Lauderdale, (whose family had for- 
merly resided in a little tower called Thirl- 
stane, about two miles to the eastward,) ir. 
1672 added a new front and wings, removed 
the church and church-yard from the space they 
had formerly occupied directly between the 
castle and the town, and changing the name 
made it his family residence. The church 
then removed was that in which took place 
the celebrated conference of the Scottish no- 
bles, that ended in the murder of king James 
the Third's favourites. Cochrane, the chief, 
was seized at the church door, and hanged 
over a neighbouring bridge, by a rope which 
his assassins found, during a search for such 
an article, in one of the cellars of the Fort. 
The said bridge, though still " flourishing in 
immortal youth" in the ordinary books for 
the road, has not existed for a century ; 
the foundations alone are to be seen about 
two hundred yards below the Castle, and the 
river is now crossed by a modern erection, a 
good way farther down. Thirlstane Castle is 
fitted up and decorated in the best taste of the 
reign of Charles II. with massive balustrades 
and cornices, and a profusion of marble chim- 
ney-pieces and flowers. It contains a vast 
quantity of family portraits, including" the poe • 
tical knight of Mary's time, his son, usually 
denominated in history Secretary Maitland, 
and the Duke himself, of whom there are no 
fewer than five paintings — Population of 
Lauder in 1821, 1000 ; including the parish, 
1845. 

LAUDERDALE, a district in Berwick. 



700 



LAURENCEKIRK. 



shire, (see Berwickshire,) the capital of 
which is the ahove town of Lauder. It gives 
the title of Earl to the family of Maitland, en- 
nobled in the reign of James VI. 

LAURANCE, (ST.)— See Slamanan. 

LAURENCEKIRK,or LAWRENCE- 
KIRK, a parish in Kincardineshire, former- 
ly, and still in some cases, called Conveth j 
bounded on the north by Fordoun, on the east 
by Garvock, on the south by the same and 
by Marykirk, which latter also bounds it on 
the west. In figure it is triangular, with the 
apex to the south. Its greatest length is 
rather above four miles, and its greatest breadth 
about three. The area of the parish measures 
4381 square acres. The district consists of 
one large ridge, extending longitudinally from 
east to west, and sloping gently to its northern 
and southern extremities. The small river Leu- 
ther, which rises in the Grampian hills, and falls 
into the North Esk, passes through it. Nine 
brooks likewise intersect the parish, seven upon 
the southern and two upon the northern side of 
the Leuther. This part of Kincardineshire 
is now a good deal improved in its agriculture, 
and there are some plantations. 

Laurencekirk, a village in Kincar- 
dineshire, and the capital of the above pa- 
rish, situated on the road from Perth to Aber- 
deen, at the distance of ninety-three miles from 
Edinburgh, ten from Montrose, five from 
Marykirk, and thirteen from Stonehaven. It 
takes its name from the old parish church, 
which was dedicated to St. Laurence. This 
village was formerly a mere hamlet, surround- 
ed by a moorish and uncultivated tract of 
country. In the year 1772, it was taken un- 
der the care of Lord Gardenstone, a judge of 
the Court of Session, known, but scarcely so 
well as he should be, for his successful culti- 
vation of the belles lettres, and distinguished, 
in his own day, by his eccentric manners, and 
speculative turn of mind. His lordship hay- 
ing formed the resolution of creating a town 
here, laid out a plan for buildings, and soon 
succeeded in attracting settlers. In 1 779, he 
procured for the place the privileges of a burgh 
of barony, empowering the inhabitants, every 
three years, to choose a bailie and four coun- 
cillors, to regulate the police, &c, with the 
privilege of holding weekly markets, and an 
annual fair. Before he died, he had the satis- 
faction of seeing Laurencekirk a thriving little 
town, and the people enjoying many comforts 



which are frequently denied to older settlements. 
A good inn was established by the public-spirit- 
ed proprietor, who attached to it a select library 
for the amusement of travellers. He also en- 
couraged and contributed liberally to the esta- 
blishment of a linen manufacture and bleach- 
field, which are now in a thriving state. In 
modern times, the village has become noted 
for its manufacture of snuff-boxes, which are 
made of wood, in a style similar to those of 
Cumnock in Ayrshire. Besides the esta- 
blished church there is a large and neat Epis- 
copal chapel, and a congregation belonging to the 
United Associate Synod. The parochial school 
is in the village. The parish of Laurencekirk 
had for its schoolmaster, at the beginning of 
the last century, the illustrious Ruddiman, who 
might have there wasted his fine talents and 
profound learning in hopeless obscurity, but for 
a singularly fortuitous circumstance : The ce- 
lebrated Dr. Pitcaim, being once benighted 
at the little inn of this country village, found it 
very difficult to while away the hours which 
preceded bed-time ; his hotel not being, like 
the present, furnished with a library. As a last 
resource, he sent for the schoolmaster ; and 
the youthful Ruddiman was soon ushered in- 
to his presence. A conversation ensued, in 
the course of which, to his infinite surprise, 
he discovered the modest young man to be a 
most excellent scholar; a qualification of 
which no man in Scotland was better able to 
judge. Before the conversation was con- 
cluded, he promised to become his patron ; 
and soon after procured an appointment at 
Edinburgh : by which his valuable talents 
were secured for the use of a more extended 
circle than the parish-school of Laurencekirk 
afforded. Laurencekirk had the merit of giv- 
ing birth to Dr. Beattie, who was first brought 
into notice by the influence of Lord Garden- 
stone, while acting as schoolmaster of the ad- 
jacent parish of Fordoun. — Population in 1821, 
1515. 

LAURISTOUN, or LAWRISTOUN, 
a large village in the parish of Falkirk, Stirling- 
shire, about one mile east from that town, con- 
taining about nine hundred inhabitants, who 
are chiefly employed in weaving and agricul- 
tural labours. It was originally called Lang- 
toun — then Merchiston, — and is now named 
Lauristoun, in honour of the late Sir Law- 
rence Dundas, who added considerably to it. 

LAVERN, a small river in Renfrewshire, 



LEADHILLS. 



701 



vyhich rises in the parish of Neilston, and af- 
ter a north-easterly course of six or seven 
miles, falls into the White Cart, a short way 
above Crookston Castle. It is of considerable 
use in turning the mills of a variety of cot- 
ton factories. On its banks are also bleach- 
fields and printfields. 

LAX AY, an islet on the south-east coast 
of Lewis. 

LAXFORD, a river in Sutherlandshire, 
originating in Loch Stalk, parish of Eddera- 
chylis, and pursuing a westerly course, falls 
into the bay or indentation of the sea called 
Loch Laxtord. This salt water lake pene- 
trates four miles into the country in an irre- 
gular manner. It is celebrated for its sal- 
mon, as its Norwegian name would indicate ; 
and where the river first joins the sea the 
scenery is not unpleasing. The bay offers 
good anchorage. 

LE ADER, or LAUDER, a small river in 
the western part of Berwickshire, rising in the 
Lammermoor hills, and pursuing a southerly 
course through the vale, to which it conveys the 
appellation of Lauderdale, falls into the Tweed 
at Drygrange bridge, a short way above the 
abbey and grounds of Dryburgb. It passes 
i he town of Lauder, which stands on its right 
bank, and some miles farther down the plea- 
sant village of Earlstoun and the heights of 
Cowdenknows, situated on its left bank. It 
offers a considerable source of amusement to 
the angler, being one of the trouting waters of 
the south, and its haughs (" Leader Laughs 
and Yarrow" being the theme of Scottish song,) 
will possess unseen cbarms to the poetic fancy. 

LEADHILLS, a village in the parish of 
Crawford, LanarksLire, at tLe distance of 
forty-six miles soutL-west of Edinburgb, forty- 
four soutL of Glasgow, fifteen and a quarter 
soutL of Douglas Mill, and sixteen nortL of 
TLornLill. It stands in an alpine region, thirteen 
hundred feet above the level of the sea, amidst 
a wilderness of dismal heathy mountains. It de- 
rives its name from being the residence of work- 
men employed in the valuable lead- mines in this 
quarter of the country, " The rich mineral 
treasures which the hills contain in their 
bosom," says a contemporary, " have, by the 
concourse of miners, formed two considerable 
villages, Leadhills, and WanlockLead, in a 
situation not likely to become the seat of any 
numerous population. Gold has been found 
in the sand of these mountains at an early pe- 



riod ; and Sir Bevis Bulmer was here for 
several summers collecting it, by order of 
queen Elizabeth, with the consent of James 
VI. He had a house at Wanlockhead, where 
he deposited tLe fruits of Lis labour. It is 
believed tbat lead was found Lere in tLe time 
of tLe Romans. However, it is certain tLat 
one Martin Templeton discovered a vein in 
tLe bed of tLe rivulet in 1517. TLe lead ore 
dug from tLese mines affords a very libera, 
proportion of silver. TLe business is car- 
ried on by a company named tLe Scots Mining 
Company, who farm tLe hills from the Earl 
of Hopetoun the proprietor. He receives 
from the company every sixth bar of lead as 
his rent. The number of bars annually cast 
amounts on an average to about 18,000. The 
largest piece of blue ore ever found in these 
mines is now at Hopetoun House, and 
weighs between four and five tons. In 1809, 
the produce of these mines was 25,'J00 bars, 
at nine stone avoirdupois the bar, makes 14174 
tons, which at L.32 per ton, the then price, 
amounts to L.45,360. It has a fair in June, 
and anotLer in October, and a cbapel and 
scLool." TLe inLabitants, tbougL cLiefly 
employed in tLe severe labour of mining, are 
an enligbtened set of people, Laving a pretty 
extensive subscription library, and exbibit- 
ing a zeal in tLe acquisition of useful know- 
ledge perfectly astonisLing. It was Lere tLat 
Allan Ramsay, a poet of great merit, but 
wLose reputation Las quailed before tbat of 
Burns, as Lindsay's Lad formerly been extin- 
guisLed by Lis, first saw tLe light and spent 
his earlier years. The ruins of the house in 
which he was born were lately to be seen at 
tbe corner of a field, near tLe Louse occupied 
by tbe superintendent of tLe lead-mines. — 
TLe population of LeadLills in 1821 was 
about 1050. 

LECROPT, a parisb in tLe counties of 
PertL and Stirling, lying on tLe left bank of 
tLe TeitL at its junction witL tLe Allan. It 
is tLus peninsular in form ; from east to west 
it extends about tbree miles, and nearly about 
as mucb from nortL to soutL. It is bounded 
by Kilmadock on tLe west, and Dumblane on 
tLe nortL. TLe parisL of Kincardine lies oppo- 
site to it on tLe TeitL. AltogetLer it con- 
tains two tLousand acres, one Lalf of wLicL is 
a ricL clay, and tLe otLer Lalf upland, or 
wLat is generally called dryfield. TLe word 
Lecropt is significant of these local charac- 



702 



L E I T II. 



teristics. The country is here exceedingly 
beautiful, well improved, and planted. At 
the bridge over the Allan connecting the pa- 
rish of Logic with Lecropt, stands the pretty 
little village called " Bridge of Allan," which is 
noticed under its own head. — Population in 
1821, 513. 

LEDNOCK, a small river in Perthshire, 
parish of Comrie, which falls into the Earn 
at Comrie, and gives the name of Glenlednock 
to the vale through which it flows. 

LEET, a small river in Berwickshire, 
falling into the Tweed at the west end of 
the town of Coldstream. In the parish of 
Eccles, on this rivulet, stands the small village 
of Leet-holm. 

LEGERWOOD, a parish in Berwick- 
shire, lying on the east bank of the Leader, 
betwixt Lauder on the north, and Earlstoun on 
the south. It measures about three miles in 
length by two and a half in breadth. The 
surface is hilly, and partly pastoral and part- 
ly arable. The country is rather bare and 
not very interesting. The village of Leger- 
wood stands on a cross road off the thorough- 
fare through Lauderdale Population in 1821, 

476. 

LEITH,* a large and populous town and 
sea-port, in the county of Edinburgh, occupy- 
ing a low situation on the shore of the Firth 
of Forth, at the distance of about a mile and 
a half north-east from the cross of Edinburgh. 
Originally, and for many ages, Leith remained 
a distinct town, but in recent times, such has 
been the extension of buildings and the great 
intercourse between it and the metropolis, 
that both unite in forming a great city. Never- 
theless, though thus physically joined with 
Edinburgh, and though there is a great mutual 
dependence on each other, Leith is still so 
much a town having its own institutions, its 
own manners and usages, and its own inde- 
pendent feelings, that though it might have 
been as well to have described the place in 
connexion with Edinburgh, these circum- 
stances, together with the nature of the present 
work, required it to have a distinct place for 
itself. 

The primitive name of the place was Inver- 



* Besides the authorities consulted in the composi- 
tion of the article Edinburgh, we have had recourse 
to the recent " History of Leith, by Alexander Camp- 
bell," a compendious work full of instructive and amus- 
ing particulars. 



leith, from its situation on the mouth of the 
Leith, but in the course of time, the present 
mutilated designation prevailed. The proxi- 
mity of this ancient sea-port to Edinburgh 
has been at once its misfortune and its source 
of prosperity. Its history opens in the four- 
teenth century, with the fact, that while yet 
a mere village on the estuary of the river, it 
excited the cupidity of the magistrates of the 
adjacent and powerful city; and we trace 
through the accounts of the impartial histo- 
rians of both places, an unvarying tale de- 
scriptive of the persevering efforts of the town- 
council to secure its revenues and cramp its 
independence. Yet, with this drawback on 
its freedom and opulence, it may be admitted, 
that being the only port of the metropolis, 
it owes to it much of its consequence as a 
town. 

Nothing is certainly known of the history 
of Leith until the year 1329, at which time it 
was a dependency of the family of Logan of 
Restalrig, and had obtained sufficient import- 
ance and prosperity to excite the fears and 
tempt the avarice of the citizens of Edin- 
burgh, who in that year applied for and ob- 
tained, from Robert I. a grant of " the har- 
bour and mills of Leith, with their apurte- 
nances, for payment of fifty-two merks yearly." 
With this privilege the town-council were not 
content, and, taking at the same time the 
ground adjacent to the harbour, the baronial 
superior contested the claims of that body, 
and obliged it to buy the waste ground extend- 
ing from the houses to the river, with liberty 
to erect wharves and quays thereon for loading 
goods, and the council farther stipulated, that 
allowances should be given to make ways or 
roads through the lands of Restalrig, for the 
more easy transporting of goods to and from 
the port of Leith, and a liberty to erect grana- 
ries for the reception of corn. The road form- 
ed in virtue of the purchase still exists, under 
the name of the Easter Road, and leads from 
the head of Leith Links to the foot of the 
Canongate. 

Logan, the superior of Leith, who negotiated 
this transaction, appears to have been as heart- 
less and greedy as the magistrates of the city 
were rapacious. He ultimately granted a bond 
to the town-council, for a large consideration, 
by which the inhabitants of Leith were not on- 
ly restrained from carrying on any sort of trade, 
but debarred from keeping shops, warehouses, 



L E I T H. 



703 



or inns, or houses of entertainment for stran- 
gers. Not satisfied with this measure, the 
town-council, with an illiberal policy, for which 
it is difficult to account on rational grounds, 
further ordained, in the year 1485, that no 
merchant of Edinburgh should presume to take 
into partnership an inhabitant of Leith, under 
a penalty of forty shillings, and a deprivation of 
the freedom of the city for one year. Other 
acts of a similar tendency followed. The 
council ordained that none of the revenues of 
the city should be farmed to an individual be- 
longing to Leith, nor that any of the farmers 
should take one of them as a partner in such 
contracts. It was also enacted that no staple 
goods should be deposited in warehouses in 
Leith, or be disposed of in that place, under a 
severe penalty. In these acts of the town-council 
of Edinburgh, we have very luminous instances 
of the vile embargoes on free trade in towns, 
and on the industry of the people, so common in 
Scotland in former times, and even now far from 
being removed, wherever close corporations 
have a predominating influence. It does not 
appear, however, that those enactments had 
a permanent effect in depressing Leith. It 
gradually rose in spite of opposition, and from 
an act of parliament relating to dues payable by 
foreigners, it is certain that it even had inns 
for the reception of such persons. 

In the reign of James IV., that monarch 
erected a sea-port town about a mile further 
west, which he styled Newhaven, and endowed 
with «ertain burgal privileges ; but the town- 
council entertaining similar fears about the rising 
consequence of this port, in 1511, purchased of 
the king the town and harbour, with all their 
rights and privileges, which are still retained by 
the metropolis. Coeval with the erection of 
this suburb, James built a chapel, which he de- 
dicated to St. Mary, and from this religious 
fabric the little haven was sometimes called 
" Our Lady's Port of Grace." 

According to Pitscottie, the year 1511 was 
rendered famous by the construction of " ane 
varie monstrous great schip, called the Michael," 
in Leith or Newhaven, which vessel we are 
told required so much timber in building, " that 
she waisted all the woodis in Fyfe, except 
Falkland wood, besides the timber that came 
out of Norway." The captain of this huge 
vessel, which appears to have been a favourite 
work of the king, was Andro Wood, a seaman 



who is eminent in the Scottish annals for his 
intrepidity, and for his services to the state. 

The first great calamity which befel the 
town after it began to rise into a state of 
prosperity, was its seizure and burning by the 
Earl of Hertford in 1544. Landing at Roy- 
ston, he marched eastward to Leith with ten 
thousand men, and meeting with little opposi- 
tion, he arrived in the town in the middle of 
a day in April, just while the inhabitants were 
sitting down to dinner, which was abandoned to 
the English soldiers. After seizing the ves- 
sels in the harbour, and leaving 1500 men in 
the town, the Earl proceeded to lay waste the 
country, and to burn the metropolis, an outrage 
he was ordered above all things to commit. 
Having accomplished the purposes of the war, 
he returned with his victorious troops, and on 
leaving the port committed it to the flames. 

Three years afterwards, Leith was again 
visited by the same general, then Duke of So- 
merset, and was again injured by fire, though 
not to the same extent. The English fleet, 
on this occasion, found thirty-five vessels in 
the harbour. After the year 1547, we find 
Leith involved, less or more, in almost every 
transaction of importance which occurred in 
the kingdom during the regency of Mary 
of Lorraine, who fortified the town, and gar- 
risoned it with a body of French troops, in 
order to resist the progress of the Refor- 
mation. The walls formed on this occa- 
sion defied all the attempts of the Protestant 
forces. The rampart was of an octagonal 
form, with eight bastions, at so many angles. 
The line it pursued seems to have been on the 
site of the present Bernard Street and Consti- 
tution Street, from nearly the west end of which 
it proceeded in a northerly direction to the 
river. Here the wall was connected with its 
continuation on the west side of the stream by 
a wooden bridge, which stood exactly 115 yards 
below the new stone bridge at the saw mills. 
From the river it proceeded to the citadel, and 
then taking an easterly direction, it terminated 
at the sand-port. The bastions were of great 
strength, and the wall was wholly of stone. It 
had several ports, the chief of which was one 
called the Block-house, and it was here the 
greatest carnage took place at the general as 
sault made by the besiegers in 1560. No ves- 
tige of these defences now exists, and it is on- 
ly when making excavations that traces of the 



704 



L E I T II. 



ancient military character of the town is dis- 
coverable. Recently, in digging the founda- 
tion of a building at the head of the Links, a 
closed-up well was laid open, which, on being 
cleared out, was found to contain several cart- 
loads of horses' heads, a striking, though certain- 
ly a singular testimony of the slaughter which 
had been committed in the adjacent field of 
battle. On the Links, not far from this spot, 
is still a mound of earth, now almost the only 
remaining part of the works thrown up by the 
besiegers of Leith to protect their advance to 
the ramparts. 

Some time before these commotions, the 
Queen Regent had endeavoured to propitiate 
and to secure the inhabitants of Leith to her 
own and her daughter's interest, by granting 
them a contract, dated at Holyrood, 1555, to 
erect the town into a burgh of barony, to con- 
tinue in force until she erected it into a royal 
burgh, preparatory to which she purchased, 
with money advanced to her by the people of 
Leith for that purpose, the superiority of the 
town, and of the Links, for the use of the in- 
habitants, from Logan of Restalrig. The 
Queen Dowager, however, failed in her en- 
gagements, and it is generally alleged that the 
city of Edinburgh offered her 20,000 merks to 
prevent the erection of the town into a royal 
burgh. According to Knox, Mary of Lorraine 
was a woman who " could make her profit at 
all hands," and it is certain that in this case she 
duped the town out of a considerable sum. 

After the reins of government had been 
placed in the hands of Mary Queen of Scots, 
the inhabitants of Leith had reason to expect 
some indulgence from that princess, but all 
their hopes were finally frustrated in the year 
1565, when, among other shifts to recruit her 
exhausted finances, she mortgaged the superi- 
ority of Leith to Edinburgh, redeemable for 
1000 merks, with the reversion in favour of 
Bothwell. Mary, like-most of the other mem- 
bers of the house of Stewart in similar casej, 
was compelled by exigent necessity to do this 
act of injustice against her inclinations, as is 
testified by a letter which she wrote to the 
town-council in 1566, requesting that body to 
delay the assumption of superiority. The 
short indulgence she craved, as might have been 
expected, was refused after some shifting, and 
on the 2d of July, 1567, the citizens of Edin- 
burgh marched in military array to Leith, which 
they went through the form of taking by a sort 



of capture, and thus the independence of the 
town was lost. 

After this humiliating event, the town-coun- 
cil and incorporations of Edinburgh enacted 
many severe laws applicable to the public and 
private trade of Leith. The inhabitants made 
an attempt, in 1607, to procure the good- will of 
James VI. to assist in emancipating them from 
bondage, but without effect, as, by a private 
arrangement with the king, the town-council 
secured their supremacy on a broader basis 
than ever. 

When the matter of the Solemn League and 
Covenant was entered into with England, in no 
place was it treated with more reverence, or its 
ratification more solemnly conducted than in 
Leith, where it was signed by the inhabitants 
in the month of October 1643. Four years 
later, the town was visited by that ancient 
scourge of Scotland, the plague, the horrors of 
which were aggravated by a dreadful famine. 
At this period the population of the town and 
its neighbourhood amounted to between four 
and five thousand individuals, out of which 
number fully a half were destroyed in the short 
space of six or eight months. The church- 
yards were insufficient to receive the bodies 
of those who died, and the adjacent links and 
grounds were made their place of sepulture. 
Till this day, in trenching the neighbouring 
fields and gardens, the half-decayed bones of 
the unhappy victims of this dreadful malady 
are occasionally found, wrapped in the blankets 
in which they died. Such were the ravages 
committed by the plague and the famine, that, 
in a representation to parliament for relief, 
the number of the dead were said to exceed 
the number of the living; and so impressed 
were the Estates with the miserable condition 
of the starving inhabitants, that they gave the 
magistrates the right of seizing grain in ware- 
houses and cellars for the use of the people, 
leaving them to make future payment by sub- 
sequent appeals to the generosity of the inha- 
bitants of the country. 

The next memorable period in the annals 
of Leith is the year 1650, when Cromwell, 
having defeated the Scottish forces at Dunbar, 
proceeded to Edinburgh, while Lambert, his 
major-general, took possession of Leith. The 
only way in which the port suffered by this 
event, was by an assessment of about the sum 
of L.22 Sterling, which was considered a griev- 
ous exaction, especially so soon after the cala- 



L E I T H. 



7o; 



inities of the plague and famine. On the ap- 
pointment of General Monk to be commander- 
in-chief, he came to reside in Leith, where a 
strong and regular garrison was established. 
The citadel of Leith, which was improved and 
mostly constructed by Cromwell's army, was 
situated on the north side of the estuary of 
Leith, and was of a pentagonal form, consist- 
ing of a wall with five bastions at so many 
angles, with one principal gate fronting the east. 
In its internal structure it had some strong 
works rising above each other, with well-built 
houses for the governor, officers, and soldiers, 
and for magazines and stores. It was also 
provided with a chapel, having a spacious court- 
yard in front. The whole of these defences 
are now gone, and the only portions of the ci- 
tadel now left are a Saxon archway, over which 
a modern house has been erected, and about 
twenty yards of the wall extending eastward 
from thence. 

While resident at Leith, General Monk in- 
duced a number of English families to settle 
in the town, and the most of those who ar- 
rived are reputed to have been of consider- 
able wealth. They engrafted a spirit of mer- 
cantile adventure on the port, and established 
certain branches of manufacture which are yet 
among the staple trades of the town. It is re- 
corded that those and other trades felt the re- 
strictive exactions of the town-council to be 
of a cramping and annoying nature, and made 
frequent appeals to the republican government 
to have themselves released from their appli- 
cation, but for various reasons their petitions 
met with little attention. Even with such 
burdens, Leith gradually grew in prosperity 
and opulence, and in spite of innumerable vex- 
ations, in time arose to that degree of size 
and opulence in which we now find it. 

The succeeding historical events with which 
the town of Leith is connected, the chief of 
which was the landing of his Majesty George 
IV. in 1822, being already noticed in the his- 
tory of Edinburgh, do not here require recapi- 
tulation. 

For a very long period Leith was famed for 
its horse races. These were held during the 
recess of the tide upon a flat expanse of sand 
in front of the town ; and although a course 
of this nature was much inferior to that on the 
regular turf, yet these races were persevered 
in with a spirit and satisfaction rarely witness- 
ed in other places. Leith races were as an- 



cient as the period of the Restoration, when 
out of door amusements came much into fa- 
shion ; and for fifty years after that event, 
this pastime seems to have divided the at- 
tention of the boisterous young men of the 
country with cock-fighting, #nd still more bru- 
tal games. From the Restoration till the year 
1816, these races appear to have been conti- 
nued annually with very little intermission. 
They generally occurred in the last week of 
July, or the first week in August, and lasted for 
four orfive days. The race- week was then reck- 
oned the carnival of the metropolis, which was 
crowded with persons of fashion from all parts 
of the country, who came to enjoy the sports 
of the race-ground, as well as the balls and as- 
semblies which took place in Edinburgh in the 
evenings. During the whole week, but princi- 
pally on Saturday, the sands were the scene of 
the most boisterous revels, and of not a few skir- 
mishes and battles betwixt the town-guard and 
the lower classes from the city. The outer edge 
of the shore was lined with booths or taverns, 
and places of theatrical amusements, and the 
pier served on the occasion as a most excellent 
stand for the spectators. Latterly it was felt 
by those concerned in supporting the Edin- 
burgh races held here, that the soft wet sands 
were too heavy for the generality of mettled 
racers, and in consequence they were removed 
to the links of Musselburgh in 1816, much to 
the dissatisfaction of the town, and we need 
hardly say, of the juvenile part of the popu- 
lation of Edinburgh. 

Leith is ecclesiastically and popularly divid- 
ed into the parishes and districts of North and 
South Leith, the former lying on the west 
side of the river, and the latter on the east. 
The greater part of the town and extent of 
territory, however, lie on the east, or South- 
Leith side. The parish of North-Leith ori- 
ginally belonged to the parish of Holyrood, 
from which it was disjoined in 1606, and in 
1630 it received an accession of the baronies of 
Newhaven and Hillhousefield, formerly belong- 
ing to the parish of St. Cuthberts. It extends 
more than a mile westwards along the shore 
from the mouth of the Leith water, and is 
about a quarter of a mile in breadth. The pa- 
rish of South-Leith is of a triangular figure, the 
base of which extends eastwards along the 
shore from the mouth of the river to the Figgat- 
burn, at Portobello, from whence the line of 
boundary is chiefly the public road to Edin- 
4x 



706 



L E I T H. 



burgh, enclosing the Calton hill, and turning 
northward down Leith Walk, and near the 
foot of that thoroughfare bending westwards to 
the river. In this district is comprehended the 
abrogated parish of Restalrig. 

The situation of the town of Leith is not that 
which ought a 'priori to have been chosen for 
the site of a sea-port. It lies at the head of a 
flat sandy shore, which is left dry for a mile in 
breadth at low water, and consequently is unfitted 
for an active maritime trade. The river Leith 
runs through the harbour, but in most seasons 
this is a small stream with little current near 
its mouth, and it has scarcely the power of 
keeping the entrance to the port clear of mud. 
The most ancient part of the town reaches 
from the shore along the east bank of the 
stream for about half a mile, the houses stand- 
ing so far back as to leave a continuous quay 
for the convenience of vessels and the em- 
barkation or delivery of goods, as well as 
the purposes of a street. From this quay the 
town diverges in narrow streets and alleys to 
the eastward, and the houses in this quarter 
are mostly of a heavy dingy appearance. The 
chief old thoroughfare thus leading off the quay 
is the Tolbooth Wynd, a most incommodious 
passage, which joins the foot of the Kirkgate. 
This street is also of narrow dimensions, 
though having many modern houses, and leads 
in a southerly direction to the foot of Leith 
Walk. The road by these communications 
with Edinburgh is now much disused in fa- 
vour of a handsome cross street, called Ber- 
nard Street, which leaving the quay nearer 
the sea, leads to the foot of a spacious street 
named Constitution Street, which goes south- 
wards along the back of the town till it also 
joins the foot of the Walk. Beyond Constitu- 
tion Street are many good modern but small 
streets and places, and fronting the open downs 
or links, there are rows of handsome new edi- 
fices, the residences of the more opulent classes. 
The links, which come so frequently into no- 
tice, are formed by an extensive grassy plain 
of nearly a mile in length, which is used for 
the bleaching of clothes, or as the play-ground 
of a company of golfers. On its outer side it 
is skirted by some fine fields and pleasure- 
grounds rising on the sloping ridge which in- 
tervenes betwixt the town and the ancient vil- 
lage of Restalrig 

The great modern road, or rather street, be- 
twixt the town of Leith and Edinburgh, styled 
30. 



Leith Walk, formerly noticed, has made the 
communication safe and easy, in a very gentle 
ascent to the metropolis. From the bottom of 
the walk a road has recently been opened lead- 
ing westwards to the river, which being here 
crossed by a handsome new stone bridge, di- 
rect access is gained from this district to North 
Leith. The changes made in North-Leith 
within the last twenty years, and more particu- 
larly since the conclusion of the late war, have 
been very great. The citadel and many of the 
low dwellings in its vicinity having been remov- 
ed, some elegant new streets have been erected, 
which stretch considerably to the south and 
west. On the west side of the harbour there 
is little or no quay, this part being mostly oc- 
cupied by ship-building yards, graving docks, 
or rows of houses generally of an old decayed 
character. 

On all that is connected with the maritime 
traffic of the port there have been vast altera-