(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Gazetteer of the State of New York: embracing a comprehensive view of the geography, geology, and general history of the State, and a complete history and description of every county, city, town, village, and locality. With full tables of statistics"

NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES 



3 3433 06249635 5 









■13JBK5K: 







\ 



Fr 




z 






1-' >■ 






_J 






1 ^ 






1 o 




=1 


o 






cr 






m 








*s 


a 


o 


^ 



:: 


z 


-v. 




< 




N 


*: 




- 


QC 






O 






> 






£ 






Ul 






2 







•^ AND ^%, 








OF 




YtMRK 




^'ii s^aliiia 












GAZETTEER 






OF THE 



STATE OF NEW YORK: 



EMBRACINQ 



A COMPREHENSIVE VIEW 



OF THE 



GEOGRAPHY, GEOLOGY, AND GENERAL HISTORY OF THE STATE, 



AND 



A COMPLETE HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION 



OF 



(Bvm^ fitottttti}, <£% ®mt% WilUp, mid §tat% 



WITH FULL TABLES OF STATISTICS. 



; 






BY 

J. H. FRENCH, 



MEMBER OP THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; CORRESPONDING MEMBER OP THE NEW YORK 

HISTORICAL SOCIETY, OF THE ALBANY INSTITUTE, ETC. 



Illustrated by Original Steel Engravings, 

AND ACCOMPANIED BY A NEW MAP OP THE STATE FROM ACCURATE SURVEYS. 



SYRACUSE, N. T.: 
PUBLISHED BY R. PEARSALL SMITH. . 

1860. ' •"; .' "' 






THE r 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

465638 A 

ASTOR, LENOX A- 
T1LDEN FOUND AT 

1930 L 



R 



i 



LIST OF PERSONS EMOTIED UM'THECONSTRUCTION OF THE STATE MAP 
AND THE PREPARATION OF THE GAZETTEER. 



This list includes the names of those only who have been employed for considerable lengths of time. 

GENEKAL SUPERINTENDENT. 

J. H. French. 

foreman of drafting department. 
Francis Mahler. 

foremen of statistical department. 
Franklin B. Hough, M.D., James Johonnot. 



DRAFTSMEN. 



G. R. Bechler, 
S. Beeman, 
Silas N. Beers, 
H. P. Benton, 
Lorin Blodget, 
P. J. Browne, 
L. H. Cheney, 
Gcrdon Evans, 
Lawrence Fagan, 
Frank Frbnch, 
Cyrus Gates, 
John F. Geil, 
Samuel Geil, 
Franklin Gifford, 
Wm. T. Gibson, 



George Worley, 
Wm. Bracher, 

J. Sartain, 



Francis Mahler, 
Frank French, 



Wm. E. Wood, 
B. W. O'Grady. 



George N. Barnard, 



surveyors and statisticians. 
Jay Gould, 
H. W. Hardy, 
Franklin B. Hough, 
Chester Hull, 
Wm. Jay Hunt, 
J. W. Hurlbut, 
James Johonnot, 
Geo. P. Johonnot, 
D. J. Lake, 
A. D. Lampklns, 
Morris Levy, 
A. Ligowsky, 
Wm. Lorey, 
Horace C. Manning, 
David E. E. Mis, 

ENGRAVERS. 
On Stone. 

Gustavus R. Bechler, 
Benj. Matthias, 

On SteeL 

J. W. Steele, 

On Wood. 
H. Sebald. 

ARTISTS. 

B. W. O'Grady, 



Ebexezer Mix, 
J. B. Moore, 
Samuel M. Rea, 
Thomas W. Rhodes, 
A. E. Rogerson, 
Alphonse Schoppe, 
J. C. Sidney, 
Stephen 0. Slosson, 
Homer D. L. Sweet, 
A. V. Trimble, 
A. Van Nostrand, 
R. B. Van Petten, 
Charles M. Wilbur, 
Wm. E. Wood. 
S. K. Godshalk. 



Charles Reen. 



D. L. Glover. 



Wm. T. Richards. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in tho year 1859, by 
R. PEARSAM, BMITH, 

in tho Ork'a Office of tlm District Conrt of the United States for tho Xorthora District of New York. 



6TZRE0TTPED DT L. JOHNBOJf * CO. 
COLLETS, PEINTEB. 



PREFACE. 



TnE map of Westchester County which was commenced about ten years since, and soon 
after published by Eobert Pearsall Smith, was probably the first map of any county in the 
State of New York published from actual survey of roads and boundaries. This was followed 
by maps of other counties on a similar plan ; and, about eight years since, Mr. Smith conceived 
the idea of publishing a series of maps from actual survey, embracing all the counties in the 
State, and, from these, of producing a State Map that should be more full, complete, and 
reliable than any ever before published. But, about four years since, upon careful trial, in 
reducing a large number of these county maps to a uniform scale, so many omissions and 
discrepancies were found in them, that a new survey of the State was deemed necessary to the 
construction of an accurate map of the State, An arrangement was accordingly made with 
the author to take the general superintendence of the new survey ; the general plan for the 
works to be prepared was fixed upon ; and the re-survey of the State and the collection of 
statistics were begun. 

At the commencement of the re-survey, maps of fifty-one counties had been completed 
and published ; six counties had been surveyed, but the maps were not yet published ; and 
three counties were still unsurveyed. Of the fifty-one published maps, twelve were found to 
be so deficient in matters essential to the completion of the State Map according to the plan 
fixed upon, as to render entire new surveys of these counties necessary. Surveyors were 
sent into the remaining counties, with copies of the published or manuscript maps in hand, 
with instructions to visit eveiy town, to correct every error that should be found upon the 
maps, to make additions of new roads, note changes in boundaries, and, in short, to return 
the maps properly revised and corrected for use in the preparation of the State Map. In 
many instances new surveys of parts of towns, town lines, roads, and streams were found 
necessary, and also countless changes in the location of boundary lines, roads, streams and 
bodies of water, and in the representation of the topographical features of the country. The 
surveyors were instructed to obtain copies of manuscript and other local maps, as far as 
practicable, as these were generally found to contain metes and bounds, and, being plotted to 
large scales, were of value in laying down boundary lines. Draftsmen were also sent to the 
several private Land Offices in the State, and to Albany, and all maps of any value in the offices 
of the State Engineer and Surveyor and the Secretary of State were copied, to be laid under 
contribution in the preparation of the State Map. The Superintendent of the United States 
Coast Survey and the Secretary of the Interior also furnished copies of all the maps in their 
Departments pertaining to the State. The number and variety of maps and plots, printed and 
manuscript, that have thus been collected is very great, and probably embraces more valuable 
matter than any similar collection in the State. 

Not the least difficult part of the labor of constructing a map of a large extent of country 
is "making the projection." In surveys of small areas this difficulty does not occur, as the 
proportion of the curvature of the earth's surface to that part of its area contained in a rect- 
angle of thirty to fifty miles, is so small that, when reduced to the scale of even an inch to 
the mile, it is scarcely perceptible. But in projecting a map of territory of as great extent 
as the State of New York, the curvature of the surface from a plane is so great as to make 
the departure of the lines of latitude and longitude from right lines plainly visible upon a 
map even when plotted to a scale of less than one-fourth of an inch to a mile. 

The Flamstead Improved Projection, being the one best adapted to the correct representa- 
tion of a large extent of country, was adopted for the State Map. 

The maps of the State heretofore published embrace a large part of the New England 
States, Pennsylvania, and Canada. The space thus usually occupied is appropriated to plans 
of the cities, and to smaller maps illustrating particular features of the State. These marginal 
maps, it is believed, add to the value of the work. By placing a map of Long Island by itself, —  
at the same time showing its relative position to the rest of the State, by retaining a map of 
nearly one-third of the island in its proper place, — the map of the entire State is constructed 



4 PREFACE. 

on a scale about twenty per cent, (linear scale) larger than can be done on a sheet of the same 
size with all of Long Island projecting eastward of New York City. This increased scale will 
be found to fully compensate for the change of place of the eastern portion of Long Island. 
The map of the State is plotted to the scale of 350^55, which is f £f or a small fraction more 
than 4.7 miles to an inch ; and the city plans to the scale of 3^55, which is Jj-ff or a small 
fraction more than .78 of a mile to an inch. 

The longitude of several points in the eastern and western portions of the State having 
been accurately determined by the Coast Survey and the Department of the Interior, and 
the latitude of many points on the north and south borders and within the State from nume- 
rous and repeated observations, the projection of the parallels and meridians was first made 
with accurately constructed scales, using the most recent tables of latitude and longitude mea- 
surements as adopted by the Coast Survey and the U. S. Military Academy at West Point. 
The. boundaries of the State were next projected, after which the lines of the counties were 
located on the map. The town lines were next laid out ; and finally the roads, bodies of 
water, streams, topography, and all other details were filled in. This course could not fail to 
secure accuracy in all parts of the work ; and, while the map does not agree, in many points, 
with previous maps of the State, the author feels confident that it will bear the closest 
scrutiny and criticism. 

A prominent and distinctive feature of the State Map is the representation of all the roads, 
railroads, canals, and routes of travel, every mile of each of which has been run and every 
angle measured. 

The city plans are all drawn to the same scale, thus presenting, at a glance, the comparative 
extent of the built-up portions of each. Albany, Brooklyn, and Buffalo have so great an 
extent of unoccupied or farm lands that it was not practicable to show the entire corporate 
limits of either on the city plans ; but no built-up part of either city has been omitted. The 
plans of the other cities embrace their entire area. 

In the construction of the Geological and Land Patent Map, the geology of the State 
according to the New York System has been followed; but the different strata or formations 
are represented by a system of shading in the engraving, — instead of by color, as is usually 
done in geological maps. This plan was adopted, as it was desirable to present two distinct 
features in the one map ; and the engraved shading for the geology permits the use of colors 
for the land patents. The size of the map would not admit of the representation of tracts of 
land smaller than a township ; but a complete list of all the grants will be found in this work. 

In the year 1825 the Regents of the University established meteorological stations in various 
parts of the State, and reports were required to be made from these stations annually to the 
Board of Regents. At the expiration of twenty-five years the Regents caused these reports 
to be digested : and the mean averages of the summaries thus deduced — so far as relates to 
temperature, fall of rain, and direction of wind — are embraced in the Meteorological Map. 
On this map the several stations (including three established at military posts, and not subject 
to tlif direction of the Board of Regents) are at the centers of the small circles. In each of 
these circles are either two or three numbers: when two, the upper number is the mean 
annual temperature in degrees Fahrenheit, and the lower number is the mean annual fall of 
rain in inches; and when three, the upper and lower numbers indicate, respectively, tem- 
perature and rain, and the middle one the elevation of the station above tide, in feet. The 
diagram at the righl represents the mean annual direction of wind at the several stations, 
the index in any case denoting the point of compass, and its length the number of days, — 
one inch in length of radius representing five days. Thus, taking the index for Canandaigua, 
the direction i 1 ' W., and tli" Length of the radius is 3.4 inches. This indicates that 

the mean annual direction "f the wind at tins station was from the W. s. w. for 17 days in the 
year more than from nil othf-r directions. For the isothermal lines, or lines of equal tempe- 
rature, and tin' shading repre-' n'ing the different depths of rain, we are indebted to Lorin 
BLODfiF.t, author of American Climatology. 

The Time Indicator has been prepared from minute calculations, and will be found correct 
in every case. 

The diagram showing the capacity of the church edifices is constructed to a scale, and 
correctly represents the proportion of each to the whole. 

An examination of the various Gazetteers heretofore published cannot fail to satisfy any 
one that a great part of the material from which they were compiled was furnished by corre- 



PREFACE. 5 

spondents. This plan seemed to be the one most likely to secure accuracy, and with some 
modifications it was at first adopted in collecting materials for this work. Agents were sent 
into some portions of the State, furnished with printed instructions, questions, and blanks, to 
obtain the desired information, either by personal research, or through the assistance of such 
competent persons in the various localities visited as would undertake to fill the blanks and 
return them to the general office. While a few persons promptly responded to the request 
thus made of them, others delayed giving it immediate attention, and still others neglected it 
altogether. A large proportion of the matter received from correspondents was found to be 
irrelevant, devoted to specialties, or unreliable, and therefore of little value. Much matter 
was received which possesses a greater or less amount of local interest, but which could not 
be admitted without giving undue prominence to some subjects or localities at the expense 
of others. After a fair trial of the plan first adopted, it was found subject to so many objec- 
tions that it was abandoned. The surveyors and agents were then instructed to visit every 
city, town, and village, to search records, examine documents, consult the best living, printed, 
and manuscript authorities, and to make returns to the general office of all the reliable 
matter and information obtained. They were instructed to take no statement on a single 
authority, and in cases where authorities were found to differ, to examine diligently and 
impartially, and report all the facts, so that in digesting and arranging them for the press, 
all the evidence might be at hand. They were particularly cautioned against taking mere 
hearsay or traditionary tales for truth, and not to seek wonders and marvels. A competent 
person was employed to examine records and documents in the State Library and State and 
other public offices at Albany and in New York City, for information that might be avail- 
able in the preparation of this work. The Documentary History and the State Geology of 
New York, general and local histories, biographies, sketches, essays, reports, newspapers, 
manuscripts, and all other available authorities that were likely to contain any information 
of value, were collected, and in turn consulted, and their accuracy and value tested as the 
work progressed. 

The plan for the work finally fixed upon, while it embraces a wider range than is usually 
taken by similar works, seems to be one that cannot fail to meet the wants and tastes of the 
people, as it presents the wealth, resources, present condition, and past history of the State 
in a form and style at once convenient, perspicuous, and concise. 

The details of description of each county, city, town, and village, have been arranged, as 
far as practicable, according to a uniform plan or outline ; as has been also the General 
Article embraced in the first 154 pages. The subjects embraced in this article seemed to 
cover all the ground that properly belongs to the work ; and they are treated at as great 
length as their proportional importance to the limits of the volume would permit. A 
Gazetteer of a State should not be expected to contain, in a connected form, a complete 
compendium of knowledge upon whatever pertains to a State. But present condition, brief 
and comprehensive statements, short historical sketches of general interest, tables, facts and 
figures as connected with the wealth, prosperity, and resources of a State, should be con- 
sidered to an extent sufficient for a work of reference, such as a Gazetteer is intended 
to be. 

The general outline of the county descriptions is as follows : 1st. Date of formation of the 
county, from what taken, subsequent changes in boundaries, location in the State, and air-line 
distance of geographical center from the Capitol at Albany. 2d. Geology, topography, and 
drainage ; embracing the general geological formations, general contour of the surface, lakes, 
rivers, and other watercourses. 3d. Soil, leading articles of production, and occupation of the 
people. 4th. Works of internal improvement. 5th. County seat, names of first county officers, 
and description of county buildings and institutions. 6th. History of the newspaper press. 
7th. Brief historical sketch of the county from the date of first settlement to the present time. 
The descriptions of the towns are according to nearly the same general plan, and embrace, 
1st. Date of formation, from what taken, subsequent changes in boundaries, and location in 
the county. 2d. Peculiarities in geological formations not mentioned in county description. 
3d. Topography and drainage. 4th. Names and description of villages, hamlets, and local 
ities, with their location in town, date of incorporation, institutions, leading branches of 
business, and population according to the most recent reliable enumeration. 5th. A brief 
historical sketch, embracing incidents of general and local interest, names of first settlers, 
first birth, marriage, and death, first church, school, mill, and factory, and number of churches 



6 PREFACE. 

in 1855. After the towns in each county is a table compiled from the last State census, 
except the valuation and statistics of schools, which are from the returns for the year 1858. 
In many cases, the population of villages and the number of churches given are from enu- 
merations taken since 1855 ; but the last State census has invariably been taken as authority 
on these two points, except in cases where later reliable enumerations have been taken. The 
acres of land :h given in the tables fall short of the area of the county as given at the com- 
mencement of each county description. The reason of this is obvious : the acres of land as 
shown by the tables are from the returns of assessors, which seldom embrace marsh, swamp, 
and unproductive lands, and lands under water; while the area in square miles, as given in 
the OOUnty descriptions, lias in every case been ascertained from actual measurements. 

The steel plate illustrations are engraved from original views taken expressly for this work. 
The map has been engraved on stone, at great expense, by the best artists, and the mechani- 
cal execution of both works is highly creditable to the publisher. 

The Index of Subjects at the commencement of the work, and the Index of Geographical 
Names at the close, cannot fail of being justly valued for their convenience. The uniform 
use of a bold-face letter for names of towns, villages, and hamlets will also be found to 
greatly facilitate rapid Bearch for this class of geographical names. 

To many of the officers in the several State Departments, and to numerous county, town, 
and city officers, local surveyors, civil engineers, land agents, members of the press, and 
other-, the author is indebted for furnishing valuable materials for these works. To them, 
and to all who have in any way rendered him assistance in the preparation of either Map or 
••tteer, he desires to acknowledge his obligations. Many persons may feel disappoint- 
ment at finding that information furnished by them has not been used. An examination 
of the work, however, must convince them that nothing has been omitted which was essential 
to the - I plan of the work, and that whatever did not come within this plan could not 

be introdm 

The author would not be doing justice to himself nor to the public did he fail to acknow- 
ledge his obligations to those who have been associated with him in the preparation of these 
works. He desires to make particular mention of the valuable services of Lieut. Francis 
Mahler, Franki.ix B. Houcn, M. D., and James Johonxot. Lieut. Mahler was educated in a 
European Military Academy for a Topographical Engineer. Ten years of subsequent practice 
lered him eminently qualified for the position he has occupied on the Survey. Dr. Hough 
is well known to the people of the State as the Superintendent of the last State census and as 
the author of several historical and statistical works. His services in searching records and 
at Albany, in New York City, and elsewhere, have been invaluable, and to his 
pledge of the geology of the State the author is mainly indebted for whatever 
i that subject in this work. Mr. Johonnot has devoted many years to the subject 
of Physical Geography. The topography of the State, its counties and towns, has been 
mainly written by him. 

The intelligent citizens of the state of New York cannot fail to appreciate the liberality 
of the publisher in the great expenditures he has mad.' in bringing out these works. The 
; of tl.- for the county maps was about S4-N,<m)0, and the expenditures on 

the works from the commencement of the re-survey to the date of publication have readied 
about $4 e, making a total investment of $94,000. Thewhole time spent in surveys, 

collection of materials, writing, engraving, proof-reading, 4c., ha- been equal to the time of 
one person 121 It i- believed that no similar enterprise of e.jual extent, and involving 

tie- outlay of so la pital, ha- ever been undertaken at private expense in this or any 

othi i try. Time, talents, and money have alike been devoted to the production of a 

Map and Gazetteer that it i.- hoped will be found every way worthy of the Empire State. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Abeel, John, Indian trader, 414. 

Abercrombie, Gen. James, 298. 

Academies, general article on, 125. 
list of incorporated, 130. 
notices of. 48, 140, 160, 161, 169, 171, 172, 
173, 175, 176, 180, 184, 193,197, 200, 
201,202, 203, 205, 211, 212, 214, 216, 
220, 228, 229, 230, 235, 237, 239, 243, 
244, 246, 247, 248, 251, 252, 253, 259, 
260, 261, 203, 265, 270, 272, 275, 277, 
278, 282, 283, 286, 289, 300, 303, 305, 
311, 312. 317, 324, 326,327, 330, 331, 
332, 333, 343, 346, 349, 355, 356, 357, 
360, 361, 362, 363, 369, 372. 378, 383, 
384, 3S5, 390, 391, 392, 393, 398, 399, 
400, 401, 403, 405, 412, 414, 429,430, 
453, 456, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 408, 
469, 471, 482, 484, 4S5, 486, 489, 495, 
498, 505, 506, 508, 509, 510, 514, 515, 
516, 522, 527, 52S, 532, 536, 538, 546, 
547, 548, 554, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 
561, 575, 577, 580, 582, 587, 588, 590, 
591, 592, 597, 598, 604, 606, 607, 610, 

617, 625, 627, 628, 634, 637, 638, 640, 
645, 647, 650, 652, 057, 058, 003, 665, 
666, 674, 675, 679, 6S0, 682, 6S3, 684, 
685, 686, 692, 694, 695, 698, 699, 700, 
701, 704, 705, 707, 708, 713, 714, 715, 
716. 

statistical summary of, 128. 

Academy of Music, 436. 

Accidents, steamboat, statistics, 115. 

Acid springs, 320, 324, 325, 456, 593. 

Acres of land, by cos., &c, 108. 

by towns, 167, 177, 185, 196, 207, 217, 
222, 231, 240, 249, 256, 266, 278, 294, 
306, 313, 319, 328, 335, 339, 350, 364, 
373, 380, 387, 394, 406, 417, 457, 472, 
491, 500, 511, 510, 529, 539, 543, 551, 
502, 567, 571, 583, 594, 599, 008, 612, 

618, 6.30, 640, 648, 653, 659, 669, 076, 
687, 695, 709, 716, 721. 

Adgate's Patent, 48, 341, 349. 
Adjutant General, 43. 
African Methodist Episcopal Church, 139. 
Agrarian movement. See Anti Rent. 
Agricultural College, 616. 
fairs, 101. 
Hall, 27, 160. 
Agricultural Implement manufactory, 160, 
166, 199, 200, 216, 244, 248, 260, 274, 
286, 312, 362, 368, 384, 3S7, 400, 401, 
405, 406, 407, 411, 416, 454, 466, 484, 
488, 495, 509, 510, 536. 556, 559, 561, 
571, 575, 598, 611, 617, 665, 681, 691, 
093, 095, 099, 716. 
products, counties excelling in, 103. 
societies, town and county, 83, 102, 

103, 575. 
Society, 27, 101, 495. 
Agriculture, appropriations for, 106. 
statistics of, by cos., 104 to 107. 
Albany Institute, 101, 161. 
Aldermanic Districts, New York, 420. 
Aliens, statistics of, by counties. 150. 
Allen, Ebenezer, 3S4, 398, 402, 404, 406, 711. 
Capt. Ebeuezer, 300, 301. 
Ethan, at Ticonderoga, 299, 305. 
family murdered, 679. 
Nathaniel. 498. 
Almshouses, 161, 365, 393, 398, 422, 425, 

426, 509, 553. 
Ambuscade. 345, 411, 461, 604, 671, 672. 
American Anti Slavery Society, 146. 
and Foreign Christian Union, 146. 
Bethel Society, 146. 
Bible Society, 144. 

Board Commissioners for Foreign Mis- 
sions. 145. 
Colonization Society, 146. 
Home Missionary Society, 146. 
Institute, 435. 

Seamen's Friend Society, 146. 
Sunday School Union, 146. 
Tract Society, 145. 
Amherst, Sir Jeffrey, 49, 298, 337, 574, 

673, 674. 
Analyses of Mineral Waters, 248, 383, 394, 

470, 480, 497, 537, 592, 607. 
Anaquassacook Patent, 684. 
Anchor manufactory, 297, 508, 510, 681. 
Andre, Major J., 504, 541, 570, 603, 699, 

700, 701, 703. 
Andrustown plundered, 342, 349. 



Angler, Sieur, surveys by, 298. 

Anno, Queen, Germans settle- under, 242, 

245. 
Anniversary Week, N. Y., 144. 
Anti masonic movement, 147, 323. 
Mission Baptists, 139. 
rent troubles, 157, 210, 242, 258, 259, 

209, 322, 3C0, 553, 602, 621, 643. 
Anti Slavery Society, 146. 
Antwerp Company, 353, 355, 375. 
Appel Patent, 585. 

Apples, statistics of, by counties, 105. 
Appling, Major D., 355, 358, 525. 
Appointing power, 31. 
Aqueducts, 60, 165, 275, 397, 418, 424, 

5S9, 597, 689, 714. 
Ararat, or resting place for Jews, 291. 
Arcade, 403. 
Architecture, 436, 437. 
Argyle Patent, 679. 
Armories, 44, 369, 437, 489, 580. 
Armstrong, Gen. John, 276. 
Arnold, Benedict, 299, 333, 335, 338, 342, 

410, 504, 541, 542. 570, 687, 699, 700. 
Arsenals, 44, 45, 165, 2S6, 312, 325, 362, 369, 

423, 437, 460, 495, 582, 002, 000. 
Artesian wells, 25, 362, 392, 424. 
Artillery Patent, 681. 
Asia, man-of-war, 438. 
Asparagus culture, 544. 
Assay Office, 122, 437. 
Assembly, 28. 

districts, 28. 
Assessments, power of Supervisors in, 30. 
Associate Presbyterians and Associate Re- 
formed Presbyterians, 139. 
Astor claim, Putnam co., 541. 

Library, 435. 
Astronomical Instrument manufactory, 

392. 
Observatories, 161, 423. 
Asylums, 42, 149, 198, 275, 276, 365, 370, 

396, 398, 403, 412, 419, 425, 432, 433, 

434, 468, 488, 488, 518, 524, 566. 
Atheneum, 368, 403. 
Attainder. See Forfeiture. 
Attorney General, 32. 
Auditor of Canal Department, 54. 
Auger manufactory, 593. 
Avenues, New York City, plan of, 422. 
Awl manufactory, 2S6. 
Ax factories. 106, 220, 235, 2S6, 368, 402, 

483, 4S4, 558, 593, 616, 668. 
Axle manufactory, 235, 277, 668, 699. 

Bakeries, statistics by counties, 109. 
Bank note engraving, 90. 
Banks, agencies of, 90. 

commissioners, 90. 

existing, list of, 90 to 95. 

general article on, 89. 

individual, 89. 

obsolete and closing, 95 to 99. 

savings, 99. 

suspension of, 90. 

United States, 90. 
Baptists, 139. 140. 

Free Will, 140. 

Old School, 139. 

Seventh Day, 143. 
Barley, counties where most raised, 101. 

statistics by counties, 104. 

trade 159. 
Barracks,' 45, 239, 354, 358, 542, 555, 580. 
Barrel manufactory, 220, 402, 488, 509, 

518 5^0 522 
Barytes, sulphate of, 352, 356, 577, 600, 

604, 698. 
Basket manufactory, 286. 
Batteries, 423, 437, 565. 
Batting manufactory, 464. 
Battles, 219, 233, 234, 297, 305, 316, 342, 
343, 345, 355, 358, 371, 410, 411,438, 
461, 478, 521, 525, 554, 556, 569, 574, 
675, 580, 586, 602, 604, 607, 633, 643, 
645, 661, 667, 671, 681, 698,701, 707. 
Baum, Col., defeated, 586. 
Bayard's Patent, 601. 
Bay of New York, 437. 
Beaches, 544, 547, 550, 631, 634, 635, 636, 

638, 639. 
Beacons. See Lightlwuses. 
Beacraft, a tory, 602. 
Beans, statistics by counties, 105. 



Beardsley. Purchase, 210. 

Beck, Dr. T. Romeyn, 156, 160. 

Becker's Patent. 603. 

Bodini, Cardinal, 287. 

Bedstead manufactory, 160, 291. 

I'.ecf. supply to New York Citv. 427.428. 

I'.rrkman's Patent, 269. 270, 276, li77. 

Bell, attempt to steal, 343. 

fonnderies, 166, 661. 
Belletre, expedition of, 348. 
Bellevne Hospital. 42;",. 
Bellows manufactory, 286. 
Belting manufactory, 199, 549. 
Bemis Heights, 586, 679. 
Bonevolent Societies, 81, 144, 370, 371, 

403, 432. 
Bennington, battle of, 554, 556, 586, 680. 
Bethel Society, 146. 

Bible Societies, 144, 145, 370, 403, 434, 489. 
Big Tree Council, 322. 
Billiard Table manufactory, 286. 
Billop House, 565. 

Manor, 564. 
Bird, Col., 699. 

Bituminous springs, 168, 173 
Blackberry culture, 703. 
Blacking manufactory, 716. 
Black Lead, 302, 303. 304. 

manufactory. 297, 304. 
Black River Navigation Co., 60. 

Tract, 375. 
Black Bock Plat, 288. 
Blacksmith Bhops by counties, 109. 
Blacksmiths, number by counties, 152. 
Blackwells Island, 419, 425. 
Blanchard, Col., 672. 
Blank Book manufactorv, 2S6. 
Blenheim Patent, 602, 603. 
Blind, Institution for the. 432. 433. 

statistics bv counties. 150. 
Blockhouses, 232, 297, 301, 310. 342. 343, 
346, 356. 359, 467, 469, 470, 511. 549, 
577, 582, 591, 596, 604, 646, 6S1, 682, 
687, 691. 
Block manufactory, 368. 
Bloomer costume, origin of. 617. 
Board of Agriculture. 102. 106. 

Education. New York, 430. 

Health. 116, 428. 
Boatbuilding, 307, 402, 419, 016, 61S, 657, 

662, 6S6. 
Bog iron ore, 25. 

Boiler manufactory, 160, 2S6, 652. 
Bolt manufactory, 166. 
Bonaparte, Joseph, 363, 376. 
Bonded warehouses, 111, 113. 
Bono boiling, 372. 

manure. 368. 

pits, 361, 453, 522. 
Bonv fish, 124, 631. 
Bookbinderies, 160, 246, 286. 
Book manufactory, 199. 
Boon, Gerrit, 462, 46S. 
Boot and Shoe Makers, number by coun- 
ties, 152. 
Boot and Shoe manufac. 286, 402, 4SS, 596. 

statistics bv counties. 109. 
Boroughs, 596, 598, 69S, 706. 
Boston Corner, 18. 

Ten Towns, 18, 180, 199. 479, 650. 
Botanical gardens, 370, 423, 430. 
Bouck's Patent, 605. 
Bouck, William C, 59. 
Boundaries, 17, 258, 290, 308. 418, 5S6. 
Boundary commissions, 18, 677. 

controversies, 503, 545, 551, 700, 706. 
Bourbon, reputed. 309. 
Box manufactory, 286. 
Boyd, Lieut. Win., 3S4. 
Boylston Tract, 375. 
Braddock's defeat, 671. 
Bradford, William, 431. 
Bradstreet, Col., 519. 
Brantingham Tract, 375. 
Brant, Joseph. 219, 264, 265, 283, 315, 34i, 
343, 349, 409, 410, 412, 414, 454, 478, 
503, 531, 538, 586. 604. 
Brass founderv, 166. 286. 
Breakwater, 280, 284. 
Breathing well, so called, 190. 
Breweries, 109, 160, 214, 237, 241.275. 286, 
367, 368, 3S3, 385, 399, 402, 400, 419, 
408, 483, 488, 509, 556, 561, 563, 598, 
617, 657, 662, 691. 

7 



8 



IXDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Brick manufactory, bv counties, 109. 

manufactory of, 110, 160, 246, 2S6, 330, 
331, 332. 39S, 505. 542. 550, 563, 566, 
568, 569, 598, 632, 639, 662, 666, 691, 
696, 698, 699. 
Brine springs, 26, ITS. 181, 1S6, 197, 203, 
257,825, 827, 892, 395, 400, 449, 456, 
473. 474. 4T<. 479, 4*2, 483, 512, 514, 
515. 517. 522, 532, 619, 688. 
Britannia Ware manufactory, 163, 2S6. 
Brockville captured, 574. 
Brooklyn Institute, 369. 
Broom Corn, statistics 1>t counties, 107. 

culture of. 101. 220, 3S1, 407, 413, 595, 
597. 600, 606. 
Broom Handle manufactory, 590, 597. 

manufactory. 248, 282, 413, 595, 597. 
Brothertown Indians, 465. 
Brown. Col.. 410, 416. 

John, settlement of. 349. 
Browns Trart. 341, 349. 375, 379. 
Brush manufactory, 2S6, 556. 

plains, 681, 636. 
Buckskin manufactory. 811, "17. 
Buckwheat, quantity raised, lnl.104. 
Building associations, 81, 366, 700. 
Building stone. 26, 

Buildings. public. New Yi irk City, 436, 437. 
Bull, William, surveys bv, 621. 
Burgovne. Gen.. 1*4. 166, 233, 299, 461, 
504, 554, 559, 5S6, 673, 679, 682, 685, 
i 
Burial Case manufactory, 549. 
Burial Places, New York City, 428. 

See Rural Ctmet'ritt. 
Burnetsfield Patent. 341, 344. 345, 346. 
Burning of jail. Delaware county. 258. 

of steamer Sir Robert Peel. 860. 

springs, 208, 213, 214, 267, 491, 499, 
691. 
Burr. Aaron. 404. 
Busti. Paul. 22 
Butler. CI. John. 409. 41". 411. 415. 

Walter N.. 347,409, 410, 411.415,531. 
Butler'- P * nt. 317, 605. 
I'.utt and Hinge manufactory, 166 
Buttermilk Channel, 41J. 

Fall- 
P.utt-r. product by counties, 106. 
Bvrne's Patent, 605, 682. 



Cabinet Making shops, by counties. 109. 
Cabinet Ware manufactory, 203, 286, 368, 
. 402, 514. 515. 522, 523, 598, 618. 
Cabinet of Natural History, 125,126. 
ireous tufa. 391. 717. 
. 161. 
c Printing, 2 

Oamhri !_ 'SO. 

Camd'-n Tract, • 
Campb-ir- Patent, 079 
Camph'-n'' manufactory, • 
Canada.-' :ist, 246, 311,358. 

32. 
Canad-i. fortifications in, 45. 
Canadian Hinfl'ti 119. 

raflwart il r '. 
trade, U7, 118. 

Canal Ap] I 

1. River, history of, 60, 61. 

I 

Oavug-i * BfPf*, history of, 62. 

Ch- 

Ch " >ry of, 60, 61. 

Commi«ioner*. M. 59. 

' 
CT" 

Dels* .- I n .02,506. 

Department Auditor of, 64. 
dist 

enlsrcnvnt. ■"•' 
1 

.1. 389, 482, 484, 
_ . 024, 645, 671. 
Fund. 54. 
general n I 

Genesee Valley, history I 
hydraulic, 859, 454, 465, 484. 524. 693, 

'637  
Manhattan Island, 418. 
natural. 575. 
•)neida Lake, history of, 61. 



Canal Oswego, history of, 61, 62. 

reservoirs, 60, 61, 173. 3S9, 390, 393. 
statistics, 55, 56, 57, 58. 
structures. 5S. 
tolls, 56, 57. 

Canals, notices of. 156, 169, 171, 173, 179, 
186, 187, 193, 198, 201, 203, 218,220, 
221, 224, 226, 228, 230, 279, 280, 288, 
293, 330, 341, 346, 375, 3S1, 384, 385, 
3*7,388, 395, 397, 398, 401, 402, 403, 
404, 407, 413, 420. 449. 451, 452, 455, 
459, 466, 468, 469, 475, 482, 484, 488, 
4-89, 492. 502, 491, 512, 513, 514, 515, 
518, 520, 523, 524, 526, 574, 581, 585, 
587, 593, 598, 609, 610, 611, 614, 617, 
642, 624, 654, 6S9, 690, 691, 693, 714, 
71S. 

Canastota Tract, 47, 3S9. 

Capital, State, 26, 27. 

Car manufactory, 286, 395, 509, 571. 

Wheel manufactory, 160, 273, 2S6, 509. 
Mills. 462. 516, 60S, 694, 695. 

Carding Machines introduced, 683. 

Card manufactory, 199. 

Carillon Fort, 29S. 

Carleton, Major, 300. 

Caroline steamer destroyed, 453. 

Carpenters, by counties, 109, 152. 

Carpet Bag manufactory, 510. 

Carpet manufactory. 199, 244, 275, 402, 407, 
411. 468. 549, 686, 695, 707. 

Carriage manufactory, 109, 160, 166, 228, 
229, 237, 255, 275, 286, 346. 368, 399, 
401. 402, 405, 411, 419, 463, 4S4, 487, 
494. 496, 522, 548, 561, 575, 598, 657, 
658, 6S3, 716. 

Cartridge manufactory, 549. 

Cary, Trumbull, and others, purchase by, 
210. 

Cascades. 20, 21, 22, 165, 203, 210, 227, 
235, 239, 253, 255, 271, 300, 305, 310, 
312. 320, 324, 326, 328, 333, 346, 352, 

355, 360, 361, 374, 376, 377, 379, 3S3, 
. 390, 395, 401, 402, 419, 467. 474, 

484, 486. 487, 505, 508, 514, 515, 517, 
521, 523. 524, 526, 527, 532, 558, 560, 
572, 579, 593, 597, 604, 605, 609, 611, 
613, 616, 617, 618, 646, 654, 656, 657, 
658, 664, 670, 674, 675, 715. 

Cases before Court of Sessions, N.Y., 421. 

Cassiltown Manor, 564. 

Castle Garden, 117, 427. 

Castles of the Mohawks, 408. 

Catholic Schools, New York, 431. See 
Roman Catholics. 

Catskill Mountain House, 333. 
Patent, 332. 

Cattle market, 427. 

statistics by counties, 106. 
trade, 428. 

Caughnawaga Indians 408. 

Caves, 26. 155, 162, 163, 164, 302, 328, 351, 

356, 360, 361, 362, 393. 416, 482, 570, 
600, 604, 606, 607, 666, 674, 675, 684. 

Cayuga Bridge, 199. 200. 

Marshes, 63,474. 
C.iz'novc. TheophflUB, 322. 
Cement manufactury. — See Wabrlime. 
Central American .Educational Society, 
1 16. 

Asylum for Deaf and Dumb. 412. 

Park, New York, 44, 423, 424. 
Chain across the Hudson, 504, 505, 508, 
609,642. 

Lake Champlain, at Ticondcroga, 299. 
Oiain Cable manufactory, 681. 
Chair manufsu tary, 276, 282, 286, 343, 402, 

462, 487, 527, 610. 
Cliaml>er of Commerce, 116, 436. 
Chambers, Thomas, 661, 662, 664. 
Chambh CanaL 119. 
Champlain Lake, 297. 

grants on. 298. 
Champlain, BamueL 288, 297. 477. MO. 

Chandl.ri.-. -. 119,563,667. 

• Fort Harbor, 418. 
Chapel, Onsen Anne's, 418. 
Charitable societies, 144, 247, 287, 403, 433, 

434. 561. 
Char- .370,431. 

in, grant to a New York 
church. I 
Chart' - r «. New Vert City, 418, 438. 

to academies, 127. 
Chaoe. I:, v. Philander, 265. 
Chasm. remarkable, in Clinton CO., 238. 
in Lewis co., 378. 



Chassanis, Peter, Purchase, 353, 375, 377. 
Cheesebox manufactory, 343, 347, 348. 
Cheesecock's Patent, 503, 508, 56S. 
Cheese manufactory, 175, 416, 537. 

product of, by counties, 107. 
Chemical works. See Laboratories. 
Chenango Tract, 47. , 

Triangle. 224. 

Twenty Towns, 52, 224, 3S9. 
Cherry YaUey massacre, 410, 531. 

Patent, 532. 
Chevaux de frise, 542. 
Children's Aid Society, 370, 403, 434. 

Hospital, 432. 
Chinese, early trade with, 162. 
Cholera, 308. 
Christian Association, 146. 

Connexion, 140. 

Unions, 146, 147. 
Cryslers Field, 311. 
Churches, general article on, 139 to 144. 

New York, 434, 435. 
Church, John B., and Philip, 169. 

property controversy, 287. 

Tract, 321. 
Cider, product by counties, 105 
Cigar manufactories. See Tobacco. 
Cincinnati. Society of, 434. 
Ciscoes, fishery of, 359 
Cities, officers of, 31. 
City Courts, 34. 

Halls, 156, 160, 246, 275, 365, 369,403, 
423, 436, 468, 4SS, 524. 

Inspector's Department, N. Y., 427. 

Park. Brooklyn, 369. 

Railroads, 367, 368, 429. 

Schools, 160, 199, 246, 275. 286, 369, 403, 
429, 430, 468, 488, 524, 560, 598. 
Clark, Rev. Thomas, 685, 686. 

Willis and Lewis G., 486. 
Clarke, Miss Sara J.. 4S7. 
Claus, Colonel Daniel, 315, 409, 412. 
Clearances on Northern lakes, 118. 
Clearing-House Association, N. Y., 436. 
Clendening Valley Aqueduct, 424. 
Clergymen, number by counties, 151. 

property of, exempt from taxes, 48. 
Clerks' offices. See County Buildings. 
Clermont, steamboat, 162. 521. 
Clifton Park Patent, 5S5, 587. 

Mine, 572. 
Clinton. Charles. 510. 

College, Fairfield. 343. 
Clinton, De Witt, 58, 59, 102, 481, 506, 549. 

George, 274. 276. 

Sir Henry, 504, 664, 699. 

General James, 410, 412, 531, 536. 

Prison, 41, 238 

Purchase. 224. 

Township. 47. 
Clock manufactory, 638. 
Clover mill. 350. 
Cloves of the Catskills, 329, 334. 
Coachmakers, number by counties, 151. 
Coal formations. 329, 619. 

mining for, 178, 407. 

Oil manufactory. 367. 

trad.-. 2Jo. 4sS, 618, 624, 655, 657, 661, 
61 j. 863, r.64. 
Coasting trade, statistics of, 115, 116. 
Coast Survey, 23, 121. 
Coffee and Bplce manufactory, 368. 
Coldcu. Oadwallader, 508, 546. 

Tract. 341, 343, 344, 345, 348. 
Collar and Bosom manufactory, 657. 
Collection districts, coasting trade by, 115. 

general article on. 111. 

Northern frontier, 11", 118. 

ship building by, 115 

tonnage by, 112. 
C. IWioni on canals, 54. 
Collect Pond, N. Y., 418. 
Colleges, general article upon, 125. 

notices of, 48. 125, 126, 160, 161, 188, 
220, 252, 343, 384, 391, 403, 419, 430, 
431, 455, 464, 498, 546, 560, 564, 675, 
598, 610, 616, 657, 707. 

tabular list and statistics of, 126, 127 
Colonial history, 125. 
Colonization Society, 146. 
Colored Home. 425, 426. 

schools, 136. 

statistics of, by counties, 150. 
Color manufactory, 272, 373. 
Comb manufactory, 272, 286. 
Commerce, foreign. Ill, 112, 113, 114, 115, 
162, 247, 367, 418, 436, 438, 639. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Commerce, lake, 118, 119, 203, 214, 237, 239, 
280, 285, 352, 395, 399, 402, 403, 452, 
517, 518, 520, 524, 525, 580, 582, 657. 
river, 156, 246, 268, 274, 276, 285, 330, 
332, 502, 509, 561, 5S0, 581, 620, 652, 
661, 662, 663, 664, 666, 699. 
Commercial colleges, 287, 431, 489. 
Commissioners of Canal Fund, 54. 

for taking acknowledgment of aeeds, 

35. 
of Emigration, 117, 419, 420, 427, 549. 
of Excise, 36. 
of Health, 116. 
of Highways, 39. 
of Land Office, 46, 53. 
Common Councils of cities, 31, 420. 
Communities, 293, 405. 
Comptroller, 32. 
Confectioneries, 286. 
Congregational Churches, 140. 

Methodist Church, 140. 
Congress, Continental, 565. 

first meeting in New York, 438. 
first Colonial, 162. 
Connecticut Tract, 321, 513. 
Constable's Towns, 375. 
Contracting Board, 54. 
Contributions to aid Schenectady, 599. 
Controversy in Dutch Church, 275. 
Convention for adopting U. S. Const., 276. 
Hartford, 48, 52. 
Hempstead, 544, 545. 
Kingston, 664. 
Provincial, 269, 272, 276. 
Conventions at Syracuse, 488. 
Convents, 419, 431, 434, 701. 
Convictions, statistics of, 36, 421. 
Cooper Institute, 435. 
Cooper, J. Fenimore, 536. 
Cooperages, 2S6, 514, 691. 
Coopers, number by counties, 151. 
Copperas, 305. 

manufactory, 575. 
Copper coinage, 509. 

ores, 25, 267, 340, 575, 577, 579, 660, 704. 
Corn, statistics of, 101, 104. 
Cornplanter, an Indian chief, 410, 414. 
Cornwall county, 18. 
Coroners, 35, 427. 
Cortland Manor, 705, 706, 708. 
Corporations, general article on, 80. 
Cosby's Manor and Patent, 341, 344, 348, 

469. 
Cotringer Tract, 321. 

Cotton manufactory, 110, 166, 216, 228, 
241, 247, 248, 253, 271, 274, 276, 293, 
334, 346, 347, 348, 352, 356, 360, 362, 
368, 402, 464, 465, 466, 468, 471, 504, 
509, 510, 525, 527, 532, 533, 534, 535, 
536, 538, 554, 556, 558, 559, 560, 561, 
569, 571, 584, 590, 591, 598, 605, 634, 
638, 662, 666, 682. 
Councils, Indian, 322, 344, 414. 
Council of Appointment, 31. 
of Revision, 31. 
of Safety, 601. 
Country Roads, Suffolk co., 632.' 
Country seats, 272, 275, 276, 664, 696, 703, 

704, 707, 708. 
County buildings, 156, 160, 168, 179, 186, 
198, 208, 218, 223, 232, 241, 251, 258, 
268, 280, 297, 307, 314, 320, 330, 337, 
341, 352, 365, 375, 381, 388, 396, 407, 
451, 458, 475, 492, 502, 512, 518, 530, 
540, 544, 553, 563, 568, 573, 584, 595, 
600, 609, 614, 620, 632, 642, 649, 654, 
661, 671, 678, 689, 697, 710, 717. 
Clerk, 35. 
courts, 34. 
Superintendent, 137. 
Treasurer, 36. 
Courts of admiralty, 117. 
of Appeals, 33. 

for Trial of Impeachments, 33. 
New York City, 428. 
of oyer and terminer, 35. 
of sessions, 35. 
State, 33. 
United States, 33. 
of Wiltwyck, ancient, 663. 
Courtenay, E. H., 368. 
Coverlet manufactory, 695. 
Cowbell manufactory, 283. 
Cowboys, 333, 698. 
Cowen, Eseck., 592. 
Cows, number by counties, 106. 
Craigie Tract, 321. 
Cranberry swamp, 528, 618. 



Cratean lakes, Onon. co., 26, 474, 482, 484. 
Cricket grounds, 423. 
Crime of New York City, 421. 
Criminal convictions, 35, 36. 

courts, 35. 

statistics, 425. 
Crosby, Enoch, 541. 

Croton Aqueduct, 418, 422, 424, 697, 706, 
707, 708. 

Yalley surveyed, 424. 
Crown Point, fort at, 297, 298, 299, 673. 
Crumhorn Mountain Tract, 125. 
Crystal palace, 423, 424. 
Cuck, George, a tory, 414. 
Cumberland Bay, naval victory in, 234. 
Currents of rivers reversed, 304, 579. 
Customhouses, 119, 120, 239, 247, 286, 355, 

356, 436, 524, 580, 638. 
Cutlery manufactory, 246, 508. 

Dairying, product of. See Acres, dc. 

Dakin Ore Bed, 273. 

D'Alainville, seigniory of, 298 

Dam, State, 678. 

Deaf and dumb, statistics by counties, 150. 

Asylum, 419, 432, 433. 
Deane's Patent, 48, 235, 471. 
Deaths, New York, totals, 428. 

of Holland Co. proprietors, 322. 
De Bruyn, John Hendrick, Patent of, 247. 
Debt of N. Y. to U. S., Revolutionary, 45. 
Debtors, imprisoned, 42. 
De Courcelles, expedition of, 408. 
Deep Spring, so called, 484. 
Deeds, acknowledgment of, 35. 
Degrees conferred by Regents, 125. 
De Lancey's corps, 551. 
De Lancey, James, 701, 705. 

Patent of, 413. 
De la Barre's expedition, 358. 
Delaware & Hudson Canal, 63, 642, 661, 

662, 664, 666, 668. 
Delliu's Patent, 682. 
De Nonville, expedition of, 493, 499. 
Dentists' Gold manufactory, 368. 
Denton, Rev. Richard, 547. 
Depots, 403, 561. 
Deserters executed, 412, 536. 
De Tracy's expedition, 408. 
De Veaux, Samuel, 455. 
Devendorf, Jacob, scalped, 416. 
Devil's Hole, event at, 452, 453. 
De Yries, D. P., 564. 
Dewitt, Simeon, 58, 657. 
Die manufactory, 593. 
Dieskau, Baron, 298, 671, 672. 
Dikes, 677. 
Diluvial valleys, 361. 
Dioceses of New York, 142, 143. 
Dionondahowa Falls, 680, 683. 
Disciples of Christ, 140. 
Dise's Manor, 604. 
Dispensaries, 2S7, 370, 432. 
Distances by canals, 59 to 64. 

by railroads, 66 to 73. 
Distilleries, 160, 198, 199, 201, 213, 214, 
286, 344, 367, 368, 384, 385, 391, 398, 
401, 406, 454, 462, 467, 483, 484, 4S7, 
497, 515, 535, 561, 593, 617, 618, 691, 
693, 699. 
Distributing post offices, 123, 652. 
District attorneys, 35. 
libraries, 135. 
school meetings, 135. 
Districts, aldermanic, 420. 
Assembly, 28. 

collection. See Customhouses. 
judicial, 33, 34. 
military, 43. 
Senatorial, 28. 
of Tryon co., early, 409. 
Divisions, Colonial, Dutchess co., 269. 
Docks, 367. 

Dolomite, 41, 267, 699. 
Domestic manufactures by counties. See 

Acres, d-c. 
Dongan, Governor, 564. 
Dover Stone Church, so called, 271. 
Door factory, 188. 
Dorfs of Palatinates, 601. 
Downie, Commodore, 234. 
Downing, A. J., 708. 
Doxtader, Tory, 411, 4i6, 602, 607. 
Dressmakers, number by counties, 151. 
Drouth, 352. 

Drowned Lands, 501, 506, 507, 510, 511. 
Drug manufactory, 275. 
Dry docks, 45, 368, 618. 



Dry goods, statistics of, 113. 

Duane, Colonel, 410. 

Dubois, Bishop, school founded by, 300. 

Colonel, 410. 
Dudley Observatory, 161. 
Duel, 358. 

Duervillo Patent, 235. 
Duke of Gloucester, 574. 
Dukes county, 18. 
Dutch, policy of, toward Indians, 408. 

settlements by, 306, 408, 437, 503, 601, 
663, 667. 
Duties on salt, 54. 
Duties, receipts from, 111, 113, 114. 
Dwelliugs, number and kind of, 108. 
Dwight, Francis, 137. 
Dyed Stuffs manufactory, 373, 563. 

works, 293, 465, 5(?5, 706. 

Earl of Moira, 574. 

Earthen Ware manufactory, 198, 286, 499, 

668. 
Easton's Patent, 466. 
Eaton, Amos, 24. 
Ebenezer Society, 293 
Edge Tool manufactory, 166, 235, 286, 300, 

347, 393, 395, 402, 486, 590. 
Edict of Nantes, Revocation of, 269, 564. 
Edmeston, Col., 533. 
Elections, New York, 420. 

canvass of, 30. 

Inspectors of, 40. 

military, 44. 
Electors, census of, 31. 
Elephant, fossil remains of, 163. 
Elevations above tide, 19 to 22. 

Delaware co., 257. 

Steuben co., 619. 

"Washington co., 677. 
Elevators, 293, 356, 399, 525. 
Eleven Towns on Black River, so called, 

353, 355, 357, 358, 361. 362, 375. 
Elias. officers of the ship, 564. 
Elk, domestication of, 192. 
Ellicott, Joseph, 322. 
Embargo, 233, 247, 356, 357, 643. 
Emery manufactory, 546. 
Emigration. See Commissioners of Emi- 
gration. 
Emigrant homes, 427. 
Emmons, E., analysis by, 324. 

geologist of Second District, 24. 
Encroachment upon N. Y. Harbor, 46. 
Endowment of Union College, 598. 
Engineers, Canal, 54. 
English conquest, 438. 
Engraving, 286. 

Entries of vessels at New York, 112. 
Epidemic, 361, 579. 
Erie Canal. See Canals. 

Basin, 284. 
Escheats, 48. 

Esopus, enemy advance to, 504. 
Evacuation Day, 437, 438. 
Evangelical Lutheran Church, 140. 
Evans, David E., 322. 
Evan's Patent, 503. 
Evans, William, bequest of, 393. 
Evening schools, 430. 
Exchange building, 160. 
Excise, Commissioners of, 36. 
Executive Department, N. Y. City, 420. 

State, 19. 
Expeditions against Canada. See Canada. 
Exports, Canadian, 118. 

total New York, since 1701, 112, 114. 
Eye and Ear Infirmaries, 370, 432. 

Fairs, Colonial, 101. 

State, and other, 102, 269, 706. 
Fall Hill Patent, 341, 343, 346. 
Families, number of, by counties. See 

Acres, d-c. 
Fancy Goods manufactory, 455. 
Fanning Mill manufactory. 618, 691, 692. 
Farms, number of, by counties, 108, 151. 
Farrett, James, agent of Earl of Stirling, 

633, 635. 637, 639. 
Federalist (the) newspaper articles, 276. 
Feldspar, 267, 671, 674. 
Females, Asylum for, 433, 4S8. 
Female Guardian Society, 433. 

Seminaries. See Academies. 
Ferries, general act, and list of. 82. 

notices of. 200, 245, 249, 271, 272, 275, 

276, 277, 356, 367, 420, 428, 450, 509. 

546, 555, 503, 570, 580, 636, 664, 666 

699, 700, 704. 



10 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS, 



Fertilizers, 631. 

Feudal privileges, 212. 

Fever, 425. 

Field notes of Holland Land Co.. 322. 

File manufactory. 271. 275. 510. 571. 

Fillmore. Millar 2 2 . 283. 

Finance Department New York City, 420. 

Fire arms first known to Indians in Xew 

York. - :. 
Fir..- Brick manufactory, 26, 468, 563, 567, 
69 >. 
Department-. 27". 369, 422. 421. 424. 
destructive, S3, 162, 362, 438, 46S, 561, 

575, 503. 652. 682. 
Engine manufactory, 402, 593, 61". 

436. 
Wardens, 423. 
in the woods. 631. 
nan Hanoi J. 638, 639. 

pn serration of, 124. 
Fisher, Col. Frederick. 415. 
Fisheries. Is. 46. 124. 232, 247. 357. 359, 
427. 620, 544, 550, 632, 634, 636, 637, 
641. 7>il. 
Fitch. Dr. Asa. 27. 
John. 82, 418. 
Five Dutch Towns of Kings CO., 366. 
Flagg. Axariafa C. 137. 
Flagging Stone, 26, 197, 204. 205, 228, 2 

2,881 . 149, 464, 491,512, 
615. 581. 660. 663. 664, 666, 717. 
Flax culture. 655, 558 • 

statistic* of lint and seed, by cos., 106. 
niiii- .569. 

Floating battery, 45. 

Flour manufactory, 160, 169, 17o. 172. 173. 
17 ,193, 194, 199,202, 2 3, - '5.211. 
212. 213. 214. 21>',. 22 - 222,226, 
238,24 248, - 271, -"- 273, 274. 
276, 2 24,82 .-  
362. - 395,400,401,402, 

405, 406, 413. 454. 465, H B, 481, 4-2. 
4-1. 497, 514. 516, 518, 52 I, 521, .".22. 
524. 525. 527. 528, 534, 536, 537. 538, 
10,611, 612, '".17. 
61v 23,625, 1. 651. 

75, - 683, 685, 
.712.713,715. 
r culture, 548, 549. 

l William. 463, 471, 634. 

aw, 415. 
BtOlman, 271. 
-'.. Edwin, " 

H. 31 6. 342, 347. 348, 540, 
541, 602, €98. 700, 702, 704, 708. 

238,239 210.297,349,360, 
-. 504, 508, 582, 681, 686, 

F.rk manufactory, 229, 390, 416, 487, 535, 

 

.1 notice of, 45. 
, 1 r r 1 i - 1  • r 

522. 
Clinton. 

15. 

(ii» 

Hr 

II o • . H7. 

Hunter, 108, 413. 
Ind' 

119. 

!  
I 

Miller, 591. 

Honl \ 45, 237, 603, 5 

Plain. 410, 414. 

Putnam, 504, 505. 

Richmond, 

.410, 461, 4671 469. 686, 

• 

l'U. 407. 
BulUvan, 

Tompkins. 565. 

419. 
William Henry 



Forts. Canadian, 45. 

notices of. 45.156.157. 162, 163, 166. 206, 
219, 220, 221. 237, 264. 274, 275. 277, 
286, 297, 298, 299, 301, 304, 305, 327, 
342, 344, 353, 356, 358, 373, 393, 408, 
409, 110. 412, 413, 414,415, 416, 417, 
419, 437. 452, 453, 460, 461, 467, 469, 
473, 499. 503. 504. 505. 519, 525, 542. 

546, 551, 559, 564, 565, 569, 574, 596, 
598, 599, 601, 602, 604, 605, 634, 664, 
673, 679, 681, 682, 700, 707. 

Forty Thousand Acre Tract, 321. 
Founderies. 160. ISO. 193. 2ol, 206. 227. 237, 
239, 240. 244, 246, 248, 272. 277,' 286, 
344. 356, 367, 391, 400, 401, 405. 454, 
465. 466, 470, 4S4. 4S7, 488,506, 509, 
510. 515, 521, 525, 533, 534, 535, 536, 
542, .'.40. 556, 557, 55S, 569, 570, 591, 
16, 007,610, 611, 615'. 
617. 61 S. 622. 625, 627, 647.656, 657, 
694, 702, 705, 707, 7o8, 715. 
Fountain-. 362, 423. 
Fowling. 544. 634. 
Fox, George, 546. 

Hull Manor. 40, 662, 663. 
Franci-can College, 188. 
Franklin Institute. Syracuse, 489. 
Frauds. 808, 311, 362. 
Free Academy, New York, 429, 430. 
Freeholders, number of. See Acres, <£c. 
Free Masons, 147. 

- li ola, 137, 138,701,708. 
Freestone, 568, 570. 

French cede Canada to Great Britain, 299. 
colonization, 353. 
colonies, 224. 
defeat of. 409. 
fortifications, 297, 519. 
grants on Lake Champlain, 233, 298. 
missions, 477, 5S0. 
1 i>t-. -■■-. 

Protestants, 371. 546. 
settlements, 264, 301, 363, 375, 376, 

377, 378, 454, 477, 478, 546. 
surrender, 574. 
traces of. 457. 477, 4S2. 
Tract, 224. 

War. See War, French. 
Freshets, 157. 162, 105, 302, 329, 558, 613, 

644, 682. 683. 
Friends, 142, 360. 
cemetery, 371. 

mission established by, 187, 195. 
Frigates on Lake Ontario, 358. 
Frisnell's Patent, 50. 
Frontiers, 297. 
Frontenac. expedition of, 408, 478. 

Fort, 519. 
Fruit culture. 198, 205, 327, 395, 402, 456, 
464, 4-81, 497, 512, 546, 569, 570, 609, 
661, 662, o--. 6S'.i. 606. 703, 706. 
Fur Company. North Western, 525. 
dressing. 368, 
trade. 232; 
Fulton, Robert, 83. 
Funds, lands belonging to, 46. 47. 
Furnaces, 109, 195, 198, 202. 211.212. 214. 
226, 228, 235,288,244,245,247,270, 
27:;. 2-2. 289,291,298,826, 856 
:;o-. :;-2. 388, 386, 386,890,898, ! 98, 
I, loo, 402, 401;. 40S,462, 400.471, 
484,608, 514, 516, 62 77, 667, 

682. 690, 691, 692, 698, 695. 
Furniture, 109, 2-m* 20l.:',o2.;;os, 402, 488, 
614,615, 
makers, by OOUnti 

Gage's Patent. 50. 
Game, proti ction of, 30. 
Gananoqui, expedition against, 864, 
roort, OoL Peter, 401. 47s. 014. 
Qardi an Trai t. 711. 

ning. lol. •<■ .'.ol. 544.546, 

547, 1,696,706. 
Onrd.-n Seeds, 211. 213.686. 
Gardner, Lyon, 636, 038. 

k, John Christian, 409. 

(iari 

Gaslight mmiifactory, 80, 317, 368, 421. 
. 093. 
springs. 26. 186, 203, 208. 213, 214, 230. 

2, 491, 
490. 07,616,691.720. 

Gnt<- rights, ho called. 550. 
Gauntl-t. running "f the, 452. 
rd, Willis, 486. 

479, 483. 
George, 63, 474, 482. 



General Assembly, 698. 

Court, 635, 640. 
Genesee Falls Portage, 386, 710. 

Tariff, 322. 
Genet, Edmund C, 555. 
Geographical and Statistical Society, 436. 
Geological survey, 24. 

Hall. 27, 160. 
George III, statue of, 423. 438. 
German Mats. 342, 344, 410. 

Methodists. 141. 
Ghent, treaty of, 18. 
Gibbs, the pirate. 419. 
GiUiland, William, 299, 300, 301, 305. 
Ginseng trade, 415, 469. 
Glass manufactory, 164, 240, 291, 355, 368, 
462, 470, 517, 521, 549, 55S, 589. 641, 
644, 668. 691. 
Glebes, 344, 566, 571, 607, 699. 
Glen's Purchase, 341, 343, 345, 346, 585. 
Glove and Mitten manufactory. 286, 311, 

314, 317, 318. 
Glue manufactory, 286, 368, 398. 
Goat Island, 455. 
Gold Beating, 286. 
Gold Pen manufactory, 368. 
Gold and Silver Refining, 368- 
Gore Tracts, 224, 263, 690. 
Gospel and School Lands, 47, 135, 250, 574. 
Governor, powers, qualifications, &c, 31. 
Governors Island, forts on, 419. 

Purchase. See Chenango. 
Grain, amount by towns. See Acres, &c. 

cradle manufactory, 484, 510. 

destroyed, 264. 

excellence of the several counties in, 
101. 

trade. Buffalo, 285. 
Grand Island Tract, 290. 
Granger, Gideon, 495. 
Grape culture, 101, 497, 628, 699. 
Graphite. 26. 267, 297, 300, 301, 302. 303, 
304, 337, 338, 340, 540, 670, 671, 685. 
Grass Seed, Sullivan CO., 641. 
Great Nine Partners' Tract, 269, 277. 
Green, Col., 708. 

Griffin, first vessel on upper lakes. 452. 455. 
Grindstone manufactory, 168, 223. 471. 
Gristmills, number by counties, 109. 

See Flour manufactory. 
Grocers, number by counties, 152. 
Guano manufactory. 637, 639. 
Gun manufactory, 246, 286, 699. 

barrel manufactory, 655. 
Gunpowder explosion, 489. 
Guthrie, Dr. Samuel, 359. 
1 in 1 la l'ercha Belting manufactory, 549. 
Guy Park, 412. 

Gypsum, 26. 110, 197, 203. 320. 326, 340, 388, 
392, 393, 394, 395, 398, 406, 45S, 469, 
473, 480, 481, 482, 484, 485, 491, 497, 
613, 614, 617, 688, 690. 

Haile, Gon., 577. 
Haldeman, Gen., 300. 
Half-Moon Patent, 5S5. 

Point, 593. 

Orphan Asylum, x. Y., 433. 

Hall, James, Pali tologiat and Geologist 

of tin- Fourth District, 24. 
Hall. X. K., 283. 
Hall ol Records X. Y., 423, 437. 
Halls of Justice V V.. 426, 437. 
Hame manufactory) 229. 
Hamilton. Al.-xan.'l.-r. 125. 270. 

College Telescope, 892. 
Hammer manufactory, 228. 

Hammond, .lain-/ D., 137. 

Hampton, Gen. Wade, 234,310. 
Harbor at Black Rock, 288. 
Buffalo, 284. 

in. nt X. Y., 46, 418. 

Hill. Roslyn, 560. 

masters, 116. 

N.-w V,.rk. 418. 
Harbors on the lakes, 22. 
Hardenburgfa Patent, 258, 331. 600. 663. 
Hardware manufactory, 216, 286, 471, 488. 
Harlem Canal, 41s. 

Harness manufactory, by counties, 109. 
Harper Patent, 50, 224. 
Harper. Col.. 316,410, 624. 

Robert, 226. 

Harperstield burned. 410. 

Harrisoft; Charles, 349. 

Harrison's l'atent. 50. 
Hartford Convention. 18, 180. 
Hartman, John A., 345. 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS. 



11 



Ilartwiek Patent, 633. 
ilasenclever's Patent, 341, 345, 348. 
Hat manufactory, 100, 198, 247, 286, 368, 
510, 707. 

by counties, 109. 
Hawley, Gideon, 137, 005. 

Jesse, 58. 
Hay, 101, 103, 241, 331, 3.32, 547, 554, 605. 

product by counties, 104. 
Head Quarters of Washington, Newburgh, 

500. 
Health Commissioner, 428. 

Officer, 110, 428. 

Public, 110, 427, 428. 
Heathcote, Caleb, 701, 702, 703. 
Height of mountains, table of, 19. 

lakes and rivers, 20, 22. 
Hellgate, 548, 549. 
Henderson's Patent, 341, 348. 
Hendrick, King, 298, 343, 671. 
Hennepin, Father, 452, 455. 
Henry Clay steamer burned, 70S. 
Herkimer, Gen. N., 264, 343, 345, 409, 410, 

461, 538. 
High Bridge, 424, 707. 
High Falls on Black River, 379. 
Highlanders, Scotch, 316. 
Highlands of the Hudson, 501, 542. 
High Rock Spring, Saratoga, 592. 
Highways, 39. 

Historical Society N. Y., 435. 
Hoe manufactory, 200, 229, 390, 537, 557, 

571, 575, 590. 
Hoffman, aged 118, 269. 
Holland Land Co., 52, 169, 187, 210, 2S0, 
288, 321, 322, 452, 468, 515, 516. 

agent of, 322, 390. 

co. buildings erected by, 320. 

names of members, 321. 

Patent, 467. 

Purchase, 280, 468, 513. 
Holley, Myron, 59. 
lome Association, 488. 
Home Missions, 146. 
Homeopathic Medical Societies, 149. 
Homestead exemption, 48. 
Honey, product by counties, 106. 
' Hoosick Patent, 556. 
Hop culture, 101, 223, 230, 340, 388, 412, 
414, 45S, 530, 537, 600, 603, 600, 007 
Hops, product by counties, 105. 
Horse mill, 373. 

races, colonial. 546. 

Rake manufactory, 716. 

Shoe manufactory, 235, 300. 
Horses, association for improving breed of, 
83. 

killed by Sullivan, 221. 

statistics of, by counties, 107. 
Horticultural Society, Brooklyn, 370. 
Hosiery manufactory, 160, 561, 617. 
Hospitals, 120, 161, 287, 356, 365, 368, 370, 

404, 419, 420, 425, 426, 427, 432, 505, 

524, 555, 561, 565, 702. 
House of Industry, 433, 434. 

of Refuge, 42, 404, 420, 425. 

Lord, death of, 298. 
Huddlestone executed as a spy, 276. 
Hudson, Hendrick, 156, 437, 559, 564. 
Huguenot settlements, 269, 503, 564, 661, 

663, 665, 703. 
Hunter Lodges, 354. 

Road, 042. 

grounds, 232, 636. 
Huntersfield Patent, 607. 
Hurley Patent, 663. 
Hutchinson, Mrs. Anne, 704, 705. 
Hypersthene rock, 296, 346. 

Ice, 162, 180, 365, 419, 484, 569, 663, 703. 

Idiotic, statistics of, by counties, 150. 
Asylum for the, 483, 488. 

Illiterate, statistics of, by counties, 150. 

Immigration, general statistics of, 122. 

Impeachment, 33. 

Imports, Canadian, 118. 

total, since 1700, 112, 114. 

Inclined planes on rail roads, 67. 

Independence, Declaration of, 244, 697. 

Independent Order of Odd F'ellows, 149. 

India Rubber manufactory, 419, 546, 708. 

Indian antiquities, 180, 181, 188, 194, 200, 
202, 203, 206, 220, 253, 260, 204, 283, 
293, 327, 355, 358, 359, 360, 361, 393, 
412, 414, 453, 458, 482, 493, 494, 498, 
499, 513, 516, 534, 651, 559, 588, 593, 
605, 616, 643, 644, 679, 704, 705. 



Indian disguise worn by anti-renters, 258. 
hung for murder, 198. 
invasions, 105, ISO, 210, 200, 202, 264, 
297, 331. 334, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 

347, 349, 372, 408, 410, 411, 412, 414, 
415, 416, 417, 401, 407, 477. 493, On:;, 
531, 533, 535, 504, 590, 597, 002, 604, 
607, 608, 642, 661, 662,, 064 60s, 679, 
705, 708. 

Indian Purchases, 46, 48, ISO, 187, 224, 
233,242, 243. 25S, 201, 270, 322, 332, 
389, 394, 398, 437, 478, 499, 54.",. 551, 
696, 634, 635, 038, 639, 698, 700, 701, 
703, 705, 707, 708. 
reservations, 48, 53, 187, 280, 308,309, 
311, 322, 324, 327, 353, 382, 384, 385, 
389, 393, 452, 462, 409, 478, 483, 485, 
680. 
Pass 303 

settlements, 180, 187, 210, 274, 287, 
308, 322, 382, 3S9, 393, 408, 415, 452, 
458, 465, 473, 476, 4S3, 493, 495, 498, 
499, 557, 559, 574, 5S0, 601, 632, 633, 
637, 638, 655, 678. 
statistics, 151. 

trade, 157, 162, 415, 452, 4S5, 682. 
tradition of, 458, 477, 482, 493. 
tribes on Long Island, 632, 634 
Indians at Montauk, 635. 
Industrial schools, 161, 370, 404. 
Inebriate Asylum, ISO. 
Infirmaries, 370. 
Ink manufactory, 593. 
Inland Steam Nav. Companies, list of, 82. 
Iuman's Triangle, 375. 
Inn Keepers, by counties, 152. 
Insane, statistics of, by counties, 150. 
statistics of, 469. 
See Lunatic Asylum. 
Insects in grain, 320. 
Inspection of steamboats, 115. 

of vessels, 42S. 
Inspector, City, 427. 
Insurance companies, 81, S3, 436. 
obsolete, list, 85 to S9. 
rates lowered by Croton, 424. 
Intermitting spring, 310. 
Invasions, hostile, 180, 209, 232, 234, 236, 
260, 262, 264, 280, 288, 290, 297, 299, 
308, 310, 311, 312, 316, 331, 334, 342, 
344, 345, 346, 347, 349, 354, 355, 356, 
358, 359, 365, 372, 404, 408, 410, 411, 
412, 413, 414, 415, 410, 417, 452, 460, 
461, 467, 477, 478, 503, 504, 513, 519, 
525, 531, 554, 556, 564, 569, 574, 57S, 
579, 5S0, 587, 596, 597, 599, 602, 604, 
607, 608, 624, 633, 634, 639, 642, 643, 
661, 662, 671, 679, 681, 682, 694. 
Iron bridge, 407. 

manufactory, 41, 110, 166, 220, 232, 235, 
236, 238, 241, 243, 245, 246, 261, 270, 
271, 273, 275, 276, 2S6, 296, 297, 300, 
301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 310, 349, 352, 
360, 361, 302, 363, 395, 419, 462, 404, 
471, 501, 508, 510, 521, 533, 535, 549, 
561, 573, 575, 577, 579, 580, 582, 617, 
652, 666, 668, 681, 699. 
ores, 19, 21, 25, 155, 105, 186, 21S, 232, 
235, 236, 237, 241, 243, 245, 207, 270, 
271, 273, 277, 296, 297, 300, 301, 802, 
303, 304, 305, 307, 310, 311, 312, 337, 

348, 349, 352, 355, 360, 361, 374, 376, 
377, 378, 388, 392, 395, 458, 464, 470, 
471, 501, 517, 521, 528, 540, 542, 543, 
563, 572, 575, 577, 581, 582. 589, 600, 
670, 674, 675, 6S0, 692, 693, 695, 717. 

Iron sand, 297, 340, 349, 374. 

Ives, L. S., 380. 

Ivory Black manufactory, 368, 563. 

Jail limits, Jefferson co., 352. 
Jails. See County Buildings. 
Japanned Cloth manufactory, 368. 

Ware manufactory, 286. 
Jay Ore Bed, 581. 

Treaty, 519. 
Jemison, Mary, the white woman. 711, 712. 
Jersey City, relations with New York, 429. 
Jerseyfield Patent, 341, 347, 348. 
Jervis, John B., 423. 
Jesuit missions, 408, 415, 477, 519. 
Jews, attempt to collect, 290. 
Jogues, Father, 435, 477. 
Johnson Hall, 316, 318, 409. 

Guy, 315, 341, 346, 409, 412. 

Sir John, 300, 315, 316, 409, 410, 413, 
415, 602, 605. 



Johnson, Sir William, 298, 816, 317. 318, 
848, 348, 409, 412, 452, 512. 592, 071, 
072. 

Indian children of, 315, 348. 
Johnston, Bill, 860, 

Joncaire, , French adv< nturer, 452. 

Jones, Samuel, charity fund, 549. 
Judicial Department, ','■',. 428. 

districts, 34. 
Julia, encounter of the -< hooner, 574. 

Junction Canal Company, 21S. 
Jurisdiction, is, :;:;. 34, 418. 
Justices' courts, 34. 
Juvenile delinquents, 42, 420. 
Asylum, 433. 

Kakiate Patent, 568. 

Kane brothers, 412. 409. 

Kaolin, 301, 675, 567. 

Kast's Patent, 341, 348. 

Kayaderosseras Patent, 585, 587. 

Kidd, William, the pirate, 570 

Kinderhook Patent, 247. 

Kingsborough Patent, 317, 318. 

Kingsbury Patent, 0S5. 

King's College. See Columbia College. 

King's District, 241, 243. 

King's Ferry, 569, 699. 

King's Garden. 356. 

Kirkland, Rev. Samuel. 461, 464, 485, 499 

Kirkwood, James P., 369. 

Klock's Field, battle of, 410, 417. 

Knapp, Uzal, 509. 

Knitting mills, 166. 558, 590. 

Kortright Patent, 202. 

Kosciusko, Thaddeus, 504, 586. 

Laboratories, 248, 368, 419, 464, 505, 549. 

Laborers, number by counties, 152. 

La Cole surprised. 234. 

La Fayette, Marquis de, 27. 410. 467. 

La Hontan, Baron, 288, 404. 

Lakes, general sketch of, 20. 

Lake George Steamboat Companies, 82. 

Lake ridges, 351, 355, 361, 395. 449, 453, 

512, 514. 524, 688, 693. 
Lallemant, Father, 477, 479. 
Lamp and Lantern manufactory, 
Lampblack manufactory, 593. 
Lancasterian schools. 125, 160. 246, 560, 

599, 657. 
Land Office, 322, 323. 

Commissioners of, 46, 494. 

attacked by a mob, 210, 322. 
Land patents, list of, 49. 
Landslides, 303, 413, 560. 
Land, State, how sold, 40. 

tenure and title of, 46 

under water, 40, 418, 410 
Lansing's Patent, 341, 343, 348. 
Lantern manufactory, 286. 
La Salle, visits Niagara Falls. 455 
Last manufactory, 286, 705. 
Lath manufactory, 289. 
Law, George, 424, 684. 
Law Department, New York. 427- 

Library & Institute, 435. 

libraries, 287, 369. 

schools, 161, 275. 
Laws, 29, 30. 

Lawyers, number by counties, i 
Lay, Amos, 580. 

Lead ore, 25, 241, 243, 267, 340, 355, 374, 
378, 407, 506, 52S, 573, 579. 581. 046, 
660, 686, 704. 

Pipe manufactory, 362, 657 
Leake & Watts Asylum, 433. 
Lease, law respecting lands under, 40. 

tenure of, 273, 471. 

lands under, Delaware Co., 258. 

Indian, 462. 
Ledyard Canal, 484. 
Legislature, 28. 

at Kingston, 662. 

at Poughkeepsie, 276. 

dispersed, 26. 

New York City, 420. 
Leisler, Jacob, 700, 703. 
Le Moyne, F'ather. 479. 
Lery, M. de, 460, 467. 
Le Roy's Patent, 603. 
Le Roy, Bayard & McEvers, 321, 468. 
Lewis, Governor Morgan, 272. 
L'Hommedieu, Ezra, 125. 

Patent, 341, 343, 34*. 
Liancourt. Duke de, 498. 
Liberty poles cut down, 344, 43S. 



12 



IXDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Librari-s. 27. 4«. 102, 123, 128. 127. 139, 
144. 145. 246, 2*7. 309. 3*3. 391.403. 
432, 434, 454) 475, 488, 4-9, 505, 524. 
school district, 185, 137. 
License question. 147. 
Lieutenant Governor, powers and duties 
of. . 
it manufactory, 367. 

ns. 121. 122. 885, 544, 550, 631. 
Life leasee, 242. 

and health insurant • 
Lighth..ii- -. 120. 216,271, 280, 284.297. 
. 356, 358. 360. 399, 403, 419, 524, 
527. " 77.634,635,636, 

• 706. 
Lime manufactory, l"'.'. 110. 186, 197 

252, 279. 301, 805, 881, 340. 381, 383, 
39!. 162,474,484,485,512, 

568. 569. 570. 590. 613. 615, 649, 654, 
- 666, 670, 6*3. 690, 693, 700. 
rrace. 288, - - 
LincMaen Purchase, 389. 
Lincoln, General i 
Lindsay's Patent, 341, 343. 581. 
l.i! so mannfii I ry, 237, 569. 

f Propt rtv. _ 
Liquorice manufactory. 368. 
:'- Patent, 841. 
. irv associations and societies, 144, 

mire Fund. 46. 125, 126. 
-. 47. 
Lithography, 28 
Lit . *4. 

Nin< Partners' Tract, 2 -"2. 273. 
Manor, 242. _■ 4 7 . 
:.;. 242, 244. 848, 003. 
Robert R, 32, - t, 147. 
a Ne^k Manor. 551. 
I. : -. *: 

when lands are sold und'>r, 40, 48. 
Lock """"*" 

,679, 596. 
canal, 4.". . 

 • iry, 598. 
••ban . bief. 200. 
1/.^ navigation, 297, 

French partisan. 672. 
i fjriji=, (New York city poor,) 
549. 
Lotbiniere, grants to. 298. 
l/'i- 12 12 556. 

- I'liilippe, travels in X. T., 219, 404, 

•nor. 564. 

Lumber, U0, 160, 105. 166,168, 170, 171. 

176, 1-::. 186,188, 1-9,190, 193, 

l'.<4. 1 '.<:,. 211. 214. 215. 21-. 22'i. 221. 

238,248,257,2 

264,265,286,2 - 16,801, 

1,811,812, 

7,376,87 

! - ' 
I, 590, 

620 

; 
 

. 518. 
1. 
Lj 

In Asylun 
Lynda, Klnni. U 

a, Jane.  
M 1) rial I. D 

; 
206. . 
24 

293, 'd:. 

- 

; i s 

691, 593. 606. • 

: 

693,609. 
Marhin-rv manufactory. 1 

411 

Machinista. number by count 
Machin - Patent, 48, 841 17, 41 

M il's Patent, 342 
Macomb, Alexander, 352, 579. 



Macomb. General. 234. 

Macomb's Purchase, 48, 308,375. 458, 572, 

574. 581. 
Magazines, military, 44. 
Magdalen Female Benevolent Society, 433. 
Magnetic machine. 297. 
Mail routes by railroad and steamboat, 123. 

early. 409. 

ocean. 124. 
Mail senice, general statistics, 122, 123. 
Malignant fever. 428. 
Malleable iron. 471. 

Malt manufactory. 160. 166, 368, 618, 691. 
Manganese, 26, 241, 267, 600, 704. 
Manhattan Company. Ml. 424. 
Manor of Pox Hall. 062. 

IVm. Gilleland attempts to found. 305. 

Btaten island. 564. 

Wi -trh.sterco., 698, 703, 706, 707. 

Fordham. 707. 

Rensselaerwyck. See /?• nsselaerwyck. 

Livingston. See Lii-ingston. 

Cortland. See Cortland. 
Manors, list of Colonial. 49. 
Manual Labor Schools, 283. 
Manufactures, statistics of. 109, 286, 436. 
Maple sugar, 10L 

Marble. 26, 41. 109, 267, 271. 273. 274. 286, 
300, 301, 368, 376, 418, 577, 581. 590, 
670, 671, 696,699, 700, 702, 704, 708. 

cemeteries. 42s. 
Marine barracks, 368. 

clav. 572. 573. 5*0. 

court. 35, 117. 428. 

Family Asvlum, 566. 

Fund, 117. 

Hospital, 117, 120, 368. 

railways, 286, 368, 525, 581. 

Society. 434. 
Markets. 2*0. 427. 706. 
Marl. 186, 218, 241. 250, 252. 267, 273. 274. 
279, 292. 318, 320, 3S8, 391, 394, 395, 
458, 474, 540, 614, 619, 688, 690, 691, 
693, 710. 
Marthas Vineyard, 18, 49. 
Martial law, Delaware CO., 410. 
Marvin's Patent, 347. 
Masons, number by counties, 153. 
Massachusetts, attempt to settle on the 
Hudson. 242. 

claims, 242, 494. 

lands, 52. 

pre-emption, 18. 48. 

Ten Towns, 48, 180. 
Massacre, Indian, 661, 664, 672, 685, 700. 
Mastodon, skeleton of, 501, 548. 
Matchbox manufactory, 377. 
Mayors. 39, 420. 

Mayville land office sacked, 322. 
Mechanics' Association, 403. 

In-titute. 435. 
Mechanical trades, total number of per- 
sons engaged in. 153. 
Medical Colleges. 12., 2-7. ."43. 430, 498. 

Bodeties, 126, 149. 150,287, 48L 
Medicinal extracts, 241, 248. 
Mi _•-. Colonel, 039. 
Melodeon manufactory, 286. 

. 706. 
M- mi nites. 141. 
Mercantile Colleges, 139, 287. 

Library. 4.;.". 
Merchants, number by counties, 153. 
Mi rchanta 1 Exchange, 488. 

leal observations. 126. 
Methodist Airi. an Church, 139. 

 ngregatlonal Church, 140. 

Bpiac ipa] i Out. h. 141. 
in Chun b. 141. 

Primitive Chun b. 1 IS, 
• I bun b. ill. 
rmed, 143. 

M • •«!• v in. 1 11. 

litan Police, 366, 420. 504. 
Midge, ravages 33, 395, 512, 518, 

717. 

Millinery, by counties, lln. 
ip, Klag ira. 48. 

505. 

district*, 4,'J. 

bsatl 11. 43. 
i. 46, 354. 
stations. 419. 

: 24, 473, 478, 610, 
090,691. 
Militia called out. 2.'.9, 269, 437. 
laws. 4-X 44. 
officers, 43. 



Militia, services of 565. 
Milk market. 101, 268, 273, 277, 501, 502, 
606, 510, 511, 540, 543, 544, 550, 554, 
557, 568. 570. G96. 
Miller, David C, 323. 

Rev. Win., 6*3. 
Millers, number of, by counties, 153. 
Milliners, number of, by counties, 153. 
Mill Iron manufactory. 297. 
Millstone manufactory, 2S6, 355, 468, 641, 

600. 
Millvard Tract. 398. 

Mineral localities. 26. 267. 296. 352. 361, 
302. 374, 378, 407, 540, 563, 572.573, 
576, 577, 579, 582, 584, 600, 604, 606, 
675, 698. 
springs. 26, 155. 159, 163, 164, 165, 16S, 
170, 173, 175, 178, 186, 188, 195, 213, 
221, 229, 241, 244, 248, 257, 267,279, 
282, 301, 302, 305, 312, 320, 324, 325, 
332, 343, 345, 347, 349, 355, 356, 357, 
359, 360, 361, 363, 375, 377, 378, 379, 
382, 386, 392, 393, 394, 402, 413, 455, 
456, 458, 462, 463, 470, 481, 482,484, 
488, 491, 497, 503, 515, 532, 534, 537, 
546. 552, 554, 557, 558, 579, 590, 591, 
592, 593, 607, 620, 650, 656, 664, 679, 
683. 688, 692, 696, 702, 704 
Mines, 25, 570, 660. 
Road, 503, 642. 
Mining. Mechanical. & Chemical Cos., 80. 
Minisink, battle of, 503. 
massacre. 503. 
Patent. 503. 
Mint, 122. 509. 
Minuet, Peter, 437. 
Mirage, 352, 705. 

Missions. 139 r 142. 146, 187,195,273,274, 
308, 370, 393, 404, 431, 434, 477, 519. 
Mitchell's Cave. 416. 
Mobs, 210. 269, 322, 438, 549, 565, 601. 
Mohegans, 697, 704. 
Mohawk Indians, 408. 
River rifts, on, 23. 

settlements. See Herkimer and Mont- 
gomery cos. 
Molang, a French Partisan, 686. 
Molding mill, 707. 
Montauk, 632, 633, 635, 638. 
Montcalm, Marquis of, 298, 519, 672. 
Montgomery, Richard, 276, 299. 
Montour, Captain, 624. 
Montour, Catharine, 610. 
Montreal, expedition against, 408. 
Monument to Herkimer voted. 343. 

to martyrs of prison ships, talked of, 

372. 
to Paulding, 699. 

to Pike and others, disgraceful, 359. 
to shipwrecked persons, 547. 
to Van Wart, 700. 
to VI asbington, (corner stone,) 423. 
to Williams, 298. 
to Qcn, Worth, 423. 
Moody, Lady Deborah. 372. 
River Tract, 342,849. 
Moral Ian mission, 27:;. 274. 
Morgan, William, 323, 452, 495. 
Hormonism, 4'.<l. 497, 690, 693. 
Morris. I bief Justice, 705. 
Gouverneur, 5*. 37 
Honorary Creditor Tract, 321. 

I., "is. 7i >2. 

Ri serve, 160,821,882,494. 
Robert, 321, 621. 
Roger, 540, 541. 

till., of. 4»4. 
Morse, James 0., 210. 
Morse, 8. P. H.. 274. 
Mosaic code. 640. 
Mo un d s, Indian, 200. See Indian And- 

'1 1 1 Hies. 
Mount, murder of, 347. 
Mountain Ridge, 395, 512. 

systems of the State, 19. 
Mowers and Reapers, 405. 
Muck, 1*0. 198, 279, 292, 320, 388, 394. 474, 

618, 590, 614, 617, 618, 628, 688, 692, 

683. 
Miibs. number by counties, 107. 
Muller, Lewis A.. 391. 
Munro. Major, attack by, 687. 

Colonel, 672. 
Museum, 27, 432. 

Mu-i il As-o« iation, 287, 489. 
Mutual aid societies, 434. 
Mutual Insurance companies, 83. 
Myers Mine, 236. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



13 



Nail manufactory, 198, 235, 297, 300, 301, 

802, 501. 
Nantucket formerly in New York, 18. 

Narrows, 305, 373, 503. 
National societies, 434. 

Comp. Emancipation Society, 140. 
Natural Bridge, 074, 704. 
Nautical society, 434. 
Naval Depot, 868. 

Hospital, 45, 368. 

Lyceum, 309. 

stores, 245. 
Navigation, 22, 156, 272, 279, 296, 297, 418. 

companies, 04, 82. 
Navy Yard, 308. 
Neander, Dr., library of, 403. 
Necks of land, 544, 549, 550, 551, 631, 638, 

703, 706. 
Needle manufactory, 570. 
Newburgli, discontent of troops at, 504. 

Patent, 509. 
New Dorlach Patent, 603. 
New England Alliance, L. I., 633. 
Newgate Prison, so called, 4i. 
New Petersburgh Tract, 389. 
Newspapers, 157, 169,178,187,198,209.218, 
224, 233, 241, 251, 258, 268, 280, 297, 
307,315, 321, 330, 337, 341, 352, 366, 
375, 381, 389, 396, 407, 439, 451, 459, 
475, 492, 502, 513, 518, 530, 540, 545, 
553, 564, 568, 573, 585, 595, 602, 610, 
614, 620, 632, 642, 650, 055, 061, 671, 
678, 689, 697, 711, 718. 

discontinued, New York City, 442. 

New York, before Revolution, 431. 
New York State Agricultural College, 126. 

Harbor encroachment, 46, 418. 

Library Society, 435. 

Society, 101. 

system, geological, 24. 
Niagara River and Palls, 449, 450, 452, 455. 
Nickel 26. 
N icoll's Patent, 637. 
Nitschman, Bishop David, 274. 
Noah, Mordecai M., 290. 
Noble, Arthur, 337, 339, 349. 
Nobleboro' Patent, 342, 349. 
Noble's Patent, 48. 

Normal School, 125, 136, 137, 369, 429. 
Northern Inland Lock Nav. Co., 60. 
Notaries public, 35. 
Nott, Rev. Eliphalet, 532, 598. 
Noxious animals, 30. 
Nurseries, 398, 402, 498, 544, 546, 694, 703. 

for children, 420, 425, 420, 433, 549. 

Oakum manufactory, 286. 
Oats, statistics of, 101, 104. 
Oblong Tract, 18, 269, 540, 703. 
Observatories, 423, 464, 505. 
Ocean steamers, 82. 

mails, 124. 
Ocher, 175, 377. 
Odeltown, affair at, 234. 
Officers, State, county, and town, 40. 
Ogden Samuel, purchase by, 321. 

Tract, 321. 
Ogdensburgh taken, 574. 
Ohio Basin, 284. 
Oil cask manufactory, 638. 

cloth manufactory, 368, 468, 556, 590, 
657, 658. 

manufactory, 198, 286, 293, 357, 368, 
390, 402, 515, 532, 549, 556, 567, 618, 
632, 637, 639, 657, 691. 
Old Fort, so called, 327. 

Military Tract, 235, 237, 240. 

Pre-emption Line, 494. 

School Baptist Church, 139. 
Omnibus routes. New York City, 429. 
Oneida Community, 392. 

Indians, friendly, 410, 596. 

Reservation, 389. 

River Improvement, 62. 

stone, 458. 
Oothoudt's Patent, 48, 468. 
Ophthalmic Hospital, 432. 
Optical Instrument manufactory, 392. 
Ordnance, Bummary of. 45. 
Organ manufactory, 286, 468. 
Oriskany, battle of, 342, 410. 412, 414, 461. 
Orphan Asylums, 161, 200, 247. 275, 370, 
403, 419, 425, 420, 433, 488, 51S, 524, 
561. 
Oswegatchie District, 575. 
Overseers of Highways, 39. 
Owasco Lake Improvement, 63. 
Oxen, statistics by counties, 106. 



Oysters. 40, 544, 549, 550, 503, 567, 632, 
630, 638, 704. 

Page, David P., 137. 

Pad manufactory, 280, 297, 301, 385, 482, 
536, 570, 657. 

Paine, John, 242. 
Thomas, 703. 

Paint many.. 312, 308, 402, 419, 549, 555. 

Painted Post, 624. 

Painters, by counties, 153. 

Palatinates, 242, 245, 408, 409, 412, 415, 416, 
509, 001. 603, 005, 006, 667. 

Palisades, 21, 25. 

Palisades, (military,) 372, 373, 437. 

Palmer, Edmund, tory spy, 699. 
Erastus D., 487 
Mine, 236. 
Purchase, 585. 

Paper Box manufactory, 317. 

manufactory, 110, 166, 199, 200, 215, 
228, 241, 243, 244, 247, 248, 274, 277, 
286, 297, 317, 330, 334, 345, 346, 352, 
362, 375, 377, 384, 385, 390, 402, 407, 
466, 484, 485, 4S7, 504, 510, 510, 527, 
538, 550, 556, 557, 558, 561, 570, 584, 
689, 590, 593, 605, 600, 610, 634, 657, 
666, 704. 

Pardoning power, 31. 

Pardons, statistics of, 36. 

Parish, David, 580. 

Parker, Col., 266. 

Parks, 369, 422, 423. 

Parsonage, Queens, 413. 

Passengers, statistics of, 117, 122. 

Patchin, Gen., 603. 

Patent Leather manufactory, 286, 368. 

Patents, Land, 46, 48, 49, 53, 258, 341, 408. 

Pathological Society, New York, 431. 

Patriot " War," 235, 354, 357, 360, 452, 574, 
575 

Patroon, title of, 159. 

Paulding, John, 699. 

Pauw, Michael, 564. 

Peaches, quantity by counties, 107. 

Pearling Mill, 593. 

Pearl barley, 482, 484. 

Pears, quantity by counties, 107. 

Peas, statistics by counties, 105. 

Peat, 232, 237, 241, 267, 337, 394, 458, 474, 
505, 540, 570, 629, 071. 

Peg manufactory, 317. 

Pelham Manor, 703, 704. 

Pell, Thomas, 700, 703, 704. 

Pemaquoit, 18. 

Pendergrast sentenced, 269. 

Penet Square, 48, 353, 357, 360. 

Penitentiaries, 156, 280, 365, 425, 475. 

Peppermint, 689. 

Oil manufactury, 691. 

Perache's Tract, 48. 

Percentage of population, 151. 

Perry, Commodore, gifts to, 423. 

Personal liabilities of stockholders, SO. 

Pestilence, 428, 601. 

Petrie's Purchase, 342. 

Petroleum springs, 168, 173, 1S6. 

Pharmacy, College of, 431. 

Phelps and Gorham Purchase, 321, 382, 398, 
494. 

Philippe, Louis, 404, 498. 

Philipsburgh Manor, 700, 702, 704, 708. 

Philipse Patent, 540, 541. 

Philosophical Instrument man'y., 286. 

Physicians, by counties, 153. 

Piano manufactory, 160, 228, 286, 468, 509, 
685. 

Pickle manufactory, 707. 

Picq uet, Francis, 574. 

Pictured Rocks, 380. 

Pierrepont Estate, 376, 378. 

Piers, 156, 280, 284, 350, 367, 419, 422, 524. 

Pike, Z. M., monument to, 359. 

Pilots, 115, 116. 

Pine plains, 156, 312, 351, 638. 

Pin manufactory, 275. 

Pipe clay, 26. 

Pistol manufactory, 699. 

Pitcher, Lieutenant Governor, 685. 

Pitt, statue of, 438. 

Plains, Hempstead, 544, 547, 548. 

Plane manufactory, 286. 

Plan of union proposed, 162. 

Planing mills, 160, 205, 220. 228, 235, 237. 
239, 286, 289, 292, 2y3, 317, 347, 367, 
368, 393, 399, 401, 402. 405, 406, 454, 
466, 500, 514, 546, 590, 59S, 604, 610, 
617, 025. 



Plank roads, 39, 80, 159, 179, 235, 236, 258, 
284, 311, 321, 354, 459, 515, 518, 5%, 
601, 042. 

Plaster mills, 110, 205, 221, 228, 229, 238, 
244, 247, 271, 274, 307, 385, 808, 
400, 401, 4110, 454, 468, 4s4, 559, 618, 
662, 657, 682, 083. 

Plate of Johnson family, 316, 400, 410. 

Plattsburgh attacked, 2:14. 

Plow manufactory, 244, 454, 460, 515, 699. 

Plums, by counties, 107. 

Pocket Book manufactory, 286. 
Point an Per, 233, 237. 
Police Department, 420. 

Political societies, 434. 
Poor, associations for relief of. 287,370. 
county and town, 161, 168, 179, 186, 
l'.IS, -n>. 211, 21S. 223, 2:;:;. 241, 261, 
258, 208, 280, 297, 307, 314, 320, 830, 
341, 352, 375, 881, 388, 390, 407, 425, 
427, 434, 451, 459, 475, 492, 502, 513, 
518, 530, 540, 5^0, 553, 595, 600, 614, 
634, 635, 636, 637, 638, 630, 642, 649, 
654, 661, 671, 078, 689, 690, 711, 718. 

statistics of, 37, 38. 

Superintendents of, 30, 36. 
Popham, Major Win., 705. 
Population, total, by counties, 150. 

by towns. See Acres, dim. 

comparative, 151. 

of cities, 371, 404, 435, 436, 469, 599. 
Porcelain manufactory, 367, 308. 
Portages, 22. 23, 460, 466, 519, 528. 
Portage Falls, 380, 711, 713. 
Porter Road, 042. 
Port of New York, 438. 
Portrait gallery, 495. 
Portraits in Capitol, 27. 
Ports of entry, 111, 216, 399, 438, 638, 694. 
Port Wardens, 116. 
Postal arrangements, 122, 123. 
Post office, 123, 437. 
Potash, 415, 518. 

Potato culture, 101, 105, 639, 682. 
Potsdam sandstone quarries, 312. 
Potter, Kev. Alonzo, 137, 270. 
Potteries, 286, 468, 691. 
Potters' Field, 420, 423, 425, 426, 428. 
Pouchot, M., surrender of, 574. 
Powder mills, 504, 559. 
Premiums for domestic manufacture, 102. 
Presbyterian Church, 141, 142. 

United, 139. 
Prevost Patent, 333. 
Prideaux, Gen., 452. 
Primitive Methodists, 142. 
Printers' Library, 4:;5. 

number by counties, 153. 
Printing cloths, 509. 

offices by counties, 110. 
Print manufactory, 272, 563, 565, 570 
Prison Association of New York, 42, 426, 

433. 
Prisoners sold as slaves, 661. 
Prisons, 41, 200, 238, 425, 426, 427. 
Prison ships, 371, 372. 
Privateering on St. Lawrence, 355. 
Prize fighting, Boston Corners, 243. 
Protestant Episcopal Church, 142. 
Provident and Mutual Aid Societies, 434. 
Provincial Congress, 662. 

Patent, 684. 
Provost, Sir George, 234. 
Public health, 427. 

Schools. 135. 

School Society of New York, 430. 
Pulteney, Sir William, 321, 3S4, 404, 621, 

622. 
Pump manuf; ictory, 2S6, 368, 400, 405. 463, 

598, 617. 
Putnam, Gen. Israel, 298, 371, 450, 504, 

540, 541, 672, 682, 685, 6S6. 
Puts Rock, 686. 

Pyroligneous Acid manufactory, 182. 
Pyrotechny, 2S6. 

Quackenboss, John, 685. 

Quaker settlement, 366. 
Springs, 591. 

Quarantine, 18, 31, 116, 117, 419, 427, 428, 
563, 565, 566. 

Quarries. 26. 41. 155, 1 65, 107, 108, 170, 172, 
173, 175, 190, 191, 192, 197, 201, 204, 
205, 208, 213, 214, 215, 218, 223, 243, 
245, 207, 270, 271, 279, 282, 284. 301, 
305, 312. 314, 318, 320, 331, 332. 340, 
341, 343. 346. 347, 349, 359, 381, 383, 
385, 393, 395, 400, 407, 411, 449, 454, 



14 



IXDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Quarries, continued. 

468, 463.4(4. 407. 470. 471. 473, 482, 

483.4-4. 485, 491, 497. 512, 615, 517, 

52-. _ 540,642, 666, 572 • : - 

681. '-7. 500, 618, 616, 617, 660, 662, 

60.-. 

700. 702, 7 4. 7< .. 708,718, 714, 715. 

Quarter Bales, 

Quartz er\ -t lis, 840, 848, 649. 

Queensborongh Patent, 5S5. 

'■':. -77. 
Quitrents. 48, 242, 258, 699, 701, 704. 
Quogue Purchase, G38. 

Race cour- », 550. 

Baiting, - 

Kail Roads. Canadian. 119. 
Commissi t  .-. ' 9. 
employe) -. by counties, 153. 
gauge, 74. 

general article on. 66. 
notices of, 71. 112. 166, 159. 109, 170, 
172. 173. 174. 17'.'. l-o. 1-2. 1-4. 1-',. 
1-7. 189, 191, 192, 198, 194, 201,203, 
.... ,208,209,214, 218,219,220, 
224. 282,2 237,238, 241, 244. 245. 
- - 1 248, - -. 265,268, 270, 271. 

-■ -• . - 17, 810, 312, 

821,324, . . i, 341, 345. 34'. 

35-;. " 7,381,382,; 33,384, 

7,3 18, 899, 400, 

401, 402,4 8,405, 4 17, 416, 451, 454. 

7. 41 -. 470, 471. 

475, 480, 482, 4-3. 4-4. 488, 495, 496, 

"'.. 507, 508, 

>16,518, 520, 521.530, 

.. .. • .  ,648, { 19, 550, 

" • '. 'w3,568,569.57'i. 

571. ' . " : ::. : 

60". 612,614,617,618,620, 

630. " II. 642, 650, 651, 

652. J, 78,1 39, 69 I, 

661. 2. 1 1,700, 

701, " - 1 06, 707, 708, 

711. 
prqj 76 to 79. 

statistics •■!'. 74. 75. 
Rake manufactory, 260, 657. 

 Richard, 566. 
Randalls Island, 42. 420, 425. 
I i _ _ _ 
Bank of military officers. 43. 
Bapelje, Barah, 371, 437. 

. mannfai tory, 546. 
Beaches on the Hudson, 542. 
Bual. Oonnl 

117, 524. 
BecorJ Commissi 
. 
J: • 

Pn 1 4.;. 

1 u.a li.ui an.] Nova Sc :i Hi, 235, 
Delinqnenl 

• ry, 2-0. 

rsity, 125. 126, 635. 

: birth*, marriagi 9, and 

100, 144. 

. Manor, 1 . 165, 

Beorr Id nnd silver m 

Urmi. 
Betv l /•'■ >trvmri. 

116. 

' 11. 
• ion. 

i iry claimi 

li li.-iri i- ii - • 
Rii I 

mat, 11 '. 
Road, 512. 693. 
 

■ketch, 20. 

Roads, opening of 

Bobert, Louis J., grant t . 2 ■-. 



Robinson. Beverly. 540, 542. 699. 
Rock City, so called, 173, 192. 
Rucking stones, 701, 705. 
Rogers, Piatt. 300. 

Robert, 298. 674. 685. 701. 
Rolling mills, 199, 235, 297, 569, 571, 666, 

699. 708. 
Roman Catholic Church. 143. 
Roofing slates, 26, 243, 267, 555, 677, 682, 

684. 
Rope manufactory, 228, 286, 368, 376, 464, 

556, 55S, 634, 693. 
Rosin Oil manufactory, 368. 
Ross and Butler, 416. 
R. --. Major, 316. 
Rotunda. N. Y.. 423, 437. 
Royal Grant. 315, 342, 343, 345, 347,348. 
Rubber Toy manufactory. 272. 
Rumbout's Patent, 209, 272. 
Rural cemeteries. 100. 166. 200, 275, 371. 

372. 373, 398, 404, 428, 549, 577, 599! 

703, 704. 
Rye, where most raised, 101. 
statistics of, 104. 



Sable Iron Co., 236. 
Sackets Harbor. 525. 
Saekett. Richard. 270. 
Sacondaga Patent, 317. 
Saddle & Harness manufactory, by cos., 
153. 
Tree manufactory, 691. 
Safe manufactory. 160, 368, 402, 561. 
Safety fond, 89. 
Sail manufactory. 2 S 6. 
Sailors' Snug Harbor, 566. 
St. Hilary. Count. 521. 
-t. Lawrence Canal. 119. 
St. Leger, Gen, 166, 342. 410,461, 467, 586. 
St. Regis Indians, 233, 308. 
Saleratns manufactory, 401. 
Salisbury, Aaron, 290. 
Salmon fisheries, 124, 520. 
Salometer, 480. 
Salt holes, so called. 4S8. 

manufactory. 110, 198. 203, 399, 405, 
479, 483, 487,488, 489, 512, 514. 515, 
522. 532, 032, 692, 693. 
marshes and meadows. 365. 372. 373, 
418, 544, 546, 547, 548. 550, 563, 566, 
631, 633, 635, 636, 638, 696, 706. 
Springs Lands. 47. 
,-]n ii. -. Sei Urine Springs. 
wells, 479, 4S0, 483. 
Salvage, 117. 

Sandpaper manufactory, 546. 
Sand plain, 584. 
Sandstone terrace, 577. 
Sandy Creek battle. 525. 
Sandy Hook fort, 565. 
light. 419. 
i . W. P. S.. 368. 
Saratoga Patent. 585. 
i. Henry G., 59. 
Sash & Blind manufactory, 110, 188, 228, 

22". 211. 21-. 255. 270. 2SB, 297, 301, 
,';o2. :;o-. ::-:.. 3MI. 393. l"7. 413, 154, 
463. 4-4. 510, 515. 554. 575, 582, 590, 
596, 603, 652, 686. 716. 
Satinet manufactory. 201. 5o*. 

- bank-, 99. ion, 100, 430, 040. 

s.iw manufactory, 286, 506. 
Sawmills, by counties, 110. 

- i manufactory, 848. 
Scale manufactory, 402, 

ins, 2' 1. 
Si haghticoke Indians, 559. 
.»■ honai i" Invaded, 816, 
School Comm 88, 135,137, 139. 

Districts, 81, 186, I 

I i.n. I. 40. 47. 186. 

General Irtli le on, 135. 

h 

Indian, 412. 11 

Lands, it. 

stati-ti. -. 138. Sen Acres, <fe. 

 mmon, 3«, 135. 

Schuyler, Han Sort, 342. 
r • i.t . • 342. 
Petei 

I'inlip. 816, 410. 591, 
Patent, 4b'.. 602, 603. 
manufactory, I 
Scriba, George, 61 
Scrfba'fl Patent, 48, 619, 52L 



Scythe manufactory, 274. 312, 466, 4S3, 590, 

617. 
Sealer of Weights and Measures, 30, 38. 
Seal of Broome Co. presented, 178. 

Delaware Co. adopted. 257. 
Seamen's Friend Society, 146. 
employed, 113. 
Hospital. 120, 434. 
Retreat. 500. 
tax upon, 117, 120, 566. 
Seamless Bag manufactory, 590, 6S3. 

clothing, 271. 
Seat of Government. 26. 438. 
Secretary of State, 32, 125. 
Secret Societies, 147. 
Seigniories, French, 233, 298. 
Select schools under Regents. 125. 
Seminaries, 200, 453, 454, 498. 533, 602, 713. 

See also Academies. 
Senate, 28. 

Districts, 28. 
Seneca Indians, 397, 452, 493. 

Lock Navigation Company, 62. 
River Improvement, 61, 62. 
Turnpike, 469. 
Serpentine, 670, 675. 
Serpent, tradition of, 493. 
Servis's Patent, 466, 468. 
Seventh Day Baptists, 143. 
Seward, William H., 200, 510. 
Sewers, New York, 425. 
Shad fisheries. 124. 
Shakers, 143, 166, 243, 248, 384. 
Shaunandhoi Patent. 585, 587. 
Shattuck, Artemas, 714. 
Shawl manufactory. 508, 598, 618. 
Shay, Daniel, 105, 603. 
Sheep husbandry, 107, 637, 686 
Shell. John Christian, 345. 
Sheriff murdered, 242. 

county, 35. 
Shingle manufactory, 110, 2S6. 290, 291, 
292. 293. 301. 33S, 454. 470. 523.520, 
527. 575, 580, 590, 611, 625, 667, 694. 
Shinnecock Indians. 638. 
Ship building, 115, 213, 2S6, 297, 352, 356, 
357. 358, 359, 367, 368, 399, 520, 525, 
549. 569, 570, 632, 633, 634, 636, 639, 
662. 686. 
canal. 2S4, 690. 
Timber Co.. 291. 
Shipments. Buffalo, 285. 
Shoe manufactory, 846, 373, 402, 548, 568, 

570. 705. 
Shovel manufactory, 705. 
Showmen. 706. 
Sickness. 081. 

Silk manufactory, 275, 2S6, 391, 566,570,657. 
SiUiman. Prof., analysis by, 324. 
Silurian rocks. 155. 
Silver Lake Tract. 711. 

mines, so called, 257, 337, 374. 
Plating. 2S0. 
traces of, 528. 

Ware manufactory, 110. 163, 368, 488, 
I 12 
Simcoes Queen's Rangers, 551. 
Skanandoa, Indian chief. 409. 

Skin.-. Philip. 299. 0-0. 

Skinners, 698. 

Slack Water Navigation Co., 614. 

Blate, 26. 

slab- <,-.. 267 270, 273. 

sin.- rescue, 189. 

Slavs. In. bans sold as. 661. 

Small Pox Hospital, 425. 

Smallw I. Col.. 701. 

Smith. C.I.. 462. 

Gcrrit, .".93.524. 
Joe, 491.467. 

Peter, lease of. 462, 

purchase of, 389, 393. 

William, II.. 034. 
Smuggling, 233,357. 
Sni II an. I /.iin rman's Tract. 342. 

Soap manufactory, 109, 286,368, 402, 509, 
698. 

Socialists. 392. 

Societies, Agricultural, 102. See Xew 
York Stab Agriculhtrai Society. 

Society for Promoting Agricultural Arts 
ami Manufactures. 101. 161. 
Promoting Useful Arts, 101. 
Soda manufactory, 286. 

Solar works. 479. 4S0. 
Solitary confinement. 41. 
Sons of Liberty, 423, 438. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



15 



Sons of Malta, 148. 
Spanish Brown, 25. 

relic, 477. 

invasion, 478. 
Spaulding, Solomon, 532. 
Specie, 113, 122. 

payment suspended, 90. 
Speculations, 306. 
Spenoer, Jolm C, 187, 323. 
Spies, 412. 

Spiritual rappings, 690. 
Spoke manufactory, 277, 590, 667. 
Springs, copious, 205, 277, 522, 570, 615. 
Spuytenduvvil Creek, 418. 
Squatters, '242, 243, 269, 290, 291, 358, 300, 

389, 394. 
Stage boat, 469. 

licensed, 553. 

rights, 469. 

routes, early. 496. 
Stair building, 110. 

Stalactites, 164, 416, 600, 604, 606, 607. 
Staley's Patent, 342, 344. 
Stamp Act, 438. 

Starch manufactory, 232, 237, 238, 240, 
286, 297, 307, 346, 468, 518, 521, 525, 
550, 581. 
Stark, Gen. John, 298, 556. 
State Engineer and Surveyor, 33, 54,^68, 69. 

Government, 28. 

Hall, 27. 

House, 26. 

Library, 27, 125, 126. 

Prisons, 36, 41, 42, 63, 200, 238, 704. 

officers, 41. 

reservations for villages, 288, 704. 

Roads, 322, 615, 655. 
Statue of George III. and Pitt, 423, 438. 

Washington, 423. 
Stave manufactory, 238, 262, 286, 290. 292, 

363, 487, 514, 522, 526, 618. 
Steamboat Companies, 82. 

mail routes, 123. 

statistics of, 115. 

tax, 54. 
Steamboats, 115, 162, 200, 214, 247, 275, 286, 
288, 307, 354, 356, 360, 368, 375, 399, 
418, 429, 452, 489, 495, 526, 550, 551, 
561, 573, 579, 584, 611, 615. 616, 620, 
627, 628, 655, 657, 664, 673, 687, 696, 
697, 699, 700, 703, 705, 708. 
Steam Engine nianufactory, 286, 525. 652, 

685. 
Stedman, William, 452, 455. 
Steele, O. N., murder of, 259. 
Steel manufactory, 270, 311, 508, 510, 540, 

566, 571, 701. 
Sterritt Tract, 321. 
Steuben, Baron, 48, 467, 484. 
Stevens, Ebenezer, 549. 

John C, 418. 
Stewart, Alvan, 210. 
Stilwellites, 140. 

Stirling, Earl of, IS, 550, 633, 635, 639. 
Stirling, Lord, 510, 564, 637. 
Stock, oreeding of, 277. 

amount of. See Acres, <fe. 
Stockade, 469. See Forts. 
Stone and Marble dressing, 153, 368, 663, 

666. 
Stone Arabia battle, 316. 

Patent, 317, 408. 416. 
Stone Heap Patent, 413, 603, 605. 
Stone heaps, 242, 605. 
Stone Ware manufactory, 286, 468. 
,Stove nianufactory, 160, 2S6, 561, 699. 
Strang, Daniel, execution of, 699. 
Straw, paper factory, 166. 
Streets, arrangement, New York, 422. 

Department, 422. 

inspection, 427. 
Stuart, Charles B., 368. 
Sturgeon fisheries, 124. 
Stuy vesant pear tree, 437. 

Peter G., 423. 
Suburban population, 429. 
Sugar Loaf Hill fortified, 299. 
Sugar refineries, 419. 
Sullivan. General, 219, 221, 371, 382, 410, 
478, 493, 531, 536, 564, 602, 609, 614, 
617. 
Sunday schools, 146. 
Superintendent Poor, 36. 
Superintendent Public. Instruction, 125, 

135. 
Supervisors, 30, 39, 420. 

Tryon County, 410. 
Supreme Court, 34. 



Surrogate, 34. 

Survey Fifty, so called, 479. 

Surveyor General, 33. 

Surveys of Holland Land Co., 322. 

Surveys of Lake Chainplain, 298. 

Suspension bridges, 235, 302, 412, 453,455, 

688. 
Susquehanna Navigation, 619. 
Swallow, steamer, wrecked, 331. 
Swedenborgian Church, 139. 
Swift, General John, 690. 
Swine, statistics by counties, 107. 

Taconic system, 24, 25. 

Tailors, by counties, 153. 
shops, by counties, 110. 

Tallmadge, Major, 634, 638, 701. 

Tammany Society, 434. 

Tanneries, 110, 153, 181, 183, 188, 193, 194, 
195, 198, 202, 205, 213, 219, 225, 228, 
230, 238, 239, 244, 248, 257, 259, 260, 
262, 263, 265, 282, 283, 286, 289, 290, 
291, 292, 293, 297, 302, 304, 305, 311, 
314, 316, 317, 318, 319, 330, 331, 332, 
333, 334, 338, 339, 342, 343, 346, 347, 
348, 350, 352, 360, 362, 363. 375, 377, 
3S5, 386, 390, 391, 392, 394, 400, 402, 
454, 462, 463, 465, 466, 468, 469, 470, 
483, 4S4, 505, 514, 515, 516, 520, 521, 
522, 523, 525, 526, 527, 529, 532, 533, 
534, 535, 536, 537. 538, 541, 554, 575, 
576, 584, 589, 590, 591, 598, 603, 604, 
605, 606, 607, 608, 610, 611, 612, 623, 
625, 627, 628, 641, 643, 644, 645, 647, 
649, 651, 652, 655, 657, 661, 663, 665, 
667, 668, 671, 675, 690, 691, 693, 695, 
699. 

Tape manufactory, 706. 

Tariffs, 111. 

Tarleton, Gen., 700. 

Tavern sign in verse, 222. 

Taxation, 48, 422. 

Tax sales, 48. 

Teachers' classes, 126, 138. 
institutes, 137. 
statistics of, by counties, 153. 

Tea destroyed in New York Harbor, 438. 

Teamsters, number, by counties, 153. 

Telegraph companies, list of, 81. 
Instrument manufactory. 

Temperance Society, New York State, 147. 

Ten Governors, 425. 

Ten Towns on St. Lawrence, 47, 572, 574, 
575, 576,577, 578, 579, 580, 581, 582. 

Tenure of lands, 46. 

Tertiary clays, 237, 296. 

Theater at Bath, 622. 

Theller, E. A., 405. 

Theological seminaries, 127, 200, 391, 403, 
430, 431, 533, 575, 707. 

Thermal springs, 26, 241, 247. 

Thermometer nianufactory, 248. 

Thimble manufactory, 636. 

Thorburn, Grant, 549. 

Thousand Islands, 577. 

Thread manufactory, 593, 597. 

Threshing machine, 657. 

Ticonderoga, 298, 299, 305, 671, 672, 673. 

Tidal estuaries, 365, 367, 372, 544, 546, 547, 
563, 696, 706. 

Tide mills, 371, 544, 546, 640, 696, 701, 705. 

Tides, 23, 156, 419. 

Tile manufactory, 160, 398, 499, 691. 

Tillier, Rodolph, 375, 377, 378. 

Timber stealing, 309, 311, 360, 580. 

Tin nianufactory, 368, 546, 618. 

Tinsmiths, by counties, 153. 

Tinware manufactory, by counties, 110. 

Titanium, 26. 

Title, controversy about, 299, 357. 

Tobacco and cigar manufactory, 110, 166, 
276. 286. 368, 468, 488, 693. 699. 

Tobacco culture, 101, 105, 219, 220, 221, 372, 
487, 689. 
Indian tradition, 482. 

Tompkins, Governor, 564, 705. 

Tonawanda Swamp, 450. 

Tonnage, American, compared with fo- 
reign, 112. 
Buffalo, 285. 

at different periods, 115, 116. 
by counties, 113. 
by districts, 112. 
coasting, 115. 
general article on, 115. 
on great lakes, 118. 
Oswego, 524. 
registered and enrolled, 111, 112, 115. 



Tool manuf'y, 300, .',91 , 393, 527. 590, 598. 

Topographical outli.ie of State, 19. 

Topping Purchase, 888. 

Tories, 163, 180, 345, 346, 398, 002, 607, 636. 

Tornado, 310. 

Totten & Crossfield's Purchase, 47, 337, 

:U2, 319. 
Town Clock manufactory, 390. 

halls, 239, 700, 707. 

meeting days, 30. 

powers of people at, 31. 

officers, 30, 40. 

Purchase, 638. 
Townsend Fund, Jamaica, 548. 
Townships patented, Delaware county, 

258. 
Tract societies, 145, 404, 489. 
Trading posts, 452, 519, 661. 
Transit Line, 321, 322. 

storehouse, 322,328. 
Trap rock, 501, 568. 
Treasure buried, 316. 
Treasurer, State, 32. 
Treaties, 18, 180, 224, 257. 290, 299, 344, 

382, 461, 478, 479, 661. 
Treaty, Reciprocity, 524. 
Trial of Zenger, 431. 
Triangular Tract, 321, 326. 398. 
Tribunals of Conciliation, 34. 
Trinity Cemetery, 428. 

Church, 434. 
Triphammer manufactory, 347, 391, 393. 
Trombois Mine, 236. 
Trumbull. Col. John, 385. 
Trustees of Academies, 126. 

school districts, 39 
Tryon, Governor, 26. 

county, ravages in, 411. 
Tub manufactory, 297, 466, 570, 590. 
Tufa, 26, 186, 395, 592. 
Tunnels, 68. 

Turkish present to Com. Perry, 423. 
Turner's Purchase, 705. 
Turning, by counties, 110. 
Turnpikes. 39, 182, 284, 601. 
Tuscarora Indians, 410, 452, 596. 
Twenty Towns on Chenango, 224 
Twine manufactory. 571, 593, 597, bo4. 
Type manufactory, 160, 286. 

Union College, 126, 549, 598. 

schools. 136. 138. 201, 214, 324, 346, 
359, 401, 405, 454, 4S3, 484, 487, 498, 
548, 580, 617, 618, 636, 691, 692, 712. 
Unitarians, 143. 
United Presbyterians, 139. 
United States Courts, 33. 

Deposit Fund, 125. 
Universal Friend, so called, 718, 719, 720, 

721. 
Universalists, 143. 
Universities. See Colleges. 
Upholstery, 286. 
Upton, Paul, letter from, 269. 

Vaccination, 432. 

Valuation by towns. See Acres, dx. 

Van Alstyne, Eva, 411. 

Van Buren, Ex-President, 247. 

Van Cortlandt. Jacob, 698. 

Stephen, 699. 
Vander Donk. 708. 
Vander Kemp, John J., 322. 
Van Driessen's Patent. 342. 
Van Home's Patent. 342, 343. 
Van Kleek House, 275, 276. 
Van Bensselaer, Killian, 156. 

Patent, 603. 

Robert, 316, 410, 417. 

Stephen, 59, 157, 553. 
Van Schaick, Col., 478. 

Mvndert, 424. 
Van Wart, Isaac, 700. 
Varnish manufactory, 549. 
Vaughan, Gen., 664. 
Vaughan's Patent, 342, 343, 346, 348. 
Verd Antique, 303. 
Vermont controversy, 18. 

militia at Pittsburgh, 234. 

negotiations with the enemy, 300. 

Sufferers' Tract, 224. 225. 
Verplancks Point. 504, 569. 
Veto power, 30, 31. 
Vice manufactory, 286, 598. 
Villages, officers of, 39. 
Vineyards, 205, 628, 699. 
Vlaie, Sacondaga, 314, 316, 318, 337. 
Voters, by counties, 150. 



16 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Vrooman's Land. 605. 

Patent, 4S, 342, 343, 34S, 349, 601. 

Wadsworth. James, 137. 3S2. 

Walk-in-the-Water, Bteamer, 288. 

Walloomsac Patent. 556, 686. 

ffalloons. settlement of. 371, 437. 

Walton's Patent, 52, 265, 342, 348. 
Tract, 4S9. 

Waiworth, Reuben II., 592. 

■Wampum. 635. 

Wards, date of formation, New York, 420. 

Marls Island. 117. 419, 420. 427. 

War of 1812-15 noticed. 45, 233, 353, 354, 
355, 356, 35S. 306, 372, 373, 398, 399, 
404, 437, 513. 520, 525, 555. 574, 579, 
5S1. 583, 633, 639, 687, 690, 694. 

Warren, Sir Peter. 315. 409, 419. 

Wars, French, 801, 805, 460, 461, 4<'~. 503, 
519, 533, 554, 556, 558, 5S6, 672, 685, 
686. 
Indian. 40S, 415. 416. 478, 493, 555, 556, 

559.588,5'.'7. 500, "'.1,700. 
Revolutionary. 164, ISO. 233, 242, 244. 
299, 331. 334. 306. 371. 415. 416. 531, 
437, 438'. 401. 407. 608, 504, 508, 519, 
533, 535, 537. 538. 545. 548. 549. 550, 
551. 554. 586, 587, 1 01, 004. 624, 633. 
635. 636, 637. 638. 639. 64 2. 643, 646, 
662, 663, 664, 668, C98, 699, 701, 702, 
707, 708. 

Washington College. 564. 

Washington, General George, 273, 371, 467, 
503. 504, 509. 536, 570, 699, 700. 
inangurat 1. 438. 

Wa-hington monument proposed. 423. 

Water Cures, 180, 204, 220, 344, 3S5, 470, 
- 408, 658. 

Waterlime. 24. 26, 155, 197. 199. 204. 207, 
279. 282, - 12, 805,820, 840,357, 874, 
388, 390. 393, 394, 395, 454, 458, 469, 
47:;. 482, 4*4. 485, 191, 497, .".12,514, 
600, 613, 660, 661, 662, 663, 664, 666, 
717. 

Waterman's Society, 434. 

Waterspouts, 352. 

Waterworks 160. 284. 312. 362, 3G3, 369, 
424. ! : . 561,697, 706. 

Watidns A Flint. 219. 610, 055. 

Watson's Tract, 342, 349, 375. 



Wawayanda Patent, 503. 500, 5G8. 

Wax, product by counties, 107. 

Wayne, Anthony, 509. 

Weavers, numlier by counties, 153. 

Webb, General, the "coward, 461, 407, G72. 

Webster, Bphralm, 479, 485, 4S9. 

Weeds, noxious, 39. 

Weights and measures. 38, 39, 427. 

Welland Canal. 119. 520, 525. 

Well, remarkable) 271. 

Wells family murdered, 531. 

Wells in N. Y., 41S, 424. 

Welsh settlement. 466. 

Wesleyan Methodists. 144. 

W ' -1. rn House of Kefiige, 42, 404. 

Inland Lock Navigation Co., 58, 346, 

461, 466, 596. 
West India Co.. 437. 
West Patent, 702, 703. 
W.st Point, 504. 
Whalebone manufactory, 546. 
Whale fisheries, 124, 247, 632,636,638,639. 
Whales, drift. 124. 635. 
Wharves, Now York. 422. 
Wheat, statistics of. 101, 104. 
Wheelbarrow manufactory, 482, 4S4, 665. 
Wheeler, Silas, 629. 
Whetstones, 223. 
Whip manufactory. 286. 
Whitehouse, Kev.'Dr.. 137. 
White Lead manufactory, 286, 368, 5G3, 

566, 660. 
Whiting manufactory, 368. 
Wilbur. Hervey B., 488. 
Wilkinson. General, expedition of, 310, 354, 

356, 357, 574. 
Jemima, 718, 719, 720, 721. 
Wilkins 1'oiut. 45. 
Willet'a Patent, 345. 
Willott, Colonel, 316, 411, 461, 607. 
Williams College founded, 298. 
Williams. David. 00.°,. 700. 

Kphr.um, 298, 671. 
Williamson, Charles, 384, 621, 622, G90, 

692, 694. 
Willis, N. P.. 652. 
Will of Sir Wm. Johnson, 315. 
Windmill, battle of, 575. 
Windmills, 635, 636, 637, 640. 
Window Shade manufactory, 368. 



Wire manufactory, 699, 708. 

Wolf, 580, 581. 

bounty frauds, 308. 

Woman's Hospital, 432. 

Wooden Ware manufac, 573, 580, 581, 591. 

Woodhull, General N., 371, 634. 

Woodworth, Lieutenant Solomon, 345. 

Woolen manufactory, 110, 166, 175, 194, 
199, 200, 203, 206, 212, 216, 220. 221, 
229, 244, 248, 255, 260 261, 263, 265, 
270, 272, 283, 289, 291. 292, 293, 301, 
332, 343, 344, 346. 356, 362, 379, 386, 
390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 400, 401, 402, 
400, 407, 411,412, 413, 410, 454, 463, 
466, 468, 471, 4S5, 480, 487, 505, 510, 
514, 522, 535, 554, 561, 569, 584, 593, 
597, 610, 611, 617, 618, 636, 651, 655, 
658, 662, 663, 668, 6S1, 682, 683, 685, 
695, 703, 704, 713, 715. 

Wool growing, 168, 178, 186, 198, 208, 218, 
223, 2S0, 320, 395, 492, 498, 609, 620, 
628, 688, 710. 

Woolsey, Lieutenant 525. 

Wooster, Ebenezer, 258. 

Workhouses, 280, 398, 425, 426, 475. 

Worth, General, monument to, 423. 

Wreekmasters, 117, 544, 631. 

Wright, Benjamin, 59, 70, 519. 
Silas, 576. 685. 

Wyandance, Montauk sachem, 633, 634, 
638. 

Wyoming massacre, 265, 410. 

Yarn manufactory, 276, 346, 505, 569. 
Yellow fever, 428. 
Yeo, Sir James. 399, 525, 694. 
Yorkshire, on Long Island, 365, 544, 545. 
Young, Brigham, 495. 

John, 326. 

Samuel, 59, 137, 481. 
Young Men's Association, 147, 161, 275, 
287, 369. 

Christian Association, 146. 

Christian Union, 147, 287. 
Young"s Patent, 342. 

Zenger, Peter, trial of, 431. 
Zinc ores, 26, 704. 
Zinzendorf, Count, 274. 
Zoological Garden, 423. 



GAZETTEER 



OF THE 



STATE OF IEW YORK. 



STATE BOUNDARIES. 




The State of New York is situated between 40° 29 / 40" and 
45° / 42" n. latitude, and between 71° 51' and 79° 47' 25" 
longitude w. of Greenwich. It is bounded on the n. by 
Canada, e. by Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, s. by 
the ocean, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, and w. by Pennsyl- 
vania and Canada. 

The Northern Boundary, commencing in the middle of Lake 
Ontario, n. of the mouth of Niagara River, extends eastward 
through the lake, midway between the opposite shores, to its 
E. extremity, thence north-easterly through the St. Lawrence 
River to the 45th parallel of n. latitude, and thence easterly 
in a gradually diverging line from the parallel, and terminating 
upon Lake Champlain 4,200 feet n. of it. 
The Eastern Boundary extends s. through Lake Champlain to its s. extremity, thence a short 
distance s. e. along Poultney River, and thence in an irregular line, but in a generally southerly 
direction, to Lyons Point, at the mouth of Byram River, on Long Island Sound. From this 
point the line extends eastward through the Sound, very near the Connecticut shore, to the e. 
extremity of Long Island, including within the limits of the State nearly all the islands in the 
Sound. 

The Southern Boundary extends from the e. extremity of Long Island along the ocean to the 
s. w. extremity of Staten Island, thence northward through the channel between Staten Island 
and New Jersey and through New York Bay and the Hudson to the 41st parallel of n. latitude, 
thence north-westerly to a point upon the Delaware at latitude 41° 20 / s., thence north-westerly 
along Delaware River to latitude 42° n., and thence w. along the 42d parallel to a meridian passing 
through the w. extremity of Lake Ontario. 

The Western Boundary, commencing upon the 42d parallel, extends N. to the middle of Lake 
Erie, thence eastward to the e. extremity of the lake, and thence n. through Niagara River and 
to the middle of Lake Ontario. 1 



1 The boundary through Lake Ontario is 175 mi.; through the 
St. Lawrence, 108 mi. ; along the Canada frontier, E. of the St. 
Lawrence, 62.75 mi.; through Lake Champlain, 105 mi.; along 
Poultney River, 17.25 mi.; the Vt. line, 8. of that river, 54.06 
mi.; the Mass. line, 50.52 mi. ; the Conn, line, to Lyons Point, 
on Long Island Sound, 81.20 mi.; through the Sound, 96 mi. ; 
along the ocean to the N. J. shore, 150 mi. ; through the Bay and 



Hudson River, to latitude 41° n., 44 mi. ; along the N. J. line, 
w. of the Hudson, 48.50 mi. ; through Delaware River, 78 mi. ; 
along the Penn. line, on latitude 42°, 225.50 mi. ; on the me- 
ridian to Lake Erie, 18.75 mi., and upon the meridian in Lake 
Erie, 22 mi. ; through Lake Erie to Buffalo, 50 mi. ; and through 
Niagara River, 34 mi. 

II 



18 



NEW YORK GAZETTEER. 



The boundaries of the State have been settled from time to time by commissioners appointed 
by the several governments whose territories are contiguous. In several instances long and 
angry controversies have occurred, which have extended through many years and almost led to 
civil war. The boundaries are all now definitely fixed, except that of Conn., respecting which a 
controversy is now pending. 1 



1 Canada Boundary. — By royal proclamation, issued in Oct. 
1768, the line of 45° .v. was fixed as the boundary between the 
provinces of Quebec ami New York, and this was confirmed in 
council. August 12, 176S. The line was surveyed by Valentine 
and Collins. Octol>er 20. 1774. By the treaty "of 17s3 the 46th 
parallel was recognized as the ST. boundary of the State from 
Lake Champlain to the St. Lawrence. By the treaty of Ghent 
tli'' same line was recognized as the boundary, and provisions 
were made for a re-survey. In 1818-19. Gov. Van Ness and Peter 
B. Porter on the part of "the U. S., and John Ogilvie on the part 
of Great Britain, ran the line with great care; and it was found 
that the old line coincided with the parallel only at St. Begis, 
and that from that point r. it diverged, until at Lake Cham- 
plain it was 4.200 feet too far x. The deepest channel of the 
Si. Lawrence was not always adopt' d. as a mutual exchange of 
islands was made satisfactory to both parties. Before the N. 
line was re-surveyed, in 181*, tie- l*. S. Government had com- 
menced the erection of a fortress at Bouses Point, on Lake 
Champlain : and this was found to be within the British terri- 
tory. By the treaty of August 9, 1S42, the old line of Valentine 
and Collins was restored, and the strip of territory before taken 
off again came under the jurisdiction of the U. S. The com- 
missioners to ruu the line under the treaty of 1842 were Albert 
Smith on the part of the United States, and J. B. B. Estcourt 
on the part of .Great Britain. 

Vermont Boundary. — The territory of Vermont was originally 

claimed by both New York and New Hampshire, and conflicting 

grants were made by the two governments. Most of the actual 

settlers holding title under N. II. resisted the claims of N. Y., 

and many actual collisions occurred. Jan. 15, 1777, the settlers 

:-d themselves independent, and laid claim to the territory 

w. to the Hudson. N. of Lansinghurgh. and along the w. shore 

yf Lake Champlain. By an act of Congress passed Aug. 20, 1781, 

they were required to recede from this claim. A final agree- 

iit. red into between Yt. and N. Y., Oct. 7, 1790, by 

which N. Y. surrendered all her claim to jurisdiction to the 

rritory of Yt., and Yt. paid $30,000 to certain persons 

who had been deprived of lands granted by N. Y\ The boundary 

line was run by Robert Yates, Bobert B. Livingston, John Lan- 

r.. Gillian C. Verplanck, Simeon De Witt, Egbert Benson, 

M'i Sill, and Melancthon Smith on the part of N. Y., and 

I'' henor, Stephen B. Bradley, Nathaniel Chipman, Elijah 

Paine. Ira Allen, Stephen, Jacob, and Israel Smith on the part 

Of Vt. The final line was established June 8, 1812. 

a wMt Boundary. — The charter of Massachusetts em- 
la i I the territory between 44° and 48° n. latitude " through- 
"Ut ill- Uaine landl from sea to sea." Grants made under Ibis 
authority conflicted with those of N. Y., and angry controversies 
1. which in c"l,,ni:i| times often resulted in violence and 
bloodshed. <>n the l s th "f May. 1783, an agreement was en- 
tered Into between John Watts. Wm. smith, Robert B. Livings- 
ad Wm. Ni'oll, commissioners on the part of N. Y., and 
Wm. Brattle, Joseph Bawley, and John Hancock, on thatol 
Mass.: but the Revolution soon followed, and the line was never 
run. Commissioners appointed by both States in 17 s :; failed 
to egret ; and December -. 1785, Congress nppolnted Thomas 
ii i David Rittenhouae commissioners 
to run the line and fin. ill', i ad the controv er sy. The clali 
Mass. to the land* westward were finally settled at Hartford, 
- D . 16, 1786, by James Duane, Robert R. Livis 
t Yates, John Baring, Melancthon smith, and i 

mmlsslonon on the pari "t v v . and John Lowell, 
. iiv'in. Tie 'I'liiiiH Parsons, ami Boras King, on the 
part of Mom. By this agreement Mass, surrendered tin 
reignty of the whole disputed t' rritory to n. Y„ and ret eived in 
return ib- right of -il and pre-emptive rlghl of Indian pm> 
rh»j»e w. of n meridian passing through the B2d milestone "f the 
Perm, line, -in- a] on N lagai i River. 

Th»  ' t known »< "The Boston T< n Towns,* 1 lying a. 

of tli ■:. previou I by Ma--., was .il n- 

firmed, Nantucki t. Martha* vin. \ 1 1. and the H'lj.i. .-nt Islands, 
wer»> purchased fr"m the Bar) of Sterling by the Duke of York. 

and civil i--l "\>r them, andei the name 

of •■ /)>ti;.< Cbwity," by the govsruoi • . until it « 

by theproi Incial chart) r of 1603. •■ Pemaqnid 

and it« depend) inpri»ine a considerable part of the 

, was also bought from thi 

rued by N. Y.. as "Clswaaifl Cbuwrs/," until 1686, when it 

vhs baMfemd f" Mass. Boston Corner, a small arable tract in 



the town of Mount Washington, separated by a rugged mountain 
from the convenient jurisdiction of Mass. was surrendered by 
thai State May 14, 1853, accepted by N. Y r . July 21, 1S53, and 
the transfer was confirmed by Congress, Jan. 3, 1855. Bussell 
Dorr was appointed on the part of N. Y., and John Z. Goodrich 
by Massachusetts, to run and mark the line. 

Connecticut Boundary. — By the charter of 1662 the territory 
of Conn, extended to the " South Sea;" and by patent granted 
in 1004 the territory of the Duke of York was bounded E. by 
Connecticut River. Commissioners sent over in 1664 settled 
upon a line 20 mi. E. of the Hudson as the boundary, fixing the 
starting point on Mamaroncck River. The decision proving 
grossly erroneous, the controversy was renewed, and in 1683 
another commissioner was appointed to settle the matter. It 
was finally agreed to allow Conn, to extend her boundaries W. 
along the Sound, and N. Y. to receive a compensation in the n.; 
and the line was definitely established May. 1731. By this agree- 
ment a tract called the " Oblong," containing 61,440 acres, along 
the N. part of the w. border of Conn., was surrendered to N. Y. 
The exact line of Conn, has to the present day been a subject of 
controversy, and in 1856 commissioners were appointed by each 
State to effect a settlement, but without success. N. Y T . owns all 
the islands in the Sound to within a few rods of the Conn, shore. 

New Jersey Boundary. — The original patent of New Jersey 
was bounded x. by a line running directly from a point on the 
Delaware, latitude 41° 40', to a point on the Hudson, latitude 
41°, and E. by Hudson River. The N. line was run and marked in 
1774, and the E. was claimed by N. Y*. as extending only to low- 
wafer mark on the adjacent waters. N. J. claimed "full right 
and lawful authority to exercise jurisdiction in and over the said 
Hudson River and the said main sea," including Staten Island, 
and, by an act of Nov. 2, 1806, appointed Aaron Ogden, Wm. S. 
Pennington, James Parker, Lewis Condict, and Alexander C. 
MeWhorter commissioners to settle her claims. The New York 
Legislature, on the 3d of April, appointed Ezra L'Hommedieu, 
Samuel Jones, Egbert Benson, Simeon Dc Witt, and Joseph C. 
Y'ates to meet the commissioners of N. J.; but their interviews 
led to no result. The question of jurisdiction was finally settled 
in 1833, by an agreement between Beuj. F. Butler, Peter A. Gay, 
and Henry Seymour on the part of N. Y., and Theodore Freling- 
huysen, James Parker, and Lucius Q. C. Elmer on the part of 
N. J. ; confirmed by N. Y. Feb. 5, by N. J. Feb. 26, and by Con- 
gress June 28, 1834. The right of each State to land under water 
and to fisheries extends to the center of the channel. The State 
of N. Y. has sole jurisdiction over all the waters of the bay and 
of the river w. of New York City to low-water mark on the 
Jersey shore, except to wharves and vessels attached thereto. 
This jurisdiction covers the waters of Kil Van Hull and of 
Staten Island Sound to Woodbridgc Creek, as for quarantine 
purposes. South of this, N. J. has exclusive jurisdiction over 
lie waters of the Sound and of Baritan Bay westward of a lino 
from Princes Bay Light to Manhattan Creek, subject to right 
of properly in lands under water, of wharves, docks, and ves- 

n I- aground or fastened t.> any wharf or dock, and the right of 
Ashing t" the center of the channi i. 

Civil process in each State may be executed upon the waters 
of the river and bay, except <>n board of vessels aground or at- 
tached to wharves in the other State, or unless the person or 
property be under arrest or seizure by virtue of authority "f 
tl ther State. By the late survey of N. J. the point of de- 
parture Of the boundary from the Delaware is 11° 20'. 

Pennsylvania Boundaries. — The original boundary line be- 
tween New York ami Pennsylvania extended from the n. w. 
comer of New Jersey alone the center of Delaware River to 

42° R. latitude, mill Ufenoe dm- w. to bake Erie. Samuel Hol- 
land mi the psil of N. Y.. and David Kittenhousc on the part 
of I'enn.. ware appointed commissioners, Nov. 8, 1774, to run 
tlii-. boundarj ; but tie Revolution soon after commenced, and 
nothing whs done, in 1789-88 the line was run w. to the 90th 
milestone, and the survej was certified Oct. 12, 1786, by James 
i biiton and Simeon De \\itt. of N. Y., and Andrew Elliott, of 
I', im. By authority ol the State Legislature, the N. Y. delegates 
in Congress, March 1, 17M, released to the General Government 
nil the lands t" whif Ii they had claim w. of a meridian extend- 
ing through the w. extremity of Lake Ontario. The trian- 
gular trad so surrendered was sold to Pcnn. for $151,640, and 

Secured to thai State 80 mi, of lake coast and an excellent 
harbor. The lino was run by the V. S. Surveyor General In 

17----9. 



TOPOGRAPHY. 

Surface. — This State lies upon that portion of the Appalachian Mountain system where the 
mountains generally assume the character of hills and finally sink to a level of the lowlands that 
surround the great depression filled by Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. Three distinct 
mountain masses or ranges enter the State from the s. and extend across it in a general N. e. direc- 
tion. The first or most easterly of these ranges — a continuation of the Blue Ridge of Va. — enters 
the State from N. J. and extends n. e. through Rockland and Orange cos. to the Hudson, appears 
on the e. side of that river, and forms the highlands of Putnam and Dutchess cos. A northerly 
extension of the same range passes into the Green Mts. of Western Mass. and Vt. This range 
culminates in the Highlands upon the Hudson. The highest peaks are 1,000 to 1,700 feet above 
tide. The rocks which compose these mountains are principally primitive or igneous, and the 
mountains themselves are rough, rocky, and precipitous, and unfit for cultivation. The deep 
gorge formed by the Hudson in passing through this range presents some of the finest scenery in 
America, and has often been compared to the celebrated valley of the Rhine. 

The second series of mountains enters the State from Penn. and extends n. e. through Sullivan, 
Ulster, and Greene cos., terminating and culminating in the Catskill Mts. upon the Hudson. 
The highest peaks are 3,000 to 3,800 feet above tide. The Shawangunk Mts., a high and con- 
tinuous ridge extending between Sullivan and Orange cos. and into the s. part of Ulster, is the 
extreme e. range of this series. The Helderbergh and Hellibark Mts. are spurs extending n. 
from the main range into Albany and Schoharie cos. This whole mountain system is principally 
composed of the rocks of the New York system above the Medina sandstone. The summits are 
generally crowned with old red sandstone and with the conglomerate of the coal measures. The 
declivities are steep and rocky; and a large share of the surface is too rough for cultivation. The 
highest peaks overlook the Hudson, and from their summits are obtained some of the finest views 
in Eastern New York. 

The third series of mountains enters the State from Penn. and extends n. e. through Broome, 
Delaware, Otsego, Schoharie, Montgomery, and Herkimer cos. to the Mohawk, appears upon the 
N. side of that river, and extends n. e., forming the whole series of highlands that occupy the n. e. 
part of the State and generally known as the Adirondack Mountain region. South of the Mohawk 
this mountain system assumes the form of broad, irregular hills, occupying a wide space of country. 
It is broken by the deep ravines of the streams, and in many places the hills are steep and nearly 
precipitous. The valley of the Mohawk breaks the continuity of the range, though the connec- 
tion is easily traced at Little Falls, The Noses, and other places. North of the Mohawk the high- 
lands extend n. e. in several distinct ranges, all terminating upon Lake Champlain. The cul- 
minating point of the whole system, and the highest mountain in the State, is Mt. Marcy, 5,467 
feet above tide. The rocks of all this region are principally of igneous origin, and the mountains 
are usually wild, rugged, and rocky. A large share of the surface is entirely unfit for cultiva- 
tion ; but the region is rich in minerals, and especially in an excellent variety of iron ore. West 
of these ranges, series of hills forming spurs of the Alleganies enter the State from Penn. and 
occupy the entire s. half of the w. part of the State. An irregular line extending through the 
southerly counties forms the watershed that separates the northern and southern drainage ; and 
from it the surface gradually declines northward until it finally terminates in the level of Lake 
Ontario. 1 The portion of the State lying s. of this watershed and occupying the greater part of 





Of Heights of 


1 TABLE 
the Principal Summits in the State. 






NAME OF MO0NT. 


LOCATION. 


FEET. 


NAME OF MOUNT. 


LOCATION. 


FEET. 




t< a 


5,467 
5,200 
6,183 
5,000 
5,000 
4,900 
4,900 
4,500 
4,500 
5,100 
4,000 
3,000 
3,804 
3,718 






3,000 

3,400 
2.400 
1,980 
1,700 
1,743 
1,685 
1,471 
1,586 
1,228 
1,529 
1,418 
1,350 
1,187 






u u 


Sullivan " 


" Nipple Top 


tt u 


Walnut Hill 


a a 


tt a 






it it 






" White Face 


u u 


" Taylor 


u tt 






Bull Hill 


u it 








it tt 










it k 


High Peak 






it tt 


it it 




a tt 







19 



20 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



the two southerly tiers of counties is entirely occupied by these hills. Along the Penn. line they 
are usually abrupt and are separated by narrow ravines, but toward the n. their summits become 
broader and less broken. A considerable portion of the highland region is too steep for profitable 
cultivation and is best adapted to grazing. The highest summits in Allegany and Cattaraugus 
cos. are 2,000 to 2,500 feet above tide. 

From the summits of the watershed the highlands usually descend toward Lake Ontario in 
series of terraces, the edges of which are the outcrops of the different rocks which underlie the 
surface. These terraces are usually smooth, and, although inclined toward the N., the inclination 
is generally so slight that they appear to be level. Between the hills of the s. and the level land 
of the ». is a beautiful rolling region, the ridges gradually declining toward the N. Inthatpart 
of the State s. of the most eastern mountain range the surface is generally level or broken by low 
hills. In New York and Westchester cos. these hills are principally composed of primitive rocks. 
The surface of Long Island is generally level or gently undulating. A ridge 150 to 200 feet high, 
composed of sand, gravel, and clay, extends e. and w. across the island n. of the center. 

Rivers and Lakes. — The river system of the State has two general divisions, — the first 
comprising the streams tributary to the great lakes and the St. Lawrence, and the second those 
which flow in a general southerly direction. The watershed which separates these two systems 
extends in an irregular line eastward from Lake Erie through the southern tier of counties to near 
the n.e. corner of Chemung: thence it turns N. e. to the Adirondack Mts. in Essex co., thence 
s. E. to the e. extremity of Lake George, and thence nearly due e. to the e. line of the State. 1 

The northerly division has 5 general subdivisions. The most westerly of these comprises all 
the streams flowing into Lake Erie and Niagara River and those flowing into Lake Ontario w. of 
Genesee River. In Chautauque co. the streams are short and rapid, as the watershed approaches 
within a few mi. of Lake Erie. Cattaraugus, Buffalo, Tonawanda, and Oak Orchard Creeks are 
the most important streams in this division. Buffalo Creek is chiefly noted for forming Buffalo 
Harbor at its mouth; and the Tonawanda for 12 miles from its mouth is used for canal navi- 
gation. Oak Orchard and other creeks flowing into Lake Ontario descend from the interior in a 
series of rapids, affording a large amount of water-power. 

The second subdivision comprises the Genesee River and its tributaries. The Genesee rises 
in the x. part of Penn. and flows in a generally northerly direction to Lake Ontario. Its upper 
course is through a narrow valley bordered by steep, rocky hills. Upon the line of "Wyoming and 
Livingston cos. it breaks through a mountain barrier in a deep gorge and forms the Portage Falls, 
— one of the finest waterfalls in the State. Below this point the course of the river is through a 
utiful valley 1 to 2 mi. wide and bordered by banks 50 to 150 ft. high. At Rochester it flows 
over the precipitous edges of the Niagara limestone, forming the Upper Genesee Falls ; and 3 mi. 
below it flows over the edge of the Medina sandstone, forming the Lower Genesee Falls. The 
principal tributaries of this stream are Canaseraga, Honeoye, and Conesus Creeks from the e., and 
tka and Black Creeks from the w. Honeoye, Canadice, Hemlock, and Conesus Lakes lie within 
the G • Basin. 

The third subdivision includes the Oswego River and its tributaries and the small streams flow- 
ing into Lake Ontario between Genesee and Oswego Rivers. The basin of the Oswego includes 
most of the inland lake-; which form a peculiar feature of the landscape in the interior of the State. 
The principal of the«e lakes ar<- Cayuga, Seneca, Canandaigua, Skaneateles, Crooked, and Owasco, — 
all occupying Ion?, narrow valleys, and extending from the level land in the center far into the 
highland region of the s. The valleys which they occupy appear like immense ravines formed by 
some tremendous force, which has torn the solid rocks from their original beds, from the general 
level of the surrounding summits, down to the present bottoms of the lakes. 2 Oneida and Onondaga 

> TABL1 

■\t \etghi abort ttdt of thr pair's hrlirrrn thr. principal rirfr basins of the Stain. 



BIT' AT 


feet. 


BETWEEN" 


AT 


FEF.T. 




657 
900 

427' 
:.!■,: 

1.1.7 
1.247 


Sosquehanna River and Cayuga Lake 

" " Seneca Lake. 

" " " Genesee Itiv.. 

M P.ivor and Allegany River.... 


Ithaca Summit... 


969, 

--! 

1,780 
1,699 
1,614 
536 
1,120 

l.li.Ml 


 " pp|«w.>' irllle 


u u u Neverrink Hirer.... Wnwarsing.. 


Alfred Summit... 


Delaware P.;' inni J'.iv .mmit . 


Little Vol. Sum... 


Mohawk HiTi-r aii'l Lake Ontario 

" " " Black River 

Lake Cbamplain and St. Lawrence... 




a •• '• Oneida l,ikr- Tullv 


ChateangnvSum. 









The m""t remarkable passes through the mountain* are. first. [ * The ravines of these lakes, and the streams which flow down 
that of the Hnda tern mountains; second, [ parallel U< th«-m. are usually bordered by steep hillsides, the 

that of Wc.-i Creek, from too Bodaoo t.. Lake f'bnmpl.iin ; and, strata of which lie in parallel layers nearly level E. and w., and 
third, that of the Mohiwk, through the central mountains. slightly inclined toward the 8. Upon the opposite banks the 



TOPOGRAPHY. 



21 



Lakes occupy basins upon the level land in the n. e. part of the Oswego Basin. Mud Creek, the 
most westerly branch of Oswego River, takes its rise in Ontario co., flows n. e. into Wayne, where 
it unites with Canandaigua Outlet and takes the name of Clyde River; thence it flows e. to the 
W. line of Cayuga co., where it empties into Seneca River. This latter stream, made up of the 
outlets of Seneca and Cayuga Lakes, from this point flows in a n. e. course, and receives success- 
ively the outlets of Owasco, Skaneateles, Onondaga, and Oneida Lakes. From the mouth of the 
last-named stream it takes the name Oswego River, and its course is nearly due n. to Lake Ontario. 

The fourth subdivision includes the streams flowing into Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence E. of 
the mouth of the Oswego. The principal of these are Salmon, Black, Oswegatchie, Grasse, and 
Racket Rivers. These streams mostly take their rise upon the plateau of the great Northern 
wilderness, and in their course to the lowlands are frequently interrupted by falls, furnishing an 
abundance of water-power. The water is usually very dark, being colored with iron and the 
vegetation of swamps. 

The fifth subdivision includes all the streams flowing into Lakes George and Champlain. They 
are mostly mountain torrents, frequently interrupted by cascades. The principal streams are the 
Chazy, Saranac, and Au Sable Rivers, and Wood Creek. Deep strata of tertiary clay extend along 
the shores of Lake Champlain and Wood Creek. The water of most of the streams in this region 
is colored by the iron over which it flows. 

The second general division of the river-system of the State includes the basins of the Allegany, 
Susquehanna, Delaware, and Hudson. The Allegany Basin embraces the southerly half of Chau- 
tauqua and Cattaraugus cos. and the s. w. corner of Allegany. The Allegany River enters the 
State from the s. in the s. E. corner of Cattaraugus co., flows in nearly a semicircle, with its out- 
ward curve toward the n., and flows out of the State in the s. w. part of the same co. It receives 
several tributaries from the N. and e. These streams mostly flow in deep ravines bordered by 
steep, rocky hillsides. The watershed between this basin and Lake Erie approaches within a few 
miles of the lake, and is elevated 800 to 1,000 feet above it. 

The Susquehanna Basin occupies about one-third of the s. border of the State. The river takes 
its rise in Otsego Lake, and, flowing s. w. to the Penn. line, receives Charlotte River from the s. 
and the Unadilla from the n. After a course of a few miles in Penn. it again enters the State, and 
flows in a general westerly direction to near the w. border of Tioga co., whence it turns s. and 
again enters Penn. Its principal tributary from the n. is Chenango River. Tioga River enters 
the State from Penn. near the e. border of Steuben co., flows n., receives the Canisteo from the w. 
and the Conhocton from the n. From the mouth of the latter the stream takes the name Chemuno- 
River, and flows in a s. e. direction, into the Susquehanna in Penn., a few miles s. of the State 
line. The upper course of these streams is generally through deep ravines bordered by steep 
hillsides; but below they are bordered by wide and beautiful intervales. 

The Delaware Basin occupies Delaware and Sullivan and portions of several of the adjacent cos. 
The n. or principal branch of the river rises in the n.e. part of Delaware co. and flows s. w. to 
near the Penn. line; thence it turns s. e. and forms the boundary of the State to the line of N. J. 
Its principal branches are the Pepacton and Neversink Rivers. These streams all flow in deep, 
narrow ravines bordered by steep, rocky hills. 

The Basin of the Hudson occupies about two-thirds of the e. border of the State, and a large 
territory extending into the interior. The remote sources of the Hudson are among the highest 
peaks of the Adirondacks, more than 4,000 feet above tide. Several of the little lakes which form 
reservoirs of the Upper Hudson are 2,500 to 3,000 feet above tide. The stream rapidly descends 
through the narrow defiles into Warren co., where it receives from the e. the outlet of Schroon 
Lake, and Sacondaga River from the w. Below the mouth of the latter the river turns eastward, 
and breaks through the barrier of the Luzerne Mts. in a series of rapids and falls. At Fort Ed- 
ward it again turns s. and flows with a rapid current, frequently interrupted by falls, to Troy, 
160 miles from the ocean. At this place the river falls into an estuary, where its current is 
affected by the tide; and from this place to its mouth it is a broad, deep, sluggish stream. About 
60 miles from its mouth the Hudson breaks through the rocky barrier of The Highlands, form- 
ing the most easterly of the Appalachian Mt. Ranges ; and along its lower course it is bordered on 
the w. by a nearly perpendicular wall of basaltic rock 300 to 500 feet high, known as "The Pal- 
isades." Above Troy the Hudson receives Hoosick River from the e. and the Mohawk from the 
w. The former stream rises in Western Mass. and Vt., and the latter near the center of the State. 



dissevered edges of the strata exactly correspond, showing that 
the intermediate portion? have heen torn away. The force that 
effected these immense changes was probably great currents of 



water from the N., — the direction being determined by the cha- 
racter of the boulders upon the hills, and by the peculiar nature 
of the drift deposits. 



22 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



At Little Falls and "The Noses" the Mohawk breaks through mountain barriers in a deep, rocky 
ravine; and at Cohoes, about 1 mile from its mouth, it flows down a perpendicular precipice of 70 
feet, forming an excellent water-power. Below Troy the tributaries of the Hudson are all com- 
paratively small streams. South of the Highlands the river spreads out into a wide expanse known 
as " Tappan Bay." A few small streams upon the extreme e. border of the State flow eastward 
into the Hoosatonia ; and several small branches of Passaic River rise in the s. part of Rockland co. 

Lake Erie forms a portion of the w. boundary of the State. It is 240 miles long, with an average 
width of 38 miles, and it lies mostly w. of the bounds of the State. It is 334 feet above Lake On- 
tario, 565 feet above tide, and has an average depth of 120 feet. The greatest depth ever obtained 
by soundings is 270 feet. The harbors upon the lake are Buffalo, Silver Creek, Dunkirk, and 
Barcelona, 

Niagara River, forming the outlet of Lake Erie, is 34 miles long, and, on an average, more 
than a mile wide. 1 About 20 miles below Lake Erie the rapids commence ; and 2 miles further 
below are Niagara Falls. 2 For 7 miles below the falls the river has a rapid course between 
perpendicular, rocky banks, 200 to 300 feet high; but below it emerges from the Highlands and 
flows 7 miles to Lake Ontario in a broad, deep, and majestic current. 

Lake Ontario forms a part of the x. boundary to the w. half of the State. Its greatest length is 
130 miles and its greatest width 55 miles. It is 232 feet above tide, and its greatest depth is 600 
feet. Its principal harbors on the American shore are Lewiston, Youngston, Port Genesee, Sodus 
and Little Sodus Bays, Oswego, Sackets Harbor, and Cape Vincent. St. Lawrence River forms 
the outlet of the lake and the x. boundary of the State to the e. line of St. Lawrence co. It is a 
broad, deep river, flowing with a strong yet sluggish current until it passes the limits of this 
State. In the upper part of its course it incloses a great number of small islands, known as 
"The Thousand Islands." 3 

The surfaces of the great lakes are subject to variations of level, — probably due to prevailing 
winds, unequal amounts of rain, and evaporation. The greatest difference known in Lake Erie is 
7 feet, and in Lake Ontario 4| feet. The time of these variations is irregular; and the interval 
between the extremes often extends through several years. A sudden rise and fall, of several 
fr-'-r. lias been noticed upon Lake Ontario at rare intervals, produced by some unknown cause. 

Navigable Waters. — The natural internal navigation of the State is very extensive. 
Before the commencement of internal improvements, the rivers and lakes formed the most easy 
means of communication between distant portions of the State; and along these natural channels 
of commerce the early settlements were principally made. 4 The most important lines of early 



l TABLE 
Of the heights aixire tide of the principal lakes in the State. 



HAKE Or LAKE. 


LOCATION. 


FEET. 






2,900 

•J.-.M 
1.9.". 6 

1,826 

' r 1.7 '.•! 
1.77'-. 
1,746 
1.704 
1,698 
1,665 

I.e.).'. 
1..-.7.1 
1,670 
1....7 
1,545 
l.. U 
i. _■; 
1,600 
1,291 
1,200 
1.200 

POO 
860 
718 

..To 
668 
117 

252 
93 




U it 




U « 


" B indf ird. 


« u 


" K'kf - 




Full.  

Rack- • l 


i( u 


U it 


:  


it c< 




» 






Fulton Lakes, (3. 4, and 5).. 


Herkimer ,l 


.. 






Franklin 




.. 


Men " 


Kawx 


Franklin '• 


Hamilton " 








'.It '• 


Otsego " 


to a 


Cro... " 

Owasco " 

Canandiigua " - 

Seneca " -... 


Madivn " 




" 


Cavnga " 
























" Ontario 









8 For a more full description of Niagara Falls, see page 450. 
8 The river scenery upon the St. Lawrence is unsurpassed. The 
water is perfectly pure and nearly transparent. In consequence 
of its being fed by the great lake reservoirs, it is never subject 
to sudden rises, but steadily pursues its majestic way to the 
ocean, unaffected by tho changes of the seasons or other causes. 
4 The navigable waters N. of the great watershed before tho 
completion of the F.ri'' Canal wore :n f.ll.nts; — 
Cattaraugus Creek, about 1 mi. from its mouth. 

Buffalo Orer.k; 1 table 8 mi. from Lake Krio. 

Trmawanda Creek, boatable 30 mi. from its mouth. 

Niagara Ifiver, navigable for vessels, of any size from BnfTalo to 

S-hlii^-iT, at the head of tin- Rapids, — a distance of 22 mi.; 

also from Lewis Ion to Lake Ontario, a distance of 7 mi. 
(till- Hi- I, ml ' 7-i. /.. I H .at able 4 mi from its mouth, 
Genesee River, to Carthage Landing, a distance of 5 mi.; and 

from Rochester to Mt. Morris for bivits. 
Ofu'ii/i/ h'inr was navigated with ureal difficulty by bateaux, 

with a portage at Oswego Palls, oov» Fulton. 
Oneida Outhi mni l.r r were navigable for bateaux, and for 

many years constituted e portion of the great thoroughfare 

between the e. and w. 
- i • Kirrr was turntable to Cayuga Lake, and to Seneca Lake 

with on,. jM.rtago at Seneca Falls; Clyde River was boatable 
to Lyons. 

The InUrinr Lakes, including Seneca, Cayuga, Cananditigun, 
Onondaga, Owasco, Bkaneateles, Crooked, Chantauqoa, and 
i, are all navigable. Steamers have plied upon each 
of tlnm. 

Fish Crrrk was navigable to Rome with canoes. A portage of 
lest than 1 mi. Intervened between this stream and the Mo- 
hawk River. 

Salmon River ma navigable to Port Ontario. 

Salmon Orttk ami navigable on each brunch, for small vessels, 
al-nit 1 mi. from the lake. 

Black Utter mu navigable for large vessels from the lake to 
r. a di-t ■■in •■■ of r. mi., and for boats and small steamers 
from Carthage to Lyons Falls, a distance of 43 mi. 

Lake Ontario, with all its bays aud inlets, is navigable for ves- 
sels of all sizes. 



TOPOGRAPHY. 



23 



inland navigation were, first, n. from Albany, through the Hudson to Fort Edward, thence a 
portage to Fort Ann, and thence by Wood Creek to Lake Champlain ; and, second, w. from Albany, 
by way of the Mohawk, Wood Creek, Oneida Lake, and Oswego River, to Lake Ontario. Upon the 
latter route were portages at several of the rifts of the Mohawk, from the Mohawk to Wood Creek, 
and at Oswego Falls. 

Tides. — The tides at New York Harbor and along the coast have been carefully observed, 
under the direction of the Coast Survey. The tidal wave from the Sound, as it moves forward 
in a wedge-shaped channel, becomes augmented, whilst that from Sandy Hook is slightly dimin- 
ished. These two waves meet in East River, at points between Hell Gate and Throggs Neck. 1 



Cranberry and French Creeks were boatable about 2 mi. from 
their mouths. 

Indian River and Black Lake were navigable from Rossie to the 
foot of the lake. 

Oswegatchie River is navigable in high water for rafts from Ox 
Bow to Ogdensburgh. 

Racket River was formerly boatable about 18 mi. from its mouth, 
but the navigation is now destroyed by dams. In the wil- 
derness near the headwaters of this river are several miles 
of slack water navigation. 

St. Regis River is navigable for steamboats 2 mi. from its mouth. 

Salmon River, navigable to Fort Covington. 

St. Lawrence River is navigable for vessels of any size from the 
lake to Ogdensburgh. Below that point rafts, arks, and 
boats could descend, but could ascend only by towing with 
horses and cattle up the principal rifts. Locks and canals 
have been constructed around the Rapids by the Canadian 
Government, so that the navigation for steamboats, sloops, 
and schooners is now uninterrupted from Lake Ontario to 
the ocean. 

Wood Creek was boatable from Fort Ann to Lake Champlain. 

Lake George is navigable for boats and steamers. 

Lake Cfiampla.in is navigable for all kinds of vessels. Rafts were 
formerly sent down to the St. Lawrence ; but vessels could 
not ascend the Richlieu until after the construction of a 
canal and locks around the Rapids. 

Chazy River is navigable to Champlain Landing. 
The navigable waters s. of the great watershed were as follows : 

Allegany River, in high water, is navigable for small steamers 
up to Olean. 

Connewango Creek and several of its tributaries are navigable for 
rafts in high water. 

Susquehanna River was navigable for boats, in high water, to 
Otsego Lake. 

1 TIDE 
The following table, prepared by A. D. Bache, Superintendent 

Hudson. The time is that after the last preceding transit of the 

is mean low tide. 



Unadilla River was also boatable for a considerable distance. 

Cltenango River and several of its tributaries were boatable in 
high water. 

Chemung River was boatable and navigable for rafts in high 
water. 

Ctmhocton River was boatable to Bath. 

Tioga River and the Canisteo were also boatable a considerable 
distance. 

Delaware River is navigable for rafts in high water. Immense 
quantities of lumber have been floated down the Delaware 
and Susquehanna to the markets of Philadelphia and Balti- 
more. 

Hudson River is navigable for ships to Hudson, and by sloops 
and steamers to Troy. Boats formerly ascended to Fort Ed- 
ward, with portages around the Falls. 

Rondout and Wappinger Creeks are navigable each about 2 mi. 
from their mouths. 

Mohawk River was boatable from Schenectady to "Fort Stan- 
mix," now Rome, with several interruptions. The principal 
obstructions were the '■ Six Flats Rift," 6 mi. above Sche- 
nectady; "Fort Hunter Rift;" "Caughnawaga Rift," at 
Canajoharie; "Ehles Rift," near Fort Plain; " Kneisherns 
Rift," near the Upper Indian Castle ; and the " Little Falls," 
which was a complete bar to upward navigation and re- 
quired a portage around it. 

Sacondaga River is navigable for small steamers from Hadley 
to Northampton, — a distance of 20 mi. In and around New 
York and Long Island the bays, creeks, and inlets are nearly 
all navigable in high tide. 

Peconic River is navigable to Riverho^d. 

Byram River is navigable to Port Chester. 

Bronx River is navigable to West Farms, a distance of 3 mi. 

Harlem River can be navigated by small craft from East River 
to High Bridge. 

TABLES. 

of the Coast Survey, shows the progress of the tidal wave up the 
moon across the meridian at Sandy Hook. The plane of reference 



Time after last preceding transit at S. H. 
Rise of highest tide above plane of reference. 
Fall of lowest tide below " " ' 
Fall of mean low water of spring tides below 

plane of reference 

Height of mean low water of neap tides 

above plane of reference 

Mean rise and fall of tides 

" " " " " spring tides 

" " " " " neap tides 

Mean duration, reckoning from f of rise., 
the middle of one stand ■< of fall., 
to the middle of the next, (of stand. 



o 
* 


to 

5 


1 






d 

s 

& 






X 3 


S 


s> 


C« 




.S~ 


Bs 


« 


•*; 


v 




A 


■f 

1 


to3 

H. M. 


© 


.Is S 

H. M. 


I 

H. M. 


a 


© 

K 


i 

53 


1 


E 

E 

to 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


7.29 


8.14 


9.24 


10.10 


11.5 


13.0 


13.50 


15.41 


16.54 


17.45 


7.1 ft. 


6.1 ft. 


5.0 ft. 


4.7 ft. 


4.9 ft. 


5.6 ft. 


6.4 ft. 


6.0 ft. 


4.9 ft. 


6.4 ft. 


1.4 


2.2 


0.9 


0.8 


0.8 


1.1 


1.5 


1.6 


0.8 


1.7 


0.5 


0.5 


0.3 


0.2 


0.4 


0.4 


0.5 


0.2 


0.3 


0.4 


0.5 


0.4 


0.5 


0.3 


0.3 


0.4 


0.4 


0.3 


0.3 


0.4 


4.8 


4.3 


3.59 


3.12 


2.71 


3.24 


3.95 


3.67 


2.66 


2.46 


5.6 


5.1 


4.5 


3.8 


3.4 


4.0 


4.8 


4.3 


3.3 


3.2 


4.0 


3.4 


2.7 


2.5 


2.0 


2.4 


3.0 


2.8 


1.8 


1.1 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


6.10 


6.0 


6.5 


5.25 


5.28 


5.41 


5.40 


5.18 


5.1 


4.26 


6.15 


6.25 


6.18 


7.12 


7.10 


6.44 


6.54 


7.02 


7.23 


8.4 


0.21 


0.28 



















Tide table for Vie shores of Long Island and adjacent places in New York. Time after moon's transit andplane of reference as above. 





o 
a 

B 

i 


"a 
to . 

s s 

S3 


Si 

e 

00 




*2J 

1 


1 

00 

£ 

H. M. 

11.20 

0.39 
9.2 ft. 
6.1 
7.3 

H. M. 

5.50 
6.33 
0.43 




H. M. 

8.20 
1.11 
2.4 ft. 
1.8 
1.9 

H. M. 

6.7 
6.7 
0.31 


H. M. 

9.38 
1.7 

2.3 ft. 
2.9 
2.5 

H. M. 

6.1 

6.21 
0.37 


H. M. 
11.7 

0.51 
9.2 ft. 
5.4 
7.3 

H. M. 

6.8 
6.24 


H. M. 
11.13 

0.31 

8.9 ft. 

6.4 

7.7 

H. M. 

5.55 
6.30 
0.14 


H. M. 
11.22 

0.32 

8.6 ft. 

6.6 

7.6 

H. M. 

5.51 
6.35 
0.12 


transit and time of high water. \ Diff. between greatest and least interval. 






(Flood tide 




(Stand 





Report of Coast Survey, 1856, p. 122. 



GEOLOGY. 



Ocr knowledge of the geology of the State is derived from the survey made under State authority 
from 1836 to 1843, and from the investigations of several eminent geologists who have examined 
particular localities. 1 

Rocks. — The geological formations of the State include the igneous or primary rocks, and all 
the strata lying between them and the coal measures of Penn. The classification adopted by the 
State geologists, embracing all the rocks above the primary, is known as the " New York system," 
the rocks being identical with the Silurian and Devonian system of the English geologists. The 
igneous or primary rocks, including granite, gneiss, and other varieties destitute of organic 
remains, occupy the greater part of the mountainous region in the n. e. part of the State, the 
Highlands upon the Hudson, and a considerable portion of the country below, including Man- 
hattan Island. A portion of these rocks are imperfectly stratified, and are generally found in 
broken and disrupted masses with the strata highly inclined. The remaining portions of the State 
are occupied by series of stratified rocks, generally extending e. and w. and varying in thickness 
from a few inches to several hundred feet. The strata overlie each other, and have a slight dip 
toward the s., so that a person in traveling from the n. border of the State to the Penn. line would 
successively pass over the exposed edges of the whole series. Toward the e. these strata all are 
bent, and appear to be arranged around the primitive region in the same order in which they lie 
elsewhere. The highest of the series of rocks found in the State forms the floor of the coal 
measures ; so that it is perfectly futile to search for coal within the limits of the State. The rocks 
are distinguished by their color, quality, and situation, and by the fossils which they contain. 
In many instances a stratum disappears entirely, and in others strata of several hundred feet in 
thickness in one place are but a few feet thick in another. In places where many strata are 
wanting and two rocks usually widely separated are found in contact, the geologist is obliged to 
depend entirely upon the fossils which they contain to determine their classification. 2 



1 In 1799. Dr. Samuel L. Mitcliill, under the auspices of the 
"Society for Promoting Agriculture. .Arts, and Manufactures." 
published an essay u|«>n the rock- in tie- State. While the Erie 
I was in process of construction, Stephen Van Rensselaer 
employed Pro! Anms Eaton to prepare an account of the rocks 
along the canal route. This was published in 1824. Prof.Eaton's 
work was one of great merit ; and to him we are indebted for the 
first accurate knowledge ever obtained of the general system of 
r^k- in the State. 

On the ]5th of April. 1836, an act was passed authorizing a 
Survey r,f the State. The State was divided into four 
di-tre t-. t" earl) of which were appointed a geologist and an 
int. A sootofdst, botanist, mineralogist, and paleontologist 
w.-r.- appointed for the whole state. 
Tif i .,  /' 'n>f included the counties of Albany, Columbia, 
rare, Dutchess, Greene, KlngB, New Fork, Orange, Putnam, 
iebmond, Rockland, Saratoga, Schenectady, 
barie, Buffolk, Bullivan, Ulster, Washington, and West- 
it r. Win. W. Mather was appointed Principal Ge..]..iri-t. 

and' .'. Lang Cassels, and -Seymour, Assistants. 

The Report, in I blished in I 

Thi : of the counties of Clinton. Es- 

I rnnklin. J -t. Lawrence, and Warren, was placed 

under the charge of Dr it em scr Emmons, Principal, and Jas. 

Hall and I . j r . Assistants. The Report, in LvoL,WaS 

publish d in 1 

Thr Third D ; the ( nintii j of Broome, 

_■ i. ' i" n og Cortland, Fulton, Herkimer, Lewis, Madison, 

Montg mery. Oneida go, I I _-a. and the 

i under chat : i ardner Van 
n, Principal, and Jas I Uststants, The 

rt, in 1 toL, was publish d In 1843. 
The y>mri>. !• misting of the counties "f Allegany, 

irangu*,< hautanqua, Chemung, Brie, Genesee, Liris 
Monroe, Niagara, On) ben, the w. half 

of Tompkins, Wayne, Wyoming, and Yatei oedt ijai 

If nil. Principal, and .1. w. p. Mi and I: s ll r-frd. Assistants. 
!■ rt was published in 1 voL in 
The Mmeril atmerU wa- I to Dr. Let I 

Beck. Principal, and Wm. Horton and I. D. Gale, A-i-tanta. 

1 he Report, in 1 voL, was publish d in 1843, 

The Zoological Department was .. Dr. J IP. Kay, 

Principal, and .l.'lm W. Hill. Draftsman 7I.- Report, In 6 Tola., 
was publish, d in 18 13 48 : ToL I. Mammalia, with General I n- 
f r- -in- ti m by Gov.J VoL II, Ornltl 

IV. Reptiles and Pishes; Vol V, MoUnsca and I 

The Botanical Depart m ent John Torry. 

The Report, in '.' vohu, was published in l 

Thr A ' Department was assigned t T>r. Ebencjter 

Bnimons. The l;- ; -•.' in a vols- was published fr.m If 
24 



1S54. — Vol. I, Soils and Climate; Vol. II, Analysis and Results 
of Experiments; Vols. Ill and IV, Fruits ; Vol. V, Insects. 

The Paleontolof/ical Department was assigned to T. A. Conrad, 
in 1837. He resigned in 1S43. and was succeeded by Prof. Jas. 
Hall. The Report, to consist of 5 vols., is in process of publica- 
tion. Two vols, are already issued ; and the third is in press. 
A geological map, accompanying the Reports, is issued with 
this work. 

2 The following is the classification of the New York system, 
with the position which the different strata occupy in the classi- 
fication of English geologists. The order of the arrangement 
is from below upward : — 

Primitive or Igneous Rocks. 
Tacnic System. 

Potsdam Sandstone. 

Calciferous Sandstone. 

Chazy Limestone. 

Bird eye Limestone. 

Mack Itiver Limestone. 

Trenton Limestone. 

Utica Slate. 

Hudson River Group. Lorraine Shale.-. 

Oneida Conglomerate, Bhawangunk Grit. 

Mi dins Sandstone. 

Clinton Group. 

Niagara Group, Coraline Limestone in the east. 

| i, -I .shal,-. 

Onondaga Sail Group.- Green .-hales. 

I Gypsum. 
Waterlime Group. 
Pentamorua Limestone. 
I>. Ithyris Bhaly Limestone, 
Upper Pentamerua Limestone. 
i h iskany Sandstone. 
Cauda Gain Grit. 
s. hi bai i' Grit. 
Onondaga Limes! 
Oorniferous Limi stone. 
Marcellus Shahs. 

fLudlowville Shales. 
Hamilton Group. -j Encrinal Limestone. 

(Moscow Shales. 
Tully Limestone. 
-  Mate. 

I ' ishaqua Shales. 
Portage Group. J Qardeau Flag Stones. 

I Portage Sandstone 
Chemung Group. 
old Red sandstone. 
Conglomerate of the Coal Measures. 



7. 












a 




p 




-j . 








t/j 




a 




u 












o 




kJ 








|E 












- 
5 


x 


— • 


f- 


m 


-/. 




>• 


a: 


i. 


H 




fl. 


* \ 


P 


g 









'•> 












M 




v. 


to 




-r 








s . 




z 








SB 




a 










, 



GEOLOGY. 



25 



The Catskill Mts. are composed principally of Old Red Sandstone ; and the tops of some of the 
higher peaks are covered with the conglomerate of the coal measures. Now Ited Sandstone is 
found in a few localities along the Hudson, below the Highlands. Trap, a rock of volcanic origin, 
forms the Palisades upon the Hudson ; and trap dikes are common in the primitive region of 
the n. Tertiary clay, in deep strata, extends along the valleys of Lake Champlain and St. Law- 
rence River. Drift, including loose deposits of boulders, gravel, sand, and clay, is found in most 
parts of the State, in some places covering the rocks beneath to the depth of several hundred 
feet. The character of this drift, the peculiar forms which it has assumed, and the position which 
it occupies, all give evidence of some great general moving power which existed after the stratified 
rocks were lifted from their original beds, and ages before the present order of things was 
instituted. 

Within more recent periods, considerable changes have been wrought by the action of present 
streams of water and the wasting agencies of the atmosphere and frost. From these are derived 
marl, alluvium, and the greater part of the soils. The thickness of the rock strata is generally 
determined by its outcrop along the ravines of the streams, and by Artesian wells, which have 
been sunk to a great depth in different parts of the State. 1 

Metallic Minerals. — The principal metals in the State are iron and lead, the former 
only of which is found in sufficient quantity and purity to render its manufacture profitable. Iron 
ore is found in three distinct varieties, viz., magnetic oxide or magnetite, specular oxide or red 
hematite, and hydrous peroxide or limonite. Magnetic ore is widely diffused throughout the 
primitive region. It is usually found in beds between the rock strata, parallel to the mountain 
ranges ; and sometimes it is blended with the rock. The beds in many places are immense in 
extent, and the ore is 75 to 95 per cent, pure iron. 2 Specular iron ore is found in narrow beds 
between the igneous and sedimentary rocks. It is principally found in St. Lawrence and Jeffer- 
son cos. 3 A variety of this ore, known as argillaceous iron ore or clay ironstone, is associated 
with the lower strata of the Clinton group, extending from Herkimer to Monroe co. It is 
found in beds 2£ feet thick and about 20 feet apart, and its general form is that of flattened grains. 
Limonite is found also associated with the igneous rocks and in various other localities. It is 
usually in the form of shot or bog ore, or yellow ocher. It is wrought to a considerable extent 
in Richmond, Orange, Putnam, Dutchess, Columbia, Washington, Franklin, St. Lawrence, 
Jefferson, and Lewis cos. Bog ore is probably found, to a greater or less extent, in every co. in 
the State. The iron made from it is usually tough and soft. 4 

Lead ore is found in St. Lawrence, Ulster, Dutchess, Westchester, Orange, Columbia, Lewis, 
Jefferson, and Sullivan cos. ; and in several of them the mines have been worked to some extent. 
The Rossie Mines, of St. Lawrence, are the only ones now wrought. 5 Copper ore in the form of 



New Red Sandstone. 

Tertiary. 

Diluvial or Drift. 

Quaternary. 
The Taconic system is claimed by some as corresponding to 
the Cambrian system of Mr. Sedgwick, and by others to be 
newer formations changed by heat. 

1 TABLE 

Showing the depths of the principal Artesian wells in the State. 



County. 



Albany.. 



Cayuga 

Columbia.... 
Delaware.. .. 
Jefferson.... 
Livingston . 
New York- 



Oneida 

Onondaga. . 



Orleans.. 
Wayne .. 



Locality. 



City 

Ferry St 

Montezuma 

Hudson 

Elk Brook 

Watertown 

York 

U.S. Hotel 

Bleeker St 

ByManhatt'n co 

Utica 

Syracuse 



Oak Orchard 

Savannah 

Little Sodus and 
Clyde 



Depth. 




400 



Product. 



Fresh water. 
Mineral water. 
Brine. 

Fresh water. 
Weak brine. 
Fresh water. 
Weak brine and gas. 
Fresh water. 



Brine. 
Weak brine. 



and gas. 



The deepest Artesian well in the U. S. is at St. Louis, Mo., 
and is 2199 feet deep. A well at Louisville, Ky., is 2086 feet 
deep ; and another at Columbus, Ohio, 1900 feet deep. 



2 The principal mines which have been worked in the northern 
primitive region are in Warren, Essex, Clinton, St. Lawrence, 
and Franklin cos. So common are particles of iron in the rocks 
of this region that the iron sand upon the banks of the streams 
is sufficiently pure to repay the labor of collecting for the forge. 
Magnetic ores are also abundant in Orange co., and mines have 
there been worked since the earliest periods. This ore has also 
been found among the igneous rocks of Kockland. Westchester, 
Putnam, Washington, Saratoga, Hamilton, Herkimer, Jefferson, 
and Lewis cos. 

3 The principal mines in St. Lawrence and Jefferson cos. yield 
this variety of ore. It is most abundant in the towns of Gouver- 
neur, Kossie, and Antwerp, and is there usually associated with 
crystaline sulphuret of iron, spathic iron, and quartz. The ar- 
gillaceous ore supplies the furnaces in Oneida. Oswego, and Wayne 
cos. It is red. and imparts a dull red color to whatever it cornea 
in contact with. In the region of mines and furnaces the clothing 
of the laborers, the trees, fences, and vehicles employed, are all 
colored by it. It is used as a paint, under the name of '• Spanish 
Brown." 

4 Bog ore is deposited in swamps, the bottoms of which are 
clay, hardpan, or some other strata impervious to water. It is 
continually accumulating, so that it may be removed two or 
three times in a century. It has various shades of color, from 
yellow to a dark brown. In the primitive region it sometimes 
assumes a stalactital or botryoidal form, with a fibrous texture 
and a glossy black surface. A loamy variety, when used in high 
furnaces, is liable to blow up. This is caused by the mass melt- 
ing away below, leaving a crust above, and. as the support at last 
gives away, the moisture contained in the mass is suddenly con- 
verted into steam by the intense heat, and the liquid iron below 
is thrown out with great force, sometimes destroying the fur- 
nace. 

6 A vein has recently been opened in Orange co. that promised 
great richness. Lead ore is usually found in the form of sul- 
phurets. or galena. It is often associated witli crystalized mine- 
rals of great beauty. 



26 NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 

a sulphuret has been found in Washington, Jefferson, and St. Lawrence cos., but not in sufficient 
quantities to render mining profitable. Zinc ore in the form of a sulphuret, or blende, is found, 
associated with lead, in St. Lawrence co. Manganese, titanium, nickel, and several other metals, 
have been found in small quantities, though they have never been reduced except in the labora- 
tories of the chemist. 1 

A'onOIetallic Minerals. — The most valuable non-metallic minerals in the State are 
limestone, gypsum, waterlime, pipeclay, clay and sand suitable for common and fire brick and 
pottery, graphite, talc, and slate. Nearly every part of the State is well supplied with building 
6tone ; and in most of the counties extensive quarries have been worked. Lime, waterlime, and 
gypsum are also extensively quarried. 2 

Mineral Spring's are numerous, and are found in nearly every co. in the State*. The 
most celebrated of these are the salt springs of Onondaga, the medicinal springs of Saratoga, 
and the thermal springs of Columbia co. Sulphur and chalybeate springs are common, and many 
of them have considerable notoriety for medicinal properties. 3 In the w. part of the State 
springs emitting nitrogen and carburetted hydrogen gas are numerous. In the limestone regions 
of the State the water is generally more or less impregnated with carbonate and sulphate of 
lime ; and in many places tufa is deposited in large quantities by the water. The slow dissolving 
of the limestone rocks has given a cavernous structure to several localities, and in others it has 
formed deep holes in the ground. The caves of Albany, Schoharie, and Jefferson cos. are doubtless 
formed in this manner ; and the peculiar sink-holes and cratean lakes of Onondaga are probably 
formed by the breaking of the superincumbent mass into the caverns beneath. 



SEAT OF GOVERNMENT. 

The Seat of Government was originally fixed at New York City, and remained there until the 
Revolution, with occasional adjournments of the General Assembly and Executive Department on 
account of prevailing sickness. Such of the public records as related to the immediate interests 
of the crown were removed, by order of Gov. Tryon, in Dec. 1775, to the armed ship Duchess of 
Gordon, and remained on board till Nov. 1781, when most of them were returned to the city. 4 In 
June, 177G, the other public records were removed to Kingston, and, on the approach of the enemy 
in Oct. 1777, they were hastily taken to Rochester, Ulster county. 6 They were soon afterward taken to 
Poughkeepsie, and in 1784 to New York. In 1797, commissioners were appointed to erect a build- 
in:.' fir the records in Albany, and an order dated July 31, 1798, authorized their removal thither' 
and the permanent location of the Beat of Government at that place. 

The Slaie House was begun in 1803 and finished in 1807, at the joint expense of the city and 
county 'if Albany and the State of New York. The original cost exceeded $120,000, of which 



1 In many of the original patents of tin- mountainous regions 
upon the llii'I- "ii. reservations Were made of all tin; gold nncl 
Hirer thai (bund. To this day, how., v.r. tin-' m< -t.il- 

hsre n't been found ; though it is said that traces of silver have 
ben i in -• v. ml plai 

* The following is  li-t oi 1 1 1«- most important quarries in the 

State ;_ 

Gyp'"rn in found in Cayuga, Madison, Onondaga, Wayne, Or- 

Ltmt I . irried in mosl of tlic counties of tho State cx- 

• Hi- Penn. line. 

married in Erie, Jefferson, Lewis, Madison, 

l. ' inondaga, and I Inter. 

Wlaggbu b found in most "f the southern c unties, and in 

u other 1 The thin bedded sandstone of the 

Portage group furnishes the * tics. 

Btu'l' tcellent quality hi bond in nearly every 

ind gneiss are extensively 

quarried in New York and m • iti hester and In the it. r„ c.,s. 

of the state. The Potsdam sandstone, Black Hirer limc- 

ini'l Medina sandstone, and th" Onondaga 

limestone ail furnish i \ ellent building stone. Host of the 

locks upon the Brie Canal are built "f the last named stone. 

The shales of the Portage nnd Chemung group arc sepa- 

into s-truta hy hard, compact sandstone, excellent for 

building or flagging. 

il:r '•■ is found and [iiimed in Westchester, Putnam, Dutchess, 

and Orange cos. 



Roofing slate is quarried in Washington, Rensselaer, Columbia, 
and Dutchess cos. 
3 The principal of these springs are those of Massona, St. 
Lawrence co.; Richfield, Otsego <-o.: Avon. Livingston co.; 
Sharon. Schoharie co. : New Lebanon and Stockport. Columbia 
co. ; Chlttenango, Madison co. : and Alabama, Genesee co. 

* Six yearn" cl"-'   i> 1 1 n> ui'iit on tdiiphonrd damaged some 

of these records almost beyond remedy. The most valuable 
were transcribed in I798j under the direction of commissioners 

appointed by law. 

» The first State Legislature, then in session, hastily adjourned 
and met in .Tan. at I'oiiglikeepsio. The citizens of (Joshen 
tendered the hospitalities ol tin ir village and the use of rooms, 
if the Legislature chose to remove thither. In March, ITT 1 -, a 
com orient resolution directed the Secretary of State and the 

clerks of counties t" put their penis into strong and light 
inclosures, t.. he ready lor instant removal in case of danger. 
The Legislature held its sessions at Poughkeepsie, King-ton. or 
Albany, as suited convenience, untO 1784, when it removed to 
New York. Two -e.-iou- were afterward held at I'oiighkecpaia, 
and three at Albany, before the final removal to the latter place 
in 1797. 

6 Philip Schuyler, Abraham Ten Broeck, Jeremiah Van liens- 
seuv r. Daniel Hale, and Tennis T. Van Vechteu were appointed 
commissioners. The edifice stood on the site of the present 
Geological and Agricultural Hall, and was torn down in 1855. 



SEAT OF GOVERNMENT. 



27 



$34,200 was paid by the city and $3,000 by the county of Albany. It continued to be used for 
city, county, and State offices and courts until about 1832, when the State became the exclusive 
owner and the Capitol was fitted up for legislative and other public purposes. It stands at the 
head of State Street, 130 feet above the Hudson, and has in front a park of three acres inclosed bj 
an iron fence. It is substantially built of stone faced with Nyack red freestone. 1 

Tlic State Library is a fireproof building in the rear of the State House and connected 
with it by a long corridor. It is built of brick and iron and faced on its two fronts with brown 
freestone. It is already nearly filled with books, manuscripts, and maps, which the State has been 
collecting for many years. 2 

Tlie State Hall, situated upon Eagle Street, fronting the Academy Park, was finished in 1842. 
It is built of cut stone, with a colonnade in front, supported by six Ionic columns, and is surmounted 
by a dome. 3 It contains the offices of the Secretary of State, Comptroller, Treasurer, Auditor of Canal 
Department, Canal Appraisers, Canal Commissioners, State Engineer and Surveyor, Division En- 
gineers, Clerk of Court of Appeals, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Superintendent of Bank 
Department, Attorney General, and State Sealer of Weights and Measures. 

Tlie State Geological and Agricultural filall, corner of State and Lodge Sts., 
is the depository of the specimens collected during the geological survey, and also contains the 
cabinet of the State Agricultural Society. 4 



1 It is 90 feet broad, 50 high, and was originally 115 feet long. 
Tn 1S54, 15 feet were added to the w. end. The eastern front 
has an Ionic portico with four columns of Berkshire marble 
each 3 feet 8 inches in diameter and 33 feet high. The north 
and south fronts have each a pediment of 65 feet base ; and the 
doorways are decorated with columns and angular pediments 
of freestone. The entrance hall is 40 by 50 feet and 16 feet 
high, the ceiling of which is supported by a double row of 
reeded columns, and the floor is vaulted and laid with squares 
of Italian marble. Upon the north side of the hall are the 
office of Adjutant General and the Assembly Library, and on 
the south side the Executive Chambers. The remainder of the 
first story is devoted to the Assembly Chamber with its lobbies 
and po8toffice. This chamber is now 56 by 65 feet and 28 feet 
liigh. The Speaker's desk is on the w. side, and the desks of the 
Clerks are upon each side and iu front of it. Desks of members 
are arranged in semi-circles in front. Upon the E. side is a 
gallery supported by iron pillars. The ceiling is richly orna- 
mented in stucco. Over the Speaker's seat is a copy by Ames 
of a full length portrait of Stewart's Washington. In the 
second story, over the entrance hall, is the Senate chamber, 40 
Ly 50 feet and 22 feet high. The President's desk is upon the 
s. side, and the desks of the Senators are arranged in a circle in 
front. On the n. side are the library and cloak room of the 
Senate, and on the s. the postoffice and room of the Sergeant at 
Arms. Over the President's seat is a crimson canopy, and oppo- 
site are the portraits of Gov. Geo. Clinton and Columbus. The 
latter was presented to the Senate in 17S4 by Mrs. Farmer, a 
grand-daughter of Gov. Leisler, and had been in her family 
150 years. Over the Assembly lobbies is the rooin of the 
Court of Appeals, and in the third story are the consultation 
rooms of this court, committee rooms of both houses, and part 
of the Senate Library. The courtroom of the Court of Appeals 
contains portraits of Chancellors Lansing, Sandford, Jones, and 
Walworth, Chief Justice Spencer, Abraham Van Vechten, and 
Daniel Cady. The inner Executive Chamber has a full size 
portrait of Gen. La Fayette, painted when he was in the city in 
1825. 

The roof of the State house is pyramidal, and from the center 
rises a circular cupola 20 feet in diameter, supporting a hemi- 
spherical dome upon 8 insulated Ionic columns. Upon the 
dome stands a wooden statue of Themis. 11 feet high, holding 
in her right hand a sword and in her left a balance. 

2 The State Library was founded April 21, 1818, and for nearly 
forty years was kept in the upper rooms of the Capitol. Its growth 
was comparatively slow until 1844, when its supervision was 
transferred from the State officers who had been ex-officio trus- 
tees to the Regents of the University. Their Secretary, the late 
Dr. T. Rome3 r n Beck, was eminently fitted for the task of building 
up an institution of this character. The library at the time of 
the transfer contained about 10,000 volumes. The number 
lias increased during the subsequent 15 years to about 53,000. 
The present building, erected in 1853-54. is 114 feet long by 45 
broad, was built at a cost of $91,900, and opened to the public 
Jan. 2, 1855. The first floor is supported by stone pillars and 
groined arches, and the second floor and galleries by arched 
spans of iron filled with concrete. The roof, rafters, trusses, 
pillars, shelves, and principal doors are of iron, and the floors 
are paved with colored tile. The first story is devoted to the 
law department, and the second story to the general library, in- 
cluding a large number of costly presents from other Govern- 
ments, a valuable series of MSS. and parchments relating to 
our colonial and early State history, and an extensive collec- 
tion of medals and coins. The office of the Regents of the Uni- 
versity is in the library building. 

She library, formerly known as the "ChancelU/rg Library" 



was divided in 1849, and, with additions since made, now forms 
two public libraries, called the " Libraries of the Court of Ap- 
peals," one of which is located at Syracuse and the other at 
Rochester. They consist chiefly of law books, and are in charge 
of librarians appointed by the Regents and paid by the State. 
There is also a small library, for reference, in the consultation 
room of the Court of Appeals. Each of the judges of the Su- 
preme Court and the Vice Chancellor of the Second District, 
under the late Constitution, held libraries owned by the State, 
which are for the use of the four judges of the Court of Appeals 
elected by the people of the State at large, and their successors 
iu office. There is also a small library for the use of the At- 
torney General ; and means are annually provided for the in- 
crease of each of these collections, chiefly from the income of 
moneys known as the " Chancellors' Library Fund" and "In- 
terest Fund," which are kept invested by the Clerk of the Court 
of Appeals for this purpose. 

3 Thislmildingis 138 by88 feet and 65 feet high. Theceilingsof 
the basement and of the two principal stories are groined arches, 
and all the rooms, excepting in the attic story, are fireproof. 
The basement and attic are each 19 feet, and the two principal 
stories each 22 feet, high. The building cost about $350,000. 

i In 1842 the old State Hall was converted into a geological 
hall, and rooms were assigned in the same building to the State 
Agricultural Society. The old building was torn down, and the 
present Geological and Agricultural Hall erected in its place, in 
the summer of 1855. The Agricultural Booms were dedicated 
Feb. 12, 1857, and the Cabinet was opened to the public Feb. 22, 
1858. The present building is of brick, and is 4 stories high, 
besides the basement. In the rear is a spacious wing, of the same 
height as the main building. It contains a lecture room, the 
spacious geological cabinet, and the rooms of the State Geological 
Society. The basement is occupied by a taxidermist and a jani- 
tor. The building itself is subject to the order of the Commis- 
sioners of the Land Office. The Cabinet originated in the Geo- 
logical Survey, and in extent and value it ranks among the first 
in America. Within the past year a series of English fossils has 
been given to the State by the British Government : and a valu- 
able collection of shells, embracing several thousand species, has 
been recently presented and arranged by Philip P. Carpenter, 
an English naturalist. The Museum is designed to embrace a 
complete representation of the geological formations of the State, 
with their accompanying minerals and fossils, and of its entire 
native flora and fauna. The birds and quadrupeds are preserved 
by a skilful taxidermist, with the attitudes aud appearance of 
life; and the reptiles and fishes are principally preserved in al- 
cohol. Connected with this cabinet is a historical and anti- 
quarian department, embracing numerous aboriginal antiquities 
and specimens of modern Indian art, relics of battle fields, and 
other objects of historical interest. The whole is under the 
charge of a curator appointed by the Begents. The museum of 
the State Agricultural Society, in a separate department of the 
building, contains a large collection of obsolete and modern im- 
plements of husbandry, specimens of agricultural and mechanical 
products, models of fruits, samples of grains and soils, drawings 
illustrating subjects connected with the useful arts ; and it is 
designed to include an extensive collection of insects, made with 
especial reference to showing their influence upon tlie fruit and 
grain crops of the State. The entomological department is in 
charge of Dr. Asa Fitch, who has been for several years employed 
by the society in studying the habits of destructive insects, with 
the view to ascertaining the means of preventing their ravages. 
The whole of these collections are open to the public on every 
weekday except holidays. The meetings of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the State Ag'ricultural Society, and the winter fairs, 
are held in their rooms in this building. 



STATE GOVERNMENT. 

The State Government consists of the Legislative, Executive, Judicial, and Administrative 
Departments ; the powers and duties of the several officers being defined by the Constitution and 
regulated by law. 

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. 

Tlie State Legislature is composed of a Senate and Assembly. 

Tlie Senate consists of 32 members, chosen by single districts 
every two years, the whole number being chosen at once. The 
Lieut. Governor is ex officio President of the Senate, and has a cast- 
ing vote in case of a tie. The Senate appoints a President pro tern., 
who presides in the absence of the Lieut. Governor, and becomes 
ex officio Lieut. Governor in case of a vacancy in that office. The 
Senate with the Judges of the Court of Appeals forms a court 
for the trial of impeachments, and it ratifies or rejects the nomi- 
nations of the Governor to a great number of offices. 

The Senate elects the following officers : a clerk, sergeant-at- 
arms, assistant sergeant-at-arms, doorkeeper and assistants, libra- 
rian, and such other officers as may be deemed necessary. 1 

The Assembly consists of 128 members, elected annually by 
single districts. The districts are re-apportioned once in ten 
years, after the State census is taken. The Speaker, or Pre- 
siding Officer of the Assembly, is elected by the members from 
their number, and usually appoints all committees. All bills 
upon financial matters must originate in the Assembly. 

The Assembly elects the following officers : a Speaker, clerk, 
sergeant-at-arms, doorkeeper and two assistants. The Speaker 
appoints an assistant sergeant-at-arms, a postmaster and assist- 
ant, a janitor, keeper of the Assembly chamber, and several 
doorkeepers and pages. 2 




1 The sergeant-at-arms is also librarian. The clerk appoints 
his deputies and assistants, and the President appoints a janitor, 
superintendent of tl. amber, and pages. Committees 

are usually appointed bj the Lieut. Qot. Tlie appointment* are 
for two _\c.-, r j. About half a dozen reporters are admitted 
thin the Benate chamber. Standing commit t 
the Senate consist of 3 members. 

SENATE DISTRICTS. 

1. ' hmond, and Suffolk Counties. 

2. 1st 2d, Sd, 4th, Kb, 7th. lltli, 18th, and 10th Wards of 

-lvn. 

3. 8th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 12th. 14th. 15th, 16th, 17th. and 18th 

•.•I id.- towns of Kings County. 

4. l«t. 2d, Sd, 4th. Mb, 8th, 7th, 8th, and 14th Wards of New 

V rk. 
6. 10th. 11th. 13th, and 17th Wards of Kew York. 

6. Pth. 16th, 18th, and 18th Wards of New fork. 

7. " . Ward* of New fork. 

8. 1 i I until ■*. 

9. Orange nn<\ Sullivan Counties. 

and ri-t.T ' 
11. < lumbia and Dti( inties. 

 nM«-iarr and Washington Counties, 
oty. 
14. D 

1. 1 toga Counties. 

18. ( • i 

17 Franklin and St. Lawi I .ties. 

1 8. J  

19. Oi da I 

20. Herkhwat and Otasgp Q untie*. 

21. Oi nty. 

mty. 

23. Chena - . . I. an 1 M i Hi n f'-mntles. 

24. Bro. I ind Tompkioa •'•unties. 

25. Cayuga and Wayne ' 

tmca. and Yates Coun* 
27. Chemung, Schuyler, and Steuben Counties. 
°S. M inty. 

28 



29. Genesee. Niagara, and Orleans Counties. 

.';n. Ail ■•■_':my. Livingston, and Wyoming Counties, 

31. Erie County. 

32. Cattaraugus and Chautauqua Counties. 

2 The clerk appoints his assistants and deputies, a librarian 
and assistant, a bank clerk, and a clerk's messenger. These 
officers are appointed f<>r the Bession. except pages, who are 
changed In the middle of each session. Standing committees of 
the Assembly consist of 6 members, except those upon Ways 
and Means, the Judiciary, and Canal-. <-.i.)i ..t which has'" 

members. About 20 reporters are admitted and provided with 
within the bar. They usually share with members in 
extra appropriations for books, and in the privilege of mailing 
documents at the public expense. 

ASSEMBLY DISTRICTS. 

[Those Counties not enumerated in this list form but one 
[■ in't. Ktilton and Hamilton form one District.] 

ALBANY COUNTY.— Focu Districts. 

1. 1-t Ward of Albany. Bethlehem, Coeymans, New Scotland, 

Ren lelai rrille, and Westerlo, 
J. 9tb and bub Wards of Albany, Bern, Ouilderland, and Knox. 
... 2 I. : Id Itb, 6th, 8th, and 8th Wards of Albany. 
4. 7th Ward oi All. m\ and Watcrvliet. 

ALLEGANY COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Allen. Almond, Angelica, Belfast. BirdsaU. Burns, Oaneadea, 

Cnterville. I ; ranger, Grove, Hume, New Hudson. Bushford, 
and West Almond. 

2, Alfred. Alma. Amity, Andover, Bolivar. Cl.nrksville, Cuba, 

Friendship, Genesee, Independence, Scio, Ward. Weiisville, 
Willing, arid Wirt. 

CATTARAUGUS COUNTY.— Two Districts. 
1. Allegany. Ashford. Carrol ton. Elgin. FarmTsville. Franklin- 
ville. freedom, Hinsdale, Humphrey, Ischua, Machias, 
Olean, Portville, and Yorkshire. 



STATE GOVERNMENT. 



29 



The sessions of the Legislature commence on the first Tuesday in January, and members can 
only receive pay for 100 days. The business of each year begins de novo; but if an extra session 
is called by the Governor, bills are taken up where they were left at the last previous adjourn- 
ment. Each house decides upon the qualifications of its own members; and both houses must 
concur in the election of U. S. Senators, Regents of the University, and Superintendent of Public 
Instruction. Bills, except measures of finance, may originate in either house, and must be 



2. Bucktooth, Coldspring, Connowango, Dayton, Ellicottville, 
East Otto, Great Valley, Leon, Little Valley, Mansfield, 
Napoli, New Albion, Otto, Perrysburgh, Persia, Randolph, 
and South Valley. 

CAYUGA COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Brutus, Cato, Conquest, Ira, Mentz, Montezuma, Sennett, 

Sterling, Throop, Victory, and the 1st and 4th Wards of 
Auburn. 

2. Aurelius, Fleming, Genoa, Ledyard, Locke, Moravia, Niles, 

Owasco, Scipio, Sempronius, Springport, Summer Hill, 
Venice, and the 2d and 3d Wards of Auburn. 

CHAUTAUQUA COUNTY. -Two Districts. 

1. Busti, Chautauqua, Clymer, Ellery, French Creek, Ilarmony, 

Mina, Portland, Ripley, Sherman, Stockton, and Westfield. 

2. Arkwright, Carroll, Charlotte, Cherry Creek, Ellicott, Elling- 

ton, Gerry, Hanover, Kiantone, Poland, Pomfret, Sheridan, 
and Villenova. 

CHENANGO COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Columbus, Lincklaen, New Berlin, North Norwich, Norwich, 

Otselic, Pharsalia, Pitcher, Plymouth, Sherburne, and 
Smyrna. 

2. Afton, Bainbridge, Coventry, German, Guilford, Greene, Mc- 

Donough, Oxford, Preston, and Smithville. 

COLUMBIA COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Ancram, Claverack, Clermont, Copake, Gallatin, German- 

town, Greenport, Hudson City, Livingston, and Tagh- 
kanick. 

2. Austerlitz, Canaan, Chatham, Ghent, Hillsdale, Kinder- 

hook, New Lebanon, Stockport, and Stuyvesant. 

DELAWARE COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Colchester, Delhi, Franklin, Hamden, Hancock, Masonville, 

Sidney, Tompkins, and Walton. 

2. Andes, Bovina, Davenport, Harpersfield, Kortright, Mere- 

dith, Middleton, Roxbury, and Stamford. 

DUTCHESS COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Amenia, Beekman, Dover, East Fishkill, La Grange, North- 

east, Pawling, Pine Plains, Stanford, Union Vale, and 
Washington. 

2. Clinton, Hyde Park, Milan, Pleasant Valley, Poughkeepsie, 

City of Poughkeepsie, Red Hook, and Rhinebeck. 

ERIE COUNTY.— Four Districts. 

1. 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, and 13th Wards of Buffalo. 

2. 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th Wards of Buffalo. 

3. Alden, Amherst, Chicktawauga, Clarence, Elma, Grand 

Island, Hamburgh, Lancaster, Marilla, Newstead, Tona- 
wanda, and West Seneca. 

4. Aurora, Boston, Brandt, Colden, Collins, Concord, East 

Hamburgh, Eden, Evans, Holland, North Collins, Sardinia, 
and Wales. 

HERKIMER COUNTY— Two Districts. 

1. Fairfield, Herkimer, Little Falls, Manheim, Newport, Nor- 

way, Ohio, Russia, Salisbury, and Wilmurt. 

2. Columbia, Danube, Frankfort, German Flats, Litchfield, 

Schuyler, Stark, Warren, and Winfield. 

JEFFERSON COUNTY.— Three Districts. 

1. Adams, Brownville, Ellisburgh, Henderson, Hounsfield, Lor- 

raine, Rodman, and Worth. 

2. Antwerp, Champion, Le Ray, Philadelphia, Rutland, Water- 

town, and Wilna. 

3. Alexandria, Cape Vincent, Clayton, Lyme, Orleans, Pamelia, 

and Theresa. 

KINGS COUNTY.— Seven Districts. 

1. Flatbush, Flatlands, Gravesend, New Lots, New Utrecht, and 

the 8th, 17th, and 18th Wards of Brooklyn. 

2. 1st, 6th, and 12th Wards of Brooklyn. 

3. 4th and 10th Wards of Brooklyn. 

4. 2d, 3d, and 5th Wards of Brooklyn. 

5. 9th and 11th Wards of Brooklyn. 

6. 13th, 14th, and part of 19th Wards of Brooklyn. 

7. 7th, 15th, 16th, and part of 19th Wards of Brooklyn. 

LIVINGSTON COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Avon, Caledonia, Conesus, Geneseo, Groveland, Leicester, 

Lims., Livonia, and York. 

2. Mount Morris, North Dansville, Nunda, Ossian, Portage, 

Sparti, Springwater, and West Sparta. 



MADISON COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Brookfield, Do Ruyter, Eaton, Georgetown, Hamilton, Leba- 

non, Madison, and Nelson. 

2. Cazenovia, Fenner, Lenox, Smithfield, Stockbridgo, and 

Sullivan. 

MONROE COUNTY.— Three Districts. 

1. Brighton, Henrietta, Irondequoit, Mendon, Penfiekl, Perin- 

ton, Pittsford, Rush, and Webster. 

2. The City of Rochester. 

3. Chili, Clarkson, Gates, Greece, Ogden, Parma, Riga, Sweden, 

Union, and Wheatland. 

NEW YORK CITY AND COUNTY.— Seventeen Districts. 
17 districts, corresponding to Aldermanic districts. 

NIAGARA COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Lockport, Pendleton, Royalton, and Wheatfield. 

2. Cambria, Hartland, Lewiston, Newfane, Niagara, Porter, 

Somerset, and Wilson. 

ONEIDA COUNTY.— Four Districts. 

1. Deerfield, City of Ctica, and Whitestown. 

2. Augusta, Bridgewater, Kirkland, Marshall, New Hartford, 

Paris, Sangerfield, Vernon, and Westmoreland. 

3. Camden, Florence, Rome, Verona, and Vienna. 

4. Amesville, Ava, Brownville, Floyd, Lee, Marcy, Remsen, 

Steuben, Trenton, and Western. 

ONONDAGA COUNTY.— Three Districts. 

1. Camillus, Clay, Elbridge, Lysander, Marcellus, Skaneateles, 

Spafford, and Van Buren. 

2. Cicero, Salina, and Syracuse. 

3. De Witt, Fabius, Geddes, La Fayette, Manlius, Onondaga, 

Otisco, Pompey, and Tully. 

ONTARIO COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Farmington, Gorham, Hopewell, Manchester, Phelps, and 

Seneca. 

2. Bristol, Canadice, Canandaigua, Eas.t Bloomfield, Naples. 

Richmond, South Bristol, Victor, and West Bloomfield. 

ORANGE COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Blooming Grove, Chester. Cornwall, Monroe, Montgomery, 

Newburgh, and New Windsor. 

2. Crawford, Deerpark, Goshen, Greenville, namptonburgh, 

Minisink, Mount Hope, Walkill, Warwick, and Waway- 
anda. 

OSWEGO COUNTY.— Three Districts. 

1. City of Oswego, Hannibal, Oswego, and Scriba. 

2. Constantia, Granby, Hastings, Palermo, Schroeppel, Volney, 

and West Monroe. 

3. Albion, Amboy. Boyleston, Mexico, Orwell. Parish, Redfield. 

Richland, Sandy Creek, New Haven, and Williainstown. 

OTSEGO COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Cherry Valley, Decatur, Exeter, Maryland, Middlefield, 

Otsego, Plainfield, Richfield, Roseboom, Springfield, West- 
ford, and Worcester. 

2. Unadilla, Burlington, Butternuts, Edmeston, Hartwiek. 

Laurens, Milford, Morris, New Lisbon, Otego, Oneonta, and 
Pittsfield. 

QUEENS COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Flushing, North Hempstead, and Oyster Bay. 

2. Hempstead, Jamaica, and Newtown. 

RENSSELAER COUNTY.— Three Districts. 

1. City of Troy. 

2. Berlin, Grafton, Hoosick, Lansingburgh, Petersburgh, Pitts- 

town, and Schaghticoke. 

3. Brunswick, Clinton, Greenhush, Nassau, North Greenbush, 

Poestenkill, Sand Lake, Schodack, and Stephentown. 
ST. LAWRENCE COUNTY.— Three Districts. 

1. De Kalb, De Peyster, Fine, Fowler, Gouverneur, Macomb, 

Morristown, Oswegntchie, Pitcairn, and Rossie, 

2. Canton, Colton, Edwards, Hermon, Lisbon, Madrid, Norfolk, 

Pierrepont, and Russell. 

3. Brasher, Hopkinton, Lawrence, Louisville, Massena, Parish- 

ville, Potsdam, and Stockholm. 

SARATOGA COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Ballston, Charlton, Clifton Park. Galway, Halfmoon, Malta, 

Milton, Stillwater, and Waterford. 

2. Corinth, Day, Edinburgh, Greenfield, nadley. Moreau, North- 

umberland, Providence, Saratoga, Saratoga Springs, and 
Wilton. 



30 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



passed by both, and receive the signature of the Governor, — or, if vetoed by him, the votes of two- 
thirds of both houses, — to become laws. The original laws of the Legislature, bearing the signa- 
tures of the presiding officer of each house and of the Governor and Secretary of State, are bound, 
and preserved in the Secretary's office. All general laws are published in such newspapers in each 
county as may be designated by the Board of Supervisors. 

Besides the State Legislature, a limited power of enacting laws is possessed by the boards of 
supervisors in the several counties, by the common councils of cities, and by citizens generally 
assembled in town and school district meetings. 

The Board of Supervisors meets annually at the county seat, on the week following the 
general election, to canvass the votes for State and county officers ; it may hold special meetings at 
any time.  It has power to appoint a clerk of the board, a county sealer of weights and measures, 
special commissioners for laying out roads, printers for publishing the general laws, inspectors of turn- 
pike and plank roads, and, in some counties, the Superintendent of the Poor, and other officers, and to 
fix the salaries of the county Judge and Surrogate, and of School Commissioners, (above $500, allowed 
by law,) and, in some counties, the salary of the District Attorney ; to establish the bounds of assembly 
and school commissioner districts, to fix upon town meeting days, 1 to make orders concerning property 
<>\rned by the county, and to repair or rebuild the county buildings ; to audit and settle charges against 
the county, and the accounts of town officers ; to equalize assessments and levy taxes to meet county 
expenses, and for such special purposes as may be directed by law. It also has power to alter the 
bounds of towns, and to erect new towns ; to change the location of the county seat and purchase sites 
for the erection of new buildings; and to examine annually the securities held by loan commis- 
sioners. It may pass laws for the preservation of game or fish, and for the destruction of noxious 
animals, and perform such other duties as may be from time to time authorized by law. 



STEUBEN* COUNTY.— Turee Districts. 

1. Avoca. Bath. Bradford, Conhocton, Prattsburgh, Pulteney, 

Urbana, Wayne, and Wheeler. 

2. Addison, Cameron, Campbell, Caton. Corning, Erwin, Hornby, 

Lindley, Rathbone, Thurston, and Woodhull. 

3. Cauisti so, I'ansville, Fremont, Greenwood, Hornellsville, 

H nrerd, Hartsvflle, Jasper, Tronpsburgh, West Union, and 
Waylaod. 

SUFFOLK COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. East Hampton, Riverhead, Shelter Island, Southampton, 

and Southold. 

2. Brookhaven, Huntington, Islip, and Smithtown. 

ULSTER COUNTY.— Three Districts. 

1. Hurley, Kingston, and Saugerties. 

2. B liner, Lloyd, Marbletown, Marlborough, New 

Palls, Plattekill, Kosendale, and Shawangunk. 
.'!. Denning, Bardenirnrgh, Olive, Rochester, Shandaken, Wa- 
md Woodstock. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Axgyle, Cambridge. Easton, Fort Edward, Greenwich, Jack- 

son. Salem, and White Creek. 

2. Dresden. Fort Anu. Granville. Hampton, Hartford, Hebron, 

Kingsbury, Putnam, and Whitehall. 

WAYNE COUNTY.— Two Districts. 

1. Butler, Galen, Huron, Lyons, Rose, Savannah, Sodus, and 

Wolcott. 

2. Arcadia, Macedon, Marion, Ontario, Palmyra, Walworth, 

and Williamson. 



WESTCHESTER COUNTY.— Three Districts. 

1. East Chester, Morrisania, Westchester, West Farms, and 
Yonkers. 

2. Greenburgh. Harrison. Mamaroneck, Mount Pleasant. New 
Rochelle, North Castle, Pelliam, Poundridgc, Rye, Scars- 
dale, and White Plains. 

3. Bedford, Cortlandt, Lewiaboro, New Castle, North Salem, 
Ossining, Somers, and Yorktown. 

' TOWN MEETINGS. 
d meeting! are held on the same day throughout the county: and the time may be changed once in 3 years. The town 

meetb me between the 1-t day of Feb. and the 1st of May. They are at present all held on Tuesdays, as follows : — 



• TIES. 


Tuadnyupan which Toum 


Counties. 


Tuesday* upon which Turn 

ueetingi arc held. 


Counties. 


Tuesdays upnn which 
ittetingt are held 


Town 


Albany 

ny. ... 

i ittaJ .nii.-ii< 
 

• kuqua 

Chemung.... 

it'ift.... 
i od ..... 

1 


2-1 in April. 
2d In March. 

2d in Feb. 

i -in Pi b. 

ft< r 1-t Mon. in Mar. 
8d in P*b, 

fler 1st Mon. in Feb. 
1-t In Mar' b. 
1-t in Man b. 
1-t in Mar h. 
3d in Pub. 
2-1 in 1 

■.M in March 

1st in Man b. 
1«t in Kan b. 

Peb. 

2d in 

l«t in March. 

l«t En 

1-t in 


Herkimer.... 


1 -t in March. 
3d in Fell. 
1-1 In \ l-ril. 

8d iii Pen. 

i-t in April. 

i-t in lurch. 

1-t after Lai Mon. in Mar. 

2d in Feb. 

2d in A pi il. 

1st in March. 

.Id In Peb, 

1st after 1-t Mon. in April. 

l-i in March. 

1-t in April. 

1st in March. 

1 -t in Man h. 

1st after 1ft Mon. in April. 

1st in April. 

1st in Mai' li. 


Richmond ... 

-i i ,'w rence 

s hem i tadj 
Schoharie ... 

Beneca 

Bteuben 

Suffolk 

Sullivan 

Tompkins... 
Ols ter 


2d in Feb. 

2d in .\pril. 
2d in Feb. 

1-t in March. 
1-t in April. 
::.l in Feb. 
2d iii Feb. 

'Jil in March. 

2d in Feb. 

1st in April. 

1st after 1st Mon. in 

1st in Feb. 

1st in April. 

1st in March. 

1st in April. 

1st in March. 

1st in March. 

Last in March. 
Last in Feb. 
Last in Feb. 


Mar. 


Livingston . 

■Ill' TV 

N"\v Sork... 
Oneida 


i tnondaga... 




franklin 

Pulton 


W ashjngton 


Rene- : 


Wi -trhestcr 
Wyoming.... 


Hamilton... 



At these meetings n ! by ballot, a ■uuurrlaor, town 

clerk. -1 iui '" exce p tion! tinned o n page 34. 3 aasess- 

- 1 annually.. ar..ii.v i,. r . 1 or Sotuisesnofpoor, 

(a\ UM pti n of the town, excepting Montgomery and King! 

thai are not Included in the general law. > 1 or .". oom> 

- of highway*, i if .'!. on- elected annually for 8 years.) 
not more than 5 constables and 2 i of election fur may determine 



Bach election district, a third being appointed by the pre- 
siding officer of the town meetings from the two having 
tie- text highest vote. The town of Manlius elects 7 con- 
-. Each town at its annual meeting also elects by ayes 
and noes, or otherwise, as many overseers of highway;: as there 
are road .|;-trict«, and as many pound masters as tii" electors 



STATE GOVERNMENT. 



31 



Tlie Common Council in each of the cities has jurisdiction over municipal affairs within 
limits fixed by law, and observes the usual formalities of legislative bodies in its proceedings. Two 
aldermen are generally elected from each ward, who, with the mayor, constitute the Common 
Council ; but the organization of no two cities is in this respect exactly alike. 1 The enactments 
of the Common Council are usually termed "ordinances," and have the force of law. The council 
usually has the appointment of a large class of minor city officers, including the keepers of parks 
and public buildings, inspectors of various kinds, and in some instances the officers and members 
of the police and fire departments. These appointments are usually held at the pleasure of the 
appointing power. 

Town Meetings may pass laws regulating roads and bridges, the height offences, the support 
of the poor, the range of animals, the destruction of noxious weeds, the preservation of town pro- 
perty, and for such other purposes as may be directed by special acts. Every town is a corporate 
body, may sue and be sued, may hold and convey lands within its limits for purposes specified 
by law, and may appropriate moneys for public objects within the town. 

School Districts, at regular meetings, may pass rules concerning the support of schools, 
employment of teachers, repairs, supplies, and similar affairs, which have the force of law. 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

The Governor is elected once in two years. 2 He is commander- 
in-chief of the military and naval forces of the State, and possesses 
the sole power of granting pardons and commutations of sentence 
after conviction. 3 He issues requisitions for the return of crimi- 
nals in other States, and he is authorized to offer rewards for the 
arrest of criminals within this State. He annually communicates 
to the Legislature, at the commencement of each session, a state- 
ment of the condition of the public departments, and such other 
matters as he may deem necessary. On extraordinary occasions 
he may convene the Senate or Legislature. 4 AYithin ten days after 
its passage by the Legislature, he may veto any act, by returning it 
to the house in which it originated, with his objections; and such act 

can become a law only by the concurrence of two-thirds of both houses. 5 

The Governor nominates, for appointment by the Senate, a large class of State and county and a 

few military officers, 6 and may fill vacancies occurring in these offices during the recess of the Senate. 

Some other classes of officers are appointed by the Governor alone, — generally for specific terms, 

but in some cases during pleasure. He may also fill vacancies occurring in elective offices, and 




1 In New York, the Common Council consists of two branches, — 
the Board of Aldermen, consisting of 17 members, chosen for 2 
years; and the Board of Councilmen, consisting of 24 members, 
chosen annually, 6 from each senatorial district. Each of these 
branches elects one of its own number president; and the mayor 
possesses a veto power upon their laws analogous to that of the 
Governor upon those of the State Legislature. 

2 To be eligible to the office of Governor a person must be a 
citizen of the U. S., a resident of the State for the last 5 years 
previous to election, and must have attained the age of 30 years. 
The colonial governors of N.Y. were appointed by the crown. 
Under the Constitution of 1777 they were elected for 3 years and 
were required to be freeholders. Under the Constitution of 1822, 
the governor was elected for 2 years, and, in addition to the pre- 
sent qualifications, was required to be a native of the U. S. and a 
freeholder. 

Under the first State Constitution electors were classified, apd 
only those owning freehold property worth §250 and upward 
were allowed to vote for Senators and Governor. The aggregate 
of the several classes at different periods has been as follows : — 



Years. 



1790. 
1795. 
1801. 
1807. 
1814. 
1821. 



1 


q 


oT A • 




o 


o 
to 


"3 e-.S 




Si • 

5 1 


II 


Not Freeh 
but rentiv 
ments wor 


1 

K 
[g 

B 


19,369 


23.425 


14.674 


138 


36,338 


4.838 


22,598 


243 


52,058 


5,264 


28,522 


63 


71.159 


5,800 


44,330 


88 


87.491 


5.231 


59,104 


20 


100,490 


8,985 


93,035 


20 



Total. 



57.606 

64.017 

85.907 

121.289 

151.846 

202.510 



3 In cases of treason and impeachment the Governor can only 
suspend sentence until the next session of the Legislature, that 
body alone possessing the pardoning power in such cases. Under 
the Constitution of 1777, the same restriction was applied in cases 
of murder. 

4 He also possessed under the Constitution of 1777 the power 
to prorogue the Legislature for a period not exceeding 60 days 
in one year. This was once done by Gov. Tompkins, to defeat 
the passage of a bank charter, but without success. 

6 The first court created a council of rei ision. consisting of tho 
Governor, Chancellor, and judges of the Supreme Court, who sat 
with closed doors and observed the usual formalities of legis- 
lative proceedings. During the continuance of this council it 
rejected 144 bills, several of which became laws notwithstanding. 

6 The following officers are appointed by the Governor and 
Senate: 1 Superintendent of Bank Department, 1 Auditor of 
Canal Department, 3 Canal Appraisers, 1 Superintendent of 
Onondaga Salt Springs. 6 Commissioners of Emigration. 5 Com- 
missioners of Metropolitan Police. 11 Harbor Masters, 9 Wardens 
of. the Port of N. Y., 2 Special Wardens, to reside at Quarantine, 
1 Harbor Master at Albany, 1 Health Officer at Quarantine. 1 
Physician of Marine Hospital and not less than 4 assistants. 1 
Resident Physician and 1 Health Commissioner for the city of 
Neiv York, i Agent for the Onondaga Nation, 1 Attorney to 
Seneca Nation, directors in certain banks of which the State 
holds stock according to the amount held, as many Hellgate 
pilots, as the Board of Wardens may recommend. 5 trustees of 
the Idiot Asylum, 9 trustees of State Lunatic Asylum. 2 com- 
missioners in each co. for loaning moneys of the United States, 
as many notaries public as the law may allow or the Governor 
determine, and such other officers and special commissioners as 
are required from time to time by law. He appoints field 
officers of regiments and generals of brigades, when such regi- 
ments and brigades are not fully organized. Under the first 
constitution, almost every civil and military office was filled by 
the Council of Appointment, consisting of the Governor and 4 
Senators, chosen annually by the Assembly. In 1S21, 8,287 



S2 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 




may remove, under limitations prescribed by statute, most State and county officers. 1 He has a 
private secretary, with a salary of $2000, a clerk and a doorkeeper. 

The Lieutenant Governor is elected at the same time as the Governor, and must possess 
the same qualifications. He discharges the duties of Governor when a vacancy occurs in that office. 
He is President of the Senate, having the casting vote in that body, a Commissioner of the Canal 
Fund and of the Land Office, a member of the Canal Board, a trustee of the Idiot Asylum and of 
Union College, a Regent of the University, and a trustee of the Capitol and State Hall. 

The Secretary of State 2 is keeper of the State archives ; 
is a Regent of the University, a Commissioner of the Land Office 
and of the Canal Fund, a member of the Canal Board and of the 
Board of State Canvassers, a trustee of the State Idiot Asylum, 
of Union College, of the Capitol, and of the State Hall. He has 
specific duties in relation to the publication and distribution of 
the laws ; the issuing of patents for land, of commissions, par- 
dons, and peddlers' licenses ; the filing of the declarations of 
aliens, and the articles of association of companies under gene- 
ral laws ; issuing notices of elections, receiving and reporting 
statistics of pauperism and crime from sheriffs and county 
clerks, and furnishing certified copies of laws and other docu- 
ments in his office. He administers the oath of office to members of the Assembly, and other 
State officers. His deputy is ex officio Clerk of the Commissioners of the Land Office. 

The Comptroller 3 is the auditor of the public accounts, 
excepting those payable from the Canal and Bank Funds ; a Com- 
missioner of the Land Office and of the Canal Fund ; a member of 
the Canal Board and of the Board of State Canvassers, and a 
trustee of the Idiot Asylum, of Union College, of the Capitol, and 
State Hall. He has responsible duties in relation to the payment 
of appropriations made by the Legislature, the collection of 
taxes, and sale of lands sold for taxes, the management of funds, 
supervision of fire and life insurance companies, loaning of 
moneys, and other duties connected with the finances of the State. 
He reports annually to the Legislature the condition of the public 
funds, the receipts and expenses of the State, the condition of 
insurance companies, and upon such other matters as he may from time to time be called upon by 
tin- Legislature for information. He has a deputy, an accountant, and about a dozen clerks. 

The Treasurer* rcoei ves all moneys paid into the treasury, and pays all warrants of the Comp- 
troller. A u< lit' >r "ft ho Canal Department, Superintendent of the Bank Department, and Superintendent 
of Public Instruction. He is a Commissioner of the Land Office and of the Canal Fund, a member 
of the Canal 1. mnl and 'if the Board of State Canvassers, and a trustee of Union College. He has 
a deputy, and two or three clerks. 
The Attorney General 5 is the legal prosecutor and adviser in In-half of the State. He is a 




military and 0,663 nvil officers held tinder this appointment, 
and most of tti-rn at will. Prom I'"-.' to 1 s l'.. tho Governor and 
I In addition to molt of tin""' it now appoints, 
nil judicial • -n i I Justices, Masters and Examineri In 

Chanosry, Bnpi ■• Commissioners, Inspector! tor com- 

DMrdal pa i nersol D la, several  ity officers, 

an'l -| rg. 

i B crew and membera of the State Legis- 

lator nly. The Governor appoints, on his own 

authority.  i for. taking acknowledgments of Deeds 

in other B( masters, and certain com- 

missknters >I i r- I ippointod for ipeclal pnrpo 

'T: was formerly Clerk of the Oonncfl of 

Appointment mil of the Council "f Revision, and from 1823 to 

1- ; - Intendenl ' In colonial times he was 

ated i •■ th rown; fr m 1777 to 1822, by the Council of 

Appointment; anil fr..m i- by tho Legislature. 

» Tlii"» office WM created in lT'.'T. in plum of that of Auditor 

General, formed by the Prorii] iti..n: but it was not 

permanently organised until 1812. The Comptroller "a* ap- 

pointed by the Council of Ap|«ointment until 1822, whin the 

 r ww changed to tho Utjlslalum and the tenure 

Of the officii flxed nt 3 y.ir-. 

* Th<i nfWc- of Treasurer, under the colonial cov"rnm»nt and 
parh state government, w is a Tory Important one; and 

fir tn my years after 1777. the Treasurer was a p po in ted by spe- 
cial act from year to year. About the beginning of the present 



century, thede&lcatioii of a Treasurer occasioned a revision of 

thi' law creating tin- department : and. from his being tho prin- 

cipal financial officer ol the government, the Treasurer became 

th" most unimportant, ami 1 1 i -> powers wore narrowed down to 

the payment of the drafts ol other officers. For many years 
previous to 1822 be was appointed by the Council of Revision; 
and from L822 i" 1840, by the Legislature. 'J'he accounts of the 

I i  | orer are annually ruin pared with those of the Comptroller, 
Bup i Intendenl of Hunk Department, and Auditor of the Canal 

Department, by a commissioner appointed for tho purpose: and 

officers thus heroine a cheek upon each other. The. Trea- 
surer may be suspended for cause, by the Governor, in the recess 
of the Legislature. 

6 This office bai existed almost from the beginning of tho 
Colonial Government, n was filled try the Council of Appoint- 
ment frmn 1777 I" lvj'j. iiml by the Legislature, with a term of 

8 years, from 1822 to 1840. The Attorney General originally 
attended the circuits of Oyer and Terminer, as prosecutor in 

criminal suits, until 1706, When the State was divided into 8 

districts, to • eli "i which an assistant Attorney General was 
app ilnted, except In New York, where tho head officer 
officiated personally. In 1818 each co. was niado a separate 
district, and a District Attorney was appointed in each. The 
Attorney General still occasionally attends upon important 
criminal trials ; but his time is chiefly occupied in civil suits in 
which the State is a party. 



STATE GOVERNMENT. 



33 



Commissioner of the Land Office and of the Canal Fund, a member of the Canal Board and of the 
Board of State Canvassers, and a trustee of Union College, of the Capitol, and Stato Hall. He has 
a deputy and a clerk. 

The State Engineer' and Surveyor 1 has charge of the engineering department of the 
canals and such land surveys as involve the interests of the State. He reports annually the statistics 
of these departments and of railroads. He is a Commissioner of the Land Office, a member of the 
Canal Board and Board of State Canvassers, and a trustee of Union College and the State Hall. 
He must be a practical engineer. He is assisted by a deputy and 3 clerks. 



JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 

United States Courts. — The second of the U. S. Courts comprises New York, Vermont, 
and Connecticut. A court is held twice a year in each State by a Justice of the Supreme Court 
and the District Judge of the district in which the court sits. 

The State of New York is divided into two Judicial Districts, in each of which is held a District 
Court. 2 The officers of this court in each district are a District Judge, Attorney, Marshal, and 
Clerk. In the Southern District a term is held in each month, at New York ; and in the Northern 
District one term is held each year at Albany, Utica, Auburn, and Buffalo, and one term annually 
in St. Lawrence, Clinton, or Franklin co., as the Judge may direct. 3 These courts have nearly 
concurrent original jurisdiction in all matters in which the United States is a party; and they take 
cognizance of offenses against the laws of the U. S. An appeal lies from the District to the Circuit 
Court, and thence to the Supreme Court. 

State Courts. — The State Courts consist of a Court for the 
Trial of Impeachments, the Court of Appeals, the Supreme Court 
and Court of Oyer and Terminer, the County Court and Court of 
Sessions, Justices' Courts, and City Courts. 

The Court for the Trial of Impeachments consists 
of the Senate and the Judges of the Court of Appeals. Its judg- 
ments extend only to removal of officials and to disqualification for 
holding office.* Parties impeached are liable to all the penalties 
of the civil and criminal laws. This court is a court of record ; its 
meetings are held at Albany. 




The Court of Appeals, 5 instituted in 1847, is composed of 8 
judges, 4 of whom are elected, (one every 2 years,) and 4 of whom are 
the Judges of the Supreme Court having the shortest term to serve. 
The judge elected having the shortest term to serve is Chief Judge ; 
and 6 judges constitute a quorum. This court has power to correct 
and reverse all proceedings of the Supreme Court, or of the former 
Supreme Court, and Court of Chancery. It holds 4 terms a year 
at the Capital; and every 2 years one term must be held in 
each Judicial District. Its clerk has an office in the State Hall, 
where the records of this and former State and Colonial Courts are 
preserved. The State Reporter prepares for the press and pub- 
lishes the decisions of the court, copies of which are sent to each 

county, and franked, under the Governor's hand, to each of the other States and Territories of the 

Union. 




1 This office takes the place of that of " Surveyor General," 
which existed under the colony. In the earlier years of the 
State Government, numerous and responsible duties were im- 
posed upon this officer, under acts for the sale and settlement 
of lands, the adjustment of disputed titles, boundaries, and In- 
dian claims, laying out roads, and business relating to the salt 
springs, reserved village plats, and other State property. These 
duties were discharged from 1784 to 1834 by Simeon De Witt, 
with great integrity and success. 

The Secretary of State, Comptroller, Treasurer, Attorney 
General, and State Engineer are elected biennially at the same 
time, — their election occurring on alternate years from those 
of the election of the Governor and Lieut. Governor. 

i United States JXstrict Courts. — There are two Districts within 
this State. The Southern District embraces Columbia, Greene, 



Ulster, Sullivan, and the counties South. The Northern Dis- 
trict embraces the remainder of the State. 

3 The United States has caused or ordered buildings to be 
erected in part for the accommodation of these courts at New 
York, Utica, Buffalo, Ogdensburgh, Canandaigua, and Pitts- 
burgh. These edifices are of the most substantial kind, and 
generally fireproof. 

* This court has assembled but once. In 1853 it was con- 
vened for the trial of impeachment of John C. Mather, Canal 
Commissioner. He was acquitted. 

6 Constitution, Art. VI, Sec. 2. This court takes the place 
of the former " Court for the Correction of Errors," and in some 
respects fills that of the old Supreme Court and Court of Chan- 
eery. 



3 



34 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



The Supreme Court. — The State is divided into 8 Judicial Districts, 1 in each of which, ex- 
cept the first, 4 justices are elected. The clerks of counties are clerks of this court. It has general 
jurisdiction in law and equity, and power to review the judgments of the County Courts and of 
the former Court of Common Pleas. This court has three distinct branches, — General Terms, 
Special Terms, and Circuits. The General Term held by three or more of the Supreme Judges, 
including the presiding judge, is an appellate court for the review of cases from the courts below, 
and for deciding solely upon questions of law. Special Terms are held by one Supreme Judge, 
without a jury, for the decision of equity cases; and Circuit Courts are held by one Supreme 
Judge, with a jury, for the trial of issues of fact. At least four general terms of this court are 
held in each district every year. Every county (except Hamilton) has at least one special and two 
circuit courts annually. A general term of the Supreme Court is held at the Capital in January of 
each alternate year, for the purpose of arranging the terms of all the Circuit Courts and Couris of 
Oyer and Terminer, of assigning the business and duties of the justices, and revising the rules of 
the court 

County Courts are held by the County Judge, 2 assisted by two justices of the peace elected 
annually for the purpose. The judge performs the duty of surrogate, except in counties where the 
population exceeds 40,000, in which the Legislature may provide for the election of a separate 
officer as surrogate. 3 The Legislature may direct the election of local officers, not exceeding two in 
any county, to discharge the duties of judge and surrogate in case of inability or vacancy in that office, 
and to exercise such other powers as may be provided by law.* Judges and surrogates receive a 
salary fixed by the Supervisors, and which cannot be increased during their term of office. 

County Courts have jurisdiction in civil cases when the real estate, or all the defendants, or all 
the parties interested are within the co., and where the action of debt assumpsit or covenant claimed 
is not above $2,000, or in actions for injury to the person, or trespass upon property, where the 
damage claimed does not exceed $500 ; or in replevin suits where the value claimed is not above 
$1,000. These courts have equity jurisdiction for the foreclosure of mortgages, the sale of the real 
fce of infants, the partition of lands, admeasurement of dower, the satisfaction of judgments 
over $75, and the care and custody of lunatics and habitual drunkards. Surrogate's Courts are 
held by the County Judge or Surrogate, (in counties where the latter is elected,) and have the ordi- 
nary jurisdiction of Courts of Probate. 

Justices' Courts are held by justices of the peace, who have jurisdiction in civil suits where 
the sum claimed does not exceed $100 in value. 5 They have jurisdiction in criminal cases for im- 
■^ fines to the amount of $50, and of inflicting imprisonment in the county jail for a term not 
exceeding 6 months. 6 

Tribunals of Conciliation may be established, and their powers and duties prescribed 
by law ; but their judgments are not obligatory unless the parties previously agree to abide by 
such decision. 7 

City Courts. In each of the cities and in several of the larger villages are courts of local 
jurisdiction organized under special laws. 8 



i .V'"' York. State Judicial Districts under lite Act of May 8, 
- — 

W York. 

2. Dutches, Kit Richmond, Rock- 

'. SnfMk. i i titles. 

3. Albany, Co limit. Bene* 1 eer, Schoharie, Sullivan, 

and i 

4. f" I ranklin, Fulton. Hamilton. Montg omery, 

Saratoga, Schenectady, \Varr<-n, and W.i.-ii- 
IneU.n Count 

5. Ilerkinvr. JfftVrvm. Iywis, Om-ida, Onondaga, and Oswego 

; ti<-*. 

6. Br mnngi Chenango, Cortland, Delaware, Madison, 

Otsego, Bcbnyli r. Tioga, and Tompklni Counties. 

7. Cayuga, 1. iroe, Ontario, Seneca, Steuben, Wayne, 

an 'I i 

8. Allegany. Cattan»\ ranqua, Erie, Genesee, Niagara, 

Orleans, on 1 Wv n.lnt: f. .tint: 
' From 1777 I ppointed by the Oomcfl of 

Appointment: and fr"m 1822 to 18*8, by the Qoreraor and 
9i mi", i iri" in each co. was styled •• Firt< Judqt :" and a fixed 
■umber (subsequently • r» were called Jn 

* Surrogates are el^t«l in Alkanv. Cayuga, (.'hantanqna. 
Columbia. Dntch-99, Kri-. Jeflenoo, Kin.-- Hew York, 
Oneida. Onondaga. Ontario, < iranee. OtaegO, Kcn«**lapr. St. I,iw- 
rence, Saratoga, [Hater, Washington, Wyoming, and Ynt' - 

 f'-'TutUutvm, Art.W. 8 iv  bean passed 
for this purpose, as follow*: — Sfptcial J why owl Special flharo- 
oate in Cavuea. Chautauqua, JeAnon, and Oswego. 1849: 
Washington, 1S55. Special Judge in Oneida, Orange, St. Law- 



rence, and Tioga. 1849 : Ulster. 1850 ; Chenango, 1851 : Sullivan, 
1854; Essex, 1867; and Tompkins, 1858. The term for which 
these officers arc elected la 8 years, except in Chenango, Tomp- 
kins, and Ulster, in which it i-< 4 years. 

'There are 4 Justices elected in each town except Champlain, 
Kllishnrgh. Port Ann. Banorer, Harmony. Hector, Lenox. Niag- 
ara, Pomfret, and Potsdam, which have each 5, and Brook- 
haven, which has 8. Justices were appointed by the Council of 
Appoint ni' nt from 1777 to 1*22, and by the Supervisors and 
.in l - - from T-J4 to 1S27. since which they have been elected. 
6 fit vuei Statute*, Art 1. Tide 4, Chap. 2, Part 3. 
I Constitution, Art. VI. s-c. 23. 
8 The principal City Courts are as follows: — 
In Albany. — A Mayor's Court, held by the Mayor. Recorder, 
and Aldermen, or the Mayor and Recorder jointly, or cither 
of thrui sinely. It is practically held by the Recorder only; 
a (hurt qf Special Buttons, held by tho Recorder or County 
Judge, with one OT more .Justices; a Justices' Court, held 
by '■'■ .'iHtices elected for the purpose. Two Police Justices 
ted, 
In Auburn.— Justices' and Police Courts. Three Justices of the 

Peace elected. 
In Brooklyn.— The City Court, held by the City Judge: Po- 
lice Churls and Justices' Courts, for whose convenience 
the city i" divided into 5 districts; a Court of Special Ses- 
sions, held by a Justice or Police Justice. 
In Buffalo.— A Superior Court, held by 8 Justices; Jus/ires' 
and Police, Courts. Eight Justices of the Peace and one 
Police Justice elected. 



STATE GOVERNMENT. 



35 



The officers in each county, auxiliary to the judiciary, are as follows : — 

TIic District Attorney, 1 who is the official prosecutor in all criminal cases coming before 
the county courts, and has general duties in relation to suits in which the county has an interest. 

The Sheriff, 2 who is charged with the preservation of the public peace and the execution of 
the orders of the courts. He has charge of the jail and prisoners, and appoints as many deputies as 
he may deem necessary. lie can hold no other office, and is ineligible to the same office for the 
next 3 years after his term expires. He is required to give bonds, in default of which the office 
becomes vacant. 

The County Clerk, who is made the keeper of the county records. He attends the courts and 
records their proceedings, records deeds and mortgages, files papers and documents required by 
law to be preserved in his office, and is the medium of communication between State and town 
officers. He is the clerk of the Supreme Court for his county. He appoints a deputy, who, when 
duly sworn, may discharge all his duties. 

Four Coroners, who are charged with the duty of inquiring into the cause of sudden deaths. 
Upon being notified, it is their duty to attend at the place where a dead body is found, summon a 
jury and witnesses, examine into the causes, and make a written report to the county clerk. They 
also have the sole power of issuing writs against sheriffs. 

A Register, performing that part of the duties of county clerks relating to the recording of 
conveyances and mortgages, is elected in New York, Kings, and Westchester counties ; and each 
of these appoints a deputy. 

Commissioners of Deeds, to take acknowledgments of deeds and legal documents, are ap- 
pointed by the Common Councils of cities in such numbers as they may decide, except in New York, 
where the number is limited to 300, and in Syracuse to 12. 3 

Notaries Public are appointed by the Governor and Senate for a term of 2 years, and have 
authority to demand and accept payment of foreign bills of exchange, and to protest the same for 
nonpayment, and to exercise the customary duties of this office. Their number is limited to 400 
in New York, 25 in Troy, and in other cities and towns as many as the Governor may deem proper. 

Criminal Courts. Courts for the trial of criminal cases consist of the Court of Oyer and 
Terminer connected with the circuit of the Supreme Court, the Court of Sessions connected with 
the County Court, City Criminal Courts, and Justices' Courts. 4 

Courts of Oyer and Terminer consist of a Justice of the Supreme Court associated with 
the County Judge and two Justices of the Sessions, (except in New York City,) the Supreme Judge 
and two of the others constituting a quorum for trials. This court has original and general 
jurisdiction. 

Courts Of Sessions are held by the County Judge and two Justices of Sessions. They have 
jurisdiction over cases in which the imprisonment in case of conviction is less than ten years. 
The inferior City Courts and Justices' Courts have jurisdiction over petty criminal cases. 



In Hudson. — A Mayor's Court, held by the Mayor, Recorder, 
and Aldermen, or the Mayor and Recorder jointly or singly ; 
a Justices' Court, held by 2 Justices. One Police Justice 
elected. 
In New York. — The Superior Court, consisting of a Chief 
Justice and 6 Justices ; the Grurt of Common Pleas, com- 
posed of 3 Justices; the Marine Court, composed of 3 
Justices; the Court of Oyer and Terminer, held by a 
Justice of the Supreme Court; the Court of General Ses- 
sions, held by the Recorder or City Judge: the Court of 
Special Sessions, held by the Recorder or City Judge with- 
out a jury; Police Courts, held by Special Justices in 4 
separate districts; and Justices' or District Courts, held 
in 6 separate districts. 
In Oswego. — A Recorder's Court, held by the Recorder, or, in 
his absence, by the Mayor or any two Aldermen ; a Court 
of Special Sessions, held by the Recorder. Two Justices 
elected. 
In Poughkeepsie. — Justices' and Police Courts. 
In Rochester. — Justices' and Police Courts. Three Justices of 

the Peace and 1 Police Justice elected. 
In Schenectady. — Justices' and Police Courts. Four Justices 

elected. 
In Syracuse. — Justices' and Police Courts. Three Justices of 

the Peace and 1 Police Justice elected. 
In Troy. — A Mayor's Court, held by the Mayor, Recorder, and 
Aldermen, or the Mayor and Recorder jointly, or either 
singly. Practically it is held by the Recorder ; a Justices' 
Court, held by 3 Justices elected for the purpose. 
In XJtica. — A Recorder's Court, held by the Recorder: a Court 
of Special Sessions, held by the Recorder and 2 Aldermen. 
Four Justices and 1 Police Justice elected. 
1 By an act passed April 14, 1852, the supervisors may deter- 
mine whether this shall be a salaried office, and may fix the com- 



pensation. In the absence of such action, the District Attorney 
is paid by fees. 

2 Constitution, Art. X, Sec. 1. From 1777 to 1S22 sheriffs were 
appointed annually by the Governor and Council, and could not 
hold the office more than 4 successive years. They have been 
elected since 1822. 

8 In towns the duties of the office are performed by justices of 
the peace. Special commissioners for this service were appointed 
in the several cos. by the Council of Appointment under the first 
Constitution, and by the Governor and Senate under the Constitu- 
tion of 1S21. The Governor may appoint, for a term of 4 years, 
any number of persons not exceeding 5. in any city or co. of other 
States and of Canada, to take acknowledgments of instruments 
or conveyances to be recorded in this State. The consuls, vice- 
consuls, and ministers of the U. S. in foreign countries, the 
mayors of London, Liverpool, and Dublin, the provost of Edin- 
burgh, and persons appointed by the Governor, not exceeding 
3 in each of the cities of London, Liverpool, Glasgow, Paris, and 
Marseilles, may also perform this duty, and administer oaths or 
affirmations substantiating proofs to documents requiring to bo 
recorded or to be produced in evidence within this State. 

4 In 1S29, co. clerks were required to report to the Secretary 
of State a transcript of all convictions and the sentences thereon. 
The intention of this act was to establish evidence in case of tho 
trial of the same person for a second offense, in which the punish- 
ment for the same crimes is enhanced in severity. In 1837, the 
Secretary of State was required to report a statement of all con- 
victions reported under this act, and annually afterward to lay 
before the Legislature a like summary. In 1839. sheriffs were 
also required to report the name, occupation, age. sex, and native 
country of every person convicted, and such other information 
as might indicate degree of education, the effect of home influ- 
ences, and such other details as might be required. Under the 
administration of E. W. Leavenworth, the statistics of crime 



3G 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENT. 

Under the head of the Administrative Department are classed the officers charged with the 
general administration of the affairs of canals, of State prisons, of the salt springs, of academic and 
c mmon school education, and other public interests, each of which is particularly noticed elsewhere. 
It also includes a variety of other offices, the principal of which are as follows: — 

The County Treasurer is charged with the duty of receiving all moneys collected by tax, or 
otherwise payable into the county treasury, of paying all orders issued by the Supervisors, and of 
accounting to the Comptroller of the State for such moneys as are due to the State treasury. He 
is required to give bonds ; and in case of vacancy the office is filled by appointment of the Super- 
visors until the January following the next general election. 

.Superintendents of the Poor have charge of the county poor and of the poorhouses, 
unless otherwise provided by law. The Supervisors may elect to have 1 or 3 superintendents. In 
several of the counties, special laws exist with regard to this office. 1 

Commissioners of Excise are appointed by the County Judge and the two Associate 
Justices, except in New York, where the Chief Justice of the Superior Court, the presiding Judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas, and the Recorder, have the appointing power. They meet annually on 
the third Tuesday of May, to grant licenses for selling liquors and keeping inns under restrictions 
fixed by law. This office was created April 16, 1857. Twenty freeholders must unite in a peti- 
tion for a license ; and the same person can sign but one petition. Licenses cost $30 to $250 
each. 



fr m the first reports to. and including, 1854 were published, 

which gave the following results: — 

.V. V'rk Slate Priinn received from 1798 to 1827 inclusive, 

\vr~: died. 765: escaped,25; sentence expiated. 1.262; 

I; removed. ."AS : natives of N. II.. 99: Vt., 114; 

2: K.I.. llf>: ft.. 391; N.Y.. 2.426; N.J.. 314: Penn., 

234: IM..21: M1..75: Va..69; other States. 43: B.A..S7: W. I.. 

141; S.A..12; Eng.,247; Ire., 655; Scot., 79; Ger.,58; Hoi.. 22: 



Fr., 49; Spain, 6; Italy, 13; Portugal, 6; Sweden, 10; Norway, 
2: other European countries, 18 : Africa, 26; E. I., 8; unknown, 
152: crimes against the person, 2S0; against property, with vio- 
lence, 291; without violence. 4.016; forgery, and against the cur- 
rency, 728. Sentence varied from 7 mo. to life, the most being 
as follows: lvear, 242; 2 years. 259; 3 years, 581: 3 years 1 day, 
278; 4 years. 604: 5 years, 764; 7 years, 820; 10 years. 294; 14 
years, 239; life, 603. 



Convictions in Courts of Record from 1830 to 1856. 



Years. 


T. J 


Against Prep- 

> rty, with 

violence. 


Against Prop- 

1 rt\i. uitUout 

vutlence. 


*> 5 

ill 

^- 2 7} 


3 

6 


1 


YEAE8. 


«3 

•2 o 

as 


1 

§■ 
**. 

"So*"* ■» 
A Q U 

##51 

> 4) u 


h 

III 

> G » 


Against the 
Currency, and 
Forgery. 


5S 

1 


"5 


1880... 


237 


101 


502 


74 


144 


l.o.'.O 


1845... 


471 


177 


467 


54 


520 


1.689 




243 


08 


464 


63 


94 


956 


1846... 


384 


138 


471 


38 


440 


1,471 


- 


-  


79 


440 


60 


98 


966 


1847... 


385 


132 


396 


24 


408 


1.295 




362 


75 


462 


61 


153 


1.113 


1848... 


437 


120 


512 


33 


425 


1.527 


 


-•IT 


99 


355 


63 


148 


869 


IM'.i... 


.■;n7 


150 


645 


44 


404 


1.540 




--: 


92 


426 


34 


287 


1.076 


1850... 


397 


199 


521 


36 


410 


1.563 




316 


-■• 


379 


32 


150 


963 


1851... 


409 


148 


475 


49 


401 


1,482 


" 




124 


477 


62 


146 


1.1 01 


1852... 


412 


22s 


4S0 


48 


434 


1,602 




296 


112 


472 


42 


164 


l.OM-, 


1853... 


•iv; 


1N5 


573 


52 


553 


1.846 




! 


116 


479 


51 


186 


MIS 


1V.I... 


432 


]S0 


591 


75 


835 


2,122 




 


12 • 


4: -.7 




274 


1 ,348 


1866... 


397 


278 


586 


37 


644 


1.S42 


J $41... 




l_l 


460 


49 


427 


1,616 


1856... 


432 


248 


573 


49 


212 


1,614 




i-i 


17.'. 


604 


r.3 


i 


1,602 


1867... 


475 


350 


807 


64 


15* 


1,654 




MM 


244 




78 


336 


1.570 


1858... 


436 


332 


617 


90 


237 


1,712 


1844... 


• •; 


172 


489 


60 


812 


1.127 








1 









fyi the 1712 r., n virtwi in tos. 1682 were males and 180 females. 

omberofeontfctiotM reported by sheriffs falls short of that 

rk-i for the ohrioos reason thai many who are fined pay 
down their penalties and never come Into the Bheriff'e hands. 

v"" n i- rti ■! bj ( i-rk - fr.'in 1838 '•■ 1864 raried from 172 

■■i annually. Males farm about 94 pel cent, of all oon- 
| per rent, of those r 
Hli-nff<. and K.i per osni. of thi -•■ Convicted In . "iirti of special 

n«. The results of trinl compared with total indictments 
have varied In different >. an within the following limits: — 
ltati  of ooBiiutioni !•• Indictments 608 to 689. 

•• aoqnittala " 249 to 380. 

" disagreement r.finries  018 to .026. 

" o nvict'n* I . •' ivjto.390. 

The least number of OOftvietioni reported from 1828 ' i 1866. in 
pro portion to population, was in 1884, whan it waf 1 t. 2.444. 
greatest number was in 1 ■>!".. whan it was 1 !•• l.'lj. 
Funfon*. — The irami^r of pardons granted fr^m 177* to 1854 
inclusive, was 8,793; ofwhioh 100 were fr.ni Boat, 100 from fines 
and imprisonment, 1,285 from jail* and local prisons, 5,747 fr..m 
State prison for term of years, an I 669 fr o m State prison far Ufa, 

a whole number, 1,640 were conditioned mostly t.> baring 
-fate or U.S.. 807 were restored to rights of citizens. 59 were 
respited from capital offenses. The pardoning power has been 
exeicised as follows i — 



George Clinton 308 

John .lay 180 

Morgan Lewis 213 

Daniel I). Tompkins 1.693 

John Tavlor 223 

lie Witt Clinton 2.2*9 

Joseph C. Yates 291 

Nathaniel Pit. her 228 

Martin \an lliiren 34 

BnOS T. Throop 415 



Wm. L. Marcv 834 

Wtn. II. Seward 377 

Wm. C. Bouck 279 

Silas Wright 282 

John Young 268 

Hamilton li-h 97 

Washington Hunt 346 

Horatio Seymour 456 

Mvron H. Clark 630 

John A. King 426 



i The salary of these officers, whero there is but one in a 
county, is fixed by the Supervisors; but in those counties where 
there are 3 they are usually paid for the- time employed. 
Albany has n..ne. Chemung.Clinton, Dutchess, Essex, frank- 
lin. FulUm. Genesee. //< rlnnnr, .J'f'rson. Montgomery, Orange, 
Orleans, Otsego, Putnam, Schenectady, Schuyler, Sullivan, and 
Differ, have each one ; and those in italic are appointed by 
Supervisors. In early times each town supported its own poor, 
and where persons who had not acquired residence became 
chargeable, they were sent from town to town back to the place 
where they had' formerly resided. A very able report was pre- 
sented to the Senate by J. V. N. Yates, Secretary of State, Feb. 
9, 1824. upon the subject of the "laws for the relief and settle- 
ment of the poor." in which he advised the erection of one or 
more houses of employment in each co., in which paupers might 



STATE GOVERNMENT. 



37 



State Assessors. — The object of the office is to collect the necessary statistics among the 
several counties to enable the Board of Equalization to equalize the State tax among the several 
counties, and fix the amount of real and personal estate upon which the State tax shall be levied. 
The Assessors are appointed by the Government and Senate, and hold office for three years. 

The Board of Equalization consists of the Commissioners of the Land Office, and the 
State Assessors. It meets at Albany on the first Tuesday of September of each year, for the pur- 
pose of equalizing the taxes, &c. 



be maintained and employed at the county charge, and that 
children at suitable ages should be put out to some useful trade. 
An act was accordingly passed Nov. 27, 1S24, authorizing the 
establishment of county poorhouses. In most of the counties 
such institutions were established within a few years. They 
were located upon farms, which were designed to be worked, as 
far as practicable, by the inmates. The towns in Queens and 
Suffolk counties have mostly town poorhouses, and in these there 
are no county establishments of this kind. The county of 
Albany supports its poor at the city almshouse. 



In most counties a distinction is made between town and 
county poor, the former including those who have gained a r> ->- 
dence; and this distinction may lie made or not, at the option of 
the Board of Supervisors. Temporary relief may be extended 
in cases where the pauper cannot be removed, or for otb< t 
causes satisfactory to the Superintendents. Towns may vote at 
town meetings the sum estimated to be necessary for the guppi I I 
of their own poor. 

The following tables and summaries arc from the last annual 
Report of the Secretary of State : — 



Statistics of Poorhouses and of the Support of the Poor, for the year ending Dec. 1, 1858. 



Counties. 



Allegany 

Broome 

Cattaraugus .. 

Cayuga 

Chautauqua... 

Chemung 

Chenaugo 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Erie 

Essex 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Genesee 

Greene 

Hamilton 

Herkimer 

Jefferson 

Kings 

Lewis 

Livingston. ... 

Madison 

Monroe 

Montgomery.. 

New York 

Niagara 

Oneida 

Onondaga 

Ontario 

Orange 

Orleans 

Oswego 

Otsego 

Putnam 

Queens 

Rensselaer .... 

Richmond 

Rockland 

St. Lawrence . 

Saratoga 

Schenectady .. 

Schoharie 

Schuyler....... 

Seneca 

Steuben 

Suffolk 

Sullivan 

Tioga 

Tompkins 

Ulster 

Warren 

Washington... 

Wayne 

Westchester .. 

Wyoming 

Yates 



Total 7,208.8 



u 
V 

sis 

111 



183 
130 
200 

96 
171.8 
175 
172 

90 
2044 
118 
200 
106 
154 
100 
162 

86 
134 
130 



65 
107 

"59 
118 
172 
134 
150 



120 
150 

36i 
212 
267 
107 

60 
170 
196 

144 
125 
47 
130 
200 
113 
110 



126* 
200 



100 
60 
100 
140 
200 
174 
193 
185 
111 
123 



.2 8 



HI 



$10,000 00 

8,000 00 

6,500 00 

20,000 00 

12,000 00 

13,000 00 

5,000 00 

3,000 00 

35,000 00 

6,800 00 

5,000 00 

15,000 00 

49,091 00 

4,500 00 

4,639 75 

8,000 00 

8,000 00 

10,000 00 

10,000 "60 

14,000 00 

400,000 00 

3,500 00 
18.000 00 
16,500 00 
40,375 16 

7,600 00 

12,o66"66 
8,100 00 
16,000 00 
21,200 00 
25,000 00 
10,113 75 
4,350 00 
15,350 00 
10,000 00 

29,o6o"66 
21.000 00 
11,000 00 
7,200 00 
6,000 00 
8,000 00 
5,000 00 

16,000 "66 
10,000 00 

1,500 00 

6,000 00 
6,000 00 
9,000 00 
2,500 00 

12,000 00 
7,620 00 

35,500 00 
5,000 00 
5,500 00 



$1,059,339 66 $29,484 66 



% 



:fe 
i 

6, 



$250 00 
200 00 
200 00 
800 00 

2,524 00 



449 76 
250 00 
1,000 00 
180 00 
250 00 



3,500 00 
200 00 
200 00 


500 00 
600 00 



742 90 
500 00 
1,500 00 
200 00 
700 00 

"35OOO 

400 00 

l*o6o**6o 

1,380 00 

700 00 

1,500 00 

375 00 

500 00 

"36606 

"566 66 

800 00 
700 00 
500 00 
300 00 
128 00 
100 00 

""306*66 

275 00 

"26000 

750 00 
500 00 
500 00 
100 00 
755 00 
325 00 
1,150 00 
150 00 
200 00 



e a 



$1 02 
59 

1 12 
83 
787 
894 
72 
89 

1 09 
72 
90 

1 00 
70 

1 00 
42 

""662 
685 

"i"io" 

76 

2 22 
93 
74 

1 035 

70 

1 637 



81 

00 

915 

68 

985 

07 

14 

42 

58 



48 

45 

805 

737 

94 

94 

77 



855 

00 

00 

83 

84 

72 

70 

49 

50 

275 

018 

801 

96 



•S3.! 1 



243 

1,335 

160 

2,778 

4,106 

245 

109 

2,738 

565 

250 

136 

1.771 

1,292 

44 

84 

112 

175 

97 

21 

4,908 

1,464 

37,730 

126 

286 

2,858 
1,063 

3.980 

8.102 

2.460 

2.753 

1,679 

865 

747 

63 

" 555 

966 

1,881 

384 

2,931 

505 

403 

57 

144 

1.535 

1,175 

56 

350 

240 

99 

1,280 

82 

2.629 

1.335 

1.312 

170 

65 



$ 90.5 j 103.499 



ill 

S 3 * 

11*3 



223 
"219 



151 



312 



5,915 
223 



66 

117 



48 



2,817 



1,733 



2,830 
492 

""381 

8,578 

"'446 



206 
359 
113 



453 



417 

49 

1,191 



61 

To 
66 



23.205 



*<§ 

ji. 

fe «G V 

£ S*53 



223 

1,178 
271 



3,725 

"163 

2,585 



172 
386 

'5,915 

136 

56 



66 

17 

4,656 

1,015 

29,881 
70 



4,614 



110,822 
3,087 
7,062 
3,538 
2,402 
1,330 

510 
3,330 

342 



36 

3,986 

1,642 

636 

2,499 

'"868 
297 
160 

1,164 
870 
225 
296 
657 
148 

2,047 

'2.332 
1,163 



207.207 






e Si 

ill 

s*5< 

3^ 



$5,879 68 
3,727 01 
2,725 44 
9,393 21 
5,094 65 
2,850 48 
3,997 33 
3,076 02 

12.158 15 
2.950 52 
3,096 93 

15,965 09 

35.028 73 

2,695 47 

1.315 79 

3.701 44 
3.079 68 
3,178 46 

400 00 

7,399 10 

6,440 95 

146.499 66 

3,564 41 

4,630 62 

6,954 37 

18,432 62 

9,680 76 

351,152 10 

5,322 80 

13,271 67 

10.159 82 
6,795 93 
9.288 35 
3,781 97 
5,126 74 

4.702 40 
1.388 84 

22,303 15 

16,172 00 
9.457 82 
3,099 07 
6,990 24 
7.460 42 
7,174 72 
2,471 70 
3,547 87 
3,918 89 
4,420 89 

12,008 79 
3,357 03 
3,046 81 
3,271 15 
6.721 72 
1,241 75 
4.051 40 
8,8S7 78 

15,981 09 
3,416 02 
3,102 80 



$884,119 7S 



•e s 



^ S si. 



$2,675 41 
8.250 01 
6,136 14 

16,968 47 
5,846 58 
6,513 53 
1,078 19 
6,362 84 

"2,422" 61 

2,948 62 

300 00 

20.474 90 

2.273 45 

1.489 11 

922 00 

2,192 46 

250 00 

100 00 

15,219 04 

11,960 67 

32.110 47 

561 26 

4.094 01 

11,781 23 

28,815 88 

13,330 00 

139,731 54 

7,552 98 

31,298 65 

40,384 84 

7,065 80 

10,755 09 

4,140 10 

43,199 99 

3,974 70 

2,590 53 

2.287 75 

30.754 00 

3,496 42 

2.417 21 

13,914 38 

"2*166 49 

4,510 44 

1,400 00 

4.019 73 

5,729 07 

4,260 00 

4.132 93 

6,452 06 

647 5.1 

9.791 36 

2,368 92 

6.301 49 

8.280 36 

149 98 

620 22 

112 69 






* 1 S "s »g 
S £ I ftl *J 



$8,555 09 

11.977 02 

8,861 58 

26.361 68 

10,941 23 

9.364 01 

5,075 52 

9.438 86 

12.158 15 

5,373 13 

6,045 55 

16,265 09 

55.503 63 

4.968 92 

2.804 90 

4.1.23 44 

5.272 14 

3,428 46 

500 00 

22.61S 14 

18,401 62 

178,610 13 

4.12.-) 67 

8,724 63 

18.735 60 

47,248 50 

23.010 76 

490.8S3 64 

12.875 78 

44,570 32 

50.544 66 

13.861 73 

20.043 44 

7.922 07 

48.326 73 

8.677 10 

3.979 37 

24.590 90 

46.926 00 

12.954 24 

5,516 28 

20,943 62 

7,460 42 

9.331 21 

6,982 14 

4.947 87 

7,938 62 

10,14" 96 

16,268 79 

7,489 96 

9,498 s; 

3.91 B 66 

16,513 08 

3,610 67 

10,442 89 

17,168 14 

16431 0" 

4,036 24 

3.275 49 



$607,271 50 $1,491 391 



During the year 1858, 38,582 were admitted, 38,400 were dis- 
charged, 1,007 absconded, 849 were born, 2,584 died, and 646 were 
bound out. 



Supported in Poorhmtse. — Males, 6,219; Females, 7,203; total. 
13,422. Foreigners, 6,503 ; Lunatics, 1.S3S; Idiots. 437 : Mutes, 
36. Temporarily Relieved. — Foreigners, 58,709 ; Lunatics, 2,408 ; 
Idiots, 595 ; Mutes, 52. 



38 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Loan Commissioners 1 are appointed in each county by the Governor and Senate, except in 
Onondaga, where they are elected. They are paid £ to f- of one per cent, on all moneys loaned, 
and are obliged to give bonds and report annually to the Comptroller. 

School Commissioners are elected one in each Assembly District, and under certain 
circumstances another may be added. They are required to examine and grant certificates to 
teachers, visit schools, apportion the public moneys, and report to the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction. The Board of Supervisors in the counties have the power of arranging the several 
commissioner districts and of increasing the salary of the commissioners above $500. All cities, 
and many villages, are under special lavrs -with regard to schools, and are more or less exempt 
from the jurisdiction of County School Commissioners. 2 

Sealers of Weights and Measures are appointed for the State and for each county and 
town. The State Superintendent has an office at Albany, and he furnishes to the several counties 
and towns standard sets of weights and measures. 3 The County Sealer keeps the Standards 



Children under 16,— Males, 2.770; Females. 3.045. Total, 5,821. 
Number of children instructed, 3,219. Average S months in 
the year. 



yatiritic* of Persons relieved in 1858. 



United - 

Ireland 

Germany 

1 

Canada 

France 

Scotland 



Total. 



108,527 



Males. 


Females. 


T'.tal. 


45,174 


59.570 


104.744 


42.212 


50,504 


92,716 


12,601 


16.173 


2^.774 


4.183 


32371 


7. ".."4 


1.995 


2.013 


4.UHS 


1,094 


1.995 


3,089 


1.2' 6 


1,068 


2.336 



134.694 , 241.221 



Causes of Pauperism, as far as 
ascertained. 



Intemperance direct 

Children of intemperate parents.. 
- with intemperate hus- 
bands 



Total intemperance 

Delaucbery 

Debauchery of parents.. 
Idleness 

Ticy 

Idi'TV 

Lunacy 

Blindness 

 

pitude 

Old age 



Total from all causes r 



Ma '■   



ir..tv,fi 
5,133 



21,802 
543 

392 
5,582 

1.417 
-4-1 

1.206 
353 

1.329 

I 

668 

1,948 



48.338 



Females. 



9.164 
3440 

3.140 



86, 'IT 



Total. 



25.833 
8,273 

3.140 



15.444 


37.246 


622 


1,165 


375 


767 


4,080 


9,662 


904 


2.321 


441 


872 


1.533 


2.739 


165 


518 


662 


1,991 


10,167 


_ • 1 


447 


12115 


2,077 


4,026 



<,■■:■:, 



i Tli- Hi >n was made by an act passed April 18, 

ill- "f credit to the amount of $500,000, the 

•f which «i< apportioned among the counties In propor- 

to their inpposed wanut, and loaned by officers appointed 

f.r: These bills wi enient denomini 

and circulated ai money. They were receivable in payment of 

and for some purposes were legal tender. Tliis limn was 

i-tiTiL-. at l'"l lows: — 



N.v Suffolk....  

.. 26,000 I Ister 81,000 

Washington : 
mono.. 11,260 VTestchi star i 

: dnc on the loan "f 1786 .-it the 
H10. and the whole was BnaUy called In in 
March 14, 17"2. anoth) r was 

I among the counties, as t •  1 1 •  ■v'. -» : — 



I 

K . 112250 



Allanv 

Clinton 

C .Innit.ia... 

HerUs 

I 4.750 

" 



Snffnlk 24 

Clstl r 

Washington 



New York : 

: 

Richmond.. 4.750 
h. third loan ofMOO/WO was ai 

Yi.rk. K ii nd, Suffolk, and 

r. in p r opor t ion to the numbi r of their electors. In 
of these 
further sum of - ami d. U 

i una. 
In 1860 t!i<' office Of Lou Commlssionei far the It in* of 1702 
and 1 - lining in their hands 

were transferred to the custody of thi -lorloaning 

the .-• Deposit Fund. 



The TJ. S. Deposit Fund originated as follows : An Act of 
Congress, passed June 23, 1S36, directed the surplus in the trea- 
sury on the 1st day of Jan. 1837, excepting 85,000.000, to be 
deposited with the several States in proportion to their repre- 
sentation. The amount thus deposited was $37,468,859.97. of 
which N. Y. received $5,352,694.28. This was apportioned to 
the several counties according to population, as follows : — 



Albany 

Allegany 

Broome 

Cattaraugus... 

Cayuga 

Chautauqua.... 

Chemung 

Chenango 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Erie 

Essex 

Franklin 

Genesee 

Greene 

Herkimer 

Jefferson 

Kings 

Lewis _. 

Livingston 

Madison 

Monroe 

Montgomery... 

New York 

Niagara. 



$147 
86. 
49: 
61. 

121. 

110 
42. 

100. 
51. 

li'ii. 
59, 
84. 

124 

141 
50. 
30 

144 
74 
89 
l 1 - 
23 

103 
92 
39 
70 
55. 

101. 
69. 



107.48 
681.22 
698.S1 
504.43 
113.45 
447.53 
991.07 
337.93 
057.58 
298.54 
491.87 
105.51 
,810.71 
770.83 
,951.74 
,771.91 
.217.01 
.272.51 
.110.77 
.921.*2 
.807.24 
.501.02 
.568.65 
.051.(15 
174.02 
107.12 
994.55 
508.02 



Oneida 

Onondaga 

Ontario 

Orange 

Orleans 

Oswego 

Otsego 

Putnam 

Queens , 

Rensselaer.... 
Richmond .... 

Rockland 

St. Lawrence. 

Saratoga 

Schenectady . 
Schoharie .... 

Seneca 

Steuben 

Suffolk 

Sullivan. 

Tioga 

Tompkins 

Ulster 

Warren 

Wa.-hington , 

Wayne 

w estchester. 
Yates 



$33,858.70 

40.699.36 

93,558.80 

98,363.76 

29,622.36 

96,803.13 

93.017.26 

95,483.74 

48.72S.95 

130,679.06 

78.910.08 

39.613.81 

76.534.68 

102.747.79 

142.079.45 

119.038.36 

6C4.839.06 

65.206.61 

190.814.86 

149.928.42 

100.603.77 

111.000.31 

56.352.39 

94,142.19 

124.131.32 

28.433.43 

61.858.89 

136,053.25 



s In Vtica and Schenectady the care of schools is intrusted 
to "( ommissioners of Common Schools;" in Buffalo and Hudson 
the Common Councils are cj- officio Commissioners of Schools; 
and in Albany, Astoria, Auburn, Brooklyn. Castlcton. and 
Bouthfield, (Clifton,) College Point, East Chester. Flushing, 
Jamaica, Lockport, Medina, Newburgh, New York, Oswego, 
Port Byron, Poughkeepsie, Pulaski. Il'ihester. Salem. Syracuse, 
Troy, Waterford, Westfarms, and Whitestown, Bchools are 
under a Board of Education, usually ejected, but in some of the 
cities appointed by the Common Council. In most cities a 
Superintendent, who is clerk oi the Board, is appointed by the 
I ..I Education for the more immediate supervision of 
-1 1 Is and inspection of teachers. In Buffalo the Superin- 
tendent Iselei '• d. 

3 a ('■■null/ Standard consists of — 

1. A large balam 1 . 1 ..mpi i-mg a brass beam and scales, with 
stand and lew r. 

2. A small balance, villi a drawer stand for final! weights. 

3. A set 1.1 large brass weights, namely. 5oib..2olb..lolb.. 51b. 

4. \ set of small brass weights, avoirdupois, nannly, 41b.. 
21b.. lib., v.*.. 4i.y... 2oz n 1"Z... [•■/... 4oz. 

6 \ brass yard measure, graduated to feet and Inches, and 
the first graduated to eighths of an Inch, and also decimally; with 
a graduation t" cloth mi asure '>n the other side: in a case. 

I - t nf liquid measun - made of copper, namely. 1 gallon, 
11. 1 quart, 1 pint, J pint, 1 gill: in a • 

7. A si t "t dry measures of copper, namely, i bushel, 1 peck, 
i peck. 2 quarts, 1 quart; in a case. 

There are also cases to contain the large brass weights and 

the ii an packing boxes included, etc. The cost of the set 

I. 

A T 'in Standard differs in some particulars, ns consisting 
Of but "lie medium sized balance, the large weights being of 
iron in place Oi brass; die yard measure being a east metallic 
square rod, without dei Imai graduation, etc.; and likewise with- 
out cases, in general. The cost of the set is $125. 



STATE GOVERNMENT. 



39 



furnished by the State, and is required to have them compared with the State Standard once in 3 
years. The Town Sealer is required to examine all weights and measures in use once a year. 1 

The Mayors of cities are administrative officers of State laws and executive officers of city 
ordinances. They are elected annually, except in Albany and New York, where they hold their 
offices for two years. 

Tlie Supervisors of towns are administrators of the general laws relating to towns. 

Tlie President and Trustees of villages have charge of every thing pertaining to the 
welfare of their respective localities within the limits of the charter of incorporation. 

Trustees of School Districts are the officers recognized by law to whom is intrusted 
the administration of the school laws within their districts. 

Turnpike Inspectors are appointed in every county in which there are turnpikes, the 
acts of incorporation of which do not require the appointment of special inspectors. They are 3 
to 5 in number, and must have no interest in any turnpike in the State. 

Plank Road Inspectors are appointed in every county having plank roads. Their duties 
are analogous to those of the inspectors of turnpikes ; and they are chiefly intended to protect 
the public against the collection of tolls when plank roads are unsafe or difficult to travel from 
neglect or other cause. 

Commissioners of Highways have the power of directing repairs, laying out and 
altering roads, discontinuing old roads, and of ordering new bridges to be built and kept in renair. 2 
They must annually divide the towns into road districts, and assign such inhabitants to *vork 
upon them as they may deem proper ; and they must deposit an accurate description of all new 
roads in the Town Clerk's office for record. 

Overseers of Highways, or " Pathinasters," have charge of road districts. 3 



1 Tlie statute defines the State Standard of Weights and Mea- 
sures to be the same as that approved by Congress June 14. 1 836, 
and furnished by the U. S. to the States in 1S42. The set fur- 
nished consisted of a yard, sets of Troy and avoirdupois weights, 
the wine gallon and the half bushel and their subdivisions. 
The unit of length and surface, from which all other measures 
of extension are derived, whether linear, superficial, or solid. Is 
the yard, which is divided into 3 feet of 12 inches each, except 
for cloths or other articles sold by the yard, when it may bo 
divided into halves, eighths, and sixteenths. The rod contains 
54 yards, and the mile 1,760 yards ; the acre is 160 square rods ; 
the chain for land surveying is 22 yards long and subdivided 
into 100 links; the Troy pound is to the avoirdupois as 5.7 CO to 
7,000, the one containing 12 and the other 16 ounces; lOOlbs. 
avoirdupois form a hundredweight, and 2,0001bs. a ton. All 
measures of capacity not liquid are derived from the half bushel, 
the subdivisions of which are obtained by dividing repeatedly 
by 2. Coal, ashes, marl, manure, corn in tho ear, fruit, and 
roots, are sold by heap measure. 

The Standards now in use do not vary essentially from those 
established by the State Government before standards were fur- 
nished by the U. S. As formerly defined, the unit of linear mea- 
sure was the yard, which bore the ratio of 1,000,000 to 1,086.140, 
to a pendulum beating seconds in a vacuum at the tempera- 
ture of melting ice at Columbia College. A cubic foot of water 
at its maximum density in vacuo was declared equal to 1000 
ounces avoirdupois. The liquid gallon to contain 81bs., and the 
dry gallon lOlbs., of distilled water at its greatest density and 
mean pressure at sea level. 

Weights of articles per bushel as fixed by Standard. 



ARTICLES. 


LBS. 


ARTICLES. 


LBS. 


ARTICLES. 


LBS. 

56 
56 
44 
60 




62 
60 

58 
48 
48 




55 

32 
60 
60 


Rye 




Salt 




Timothy. 











2 Roads extending through several towns may be laid out by 
commissioners appointed by the Supervisors; and those extend- 
ing through several counties are usually laid out by special com- 
missioners appointed by law. The commissioners of highways 
are required to report annually, at town meeting, their receipts 
and expenditures, and a statement of what improvements are 
necessary, and the cost of obtaining them. These estimates are 
referred to the Board of Supervisors, and assessed as other b >wn 
charges. They may summon jurors and witnesses in opening 
and closing roads. Roads through improved lands must be cer- 
tified as necessary by the oath of twelve respectable freeholders ; 
and a like certificate to the contrary is required in closing roads. 
Every owner may obtain a road to his land. 

New roads cannot be laid through orchards or gardens of 
more than four years' growth or use. or through buildings or 
yards, and Lnclosures of mills and factories, without the owner's 
consent. The law requires the commissioners of highways to 
orect mileboards along the line, and guideboards at the crossing 
of post and such other important roads as they may deem 



proper; and the defacing of these is punishable as a misde- 
meanor. Every owner or occupant of lands in any town, and 
every male inhabitant above the age of 21. must be assessed for 
highway labor. The whole number of days' labor annually ex- 
pended in the town must !»■ at least threetimes the number of 
taxable inhabitants : and every male inhabitant over 21, except 
ministers, paupers, idiots, and lunatics, must be assessed at 
least one day. The residue is assessed upon the property of in- 
dividuals and corporations. Labor may be commuted at the 
rate of 62£ cts. per day ; and the moneys so paid must be ex- 
pended in the district. 

3 Overseers of Highways are required by law to warn out to 
work all persons assessed for highway labor in their respective 
districts; keep their roads in order; superintend work; receive 
and apply commutation moneys: cause the noxious weeds upon 
the wayside to be cut down or destroyed once before July and 
once before Sept. of each year ; remove obstructions; and collect 
all fines, whether for neglect of work, idleness, or putting up 
of gates contrary to law. They may require additional labor, to 
the amount of one-third of the first tax. All roads must be 
fenced by the owners ol adjacent lands, unless liable, to be over- 
flowed by streams, when the overseers of highways must erect, 
and keep in repair, good swinging gates at the expense of the 
hauls benefitted : and persons leaving such gates open are liable 
to triple damages. All rivers where the tide ebbs and flows are 
public highways, without special law. Many other streams have 
been so declared by acts, and obstructions in such streams and 
in highways are punished by fine, notwithstanding a plea of 
title. Such obstructions may be abated as nuisances : and the 
persons causing them are liable to actions for damage. Persons 
owning lands upon roads 3 rods wide, or more, may plant trees 
on the roadside adjacent to their line, and may prosecute for 
damages to such trees. They may also construct a sidewalk, 
with a railing. Trees falling into the road from inclosed lands 
must be removed by the occupant within 2 days, after notice by 
any person, under a fine of 50 cts. a day. Assessors and com- 
missioners of highways are ex officio fence viewers in their sev- 
eral towns. In case of fires in the woods of any town, it is the 
duty of the supervisor, justices, and commissioners of highways 
to order suchand so many inhabitants, liable to work upon the 
roads, as maybe deemed necessary, and reside near, to assist in 
checking the fires, under penalty of $50, and liability to prose- 
cution for misdemeanor, and further fine not over $100 or im- 
prisonment not more than 60 days. 

Persons aggrieved at the decision of commissioners may ap 
peal to referees appointed by the county judge or justices of 
sessions. Kings. Queens, and Sum Ik cos. have from an early 
colonial period had a road law peculiar to themselves. It differs 
by fixing the number of days at twice the number of persons 
assi ssed, in granting private roads for limited i» riods, in allow- 
ing ruads through guldens and orchards of less than ten years' 
use or growth, by allowing appeals to the county judge, and in 
a few other minor details. Richmond co. has also a special law, 
which requires assessments in money only, to be collected with 
the general tax, and the repairs of road- to be let out at public 
auction by districts from year to year and to the lowest bidder. 
There are many other special laws, chiefly applicable to cities 
and villages, but too numerous to mention here. 



40 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER 



SUMMARY OF THE SEVERAL STATE, COUNTY, AND TOWN OFFICERS. 



Total 
A'o. in 
Stale. 



United States Senators 

Representatives in Congress.... 

STATE OFFICERS. 

Legislative — 

State Senators.! 

Members of Assembly 



Executive— 

Governor 

Lieutenant Governor. 

Secre ta ry of State 

Comptroller 

Treasurer 

Attorney Genera] 

State Engineer and Surveyor-. 

Judicial — 
Judges of the Court of Appeals" 

Justices of the Supreme Court 
Clerk of the Court of Appeals.. 

State Reporter 



ADMINISTRATIVE — 

/Supt. of Public Instruction... 
(Regents of the University'- ... 
Supt. <>f Hanking Department. 

31 •■■ Prisons 

Canal Commissioners 

Auditor of Canal Department. 
Canal Appraisers 

Supt. of Weights and Measures 

State Assessors 



O TNTY OFFICERS. 

nty Judge 

Surrogate i in certain counties) 
- and Surrogates" 

Justices of Sessions 

District Attorney 

Sheriff .' 

Coroners 

Treasurer 

O-unty Clerk 

Commissioners for loaning 

moneys of the U. S 

School Commissioners^ 

Superintendents of the Poor.... 

Commissioners of Excise- 



County Sealer of Weights and 
Measures. 

 Public ' 



Turnpike Inspectors*.... 
Plank Koad Inspectors . 



- 



Buperrisor 

Town Clerk 

ln«p"ct"i-« of Station/ 

 Pi ice 



1 • 

Collector 

n of the Poos* 

Oomofai ways... 

an Of Highway* ' 

Poo n d M«.< tern 

Town Scaler of Weights and 
Mwimti 

bchocx vat rami 

- * 

Clerk 

Collector 

Librarian 



33 



32 
12S 



Tears 

in 
Office. 



Commence- 
ment of term 
of Office. 



33 

1 



1 

19 
1 
3 
3 
1 
3 



3 

Ko. in 

each Co. 

1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
4 
1 
1 

2 

1 or 3 



1 

Fixed by 

Gov. 

3 

3 

No. in 

"1. t'.trn. 

1 
1 

3 to 18 

V 

1 to5 
3 

1 

lor 2 
1 or 8 

road 'li*. 
Indef. 

1 

.Vo. in 
"jrh ditU 

1 or a 

1 
1 
1 



3 
3 
3 
3 
3 

Indef. 



Indef. 

2 

2 
2 



March 4. 



January 1. 



Date of appt. 



January 1. 

cc 

Date of appt. 



January 1. 



1st Tues.Aug 
January 1. 

Date of Appt 
January 1. 



Date of Appt. 



Date of Elec 



January 1 . 
Date of Elec 



Sow filed. 



2d Tuea. Oct. 



Legislature. 
Election. 



/Gov., Lt.Gov., 
\ & Atty. Gen. 

Legislature. 
cc 

Gov. & Senate. 
Election. 

EC 

Gov. & Senate. 
cc 

/Gov., Lt.Gov., 
\& Sec. of State. 
Gov. & Senate. 



Election. 



Gov. & Senate. 
Election. 

cc 

{Judges and ) 
Just, of Sess. j 

Supervisors. 
Gov. & Senate. 
Supervisors. 



Election. 

cc 

See note S. 
Election. 



Supcrv. A j. p. 



Election. 



Vacancies 
how filled. 



Governor. 
Special election. 



Lieut. Gov. 
Pres. p. t. of Sen 
Governor. 



Gov.,Lt.Gov.,") 
& Atty. Gen. / 

Governor. 

Legislature. 

Governor. 



Gov., Lt. Gov.. \ 
& Sec. of State. < 



Governor. 



Supervisors. 
Governor. 



County Judge. 
Supervisors. 

Judge & Justices 



Supervisors. 

Governor. 

Supervisors. 



Sped, town meet. 

< Buperv. town I 
j clerk, & jus. j 
Governor. 

Spccl. town meet. 
Buperv. A -jus. 
Bpecl. town meet, 

cc 

loin, highways. 
Justices. 

Buperv. & J. p. 



Supervisor. 
Tiu-tces. 



Compensation. 



$3,000 and mileage. 



$3 per day and mileage. 



$4,000 and house rent. 
$6 per day and mileage. 
$2,500. 



S2.000. 
$2,500. 

$2,500 before 1857 ; $3,500 

since. 
Ditto. 
$2,000. 



$2,500. 

None. 

$5,000. 

$1,600. 

$2,000. 

$2,500. 

$2,000. 

$500. 



Sal. fixed by Supervisors. 



Per diem. 
Fees or salary. 
Fees. 
Per diem. 

Percentage. 
Fees. 

Percentage. 

Not less than $500. 

Per diem or salary. 

Per diem. 

Fees. 
Fees. 
Per diem. 



Per diem. 

Fees and per diem. 

Per diem. 

Fees. 

I 

Pi c 'Horn. 

Pi rcentage, 

Per diem. 



Fees. 
Fees. 



Nono. 



• 4 - . nn l 4 -■ ul r Justii • * of S uprem e Court. 

* 4 others are 1 acts. 
J one in each Assembly district i In certain counties. 

/2 inspc and 1 appointed from the next high- 

e«t ticket, to each election dist by the chairman of town 

- there i- 1 ra b  1 i — t _ if under 600 Inbabitanti : 
from 600 to 800; and I I- more if ai».v.- ^m>. j n 

town* at ant 600, the rapervi' ml rb-rk i 

annually to designate or ri 

super visors. Assessors, com] of highways, or overseers 

of the poor are not filled within 16 days, the justices may ap- 
point ; and, if from any cause there be less than 3, they may asso I 



date Justices of neighboring towns in making appointments. 

B Towni in Sullivan CO. may have 1 or 3: anil if 1. In- is chosen 

annually. Oyster Bay, Oswegatchie,and Wotervliet have 5, and 
Bouthold o. 

* Town*, may decide upon the number. Manlius has 7. 

< In Sen, ca 00. 1 In each town. > See exceptions on p. 36. 

* Annual tchool meetings determine whether to elect ~\ or 3. 
An, - of local Jurisdiction, not included in the 

feregoine; li-t*. are harbor masters, wardens, health officers, and 

oiler- connected with sanitary supervision, pilots, wreck mas- 
ci-rs. superintendent of Onondaga salt springs, and officers 
charged with duties relating to Indian affairs. 



PRISONS. 

« 

For a great number of offenses criminals are sentenced to bo confined at labor for different 
periods of time, and the State has provided prisons at several places for the security of these 
offenders against law. 1 The principal of these are the three State Prisons, an Asylum for Insane 
Convicts, two Houses of Refuge, and several penitentiaries and jails. 

The Auburn State Prison is located upon a lot of 10 acres near the center of the city of 
Auburn. It consists of the prison proper, containing 800 cells and a large number of workshops, 
all surrounded by a high and strong wall. The Sing Sing State Prison is located upon 
a lot of 130 acres upon the Hudson, in the village of Sing Sing. It contains a prison for males and 
another for females, the latter the only one in the State. It has an aggregate of 1,000 cells and a 
great variety of workshops. 2 The Clinton State Prison is situated upon a lot of 250 
acres in the town of Dannemora. About 25 acres are inclosed within the walls of the prison. It 
contains workshops, forges, and furnaces, and has an aggregate of 390 cells. 3 

The general supervision of the State Prisons is intrusted to a Board of 3 Inspectors, one of 
whom is elected each year for a term of three years. 4 They appoint all the officers of the several 
prisons and renew them at pleasure. 5 The discipline of the several prisons is rigid and uniform, 
and all convicts are treated alike, irrespective of their former standing in society or of the crimes 
of which they are convicted. The rules for the general conduct of prisoners are rigidly enforced. 
In the administration of discipline a leading object is to secure the reform of the criminal and hia 
return to society with regular and industrious habits and correct moral principles. 6 All convicts 
in health are required to labor in shops by day, under rigid supervision, and without exchanging 
words or looks with each other or with those who may visit the prison. They observe strict 
Bilence upon all occasions when not addressed by some person allowed the privilege. In passing 
to and from the cells, shops, and dining rooms, they march in close single columns, with their 



1 By an act of March 26, 1796, John Watts, Matthew Clarkson, 
Isaac Sloatenburgh, Thomas Eddy, and John Murray, jr. were 
appointed commissioners to build a State prison in New York 
City. This prison, styled "Newgate" was located on a lot of 9 
acres on the Hudson, at the foot of Amos St. with its principal 
front on Greenwich St. It was 201 feet long, and from each 
end a wing extended to the river. It had 54 rooms, each for 8 
persons, and cost $208,846. It was opened Nov. 25, 1797, and 
continued in use until May, 1828, when it was sold. Convicts 
were employed in shoe and nail making and other work in 
leather and iron, and as carpenters, tailors, weavers, spinners, 
and gardeners. A second prison was ordered, in 1796, to be 
built at Albany, but the act was repealed in 1797. The limited 
accommodations and wretched moral influences of the New 
York prison led to the ordering of another prison, in 1816, which 
was located at Auburn. The south wing was completed in 
1818, and in 1819 the north wing was ordered to be fitted up 
with single cells. The prison was enlarged in 1824. 

2 An act passed March 7, 1824, ordered a prison to be erected 
at Sing Sing. Work was begun May 14, 1825, and the prison 
was finished in 1829, with S00 cells, to which 200 were added in 
1830. It was finally completed in 1831. The grounds here 
occupy 130 acres, and include marble quarries, upon which it 
was designed to employ the convicts. The State Hall at Albany 
is built of magnesian marble or dolomite quarried and dressed 
at this prison. The prison for females is built of rough marble 
in the Ionic style of architecture. It stands on elevated ground 
and is entirely distinct from the male prison in its offices and 
management. Previous to its erection, in 1835-40, female con- 
victs were kept by the city of New York at their prison at 
Bellevue, at an annual cost to the State of $100 each. 

8 Clinton Prison was built, in 1844-45, under the direction of 
Ransom Cook, with the design of employing convicts in iron 
mining and manufacture. 

* These Inspectors must visit all the State prisons four times 
a year, in company, inspect their management, discipline, and 
financial affairs, keep minutes of their proceedings, and report 
annually to the Legislature. They establish rules for the ob- 
servance of the officers of the prisons, and may examine 
witnesses. One prison is assigned to each Inspector for three 
months, and he is required to spend at least one week in each 
month at the prison in special charge, and to inform himself 
minutely concerning its details. The Inspectors are successively 
changed to other prisons. Inspectors can make no appoint- 
ments of relations within the 3d degree, and they can have no 
interest in contracts. Their salary is $1600. — Constitution, Art. 
V, Sec 4. 

B The officers of each prison consist of the following : — 

1. An Agent, or Warden, who is the principal fiscal officer of 



the prison. He receives a salary of $1,250 to $1,500, and is re- 
quired to give a bond of $25,000. 

2. A Principal Keeper, who has charge of police regulations 
and discipline of the prison, and must live upon the premises. 
He keeps a journal of every infraction of rules, records, punish- 
ments, complaints, &c, and reports monthly to the Inspectors. 
Salary, $ . 

3. Keepers under the direction of the Principal are appointed, 
not to exceed 1 for every 25 prisoners. Salary, $ . 

4. A Clerk, who records all commitments and discharges, 
keeps the accounts, and reports annually to the Secretary of 
State. Salary, $1,000 at Sing Sing and $900 at the other prisons. 

5. The Chaplain visits prisoners in their cells, devotes a stated 
time each Sabbath to religious services, keeps the prison library, 
and allows the use of books, under proper regulations, and is 
expected to counsel and assist convicts in the formation of 
settled resolutions for reform upon leaving the prison. Through 
him they may obtain whatever is allowed of correspondence 
with friends. Salary, $900. 

6. A Physician and Surgeon, who has charge of the Hospital 
and attends at all times when his services are required. Salary, 
$700 at Sing Sing and $600 at the other prisons. 

7. Instructors, of which there are 2 each at Auburn and Sing 
Sing, 1 at Clinton, and 1 at the Female Prison, who give all ne- 
cessary instruction to the prisoners in their several occupations. 

8. A Store Keeper, who has general charge of the provisions 
and clothing and other property belonging to the prison. 

9. A Guard, under the command of a sergeant, who are 
stationed in the prison and upon the walls to prevent escapes. 
The number of privates is 20 at Auburn, 25 at Clinton, and 30 
at Sing Sing. They are armed and equipped from the State 
arsenals, and are held legally justified if they shoot down 
prisoners attempting to escape. 

10. A Matron, who has charge of the Female Prison. Assistant 
matrons are appointed, not to exceed 1 for every 25 prisoners. 

6 Solitary confinement without labor was tried at Auburn in 
1821, but with the most unhappy results, and in 1823 the 
present system was adopted upon the suggestion of Capt. Klam 
Lynds and John D. Cray. Capt. Lynds deserves particular 
notice from the energy and firmness with which he brought 
his favorite system into successful operation and to a degree "f 
perfection scarcely conceivable to one who had ii"t witnessed it. 
This plan has been adopted in many prisons and has received 
the name of the "Auburn System.'' The labor not required in 
the domestic afjiirs of these prisons is hired upon contract to 
manufacturers, who put up the requisite machinery and employ- 
agents and foremen to superintend the work. Willful violation 
of the rules is punished by the [ash, ball and chain, yoke, 
strait jacket, shower bath, dark cell, and similar means. 

41 



42 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



faces turned to the side on -which their keeper walks. Their shops have narrow openings in 
the walls, through which they may be seen without the possibility of knowing it. They are con- 
fined at night in solitary cells ; and guards with woolen socks tread silently around their cells at 
all hours of tbe night. Tbe fare is abundant, but coarse ; and all convicts are required to wear a 
costume peculiar to the prison. 1 • 

An Asylum for Insane Convicts is located at Auburn, in the rear of the prison. It is 
under the general charge of a medical superintendent. 2 

The HFeW York House of Refuge, situated upon Randalls Island, near New York 
City, is an establishment for the reformation of juvenile offenders. It is partly a State and 
partly a city institution. 3 The Western House of Refuge, located upon a farm of 42£ 
acres in Rochester, is another juvenile establishment of a similar kind. It is entirely under State 
patronage. These institutions are under rigid discipline ; and the inmates receive instruction in 
the elementary branches of education during certain hours of the day, and are required to labor 
during certain other hours. The New York institution was established in 182*1, and receives both 
sexes. The Rochester institution was started in 1849, and receives boys only. 4 

The Prison Associat ion of r¥ew York was formed Dec. 6, 1844, and incorporated May 9, 
1846. It has for its objects the amelioration of the condition of prisoners, whether detained for 
trial or finally convicted, or as witnesses; the improvement of prison discipline and of the govern- 
ment of prisons, whether for cities, counties, or States; and the support and encouragement of 
reformed convicts after their discharge, by affording them the means of obtaining an honest liveli- 
hood and sustaining them in their efforts at reform. 5 The association is supported entirely by 
private contribution. The members pay $10 annually. The payment of $25 constitutes a member 



STATISTICS OF STATE PRISONS. 





AVERAGE MM HER OP 


a 
3 

w 
p 


i ->ncTS. 


; ■: 


SingSing. 


5 

6 

146 


-J 
§ 


664 


s 
80 


1-4- 


1,3S7 


1840 


512 


637 


76 


157 


1.3-2 


1850 


661 


661 


84 


119 


1.525 


1861 


752 


723 


73 


114 


1,662 




i 


788 


81 


125 


1,753 


18 


763 


865 


06 


186 


1,900 


1854 


747 




110 


199 


l.'.eVI 


1 


: 


016 


111 


249 


2,005 


IS 


- 




101 




1,953 


1857 


678 


976 


84 


278 


2,016 



TOTAL YEARLY EARNINGS. 



$53,456.71 
63,021.64 
68,737.31 

73.494.91 
64,986.29 
81,150.24 
81.994.74 
74,948.68 
72.763.4S 
69,954.08 



5> 




e 




i? 


S 


* 


.s 


S 


e 


$51,652.77 


$5,549.46 


63,052.83 


13,210.97 


71,178.99 


18,451.95 


88,385227 


17.664.10 


99,380.12 


29,736.20 


99,082.89 


37.207.77 


95,345.34 


41,674.04 


90,904.71 


82,372.19 


86,440.89 


38,100.76 


94,940.97 


26,882.58 






$110,658.94 
139,285.34 
15s.36s.25 
179,544.28 
194,102.61 
217,440.90 
219,014.12 
198,225.43 
197,305.13 
191,783.03 



EXPENSES INCLUDING IMPROVEMENTS. 



E 

s 

«o 
s 

•"1 



$66,960.41 
56,777.99 
71,164.07 

8s.546.25 
86,291.73 
80,516.37 
72.417.S2 
67.783.15 
69.915.46 
74,1 si 1.3:. 



&5 

S3 



$97,221.41 

81,850.28 

95,828.64 

79,506.82 

85.414.42 

12n.sl-.73 

136.142.24 

116.774.37 

100.523.39 

109.586.53 



a 

6 



$39,900.98 
50.126.47 
37,698.97 
37.958.13 
39,825.20 
49.483.14 
61.uss.75 
48,832.42 
55,032.74 
47,947.20 






$204,082.80 
18S.754.74 
204.6S6.68 
206.011.20 
211,531.35 
250,818.24 

269.64S.S1 

233,389.94 

225.471.57 
231.714.17 



Hie surplus expenses of the State prisons are paid from the 

Introduction to Natural History 

• Until ' charged with crime and proved insane 

••■ Lunatic A-ylum at Utica. An acl for 

tl ro linn of the present asylum was passed April 13, 1855, and 

tbe bnfl ! Dieted m I 

• The Sew V rk Asylum is conducted by a close Corporation, 
y>n"; ' jers, who serve without pay and report annu- 
ally 1 i ncil of New York and to the State Legis- 
latnr | the labor of its inmates, an annual 
appropriation from the Marine Hospital fund, theater and circus 

in the Board of Education, and grants 
from tli" ' i'y and -t itc f Sew York. It can accommodate 

 •■• 1 378; of which num- 

girls. Th" former are engaged 

in making re i loth, wearing, 4c.; and the 

 li day 7 hours are devoted to labor, 

4i to school, 1 , • : 1" swap, and 1, to recreation. 

lUgtia '■/ B " /'iff for 1857. 



Crat per capita 





Revenue from labor 

 r in- -1 

Avcrag ntion.... 

I 

In last 12 months 

Escape- nmg 

In last 12 months 

! • — 

ii and bnildings. 
Annual • l; dm I 



v. io York. Rochater 



$86 


$96 


81 


•> » 


$9,119 




P ; 11 1 


$12,000 


75 


75 


16 mn. 


24 mo. 


69 


14 


3 


1 


97 


9 


4 





131 


1 


$330,111 


$110,000 


$42 


::■<."■-> 



general fund. For a fuller accouut of these institutions, see 
qfJM w York, Vol. I, pp. 181-188. 

The Western House of Refuge is supported by the labor of 
its inmates, the product of its hum. and an annual State appro- 
priation. It- managers are appointed for a term of 3 years by 
the Governor and Senate, and are s" i la--sifled that 6 are ap- 
pointed annually. Its rules require hall' an hour mule at labor 
and an hour less at school than i- required at the New York 
Asylum: and 1" hours are allowed tor sleep. In 1859, 508 boys 
were received al this institution, (if these. V2S were employed 
in making chains, 171 in making shoes. 37 In making brushes, 

7 upon the farm. 20 in the Bewing rooms, and 23 as domestics. 

tXhe Condition of prisoners ha < from a remote period enlisted 
tho sympathies of the benevolent and led to associated efforts 
for their relief, a society was formed in New York, soon after 
the Revolution, for the relief of Imprisoned debtors. "Tho 
Philadelphia Bociety for alleviating tho miseries of Public 
Prisons" was formed over 80 years since by the Friends; and 

the Prison Discipline s,,. i.ty of Huston is nearly 20 years older 
than that of Similar objects iii New York. The Prison Associa- 
tion of New Yoik for some time issued a bulletin railed tho 

'■Monthly Record." The female department for somo years 
maintained a Homo for the temporary residence of discharged 

female prisoners until other means Of support could be fourd. 

This association has for several years appointed committees for 

visiting canity jails: and the farts reported show abundant 
reason for rontinuing efforts for reform in their management. 
The aid furnished by tiii- association to discharged convicts 
during the last tl repoi ted has been as follows: — 

Number of discharged persons aided with isf>4. 1S55. 1856. 

money ." 230 439 282 

Number supplied with rlothing 131 147 138 

Number provided with situations 52 155 112 



Total., 



413 741 632 



MILITARY. 



43 



foi life; of $100, an honorary member of the Executive Committee fur life, and $500 a life patron. 
A department, consisting of ladies, has in charge the interests of prisoners of their sex. The 
managers of the association receive no pay for their services. They usually report to the Legisla- 
ture annually; but no reports were made in 1856 and 1858. Office, 15 Center Street, New York. 



MILITARY. 




The Governor is Commander-in- 
Chief of the land and naval forces 
of the State. In time of peace the 
supervision of the militia and mili- 
tary establishments is intrusted to 
the Adjutant General, who has 
an office of record at the capital, 
issues, under his seal, all military p 
commissions, keeps a register of 1 
the names and residences of the J 

officers of militia throughout the State, issues all orders on 

behalf of the Commander-in-Chief, prescribes the manner of 

reporting from the several subordinate divisions, and reports the M 

statistics thus obtained — through the Governor — to the Legis- fi 

lature annually. 1 He has the rank of brigadier general; and ^ 

his assistant has the rank of colonel. The militia of the State a 

is composed of 8 divisions, 26 brigades, and 62 regiments, s 

embracing 220 companies of infantry, 126 of artillery, 41 of 

cavalry, 37 of rifles, and a total of 18,107 officers and privates. 2 
All able-bodied white male citizens between the ages of 18 and 45, not exempt by law, are 




i OFFICERS OF THE NEW YORK STATE MILITIA. 



< 
E-i 
an 

►J 
<! 
Pi 
H 
25 
W 

c 



© o 

Z JEH 

«! 3 B 

K « < 

a a i 



Major Generals 

Brigadier Generals 

Adjutant General 

Assistant Adjutant General.... 
Division Inspectors (Colonels).. 
Brigade Inspectors (Majors).... 
Adjutants (Lieutenants) 

Inspector General 



'Ms 
w B *, 

S P <£ 

E 7. w 

5° 

to 

- - 

< fa ?- 

fh O >■* 

63 O 

ft to 

> n 

■*! < B 

« < 

H w a, 

a 7. h 

O WO 

BO 



w <i erf 
o b Hi 
o; w a. 

Egg 
B <n 



3 B «S 

B ta q 



m < B 
** B -* 

g w a. 

£ 7. H 

5 »p 



Commissary General 

Assistant Commissary General.. 



Engineer-in-Chief 

Division Engineers (Colonels) 

Brigade Engineers (Majors) 

Regimental Engineers (Captains).. 



Judge Advocate General 

Division Judge Advocates (Colonels)... 
Brigade Judge Advocates (Majors) 



Surgeon General 

Hospital Surgeons (Colonels).... 

Surgeons (Captains) 

Surgeon's Mates (Lieutenants).. 



Quartermaster General 

Division Quartermasters (Lieut. Cols.) 

Brigade Quartermasters (Captains) 

Regimental Quartermasters (Lieutenants). 

Paymaster General 

Division Paymasters (Majors) 

Brigade Paymasters (Captains') 

Regimental Paymasters (Lieutenants) 



I 
Aids-de-Camp . 



26 

1 
1 
8 
23 
57 
1 



1 

7 

25 
50 



25 

1 

7 

22 
52 

1 

5 

25 

38 

1 

5 

21 

54 

41 





r f 




ELD 

ICERS 




££ 




o 










s 


>. tn 


fe J 


7, B 




S3. 


1-1 


s s 








©o 







Staff 
Corps. 



Colonels 

Lieutenant Colonels., 

Majors 

Captains 

First Lieutenants — 



Second Lieutenants 

Non-Commissioned Staff 

Company Non-Commissioned Officers, Mu- 
sicians, and Privates 

/ Sappers and Miners (attached to Engineer 
\ Department) 

Total 



60 

60 

58 
402 

379 

460 
143 

15,874 

103 



18,107 



The office of the Adjutant General was- made an office of 
record in 1827. previous to which commissions were issued hy 
the Secretary of State, under the privy seal of the Governor. 

2 In Jan., 1859, the division districts were as follows : — 

1. New York and Richmond cos. 

2. Kings, Orange, Putnam, Queens, Rockland, Suffolk, and 

Westchester cos. 

3. Albany, Columbia, Dutchess, Greene, Rensselaer, Saratoga, 

Sullivan, Ulster, and Washington cos. 

4. Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Jefferson, Lewis, St. Lawrence, and 

Warren cos. 

5. Broome, Chenango, Cortland, Delaware, Fulton, Hamilton, 

Herkimer, Madison, Montgomery, Otsego, Schenectady, 
and Schoharie cos. 

6. Cayuga. Oneida, Onondaga, Oswego, Schuyler, Seneca, Tioga, 

and Tompkins cos. 

7. Chemung, Livingston, Monroe, Ontario, Steuben, Wayne, and 

Yates cos. 

8. Allegany. Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie, Genesee, Niagara, 

Orleans, and Wyoming cos. 
The estimated number of enrolled militia, at the beginning 

of 1859, was 350,000. Those included in regiments were ah 

follows : — 

Infantry 7.490 privates, and S.094 including officers. 

Artillery ....5.365 " " 5.760 " " 

Cavalry 1.590 " " 1-733 " « 

Rifles 1,429 " " 1,528 " - 



44 



NEW YOKE STATE GAZETTEER. 



liable to military duty. An enrolment is made annually by the assessors. 1 Militia officers are 
chosen by election ; 2 excepting major generals and the Commissary General, who are appointed 
by the Governor and Senate. Staff officers are appointed by the commanding officer of the forces 
to ■which they are attached. 3 The Adjutant General, Judge Advocate General, Quartermaster 
General, Paymaster General, Surgeon General, Engineer-in-Chief, and one Instructor of Artillery 
and one of Cavalry to each division, are appointed by the Governor.* 

Arsenals. An arsenal is provided for each division of the Militia, and an armory for each 
regiment. The general custody and supervision of the military property of the State is intrusted 
to the Commissary General, who has his office in New York, and reports annually through the 
Governor to the Legislature. 5 



' The laws of the TJ. S. exempt from military service the Vice 
President, the Judicial and Executive officers of the Govern- 
ment of the U. S., members and officers of both Houses of Con- 
press, customhouse officers and clerks, post officers and Btage 
drivers in charge of mails, ferrymen on post roads, inspectors 
of exports, pilots and mariners in actual sea service. The State 
exempts, besides the above, persons in the army and navy and 
those honorably discharged therefrom, preachers of every sect, 
commissioned officers and privates of uniformed companies who 
have resigned after seven years' service, and certain firemen. 
All others may commute by paying 50 cts. annually, except in 
King? and New York c 08. and the cities of Albany and Buffalo, 
where the commutation is fixed at 75 cts. 

These moneys are paid to the collectors of taxes and applied 
to the military fund. — from which the officers and men of regi- 
ments are paid, ban $1.25 to $4. according to rank, for every 
day's military service. Persons going to, remaining at. or re- 
turning from military duty are exempt from arrest upon civil 
proc !■-. I'r.-vi ^:- r the act of 1846, the State Contained •"'-". 
divi-i n*. 66 brigades, 272 regiments, and 1836 companies, and 
numbered 141.436 officers and men. The number of enrolled 
militia bad been as follows, at different periods : — 





»i 


:>. 






_: 






t 


C 


:*> 








- 


{ 


^ 
t 


6 


^ s 


1 


Total. 


1805 


74.429 


1,700 


1.S52 






77.982 


1-1 


86.673 


2.619 


8,388 






92.677 


l-i:, 




6,364 


2.1.'.- 






98.905 


1820 


112,7-X) 


6,538 


3,132 


123 

Hrtrsz 

ArlilVy. 




122,553 


WE 


r.V'-i 


4.432 


2.505 


646 




146.805 


1830 


 


12.-"3 


5.-14 


1.763 




188.610 


1886 


168,786 


n.'vis 


7.317 


1.174 




192.083 






:v>--j 


7. : -', 






1-::.100 


1845 


141.436 


9,369 


3,849 




4.276 


162.427 



■Under the Constitution of 1777. nearly every military as well 

as civil officer in the State receifed his appointment from the 

Ooon i •• nt md mostly held during their pleasure. 

Tli- I -i "f 1822 introduced the following system, now 

In n—:—" Mill* -hall be chosen nr appointed, as fol- 

rabalterns, and non-commissioned officers shall 

be chosen by the written rotes of the members of tie ir re- 

Eleld officers of regiments atai separate 

by the w - of 1 1 > •  commissioned officers of 

the it., battalions; brigadier 

, by the field officers of their re- 
spective brigade,; major generals, brigadii r generals, and com- 
man 1, ittalions shall ap- 

point • Iheir respective divi-i.,na. britra'lea. 

regi' .. ns."— Qnutituiion. 1S22, Art IV, 

Sec. 1: OnuUtutian, Art. M. - 

T ^ments and brigades not 

fnlb If the former contain less than 8 r mp 

the : ! by the I ; and it" the 

 within the requirements of the law, the I 
di'T n n r ds are »i«o appoint d by the Governor. Ciiut. 

* Th- itasTof the Commander-in-Chief consists of the A4jn- 
caatQeaertil. In< leral, Engineer- 

in-Ch - . neral, Quarter- 

nw lo-Camp. and Military 

Secretary, who severally rank in tl rder here given. The 

preod^nre and .- ind non-commissioned offi- 

cers in tli« mil llowi: — 

L The Crnmander-in-Chi- f. 8. First Lieutenant 

2. M il. 9. Sec rid Lii utenant. 

3. Brigadier Oei - Dt-M 

i ' TjeL 11. 0<iart«-rmn«ter Sergeant. 

•'• I itenant Colonel. 1 .' I int. 

6, M int. 

I 14. Corporal 

In earn erade precedence Is giv, n by pri or i ty in date of elec- 
tion, or appointment. 



* The instructors, with the rank of colonel, are attached to 
the headquarters of the division, and hold by the same tenure 
as commissioned officers of the line. Instructors and division 
engineers must pass an examination as to special qualification 
before a board of not less than five officers, convened by the 
Commander-in-Chief. Appointments to this office have hitherto 
been made entirely from among the graduates of West Point. 

6 The Constitution of 1777 ordained that a proper magazine 
of warlike stores, proportionate to the number of inhabitants, 
should be established in every county of the State; but this pro- 
vision was never fully carried out. An arsenal was built at 
New York at an early period, and another at Albany soon after, 
the latter on the site purchased for a State prison. Under an 
act of Feb. 12, 1808, entitled " An Act for the defense of the 
northern and western frontiers," and by subsequent acts, arse- 
nals were erected at Canandaigua, Batavia, Onondaga Hollow, 
Rome, Watertown, Russell, Malone, Plattsburgh, and Elizabeth- 
town. 

The arsenal at Plattsburgh was burned in 1813 or '14, and the 
one at Rome, which occupied the present site of St. Peter's 
Church, was burned with its contents a few years since. Neither 
has been rebuilt. In 1844 the State leased of the city of Buffalo 
a market building on Batavia St. for an arsenal. Magazines 
were also located at New York, at Albany, and on Staten Island. 
In 1850 these arsenals were mostly ordered to be sold, together 
with such arms and other property as had become unserviceable 
for military purposes. An arsenal occupying the site of an old 
powder magazine of the Dutch, between Center, Elm, Franklin, 
and White Streets. New York, was authorized to be sold in 1844, 
and a new one was directed to be built. The site was purchased 
by the city for §30,000, and a new city armory was built, on the 
corner of White and Elm Streets. In 1S08 the city of New 
York conveyed to the State a tract of ground upon Fifth Ave- 
nue, between Sixty-Third and Sixty-Fifth Sts., upon which a 
magazine was erected. In 1S44 the Legislature authorized a 
new arsenal to be erected on these premises with such moneys 
as might be paid by tho U. S. for the military works upon Staten 
Island. The sale 'was completed in April. 1847, for $37,284.87, 
of which §33,284.87 was applicable to the arsenal. The work 
was commenced, but in March, 1848. was suspended by the 
Commissioners of the Land Office, to whose charge and that of 
the Commissary General the wnrk had been intrusted. It was 
alleged that the latter officer had expended motny.s mo.-t un- 
warrantably; and subsequent observation has proved that the 
structure was unfit fur this or, in fact, for anv other purpose. — 
A^rmhhi !>.,.. ls.Mi. No. 141. S, mil, Doc. 1848, No. 54. 

In laying out the Central Park, the pn miscs consisting of 152 
building lots, valued in 1858 at 8286,000, were included in the 
proposed Improvement, and an net was passed. April 15, 1857, 
under which this property, which the State purchased in 1808 
for $700, was conveyed back to the city for §275.000. Of thin 
sum §10<i.o<><> was mad" applicable t" the erection <>f an ar- 
senal at New York; (48,000 for an arsenal at Buffalo; §40,000 
for an arsenal in Brooklyn; $25,000 for the improvement of the 
arsenal at Albany and the erection of an armory; §17,000forthe 
purchase of the U.S. arsenal at Home: §14.000* for an arsenal at 
Corning, and for armories; $5,000 at Rochester, $5,000 at Troy, 
|4,000 al Auburn. $4,000 at B J mouse, $4,000 at Utica, §3.000 at 
Ballston Bpa, $3,000 at Dunkirk. $8,000 at Ogdensburgh, $.3.000 at 
i IswegO, and $3,000 for the pun base of astono fort in Schoharie 
for an armory. "The arsenal In Albany, by act of April 17, 1858, 
was exchanged with the city for a site on Hudson and Eagle 
Btreeta, and $6,000 toward an arsenal and armory buildings, 
which were .reeled in 1868-69. During the summer of 1858, 
buildings at Albany. Auburn, l'.allston Spa. Brooklyn, Corning, 
Dunkirk, New York, ngdenxburgh, and Syracuse were put under 
id and finished, "r far advanced, the same year. The stone 
fori or , buroh at Schoharie was purchased, but no steps were 

taken for the erections authorized at Troy. Rochester, Oswego, 

and 1'tioa. The DOW arsenal built at MOW York in D.'.s was 

i on Beventh Avenue, corner of Thirty-Fifth St., and was 

nearly completed, when the roof fell, on the morning of Nov. 

. greatly injuring the building. 

Host ot the -trnetures erected under this act are of substantial 

workmanship and elegant architectural Style, They were built 

under the direction ot commissioners appointed by law. When 

completed, they will be placed in charge of the Commissary 

d. who also attends to the safe keeping of arms and 



MILITARY. 



45 



The fortifications within the State are owned and supported by the United States 
although several of them were built by the State of New York under an arrangement for the settle 
inent of the Revolutionary debt. 1 



military equipments belonging to the State, 
in New York. 



He keeps his office 



Summary of the ordnance arms in the hands of the troops and 
in the arsenals of the State on the 1st day of January, 1859. 



Six pounders 101 

Nine pounders 3 

Twelve pound howitzers 5 
Twenty-four pound how- 
itzers 7 

Mountain howitzers 13 

Flint muskets and bayo- 
nets 671 

Percussion muskets and 

bayonets 11,975 

Flint rifles 563 

Percussion rifles 1,365 

Flint pistols 114 

Percussion pistols 2,254 

1 In Feb. 1801, there was due 
the United States, on account 



Musquetoons 222 

Carbines 340 

Cavalry sabres 1,337 

Artillery sabres 1,188 

Artillery swords 1,344 

Cartridge boxes and 

plates 10,744 

Cartridge box belts and 

plates 10,813 

Bayonet scabbard belts 

and plates 9,890 

Waist belts and plates... 9,258 

Cap pouches 7,155 

Pistol bolsters 1,553 

from the State of New York to 
of Revolutionary expenses, the 



sum of $2,074,846. An Act of Congress, passed February 15, 
1799, allowed any State to discharge its debt by payment into 
the treasury before April, 1800, or by expending a like amount 
within five years in the erection of fortifications. New York was 
the only State that chose to extinguish itB debt by era Una 
defenses upon its own soil; and a committee of Congress reported 
in February, 1801, that no other States had shown any disposi- 
tion to pay the balances reported against them. The amount 
credited to New York was $891,129.31, and the remainder of 
the indebtedness was subsequently released. — American Slate 
Papers, Finance, I, 697. 

Tho amount of moneys reduced to specie value received by, or 
paid to, the State of New York from the beginning of the Revo- 
lution to April, 1790, was as follows, in dollars : — 

Received from State $1,545,889 

Paid to State 822,803 

A descriptive and historical notice is given of the several forti- 
fications in the localities where they occur. The latest official 
summary that has been published, dated in 1851, is given 
below: — 



United Stales Fortifications. 



Forts. 



Fort Schuyler 

Fort Columbus 

Castle Williams.... 

South Battery , 

Fort GibBon 

Fort Wood 

Fort Richmond.... 
Fort Tompkins.... 
Battery, Hudson... 
Battery, Morton... 

Fort Lafayette 

Fort Hamilton 

Fort Montgomery, 

Fort Ontario 

Fort Niagara 

Fort Porter 



Location. 



Throggs Neck 

Governors Island 

Ellis Island 

Bedloes Island 

Staten Island 

Reef, near Long Island.. 

Long Island 

Rouses Point 

Oswego 

Mouth of Niagara River 
Black Rock 



"S 



a 
a 



£ 


£ 


1833 




1831 




1831 




1831 


1845 


1841 


1844 


1841 




1847 




1841 


1846 


1841 


1846 


1812 




1824 




1841 




1839 




1840 




1842 





! 



1,250 

800 

80 
350 

-1,000 

370 
800 
500 
300 
300 
300 



"fe. 



^. 



318 

105 

78 

14 

15 

77 

140 

64 

50 

9 

76 

118 

164 

30 

21 

64 






.1* 



Sj 



$873,013 



269,467 



5,096 
245,689 
505,808 



20,081 

3,508 

348,573 

634,752 

411,497 

83,013 

84,027 

150,000 



1 & 
a 5. S 



$848,013 



259,467 



5,096 
213.000 
205,606 



20,081 

3.508 

341,941 

614,752 

187,355 

78,013 

59,027 

116,500 



8 8, . 

ill 



$25,000 
"i'6,000 



32,689 

300,202 



6,632 

20,000 

224,142 

5,000 
25.000 
33,500 



„ i 5 



$225,040 
103,749 
79.332 
12,184 
18,672 
76.540 
124,302 
59,209 
57,060 
10.665 
75.778 
86.757 
132,384 
18.610 
12.961 
51,208 



The forts on Staten Island are being rebuilt on an extensive 
scale. Fort Schuyler, on Throggs Neck, has since been finished, 
a site purchased for a fort at Wilkins Point, directly opposite, 
and an immense fortress has been commenced on Sandy Hook, 
for the more effectual defense of New York Harbor. These 
works will effectually defend the approaches to New York by 
water, but would not prevent an attack by land should an 
enemy effect a landing upon Long Island. To guard against 
this, it has been proposed to erect a line of redoubts across the 
island from Wilkins Point to Fort Hamilton at such intervals 
as would secure this object. 

The General Government has appropriated large sums of 
money during many years to the construction of a floating battery 
for the defense of New York Harbor. It is building at Hoboken, 
and is said to be nearly completed. It is of iron, of great strength 
and thickness, with its outer deck oval, and every part proof 
against cannon ball. It is to be mounted with heavy guns and 
propelled by steam. No official account of its construction has 
been published ; and, for obvious reasons, the details of its plan 
are kept secret. It is reported that it has a capacity to accom- 
modate 3000 men, with the necessary supplies of fuel and 
military stores; and it is thought that of itself it might oppose 
an effectual barrier against the approach of a hostile fleet in any 
passage which it might be brought to defend. This mighty 
engine of war was planned by the late John C. Stevens. 

The other military establishments of the National Government 
in New York are, — 

The Military Academy at West Point. 



The Navy Yard, Dry Dock, Naval Hospital, and Labo- 
ratory at Brooklyn. 
The Arsenal at Watervliet for the manufacture of gun car- 
riages and other heavy furniture of artillery for the field 
and fort. 
The Arsenal of Deposit, at Rome. 
Plattsburgh Barracks. 
Madison Barracks, at Sackets Harbor. 
Buffalo Barracks. 
A few years after the last war with Great Britain, a military 
road was surveyed and partly opened by the United States from 
Plattsburgh to Sackets Harbor ; but this work from the first haa 
been kept in repair by the towns as a common highway. 

Fort Montgomery is the only work now under construction 
on the northern frontier. The Canadians have the following 
fortifications adjacent to New York : — 
Fort Wellington, at Prescott, erected in 1812-15. 
Fort Henry, at Kingston, with several Martello towers and 
batteries, for the protection of the harbor and town and defense 
of the north channel of the St. Lawrence. They were partly 
built in the War of 1812-15, and partly in 1837-40. Fort Carl- 
ton, now within the United States, commanded the south chan- 
nel, and portions of the work, executed a century ago, (and since 
the Revolution entirely neglected,) might still be made available 
upon short notice. 

Fort Massasauga, at Niagara, directly opposite the American 
fort, is of modern origin. 



Note.— By the Militia Regulations of this State, the device at the head of this article is borne upon buttons and other insignia 
worn by military officers. 



LANDS. 



The absolute property of all the lands in the State is vested in the respective owners, liable only 
to escheat and to the reservation of gold and silver mines in such as derive title from Colonial 
patents. 1 

The law prohibits the leasing of agricultural lands for a longer period than twelve years. 2 The care 
and sale of lands belonging to the State are intrusted to the Commissioners of the Land Office. 
These commissioners have also the sole right of dealing with the Indians for the sale and surrender 
of reservations, excepting within the territory whereof the pre-emptive right of purchase was ceded 
to Massachusetts and is now held by the Ogden Company. 

Tiie Commissioners of the Land Office were created by an act of May 11, 1784, 
to carry into execution the promises of bounty lands for Revolutionary services which had been 
made by the Legislature in 17S0. As now formed, this Board consists of the Lieutenant Governor of 
the State, Speaker of Assembly, Secretary of State, Comptroller, Treasurer, Attorney General, and 
State Engineer and Surveyor. The Deputy Secretary of State is ex officio Clerk of the Board, and 
the meetings are held in the Secretary's office, upon the call of the Secretary of State. 

When State lands are to be sold, they are first surveyed, appraised, and advertised for sale at 
auction, and their minimum bid affixed. The lots that remain without a bid are liable to be taken 
by the first applicant upon payment of one-fourth of the price and giving bonds for the residue. 
If they remain unsold any considerable time, they are re-appraised and offered at a lower rate. 3 

The lands under water in the bays around Long Island are in most cases the property of the 
townships, by virtue of original patents; and the privilege of fishing and taking oysters and clams 
is by sonic towns held as exclusively belonging to their inhabitants. 4 



l The Dntcb Government sometimes granted lands in the 
y without the formalities of Indian purchase; but it was 
thenileol the English to fir-t extinguish the aboriginal title. 
It was customary to apply to the Governor and Council for 
leave to purchase. If granted, a treaty was held and an Indian 
deed obtained, a warrant was issued to the Surveyor General 
tor a survey, and the map and field notes were reported. The 
Attorney General was then directed to prepare a draft of a 
at, which Was submitted to the Governor and Council, and. 
if approved, was engrossed upon parchment, recorded, sealed. 
and issued. The fees incident to procuring a patent were im- 
portant sources of revenue to the officers concerned. Only 1.000 
acn - could be granted to one person; but this rule was evaded 
great numbers of merely nominal parties; and 
Doers through wlm.se bauds the papers passed were often 
i. . Ij intei rted in the grants. The Colonial Government in 
tlii- i Bdtogly corrupt, and stood greatly in 

reform like that wrought by the Revolution. In a 

few rant- 'if laud v.'i" mad'- directly by the 

crown, and nor rds appear in >>ur offices. Of this class was 

the Royal Grant to 8li Win. Johnson, s. of the Mohawk. 
Pal ts for laud w.f.- generally very formal, and abounded In 
The grants were "in Ii i and common socage," as 
in the manor of East Greenwich, in the co. of Kent, and in- 
ducted with the laud all "houses, m — oages, tenements, erec- 
tions, an I buildings, mills, milldams, fences, inclosnres, gardens, 
ir  9. common of pastures, meadows,marshes, 
Is, underwoods, timber, trees, rivers, rivu- 
uns. water, lakes, ponds, pools, pits, brachen, 
crnan minerals, (gold and silver [wholly or in part 

..-. harb ts. highways, e tsements, tubing, hunt- 
tog, nil fowling, and all other franchisee, prints, commodities, 
and appuri ' This enumeration of rights, 

more ri  varied was embraced to all bind patents. Colonial 

lltl mi d t . the annual payment ol B 

qaUr lace n uned in the patent. This 

lue in in i ii. -n in wheat or 

 ithi rs were condition d to the payment ol 

ly nominal article, as simply an 

acknowledgment of the rap riot rights of the grantors, The 

quitrvnts formed an lm| T revenue, and. after 

the Revolution, bet una due to the SI tte In 1786 it was pro- 

i that lands subj ats might bo released upon 

ment of ■man, and 14 shillings to every shilling ol the 

aiinn ii •'.' smonnts of land upon which arrears of 

UUllNUlS bad tOCOJnnlat Id from time to time; and 

Intervals for the regu- 
until 1824, when an act was passed for the 
final sale of nil tends whl b bad n ■< b i n released by commuta- 
tion ot remitted bylaw. Bn b tends as then remained unre- 
re allowed to b y paymi ol ol 12 60 | 

' shilling sterling due. The last sale t.-.k place in March, 1826. 
The srrean for quitrcnts. then ■monntii 80, weToin 

1819 taken from the general fund and given in equal portions 
'.o the Litrature and School Funds. 
46 



2 This feature was adopted to prevent the recurrence of anti- 
rent difficulties. The Legislature, in 1846,. enacted n law pro- 
viding that all lands previously rented for a life or lives, or for 
more than 21 years, should be taxed as the personal property 
of the persons receiving the rents, to an extent equal to a sum 
that at legal interest would produce the annual rent. Such 
taxes were made payable in the cos. where tne lands lay: aud 
this unpleasant encumbrance has largely contributed to reduce 
the amount of lands thus held. 

3 Unappropriated lands in the counties of Clinton, Essex, 
Franklin, Hamilton, Montgomery. Saratoga, St. Lawrence. 
Washington, and Warren may he sold by the commissioners in 
quantities of not less than 160 acres, if already surveyed, at such 
price as they may be found worth. If over 1.000 acres, they 
may be surveyed" and sold for their value, and may not be 
assessed ai a higher rate for live yi irs. Lands Bold under fore- 
closure of loan mortgages are bid in by the Loan Commissioners 
if liable to go for less than the sum due. They arc then sold 
by auction, or otherwise, for the best interests of the Slate, 
under the regulations above stated. Land under water may be 

conveyed by the Commissioni rs ol the Land Office, under regu- 
lations fixed by tew. Notice of application for such grants 
must be advert iseil for six weeks in the co. newspaper where the 
lands lie. and posted on the courthouse door. These notices 

must describe the adjoining lands and give the names of their 
owners. Applicants must make affidavit that they intend to 
appropriate r i j   lands applied for to commercial purposes. The 
co. judge, or supervisor and town clerk, or two assessors of the 
town where the land- lie, must make affidavit that the land is 
not more than is net es-ary lor the purposes of commerce, and 
that the persons applj Ing an believed to be bonafid* applicants 
for the put i I. Applicant- must also produce an accu- 

rate map of the proposed gram and the adjacent lands owned 
bj them, certified by the oath of a Btirveyor ; and also a correct 

description In writing With rourses and distances, and the 
soundings for every 60 feel on the exterior line. The map must 
Show the general cours' of the shore for a mil" each way. and 

the particular coin-., at tin, point apple d for. an. 1 include all 
do ks, bulkheads, or oilier Improvements, the names of owners 

of land- adjoining, find the width of the I hannel Or river if less 
than two miles. The deduct ion of title and proof that the lands 

belong to tie- Btate must also be produced, with claim of owner- 
ship by the applicant, Or by himself and those under whom he 
claims. The patent U conditioned to occupation in the mode 

d upon within years, aid the fees are $5.00. Grants 

under the wntei Bof navigable rivers and lakes can only be made 
to the owners of the land along the shores: and the com- 
missioners are restriete.l in their powers so far as r> lap ■,- lo 
New York City and the Hudson River R. I!. 

< Around Bl iteo I land the owners of the shores possess the 
right of using or ]■ a-ing the adjacent lands under water fir 
planting oysters. The custom of granting lands under water 

without the restrictions hero enumerated has led to serious 
l DcroachmentS upon the harbor of New York, the details o f 
which are stated on pages 418, 419. 



LANDS. 



47 



The public lands are greatly reduced in quantity, and belong to the several permanent funds to 
which they have from time to time been granted. 1 

Gospel iind School L,ands. — Under an act of 1782, a lot of 400 acres was to be reserved 
in each township of the Military Tract for the support of the gospel, and two lots of 200 acres for 

schools. 2 

In each of the Twenty Towns of the Chenango Tract a lot of 250 acres (usually Lot 45) was 
reserved for the gospel, and another (Lot 40) of like extent for schools ; but these lots were sold 
with the lands, and the Canastota Tract, in Sullivan and Lenox, adjoining Oneida Lake, was 
in 1805-08 given in lieu, and apportioned among the Twenty Towns. 3 

In each of the Ten Towns on the St. Lawrence a mile square (usually Lot 55) was granted for 
gospel and schools, and in some towns was applied in early years to both these objects.* 

Besides these grants for schools by the State, land proprietors have in some instances conveyed 
certain lots for this purpose, to encourage settlement. In nearly every instance these lands have 
been applied for the benefit of the original townships within which they were granted, and in 
their subdivision the local school fund has been equitably divided. Other lands were subse- 
quently granted, as elsewhere noticed ; and in 1822 the Constitution gave all the public lands 
not specially appropriated to the school fund. 5 



1 The quantity now owned forms about 4J per cent, of that 

held in 1823, and compares between the two periods as 
follows : — 

Jan. 1, 1823. Jan. 1859. 

Lands belonging to the School Fund 991,659A. 9,463 A.. 

" " Literature Fund 17,946" 640" 

" " Canal " 129,769" " 

" " General " " 39,269" 

" « Salt " " 209" 



Total 1,139,374 " 49,581 " 

2 These lots were designated by the supervisors of Onondaga 
and Seneca cos., under acts passed in 1796 and 1808, as follows : — 

Gospel and School Lands of the Military Tract. 





"BW 






Original Town- 




3 




ship AND ITS 

Numbers. 


11 


1^ 


Present Towns sharing in Profits 
of School Lot. 




9 


100 




1. Lvsander.... 


Lysander and part of Granby. 


2. Hannibal.... 


5 


14 


Hannibal, Cicero, parts of Os- 
wego City, and Granby. 




25 


89 


Victory, Ira, and parts of Con- 
quest and Cato. 




87 


58 


Brutus, and parts of Sennett, 
Menfz, Conquest, and Cato. 


6. Camillus.... 


72 


15 


Camillus, Elbridge, and Van 
Buren. 




14 


16 


Clay and Cicero. 




74 


18 


De Witt and Manlius. 




60 


36 


Owasco, Fleming, Auburn, and 
parts of Aurelius, Sennett, and 

Mentz. 


9. Marcellus... 


22 


19 


Marcellus, Skaneateles, and parts 
of Spatford and Otisco. 




67 


30 


Pompey, Lafayette, and part of 
Otisco. 


11. Romulus.... 


50 


55 


Romulus, Varick, Fayette, and 
parts of Seneca Falls. 




1 


fffi 


Scipio, Venice, and part of 
Niles. 








13. Sempronius 


52 


25 


Sempronius, Moravia, and part 
of Niles. 


14. Tully 


76 


69 


Tully, Preble, Scott, and parts of 
■Spafford and Otisco. 




3 


36 


Fabius and part of Truxton. 


16. Ovid 


30 


23 


Ovid, Lodi, and Covert. 


17. Milton 


24 


56 


Genoa and part of Lansing. 


18. Locke 


15 


"4 






34 


85 


Homer and Cortlandville. 


20 Solon 


22 


41 


Solon and part of Truxton. 
Hector. 


21. Hector 


1 


6 


22. Ulysses 


5 


24 


Ulysses, Enfield, Ithaca, and part 
of Lansing. 




29 


63 


Dryden. 


24. Virgil 


36 


20 


Virgil. 


25. Cincinnatus 


53 


49 


Cincinnatus, Freetown, Mara- 
thon, and Willet. 




78 


79 


Junius, Tyre, Waterloo, and part 
of Seneca Falls. 


27. Galen 


45 
73" 


33 

88 




28. Sterling 


Sterling, Butler, Wolcott, Huron, 








and Rose. 



8 In each of the following townships a lot of 640 acres was 
reserved for schools, viz.: — Fayette, now Guilford, and part of 
Oxford; Clinton, now Bainbridge, Afton, and part of Coventry; 
Greene, now parts of Greene, Smithville, and Coventry: Warren, 
now parts of Colesville, Sanford, and Windsor; Chenango, now 
parts of Port Crane, Conklin, Colesville, and Windsor; Sidney, 
now parts of Binghamton and Vestal ; Randolph, now parts 
of Sanford, Windsor, and Conklin; and Hambden, now parts 
of Vestal, Owego, and Nichols. 

4 In Plattsburgh 640 acres was reserved for the gospel, and 
460 for schools; and in Totten and Crossfield's Purchase 16 lots 
of 640 acres each. The latter have been selected under the 
Sackets Harbor and Saratoga R.R.Grant. In Benson Town- 
ship (Hope and Lake Pleasant) 4 lots of 160 acres each were 
given for schools and literature. 

6 The lands of the school fund were, Jan. 1809, as follows : — 
4,270 acres in Hamilton, 2,861 in Essex, 1.0S0 in Clinton, 350 in 
Wayne, 105 in Schoharie, 75 in St. Lawrence, 30 in Washing- 
ton, 28 in Oneida, 25 in Fulton, 16 in Montgomery, 12 in Her- 
kimer, 6 in Dutchess, and 5 in Onondaga cos. 

Literature Lands have been reserved as follows : — 1 mi. square 
in each of the townships of Fayette, Greene, Clinton. Chenango, 
Warren, Sidney, and Hamden. Townships 1, 4, 5. 8, 13. 14, 
17, 19, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 41, in Totten and Crossfield's 
Purchase. Lot No. 56 in each of the Ten Towns of St. Law- 
rence co. A lot of 550 acres (less 50 for survey) in each of tho 
28 towns of the Military Tract. These lots were appropriated 
as follows : — 

Military Tract— Townships 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, and 

20, to Union College. 
Township 13, to Oxford Academy, Chap. 112, Laws of 1800. 



5, 


" Pompey 


a 


it 


119, 


a 


1S13. 


3, 


" Cayuga 


tt 


a 


71, 


tt 


1S14. 


1, 


" Onondaga 


tt 


a 


200, 


a 


1814. 


19, 


" Cortland 


U 


a 


10, 


tt 


1822. 


28, 


" Auburn 


a 


tt 


2f36, 


tt 


1S25. 


22, 


« Ithaca 


tt 


tt 


30S, 


tt 


1S25. 



• Exchanged for No. 17 by Chap. 177, Laws of 1812. 



The remainder were sold for the benefit of the Literature Funtf 

Clinton Township, granted to the town of Jericho, Chap. 3, 
Laws of 1822. All other townships in Broome and Che 
nango cos. were sold for the benefit of the Literature Fund ' 

Ten Towns in St. Lawrence Co. — In Potsdam, granted to St. 
Lawrence Academy, Chap. 148, 1816. In Canton, granted 
to Lowville Academy, Chap. 134, Laws of ISIS. The re- 
mainder, was sold, and $1,000 given to Middlebury Aca- 
demy in 1823 ; $1,000 to Redhook Academy in 1824 : $2,500 
to St. Lawrence Academy in 1S25; and the remainder 
passed to the Literature Fund. 

Totten and Crossfield's Purchase. — 10,240 acres absorbed by 
S. H. & S. R. R. In Benson Township, 4 lots of 160 acres 
each remain unsold. Of the unsold lands of the State in 
Jan. 1859, there were 39,269 acres ; of which 19.020 are in 
Clinton, 5.133 in Hamilton, 5,111 in Essex, 4.728 in Frank- 
lin, 1,643 in Warren, 1.147 in Delaware, and the same in 
Erie, 780 in Herkimer, 212 in Cortland, 175 in Seneca, 116 
in Sullivan, and 57 in Washington cos. 

Tlu Salt Springs Lands are, by Article 7, Sec. 7 of the Consti- 
tution of 1846, declared as belonging inalienably to the 
State, and compriso the grounds upon which salt is manu- 
factured, whether by solar evaporation or artificial heat. 
The Commissioners of the Land Office may sell, under au- 
thority of law, certain portions for the purpose of pur- 
chasing other lands, so that the amount shall not be dinii 
nished. Since 1846, 114.S5 acres have been sold, fo» 
$153,039.50, and 543.12 acres purchased, for $154,161.79. 



48 NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 

With certain, exceptions 1 all property, both real and personal, is liable to taxation whether 
owned by individuals or corporations. Real estate is taxed in the town where it lies, unless 
adjacent to lands of the same owner or occupant in another town where he resides. 

Personal property is taxed where the owner resides, and corporations in the towns where their 
property lies. Stocks of corporations are taxed to the company and not to the holders. Property 
may be sold for the payment of taxes, and lands upon which the taxes remain unpaid are returned 
by the co. treasurers to the comptroller, and so much of each parcel is sold at stated periods, as is 
necessary to pay the taxes, interest, and charges that accrue thereon. 2 

The pre-emptive title to the lands of the State w. of a meridian passing through the 82d mile- 
stone on the Penn. line, was conveyed to Massachusetts, (except a mile strip along the Niagara,) at 
a convention held at Hartford, Dec. 16, 1786. These lands amounted to about 6,000,000 acres. 
Ten towns of 234,400 acres, in Broome and Tioga cos., called " The Massachusetts Ten Towns," were 
also conveyed at the same time. 

Large tracts of land remained in possession of the government when it became a State. These 
and other portions derived from forfeitures, escheats, tax sales, Indian purchases, and foreclosure 
of loan mortgages, have been sold in small parcels, as parts of large tracts, having a general name 
and system of survey. Sometimes as many patents have been issued for these tracts as they had 
lots, and in others many lots have been conveyed to the same person. 

The largest grant ever made by the State to citizens was that of Macomb's Purchase, in Frank- 
lin, St. Lawrence, Jefferson, Lewis, Herkimer, and Oswego cos. It embraced 3,693,755 acres, and 
was patented to Daniel McCormick and Alexander Macomb in 1791-8. The State, in accordance 
with Indian treaties, has conveyed sundry tracts, the principal of which are Penet Square, (10 mi. 
sq.,) in Jefferson co., and Perache's, Kirkland, and other minor tracts, in Oneida co. Others, for 
like cause, have been assigned for missions and other specific objects. The Legislature has also by 
acte directed the land commissioners to convey extensive tracts for the promotion of roads, rail- 
roads, and canals, colleges, academies, schools, and other institutions, and to reward military or 
other services to the State. Of the latter class was a grant of 16,000 acres in Oneida co. to Baron 
Steuben, in 1794. 

Of patents to citizens not included in either of the preceding lists, the principal are Scriba's 
500,000 acres in Oswego and Oneida cos.; Adgate's, Coxe's, Machin's, Oothoudt's, Remsen's, Dean's, 
and other tracts in Oneida; Vrooman's, Noble's, &c. in Herkimer; and Watkins & Flint's in Che- 
mung and adjoining counties. Numerous grants of land to communities, with privileges of gov- 
ernment, were made upon Long Island, and in the counties bordering upon the Hudson, which will 
be specially noticed in the localities to which they refer. 

Several of the cities have special laws for the sale of real estate for taxes, and such sales 
are made under the direction of the fiscal officer of the corporation. All other tax sales occur at 
All>any once in three years, and are duly advertised by the Comptroller and in each co. by such 
newspapers as are designated by the supervisors. 



1 The real estate not subject to taxation comprise? property 
belontring to the State and United States; buildings and 
ground-' fee pnhHe naei owned by counties, cities, villages, 
and t"wn- - si sdemies, and Incorporated seminaries; 

ohxtn .-••'. and the pro p erty of oorporations f"r 

ref"rm of offender!; public libraries; bank stock owned by 
Stat- and try literary and charitable societies; Indian reserva- 
rtyof Indians living thereon; the property 
of clergymen to tent of 11,600 each, and property ri"t 

liable t'i sale under execution tor debt, the lr\"t minimi in- 
etadM » i f owned ly hoaaehoMers) a "pinning wheel, a loom, 
staves put up or in u»e. the family Hible. family pictures, and 

; in value, n seal or 
pew in church, t<-n tbeep with their fleeo J . and the yarn or 

:. one OOW, two swine, and their nee 
bod, all necessary p^rk. beef, fish. floor, and vegetables pro- 
vided lit f.imilv u»<\ and foe] tor 00 days, nil necessary wearing 
apparel, beds, bedsteads, and bedding fee the family, arms and 

itCwmants i | law to be kept f"r service in the 

militia, n-cessAry c.king irransfU, r,n« table, six chairs, table 
furniture f"r six DlfBJODS, OBC rrnno and its appendages, one 
pair of andirons, a shovel and tong«. tools of mechanics to the 
villi.- r.f JiV a team worth (160, and land set apart f"r a private 



recorded in the co. clerk's office, but such record does not ex- 
empt from sale for taxes, and property generally is liable for 
debts contracted in its purchase. Where a homestead is ex- 
empted the privilego continues for the benefit of the widow 
and family after the death <'f the head. Such of the above 
articles as are movable continue exempt while the family to 
whom they belong are removing from one. place of residence to 
another. 
' Bach parcel is held up at auction, and those persons com- 

 at the sale name the least amount of land in a 
square, asually in the ir.w. corner, that they will accept, 
and pay tho taxes and charges due. The sale is declared in 
favor of the person naming the hast quantity, and the pur- 
chaser receives aeertiflrate naming tho time when a deed will 
be due. Ifnot paid, theComptrolhr may in 3 months cancel tho 
certificate and give to another upon payment of the same 
amount, and any person may redeem within 2 years by paying 
the taxes, charges, and 10 per cent, in addition. Specific or 
undivided parti of tracts of land may bo sold. Ifnot redeemed 
in 2 year" the Comptroller issues a fnll deed to the purchaser. 
The portion sold to pay taxes is designated by tho comptroller 
and varies with cirrumstances. If a village lot, it is located so 

front upon a street, and in long narrow tracts it is taken 



burj'i' • DO* "ere than J acre. A hnilding and hit ; off from one end. A tax sale takes place in 1859, and triennally 

WMrth (UlOO occupied as a dwelling by the owner and his family thereafter, 
may be exempt by causing a description of the premises to be | 



LANDS. 



49 



TABLES OF MANORS, COLONIAL PATENTS, PURCHASES, AND LAND GRANTS. 

Manors of the Colonial Period in New York and its Dependencies. 



NAMES. 


PATENTEES. 


DATES. 


LOCATION AND REMARKS. 




Capt.Ch'r Billop 


May 6, 1687 
.Mar. 20,1687 
June 17, 1697 
Sept. 6, 1694 
May 21, 1667 
Mar. 10,1639 
June 22, 1668 
April 20, 1685 
May 9, 1697 
Oct. 25, 1687 
April 1, 1680 
April 2,1675 
1630-37 

Oct. 5. 1693 
Mar. 21, 1701 
July 25, 1072 

July 8, 1761 


S. W. part of States Island, sometimes called "Billop Manor." 

N. part of Staten Island. 

N. part of Westchester Co., had 1 Rep. in Gen. Assembly. 

Canceled. 

Annexed to Kingston, Mar. 12, 1787. 

With full power as an independent town. 

Columbia co., had 1 Kep. in (Jen. Assembly. 

Since annexed to Massachusetts. 

S. point of 'Westchester co. 

S. E. border of Westchester CO. 

Putnam co. 

Plum and Gull Islands. 

Fully organized; represented in Gen. Assembly ; confirmed 

Oct. 17, 1685, May 20, 1704. 
In town of Brookhaven, Suffolk co. 
Westchester co. 
Prudence Island, R. I. Disallowed by R. I., and authority 

resisted. 
Marthas Yineyard, now a part of Massachusetts. 






Cortlandt 


Col. Stephanos Cortlandt 
Capt. John Evans 




Fox Hall 


Earl of Stirling 


Marthas Vineyard.... 








John Pell 








Samuel Willes 


Killian Van Rensselaer... 
Col. Wm. Smith 




Caleb Heathcote 













Several of these existed only in name; perhaps a few other patents bore the name of Manors, upon which active settlement 

was not begun under the Colonial Government. 



Table of the more important Patents 

Granted under the English Colonial Government, in the eastern part of New York. 



Name of Patent. 



Adaquatnugie Patent..., 

Amherst Tracts 

Anaquassacook Patent . 

Argyle Patent 

Arieskill Patent 

Artillery Patent 

Babington's Patent 

Bagley's Patents 



County. 



Otsego 

Hamilton 

Washington 



Balfour's Patent. 
Banyar's Patent . 
Batavia Patent ... 
Bayard's Patent. 



Becker's Patent Schoharie 



Montgomery 

Washington 

Delaware 

Schenectady 

Montgomery 

Ham. <t Warren. 
Otsego & Scho.... 

Greene 

Oneida & Herk.. 



Bedlington Patent 

Beekman's Patent 

Beekmantown Patent.. 

Belvidere Patent 

Bishop's Patent 

Bleecker's Patent 

Blenheim Patent 

Bradshaw's Patent 

Bradt's Patent 



Delaware 

Dutchess 

Clinton 

Otsego & Scho 

Hamilton 

Montgomery . 

Schoharie 

Washington .. 
Schenectady .. 



Buffington Patent Schoharie.... 

Burnetsfield Patent , Herkimer ... 

Cambridge Patent , ..[Washington 

Campbell's Patent,. T . I Essex 

" Hamilton... 

Catskill Patent 

Caughnawaga Patent 

Clarke's Patent 

Claus's Patent 

Caterskill Patent 

Cheesecoek's Patent 

Cherry Valley Patent 

Clifton Park Patent 

Cobus Kill Patent 

Corry's Patent 

Cosby's Manor 

Cosby's Patent 

Coxburgh & Carolina 

Coxe's Patent 



Date. 



May 

April 

May 

March 

N'ov. 

Oct. 

May 

June 

Feb. 

March 

April 

April 

June 



Croghan's Patent 

Dartmouth Patent... 

Dean's Patent 

De Bernier's Patent.. 
De Lancey's Patent.. 

Edrneston's Patent... 



Franklin Patent.. 



March 

May 

June 

March 

July 

April 

Sept. 

Nov. 

May 

Feb. 

Dec. 

July 

April 

July 

July 

April 

July 

Nov. 

May 

Sept. 

Nov. 

March 

April 

Sept. 

Jan. 

Nov. 

June 

Feb. 

May 

May 

Jan. 

June 

Oct. 

July 

May 

Nov. 

Aug. 

July 

July 

Otsego I June 



Extent 
in Acres. 



Greene 

Montgomery 

Delaware 

Fulton 

Greene 

Orange 

Otsego 

Saratoga 

Schoharie 

Mont. & Scho 

Oneida & Herk... 

Schenectady 

Oneida 



Otsego 

Hamilton 

Clinton 

Delaware 

Montgomery 



Otsego. 



8. 1770 

6. 1774 

11. 1762 
\i. 1764 
12, 1737 
24,1764 
22, 1770 
17, 1737 

9, 1S38 

6. 1775 

14. 1753 
24,1736 

12, 1771 

19. 1754 
24, 1770 
25, 1703 
27, 1769 

6, 1769 

6. 1774 
22, 1729 

28. 1769 
18, 1762 
14, 17 38 

16. 1737 

13. 1770 
30, 1725 
21, 1761 
11, 1764 

5. 1784 
11, 1767 

4, 1714 
22, 1770 
29, 1770 

1, 1695 
25, 1707 

18. 1738 
2.3, 1708 
15, 1770 
19, 1737 

2,1734 

9, 1738 

30, 1770 

30, 1770 

5. 1775 
29, 1770 

4, 1774 

11. 1769 

22. 1770 
12, 1737 

23, 1737 
21, 1770 

20. 1770 
20, 1770 



26,000 

40,000 

10.000 

47,450 

10.000 

24,000 

2.00(1 

4,000 

6,000 

5,000 

4,000 

4,200 

50,000 

6,000 
27,000 



30.000 
Ion. i 

14.000 
4.300 

40,000 

23,000 
4,000 
3,870 
4,000 
9,400 

31,500 
5,000 
4,000 

35,500 
2.000 
2,000 
3,000 



7,050 



40,000 

25,000 

22,000 

6,000 

47.000 

29.000 

18.000 

18.036 

30,000 

2,000 

10.000 

5,426 

5,000 

6,000 

9,000 



Patentees. 



Sir William Johnson and others. 

Sir JerTery Amherst, (2 tracts.) 

R. J. F. & W. Schermerhorn and others. 

Duncan Reid and others. 

James De Lancey. 

Joseph Walton and others. 

Charles Babington. 

Timothy Bagley and others. 

Henry Balfour, (Totten &. Crossfield's Pur.) 

Goldsbrow Banyar and others. 

Vincent Matthews and others. 

Wm. & Rob. Bayard and others, (Freemasons' 

Patent.) 
Johannes Becker and others. 
John Leake and others. 
Henry Beekman. 
William H. Beekman. 
George Crcghan and others, (2 tracts.) 
Wm. Bishop. (T. & C. Pnr.) 
Rutger Bleecker and others. 
John Weatherhead and others. 
James Bradshaw. 
Krent Bradt and others. 

u a a 

David Buffington. 

John Joost Petrie and others, (German Flats.) 

Colden, Smith, Banyar, and others. 

Allen Campbell. 

Duncan Campbell, (T. & C. Pur.) 

Martin Garretsou Van Bergen and others. 

John & Margaret Collins. 

James Clarke. 

Daniel Claus. 

Jacob Lockerman. 

Ann Bridges and others. 

John Lindsey and others. 

N. Hermanseand others, (Shenondehowa Pat.) 

Stephen Skinner and others. 

Wm. Corry and others. 

Joseph Worrell and others. 

Alex., Ph. & Wm. Cosby. 

Daniel Coxe and others, (s. w. of Mohawk.) 
" " " (e. of Susquehanna.) 

Geo. Croghan and others, (s. of Mohawk.) 

Jeremiah Van Rensselaer. 

Elkanah Dean. 

John De Bernier. 

James De Lancey and others, (s. of Mohawk.) 
" " " (n. of Mohawk.) 

Robert Edmeston. 

William Edmeston. 

Walter Franklin and others. 



50 



XEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



XA>!B OF PATENT. 



County. 



Franklin Township Delaware.., 

Prank's Patent Herkimer.. 

Prazer's Patent (Greene 

un'a Pal Tit 

I riswell's Patent 

- Fat- ut 

Glazier's Patent 

Glen's Purchase 

>',, 11-1. >n nigh Township 

iwich Patent 

Go irin's Patent 

Half Hood Patent 

Hanson's Patent 

II mlenburgh Patent 

Harper's Patent 

Harrison's Patent ... 



Date. 



 ick Patent 

Hasenclever's Patent., 

Henderson's Patent 

Herkimer's Patent 

Holland Patent 



Hnntersfield Patent.... 

Hurley Patent 

Hnyk Patent 

Hyde Township 

toby's Patent 

.T.|— vri'i 1 Patent 

Jessnp's Purchase 



Johnson's Patent 

Judd's Patent 

Kakiate Patent 

ras Patent.... 

- Patent 

Kempe's Patent 

ly*8 Patent 



Kinderhook Patent 

Klngsborougfa Patent. 

■t 

■li-ld Manor" 

Kl ck's Patent 

Kortright Patent 

ng's Patent 

•r's Patent 



Patent 

' nt 

- Patent. 



ley A Livingston's Patent. 

ird'« I' tent 

tent 



Schenectady- 
Clinton 

Oneida 

Schoharie 

Saratoga 

Delaware 

Essex 

Washington . 
Montgomery 
Saratoga 



Delaware & SttlL 

Delaware 

Montgomery 



Otsego 

Herkimer., 



Oneida. 

Rens. & Wash 

Schoharie 

Ulster 

Columbia 

Warren 

Schenectady 

Herkimer & Fult 
Warren 



Herkimer 



Rockland 

Saratoga & War. 

Essex 

Washington 

Esses 

Warren 

Columbia 

Pulton 

Washington 



Montgomery . 

Delaware 

Herkimer 

Schoharie 



Delaware . 
Essex 

' >!-• '_ r " 



nerkimer 

Otsego 

nerk. k Mont.. 

Fulton & Sara.. 

Patent Fulton 

I.u Bow's Patent Orange.. 

it Herkimer 

'• I Montgomery ... 

McCullock'i Patent Washington ... 

Mcintosh's Patent Essex 

McKee's Patent Delaware 



tent Fulton 

tent 

Il'-rkirner 

Matrin'« Patent Pulton 

Markka • Hamilton 

Matthew*'* Patent Greene 

U'i Patent Washington 

Mawighunk Patent Oolumbu 

Pulton A Ham. 

W a.-limgton.... 



Middl.fi.MI '■•  Otongo 

Mi. Ml. I I ..-- 

Pull. 4 Orange. 

Montr • ffenrr 

r*a Patent- Washington 

•nt Montgomery 



" " Schoharie 

" " Montgomery... 

" " OtaegO 

Mnnroe'l Patent Washington... 

Nestigionc Patent SaraU g I 

Nr-ttl. field Patent Otsego. 



Feb. 
Sept. 
June 
.lulv 
May 
July 
Sept. 
Aug. 
June 
\n-. 
Nov. 
Aug. 
Oct. 
July 
April 
Dec. 
Oct. 
March 
April 
Feb. 

April 

March 

June 

Nov. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Sept. 

July 

April 

March 

April 

& pt. 

April 

Juue 

Not. 

Aug. 

May 

Aug. 

Aug. 

March 

June 

May 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Feb. 

June 

Dec. 

Feb. 

Aug. 

May 

June 

Aug. 

Aug. 

Oct. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Peb. 

Nov. 
Sept. 
Oct 

Jan. 
Aug. 

May 

Aug. 
Jan. 

.\pril 

a pt 

April 

Aug. 

March 

April 

April 

March 

An -. 
Juno 
Sept 

April 
Peb. 

Aug. 
June 
Oct. 

... | 

Juno 
Hay 



Bent 

April 

March 



20. 1770 
6, 17';:. 

17. 17i'..-> 

3. 1736 

7. 1765 

0. 17ii'.l 

10. 177 
24. 1770 

15, 1770 
17. 1764 

11, 1763 
29, 1735 
13, 1665 
17, 1713 

20, 1708 

5, 1709 

11, 1735 
1». 1722 

22, 1761 
27. 17i0 

1739 

13. 1752 

17. 1769 
3, 1688 
3, 1714 

19, 1708 
6, 1731 
10, 1774 
20, 173' 

12. 1770 

21, 1768 

10, 1772 

27. 1765 

16, 1765 
2.*>. 1 i'.'.'o 

2, 1708 
7, 1764 
3,1764 
7.1764 
26, 1774 

14. 1686 
23, 1753 
18, 1762 
12, 1695 
21, 1754 
24, 1770 
23. 1753 
29, 1768 

6, 1753 

14. 1761 
22, 1770 
26, 1769 
18, 1738 
18, 1738 

7, 1741 
24. 173H 

6, 1770 

10. 1762 
8, 1760 

16, 1761 

18, 1731 
2. 17.'. I 

12. 1786 

8, L76fi 

7, 1766 
16, 1770 

80, 1770 
29, 177o 

6, 1769 
1.-.. 1701 

81, I7i.l 
5. 1774 

24. 1786 

7. 1771 

1. L748 
2:.. 170:; 

11. 171.1 

18, 17..1 
24, 177ii 

28, 1704 
B, 1766 

28, 1766 

23. 1722 
80, 1728 

21. 17 'JO 

(4 (4 

1769 
23. 1704 

22, 1708 

.'11.1770 



Extent 
in Acres. 



30. 

5,000 
2.000 
5,000 

3.1 101 1 
is. 1 

3.000 
4:,. 1 

O.ooo 

3,000 
lo. 

4.000 



2. 



22.000 
4.000 

12.' 

21.500 

18.000 
6,000 
2,324 

20,000 



10,000 



6,000 
40.000 
10,000 
94.000 
11.650 

2.000 

2. 

2,000 



2.000 

10.200 

2.000 

2,000 



•j, 1.001 1 
26,000 

16.000 

22.000 
6,000 

36,600 
2.640 
7.000 
5.000 
5,000 
7,050 
1.965 
2.000 
3.000 
'.'. 

20,000 
4.000 

20. 

4. 1 

2o. 

2.000 
4.000 
3.000 

lo. 

18,000 
3.000 

5,928 

4.i 

6.000 
6.000 
4.200 
6,000 



2,000 

29,000 

6.000 



.-..000 
2,000 
6.000 
6.000 
8,600 
2.000 



2,000 

13"000 



Patentees. 



Thomas 'Wharton and others. 

Coenradt Frank and others. 

Hugh Frazer. 

Thomas Freeman. 

John Friswell. 

Thomas Gage. 

Beamsley Glazier. 

John Glen,. jr. 

Edward Tudor and others. 

Robert Grant. 

Donald Campbell. 

Maynard & Elizabeth Guerin. 

Petersen Philip Schuyler and other?. 

Hendrick Hausen and others. 

Johannes Hardenburgh and others. 

John Harper, jr. 

Edward Harrison and others. 

Francis Harrison and others. 

Christian John Hartwick. 

Peter Hasenclever. 

James Henderson aDd others. 

Joost Johan Herkimer and others. 

Lord Henry Holland. 

Maria Yan Rensselaer and others. 

Myndert Schuyler and others, (Schoharie Pat.) 

Cornelius Cool and others. 

Burgar Huyk. 

Edward Jessup & C. Hyde. 

Geo. Ingoldsby and others. 

Henry Glen and others. 

Ebenezer Jessup and others, (2 tracts.) 

a K ii 

Guy Johnson. 

James Judd. 

Daniel Honan and others, (Yachtaucke.) 

Manning Hermanso and others, (Queensboro.) 

Roger Kellet. 

John Tabor Kempe. 

John Kennedy. 

Robert Kennedy. 

John Hendrik De Bruyn and others. 

Arent Stevens and others. 

James Bradshaw and other6. 

George Klock and others. 
Lawrence Kortright. 
Jacob Lansing and others. 
Johannes Lawyer and others. 



Robert Leake. 
Francis Legge. 
John Lindsley and others. 



John Lindsley & Ph. Livingston. 
Leonard Lispenard and others. 
Philip Livingston and others. 

a u a 

Abraham Lott, jr., and others. 
Gabrii 1 Ludlow. 
John Lyne and others. 

ii « it 

Nathaniel McCullock, (2 tracts.) 
Alexander Mcintosh. 
Alexander M.Keo and others. 
u a u 

Norman Mrl. 1. 

John Mi A. ii. . 

u it 

Sarah Magin and others. 

William Markliam. 

Vincent Matthews and others, (3 tracts.) 

John MaunselL 

Stephen Bayard and others. 

ndi 1 Mi nzies. 
'I nomas Menzies. 
Godfrey Miller and others. 
I'.ter Slid. II. ton. 
Matthew Fine; and others. 
John Montresoi and others. 
David Mooney. 
Lewis Morris and others. 

a K ft ft 

" " Jr. and others. 

U a ({ a 

Btaats Ixmg Morris. 
Harry Munroe. 
John Kopje and others. 
Richard Loudon and others. 



« Twenty-four miles above Schenectady. 



LANDS. 



51 



NAME OF PATENT. 



County. 



Nine Partners (Great, or Lower) Dutchess 

" " (Little, or Upper) 
Northampton Patent 



Oblong Patent 

Oothoudt's Patent., 

Onl's Patent 

Oriskany Patent 

Otsego Patent , 



Otsquaga Patent.. 
Palmer's Patent.. 

Panton Tract 

Pinefield Patent.. 
Preston Patent.... 
Prevost Patent 



Fulton 

W. Chester, Put. 
& Dutch. 

Otsego 

Essex 

Oneida 

Otsego 



Date. 



Montgomery. 

Richmond 

Warren. 

Delaware 

Hamilton. 

Greene , 



Provincial Patent 

Queensbury Patent 

Rhinebeck Patent 

Rightmeyer's Patent 

Roberts's Patent 

Rochester Patent 

Ross's Patent 

Royal Grant 

Rumbout's Patent 

Sacondaga Patent 

Sadachqueda or Saghquate Patent., 

Salem Patent 

Saratoga Patent 

Sawyer's Patent 

Schaghticoke 

Sehermerhorn's Patent 

Schneider's Patent 



Delaware., 
Orange 



Schuyler's Patent.. 
Schuyler's Patent., 



Scott's Patent 

Seaton's Patent 

Servis's Patent 

Sherriff's Patent 

Skeenesboro' Patent.... 

Skeene's Patent 

Skeene's Little Patent.. 

Skinner's Patent 

Small's Patent 

Spaight's Patent 

Spornheyer's Patent.... 

Springfield Patent 

Staley's Patents 

Starnberg's Patent 



Steward's Patent. 
Stewart's Patent.. 



Stone Arabia Patent... 

Stone Heap Patent 

Stony Hill Tract 

Stony Point Tract 

Stoughton's Patent 

Strasburgh Township. 

Stringer's Patent 

Sutherland's Patent.... 



Warren 

Dutchess 

Scho. & Greene. 

Fulton 

Ulster 

Essex 

Herkimer...- 

Dutchess 

Fulton & Ham.., 

Oneida 

Washington 

Wash. & Sara.... 
Wash. & Sara... 

Wash & Rens 

Washington , 



Jan. 

April 

Feb. 

Nov. 

Sept. 



May 27, 1697 
April 10, 1706 
Oct. 17, 1741 
1 Juno 8, 1731, 
J met seq. 
Aug. 18, 1741 
SI, 1775 
18, 1705 
3, 1770 
30, 1709 
22, 1729 
March 81, 1687 
Oct. 18. 1775 
June 22, 1775 
June 27, 1770 
Aug. 15, 1765 
March 10, 1768 
1770 
18, 1775 
2,1764 
20, 1762 
8, 1703 
6, 1754 
29, 1770 
25, 1703 
16, 1765 



Extent 

I II ii'-,-' X. 



Jan. 
May 

May 
June 
May 
Sept. 
June 
April 



Rensselaer 

Herk. & Oneida. 

Wash. & Rens 

Otsego 

Washington 

Rensselaer 

Schoharie 

Greene 

Oneida 

Warren 

Washington 

Essex 

Washington 

Schoharie 

Essex - 



Schoharie.. 

Otsego 

Herkimer. 

Schoharie.. 



Oct. 

Dec. 

June 

Aug. 

Nov. 

Oct. 

July 

May 

Aug. 



7, 1685 

2, 1741 

25, 1736 

7,1764 

4, 1684 

29, 1708 

23, 1761 

11, 1762 

23, 1764 

March 24, 1762 

1755 

19. 1737 

3, 1755 
IS, 1740 
29, 1737 

2, 1770 

18, 1767 

28, 1769 

18, 1775 

March 31, 1765 

July 30, 1771 

6, 1771 
15, 1770 

6, 1774 

6, 1767 
23, 1764 

4, 1741 
14, 1755 
30, 1769 



May 

June 

July 

July 

Jan. 

July 

Feb. 

Oct. 



July 
Jan. 
April 

Nov. 
Aug. 
Nov. 
June 

Sept. 



March 19, 1759 



Swallowfield Patent 

Ten Eyck's Patent 

Timberman's Patent 

Totten & Crossfield's Purchase"..../ 

Turloch Patent 

Upton's Patent 

Van Bergen's Patent 

Van Dam's Patent 

Van Rensselaer Patent 

Van Slyck's Patent 

Vaughan's Patent 

Wallace Patent 

Walloomsac Patent 

Walter's Patent 

Walton's Patent 



Clinton 

Hamilton 

Greene 

Mont.A Fult 

Mont. & Scho 

Schoharie 

It Oakland 

Essex 

Delaware 

Schoharie 

Washington 

Essex 

Westchester 

Schoharie 

Herkimer 

Herk. Ham.Es- ) 
sex, Warren, j 

Schoharie 

Otsego 

Greene 

Orange 

Sara. & Fult 

Montgomery 

Herkimer 

Hamilton 

Washington 

Westchester 

Herkimer _. 

Delaware 



May 
May 
Sept. 
Oct. 
'ept. 



7, 1765 

27, 1755 

7, 1771 

19, 1723 

15. 1770 

March 25, 1768 

July 13, 174: 

25, 1764 

4, 1770 
12, 1769 

5, 1764 
7. 1764 

22. 1708 
30, 1739 
30, 1755 



July 
Dec. 
Jan. 

Sept. 

Aug. 

April 

May 

May 



Feb. 

March 
July 



21, 1752 

8, 1770 

11, 1767 



March 23, 1709 



Oct. 
>ept. 
April 
April 
June 
Feb. 
Aug. 



4, 1774 

1, 1716 

24, 1770 

11, 1770 
15, 1739 
14, 1701 

12, 1768 



March 15, 1770 



6,000 
50,000 

13,000 

5,000 



69 0(H) 

100.000 

4,300 

5.100 

2.000 

30.(100 

14,000 

5,000 

5,000 



Patentees. 



5,000 
26,000 
23,000 



8,000 
2,000 

2,000 
93,000 

28,000 

6,000 

25,000 



61,000 

10,000 

2,000 

10,000 

43.000 

11,250 

43,000 

12.000 

2.000 

42,500 

3,000 

25.000 

4,000 

25.000 

3,000 

9,000 

40,000 

5.000 

2,000 

2.000 

17,000 

34,000 

3,000 

3.000 

2,000 

24,000 

2.000 

12.700 

15,500 

18,000 



2,000 
37.000 
2,000 
2.000 
3.000 
7,630 
3.500 
3.000 



18,000 

20,000 

35.500 

3,000 

28.964 

2,000 

8,000 

6,365 

12,000 

5,000 

12.000 

20,000 



Caleb Heathcote and others. 
Sampson Boughton and others. 
Jacob Mase and others. 

Thomas Hawley and others. 

Volkert Oothoudt and others. 
Thomas ()rd. 

Thomas Wenham and others. 
Charles Read and others. 

Geo. Croghan and 99 others. 
Rntger Bleecker and others. 
fapt. John Palmer. 
Francis Panton. 
John Rapalje and others. 
Achilles Preston and others. 
Augustine Prevost. 



James Prevost. 

William Cockroft and others. 

Daniel Prindle and others. 

Henry Beekman. 

Ury Rightmeyer and others. 

Benjamin Roberts. 

James Ross. 

Sir John Johnson. 

Francis Rumbout. 

Lendert Gansevoort and others. 

Frederick Morris and others. 

Alexander and James Turner and others. 

Peter Schuyler and others. 

Isaac Sawyer. 

Cornelius Van Dyck and others. 

Ryer Schermerhorn. 

George Schneider. 

Hendrick Schneider. 

David Schuyler and others. 

Abm. David Schuyler and others 

David Schuyler and others. 

John Schuyler and others. 

John Morin Scott and others. 

Sir Henry Seaton. 

Peter Servis and others. 

Charles Sherriff. 

Philip Skeene and others. 

Philip Skeene. 

Stephen Skinner and others. 

John Small. 

William Spaight. 

Ernst William Spornheyer and others. 

John Groesbeck and others. 

Rudolph Staley and others. 

Jacob Starnberg and others. 

Lambert Starnberg and others. 

Peter Steward. 

James Stewart and others. 

Walter Stewart. 

John Chr. Garlock and others. 

John Bowen and others. 

Michael Byrne and others. 

Richard Bradley and others. 

John Stoughton. 

John Butler and others. 

Samuel Stringer. 

Erick Sutherland. 

Nicholas Sutherland. 

George Booth. 

Hendrick Jacob Ten Eyck and others. 

Jacob Timberman and others. 



Jacob Borst and others. 

Clotworthy Upton and others. 

Martin Garretson Van Bergen and others. 

Rip Van Dam. 

Jeremiah Van Rensselaer. 

Harman Van Slyck. 

John Vaughan and others. 

Hugh Wallace and others. 

Edward Collins and others. 

Robert Walters. 

William Walton and others. 



 This tract, embracing 50 townships, was surveyed just be- 
fore the Revolution, but small portions only were granted until 
after the war. Among those who received patents for large 
portions after that period were Robert G. Livingston, Isaac Nor- 
ton, John G. Leake, Abijah Hammond, Frederick Rylander, 
Philip Livingston, John Tharman, Jacob Watson, Alexander 



Macomb, Ph. Rockafeller. 'White Matlack, Enos Mead, Zephaniah 
Piatt, Goldsbrow Banyar, Peter V. B. Livingston, Joshua Mer- 
sereau, Jonathan Lawrence, Thomas Franklin, Effingham Law. 
rence, Stephen Crossfield, and others. Extensive tracts hav« 
been repeatedly sold for taxes. 



52 



NE\Y YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Name of Patent. 


County. 


Dot?. 


Extent 
in Acres. 


Patentees. 






March 2, 1775 
April 29,1703 
Aug. 4, 1743 
Feb. 18, 1775 
April 15, 1705 
March 10, ITTu 
Oct. fi. 1741 
Oct. 10. 1741 
Aug. 29,1735 
Aug. 29. 1735 
Nov. 12, 1731 
Feb. 18, 1775 
Oct. 11. 1752 
Aug. 25, 1752 


2,000 

4,880 

3.000 
3,000 

38.000 
2.000 
4,000 

14.000 
2.000 
2.000 
3.000 

20.000 

14.000 


John Watkins 

Dr. John Bridges. 

William and Stephen Bayard. 

Archibald Weir and others. 

John Wharton. 

Henry White and others. 

Peter Wlnne. 

IVtcr Winno and others. 

Charles Williams and others. 

Anne Wilmot. 

Hartman Windeeker. 

Daniel Wriesberg. 

Frederick Young. 

Theobald Young and others. 














Herkimer -. 

Montgomery 

u 

it 

cc 

Essex 

Otsego & Scho 


c< 




Wilmot Patent - 






II CI 



SUBDIVISION'S OF THE MASSACHUSETTS PURCHASE 
Of about 6,000,000 acres of Lands ceded to Massachusetts by the State of JVew Tori: at the Hartford Convention, Dec. 16, 1786. 



Tracts. 



Phelps and Gorham a . 



Morris Reserve 

Triangular Tract 

Connecticut Tract 6 

Cragie Tract 

n Tra^t 

IOT Tract 

forty Thousand Acre Tract 

Bterritt Tract 

Church Tract 

Mi rris Honorary Creditors' Tract. 
IL Hand Co.'s Purchase 



T<>n Towns., 



Parties. 



Massachusetts to Phelps and Gorham... 



" to Robert Morris 

Morris to Le Roy, Bayard. & McEvers. 

" Watson, Cragie, & Greenleaf. 

" Andrew Cragie 

" Samuel Ogden 

" Gerrit Cottinger 

" Wilhelm and Jan Willink 

" Samuel Sterritt 

" John B. Church 

" Creditors 

" Agents of Holland Co 



Massachusetts to Settlers Nov. 7, 17S7 



Date. 



Nov. 21,1788 


2,600,000 


May 11, 1791 


500.000 




87,000 




100,000 




50,000 




50,000 




50,000 




40,000 




150.000 




100,000 




58,570 


1792-93 


3,600,000 



Acres. 



230.400 



Counties. 



Allegany, Livingston, 
Monroe, Ontario, 
Schuyler, Steuben, 
Wayne, and Yates. 

Allegany. 

Monroe. 

Orleans and Genesee. 

Genesee. 

Wyoming. 

Wyoming and Allegany, 

Wyoming & Livingston, 

Allegany. 

Allegany. 

Allegany & Livingston. 

Chautauqua, Cattarau- 
gus, Allegany, Wyo- 
ming, Erie. Genesee, 
Orleans, and Niagara. 

Broome and Tioga. 



« Phelps and Gorham originally contracted for the whole tract at 51,000.000, payable in a kind of scrip called " Consolidated 
Securities.'' then much below par. A rise to par prevented them from fulfilling the agreement. 

1 In 1801, conveyed in undivided halves to the State of Conn, and Sir Wm. Pultency, the former using part of her School Fund 
in the purchase. Divided by alternate lots in 1811. 
•Conveyed in four tracts to the agents of the Holland Co.: viz., 1,500,000, Dec. 24, 1792. to Le Roy and Lincklaen; 1.000,000 
27, 1793, to Le Roy, Lincklaen, and Boon; 800,000, July 20, 1793, to the same; and 300,000, same date, to Le Roy, Bayard, 
I iarkson. 

SUBDIVISION OF MACOMB'S GREAT PURCHASE 

In Franklin, St. Lavircnce, Jefferson, Lewis, Oswego, and Herkimer Counties. 



Tracts. 



Great Tract No. 1 

-. . 
« " :■.. 

« <( ; 

a 

" " 6_ 



Bemaind r. 



ChamanH Tr ici 

Black Riv.-r Tract ... 

. Tr let 

Brantinch.'im Tnvt. 

• 

BUistrargh - 

[on in'i Triangle.... 

Watson's Tr 



Patentees. 



Daniel McCormick., 



Alexander Macomb. 



Purchasers. 

Pierre Ohassanle ft Co 

f ii'n r i - .ii . ii' Email, i 
l l>.w. ft Henderson-. J 

Samuel Ward 

Win. Inm.iii 

.i mi. - Constable 

' Ellis 

Win. Innvin , 

ii 



Date 
of Patent. 



May 17,179s 
May 17, 1798 
March 3,1795 

Jan. 10, 1792 

Date of Pur- 

chasr. 
April 12, 1793 

July 16, 1795 

D . 11,1792 
Feb. 20, 1793 



■.It'!. 22,1797 
Feb. 20,1798 

April — . 1700 



Acres. 



821.879 
553,020 
640,000 

r 4.-,ii.o.-.o 

26,250") 
! 74.400 V 
[1,368,400 J 



210,000 

2!mi.:;70 

817.155 

71. too 



52>:;l 
26,000 
61,433 



Pcmarks. 



Twenty-seven towns, Franklin co. 
Eighteen towns, St. Lawrence co. 
Fifteen " " " 

Antwerp and Jefferson cos. 

Jefferson, Lewis, Oswego, and Herkimer cos. 



Jefferson and Lewis cos. 



ii. Oswego, and Lewis, 13 towns. 
Qreig, Lewis co. 
Fivo towns, Lewis co. 
Lewis co. 

Leyden and Lewis, Lewis co. 
Lewis co. 



Chcnanrjo Twenty Townships. 



Tp. 


Acres. 


1 


87487 


2 




8 


24,624 


4 


24^00 


6 




6 




7 


24.186 


- 




9 




10 


ji.>. 






.Inn" Ii. 1793 
April 1 



March 2, 1793 

1. 17''3 
April I 

Jan. 13. 1788 



Fotfntca. 



Alexander Wi 
William B. Smith. 



Them. Ludlow, jr. 

• i Livingston. 
William 8. Smith. 
.. u 

.T-iVi"-* Tahn i 



Tp. 

11 


A'TCS. 




12 


24485 


13 




14 


26,030 


15 


26,836 


16 


18,718 


17 




18 


22,668 


19 


20,760 


80 





Dal  



Jan. 28,1793 
April 16,1794 
March 2,1793 
June 1. 1793 

Dec. 20.17:i2 
Feb. 14, 1793 

It <( 

May 3, 1793 



Patentees. 



Leonard 11*. Cutting. 

Wm. Matlock, sr. 

Thos. Ludlow an. I.l. Bhlpperly. 

Leonard M. Cutting. 

John Taylor. 

(I M 

John J. Morgan. 



LANDS. 



53 



Tail; of the Principal Tracts 
Wliich have been granted in small parcels by the Slate, under the Commissioners of the Land Office. 



Name op Tract. 



A.dgate'8 3.000 aero Tract. 

Bedlington Tract 

Benson Township 

Bergen's Purchase 

Black Rock Village 

Brant Lake Tract 

Bristol Tract.. 



Bulwagga Hay Tract., 

Butlers Tract 

Canastota Tract 



Chemung Township 

Chenango Township 

Chenango Twenty Towns 

Clinton Townsliip 

Cookquago Tract 

Cowasselon Tract 

Crum Uorn Mountain Tract 

Delaware Tract 

Essex Tract 

Fayette Township 

Fort Ann Tract 

Fort Covington Tillage 

French Mountain Tract 

Grand Island 

Greene co. Tract 

Greene Township 

Gore. Old Military, and Refugee 

Tract 

Gores, others in great number. 

Hainbden Township 

Hague Tract 

Iron Ore Tract 

Islands in great number. 

Jay Tract 

Lake George Tract 

Lewis (South) Tract 

Lewiston Village 

Long Sault Island 

Luzerne Tract 

Massena Township 

Maul's Patent 



Count' y. 



Essex 

Delaware 

Hamilton 

1 lamill on and Fulton. 

Erie 

Warren 

Schoharie 

Essex 



Delaware. 
Madison... 



Military Tract. 



{ 



Military Tract (Old) 

Moose River Tract 

Niagara River Tract 

North River Head Tract., 
North West, Bay Tract.... 

Oswego Falls Village 

Oswego Village 

Ox Bow Tract 

Palmer's Purchase 

Paradox Tract 

Perou Bay Tract , 

Refugee Tract 

Reservations, Indian : 

Cayuga 

Oneida 



Onondaga .... 

St. Regis 

Stockbridgo.. 



Ronring Brook Tract 

Saddle Mountain Tract.... 
St. Lawrence Ten Towns. 



Schroon Tract 

Sidney Township 

Split Rock Tract 

Stedman Farm 

Trembleau Tract 

Tongue Mountain Tract 

Wairensburgh Tract 

Warren Township 

Watkins and Flint's Purcl ase. 

Westfield Tract 

West of Road Patent 

White Face Mountain Tract.... 



Chemung 

Broome 

Madison, Chenango, Oucida 

Chenango 

Delaware and Broome 

Madison 

Otsego 

Broome 

Essex 

Chenango 

Washington 

Franklin 

Warren 

Erie 

Greene 

Chenango 



Clinton 



Tioga , 

Warren and Essex. 
Essex 



Essex and Clinton 

Warren 

Essex 

Niagara 

St. Lawrence 

Warren 

St. Lawrence 

Essex I 

Cayuga.Cc'rtland, Onondaga, 
Oswego Schuyler, Seneca, 
Tompk.us and Wi tyne. 

Clinton and Franklin 



Hamilton and Herkimer., 

Erie ar.d Niagara 

Essex 

Essex 

Oswego 

Oswego 

Hamilton 

Warren 

Essax 

Essex 

Clinton 



Cayuga and Seneca... 
Oneida and Madison. 



Onondaga . 
Franklin.. 



Essex 

Washington. 
St. Lawrence., 



Essex , 

Broome 

Essex 

Niagara. 

Essex 

Warren 

Warren 

Broome 

Chemung and Schuyler. 
Washington 

Essex 

Essex and Cliuton. 



No. of 



7 

77 

3S3 

13 

233 

254 

62 

4 

7 

91 

205 



144 
25 
79 
19 
248 
100 
33 



48 
117 
108 



68 



62 
234 

160 
93 
33 

421 
38 

173 



107 
140 
133 

52 

304 

"428 
130 



256 



86 
10 mi. 

S,|. 

each 



111 

162 

33 

17 
52 

22 



58 
174 



Remarks. 



West of Perou Bay. 
Escheat of John G. Leake. 
Named from Egbert Benson. 

Part of Niagara Mile Strip. 

Surveyed by Geo. Webster, 1803. 

] Unappropriated lands remaining at closo of IJevolu- 

/ tion. 

Part of liardensburgh Pad nt. 

Gospel and Schools for Chenango Twenty Towns. 

/Laid out in 1788 by Jas. Clinton. J. Hathorn, and J. 

| ('.inline. 

49.710 acres to A. nammond and others. 

Patented separately. See table preceding this. 

Given to the Vermont sufferers. 



Given to schools and literature. 

Town of Windsor. 

Unappropriated lands remaining after Revolution. 

Mile Square Reservation. 

Unappropriated lands remaining after Revolution. 

Given to Canal Fund. 

To Walter Livingston, M. West, and W. Mortis. 

In quarters. 



Robert Morris and Alexander Macomb. 



House, out, and water lota. 



Small tracts upon Military Class rights. 

/ Twenty eight townships — 1,6S0,000 acres to soldiers of 
( the Revolution. 

/Ten townships, 640,000 acres set apart to soldiers, 
\ not conveyed. 

Nine townships, mostly of modern grant. 
Reserved in Massachusetts cession. 



\ Reserved by State in previous grants. 



State, Middle, Rear, and River Lots. 
Named from Paradox Lake. 

131,420 acres to Canada and Nova Scotia refugees. 

West, East, and Residence Tracts, Canoga Reservation, 

Fish Creek, i meida, Castleton, Oneida Creek, Otsequet, 
Pagan Purchase, and Wood Creek Tracts of the pur- 
chases of 1798, 1802, 1815, 1824, 1S26, 1829, 1830, 1834, 
1840, 1S42. 

Various, including plats of Salina, Geddes, Liverpool, 
Lodi, &c. 

Various, including lands at Fort Covington and Ho- 
gansburgh Village. 

Various purchases, including E. Hill Tract of fifty, 
and W. Hill Tract of forty-two lots. 



Sold at auction in quarter and mile squares,, but bid 
in by a small number. Cambray, De Kalli. and 
Hague, each 92,720 acres: Lisbon, Louisville, and 
Stockholm, each a little less, were conveyed to Alex. 
Macomb, Dec. 17, 1787. 



61,440 acres to Robert Harper and others. 



Tables of many small g: ants, tracts, and purchases will be found in the descriptions of the counties in which such lands al- 
located. 




CANALS. 

The Public Canals of the State are made, by the Constitution, 
inalienable. They were first constructed for the purpose of facili- 
tating settlement and of opening an easy means of communication 
between the Atlantic and the great lakes. The canals are under 
the care of several State officers, the powers and duties of whom 
are as follows: — 

The Canal Commissioners, three in number, are elected 
one each year and hold office for three years. They have the imme- 
diate supervision and management of the construction and repairs 
of canals, and are ex officio members of the Canal and Contracting 
Boards. They have their office in the State Hall, and report annually 
to the Legislature. The canals have three general divisions, each of which is under the special 
charge of a commissioner. 1 

The Slate Engineer and Surveyor has general charge of the engineering department 
of the cinals, and is a member of the Canal and Contracting Boards. lie has an office in the State 
Hall, ani reports annually to the Legislature. 2 

The Canal Board consists of the Commissioners of the Canal Fund, the State Engineer, 

and the Canal Commissioners. It meets, during the session of the Legislature, at the office of the 

Canal Department, fixes the rates of toll, appoints collectors of tolls, their assistants and weigh- 

lirects extraordinary repairs; hears appeals from the Canal Appraisers, remits penalties, 

and regulates the police of the canals. 3 

The Auditor of the Canal Department draws warrants on the Treasurer for all 
canal payments, audits accounts, instructs collecting and disbursing officers, and keeps account of 
canal receipts and expenditures. He is ex officio Secretary of the Commissioners of the Canal 
Fund and of the Canal Board, and a member of the Contracting Board. His office, known as the 
al Department," is in the State Hall at Albany. 
The Canal Appraisers, three in number, are appointed one each year, and hold office for 
three years. They appraise all damages arising from the canals, whether temporary or permanent 
in their nature. They have an office in the State Hall. 

The Contracting' Board consists of the State Engineer, the Auditor of the Canal Depart- 
ment, and the Canal "Commissioners. It appoints all division, resident, and first assistant engineer.--. 4 
The Commissioners of the Canal Fund consist of the Lieutenant Governor, Secre- 
tary <>f St . I iptroller, Treasurer, and Attorney General. The Auditor of the Canal Department 
is ex • Seeretary of the Board. They have the general management of the funds and debts of 

the canal. 5 



i t -'m embraces tln> Erie Canal as far 

' lhamplain Canal and Gli as 1 alls 

i roy Dam ■': mill -: Black River 

I and Trni - *8 mill - ; making a total of 815 miles. 

.1 from the b. 

bank line of \\ ayne co., inclnd- 

70 mill - : ' I 'anal. 97 miles; 

' nal. 7 mil - Baldwins- 

ville r Improvement, 20 miles; 

 anal, 
i Ihemnng Canal and 
i dor. 2 miles; Seneca River 
miles. 

' and DansvQle 
 
i Hi ns to thi tii 

. each 
year i i on- 

thcr rlatien relating (■• rail- 
is nre 
 
 tii. tit nre the following subordinate 



In : 
officers — 



1 by 
t Board with ttw Ineer. 

n il- in tlicir 
inently pass over the 
• ire all m i 

M.-ik' iiiil rep ii i- annually 

'II Ill' •■! Ill" I 

I lis Division at 
nd "f the Western Dii iston al Bo hi iter. 

i. 12 in unmtxT. have immediate rliarge of 
n sections under the supervision of resident engineers. 
They are »«e isted by : 
54 



First Assistant Engineers, appointed by the Contracting 

and 
Second A ristant Ei p lintod by Resident Engineers. 

The number of these assistants Is regulated by the amount of 
labor in progn ss. V* relets surveyors, draftsmen, clerks, &c. 
mployed as Hi" Department may r.-.| uii>-. and are ap- 
ted in tii" same mannhr as Second Assistant Engineers. 
No engineer "r other public officer appointed npon the canals, 
<>r .i clerk, foreman, or oversver <.r laborers, is allowed to have 
an interest in the boarding "i laborers, or in furnishing teams, 
materials "i- any other thing i"-! n^ing to himself, for the use 
public. 
i - of wills "ii the Erie, 8 on the Cham- 

plain, 3 "ii Hi"  Seneca & ( ayuga, :; on the 

Chemung, l "ii the Crooked bake, :: on 1 1«<  Chenai 50, 6 on the 
dley, 1 "ii tii" Black liiver, and 1 on the Oneida Lake 
I, There are also 11 1 ollectors. Collectors may 

be removed by the Canal Commissioners or t!io Auditor. 

<Tiii- Board 1 A April 15, 1854, and its powers were 

enlarged and defined Ma} 14,1857. 1 ntilMaj 1,1856 itapj linted 
superintendents of repairs ; but since thai time all repairs are 
made by contract. Repairs were formerly made by laboi 
hired by the day or month, under 1 1 1  - direction  >! superin- 
tendents; bnl in 1867 the Contracting B authorized 
to let the ordinary repairs npon <on tract for a t'-rm <>r years. 
6 Tin' canal fund was derived from the foil wing sourci a : — 
5. Auction duties, (in part.) amounting in 

all to $.Vi92.039.05 

" " Salt duties, am ttinginaUt 2,056,458.06 

In 1835, iIp -• !• venues v I in 

Hi" general fund, by a popular vote of 

68,15 

1S17-2-"' - j r tax, amounting in 

all to 73.509.90 



CANALS. 



55 



Reports are annually made to the Legislature by the heads of the various Canal Departments 
concerning every thing pertaining to the Canal interests. These reports, embodying voluminous 
details and summaries, are printed, and arc easily accessible to all. 1 



Loans for construction, at sundry times, secured 
li\ State stocks. The avails for V.r'm and Cham- 
plain Canals up to Sept. 30, 1858, amounted to S8.271.831.00 

Loans for enlargement, Ac 11,828,000.00 

Loans for deficiencies 10,203,844.10 

Loans for enlargement and completion 10,500,000.00 

Canal revenue certificates 1,512,39 1.75 

Temporary loans .'. 1,700,000.00 

Tolls 64,429.475.41 

Tax ,1844, '45. '46. '47. 1854, '55, '56, '57, '58) 2,936,623,21 

Sale of lands for benefit of canals, viz. : 102.635 
acres in Cattaraugus CO.. given by the Holland 
Land Co. ; 3.000 acros. by John Hornby; 1,000 
acres, by Gideon Granger; Grand Island, 
(17,3S1 1-5 acres,)aud 8 small islands. (502J acres.) 
given by the State for benefit of canals ; and a 
tract of land on Wood Creek, bought with the 

rights of the Western Inland Lock N. Co 107.430.18 

Interest on investment and deposits 3.157.860.60 

Surplus tolls, from lateral canals 1,010.731.43 

Miscellaneous 1,101.123.43 

Total receipts Erie and Champlain Canals 123,043.734.84 

Receipts upon all the State canals 143,607,002.91 

Total payments upon the Erie and Champlain 

Canals 

Total payments upon all the State canals 141,627,S45.85 



The total premiums upon luans amounted to $2,'J.A.7U.12 

The total discount upon loans amounted to 

Special loans were made for mosl of the lateral canals. \ 
tract"! laud from the Onondaga Salt spring- i. -ervation was 
Bold fl rthe h ii 1 lit of tin- i igwi go Canal Final and am rani 
$160,0oo. Stock in the Western Inland Loci Navig 
amounting to $92,000, was canceled for the b in lit of thi canals, 
and the interests of individuals in that wort wi re cane led by 
purchase. The amount appraise I was $152,718.52. 

The Constitution provides Ait. \ II; that, after paying the 

uses of collection, superitit.-iidi'ia-i'. and i -11:11 

of $1,300,000, and after 1855, $1,700,000, shall be appli d annu- 
ally, from the revenues of the canals, to a sinking fund, to pay 
the canal debt. In 1857, the surplus receipts of tolls failed, for 
the first time since 1846, to meet this, and i t I  • 
to raise by direct tax the money required to pay interest on the 
stock. The clause in the Constitution prohibiting th<- creation 
of a debt for any public work, without imposing a direct tax 
for its payment and a submission to the popular vote, was sus- 
pended by an amendment adopted Feb. 14. 1854. to allow of the 
raising of $9,000,000, by the issue of State stock, for the more 
speedy enlargement and completion of the canals. A in. a-ure 
was introduced in the Legislature of 1859, for the loan of a fur- 
ther sum for this obj -et. and the submission of the question to 
the decision of a popular vote. 



1 SUMMARIES OF TIIE PRINCIPAL REPORTS. 

Amount and value of property moved, and miles run, on all the State Canals, since 1835. 





Estimated value op pro- 












Miles run in each tear 




perty TO AND FROM OTHER 












BY ALL THE BOATS. 










Cleared at 




Titalnum- 






.• 


Black Rock, Tona- 


Total value of 


Cleared at New 


Buffalo, 


Cleared at 


6i r of tens 






tt 


WANDA, AND OsWEOO. 


property moved 


York. Albany, 


Black Bock, 


all other offi- 


in*, red on 






K 






on all the car 
nals. 


and West Troy. 


and Tona- 
wanda. 


ces. 


all the ca- 
nals. ' 


Packets. 


Freight 
boats. 


Products 


Merchandise 


1836 
18.37 


coming from. 


going to. 
















$5,493,816 

4.813,626 


$9,723,250 
6,322.751) 


$67,634,343 
55.809,288 








1,310,807 
1,171 - 






825,784.147 


$3,286,128 


S18.650.6iU 


105,050 


6,55 


1838 


6.369.645 


8.657.250 


65,746,559 


33,062,858 


4,854,927 


19.2ov 858 


1,333,011 


400.250 


5,1- 


1839 


7,258,968 


10,259,100 


73,399,764 


40,094.302 


5,222,756 


18,854,427 


1,435,713 


290.1 


5.7 - 


1840 


7,877,358 


7,057,600 


66,403,892 


36.398.039 


6,200,829 


15.204.936 


1.417.646 


258.S80 


5,952 


1841 


11,889.273 


11,174,400 


92.202,929 


56,798,447 


9,607,924 


16,376,503 


1,521,1 '1 


322.860 


7,10 


1842 


9.215,808 


7.218.900 


60,016,608 


32.314.908 


7.541.703 


12,466,736 


1.236.931 


354..00 


6.173,200 


1843 


11.937.943 


13,067.250 


76,276,909 


42,238,488 


9.732.616 


13.288,470 


1,513,439 


381,820 


6,586,700 


1844 


15,875,558 


14.845,250 


90,921,152 


53,142,403 


9.561.146 


15,822,5 I 


1,816,586 


427.740 


7,841,750 


1845 


14,162,239 


17.366,300 


loo.C29.859 


55,453.998 


10,351,749 


19.24s.224 


L".i77.565 


420.540 


7,924,250 


1S40 


20,471.939 


20.415,500 


115,612,109 


64,628,474 


15,819,314 


14815,639 


2,268,662 


414,340 


 j.450 


1847 


32.666.324 


27.298.800 


151,563,4 18 


77,878,766 


28,503,745 


23.5 1 


2.869.810 


443,080 


11,733,250 


1848 


23.245.353 


30,553,920 


140,086,157 


77,477,781 


19.621.700 


11,544.421 


2,796,230 


512.300 


9,633,85 I 


1849 


26.713,796 


31,793,400 


144,732,285 


78,481,941 


20.647.5G2 


22,238 "1" 


2,894,732 


305.760 


10,1 53.350 


1850 


25.539.605 


41.272.491 


156.397,929 


74.826.999 


20,991.462 


31,335,526 


3.076.617 


343.475 


10.718.100 


1851 


27.O07.142 


63.659.440 


159,881,801 


80,739,899 


24,543,286 


31,784.847 


3,582,733 


206,150 


11,92 


1852 


37,041,380 


79,127,640 


196.603,517 


121,087.312 


25.674.776 


22.219.056 


3.863,441 


71.725 


12,306,950 


185 1 


42.367.5114 


94,230,720 


207,179,570 


116,185,331 


28,866,951 


27,629,827 


4,247,852 


46,650 


12,327,050 


1854 


39.346.283 


83.476.410 


210,284,312 


116.772.966 


29,745.555 


30,613,260 


4.165.862 


24.075 


11,244.200 


1855 


43,555,243 


79.879,680 


2t 14.390.147 


llo.443.863 


31.403.640 


24.006,992 


4,022,617 


2s.s75 


9,671.450 


1K56 


38,043.813 


60,064,680 


218.327,062 


134,131,707 


22,873,866 


21,749,502 


4,116,082 


21.175 




1857 


26.466.121 


42,525,360 


136.997.018 


71.016.241 


17.567,181 


15.470.217 


3,344,061 


16,950 


7.:;:4.S50| 




36,182,405 


27,680,400 


138,568,844 


57,983,123 


25,039,901 


20,570. :,77 


3,665,192 


18,725 


7,886,100) 


Tot. 


$513,541,202 


$793,670,521 


$2,929,665,482 


#1.559.962,083 


$377,659,507 


$451,519,063 


59,647,996 


5,746,220 


191 739.630 ! 



Total amount per cent., and averages of different classes. 



\ 

Classes. 










Averages for periods of Seven Years. 


Years. 


OF EACH. 


From 1836 to 1842. 


From 1S43 to 1849. 


From 1850 to 1 i 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Vutw. 


Products of forest 

Manufactures 

M >rchandise 

Other articles 

Total 


24.516.913 

17,238.941 

4,086,894 

5,233,933 

8,571,265 


$207,472,053 
321.768.110 
167.860.314 

1,594,938,801 
137,726,204 


41.11 

28.89 

6.85 

8.78 

14.37 


7.68 

28.05 

5.7-. 

54.41 

4.70 


634 022 
■:i 6,004 
101,610 
119,108 
184,992 


$7,133,875 

18,400,404 

5,750,494 

34.687,389 

2.772.607 


947.120 
765,948 
165,912 
189,170 
237,139 


$7,200,900 
36,326,16 

6,825,363 
61,888,015 

4,876,878 


1,549,378 

1,098,28 ' 

240,790 

380.654 


$12,619,591 
51,083,488 

ni.- 

9.007.96 


59.647,946 


$2,929,765,482 


loo.oo 


100.00 


1,346 636 


$68,744,769 


2,305,289 


$117,117,411 


3,867,886 


$193,294,91 5 



56 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Tolls collected at each office on the New York State Canals, from 1825 to 1858, 


both inclusive. 


Offices. 


1825. 


1830. 


1835. 


1840. 


1S45. 


1850. 


1855. 


1856. 


1858. 


A\ . -t Tr.v 












$285,595 

312,654 

315,042 

9.312 

10,227 

9.382 

55,51 1 

46,288 

78,095 


$245,124 
253,234 
301.262 

21.705 
5.222 
5.967 

41. Si is 

02,427 
48.233 
55.470 
37,S30 

10.553 

19.594 

101,087 

6.304 

25.S99 

14.308 

23.467 

23.685 

97.679 

755.575 

8.556 

9.164 

10.568 

54.367 

21.184 

22.922 

271.159 

14.317 

27,765 


$290,280 

116.973 

349.517 

9.473 

5.015 

5,349 

37.159 

4ii.9or, 

35.162 

65.378 

29.740 

10.172 

12.357 

88.130 

18,180 

3.132 

9,556 

14.015 

34.901 

22.145 

783.906 

3,737 

8,806 

12.030 

55,364 

20.412 

22.241 

406.813 

13.399 

21.669 

13.079 

13,765 

30.272 

44,610 

3,238 

15,827 

5,658 

2.312 

8.033 

4,934 

15.542 

5.231 

11/290 

9.235 

18,664 

605 


$78,921 

67.965 

110.837 

5.173 

4.643 

5.028 

26.720 

31.638 

31,292 

38,4 4 

18.821 

O.S'JS 

14.994 
86.204 
101.171 
14378 
16,296 
30,503 
30,291 


$120,652 
37.181 

2.-.-19 
""fi'.Vit 

46&02 
21,060 

35,349 


$212,045 

124.793 

37,806 


5357,595 

153.402 
64,973 


(295,563 
186,947 

23,670 
10,778 
16,505 

42,606 

69,384 


$340,667 

386,916 

9.544 

17,653 

13.389 

63,5 7 

55.997 

119,229 




Little Fails 


8,772 
48,142 
28,8 5 
85 -: 


16.840 

50.575 

74.750 






055,635 
11,197 
21,466 

88,494 
7. :.17 
•8,798 


82,1 11 

24,229 

48,388 

160,129 

12.314 
12,139 


93,809 
23,018 

40.1 so 

176,140 

241982 
19,865 


86,581 

21,855 

61.199 

248,210 

7.587 
30,844 


103.S26 
17,432 
5S.021 

224,529 
10,897 
36,263 


77,837 
19.197 
53.798 
190.532 
65.932 
26,355 


Black Rock c 


10,614 


21^53 


52.129 


23.227 

54'. 

321.164 

,417 

14,820 


106,413 


181,973 

55.642 

6S.456 

703.498 

7.012 

7.379 

8,955 

71.356 

44,655 


1 
1,671 

12.295 






56,583 

482.635 
9,085 

15,371 




48,959 

10,527 
11,766 


106.213 

8,065 

16,201 


719,683 

225 

37.494 

132.023 

8.023 

17.950 

5.626 

2.308 

15.S31 

32,302 


Whitehall. 


•17,318 

33,106 


- 
8,662 


63,924 
51,214 


48,160 

30,653 


55.911 
53,812 

"138,704 








3,673 


46,850 


51,899 


310,135 




Cornin_' 




36,701 


35,879 


33,350 


44,336 


47.473 

" 11.376 

32.853 

54,060 

9.566 

21.192 

3.177 

6.026 

7.189 

28,647 








6,256 
15.133 


6.574 
14.595 


16.132 
20.747 
82,466 

5.667 
20.734 

3.012 
10.415 
13.885 
21,147 


14,485 

29.584 

65.800 

3.495 

15.376 

4.735 

2,553 

8.587 

5,985 

14.470 

6,665 

17.120 

12.285 

16.894 

548 


8,365 
















4,096 
8,958 


5.696 
16.787 

2.7''.: 

4,573 

2.721 
4,510 


1.029 
2.482 
4594 

7.703 
5.276 
4,450 














1... 








-  - 






























18.6i 5 


28,400 










20,3S3 
























652 


9,124 




rille..- 

Olean .._ 












































.-.: • 


$1,066,922 


J1.54S.109 


■51.775,967 


$2,646,181 


$3,273,899 


$2,805,077 


$2,748,212 


$1,838,836 



<> Collected at Port Byron. » At Newport. « Office abolished in 1857. <* At Saratoga, Ft. Miller, It. Edward, and Ft. Ann. 
-V ' trances issued from 1833 to 1858, both inclusive, on the Several Canal*. 






1848.. 
1861.. 

1-57.. 






" 



I 

S 



- 



7 17.  



5 

a • 


g> 




i 


1 


- 


8 


<t 


7> Z 


1 

6 


1 


e 




»5 


<5c 


36 






153 














1,247 


806 














1,802 
















1,951 


1.179 














1,704 


' 


517 


























1.213 


1,624 


930 
















Ml 


762 


17- 








1,421 




890 








574 








7- 1 


si 5 


 




1,101 


























 


2.046 




122 7 








U96 


1,189 


3 223 




1,260 
















1,089 




1,814 


1,440 




1.177 






1,307 








i.l-l 


1,646 






1,677 












2.102 




2,034 








1,042 












' 
























2,014 


609 


1,187 




' 






1 762 




674 


1,873 














817 


2,563 


491 
















170 














3,177 








-• 1 


1,906 




900 






1.7 Jo 


6,106 


534 




:.:;lt 


MS 


1 330 





i 

£ 



48,740 
63,726 
69.078 
67.255 

64,796 
68.296 

60.133 

75,990 
. 7.616 
69,720 
i 

81.629 

89,936 

104.478 

85,048 

93,842 
100,1 18 
104.902 

98,214 
80,309 
80,986 



CANALS. 



57 



00 00 00 00 00 00 
Cn en en O' Cn in 

r. e, > 4- eo i e 



30 00 00 00 00 00 0C X X 00 OO CO 

Oi4-4-4-4-4-4-4-4-4-4-e:J 
O CD CO -J C. CJi 4- CO 10 H- O CO 



r X) X) 30 30 CO CO 

co co co co co co w 

CO — I C3 Ot tf- CO to 



./ / / X CO CO 00 00 00 

wcoiii: totoi;i;ij 
- O o » *) C! c;< *- W 



w 




.EWe CanaZ. 




Champlain Canal. 




Oswego Canal, 



h- 1 -J to to to to re te t c te to te te to te — » <-< to ^ — » — * — » to to — » i-« i-» •-* «-> 
.er- r. — to co if* to oo p ~i x pa -j iz 4- eo eo c: po oo^pocn op oo -i o; to — ' :o 
o en tfr-co en "co to O) -^ M be co ie en cu 4- : o bi V ~t bo : o en 4- © ^- J co'o : cr *~. te 

to — t. — c: +- - v: w co m to oo » M »-* 4- oo 4- -t- co ~- io :: c: ~f -o to 00 4--J 

to en to co on co c ■- , o ic ^ -" iv o / -i » w x -i m x ;: c e ^ ;; o —i e; — 

en co "co co ^ en ^t co V; <i to b h "m m b h co b o- +. i_ i- m b b b c: '» *■ h 

Oit-HWa'OOtO'OHOWHi^-JiaiO^lMMS-^M^Vif-'if.COI-'tOO 



Cayuga <t Seneca Canal. 




Chemung Canal. 



c r. be g 'Owb'^'b-Mx o : .o"*.o rf^'co o^o'^j'^'co en be 'coV to 
/ .: _: s. m j: — -i to co i c 4- — > e-> to te m — ' te te — * to — * c; -i ce 
,. r < -r- _ er. j-t co co o as ►-» cs to to ^ oo co — i oo — » en — * — * ;: ;; ee 
H e: 3fl r. c o c be ~i be ^ en bo ^ oo f-* co co fen 60 co*?-» bo ^ '+- bo 

05C:cnon^Oi»-»h-*tn4*OOl-'COCDCOCOtoCOr- 1 tOCTiC:0^0 rf^ 



Crooked Lake Canal. 



MhJtObO)- l tO>-- 1 '-'i-'tOCOtOtOtOtOt-»l-->i-i>--t|--»tOi-» 

& 'pp c p.pj^.oojo^-'jo co co ci^topj co oc j^o»pp 
x e^te-cc co to *e~- *tc"co 'to te 'en 4- V- *— ' '— * be bo© -Jt *-~co 
-x r. :j co 03 to -ei:ce-i -1 --o te -1 •- — ' -^ eo -i eo — * 
■~- s 4- t. +- co en 00 po <m to p to *-» ^* 4- en en h-» 00 co to 
co ^1 ba bi o — ' be — -1 4- "eo be V- *•* : — -' e: '4- en w *co ^ 

CHHOHCOOCtSOiOMCOiCl'J'MSCWW^tO 



Chenango Canal. 



te to to to co co to ro to to to to to to ^ >-• u-» ^ : 
j^t en jo en eo m 4- ps ^1 o> pa ~. ec e; to en e; co eft : 

~o ie x ui b to c O) b> en ^ ^ V *m bs to to '•£> o  

m o w ^ o w h m ^ a; te o ^ -i *. o o te : ; : 

COC0h-'Cj;-- : IX''<l^TCn-~ItO*^ICO03'— 1 m 4*. *^ o  

to t» en b <i ^ b b b '*• h to b b to ^ m 'a 4- • 

lf»H0100COH©-ICJitOtOOTMWC'OOH(DO. 



Genesee Valley Canal. 



^ tO CO OO Cn"o Cn*CT;00C>CnC7"CiOCnfcfi.>t*I 

o r. i-j -j *.m c o x 1: 7. 1; *- v 1; e - r. ; 

C^ On CO tO O H-i CO 'CO CO h-* CO *- 10 CO --^ -I tO tO ; 

i-T bn p* to "4- "~. - 1 s: - ee cc ^1 en en 4- *» as o  

C0C0t0r-*00-^COrfr-t0Oi^J4^C0C0 0nrf-C0tO: 



Oneida Lake Canal. 



Mi-'tObOtpMI-'tOtOtO^-COCOrf^COtOl-'CO. • 

co *» -<t —i fc. t— ' co to --i —1 cr; ^i cr- ^t co co 4— 4- : : 

COin^T^4^.h-'--IOlC0*-COt0COe0t-*C5CO4i.; ; 

Co Io co co co t-< J-* Lj 4> "co e,j ^ e_i jj, e_i 30 u, en . • 

~* o to o to to 00 en to to toaotoooOMOO. . 



Seneca River Towing 
Path. 



fc . co to to co to to ^ 

^COh-iCOp.T^CnCOCO 

^co en ^j to cnb cr; b> *^> to to i- 1 
-1 4- t. ee ee e: v_ e< r ;; e: -^ - 1 

HSWOOOOOCOWOOCi*- 



Oneida River Improve- 
ment. 



MCOOSCOCOtOtOWWtO' 

-j t-> en en to en -1 ^ co co : 

-i 'Co to to o co 4* en co to • 



Cayuga Inlet. 



fft; 

en as en en en *»■ *- co ; . 

"to f-» co eo 'eo e» as bs ~ : 
co co 00 to x co t e r. t e : 

4 'ei-10»XHO; 

H" "e^ 'ee cob*l "~ cc be ; 
cn--ionto-^>- i,fc ii-*co. 



Black River Canal. 




BaldswinsviUe Canal. 



9 



9 



&4 



5 

A, 
a 



4 



£ 



a 

as 



a 






00 

CO 



00 

©■< 
o 



a 

Co 






H3 

> 

W 

o 

O 

f 

02 



53 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Tlie Erie Canal, connecting the Hudson with Lake Erie, was commenced at Rome, July 4, 
1817, and was completed Oct. 26, 1825. As first constructed, it was 303 mi. long, 28 ft. wide at 
the bottom, 40 ft. wide at the top, and 4 ft. deep. The locks were 90 ft. long between the gates, and 
15 ft. wide. The original cost of the whole was $7,143,789. 86. 1 



The number of boats upon the canals at different periods has 
.'.136; in 1844, 2.126; in 1847, 2.725; in 1853, 
.';.4"1 : and in 1859, about 3,500. The following numbers of new 
have been registered: — 



1*44. T.7S 
i 
i 



1847,1,466 

IMS. 4:.7 
1849, 215 



1S50, 152 
1851, 213 

W,J. '.71 



1853, 590 

1854, 760 

1855, 471 



1856, 364 
1-7.7. 329 
1858, 255 



Some opinion may be formed of the class of boats used from 
the nunil era built. These were, in 1S57, of scows, 106; decked 
lake boats, 95; bullheads, 102; and packets, 
3. None of the last named were built in 1S5S; and the day for 
traveling upon the canals may be considered as virtually passed. 
unless steam canal boats — now being introduced into use — prove 
successful competitors in speed with steam upon railroads. 



The largest boat registered in 1S44 was 90 tons. In 1S49. somo 
were as high as 135 tons; in 1850, 170 tons; in 1853, 250 tons; 
and in 1858, 300 tons. The average tonnage of boats has been 
as follows : — 

1S49 76 

1850 80 

1851 87 

is.v_> 8 8 

1853 97 

1854 105 

1855 102 

1856 107 

1857 114 

1858 109 

General average 100 



Structures upon the New York State Canals at the close of 1857. 



l-ocks... 
Wi Lb ' 
Aqnedn 
'•' 

Culverts 

I 

Farm Bridges.., 

Tow Hi 

Dam-' 



e 



bj 



76 

4 

5 

35 

49 

243 

3 



509 
10 



•S-a 



39 
6 

4 
23 
27 

52 

75 

13 

140 

8 



II 



c ^ ^ 



116 
1 

19 
21 

52 



212 
12 



110 
1 

5 
12 

18 

36 

40 

1 

77 

1 



O'o 



8 



18 
5 



5 
5 

n 

1 

11 

23 



§1 



Os= 






Is 



12 



13 

1 

27 

41 

5 



-7 
1 



14 



i^ 



53 
1 

4 

10 

2 

27 
16 
16 
59 
1 



~ ; - 

C - K 



113 



17 

34 

103 

103 
102 

9 
214 

5 



Total, i 



574 

23 

5 

84 

163 

455 

3 



1,296 
51 



a Doubli hy side, are counted as one. The number 

upon the Erie Canal, when completed, will be two less, by dis- 
ag with those now at Montezuma. 

1 Farm bridges are gradually lessening in number, as the 
claim; of individuals are from time to time commuted, or the 



damages appraised from failure to rebuild them. The principal 
increase of bridges is in cities and villages, from the opening of 
new streets; and in these localities permanent iron bridges are 
now generally built upon the principal thoroughfares. 
« Of the 10 dams in the first coluniu, 8 are feeder dams. 



1 Plans for improving the navigation of the Mohawk were 
'i 1725. but nothing was d..tic (■. this end till March 
:; I, 1762, when the " Western Inland Navigation Company" was 
porated, with powers to Improve the channel and build 
- and locks to Lake Ontario and Seneca Lake. The cost to 
• -■ estimated at £39,500. This work consisted 
mainly of the following: — 
1-; Us, 4,762 feet Jong, of which 2,550 feet 

1 ii it were 6 locks, with a t"tai 
d 1. miles long, with a lock, at Wolf 
Rift. I mill - long, at Rome, con- 

Mohawk with Wood Creek ; and. 4th, t"ur locks upon 

The work was begun 

•i K'.'::. bnt the want of funds delayed the work 

until inscription A from 

il and locks at this place 

' day and the next s large and 102 

• ill "f 680 I 1 -. exclusive of thai 

The chambers of the locks were 74 

pass : bnt other fan- 

i bnrdi ii of 1" or 1 1 tons. Light 

t  - lanwix and back in 9 

Idaj he trip. In 

 ut. and 18 es were cnl 

innel 7 miles. In 17 

work, in 17 '7. had 

: • 
boats pa- 1 -' 1 - with 1,600 

• 1:1- V -t Of 

ffbnfj 
B1H: II I v j '■■ ■■(, II. ;o. 
It -tain wi... the first idea of con- 

structing a chain • •: n through the 

All of the 
thi' 

king arou uTerneur Morris 

nal from Lake Ei le to the 

Hud F f i =• [dan Wat to tap 

Lake l.ri". and have a continu r..m the lake to the 

 - "f locks 
the river. Inl- I the outline of bis pi 

the E leneral, Bimeon De ^^ it t, v. 



chimerical. The next year Mr. Pe Witt, in a conversation with 
James Geddes, then a land surveyor of Onondaga county, stated 
the |.lan of Mr. Morris as one "l the impracticable scl 
which had been advanced. Mr. Geddes, however. l""k'd at the 
matter in a different light, and, after some little reflection, he 
concluded that the plan, willi sunn- mndificatimis. was by far 
the best that had yet 1 ested. He cunse], d with .Jesse 

Hawley upon the subject; and the Latter, convinced <.f the feasi- 
bility of the project, « rote a series of papers which wi re pub- 
lished in the Genesee Messenger from Oct. I s ' '7. to March, 1808. 
These essays were Bigned " Hercules," and were the Brsl ever 
printed in favor ol the Erie Canal. In 1808, Joshua Forman, 
an intimai of Mr. (ieddes, then a member of the As- 

Bembly, Introduced a resolution for the survey ol a canal route, 
tu the end that Congress might be led t.. grant moneys for the 
construction of a canal The stun of i-aiOO was grant".! f.ir 
surveys under the direction of the Surveyor-General. James 
Geddes was Intrusted with this service, and was directed to level 
down in mi Oneida Lake to the mouth of Salmon Creek, to ascer- 
tain whether a canal could be opened from < iswego Kails to Lake 

i lo,and t" Burvey the I" Bl n ute Ii a canal around Niagara 

Falls, II" u.-is also directed to surveys route eastward from 

Lake | River, and thence to the waters Bowing 

east Into Seneca Lake. He Bnished this work, and made a 

ring the practicability of the last nai I route and 

real superiority over the others which had been proposed. 
This report a Ion, and secured tho 

Influence of De w itt Cliut< n, then a member of the Senate, and 
many ether prominent men. In 1810, commissioners, at tho 
head of wl Witt Clinton, were appointed t" explore 

i r nte thn ugh the center of the State. < n the Bth of 
April, 1811. an act was passed to provide for the Improvement 
of the internal navigation ol the State, and i ft" rU we e made to 
obtain aid from the General Government, but without success. 
The report of the commis loners stated the importance of this 

'.:cuith such force and eloquence that a lftw was passed 
the next year continuing the commJ and authorizing 

them I tnd dl |" -it money, and take , ■,. igions Of land, fur 

 I: imi the war suspended active operations. 

The pi r. continued to bi and an act was 

i on the 17th of April, 1816, providing for a definite survey. 

The canal was begun at Rome, July I. 1 S 17. and on the 22d of 

October, 1819, the first boat passed firom Ptica t.. Ri m ■. 

The completion of the canal was celebrated by extraordinary 



CANALS. 



59 



The enlargement of this canal was ordered May 11, 1835, and has been going on more or less 
rapidly since, except during a few years of suspension commencing under Gov. Wright's adminis- 
tration. It was estimated by the State Engineer and Surveyor, in Jan., 1850, that $1,565,077.75 
would complete the enlargement upon the present plan, making the total cost of that work 
$23,000,000. The length of the Erie Canal when enlarged will be reduced to 349.74 mi. Its sec- 
tion gives a breadth of 70 ft. at the surface of the water, 521 ft. at the bottom, and a depth of 7 ft. 



civic and military ceremonies throughout the State, and espe- 
cially in New York City, on the 1th of Nov. 1825. Ah the first 
boat, with Governor Clinton on board, entered the canal, at 
Buffalo, at 1" o" clock, (Oct. 26,) a line of cannon, previously ar- 
ranged a few miles apart, passed ;i signal along to Albany, and 
down the Hudson to Sandy Monk, from whence it was returned 
in like manner. The signal was heard at New York, at 11.20. 
The flotilla with the Governor was everywhere greeted with en- 
thusiastic rejoicing. Dpon reaching New York it passed down 
to Sandy Hook, and the waters of the lake were mingled with 
(hose of the ocean with imposing ceremonies. 

The Canal Commissioners under whom the Erie and Cham- 
plain Canals were constructed were Stephen Van Rensselaer, De 
Witt Clinton, Joseph Ellicott, Samuel Young, and Myron 



Ilolley. Henry Seymour was appointed in place of Kllic t(. in 
March, 1819, and William ( '. Bouck was added to the number in 
March, 1821. The chief engineers were James Qeddes. of Onon- 
daga CO., and Benjamin Wright, of Rome, neither of whom had 
ever seen a canal, or enjoyed means of acquiring a practical 
knowledge of engineering other than thai obtained from survey- 
ing land. The precision with which their canal surveys- were 
executed, under the circumstances, may be regarded as truly 

wonderful. Among the assistant engineers were Peacock, 

David Thomas, Nathan 8. Roberts, David S. Dates, Canvass 
While, Davis Hurd. Noah Dennis. Charles T. Whippo. William 
Jerome, Henry Q. Sargent, Frederick C. Mills. Isaac J.Thomas, 
Henry Farnam, Alfred Barrett, John Dates, William 11. Price, 
John Hopkins, and Seymour Skiff. 



The Canal Board have adopted the following table of distances from place to place upon the Erie Canal. The elevations 
above tide are those shown by the lockages, and do not take into account the descent given to cause a flow of water between 
locks, which does not vary much from an inch to a mile. The long level is supposed to be perfectly uniform in elevation above 
tide. 

Stations, Distances, and Elevations above Tide on the Erie Canal. 



Places. 



Albany 

West Troy 

Junction 

Cohoes 

Crescent 

Upper Aqueduct 

Schenectady 

Hoffmans Ferry 

Port Jackson 

Schoharie Creek 

Auriesville , 

Fultonville 

Yatesville 

Sprakers 

( lanajoharie 

Fort Plain 

St. Johnsville 

Mindenville 

East Canada Creek... 

Little Falls 

Mohawk 

Ilion 

Frankfort 

Fergusons 

Utica 

York Mills 

Whitesboro 

Oriskauy 

Rome 

New London 

Higginsville 

Dunbarton 

Loomis 

Durhamville 

Lenox 

Canastota 

New Boston Landing. 
Canaseraga Landing . 

Chittenango 

Bolivar 

Pools Drook 

Kirkville 

Manlius 

Limestone Feeder 

Orville Feeder 

Lodi 

Syracuse T". 

Qeddes 

Bellisle 

Nine Mile Creek 

Camillus 

Canton 

Peru 

Jorda i 

Cold Spring 











"S.R 


<2> 




.§■§ 











^ 


^ 


£5 -§.5 





352 


7 


7 


345 







7 


345 




4 


11 


341 




3 


14 


338 




12 


26 


326 




4 


30 


322 


1S8 


10 


40 


312 




6 


46 


306 


269.5 


5 


51 


301 




2 


53 


299 




3 


56 


296 


295 


6 


62 


290 




3 


65 


2S7 




3 


68 


2S4 


301 


3 


71 


2S1 




5 


76 


276 


309 


2 


78 


274 




4 


82 


270 




5 


87 


205 


360 


8 


95 


257 




3 


98 


254 




3 


101 


251 


403 


5 


106 


246 




4 


110 


242 


424 


3 


113 


239 




1 


114 


238 




3 


117 


235 


427 


8 


125 


227 


427 


6 


131 


221 




4 


135 


217 




1 


136 


216 




1 


137 


215 




3 


140 


212 




3 


143 


209 




2 


145 


207 




4 


149 


203 




1 


150 


202 




1 


151 


201 




1 


152 


200 




2 
1 


154 
155 


198 
197 




8 


158 


194 




1 


159 


193 




H 


161 


191 




4 


165 


187 




1 


166 


186 


400 


2 


168 


184- 




4 
2 


172 
174 


180 
178 




1 


175 


177 




5 
2 


180 
182 


172 

170 




3 


1S5 


167 


407 


1 


186 


166 





Places. 



Wcedsport 

Centerport 

Port Byron 

Montezuma 

Pitt Lock - 

Clyde 

Lock Berlin 

Lyons 

East Arcadia 

Lockville 

Newark 

Port (iibsou 

Palmyra 

Macedon 

Wayneport 

Knappville 

Fairport 

Fullam's Basin 

Bushnell's Dasin 

CartersvUIe 

Pittsford 

Lock No. 65 

Drighton 

Rochester 

Greece (6-mile grocery) ... 

Brockways , 

Spencerport 

Adams Basin 

Cooleys Basin 

Drockport 

Holley 

Ilulberton 

Brockville 

Hindsburgh , 

Albion 

Gaines Basin , 

Eagle Harbor 

Knowlesville 

Medina 

Shelbys Basin 

Middl'eport , 

Reynales Basin 

Mabees 

Gasport 

Orangeport 

Millards 

Lockport 

Sulphur Springs, G. Lock 

Pendleton 

Pickardsville 

Martinsville 

Tonawanda 

Lower Black Rock 

Black Rock 

Buffalo 











<* 2 


g 


sS 




41 


5 




ss 


e<5 « 

t3 g 

*; a, 
4 




8 qa 32 


190 


162 


402 


2 


192 


160 




2 


194 


158 




5 


199 


153 


391 


6 


205 


147 




5 


210 


142 


397 


4 


214 


138 




3 


217 


135 


410 


3 


220 


132 




3 


223 


129 




1 


224 


12S 




3 


227 


125 




5 


232 


120 


445 


4 


236 


116 




3 


239 


113 




2 


241 


111 




3 


244 


108 


462 


1 


245 


107 




3 


248 


104 




2 


250 


102 




1 


251 


101 




2 


253 


99 




3 


256 


96 


471 


3 


259 


93 


509 


7 


266 


86 




3 


269 


83 




2 


271 


81 




3 


274 


78 




3 


277 


75 




2 


279 


73 




5 


284 


68 




3 


287 


65 




1 


2S8 


64 




1 


289 


63 




4 


293 


59 




2 


295 


57 




1 


296 


56 




3 


299 


53 




4 


303 


49 




3 


306 


46 




3 


309 


43 




4 


313 


39 




1 


314 


38 




1 


315 


37 




1 


316 


36 




2 


318 


34 




3 


321 


31 


565 


5 


326 


26 




2 


328 


24 




5 


: ! 


19 




3 


! i 


16 




4 


340 


12 




8 


::is 


4 




1 


349 


3 




3 


352 








60 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER, 



The number of locks Trill be 74, or 10 less than the original number. 1 The banks of the enlarged 
canal are protected from -washing by slope walls, consisting of stone firmly packed upon the sloping 
sides. The canal will allow the passage of boats of 200 to 250 tons burden. Steam has been 
introduced to some extent in propelling boats, and the success of the experiment has been so great 
that probably steam power will ultimately supersede horse power. 

Tlie Cliamplain Canal, extending from the Erie Canal, near Cohoes, to Lake Cham- 
plain, was begun June 10, 1818, finished to Waterford Nov. 28, 1822, and completed Sep. 10, 1823, 
at an original cost of $875,000, exclusive of the feeder to Glens Falls. It is 64 mi. long and has 
a navigable feeder of 7 mi. to Glens Falls, with a slackwater navigation 5 mi. further upon the 
Hudson. 2 

Tlae Clienaiisro Canal, 3 connecting the Erie Canal at Utica with the Susquehanna River 
at Binghamton, was authorized Feb. 23, 1833. It is 97 mi. long, exclusive of 13f mi. of feeders, 
none of which are navigable. 

The Black River Canal and Erie Canal Feeder extends from Rome up the 
valley of the Mohawk and of Lansing Kil to Boonville, and thence it descends the valley of Black 
River to a point below the High Falls. From the latter point is a river navigation 42J mi. to Car- 



1 The chambers of the enlarged locks are 110 by 18 feet, and 

their lift varied from •". (■• 15} feet. The canal leaves Lake Erie 

at Buffalo. I'll iwa the riv. r lank to Black Hock, and conimuni- 

wiih the dam at that place. At a point 10 mi. below liuf- 

mawanda Creek, follows its channel 12 mi., and 

cross • . ago a rock catting, to the brow of the 

mountain ridge, at L kp irt, where it descends 55.83 feet by 5 

combined locks. It continues thence, eastward, from 1 to 3 mi. 

8. of the ridge r ad, to Rochester, crosses theGeneseeuponastone 

aqueduct, in 1: - a circuitous sweep across the Irondequoitvalley, 

aloiiL- the t  ■;. of a natural range of hills, and finally delivers the 

Lake Erie i River, after supplying 153 mi. 

of the Brie Canal, and affording a large amount of water-power 

at various points along its course. It then rises by 2 locks. 

■I- into t _ a valley by 1 lock, and then ri- 

3 lock- to the long level which extends from Syracuse to Utica. 
fr"m whence it descends the Mohawk valley, mostly on its s. 
 ) the Hudson. Below Schenectady, it twice crosses the 
w'i{. upon stone aqueducts. It is continued down the 
bank of tl n to Albany, where it terminates in a spa- 

basin. At West Troy it also opens into the Hudson. The 
_ ing w. ar< . I up, and 43.5 feet down, or 

The canal is fed by numerous streams 
aloDg its course, and by 9 reserv. .ir-. all of which, with a single 
exception, are upon the middle division. They are as follows : 



Reservoirs. 



1 - 

 

>k 

1 I' ii I 

Total 





«^T 






a 










Acres in 


,c e 


•- 


area. 


^ i ,g > 


-^ 




B$ a-S 


-■< 


840 


46 


21* 


134 


15 


10 


25 1 


60 


50 


184 




25 


173 


18 


8 


1 :■ 


18 


11 




55 


46 




6 






... 


41 


11,616 







ft! S 



20 

8 
3« 

1 

i 

4 

2 



10 



' ' 






« r.uilt in lV.T, at a cost ot 73. In Nelson, Madison 

 r. 

VeT Canal. 

r !•> the long level ol I anal. 

i I 
 d cted with 

Kock. 
 
* A company (tried th 

W«s | Ql fell .1 !■. 

mmu- 
•II. interri [the route "f 

 
Tie- 1'iiilt of tl the Erie. II 

tawk in  
length, and ifthello lyler- 

by another d 
ftx-t long, and continues near the east bank to Fori 



Here it leaves the river and crosses to the valley of Wood Creek, 
and thence, partly in the bed of that stream, to Whitehall. 
When this canal was first opened slackwater navigation upon 
the Hudson was used 8 miles above and 3 miles below Fort 
Miller, with a short canal aud 2 locks around the falls at that 
place. It was fed from the Hudson by means of a high and 
costly dam near Fort Edward. The use of the channel of the 
Hudson is now entirely superseded by a canal along its bank, 
built in 1826-27 ; and the high dam has given place to a feeder to a 
point above Glens Falls, where there is a dam 770 feet long and 
12 feet high. The feeder enters the canal at the summit level, 
lj miles n.b. from Fort Edward. The canal communicates 
with the Hudson above the State dam at Waterford by a side- 
cut with 3 locks. It has 7 locks between the lake and the sum- 
mit, with 54 feet total lift, and 14 locks, with a total of 134 feet, 
between the Summit and the Hudson at Waterford. The locks 
on this canal are being enlarged to a capacity of 15 J by 100 feet. 

Stations, Distances, and Elevations upon the Champlain Canal. 



Places. 



Albany 

West Troy 

Junction 

Waterford 

Mechanics ville 

Stillwater Village 

]!!'■. ckers Tiasiu 

Wilburs Basin 

Van Hi ii- ii- landing.. 

Schuylerville 

Saratoga I'.ridge 

Fori Uiller 

Kil 

Port Edward 

I lei 

- Basin 

Smiths Basin 



Landing 

Whitehall 











<o 






^ 










S-2 


fA 


3-J 


<U 






,5 i 


%> 


^t 


^ 


- = 


$ 








71 




7 


7 


r.4 







7 


64 


25 


3 


10 ' 


61 


55 


8 


18 


53 




4 


22 


49 




2 


•Jl 


47 




2 


26 


46 




6 


31 


40 




3 


34 


37 


100 


2 


36 


35 


110 


3 


39 


32 


131 


3 


42 


29 




5 


47 


24 


140 


2 


■to 


22 


150 


1 


50 


21 




5 


55 


16 




4 


59 


12 




4 


63 


8 




8 


71 





96 



Glens Falls Feeder. 
Blacks. 



Champlain Canal.... 

Sandy Hill 

Glens Kail- 

• ii,,. | ... ,|..r. 

' is- Pond... 



Stilt S from 

place to jib ice. 



2 

3 



Total 12 

* This canal is supplied by Chenango River and 6 reservoirs, 

viz..- — Moiii- n Brook, Woodmans Pond, Lelands Pond, Bradleys 

Itnx.k. Ilai. h- Lake, and Eaton Brook Reservoirs,— all of which 

are in the - nib pari of Madison co. The 

to and up the valley of Oriskany Creek t" the sun mi it level, and 

down th>- valley >.i Chenango River. It ws -and 

flni»hed in 1837, al a cost of (1,787,? m Dtica to the 

; feet by 7 rad fin in thence ii descends 

ks to the Susquehanna. Of its 114 locka,2are 

ider composite. Upon the feeders are 12 

farm bridges. 



CANALS. 



CI 



thage, on the line of Jefferson co. At Boonville the canal receives a navigable feeder 12 mi. long, 
which derives its water from Black River. Length of main canal 3C.G2 mi., of feeders 12.48 mi., 
and of reservoirs 12.95 mi. 1 

Tlie Oneida Lake Canal 2 connects the Erie Canal at Higginsvillo (3| mi.) with Wood 
Creek, and by slackwater, 2£ mi. on that stream, with Oneida Lake, a total distance of 6 mi., and 
a descent of 56 ft. 

Tlie Oswego Canal, extending from Syracuse to Oswego, was authorized Nov. 20, 1824. 
A loan of $100,000 was allowed April 20, 1825; it was begun in 1826, and was completed in 1828, 
at a cost of $525, 115. 3 It is 38 mi. long,and includes 19 mi. of slackwater navigation in Oswego 
and Seneca Rivers, with a towing path on the e. bank. Connected with this work are the Oneida 
River Improvement, extending the whole length of that stream from Three River Point 
to Fort Brewerton, at the outlet of Oneida Lake ; the Seneca River Improvement, ex- 
tending from Mud Lock, on the Oswego Canal, to Baldwinsville, by slackwater navigation ; and 



Stations, Distances, and Elevations upon the Chenango Canal. 



Places. 



Utiea 

Road leading from New Hart- 
ford to Whitesboro 

Clinton 

Deansville 

Oriskany Falls 

Solsville 

Bouckville 

Pecks Basin 

Hamilton 

Lebanon Factory 

Earlpville 

Sherburne 

North Norwich 

Plastei-ville 

Norwich 

Oxford 

Haynes Mill 

Greene 

Forks 

Pond Brook 

Port Crane 

Crockers Mills 

Binghamton 



"S-2 

"3 a. 



3 
6 
5 

5 
3 

2 
2 
4 
2 
4 
5 
4 
2 
4 
9 
10 
4 
8 
2 
5 
1 
7 



•i> 



^5 



3 
9 

14 
19 
22 
24 
26 
30 
32 
36 
41 
45 
47 
51 
60 
70 
74 
82 
84 
89 
90 
97 



J- 3 

l?5 



97 

94 
88 
83 
78 
75 
73 
71 
67 
65 
61 
56 
52 
50 
46 
37 
27 
23 
15 
13 
8 
7 




427 



572 

775 

956 

1,109 

1,128 

1,112 

1,078 
1,033 
1,01S 

996 
958 

924 

881 



814 



1 This canal was authorized April 19, 1836, and began the next 
summer. The summit level is 693 feet above the canal at Rome, 
to which it descends by 70 locks. Northward the canal descends 
386 feet, by 39 locks. The feeder has but one level. The State 
has caused reservoirs to be formed by damming the outlet of 
Woodhull, Chub, North and South Branch, and other lakes in 
Herkimer co. The Eight Lakes near the source of Moose River 
are available as reservoirs to supply Black River with water, 
withdrawn to feed the canal southward. 

Table of the principal Lakes which are used or available as 
reservoirs. 



Lakes. 



Chub Lake 

Sand " 

Mud " 

Woodhull Lake. 
South Branch... 
North " ... 

Jocks Lake 

Moose " 

First " , 

Second " 

Third " 

Fourth " , 

Fifth « 

Sixth " , 

Seventh" , 

Eighth " 



Area in 
acres. 



530 



1,236 
518 
423 



403 

175 

166 

1,979 

9 

53 

1,609 

309 



Feet above 
tide. 



1,599 
1,793 
1,799 
1,854 
2,019 
1,821 
2,188 
1,772 
1,684 
1,684 
1,684 
1,687 
1,691 
1,760 
1.762 
1.776 



In September, 1857, the Canal Board abandoned its plans for 
improving the channel of Black River by wing-dams and piers, 
and ordered a dam and lock to be built at the mouth of Otter 



Creek. The river has no towing path, and boats are towed by 
steamers. The State has built a dam and bridge at Carthage, 
and the piers of two other bridges, of which the superstructure 
is built by the towns. 



Stations, Distances, and Elevations upon the Slack Eiver 
Canal. 



Places. 



Rome 

Ridge Mills 

Lock No. 7 

Walworth's Storehouse 

Westernville 

Wells Brook Aqueduct 

Stringers Creek 

Lansing Kil 

Lock No. 31 

Lansing Kil Dam or Feeder 

Lower Falls, Lansing Kil 

tipper Falls, Lansing Kil ... 

Lock No. 70 

Boonville 

Sugar River 

Little Falls, Black River 

Port Leyden 

Lock No. 97 

Lyons Falls 





g 


-a &? 


3 8 

*4 


1 s 


2 I 
5^ 








35 


2 


2 


33 


3 


5 


30 


1 


6 


29 


3 


9 


26 


2 


11 


24 


2 


13 


22 


1 


14 


21 


2 


16 


19 


1 


17 


18 


2 


19 


16 


2 


21 


14 


2 


23 


12 


2 


25 


10 


3 


28 


7 


1 


29 


6 


3 


32 


3 


1 


33 


2 


2 


35 






427 



595 
643 
683 

783 



1.130 | 
1,120 



892 
734 



Boonville Feeder. 

Hawkinsville, on Feeder 3 miles from Boonville. 

A. Lee's, on " 5 " " " 

R. B. Miller's, on " 6 " " " 

State Dam, on " 10 " " " 

Head of Reservoir 12 " " " 



2 This canal was completed in the fall of 1835 by a company 
incorporated March 22, 1S32, as the "Oneida Lake Canal Co." 
The company having to use the waters of the Erie Canal from 
the long level, were required to supply an equivalent amount. 
A feeder was constructed 5 miles west, drawing its waters from 
Oneida Creek. It is 2 miles long, and not navigable. The 
company had authority to extend its improvements 4 miles up 
Wood Creek, but nothing was ever done in that direction. By 
an act of May 11, 1840, the Canal Commissioners were authorized 
to purchase it at a cost not exceeding $50,000, winch was done 
April 12, 1841, and State stock bearing 5 per cent, interest, and 
redeemable in 10 years, was issued in payment. The first cost 
of the canal and feeder was $78,824.S5. 

This canal forms an important link in the internal water 
communication of the State, extending navigation from the 
Erie Canal to Oneida Lake, and by the Oneida Outlet to the 
Oswego Canal and River. Before the Erie Canal was built the 
Oneida Lake route was the great thoroughfare for the transporta- 
tion of goods westward. 

8 The act did not originally authorize a connection with the 
Erie Canal, but only a communication with Onondaga Lake. 
The connection was recommended by the commissioners in 1827. 
and it was authorized soon after. This canal has a fall of 123 
feet by 18 locks. 

The Oneida River Improvement has 2 steamboat locks, one 
of 3 and one of 3i feet lift, 120 feet long and 30 wide, passing 
boats drawing 4 feet of water. It also has one dam and one 
draw bridge at Oak Orchard and Brewerton. 



62 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER, 



thence by a canal three-fourths of a mile long, with one lift and one guard lock, and by slack- 
water on the Seneca River to Jacks Reef. 

fay ugra and Seneca Canal connects the Erie Canal at Montezuma with Cayuga Lake at 

Cayuga and with Seneca Lake at Geneva. About half of the canal is formed by slackwater 

navigation upon Seneca River, and the remainder is a channel parallel to the river. As enlarged, 

this canal admits the passage of large boats from the Erie Canal to the head of Cayuga and Seneca 

Lakes. 1 

Crooked Lake Canal connects Crooked Lake at Pcnn Tan with Seneca Lake at Dresden. 2 

Chemung Canal and Feeder connects Seneca Lake at Watkins with Chemung River 
at Elmira, with a navigable feeder from Knoxville on Chemung River to Horseheads, on the 
summit level of the Chemung Canal, including slackwater navigation from the dam and guard 
lock at Gibson to Knoxville. 8 

Tlie Genesee Valley Canal extends from Rochester up the Genesee Valley to Olean 
upon the Allegany. The summit level is 978 ft. above Rochester and 86 ft. above the Allegany 
River, at Olean, and from it 97 locks descend toward the n. and 9 toward the s. 4 



<tU, Distances, and Bn-af'ons upon the Oswego Canal. 



FLACE3. 



-y ICON . 



Salina 

Liverpool 

Mud Lock 

• : rin_" 

New Bridge 

River Point., 

Lock 

k 

Fulton 

Braddock'e Rapid... 

Tiff.iny's Landing... 

lli.-h Ram 





£ a. 


^3 


3 


11 

•^ B, 







38 


2 


2 


36 


3 


6 


33 


2 


7 


31 


1 


8 


30 


5 


13 


25 


2 


15 


23 


2 


17 


21 


3 


20 


18 


3 


23 


15 


4 


27 


11 


4 


31 


7 


4 


35 


3 


1 


36 


2 


2 


38 






400 
368 



358 

345 
306 
243 



Oneida River Improvement. 
Places. 



Three River Point.. 
Oak Orchard 

Il ll"V 

Bn werton 






S. ruca Hirer Improvement. 



Miles from 

place to place. 

4 
4 
7 
5 

20 



Mud Lock 

BaldwinsvDle. 

J 



Total. 



18 



ii and Seneca Canal— Stations and Distances. 

Puck. ;"'''■ 

place tn place. 



Montezuma 

i River 

mont'i 

> PalU 

Chamberlain'! Mills.... 






Lateral Canal I 
Cayuga 



Total. 



23 



The Seneca L«ck N Oo. wu Ine rp rated April 0. 

for the pi the oath I i and 

• Lakes; and the Cayuga and Seneca Canal Co. was char- 

I AprD 20, 1816. [ta capital was Increased in 

and in 1817 a further r.i|] ut. upon the • riglna] stock 

was authorised, fndndlng a llki lymonton 

by the State. Ti< ming this work by the 

State was approved In 1826, and the interest of tb mpany was 

purchased for 133,867.18, excl -■•■■ at the amotml owned by the 
State. The work was begun iu 1826, and finished in 1828," at a 



cost of $214,000. The inlet to Cayuga Lake is navigable li 
miles to Ithaca. The locks of this canal aro all enlarged, ex- 
cepting one at Chamberlain's Dam, which will be dispensed 
with so as to include the distance from Seneca Falls to Waterloo 
in one level. The descent from Geneva to Montezuma is 74 feet 
by 12 locks. 

2 The survey of this canal was authorized by the Legislature 
in 1828. The canal was ordered to be built by an act of April 
11, 1829. It was begun in 1830 and finished in 1S33. It has a 
descent of 2C9 feet by 27 locks. It extends water communica- 
tion to the various ports upon Crooked Lake. 

Crooked Lalce Canal — Stations and Distances. 

Puces Miles from 
■^ LACES - place to place. 

Dresden 

Mallory's 

Andrews and Ways 2 

Penn Yan 2 

Crooked Lake 1 



Total.. 



3 This canal was authorized April 15, 1S29, and its construc- 
tion was begun in that year and finished in 1S33. The total 
lockages on both the canal and feeder are 516 feet by 53 locks, and 
the original cost was $344,000. From Cornhig. the Blossburg & 
Corning R.R. ascends into the bituminous coal region of Tioga 
co., Penn., and this article forms a very important item in the. 
business of the canal. It also communicates with the Erie 
R. R. The Junction Canal, a privata enterprise connecting the 
Chemung Canal at Elmira with tho North Branch Canal of 
Penn. at Athens, 19 mi. 8., promises to become an important 
tributary I" the trad.' of this mini l.y opening access to the 
coal region. The diversion of Chemung River into our canals 

has boon made a subject of complaint and remonstrajice by the 
State of Penn. Plans have been proposed for using Mnd Lake, 
(459 acres) and Little Lake. (Ton; acres.) in Tyrone, as reser- 
voirs to relieve this canal from the inconvenience felt in dry 
seasons from low water. 



Chemung Canal and Feeder — Stations and Distances. 

Feeder. 

PLACE8. J1I1.ES. 

Horseheads 

Miller's basin 7 

ham at bead of Feeder.. 7 

Knoxville 2 



PUCES. MILES 

i Lake 

Havana 4 

Millport 8 

ii irsi heads 7 

Elmira fi 

Knoxville 22 



Total. 



47 



Total 16 



* This canal was authorized by act of May 8, 1836, and was 
begun the same year. The portion from the Junction to 
Rochi ter and the Dansvllle side-cut, in all 52 miles, u:is 

finished InlM": to Oraniol. :>.0 miles further, with the fieni   

Feeder at thai place, in 1861; to Bel&st, 2 miles, in 1863; to 
Rockvule.3 mil' -. in 1864, and to Olean, 24 miles, in 1866. A 

lie mile, With 2 lift locks and 2 bridges, still remains 
to be finished. 

Ihfl repairs of the first and second sections of this canal were 
nut under contract for five years in Dec. 1855. the former for 
(8,440 and the latter for fliyino j»t annum. In consequence 
of heavy freshets and unexpected damages, the contractor on 

the lir-i section abandoned his contract In June, ls.YT. 

An net passed, ls;,7. authorized the extension of this canal 
from Otean eastward acro°s Olean Creek and the bottom lands 
along the H. bank of the Allegany to its entrance into Mill Grove 
Pond, C.62 miles. 



CANALS. 



63 



Besides the foregoing navigable improvements by the State, the following have been placed 
under the direction of the Canal Commissioner for construction : 

The Owasco Lake Improvement, ordered in 1852, and designed to make this lake a 
reservoir for supplying a water power for the machinery in Auburn State Prison. 1 

The draining' of Cayuga Marshes, for reclaiming a large amount of land, estimated 
at 40,000 acres, at the outlet of Cayuga Lake and along Seneca River. By an act of April 12, 
1853, the channel of the river was ordered to be lowered, and the lands benefitted to be taxed for 
the expense. Surveys have been made and the work partly accomplished under the direction of 
the Canal Commissioners. 2 

Several companies have been incorporated for the purpose of constructing navigable canals, but, 
with two or three exceptions, none of these have at present a corporate existence. 

The Delaware and Hudson Canal, extending from Rondouton the Hudson to Hones- 
dale, Penn., is the most important of these. It is connected with the Lackawanna coal region by a 
r. r. 16 mi. long, and is one of the principal routes by which coal is brought to the market upon 
the Hudson. 3 



Stations, Distances, and Elevations upon the Genesee Valley Canal. 



Places. 



Rochester 

Rapids (Lock No. 1) , 

Tone's Basin 

Scottsville 

Canawaugus (Avon road) 

Sackett's Basin 

Fowlerville Road 

Barclay's Mill 

Piffardinm - 

Spencer'-s Basin 

Tracy's Basin 

Cuylerville - -.. 

Leicester, Moscow Landing 

Genesee River Dam 

Mount Morris 

Shaker Settlement 

Brushville - 

Nunda 

Messenger's Hollow 

Genesee Falls (Tunnel section) 

Porta geville , 

Lock No. 61 

Mixville Landing, Wiscoy Feeder. 

Fillmore 

Burrville 

Caneadea Center 

Oramel 

Belfast 

Rockvillo 

Caseville 

Black Creek Corners 

Cuba 

Ischua Feeder 

Hinsdale 

Olean , 









o 

2 
8 
12 
20 
22 
24 
26 
29 
30 
32 
33 
34 
36 
37 
41 
46 
51 
53 
57 
59 
64 
65 
69 
75 
76 
78 
80 
83 
84 
88 
93 
99 
100 
107 



"S  



107 
105 
99 
95 
87 
85 
83 
81 
78 
77 
75 
74 
73 
71 
70 
66 
61 
56 
54 
50 
48 
43 
42 
38 
32 
31 
29 
27 
24 
23 
19 
14 
8 
7 




33 



507 

537 
557 



564 

589 
600 

796 

947 



1,132 
1,152 

1,222 



1,315 
1,410 



1,4S5 
1,399 



Dansville Branch. 
Places. 



Shaker Settlement.... 

Fitzhugh's Basin 

Kysorvillo 

Rock Spring 

Sherwoods Landing- 
Steam Sawmill 

McNairs Landing 

Woodville 

Commonsville 

Dansville 



Miles from 

place to place. 





Total . 



2 
1 

2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

11 



1 This work was 2 years in charge of the Agent of the State 
Prison and the Mayor of Auburn, but in 1855 it was placed in 
the hands of the Canal Commissioners. The work, up to 1857, 
was greatly injured by a Spring flood. From 1852 to 1S57 in- 
clusive, $33,485 had been appropriated for this work. 

2 In 1824, and several times afterward, the drainage of these 
marshes was made the subject of legislative enactment, but 
without other results than surveys. A concise history of this 
movement is given in Senate Doc. 35. 1853. The work was 
placed in 1853 under the direction of George Geddes, and up to 
1858, $175,000 had been appropriated and mostly expended. — 
Report Canal Commissioners, 1858, p. 110. 

3 The Delaware and Hudson Canal Company was incorporated 
April 23, 1823, with a capital of $1,500,000, with the right of 
using $50,000 in banking until 1844. The credit of the State 
was loaned for $800,000, in stock, bearing interest of 4£ or 5 per 
cent. The canal was begun in July, 1825, and opened for nee in 
Oct. 1828. Its length from Rondout to Port Jervis, on the Dela- 
ware, is 59 miles; and from Port Jervis, up the Delaware to the 
mouth of the Lakawaxen, 24 miles. It crosses the river at the 
latter place, and extends 20 miles further to Honesdale. Its 
highest summit between the Hudson and Delaware Rivera is 585 
feet above tide. Its descent to the Delaware is 80 feet ; its rise 
along the Delaware is 148 feet: and it.s rise between the Delaware 
and Honesdale 187 feet. The aggregate number of hicks is 107, 
and the total rise and fall is 950 feet. The railroad to the coal 
mines is also owned by the Canal Company. The original cost 
of the New York section of the canal was $1,424,994, and of the 
Penn. section $612,123. The company own most of the beats 
used upon the canal, and conduct tho mining operations at Car- 
bondale. Present capital, $7,500,000. The canal was originally 
constructed to afford 4 feet of depth, and to accommodate boats 
of 30 tons. In Sept., 1842, a plan of enlargement was adopted, 
and 5 feet of water was obtained, accommodating boats of 40 tons 
each. In 1S51 a further enlargement was completed, obtaining 
6 feet of water, and accommodating boats of 120 tons. The 
locks are now constructed with a single gate at the upper end, 
which turns down upon hinges like a door. It is found to be 
very serviceable, and much quicker to operate than the double 
gate. 

Annual Receipts of Tolls on the Delaware and Hudson Canal 
since its completion. 



1830. 
1831. 
1832. 
1833. 
1834. 
1835. 
1836. 
1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 
1842. 
1843. 
1844. 



$16,422,44 

20,554,64 
28,717,51 
37,004,58 
36,946.07 
41,154.73 
45,154.73 
44,832.42 
40,328.38 
40,095.26 
35,450.46 
39.38S.19 
33,894.93 
30,996.53 
33,525.61 



1845 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 

1S51 

1852 

1853 

1854 

1855 

1856 

1857. 

1858 



$25,880 

26,068 
38,971 

46.54S 
34,817 
97.999 
158.441 
293,174 
378,479 
587.349 
652,362 
583.737 
435.19S 



.92 
65 
.34 
54 
95 
15 
.96 
.67 
.83 
.52 
94 
86 
44 



64 



NEW YOKE STATE GAZETTEER. 
Distances on the Delaware and Hudson Canal. 



Names of Places. 



Eddyville 

Greenkill 

Hornbeck's Bridge 

Head of Pond 

uburgh's Basin. 

he Fever's Falls 

Bosendale 

Lawrence's Mills 

Marble Quarries 

High Falls 

Hasbrouck's Basin 

Philip Hasbrouck's 

Clove Church 

Alligerville 

John S. Depuy'e Basin.... 

Enoch Freiland's 

Stony Hill Aqueduct 

Port Jackson 

David V. DO v's 

c. P. Hornl • k*s 

M on lit Bin Brook 

Middleport 

Rniyn's Basin 

Port Uv\- m. 

Port Benjamin 

Heirstard's 1 ! r i  1 ^e 

Southwick's Brick Yard. 

Terwilliger's Feeder 

Kll'-nvilk- 

Cutler's Basin 

Broadhead'tt Brickhill 

Jared i: i r. he's 

l'.-nn.v- Basin , 

 ]_-•' 

Phillipspoii 

Daw — summit Level 

lurgh 

nse in Swamp 

Smith - - imp 

Qumare's Brook 

Wnrtsboro' 

- 



"!?., 






No. 1 



to 



4 

5 

6 

7 

8 and 9 

10 and 11 

12 to 19 

20 and 21 



22 

23 



24 



26 



2S 
29 and 30 
31 and 32 
33 
24 
35 and 36 
37 and 38 
39 to 41 
42 to 51 
52 to 54 



1« 


Miles from 





108 


1 


107 


2 


106 


3 


105 


4 


104 


5 


103 


6 


102 


7 


101 


8 


100 


9 


99 


10 


98 


11 


97 


12 


96 


13 


95 


14 


94 


15 


93 


16 


92 


17 


91 


18 


90 


19 


89 


20 


88 


21 


87 


22 


86 


23 


85 


24 


84 


25 


83 


26 


82 


27 


81 


28 


80 


29 


79 


30 


78 


31 


77 


32 


76 


33 


75 


34 


74 


35 


73 


36 


72 


37 


71 


38 


70 


39 


69 


40 


68 


41 


67 



Names of Places. 



Graham's Basin 

Manerza Smith's 

Brown Haven , 

Oak Brook Aqueduct 

Indian Spring 

Tunnel Hill 

AVcstbrookville 

Samuel Staunten's 

Van Inweigen's Basin 

Cuddebackville 

Neversink Aqueduct 

Piersonville 

Solomon Van Etten's Bridge 

Canal Store 

Hornbeck's Culvert 

Bird's Nest Hock 

Stop Gate— Pine Woods 

Benjamin Cuddeback's , 

Port Jervis 

Stop Gate — Westfall's Basin. 

Sparrow Bush Brook 

Honesville 

Bolton 

Butler's Falls 

Mongaup 

Dickerson's Eddy 

Stairway Brook 

Vanaukin's Bridge 

Fish Cabin Brook 

Tucker's Aqueduct 

Pond Eddy 

Van Tuyl's Brook 

Van Tuyl's Basin 

Craigsville 

Buttermilk Falls 

Handsome Eddy 

David Johnston's 

Barrysville 

Panther Brook 

Beaver Brook 

Stop Lock 

Delaware Dam 



V 



§1 



55 to 59 
60 



61 

62 and 63 



64 
65 
66 



67 
68 



69 and 70 

""h 

72 and 73 



G'nd L'k. 



SI 

§1 



42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
SO 
81 
82 
83 



§,3 



66 
65 
64 
63 
62 
61 
60 
59 
58 
57 
56 
55 
54 
53 
52 
51 
50 
49 
48 
47 
46 
45 
44 
43 
42 
41 
40 
39 
38 
37 
36 
35 
34 
33 
32 
31 
30 
29 
28 
27 
26 
25 



Table of Companies ichich have been organized for Constructing Canals and Extending Navigation 

in the State. 



Names op Cabals. 



Date of 
Organization. 



Capital. 



Allegany I - .water Na- 

Auburn < .in ii and T:. R. Oo 

Auburn & Owasco Canal Co 

ft Penn. 

i n Co. 



Bin. 

Oassa i Co 



Cattatunk Dock Navigation Co.. 



1 ' iri.il Co., 

CliitU i 



tr- A- Susquehanna Na- 
r Na- 
mes Bay A East Hirer 

I 



Harlem Canal fo 

II idem BJvet Canal Co- 

Hudson River A Channel Co..... 

Jefferson Connty Canal 
Junction i 



April 7, 1857 

April 24, 1832 
April 21,1828 

April 9, 1855 

March 20, 1828 
April 5, 1810 

April 16,1827 

March 8,1816 



April 20,1816 
May 12,1846 

Man ll 1, 1818 



April 
April 
April 

April 

April 



20,1825 
23, 1820 

24,1837 

11. 1- It 

16, 1827 



April 4,1806 



April 
April 



I'l. 1828 



r-v\ 'i 

150.000 
100,000 

100,000 

400,000 

10.000 
20,000 

70,000 



6,000 



5-000 



600,000 
3,600 

300,000 

100,000 



Connections. 



Auburn and Erie Canal 

Auburn and Owasco Lake 

Erie Canal and Black River 

Brownville and Lake Ontario.... 

Montezuma and Seneca Lake.... 

Bingbamton to Btate line 

Chittenango Village and Brie 
Canal. 

are and Susquehanna 
Itivcr. 



City of Brooklyn may causo to 
lif constructed. 

Lake and Lower Bridge at 
Cliamplain. 

Champlain Canal and Bishops 
• '..rners. 

Bast River and Manhattanville. 

Bpnyten Dnyrfl Creek and Har- 
lem River. 

For raft navigation on upper 
water. 

Carthage and Sackcta Harbor.... 

From Brie Canal near Cham- 
plain Junction to HudSOD 
Kivcr. 



Remarks 



To improve Allegany Biver be- 
low Olean. 

Nothing dona 

Charter renewed in 1S34; not 
finished. 

Act amended in 1857. 

Nol I Ting done. 
Not constructed. 
TuiiiiproveOissudaga Creek; not 

completed. 
To improve Cattatuuk Creek 

fi "in its mouth to N. Vf. 

branch. Nothing done. 
Rights purchased by the State. 
Nothing done. 
Assumed by the State, and used 

as a navigable feeder to Erie 

i anal. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Partially improved. 



Nothing done. 

Partly done and abandoned. 
Surveyed but Dot constructed. 

Nothing done. 



Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 



CANALS. 



65 



Table of Companies which have been organized for Constructing Canals and Extending Navigation 

in the State, continued. 



Names of Canals. 


Date of 
Organization. 


Capital. 


Connection. 


Remarks. 


Long Island Canal & Naviga- 
tion Co. 

Mohawk & Hudson Lock 
Navigation Co. 

Northern Inland Lock Naviga- 
tion Co. 

Northern Slackwater & RaU- 
way Co. 


May 11, 1845 

AprU 15,1828 

April 8, 1848 
AprU 15,1828 
AprU 17,1816 
AprU 16,1816 

AprU 19, 1823 

AprU 5, 1798 
March 30, 1792 

May 13, 1846 

March 22, 1832 

Nov. 25, 1824 

March 31, 1821 

April 11,1825 

AprU 25, 1831 

May 1, 1829 
AprU 8, 1808 

March 26, 1831 
AprU 1, 1808 

May 16, 1837 
AprU 30, 1S29 
AprU 6, 1813 

March 31, 1815 
March 19, 1829 




From Chemung Canal at Elmira 
to State line to connect with 
North Branch Canal. 

To connect Bays on 8. side and 
to cross Canoe Place to Peco- 
nic Bay. 


Completed in 1858. 

Nothing done but survey. 

Nothing done. 
State Canal Feeder. 
Nothing done. 

The project failed. The State 
loaned its credit for $10,000 
and lost the whole sum. 

Surveyed nearly on the present 
line of the Hudson R. R. 

Nothing done. 

Work commenced but no part 

completed. 
Nothing done. 

Finished in 1835, and purchased 

by the State in 1841. 
Not constructed. 

Nothing done. 

The right granted in 1828 to 
build a e. r. on the line. 
Nothing done on either. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Railroad only constructed. 
Locks completed but too smaU 

for general use. 
Never completed. 

Merged in Cayuga & Seneca 
Canal. 

Nothing done. 

Partly constructed, but never 
used. 


$200,000 

300,000 
50,000 

500,000 
50,000 


Erie Canal and Manlius Slack- 
water Navigation. 
Cohoes Falls and Schenectady... 


From Sharon, Conn., to tide 
water to any point on the 
Hudson or in the City of 
New York. 

Lake Erie and Lake Ontario 

Hudson River and Lake Cham- 
plain. 




40,000 
100,000 






Erie Canal and Onondaga 
Hollow. 

Canandaigua Lake and Erie 
Canal. 

From Columbia, on the Dela- 
ware, through Orange co., to 
the Hudson. 

From the St. Lawrence to Black 
Lake and Canton. 

Owasco Lake and Erie Canal 

To construct Locks and Dams 
in Peconlc River. 

For building Locks at Isle an 
Rapid. 

Lake Ontario and Port Ontario.. 

Scottsville and Genesee River. 

For improving navigation 
between Seneca and Cayuga 
Lakes. 

From Seneca Lake to Chemung 
River near Elmira. 

From Seneca River or Canan- 
daigua outlet to Great Sodus 
Bay. 

From river to Chenango Canal. 

Wallabout Bay and TUlory St. 
Brooklyn. 

Wallabout Bay to Kent Avenue, 
Brooklyn. 

To open navigation on the Mo- 
hawk, Wood Creek, Oneida, 
and Oswego Rivers to Lake 
Ontario. 




Orange & Sussex Canal Co » 

Pecouic River Lock Navigation 

Co. 
Rochester Canal & R. R. Co 

Salmon River Harbor Canal Co.. 

Seneca & Susquehanna Lock 
Navigation Co. 


150,000 
30,000 


350,000 
15.000 
50,000 

300,000 
200,000 




Wallabout Canal Co 

Western Inland Lock Naviga- 
tion Co. 


May 20, 1836 
April 9, 1828 

AprU 18,1838 

March 30, 1792 


20,000 
25,000 


Not constructed. 

Completed to Oneida Lake in 
1797. The rights were after- 
ward vested in the State, 
and such as were avaUable 
were used for the Erie Canal. 



RAIL ROADS. 

The first rail road in the State, and the second in the U. S., was opened from Albany to 
Schenectady in 1831. Although rudely constructed, at great and much needless expense, the 
advantages of this means of communication became so apparent that within 3 years rail roads, 
duly chartered by law, were projected in every part of the State. 1 These early grants were gene- 
rally limited to 50 years, and work was required to be commenced within 3 years, the State being 
allowed to become purchaser at the expiration of the charter. The charters contained the neces- 
sary provisions for the taking of property by appraisements, named the commissioners for opening 
subscriptions, and sometimes for locating and surveying the road, which in a few instances was 
done at the expense of the State. 

At an early period the aid of the General Government was solicited, in view of the utility of these 
roads in the transportation of the mails, and, in case of war, of military supplies ; but, with the 
exception of surveys made in two instances, no aid was obtained from this source. The State has 



1 Albany, Vermont, &, Canada Rail Road, for- 
merly the Albany Northern R. R. Company organized 
Feb. 12, 1851. Connects Albany and Eagle Bridge. Road 
opened through about the 1st of July, 1853. It was sold 
under foreclosure of mortgage Oct. 16, 1856, and assumed 
its present name Nov. 7, following. 

Albany, Vermont, and Canada Hail Road. 

Stations and Distances. 



Stations. 



Albany 

Cemetery... 

West Troy 

Cohoes 

Waterford 

Saratoga Junction. 

Schaghticoke 

Pittstown 

Johnsonville 

liu-kirks 

Eagle Bridge 



Distances in" Mi 


Between 


From 


Stations. 


Albany. 








4 


4 


2 


6 


3 


9 


2 


11 


1 


12 


10 


22 


1 


23 


3 


26 


5 


31 


2 


33 



From 
EagURdg. 



33 

29 

27 

24 

22 

21 

11 

10 

7 

2 





Albany <fc AVcst Stockbrldge Rail Road, for- 
merly Oaatleton <t West Stockbridgo R. R. Company or- 
ied April 19, 1830, but nothing was dune under the first 
name. Present Dame assumed Mav 5, 1836. Road opened 
from Orocnbueh to « 'hat ham Dec. 21, 1841, and to the State 
line Bept 12, 1MJ. It was leased to the Western (Mass.) 
R. R. Not. 1*. 1841, for the term of its charter; and has 
since been u a part of that road, Including the 

ferry at Albany. The city of Albany, at different times, 
issued its bonds f r fLO0O,00O, to aid in building the road, 
t)i- lessees paying the intep-.it and flu. mm annually toward 
the sinking fund. It connects Albany with Springfield and 
Boston. 

W'Mcrn Had Road. 
Stations and Distances. 



Bub ••<-. 



Albany 

Qreenooib 

Schnd.u-k 

Undertook — - -■■ 

Chathim Center 

Chatham fan Corners. 

East Chatham.- 

Canaan 

State Line.- -•• 

Pittsfield, Mass. 

Springfield, " 

Worcester, " 

Boston, " 



DmAxem IN Ml 


Between 


From 


Motions. 


All/any. 








1 


1 


7 


8 


8 


16 


a 


19 


4 


23 


6 


28 


5 


88 


6 


38 


11 


49 


63 


102 


54 


156 


44 


:■■< 



From 
Boston. 



2m 

199 

l'<j 

1-1 

1<>1 

177 

172 

167 

I'J 

l.'.l 

98 

44 





Atlantic &. Great Western Rail Road Co. was 
formed Dec. 9, 1S58. The Hne extendi from th<- New York 
A Erie R, R, at Little Vulhy to the s. line of Chautauque 
county. 
60 



Attica <£• Hornellsvitte Rail Road. Company incorporated May 
14, 1S45 : capital $750,000. Time extended April 11, 1849. 
Other roads allowed to take stock April 9, 1851. Capital in- 
creased and company allowed to purchase the Buffalo A 
Rochester R. R., from Attica to Buffalo, and to change its 
name March 3, 1851. Name changed to Buffalo & New 
York City It. R., April 16, 1S51. 

Black River & Utica Rail Road. Company 
formed Jan. 29, 1S53. Road opened to Trenton Jan. 1, 1855, 
and to Boonville Dec. 18, 1855. The city of Utica has is- 
sued its bonds for $250,000, to aid in the construction of the 
road. It is designed to connect Utica and Clayton. 

Black River <£- Vtica Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Utica 

Marcy 

Floyd Road 

StittsviUe 

Holland Patent.-... 

Trenton.- 

Trenton Falls 

Prospect _ 

Remsen 

Alder Creek 

Boonville 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 


From 


From. 


Stations. 


Utica. 


Boonville. 








35 


6 


6 


29 


2 


8 


27 


2 


10 


25 


2 


12 


23 


4 


16 


19 


li 


17} 


171 


l 


18$ 


16* 


2J 


21 


14 


7 


28 


7 


7 


35 






Blossbnrg &. Corning Rail Road, formerly the 
Coniin.' ,v Blossburg It. li.. and previously the Tioga Coal, 
Iron Mining, & Manufacturing Co. R. R. Was leased for a 
term of years to the Tioga (Pa.) it. R. Co. In lvi4 it was 
sold for $250,000, subject to a mortgage of $245,000 and a 
ten yars lease to the Tioga Co. It is operated at present 
by the lessees. 

Blossburg and Corning Railroad. 



Stations. 



Corning 

Erwln Center.. 
Lindley Town 
Blossburg 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 



From 
Crjrning. 



41 



From 
Blossburg. 



41 



Brooklyn City Rnll Road. Company formed Dec. 16, 
1 s.'.:'.. Opened as follows : 
Flashing Avenue Route. Fulton St. to Throop 

Avenue in July, 1854 

Fulton Avenue Route. Ferry to Washington 

Avenue in July. 1854 

Myrtle Avenue Route. Fulton St. to Nortram 

Avenue in July, 1854 

Greenwood Routo. Fulton St. toGowanus Creek 

it, Aug. 1854 

Washington Avenue to Brooklyn Avenue in Sept. 1854 

Kent Avenue to Bushwick Creek in Oct. 1854 

(Jowanns Creek to 36th St. in Nov. 1854 

Nortram Avenue to Division Avenue In Nov. 1854 



RAIL ROADS. 



67 



upon several occasions loaned its credit to r. r. companies by issuing stock and retaining a lien 
upon the roads, which in some cases was afterward relinquished, and in others sacrificed by sale 
at nominal prices. 



Throop Avenue to Division^A venue in April, 1S55 

Hamilton Avenue Route, Court St. to Ferry in May, 1855 
This road is used for passengers only, and 
horse power is exclusively employed. 

36th St. to City Line July, 1855 

Bnshwick Creek to Kent St. in Oct. 1855 

Kent St. to Furman St. in Dec. 1855 

City Line to Yellow Hookland in July> 1856 

Brooklyn &. Jamaica Rail Road. Company formed 
April 25, 1832. In 1836 the road was leased to the Long 
Island R. R. Co. for the term of its charter. The lessees 
built a tunnel 2.550 feet long under Atlantic St., bought 
access to the river, erected buildings and docks at a cost of 
over $300,000, and have since maintained and operated the 
road in connection with the Long Island R. R., of which it 
is virtually a part. 

Buffalo, Bradford, <fc Pittsburgh Rail Road 

Co. was formed 1859, by the consolidation of the 

Buffalo & Bradford and Buffalo & Pittsburgh R. R's. 

Buffalo &New York City Rail Road, formerly Attica & Hornells- 
ville R. R. Articles filed Jan. 22, 1851. 31 mi. sold to Buf- 
falo, New York, & Erie R. R. Oct. 31, 1857, and name 
changed to 

Buffalo, New York, & Erie Rail Road. 

Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Buffalo & Corning. 

Buffalo 

Junction , 

Lancaster 

Town Line 

Alden 

Darien 

Attica 

Alexander 

Batavia 

Stafford 

Le Roy 

Caledonia 

Avon 

Hamiltons 

Livonia 

South Livonia 

Conesus 

Springwater , 

Wayland 

Bloods 

Liberty 

Wallaces 

Avoca 

Kanona 

Bath 

Savona 

Campbell 

Curtis 

Coopers , 

Painted Post 

Corning 

New York 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 




1 

9.45 
4.05 
4.95 
5.47 
6.14 
3.40 
7.20 
5.60 
4.32 
7.31 
6.93 
9.05 
2.56 
3.64 
3.71 
6.65 
4.76 
5.91 
4.36 
4.87 
2.88 
3.64 
3.77 
6.15 
4.71 
1.67 
2.60 
3.22 
1.60 



From 
Buffalo. 





1 

10.45 

14.5 

19.45 

24.92 

31.06 

34.46 

41.66 

47.26 

51.58 

58.89 

65.S2 

74.87 

77.43 

81.07 

84.78 

91.43 

96.19 

102.1 

106.46 

111.33 

114.21 

117. So 

121.62 

127.77 

132.48 

134.15 

136.75 

139.97 

141.57 



From 
Corning. 



141.57 

140.57 

131.12 

127.07 

122.12 

116.65 

110.51 

107.11 

99.91 

94.31 

89.99 

82.68 

75.75 

66.7 

64.14 

60.5 

56.79 

50.14 

45.38 

39.47 

35.11 

30.24 

27.36 

23.72 

19.95 

13.8 

9.09 

7.42 

4.82 

1.6 





432.63 I 291.06 



Rochester Division. 



Rochester .. 
Henrietta.. 
Scottsville . 

Rush 

Avon , 





8.45 

3.27 

2.27 

4.26 



From 
Rochester. 





8.45 
11.72 
13.99 
18.25 



From 
Avon. 



18.25 
9.8 
6.53 
4.26 




Hornellsville Division. 



Attica 

Linden 

Middlebury 

Warsaw 

Gainesville 

Castile 

Portage 

Hunts Hollow . 

Nunda 

Swainville 

Canaseraga 

Burns 

Hornellsville ... 





6.87 

4.33 

5.78 

6.77 

2.76 

3.61 

4.07 

2.07 

7.17 

4.43 

4.10 

8.30 



From 

Attica. 





6.87 
11.2 
16.98 
23.75 
26.51 
30.12 
34.19 
36.26 
43.43 
47.86 
51.96 
60.26 



From 
Hornells- 
ville. 



60.26 

53.39 

49.06 

43.28 

36.51 

33.75 

30.14 

26.07 

24 

16.S3 

12.4 

8.3 





Buffalo <£ State Line Rail Road. Company formed June 6, 
1849. Road opened from Dunkirk to the State Line Jan. 1, 
1852, and to Buffalo Feb. 22 following. The Company pur- 
chased the North East (Penn.) R. R. under act of April 13, 
1857, and now form one company from Buffalo to Erie, Penu. 
It is now operated under the name of 

Buffalo and Erie Rail Road. 

Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Buffalo 

Hamburg 

IS Mile Creek . 
Evans Center.. 

Saw Mill 

Irving 

Silver Creek.... 

Dunkirk 

Salem 

Portland 

Westfield 

Ripley 

Quiucy 

State Line 

Erie, Penn 



Distances in Miles. 


Between 


From 


From 


Stations. 


Buffalo. 


Erie,Ptnn. 








88 


10 


10 


78 


5 


15 


73 


6 


21 


67 


5 


26 


62 


3 


29 


59 


2 


31 


57 


7 


40 


48 


8 


48 


40 


2 


50 


38 


7 


57 


31 


5 


62 


26 


3 


65 


23 


3 


68 


20 


20 


88 






Canandaigua <£■ Corning Rail Road. Company incorporated May 
11, 1845; capital $1,600,000 Time extended April 15, 1847, 
and again March 24, 1849. Surveys were begun June, 1845, 
and the construction in Aug. 1S50. Road opened from 
Canandaigua to " Jefferson" (now Watkins) 46 1 7 % mi., Sept. 
15, 1851, the New York & Erie R. R. furnishing engines, cars, 
Ac, for a specific rate per mile. The road was allowed to con- 
nect with the Chemung R. R. at Jefferson, and to change 
name Sept. 11, 1852, to Canandaigua and Elmira R. R. 

Canandaigua <b Elmira Rail Road, changed from Canandaigua 
& Corning R. R. Sept. 11, 1852. Leased the Chemung R. R. 
17 l 3 ( f mi. and 4 mi. of Erie R. R. Sold to parties in Elmira. 
Penn Yan, and Providence. R. I. April 23, 1S57, and possession 
given May 1. Price $35,000, subject to $500,000 due bond- 
holders, and name changed to the Elmira, Canandaigua, <fc 
Niagara Falls R.R. the next day. 

Canandaigua ^Niagara Falls Rail Road. Companv incorporated 
Dec. 10, 1850; capital $1,000,000. Road opened to Batavia, 
50 mi., Jan. 1, 1853, to Niagara Falls 47 mi. July 1, 1S53, and 
to Suspension Bridge 1£ mi. April 1, 1854. Sold March 22, 
1857, to Jas. M. Brown and others, and name changed to 
Niagara Bridge & Canandaigua R. R. Now leased and run 
by New York Central R. R. 

Cayuga <fc Susquehanna Rail Road, formerly 
the Ithaca & Owego R. R., was chartered Jan. 28, 182S, — the 
second R.R. charter granted in the State. The road was opened 
in April, 1834. An inclined plane at Ithaca rose 1 foot in 
4 1 2 s ft. and stationary steam power was used for drawing 
up the ears. Above this was another inclined plane, that 
rose one foot in 21 ft., on which horse power was used. The 
road was subsequently sold by the Comptroller on stock 
issued by the State, on which the company had failed to pay 
interest. A new company was organized and the present 
name assumed April 18, 1843; the road was reconstructed, 
the inclined planes were done away with, and Jan. 1. 1855, it 
was leased to the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R R. 
Co., and is operated by them as the Cayuga Division. This 
is an important route from the coal mines of Penn., and coal 
forms the principal item of business. 

Delaivare, Lackawanna and Western Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Ithaca Pier.. 

Ithaca 

Pugslevs 

Willseyville 

Candor 

Catatunk.... 
Owego 



Distances in Miles. 


Between 
Stations. 


From 
Ithaca 
Pier. 


From, 
Owego. 








35 


2 


2 


33 


13 


15 


20 


6 


21 


14 


4 


25 


10 


6 


31 


4 


4 


35 






Champlain &, St. Lawrence Rail Road. Com- 
pany formed Feb. 26, 1851. The Road extends from Rouses 
Point to the Canada line 2i miles, and is leased to a road in 
Canada of the same name, which extends to St. Johns and 
La Prairie opposite Montreal. 



68 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



By resolution of Assembly of Feb. 2, 1843, r. r. companies were required to report annually to 
the Secretary of State; and by an act of April 11, 1849, to the State Engineer and Surveyor; a 



Chcmnng Rail Road. Company formed Ma}- 14. 1845. 
The road extends from Watkins, at the head of Seneca 
Lake, to the New York & Erie R. R., 4 mi. N. W. of Elmim. 
It was opened in Dec. 1S49: leased to the New York & Erie 
R. R. Co. for ten years from Jan. 1, 1S50, for $36,000 per an- 
num : and sub-let to the Canandaigua and Elmira R. R.Co., 
for the same. It is now operated by the New York k Erie 
R. R. Co. 

Chemung Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Jefferson (Watkins) 

Havana 

Groton Corners 

Millport 

Pine Valley 

Horseheads 

Junction - 

Elmira 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 





3.2 

3.7 

2 

2.8 

4.4 

1.2 

4.3 



From 
Watkins. 





3.2 
6.9 
8.9 
11.7 
16.1 
17.3 
21.6 



From 
Elmira. 



21.6 

13.4 

14.7 

12.7 

9.9 

5.5 

4.3 





Elmira, Canandaigua <t Xiagara Falls Rail Road. Changed 
from Canandaigua A Niagara Falls R. R. April 24, 1857. 
The name was changed to 

^Imira, Jefferson &< Canandaigua Rail 
Road Co. Feb. 18, 1S59. The road is now leased and 
run by the New York & Erie R. R. Co. 

Elmira. Jefferson <£■ Canandaigua Rail Road. 

Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Canandaigua 

Ilopewell 

(iorham 

Halls Comers , 

Bellona 

Benton Orator 

l'enn Yan 

Milo Center 

Hirnrf-I- 



im 

'.-•■am 

Jefferson (Watkins) 

Elmira 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 



From 
Canan- 
daigua. 





6.4 

5.3 

2.8 

3.8 

1.9 

4 

4.1 

3.6 

3.9 

2.6 

1.9 

6.6 



21.6 





6.4 
11.7 
14.5 
18.3 
20.2 
24.2 
28.3 
31.9 
35.8 
3S.4 
4" i.3 
46.9 



68.5 



From 
Watlcins, 
(Jefferson 
Station.) 



46.9 
40.5 
35.2 
32.4 
28.6 
26.7 
22.7 
18.6 
15 
11.1 
8.5 



21.6 



Flushing Rail Road. Company formed Feb. 24, 1852. 
1 Jane '-'•'•. 1854. The road exti-uds fnni Flushing to 
Hunters < r<- k,and the Co. runs a steamer to Fulton street, 
few Y.rk. 

FUuhing Rail Road. 

Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



N*w Y..rk« 

' N Point 

Penny Bridge 

Wlnillold 

N<-wtown 

National Race Couree. 
Flushing 



Djst\N' f.-i iv Miles. 



riftvrtn 


From 


From 


Station*. 


Xew York. 


Flush ing. 








12 


4 


4 


8 


1 


5 


7 


3] 


7i 


4* 


1 


8* 


31 


« 


10 


2 


2 


12 






• By steamboat between New York and Hunfrs Point. 

r-Hle dhCbld Sprina Branch Rail Rnad. Company fanned 
June 28, 1861, tod organ u 1 Nor. ::. 1863. n,.. r ,, : ,d was 
to extend from Hick«villo to Cold Spring Harbor. It was 
opened to Syosset, July 8, 1864. Nothing I. - ben done 
beyond there. It has been leased to the Long Island R. R. 
0»., and is operated by them. 



Hudson & Boston Rail Road. Company allowed 
to organize Feb. 22, 1855 ; the organization took place Dec. 
1, 1855. The company own and operate the road from Hud- 
son to Chatham Four Corners, with a leased right to West 
Stockbridge. 

Hudson & Boston Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 





Distances in Miles. 


Stations. 


Between 
Stations. 


From 
Hudson. 


From 

Chatham 
4 Corners. 





1 
3 
5 
3 
3 
2 




1 

4 

9 

12 

15 

17 


17 
16 
13 

8 
5 
2 



Claverack 






Ghent 





Hudson River Rail Road. Company formed May 
12, 1846. Opened from New York to Peckskill Sept. 29, 
1849 ; to Hamburgh, Dec. 6, 1849 ; to Poughkeepsie. Dec. 31, 
1S49; from Albany to Hudson, June 16, 1851; to Tivoli, 
Aug. 4 ; and through, Oct. 1, 1851. The road extends from 
Albany to New York, along the east bank of the river. It 
has tunnels of 226, 60, 70, 358, 600, 518, 835, 124, 145, and 
82 feet; in the whole S,018 feet. 

Hudson River Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Chambers Street, N.Y.. 

31st Street 

52d Street 

Burnhams 

Strykers Bay 

Manhattan 

152d Street 

F'ort Washington 

Tubby Hook 

Spuyten Duyvil 

Kiverdale 

Ebnkera 

Gleuwood 

Hastings 

Dobb's Ferry 

Irvington , 

Tarry town 

Scarborough 

Sing Sing 

Croton 

Crugers 

Verplancks 

PeekakOl 

Fort Montgomery 

I. .11 ri-..n- 

Cold Spring 

Cornwall 

Fiahkil] 

Oarthage 

New ll.'iini'iirgli 

Milton Firry 

PougbkeopMe 

II Park 

Staatebnrgb 

Rhinebeck 

Barrytown 

Tivoli 

Qermantown 

Oak Mill 

Hudson 

Btockport 

U k\>- 

Stoyveeant 

Schodiick 

ton 

East Albany 

Troy 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 





2* 

1 

1 

li 

1* 

1 

1* 

li 

* 

1* 

* 

3i 

2 

21 
41 
H 
31 
31 

1* 

2 

3* 

41 

21 

21 

31 

31 

21 

41 

4 

6 

4 

51 

51 

4 

4* 

51 

6* 

5 

21 

2j 

6* 

31 

7* 



From 
New York. 



31 

41 
51 
71 
81 
10 

in 

121 

14 

16* 

17 

21 1 J 

21* 

23* 

261 

301 

32 

351 

38* 

4" J 

421 

461 

51 

53i 

561 

59* 

631 

65* 

701 

741 

SO* 

841 

90 

951 

991 

1041 

1091 

11.51 

120* 

1224 

1251 

132 

1861 

143i 



From 
Albany. 



149i 



1431 

141 

140 

139 

137* 

130 

135 

1331 

132 

1311 

129i 

1271 

1261 

123 

121 J 

1TJ* 

1171 

113 

llli 

108* 

104* 

103 

101 

971 

921 

90 

S71 

83* 

801 

77* 

731 

691 

631 

591 

531 

4s 

44 

80} 

34 

2S* 

231 

201 

184 

Hi 

7* 





RAIL ROADS. 



03 



custom that has since been continued, except during the short period in which the office of R. R. 
Commissioners was in existence. This Board was created April 14, 1855, and abolished April 16, 
1857. The expenses of the State Engineer and Surveyor's office chargeable to rail roads are assessed 
upon the several companies in proportion to their earnings. The general act to authorize the for- 
mation of R. R. companies was passed March 27, 1848. There are at present within the State 2,554 J 
mi. of R. R., besides double tracks and turn outs. The rail roads give employment to about 18,000 



Long Island Rail Road. Company organized June 15, 
1835. Opened through in July, 1844. The road extends 
from Brooklyn to Greenport; $100,000 in State stocks was 
issued to aid in the construction. The company have leased 
the Brooklyn & Jamaica and the Hicksville & Cold Spring 
Branch K. Koads, which they operate as a part of this road. 

Long Island RaU Road. 

Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



South Ferry «... 

Bedford „. 

East New York 

Cypress Avenue 

Union Course 

Woodhaven 

Jamaica 

Willow Tree 

Queens (Brushville) 

Hyde Park 

Hempstead Branch. 

Hempstead 

Westbury 

Hicksville 

Syosset 

Jerusalem 

Farmingdale 

Deer Park 

Thompson 

N. Islip (Suffolk).... 

Lakeland , 

Waverly , 

Medford 

Bellport 

Yapbank 

Manor 

Riverhead 

Jamesport , 

Mattituck. 

Cutchogue 

Hermitage 

Southold 

Greenport 



Distances in Mi 


Between 


From 


Stations. 


Brooklyn. 








24 


2* 


3 


64 


li 


7 


i 


74 


i 


84 


24 


11 


1 


12 


2 


14 


34 


174 


2J 


20 


21 


24 


3 


23 


3 


26 


4 


4 


3 


29 


2 


31 


6 


37 


4 


41 


2J 


434 


6* 


49 


4 


53 


2 


55 


2J 


57* 


24 


60 


6 


66 


8 


74 


5 


79 


4 


83 


3 


86 


3 


89 


2 


91 


4 


95 



From 
Greenport. 



95 

924 

894 

88 

874 

864 

84 

83 

81 

77| 

75 

24 
72 
69 

4 
66 
64 
58 
54 
51| 
46 
42 
40 
374 
35 
29 
21 
16 
12 

9 

6 

4 





York & Erie 

Newburgh April 8, 



NewDiirgh Branch of New 

Rail Road. Branch allowed to 
1845. Opened Jan. 8, 1850. 
New York Central Rail Road. Company formed 
by consolidating the several roads in operation, and some 
projected roads between Albany, Troy and Buffalo, and 
Niagara Falls. The act allowing the consolidation was 
passed April 2, 1853, and was carried into effect the 17th 
of May following. The consolidated capital amounted to 
$23,085,600, and debts were assumed to the amount of 
$1,947,815.72. The stock of the several companies was re- 
ceived at the following rates, viz. : — 



Rochester & Syracuse .130 

Rochester, Lockport & Ni- 
agara Falls 125 

Buffalo & Rochester .140 

Buffalo & Lockport 125 



Albany & Schenectady 117 

Syracuse & Utica Direct .....150 

Schenectady & Troy 75 

Utica & Schenectady 115 

Mohawk Valley 155 

Syracuse & Utica. 160 

Each stockholder received a like amount of stock of the new 
company, at par, (the Troy & Schenectady upon payment of 
$25 per share,) and for the differences, certificates or premium 
bonds bearing six per cent, interest, semi-annually, and pay- 
able May 1, 1883. These certificates amounted to $8,892,600. 
The Rochester & Lake Ontario R. R., and the Buffalo & Niagara 
Falls R. R., have since been merged in this road. 

Date of opening the several roads now forming the New York 
Central RaU Road. 



Albany & Schenectady 1831 

Schenectady & Troy 1843 

Utica & Schenectady 1835 

Syracuse & Utica 1839 

Rochester & Syracuse 1853 

Auburn & Syracuse 1836 

Auburn & Rochester -.1840 

Tonawanda „..1836 



Batavia & Attica 1843 

Attica & Buffalo 1845 

Rochester & Buffalo 1852 

Rochester, Lockport & Nia- 
gara Falls 1852 

Niagara Falls & Lewiston...l854 

Lockport & Tonawanda 1853 

Rochester & Charlotte 1853 



New York Central Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Albany & Buffalo 

Albany 

West Albany 

Center 

Schenectady 

Hoffmans 

Cranes Village 

Amsterdam , 

Tribes Hill 

Fonda 

Yosts 

Sprakers 

Palatine Bridge 

Fort Plain 

Palatine Church 

St. Johnsville 

East Creek 

Little Falls 

Herkimer 

I In. ii 

Frankfort „ 

Utica 

Whitesboro 

Oriskany 

Rome 

Greens Corners 

Verona 

Oneida 

Wampsville 

Canastota 

Canaseraga 

Chittenango 

Kirkville 

Manlius 

Syracuse 

Warners 

Canton 

Jordan 

WeedBport 

Port Byron 

Savannah 

Clyde 

Lyons 

Newark 

East Palmyra 

Palmyra 

Macedon 

Fairport 

Rochester 

Coldwater 

Chili 

Churchville 

Bergen 

West Bergen. 

Byron , 

Batavia 

Crofts 

Pembroke 

Alden 

Wende 

Town Line 

Lancaster. 

Forks 

Buffalo 



Distances in Miles. 



Troy <£- Schenectady 
Branch. 

Troy 

Cohoes 

Summit Bridge 

Niskayuna 

Aqueduct 

Schenectady 



Between 


From 


Stations. 


Albany. 








34 




5 


84 


81 


17 


94 


264 


34 


294 


34 


33 


54 


384 


5 


434 


54 


484 


34 


52 


3 


55 


3 


58 


24 


60f 


3 


63| 


34 


67 


64 


734 


74 


804 


24 


83 


24 


854 


94 


944 


34 


984 


3 


1014 


74 


109 


44 


1134 


44 


1174 


44 


1214 


34 


125 


2 


127 


34 


1304 


24 


1334 


4 


1374 


24 


1394 


74 


1474 


94 


157 


24 


1594 


54 


1644 


44 


1694 


34 


1724 


7 


1794 


6 


1854 


74 


1924 


54 


1984 


34 


2014 


3* 


2054 


5 


2104 


74 


2184 


104 


2284 


64 


234* 


4 


238} 


44 


243 


34 


2464 


34 


2494 


34 


253 


74 


2604 


6 


2664 


54 


2714 


44 


2764 


24 


279 


li 


2804 


5 


2854 


24 


2884 


74 


2964 



From 
Buffalo. 



2964 

293 

288 

2794 

270 

2664 

2634 

2574 

2524 

2474 

2444 

2414 

2384 

2354 

2324 

2294 

2224 

2154 

2134 

211 

2014 

1974 

194J 

1874 

183 

1784 

1744 

1714 

1694 

1654 

163 

159 

1564 

1484 

1394 

1364 

1314 

127 

1234 

1164 

1104 

1034 
98 
944 
904 
854 
78 
674 
614 
574 
534 
50 
464 
434 
354 
294 

244 

20 

174 
154 
104 

74 







From 





Troy. 





34 


34 


24 


6 


54 


114 


6 


174 


31 


214 



From 
Schenec- 
tady. 



214 

174 

154 

9* 

34 





ro 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



men, and have an aggregate of 874,634,954.76 of stock paid in, and a capital of stocks and debts 
amounting to §149,262,311.81, or more than one-tenth of the total valuation of the property of the 
State. 



Syracuse <t Rochester, 
via Auburn. 



Syracuse 

Gunillus 

M:u. illns 

Halfway 

Skaneateles Junction 

Sennett 

AuUirn 

Cayuga _ 

Seneca Falls 

Waterloo 

Geneva 

Oaks Corners 

Phelps 

Clifton Springs. 

Shortsville 

Canandaigna 

Milk Station 

Victor 

Tisli'TS _ 

Pirtsford 

Rochester 



Between 
Stations. 




8i 
2* 
3 
3* 
34 
54 
10* 
4* 
34 
64 
4* 
31 

44 

4* 

6 

6 

3* 

31 

6* 

84 



From 
Syracuse. 





84 
10* 
131 
174 
20* 
26J 

Ot 

41* 

4-i 

51 i 

564 

591 

63* 

68i 

744 

84 

87* 

944 

102* 



From 
Rochester. 



102* 
944 
92 
89 
854 
82 
76* 
65* 
61 
57* 
51* 
464 
43J 
39 
344 
284 
224 
IS* 
15 

84 





Rochester, bnckport, <£ Xi- 
agara FaUs Branch. 



Rochester _ 

Spencerport 

Adams Basin 

Brockpart 

Holley 

Murray 



KnowleSTflle 

Medina 

Mil.ll-port 

C, .-jH.rt 

Lockport 

Lockport Junction.. 

Pekin 

Suspension Bridge... 
Niagara Falls 




10 
24 
44 
4* 
34 
54 
54 
44 
44 
5 
6 
34 
6* 
9 
1* 





From 


From 




Rochester. 


Niagara 
FaUs. 





77 


10 


67 


124 


644 


17 


60 


21* 


554 


254 


51* 


30* 


464 


364 


40* 


404 


364 


45 


32 


50 


27 


56 


21 


594 


174 


664 


10* 


754 


1* 


77 






Locl:port Junction to 
Tonawanda. 



Lockport Junction- 

Halls Station 

Tonawanda 





64 

5 



From 
Lockport 
Junction. 





64 

114 



From 
Tona- 
wanda. 



114 
5 





Buffalo <£• LevisUm. 



Buffalo 

Black Bock 

1 'hswan'la 

La Pall- 

-i Falls 

Snspension Bridge 
L>-»ist«>n 




4 

•■; 

6 
5 
H 
44 



From 
Buffalo. 




4 

104 

164 

214 

23 

274 



From 
Lewiston. 



274 

234 

174 

114 

64 

44 





Oanandni/jun if- Xingara 

Bridgt limnrh. 



Canandaigna. 

Qnnna Crossing 

Baal BUmnfiau 

HiUen Cornell 

Hl-infi-M- 

II ij m a Falls 

 Knafa 

*oe Valley B. B. June 
Canal 

ionia 

I.- Boy 

rd 

• ia 

I .-' Pembroke 

Rlchville 

Akron 

Clarence Center 

Trsnsit 

 ille 

Vincent 

Tonawanda 





4.2 

8.8 

4.6 

3 

."..1 

• I 
1.1 
1.2 
6.8 
7.1 
4.1 
5.9 

• J 
6.6 
3.4 
7 

3 
8 

3.1 



Prom 

i .ni ni- 

daigua. 



o 

4.2 

8 
12.6 
ISA 
18.7 

27.2 
88 

■I' i.i 

41.2 
73.3 



From 

r,,„.i. 

vnnda. 



S6.6 

M.4 

77.6 

78 

70 

66.9 

00.7 

59.6 

684 

r.2.6 

UJt 

41.4 

39.8 

22.7 
VP. 
12.3 
9.1 
6.1 
3.1 




Attica Branch. 



Batavia.... 
Alexander 
Attica 



Between 
Stations. 



From 
Batavia. 





8 

11 



From 
Attica. 



11 
3 




Cliarlotte Branch. 



Rochester . 
Charlotte.. 





84 



From 
Rochester. 



From 
Charlotte. 



New York and Erie Rail Road. Company organ- 
ized in July, 1833. The act authorizing the road was passed 
April 24, 1832. The first preliminary surrey was made in 
1832, by De Witt Clinton, jr., by order of the government. 
In 1834 the Governor appointed Benj. TVright to survey the 
route ; who, assisted by Jas. Seymour and Charles Ellett, 
began the survey May 23d, and finished it the same year. 
In 1835 the Co. was reorganized, and 40 mi. were put under 
contract. In 1836 the Comptroller was directed to issue 
$3,000,000 State stock to aid in constructing the road. In 
1845 the State released its lien on the road, and authorized 
the original stockholders to surrender two shares of old 
stock, and receive one share of new. April 8, 1845, a branch 
was allowed to be built from Chester to Newburgh, 19 mi. 
The road was opened as follows : from Piermont to Goshen, 
Sept. 22, 1S41 ; to Middletown, June 7, 1843 ; to Port Jervis, 
Jan. 6, 1848 ; to Binghamton, Dec. 28, 1848 ; to Owego, June 
1, 1849 ; to Elniira, Oct. 1849 ; to Corning, Jan. 1, 1850 ; and 
to Dunkirk, May 14, 1851. The Newburgh Branch opened 
Jan. 8, 1850. The road is compelled to pay a bonus of 
$10,000 annually to the State of Pennsylvania for the priv- 
ilege of passing a short distance in that State. Ample details 
will be found in The New York & Erie R. R. Guide, the annual 
and special reports of the company, and especially that of 
Nov. 1853, and in the following documents of the New York 
Legislature : Senate Doc. No. 12, of 1836 ; Nos. 37, 38, of 
1839; Nos. 18, 58, of 1842. Assem. Docs. Nos. 27, 171 of 
1838; No. 47, of 1839; No. 215, of 1840; Nos. 113, 297, of 
1841 ; and No. 50, of 1842. The Patterson & Ramapo (N. 
J.) R. R., 294 mi., and the Union R. R., ,% mi., the Che- 
mung R. R., and the Elmira, Jefferson, & Canandaigua R. R. 
are leased and operated by the this company. 

New York <£• Erie Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



New York. 

Pier 

Piermont 

Blauvcltville 

Clarkstown 

Spring Valley 

Mons-v 

15 Mil- Turnout 

Jersey City 

Borgen 

O-niiiintown 

Hackensack I!r 

Boiling Spring 

Passaic Bridge. 

lluyl-rs 

Paterson 

Gravel Switch 

Godwin ville 

Hobokne 

Allendale 

BatDseyi 

Bnflbmi 

Bnmnpo 

PloatMmrg 

Psitithflclds 

Greenwood 

Turners 

Monroe 

Oxford 

East Junction. N. B 
W.-t " " 



Distances in Miles. 






? v. ■- 

j; -3 3 



24.00 



1.00 

4.48 

8.73 

11.30 

12.60 

15.07 



17.90 
19.85 
21.55 
2-i.ns 
30.29 
33.48 
35.63 
88.26 
39.83 
40.29 



s-^ 



1.00 



.00 
2.47 
4.75 
6.24 
9.29 
11.09 
11.92 
16.50 
19.71 
21.62 
23.30 
25.50 
27.44 
31.67 
33.62 
35.32 
41.^5 
44.06 
47.25 
49.40 
52.02 
53.60 
54.06 



£■3 



460.72 
445.95 
444.95 
441.47 
437.22 
434.65 
433.35 
430.88 
459.72 
46755 
454.97 
453.48 
460.43 
44848 
447.80 
443.22 
44o!ol 
43S.10 
430.42 
434.22 
432.28 
428.05 
426.10 
424.40 
417.87 
415.66 
412.47 
410.32 
407.70 
4O0.12 
405.66 



RAIL ROADS. 



71 



New York <£• Erie Rail Road, continued. 



Stations. 



Chester 

Goshen 

Hampton 

Middletown 

Howells 

OtisviUe 

Shin Hollow 

Port Jervis 

McCluera Turnout 

Rosa Switch 

Pond Eddy 

Middaughs 

Shohola 

Lacka waxen 

Mast Hope 

Narrowsburg 

Nohodys 

Cocheeton , 

Callicoon 

Hankins 

Basket 

Lordville 

Stockport 

Hancock 

Dickinsons 

Hales Eddy 

Deposit 

Gulf Summit 

Cascade Bridge 

Canewacta Bridge 

Susquehanna 

Great Bend 

Kirkwood 

Binghamton 

Union 

Campville 

Owego 

Tioga 

Smithboro' 

Barton 

Waverly 

Chemung , 

Wellsburgh 

Elmira 

Junction Chemung Br. 

Big Flats 

Noyes Switch 

Corning 

Painted Post 

Addison 

Rathboneville 

Cameron 

Crosby ville 

Canisteo 

Hornellsville 

Almond 

Alfred , 

Tip Top Summit 

Andover 

Elm Valley , 

Genesee 

Scio , 

Phillipsville 

Belvidere , 

Friendship 

Cuba Summit 

Cuba 

Hinsdale 

Olean 

Allegany 

Tunungwant...- 

Great Valley 

Bucktooth 

Little Valley 

Cattaraugus 

Persia Turnout 

Dayton 

Perrysburgh 

Smiths Mills 

Forestville 

Sheridan 

Dunkirk 



Distances in Miles. 






.97 
4.43 

4.00 

3.37 

3.88 

4.69 

6.40 

6.31 

3.83 

5.70 

1.86 

2.07 

5.21 

3.98 

6.35 

6.01 

3.74 

4.76 

5.19 

6.92 

3.65 

6.92 

5.76 

4.58 

5.61 

2.53 

4.91 

7.28 

4.03 

2.81 

1.38 

8.28 

5.61 

8.64 

8.55 

6.57 

6.82 

5.43 

4.42 

2.42 

6.91 

4.78 

5.77 

7.00 

4.09 

5.98 

1.84 

5.76 

1.55 

9.21 

5.11 

7.63 

8.19 

4.92 

4.21 

4.94 

4.17 

3.55 

4.80 

2.68 

6.01 

3.72 

4.14 

3.55 

4.43 

4.04 

4.81 

6.82 

5.55 

3.41 

7.20 

5.36 

3.81 

6.27 

7.31 

6.11 

3.29 

2.93 

6.92 

3.S7 

3.49 

4.66 






41.26 
45.69 
49.69 
63.06 
56.94 
61.63 
68.03 
74.34 
78.17 
83.87 
85.73 
87.80 
93.01 
96.99 
102.34 
108.35 
112.09 
116.85 
122.04 
128.96 
132.61 
139.53 
145.29 
149.87 
155.48 
158.01 
162.92 
170.20 
174.23 
177.04 
178.42 
186.70 
192.31 
200.95 
209.50 
216.07 
222.89 
228.32 
232.74 
235.16 
242.07 
246.85 
252.62 
259.62 
263.71 
269.69 
271.53 
277.29 
278.84 
288.05 
293.16 
300.79 
308.98 
313.90 
318.11 
323.05 
327.22 
330.77 
335.57 
338.25 
344.26 
347.98 
352.12 
355.67 
360.10 
(S64.14 
368.95 
375.77 
381.32 
384.73 
391.93 
397.29 
401.10 
407.37 
414.68 
420.79 
424.08 
427.01 
433.93 
4.37.80 
441.29 
445.95 



E **> ~r 



65.03 
69.46 
63.46 
66.83 
70.71 
76.40 
81.80 
88.11 
91.94 
97.64 
99.50 
101.57 
106.78 
110.76 
116.11 
122.12 
125.86 
130.62 
135.81 
142.73 
146.38 
153.30 
159.06 
163.64 
169.25 
171.78 
176.69 
183.97 
188.00 
190.81 
192.19 
200.47 
206.08 
214.72 
228.27 
229.84 
236.66 
242.09 
246.51 
248.93 
255.84 
260.02 
266.39 
873.39 
277.48 
283.46 
285.30 
291.06 
292.61 
301.82 
306.93 
314.56 
322.75 
327.67 
331.88 
336.82 
340.99 
344.54 
349.34 
352.02 
358.03 
361.75 
365.89 
269.44 
373.87 
377.91 
382.72 
389.54 
395.09 
398.50 
405.70 
411.06 
414.87 
421.14 
428.45 
434.56 
437.85 
440.78 
447.70 
451.57 
455.06 
459.72 



J; ^ 



404.69 
400.26 
396.26 
392.89 
389.01 
384.32 
377.92 
371.61 
367.78 
362.08 

358.15 

352.94 

348.96 

343.61 

337.60 

333.86 

329.10 

323.91 

316.99 

313.34 

306.42 

300.66 

296.08 

290.47 

287.94 

283.03 

275.75 

271.72 

268.91 

267.53 

259.25 

253.64 

245.00 

236.45 

229.88 

223.06 

217.63 

213.21 

210.79 

203.88 

199.10 

193.33 

186.33 

182.24 

176.26 

174.42 

168.66 

167.11 

157.90 

152.79 

145.16 

136.97 

132.05 

127.84 

122.90 

118.73 

115.18 

110.38 

107.70 

101.69 

97.97 

93.83 

90.28 

85.85 

81.81 

77.00 

70.18 

64.63 

61.22 

54.02 

48.66 

44.85 

38.58 

31.27 

25.16 

21.87 

18.94 

12.02 

8.15 

4.66 



be agreed upon, in May, 1840; and to continue to Albany, 
May 14, 1845. Tho road was opened to Chatham 4 Corners 
Jan. 19, 1852, connecting at that place with the Albany & 
West Stockbridgo R. R. 

New York it Harlem Rail Road. 

Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



New Yorlc & Harlem Rail Road. Company formed 
April 2, 1831. Work was commenced Feb. 24, 1832, and the 
first mile opened in Oct. following. The company was 
allowed to extend the road north of Harlem River, to meet 
the New York & Albany R. R. at such point as might 



White and Center Sts., N.Y. 

26th Street 

York ville 

Harlem 

Mott Haven 

Melrose 

Morrisania 

Tremont 

Fordham 

Williams Bridge 

West Mt. Vernon 

Bronxville 

Tuckahoe 

Scars dale 

Harts Corners 

White Plains 

Washingtons Quarters 

Kensico 

Unionville 

Pleasantville 

Chappaqua 

Mount Kisco 

Bedford 

Whitlockville 

Goldens Bridge 

Purdys 

Croton Falls 

Brewsters.- 

Dykemans 

Towners 

Paterson 

Pawlings 

South Dover 

Dover Furnace 

Dover Plains 

Wassaic 

Amenia 

Sharon Station. 

Millerton 

Mount Riga 

Boston Corners. 

Copake 

Hillsdale 

Bains 

Martindale 

Philmont 

Ghent 

Chatham Four Corners 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 



East Albany.. 





2} 

2} 

i 
i 

} 

l* 
i± 

ii 

2} 
2 

1 
3 

H 
2 

2 

f 
3 

2* 
2 

<U 

2* 

2? 

2 

2 

2 

4i 

2} 

3 

2* 

3* 

6 

21 

•H 

4* 

3* 

3* 

4} 

3J 

3* 

5* 

4 

2} 

SI 

3* 

6 

%i- 



From, 
New York. 



23 





2} 
5* 
7* 
H 
9i 
10 

Hi 

12* 
14 

16} 

18} 

19* 

22* 

24 

26 

28 

28} 

31} 

34 

36 

40* 

42* 

45* 

47* 

49* 

51* 

55* 

5S* 

61* 

63} 

67* 

73* 

76 

80* 

84} 

88 

91* 

96 

99* 

103 

108* 

112* 

115 

118} 

122* 

128* 

130} 



from 
Chatham 
4 Corners. 



153} 



130} 

128 

125* 

123 

122* 

121* 

120} 

119* 

118* 

116} 

in 

112 

111* 

10S* 

106} 

104} 

102} 

102 

99 

96 

94} 

90* 

88* 

85* 

83* 

81* 

79* 

75* 

72* 

69* 

67 

63* 

57* 

54} 

50* 

46 

42} 

39* 

34} 

31* 

27} 

22* 

18* 

15} 

12 

8* 

2A 

~a 





23 



New Yorlc &• New Haven Railroad. This com- 
pany was allowed to extend their road from the State 
line to the Harlem R.R. near Williams Bridge. The com- 
pany run their trains 15 miles on the Harlem track for 
which they pay that company the net profits. The road 
was opened Dec. 2S, 1848. 

New York <£ New Haven Railroad. 
Stations and Distances. 



Stations. 



Twenty-seventh St., New 

York 

Thirty-second St 

Harlem 

Williams Bridge 

Mount Vernon 

New Rochelle 

Mamaroneck 

Rye 

Port Chester 

Greenwich 

Cos Cob 

Stamford (Conn.) 

Norwalk " 

Bridgeport " 

New Haven " 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 

Stations. 




3 
4 
6 
4 
3 
3 
4 
2 
2 
2 
3 
8 
14 
18 



From 


Frr/m New 


New York. 


Haven. 





76 


3 


73 


7 


69 


13 


63 


17 


69 


20 


66 


23 


53 


27 


49 


29 


47 


31 


46 


33 


43 


36 


40 


44 


32 


68 


18 


76 






72 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Ogdcnsburgh Railroad. This company was formed 
by the second mortgage bondholders of the Northern R. R., 
from which ita name was changed. The road extends from 
Ogdensburgh to Rouses Point, and includes a branch to 
Champlain Landing. 

Ogdcnsburgh {XorUiem) Railroad. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Distances n Miles. 



Stations. 



Ogdensburgh. 

Lisbon. 

Madrid 

Potsdam 

Knapps 

Brasher Falls & Stockholm. 

Lawrence 

Moira- 

Brush's Mills. 

Bangor 

Malone _ 

Burke 

| Chateaugay 

Summit 

Brandy Brook 

Ellenburgh 

Chazy 

Centerville 

Mooers. 

Perrys Mills „ 

Champlain. 

Rouses Point 



Between 
Stations. 





SJ 
8* 

n 

3 

7* 

5* 

5* 

2* 

5* 

6 

7* 

4* 

7* 

i 

8 

6* 

3i 

7* 

4* 



From Og- 
dcnsburgh. 





Si 

17* 

m 

27* 
35* 

41* 
47 
49* 
55* 
61* 
68* 
73* 
80* 
88* 
89* 
97* 
102* 
106* 

113* 
118 



From 
Houses 
Print. 



118 
109* 
100* 
93* 
90* 
82* 
7** 
71 
68* 
62* 
56* 
49* 
44* 
37* 
29* 
28* 
20* 
15* 
11* 

4* 




Oswego & Syracuse Railroad. Company formed 
April 29. 1839. Route surveyed during the summer of that 
year. The company was fully organized March 25, 1847, and 
the Road was opened in Oct. 184-8. 

Oswgo <£• Syracuse Railroad. 

Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Oswego 

Minetto.- , 

Fulton 

South Granby 

Lam sons 

Baldwinsville 
Syracuse 



DISTANCES IN MlLES. 



Between 

Stations. 





4* 
6* 
4* 
2* 
4* 
12* 



From, 
Oswego. 





4* 
11* 
15* 
18* 
23 
35* 



From 
Syracuse. 



35* 
31 
24* 
19* 
17* 
12* 




I 

Platteburgh & Montreal Railroad. Company 

formed Feb. 25, 1850. Road commenced in Aug. 1*51, and 

ned July 20, 1852. It connects with the Lake, St. Louis, 

k Province Line R. R. It crosses the Ogdensburgh R. R. at 

Mooers Junction. 

Platlsburgh and Montreal Railroad. 

Stations and Distances. 



8TAT10N5. 



Distances in Miles. 



Plattxt.nrph 

Bofinuntown 

\V. -t <Vl7V 

Mofe 

M 

Montreal (Canada) 



Between 


From 


Fr<im 


Stations. 


PlaUsburgh. 


Montreal. 








62 


5 


5 


57 


6 


10 


52 


5 


16 


47 


5 


20 


42 


42 


62 






Sackete Ilnrbor <fc Elllsbnrgh Rail Road. 
Cmpanv farmed May 23, 1860. Bom "poned June 1. 1«63. 
It connects with W. R, A C. V. R. R. at Pierrepont Manor. 

SacktU Batter <t- Elliilmrgh Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 


Distances in Miles. 


B>t\r*rn 

Stations. 


From 
Ml 
Harbor. 


From 
Pin-ri-pont 

Minor. 




1 
» 
1 
4 
 




6 

9 

13 

18 


18 


Pmithville 


13 




9 


Belleville 


6 


Pierrepont Manor 










Pot sd a ni <fc Watertown Railroad. Company formed 
Jan. 8, 1852. Road opened through in Jan., 1857, and ope- 
rated by contractors for construction to April 1 following. 

Potsdam d- Watertovm Railroad. 

Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Watertown Junction 

Watertown , 

Sanfords Corners..... 

Evans Mills 

Philadelphia 

Antwerp 

Keene 

Gouverneur 

Richville 

De Kalb , 

Herman 

Canton 

Potsdam 

Potsdam Junction 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 




1 
5 

4* 
7 

6* 
5 
7 

7* 
4 
4* 
7* 
10* 
6* 



From 
Watertovm. 





1 

6 
10* 
17* 
24 
29 
36 
43* 
47* 
52 
59* 
70 
76* 



From 
Potsdam. 



76* 
75* 
70* 
65* 
58* 
52* 
47* 
40* 
32* 
2S* 
24* 
17 

6* 





Rensselaer &. Saratoga Rail Road. Company 
formed April 14, 1832. Fully organized in May, 1833, and 
surveys commenced the same year. Opened from Waterford 
to Ballston Aug 19, 1835, and to Troy in the Bpring of 1836. 
The Co. leases and runs the Saratoga and Schenectady R. R. 

Rensselaer <t Saratoga Rail Road. 

Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Troy Union Depot., 

Green Island 

Waterford 

A. Junction 

Mechanic ville 

Ballston 

Saratoga 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 




.877 
3.676 
1.402 
6.530 
13.108 
6.707 



From 
Troy. 





.877 

4.553 

5.955 

12.485 

25.593 

32.3 



From 
Saratoga. 



32.3 

31.423 

27.747 

26.345 

19.815 

6.707 





Rochester &, Genesee Valley Rail Road. Com- 
pany formed June 7, 1851; allowed to extend their road to 
Portage. Work was commenced in 1852, and the road 
opened to Avon in 1854. It connects at Avon with the 
Buffalo, New York & Erie R. R. 

Rutland &. Washington Rail Road extends from 
Rutland to Eagle Bridge, 63 mi. We have not been able to 
obtain statistics of this road, as it has made no report for seve- 
ral years. 

Rutland dh Washington Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. 



Stations. 



Albany , 

Troy 

Eagle Bridgo 

Cambridge 

Shushan 

Salem 

Qranvflle 

North Granville 

Poultncy, Vt 

Castleton " ..., 
Rutland " .... 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 





10 

23 

6 

6 

7 

18 

2 

6 

7 

11 



From 

Eagle 

Bridge. 




10 
33 
39 
44 
51 
69 
71 
77 
84 
95 



From 
Rutland. 



95 
85 
62 
56 
61 
44 
26 
24 
18 
11 




Saratoga &, Schenectady Rail Road. Company 
formed Feb. 16, 18SL Work commenced in Sept. 1831. Road 
opened to Hallst.n July 12, 1832, and to Saratoga Springs 
in 1 388. TIk- road is leased and operated by the Rensselaer 
A Saratoga R. R. Co. 

.Saratoga d) Schenectady RaU Road. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Schenectady .... 
Halfway House 

Ballston 

Saratoga 



Distances in Miles. 



Prhrr.n 

Stations. 




8 

7* 
6* 



From 
Schenec- 
tady. 





8 

15* 

22 



From 
Saratoga. 



22 
14 

6* 





RAIL ROADS. 



73 



Saratoga <6 Washington Rail Road. Chartered May 2, 1834. 
Capital, $000,000. Company organized April 20, 1835. Tlio 
work was begun and over $00,000 expended, when it was 
stopped in 1836. The time was extended April 13, 1840, May 
4, 1844, and April 4, 1850, and the stock Wiis increased $250,000 
April 7, 1847. Company allowed to extend the road east to 
Vt., March 7, 1S48. A new route was in part adopted upon 
resuming work. Began laying rails April 10, 1848. Road 
opened to Gansevoort Aug. 15, 1848, to Whitehall Dec. 10, 
1848, and to Lake Station April 9, 1851. Sold Feb. 27, 1855, 
on foreclosure of second mortgage, and name changed to 

Saratoga <fc Wliiteliall Rail Road. Company formed 

Juno 8, 1855. Capital $500,000. This company leases and 

runs the Rutland aud Whitehall R. R. to CastletOn, Vt. 

Saratoga <& Wliitelw.il Rail Road. 

Stations and Distances. 



Stations. 


Distances in Miles. 


Between 
Stations. 


From 
Saratoga. 


From 
Whitehall. 





10.66 
5.3 
.8 
3.32 
4.5 
3.91 
3.91 
6.6 
1.88 
6.62 
1.85 
1.75 
3.28 




10.66 

15.96 

16.76 

20.08 

24.58 

28.49 

32.4 

39 

40.88 

45.62 

47.47 

49.22 

52.5 


39 




28.34 




23.04 




22.24 




18.92 




14.42 




10.51 




6.6 









„ 1.88 




6.62 




8.47 


Hydeville " 


10.22 


Castleton " 


13.5 







Second Avenue Rail Road Company of the City of 
Mew York was formed Jan. 19, 1853. Road to extend from 
Harlem River to Peck Slip. In 1855 the company were 
allowed to bridge Harlem and Bronx Rivers, to discon- 
tinue the road from Chatham St. through Oliver and South 
Sts., and to lay a new track on Bowery to Pearl St. 

Sixth Avenue Rail Road Company of the City of New 
York was formed Dec. 7, 1861. The road extends from 
Chambers St. to Harlem River, and was opened from Broad- 
way to Forty-Fourth St. Aug. 19, 1852. 

Syracuse, Binghamton, &, New York Rail 
Road. Company originally formed July 2, 1851, as the 
Syracuse & Binghamton R. R. Road opened through 
Oct. 23, 1854. It was sold Oct. 13, 1856, on foreclosure of 
mortgage, and name changed to the Syracuse & Southern 
R. R. Its present name was assumed under act of March 
31, 1857. In 1858 the company were authorized to purchase 
the Union R. R. to the canal at Geddes. 

Syracuse, Bivghamlon, dsNew York Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Syracuse , 

Jamesville 

La Fayette 

Apulia 

Tully 

Preble , 

Little York 

Homer 

Cortland , 

Blodgets Mills 

State Bridge 

Marathon 

Killawog 

Lisle 

Whitneys Point.. 
Chenango Forks. 

Chenango , 

I Binghamton 



Distances in Mii.es. 



Between 
Stations. 





6.69 

7.67 

5.10 

1.97 

5.33 

2.71 

4.26 

2.67 

3.54 

6.25 

3.90 

2.90 

3.65 

2.14 

9.28 

6.14 

5.13 



From 
Syracuse. 





6.69 
14.36 
19.46 
21.43 
26.76 
29.47 
33.73 
36.4 
39.94 
46.19 
50.09 
52.99 
56.64 
68.78 
68.06 
74.2 
79.33 



From 
Bingham- 
ton. 



79.33 

72.64 

64.97 

59.87 

57.9 

52.57 

49.86 

45.6 

42.93 

39.39 

33.14 

29.24 

26.34 

22.69 

20.55 

11.27 

5.13 





Third Avenue Rail Road Company of the City of 
New York was formed Oct. 6, 1853. The road extends from 
the intersection of Park Row and Broadway through Park 
Row, Chatham St., Bowery, and Third Avenue to Harlem 
River. It was opened from Ann to Sixty-First St. in 1853, 
and to Eighty-Sixth St. July 4. 1854. 

Troy &• Bennington Rail Road. Company formed 
May 15, 1851. Work commenced in June, 1851. Road opened 
Aug. 1, 1852. Connects the Troy & Boston R. R. with the 
Western Vt. R. R. It is leased to the Troy & Boston R. R. Co. 

Troy &■ Boston Rail Road. Company formed Nov. 20, 
1849. Work commenced in June, 1850. Road opened from 
Troy to Hoosick Falls in Aug. 1853. Most of the remainder 
to the State Line is graded. The company leases the Troy & 
Bennington R. R. and 7 mi. of the Vermont Western R. R. 



Troy d: Bennington Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. 



Stations. 



Troy 

Lansingburgh 

Junction 

Schaghticoke 

Pitts town 

Johnsonville , 

Buskirks Bridge 

Eagle Bridge , 

Hoosick Falls Junction 

Hoosick Falls 

Hoosick Corners 

Petersburgh 

North Adams, Mass 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 




3 
6 
4 
2 
2 
5 
2 
2 
2 
3 
2 
15 



From 
Troy. 





3 
8 
12 
14 
16 
21 
23 
25 
27 
30 
32 
47 



From 



Western Vermont Rail Road. 



Stations. 



North Hoosick 

Walloomsac 

North Bennington, Vt 
Rutland ".. 




2 
4 

54 



From 

North 
Hoosick. 




2 
6 

60 



From 



Troy &. Greenbush Rail Road. Company organized 
May 14. 1845 under a lease from the New York & Albany 
R. R. The road had been commenced about 1842, and opera- 
tions suspended. It was opened in June, 1845. It is 
operated by the Hudson River R. R. Co. under a lease. 

Troy &. Rutland Rail Road. Company formed March 
6, 1851. The road extends from Hoosick near Eagle Bridge 
to Salem. It was opened June 28, 1852, and leased to the 
Rutland & Washington (Vt.) R. R., until March, 1855, when 
it was placed in the bands of a receiver, and run by the 
Albany Northern R. R. 

Troy Union Rail Road. Company formed July 21, 1851. 
Road commenced in Feb. 1853, and opened Feb. 22. 1854. It 
is owned by parties representing the interests of the Troy 
& Greenbush, Troy & Boston, Rensselaer & Saratoga, and 
New York Central R. Roads, and is used by the above com- 
panies in common. 

Union Rail Road. Company formed Jan. 10. 1851, The 
road extends from Patterson and Ramapo (N. J.) to the New 
York & Erie R. R. at Suffems. It is operated by the latter 
road under a lease. 

Union Rail Road. Company formed Nov. 13, 1856. The road 
extends from the 6th Ward in Syracuse to the Erie Canal in 
Geddes. By an act of April 16, 1858, the Co. were authorized 
to sell the road to the Syracuse, Binghamton, & N. Y. R. R. Co. 

Watertown &. Rome Rail Road. Company formed 
April 17, 1832. Work commenced at Rome in Nov. 1848. 
Road opened to Camden in 1849, to Pierrepont Manor in May, 
1851, to Watertown in Sept. 1851, to Chaumont in Nov. 1851, 
and to Cape Vincent May 1, 1852. 

Watertown, Rome, <£• Cape Vincent Rail Road. 
Stations and Distances. (Official.) 



Stations. 



Cape Vincent 

Three Mile Bay 

Chaumont 

Limerick 

Brownville 

Watertown 

Adams Center 

Adams 

Pierrepont Manor., 

Mannsville 

Sandy Creek 

Richland 

Albion 

Kasuag 

Williamstown 

West Camden 

Camden 

McConnelsville 

Taberg 

Rome 



Distances in Miles. 



Between 
Stations. 


From 
Cape Vin- 
cent. 


From 
Rome. 








97 


8 


8 


89 


3 


11 


86 


6 


17 


80 


4 


21 


76 


4 


25 


72 


10 


35 


62 


3 


38 


59 


5 


43 


54 


2 


45 


52 


5 


50 


47 


5 


55 


42 


6 


60 


37 


6 


66 


31 


3 


69 


28 


6 


74 


23 


5 


79 


18 


5 


84 


13 


2 


86 


11 


11 


97 






Williamsport &■ Elmira Rail Road. Incorporated 
by Penn. April 9, 1850, and allowed to extend the road to the 
New York & Erie R. R. at Elmira. The village of Elmua was 
authorized to loan its credit for $100,000 toward the con- 
struction. Eight nrles of the road are in this State. 



74 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Official Summary of Bail Road Statistics 



Names. 



Albany, Vermont & Canada. 

Albany i West Stockbridge 

Black River & Ctica 

Blosshurg & Corning 

Brooklyn City 

Buffalo. New York & Erie 

Buffalo & State Line 

Cayuga & Susquehanna 

Chemung 

Eighth Avenue 

Klin in. Canandaigua & Niagara Falls. 

Flushing , 

Hudson & Boston , 

Hudson River 

Long Island. 

New York Central 

New York & Erie 

New York & Harlem 

New York & New Haven.. 

Ogdensburgh , 

Oswego \ Syracuse , 

Potsdam A Watertown , 

Bensselaer & Saratoga , 

Rochester & Genesee Valley 

Sackets Harbor A Ellisburgh.. 

Saratoga A Schenectady 

Saratoga A Whitehall 

Second Avenue 

Sixth Avenue 

use, Binghamton A New York..., 

Third Avenue 

Troy 4 BennJDgton 

Troy A Boston. 

Troy ,t Up • nl.ush 

Tr.v £ Rutland 

Troy Union 

Watertown A Rome 



Total 1 2,520.59 



h 


li 




■«T3 


3? 


mount of 
and float 
t. 


5-S 


« a 


5 S §> 


i s 


11 


CTS" 




3l§ 


fc H <W 
^ ■•§ -3 


is, 




32.95 


3.39 


$ 600,000 


$ 439,004.97 


$ 1,575,098.79 


$ 1,625,098.79 


38 


34 


1,000,000 


1,000,000.00 


1,289,933.98 


1,289,933.98 


34.94 




1,500,000 
2*0,000 


804,047.99 


662,500.00 


715,070.60 
220,000.00 


14.81 


1.60 


250,000.00 


220,000.00 


20.15 


19.95 


1,000,000 


1,000,000.00 
680,000.00 






142 


11.33 


1,500.000 


2,409,593.88 


2,574,532.19 


68.34 


18 


1,300,000 


1,913,000.00 


1,049,000.00 


1,221,378.49 


34.61 


3.49 


1,500,000 


687,000.00 


473,000.00 


480,402.28 


17.36 


2.06 


380,000 


380,000.00 


70,000.00 


70,000.00 


5 




800,000 


800,000.00 






46.84 


2.90 


300,000 






7.80 


.39 


200,000 


131,339.90 


236,500.00 


269,913.32 


17.33 


.50 


175,000 


175,000.00 
3,758,466.59 






144 


106.50 


4.000,000 


8,842,000.00 


9,297,003.04 


95 


10.08 


3,000,000 


1,852,715.79 


639,497.67 


653,263.02 


555.88 


311.80 


24,182,400 


24,182,400.00 


14,402,634.69 


14,402,634.69 


446 


282.50 


10,500,000 


11,000,000.00 


26,438,016.55 


27,170,274.41 


130.75 


28.84 


8,000,000 


5,717,100.00 


5,151,287.21 


5,298,927.88 


62.25 


63.82 


3,000,000 


2,980,839.33 


2,163,500.00 


2,194,051.07 


118 


17.75 


4,571,900 
350,000 








35.91 


2.21 


396,340.00 


197,000.00 


213,414.94 


75.36 


2 


2,000.000 


633,077.15 


818,500.00 


998,638.47 


25.22 


2.01 


610,000 


610,000.00 


140,000.00 


140,000.00 


18.45 


1.25 


800,000 


555,450.10 


150,000.00 


180,417.13 


18 


1 


175.000 


167,485.89 


278,400.00 


306,810.47 


21 


1.57 


300.000 


300,000.00 


86,500.00 


86,500.00 


40.86 


3.87 


500,000 


500,000.00 


395,000.00 


400,455.94 


8 


8 


800,000 


627,200.00 


350,000.00 


380,000.00 


4 


4.38 


750,000 


750,000.00 
1,200,130.00 






81 


7.09 


1,201,300 


1,500,000.00 


1,763,4S6.80 


6 


6.50 


1,170,000 


1,170.000.00 


50,000.60 


90,600.00 


5.38 


.28 


80.000 


75,358.00 


171,200.00 


172,295.37 


27.23 


3.23 


1,000.000 


568,297.22 


797,500.00 


1,028,582.99 


6 


.04 


275,000 


275,000 00 






17.27 


2.75 


325,000 
30,000 


249,939.50 






2.14 


2.14 


30,000.00 


680^)00.00 


680,000.00 


96.76 


11 


1,500,000 


1,498,400.00 


688,500.00 


769,250.76 


2.520.59 


978.12 


$79,625,600 


$67,358,192.43 


$71,925,162.77 


$74,602,936.63 



The Pittsburgh A Montreal R. R., 23.17 mi.; Champlain & St. Lawrence R. R., 2.5 mi. to Canada line; and Williamsport & 
Elmira R. R.. 8 mi. to Pennsylvania line, are not included in the above table, from default in reports. The gauge of the New 
York A Erie R. R. and of the connecting roads is 6 ft., the same as that of several roads in Penn. The New York Central R. R. 



General Summary of Rail Road Statistics for 

the year ending September 30, 1858. 

Length of roads in miles 3.124.71 

Length of roads laid 2.442.91 

Length of roads in operation, excluding city roads 2,397.62 

I 5th "f douhlo track, including sidings 970.48 

Length of branches owned by company and laid 373.44 

I I" track on same 6.37 

I. h of equivalent single track, exclusive of city 

road* 3,709.08 

Rumba of engine houses and shops 183 

Nuni' Inee 738 

Numl-vr •■( Lnt-clasa passenger cars, rated as eight- 
wheeled 1,071 

Number of MOO nd-class and emigrant cars 175 

Number of baggage, mail, and express cars 239 

Number of freight cars 9,014 

Excluding City Road*. m,i. . 

JB rate of speed of ordinary passenger trains, inclu- 
de 20.72 

AtT.i;' 1 rate  ■( same irhan m motion 25.53 

Av- r I • •■• I of "xprees passenger trains, including 

' M - 26.44 

Av. rags rate of same when in motion 29.39 

Average r  I ..f freight train., Including stoju... 
Average rate of same when in motion 13.95 

Torn. 
Average weight in font r.f passenger trains, exclusive of 

passengers and baggage 73.09 

Average w. i^-lit in tons of freight trains, exclusive of 

freight 129.27 

Miles run by passenger train" 11..S7V74.S 

Til" -arne. p\, lading city roadf 6,1 • 

Number "f paasengen of all claseee carried Id cars... 43.7- 

Tlie sime. excludine city roads 11,250,073 

Numt»T of miles traveled by passengers, or nnmber 
of passengers carried one mile, city roads not in- 
cluded ." 373,159,179 



Miles run by freight trains 5,417,456 

Number of tons carried on freight trains 3,473,725 

Total movement of freight, or number of tons carried 

one mile 420,604,609 

Classification of Freight. 

Tons. 

Products of the forest 303,236 

Products of animals 734,995 

Vegetable food 91 2> 2 2 6 

Other agricultural products 77.174 

Manufactures 325,596 

Merchandise 562.378 

Other articles 556,140 

Total tonnage 3,473,725 

Costs. 

Repairs of road bed $2,282,807.73 

Cost of iron for repair 464.712.95 

Repairs of bufldlngi 207,840.56 

Repairs of fence* and gates 48,660.35 

Taxes on real ostato 290,771.47 

Other road expenses 398,329.66 

Total road expenses $3,693,129.72 

Repairs of engines $ 930.627.16 

Repairs of cars 1,003,900.26 

Repairs of tools 82.975.15 

Oil, waste, Ac 112,518.64 

Other costs 43.759.29 

Total cost of repairs of machinery $2,173,786 .69 

Office expenses, stationery, &c $ 86,427.81 

Agents and clerta .". 622,981.68 

Labor, loading and unloading freight 449,060.96 

Porters, watchmen, and switchmen attendance... 420,180.66 

Wood and water station attendance 96,958.14 



RAIL ROADS. 



75 



fur the year ending Sept. 30, 1858. 






8*3 
3 -lb 

K 5" o 



$ 2,010,634.64 

2,289,933.98 

1,234,514.64 

496,601.28 

1,038,839.97 

2,975,325.66 

2,772,987.09 

1,183,012.71 

400,000.00 

833,642.87 

200,000.00 

308,891.38 

175,000,00 

11,328,989.96 

2,566,270.07 

30.732.517.54 

34,058,632.63 

7,948,116.35 

5,324.527.09 

4,788,791.26 

761,380.11 

1,587,028.08 

900,550.58 

653,539.64 

389,170.84 

480,684.15 

903,890.92 

1,005,403.71 

855,957.22 

2.837,607.66 

1,378,090.74 

253,931.19 

1,422,188.86 

294,731,43 

338,688.87 

732,114.72 

2,159,295.04 



$129,621,542.88 






0/3 w 
■g woo 

V o 

jag 



~ 
3 



$ 84,119.86 

" 60,524.33 

23,554.24 

395,026.80 

429,753.89 

840,116.71 

97,151.68 

338,410.16 

17,989.46 

40,072.52 

58,207.21 

1,636,412.28 

320,588.93 

6,528,412.70 

5,151,616.43 

975,853.86 

836,612.14 

410.806.66 

115.996.68 

94,385.03 

208,222.86 

37,280.57 

48,358.60 

30,150.00 

139,388.67 

227,457.70 

280,617.86 

177,627.85 

403,055.08 

3,164.88 

125,042.55 



391,973.40 



$20,527,951.53 



i 



6 1 



$ 72,904.83 
""28,09i.92 

'"2MJ71.22 

301,632.09 

480,507.05 
77,285.40 

177.753.91 

11,947.28 

41,566.29 

47,367.60 

1,041,773.43 

174,215.05 

3,487,292.67 

3,791,457.62 

617,061.47 

532,477.85 

283,793.93 

54,649.63 

49,672.54 

110,982.77 

3.514.02 

% 

'"'95,'723.46 
119.704.37 

178,226.24 
100,700.61 
242,811.53 

71,753.69 



232,667.41 



$12,716,305.68 



8. 
■8 



$ 12.500.00 
80,000.00 

" 108,000.00 
96,000.00 



10,500.00 
1,919,564.00 



2,108.75 
37,097.93 

18,306.06 



7,500.00 

"12,64400 

75,000.00 

"93,6oo!6b 



44,952.00 



$2,517,667.08 



Passenger TRANSPORTA- 
TION. 



Number. 



196,911 

171,046 

53,647 

9,364 

7,505,859 

185,876 

296,194 

26,253 

6,768,203 

15.852 

226,779 

37,110 

1,415.339 

360,130 

2.124,439 

793,662 

720,070 

953,819 

71,764 

92,492 

71,850 

151,576 

43,948 

7,340 

93,035 

4,504.645 

5,612,357 

107.504 

7,945,462 

87,432 



127.285 



40.977,229 



Mileage. 



1,864,210 

5,094,681 

1,121,012 

103,847 

'"8,192,000 

17,854,082 
623,885 



479,841 

1,483,464 

413.356 

56,658,109 

7,380,760 

136,091,023 

64,931,456 

17,940,971 

82,908,957 

2,767,920 

2,131,962 

1,725,177 

3,662,026 

703,184 

68,913 

2,452,281 



2,753,962 
1,798,203 

"4,ibb,132 



375,335,441 



Freight Transporta- 
tion, ln Tons. 



Number. 



34,918 

226,035 

13,136 

73,908 

143,709 

290,532 
85,656 



4,293 

1,460 

50,806 

160,197 

89,480 

765,407 

816,965 

122,371 

64,058 

150,432 

42,810 

21,142 

59,903 

27,700 

8,342 

62,868 



73,410 
56,049 

123,599 



3,569,082 



Mileage. 



698,360 

7,511,341 

810,660 

831,679 

14,360,666 

19,809,225 

2,674,375 



175,969 

8,356 

880,466 

18,416,865 

2,236,990 

142,691,178 

165,895,636 

7,446,561 

3,715,364 

13,210,357 

1,375,557 

699,023 

1,580,757 

470,900 

74,692 

1,871,411 



5,058,890 
1,482,292 

"9.899,128 



Acci- 
dents. 



14 

7 
33 
25 

6 
11 

1 

2 



423.362.032 



K 



117 204 



and its connecting roads have a gauge of 4.71 ft., the same as New England roads generally. The Buffalo & State Line R. R. has 
a gauge of 4.83 feet, like the Ohio roads ; and a few tracks near Suspension Bridge hare a gauge of 5.5 feet, like that of the 
principal roads in Canada. 



Conductors, Baggagemen, and brakesmen 553,122.23 

Enginemen and firemen 552,985.29 

Fuel and cost of labor in preparing for use 1,598,250.16 

Oil and waste for engines and tenders 204,078.43 

Oil and waste for cars 54,202.29 

Loss and damage to goods and baggage 98,939.98 

Damages for injuries to persons 135,214.26 

Damages for property and for cattle killed 18,519.15 

General superintendence 203,301.81 

Contingencies 545,259.03 

Other costs 906,669.45 

Total cost of operating roads $6,636,051.33 

Earnings. 

From passenger business $ 9,016,747.50 

From freight business, city roads excluded. 10,532,714.97 

From other sources 759,591.38 

Total earnings for all roads $20,309,053.85 

Payments for transportation expenses $12,830,526.87 

Payments for interest 4,156,997.05 

Payments for dividends on stock 2,503,013,93 

Amount carried to surplus fund 218,541.42 

Total payment for all roads $19,709,079.27 

Accidents. 

Number of passengers killed 20 

Number of passengers injured 142 

Number of employees killed 29 

Number of employees injured 24 

Number of others killed. 68 

Number of others injured 36 

Total number killed 117 

Total number injured 202 

Total number killed, excluding city roads 114 

Total number injured, excluding city roads 191 



Cost of Construction and of Equipment. 

Grading and masonry $58,355,306.85 

Bridges 2.396,300.42 

Superstructure, including iron 28,165,443.55 

Passengerand freight stations, buildings and fix- 
tures 4,777,786.65 

Engine and car houses, machine shops, ma- 
chinery and fixtures 1,920,498.40 

Land damages, and fences 9,047,417.34 

Locomotives and fixtures and snow plows 6,884,506.70 

Passenger and baggage cars 2,670.501.01 

Freight and other cars 5.586.736.19 

Engineering and agencies 12,102,948.10 

Total cost of construction and equipment 131,907,445.21 

Total cost of same, excluding city roads 126,873,010.70 

Excluding City Rail Roads, the following deductions per Mile. 

Average cost per mile $52,916.23 

Average cost single track per mile 34,206.05 

Average number of miles traveled by each passenger 33.17 

Average number of passengers to each train 60.72 

Average distance each ton of freight is transported 

in miles 120.91 

Average number of tons in each freight train 77.54 

Average number of trains over each track daily. ... 8.54 
Average Cost per Mile of Road. 

For maintaining of road way $1,511.70 

For repairs of machinery 892.47 

For operating road 2,415.49 

Average Cost per MiU of Single Track. 

For maintaining of roadway $ ^11"^^ 

For repairs of machinery 577.45 

For operating road 1,561.42 

Average amount received for passengers per mile, 1.98 cts. 
Proportion of passengers killed to miles traveled, 1 to 18,657,959. 
Proportion of passengers killed to passengers traveling, 1 to 

562,504. 
Proportion of expenses to earnings, 63 to 100.32. 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Rail Roads Projected, Abandoned, and merged in other Roads. 



Names op Rail Roads. 



Adirondack 

Albany, Bennington 4 Rutland 
Albany Northern 



Albany 4 Cohoes 

Albany 4 Saratoga 

Albany 4 Saratoga Springs.. 

Albany 4 Schenectady 



Albany 4 Susquehanna 

Albion 4 Tonawanda 

Atlantic 4 Gnat Western. 

Attica 4 Allegany Valley... 
Attica 4 Buffalo 



Attica 4 Ilornellsville . 



Attica 4 Sheldon 

Auburn 4 Can:U , 

Auburn 4 Ithaca 

Auburn 4 Rochester. 



Auburn 4 Syracuse.. .. 



Aurora 4 Buffalo 

Batavia 4 Cheektaw.iga.- 

Bath £ Coney Island. 

Bath 4 Crooked Lake 

Binghamton 4 Susquehanna... 

Black River 

Black River 

Black River 



Brewerton 4 Syracuse 

Broadway R. R. Co. of Brooklyn 
Brooklyn, Fort Hamilton 



Buffalo International- 



Buffalo, New York 4 Erie.. 



Buffalo 4 Allegany Valley... 
Buff.ilo 4 Batavia. 



Buffalo 4 Black Rock 

Buffalo 4 Conhocton Talley... 
Buffalo, Corning 4 New York. 



Buffalo 4 Erie 

Buffalo A Hinsdale 

Buff-tlo 4 Lake Huron (Canada i 

Buffalo 4 Lockport 

Buffalo 4 New York 



Buffalo 4 Now York City..... 



Buffalo, Tonawanda 4 Niagara 

Falli 

Buffalo 4 Niagara Kall< 



Date, of 
Organization. 



April 
April 

Feb. 

Co. not 
June 

Sept. 

April 



1, 1S39 

23. 1850 

12. 1851 

organ'd 

28. 1852 

20, 1852 
19, 1847 



April 2. 1861 

April 17,1832 

Dec. 1, 1858 

Sept. 16,1852 

May 3, 1836 



May 14, 1845 



Mav 21, 1S36 
April 24,1832 
21, 1836 
13, 1836 



May 
May 



May 1, 1S34 



April 
Aug. 

March 
April 

April 

May 
Jan. 

May 

Aug. 
May 



14, 1S32 
17, 1S50 

24. 1831 
29,1833 

17. 1832 

21, 1S36 
27,1853 

1, 1S36 

11, 1858 
12, 1836 



Feb. 25, 1857 

Sept. 1, 1857 

May 21, 1853 
April 18,1838 

April 29,1833 
June 26, 1850 
March 18, 1852 

April 14. l<-32 
May 12, 1846 



Buffalo A Pitt«bnrg 

Buffalo, Pittoburg 4 St. Lou in . 
Buffalo 4 Rochester 



April 27,1852 
Jan. 16, 1851 

April 8, 1851 



June 23. 1R5.3 

May 8, 1884 

Mi 7,1852 

Ot. 11. 1863 

'ft. 8,1850 



Capital. 



$100,000 
400,000 
335,000 

''300,006 

200,000 



4,000,000 
200,000 

150,000 

1,000,000 
350,000 



750,000 

50.000 

150.000 

500.000 

2.000,000 

400,000 

300.000 
300,000 

20,000 
150,000 

900,000 

200,000 
120,000 

80,000 

200,000 
150,000 

150,000 



1,500,000 

300,000 
500,000 

100,000 
1,400,000 



650.000 

".'»i. i 



600,000 
350,000 



Caaindaitrua Railway 4 Trana-'l , _ ,- , C/K ^ 

portAtionCo | a * fa »**™ 

Canandaigua 4 Corning M -v 11. |04f 1,000,000 



250.000 
110,000 

750,000 

1,826,000 
BOVOOO 



Canandaigua 4 Elmira. Bept 11 



Connections. 



Adirondack Iron Works and 

Clear Pond 

Albany, Bennington, and 

Rutland 

Albany and Troy, and Rutland 
R. R. at Eagle Bridge. 

Albany and Ccfboes 

Albany and Green Island 

{Albany Northern R. R. and ) 
Saratoga Springs / 

Albany and Schenectady. 

Albany and Bingbamton. 

Albion and Batavia 

/ Buffalo 4 New York Central \ 
\ R. R. and Penn. State Line/ 

Attica to Penn. State Line 

Attica and Buffalo 

Attica and Hornellsyille 

Attica and Sheldon 

Auburn and Canal 

Auburn and Ithaca. 

Auburn and Rochester. 

Auburn and Syracuse 

Aurora and Buffalo 

Batavia and Attica 4 Buffalo R.R. 

Bath and Crooked Lake 

Binghamton and Penn. S. Line 
/ Rome or Herkimer and River ) 

1 St. Lawrence / 

Clayton and Carthage 

Clayton and Mohawk Village.... 
/ Outlet of Oneida Lake and V 

1 Syracuse J 

Through a part of Brooklyn-.... 

( Buffalo and proposed inter-') 
-j national bridge, opposite > 
{ Squaw Island ) 

/Buffalo, New York 4 Eriel 
\ R.R. at Corning / 

/Buffalo and Attica 4 Alle-1 

t gany R. B / 

Buffalo and Batavia. 

Buffalo and Black Rock 

/ Buffalo, New York 4 Erie R. R. 
\ at Corning. 

Huffalo and Erie, Penn 

Buffalo and Hinsdale. 

Buffalo and Lockport 

Buffalo and Attica. 

Buffalo and Hornellsville 

Tonawanda and Black Rock 

Bnflslo and Niagara Falls 

{Buffalo and State Line nearl 
mean / 

Buffalo and Rochester 

Canandaltma and Watson 

Canand.iigua and Elmira. 



Canandaigua and Niagara Bdge. 



Remarks. 



Nothing done. 

Merged in Albany Northern R.R. 

Sold, and succeeded by Albany, 

Vermont, 4 Canada R. R. 
Nothing done. 
Nothiug done. 

Nothing done. 

Changed from Mohawk 4 Hud- 
son, and merged in the New 
York Central R. R., May 17, 
1853. 

Partly graded. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Partly graded. 

Consolidated as Buffalo 4 Roches- 
ter, afterward as Buffalo & N. 
York City R, R., at present 
as Buffalo, New York, 4 Erie 

Consolidated, and is now the Buf- 
falo & New York City R. It. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Consolidated in New York Cen- 
tral R. R. 

Consolidated in New York Cen- 
tral R. R. 

Not constructed. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done 

Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Not constructed. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

'Consolidation of the Buffalo. 
Corning, and New York R. R. 
and part of Buffalo 4 New 
York City R. R. 

Tartly done. 

Not constructed by this organi- 
zation. 

Horse-power. Since nbandoned. 

Now the Buffalo, New York 4 
Erie R. R. 

Name changed from Buffalo 
Conht>cton Valley R. R, 

Surveyed and located. 

Nothing done. 

Allowed to purchase real estate 
in 1857. 

Consolidated with New York Cen- 
tral R. R., 1853. 

Connected with Attica 4 nornells- 
ville R. It., and name changed 
to Buffalo 4 New York City 
It. K. 

Consolidation of Attica 4 Buffalo 
R. R. and Buffalo 4 New York 
R. R. 

Not constructed. 

Leased to New York Central R. R. 

Co. in 1853. 
Reorganized as the Buffalo, Pitta- 
burg 4 St. Louis R. R. 
Partly graded. 
Formed by union of Tonawanda 

and Attica 4 Bnffalo It. Roads. 

{Connected with Chemung R. R. 
to Elmira. 
Formed from Canandaigna 4Corn- 
ing and Chemung R. Roads. 
Leased to New York 4 Erie 
R. R. Co. 
Leased to New York Central R. R. 
Co. in 1858. 



RAIL 11 A D S. 
Rail Roads Projected, Abandoned, and merged in other Roads, continued. 



77 



Names op Rail Roads. 



Canandaigua & Niagara Falls.... 
Canandaigua & Syracuse 

Cassadaga & Erie 

Castleton & West Stockbridge... 



Catskill & Canajoharie 

Catskill & Ithaca 

Cbautauque County 

Chemung & Ithaca 

Cherry Valley & Susquehanna... 

Clifton & South Clifton 

Clyde & Sodus Bay 

Coeyraans 

Cold Spring 



Cooperstown & Cherry Valley- 
Corning & Blossburg 

Corning & Olean 

CoxsackieA Schenectady 

Dansville & Rochester 

Delaware 

Division Avenue 

Dunkirk & State Line 

Dutchess 



Date of 
Organization. 



Dec. 
Nov. 

May 

May 

April 

April 
July 

May 
May 

March 

Jan. 
May 
April 

May 

April 

Feb. 

May 

March 

May 

March 

April 

March 



Dutchess May 



Elmira, Canandaigua & Nia-1 
gara Falls J 

Elmira & Williamsport 

Erie & Cattaraugus 



Erie & New York City 

Fishhouse A Amsterdam 

Fishkill Landing & State Line.. 

Fredonia & Van Buren 

Genesee Valley 



Genesee & Cattaraugus.... 

Genesee & Hudson River.. 

Geneseo 

Geneseo & Pittsford 

Geneva & Canandaigua.... 

Gilboa 

Goshen & Albany 

Goshen & New York. 

Great Ausable 

Greene 



Harlem & High Bridge., 

Herkimer & Trenton 

Honeoye , 

Hudson & Berkshire 



Hudson & Delaware.. 

Ithaca & Geneva 

Ithaca & Owego 



Ithaca & Port Ren wick. 
Jamesville 

Johnstown 



Jordan & Skaneateles 

Kingston Turnpike & R. R...., 
Lake Champlain & OgdenBburgh 
Lake Ontario, Auburn & New \ 

York f 

Lake Ontario, Auburn ft New) 

York J 

Lake Ontario ft Hudson River... 



10. 1850 
26, 1853 

21. 1836 
5,1834 

19, 1830 

21, 1828 

23. 1851 

16. 1837 

10. 1836 

8, 1853 

22, 1853 
21, 1836 
30, 1839 

15. 1837 

5, 1851 

5, 1853 
15, 1837 
22, 1832 
21, 1836 

1, 1853 
15, 1850 
28, 1832 

25, 1836 



Capital. 



Connixtions. 



Si ,000,000 
1,000,000 

250,000 

300,000 

600,000 

1,500,000 

50,000 

200,000 

500,000 

350,000 

150,000 

75,000 

2,500 

150,000 



850,000 
500,000 
300,000 
400,000 
500,000 
500,000 
600,000 

1,000,000 



April 24,1857 

April 21,1832 
May 15, 1837 



Lake Ontario ft New York . 

Lansingburgh & Troy 

Lansingburgh & Troy 

Lebanon Springs 



July 

April 
April 
May 
June 

May 

Dec. 

April 

May 

April 

April 

April 

May 

April 

April 

Aug. 
May 
May 
April 

April 
April 
Jan. 

April 
May 

May 

May 

April 
April 

April 

May 
April 



Aug. 



Lewiston.., 



11, 1851 

26, 1832 
12, 1848 

21. 1836 

2. 1856 

15. 1837 

11, 1852 
11, 1848 
11, 1836 
21, 1828 
15, 1839 

12, 1842 

13, 1837 
17, 1828 

18. 1838 

25, 1853 
13, 1836 
21, 1836 
21, 1858 

19, 1830 
9, 1832 

28, 1828 

16, 1834 
21, 1836 

13, 1836 

6, 1837 

23, 1835 
20, 1832 

15, 1851 

9, 185G 

6. 1857 



20, 1852 

May 19, 1836 
Nov. 13, 1853 
Dec. 1, 1851 

May 6, 1836 



75,000 
200,000 

750,000 
250,000 

""*12,666 

300,000 

400,000 

7,000,000 

15,000 

150,000 

100,000 

150,000 

1,500,000 
150,000 
150,000 

20,000 

150.000 
200,000 
250,000 
350,000 

500,000 
800,000 
150,000 

15,000 
25,000 

75,000 

20,000 

20,000 
3,000,000 

1,500000 
1,500,000 



150,000 

40,000 

10,000 

500,000 

200,000 



Canandaigua and Erie Canal 

Canandaigua and Syracuse 

( Cassadaga Creek and I'enn. I 
\ State Line / 

Castleton and West Stockbridge 

Catskill and Canajoharie 



Remarks. 



Catskill and Ithaca 

J New York & Erie R. R. and ) 
( Penn. State Line j 

Head of Cayuga and Penn. Lino 

!Utica & Syracuse R. R. and ) 
New York & Erie R. R f 
Clifton and Vreeland Farm, \ 
on Lower Bay J 

Clyde and Lake Ontario 

Landing and Moss Hill Quarries 
In Cattaraugus co 



(Cooperstown and Canandai-) 

1 gua & Syracuse R. R J 

[Corning and Blossburg Coal 
{ Region in Penn. 

Corning and Olean 

Coxsackie and Schenectady 

Dansville and Rochester 

Delhi and Deposit 

Brooklyn 

Dunkirk and State Line 

Pou^hkeepsie and State Line 

( Poughkeepsie and Mass. or 1 
\ Conn, line j 

Elmira and Suspension Bridge... 

Elmira and Williamsport, Penn. 
( Attica & Buffalo R. R. and 1 
1 Genesee & Cattaraugus R.R. { 
j Little Valley Creek and \ 

\ Penn. State Line J 

Fishhouse and Amsterdam 



ft' 



Fredonia and Van Buren... 

Avon and Mount Morri3.... 
(Attica and New York 
I Erie R.R / 

Rochester and Albany 

Geneseo and Canal in York 

Geneseo and Pittsford 

Geneva and Canandaigua 

Gilboa to Canajoharie 

Albany and Goshen 

Goshen to New Jersey State line 

Port Kent and Ausable Forks... 
and New York & 1 



Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done under this organi- 
zation. 

Partly constructed, and after- 
wards abandoned. 

Nothing done. 

Not constructed. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done but survey. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. Intended for lum- 
bering purposes. 

Nothing done. 

Changed in 1854 to Blossburg & 

Corning R. R. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Surveyed. Nothing further done. 
Nothing done. 
Not constructed. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

{Formed by connection of Ca- 
nandaigua & Elmira and Ca- 
nandaigua & Niagara Falls 
R. Roads. 
Nothing done by this Corporation. 

Nothing done. 

Partly graded. 

Nothing done. 

Company never organized. 

Nothing done. 

Trains commenced in March 1859. 



fGre 



ErieR. R J 

East River and High Bridge 

Herkimer and Trenton 

Erie Canal and Honeoye Lake., 
Hudson and Berkshire 



Newburghand Delaware River. 

{Ithaca and Geneva & Canan- ) 
daigua R. R J 

Ithaca and Owego 



Ithaca and Cayuga Lake 

Jamesville to Erie Canal 

("Johnstown and Utica & Sy-1 

1 racuse R. R f 

J Jordan and terminus Ska-1 
{ neateles R. R / 

Esopus Creek and Kingston 

Ogdensburgh and L. Champlain.. 
f Little Sodus Bay and Clyde & 
\ Sodus R. R. 

The same 



(Lewiston and mouth of Ni-1 
\ agara River J 

Lansingburgh and Troy 

The same 

Lebanon Springs and Chatham.. 

Lewiston and Niagara Falls 



Nothing done. 



Nothing 
Nothing 
Nothing 
Nothing 
Nothing 
Nothing 
Nothing 
Nothing 



done, 
done, 
done, 
done, 
done, 
done, 
done, 
done. 



Nothing done. 

Not constructed. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Merged in Hudson and Boston 

R.R. 
Graded, but nothing further done. 

Not constructed. 

Changed to Cayuga and Susque- 
hanna R. R. 
Not constructed. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Not constructed. 

Not constructed. 

Surveyed, but not constructed. 

Grading commenced, but no part 

completed. 
(Work resumed, but no part 

\ completed. 

Name changed from Sackets Har- 
bor & Saratoga R. R. No part 
completed. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 
Grading commenced, but no part 

completed. 
Leased to the New York Central 
R. R. Co. 



78 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 
Fail Roads Projected, Abandoned, arid merged in other Roads, continued. 



Lockport & Batavia May 21,1836 

Lockport A Niagara Falls April 24,1834$ 175,000 



Lockport A Youngstown.. 
Madison County 



Names op Rail Roads. 



Date of 
Organization. 



Capital. 



Maiden , 



Manhattan 

ManheimA Salisbury., 



May 13, 1837 

Nov. 2-3. 1853 

April 28,1834 

March 29. 1832 

May 15, 1834 

May 13, 1S36 

Jan. 11, 1851 

Mohawk A Hudson April 17, 1S20 



Mayville A Portland. , 

Medina A Darien 

Medina A Lake Ontario. 
Mohawk Taller 



May 21. 1836 350.000 
April 17,1829 70,000 



Mohawk A Moose Rirer., 



Mohawk A St. Lawrence R. R. 

,v Navigation Co 

Newark 



New York City 

New York A Albany 

New York A Connecticut 

New York A Newburgh 

New York A New Rochelle 

New York A Troy 

New York A Western 

Niagara Bridge A Canandaigua.. 



Niagara Falls, Buffalo A New 

York 

Niagara Falls A Lake Ontario 
Niagara Falls A Lewistown ... 

Niagara River 

Northern 



Northern (N.J.). 



Northern Slackwater A Railwav 
Co ' 



nsborgb 

Ogdensburgh. Clayton A Rome 



April 14, 1S57 



May 11. 1837 

May 21, 1836 

May 12, 1851 

April 17,1832 

May 12, 1846 
March 27, 1854 

Feb. 18, 1852 

Jan. 30, 1852 

June 10, 1853 

Aug. 23, 1858 



June 
Sept. 
Sept. 
July 
May 



4. 1--.2 
3, 1852 
1. 1^47 
3, 1S55 
14, 1S45 



April 15,1858 



350,000 

310.000 
75,000 

150.000 
100,000 

2l.HU II HI 

2,000.000 
300,000 



1,000,000 
100,000 

120,000 

3,000,000 

150,000 
500,000 

1,000,000 

1,000,000 

12,000,000 
1,000,000 



250.000 

HKI.I 00 

150,000 

175.000 

2,000,000 



May 13, 1846 



Orange A Sussex Canal Co April 9, 1829 



Oswego. Hinghamton A New York 

Orwego Northern A F-astern 

Tr v 

I'tira 



vl 

! I A- i.ui.il 



Piermont W(«t . s hr.rf 

'.nrgh A Rrnisos Point 

Pari Byron A Auburn 

Botlwlefi Lockport A Niagara 



Rochester A Canal Rail Rot 1. 

Rooh^'ter A Lake Ontario 

Rochester A Lockport 



Dec. 
Peb. 



31. 1857 
19, 1353 



Aug. 
Jan. 

Peb. 

Mar 
April 
Mav 
May 

Dec. 



14, 1855 

12. Is.",'! 

21. 1854 
1::. 1886 
26, 1832 
21. 1836 
6. 1837 

4, 1857 



Rochester A Pittsburgh July 18, 1853 

Rochester A Southern Her. 27 

Rochester A Syracuse Aug. 1,1850 



March 17,1861 
April 17, 1829 

Doc. 10, 1850 

Mar. ), 26, 1831 

May 3, 1852 

May 15. 1837 



2,000,000 
1.538,500 

2. .HIM) 



400,000 

;4oo,ooo 

2.000,000 
750.000 

2' .'MM -I 

-,00.0011 

12,000 
40,000 

500.000 

50000 



30,000 
100,000 
j 10,000 

l. ,000 

200.000 

4.2'>o.i«K) 



Connections. 



Lockport and Batavia. , 

Lockport and Niagara Falls. 



Lockport and Youngstown... 
Chittenango and Cazenovia.. 



( Maiden and jnnction 
■< Smithbush and Esopus 

( Roads 

Manhattanvilleand South Ferry 
Little Falls and Nicholville 



)US > 



Remarks. 



Mayville and Portland..... 

Medina and Alexander 

Medina and Carlton. 

Utica and Schenectady.... 
ilbany and Schenectady.. 



{ 



New York Central R. R. in~| 
Montgomery county and > 
Moose River Lakes ) 



Nicholville and Piseco Lake 

Tienna and Lake Ontario 

f Lower part of the city and \ 
\ Macombs Bridge J 

New York and Albany 



Ridgefield, Conn., and Harlem... 
" Newburgh and New Jersey 1 

State line ) 

New Rochelle and New York | 

City / 

New York A Harlem R. R. | 

in Ghent and Troy 

State Line in Rockland Co. 

and Canandaigua 

N iagara Bridge and Canandaigua 



Suspension Bridge and Buffalo... 
Niagara Falls and Youngstown.. 

Niagara Falls and Lewiston 

Niagara Falls and Lewiston 

Rouses Point and Ogdensburgh. 



Piermont and Jersey City.. 



Port Kent and Boonville.. 
Ogdensburgh and Rome., 



Oswego and Syracuse 

_ Oswego unilWliitehall A Rut-) 

land R.R J 

Oswego and Troy 

i I- v.. _•.. an. I I'tira 

Cooperstown and Milford 

i twego and Cortland or Homer.. 
Pen field and Krie Canal 



( Pi.-rmont and terminus of") 
Nnrth.-rn II. It. (N.J.) at - 

1 8tate Lino J 

Plattubtirgh and Rouses Point... 
Auburn and Port Byron 



Rochester and Niagara Falls., 
Rochester and Lake. Ontario.. 



Rochester and Charlotte. 



Rochester and Lockport. 



Rome A Port Ontario Mav 13. 1«37 350.000 

Rutland A Whitehall May 21.1836 100,000 

Sackets Harbor A Saratoga. April 1". 1848 2.000,000 



{Genesee Valley R. R. and! 
Allegan; Valley R. R j 

Bochettm and fcfendon 

K - h'-st.r and Syracuse 



Rom" and Port Ontario , 

whit-hall and Rutland 

 1 1. ii bet and Saratoga..., 



Sockets narbor A WatTtown.... Aug. 26,1856 110,000 Sockets Harbor and Watertown 

I 



Nothing done. 

Merged in the New York Central 
R. R. 

Nothing done. 

Preliminary surveys made. Noth- 
ing else done. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Name changed to Mohawk & St. 
Lawrence R. R. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Surveyed, but not constructed. 

Name changed to Albany & Sche- 
nectady R. R. First R. R. in 
the State. 

Nothing done. 



Not constructed. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

No part of the road completed 

by this Company. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

No part constructed.. 

Nothing done. 

Surveyed, nothing further done. 

Changed from Canandaigua A 
Niagara Falls R. R. Leased to 
New York Central R. R. 

Nothing done. 

Graded and rails laid, but not used. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Since changed to Ogdensburgh 

R.R. 
Allowed to extend from State Line 

to Piermont. Constructed. 

Route explored, nothing further 

done. 

Name changed from Northern. 
Partly graded, and abandoned. 
Allowed to build a R. R. on the 

lino of their route. Nothing 

done. 
Nothing done beyond surveys. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done but surrey. 
Nothing done but survey. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Superseded by extension of North- 
ern R. R. to Piermont. 

Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Consolidated In New York Cen- 
tral R. R. 

Completed to near the Landing 
in 18.32. 

Leased to New York Central R. R. 
Co. on consolidation. 

Nothing done under this organi- 
zation. 

Not constructed. 

Not constructed. 

Consolidated with New York Cen- 
tral in 1855. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Partly graded. Name changed 
to Lake Ontario and Hudson 
R.R. 

Surveyed, but nothing further 
done. 



RAIL ROADS. 



79 



Rail Roads Projected, Abandoned, and merged in other Roads, continued. 



Names op Rail Roads. 



Saliua & Port Watson 

Saratoga Springs k Schuylervillo 

Saratoga k Fort Edward 

Saratoga k Montgomery 

Saratoga & Washington 

Schenectady k Catskill 

Schenectady & Susquehanna 

Schenectady & Troy 



Schoharie & Otsego 

Scottsville & Canandaigua., 
Scottsville & LeRoy 



Sharon & Root.. 



Skaneateles . 



Skaneateles k Jordan 

Sodus Point & Southern . 



Staten Island , 

Staten Island 

Syracuse, Cortland & Bing- 
hamton 

Syracuse Stone , 

Syracuse k Binghamton , 



Syracuse & Southern . 



Syracuse k Utiea. 



Syracuse & Utica Direct 

Tioga Coal, Iron Mining 
Manufacturing Co , 

Tonawanda 



Trenton & Sackets Harbor..., 
Troy Turnpike k Rail Road.. 

Troy & Utica , 

Troy k West Stockbridge 

Tyrone & Geneva , 

Ulster County , 



Unadilla k Schoharie.. 



Utica k Binghamton.. 
Utica k Schenectady., 



Utica & Susquehanna 

Utica & Syracuse Straight Line. 

Utica & Waterville 

Warren County 

Warsaw & LeRoy 



Warwick 

Washington County Central., 

Watertown k Cape Vincent.., 



Watervliet & Schenectady. 

Westchester County , 

West Side 

Whitehall k Pittsburgh ... 
Whitehall & Rutland 



Williamaburgh, Brooklyn, ) 
Bush wick & New Lots / ' 



Date of 
Organization. 



April 

April 

April 

May 

May 

May 
May 
May 

April 25, 1832 

April 12,1838 
May 21, 1836 

April 18,1838 



27, 1829 
6, 1832 

17, 1832 
6, 1836 
2, 1834 

13, 1846 
13, 1846 
21, 1836 



May 

March 
March 

May 

Aug. 

May 

May 
July 



May 
Jan. 



April 

May 
April 
Feb. 
May 

May 
May 



April 
Sept. 
June 
April 
May 

May 

Dec. 



May 
Nov. 
Feb. 
Dec. 
April 

June 



19, 1836 

13. 1835 
8, 1852 

21, 1836 
2, 1851 

21. 1836 

13, 1836 
2, 1851 



Oct. 13, 1856 



11. 1836 
20, 1853 

1841 
14, 1832 

15. 1837 
18, 1831 
10, 1853 
10, 1836 

16, 1837 
21, 1S36 



May 9, 1836 

May 18, 1853 
April 29, 1833 



25, 1832 
18, 1852 
26, 1854 
17, 1832 
5, 1834 

13, 1837 

8, 1853 



May 13, 1836 



21, 1836 

7, 1856 

1854 

15. 1852 
26, 1833 

29. 1853 



Capital. 



$ 375,000 
100,000 
200,000 
150,000 
600,000 

1,000,000 

1,500,000 

500,000 

300,000 

100,000 
200,000 

50,000 

25,000 

350,000 

250,000 

300,000 

500,000 

75,000 
1,200,000 

1,201,300 



1,000,000 
600,000 

500,000 

500,000 

100,000 

2,500,000 

600,000 

500,000 
500,000 

600,000 

1,000,000 
2,000,000 

1,000.000 

1,000,000 

300,000 

250,000 

100,000 

100,000 

200,000 

50,000 

500,000 

500,000 

6,000,000 

1,000,000 

100,000 



Connections. 



Syracuse and Port Watson 

/ Saratoga Springs and Schuy- ) 

I lervillo J 

Saratoga and Fort Edward 

/ BallstOD Spa and W. branch \ 

X of North Kiver j 

Saratoga and Vt. State Line 



Schenectady and Catskill 

f Schenectady and New York ) 
( &ErieR. R J 

Schenectady and Troy 



/ Catskill & Central R. R. and 1 

\ Susquehanna j 

Scottsville and Canaudaigua 

Scottsville and LeRoy... 



{ 



f Branch of Catskill k Cana-1 

X joharieR. R J 

"Skaneateles and some poiuti 
on Skaneateles & Jordan 

R.R ] 

Skaneateles and Jordan 

/ Sodus Point and Catskill , 

1 Ithaca R. R. 

/From near Quarantine to] 

1 opposite Amboy J 

Clifton and Tottenville , 

Syracuse and Binghamton 



Remarks. 



Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done by this company. 

Nothing done. 

Name changed to Saratoga k 
Whitehall R.R. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Consolidated with New York Cen- 
tral R. R. in 1853. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Partly constructed but afterwards 
abandoned. 

Nothing done. 

Constructed, but since abandoned. 
'Changed from Skaneateles R.R. 



Syracuse and Stone quarries.. 
Syracuse and Binghamton 



Syracuse and Binghamton.. 



Syracuse and Utica. 
Syracuse and Utica.. 



/ Bituminous coal region and 1 
X Chemung Canal J 



Rochester and Attica.. 



Trenton and Sackets Harbor 

Troy and Bennington, Vt 

Troy and Utica ; 

Troy and West Stockbridge 

/ Geneva and New York k \ 

X Erie R.R j 

/Kingston and New York k{ 

X Erie R.R j 

("Mouth of Unadilla River"} 
■i and New York & Erie > 

{ KR j 

Utica and Binghamton 

Utica and Schenectady 



Utica and Susquehanna 

Utica and Syracuse 

Utica and Waterville 

Glens Falls and Caldwell 

Warsaw and LeRoy 

/ Branch of New York & Erie \ 

X near Chester J 

Pittstown and Greenwich 



Watertown and Cape Vincent.. 



West Troy and Schenectady 

Harbor River and New Rochelle. 

Albany and Sufferns. 

Whitehall and Plattsburgh 

Whitehall and Rutland, Vt 

Williamsburgh and New Lots.... 



Partly graded; work stopped in 
1854. 

Not constructed. 

Not constructed. 

Surveyed. Nothing further done. 

Nothing done. 

Opened in 1854. Name changed 
to Syracuse k Southern R. R. 

Successor of Syracuse k Bing- 
hamton R. R. Name changed 
to Syracuse, Binghamton & 
New York R. R 

Consolidated with New York Cen- 
tral R. R. in 1853. 

Not constructed, 
f Sold in 1852, and name changed 

< to Corning k Blossburg 
(. R.R. 

Consolidated with Attica k Buffalo 
R. R. in 1850, 

Nothing done. 

Not constructed. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 



Nothing done. 
Consolidated with New 
Central R. R. in 1S53. 
Not constructed. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 
Not constructed. 
Nothing done. 

Nothing done. 

Surveyed and 

and 



York 



nothing 
nothing 



further 



further 



done. 
Surveyed 

done. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 
Nothing done. 

Surveyed, but not constructed. 
Not constructed by this company. 

Allowed to build Horse R. Road, 
for 21 years. 



CORPORATIONS. 



Corporations were generally formed under special acts until the adoption of the Constitution of 
1S4G, which directed that general laws should be passed for this purpose, and forbade special legis- 
lation, except for municipal purposes and in cases where the purpose to be attained could not other- 
wise be effected. The Legislature has power to alter and repeal the powers of any corporation 
formed under the general laws. The articles of association or declaration of intention must in all 
cases be filed in some office of record specified in the general acts ; and limitations of time, capital, 
and location must be specified. The stockholders of the more important classes of corporations 
are personally liable to an extent equal to the amount of stock owned. Under the present Con- 
stitution, general acts of incorporation have been passed for a variety of purposes, all of which 
belong to one of 4 general classes. 1 

Class I. includes those whose articles are filed in the office of the Secretary of State. 

1. "An Act to provide for the Incorporation of Companies to construct Plank Roads and 
Turnpikes." 2 

2. " An Act to authorize the formation of Companies for Mining, Mechanical, and 
Chemical Purposes" was passed Feb. 8, 1848.* 

3. "An Act to authorize the formation of Gas Light Companies'" was passed Feb. 16, 1848. 4 



1 C . Art. VIII. Raised Statutes. Previous to 1846, 

general laws existed for the organization of religious societies, 
(1T V 4 ;) collegi s and academies. (1787 ;) public libraries, (1796;) 
medi' - i manufacturing companies, (1S11;) 

bank3. (l^J-> :) and agricultural societies, (1819, 1^41.) 

* Several hundred of these corporations were formed and 
several thousand miles of plank road built in 1848-52. It is 
probable that less than 5 per cent, of these are now in use, 



having mostly been abandoned and divided into road districts 
as public highways. The companies were required to report, 
but generally neglected to do do; and few general statistics are 
preserved concerning them. 

3 These companies, though quite numerous, were not required 
to report ; and statistics concerning them cannot be obtained. 
Many companies that filed their articles never went into 
operation. 



* Gas Light Companies. 

A * indicates companies not in operation. 



Naues of Compames. 



Albany Gas Light Consumers' Co.* 

Albion Gas Light Co.* 

Albion Gas Light Co 

Astoria Gas Co 

Auburn Gaa Light Co _ 

Batavia Gas Light Co_ 

Binghamton Gas Light Co..... 

Brockport Gas Light Co 

Brooklyn Gas Co.* 

Brooklyn Consolidated Gaa Light Co 

Buffalo City Gaa Light Co- 

Buffalo Gaa Light Co 

Canandaigua Gaa Light Co 

CaUkill <iaa Light Co 

Citiz- nV Qtt Li^'ht Co.- ~ 

Citi*. n*' Gaa Light Co. of the City of Rochester. 

Ciiiz' n»' Independent Gaa Co 

 

Elmirafiu- 

Ki.-hk 

 I a 

Pulton '. h Ughl Oo 

Gaa Light I - rinue 

• a Oaa Light Co 

Oa* Light Oo 

i  ' 

Harl- _ 

1 1 • m I  « t - | _ 

H« mprtead Gaa Light Co 

Ilu won fi(M Oo 

Hadaon Gaa Light ' * - 

Ithn. I 

Jamaica Gaa Ught •'•>. 

Johnstown <<»* I 

Lanaingburgh <iaa Light Co 

Lock; ghtOo 

Lvon« Gaa Ught Oo 

Manhattan Gax Light Co 

Morritania Gaa Light Co 

V wtmrgh Gaa Ughl Oo 

New ToS Mutual Saving Gaa Light Co.*. 

Ogdenabur^h liaa Co 

Ogdensbargh Gaa Light Co 

Ogdensburgh Gaa Light A Coke Co 

Oswego Gaa Light Co 

Owego Gaa Ught Co 

60 



Date of Organization. 


Original Capital. 


Present Capital. 


Feb. 18, 1856 


575,000 


§75.000 


March 13. 1856 


20,000 


20.000 


May 13, 1858 


30,000 


30.000 


Dec. 1, 1853 


20,000 


20.000 


Jan. 29, 1850 


20,000 


50.000 


June 11,1865 


32,000 


32.000 


June 25, 1853 


50,000 


60,000 


Jan. 17, 1859 






Oct. 21, 1848 


200,000 


200.000 


Oct. 24, 1856 


500,000 


500.000 


March 12. 1S53 


150.000 


150.000 


Feb. 29. 1848 


150.000 


750.000 


Aug. 3, 1853 


50.000 


50.000 


July 13, 1855 


40.000 


4H.O0O 


Oct. 26, 1858 


1,000.000 


1,000.000 


Jan. 22, 1852 


60,000 


50,000 


June 18, 1 B59 






Sept. 13. 1852 


50.000 


60.000 


May 8,1862 


60,000 


60.000 


July 20, 1S58 


15.000 


15.000 


Julv 18,1*55 


40.000 


61,000 


Juno 12,1868 


12,000 


12.000 


Feb. 9.1 Mil 


100.000 


100.000 


Nov. 24, 1852 


75,000 


75.000 


Juno 17,1864 


35.000 


85.000 


Nov. 29, 1868 


100.000 


40.000 


Feb. 6,1866 


120.000 


350.000 


April 18.1857 


15,000 


15,000 


April 9,1869 






Peb. 28,1868 


60.000 


50,000 


May 22,1862 


60.000 


60.000 


Oct. 88,1862 


75.000 


75,000 


.liin^ 2. 1866 


30.000 


20.000 


March IB, 1857 


18.000 


18,000 


Feb. 28, 


100.000 


100.000 


Maxell 17. 1861 


17,000 


40,000 


Jan. 26, 1859 






Oct 4 1 




2,000,000 


Oct. 28, 1862 


200.000 


200,000 


M:.v 17,1862 


60.000 


70,000 


Sept 90,1862 


1,500.000 


1,500.000 


Aug. 2. 1 !. 1864 


75.000 


75.000 


June 16, 1868 


100.000 


100.000 


June 11. 1 v;,4 


75.000 


75,000 


April 22, 1862 


65,000 


05.000 


March 24. 1856 


40,000 


40.000 



CORPORATIONS. 



81 



4. " An Act for the incorporation 0/ Benevolent, Charitable, Scientific, and Mis- 
sionary Societies" was passed April 12, 1848. 1 

5. " An Act to provide for the incorporation and regulation of Telegraph Companies" 
was passed April 12, 1848, and amended June 24, 1853. 2 

6. "An Act for the incorporation of Building, Mutual Loan, and Accumulating 
Fund Associations" was passed April 10, 1851. 3 

7. " An Act to provide for the formation of Insurance Companies" was passed April 
10, 1849.* 

Gas Light Companies, continued. 



Names op Companies. 



Palmyra Gas Light Co 

Peekskill Gas Light Co 

Plattaburgh Gas Light Co 

Poughkeepsie Gaa Light Co 

Richmond County Gaa Light Co , 

Rochester Gaa Light Co 

Rome Gaa Light Co 

Rondout & Kingston Gas Light Co.- 

Saratoga Gas Light Co 

Schenectady Gas Light Co , 

Seneca Falla Gas Light Co.* 

Seneca Falls & Waterloo Gaa Light Co 

Sing Sing Gaa Light Co , 

Sing Sing Gas Manufacturing Co 

Staten Island Gas Light Co 

Syracuse Gas Light Co 

Tarrytown and Irvington Union Gaa Light Co 

The Consumers' Gas Light Co. of Saratoga Springs., 

Troy Gas Light Co 

UticaGas Light Co 

Waterford Gas Light Co 

Watertown Gas Light Co 

Weat Farma Gaa Light Co 

West Troy Gas Light Co 

Williamsburgh Gas Light Co 

Yonkers Gas Light Co 



Date of Organization. 



Oct. 

July 

July 

Dec. 

April 

May 

Dec. 

May 

Aug. 

June 

July 

Dec. 

May 

July 

March 

Nov. 

March 

Aug. 

April 

Nov. 

Oct. 

Feb. 

Nov. 

Jan. 

July 

May 



29, 1856 

18,1855 

5, 1859 

18, 1850 

26, 1856 
12, 1848 
28, 1S50 

27, 1854 

4. 1853 
19, 1849 
17, 1856 
24, 1856 

3. 1854 

25. 1855 

14. 1856 

30, 1848 
4, 1859 

23, 1858 
6,1848 

23, 1848 
4, 1858 

28, 1852 

18, 1852 

31, 1853 
5, 1850 

12, 1854 



Original Capital. 



12,500 
40,000 

70,000 

200,000 

100,000 

20,000 

65,000 

75,000 

50,000 

50,000 

80,000 

80,000 

35,000 

150,000 

100,000 

30,000 

100,000 

100,000 

12,000 

20,000 

200,000 

100,000 

80,000 

70,000 



Present Capital. 



12,500 
31,000 

70,000 

350,000 

200,000 

30,000 

65,000 

75.000 

70,000 

50,000 

80,000 

80,000 

35,000 

150,000 

100,000 

30,000 

200,000 

80,000 

12,000 

20,000 

200,000 

100.000 

449,500 

70,000 



1 These companies are not required to report. 

2 These companies make no report; and there is no official 
knowledge concerning those now existing. Several of those 
formed never went into operation, and others have been con- 



solidated. The N. Y. & Erie R. R. have a telegraph for regu- 
lating the trains upon that road. The N. Y. Central and some 
other roads have the exclusive or preferred use of telegraph 
wires along their route for like purposes. 



Telegraph Companies. 

A * indicates companies not in operation 



Name. 



Albany, Springfield & Boston Di 
rect Telegraph Co 

American Telegraph Co.* 

Atlantic & Pacific Telegraph Co.*.. 

Baldwinsville Electro Magnetic 
Telegraph Co.* 

Buffalo, Corning & New York 
Telegraph Co 

Central & Southern Telegraph Co.* 

Eastern & Western Telegraph Co.* 

Erie & Central Junction Tel. Co.*.. 

Erie & Central Junction Tel. Co. 

Genesee Valley Turnpike Co 

Long Island, Marine & Inland 
Telegraph Co 

Merchants' Telegraph Co.* , 

New York, Albany & Buffalo Elec 
tro Magnetic Telegraph Co 

New York, Albany & Buffalo Tele- 
graph Co.,incorp. by special act* 

New York & Canada House's Print- 
ing Telegraph Co 

New York & Mississippi Tel. Co.*.. 

New York & Mississippi Yalley 
Printing Telegraph Co.* 

New York & Montreal Printing 
Telegraph Co.* 



Date of 
Organization. 



May 
Dec. 
June 



19. 1854 

12. 1855 
15, 1S57 



Dec. 4, 1852 



Jan. 

Nov. 

May 

April 

July 

April 

March 

Sept. 



25. 1856 
13, 1854 
30, 1855 
24, 1852 
19, 1853 

10. 1857 

24. 1858 
23, 1852 



May 31, 1848 
Jan. 25, 1856 



Capital. 



Nov. 
April 

Feb. 

Sept. 



19, 1855 
8, 1851 

21, 1854 

15, 1853 



$ 35,000 
200,000 
300,000 

400 

15,000 
11,250 
20,000 
11.250 
11,250 
80,000 

40,000 
40,000 



250,000 

40,000 
360,000 

170,000 

60,000 



Name. 



New York & Montreal Telegraph Co.* 

New York & New England Tel. Co.*.. 

New York &. New England Tel. Co 

New York & Philadelphia Branch 
Telegraph Co 

New York &■ Sandy Hook Telegraph 
Co 

New York & Washington Printing 
Telegraph Co 

New York & Western Union Tele- 
graph Co 

New York, St. Louis & New Orleans 
Junction Telegraph Co 

New Y'ork State Printing Telegraph 
Co.* , 

New York State Telegraph Co.*... 

Otsego Telegraph Co 

Syracuse, Oswego & Ogdensburgh 
Telegraph Co , 

Transatlantic Telegraph Co.* 

Transatlantic & Submarine Tele- 
graph Co 

Troy, Albany & Boston Telegraph Co. 

Utica & Oxford Magnetic Telegraph 
Co 

West Troy, Lansingburgh,Waterford 
& Cohoes Telegraph Co 



Date of 
Organization. 



Oct. 

April 

July 

April 

Aug. 

May 

Dec. 

Aug. 

July 
May 
Sept. 

Sept. 
May. 

Jan. 
July 

Aug. 

July 



23, 1852 

26. 1849 
3, 1852 

24, 1848 

13, 1852 

26, 1852 

22, 1852 

26. 1850 

15, 1850 

15. 1850 

30. 1851 

22, 1855 

19. 1857 

18. 1858 
25, 1857 

2, 1852] 

14,1855 



Capital. 



% 40,000 
42,300 
30,000 

15,000 

25,000 

200,000 
10,000 

200,000 

200,000 

25,000 

4,000 

20,000 
100,000 

100,000 
60,000 

6,400 

3,000 



a These associations were chiefly limited to the vicinity of New 
York, numbering 72 in New York co., about 40 in Kings Co., 
with a few in Queens, Richmond, and Westchester. Their ope- 
rations consisted in raising money by subscription of the mem- 
bers, to be loaned to that member who would allow the highest 
premium,— the avowed intention being to afford to people of hum- 
ble means the opportunity of securing for each a home. This 
absurd fallacy found multitudes of dupes ; and in the competition 
for loans the premiums paid in some instances ran as high as 
one half of the amount loaned. The mode of appropriating 
loans varied. It appeared in evidence before the legislative 
committee of 1855 that in one instance it was as follows : — " The 



names of all the shareholders who are not more than fonr weeks 
in arrear are put in the end of a quill, and all put into a bottle; 
the whole is then shaken, and the name which first comes ont 
on reversing the bottle has the right to the appropriation." 
Nearly or quite all of these associations have been abandoned, 
a few only being kept together by the complexity of their inter- 
ests and obligations, which are not readily adjusted. A statement 
showing the operation of these associations was reported by a spe- 
cial legislative committee in 1856.— Assem. Doc, 1856, JVb. 46,p. 16. 
4 This act relates to Marine Insurance Companies which make 
no report. A list of them will be found in the general list of 
Insurance Companies, pp. 83 to 89. 



6 



82 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



8. " An Act for the Incorporation of Companies formed to Navigate the Ocean by 
Steamships" was passed April 12, 1852. 1 

9. ".-In Act to authorize the formation of Companies for Ferry Purposes" was passed 
April 9, 1853. 3 

10. " An Act for the Incorporation of Companies formed to Navigate the Waters of 
L.ake George by Steamboats" was passed January 14, 1854. 3 

11. "An Act for the Incorporation of Companies formed to Navigate the Lakes and 
Rivers" was passed April 15, 1854. Cos. report annually to the State Engineer and Surveyor. 4 

1 Previous to 1S52, Steamship Cos. were incorp. by special acts ; since that time they have organized under the general act. 

Ocean Steam Navigation Companies. 



Names of Companies. 



Date of Or- 
ganization. 



Amazon Steamship Co 

Amcr. Atlantic Steam Nav. Co....' 

Amsterdam Steamship Co 

Atlantic Steamship Co 

Cal.. N.Y.. A BnTOp-Bteainshh, I 

Cal.. N.Y.. a Eur m. Steamship Co. 
Cent. .Ann r. A Cal Bti im-hipCO... 
Mexican Oo an Mail A Inland Co.! 
N. Y.. Halt. A Alex. Steamship Co..| 

N. Y. a Boston Steamboat Co | 

N. Y. a- California Steamship Co_. 
N. Y. a Qalway Steamship Co.... 
N. Y. Harbor Steam Freight Co_. 
N. Y. A- Havana Steamship Co— .1 



Deo. 26. 1S53 
fFeb. 23. 1839.1 
\ a- May 8. 1845 J 



Jan. 

May 

Oct. 

Oct. 

July 

Jan. 

Oct. 

April 



6, 1854 
26. Mi 

1, 1858 
1, 1859 

7, 1852 
25, 1853 
27, 1852 
19, 1828 

March 15, 1853 
Sept. 6, 1853 
March 11, 1853 
Jan. 14, 1859 



Capital. 



t ■'.".. i 

2,000,000 

300,000 
686.000 
500,000 

400,000 
1,500.000 

120.000 

150.000 
1,500.000 
1.000,000 

100,000 



Names of Companies. 



IN. Y. & Havre Steamship Co- 

N. Y. & Matanzas Steamship Co.... 
N. Y. & New Orleans Steamship Co. 
X. Y. South American Steamboat Co 

N. Y. & Southern Steamship Co 

N. Y. & Virginia Steamship Co 

Xorth American Steam Nav. Co.... 

Ocean Steam Navigation Co 

Ocean Steam Packet Co 

Ocean Steamship Co 

Parker Vein Steamship Co 

Staten Island & N.J. Steam Nav. Co. 
U. S. & Cent. American Transit Co. 

U.S. & Liberia Steamship Co 

W. India & Venezuela Steamship Co 



Date of Or- 
ganization. 



Jan. 
Jan. 

Sept. 

April 

Sept. 

April 

May 

May 

May 

April 

Dec. 

March 

June 

March 

March 



13, 1855 
15, 1859 
12, 1854 
14, 1827 
29, 1853 
10, 1850 
1, 1839 
8,1846 

6, 1839 

7, 1819 
26, 1853 
17, 1853 
25, 1859 
13, 1S54 

8, 1856 



Capital. 



$700,000 

360,000 

100,000 

500.000 

300,000 

1,500,000 

1.000,000 

1,000,000 

250,000 

1,000,000 

50,000 

100,000 
150,000 



* The Ferry Companies are required to report annually to the Secretary of State ; but the reports are not published. 

Ferry Companies formed under the General Act. 



Names op Companies. 


Date of Or- 
ganization. 


Capital. 


Names of Companies. 


Date of Or- 
ganization. 


Capital. 


Brooklyn Ferrv Co 


Feb. 26, 1855 
Nov. 7, 1854 
April 19,1853 

June 29, 1859 
Jan. 21, 1854 

May 9, 1859 
June 20, 1859 


$100,000 

3,000 

500,000 

12,000 


People's Ferry Co. (N. Y. to Wil- 

Piermont & Dearman Ferry Co .... 

iRhinebeck A Kingston Ferry Co... 

jRosevelt & Bridge St. Ferry Co. 

(N. Y. to Brooklvn) 


April 21,1853 
Sept. 5, 1853 
May 7, 1853 

April 26,1853 
April 25, 1855 
Oct. 26, 1853 
Nov. 9, 1854 


$300,000 

50.000 

8.000 

250,000 

100 

900.000 

800.000 


- A Hyde Park Ferry Co... 

Flushing. College" Point A N. Y. 
- m Ferry Co 


Oarri- n ft West Point Ferrv Co. 
island Ferry Co. (X.Y. A 




Staten Island & N. Y. Ferry Co .... 
iUnion Ferry Co. of Brooklyn 


Navv Yard Ferrv Co 





* The only Company formed under this act is the Lake George Steamboat Co., incorp. Jan. 20, 1854. It has a capital of $20,000. 

* Inland Steam Navigation Companies. 



Names of Companies. 



American Steamboat Co 

American Transportation Co.* 

Archiii - Co 

P.lark Rrret -•  

Black River Steamboat Co 

Btancbard Steaml I I 

• ^Transportation To. 
• 
 

Chntanqaa Steamb it Co 

at Co 

amboat Co.. 



Flushing Steamboat Co 

Fiilt. n Steamboat Co 

Harbin A New York Nav. 

Hudson River Steamboat Co 

bamplain Btaai 

Lake rh.itnplain Steam boa • 



Lake F.ri- Transportation C 
Lake Erie A Buffalo Steamboat Co. 
Lake Ontario Bteafflboal Co" 



Date of 
Organization. 



Feb. 

Jan. 

June 

April 

April 

Feb. 

May 
Aug. 

Feb. 

May 

April 

April 

April 

April 

April 

Jnn. 

April 

March 



3, 1858 

11, 1855 
1, 1859 

12, 1«41 
24, 1S66 
25.1856 

6, 1866 
16, 1864 
26, 1828 

i. 1828 
18, 1828 

20, 1826 
•J I. 1828 

21, 1828 
18, 1816 
it. 1866 
20, 1826 
16, 1866 
12, 1818 



Mnv 11,1886 

March 10, 1820 

N v. 20, 1866 

March 

Jan. 3 



Capital. 



ivu.noo 

640.000 

200.000 

25,000 

10.000 

26,000 

120,000 

20.000 

50.000 

:10,000 

6,000 

100.000 

20,000 

15.000 
250.000 

27.000 
200,000 

20,000 
200,000 

100.000 
114.000 
100,000 

50.000 
100.000 



Names of Companies. 



Lake Navigation Co 

New York Transportation Co 

New York A Albany Propeller Line 

New York A Western Towing Co 

Niagara Tails Steamboat Assoc... 

Northern Transportation Co 

Northern Transportation Line .... 

North Tiiver Steamboat Co.* 

Old Oswego Line 

Oneida Lake A River Steamboat 
Co.' 

Ontario Steam A Canal Boat Co./... 

Ontario Steamboat Co 

Ontario A St. I.iwrence Steam- 
boat Co.» 

Orangetown Point Steamboat Co... 

Ponghkeepsie Steamboat Co 

St. Lawrence Steamboat Co 

Seneca Lake steamboat Co. 

Suffolk Steamboat Co 

Bnsqnehanna Steam Navigation Co. 

Troy Steamboat Co 

United States Mail Steamship Co... 

Western Transportation Co 



Date of 
Organization. 


Capital. 


Feb. 20, 1856 


500.000 


April 15, 1854 


100.000 


Dec. 1,1866 


40.000 


Sept. 21, 1857 


55,000 


Sept. 2, 1854 


50,000 


Feb. 6, 1855 


300,000 


April 6, 1857 


50.51 Hi 


March 10, 1820 


600.000 


May 2, 1856 


300,000 


April 2, 1838 


10,000 


1842 




May 12, 1859 


100,000 


1848 




April 16, 18.30 


10.000 


March 30, 1827 


50,000 


1842 




April 6, 1S25 


20.000 


March 25, 1829 


B.000 


May 11, 1835 


50,000 


March 31, 1825 


so.ooo 


April 6, 


1,500.0110 


Dec. 8, 1855 


800.000 



' Capital reduced to «J7n.or»i Jan. 1.'.. 186 I. 
» Charter expired April 11. fir't steamboat on 

Lake Champl.vn was in 1H10. 
 Merged in the Ontario A St. Lawrence Steamboat Co. in IM*. 

Eicln«ive individual and corporate rights for steam n. 11 

'.ion npon the waters of this State h»Te been granted under 

il acts, as follows: — An act was pa---l lurch 10,1797, 

granting to John Fitch the sole right of steam navigation In 

the waters of the State for a period of fourteen years. Having 



■* Charter expired April 11. 1838. 

' Charter limited to 20 years. Reincorporated April 12, 1842. 
/ Verged in the Ontario A St. Lawrence Steamboat Co. in 1848. 
c Merged in the American Steamboat Co. in 1858. 

dote- nothing for ten years, this act was repealed in 1798. An 
net was pawid March 27, 1798. granting to Robert R. Livingston 
|e right of navigating by steam for twenty years, con- 
 lir i re -d to building a boat of at least 20 tons, capable of moving 
four miles per hour against the current of Hudson River. This 



CORPORATIONS. 



83 



12. "An Act for the Incorporation of Associations for Improving the Breed of" 

Horses" was passed April 15, 1854. 1 

13. " An Act to facilitate the formation of Agricultural and Horticultural Socie- 
ties'* was passed June 8, 1853, and amended April 15, 1855. 2 

Class II. includes all those whose certificates are required to be filed in the Comptroller's office. 

1. " An Act to provide for the Incorporation of liife and Health Insurance Com- 
panies, and in relation to Agencies of such Companies," was passed June 24, 1853. s 

2. " An Act to provide for the Incorporation of Fire Insurance Companies" was passed 
June 25, 1853. 4 





1 The following companies have been formed under this act :- 






Names. 


Place. 


When formed. 




Newtown... 
Newtown... 

Goshen 

Jamaica.... 


Nov. 26, 1855 
May 29, 1854 
July 31, 1855 
July 31, 1858 




Orange County Central Horse Co.. 









2 For Table of Agricultural Societies, see pp. 102, 103. 



privilege was extended two years, March 29, 1799, to enable 
Nicholas J. Rosevelt to complete experiments. By act passed 
in 1798, Robert R. Livingston and Robert Fulton secured the 
exclusive right of navigating by steam for a period of twenty 
years ; and by an act passed April 11, 1808, an extension of five 
years was granted for each new boat — the whole time, however, 
not to exceed thirty years. This monopoly was contested in 
the State and Federal Courts, in a suit begun in 1819, and 
finally decided in the Supreme Court of the U. S. in Feb. 1824, 
as repugnant to the Constitution, which authorizes Congress to 
regulate commerce. So far as these acts prohibited vessels 
licensed by the laws of the United States from carrying on a 
coasting trade, they were void. — Johnson's Reports, IV, 148 ; 
Cowan's Reports, III, 713; Wheaton's Reports, IX, 1. 

3 These companies report annually to the Comptroller. A list 
of them is given in the general list of Insurance Companies. 

4 These companies were formerly created by special acts, 
— generally for periods of 20, 21, or 30 years. Until about 1834 
they wore almost invariably upon the joint stock principle. For 
many years this class of investments was considered extremely 
reliable, and large dividends were often paid to the stock- 
holders. The great fire in New York in Dec. 1835, proved a 
heavy disaster to almost all the Insurance companies then 
formed, and many of them were prostrated by it. This event 
soon led to the formation of Mutual Insurance Companies in 
almost every county in the State : most of these companies have 
since become insolvent. A graphic and truthful statement of 
the operations that ruined these companies is given in the Comp- 
troller's Report on Fire Insurance Cos. of 1854. A general law, 
passed April 10, 1849, provided for the incorporation of these 
companies, under which risks of every kind might be taken. 
The frauds perpetrated under this system rendered a revision 
indispensable; and in 1853 two general laws were enacted, — one 
for the formation of companies for insurance of life and health, 
and the other against loss by fire, or inland navigation, and 
transportation. The articles of association (under the law of 
1849, required to be filed in the Secretary's office) were, by 



these acts, filed in the Comptroller's office, and general powers 
were conferred upon the Comptroller, with the view of protecting 
the public from any frauds that might be attempted, and to 
secure the equal and uniform operation of the laws relating to 
insurance. Annual reports are made to the Comptroller, and by 
him to the Legislature, under each of these laws. Marine In- 
surance companies are still filed in the Secretary's office, but 
are required to make no report. 

Insurance companies formed under the laws of other States 
or countries cannot establish agencies in this State without 
first depositing with the Comptroller a certified copy of their 
charters, and of the vote or resolution creating the agency, a 
statement of their condition, and proof that their capital is 
equal to that required by the laws of this State, and, if a 
Life Insurance company, securities to the amount of $100,000, 
for the benefit of policy holders. Foreign Marine Insurance 
companies are required to pay 2 per cent, upon all premiums 
received by any agent ; and a bond in the penal sum of $1,000 
is required of every agent of such companies for the pay- 
ment of this tax. This tax was first collected in 1858, and 
amounted to $3,742.55. Several companies are not required to 
report their statistics to the Legislature. The aggregate reports 
of Fire Insurance Companies for 1857 show the following 
results : — 

Capital invested $16,731,010.00 

Cash premiums received _. 6,051,304.87 

Gross amount of income 7,577,872.62 

Losses paid , 2,898,166.11 

Dividends paid 2,240,434.72 

Taxes paid 243,062.79 

Gross expenditures 6,855,953.88 

Unpaid claims 968,683.00 

The following tables comprise the companies which have 
been incorporated under special acts or the general laws of the 
State. Foreign companies authorized to transact business in 
the State are not included in the list : — 



Insurance Companies in the State on 1st day of Jan. 1858. 



Name. 



2Etna Fire Insurance Co. of New York."... 

Adriatic Fire Insurance Co 

Agricultural Mutual Insurance Co.* 

Albany Insurance Co. . 

American Fire Insurance Co 

Arctic Fire Insurance Co 

Astor Fire Insurance Co 

Astor Mutual Insurance Co 

Atlantic Fire Insurance Co 

Atlantic Mutual Insurance Co 

Beekman Fire Insurance Co 

Brevoort Fire Insurance Co 

Broadway Insurance Co 

Brooklyn Fire Insurance Co 

Chautauqua County Mutual Insurance Co. 

Citizens' Fire Insurance Co. 1 * 

City Fire Insurance Co 



Location. 



New York.., 
New York.., 
Watertown 

Albany - 

New York- 
New York.. 
New York.. 
New York.. 
Brooklyn.... 
New York- 
New York.. 
New York- 
New York- 
Brooklyn... 
Fredonia.... 
New York- 
New York- 



Date of Act, or 
of filing arti- 
cles of associ- 
ation. 



Expiration 
of charter. 



March 

Nov. 

Sept. 

March 

April 

July 

June 

April 

Feb. 

April 

March 

Feb. 

Oct. 

April 

April 

April 

April 



31, 1S24 

24, 1858 

25, 1851 

8, 1811 

21, 1857 

16, 1853 

11, 1851 

18, 1843 

20, 1851 

11, 1842 

4, 1853 

4, 1857 

2, 1849 

3, 1824 

1, 1836 

28, 1836 

26, 1833 



March 

Nov. 

Sept. 

Feb. 

April 

July 

June 



31, 1878 
24, 1888 
25, 1S81 

15. 1881 

21, 1887 

16, 1883 
11, 1881 



Feb. 

April 

March 

Feb. 

Oct. 

April 

April 

April 

April 



20, 1881 

11, 1872 

4, 1883 

4, 1887 

2, 1879 

3, 1866 
1, 1876 

28, 1866 
26, 1863 



5i>> 


&3 




5>0 






■2c 




S. 


f. 


S. 


f.n. 


M. 


f.n. 


S. 


f.n. 


S. 


f.n. 


S. 


f.n. 


S. 


f.n. 


M. 


m. 


S. 


f. n. 


M. 


in. n. 


S. 


f.n. 


S. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f. 


M. 


f. 


S. 


f. 


s. 


f. 



Present 
capital of 

stock 
companies. 



$200,000 
150,000 

125,000 
200,000 
250,000 
150,000 

150,000 

200,000 
150,000 
200,000 
102,000 

150,000 
210,000 



<■ Reorganized Feb. 12, 1836, under act of Feb. 12, 1836. 

* Removed from Evans Mills April 10, 1855. 

• Reorganized Feb. 18, 1851. Capital, $100,000. Originally 
Albany Fire Insurance Co. Capital, $100,000, and allowed to 



take fire, marine, and life risks. Once extended. Expired 
June 1, 1851. 
* Changed to Citizens' Fire Insurance Co. April 5. 1849. 



84 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 

Existing Insurance Companies, continued. 



Name. 



Location. 



Clinton Fire Insurance Co 

Columbia Fire Insurance Co 

Columbian Insurance Co 

Commercial Insurance Co 

Commercial Fire Insurance Co- 

Commonwealth Fire Insurance Co 

Cintinental Fire Insurance Co 

Corn Exchange Fire & Inland Nav. Ins. Co 

Dividend Mutual Insurance Co 

Dutchess Co. Mutual Insurance Co 

Eagle F'ire Company of New York." 

Bast Kiver Insurance Co.* 

Empire City Insurance Co 

Empire Insurance Co 

Everett Fire Insurance Co 

Excelsior Fire Insurance Co 

Exchange Fire Insurance Co 

Farmers' Fire Insurance Co 

Farmers' Mutual Insurance Co 

Firemen's Fund Insurance Co 

Firemen's Insurance Co. e 

Franklin Co. Mutual Insurance Co 

Fulton Fire Insurance Ov 1 -.. 

flallatin Fire Insurance Co 

Gebhard Fire Insurance Co 

Glen Core Mutual Insurance Co 

SI ita Mutual Insurance Co 

Goodhue Fire Insurance Co... 

Great Western Marine Insurance Co 

Greenwich Insurance Co- 

Grocers' Fir- Insurance Co 

U imilton Fire Insurance Co.* 

Hanover Fire Insurance Co 

Harmony Fire Insurance Co 

I : In Insurance Co... 

 i'l Fir. Insurance Co 

B pe lire Insurance Co. (The) 

II. 'ward Insurance Co./. 

Humboldt Fire Insurance Co 

Huntington Mutual Fire Insurance Co.? 

Income Insurance Co 

Indemnity Fire Insurance Co 

Irving Fire Insurance Co 

Jamestown Farmers' Fire Insurance Co 

Jefferson Insurance Co 

Kings County Fire Insurance Co 

Kingston Mutual Insurance Co 

Knickerbocker Life Insurance Co.- 

rh cker Hre Insurance Co. of N.Y.V... 

Lafarge Firo Insurance Co 

I . ttc Fire Insurance Co 

Laman Firo Insurance Co 

[■Stum Fire Insurance Ox 

-land Insurance Co 

LorUUrd Fir- [nsuxanoeOo 

Manhattan Life Insurance Co 

Manhattan Firo Insurance Co.*. 

Market Fir* Insurance Co 

Mechanics' Mutual Insurance Co 

Mecham - Fir- Insurance Oo 

Mechanic' A Trad-rs' Firo Insurance Co.- 

Mercantile Fir" Insurance Co 

Mercantil- Mutual Insurance Co 

Merchants' Insurant- Oo 

Metropolitan Kir- Insurance Co 

Monroe Co. Mutual Insurance Co 

Montauk Firo Insurance To 

M'-ntg'im-ry Oo. Mutual ln=ur inco Co 

Mutual Ins Ob. of tfat f'ity and Co. of Albany- 
Mutual Life Insurance 0o». 

Nassau Fir» In»nrnnr» Oo 

National Firo Insnranm (\,,i 

Now Amsterdam F'iro Insurance Co 

N-w World Firo lusuiauoeOo 

rk Bowery Fir- Insurance Co. 

Now York Kqnitat.lo Insurnnro (Y,.* 



New York 

New York... 

New York... 

Albany 

New York... 

New York..- 

New York... 

New York.. 

Glens Falls 

Poughkeepsie 

New York... 

New York... 

New York... 

Union Springs 

Cayuga co. N. Y... 

New York- 

New York... 

Meridian 

Buffalo 

New York... 

New York... 

Malone 

New York... 

New York— 

New Y'ork... 

Glen Cove... 

New York... 

New York..- 

New York... 

New York 

New York... 

New York... 

New York... 

New York..- 

New York... 

New York..- 

New York... 

New York-. 

New York... 

Huntington 

New York..- 

New York 

New York 

Jamestown 

New York... 

New York 

Kingston — 

New York 

New York... 

New York 

Brooklyn 

New York 

New York 

Brooklyn 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

Troy 

Brooklyn 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

N0W York 

Rochester 

Brooklyn 

harie 

Albany 

New York 

1 lyn 

Now York 

N'.-w York 

New York 

New York 

New York 



Date, of Act, or 
of filing arti- 
cles of associa- 
tion. 



July 

March 

Aug. 

May 

March 

Feb. 

April 

April 

April 

April 

Sept. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

July 

May 

April 

May 

May 

April 

May 

Feb. 

Aug. 

Aug. 

March 

March 

Aug. 

Aug. 

May 

Jan. 

May 

April 

Dec. 

April 

Dec. 

June 

March 

May 

April 

April 

April 

Jan. 

Aug. 

March 

Oct. 

March 

March 

March 

May 

Dec. 

Dec. 

April 

April 

Jan. 

May 

March 

Jan. 

May 

May 

Feb. 

Dec. 

April 

FV1,. 

Oct. 

March 

May 

March 

May 

April 

Oct 

April 
Feb. 

Q : 

April 
April 



9, 1850 
9. 1853 

8, 1S57 
1858 

14, 1850 
1853 
9, 1853 
16, 1853 
15, 1S50 
12, 1836 

4, 1806 
24, 1833 
17, 1850 

22, 1851 
15, 1858 
25, 1853 

20, 1853 
28, 1853 
14, 1845 

1, 1858 
18, 1825 
12, 1836 

23, 1853 
11, 1857 

6, 1857 
29, 1857 
22,1855 

29. 1857 
29, 1855 

5,1834 

16. 1850 

22. 1852 
1, 1852 

1853 

11. 1853 
15, 185S 
16, 1856 

9, 1825 
5, 1857 
2,1838 

17. 1858 
11, 1856 

9, 1852 

25. 1851 
4,1824 

19, 1858 
12, 1836 

29, 1853 
23, 1798 

9, 1853 
23. 1856 
10, 1856 

1, 1853 
26,1833 

16. 1852 

17, 1850 
23, 1821 
26, 1853 
14. 1836 

5, 1857 
4,1853 

24, 1851 

12, 1842 

20, 1850 

1, 1852 

21. 1886 
19, 1867 

30, 1«36 
3, 1836 

12, 1842 

31, 1851 
9, 1838 

in. lv.:: 

18, 1866 
24,1833 
28, 1828 



Expiration 
of charter. 



July 9, 1880 
March 9, 18S3 
Aug. 8, 1887 

March 14, 1880 
1883 
March 9, 1883 
Feb. 16, 1883 
April 15, 1880 
April 12, 1876 
Unlimited. 



Sept. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

July 

May 

April 

May 

May 



17, 1880 
22, 1881 
15, 1888 
25, 1883 
20, 1883 
28, 1883 
14, 1865 
1, 1888 



May 

Feb. 

Aug. 

Aug. 

March 

March 

Aug. 

Aug. 

May 

Jan. 

May 

April 

Dec. 

April 

Dec. 

June 

June 

May 

April 



12. 1876 
23, 1883 
11, 1887 

6, 1887 

29. 1877 
22, 1885 
29, 1887 
29, 1885 

5,1864 
16, 1880 

22. 1882 
1, 1882 

1883 

11. 1883 

15, 1S88 

16, 1886 
16, 1866 

5, 1887 
2, 1858 



April 11,1886 
Jan. 9, 1882 
Aug. 25, 1881 



March 12, 1876 
March 29, 1883 



May 

Dec. 

Dec. 

April 

April 

Jan. 

May 

Jan. 

May 

May 

Feb. 

Dec. 

A pril 

Feb. 

Oct. 



9, 1883 

:;. ism', 

111. ISM", 

1,1883 

26, lsc.:', 
16, 1882 

17. 1880 

1SC.C, 

26, 1^:: 

14, 1876 

5. lss: 

4,1883 

24. 1881 
12. 1872 
20, 1880 

1, 1882 
March 21, 1876 
May 19, 1887 
March 30, 1876 
May 3, 1886 
Till repealed. 
Oct. 31, 1881 

Feb."" 28, 1883 

Oct. 13, 1886 

April 24, 1863 

1866 



N 

■sTJ 

•1-3 



8. 
S. 
S. 

8. 
S. 
8. 
S. 
M. 
M. 
S. 
S. 

s. 

M. 

s. 
s. 
s. 

M. 
M. 
8. 
8. 
M. 
8. 
S. 
S. 
M. 
M. 
S. 
S. 
S. 
S. 
S. 
S. 
S. 
S. 

s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 

M. 

s. 

8. 
8. 
M. 
S. 
8. 
M. 
S. 
8. 
8. 
8. 
S. 
8. 
8. 
3. 
8. 
8. 
8. 
M. 
3. 
3. 
8. 
M. 
8. 
8. 
M. 
3. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
3. 
3. 
8. 
3. 
3. 
3. 






f.n. 
f.n. 

m. 

f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 

f. 

£ 

f. 



f.n. 

f. 

f.n. 
f.n. 

f. 
f.n. 

f. 

f. 

f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
m. 
f.n. 
m. 

f. 

f. 

f. 

f. 

f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 

"fin'.' 

f.n. 

f.n. 

f. 

f.n. 

I. 

"f."n7 
f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 

f. 
f.n. 

I. 
f.n. 
f.n. 

f. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
m. n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 

f. 
f.n. 

f. 

f. 

1. 

f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 
f.n. 

f. 
f.l. 



Present 
capital of 

stock 
companies. 



1 250,000 
200,000 
500,000 

200,000 
250,000 
200,000 
200,000 



300,000 
150,000 
200,000 

150,000 
200,000 
150,000 



150,000 
204,000 

150,000 
150,000 
200,000 

300,000 
200,000 
1,000,000 
200,000 
200,000 
160.000 
200,000 
150,000 
500,000 
150,000 
150.000 
250,000 
200,000 

100.000 
150,000 
200,000 

200.000 
150.000 

100,000 
28i i.dOO 
150.000 
150,000 
200,000 
150,000 
200,000 
200.000 
llL'.oOo 
250,000 
200,000 

150.000 
200,000 
200,000 

20o,i on 
300,000 

150,000 



135,000 

1 .Mi.noO 
200,000 

2oo, 

2oii. 

300.000 
210.000 



•Original capital JSOO.ooo. Special relief on account of fire 
of July 19, 1*45, granted by act of May )2. 1846. 

♦Organized March. 1*35. Allow-,1 to t.iko inland trrin-; 
tion risks April 28, 18*0. Changed to Bad Ettver Mutual In- 
surance Co. April 12. ' - 

• Original capital $300,000, reduced Mav 12. 1840, bv tho Are 
of July. 1846. 

• Allowed to remove from WiHi.imsr.urgh April 13. 1855. 
Changed from Williamsburg)! City Fire Insurant I 

• Changed from Building Association Firo Insurance Co. 
March 8, 1863. 



/Reorganized 1836. Original capital $300,000. 

I Organized March, 1840, under act March 12. 1840. 

* Changed from Mutual Insurance Co. of the City of New 
York. May 12, ]S46. having been twice extended. Originally 
named the Mutual Insurance Co. of New York. 

< It-organized June 7, 1836. 

i Changed May 24, 1841, from Seventeenth Ward Fire In- 
surance Co. Amended charter March, 1867. 

* Reduced from $300,000 Feb. 18, 1848. 



C R P R A T I ON S. 

Existing Insurance Companies, continued. 



85 



Name. 



New York Fire and Marine Insurance Co.° 

New York Indemnity Insurance Co.* 

New York Life Insurance Co." 

New York Life Insurance & Trust Co 

New York Mutual Insurance Co 

New York & Erie Insurance Co 

Niagara Fire Insurance Co 

North American Insurance Co 

Northern New York Mutual Insurance Co 

North River Insurance Co. d 

North Western Insurance Co." 

Ocean Insurance Co/..- 

Ocean Insurance Co.. 

Ontario & Livingston Co. Mutual Insurance Co.... 

Orango Co. Mutual Insurance Co... 

Orien Mutual Insurance Co 

Pacific Fire Insurance Co 

Pacific Mutual Insurance Co 

Park Fire Insurance Co _ 

People's Fire Insurance Co 

Peter Cooper Fire Insurance Co 

Phoenix Fire Insurance Co 

Poughkeepsie Mutual Fire Insurance Co 

Relief Fire Insurance Co 

Republic Fire Insurance Co 

Resolute Fire Insurance Co 

Richmond County Mutual Insurance Co. 

Rutgers Fire Insurance Co 

St. Lawrence Co. Mutual Insurance Co 

St. MarkB Fire Insurance Co 

St. Nicholas Insurance Co 

Schenectady Insurance Co.ff 

Security Fire Insurance Co 

Star Insurance Co 

Stuyvesant Insurance Co 

Suffolk County Mutual Insurance Co...., 

Sun Mutual Insurance Co 

Tradesmen's Fire Insurance Co 

Union Mutual Insurance Co 

United States Fire Insurance Co 

United States Life Insurance Co 

Wall St. Fire Insurance Co 

Washington Insurance Co _ 

Waterville Protection Insurance Co 

Wayne County Mutual Insurance Co 

Westchester County Mutual Insurance Co 

Western Farmers' Mutual Insurance Co 

Williamsburgh City Fire Insurance Co 

Wyoming County Slutual Insurance Co 



Location. 



Now York 

Albany 

Now York 

New York 

New York 

Middletown 

New York 

New York 

l'lattsburgh 

New York 

Oswego 

New York 

New York 

West Bloomfield. 

Goshon 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

Brooklyn 

Poughkeepsie 

New York 

New York 

New York 

Richmond 

New York 

Ogdensburgh 

New York 

New York 

Schenectady 

New York 

Ogdensburgh 

New York , 

Southold , 

New York , 

New York , 

New York , 

New York 

New York , 

New York 

New York 

Waterville 

Newark 

New Rochelle.... 

Batavia. 

Williamsburgh... 
Warsaw 



Date of act, or 
of filing arti- 
cles of associa- 
tion. 



April 18 
July 29, 
May 21, 
March 9, 
March, 
Nov. 29 
June 22 
Jan. 1 
Sept. 18 
Feb. 6, 
April 26, 
Jan. 29, 
April 3 
March 21 
March 15 
Jan. 18 
AprU 17 
Dec. 18 
Feb. 1 
April 22. 
March 30, 
March 14, 
July 30. 
Dec. 17 
March 22, 
July 10 
March 30, 
Sept. 12 
May 12 
July 14 
July 23 
May 26, 
Juno 20! 
Nov. 30, 
Jan. 7 
April 30 
May 22 
Dec. 20 
May 14 
March 31 
Jan. 26, 
Oct. 19 
Feb. 11 
Feb. 3 
April 1 
March 14 
April 23, 
Dec. 13! 
Nov. 25, 



,1832 
,1851 
, 1841 
, 1830 
1851 
, 1852 
,1850 
,1836 
,1852 
, 1822 
, 1832 
', 1853 
, 1855 
,1836 
, 1837 
,1859 
,1851 
,1854 
,1853 
:, 1851 
, 1853 
,1853 
,1850 
,1855 
,1852 
', 1857 
, 1836 
:, 1853 
, 1836 
,1853 
, 1852 
, 1841 
,1856 
, 1853 
,1851 
,1836 
;, 1841 
,1858 
,1845 
, 1824 
, 1850 
,1858 
,1850 
:, 1851 
,1853 
,1837 
,1844 
,1852 
, 1851 



Expiration 
of charter. 



April 18, 1862 
July 29, 1881 
Unlimited 
Unlimited 
March, 1881 
Nov. 29, 1882 
June 22, 1880 



Sept. 

Feb. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

April 

March 

March 

Jan. 

April 

Dec. 

Feb. 

April 

March 

March 

July 

Dec. 

March 

July 

March 

Sept. 

May 

July 

July 

May 

June 

Nov. 

Jan. 

April 

May 

Dec. 

May 

April 

Jan. 

Oct. 

Feb. 

Feb. 

April 

March 

April 

Dec. 

Nov. 



18. 1882 
6, 1862 
1, 1877 

29. 1883 
3, 1885 

20, 1876 
15, 1877 

18, 1889 
7, 1881 

18. 1884 
1, 1883 

11, lssl 
30, 1883 
14, 1SS3 
30, 1880 
17, 1885 
22, 1882 
10, 18S7 
30, 1876 

12, 1883 
12, 1876 
14, 1883 
23, 1882 
26, 1891 
20, 1886 
30, 1883 

7, 1881 
30, 1876 
22, 1S61 
20, 1888 
14, 1875 

1, 1884 
26, 18S0 

19, 1888 
11, 1880 

3, 1881 
1, 1883 
14; 1877 
23, 1864 
12, 1882 
25, 1881 





Nature 
of risks 
allowed. 


^2 

33)3 


S. 


f.m. 


M. 


f.n. 




1. 




1. 


M. 


m. n. 


M. 


f.n. 


S. 


f.n. 


S. 


f. 


M. 


f.n. 


S. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


m. 


s. 


f. m. n. 


M. 


f. 


M. 


f. 


s. 


m. n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


m. n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


M. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


M. 


f. 


s. 


f.n. 


M. 


f. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


M. 


f. 


S. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f. 


M. 


f. 


M. 


f. m. n. 


S. 


f.n. 


M. 


f.m. 


S. 


f. 


S. 


1. 


s. 


f.n. 


s. 


f.n. 


M. 


f.n. 


M. 


f.n. 


M. 


f. 


M. 


f. 


s. 


f. 


M. 


f. 



Present 
capital of 

stock 
companies. 

$200,000 

108.800 
100,000 



200.000 
250,000 

350,000 
150,000 
300.000 
300,000 



200,000 

200.000 
150.000 
150,000 
200.000 
100,000 
150,000 
150.000 
200,000 

200,000 

150,000 
150,000 

200.000 
150.000 
200,000 



150,000 

250.000 
100.000 
200,000 
200,000 



loo.doo 



o Changed from New York Fire Insurance Co. May 10, 1847, 
and allowed to take marine risks. 

t> Removed from Broadalbin April 15, 1857. 

« Changed from Nautilus Insurance Co. April 5, 1S49, and 
limited to life risks. First organized April 12, 1845, and allowed 
m. n. and f. risks. Capital, $200,000. 



d Reorganized July 18, 1852. Originally allowed marine risks. 
» Organized Jan. 1834. 
/Enjoinder. 

o Changed from Schenectady County Mutual Insurance Co. 
AprU 7, 1858. 



Obsolete Insurance Companies in the State, Jan. 1, 1859. 



Name. 



iEtna Insurance Co. of Utica 

Albany County Mutual Ins. Co 

Allegany Mutual Insurance Co 

Allegany County Mutual Ins. Co 

Alliance Insurance Co 

Alliance Mutual Insurance Co 

American Fire Ins. Co. of New York- 
American Ins. Co. of New York 



American Insurance Co. of the City 
of New York 

American Insurance Co 

American Manufacturers' Mutual 
Assurance Co 

American Mutual Insurance Co 

American Mutual Insurance Co 

Anchor Insurance Co 

Atlantic Insurance Co. of New York.. 



Location. 



Utica. 

Albany .... 
Angelica.. 
Angelica.., 
New York 
New York 
New York 

New York 



New York.. 
Utica. 

New York.., 
Amsterdam 
New York... 
New York.. 

New York.., 



Date of act of 

incorporation 

or of filing 

articles. 


it 


March 14, 1851 
May 3, 1836 
April 13,1*57 
April —,1857 
April 30, 1839 
April 10, 1843 
April 18, 1825 


M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 

S. 
M. 

S. 


June 18, 1812 


S. 


June 12, 1856 
Sept. 6, 1852 




March 30, 1S32 
April 23,1850 
April 1, 1843 
AprU 5, 1826 


M. 
M. 
M. 

S. 


Feb. 27, 1824 


S. 



Remarks. 



f.m. 
f.n. 



m. 

f. 
f.m. 



Receiver appointed Jan. 1854. 

Closed. 

Closing business. No receiver. 

Cap. $250,000. 

Cap. $300,000, 21 years ; April 20, 1832, 

$200,000, 30 years. 
Successor to Marine Ins. Co., 15 years, 

from May 12 ; cap. $250,000. In 1814, 

marine, not exceeding $1,000,000. 

Extended to May 12, 1857. Closed 

in 1845. 

Receiver appointed April, 1S55. 



Receiver appointed Dec. 1S54. 

Changed from La Fayette Ins. Co. of 
the City of New York. 

Cap. $500,000. Discon. in 1828; al- 
lowed to close up and reorganize 
new company. 



86 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Obsolete Insurance Companies, continued. 



Name. 



Location. 



Atlas Insurance Co. of New York.... j New York.. 

Atlas Marine Insurance Co New York.. 

Atlas .Mutual Insurance Co New York.. 

Auburn Co Auburn .... 

Bowery Fire Insurance Co New York. 

Broome County Mutual Ins. Co 

Brooklyn Firemen's Insurance Co... 'Brooklyn... 



Buffalo Firo &- Marine Insurance Co. Buffalo. 

Buffalo Mutual Insurance Co | Buffalo. 

Building Association Fire Ins. Co New York.. 



Date of act of 

incorporation 

or of filing 

articles. 



Canal Insurance Co. 



Canal Ins. Co. of the City of NewYork 
Cattaraugus County Mutual Ins. Co. 
Cayuga County Mutual Ins. Co.... 
Chatham Fire Insurance Co. of the 

City of New York 

Chelsea Insurance Co , 

Chemung County Mutual Ins. Co. 
Chenango County Mutual Ins. Co, 

Cherry Valley Mutual Ins. Co 

Clinton Fire Insurance Co. of the 

City of New York 

Clinton Insurance Co. in the City of 

Albany 

Clinton & Flu 1 1 Mutual Ins. Co 

Columbia County Mutual Ins. Co 

Columbian Fire Insurance Co. of \ 

the City of New York J 

Columbian Insurance Co 

Columbian Insurance Co 

Commercial Insurance Co 



Now York.. 



Commercial Insurance Co., 



Cortland County Mutual Ins. Co.. 

Croton Insurance Co 

Croton Mutual Insurance Co 

Dunkirk Marine Insurance Co_... 
Dutchess County Insurance Co.... 
Eighth Ward Fire Insurance Co.. 



Eighth Ward Mutual Insurance Co.. 

Emmet Fire Insurance Co 

Empire State Mutual Insurance Co.. 
Enterprise Insurance Co 



Farmers" Fire Ins. & Loan Co 

Farmers' Ins. Co. of Oneida County.. 
Farmers and M-rchanta' Ins. ) 

Co. of Western New Tori f 

Farm- rs' Mutual In-tirance Co. of 

Sherburne 

Fifth Ward Fir^ Insurance Co. of 1 

Qm «'ity .if New Y'..rk / 

firemen's Insurance Co. of the i 
fity of Albany / 

Finno n's Insurance Co 



Franklin Fire Insurance Co. 



Franklin Firo Tnsnranco Co. in tho 
t Raw York 

Franklin tin In- ( trf [Jen fork 

Franklin Marino k Fir.' Insurance 
Y'.rk 

Fulton Kiro Insurance Co. in the 

| Nrw Y'.rk 

Kiro Insurance Co 

fionoral Mutual ln«urnncoCo 

fJ(D<T in '111' I 1 I' 

tiirarl Kir- [nanrance Co. of tho 

W York 

Globe Fire Insurance Co 



Now York.... 
Ellicottville. 
Aurora 



New York., 
New York.. 



Cherry Valley.. 
NewYork 



Albany 

Kceseville.. 
Hudson 

New York., 



New York.... 
Amsterdam 

New York..., 



April 8, 1825 

April 14. 1836 

April 10,1843 

March 14. 1826 

April 24,1833 

April 10,1837 

May 25, 1836 

April 1, 1830 
March 17, 1837 
May 3, 1S52 

March 14, 1S25 

May 25. 1836 
May 17, 1837 

March 20, 183' 



April 

April 

April 

May 

April 



16, 1822 

20. 1 S.'V.l 

2, 1838 

3, 1838 

12, 1842 



New York., 



Cortlandville.... 

New York 

Now Y"ork 

Dunkirk 

Poughkcepsie... 
New York 



April 26,1831 

May 4, 1829 

May 12, 1836 

May 12, 1836 

May 25, 1836 

March 21, 1801 

June 4, 1851 

April 4, 1805 

April 12,1842 



May 

April 

April 

May 

April 

April 



12, 1S36 
10, 1849 
10, 1843 
9, 1S37 
15, 1814 
25, 1836 



NewYork April 30,1836 

New York ipril 6, 1839 

Saratoga Springs Dec. 8, 1849 

New York Aug. — , 1855 



New York Feb. 28, 1822 



Utica 

Rochester 



Sherburne ... 
New York.... 



Albany ... 
Brooklyn . 



New York., 



June 26, 1851 

Oct. 29, 1850 

May 13, 1845 

April 13, 1836 

April 3, 1831 

April 29,1833 

March 13, 1818 



New York kprfl 

i Borings Man b 



2,1819 

6, 1851 



Saratoga Springs April 12, 1852 



Globe Insurance Co., 



Globe Insuranco Co.... 
QranlU Insurance Co. 



\. 'w Y'.rk \|.ril 

New Y.ok May 

New Y.irk May 

May 



Now Y.rk. 
New Y"..rk. 

New York. 



March 
May 



2. D-10 

It. 1st' I 

25, 1«41 
3,1836 

I. 1880 
2,1837 



Mar.-h is, 1M1 



Greene County Mutual Tnsnranco Co 

Greenwich Fire Insurance Oo New York. 

in ; Ins. Co. of New fork NewYork. 

Guardian Insurance 0b New York. 

Hamilton Fire Insurance Co. of the 
City of Now York 'New York. 



Utica Juno 

NewYork Oct 21,1852 

OtUkSB March 30,1836 



Mar, b 81, I--' 

April 26, 1862 
April 24,1833 

April 25,1836 



11 

lis 



s. 

8. 
M. 
S. 
8. 
M. 
S. 

s. 

M. 
S. 



s. 

M. 
M. 

S. 
S. 
M. 
M. 
M. 

S. 

S. 
M. 
M. 

S. 

s. 
"s." 

s. 

M. 
M. 

M. 
S. 

S. 

s. 

M. 
g. 
M. 



M. 

S. 

s. 
s. 

s. 



M. 

B. 

8. 
M. 
M. 

B, 

s. 



M. 

M. 

ML 

8. 
8. 
8. 

8. 



m. 
m. 
m. 
f. n. 

f. 

f. 

f. m. n. 

f. n. 



{'• 



f. 1. m. 

f. 1. n. 
f. m. n. 



f. m. n. 
m. 



f. 1. ann. 



f. in. n. 



f. n. 



m. 
f. 



Remarks. 



Cap. $300,000. 

Cap. $350,000. Revived April 14, 1838. 

Cap. $150,000. 
Cap. $300,000. 

Cap. $150,000. Successor to Firemen's 

Insurance Co. 
Cap. $100,000. 

Changed March 8, 1853, to Hamilton 

Fire Insurance Co. 
Cap. $300,000. Revived April 21, 1S28, 

cap. $150,000. 
Cap. $300,000. 

Closed business in 1853. 

Cap. $400,000. 
Cap. $250,000. 



Cap. $300,000 ; time extended 1832-33. 

Cap. $300,000. 

Receiver appointed Jan. 1854. 

Cap. $300,000. Revived April 5, 1839, 

cap. £250,000. 
Cap. $500,000. 

Receiver appointed Jan. 1853. 
Cap. $250,000. Extended 21 years 

April 3, 1811. 
Changed June 16, 1S53, to Commercial 

Mutual Insurance Co. 
Closed about 1852. 



Cap. $250,000. 
Cap. $200,000. 
Original cap. $300,000. Changed to 
Trust Fire Ins. Co. April 25, 1839 

Cap. $250,000. 

Receiver appointed June 1855. 

Enjoined Dec. 2S, 1855; injunction re- 
moved Jan. 31, 1856. Closing. 

Cap. $500,000. 

Receiver appointed Nov. 1854. 

Changed to Rochester Insurance Co. 
March 20, 1S52. 

Receiver appointed. 

Cap. $500,0i)(i; reduced to $200,000 

April 21. 1837. 
Cap. $150,000. M. risks allowed April 

20,1832. To expire June, 1S61. 
Cap. $150,000. Changed to Brooklyn 

Firemen's Ins. Co. May 25, 1S36. 
Cap. $5(1(1,000. Reduced one-half, 1828. 

Continued in 1835 to '56. Reduced 

by the great firo of 1835. 

Cap. $500,000. 

Receiver appointed June, 1S55. 

Rcceivor appointed Sept. 1854. 

Cap. $500,000. 
Cap. $250,000. 

Receiver appointed Oct. 1851. 

Cap. $250,000. 

Cap. $500,000. Company of like name 
incorp. July 24, 1851, cap. $200,000. 

Cap. $1,000,000. Reduced one-half 
March 17. ls.'lfi. 

Receiver appointed August, 1855. 

Removed from Utica April, 1859. Re- 
ceiver appointed Fob. 1856. 

Cap. $250,000. 
Cap. $300,000. 



Cap. $500,000. 



CORPORATIONS. 



87 



Obsolete Insurance Companies, continued. 



Name. 



Hamilton Marino Insurance Co.. 
Harmony Fire Insurance Co 



Harmony Fire & Marine Ins. Co. 



Henry Clay Fire Insurance Co 

Herkimer County Mutual Ins. Co... 
Hope Insurance Co 



Householders' Mutual Insurance Co. 



Howard Life Insurance Co.. 



Hudson Fire Insurance Co.. 



Hudson Insurance Co 

Hudson Insurance Co. of the City of 

New York 

Hudson Kiver Marine & Fire Ins. Co. 
Hudson River Mutual Insurance ) 

Co. at Waterford J 

Indemnity Fire Insurance Co. of the 

City of New York 

Insurance Company of Firemen 

International Insurance Co 



Jackson Marine Ins. Co. of the City \ 
of New York J 

Jefferson County Mutual Ins. Co 

Kings County Mutual Insurance Co. 



Knickerbocker Insurance Co 

La Fayette Ins. Co. of the City of) 
New York J 

Lewis County Mutual Insurance Co. 

Long Island Farmers' Ins. Co. in the 
Co. of Queens 

Long Island Mutual Insurance Co... 

Madison Co. Mutual Ins. Co 

Madison Marine Ins. Co. of the City 
of New York 

Marine Insurance Co. of New York.. 



Mechanics' Fire Ins. Co. of the City 1 

of New York J 

Merchants' Fire Insurance Co 

Merchants' Mutual Ins. Co. of Buffalo 
Merchants k Householders'Mutual 1 

Ins. Co J 

Merchants' Ins. Co. in the City of 

Albany 

Merchants' Insurance Co 

Merchants' Marine Insurance Co 

Merchants' Mutual Insurance Co 

Metropolis Ins. Co. of the City of ) 

New York J 

Metropolis Insurance Co 

Metropolitan Insurance Co 

Mohawk Insurance Co. of New York 
Mohawk Valley Farmers' Ins. Co.... 

Mohawk Valley Insurance Co 

Monroe Fire Insurance Co 

Mutual Assurance Co. of New York. 



Mutual Insurance Co. of Buffalo 

Mutual Protection Insurance Co 

Mutual Protection Ins. Co. of Roches 

ter 

Mutual Safety Insurance Co 

National Exchange Insurance Co.... 

National Insurance Co 

National Insurance Co 

National Protection Insurance Co.... 
Nautilus Insurance Co 



New York Central Insurance Co 

New York City Insurance Co 

New York City Insurance Co 

New York Ccmtributionship Ins. Co." 



Location. 



New York- 
New York.. 

New York., 



Now York... 
Little Falls.. 
New York... 



New York.. 



New York.. 
Now York.. 
New York- 
New York- 
Crescent.... 



Waterford. . 

New York- 
New York- 



New York. 



Watertown , 
Brooklyn .... 



Waterford .. 
New York. 



Hempstead 
Brooklyn ... 

Cazenovia .. 



New York- 
New York- 



New York- 
New York- 
Buffalo 



New York. 



Albany ..... 

Buffalo 

New York- 
New York- 
New York- 



New York.... 
New York..., 
New York..., 

Scotia 

Amsterdam 
Rochester.... 
New York.... 



Buffalo 

New York. 



Rochester 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

Saratoga Springs. 
New York 



Cherry Valley- 
New York 

New York 

New York 



Date of act of 

incorporation 

or of filing 

articles. 



April 4, 1838 



Dec. 29, 1855 

April 28, 1836 

Jan. 20, 1821 

May 25, 1841 



June 29, 1852 
April 6, 1838 
April 4, 1811 



April 
Juno 



8, 1825 
1, 1852 



Aug. 8, 1850 



April 

May 
April 



13, 1836 

2, 1810 

11, 1855 



April 23, 1831 

March 8,1836 
April 15, 1S44 

May 15, 1852 

April 8, 1825 

Feb. 27, 1837 



April 29,1833 
April 30, 1S36 
March 23, 1836 

April 8, 1825 
March 16, 1802 



April 7, 1819 



April 
Feb. 



2, 1819 
4, 1850 



April 17,1843 



April 
Feb. 
April 
April 



7, 1824 

4, 1851 

26, 1836 

10, 1843 



Jan. 29, 1S53 



April 

Oct. 

April 

June 

June 

March 

March 



29, 1839 
2, 1851 
3. 1824 

27, 1851 
6, 1851 
9, 1825 

23, 1798 



April 18, 1843 
May 25, 1841 



May 

April 

May, 

April 

April 

Feb. 



7, 1844 

17, 1838 

1855 

14, 1S15 

9, 1838 
22. 1851 



Jan. 16, 1851 
Nov. 13, 1852 
March 22, 1825 
April 5, 1824 



it 

II 



S. 



s. 

M. 

s. 

M. 



S. 

s. 
s. 
s. 

M. 
M. 

S. 

s. 

M. 
M. 

M. 

S. 

M. 



S. 
M. 
M. 



M. 
M. 



S. 
M. 

S. 

S. 

s. 

s. 

M. 
M. 
S. 
M. 



M. 

S. 



S. 



s. 



Remarks. 



f. m. Cap. $250000. 

f. Changed to Harmony Fire & Marine 

Insurance Co. April 17, 1858. 
f. m. n. Changed from Harmony Fire Insu- 
rance Co. April 17, 185*. 
Receiver appointed Dee. 1855. 

Receiver appointed 1853. 

Changed from New York Firemen's 

insurance Co. Cap. $300,000. 
f. (Pictures, furniture. <tc.) Repealed April 17, 

1843. Changed to Merchants & 

Householders' Mutual Ins. Co. 
1. Discontinued issuing policies 1856 or 

'57. See Comp. Rep. 1859, p. 53. 
Cap. $200,000. Reduced to $150,000 

April 17, 1843. 
Cap. $200,000. 



r. ii 



f. 

m. 
f. m. 



f. m. 



{ 



f. I. 



f. m. n. 

f. m. 
f. m. n. 



f. m. n. 
f. m. n. 

f. n. 
f. m. 

1. m. n. 



f. n. 



Cap. $300,000. 

Receiver appointed Aug. 1854. 
Business transferred to Hudson River 
Marine & Fire Insurance Co. 

Cap. $500,000. 

Changed from Kings County Mutuai 

Ins. Co. 
Cap. $400,000. Reduced to $300,000 

April 24, 1840. Reduced to $200,000 

and fire risks allowed. 

Changed to International Ins. Co. 

April 11, 1845. 
Receiver appointed July, 1855. 
Cap. $300,000. Changed to Anchor 

Ins. Co. of the City of New York, 

April 8, 1826. 
Took but one insurance. Never fully 

organized. 

Cap. $50,000. Revived May 2, 1835. 

Closed under act of Jan. 25, 1S54. 

Cap. $300,000. 

Cap. $250,000. Closed up under act of 

June 18, 1S12, by the American Ins. 

Co. of New York having become in 

solvent. 
Original cap. $500,000. Reduced to 

$300,000 Jan. 12, 1828. 
Cap. $300,000. Reduced to $250,000. 
Made assignment and diss. Jan. 1852, 
Changed from Householders' Mutual 

Ins. Co. 

Cap. $250,000. 

Closed. 

Cap. $400,000. 

Changed to Ocean Ins. Co. of tho City 
of New York April 3, 1855. 

Cap. $250,000. 

Cap. $500,000. Never organized. 

Cap. $500,000. 

Receiver appointed Oct. 1854. 

Receiver appointed Jan. 1855. 

Cap. $250,000. Revived April 17, 1826. 

Renewed 1808 as Mutual Ins. Co. of 
New York. Cap. $350,000. To con- 
tinue till repealed. Changed to 
Knickerbocker Fire Ins. Co. of New 
York May 12, 1846. 

Cap. $200,000. 



Extended April 12, 1843. 
Receiver appointed Sept. 1855. 
Original cap. $100,000. 
Cap. $150,000. 

Receiver appointed Aug. 1S55. 
April 5, 1849, changed to New York 
Life Ins. Co. and limited to life risks. 
Closing up. No new policies issued. 
Receiver appointed Sept. 1S55. 
Cap. $250,000. 
Cap. $300,000. Similar act May 6, 1844. 



o The New York Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses & Property from Loss by Fire, incorp. April 5, 1822. Changed 

to above. 



88 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Obsolete Insurance Companies, continued. 



Name. 



v  V rk Fire Ins. Co. of the City \ 

of New York J 

New York Protection Insurance Co- 



New York State Mutual Ins. Co... 
New York Onion Mutual Ins. Co- 
New York Firemen Insurance Co- 



New York Guardian Insurance Co- 
New York Insurance Co 

New York La Fayette Ins. Co 

New York Marine Insurance Co.... 
New York Mechanics' Life Ins. 41 

Coal Co J 

New York Mutual Insurance Co 

New Y"ork Northern Fire Ins. Co... 



New York State Marine Ins. Co 

New York Union Mutual Ins. Co 

Neptune Ins. Co. of the Citv of New ) 
York / 

Neptune Bell Marine Ins. Co. of) 

New Y'^rk / 

Niagara County Mutual Ins. Co 

North American Fire Insurance Co.. 



Location. 



Date of act of 

incorporation 

or of filing 

articles. 



New York 

Rome July 23, 1849 

Newark Oct. 31, 1849 

Johnstown Mav 9,1850 

New York March 2, 1810 

New York April 6, 1838 

New York April 2.1798 

New York April 14,1825 

New York iApril 2,1798 

New York 'Feb. 28,1822 

New York March 28. 1809 

May 4,1829 



New York.. 
Johnstown- 
New York.. 



April 8, 1825 
May 9, 1850 
April 11,1825 



New York 'April 22,1831 



Lockport .. 
New York. 



North American Insurance Co New York 

North American Mutu;il Ins. Co Brasher F alls- 
Northern New Y"rk Live Stock Ins.C" I Latteburgh .... 
Northern New York Mutual Ins. Co. Pittsburgh.... 

Northern Protection Insurance Co... [Camden 

Ocean Insurance Co New York 



Co.. 



Oneida County Mutual Ins. 

Oneida Insurance Co 

Like Mutual Insurance Co... 

Onondaga County Mutual Ins. Co 

Ontario Insurance Co.- 

Orange Fire Insurance Co 

Orleans Insurance Co 

Oswego County Mutual Ins. Co 

Pacific Insurance Co. of New York... 
Palladium Fire Insurance Co 



Utica 

Ctica 

Cleveland 

Baldwinsville. 

Geneva 

Newburgh .-.. 

Albion 

Mexjco 

New York 

New York 



Pelican Mutual Insurance Co Now York.. 

Phcenix Insurance Co. of New York New York.. 
Phoenix Fire Insurance Co New York.. 



People's Ins.C". of the State ofN.T. Kingston. 
Poagbkecprie in-uranceCo Ponghkeepaie-. 

re Insurance Co New York 

Reno-. Insurance of the 

City ..f New York New York 

..icrCounty Mutual Ins. Co.... Lansingburgh 

Reiwlvr Insurance Co Lansingburgh 

Rensselaer ft Saratoga Ins. Co." Troy 

Rochester Insurance Co Rochester 



8aratOKaConntyMiitu.ll Fin- Ins. Oo. Saratoga Springs 



Schenectady 4 Saratoga Ins. 



Co.. 



Scbeoectady County Mutual 



Balem., 



Schenectady.. 



:] Insurance Co - 

vie County Mutual In«.  OobleskilL.. 

Sea Insurance Co New fork.. 



I <"*. .iinty Mutual ln« ( 
. w ird Hn Insurance Co... 
, War.] Sire In-. I 



D County Mutual In« i 
Steuben Farmers ft Merchants' In- 
surance Co 

Susquehanna Fire Insurance Co.* 



Syracuse Insurance Co 

Tioga County Mutual Insurance Co. 



rloo-.. 

N<-w York.. 

York.. 



April 13,1837 
April 8, 1836 



April 

Mav 

July 

Sept. 

Nov. 

March 

April 

March 

March 

April 

March 

April 

June 

April 

April 

April 



13, 1826 

26. 1851 
8, 1851 

17. 1852 
14, 1851 

2, 1810 

28. 1836 
23, 1832 

8. 1853 
13, 1836 
21. 1826 

7, 1819 

1. 1850 

28, 1836 
14; 1815 
20, 1832 



April 10,1843 
Feb. 20, 1807 
March 29, 1823 

Mav 14. 1851 
April 8. 1825 
April 7, 1824 

March 31, 1836 
April 29,1836 

April 15,1852 
April 15,1819 
March 20, 1852 

May 5, 1«34 
July, 1852 

May 6, 1834 

May 26, 1841 



April 22,1831 

Dec. 3,1850 

May .1, ]s::4 

April 12,1839 

April 29, 1889 

April 9,1838 

March 29, 1837 



6 3 



Rath Sept. 20,1851 

Albany Aug. 1854 



Pynvnv* . 
1 '«■ go 



April 
April 



1. 1-..: 



M. 
M. 
S. 



M. 



M. 

S. 



M. 

S. 

M. 
S. 
M. 

M. 
S. 

S. 

"$L 

S. 

a. 



a. 



s. 

M. 

8. 

S. 



M. 

"s"' 

M. 



M. 
S. 

M. 

S. 

8. 



S. 
M. 



Eemarks. 



f. n. 

{'■ 



Changed May 10, 1847, to New York 

Fire & Marine Ins. Co. 
Made assignment Jan. 1852, and closed 

up. 
Receiver appointed. 
Receiver appointed Julv, 1855. 
Cap. $500,000. Closed by losses 1818 

and reorganized. Changed to Hope 

Ins. Co. Jan. 26, 1821. 
Cap. $300,000. 

Expired 1820. Extended to Jan. 1860. 
Cap. $200,000. 
Cap. $500,000. 
Cap. $600,000. Changed April 15, 1823, 

to Life & Fire Ins. Co. 

Changed from Sun Fire Ins. Co. Cap. 

$240,000. 
Cap. $400,000. Revived April 25, 1831. 

Cap. $300,000. 

Cap. $250,000. Changed to Neptune 
Bell Mutual Ins. Co. of New York, 
April 22, 1831. 

Changed from Neptune Ins. Co. Cap. 
$250,000. Revived April, 1832. 

Cap. $250,000. Changed from Phoenix 
Fire Ins. Co. Allowed to take inland 
navigation risks May 7, 1845. 

Cap. $300,000. 

Receiver appointed June, 1855. 



Receiver appointed Oct. 1854. 

Cap. $500,000. Extended to Jan. 1860. 

Capital reduced to $350,000. 
Closed. 
Cap. $250,000. 
Closed. 
Closing up. 
Cap. $250,000. 
Cap. $400,000. 
Receiver appointed March, 1S52. 

Cap. $500,000. 

Cap. $300,000. Reincorporated May 
3, 1839. Cap. $250,000. 



f. 1. m. n. Cap. $500,000. 

Original cap. $250,000. Changed to 

North America Fire Insurance Co. 

April 8, 1836. 
Receiver appointed March, 1854. 
Cap. $100,000. 



m. n. 
f. n. 
f. n. 



f. n. 



f. 1. 1 
f. 

f. 
f. 
f. n. 



m. n. 

f. 

f. 
f. n. 



Cap. $300,000. 

Reorganized Oct n. 1851. Receiver 

appointed Feb. 1S55. 
Cap. $50,000. 

Cap. originally. $500,000. Closed up. 
Changed from Fanners & Merchants' 

In-uranco Co. of Western N. Y. # 

Receiver appointed Jan. 1857. 

Cap. $100,000. Stopped issuing poli- 
ci .-.« by art May 25. 1S41. 

Changi-d l>v dropping "Countv Mu- 
tual" April 7, 1858. Extended 30 
years. 

Revived May 0. 1836. 

]:■ • i v 1  r appointed. 

Cap. $250,000. Time for final divi- 
dend extended 1840 to Juno 28, 1841. 

Cap. $250,000. 

Cup. 1200,000. Cbanpe,] to National 
Fire Insurance Co. May 24, 184L 



Receiver appointed Nov. 1856. 
Changed from Cooperstown Feb. 1855. 

Receiver appointed. 
Cap. $100,000. 



• Capital reduced from $199,880.90 to $87 ,536.45 by the great Trov fire of 1<<20. Life insurance taken away in 1831. 
to close up by act of April 18, 1843. » See Comptroller's Report, 1858, p. 45. 



Directed 



CORPORATIONS. 



89 



Class III. includes those whose certificates are filed in the Banking Department. 

"An Act to authorize the Itiusiness or Banking" was 

passed April 18, 1838, and was modified April 12, 1851, upon 
the creation of a Bank Department. Reports previously 
made to the Comptroller are now made to this Department. In 
1853 the articles of association previously filed in the Secre- 
tary's office were transferred to this department. 1 

Individuals or copartners may obtain bills from the depart- 
ment for circulation as individual bankers, and are liable to 
the full extent of their property for the redemption of the 
notes and the payment of the debts of such private banks. 
The name of individual banks must now be that of their 
owners ; and the privilege cannot be sold, or the bills be signed by an agent. It may, however, be 




Obsolete Insurance Companies, continued. 



Name. 



Tompkins County Mutual Ins. Co.... 
Traders' Ins. Co. in the City of N. Y. 
Tradesmen's Insurance Co. in the 

City of New York 

Triton Insurance Co 



Tontine Fire Insurance Co.. 
Troy Insurance Co 



Troy Mutual Safety Insurance Co.... 

Trust Fire Insurance Co 

Tempest Insurance Co 



Trust Fire Insurance Co . 



Unadilla Mutual Insurance Co 

Union Fire Insurance Co. of the City 

of New York 

Union Insurance Co 



Union Mutual InB. Co. at Fort Plain 



United Insurance Co 

United Ins. Co. in the City of N. Y... 
United States Insurance Co. of the 1 

City of New York .J 

United States Mutual Insurance Co. 

United States Insurance Co 

Utica Insurance Co 



Utica Live Stock Insurance Co 

Washington County Mutual Ins. Co 



Washington Insurance Co 

Washington County Insurance Co... 

Washington Marine Insurance Co. 1 
of the City of New York / 



Washington Mutual Assurance Co 
of the City of New York 

Washington Mutual Insurance Co.., 

Wayne County Mutual Ins. Co , 

Webster Fire Insurance Co 

Western Fire Insurance Co 

Western Insurance Co. of Olean 

Western Insurance Co. of the village 
of Buffalo 

Western New York Agricultural 
Live Stock Insurance Co. 

Williamsburgh Fire Insurance Co.... 

Yates County Mutual Insurance Co.. 



Location. 



Ithaca 

New York.. 

New York.. 
New York.. 

New York.. 
Troy 



Troy 

New York., 
Meridian..., 



New York., 
Unadilla.... 



New York.. 
New York.. 

Fort Plain . 

New York.. 
New York.. 

New York- 



West Potsdam... 
Saratoga Springs 
Utica 



Date of act of 

incorporation 

or of filing 

articles. 



2§ !a 



Utica 

Granville. 



New York., 



New York.. 



New York.. 
New York.. 



New York , 

Canandaigua. 
Olean , 



Buffalo 

Cleveland, Oswe- 
go co 

Williamsburgh.. 



April 25, 1840 
March 9,1825 

March 14, 1825 
April 4, 1838 

May, 1855 

April 5, 1831 

May 7, 1844 
April 25,1830 
Jan. 29, 1853 



April 25,1839 

May 12, 1836 

April 24,1833 
March 18, 1818 

May 21, 1850 

May 14, 1840 
March 10, 179S 

March 31, 1837 

Nov. 8, 1850 
Feb. 22, 1851 
March 29, 1816 

April 12,1852 
AprU 22,1837 

April 29,1839 
AprU 24,1832 

AprU 27,1833 



March 30, 1802 
AprU 11,1842 
May 12, 1836 
March, 1855 
AprU 3, 1824 
Jan. 22, 1853 

April 7, 1817 

April 15,1852 
AprU 17, 1843 
March 9, 1837 



M. 

S. 

s. 
s. 



s. 

M. 

s. 
s. 

M. 

s. 

S. 

s. 

M. 
M. 



M. 

S. 

s. 
s. 



s. 

M. 



s. 

M. 



Remarks. 



f. n. 

f. n. 
f. m. n. 



f. m. n. 



f. n. 

f. 



Cap. $250,000. 

Cap. $200,000. 

Cap. $250,000. Beduced to $150,000 

May 26, 1841. 
Receiver appointed Oct. 1856. 
Cap. $200,000. Directed to close up by 

act of AprU 21, 1840. 

Cap. $150,000. 

A committee appointed in 1855 could 

not find the books or Secretary of 

this Co. 
Changed from Eighth Ward Fire Ins. 

Co. Cap. may increase $200,000. 



f. Cap. $400,000. 

1. ann. Cap. $500,000. In 1837 extended to 
Jan. 1, 1862. 
Changed to Union Insurance Co. July 
8, 1851. 
m. n. Cap. $500,000. 

f. 1. m. Cap. $500,000. Twice extended. 
■j Cap. $1,000,000. Fire risks allowed 

J™* May 5, 1840. 

Receiver appointed Feb. 1855. 
Receiver appointed Feb. 1859. 
f. m. n. Receiver to be appointed by act of 

May 26, 1841. 
(insured Uve Btock.) Cap. $25,000. 

Reorganized Dec. 13, 1849. Receiver 

appointed Sept. 1856. 
Cap. $250,000. 
f. Cap. $50,000. 

ICap. $300,000. Reduced to $100,000, 
1833, and changed to Marine Mutual 
Fire Insurance Co. Allowed to take 
fire risks AprU 27 1833. 



Referee appointed Sept. 1855. 
f Cap. $250,000. 

Receiver appointed Dec. 1855. 

f. m. n. Cap. not over $400,000. 



1 The first bank organized in the State was the Bank of New 
York, which had existed several years previously as a private 
partnership. In many of the earlier banks the State reserved 
the right of subscribing stock, and of appointing directors to 
represent their interest in proportion to the amount held. Bank- 
ing powers could only be enjoyed by special act of the Legisla- 
ture, and were commonly limited to a period of 30 years. In 
1838 a general law was enacted, allowing the organization of as- 
sociations for banking, upon depositing the requisite securities 
with the Comptroller and filing articles of association in the 
Secretary's Office. Up to the date of the general law, 106 banks 
had been created,— of which 31 are stiU in existence, 36 have 



reorganized, and 39 have failed, closed, or changed their names. 
The Manhattan Co., created " for supplying the city of New 
York with pure and wholesome water," and the New York Dry 
Dock Co. possess perpetual banking powers. Other corporations 
for manufacturing or commercial purposes were allowed like 
privileges for limited periods, all of which have expired. In 
1829 a "safety fund" was created, by requiring an annual con- 
tribution of i per cent, of its capital paid in from each bank 
formed or extended after that time, until each had paid 3 per 
cent. This fund was placed in charge of the Comptroller, and 
applied to the redemption of the bUls of insolvent banks con- 
tributing to this fund, after their other means had been ex- 



90 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



bequeathed. All banks, excepting those in New York, Brooklyn, Albany, and Troy, must have 
an agency in New York, Albany, or Troy, for the redemption of their bills within one-fourth of 
one per cent, of par. 



hausted. The bank fund has long since been exhansted, the 
draft upon it far exceeding the income. In 1S48, 11 insolvent 
banks, that hal contributed but $S6,2S2 to this fund, had drawn 
from it $2,577,927. — Comptroller's Report, 1843, p. 55. 

The same law provided for the appointment of 3 Bank Com- 
missioners, who were required to visit the banks thrice annually, 
to ascertain their condition, take measures to secure the public 
against fraud or loss, and report annually to tho Legislature. 
This office was abolished April 18, 1S43, and the Comptroller 
was invested with general powers relating to banks, from which 
he was relieved by the creation of a special Bank Department in 
1851. This department is under a superintendent appointed by 
the Governor and Senate for 3 years. It has the custody of all 
plates for printing bank bills ; registers, numbers, and issues to 
banks such bills as their charters and securities entitle them 
to; destroys tho same when withdrawn from circulation; and 
destroys the plates when tho bank is closed. It appoints special 
agents for examining the condition of doubtful banks, directs 
prosecutions in behalf of the State, sells the securities of broken 
banks to redeem their circulation, and reports the condition of 
banks to the Legislature annually. Banks can only obtain bills 
for circulation by depositing New York State or United States 
stocks bearing interest equivalent to 6 per cent., or bonds and 
mortgages of not over $5,000 each upon unincumbered improved 
lands at two-fifths value, exclusive of buildings, and bearing 7 per 
cent, interest. Closing banks, after culling in 90 per cent, of their 



cireulation, may withdraw their stocks or mortgages, and substi- 
tute cash for tho redemption of the remaining 10 per cent, of 
c irculation. Stockholders of banking associations are personally 
liable to an extent equal to their capital stock. Experience has 
shown that under our free bank system, bonds and mortgages 
have realized but about 88 per cent, on tho sum for which notes 
were issued, while the aggregate securities, including stocks, 
have almost always sold for more than enough to redeem the 
circulation based upon them. — Report, 1859, p. 8. 

Bank A'otc Engraving is now done by a company, formed in 
1858 by the union of most of the establishments previously ex- 
isting. 

The Bank of the United States had branches for discount and 
deposit at New York, Utica, and Buffalo, in this State. 

Specie payment has been generally suspended three times by 
the banks of New York State. In the fall of 1814 all the banks 
of the Union, except those of New England, suspended until the 
spring of 1S17. In May, 1837, there was a second suspension, 
which continued until the spring of 1838. On the 13th of Oct. 
1S57, a third suspension took place in all the banks of New 
York City, with one exception, (Chemical Bank.) and this was 
soon followed by the banks of the State generally ; but specie 
payment was resumed in about 60 days. 

The following tables, derived from returns in the Bank De- 
partment, are corrected up to Jan. 1, 1859. The amount of 
capital is reported for Dec. 18, 1858 : 



Existing Banks in the State, Jan. 1, 1859. 



Corporate Name. 



Addison Bank 

Albany City Bank 

Albany Exchange Bank 

American Kxchange Bank.. 

Artisans' Bank" 

Atlantic Bank 

Atlantic Bank of the City 

of New York 

Auburn City Bank 

Auburn Kxchango Bank.... 

Ballst..n ~pi i!nnk„ 

Bank of Albany 6 .- 

Bank of Albion 

Bank of America' 

Bank of Attica 

Bank of Auburn'' 

Bank of Bath 

Bank of Bioghamton 

Bank of Oanandalgua 

Bank of the Capitol 

Bank  • I i Lake* 

Bank 

Bank of Central New York 

Bank of Chemung 

Bank of Chenango/ 

Bonk ofCohoea 

Bank of Commerce in New 

Vork 

Bank of Commerce of l'ut- 

mun County 

Bank town 

Bank oftheComm ion 

Bank of Owning 

Bank 

Bank of Danerflle 

Bank ill" 

Bank of Fisl.Kill 

Bank of R r< Edward 

Bank of Genesee* 



Location. 



Addison , 

Albany 

Albany 

New York 

New York 

Brooklyn , 

New York 

Auburn 

Auburn 

Ballston Spa, 

Albany , 

Albion 

New York 

Buffalo 

Auburn , 

ISath 

Bingham ton., 
Canandaigua 

Albany , 

Fainted Post, 

Cazcnovia 

Utica, 

F.lmira 

Norwich 

Cuhocs 

Now York 

Carmel 

Oooperatown 

New York 

Corning , 

Coxsarkl- ..., 
Damnrllle 

PiibkUl 

Fort Kdward 
B tfei in 



^S-5 



■ggs 



I. 

c. 

A. 
A. 
A. 
C. 

A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 



I. 

A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 



Dates 



Of filing arti- 
cles. 



Dec. 12, 1838 
Oct. 1, 1S38 
Aug. 22, 1856 



May 

duly 

Feb. 

Jan. 

Dec. 

July 

Dec. 

April 

Jan. 



27, 1S53 
6, 1853 
16, 1856 
31, 1839 
15, 1854 
16, 1839 
30, 1852 
24, 1850 
2, 1850 



Nov. 17, 1S52 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Sept. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

March 



:;, iv,:; 

1S47 

2<i. ls:,r, 

17. ls:;s 
11, 1852 
28, 1866 

18, 1859 



Feb. 15, 1839 



Feb. 1, 1853 
March 22, 1868 
Jan. 17. I-/.. 
March 14, 1868 
Juno 10, 1839 

]'.!. IV, I 

28, I860 

.'',. 1851 

22, 1861 



Of beginning 
business or of 
act of incorpo- 
ration. 



May 

April 

Jan. 

Sept. 

July 



17, 1S56 
30, 1834 
1, 1839 
14, 1838 
10, 1S56 



March 10, 183C 



July 

July 

Feb. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

July 

Dec. 

March 

Dec. 

April 

July 

April 

Feb. 

Sept 

Feb. 
Sept. 

Jan. 
Dec. 



2, 1853 
25, 1853 

1, 1856 
10, 1S38 

30, lSr.4 
15, 1S39 

1, 1852 

1, 1S50 

31, 1849 

11, IV, I 

29, 1852 

4. 1854 

1, iv,:; 

1M7 

21, IVin 

8,1838 

1, 1S53 

31, 1855 



Jan. 1, 1839 



Jan. 
F.b. 
Oct. 

I lee. 



April, 

Jan. 

March 

Jan. 

March 

Juno 

Jan. 

Juno 

Oct, 

Deo, 



1853 
1. iv,:; 
1, 1868 

12, 1839 
4. 1868 

10, 1889 
B, 1864 
1, 1860 
1. 1861 
i : ., 



Of expiration 

of charter or 

privilege. 



Jan. 
Jan. 
Sept. 
July 
Jan. 

July 
July 
Jan. 
Dec. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 



1, 1864 
1, 2500 
14, 1938 
1, 1956 
1, 1866 

2, 1953 
5, 1953 

1, 1956 
10, 193S 

1, 1904 

2, 2o3'.i 
1. 1953 

1. 2 i 

1, 1950 



Jan. 1, 2000 



Jan. 1, 2000 



Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 



1. l'.HKI 

15, 1889 
1, 1S93 
1, 1956 



Jan. 1, 18S9 



Jan. 1,1953 
March 1. 1968 
Jan. 12, 1939 
1, 1900 
10, 1G39 

!l. l'.ir.l 
31, 1S99 
In year 1951 
i Dec. 31, 1951 



Jan. 
June 
Jan. 

I lee. 



5 'fl 






500 
100 
500 
600 
500 

400 
200 
150 
100 
360 
100 

2.0UO 

160 

200 



150 
150 



120 
100 
100 
120 



5,000 



150 
750 
117 
120 
100 
110 
120 

mo 
100 i 



Present 
capital. 



$ 50,000 

500,000 

311,100 

4,999,550 

OOII.OHO 

500,000 

400,000 
2iin,n00 
20(1.(100 
125,000 
500.340 
100,000 

3, .ooo 

250,000 
200,000 

50,000 
200.000 

20,000 
619,600 

10,000 
120,000 
110,200 

5(1,000 
150,000 



8,851,760 

63,012 

2oii,iiiiu 

T.'.o. I 

7S.5II0 
142,000 
150,250 
115,400 
150,000 
200.000 
150.000 



t3-§ 
"§52 

•S | 



S. E. 

S. E. 

S. 

S. 



s. 

S. 
S. 
S. E. 

s. 

S. E. 

s. 

S. E. 
S. 

S. E. 
S. E. 
S. E. 
S. 
S. 

S. E. 
S. E. 
S. E. 
S. E. 



B. 

E. 

B. 
E. 

S. E. 
S. E. 
S. 

S. E. 
S. E. 



• Articles amend, 1 May 11.1 *57. 

» Hnt incorp. April 10, 1792; cap. $40,000; allowed to reduce 
two-fifths April 4. 1S20. and share* reduced from : l " to $30 
April 17, 1S30; twice extended; expired Jan. 1, ls.'.a; Stat 
debt to gnbecrlhe »b«-k at flrot. 

• First incorp. June 2. 1812; cap. $0,000,000. and late United 
Stated Bank altowi I to take flm ililln of the stock ; reduced to 
■4,000,000 March 20, 1813; once extended. 



<* First Incorp. March 31, 1817 ; cap. $400,000; once extended ; 
expired Jan. l, 1850. 

< Started at Ithaca, 

/First Incorp, April 21, 1818; cap. $200,000; once extended; 
expired Jan. 1. 1850. 

' First incorp. April 29, 1829; cap. $100,000; expired Jan. 1, 
1862. 



CORPORATIONS. 

Existing Banks, continued. 



91 



Corporate Name. 



Bank of Geneva" 

Bank of Havana 

Hank of the Interior 

Bank of Kent 

Bank of Kinderhook 

Bank of Lansingburgh& 

Bank of Lima 

Bank of Lowville 

Bank of Malone 

Bank of Newark 

Bank of Newburgh" 

Bank of Newport 

Bank of New York rf 

Bank of North America 6 ... 

Bank of Norwich 

Bank of Old Saratoga/. 

Bank of Orange County!?.... 

Bank of Owego 

Bank of Pawling 

Bank of Port Jervis 

Bank of Poughkeepsie/ 

Bank of the Republic 

Bank of Khinebeck 

Bank of Rome 

Bank of Rondout 

Bank of Salem 

Bank of Salina 

Bank of Saratoga Springs*. 

Bank of Seneca Falls 

Bank of Silver Creek. 

Bank of Sing Sing 

Bank of the State of New 

York 

Bank of Syracuse 

Bank of Tioga 

Bank of Troy* 

Bank of Ulster 

Bank of UticaJ 

Bank of Vernon 

Bank of Watertown 

Bank of Waterville 

Bank of Westfield 

Bank of West Trov 

Bank of Whitehall* 

Bank of Whitestown 

Bank of Yonkers 

Black River Bank 

Briggs Bank of Clyde 

Broadway Bank 

Brockport Exchange Bank.. 

Brooklyn Bank 

Broome County Bank' 

Buffalo City Bank : 

Bull's Head Bank of the 

City of New York 

Burnet Bank 

Butchers & Drovers' Bank 

in the City of New York" 1 
Cambridge Valley Bank at 

North White Creek 

Canajoharie Bank 

Canastota Bank 

Cataract Bank 

Catskill Bank™ 

Cayuga County Bank 



Location. 






■§! i 

f 8? 



Q-<« 



Geneva 

Havana 

Albany 

Ludingtonville... 

Kinderhook 

Lansingburgh.... 

Lima 

Lowville 

Malone 

Newark 

Newburgh 

Newport 

New York 

New York 

Norwich 

Schuylerville 

Goshen 

Owego 

Pawling 

Port Jervis 

Poughkeepsie 

New York 

Rhinebeck 

Rome 

Rondout 

Salem 

Syracuse 

Saratoga Springs 

Seneca Falls 

Silver Creek 

Sing Sing 

New York 

Syracuse 

Owego 

Troy 

Ulster Village 

Utica ;.... 

Vernon 

Watertown 

Waterville 

Westfield 

West Troy 

Whitehall 

Whitesboro 

Yonkers 

Watertown 

Clyde 

New York 

Brockport 

Brooklyn 

Bingham ton 

Buffalo 

New York 

Syracuse 

New York 

White Creek 

Canajoharie 

Canastota 

Lockport. 

Catskill 

Auburn 



A. 
I. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
C. 

"c. 

A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
C. 
A. 
A. 
C. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
A. 

C. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
I. 
C. 
A. 
A. 

A. 
I. 



A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
C. 



Dates 



Of filing arti- 
cles. 



Nov. 20, 1852 



Juno 
March 
Dec. 
Juno 

Dec. 

Aug. 

April 

Dec. 

April 

Dec. 

April 

Feb. 

Jan. 



4, 1857 
15, 1856 
19, 1838 
22, 1855 

26,1838 

18, 1851 
6, 1854 
17, 1850 
2, 1S58 
21, 1852 
11, 1851 
21, 1S56 
23, 1858 



April 

Feb. 

Dec. 

Jan. 

June 



4, 1849 

4, 1853 

31, 1S57 

25, 1850 

1, 1853 



Of beginning 
business or of 
act of incor- 
poration. 



Oct. 
May 


5, 1848 
17, 1853 


May 


11, 1852 


Oct. 
July 


25, 1839 
13, 1853 



Sept. 

June 

Nov. 

June 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Dec. 



26, 1838 
20, 1856 
6, 1852 
17, 1852 
18, 1849 
14, 1S39 
26, 1839 
10, 1S38 



April 

June 

Fob. 

June 

June 



26, 1852 
14, 1859 
28, 1839 
26, 1854 
16, 1851 



Aug. 15, 1849 



Dec. 
Feb. 



17, 1854 
22, 1853 



July 18, 1854 



Dec. 16, 1852 



June 
Nov. 
Feb. 
Sept. 
Dec. 



20, 1855 

30. 1855 

28. 1856 
16, 1858 
28, 1852 



Nov. 

April 

Juno 

Feb. 

Dec. 

Juno 

Feb. 

Dec. 

Aug. 

April 

Jan. 

March 

Dec. 

April 

July 

Jan. 

April 

May 

Sept. 

March 

Dec. 

Feb. 

June 

April 

Sept. 

May 

April 

May 

May, 

Oct. 

Aug. 

May 

Sept. 

June 

Dec. 

July 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Oct. 

April 

May 

Feb. 

July 

June 

Sept. 

Aug. 

July, 

Feb. 

Dec. 

March 



15, 1852 
4, 1851 
1, 1857 

27, 1856 
15, 1838 

1. 1855 
6, 1857 

18. 1838 
6, 1851 
1, 1854 
1, 1851 

28, 1858 
22, 1852 
10, 1851 

15, 1856 

1. 1856 
6, 1813 

21, 1836 
3, 1849 
1, 1853 

31, 1857 
1, 1851 
1, 1853 

16, 1832 
1, 1848 

10, 1853 

20, 1832 

1, 1852 

1854 

15. 1839 
1, 1853 

18, 1836 

15, 1838 

14, 1856 

1, 1852 



Of expiration 

of charttr or 
privilege. 



Jan. 1, 1900 



May 1,1957 

Feb. 27. 1955 

Jan. 2, 1839 

July 1, 1955 



Nov. 1, 
Jan. 1, 
Dec. 31, 
Jan. 1, 
March 25, 



Jan. 
Sept. 
June 
,_ Jan. 
6, 1852 June 



Jan. 
Jan. 
July 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Sept. 



March 1, 
Jan. 1 



Jan. 
Dec. 
Jan. 
Sept. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
May 



1, 
31, 
1, 
6, 
1, 
1, 
1, 



2301 
1900 
1900 
1951 
1908 
1953 
1951 
2056 
1958 
1862 
1866 
1899 
1953 
1958 
1951 
1899 
1862 
1898 
1950 
1862 
1952 



In year 2500 
Dec. 31, 1953 



1. 1849 

1, 1839 
17, 1839 

1, 1838 
12, 1848 

1, 1852 

25, 1839 

10. 1854 
1, 1851 

21. 1855 
9, 1S49 

1852 

24, 1832 

31, 1854 

1, 1853 



Oct. 



1854 
12, 1852 



Dec. 22, 1852 



Sept. 
April 
April 
Sept. 
Dec. 



3. 1855 
3, 1855 

1. 1856 
20, 1858 
31, 1852 



March 14, 1833 



Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Oct. 



1, 1866 

15. 2:r.s 

14, 1956 

1, 1952 

1, 1950 

1, 1950 

1, 1939 

17, 2340 

1, 2838 



May 1, 1900 



Feb. 
Dec. 
Jan. 



25, 2839 

31, 1953 

1, 1S90 



Aug. 9, 1950 



Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 



1, 1S60 
1, 1954 
1, 2000 



Dec. 31, 1953 



Dec. 31, 1953 



Jan. 

April 

Jan. 

Sept. 

Jan. 

Jan. 



1, 1905 
3, 1955 
1, 2000 
1, 1958 
1, 1899 
1, 1S63 



2 ° 



205 

"7 00 
100 
125 
120 

ioo 

100 
100 
200 
100 
2,000 
1,000 
125 
110 
* 

200 
125 
120 
200 
1,000 
125 
100 
100 
100 
150 
100 

"ioo 

125 

2,000 
100 
100 
440 
100 
600 
100 
100 
100 



200 

100 
150 
100 

"506 



200 
100 
100 

300 



600 

115 
100 
110 
100 

t 

250 



Present 
capital. 



$205,000 

50.000 
251,550 
111,940 
250.1100 
150,000 

50,000 
102,450 
196,800 
1 011.000 
:;on.ooo 

50,025 
2,838,975 
1,000,000 
125,000 
1O5.S50 
105.660 
200,000 
175,000 
130,000 
200,000 
2,000.000 
125,000 
100,000 
150,000 
138,000 
150,000 
100,000 

80,000 
100,800 
150,000 

2,000.000 
200,000 
100,000 
440,000 
150.000 
600.000 
100,000 

47,779 
120,000 

50,000 
250,000 

120,000 
150,000 
100,000 

62,611 
1,000,000 

50,000 
150,000 
100,000 
277,700 

173,300 
93,400 

800,000 

168.339 
125,000 
110,000 
40,000 
128.962 
250,000 



k1 

J • • = 

ill 

hi 

V. 'J. 



S. K. 
S. E. 
S. 

S. E. 
S. B. 
S. E. 
S. E. 
S. E. 
S. B. 
S. E. 
S. E. 
S. B. 
S. 

s. 

S. E. 



S. E. 

S. 

S. 

S. 

S. 

s. 

S. E. 

s. 

S. E. 

S. E. 
S. 



S. E. 

S. 

S. E. 
S. E. 
S. E. 
S. E. 
S. E. 
S. E. 
S. E. 
S. E. 

S. E. 
S. 

S. E. 
S. E. 
S. 
S. E. 

S. 
S. E. 

S. 
S. E. 



S. E. 

S. E. 
S. E. 

S. E. 
S. 



» First incorp. March 28, 1817 ; cap. $400,000 ; once extended ; 
expired Jan. 1, 1853. 

» First incorp. March 19, 1813; cap. $200,000 ; once extended; 
expired July 1, 1855. 

c First incorp. March 22, 1811. 

<* First bank in State; incorp. March 22, 1791; cap. $900,000; 
thrice extended; expired Jan. 1, 1S53. 

« A bank of similar name filed Jan. 7, 1839 ; cap. $100,000 ; 
did not organize. 

/Begun as an individual bank. 

9 Once extended. 

* Individual bank of this title begun 1847. 

* First incorp. March 22, 1811 ; cap. $500,000; allowed to open 

* $105,660. 



offices of discount and deposit at Waterford and Lansinburgh , 
once extended ; expired Jan. 1, 1853 ; State reserved right to 
take stock. 

i First incorp. June 1, 1812 ; cap. $1,000,000 ; once extended ; 
allowed to open a branch at Canandaigua April 10, 1S15; State 
reserved right to take stock. 

* Organized in place of Safety Fund Bank of same name 
whose charter expired June 13, 1S59. 

I First incorp. Apr. 18, 1831 ; cap. $100,000 ; expired Jan. 1, 1855. 

"•Butchers & Drovers' Bank incorp. April 8, 1S30; cap. 
$300,000, increased to $500,000 ; expired Jan. 1, 1S53. 

» First incorp. March 26, 1813; cap. $400,000; once extended: 
expired Jan. 1, 1853. 

t $110,007. 



92 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER, 
Existing Banks, continued. 



Corporate Naue. 



Central Bank of Brooklyn.. 

Central Bank at Cherry 
Valley" 

Central Bank of Troy 

Central City Bank'.. 

Chatham Bank. 

Chautauqua County Bank.. 

Chemical Bank 

Chemung Canal Bank 

Chester Bank 

Chittenango Hank 

Citizens 1 Bank« 

Citizens' Bank 

City Bank of Brooklyn 

Citv Bank of New York 1 ... 

Cit'v Bank 

Clint, n Bank of Buffalo 

Commercial Bank of Al- 
bany* 

Commercial Bank of Clyde. 

Commercial Bank of Glens 
Falls 

Commercial Bank of Roch- 
ester. 

Commercial Bank of Sara- 
t _ i >prings 

Commercial Bank of Troy.. 

Commercial Bank of White- 
hall 

Continental Bank 

Corn Exchange Bank 

Croton River Bank 

Cuba Bank 

Cuyler'a Bank 

Delaware Bank 

Deposit Bank/. 

Dover Plains Bank 

East River Bank? 

Elmira Bank 

Essex County Bank* 

Exchange Bank at Lock- 
port 

Fallkill Bank 

Farmers' Bank of Amster- 
dam 

Farmers' Bank of Attica... 

Farmers' Bank of Hudson.. 

Farmers' Bank of Lansing- 
trai 

rs' Bank of Saratoga 
■ity 

Farmers' Bank of the City 
Of Irov* 

Fanners' Bank of Washing- 

Farmers k Citizens' Bank 

of Long !-i in i.' 

:-  Dron :-' Hank.. 
Farm- rs A Manufacture r.-' 

lk 

Faros inics' Bank 

of Gc * 

Farm :iici' Bank 

of Bo hester 

Fl nr i Itj Bant 

Fori Plain Bank 

nit 
Frankfort I 

n:a Bank 
r Bank 



Location. 



e 

HI 



o<:« 



Brooklyn. 



Cherrv Valley., 
Troy 



Syracuse 

New York 

Jamestown.... 

New York 

Elmira. 

East Chester . 
Chittenango .. 

Fulton , 

New York 

Brooklyn 

New York.... 

Oswego 

Buffalo 



Albany 
Clyde,.... 



Glens Falls . 



Rochester.. 



Saratoga Springs 
Troy '. 



Whitehall 

New York 

New York 

Brewster Station 

Cuba 

Palmyra 

Delhi 

Deposit 

Dover 

New York 

Elmira 

Keeseville 



Lockport 

Poughkeepsie.. 



Amsterdam . 

Attica 

Hudson 



Lansingburgh . 



Troy 

Fort Edward. 



Williamshurgh. 
Somers 



Poughkeepsie. 
Buffalo 



Bode 
Bochi 

1 rr Plain. 


f nnkfbrt.. 

UII.... 



A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
C. 
A. 
C. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 

A. 
I. 



A. 

A. 

A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
C. 

A. 
A. 

A. 
I. 

A. 

A. 
A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 
A. 

C. 

A. 

A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 



Dates 



Of filing arti- 
cles. 



Of beginning 
business or of 
act of incor- 
poration. 



April 9, 1853 Aug. 1,1853 



Dec. 
Feb. 

May 
Feb. 



13, 1854 
5, 1853 

12, 1S52 
6, 1851 



Feb. 5, 1844 



May 

Feb. 

Sept. 

May 

Nov. 

May 

Dec. 

July 



11, 1S46 
4, 1S53 
8, 1S53 
3, 1851 
6, 1850 
26, 1852 
17, 1849 
3, 1856 



July 3, 1S41 



April 28,1853 
April 8, 1839 



Feb. 
Jan. 

Aug. 

Jan. 

Dec. 

March 

June 

April 

March 

Nov. 

Feb. 

Sept. 

April 



18, 1856 
8, 1839 

5, 1849 

24. 1853 
21, 1852 
21, lv',.; 

20. 1855 
9, 1853 

21, 1S39 

12. 1856 

12. 1857 
11, 1S52 

22. 1854 



Dec. 

May 

May 

Feb. 

April 

Feb. 

April 

May 

April 

Aug. 

May 

Dec. 

July 

Nov. 

Aug. 

July 
Nov. 



14, 1854 
1, 1853 

12. 1852 
20, 1851 
18, 1831 
24,1844 

9,1833 
1, 1846 
1, 1853 

20. 1853 
1, 1851 

14, 1850 
1, 1852 
1,1849 
1, 1S56 

1, 1847 
1850 



Of expiration 

of charter or 

privilege. 



July 31, 1953 



April 28, 1S53 
Nov. 7, 183S 



Feb. 
Jan. 

Aug. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

| March 

June 

April 

Jan. 

Oct. 

March 

Sept. 

Nov. 

April 



Nov. 12, 1851 
June 17, 1852 



1, 1856 
5, 1839 

15, 1849 

24, 1853 
1, 1S53 

15, 1856 
1, 1855 

15, 1S53 
1, 1839 
1, 1856 

15, 1S58 
8, 1852 
1, 1S53 

25, 1832 



Jan. 
May 
May 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 



1, 1955 
1,2353 
12, 1952 
1, 1899 
1, 1860 
1, 1899 



May 
Jan. 
Dec. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Nov. 
July 



1, 2500 
1, 2000 
31, 1953 
1, 1951 
1, 1950 
1, 1952 
1, 2049 
1, 2000 



Jan. 1, 2000 



Jan. 1, 1954 

Nov. 7, 193S 

Feb. 1, 1956 
In year 2000 



Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

March 

June 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

March 

Sept. 

Jan. 

Jan. 



1, 2500 
1, 1953 
1, 1950 

15, 1956 
1, 1900 
1, 1900 
1, 1939 
1, 1959 
1, 2000 

18, 1952 
1, 1953 
1, 1S62 



July 1, lS51Inyear 2000 
April 1,1852, July 1,1952 



April 26, 1S39 April 10, 1S39 April 10,1939 

May 7,1856 

Feb. 7, 1839 March 1, 1S39 Dec. 31, 1900 



March 31, 1854 



April 1, 1854 



April 1, 1954 



Nov. 13, 1852 Dec. 1, 1852 Jan. 1,1950 

Juno 30, 1850 Jan. 1, 1850 Jan. 1, 1956 

Juno 21, 1S52 Jnlv 8,1862 July 3,2000 
July 16, 1839, March 16, 1839 j In year 1950 

April 20, 183-1 Jan. 1,1864 



Dec. 13, 1838 



March 

March 

Jan. 

Nov. 

Feb. 

July 

April 



15. ls:;:i 

1. l S66 
■j. L88fl 
6,1847 
6, 1854 

2. 1 B66 
29, 1854 



Nov. 1,1838 Nov. 1,2000 

Feb. 12, 1880 Jnn. 1, 3838 

March 1, 1850 Jan. 1,1956 

Jan. 1, 1*30 Jan. 1,2001 

Nov. 6, 1847 1 Nov. 3, 2347 

May 16, 1854 May 15,2354 

Aug. 1,1*66 May 1,2000 

April r.o. IV, J Jan. 1, 1899 



3 
5 

.8 
P 

5-3 



200 

200 
200 
110 
300 
100 
300 
200 
100 
105 
125 
300 
150 
800 
125 
250 

300 



150 
400 

125 

100 



1.500 
500 
100 
100 
100 
100 
125 
100 
300 
200 
100 

150 
150 

100 



100 
200 

350 

200 

200 
t 

300 

100 

100 
200 
100 
110 
105 
100 
100 



Present 
capital. 



S200,000 

200,000 
300,000 
125,200 
450,000 
100,000 
300,000 
200,000 
125,500 
150,000 
166,100 
400,000 
300,000 
1,000,000 
276,400 
250,000 

500,000 
25,000 

136,400 

500,000 

125,000 
300,000 

108,200 

2,000,000 

1,000,000 

107,500 

100,000 

74,000 

150,000 

125,000 

100,000 

206,525 

100,000 

100,000 

150.000 
200,000 

118.000 

54,533 

300,000 

171,300 

200,000 

350,000 

16S,650 

200,000 
111,150 

300,000 

150,000 

125,000 
300,000 
150,000 
150.000 
106,000 

Itiii.i 

liMi.niiM 



i^r B 

tots 






<% I. 

I" 

mm 



S. E. 
S. E. 
S. E. 

S. 



S. E. 

S. E. 

S. E. 
S. 
S. 
S. 

S. E. 
S. E. 



S. 
S. E. 

S.E. 

S.E. 

S. 
S.E. 

S. 

S. 

S. 

S.E. 

S.E. 

S.E. 

S. 

S.E. 

S. 

S. 

S.E. 



S.E. 

S. 

S.E. 
S.E. 
S.E. 

S.E. 

S.E. 

S.E. 

S.E. 

S. 
S.E. 



S.E. 

S.E. 
S.E. 
S. E. 
8. E. 
S.E. 
S.E. 
S.E. 



••Cherry Valley Bank tncorp. April -i. 1818; cap. $200,000; 
changi 1 • ' Tit ml Bank ; on xtended ; expired Jan. 1, 1855. 

' Changed from ("rouse Bank Feb. 3, 1867. 

' Bi mi v -I from Ogdensbnrgh. 

<Titv H.nk tecorp. Jun- 16, 1812; cap. fc2,000,000; twice ex- 
t<-nd'-.l": expired Julv 1. 1862; cap. reduced one half March 24, 
1820. and afterward to $720,000. 

« Commercial Bank incorp. April 18,1826; cap. $300,000 ; Once 
extended ; expired July 1, 1847. 

• $108,200. 



/An Individual bank merged in association. 
8 Allowed to reduce cap. to $313,918 March 7, 1836. 
>> Allowed to iii<T.-a-r cap. to ,£400.000 May 10, lS.,rt. 
< Farmer*' Bank inmrp. March 31, 1*01; cap. $250,000; State 
nerved right to tnko stock; twice extended; expired Jan. 1, 

i Increased to $-300,000 March 9, 1854; afterward reduced. 
* Removed from Batavia June 3, 1852 

t $111,150. 



CORPORATIONS. 



93 



Existing Banks, continued. 



Corporate Name. 



Fulton Bank, in the City of 
New York 

Fulton County Bank 

Genesee County Bank 

Genesee River Bank 

Genesee Valley Bank 

Geo. AVashington Bank 

Glens Falls Bank 

Goshen Bank 

Greenwich Bank of the City 
of New York* 

Grocers' Bank in the City 
of New York 

Hamilton Bank 

Hanover Bank 

Herkimer County Bank..... 

Highland Bank 

H. J. Miner & Co.'s Bank... 

H. T. Miner's Bank. 

Hudson Kiver Bank c 

Huguenot Bk. of NewPaltz 

Hungerford's Bank"* 

Hion Bank 

Importers & Traders' Bank 

International Bank 

Iron Bank 

Irving Bank in the City of 
New York 

Jamestown Bank 

Jefferson County Bank" 

J. N. Hungerford's Bank... 

J. T. Raplee's Bank 

Judson Bank d 

Kingston Bank 

Lake Mahopac Bank 

Lake Ontario Bank.... 

Lake Shore Bank 

Leather Manufacturers' B'k 

Leonardsville Bank 

Lockport City BankA 

Long Island Bankc 

Lyons Bank* 

Manhattan Company*. 

Manufacturers' »Bank of 
Brooklyn^ 

Manufacturers' Bank of 
Troy 

Manufacturers & Traders' 
Bank 

Marine Bank of Buffalo 

Marine Bank, at Oswego.... 

Marine Bank of the City of 
New York 

Market Bank 

Market Bank of Troy 

Mechanics' Bank of Brook- 
lyn 

Mechanics' Bank of the City 
of New York* 

Mechanics' Banking Asso- 
ciation 1 

Mechanics' Bank of Syra- 
cuse 

Mechanics & Farmers' 
Bank of Albany™ 

Mechanics & Traders' Bank 
in the City of New York. 



Location. 



New York 

Gloversville 

LeRoy 

Mount Morris.. 

Geneseo 

Corning 

Glens Falls 

Goshen 



New York. 



New York... 
Hamilton.... 
New York... 
Little Falls.. 
Newburgh... 
Dunkirk 



Hudson 

New I'altz... 

Adams 

Ilion 

New York 

Buffalo 

Plattsburgh. 



New York 

Jam es town 

Watertown 

Corning 

Penn Yan 

Ogdensburgh.- 

Kingston. 

Mahopac 

Oswego 

Dunkirk 

New York 

Leonardsville., 

Lockport 

Brooklyn - 

Lyons 

New York 



Brooklyn . 
Troy 



Buffalo- 
Buffalo . 
Oswego. 



New York., 
New York., 
Troy 



Brooklyn... 
New York.. 
NewY'ork.. 
Syracuse.-. 

Albany 

New York.. 



8 

S.S , 
.3 si 

-§><-§ 

I'll 

d<1 w 



A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
A. 



A. 

A. 

A. 

C. 

C. 

I. 

I. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

I. 

A. 
I. 
A. 
I. 
I. 
A. 
C. 
I. 
A. 
I. 
C. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
I. 
C. 

A. 

A. 

A. 
A. 
A. 

A. 
A. 

A. 

A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 



Dates 



Of filing arti- 
cles. 



Jan. 

April 

Dec. 

Oct. 

May 



15, 1844 

28, 1852 

19, 1838 

1, 1853 

6, 1851 



Oct. 31, 1851 

Sept. 25, 1850 

May 30, 1855 

Aug. 15, 1851 

Feb. 19, 1853 

April 2, 1851 



April 23, 1855 

April 25, 1853 

Sept. 17, 1853 

Feb. 6, 1852 

Nov. 28, 1855 

May 11, 1854 



Of beginning 
business or of 
act of incor- 
poration. 



March 1,1844 
March 23, 1852 



Jan. 
Oct. 
May 

Oct. 
Nov. 



1, 1839 
5, 1853 

10, 1851 
1854 

31, 1851 
1, 1S51 



June 4, 1855 



Aug. 

March 

April 



1, 1851 
1, 1853 
2, 1851 



March 14, 1833 
April 26,1834 
Feb. 24, 1859 



March 29, 


1851 


Oct. 
Feb. 


21, 
9, 


1853 
1859 


Aug. 


1, 


1854 




March 17, 


1857 




April 

May 

June 


25, 
13, 
16, 


1856 
1859 
1845 





April 19,1853 

Aug. 12, 1852 

June 26, 1856 

July 15, 1850 

June 25, 1856 

March 23, 1853 

Oct. 19, 1852 

July 5, 1853 

Aug. 12, 1852 

Dec. 18, 1854 

Aug. 1, 1838 

Sept. 29,1851 

Not. 4, 1852 

Dec. 30, 1856 



May 

June 

Sept. 

Feb. 

Dec. 

June 

July, 

March 

Feb. 

Dec. 

March 

July 

July 

May 

April 

March 

Jan. 

April 

Feb. 

June 

Dec. 

April 

March 

April 

July 
Aug. 
Aug. 

Jan. 
Aug. 

Sept. 

Aug. 
Jan. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Dec. 
Jan. 



8, 1855 
1, 1853 

1, 1853 

2, 1852 

1. 1855 
1, 1S54 

1853 

31. 1851 
1853 

31. 1853 
16, 1859 
15, 1858 

1, 1854 
18, 1836 

15. 1854 
12, 1857 

1855 
23, 1832 
27, 1856 

16, 1845 
1843 

2, 1799 

6, 1853 

22. 1852 

1. 1856 

1, 1850 
20, 1856 

1, 1853 
30, 1852 

2, 1853 

10, 1852 
1, 1855 
1, 1838 

28, 1851 
1, 1852 

2. 1857 



Of expiration 

of charter or 

privilege. 



Jan. 1, 1899 
March 23, 1952 
Jan. 1, 2000 
Oct. 5, 1919 
Jan. 1, 2000 



Sept. 
Nov. 



1, 1952 
1, 1951 



June 7, 1954 



Jan. 

Jan. 

April 

Jan. 

Jan. 



1, 1950 

1, 2053 

2, 1951 
1, 1863 
1, 1864 



May 
July 
lJuly 

'Feb. 
'Jan. 
Jan. 



10, 1955 
1, 1953 
1, 1953 
3, 2352 
1, 1955 
1, 1954 



Jan. 


1> 


1950 


Jan. 


1, 


1900 


July 
Jan. 


1, 
1, 


1904 
1866 


March 12, 


1957 



June 1, 1862 
Feb. 27, 2356 

July 1, 1890 



Unlimited 

May 1, 1903 

July 1, 1952 

Jan. 1, 2000 
Jan. 1, 2000 

Aug. 20, 2S56 

Jan. 1, 1953 

Aug. 30, 1951 
Jan. 1, 1953 



Jan. 
Jan. 
Aug. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 



1, 1952 
1, 1955 
1, 1938 
1, 1950 
1, 1950 
1, 1957 



fi 

OS 



600 
150 
100 
130 
120 

150 
110 

200 

150 
110 

500 
200 
200 



200 
125 
125 
100 
1,000 
400 



500 
200 



132 

200 

250 

'eo'o 

100 

200 

2,000 

250 

200 

200 
170 
125 

500 

650 
200 

200 

2,000 



140 
.550 
400 





B6£ 




1 • "V. 








fe| 




\*\ 


Present 




capital. 


■CV2 




gJI 




m 




5 1. 




i« 




OiOl 


$600,000 


S. E. 


150,000 


S. E. 


200,000 


S. E. 


130,000 


S. E. 


150,000 


S. E. 


50,000 




112,000 


S. E. 


110,000 


S. 


200,000 


S. E. 


240,000 


S. 


110,000 


S. E. 


1,000,000 


s. 


200,000 




200,000 




25,000 


s. 


250,000 


s. 


125,000 


S. E. 


125,000 


S. E. 


100,000 


S. E. 


1,500,000 


S. E. 


400,000 


S. E. 


50,000 


S. E. 


500,000 


S. E. 


92.915 


S. E. 


2,000,000 


S. E. 


50,000 


S. E. 


122,000 


S. E. 


200,000 




40,850 


S. E. 


325,000 


S. E. 


39,200 


S. E. 


600.000 




100,000 


S. E. 


400,000 


S. E. 


48,609 


S. E. 


2,050,000 




150,000 




250,000 


S. E. 


495,000 


S. E. 


300,000 


S. E. 


186,000 


S. E. 


659,100 


S. 


1,000,000 


s. 


300,000 


S.E. 


300,000 


d. 


2,000,000 


S. 


316,000 


s. 


140,000 


S.E. 


350,000 


S.E. 


400,000 


S. 



a Fulton Bank incorp. April 1, 1824; cap. $500,000; increased 
to $750,000 March 16, 1827 ; expired March 1, 1844. 

» Greenwich Bank incorp. April 17, 1830 ; cap. $200,000 ; ex- 
pired June 6, 1853. 

• First incorp. March 29, 1830 ; cap. $100,000 ; increased to 
$150,000 April 16, 1832; expired June 12, 1855. 

<* Originally an individual bank. 

• First incorp. April 17, 1816; cap. $400,000, and located at 
Adams; failed; removed to TJtica Nov. 19, 1824, and cap. re- 
duced to $100,000; increased to $200,000 May 19, 1836; once ex- 
tended ; expired Jan. 1, 1854. 

/Niagara River Bank, Buffalo, removed to Lockport, and 
name changed May 13, 1859. 



s First incorp. April 1, 1824 ; cap. $300,000 ; onco extended ; 
expired July 1, 1845. 

* Begun under the name of Palmyra Bank ; changed name 
March 31, 1857. 

* Chartered for supplying city with water, with perpetual 
banking privileges. 

i Changed from Mechanics' Bank of Wilhumsburgh, and cap. 
reduced April 15, 1858. 

* Mechanics' Bank first incorp. March 23, 1810 ; cap. $1,500,000 ; 
reduced to $1,440,000; once extended; expired Jan 1, 1855; 
State reserved right to take stock. 

« Under Chap. 183. laws of 1858 ; original cap. $128,175. 
"> First incorp. March 22, 1811 ; cap. $600,000 ; reduced one> 
fourth April 4, 1820 ; once extended ; expired Jan. 1, 1853. 



94 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 

Existing Banks, continued. 



Corporate Name. 



Medina Rank 

Mercantile Hank" 

Mercantile Bank of Pitts- 
burgh 

Merchants' Rank of Albany. 
Merchants' Bank of Erie 

County 

Merchants' Hank in the City 

of New Fork 

Merchants' Rankin Rough- 

k'-opsie 

Merchants' Bank 

Merchants 1 Bank of West- 

field 

Merchants 1 Exchange Bank 

in the City of New York 6 
Merchants k Farmers'Rank 
Merchants .t Mechanics' 

Bank of Troy 

Metropolitan Bank 

Hiddletown Bunk 

Mohawk Rank of Schenec 

taily 

"•I >b iwk River Rank , 

Mohawk Valley Rank. 

M"iir ■*■ County Rank 

Montgomery County Bank* 

Mutual Bank 

N assau Rank 

Nassau Rank of Rrooklyn.. 
National Bank of Albany... 
National Rank in the City 

of New York' 

New York County Rank of 

the City of New York 

New York Dry Dock Com- 
pany/ 

New York <fc Erie Bank"... 
New York Exchange Bank 

in the City of New York. 

fork Stat.' Rank'" 

innty Hank. 

. River Bank in the 

City of New York' 

Ocean Bank in tho City of 

New York 

nbnrgh Bank 

i B ink 

Oneida Central Bank 

mty Bank 

. i Valley Bank 

1 Mi ID 

I -utity Rank 

1 >ri' ntal Bank 

B mk 

ik 

r B mk 

nty Bank/ 

I'arllic Bank 

Bark Bank 

mk of the City 

of v rw York 

I'errin Bank 

Phmnix Bank of the 'itv 

of New York* ., 

d Bank 

Quaasaick Bank 

Hanilall Bank 



Location. 



Medina 

New York. 



Pittsburgh. 
Albany 



Lancaster. 
New York. 



Pnughkecpsie.. 
Syracuse.. 



Westfield. 



New York.. 
Ithaca 



Troy 

New York , 

S. Midilletown.. 



Schenectady.. 

Fonda 

Mohawk 

Rochester 

Johnstown.... 

Troy 

New York 

Brooklyn 

Albany 



New York., 

New York. 

New York., 
Ruffalo 



New York. 
Albany 

Lockport... 



New York., 



New York 

| Jgdensburgn., 
utica 



Komo 

Otica 

Oneida 

Bj rai use 

Syracuse 

New York 

Imrgh. 

Oswego 

Fulton 

Co 'pi-rRtown .. 

New York 

Now York 



New York., 
Rochi-.-t'T.. 



New York 

Pulaski 

Newburgh 

• 'ortlandTille.. 



5>* ? 



§11 



0<tn' 



I. 

A. 

A. 
A. 



A. 

A. 
A. 



A. 
A. 

A. 
A. 
A. 

A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 



C. 
A. 

A. 
A. 
A. 

A. 

A. 
C. 
C. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
C. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 

A. 
I. 

A. 
A. 
A. 

I. 



Dates 



Of filing arti- 
cles. 



Jan. 

Jan. 
Jan. 



8, 1850 

24, 1S56 
22, 1853 



Dec. 24, 1S56 



Jan. 

Feb. 



19, 1845 
21, 1851 



April 24,1849 
Oct. 24, 1S3S 

Dec. 15, 1853 
April 10, 1851 
May 17, 1839 

Oct. 13, 1852 
Jan. 2, 1856 
March 28, 1839 
May 26, 1857 
30, 1856 
3, 1853 
28, 1852 
28, 1859 
8, 1856 



Of beginning 

business or of 
ad of incor- 
poration. 



May, 
Jan. 



1854 
8, 1850 



Jan. 1, 1856 
March 21, 1853 



May, 



1S44 



Jan. 2, 1857 



July 
Dec. 

April, 

June 
Oct. 



Of expiration 

of charter or 

privilege. 



Jan. 1, 1950 

Jan. 1, 1956 
March 1, 1953 



Jan. 1, 1957 1,500 









200 

100 

250 



2, 1845 
31, 1850 

1853 

1, 1849 
15, 1838 



July 
Dec. 



1, 1895 
31, 1950 



Dec. 15, 1853 
April 10, 1850 
July 1, 1839 



Dec. 
Jan. 
Oct. 
Jan. 
Feb. 



Dec. 22, 1856 
June 25, 1855 



Aug. 12, 1852 

April 14,1851 

Oct. 26. 1850 

May 7, 1856 



Dec. 
Jan. 
July 
May 
Dec. 
Feb. 
Nov. 
Jan. 
Jan. 



1, 1852 

1, 1856 

1, 1839 

23, 1857 

31, 1856 

1, 1853 

1, 1852 

12, 1859 

16, 1S56 



Jan. 2, 1857 

June 1, 1855 

April 12,1825 

Sept. 1, 1852 

April 21, 1851 

Dec. 31, 1850 

May 1, 1856 



Tuly 1, 1842 Juno 1, 1S42 



Jan. 
Jan. 



1, 1899 
1, 2040 



Jau. 1, 1954 
Jan. 1, 1950 
May -1, 2130 



Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
May 
Jan. 
Feb. 
Nov. 



1, 195: 

1, 1956 
1, 2839 
23, 2551 
1, 195i 
1, 195.' 
1, 1952 



Jan. 16, 1956 

Jan. 1, 1957 

June 1, 1955 

Unlimited 
Jan. 1, 2000 

Jan. 1, 1900 
Jan. 1, 1950 
Refore 2500 

Jan. 1, 1S99 



Dec. 22, 1849 Dec. 10, 1S49 Jan. 1.1950 

April 30, lsj'.l Jan. 1. lsV.i 

May 14, 1836 Jan. 1,1866 

Sept. 19, 1853 Sept. 19,2000 

May 10, 1853 Jan. 2, 2500 

Sept. 22, 1852 Sept. 2, 1002 

May 1,1854 May 1,1954 



Oct. 29, 1853 

May 2, 1853 

Sept. 27, 1852 

May 1, 1854 



July 

Oct. 



n.t, 

Dec 

Oct. 8, 1850 

March 12, 1856 



6. ivv; July 11. ls;,:s July 
3, 1854 Oct. 10,1851 Oct. 

March 14, 1881 Jan. 

3. 1855 1 Jan. 1, 1856 Dec. 



30, ls.v: Dec. 
June 



.11. I^.v: Jan 



Feb. 27, 1851 



Dec. 27, 185o 
S.'pt. 10, 1853 
March 19, lS.yj 



17. 1860 
March 1, 1856 

April 1,1861 
Sept. 29, 1855 



Jan. 



11. 1-:,:; 
1. 1 96 1 
1. 1, S.V.I 

31, 1955 
1. 1954 
1. 1050 



March 1,1950 
April 1, 1950 



Jan. 2. 1S.-.4 Jan. 2,1954 
Sept. 1. 1868 Dec. 31,1899 
March 19, 1852 j Jan. 1, 1952 
Aug. 1868 



110 
135 



1,000 
150 

300 
250 
100 

125 

100 
100 
100 
100 
200 
500 

600 

1,500 

200 

200 
120 

250 
250 
200 

600 

500 
100 
400 
150 
125 
105 
150 

300 

200 
150 
125 
200 
500 
2,000 

250 



1,200 
100 
130 



Present 
capital. 



$ 50,000 
1,000,000 

100,000 
400,000 

50,000 

2,638,975 

150,000 
180,000 

40,000 

1,235,000 
80,000 

300,000 

4,000,000 

125,000 

200,000 
100,000 
150,000 
100,000 
100,000 
234,500 
979,200 

600,000 

1,500,000 

200,000 

200,000 
300,000 

130,000 
350,000 
100,000 

316,000 

1,000,000 
100,000 
400,000 

173.500 
125,000 
105,000 
90,200 
150,000 
300.000 
200,000 

15H, I 

114.500 

2oi UK Ml 

422.700 

2,000,000 

412.500 
43,620 

1,800,000 

loo.OMO 

300,000 

60,000 



« . . *- 
3, w 

OTOT 



S. E. 

S. 

s. 
s. 

S.E. 

S. 

S. 
S.E. 

S.E. 

S. 
S.E. 

S.E. 

S. 
S.E. 

S. 

s. 

S. E. 
S.E. 
S.E. 
S.E. 
S. 

s. 
s. 
s. 

S.E. 

S. 
S. 
S.E, 

S. 

S. 



S.E. 
S. E. 
S.E. 
S. 
S. 

s. 

S.E. 

S.E. 

S.E. 

S. 

S. 

S.E. 

S.E. 

S. 

s. B. 
8, 

s. i:. 



" Successor to Rank of Ith I 

» First in- rp April J >. 1^_. rap. ?7.',0.000. 

« Mohawk Bank bcorp. M irch 18, 1807 ; cap. $200,000: allowed 
to reduce April 4. 1820; twice extended; expired Jan 1. 1868 

<* First incorp. March 15, 1831 ; cap. $100,000 ; expired Jan. 1, 
185i . 

« National Rank incorp. April .», 1829; cap. $1,000,000: ex- 
pir.-l Jan. 1, 1857. 

/ Dock Co. with perp etua l bankin.r power*. 

9 Removed from Dunkirk Mar, li. 1864. 

» First inrorp. M ,r, h 1 ', 1803; cap. 8460,000; once extended; 
expired Jan. 1, 1851; State reserved right to take stock. 



'North Itivi-r Rank incorp. March 23, 1821; cap. $500,000; 
expired July 1, 1842; judgment dissolving an injunction filed 
Sept. 25, 1858. 

i First incorp. April 8, 1830; cap. $100,000; expired Jan. 1, 
1854. 

* Incnrp. June 16, 1812. cap. $1,000,000. as Now York Manu- 
facturing Co.. for making wiro and cards; amended Sept. 26, 
1M4. with banking privileges to extent of $150,000 besides 
i.OOO in manufacturing; changed to Phoenix Rank, F'eb. 
J. 1M7: oni ■" exti'tnled; expired .(an. 1, 1854; increased to 
$1,000,000 April 29, 1834, and reduced May 7, 1841. 



CORPORATIONS. 



95 



Existing Banks, continued. 



Corporate Name. 



Rensselaer County Bank .... 

R. M. Goddard & Co.'s Bank 

Rochester Bank 

Rochester City Bank 

Rome Exchange Bank 

St. Nicholas Bank 

Salt Springs Bank 

Saratoga County Bank" 

Schenectady Bank 

Schoharie County Bank 

Seneca County Bank 

Seventh Ward Bank 

Shoe & Leather Bank 

Smith's Hank of Perry 

Spraker Bank 

State Bank of Troy 

State of New York Bank.... 

Steuben County Bank 

Stissing Bank 6 

Suffolk County Bank 

Susquehanna Valley Bank.. 

Syracuse City Bank 

Tanners' Bank 

Tompkins County Bank 

Tradesmen's Bank of the 
City of New York 

Traders' BankofRochester 1 * 

Troy City Bank 

Ulster County Bank 

Unadilla Bank 

Union Bank of Albany 

Union Bank of Kinder- 
hook 

Union Bank of the City of 
New York" 

Union Bank of Rochester... 

Union Bank of Sullivan 
County 

Union Bank of Troy 

Union Bank of Watertown.. 

UticaCity Bank 

Wallkill Bank 

Washington County Bank.. 

Watertown Bank & Loan 
Company 

Waverly Bank 

Weedsport Bank 

Westchester County Bank. 

West Winfield Bank 

White's Bank of Buffalo.... 

Williamsburgh City Bank.. 

Wooster Sherman's Bank... 

Worthington Bank 

Wyoming County Bank 



Location. 



Lansingburgh.. 

Canton 

Rochester. 

Rochester 

Rome 

New York 

Syracuse 

Waterford 

Schenectady 

Schoharie 

Waterloo 

New York 

New York 

Perry 

Canajoharie 

Troy 

Kingston 

Bath 

Pine Plains 

Sag Harbor 

Biughamton.... 

Syracuse '. 

Catskill 

Ithaca 



New York... 
Rochester... 

Troy 

Kingston 

Unadilla 

Albany 



Kinderhook.., 



New York., 
Rochester... 



Monticello 

Troy 

Watertown 

Utica 

Middletown 

Union Village.. 



Watertown 

Waverly 

Weedsport 

Peekskill 

West Winfield... 

Buffalo 

Williamsburgh., 

Watertown 

Cooperstown 

Warsaw » 



.2 w s 

■eTgg 
HI 



A. 
I. 
A. 
C. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
C. 
I. 
C. 
C. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
C. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
A. 
C. 

c. 



C. 
C. 

I. 

A. 



A. 
A. 

A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 

A. 
A. 
A. 
C. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
I. 
I. 
I. 



Dates 



0/ filing arti- 
cles. 



Dec. 7, 1852 
March 31, 1854 



Feb. 18, 1851 

Nov. 25, 1852 

Feb. 4, 1852 

Nov. 28, 1S56 



Dec. 30, 1852 



May 31, 1S53 
May 20, 1852 
July . 9, 1853 



June 8, 1858 



Jan. 31, 1855 
Dec. 21, 1849 



Dec. 
June 



28, 1854 
1, 1859 



June 8, 1853 
June 23,1853 



Dec. 
Jan. 



21, 1852 
20, 1853 



March 3,1851 
Jan. 20, 1851 
June 14, 1852 
Aug. 30, 1848 
June 9, 1857 
March 8,1839 

Jan. 21, 1839 
Aug. 20, 1855 
July 12, 1854 



March 10, 1854 
April 9, 1853 
Feb. 25, 1852 



Of beginning 
business or of 
act of incor- 
poration. 



Jan. 

April 

April 

May 

Feb. 

Nov. 

Jan. 

Dec. 

April 

April, 

March 

April 

Dec. 

Sept. 

June 

April 

Sept. 

March 

May 

April, 

Jan. 

Oct. 

March 

May 



1, 1853 
29, 1859 

1, 1854 
18, 1836 
18, 1851 

15, 1852 

3. 1852 
1. 1S55 

16, 1832 
1852 

12, 1833 

so, is:;:; 

3, 1852 

22, 1858 

1. 1853 
27, 1852 

6, 1853 
9, 1832 
29, 1858 
1844 
10, 1855 
26, 1849 
14, 1831 
14, 1836 



Jan. 2, 1855 

April 19, 1833 
March 14, 1S31 
July, 1844 

July 4, 1853 

June 23, 1853 

Dec. 22, 1852 
March 1, 1853 



March 

Jan. 

July, 

Sept. 
Aug. 
July 

Jan. 

Aug. 

July 

March 

Feb. 

April 

Feb. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Nov. 



1, 1851 
1, 1851 
1, 1852 
1, 184S 
3, 1857 
1, 1839 

20, 1S39 
6, 1855 

3, 1854 
21, 1833 
16, 1854 

6, 1853 

4, 1852 
1841 
1854 
1851 



Of expiration 
of charter 
privilege. 



Jan. 1, 1953 



Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Nov. 
Jan. 
Dec. 
Jan. 



1, 1954 
1, 1866 
1, 1951 
15, 1952 
3, 1952 
1, 1956 
1, 1862 



Jan. 


1, 


1863 


Jan. 


1, 


1863 


Dec. 


2, 


1952 



June 

Jan. 

Sept. 

Jan. 

Jan. 



1, 1953 
1, 2000 
5, 1893 
1, 1862 
1, 1900 



Jan. 
Oct. 
Jan. 
Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 
June 



9, 1955 

26, 1949 

1, 1860 

1, 1866 

1, 1950 

1, 1863 
1, 1861 



July 4,1953 

Jan. 1, 1900 

Jan. 1, 1952 

Jan. 1, 1953 



Jan. 
Jan. 
July 
Jan. 
Aug. 



1, 1899 
1, 1951 
1, 1952 
1, 1898 
3, 1957 



In year 2050 



1, 2839 
6, 1955 
1, 1954 
1, 1863 
16, 2354 
In year 2000 
Feb. 4, 1952 



Jan. 
Aug. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Feb. 



H 

■•* to 



200 

100 
400 
100 
500 
125 
100 
150 

"206 
600 
600 

"ioo 

250 
100 
150 
120 

"ioo 

100 
100 
250 

800 

300 
100 

"256 

125 

1,000 
400 

110 

250 
100 
125 
125 
100 

100 
100 
100 
200 
100 
100 
200 





oil 




~5 




fe| 




s-; 1 


Present 


1*1 


capital. 


i'H a 

,i *. v. 




c 9.3 




C S ~ 




§8^ 




Z&. 1 




l« 




/. •/. 


$ 200.000 


S.E. 


200,000 


S.E. 


400,000 




100,000 


S.E. 


750,000 


S. 


200.OI id 


S.E. 


160,000 


S.E. 


150.000 




100,000 


S.E. 


200,000 




500,000 




1,500.000 


S. 


50.000 


S.E. 


100.000 


S.E. 


250,000 


S.E. 


125.000 


S. 


150.000 




60.000 


S.E. 


20,000 


S. 


100,000 


S.E. 


160,250 


S.E. 


100,000 




250,000 




800,000 


S. 


300,000 




100,000 




125,550 


S E. 


500,000 


S. 


200,000 


S.E. 


1,500.000 


S. 


500,000 


S.E. 


150,000 


S.E. 


300,000 


S.E. 


187,900 


S.E. 


200.000 


S.E. 


125,000 


S. 


200,000 


S.E. 


100,000 


S.E. 


106,100 


S.E. 


100.000 


S.E. 


200,000 




125,000 


S.E. 


200,000 


S.E. 


500.000 


S. 


50.000 


S.E. 


50.000 


S.E. 


50,000 


S.E. 



o First incorp. March 29, 1830 ; cap. $100,000 ; expired Jan. 1, 
1857. 

* Successor to Pine Plains Bank. 

« Tradesmen's Bank incorp. March 29, 1823; cap. $600.000 ; re- 
duced to $400,000 March 26, 1827 ; once ext. ; exp. Jan. 1, 1855. 



d Formed by the consolidation of the Manufacturers' Bank 
and the Eagle Bank by special act of 1S59. 

« Union Bank incorp. March 8, 1811; cap. $1,S00,000; once 
extended; expired Jan. 1,1853; successor to Jersey Bank, in- 
corp. by State of New Jersey. 



Obsolete and Closing Banks. 

(Those marked with a * are redeemed by the Banking Department.) 



Name. 



Adams Bank 

♦Agricultural Bank of) 
Herkimer J 

Allegany County Bank 

Aqueduct Association in) 
Village of Catskill j" 



Location. 



Ashford..., 

Herkimer 

Angelica.. 
Catskill .. 






I. 

A. 

I. 

C. 



Date of charter 
or beginning 
of business. 



Aug. 



Jan. 



1850 



11, 1839 

May 13, 1840 
April 21,1818 



Capital. 



$ 100,000 



£k is 



** 



§3 



Par . 
S. 36 



Remarks. 



Redemption expires June 2, 1S60. 
Geo. Jones, N. Y. 

( Failed June 4, 1858. Red. at 
J New York State Bank, Al- 

(_ bany. 

/Changed to Greene County 
\ Bank Feb. 5, 1819. 



96 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 
Obsolete and Closing Banks, continued. 



Name. 



Location. 



American Bank Mayvillo 



•AstorBank New York. 

Clymer 

Leedsvillo , 



Atlas Bank of New York. 
Anienia Bank.. 



Bank of America at Buffalo 
Bank of Bainbridge. 



Bank of Brockport 

Bank of Buffalo 

Bank of Carth.apro 

Bank of Columbia 

Bank of Commerce of Buf- 
falo 

Bank of the Empire State. 

•Bank of Ilornellsville 

Bank of Hudson 



Bank of Lake Erie., 



Bank of Lodi 

Bank of Lyons 

Bank of the Metropolis. 



Bank of Monroe 

Bank of New Rocbelle . 



Bank of Itbaca . 



Bank of Niagara 

Bank of Olean. 

Bank of Orleans 

Bank of the People 

Bank of Plattsburgh 

Bank of Rochester 

Bank of Tonawanda. 

Bank of the Union 

•Bank of the Union in the 

City of New York 

Bank of the United States 

in Now York 

Bank of Warsaw 

Bank of Washington & 

Warren 

Bank of W a t erfal l] 

Bank New York. 

Bank of Whitehall. 

Binphamton Bank , 

Bowery Hank of the, City 

of Hew York 

Qamdeo B ink 



Buffalo 

Penn Yan.. 

Brockport . 

Buffalo 

Carthago .. 
Hudson 



Bnffalo 

Fairport 

Hornellsville.. 
Hudson 



Buffalo . 



Lodi. (Seneca co.,) 

Lyons 

New York 



Rochester 
Bolivar 



Ithaca. 



Buffalo 

Olean 

Albion 

Lowville , 

Plattsburgh 

Rochester , 

Wheatfield..., 
Belfast 



New York.. 

New York., 
Warsaw..., 



Sandy Hill.... 

Waterford 

Rochester .... 

Whitehall 

Bingliamton . 



Sew York , 
Camden 



Canal Bank 

•Canal Bank of Lockport. 



Albany ... 
U kp irt. 



Cattaraugus rv.tmtv Bank. 
•Ontral Bank of the City 

,,f s. w V.,rk 

Chemical Manufarturing I 

Chemung County Bank Horscheads . 



Randolph... 

New York.. 
New York . 



Ch"l»ea Bank. 

City Bank of Buffalo.. 



New York . 
liuffalo 



City Tni«t * Banking Co... Nr. w York .... 

Clint"!; : . New York .... 

P ■"■lja.1 Bank of Buf- 
falo liuffalo 

Commercial Bank of I 

York New York.... 

Commercial Bank of Oe-| 

Oewego 

drtlaiid County Bank Trust. n 

Cortland County Bank Cinnnnatus. 

Crouse Bank. Syracuse 



Champlain Bank.. 



Commercial Bank.. 



Ellenburgh . 



Lockport.. 



jb .« ;s Date of charter 
~ | -2 ! or beginning 
•S 3 "S of business. 



i. IT 



A. 
I. 
I. 

A. 
I. 

A. 
C. 
I. 
C. 

A. 
I. 
A. 
C. 



A. 
C. 
A. 

C. 
I. 



C. 
A. 
C. 
I. 
C. 
C. 
A. 
I. 



A. 
A. 

C. 
A. 
A. 
C. 
A. 

A. 
A. 

C. 
A. 



A. 
C. 
I. 

A. 
C. 

A. 
A. 

C. 

c. 

c. 

A. 
I. 
A. 



1. 



June, 



184; 



June 2, 1852 

June, 1847 

1844 

Sept. 26, 1S39 
April, 1847 

Nov. 13, 1839 
March 14, 1831 
July, 1S52 

March 6, 1793 

Aug. 27, 1839 
June, 1S48 
March 1, 1S56 
March 25, 1808 



Sept. 



1841 



Jan. 8. 1839 
May 14, 1S36 
March 31, 1851 

April 22,1829 
Jan. 1846 

April 29, 1S29 



April 

Feb. 

April 

Sept. 

April 

Feb. 

Dec. 

March, 



17, 1816 
13, 1840 
30, 1834 

1852 

7, 1817 

19, 1824 

15, 1838 

1852 



May 25, 1853 

Aug. 13, 1838 
Jan. 1, 1839 



April 

Jan. 

July 

April 

Dec. 

Aug. 
Jan. 



7, 1817 

1, 1839 

4, 1838 

.». 1*29 

26, 1838 

16. 1847 

27. 1848 



Mav 2, 1829 

April 10,1839 

Jan. 23, 1840 

Jan. 17, 1853 

April 21,1824 

Sept. 14,1855 



Jan. 
May 

March 
Fob. 

April 

April 

May 
3ept 

- i '■ 

M,.y 

Oct 

Ang. 



R, l~" r < 
21,1836 

10, 1839 
10,1840 

26,1834 

28,1834 

19, 1836 

30,1839 

1848 

12,1862 

1846 
1847 



Capital. 



$ 200,000 



100,000 

150.000 
200,000 

160,000 

100,000 

100,000 
300,000 



100.000 
200,000 
100,000 

300,000 



200,000 



400,000 
100.000 
200,000 

'360,006 
250.000 
100,000 



300,000 

200,000 
100,000 

400.000 
100,000 
180.000 

1(111,11110 

100,000 

300.000 

112,550 

300.000 
200,000 

100,000 

800,000 

400,000 



1,000.000 
400,000 

100,000 
100,000 

too/wo 

600,000 
250,000 

"160,006 



*V| I.J.V 

^ s s as i a 



Par 

S.97, S. E.75 
Par 



S.76, 8. E.7S 



80..., 
Par , 



S.76. 



Par 



S. S3, S. E. 97 
Par 



Par 

S.par,S.E.81 



Par 



S.87, S. E.74 



Par , 



Par .. 
S. 68. 
Par .. 



Par, 
Par 



S. 75. 



S. 75, S. E.74 



Par 
Par , 



40... 
Par 



S.84, S.E.77 



Remarks. 



Closing. Red. by Henry Keep 

until Nov. 16, 1861. 
Closing. 
Failed 1S47. 
Red. by Geo. Jones, N. Y., until 

Sept. 14, 1861. 
Failed. 
Closing. Red. by H. B. Bennett 

until March 26, 1863. 
Failed. 
Failed. 

Closed. Red. until April 29, 1863, 
Failed 1829. Twice extended. 

Failed. 

Closing. Red. until Oct. 7, 1862. 
Closing. Originally individual, 
Failed 1820. Allowed office of 

discount at Catskill. 
Closing. Red. until March 21, 

1862. 
Failed. 
Failed. 
Scarcely began business. Got 

one plate engraved. 
Charter expired Jan. 1, 1850. 
Failed Oct. 1, 1851. Time expired 

for redemp. Jan. 8, 1859. 
Charter expired Jan. 1, 1850. 

Removed to N. Y., and now 

Mercantile Bank of New York. 
Failed 1825. 
Failed. 

Failed. Elizur Hart receiver. 
Closing. Red. until Oct. 28, 1862, 
Failed 1825. 

Charter expired July 1847. 
Failed 1840. 
Closing. Red. until June 2, 1864. 

Closing. 

Closed 1843. 



Failed 1S25. 

Failed. 

Failed. 

Charter expired June 13, 1S59. 

Failed. 

Failed. Jno. A. Stewart receiver 
Closing. Red. by Edwin Rock 

well until Jan. 1. 1864. 
Failed July 11, 1848. 
Closing. (See Rep. Comp. 1S48 

p. 70.) 
Failed. 



Par Failed 

p f Charter expired. Merged in 



Par 



Par 



Par . 
Par . 

Par , 
Par 



\ Chemical Bank. 

Failed March 23, 1858. Rod. by 

Hank Dept. until Sept. 23, 

1864. 
Failed in 1840. 
Failed 1839. (Seo Comp. Rep. 

1848, p. 75.) 
Closed 1841. 
Failed 1844. 

Failed. 

Failed. 

Failed. 

Closing. Red. until Dec. 2, 1859. 
Changed to Central City Bank 

Feb. 3, 1857. 
Closing. (See Rep. Comp. 1848, 

p. 75.) Red. until Nov. 16, 

1861. 
Closing. Red. until Aug. 25, 

1861. 



CORPORATIONS. 



97 



Obsolete and Closing Banks, continued. 



Name. 



Commercial Bank, Alle-\ 

gany County J 

Clinton ('.unity Hank 

♦Dairymen's Bank 



Delaware & Hudson Canal 1 

Co ; 

Dutchess County Bank 

Dutchess County Bank 

Drovers' Bank of St. Law- 1 

renceCounty j 

Duukirk Bank 

Eagle Bank 

Eagle Bank of Rochester... 



Eighth Avenue Bank.. 
♦Empire City Bank.... 



Erie County Bank , 

Excelsior Bank 

♦Exchange Bank of Buffalo 

♦Exchange Bank of Genesee 

Exchange Bank of Roches 
ter 

Farmers' Bank of Ovid 

Farmers' Bank of Hamilton 
County 

Farmers' Bank of Geneva. 

Farmers' Bank of Malone. 

Farmers' Bank of Mina.... 

♦Farmers' Bank of Onon- 1 
daga ( 



Farmers' Bank of Orange | 
County j 

Farmers' Bank of Orleans.. 

Farmers' Bank of Penn 
Yan 

Farmers' Bank of Seneca 
County 

Farmers & Drovers' Bank 
of Erie County 

Farmers & Mechanics' 
Bank of Ogdensburgh 

Farmers & Mechanics' 
Bank of Onondaga 

Franklin Bank of Chau- 
tauqua County 

Franklin Bank 

Franklin County Bank 

Farmers' Bank of Saratoga 
County 

Freemen's Bank of Wash- 
ington County 

Genesee Central Bank 

Globe Bank 

Globe Bank in the City of 
New York 

Greene County Bank 

♦Hamilton Exchange ) 
Bank of Greene J 

Hartford Bank 

H. J. Miner's Bank of Utica. 

Henry Keep's Bank 

♦Hollister Bank of Buffalo.. 

Howard Trust & Banking 

Co 

Hudson River Bank 

♦Island City Bank 



Ithaca Bank 

James Bank 

Kinderhook Bank 

Knickerbocker Bank 

Knickerbocker Bank of) 
the City of New York J 

Kirkland Bauk 

I-a Fayette Bank 



Location. 



Friendship... 

Plattsburgh 
Newport 



Now York 

Poughkeepsie.. 
Amenia 



Ogdensburgh. 

Dunkirk 

New York 

Rochester 



New York . 
New York . 



Buffalo.... 
Meridian.. 
Buffalo.... 



Batavia.. 



Rochester 
Ovid 



Arietta. 
Geneva . 
Malone . 
Mina.... 



Onondaga Valley, 



Warwick.. 
Gaines .... 



Penn Yan 
Romulus... 



Buffalo 

Ogdensburgh , 
Fayette ville.... 



French Creek . 

New York 

Malone 



Crescent. 



Hebron 

Attica 

Seneca Falls.. 



New York., 
Catskill.... 



Greene 

Hartford . 
Fredonia.. 



Watertown. 
Buffalo 



Troy 

New York . 
New York.. 



Ithaca 

Jamesville... 
Kinderhook. 
Genoa 

New York ... 

Clinton 

New York ... 



** o ^ 

•C! J2 ~ 

V.I 

a "^ s 



i. 

c 

A. 



C. 
I. 



I. 
A. 
A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 
I. 
I 



I. 

A. 

I. 
A. 
I. 
I. 



I. 
A. 

A. 

A. 

I. 

A. 

A. 

I. 

C. 
I. 



I. 
A. 
I. 

A. 
C. 

I. 

I. 
I. 

I. 

A. 



A. 
A. 
A. 

A. 
A. 
I. 
I. 



I. 

C. 



Date of Charter 
or beginning 
of business. 



July, 

May 

Nov. 



184" 

18, 1S36 
1, 1855 



Nov. 19, 1824 

April 12, 1825 

Aug. 1849 

Dec. 1843 

July, 1851 

April 5, 1839 

March 27, 1852 



Sept. 

Jan. 

Sept. 

Feb. 

April, 



1, 1853 

1, 1852 

1, 1838 
1851 
1844 



Jan. 8, 1849 



Oct. 
Oct. 

April, 
July 
Oct. 
May, 

July, 

Aug. 
Oct. 

Aug. 

April 

Oct. 

Aug. 

Aug. 



April 
Aug. 



31, 1839 
6, 183S 

1850 

18, 1839 

1844 

1847 

1852 

1842 

29, 1838 

20, 1839 

20, 1839 

1843 

28, 1843 

24, 1839 

1847 

21, 1818 

1846 



April 1, 1851 



Oct. 
Dec. 
Dec. 

April 
Feb. 

Aug. 

June, 
Feb. 

Sept. 

Feb. 



1850 
11, 1838 
23, 1839 

11, 1840 
5, 1S19 

1850 

1849 
1850 

1847 

1, 1850 



April 16, 1839 
Dee. 6, 1838 
June 1, 1854 



31, 1838 

7, 1839 

25, 1839 

1848 

1, 1851 

1845 
April 18, 1S34 



Dec. 
Feb. 
Jan. 
Sept. 

Oct. 

Dec. 



Capital. 



$200,000 
100,000 



600,000 
150,000 



100,000 
200,000 

100,000 

500,000 

100,000 

100,000 

"160,006 
160,666 



l-lTJI 

ft* -c c oj 5 B 



Par 



Par . 



Par - 

Par, 
Par , 



S. E. 94.., 



Remarks. 



Par 



200,000 
100,000 
100,000 

100,000 
250,000 

566,666 

200,000 

100,005 

100,000 



25,000 



100,000 



100,000 
100,000 
300,000 

250,000 
106,000 



200,000 
'566,666 



S. 62, S. E. 72 

Par 

Par 



Par 



Par 



Par 



Par , 

85.... 



Par 

S.par,S.E.74 



Par , 
Par, 
rar , 



Par 



84 

Par .... 
Par .... 



Par 
Par 

Par 
Par. 



91. 



Par , 
Par , 
Par , 



/Closing. Red. until July 22. 
\ 1862. 
Failed. 

Failed May 1858. Red. at New 
York State Bank at Albany 
until Nov 6, 1SC4. 
/Banking privilege expired 
\ Nov. 19, 1S44. 
Charter expired July 1, 1845. 
Closing. Red. until Nov. 6, 1863. 
/ Closed. Removed from Catta- 
X raugus co. 
Closed. 
Failed. 
Merged in the Traders' Bank of 

Rochester June, 1859. 
Failed Nov. 1854. Red. at Bank 

Dept. 
Failed. Red. at North River 

Bank. 
Failed. 

Closing. Red. until Nov. 16, 1861. 
Failed. Red. at Albany City 

Bank. 
Closing. Removed from Alex- 
ander June 24, 1850. 

Closed. 



Closing. Red. until July 16, 1863. 

Closed. Worthless. 
Closing. Red. until Mar. 9, 1864. 
Failed May 1853. Bed. at 
Bank Dept. at 85 until Nov. 
12,1S59. 
f Closed 1843.. Worthless. (See 
X Comp. Rep. 1844, p. 61.) 
Failed. Worthless. 

Closed 1843. 

Failed 1840. 

Failed 1846. Worthless. 

Closed. 

Closed 1841. 

Closing. Red. until Aug.25, 1861 
Failed 1830. 
Closed 1852. 

Still redeeming its own notes. 

Closing. Red. until Oct. 2, 1S61. 

Failed. 



Failed 1826. 

Redeemed at Bank Dept. at 84 

until June 23, 1864. 

Closing. Red. until July 14, 1S62. 

Closing. Still redeems its own 

notes. 
Closing. 

1859. 
Failed. 



Red. until Sept. 17. 

Red. at Commercial 
Bauk at Albany. 

Closed 1844. 

Failed Oct. 1857. Red. at Man- 
hattan Co. until April 22, 1864. 

Failed Oct. 1, 1S51. Wo rthless. 

Closing. Red. until Nov. 16, 1861. 
Failed. Red. at North River 
Bank. 
Closing. Red. until June 3, 1863. 
Failed. 



98 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Obsolete and Closing Banks, continued. 



Name. 



Leland Bank 

Le Roy Bank of Genesee ... 

Lewis County Bank 

Living-ton County Bank... 

Lockport Bank 

Lockport Bank & Trust Co. 

Lumberman's Bank 

•Luther Wright's Bank 

Mo In tyre Bank 

Madison Co. Bank 

Manhattan Exchange Bank 

Manufacturers' Bank of 
1 later Co 

Manufacturers' Bank of) 
Rochester -. j 

Mechanics' Bank 

inics' Bank of Buffalo 

Mechanics' Bank of Wil-1 
liamsburgh J 

Mechanics k Farmers' Bank 
I utile Bank of Schenec- 
tady 

M'-rchants' Bank 

'.ants' Bank of Ontario 

I anty 

•-' Banking Oo 

Merchants' Exchange Bank 

of Buffalo 

inte & Karmers'Bank 

•Merchants k Mechanics' \ 
nk uf Oswego J 

Middle District Bank 

Millers' Bank of New York 

. roe Bank of Rochester 

New York Banking Co 



Location. 



New Lebanon... 

Le Roy 

Martinsburgh... 

Geneseo , 

Lockport 

Lockport 

Wilmurt 

i tewego 

Adirondac 

Cazenoria 

New York 



Saugerties... 

Rochester... 

Water town. 
Buffalo 



Williamsburgh., 
Ithaca 



Schen' 
Mina 



Naples 

New York. 



Buffalo. 
Carmel.. 



North Granville. 



Poughkeepsie . 

Clyde 

Cuba 

Now York 



New York Bankof Saratoga Hadley .... 
New Y'ork City Bank New York 









New Y'ork Manufacturing \ 

; 

New York City Trust k 

I; inking Co 

New York Security Bank... 

. Bank 

York State Stock! 

- iritv Bank t 

York Traders' Bank \ 

Ington Oc J 

Niagara River Bank" 



North American Bsnk...- 

North Am- ri an 'J'ni-t 



Northern Bank of 

I 

Northern l Bank.. 

Northern Canal Hank 

North Kim B oiV.it.. I 
•OUn mp.iny'g) 

Bank f 

itjr Bank 

Ontario Bonk 



New York.. 



New York.., 
Hope Falls.. 
Durham 

New York.. 



N( rth Granville. 
Buffalo 



York., 
New Y' ork., 



Madrid 

Brasher Falls, 
fori Ann 

RTeW Y'.rk 

Buffalo 

- 
Canandaigua . 



Ontario Rank. (President 
and I 

Phelps. 



•Ontario County Bank. 



Oswego County Bank Meridian 

Palmvra Bank of \Tavn" I _ , 

"?'" 

Parliin Bank Bn" 



Phrenlx Bank Rain 1 

\ Bank at Buffalo.... Boll 
•Pine Plains Iiank Pine I 



I. 
A. 
C. 
C. 
C. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
I. 
C. 
A. 

I. 

A. 

I. 
A. 

A. 

A. 

A. 
I. 

I. 
A. 

A. 
I. 



C. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
I. 
A. 



I. 
I. 
I. 



I. 
A. 

A. 

A. 

I. 
I. 
I. 
A. 



A. 

c. 



A. 

I. 



I. 

I. 
A. 



I. 
A. 
A. 



July, 

Jan. 

April 

April 

April 

Oct. 

March, 

March 

Sept 

March 

April 



Date of charter 
or begin n ing 
of business. 



IV' -J 
1. l-O.' 

So. is.';:; 

7. 1830 

.J. ls-2Vi 

31, 1838 

1851 

28, 1846 

1847 

14, 1831 

1, 1839 



Sept. 
Jan. 



Sept. 10, 1840 

July 28, 1S56 

1851 
25, 1839 

March 1,1853 

Oct. 24, 183S 

March 26. 1S39 
Feb. 184' 

March 1846 
Sept. 4, 1839 

Sept. 20, 1838 
Oct. 1845 



July 



1852 



March 22, 1S11 
Dec. 1, 183S 
Oct. . 1852 
March 23, 1839 
Feb. 1851 

May 6, 1840 

Sept. 26, 1814 



Aug. 
June 



1848 
1846 



Nov. 30, 1838 

Sept. 1851 

March 15, 1S53 

Oct. 21, 1839 
Nov. 6, 1838 



Capital. 



> 100.000 

loo. I 

loi ,.1100 
100.000 

f, I HUH III 

'360,006 

166.666 
300,000 



200,000 

"160,060 

100,000 
100.000 

l,b'66,'666 
200,000 



200.000 
300,000 

'166,666 

"260,006 



150,000 



Feb. 
Tnly 
Aug. 
Dec. 


1847 

1847 

1848 

4,1839 


Jan. 


1,1844 


Jan. 1.1-:, l 
Uaron 12,1813 


Dec. 

Nov. 


29.iv,:. 
1855 


Oct. 


1848 


Dec. 


1843 


Oct. 


1,1847 


Juno 
March 


l«;,n 

80, 1888 

9,1839 



^i u •■ ^ 



ft* S 2 od g 3 



104,000 

100,000 
2,000,000 



loo. I 

100,000 

150.000 
600,000 



500.000 



Par 



100,000 

6ob,'66o 

1 00.000 



Par 



Par 
Par , 
Par , 
Par 
Par 



Par 



Par 

S. E. 63. 



Par , 
Par 



Remarks. 



S. 81, S. E. 65 
Par 



S.Par,S.E.94 

Par 

S. 42 

Par 



Par 



Par 
Par 
Par 

Par 



Par 



Par 
Par 
Par 

Par 



Par 
Par 



rar 



S. E. 73.. 
Par 



Closing. Red. until July 16, 1864, 

Failed Nov. 4, 1854 

Charter expired July 1. 1855. 

Charter repealed May 15, 1837. 

Closing. Red. until Nov. 12, 1863 

Closing. Red. until Oct. 24, 1S61 

Closing. 

Closing. Red. until Feb. 27, 1S61 

Charter expired Jan. 1, 1858. 



Closed. 

/ Merged in The Traders' Bank 

t of Rochester June, 1859. 

Closing. Red. until Sept. 23, 1861. 

Failed. 

/ Changed to Manufacturers' 

\ Bank of Brooklyn, 1S58. 



Closed 1844. 

Closing. Red. until Oct. 17, 1861. 

Closed. 
Closed. 

Failed 1840. 

Closing. Red. until May 30, 1862. 

("Failed March 1854. Red. at 
^ Bauk Dept. at 77 until Sept. 

( 28, 1860. 
Failed 1829. 
Failed 1S40. 
Closing. 
Failed. 
Closing. Red. until April 1, 1862 

(Merged in Phcenix Bank Feb 
21, 1817. Incorp. June 15, 
1812, for manufacturing 
cards and wire. 

Closed 1840. 

Closing. Red. until Aug. 16, 1864, 
Closing. Red. until July 19. 1862. 
f Closing. Red. at New Y'ork 
1 State Bank. Albany. 
/Closing. Red. at New York 
\ State Bank, Albany. 
Removed to Lockport May 13, 

1859, and name changed to 

Lockport City Bank. 
Closed 1841. 

Failed. 

Closing. Red. nntfl Nov. 1,1860 
Closing. Red. until March 1, 1862 
Closing. Red. until Oct. 13, 1S62 

/Failed. Red. at Albany City 
( Bank. 

Closed. 

Charter expired Jan. 1. IS'iC. 
Allowed to establish Branch 
atUticaAprillo. 1816, and this 
continued until charter ex 
pired as Ontario Branch Bauk 
of Ctica. 

Failed, E. A. Wetmorc, receiver. 
Failed March, 1858. Red. at 

Union Bank, Albany, until 

Aug. 11. 1864. 
Closing. (1854.) Red. until Sept. 

5. I860. 

/ Changed to Lyons Bank Ma rch 
1 31, 1857. 
Closed. Red. by A. D. Patcbin 

until Feb. 28, 1862. 
Closed. 

Failed. Red. until Sept. 2. 1868. 
Failed April 1858. Reorganized 

as Stissing Bank. 



Removed from Tonawanda, Sept. 24, 1857. 



CORPORATIONS. 



09 



Savings Banks are institutions intended to receive in trust small sums of money, generally 
the surplus earnings of the laboring classes, and to return the same with moderate interest at a future 
time. They are banks of deposit only ; their officers serve without pay, and the money received 
on deposit can be invested only in mortgages upon real estate, public stocks, or such other securities 

Obsolete and Closing Banks, continued. 



Name. 



Powell Bank 

*I»ratt Bank of Buffalo 



Prattsville Bank 

Putnam County Bank. 



Putnam Valley Bank. 

(Queen City Bank 

Reciprocity Bank 



Sackets Harbor Bank 



St. Lawrence Bank 

State Bank of New York... 
Silver Lake Bank of Genesee 

*State Bank at Sackets \ 
Harbor J 

*State Bank at Saugerties.. 

Staten Island Bank 

uffilk Bank 

Sullivan County Bank 

Tenth Ward Bank 

Troy Exchange Bank 

Union Bank at Buffalo 

United States Bk. at Buffalo 
Valley Bank of Boonville... 



Valley Bank of Lowville... 



Village Bank 

*VValter Joy's Bank. 



Warren County Bank.. 

Washington Bank in 

City of New York .... 

Watervliet Bank 



the 



Wayne County Bank 

♦White Plains Bank 

Western Bank of Suffolk 

County 

Williamsburgh Bank 

Willoughby Bank 

Wool Growers' Bank of the 

State of New York 

Yates County Bank 



Location. 



fe-ps 



d<ii-; 



Newburgh . 
Buffalo 



Prattsville 

Farmers' Mills . 

Putnam Valley. 

Buffalo 

Buffalo 



Buffalo.. 



Ogdensburgh . 

Buffalo 

Perry 



Sackets Harbor... 



Saugerties 

Port Richmond. 

New York 

Monticello 

New York 

Troy 

Buffalo 

Buffalo 

Boonville 



Lowville., 



Randolph. 
Buffalo 



Johnsburgh. 



New York.. 
West Troy . 



Palmyra. 

Naples.... 



S. Huntington... 
Williamsburgh. 
Brooklyn 



New York. 
Penn Yan.. 



A. 

I. 

I. 
A. 

I. 
I. 
C. 



C. 



A. 

A. 
A. 

I. 

I. 
A. 
A. 
I. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
I. 



I. 
I. 

I. 

A. 

C. 

C. 
I. 

I. 

A. 
A. 

A. 

C. 



Date of charter 
or her/inning 
of business. 



Dec. 

Oct. 



27, 1838 
1847 



Aug. 1843 
Nov. 22, 1848 

May, 1849 

Sept. 1853 
March 6, 1857 



April, 28, 1S34 



Jan. 8, 1839 
Oct. 15, 1839 
Jan. 5, 1839 



May, 

April, 

Oct. 

July 

Oct. 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Oct. 

Dec. 



1852 

1847 

29, 1838 

1, 1852 

1850 

1, 1838 

1, 1838 

10, 1839 

13, 1838 



Aug. 

June, 
Feb. 

Dec. 

July 
May 

April 
June, 

June, 
Jan. 

Nov. 

Jan. 
April 



1851 

1848 
1848 

1845 

18, 1839 
21, 1836 

30. 1829 
1844 

1850 
12, 1839 

1, 1839 

12, 1839 

2, 1831 



Capital. 



$130,000 

1, ,11.0110 

206,606 

200,000 



100,000 
100.000 
100,000 



100.000 
100,000 

166,066 

100.0110 

100.000 
100,000 



125,000 
250,000 

100,000 



100,000 
100,000 

100.000 
100,000 



, "'So 
£25-3 I 

v I* 1 O 

. >■ 8 I5S 

„» I. fil » 
fti '-a :§ 3 S 8 



Par 

94... 



Par 
Par 

Par 
Par 



S.32, S. E. 50 
S. 31 



Par 



Par 

S. E. 56., 

Par 

Par 

S. 94 



S. 81 

S. E. 77. 
Par 



Par , 

Par 
Par 

Par 



G5, 35, & Par. 



Par , 

Par 
Par 
Par 

Par 



Remarks. 



Closing. Red. its own notes. 
Failed Feb. 1858. Red. at Bank 

Dept. at 94. 
Closing. Red. until Dec. 15, 1860. 
Closing. Red. by David Kent 

until Oct. 1863. 
Closing. 

Closing. Red. until Feb. 10, 1863. 
Changed from Sackets Harbor 

Bank March 6, 1851. Failed. 

Receiver app. Aug. 27, 1857. 
Removed from Sackets Harbor 

March 25, 1852. Changed to 

Reciprocity Bank 1857. 
Failed Dec. 3, 1841. 
Failed. 

("Failed Nov. 1, 1856. Red. at 
■< Union Bank, Albany, until 

( Nov. 11, 1862. 
Closing. 
Failed. 
Closing. 

Closing. Red. until Aug. 21, 1860. 
Failed 1840. 

Failed. 
Failed. 
Closing. Red. by E. N. Merriam, 

of Ogdensbursh, until March 

20, 1863. 
Removed to Boonville. See 

above. 
Closing. Red. until June 3, 1859. 
Failed 1850. Red. at Mechanics 

& Farmers' Bank, Albany. 
Closing. Red. until Nov. 12, 1S59. 

Failed 1843. 

Failed. (See Comp. Rep. 1848, p. 

77. 
Closed. 

Closing. 

Closing. Red. until June 17, 1S62 

Closed. 

Closed 1840. 

Closed 1841. 

Failed 1848. (See Comp. Rep 
1849, p. 35.) 



Savings Banks in the State, Jan. 1, 1859. 



Name. 



Albany City Savings Institution 

Albany Exchange Savings Bank 

Albany Savings Bank 

Auburn Savings Institution 

Bank for Savings in the City of New York 

Bloomingdale Savings Bank 

Bowery Savings Bank 

Broadway Savings Institution 

Brockport Savings Bank 

Brooklyn Savings Bank 

Buffalo Savings Bank 

Central City Savings Institution 

Central Savings Bank of Troy 

Cohoes Savings Institution 

Commercial Savings Bank of Troy 

Dry Dock Savings Institution 

East River Savings Institution 

Elmira Savings Bank 

Emigrant Industrial Savings Bank 

7 



Location. 



Albany 

Albany 

Albany.. .. 
Auburn.... 
New York. 
New York. 
New York. 
New York. 
Brockport . 
Brooklyn... 

Buffalo 

Utisa 

Troy 

Cohoes 

Troy 

New York. 
New York. 

Elmira 

New York. 



Date of 
incorporation. 



March 

April 

March 

March 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

April 

May 

June 

April 

April 

April 

April 



29. 1850 
18, 1856 
24, 1820 
12. 1849 
26, 1819 
17, 1854 
1, 1834 
2o. ls.il 
IS, 1853 
7, 1827 
9, 1846 
20, 1851 
15, 1857 
11, 1851 
12, 1855 
12, 1S48 



April 
April 



17, 1854 
10, 1S50 



Amount 

due. 
depositors. 



% 168,181 

27.987 

998,924 

71,235 

8.701,923 

56.300 

7,818.143 

841.346 

2.439 

2,660.981 

872,681 

28.431 

25.712 

34.734 

60.031 

1,118,876 

785,782 

1.973 

1.628,754 



Resources. 



I 168.181 

27,987 

1,049.804 

71,415 

9,259.996 

57,599 

8,274.445 

872.967 

2.511 

2,816,S17 

924.863 

30,638 

25,712 

31.734 

60,031 

1,169.401 

829,569 

2,107 

1,695,951 



100 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



as may be approved by law. They, can be organized by special act of the Legislature, and their 
charters are perpetual. The total number of savings institutions incorp. prior to 1859 was 75, of 
which 57 reported their statistics in 1858. They are placed under the care of the Superintendent 
of the Banking Department, who has general powers for the protection of the interests of deposi- 
tors, and is required to report their condition annually to the Legislature. Most of these institu- 
tions bear names closely resembling those of banks of discount and circulation, and are kept in 
the same building and have the same persons as officers of both. 1 

Class IV includes those whose certificates are filed in the County Clerks' offices. Most of the 
corporations already described are required to file their articles in the clerk's office of their respect- 
ive counties, in addition to depositing them in the departments of the State Government. 

•• An Act to provide for the Incorporation of Religious Societies" was passed April 6, 
1784.' 

" An Act authorizing the Incorporation of Rural Cemetery Associations 77 was passed 
April 27, 1847. 

"An Act to provide for Reincorporation of Villages 77 was passed Dec. 7, 1847. s 

Savings Batiks, continued. 



Name. 



Emigrant Savings Bank of Buffalo 

Krie County Savings Rank 

FishkHI Savings Institute 

wich Savings Bank 

D (Sty Savings Institution 

ition for the Savings of Merchants' Clerks.. 

Irving Savings Institution 

Manhattan Savings Institution 

Manufacturers' Savings Bank of Troy 

Mariners 5 Savings Institution 

Mechanics & Farmers' Savings Bank of Albany... 

Mechanics & Traders' Savings Institution 

Monroe County Savings Institution 

Mutual Savings Bank of Troy 

lurgh Savings Bank 

Niagara County Savings Bank 

Onondaga County Savings Bank 

I'oughkecpsie Savings Bank 

. -avings Bank 

Rome Savings Bank 

Rose Hill Savings Bank 

s Bank of Ctica 

t i'ly Savings Bank 

n's Bank for Savings 

- !i_- Sa vines Bank 

- ring! 1: nk of .Albany 

Sixpenny Savings Hank of the City of New York 

.-' nth Brooklyn Savings Institute 

Bank 

 l: i;ik '.f Troy 

• .in-.-s Bank 

Bank 

institution 

1 "• ink .if Albany 

• -  nnty Sayings itank 

Hank 

Wflliamsburgb Savings Hank 

Tonk' • Hank 



Location. 



Buffalo 

Buffalo 

Fishkill 

New York 

Hudson 

New York 

New York 

New York 

Troy 

New York 

Albany 

New York 

Rochester 

Troy :... 

Newburgh 

Lockport 

Syracuse 

Poughkeepsie, 

Rochester 

Rome 

New York. 

Utica 

Schenectady .. 

New York. 

Sing Sing 

Albany 

New York. 

Brooklyn 

Southo'ld 

Troy 

Syracuse 

Tmy 

Kingston 

I Ibany 

Tarry town 

Buffalo 

Brooklyn 

Yonkers. 



Date of 
incorporation. 



April 

April 

Feb. 

April 

April 

April 

July 

April 

April 

April 

April 

April 

April 

April 

April 

April 

April 

April 

April 

June 

April 

April 

April 

Jan. 

March 

April 

Juno 

April 

April 

April 

March 

April 

April 

April 

July 

July 

April 

April 



17, 1858 
10, 1S54 
25, 1857 
24, 1833 

4, 1850 
12, 1848 

1, 1S51 
To. lS.-n) 
15, 1857 
16, 1852 
12. 1855 
16, 1S52 

8, 1S50 
15, 1857 
13, 1852 
10, 1851 
10, 1855 

16, 1836 
21, 1S31 

30, 1S51 

17. 1*54 
26, 1839 
29, 1834 

31, 1829 

9, 1854 

17. 1864 
4, 1853 

10. 1850 
7, 1858 

18, 1858 
30, 1849 
23, 182.3 
18, 1851 
18, 1864 
21, is:.:! 

9, 1851 
0. ls.M 
3, 1854 



Amount 

due 

depositors. 



$ 5,490 

542,641 

21,497 

3,528.S51 

44,010 

1,509,889 

719.498 

1,782,067 

51,988 

419,689 

179,049 

361,612 

256,679 

23,637 

91,188 

1,569 

129,601 

247.505 

1,371,911 

33,621 

71,854 

334.262 

211,886 

7,349,474 

35.410 

10.601 

112,361 

522.350 

6,970 

47.479 

2.-.7.5s(l 

634,904 

62,435 

15.1 ST 

lu::.7:u 

77.048 

1.0M-..SS2 

47,405 



Resources. 



% 4,218 

549,722 

21,705 

3,678,180 

45,206 

1,529:810 

736,323 

1,839,785 

51,088 

430,141 

179,049 

372.417 

2511.341 

23,637 

92,993 

1,636 

130.202 

263,619 

1,476.425 

36,289 

72.2S5 

36S,499 

227,559 

7,825,443 

35,711 

meoi 

113:548 

538,0(4 

7.001 

47,479 
2.".s,619 
671,716 

68,822 

15.187 

108.729 

77,048 

1,119,001 

48,009 



' Th<> first - Lin 1804, and 

the fir-t In I k In 1819, undor the auspices of tho " So- 

I for Prei ■• rism." A public meeting was 

I bo plan d pproved Nov. 2a, IslU. Th" 

its «• r- made July 3, 1819, and re received 

the! , in sums of from $2 to j 

ted by 1,627 persons, 
and i lib brawn On to 1851 

bad been intrusted to the cars of this Institution, — f-nnmon 

:n Albany was established in I 

in Troy, in 1828; in Brooklyn, In 1827 j and in Buffalo, In 1830. 

",f ii,.— | originally required t i report to the 

la tore; but their returns m published. Under 

tin act of March 20, lva7, they US required to report to the 



Superintendent of the Banking Department. Sixteen savings 
banks have 1 ••• n incorp. that never organized. Only two of 
ih.. wh.ib- iiumhiT < -hart'ivd have ever failed. The " Knicker- 
bocker Savings Institution," of N. Y., incorp. April X, 1S51, 
fail... I and went into tho bands of a receiver in 1854; and lb" 
• ■nny Savings Bank of Rochester," incorp. July 13, 1854, 
faibd. 

- Tins art was amended, so far as it related to tho Rof. Prot. 
D. Societies, March 7, 1788. Other amendments were made in 
1801, 1818) and 1828. For statistics see p. 139. 

* Previous to this act. villages were incorp. by special acts of 
the 1 iro, and tho articles were filed in the State Depart- 

ment : Imt -in.e, the filing of articles has become a mere local 
affair; and it is extremely difliciilt to obtain a complete list of 
the incorporated villages of the State. 



AGRICULTURE. 



The climate of the State is adapted to the cultivation of most of the crops and fruits of the 
temperate zone. The improved lands comprise a little more than one-half of the entire area of the 
State, and of these 37 per cent, is devoted to pasturage and 25 per cent, is occupied by meadow- 
lands. The principal crops, in the order of relative amount, are oats, corn, wheat, buckwheat, rye, 
and barley, together occupying 37 per cent, of the cultivated lands, — leaving 1 per cent, for 
the minor crops and gardens. The northern cos. of the State and the highland regions along the 
s. border and upon the Hudson are much better adapted to pasturage than tillage ; and the people 
in these sections are almost exclusively engaged in stock and sheep raising and in dairying. 
Little more grain is raised than is strictly necessary for a proper rotation of crops ; and the greater 
part of the grain for home consumption is imported from other sections of the country. The low 
lands that surround the great lakes and occupy the greater portion of the surface in the w. part of 
the State are best adapted to grain growing. Several sections of the State are found peculiarly 
adapted to particular products. The Mohawk Valley intervales have been long almost exclusively 
devoted to the cultivation of broom corn. The Chemung Valley, parts of Onondaga co. and 
several other sections are becoming known as tobacco raising districts. Hops are extensively 
cultivated in Madison, Oneida, Otsego, and Schoharie cos. The Hudson Valley below the High- 
lands, the n. shore of Long Island, and the s. extremity of several of the lake valleys in the cen- 
tral portion of the State are well adapted to the culture of grapes. Maple sugar is largely pro- 
duced in the northern cos. and in the central highland districts. Upon Long Island and in West- 
chester large sections are devoted to the cultivation of vegetables for the New York market. The 
people of Orange, Rockland, Westchester, Putnam, and Dutchess cos. are largely engaged in fur- 
nishing the city of New York with milk. 1 

Tlie New York. State Agricultural Society was formed by a convention held at Al- 
bany in Feb. 1832 ; but for several years it received no support from the State and held no regular 
fairs. In 1841 the society was re-organized, and measures were adopted for raising funds and hold- 
ing annual fairs. On May 5 of that year, an act was passed by the Legislature, appropriating $8,000 
for the encouragement of agriculture, $700 of which was to go to the State Society, and the re- 
mainder was to be divided among the co. societies in the ratio of Assembly representation. This 
appropriation has been continued until the present time. The society is required annually to re- 
port to the Legislature a full account of its proceedings, and such facts concerning the agricul- 
tural condition of the State as may be of general interest. The volumes of Transactions are 
published by the State, and are widely distributed among the farming population. The annual 
fairs are held in different parts of the State, and are largely attended. 2 They usually succeed in 



1 Hay is most largely produced in St. Lawrence, Oneida, Che- 
nango, Otsego, Chautauqua, Delaware, and Orange counties; 
wheat, in Livingston, Monroe, Genesee, Niagara,Ontario, and .Jef- 
ferson counties ; oats, in Onondaga, Montgomery, Oneida, Cayuga, 
and Otsego; rye, in Columbia, Rensselaer, Ulster, Orange, 
Albany, Saratoga, and Washington; barley, in Jefferson, Onon- 
daga, Ontario, Cayuga, and Wayne; buckwheat, in Schoharie, 
Montgomery, Otsego, Saratoga, and Tioga; corn, in Onondaga. 
Cayuga, Monroe. Wayne, Oneida, and Ontario ; and potatoes, in 
Washington, Monroe, Oneida, St. Lawrence, Rensselaer, and 
■Franklin. The counties having the greatest number of cows 
are St. Lawrence, Jefferson, Oneida, Orange, Chenango, Her- 
kimer, and Chautauqua; and the greatest number of Bheep, 
Ontario, Livingston, Steuben, Cayuga, Washington, Wyoming, 
Monroe, and Genesee. The counties that produce the greatest 
quantity of butter are St. Lawrence, Delaware, Chenango, Jef- 
ferson, Chautauqua, Orange, and Otsego; and the greatest 
amount of cheese, Herkimer. Oneida, Jeffersou, Madison, Erie, 
Cattaraugus. St. Lawrence, and Otsego. 

2 The earliest agricultural exhibition on record within the 
present limits of the State was a cattle fair, held at New Am- 
sterdam, Oct. 15. 1041. An act passed Nov.' 11, 1692, entitled 
"An act for settling fairs and markets in each respective city 
and co. throughout this province," remained in force until re- 
pealed by the State Legislature. March 12, 1788. A special act 
was passed for the fairs of Albany, Cumberland, and Tryon cos., 
March 8. 1773, but scarcely took effect before the Revolution. 
Acts applying to particular towns were passed by the earlier 
State Legislatures; but the custom ofholding fairs soon fell into 
disuse. These fairs were more properly market days ; no pre- 
miums were offered, and no inducements to competition existed 
beyond the ordinary stimulus of trade. The products of farm 
culture being placed side by side, their comparative excellence 
was left to the decision of the purchaser, which doubtless contri- 



buted to excite emulation among the producers. These fairs 
were generally held semi-annually, upon fixed days, under the 
direction of "Governors and Rulers," appointed in colonial 
times by the Governor, and afterward by the judges of the co. 
courts. The expenses were defrayed by tolls, usually 1 per 
cent., upon the commodities sold, half of which was paid by the 
buyer and half by the seller. 

The Socio! y for the Promotion of Agriculture, Arts, and Manu- 
factures was instituted Feb. 2ti, 1791, and incorp. March 12. 
1793. For more efficient action, it in 1801 divided the State into 
as many agricultural districts as there were cos., in each of 
which a secretary was appointed, to convene the members of the 
society within his district, inquire into the state of agriculture 
and manufactures, receive communications and arrange and 
transmit them to the President of the Bociety. The transactions 
of this body were printed by the Mate, and the society numbered 
among its members nearly every person of eminence throughout 
the State. Its charter expired in 1804; and its corporate powers 
were revived and continued April 2 of that year, under the 
name of the Society for the Promotion of the Useful Arts. The 
affairs of the new body were managed bj a council of 9 members, 
and State patronage was continued in the printing of its Trans- 
actions. In 1S0S-12 liberal premiums were offered for the 1 si 
cloths of household manufacture, a part of which were award, d 
by the co. judge and a part by this society. The samples, up. :i 
which $10,000 wer.' thus paid, ate still preserved In the library 
of the Albany Institute. After being once extended, the So 
for Promoting Agricultural Arts was superseded, in part, by a 
Board of Agriculture, but continued as a load institution of 
Albany until merged, with the "Albany Lyceum of .Natural His- 
tory." 'in the -All any Institute," in 1829. The latter has most 
of the books, papers, and eii", ct- of its predecessors; and tracing 
back through its change it is the oldest scientific society in the 
State. •■ Au act to improve the agriculture of this State," 

101 



102 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



awakening a great local interest in agricultural matters. The office of the society is kept at the 
Agricultural Rooms, corner of State and Lodge Sts., Albany, where it has a museum and library. 

County and Town Societies. — The act of 1853 allows county agricultural societies to 
purchase and hold real estate to an amount not exceeding $25,000 and personal property not ex- 
ceeding $1,000, for the purposes set forth in their articles of incorporation, and for no other pur- 
poses. Town and other societies may hold real estate to the amount of $10,000 and personal 
property to the amount of $3,000. Each county or union society must have at least one director 
or manager for each town ; and each town, village, or city society must have not less than 10 
directors, who are elected annually by ballot. Upon application of two-thirds of their members to 
the Supreme Court of the district in which they are located, these societies may obtain an order 
for the sale of a part or the whole of their property. An amendment to the act was passed April 
13, 1855, by the provisions of which the number of directors was changed to 6, 2 of whom are 
elected each year for a term of three years. Any person may become a life member by the pay- 
ment of a sum not exceeding $10; and the officers are jointly and severally liable for all debts 
due from the society contracted while they are in office, if suit be commenced within one year 



passed April 7. 1819. created a board of agriculture and appro- 
priated £10,000 annually for 2 years, to be distributed for the pro- 
motion of agriculture and family domestic manufactures in the 
several cos.,on condition that a similar sum should be subscribed 
by the co. societies formed under this act. A board, formed of 
th- president, or a delegate civ sen from each co. society, met 
annually at Albany, elected officers, examined reports, and 
.selected for publication such returns as they deemed proper, 
re published by the State. Three volumes of Memoirs 
were issued, nnrl the board continued in existence but little longer 
than the appropriation was continued. County societies, on 
the plan of the Berkshire Co. Agricultural Society, began to be 
formed in 1817 : and. by the exertions of Do Witt Clinton. El- 
kanah Watson, and other friends of the measure, they were 
ded to most of the cos. These societies, after a brief 
period, fill Into disuse; and that of Jefferson co. is the only 
one of this class that can trace an unbroken descent from that 
period. 

The first officers of the present State Agricultural Society, 
formed in 1832, were L-- Kay do Chaumont, President; E. P. 
Livingston, Jacob M rris, and Robert L. Kose. T7c<! Presidents; 
P. S. Van Rensselaer, Recording Secretary; Jesse Buel, Corre- 
sponding Secretary ; Charles K. Webster, Treasurer; and H. W. 
Delavan, John Townsend. and II. Hickox, Executive Committee. 
ietieswere again instituted in many of the cos. under 
th~ influence of this society; but most of them were short lived. 
"Cultivator" was begun j n March, 1834, by Jesse Buel, 
under the guarantee of Stephen Van Rensselaer and James 
worth, as the organ of the society and medium of commu- 
nication between the friends of agriculture; and it has been con- 
tinued ever since, under private auspices, but entirely devoted 
to tli" nit. rests ofagriculture. It has for many years been pub- 
bj bother Tucker, of Albany. 

Any person a citizen of the State may become a member of 
the 81  upon payment of Jl annually, or a life mem- 

ber by payment •■( (10 at one time. Presidents of co. societies 
and nnc deli gate from eai b are ex officio members. The officers 
of the society are elected annually in Feb., and consist of a 



President, one Vice President from each of the Judicial Districts, 
a Recording and a Corresponding Secretary, a Treasurer, and an 
Executive Committee, consisting of the above and 5 others 
chosen for the purpose. 

Premiums are awarded in money, plate, medals, books, and 
diplomas ; and the society embraces within the field of its patron- 
age not only stock, farm, and garden products and implements 
of husbandly, but a wide range of useful and ornamental manu- 
factures, particularly those which are the products of home in- 
dustry. The places and times of holding the State fairs, names 
of Presidents, and total receipts of the State society have been 
as follows : — 



1S41 

1842 

1843 

1844 

1845 

W- 

1^47 

1S48 

1849 

1850 

1S51 

1852 

1S53 

1854 

1S55 

1S56 

is." 
1858 
1S59 



Place of 
holding fair. 



Syracuse 

Albany 

Rochester 

Poughkeepsie.. 

Utica 

Auburn 

Saratoga Sp'gs 

Buffalo 

Syracuse 

Albany T 

Rochester 

Utica 

Saratoga Sp'gs 

New York 

Elmira 



Time of 
holding fair. 



Watertown., 

Buffalo 

Syracuse .... 
Albany 



Sept. 29, 30 
Sept. 27, 29 
Sept. 20. 22 
Sept. 18, 19 
Sept. 17. 19 
Sept. 15, 17 
Sept. 14, 10 
Sept. 5, 7 
Sept. 11, 13 
Sept. 3, 6 
Sept. 16, 19 
Sept. 7, 10 
Sept. 20, 23 
Oct. 3, 6 
Oct. 2, 5 
f Sept. 30, 1 
1 Oct. 3/ 
Oct. 6, 9 
Oct. 5, 8 
Oct. 4, 7 



Presidents. 



Joel B. Nott 

Jas. S. Wadsworth 
Jas. S. Wadsworth 

J. B. Beekman 

B. P. Johnston- 

J. M. Sherwood..-. 

George Vail 

Lewis F. Allen 

John A. King 

Ezra P. Prentice... 

John Dolafit-ld 

Henry Wager 

Lewis G. Morris.-. 

William Kelly 

Samuel Cheever... 

Theod're S. Faxton 

Alonzo S. Upham. 
Wm. T. McCoun... 
A. B. Cruger 



Receipts. 



(Free.) 
il.2'.'i;.in 

:;. urn 

3,650.00 

4.370.18 

4,333.17 

4,034.22 

6,272.86 

8,144.55 

10.4C5.61 

11,956.25 

8,125.41 

r..M( :i.:i(i 

9,248.70 

11,527.25 

8,010.00 

15.073.89 

1H.M.-..M 



Town and Union Agricultural Societies. 
' I'T County Societies see p. 103.) 



Name. 



cultural Society 

'ilmr.tl .-■- lety 

ricultural .v Mechanical Society, 

ua Farmers' A Mechanics' Onion at 

Fr<-d'inn 

rirnitiir.il. Horticultural, A M> - 

chai 

Cnr iltiiml A Hoiticultn- 



lety 

rricultural Kociety 



: 1 1 r _- > i . Adams, A Uei tenon Agricultural 

lety 

Farm-r-' Hub, of I i 

oovia 
Farmers' A Mechanics' Am dal net . 

: Agricultural Societj 

Qorhao Agricultural - I 

Qvuvemeur Agricultural A Mechanl 
Hamilton Agricultural A llurtii-ultiinil Associa- 

• t .f 

EUrpersfleld Cninn Agricultural Society 

Ilartland Agricultural 

HarDeihrfflls Agricultural Society 



/>,,/. of 
organization. 



Jan. 

March 



8, 1867 

5,1850 



Name. 



March 10, 1858 
March 14, 1859 
13, 1856 



May 

Sept 
Oct. 

March 

JAug. 

!>• ft 

Jan. 
Jan. 

Jan. 
Jan. 

I 

April 

March 



4,1858 
19, 1867 
23, 1867 
16, 1861 

I 

B, 1868 

12, I860 

:;. 1 B67 

9, 1859 

2, I-:.' 
8L I860 



Ji-flVrpini Agricultural Society. Schoharie Co 

Lebanon Agricultural Society 

I n Agricultural Society 

it II Agricultural Society, of 

Nelson Fanners A Mechanics'Ass elation 

Oswego City Agricultural Society 

Otsellc, Pitcher, Pharsalia, & Lincklaen Agricul- 
tural Society 

Ruibville Onion Agricultural Society 

St. Lawrence Internationa] Agricultural .t 
Hi i in, hi. id Socli ty, ' igdensburgh 

Sandy Creek, Rli bland, Orwell, A; Boylston Agri- 
cultural Society 

rfleld A Marshal] Town Agricultural So- 
ciety 

Bomi ' oltural Society 

Susquehanna Valley Agricultural & Horticul- 
tural BOI li ty '. 

Onion Agrli oltural Society, (Broome and Dela- 

i 

n Agricultural Society, of Palmyra 

Virgil Agricultural Society 

Wilson A '--ricultural Society 

Winfleld Onion Agricultural Society 

v. oy Agricultural Society, Genesee Falls, 
1'ike, A Eagle 



Date of 

organization. 



Feb. 
Aug. 

Sept. 
Aug. 
.hi in- 



li:;. 1S1.S 
19, 1856 
15. lsr.C, 
22, 1857 

:.. IV,,- 



March 19, 1S59 



June 
Feb. 



27,1857 

9. IS.',.", 



June 21, 1S5G 
March 20, 1859 



Nov. 
Jan. 



10. 1857 

27. 1S57 



April 4, 1857 



March 

June 

lib. 

June 

April 



21. 1S.V.1 

26, 1856 
26, 1857 

10. 1859 
18, 1859 



Dec. 6, 1855 



AGRICULTURE. 



in:; 



of the time when due. Each society funned under these acts is obliged to report annually to the 
State Society. 1 

An examination of the returns of the census of 1855 shows that Cattaraugus excels all other 
counties in the production of millet ; Columbia in pears, rye, garden seeds, and onions ; Dutchess 
in plums and quinces, and in number of swine ; Herkimer in cheese ; Jefferson in spring wheat 
and barley ; Livingston in fallow lands, in winter wheat, and in wool ; Monroe in value of farms 
and nurseries; Montgomery in lint ; Oneida in value of stock and amount of apples and honey; 
Onondaga in acres plowed and quantity of oats, corn, tobacco, and cider ; Ontario in sheep ; 
Orange in milk ; Orleans in beans ; Otsego in hops and in domestic linen ; Queens in garden seeds 
and strawberries ; Rensselaer in flaxseed ; St. Lawrence in pasture and meadow lands, quantity of 
peas, sugar and butter, number of horses and cows, and yards of fulled cloth, flannel and other 



1 Summary of County Agricultural Societies. 

(For Town and Union Societies see p. 102.) 



Counties. 



Albany a 

Allegany. 
Broome 

Cattaraugus . 
Cayuga 



Chautauqua... 



Chemung.. 
Chenango.. 
Clinton. 

Columbia.. 



Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Erie 

Essex 

Franklin 

Fult. & Ham... 

Genesee 

Greene 

Herkimer 

Jeff arson 

Lewis 



Livingston 

Madison 

Monroe 

Montgomery .. 

Niagara 

Oneida 

Onondaga 

Ontario 

Orange 

Orleans 

Oswego 

Otsego 

Putnam 

Queens 

Rensselaer 

Richmond. 

Rockland 

St. Lawrence.. 

Saratoga 

Schenectady. 

Schoharie 

Scliuyler , 

Seneca 

Steuben 

Suffolk. 

Sullivan 

Tioga 

Tompkins 

Ulster 

Warren 

Washington.., 

Wayne 

Westchester. 

Wyoming 

Tales , 



Date of present 
organization. 



Aug. 9, 1853 

April 27, 1858 
Jan. 28, 1855 
June 21, 1856 

1S36 

1851 
1845 



March 8,1856 

Oct. 

July, 

Oct. 

June 

Dec. 

July 

Oct. 

May 

Oct. 

Sept. 

Dec. 



June 

Feb. 

March 

Oct. 

Dec. 

April, 

Jan. 

May 

Oct. 
Dec. 
Jan. 

Nov. 
Jan. 

June 
June 
June 

Oct. 
March 
Jan. 
June 



Nov. 

Aug. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

March 

Aug. 



1838 

1841 

16, 1841 

2, 1856 

1850 

30, 1856 

18, 1838 

26. 1857 
11, 1856 

4, 1841 

7, 1854 

1841 

30. 1855 

8, 1856 

19. 1856 
13, 1841 

2, 1858 

1841 

25, 1856 

18, 1854 

1841 

17. 1856 

27, 1855 
22, 1856 

1851 

30. 1857 
7, 1855 

29, 1844 

21, 1856 
24, 1841 

26, 1841 
14, 1855 
24, 1856 

22, 1853 

9, 1847 
11, 1855 
8, 1858 
7, 1858 
5, 1857 
4, 1841 



First President. 



James W. Jolly.., 



P. Ten Broeck.. 
II. Howland 



T. B. Campbell., 



Simeon L. Rood.. 
Abram Perlee.... 



E. Livingston 

W. Bewry 

Samuel A. Law... 

Henry Staats 

Lewis V. Allen.... 

W. C. Watson 

S. Lawrence 

Elias Prindle 

T. C Peters 

Lewis Sherrill 

A. Loomis 

J.D.LeRay 



E. Merriam 

Aaron Barber 

.I.D. Ledyard 

Willard Hodges.. 
T.J.VanDeville. 

Pomeroy Jones... 

Wm.Hiidreth 



T. C. Bailey.. 



D. H. Little 

T. B. Arden 

E. Lawrence... 
Jos. Hastings- 



May 5, 185 

July 20, 1856 
Jan. 13, 1855 



Abrams Stevens. 
II . Van Rensselaer 
II. Gardner , 



First Secretary. 



Joseph Warren.... 



D. R. Wheeler 

Win. Richardson. 



A. J. Wynkoop. 
A. Sanford 



Jas. M. Oifford., 



D. McFarland.... 
Geo. Kneeland... 
Warren Bryant.. 

R. S. Hale 

Harry S. House.. 

T. S. Persse 

C. P. Turner 

II. L.Day 

Aaron Petrle 

E. Ten Eyck 



Jos. Kershner.... 

A. S. Sloan 

D. D. T. Moore... 
John Frey 



B. P.Johnston., 



J. S. Bates . 



Hiram Goff.. 



Chas. McLean.... 
Hugh C. Wilson. 

A. G. Corll 

Luther D. Eddy., 



Present place 

of holding 
annual fair. 



Albany. 



Little Valley. 
Auburn 



Migratory.. 



Horseheads.. 
Norwich 



/Chatham 4 1 
\ Corners ....J 



Wash. Hollow.. 

Buffalo , 

Elizabethtown. 

Malone , 

Johnstown 

Batavia. 



llion 

Watertown 

f Turin and 

\ Lowville. 

Geneseo 

Morrisville 

Brighton 

Fonda. 



Utica and Rome. 
Syracuse. 
Canandaigua 



Albion . 



Cooperstown . 



Wm. C. Bouck .... 



G. Denniston. 



Lotan Smith ... 
Henry Corgell. 



Peter dispell 

B. C. Butler 

Henry Holmes ... 
f De Witt C. 1 
I VanSlyck../ 

Jas. C. Ferris 

John Hatmaker., 



N. C. Blauvelt... 
Henry G. Foote.. 
John A. Corey..., 

Ralph Brewster. 



George S. Ellas... 



J. 0. Dunning.. 
Wm. Smythe... 



C. H. Skillman ... 
Asa Fitch, Jr 

P. P. Bradish 



L. W. Thayer 

Darius A. Ogden. 



Lansingburgh.. 



New City. 

Canton. 

Mechauicsville. 



sj ^ g 
s.. -*. ■«■» 
s. g 

lit 



555,500 



2,000 
per 

aim. 

1,836 

13,000 

11,625 

10,000 
6,215 

10,800 
7,050 



2,368 
10,113 

30,000 



12,000 



20,836 

6,500 

8,635 

9,590 
30,385 



Fair Grounds. 



■sfj a 



1859 

1856 



5 b 
sj a 



1856 
1858 



1856 



1851 



1853 



1854-5 

1857 



Bath., 



Monticello. 
Owego. 

6 
Luzerne. 



Lyons . 



Warsaw.... 
Penn Van. 



6.120 
4,239 

4,350 
6.520 



1857 



1*54 



lo 
l',i 



12 



10 
3i 



c-g 

no 3 



Leased. 

$2,850 



Leased. 
2,000 



Leased. 
Leased. 

1,000 



Leased. 

1,600 

Leased. 
3,500 
4,000 



2,461 
1,600 



Leased. 



2,500 



,T 3 



$5,850 



1,000 

6,400 
6,500 

2,100 
1,400 



1,000 

4,000 
15,926,95 

13,160 
3,350 



° Societies in italics were organized under acts of 1853 and 
1855. Most of them had been in existence many years under 
a previous organization. 

* Fairs in the town that will give most to pay expenses. 



« Fairs held alternately in different parts of the county, and 
generally at the place that contributes most toward expenses. 

<* Fair held alternately at Jamaica, Flushing, and Hempstead. 
Receipts the first 10 years, '?3;032. 



104 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



domestic cloths ; Schenectady in broom corn ; Schoharie in buckwheat, and about equal with Mont- 
gomery in clover; Washington in potatoes ; and Wayne in peaches and dried fruits. 

In connection with the table of agricultural products, it should be remembered that these 



Agricultural Products of the several Counties in the State 



Counties. 



Albany 

Allegany 

Broome 

Cattaraugus... 

Cayuga 

« hautauqua... 

Chemung 

Cb'-nnngo 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

V.i i'- 



Franklin 

Fulton 

• 

Ore ii" 

Hamilton 

Herkimer 

•n 

Kings 

I.' -w i J 

Livingston.... 

n 

Monroe 

Montgomery- 
New 1'ork 

i , 

Oni Ha 

Onond • 

Ontario 

Orange 

Orleans 





Putnam 

Queens 

I ler 

Richmond 

Rockland 

rence 
- 
Schom 

irio 

Schuyler 



St4 ubcn 

Suffolk 

Bulliran 



Tompkins 

Ulster 

i 

Wayne 



I  >1 



S 
g 

s 

i 



7.424 

11,927] 
21,721 
193,729] 
66,249] 
63,754 
4,560] 
2.138J 
7,972i 
4,696] 
9554 
54,4704 
23S.S12} 
2,484 
1,353} 
3.6444 
760,461 
7,346 
6 
5,9044 
: 

18.086 
3,845] 
1.094.779 
29,320] 
810,363 
23,9044 
30 
5S0.911 
20,4391 
97,058} 
528,488 
43.363] 
? i I 
12.596 
5.1 78 
8,550| 
402.169] 

1 1 -•: \ 
5,165] 
18.645 
80 131] 
161,721 

151,520] 
1,472] 

' • • 

1.212 



.a 

I 

.3 






6,927] 

56,422] 

8,1214 

57.278] 
2T.327 
78.6364 
18,624 

2n.2«r,.; 

57.1725 
587] 
24.361 
8,53S} 
250 
46.913 
44.0094 
69.5594 
7.5004 
11.154 
3,175] 
'245 
3S.149 
428,672f 

7,;i.' ; V|Vi" 

18.025 

5^.777 

2.620 

iv07s; 

"5,386" 
41,8834 
85,1 18 
27.059 
32 
2,208 
44.3004 
63 146] 

""is" 

13,383] 

575 

6 

295.41 ! 

8,074 

6,377] 

28,074} 

11,379 
B2.014 
1294 

2,687 

i .i •: 



"fe. 



a 
.5 



 



54.5794 

64,637| 

53,685 

62,546} 

57,732 

105.672 
24,941 

117.370} 
48,241 
65,103 

5'p.7i;r^ 

103.8964 
83.8784 
98.0114 
39,139} 
37.5944 
33.903 
41.39S} 
58.5244 
4.274 
78,254} 
98.575 
r.l-.; 
51.802 
30.1 87-J 
68,263] 
58.738} 
44,532] 
157 
41.1174 

124,9334 
63,246] 
42.4481 

103,211] 
34,620J 
58,138 

108,069} 
27,756] 
51.395 
58.557} 
7,032 
1 l B28 

139 WO 
52,743] 
16,185] 
48,774} 
17,996] 
20,87 
58 Ti- 
ll.:. 16] 
40,716] 

38.143] 

45,271] 
90.491 | 
58.421] 



3.256,948f 









495.1774 

665.400 

466.S704 

697,6704 

956.636 

530,705 

473,460 

564.242 

276.0804 

543.031 

3S2.7S6 

416.6594 

626.347 

724.7474 

234.946 

144.617 

355,855 

299,809 

160,9074 

16.701 
724,585 
456.230} 

11. 070 
295.4 If..} 
261,990 
571.637 
792.370 
997,605 
435 
353.308 
975.81 II 14 
1,015,2274 
525.9374 
291,111 
229.731 
535,432] 
903.647 

66,922 
199,513 
558.377 

15.00i; 

2S.1CS 
437,041 
744,220 
293,768 

1 10,0634. 

867,247 

556,238 

711,807 

262,067] 

109 B83 

452.978 

812,883 

27-.' 5 

120,347 

798,821 

B75.624] 

204,759 

406,837 

LI 1,467] 



27 ."15,296 






Ki 



186,567 
2.S34 
20.546 
2,3734 
6,331} 
2,808 
3.:,:,s 
14,329 
13.073 
445.036 
4,172 
50.5274 
230.063 
24.0794 
13.3574 
20.1014 
22,3834 
1.140 
72,232 
277 
17.5511 
99.3914 

4,860 
11.383] 

4.118 
1,477 
9,1664 
39,1124 
25 
1.014 
24.121 
5,3404 
16,002 
202.301 
2.777 
45.557; 
34,2184 
22,890] 
71.010 
299,864 
3,131] 
31,600] 
25.725 
l:;2 77l? 
44,752] 
87,692 
6,168 
7,862 
10,212 
52.212; 
7.. ! ,3 

17. .521 
1135.00:: ' 
10.952] 
121.967 
7,269] 
61,404 
2.777; 
24,517 






Kl 



9,1264 
28:4544 

2.337 

14,005 

30S,3034 

19.6564 

23.S62 

22.220 

6.877 

3,801 

45.i'i('i,5.\ 

2.219 

2,818 

57.2504 

1.11S4 

6.188} 

14.704 

50.S10 

1.7874 

42 

51,439] 

302.084; 



37 :13, 

123,255] 

197.231 

170.755 
39,2524 



79.593 

13,7.4311 

371,7854 

320.375 

170 

86,071 

28 054 

43.SS9 



2,769 

12,807 

627 

14 

28,187 

0. 24 

6,569] 

44,136 

7 

104,856 

78,873 

10,974 

1,0534 

6,925 

65,295 

L30 

89 

12.944] 

220.105 

. 
L52 L34 






8,663,540 



s 



s 

cq 



84,812} 

39.2984 

73,2144 

26,183 

54,0764 

9.664} 
69.0464 
50.3044 
30,651| 
54.3344 
28,1154 
86.330 
43.1244 
24.5584 
13,701} 
13.6254 
69,759 
14.9134 
33.9134 

2,913} 
42.S7.5J 

5.909} 

235 
10,443,4 
13.8304 
13,S534 
22,623} 
141,6774 



29.1514 

54,767! 

32,453} 

18,325} 

23,023} 

12.003 

31,605} 

112,732} 
10,7184 
21,224] 
61 82] 
1,325 
8.7224 
12.012; 

108,882] 
11 B s 

169,078 
67,523 
21,436] 
89,99 ij 
18,856] 
65.571] 
91,402] 
1 l.3,i 1.5 
70,676 
19,214 
40,658] 
30.700; 
20,890] 
20,277] 
24,007] 



6 



s 

Cq 



193,6914 

189.5884 

214,998 

300,762 

86S.543 

558.5074 

230.2854 

354.4S0 

92,567} 
383.3394 
240.7034 
119,383 
55S.308 
4S3.228 
105,369 

83.615 
155,733 
437.0524 

99.204 

7.151 

283.748 

321.770 

54.179 

92.3084 
431,4644 
410:5S3 
805.811 
247.5164 

1,180 
500.505 
732.2944 
907.453 
617.4S5A 
357.4904 
436,975 
503.812 
340,1704 
no.0104 
337.0S5 
393,4134 

43.0374 

.51 873 
220,503 
470.440 

02.270 
161.1531 
160,7804 
387,998] 
292,689] 
504 7'',7 " 
102,594 
20,0.074 
3722112 
242.220; 
123,817 
689,678] 
756 "77 ; 
402,238] 

234, I 

174181 



2.IM.0794 10.20ii.00i; 



nut included in tlf abov> Tables. 



OtSh nine Of farms  7 

stock ! 

" tools and implements $26,927,502 

- plowed the year pn 1 krai 8 -77.471 

En fallow the yi 

s the j ear pi 4.,- tin 

Bushels of turnips harvested 98 

Foun  1 

Value products mark $1,138,682 

Pounds of maple sugar made 4,035,815] 

us of maple molasst 9 made 85,0914 



Gallons of wine made 

Pounds of cocoons 

Value "i othi r textile fabrics 

Bushels 'i i» • ts 

\ aim 

Bushels of can its 

Bushels , 1 ( nei ries 

Bushels of cranberries 

\ alue of cucumbers 

Bushels of currants 

Bushels of fruits (not specified)., 



18.181 
207.; 
$3 824 

$18,668 
478,277 
8,7874 

87 
$9,619 

5004 
43,074 



AGRICULTURE. 



105 



numbers refer to the yield of 1854, which was distinguished by a severe and prevalent drought. 
From 20 to 50 per cent, should bo added to obtain the proximate results of years of ordinary pro- 



duction. 



of New York, as reported by the Slate Census of 1855. 









Flax. 










I 

1 


1 


£ 

1 






e<5 






G 


►3 


=Q 


fc 


ts> 


"fe 


"fe* 


"& 


"fe> 


*& 


■& 


^ 






^j 






eo 


eo 




BO 






"w 


'c 




'B 


*§ 


^5 


'-» 


rC 


*< 


« 


s 
a 




a 






C 


a 


s 












3 


a 


«l 


Kl 


CQ 


(^ 


eq 


ft, 


^ 


K| 


nq 


375,6541 
206,258 


15,9891 
22,8441 


2 306 


2,675 
879 


210} 


7,440 




234.251 


6,088 


3,174* 


2051 


2,768 


128* 


214.130 


2,983 


160.420* 


9::2.'. 


949£ 


478 


35* 


21,808 


23,650 


224,463 


■1.7 17 1 


300,245f 


14.4921 


4.496* 


2,738 


58f 


4S8 


1,770 


177,17"* 


1,257 


251,718| 


6,565 


5,638* 


18,385 


1,106 


2,640 


3,300 


522,751 


10,862}. 


282,451 


7,693 


4,038 


4.5S4 


302} 


2,416 


1.390 


308,115 


4,5241 


131,291 


1,360* 


1,859} 


130 


66} 


102 


33,597 


107,364 


2,96] 


270,542 


4,018* 


2.7631 


16,636 


203* 


163,332 


550 


553,554 


7,5591 


385,492 


14.545 


6.9931 


7.7O0 


236* 


1,014 


20 


76,936* 


852* 


259,419* 


1,330* 
9.527 


739 


1.128 


54* 




418 


210,342 


9,480 


155,389 


1.7261 


58,269 


2,173* 


2,037 


40 


351,975 


3,738 


209 567 ' 


2,2291 
670 


212S 1 


1 477 


25* 
15 


69,028* 




259,160 


5.918} 


205,498 


7881 


557 


3,104 


18,507 


216,593 


8.247* 


445,350* 


15,3211 


6,124 


5,026 


270* 


2,862 


50 


266,195 


6,0815 


318,021 
484,425 


11,625* 
12,0741 


2 818 


195 


6* 


9 




64,200* 


909* 


1.8391 


704 


6* 


231,217 


153 


26,273 


377} 


182 904 


14,202 
8.7971 


7til > 


223,005 
118,500 


1,215* 
595* 






100,142 


2.070* 


167.274 


8,569* 


12,007 


4,130 


29(5,121 


5,767 


116,871 


1.5321 


693* 


10,620 


14* 


26 


75 


192,814* 


3,954* 


25 257 


140 
27,864 


154* 
1,616 


6,000 
30S,050 








3,459 


18 


257,875 


4,241 


510,033 


115 


333,901 


6,446 


289,031 


63,338 


4,2811 


12,066 


760* 


28,995 


3,691 


215,431 


3,459* 


308.243 
243 841 


16,930 
12,9781 
6,3981 


7,042 

1,030* 

1.0031 




1 566 






54 

72,198 


1.451 


65,782 
90 


8 870 




132.2561 


101 

1   , 


14.255 


10 


242.200 


5,9281 


224.2781 


20.9731 


4.836* 


102.581 


735* 


1,312.308 


13.680 


531,677 


7.417* 


654,551 


16,028* 


14.342* 


1.000 


56* 


44,010 


86,520 


491,491 


10.312 


145,154 


22,855* 


3,941 


1,016,929 


7,746* 


241,603 


249 


155,s01 


5,0081 


1,808 
275 448 


250 


645 














15 981 


9,256* 


3S0 


322 




13,010 


255.997 


4.461* 


624,648 


12.912* 


7,770* 


6,635 


1,233* 


616,054 


39,220 


634,262 


12,735 


380.14H 


34.915* 


8.984 


57,2S7 


2,644* 


13,427 


654,987 


624,545* 


13,725} 


188,900 


15,297* 


2,404* 


2,070 


199* 


32,751 


9,1S0 


397.098 


8,044 


123.5511 


230 


34S1 


30 




39 


800 


80,180* 


3.1 SS* 


171,867 


5.471 


40.185* 


19,030 


2S5 


16 


22,871 


281,7814 


4,534 


391.9121 


11,1161 


4.326 


37,109 


749 


29,206 


15 


425,915 


8,1051 


412,7031 


29,935$ 


2,811* 


98,504| 


1,424} 


3,122,258* 


543 


601.196 


8,880 


64 504 


48 


210 J 






20 




27,158 


814* 


291,135 

500 559 


33.444 

1,574 

410 

49 

69,016 

6.406 


22.282* 

5,979" 

166* 

63 

5.131 

972f 


300 


1 


25 




3,346 


29 


672,780 


19,266* 
4 


1,615 




131,241 

28 

3,253 

90,497 


4,304 


21,739 
47,2231 
604 023 




47 
719 




3 

197,875 




1 206 ' 




4S7.672 


15.125 


515* 


1S.364 


200 


2S9.478 


11,3861 


105,132 


5,551} 


714* 


206.200 


2,346 


2,600 


150 


105.551 


2.848* 


190,4321 


33,482* 


1,656* 


13,916 


526* 


440.754 


15 


222.182 


3.(589* 


81,106 


1,710} 


1,931 


8,058 


420* 


730 


30 


143,229 


3.212 


72,544 


1 640 ' 


573} 


529.811 


7,035 
306 




16,500 


175,278 


4.029 


255,938 


25,006* 


2.686* 


1,777 


8,649 


16,950 


297,289 


4,580 


304,063 
103,188} 


142 

1681 


1 3S' 7 i 
6981 




24 


304 
176 


1,000 
52 


27,799 
73,298 


4271 
1,699} 


92 


150,5181 


3.992* 


2,4954 


712 


140* 


1.200 


160 


169,183 


4.359 


111,106 


4.6591 


2,100* 


79,932 


1,706 


1,138 


27,090 


417.757 


0.172 


134.5391 


2961 


534 


2,017 


78 


2,735 


2,524 


397.7T4 


5.606* 


173,328 
767,285 


2.2701 
14,210* 


915* 
5,075} 




23,003 


7 
62 


20 

2,390 


58.772* 
189,103 


1,002 
5,8091 


839.420 


261,403 


8,455* 


5,866* 


23,260 


527* 


737 


38,432 


509,626 


8,893* 


286.249 


230 


278* 






5 


2,202 


60,137* 


;;.j;,l 


203,932 


13,326* 


8,2:52* 


6,630 


518} 


17,526 


115 


323.290 


4.517* 


57.9121 


1,444 


745* 


245,000 


1,850 


1,605 


6,003 


143,773 


3,760j 


15,191,8521 


705,967| 


244,079 


4,907,556* 


87,093* 


7,192,254 


946,502* 


13,668,830* 


273,039 



Value of garden seeds $40,889 

Bushels of grapes 1,610* 

Value of melons $4,682 

Bushels of millet 6.453* 

Bushels of onions 15.026* 

Value of osier willow * $251 

Bushels of quinces 2.035} 

Value of root crops (miscellaneous) $16,703 

Bushels of rutabaga 3,111 

Pounds of saffron 1,798 

Bushels of strawberries 371 

Value of fruit and ornamental trees $142,328 

Miscellaneous $611,397 



Neat cattle under one year old 311.474 

Neat cattle over one year, exclusive of working 

oxen and cows 577,887 

Number of cattle killed for beef. 22 i 3 

Callous of milk sold 20,965,861 

Pounds of wool 9,231,959j 

Value of poultry sold $1,076,598 

Value of eggs sold $1,360,678 

Yards of fulled cloth made 198.203 

Yards of flannel made 379 922! 

Yards of linen made 105,086 

Yards of cotton and mixed cloths 246,464 

Yards of carpeting 213.017} 



106 



XEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



The State appropriations for the promotion of agriculture, in 1819, through the Board of Agri- 
culture, and, since 1841, through the State and County Agricultural Societies, have been as 
shown in the table commencing at the foot of this page. 

Agricultural Products of the several 



COCN'TIES. 



Albany 

Allegany 

Broome 

Cattaraugus.. 

Cayuga. , 

Chautauqua.. 

Chemung 

Chenango 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cortland 

Delaware- 

Dutchess 

Brie 



Franklin 

Fulton 

Greene , 

Hamilton. 

Herkimer .... 

Jefferson- 

Kings 

Leu i- 

Livingston.... 

Madison 

Monroe 

Montgomery , 
New York..... 

Niagara. 

Oneida. 

Onondaga .... 

Ontario 

Orange.- 

Orleans 

Oswego 

Otsego 

Putnam 

Queens 

laer.... 
Richmond.... 
Rocklanl 

I'rence 
Sarat< 

Bchenei tadjr . 
- 
Schuyl'T 

i 

!l 

PufMk 

Bollrran 



Tomj.kin- .... 

DUter 

'i 

Washington.. 

Wynii 

Yataa 

Total 






53.650 
6S.998 
47.380 
62,486 
83,553* 
53.465 
3W.H 
4^.7013 
51.459 
31.618 
56.148 
101,571 
38.503 
59,659 
27,342 
19.622 
23.761 
32.359 
32.940 
5.610 
3S,347 
18.444 



11.912 
26.693 
55,615 
46.038 
58,571 

27.205 
138.475 
81,575 
53.135 
25.111 
23.113 
47.7U0 
93.020 
13.237* 
n.'.iv.i 
33,684 i 

475 

8.667 

61,614 

45,202* 

12,688 

89.676 

52,167 

87,549 

113.653 

6,087 

40,946 

38,378 

- i a 

49,808 
20.062 

68,204 
17,602 
86,248 
29,260 



2 67,876 









3.436* 
3.321 * 
2113* 

3,378" 

4,165* 

4142 

1.670* 

3.451 

2,238* 

1.466 

3,619* 

5,285* 

1.S30 

3^220 

1,419 

919 
1,300 
1,568 
2.202* 

401* 
2.927* 
1,290* 

" 831 

1,950* 
3.366$ 
LS42* 
3,544 

1.460 ' 
3.455* 

3,857* 
2,458* 
2,128$ 
1.151* 

2,142* 

4,665* 

459 

276 

i>m; 
22 
174* 
2,814* 
2,499 

7v_>.; 

4.496* 
2)076 

i.6(io; 

5.42(1* 

414 

2.398* 

1,612] 

I "7 . 

8,126 

l,061f 

1.945 
2,820i 
6^70j 
2,0 



<3 



23.247 
47,332 
37,544 
58,489 
46.178 
76,890 
20.899 
68.391 
25,555 
27,676 
37.671 
65.181 
44.126 
55^439 
23.567 
23,677 
19.922 
24,785 
25.239 

2,456 
49,820 
79,249 

3,204 
29,748 
29,383 
44,924 
39,545 
30,502 

8,323 
28.238 
77^832 
50.228 
33,962 
57.602 
23,412 
42,172 
63.79S 
15,507 
14,326 
29,601 

2.25' l 

7,198 
96,408 
34.769 

8.614 
38.771 
19,004 
ll ,9 fl 
62,483 
24,216 
27,348 
29,664 
80,847 

34.140 
14,282 
40,410 

88,182 
89,048 
16,784 



<§ 



i 



1,813 
3,392 
3.531 
4,137 
2,506 
4.515 
1,510 
3.8S7 
1,484 
3,701 
1,709 
4.7 SO 
6,263 
3.794 
2,081 
1.859 
1,173 
1,417 
2.349 
'360 
785 
2,522 
41 
2.423 
1,761 
1,874 
1.944 
1,046 



2,058 
3,476 
2.454 
2,113 
3.4^9 
1.164 
3,093 
2,942 
3.200 
1.926 
2,704 

400 

573 
6,576 
2,625 

597 
2.440 
1,128 

677 
4..;:. I 
2,006 
4,265 
2 323 
1J666 
4,671 
1,428 
2,100 
1.762 
5.427 
2,1 7 1 

747 



<3 



13,332 
19,009 
17,116 
23,633 
19.822 
36,046 

9.690 
36.939 
ll!284 
14.500 
21,668 
34,484 
24,5S4 
29,831 

8.749 
10.919 
10,268 
10,541 
12,592 
S52 
36,653 
49,472 

2,834 
19;i51 
10.980 
24.067 
17,564 
16,801 
719 
11.708 
47.794 
24,S01 
14,202 
40.187 

8,921 
21,983 
34,713 

7,851 

9,240 
16,864 

1,189 

4,708 
62,161 
16.778 

5,768 
1S.-J13 

7,676 

7,136 
20,284 
10,883 
10.775 
12,954 
1 4,572 
17,832 

6,161 
18,6S9 
16,769 
21 '.' '7 9 
16,737 

7,250 



138,033^ 



.. l m:,,I'. r, 



1 1 1,697 



l.o6\427 



32 
a 

s 



1,173,527 
1,700,775 
1,753.417 
1,957,183 
2,082,022 
3,389,837 

924.645 
3,990,564 

891.431* 
1,347,428 
2,379,257 
4,026.575 
l,6Sl',595 
1,866.132 

025.542 
1,050.040 

840,397 

919,130 
1,191,930 
83,282 
1,305.377 
3,949.608 
17,425 
1,575.515 
1,045,591 
1,840.298 
1,643.515 
1,211,385 

i,03S.'307' 

2,912.176 

2,294.287 

1,22.3.097 

3,285.587* 

912,013 
2,036,174 
3,075.206 

493.696 

441.983* 
1,291,738 
24,365 

266,006 
4,268,809 
1.408.136* 

615,662 
1.832.257 

798.953 

705.574 
1.976.1 29 

634.405 

931.927 
1,365.783 
1,646,947 
1,669,681 

182,786 
1,625,188 
1,446,080 

1.116.589 

1,833,948 

717.259* 



90.203.073; 



Appropriations for the Promotion of Agriculture. 



CourrriES. 


1M9. 

- 


1841. 

67 

- 

151 

143 

02 


1 


1819. .„,. 
1841. 


COCNTIKB. 


1819. 
2 year*. 


1841. 


Counters. 


1819. 

2 years. 


1841. 




I 60 

75 
100 

60 




$12-2 




$125 
100 

250 

■J, „| 

200 

•JIIO 


171 
60 
60 

179 
91 

112 

183 




176 

100 

250 

400 
650 


$143 
53 

117 
120 
194 
107 
950 




1 28 

31 Ml 

126 

200 
400 


B4 

13 

75 

" 

167 

186 






Fait. A Ham 




Cattaraugus.... 








itaturoa 

Cli' miini: 




Herkimer 


Montgomery— 





AGRICULTURE. 



107 



By an act of April 11, 1842, Genesee receives $92 and Wyoming $87 annually ; and by another 
of April 13, 1855, the co. of Schuyler was allowed to receive a proportional share from the moneya 
previously belonging to Chemung, Steuben, and Tompkins cos. 



Counties in 


the State of New York, continued. 














<^5 


& 




n 

c 
1 


V 

*< 

1 






i 


1 

fc 




1 




2 




| 


£ 


i 


i5$ 


i 






4 


1 


1 


36.520 


10.954 


31 


37,054 


24.035 


127 


834 i 


:,::i; 


359 


1,044.1 tTS 


11,223 


36 


104,799 


13,148 




147 


52 


1,5921 


40.896 


5,998 


7 


40,894 


12,251 


13* 


137 1 


11 


14 


1.717.4X4 


9,497 


11 


59,725 


13,834 


2* 


647 1 


39 


146 


199.333 


15,405 


4 


103,631 


29,081 




5,041 


395 


15 


3,198,361 


13,047 


15 


90,154 


21,105 


62 


4,742 


149 


1351 


7.861 


4,856 


6 


21,364 


9.853 


£ 


924 


27 


190 


1,212.544 


10,971 


10 


85,923 


1S,092 






55 




105.906 


8,444 


36 


38,351 


7.86S 








25 


87.167 


9,103 


211 


87,549 


32,568 


ii 


1,999 


759 


313 


708,679 


7,410 


27 


41,321 


12,302 


1 


55 


43 


11 


61.185 


9.140 


5 


71,315 


15,870 






11 


5 


54,119 


10,829 


29 


73,687 


42.9S6 




1,072 


278 


1.780 


2,038,392 


16.983 


10 


65,085 


24.791 




2,010 


139 


207 


93,594 


6,149 


43 


47.054 


6,504 








23 


143.916 


6,029 


3 


23.958 


7,535 










579.079 


5,829 


1 


16,969 


10.514 


1* 




6 




105,873 


11,395 


13 


100,391 


10.273 




3,506 


267 




21,317 


6,203 


23 


19,382 


14,074 


1 


140 


232 




2.(570 


338 




1,481 


510 










9,068.519 


9,098 


10 


17,706 


18,227 


25 i 




48 


10 


2,819,459 


17,059 


20 


63,401 


23,327 








121 




6,314 


122 
9 


2 


3,964 
8.353 




15 


115 




1,S96,741 


5,097 


10,086 






1 


11 


79,3461 


12,502 


47 


112,562 


19.275 


70i 


618 


38 


24 


2.087.594 


11,753 


32 


66,547 


16.794 


5 




485 


21 


131,253 


18,913 


16 


116,817 


34.727 




22,134 


240 


4 


1,53S,654 


8,836 


3 


29,661 


18.834 


2561 




77 


125 




14,099 
14,334 


256 
5 




1.249 
21,765 


4$ 


12.378 


47 


87 


71.443 


78,359 


3,311,114 


17.398 


34 


50,841 


31,228 


14* 




4681 


27 


860.044 


17.330 


8 


94,202 


31.539 




1,165 


376 


201 


205,921 


13,660 


159 


132,725 


26,419 




3,073 


599 


265 


80,660 


9,986 


74 


21.377 


40,684 




2.705 


69 


146 


110,298 


9,640 


2 


91.2S5 


15,692 




4,031 


136 


100 


975,461 


12,398 


23 


36,088 


21.836 




2,244 


450 


1291 


l,63s,493 


14,652 


17 


109,937 


22.308 




81 


621 


82 


3.475 


1,938 


1 


5.804 


6.997 


i. 








765 


7,954 


178 


9,714 


14,228 




111 


60 




538,402 


10,184 
845 


10 
26 


64,609 

57 


25,007 
1 726 


48 


392 


341 


341 


2.500 


3,715 


170 


926 


3,185 




8 




5 


1,672,999 


20,261 


20 


86,454 


24,286 








5 


152,901$ 


11,293 


2 


46.018 


26,003 






94 




72.019 


4,219 


4 


10,759 


7.727 


727 






312 


71.016 


9,682 


2 


45,596 


18,804 


134f 


28 


8 




32,168 


5,700 


4 


48,918 


9,451 




3,195 




630 


13.812 


7,497 


6 


47.534 


17.532 


1 


5.777 


378 




203.329 


13,899 


40 


111.353 


24,154 




1,148 


4 


397 


1,580 


7,111 


163 


28.016 


19.727 


1 


1.330 


91 


8 


4.598 


3,092 


87 


12.591 


8,231 


1 


508 


134 




50.357 


5,678 


13 


36,162 


11.248 




586 


31 


22 


60,128 


9,443 


3 


61.036 


14.358 




1,919 


127 


4 


520 


9,893 


58 


29.841 


34,025 




1,721 


111 


3 


64.634 


3,341 


6 


16.472 


5,703 








144 


634.491 


11,707 


11 


118.533 


30.305 


2* 






75 


103,763*. 


14,928 


5 


104,845 


29.799 


7-S- 


25,394 


156 


5 


2.180 


7,332 


73 


11,321 


20,801 




895 






823,105 


10.358 


6 


93.365 


11.074 




397 


70 


212 


59,972 


6,773 


8 


64,827 


12,586 




1,689 


15 


2S1 


38,944,249$ 


579,715 


2,254 


3,217,024 


1,069,792 


1,5091 


115,4101 


7,6291 


8,604 



Appropriations for the Promotion of Agriculture, continued. 



Counties. 


1819. 
2 yars. 


1841. 


Counties. 


1819. 
2 year*. 


1841. 




$400 
300 
500 
300 

400 


$03 
255 
204 
130 
152 
75 
131 
14S 


Putnam 

Quepns 


$100 
200 
350 
75 
100 
100 
300 
100 


$38 
91 

18C 
34 
36 

170 

121 
51 










I St. Lawrence.... 






1 Schenectady.... 





Counties. 


1S19. 

2 years. 


1841.! 


Counties. 


1819. 
2 years. 


1S41. 




$200 
150 
150 
200 
100 
150 
150 


$97 
74 

13S 
97 
47 
61 

114 


lister 


$250 

100 
350 

250 


S137 
40 
123 
126 
146 
61 
700 








Washington.... 


Suffolk . 




Westchester.... 






State Ag. Soc. 





108 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



County societies usually require the payment of $1 annually from each member, or $10 for life 
membership -without further payment. It is customary to restrict competition for premiums to 
members of the society, and to collect of all others an entrance fee to the exhibition grounds. 



Dwellings, Area, and Products. 



COCXTIES. 



Albany 

Allegany 

Broome 

Cattaraugus. 



Chautauque.. 

Chemung 

ngo 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutches 

K.ri" 



Franklin 

Fult-.n 

e 

Greene 

Hamilton , 

Herkimer .... 
Jefferson 







-ton.... 
Uadis 'D 

raery.. 
N.-\v Y"rk 

a 

Oneida 

1  - i 

Ontario 



Orleans 



I 

I'll t nam 

• 

Rirhnv'ii.l 

Rockland 

Bt Lawrence. 

- i 

- 

Schuyler 



a 

Suffolk 

Bullil 



T"ni|0. 

i 

>'• 
\ 
'■ 
M 

og 





Number of Dwellings. 



25 



88 
IS 

4 

5 
73 
14 

1 

20 

163 

52 

9 

44 

177 

111 

30 

88 

2 

60 

100 

2 

62 

429 

515 

34 

57 

50 

301 

59 

[,617 

34S 

59 

00 

120 

202 

182 

G7 

84 

1 

21 

16 

74 

261 

312 

: 2 

15 

13 

2 

41 

12 

9 

16 

5 

9 

BOS 

6 

158 

U 



Total 7.:.:;.', 



3.769 

29 

82 

9 

825 

113 

47 

21 

460 

3SS 

45 

8 

434 

2.427 

168 

71 

53 

107 

163 

165 

20S 

8,061 

18 

113 

95 

1.760 

147 

29,977 

299 

623 

762 

516 

474 

133 

131 

50 

47 

70 

1,559 

122 

1- ' 

176 

343 

I..,;, 

31 

• 13 
267 

57 

SO 



35 

77 

470 
60 
52 



9,385 
6.2S7 
5,629 
4,942 

9.620 
8.314 
3,264 
7.226 
3.959 
6,665 
4.270 
6.040 
8.947 

12.S34 
4.170 
2.545 
3.S17 
4.976 
4.964 
'273 
6.332 
9,534 

14.901 
3.195 
5.787 
7.68S 

13.713 
4.700 

10,595 

5;3oi 

10.D02 
13.175 
6,591 
8.162 
4.119 
10,516 
8.837 
2,270 
7.071 
9,719 
8,018 
2.775 
8,427 
7. '.41 
2.449 
I 

2,634 
8,924 
8,042 
7,089 
4,280 
4,861 
4>71 
9,028 
2,624 
7,243 

12.044 
5,181 

o.j;:, 









19 

966 
560 

1.252 
475 
639 
516 
240 

1,988 

29 

295 

888 

58 

1.638 
663 

1,353 
238 
408 
145 
147 
191 

1,369 

1.094 

608 

173 

650 

23 

496 
498 
513 
405 
346 
821 
2S7 
63 

'203 

'■■'ib' 
3.443 

n-:; 

ii 

435 

405 
254 

1 ■■. • 

7 
7:7 

287 

461 
124 

859 
3 

462 






13,591 
8.192 
6.436 
7.515 

10.916 
9,988 
4,S37 
7,602 
6.994 
7,287 
4,727 
7,238 
9.705 

21.074 
5,227 
4.444 
4.179 
5,753 
5.419 
401 
6,898 

11,975 

23.970 
4.707 
6,990 
8,221 

16,916 
4.960 

42.668 
8.698 

17.7S2 

15,215 
7,828 
9,5S2 
5,299 

12.049 
9,324 
2.405 
7,896 

11.083 
3.220 
3,188 

13,191 
8,631 
3,105 
5,846 
8,582 
4,669 

11,851 
7.211 
6,408 
6,049 

Ll,068 

.■■■ii 
7,875 
s.viis 
12,768 
6,1 a 
8,878 



I? 
4 



3.539 
5,392 
3,925 
5.441 
4,299 
6,547 
1,948 
5.203 
3,551 
3.242 
3,3S8 
5,458 
3.7'.i7 
7.257 
2.715 
3.247 
2.2SS 
3.003 
3,145 

404 
3.447 
6,992 

398 
3.945 
3,375 
4,6S0 
4,S79 
2,852 
4S 
3.96S 
8.315 
< ::;.-. 
3,943 
3.HS2 
2.4.4 
6.720 
6,109 
1,368 
3.113 
3.869 

876 
1,221 
8.946 
4,208 
1,328 
4,011 
2,446 

7,042 
4,838 
8,688 
8,088 

4,861 
2,146 
4,192 
4,767 
0.722 
4,131 
2,242 



Number of Acres. 



Improved. 



■25 231.740 13,057,4901 



242,735 
280,863 

i9s>3ii; 

266.435} 

315,795| 

360.110 

120,219| 

347,82S| 

168,932* 

304.2771 

194,736* 

364.4004. 

366,359! 

340,3074. 

185,443| 

144,627J 

133.415? 

219,0124. 

212.2231 

16,675? 
267,4141 
465,222 

15,871* 
184,541 :.- 
262,462* 
277.393! 
216,840* 
194.457J 
1,150$ 
207.0431 
435,800! 
344.52S 
290,639? 
30S,599! 
181.948? 
244.120 
428,932| 

94.205j 
119,549 
292.21 2 J 

15,072* 

46,481? 
499,554 
315,728* 

93,448* 
227,904^ 
134,331 
151,9491 
861,450 
163,818* 

I ' 

II i,894| 

205.61 GJ 
24' 1.041 
111,202*. 

:;:,::.!!:.,, 

264,461 
209,1 li I 
241,664* 

155..M2; 



Total. 



313,512* 
635.132* 
404,048* 
699.056! 
503.032! 
654.255* 
230,605 
530,764! 
570,01S* 
373,532! 
308.399? 
802,852* 
464,464* 
593,651* 
959,63S| 
979,692 
2S0.4S6* 
294,744* 
362,828! 
783.054* 
773,072 
716,513 
21,466 
6S1,6S6* 
358,840? 
38S,89S? 
295.022* 
241J7S* 
1,974* 
308,153* 
722,394* 
459,229* 
387.74S* 
49S.214* 
244,27; 
572.173* 
608.491* 
108.1153* 
170.753 
393.215* 
22,674* 
97,334* 
1,385,085 
455,5774 
125.101? 
859,950* 
197,335* 
1 '.'7,886* 
799,700* 
424.0M>J 
020.0,1s.; 
293,317| 
290,680 j 
618.840? 
442,543* 
476,685 
366,6134 
291,094* 
864,418? 
206,6761 



26.75S.1.S0! 



1 Thia column li Lmiscellani reported as" Planks," "Boarda,"" Shanties," 

od valne were not given. 'Hi'- vain • ■. no far as reported, was as follows: — 



- 

Irani'-. 

Total.. 



Ifumbi r. 



7.172 

66,762 

878,967 



Tt ><-il Vatue. 



i 19,184,819 
312^61,135 
297, 1 

1,830,11 9 
664,89 1,967 



Average Value. 



$6,857.89 
6,600.26 

7M.H0 

i i.18 
2.76 



MANUFACTURES. 

TnE manufactures of the State are very extensive, embracing an almost endless variety of articles. 
In many sections the manufacturing interests surpass those of agriculture or commerce. The lines 
of internal communication through the State have greatly facilitated the spread of manufactures ; 
and now flourishing establishments are found in nearly every part of the State. 1 The most im- 

1 Manufacturing Establishments in the several Counties, as reported by the State Census 

o/1855. 



Counties. 



Albany 

Allegany , 

Broome 

Cattaraugus... 

Cayuga 

Chautauqua... 

Chemung 

Chenango - 

Clinton , 

Columbia 

Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Erie 

Essex 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Genesee 

Greene ........... 

i Hamilton 

Ilerkimer 

Jefferson 

Kings 

Lewis 

Livingston 

Madison 

Monroe 

Montgomery.. 

New York 

Niagara 

Oneida 

Onondaga 

Ontario 

Orange 

Orleans 

Oswego 

Otsego , 

Putnam 

Queens _. 

Rensselaer.... 

Richmond 

Rockland 

St. Lawrence. 

Saratoga - 

Schenectady.. 

Schoharie , 

Schuyler 

Seneca 

Steuben 

Suffolk 

Sullivan 

Tioga 

Tompkins 

Ulster 

Warren 

Washington.. 

Wayne 

Westchester... 

Wyoming 

Yates 



«l 



Total 196 1,921 



9 
2 
1 

1 

4 



27 
37 
23 
32 
59 
43 
19 
41 
22 
47 
26 
31 
44 
29 
28 
15 
12 
33 
19 

36 
52 
11 

9 
35 
27 
69 
44 
53 
32 
65 
53 
40 
37 
38 
26 
66 

6 
14 
43 

6 

7 
47 
47 

8 

34 
23 
23 
49 
22 
29 
20 
45 
37 
14 
40 
49 
27 
37 
14 



■a 
8 

I_ 
27 
23 
16 
16 
36 
37 
15 
28 
15 
29 
26 
26 
35 
31 



36 
6 

34 

42 
10 

7 

30 
30 
34 
20 
71 
24 
72 
53 
29 
20 
26 
29 
54 
12 

8 
25 

5 

5 
37 
29 

9 
21 
16 
13 
28 
18 
10 
17 
34 

9 

tr 
1 

24 
22 
52 
34 
15 



1,467 



f 



g 

m 

n 
i 
i 
i 

2 
3 
1 
1 
9 



13 
11 

"i 

1 

2 

22 

"i 

4 

"i 
l 

3 
2 

5 
5 
9 
3 

14 

9 

2 
2 
2 
7 
1 

33 
6 
4 
1 



128 269 616 



13 

5 

15 

11 

13 

6 

7 

6 

5 

7 

9 

9 

19 

5 

5 

o 



1 
10 
17 
16 

5 
11 
12 
15 

9 
98 

6 
21 
15 



13 

15 

2 

4 

10 

1 

12 
7 
5 
5 
4 
5 

16 
5 
7 
5 

16 
8 
2 
9 
8 



18 . 



e [a 



5 
3 

10 
1 

10 

i'i 

76 

1 
1 

12 

1 

2 
1 
1 
11 
1 
2 

*3 
1 



3 
2 
1 

10 

12 



5. 



s. 



I'I 

•a .2 
1 a 



61 



29 
24 
15 
18 
32 
31 
9 
21 
20 
34 
15 
25 
40 
26 
15 



25 



1 

27 
33 
14 
12 
26 
21 
48 
21 
59 
24 
61 
45 
19 
33 
21 
21 
55 

2 

26' 
20 

2 

7 
26 
29 

7 

27 
15 
19 
36 
16 
13 
16 
20 
29 

6 
25 
29 
28 
30 
15 



9 

22 
7 

16 
4 
1 

10 

10 
7 

15 
4 
3 

10 

16 
4 

ii 

10 
6 

1 

13 
9 

52 
5 

59 
10 
19 
38 
13 
8 

10 
48 
17 



25 
4 
2 

4 
10 
7 
7 
15 
6 
4 
1 
3 
9 
9 
9 



4 
4 

"i 

10 

15 
1 

13 
9 

12 
3 

37 
4 

21 

11 
8 
4 
5 
9 
9 
1 
1 
7 



Ci 



23 
23 
27 
20 
30 
31 
17 
28 
19 
43 
23 
26 
39 
43 
16 
11 

9 
22 
27 

1 
18 
48 

5 
10 
29 
22 
54 
24 

8 
17 
42 
36 
40 
38 
26 
42 
39 

7 

24 
34 

2 

13 
36 
33 

5 
27 
15 
15 
42 
29 
16 
17 
28 
42 

5 
15 
25 
29 
30 
15 



114 232 111 1,397 666 388 1,476 595 124 101 1S7 138 



■a •-: 

a i. 



H 



7 
13 

6 
10 
13 
11 

3 
10 



"S 



II 



5 

6 

11 

1 

4 

11 

36 
4 
7 
9 
3 
3 
2 
4 
5 



5 
a 
= 



3 
5 

7 

3 
3 

4 
2 

32 
2 
2 
2 
1 

2 
1 

2 

2 
3 



1 


1 


1 


2 


1 




1 


1 


4 


1 


2 


2 


2 


7 


2 


4 



109 



110 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



portant and extensive manufactories are those of iron and machinery, leather, articles of wood, 
and cotton and woolen goods. Such articles as relate to the professions and fine arts, to books, 
maps, and engravings, and to the heavy machinery used in ocean steamships, are principally manu- 
factured in Xew York City and its suburbs. Immense quantities of brick are manufactured on 
the Hudson for the Xew York and Southern markets. Lime, waterlime, and gypsum are largely 
manufactured on the Hudson and through the center of the State ; and iron ware is produced in 
large quantities in the iron districts of Essex, Clinton, Dutchess, Orange, and Oneida counties. De- 
tails of the principal manufacturing establishments are given in the statistics of the cities or towns 
in which they are located. 1 

1 Manufacturing Establishments in the several Counties, continued. 



Counties. 



Albany 

:iv 

Broome 

Cattaraugus 

_i 

Chautauqua 

Chemung 

Chenango 

Clinton 

Columbia. 

ind 

Delaware 

Dutchess.. 

Eri'- 



Franklin 

Fulton 

- -0 

Greene 

I!:miilt'.n 

Herkimer 

Jefferson 



Liringston 

U 

Hooroe 

-y 

V >rk 

Ni igara 

i 

V'l 











-ii 



i 

oond 

ni 

• 



•lady 

trie 

tar 

> 

B t eaben 

k 

Sullivan 



• .in.* 

Ulster 

n — 

ngt'.n 

Wajrne 

Jog 

Yates 



12 

2 
15 

1 

"e 

i 

6 
E 

1 
•-' 
1 



190 



3 1 

8 S 



10 



g 

S3 



43 

183 

159 

169 

79 

184 

99 

110 

110 

21 

68 

224 

12 

151 

73 

85 

90 

46 

62 

23 

94 

101 

2 

95 

35 

75 

55 

43 

13 

41 

238 

81 

54 

21 

33 

218 

142 

2 

1 

91 



7 

138 
80 
13 

118 
84 
15 

238 
11 

14.". 

140 

: 
95 
i.s 
49 
85 

77 

1 . 



«, 



«Q 



2!) 



15 

£6 

4 

"% 
2 

2 

1 
11 
5 
4 
5 
3 



12 
1 

2 

"i 

2 

2 

9 
17 



3 

22 

2 



8 « 
S3 § 



3 

4 
4 
3 
3 
7 
2 
5 
1 
2 
2 
2 
6 
7 
2 
3 

"3 

1 

"4 
4 

11 
1 
2 
4 

11 
2 

21 
3 
5 
6 
1 
4 
2 
3 
8 

"i 

"i 

i'2 

7 

"i 
3 
3 
4 
5 
1 

"2 

3 

":': 
1 
7 
3 

1 



< 



<ZX 



2 

83 

"4 
3 



Total - 161 100 L44 161 _ _ij 148 560 863 



14 

17 

"2 

8 

7 

8 

3 

126 

8 

28 

10 

14 

9 

2 

10 

17 

"4 
15 

"i 

12 
4 
9 
4 

6 
6 
9 



10 
17 
20 
15 
18 
25 
11 
17 
13 

8 
13 
24 

8 

134 

10 

6 
25 

9 

9 

3 
21 
25 

4 
15 

7 
22 
15 
15 
14 

4 
38 
19 

6 
12 
10 
38 
24 

2 

2 
13 

"a 

25 
9 
1 

17 

13 

5 

19 

4 

39 

12 

11 

30 

14 

13 

14 

9 

16 

5 



if 

e s 



11 

10 

7 

5 

12 

6 

5 

18 

13 

Q 

O 

5 
1 
5 
4 



19 

5 

4 

6 

10 

12 

7 

54 

5 

21 

17 

13 

9 

6 

10 

10 

2 

9 

13 

2 

1 

14 

6 

2 

5 



5 
3 
8 

2 
6 
2 
4 
11 
10 
8 
6 



480 



3 2 
11 

8 § 

=5 a 



13 
5 



4 
1 
36 
1 
6 
5 

"(5 

"2 



139 



& 



* 



5 
1 
7 

i 

2 

1 

12 

"i 

5 

1 

"i 

1 
2 



136 



■8 
S 

8 

.8 

S 5 
1^ 



3 

2 
4 
1 
6 
2 
4 
6 
9 
5 
2 


3 
5 

3 
3 

"3 
1 
6 
3 
3 

"2 

13 

6 

4 



184 



8 
8 
§ 



131 

315 
22 
25 
54 
40 
20 
30 
73 
49 
29 
8 
72 

164 
62 
34 
81 
38 
36 

80 
119 
221 
29 
34 
54 
158 
38 
1248 
30 
185 
121 
46 
51 
13 
48 
59 
7 
40 
76 
26 
24 
70 
53 
29 
28 
10 
34 
28 
77 
18 
16 
31 
40 
13 
36 
42 
94 
29 
17 



4,458 



TV Returns, of manufacturing establishments fr^m many coantteean quite unsatisfactory, as an examination of the table will 
show. Ii in to be hojMd that the III I  ill 1- more complete in this particular. 



COMMERCE. 

The position of New York in the confederacy of States gives it peculiar facilities for maritime 
affairs, and through its various ports a large proportion of the foreign and internal commerce of 
the nation is carried on. This commerce extends to every accessible port in the world, and in 
amount and variety excels that of all the other States of the Union. It is regulated by acts of 
Congress ; and the revenues arising from duties upon articles imported are collected by officers ap- 
pointed by the President and Senate, or subordinate to those thus appointed. These officers are 
accountable to the U. S. Treasury Department. 

Collection Districts. — The Federal Government has established 11 Collection Districts 
within this State for the collection of these revenues. Each of these has one port of entry, in charge 
of a collector, and several ports of delivery, at which one or more deputy collectors, inspectors, or 
other officers reside. 1 The number of officers employed in collecting these revenues in New York 
City and its dependencies is nearly 800. Duties on foreign importations form much the largest 
item of revenue for the support of the General Government, and those collected at the port of New 
York form the largest part of the whole amount. The absolute and relative amounts of moneys 
collected from this source in the United States and State of New York have been steadily increasing, 
except as influenced by pecuniary embarrassments ; and now the former amount to about $60,000,000 
annually. 2 



Collection Districts in New York. 



District. 



Sag Harbor 

New York City... 
Cuamplain 



Oswegatchie. ., 
Cape Vincent., 



Sackets Harbor.. 
, Oswego... 



Genesee . 
Niagara 

Buffalo Creek.. 
Dunkirk 



Date of 
Establishment. 



July 31, 
July 31, 
Mar. 2, 



Mar. 2, 
April 18, 

Mar. 3, 
Mar. 2, 
Mar. 3, 

Mar. 2, 

Mar. 3, 
July 27, 



1789 
1789 
1793 



1S11 
1818 

1803 
1799 
1805 
1799 

1805 
1854 



Principal 
Office. 



Sag Harbor... 
New York.... 

Plattsbur-h . 



Ogdensburgh. 
Cape Vincent.. 



Sackets Harbor. 

i tswego 

Rochester 

Lewiston 



Buffalo...., 

Dunkirk. 



Subordinate Offices. 



Greeuport. 

Albany, Troy, Cold Spring Harbor, Port Jefferson. 

Whitehall, Rouses Point, Chainplain, Perrysville, Mooers, Centerville, 

Chateaugay, Burke, Trout Kiver, Westville, Tort Covington, Hogans- 

burgh, Malone. 
Hammond, Morristown, Lisbon, Waddington, Louisville, Massena. 
Alexandria Bay, Millens Bay, Clayton, Chaumont, Three Mile Bay, Point 

Peninsula. 
Dexter, Henderson, Sandy Creek. 
Big Sodus, Little Sodus, Texas, Port Ontario. 
Carthage Landing, Kelsey Landing, Pultneyville, Charlotte. 
Niagara Falls, Niagara Bridge, Youngstown, Wilson, Eighteen Mile Creek. 

Oak Orchard. 
Black Rock, Black Rock Dam, Tonawanda. Schlosser. 
Barcelona, Irving, Cattaraugus Creek, Silver Creek. 



Albany was made a port of delivery in N. Y. Dist. July 31, 1789. 

Cape Vincent was made a port of delivery in Sackets Harbor 
Dist. Mar. 2, 1811. 

Hudson was made a port of delivery in N. Y. Dist. July 31, 
1789, and a district and port of entry Feb. 26, 1795. Annexed 
to N. Y. Dist. May 7, 1822. 

Catskill and Kinderhook were made ports of delivery from 
Feb. 26, 1795, to May 27, 1796. 

New Windsor. Newburgh. Pouglikeepsie, and Esopus were made 
ports of delivery July 31, 1789. 

Niaqara. — Office removed from Ft. Niagara to Lewiston 
Mar. 2, 1811. 

l The following table exhibits the receipts for customs for the 
ports of the U. S. and N. Y. for a series of years : — 

Receipts into United Slates Treasury. 


Years. 


Total from all 
sources. 


From Customs. 


United Stales. 


New York. 


1795 
1800 
1805 
1810 
1815 
1820 
1825 
1830 
1835 
1840 
1845 
1850 
1855 
1857 
1858 


$9,419,802.79 
12.451,184.14 
13,689,508.14 
12,144,206.53 
50,961,237.60 
20,8S1,493.08 
26,840,858.02 
24,844,116.51 
35,430,087.10 
25,032.193.59 
29,941.853.90 
47,649,388.88 
65,351.374.68 
68,969,212.57 
70,273,869.59 


$5,588,401.26 
9,080,932.73 
12,936,487.04 
8,583.309.31 
7 282 942.22 
15!005!612/15 
20.098,713.45 
21.922.391.39 
19.391,310.59 
13,499.502.17 
27,588.112.70 
39.66S.686.42 
53.025,794.21 
63.875,905.05 
41,789.620.96 


52,717,361 

3,611.588 

6,958,008 

5,223,696 

14,640,816 

5,500,516 

15,702,142 

15,031,003 

14,508,600 

7.557.441 

21,318,408 

24,487,010 

42,510,753.79 



The amount of revenue from duties varies with the amount 
of tariff, and the sum thus collected becomes a very uncertain 
measure of the amount of commerce. The present tariff was 
adopted March 3, 1857, and admits a large class of goods free of 
duty. The system of bonding, introduced in 1846, permits goods 
to be stored in Government warehouses until re-exported or sold, 
before the payment of duties is required. The State Govern- 
ment took early measures for establishing custom houses and 
regulating duties upon foreign importations. By an act of Nov. 
18, 1784, Sag Harbor and New York were made ports of entry 
and delivery, and officers were appointed by the Governor and 
Couucil of Appointment at each. The reluctance of New York 
to part with these revenues led to much delay in her ratifying 
the Constitution of the U.S., by which her revenues were sur- 
rendered to the General Government. 

Registered ami enrolled tonnage of the port of New York and f 
the United States at different periods. 



GO 


Registered 

Tonnage. 


Enrolled 
Tonnage. 


Total Tonnage. 




United 

States. 


New 
York. 


United 
States. 


New 
York. 


United 
States. 


Nnr 
York. 


1825 
1830 
1835 
1840 
1845 
1S50 
1855 
185S 


700,788 

576,475 

885,821 

899,765 

1.095.172 

1,585.711 

2,535,136 

2,577,769 


136,384 

92.301 
162,874 
184,542 
217,089 
3SS.43S 
737.509 
841.686 


800.213 
615.301 
939,119 
1,280,999 
1,321,830 
1.949.743 
2.676,865 
3.201.430 


144.210 
167,922 
196.4S3 
244,774 
288,187 
391,380 
o:is.li'.-J 
580,488 


1,423.112 
1,191,776 
1.824,940 
2,180,704 
2.417.002 
3,535,454 
5.212.001 
5.049.808 


280.594 
260i283 

359,357 
429.316 
505.276 
779,818 

1.275.071 
1.422.174 



111 



112 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Tlie Foreign Trade of Xew York from 1700, although fluctuating considerably, has 
exhibited a general progressive increase. The commerce of the country -was suspended during the 
Revolution ; and no statistics of its amount have been preserved during the period in which the 
States formed each an independent sovereignty under the Confederation. The amount of imports 
has been reported separately by States only since 1821. 1 

Amount of American as compared with Foreign Tonnage at 
different periods in Vie District of Xew York. 



Years. 


Tonnage Entered. 










U.S. 


Foreign. 


Total. 


1825 


259,5244. 


20,6554 


2S0.179} 


1830 


2S0,918 


33.7974 


314.715} 


1 v :, 


373.465 


90.999 


464.464 


1840 


409.458 


118.136 


527.594 


1845 


472.491} 


140>.>; 


613.350 


1850 


807,58OJ 


441.756 


1.249.337 


1854 


1.442.27 g| 


477,0344 


1.919.3134 


1S5S 


2.411,087 


1.124.020 


3,535,107 


Years. 




lONNAGE CLEAREI 


). 










C.S. 


Foreign. 


Total. 


1S25 


245,512 


17.914} 


263.430} 


1S30 


209.598J 


33,6S64 


273.285 


1835 


289.551* 


80,0384 


369.590 


1840 


275,8934 


117,204 


392.5974 


1846 


377.1634 


140.2224 


517,3854 


1850 


705.162 


407.054 


1.112.216 


1866 


1,0S2,799| 


445,305 


1.528.104} 


1 — 


2.152,835 


1.132.568 


3.285,403 



Amount of Registered, Enrolled, and Licensed Tonnage in the 
several Collection Districts, June 30, 1858. 



Districts. 



B ig Harbor , 

N> w York 

Champlain 

Oswegatchie , 

Cape Vincent 

Sackets Harbor. 

Oswego 

Genesee 

Niagara. 

Buffalo Creek 

Dnnkirk 



Registered. 



7,408.72 
841,6S5.35 



Enrolled 

and 
Licensed. 



7.057.94 

593.599.73 

'888.02 

11.866.60 
6.129.88 
1.321.22 

46.420.19 
3.704.31 
1.272.31 

73.478.80 
5,382.50 



Amount of Beaittered and Enrolled Tonnage of the United States 
and District of New York at different periods. 



Years. 



  ' 

1847.. 

1- - 



Registered. 



U. States. N. York 



717.170 

I 

J i • 

1,2412313 

 



 

1162395 

169,050 

Ifl | -li 
2 I,! U 



Enrolled and Li- 
censed. 



U. States. N. York 



B78.438 
752,460 
1,086,237 
1,117,035 
I i '7 73 I 
2,238,992 
2,650,742 



165.542 
102.419 
216,851 
217.112:: 
337.381 
445,674 
693,600 



Ntmberqfl ' ? Merchandise at   Tarkfor 

tit, ending June 30, 1856. 



1847 10,419 

l-i- : 

1848 

61,762 

71 



1862 68,967 

-.:.17>> 

1-:,1 93,282 

76,448 

89,377 



I /or ] -:,-. 





American 
VtStrli. 


Fnrrign 
i ":1s. 


Export* of American produce.... 

" ign " 

Crews " 


; 
12.1 

4.171 


124,002,631 
17,463 




l 510 


Crews " " 











1 Trade 


of New York from 


1700 to 1776 






Total Value. 


Years. 


Total Value. 


Years. 












Imports. 


Exports. 




Imports. 


Exports. 


1700 


$247,050 


$ 87,835 


1739 


$ 5S0.350 


$ 92,295 


1701 


159,550 


92,735 


1740 


593,885 


107.490 


1702 


149,955 


39,825 


1741 


602,150 


105,710 


1703 


87,810 


37,355 


1742 


837.955 


67,6S0 


1704 


111,470 


52,700 


1743 


672,435 


75,335 


1705 


139,510 


36,965 


1744 


599,600 


72,635 


1706 


157,940 


14,245 


1745 


274,785 


70.415 


1707 


149,275 


71,415 


1746 


433,560 


44,205 


1708 


134,495 


54,235 


1747 


689,940 


74,960 


1709 


172,885 


61,295 


1748 


716,555 


61,790 


1710 


157.375 


91,015 


1749 


1,328,865 


117,065 


1711 


144,280 


60,965 


1750 


1,335,650 


178,160 


1712 


92,620 


62,330 


1751 


1,244,705 


211.815 


1713 


232.350 


72,140 


1752 


970,150 


203.290 


1714 


223.215 


149,050 


1753 


1,389,320 


202,765 


1715 


273,195 


106.580 


1754 


637,485 


133,315 


1716 


260.865 


109,855 


1755 


755,355 


145,275 


1717 


220,700 


122,670 


1756 


1,252,125 


120,365 


1718 


314,830 


135,655 


1757 


1,766.555 


95,840 


1719 


281,785 


97,980 


1758 


1,782.775 


71,300 


1720 


181,985 


84,180 


1759 


3,153,925 


108,420 


1721 


253,770 


78,405 


1760 


2,400,530 


105,625 


1722 


287,390 


100,590 


1761 


1,447.850 


243,240 


1723 


265,065 


139,960 


1762 


1,440,230 


294,410 


1724 


315,100 


105,955 


1763 


1,192.800 


264.990 


1725 


353.250 


124,8S0 


1764 


2,577,080 


268,4S5 


1726 


424,330 


191,535 


1765 


1,911.745 


274,795 


1727 


337,260 


158,085 


1766 


1,854,145 


335,100 


1728 


408.170 


105,710 


1767 


2.089,785 


307,110 


1729 


323,800 


79,165 


1768 


2,414,650 


435,575 


1730 


321.780 


43,700 


1769 


374,590 


367,430 


1731 


330,580 


103,7 SO 


1770 


2,379,955 


349,410 


1732 


327.700 


47,055 


1771 


3,26S,105 


479,375 


1733 


327,085 


58,130 


1772 


1,719,850 


413,535 


1734 


408,790 


76,535 


1773 


1.446.070 


381,230 


1735 


402.025 


70,775 


1774 


2,189,685 


400,040 


1736 


430,000 


89,720 


1775 


6,140 


935,090 


1737 


629 165 


84165 


1776 




11,590 


1738 


667,190 


81,140 







Trade c 


f New Yorl 


 since the adoption r 


/ Federal Constitution. 


Years. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Years. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


1791 




$ 2.505.465 

2,535.790 

2,932,370 

5.442.183 

10,304,581 

12,208,027 

13,308,064 

14,800,892 

18,719,527 

14,046,079 

10,851,136 

13,792,276 

10,81 8,887 

16,081,281 

23,482,943 

21,762,845 

26,357,963 

6,606,058 

12,681,562 

17,242,330 

12.26fi.215 

8,961,922 

8.1*5.494 

209.670 

10,675,373 

19,6 81 

18.71 17.433 
17,872.201 
13,687,878 
13,163,244 
18,162,918 
17,100,482 
i:m.:;v"jh 
22,897.134 


1825 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1S29 
1830 
1831 
1832 
1833 
1S34 
1835 
1836 
1837 
is:;s 

181 19 

1-lu 

1-11 

1842 

1843* 

1-U 

1845 

l-l.i 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 

1851 

1852 

1853 

1854 

1855 

L866 

1857 
1888 


$49,639,174 

38,115,630 

38,719,644 

41,927,792 

34,743.307 

35.624,070 

57.n77.417 

58,214,402 

55,918.440 

73.1S8.594 

88,191.305 

118.253.416 

79,301.722 

68,453.200 

99,882.4118 

(1(1,44(1.750 

75,713.426 

57,875,604 

31,356,540 

65,079.516 

70,909,085 

74.251 288 

84,167,862 

94,625,141 

92.667,869 

111. 123, 524 

141,646,638 

132.329.300 

17s.27o.999 

195,427,988 

164,776,511 

210.1(10.454 

236,493,485 

178,475.736 


$35,259,261 
21,947,791 
23.834.137 
22,777.649 
20,119,011 
19.097.983 
25.535.144 
20.(1110.945 
26,395,117 
13.849,469 
::i).345.264 
28,920,688 

27.338.419 

23.iiii8.471 
3:1.2(1.8.099 
34.231.o80 

83,139 88 
27,676.778 

10. 7112.11(14 

32,861,540 

3U.1 75.298 

3,(1.935.413 

49.844,368 

53,351.167 

46,968,100 

52.712.789 

86,007,019 

87.484,456 

78,206,290 

122.534.040 

113.731.238 

119,111.500 

13I.M)3,298 

108,340,924 


1792 




1793 




1794 




1795 




1706 




17''7 




IT'.s 




1799 




l-i, ii 




lMll 




l-ii2 




1-u:; 




1804 




1 SI l.'l 




1 -i.i 




IMC 




IHis 




l-,,<i 








181 1 




1812 




1818 




1814 




1816 




1818 
1817 

IMS 

1819 
1820 

1-21 
1822 
1823 
1824 












$23,629,246 

146,628 

23,421,849 

:;'.n.:.7'j:; 



* From Oct. 1. 1842, to June 30, 1843. The fiscal year waa 
changed at this time, and now begins July 1. 



C M M E R C E. 



113 



Tho reports of commerce and navigation do not specify the amount imported and exported 
in each collection district. Tho relative amount of the port as compared with the State of 
New York has been as follows at different periods : — 



1840 
1845 
1848 
1855 
1858 



IM POUTS. 



rortofN.Y. State \of N.T. 



$56,845,924 

68,032,207 

89,815,068 

152,539,783 

171,473,336 



$60,440,750 

70,909,085 

94,525,141 

164,776,511 

178,475,736 



Exports. 



Port of N. Y. State of N. Y. 



$30,186,470 
34,190,184 
45,863,916 
62,918,442 

100,667,890 



Importation of Dry Goods. 



Entered for Con- 
sumption. 



$34,264,080 

36,175,298 

53,351,157 

113,731,238 

108,350,924 



Tirade of New York for the Three Years ending June 30, 1858. 



Imports. 



Ent. for consumption 
" warehousing 

Free goods 

Specie and bullion.... 



from 



Total 

Withdrawn 

warehouse 

Dry goods 

General merchandise. 



Exports. 



Domestic produce 

Foreign mdse. free ... 

" " dutiable 

Specie and bullion.... 



Total . 



1856. 



$150,088,112 

29,568.397 

17,432,112 

1,126,097 



$198,214,718 

21,934,130 

86,898,690 
112,316,028 



1856. 



$75,026,244 

1,268,914 

3,691,600 

22,280,991 



$102,267,749 



1857. 



$141,430,109 

62.275,673 

16,036,530 

6,441,855 



$226,184,167 

27,950,212 

92,699,088 

133,485,079 

1S57. 



$75,928,942 

2,396,903 

3,932,370 

44,348,468 



$126,606,683 



1858. 



$ 94,019,659 

44,463.806 

23,665,487 

9,324,384 



$171,473,336 

49.376,593 

67,317,736 

104,155,600 



1858. 



$55,031,987 

3,104,160 

7,309,672 

34,322,071 



$100,667,890 



Manufactures of wool. 

" cotton. 

" silk. 

" flax. 
Miscall, dry goods 



Total. 



Withdrawn from 
Warehouse. 



Manufactures of wool. 

" cotton. 

" silk. 

" flax. 
Miscell. dry goods 



Total. 



Entered for Ware- 
house. 



Manufactures of wool 
" cotton 

" silk. 

" flax 

Miscell. dry goods.... 



Total.. 



1856. 



$22,671,010 

13,225,284 

27,788,090 

7,760,145 

6,575,816 



$77,970,295 



1S56. 



$2,025,697 

1,888,578 

2,241,785 

1,131,408 

507,675 



$7,890,143 



1856. 



52,184,687 

2,006,493 

2,225,515 

861,657 

650,113 



$7,929,495 



1857. 



$20,261,320 
15,813,299 
25,192,465 

6,857.1:::: 
6,709,004 



$74,833,527 



1S57. 



$2,0211.179 
2,492,516 

2,004,190 
1,100,183 

6nl.(i3:> 



9,127,103 



1S57. 



$6,0S1,505 
3,780,715 
4,497,447 
2.228,708 
1,247,126 



$17,835,561 



1858. 



9,012,911 
17,581,099 

3,701.555 

8,761,788 



$51,092.3 5 



1858. 



8i,.:;. .'1.118 
4,018,693 
5.394.970 
2.215,427 
1,385,173 



$19,3-3,381 



185S. 



$5,028,533 
4.048,530 
3,667,521 
1,964,891 
1,515,876 



$16,225,351 



Commerce of New York with Foreign Countries for the 

ENTERED. 



year ending June 30, 1858. 

CLEARED. 



Foreign Countries. 



England 

Cuba 

France 

Bremen 

Hamburg 

British North America 

New Grenada 

British West Indies 

Porto Rico 

Scotland 

Brazil 

China 

Peru 

Belgium 

British East Indies 

Hayti 

Two Sicilies 

Spain 

Venezuela 

Holland 

Mexico 

Tuscany 

Philippine Islands 

Russia 

Buenos Byres 

Central Republic 

Dutch West Indies 

British Guiana 

Danish West Indies 

Africa (except Egypt and British 

Possessions) 

British Honduras 

Sardinia 

British Possessions, Africa 

Austria 

Portugal 

St. Domingo 

Sweden and Norway 

Turkey in Asia 

Egypt 

Uruguay 

Ireland , 

French West Indies 

British Australia 

Canary Islands 

Swedish West Indies 

Chili 

French North American Possessions 



American. 



390 

634 

131 

14 

8 

44 

80 

153 

162 

15 

101 

37 

24 

25 

29 

111 

37 

50 

58 

14 

3S 

17 

10 

10 

22 

14 

24 

17 

20 

19 
15 

2 

14 

2 

4 

14 

2 

5 



Tons. 



441,043 

227,453 

136,40S 

21,965 

5,122 

7.315 

48,990 

32.335 

35,590 

9,289 

29,997 

33,554 

28,910 

23.140 

23,912 

20.849 

13.258 

13,870 

13,956 

8,721 

14.522 

10,743 

9,416 

6,333 

7,436 

5,: 33 

5,133 

4,881 

4,226 

4,176 

3,829 
859 
2,833 
794 
1,590 
2,227 
1,073 
2,035 

'"l,767 

" 1,987 

1,557 

1,542 

1,293 

756 



Crews. 



11,313 

7,626 

4.542 

809 

125 

284 

2,704 

1,206 

1,338 

226 

1,064 

923 

696 

592 

646 

849 

412 

480 

511 

229 

441 

277 

242 

170 

237 

155 

193 

171 

152 

168 
141 
25 
110 
26 
44 
94 
31 
63 



63 



43 
45 
51 
54 

19 



Foreign. 



80 

40 

11 

86 

56 

279 

3 

118 

30 

24 

28 

6 

1 

3 

5 

8 

22 

26 

14 

11 

"i 

1 

5 
1 
4 
1 



Tons. 



130,016 

11,288 

3,926 

58,564 

52,797 

43,869 

819 

17,321 

5,715 

31,231 

7,811 

3,464 

503 

4.195 

2,867 

1,717 

6,016 

5,741 

2.935 

7,657 

"*1,315 

200 
2,235 
261 
740 
181 

""315 

167 

130 
2,383 

331 
2,065 
1,313 

560 
1,644 

335 
2,317 

350 
2,116 

' 250 



380 
1,005 



Crews. 



5,959 

445 

163 

1,993 

2,057 

1,746 

27 

748 

227 

1,469 

284 

109 

16 

193 

87 

70 

216 

231 

120 

214 



47 
8 
65 
10 
30 



13 

7 

6 

86 

14 

70 

49 
26 
56 
10 
80 
12 
64 



12 
68 



American. 



276 

442 

58 

15 

*99 
86 
142 
73 
43 
58 
19 
3 
21 
18 
53 
5 
70 
31 
11 
24 



5 
26 

7 
37 
23 
36 

13 

12 

3 

If, 

2 

13 

13 



Tons. 



333,165 

179.940 
74,938 
21,856 

"41,830 

54.765 

28.919 

14,492 

23,360 

15,585 

18,127 

9,449 

10,429 

14,041 

8,926 

1,347 

20,054 

6,810 

6,565 

8,932 

755 
3,188 
10,272 
2,301 
7,897 
6,180 
8,452 

3,022 
3,353 

982 
6,079 

821 
5.148 
1,619 



405 

4,694 

2,525 

4,629 

27,975 

257 

263 

11.224 

120 



Crews. 



8,732 

O.i '47 

2,784 

998 



1,139 

2,727 

1,091 

562 

629 

590 

528 

76 

459 

386 

392 

45 

655 

278 

165 

291 

24 
85 
333 
80 
314 
218 
326 

121 

119 

35 

204 
25 

154 
76 



13 

149 

72 

193 

717 

8 

12 

282 

6 



Foreign. 



116 
11 

9 

51 

42 

400 

3 
99 

9 
23 

4 

1 

3 

12 

5 

6 

24 



Tons. 



146.347 

6.040 

2.743 

39,759 

47,257 

80,215 

853 

15,549 

1,557 

31,492 

1,079 

369 

4,195 

6,406 
1,167 
2,077 
6,962 
413 
11,525 
1,06S 



1,715 
636 
425 
116 



Crews. 



247 



360 

987 

1.369 

1,137 

1,021 

467 



382 
3,868 

905 
4,762 
2,051 

346 
813 



0.435 

227 

122 

1,542 

1,878 

2,S06 

34 

744 

67 

1,250 

51 

14 

192 
198 

50 

77 
256 

19 
353 

49 



72 

23 

25 

9 



10 
32 
48 
44 
18 
17 



15 
138 

45 
133 

83 

12 
46 



114 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER, 



Statistics of American and Foreign Trade. 



.- & 


EXPORTS. 


Tonnage 


Cleared. 


Amrr 


Foreign 


A Hi' rican 


Fon ton 


- 


Produce. 


Pro 


Vi ssels. 


Vessels. 


1S21 


? :. v   ■"■ 


$ 5,264,313 


$ 158.174 


$ 10.720 


1825 


2 1.558 


14, 97.703 


255,87 8 


19.851 


1830 


13.61 v.7> 


6,079,705 


229.341 


30.574 


1835 


21,707,867 


8,1 37,397 


589,855 


343.078 


1840 


22,676,609 


n.. r ,--7.4;i 


618,202 


343.114 


1845 


25,929,901 


10,245,394 


926,280 


414,688 




41,602,800 


11,20 


1.411 S67 


737.539 


1865 


! • 


17,3] .: 


1,861,682 


1.140.197 


1868 


89,039.790 


19.301.134 


2.152.835 


1,132,568 



Value of Articles Imported for the yor ending June 30, 1858. 



Articles. 



Dutyfree. 
Articles from B. A., duty free. 
Produce U. S. brought back... 

Bullion. gold 

silver 

Coffee 



Coin, gold. 

•• silver 

Dye stuffs 

I 

Ground madder 

Guano 

Painting and statuary 

a and linen 

. and plants 

SilkJ. raw or reeled. 

Tin. blocks. 






PlgB. 



.; duty free 

I'ai/ing duty ad valorem. 

..." 

Cotton, piece goods, plain 

hosiery 

" thread, twist, and yarn... 
" manufactured, not speci- 
fied 

" bleached or dj'ed 

rs and flowers 

I or unbleached... 
manufactured, not speci- 
fied. 

CnrTants 

Raisin* 

nndranaod 

1. liters' 

plat.' 

v . : • 



imitation 

Goat's hair. Angora, and 



Hat* an 1 1 w 

Ibtn; 

rubber, m t manufiv tur- 1 



bar 

Cutlery 

! run 



•• nil r...vl 

•• rod 

•■ iheel 

-. cast, and G.rman.... 



Inn and ~t- i, otbef manofao- 
turn 

us 

Laces, ry 

ctt'in 

Uad 

dressed 

Leather, sole and upper 

r.th' r manuf i' tur- 

Liquorice paste 

Hoi '--'  

•1 instruments 

i 'pi n in 

Paper, writing. 

Printed DO -ii 



Values. 



Nem Tori:. 



$ 624,060 
1,024,992 

269.S33 

271,027 

6.730.168 

6.414.700 

8,096,651 

689,533 

559,635 

940.077 

477,087 

242.64-8 

389,519 

696,399 

276,030 

1,293,921 

463.1167 

327.207 

1.173.075 



XJ. States. 



ii 1.754.255 

1,244,692 

2.286.099 

408.879 

18,341,0S1 

6.777.295 

9.279,969 

7,299.540 

887,486 

3.243J74 

643.642 

525,376 

504,634 

971.126 

392,440 

1,300,065 

470,023 

594.258 

3.843,320 



Value of Articles Imported, continued. 



$33,072,680 $80,319,255 



521.774 

430,948 

1,625,833 

751,429 

399,425 

8,383,552 

549,894 

4,308,238 
511,276 

272,469 
762.568 
247.510 
870,336 
388,241 
454,344 
332,503 
332,097 

488,741 

21 
567.061 
467,379 

1,165,761 
281,963 

•: 

677 I B 

J 

546,590 

I I 
870,723 

! 

437.26S 

 

1,414,168 

23V402 



772,925 

741.077 

2,120,868 

1,080.671 

966.017 

12,391.713 

654.452 

5,598,571 

953,436 

342,869 

1,441,471 

321,935 

876,156 

397.:; L0 
626,744 
329.241 
385.945 

M.-.611 
1,1S2,837 

467,379 

r,..;is,913 

1,489,054 

382,610 

739,949 

2,087,676 

426^99 

046,073 

1.147.773 

725,338 

070,188 
2^98,709 

105.430 

1 ,072,243 
1,44 

1.2.V.7 II 

177,005 

4.11'' : ' 

- 

- 
456J450 



Articles. 



Baw hides and skins 

Salt 

S>ilk, hosier} - 

piece goods 

" and worsted piece goods 

" raw 

" manufactured, not specified. 

Soda, ash 

" carb 

Spices, cassia 

" nutmegs 

" black pepper 

Spirits, brandy 

; ' from grain 

Sugars, brown 

Tea and coffee from places not 

free by treaty 

Tin plates 

Tobacco, cigars 

" unmanufactured 

Porcelain, earthen, and stone 

ware 

■\Yiue, sherry and St. Lucien 

" white, not enumerated 

" champagne 

Wool, blankets 

" carpeting 

<! hosiery 

" piece goods 

" worsted 

" shawls 

" manufact'd, not specified .. 
Vnenumerated articles. 

At 4 per cent 

At 15 per cent 

At 24 per cent 



Values. 



New York. U. States. 



Total ad valorem.. 



Total imports $170,280,887 



5,629,029 

282.644 

341.528 

15,304.255 

1,183,788 
240.501 

2.032,614 
515,700 
267,097 
323.041 
235,168 
269,486 

1,410,426 

706,945 

13,514,09S 

442910 
3,042,152 

2,040,898 
1,078,666 

1,755,011 

286,954 

237,710 

679,421 

976,018 

1,195,004 

1,378,660 

6.719.713 

9,192,641 

1,742,396 

494,915 

908,789 

1,046,668 

836,423 



$137,208,207 



9.884.358 

1,124.920 

417,168 

16.121.395 

1.249,385 

242,130 

3.207,043 

1.211.305 

373,599 

356.614 

378,257 

631,723 

2,232,452 

1.158,517 

23,317,435 

484,520 
3,842,968 
4,123,208 
1,255,831 

3,215.236 

343,100 

285,125 

860,942 

1.574,716 

1,542.600 

1,S37,561 

7,626,830 

10,7S0,379 

2,002,653 

663,373 

1,367,425 
2,314.065 

1,465,074 



$202,293,875 



$282,613,150 



Value of U. S. products exported during tlie year ending June 
30, 1858. 



Articles. 



Ashes, pot and pearl 

Beef. 

Boards, planks, and scantling 

Butter 

Carriages and rail road cars, &c ... 

Cheese 

Cloverseed 

Copper and bra.*s manufactures 

Cotton 

Drugs and medicines 

Gold and silver coin 

" " " bullion 

Hams and bacon 

Hides 

Household furniture 

Indian corn 

Indian meal 

Iron castings 

" manufactures 

Lard 

Le ither 

Manufactured tobacco 

" cotton (white) 

" " other 

" wood 

nil. spermaceti 

•■ whale 

Whalebone 

Pork 

EUce 

Bosin and turpentine 

Skins and fun 

Spirits from grain 

" molasses 

" of turpentine 

Staves and heading 

(brown) 

Tallow 

Tobacco i leaf) 

Wheal 

 Hour 



Total of exports $83,403.564 $203,758,279 



Values. 



iv. r. 



$ 527.867 

1,312,957 

751,334 

236,928 

526. k ::i 

561.451 

232.764 

1,705,426 

8,368.500 

452.929 

14,917,585 
12,456,256 

1,485,958 
393.1 5S 
331,281 

1,331,570 
234,945 
814,986 

1.922.734 

1.172.950 
303,579 

1.11 : 8,428 
473,838 

1,358,779 
413,806 

1,046.453 
412.999 

1.105,223 

]. 169.707 
664.969 

1.219.553 
SLi2.9S0 

243,118 
387,084 
9 (4,242 

231,879 

258,226 

1,482,070 

5. 151. I'M 
7,017,790 



U.S. 



$ 554.744 

2.0S1.856 

3,428.530 

541.S63 

777i921 

731,910 

332.250 

1,985.223 

131,386,661 

681.278 

19,474^40 

22.933,206 

1,957,423 

xta.7:.:; 

932.499 

8,269,039 

877,692 

464.415 

4,059.528 

3,809.601 

606.589 

2,400,115 

1,598.136 

1,800,285 

2,234.678 

1,097,503 

'597.107 

1,105,223 

2,852.942 

1.S70.578 

1.164.210 

1,002.378 

470,722 

1.267,691 

1,089,282 

1,975.852 

375.062 

824.970 

17,009.767 

9,061.504 

19,328,884 



COMMERCE. 



116 



Tonnage. — The size of registered American vessels engaged in foreign trade has been steadily 
increasing, and has more than doubled within twenty years. Steam vessels were first enrolled in 
1823 and first registered in 1830. They now form 12 to 15 per cent, of the total amount of tonnage. 1 

Steamboats applying for registry, enrolment, or license must bo inspected under the direc- 
tion of a Board of Supervising Inspectors. The United States is divided into 9 Supervising Dis- 
tricts, the 2d of which includes the seaboard and the 9th the lakes of New York. Steamboats are 
required to be well guarded against fire, to have suitable pumps worked by hand and by steam, 
at least two boats, and large steamers more, in proportion to their tonnage, (except upon rivers,) one 
life preserver to every passenger, and a certain number of floats, and fire buckets and axes. Their 
boilers, engines, and hull must be examined and approved by inspectors appointed by the Col- 
lector, the Supervising Inspector for the district, and the Judge of the U. S. District Court ; and 
every requirement of the law must be found complied with. Pilots and engineers on steamers 
must be examined and licensed by the Inspectors. The present steamboat law was passed Aug. 
30, 1852. 2 

The Coasting Trade of the United States is entirely restricted to American vessels, and 
the share belonging to New York is very great ; but from the want of official returns it cannot be 
definitely ascertained. Unless carrying distilled spirits or foreign goods, these vessels are not re- 
quired to report their entrance and clearance ; and, as they oftener leave than arrive with these 
articles, the number of clearances reported is disproportionately high. 3 



1 Average tonnage of vessels at different periods arriving at New 
York. 



Yes. 


American. 


Foreign. 


Yrs. 


American. 


Foreign. 


1835 

1840 

1845 


245 
280 
319 


193 
253 

267 


1850 
1855 
1858 


ill 
527 
530 


338 
223 
452 



Vessels built in Neio York for 1858. 



Districts. 



Sag Harbor 

New York 

Oswegatchie 

Cape Vincent 

Oswego 

Niagara 

Buffalo Creek.... 
Dunkirk 





Class 






%• 












■8 




8 


"53 £ 

s a 
a © 


go 


g 
8 ^ 


,gl & 


.§> 


© 


&2 
© s 


s 




^3,© 


K| 


41 
2 


3S 


35 


K g 


2 




4 


7 


2 


22 


84 
1 


26 
3 


141 
1 
3 






6 


2 


2 


10 






3 






3 




i 


10 


4 


14 


39 






1 


1 




2 



Tonnage. 



536.58 

6,093.75 

26.74 

468.78 
1,990.79 

601.05 
7,215.77 

252.26 



Amount of registered 



and enrolled steam tonnage of XT. S. at 
different periods. 



Years. 


Registered. 


Enrolled. 


Total. 


1S25 
1830 
1835 
1840 

1845 

1850 
1855 
1858 




23.061 
63,053 
122.474 
319.527 
481.005 
655.240 
651,363 


23,061 


1,419 

340 

4.155 

6,492 

44,942 

115.045 

78,027 


64.472 
122.814 
202.339 
525,947 
770,947 
970,890 



Vessels built in the XT. S. at different per iods. 



to 

3 


Classes of Vessels. 


-©■ to 




1 s 

K S 
.ft, CM 




© 


8 J 

is 


Jo 

8 


Tonnage. 




SjJ 


05 


§ 


S53 


3a 


1,315 




1815 


136 


226 


681 


274 




154,624.39 


1820 


21 


60 


301 


152 




524 


47,784.01 


1825 


56 


197 


538 


168 


35 


994 


114,997.25 


1830 


25 


56 


403 


116 


37 


637 


5S.094.24 


1835 


25 


50 


301 


100 


30 


507 


46,238.52 


1840 


97 


109 


378 


224 


64 


872 


118,309.23 


1845 


124 


87 


322 


342 


163 


1.038 


146.018.02 


1850 


247 


117 


547 


290 


159 


1.860 


272.218.54 


1855 


381 


126 


605 


609 


253 


2,03 1 


583,450.04 


1858 


122 


46 


431 


400 


226 


1,225 


242,286.69 



2 Statistics of Steamers for 1858. 



No. of steamers in- 
spected and ap- 
proved 

Tonnage of steamers 
inspected 

Pilots originally li- 
censed within the 
year 

Pilots whose licenses 
were renewed 

Engineers and assist- 
ants originally li- 
censed within the 
year 

Engineers and assist- 
ants whose licenses 
were renewed 

Lives lost from acci- 
dents during the 
year 



Second 
Dist. 
N.Y. 


Ninth District. 


Total. 

U.S. 




s 

o 


i 


124 


47 


8 


8 


839 


79,065 


3S,314 


5,465 


3,565 


325,262 


21 


40 






364 


104 


87 


21 


13 


1,540 


90 


35 






435 


302 


87 


18 


13 


1,809 


2 


26 




5 


126 



8 Statistics of the Coasting Trade of the Port of New York. 



Years. 


En 




Vessels. 


1849 


1,855 


1S50 


1,928 


1S51 


1,768 


1852 


1,766 


1S53 


1,733 


1854 


1,880 


1855 


1.966 


1856 


1,609 



Tons. 



424,976 

4S'.i.:;'.i.-,| 

455,542 

497.840 

507.531 

543,452 

614,045 

539,401 



Cleared. 



Vessels. 



3.994 
4.719 

4.803 
4.680 
4,789 
4,779 
4,563 
4,696 



Tons. 



S95.5S9 
1,020,070 
1,214,942 
1,173,762 
1,310,697 
1,499,969 
1,378,888 
1,482,310 



Tonnage of Vessels engaged in the Coasting Trade, June 30, 1S5S- 
District. Tonnage. 

Sag Harbor 7,057.94 

New York 580,487.32 

Cham plain S.ss.o2 

Oswegatchie 11,866.60 



Cape Vincent.. 
Sackets Harbor.. 

Oswego 

Genesee 

Niagara 

Buffalo Creek 

Dunkirk 



1.312.16 
1,321.22 

46,420.19 
3,704.31 
1,272.31 

73.478.80 
5,383.50 



Total in N. Y 733,192.62 

Total in U. S 2,361,595.72 



116 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



The affairs of commerce relating to police, sanitary, and municipal regulations are governed by 
the laws of the State, and their care is intrusted to officers appointed under its authority. These 
officers are divided into several classes, each of which has charge of a particular department. 

1. The Board of Commissioners of Pilots consists of 5 persons, — 3 elected for 2 
years by the Chamber of Commerce, and 2 for a like term by the presidents and vice-presidents 
of the marine insurance companies of N. Y., composing or representing the Board of Underwriters 
in that city. This Board appoints a secretary, has an office, meets once a month or oftener, and 
licenses, for such term as it may think proper, as many pilots as may be deemed necessary for the 
port of New York. 1 

2. The Board of Health of New York is composed of the Mayor and Common 
Council of the city. 2 

3. The Commissioners of Health are composed of the President of the Board of 
Aldermen, the Health Officer, the Resident Physician, the Health Commissioner, and the City 
Inspector. 

4. The Health Officer, appointed by the Governor and Senate, is required to board every 
vessel subject to quarantine or visitation, upon its arrival, to ascertain whether infectious diseases 
are present, and to obtain, in such case, the facts necessary to determine the period that such 
vessel must be detained. 3 

5. The Resident Physician for the city and county of New York is appointed by the 
Governor and Senate. He is required to visit all sick persons reported to the Board of Health, 
or to the Mayor and Commissioners of Health, and to perform such other professional duties as 
the Board may require. 

6. The Health Commissioner, appointed in like manner, is required to assist the 
Resident Physician. 4 

7. The Quarantine Hospital is located in the town of Castleton, in Richmond co. ; and 
Is detained on account of infectious diseases are anchored in the adjacent waters, or, in 

sickly seasons, in the lower bay. 5 

8. Harbor blasters are appointed by the Governor and Senate, for the purpose of assign- 
ing piers and other stations for landing and receiving cargoes. 6 

9. The Port Wardens of the Port of JVew York, are appointed by the Governor 
and Senate, for the purpose of inspecting vessels and the stowage of cargoes and of estimating all 

They consist of a Board of 9 members, one of whom must reside in Brook- 



damages to the same. 

'id Tmnage of the V. S. engaged in the Coasting Trade for 
different periods. 



Teart. 


Tonnage. 


]"• vrt. 


Tonnage. 


Tears. 


Tonnage. 


1- .. 


 
516.978.18 


1885 
1846 


792.30L20 
1,176,69446 

1,190,898.27 


1850 
L85fi 

1858 


1.730,410.84 
2,401,108.00 

2.:;'il..v.'5.72 



In • if small vessels under 20 tons 

ng trade, 189.21 tons at ?:>■,' II:irl>or and 

Tl 2 rt. 

1 T! thtu granted may express different degrees of 

I > different uranchesof duty, and may 

t- r rokedat] i lata must sustain a satisfactory 

rumination and bo found of good charactei and temperate 

Ive bonds for the faithful discharge of 

rd Ii.im power to regulate pilotage; and the 

iw. The masters oi ressels of under 

i by a citizen of the I'..-, and licensed In the 

mploy a pilot unless they prefer. If 

r of a Teasel of from 15u t . ..•■ t ns. owned und 

pfj iting nil 'd, he 

M.iin a license from the Commissioners of Pilots for men 

purpose. All : I foreign vessels and ressels dram a 

rt, and all onder register by way of 

Dudy Book, an required -. .r. II tl 

•ley must pay the i the pil t ti r-t offering his 

serri I do pi Ivfleges in 

this. i Hots most 

have served an ir*. and until they attain 

irs must have sen deputy 

dned repcat<il exam;: ire the Board of 

ns In the presence of »t least 2 (Jellgate i il^ts. 
Tie- first act regulating I . rk was passed 

in 17H1 ; and since that peri"d this service has b en COnd 
■in. I r roles anl p n iltiea establish''! by the Colony or Mate of 
York. All special laws . 

mdy Hook w.-re repealed in 1846. lie- present law was 
oiiict<xl in 1853 and amended in 1864-67. The pilot! 1 'lunging 



upon steamboats are licensed by inspectors appointed under the 
Treasury Department of the U. S. Those employed in conduct- 
ing vessels by way of Sandy Hook are licensed by the Board of 
Commissioners of Pilots; and those by way of Hellgate, by the 
Governor and Senate, upon recommendation of the Board of 
Wardens. 

2 Boards of Health are by law created in every city, incor- 
porated village, and town, nnder an act of 1850; but the greater 
nnmber of these have never acted officially. In towns the 
Supervisor and Justices of the Peace are a Board of Health, and 
may appoint a physician as health officer. — Ecviscd Statutes, 5th 
Edition, II, p. 63. 

3 The Health ( ifficer resides at quarantine, has general direc- 
tion of tie- location of ve-si Is ih -tai ned, their purification, and 
the ilisehaige of their cargoes, and other duties connected with 
the health of vessels in quarantine. He is paid by fees, and re- 

to the Mayor ,,r Commissioners of Health. 

♦This officer receives all moneys applied to tho Marine Hos- 
I it .ii. and pays all demands against the same that shall have 
been approved by a majority of the Commissioners of Health, 
lb- reports his accounts monthly to the Board of Health, gives a 
bond of $20,000 for the faithful discharge of his duties, and re- 
lary of $3,500, to be paid by the Commissioners of 
Kmigratioii. The Hoard of Health may from time to time ap- 
point as many visiting, hospital, and consulting physicians as 
may I"- deemed proper, and may also fix their duties and com- 
'ion. 

<• Tie- Hospital buildings, destroyed Sept. 1-2, 1858, (see page 
have been temporarily rebuilt. 

The removal of quarantine to some place less dangerous to 
the public health has been fully shown to be necessary ; but the 
final disposition of the important question as to whither, is not 
settled. The only available place for the construction of build- 
ing! seem to be upon some of the shoals in the lower bay. Old 
Orchard Shoal, on which the water is from 1 to 3 fathoms deep 
at mean l"« ti.],-. has been proposed for this purpose The East 
Bank and Pry Potior Shoals have about tho same depth, but 
are more exposed to the open sea. 

• There are '.) Harbor Masters in New York. 2 in Brooklyn, 

and 1 in Albnny. They enforco the regulations of the city 

authorities relative to clearing docks and preventing nuisances 

or obstructions. They arc paid by fees and report the amount 

| thereof annually to the Governor. 



COMMERCE. 



117 



lyn, and 3 must be nautical men. They choose one of their number President, appoint a Secretary, 
use a seal, and keep an office. Tbey are exclusive surveyors of vessels damaged or wre<-k<-d, or 
arriving in distress, and, when called upon, judge of the fitness of vessels to depart upon voyages. 
They are also, upon application, required to estimate the value or measurement of vessels v\li r, 
the same is in dispute or libeled; and they may examine goods in warehouses that have bi'en 
damaged on shipboard. The Board, or some member thereof, must attend all sales of vessels or 
their cargoes condemned and in a damaged state ; and such sales by auction must be made under 
the direction and by order of the Wardens, and are exempt from auction duties. 1 

The Commissioners of Health are authorized to collect of the masters of every vessel entering 
the port of New York a certain tax, for the benefit of the Health Office. 2 

The Board of Commissioners of" Emigration, consisting of the Mayors of New 
York and Brooklyn, the Presidents of the German Society and Irish Emigrant Society, and G Com- 
missioners appointed by the Governor and Senate, have charge of the interests of immigrants 
when they first arrive at New York. 3 

The Marine Court of the City of IVew York, has jurisdiction in civil cases arising 
between persons engaged in maritime affairs, where the sum in dispute does not exceed $500.* 

Canadian Trade. — The revenues collected on the Canada frontier, in some periods, have 
fallen short of the cost of collecting them. The Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 admits the greater part 
of articles the produce of the U. S. and B. A. into each country respectively free of duty. 5 



1 The Wardens are paid by fees and percentages upon sales. 
Special Wardens are appointed to reside at quarantine. They 
report to the Board of Wardens of N. Y., and have jurisdiction 
as wardens over vessels detained in quarantine. The Board 
of Port Wardens reports annually to the Comptroller a state- 
ment of its receipts and expenses, with an affidavit of each 
member and of the Secretary that they have not received 
directly or indirectly any moneys except their legal fees. 

2 Under an act passed in March, 1801, the amount of this tax 
was fixed at $1.50 for every cabin and 75 cts. for every steerage 
passenger, mate, and mariner. In 1813 the tax was fixed at 
$1.50 for every captain and cabin passenger; $1.00 for every 
steerage passenger and mariner of foreign vessels ; and 25 cts. 
for master, mate, and sailor of every coasting vessel. The 
moneys thus paid, after supporting the Marine Hospital at Quar- 
antine and contingencies and yielding $8,000 annually to the 
Society for the Reform of Juvenile Delinquents, was invested by 
the Comptroller as the "Marine Fund." In 1831 the Board of 
Trustees of the Seamen's Fund and Retreat was created, under 
whose direction the present establishment known as the ''Sea- 
men's Retreat," on Staten Island, more particularly described 
on page 566, has since been managed. Of the 44,932 admitted 
up to Jan. 1, 1859, 80 per cent, were discharged cured, 8| per 
cent, were relieved, 3 per cent, were discharged by request, and 
4f per cent. died. 

8 The master of every vessel bringing passengers from foreign 
countries must give a bond of $300, conditioned that such per- 
sons shall not become chargeable for support within 5 years. 
They may commute this bond by paying $2 upon each passenger, 
of which sum 4- is set apart for the counties other than N.Y. 
toward the support of emigrants in the several counties. For 
every lunatic, idiot, deaf and dumb, blind, maimed, or infirm 
person, and every widow with children, or person over 60 years 
of age, and liable to become a public charge, a bond of $500 is 
required. 

The Commissioners of Emigration have a large establish- 
ment on Wards Island for the support of the sick, infirm, 
and destitute, and have leased Castle Garden as a general land- 
ing place. Emigrants may here purchase tickets for any part 
of the Union, and procure such articles as they may stand in 
need of, without encountering the horde of faithless agents and 
mercenary runners that formerly proved the scourge of immigra- 
tion and the disgrace of the city. The Marine Hospital at 



Quarantine was placed under these Commissioners in 1847. See 
pages 116, 427, 565. 

4 These actions may be for compensation for the performance, 
or damages for the violation, of a contract for services on board 
a vessel during a voyage performed in whole or in part, or in- 
tended to be performed, by the vessel ; or for assault and battery, 
false imprisonment, or other injury committed on board a ves- 
sel upon the high seas, and not coming within the jurisdiction 
of the U. S. District Courts. The Marine Court is held daily, 
except on Sundays and holidays; and its Justices, three in num- 
ber, are elected for a term of 4 years, and enter upon their 
duties on the second Tuesday of May after their election. Their 
Clerk is appointed by the Supervisors, and their salary is fixed 
by the Common Council and cannot be increased during their 
term of office. 

The State Government, before the adoption of the Federal 
Constitution, had instituted a court of Admiralty: but in 1789 
it surrendered these powers to the General Government, and 
they have since been exercised by the District Court of the I 6 
Suits for salvage, and other questions arising in the sale of 
wrecked property, are decided in this court. 

The Governor appoints 15 Wreck Masters in Suffolk, 12 in 
Queens. 3 in Kings, 2 in Richmond, and 2 in Westchester cos. 
These officers have, with coroners and sheriffs, the enstody of 
wrecks and property cast ashore by the sea. Such property 
belongs to the owners, and may be recovered by paying reason- 
able salvage and in due course of law. 

& Imports from Canada duty free for the year ending June 30, 
1858. 

District. Value. 

Champlain $1,499,819 

Oswegatchie 934.708 

Cape Vincent 1.210.351 

Sackets Harbor 2,892 

Oswego 1,859.798 

Genesee 263.574 

Niagara 786,070 

Buffalo Creek 1.336,820 

New York 624,060 

Total in New York 7,918,092 

Total in United States 14,752,255 



Statistics of the several Collection Districts upon the Canada Frontier for different periods. 



Collection District. 



Champlain 

Oswegatchie 

Cape Vincent.... 
Sackets Harbor, 

Oswego 

Genesee 

Niagara 

Buffalo 



1830 to 1848 


, (19 years.) 


1848 to 1S51, (3 years.) 


1851 to 1854, (3 years.) 


Gross 


Expenses of 


Gross 


Expenses of 


Gross 


Expi uses of 


Revenue. 


Collection. 


Revenue. 


Collection. 


Revenue. 


CiUrrtmn. 


$192,877.80 


$130,938.86 


$133,326.68 


$22,965.22 


$297,601.76 


$32,267.44 


63,201.74 


116.874.47 


42,842.41 


16.002.22 


98,754.11 


21.HH.SO 


21.649.98 


78,437.26 


22,410.78 


14.222.58 


84,577.74 


22,935.62 


13.983.04 


106.492.84 


16.603 54 


27,000.95 


21.204.23 


22.164.23 


206,759.84 


157,519.67 


273.173.92 


38.210.43 


389,711.03 


48,211.98 


133,019.97 


80,954.47 


45.324.06 


13.368.47 


29.430.52 


■JI.M'.iU'S 


53.527.07 


117.943.82 


44,076.44 


21.277.69 


74,641.59 


25,618.04 


150.437.60 


197,653.80 


14S.740.03 


49.601.19 


263,222.58 


4:i,473.89 



118 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER, 



As the only avenue to the sea which Canada possesses is closed by ice during about five months 
in the year, the foreign trade of that country in winter must seek other avenues ; and, from the 
acknowledged superiority of Xew York as a commercial point, a large part of the trade is through 
that port. Over half the vessels that arrive in Quebec come in ballast ; while none leave port 
without cargoes of timber or other commodities of the country. This renders the outward freights 
disproportionately high ; and, although vessels may load in the upper lakes and pass without tran- 
shipment down the St. Lawrence, the difference of ocean freights makes it cheaper to send by the 
canals to New York. 

The number of vessels and amount of tonnage employed upon the great lakes have been 
rapidly increasing for the last 10 years. In the several collection districts of this State, the 
ratio of increase has been much greater in ports where railroads terminate. 1 



1 Arrivals and Tonnage of the several Districts bordering upon Canada during a series of 

nine years. 



District. 



Champlain 

ie 

Cape Vincent 

Sackets Ilarbor.. 
Oswego 

-e 

^.i 

Bnfialo Creek.... 
Dunkirk 





L850. 


1S51. 


1852. 


1S53. 


1 


a£ 




...: 




6? 




&9 




69 




I 


OQ 




&9 

£ 

340 


1 


69 


69 

i 


69 

1 


689 


107.957 


630 


S9.842 


22,538 


563 


31,836 


585 


380 


196.H1. 5 


536 


250.492 


798 


341.188 


1.001 


701,560 


482 


281 


156,351 


318 


208.186 


197 


95,548 


959 


451,587 


1,034 


279 


153.169 


230 


166.748 


218 


145,169 


139 


87,758 


77 


1,657 


195.793 


1,599 


216,444 


1,731 


234.625 


2.243 


274.307 


593 


215 


40.077 


232 


46,924 


264 


38.903 


295 


53.660 


285 


981 


173,286 


624 


220,528 


691 


213.613 


696 


219.241 


584 


722 


108,337 


654 


96.290 


759 


106,464 


1,037 


149,356 


792 



1854. 



57,721 

273.272 

471,577 

54,670 

65,213 

51.571 

236,051 

137.0S8 



District. 



Champlain 

Oswegatchie 

Cape Vin'-'-nt.... 
Sackets Harbor 

_'o 

Genesee 

Niagara. 

Buffalo Creek... 
Dunkirk 



1S55. 



■§ 



397 
500 

1.278 
'209 

1.517 

OM-, 

536 

816 

2 



I 



25,129 
249,909 
557,840 
125.496 
166,641 

85.063 

209,646 

152,540 

476 



] v,.;. 



852 
636 

1,240 
193 

1,866 
338 
563 

1,002 



54.367 
320.834 
749,787 
135,442 
314.657 
109,881 
166.893 
166,020 



1S57. 



JS 



1,053 
644 

1,128 
174 

1.815 

363 

671 

837 

3 






74.710 
320,505 
661,025 
128,685 
263.007 
116,411 
23-.019 
118,377 
300 



1S58. 



,3 



1,100 
398 

1,018 
110 

1,543 
208 
616 

1,153 
6 



78.256 
170.667 
555.408 

80417 
193.691 

57.330 

254,195 

448,786 

1.180 



Commerce of Canada with the United Sales since 1850, as shown 
by the Canadian Official Reports. 





Value of Exports from 


Value of Imports into 




Canada. 


Canada. 


In 1 


14,051,1m 


$0,594,860.49 


« If 


4^071,644.66 


8.365.705.25 


" 1- . 


 i. IZi 75 


8,467,603.27 


« 1- 


10,725,465.15 


11,782,147.40 


" 1 


10,4 


16,638,007.04 


« 1- 




20,825,432.44 


" 1866 


20,21 - 


22,704,509.05 


" 1 


13.206,436.10 


20,224,650.97 



Commerce of United States with Canada for a series of years, as 
shown by the U. S. Official Reports. 


Years. 


Exports. 


Imports. 


Foreign. 


Domestic. 


Total. 


1852 
1853 

1- i 
1865 

1858 


$3,853,919 
6,736,555 
0,1 B2.716 

1 1 .'."19.378 
6,81 1,652 
4,82 
4,012,708 


$6,655,097 
7,404,087 
15,204,144 
16,806,642 
22,714 607 
10,036,113 
10,688,050 


$10,509,016 
13,146,642 

24.506,860 
27.KOii.o20 
20,020,340 
24,262.482 

23,651,727 


$6,110,299 
7.550.7 1 8 
8,027,560 
15.136.734 
21.310,421 
22,124,296 
15,806.519 



Arrivals ami Clearances for the several Collection Districts for 1858. 




District. 


mmi:i::: OS \ ESSELS. 


TONNAGE. 


i i urn. 


CLEARED. 


Entered. 


Cleared. 


s 


f 


1 
g 

6i3 

106 
382 

1"! 

721 

2 




S 


.5> 

1 


k 
S 

1 


1 




623 
188 

110 
410 

81 

128 

680 

1 


177 
248 
679 

1,188 

177 

!-- 

473 
5 


477 
248 

579 

1,128 
176 

450 
3 


44.590 

110,640 

.172 

117 

60.3' .7 

3,207 

101,817 

80 


33.666 
51.018 

Iok.436 


44.590 

l: il. 727 

854,043 

75.191 

& 1.999 

8,602 

77.440 

375.43J 

117 


33.666 

51.018 

198,436 

132.055 
52,826 

152.318 

77.449 

1.000 










138,824 

64,128 

162,378 

70.353 
1.100 









The above indicates but a part of tb" commerce of these di»- I 
tricts. It is probable that the amount of coasting trade which is | 



not entered npon the custom house books is much larger in 
each district than that here given. 



COMMERCE. 



119 



The canals and rail roads of Canada terminating upon our frontiers are intimately connected 
with the commercial prosperity of this State ; and a notice of their extent and capacity is necessary 
to a fulj understanding of our commercial possibilities. 1 

Custom Houses have been erected by the General Government at New York, Plattsburgh, 
Oswego, and Buffalo; and a site has been purchased at Ogdensburgh. These edifices are built of 
stun i', fireproof, and are generally fine specimens of architecture. Efforts have been made to 
secure the erection of similar buildings at Rochester, Sackets Harbor, Albany, Brooklyn, and 
Sag Harbor, but so far without success. 2 



1. The WeUand Canal extends from Port Colborne, on Lake 
Erie, to Port Dalhousie, on Lake Ontario. It has a feeder branch 
to Dunne villa, on Grand River, and another from the feeder to 

Port Maitland. It passes sloops, schooners, and propellers of a 
capacity of 400 tons. In 1856 its tolls amounted to $261,568.13; 
in 1857 to $2:12,437.38; and in 1S58 to $207,771.52. 

Tlie Rideau Canal was built as a military work by the Home 
Government and transferred some years since to the Province. 
It extends from Kingston to Ottawa, most of the way along the 
channel of rivers. Its total length is 126 miles. It rises from 
Kingston to the summit 165 feet by 13 locks, and descends to 
the Ottawa 292 feet by 34 locks. Its total cost was §3,860,000. 
The Galoppe, Point Iroquois, Rapid Plat, Farrans Point, Corn- 
wall, Be.auharnois, and Lachine Canals extend around the rapids 
on the St. Lawrence. Steamers usually pass down the rapids, but 
must return by the canals and pay toll both ways. Sail vessels 



pass both up and down by canal. These canals afford naviga- 
tion down to Montreal, to which point ships mme up from the 
sea. The total fall by river without locks is 204j feet to Monti al 
and 13 j feet thence to tide water at Three Rivers. The rapids 

of the St. Lawrence have been surveyed with the design of 
deepening them to afford a channel 200 feet wide and 10 feet 
deep, but nothing further has been done. These surveys make 
Lake Erie 534J feet above tide. 

Chambly Canal extends from the foot of navigation on Lake 
Champlain to Chambly Basin, and with a lock at St. Ours, upon 
Richlieu River, completes the line of navigation from the lake 
to the St. Lawrence. A ship canal has recently been proposed 
between these important navigable waters. 

The amount of tonnage on these canals, in which this State 
is interested, is very large; and in the Welland Canal more than 
half the duties are paid by American vessels. 



Statistics of the Business of the Canadian Canals for two years. 





Welland Canal. 


St. Lawrence Canai. 


Chamelt Canal. 


1856. 


1857. 


1856. 


1857. 


1856. 


1857. 




276,919 

699,637 

31,334 

52,100 

34.710 

116.582 

200,373 

341.225 


245,256 
655,816 
67,476 
29.128 
137,574 
163,217 
280.546 
245,256 


131,430 

503,106 

5,274 

33,888 

6,380 

15,612 

213 

306 


134,382 

459.270 

4,493 

30,366 

9,328 

3,765 

17 

30 


107,878 
21,788 
96,868 

16,741 
725 


112,634 

21.053 

107,925 

18.272 
156 


" " " down 

•' " " down 


'• " " down 


" " fines 


£ s. d. 

59.408 10 7 

0,1 OS 3 11 

88 7 6 

440 1 3 

1,967 4 4 


£ s. d. 

52.239 16 5 

5.919 9 7 

82 3 2 

155 

1.504 5 7 


£ s. d. 

16,813 13 5 

1,978 6 5 

6S8 16 4 

910 7 10 

1,042 10 


£ s. d. 

13.741 10 3 

1.898 8 11 

579 10 4 

203 10 4 

1,503 19 10 


£ s. d. 

2,467 9 9 

432 16 1 

18 4 


£ s. d. 

2.577 6 8 

443 19 10 

10 11 

60 10 4 

28 5 













Statistics of the Canadian Canals. 



Canals. 



Welland 

Feeder 

Broad Creek 
Branch 

Rideau 

Galoppe 

Point Iroquois 

Rapid i'lat 

Farrans 

Point 

Cornwall 

Beauharnois... 

Lachine 

("Chambly 

\ St. Ours (lock) 



SJ.S 



28 | 
21 

H 

1264. 
2 
3 
4 

m 

Hi 



8,8 

*-s^ 



1 330 1 



457 
8 
6 

m 

4 

48 
82| 
44* 
74 
5 



Size of Locks. 






3J *S 



>>^ 



sJ 



150 
200 
150 

200 
134 
200 
200 
200 

200 
200 
200 
200 
120 
200 



20! 

45 

26i 

45 
33 
45 
45 
45 

45 
45 
45 
45 
24 
45 



Width of 
Canal. 



• 45 
35 

45 



50 
50 
50 

50 
100 
80 
80 
36 



f 



( 81 

171 

85 

75 
90 
90 
90 

90 

90 
150 
120 
120 

60 



It has been proposed to build a ship canal from Lake Huron 
to Lake Ontario at Toronto, by way of Lake Simcoe. 80 mi. A 
cutting to allow Lake Simcoe to pass southward would not ex- 
ceed 175 ft. in depth: and in the 8 mi. surveyed the principal 
obstacles would not average over 40 ft. It has been estimated 
that the cost for a canal 120 ft. wide at bottom, and 130 ft. at 
surface, 12 ft. deep, with 64 double locks 5') ft. wide, and 250 ft- 
lung, would be $20,051,000, and that it could be constructed in 
5 years. 

Great Western Railway of Canada, from Suspension Bridge to 
Windsor, 229 mi., and thence by ferry to Detroit, was opened 
Jan. 27, 1854. Branches extend from Hamilton to Toronto, 38 
mi.; from Harrisburgb *o Quel ph. 23f mi.; from Preston to 
Berlin, 104 mi. ; and from Kamoka, near London, to Port Sar- 
nia, 60 mi. 



Buffalo & Lake Huron Railway extends from Fort Erie, op- 
posite Buffalo, to Goderich Harbor, on Lake Huron, 165 mi. 

Brie <£• Ontario Railway extends from Chippewa to Niagara, 
17 miles. 

Welland Railway, from Fort Dalhousie to Port Colborne, 27 
mi_ is on the eve of completion. 

Grand Trinik Railway of Canada extends from Portland, Me., 
and Quebec to Richmond, and thence to Montreal, Toronto, and 
Port Sarnia, at the foot of Lake Huron. More than 700 mi. of 
this road are finished. A branch extends from Belleville to 
Peterborough, 50 mi., and others are proposed. 

Ontario, Simcoe de Huron Railway extends from Toronto to 
Collingwood, on Georgian Bay, 95 mi. 

Coburg dk Peterborough Railway is 28j mi. long, with privi- 
lege of extending to Marmora Iron Works. 

Ottawa <£• Prescott Railway extends from Prescott to Ottawa 
City. 54 mi. 

Montreal £■ New York R. R. extends from Montreal to La- 
chine. 8 mi., and thence by ferry, 2 mi., always open, to Caugh- 
nawaga, the terminus of a road leading to Plattsburgh, 52 mi. 
This line is now united with the Champlain <£ St. Lawrence R. 
R., from St. Lambert, opposite Montreal, to Rouses Point. 44 
mi.; and the consolidated company is known as the Montreal it- 
Champlain Rail Road Co. 

2 Cwtom Houses of New York. 


Place. 


Total appro- 
priation. 


Cost 


Of site. 


Total. 


New York 


$1,068,743 

C|;i,<MH) 
118,000 
131,100 
290.000 


$270,000 

5.000 

8.1 tOO 

12,000 

40.000 


$1,105,313.57 
86,443.73 


Plattsburgh 


Oswego 


121,092.89 
191,680.08 


Buffalo 


Total New York... 
Total U. States 


Sl.7u7.743 


$335,000 


$1,504,530.27 


$24,104,799 


$3,3S8,S27 


$10,529,951.72 



120 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Marine Hospitals. — Since 1778, every American seaman has been taxed 20 cents per 
month for a Hospital Fund : and in return he is entitled in case of sickness to assistance and support 
from the revenues thus collected. This fund is in charge of the IT. S. Government, and is entirely 
independent of the various State and private hospital funds of New York City. 1 

L<is;lit Houses. — The United States Government has erected 02 light houses, lighted beacons, 
and floating lights within the State of New York, for the benefit of navigation. Of these, 3 are 
upon the seacoast, 15 upon Long Island Sound, 4 within the Harbor of New York, 10 upon Hudson 
River, 3 upon Lake Champlain, 14 upon Lake Ontario and St. Lawrence River, and 7 upon Lake 
Erie. The Government has also erected buoys, spindles, beacons, and other signals to indicate 
channels or to point out dangerous localities. 3 



The site for the New York Custom Hon?.- was purchased Jan. | 
9, 1833. the building was completed Feb. 22, 1*42 : it is used for 
a custom house only. The site f r the Plattsburgh Custom 
House was purchased Nov. 22, I860, the building was completed 
May 10. 1S5S: it is used for a custom house, post office, and 
courthouse. The site for the Ogdensburgh Custom House was 
purchased Jan. 20, 1867, the building has not been commenced: 
it is nS-igned to be \i — 1 f r a custom house, post office, and 
courthouse. The site for the Oswego Custom House was pur- 
chased Dec. 15, 1S54. the building was completed Sept. 1, 1858: 
it is used fir a custom house and post office. The site for the 
Buffalo Custom II use was purchased Jan. 26, 1855, the building 
was completed July 12, 1S5S: it is used for a custom house, post 
office, and courthouse. 

The Custom Souse in New York occupied before the present 
one was finished was erected in 1816. at a cost of $928,312.96. 
In l s 50 the only custom house building in the State belonging 
to the United States was at New York City. On the 19th of 
Feb. 1*57. the Federal Government purchased a site for stores 
at Atlantic docks, Brooklyn, for $100,000; but as yet no use has 
been made of it 

1 The Federal Government has built 34 marine hospitals. 
none of which are in this State. Those entitled to aid are 
supported in this State in private families or local hospitals. 
The number of seamen relieved and supported in the several 



1 collection districts in the year ending June 30 
follows : — 


1858, was as 


Collection Dis- 
trict. 


**> 

s 


"8 

•«: 

3 


<5 


Total ex- 
penditures. 


Hospital 
money col- 
lected. 


Oswegatchie 

Cape Vincent... 
Sackets Harbor 


824 

10 
86 

4 
76 


924 

12 
98 

3 

86 


*2 

"i 

3 


$ 19.19 

22,485.94 

403.81 

15.15 


$ 289.63 

42.576.78 

412.60 

544.93 

253.50 

60.70 

975.42 

9S.00 

92.19 

2.320.50 

269.S8 


142.15 
3,632.21 






183.86 
3,770.92 


Buffalo Creek- 


Total New York 
Total U. States.. 




1.000 


1,123 


$30,653.23 


$47,894.13 


10,703 


9.444 


381 


$358,020.53 


$161,161.82 



Light Houses. 



Name. 



Location. 



{E.pcint of S.Branch. 1 
U f 

I i-)i-rs Island Sound... 

{8. side main en-1 
trance Sound / 

v.p"jrii l-lan'l 

w. end I'lniii Island. 



 uk 

North Dumpling 

Little Gulls Island.... 

Gardner! Island 

I'lnm Island 

Cedar Island Entranc - _ Harbor.. 

at s. ride of Bonthold 

Stratford PL Teasel- > ,"' " » 

'■l Shoals . ) 

Oldfl-I'l Petal Brookbaven 

r. of Huntington Bay... 

 . I ! \ 

wich Point .. 



Bands Point t of Cow Bay 

Throggs Neck SJLaide of Fort Schuyler 

rPonqtn _-•!•■ Point) 
Great V 

I B • I 

ind Inlet.. 



; H 



«3 

53 



Swash Chum 1 

Prinr»« Bnv 

I .mpkins 

Robbin« !!•• f 

Btoqj Point 

Point 



i'. . 



I] 



Boodont 



Sangerti-i . 



near 
1 ll ' ttion 

vs 

ofT Tompklnsrfl] 
f w. I 

- )' 

• W. Ride 

m. side 
' en- 
creek w. 

I of river 

V. of 




20 

12 

13 

6 
12 
10 

18 

10 

13 
17 
lo 
12 
12 
16 
10 

20 
15 

M 

16 

1.', 
13 

20 

I I 
10 

10 
10 



1 



Flashing . 
Fixed 



Rev< Iving 
Fixed 



S 

6 



White . 
Red.... 



Brown . 
Wliite. 



Red 

raw col.. 
" White 



Ri rolvtag 

! 



Iving 

2 Fix. 1 .. 

inc.. 

i 



It rick.. . 
fellow. 

whit-' red. 
White. 



w 










IB* 


•w 








l-s 


•§>  


io 


g 


so 

s 






-3 




* 


■« -c 


5 u 


s* 


8 


I. 








w 


,2 










"B 


85 


160 


Ex 

— 


tx 


6 


1795 


1857 


1 


25 


70 


1848 


1S55 


6 


56 


74 


1806 


1857 


3 


27 


29 


1-;.:, 




6 


34 


63 


i- : 


1856 


4 


31 


34 


1839 


1855 


6 


30 


110 


1857 




3 


32 


40 


1837 


1855 




34 


67 


1823 


1856 


4 


56 


13S 


1798 


1*57 


3 


:i 


^s 


1 867 




5 


.1 


62 




1868 


4 


42 


.' 1 


1 348 


1866 


4 


41 


58 




1856 


4 


61 


GO 


1826 


1855 


6 


150 


160 


1857 




1 


150 


166 


1868 




1 




59 


1866 




8 

2 


33 




1828 


1867 


3 


46 


89 




1 855 


4 


51 


66 


1839 


is;,;, 


4 


150 


22 


1826 


1855 


6 


32 


38 


1868 




6 


32 


38 


1839 


1854 


6 


32 


38 


1838 


1854 


6 


37 


42 


1835 


1854 


6 



Remarks. 



( Fresnellens; 

[ 2 min. 



flash 



Fog bell. Machine. 

i I -' 30 sec. 
Light on keeper's 
house. 

(2 reflector lights. 
\ Fog bell. 



Fog belL Machine. 
I Lash 30 sec. 
Fog Bell. Machine 7 
per min. 



First light house 
built in 1826. 



Fog bell. 

On keeper's house. 



COMMERCE. 



121 



Lifeboat Stations have also been established by the General Government upon the sea- 
coast and great lakes. On the shores of Long Island and the adjacent islands arc 30 lifeboat sta- 
tions, the first of which were established about 1850. Each of these consists of a house, containing 

a lifeboat, boat wagon, life cars, mortar for throwing lines, and every fixture that could be a -< <l in 
affording aid to vessels in distress. The houses are furnished with stoves for warming them when 
necessary, and with fuel and matches for kindling a fire on short notice. They are each inl rusted 
to a local agent, and arc under the general care of a superintendent appointed by the Secretary of 
the Treasury. Their location is indicated on the map. 

Coast Survey. — A survey of the coast, with soundings of its adjacent waters, was ordered 
by the General Government about 50 years since; but many years were necessarily employed in 
making preliminary arrangements. Active surveys were begun about 1832, and during the 
last 15 years they have been prosecuted with great effect. The triangulations of this survey 
are conducted with great precision, and extend up all rivers navigable from the sea as far as 
tide flows. 



Name. 



Catskill Reach ... 
Pry mes Hook 

Four Mile Point. 



Coxeackie 

Stuyvesant 

New Baltimore 

Five Hook Island.. 

Coeymans Bar 

Schodack Channel. 
Cow Island 



Van Wies Point 

Split Rock 

Cumberland Head., 

Point au Roche 

Ogdensburgh 



Cross Over Island . 



Sunken Rock. 
Rock Island... 



Tibbetts Point.. 

Galloo Island... 
Horse Island.... 



Stony Point.... 
Salmon River., 



Oswego 

Big Sodus Bay . 
Genesee 



Genesee Beacon. 
Niagara Fort 



Cattaraugus 

Dunkirk 

Dunkirk Beacon 
Barcelona 



Light Houses, continued. 



Black Rock Beacon... 

Horse Shoe Reef. 

Buffalo 



Location. 



fllalf way Athens') 
< and Catskill, e. of > 

I river J 

2 mi. N. Hudson, E. side 
w. side. Half way 
Athens and Cox- 
sackie 

(w. side. n. end of 1 

\ Cow Island J 

E.side 

E. side on island 

Calvers Plat Island 

x. end Poplar Island.... 

w. side Mulls Plat 

E. side near Castleton.. 



f E. of dike below Al 
\ bany. w. side 



*!:} 



Near Essex.... 

Near Plattsburgh 

w. of Lake Champlain . 
Mouth of Oswegatchie. 



Above Oak Point.. 



In front of Alexan- 
dria Bay 

Near Mullet Creek ... 



/ Entrance of St.Law- 
\ rence 



w. side island 

Near Sackets Harbor ... 



On Stony Point 

N. side entrance harbor.. 

w. pier harbor 

w. of Sodus Harbor 

w. of entrance to river.. 



End of w. pier 

Outlet of Niagara River. 

f Near head Niagara "1 

\ River / 

Entrance Niagara River 
s. pier. Harbor 

' w. pier. Cattaraugus ) 

Creek J 

Harbor 

Pier w. side harbor 

Portland or Barcelona.. 



5 -8 



51 



Fixed 



Revolving, 
Fixed 



Revolving 
Fixed 



Flashing . 
Fixed 



Flashing.. 
Fixed 



"fe. 



White. 



White . 






32 
32 
20 

32 

32 
20 

"20 

15 

32 
36 



5>B 






38 
38 
35 

38 

38 
21 
25 
25 
25 
21 

15 

100 
55 



30 



59 
42 

39 

49 

59 
64 
81 

28 



1854 
1851 
1854 

1829 

1829 

1S54 
1857 
1857 
1857 
1854 

1854 

1S38 
1837 
1S57 
1S34 

1847 

1847 

1S47 

1827 

1820 
1831 

1837 

1838 

1837 
1S25 
1822 

1822 
1813 

1853 

1856 
182S 

1S47 

1837 
1837 
1S29 



"§> 



1854 



1S54 
1854 



1856 
1855 

1S55 

1855 

1855 

1855 



1857 
1857 

1857 

1855 

1855 
1858 
1S55 

1855 
1857 



1857 



1857 
1854 
1857 



Remarks. 



6 
6 

6 On keeper's house. 



Building. (185S.) 
Light on keeper's 

house. 
Light on keeper's 

house. 



Light on keeper's 
house. 



Rebuilt 1854. 

Shoal N. w. 
Light on 

dwelling. 
Light on 

dwelling. 
Light on 

dwelling. 



1 mi. 

keeper's 

keeper's 
keeper's 



Lake coast light. 

Lake coast and har- 
bor light. 

Frame. Harbor light. 

On mess house. Fort 
Niagara. 



Lake coast light. 

Rebuilt 1*57. 

Lake coast light. 
Harbor light on ) i.-r. 
Lighted with natural 

gas. No harbor at 

this place. 



Besides the above, there are nine State lights established in 1856 in the marshy "Narrows" at the head of Lake Champlain. 
Big Sodus Beacon was destroyed in a gale in 1857. 
A flashing light has been authorized at Crown Point. 



122 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



There are lifeboats on Lake Ontario at Tibbetts Point, Sandy Creek, Salmon River, Oswego, 
Sodus, Genesee River, and Niagara River, which were supplied by the U. S. Government in the 
summer of 1854. Several have also been placed on Lake Erie. None of those on the lakes have 
been provided with houses, except such as have been erected by the persons having them in 
charge. 

Immigration into the U. S. for many years past has been very great; but the proportion 
landing in New York "has been less than the relative amount of trade. Other routes in some 
respects afford superior facilities for immigration. The large number of ships arriving in Canada 
without cargoes favors immigration to a great extent; and hundreds of thousands of immigrants 
have crossed into this State from Canada without their names ever appearing on the U. S. Govern- 
ment records. These immigrants have consisted chiefly of Irish and Germans ; though there has 
also been a large number of English, Scotch, and Norwegians. The greater part of the immi- 
grants either locate in the cities or immediately pass on to the wild lands of the "West. The En- 
glish and Scotch usually prefer to settle in Canada. 1 

Assay Office. — By an act of 1853, the Secretary of the Treasury was directed to establish an 
assay office at Now York, for the special accommodation of the business of the city. At this 
place the owners of gold or silver bullion, or of foreign coin, may deposit the same, have its value 
rained, and certificates issued payable in coin of the same metal as that deposited, either at 
the office of the assistant treasurer in New York, or at the Mint in Philadelphia. The metal 
asE I may, at the option of the owner, be cast into bars, ingots, or discs, of pure metal, or of 
standard fineness, and stamped with a device designating its weight and fineness. This office is 
under the general direction of the Director of the Mint, in subordination to the Secretary of the 
Treasurv. The Assay Office is located on Wall St., adjacent to the Custom House, and is fitted up 
with every appliance for carrying on its operations upon a very extensive scale. Its lofty chimney, 
emitting dense, orange colored fumes of nitric acid, forms a conspicuous object in the district. 
About 50 men are employed upon the premises. Its officers are a superintendent, treasurer, as- 
Bayer, melter, and refiner, with their assistants and clerks. The site of the Assay Office was 
bought Aug. 19, 1853, for $553,000, and the premises were fitted up and completed Oct. 9, 1854, 
at a total cost of $761,493.G2. 2 

The .Mail Service of the State of New York forms about 5 per cent, of the whole U. S. in 
miles, and 7 per cent, in cost, while the receipts from postage in this State amount to 22 per cent. 



1 Passengers arriving by Sea at New York since 1820. 





i 




h 




£> 




eo 






q 




c 




a 








=-.- 




a . 




°<-A 


%i 






■fe g 




*« C 




"fel 




















3^34 


t 


| 


— 










1 830 


1374* 


! 1840 


M,.M,'. 


1840 


213,736 


i-ji 




1 881 


10,737 


1-11 




I860 


184,882 


i-.-j 


4 lie 






1842 


74,014 


1851 


294,445 


























1844 




1853 


204,818 










1845 


76,614 


1864 


" 1 








" 


1 B 16 














" 


1847 




I860 


162,108 






1 - - 




! 1848 


160,994 


1857 


203,500 


1829 

















I :1 1 4 >i tlr ■•'■ returns were made ap to8ept.80; l>ut since 

ii \' ir. The Dumber tx ' 
icluded in the above, waa8t 
Tli- t til nui. r* who arrived in the U.S. from 

183 ~. <>f which number Zfi28f36 arrived 

in Bew V'rk. 

'T !imi>iit of ii ' * . .  «■ V>rk hai l.cn r 

edly - [machinery >■■ th-exist- 

Ing Assay office cold be made »t a rn'-l -i«e. 

Amounts Assayed at tht I'. S Anay Qfflot in N u> Y"rk. 





Fine 








■rt. 




TV 


 


Volut. 


vut 




fi- 











• 











1 • 




|0,7 


1867 








123317.00 


1868 to June 30 




Zl.708,691.04 




171. 


• .1 


..21,013 


$73,800,024.74 


1802,071.79 



Total Pieces. Total Value. 

1854 822 $2,888,059.18 

1855 6,182 20,441,813.63 

1S5G 4.799 19,402,839.52 

1857 2.780 9,458,721.00 

1858 to June 30 7,946 21,970,052.83 

Total 22,509 $74,162,096.16 

Amounts Deposited. 

Silver. 

From Oct. 10 to Dec. 31. 1854 $9.200,*93.69 $76,807jOO 

Prom Jan. 1 to Dec. 81, 1855 26,687,701.24 350.150.08 

From .Tun. 1 to p.-c. 31. !-'■ 17.S03.692.40 474.101.38 

From Jan. 1 to Pec. 31, 1^57 18.097.365.40 1.397.702.99 

Total $72,749,052.73 $2,298,331.45 

72,740,662.78 

Total gold and silver $75,047,974.18 

Proportion Of the above pnvablc in fine bars. $47,817,597.00 

coin 27,230,37718 

T-tal $75,047,974.18 

Amounts transmitted to the Mint for Coining. 

r,v,«. Silver. 

Friii", t. ; 1.1854 $5,142,262.60 $41,417.89 

Pi in Jan. I to Dec. 31, 1855 7,722,47647 71.587.34 

Prom Jan. 1 to Dec 31, 1866 6,797,652.33 412,416.06 

Frmjan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1857 9,3 7,928.89 1,842,768.71 

1 $27,970,260.29 $2,368,190.00 

Cost of transportation from the Assay Office to the Mint and 
return : — 

"ii gold, : i perfcLOOO $27,834.11 

On nlver, $3 per $1,000 7.1ul.9tj 

Total $31,936.15 



COMMERCE. 



123 



of the whole sum collected, and exceed by over $300,000 per annum the expenses of the establish- 
ment within its borders. The total expenses in the U. S. overrun the receipts by about $3,500,000 
annually. 1 

There were four Distributing Post Offices in New York, dan. 1, 1859, located respectively at 
New York, Albany, Troy, and Buffalo. The Troy post office was dij-continued as a distributing 
office July 1, 1859. 



i Rtst Office Summary for the year ending June 30, 1858. 



Length of routes in miles 

Transportation in coaches, miles 

" " cost 

" in steamboats, miles 

" " cost 

" by railroad, miles 

" " cost 

" mode not specified, miles 

« ; " " cost... 

Total cost of transportation 

Total number of miles by coaches 

" " steamboats .... 

" " railroads 

" " modes not spe- 
cified 

" " every method. 

Number of mail routes 

" contractors 

" route agents 

" express agents 

" local agents 

" mail messengers 



New 

York 
Stale. 



13078 
4,961 

$109,490 

108 

$7,298 

2,894 

$333,163 
5,055 

$68,100 
$518,060 
2,430,792 

108,944 
3,961,795 

1,468,312 

7,969,843 

S2S 

702 

55 

11 

2 

315 



United 
Stales. 



260,603 

53.700 

$1,909,844 

17,043 

$1,233,916 

24,431 

$2,828,301 

165,429 

$1,823,357 

$7,795,418 

19,555,734 

4.569.610 

25,763.452 

28,876.695 

78.765.491 

8,296 

7,044 

440 

28 

43 

1,464 



Exchange Offices under the postal arrangement vjith Canada. 



In tiik United States. 

Black Rock 

Buffalo 



Cape Vincent... 
Fort Covington. 

Lewiston 

Mooers 

Morristown 



In Canada. 

Wllti I Ion. 

Toronto, Hamilton, London, and 
Queeneton, (by through 
bags,) Port Erie, and Porta 
Denver, Slmcoe, Rowan, Btn> 
v. ill. Vienna, and .Stanley, 
Montreal. 

Kingston. 

Dundee. 

Queenston. 

Hemingford. 

Brockville. 



Ogdensburgh i Prescott. 

Oswego , 



Plattsburgh. 
Rochester 



Rouses Point 

Sackets Harbor. 



Kingston. By steamer in sum- 
mer. 

Montreal, St. Johns. 

Coburg. By steamer in sum- 
mer. 

St. Johns. 

Kingston. By steamer in sum- 
mer. 

Suspension Bridge and Canada; 
Route agents. 

Montreal; by through bag. 

St. Johns. 

Niagara. 
From New York City to every port and country with which 
the U. S. has postal arrangements. 



Suspension Bridge.. 



Troy 

Whitehall.. 
Youugstown. 



Mail Routes in New York by Railroad and Steamboat. 



Termini. 



Bt Railroad. (June 30, 1858.) 

New York to Dunkirk 

New York to Albany 

New York to Chatham Four Corners 

Brooklyn to Greenport 

Sufferns to Piermont 

Newburgh to Chester 

Hudson to West Stockbridge, Mass 

Albany to Buffalo 

Albany to Troy 

Albany to Eagle Bridge 

Troy to North Bennington, Vt 

Troy to Schenectady 

Troy to Saratoga Springs 

Eagle Bridge to Rutland, Vt 

Saratoga Springs to Castleton, Vt 

Plattsburgh to Canada Line 

Rouses Point to Ogdensburgh 

Watertown to North Potsdam 

Sackets Harbor to Pierrepont Manor 

Schenectady to Ballston 

TJtica to Boonville 

Rome to Cape Vincent 

Syracuse to Rochester 

Syracuse to Oswego , 

Syracuse to Binghamton 

Canandaigua to Elmira 

Canandaigua to Niagara Falls 

Rochester to Niagara Falls 

Rochester to Avon 

Batavia to Attica 

Buffalo to Lockport ! 

Buffalo to Lewiston 

Buffalo to Hornellsville 

Buffalo to State Line 

Corning to Batavia 

Owego to Ithaca 

Bv Steamboat. (Sept. 30, 1858.) 

New York to Manhasset , 

Albany to New Baltimore 

Whitehall to Plattsburgh 

Ithaca to Cayuga .• 



Distances. 


Nn. of 

trips per 

week. 

19 


Annual pay. 


Total annual 
cost. 


Number of 
Haute. 


460 


$92,000 


$117,378 


1.026 


144 


19 


32,400 


44.612 


1,002 


1304, 


6 


5,593 


8,865 


1,003 


98 


18 


8.225 


11,147 


1,007 


18 


6 


772 


870 


1.026 


19 


6 


814 


891 


1,032 


35 


6 


1,750 


1.770 


1,064 


298 


25 


51.600 


62,442 


1.073 


7 


13 


1,050 


1.050 


1,074 


33 


12 


2,829 


3,946 


1,075 


32i 


12 


3,250 


4,329 


1.0S2 


22 


12 


1,650 


1,725 


1.083 


32.81 


12 


3,281 


3,942 


1,084 


62J 


12 


6,250 


7.244 


1,091 


54 


12 


5,400 


6.567 


1,099 


23 


6 


986 


1,163 


1,122 


119 


12 


9.700 


11.252 


1.123 


76 


6 


3,800 


5,505 


1,146 


18^ 


6 


792 


1,117 


1,153 


16 


6 


800 


950 


1.164 


35 


12 


2.625 


2,886 


1,200 


97 


18 


8.329 


10,975 


1,210 


104 


12 


20,800 


23,099 


1,228 


354 


12 


3,043 


3.463 


1.229 


80 


6 


3,429 


4,952 


1.230 


6Si 


12 


5,137* 


6,524 


1,269 


97 


18 


6,100 


8,094 


1,270 


75 


12 


11,400 


14,230 


1.275 


18 


6 


772 


1,030 


1,278 


11 


6 


550 


650 


1.300 


22 


12 


1,100 


1,100 


1.312 


29 


12 


1,450 


1,560 


1.313 


91 


12 


6.825 


7,657 


1,314 


69 


19 


13,800 


17,741 


1.315 


100 


6 


4,286 


7,533 


1,369 


33 


12 


1,415 


2,313 


1,375 


18 


5 


300 




1.004 


15 
95 
40 


6 
11 (for 7 


485 




1,076 


4 800 




1.108 


months) 
6 


1,713 




1,375 





124 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



The Fisheries in New York, although considerable in amount, are quite subordinate to 
other branches of industry. The -whale fisheries, formerly of great importance, are now chiefly 
limited to Sag Harbor, Greenport, and Cold Spring Harbor. 1 The shores and bays of Long Island 
Bupport great numbers of fishermen, and the product of their labor chiefly finds a market in New 
York City. 2 The Hudson yields shad, sturgeon, and other fish in great quantities ; 3 and there are 
extensive fisheries upon the great lakes, especially near the e. end of Lake Ontario and in the 
waters of Chaumont Bay. 4 The waters of Lake Champlain and the St. Lawrence formerly 
abounded in salmon; but, from the building of dams and mills, or other causes, the tributaries of 
these waters now afford but very small supplies. Trout and other fish highly prized for food 
abound in the clear mountain streams of Northern New York. Hundreds of millions of "bony 
fish" are taken annually around Long Island for manure; and the manufacture of oil from sharks, 
porpoises, and other fish has been at various times carried on with encouraging success. Numerous 
special laws have been passed for the preservation of fish in certain waters and at particular sea- 
sons ; but this is now made one of the subjects within the legislative jurisdiction of Boards of 
Supervisors. 

United States Ocean Mail Lines connecting with New York, Sept. 30, 1858. 



RoCTES. 



N. Y. via Southampton, England, to Bremenhaven, Germany, 

X. Y. to AspinwaU, New Grenada, direct 

X. Y. mi Havana t  New Orleans 

N. V. to Liverpool, England 

N. Y. 1 England, to Havre. France 



11 




3,700 


13 


2.000 


24 


2.000 


24 


3,100 


20 


3,270 


13 



Annual 
Pay. 



$60,000 

| 290,000 

3S5,000 

Postages 



Remarks. 



Act of June 14. 1S58. 

/Contract under Acts of 1S47 

( and 1851. 
Contract Act 1847. Now under 

Act of Juno 14. 1858. 
Act of June 14. 1858. 



Comparative Receipts and Expenses of the Post Office in New York and all the Offices in the 

United Slates for the year ending July 30, 1858. 





New 

Tor!.: 


United 
States. 




New 
York. 


United 
States. 




S2S5.207.46 

90.244.30 

2,87465 

1 . - L98 

1.458,711.39 


(882,12255 

593.407.19 

28,146.95 

5,692,366.63 

7,196,043,72 




$316,267.39 
311.893.98 
628J.61.37 
525.950.00 

1,164,111.37 


$2,349,260.49 
1.1H4.183.53 
3,453,444.02 
7,344,619.44 

10,798,063.46 










- Id 











1 The right to drift whales was often made a suhject of special 

by th<- Indiana of L'.ng Island: anil the 

ire "f whale* in open boats from the Bhore has continued 

■iient to the present time. Scarcely a year 

Ing taken alone the shore of the 

: The whale fisheries from Hudson, roughkeepsie, and 

iltogi ther. i <u the ""ill of 

• re employed in the whale fisheries 

i. an. I 2.i::i'..27 tons at 

I total of whaling vessels in the U.S. at 

51 : ids. 

*1i v v.. on tiic East River, at the 

-.tin- block. The rarer kind- are 

I in the ^ Market. A record kept in 1866 

onun ad 20 families, aa flrand in 



these markets, the majority of them heing marine fi-h from tho 
waters adjoining Long It-land and the New England coast. A 
few came from the South, and many from the interior lakes and 
rivers. 

> It in estimated that $100,000 worth of shad are taken annu- 
ally l.i-i. .v.- tin- Highland--. They are canghl Insein aearlyas 
far np as Alhaiiy. Al.mit -Ji.OOO worth of sturgeon are sold 
annually at the Albany market. 

* As many as lo.uon II. Is. have heen taken at Chaumont Bay 
in one gea on, although sometimes no more are tak.-n than 
enough t" Bupply the local want. The fish are chiefly Lake her- 
ind whitefisb. The amount of tonnage invested in this 
State in the i d fisheries is quite unimportant, and amounted 
in June, 1868, to 1•'••l,■ , .■_ , tons at Greenport, and 159.34 tons at 
I els under 20 tons. 



COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES. 




In 1754 King's College was incorporated in N. Y. City by patent, and libe- 
rally endowed by a lottery and grants of land. At the commencement 
of the Revolution it was the only incorporated educational institution in 
the colony. In 1784 its name was changed to Columbia College; and 
in connection with it an extensive scheme of education was devised, in 
[which the college was to be the center of the system, and subordinate 
jUjj] branches were to be established in different parts of the State, — the 
whole to be under the control of a board denominated "Regents of the 
University." This board was to consist of the principal State officers, 
two persons from each co., and one chosen by each religious denomi- 
nation. The number of the Regents was afterward increased by add- 
ing 33 others, 20 of whom resided in N. Y. City. This whole scheme 
was found to be impracticable; and by act of April 13, 1787, it was superseded by a system which 
has continued without essential change to the present time.' By this act the Governor, Lieut.-Gov- 
ernor, and 19 persons therein named were constituted 

Regeilts of the University, and required to visit and inspect all colleges and academies, 
and report their condition, annually. They might appoint presidents of colleges and principals 
of academies for one year, in case of vacancy, and incorporate new colleges and academies, pro- 
viding the revenue of the latter should not exceed the value of 4,000 bushels of wheat annually. In 
1842 the Secretary of State, and in 1854 the Superintendent of Public Instruction, were made ex 
officio members of the Board of Regents. Vacancies are filled by the Legislature in the same manner 
that U. S. Senators are appointed; and Regents hold their office during life, unless they resign or 
forfeit their place by removal from the State, by accepting the office of trustee in an incorporated 
college or academy, or by accepting a civil office the duties of which are incompatible with their 
duties as Regents: 2 but the members maybe removed by concurrent resolution of the Senate and 
Assembly. 3 They receive no pay. Under a special act of 1791, the Regents appoint the faculty 
of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the City of N. Y. and confer degrees upon its gradu- 
ates. 4 They confer the honorary degree of M.D. upon four persons annually, upon recommenda- 
tion of the State Medical Society, and may grant any honorary degree. They have exercised 
this right by conferring the degree of LL.D. upon 12 persons since their first organization. 5 

In 1821 they were authorized to incorporate Lancasterian and select schools. 6 In 1844 the Regents 
were made trustees of the State Library, and, with the Superintendent of Schools, were charged 
with the supervision of the State Normal School. In 1845 they were made trustees of the State 
Cabinet of Natural History, and in 1856 were intrusted with what remained of the publication of 
the colonial history. Their secretary and the Secretary of State are commissioners to superintend 
the completion of the publication of the natural history of the State. 

The Regents annually apportion $40,000 of the income of the Literature Fund 7 among academies, 
in proportion to the number of students pursuing the classics or the higher English branches; 



1 The authorship of this system has been generally ascribed to 
Alexander Hamilton, then in the Assembly. The original drafts 
of the act, still preserved, and the legislative journals of that 
period, show that Ezra l'Hommedieu, then in the Senate, was 
prominently concerned in its passage, if not the original mover. 
The bill was introduced in the Senate upon a petition from Clin- 
ton Academy, in Suffolk co. 

2 What these offices are does not appear to have been settled. 
On several occasions an appointment to the bench of the Supreme 
Court has created a vacancy. Non-attendance at the meetings 
of the Board during one year has also been construed to vacate 
the seat of a Regent. 

3 This power has never been exercised by the Legislature. 

* A similar power existed with regard to the Western College 
of Physicians and Surgeons at Fairfield, during its existence. 

* The honorary degree of M. D. had been conferred upon 120 
persons previous to 1859. Resolutions were passed, Oct. 14, 1851, 
for conferring the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy and Doctor of 
Literature ; but none have been granted. 

6 This right has been exercised four times, viz.: — 
Select School at Henrietta. Monroe co., July 2, 1827. 
Lewiston High School Academy, Niagara CO., April 16, 1S28. 
Fabius Select School, Onondaga co., Feb. 27, 1841. 
Hunter Classical School, Greene CO., June 23, 1851. 
Lancasterian schools were incorporated by special acts, as 
follows : — 
Albany, Lancaster School Soc., May 26, 1812. 



Catskill, Lancaster School Soc, March 14, 1817. Repealed April 
20, 1830. 

Hudson, Lancaster Soc, April 15, 1817. 

Schenectady, Lancaster School Soc, Nov. 12, 1816. 

Poughkeepsie, Lancaster School Soc. 

f This fund originated with certain tracts of land reserved for 
literature, and was largely increased by four lotteries, granted 
April 3, 1801, by which $100,000 were to be raised for the joint 
benefit of academies and common schools, but chiefly for the 
latter. In 1816, the avails of the Crumhorn Mountain Tract, 
amounting to $10,416, were given from the general fund to aca- 
demies and common schools; and in 1S19 the arrears of quit- 
rents, amounting to $53,3S0, were also thus equally divided. In 
1827, $150,000 was given to this fund bv the Legislature; and on 
the 17th of April, 1838, the sum of $28,000 was set apart annually, 
from the incomo of the U. S. Deposit Fund, for distribution 
among academies. The sum previously applied for this purpose 
was $12,000 annually; and since lS34a small part of the income, 
aside from this, has been applied, from time to time, to the pur- 
chase of apparatus. 

This fund was managed by the Regents until, by act of Jan. 
25, 1832, it was transferred to the Comptroller for investment, — 
the Legislature appropriating the proceeds annually, and the 
Regents designating the scale of apportionment. 

The principal of the fund amounted, Sept. 30, 1853, to $269,952 
.12, aside from the U. S. Deposit Fund, and was invested chiefly 
in stocks and Comptroller's bonds. 

126 



126 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



designate such academies as shall receive aid in establishing classes for instructing teachers of 
common schools; conduct exchanges of books and documents with other States and countries; 
maintain a system of meteorological observations at certain academies; and make full reports 
annually to the Legislature upon the condition of the colleges and academies of the State, the State 
Library, and the Cabinet of Natural History. 

The officers of the Regents are, a chancellor, vice-chancellor, and secretary. They appoint a 
librarian and assistants to the State Library, and a curator to the State Cabinet. Sis members 
form a quorum for the transaction of business. Their annual meeting is held on the first Thurs- 
day of January, in the Senate chamber, and is adjourned for short periods during the session of the 
Legislature. Most colleges report annually to the Regents, but are not uniformly subject to visita- 
tion, nor do they share in the income of the Literature Fund. They have generally been assisted 
by grants of land or money from the State. 

Colleges and Academies are entrusted to boards of trustees, who possess the usual 
powers of corporations, and usually fill all vacancies occurring in their number. 1 They appoint 
professors and instructors, and remove them at pleasure, unless employed by special agreement. 
All degrees in colleges, whether honorary or in due course of study, are conferred by the trustees. 

By an act passed April 12, 1853, the Regents were required to establish general rules under 
which colleges, universities, and academies might claim incorporation, subject to such limitations 
and restrictions as might be prescribed by law, or which, by the Regents, might be deeirued proper; 
and institutions thus formed should possess, in addition to the powers thus vested in them, the 
general powers of a corporation, under the Revised Statutes of this State. The trustees of academies 



l c,, q, --. .. c liege, X. Y. Agricultural College, People's College, 

University .if Buffalo, and University of the City of N. Y., are 

. 1 _\ sb in holders, who elect trustees, or officers analogous, 

o-rms. The principal State officers are ex officio trus- 



tees of Union College ; and the Mayor and Recorder of cities 
are, in some cases, trustees of medical colleges. The principal 
facts concerning colleges and professional schools may he classed 
as follows : — 



Literary and Medical Colleges. 



Namb. 


Location. 


Date of Charter. 


Mow Incor- 
porated. 




Alfred 
New York 
Eimira 
Lima 

Clinton 

Geneva 

LeRoy 

Ilamilton 
McGrawville 

Ovid 
ITavana 
Fordham 
Canton 

Troy 

Schenectady 

Albany 
New York 
iter 

Bnfi.ilo 
'.V 

New York 

V. w York 

Xew York 
I ork 
Buffalo 

New York 


Mar. 28, 1857 
Oct. 81. 1754 
April 13, 1S55 
Feb. 27,1849 

May 26,1812 

April 5,1824 

April 3, 1857 

Mar. 26,1846 
April 17, 1851 

April 15, 1853 
April 12, 1853 
April 10, 1840 
April 3, 1856 

April 12, 1855 

Feb. 25,1795 

April 17,1851 
April 18, 1881 
May B, 1846 
Hay 11,1848 

Feb. 16,1839 

April 25, 1831 

Mnr. 10. 
AprU 8, 1836 

Mir. 27. 1867 

1- 1 

May 11, 1846 

Feb. 1, 1837 


Law 
Patent 
Law 
Law 

Regents 

Regents 

Law 

Law 
Law 

Law 
Law 
Law 
Law 

Regents 

Regents 

Law 
Law 
Law 
Law 
Law 

Law 

I! eg. lit". 

Trusts, of 
G.Ooll. 

Law. 
Law 
Law 

Law. 






d College Assoc. 
N. Y. State Agric'l College 




St. Lawrence l_niw. 

Union ' 

f's. v.... 


College of Pharmacy • i 

l and 

Snrj 

d Inst, of Genu i 

Mt ; :' -.nM.-dic*ir«ll..« 
New York ' ' 
Univ.i.f Baf&do, V 
University of I 

York, Med. D-p.'.... 



Remarks. 



Seventh-day Bap., 33 trustees. 

Prot. E., 24 trustees. Formerly King's College. 

Changed from Elmira Collegiate Institute. 

Meth. E., 2S to 30 trustees, elected for 5 years by 
classes. 

N. S. Presb., 24 trustees. Changed from Hamilton 
Oneida Academy. 

Prot. E., 24 trustees. Originally Medical Dep. con- 
nected. Changed from Geneva College, April 10, 
1852. 

N. S. Presb., 24 trustees. Changed from Ingham 
Collegiate Institute. 

Bap.. 27 trustees. Theological Depart, connected. 

Located on a farm. Students not excluded on ac- 
count of sex or color. 

10 trustees. In course of erection. See Ovid. 

24 trustees. In coarse of erection. Capital, $250,000. 

R. C, 9 trustees. Thi ological Depart, connected. 

Universali-t. ■-'."> trusters. Theological Department 
Connected. In course of organization. 

Methodist E., 64 trustees. Charter conditioned to 
$100,000, which Is obtained. Organized. 

15 trustees, besides those ex officio. Changed from 
Schenectady Academy. 

Law Department only organized. 

.".- trii-it.-.^. Medical I>. (urine lit connected. 
Hap.. 20 trusters. Theological Depart, connected. 
] Department only organized. 



For education of druggists. Does not report. 



Mayor and Recorder ex officio trustees. 

Hi dical Dep. onlyoneorganized. Full univ. charter. 



• Trustees elected for fi ynm. Student* and teacher" expected 
to lat^.r from 10 to 20 hours each week. Located on « t >rm of 
- 

* Mnyor and Recorder of Albany '* qfido famines.. I'.'iilding 
erected for Lancastcrian school, and leased by tho city nt a 
nominal rent. 

« A collec* of similar name. tnOOtp. March 2S, 1*27, did not 
organize. See RtgtnW Report, 1858, p. 168. 



<* Capital limited to $100,000. Proprietors elect council of 16 
f.r 4 years, besides which each department elects one to the 
council to bold at their pleasure. 

• The council of the University of tho City of New York con. 
-i^r-i ..f 82 shareholders elected for 4 years, besides the Mayor of 
New York and 4 of the Common Council designated for the 
purpose. 



COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES. 



127 



possessing a capital stock may be elected by the proprietors for such terms as shall be fixed. The 
capital stock of an academy may not exceed $50,000, and that of a medical college funned under 
the general law cannot be less than $50,000, nor more than £200,000. All such charters, except- 
ing those containing provisional conditions, are perpetual. 

Theological Seminaries in the State of New York." 



Name. 



General Theological Seminary of P. E. Church 

Uartwiek Seminary (Theological Department) 

Martin Luther College (Theological Department) 

Rochester Theological Seminary 

St. Joseph's Theological Seminary 

St. Lawrence University (Theological Dep.) 

Theological Department Madison University 

Theological Seminary of Auburn 

Theological Seminary of Associate Reformed Church. 
Union Theological Seminary 



Location. 



New York 

Hartwick 

Buffalo 

Rochester 

Fordhaui 

Canton 

Hamilton 

Auburn 

Newburgh 

New York 



Denomination. 



P. E. 

Lutheran 
Lutheran 
Baptist 
R. C. 

Universalist 
Baptist 
N. S. Presb. 
A. R. Presb. 
N. S. Presb. 



Date of Entab- 

Ittitinent. 



1817 
1816 



Nov. 



4, 1850 
1846 
1858 
1820 
April 14, 1820 
1836 
1S36 



v, 



II 



68 
5 

36 



24 
30 
11 

106 



M 



4: in 
52 

50 



262 

143 

211 



£3 



ll.OH.'i 
1,250 

5,500 



7,500 

6 

3,200 
18,000 



° Mostly upon authority of the American Almanac of 1859. 
Several of these possess liberal endowments, and defray the per- 
sonal expenses of the students attending them. Tuition fees 



are, it is believed, in no cases required from those receiving in- 
struction. All the above are now in operation. 



The following institutions have been projected, but have not been established, or have ceased 

to exist : — 



Name. 


Date of Incorp. 


Remarlcs. 






Applications were made for a college in 1795, but refused. 

Provisions of charter not complied with. 

Never organized. 

Never organized. 

Applications made Feb. 15, 1S02. Refused. 

( After a few courses of lectures, these institutions were 

( abandoned. 

Conditions not complied with. 

(Courses of lectures were held until 1840, the Regents con- 
( ferring the degrees. 
Applications refused Feb. 20, 1845. 
Conditions not complied with. 
Applications refused in 1779, 1804, and 1811. 
Discontinued in 1S14. 
Discontinued in a short time. 
Never organized. 
Closed in a short time. 
Application refused, Feb. 16, 1824. 
Never organized. 
Conditions not complied with. 
Never organized. 




Feb. 26,1826 
Jan. 29, 1852 
March 4, 1830 


Central Medical College and Syracuse Medical } 

Clinton College, Fairfield 

College of Physicians and Surgeons of Wes-\ 

Medical Department of Columbia College 

N. Y. College of Dental Surgery, Syracuse 

Richmond College, Richmond co 

St. Paul's College, College Point, Flushing, L. I. 


1849 
Mar. 25, 1816 
June 12, 1S12 

April 10, 1822 


1793 
April 13, 1852 
April 18, 1838 
May 9, 1840 




April 8,1836 
Jan. 27,1827 
April 17, 1851 





Besides these, several institutions bearing the name of col- 
leges have been established, but of which no general statistics 
have been obtained. Among them are the " Martin Luther Col- 
lege," at Buffalo, the ' ; College of St. Francis Xavier," (R. C.,) in 
New York ; " Franciscan College and Convent," inaugurated Oct. 
4, 1858, at Allegany, Cattaraugus co. ; the " De Yeaux College for 



Orphan and Destitute Children," incorporated April 15. 1853, 
and located at Suspension Bridge, Niagara CO.: and the "St. 
Peter's College," (R. C.,) in course of organization, at Troy. 
Most of these are unincorporated, none of them possess the right 
of granting degrees, and they generally partake more of tho 
character of academies than of colleges. 



Tabular Summary of Colleges as reported Jan. 1859, for tlie year previous. 



Name. 



Albany Medical College 

College of Physicians and Surgeons, N.Y 

Columbia College 

Genesee College 

Hamilton College 

Hobart Free College 

Madison University 

Medical Institute Geneva College 

Medical Department of University of N. Y.... 
Medical Department of University of Buffalo. 

Metropolitan Medical College 

New York Central College 

New York Medical College 

St. John's College 

Troy University 

Union College 

University of City of New York 

University of Rochester 







m 




* Is 


•2 si 

83 


9  


J Si. 


ts s» 


©•£ 


s » 


c <» 


a, -2 


ijS 


<£S 


5* 

41 


si 




9 


121 


56 


9 


173 


50 


12 


153 


25 


6 


96 


15 


9 


134 


27 


7 


92 


20 


9 


119 


23 


7 


31 


8 


7 


347 


128 


9 


38 


9 


6 


18 


10 


9 


16 


4 


12 


99 


37 


27 


49 


6 


4 


53 




16 


297 


89 


16 


125 


16 


8 


149 


22 



.23 2 



90,000 
114,336 
24.500 
125.000 
35,000 
18.700 
16,049 
70,000 
14,000 

30.000 
50,000 
74,200 

100.001) 
70,993 

200.000 
38,201 



1! 
11 


, 1 

ft* 

u to 

'e ° • 


1-8 

g'i 


$ 


$ 


$605 
635 


6,515 


44,150 
5.250 




1.464 


8.019 




Free. 


4.595 




2,402 


7,285 


199 
1,735 

84 


1,497 


4,000 


335 


10.177 


12,151 




12.207 


11,150 




5,360 


10,835 





X 



S"3 



$1,120 
1,325 



160 

3,840 

132 

1.110 



la 



123 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER 



Statistics of Academies from the Regents' Report of 1859. 



Names. 



Academy at Little Falls 

Academy of Dutchess Co 

Albany Academy 

Albany Female Academy 

Albion Academy 

Alfred Academy _ 

Amenia Seminary - 

Ames Academy 

Am-terdam Female Seminary. 

Argyle Academy 

Auburn Academy 

Augusta Academy 

Aurora Academy 

Ball Seminary 

Bingham ton Academy 

] i ite Institute 

Brookt my 

Brookl] h. Inst.. 

!'. in de Academy 

Cambridge Washington Academy... 

Canajoharie Academy _. 

Canandaigua Academy 

Canton Academy 

Gary Collegiate Seminary 

Cayuga Academy 

Chaxnplain Academy 

Cherry Valley Academy 

r Academy 

Cincinnatus Academy 

Clarence Academy 

Clarerack Academy «fc II. K. Inst... 

Clinton Grammar School 

Clinton Libera] Institute 

Cortland Academy 

Cortlandville Academy 

Dansville Seminary 

Deaf and Dumb Institution _. 

Delaware Academy -. 

Delaware Literary Institute 

lie Rnyter Institute 

Dundee Academy 

East Bloomfield Academy 

Ellington Academy _ 

Erasmus Hall Academy 

F.iirfieid Academy 

Falley Seminary 

Farmers' Hall Academy 

my 

nary and Female 

1 

Frank 1 ' lemy 

Franklin il'ritt-burgh) Academy.. 



my 

Oalway Aeadi my.... 

• • i minary 

rrirv 

Oi nil ii and Wyoming - 



• hool 

. Inat. 

1 

nary.... 
Oramn 

Grammar ."rh-l 
Grammir School N. V 

f; ram ill Academy 

Oreenv my 

Qroton Academy 

Hamii* 

Hamiltoo Female Seminary 

I k Bemtnary 

Holley Academy 

Il-jdson Academy 

Ithaca Academy 

Jamestown Academy 

Jefferson County Institute 

Johnstown Academy 

my 

Jordan Academy 





•S ^ 






r s 






a s> 








"8 












3 










■E ^ 


t. 




=C § 


•*- .* 


■"5; 


Wi 


e.3 


s 


33 


S "«» 


■& 


^ *§ 


-I 


3 


= e 


64 


131 


92 


4 


181 


110 


10 


242 


116 


13 


200 


136 


8 


224 


133 


13 


476 


355 


7 


168 


125 


2 


80 


67 


4 


45 


35 


5 


99 


71 


3 


135 


95 


1 


41 


18 


2 


226 


101 


2 


113 


33 


3 


182 


101 


7 


351 


148 


2 


95 


71 


19 


507 


240 


10 


159 


82 


3 


172 


69 


4 


1S6 


98 


6 


145 


87 


2 


129 


59 


5 


210 


106 


6 


107 


87 


3 


148 


76 


9 


210 


64 


3 


90 


29 


3 


133 


98 


2 


111 


47 


14 


433 


367 


4 


127 


70 


7 


67 


22 


6 


394 


344 


4 


234 


161 


3 




306 


io 


225 


186 


9 


261 


205 


3 


139 


64 


4 


230 


106 


3 


60 


53 


3 


210 


113 


3 


103 


52 


10 


389 


308 


11 


383 


191 


1 


56 


41 


3 


168 


105 


7 


2r4 


167 


3 


287 


1!.-, 


4 


170 


148 


4 


281 


171 


3 


' 


91 


9 


 


99 


4 


235 


148 


11 


T 




7 


210 


104 


5 


218 


168 


13 


••-'I 




2 




46 


4 




127 


7 




60 


6 


340 


156 


7 


90 


71 


1 


43 


23 


6 




106 


... 


77 


• - 


1 




26 


2 




93 


8 


180 


'7 


6 




117 


2 


88 


88 


4 




100 


2 






6 




216 


3 


185 


120 


4 


I6b 


1 20 


3 




119 


8 


216 


153 


2 


158 


I2S 



11 



c S ~ 



$178.52 
213.44 
225.58 
263.89 
258.57 
688.84 
234.79 
130.21 

64.03 
137.77 
170.75 

34.93 
195.98 

62.09 
194.54 
287.68 
131.94 
461.81 
159.11 
133.89 
190.18 
168.81 
114.48 
203.74 
168.81 
147.47 
124.18 

56.26 
1*4.34 

91.20 
712.12 
133.89 

42.69 
667.40 
312.40 

593.76 
360.91 
397.78 
124.18 
2n">.f.'.-| 
100.90 
219.26 

97.02 
597.64 
:.7".e_ 

79.56 
203.74 

82454 

■_-] :v\ 
287.18 

17658 
192.10 

283.30 
96049 
201.80 

89.26 
238 67 

11642 
802.70 

137.77 

180 16 

213.44 
170.76 
194.04 
100.90 
419.12 

244.49 
230.90 
20658 

242.52 



Total "Values. 






S»| 



$10,200 

11.000 

90.000 

33.347 

7,100 

17.266 

18.500 

2.440 

9.000 

3,100 

8.214 

2,4-87 

2.900 

3,810 

6.500 

30.000 

3,000 

69,754 

55.000 

4.250 

5,580 

12.500 

3,500 

15,140 

10.000 

5.504 

13.000 

2.950 

3:i*3 

5.000 

35.330 

2,600 

30.300 

5.000 

2.800 

3,043 

26,000 

21.000 

8,800 

2.350 

5,000 

3,650 

9,500 

20,200 

17.800 

8,850 

2,150 

24.000 

10,000 
4,500 

3.125 

8^800 
27,600 

8,681 
11^200 

10,000 

4.500 

17497 
B300 



2.900 
2.5no 
6550 
8,776 
8,613 
7,800 

3.200 
12,600 

4.400 
11.050 
3.000 
I 
3,800 






"& 



£ 



$361 
310 

1.631 

1.02s 
606 
680 

1,596 
275 
400 
242 
332 
368 
610 
197 
400 

1,022 
170 
367 
360 
650 
260 
690 
440 
546 

3,027 
342 
223 
370 
174 
182 
173 
200 

1,775 

1.000 
711 
164 

1.183 

1.053 

426 

•-■: 

558 
228 
2,604 
1.044 
C55 
581 
205 

152 

1.2M 

2.111 

211 

'"2IO 

Sftl 

708 

I 1 1 

240 

1 60 
482 
550 

'"25b 

233 
261 
441 
B28 
4M 

1 579 
243 
177 
4::7 
283 

1446 
240 
441 
200 



I 



$584 

681 

2.917 

2.415 

350 

1.375 

1,267 

200 

405 

150 

500 

2S9 

400 

4S5 

438 

377 

155 

1,875 

1,742 

566 

244 

1,345 

327 

600 

879 

552 

762 

284 

206 

151 

846 

175 

475 

1,000 

500 

170 

630 

395 

542 

178 

478 

160 

497 

1.280 

1,062 
223 

202 

456 
U6 

4. '.7 
762 
168 



162 

2.310 

: ! 

616 

4;,:. 
385 
168 

222 



250 
45 
160 
625 
473 
868 
202 
228 
200 
900 
740 
1,566 
2*2 
366 
350 






$1,295 
3,116 
5,717 
6,662 
2,139 
12,124 
10,302 

742 

674 
1.330 
1,478 

260 
1.501 

507 
1.612 
3,204 

700 
30,453 
5.970 
1,700 
1.284 
3,139 
1,094 
4,078 
1,622 
1.440 
4*768 
1.180 
1,232 

836 
13.214 
6,059 
1.553 
3.973 
1.752 

574 

2.286 

4.144 

1,101 

2.308 

713 

971 

2.196 

14,307 

4,632 

649 

1,049 

3.159 
1,767 
2J280 
2.177 
1 198 
3.417 
1,398 
4,603 
1,905 
3,699 
6,4 'i 

1.101 

1.215 
2,681 
2.449 
5.990 

813 
1.40:1 

448 

816 
1,502 

771 
4,906 
1.813 
1,761 

7' - 
8^828 
1.317 
2,136 

5,447 



I 



$1,195 
2,928 

10,062 
7,508 
2,138 

10,9S9 

10,301 

712 

760 

1,319 

1,477 

260 

1,412 

514 

1.611 

3,244 

700 

30.313 
6,078 
1,695 
1,406 
3,189 
1,094 
4,078 
1,665 
1,440 
4,768 
1.196 
1,066 
776 

11,385 
6,165 
1,553 
4.208 
1.819 
720 

8.250 
3.975 

991 
2.440 

713 

964 

1,858 

13.024 

4,632 

641 
1,017 

4.359 
I B 
2.646 
2459 
1,198 
3.339 
1.475 
4.(44 
1,886 
3.923 
4440 
702 
1.217. 
2,681 
2.134 
4,157 

(Vio 
1.404 
47:1 
7 if 
1,830 
1,341 
4,862 
1 7 1 

1,751 

705 
8,181 
1.:,17 
2,136 
1.529 
6,447 
1,584 



1 
a 






444 
339 
946 

1,082 
439 
737 

1,711 
305 
381 
173 
249 
181 
653 
178 
409 
474 
126 
335 
195 
391 
192 
813 
293 
012 

2.345 
263 
144 
250 
155 
213 
281 
175 

1.257 

1,129 

668 

67 

838 
1.032 
280 
201 
596 
188 
2,435 
953 
436 
739 
112 

208 

285 
1.196 
1.741 

189 
98 

216 
2,044 

520 

1.200 
389 
228 
101 
433 

1.148 



199 
866 
892 

831 
427 

1.050 
221 
164 
447 
308 

1,637 
193 
405 
191 



COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES. 



129 



Statistics of Academies from the Rcycnts' Report of 1859, continued. 



Names. 



Kceseville Academy 

Kimlerhook Academy 

Kingsboro' Academy 

Kingston Academy 

Liberty Normal Institute 

Lockport Union School 

Lowville Academy _ , 

Lyons Union School 

Macedon Academy 

Manlius Academy 

Marion Collegiate Institute 

Mayville Academy 

Medina Academy 

Mexico Academy 

Middlebury Academy 

Monroe Academy 

Montgomery Academy , 

Monticello Academy 

Moravia Institute , 

Mount Morris Union Free School. 

Mount Pleasant Academy 

Munro Collegiate Institute 

New Paltz Academy 

New York Conference Seminary.... 

New York Free Academy , 

North Granville Female Seminary 

North Hebron Institute 

North Salem Academy 

Norwich Academy 

Nunda Literary Institute 

Ogdensburgh Academy 

Oneida Conference Seminary 

Onondaga Academy 

Ontario Female Seminary 

Oswego High School 

Ovid Academy 

Owego Academy , 

Oxford Academy 

Packer Collegiate Institute 

Palmyra Classical Union School... 

Peekskill Academy 

Perry Academy 

Peterboro' Academy 

Phelps Union Classical School , 

Phipps Union Seminary , 

Plattsburgh Academy 

Pompey Academy 

Poughkeepsie Female Academy... 

Prospect Academy 

Pulaski Academy 

Randolph Academy 

Red Creek Union Academy 

Rensselaerville Academy 

Richburgh Academy 

Rochester Female Academy 

Rogersville Union Seminary 

Rome Academy 

Rural Seminary 

Rushford Academy 

Rutgers Female Institute 

Sag Harbor Institute 

St. Lawrence Academy 

Saugerties Academy 

Sauquoit Academy , 

Schenectady Union School 

Schoharie Academy 

Schuylerville Academy 

Seneca Falls Academy 

Sodus Academy 

Spencertown Academy 

Springville Academy 

S. S. Seward Institute 

Starkey Seminary 

Susquehanna Seminary 

Troy Academy 

Troy Female Seminary 

Trumansburgh Academy 

Unadilla Academy 

Union Hall Academy 

Union Literary Society 

Union "Village Academy , 






4 
4 
3 
5 
2 
9 
4 
4 
4 
2 
5 
2 
5 
4 
5 
4 
2 
7 
2 
4 
7 
3 
2 
11 
25 
13 

"i 

5 
5 
3 
8 
3 

13 
3 
8 
4 
6 

24 
5 
3 
5 
1 
5 

10 
4 
2 
8 
1 
3 
4 
5 
2 
3 
4 
4 
3 
3 
2 

18 
2 
5 
3 
3 
5 
3 
3 
4 
4 
5 
2 
6 
5 
7 
5 
21 
2 
2 
9 
6 
4 



•5 ^ 




■2 £> 
T3~ 


1 


5 o> 




%>J 


**•§ 




c s 




5S *9 


<] 


o s 


E 






378 


246 


106 


67 


66 




209 


114 


115 


9 


491 


181 


267 


176 


128 


68 


240 


179 


99 


25 


158 


74 


78 


49 


171 


164 


223 


159 


229 


142 


152 


75 


77 


28 


153 


60 


122 


53 


98 


70 


82 


59 


134 


95 


61 


33 


460 


226 


613 


567 


114 


132 


60 


32 


311 


222 


309 


241 


161 


116 


351 


258 


128 


110 


121 


80 


273 


196 


249 


109 


300 


165 


673 


375 


282 


134 


101 


50 


127 


49 


42 


14 


408 


91 


217 


176 


215 


160 


43 


39 


119 


98 


87 


24 


170 


61 


184 


87 


250 


158 


91 


30 


86 


51 


122 


62 


96 


76 


233 


110 


122 


77 


201 


141 


278 


156 


320 


61 


293 


125 


179 


50 


115 


87 


206 


143 


112 


91 


169 


123 


193 


98 


129 


72 


78 


62 


166 


86 


157 


101 


161 


112 


232 


192 


45 


28 


319 


212 


158 


34 


80 


21 


220 


143 


209 


173 


215 


140 






s 

2 5k 

S g 3 



1461.81 
130.00 

219.26 

17.40 
351.21 
279.42 
131.94 
347.33 

48.51 
141.65 

95.08 
318.22 
308.52 
275.54 
145.53 

50.45 
116.42 
102.84 
135.83 
114.48 
182.40 

62.09 

438.53 

1,100.70 

256.14 

""32.98' 
430.77 
467.64 
225.58 
500.62 

"211.50 

155.23 

350.91 

211.50 

318.22 

727.75 

225.58 

97.02 

85.38 

27.17 

176.58 

310.46 

310.46 

75.67 

190.18 

38.81 

118.36 

168.81 

291.56 

58.21 

93.14 

120.30 

147.47 

213.44 

149.41 

273.60 

302.70 

118.36 

236.73 

97.02 

168.81 

260.51 

176.58 

238.67 

168.81 

131.94 

102.84 

166.87 

195.98 

217.32 

364.79 

54.32 

411.36 

65.97 

40.75 

277.48 

335.69 

271.66 



Total Values. 



K 

c 



II 



$3,600 
4,000 
3.700 

15,000 
1,250 

13,000 
7.500 

15,000 
5,055 
3,000 

11,500 
3,750 
6,200 

14,000 
5,500 
5.465 
6,000 
4,350 
2,200 

17,000 

21.500 

7,900 

20,000 

117.324 

19,000 

2.400 

3.000 

8,400 

2,900 

11,000 

26,000 

12,700 

20,000 

11,000 

15,500 

5,000 

9,350 

121,765 

12,000 

17.000 

16.750 

4,528 

5,200 

10.200 

5,500 

5,400 

15,963 

2,900 

9,028 

6.420 

9.650 

2,610 

3,200 

6,000 

7,850 

10.500 

4,100 

5.963 

27,500 

2,400 

10,000 

5,000 

2,500 

41.000 

4.000 

2.850 

3,000 

3,300 

2,750 

3,500 

10,000 

10,350 

37,000 

7,575 

12,100 

4.300 

3.550 

15,400 

10,500 

4,581 



S 
^ 



$227 
600 
417 
567 
185 
259 
860 
745 
207 
410 
248 
194 
350 
630 
930 
158 
200 
251 
362 
222 

1,467 
869 
486 
350 

9,296 
228 
40 
536 
400 
174 
501 

2,327 
516 
931 

2.500 
350 
601 
953 

1,338 
674 
645 
567 
207 
315 
471 
229 
351 
578 
312 
301 
388 
175 
203 
172 
186 
160 
420 
647 
283 

2,314 
210 
784 
152 
192 

4.000 
351 
211 
496 
184 
192 
200 
262 
853 
158 
240 

1,374 
163 
256 
634 
731 
305 



I 



$200 
524 
555 
400 
164 
500 
627 
403 
736 
200 
592 
205 
235 
826 
499 
150 
300 
170 
361 
193 
300 
719 
553 
250 

8,988 
375 
137 
250 
899 
184 
579 

2,694 
306 
924 
500 
600 
180 
790 

1,595 
250 
446 
210 
174 
201 
212 
474 
150 
760 
325 
175 
278 
175 
155 
185 
170 
174 
350 
237 
837 

3,138 
187 
493 
185 
186 
200 
161 
4(10 
600 
283 
210 
410 
150 
558 
457 
275 
903 
150 
151 
369 
481 
187 



$2,328 
1,294 

570 
3,176 

701 
4.459 
2,170 
1,757 
2,482 

978 
1,546 

889 
1,839 
2.001 
2,015 
1,369 

811 
2.359 

830 

710 
7,033 
1,639 

981 
19,939 
59,783 
13,372 

110 

487 
2,123 
1.902 
4.686 
4.321 



4,855 

3,784 
2,373 
2,131 
30,574 
2,438 
2,387 
1,225 

334 
1,996 
3,674 
1,948 

502 
4.497 

294 
2.557 
1,263 
1.560 

375 

927 
2.224 

939 
2,060 
1.081 
1,531 
10.397 
1,546 
2.484 
1,117 

712 

19.278 

1,305 

1.073 

1.879 

919 

993 
1,002 
4.045 
1.220 
2.376 
2,486 
8.743 

756 

630 
3.686 
2,778 
1,938 



$2,328 
1,294 

567 
3,058 

683 
4,522 
2,046 
1,807 
2,471 

812 
2,50.3 

910 
1,967 
2,083 
1.976 
1,368 

806 
2.443 

830 

710 
6,650 
1.256 

'980 
20,473 
50,671 
10.034 

110 

440 
2,114 
1.703 
4,449 
4,502 



4,854 

3,625 
2,344 
2,149 
24,47-; 
2,385 
2.185 
1,735 

319 
2.053 
3,673 
1,948 

513 
4,597 

317 
2,514 
1,263 
1,559 

435 

855 
2.224 

939 
2,131 
1,081 
1,531 
12.272 
1.521 
1,925 
1,347 

743 
19.532 
1,337 
1,094 
1,863 
1.106 

971 

951 
2.108 
1.483 
2.479 
2.409 
8.270 
1,051 

629 
3,532 
2,414 
1,941 



»3 



<i 

231 
580 
285 
520 
189 
144 

1,119 
986 
177 
417 
196 
186 
349 
527 
852 
141 
480 
216 
366 
315 

1.376 
722 
447 
350 

6,528 
358 
112 
262 
500 
171 

1.248 

1,946 
635 
895 

470 
402 

1,285 

1,128 

1.094 
609 
347 
184 
504 
405 
146 
366 
634 
376 
293 
320 
200 
223 
132 
171 
120 
506 
678 
162 

3,032 

206 

936 

180 

92 

2,904 
331 
215 
293 
133 
240 
160 
129 

1.268 
138 
244 

1,065 
200 
266 
667 
604 
373 



130 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Sfafistk-s of Academies from the Regents' Report of 1859, continued. 



Nastes. 



TTtica Academy 

Utica Female Academy 

Vernon Academy 

Wallkill Academy 

"Walton Academy 

Walworth Academy 

Warsaw Union School 

Warwick Institute 

Washington Academy 

Washington Co. Seminary & C. I... 

Waterloo Union School 

Waverly Institute 

'•■ • r academy 

Weetfield Academy 

West Winficld Academy 

Whitehall Academy 

Whitestown Seminary 

Wilson Collegiate Institute 

Windsor Academy 

Yates Academy 

Yates Polytechnic Institute 

Total 





s *• 






"a 






£ so 








"2 




1 50 


1 . 


OS 


'§•§ 


3 fj 


fe 


, k. 


svS 


•< 

u 


fe* 


«T9 

o 5 


1 




-c: "i 


fc 


a -3 


fe;-H 








A 


11 


S-l 


7 


188 


159 


11 


179 


69 


5 


162 


96 


3 


198 


110 


6 


131 


73 


3 


84 


•35 


3 


150 


137 


3 


112 


62 


4 


124 


63 


16 


777 


512 


9 


608 


27 


5 


176 


43 


3 


92 


47 


3 


250 


113 


9 


357 


165 


3 


387 


77 


9 


400 


286 


4 


232 


138 


2 


59 


36 


2 


157 


43 


/ 


251 


109 


949 


35.009 


20j812 



r 









$308.52 

133.89 

180.28 

213.44 

141.05 

67.91 

265.83 

91.20 

122.24 

993.98 

52.39 

83.44 

91.20 

219.26 

293.50 

149.31 

554.95 

267.77 

69.85 

83.44 

211.50 



Total Values. 



vf 

§1 



$7,000 

23.000 
4.000 
6.510 
3.429 
8.440 
4.800 
5.300 
5.000 

14.100 
6.500 
7,354 
4.300 
4,300 

10.000 
3,5G0 

12.500 
2.685 
3.780 
2.750 

10,000 



$2,009 076 



So 
e 

h 

"feo 



$313 

1S9 
464 
340 
409 
200 
279 
150 
271 
646 
435 
165 
166 
540 
778 
260 
1,305 
785 
488 
480 
242 






5 a 
3 "-2 



$760 
257 
583 
190 
473 
789 
461 
150 
700 
947 
475 
178 
168 
300 
925 
503 

1.236 
546 
190 
519 
358 






$3,947 
3.861 

891 
2,811 
1.899' 

998 
1.396 
1.382 
1.109 
9,192 
3,090 
1,391 

743 
1.216 
3,142 
1,058 
3,635 
1,210 

506 

795 
3.182 



$111,438 $101,693 $595,125 $582,135 93,959 



-« 
c 



•3 



$3,944 
3,728 

S90 
2,811 
1,685 

855 
1,396 
1,320 
1,103 
9,191 
3.372 
1,580 

738 
1.161 
3^42 
1.040 
3,612 
1,209 

578 

840 
3,182 



8 



IS 



169 
127 
530 
423 
222 
130 
231 
104 
366 
549 
789 
166 
112 
510 
600 
220 
1,193 
790 
589 
332 
296 



Academies incorporated since the organization of a State Government in 1777. 



Name. 


Location. 


Jncorp. by 
Legislature. 


Incorp. by 
Regents. 


Remarks. 


Academy of the Sacred Heart- 
Academic Department of Union 
School 




April 11, 1849 


Jan. 11, 1855 
April 22, 1855 
Feb. 8, 1849 
Mar. 4, 1813 
Jan. 29, 1828 
April 16, 1828 


Extinct. 

Extinct. 
Extinct. 
Sold, fall of 1858. 

Not organized. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

F.xtinct. 
Extinct. 

Extinct. 
Extinct. 

Merged in Packur Inst. 
Not organized. 
Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Diss, by act Apr. 21, 1846. 












Albany Pearl Street Academy. 




Feb. 16,1821 
April 9. 1828 
April 23, 1836 
May 1, 1837 
May 6, 1834 






Feb. 27, 1841 
Feb. 5, 1839 
Jan. 31, 1843 
Mar. 29. 1836 
Feb. 5, 18.39 
Feb. 16, 1S41 

Feb. 1, 1S56 
May 4. 1841 
Feb. 13. 1844 
Feb. 14. lsift 
Feb. 11, 1M0 
Feb. 28, 1842 
Jan. 29, 1839 
Feb. 27, 1841 
April 11. 1843 
Mar. 21. lso8 
Feb. 5, 1839 


Alexander Classical School.-... 










Amsterdam K'-male Seminary.. 




April 22. 1837 
Mar. 29,1839' 
May 12,1836 














Auburn Female Seminar;." 








April 18, 1838 








April 80, 1S33 
April 30, 1836 


lull ftemraarr* 








Batavia, Onesee co 


Mar. 5. 1838 
April 8, 1S26 
Mar. 8,1838 
Mar. 29, 1841 


Bennrllle Acad, i Fcm. Sem... 






Feb. 28,1842 
Au K . 23. 1S42 
April 1, 1811 
April 16, 1828 
Feb. 16, 1842 
April 17, 1847 
April 7, 1854 

Jan. 14,1847 

Jan. 10, 1850 
Oct. 14,1851 








April 8,182 


Brock purl Collegiate institute. 






1 ivn OoU. k Polytoch. Ins. 
B  I. Inst tor 1 rang 

klyn Pen 1 my 




April 23, 1829 
May 8,1846 

April 30, 1839 






Bruwufille F--m.il" Batnlnary... 

Bnflalo Ft male B< miliary 

Buffalo Literary A Sci. Acad'.. 








April 23, 1831 
April 17, 1.S27 











The. Institution hnd be- 



« Jan. 20, 1863 and July 'Jl. li 
come extinct under Its first rhart-r. 

» Incorp. as the " Aurora Manual Labor Seminary.' 
changed April 16, 1833. 



Name 



• Named from L. Chandler Ball, principal founder of tho In- 
stitution. 

d Incorp. as the " Buffalo High School Association." Nanie 
changed. 



COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES. 



131 





Academics incorporated since 1777, continued. 




Name. 


Location. 


Incorp. by 
Legislature. 


Incorp. by 
Regents. 


Hi marks. 


Cambridge Washington Acad... 






Mar. 30. 1815 
Feb. 26, 1828 
Mar. 4. 1795 
Jan. 23, 1840 
Oct. 'Jo. is;,:; 
May 16. 1846 
Ma'r. 12, 1804 

Mar. 23, 1801 
Aug. 23, 1842 
Jan. 15, 1857 
July 9, 1857 
Feb. 8, 1796 
Feb. 27, 1844 
April 21. 1857 
Oct. 12. 18fi4 
Mar. 17, 1835 
Feb. 5, 1839 
June 14, 1854 
Feb. 26, 1839 
Nov. 17, 1787 
Feb. 27, 1S26 
Mar. 29, 1836 
Feb. 15. 1842 
Feb. 23, 1849 


Extinct. 

Not organized. 

Provisional charter. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Not organized. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Provisional charter. 
Extinct. 

Extinct. 
Extinct. 

Extinct. 
Provisional Charter. 

Provisional Charter. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Provisional Charter. 
Merged in Genesee Coll. 

Merged in Geneva Coll. 


Canajoharie, Montgomery co 


April 13, 1S26 




April 24, 1837 












Catskill, Greene co 




Mar. 24, 1S20 










































April 25, 1831 


Claverack Acad. & Hud. R. Ins. 




April 26, 1834 


Collegiate Inst. City of N. Y... 




Mar. 28, 1S17 
April 29, 1834 

Apiii' 7, 1S48 
July 10, 1851 
May 2, 1837 








Mar. 13, 1797 

June 14, 1854 
Feb. 2, 1819 


Cooperstown Female Academy 
Cooperstowu Seminary and Fe- 




April 15, 1822 










April 18, 182S 


Jan. 31, 1S43 
Feb. 5, 1839 
Jan. 14, 1858 
April 13. 1842 
Feb. 2, 1820 
Jan. 29, 1839 
Jan. 30, 1838 
Dec. 3, 1847 

Mar. 22, 1855 

Feb. 1, 1792 
Jan. 23, 1840 






May 5, 1837 




Delaware Literary Institute 












April 23, 1835 
Mar. 30, 1836 


Eastern Coll. Inst. City of N.Y. 

Elmira Collegiate Seminary.... 
Erasmus Hail 






May 9, 1835 


May 1, 1837 




April 9, 1S38 
May 7, 1844 


Feb. 11. 1S53 
Mar. 31.1840 
Oct. 20, 1S53 
Nov. 17. 1787 
Mar. 6. 1S38 
Mar. 15, 1S03 
Feb. 5, 1S39 
Jan. 21, 1791 
Feb. 5, 1839 
April 21, 1857 

Oct. 11, 1S45 

Oct. 20. 1853 
April 28, 1831 
Feb. 23. 1824 
Feb. 23, 1830 
Feb. 8, 1849 
Jan. 26, 1830 
Jan. 29, 1S39 
Oct. 11, 1845 
Feb. 1, 1856 

Jan. 8, 1857 
Mar. 9, 1836 
Mar. 27,1845 
Feb. 7, 1829 
Mar. 29, 1S13 

Feb. 4, 1847 
May 4. 1S41 
Jan. 12, 1S42 
Jan. 11, 1855 
Feb. 19,1829 
















Fairfield, Herkimer co 


May 1, 1S34 




May 24,1836 




May 4, 1S37 

July 9, 1S51 
Mav 11. 1S35 
April 16, 1827 
May 13. 1845 
April 21, 1831 


Fern. Acad, of the Sacred Heart 
Flushing Institute 








Fort Phun Seminary and Fe- 














Nov. 25,1824 






April 14, 1827 
May 26, 1S36 






Genesee Conference Seminary... 
Genesee Manual Labor Sem"... 








April 13, 1832 
May 11, 1S35 




Genesee Wesleyan Seminary*... 
Genesee & Wyoming Seminary 




April 30, 1S33 






Mar. 10, 1827 




Gilbertsville Acad. & Coll. Inst. 

Gloversville Union Seminary... 
Gouverneur Wesleyan Sem/.... 


Geneva, Ontario co 


April 15, 1853 














Gouverneur, St. Lawrence co 


April 5,1828 



"Incorp. as "Fulton Female Seminarv ;" name changed to 
"Fulton Academy," April 11.1842; to the " Falley Seminary 
of the Black River Conference," April 11, 1849 ; and to the name 
given above, March 5, 1857. 

1 Charter made perpetual June 23. 1S51. 



' See act of March 27, 1834. d See act of March. 1836. 

« Incorp. as the " Livingston County High School." Name 
changed May 13, 1846. 

/Incorp. as the " Gouverneur High School." Name changed 
April 24, 1840. 



132 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Academies incorporated since 1777, continued. 



Name. 


Location. 


Incorp. by 
Legislature. 


Incorp. by 
Regents. 


Remarks. 




Grammar School Coluni. Coll." 

Grammar School Madison Uni. 

Grammar School University 

of Citv of New York" 






April 17, 1838 
June 17, 1853 

April 17, 1838 

A prill 6, 1830 
Feb. 27.1841 
Feb. 27,1816 
Jan. 29.1839 
Feb. 14, 1S51 
Feb. 23,1824 
Jan. 17,1856 
Jan. 29, 1793 


Extinct. 

Sold in 1S59. 

Merg. in Ham. Coll., 1812. 
Extinct. 

Now a private institution. 
Provisional charter. 
Extinct. 
Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Merged in Ingham Univ. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Merged in Public Schools. 

Now a private institution. 

Merged in Ing. Coll. Inst. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Private School. 
Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Provisional charter. 

Extinct. 
Extinct. 

Extinct. 
Extinct. 

Changed to Munro Coll. 
Inst. 

Extinct. 
Extinct. 

Extinct. 
Extinct. 
Kxtinct. 
Extinct. 










Gram. School of N. Y. Ceu. Coll. 
Gn?enbush & Schodack Acad... 

Hamilton Female Seminary.... 
Hamilton Oneida Academy ,, 
Harlem Lit. & Sci. Academy... 
Hartwick Seminary 


McGrawville, Cortland co. 


Mar. 31, 1828 
April 25, 1S31 


East Greenbush, Rensselaer co... 


May 6, 1S37 
















Jan. 24, 1S29 




Aug. 

Oct. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Jan. 

Mar. 
Feb. 
Mar. 


13, 1816 
12, 1854 
14, 1858 

29. 1839 

11. 1840 

23, 1840 

28, 1850 

14, 1850 

3, 1807 


Hedding Literarv Institute 






Herkimer County Academy 
Highland Grove Gymnasium... 
Unhurt Hall Institute 




May 2, 1S36 


Fishkill. Dutchess co 


April 11, 1831 
Mar. 16, 1839 
April 24, 1834 


Hudson River Agricult. Som... 
Ingham Collegiate Institute*-. 


Hubbards Corners. Madison co... 








May 6, 1837 
April 6, 1S52 
Mar. 24, 1S23 
April 16, 1836 
Nov. 27,1824 
May 25, 1S36 


Jan. 28, 1853 

Feb. 5, 1S.39 
Jan. 22,1833 
Jan. 30, 1S38 
Jan. 27,1794 
Oct. 26, 1850 
Jan. 12. 1842 
Feb. 5, 1839 
Feb. 19. 1828 
Feb. 5, 1839 
Feb. 3, 1795 
Feb. 15, 1S42 

Jan. 22, 1S46 
Feb. 8, 1796 
Mar. 17, 1854 
Feb. 16. 1S41 
April 16, 1S28 
Sept. 20, 1849 


Jefferson County Institute* 


Jamestown, Chautauqua co _. 




April 1,1850 




May 4, 1«35 
April 3,1824 


Kingshorough Academy 


Knoxville Academy 

La Fayette High School 








May 9. 1837 
April 23, 1S36 














Lewiston High School Acad.... 

Literary <fc Sci. Inst, of York... 
Little Falls, The Academy at... 
I/>ckport Academy 








• 




April 10, 1849 
Mar. 27, 1839 




Oct. 

Oct. 
Mar. 

Jan. 
Jan. 


17, 1844 

26. 1850 
21, 1808 

.30. 1845 
2 1 .'. Too 


Lockport, Niagara co 


May 26,1841 
Ma'r. 18, 1S50 


Lockport Union School 


Mar. 29, 1837 

April 11, 1842 
April 13, 1835 

Mar. 15, 1849 
Mar. 27, 1839 

April 24, 1834 
AprillO, 1850 
April 'jo. 1836 
April 13, 1826 




Mansion Square Female Sem... 

M i-' D Oollegi lie ln-titntc 

1 Die Academy 






Feb. 6, is.39 
April IV 1861 
Feb. 5, 18.39 
Feb. 26, 1828 
Jan. 26, 1819 
Feb. 16, 1841 
Jan. 21, 1791 
April 1,1862 
Jan. 23. 1S40 
Feb. 16,1841 


Marion, YTayne co. 




my/. 






April 25. 1- In 








ih Academy 

M. nnt Pl"*mnt Academy 

^1 unt Pleawint Female Pern... 










M "imt Pleasant, Westchester co.. 
Mount Pleasant, Westchester ca. 


Mar. 24, 1 


April 3. 1S27 
May 10.18.36 
July 2,1827 
Feb. 7,1848 

April 23, 18.39 

Feb. 13,1844 
Mar. .3, 1806 
April 29, 1836. 
Oct. 11, 1845. 








Najeau Academy 

New Berlin Ai-ademy 

New Palti Academy 












May n.1835 








April 12, 1833. 
April 13,1828 

Mar. 15. 1*22 
May 2, 1834 




(ferwtown Female Academy 

v. w York Conference Ban 

N'.w York Fr<y Academy 








Oct. 
Oct. 


26, 1850 

31,1849 


May 7, 1847 



• See act of above date. 

» Changed to the Ingham Tniversity. April 3, 1"<57. 

• Kntitled to share In Literature Fund, by act of April 17 
1828. 



* Incorporated as the " Rlack River Literary and Theological 
Institute." Name changed May 12. 1840. 

• Again incorp. by statute May 7, 1840. 

/Incorp. as the "Rensselaer Oswego Academy." Name 
changed May 14, 1845. 



COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES. 



133 



Academies incorporated since 1777, continued. 



Name. 



Xrtv York Inst. Deaf & Dumb* 
Ninth Granville Female Seiu... 

Ninth Hebron Institute 

North Salem Academy 

Norwich Academy 

Norwich Union Seminary 

Nunda Literary Institute 

< tgdensburgh Academy' 

Olean Academy 

Oneida Conference Seminary .. 
Oneida Inst, of Sci. & Industry 

Oneida Seminary 

Onondaga Academy 

Ontario Female Seminary 

Ontario High School 

Orleans Academy 

Oswegatchie Academy 

Oswego Academy 

Otsego Academy 

Ovid Academy 

Owego Academy 

Oxford Academy 

Oyster Bay Academy 

Packer Collegiate Institute 

Palmyra Academy 

Palmyra High School 

Palmyra Classical Union School 

Peekskill Academy 

Pembroke & Darien Class. Sch. 

Penfield Seminary 

Perry Academy 

Perry Center Institute 

Peterboro Academy 

Phipps Union Seminary 

Piermont Academy 

Plattsburgh Academy 

Pompey Academy 

Poughkeepsie Collegiate School 
Poughkeepsie Female Academy 
Poughkeepsie Female Seminary 

Prattsville Academy 

Preble High School 

Princetown Academy 

Prospect Academy 

Pulaski Academy 

Randolph Acad. Association 

Red Creek Academy 

Redhook Academy 

Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst.... 

Rensselaerville Academy 

Rhinebeck Academy 

Richburgh Academy 

Richmondville Union Seminary 

& Female Collegiate Inst 

Ridgebury Academy 

Riga Academy 

Rochester Collegiate Institute.. 

Rochester Female Academy 

Rochester High School 

Rochester Inst. General Educ 
Rochester iDst. Practical Educ. 
Rockland County Female Inst. 
Rogersville Union Seminary.... 

Rome Academy 

Rome Academy 

Royalton Center Academy 

Rural Academy 

Rushford Academy 

Rutger's Female Institute^ 

Rye Academy 

Sag Harbor institute 

St. Lawrence Academy 

St. Paul's College, The Propri- 
etors of. 

Sand Lake Academy 

Saratoga Acad. & Sci. Inst 

Saugerties Academy 

Sauquoit Academy 

Schaghticoke Seminary 

Schenectady Academy 

Schenectady Lyceum & Acad/.. 
Schenectady Young Ladies' Sem 
Schoharie Academy 



Location. 



New York City 

Granville, Washington co 

I Id in in. Washington co 

North Salem, Westchester CO.... 

Norwich, Chenango co, 

Norwich, Chenango co 

Nunda, Livingston co 

Ogdensburg, St. Lawrence co... 

Olean, Cattaraugus co 

Cazenovia, Madison co , 

Whitesboro', Oneida co 

Oneida, Madison co 

Onondaga, Onondaga co". 

Canandaigua, Ontario co 

Victor, Ontario co 

Orleans, Jefferson co 

Ogdensburgh, St. Lawrence co 

West Oswego, Oswego co 

Cherry Valley, Otsego co 

Ovid, Seneca co 

Owego, Tioga co 

Oxford, Chenango co 

Oyster Bay. QueenB co 

Brooklyn, Kings co 

Palmyra, Wayne co , 

Palmyra, Wayne co 

Palmyra, Wayne co 

Peekskill, Westchester co 

Pembroke, Darien, Genesee co.. 

Penfield, Monroe co 

Perry, Wyoming co 

Perry Center, Wyoming co 

Peterboro, Madison co 

Albion, Orleans co 

Piermont, Rockland co 

Plattsburgh, Clinton co 

Pompey, Onondaga co 

Poughkeepsie, Dutchess co , 

Poughkeepsie, Dutchess co 

Poughkeepsie, Dutchess co 

Prattsville, Greene co 

Preble, Cortland co 

Princetown, Schenectady co.... 

Prospect, Oneida co 

Pulaski, Oswego co 

Randolph, Cattaraugus co , 

Red Creek, Wayne co 

Redhook, Dutchess co 

Troy, Rensselaer co 

Rensselaerville. Albany co 

Rhinebeck, Dutchess co 

Richburgh, Allegany co 

Richmondville, Schoharie co... 

Minisink, Orange co 

Riga, Monroe co 

Rochester, Monroe co 

Rochester, Monroe co , 

Rochester, Monroe co 

Rochester, Monroe co 

Rochester, Monroe co 

Orangetown, Rockland co 

Rogersville, Steuben co 

Rome, Oneida co 

Rome. Oneida co 

Royalton, Niagara co 

Montgomery, Orange co 

Rushford, Allegany co 

New York City 

Rye, Westchester co 

Sag Harbor, Suffolk co 

Potsdam, St. Lawrence co 

Flushing. Queens co 

Sand Lake, Rensselaer co 

Saratoga Springs 

Saugerties, Ulster co 

Sauquoit, Oneida co 

Schaghticoke, Rensselaer co. 

Schenectady, Schenectady co.... 
Schenectady, Schenectady co.... 
Schenectady. Schenectady co.... 
Schoharie, Schoharie co 



hicorp. by 
LiyisUUure. 



April 15, 1817 

Mar. 16, l'837 
Aprii 20, 1835 
April 6, is25 



April U. 1825 
April 6, 1830 

April 26,1833 
April 25, 1833 

Apriil3,lS26 



Mar. 19, 1853 
April U. 18-12 
Mar. 28, 1829 
April 7, 1S57 
April 16, 1838 
April 6, 1838 



April 21, 1828 

May" 28,' 1836 

May 10, 1836 
Mar. 19,1834 

Aiiril 24J 1834 



June 4, 1853 

Mar. 27, 1839 
April 23, 1823 
May 8, 1837 



April 30, 1S39 



April 21, 1837 
Mar. 15, 1827 

April 19, 1828 
April 14, 1832 



April 28, 1835 
Jan. 28, 1848 
April 9,1839 



April 10, 1S38 
April 13, 1826 



May 9, 1840 
April 28,' 1835 

May '4,1S36 

Mar. 21, 1837 
Mar. 22, 1837 
April 28, 1837 



Incorp. by 
Jiegenlt. 





Feb. 


10, 


1854 


Mar. 


17, 


w,i 


Feb. 


19, 


1790 


Feb. 


14, 


1843 



Jan. 30, 1845 
Feb. 5, 1839 
April 11, 1853 
Jan. 29, 1828 
Mar. 24, 1829 
July 9, 1857 
April 10, 1813 
Jan. 29, 1828 

Feb. 5, 1851 



Feb. 8, 1796 

Jan. 26, 1830 
April 16, 1828 

Jan. 27, 1794 

Mar. 15, 1803 

Jan. 11, 1855 

July 2, 1833 

Feb. 5, 1839 



Oct. 

April 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Feb. 

Feb. 



8, 1S57 

7, 1854 
31, 1843 
23, 1853 
11, 1840 
15, 1842 

4, 1829 
11, 1S11 

9, 1839 
28, 1837 



Jan. 31,1850 

Oct. 20, 1853 
Jan. 24, 1851 



Jan. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Jan. 
Feb. 



24, 1851 
5, 1846 

23, 1S29 
5, 1846 

30, 1845 

23, 1841 



April 12, 1850 

Feb. 10, 1854 
Feb. 11, 1840 
May 11,1846 
Feb. 26,1839 
Feb. 5, 1839 
April 19, 1831 



Oct. 12, 1855 
Jan. 28, 1S53 

Mar. 15,1849 

April' 1,' 1852 
Mar. 4, 1852 
Jan. 23, 1S40 

Jan. 20,1848 
Mar. 25, 1816 



Feb. 19, 1S46 



April 
April 



7, 1854 
6, 1849 



Jan. 29, 1793 

Feb. 5, 1839 

Feb. 5, 1839 

Feb. 5, 1839 



Remarks. 



Extinct. 

Merged in Public Schools. 



Extinct. 

Provisional Charter. 



Extinct. 
Extinct. 



Extinct. 
Extinct. 

Provisional Charter. 
Extinct. 

Extinct. 



Extinct. 

Not organized. 

Extinct. 



Extinct. 

Became private inst. 1S55. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Merged in Rochester Col- 
legiate Institute. 
Extinct. 
Extinct. 
Provisional charter. 

Extinct. 



Not organized. 



Extinct. 
Extinct. 



Extinct. 

Merged in Union Coll. 1795 

Extinct. 



« Entitled to a share of the Literature Fund by act of April 
15, 1830. 

* Merged in the Public School System of Ogdensburgh by 
act of April 13, 1857. 

' Incorp. as the " Seminary of the Genesee Conference ;" name 



changed to " Seminary of Genesee and Oneida Conference" 
March 24, 1829, and to the present name May 8, 1S35. 

d Charter amended March 16. 1S58. 

« Revived by act of April 17. 1818. See also act of April 25, 1831. 

/Allowed to educate females by act of March 28, 1839. 



134 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Acade?nies incorporated since 1777, continued. 



Name. 


Location. 


Incorp. by 
Legislature. 


Incorp. by 
Regents. 


Remarks. 


tilic & Military Academy 






Jan. 23,1840 

Jan. 9, 1829 
Feb. 5, 1S39 

Feb. 11,1840 
Jan. 23, 1840 

Jan. 11, 1S55 

Dec. 3, 1S47 
Jan. 26,1830 
Feb. 4, 1848 
Feb. 25,1848 
Jan. 29, 1S28 
Jan. 29,1839 
Feb. 25, 1848 
Mar. 31,1831 
April 7, 1S54 
Feb. 5, 1S39 
April 8, 1858 
Feb. 5, 1S39 

Jan. 30,1838 
July 6, 1S54 


Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Merged in Public Schools. 

Extinct. 
Extinct. 
Extinct. 
Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 
Provisional charter. 

Merged in Public Schools. 

Extinct. 

Not organized. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 
Extinct. 
Merged in Union School. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 

Extinct. 
Extinct. 

Extinct. 
Extinct. 


April 17, 1826 
April 27, 1837 

April 5,1839 


Seward Female Seminary of 






April 14, 1S29 




Southold, Suffolk co 


April 21, 1S37 
May 13. 1845 
Mar. 19, 1827 
May 7, 1847 


S. S. Seward Institute 


Spencertown, Columbia co 








April 17, 1826 






Troy Episcopal Institute 


April 5, 1828 


April 28, 1835 


May 5, 1834 
April 13, 1839 
May 6, 1837 


Stone Arabia. Montgomery co 


April 30, 1839 




April 1, 1S52 
•Mar. 31. 1795 
Jan. 11, 1S55 
Feb. 29,1792 
Jan. 5, 1830 
Jan. 23, 1S40 
Mar. 14, 1814 

Feb. 5, 1839 
Feb. 5, 1839 
















Union Village, Washington co 


April 13, 1826 








May 26, 1853 
April 28, 1837 
April 18, 1838 
May 21, 1S36 

May 4, 1839 
May 26, 1841 










Wallabont Select Gram. School 
of the 7;b Ward in the City 






Feb. 13, 1S42 
Feb. 10,1854 
April 19, 1843 

Jan. 27,1854 
Jan. 11, 1S55 
Mar. 17, 1854 
Feb. 15, 1791 
Mar. 25, 1811 

July 6, 1854 
Feb. 6, 1839 
Mar. 19, 1819 
Aug. 23, 1842 
Oct. 11, 1855 

Jan. 21,1858 

Fob. 6, 1839 
Mar. 22, 1855 
Jan. 30, 1840 
Feb. 14,1851 




Warn' rville Union Seminary 

Washington County Seminary 
A Collegiate Institute 




May 12,1841 






















April 28, 1834 


Waterfbrd Female Academy.... 




April 11, 1842 


Wnvirlv, Tioga co 


May 2, 1835 


\\ . itfleld Academy 




April 18, 1838 
May 5, 1837 




 a] School.. 




April 18, 1839 
April 20, 1839 


. Ill v 




Oct. 27,1848 
Jan. 26, 1830 
Mar. 23. 1S13 
Mar. 27, 1845 
Feb. 19, 1846 


White I'l iiriB Academy 


White Plains, Westchester co 


April 19, 1828 








May 10,1837 


Bty Academy A Fe- 




Mar. 15, 1849 
Aug. 23, 1842 

Jan. 25, 1830 
Aprilll, 1853 








April 17, 1828 


Yates Polyto hnic Tn«tttnt^ 


Cbitfc o ing ■. Uadison on 





• Cha- I Feb. 19,1841. Merged in Block River Literary and Religious Institute. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 




Ample provisions have been made by the State for the establish- 
ment and support of public schools throughout its borders. To 
this end the whole inhabited portions of the State have been divided 
into convenient districts, in each of which a school is taught some 
portion of the year and is open to all and within the reach of all. 
These schools are supported in part by money derived from the 
State, in part by a rate bill collected from parents of children 
attending school, and in part by a tax upon the property of the 
district. 1 

School Districts are formed and altered by school com- 
missioners. These districts are so formed as to best accommodate 
all the inhabitants of the various localities and at the same time 
secure efficiency in school organizations. Each district has a schoolhouse and a library. Its 
monetary affairs are arranged, and its officers elected, at annual meetings of all the taxable in- 
habitants. Its officers are trustees, a clerk, a collector, and a librarian. 2 

School Commissioners are elected in each of the Assembly districts of the State outside 
of the cities, and have the general supervision of schools. They examine and license teachers, 
visit the schools, and in every possible way endeavor to advance the general interests of education. 
They report annually to the State department of education. 

The State Superintendent of Public Instruction is the administrative officer 
of the school department. He has an office in the State Hall at Albany, and has a deputy and 
the necessary number of clerks. He hears and decides appeals from the school officers and Com- 
missioners, and has the general supervision of the common schools, Indian schools, the Institution 
for the Deaf and Dumb, and all similar institutions in the State. He is ex officio a member of the 
Board of Regents of the University, is chairman of the Executive Committee of the Normal 
School, and a trustee of' the State Asylum for Idiots. He also apportions the school fund among 
the several counties and districts as the law directs. 

The school fund of the State, derived from a variety of sources, in 1859 yielded a revenue of 
$264,500. 3 This sum, and the amount derived from the f mill tax, is divided among the schools 
as follows : — One-third is divided among the districts in proportion to the number of teachers 
employed, and the remaining two-thirds are distributed to the several counties in proportion to 
their population, and thence distributed to the districts in proportion to the number of children 
between the ages of 4 and 21. 

District libraries were established in 1838 ; and from that period to 1851, with few inter- 
missions, the sum of $55,000 was annually appropriated for the purchase of books. 4 These 



1 In 1859 the amount divided by the State among the several 
districts was $1,316,607.18. Of this sum $1,052,107.18 was de- 
rived from the i mill State tax, and $264,500 from the interest of 
the common school fund. 

A record is kept of the attendance of each pupil, and the 
amount due for teachers' wages above that received from the 
State is assessed in proportion to this attendance. Cost of 
fuel, repairs, and the amount of rate bills abated to indigent 
parents are met by a tax upon the property of the district. 

2 District Meetings decide upon questions of building and re- 
pairing schoolhouses, furnishing them, providing fuel and facili- 
ties for teaching, within the limits of the law. The annual 
meetings for the election of officers are held on the second Tuesday 
of Oct. throughout the State. The Board of Trustees, consisting 
of 1 or 3 at the option of the district, constitute the executive 
officers of the district. The Trustees engage teachers, properly 
furnish the schoolhouse, provide fuel, and execute the wishes of 
the district as expressed in the district meetings. They have 
also the care of the district library. The Clerk preserves the 
records of the district and calls district meetings. 

3 The school fund was chiefly derived from the following 
sources : — 

1799, Seven-eighths of four lotteries of $100,000, aggre- 
gate $ 87.500 

1801, One-half of lotteries of $100,000, aggregate 50.000 

1805, Proceeds of 500,000 acres of land sold. 
" Stock subscribed in Merchants' Lank, and in- 
creased in 1807 and '08. 

1816, One-half of the proceeds of the Crumhorn Moun- 
tain Tract of 6,944£ acres, amounting to 5,208 



1819, One-half of the arrears of quitrents $26,690 

" An exchange of securities between general and 
common school fund, by which the school fund 

sained 161,641 

" Proceeds of escheated lands in M ilitary Tract given. 
1822, By the Constitution, all public lands, amounting to 
991,659 acres, were given to the school fund. 

1S27, Dalance of loan of 1786, amounting to 33.610 

" Bank stock owned by the State 100.000 

" Canal « " " " 150,000 

1S38, From the revenue of the United States deposit 

fund, annually 110.000 

An additional sum from the same fund for libraries 55,000 

The sum of $25,000 from the revenue of the United States 
deposit fund is annually added to the capital of the common 
school fund; and the capital of this fund is declared by theCou- 
stitution to be inviolate. 

In directing the sale of the public lands, the State reserved 
certain lots in the 10 Towns of St. Lawrence co. and in the Che- 
nango 20 Townships, for gospel and school purposes. The pro- 
ceeds from the sales of these lands have formed a local fund for 
the benefit of the towns in which they lie. Many other towns 
have small funds, derived from fines and penalties, applicable to 
schqols. See p. 47. 

4 The following directions are given in the selection of books : — 

•• 1. No works written professedly to uphold or attack any 
sect or creed in our country claiming to be a religious one shall 
be tolerated in the school librailes. 

"2. Standard works on other topics shall not be excluded 

135 



136 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



libraries, free to every person in the district, generally comprise books on scientific and literary 
subjects and affording means of information which would otherwise be unattainable. 

The State Normal School was established in 1844, for the instruction and practice of 
 teachers of common schools in the science of education and the art of teaching. It is supported 
by an annual appropriation from the literature fund, and is under the immediate charge of an 
executive committee appointed by the Regents of the University. Each county in the State is 
entitled to send twice as many pupils to the school as it sends members to the Assembly. The 
pupils receive tuition and the use of textbooks free, and also receive a small amount of mileage. 
The school is located at the corner of Howard and Lodge Streets, Albany. 1 

The law makes provision for the establishment of Union Free Schools wherever the 
inhabitants may desire it, and for the formation of Colored Schools in districts where the 
presence of colored children is offensive to a majority of the people of the district. 2 

Previous to the Revolution no general system of education was established. All the schools ' 
that had been founded were of a private character or the result of special legislation. The 
necessity and importance of common schools had not been recognized, and education was princi- 
pally confined to the wealthier classes. At the first meeting of the State Legislature, in 1787, 
Gov. Clinton called the attention of that body to the subject of education, and a law was passed 
providing for the appointment of the Regents of the University. In 1789 an act was passed appro- 
priating certain portions of the public lands for gospel and school purposes. In 1793 the Regents 
in their report recommended the establishment of a general system of common schools ; and in 
1795 Gov. Clinton in his message to the Legislature strongly urged the same. 3 On the 9th of 
April of that year a law was passed "for the purpose of encouraging and maintaining schools in 
the several cities and towns in this State, in which the children of the inhabitants of the State 
shall be instructed in the English language, or be taught English grammar, arithmetic, mathe- 
matics, and such other branches of knowledge as are most useful and necessary to complete a good 
English Mucation." By this act the sum of £20,000, or S50,000, was annually appropriated for 
5 years for the support of these schools.* 

The beneficial result of this system, imperfect as it was, became at once apparent; and from time 
to time measures were taken to increase the funds and to improve the system. 5 The successive 
Governors nearly all strongly recommended the passage of new laws for the encouragement and 
support of schools ; 6 but nothing definite was accomplished until 1811, when 5 commissioners were 



because they incidentally and indirectly betray the religious 
opinions of their authors. 

Works, avowedly on other topics, which abound in direct 
and unreserved attacks on. or defense of. the character of any 
- ct, or those which hold up any religious body tocon- 
lecration by singling out or bringing together only 
th- darker parts of it-* historj oi character, shall be excluded 
from Libraries. In the selection of books for u dis- 

trict library, information, and not mere amusement, is to be 
>- the primary Suitable provision should, 

rer. be made for the Intellectual wants of the young, by 
furnishing them with books which, without being merely 
Juvenile in t ).>ir character, may be level to their comprehension 
and sufficiently entertaining to excite and gratify a taste for 
r<-n'i! u which are not read." — Code 

, <~ i- ie l>. ' . . - 

i M tnd females at 16 years of age; 

and ipired to sign a pledge that 

ha intends to bi I The number of graduates up 

to ti - the tbirt'  •. and tho 

nnnib- r of pupils at that th Hie school lor several 

year- r the head of State Street, now 

k  ii n." in 1848 the present building 

was  The  p rlmental school 

.t by the grade mbers j mewhal over 100 

s. Thev ] i "i appointed by the 

Executive Oonun 

. let the Dnl d I 1 law a largo numl>er of schools 

■i established in different parti of the State. Tbesi 

 f the 
district, and the rate bill system la dU irded. 

lished In all tb I the larger ^ ill* 

the State by >-i cases thi I 

irtnc nt*. furnishing 
Instruction from the primary to a full acadetn 
entirely free and within the reai b of all, they aflbi 
cbi'. i tunitj to 

K thorough English • i mk among 

the best public •■ fa I- In thi •■■■ thus far 

i superior to those in whii h the rate i ill system is retained. 

* I- his message Governor Clinton uses the following lan- 

ruag>-. — "While It is evl ral establishment 

and libera] endowment of academies are highly to be c nn- 

mended and are attended with the most beneficial consequences, 



yet it cannot be denied that they are principally confined to the 
children of the opulent, and that a great portion of the commu- 
nity is excluded from their immediate advantages. The esta- 
blishment of common schools throughout tho State is happily 
calculated to remedy this inconvenience, and will therefore en- 
gage your early and decided consideration." 

4 The principal features of the system inaugurated by this act 
were as follows : — 

1. The public money was to be appropriated to the several 
counties in the proportion of their representation in the Legis- 
lature, and to the towns in proportion to the number of taxable 
inhabitants in each. 

2. The Boards of Supervisors were required to raise by tax 
one-half as much as they received from the State. 

3. Each town was to elect not less than ,'i nor more than 7 
commissioners, to take general charge of the school-, to examine 
barbers, and to Ibr public moneys in the several dis- 
t ri< t-. 

4. The people in each district were authorized to elect 2 or 
more trusto i, to employ teachers, and to attend to the special 
Interests ol the school. 

5. The public money was to be divided among the various 
districts In proportion to the number of days' instruction given 
in each. 

6. Annual reports were to be made from the districts, towns, 
and counties. 

The returns of 1798 -bow a total of 1,352 schools organized 
and 69,660 children taught. 

& An acl b a pas* '1 En L799 authorizing the raising of $100,000 

by 4 i ~ .:■< I of which was appropriated for the support 

ils. In 1 sill $100,000 more was rai-i, I by lottery 
for school purposes, of which sum J.'io.uoo was devoted to com- 
mon schools. In 1800a bill appropriating $50,000 to the SUD- 
niiion schools passed the Assembly, but was defeat) d 
in the Senate. 

• Gov. Jay, in ISOO, Gov. Geo. Clinton, In 1802, Gov. Lewis, in 
L8M and "06, and Gov. Tompkins, in several successive years, 
urged noon the Legislature the necessity of revising the school 
laws and of making more liberal appropriations for the support 
v.ois. Several bills wen- introduced into the Legislature; 
but they were all defeated in either the Senate or assembly. In 
the mean time the school moneys gradually Increased, and wero 
funded by the Comptroller, laying the foundation of the preseut 
large school fund. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



137 



appointed to report a complete system for the organization and establishment of common schools. 
The commissioners made a report, accompanied by a draft of a bill, Feb. 14, 1812. The report was 
accepted by the Legislature, and the bill became a law. 1 Under this act, Gideon Haw-ley was ap- 
pointed Superintendent, and continued in office from 1813 to 1821. Tbe great success which this 
system met with, and the firm hold which it speedily attained, is mainly due to the administrative 
abilities and indefatigable exertions of Mr. Hawley. Several important changes were made in the 
law daring his administration, all of which tended greatly to improve the schools. In 1821 tbe 
office of State Superintendent was abolished, and the superintendence of schools was made an ap- 
pendage to the department of Secretary of State. Every successive year the Governor and Secre- 
tary of State urged upon the Legislature the necessity of systematizing the schools and of 
correcting obvious defects in the existing laws. 2 In 1835 a law was passed providing for the esta- 
blishment of teachers' departments in 8 academies, 1 in each of the Senatorial Districts of the State. 3 
In 1838 the District Library system was established by law ; 4 and in 1841 the office of Deputy Su- 
perintendent was created. 5 In 1843 the Board of Town Inspectors and School Commissioners was 
abolished and the office of Town Superintendent was substituted. May 7, 1844, an act was passed 
for the establishment of a State Normal School; and the school was opened at Albany on the 18th 
of Dec. following. 6 

On the 13th of Nov. 1847, the Legislature abolished the office of County Superintendent, — al- 
though the act was strongly resisted by many of the best friends of education in the State.' During 
the same session Teachers' Institutes, which had existed for several years as voluntary associa- 
tions, were legally established. 8 

On the 26th of March, 1849, an act was passed establishing free schools throughout the State. 
By the conditions of this act the rate bill system was abolished, and the whole expense of the 
schools beyond the State appropriation was made a tax upon the property of the district. This act 
was submitted to a vote of the people and was sustained by a majority of 3 to 1. In consequence 
of the inequality of the laws in regard to taxes, it was found that the Free School system did not 
work well in practice. Remonstrances poured in upon the next Legislature from all parts of the 



1 These commissioners, appointed by Gov. Tompkins, were i 
Jedediah Peck, John Murray, jr., Samuel Kussel, .Roger Skin- 
ner, aud Samuel Macomb. The principal features of this bill 
were, — 

1. $50,000 was annually to be divided among the counties of 
the State. 

2. The Boards of Supervisors were obliged to raise an equal 
Bum, to be distributed among the towns and districts. 

3. Three commissioners were to be appointed in each town to 
superintend the schools and examine teachers. 

4. Three trustees were to be elected in each district to engage 
teachers and otherwise provide for the local necessities of the 
school. 

5. The whole system was to be placed under the charge of a 
State Superintendent. 

4 In 1S12 the office of School Commissioner was created, and 
from 3 to 6 school inspectors were annually elected in each 
town, with the same powers and duties as school commission- 
ers. Bills were introduced from time to time to place the whole 
system again under the charge of a distinctive officer, to pro- 
vide for more efficient supervision of schools, to secure more 
competent teachers, and to establish a seminary for the instruc- 
tion of teachers ; but they all failed of receiving the necessary 
support. In 1S2S the number of inspectors was reduced to 3. 
The laws that were passed corrected the most obvious abuses ; 
but no great step was taken in advance until 1838. 

3 Erasmus Hall Academy in Kings co., Montgomery Aca- 
demy, Orange co., Kinderhook, St. Lawrence, Fairfield, Oxford, 
Canandaigua, and Middlebury Academies, were the institutions 
in which this department was established. 

i On the 13th of April of this year, the foundations of the 
District School Library were laid by "an act authorizing the 
taxable inhabitants of the several school districts to impose a 
tax not exceeding $20 for the first year and $10 for each suc- 
ceeding year, for the purchase of a district library, consisting 
of sucli books as they shall in their district meeting direct." 
This bill was ably advocated in the Senate by Col. Young, of Sa- 
ratoga, and the Hon. Levi Beardsley, of Otsego; and its friends 
were indebted for its success to the untiring exertions and ex- 
tensive influence of .lames Wadsworth, of Geneseo. By act ot 
July 9, 1S51, the law was modified, giving to supervisors of 
towns a discretionary power of levying a tax for library pur- 
poses. 

In 1S38 an act was passed requiring $55,000 of the school 
moneys to be distributed among the school districts and ex- 
pended by the trustees in the purchase of suitable books for 
district libraries, and the residue for the payment of the wages 
of duly qualified teachers. An equal amount was also required 
to be raised by taxation on the several counties and towns and 
applied to the same purposes. 



The first definite proposition to establish district libraries 
was made by A. C. Flagg. in his report of 1*30. 

6 In 1839, John C. Spencer, Superintendent of Schools, recom- 
mended a plan of county supervision, which •• was urged upon 
the department and the Legislature; and under the strong re$ 
commendation of the Superintendent, backed by the exertions 
of several of the most eminent friends of popular education, — 
among whom may be enumerated the Hon.JabezD. Hammond, 
who as early as 1835 had given to the public the details of a 
plan essentially similar; the Lev. Dr. Whitehouse, of Koch- 
ester ; Francis Dwight, Esq., editor of the District School Jour- 
nal, then of Geneva ; Professor Potter, of Union College; and 
James Wadsworth, Esq., of Geneseo, — this project became, in 
1841, by the nearly unanimous action of the Legislature, incor- 
porated with our system of common schools." — Handall's Com- 
■)iw7i School System, p. 44. 

6 The establishment of a Normal School for the professional 
education of teachers was strongly advocated by several super- 
intendents, and had been a favorite measure of many distin- 
guished friends of the cause for many years. The bill for the 
establishment of the Normal School was introduced March 22, 
1844, by Hon. Calvin T. Hurlburd, of St. Lawrence. The bill, 
as passed, appropriated $9,000 for the first year, and $10,000 per 
year for five years, for the support of the school, under the di- 
rection of the State Superintendent and Regents of the Uni- 
versity. The Superintendent of Schools, (Samuel Young,) Rev. 
Alouzo Potter, Rev. W. H. Campbell, Hon. Gideon Hawley, and 
Francis Dwight, Esq., were appointed an executive committee 
to attend to the interests of the school. The committee pro- 
ceeded to organize the school by the appointment of David P. 
Page, Principal; Frederick I. llsley, Teacher of Music; and 
J. R. Howard, Teacher of Drawing. Only 29 pupils were in at- 
tendance the first day ; but the number speedily increased to 
100, and since that time the school has been an uninterrupted 
success. 

1 This office had become very unpopular in some sections of 
the State, in consequence of appointments having been fre- 
quently made by the Board of Supervisors upon political con- 
siderations merely, without the least regard to the qualifica- 
tions of the appointees. Under the supervision of the County 
Superintendents the schools had progressed more rapidly than 
ever before, in the same period ; and after the abolishment of 
that office they steadily retrograded for several years. 

s The first Teachers' Institute in the State was held at Ithaca, 
Tompkins co., April 4, 1843, under the direction of James S. 
Deuman, County Superintendent. Immediately afterward, in- 
stitutes were held in other counties ; aud in a few years they 
became a fixed institution. In 1847 they were recognized by 
the Legislature, and appropriations were made for their sup- 
port. 



138 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



State ; and in 1850 the law was again submitted to a vote of the people and again sustained, — though 
by a decreased majority. In April, 1851, the Free School Act was repealed and the rate bill system 
was reinstated. 1 

During the session of 1853 a law was passed allowing Union Free Schools to be established 
under certain conditions. 2 On the 30th of March, 1854, the office of Superintendent of Public In- 
struction was created, — thus substantially restoring the original system of general supervision. 3 
On the 13th of April, 1855, a law was passed allowing the Regents of the University to designate 
certain academies in the several counties in which a teachers' class might be taught free, the State 
allowing $10 for each pupil so taught, to a number not exceeding 20 in each academy. 



1 At the time of the repeal of the Free School act a provision 
was made for raising $80 '.oOO annually by a St.it.' tax. which 
in many of the rural districts practically made free Bchools. 
Thi- t:ix was afterward made a } mill tax upon all the property 
of the State, producing a Bum somewhat larger in the aggregate, 
and one increasini: with the wealth and wants of the State. 

* The law for the creation of Onion free Schools was a recog- 
nition of the free Bchool principle and an important step iu the 
progress of education. 



3 AVhile the School Department was a subordinate branch of 
the Department of State, it was impossible to give to it that 
character and efficiency necessary to the best interests and wel- 
fare of the schools. Since the change, every department of edu- 
cation lias felt a new impulse and has been constantly improv- 
ing. The administration of the schools has been much more 
perfect, the reports have been more regular and reliable, and 
the standard of teaching has materially advanced. 



School Statistics from the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction for 1859.° 



Albany 

Allegru 

Broome 

Cattaraugus.... 


oqua... 

Chemung.- 

Chenango 

Clint-n 

Columbia.. 

Cortland... 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Erie 



Franklin 

Fulton 



Greene 

Hamilton 

Herkimer 

JefTerson 



I 

1 -t-n 

D 



mery .. 
Haw York. 

i 

On> i'li 

Onondaga. 







Oswego.. 



Putnam 

- 

- 
Richn. 

Rockland 

-■ i 



- 
Bchohai 

Schuyi- 



St. ill- n 

Suffolk 

n 



Tompkins. 



•i 

Washington... 
Wayne 

iiig 

Y.it' -i 



T • d. 



"5 


■b 

>•* 


{■1 ' 


170 


169 


243 


252 


259 


262 


211 


214 


221 


253 


255 


255 


248 


247 


278 




307 


318 


114 


116 


127 


274 


277 


286 


182 


182 


189 


187 


188 


199 


1-2 


1*2 


183 


332 


337 


337 


213 


217 


247 


326 


327 


497 


1- i 


187 


1-2 


156 


157 


156 


110 


111 


113 


146 


151 


151 


163 


164 


172 


28 


33 


29 


103 


199 


203 


373 


375 


398 


47 


47 


355 


176 


178 


179 


193 


196 


207 


238 


239 


254 


244 


244 


336 


120 


126 


129 


95 


95 


1,1 so 


171 


168 


197 


" 


'  


458 


- - 


. 


3i9 




2 14 


224 


l-l 


IT 1 


201 


134 


1 2 


143 


208 


297 


344 






320 


80 


• 


«H 


1 


78 


111 




210 


273 




24 


38 


 


11 


43 




41 i 


482 


. " 




248 




68 


88 






2ol 


IIS 


112 


112 






117 








148 




Ml 








169 


169 








183 


210 




881 


130 


139 


123 




241 




21 r > 


219 


2.'. 2 




148 


211 


10] 


180 


107 


106 




110 


11308 


11.617 


it. j-'. 



Wo. nf chil- 
dren between 
4 ami 21. 



39..->f.9 
16411 
13.510 
16,121 
19.438 
19,935 
10.641 
14.747 
18.327 
16,503 

9.254 
15.696 
21.446 
50.773 
11.400 
11.299 
10.551 
10,644 
11.689 

1.046 
14.136 
25.757 
50.772 
1(1.358 
14,055 
1 5,654 
34.370 
12,033 

200, i 

18,051 
88,455 
32.478 
15.875 
-.1 661 
10.514 
27,248 
i- 027 

6,489 
17,058 
28,372 

8,188 

1 S.I 45 
7,281 

1J.OJ1 
7.1os 
10464 
26,717 
i i,1 'J 
12,280 
10,874 

7^12 
17,062 
12,072 



No. of vol- 
umes in dis- 
trict library. 



27.018 
20,196 
17.314 
20.S59 
45.109 
33,260 
11.571 
31.941 
18.203 
21,719 
18.588 
28.075 
33.915 
45.445 
17,393 
11.868 
12.308 
17,842 
21.051 

1,454 
24.676 
41.536 
37,529 
15,628 
28,040 
30.445 
36,518 
18,048 

4.000 
23.764 
54588 
44,978 
27.2 is 
82,929 
16,082 
31,841 
::." i 

0,064 
. 

7,025 

18,002 
16347 
82,010 

23.999 

17 B72 
21,088 

81.803 
26,114 
12,170 



Apportionment 

of State moneys 

for 1859. 



S34.755.46 
18.443.07 
15,680.38 
17.569.93 
21,647.28 
22.937.75 
10,727.63 
18.622.61 
16.448.91 
17.196.20 
11.586.07 
19.703.21 
22.672.83 
49,449.52 
12.252.48 
11.126.1S 
9.236.79 
12.312.75 
12.793.84 
1.515.11 
15.765.92 
28,164.96 
68,798.02 
11.580.04 
15.664.48 
1\ 430.01 
84,972.62 
11.649.24 

207.332.95 
18,106.71 
41.891.72 
88,281.16 
17,891.78 
21 .431 10 
11,302.71 
28,152.08 
21,99448 

5.31 9.2S 
15 251.77 

28,062.5 1 

6,617.81 

'11.17 

88,17 

10,62440 

739450 

14,506.61 

7,91257 

0,968.68 

26,67258 

15428.09 

12 004.20 

11.737.21 

18,272.69 

24,240.87 

8.832 68 

18,62658 

19,3ol.57 

26,008.02 

18,02449 



'7>. 1448,118 $1316,607.18 $8,277,256.14 $3,792,948.79 



Total receipts. 



$122,068.91 
28.818.51 
24,123.23 
27,601.80 
48.535.41 
4o,785.66 
19.119.92 
29.341.34 
23,529.05 
34,767.79 
17,255.54 
28,757.16 
46,222.93 

138.417.98 
19,337.32 
15.637.73 
14.102.19 
23,487.48 
22.016.69 
2,105.87 
27.365.25 
49,185.46 

246461.75 
17.348.67 
26,652.77 
81,594.17 

112.104.41 
23.430.67 

951.178.40 
37,950.86 

72.376.15 
80.114.54 
86443.60 
53,077.70 
10,239.66 
72.476.06 
32.171.15 
9,103.17 
42.506.25 
14,029.12 
16.S71.53 
12.295.09 
5s.331.45 
34.626.32 
17,979.08 
21.S44.73 
13,528.71 
24.109.69 
42,912.11 
88,765.60 

19.23S.5S 
19.627.49 
24,286.06 
48,768.04 

12.953.77 

31.9i-3.60 

8733848 
84,64840 
21,76650 
1938050 



Total expenses. 



$124,673.71 
32.258.36 
27,529.65 
33,362.17 
59.294.50 
45.440.26 
20,558.93 
32.506.47 
26,198.33 
36.898.14 
20,937.05 
33.603.46 
61,889.61 

197.465.83 
21,271.35 
20,802.87 
18/713.68 
2S,726.57 
27.027.94 
2.364.82 
33,533.20 
58.063.32 

230,877.31 
19.408.54 
34.072.68 
34.847.48 

107.4so.57 
23.430.67 

951.178.40 
37.95O.S0 
72.376.15 
80.114.54 
36,443.60 
5:'..o77.70 
19.239.56 
72.476.06 
32.171.15 
9.103.17 
42.506.25 
14,029.12 
16,871.53 
12,295.09 
68,33146 
84,62652 
17.970.08 
21.H44.73 
13,528.71 
24.1 

42,912.11 
88,71 i   I 
19.238.58 

19,62749 
24,285.01 
48,763.04 
14,063.80 
86,0i 6.24 
46,094.11 
05,166.04 
27,744.76 
10.417.96 



• The above Table embraces returns from Jan. 1 to Oct. 1, 1858, except the last column, which is for the year 1857. 



CHURCHES. 



139 



The office of School Commissioner was created by law April 12, 1850, and by the same act the 
office of Town Superintendent was abolished. This substantially reinstated the office of County 
Superintendent, the abolishment of which in 1847 was so disastrous to the interests of education. 1 
On the 15th of March, 185G, an act was passed directing that the school laws should be digested and 
codified. 2 By act of April 12, 1858, the school year was changed so as to commence Oct. 1, and 
the annual district school meetings were directed to be held on the second Tuesday of October. 

Mercantile Colleges, especially adapted to instruction in opening, conducting, and closing 
business accounts of every kind, and an elucidation of the laws and customs that have been esta- 
blished concerning them, have within a few years been opened in most of our cities. They de- 
pend entirely upon individual enterprise for support, and instruction is usually given by oral illus- 
trations, lectures, and examples. 3 



CHURCHES. 

The various church organizations in the State are independent of each other and are supported 
entirely by private contributions. The aggregate amount of church property in the State, and the 
amount annually raised for religious purposes, is immense. The following is a list of the different 
denominations, arranged in alphabetical order : — 

The African Methodist Episcopal (Zion) Church was formed in 1820. The 
State of New York forms one conference, having in 1852 1,928 members. 

The American Swedenborgian Association was formed in 1857, and has its 
office in New York City. A Printing and Publishing Society of this denomination, formed in 1850, 
collected in the year ending in 1858 $3,108.25. It owns the stereotype plates of all the theological 
writings of Swedenborg. 

The Anti Mission or Old School Baptist, in 1855, had in the State 18 churches and 
1,101 members. 

The Associate Presbyterian Church, in 1855, had 26 churches and 3,926 members, 
and The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church 38 churches and 5,634 mem- 
bers. These two denominations united in May, 1858, under the name of The United Pres- 
byterians. 

The Baptist Church has in the United States 565 associations, 11,600 churches, 7,141 
ordained ministers, 1,025 licentiates, and 923,198 members. Of these 43 associations, 812 churches, 
738 ordained ministers, 90 licentiates, and 84,266 members are in New York. Its general Benevo- 
lent Associations are the "American Baptist Missionary Union," "American Baptist Publication 
Society," "American Baptist Historical Society," "American Baptist Home Mission Society," 
" American and Foreign Bible Society," "American Baptist Foreign Mission Society," "Southern 
Baptist Convention," 1845, and " Southern Baptist Publication Society," 1847. It has in this State 
2 colleges and 2 theological seminaries, and has 5 periodicals devoted to its interests. 4 



1 The School Commissioners have generally succeeded in 
awakening a new interest in their respective districts by per- 
sonally visiting the schools and teachers, by encouraging the 
formation of teachers' associations and institutes, and by re- 
quiring a higher standard of qualification on the part of teachers. 
The schools under their supervision are steadily improving. 

8 The expense of this codification of the school laws was de- 
frayed from the library fund. 

3 These institutions are almost indispensable in every mer- 
cantile community. They afford instruction upon every depart- 
ment of business accounts, and incidentally upon methods of 
conducting business generally. Courses of lectures are usually 
given, in which are unfolded the laws relating to all business 
matters, and a vast amount of information is given relating to 
all departments of commercial transactions. The most exten- 
sive of these colleges are those of Bryant & Stratton, 7 in num- 
ber, of which 3 are in this State, — 1 at Buffalo, 1 at Albany, and 
1 at New York, — Eastman's Colleges, at Rochester and Oswego, 
and Bassett's College, at Syracuse. There are various other 
Institutions of the kind in the State, of good local repute, and 



of great value to the villages and towns in which they are es- 
tablished. 

4 The Missionary Union was formed in 1S14; its receipts for 
1857-58 were $97,808.77. It has 19 missions, 80 missionaries, 
and over 300 churches. The headquarters of the Society are at 
Boston. The Baptist Publication Society was formed in 1^24, 
and has its depository at Philadelphia. It supports 53 colpor- 
teurs, and its receipts for 1857-58 were $60,585.12. The Amer~ 
ican Baptist Home Missionary Society was formed in 1832. and 
has its office in New York. It employs 99 missionaries and 
supplies about 250 stations. Its receipts for 1S57-58 were 
$52,093.33. The American and Foreign Bible Society, firmed in 
1838. has its office at New York. Its receipts for 1S57-5S were 
$57,049.98. Madison University, at Hamilton, and the University 
of Rochester are Baptist institutions; and attached to each is a 
theological seminary. The papers published by this denomi- 
nation are, — The New York Examiner, New York Chronicle, 
American Baptist, (newspapers.) and the Home Mission Record, 
and Mothers' Journal, (magazines,) all published in New York 
City 



140 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



The Christian Connexion 1 divide the State into the New York Eastern, New York 
Central, New York "Western, Northern, Black River, and Tioga Christian Conferences, each having 
distinct boundaries. They have in the U. S. and Canada over 1,500 ministers and 335 commu- 
nicants. The census reports 85 churches in this State and 9,825 persons usually attending them. 

The Congregational Churches of the Union number about 2,900, with 2,400 ministers 
and 240,000 members. Of these, 425 churches, 400 ministers, and 25,000 members are claimed 
within the State of New York. 2 

The Congregational Methodists 3 were first composed of seceders from the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, in 1820. They have 3 churches in the State. 

The Disciples Of Christ have in the Union over 1,700 churches, 1,100 ministers, and 
130,000 members.* In New York they reported, in 1855, 28 churches and 2,015 members. The 
New York State Convention embraces, besides the State, parts of Connecticut and Vermont. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Church embraces 35 synods in the U. S., of which 25 are 
connected with a general synod. It numbers 1,083 ministers and 1,920 congregations, 5 and has of 
general societies the Parent Educational, Home Missionary, Foreign Missionary, Church Extension, 
Lutheran Historical, and Lutheran Publication, for the purposes indicated by their respective titles. 
It has within this State a Theological Seminary and Academy at Hartwick, Otsego county, and 
Martin Luther College, with a theological department, at Buffalo. 

The Free If ill Baptist Church in the U. S. has 28 yearly and 129 quarterly meetings, 
1189 churches, 957 ordained and 104 licensed preachers, and 55,209 communicants. 6 This State 
comprises 5 whole yearly meetings and parts of 2 others. As no attention is paid to State lines 



The Fifty-First Annual Report of the Baptist Missionary 
C n'. i iiii n of the State of New York (Oct. 1858) gives the fol- 
lowing statistics of this denomination in New York. The dates 
of organization are from the Baptist Almanac : — 



Associations. 



Black River 

Br i •me & Tioga. 

Bnfialc 

Canisteo River 

augus 

Cnynga 

Chi mnng River 

Chenango 

Cortland 

t 

Dill lll-99 



k Champlain.... 
Franklin 



... r 

II m ny 

Hud- n I!iv.-r North.. 

Had - >nth... 

i 

l.ni'i fnrton 



i k River 

Honme 

i ork 

rn 

i 



lo 

 a 





laerrille 





Mown 

sti 

kWrettC* 

I'ni'.n 

v. :,-liington Uni .ti ... 





Yates 



■8 



a 



1808 
1823 
1815 
1835 
1835 
1800 
1842 
1832 
1827 
18.54 

1 s:;4 
1847 
1834 
1811 
[811 
1828 

l-.M 

1809 
1812 

1 827 

1T'<1 
1824 

1822 

1M4 

1796 
1799 

1821 

1M7 
1- 14 
1842 



s 

s 


"8 85 
■§■§ 

■Si 

o=3 


32 


35 


25 


19 


21 


21 


10 


9 


23 


18 


19 


17 


20 


17 


29 


21 


19 


18 


15 


11 


20 


19 


19 


13 


14 


7 


17 


12 


17 


16 


15 


13 


20 


IB 


29 


21 


41 


57 


11 


10 


10 


8 


IS 


18 


10 


9 


24 


19 


86 


33 


11 


12 


23 


28 


•Jl 


17 


19 


u 


11 


9 


ie 


13 


17 


16 


12 


11 


23 


25 


16 


is 


U 


1n 


19 


•Jl 




■-■•i 


16 


16 


23 


1- 


18 


13 


17 


12 


8 


6 



s 



2.958 
2,755 
2,512 

381 
1.534 
2,108 
1.856 
2,571 
2,188 

992 
1.73S 
1.344 
1.079 
1.702 
l.'.lllS 

1,485 

l.scs 

■I 985 

9.013 

646 

693 

2^290 

731 

8,068 

5,632 

1,66 I 

2,1 1 I 

1.866 

l.Ml 

1,061 

1,670 

1,372 

1,797 
1,189 
2.149 
2,11 - 
2,282 

1,728 
1J286 

804 



 Otherwise named "Unitarian Raptl«t..< " They orlgfi 
between 17 f, o nnl 1801, in secessions from Baptists, Meth 
and Presbyterians. Bach church i- independent In government ; 

and full statistics are n r 't nrre.-itile. 

s Thr General i ' " of Vino Vnrlt inelndea th.. Oneida, 

Black Kiv.r, Ksscx, St. LMRenoe, Weston New York. Long 



Island, New York & Brooklyn, Ontario, Susquehanna, Albany, 
and Puritan of Wyoming & Allegany Associations. The Ameri- 
can Congregational Union has for one of its objects the aid of 
feeble churches. In the year ending in 1S58 it expended 
$6,154.05 for this purpose. 

3 Otherwise known as "StSweUUeS." 

* Sometimes known as "Carupbellites," from Rev. Alexander 
Campbell, the founder.— Fox d-Hnyl's Quad. Reg,, 1852, p. 253. 

6 From tho Lutheran Almanac, 1859. The synods embraced 
in New York are as follows : — 



Synods. 



New York Ministerian., 

Hartwick Synod 

Franekean Synod 

Synod of Buffalo 



When 
formed. 



17S5 
1830 
1838 
1839 



Ministers. 



59 
25 
24 
16 



Congre- 
gations. 



55 
33 
30 
16 



Of these the last two are not connected with the General 
Synod. 

These synods havo no definite boundaries, but overlap each 
other, and in some instances extend into neighboring States. 

The Kirchtiches Informatorium and Ilistorische Zeitblatt, of 
Buffalo, and I)er Lutherischo Ilerold, of New York, are the 
official organs <>f this denomination. 

The Free Will Baptist Register for 1859 gives the following 
statistics. To those extending partly into neighboring States 
a *t;ir is prefixed; and those entirely out of the State are in 
Italies. 



ANNT7AL 

IN08. 


QlAItTKnt.T 
Ml KTI.NGS. 


8 

1 

43 

38 
37 

34 

16 
17 

40 


11 
43 

30 

29 

22 

7 
13 

36 


-* >- 

g o 

-: .- 

■^ 

7 

3 

8 

10 

3 
3 

2 


h 

el 

2,170 

1,666 
1,262 

246 

488 
826 

2,163 


Holland I'nr- 


Cattaraugus, Catta-' 
raugus Center, 
Chautauqua. Krio.,  
♦French Creek, 
and Genesee 

'Rochester, Monroe," 
Union, Wayne, > 






'.-'ii-.|M.'h:mna... 

•New York and 
Pi fin. _ 


'•Owego, Oibson,] 
 Bpafford, *Wal- - 

'Yates and Steuben,! 
♦Potter Co.Jlrad- 1 
ford and Tinga, f 

rMcDonouirh. Che-) 

Whitestown, Os-1 
WOgO, Renssc- 1 
laer, ♦Otsego, f 
Lake George J 




Central N. Y 



C II U K C II E S. 



141 



in these divisions, the exact numbers in the State cannot be determined from the reports. Its 
general institutions are 3 mission societies, an anti-slavery society, a biblical school and insti- 
tution at New Hampton, N. II., and a seminary in this Slate 

The Friends or Quakers have, since 1827, been divided into 2 distinct branches, known 
as " Hieksite" and " Orthodox." The Hicksites have a general meeting for the United States and 
Canada, which is divided into G yearly, 33 quarterly, and 138 monthly meetings in the U. S., and 
2 half-yearly and G monthly meetings in Canada. This State is embraced within the New York 
and the Genesee yearly meetings, the former of which extends into New Jersey and the latter into 
Canada. There are of the New York yearly meeting in this State 7 quarterly and 31 monthly 
meetings ; of the Genesee yearly meeting 2 quarterly and 8 monthly meetings. 

The Orthodox Friends divide the United States and Canada into 8 yearly, 1 half-yearly, G5 
quarterly, and 222 monthly meetings. The New York yearly meeting comprises 1 half-yearly, 
15 quarterly, and 43 monthly meetings, of which 9 entire and a part of 1 other quarterly and 
28 monthly meetings are within the State, the remainder being in adjoining States and Canada. 1 

The German Methodists 2 originated in the year 1800, and number about 20,000. They 
have in New York about 15 churches and 3,000 members. 

The Mennonites have in the Union 300 churches and 36,280 members: of these, 6 
churches and 442 members were reported in Western N. Y. in 1855. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States was divided in 1844 into the 
Church North and the Church South, forming two independent organizations, differing only upon 
the question of slavery. The Church North embraces 49 annual conferences, 5,3G5 traveling, 769 
superannuated, and 7,169 local preachers, and 820,514 members and probationers. The 
total number of preachers in both divisions is 20,644, and of members 1,476,291. This State 
embraces 5 entire and parts of 4 other conferences, which are subdivided into districts and cir- 
cuits, each with definite boundaries. The Sunday School Union of the M. E. Church North re- 
ports 11,229 schools, 120,421 officers and teachers, 639,120 scholars, and 2,054,253 volumes in S. S. 
libraries. Its Tract Society has auxiliaries in each conference, and distributes large quantities of 
tracts and a small paper called " The Good News." Its Missionary Society supports 44 foreign mis- 
sionaries and 76 helpers, and 302 missionaries and 214 helpers among the Indians and foreign 
populations. Its " Book Concern" carries on an amount of publication equaled by that of few 
private firms in the country, including books, papers, and magazines. This denomination has 
within the State 1 college and 10 seminaries, in connection with annual conferences. 3 

The Methodist Protestant Church was formed Nov. 1830. It divides the Union 
into conferences, stations, and circuits. The census reports as belonging to this denomination in 
this State, in 1855, 46 churches and 1,605 members. 

The Presbyterian Church existed as one body until 1837, when it was divided into 
"Old School" and " New School," which form two distinct organizations, with similar professions 
of faith but different views of discipline. The Old School General Assembly of the U. S. report 
33 synods, 159 presbyteries, 2,468 ministers, 3,324 churches, and 259,335 communicants. During 



T^" missionary societies under the charge of this society are 
the Free Will Baptist Foreign Mission Society, which supports 
3 missionaries and their families at Arissa, India, the Free 
Will Baptist Home Mission Society, and the Free Will Baptist 
Female Missionary Society. The Whitestown Seminary, occu- 
pying the premises erected for the Oneida Institute, formerly a 
manual labor school, is under the auspices of this denomination. 

l The names of quarterly meetings within the State, with the 
number of monthly meetings in each, according to Foulke's 
Friends' Almanac for 1858, are, in the New York yearly meet- 
ing, Westbury, 6, Purchase, 3, Nine Partners, 3, Stanford, 4, 
Easton, 5, Saratoga. 5, Duanesburgh, 5 ; in the Genesee yearly 
meeting, Farmington, 5, Scipio, 3. 

The quarterly meetings within the yearly meeting, according 
to Wooifs Book of Meetings, 1858, are as follows, with the date 
of establishment and number of monthly meetings in each: — 
Westbury, (1676.) 2; Purchase, (prior to 1746,) 3; Nine Part- 
ners. (1783.) 3; Stanford, (1800,) 3; Ferrisburgh, (partly in Ver- 
mont, 1809.) 1; in New York, 2; in Vermont, Farmington, 
(1810,) 5; Butternuts, (1812, under the name of Duanesburgh, 
changed in 1838,) 3; Saratoga, (1793, in 1795 changed to Easton, 
in 1815 divided into Saratoga and Easton, and in 1835 the latter 
was discontinued,) 3; Scipio, (1825.) 2; Le Ray, (1S30.) 3. The 
first meeting within New York was established at Oyster Bay, 
by Richard Smith and others who were banished from Boston 
in 1656. The persecutions of that colony drove others to Rhode 
Island and Long Island, and meetings were established at Oys- 
ter Bay, Gravesend, Jamaica, Hempstead, Flushing, and other 
places, at an early period. 

* Correctly known as Evangelical Association, or Albrights. 



3 The following is a summary of the Conferences in New 
York. Those marked with a star are partly in other States. 







Preachers. 


Members in Society. 




Conference. 




s 






rf 








S> 


s 
s 




£ 






8 "3 




6«, 






*§ 
3 


§ 

1 


1 


e 
g 


Is" 

$3 


New York 




207 
110 
147 
165 
168 


38 
14 
34 
50 
30 


161 
102 
142 
177 
159 


26.666 
9.511 
16.380 
22,990 
16.972 


4,477 
1,133 
2,134 
3,382 
3.128 


31.143 
10.644 
18,514 
26,372 
20,100 


15.245 

3,883 

108 

11.532 
3,542 




1810 
1829 
1833 
1836 








*Erie 


1836 

1848 


167 

150 


26 
33 


206 
139 


20.306 
16,861 


2,607 
2.257 


22,913 
19.118 


6.445 

4.693 


East Genesee 


*New York East 


1849 


142 


45 


176 


22,236 


3.029 


25,268 


27.2S9 




1852 93 


11 


134 


11,652 


2.4S5 


14,137 


3.225 



The districts within the State of New York forming the above 
Conferences are : — 
New York— Poughkeepsie, Rhinebeck, Prattsville, Monticello, 



N. Y 
sion. 



German Mission, Rochester, and German Mis- 



142 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



the year ending May, 1858, $2,544,692 was raised for various religious and benevolent objects. Its 
general objects of promotion and extension are conducted by Boards ; and it has various funds for 
special objects. The State of New York embraces the greater part of 3 synods. 1 

Tlie ^Veiv School Presbyterian General Assembly of the United States reports 26 
synods, 120 presbyteries, 1,612 ministers, 1,687 churches, and 143,510 communicants. During 
the year ending May, 1858, $273,965.90 was raised for domestic and foreign missions, education, 
and publication. It has several committees for the promotion of its general objects, and has in this 
State 2 theological seminaries and several periodicals. 2 

The Primitive Methodists have 2 churches and about 500 members in this State. They 
have in the Union over 1,200 members. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church embraces in the Union 31 dioceses and 4 mis- 
sions, 1,995 parishes, 39 bishops, 1,979 clergymen, and 127,953 communicants. Total contribu- 
tions for missionary and charitable purposes, $1,265,642.96. Its general institutions are the "Gene- 
ral Theological Seminary," New York, the " Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society," the 
" General Protestant Episcopal Sunday School Union and Church Book Society," the " Protestant 
Episcopal Historical Society," the "Western Church Extension Society," and the "Prot. E. So- 
ciety for the Promotion of Evangelical Knowledge." 

The Diocese of Xew York 3 embraces all e. of the e. lines of Broome, Chenango, Madi- 
son, Oneida, Lewis, and Jefferson cos., and comprises 275 parishes, 321 clergymen, and 22,411 
communicants 



C, n-.-.v — Buffalo. Niagara, Genesee, Wyoming, and Olean. 
Oneida — Oneida, Chenango, Cortland. Auburn, and Cazenovia. 
Troy — Troy, Albany, Saratoga, Plattsburgh, and 3 in \t. 
Black Bir-r — Rome. Syracuse, Oswego, Adams, Watertown, 

Ogdensburgh, and Potsdam. 
£We— Ifredonla. The remainder in Ohio and Penn. 
Eisi i, Geneva, Rochester, West Rochester, Bath, Corn- 
ing. Elmira, and Lima. 

— New York, (E. district,) Long Island, and 2 
in Conn. 
It', rating — Biughamton and Owego, in part; the remainder in 
Penn. 
The offices of the several Missionary Societies and of the Book 
rn are at 200 Mulberry St.. N. Y. The periodicals issued 
fr"m that establishment are the Christian Advocate and Jour- 
nal, a weekly newspaper : the Quarterly Review, the National 
Magazine, and the Ladies' Repository, octavo magazines: and 
the .-unlay School Advocate, The Good News, and the Mission- 
ary Advocate, small Dewspapers. The Northern Christian Ad- 
vocate, at Auburn, is also an official publication of this denom- 
ination. Cnder the auspices of this Church are the Genesee 
College, at Lima, Livingston CO.; the Amenia Seminary, 
>.; Ashland Collegiate Institute, Greene co.; Char- 
lotte Boarding Academy, Schoharie co.; Falley Seminary, Ful- 
ton, : Gen' - - W.-].yan Seminary, Lima, Livingston 
rneur Wealeyan Seminary, St. Lawrence co.; Jones- 
villi- Acad my, Saratoga co.; New York Conference Seminary, 
Cbarlotterflle, Schoharie CO.; Oneida Conference Seminary, 
I ' i i.; and the Susquehanna Seminary, Binir- 
hamton, Broome co. Bcniib- these, a large number of institu- 
tions, Including Bereral Of the incorporated academies, are 

owned and patronised mainly bj members of this denomination. 

1 The names of proebj teriea and stai I Uct of churches of tins 

branch in the State are reported in the Old School Presbyter! in 

Almanac for 1(60 as follows: — 





—: 










'09. 


s 




£ 




O 




Buffalo. 




New York.... 





Pmbyterta. 



I tidondcrry, Tr.>y. Al- 

. M. Iia-.i k 

" 
Bod 

North 

l-l ind, 
 Y"rk 

2d, Canl 

Connecticut, 





1 


•9 

V 

u 

= 

g 


00 


04 


60 


62 


!•'. 


 



- 



:.;•■ 
5/)28 

17.495 



7V Board of P m ■■■':■ M> a ru has 610 missionaries and 
990 churches and missionary - ' foi the year 

rnding March 1.1- - arc located in 

Philadelphia and Louisville. 

The B"ot<I of Education is dtfidod into ministerial education 
and education in schools, academies, colleges, and parochial 



schools. Under the auspices of this denomination are 22 col- 
leges, 60 academies, and 100 parochial schools. The receipts for 
1S57 were $56,492.06. Its office is at Philadelphia. 

The Board of Foreign Missions has 69 ministers, 30 male and 
90 female assistant missionaries, and 23 native teachers. The 
receipts for 1S57 were $223,977.79. Its office is at the corner of 
Center and Reade Sts.. N. Y. 

The Board of Publication issues tracts, books, newspapers, 
and other periodicals in great numbers. Its receipts for 1S57 
were $126,960.28. Its office is at Philadelphia. 

- The following summary of the New School Presbyterian 
Church in New York is from the American Presbyterian Al- 
manac for 1S59, and other authentic sources: — 





.2 


Stxods. 






<5 

lsu:; 


Albany 


Utica 


1829 




1812 


Onondaga — 
Susqueh'nna 


lSfia 
1853 




1821 


N. Y. &N.J. 


1788 



Presbyteries. 



Champlain. Troy, Albany, 
Columbia, Catskill 

St. Lawrence. Watertown, 
Oswego, Utica 



Onondaga 

Otsego, Chenango, Dela- 
ware 

(Jen Bee, Ontario, Roch- 
ester, Niagara, Buffalo, 
Angelica 

Hudson. North River, 
Lung Island. New York 
3d, New York 4th, 
Brooklyn, and 4 others 
not in the State 



84 

65 

109 

80 

42 



125 



70 

72 
93 

70 

51 
108 






226 155 



8,257 

7,106 
9,723 

7.709 

3,989 
12,371 

24,905 



The various societies under the careof this denomination are 
in charge of the Pn sbyterian Publication Committee, Foreign 
Mission Committee, Permanent Committee on Education, and 
Church Kxtensi in Committee. Young men preparing for tho 
ministry are educated at the Union Theological Seminary, of 

New fork City, and Auburn Theological Seminary, of Cayuga 
co. Tin- newspapers of the denomination are tho Evangelist, of 
New York, and the Genesee Evangelist, of Rochester. 

3 Its Institutions arc tin- •• Society for the Promotion of Re- 
ligion and i.-ai ning," the "Corporation for the Relief of Widows 
and Children oi Clergymen.'' the "Prot. E. Tract Society,'' tho 
•New Y^rk Bible and Common Prayer Bonk Society," tho 
" New Y..rU Prot. E.City Mission Society," tho " Prot. E. Chris- 
tian Mission Society for Seamen in the City and Port of New 
York," the "Prot B. Brotherhood of New York," the "Northern 

Missionary Convocation," the "Bible and Common Prayer Hook 
iv of Albany ami its Vicinity," the "Brotherhood of St. 
Barnabas," (Troy,) "Columbia College," "Trinity School," 
fN, Y..'St. Luke's Hospital." (N. Y..)"St. Luke's Homo for 
Indigent Christian Females," the "Church Charity Founda- 
tion. " (Brooklyn,) and the " Pastoral Aid Society." 



CHURCHES. 



143 



The Diocese of Western New York. 1 embraces the remainder of the State, comprising 
149 parishes, 129 clergymen, and 10,551 communicants. 

The Reformed Methodists originated in 1814, in Vt. Their church government is 
Congregational. They report in the State 8 churches and about 500 members. 

The Reformed Presbyterians, or Covenanters, is derived from the church of the 
same name in Scotland. In 1855 it numbered in the State 15 churches and 2,274 members. 

The Reformed Protestant Dutch Church of the State belongs to the General 
Synod of the lief. Prot. Dutch of N. A. It is subdivided into the particular Synods of New York 
and Albany, the former embracing 1G and the latter 14 classes, of which 29 are entirely within the 
State and 1 partly in New Jersey. In 1855 it reported 364 churches, 348 ministers, 130,120 per- 
sons attending congregations, and 38,927 communicants. Of these, 200 churches, 259 ministers, 
21,027 families, 97,553 total of congregations, and 31,208 communicants, were in this State. 

The Roman Catholic Church divides the Union into 7 Provinces, 43 Dioceses, and 3 
Vicarates Apostolic. The Province of New York comprises the New England States, New York 
and New Jersey, and the dioceses of New York, Portland, Burlington, Boston, Hartford, Brook- 
lyn, Albany, Buffalo, and Newark. Four of these are within this State. There are 3 theological 
seminaries, 1 preparatory seminary, 2 colleges, and a large number of benevolent and educational 
institutions belonging to this denomination within the State, and 9 periodicals devoted to its 
interests. 2 

The Seventh Day Baptists have in the United States 67 churches, 70 ordained ministers, 
and 7,250 members. Of these 36 churches are in New York. In 1835 the denomination was 
divided into associations, of which the Eastern, Central, and Western are embraced wholly or in 
part in this State. De Ruyter Institute and the Alfred Academy are under the patronage of this 
denomination. 

Shakers, or the "United Society of Believers," otherwise called the "Millennial Church," 
numbers in the Union 18 communities and about 6,000 members. They live in "families," and 
in New York they are principally located at New Lebanon, Watervliet, and Groveland. 

The Unitarians number in the Union 293 clergyman and 250 societies, mostly in Massa- 
chusetts. They have within this State 10 societies. Their only periodical within the State is the 
"Christian Inquirer," a weekly newspaper in New York City, published under the auspices of 
the "Unitarian A#sociation of the State of New York." 3 

The ITniversalists United States Convention is composed of clerical and lay delegates from 
each State and Territorial Convention, and meets on the third Tuesday of Sept. annually. 4 The 
denomination has a Historical Society, composed of all preachers and laymen in good standing 
who sign the constitution. It also has a General Reform Association, that meets in Boston on the 



1 Its institutions are Hobart Free College, at Geneva ; and De 
Veaux College, at Suspension Bridge. There are besides several 
incorporated and private academies supported by members of 
this denomination. — Church Almanac for 1859, pp. 32, 47. 

a The following statistics are upon the authority of the Catholic 
Almanacs of 1859. 

General Statistics for 1858. 





"S7= 
S^a 
»K 

S^ 

•2 1 

69 

9 

30 

89 

35 

""i 

49 

4 

12 

" "i 
l 
l 

2 
27 


Cicq 


.0 
<3^ 


S=5 




34 
2 

"V 


113 

5 
50 

84 

84 
13 

13 

2 

1 

10 

9 


102 








30 

98 

114 
2 


" otherwise em- 


Ecclesiastical institutions... 




14 

2 

9 
14 


Literary institutions for 


Literary institutions for 


Charitable institutions 

Hospitals and infirmaries... 


House of the Good Shepherd 




Parochial and other schools 
Religious institutions 




380,940 


26 
100,000 





The Diocese of New York, formed in 1808, comprises Dela- 
ware, Dutchess, New York, Orange, Putnam, Richmond, Rock- 
land, Sullivan, Ulster, and Westchester counties. The Diocese 
of Brooklyn, formed in 1853, comprises Kings, Queens, and Suf- 
folk counties. The Diocese of Albany, formed in 1847, comprises 
the remainder of the State E. of the west lines of Cayuga, 
Tompkins, and Tioga counties. The Diocese of Buffalo, formed 
in 1847, comprises the counties w. of the west lines of Ca- 
yuga, Tompkins, and Tioga. 

The distinctive schools under the patronage of this denomi- 
nation are the St. John's College, at Fordham. Westchester co. ; 
College of St. Francis Xavier, New York City ; St. Joseph's 
Theological Seminary, Fordham; Ecclesiastical Seminary. Buf- 
falo ; Franciscan Convent, Allegany ; and Preparatory Seminary 
of Our Lady of the Angels, Niagara. 

The Catholic papers in the State are The New York Freeman's 
Journal and Catholic Register, The New York Tablet, The Pilot, 
(N. Y. and Boston,) Katholische Kirchen Zeitung, weekly, of 
N. Y.; The Buffalo Sentinel, weekly; Catholic Institute Maga- 
zine, Newburgh; Brownson's Quarterly Review, N.Y. ; Ameri- 
can Catholic Almanac and Clergy List ; and the Six Cent Catho- 
lic Almanac and Laity's Directory, of N. Y. 

8 Year Book of the Unitarian Cong. C!i urcTies, 1857 . 

4 The New York State Convention embraces the Central, Nia- 
gara, Cayuga, Buffalo, Mohawk River, Ontario, Genesee, Black 
Kiver, St. Lawrence, Otsego, Allegany, Steuben, Chautauqua, 
Chenango, Hudson River, and New York Associations, and con- 
tains 220 societies, 194 church edifices, and employs 107 preachers. 
It has a State Educational Society, with £10,000 subscribed, 
and $25,000 invested for the Theological School in Canton ; 
and has in charge the Clinton Liberal Institute. The Uni- 
versalist Paper and Book Establishment has assets amount- 
ing to $13,796, and unredeemed stock to the amount of $4,169. 
The profits of the concern are applied to the purchase of the 
shares, which will thus become the property of the State Con- 
vention. It has a relief fund for aged and disabled preachers. 
The Young Men's Christian Union, formed Jan. 1856, and the 



144 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



last Tuesday in May. This denomination has organizations in 32 States and Territories, in 19 of 
•which State Conventions are held. It has 4 educational, 9 missionary, 1 tract, and 4 Sunday 
school associations, 1 relief fund, and 1 book and newspaper establishment, — all of which are of a 
State character. It has 85 associations, 1,334 churches or societies, 913 church edifices, 655 
preachers, 18 periodicals, and 9 institutions of learning. 

The Wesleyan Methodists. 1 This denomination in the United States was formed by 
seceders from the M. E. Church, May, 1843. 

Besides these, there are churches in the State known as Bethels, Evangelical, German Evangelical 
Reformed, Jewish, Calvinistic Methodists, German Methodists, Moravians, French Evangelical 
Presbyterian, Protestant Community of Inspiration, Second Advent, True Dutch, Free, and Union, 
numbering in the aggregate a large number of church edifices and communicants. 2 



RELIGIOUS, LITERARY, AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. 

Societies of a religious, humane, and benevolent character began to be formed in considerable 
numbers about 1822-25. The objects of these societies enlisted the co-operation of members of the 
different religious denominations and of other philanthropic persons, and annual meetings were 
held in New York for the several objects. 

The time of meeting has been usually in the second week in May, and the appointments were 
so made that the same persons could attend several of them in succession. These societies have 
become numerous, and "Anniversary week" thus becomes a season of interest to thousands. The 
assembling of so large a number of persons from distant sections of the Union has led reformers 
nf overv degree to appoint the anniversary meetings of their societies at the same time and place ; 
and there is scarcely a society for the promotion of religion, morality, charity, or civil and social 
reform that is not thus annually brought to public notice, its operations exhibited, and its 
claims urged. 

The societies exclusively under the control of a single denomination are noticed under the reli- 
gious sects. 

The principal societies of a general character are as follows: — 

Tlie American Bible Society, formed by a convention of 60 persons, mostly clergy- 
men, May s, 1809, has for its object the publication and distribution of the Bible and parts 



X. T , ( - - lety aro connected with this denom- 

ination. It* periodical* an- tin- Christian Ambassador, at 
Auburn Mid Sew York, and a monthly periodical by the female 
rtment of the Clinton Liberal Institute. 
> The ML E. Church in England and Canada is thns known. 



The church of this name in the U. S. differs from the others in 
rejecting the classification of the ministry as bishops, elders, 
and deacons. Tlnir official orjran is the True Wesleyan. 

2 The following table shows tin' p'lieial statistic if churches 
in the several counties: — 



Church Statistics. 



OOOTBD 



Albany 

Allegany 



 laqnn 

Chemung 

•Cbenaivco. ... 

 n 

Columbia — 
Cortland 

ire 

Ihitchese 

Erie 



Prankln 



s c 



ill 



aa 

100 

33 

111 

46 

86 

:,i 
92 

166 

61 

36 



121,000 

66,196 



CO DUTIES. 



Pulton 

Hamilton ... 

Herkimer 

Jeften 

Kintr* 

Lewti 

I,iTinfr«t<i|i ... 

Madi*>n 

M"nr>«- 

Mont. 

 "rk .... 

Ninfrara. 

Oneida 

Onondaga-.... 






88 

61 

Tl 
6 

86 
13} 
149 

64 

M 

'•i 

141 

962 

74 
201 
142 



ill 
§11 



$ 96.350 

lM.rwtn 

168,325 

1.400 

173,600 
846,786 

2,840.700 

66,846 

263.260 

141^00 

12,092,750 

886,980 

663.610 



COUKTIES. 



Ontario 

Orange.. 

Orleans 

■• 

Putnam 

Qneeni 

Reuaaelaer... 

Richmond 

Kockland 

St. 1,-iwrence. 

Saratoga 

Bchenectady. 

Schoharie 

Schuyler- 



>> 




*l 


^«f 


fi: 


= *! 


11 

84 


3 J £ 


$283.7:;<i 


112 


443>v, 


61 


228.600 


84 


2:U,715 


117 


231,952 


80 


85.000 


73 


492.135 


114 


746,640 


L"» 


285.100 


41 


136,300 


117 


263.485 


103 


313,975 


26 


173.710 


86 


129,830 


60 


99,125 



Counties. 



Seneca. 

Steuben 

Suffolk 

Sullivan 

Tioga 

Tompkins 

Ulster 

Warren 

Washington. 

Wayne 

Westchester., 

Wyoming 

Yntes 

Total 



*>. 



4S 

105 

112 

46 

45 

88 

100 

33 

95 

so 

II- 

74 

4S 



*v cj w 



$144,333 
161,488 

278,260 

fio.i 

106,700 
183.690 
409,350 
57,250 
287,120 
272,000 
B68,260 
1f,;..:ii-,r, 
133,650 



5,077 31,480,144 



RELIGIOUS, LITERARY, AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. 14V 

thereof without note or comment. 1 Auxiliary to the American Bible Society are numerous county 
and local societies, through which the greater part of the funds are raised. 2 

The American Tract Society was instituted in 1S25, by the several evangelical de- 
nominations, for the purpose of disseminating tracts and books upon moral and religious subjects. 3 
Several of the religious denominations have tract societies of their own. 

The American Hoard of Commissioners for Foreign Missions was formed 
in 1809, for the purpose of supporting missions in foreign lands. Its central office is in Boston; 
but it has auxiliary societies throughout this State. It is chiefly supported by the Congregational 
and New School Presbyterian societies. 4 



1 The first society within the State for the gratuitous distribu- 
tion of the Scriptures was the N. Y. Bible and Common l'rayer 
Book Society, formed in 1809. A large number of co. societies 
was formed within the next five years. The present society, 
formed in 1816, has gradually increased in wealth and influence, 
until its operations have extended to almost every section of 
the globe. It has a Bible house in New York, — one of the most 
extensive publishing houses in the world. Its books are gra- 
tuitously distributed, or sold at cost; and the total number of 
volumes issued up to May, 1858, was 12.804,014. These are 
produced in great varieties of style and in upward of forty 
different languages. The society has also published the Bible in 
English with raised characters for the blind. 

The Baptist and Protestant Episcopal denominations have 
separate societies for publishing the Scriptures, although many 
members belonging to both of these co-operate with the Ameri- 
can Bible Society. 

2 The following table gives the names of these societies, the 
date of their organization, and the amount of their donations 
and remittances up *o May, 1858: — 



Name. 



Albany Co 

Allegany Co 

Amity Female 

Ausalile Valley 

Brooklyn City 

Broome Co 

Buffalo City 

Caledonia '. 

Caledonia Female 

Carlton 

Cattaraugus Co 

Cayuga Co 

Chautauqua Co 

Chemung Co 

Chenango Co 

Clinton Co 

Cold Spring 

Columbia Co 

Cortland Co 

Delaware Co 

Dutchess Co. Female 

Dutchess Co 

Erie Co 

Essex Co 

Floyd and Western Welsh 

Franklin Co 

Fulton & Hamilton Co.... 

Geneva 

Genesee Co 

Genoa 

Greene Co 

Greene 

Herkimer Co 

Hudson Female 

Jasper 

Jefferson Co 

Lewis Co 

Lewis Co. Welsh 

Livingston Co 

Long Island 

Madison Co 

Montgomery Co 

Monroe Co 

Newburgh 

New York Female 

New York Calvinistic 

Welsh 

New York Marine 

New York 

Niagara Co 

North Brooklyn 

North Seneca. 

Nyack Ref. D. Ch. Female 

Oneida Co 

Onondaga Co 



Date. 



May, 1816 
April, 1825 
Sept. 1816 
Dec. 1845 
Feb. 1849 
Fell. 1817 
Nov. 1847 
.April. 1818 
May, 1817 
Jan. 1855 
Aug. 1829 
June, 181" 
April, 1820 
July, 1S28 
Nov. 1826 
April, 1821 
Aug. 1838 
Oct. 1817 
Aug. 1S16 
July, 1816 
Oct. 1817 
Oct. 1839 
April, 1848 
Jan. 1817 
April, 1854 
June, 1821 
Dec. 1816 
April, 1846 
July. 1818 
April, 1825 
Sept. 1816 
Mar. 1855 
May, 1817 
Oct. 1816 
Aug. 1855 
Jan. 1817 
April, 1828 
May, 1850 
May, 1824 
Sept. 1817 
Oct. 1816 
Dec. 1816 
Oct. 1821 
Sept. 1818 
June, 1816 



Sept. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

May, 

May, 

July, 

May, 

Jan. 

April, 



1844 
1817 
1829 
1830 
1816 
1852 
1842 
1817 
1832 



Donations. 



$19,621.00 
1.526.49 
329.15 
370.04 
5,683.76 
1,960.01 
2.339.91 
3.366.72 
1,673.97 



127.06 

3,738.99 

1,397.13 

2,949.35 

5,538.99 

718.56 

101.01 

10,835.30 

4,320.90 

1,450.75 

4,754.87 

15,930.45 

698.06 

909.14 

50.30 

381.95 

21.182.49 

1,117.86 

3,169.47 

972.15 

6,477.23 

25.00 

3,268.27 

1,970.50 



3,936.37 

544.51 

341.66 

6,542.59 

20,786.70 

5,701.51 

390.00 

22,828.47 

3.784.74 

102,926.12 

546.23 



42,091.43 

2.457.41 

1.726.16 

582.19 

74.80 

15,226.06 

7,594.00 



Remit- 
tances for 
Bibles. 



$16,385.20 

3,326.92 

130.85 

804.05 

10,054.75 

5,171.46 

5,329.05 

111.28 

232.50 

91.53 

1,879.62 

7,807.61 

7,547.60 

3,404.26 

6,634.34 

4,291.26 

324.39 

6.131.77 

5,830.78 

5,341.42 

3,985.20 

5,355.39 

4,163.76 

4,244.35 

81.70 

3,385.60 

11,237.37 

2,280.75 

6,950.40 

1,072.20 

5.746.56 

175.00 

4,699.15 

805.32 

87.00 

12.274.47 

2,997.44 

147.65 

5,482.53 

30.785.72 

6,814.87 

1,345.11 

19,282.30 

3,768.00 

17,369.47 

72.86 

6.043.89 

264,911.73 

5,401.51 

1,726.20 

'767.73 

7.20 

20,521.48 

12.805.50 



Name. 



Ontario Co 

Orange Co 

Orleans Co 

Oswego Co 

Otsego Co 

Peekskill Female 

Poughkeepsle Fem. Union 

Putnam Co 

Bemsen Steuben Welsh 
and Vicinity 

Rensselaer Co 

Rockland Co 

Sandy Hill and Fort Ed- 
ward 

Saratoga Co 

Schenectady Co 

Schoharie Co 

Schuyler Co 

Seneca Associate Ref. 

South Seneca 

South Steuben 

Steuben Co 

St. Lawrence Co 

Sullivan Co 

Tioga Co 

Tompkins Co 

Ulster Co 

Utica Welsh and Vic 

Warren Co 

Washington Co 

Watervliet 

Wavne County 

Welsh B. S. of Nelson 

Welsh B. S. of Rome 

Welsh B. S. of Holland 
Patent 

Westchester Co 

Wj-oming Co 

Yates Co 



Dale. 


Mar. 


1817 


June 


1816 


July, 


1830 


Mar. 


1826 


June 


1816 


Feb. 


1817 


Sept. 


1850 


.May, 


1S28 


Jan. 


1817 


June 


1816 


July, 


1816 


Nov. 


1848 


J nly, 


1816 


May, 


1823 


Jan. 


1817 


Feb. 


1S56 


May, 


1846 


Feb. 


1846 


June, 


1848 


Feb. 


1817 


April 


,1820 


Aug. 


1826 


June 


1823 


May, 


1828 


Nov. 


1816 


Jan. 


1817 


Sept. 


1821 


Mar. 


1817 


Jan. 


1849 


April 


1847 


Sept. 


1856 


Mar. 


1S55 


May, 


1855 


Aug. 


1827 


Feb. 


1850 


Dec. 


1827 



Donations. 



$ 8.40 r O5 

24.141 22 

3.230.82 

2.4ns. 15 

3.116.79 

713.59 

1,080.81 

1 'J' i.i ii i 

3,893.68 

35,452.61 

1,985.72 

164.64 

12,779.61 

2,741.56 

3,934.40 

358.50 

319.71 

1,735.67 

1,267.85 

2.085.3* 

2.115.40 

2,388.90 

4.272.81 

4.044.04 

11,145.91 

4.479.71 

194.44 

19.092.11 

3.720.58 

3,731.43 

12.00 

22S.08 

1S4.4S 

19,614.17 

2,310.82 

4,372.10 



Remit- 
Bibles. 



$ 4.870.93 
6,426.71 
4,058.68 
7,286.94 

7,573.77 
166.76 

316.16 

2,141.06 

22.289.21 
2,289.64 

243.93 
7,277.96 
4.454.40 
3.9S2.19 

513.23 
16.08 
1,077.02 
1.264.36 
5,201.34 
14,193.70 
3.156.16 
5,373.82 
6.249.34 
2,191.24 
2,450.12 
2,300.38 
7.4.58.51 
2,117.34 
4,775.31 
53.35 

132.73 

77.40 
6.977.71 
4,634.73 
3,468.60 



3 This society has a large property vested in a publishing 
house and grounds, corner of Nassau and Spruce Streets, New 
York, and in the stock, machinery, and materials used in the 
manufacture of books and tracts. Its fiscal affairs are managed 
by a finance committee. It has 31 auxiliaries in the State of 
New York. The receipts up to May, 1858, were $5,856,711.05,-- 
about three-fifths of which were derived from sales, and the re- 
mainder from donations. Previous to May, 1858, this society 
had circulated 13,098,013 volumes, 188,971,408 publications, 
4,753,741,573 pages; including 149.761 volumes (9,831 sets) of 
the Evangelical Family Library, 94,026 volumes (2,089 sets) of 
the Christian Library, 4S.638 volumes (1,990 sets) of the Reli 
gious or Pastor's Library, 319.323 volumes (4.557 sets) of tin 
Youth's Library, and 160,921 volumes (20.044 sets) of the Youth's 
Scripture Biography. The society publishes an Almanac, the 
American Messenger, (in English and German,) and Child's 
Paper, in large editions ; and issues books and tracts in the Eng- 
lish, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Welsh, 
Dutch, Danish, Swedish, and Hungarian languages. It operates 
through branch and auxiliary societies, general agents and su- 
perintendents, and paid and volunteer colporteurs. The Ameri- 
can Tract Society of Boston, which formerly co-operated with 
this, is now a distinct organization. 

Societies of kindred character were formed in the State pre 
vious to this, — the more important of which was the New York 
Religious Tract Society, formed in 1812, with auxiliaries in vari- 
ous parts of the country. 

4 This society has established 27 missions, 121 stations, and 
101 out stations in Africa, Greece, Western and Southern Asia, 
China, Sandwich Islands, Micronesia, and among the North 
American Indian Tribes. It employs 373 missionaries and as- 
sistants, and 524 native pastors and assistants, has 8 printing 
presses, and up to 1858 had issued 1.0SO,481.0S3 pages of tracts 
and relisrious books. These missions numbered 318 churches, 
and 27,740 members; and the educational department embraced 



10 



146 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Tlie American Home Missionary Society was formed May 12, 1826, for the pur- 
pose of supporting the ministry in feeble and destitute Presb. and Cong, churches in the U. S. 1 

The American Sunday School Union was formed in 1824, for the purpose of en- 
couraging the establishment of Sunday schools and of supplying them with books. Its central 
office is at Philadelphia. The New York Sunday School Union, auxiliary to this, was established 
in 1816, and has numerous local subordinate societies in different parts of the State. 2 

The American Seamen's Friend Society was formed in 1828, and endeavors to 
carry out the intentions expressed in its title by distributing Bibles and tracts, supporting the 
ministry, and otherwise promoting the moral welfare of seamen. 3 

The American Bethel Society was instituted in 1836, for the purpose of opening 
chapels for boatmen and mariners, distributing tracts, and extending other means for their moral 
improvement. It established a magazine named the "Bethel Flag;" and has auxiliaries in many 
places on the lakes, rivers, and canals. 

The American and Foreign Christian Union was formed in 1849, for the special 
object of counteracting the influence of the Romish and other churches opposed to the class usually 
denominated " evangelical."* 

The Central American Education Society was formed for the purpose of 
assisting young men preparing for the ministry. In 1858 the society aided 111 students. 

The American Colonization Society was formed at Washington, Jan. 1817, for 
the colonization of free colored persons in Africa. The H T ew York State Colonization 
Society was formed at Albany, April 9, 1829, and has had numerous auxiliaries in the State. 5 

The National Compensating Emancipation Society, formed in 1857, has for 
its object the purchasing of slaves for the purpose of giving them freedom. 

The American Anti Slavery Society was organized Dec. 4, 1833. 6 

The American missionary Association was formed Sept. 1846, as a Home and 
Foreign Missionary Society. Business office in N. Y. City. Receipts for first 12 years of its exist- 
ence, (421,001.98. Present and monthly income, §3,000 to §5,000. It has a slaves' Bible Fund, 
and labors for the extinction of slavery. The association publish The American Missionary (paper) 
and American Missionary Magazine, both •monthly. 

Young Men's Christian Associations have been formed in most of the cities and 



6 seminaries, 17 other boarding schools, 619 free schools, (of 
whli b 312 were supported by the Hawaiian Government.) and 
17,020 pupils. The receipts in the year ending July 31, 1858, 
wi re (334,01848, the principal part of which was derived from 
donations.— Forly-Xinth Report A. B. C. F. St., 1858. 

1 This society was formed by the union of two societies pre- 
ffously formed by the Presbyterian and Reformed Protestant 
. Churches, it is supported by the Congregarionalista and 
1 Preshyti I lans, anil to some extent by the Reformed 
Pi •  • Dutch, Lutheran, and German Reformed Churches. 
In 1868, 1,012 persons were connected with this society or its 
agenri es nnd auxiliaries, "f which 133 are within this State. 
Tli- iiitm' • regatkiii- an. 1 Mati'ins fully or statedly sup- 

plied Sabbathschi it I ilars, 66,600; contributions to 

ipts in 12 months were 
•476.071 7; u to the same time were $190,785.70. 

166,082; to) J years of labor, 
additions to churches, 160,276. 
There is a central sod  western agency in this Btate, — tho 
office of the former of whirl, i< .,t Dtlca and of the latter at 

i. The niinilnr of missionaries aided within the year was 

188. Total i- mtrlbul 

a Tliio moTsmenl was supported by moat of the evangelical 
dsoomin kttoni : i ul sen ral oi them bare since • itablished sun- 
day school organisations among themselves. The American 
had. in 1- 2,600,000 in 

1 more In organising Sunday schools. Its 
r the last 1 il had formed 

L624 new schools, with 67,787 pupil 4 teachers. lbs 

New V rk Sunday 8ch 1 Union had, In 1868,210 schools, re- 
iki in libraries, 
in 1 1 Iributions. Sunday schools in some form 

an- luppoi ' linaUou, and ar<> 

By for BIW I Teachers' 

innuaUy. Its third report, 
madeOct. 1868, gave a total In tl Statool ■■1-. 22,263 

hers, and 212312 pu| 
•This society has 16 - 1 • t i- >n« In various parts of the world, 
and grants aid to various Bethel operations not connected with 
it. The receipts for lbs year ending inls;,s were | 
snd the total expenses in the seamen's cause ai-mt tl 1 - 1 
2.2.'" mariners had been I - II ime In New 

York, an 1 the whole Bomber received into that institution fr m 
its establishment Wai - 



* The association has 61 home laborers; and its receipts in the 
year ending in 1858 were $76,603.22. Its expenses in the same 
time were $79,604.33. It has agents, and supports chapels in 
several foreign countries. 

6 The slave trade was abolished in ISO", and after Jan. 1, 
1808, the cargoes of captured slaves were to be sold for the bene- 
fit of the State where they might land. 15y an act of March 
3, 1819, the General Government appropriated $100,000 for the 
restoration of a largo number of Africans to their native coun- 
try. By the co-operation of the Government with this Society 
a purchase was made in Dee. 1^21. in the neighborhood of Capo 
Mniitscrado, on the w. coast of Africa, from which has grown 
the present Republic of Liberia, under the special patronage of 
this society. Formal possession was taken April 2S, 1S22. 

Several of the subordinate State societies have been merged 

In anti-slavery and other more radical societies for the termi- 
nation of Blavery. in the year ending in 1858 the receipts of 
the New V.nk Colonization society were $15,624.62. 
o The expenses of the society for tho year ending in 1858 were 

£17,052, Including those of the Anti slavery Standard, its prin- 

clpal organ. Receipts. $15,200 from tho paper and donations, 
and (17,356 bj .in ciliai li -. 

A N.w York State Atiti Slavery Society, with numerous aux- 
iliaries, was formed about 1834-36, and its friends soon organ- 
themselves into a political party. The highest State vote 
of this partv was in 1844, when it amounted, on the Governor's 
ticket, to 16,136. Blavery existed under the Dutch, and was 
continued through the i;n •■li-h period of our colonial history. 

An act was passed Man b 81, 1o17. declaring that every child 

born of a slave in this State after July 4, 17119. should be Ire- at 
the age nf 2S if a male, or at 25 if a female. Every child horn 
aft-r tie- passage ,,f the act was to become free at the age of 21, 
and measures were ordered for the education of children held 
in service. The Importation of slaves was prohibited. The first 
emancipation under this law, therefore, took effect July 5, i s _7, 

as the law fixed the period as after instead of Upon the 4th of 

Jolv. as was perhaps Intended. The 5th of July has sometimes 
been celebrated as their anniversary of independence; and hence 

SJ ISOS the Slang expression of " Fourth of July one day arte,)-." 
I : I. i n In fin- tl,,. ah .ve date remained slaves till their death, 

nnd the census of 1855 reported one such as living in the Slate. 
The number of slaves in New York at different periods has 
been as follows: — 

....21...21 I 1S10 15.017 I 1820 10,046 11840 4 

1800 20,013 I 1814 11,480 | 1830 75 | 1850 — 



RELIGIOUS, LITERARY, AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. 117 

large villages in the United States and British Provinces. They form a general confederation, 
the State of New York forming the fourth district. These associations embrace within (heir 
objects a library, reading room, lectures and prayer meetings. 1 

The Young' Men's Christian Union of New York is supported by the Unitarian and 
Universalist denominations principally. 

Young Men's Associations for mutual improvement have been formed in various pints 
of the State and under various names. The plan of organization is essentially alike; and it 
usually includes a library, reading room, cabinet, lecture course, and debating club. Most of 
these associations have been organized by special acts, and their affairs are managed by executive 
committees chosen annually by the members. They can hold a limited amount of property for 
the special objects of their organization. 2 

In most of the large villages, associations have been formed for the support of lectures at stated 
intervals in the winter months. They are generally of a temporary character, are re-organized 
every season or are attached to academies or other existing institutions. 

The I¥ew York State Temperance Society was formed April 2, 1829. Its objects 
were to suppress intemperance and limit the traffic in intoxicating liquors. It received the support 
of a large number of the best and most philanthropic citizens, and its influence spread rapidly 
throughout the State. 3 Since the formation of the first society, efforts to suppress intemperance 
have been made upon an extended scale, and the strong arm of the law has been invoked to pro- 
hibit the traffic in alcoholic liquors. 

Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons. " The Ancient and Honorable Fra- 
ternity of Free and Accepted Masons" of the State of New York is under the government of a 
Grand Lodge, composed of its Grand Officers and the representatives (the Master and Wardens) 
of every lodge in the jurisdiction. As at present constituted, the Grand Lodge dates from 1785, 
when Chancellor Robert R. Livingston was elected Grand Master, and continued in office till 1801. * 
In 1859 there are 430 chartered lodges in the State, (numbered to 474,) with about 33,000 mem- 
bers, numbering among them a very respectable class in all the walks of life. There is at least 
one lodge in every county in the State, (except Hamilton ;) 93*of the lodges are in the city of New 
York ; and a lodge is located in every considerable town and village. The annual receipts of the 



1 Tn July, 1858, associations of this kind were in active ope- 
ration in Albany, Albion, Black Rock, Brooklyn, Buffalo, Cats- 
kill. Flushing;, Hudson, Jamestown, New York, Oswego, Pough- 
keepsie, Rondout, Saratoga Springs. Stapleton, Troy, TJtica, and 
Waterford. Those in italics belonged to the confederation. 

2 The first organization of this kind in the State was the Al- 
bany Young Men's Association, formed Dec. 1.3, 1833, and in- 
corp. March 12, 1835. The following is a list of these associa- 
tions in the State formed under special acts: — 



Name and Location. 



Albany, Albany co.. 
Buffalo, Erie co 



" " (German) 

F.lmira, Chemung co.... 

Fulton, Oswego co 

Geneva, Ontario co 

Tort Byron, Cayuga co. 

Backets Harbor, Jeffer- 
son co 

Saratoga Springs, Sara- 
toga co 

Franklin Institute,") 
Syracuse, Ononda- V 

giira ) 

Schenectady, Schenec- 
tady co 

Troy, Rensselaer co 

Utica, Oneida co 

Watertown. Jefferson co. 



Date of 
incorporation. 



March 12. 1835 

March 3, 1843 

May 12, 1846 

April 11,1842 

May 13, 1846 

April 17, 1839 

April 10,1844 

March 2,1843 

May 14, 1840 

Dec. 1849 



March 9, 1839 
April 10, 1835 
March 25, 1837 
April 17, 1841 



Remarks. 



Fully organized. Li- 
brary 7,000 vols. 

Library in 1855, 7,500 
vols. 

Library in 1855, 1,800 
vols. 



Closed. 



f Library in 1859, 
\ about 3,000 vols. 



Fully organized. 

Closed. 

Burned out in 1849. 



3 The fourth report of the State Society, in 1S38, gave 1,538 
societies and 231,074 members. Its principal organ, the Temper- 
ance Recorder, was begun March 6, 1832, at Albany, and issued 
many years. It also published almanacs, tracts, and circulars 
to a large extent. The American Society for the Promotion of 
Temperance, formed in 1827, was in 1836 succeeded by the 
'• American Temperance Union." The latter, in the year ending 
in 1858. received $1,987.20. Its principal organ is the Journal 
of the American Temperance Union, at New York. Both this 



and the State Society are still in operation. About 1841-45 the 
" Washingtonian" temperance movement, originating among 
reformed inebriates, spread over the State, and several thousand 
independent societies were formed under it, — most of which, how- 
ever, died out with the enthusiasm under which they were 
created. The secret orders of " Rechabites" and " Sons of 
Temperance" originated in New York, about 1S42, and subse- 
quently those of ''Cadets of Temperance," "Daughters of Tem- 
perance," "Good Samaritans," "Daughters of Samaria," 
'• Knights Templar," "Social Circles," and other associations of 
a similar class were formed for the avowed purpose of pro- 
moting temperance reform. Numerous lodges or encampments 
were formed, and these societies at one time embraced largo 
numbers of members. Several of them have been given up en- 
tirely ; and it is believed none of them are increasing. They 
required a form of initiation and pledge of secrecy, had fixed 
dues payable at regular intervals, provided money to assist the 
sick and bury the dead, and gave certificates of membership, 
which, with passwords and other tokens of recognition, might 
enable a person to claim assistance among strangers belonging 
to the order. 

The License question was submitted to the popular vote May 
5, 1846, with the result of 111.884 for, and 177,683 against, license. 
The operation of the law was deemed by many to be unequal ; 
and its effect upon the temperance cause was unquestionably 
adverse. In 1847 the majorities for license were large in most 
of the towns. The " Maine Law," or prohibition movement, 
began in 1851, and was urged by its friends with great force 
during several sessions of the Legislature. A prohibitory law 
Was passed, but was declared unconstitutional by the Court of 
Appeals. The present law regulating the sale of intoxicating 
liquors, passed April 16, 1857, provides a Board of Excise Com- 
missioners in each county for granting licenses and prosecuting 
violations of the law. 

* At the close of his term there were 94 lodges in the State, 
of which tho oldest was St. John's, No. 1. (yet in active exist- 
ence.) established in the city of New York in 1757. Gen. Jacob 
Morton was Grand Master from 1801 to 1806, De Witt Clinton 
from 1S06 to 1820, and Daniel D. Tompkins from 1S20 to 1822, 
when the Grand Lodge became divided. In 1826, at the com- 
mencement of the Anti-Masonic excitement, (see Genesee co.,) 
there were about 360 lodges in the State, (numbered to 507,) 
with about 22,000 members. In 1836 the number of lodges had 
been reduced below 75, with a corresponding membership, — say 
4,000. 



148 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Grand Lodge are about $16,000 ; and during the year ending in June, 1859, the amount expended 
for charitable relief by the Grand Lodge and its immediate agents -was about $3,000 ; and probably 
three times more than that sum 'was expended for the same purposes by lodges and individual 
Masons. There is in the Hall and Asylum Fund, raised for charitable and educational purposes, 
about §25,000, controlled by trustees chosen by the Grand Lodge, (it not being incorporated;) and 
this sum is constantly being increased from various sources, — a portion of it arising from the 
stated revenues of the Grand Lodge. The fraternity are now all united in one body, under the 
jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge and its subordinates, and are in a sound and flourishing condition. 
The office of the Grand Secretary and place of business of the fraternity is in Odd Fellows Hall, 
corner of Grand and Center Sts., New York. The Grand Lodge is in correspondence and direct 
communication with all the Grand Lodges and Masonic fraternity throughout the world. 1 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows. This order was introduced into the United 
States from Manchester, England ; and the first regular lodge was opened at Baltimore, in 1819. 
The Grand Lodge of the U. S. includes 42 subordinate Grand Lodges in the States and Territories, 
Canada, and the Sandwich Islands. There are 2 Grand Lodges and 623 subordinate lodges in 
this State. 2 

Sons Of Malta. This order embraced in this State, on the 1st of July, 1859, the Grand 
Lodge of the State and 8 subordinate lodges, with an aggregate membership of 12,680. 



MEDICAL SOCIETIES. 

The formation of County Medical Societies was authorized by an act passed April 4, 1806. 
They were empowered to grant licenses to practice medicine in the State and to collect of the 
members a sum not exceeding S3 annually. Delegates sent from each co. society, in number 
equal to the representation of the co. in Assembly, were to constitute a State Medical Society, 
which had the power of granting diplomas to practice medicine and to decide upon cases appealed 
from the co. societies. Although local societies were formed under this act in most of the counties 
then existing, several of them have ceased to exist ; and there are at present but about 40 county 
societies that are represented by delegates. The State Society was formed Feb. 5, 1807, and is 



1 The stated festivals of the fraternity are on the 24th of June 
and 27th of December, usually styled St. John's days. The offi- 
cers of the Grand Lodge and of the subordinates are elected 
annually ; and the time and place for the " Annual Communica- 
tion" of the Grand Lodge id on the first Tuesday of June, in 
the city of New York. 



The elective Grand Officers of the Fraternity are Grand Master, 
Deputy Grand Master, Senior Grand Warden, Junior Grand 
Warden, Grand Treasurer, Grand Secretary, and 5 Grand Chap, 
lains. 



2 Statistics of tJie Odd Fellows for the year ending Jan. 30, 1858. 



Lodges, or Subordinate 

encampment* 

Number of initln' 

" " r<jr<:tiona.... 

" 

" " memberi — 
 " " re- 
lieved 

widows and fami- 
lies relieved 

Amount paid for taU t I i 

member? 

Amount pni'l f r r 

•rkknrad families. 

Amount paid for educa- 
tion of orphans 

Amount paid for burying 
the dead 

Amount of annual re- 
ceipt* 



L0DOE8. 



*1 

5 3 



16J64S 

1.71.: 

1,789 

176,71 I 

2-1151 

$2*4.992.91 
66.' 

11.2S4.06 
67,364.70 

LSSMBoJOa 



Grand Liyljc 
Northern 

\ i:-rA\ 


■1 

5 jS 


493 

. > 1 

61 

89 

11.:-.-. 


130 
148 

27 

118 

8,475 


716 


1,346 


113 


393 


$11,263.80 


$29,663.62 


... 185.18 


6,645.17 


207.29 


888.ee 


2,260.00 


5,091.17 


44.756.78 


69,981.18 






623 

1,138 

78 

200 

20,258 

2,060 

506 

$40,927.42 

9,730.35 

595.98 

7,341.1 

1 14,737 .9ti 



Encampments. 



■8 E-3 

~ K -2 

111 



651 

2,755 

79 

220 

22,319 

902 

93 

$28,171.10 

3,111.60 

10.00 

5.377.24 

110,156.54 



In 



71 

56 

2 

8 

979 

22 



$211.00 

10.00 

40.84 

2.019.92 



3" . 

• £ ££ 



Bj( 



13 

60 



4 
487 

32 

1 

$363.00 

3.00 

90.00 
2,426.75 



II 



84 

116 

2 

12 

1,466 

54 

1 

$574.00 

3,00 

10.00 

90.84 

4,446.67 



MEDICAL SOCIETIES. 



149 



now composed of delegates from co. societies, 1 delegate from each medical college, 5 from the 
New York Academy of Medicine, honorary members by virtue of office or by election, and per- 
manent members elected after 4 years' service as delegates. The annual meetings of the society 
are held on the first Tuesday of February. The State Society has maintained a regular organization 
from the beginning; and since 1848 its proceedings have been reported annually to the Legisla- 
ture and published with their documents. 1 

Homeopathic Medical Societies may be organized in the several counties under an act of April 
13, 1857 ; and such have been formed in Kings, Livingston, New York, Oneida, and perhaps other 
counties. 2 



County Medical Societies. 



Countt. 



Albany 

Allegany 

Broome , 

Cattaraugus 

Cayuga 

Chautauqua 

Chemung , 

Chenango 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Erie 

Essex 

Franklin 

Fulton and Hamilton 

Genesee 

Greene 

Herkimer 

Jefferson 

Kings 

Lewis 

Livingston 

Madison , 

Monroe 

Montgomery 

New York 

Niagara 

Oneida 

Onondaga 

Ontario 

Orange 

Orleans 

Oswego 

Otsego 

Putnam 

Queens 

Rensselaer 

Richmond 

Rockland 

St. Lawrence 

Saratoga 

Schenectady 

Schoharie 

Schuyler 

Seneca 

Steuben 

Suffolk 

Sullivan 

Tioga 

Tompkins 

Ulster 

Watren 

Washington 

Wayne 

Westchester 

Wyoming 

Yates 



Date of 
Organization. 



July 29, 1806 
Nov. 6, 1823 



Aug. 



1836 
5, 1806 



June, 1806 

Aug. 10, 1808 

1806 

1806 

1815 



Oct. 



1809 



Aug. 5, 1806 
Dec. 17, 1806 
March 2, 1822 



May 
July 
May 
July 
July 



July 

July 

July 
July 



29, 1821 

27, 1806 

9, 1S21 

3, 1806 

1, 1806 

1806 
1, 1806 

1, 1806 

17, 1821 
1, 1S06 



July 18, 1806 



May 
Oct. 



18, 1S50 
14, 1807 



Oct. 1857 

Dec. 29, 1857 

July 22, 1806 



July 1, 1806 
May 8, 1797 
March 4,1823 



First President. 



Wm. McClelland. 
Chester Lusk 



Lemuel Hudson 
Tracy Robinson.. 



Wm. Wilson 

Lewis S. Owen , 

Joshua H. Brett 

Samuel Bard 

Josiah Trowbridge.. 

Records lost. 



Westel Willoughby, jr 

John Durkee 

Cornelius Low 

Records burned 

Charles Little 

Israel Farrell 

Alexander Kelsey , 

Alexander Sheldon.... 
Nicholas Romayne 

Amos G.Hull 

John H. Frisbie 

Jonathan Sweezey 

Benjamin Coe 

Joseph White 

Benjamin Woodward. 

John Demarest 

Joseph W. Smith 

S. B.Wells 

Nelson Winton 

David Conkliu 



First Secretary. 



Charles D. Townsend. 
Ammi Doubleday 



Asa R. Howell. 
Geo. Mowrey ... 



Wm. Bav 

Geo. W. Bradford.. 

Adam J. Doll 

Van Kleek 



Andrew Proudfit 

Archibald Macdonald... 
Joshua Lee 



Andrew Farrell 

Hugh Henderson 

Andrew Vanderze 

Organization abandoned. 

Cyrus Wells 

Elijah Pratt 

Frederick F. Backus 

Stephen Reynolds 

Edward Miller 

David Hasbrouck 

Walter Colton 

Nathaniel Elmer 

Luther Cowen 

Caleb Richardson 

Ira M.Wells 

Charles Whipple 

W.Noble 

C. C. Van Dyck 

Thomas Shannon 



D Moses Blachely 



Wm. Livingston 
Watson Smith... 
John Hatmaker, 



First No. 
Members. 



9 

7 

17 



11 

8 

20 
10 



9 

13 
9 

9 

20 
20 

8 

106 

29 
11 

22 

7 
14 



20 

11 

5 



10 

7 



23 



12 



Present 

No. of 
Members. 



45 
20 



15 
40 

27 
22 
40 
35 
95 



65 

32 
46 
94 
20 
450 

90 
62 

50 

36 
37 



11 



14 

7 



2S 
41 
25 



1 The first act regulating the practice of physic and surgery 
in New York was passed June 10, 1760. It was amended in 
1792 and 1797, and under the latter the judges of State courts 
and courts of Common Pleas and Masters in Chancery were, 
upon proof of two years' study of medicine, authorized to license 
persons to practice as physicians. By the act of 1806, medical 
societies might be formed in each co. by securing five or more 
members; and where there were less than five physicians in a 
co. they might unite with the society of a neighboring co» 

The restrictions upon practice without a diploma were finally 
abolished in 1844 ; and the law now makes no distinction between 
the different classes of practitioners. Those assuming to act as 
physicians become responsible for their practice, and, if not 
licensed by a county or the State Society or regularly graduated 



at a medical school, can collect pay according to the time em- 
ployed, but they cannot collect the specific fees, implying pro- 
fessional skill, which are recognized by the established usages 
of the profession. 

2 The number of homeopathic practitioners in the State is 
about 600. of whom 150 are in New York and Brooklyn. The 
Central, Bond St.. and Northern Homeopathic Dispensaries in 
New York, the Homeopathic Dispensary of Brooklyn, the 
Hahnemann Academy of Medicine of New York, and the Homeo- 
pathic Medical Society of Northern N. Y.. are sustained by this 
class of physicians, and the North American Homeopathic 
Journal, (quarterly.) the Homeopathic Review, (mo,) and the 
Homeopathic, (semi-mo..) all published at New York, are de- 
voted to their interests. 



150 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Population, Classified by Color, Political Relation, Nativity, &c., according to the State 

Census of 1855. 



Consnxs. 



'a 
§■ 



Albany 

Allegany 

Broome 

Cattaraugus 

Cayuga 

Chautauque., 

Chemung 

Chenango 

Clintoo 

Columbia 

Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Erie 

Essex 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Genesee. 

Greene 

Hamilton 

Herkimer .... 

Jefferson 

Kings 

Lewis 

Livingston... 
Madison. 

Montgomery. 

Hew Vork.... 

Niagara 

Oneida. 

Onondaga .... 

Ontario 

< Grange 

Orleans 

Oswego 

Otsego 

un 

Qneens 

Rensselaer ... 
Richmond.... 

Roi kl.ind 

?t. Lawrence 
- 

••rtady. 
Schoharie 

Bchnykc 

Beneca. 

Btanben 

Suffolk 

Sullivan 

TioRa. 

Tiimpkin" 

(Rater 

•i 

log .... 
Tate* 

Total 



103.681 
42.910 
36.650 
39.530 
63.571 
63,580 
27,288 
89,916 
42.4v> 
44.341 
24,676 
89,749 
60.635 

13-2.331 

23.284 

31.532 

31.137 

2.543 

: ijt 

65.420 

216.355 
26,229 
37.943 
43,687 
96.324 
80,808 

629.810 
48.282 

1"7.749 
86.575 
42.672 
60,868 
28.435 
69,398 
49,735 
13.934 
46.266 
79,234 
21.3VP 
19.511 
74.^77 

1 :-■ 
33,519 
18,777 
25,358 

41,066 

26,962 
81,616 
67,936 



:.!•■.. 1 



Color. 



102.842 
42,729 
86,135 

39.401 
53.171 
53.271 
26,825 
39.701 
42,351 
43,137 
24.547 
39.555 
58,806 

131.473 
28,403 
25.460 
23,124 
30,948 
30,325 
2.539 
38,394 
65.223 

211,875 
25,186 
87,734 
43.362 
95.835 
30.407 

618.064 
47.SSU 

107.134 
S"-..i >73 
42,088 
58.720 
28,325 
69,030 
49.518 
13,805 
43.216 
78.340 
20,799 
19.11] i 

74,875 
48,737 
19,261 

18,7( i 
26,190 
62,567 

39.018 

! : . 
81,267 
66.510 

4;. iv. 
4>-..:.i.-> 

:■ " 

19,716 



II 






s:... 
181 
615 
129 
390 
109 
463 
214 
131 

1.J..4 

28 

194 

1,829 

858 

136 

17 

160 

86 

812 

4 

172 

197 

4,480 
43 
209 
325 
4S9 
401 
11,S40 
402 
615 
502 
584 

2,148 
110 
368 
217 
129 

3.050 
'894 
590 
497 
102 
642 
311 
456 
76 
1. - 
408 

L888 
110 
280 
249 

!.;:■ 

246 

1,928 

29 

I 






Political 
Relations. 



Nativities. 



18,616 
9.884 

vjv 

V37 

11,526 

11.912 

5,859 

9.700 

6,374 

9.412 

5.902 

9,065 

12.498 

21,743 

5.652 

4,462 

5,066 

6,477 

6,952 

599 

8,578 

14,200 

32.627 

5,284 

8,136 

9,974 

17,272 

r..;.Mi 

s-.v: 

8,257 

20.946 

16,933 

9,147 

11,301 

5.704 

14,609 

12,177 

3,037 

8,187 

14,933 

3,795 

3.580 

13,984 

10,377 

3.790 

7,376 

4,377 

5,395 

14.151 

7,939 

6,727 

6,181 

7,456 

18,197 

l. IV, 

l'.j.i.-, 

1 1,246 

7,064 

1,474 



20,282 

2,032 
2.ii.".i', 
2,645 
4,863 
4,795 
1.191 
'977 
8.404 
3.800 
'704 
1,532 
6,861 

37,274 
2.994 
3,739 
1,559 
4,107 
1,522 
16S 
3,955 
5.377 

65,536 
2,751 
4.329 
3^32 

22,837 

2,688 

232,678 

10,327 

18^72 

73,549 
4,757 
7,955 
3,813 
7,372 
1.640 
1,215 
8,618 

14921 
5,078 
3.457 
9,915 
5,748 
2,943 
874 
587 
2,153 
3.605 
3,083 
3,606 
■.•:•• 
1,160 
9,487 
1,643 
4,822 
4,767 

16,741 
! 

'.'12 









64.705 
32,826 

27.874 
28,918 
40,720 
37,965 
19,983 
32,402 
25,222 
36,500 
19,989 
33.575 
48^073 
66,945 
19.057 
14583 
19,632 
20,339 
27,338 
1,998 
30,283 
50.103 
94,122 
17.5*3 
26,141 
34,060 
53.939 
25^62 
262,156 
27,753 
68,302 
57,589 
30,666 
45,339 
19,841 
50,731 
42,205 
11,62S 
33.092 
51,667 
14,094 
13,512 
47,991 
87,423 
14.596 
31,195 
15,379 
19,253 
48.737 
34.983 
21,508 

•Jn.TM, 

26,687 

63.136 
1 1,682 
82,297 
86,077 
62,036 
22 t 18 

I6.HS2 



-j:j,:;.1 



IS 

Is 



fi 



70.407 
39,150 
32,921 
34.629 
46,033 
46,444 
24,075 
37,728 
29.279 
39,141 
23,139 
36,072 
50.724 
77,620 
23,799 
19,258 
20,811 
24,920 
28,755 
2,225 
32,607 
56,471 

115.245 
19.669 
31,1S5 
39,336 
63,048 
26,714 

303,721 
33.205 
76,868 
65,126 
35,639 
49,718 
23.363 
66,895 
46.674 
12,228 
34,800 
57.447 
15;441 
15,030 
59,667 
41.305 
15,217 
3-2.117 
17.648 
22,498 

86,807 
28,186 

25,028 
29,638 
64,786 
17.122 
87,482 
39,380 
57,401 

1-..;: 



2,528,444 



33,247 
3,153 
3,225 
4.066 
6,s.-,4 
6.797 
2,S76 
1,747 

13.021 
5,107 
1,380 
3,564 
9.707 

54.257 
4,684 
6.622 
2,448 
6,427 
2,261 
310 
5,S03 
8,630 
100,206 
5.470 
6,549 
4,351 

33,276 

3,880 

322.469 

14,717 

30.354 

20,949 
6,803 

10.761 
4.966 

12,024 
2.770 
1,694 

11,135 

21,445 
5,8S2 
4,436 

15,016 
7,927 
4,303 
1,294 
966 
2.71.3 
2.196 
4.211 
6,128 
1,597 
1,849 

18,162 
2,479 
6,791 
7,108 

23,182 
6,060 
1,408 



917,708 













o 










1-3 










S P 


a 










«. 


"e 


u 


•Si 


is 


>a 


■** 


s 


•2 


-■3 


3 


«1 


s 


3 


IM S 


"S> 


















O 










3.231 


18 


25 


46 


46 


536 


IS 


11 


20 


46 


611 


18 


5 


32 


35 


496 


21 


16 


31 


26 


890 


17 


14 


39 


45 


749 


14 


11 


21 


3S 


675 


8 


5 


11 


11 


273 


17 


19 


34 


46 


4,449 


20 


18 


18 


28 


1,069 


20 


11 


34 


28 


245 


i 


13 


25 


34 


2S3 


18 


6 


29 


25 


1,567 


19 


15 


43 


17 


2.315 


35 


32 


66 


43 


1,154 


7 


10 


15 


21 


1,323 


15 


15 


17 


20 


531 


12 


10 


20 


20 


436 


16 


9 


30 


35 


516 


11 


8 


27 


27 


53 


— 


— 


1 


4 


608 


21 


26 


37 


36 


991 


41 


28 


62 


66 


8.924 


45 


44 


16 


27 


722 


8 


7 


21 


36 


376 


13 


9 


14 


13 


848 


27 


18 


43 


41 


2,105 


27 


30 


56 


30 


625 


26 


14 


14 


21 


25,858 


411 


316 


655 


52 


976 


11 


14 


25 


24 


3,062 


48 


42 


517 


56 


2,150 


24 


28 


22 


40 


570 


21 


10 


26 


32 


1,241 


18 


14 


42 


36 


736 


13 


4 


10 


11 


1,778 


33 


24 


41 


62 


569 


24 


18 


54 


60 


425 


5 


2 


5 


13 


1,588 


21 


9 


46 


8 


3,0S0 


19 


13 


42 


32 


245 


3 


12 


12 


2 


980 


7 


2 


7 


16 


2.272 


26 


23 


39 


51 


1,271 


18 


13 


35 


43 


269 


7 


8 


8 


16 


601 


9 


9 


7 


19 


219 


4 


4 


10 


24 


365 


5 


8 


19 


is 


870 


21 


7 


28 


29 


681 


12 


6 


26 


13 


655 


8 


7 


11 


20 


436 


11 


13 


16 


13 


271 


6 


5 


28 


43 


2.997 


26 


21 


23 


28 


348 


9 


1 


10 


12 


1,030 


22 


12 


44 


44 


c,.-,s 


21 


15 


22 


36 


3,130 


14 


20 


56 


41 


266 


17 


11 


21 


30 


281 


9 


16 


18 


23 


96.4*9 


1,422 


1,136 


2,742; 


1,812 



Percentages of (lie Several Classes to the Total Population. 



White malf* 49.23 

f.-mali-* 

Colored males - 041 

females 

Total males 

•• females: 50.18 

Pimilo 60.08 

Harried 

Widowed 1 "2 

"VVi I rwi 2.75 

Native roian ML90 

Naturalized voters 3.91 



Aliens 18.54 

i hraen of land 10.41 

i iv. r 21 y<-ars who cannot read and 

write 2.78 

Ages nnder 6, malm 6.85 

" females. 6.74 

Aged 5 and under 10, mal»s 5.73 

females 5.04 

Aged 10 and under 15, males _ 5.46 

" females 6.35 

Aged 15 and under 20, males 4.91 

« " females 5.45 



Aged 20 and under 30, males 9.43 

" " females 10.44 

Aged 30 and under 40, males 7.28 

" " females 6.78 

Aged 40 and under 50, males 4.79 

" " females 4.39 

Aged 50 and under 60, males 2.91 

" " females 2.76 

Aged GO and under 70, mules 1.55 

" " femnlos 1.56 

Aged over 70, males 0.84 

" females 0.85 



POPULATION. 151 

Summary of Population at different periods in the several Counties, as now organized. 



Counties. 1790. 1800. 1810. 1814. 1820. 1825. 1830. 1835. 1840. 1845. 1850. 1856. 



Albany 

Allegany 

Br ra 

Cattaraugus.. 

Cayuga 

Chautauqua.. 

Chemung 

Chenango 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Erie 

Essex 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Genesee 

Greeno 

Hamilton 

Herkimer 

Jeflerson 

Kings 

Lewis 

Livingston. ... 

Madison 

Monroe 

Montgomery., 

New York 

Niagara 

Oneida 

Onondaga 

Ontario 

Orange 

Orleans 

Oswego 

Otsego, 



Putnam 

Queens 

Rensselaer 

Richmond 

Rockland 

St. Lawrence 

Saratoga 

Schenectady., 

Schoharie 

Schuyler 

Seneca 

Steuben 

Suffolk 

Sullivan 

Tioga 

Tompkins 

Ulster 

Warren 

Washington... 

Wayne 

Westchester... 

Wyoming 

Yates 



Total 340,120 



1,702 
8,932 
16,014 
22,428 
3,835 
6,001 



17.077 
5,698 
2,073 



16,440 
1,703 



16,297 

1,080 

20,497 



24,003 



13,717 


25,155 


45 


2,730 




10,817 


2,981 


1.84S 




6.500 


1,036 


3,916 


27,732 


35,::22 




982 


2.745 


10,228 


36,334 


37,909 


578 


4.157 




443 




6,931 


7,028 


12,584 


2,827 


16,332 




262 


4,495 


5.740 




1,362 




2.448 




8,036 




1,192 


18,261 


13,015 


33,131 


60,489 


1,891 


20,839 




6.434 


1,075 


8,466 


22,809 


2o,3o,x 




34S 



21,636 

9,836 

16.893 

30,442 

4.563 

6,353 

454 

24,483 
8,888 
9,808 
266 
4,057 
1,788 

19,464 

3,222 

2,034 

927 

21,633 
4,825 

30,982 
1,410 

27,347 



1,702 



588,603 



34,661 
1,443 
6,481 

458 

29,843 

2.381 

2,852 

21.714 

8.802 

32.390 

8,879 

20.303 

41,190 

4.007 

9,477 

2.719 

15.04S 

3,060 

19,536 

465 

24.742 

15,140 

8,303 

6,433 

10,526 

25.141 

4,683 

23,007 

96,373 

1,465 

30,634 

25,495 

22.088 

34,347 

1,164 

3,889 

38,802 

10,293 

19.330 

36,309 

5,347 

7,758 

7,885 

33,147 

10.205 

18.945 

3,609 

11,306 

6,036 

21.113 

6,108 

5,860 

5,153 

26,576 

7,565 

36,724 

6,575 

30,272 

2,736 

4,867 



33.885 

2.207 

7.423 

537 

33,009 

4.2.7.1 

8,115 

24,221 

7,764 

33.979 

10.803 

21,290 

43,707 

6,201 

9,949 

2,568 

14,491 

9.435 

20,210 

550 

23.725 

18,564 

7,665 

6,848 

13,181 

26.276 

11.178 

22,705 

95,519 

1.276 

45.627 

30,020 

22,812 

34,908 

1,524 

5.382 

41,58' 

9,353 

19,269 

36,833 

5,502 

7,817 

8,252 

31,139 

11.203 

19,323 

5,552 

13,935 

8,983 

21,308 

6.233 

5,188 

9,816 

26,428 

7,838 

36,359 

11.220 

26.367 

5,411 

5,434 



38,116 

6.520 
11,100 

4,090 
38,897 
12,508 

4,272 
31,215 
12,070 
38.330 
16,507 
26.587 
40.015 
10.834 
13,811 

4,439 
15.723 
18,578 
22,990 

1.251 
31,017 
32,952 
11.187 

9,227 
21,006 
32,208 
27,288 
21.846 
123,706 

7.322 
50,997 
41,407 
35,292 
41.213 

5,349 
12,364 
44,850 
11.208 
21.519 
40.153 

6.135 

8,837 
16,037 
36,052 
13,081 
23.154 
10.411 
17,773 
18,068 
24.2 

8.900 

7,966 
22,167 
30.934 

9.453 
38,831 
20,309 
32,038 
16.149 
18,025 



42,821 
13.184 
13,898 

6.043 

42,713 
20.0,39 

8,011 
34.215 
14,480 
37.970 
20.271 
29,506 
40.098 
24.310 
15,993 

7.978 
17,006 
20.708 
26.229 

1,296 
33,040 
41.650 
14,679 
11,669 
26,731 
35,646 
39.10S 
22,600 
166,086 
14,069 
57,847 
48.435 
37,422 
41.732 
14.460 
17.S75 
47,898 
11.866 
20,331 
44,065 

5,932 

8,016 
27,595 
36,295 
12,876 
25,926 
13.773 
20,169 
20,282 
23,695 
10,373 

9,988 
27.951 
32.015 
10,906 
39.280 
26,761 
33.131 
22,307 
15,313 



53,520 
20,288 
17.579 
16,724 
47,948 

34.071 
11,502 
37,238 
19,344 
39,907 
23.791 
33,024 
50,920 
35,719 
10.2-7 
11,312 
20,451 
26,008 
20.525 
1,325 
35.870 
48.493 
20,535 
15,23,9 
27,729 
39,038 
■10.8.-,:, 
23.204 
197,112 
18,482 
71,326 
58.973 
40.2S8 
45,306 
17,732 
27,119 
51,372 
12.628 
22,460 
49.424 
7,082 
9,388 
36,354 
38,679 
12,347 
27,902 
13.754 
21,044 
28.012 
26,780 
12,364 
13,425 
31,333 
36,550 
11,796 
42,635 
33.643 
30,456 
29,047 
19,009 



59.762 
27,295 

2O.190 
24,986 

49.202 
44,869 

14.439 
40,702 
20.742 
40,740 
24.168 
31.102 
50,704 
57,594 
20,099 
12.5ol 
21,597 
29,145 
30.173 
1,054 
36,201 
53,088 
32,057 
16,093 
35.6S3 
41.741 
5B.085 
25.108 
268,089 
26.490 
77.518 
60.908 
40,870 
45,096 
22.803 
38,245 
50,428 
11.550 
25,130 
55,515 
7,691 
9,696 
42,047 
38,012 
16,230 
28,508 
15,163 
22,627 
34.961 
28.274 
13,755 
16.534 
32.345 
39,960 
12,034 
39,326 
37.7S8 
38,789 
32,771 
19,796 



961,888 1,035,910 1,372,812 1,614,458 1.913,131 j 2,174,517 2,428.921 2,604,495 \ 3,097.394 3,466,212 



OS 503, 


77,208 


30.254 


81,402 


22,338 


25,808 


28.872 


30.10,0 


50.3,38 


49.o,r,3 


47.971; 


40,51s 


15,483 


17.7 12 


40.785 


39.000 


28,157 


31,278 


43,252 


41.070 


24.607 


25.081 


;;,, 396 


36,990 


52.398 


55,124 


02.405 


78.035 


23,634 


25,102 


16,518 


18.002 


18,049 


is. 570 


28.705 


28,845 


30,446 


31,957 


1,907 


1,882 


37.477 


37.424 


60,984 


64,999 


47,613 


78.691 


17,830 


20.218 


42.498 


3S.389 


40,008 


40.987 


64,902 


70. 800 


35,818 


24.643 


312.710 


371.223 


31.132 


34.551 


85,310 


84,776 


67,911 


70.175 


43.501 


42.592 


50.739 


52,227 


25.127 


25.845 


43,619 


48.441 


49.028 


50,509 


12.S25 


13,258 


30,324 


31,849 


00.250 


0,2.3,3s 


10.90,5 


13,073 


11.975 


13,741 


56.706 


62.354 


40,553 


41.477 


17.387 


16.630 


32,358 


32,488 


16,388 


17.327 


24.874 


24.972 


40,651 


40,203 


32.409 


34,579 


15,029 


18.727 


20.527 


22,450 


32.296 


32,204 


45.822 


48.907 


13,422 


14.908 


41,080 


40.554 


42,057 


42,515 


48,086 


47.394 


34,245 


30,691 


20,444 


20,777 



03.270 
37.808 

30.660 

38.95D 

55,458 
50,493 

21.737 
40,311 

40.047 
43 073 
25.140 
39 831 

68,992 

100.003, 
3,1.148 

25.1 OJ 
20.171 

28,4 - 

33.120 

2.188 

38.244 
68,153 

138,882 
24,564 
40.875 
43.072 
87,650 
31,992 

515.547 
42.276 
90.500, 
85.800 

43,929 
57,145 
28,501 
62,198 
48,638 
14,138 
36,833 
73,363 
15,061 
16,962 
68,617 
45.040 
20,054 
33,548 
18.519 
25,441 
58,388 
36,922 
25.088 
24,880 
32,094 
59,384 
17,199 
44,750 
44.953 
5S.203 
31,981 
20,590 



103,681 

12.0.0 
86,1 50 

30.5311 

53,571 
63,380 

27.2-8 
39.915 

42,482 
44,341 

21575 

39.749 

0,0.0,35 

132 331 

28,589 

25.807 
23 284 
: 1,532 
31.137 
2.543 
38.566 
0,5.420 

216,855 
25.229 
37.943 
43,687 
'.',,324 
30,808 

629,810 
48,282 

107.749 
80,575 
42.672 
60.868 
28.435 
69,398 
49,735 
13.934 
46,266 
79.234 
21,389 
19,511 
74.977 
49,379 
10.572 
33.519 
ls.777 
25,358 
59,099 
41.006 
29.487 
26,962] 
31,516 
67,936 
19,669 
44.405 
46,760 
80,678 
32,148 
19,812 



Abstract from the Census of the Indians residing on Reservations in 1855. 



Reservations. 


Wliere located. 


&3 


,u 
*3 

5 

378 

604 

73 

176 

207 
71 

312 
166 


i 

£ 

138 

228 
21 
57 
87 
32 

106 
66 

735 


BO 

*© 


i 

5 

6 
2 
1 
2 
1 

2 
2 

21 


to 
S"-" 
g^ 

61 

242 

200 
52 
73 

132 
54 

153 
91 

997 


i 1 ! 

~ 2 

100 

200 
80 
50 
34 

464 


s 
§ 

2 

2 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 
1 

10 


e 
e 
*«* 

"& 

117 

56 
31 
38 

40 
63 

350 


VI 

5 5-s 

1,714 

3.032i 

354$ 

2,063i 

1,425* 

2,515 
3,092 


1 


■a 
s 
a 
s » 

Osj 


3 

1 




S 
J 


Cattaraugus «*.. 


Cattaraugus co 


376 

575 

88 

173 

200 
89 

290 

150 


389 

729 

43 

141 

161 

16 

261 
349 


203 

389 
20 
49 
95 
14 

144 
180 


96 

197 
18 
42 

108 
6 

97 
109 

673 


9 

91 

"44 

"92 
236 


526 

1,054 

36 

142 

142 

32 

409 
464 


Cattaraugus, Erie, & Chau- 


Onondaga co 


St. Regis" 

Total"* 




Suffolk co 


Genesee, Erie, and Niagara 






1,947 


1.987 


13.S67J 


2,089 


1,094 


2,805 







The total number reported was. from neglect of the mar- 
Aal, too small. In May, 1855, 1,388 were returned as entitled 
to share in annuities. 

6 The returns of civil condition are too indefinite to be re- 
lied on. 

• The larger part of this village is in Canada. 



<* In the returns of the last State census 235 Indians (102 males 
and 133 females) not residing on reservations were enumerated 
and reported with the population of the towns in which they 
live. These, added to the numbers in the above table, make 
2.049 males and 2,120 females, or a total of 4,169 Indians re- 
siding in the State in 1S55. 



152 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Persons engaged in the various Professions, Trades, and Occupations 



COUXTLES. 



Albany 

Allegany , 

Broome.. , 

Cattaraugus.. 

Cayuga 

Chautauqua.. 

Chemung 

Chenango 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Erie 

Essex 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Qenesee 

Greene 

Hamilton 

Herkimer 

Jefferson 

Kings 

Lewis 

Living-ton. ... 
Hadison 

2 imcry. 
New York 

ra. 

Oneida 

Onondaga...... 

Ontario 

Orange 

Orleans 

Oswego 

Otsego 

Putnam 

Queens 

Rensselaer. ... 

Richmond 

Rockland 

8t Lawrence. 

f : .-ir:it"ga 

Schenectady.. 

Bchoharie 

Schnyler 

i 

Steuben 

3uff..|k 

Sullivan 

I 

Tompk 
Ulster 

\* irr-n 

w 

Ilk' 



' 






5G1 
242 
196 
160 
2S9 
290 
156 
206 

IV, 
221 
135 
183 
292 
764 
159 
109 
111 
195 
132 

10 
240 
356 
735 

84 
224 
243 
618 
165 
2,611 
230 
570 
451 
268 
340 
153 
303 
332 

92 
189 
404 

80 
133 
319 
208 
132 

I'M 

113 
126 

149 

1- I 

13g 

172 

79 
237 

102 

117 



« 



1 



S3 



M'9 

218 
177 
163 
335 

o.,S 

126 
200 
182 
252 
159 
I-:: 
351 

1,050 
105 
97 
117 
150 
153 
3 
249 
379 

1.816 
102 
236 
259 
878 
168 

6.745 
'235 
726 
560 
243 
299 
157 
338 
2S1 
133 
2S5 
555 
86 
178 
32.1 
Ivi 
149 
161 
89 
1&3 
264 
231 
L27 

1 16 
160 
270 

68 

2 • 

I 
11 
121 



214 
59 
33 
44 

107 

115 
44 
52 
30 
49 
27 
38 

147 

227 
19 
26 
24 
37 
43 
1 
41 
95 

466 
29 
76 
73 

Is:; 

27 

2,606 

50 

221 

107 
48 
69 
23 
97 
66 
9 
37 

112 
34 
20 
62 
39 
37 
39 
16 
26 
66 
27 
24 
25 
63 
31 
16 
4.'. 
65 

182 
45 
33 



S 
"I 

e 






1,202 
465 
422 
326 
647 
691 
413 
:;:,:; 
206 
490 
272 
377 
703 

2,023 
223 
212 
297 
382 
234 
14 
404 
763 

2.!':;:, 
218 
427 
4S4 

1,381 
352 

7.204 
441 

1.4-7 

1,132 
410 
667 
269 
768 
580 
230 
679 
947 
386 
26'.l 
700 
508 
212 
379 
218 
289 
632 
602 
305 
318 
387 
r,!ts 

I'S 

a:.:, 
51 i 
i. •  
824 
■JlJ 



K..'.i* 2i><>4 •;......, t- 1.7:11 



l! 



1,148 

Hi7 

137 

79 

23S 

202 

140 

62 

127 

204 

77 

64 

209 

1,085 

72 

60 

61 

98 

82 

2 

156 

213 

4,708 

54 

145 

136 

668 

103 

13,897 

272 

683 

551 

163 

29S 

111 

308 

129 

37 

198 

624 

134 

59 

267 

185 

137 

60 

37 

89 

155 

117 

49 

91 

97 

267 

27 

171 

192 

:;..'i 

75 

7:; 



:;i>.:;.v.i 



8> 
5 



87 
80 
67 
64 
89 

104 
38 
86 
47 
67 
56 
72 
88 

107 
31 
37 
24 
61 
58 
1 
52 

116 

313 
35 
76 
86 

141 
37 

393 
61 

174 

133 

103 

102 
54 

112 
93 
25 
53 
98 
31 
32 

110 
79 
26 
42 
33 
42 

Kil 
80 
35 
43 
52 
68 
39 
87 
88 

188 
64 
•n 



1,810 



|| 

1 = . 

S 80 «£ 

.= £ - 



244 

105 

70 

57 

137 

166 

69 

104 

71 

113 

60 

67 

155 

289 

54 

42 

44 

144 

63 

1 

78 

144 

265 

46 

106 

129 

277 

67 

757 

77 

258 

216 

112 

198 

75 

101 

154 

18 

104 

151 

19 

41 

109 

86 

42 

79 

41 

74 

147 

82 

45 

62 

107 

171 

26 

121 

128 

204 

98 

72 



7,186 






204 
52 
87 
52 

148 

121 
50 

103 
30 
33 
46 
48 
90 

311 
32 
27 
43 
53 
36 

53 

144 

533 

59 

102 

101 

519 

34 

1,018 

125 

1S4 

394 

101 

78 

83 

698 

88 

19 

21 

126 

16 

20 

157 

69 

8 

81 

36 

114 

68 

48 

14 

60 

62 

288 

54 

61 

168 

78 

89 

69 



t g 



5 . 

^3 









767 

24 

92 

28 

186 

176 

108 

61 

58 

158 

48 

58 

252 

385 

28 

30 

36 

64 

66 

2 

86 

134 

1,734 

44 

119 

144 

418 

111 

7,436 

87 

483 

265 

82 

298 

118 

147 

167 

36 

132 

480 

8 

41 

98 

87 

94 

41 

27 

72 

64 

213 

32 

35 

S2 

ir,4 

14 

119 

140 

822 

60 

82 



1i-..;i:ki 



5,728 

7,364 
5,851 
6,855 
8,223 
9,249 
2,848 
7,457 
3,925 
5,260 
4,835 
7,448 
5,591 
10,182 
3,782 
4,410 
2,899 
6,507 
4,190 

511 
6,321 
7,000 

476 
4,975 
4.774 
7^19 
7,957 
3,131 

193 
5,505 
11,880 
9.079 
6,333 
5,455 
4,067 
8,667 
9,985 
1,957 
3,598 
5,824 

574 
1.323 
11.427 
5.960 
2,234 
5.372 
3.411!) 
3.033 
9^006 
8,942 
3.616 
4.145 
5,088 
5,708 
2.USS 
7. ','nl 
7,494 
4,239 
6,828 
2,794 



321.930 



498 
49 
34 
36 
98 
50 
57 
32 
30 
49 
12 
16 
30 

370 
17 
4 
11 
18 
26 

51 

53 

1,199 

5 

46 

9 

265 

106 

4,079 

104 

190 

139 

53 

78 

41 

110 

16 

7 

67 
208 
54 
12 
56 
63 
41 
8 
22 
47 
37 
4 
10 
27 
22 
92 
10 
60 
66 
142 
22 
15 



s 

s 



fc| 



122 
66 
25 
39 
49 
85 
26 
48 
32 
60 
26 
39 
52 

108 
21 
15 
21 
35 
34 

33 
89 

226 
27 
55 
51 
93 
50 

709 
63 

131 

102 
34 
85 
19 
53 
78 
4 
46 



15 
59 
56 
31 
42 
17 
31 
43 
26 
43 
20 
35 
96 
18 
32 
43 
97 
32 
14 



9,056 3,755 



8 



4,216 

892 

477 

643 

1,362 

1,200 

652 

442 

2,005 

2,021 

250 

571 

2,608 

5,367 

918 

254 

1,156 

1,057 

587 

49 

855 

1,045 

7,044 

564 

2,167 

1,338 

4,901 

1,722 

19.748 

2.592 

4,487 

3,168 

1,259 

2,695 

1,618 

1,976 

642 

539 

2,316 

3.477 

728 

423 

1.349 

1/293 

2,912 

1,613 

174 

608 

629 

1,179 

1,455 

692 

502 

3.451 

520 

1,268 

1.172 

4,151 

320 

491 



115,800 



Xnfiri/ics "f the Population of New York. 

The f U iwil IWI the nativities of the population of the, State, as reported by the census of 1855: — 



When born. 



Fork 

it 

Vermont 

N-w Hampshire. 

 Island 



Now Jersey 

Pamsylrania .... 



Number. 


• 


2,222.321 


64.077 








1 • 18 




1 x  •• 


it .11 




11,737 






.168 






31.472 


.■••: 



ll'/c /•. linrn. 



Ohio 

Michigan 

Illinois 

ii-in 

Indiana 

Other States 

n Countries 

At sea and unknown. 



Number. 



6,268 

3,113 
1.255 

1,168 

806 

13,124 

183 

922.019 
17.749 



Per cent. 



26 



.151 
.098 
,086 
,033 

.017 
::7S 
,005 
685 
,512 



PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS. 

in the several Counties, as reported by the State Census of 1855. 



153 







fee 








1 






*> 

s 


S 






h 

c 

C 










£ 


s 


ft, 3 




&s 




J 


.§ 
8 


e 


3 




B £ 


£ 


"8 

s 


i 


1 


a 




1 

b 


1 




■3 


k 

6 
S 

* 


1 




S 

85 


.8 


s 


SI 

137 




1,070 


8 


•s 


B 

s 


2 


9 

B 

i 


212 


338 


468 


634 


88 


183 


399 


174 


178 


103 


136 


64 


354 


162 


92 


490 


62 


28 


82 


184 


59 


64 


39 


85 


23 


46 


45 


11 


156 


71 


171 


43 


20 


24 


46 


28 


133 


200 


56 


50 


65 


68 


26 


134 


45 


22 


185 


110 


136 


31 


82 


9 


33 


22 


54 


137 


34 


37 


27 


74 


11 


69 


29 


4 


112 


55 


99 


27 


17 


14 


73 


151 


192 


176 


96 


99 


132 


114 


73 


77 


73 


17 


428 


45 


158 


31 


39 


98 


67 


90 


108 


226 


62 


111 


88 


125 


41 


145 


55 


12 


309 


72 


239 


36 


50 


50 


46 


52 


128 


93 


45 


68 


71 


52 


22 


66 


36 


8 


203 


44 


100 


14 


23 


20 


54 


19 


68 


164 


40 


63 


46 


77 


17 




43 


2 


156 


53 


124 


4 


23 


24 


36 


71 


86 


170 


34 


32 


28 


44 


18 


67 


39 


7 


105 


35 


86 


115 


16 


11 


65 


80 


105 


216 


71 


77 


98 


83 


43 


65 


39 


15 


271 


24 


155 


47 


35 


148 


20 


8 


57 


99 


51 


42 


36 


49 


8 


12 


33 


4 


117 


34 


116 


9 


21 


8 


41 


6 


61 


200 


37 


67 


26 


70 


14 


3 


30 


2 


118 


97 


205 


20 


12 


17 


76 


171 


205 


385 


124 


67 


166 


103 


42 


104 


53 


8 


288 


54 


201 


72 


59 


185 


196 


176 


6S7 


714 


141 


131 


438 


218 


210 


118 


146 


180 


1,063 


187 


313 


100 


157 


58 


44 


17 


56 


112 


33 


31 


24 


34 


10 


1 


22 


3 


g 48 


34 


76 


99 


14 


3 


12 


7 


35 


88 


22 


19 


20 


29 


8 


28 


16 


3 


57 


14 


72 


1 


14 


26 


25 


2 


75 


112 


22 


36 


49 


32 


3 


... 


22 


4 


99 


193 


71 


44 


16 


11 


33 


13 


128 


149 


74 


27 


73 


75 


19 


45 


55 


22 


124 


31 


108 


5 


14 


8 


29 


19 


54 


156 


53 


62 


36 


47 


6 


3 


26 


46 


141 


60 


115 


36 


15 


55 




3 




6 


1 






1 






1 


1 


3 


43 


10 


13 


1 




33 


52 


99 


123 


53 


61 


52 


62 


20 


23 


51 


32 


152 


111 


125 


23 


26 


47 


68 


84 


173 


329 


139 


153 


104 


125 


28 


56 


86 


27 


414 


109 


210 


40 


50 


39 


354 


556 


1,628 


2,649 


37 


411 


1,150 


336 


676 


102 


163 


543 


2,481 


122 


290 


147 


340 


69 


11 


3 


54 


74 


25 


32 


37 


42 




... 


28 


11 


88 


8 


89 


9 


12 


5 


64 


56 


97 


137 


86 


44 


67 


73 


15 


16 


60 


13 


150 


18 


128 


20 


16 


10 


43 


61 


105 


175 


60 


84 


97 


88 


22 


13 


67 


15 


301 


41 


189 


38 


32 


79 


140 


401 


565 


394 


234 


183 


358 


197 


109 


248 


109 


70 


858 


88 


281 


149 


100 


43 


44 


15 


78 


162 


60 


44 


42 


47 


14 


23 


35 


61 


139 


24 


99 


39 


14 


28 


1,112 


1,714 


3,634 


6,001 


130 


1,585 


3,400 


1,252 


1,901 


523 


884 


1,755 


12,609 


228 


1,268 


160 


897 


589 


41 


41 


250 


165 


75 


58 


99 


75 


17 


32 


50 


67 


207 


20 


113 


27 


39 


12 


147 


22ft 


412 


480 


116 


190 


290 


200 


115 


136 


117 


97 


988 


146 


334 


118 


103 


121 


118 


122 


365 


342 


142 


123 


275 


131 


68 


146 


126 


92 


4SS 


42 


250 


76 


53 


53 


49 


56 


137 


164 


101 


51 


95 


102 


23 


67 


55 


6 


183 


5 


108 


40 


32 


11 


59 


87 


239 


308 


92 


99 


109 


89 


37 


225 


64 


42 


357 


47 


191 


118 


61 


77 


32 


9 


76 


99 


66 


59 


61 


60 


21 


12 


32 


12 


104 


20 


94 


9 


19 


5 


74 


92 


231 


241 


171 


84 


125 


113 


38 


14 


65 


25 


281 


75 


246 


87 


33 


24 


52 


32 


94 


197 


68 


100 


82 


89 


26 


1 


78 


7 


263 


38 


172 


23 


23 


17 


13 


84 


34 


68 


26 


18 


25 


12 


1 


12 


9 


18 


54 


2 


44 


21 


12 




36 


76 


174 


187 


45 


25 


105 


49 


17 


12 


40 


16 


157 


2 


125 


2 


78 


86 


99 


301 


330 


529 


77 


10S 


226 


121 


46 


424 


90 


55 


512 


98 


232 


210 


70 


18 


35 


7 


137 


217 


12 


3 


81 


17 


35 


2 


9 


IS 


79 


11 


36 


8 


20 


2 


12 


V?, 


62 


67 


14 


18 


40 


23 


7 


87 


25 


9 


88 


5 


36 




25 


11 


86 


40 


120 


245 


79 


91 


82 


61 


23 


87 


67 


10 


216 


54 


243 


17 


39 


19 


54 


105 


89 


218 


45 


68 


90 


101 


37 


62 


30 


19 


150 


29 


141 


28 


21 


74 


30 


189 


63 


120 


8 


52 


51 


37 


11 


96 


15 


4 


216 


12 


56 


16 


7 


12 


39 


13 


81 


138 


61 


53 


33 


68 


10 


2 


32 


2 


147 


28 


159 


9 


18 


12 


18 


12 


48 


69 


42 


39 


33 


46 


10 


2 


26 




107 


32 


95 


21 


3 


12 


33 


97 


67 


107 


58 


54 


55 


49 


6 


14 


26 


18 


124 


16 


1 1 


17 


19 


47 


51 


80 


154 


230 


79 


65 


74 


75 


27 


97 


55 


11 


152 


58 


117 


32 


28 


9 


24 


5 


95 


268 


41 


61 


75 


48 


23 


28 


24 


8 


234 


7 


133 


8 


27 


17 


15 


1 


55 


102 


24 


33 


15 


36 


7 


13 


17 


4 


91 


120 


82 


42 


13 


3 


16 


25 


60 


88 


40 


28 


31 


49 


10 


64 


23 


5 


106 


33 


94 


4 


19 


2 


123 


46 


78 


128 


81 


57 


85 


61 


15 


43 


38 


8 


148 


26 


124 


17 


7 


17 


56 


27 


186 


315 


102 


73 


95 


76 


30 


3 


47 


96 


326 


163 


154 


133 


35 


24 


12 


6 


33 


59 


15 


16 


20 


32 


4 


29 


15 


10 


52 


90 


52 


11 


6 




62 


36 


97 


202 


49 


99 


86 


76 


16 


30 


61 


34 


214 


36 


148 


62 


31 


23 


43 


44 


161 


186 


67 


103 


83 


116 


14 


39 


85 


21 


257 


45 


203 


17 


49 


7 


127 


113 


525 


631 


54 


102 


304 


114 


62 


121 


58 


314 


437 


30 


303 


108 


87 


241 


36 


14 


72 


147 


55 


42 


53 


69 


13 


28 


56 


9 


127 


34 


114 


4 


20 


8 


21 


9 


41 


82 


45 


37 


35 


39 


13 


8 


32 


5 


126 


20 


95 


6 


8 


9 


4,542 


6,309 


13.781 


20,664 


3,917 


5.S02 


10,081 


6.010 


4.339 


4,006 


3,895 


4,076 


29,236 


3,416 


9,959 


2,825 


3.160 


3.141 



The total number of persons reported in 1855 as engaged in pursuits other than the foregoing ivas 

as follows : —  



Actors 325 

Agents 2.340 

Agt'i. Implement Makers 386 
Apothecaries and Drug- 
gists 1,438 

Apprentices 1,421 

Architects 261 

Artificial Flower Makers 237 

Artists and Designers 751 

Auctioneers 220 

Authors 58 

Ax Makers 2X3 

Bakers 5,136 

Bankers 432 

Bank Officers 539 

Barbers 2,142 



Barkeepers 

Basket Makers 

Bell Founders 

Bellhangers and Lock- 
smiths 

Bellows Makers 

Billiard Makers 

Bill Posters 

Bird Cage Makers 

Blacking Makers 

Block Makers 

Boarding House Keepers 

Boat Builders 

Boatmen and Watermen. 

Boiler Makers 

Bookbinders 



9S7 
783 



659 

24 

5 

7 

7 

32 

391 

1,680 

693 

9,136 

708 

2,121 



Booksellers and Station- 
ers 514 

Bottlers 14 

Box Makers 379 

Brass Workers 756 

Brewers and Distillers 1.176 

Brickmakers 1,627 

Bridge and Dock Builders 142 

Britannia Ware Makers.. 13 

Brokers 1,233 

Broom Makers 183 

Brushmakers 622 

Builders 1,081 

Butchers 6,308 

Button Makers 61 

Cadets 201 



Calico Printers 28 

Calkers 659 

Card Makers 47 

Carpet Makers and Deal- 
ers 330 

Carters and Draymen 7,350 

Carvers and Gilders 1,125 

Case Makers 32 

Cattle Dealers 13 

Cement Makers 264 

Chandlers and Soap 

Makers 622 

Charcoal Burners and 

Dealers 556 

Chemists 1S3 

Chimney Sweeps 12 



154 



NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER. 



Professions and Occupations, concluded :■ 



Chronometer Makers 4 

Civil Engineers 249 

Civil Officer- 1.427 

Clock Makers and Re- 
pairers 164 

Clothiers 1.0S4 

Cloth Manufacturers not 

specified 123 

Coal Dealers 138 

Coffee. Spice, and Mus- 
tard Makers 25 

Collect, rs -2Z2 

Comb Makers 229 

Confectioners LOSS 

Contractors 699 

Cooks 1.424 

Coopers 7.539 

Coppersmiths 409 

Cork Cutters 45 

Cotton Manufacturers.... 75 

Custom House Officers... 346 

Cutlers 249 

Dairymen and Milk 

Dealers 1,050 

Dealers nut otherwise 

specified 1,668 

Dentists 

Dock Keepers 54 

Drivers. Coachmen, Ac... 3.253 

Drover- 862 

Dvers and Bleachers 470 

Editors 

Elactrolyplsts 11 

Embroiderers 21S 

Enamelers 3 

Engineers 3.1S0 

- 761 

Envelope Makers 29 

Expr 4'-2 

1 • ry imperatives 2.477 

Farriers 150 

Feat . r- 8 

Ferrymen 6 

File' 35S 

Fir- Engine Makers 6 

Firem-n 416 

Fi-h Dealers 165 

Fishermen 965 

Fishing Tackle Makers— 14 
Flax Dressers and Work- 
ers 66 

Fortune Tellers and As- 

tr> logists 4 

Forwarders 274 

Frame Makers 164 

Fringe. Tassel, and Gimp 

Makers 155 

Fruit Dealers 

Farnaeemen 

Furri. rs 227 

7 

Gardener*, and 1 . 0.260 
Gas > nire 

Makers 627 

Gas M 132 

Gas Meter Makers 

- 499 

.•ists and Min<-ralo- 

pi-t- 6 

i 

Gla-'- " 

Glaj>!> Btainers 

r- 

Gin- " 

Gold> 

820 
Grate Makers and 
ters 98 



Grindstone and Millstone 

Makers 23 

Gunsmiths 496 

Gutta Percha Manulac- 

rurers 3 

Hair Cloth Makers., 17 

Hair Workers 89 

Hame Makers 69 

Hardware Dealers 426 

Hat and Cap Makers 2,928 

Hemp Dressers 11 

Bone Dealers 102 

11 — Makers 6 

Hosiers 2S 

Hunters 59 

Ice Dealers 152 

Importers 409 

India Rubber Manufac- 
turers 73 

Ink Makers 61 

Inspectors 295 

Instrument Makers 172 

Insurance Officers 319 

Intelligence Officers 3 

Inventors anil Patentees 30 

Iron Mongers -. 44 

Iron Workers 990 

Ivory Black Makers 17 

Ivory Workers 5 

Japanners 73 

Jewelers 2,055 

Junk-hop Keepers 321 

Keepers and Wardens of 

Prisons. Ac 284 

1. Makers 61 

Lampblack Makers 6 

Lamplighters 18 

Lamp Makers _. 51 

Lapidaries 17 

Last Makers 98 

Lath Makers 11 

Laundresses 3,557 

Lecturers 35 

Librarians 5 

Lighthouse Keepers 30 

Li Burners 129 

Linguists 10 

Liihi> l jraphers 176 

Livery Stable Keepers.... 741 
Looking Glass Makers... 53 
Lumbermen and Dealers 2,933 
Mall Agents and Carriers 231 
Manufacturers (not spe- 
cified) 1,448 

Map Makers - 11 

Marble Dealers 66 

Market Men and Women 295 

Mat and Rug Makers 83 

Match Makers 223 

Matrons of Asylums.Ac. 37 
Mechanics m>t other- 
wise specified) 3.837 

Midn iv-s _. 47 

Military Equipment Ma- 
ker- A 

Millwrights 1.2<.-' 

Mineral Water Makers... 117 

Miners 41. "> 

Model Makers 8 

Modelers 1 

It. --• rs 260 

Moulders 3,114 

M< old Makers --. 12 

Mtllric il In-lr. Manufac 180 

den 87 

1.177 

Mn-i Teachen 621 

Makers 433 



Naturalists 10 

Needle Makers 1 

New-boys 197 

Nurserymen 240 

Nurses 968 

Oculists 17 

Oilcloth Makers 133 

Oil Makers 124 

Opticians 63 

Organ Builders 81 

Ostlers 948 

Overseers and Superin- 
tendents 475 

Oyster Men and Dealers.. 458 

Packers 112 

Paint and Color Makers.. 21 

Paper Dealers 20 

Paper Hangers 196 

Paper Makers 914 

Paper Stainers 87 

Patent Leather Makers... 10 

Patent Medicine Makers. 59 

Pattern Makers 427 

Pavers 341 

Pawnbrokers 20 

Pearl Workers 4 

Peddlers 4,131 

Pen Makers 61 

Pencil Makers 49 

Perfumers 35 

Photographers and Da- 

guerreotypists 3S9 

Piano Makers 1,076 

Pickle and Preserve Ma- 
kers 11 

Pilots 387 

Pin Makers 5 

Pipe Makers 26 

Plaster Figure Makers... 41 

Plate Printers 31 

Platers 269 

Plumbers 95S 

Pocket Book Makers 212 

Policemen 1,513 

Polishers and Burnishers 578 

Porcelain Makers 12 

Porters.- 3,916 

Portfolio Makers 6 

Portrait Painters 37 

Postmasters 184 

Pot and Pearl Ash Ma- 
kers 36 

Potters 287 

Powder Makers 27 

Produce Dealers 526 

Professors 188 

Publishers. 160 

Pump Makers 40 

Pursers 10 

I'yrnteclinists 22 

Quarrymen 1,081 

Ragpickers 250 

i Strop Makers 5 

Reed Makers 16 

l:. -finer* and Assayers... 91 

Reporters 59 

Restaurant Keepers 288 

Riggers 4f9 

Roofers and Slaters 175 

Rope and Cord Makers... 668 

Runners 150 

Safe Makers _. 88 

PaJlmakers 563 

Sailors and Mariners 9,720 

Saleratus Makers 16 

- Li -nun 723 

BalooD Keepers 871 

Salt Makers 602 



Sandpaper Makers 3 

Sash and Blind Makers.. 1,004 

Saw Filers 45 

Saw Makers 228 

Sawyers 3,724 

Scale Makers 69 

Scavengers 41 

Screw Slakers 8 

Sculptors 86 

Sealing Wax Makers 1 

Servants 58,441 

Sextons 147 

Shingle Makers 217 

Ship Carpenters, Mast 

and Spar Makers 3,632 

Shift and Collar Makers 434 

Shoe Peg Makers 7 

Shot Makers 9 

Showmen 15 

Silk Workers 81 

Soldiers and Military 

Officers .'. 709 

Speculators 487 

Spinners 463 

Spring Makers 26 

Stage Proprietoi-s 174 

Starch Makers 40 

Stave Makers 20 

Steel Makers 9 

Stereotypers 47 

Stevedores 2S0 

Stewards 281 

Storekeepers 1,120 

Stove Makers 160 

Straw Workers 131 

Students 4.184 

Sugar Refiners 144 

Surgeons 48 

Surgical Instr. Makers... 38 

Surveyors 382 

Telegraph Operators 258 

Tobacconists 3,744 

Tool Makers 404 

Toy and Fancy Dealers 

and Makers 164 

Traders 115 

Trimmers 308 

Turners 909 

Turpentine Makers 5 

Type Cutters 21 

Type Founders 155 

Umbrella Makers 374 

Undertakers.., 213 

Upholsterers 1.106 

Varnish Makers 267 

Victualers 57 

Vinegar Makers 25 

Watchmakers and Re- 
pairers 813 

Watchmen 412 

Wax Bleachers 2 

Whalebone Workers 122 

Whip Makers 51 

White Lead Makers 46 

Whitewashers 262 

Window Shade Makers... 31 

Mine and Liquor Dealers 749 

M in- Drawers 15 

Wire Workers 91 

Wood Cutters 240 

Wood Dealers 75 

Wooden Mare Makers.... 41 
Wool Carders nnd Comb- 
ers 282 

Wool Dealers 49 

Woolen and Worsted 

Workers 147 



ALBANY COUNTY. 




Tins was an original county; formed Nov. 1, 1G83, and confirmed 
Oct. 1, 1691. 1 

Tryon and Charlotte (now Montgomery and Washington) counties 
were taken off in 1772, Columbia in 1786, Rensselaer and Saratoga in 
1791, a part of Schoharie in 1795, a part of Greene in 1800, and Sche- 
nectady in 1809. The Manor of llonsselaerwyck was erected into a dis- 
trict March 24, 1772, and subdivided into east and west districts soon 
after the Revolution. The county lies on the west bank of Hudson 
River, about 150 miles from its mouth, and contains an area of 544 
square miles. Its surface is undulating and hilly, and it has a general 
inclination toward the southeast. A narrow intervale extends along 
the course of the river, bounded by a series of steep bluffs from 100 to 180 feet high, from the sum- 
mits of which an undulating and slightly ascending plateau stretches westward to the foot of the 
Helderbergh 2 Hills, where it reaches an elevation of about 400 feet above tide. This range of hills 
rises from 400 to 800 feet above the plateau, and 800 to 1200 feet above tide. Their declivities are 
very steep, and sometimes precipitous, on the east, but more gradually sloping upon the west. 
Several other ranges of hills, inferior to them in height, extend in a general northerly and southerly 
direction through portions of the county. The highest point is the summit of thellelderberghs, in 
the northeast corner of the town of Bern, and is 1200 feet above tide. All these ranges of high- 
lands may be considered as outlying spurs of the Catskills, which, in turn, are but a northerly 
continuation of the Allegany Mountains, and a part of the great Appalachian system. 

The geological formations of this county belong to the Upper Silurian system, and comprise 
nearly all the rocks of the "New York System," from the Utica slate to the corniferous limestone. 
Above the rocks, in the eastern part of the county, are thick deposits of drift, consisting of sand, 
gravel, and clay ; and along the river intervales are rich alluvial deposits. The lowest rock, 
cropping out on the Hudson, Normans Kil, and Mohawk, is the Utica slate. Next above is the 
graywacke and shales of the Hudson River group, appearing in the valleys of all the streams 
that flow into the Hudson, and apparently underlying the entire eastern part of the county. This 
stone is quarried for building stone and flagging. 3 The red rocks that form the base of the 
Helderberghs evidently belong to the Medina sandstone series, though they have sometimes been 
confounded with the red shales of the Onondaga salt group. Next above, forming the first terrace 
of the mountains, is the water-lime group, from 50 to 200 feet in thickness, furnishing both water 
and quick-lime. Next in order is the pentamerus limestone, 50 feet in thickness, consisting of 
impure gray and black limestone mixed with slate and shale. Overlying this is the Catskill lime- 
stone, from 50 to 180 feet in thickness, consisting of thick, compact masses of limestone alternating 
with thin layers of shale. It is used for building stone and lime. The Oriskany sandstone is 
next developed, in a strata only 2 feet in thickness, followed by the cauda-galli grit, from 50 to 
60 feet in thickness. This last has a fine grit, and resembles black or gray slates, but is easily 
disintegrated, and crumbles upon exposure to the air. Next in order come the Onondaga and 
corniferous limestones, the latter crowning the summits of the mountains. These rocks furnish 
both a superior quality of lime and an excellent building stone. The surface of the eastern 
part of the county is covered with immense beds of clay, gravel, and sand. The highlands west 
of Albany City are covered 40 feet deep with sand, which rests upon a bed of clay estimated to be 
100 feet deep. In this drift are found small beds of bog ore and numerous chalybeate and sul- 
phuretted springs. In the limestone regions are numerous caves, sink holes, and subterranean 
water courses, forming a peculiar and interesting feature of the county. 

The principal streams are, — the Hudson River, which forms the eastern boundary ; the Mohawk, 
which forms a part of the northern boundary ; the Patroon Creek, Normans Kil, Vlomans, Coey- 



1 The county by these acta embraced " the Manor of Rens- 
Belaerwyck, Schenectady, and all the villages, neighborhoods, 
and Christian plantations on the east side of Hudson's River, from 
Roeloffe Jansen's Creek ; and on the west side, from Sawyer's 
Creek to the outermost end of Saraghtoga." The Manor of Liv- 
ingston was annexed to Dutchess co. May 27, 1717, and by sub- 
sequent statutes the county of Albany was also made to com- 



prise every thing within the colony of New York north and west 
of present limits, and at one time the whole of Vermont. 

2 Signifying " Clear Mountain," from the fine prospect from 
their summit. 

* Several of the intermediate series of rocks, including the 
gray sandstone, Clinton, Niagara Falls, aud Onondaga salt groups, 
are not found in the county. 

155 



156 



ALBANY COUNTY. 



mans, Haanakrois, andCatskill Creeks, and their branches. Nearly all the streams that flow Into 
the Hudson have worn deep gulleys in the sand and clay. Many of these gorges are 100 feet deep, 
and extend from one-fourth of a mile to one mile from the river. The streams farther west gene- 
rally flow through narrow, rocky ravines bordered by steep banks. These streams are mostly 
very rapid, and subject to extremes of flood and drouth. There are several small lakes among the 
hills, but none of special importance. 

The soil upon the intervales is a deep, rich alluvial loam. In Watervliet, Albany, and the 
eastern parts of Guilderland and Bethlehem, it consists of almost pure sand, with strips of clay 
along the banks of the streams. A belt of land lying between the sandy region and the foot 
of the Ilelderberghs is principally a clayey and gravelly loam, and very productive. Upon the 
Helderberghs the soil consists of alternate layers of clay, slate, and gravel, generally with a sub- 
soil of tenacious clay called " hard-pan." Patches in this region are also stony, and much of it 
is wet and cold, and only moderately productive. Pitch pine, oak, and chestnut are the principal 
kinds of timber that grow upon the sandy region. In the most barren parts these trees are 
mere dwarfs, and the region has much the appearance of a desert. In the southeast corner of 
the county is a limited amount of red cedar. West of the sandy tract are found the usual trees 
of this northern climate, including both the deciduous and evergreen. 1 

In the farming districts the people are principally engaged in raising spring grains, dairying, 
the raising of stock, and in gardening for the markets of Troy and Albany. The people of Albany, 
West Troy, and Cohoes are principally engaged in manufactures and commerce. 

The city of Albany is the county seat and State capital. The county buildings are commodious, 
and the county institutions are well organized. The City Hall 2 at Albany, erected at the joint 
expense of the city and county, contains the principal city and county offices. The Albany County 
Penitentiary 8 is a fine building in the western part of the city. Persons convicted of certain 
crimes, and sentenced to short terms of imprisonment, are confined here ; and prisoners are re- 
ceived from Dutchess, Columbia, Rensselaer, Washington, Saratoga, and Schenectady counties. 
The county has no poor-house, but contracts with the city for the support of its paupers. 

Albany is 145 miles above New York, upon the Hudson. The tide rises about one foot in the 
river.* In low water, navigation is obstructed, except for vessels of light draught, by the " over- 
slaugh," or bar, near Castleton, and at other points ; and considerable sums have been expended in 
attempting to deepen the channel, by dredging, and building a long stone dike below Albany. 5 
The most important works of internal improvement in the county are, — the Erie Canal, 6 the New 
York Central, and the Albany, Vermont, and Canada Railroads, all terminating in the city of 
Albany. Connected with these lines, and terminating at Greenbush, directly opposite Albany, are 
the Hudson River, Albany and West Stockbridge, 7 Harlem, and Troy and Greenbush Railroads. 
A company has been chartered to build a r. r. from Albany in a s. w. direction to Binghamton, 
and the work upon it is now in progress. A pier has been built in the river in front of Albany, 
for the benefit of navigation. 8 

Hendriok Hudson is supposed to have ascended the river as far as Albany in 1G09. During the 
next three or four years, several Dutch traders commenced a traffic with the Indians, and small 
trading houses were built at Manhattan and Albany. In after years these stations were fortified, the 
one to protoc f from invasion by sea, and the other against incursions from the French settlements 
in Canada. The principal military work at Albany (built in 1623) was known as Fort Orange. 
The station at Albany remained a mere trading post until 1G.'!0, when agricultural improvements 
began. The Dutch West India Co. was formed in 1621, for promoting settlement in " New Nether- 
lands," as the I'utrh possessions in America wcro then called. In 1629, this company granted to 
Killian Van Rensselaer, one of the commissioners, (a pearl merchant of Amsterdam,) a charter 
conferring upon him privileges similar to those enjoyed by the feudal barons of Europe. His 



i a iti'l agricultural survey of Albany oo. was made, 

In 1 -. the Oo, I i was 

toe fir-t enterprise of the kind in the stat-.— .l/.m. Ikl. Ag., i. 367. 

» «.•■■ page l"'. 

* Thi* penitentiary was bnOI in 1846 10, and opened An 
prfa nen in April, 1848, It ••< 1 under the din 

of A Hi"." I'il-i"iry. in 1848, and Dtwd under hii 

direction and thai of 1m* ion, Looii l> Pilabury. it I,  
cells, an,! the ayt rage number in confinement has been 220. Tie- 
convicts are principally employed in the manufacture ol 
seat chairs un'l saddlery hardware. During the fir-t B yean the 
total receipts were $110,082, end the total expenditm 

* The tide rises lure G b. 34 m. behind time of the in, d'i 
southing. * SrnaU Doc 40, 1857, p. 171. 



8 The Erie Canal terminates in a basin at Albany, and com- 
riui iiiiat- s willi the End-on at West Troy. It crosses the Mohawk 

River, above Col k Falls, upon a stone aqueduct. A company 

hao been incorp. for building a ship-canal from Albany to New 
Baltimore, a point below tin bars which obstruct navigation. 

' L< a- d by the Western (Mass.) It. It. Co. 

8 The pier is built across a curve in the west shore, and opens 
Into the river at both ends. It is divided for the accommodation 
of the rail r« ad f' Tries, and is lj miles long. It was formerly Closed 
by locks. The basin inclosed within the pier affords a secure 
harbor, during winter, for river vessels and canal boats, which 
otherwi'"- would be exposed to destruction from ice. The pier 
is owned by an incorporated company. 



ALBANY COUNTY. 



157 



agents 1 made large purchases of land lying on both sides of the Hudson, near Albany, 2 in 1030-37, 
at which last date the manor embraced a territory 24 mi. n. and s. and 48 mi. e. and w., including 
nearly all of the present counties of Albany and llenssclaer. 3 By the terms of the grant the 
charter would be forfeited unless the lands were settled in 7 years by at least 50 persons over 15 
years of a^e. A ship load of emigrants was forwarded in 1030, and others in each of several suc- 
ceeding years. The emigrants were furnished with stock, seeds, and farming implements, and 
the land was leased at an annual rent, payable in grain, beeves, and wampum, or a share of the 
products. 4 The proprietor received the title of Patroon, and in him was vested authority in 
civil and military affairs subordinate only to the West India Co. and the States General. He had 
his forts, soldiers, cannon, and courts of justice; and, although the laws allowed an appeal from 
the decisions of the local courts, he required every person who settled within his jurisdiction to 
pledge himself never to exercise this right. Altercations soon arose between the agents of the 
patroon and the officers of the garrison at Fort Orange, in regard to the land immediately around 
the fort; and the controversy was not settled until after the English conquest. 5 The settlement 
formed under Van Rensselaer gradually acquired importance as a trading post, and a considerable 
hamlet was built under the guns of Fort Orange. 6 Mills were built on several of the streams, and 
a church was erected. By the surrender of the colony to the English, in 1004, the personal rights 
of the colonists were secured, and a new charter was granted to the patroon, restricting his civil 
power, but confirming the relations existing between landlord and tenant. 7 The feudal tenure was 
finally abolished in 1787. 8 

The leasehold tenures, from an early period, excited discontent among the tenants. 9 The late 
patroon, by his indulgence, had secured their regard ; and when he died, in 1839, the course that 
would be pursued by his successor became a matter of solicitude. A committee of respectable 
men, appointed by the tenants to wait upon him and confer upon subjects of mutual interest, were 
treated with marked coldness and disdain, which quickly led to the organization of armed resist- 
ance to the enforcement of civil processes in the collection of rent. In Dec. 1839, the excitement 
was so great in the w. part of the county, that the Governor issued a proclamation, and sent an 
armed force to assist the civil officers. The people finally dispersed, and no collision ensued. For 
many years the anti-rent question greatly excited the public mind in all sections of the State 
where the leasehold tenure prevailed. 10 Within a few years, much of the land has been conveyed in 
fee to the lessees ; and probably in a few years the whole question will be amicably arranged in 
this manner. 11 There are 17 newspapers and periodicals now published in the county. 12 



1 Janson Krol and Derick Cornelissen Duyster, commissary 
and under commissary at Fort Orange. 

2 The tract first purchased, w. of the Hudson, extended from 
Beeren (Bear) Island — called hy the Indians " Passapenock" — 
up to Sneackx Island, and "of a breadth of two days' jour- 
ney." 

8 On the 1st of Oct. 1630, a copartnership was formed between 
Van Rensselaer on the one part, and Saml. Godyn, Johannes de 
Laet, Saml. Bloemmaert, Adam Bissels, and Toussaint Moussart 
on the other, by which the latter were constituted co-directors 
of Rensselaerwyck, and were bound to do homage and fealty to 
the lord of the manor. 

4 The patroon reserved the right to trade with the Indians. 
For several years this trade was carried on by the settlers, who 
received goods from the patroon's store, and sent the peltries 
which they received to be sold by him in Holland. This busi- 
ness afterwards fell into the hands of local traders. 

6 So active did this controversy become, that at ono time Oov. 
Stnyvesant sent an armed force to Albany to support the rights 
of the company against the proprietor. 

6 This place soon became the seat for holding all great councils 
with the Indian tribes. Among the curious tilings mentioned 
in the annals of the "old colonie" is the fact that, during an almost 
unprecedented freshet in the spring of 1646, a whale 40 feet long 
came up the river and stranded on an island near the mouth 
of the Mohawk. Four others stranded the same season, 40 
Dutch mi. above New Amsterdam. 

1 For a concise view of the changes made by this charter, see 
Barnard's Hist. Sketch of Rensselaerwyck, p. 107. 
8 The manorial title has descended as follows : — 
Killian Van Rensselaer, first Patroon, died in 1647, at Amster- 
dam, leaving the property with his two sons. 
Johannes and Jeremiah. Each of these had a son named 
Killian, the former of whom died without issue in 1687, 
leaving the title with 
Killian, son of Jeremiah. Dongan's patent was confirmed to 
the two cousins Nov. 5, 1685, and all other claimants 
released to the survivor, in 1695 ; to whom also Queen 
Anne's patent of confirmation was granted May 20, 
1704. He willed the property to his son, 
Jeremiah, and to the male heirs of his body ; but, dying without 
issue, the title passed to his younger brother, 



Stephen, who had a son (sole heir under the will above men- 
tioned,) named 
Stephen, who died in 1769, leaving the title with 
Stephen, the late patroon, who was born in 1764, and died 
in 1839. The entail ended with this person, who, in his 
will, gave the w. part of the manor to his son, Stephen, 
the present proprietor, and the E. part to his son, 
William P., of New York. 

9 The " Quarter Sales," as they were technically called, in 
which the landlord claimed a part of the purchase money at 
each transfer of a lease, was particularly obnoxious. In 1850 
the Quarter Sales were declared unconstitutional by the Su- 
preme Court. 

10 This movement led to the adoption of Art. 1, Sec. 14, in the 
constitution of 1846, prohibiting the lease of agricultural landa 
for a longer period than 12 years. 

H The relative amount of the land held by lease and in fee in 
the county is now nearly as follows: — In Watervliet, nearly all 
held in fee; in Guilderland, three-fourths; in Bethlehem, Coey- 
mans, and New Scotland, two-thirds ; in Knox, Rensselaervilfe, 
and Westerlo, half; and in Bern, one-third, — the remainder 
being held by lease. 

12 The following list is imperfect, but is supposed to include 
all the more important newspapers ever published in the Co. 
We are indebted to Joel Munsell, printer, for assistance, and the 
use of his immense collection of specimen numbers, in the prepa- 
ration of this class of statistics. 
The Albany Gazette was first issued in Nov. 1771, by Alex, and 

James Robertson, who joined the loyalists in N. Y. in 

1776. 
The New York Gazetteer or Northern Intelligencer, iu 1782. by 

Solomon Balantine and Charles R. Webster. In 1784 

the name was changed to 
The Albany Gazette, and in 1788 a semi-weekly edition was 

issued. In March, 1817, united with the Albany Daily 

Advertiser, and took the name of 
Tlte Albany Gazette and Daily Advertiser, continued until 1845. 
The Albany Journal, or Montgomery, Washington, and ''<lum- 

bia Intelligencer, seini-w. in winter and w. in summer 

was started in Jan. 1788, by Chas. K. A Geo. Webster, 

and published in connection witli the Gtazette. 
The Albany Daily Advertiser, Sept. 1815, by Theodore Dwight 



158 



ALBANY COUNTY. 



In 1S17 W. L. Stone united it with the Albany 

Gazette. 
The Albany Register was published bv John Barber from 17SS 

till ISO's and by S. Southwick till 1817. 
The Federal Herald, by Claxton A Babcock, brought from 

Lansingb'gh in Feb. 1788, and again returned thither. 
The Albany Centinel, semi-w., 1796. In Nov. 1806 chauged to 
The Republican Crisis. Backus A Whiting and Isaac Mitchell 

were successively publishers. 
The Albany Chronicle was commenced in 1797 by .Tohn McDo- 
nald. Joseph Foy and Henry C. Southwick were after- 
ward its editors. It was discontinued in 1799. 
The Guardian, 1S07. Van Benthuysen & Wood, 2 years. 
The Balance^ and New York State Journal, semi-w., 1808-11, 

Croswell & Frary ; removed from Hudson. 
The Albany Republican was started in April. 1812. by Samuel 

K. Brown. — Romaine succeeded the next year, and after 

several years it was merged in the Saratoga Patriot. 
The Stranger. 1813-14, 8vo. John Cook, pub. 
The Albany Argus was established as a semi-w„ tri-w., and w., 

Jan. 1, 1S13, by Jesse Buel ; and d., semi-w., and w. 

editions were issued in Oct. 1825. Edwin Croswell was 

many years its publisher. Feb. 15, 1856, merged in 
The Atlas and Argus, da., semi-w., and w. Conistock & Cassidy, 

pub. 
The Albany Atlas, da., semi-w., and w.. was started in 1841 by 

Vance A Wendell : in 1>>56 it was united with the Argus. 
The Christian Visitant, 4'o. was begun June 3, 1815, by S. 

Southwick, and continued 2 years. 
The Fried. Svo. mo., was begun iu'lSlo by D. A S. A. Abbey. 

1 vol. published. 

». pub. by — Carter; removed to N.Y. in 1S18. 
The Plough Boy was started 1819, by Solomon Southwick, 

under the nam d-- plume of Henry Homespun. 
The Albany Micre,?r,,p.; i-2o. by Chas. Galpin, continued till 1842. 
The National Democrat, published at Albany and N.Y., was 

St urted In 1 823 by Wm. McDonald, and continued 1 year. 

The Religious Monitor, mo. was commenced in May, 1824. by 

suncey Webster. It is now published in Philadelphia. 

The 1 " ■■• and Miscellaneous Album, was started 

in 1826 by E. B. Child. Its name was changed to 
7"V Asm rican Masonic Record, and was pub. by E. B. Child for 

4 or 5 yrs. 
The American Masonic Register was pub. 5 y. by L. G. Hoffman. 
National Obsi ner, w. and semi-w., was started in 1S26 by 

Geo. Galpin, and continued 4 years: S. Southwick, ed. 
The AH' nm Telegraph and Christian Register was started in 

1826, and in 1827 
The Albany Christian Register, L. G. Hoffman, pub,, and J. K. 

Boyd, ed.. May 19, 1827. 
The Albany Daily Chronicle was started April 22, 1S26, and 

published a short time by Galpin & Cole. 
The Comet was begun Aug. 4, 1827. D. McGlashan, ed. 
The Standard was published in 1827 by Matthew Cole. 

of the Times was started Oct. 13, 1*>27, and discontinued 

- - 1 • 28. D. McGlashan, pub.. S. Do W. Bloodgood. ed. 

The Antidote was pub. in 1827. Webster A Wood, pub., S. 

Southwick, ed 
7"'.. Morning Chronicle, da., and The Albany Chronicle, semi-w., 

publisher! in 1S2S by Beach. Denio, A Richard. 
The Afft wn> published in 1828 by Galpin A Sturtevant 
The • literary Writer was started Dec. 27, 

l'-J- by .las. McGlashan'; Bloodgood A Van Schaick. eds. 
The .i -mi-mo., was started Jan. 30, 1828, by Arthur 

Sherman. 
The t " . rrn was published in 1 4 28 by J. Mnnsell. 

The- Albany Kv«iiln« Jmtrnnl was commenced 
i. it was published by B. D. Packard i C . 

Tliiirifw \\ \ w. an. i a M-mi-w. Journal ji i  • 

n .,w Issued from Ibis oftVe by Weed, Dawson A Co. 

a • ■' Working Men's Advocate, da., was 
I by McPheraon A McKercher. The fol- 
lowing year it appeared as 
The Daii i Pr'tmnn't Advocate, ami Former*. Meehnntr*. and 

Whrlting Men'l < ' tmmpinn, and wiw pub. 1 or 2 vrs. 
The .1 Trte.l in April. 1880, by .1. DnuVy. W. B. 

HoCulloch, mil I 

The Ttmf- Irr, in.... WW published in 1881 by the Stat.' 

T.-nv. 

/ V'""''"'''''. 8»o. f'"mmpnfnrl in 1883 by the Alb. 
If ml. M. Wiloon. wl.. "l toL pub. 

fr-m Boi bester In 1831. 
B. J. Roberts A 1 • ubllshers, 

American 7emperane t. m.. wn» started in Jan. 1834. 

The SWneorm, in May, 1836. Xli-- .' j ..| rol. was 

mgsd to 
The Sill: ir.rm ana " deroted In part to sugar 

beet culture. It- tinned in It I 

The Amrrti-an Quarterly Hemp hfagatint was commence. 1 I I 

2 vols, published. 
The A" i. ./ nuntcript, Hi., tha first peDnv paper in Albanv, was 

I Oct. 12 
Tht Albany /.' t vet and T J fr , " m y *|rtffflffr | mffi t mm pubfashtM] 

In 1838 by Qso. Trumbull. 
The Albany Whig was commeneed in 1884, by J. P. Van SWiaiek 
A Co„ as the weekly of The Daily Advertiser. It was 
soon merged in The Albany Gazette, a »emi-w. paper 
issued from the same office. 



The Common School Assistant, mo., was published in 1836 by J. 
Orville Taylor. 

The Associate Presbyterian Magazine, 8vo, mo., Rev. P. Bul- 
lions, ed. Pub. from 1838 to 1842. 

South wick's Family Ai wspaper was published in 1S3S. 

The .leffersonian was published by Horace Greeley during the 
campaign of 1838. 

Tile Cultivator, mo., was commenced in March, 1S39. by 
Jesse Buel. It was afterward published by W. Gay lord 
and L. Tucker, and now by L. Tucker & Son. 

The Tomahawk and Scalping Knife was published a short time. 

The Albany Patriot was started in 1840 by Jas. C. Jackson, 
and continued 4 years. 

Tht Unionist, da., was published by J. Munsell. and 

The Rough Hewer by Theo. M. Burt, during the campaign of 
1840. 

Tht District School Journal, mo., was established at Geneva in 
1840, Francis Dwight, ed. Removed to Albany in 1841, 
and continued by the State School Dep. until 1S52. 

The Examiner was published in 1S41 by G. Galpin. 

The American Magazine, Svo, mo., started in 1S41 by J. S. A B. 
Wood. 3 vols. pub. 

The Irishman was published seven weeks in 1842 by H. 
O'Kane, J. Munsell, printer. 

The Nero Fork State Mechanic was started in 1842 by J. 
Munsell, and continued eighteen months. 

The Northern Star and Freeman's Advocate was started in 
1842 by J. G. Stewart and Charles S. Morton. 

The Sunday Tickler was published in 1842 by C. W. Taylor. 

The Albany Switch was commenced in 1S42 by H. J. Hastings. 
In 1^55 Edward Leslie became its editor. 

The Youth's Temperance. Enterprise, mo., started Xov. 13, 1S42, by 
J. Stanley Smith, ed. and pub., and continued 3 years. 

The American Citizen, da. and w., was started in 1S43 by Stone 
& Henley, and ed. by J. S. Smith. 

Tlie Albany Knickerbocker, da. and w., was com- 
menced in 1843 by II. J. Hastings, and is still continued. 

The Albany Daily Patriot was published in 1843 by C. T. Torry 

Tlie Subterranean was started Mar. 23, 1S43, by Jas. Duffey. 

The Albanian, da., was published in 1844. 

The Albany Religious Spectator was started in 1S44 by J. Mun- 
sell and E. H. Pease. The next year it passed into the 
hands of B. F. Romaine, who continued it until 1857. 

The Birney Advocate, semi-mo., was pub. during the campaign 
of 1844 by E. W. Goodwin. 

The Anti-Renter was started by Thos. A. Devyr Aug. 16, 1845. 

The Albany Freeholder was started April 9, 1S45, by Thos. 
A. Devyr, and continued until 1854. 

The American Quarterly Journal of Agriculture and Science, 
8vo, was commenced Jan. 1845, by E. Emmons and A. 
T. Prime. Jan. 1S46 it was pub. monthly by E. Emmons 
and A. Osborne. It was sold to Ch. Bement in 184S, 
and discontinued in Dec. of the same year. 

The Gavel, mo., published in 1845 from Munsell's press. 

The Scourge was published in 1S45 by Woodward & Packard. 

The Vesper Bell, da., a few numbers pub. by Abbott A Crosby. 

Tlie Albany Herald, da. and tri-w., was commenced in 184(5 by 
A. B. Van Olinda. and in Dec. it took the name of 

The Morning Telegraph, and in March. 1847, of 

The Statesman, edited by W. M. Watson. 

The, Balance was published in 1846. 

The Mechanics' Advocate. is.4ii. ,T. Tanner, pub., continued 1 yr. 

The Mechanics' Journal, 1846, Munsell A McFarlan, pub., was 
issued 1 year. 

The Horticulturist, and Journal of Rural Art and Rural 
Taste, was commenced In July, 1846: A. J. Downing, 
ed., L. Tucker, pub. The 8th vol. was removed to 
Rochester. In 1855 it was pub. at Philadelphia by R. 
P. Smith : John 3. Smith, ed. In Jan. 1858 removed to 
N.Y.: Saxton, pub.. J. .1. Smith, ed. 

The Mechanics' Mirror, Svo, was published in 1846 from Mun- 
hoITs pre--. 

The Son of temperance and RechabUe, Svo, mo., was pub. in 

Aug. 1846 by J. Stanley Smith A Co. 
The Albany Oastigator was Issued in is47 by M. J. Smith. 
The American Ltterary Magazine, mo., started July. 1^47. T. 

Dwi hi Sprs ue, pub. ; removed to Hartford, June, 1848. 

Thr Christian Palladium^ J, Hasten, ed., was brought from Fulton 

In 1847 or '48, and re move, i to Irrington. N.J.,Oct.l855. 

The Busy lier, E. Andrew-, ed., was pub. from IMs to 1850. 

Odd rWow* Litiraru Magazine, was pub. in 1848. W. K. 

Cole, ed. 
The Telegraph ami Temperance Journal, mo., was commenced 

in 1848 by 8. Myers, and continued 4 years. 
The DaHyArtttan was pub. a Bhort time in 1849 by Tanner A Stow. 
The Albany DaHy Messenger was pub. 1848 by 1'.. V. Romaine. 
The Ami ro-nn Christian Messenger was commenced by Jasper 

Hazen Jan. 17. 1841. 

Transactions tff N. T. State Institute of Civil Engineers, 4to, with 
plates, was pub. Feb. 1849. Two nos. issued. 

Tht Christian Herald and Messenger was issued Feb. 10, 1849, 
by 3. Hazen, and afterward removed to Irvington, N.J. 
it was in part successor to theCb. Messenger, pub. at 

Newburyport. Mass.. many years, and is the oldest re- 
ligions newspaper In the country. 

The Courier anil Journal was started Feb. 10, 1849, 
and is now published by J. T. Ila7.cn. 

The Albany Dutchman and The Albany Sunday Dutchman 



ALBANY COUNTY. 



159 



ALBANY CITY 1 — was incorporated by patent July 22, 
1686,' 2 having previously enjoyed divers rights and privi- 
leges, under the names of " Beverwick," " William Stadt," 
and Albany. The Dutch styled it "New Orange." Tho 
part of the city north of Patroon and Quackenboss Streets, 
known as the " Colonic," was incorp. March 31, 1791 ; and 
again, March 30, 1801. It was made a village April 9, 
1804; and was erected as a town April 11, 1808. The 
town was divided, and merged in Albany and Watervliet, 
Feb. 25, 1815. The city lies upon the w. bank of the 
Hudson Iliver, a little n. of the center of the county; 
and embraces a strip of land about one mile wide, extending 
13£ miles in a n. w. direction to the n. boundary of the 
county. A narrow intervale of low land lies along the 
course of the river, bounded by steep banks from 150 to 250 feet high, where a barren 
region commences, rising toward the w., and broken by numerous sand hills and ridges. 
The banks which form the declivities of this tract are separated into several distinct ridges 
by the deep gulleys worn in the clay by the streams which flow through them. The soil, 
except near the river, is a light sand, not adapted to cultivation without the aid of costly 
artificial means. A mineral spring was obtained on Ferry St. in 1827, while boring for 
water. 3 Albany is situated near the head of navigation upon the Hudson, and at the eastern 
terminus of the Erie Canal. 4 The several railroads before mentioned render it a place of con- 
siderable commercial importance. 5 It is the largest barley market in the U. S., and immense 




were started in 1849 by Griffin & Farnsworth, and sub- 
sequently removed to N.Y. 

The Temperance Courier was commenced Feb. 10, 1849, by J. T. 
Hazen, and subsequently pub. by J. Hazen & Son. 

The Washingtonian and Eechabite was issued in 1849 by J. 
T. Hazen, and in 1855 united with The Courier. 

Florence Oneida Telegraph was printed at Albany in 1849. 

The Albany Morning Express was started in 1850 by Stone & 
Henley. In 1854 it passed into the hands of Munsell 
& Co., and in 1856 its title was changed to 

THe Daily Statesman, now published by J.B. Swain & Co. 

The Albany State Register, da., semi-w., and w., was started in 

1850 by Fuller & Seward. S. H. Ilammond and C. D. 
Brigham were afterward eds., and in 1856 it was re- 
moved to N.Y. 

The Albany Daily Times commenced Feb. 16, 1S50. Five nos. 

were issued. 
Th". New York Reformer. John Abbott, ed., Munsell, pr., was 

pub. 10 mos. 
The State Military Gazette, C. G. Stone, pub., was 

commenced in 1858, and was soon after removed to N.Y. 
The Half-Dollar Monthly was pub. in 1850 by B. F. Romaine. 
Tlie Journal of the N.Y. State Agricultural 

Society, mo., was started in May, 1850. 
The Daily Albany Eagle was started Sept. 1, 1851, by John 

Sharts, and continued 4 months. 
The American Mechanic was started Jan. 4, 1851, by J. M. 

Patterson. 
The Carson League, published by J. T. Hazen & T. L. Carson, 

was removed from Syracuse in March, 1851. 
The Albantj Mirror and Literary Cabinet was published in 

1851 by J. H. Canoll and W. M. Colburn. 

The Cithern was started Oct. 11, 1851, Warner & Rooker, pub. 
The Northern Light, mo., conducted by Dix, Hawley, Dean, Beck, 

Olcott, and Delavan, and subsequently by A. B. Street, 

was started in 1851, and continued about 3 yrs. 
Deutsche Freie Blaetter, tri-w., was started in 1852. 

Henry Bender and Augustus Miggael, present pub. 
The Family Intelligencer was commenced by Jasper 

Hazen. Sept. 11, 1852, now pub. by J. T. Hazen. 
The New Yorlt Teacher, mo., the organ of the N.Y. 

State Teachers' Association, was started in 1852, and is 

now conducted by James Cruikshank. 
The Evening Transcript, da. and w., commenced Jan. 31, 1853, by 

Cuyler & Henry, was last published by Snyder & Ells." 
The Country Gentleman, started by J. J. Thomas and 

L. & L. H. Tucker in 1853, is now pub. by L. Tucker & Son. 
The Prohibitionist, mo., ed. by A. McCoy, the organ of the N.Y. 

State Temperance Society, was started in 1S54, and in 

1857 united with the Jour, of the Am. Temp. Union. 
The Family Dental Journal, mo., was pub. in 1854 by D. C. Kstes. 
The State Police Tribune was started July 21, 1855, by S. H. H. 

Parsons and R. M. Griffin. Removed to New York. 
The Albany Morning Times was started in 1856, and 

is published by Barnes & Godfrey. 
The Albany Evening Union, edited by J. McFarlan, and subse- 
quently by John New, begun 1856, and ended 1857. 



The Albany Vblksblatt was published in 1856 by Geo. nerb. 
The Albany Morning Express was started in 1S56 

by Stone & Henley, and edited by J. C. Cuyler. 
The Albanian, semi-mo., boys' paper, commenced June, 1857. 
The Hour and the Man, da. and w., Geo. W. Clarke, pub., John 

Thomas, ed., commenced Aug. 1858. 
The Mercantile Horn, w., was pub. gratis Oct. 1858. 
The Voice of the People. Republican campaign of 1S58. 



The Albany Evening Standard, da., 



begun 



Dec. 1858. R. M. Griffin & Co., pub. 

The Independent Press, da., started Dec. 1S58, was pub. a few mo. 

Astronomical Notices was started at Ann Arbor. Mich., 
in 185S. Since the 7th no. it has been pub. at Albany. 
Prof. Brunow, ed. 

Tlie American Magazine, mo., by J. S. & B. Wood, was pub. 1J yr. 

The Gavel, mo., was published by John Tanner 2 years. 

The Albany Literary Gazette was published by John B. Germain. 

The Rural Folio was started at Rensselaerrille in Jan. 182S, by 
C. G. & A. Palmer, and continued 2 years. An Anti- 
Rent paper has also been published. 

The Zodiac, mo., was published about 1S36 by Gen. De Coudrey 
Holstein. 

The "West Troy Advocate was commenced at West 
Troy in Oct. 1837, by Wm. Hollands, and is now pub- 
lished by his widow and son. 

"Watervliet Daily Democrat was started at West Troy 
Jan. 20, 1859. Allen Corey, ed. 

The Cohoes Advertiser was started at Cohoes in 1845 by Winants 
& Agnes. In 1849 its name was changed to 

The Cohoes Cataract. J. H. Masten. publisher. 

1 The name Albany was derived from the Scotch title of the 
Duke of York, to whom the province was granted. 

2 The charter conveyed municipal jurisdiction over the terri- 
tory bounded E. by the low water mark on the Hudson ; s. by a 
line drawn from the southernmost end of the pasture at the N. 
end of Martin Gerritsen's island, and running back due N. w. 16 
miles into the woods to a certain creek called Sandkil ; N. by a 
line parallel to the former, about 1 mile distant; and w. by a 
straight line drawn from the western extremities of the N. and 
S. lines. This charter embraced the right of certain public 
buildings and fields, the ferry, all waste land within their 
boundaries, the right of fishing in the Hudson within the county, 
and of purchasing of the Indians 500 acres of meadow land at 
" Schaatcogue" on tho N., and 1,000 acres at " Tionnonderoge" 
(Fort Hunter) on the w., in the Mohawk country, on which to 
plant colonies as barriers against hostile incursions. The quit- 
rent was fixed at one beaver skin, payable at Albany on the 
25th of March annually forever. 

8 This boring was commenced to obtain water for a brewery. 
At a depth of 480 feet, sparkling water, of a saline taste and im- 
pregnated with carburetted hydrogen gas, was obtained. The 
boring was continued to a depth of 617 feet without any change 
in the character of the products. A few rods distant a second 
well was bored, with similar results. One of the wells was 
ruined by placing a pump in the other. 4 See page 156. 

6 Besides the river, canal, and railroads, there are 5 plank 
roads and 2 turnpikes terminating in the city. 



160 ALBANY COUNTY. 

quantities of this grain are here manufactured into malt and beer. 1 Albany, Troy, and "West Troy 
are the largest lumber markets in the State. " The Lumber District" in Albany is along the canal, 
above the little basin, where extensive wharves and slips have been built for transferring lumber 
from canal boats to vessels and barges upon the river. 2 The manufactures of the city are varied 
and extensive. 3 Among those that may be considered specially important are the stove-founderies 
and breweries. The city is amply supplied with water from works erected at public expense. 4 The 
water is obtained from several creeks w. and n. of the city. The main reservoir (Rensselaer Lake,) 
is 5 miles w. of the City Hall, and is elevated 262 feet above the river. It covers 39 acres, and its 
capacity is 180,000,000 gallons. A brick conduit conveys the water to Bleeker Reservoir, on Pa- 
troon St., whence it is distributed through the portion of the city w. of Pearl St. This reservoir 
has a capacity of 30,000,000 gallons. The lower portion of the city is supplied from Tivoli Reser- 
voir, on Patroon Creek, covering 20 acres, and has a capacity of 30,000,000 gallons. These works 
are under a Board of "Water Commissioners, and the rents are charged to property owners and col- 
lected with the taxes. 5 Pop. 57,333. 

The State buildings at Albany, including the Capitol, State Hall, State Library, Geological and 
Agricultural Hall, Normal School, and State Arsenal and Armory, have already been described 
under the head of State Institutions. 6 Besides these, there are several buildings and institutions 
worthy of a particular notice. 

The City Hall is situated on Eagle St., fronting the e. end of Washington Avenue. It is an 
elegant structure, faced with Sing-Sing marble, and surmounted by a gilded dome, — the only 
one in the U. S. It was built at the joint expense of the city and county, and it contains most of 
the city and county offices. 7 The jail is in Maiden Lane, near the City Hall. 

The Albany Exchange, a massive granite building, is situated on Broadway, at the foot of State 
St. It was erected in 1839 by a joint-stock company, and contains the post-office, the general 
offices of the New York Central R. R. Co., and a variety of other offices. 

The Public Schools 8 have hardly kept pace with the progress of other institutions of the city, or 
with the public schools of other cities in the State. Until within the last few years, the whole 
public school interest was under the charge of a Board of Commissioners, appointed by the Regents 
of the University. The people, having no power over school matters, took but little interest in 
them, and the schools languished in every department. There was a great deficiency in school- 
houses, in the number of teachers employed, and in the general supervision of schools. This 
system has been changed of late, and a series of improvements have commenced which bid fair to 
soon place the schools of Albany on a par with those of her sister cities. In 1857, there were 13 
school districts, employing 53 teachers, 16 males and 37 females. The number of children between 
4 and 21 was 18,359, of whom 6729, or 37 per cent., were in attendance some portion of the year. 9 
There are 70 private schools, reporting 3827 pupils. 

The Albany Academy, (for boys,) fronting on Eagle St., opposite the State Hall, is a flourishing 
institution. It was chartered by the regents, March 4, 1813: the corner-stone of the present 
building was laid July 29, 1815, and it was opened for students Sept. 1, 1817. Dr. T. Romeyn 
Beck was its principal for 31 years; and under him the school obtained a deservedly high reputa- 
tion. The building is an imposing structure, of red Nyack freestone, in the Italian style, fronting 
on a park <>f :; acres. ,0 



1 T: receipt* of barley at tide water exceeded 2,000,000 

l.n -> j • ]-. 

* In 1-' ived at Albany by canal, principally 
from thi :il feet of boards and scantling, 11,048,700 

f limber.  " i shingles, and I 7,600 I .;i- of il i 

* Tb<- 'b tli" following aggregate of the 
manufacturing • itabliabmenta in the city i 4 ag. lmpl< meal foes. ; 
BboJ shops; B bookbinderics; 10 breweries; 

P brick yard- ; IT carries • foe, ; 1 r -,r win. I foe; ;, 

distil! I flour mill"-. 18 harness, ibopi; 

• leri -.11 m. i. bine ifa ipa; i J mall boost - : 

1 •'■ printing offlose; SaaA iring and planing mills; 2 

type and itereotype fonnderiea; 13 store mannfac; and 4 piano 

lea. There are about 50 nimimlasliin merchanta; 60 dealers 

in Boar and grain; and 50 lumber dealers. 

4 In 1700 ih' i was em po w er ed i" construct water 



U 7 ---inn miles. Tbe receipts fnr the year ending Oct.31,lR57, 
were 176,660. The revenues arc sufficient to pay the interest on 
the debl for construction and the cost of maintenance, and leave 
:i considerable balanco to form a sinking fund for the final 
liquidation of the debt. 

« Bee pages 27, 44, 136. 

T This building is 109 feet front by SO feet deep. In front it 
has a pr.".. | porch, supported by "6 Ionic columns. In the 
•  i.i. r ..| tli.- hall, in the second story, is a statue of Hamilton, 
1 ■•• He wes j and In the common council room are portraits of the 

first 1.", (b.vernors of tie- Slate. 

8 A Lancaster ian S. 1 1 Bociety was incorp. May 26, 1812, a 

SCl 1 having been maintained for some time previous. The 

members ><r the common council were ex-officio members of the 
BOdety, and those giving $25 Mere entitled to a scholarship. In 
1H7, the society erected the bnilding now occupied by the Al- 



bert nothing »«> dona. Aftarward the enterprise was bany Medical College, for the uso of the school, which continued 
completed by s priTate company, who obtained their supply of to be occupied until 1834, when the school was superseded bv 
water from Mainland I Ivil. >". of the city. This supply not being the public school system of the suite. Wm. Tweed Dale was 



sufficient, an act was passed in lfc.Vi f.. r the r<>n>tru< lion of pub- 

b water* rka, Thi rote in the city stood, "for water," 
-No water," 0; "Brandy and water, strong," 1. The works of 
th<* old company were purchased and the jr. sent works built. 
4 The original cost oi construction was (860,000; and the total 

coet up to Jan. 1, 1S68, $1,018,496. The main pipes measure 



principal of the school for 23 years. 

* The total expenses of the schools for 1857 were $44,310 10. 
Total receipts, the same. No. of volumes in Dist. Libraries, 9286. 

10 The late Henry W. Delavan bequeathed $2000 to this insti- 
tution, the income of which is devoted to the education of indi- 
gl nt youth. 




NEW YORK STATE CAPITOL 

ALBANY 



ALBANY COUNTY. 



161 



The Albany Female Academy, on N. Pearl St., was established in 1814, and incorp. in 1821, and 
the present building was completed May 12, 1834. The institution has uniformly borne a high re- 
putation. The building is in Grecian style, with an Ionic portico. 1 

The Albany Female Seminary, situated on Division St., was incorp. April 9, 1828. It is under 
the charge of the Moth, denomination. 

The Albany Institute, a society for the promotion of science and art, was incorp. Feb. 27, 1829 
by the union of Society of Arts and the Albany Lyceum of Natural History. 2 It has three depart- 
ments, devoted to — 1st, Physical Sciences and the Arts; 2d, Natural History; and 3d, History 
and Gen. Literature. During the winter months it holds semi-monthly meetings. It has a valu- 
able library, and an extensive cabinet of minerals and of specimens of natural history. 3 

The Young Men's Association was formed in 1833, and incorp. March 12, 1835. It supports a 
lecture course during the winter, and has a library of above 7000 vols., and a reading room supplied 
with 70 papers and 15 other periodicals. It is the oldest institution of the kind in the U. S., and 
has about 1000 members. 

A Catholic Young Men's Association has sustained a course of lectures for several winters. 

The Albany Industrial School, erected by the city in 1857, for vagrant children, is not completed. 
It is located in the rear of the Penitentiary, and, with those buildings, presents a fine architectural 
appearance. 

The Dudley Observatory, on an eminence in the N. border of the city, was founded through the 
munificence of Mrs. Blandina Dudley and other liberal patrons of science. It was incorp. April 
2, 1852, and its management intrusted to 15 trustees. The building is admirably arranged, and 
furnished with instruments, several of which are the largest and most delicate ever constructed. 
It was dedicated Aug. 28, 1856, and placed under the charge of a scientific council, to be employed 
by the coast survey in the determination of longitudes, and other purposes connected with that 
great national enterprise. It has a special library of about 1000 volumes.* 

The Albany Medical College, located upon Eagle St., was incorp. Feb. 16, 1839. Two courses of 
lectures are held annually ; and the institution has secured a deservedly high reputation in the 
medical profession. It has an extensive medical museum, and a choice library of 5000 vols. 

The Law School of the University of Albany was instituted under the university charter of April 
17, 1851. Two courses of lectures are annually held in rooms attached to the medical college 
building. This school has obtained an excellent reputation. 

The Albany Almshouse, consisting of a poor house, 5 insane asylum, 6 and a fever hospital, 7 is 
located upon a farm of 116 acres, 1£ miles s. w. of the city, and is entirely owned and managed by 
the city authorities. These departments are supplied with commodious and appropriate buildings. 
The Industrial School building is located upon the same farm. 

The Albany City Hospital, located on Eagle St., was incorp. April 11, 1849. It was founded by 
private subscription, and the present building 8 was opened for the reception of patients Aug. 8, 1854. 9 

The Albany Orphan Asylum, on Washington St., at the junction of the Western Turnpike, was 
incorp. March 30, 1831, at which time it had been in practical operation for nearly two years. It 
was commenced as a private enterprise, and the present building was erected by subscription and 
the product of several ladies' fairs. It is now supported by funds received from the State, the 
interest on its endowment, and the proceeds of an annual fair. 

The St. Vincent Orphan Asylum was incorp. in 1849. The female department, situated on N. 
Pearl St., is under the charge of the Sisters of Mercy. The male department, 2 mi. w. of the capitol, 
is under the care of the Christian Brothers. 

The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed in 1640. Rev. Johannes Megapolenses was settled 
as pastor in 1642, under the patronage of the patroon. A regularly organized Lutheran church 
existed in 1680, but the date of its formation is unknown. It was reorganized Aug. 26, 1784, 



1 The Albany Library, kept in this building, was incorp. Feb. 
14, 1792. It contains about 5,000 vols. 

2 Prof. Henry, of the Smithsonian Institution, read his first 
scientific papers before this association, and performed his first 
original experiments while a pupil at the Albany Academy. The 
Society for the Promotion of Agriculture, Arts, and Manufactures, 
■was established in 1791, incor. 1793, and expired in 1804, by 
limitation of charter. Revived as the Society for the Promotion 
of Useful Arts : incor. 1804. These were State Institutions, and 
became local on the establishment of the Board of Agriculture, 
In 1819, and continued a city institution until its union with the 
Albany Lyceum of Natural History in 1829. 

• The library and cabinet are kept in the Albany Acad, building. 

* The building is in the form of a cross, 86 by 70 fret. Among 
the instruments is a calculating engine, made by C. Scheutz, a 



Swede, and purchased by John F. Rathbonc. It is the only on» 
in existence. A large class of calculations is performed by its 
use, and the results are impressed upon leaden plates, ready to 
electrotype and print. This institution has been involved in an 
unhappy controversy between the trustees and council, which 
has embarrassed its plans; but it is now in active operation 
under cheeriug auspices. 

6 The city contracts to support county paupers at $1.25 per 
week each. A school connected with this institution is kept 
throughout the year. 

6 Built at an expense of $12,000, and with accommodations for 
80 inmates. 

' Cost $5000. 

8 This building was erected by the city for a jail. 

» The whole cost of the institution has been about $50,000. 



11 



162 ALBANY COUNTY. 

The first Prot. E. Church (St. Peter's) was erected in 1715, on a site granted by the governor of the 
colony. It stood in the center of State St., opposite Barrack (now Chapel) St., and was demolished 
in 1802, and the present edifice built by Philip Hooker. The communion plate of this church was 
presented to the Onondagas by Queen Anne. The most imposing and costly church edifices in 
the city are the Catholic Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, corner of Eagle and Lydius Sts., 
and St. Joseph's (R. C.) Church. There are now (1858) 48 churches in the city. 1 

At an early period Albany acquired much importance from being the principal center of the 
Indian trade, and afterward the place where the great military expeditions against Canada were 
fitted out. 2 Its importance as a military station led to its being fortified at an early period; and, 
although it was often threatened with invasion, no hostile army ever reached it. 3 It became the 
permanent seat of the State government in 1797. For 30 years after the Revolution, Albany was 
the seat of the entire trade of the western part of the State, the produce being brought in by sleighs 
in winter. The first great impulse to its commercial prosperity was given by the successful trip 
of the Clermont, 4 the first steamboat of Fulton, in 1807, and the improvements in steam navigation 
which immediately followed. The steamboats now upon the Hudson River are among the very 
largest that navigate any inland waters. 5 The completion of the Erie Canal, in 1825, and 
of the various lines of railroads since that time, have each essentially added to the growth and 
prosperity of the city. 6 Business is principally centered upon Broadway, State, S. Pearl, and 
Washington Sts. The Dutch language and customs, which continued until long after the English 
conquest, have almost entirely disappeared. Very few families retain any characteristics of their 
origin, although many occupy the same lots that were conveyed to their ancestors two centuries ago. 
The peculiar Dutch architecture has now nearly disappeared, and within the limits of the city there 
are not more than a dozen houses with the sharp gables fronting even with the street, the tile roof, 
and antiquated appearance, so common but a few years ago. The city has been visited by several 
disastrous fires, 7 and the lower part has often been inundated by water. 8 

BER\° — was formed from Rensselaerville, March 17, 1795. Knox was taken off in 1822. It 
lies near the center of the western border of the county. The Helderbergh Mts., 1200 feet above 
tide, form the eastern border. Grippy and Irish Hills, two broad mountains, with steep declivities 
and rolling summits, 900 to 1000 feet above tide, occupy the center. The s. and w. parts are hilly, 
and the k. rolling. The principal streams are the Foxen Kil and the Switz Kil. These streams 
flow k. w. through narrow valleys bordered by steep hill sides. Werners and Thompsons Lakes, in 
the w. e., are small sheets of water. In the lime rock, in the n. e. part, are numerous small caves 
and sink holes. 10 There are several sulphur springs in town. The soil is a sandy and gravelly 
loam interspersed with clay. ISeriiville (Bern p. o.) contains 50 houses; 11 E. Bern 12 (p. v.) 
15; S. Bern (p. v.) 15; and Ileitis* i lie (p. v.) 12. Peoria is a small village on the line of 
Knox. Settlement was begun about 1750 by a few German families. In 1777, a company of 85 
militia were raised in this town, of which the captain and G3 men joined the British, and the 
remainder the Americans at Saratoga. Bernville, then called "Beaver Dam," was fortified during 
the war, and sentinels were posted at night to prevent surprise by the Indians. 13 The place at one 



l Of thi e (here are v tfeth. v... 7 Bap., . r . Prot E., - r , Presb., 5 
R. C. 8 Ref. ProtD, '■', Jewish Syn.,8 Evang, Luth, 2 Wes. 
Meth .. I I ■• Hi--. '.' r. Amo., Evang. Prot. Ger., Asso. Prcsb., 

and Onlv. 

: On the i '•!> "f June, 1764, the Oxst Congress of Hip colonies 
Mufnii'l'-'l at Albany, to devise a genera] plan oi anion end 

the French and Indian hostilities, 
then mendng. This I eon Isted of delegates 

f r ..m V H . M im . i: 1.. Oonn . v V . ivtin., and M.I. The "plan 
of union" drawn np by Dr. Franklin was adopted, bnl it was 
afterward rejected bj the British government as being too demo- 
cratic, and bj the colonies as giving to., min-h |».«it to (licking. 

» Ti ■' was trafll i.y the Dutch, In 1614) on the island 

which it I.' i ailed Castle Island. In 1617 a 

Ibrtwaaballt at the month of the Normans Kil; and in 1628 
another  Dear the 1 1 unboal landing, In 1 1  • - 

». part "f tli" rity. nn<l named Fori Orange, in honor of the 
reigning prince of Holland. .\ quadrangular Curt, called "Fort 
Vr • :•  - | imiit i.ii the high ground, dow State 

,-t., bet w een Bt Peter*! Church and the Geological Ball, with 



6 As a contrast to the "Clormont." it may be stated that the 
"Isaac Newton," of the People's Line of Steamers, is 404 feet 
long. 75 wiili'. .'tin! IT deep, and lias sleeping accommodations for 
more than 700 passengers. 

«Tho sloop "Experiment." of 80 tons, Capt. Stewart Dean, 
sailed in the fall of 17S5 from Albany to China. This was the 

nd vessel from the U.S. to Canton. She was absent 18 

months, and returned with a cargo of teas, nankeens, damask 
Bilks, and 13 sets of China ware, to order, for family gifts. 

» A lire in 1707 burned OH dwellings, and rendered 150 fami- 
lies houseless. Aug. 17, 1848. a most destructive fire broke out, 
which destroyed a considerable portion of the commercial part of 

the city Imrdering upon the river,and also many boats in the basin. 

8 Dpon the breaking up of the ice in the river, Feb. 9, 1857, 
the water completely submerged the lower part of the city, and 
rami' up m high that it covered Broadway in front of the Ex- 
change. The damage to property was immense. 

Named from the native place of Jacob Weidman, first settlor 
and mill owner. 

10 In one of these caves, during the war, a notorious tory and 



lines of palisades extending down Bteul>en nn.l Hudson Sts. to npy named Balisbnry was concealed for some time, but was at 



the river. These fortifications were demolished a -"ii after the 

ntion, and the Onl] ! « li> ir exi-tinn. now re- 

maining i* the curved outlines which they have given to the 

itrei ts in ti Ider parti of the city. 

« The Clermont was 100 feet long. IS fit wide, and 7 feet 
deep. The first voyage to Albany wa« accomplished in 28 hours 
and 45 minutes. This boat was afterwords enlarged, and her 
name changed to the " North River." 



la-t air. stnl. The place Is still known as "Tory's Hole." — 
Simms's Srhoharie, p. 525. 

11 In 1825 an extensive ax factory was erected here; but it 
was soon after removed to Cohoes. 

12 Formerly called " Philadelphia," and still locally known as 
"rhilla." 

13 The family of Johannes Deitz, consisting of 8 persons, were 
murdered by the Indians. — Simms's Schoharit, p. 499. 



ALBANY COUNTY. 



'Jo 



time became a rendezvous for tories. 1 The Ref. Prot. D. Church of Beaver Dam was formed in 
Jan. 17G3. The first settled pastor was Johannes Schuyler, in 17G7. 2 

BETHLEHEM— was formed from Watervliet, March 12, 1793. New Scotland was taken off 
in 1832. It lies on the bank of the Hudson, e. of the center of the county, and includes the islands 
w. of the main channel of the river. Its surface consists of a rolling upland, ending upon the river 
in steep bluffs 100 to 150 feet high. Near the center of the town are a few sand ridges and rocky 
knolls. The principal streams are Coeymans Creek, Vlamans Kil and Normans Kil. The declivi- 
ties of the upland are broken by numerous deep gullcys worn by streams flowing into the Hudson. 
There are two small caves, several sulphur springs, and quarries of coarse brown sandstone, in 
town. The soil is sand and clay. 3 GroesbecR is a suburb of Albany. Pop. 1,232. flien- 
WOOd, a small village near the mouth of Normans Kil, contains an extensive mill, and a manu- 
factory of silver and Britannia ware. Upper Hollow, Adanisville, Normanskill, 
(p. o.,) Bethlehem Center, (p. o.,) Beckers Corners, Cedar Hill, (p. o.,) and S. 
Bethlehem are hamlets. Callanans Corners, in the n. w. corner, is a p. o. On the 
hills overlooking the Hudson below Albany are several fine country seats. The first settlement was 
made upon Castle Island,* in 1614, and a fort erected the same year. As this island was liable to 
overflow, in 1617 another fort was built at the mouth of Normans Kil. 5 Agricultural improvements 
commenced in 1630, by tenants under Van Rensselaer. Mills were built on the Normans Kil and 
Beaver Kil at a very early period. A part of the house known as "Whitehall," near the Delaware 
Road, was built by Gen. Bradstreet, and during the Revolution is said to have been a secret rendez- 
vous for tories. Cherry Hill, just out of Albany, on the river road, was the residence of Gen. Solo- 
mon Van Rensselaer. A Ref. Prot. D. church was formed in colonial times, and in 1794 S. Van 
Rensselaer gave the society 100 acres of land, known as the parsonage farm. 6 

COEYMANS— (Quee'mans) was formed from Watervliet, March 18, 1791. A part of Westerlo 
was taken off in 1815. It was named from the patentee. It is the s. e. corner town in the county, 
and includes the adjacent islands in the Hudson. Its surface consists of an upland, 200 to 400 feet 
above the river, broken by ridges and hills rising 100 to 400 feet higher. The principal streams 
are the Coeymans 7 and Haanakrois Creeks. In the former, at Coeymans village, are two falls at 
which the stream descends, in the aggregate, 75 feet. Lawsons Lake is a small sheet of water in 
the n. w. part of the town. A stratum of marble or limestone extends through the town 3 or 4 mi. 
from the river. In the n. e. part are two caves, the largest extending 40 rods into a perpendicular 
ledge. Feuri-Spruyt Kil, a small stream in the n. part, disappears, and flows for half a mi. in a 
subterranean passage, coming to the surface again in New Scotland. At the place where the Stream 
disappears it falls perpendicularly into a deep cavity, forming a considerable water power. Another 
brook, in the w. part, flows in a similar manner under ground for 40 or 50 rods. There are several 
mineral springs in town, impregnated with sulphate of magnesia. In the e. the soil is sand mixed 
with clay, and in the w. it is gravel and clay. The fossil remains of an elephant were found on 
the farm of Mr. Shears, 4 mi. w. of the river. Large quantities of hay are sent annually from this 
town to the New York market. Coeymans Landing 1 , (Coeymans p.o.,) on the Hudson, is a 
village of considerable trade. Pop. 650. Coeymans Hollow, (p.o.,) Stephensville, 
and Indian Fields (p.o.) are small villages in the valley of the Haanakrois. Keefers 
Corners is a p.o. Barent Peterse Coeymans, an emigrant from Utrecht in 1636, settled under 
the patroon as miller, and leased the mills upon the Patroon Creek and Normans Kil. In 1673 
he bought the territory included in this town of the Catskill Indians, and a patent was granted 
him April 17, 1673, by Gov. Lovelace. Van Rensselaer had previously bought the same lands 
of the Mohawks; and a conflict of titles ensued. The matter was finally settled in 1706, by Coey- 
mans agreeing to receive title under the patroon and pay a small annual quit rent. 8 Settlement 
commenced early in the last century. 9 The first mills were erected by the patentee at Coeymans 



1 Cornelius Schermerhorn kept a tory rendezvous, and at one 
time an absconding paymaster from Burgoyne's army is said to 
have been murdered at his house. 

2 A parsonage farm was given to this church by S. Van Rens- 
selaer, midway between Bernville and Peoria, and a church was 
erected upon it. In 1835 the society was divided, and a new 
edifice was erected at each of the villages, the farm being held 
in common by both societies. The census reports 13 churches 
in town ; 4 M. E., 3 Christian, 3 Ref. Prot. D., and one, each, Bap., 
Evang. Luth., and Friends. 

8 The proximity of this town to Albany has afforded an ex- 
cellent market for produce, and much of the land has been de- 
voted to the production of milk, butter, and culinary vegetables. 

* In 1668 Martin Gerritsen Van Bergen had a lease of this 



island, and on some old maps, it is called Martin Gerritsen's 
Island. 

6 A map dated 1630 gives the name of "Godyns Kil" to this 
stream. The Indian name was Ta-wal-sou-tha. The present 
name is derived from Albert Andriessen Bradt de Xoorman, the 
lessee of the falls at an early period, and one of the first s tilers. 

6 The census reports 5 churches ; 2 R. P. D., 2 M. E., 1 Presb. 

' The Indian name of this creek is said fo have been O-nis-ke- 
thau. and of the flats at Coeymans Hollow Ach-que-tuck. 

8 This arrangement was confirmed by patent from Queeu 
Anne, Aug. 6, 1714. 

9 Andreas and Lendert Whitbeck were early settlers near 
Ach-que-tuck; Daniel Traver and Balthus Keefer near Reefers 
Corners; aud John and Thos. Witbeck near Indian Fields. 



164 



ALBANY COUNTY. 



Fall?. The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was built in 1797, 1 mi. west of Coeymans Landing. This 
church was organized March 5, 1793, Rev. Jacob Sickles first pastor. 1 

GlILDERL AXD- was formed from Watervliet, Feb. 26, 1803. It lies near the center of the 
northern border of the county. Its surface is greatly diversified. In the w. rises the precipitous 
wall of the Helderberghs to a height of 800 feet above the general level of the valleys. The central 
jiiirt is undulating, and the eastern is occupied by numerous sand ridges. The Normans Kil with 
its branches, the Bozen Kil, 2 Black Creek, Wildehause Kil, and Hunger Kil, are the principal 
streams. The lower course of the Normans Kil in this town is through a narrow ravine, with 
steep clayey banks. The soil is light and sandy in the e., and gravelly loam mixed with clay in 
the w. A mineral spring is found upon the farm ofWm. McGowan. Hamiltonville, (Guilder- 
land p.o.,) formerly known as the "Glass House," 3 is situated on the old turnpike, 8 mi. w. 
of Albany. Guilderland Center, (p.v.,) locally known as "Bangall," contains 18 houses. 
Dunnsville,* (p.o.,) Knowersville, 5 (p.o.,) and Frenchs Mills, 6 on the Normans 
Kil, are small villages. During the Revolution, a portion of the inhabitants sided with the British ; 
and the feuds which grew up between families and neighborhoods have not yet entirely subsided. 7 
The Ev. Luth. church (St. John's) was organized Oct. 13, 1787. Heinrich Moeller was the first 
pastor. 8 

R\OX — named from John Knox, the Reformer — was formed from Bern, Feb. 28, 1822. It is 
the n. W. corner town of the county. Its surface consists of a high plateau region broken by a few 
small hills. Its eastern part constitutes a portion of the Helderbergh region ; but the declivities are 
so gradual that they only serve to give to the town a moderate inclination towards the n. and w. 
The Bozen Kil, forming a part of